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• V 


Im BabmittiDg the folloniog pages to public approbation, or public a 
I avail myself of the accustomed privilege to offer a few prefatory obser- 
vationa ; explanatory, on the one hand, of the motives which led to theb 
preparation ; and deprecatory, on the other, of severity of criticisin. 

The labours of the lexicographer greatly differ from those of authors 
generally. Dr. Johnson has observed, " every other author may aspire to 
praise ; the lexicographer can only hope to escape reproach, and even this 
negative recompeuce has been yet granted to very few. It is the fate of 
those, who toil at the lower employmenta of life, to be rather driven by 
e fear of evil, than attracted by the prospect of good ; to be exposed to 
vithout hope of praise; to be disgraced by miscarri^e, or 
iiinished for neglect, wher@ success would have been without applause, and 
e without reward. Among these unhappy mortals is the writer of 
f dictionaries; whom mankind have considered, not as the pupil, but the 
slave of science, the pioneer of literature, doomed only to remove rubbish 
and clear obstructions from the paths through which learning and genius 
press forward to conquest and glory, without bestowing a smile on the 
humble drudgo that facihtates their escape." 

When I commenced collecting materials for the present work, I was 
induced to undertake the labour from a conviction that something of the 
I kind was greatly needed. At entering on the study of geology, scarcely 
llmd I read through a single page, ere I found my difficulties much 
" enhanced by the non-esistonce of a dictionary containing such technological 
terms as are peculiar to this branch of science, and, for a time, I was fre- 
quently obliged to pass over words, ^vithout any distinct comprehension of 
their force or appHcation. Assuredly, some writers on geology have 
appended a glossary to their productions ; hut, I need scarcely say, these 
are, for the most part, necessarily meagre and ineffectual. The very necee- 
sity, also, for their insertion, I may, perhaps, claim as one of the strongest 

arguments in justification 
It can hardly, however 

of my present attempt. 
be adduced as a charge 

of inattention to the 1 

wants of the 

relating to its 

■. regarded as k 

student, against the writers on geology, that 
nomenclature has already appeared. Geology 
its infancy ; it is, as it were, almost a creation 

ao dictionary 1 
may stiU he -j 
of the pre- | 

HMai century 

it may, not 

inaptly, be termei 



or, although 1 

P^i^ras, and Aristotle, and Strabo, were, to a certain extent, geolo^stia 
alUiougli Ovid puts into the month of the Samian philosopher — 
" Vidi fsLOtaB ei Ecquore terral ; 

Et procul K pelaga conch» jacuere miuiiiEe ; 

Et vetna inventa est in montibue SDchora Bummii ; 

Quodqne fuit csmpus, Tsllem decareus aqusmm 

Fecit ; et elnvie mona est deductus in Eqaor : 

E(|ue poladoea ticcis hnmus aret arenie ; 

Quieque eitim talerHDt, atBgnata paludibus liument." 
olthougli, from time to time, theories of the earth have been published, 
and hypotheses the moat crude, and fanciful, and illusory liave been pro- 
pounded ; although men have been, found so blind as to ai^ue in favour of 
a plastic force ; although, almost even in our own days, Vulcanist would 
have submerged Neptuniat in his own aqueous deposits, and Neptunirt 
would have torrefied Vulcanist in the igneous causes which he advocated; 
although, for upwards of two thousand years, geology may bo said to have 
had its students and its advocates ; yet till within the last half century it 
has never deserved the name of a science. Mixed up and confounded with 
cosmogony, it continued in a state of flux and reflux, at one time making 
advances, at another retrograding, till Hutton, in I'OH, declared that 
"geology was in no ways concerned with questions as to the origin of 
things." Nor was it till, tlirowing aaida all preconceived notions, geolo- 
gists determined to found, and gradually advance, step by step, ibai 
theories on sound induction, that geology, in the magnitude and sublimity 
of the objects of which it treats, second only to aitronomy, assumed its 
proper position in the order of scientific pursuits. 

With the great Increase of knowledge in geology, there neeesaarily 
sprang up a new nomenclature, and although this particular branch of 
technological lexicography may, and does, admit of much modification, it 
appears to me that it has at this time become sufficiently establislied to 
warrant, and call for, the issuing of a dictionary of geological terms. 

Nomenclature being in itself an important part of science, I trust I may 
be excused for offering in this place a few observations on the subject. It 
is perhaps a very natural weakness that men should desire to distinguisbi 
things by names of their own appointing ; but, inasmuch as a redundancy 
of names is prejudicial to the interests of science ; perplexing, and oftei 
disgusting, to the student ; and, in fact, raises an unnecessary obstnictiol 
.in the path of knowledge ; it becomes a subject of grave consideration 
whether the imposition of a new name, in lieu of one already becomo eoq* 
ventional, though that which has become conventional may, probably, nc^ 
be the best or most appropriate that could have been chosen, be not r 
haxaj-doud and uyudicious course. It baa been remarked by one of t' 

most sdentiSc men and greatest philoaophen of the present day, Sir John 
Herachol, " it appears doubtful, whether it is desirable, for the essentia] 

purposes of science, that estremo refinement in systematic nomenclature 
should be insisted on. Id all subjects where comprehensive heads of clas- 
sification do not prominently offer themselves, all nomenclature must be a 
balance of difficulties, and a good, short, unjaeaning name, which has once 
obtained a footing in usage, is preferable almost to any other." 

These remarks aro the more readily offereii, in consequence of a fear, 
which I trust is groundless, arising out of, and caused by, the occasional 
observations of some of oui most able geologists. Thus, I find one anthor 
objecting to the term tertiarTf, as applied to the supra- cretaceous deposits, 
stating it to be exceedingly objectionable : I turn over the pages of another 
great luminary, and I find that " the name of tertiary has been given with 
much propriety ; that the name of super-cretaceous is peculiarly inappro- 
priate, and that if a new name were necessary, post-cretaceous should have 
been chosen." Every neophyte in geology now knows that the tertiary 
deposits have been divided into eocene, miocene, and pliocene, the last being 
subdivided into older and newer pliocene ; this also is objected to, and it is 
siud, " if it be considered convenient to divide the supra-cretaceous rooks 
of Europe into three or more sub-groups, names which imply their actual 
geological position in the series, such as 'superior,' 'medial,' and 'infe- 
rior,' 'upper,' 'medial,' and 'lower,' or others of the like kind, would 
seem preferable to those derived only from a per-centago of certain organic 
contents." To multiply instances of tbis kind, would, however, be useless, 
and the solo motive for adducing the above, springs from a desire of 
restraining, as far as may be, a too natural fondness for innovating on osto- 
blished uomenclaturo. 

It is most desirable that geologists should endeavour to avoid a very 
great evil which has gradually obtained in, and now sadly clogs, the pnrsuit 
of mineralogy. The redundancy of terms there introduced is most pain- 
fiilly bewildering, as the following instance will illustrate : — " The nomen- 
clature of moat minerals is at present bo incumbered with synonyma, that 
it has become exceedingly perplexing to the student. The mineral which 
is called epidote by Haiiy, is named prUtazit by "Werner, thallite by Leme- 
therie, akanticane by Dandrada, ddphinite by Saussure, glassy actinolile by 
Kirwan, arendalil by Karsten, glassiger strakUtein by Emmerling ; la rayon- 
nante vitreu»e'\iy ^xofiisnt, pr-tsmatoidisoker augii-spatkhy M.ohs, &c. &c."* 

To enter, here, on any defence of geology, against the groundless objeo- 
A of weak, but amiable opponents, would be to travel out. ot \.'q&^»»»^ \ 

* Professor CleavelanaL. ^^^^| 

Happily, the miBts of delusion, and tlie prejudices consequent on long- 
cberished and preconceived notions, are rapidly clearing away before tbi 
lucid, and delightful, and unanswerable statemonts and views of the galajE} 
of learned, and scientific, and pious geologists of the present day. I tnt 
I may be permitted to quote frona one of these a moat happily conoeivt 
and beautifully expressed passage : — " How then can they, by whom fl 
niagniBcent truths of elapsed time and successivo generations have been put i 
clear and strong evidence — how can they be expected to yield to false notioi 
of philosophy, and narrow views of religion, the secure conviction that, in ths 
formation of the crust of the earth. Almighty wisdom was glorified, the per* 
mitted laws of nature were in beneficent operation, and thousands 
beautiful and active things enjoyed their appointed life, long befora n: 
was formed of the dust of the ancient earth, and endowed with a divioi 
power of comprehending the wonders of its constniction ? 
woiflo than philosopliical prejudice, to close the eyes of reason on the evi- 
dence which the earth offers to the eyes of sense ; it is a dangerous theolo- 
gical error, to put in unequal conflict a few ill-understood words of the 
Pentateuch, and the thousands of facts which the finger of God has plainly 
written on the book of naturo ; folly, past all excuse, to suppose that the 
moral evidence of an eternity of the future should be weakened by admit- 
ting the physical evidence for an immensity of the past." * 

It remains for mo to add a few words only, as deprecatory of severe cri- 
ticism. No one can he more awaro than myself of the numerous errors 
and deficiencies everywhere pervading this small volume : for these I urge 
nothing, even in extenuation. Foi myself, it is sufficient that I have 
derived firom its preparation much information, great gratification. I 
entertain no morbid sensitiveness respecting the fate that awaits it. Witii 
our prince of lexicographers I may say, " I dismiss it with frigid tranquil- 
lity, having little to fear or hope from consuro or from praise." 

The necessity created, by preparing such a book for the press, for care- 
fully looking into and examining the opinions of various authors on the 
same subject, has made me acquainted with many works which, otherwise, , 
I never might have perused; and I have, from this circumstance only,, 
reaped a rich reward of the purest pleasure ; and, though critics may in 
umaeasurcd terms condemn, it is more than probable that 

Exspectat, aeu mors atria circumvolaC alia ; 
DiTES, iDDpa, RomEC, sea Tors itn, jueserit, exaul ; 
Quisi^ais eiit vitsE, ecribam, culor." 

• Profeesor P 


A. Tbe first letter of tbe nljihnbet in all tlie 

n langnageE except the Ethiopic and 

the Ranio j in the former it is the tliir. 

1, and in tbe latter tbe tenth. 

Among (be ancienta, A was used as a 

i numeral, sad signified 500 ; vith a line 

V, 5000, 

In words of Greek derivntion, A is 
Died priTativelf. oriaanegatiie sense, as 
Hcephaloiu, withoat a head j acaulous, 
haTing- no stem ; apetalona, having no 
petals ; aaatjledonous, having no L-utj- 

ABAl'sia. A name for spodinm, burnt 
ivory, or ivory black. 

Abakticvla'tion. ((rom ad and arlieu- 
talio, Lat.) That kind of articulatiaa 
which admits of manifest motion ; it is 
also called diartbrosis, from tbe (ireek 
word fiiijidpuiTiCtaad deartieulation. 

Abbke'viatbii. (aiireniadM, Lai.) 

1. In botany, on epithet for the perianth. 
An abbreviated perianth is shorter than 
the tube of the corolla, as in Pulmnnaiia 

2. Shorter than a correspondent part. 
Ab'ditife. (&am aido, Lat.) That has 

the power of hiding or ooncealing. 
Absd'ubh. {abdomen, Lat. abdameH, Fr. 
addomme. It.) The large cavity com- 
monly known as the bellj, containing the 
ol^;uis more immediately concerned in 
the process of digestion, as the stomach, 
liver, spleen, pancreas, bowels, lie. 



I 1. Pertaining to the abdomen or belly. 

I 2, Pishes bdonging to tbe order abdo- 

r ninalei, or the fourth order of Lin- 

have ventral fins behind the thoracic, or 
I fins placed on the beily, and the bmnchia 
I omeulaKd i tbcy chieHj inhabit fresh 

their 0| 

OS. Relating to the abdomen 

■. (from flirfaco, Lat.) Thename 
those mnscles which serve to 
draw back parts of the body; 

osites, or antagonists, are called 

{abdHelevr,Vr.abdHtlon, It.) 
lue same ns abducent. 
Abkkka'tion. (aberralio, Lat.) 

1. A certain deviation in the rays of 
light, from the true or geometrical focus 
of reflection or reiractioo, in curved spe- 
cula or lenses. 

2. A deviation from tbe ordinary coorae 
of natore. 

Ahno'hual. > (oiwormw.Lat.) Irr^ular; 

Abno'huods. i unwonted ; unnatural. 

Abno'suitt. Departure from natural for- 
mation ; irregularity. 

AnBA'oK. {abrado, Lat.) To wear away 
.from the other parta ; to destroy by tiic- 

AflttA'aios. (from airaaia, Lat.) 

1. The act of wearing or rubbiug off. 

2. Tbe matter abraded by the friction of 

AnftA'NOiiiA. (from a, priv. aud ppilyx'"! 
Gr. ) Animals destitute of gills, and hav- 
ing no apparent external organs of respi- 

The third order of arti- 
culats, having no apparent external organs 
of respiration, bnt seeming to respire, 
some, by the entire surface of the skin, 
others, by internal cavities. TTie abran- 
cfaiata are divided into two families ; ths 
jirst, Abranchiata setigera, comprising 
the LumbriciandNoides of Linnnua-, thA 
second, M«ttTic\iiB*a aM».\?,MB., two" 

A C I [ 

A'ciKOSB. Iron ore. A variet; of iron ore 
found in maaseB, tni common]]' lenticu- 
lar. Colour, generally, browniali red : 
lustre metnllic : texture granular: bard- 
neas 5 to 9 : brittle. 

A'ciNVD. ri^at.) EiDh separate part oF a 
compound berry containing a seed : coni- 
pouud berriea cooaist of man; simple 
acini noited togetlier, as the raspberr;. 
blackberry, &c. 
- Acottle'eon. (from a, priv. and eon/Xij- 
iuiv, Gr.) A plant nliose seeda liave uc 
Cotfledons, or side-lobes. 
, AoiWTi.K'oONOua. PluntB.whOie embryos 
bave no lohea, or eeminal leaves ; nol 
having cotyledons, or seed lobes. 

Aobocerai/mian. (from aepog and npnli- 
VBs, Gr.) A term given to some mono- 
tains, Buppoeed to be especially subject 
to tbe effects of iLghtning. 

A'oBOGBN. (from aipot and yiyviiw, Gr.) 
An Hcrojcen is a cjlindrjcal plant growing 
at its point only, and never augmenting 
in tbickneaa after once formed. 

A'caOMiON. (nipog and d/ioc, Gr.) Tbe 
bumetal extremity of tbe spinous process 
of the scapaia ; situated over the upper 
end of the humerus, and contributing to 
the protection of the shoulder joint. 

A'cROSPiBB. (from depoi; and airiipa, Gr. ) 
The shoot or sprout of a seed, also called 
the plume, or plumule. 

Acti'nia. The sea-atiemony, a genus of 
tbe order Vermes molluscs. The flesliy 
body of the actinia is frecjuently orna- 
mented with bright colours, and eihibita 
nmnerous tentacula placed round the 
mouth in several ranges, like the petals 
of B double flower, Iroia which it baa 
obtained its name of aea-anemony. 

AcTiNo'coMAi. A genus of fossil sheUs, 
having tbe form, of belemnites. 

Acti'nocditb. a fossil crionoidean, found 
in the carboniferous limCBtone near Bristol. 

Aoti'nomtb. {from diiTlv and XiBoc, Gr.) 
A variety of hornblende. Its coa- 
stitnEot parts are silica 4 6 '26, mag- 
nesia 19-O.t, lime 13-96, alnmina 11-48, 
protoxide of iron 3 '43, protoxide of 
manganese 0-36, fluoric acid 1'60, water, 
Jtc. I-04. This variety of hornblende 
rarely occurs la the secondary rocks, 
being principally confined to those of the 
primary class. It is of a green colour. 

Acti'kol I TE- SCHIST. A metamorpbicfock, 
onsisting principally of actiaolite, with 
n admixture of mica, quartz, or felspar ; 
ts texture is slaty and foliated, 

AcnNOj-i'Tic. Containing actinolite ; of 
he nature of actinolite. 

Acn'iTY. (aeviM, Pr.) Shsjpness ; acri- 

Actj'i.«AT«. ) (Bcvleeliu, lat.) Prickly ; 

Acu'iKATED. ) having spines or prickles. 

Applied to leaves srmed mth prickles. 

] AD I 

Used to denote prickles, fixed in the but, J 
in distinction from thorns, whieh grow j 
from the wood. 
Acu'leus. a prickle or spine, 
the barV only, and Dot growing (roin ti 

TBO. (ac 

1 poinl 

crease being very gradual. 

A'dauant. (ASdfiag.Gt.) AnamegiventO 
different stones of eicessive hardnega, as 
to the diamond. 

Adauante'an. {adaman/ana, liit.) Hard 
as adamant ; impenetrable. 

Adaha' Oftbenature of adamant; 
of excessive hardness. 

Abama'ntiwe spab. Imperfect corun- 
dum ; a variety of rhombohedral co- 
rundum, nearly analogous to perfect 
corundum, containing from 3 to 5 per 
cent, of silica, and 1 to 2 of oxide of 

One of the extinct pachyder- 

ta, found i: 

a qusr 

Montmartre. The form of tl 
moat nearly resembled that of a hedge- 
hog, but it was three times tbe size of 
that animal ; it seems to bave formed ■ 
link connecting tbe pachydermata witb 
the insectivorons carnivora. — Buekland. 

Anntj'cKNT. (fi-om addvca, Lat.) A 
name given to those muscles which bring 
forward, cloEe,or draw together, tbe parts 
of the body to wbicb they are attached ; 
their antagonists are termed ahdncent. 

Anod'cTOtt. The same as adducent. 

Aok'noid. (from Mtjv, a gland, and 
ilSas, form, Gr.) Glandiform; having 
tbe shape of a kernel, almond, or gland ; 

Adhb'r^NT. (tiomadAtcrfOi'Lii.t.) Unit- 
ed with ; sticking to. 

Adhj'sion. (arf&Mio, Lat.) The union 
of two substances, either similar or diS' 
similar. Adhesion is generally used in 
the natural, and adherence in the meta- 

Adhe'eive. (ad^n'Eiu, Lat.) Having! 
lendeney to adhere, or stick to. 

Adhe'sivblv. In an adhesive manner. 

Adhe'sitenebb. Tenacity; the quality of 
sticking to, 

ADiFOCKBA'rioN. The process of being 
converted into adipocire. 

A'nipacBBB. ) (adfjii, fat, and cero, wu, ■ 

A'oiPOoeE. t Lat.) Asnbstanci 
bliiig spermaceti, prodneed by t 
version of animal matter exp< 
running water ; in this way animal a 
ter may be converted into a soft, niu 
ous, or waxy substance in the space of • 1 

Imore than ninantb; but lulipocrre 
dio been produceil, tlioiiih not so 
If, b]' the heaping togecber large 
M of putreljing aniniEil matter,! 
Ibcovered on the remaval of a vei 
I Dumber of boiliea from the buri 
id of the Church des Innoceni i 
L 17Sr< Adipocire possesses man; 
^ propertieB of fat combined with s. 
an of ammonii. It vos first dieco- 
ibf Fonrera;. 

It'sB uiNERAl.. A fatty matter 
Un the argiUaceouB iron ore of Mer- 
I it is fnsibie at about 161)°. and is 
kiui when cold, but nhen heated it 
t B ghghtly bitumJDoas oiloar. 
P- I {adiponit, Lat.) Fat ; fatty. 
{ (aditui, Lot.) The shaft or en- 
tl into a mine, usuailjr made in the 
If a hilt, for the canveyance of ore, 
Ike canTing- off the nater. 
biEtiT. A rendering fit or cam- 

tnos. (admiiceo, Lat.j The ddiod 
tions bodies, or snhatancea, hy min- 
|them together. In admixtjon each 
stains its own character, and does 
tndergo any chemioal change, as in 

The n 

1 A E R 

thus named by Mr. Kinron. !(■ form is 
tuberose and knotty. Teituro striated; 
eometimea resembles quartz. Lustre from 
Otol. Specific gravity 2'513 after It 
has absorbed water. Colour light grey. 
Before the blow-pipe it iuiamesees, and 
forms a frothy mass. Acida couvert it 
bto a jelly. A specimen, analysed by 
Bergman, contained 69 ^lica, 8 lime, 
20 oiumiiia, 3 water. — T/tnnton. 

Ae'lodon. a fossil saurian of the oolite 
and lias. 

A' BR ATE. To combine with carbonic 

A'ehatbd. Combined with carbonic acid, 
or tiled air. 

Abjia'iion. The combining with fixed air, 
or carbonic acid. 

Ab'bial Acir. A name given by Berg- 
man to carbonic acid or hied atr ; aerial 
add is of greater specific gravity than 
atmospheric air, and eitingmahes flame. 

As'siroBU. Resembling air; having the 
□ature and propertiea of air. 

"" ■■ dX;9or, Gr.) A 

of mingled aub- 
, Lat.) Growing 

casionatly, fall ti 

aerolites : by i 
been supposed C 

IG8NT. {adnai 

ka other tbitig. 

ilk. (aifnafn«, Lat.) 

kue porta of animal, or vegetable 

jl which are natural, as the nails, 

Mndentol parts, as fungi, misleCoe. 

)te external coat of the eye. 

tt. Growing to ; adberiuL 

m, it is used when a leaf adheres 

it brandi or stem bjr the surface b 

faelf i applied to stipules when they 

ked to the petioles. 

H>ii. (appretm, Lat.) Appressed, 

OHd dose to ; pressed together. 

t-nom. (Lat.) That is added to 

■Me Eomething else, though origi- 

P'tioub. (advtnlilius, Lat.) Ac- 
U. ; eitriuiically added ; that wbieli 
It properly belong lo any body, or 

mnstone ; a transparent 
toured variety of feldspar, with a 

' (adasciliu, Lat.) Crookod- 
Dokedness ; flexure inwards. 
(adutlia, Lat.) Burnt up ; 

That is capable of being 

1 the earth. Nothing is 
I as to the origin of 
ome authors they have 
a come from the moan, 
being projected by lolcauic force beyond 
the sphere of the moon's attraction ; by 
others they have been thought to be 
children of the air, created by the union 
of simpler forms of matter. They do not 
resemble any other substance found on 
the earth, and it has been indisputably 
proved that they are not of terrestrial 
formation. The fall of these bodies has 
been well ascertained, and has occurred at 
different times, and in various parts, 
through many ages. Some of these aero- 
btcB are immensely larg 
downwards. From an a 
they are all found Co 
nent parts. They ai 
cruHt of a deep black c 
terior is roughened with small projec- 
tions, and they are destitute of gloss. 
IntemaDy their texture is granulated, and 
of a greyish colour. When carefully ei- 
amiued, they appear composed of a num- 
ber of small spherical bodies and meCaUic 
grains imbedded in a softer matter, com- 
posed, according to the Hon. Mr. How- 
ard, who diligently and caretidly studied 
them, of silica, magnesia, iron, and 
nickel. In addition to these substances, 
Vauc|Qeliu found chrome, and Slromeyer 
discovered cobalt, in aerolites : lime, alu- 
mine and manganese have also been de- 
tected in them. Meteoric iron has been 
imitated by fusing iron with nickel. 
When it is considered how many of theie 
bodies have been seen, or heard, to taH 

arge, from 300 lbs. 
n analysis of them, 
agree in their compo- 
■e covered with a tiiin 
; their ei- 

A E R 

[ 6 ] 

A G G 

through the air, we must eonclude that 
they are exceedingly numerous ; more 
especially, when we reflect on the small 
proportion which must he observed, and 
the small comparative portion of the 
globe which is inhabited, or habitable, by 

Aero'meter. (from dr^p and fikrpoVf Gr. 
acrometret Fr.) An instrument for ascer- 
taining the weight, or density, of the 

Abro'metrt. {airometrief Fr.) The 
science which treats of the properties of 
the air ; it comprehends not only the 
doctrine of the air itself, considered as a 
body, but also its pressure, elasticity, 
rarefaction, and condensation. 

Aero'scopt. (from dijp and (TicoTrsai, Gr.) 
The observation of the air. 

^Ru'oiNOus. (from (sruginoitM, Lat.) 
Partaking of the nature of the rust of 

^Ru 60. Verdigrease, or verdigris ; rust 
of copper, formed by the combination of 
an acid with copper. Impure subacetate 
of copper. Verdigris is inodorous, and 
when first applied to the tongue is nearly 
insipid, though strongly styptic ; it leaves 
a metallic taste in the mouth. It is poi- 
sonous ; sugar acts as a specific against 
its poisonous effects. 

^'sTiYAL. {(Bstivalis, Lat.) Pertaining to 

^'sTivAL PLANTS. Plauts which flower 
during the summer. 

^stiva'tion. {€B8tivati0f Lat.) 

1. The effect produced by summer heat. 

2. The mode in which the parts of a 
flower, taken separately, are arranged in 
the bud. 

JE'tites. (otirbQf Gr. aetite, Fr.) Eagle- 
stone ; a variety of oxide of iron mixed 
with clay. It is found in masses, gene- 
rally under the form of a rounded knob, 
something resembling a kidney. It pre- 
vails in the coal formations of England, 
Wales, and Scotland, has a rough surface, 
and is of a brown colour. Specific gra- 
vity 4 to 7. Lustre of the exterior 
metallic. It frequently contains a sort of 
kernel, which rattles on being shaken. 
It was formerly in repute for several 
extraordinary magical as well as medical 
properties, such as preventing abortion, 
discovering thieves, &c. It derives its 
name from a popular notion that it was 
found in eagles' nests, where it was sup- 
posed to prevent the eggs from becoming 
rotten. See Nodular Iron Ore. 

^ti'tes lapis. Eagle-stone. See ^ti- 

Affi'nity. (affinity, Fr. affinithy It.) The 
tendency which bodies, dissimilar in their 
composition, have to unite and form new 
compounds. Different bodies are pos- 

sessed of different attractive powers, and 
if several be brought together, those 
which have the strongest mutual affini- 
ties enter first into union. Affinity, like 
sensible attraction, varies with the mass 
and the distance of the attracting bodies. 
That the force of affinity increases as the 
distance diminishes, and the contrary, is 
obvious ; for it becomes insensible when 
the distance is sensible, and exceedingly 
great when the distance is exceedingly 
diminished. Affinity agrees with sensible 
attraction in every point which it has been 
possible to determine. 

Aoalma'tolite. (from dyaXfia and \i9og, 
Gr.) Figure-stone. A sub-species of 
talc-mica, of different colours, as white, 
red, brown, green, and grey. It occurs 
massive. It feels greasy, is translucent, 

' and has a conchoidal fracture. The 
finest specimens are brought from China. 
It does not contain any magnesia, but in 
other respects it has the characters of 

A'oARic. (agariciMj Lat.) The generic 
name for the mushroom, a genus of the 
order Fungi, class Cryptogamia. Gmelin 
enumerates nearly 400 species. 

A'garic mineral, a variety of soft car- 
bonate of lime. It is found in the clifts 
of rocks, or the bottom of lakes, in pieces 
loosely cohering, and it is so light as 
nearly to swim upon water. It obtains 
its name from its resemblance to a fungus 
in colour and texture. 

A'oATE. {achates t Lat. dxurrig, Gr. agate, 
Fr. agata, It.) A siliceous, semi-pellucid 
gem, of which there are many varieties, 
not of great value. Agates are princi- 
pally composed of quartz with various 
colouring matters. Agates may be arti- 
ficially coloured by immersion in metallic 
solutions. Amongst the varieties of 
agate may be enumerated, calcedony, car- 
nelian, onyx, sardonyx and heliotrope. 
As precious stones, agates are now less 
esteemed than formerly ; the most valua- 
ble are the oriental. When cut and 
polished, agates present an appearance of 
waving lines, sometimes accurately paral- 
lel, sometimes varying in breadth, and 
sometimes containing a resemblance to 
vegetable forms, as mosses, ferns, &c. 
Small agates are frequently found in com- 
mon gravel. 

A'oATY. Of the nature of agate. 

Aooela'tion. Concretion by freezing. 

A'oGEROss. (from agger, Lat.) Full of 

Aqglu'tinant. (agglutinant, Fr.) That 
which has the power of uniting par' 

Aoolu'tinatb. {agglutino, Lat.) 
cause to adhere ; to glue together. 

Aoolutina'tion. {agglutination, ] 

A G G 

GoheGion ; 

.he sUtc of being 
led, or taatEned together by tome 
dd matter; the adhesion of parEs by 
s effouoQ of a coaguUtiu^ medinni. 
cn'TiNATivB. That which baa the 
ipertj of causing agglutination. 
niGATK. {aggregal, Fr.) 
The complei, or collectite result of 
conjuDCIiDa, or acervation, ot mauy 
' ' '■■ '■'■" ' - - compound 

<Jjr, inasmncli as the union in the last 
more iotiiaalc than between the parts 
an aggregate. 

In botany, a term nsed to express 
wen composed of many small florets, 
ling a common ondiYided receptacle, 
e anthers separate and distant, the 
eotamonly standing on atalks, each 
■Ting a Giogle or double partial calyi. 
lie; are opposed to simple flowers, and 
ire usually divided into seven kinds. 
masoATB. (jiggrego, Lat.) To collect 
Bgether ; to accumulate. 
leaKQATCD. Collected i accuiualaCed ; 
leaped together, 

okbo.^'tioii. {aggrfgatian, Fr. eggrf- 
rii2iotie, It.) The collection into one mass 
rf bodies having no natural coaneiion, 
HLt| by a species of union, made to con- 

IITATB. {agitu, Lat.) To put in mo- 

Jta'tiom. (agUatio, Lat.) The state 
<g being moved, or shaken. 
Mo'STDB. (dypwoTUC, Gr.) A fossil, 
HOB at trilobites, mentioned by M. 

An extinct animal of the 
{icene period, order Mammalia, allied 
the dog, but of very large size. Oue 
etaes only has been found, at Epples- 
im, in Germany. 

DE hadiVe. a variety of topaz, of a 
'blnish or pale green colour. 
idi'llbb. {aig'iillea, Vt.) The needle - 
Ike points, or tops, of grauitic rocks. 
iDi^LB DE Dau. A pyramidal granitic 
aonDtaiii, according to BakevceU, the 
inoBt remarkable at present known ; the 
ipperfiart, or spire, rises above its base 
iBorly tOH point, in one solid shaft, more 
ban 4000 feet ; the summit being 11,000 
.feet above the level of the sea. 
'l-A. (ala, Lat.) 

I. Id botany, a term used for the hollow, 
wUch either the leaf, or the pedicle of 
the leaf, makes with the stalk ; the hol- 
lovr taming, or sinus, placed between 
tb* stalk or branch of a plant and the 
baf, and whence anew offspring generally 
xiies. Sometimes it is nsed for those 
parts of leaves otherwise called lobes or 
wings. Those petals of papilionaceous 
flowers placed lietween those other petals 
distJngalshed us the vexiUum and cmina 

] ALB 

and which constitute the top and bottom 
of the flower, are also called alie. 
2. In anatomy, the lobes of the liver, the 
cartilages of the nostrils, and the cartila- 
ginous parts of the ears, are called als. 
Ala'ted. (jilalut.LM.} That hath wings ; 

A'tAHABTEH, (Aktialtr. Lat. AKafiaa- 
Tpov, Gr. ) Granular, or massive sulphate 
of lime. Alabaster is found in this coun- 
try accompanying thesalt deposits in Che- 
shire. It is also most abundant at Mont- 
martre, in the neighbourhood of Paris. 
At Montwont, In Italy, it is found ia 
blocks of such magnitude, that statues of 
the size of life are occastonally cut from 
them. Being semi-transparent, it ha* 
1 employed for windows 
J and a church at Florence 
is still illuminated by alflbaBter windows. 
Instead of panes of glass, there are slabs 
of alabaster IS feet high, each of which 
forms a single window, through which the 
hght is conveyed. Alabaster maybe turned 
by the lathe, and is thus farmed into a 
great variety of ornamental a^ti(^les. 
laba'gthites. {alaliaili-itfs, Lat. aXa- 
(Saorpiriic, Gr.) Alabaster stone; a 
kind of marble, whereof the ancients 
made vessels for ointment ; by Hotaoe 
called onyx. 

'i.Ai.iTE. Called also Diopaide, a variety 
of angite. It occura massive, dissemi- 
nated, sod crystallized, with a vitreoDS 
external, and pearly internal lustre ; it is 
translucent, and either white or of a pale 
green colour. It was named by Bon- 
voisin, from his finding a variety of it 
near the village of Ala, in Piedmont. 
la'shodon. A species of shells of the 
genus Unio, having cardinal, but no la- 
teral teeth. 

'tATK. ) (alalM, Lat.) Winged. In 
Ala'ted. i couchology, applied to sheila 
having an ejipanded lip, or when any por- 
tion of them is much expanded. 
A'tABT. (from ala, Lat.) Of the oatnre 

of wings. 
A'lbite. Tetarto-priamatic felspar ; soda 
felspar. A name given to felspar, whose 
alkali is soda instead of potash. Colour 
generally whilfi, sometimes grey, green, 
or red. Lustre upon faces of cleavago 
pearly, io other directions vitreous. Al- 
bite forms a constituent part of the green- 
stone rocks in the neighbourhood of 
Edinburgh. It is eomposed of silica, 
alumina, and soda, with a trace of lime. 
Albi'tcc. Of the nature of albite; con- 
taining albite. 
Albvci'itea. (from albua, Lat.) 

1. The iibrODs membrane in the eye, 
situate immediately under the taniea 
conjunctiva. -^^^^h 

2. One of the tunica of the tcstJa^^^H 


Albu'gineovs. (albuginSMi, Lat.) 

1. The aqueous humour of the eje. 

2. KeEBQibUng the nbite of an egg. 
A.'bBDM Gb«'cuii. The excrement of 

doga, wolves, hyenas, &c., feeiling or liv- 
ing on bones. It principally consists of 
the earth of bones or lime, in conibina- 
tion with pbosphutie acid. 

Ai.bu'bnuu. lalbHnaim, Lat.) Called 
also sap-wood ; the interior white barlt of 
trees ; it is this which yearly becomes 
nev wood t the iast formed wood of the 
tnink of trees and woody plants. It 
appears probahle, that the new layers of 
albumniu and liber, which are produced 
each year, on the outside of all that pre- 
ceded, are formed by the desceading 
fibres, or roots, of the leaf-bode, 

A'lcali. See Alkali, the more usual way 
□f writing the nord. 

Alcyo'nia. The plural of alcyoninm. 

Alcio'sium. a genus of zoophytes, the 
characters of winch are, that the animal 
grows in the form of a plant ; the stem, 
or root, is fixed, fleshy, gelatinous, spongy, 
or coriaceous, with a cellular epidermis, 
penetrated with stellated pores, and shoot- 
ing out tentacnlated oviparous bydrte.— 

From the experiments of HntchetC, it 
appears that these snimals are composed 
principally of carbonate of Ume and a 
UttlB gelatinous matter. The alcyonium 
belongs to the dass Vermes, order 
Zoophjta. Cuvier places the alcyoninm 
in the order Coralliteri, class Polypi. 

Ai.c¥'oNlTK. Aicyouites are fossil alcyonia, 
or zoophytes nearly alhed to sponges, the 
production or habitation of polypi.^ 

Alb'ubic. (alambie, Fr. laniiiixo, It. 
aUmiicMtit, Lat.) A vessel used in the 
prooeSH of distillation, nsnally made of 
^cK or copper. Of alembics there are 
two lUfferenC forms, the beaked and the 
blind, the former having communication 
with a receiving vessel, the latter being 
withont suah. The use of the alembic 
has yielded to that of the retort. 

Aj-a'piDorB. (from o, priv. and Xmig. 
squama, a scale.) Any fish destitute of 
scales, as the eel, cod-fish, &c. 

A'l.04. (Lat.) Sea.weed. 

A'lo-b, An order, or division, of the 
Cryptogamia class of plants. It is one of 
the seven famiUes, or natural trilies, into 
which Linneeui distribnted the vegetable 
kingdom. The whole of the sea-weeds 
are comprehended under this division. 
The plants belonging to this order are 
described as having their leaf, stem, and 
root all one. The depths at which, ac- 
cording to Lyell, some of the algu live, is 
extremely great, being no less than one 
cboasand feet, " and although in such 

] A L K 

situations there must reign darkneM 
more prufound than night, at least to 
our organs, many of these vegetables ara, 
highly coloured." — Principleiiff Geology.. 
Aloalha'tolite. Figure-stone. A koL^ 
oeral, the finest varieties of which w* 
receive from Cliini. A sub-species ap 
talc-mica. See Agalmatoliie. 
A'toiD. (atgidm.lai.) Cold. 
Chilness ; cold. 
:k. that which causes cold. 
(Lat.) Eitrcmecold. 

(, X,aC.) Having the ni 

s, of se 

o/a and /fro, Lat.) 

Having wings ; winged. 
iLi'oaBous, l^aliger, Lat.) The same as 

L'LiuKNr. (alistentum, Lat.) Noorish- 

Aliue'htabinbss. The quslitjr of afford- 
ing nourishment. 

1. That has the property of supplying J 

2. That relates to nourishment. 

1. The power of affording natr 

2. llie state of being nourished by m 
milation of matter received. — Jolmion. ^ 

A'lithbe. IfiUlura, Lat.) Nutrimeot j] 
nourishment ; food ; aliment. 

Alkale'sckncy. a tendency to beoomj 

Alk ALE 'scent. That has a tendency % 
the properties of an alkali. 

A'lkali, (from the Arabic word kali, i 
the usual prefix al ; (he name given t 
the Egyptians to the plant call^ by ■ 
glasswort.) Any substance which f 
uniting with an acid neutraJiies, or ii 
pairs, its activity, and forms a salt, 
kaiies possess (he property of convertiBi 
vegetable bines to green, and yellows 
red. There are ttiree kinds of alkali 
l.ThGvegetablealknti,orpotaEh; 2. Thfl 1 
mineral cdkali, or soda ; 3. The animal, 
or volatile alkali. 

A'lecaline. Possessing the properties «f | 
alkah ; as baryta, lime, magnesia, i' 

Alkali'sitt. The property of changing 

vegetable bines iuto green. J 

ALKALi'uKTEn. An initrtiment for ascer- ' 

taining the proportion of alkali contained 

in any substance. 
A'lkaldid. (from alkali, and d^o;. Gr. 

likeness.) Bodies possessing some of the 

properties of alkaUes. 
A'lkanet. The name of a iilant, the root of 


wUcli flelila K fine red, and ii much i 

A. LI. A CITE. A mineral ; colour browi 
green ; moaAife ^ aeini-opaque ; fracl 
eoQchoidil : it is ■ carbo-aiticate of m 

A'lLAsiTB, An orthitic melane-ore. ' 
cerinm oi;d£ liliceux of HsUf. A 
Derail brought from GreeaUnd, and tbui 
Darned after Mr. Tbomaii Allan, of Edin- 
bargb, nho first distiDKUiahed it as a pe- 
culiar Bpeciea. According to the analjsii 
of Dr. Thomsan, allanite was fouad Cc 
COntUD ailica 3^.4, oxide of EerlDO: 
I 25-4, Ume 3% 


.41. : 

It is of B black colour, incliniDg to grey 
or brown. It iafaund masBiTe.orin acicu- 
lat crjstale. External lustre imperfect, 
metallio ; intemid, shining. Pritoture 
conchoidsl. Opaque. Streak greenish 
or bronniah-grey. It i» a ailiceouit oiide 
of cerium. 


aiYc, of a green, brown, grey, 
colour ; lustre glimmering. It cc 
of silica, lime, carbonate of lime, oiide of 
manganese, oxide of iron, alumina, and 
moisture. Before the blow-pipe it melts 
into an opaque black enamel. 
A'lJ.aFSa.Ne. A mineral of a blue, green, 
or brown colour, occnrring massive, or in 
imitatiTB ebapea. It is rather hard and 
brittle. It gelatinizes in acids. Accord- 
ing to the analysis of Stromeyer, it con- 
dsbi of alumina, silica, carbonate of cop- 
per, lime, iron, sulphuric acid, and'r. To alloy, called also allay, is to 
mil one metal with another, iu order to 
give greater hardness, fusibility, t 




iug with it one of less value. 

1 . A mixture of different metals : it must, 
bowoyor, be kept in mind that when 
mercury forms one of the inclala, the 
miatore is called amalgam, 

2. The metal of inferior value, which is 
used lo deteriorate, or give new proper- 
ties to, another metal. 

ALLtj'viii., That is carried b; water to 
another place, and lodged upon something 

Ai.Lo'viOM. ) (alluvio, Lat. alluvion, Fr. 
AiLo'viUV. \ aHuoiOHB, It.) Earth, sand, 
gravel, atones, or other transported mat- 
ter nbich has Iibed washed away and de- 
posited by water upon land not perma- 
nently submerged beneath the waters of 
lakes or seas. — Li/ell. 
, Alluvium has been divided into mo- 

. dem and ancient. The modern, cha- 
H noterized by the remains of luan and 

I ] ALU 

contemporaneous animala and plants ; 
the ancient, by an immenac propor- 
tion of lar^e mammalia and oamivora, 
luth of eitiuct and recent genera and 

Allu'viods. Sec Allumat. 

A'LUANIllNK. (alntaaditit, Fr. ala&andiita. 
It.) A precious stone, having soma of 
the characters of the garnet ; a species of 

A'lfine. {alpiHui. Lat.) This term ia , 
not conflued merely to the Alps, and the 
things therewith connected, but is ap- 
plied to an; lofty or monntaiuODa country, 
and to the productions of elevated situ- 

ALTK'iiVArR. (alltmvt, Lat.) Being by 
turns; one after another ; reciprocal. In 
botany, applied .to leaves when they stand 
singly on the stem or branches, alternately 
first on one aide, then on the other ; to 
branchea when placed r^mnd the stem al- 
ternately, one above the other ; to flowers 
placed in regular succea^ian, one above 

That wUch happens 

d succes^on, 
:eded by that 




so that each sliall b 

which it succeeds. 

Alte'rn ATE NESS. The quality of being 

alternate, or of happening in reoiprocat 

ALTaKNA'TTON. Reciprocal aaccesaion. 

Ai.TE'H.NiTiVELV. {altemalivfraeat , Fr. 
atternalivemente, It.) Reciprocally; in 
alternate manner. 

Altb'hnitt. Reciprocal auoccsaion ; vi- 
cissitude : turn. 

A'ltkrsating. Following, or succeeding, 
reciprocally! happening in reciprocal auc- 

Alti'mrtkb. "(from alius, Lat. and fiJrpov, 
Gr.) An instrument by which the heighta 
of bodies may be ascertained. 

.^.LTi'uRTBV. (altimetrii, Fr. allmilria. 
It.) The art of measuring altitudes or 
heights, whether accessible or other- 

A'i,TiTUDB. (allitudo, Lat.) Height of 
place ! space measured upwards. 

A'tTivoLANT. (attiv»latui, Lat.) High- 

A'lum. (aliimen, Lat. elm, Fr. allmae. It.) 
A triple aulphate of alumina and potasaa. 
Alum is both native and factitious. _ The 
common mode of obtaining alum is by 
roasting and lixiviating certain clays con- 
taining pyrites; to the leys a certain 
quantity of potasaa is added, and the tri- 
ple salt ia obtained by crystallization. 
■ 'l astringent taste. It 

eof ei 

, and the u 

k'LDM-STONi. The Bhale from which alum 

^Lu'uiNA. > Pure argillaccouii earth, 
IL'luuinx, ( tnina, ia a subalaacc which 
in B mixed stale ia well known, but pure 
and unrolled, is one of the lareat 
■tancei id the mineral kingdom. Tbia 
earth ii lotl, amootb, and unctuous to thi 
touch. Cooibinrd with other earths, oi 
rocks, it communicates to them aome oj 
these properties ; such rocks are termed 
BTgillaceous. Alumina constitutes aomt 
of the bardeat gema, auch as the rub? and 
sapphire, the latter being cryatalliseil slu- 
mine. According to the analysis of Kla- 
proth the sapphire contaiua 95perrE^Qt 
of pure clay. Alumina was conaidered an 
elementary aubatance till Sir Humphry 
Davy's electro-cheroioal researche ' ' 
the opinioD of its being a metalli 
Next to Bilicium, aluminum woi 
pear to be tba most important base of the 
eartha on the face of the globe. Its cot- 
iBCtive amount is by no means ao grest aa 
that of ailicium, but it ia quite as widely 

■ead. Then 

alumina. It consHtntea the bi 
Tarioua claya, and must be regarded as a 
Tery abundant and important conatitueut 
part of rocks. It contains 46-8 per cent, 
of oxygen. — De la BtcAt. 
kLv'Kisns. Ssb-sulpbate of atumine. A 
white mineral, dull, opaque, and hating 
an earthy fracture. This mineral occurs 
maasivB, in -veine, and in tabular and tu- 
berose mosses ; the former frequently at- 
taining a length of several feet, and the 
latter a weight equal to three or four 

[lounds. It appears to have been of sta- 
Eu:titical origiu, and is supposed to reeulC 
frota the decompoaitiou of iron pyrites, 
and the reaction of other aubatances. It 
is infusible at 166° of Wedgewood, but 
fuses rapidly when exposed to the stream 
of the hydro-oxygen blow-pipe. Accord- 
ing to the analysis of Stromejer, it con- 
sists of alumine 30, aulphuric acid 2b, 
■ !r45. 



g th 

properties of 

alum; co 






aae of alumina. 

The metal 


not y 

in a separ 

but the analyses to 

which aliin 

ina has 


a objected have 

clearly sb 

wn tha 

is a metallic 



sockets, pi 

s. hollow 

Alt b'o LATE 



Alveoli's A. 

A genu 


croscopic fora- 


aMole, Fr- bL 

teola. It-) A socket for a tooth ; a small 

cavity or cell ; the cell of the honey- 

llve'oldS. ) A fossil marine body, large at 
llte'olite. i one end and tapering to- 
wards the other, composed of hemispherie 


metals, neither being mercury, arc mi 
together, the compound is termed an al- 
loy, bnt when mercury enters into lbs 
composition it is called an amalgam, and 
its derivation has been supposed to 



which deriva 

rect than that of JohnBOn,and leiicogra- 

pbers ganerally. 

1. To mil mercury with any other metal, 

2, To mix any two substances capable of 
uniting into one body, 

Aualgaua'tion. (araalfamalia 

1. The act of miiing mercary with oflier 

2. The act of blending difTerent bodies. 


E, A variety of prismatic 
felspar, of a blue or green colour. 

A'uBEEi. (amior, Arab.) A fossil reain. 
For a great length of time, varioDS were 
the opiniona as to the nature and compo- 
sition of amber, bat it is now well ascer- 
tained to be a fossilized vegetable resin. 
It is found in similar localities to coal and 
jet. It ia brittle, easily cut with a knife, 
of various Bhadea of yellow, aometimei 
nearly white, and semi-transparent: in- 
sects are frequently found enclosed in ic,aud 
Jussieu states that these are not European, 
Its constituent parts are carbon 70'6B, 
hydrogen 11-62, oiygen 7-77, Amber ii 
foand in nodular massea, which are some- 
times eighteen inches in circumference j 
that which ifl found on the eastern shores 
of England, and on the coasts of Prugaia, 
and Sicily, is derived from beds of lignite in 
tertiary strata. Fragments of fossil gum 
were found near London in digging the 
tnunai through the London clay at High- 
gate. In the royal cabinet of Berlin there 
is a lump of amber, discovered in Lithua- 
nia, weighing eighteen pounds- Amber 
is one of the most electric substancei 
known ) when aubmitted to distillatloD, it 
yields an acid sublimate, which has re- 
ceived the name of succiaic acid. Ten 
pounds of amber yield about three ounces 
of purified succinic acid. 

Ambe'hqris. (from amber and gria, or 
grey.) A concretion from the intestines 
of the physeter macrocephalus, or sper- 
maceti whale. It wat long doubled of 

jpelJing ID 
principle. I 

nen Usoing 

It first of a 
■leaing, bjr i 
Baphtha, into the [a 

A M B [ 1 

What amber^is connstcd ; uid Todd, in 

lua last edition of Johason's Dictiouary, 
VetBini without an; caminetit, or observa- 
tion, the abaurd opinioiiB of former daf s, 
tatiag that " some imiigiDe it to be the 
acrement of a bird, which, b^iog melted 
J the heat of tbe sun, and washed off 
he shore by tbe waves, is swallowed by 
rliHles, who return it back in the condi- 
ion we fiod it." NEumann absolutely de- 

of Che earth into the eea ; 
:ouB (^onsiBtence. but har- 
with some liquid 
Dwhicb He liiid it. 
sUted by Sir E. Home that this sub- 
lonce ii only found in the unhealthy ani- 
i»l. but whether the caose or the effect 
of discBGe IB not well ascertained. When 
ttie pieces of smbergris are large, they are 
Ibund to contain beaks of the sepia oito- 
jwdia, or cnttlefiah, the usual food of the 
•permaceti whale. Ambergris is a solid, 
«paque, Bsh-cotonred, inflammablei sub- 
stance, variegated like marble, remarkably 
light, its specjlie gravity ranging from 
780 to 926; rugged, and, when beated, 
imitting a fragrant odour. It is some- 
imes found in masses of two hundred 
tounds weight and upwards. It breaks 
asily, but cancot be reduced to powder ; 
melts like wai. and is soluble in ether and 
lie volatile oils, and, assisted by heat, in 
ilcohol, ammonia, and the fixed oils. It 
been employed in medicine, but is now 
laid aside. In consequence of its 
into the composition of 
\j articles of perfumery. 

(ambiait, Lat. ambiant, Fr. 
!, It.) Surroimding ; encompass- 
(embilia, Lat.) The compass or 
of any thing i the line that en- 
impasses any thing. 

SITUS. In conchology, the circum- 
rence or outline of the valves. 
ilt'ptebits. a genns of fishes whose 
iration was limited to tbe early periods 
geological formations ; and which are 
srked by characters that cease after the 
fioiition of the magnesian limestone, 
lis genus occurs only in strata of the 
rbonifbroDS order, and presents four 
edes at Saarbriick, In Lorraine ; it is 
also in Brazil. The character of 
teeth in AinbtyteniB shews the habit of 
genns to have been to feed on decayed 
weed, and soft animal substances at 
bottom of the water; they are all 
Jl and numerous, and set close Coge- 
: like a brash. Tbe form of Che body, 
ig not calculated far rapid progression, 
>rdg with this habit. The vertebral 

I ] A M M 

eolomn continues into the upper lobe of 
the tail, which Ib much longer than the 
lower lobe, and is thus adapted to Buataia 
the body in an inclined position, with tbe 
head and mouth nearest to the bottom. 
This remarkable elongation of (be supe- 
rior lobe of the tail is found in every bony 
fish of strata anterior to, and including, 
the magnesian limestone. — BucJtIand. 

Ahht.vruv'nchos caisTkTus. The only 
existing marine liiard now known.— iyeW. 

Amk'st. ( (flin«i(iim,Lal,} A catkin, one 

Amk'ntuh. i kind of inflorescence. When 
the bractete on the principal stalk are close, 
and overlap one another, or are imbri. 
cated with the flowers sessile in their 
Bxillge, the spike la termed an amenfunt, 
or calkin, and the pcdnncio is always 
articulated with the main stem of the 
plant. Aments, or catkins, are generally 
pendent, while spikes sre for the most 
part erect. 

A'iiKTHrsT. (d/iefltioroc, Gr. contrary to 
wine, or dmnkenneas, so called from ■ 
supposed virtue it possessed of prevent- 
ing inebriation.) Qnarti, coloured by a 
minute portion of iron and manganese. 
The finest specimens come from India, 
Spain, and Siberia, but the amethyst is 
commonly found in most countries. The 
amethyst is a transparent gem of a pnrple 
or violet-blno colour [ it is sometimes 
found naturally colourlesB, and may at 
any time be made so by putting it into 
the fire. When deprived of its colour it 
greatly resembles the diamond. Some 
derive the name amethyst from its colour, 
which resembles wine mixed with water ; 
whilEt others, with more probability, 
think it obtained its name from its sup- 
posed virtue of preventing drunkentiess ; 
an opinion which, however imaginary, 
prevailed to that degree among the 
ancients, that it was usual for great 
drinkers to wear it about their necks. 


iBlng tl; 

amethyst ; of the colour of b 



A'hianth. ) (oBiiWe, Fr. amiaKto, It.) 
Amia'nthdS. i A variety of asbestos, 
or flexible asbestos ; an inoon 
mineral comiiosed of very delii 

according to Dioseorides, worked into a 
cloth capable of resistitig the action of 

Auia'ntbifobm. Having the form or 
likeness of Amianthus. 

Auhona'cka. According to the arrange- 
mcnt of De Blainville, a family of the order 
Polytlialamacea. It embraces the genera 
Discorbis, Scaphites, Ammonites, and 
Simplcgas. In tbe Lamarckian system 
the ammonacea is a family of the order 
Polythalamous cephalopoda, embracing 

A M M [ 1 

the genera Ammanites, AmmouocGTaB, 
Baculitei, TDiriUteE. 
A'mkonitk. (from Japiler Atmnon.) An 
(ntinct and Tety numerous genua of the 
order of molluscous animslB called Cepha- 
lopoda, allied to the modera genus Naa- 
tiluB, which inhnhileil a chambcird shell, 
curved like a coiled snake. Species of it 
■re fbnnd in bU geoIogiL-al periods of tho 
secondary strata; but tbej have DOt been 
■een in the tertiary beds. They are 
named from their resemblance to the 
horns on tlie statues of Jupiter Ammon- 

The ammonite differs greatly from the 
chambered nauttlas, the whorls, or turns, 
being all distinct, and in the same plane, 
and the cells very small. The family of 
amtnonites extends through the entire 
seriei of the foesiliferous fortnatioas, frutn 
the tranaition strata to the Ehallt inclu- 
■ive. M. Brochant, in his translation of 
De la Heche's Manual of Geology, enu. 
merates 270 species ; these species differ 
according to the age of the strata in 
■which they are found, and vary in size 
from a line to more than four feet in dia- 
meter. The geographical distribution of 
atomonites in the ancient world, seems 
to have partaken of that universality, we 

tables of a forme 
and which differ! 


iting fi 

IB genen 

a the ai 

f organ II 

life. We fi 

:, (he 

rently of the same age, not only through- 
out Europe, but also in distant regions of 
Asia, and of North and South America. 
Dr. Gerard has found Rt the elevation of 
16,0(0 feet in the Himalaya MountainE 
apecies of ammonites, identical irith thos 
of the has at Wbitby and Lyme Regit 
The aiomonite, like the nautilus, is com 
posed of three essential parts : — 1st. A 
eitemal shell, usnally of a flat discoidal 
form, and having its surface strengthened 
and ornamented with ribs. eud. A serie: 
uf iDternal air chambers, fnriued by trans- 
verse plates, intersecting the inner por- 
tion of the shell, .trd. A siphuncle, oi 
pipe, commencing at the bottom of thi 
onterchamber.and thence passing (hrougb 
the entire series of air chambers to thi 
ionermost extremity of the shell. Thf 
most decided distinction between ammo- 
nites and nautili is founded on the sitna' 
tion of the siphon. In the ammoniti 
this organ is always on the back of the 
shell, out never so in the nautilus. — 

The opinions of geologists and concho- 
IcgtBti have greatly varied as to thf 
■ituaUon and use uf the shell of the am- 


monite ; Cuvier, Lamarck, Bakewetl, and 
others, have supposed that the shell wu 
an internal one, but the reasoning of 
Buckland on this subject, seems cooclu- 
■ively and indisputably to prove that the 
shell was external. 
AuMDNiTl'rEHOus. CoDtaioing the re- 

eepuc, Gr.) The 
shells of this geuue resemble ammonites 
in their internal structure, but that they 
are only cuned instead of being spirally 
AMo'a.PHOuB, (from a, priv. and /lop^i), 
form. Or.) Bodies devoid of shape or form. 

TTiXos. Gr, 



Alltel and fiia^, Gr.) 
A class of animals possessing the property 
of living either in (he water or on diy 
land. In the Linniean system the am- 
phibia form the third class of animals. 
The lungs of the amphibia differ greatly 
from those of animals of the classes aves 
and mammBlia. Their body is covered 
with a shell, or with scales, or is qai(* 
naked. They have neither bair, mam- 
mte, feathers, nor radiated fins: Cbey are 
oviparous or viviparous, and are divided 
into reptiles and serpents ; or reptilja 
pedata, and serpentes apodes, the former 
being furnished with teeth, and the latter 
being destitate of them. The class Am- 
phibia, according to Gmelin, consists of 
two orders ; the hrst, or Repdlia pedata, 
being divided into four genera, having 
generally four, seldom two feet, namely, 
Testudo, Draco, Rana, and Lacerta. 
Und, Seipenfia, or seqientes apodes, hav- 
ing no feet. Some ate ovo-viviparou, 
having the egg hatched in the oviduct. 
This order is divided into six gen 
namely, Crotalus, or Rattle-snake, Boa, 
huge serpents of Asiaand Africa, Coluber 
or viper, Anguis or blind worm, Am- 
phisbKQa, and Cfficilia, Many of the 
amphibia possess the extraordinary pro- 
perty of reproducing parts, such as their 
legs, tails, SiC,, if destroyed. 

Amphibio'lithi. (from A^^iffios 
\i9Bs, Gr.) Fossil amphibia;. The 
phibiohthiformaverylarge and important 
class of fossils. 

Amfhi'biOOS. (d/ifij3iOE, Gr. laaphiiil^ 
Fr. onffio, It.) That partakes of two 
natures, being able to Uve either in the 

The quality of being 


tomblende ; for particiilarB see Rora- 

■ A.ny rock whose baas is 
iphitmie or hombluDile. 
_ 'HiQKNE. (from o/j^i and -rivos, Cr.) 
IS^pezoidal zeolite, or leucite. This 
lioeral, also called VeBUvian, Odcurs in 
obsdded grains or cryEtala, in the more 
B, and is fonnd mixed with 

'tb. a genus ofTubicola, of the 


,. A TCSael used by the nncientB, 

og abont seven gallona, and thus 
led From its having two baadlee. 

4T. (from arBplexiii and 
'.lit, Lat.) Stem claeping; embracing 

A singularly fonued fossil, 
lesembling a coral or madrepore, found 
ta the Dublin limestone; it is described 
js being nearly cylindrical, divided into 
Vbambere by numerous transverse septa, 
iVhich embrace each otber with reflected 
margins . — Smrerbg . 

' tiA. (from ampulla, Lat.) A 
e, oabglobose, univalie. Hitb an 
iunbilicBted base ; the opening oblong 
ire, with no thickening on the left 
le ampultaria is a river shell oF 
timates. Its spire, which alwajs 
^gbtl; projects, dialinguiaheB this genns 
vom Pbnorhis ; and there being no 
nthickeiiiDg on tbe left Up marks it from 
tJNatica. — Pariinaon. Lamarck places 
1 genus in the family Periatomata, 
ler Traehellipoda. There are many 
_ Hdes, as the AmpuUaria patula, Ampul- 
'Ivia Sigaretina, ficc- 

jIT'oPALom, (AfivyBiiXri, an almond, 
3r. amygdaloid^, Fr.) A volcanic, ot 
llgneoas, rock of any composition, con- 
I tuning nodules of minerals, scattered 
Vthrough its base, of a roundish shape ; 
cellatar Totcaaic rock, having its cells, oi 
cavities, occupied with nodnles of a dis- 
rimilar anbstance. 

,. Containing rounded, oi 
kernel-shaped, cavities, filled with mi- 
neral matter of a different character From 
the gnbetance generaily. 
" 'ODALITE. Almond -stone. 

lL. Perlainiug to the anus ; the fir 

tween tbe vent and the tail. 

'lciue. a simple mineral, a varietj 

zeolite, with which it was formerly 

confounded ; it is also called eubizite. 

~t occurs regularly crystallised; in an- 

jnlo.granular concretions, and massive. 

Specific gravity above 2. When rubbed, 

it acqiunis only a small degree of electri- 
city, and with difficolty. Jl is composed 
' '' 5S*a;, alumina 2022, soda 



secondary greenstone rocks, i 
parts of Scotland, more especially near 
Edinburgh. This mineral, also called 
Cubizite, has been regarded by mineralo- 
gists as having tbe cube for its primitive 
form. Analcime has certainly no cleav- 
age planes, and it must be regarded at 
present ai forming in (his respect at 
great an anomaly in crystallography as it 
does in optics by its eitraordinary optical 
phenomena. The most common form of 
analcime is the solid, called the icositetri- 
hedion, which is bounded by twenty-four 
equal and similar trapezia ; and we may 
regard it as derived from the cube, by 
cutting off each of its angles by three 
planes equally inclined to the three faces 
which contain the solid angle. The Abb^ 
Haiiy first observed in this mineral it* 
property of yielding no electricity by frio- 
tiou, aiid derived the name of analcime 
From its want of this property. 
Ana'logoub. (from ava and Xoyoc, Gr. 
analogue, Fr. analogo. It.) Having ana- 
logy ■ bearing some resemblance. 
A'kalogdk. {analogue, Yt. On It fait 
quelqutfaii lutitanlif. Ve lani deux 
analoguci.) Any body which corresponds 
with, or bears great resemblance to, some 
other body. A recent shell of the same 
species with a fossil shell, is an Analogue 
of the latter.— Lpe«. 
Anancby'tes. a helmet-shaped echinus, 
a fossil of tbe chalk formation. — Saie- 
well. It approaches near to the form ot 
Spatangus globasus. 
ANASTOuo'sia. ( nnoj/Dinoie, Fr. aiualo- 
Biaeo, It.fromavdandimijia.Gr.) The 
running of vessels one into another, or 
communication by inoscolation, aa of tbe 
arteries into the veins. 
Anastoho'sing. Communicating by anas- 
tomosis. Applied to vessels, threads or 
fibres, whicli by meeting or touching in 
separate points only, form a sort of net- 
work, or reticulati 


, Gr. 

Pyramidal titanium ; this mineral is 
i.earif of ihe same nature as titanite. It 
is found in Danphiny, Bavaria, Norway, 
Switzerland, Spain, and BrazU. It is a 
pure octahedral oiyde of titanium. Its 
colours are brown and blue; structure 
lamellar ; lustre splendent and adaman- 
tine ; it scratches glass. Specific gravity 
^na'tifa. a cuneiform mnltivalve, com- 
poaed of several unequal valves, five or 
more, united together at the extremity of 
a cartilaginous tube, (ixed at its iMse. 
Tbe opening without an operculum. — 


ANA [ 1 

Parltmirm. Tbe geaat comprues aeTcral 
ipecies. It belongs to the clasg Ciirho- 
pods. Tbe anatifte are often found ad- 
hering to rockii, |fteces of wood, tbe 
bottiima of ahips, &c. 

AfA'Tirait. (from onai, a dack, t,oifiro, 
to hear, Lat.) A Dame given to the bar- 
nacle, or pentelasmie. The lanie u Aoa- 

Anci'Lt*. > An oblong aubcylindrical 

Ahcilla.'hta. ) u n Wale I vith a abort spire, 
not channelled : tbe aperture efTuted, aad 
its base 8li|;bt]f notched. — Parkinson. 
The Bboma glabrata, or ivory ahell, be- 
longs to the geana Aneilla. 

Anjdalu'site. a maaaiie mineral of a red 
or greycolonr ; itoGcnraalBacryEtaltiaed. 
Lustre ehiaiog, glistening, and vitreous. 
Fracture uneven ; is easily broken. 
Feebly transtu cent. Specific gravity ^-IGO. 
Constituent parts, alumina 52, ailica 32, 
potash 8, oxide of iron 2. It was first 
found io Spain ; it ocmra in gneiss in 
England, Ireland, and ScoUand. 

AVBaB'oLiTK. Thus named from its hav. 
ing been first found at Andreaaberg, in 
the Hartz ; called also Harmotome, and, 
■ometimes, from the form of its crystals, 
cross-stone. Its crystals are two four- 
aided flattened prisms, terminated by 
four-sided pyramids, intersecting each 
other St riglit angles ; the plane of inter- 
aection passing longitadinally through 
the prisms. Teituro foliated. Colour 
alumina 30, barytes 
efferveacea with bora 
■alt, and is redaced to a greenish opaque 
mass. With soda it melts into a frothy 

thrown on a hot coal, it emits a greenish 
yellow light. — Thomwm- 

Andbo'oynal. ) (from dviip, and yivji, 

ANDita'avNoiTS. \ Gr.) Havingtwosexes ; 
being both male and female ; hermaphro- 
didiuil. Plants bearing male and female 
flowers on the same root are thus called. 

An«MO'kkTEk. (from aw/joi; and ^irpov, 
Gr. mAnomfire, Fr. anemometTO, It.) 
An instrument formeasaring the strength 
or veiaciCy of the wind. 

Angiosfb'huia. (from dyytiov, a recepta- 
cle, and airipua, seed, Gr. ) In the arri- 
Gciai system of Linnieus, an order of 
plants of tlie class Didynacnia. It con- 
sists of plantshaving numerous seeds con- 
tained in a seed vessel. The class Didy- 
namia is divided into two orders, Gym- 
nospermia and Angiospermia. In the 
first order, or those having naked seeds, 
the plants are mostly whotesomeand aro- 
matic. In the second, where the seeds 
are enclosed in a seed-vessel, we find the 
Digilahs, and other poisonous plants. 

Anoiosfe'buods. (mgifupffme, Fr.) Be- 

longing to the order Angioipcrmii ; hav- 
ing the seeds enclosed io a seed-Teaiel. 

Ahgio' STOMA. ) A family of univalve ahelli, 

Anqvo'stoua. i in tbe order of SiphoDO- , 
branchiata. It includes manj genera, J 
as the ConUB, Cjpr^a, Terebellum, lui. 1 

A'NGtE. {atigubi; Lat. angle, Fr. mgolo, I 
It.) The point at which two linei meet ' 

ANODi'LLiroRH. (ftom anguilla, an eel, 
and^rmii, Lat.) A term given to fishes 
having the form of an eel. 

A'kodlar. Having aoglea or comers. 

Anoitla'bity. The quality of being an- 

A'ngolablv. With angles or corners i 
in the direction of the angles. 

■ ' The quality of being an- 

L'Noni.ATED. Formed with angles or cor- 

LNGtiLi'-riB. A species of fossil nautilus. 

iHGULo'siTy. Angulated ; cornered form. 

I'NGni-oDB. Angular ; hooked. 

lngo'htatk. {angaitalvs, Lat.) Begtn- 
ntng with a narrow base, which base then 
dilates and thickens. 

inhv'dhite. Anhydrous gypsum. A 
variety of sulphate of lime, called anhy- 
drous gypsum, or anhydrite, in conae- 
quence of its being quite free from water. 
It is harder than selenite, and sometima 
contains chloride of sodium, when it ii 
called muriacite. Its colours are white, 
blue, red, and grey. It occurs both mas- 
sive and crystallised. Lustre altematei 
from splendent to glistening, and is pearly. 
Fracture splintery and conchoidal. Spe- 
cific gravity 2-S.'iO. There are sii va- 
rieties of this mineral. 

iNHv'Dttoua. (from a, priv. and Mujp, 
water,) Without water in its compo- 



malcwle,^. animatelia,\\,.) 1 
ingly small animal, scarcely discoverable 
by unaided vision, bat which, by the belp 
of themicroscopc, isfound both in solids 
and fluids. 

A'nkbhite. ParatomouB limestone, aspe- 
cies of limestone thus named after Prof. 
Anher. It is found in the mines of 

A'niuai. IfiKGDOM. The animal kingd 
comprehends beings the most diversified 
as to form, structure, and the media in 
which they live ; for in it are found some 
oi^nised to fly through tbe air, others to 
creep on the earth or burrow under iti 
surface, and others to descend into, and 
inhabit the depths of the sea. Natoral- 
ists, taking the structure of animals for 
their basis, have arranged the whole ani- 
mal kingdom under four great divisioas. 

A N I [ 

sunelj, VertebratB, MoUobcb. ArticukU, 
•nd RadiatB. 

Id the farst of these diyiBiona is in- 
■dnded man, and all those aainiulB haiing 
'the btaui and priocipal trunk of tha ner- 
" JUS ajstein euclosed in a boQj case, Or 
ivelope, fonaei by the akuU and ler- 

A N O 

:Mne. The dj 

a Ver. 


I also termed Sjii 
['toiDpnset Mammalia, Aiee, ReptiUa, 
^Amphibia, PiauBS. All these have red 
itil(»>il, a muscular heart, a mouth with 
.two jaWB, placed oas above the other ; 
«rgBns of taste, Gmell, sight aud bearing, 
placed in the cavities of the face ', never 
^^Siora than four limbs, and the seaes 
always separated. 

The SGCODd diTision, MqUuich, or Cy- 
elo-gangiiala, comprises Cepliolopoda, 
Pteropoda, Gasteropoda, Coachifera, Tu- 
nicata. lliese all possess do skeleton, 
and from that circamstaace have been 
called soft animals, or MoUusca. The 
moscles are attached to the skin ; they 
have DO articnlated members ; they pos- 
acSB a heart aud btood-veasels, and tlieir 
circulation is double. Same are destitute 
n eitemaJ coveriDg, and are called 
^^JSoUiuca nuda ; others are enclosed in a 
■lieU, and these are termed Moliusca 
ivstscea. When the shell consists of one 
^iece only, it is called uoiialTUlar j if of 
bra pieces, bivalvular ; and nben it con- 
idsta of a greater number, multivalvular. 

Til* third division, Arlictilaia, or JUp- 

'o-Neara, comprises Cmstacea. Aracb- 

lida, Insecta, Myriapoda, Annelida, Cir- 

tbopods, Rotil'era, Eulazoa. In the Ar- 

Hculala msy be observed the transition 

'Ifrom nrculation in closed vessels to nu- 

■tlition by imbibition, and the correspood- 

ing tranaition from respiration in circum- 

"" "" ' as to thateffectedbjtracbea, 

9, distributed tliroughout the 

Wdy. In the Crustacea, the nervous sys- 

ia disposed in the form of two abdo- 

■1 chorda, aud this form can be traced 

HirDugb the nliole of the third division, 

jbom Crustacea to Entozoa. 

The fourth division, Radiata, or Cydo- 

I, includes Echinoderma, Acalepha, 

Uypiphera, Poriphera, and PolygasCrica, 

se Biumals, forming the lowest in the 

e of creation, have been also called 

ioophytes. Many of them bear a great 

■emblance to plants. 

h'lidans. t (from anneWiH, a small 

riLi'DES. i ring, Lai.) Worms with 

^^^id blood, whose bodies are composed of 

ion. Professor Buck laud observes, 

Wahave abundant evidence of the early 

■d continued prevalence of that order 

f AonelidanB, which formed shelly cai- 

iTBom tubes, in the occurrence of fossil 

arly all formations, from the 

transition periods to the present time," 
The shares of the sea, the moist aaodi of well as the soils of aL countries, 
are inhabited by myriadB of worms, which 
are found to coDtain a rod-coloured fluid, 
circulatiug in veins and arteries. Tbeaa 
coQstitute the red bloody worms of na- 
turalists, the '' vers ^ sang rouge" of Cu- 
vler. The term annelida is most fre- 
quently applied to them, from their being 
surrounded by rings, extending from the 
anterior to the posterior part of the 
boAj.—Frttf. Grant. 

I'nnolis. An American animal, resem- 
bling a lizard. 

k.'NNCAi.. (from annus, LaC. annuel, Fr. 
annualt, It.) 

1. That which comes yearly. 

2. That wbicli lasts only a year, 

Fr. OBnafarto, It.) In' the form of a 

iNNDLA'aiA. A species of phalKua, of 
the geometra section. 

^'a~nulate. (mnu'iituj, Lat.) Formed or 
divided into distinct rings, or marked with 
differently-coloured annulationa ; sur- 
rounded by rings. 

k.NNULA'TioN. Circular, or ring-like for- 

rith rings ; com- 
posed of nnga. The annulose animals 
form two great series ; those without 
jointed feet, viz. vermes, annulosa, cirri- 
peda ; and those with jointed feet, name- 
ly, insecta, myriapoda, arachnida, crus- 

Anocv'sti. The incongraona assemblage 
of fossil substances, termed ecAinilei, have 
been arranged by Leske into two classes: 
the first class is that of the aaocytii, the 
vent of which is in the vertex. This class 
is arranged under two divisions, Cidaria 
and ClypeuB. 

Anodo'nta. a form of bivalvnlar mol- 
lusc, with a transverse shell, having three 
muscular impressions : the hinge plain, 
having no appearance of a tooth. 

of molluscous mnlti- 

The B 

every b 

ANo'uitu. A fossil shell of the genus 

ANOMoniio'itBQtD. t regular, and po^- 
f3oei£^Ci of a rbomboidal figure.) Agenua 
of pellucid, crystalline spars, of no de- 
terminate, regular, external form, but al- 
ways fracturing into regularly rhomboidal 
masses. Of this genus there are five 
known species, all possessing, in some 
degree, the double refractiou of the island 

1 A N O [ l( 

AnoploTbe'hr.' > tfniin SvoirXag, un- 
Anoflothe'biuu. t armed, Emd Siipiuv, 
awildbeaat.) A foseU (itinut quadruped, 
belODgiag to the order Fachyderinstn, re- 
Bembiing n pig. Five species of Anoplo- 
therium have been found in the gypsQm 
of the neighbourhood of Paris. The 
largest fAnaplotherium commune) being 
ot the Bize of a dwarf ass, vitli a thick 
tail, equal in length to its badj, and re- 
sembling that of aa otter t its probable 
me vas to aseiat the animal in BHimming. 
The posterior molar teeth in the genus 
Anoplotherium resemble those of the 
rhinooerOB ; their feet are terminated by 
two lai^e toes, like the rnminatiDg ani- 
mals, whilst the composition of their 
tarsus is like that of the camel. The 

Elace of this genus stands, in one respect, 
etweea the rhinoceros and the horse ; 
and ID another, between the hippopota- 
mus, the hog, and the camel, — Buckland. 
Cuvier baa shown that the structure of 
the hind-foot alone, is sufbcieut to prove 
that the Anoplotbeiium was of a species 
at present iiokn own. 
Ano'rual. (Bnormis, Irregular ; 

A(io'[te. The mineral to which this 
name is givea is thus called from the ab- 
sence of right angles in its fracture, which 
Eircumstance aerreg to distinguish it. It 
is a Tarietj of felspar, and has been de- 
scribed by Rose. Its specific gravity is 
763. Its constituent parts are8Ui(:a14-49, 
ttlnmina3440,limel5-6S, magnesia 5-30, 

. oiida of iron, under I. 

Akobthi'tic uelan'b-oele. a species of 
mellane-ore, called also Allanite, which 

Anta'cid. (from dvrf and acid.) Op- 
posed to sourness; of an alkaline quality i 
a remedjr for acidity. 

Aht'aqonist. {aalagonhta, Lat. anla- 
gonisle, ¥i. aniagonhla. It.) A term 
applied to such muscles as oppose, or 
counteract, others. 

ANTA'Rcric. (from dvri, agunst, and 
opiroc, the bear, or northern constella. 

1. Tbe southern pole, so called, aa oppo- 
ute to the northern. 

2, One of the lesser circles, drawn on 
the globe, at the distance of twenty-three 
degrees and a half from the antarctic, or 
south pole. 

Amib'cian. (from ^vToitoc, Gr. living 
oppoaile.) Those who live under the 
same meridian east or west, bat under 
opposite parallels of latitade north and 
aoath. The word is also written Antte- 

Antkdilii'vial. I (from ante, before, and 
Antkdilu'vian. t dilneium, a deluge.) 
I. Existing before tbe deluge. 

] » NT 

2. Relating to tbinga e:iiBting before At 

Ahtkdild'viah. One that lived b« 
the deluge. 

ANTEUv'fiiANB. (from ante, before, 
niinifuj, the world.) That existed ht 
the creation of the world. 

Ahte'nhs. (anlenna, Lat, anttntiti, ft.. 
This word appears by all leiicograpbet* 
to be given in the plural only.) ThoM 
delicate moveable boms with which tlw: 
anterior part of the heads of insects af 
furnished. These are peculiar to tU 
order of beings, and are easily distiB<i 
guished from tbe teutaculs of Terraes, im 

being crustacet ' ' " ^ '^^ 

inaecta, by tbi 

tbe mouth. Tbe anlenne rarely 
two in number, though in some 
of the apterous kind they amount t 

or even sii. Of the uses of the ai 

we are still ignorant. | 

The antennie are jointed organs, placed 
one on either side of the head between 
the angle of the mouth and the eyes ; the 
variations in their structure are Terj 
great. Those which consist of equ^ 
joints are called equal ; those whosa 
joints are dissimilar are called nnequal. 
The inequality of antennBO proceeds 
chiefly from the differing form of their 
second and last joint. Antenuce which 
consist of bat one joint are called eiarti- 
culate ; those with two joints, biarticu- 
late ; with three, triarticutate ; while 
those whose joints are numerous are 
called multiarticulate. The great ma- 
jority of antennie are completely naked ; 
others have a clotUng consisting of 
shorter or longer hair. 

ANTE'moa. In conchology, the anterior of 
bivalves is the side opposite to tbe 
hinge ; of a spiral univalve, that part of 
the aperture most distant from its apei ; 
of a symmetrical conical nnivalve, that 
part where (he bead of its inhabitant lies. 

A'CTUEB. (aa/hera, Lat. avGripA, Gr.) 
That part of the flower wbicb contains 
the fertilizing dust, pollen, or farina, 
which, when mature, it scattere. The 
anther forma the essential part of tbe 
Btamen. Anthers differ greatly as re- 
gards their figure, number, and situation. 
The most common farm of the anther it 
that of a grain of corn, oidy smaller j it 
has a crease, or line, down it, as the 
grain has, at which it opens when burat- 
Ing I this is generally turned inwards to- 
wards the aiis of the flower; bnt in 
some plants, as the cucumber, iris, rauaa- 
eulus, &c., it is turned outwards. The 
anther is generally fixed immoveably to 

of the 

ANT [ 1 

e fllamEDt being very thin, it ia movei) 
f the slightEBt BIT. The plural of anther 

raOFHV'l.LiTE. (rrbm uvBac, a Boner, 
td ^iiXXnv, a leaf. Gr.) A caiocral Do- 
ming both crystailiied and mssdve, of 
yelIo<(ish grej, or broiFnUh colour. Its 
t parts are, liUca 56'0 ; Bin. 
i mugtitaia 23-0; lime 2-0; 
ron 13'0 ; oiide of roangaueae 
— Gmelin. Specific grsYity 3'2. 
lone, iafnaible before the blow-jiipe ; 
^t with borax it yields a grags-grecii 
insparent bead. It is the |jrtsiiiutic 
iSLer-apBT of Mobs. It is found in 
VBmess-sliiFe ind in Norway. 
-H&ACITE. {froaiavBpaS.Or.mtliraa!. 
il.) A shining BubstHnce like hlacli- 
id i a speiues of mineral charcoal ; n 
il approaching to the Btate of plum- 
■D ; it consists nearly of pare caiban, 
hu^ to ignite, and has frequently a 
li-metallic luatre. The coat in the 
snsiie Goal-formation in PennEylvaoia 
called anthrsuite. because it emits but 
ttle smoke in burning ; but it ia only B. 
uie^ of common coj, containing but 
ttle bitumen, and is not the true nnthra- 
te of minerologista. Prom the same 
brcuroatance, alflo, it has become a corn- 
thing to call the Welsh coal anthra- 
Some anthracite contains !I7 per 
ent. of carbon. Hardoess from 2'0 to 
Specific gravity from 1'3 to |-B, 
AciTio, Partaking of the nature of 

4'coLiTB. The same as anthracite. 
I'coKiTE. A variety of eolcBreous 
, of K black colour, with a compact 

nctnre, of a glimmering lustre, and 

f^iich, on rubbing, yielda a anlphnreo- 
^nminoas odoor. 

EKBACOTBB'uirM. (from ivOpdaoi;. 
nd8(jpiDU,wildbeaat,Gr.) Anamegisen 
> an extinct oiammifer, thus named by 
invier, aapposed to belong to thePaeliy- 
ennats, the bnnes of which, changed 
Ito a kind of coal, have been found In 
ke lignite and coal of the tertiary strata. 
lis genua was first discovered in the 
gnile of Cadibona, in Ligiirin : seven 
Jiecies are known, some approximating 

to the size and appearance of tbe hog ; 

-^ — ipprosching that of the hippopo- 

TE. (from ivepUTTOE, a mai 
LXiSof, a stone, Gr.) A petrifactic 
the human body ; a foasQ humi 
lelon. Seteral skeletons of me 
re or teis nintilated, have been found 
the West Indies : these still r of their animal matter, and all their 
idiosphate of lime. Ooe of them may be 
•wn in the British Museum, and another 
in tbe Royal Cabinet at Paris. 

TTO/lDp^, T 

lUfl. {d^p, ..... 
from S.vBpaivoi, a man. and /lopf 4i form, 
Gr.) Having a form resembling the hn- 

lNtia'cid. Contrary to aoumeas i of an 
alluiline quohty ; remedial of acidity. 
More generally written antacid. 

/NTiCBkoNiiH. (from ai^ri, against, uid 
Xp6voi, time.) Deviatiou from the right 
order, or accoont, of time. 

lNticli'sal. If a range of hiUa, or a vol- 
ley, be composed of strata, which on the 
two aides dip in opposite direodODS, the 
imaginary line that lies between them, 
towards which the struts on each aide 
rise, is called the anticlinal oxie. In a 
row of houses, with steep roofi fiming 
the south, tbe slates represent inclined 
strata dipping north and south, and the 
ridge is an east and weat anticlinal aiia. — 

In moat cases an anticlinBl axis forma 
a ridge, and a aynclinal aiia a valley. ' 

lntimo'nial. Made of antimony ; having 
the propeitiea of antimony. 

LNTiMo'NtATE. ) A aalt fonncd by the com- 

lkti'mokite. j biuation of antimonis 
acid with a snlitiable base. 

l'ntiuont. (anlimaitie, Fr. antimonio, It. 
The derivation of this word is not agreed 
on, some leiicographers stating it to be 
from owri snd fi6vas, two Greek wordf, 
signi^ng that it is never foond alone : 
Dr. Jobason, however, on the authority 
of Fnretiere, refers it to a ludicroni story 
related of BasU Volentineia German, who 
appears to have been the discoverer of ~ 
the metal in 1G2D j it is stated that he 
was a monk, and practised as a physician, 
and having thrown some of it to the hogs, 
he observed (hat after it liad purged 
them, they immediately fattened) ima- 
gining that the eiFect on bipeds would be 
similac, he administered a like dose to bis 
fellow monks. The experiment, how- 
ever, proved rather on unfortunitte one, 
for, in conaeiiuence of the dose being too 
large, they all died of it, and the sub- 
stance thenceforth obtained the name of 
Antimoine, i. e. Antimonk.) A metallic 
ore, consisting of sulphur combined with 
the metal which is properly called aoti- 
mony. This metal is of a blaish-white 
colour, and considerable brilliancy, with 
a specific gravity of 6'712. It fuses at a 
temperature of yOO, but reqnirea a greatly 
increased heat to yolalilize it. It ia not 
malleable, being ao brittle as to be easily 
reduced to ponder by trituration, and its 
ductility ia inconsiderable. The most 
abundant oro of antimony is that in which 
it ia fonnd combined with sulphur, and 
called anlpburet of antimony. Antimony 


finely powdered, into a glass jar, filled 
liith that gQi. It unites with mniiy 
molals, Boroe of the nllojs beitig useful. 
That witli lead U used for the plates on 
■which muaic ia engraved. With tin it 
farms a Itind of pewter, and with lead and 
copper it forma printer'a type metal. 
NatLVB, or rhombohBdTBlBJitimoQf, occurs 
in metalliferons veins in primitiTe rocliB 
in Sweden, and in the mouotains of Ha- 
nover, DaupliinT, Hungary, Brazil, and 

AMTiFA'sAttKL. Lines nhich make equal 
anglcE with other lioea, but io a cootrary 
order i running in a contrary direction. 

AsTi'pATnES. The name given by Liii- 
Dieus to black coral, a genus of Cera- 

Anti'pddal. (from antipodes.) Relating 
to the conotries inhabited by the imti- 
podea; oppoaed. 

Anti'fode. (riirlwoSfe, Gr. anlipnde, Fr. 
aniipodi, It.) Although this word is 
occasionally, and with propriety, used in 
the singular, yet it is more commonly 
used in the plural number; antipodes. 

Those people who, from their situa- 
tion on the globe, have their feet oppoaed 
directly to each other. 

AN'naoATED. In cDQcbology, longitndi 
nally farrowed, but interrnpted by traus 
verse furrows, as if the shell had acquired 
new growth at each furrow. 

ANTiBB'pTtc. (fi-Dm AvTi, Bgajnst, am 
aiijrui, to putrefy, Gr.) Substances which 
prfiTent putrefaction. 

A'ntler. The horn of the atag, or elk. 

A'ntlehed. Haviug antlers, aa the an- 
tlered elk of Ireland ; now extincL 


See AatecioTU. 

a den. 

A'nthuu. (an 
antra, It.) 

1. A caverns a 

2. The maiiUary sinus, situate above the 
molar teeth of the upper jaw, 

A'nus. (atiui, Lat. aaun, Fr. ana. It.) 

1. The termination downwards of the 
intestJiiBl canal. 

2. In conchologj, a depresaion on 
posterior side near the hioge of bicalvE 

Ao'rta. iiopT^.G!.aorte,7T. aorta,] 
The principal artery of the body, which 
arisea from the left ventricle of the 1 

A'PATiTE. A genua of calcareous 
brittle earths, composed of lime 5575 
and phoaphoric acid 44'25. Apatites are 
white, greeu, blue, red, browu, and yel- 
low ; they occur both crystallized and 
massive. Fracture conchoidal and tin- 
even ; lustre reainouB. Specific gravity 
3-1. The crystals aro sii-sidol prian 
low, and sometimea passing into the si 
■ided tabu. One set of variedea, 
which the cleavage is very distinct. 

] A P H 

named foliated apatite ; another, in which 
the fracture is conchoidal, is called con- 
choidal apatite ; and Euch varieties a 
display an uneven fracture have obtained 
the name of phosphorite. The crystal- 
lized variety is found, eitremaly beautiful, 
in Devon and ComwaL. 

I'pENNTNE. Relating to the chiun of mi 
tarns called the Apenninea. 

l'penniseb. (^apennintia, IaI.) A cbun 
of monutains eitending through Italj. 
What now constitutes Uio central calea- 
reouB chain of the Apennines must for a 
long time have been a narrow ridgy pen- 
insula, branching otf, at its northern ex- 
tremity, from the Alpa near Savona. Thi» 
peninsula was afterwards raised fimn one 
to two thousand feet, by which movement 

the a 

, for s 

extent, the bed of the contiguous sea 
were laid dry, both on the side of the 
Mediterraoeaii, and the Adriatic. — 

A'pKUTURE. (from aperlua, open.) Ai- 
opening ; a chasm ; a, mouth, or entranco. 

Ape'talous. (from n, priv. and wiToKov, a 
flower-leaf, or petal, Gr. ) Without flower- 
leaves, or petals ; not having petals. 

Ape'talousness. The state of being 
without flower-leaves, or petals. 

A'pes. (Lat.) The tip or point of any 
thing ; the highest point of a liill or 
mountain. This worn makes apieet in 
the plural, and not ajiexei. 

A'PHANiTK. (from 0, priv. and paiviu, Gr. 
lucEO.) A mineral, a variety of amphl- 

Apqe'liOit. (from iiri, from, and iiXiOd 
the sun, Gr.) That point of any planet 
which is most distant from the sun ; the 
point of an orbit farthest from the sun. 

A'PHis. Plural aphides. The pnceron, 
or plant-louse. Claas Insecta, order 
Hemiptera. The numerous tribes of tliis 
family of insects are most annoying U 
the florist, and moat destructive to thi 
plants. The best means of destroying 
them is either by fumigatioos of tobaccOi 
or by watering the plants with a weak so- 
lution of the chloride of lime. Tliey ue | 
astonishingly prolific ; they live it 
OD Creea and plants, of which they ■ 
the juices with their trunk. 

A'pBB.[TB. (from rii^poc, apuma, Gr.) / , 
species of stone composed of carbonlU 
of lime, and thua named from its * 
silver- white, appcarimce. 

A'pHRiitTK, A variety of black ti 

Afbtlla'ntes. (from a, priv. f 
a leaf, and avBog, a flower.) An apetl 
tons flower) a genua of plants, '" 
Hexandria, order Monogynia. 

Afbt'lloub. (from a, priv. and f u^XmJ 
a leaf.) Without leaves i leafless. 

) The pear 


DBineil from tbe remainB of Uie animal 
a peir-like form. The Apio- 
Cundus, or Fear encrinite has 

D plcntifuUf found in tbe neighbour' 
liood of Bradford, aeir Bath, and at 
Ifeffingen, in GeniiBny. la reference to 
" is species of encrinite, Professor Buck- 
tnd thoa writes : " When lliiog, their 
;onllnBnt, and formed 
__^ t this place, orer tie bottom 

Of Uie lea, from which their stems and 
branches rose into a thick Bubmarine 
forest, compoied of these beautiful 
phytsK. The stems and bodiea are a 
rionaHy (bond united, as in their living 
stste : the arms aod fingers have ilmDet 
alwajrs been separated, but their disla- 
cftted frngmentg stiU remain, covering 
the pBTement of roots that overspretidE 
the soriace of Che subjaaent oolitic Ume- 

Afo'da. An order of Hoimsla belonging 
to the dasa Echinodermata ; division 
Radiata. The; are distinguished from 
Pedicellata by the absence of t" 
lar feet,vrluch peculiar!; belong to aoimals 
of that order. 
A'poGBK. (apogee, Ft. apogro. It. txpo- 
ganm, Lat. from dirS and -jaia, Gr.) 
That point of an orbit furthest from the 
BBitb. The apogee of the sua i 
wrt of the earth's orbit which is 
jreatest distance from the son. 
ofby'llitb. a mineral whose consti. 
«eat parts are silica SO-76, lime 2239, 
lotash 4-18, water \1-36, and a trace of 
Inoric acid. This substance ia called 
dso Ichthyophthalmite, and Fish-eye 
Itone. It occurs both massive and r 
tuhu'lf crystallized. It is found 
hred«n, in secondar; traprocks in Sec 
tai and the Hebrides, and in Iceland, 
riience the finest specimens i 

O^FHygig. (oTToauinc, Gr. apophysn, 
fl.'i A process of a bone, and part of 
he same bone ; herein differing from 
l{riph]^iB, which is a process attached to 

1 bone, and not a part of the same ' 
m excrescence. 

Fk'hdaqe. Something added to ai 
Idng, with on t being necessary I 
uenee. In botany, applied to additional 
g^gaiu of plants, vbicli are not universal 
r eonnlial ; neither is any one plant fur' 
Idled with them all. Botanists distin. 
Ulsh seven Idnds of appendages, namely, 
Qpnles, floral leaves, thorns, prickka 
mdrils, ghinds, and hairs. 

b'kqant. (from op/ienifu, Lat.) Hang- 
g to something ebe, but not forming 

itegra) pait. 

ri'KDANT. Ttiat which belongs 

another thing, as an accidental, or ad- 

Ipfe'nbicle. (a;i/Feiidiei(/o, Lai.) A small 

IPFKNDi'cuLATE. Appendiclcd, or ap- 
pended. Applied to t)owera famished 
with some addition distinct from the 
tube ; to petioles with leafy films at the 
base ; to seeds fnmished with hoolu, 

I'ppKTKNcr. (appelentia, Lat. oppelntct, 
Fr.) Tbe disposition of organised bodies 
to select and imbibe such portions of 
matter as serve to support and nouciah 

Appre'sbed. (^prtami, Lat.) In bo- 
tany, applied to leaves pressed to the 
stem : also to peduncles. 

A'ppcLSE. (eppuUiis, Let. appuUe, Fr. 
appulio, It.) 

1. Tlie act of striking against anything. 

2. Tlic approach of any planet to a con- 

A'psiDER. (aimdet, Fr. from iif-ic, Gr.) 
The plural of apiia.) Those two points 
in tbe orbit of a planet, one of which is 
the farthest from, and the other the 
nearest to the sun. The motion of tbe 
apsides maybe represented, by supposing 
a planet to move in an ellipse, while the 
ellipse itself is slowly revolving about 
the aun in the same plane. This motioa 
of the major aris, which is direct in all 
the orbits eicept that of Che planet 
Venus, is irregular, and so alow, that it 
requires more than 109,830 ;rears for the 
major ails of the earth's orbit to accom' 
plish a sidereal revolution. 

A'psia. (dific, Gr. apait, Lat.) A term 
osed indifferently for either of the two 
points of a planet's orbit, where it is at 
the greatest or ieaat distance from the sun 
or earth ; and hence the line connecting 
those points is called the line of the 
apsides. The apsu at the greatest dis- 
tance from tbe aun is called 3ie aphelion, 
and at the greatest distance from the 
earth is called the epogee i while that at 
tbe least distance from the sun is termed 
tiie perikelion, and at the least distance 
from the earth, the^eWpce. 

A'pTEK. ) (from a, priv. and Tcripov, a 

A'PTERA. \ wing.) Inaects which hava 
no wings, forming, according to the Lin- 
niean system, the seventb order of in- 
Destitute of wings ; wingleM. 

obtained from alumina. 
FV'KOua. (from a, priv. and vvp, Gr, 
apyre, Fr.J Capable of resisting the 

A Q U [2 

, AaoA'a:u9. The water-bearer, or eleventh 
Bign in tlie zodiac. A conatelladaQ nhlch 
u supposed to have obtainBil this nBiue 
from the Djjinion that its risiug brings 
with it an abnDilance of rain. It rises ia 
jBDQary aud seta in Fetjruorjr. This 
constellatioii contaios, aticording tu Pto- 
lemy and Kepler 15 stars, but accordiug- 
to Flamsted 108. 

I Aqca'tic. ~) ( a^uaticut, Lat. eqnaliqwr 
AaoA'TicAL. ^ Fr. aquaiico, It.) lUlat- 

I AttUA'Tica. 3 ing to the grater ; tbat iu- 
babita, or frequents, the nstei; that grows 
in the water. 
A'ocATiLE. (aquttfilia, Lat. aquatile. Ft. 

agKOlile, It.) See Agualic. 
A'acBODS. (aqieui, Lat. aguauc, Fr, 

aeguoao, It.) Waterj'. 
A'auEOUBNEBS. WateriBliDesB. 
Aba'cunisa. 1 (from Hpijv);tfaDd (Mor, 
AttA'CHNiDAs. i Gr.reaemblinga spider.) 
The arachuida are members of that eeriea 
of auDUlase animals posaesaiag jointed 
feet, and belong to Che third class of arti- 
culated animals. The two great families 
in the higher order of living Brachnidaoa 
are spiders and scoipious. — SucMaHit. 
In the arrangement of Cuvier, the ara- 
chuidans eaniposB the second class of 
articulated animals providod with move- 
able feet. They have no wings, and do 
not nndergo any metamorphosis, merely 
casting their skia. Tlie majority of the 
aracliuidana feed on iusects ; some are 
parasitical, living on vertebrated animals ; 
others are found in flour, in cheese, ami 
on vegetablaa. Cuvier has divided the 
anichnidans into two orders, Pulmonariie 
and Tracheariie ; the fonaer he subdi- 
vided into families, Aroaeides and Pedi- 
palpi i the latter into three families, 
Paeudo-Scorpionea, Pycnogouides, and 

1. A cobweb-like membrane, forming one 
of the tunics or coats of the braiu. 

2. One of the tunics, or coats, of the eye. 

3. A species of fossil madrepore. 
AebobeOOS. (arioreM, Lat.) 

1. Belonging to trees ; resembling trees. 

2, A term used to distinguiah such 
mosses, or funguses, as grow upon trees, 
from thuse that grow on the ground. 

Ahbohu'scenck. (from arliiireaco, Lat.) 
The likeness of a tree, freiiuently ob- 
served in crystallizations and in mioeral 

Arbour'scent. Hesemblingatree; grow- 
'■' - ■ ■ ling woody. 

An a 

any part of its circumference ; atid the 
chard, or subtense of au arc, is a straight 
Una joining the two extremities of that 

] A H G 

A'rcbbp. (arooftu, Lat.) In the fbra 

A'ncA. A transverse inequilateral shell : 
the beaks distant ; the hinge with many 
teeth disposed in a straight line. These 
are marine shells. Lamarck particnlariiet 

Aaoii£DLo'GicAL. > Relating to a disconrae 

AiicHEoLo'GicAi., \ on uitiqaity. 

Arcu^o'ldct. ) from af:>xator> ancient, and 

Akcueo'logi. i Uj'Uc, discourse, Gr.) A 
discourse on subjects connected with anti- 
quity ; the science which treats of anti- 

A'bcheitpk. {oTcUlypt, Fr.) The On- 
ginal of which any resemblance is made. 

A'acTic. ) (from af)Krac,(irsuB ; aretiifut, 

A'kctick. 1 Fr. ar/ico, It.) NorfliEm j 
lying under the arctos, or bear. 

A'rctic cibcls. One of the lesser carcles 
of the sphere, twenty-three degrees and 
twenty -eight minutes from the north pole. 
The circle at which the northern higjl 
zone begins. This and Its oppoaitBr the 
antarctic, are called the two polar drctes. 

A'rcuate. (arcHaitia.ljU.) Beut likea 
bow ; in the form of an aroh ; incurvated. 

A'acDATiLB. (arewtttilia, Lst.) Eent in 
the form of an arch ; crooked like a bow i 

Arcda'tion. The set of bending anything ; 
the state of being bent in the form of an 
arch ; curving ; bending. 

A'rcuatdhe. The curvature of aa arch. 

A'nEA. (area, Lat.) The surface con- 
tained between lines and boundaries.. 

AHE»fl'cTioK. (from BT^ncio, Lat.) The 
state of growing d^ ; the act of drying. 

A'KEfv. To dry ; to iiee from moisture. 

AaEUi'cEOuS. torenaeeiM, l^^t.) Sandy; 
having the properties, or appearance, ot 

Resembling sandstone ; hav- 
ing the quality of sandstone ; composed 
of sandstone. 

A'renoes' ( ^^^^y 5 ^1 of sand. 

Arb'n ALDUS. Full of sand ; sandy ; gra- 

Abeo'meteb. (from dpoiif, and /iirpiiii,Gr. 
areomilre, Fr.) An instrument for mea- 
suring the density or weight of any liquid. 

A&Eo'uETBT. The art of measuriiig the 
density or gravity of fluids. 

A'rqal. Crude tartar, aa deposited by 
vinous fermentaUon. 

Arqb'mtal. (from arsentum, Lat.) Coo- 
taining silver ; combined with silver.) 

AB.GENTi'FEBOiTe. (from argenlum and 
/era, Lat.) Piodndng silver. 

.^koenti'na. a genus of fishes of the 
, order of abdominales. 

Aruk'ntine. (_argenti)i, Fr.) Appearing 
hke silver ; resembling silver. 

Ahob'nttNE. Slate-spar ; a mineral of 

A R G 

MlamelUted, c 

)r slaty structure ; a nearly 
-species of carbonate of lime. 
{argilla, Lat. dpyi\XuE, or ap- 
yXni. Gr. argille, Fr. argiila, 
&.) In 1734, Margrojf shawed that the 
B of alum IB aa earth of a |iecaUar 
every other ; an 
cth which is sn eascntia! ingredient in 
Hy^ aod gives them tlieir peculiar pro- 
'- -' I. Hence tliia earth was called 
Morveaa afterwards ga 

e it is obtained 
the state of greatest purity from 

A genus of argillaceous earths. 
lEODS. {argillaeeuas, Latin.) 
Clayey; of the nature of argil ; oontain- 
ing argil. 
AflGiLLA'cEoi;B- SCHIST. Clay slate. An 
indurated clay, or shale, conimon to Che 
foEsilifuroua and metaiuurpbic series. 

i'fbrods. (from argilia aaiftro, 

Prodoeing or yielding clay. 

JTR. ArgiUaceous-EcbiBt, or olay- 

Slate is a very extensive forma- 

, Dompoiing entire maun tains iu 

■nj alpine districts. Tbe prevailing 

louia oro blnish, or greenish grey: 

H a ailky lustre. 

Ht.Lt'Tic. Conlaining argillite 1 of the 

_ < ^ility of argilliCe ; resembling argiihte. 

Aaoi'i.LanG. {argiltoima, Lat. argilleux, 

Sr. argilian. It.) Containing day; of 

the nature or quality of clay. 

AaeoHA'DTA. The Paper Sailor ; a genus 

of animals ; oIubs Vermes, order Tes- 

tBc«B> There are sBveral species, but the 

most remarkable one is the Argonauta 

lagi, or Paper Nautilus. " Doulits still 

' It whether Che Sepia found nithin this 

U be really Che constructor of it, or a 

'ic intruder into a shell formed by 

Ither animal not yet discovered. 

derip, Gray, and Sowarby, are of 

ion, that tliis sliell is constracted by 

p animal allied to Carinaria." — Baek- 

■ Cirner placed argonauta among the 
ndtgeaera of Sepia, and Dr. M'Murtrie, 
i hit translation, aays, "These mol- 
lUca are alvrays foond in a very thin 
ihell, symmetrically dated and spirally 
coavoluCed, the last wtiorl so la^e that it 
bears some resemblunoe Co a galley of 
wbjcli tlie spioe is the poop. The ani- 
mal makes a consequent use of it, and in 
calm weather whole fleets of them may 
b« observed navigating the surface of the 
wean, employing six of tbeir tenCacula 
u oars, Hud elevating the two mcm- 
bnnoDS ones by way of a sail. If the sea 
bMomc rough, or they perceive any dan- 
ger, tbe ■rgoaaaC nithdraws aU its arms, 
cDucentrales itself in its sbell, and de- 
seendu tu the bottom." 

] A R S 

/ttiD. (ariJtu, LbL aride, Fr. an'Jo, It.) 
Dry ; parched up i devoid of moisture. 

ki'dity. 1 andifof, LaC. orfdiW, Fr. 

.'ridness. i ariditi, Ic.> Dryness i the 
sCate uf being without moisture. 

emaui'llo. (armadilte, Fr.) The Daay- 
pus of Linnxus, ant! plHceil by him in 
the order Bradypoda, class Mammalia. 
Cuvier has placed tbe armadillo in the 
order Edentata, or quadrupeds having no 
at teeth, class Mammaha. The arma- 

dillo is 

of its Ibod, E 


fore feet forming instruments of peculiar 
power for the purpose of digging ; and 
presenting an extraordinary enlargement 
and elongation of the extreme hones of 
the toes, for the .support of long and 
massire claws. The armadillo and chlamy- 
phorus are the only known animals that 
have a compact coat of plated armour. 
There are several subgenera. 
Ahi'llds. ) (_ariitiis, Lat.) A substaneB 
A'Rn.. i enclosiug the seed in some 
plants : iC is either a complete or 
parlial covering of a seed, filed to its 
base only, and more or less loosely or 
closely enveloping its other parts. Mace 
is Che arillaa of the nutmeg: the red ariU 
lus of the seed of the common spindle- 
. tree is well known, and ia very ornamen- 
tal in our hedges in the autumn. 
A'bmatdbb. {armalura, Lat. armature, 

1. That by which the body is protected 
from injury. 

2. Weapons of attack, 
Abue'nian sroNK. A blue mineral, or 

earth, variously spotted. It much re- 
aembles Lapis lazuli. 
Ai[e.A'QQNiTE. A variety of carbonate of 
lime, found originally in Arragon, in 
Spain, from which circnmsCance it has 
obtdned its name. Its colours are white, 
grey, green, and blue ; it is found both 
crystallized and massive. Ic is fre- 
quently combined with a small propor- 
tion, about four per aent. of carbonate of'niatg. a compound of arsenical 
acid with a metallic oxide ; many aree- 
niates are found native ; when heated 
along with charcoal powder, they are de- 
composed, and arsenic sublimes. 

l'rbbnic. (^apaivixbi', Gr. arjenie, Fr. 
arfenico, Ic.) Native arsenic is a mineral 
found in Germany, France, and England. 
It occurs generally in masses of various 
shapes ; its colour is that of blue steel ; 
it is brittle : its surface readily tamiihes 
on exposure to the atmosphere. When 
struck it gives a smell resembling garlic ; 
before Iha blow-pipe it emits a ■((\sJU6 
smoke, burns with & \iVu\^ ftaroa, ^i:««* •■ 



A R S 

strong garlicky emeU, and deposits a white 
powder. This metal and aU ita com- 
pounds are virulent poisons. Combined 
nitb aulphur it forms orpimenC or realgar, 
OT the jrllow and red aulphureCs of ar- 
senic. The term apaiviKbv, from which 
the word arsenic is derived, was an an- 
cient epitlieC, applied to those natural 
Bulutancea which possessed strong and 
acrimonioiiB qualities, and as the poison- 
ona quality of araeuic wag fuuud lo be re- 
markablf powerful, the term was enpe- 
cisll; applied to orpiment, the form in 
which Uiia metal more usuall]' occurred. 
Dr. Paris, from whose work Che above is 
quoted, states that iu (he celebrated plague 
of London, ar.iulels of arsenic were wor 
suspended over the region of Che heart, 
a preservative against infection ; on t 
principle, BO prevalenC aC one period, that 
ail poisonous substances possesa 
erfiil and muCual elective 
each other. 
bsc'nicaj.. ConCaining arsenic. 

^ nams given by Puurcroy to 
' rmed between ojide 
lioui acid, and Che 
esrCbs and alkalies. Arsenite of potassa is 
the active ingredient in Fowler's Ague 
Drop, and in the UqQor PotassB Ar- 
seniCis of the Pharmaeopo^a. 

Aara'aiAL. (arterialis, Lat. arlerial, Fr, 
arttrinh, It.) Pertaining to an artery ; 
that is contained in an artery. 

A'bteht. (from &iip, and nipEu, Gr. 
arth-e, Fr. arteria, It. Thus called be- 
cause the ancients thought that only air 
was contained in die arteries.) Tbe ar- 
teries are strong elastic canals, which 
convey the blood from the heart to the 
different parts of tbe body, and, during 
life, are distinguished from the veins by 
their pulsation. The original trunks of 
the arteries are two in number, and from 
these all the other arteries arc derived. 

Abtk'sian Wblls. Springs of water, or 
fountains, obtained by boring through 
strata destitute of water into lower strata 
loaded with this fluid, to sometimes great 
depths ; tLus named from its having been 
first practised at Artois, the ancient Ar- 
tesinm, in Prance. In forming an Ar- 
tesian well, if the boring penetrate a bed 
containing impure water, it ebonld be 
continued deeper until iC arrives at ano- 
ther stratum containing pure water ; the 
bottom of the pipe being plunged into 
this pure water, iC ascends within it, and 
is conducted to tile siir&cc through what- 
ever impurities may eiist in the superior 
strata. The impure water, through which 
the boring may pass in its descent, being 
excluded by the pipe from mixing with 
the pure water ascending from below. 
7^ beij'ht to which these springs wiU 

! ] ART 1 

rise a)>ove the surfkce most depend aa I 
the quantum of hydrostatic pressare &oai I 
below ; this is soraetimeB very great. TIh | 
water of an Artesian well in Kansillon 
rtsea from thirty Co fifty feet above the 
surface. At Perpignan and Toor*, M. 
Arago states that Che water rushes up 
with such ejcCreme force as violently to 
eject a cannon ball placed iu the pipe. 
An eeouamical and eaey method of sink- 
ing Artesian wells has recently been prac- 
tised. Instead of the tardy and costly 
process of boring with a number of iron 
rods screwed to each other, one heavy 
bar of caat iron, about sis feet long, and 
tour inches in diameter, armed at it* 
lower end witli a catting chisel, and sni^ 
rounded by a hollow chamber, to receive i 
through valves, and bring up the detritus 
of the perforated stratum, is suspended 
from the end of n strong rope, which 
passes over a wheel or pully fixed above 
tbe spot in which the hole is made. As 
this rope is moved up and down over Che 
wheel, its tortion ^ves to the bar ofiron 
a circular motion, sufficient to vary tbe 
place of Che cutting chisel at each descent. 
When the chamber is full, the whole 
apparatus is raised ijulckly to Che surlice 
to be unloaded, and is again let down bj 
the action of the wheel. — Bncktand. 

ARTi'ctiLAK. {ttTtieularii, Lat. ariiev 
laire, Fr. articolare, It.) Belonging ti 
tbe joints. 

Auticdla'ta. One of the four great oi 
isting divisions of tbe animal kingdom 
the third in Cuvier's arrangement, the 
other three being the Vertebra ta, the Mol- 
luscs, and the Radinta. The earhesl 
eiamples furnished by geological research, 
of articulated animals, or such as belonj 
to tbe division Articulata, ore those af- 
forded by Che extinct family of Tri- 
lobites. This divisioa of the animil 
kingdom comprehends four classes : 1. 
The Annehdaos, orworms with red blood; 
2. The Crustaceans, aa the lobater, 
shrimp, &c.; 3. The Arachnidans ; 4. 
sects. In the Articulata is observed Oie 
transition from circulation in closed vi 
eels to nutrition by imblbiljon, and ^u 
corresponding transition, from reapi- 
ration in circumscribed organs to 
effected hy traeheie, or air vesBclB, ... 
tributed through the body. This third 
division of the animal kingdom has bees 
named by Professor Grant, Diplo-Neun. 
It comprises Crustacea, Arachnida, Ib- 
secto, Myriapoda, Annelida, Cirrhopodi, 
Rotitera, and Entozoa. In tbe Crus- 
tacea, the nervous system is disposed in 
the form of two abdominal uhords, and 
this form can be traced through tlitt whole 
of ttAKthird division, from Crustacea to 
Enti^ia inclusive. 

ART [ 

Jaiated ; haviag juintx j 

inited by joiatB. In botnnj, the term 

'■ ' ted is applied to IcBveai when one 

or pair of leslleta, grow out of the 

of UDOtber, wjtb n sort o( joint ; 

B divided by joints or knots, or 

[vided from Epace to space by contrac- 

:o culm with joints. 

IG. fitting by means of join tn. 
IN. (arliailalia, Lat. erlieU' 
I, Fr. arliealaiione, It.) Thejunc- 
B or joint of bones. 'ITiere are three 
Bids of actieulatinn, 1. Immoveable, 
i&lled Syoartbroeia ; 2. Moveable, or 
Diart)irosis ; 3. Mixed, or Ampbi-Br- 



1 iliee, loseinblance, Gr.) A name 

en to some of the cartilagea, glands, 

d mtuclea of the larynx. 

*HIJS. (iffaif^e, Gr. obscnroB.) A 

jpntu of Trilobites. Professor Buck- 

knd obaerveE. in writing of Trilobites, 

B Foisils of this family were lung con- 

^nded with insects, under the name of 

ptomotithus paradonns ; after many dis- 

~' la respecting their true nature, their 

e has now been fixed in a separate 

jOn of the class Crustaceans, and al. 

intirB famjly appears to have 

1 aaaihilated at so early a period as 

ition of the carboniferous 

f they nevertheless present analo- 

a of atructare, wliich place tbem in 

, IT apptoiimatian to the inhabitants 

^fiie ensting eeas. 

n'BTiNB. Incombustible ; partaking 
If tbe propertiBs of asbestos. 
ns'sTiBiTS. A species of asbestos. 
Tbi* mineral is amorphoud. Texture fo~ 
Inted. Lustre silky, 3. Specific gra- 
litr 2-mO. Colour white, with shades 
of red, yellow, blue, and green. At 150° 
Wedgewood, it melts into a green glass. 
Acsa'sroiD- A mineral, thus called from 
its memblanCB la Asbestos, tt la amor- 
pbons- Teitare foliated or striated- 
Specific gravity from '3 to 5 'JO. Colour 
olite or green. It consists of bIHcb J6, 
midB of iron 25, lime 11, oxide of 
nangBnesB ID, nugnesia 8. 
&>be'stos. ) (aafiiiiToi;, Gr. nomen lapidis, 
AlBi'sTU-t. I nnde tels Sunt, qxiic non 
cauibumntnr in igni ; a&liegte, Pr. aghcute. 
It.) A mineral of which there are several 
nrietiea, all marked by their fibrous flexi- 
ble qoatity. Asbestos is itself a variety of 
I fco rablende. It was well known to the 

made at one of its varieties, which w« 
osteemed to he incombustible. It is 
found abunJnntly in moat mountainoua 
countries, and in the isle of Anglesea it 
lies in considerable quantities bstw ecu the 
beds of serpcnrine. Altliough fire acts 
slowly on its fibres, yet it will, iu tbe 
course of time, consume them. It is 
commonly amorplioua. Tcxtore fibrous. 
Lustre from to 2. Hardness from 3 to 
7. It absnrba water. Colours white, 
green, blue, yellow, and brown. Its 
eonatituent parts are, silien SO, magneaia 
30, lime 6, alumina 1. It feela aoajiy 
or greasy. For one of its varieties, 
fleiibleasbestos, 8ee^niioHiAu». Another 
variety lias obtained the name of monn- 
tain cork, from its swimming when thrown 
into water. This variety has a strong 
resemblance to common cork. IU fibres 
are interwoven. Specific gravity from 
0-680C to 0-Hfl33. It feels meagre j 
yields to the lingers like cork, and is 
somewhat elastic. Colour white or grey. 
Its constituent parts are, silica 62, car- 
bonate of naagnesia 23, carbonate of 
lime \2, alumina 2'7, oxide of iron 2*3. 
One vaiietjr is called rigid or common 
asbestos. Of this the colours are usually 
green, and disposed in straiglit, pearly, 
rigid fibrous concretions- Soapy or unc- 
tuona to the feel. Another variety is 
known by the names of rockwood, moun- 
tainwood, or ligneous asbestos. The 
colour of this variety is brown, and ita 
general appearance greatly resembles fos- 
sil wood. 

A'scARis- ((io-iapic, Gr.) Cuvier placed 
the oscaris in the order Nematoidea, class 
Entoioa. The thread-worm, 

Asci'dia. A genus of animals found in the 
sea, adhering to tbe rocks. Class Vermel, 
order Mollusca. 

AsciTiViocs. {ascitiliat, lat.) Supple- 
mental ; additional ; not originally form- 
ing part of. 

AsR-coj.ouRED. Coloured between brown 
and grey. 

A'sDLAB. A name given to freesCooB na it 
is taken from the quarry. 

A^ipuonlbbanchia'ta. In De Blainvillc'a 
system, the second order of tbe class 
Paracepholophora Dioica, comprising the 
genera Goniostomata, Cricostomata. He- 
micyclostoinata, Ellipsoatomata, and Oxy- 

Asla'kt. Obliquely ; not perpendicularly. 
A'spEALT. ~1 (un'0aXro{;,Gr.bitDmBn,(ic- 
Aspha'ltos. y pkalle, Fr- ) A bituminous 
.\sfha'i.tum,J substance .found abundant- 
ly on tbe shores of the Dead Sea, in the 
island of Trinidad, iu China, America, aud 
various parts of Europe- Ita colour ii 
brown or black ; it is lighter than water 
oud easit;^ soluble in naphtha, hut i^vv. 

ASP [2. 

tneolnble in mter. Fracture conchoids]. 
Brittle. PpbIs Bmooth, hut not UDCtUDUE. 
Does not stain the fingers, On the sur- 
fsco of thfi Dead Sea it is found floating 
in a state of litjuidity, but eiposure to the 
air aoon readers it hard. It melts easily 
Then heated, and, if pure, bums without 
leaTiog any BehBa. 

AsPIDOaHyNOHUS. The oamE given to a 
foaail Sauroid linh from the lime Etone 
of Solenhofen. Au examgile of tliia is 
giien by FrofeEBOrBuckland inhia Bridge- 
water Ti'eatise, |>1. 27 a, fig. 5. 

Aiba't. The operation of detflrmiQing 
the proportion of preoiona metal con- 
tained in any mineral or metallic com- 
noand, hj analyzing a porcion thereof. 

A'sTAcm. (The craw-fieh, or lobster; a 
' 'STACITB. ( genus of the famiiy Ma- 
Grotna ; it is divided into four eections 
each oonaiBting of many subgenera. The 
lobster, crab, craw-fish, prawn, atid 
ahrimp are included. 

BTACUS. (from ArrraKlii, Gr. astacua, 
Lat.) The lobster or craw-flah. 

AsTi'cOLiTE. (from darQitUE and Xi'Sof, 
Gr.) Fossil or petrified craw-fish, or 

AsTe'aiA. {atteriaa, Lat. talerie, Fr.) A 
rariety of sapphire, or baatard opal. 

AsTB'niA. (fromdor^p, Gr. astar.) The 
Btar-lista, or sea-star, a genus of animals, 
clua Vermes, order Mullusoa. These 
animala have their mouth in the centre, 
and placed downwards ; from their bodies 
five or more rays, or arms, ere given off, 
famished with numerous retractile tenta- 
cnla. They have the power of repro- 
ducing their rays if destroyed. They are 
all inhabitants of the sea, and they are 
iiwqacntly found fossil, in great perfection, 
in the chalk. Some remarkably tine 
impreBstona have been discovered in flint. 
The whetstone of Devonshire affords 
similar remains. Linniena has pieced 
them in the order Pedicellata, class Echi- 

Aste'riaTbD. Kadiated. 

Abth'rialite. (fromdoTFjpandXieDcGr.) 
Fosrilized, petrified, or silicified asterias, 
or star-fish. 

'sTERiTK.T (iMtroiie, Fr. Eapece de ma- 
HTaiTC. > drepore on de corps marin, 
'sTBOiTE.J sur lequel on voit repre- 
sentee la figure d'uoe etoilE.) Star 
stone. Tins name ia given to certain 
varieties uf the perfect corundum. 
'sTKBOtn. (from dm-qp and E7itiif, Gr.) 
The namo aasigned by Merschel to some 
newly discovered planets. 

Abtbbo'idal. Resembling a star-fish. 

AaTBiiOFHY'Li.iTK. (from dor^p and fv\' 
\av, Or.) A plant discovered in the coal 
formntion, and thus named from the Blel- 

] AUG 

lated disposition of the leaves around the 

Asthe'a. a species of madrepore, 

appearance of groups of ai'rea', and other 
corals, is described as being most beanti- 
ful when viewed with the ^imals e3in 
and in activity ; looking down thcong;h 
the clear sea-water, the surface of ti» 
rocks apjieara one living mass, and Ih* 
polypi present the most vivid hnoB. 

Astsi'feboub. 1 Bearing stars ; haTing 

ASTRi'oEitaus. } stars ; carrying stvxa. 

A'sTHiTE, See Atlerile. 

A'sTRoiTE. See AsteHte, 

Ata'cauitb. Prismatoidal green mala- 
chite. Native muriate of copper, of A 
green colour, occurring both masslte and 
crystallized. It consists of oxide o( cop' 
per 7G-6,ninriatie acid 12-4, mater 11. IX 
has obtained ita name from having beelt 
fonnd in alluvial sand in the river Lipaaf 
in the desert of Atacama in Peru. It""" 
also been found in some of the 
lavas. The primitive foroi is t 
dron. It is the Cuivre muriate of Haiiy. 

Aruo'HETKa, (from drjiie, vapont, 
fiErpiu, to measure, Gr.) An inatr 
contrived by Prafessor Leslie, for 
tiuning the quantity of moisture exhaled 
Jrom a damp surbce in a given period. 

Atbaub'ntal. ) (from atramenivm, Lat) 

Atkaue'ntoub. ( Black; ink - colnnred i 

A'trous. Tfrom attr, Ut.) 

Atte'noatkd. (atleimaiui, Lat. attfitifi 
Fr.) Thin; slender; tapering. Anepl' 
thet for a leaf tapering at ' ' 


Atti'guqus. (aitigitm, Lat.) AdioininEj 
hard by. 

Attri'ie. foiiniu*, Lat.) Wombyfiio- 
tioD, or rubbing. 

Attri'tknebs. Tlie state of being 

Attbi'tion. (atlriiio, Lat. allritiim,9rii 

1 . The act of wearing by friction ; 

3, The state of being worn. 
V'tus. Terminations in bIus and lYuf, 
merely the existence of something in go- 
neral; for example, antenni ■ "-' 

im audio. Lat. 
ing IQ the parts connected with the 
of heariug, as the auditory canal, the ■ 

Yr'ciTE. (.au>'), Gr. splendour.) Afl 
neral of a dark green, brown, at bh 
colour, found in volcanic rocks. It {a t 
Pyroieoe of Uaiiy, the Paraluma au^ 
Mobs, and the augit of Weroer, Its fn 


tore IB contliDiilal and uneven. It gene- 
rally crj^talliEes in six or ergbt-sided 
Jriems, terodtiated by dtbedrsl euinmita. 
t is commonly attrnuted b; the magnet. 
Scariialy faEibls by the blow-pipe. With 
borax it meltE into a yellonisb glaEB, which 
whila hot appears red. There are many 
Tsrieties of au^te, an the Diopside. Mu- 
rite, Alolite, Sahlite, Pyragome, Fnasaite, 
Malacolite, Common Angtte, Conchoidal 
Anpie, Granniar Avigite, CooeoUte and 
Amianthna. AugiCe coueUts of silica 03, 
9 13> protoxide of iron and luangn- 
« 16, magnesia 10, alnmina !:!. 
TIC. Re&emhling augite; containing 

'no poapHv'aY, A rock with b dark 
grej, or greenish, base, containiug cry- 
Etsb of Bugite and Labrsdor felspar. 

!. Bared j having ears, as in the scsllop- 

KB'liA. The first change of the eroea, 
v maggot, of any kind of insect ; a cliry- 
olii, having a golden hue, previous to its 
becoming the perfect inssct. 
Hi'kicle. (aurimla, Lat.) 
' 1. That part of the ear which is promisCDt 
ihim the head. 

2, A cavity of the heart. Tlie heart is 
divided into four cftvities, or chnmbera, 
namely, two auriclea and two ventricles. 
Au'mcLBD. Having ears ; having appen- 
da^s reaembling ears : applied to leaves 
vhcn they are fnmished with a pair of 
leaflets, generally dietinct, but aometimes 
joined with them. 
Adki'cola. An ovate or oblong pyra- 
midal univalve, with the spire extruded : 
the opening entire, oblong, and narrowed 
npwarda ; tlie colnmeUa plicated, with 
different plicie in the opposite Up. La- 
marck has placed those ahells whose open- 
ings are Entire, but whose calnmeUffi are 
plivHted. nnder this genus, AurifMla. — 
AcBi'coLATB. Ear-shaped. 
Aobi'febovs. That which yields gold ; 

containing gold. 
Au'sironiii* (from asrii and/brnia, Lat.) 
Having the fiirm of an ear ; in the shape 
ofantar; the baliotis ia an example. 
AvsTs'itc. (aiM(ertM, lat.) Sourorharah 
~f^ to the taste ; acrid. 

Roughness or harshncBs 

pfmM.. } (auglralit, Lat. miitral, Fr. 
Ln'miiHE. ) aualrale. It.) Southern ; 

W'lf AI.1TI. Octahedral corundum. Spi- 
re of Haiiy. A variety of co- 
[taining oiide of zinc. It oc- 
n Imbedded in tale and oaeociated nitb 
I Ind'gbnce. It is crystallized in regular 

octabedrona, or in tetrahedrons with tn 
cated angles, Its constituent parts are 
alumina, the oxides uf zinc and iron, and 
silica. It has been found in America and 

lUTo'uoLiTE. See Auiomalile. 

/VALANOHa, {avatange, ou avalanche, Fr.) 
A mass of snow which, detached from any 
mountainona height, by rolling onwards 
accumulatea frequently prodigiona bulk 

ductive of the direst misfortunes, sweep- 
ing before them in their irresistible and 
destructive progress every impeding ob- 
ject ; breaking off large masses of racks, 
uprooting, or tearing away, the noblest 
trees, damming up river courses, and 
burying beneath their volumes TiUageB> 
with tlieir whole popnUtion. 

ivi'cui.A. <from.irw, Lsl.) Afreeshell, 
a little gaping near the beaks, 6xiag itself 
by a byssus, and having ils Talves of un- 
equal size! the hinge withoota tooth, and 
rather callons. The cartilaginal pit ob- 
long, marginal, and parallel to the edge 
by which it is sustiuned. — ParMTiion. 

iXE-GTONE, A mineral found In New Zea- 
land and the islands of the Pacific, and by 
the inhabitants made into axes and ath^ 
cutting instruments, from which circu 
stance it has obtained its name. It i 
sub-species of jade, and in many respects 
resembles nephrite, or oephtitic sto 
Sec Jade. 

uxi'LiA. (axilla, Lat.) 

1. In anatomy, the arm-pit. 

2, In botany, the angls farmed by tho 
stalk of a leaf with the stem. 

lxi'llahy. (ea-ltlaru, Lat. aMllaire. Ft.) 

1. In botany, applied to pednnrles when 
proceeding from the angle made by thA 
leaf and stem, or branch and stem ; also 
to Sowers, and to npikea of flowers, pro- 
ceeding fi^jm either of the above situa- , 

2. In anatomy, pertaining to the axilla, or 

3. In entomology, applied to parts wliioll 
spring from the point of union of t 
other parts. 

ixi'hitk. The thumerstein or thnmerstone 
of Werner. It has obtained the name of 
BXinite in consequence of the aie-l 
shape of its crystals. Its colours 
brown, grey, black, and blue. The name 
of thnmerstein was given ta it by Werner, 
from its having been found nenr Thum, 
in Saxony. Texture foliated. Fracture 
conchoidal. Before the blow-pipe it froths 
like zeolite, and melts ioto a hard blacfc 
enamel. It has been found sparingly in 
Cornwall, but in no other part of Great 
Britain. A specimen ausUwA "o^ ^ koj- 
qUclinWM !oiiii4 to cotiwst oi ft^iwiW 

A X I 



alumina 18, lime 19, oxide of iron 14, 
oxide of manganese 4. 
A'xis. {(urUt Lat.) 

1. The line, real or imaginary, that passes 
through anything on which it may re- 

2. In botany, the imaginary central line 
of different parts of a plant, round which 
leaves, or modified leaves, are produced. 
The stem is also so called, for this reason. 

Axo'tomous. (from a^tuv, and rkfivb), Gr.) 

A mineralogical term, signifying cleavable 

in one particular direction. 
A'zoTE. (from o, priv. and ^wj), life, Gr.) 

A constituent part of the atmosphere, 

receiving its name from its fatal effects 

on animal life. It is now usually called 

Nitrogen, which see. 
A'zoTic. Consisting of azote ; resembling 

azote in its properties ; destructive of life. 
A'zuRE-STONE. ) Namcs given to the lapis 
A'zuRiTE. 5 lazuli, or lazulite. 


Ba'cca. (baccOy Lat.) A fruit ; a berry. 

Bacci'ferous. (from bacca, a berry, and 
ferOf to bear, bacciferey Fr.) Berry- 
bearing ; that produces berries. 

Ba'culite. (from baculuSfh&t, So named 
from its resemblance to a straight staff.) 
A fossil, straight chambered, conical, 
elongated and symmetrical shell, de- 
pressed laterally, and divided into nu- 
merous chambers by transverse, sinuous, 
and imperfect septa ; the articulations, or 
sutures, being indented in the manner of 
the battlements of a tower. The external 
chamber is considerably larger than the 
rest, and capable of containing a con- 
siderable portion of the animal. The 
remains of baculites have been hitherto 
found in the chalk formation only, and 
the baculite appears to have become ex- 
tinct simultaneously with the last of the 
ammonites,, at the termination of the 
chalk formation. This fossU may be seen 
beautifully figured in Professor Buck- 
land's Bridgewater Treatise. 

Bai'kalite. A variety of augite, of a 
whitish, or yellowish white, and pale 
green colour. 

Ba'lanite. (balanites 1 Lat.) A fossil 
belonging to the genus balanus. 

Ba'lanus. {balanuSf Lat. (5dKavoc$ Gr.) 
A conical multivalve, fixed by its base, 
and composed of six articulated valves ; 
the opening being closed by an oper- 
culum, formed of four valves. The 
balani are not to be considered among 
those fossils which are frequently found. — 

The recent balanus is observed on 
rocks and shells at a depth ranging to ten 
fathoms ; and afiSixed to bottoms of ships 
and other floating bodies. — De La Beche, 
Balanus is the only genus of sessile 
cirrhipedes, the shells of which consist of 
six principal valves, except Coronula. — 

Ba'lass. I (Called also Spinel and Zeilanit 

Ba'llass. ) by Werner.) A sub-species of 
corundum; it is found in crystals of a 
ri^grular octahedron, composed of two 

four-sided pyramids applied base to base. 
Colour red. Balass is chiefly found in 
Ceylon, and the dark and black varieties 
have obtained the name Ceylanite. It 
ranks among the precious stones, and 
when of a certain size is deemed very 

Bali'stes. The file-fish; a cartilaginous 
fish belonging to the fourth class. Pro- 
fessor Buckland, in his chapter on Ich- 
thyodorulites, or fossil spines, states that 
the spines of balistes have not their base, 
like that of the spines of sharks, simply 
imbedded in the flesh, and attached to 
strong muscles ; but articulate with a 
bone beneath them. The spine of balistes 
is also kept erect by a second spine be- 
hind its base, acting like a bolt or wedge, 
which is simultaneously inserted or wiUi- 
drawn by the same muscular motion that 
raises or depresses the spine. 

Ba'lkstone. a provincial name given 
to an impure stratified limestone. 

Ba'nner. The upper large petal of a pi^pil- 
lionaceous flower. 

Ba'obal. a stone which has obtained its 
name from its resemblance to the fruit of 
the baobal tree. 


1. That which grows in place of a beard. 

2. A sort of pubescence in plants. 
Ba'rbate. ) (from barbatus, Lat.) 
Ba'rbated. ) Bearded; awned. 
Ba'rbed. Bearded ; awned. 
Ba'rium. The metallic basis of baryta, 

discovered by Sir H. Davy. 

Bark. In botany, the covering of planti, 
compdsed of woody fibres, situated abow 
the wood and under the cellular integn- 
ment, consisting of from one to many 
layers, according to the age of the plant 
or branch, an additional layer being pro- 
duced every year. 

Ba'rnacle. (The Lepas bsJanus of lin* 
nseus. Barnacle, Fr. barriacla. It.) A 
species of shell-fish, a pedunculated cir* 
rhipede, frequently found adhering to^ 
bottoms of ships in such prodigious nini* 
hers, and of so great a length, as to 

BAR [ i 

iall; impede thai progress through 
s traCer. Some very fine (pecimeiis 
i; be gecD of them iu the British 
OaeDin. The bamscle is known hy tbu 
mes Anatifer, and Pentelasmie. In 
e arrangement of Cnvier the barnacle 
placed in the siith claas, namely, 
irrhopoda. of MdIIusgb. Linmens com- 
riged them all in one getiue, Lepas, 
rhich Bmgifres divided into two. The 
ime anatifer, from the two LaCiD words 
loi and Jero, signifying duck-hearing, 
rai given to the barnacle from a ridicn- 
iiu notion, formerly entertained, that 
ley enclosed in an embryo state the 
DiiDg of the barnacle duck. Sawerb; 
ates that fossil epecimens of thie marine 
BDDS are fbund in the calcaire-groesi^r, 
r Paris, and in other similar beds. 
arktnson observes that anatifa levis 
id anatifa striata are both said by Uosc 
> be found fossil ; the latter is also said 
J Gmeliu to be sometimes found fossil, 
It that he believes neither of these 
atements to be supported by sufficient 
ithority. He, however, gives a re. 
tcsentadon of what he believes to be 
fossil bsmscle io a flint stone which he 
in the gravel pits near Hackney- 
od, and the opinion he first formed, not 
ily of its having derived its figure from 
liinal orgaoizstioD, but of its affinity 
the barnacle, received corroboration 
am different specimens which he subse- 
lently met with. Large bunches of 
iroaclee attached to pieces of wood are 
Bqneatly thrown up by the waves upon 

lOLiTE. (from I3ap6c, heavy, and 
!9o£, a stone, Gr.) Carbon ate of 
irytes. The Baryte carbonatee of Ilauy. 
arulite is found ostive, or it may be 
tifitially prepared. It was first dis- 
iTwed native by Dr. Withering, from 
horn it was named Witherite. Accnrd- 
B to the HDalysis of Dr. Withering, 
irbDnntG of barytes consists of bsryCcs 
), and earbouic add z6. It is soluble 
. dilute nitric acid. It is poisonous. It 
score abundantly in lead veins, that 
■verse a secondary limestone in Cum- 
xland and Durham, and at Anglesark, 
I Lancashire . 

LDSi'LiNira. (from ^apici heavy, and 
leuite.) Heavy spar; native sulphate 
■ barybes, or boroaelenite. The Barjte 
llpbatee of Haiiy. A mineral, fonnd 
inndBiitly in this and other canntries. 
: occara both massive and crystallised, 
be varieties of its crystals are very 

lute, grey, yellow, brown, red, green, 
*ju, and black. It consists of G6 per 
int. of barytes and ,14 [ler cent, of 
llphuric acid. Its teiture is generally 

foliated. When heated it decrepitates. 
It is soluble la dilute sulphnric acid. It 
is found in veins, in primary, traositioii, 
and secondary rocks. 
Ba'kotb. a name given to barytes by 

Morveau. See Barytn. 
BAaysTBo'piTiANiTE. (trom ^opdf , hoavj, 
and strontian.) This mineral his also 
obtained the name of Stromnite, From its 
being found at Stromness, in the island 
of Pomona. Its prindpal constitneDt is 
carbonateofslrontia, of which it eoBtsdns 
neatly TO per cent., combined with sul- 
phate of baryta and a small proportion 
of carbonale of lime and oxide of iron. It 
occurs massive, of a greyish colour eiter- 
uaily, aud of a yellowish white internally, 
Bahv'ta. -1 from &apit, heavy, Gr.) 
UA'avTE. > Barytes has been also called 
Uarv'teb. J ponderous spar, heavy spar, 
and barote. The first account of the 
properties, &c. of barytes, was published 
by Scheele in his dissertation on Man- 
ganese. It has obtained its name from 
its great apeciflc gravity, which is about 
1, being the heaviest of all the known 
earths. It was cailed barote by Morveau, 
and barytes by Kirwan. Barytes con- 
verts vegetable blues to green. When 
exposed to the atmosphere it attracts 
moisture, and when water is poured 
upon it the same appearances present 
themselves as in the slacking of lime, 
with the evolotion of great boat, the pro- 
cess being more rapid, and the evolution 
of heat greater. Barytes is found in two 
natural combinations only, with tbe sul- 
phuric and carbonic acids, forming sul- 
pliate and carbonate of barytes. Nearly 
all the compounds of barytes are poieon- 
oas, the best antidotes being dilute sul- 
phuric acid, or sulphate of soda in solution. 
Barv'tic. Contiuning barytes; resem- 
bling barytes ; having tbe properties of 

Ba'sal. Arising from llie base of some 
other part. 

Ba'salt. (Said to be derived from an 
Ethiopian word, btuot, signifying iron.) 
A variety of trap-rock of a dark green or 
brownish black colour, composed of an- 
gite and felspar xitli soine iron and 
olivine, the predominant mineral beiog 
felspar. Basalt oacurs, sometimes, in 
veins or dykes, which traverse rocks of 
all ages, fiUing up fissures or crevices, 
and at others, in layers spread over the 
surface of the strata, or interposed be- 
tween tbem. Many modern lavas differ 
BO little from basalt, tiiat it is unneces- 
sary to adduce proof of the volcanic na- 
ture of this rock. It often occurs in the 
form of regular pillars, or colnmns, clus- 
tered together ; or, in scieutilie language, 

B A S 

[ 28 ] 


also observable in some recent lavas. 
This structure is found by some highly 
interesting and philosophical experiments, 
to have originated from the manner in 
which refrigeration took place. Mr. 
Gregory Watt melted seven hundred 
weight of basalt, and kept it in the fur- 
nace several days after the lire was re- 
duced. It fused into a dark-coloured 
vitreous mass, with less heat than was 
required to melt pig-iron ; as refrigera- 
tion proceeded, the mass changed into a 
stony substance, and globules appeared ; 
these enlarged till they pressed laterally 
against each other, and became converted 
into polygonal prisms. The articulated 
structure and regular forms of basaltic 
columns have, therefore, resulted from 
the crystalline arrangements of the par- 
ticles in cooling ; and the concavities, 
or sockets, have been formed by one set 
of prisms pressing upon others, and oc- 
casioning the upper spheres to sink into 
those beneath. — Mantell, 

On examination with a lens, even the 
more compact varieties of basalt are 
seen to be composed of minute crystalline 
grains. Basalt, in enormous masses, 
often covers the primary mountain in the 
Andes, and arranged in regular columns, 
which to the eye of the traveller appear 
like immense castles lifted into the sky. 
Basaltic dykes intersect both primary and 
secondary rocks. Few countries in the 
world present more magnificent basaltic 
columnar ranges than the north part of 
Ireland, and some of the Hebrides. The 
Giant's Causeway constitutes a small 
part of a vast basaltic range, along the 
north coast of Ireland, in the county of 
Antrim. The promontories of Fairhead 
and fiorgue, in the same range, are situ- 
ated eight miles from each other: these 
capes consist of various ranges of pillars 
and horizontal strata, which rise from the 
sea to the height of five hundred feet. — 

Basa'ltic. Composed of basalt ; resem- 
bling basalt ; containing basalt. 

Basa'ltiform. Resembling basalt in its 
columnar form, or structure. 

Basa'ltic hornblende. ^ Two names 

Basa'ltine. ) given to the 

same mineral. A variety of common 
hornblende to which these names have 
been given from its having been found 
commonly in basaltic rocks. The primi- 
tive form of its crystals is a rhomboidal 
prism. It has by analysis been found 
to consist of silica 58, alumina 27, iron 
9, lime 4, and magnesia 1. Its colour is 
black, dark-green, or yellowish-green. 
Texture foliated. 

Ba'sanite. (from pdaavog, Gr. Iapi9 quo 
probatur aurumf lapis Lydius,) Lydian 

stone, a variety of schistose honistOM. 
This stone acquired its name from k» 
having been formerly used as a touch- 
stone in trying the purity of metals : it 
also was called Lydian stone, from its 
being found abundantly in Lydia. Ac- 
cording to an analysis of it, its constituents 
are, silica 75 per cent., lime, magnesia, 
carbon, and iron. 

B asilqsau'rus. The name of an enormous 
fossil reptile, described by Dr. Harlan 
of Philadelphia. Neither the relation of 
the basilosaurus to other species, nor its 
geological' position, has been accurately 
determined — Mantell. 

Base, (from basis, Lat jSaVif, Gr. 6aM, Fr. 
basa, It.) 

1. The bottom, or lowest part, of any 

2. In conchology, that part of the shell 
in univalves by which they are attached 
to rocks, or other substances .* in multi- 
valves, the opposite extremity to the 

Ba'sin. (bassin, Fr. bacino, It.) In geo- 
logy, large concavities filled with deposits, 
as the London basin, the Paris basin, &c. 
are called basins. The surface of the earth 
is covered with a series of irregular de- 
pressions or basins, divided from one 
another, and sometimes wholly surrounded 
by projecting portions of subjacent strata, 
or by unstratified crystalline rocks, which 
have been raised into hills and mountains 
of various degrees of height, direction, 
and continuity* This disposition in the 
form of basins, which is common to all 
formations, has been more particularly 
observed in the carboniferous series, from 
the beds of coal contained therein having 
been wrought throughout their whole 
extent. In consequence of this basin- 
shaped disposition of the carboniferoos 
strata a most beneficial result obtains, 
namely, that these strata, which an un- 
interrupted inclination in one direction^ 
only would soon have plunged into depths 
inaccessible to man's greatest efforts, are, 
by their being placed around the circumfer- 
ence of the basin, all brought sufiKciently 
near the surface to be attainable, and are 
thus made subservient to his benefit and 

Ba'sset. a term, used by miners, to ex- 
press an upward slanting direction of a 
vein, from below to the surface. 

Ba'sseting. Slanting upwards. 

Ba'stard. (baiard, Fr. bastardo. It) 
Spurious ; not genuine. 

Bath- STONE. A species of limestone, 
called also Bath-ooUte. This member of 
the oolite formation has been called 
the great oolite; it is of considerable 
thickness, and yields an abundant supply 
of freestone for building. It has ob« 




tained the name of oolite from its being 
composed of small rounded grains, or 
particles, supposed to resemble the roe 
of a fish. Bath-stone consists of minute 
globules, cemented together by yellowish 
earthy calcareous matter, and contains a 
considerable portion of broken shells. 
When first qusurried, Bath- stone is soft, 
but it soon becomes hard by exposure to 
the atmosphere. 

Bath-oolite. See Bath-stone. 

Batra'chia. (from fiuTpaxoct a frog, 
Gr.) The fourth order in Cuvier's ar- 
rangement of the class Reptilia ; it com- 
prises frogs, toads, salamanders, and 

Ba'trachite. (from fiarpiixeiog, Gr. 
batrachitesy Lat. ) A fossil of the colour 
of a frog ; a fossil frog ; a fossil resem- 
bling a frog, either in form or colour. 

Beach. The shore of the sea ; the 

Be'achy. Having beaches. 


1 . In conchology, the continuation of the 
body of univalves in which the canal is 

2. In ornithology, the bill, or homy 
mouth of a bird. 

3. In botany, applied to an elongation of 
the seed-vessel ; proceeding also from 
the permanent style ; also to naked 

Be'aked. Pointed ; terminating in a bill- 
like point or process ; having the form of 

Beard, (from barba, Lat. barbe, Fr. 
barbOf It.) 

1. The hair which grows on the lower 
lip and chin. 

2. In botany, a bristle-shaped projection, 
growing out from the glume or chaff, in 
com and grasses ; called also the awn. 

3. In conchology, the process by which 
some univalves adhere to rocks, &c. 

Bb'arded. Having a beard ; awned. 

?ED. A stratum of considerable thickness. 
It is desirable that the geological student 
should draw a distinct line between the 
words bed and stratum. Whenever a 
layer, or stratum, is of the thickness of 
two yards, or more, it should be denomi- 
nated a bed, but otherwise a stratum. 
There are sometimes found many dis- 
tinct strata in the thickness of an inch ; to 
denominate these as beds would be ab- 
surd. Let it therefore be kept in mind 
that the words bed and stratum are not 

Be'etle. a coleopterous insect, the sea- 
rabseus of Linnaeus. Remains of beetles 
have been found in the oolite : wing 
covers of beetles occur in the shale of the 
Danby coal-pits, in the eastern moorlands 
of Yorkshire. 

Be'etle/ To jut out ; to hang over : thus 
rocks are said to beetle. 

Be'etle-stonb. a name given to coprol- 
ites, from their falsely imagined insect 

Behe'moth. a huge animal spoken of in 
Scripture, supposed by some to mean the 
elephant, by others the ox, and by Bo- 
chart the hippopotamus. 

Be'lemnite. (from /SlXcftvov, Gr. a 
dart.) An extinct genus of chambered 
molluscous animals, having a straight ta- 
pering shell. Belemnites are found in 
the secondary formation only, the lowest 
stratum containing their remains being 
the muschel-kalk, and the highest the 
upper chalk of Maestricht. M. De Blaiu- 
viUe has given a list of ninety-one au- 
thors, from Theophrastus downwards, 
who have written on the subject of belem- 
nites. The most intelligent of these 
agree in supposing these bodies to have 
been formed by cephalopods allied to the 
modem sepia. That fossil which is 
called a belemnite was a compound in- 
ternal shell, made up of three essential 
parts, which are rarely found together in 
perfect preservation. The belemnite is 
one of the most common fossils of the 
chalk, it resembles an elongated conical 
stone, of a crystalline, radiated struc- 
ture, and is generally of a brown colour : 
some limestones on the continent of Eu- 
rope are almost wholly composed of 
them. Ink-bags, resembling those of the 
Loligo have been found in connection with 
belemnites in the lias at Lyme Regis ; 
these, in some instances, are nearly a 
foot long, and prove that the animal to 
which they belonged must have been of 
great size. The fact of these animals 
having been provided with a reservoir of 
ink, affords an a priori probability that 
they had no external shell, but recent 
discoveries decide the question ; two 
specimens having been found each con- 
taining an ink-bag within the anterior 
portion of the sheath, and, consequently, 
all the species of belemnites may hence- 
forth with certainty be referred to a 
family in the class of Cephalopods. 
Eighty-eight species of belemnites have 
already been discovered ; and the vast 
numerical amount to which individuals of 
these species were extended, is proved by 
the myriads of their fossil remains that 
fill the oolitic and cretaceous formations. 
— Buckland. BakewelL MantelL 

Bele'mno-Se'pia. The name proposed to 
be given by Professor Buckland, in con- 
currence with M.Agassiz, to a new fa- 
mily of cephalopods, to which family may 
be referred every species of belemnites. 

Belle'rophon. An extinct cephalopod, 
found in the mountain limestone^ the 

B £ R 


B I P 

shell of which was without chambers. 
Montfort placed the bellerophon among 
chambered shells ; De Blainville assigned 
their position next to Bulla. 

Be'ryl. {berylluSf Lat. herylj Fr.) A 
crystallised compound of the earth glu- 
cina with silica, alumina, lime, and oxide 
of iron. The beryl is a gem, or precious 
stone, of the genus emerald, but less va- 
luable than the emerald. It differs from 
the precious emerald in not possessing any 
of the oxide of chrome, from the presence 
of which the emerald obtains its splen- 
did green colour. The aqua -marine is a 
variety of the beryl, having a more 
transparent texture. The beryl is of a 
greyish-green colour, blue, yellow, and 
sometimes nearly white ; occasionally 
different colours appear in the same stone. 
Beryl is found in many parts of the world, 
but the finest specimens are brought from 
Siberia. Vauquelin first discovered the 
earth glucina from analyzing the beryl. 

Bb'ryx Lewesie'nsis. a fossil fish dis- 
covered in the Lewes chalk quarries, of 
the length of twelve inches, greatly re- 
sembling the dory, and, by the workmen, 
called the Johnny Dory. This is the most 
abundant of the Sussex ichthyolites ; its 
scales are very frequent in all the pits of 
the South Downs, as well as in those of 
Surrey and Kent. — Mantell, Cuvier 
places the beryx in the family Percoides, 
order Acanthopterygii. 

Be'ryx ra'dians. a fossil fish from the 
chalk-marl, of the length of seven inches. 
This, like the Beryx Lewesiensis, last de- 
scribed, belongs to the family Percoides, 
order Acanthopterygii. 

Bia'noular. ) (from his and angulus^ 

Bia'ngulous. S Lat.) Having two angles. 

Bia'ngcjlated. Having two angles or 

Bica'psular. Having two capsules, or 

Bici'piTAL. ) (from dtcejfff, Lat.) Having 

Bici'petous. \ two heads. It is a term 
applied to muscles, which have two dis- 
tinct origins. 

Bico'rnous. {bicomiSf Lat.) Having two 

Bico'rporal. Having two bodies. 

Bicc'spiD. (from Ms and cuspiSf a spear, 
Lat.) Two-pointed; two-fanged. 

BiDE'nTAL. "^ .,., T i. \ XT • i. 

Bide'nted. U^f^»Lat.) Havmg two 

Bi'dentatedJ *®®'^**- 

Bie'nnial. {biennis f Lat.) Enduring 
throughout two years and then perishing ; 
plants which do not bear flowers and seed 
till the second year, and then die. 

Bi'riD. } (from bifidis, Lat.) Cleft, 

Bi'fidated. S or cloven, into two ; open- 
ing with a cleft ; two-cleft, but not very 
deeply divided. 

Bifa'riohs. (bifarhu, Lat.) Parting in 
opposite directions. 

Bi'furcatbd. (from bis and Jurea^ Lat) 
Divided into two heads or branches; 

Biturca'tion Division into two parts, 
as in a fork. 

Bioe'minatb. In botany, applied to a 
compound leaf, having a forked petide, 
with several petioles, or leaflets, at the 
end of each division. 

Bila'biatb. (from bis and labium^ a lip, 
Lat.) Two-lipped ; furnished both with 
an outer and inner lip. 

Bila'tbral. (from bis and latus, ride, 
Lat.) Two-sided; having two sides. 

Bi'ldstein. (from bildf shape, and stein, . 
stone, German.) A massive mineral widi, 
sometimes, an imperfect slaty stnictare. 
It is also called agalmatolite. ByM. 
Brongniart it has been named steatite 
pagoddte, bnt it is wanting in magnesia, 
which is present in all steatites. 

Bill. The beak of a bird. 

Bi'lobed. I (from bis and lobus, Lat) 

Bilo'batb. S Divided into two lobes. 

BiLo'ccjLAR. (from bis and loculus, Lat) 
. Two-celled ; divided into two cells. 

Bima'roinatb. In conchology, famished 
with a doable margin as far as the 

Bi'manous. (from bis and manuSf Lat) 
Two-handed ; having two hands. 

Bi'nary. {binaHus, Lat.) Arranged by 

Bi'nate. (from binus, Lat.) Two and 
two ; by couples ; growing in pairs ; a 
fingered leaf of two leaflets, inserted at 
the same point, precisely on the summit 
of the petiole. 

Bind. Called also clunch ; a name given 
to the sou on which the coal strata rest . 
An argillaceous shale, more or less inda- 
rated, sometimes coloured black by bitu- 
men, and sometimes intermixed wifli 
sand resembling sandstone, but generally 
decomposing into a clayey soil on ejqM- 
sure to the atmosphere. — BakewelL 

BiNo'cDLAR. (from binus and oculus, Lat) 
Having two eyes. 

Bi'pARous. (from bis and pariOf Lat) 
Bringing forth two at one birth. 

Bi'pARTiTE. (from bis arnd partittis, Lat.) 
Having two correspondent parts ; an e|H- 
thet for the corolla, leaf, and other parts 
of plants, when* divideid into two coP- 
respondent parts at the base. 

Bi'pED. (from bipeSf Lat. bipeds, ft* 
bipede, che ha due piedi, It.) Any animil 
having two feet only. 

Bi'pBDAL. (bipedal, Fr.) Having two 

Bipe'nnate. ) (bipennis, Lat.) Hafing 

Bipe'nnatbd. S two wings. 

Bipe'talous. (from bis, Lat. and TreraXoVf 


».) Conilsting of two flower leaves ! 
(■vii^ two petals. 

'-' •■"linnaium, Lot.) Donbly 

rd to a cotopound leaf, 
tiling a cammoii pcdule, ivliich prudur;es 
'" O partial ones, upon wtdcli the leaflets 

■ Mrted. 
_, d'TiFiD. Haying pinnatifid leayen 

on each side the petaile. 
Biha'dijlte. ) l^f^om Ha and radialta, 
Biiia'diatkd. ) Lat.) ConsUting of two 

ouBo'iDAL. HaiiDg a surface of 
Ive I'liombiB fai^es. 

•TKATE. (from Haul and roslrum, 
■..) HaTing a tiro-beaked prominence ; 

BTRiTBS. A foasil bisalte with ooni- 


lUTH. (bumvl, German, liiswiilA auJ 

mt, Fr.) A metal of a reddish-white, 

oreim colour. It is neither malleable 

■ ductile, its speciflc gravity is 9B, it 
ea at a temperature of 47S Kalirenbeit. 

hardneis it is intermediate betneen 
d and Bilver. Bismuth unites 
tt metals, rendering them generally 
TCfiiaihle, andin eome cases remark- 
.; ui. Eight parts of bismuth, fiie ol 
d, and three of tin, constitute wliat hai 
an called Sir]. Newton's fusible metal. 
dtich liqae6es at the temperature of boil- 
tg water, 212°, and may be fused ovei 
lu flame of a eandie in a piece of stiif 
Bismuth was discovered ii 
IjparC of the siiteentb century, und is 
''" A by Bermannus. It occurs in 
in primitive roaks, as gneiss, granite, 
date, and clay-slate, in Saxony, Bo- 
, Prance, Sweden, and Cornwall. 
rart of bismuth with live of lead and 
of tin form the soft solder used by 
nnerera; it is also used in the n 
etore ot printer's types. It is n 
impound of two parts of bismuth, < 
id, one of tin, and four of mercury, the 
B being fusible at a teoiperature 
r that of boiling water, tbat glass 
^bei are silvered on the inside ; a piece 
-' this compound being placed within 
e globe, tiie latter is plunged into hot 
iter, the metallic compound readily 
elts, and the globe being turned ronnd, 
e fluid metal is spread over the internal 

] BIT 

its bach gibbous ; mane long; tail abont 
B foot in length, and naked, eicept aome 
hairs at the end. Immense herds of bi- 
sons are often seen in South America, and 
Mr. James states that in one place on the 
hanks of the Plata, he saw ten thousand 

Bisu'LCOtia. {bisKleus, Lat.) Cloven- 
foofed, as the ox. or the pig. 

Bite'bsAtk. i,titenial«m, hat.) A term 
given to compound leaves when the com- 
mon petiole divides into two, each of 
which bears three leaflets. 

BiTu'uB, ) {biiumen, Lat. iifume, It. 

Bi'iDSEK, i bitume, Fr. malitre ligtdde, 
^aisie, noire ei b^anaaable, qui tt Inatte 
datia U aein de la lerre, et daat on prilend 
qu'tm te.aertoil aalrrfoia on tim de ci- 
menl.) The term bitumen is applied to 
a namber of inftammable substances found 
in the earth, or issuing from the earth's 
surface, and these are known under their 
names of naphtha, petroleum, mineral tar, 
mineral pitch or maltha, asplislt, elastic 
bitumen, jet, mineral coal, amber, and 
mineral tallow. These, however, may 
perhaps be more correctly called bitumi- 
nous varieties. Bitumen is a substance 
of a peculiar kind, seeming to partake 
both of an oily and resinous nature, and 
is foond either buried in, or proceeding 
from, different parts of the earth, in dif- 
ferent stales of consistence. Bitumen is 
composed of carbon and hydrogen. It 
appears that formerly bitumen was gene- 
rally ased instead of mortar, and authors 
suppose that the tower of Babel, the waits 
of Babylon, of Sodom, and other places, 
were built of bricks cemented together by 
bitumen, and that the ark of Noah, and 
the vessel of bull-rushes in which Moses 
was exposed, were coated with this sub- 
stance. Bitumen, when fluid, hag been 
called by some Latin writers, oleum vi- 
vum. Lyel! says that tbe tar-like sub- 
stance, which is often seen to ooze out of 
the Newcastle coal when, on fire, and 
ikes it cake, is a good example 

Resembliug bismuth ; con- 
taining bismuth. 

' [ic. Containing bismuth. 

(Alton, Fr. biaaH, Lat.) A large 
Irild untameable herbivorous and grega- 
animal, ofteu confounded with the 
o. The bison has a large fleshy 
iberance, or hunch, growing upon 
top and between the shoulders; iti 
II are short, black, and bent forwards 


of bits 

will be separately described under their 
different names. — Parki«aan. LyaU. 

Bitc'minated. (bitnminalot, Lat.) Pre- 
pared with bitumen ; impregnated vrith 

BiTUMiMi'rEBOoa. Yielding bitumen; 
containing bitumen. 

JiiTu'uiNisB. To prepare with, or Doat 
with, bitumen. 

BirtiMiNiBA'iioiJ. The preparing, or im- 
pregnating, with bitameu, 

BiTo'MiNotFs. {6ilumiHoa«ii, Lat.) Con- 
taining bitumen ; having the nature and 
qualities of bitumen. 

Bitd'uinohb SHM.¥.. N.ivMglaacwivv4*wi«i 




much impregnated with bitumen, which 
is very common in the coal measures. — 

Bitu'mingus springs. We are informed 
by Mr. Lyell that springs impregnated 
with petroleum, and the various minerals 
allied to it, are very numerous, and are, 
in many cases, undoubtedly connected 
with subterranean fires. The most pow- 
erful yet known, are those on the Irawadi, 
in the Burman empire, which, from one 
locality, are said to yield 400,000 hogs- 
heads of petrdleum annually. 

Bi'vALVB. {bivalviSf Lat. bivalve^ Fr.) 
An animal having two valves, shells, or 
shutters, as the oyster, muscle, &c. 

Bi Valve. ^ Consisting of two valves 

Biva'lvular. > or divisions ; having two 

Biva'lvous. J valves, or shells. 

Black chalk. A clay of a bluish black 
colour, extremely soft, a quality which it 
owes to the presence of about twelve per 
cent, of carbon. That most esteemed is 
found in Italy and Germany, and takes its 
name from those countries respectively. 

Black-jack. A name given by miners to 
a sulphuret of zinc. See Blende, 

Black-lead. The substance about to be 
described has been thus named from its 
leaden appearance, or general resemblance 
to lead, but it does not in fact contain a 
single particle of lead in its composition. 
It is the same as plumbago and graphite. 
Black-lead is a compound of carbon, with 
a small portion of iron, and some earthy 
matters. It is of a dark steel- grey co- 
lour, inclining to iron -black ; it occurs 
regularly crystallised ; in granular con- 
cretions ; massive and disseminated ; 
it has a greasy feel, and blackens the fin- 
gers, or any other substance to which it is 
applied ; it is infusible, and burns with 
much difl5culty. According to Vauquelin 
its constituent parts are carbon 92*0, 
iron 8*0 ; but according to Allen and 
others, it contains only five parts per 
centum of iron. Its nature was first in- 
vestigated by Scheele, who, by combus- 
tion, converted neai'ly the whole into car- 
bonic acid gas, the residuum being oxide 
of iron. Black-lead, or carburet of iron, 
is used for many domestic purposes, but 
its principal use is in its manufacture into 
black-lead pencils. It is found in the 
primitive, transition, and secondary rocks. 
Anthracite resembles and appears to pass 
into plumbago, or black-lead; common 
coal, also, according to Bakewell, some- 
times graduates into plumbago. 

Black-wadd. An ore of manganese, used 
as a drying ingredient in paints. 

Bla'tta. {blattOf Lat.) The cockroach, 
placed by Linnaeus in the second order, 
Hemiptera, of the seventh class, In- 

Blende, (from blendent Germ, to dazsle* 
or blind.) Sulphuret of zinc ; a metallic 
ore whose constituent parts are zinc, iron, 
sulphur, and a trace of quartz- Blende 
is called by the English miners black- 
jack. The primitive form of its crystals 
is a rhomboidal dodecahedron ; there are 
several varieties known, as (brown blende, 
yellow blende, black blende. 
Blood-stone. Hematites ; a variety of 
agate to which the name blood-stone 
has been applied from some absurd 
notion of its efficacy in restraining he- 
Blue-john. a name given by the miners 
to fluor spar ; called also Derbyshire 
spar, in which county it occurs in great 
abundance. It is manufactured into 
vases and ornamental figures, being ca- 
pable of being turned by the lathe. Bake- 
well, in describing the blue-john, or 
fluor spar mine near Castleton, in Der- 
byshire, observes, " the crystallisations 
and mineral incrustations on the roof and 
sides of the natural caverns which are 
passed through in this mine, far exceed 
in beauty those of any other cavern in 
England ; and were the descriptions of 
the grotto of Antiparos translated into 
the simple language of truth, I am in- 
clined to believe it would be found in- 
ferior in magnificence and splendour of 
mineral decoration, to the natural caverns 
of the fluor mine. 
Blue vitriol. Sulphate of copper. 
Bluff. Any high head-land, or bank, 

presenting a precipitous front. 
Bog. {bofff Irish, soft.) A kind of mo- 
rass, too soft to bear a man's weight, and 
partly composed of decayed vegetable 
BoG-iRON-ORE. ) Iron ore peculiar to bog- 
Bo g- ore. S gyland. Mr. Lyell ob- 
serves, ** at the bottom of peat mosses 
' there is sometimes found a cake, or pan, 
of oxide of iron, and the frequency of 
bog-iron ore is familiar to the mineral- 
ogist. From what source the iron is de- 
rived is by no means obvious, since we 
cannot in all cases suppose that it has 
been precipitated from the waters of mi- 
neral springs. It has been suggested Chat 
iron, being soluble in acids, may be dif- 
fused through the whole mass of vege- 
tables, when they decay in a bog, tm 
may, by its superior gravity, sink to flw 
bottom, and be there precipitated so as t0 
form bog-iron ore. Dr. Mantell ob- 
serves, ** the formation of what is termed 
bog-iron ore, found in marshes and pett 
bogs, is supposed to have been derived 
from the decomposition of rocks ortf 
which water has flowed ; but the obsert* 
ations of Ehrenbergh, seem to indictts 
a different origin.*' 

a o L 


^KttR'fDs. A genus of mushrooms, of tltc 
" order Fungi. 
BoLo'sNA 9TONK. ) A Taricty of Bulplute 

Bold'gnian stone. 1 of buytEB, p09- 

1 (easing phoEpbDric properties. Tbcse 

JiropertiEa were first discovered accident- 

^7 by Viceozo Casciarolo. an Italian 


a'cig. Pertaining to bonu ; conlaioiug 

^'cic ACID. A oomponnd of boron 
id oijgen, conlMning about 26 per cent, 
r boron and 74 of oxjgen. It ia found 
Itivo OB tbe edges of certain hot mineral 
iring* in ItaJy. It occurs in scaly 
•aata, or small pearly scules, and mas- 
»e. HombBrg «aa the discoverer of 
iracic acid. Boracic acid may be ob- 
liTied by adding to a solntion of borai 
lalf its weight of snlpharic acid. Tlie 
Sauolin hsa been applied to boraclc 
id from its presence in die hot springH 

LACiTT. Borate of magnesia ; a com- 
nadon of boracic acid with magneaian 
Boracite is found imbedded in 
_. m, in Hanover and Holstein ; its 
Mlonre are white and greyish ; it is getie- 
■ cobic form, and possesaeB, when 
iMted, strong electrical properties. Ba- 
ste of magnesia may be artificially ob- 
Before the blon-pipe boracite 
emits B greenish light, and is con- 
•erted into a yellowish enamel. 
t'oATE. A combination of bnracic acid 
Irith &nj saturated hasp ; a salt formed 
by the combination of any base with the 
ICid of boria.~~Parlctl. 
'«AX. (ioroj:, Lat. fioraa:, Fr. Jorace, It.) 
Sobborate or borate of soda ; a salt of soda 
1 of the alkali with boracic add. 
is prepared artifiaially by purifying the 
^tural borate of soda, a mineral found in 
t, where it is held in solution in the 
ijlTaten of a lalie, which also contsini com- 
mon salt. Borai in its impure state is 
9 purified by caici- 
I, solution, and crystallization after 
a importation. " 


a tbeai 

<m of many metals, especially in assay- 
ig; It ia also used in medicine. Accord- 
tg to BerzeliuB, burajt oonsiata of soda 
6-31, boracic acid 36-59, water 4?-I0. 
a states the proportions to be 
acid 34, soda 17, water 49 ; and 
irwan gives, as his aualyais, boracic 
id34, sods 17, water 47. 
■. A violent rush of tidal water. 
ION. The nndecompoaable base of &o- 
, aid acid ; this may he obtained by 
teatjng In a copper tube two parts of 

potassium with one of borscic acid pre. 

viously powdered and fused. 
Bo^s. {lioiitt. Ft.) a protuberani 

swelling: a kind of knob or stud. 
Bossnn. Knobbed or studded, 
Bdturode'nd&on. (from jiaBpog 

iivcpar, Gr.) An extinct genus of 
' ;longing to the coal ft 

rid pre- 1 


,t fur- 

-ed with dots. Scars of cones. 
obliquely oval. The stems are marked 
witb deep oval or circnlar concavities, 
which appear to hate been made Tip by 
the bases of Urge cones. These cantiei 
are ranged in two vertical rows, on 
opposite sides of the tnink, and in some 
species are nearly five inches in diameter. 
—Prqf. Bwtlaad. 

Bo'TttvoiD. ((from jSdfpuc, a bunch of 

Boyavoi'D*!.. ( grapes, and iitot, form.) 
Resembling a bunch of grapes ; clustered 
lite grapes. 

Botbt'olite. (from ^drpuc, a cluster of 
grmpes, and Xi'Soc, Gr.) Grape-stone ; 
a variety of prismatic dutolite, occnrring 
in mamillary concretions. 

BoVkt-coal. a name given to wood-coal 
from its having been found in abundance 
at Bovey Heathiield near Exeter ; called 
also brown-coal. In wood- coal we may 
almost seize nature in the act of maldog 
cool, before the process ts completed. 
These farmations of coal are far more 
recent than those of common coal, and 
have been referred to tlie first, or Eocene 
period of the tertiary formations. Heat 
and pressure appear to be roqulrBd to 
convert wood-ctral into mineral coal. 
Bovey-coal contains carbon r7'10, oiy- 
gen I9'35, hydrogen 2-54, earthy parts 

Bou'ldeb. ) Large fragments, or rounded 

Bo'wLDEa. t masses of any rock found 
lying on the surface, or, sometimes, im- 
bedded in soil, and differing from the 
rocks wbn« they are found ; tliese Aug- 
ments or outlying boulders, are of no 
determinate sise, they are supposed to 
have been transported by the force of 
water, and are occasionally found at very 
great distances from their parent locka. 
The mass of rock on which is placed the 
statue of Peter the Great at St. Peters- 
burgh, is a detached block of granite, or 
a boulder, forty-two feet in length, twen- 
ty-seven feet broad, and twenty-one feet 
high, and was removed from the Gutf of 

BaACUBLv'THA. A family of coleopterous 
insects, having but one palpus to the 
masillte. It comprises only one genns, 
namely StaphylinuB. 

Bra'ctka. (bractea, Lai.) In botany, a 
lenfy appendage to the flower or stalk, 
differing from the other leaves of the 



pluit in form or calonr ; the floral leaf. 
Bracleffi -vary greatly in appearance i most 
commonly tbey are green and herbacectUB, 
The leaf, in the asilla of which a fiowcr- 
bud is produced, is called a bractea. Tike 
most remarkable sort of bractea is that 
called apaChe ; the spathe or bractea of 
many flonera la membrnnous. Whentnn 
□r more bracIeK, instead of appearing 
singly on the principal flower- Htalk, 
opposite, or vertidllate, they form 


. (from i™ 

I, Lat. 

1 they I 

T of 

thrusting out of or dra 
■t pleasure. Tbie clasa, or family, com- 
prises three geiiera, Orbicula, Terebra- 
tula, and Lingula. Lamarck plaoes hra- 
ohiopoda in the order Monomyaria. 

Bracuio'poiioi.<3. Having arms iii the 
place of feet and le^B ; belonging to the 
class brachiopoda. 

BaASl'pODA.. Sloir-mOTing animals, with 
their bodies generally covered by a liard 
crust. Some want (he incisor teeth ; 
others want tbe incisors end cuspidati ; 
in others, the jaws are destitute of teeth. 
Placed by Linntens in the class Mam- 
malia, and composing the third order. 
The order Bradypoda includes the genera 
Bradypna, or Sloth, Mermecopbsga, 
Ant-eaters, Manis, Scaly Liierd or Ban- 
golin, Dasypus, Armadillo, Oroithorrhyn- 
cbus. Duek-biUed aaimal. 

Bba'dypuh. (^paMirout, Gr.) The sloth, 
a genns of the order Bradypoda, class 
Mammalia. These animals have no fore- 
teeth ! they have six grinders in either 
jaw 1 and theii- bodies are covered with 
hair. There are several species. 

BnA'NcBtA. (from /Jpayx'"! Gr.) This 
word is rarely used substantively ; it 
makes branehiEe in tbe plural. Branchiie 
are fllaniBotous orgaoB for breatbiiig in 
water; gills. 

brac/iial, Fr. del braceia. It.) Bel 
to Che arm. 

Bka'chiate. (brachia/tii, Lat.) 

ranked ; applied to slenis, when they 
divide and spread in four directions, 
crossing each other. 

BRAHcar^EitA. In the eonchological sys- 
tem of De Blaioville, we find branchifera 
placed in the order Cervicobranchiata, and 
it comprises three genera, namely, Fia- 
siu'ella, Emarginula, and Parmophorua. 

Bbachio'podA. (from tipaxif", an arm, 
and iroiie, afoot, Gt.) Animals having 
arms instead of feet. The braehiopoda 
are all bivlaves. Tbe braehiopoda, as 

S laced by Cnvier, form his iifth class of 
loIlascB I like the acephals, the; have 
an open bilohed mantle. Instead of feet, 
the braehiopoda have two fleshy arms, 
which are furnished 

Gill-footed; belon^Bfl 
to the order Braocbiopoda. 
.nASca.o'BTEtii. (from ppdyx^a, ^ 
and ariyoi, or ariyr], a covering-) A 
term used to eipress one of the order! of 
fishes, the characters of which are, that 
the rays of the fins are of a bony snb- 

iviug tha cbarac- 
I of the braiichiostegi ; belon^g to 
order Branchiustegi ; hariDg the gilll 

le cancer stagnaUs of I 
imal belonging to tbs , I 
ig the legs reduced to 1 

ipiratjoo with those 

tion. In the brancliipus, we find i< 
tennte, but no cniataceous legs. Tlie 
soft branchiiE of brancMpus perform '' ~ 
doable office of lungs and feet. 

Brau'nitb. (The Brachytypes mangaii- 
erz of Mohs.) A mineral of a bnwoisli 
black colour, occmricg massive and crys- 
tallized, cansisting of protoxide of man- 
ganese 8; per cent, ; oxygea 10 per 
cent. ; baryta 2-3(l per cent ; and walet 
nearly 1. It has been thus named after 
^r. Braun of Gotha. 

Bbe'ccia. (Ital.) Any rock composed o( 
angular fragments cemented together. 

Bkk'cciated. Composed of angular frag- 
ments united into a mass by cement. 

Brei'si.Akiik. a Vesuvian miooral, thiia 
named after Breislak. 

Bri'li-iant. (briUant. Fr, bHttaHte, 
A diamond cut into angles, by which the 
rays of light are refracted, and a greater 
brilliancy is obtained. 

Bki'mstonb. a name for sulphur, s-tikli 

Bhi'ndbd- In conchology, streaked. 
Bbi'ndled. Spotted ; variegated ; streaked, 

Bttl'sTOL-BTONB. ) Hock-CrjStal, Of CTJ!" 

Bm'BTO I- DIAMOND. ^ tallized quarts. T«; 
fine specimens are found in the roclis 
near Bristol, and these have thence sli- 
tained the name of Bristol diamoodi. 
They are pare silica, crystallited in lii' 
sided prisms, terminated by sii-sidel 
Brq'ub. )(from/3piu/ioe,Gr.) A simple, 
Bro'hine. t or elementary substance, being 
nan- metallic. Bromine has obtainei' ' 
name from its powerful and unplea 

Bho'ntia. (from 3povnj, Gr. tUundtr; 
from its being Bupposed that these foasiU 


Io'nzite. a minfral caUed bj Werner 
Blittriger »utho]ilijllite. aai bj Haiiy 
IPialtsge tuetalloide. It haa & yEUovish 
'irown colour, with a semi-metallic lustre. 
it in found in serpeutiue la SUetUnd and 
n Upper Sciria, and in greeastone in 
lUny Dthsr places, According to Klap- 
«tli, it conaiEta of. silica HO ; mag- 
ledB 27-5 ; oxide of iron 105 ; wa- 
«er U'5. 

TN-cOAln A freah-water formation of 
; tertiary aeries, but to which sub- 
daioD of the tertiary period it maj 
belong is CDaaidered uncertain b; Mr. 
Xyell, &om the eitreoiE rarity of Bbella 
* ' ' it. ProfeBaor Buckland atatea. 
le parta of Geiinany this brown, 
jpoal occura in strata of more than thirty 
|bet in thickness, chieSy composed of 
trees which have been drifted, apparently 
1^ fresh water, from their place of 
Ejgrowth, and Bpread forth in beda, usually 
alternating with pand and rlay, at the 
aottora of then existing lakes or es- 

ITE. Called also Chondrodite and 
niprismatie Chrysolite. This mineral 
named Bracite, after Bruce, an 
^^, cricon mineralagiat ; it occuri maBBiTe 
Mod in amall grains ; coIodts from a pale 
fellow to a brownish red ; it possessea a 

^VTi. , lustra, ia transluceat, with a 

1 imperfectly conchoidal. It con- 
Mag a amall portion of fluoric acid, and 
Mretchea glass. It is fonnd in Aintrii--a, 
Scotland, and Finland. It consists of 

iMgDesia, silica, fluoric acid, about four 

tTv cBDt. oiide of iron, potash, and 

Bdca'bdiuu. An acephalous bivnlFf, hav- 
ing powera of locomotion. 
Bc'ccjKOM. {iHcriiww, Ut.) Thewlielk. 
lUte elongated univalve ; opeinng 
J, notched in the lower part, and 
. 1 no canal ; columella convex, full 
d naked. — Parkituon. 

cna places this genus, the Bucci- 

r Wbelk, in the order Gastero- 

Bs Molluscs: it comprises all the 

! fnmiBhed with 

3 the left, a 

wliich ti 

a deatitnte of plicie. Many 
J species have been dlscoreted, tlie 
' it number in the crag ; some in the 
on-clBf ; Gil species have been 

] B Y S 

found in the environs of Paris. De 

Blainville placaa the buccinum in the 

family Entomoatomata. 
3i-'cciNiTE. The fossil remains of the 

iuccinum. Tiio greater part of tlis 

genoB buccinum ia littoral. 
Iuccinoi'da. The third fomily in the 

order Pectinibranchiata, division Mol- 

Jp'fonltk. (from iitft, hut.) Foasil 
teeth of fiahes belonging to the family of 
Pyenodonta ; they occur in great abun- 
dance throughout the oolite formation. 
These bufonites have been also called 
Serpent's- eyes, Batrachitea, and Crapau- 
dinea, from the nodoD of their having 
been formed in the heads of aerpents, 
toada, and froga ; and. from preBmned 
virtnea wliicU it was thought thej pos- 
sesaed, they were worn in rings and aa 

Iv'lla. An ovate, gibbona, fljid oylindri. 
cal univalve; the fossil occurring in ter- 
tiary formations : the spire not standing 
out, but concealed : the opening the 
length of the shell : the lip ncnte. The 
recent bulla is marine, and found in sands 
and saudy mud. at depths varying to 
twelve fathoms. — Parkinson. De la 
Beeie. * 

lu'i.i.iTK. The foaail remains of the 

!u'llate. Of a blistered appearance. 

^u'liuus. a foBsU ovate or oblong snb- 
turreted shell : the opening entire, ob- 
long, and longitudinal, and this ii the 
chief characteriatic of thia genus. The 
bulimss ia a land shell. — Parjtiruoti. 

Sunt. In conchology, an increaaing 
cavity; a tunnel. 

Idrbh-stoni!. This word is sometimea 
written huhT-iltmt. Mill-stone. The 
Enbatance of burrh-stone, or mill-stone, 
when unmined is pure bUbi \ it baa gene- 
rally a reddish or yellowish colour, bnt 
that of the best quality ia nearly white ; 
it is full of pores and cavities, which 
give it a corroded and cellular appesr- 

Jv'sscs. (from 0«trai;, Gr.) A beard, 
as in the mytilus and pinna. The iyimi 

XiOo^, a stone.) ix raiv mjaerai, occui 
ring massive, in short, delicate, and sti 
fiah filamenta, of an olive-green, i 
brownish colour, with a silky lustre. 

, flax, and 

milk-nhiie Tuiety o! 
a pearly, or glistening 
lustre, aflat oonchoidalfraclnre. and per- 
fect opacity. It is found on the rirer 
Cach, in Buchsria, and obtains its name 
from that river and i.-boleng, the Cidiauc 
word for atone. It is said by Brougniart 
that the cacholoHS bas been found in 
calcareouB breccia in Prance. 
Ca'dmjijm. a metal of a btuUb-white 
colour, with a Epecinc gravity of fl6. It 
13 the IcBsl; maUeablc and ductile of all 

WB8 discovered by Profeaaor Stromeyer, 
of GottJDgen, in 1817, in 9ome oiide, or 
carbonate, of zino ; it has subsequently 
been found in the silicates of xioc of Der- 
byshire, and in ores of that metal fuand 
in other sitaationa. Th>< equivalent num- 
ber of cadmium is 52'5. Cadmium bae not 
as yet been usefully employediti tUe nrta- 
Cadu'cods. (cadveui.hnt.) In botany, 
applied to leaves failing before the end of 
summer; to corollas falling off before the 
dropping of the stamens ; to perianths 
faUinJ before tbe coroUa is well un- 
C*JKS. (Gael.) A name given to a heap 

of stones covering a dead body. 
Ca'laite. Mineral turquois. 
Ca'lauab. Anamegiventotbecnttle- 
Ca'lauine. (ca/uniine, Fr, giallamina, 
It.) Carbonate of line. Calamine is 
fonikd either loose, or in masses, or crye- 
tallized ; oolour white, grey, or yetlow. 
Before tbe blovr-pipe it decrepitates, but 
does not melt. It is used in the mstin- 
facture of brass. It consists of o;iide of 
zinc G5, and carbonic acid 34. It con- 
tains also some sesqnioiide of iron. 
Ca'lahite. (from ealamiw, Let. coXnuo-i-, 

I, A genus of fossil equisetaceie. Cata- 
mites Bbouod UDiversally in the toast 
ancient coal formations, occur but spar- 
ingly in tbe lower strata of tbe secondary 
series, and are entirely wanting in tlie 
tertiary formatioas, and also on the actual 
surface of tbe earth. Brougniart enum-e- 
rates twelve speniea of eelamitea. Cala- 
mitea are cbaracteriied by large and sim- 
ple cylindrical stems, articidalei) at in- 
terrala, but either without sheaths, or 
presenting them under forms unknown 
among existing equiseta; they however 
most diCTer from equisela in tbetr height 
and balk, sometimes exceeding seven 
inches in diameter, whilst that of a living 
equtseta rarely exceeds half an inch. A 
coJamite fourteen inches in diameter has 
lately been placed in the museum at Leeds. 

2. A mineral variety of homblaide, 

also Actynolite, or Actinolite. See Ai 

Calc-sikteb. Stalactitical or 
cal carboDate of lime. This 
from the German kalk, lime, 
to drop. U is deposited from thi 
springs holding carbonate of lime in 

C.;Ja°'.. o>o'.„™. <Pr.) , , 

limestone, often passmg into sand, ina 
aboanding in marine shells. According 
to Lyell, it belongs to the eocene tertiBiy 
period, and is found in tbe Bans basin. 

silicions limestone, occupying, according, 
to the early opinion of Brongniart. &» 
place of the calcsire grossier where Out 
is wanting, who discovered in it the dUu 
cate of magnesia. Like the calcairegrofJ 
sier, the calcaire eilicieni belongs Ui tM 
eocene tertiary period ; it has been fonofl 
in the Paris basin, in the Isle (rf Wigb^ 
and in several parts of France. 
CALCA'REons. i (calcariui, Lat. caled>«| 
Calca'riol's. i Pr. I do not remembw 
di thi; 
spett with an i, except in 
Irelieve, in this instance, nis onnograpaj 
to be incorrect) Partaking of the pn>- 
perties of lime ; containing lime in com- 
position ; of a limy nutore. 

^ALCA'anoiTS BPAB. Crystallized eaibOB- J 
ate of lime. Calcareous spar -ocnwl 
crystallized in a vast variety of fbnn*,lMt I 
its primitive form is invariably a rhom- \ 
bold with obtuse angles of 105" 5', laJ 
74° 55', the eryalals break easily with the 
stroke of a hammer. It consists of nearlr 
57 parts of lime and 43 parts and a tna- 
tiou of carbonic acid. The lineBt aped- 
meas are brought &om Derbyahire. but 
it is found almost in all parta of the 
globe. Calcareous spar is often as tnns- 
parent as rock-crystal, but it is mnallj 
coloured of various tints by the presSDW 
of oxide of iron. All its forms, which 
amount to nearly 500, are derived tKM 
the rhomb. When in irregular forms, it 
may always be diatingniahcd from qoartl 
by its admitting of being scratched with > 
knife, and by its effervescing when west 
nitrons acid is applied to it. Icelnd 
spar is this mineral in its purest fbm. 
and atfords the readiest means of obser- 
ving the optical phenomeuon of double 
refraction. Ita almost universal diffiuifli 
is probably owing to its partial solubilit] I 
in water; in this condition it flIUrt I 
through the crevices aboiuii'.ing in iH 

C A L [2 

ttrsta, and recryatnlliiei u llie water evk- 
poratei. When this filtration contiDaes 
BO niuDterrnptedl; ss ta preieat by its 
mechaniciil action cryataliisBtion from 
liking place, and yet so gradaally u ta 
admit of the solid mineral being deposited 
from tlie water, tbose curious and beaa- 
tiful concretions called stalactites are pro- 
duced, nhich 

fr>riDed principally of limeatone. 
RKOUS Tufa. Beds of calcareous 
ire sometimes formed in valloys. and 
at the bottom of lakes, by a process which 
bears some resemblance to chemical for- 
matisni. Springs containing carlunic 
add, that issue fiom limestone strata. 
contain particles of carbonate of lime chC' 
mically dissolTed in water ; bnt on ei - 
pOBore to air and light, the carboiuG acid. 
which had bnt a slight affinity for the 
portielBB of limestone, separales, and the 
particles of lime are precipitsted, and 
fbrm calcareous incruEtutions : these, in 
the course of time. Conn beds, and occa- 
nonally are of Bufficient hardness to be 
tued for architectural purposes. Ther- 
aul springs holding in soludon calcareous 
rth, rapidly deposit beds of calcare- 
is tufa. 

cbdo'nic. Containing calcedonjr ; re- 
mbUof calcedony. 

cb'dont. (eoicerfoBtaj, Lat. ealce- 
liae, Ft. cBlcedoHia, It. Sometimes 
>elt chalcedony.) A semi-transparent 
id tnmslnceat variety of quartz, to which 
lis name has been applied, from its hai- 
g been formerly found at Calccdon. It 
a simple, siliceous, uncrystallized mine- 
J. Flint Bodnles are frequently calce- 
mic. When flints contain calcedony, 
lere may generally be perceived some 
osll babbles, or a mammillated appear- 
hnce, ia some part of the eiterior of the 
.; between calcedony and flint there 
near resamblance, being only differ- 
modes of the same substance. Spe- 
tafic gratity 2-56. There are several sub- 
' pedes ; the beautiful apple-green is 
ailed ohrysoprase; the grasE-grcen va- 
ieties, pUsma ; those with red, brown, 
eUow, and green tints, camelian ; others 
re known as heUotrope, jasper, Sic. thi 
rill all be described under their several 
ames, and in their proper order. 
tCj'FBttocs. (from cote and /ere, Lat.) 
'rodncing lime ; containing hme ; yield- 

I.C1NABLE. That is capable of being 

LciKATE. (co/einer, Fr. calciaare. It.) 
*o calcine i to burn by fire to a call, or 
rishle snbstance. 

UCIJia'tioh. (calcination, Fr. ealci- 
atiene. It.) The reduction by the 



Ca'lcike. (cfliritier, Fr. calHnart, It.) 
To bum by fire to a call, or friable snb- 

Ca'lcidh. The metallic base of time; this 
metal was obtained by Sit H. Davy from 
lime by means of galvanic agency. Being 
received during the process into a vessel 
filled witli naphtha, it was eicladed from 
oxygen, and consequently retained its 
metallic appearance, which resembles that 
of silver. But no further investigations 
can be made in the present state of sci- 
ence, regarding its properties as a metal, 
for the instant BtmospbEric air is ad- 
mitted to it, it absorbs oxygen rapidly, 
bums with an intense white light, and re- 
produces lime, which is an oiida of cal- 

C.M.c-TUFF. A deposit of carbonate of 
lime from calcareous springs. See Cal- 
cmn, TV,. 
Ca'lix. ) (jcuXif, Gr. calix, Lat. ealiee, 
C*'i.Tii. i Fr. coiiM, It.) Thecalyi, or 
flower-cup, is the outer expanded part, 
or estemal covering of aflower, generally 
resembling the leayes in colour and tex- 
ture ; there are seven kinds of^ calyxes, 
or calyces, namely, periantheum, amen- 
tum, spatha, ginma, involucnun, volva, 

The calyx is the outer set of the fioral 
envelopes, when there are more than one 
verticil of these. It is composed of tno 
at least, but generally more leaves, called 
sepals. When the sepals are distinct, or 
separate from each other, the calyx is 
said to be polyaepabnia. In many plants 
the sepals are joined together, more or 
less, by their edges, so as to form one 
piece in appearance ; in this case the 
calyx is said to be monoKepatma. When 
all the sepals are alike in size and form, 
the calyx is said to be Tfguiar. When 
the sepals vary in size or form, the calyx 
is said to be iTregvlar. When the calyx 
has one of its sepals hollowed ont into s 
long thin tube, as in the lariiBpar, gera- 
nium, &c. it is said to be spurred. When 
the calyx dies off soon after or immedi- 
ately on its expanding, it ia termed de- 
ciduous s this is commonly tbe case with 
polysepalous calyces. When the calyx 
survives the rest of the flower, either en- 
closing or forming part of the fruit, it is 
said to be peniileni : most monosepalous 
calyces are persistent. 
Cai,p. a. subspecies of carbonate of lime; 


. (from «raXiifi/<(i^. Gr.coi 
A genus of trilobltes, whii 
I have been annihilated at tl 
lie carboniferous itrat 

C A L 

[ .18 1 
long ooD- 

FuBsili of thia family it 
founded niUi insecta andi 
EntompUthu! paradoiuB. 
Caly'itba. (raXv-iTTpa, Gr. talyptra. 
Lat.) Tlie calji of ina»e>, accordins 
to some writera. In the moisu, the 
orgaue orrepradDctioncoDBiaCof ipnrules, 
eoDtaiiied within an nm, or thecB, plnccd 
tt the top of a. thin itHlk : this is closed 
with a Ud, called an opercolutn, and thnt 
■gaiu is covered with a hood, termed a 

CALrPTitK'A. A fosEil conoidal uniTshe, 
with the apex entire, erect, and some- 
what pointed, the caiitj furnished with a 
spirally convoluted lip. — ParHmoK, 

CA'^HBtu'u. (eamiium'. Lat.) 
a juice einded between the hi 
Bttmmura, supposed to serve t 
of nonriahing the fibres of 





given by Professor Sedgwick to a group 
of roeka, placed below the Silnrian, from 
their bdng largely deTeloped in North 
Wales; they principsUy consist of slaty 
eandstoDe and eon glomerate. 

Cam fa'nu LATE, (from campanula. Lat.> 
fieU.Bhaped ; in the form of a hell. A 
term applied to the calyi or corolla. 

Cami ' 



A zoophyte, found abun- 

itly on OUT shores, and thus named 

' hell-shaped cells placed on foot- 


Canali'cui-ated, (from canaUoilaiiis, 
Lat.) Channelled; furrowed; made like 
a pipe or gutter. Applied to any distinct 
groove or furrow in aliells. 

CANCBLtA'niA. A genua of shell com- 
prising many speciea. It is an ovate, or 
subturrat«d univalve, with the lip inter- 
nally sulcated ; the base of the opening 
slightly channellBd. The columella hav- 
ing sharp, but compressed, plicEe. Pos- 
sils of this genus have been found in the 
Londay clay and calc-grussier of Paris. 
The recent cancellaria is found in sandy 
mud at depths varying from 5 to 15 fa- 

Ca'ncelt,atbd. (from cancetli, lattice- 
work, Lat.) Croas-borred ; marked witli 
lines crossing each other. In concho- 
logy, surrounded with arched longitudinal 

1. One of the twelve sigas of the zodiac, 
being the sign of the summer solstice, 
and represented by the figure of a 

2. The crab-fish. 

Ca'ndent. (cam/™*, Lat.) Hat in the 
highest degree, to a wbite heat. 


\'hdl*-coal. ) (This substance hu pro- 
a'nhil-coai.. S bably obtained its 
from the bri^lit flame, unmixed 
amoke, wbic^ it yields during comhu- 
tion, lighting a room aa wii caadlw. 
candle being provindally pronounced 
rannfl.) Candle, or cannel, coal ti a 
bltuminnna snbalance next in purity to 
jet. It ia bhtck, opaque, compact, and 
brittle ; breaking with a conchoidal frac- 
ture. Cannel-coal does not sml Bu 
lingera when handled, is luaceptUile af 
palish, and is capable, like jet, of being 
worked into trinkets and ornaments. Tbt 
diSerence between jet and cannei-eoil 
gppeara to couaiat entirely in Che presence 
or absence of foreign earthy maiten. 
When these are absent, or exist in minnte 
proportion only, the bituminona mns it 
so light as to tloat on water, and Ukd 
the term jet is properly applicable ; but 
when the presence of foreign earHij mat- 
specifically heavier than water, and does 
not readily manifest electric properties, it 
is with more propriety termed cannel-eod. 

i'p?TONE. The name for a foaail echi- 
nitE, or that genus of echinite Voownai 


obtuse verCeij from which five pain of 
punctuated or creiinlated lines pass, drrid- 
ing die shell into five large and five anuU 
arete, that in which the anal aperture il 
pUued being rather the largest. — Far- 
Ca'pshlb. (capsvia, Lat. capitile, Fr.) 

1. In botany, a membranoua or woody 
seed vessel, internally consisting of me 
or more cella, splitting into several valvcii 
and sometimes discharging its conteaU 
through pores or ori^ces, or falling off 

2. A membranous or ligaitientous bag. 

1. Vegetable caoutchouc, called all 
elaatic-gnm, and India-rubber, is Ih 
milky eiudation from certain trees, mat 
especially the Hicvea caoutchouc and ih 
latropha elastica, but it is obtained &om 
several others. 

2. Mineral caoutchouc. A bitum; 
fossil, elastic when soft, but brittle wbea 
hard. It was discovered ii 
Castletown in Derbyshire. In ita appear- 
ance it much resembles India-rubber, 
whence it baa obtained its name. 

Ca'sapack. The upper ahell of re])tile<. 

Ca'bbos. {earbo, Lat. airion, Sp. cer- 
ioM, It. charbon. Fr.) The pure in- 
flammable principle of charcoal, 
piece of wood, or any vegetable m 

CAR [3 

te placed in a cloaBd Tesiel, und liqit red- 

' t for Bome time, it i» ocmTerted into a 
Lning black brittle Bubstance, poe^esBiDg 

charcoal. Charcoal ie inhisiblef ioBol- 
Is in water, is capable of coinbiniiig 
til with hfdrogen sod sulphur, is a 
iduotor of eleetricity, and has a power- 
il affinity for oxygen. Cutbon is ob- 
dned nearly pnre in cbarcoil ; but, what 
I astonishing, the diamond sppeara to 
e thia elementnry Bubataiice in its poreat 
noiTD form. Why it is, or how it is, 
hat the aaoie elemeatary snbslance can, 
dth little or no addition, fonn two 
odies so disBimilar in ercr; respect he 
harcoal and diamond, the one a soft, 
lack, brittle mass, the other the clearest 
nd hardest body we know of , is a mys- 
BTT beyond oar ireak comprehensions lo 
aderatand. Carbon enters as a con- 
Eitaent part into many of the slate rockb. 
9 which it generally communicates a dark 
Dlonr : it forms also regular beds of oon- 
[derable thickness, being the principal 
onstitaent part of cool. Combined witli 
oiygen, carbon fonns carbonic acid or 

Carbon a'cbodg. (from carton.) Con- 
taining carbon ; pertuning to carbon. 
CA'ofiONATB. A. cambinatiOD of carbonic 
Hwid with a base. Carbouic acid is capable 
^bf combining with earths, oiides, and al- 
^Hmlies, and to these combinations the term 
^KvboDate has been applied ; thns we 
Btbave the carbonate of lime, carbonate of 
nugnesia, carbonate of lead, carbonate 
of iron, carbonate of ammonia, &c. Sic. &c. 
Combined with carbon. 
IF LIUE. A union of car- 
: acid and lime, caosistiDg of 57 
s of lime and 43 of carbonic acid, 
iwbonate of lime, under tlie aeveral 
mes of chalk, lime-stone, marble, &c. 
ta found most abundantly throughout na- 
tare. All limestones effervesce wlien a 
~ s of itrong acid is thrown on them, 
1 they entirely dissolve In nitric or 
" in acid. 

Id AClti. A compound of carbon 
lygen ; it has been called aerial 

scid, I 

watie gas. Carbenic acid is very plenti- 
Uly disengaged from springs in almost 
" ' ' , but especially near active 

jlcanoea. This elattic fluid 
ka the property of deaompoting many of 
le IwMeat rocks with which it comes in 
t, particularly that nnmerous class 
1 whose composition felspar is an in- 
In volcanic coantries these 
manationa are not confined to 
gs, but rise up in the state of pure 
la from the soil in larioos places. The 
a del Cane, near Naples, affordE an 

] i: A 11 

eicellent example. The acid is invisible, 
is speciRcally heavier than atmospheric 
air, and on this account it accumulates 
in any cavities on the surface of the 
ground. It may be dipped out of any 


e, like n 


ind carried to any distance. 1 1 is fatal 
to human life when breathed undiluted, 
and by the miners it is caUed choke- 

Converted into eharcoal, or 
IS. The converting into 


. The fire- 
damp of miners. 

CA'ttuuKCLE. (earbtinciiint, Lat.) A 
preoions atone, supposed by some authois 
to be the ruby, by others the garnel i 
called by the Greeks anthrax. 

Ca'rdiac. ) (from jcipilia, the heart, Gr. 

Cardi'acal. t cardiagtif, Fr.) Relating 
to the heart, as the cardiac nervea, &c. 

Cakdia'cea. In Cnvier'fl arrangement a 
liimity of bivalves of Che class Testacea, 
comprising Cardium, Donai, Cyclades, 
Corbis, Tellina, Lucina, and Venus. 

CA'nniTA. An inequilateral bivalve, fonnd 
at various depths Co thirteen fathoms, in 
mad and sands ; aometimes attached to 
stones. The hinge with two unequal 
teeth; the hinge tooth the shorteat, be- 
neath the beak ; the other longitadinal, 
beneath the insertion of the cartilage. 
Lamarck places Cardium in the family 

CA'nDiiTH. The cockle ; animal a tethys. 
~ A genus of bivalves, the shelis of which 
are characterised by the teeth of their 
hinge, and by the projection of their 
beeka ; the latter giving them a oordlfbrm 
Bp[>earance. Tliey are generally orna- 
mented wilh longitudinal ridges, and 
frequently with striie, scales or spines. 
The different species are found at depths 
varying to thirteen fathoms, in mad, 
sands, and gr,ivel. This genns belongs 
to tlie class Vermes, order Testacea. 
Many of the apcciea, as the C. aculea- 
tum, arcaatum, ciliare, disuora, edule, 
eloiigatum, Iffivigatum, nodosum, spi- 
nosum, 8iC. ka. are fbund on our coasts. 
The cardium, with the eiception of one 
species, cardium fluviatile, has only 
been found to inhabit the ocean i gene- 
rally they live just under the suifaoe of 
the sand. Fifty-two species have been 

Cabi'na. (Lit.) The keel 1 a teem ap- 
plied to two of the petals in papiUona- 
ceous flowers. The carina is compoaeJ 
of two petals, separate or united, and 
enclosBS the iuternal organs of fructifii:a- 

Casin*.'bia. a yerj tliin uni'alye, in 
the form of ■ cone flattened on its sides, 
the apei terroinflting in a very email con- 
voluted spire, and the back having a 
dentated keel. De Blainrille places Ca- 
rinsria in the family Nectopoda. It de- 
rives its name from its dorsal keel. 
Parldnaon states that it has not been 
foDnd fossil, nor is ita inhabitant knonn. 
Sowerbf mentions Chat tliis beautiful 
shell was once so rare, that b specimen 
wonld fetch one hundred guineas. 

Ca'binated. (carinaCut, Lat.) Keel- 
shaped i in concbology, having a longi- 
tndiaal prominenoe like the keel of a 

Cari'ni'iiine. a variety of augite, of a 
dark green or black colour. It obtains 
its name from beinjc found in Carintliia. 
Lot.) Flesb- 


In Cuv 


ment, the third order of Mi 

Cabnb'i.ian. ) (comaiiiie, Fr. comaUna, 

Cabnb'lioh. \ It.) A precious stone oi 
various coluars, as red, brown, yellow, 
and white. It is a variety of rhombohe- 
dral quartz. The finest specimens are 
brought from India. Carnelian is com- 
posed of 94 parts silica, 3-50 alumina, 
and a trace of oxide of iron. Caroeliaa 
differs from calcedony only in being more 
or less transparent. It varies in its con- 
stitnents from being nearly pure silex, to e 
mixture of this earth with alumine and 
iron, in small quantities. 

Ca'sneods. See ComBwi. 

CAfLNi'vonA. (from camirt^ and vom, Lat.) 
1. Animals which subsist solely on flesh. 
They belong to the order Mammaha. 
Fossil remains of camivora are abundant 
in the pliocene strata. Cuvier placed the 
a family in the order Cama- 

2. in entomology, afamilyof coleopterou! 
insects. These insects pursue and devaui 

Cabni'vdrous. (oarHi'conts, Lat. carni- 
vore. Ft.) Living on flesh; devouring 

Ca'rnbou's I (^™ '^''"'^''*» Lat") Fleshy. 
Ca'botid. (from nopwriftc, Gr. carolidea, 

Lat. carotida, Fr.) Tbe name given to 

certain arteries of the neck. 
Ca'rfal. (from carpus. Lat. capTruc, Cr.) 

Hslating to the wrist. 
Carpe'lIiCm. (from icnpTriE, Gr.) In 

botany, a leaf in a particular state of mo- 

dilication. Each modified leaf nhicb 

I j CAT 

torms the pistil, is called a carpelluta, inj ' 

has its under side turned outwards, and 

its upper inwards, or towards the centre 

of the Dower. The carpella are folded so 

that the margins of tbe leaf are n. 

the aiis, or centre : from these ■. kind of 

bud is produced, which is the seed. On 

Che form of the carpella, on their number, 

and on their arrangement around the 

centre, depends, necessarily, the form of 

the pistil. I 

CA'afoLfTK. -l(from rapiric. fi-ufb", 

CA'apoLiTH. J. and Xfyoc, Vm.) Aoj 

Cab.poi.i'thiis. 3 fruit which by silificj. 

tion has been converted into stone. 
CARPo'Lonr. {from Kap-ai^ aaAXoyos, Gr.) 
That branch of the science of botiny 
which treats of fmita. 
Ca'ktilaee. (cartilago. Lat. cartilage. Fr. 
eartiiayine. It.) Smooth, s(^d, animoi 
matter, softer than bone, and harder Ihati 
ligament : gristle. 
Cabtila'sinous. (cartilttginrsj:, Yt. ear- 
lilaginoto, U.) Consisting of cartilage ; 
resembling cartilage i gristly. 

1. A name given to all fish whose 

cles are supported by cartilages instead of j 

2, A term applied to leaves, tbe bi 
of which are hard and homy. 

Cahyophi'ilia. a coral zoophyti 
tbe caryDpbilliiE possessing mare than DDi 
cell, each receptacle contains a polypni. 
A branched madrepore with a star at the 
end of each branch; each star having i 
mouth and tentaoula.— BateiceV/. 

Cassida'hia. a genus of univalve mqllofiC! 
found both recent and foasiL The recent 
species are found near the shore, and st 
small depths from the surface. The fossl 
specimens occur in the tertiary strata, 


1. The helmet-stone. Anechinite, as«- 
tion of the class of Catocystii 

2. A gibbose ventricose univalve; ths 
aperture longitudinal and suh-dentaleii. 
and terminating in a short reflected caneL 
llie columella phcated in its lower port ; 
the left lip flattened, and forming a ridge 
on the body of the sheU.— Portia*™ 

This genus of shells is found both re 
and fossil: die recent is an inhabitant of 
tropical seas ; the fossil oi 
tiary deposits. Some spedes are figured 
in Fackinson'e Organic Remains, 
:a'ssidite. A fossil shell of the g_ 
iidaria. The bills of Tuscany yicU 


these fossils. 


, Gr. 

cataclymie, Fr.) A great innndat 
deluge: used generally to describe tbo 
Noachian deluge. 
Cat'S'Ete. a beautiful mineral, a 
of rhombobedral quartz, having an opil- 


essence resembliag the light from the eje 
of the cat 1 whence Ita naaie. The pecu- 
liar play of light ariaiag from the Btruc- 
tnre of thjs Btone, is better kaown than 
Bnsceptible of description. The finest 
Bpe<^nieiiB ire brought from Ceylon. 
Cafa-eye ii harder thati quartz, and con- 
sists of silex yS, alumine 175, lime 1'25, 
OKide of iron 0'25. 
Cato'don. a name given to the aperma. 
ccti whale. Of tlie genns Cntodoii, Knj 
roentioiia ■ Urge oae stranded on the 
coast of Hollnna. 
I Catoci'sti. Tlie second great division, or 
k bmilf, of Echini. The catocysti have 
V the opening for the leaC in some part of 
^b the base of the shell ; thej are divided 
^L^ into Gbnlse, cassides, Ecuta, and placentce. 
^BpAD'oA. (Lit.) In conchology, tbe elon- 
^H gated base of the ventre, lip, oud colu- 

^^^AifDAL. (from Cauda, Lat.) lUlating 
to the taU ; aa the caudal tin of a tish. 
Cad'datk. ) {eaudatrn. Lat.) That hath 
Cau'dated. j a tail ; tailed ; having a 

long ternunatian like a tail. 
Pxv'brx- (Lat.) The stock or trunk, the 
ir body of b tree. 

■; (nreemonu, Lat concmeitr, 
KMo, lt.J Full of caverns or 

A name for sulphate of barytei. 

iTHB. Sulphate of stiontia, or sul- 

' phote of strontites. It has obtained tlie 

name of eeltitine from being freqasiitif 

found pOBSeBBing a blue caloar, but aa it 

lot invariably posseas that colour, 

F often found either colourleaa or 

le oame appears to be inappropriate. 

UFS both msasive and crystallized. 

. It is composed of iJSparts of Btrontia, and 

42 of tnlphuric acid. It is found in Scot- 

d, in Yorkshire, and in Someraetahire, 

IT Bristol : also in the neighbourhood of 

Fans, and in Sicily, from which last place 

I ve obtain the finest apecimeos. 

[^llbpo'ra. Animals belonging to the 

■ elaSB Vermes, order Zoophytes, Generic 

1 characters : — -Aniiusl an hydra or polype ; 

I coral somewhat membranaceous, com- 

posed of cells. Species: — The principal 

isB are the Cellepora pumicosa, an- 

,tB, spongitea. Sic. — Craii. 

{eelia. Lat. crlltiU, Fr. cella. It.) 
ivity or hollow. 
CBLLi'vEKons, (Irom eella and/fro, Lat.) 

Frodndng cells ; containing celU. 
Cb'u.olah. Having small cavities, hol- 
lo**,or ceils. In botany, coatainingcelle, 
opposed to vascular. 
Cm'li.ui.ah uehorane. In anatomy, that 
tissue of filmy meshes which connects the 
minute companeut paita of must of the 
I of the body. 
iHTEQUHENT. In botfluy, the 

] C E N 

succulent pnlpy substance, i 
mediately under the cuticle j the seat of 
colour, mostly green, particularly in Iha 
leaves or braoches. Leaves consist al- 
most entirely of lliis substance, covered 
on each side by the cuticle ; the atema 
and branches of both annual and peren- 
nial plants are invested with it. ThU 
tissue in membranous and transparent) i 


a like a 

of globules or vesicles, crowded together i 
these, by pressing against each otber, as- 
sume a sii'SiJed, or hexagonal form. This 
cellular tisane allows of the passage of 
fluids, and is, consequeatly, poraus, bnt 
no pores or openings have been discovereil 
in it. CeUoUr integument is in itself 
colourless, but its vesicles contain th 
colouring mutter wbiuh gives to the a 
rotla its brilliant colours, and to the her- 
baceous parts of plants Iheir green. 

Ck'li.ulk. (from ceiiii/a, Lat.) This may 
be considered as the diminutive of cell, 
and though, probably, frequently use' 
synonymously with cell, yet is strictly W 
BO : a small cell or hallow. 

CELLiiLi'vEKacs. Bearing, or producing, 

Crme'st. (cimmt, Fr. ciinenio, It.) Tho 
matter with which any two, or more, ' 
dies are made to cohere. 

Ceugnta'tiok. {cementatioTi, Fr.) 

1. Tbeact of uniting by meauBofcen: 

2. A chemical process by which iro 
converted into steel ; glass into porcelain, 
&c. Tills process is effected by anr- 

' rounding the body to be acted on with 
some other subBtauce, as iron with char- 
coal, and subjecting it to the action of fire 

Cbuenti'tiodb. Having the property ol 
quality of uniting. 

CRNTiro'iiiODB. (from tentum snd fo- 
lium, Lat.) Having b hundred leaves. 

Centki'fogai.. (ctntrifugo. It. centri- 
fage, Fr. Terme dt Physique, 
eorps gui le meul m road, a tine J 
centr^ge.) That power which bodies 

a revolving hod; tends to fly irom the 
ceuCre of motiDu : a sling tends to "" 
from the hand in consequence of the ct 
tril'ugal force. The centrifugal fores 
arising from the velocity of the moon in 
her orbit, balannes tlie attraction of the 
earth. The dimensions of the earth being 
known, as well as the time of ita r 
tion, it is easy thence to calculate 
exact amount of the centrifugal force, 
which, at the equator, appears to he ^th 
part of the force or weight by which at" 
bodies, whether solid or liquid, tend tc 
fall towards the earth, 
:b«tbi'fktai.. (ctnlripHe, Fr. Qui Imdi 

CEP [ ■ 

a appracii^r if'uu rmfri. Ln planitet 
on( tine force cenlripflf rert It mleil.) 
The conlrarj power to centrifugal , for 
while the one drives, as it were, the siir- 
raaniling hodiea rrom the centre, the 
otber, the centripetal, attracts and holils 

Cbphala'bfib. a fossil fisli of the carho- 
oiferona aeries. It has receired its name 
from its head being covered by a sort of 
ahield, having the bones united into one 
oieeouB ease. In form, this lish hears a 
resemblance to the elongated trilobitea of 
the traniitioD tockB.—ManftU. 

Cbpba'lopod. "1 (from ttfa\^, head, 
... jrifo, feet. Gr.) 

Cbphalo'fojibs.J a term applied bj Cu- 
vier to a large tatnilj of molluscona ani- 
IdbIs, from their hsTing the feet placed 
aroond their heads, and walking with 
tbeir heads downwards. The feet are 
lined internally with ranges of homy 
cups, or suckere, by which the animd 
■'s prey, and adherei ' 

The n 

uth, bothinforn 

and snhatance, resembles a parrot's 
and ia snrroanded by the feet. It is now 
well established that the living species of 
cephalopoda which posaesa no ertemal 
■hell, are protected from their enemies by 
a peculiar internal provision, consisting 
ofabladder-shapedaaciCDDtaininga black 
and viscid fluid, or ink, the ejection of 
which, by rendering the surrounding water 
opaque, conceals and defends them. The 
sepia vulgaris and loligo afford us familiar 
examples. — Barltanil. 

According to Prof. PhiUipa, the following 
are the genera of Cephalopoda : Bellero- 
phoo, Orthoceras, Belemnite, Nautilus, 
Ammonite, Mamite, Scaphite, Baculite, 
Nnmmalite. The only living species 
belong to the genns Nautilus, of which 

The Cephalopoda, in the arrangement 
of Cnvier, form the first class of mollitsca, 
and comprise the following genera, which 
be divided according to the nature of the 
Bhell, Sepia, Nautilus, Belemuites, Am. 
mooites, and NummuliteB. 
Ckbau'kii La' fides, (from Kipanvu^, 

supposition that they 


ment, an order, the Gth, of the class Zoo 
pbytes, or animal plants, comprising 
Gorgoaia, Corallinm, Pennatula, Bic, 
They have a horny aiis, covered with a 
fleshy substance, from the cavities of 
wbicb polypi occasionally appear. 
CEREBE'LtDH. (Lst.) Dim. of cerebmoi ; 
the little brain, situate behind the brain, 
Cs'sBBRDK. (Lst.) The brain. 

12 ] C E T 

Ce'bkbbal. ) {eerrbml, Pr. eerebrafe. It.) 

Cjt'aEiiaiNii. \ Belonging to the btahii 
relating to the brain- 

CE'itii-mttM, A turreted or turricnlstad 
univalve, with an oblique opening. La- 
marck has discovered sixty fossil ipedes 
of the genus Cerithinm ia the ncJEhbonl- 
hood of Paris. The recent cerithimn ii 
found at depths varying to aeventeea 
fathoms, and it U stated that so len.- 
ciouB of life is at least one species, the 
cerithium telescopium, that a specimen 
sent from Calcutta in sea water, Uved out 
of water in a tin-box for more than * 
week. The recent ceiitbium has a vo3 
on its head, with two separated tentacnli. 

Cb'b.ithite. The foasil cerithium. 

Ce'ritk. The siliceoas oiide of ceritna. 

Ck'hiuh. A metallic substance discovered 
by Berzelius aod Hiseinger in 18D4. Il 
was obtained from a mineral called ceiita, 
which was formerly supposed to be U 
ore of tungsten ; it is also found in aDanite. 

Ceru'leam. )(F«ru/eHf, Lat.) Blue; 

Cesc'lhoub. ( sky-colonred, 

Ce'bvix. (Lat.) The neck. 

Cervi'cal. (eenicalis, Lat. cermetU, Fr. 
cervicali. It.) Belonging to the neck, 
as the eervieal Tertebm. the etrtied 
muscles, the cervical arCeriea. 

CEttVl'coBRANCBtATA. In thc CODcbrio- 

gical system of De Blainville, the nama 
given to an order of shells, comprisiDg 
the two families Retiferaand Biancfaifin, 
and the genera Patella, FiBflOTBlla, Emar- 
ginnla, and Parmophoms. 
Cestra'cioktb. The first and oldest rah- 
family of sharks. Tbe cestraciontB begin 
with the transition strata, appear in ever; 
subsequent formation, and have only one 
living rcpresentatiTe, the Cestramon Phi- 
lippi, or Fort Jackson Shark. Tha aha- 
racter of this suh-family of sharka ia 
marked by the presence of large polygonil 
obtuse enamelled teeth, covering the inte- 
rior of thc mouth vrith a kind of tesaelattd 
pavement. In some species not fewer 
than siity of these teeth occupied etoh 
jaw. They are rarely found connected 
together in a fossil state, in consequence 
of the perishable nature of the cartila- 
ginous bones to which they are attached. 
Tliej are found abundantly dispersed 
throughout all the strata, from the carbo-, 
nifcrous to the most recent chalk series.-— 


eta'cka. Vertebra!, warm-blooded ani- 
mals living in the sea ; they have no giUa*. 
there is an orifice on the top of the head 
through which they breathe, and ejant- 
water i nnd they have a flat horizontal 
tiul. The cetacea breathe by means d. 
Innga, and this compels them to rise tn- 
quently to the aurftce of tbe water ftlf 
its ^luriposs oE respiration : they alM' 



C E T t 43 ] C H A \ 

■leep on the rarfaoe. The mIbom both 

bring forth thdr joung alive, and nuckle 

cetacea forming the ninth order of Mam- 

Oiem. Id the order Cetacea aie found 

matin, and comprieing two families, 

tha narwal, or sea-uaicom, the proper 

namely, Cetacea herbtvora. which iti- 

■ whale or baJiEii«i the phyaeter or apermfl. 

cludea Manatus or Lamantin. Halicore 

ced whale, the dolphin, porpoise, fee. 

or Dugong, and Slcllerna, and Cetacea 

Cetaceoua animals being incapable of 

ordinaria. which includes Delphinna, or 

i ooming upon flhore to rear (heir young. 

Dolphin, PhoccEna or Porpoise, Monodon 

jwa find the form and structure of their 

or Narwhal, Physeter or Cachalot, and 

arms remarkahl; approaching la those of 

Baloena, or Whale. The seas of the 

MiooeuB and Pliocene periods were 

ibIbo in the general form of the tninli, and 

in the lengthened tapering form of the 

the secondary deposits. 

UUJile. and of the whole head of these 

Ceta'ceous. (erlac^, Fr. celaceo, It. 

animals. ThiBlenglhened.fiah-Iike, laper- 

eftaceout, Lat.l Belonging to tbe order 


tonlal head of anch ceCaceoua animaU as 

CbVlanitb. a dark-green or black -Va- 

the dolphins and porpoises, the food of 

riety of dodecahcdral corundum. It oc- 

-which consiatB of livmg prey, which they 

curs in the sand of tbe rivers of Ceylon. 

from which island it obtains its name. 

Cba'eabitb. Rhombohedral leolite. The 

41ie dugong and the lamantinc, that are 

chabasie of Haiiy, and achabasit of Wet- 

not piscivorous, feeding only on marine 

ner. A mineral of a white colour, with 

sometimes a rosy tinga. It occurs crya- 

wards, instead of projecting forwards. 

That bent form, which is ao remarkable 

eilica, alumina, lime, potass, soda, and 

water, silica forming abunt fifty per cent. 

best poaition for enabling them to Cake 

of the whole. 

ae marine plants from the rocks bdow 

Cbala'za, ( xdXa ia, Gr.) la botany, a 

them, and they have the neck long and 

small swelling on the outside of the seeds 

teiibte, so that they can with facility 
bend down the whole head. Breathing 

of some plants, it is somelioies coloured : 

Che lemon and orange afford examples ol 

the chalana. 

■ they require to have the noatrila elevated ; 

Chalk. Ikallc. Germ.) A wMW earthy 

bonic acid ; a carbonate of lime. It has 

• aev wish to breathe to raise it to the 
1 nrface of the water, so that we find the 

an earthy fracture, ia meagre to the touch, 

and adheres to the tongue; it ia dull. 

■Datrils raised to the vertei of the head -. 

opaque, soft, and light; its specific gra- 

tbeae are the blowing-holes of tbe cetacea. 

vity being 23. It contains an inconsi- 

.In eomseqnenoe of the extension of the 
i&itemuxiUary bonea, the eiterior open- 

derable proportion of silei and iron. The 

harder variedea of this aubstance were 

bigs of the nostrils are raised thus high 

formerly used for building, and, when 

>Bpon the bead, and fretjuently also the 

protected from the influence of the atmo- 

csitilagea of the nose are directed up- 

sphere by a tliin caaing of iimeGtone or 

WBTda so as t« reach ahove the level of 

flint, proved very durable. The ruins of 

the highest part of the head, so that 

the Priory of St. Pancras, near Lewes, 

eliding along the ocean, immediately be- 

vihich have stood nearly 800 years, prove 

neath the anrface of the water, they can 

this.— Dr. Ma»Ull. 

hreatlm, having only (heir lengthened and 

Chalk formation. This term is applied 

«l«vated nostrils in contact with the 

in the nomenclature of geology to a group 

of depositea very dissimilar in their litho- 

lopcal compositiona, hut agi'eeing in the 

Kirted by cylindrical vertebrto, almobt 

character of the organic remains which 

lithoat processes, Eo admit of the freest 

they contain, and referrible to tbe same 

totion, and it is directed horizontally ; 

epoch of formation. The chalk, with its 

subjacent beds of green sand, comprises 

a formation, or series of strata, of great 

depth, which are spread over a larg« 

fceir breathing atmospheric air, to arrive 

portion of tbe esstern and soutb-eaatem 

A which they mast ascend in the water, 

counties of England. Scarcely a trace 

of chalk can \iB lounS. "ro ?,=«&*»*. ™ 

bod.— PrV. Grani. 

WalM, b«t •« occu.« ^u. VA*n4 on. ■** 



C H A [ * 

north coist. The cbsllc formatian 19 
compoBed of six divisions, namrly, 1. The 
MaCBtricht beds ; 2. Tbe upper cbBlh 
with flints ; 3. The lo^cer chalk withoat 
fiinCs i i. The Upper green Bsad ; 5. Tbe 
ganlt; G. The lower green sand. Tbe 
whole of these are marine deposits. It 
most however be kept in mind that this 
order is far from constant. The mem- 
bers of the cretaceous group are ranked 
as the last of the secondary period 1 and, 
in the order of aaperpositTon, are plan; d 
above the wealden, and belon CbeeorliE 

"T pen 


greatest thick: 
England maj be estimated at from 600 
to 1000 feet. The organic remains i 
the chalk formation are eiclneivBly mi 
line. The nodnles and veins of flii 
which oecur in tbe chalk, show thi 
water holding ailei in soludoa must ha> 
been very abundant at the crataceoi 
period, allhongh we are ignorant hy whi 
means silei may be dissolved in wate 
Mammalia are not known in tbe creti 

The chalk bills of England are bounded 
by a line which Etrctches from south-west 
to nori;h.east, and they form three pi 
eipal mountain ranges. Tbeflrst, leaving 
Berkshire, runs north through Bucks, 
Bedfordabire, and Hertfordsbire, to Gog- 
mngog hills, near Cambridge. The so 
cond, passing iiom Beikshire eastward, 
stretches through Surrey, where it forms 
tbe Hog's Back, a beautifDl ridge extend- 
ing from Famham to Guildford, and 
then appears at Boxbill. This 
forms the hilly country and the Downs 
north of Heigate, Bletcbingly. and God. 
stone. It enters Kent to tho north of 
Westerham, and eitenda to Folkstone 
and Dover. One division of this ridge 
is continued to the north coast of Kent, 
and terminates at (he North Foreland. 
The third range, leaving Wilts and Berks, 
enters Hants, and to tbe south passes 
round Peteisfield, then stretching to the 
east, forms a barrier against tbe sea along 
tbe coast from Chichester, oonstitutiag 
the Soath Downs, ranging from Maple- 
dnrham to Beach-bead. 
Cha'i-ico-tbehiuu. Ad extinct animal, 
belonging to the order of Mammalia, 
sllied to tbe tapir, and referrihle to the 

Chalt'bbate, (from ehalyhtus, Lat. cAa- 
tib(i, Ft.) Impregnated witli iron or 
steel ; holding iron in solntian, as cha- 
lybeate springs. 

Chaua. {animal a chiton.) A genus of 
inequivalved adhering bivalves, with nn- 
eqnal incnrvaled beaks. It is placed both 
by De BlainrUle aod Lamarck in the fa- 

milj^ Cbamacea, together with DiceraE. 

] C H B 

Ethena. ha. Bruguiere limits this femi 
to those shells possessing a single hingC' 
tooth only. Many species have bMS 
found fossil, more particularly in the 
neighbourhood of Paris. The ahella of 
this genns are inhabitants of the ocean, 
and live in deep water. Twenty.five 
species hate been described ; one only 
of these hai been discovered in our seasi 

Lmely, tl 


A family of bivalves, placed 

by Lamarck in tbe order Dimyaria, and 
by De Blainville in the order Lamelli- 
branchtata. It comprises the genera 
chama, diceras, etheria, isocardium, tri- 
gonia, &c. 
'ha'ha GiaAB. A species of choma in- 
babitJng the Indian ocean; it ia tht' 
largest and heaviest shell yet discoveradf 
being sometimes of the eoornioua weight 
of 530 pounds, and its occupant so WgS 
■ " ■ ■ ■ ndred 



Cha'ubebed. (c^am/ire. Fr.) Divided 
into compartments by septa : The cl 
bered shells have also been called inntti< 
locnlar. The fossil chambered shells si 
exceedingly nmnerons, and aBbrd p 
of not only having perfori 
ordinary shells, as a defence for the bodf 
of their mhabitants, but, also, of bavii^. 
been hydraulic instruments of 
ration, and delicate adjustm 
structed to act in snbordinatian to IhcMt 
universal and nnchanging laws, whlcki 
appear to have ever regulated the mov»- 
ment of fluids. Tbe history of chambertll, 
shells illustrates also some of those ph*- 
comcna of fossil concbulogy, which lor 
late to the limitation of species to pirfi* 
cular geological formations 1 and afil 
striking proofs of the curious fact, I 
many genera, and even whole famS 
have been called into existence, and aj 
totally annibiUted, at various and i 
cessive periods, during the progress of 
construction of the crust of our globe.-'' 
Prof. Buekland. 

Cha'ob. (Let. chaoi, Fr.) 

without form ; tbe hrat matter Qf n 
poets supposed all things to have b 
made in the beginning. 

Cha'otic. Confused; thrown togetheill 
one vast heap, without any order o 



TTTcphv, ala.) An animal having tbe ft 
gers elongated, for the eipaoBios < 
membranes which act as wings, as in^^^^ 
VesperLilio or bat. The CheiroptM| 
according to the arrangement of Cttnaf 
form the first family of Camaria. i 

;heiro'ptbrous. Furnished with ekli 
gated. 6n6«B, or toes, for the expaniilll 

■ CHE lA 

of membranea wtiich scire as wings ; be- 
longing to the family Cbieropteru. 

Cbel'ifeb.oi3B. (from xiM? Gr. a daw, 
and Jrro, liBt.) Fumihlted witb claws; 
armed with olaws. 

Cbelo'nia.. (ffom x'^>^vii, testado.) The 
tortoise tribe. In the Drmngemeot of 
Covier, cAe/unia forms the tirsC order of 

kEeptilia. LinoiEUB includes ohelotiia in 
I the genat testudo, bat the order has 
■ Imcd, by Bubacquent writers, divided into 
five geaera, namely, testudo, or land- 
lortoise ; eoiya, or fresh-vster tortoise ; 
chelonii, or sea- tortoise ; chelya ; and 
trjooTi, or soft-shelled tortoise. 

Cbklo'nian. Having the form or charac- 
teiB of the tortoise. 

Cse'lohitb. a name ^ven Co some fossil 
Gchinites, from tbeir resemblance, in 
their antures, to the shells of the tor- 
buae. The eheloaite belongs to the 
Gunilir Cidaria, class Anocysd. 

Cbbbopo'tamub. An eitioet genns in 
the order Pachyikrmata ; or animals 
liBTing think skins. The cheropotamua 
wsiB an animal most nearly allied to the 
bog ; forming a link between the Ana- 
plotherium and the PeceBry.^B"ci(anfI. 

Chkrt. (Dr. Johnson deduces chert from 
gaartr.') A kind of flint. Chert is also, 
by some, called horn-atone. A siliceous 
stone, resembling flint, but less splintery 
in the tracture, and fusible ; which lattei 
property is probably owing to so mi 
admixture of calcareous matter. A gra- 
dnal passage from chert to limestone ii 

Containing chert ; 


iiosii Jbrmam AaietM, and \IBos.) 
nUBsnl whose crystals are arranged 

nuns 30-17, magnesia 1-12, oxide ol 
II-7, water 0'27. It is the Holiipath of 
Werner, ud the Made of Haiiy. It ' 
fennd in Comberland and Argylealiii 
occurring in clay-slate. 
CsuJtTOli'Tic. Cpoipoaed of cbiastolite ; 
ODntHoing chiaatoUlio. A mass of cUias- 

Chihc'ba. (from j^i^aipa, Gr-) A genui 
of (utimals, placed in Cuvier's arrange- 
ment in the order Sturioaes, or Choo- 
dropterygii Branchiis Uberia, olasa Places. 
Prcrfuior Bncklond observes, "The Chi- 
mera is one of the most remarkable 
among hting fishes, as a link iu the 
bmily of Chondropterygians ; and th( 
discovery of x similar link, in the geolo- 
gical epochs of the ooUCiu and creta- 
oeoDS formations, shows that the dura- 

] C H L 

tioD of this curions genus has extended 
through a greater range of geological 
epochs, than that of any other genus of 
fishes yet ascertained by Professor Agas- 
aiz. The jaws of four extinct speciei 
of fossil Sshea of the genus Chimsra have 
been discovered, and Dr. Mantell states 
that the jaw, or mandible of a Chimiera, 
has been found in the Kentish Rag. The 
only known epeaies is the Cbimiera mon- 
strosa, or Arctic chimKia, two or three feet 
in length, of a silvery colour, and spotted 
with brown. This species has the first 
ray of the dorsal fin enlarged into a 
strong bony spine, armed with sharp 
books, and placed over the pectorals ; like 
the Ichthyodorulite of the earliest fossil 
sharks. Itproduces laree coriaceoos egga 
with flattened and b: 


sides. These are numerous in the Isle of 
Wight, and are objects of curiosity and 
admiration, beiog sometimes of great 

Chibothe'kicm. a name proposed to be 
given by Professor Kanp to the great 
unknown animal whose footsteps have 
been discovered in beds of red sandstone. 
These footsteps are beautifully flgored 
in Professor Buckland's Bridgewater 
Treatise. The name proposed by Kanp 
is on account of a distant resemblance, 
both of tbe fore and hind feet, to the im- 
pression of a human hand. 

These impreasions of feet are partly 
hollow, and partly in relief; all the de- 
pressions are upon tbe upper surfaces of 
slabs or saadatone, while the reliefs are 
only upon the lower Burfncea, covering 
those which bear the depreasiona. These 
footsteps follow one another in pairs, at 
intervds of fourteen inches, from pair to 
pair, each pair being in the same line. 
Both large and small steps have the 
great-toes alternately on the left and 
right side ; each has the print of five 
toes, and the first, or great-toe, is bent 
inwards hke a thnmb. The fore and hind 
foot resemble each other in form, though 
they diifer greatly in size. 

Chi'ton. (from ^itiuv, Gr.) An oval, 
convex, mullivalved shell, having eight 
arcnaled valves, partly lying over each 
other, in a row across the back of the 
animal. The chiloii is found both fossil 
and recent ; recent, attached to rocks in 
the southern seaa ; fossil, at Grignon, 
The animal inhabiting tbe shell, a Doris. 
Iu Turton's Linn£, twenty-eight species 
of chitons are described, seven of which 
have been found in the seas of our 

CnLAMy'pBOllns. (fromcA/amyj.Lat. ^Xcf- 
fii^C. Gr. aadfint.) The name it possesses 
h^ been given to thU ani.m;A ttom v\.& 

C U L I 

being cased in a comt of armour. Tli 
cblamjrpliorua bdiI armadillo are tb 
only knonn animale tliHt have a campai 
Host of plated armour. Tlie clilsmy 
phorua lives alinust eutirely in burrows 
beneatb tbe surface of sandy plains ; ica 
■cales are of a dense Bubstance, resam- 
bling hard leather. 

Chlo'ritk. (from x^^^C, Gr-> A mi- 
neral, cDnsisdDg of silica 27'4:i, alumina 
17-9, Uma 0'50, oxidE of iron 30-63, 
magnesia 11-5G, potash 156, water 
fi-aa. It is a dark green variety of talc ; 
has ■ glistening lustre ; minntely foliated 
Btructure; is soft and unctuans to the 
ieel ; and has obtained its uame froni its 
colour. There are aeveral varieties of 
talc , having a dark green colour, and 
these are known as rjimpact chlorite, 
earthy chlorite, chlorite slate, foliated 
chlorite, &c. Chlorite and talc pass by 
insensible gradations into eaph other, 
and in this state they supply the place of 
mica, in most of the granitic rocka in the 
vicinity of Mont Blanc. 

Chi-o'hite-schist. a metamorphic rook, 
of a green alaty character, abouudiag with 

Ch ton i'tic- SAND. Sand, coloured green 
by an admiitore of chlorite. ^iypH. 

Chlori'tic. Resembling chlorite ; con- 
taining chlorite. 

Cblobi^ic osanite. Granite contain- 
ing particles of chlorite. 

Cbo'anite, a zoophyte of the chalk for- 
mation, intermediate between Alcyonia 
and Ventriculites. Dr. Mantell, in his 
"Wonders of Geology," stales, "the 
choanite, called petrified sea- anemone 
by lB]iidBries, bears a close resemblance 
to the recent Alcyonia. In tlie choanite, 
crucial spines, resembling those in the 
recent Alcyonia, may be detected. The 
choanite is of a sub-cyhndrical form , 
with root-like proceiises, and having a 
cavity or sac, which is deep and small 
in comparison to the bulk of the animal. 
The iuDEr surface ia studded vrith pores, 
which are the terminal openings of tubes , 
disposed in a radiating manner, end 
ramifying throi^h the mass." The beau- 
tiful pebbles found on tbe shores of Bog- 
nor and Worthing owe their markings to 
the internal structure of the choanite, 
and these are worlieJ into a variety of 
ornaments, as brooches, buckles, ear- 
rings, Ike, &c. Some lately found at 
Worthing have been sold, when cut and 
polished, at high prices. One of the 
finest collections has been made by 
Captain Tompkins, of that town. 

CuoAN'tTKa EoNiGi. A spccics of choa- 
nite to which this name has been given, 
if Jtr. Mantell, " in honour to Charles 
Kiinjg of the Britiab Museum." This 

] C H B 

fossil ia fignred in Dr. Mantell's GeolOfj 
of the soDth-eAst of England, who tbetein 
states that it ia inversely conical ; alter- 
nally marked with irregular fibres, lOiiiB 
of which penetrate the substance, and 
terminate in openings on the inner na- 
face ; central cavity, cylindrical, deep, 
narrow ; base fixed by radical processei. 
This species ia for the moat part cu- 
veloped io large irregular flints, which 
eihibit but slight traces eitemally of the 
body they enclose.— -Dr. Maniell. 

iHaKK-DAMP. A name given by minera 
to carbonic acid. 

^Ho'NnRDDiTE. Hemiprismatic chrfsoUte. 
Aiiothei name for brucite ; a miners! 
composed of magnesia 54, silica 32, 
fluoric acid 4, oxide of iron 2, potass 1, 

:HaoMB. } (from XP"/"*' olour, Gr.) 
^hro'miuh. i This mineral is said ti i 
have obtained its name from the propctt; I 
rting colour to -'^-' 

Chromium was first discovered by Van- 
uuetio in 1797, after a variety of di>«ii- 
ilant analyses made by Macquart, BinJ- 
heim and others. Its principal die il 
found in Siberia, and is a salt of M, 
formed by an acid oxide of chronuBa. 
To the presence of chrome the enwidl 
and the ruby owe their hues. It U owd 
in tinting glass of an emerald green. 
^qry'salis. (from x^^'oi' so'^i beenH 
of the golden colour in the nymphss of 
some insects.) A state of rest and i — '- 
ing insensibility, which butterflies, 
and several other kinds of 
through before ihej arrive at their 
or most perfect state. It is iIk 
aurelta. The figure of the aorelii. 
chrysalis generally approachea 
a cone, and in this state it appears ta 
have neither legs nor wings, nor onf 
power of locomotion ; it seems indeed U 
have hardly so much as life. The time 
of tbe duration of the animal in its chiy- 
salis state ia different in ditferent speeinF 
for while some remain a few days oalji 
others continoe eight months. 

iBKTgOBE'BTl. (frOm XP""''£^ S°^^> »"* 

^ijpiWiov, gemma.) The cyiaophsiiB 
of Haiiy. Chrysopsl of Delame"' "■ 
Werner first made the cbrysoheryl 
tinct species, and gave it the name whidi 
it now bears. Colour, a light yellowia 
or asparagus green. This gem is tut 
in the Brasiia, in Ceylon, in America, 
in Siberia. It consists of alumina 76'7^ 
glnciaa l?-7y, and protoxide of iron 
iBnv'souiTE. (from %pvaoi, gold, 
Xi'doc, a stone, chrysolite, Fr.) 
Peridot of Uaiiy, end Krisolith and 
of Werner. The term chrysolite 
Bi^V^ed.vithaut any regard to distini 



H R 

■ great variety 
nous stoaes, till Werner iletiiicd it 
lely, and CDntined il to that stone 
'.the French mmeralogiats distin- 
^ the appeUation of Peridot (sorte 
Se pr&neuBe. pen recbereb^, qui 
k pen sar le vert.) CbT7>oltl:e 
m a ler; large proportion of inag- 
tpoordingCo same authorities more 
Kf its weigbt, but agreeably to the 
f of othera from forty to fifty per 
fChrysollte is of a grean colour, 

[iracture concboidnl. It causes 
^eEnctlDD. It is infusible St 150°, 
pint temperatue losea its transpa- 
pnd becomes of a dark grey. With 

light grei 

ttmBlte, nithi 
l^arent glass of 
i The cbrysolitea oi cotnmerce 
Inm Upper Egypt and the Brazils ; 
iB also found in Ceylon, in South 
a, and in Bohemia. The variety 
piiitine is met with in Scotland ; 
ke colour is olive-green. Accord- 
le mwlysil of Klaproth, ohrysolite 
t of magnesia 43.S, silica 38'5, 
*" nlS. 

IB. (from ^(pvaDc, gold, and 
. _t«en J c/irpivprete, Fr. Piem 
t ~fmi vert clair mSlf d'%nt 
\it jatme.) A precions stone of 
green coloar. It is a variety of 
r of calcedony. It owes it! 
tto the preeence of the metalf 

on. in 


a different parts' of Germ 
Mj in SUeria. It is always amo 
iud poneisei but little lustra. 
■ of 9G per cent, silica, 1 per cei 
^ nickel, with a trace of iro 

IB. 1 (eicalrix, Lat. cicatrix, Fr. 


,, It) 

remainiug ailer 
mchologyi the glossy impression 
isida of the valves, to whioh the 
of the animal have been alfixed, 

(cidaris, Lat.) A family of 
), characterised by being hemi 
■1, globular, or sub-oval ; witl 
diverging equally oi 
vent to the mouth 
tijcat; moutl) beneath, and central 
Ha ddaris has been given to then 
dr supposed resemblance to tur 
From other characters, derivei 
Mr spines, they have obtained the 
if sea-nrchins, sea-hedgehogs, sea- 
&e., and thosa in a petrified 
ihtained variouE names, ac- 
he parlicnlar, fanciful, and 
tions which have been eiiter- 
Teipecting their origin. ThUE^, 
called ombria, {romS/ijlpor:. Gr. 

] C I R 

signifyinj; the heavy run, in which it wai 
supposed they fell; brontia, from ^povji), 
from an idea that they were thrown to 
the aarth by thunder ; ceraunii lapides, 
from ttpavrhs, Duder an impression that 
tbey were formed in the air and generated 
by lightning ; cbelonites, from their re- 
semblance to the shells of the to 
Bud ova auguina, from their beic 
posed to be the eggs of serpents. 


m cifikBi, Lat.) 


1. Tbe eye-lashes. 

2. Hatr-likc vibratUe organs. The organs 
of mation in the radiated auiinala. The 
cilia reaembTe very miunte hairs, and are 
only visible with the microscope. In tbe 
simpler forms of aoimals, the cilia are 
the orgaus for motion, respiratioo. and 
the obtaining of food. Dr. Grant has 
calculated four hundred millions of them 
on a single Rustra foliacea. 

'I'LtATKn. Fringed, or edged, with paral- 
lel hair, bristles, or appendages ; occupied 
with short atitT hairs. 

^inr'eedus. {cinereua, Lat.) Of a dark 
grey, with a prevalence of black 
colour of wood- ashes. 

^iNEai'Tiooa. (rin«neiiis, Lat.) Aih-j 
colonred ; resembling ashes. 

;i'NNABAa. (from «ii'voj3flpi,Gr, cinaire, 
Fr. cinahro, It.) The mercnre snlphurE 
of Hauy. Native cinnabar is a red, heavy, 
eulphuieouB ore of quicksilver, the prin- 
cipal mines of which are at Idria in 
Carinthia, and at Almaden in Spain. 
Cinnabar is called "ore of merCBry," 
since; from it mercury is obtained. 

;i'N!j*MQN-aTONE. A blood-red, or hja- 
cinth-red, variety of the dodecahedral 
garnet. It consists of silica, alumina, 
lime, and oside of iron. The finest spe- 
cimens are brought from Ceylon, where 
it ia found in the sand of tbe rivi 
is also called Eesonite. 

^i'hcular.. a rouud surface with 
meter equal on all sides. 

^I'RRirF.DE. An annulose, articulal , 
animalwithoutjointedfeet. Cirripedesare 
not plentifnl, and are found only in the 
nppcr secondary, and in tertiary deposits. 

;i'iiiiH0POD. (from eim«| and 
TToDfi Gr.) The cirrhopods, or cirrho- 
poda, tike tbe entomostraceous crastacea, 
are articulated animals, enclosed in shells 
like those of moUusca, bo that they pre- 
sent both forms of the skeleton. Tbe 
cirrhopods are almost always inclosed in 
multivalve Bhclls, Beoreted from the outer 
surface of a fleshy, thin, enveloping, man- 
tle, and arc attached to submarine bodies 
either directly, by their base, oir b-j 
nieanaofaftesliT tM>nilM^4a-ac\e. Tft* 
barnacle is an exsnuAc ol ^^e cvriVn^Qft*.- 


C I R t 

In Cnrier'a arrangemeat the cirrbopoda 
farm the sixth claea of Molluscs. Lia- 
DsDs comprised them all id one genus, 
Lepas ; tliey bave since been divided into 
tno, and again, by atbers, aubdivided. 
Ci'RRua. (ei'mu, Lat.) A genna ol 
fossil Bpira! shells of the chalk depcsit. 
This genua bears great resemblance to 
trocbns. from vLicb, however, itmuybe 
distingnisbed by its deep funnel-shaped 
nmbiUcus, Two species of cirnia, 
namely, cirrus depressns and cirrus per- 
speutivus. are figured in Dr. Mantell's 
" Geoiogj of the South-east of Eng- 

Clathha'kia Lvk'liii, a foaail plant 
discovered by Dr. Mantell, and tbna 
named by him in honour of Charles Lyell, 
Esq. The following description is ex- 
tracted from Dr. Mantell's works. Tlie 
Clathraria Lyellii bears an analogy to the 
yucca, and dracffiaa or dragon -blood 
plant. Stems, with the markiogs of the 
bases of the leavas, point out the relation 
of this TBgetahle to the arborescent 
ferns, white its internal structure is 
essentially different. The clathraria has 
only been found in the quorriea in Fel- 
gate Forest. This vegetable appears to 
have possessed a thick epidermis, or falae 
bark, formed by the union of the bases of 
the leaves, and covered externally with 
distinct rhomboidal scales, each Ecale 
being surrounded by an elevated ridge. 
The form of the leaves is not positively 
known, although, from some imperfect 
traces on tbe stone in a specimen bear- 
ing the impresaiaus of the cicatrices of 
the hoses of the leaves, there is reason to 
conclude that they were of a lineari -lance- 
olate forta. The axis, or interior part of 
tbe trunk, originally enclosed by tbe 
bark, occurs in the state of solid subcy. 
lindrical blocks of sandstone, attenuated 
at their base, tbe surfaces of which are 
marked with longitudinal interrnpted 
ridgea, and, in some instances, are deeply 
imbricated ; they are generally of a daik- 
brnwn colour. 

Clavage'lla. a ^nns of bivalves, of 
which only one species has been found 
recent in the Siciliau seas. It has two 
irregidar, flitdsh valves, one of which is 
clasped by tbe tube, the other being left 
free. Mr. Sowerby observes, "The shells 
composing this genus are found in etonea, 
madrepores, &a. and appear to form tbe 
connecting link between Aspergillom. 
which lias both valves cemented into the 
tube, and Fistulana which has both 

C L I 


rarest substances in the mineral kJn|- 
dom) it is termed alumina, but under tht 
term clay is comprehended sn eitensive 
class of compounds, of which silei i> a 
principal constituent. Clay, then, nuiy be 
defined an unctuous and tenaciona earth, 
capable of being moolded into form. 
Clays are firmly coherent, weighty, com- 
pact and hard when dry, hot stiCT, visiad, 
and ductile when moist ; beings smaDth 
also and unctuous to the touch, BendM 
alumina and silica, oUys often contain 
CBi'bonate of lime, magnesia, barytes, 
oside of iron, &o. When clay is breathed 
on, it yields a peculiar smell ; It has also 
a strong affinity for moislnre, which U 
shewn by its sticking to the tongue, 
when applied to it. 
ClAV-aLATE. (The argillite of Kirwan.) 
An LuduraCed clay or shale, common to 
tbe fossiUferoua and metamorphic series. 
Clay-slate is opaque, of various shades 
of colour, Bud of ditferent degrees at 
hardness, but easily scral^bed by inn. 
It is composed of about fifty per cent.ofl 
silex, twenty-five of alumine, and ten or 
twelve of aiide of iron. Some varieties 


Cla'ysionb. An earthy stone resemblinf j 
indurated day, and generally of a colour I 
approaching to purple ; it is a variety of ' 
prismatic felspar. 1 

Clea'vagg. a peculiar fractnre, im- 
pressed by nature, which is aooietinies 
mistaken for stratification. This is pret- 
tily described by Dr. ManteU : •• If 1 
take a ditit and break it at random, it 
still preserves a concboidal fracture, i 
sharp cutting edge ; and subdivide it u 
1 may, it still retains tbe same oboraotB'. 
If I shiver to pieces calcati 
every fragment presents, more i 
tincdy, a rhomboidal form ; 
the remark, that we cannot break ■ sbUH 

but in 



(elamcuta, Lat. cla'CiEuie, Fr. 
clavicula, It.) Tbe collar-bone. 
LAT. When clay is quite pure and un- 
mixed (and in this state it is one of the 

The regular partings or oleavaget i* 
many slate rocks which intersect theb(dii| 
nearly at right angles to their dip or b 
clination, have often been mistaken h 
strata seams, and have led geologists N 
some eminence to draw very e 

Clka'vklakdite. a mineral, I 
this name has been given after 1 
Cleavelond i it has been also ( 

Cleft. A space made by the sepa 
of parts; in rocks, a crack or " ' 
r.E^T. Divided ; cloven. 
r.i'HniNO. In botany, plants a 
climbing, when they n " ' 
bodies (namely, walls, i 

. bj , 

a of t 

ndhegive fibres. 

(So named from its jielJ- 
ng a metallic sound nben struRfc.) 
Called ateo pbonoliCe, a felapatliic rock of 
he trap family. Id bBBalt or wade, 
rhen the feLfip&r greatly prevaila, nnd the 
erCnre becomes nearly compact, baaalt 
■aaaes into clinkstone ; Bgain, wben cliuli- 
tone has a mure earthy textnre, it passes 
nto claystone, Clinkstone oftea contains 
nbedded crystals of felspar, and then 
eo<imeg a lrap~porphyiy. varying id 
oloor acconling to the pravailing ingre. 
iienta of its haee. The colour of clink- 
tone is grey, oF various shades. 
EMo'mbtes. (from (Xi'vu and /itrpov, 
It.) An instmment, invented by R. 
Iriffith, Esq., for meaauring the dip of 
aineral strata. 

I'vEf. In botany, leaves are called clo- 
en, wheD the margins of the segments 

and fissnres are straight. 
Clo'vatb. In concbology, thicker towards 

the top, elongated tonarda the base. 
Cldnch. a proiindal term for a sort of 

iadorated clay which is found dividing the 

'ECS. (Lat.) A diviaion of the first 
£ of echinites. The fossil eobinitee of 
Kcond division of anocysti are distin. 
piialied as clyppi, from their eimilitade in 
i>rm to the round bncblers of the ancient 

Ml., (col, Sax. iol. Germ. Hole, Datcb.) 

Coal is composed of charcoal, bitumen, 

id earthy matter ; the latter forms the 

_.lie» which remain after combustion. 

Common coal is a black, solid, and com- 

ict substance, generally of a foliated, or 

ither laminated, slmcture, which neceS'- 

irecta its fractare. Ita specilicgra- 

1-25 to 1-37. It cakea into cinders 

combustion in proportion to its 

of purity, and the nature of the 

which enter into its composition, 

has obtained various names from vu- 

iei of sppearaucB, hacdnesa, situation 

nee obtained, &c. &c. 

roEMATiON. The carboniferous gronp 

Mods the grauwacke in the ascending 

e» of Europe, and is eo called because 

KTeat mass of European coal is in. 

among the rocks of which it is 

imposed. Considered in ita greatest 

'eraUty, and with reference to where 

mutes appear in the greatest simpli. 

', Hie cBrhnniferouB system coDBists of 

Lrae Formatians, namely, tlie eoalforma- 

»a, a mass lOOO yards or more in thick- 

tsa, consiBtiug of indetinite alternations 

' shales snd sandstones of different kinds, 

itb aboot fifty feet of coal in many beds, 

ue iroustone layers, and (very rarely) 

in layeri of limestone.' moanlaia limf 

] C O A 

gtoM, a mass of calcareous rocks, from 
500 to 1500 feet in thickness i and old 
red tandtlont, a mass of orpnaccoua and 
argillaceous rocks, varying in thickness 
from 100 to 10.000 feet. The total thick- 
ness of coal exiiting in the English and 
Scotch fielda ia generally about 50 or 60 
feet, divided into 20 or more beds, of a 
thickness of from six feet to a few inches, 
alternating with frnm twenty to fifty or 
one hundred times as great a thickness of 
shales and sandstones. Every coal dis- 
trict has ita peculiar series of strata, un- 
connected with any other. A district 
with its peculiar series of strata ia called 
a cool-field. Coal-fields are of limited 
extent, and the strata frequently dip to a 
common centre, being ofKn arrmiged in 
basin-shaped coocavicies, which appear to 
have been originally detached lakes, that 
were gradually filled Dp by repeated depo- 
sitions of carbonaceoua and mineral mat' 
ter, In some of the larger coal-fields, the 
original form of the lake cannot he traced, 
but in the smaller ones it is distinctly 
preserved. The stratum lying over a bed 
of cool is called its roof, and the stratum 
under it, the floor. On the eastern side 
of England, the coal strata generally dip 
to the sonth-eaat point ; on the western 
side the strata are more frequently thrown 
into difierent and opposite directions, by, 
what are termed, fanlts and dykes. A 
fault is a break or intersection of strata, 
by which they are commonly either sad- 
denly raised or depressed, so that in 
working a coal-mine, the miners come 
suddenly to its apparent termination. A 
dyke is a wall of mineral matter which 
from igneoua or volcanic action has forced 
upwards through the strata, cutting them 
in a dlrectioD nearly vertical. In these 
esses sometimes the coal is reduced to a 
cinder for some distance on either side of 
the wall or dyke. One of the green-atone 
dykes of Ireland, psssingtbroughabed of 
coal, has reduced it to a cinder for the 
space of nine feet on each side. Our »n- 
cient coal /ormaliaa has not been found 
in Italy, Spain, Sicily, or in any of the 
more southern countries in Europe. Coal 
is now universally admitted to be of ve- 
getable origin, a question which was long 
disputed. It is not uncommon to find 
among the cinders beneath onr grates, 
traces of fossil plants, whose cavities 
having been filled with silt, at the time of 
their depoaitioD in the vegetable mass, 
that gave origin to the coal, have lert the 
imprcasion of their forms upon clay and 
sand enclosed within them, sharp as those 
received by a cast from the interior of a 
mould. Mr. HuttoD has recently disco, 
vered the most, deoiBi-iB ani ■HlSw^^lM«l 
proof ot tUc VRseU\>\e 011^''^ c-it-o. <A *» 

c o A I a 

moat bltaminoua coal ; he bas aiceTt^dned 
(hut if sny of the three varictica of coal 
found near NewcaBlle be eut into verj 
thin slices nad eubuiUled to [he miuro- 
■cope, more or less of legeuble ilructare 
can be recognised. He sayB, ''each of 
these three kinda of coal, besides the line 
distinct reticulation of Ihe original yege- 
tabie teiture, exhibit* other eella, which 
are filled with a light winB-yellow- coloured 
matter, apparently of a hitumioouB natare, 
and which is so volatile as to be entirely 

- ' oipelled by heat, before any change in 
effected in the other conslituenlB of the 
cool." The plants of the carboniferDue 
group are by no means confined to tbe 
■implcBt forms of vegetation, aa to crypto- 
gamic plants ; but, on the contrary, be- 
long to all the leading divisions of the 
vegetable kingdom ; some of the more 
fully developed forms, both of the dicoty- 
ledonous and monocotyledanoas class, ha- 
Tiug been already discovered, in the first 
three or four hundred species brought to 
light. If violence had attended the trans- 
port of the plants now converted inta 
coal, or discovered fossil in tbe associated 
beds, the appearance of those in the latter 
would not be as we now find them: in- 
atead of appearing as if spread out by the 
botanist for exaniination, we shonld have 
had them crushed and disfigured. More- 
over, tranquillity seems requisite to ei- 
plain the condition of those vertical, or 
nearly vertical, stems of plants discovered 
in the coal measures of different aituations, 
where they have been gradually enveloped 
by difTerent beds of sandstone or shale 
through which they appear to pierce. The 
alternations of limestones containing ma- 
rine remains, and of sandstones, shales, 
and coal-beds, vHth no trace of a marine 
animal in them, are eiceedingly remark, 
able, and seem difficult of explanation, 
vtitbout calling in the aid of oscillations 
of the solid surface of the earth, by which 
very gradual risings and depressiana are 

The study of the more ancient coal 

' deposits has yielded the most extr 
nary evidence of an extremely hot climate 
for it appears from the fossils of that pi 
riod that the flora consisted almost excli 
sivelr of large vascular cryptogamio plants. 
M. Ad. Brongniart states that tbei 
isted at that eimch equiseta upwards of 
ten feet high, and from five to sii inches 
in diameter; trec-fems, or plants allied 
to them, of from forty to fifty feet in 
lielght, and arborescent lycopodiaoeic, of 
from giity to seventy feet high, eiceeding 
in tbeir development those now found in 
the hottest parts of the globe. The New- 
castle coal-Seld is snpplying rich mate- 
to the fossil flora of Great Britain. 

] C O A 

The finest example of distinctly preserved 
vegetable remains is that witnesaed in the 
coal-mines of Bohemia. ■' Tbe mi»t ela- 
borate imitations," says Prof. Bnckland, 
■' of living foliage upon the painted cril- 
ings of Italian pajaces, bear no comparimi 
with the beauteous profusion of eidnct 
vegetable forms, with which the gallerici 
of tbtae instructive coal-mines are nver- 
hnng. The roof is covered as viith a ca- 
nopy of gorgeous tapestry, enriched wiA. 
festoons of most graceful foliage, Sung it 
wild, irregular profusion over every por- 
tion of its surface. The spectator fe^ 
biiDself transported, bb if by enchantment, 
into the forests of another world ; he be- 
holds trees, of forms and cbaractera now 
unknown upon the surface of the earth, 
presented to his senses almost in the 
beauty and vigour of their primeval life; 
their scaly stems, and bending branches, 
With their delicate apparatus of foliage, 
are all spread forth before him; little 
impaired by the lapse of counttest 
ages, and bearing faithful records of ex- 
tinct systems of vegetation, which begaa 
and terminated in times of which tbcM' 
relics are the infallible historians." I 
hardly conclude this article better, I 
by again drawing on the compoailJDI 
the above quoted elegant and elnqneat 
author, in transferring Co my page fi 
his delightful work on Geology and! 
neralogy the following beautifiil passi 
" The important uses of coal and iroi 
administering to the supply of our d 
want?, give to every individual amongA 
us, in almost every moment of our Kya, 
a personal concern in the geological eventi' 
of theae very distant eras. We si 
brought into immediate eonnexion 
the vegetation that clothed the am 
earth, before one-half of its actual ai 
had yet been formed. The trees of the 
primeval foreats have not, like moderl. 
trees, undergone decay, yielding back thdr' 
elements to the soil and atmosphtire by 
which they bad been 'nourished ; bat 
treasured up in subterranean slorebousea, 
have been transformed into enduring bedV 
of coal, which in these later ages have bs'i 
come to man the sources of heat, and li^: 
and wealth. My fire now bums with fod, 
and my lamp is shining with tbe li^it if 
gas, derived from coal which baa besi 
buried for countless ages in the deep aad 
dark recesses of the earth. We prsp&W 
our food, and maintain oar forges ast 
furnaces, and the power of our steam-n-J 
ginca, with the remains of plants otaaisett 
forms and extinct species, which ««• 
swept from the earth ere the formation at- 
the transition series was completed. Thtt%; 
from the wreck of forests that waved u; 
Ibe sarface of the primeval lands, . 

C O A [ ! 

froin ferruginous mad that wu lodged at 
the bottom of the primeTal waters, we 
derive onrcliief GUfipIies of coil and iron ; 
tlioae two fundamental etementD of art aud 
industry, nLich cod tribute more than any 
other mineral prodncdoos of the eartb, to 
increoee tbe ricbes, and multiply the com- 
forta, and amelioratd the eondition of 

Coa'rct&tb. (eoarcialia, Lat) Preesed 
togEther. A term used in entomology, to 
eiprens that etate nherciu tlie larva Is. 

Co'balt. (The word colult lecma to b« 
dedved from cvialui, or ioiold, the name 
of a spirit, or goblin, that, according ti> 
the aupentitious notions of the timeti, 
haantfld mioes, destroyed tbe norki of 
the miners, and often gave them much 

tomaiy in Germany to iutroduce into tbe 
church cervice a prayer tbnt God would 
preserve miners and their works from 
kobalts and spints.) 

Xhia metat is of a gray colour, with a 
Bhads of red, with but little lustre ; its 
textare is librous ; specilic gravity 8'6, 
Fuffible only at a temperature of l(i'(ir7 
of Fabrenheit. When heated, cobatt is 
I parti}! malleable ; it is penninently inag- 
I uetic. The line blue mineral caUed zaffre 
P is ui impure oxide of this metal. Tbe 
colour of this oiide is so intense that a 
■ingle ^ain of it will impart a full blue to 
2*0 pains of glass. An oiidc of Cobalt, 
dissolved Jn muriatic acid, forma a sym- 
pathetic ink; the charauters written with 
it being invisible when cold, but on eipo- 
tute lo hesi assuming a bright green co- 
hjur, which on cooling they sgun lose. 
The principal use of cobalt is to ^ve lo 
glass and porccUio a beautiful blue colour. 
Co'bble. ) a pebble. This word ii 

Co^BSLB-STONE. J glven by Ray as be- 
Imging to the northern counties. Cob- 
bis has Che same signification as boolder. 
Cooci'rsaotia. (from kuikdCi a beiry, and 
firo, to heal.) Any plant or tree bearing 

Co'ccoliVe. (from K6tKoc and XiQos, Gr.t 
A mineral of a green colour, a variety of 
angite : called aUo Granular Augite. 

Co'cHLKS. (cBcAlea, Lal.J Univalves 
shells of one piece. 

Co'CHLBAti. 1 Tnisted like a s«rew, or tbi 

soreired or turbinated form. 
Co'cKi.t:. See Cardiuia. 
Co'eds. Petrifactions resembli 
It mnus. 

i of 



DS. (from COR and le/ag, Lat.) 
jhh age with another. 
1 (poiomii, Lat.) Of the same 
i age. The word coeval re- 
quires to be followed by wilA, coetaneous 

ib'liac. Relating or pertdning to the 
abdominal cavity, or belly. 
Cohk'hb. (eoAirreo. Lat.) To stick to- 
gether; (D hold fast one to anuther, as 
parts of the same mass. Particles of clay 
are said to coAert. 
:ohe'bence. IThatstateofbodies in which 
;oiib'b«nct. i their parts are joined to- 
gether, so that they resist divulsioo or 

Ioue'sion. (eoVnoB, Fr. eoeiicme, It.) 
The act of sticking together, or being 
united, by natural attraction ; one of the 
different kinda of attraction. 

JoHU'siVE. That has the property of uni- 
liug in a mass to as to resist separation. 

Iohe'siviness. The quality of being 
cohesive ; the property of resisting sepa- 

a sheath. 
9 order of 
igement of 

tA. (fror 
- ., Or. a 

ing.) A 

insects, according 
LinuKus, having ft 
upper being cmataeeous, and farming a 
shield. In this order are included Sea* 
rabEeus, Lucanus, Dermesttts, Coceinella, 
Curculio, Lampyris, Meloe, Staphylil 
Forfienla, &e. In Cuvicr's urrai 
coteoptera forma the fifth order 
Insects, and it comprises four sectiona, 
divided according to the number of jointa 
in the tarsi. The first, Pontamera, com^ 
prises those in which all tbe tarsi cooaisl 
of five joiuts ; these are Camivora, Bra- 
chelytia, Serricomes, Claviuomes, and 
Palpicornes. The second, Heteromera, in 
which the foor first tarsi have five joints, 
and the two lost four each ; this section 
comprises Melasama, Taxicornes, Ste< 
nelf tra, and Trachelides. The third sec- 
tion includes those in which all the tarsi 
have four joints ; these are Rhyncophoraf 
Xylopbagi, Platjsoma, Longicomes, Eu- 
poda, Cyclics, and Vivalpi. The fourth 
section, Trimera, consists of such as hara 
only three joints to each tarsus, and eota- 
p rises Fungicolte, Apbidiphagi, and 
Pselaphii. Nearly all these families of 
the four sections are subdivided into ge~ 
neri, but some consist of a aiogle genus. 

:oLEo'PTiRous. Belonging Co the order 
Coleoptera ; having a homy hollow case 
underwhich the wings are folded. Cole' 
opterons insects have tour wings, tbe two 
superior resembliag horizontal scales, and 
joining in a straight line along the inner 
margin ; the inferior wings are merely 
folded transversely, and covered with 
cases, commonly called elytra. 

^o'LOLifK. (from jcJiAov, and Xffloc, Gr.) 
The name given to the fossil iotestines of 
fishes by M. Agassii. 

;:o'lon. (kwXdw, Gr. colon, Lat. colon, 
Fr.) One of the Vat^e \i\W.**<rt»,, »m 
by muck \,\ie ion^wa*., TiVt «i\sro. «w 


11 at the FCecnn 

CoLo'pHOMiTK. A Tirowa nr re4 variety of 
dodecahedral garnet, having h reaino-ada- 
manline lustre ; it in chiefly fonnd at 
Arenttal, in Norway. It conaiatH of ai- 
li(»37'0, alumina 13'6, lime21t'n, oiide 
of iron 7*4, magnesia 6'5, oxide of man- 
ganeae I'D, water I'O. 

CoLu'MBiTe. A mineral ore, the ore of 

Colu'mbium, a metal first discovered in 
1801 in a mineral brought from North 
America, from which it received its name. 
It a of a dark grey colour, very deuae, 
and difficult of fusion. 

Gdluhb'lla. (Lat.) In conchology, the 
upright pillar in the centre of most of the 
uniralTe ahclle. 

Co'lumw. In botany the central point of 
union of the partitions of the aeed-seGeel, 
(that is in a capanle containing many 
cells) to which the Seeds are nanally at- 


(cotaalvs, Lat.) Hairy. In 

entomology, having the upper part of the 
head, or yertoi, alone covered vrith long 
Coma'tcla. An existing species of the 
family of Crinoidea. '^le comatula pre- 
sents a conformity of Etructure vith that 
of the pEntacrinite, almost perfect in 
every essential part, except that the co- 
lumn 1b either wanting, or at leaat re- 
duced to H single plate. Peron states 
that the comatuta Buspends itself hy its 
side BTDiB fromfuci, and in this position 
. watches for its prey, and obtains it by 

its spreading arms and fingers. — Miller. 
CoMH. ~j Thesewords, thuadifferenOywrit- 
CoMBK. > ten, appear to be of Saion ori- 
CoouB. ! gin. Kay gives the second as 
a south and east coaotry word, and de- 
fines it to be a valley, " nallia vlrinque 
coUibug insita." Lyeli states it to be a 
provincial name for a valley on the de- 
clivity of a hill, and which is generally 
without water. Bncklaud says, "the 
term Combe is usually applied to that un- 
watered portion of a valley, which forms 
its continuation beyond, and above the 
moat elevated spring that issues into it ; 
at this point, or spring-heod, the valley 
ends and the catnbe tt^ns." A narrow 
nndolatii^ ravine. 
Coubd'stible, (Fr.) Having the qna- 
' lity of catching fire ; susceptible of fire. 
CoMBTi'lTiON. (ootninsd'on, Fr. eomiv- 
1 It.) Consumption by fire; the 
diieagagemeDt of light and lieat whioh 
'S cbemwii combiostion. 

Cohminu'tion. The act of pulverising, 

or breaking into small parts. 
Co'mmisschk. (ctmminmra, Lat.) 

joint, seam, or suture. 
Compacts D. (eompaclm, Lat.) Rrmly 

pressed together 1 closely pressed. 
Compa'ctlt. Closely; densely. 
Cohfre'bskd. ieompressHa, Lat.) 

1. In botany, leaves are so temied when > 
flattened laterally. 

2. Inconehology, having one valve flatter 
than the other- 
Cow PnK9si'Bn.iTT. The quality of being 

brought into a smaller compasa ; thai' 
air is compressible, wa(er is not. 

Compbb'ssiblb. {cnmpreiaible, Fr. 
P«i e»ere compretso. It.) lliat mayW 
forced by pressure into a smaller epaoe. 

Compbe'hsdbe. The force of one bodf' 
pressing against or upon another. 

Co'mptomite. a mineral thus namei 
Lord Compton, wlio first brought it to< 
England, found in (be erupted matter fli' 
Vesuvins. i 

Cokca'meuated. (from concaniero, Llt.)i 
Arched over; vanlted. 

Concameba'tion. (eoncamerBlio, Lat^ 
An arched chamber. In conchology eDB--' 
cameratioDS are those small chambeiv' 
into which multilocular shells are divided 
by transverse septa, as in the 
ammonite, &o. 

Co'ncavk. (conca™., Lat. con 
concavo. It.) Hollow, as the i 

face of an egg-shell ! opposed t( 

when the surface gradually declinei toJ 
wards its centre, the centre being thS' 

Con'cavkness. Hollowness. 
Conca'vity. (concori^^, Fr. concaniia, It)l 

The internal Eurfaee of a hollow sphMb 

cal or spheroidal body. 
Conoa'vo-co'ncave. Concave, or hoUow, 

on both sides. 
Conca'vo-co'nvki. Having oi 

cave, the otber convex. 
Concb'ntric. ( cmireitiriqve, 

cenlrica. It.) Having oi 

s the 

f the OJ 

apphed to the d 

rection taken by the lines of growth i 

spiral bodies. 
^oiica. (eoHc/ia, Lat. toyxii GO A' 

marine shell. 
]0NCB Ji. Shells consisting of two or mon 

pieces or valves, as bivalves, and mnltk 

^o'ncbifer. a class of molluBca, the COB) 
stractors and inhabitsntB of bivBlvel^ 
All tnrbinated and simple shells are CW 
strocted by molluscs of a higher ordei 
tlian Ike conchifers, which construct lur 

^^HboN ^^H 

t the former have hesils ind eyes ; 

Tlie aet or quality of grovrlug by the 

lera are without eillier, and posstsa 

union of separate particles. 

1 low degree of any other senae than 

CoSL-HYLio'LiTHtis. ) (from niyxH' "^^ 

and biHle. Tlma the whelk is an 

Conchy'uolite. t XlSdc.) a fossil 

t of a higher order than the muscle 


Bter— Buci/ourf. Lamarli divides 

Concbk'tb. (from roncraca, Lat.) To 

ifeta.which includes all the bivalyes, 

coalesce into onemais; to grow by the 

wo orders, Dimjaria and Mono- 

union and cohesion of particles. 

Concek'tb. {concrete, Pr. contreto. It. 

FEROua. (from coacha, andyn-o, 

crmerflam, Lat.) A msss formed by 

the onion and coheaion of various par- 

A,e »helh.. 


PBEUA. A class of mollueca, 

Concrk'tiom. (concTf/iDo, Fr. cottcrt- 

tine Inyalie sheila. See ConeAiftr. 

.ctoitf, It.) A coalitioti. union, or cohe- 

>B. (eoneAyles, Fr. eoqttiUci pe- 

sion of separate particles. 

K) Petrified, or foaril, Bhells. 

Condb'nsable. That which is capable 

HD. In geometry, the name giien 

of h eing drawn or pressed into a narrower 

cnrreunented by Nicomedes. 

apace or compass. 

('oAL. Shelly i aheU-Uke. The 

CoNnENSA'TioK. (condeiuatioji, Fr. con- 

re' of flint ia sail to be conchoidal. 

detisaiime, It.) The act of forcing 

to rBsemble a ^liell, haling convei 

bodies into a smaUer apace. 

Klis and concave depreaaioaa. 

Conde'-<se, (from CDn^eMco, Lat. eon- 

tBPAB. A genus of oval yaulted 
rnlAT molluscs ; oue apeciea ddIt is 

deiuer, Fr. condfiware. It.) To force 

Coz^nE'NsiTT. The slate of being con- 

U from Peru. 


M/GicAL. Relating to the science 

CoNDc'cTOR. (from condvco, Lat. con. 


(iwcWur, Ft.} Any anh- 

M^Biai. {from concAologs.) One 

Etance capable of receiving and trans- 

mitting electricity, or the electric virtue. 

LoeT. (from K6yxv, concha, and 

or fluid, or spark. 

Co'NnuiT. (coitduile. Fr. eondatto. It.) 

of natural history which treats 

Any boUow veascl for the conveyance of 

aceoQS ammals, or animsle having 

water, or any other flnid, from one place 

leeous covering, whether they iu- 

to another. 

Ois ocean, or fresh water, or the 

Co'-NUYLK. (erii/JvXoc, Gr. condylia, Lat. 

CDHrfy/s. Fr.) The condyles are bony 

1 upon the eicluBive shape of the 

projections, or eminences, at the ends of 

Ind not the animal inhabitant, that 

bonea, as the condyles of the sbonlder- 

bone at the elbow ; the condyles ot the 

4y periods, naturaliata hesitated 

thigh-bone at the knee. 

s to construct the airangemBnt 

Co'mdtloiI.. (from K6viv\oi and (IZoq, 

Ihe animal or the sheU ; it was. 

form, Gr.) Anapophyaia of a bone. 

Cone. (ic<j|/oe, Gr. cona», Lat. eSne, Fr. 

be from the latter. The greater 

cono. It.) 

shells are found without tlie ani- 

1. A solid figure having a circle for its 

them, and all fosai! shells can only 

base, and terminating in a point ; a figure 

[rmiued by their form. The Lin- 

reaemhiiog a sugar-loaf. 

arrangement of abells conaiatB of 

2. The fruit of the fir-tree ; a catkin 

irders, namely, Univalsea, Bivalves, 

hardened, and enlarged into a seed- 

[ultivBives. Univalves consist of 


complete in one piece, as the 

CoNCK-BVA. A genus of plants, class 

Cryptogama, order AlgK. 

lUi of two parts, or valves, gene- 

Confiouka'tid.-j. (Fr. Forme extMevre, 

umnected by a cartilage or liga- 

oa tKrface qui borne le> corpi, et tear 

•I the oyster, muscle, cackle, &c. 

danne vne figure parliculiere.) 

dvm are shells consisting of more 

1. The form of a body iu relation to its 

Hum two, BS chiton, lepas, and 

varions parts, and their mutual adap- 

. Every part of a iheU which is 


«ed by a cartiiage, ligament, hinge. 

2. The conjunction, or mutual aspect of 

h, is called a valve of such shell. 

the planets. 

I three orders of sheila, the uni- 

Confla'tion. (con/o«o, Lat.) The cast- 

ani the most numerous, both in 

ing or meltjng of metai. 

«ad speoiea, 

Co'nfluesce. yiom cwijluo,\j&. tofta*^^ 

■CENCB. (from eoito'Ofca, Lat.) 

or run together, ) ^^^H 


CON [ 

1. Tbe janctioD, or flawinE together, of 
two or more Btraama. 

2. Tbe point of junction between Cwa 
or more boilise of water i thus, we speali 

(conflHfnt, Ft. amfiuenle. 
It.) Running into one another; running 
into one channel. 

Co'nfi.dx. {conjburio, Lat.) A l!awing 
togstlier b; the union of two or more 
currents or streams. 

CoNra'RMABLE. (cBufomie, Fr. eii}\frmae, 
It.) A term nsed in geology to express 
pHrsllel strata lying npon each oUier ; 
thus, whea several horizontal strata are 
deposited, one upon another, they are 
said to be in a conformalile poBition, but 
when horizontal are jjlaced over vertical 
strata, they ate said to be tiaeoinformaile, 
BO far as regards the hocizootal in relation 
to the vertical strata. 

Con fo'km ABLY. In agreement with one 
another. Horiiontal strata placed on 
parallel strata lie conformail!/ ,- when 
placed on vertical strata, or strata having 
an inclination, or dip, they rest uncom- 

Conform a'tion. (earifomuitio, Lat. con- 
/DrMB/i™, Pc. cot^ormaiione, It.) TUe 
form, shape, or atmcture of a body, as 
regards the disposition of the various 
parts, and their relation to each other. 

CoNFo'aMiTT. (cOTj/oiTHiVe, Fr. eonfor- 
miVfl, It.) Simihtude ; resemblance. 

Confrioa'tion. (from con and ^I'co, 
Lat.) Tbe act of rubbing against ano- 
ther body. 

Conge'nbh. (Lat.) A thing of the same 
kind or nature ; species of the same 

Conge NBi 

the SI 

Fr.) or 

1. lit anatomy, muscles vbicli act to- 
gether to produce the same mavement are 
called congenerous. 

2. In botany, plants of the same genera. 
Conok'neracv. Similarity of origin. 
Conqene'hic. Of the same nature or 

kind I belonging to the same genus. 

ComDu'rieb. (Lat.) A collection of many 
particles into one mass \ an aggregate, or 
mass, of particles. 

Cong».acia'tiok. {from conglado, Lat.) 
Tbe state of being converted into ice ; tbe 
act of changing into ice. 

CoNOE.o'nATE. {cotiglobaivs, Lat.) Ga- 
thered together in a round ball ; conglo- 
bate glands are such as are smooth in 
their surface, and seem to be made up of 
one continned surface. 

Conolo'batklt. In a spherical form 

Congld'bclate. To gather into a round 


CoNOto'KEHATE. {canglomkroiua, Lat.) 
This in geology has the same meaning 
us breccia, and pudding-stone. A masa 
of fragmentsunitedby somecement. Geo- ' 
logical writers have cbosea to define the 
term variously, and oppusitelf, toonaano- I 
ther ; tlius Ljell Blutea a conglomerate ta < 
iie " rounded water-worn fragments of 
rock or pebbles, cemenied together by 
another mineral substanoe." Maatdt 
defines it "fragments cemented toge- 
ther." Bakewell "large fragments of 
stone, whether rounded or angular, and 
imbedded In clay or sandstone." Ure 
" a compound mineral mass, in which 
angular fragments of rock are imbedded. 
Tlie Italian word breccia has ~ 
meaning." Mantell, in his "Wonders 
of Geology," p. 417, has " the most 
interesting beds of these conglomerate), 
or breccias, in this country." 

posed of several giomerate glands, whose 
excretory ducts unite in one coomiaa 
duet : the liver, kidneys, pancreas, &c. . 
are all conglomerate glands. 

CoNGi.oMaaA'i?ioN. Accumulation i: 
baU, or mass. 

Con clu'ti NATS. (eoKpfufino, 

ffluliiter, Fr. caaglvliaarB, It.) To glai 
together ; to cement, or unite, by aome I 
viscid or glutinous medium. 

Conolu'tinated. Cemented ; gluadd 
uuited by some glutinous matter. "^ 

Cokglutina'tion. {conglutijialion, 
cenghitimzione. It.) The act of ^■^ 
togetlier ; of healing by the Gnt & 

Having the property I 
of uniting. 

Co'nic. -1 (from eonicua, Lat.) Harii 

Cos'iCAL. {. the form ' 

Con'ice. J decreasing from its base ^ 
wards ; rounded, and having a 
for its base, and a pouit for its apex. • 

Co'nic SECiiONS. Lines formed by fl 
plane cutting a cone. If a right cone 1R 
a circular base be cut at right angles ta 
the base by a plane passing tbroagh tbi 
apex, tbe section will be a triangle. If Uu 
cone be cut through both sides by a ' ~ 

If tl 

it slanting qt 

through both sides, the section will hcl* 
ellipse. If the cone be cut gmraltel n 
one of the sloping sides, the section viU 
be a parabola. And if the plain cut onlf 
one side of the coue, and he not partUd 
to tbe other, the section nill be ■ tf- 

Co'nicallv. In the form of a 

Co'kicalness. The state or quality d 

being conical. 
CoHi'iiEajB. (from eonun and yero, IM.). 

An order of trees bearing ci 


CON [5 

r eontaitiingtheBeeds; thefilteenthorilerin 
< UnniEnH'B Fragmenta Mctbodi Muturalie, 

■ and the fifty-first of his nBtnral orders. 
The ConirtrK are pUnta whose temale 
flowert, placed at a dutance from the 
-nulcitnther on the same ordiBtinct roots, 
■re formed into a coae. 

"liieConiferte,'' says Professor Buct- 
land, "form b large and verj important 
tribe amoDg living plants, which are cha- 
raetoriaed not only by pecnliarities in 
their flmctilieation, (having their seeds 
originally naked, and not enclosed within 
an orarj ; for which reason they have 
been arranged in a distinct order, as 
Gymnoapemoaa Fhanegoramiie,) but 
also by certaia remarkahle arrange - 

1 the s 

nhereby the smallest fragment may bi 
identified. The recoenition of these pecn- 
Uar characters in the structure of the 
•tem, is especially important to the gEo- 
logical botanist, beL'snse the stems of 
ptanta are often the only parts Tiliich are 
found preserred in a fossil state. A 
transierse section of any coniferous 
wood, in addition to the radiating and 
concentric lines, eiliibits nnder the mi~ 
eroscope a system of reUculatioas by 
which conifsTE are distinguisbnble from 
other plants. It appears that the coni- 
fers are common to fossiliferons strata of 
all periods ■, they are least dbundant 

the tj 

isition s 

the aecondary, and most frequent in tlie 
tertiaiy series. All the trees of this 
order secrete resin, have branched trunks, 
and linear, rigid, entire leaves : species 

Co'siLiTE. A genus of molluscous nnt- 
valves. placed both by Lamarck and De 
Blainville in the family Orthocerata. It 
is conical, straight, or slightly curved. 

" The difference between cooilites and 
bacolilei, is that the eitemal sheath of 
the latter ii thin, and not filled up with 
solid matter, from the point of the alveole 
to the Bpei, as in the former." — Sou'eriy, 

Co'siTK. An ash-colonred mtneral, be- 
coming brown by ciposure to the atmo- 

or leariets. 
Co'nnate. (connndim, Lat.) Applied t 
l«avfs. when two leaves are so united d 
their base as to have the appearance c 

leSii'og and (Woe, Gr.) 

] CON 

Resembling a oone in form ; sugar-loaf 

Conbo'lioatb. (from rotunlider, Fr. ren- 
ilre/erme.) To form into a compact and 
solid body ) to nnite into a aohd mass. 

CoNSt/LiDATEo. (rowofirfodM, Lat. con- 
nilidf, Fr.) Made firm, solid, compact. 

Conkolida'tion. Icanialidalion. Fr. ren- 
mlidarionc. It.) The act of making into 
n compact and sohd mass. 

Constri'ngknt. {rortntrinstTis, Lat.) 
Having Iho power or quality of compress- 
ing, binding, or contracting into a smaller 

Fr.) The state of being eonlemporary 
with. Tbis word is used by J. Piiillips : 
" it becomes a very curiona problem to 
determine what are the lines of confmi- 
parimeity in the oolitic systeai.'' 

CnNTKMPOttA'NEojJs. \{CBnlejHpBrain, Fr. 

Conte'hpoharv. j coetaufo. It.) 
Eiistlng at the same period. 

Contk'mporart. One who lives at the 
same time with another. 

Co»TE'i,Mi«m.. Imlmmu,, \M.) 
Bordering npon ; contiguuus ; touching 
at the boundaries. 

Contbkra'nbods. {amttrrimnui, Lat.) 
Of the same country. 

Cohtigd'itt, {contiguity, Fr. contiguila, 
It.) Actual contact. 

CoNTiNo'iTT. icontmuitai, Lat. poatiatiiti, 
Fr. eostinuita, It.) Uninterrupted con- 
nection, without the intervention of any 

CoNTo'ttaios. ) (cDniorrioti, Fr. 
Conto'rtion. i Lat. conlornione, It.) A 
twisting, or writhing ; wry motion ; 

Conto'ktsd. (mnJor/i», Lat.) Twisted; 
ravelled ; wound. In concholagy, twisted 
00 each other ia an oblique direotioD. 

CoNTaA'cTiLK. Having the power of con- 
trading itself j having the power of con- 

CoNTHA'cTintE. Capable of contraction. 

CoNTR».'cTini.EHEB9. The quality of un- 
dergoing contraction. 

CoNTRACTi'i.iTT. The inherent property 
by which bodies contract. 

Comve'hge. (contw^o, Lat. coubwjw, 
Fr.) To tend to one point&om different 

I, Lat. conrexe, Fr. 
1 the e ■ 

HO, It.) i 

1 oircular o 

spherical form ; 

opposite to concave. 
Co'Nvxxan. Protaberant in a ipherical 

Conva'xBiiLr. In a conTex form. 
Conve'xitt. (comte.rii^. Fr. eonreinta, 
It.) ProtaberBjice in acircular or spheri- 

n the other, but having the 

II the i 

Convex, or protu- 
n both sides. 

B. J {connolul'is, from eon- 

■aa. i volvo.lnt.) Kolledupi 

twiated spirally ; rolled npon itself. 

Convolc'tion. (amvolvlio, Lat.) The 

state of being rolled upon itself ; Che act 

of twisting aoythiag spirally, or of rolling 

Convo'lvb. (cOBBoiro, Lat.) To roll up ; 
to roll together ; to roll Dpon itself. 

Conula'ria. a genns of orthoeerata, of a 
oonioal shape, and polyChalamous, the 
tranSTtrse septa being imperforate. The 
conularia has no elphon, and in this 
ohnracter diifers from ortboeeras. 

Co'NitLus. A genus of ecliiijjtes ; in it are 
contained those nbicb rise from a cir- 
cular baie into a cone, (frutn which form 
they obtain their name,) with an acute 
or obtuse vertex, from which five pairs of 
punctated or crenulated lines, or am. 
bolacra, pass ; dinding the shell into Rvf 
large and five small arete, that in which 
the anus is placed being rather the 
largest. All the species which constitute 
the genns are known only as fossils, and 
are distiaguisbed by the modilicBtiou of 
their form. 

Co'Nit3. (irSi-nc, Gr, cojiHS, Lat.) Ani- 
mal, a Limai ; shell univalve, convolute, 
turbinate ; aperture effuse, longitudinal, 
linear, without teeth, entire at the base ; 
pillar smooth. This genus is divided by 
some into live families. The recenCconus 
is an inhabitant of the ocean, and is ge- 
nerally found on rocky shores. Some nf 
the shells are very beautiful, and are both 
rare and valuable ; one species, the ceda 
nulli, is valued at one hundred guineas. 
The conus does not inhabit oor seas. 


J See Comb. 


(pipram, Lat. kujffer. Germ. 
knper, Dutch. The word is derived 
from the island of Cyprus, where it was 
first wrought.) When pure, copper is of 
a red colour ; its specific gravity is from 
8-6 to 8-9, or nearly nine times as heairy 
as water. Copper is found in primary 
and secondary racks, and is often native, 
i. e. in a pure metallic state ; it is also 
found crystallised. In smell and taste 
copper is excessively nauseous. It is 
very malleable, next bo in degree after 
gold and silver, and can be hammered 


out into extremely thin leavei, SO tWn m ( 
to be blown about by the slightest breew. 
In ductility it ranks after gold, silver, I 
platinum, sod iron ; while in tensci^ it 
yields only to iron. A copper vrire one- . 
tenth of an inch in diameter will snsUin i 1 
weight of 385 lbs. Copper i 
sonorous of ail metaU : its fusing point 
is 1450 Fab., and it can be volatiliied by 
an increased temperature ; when allawea 
to cool slowly, it assumes a crystalhne 
form. At common temperatures, copper 
is not acted on by water, but, if long ei- 
posed to the action of the atmosphere 
and moisture, it oxidizes ; as it does in 
the air alone, if heated to redness. It 
combines with oxygen in two proportion!!. 
Copper admits of a greater degree ' 
condeosatioa by hammering than a 
other metal. Copper has been knows 
from the earliest ages. As stated before, 
it occurs frequently in the native stale, 
either in masses, grains, or cn'stallized 
in cubes and octohedrans. Tbe 
abundant, and most generally difiufed j 
ore, and that from which the mtCol i> 
chiefly obtained, is the sulphuret of cop- 
per, termed copper pyrites, composed of 
copper, sulphur, and a smal! portion of 
iron. Copper has never been combined 
with carbon, hydrogen, or azi 
combines readily with snlphor 
phorus, forming with them compomiils I 
called sulpburet and phosphnret of eop- 
per. Copper, having the property of is- 
creaaing the hardness of gold without ia- 
JBring its colour, is used in the mat * 
of gold coin ; that of Greiit Britwn ii 
alloy of 11 parts of gold sod J 

o'ppEnAB. {eoppBTOga, 
Fr. Aiip/eiwaaser, Germ.) SnlphlM J 
iron : green vitriol. Sulphate of iM'^ 
has a fine green colour ; its cryit^ *l 
transparent rhomboidal prisms, tte &H 
of which are rhombs witb anf^ 4 
79° Siy and 100° 10' inclined t " 
other at angles of 98° 3! 
It has a strong styptic taste, and ri 
vegetable blues. It is prepared bj n 
ening the aulpburcts of iron, which If 
found native in abundance, and e 
them to the open air. These are d 
covered with a crust of snlphate of if 
which is first dissolved in water and ■ 
sequently, by means of evaporaticnii 1 
tained in crystals. *" 

o'pPLE-HTOMKS. Bouldcrs; ccbbli 

Co'raoLiTE. The petrified feecal r 
of oamivorona reptiles. The foUowinff 
description of coprolites is taken froip • 
memoir on the subject, by FnifedDt 
Buckland, published in the tranaaetjotn 
of tbe Geological Society, as well as frMS 

COP [ i 

is splendid Bridgewater Treatise: — "In 
irietj of size and eiternBl form, the 
COpraUtrs resemble olilong pebbles or 
Iddne; potatoes. Tliejr, for the mobt 
Tt, varj from two to four iiichea in 
[igth, and from ona to two inchea in 
ameter. Some few btb mnch larger, 
.and Eiear a due praportion to the gigantic 
.calibre of tJie largest ichtbyoaauri ; some 
1at and amorphous, as if the sub- 
e had beea toided in a semifiuid 
itale ; others are flattened by pressure 
of the shale. Their usnsl colour is ash. 
grej, BometimeB interspersed witb black, 
- ' eotaetimea wboll; black. Their sub- 
ice is of a compact earthy teitnre, re- 
ibling indurated clay, and having a 
conchoidal and glassy fracture. Their 
AtrueCme is in most cases tortuous, but 
the nnmber of coils is very unequal ; the 

soprolites, especially the small ones, 
""" " ~ no traces of cootortiou. The 
ns of these ftecal balls, show thtir 
or to be arranged iu a folded plate, 
wrapped spirally round from the centre 
outwards, like the whorls of a turbinated 
.■bdl( th«r eiterior also retains the 
jations and minute impressions. 
'Which, in their plastic state, they may 
Jtave received from the intestines of the 
Jiving animals. Dispersed irregularly 
iflironghout the petriliBd bu^es, are the 
■cales. and occasionBlly the teeth and 
bones of fishes, that seem to liave passed 
ttndigeiUd through the bodies of the saii- 
tiana ; just as the enamel of teeth, and 
aomctimes fragments of bones are found 
undigested both in the recent and fosnl 
album griecum of hysnas." On the 
■hore at Lyme Kegis, in Dorsetshire, 
COprolites are found tn great abundance, 
'- ^ng scattered in the groand like potatoes. 
^^ _ IB tme character and real nature of the 
Mprolite was long miaanderatood, having 
'iwinerly been called .!uli, and believed to 
t foaiil Sr cones. Coprolites are found 
B all strata which contain the remains of 
kmivoroui reptiles. The real origin of 
DCM coprolites is placed beyond all 
loubt by their being fomid Ireqnently 
~itlun the intestinal canal of fossil ske- 
tons c^ ichthyosauri. The preservation 
fauch fecal matter, and its lapidifica- 
on, resolt from the imperishable nature 
' the phosphate of lime, one of the con- 

koli'tic. Composed of coprolites ; re- 

mbling coprolites; containing copro- 


lACOlB. (from nApnt, and (JJoc, Gr.) 

eaembling the beak of a crow. A name 

ven to the upper anterior point or pro- 

aa of the scapula. 

LAi_ {KopdXku/v, Gr. cBralliiim, Lot. 


] COR 

eerail, Fr. coralla, It. It is somewhat 
msrvellona to find Todd following John- 
son in his description of coral, and stat- 
ing it to be a plant.) The ml coral is a 
branched loophyte, somewhat resembling 
in miniature a tree deprived of its lenvei 
and tnigs. It seldom exceeds one foot 
in height, and is attached to the rocks by 
a broad eipansion or base. It consista 
of a bright red, atony aiia, invested with 
8 fleshy, or gelatinona substance of a pole 
blue colour, nhicli is studded over with 
stellular polypi. Coral is composed of 
carbonate of lime and animal matter. 
Tlie powers of the organic creation, 
says Lyell, in modifying the form and 
structure of the earth's crnst, which 
may be said to be undergoing repair, or 
where new rock formations are continually 
in progress, are mo<t conspicuously dis- 
played in the labours of the coral animals. 
We may compare the operation of these 
loophytea in the sea to the etfects pro- 
duced on a smaller scale upon the land, 
by the plants which generate peat. In 
corals, the more durable materials of the 
generation that haa passed away aewe as 
the foundation on which living animals 
are continuing to rear a eimilar structure. 
Of the numerous species of xoophjrtea 
which arc engaged in the production of 
coral banks, some of the most common 
belong to the genera meandrina, caryo- 
phyllia, millepora, and astrea, but espe- 
cially the latter. It has been asked, 
" From whence do these innumerable xoo- 
pbytes and molluscous animals procure 
the lime, which, mixed with a small 
quantity of auimal matter, forms the 
solid covering by which they are pro- 
tected ? Have they the power of separat- 
ing it from other subataJiceB, or the atilt 
more extraordinary faculty of producing 
it from simple elements ? Tlie latter 1 
consider the more probable! for the 
polypi which accumulate rocks of coral 
have no power of locomotion ; their 
growth is rapid, and the quantity of cal- 
careous matter they produce, in a short 
space of time, can scarcely be supposed 
to exist in the waters of the ocean to 

tains bnt a minate portion of lime." Le 
Sueur, who observed them in the West 
Indies, describes these polypes, when ex- 
panded in calm weather at the bottom of 
the sea, as covering their stony receptacles 
with a continuous sheet of most brilliant 
colours. Ehrenberg, the distinguished 
German naturalist, was so struck with 
the splendid spectacle presented by living 
polyparia covering every portion of the 
bottom of the Red Sea, that he ia said to 
have eiclaimed, " 'wWte tt ftia ^tftSisa 
of flovicra t\.at can T^-iii to -imw^-t ^i- 

COR [ i 

beanty these IkiDg wonden or the ocean '.' ' 
—Lj/all. Mmiltll. Backland. BakeKtll. 

CoiiALi.i>Kn.i. Ad order of polypi, em- 
brmoing Ih'HH species whicli were «u long 
COIuidered to be marine planta. 

Co'rai.i.inb. Belonging to tbo elsBS Zoo- 
phyta, order Escliani, each polypua being 
conCuned in a calcarenus or homy shell, 
nithout any cBotral alia. The snimal 
wMch eecretes and iuliabita coral. 

Co'EittiKB, (wroH™, I't. furoWino, It.) 
CompoBed of corul ; I'esembliug coral ; of 
the eolour of coral. 

Co'ral-rag. a member of tlie middle di- 
vision of oolite, of the thickness of about 
forty feet in the Batli district. 

Co'bAi. BEEr. ) It 18 a curions, bat iii- 

Co'kal island, t disputable feci, that a 
conaiderabtc portion of the earth's surface 
is the result of Drganic secretion, and the 
BBioe process is stili going on extenaively 
in the Pacific and Indiau seas, nbere in- 
numerable coral islaods rise abuve and 
innumerable reefs and eboals lie just be- 
low the surface of the waves. The ob- 
servations of modem voyagers have thrown 
muoh light on the formation of coral is- 
lands and reefs ; tliey concur in the opi- 
nion that these reefa and islands do not 
rise from the depth even of many hundred 
yards, bat commeuce on the summit of 
some Tolcauic elevationsi or other sub- 
marine ridges and rocks, not far below 
the surface of the see. The calcareous 
masses usually termed coral reefs are by 
no means exclusively composed of zoo- 
phytes ; B great variety of sheUs, and 
among them some of the largest and hea- 
viest of known species, contributing to 
augment the mass. The reefs, which just 
raUe themselves ahovo the level of the 
sea, are usually of a circular or oval form, 
and snrraunded by a deep, and often un- 
fathomable ocean. In the centre of each, 
there is usually a comparatively shallaw 
lagoon, where there is stiU water, and 
where the smaller and more delicate kind 
of zoophytes lind a tranquil abode, while 
the stronger species live on the exterior 
mar^n of the isle. When the reef is of 
snch a height that it remains almost dry 
at low water, the corals leave off building. 
Fragments of coral limestone are thrown 
up by the waves, nnlil the ridge becomes 
BO high, that it is covered only during 
some seasons of the year by the high tides. 
The beat of the son often penetrates the 
mass when it is dry, and splits it. The 
force of the waves subsequently aeparaCca 
blocks of the coral and throws them upon 
the reef. Afterwards the calcareous sand, 
removed from the action of tfaewa<eB,liea 
nndisturbed, and olfera to the seeds of 
trees and plants, cast upon it by the waies, 
a soil upon which they rapidly vegetate. 


Entire tmnis of trees, carried by the 
rivers from other countries, find here a 
resting-place : with these come email ani- 
mals, such as insects, lizards, Blc, as the 
lirst inhabitants. Even before the trees 
form a wood, the sea-birds nestle here; 
strayed land-birds take refuge In the 
hushes : and at a mncb biter period, sun 
appears, and builds his hut on the frultfill 
EQiL—Phiaipt. Lyell. Koliebae. Bait- 

CoKALLOi'nAi.. i Gr.) Resembling co- 
ral ; having the form of coral. 

ConALLui'DEB. {coraltoidea, Fr. leme del 
caralla bianro, It.) Coral-wort; the 
cluvaria coralloides of Linosus. 

Co'rbula. {eortiHla, Lat.) A genus of 
bivalves belonging to the family Corba- 
lacea in Lamarck's arrangement, and to 
that of Conchacea in De Blainville's. 
The corbula is a marine animal, found at 
depths varying to thirteen fathoms, in 
sandy mud. Some anthors place the 
genus corbula in Solen, others in Myo, 
Corfaulie are found both fossil and recent. 
Fossil corbuls occur in the London claj, 
calcaire grossier, and Norfolk crac. 
They are also found In the Shanklin sand, 
at Parham, and elsewhere. 

Cobbdla'cka. a family of bivalves ia 
Lamarck's system, belonging to the order 
Dimyaria, and comprising the two genen 
" ' ' Corbnla. 


(rarifs/ui.) Henrt-shcped. 
(from ear and/ojTna, Lat) 
Resembling the form of a heart ; heart- 

DBiA'cEQoa. (con'flcews, Lat. coeiaeif, 
Fr.) Resembling leather; conaiatingof 
leather; of a leather-like consistence. 
J R- MAR, [NUM. A genus of ecbinites, 
characterized by the bilabiated month 
being in the third region of the ails o( 
the base, and the anas in the side of the 
truncated extremity. In this genus, or, 
as be terms it, family, Leskc, with Mul- 
ler, includea spatangas, spatagoides, bris- 
SDS, and brisBoldes, not considering (he 
absence of the groove to be a generic dif- 
tiaction . — Parkinton. 
dbdi'ebite. Another name for iolite, or 

comHa dell'acchio. It.) The anterior 
transparent portion of the ball of the eye, 
or that portion of the front of the ey« 
which bUlOws the rays of light to p«a- 



through, and permits objectg to b 
fleeted on Ihe retina ol the faach, 
o'KSUEAtJ. A »aricty of day-stone, 
(compu*. Lnt.) Horn;, 
■ubatonce resembling bom ; of a horn. 

ji account of this aub- 
iesof ralcedony, see Camelion, 
BBASH. A cosne shelly limeatoae; 
provincial term. Comhrash is a ma- 
deposit, a member of the oolite ; it 
— 'n Wiltshire. 

MB. A red limestone, occurring; 
ti the old red asndstone. The name of 
if the preceding word may be 
ifiidered as provincial, and given to 
n from their presumed utility in pro- 
''dncing fertile com -land. 
Couid'ted. I_inirnnlua, Lat.) Homed. 
Cobo'lla. (lat.) The corolla consiete of 
the delicate petal, or petals, farmiag 
what, in cpmnion langQage, are termed 
f 'the blosaoms ; and in poljpetaloas flow. 
I the petals arc usually called the 
res of the flower. The corolla consti- 
s the beauty of the Holier, and the 
nr and frnganej of the plant fre- 
mtly reside therein, as in tbe rose, jes- 
nine, violet, &g. The carolla has a 
BTcr^tj of forms, as well as of colour, 
snug found of every shade and variety 
except biact. It ineludca two parts, the 
petals and the neatary : the latter ia aome- 
timcB a part of the former, and some- 
times separate from it. The leaves of the 
eoroUa are called petals, and these are 

either di 

t, tvhei 


&c. or they are uoiled by their edges, in 
which case the corolla is said to be mono- 
_ .{wtaloDs, as in Che honey-suekle, contol- 
^gnlua, Bcb. The corolla is either regular 
Hw irregnlar : when tlie petals are all alike 
Hbl *i«t and form, the corolla having a 
C%ynimetrical appearaaco, it is called regu- 
lar; but when the petals are unequal, or 
unlike each other, it is termed irregular, 
ai in the geranium, violet, &Ci A papili- 
tmaeeota corolla consists of five petals of 
partionlllr forms, of which the uppermost 
ia tamed back, and is called the vexillom 
or standard ; Che two neit resemble each 
Other, but difler from the iiTtt ; they 
have their faces towards each other ; thej 
are called tbe aim, or wings; tbe remain- 
ing two, which are placed below the 
others, also resemble each other, but dif- 
fer Ironi the three already mentioned ; 
they are usually united by their lower 
edge, and form a figure resembling the 
keel of a boat, whence tbey obtain tiie 
name of carina, or keel. This corolla is 
thecbarncteristicnf thelegnminoaBe,Bvery 
large order of plants, of which tbebrDoni, 
lupin, HweeC-pea, veiei, &c. are eiamplca. 

more of i 

In the orchidcK, the corolla coosista of 
three pieeea, one differing very greatly in 
form and siie ^m the other two ; it is 
called the iafe/Jun, or little lip, and is 
often spurred. In many species, this re- 
sembles an insect. 

The lower part of the single petal of a 
corolla, by which it is Hied to the recep- 
tacle, is named the claw. 

The cruciferous plants have four potab, 
and these are so arranged as to resemble 
a cross, from which circumstance they 
have been named Crudferte. The stock, 
radish, cabbage, mustard, &c. are Exam- 

The outer part of the heads of many 
composite flowers is formed of the ligu- 
late corotlaa of Che esterior florets, and 
these are commonly white, blue, or yel- 
low, as in the aster, daisy, &c. ; thia part 
of the head is termed the ray, the cen- 
tral part being called the dl*k, which 
disk is composed of florets, vrich r^ular 

A corolla with two lips ia called iilali- 
ate: when the too lips present an ^i- 
pearance resembling the mouth of an 
animal, the corolla ia called ringmt. 

The petals of all corotlas are placed 
alternately with tbe sepals of the calyi. 
"oad'na. (Lat.) In botany, an appen- 
dage of Che corolla or perianth. 


Cobo'noi.*. a regular snbrotund, or »nh- 
conical shell, divided into twelve eres, 
with an opening both in the superior and 
inferior part ; that in the soperior closed 
hy a fonr-valved opercnlum. 

Co'honateo. (corotwdw, Lat.) Jn con- 
cbology, crowned, or giit towards the 
apex with a single row of eminences. 

Co'itpuBCLB. 1 (coryMew/um, Lnt. ««■- 

Coapu'scuLB. { p-iacale, Pr. corptaeolo. 
It.) A minute particle of a body ; an 


Corro'dent. (from corroilo, Lat.) Hav- 
ing Che poner of wasting, of wearing any- 
thing away by degrees. 

ConRDDiBi'LiTv. The quality of being 

Cokho'diblg. > That may be worn away, 

Cobro'bion.' (Fr. Paction ou Vcffet de 
cequial eorrotif; corrtmionc. It.) A 
dissolution of bodies by means of acids 

CoRRo'srvB. (corroiif, Fr. corroiino^ It.^ 
Having the power ot SisaiiW\i\?,>« ip^-s.- 
olly weaving awa^. 


(from cormga, Lat.) Con- 
tracted ; viriakled ; as the skin by cold. 

CoBKuaA'TiaN. Contraction ioto wrinkles. 

Co'rtex. (Lat.) The exterior skin, or 
epidermiB ; the bnik or rind. 

Co'iTloAL, (from eorlex, Ut. mrtica!. Fr. 
eorlicale. It.) Belaa^ag to the bark or 
lind i resembling the bark or rind. 

Co'bticated. {eoTlicalnt, Lat.) That 
hath t, rind or bark. 

Co'bticosb. (from corlicarui, Lat.) Fall 
of bark ; abounding in nnd. 

CoBTici'FiaocB. (from corltx and /fro, 
Lat.) Producing bark. 

Coru'nddh. a genua of gems comprising 
four sper.ies. 

1. Spinel, or dodecahedral corundum. 

2. Automolite, or octahedral corundum. 

3. Sapphire, or rhombohedral corundum. 

4. Clu7Soberyl, or priamatic corandum. 
These will all be described under their 

several names. 

Co'btub. (eoryrabe, Fr. corymiag, Lat.) 
A kind of efflorescence. A raceme. A 
apike of flowers, whose partial peduncles 
take their rise from ditferent h^gbts 
upon the common stalk, but the lower 
peduncles being longer than the upper 
ones, they all form nearly a level aurface 
at the top. 

Cobi'hbiatbd. Garnished with bunches 
of berries or blossoma in the form of 

CoRTMBiVEftDca. (from eorymbuK and 
/ere, Lat.) Bearing berries or blosaoni 
in the form of corymbs. 

Co'fluiCAi,. (from Mff^^it, Gr.) 

1 . Relating to the world. 

2. Rising or setting with the sun : tbtts 
Etar is seid to rise cosmically, when 

cosmioally when it sets at the sam 
instant that the sun rises ; but to rise an 
get cosmically, according to Kepler, : 
to ascend above, or descend below the 

Co'bmicallt. With the 

Cobmo'qonist. One who makes a study of 
the origin and creation of the world. 

Cdhmo'gonT. (Kottiioyivtia, Gr. CD 
gonie, Fr.) The science of the formation 
of the universe. 

CaBHo'aHAFHBB. (from comiogrBphe, Fr. 

the several parts of the creation by vni 
Cobmo'bhapht. {coamographie, Fr. 
mografitt. It. Koo/ioypn^ia, Gr.) The 
Ecience which describes the several parta 
of the creation, delineating them accord- 
ing to their number, positions, motions, 
magnitades, figures. Sic. 
CosuoLo'ciCAL. {comtBlogigve, Fr. soaiio- 
\o-fiKoq, Gr.) Pertaining to the science 
of cosmology. 


Cosuo'looibt. a punmer of the edenee 
of cosmology ; who describes the several 
parts of creation. 

ushu'logy. leosmoiogii, Fr. xoiTfin- 
\ayia, Gr.) The science which treatsoF |. 
the general laws by which the phpicsl ; 
world is governed ; the study of the 
world in general. 

o'bta. (coifa. Lat.) A rib. 

o'sTAL. {coKtal, coHale, Fr.) Belong- 
ing to the ribs- 

o'sTATE. ((from i:mtalui, Lat.) Rib- 

o'sTATED. S bed, or having ribs. 
Cotehfora'neoub. { {eoHlemporain, Fr, 
CoTE'jjPOBAnT. t coelanea. It.) Uv- 

]g at the same time ; coetaneoos. 
CoTE'upaRAKY. One living at the same line. 
s'ttonqus. I(eo(om«ett*, Fr.) Reien- 
d'ttont. 1 bling cotton, dther in its 
feel or appearance ; downy. 
o'n-LK. (from KurWi), Gr. eofyfe, Fr. 
ravil^ (Tna o> daiw lagaelle un autrt H 
I'arliCHle.) The cavity or socket of i 
bone which receives another boDBln ir- 
liculation, as the socket of the hip "tidi 
receives the head of the femur, or thigh- 

Cotvle'don-. (irorwXij^iii', Gr, eelgicdm, 
Fr.) The side lobe, arseed-lDbeofse«dr 
furnishing nourishment and protection t 
the corcdom, and forming the chief bulk 
of the seeds : these lobes swell and ex- 
pand in the ground, and as the stem as- 
cends they are usually raised oat of lii! 
ground, assume a green colour, and per- 
farra the functions of leaves until [he 
young leaves unfold, when they generally 
wither. The cotyledon is found at the 
point of union of the radicle and plo- 
mule. The most essenUal difference m 
the structure, mode of growth, and cha- 
racter of the plants growing from the 
seeds, is found connected with the num- 
ber or posidon of the cotyledons. Those 
plants, the seeds of which have only one 
cotyledon, or if more, these alternate cd 
the embryo, are called monocotyledonou. 
All monccotyledonons plants can be re- 
cognised without any difficulty, by a chs- 
racteriatic feature of the leaf, the veins rf 
the leaf being parallel, and n 
lated ; all the palms, the tulip, lily, iloe, 
Sic. are instances. Those plants whidi 
have two cotyledons, and those o^poritar I 
are called dicotyledonous ; all dicotjb- fl 
donous plants have the vein" " "'■"'" 
leaves reticulated. 

CoTYLTt'ooNDDS. Having cotyledons. 

which runs in an opposite directioii VM 

Co'dnter-ccrrent, Running in an S; 

poaite direction. 
CovR. (coeKw, Lat.) A small 1 


cow [6; 

irRT. Tbe common or familiar name I 
ir shells belonging to [he geaiu Cyprss. 
kG. A tertiary deposit of the older 
s period, nliicfa hu obtaiDed tbia 
e (loia a provincial term aignifying 
; crag is chiffly developed in 
le easCem parts of Norfolk and Suffolk, 
exCenciiiig tbenee into Esaet ; it i> seen 
to rest on tbe cbslk and on the London 
clay, but generally on the chalk. By 
■ome the crag baa been divided into two 
groupa, tbe lower, or corailioe, which is, 

ime places, fifty feet or more in tliick- 

, and the 0|iper, or red crag, thas 
/Bamed from ite femigi nana colour. The 
fessilg of the crag are very numeroui. 
kA'NiA.. (from croniun, Lat. a skull, 
Sa eoiuequence of a supposed reiemblsnce 

' T of the ahelis to a aknll, 

-UisingJTom tome deep mnsculor impres- 
sions.) A regular inequivatved bivolTC ; 
itlie upper valve very convex, patelliform, 
with the nmbo near the centre, tbe lovrer 
,, and nearly round, and pierced 
pfBternally with three unequal and oblique 
iluilei. The arms of the animal nre cih- 
Cuvier places crania in the class 
iBrachiopoda, division MoUnsca. By Le- 
(■lanik thia genos is placed in the family 
'.Sudistei, order Monomyaria; and by De 
iBlainville in the order Palliobranchlata. 
Xrsnis are found attached to stones and 
Is, and ire brought up, probably from 
«Teat depths, by cod-liaua off the aoait of 
jBhetland, and with corals in tbe Mediter- 
noean. Several ^psciea of fossil crania 
we found in the chalk fonnatian. 
t^'NiDU. The skull. 
ubiate'i,!^. (from eramifti, Lat.) A 

Kmis of eqaivalved inequilateral close 
valves. The hinge teeth two, with an 
•^joining foBSa ; the lateral teeth ohso- 
tetB. The cartilage inserted in a pit 
■tmied in tbe hinga. 

As the craaaateUa advances in age the 
Wives become very greatly thickened, 
lom which circnmstaooe it obtains its 
■•me. Cnvier places this genua in 
he family Mytilacia, order Acephala ; 
!«marok in the family Mactracea ; and 
9e Bkiniille in the family Conchacea. 
: crasBstellie inhabit sandy mud at 
varying from eight to twelve fa- 
Some species of foaiiil craaes- 
M have beea found in the tertiary for- 

(eratire, Fr. " Kpanjp, Gr. 
sparijpfs, BUmtU jToromina, quiOtu ifftiis 
fmbuMque teomilu/:) The basin-shaped 
kollow in volcanic monntains whence 
'fatue the flames and erupted matter. 
IAti'biform. {from craler and forma, 
Lat.) HoUowed out like a crater; of 
tbe form of a crater ; bowl-ahaped. 
uua'tidn. (,ereiHa/io, Lat.) A burning. 

j C R I 

CnsKATB. {(creniriiu, Lat.) Notched 
Cbk'nated. t at the margin ; scolloped ; 

1. It is applied to leaves when the notches 
or teeth on tbe borders are rounded, and 
the notches not directed to either end of 
the leaf. 

2. In entomology, a margin with inden- 
tations, not sufficient to be called teeth, 
the exterior whereof is rounded. 

Cbe'natu&e. The notch or indentation of 
a leaf. 

CnaNA'-rnLA. (from creiufut, Lat.) Thii 
name has been given to this genus of bi- 
valves from the binge showing a row of 
roundiab or oval pita, making it appear as 
if crenulated. An irregolarly formed flat 
bivalve ; closed, not giving passage to any 
bysBus ; the hinge linear, excavated, and 
crenulated; amboncs leminsl. It is 
found in apongcs, and moored to coral- 
lines, &c. Parkinson, in describing the 
crenatnla, aaya, '' tliere nre very few 
among the fossil shells of this or of any 
other country, which, at first sight, are 
more dlasimilar from any of the reaent 
abells than the fosail crenaittia. It is 
very rarely found. 

CBl'NUfcATB. \ {weti6U, Fr.) Indented 

Crk'nulated. \ round the margin with 
small notches. The fine saw-like edge of 
the shell of the cockle, which eo nicely 
fits into the opposite shells, is a familiar 
example of a crenulated margin. 

Crb'fitate. (erepilo, Lat.) To crackle. 

CnttpiTA'uoN. {a-epitation, Fr.) A low 
crackling noise. 

Crb'scivb. {from creseo, Lat.) Grow- 


(Lat.) Chalk ; carbonate of 

Cbbta'ceocb. Having the qualltiea of 
chalk ; containing chalk ; chalky. 

Cukta'ceous oroup. This group com- 
prises tbe different strata from the chalk 
of Maestricht to the lower green-sand 
inclusive In Lyell's Principles, they are 
thua arranged: I. Maestricht beds; 2. 
Chalk with flints; 3. Chalk without 
flints ; 4. Upper green-aand ; fi. Gault ; 
6. Lower green-sand. The whole of these 
foroiationa are marine. 

Cbi'ciito:«ite. The name given to a 
black, opaque, shining mineral, after Dr. 

Crio'cehateb. A genus of ammonites, 
having the whorls disconnected. 

Crini'hkbods. (from criniper, Lat.) 
That hath much hair; hairy; overgrown 
with hair. 

Cai'mTE. (erini/iu, Lat.) Having tufta 
of hair ; having the hair long, elender, 
and dispersed. 

CaiNo'ioAL. Containing foasil crinoidean 
remains. The Derbyshire encrinital 

muble U composed principally of the taa- 
■ilized remaias of orinoVdea, cemented tO' 
gether bv carbonate of lime. 
CaiNoiDE AM. Belonging to the order 
of CrinQiilea. 
Although the representatives of criaoi' 

:, this I 

IS of VI 


cal importHnce KiDoag the earliest inha- 
bitants of the ancient deep. The eiten- 
alve range which it formerly occnpied 
among the earliest inhabitants of ouf 
planet, may be estimated from the fact, 
that Che crinuideans already discovered 
have been arranged in four divieionB, 
compriiiog nine genera^ moat of them 
containing several species, and each indi- 
vidaal eihibidng, in every one of its many 
thonaand component little bones, or osai- 
anla, a mechaniara whicli shows them all 
to have formed parts of a well-cuntrived 
and delicate mechanical instniment.— 
Prrif. Biickland. 
CniKoiDE'A. (from Kf/luov and ilSag, Gr,) 
Lily-ahoped zoophytes. A name given 
to the whole class of eucriiiitea and pen- 
tacrinites, from their reaemblance to tbe 
bead of the lily. 

The foseil remains of this order have 
been long known by the name of stone 
lilies, or encrinitee, and have lately been 
classed under a separate order by the 
name of Crinoidea. This order compre- 
benda many genera and species, and is 
ranged by Gnvier after the asteriie, in the 
division of zoophytes. The skeleton of 
tliB crinoidea is composed of numeroua 
ossicula, the number of bones in one ske- 
leton b«ing computed at upwards of thirty 
thousand. Mr. Miller, in his work, en- 
titled "a Natural History of the Cri- 
noidea," thus de<inea.themi " An animal 
Trith a round, oval, or angular column, 
composed of numerous arUcolating joints, 
supporting at its summit a series of plates, 
or joints, which form a cup-like body, 
containing the viecera, from whose upper 
rim proceed live articulated arms, divided 
into tentaculated Hugers, more or less 
numerous, aurronnding the aperture of the 
mauth, situated in the centre of a plated 
integument, which extends over the abdo- 
minal cavity, and is capable of being con- 
tracted into a conical or proboscal shape.'' 
The detached ossicula of the crinoidea 
occur in myriads in tbe mouDtain lime- 
stone and transition rocks, forming suc- 
cessions of strata, each many feet in 
thickness, and miles in extent ; showing 
how largely the bodies of ammals have 
contributed by their remains, to increase 
the mass of materials which compose the 
mineral world. If we imagine a star- 
Sah to possess a long flexible column, the 
base of a-hicb is attached to a rock, we 

2 ] C R O 

shall have a correct idea of the general 
character of the crinoidea, or lily-shaped 
animals; which are so called from tbair 
fancied resemblanae, when 
repose, to a closed lily. — Bttdtbnid.. 
Calsp. {erisput, Lat.) 

1. Curled; crisped; wrinkled i veinedor 

2. Indented. 

3. Brittle ; friable. 
Crispa'tion. {criapation, Fr.) The act 

of curling ; the state of bdng curled. 
Cfti'sPATEo. {crUp^, Fr.) Rough mfli 

waving lines- 
Cm sfisu'lc ant. (erupUalcmw, lM.y 

Waved, or undulitmg. 
Cni'fiTATE. l(cri>talu», Lat.) Crestcl) 
Cat'sTATED. i tufted; plumeJd; combeit'' 
Cao'coDltB. (KpQt6lu\og, Gi 
Ijat. cieeodrilio. It. crocadilP, Fr.) 
amphibious voracious aninud of the [. 
Lacerta, or lizard. It is covered with 
very hard scales, which can be pierced 
with great dilliculty,eicept under thehelly. 
It has four feet, and a tail, with five toes 
on each of the fore, and four l^jes on sadi 
of the hind feet, of which only the thr«a 
internal ones on each foot ore armed irilli 
nails. It has a wide throat, with sevOdl 
rows of teeth. ThcfossU reniaina of ao- 
codiles are common and abondanL Cn>> 
codilea are omnivorous. The living iw 
cies of the crocodile family are twelvi, 
ooe Gavial, three Alligators, and eight trM 
Crocodiles. Crocodiles, it is said, ooUr 
tiuue to grow throughout the whole of 
their existence, and Bucklaud states tiieir 
increase to be no less than four hundred 
times their original bulk, between the 
period at which they leave the egg and 
their full maturity. Crocodiles are foT' 
nished with a frequent succession of teeth, 
in order to maintain a duly proportioned 
supply during every period of their lib. 
The vertebrre of the nec'- 
other through the median: 
ribs, whereby alllateral m[ 
difficult, and the crocodile is uusble 
deviate snddenly from his conrse: 
renders escape from them fticile, by ut 
running round them, or pursuing 
course. The eggs of the crocoiUlB 
large ss those of the goose- They ~ 
fresh water, but they cannot swallow 
food under wat«r. 

CftOF-DUT. A term used by m 
press the rising up at the snrfiice of oa 
or more strata. A stratum rising b 
surface is said to crop out. 

Cxuaa-STUNB, Called also StanroUt«, a 
Harmolome ; it is tlie Paratomer KDpho>^>l 
e^iatk oE >\.qIi£, and the Kreutzstein of I 

C R O [6 

wVemer. Colours white end grey ; occa- 

Aonally it is found with b reddieh Dnd 

idlowiah CEBt. It ia composed of 47 pariB 

ilidL, 21 barytD, lb ulumins, 0'88 polash, 

it-10 lime, 15 water. It occnrs in small 

draagntar prisms Cemmiated b; Tour 

mbic planes, crossing each otLer. Tbe 

fece of fliB Bmaller latersl planes is 

gnble plumoeel; streaked. It is found 

I galena Teins and agate balls iu tbe 

lines of Stroutian. in Argjleshire, and 

B other parts of Scotland; also at An- 

t~^eaBburg, in tbe Harli. and in Norway. 

Caor'LSTUVK. Crjatallized eauk. la this 

the crjBtals are small. 
Cao'ciiL, (from cru,j-, Lat. crucial, Fr.) 
Transverse ; iutersectiag one another ; in 
form of a crosa. 
CanCi'FEBOUS. (from crtU' andyero, Lat.) 
The name given to a large order af plants, 
irhoae petals, four in unniter, are bo 
ananged as to resemble a cross. The 
radisb, cabbage, stock, Ike, are crucife- 

Chd'ciiobm. (from cruj: and forma, Lat.) 
Croai-shaped ; in the form of a cross. In 
botany, polypetalous flowers are so called, 
Bl' Wben the petals are placed in tbe form of 
^■V cross ; Uiis is particularly the case in a 
^BwBry large order of plants, which have 
^Rbnr pet^, so arranged as to resemble a 

Cmr'ciBr.B. (crucibulum, Lat.) A resBel, 
or melting-pot, made of earth, eo named, 
according to some, from its having been 
fannerly made in tbe shape of a cross : 
but, Bccording to others, from tlie metnla 
being tortured in it by fire to compel them 
to become gold. 

Cbi^ra. (The plural of cni, Lat.) Ap- 
plied to parts from their resemblance to 
legs -, die legs. 

Can aAL. (crura/, Fr, cruralii, Lat.) Be- 
longiDg to the leg. 

CacBf. {knulc, Germ, crusta, Lat. crailte. 
Pr. cnwfa. It.) Any shell, hard coat, or 
external covering. That portion of our 
globe which is aoceisible to our inspection 
and obaeryatioD is called by geologists, 
tbe earth's cruet. It is this crust which 
oSers proper occupation to the geologist. 
The greatest deptii to whiuh he has been 
hitberto able to extend his observations, 
from tlie uppermost strata to tbe lowest 
beds, is from eight to ten milES ; a thick- 
nesa which, compared with the bulk of 
the earth, does not exceed tliat of the 
thickneas of tbe paper which covers a 
globe a foot in diameter. The ioequalitics 
and crevices in the vamisb apphcd over 
the Bur&ce of such a globe would fairly 
represent, and be in proportion to, the 
highest monntains and deepest valleya of 
the world. The mean density of the 
earlh'a mineral crusl has gi:nerally been 

raiisTA'cEA. ) (from cnita, Ut.) The 
^KtiETA'cEAHs. j CTUstacea possess a bard 
external covering, and numerous articu- 
lated limbs i antennie, and palpi. A 
heart, with circulating vessels and gills, 
■ad a aervouB system. The crab, lobster, 
sea.urchin, shrimp, Stc., are eiamples. 
Crustaceous animals possess the most 
solid form of the skeleton met with in tbe 
articulated classes. It is found in tbe 
larger decopoda to contain nearly half its 
weight of carbonate of lime, and there is 
alio a CDn>iiderable proportion of phoa- 
phate of lime, with traces of magnesia, 
iron, and soda. These substances are 
exuded from the surlkce of the true skin, 
along with a tough caagnlable animal 
gloten, which connects all their particles, 
and forms a thin varaish on the surface. 
The colouring matler is generally beneath 
this vaniish, and on the exterior surface 
of the calcareous deposit, bnt Bometimes 
it pervades the whole snbatance of the 
shell. The history of fossil crustaceans 
has been hitherto almost untouched by 
palfeontologistSi and their relations tn the 
existing genera of this great class of the 
animal kingdom are but little known. 
Some idea may be formed of their extent 
in certain formations, from the fact, thai 
in the cabinet of Count Munater, there 
are nearly sixty species collected from a 
single stratum of the Jurassic limestone 
of SolenUofeii.— Cr. Rab. Grani. Fro- 
1 Buciland and Fnfe. 

Tbe c 

: by . 

> of 

iranchixi these brancbiie, sometimes si 
tuated at the bottom of the feet, at others 
on the itiferior abdominal appendages, 
either form pyramids composed oflaminie 
in piles, or bristled with setEe ; and in 
Bomo cases consist seemingly wholly of 
hairs. The Crustacea differ from the les- 
tacea in one most striking point of view : 
lobsters, crabs, &c., cast their ahelt or 
covering every year, whereas the testa- 
ceons animals retain theirs as long aa 
they exist. The Bhella of crufitaceous 

as those of testaceous animals are evi- 
deiitly formed by tbe animal adding gra- 
dually to theiQ, either annually or period- 
ically, and tbey are all composed of 

Cbusta'cean. )((m«(a^^r, Fr. enataeto, 
Crdsta'cboos. i It.) Sbelly. with joints. 
The crustaceous animals jiossess a hard 
shelly CDve ring divided into parts by joints, 
while the testaceous have a continued un- 
interrupted shell. The cruntacBous ani- 
mals are the spWeia o? ftve wa. 

CrUBTa'cX0VBNE.3B. T\ie l\QJl\lt-) Ql^^Sl.■™J^ 

C R U I 

B jointed, hard, exUrnal CO ering 

Cnti'sTATiii). (cruataiui, Lat Co er d 
with a crust, or shell. 

Ckubta'tion. a bard ahcUy ing 


Cby'olite. (froni Kpvo( and Xi0oe, Gr.) 
Ice-stone. A rare miaeral of a white, 
brown, or red colour, hitherta found only 
in Greenland, at the arm of the sea nameiJ 
Arkaut, where it occurs in gneiss, aaso- 
ciated with iron-pyritee and galena. It 
conaiEtg of fluoric acid 44, Boda 32, alu- 

CBTPToaA-'utA.. (from cpiiTTBC, concealed, 
and ydfioc, nuptials. Gr.) The 24th class 
of plants in the Linntean artiticiai Eysteui , 
comprehending those whose fructificadons 
are concealed, either through minuteness, 
or within the fruit. The CBrboniferous 
era abounded in the Tascular cryptogamia 
to a degree vneiampled at the present 
time; the plants belong to species and 
genera now extinct, but allied to existing 
tjpea by common principles of orgariiza- 
tioD. The numeriuaL preponderance of 
the crjptogamin in the coal is such, that 
while hi the present order of nature, they 
are to tiie whole number of known plants 
R9 one to thirty, at that epoch they were 
in the proportion of twenty-live to thirty. 
In the saliferouB system, about lifty spe- 

differ from any observed in the coal mea- 
sures. The class Cryptogamia contains 
the ferns, mosses, funguses, and sea- 
weeds : in all of which the parts of the 
flowers are either little known, or too 
tninute to be evident. 

ChtptoOa'mic. a term applied to plants 
not bearing (lowers with stamens and ova . 
rium Tieible. Belonging to tiie class 
Cryptogamia. Perns, mosses, fungi, Sic. , 
are cryptogamic plants. In the transitioD 
roclis, about thirteen species of crypto- 
gamic plants, four of which are algfe, and 
the remainder ferns, comprise all tbat la 
known of the vegetable kingdom, anterior 
to the carboniferous system. 

Cbvptooa'hous. See Cryploi/at/ile. The 
family of ferns, both in the living and 
fossil flora, is the most numerous of vas- 
colar cryptogamous plants. 

Cnv'sTALS, (from cpvBTiiXKoQ, Gr. crys- 
IttllTH, Lat. crystal, Fc, cristallo. It. 
kryitall, Germ.) There are many mineral, 
or inorganic, substances, which assume 
certain regular forms nben becoming solid 
from a fluid slate, or when, after being 
dissolved in a fluid, this fluid is evapo- 
rated. These regular figures are termed 
crystals. The cause of a body's possess- 
ing tliis power, or property, is unknown, 
but it is supposed to be connected with 
the form of the molecules of which it is 


mp d Crr tals are Bymraetricsl 
n rh ar m primitiTe forms of 

Th eg h dron, having foar 

>l d ral ng es ts faces. J 

2. The regular cube of six squares for id I 

4. The DctohedroD, having eight trian^ ' 

5. A six-sided prism. 

6. A parallelopiped, or a solid of six faces. 
each two of which are parallel and eqaai, 
as a cube, a rhomboid, &c. From these 
sii primitive forms of crystals, every va- 
riety may be supposed to be produced by 
cutdng away its angles or edges In ' 
manners! or by additions sappoae 
made on its faces. The regularity of the 
flgure will be inanencedby the rapidity of 
the evaporation, as when the evaporation 
is humed the crystals will be confusei!, 
and wanting in regularity ; somelimei the 
evaporation must be spontaneous, or not 
assisted by the addition of heat, for pro. 
curing regular and large crystals. It mast 
not he supposed that every mineral orjl- 
tajlizcs naturally in, or can be cut into, 
all the forms, wliich might ba deduced 
from its primitive form : but it never 
occurs that the same minBral is found is- 

these principles to be related to its priiai- 
tive, or in which primitive it either is 
occasionally found, or to which tbe other 

ced.— MiB. 

fluid wM 

rare «■ 

ind MftaU. 
When bodies dissolved 
separated by crystallization, they an 
ways found to retain a part of tbefli 
The water thus retained by saline crystib 
is called the water of cryatallisation. Tbil 
water appears to he essendai to the traru- 
parent crystalline form of salts. Moct 
salts may be deprived of their water of 
crystallization by hea.t ; some lose it hi 
the common temperature of the atmo- 
sphere, and fall into a pulverulent man; 
others attract moisture so strongly thit 
they, from exposure to tbe atmosphere, 

i^Rv'sTAL. Resembling crystal; bright; 
clear; transparent. 

Jav'sTALLiNB. (tTyiiallfn, Germ, cryi- 
fatiin, Fr. crulallino. It.) Resemblins 
crystals ; bright ; clear ; transparenL 

Dbv'stalunb HDMOon. ) (.puirrrfiiwi', 

^av'sTALLINB LKH8. j Or. CTyHl^ 

linia. Lat.) A solid body of a lenUcalsr 
form, being a part of the eye. It appon 
most absurd ever to have given t "''" 
solid body the name of humour- 
crystalline lens is situated behind the 
aqueous humour, opposite to the pupil, 

C R "¥ [ 

4or portion is receired into 
nn the fare part of the vi- 
ir. It has two coDTei sur- 
commoQ lens, the anterior 
Vbeine the less coiiTex ; (he tH-o being 
med of segments of spheres of uoeqaal 

BLE. (That is capnble of 
tBLB. t being erf sl«!liied. 

CayMTAiiiA'TioN. } (cryilalliialiim, Fr. 

Cbvstali.iza'tion. j eritlalliiatione, it.) 
A methodical urBogeiaeDt of the particles 
of niBtteraccording Ijj fisedlaws ; conge- 
IttiOQ into crystals. 

Cbt'stallized. rormeil into crystals. 

CiirBTAi.Lo'oBArBEii. } (fmm KpusroXXo; 

CiiraTAt.o'QKAPHEB. t and ypu'^u, Gr.) 
One who describes crptals. lie crystal- 
lographer hu ihevn tliat the several in- 
gredieots of oli kinds of crystalline rocks 
are oomposed of molecules which are 
Inyisibl; minute. 

' iPHV. The scieoce of crys- 

Belonging to the third 
tder of fishes, according to the arrange- 
it of M. Agassiz. 

oi'dun. (from Jirtici paten, a comb ; 
__d eJiee, Gt.) The third order of fishes 
h tbe arrangemeat of M. Agassiz. The 
tenoidians hate their scales jagged on 
file posterior margin, resembling the teeth 
of a comb, From which circumstance they 
derire their name : the perch is an ei- 
ain[ile. The cteuo'idians first appear at 
the cDmraenoement of tbe creUceous for- 
matians, succeeding tbe placoidean and 
gatioidian orders. — Prq/l Buc/sUmil. 
Cc-BATDaB. The finding exactly the solid 
Boiitent of any proposed body. 

" (from Ru/Joe, Gr. ctiiia, Lat. cube. 

io, It.) A regular solid body con- 

_ nf iix square and equal faces, with 

t, and therefore eqaal, angles : a die 

_ small cube ; a prism contained by six 

equal squares. 
CcBK-ORE. A name given to tbe mineral 

heiahedral olivenite. 
Ci/bic. KmiiscA, Germ.) Having the 
Ctr'siCAL. 1 form or propertieB of a cube. 
Co'sicALNEsa. Tlie state of being cubical. 
Cd'bitoku. Of the form, or shape, of a 


1. A measure, ancor^ng to Dr. Arhuth- 
not, equal to one foot nine inches, and 
888 decimal parts.— i/ornf. 

2. That part of the arm which extends 
&om the elbow to tbe wrist, 

(cubilal. Ft.) Relating to the 

given by Werner t 

i ] C U N 

CDBQl'OBa. A bone of the foot, in sliape 
soiiiewhnt resembling a cube ; it is placed 
at the fore snd Doter part of the tarsus. 

Ck'bo-octahb'dkal. a combination of 
a cube and an octahedron. 

Cdco'llate, i (cuevllaliu,Lt.t.) Hooded; 

Cucc'lf.atrd. ( having the shape of ■ 
hood. Applied to leaves when theii 
edges meet in the lower and expand to- 
wards the upper part. 

Cuccuehi'na. (from cvcumtr, Lat.) A 
species of tbssil spine belonging to the 
echinus, and possessing something of the 

merine spines ale figured in Faikinson'a 

Organic Remains, 
Ci'i'aAss. (mireaie, Fr. eorazsa. It.) A 

defensive armour which protects the body 

from the shoulders to the waist. 
Cni.H. (Welsh,) 

1. A kind of fossil coal, of indiSerent 
quality, burning with little fiame, and 
emitting a disagreeable smell. 

2. An herbnceouB stem peouliar to grosses, 
rushes, and some other plants allied to 
them. Calms are either hollow or soUd, 
jointed or without joints, round or trian- 
gular, rough or smooth, hairy or downy, 
and bear both leaves and Rowers. 

(_cullratiiit, Lat.) Sharp- 

Cu'mbbian system. The Combrian or 
slate system, as described by Professor 
Sedgwick, extends over a large portion of 
Cumberland, Lancashire, and Westmore- 
land, attaining on elevation in some places 
of upwards of three thoasand feet, and 
affording the splendid scenery of North 
Wales ond of the lakes. The strata are 
of great, but unknown, thickness, possess- 
ing a slaty character, and Dearly destitute 
of organic remains. The Cumbrian, or, 
as it has been also called, Granwack^ 
Kystem, includes the PlyiJymmon rocks, 
the liala limestone, and the Snowdon 

Ctr'utjLATE. (from aimulo, Lat.) To 
heap together. 

CtiMOLA'TiON. A heap ; the art of heq>- 
ing together, 

Cn'MULATiTB. (atmitlBlif, Fr.) Com- 
jiosed of parts heaped together. 

Cc'neal, (cunetu. Let.) Hoving tbe form 

CD'NKiroBii. ) Having IJie form of a wedge. 

Cd'hifokm. ) Three bones of the foot 
have obtained the name of einieifonn 
bones from their wedge-like shape ; they 
sre situated at tbe fore part of tbe tarsus 
and inner side of the os cuboides, and are 


[ ^a ] 

C Y A 

applied to each other like the stones of an 

Cu'pREOus. (cupreuSf Lat.) Coppery ; 

consisting of copper. 
Cupri'ferous. (from cvprum and ferOj 

Lat.) Yielding copper ; containing 

Cu'puLE. (cttpti/ff, Lat.) The cup of the 

acorn and of similar fruits. 
Cu'rvate. ^ (curvatuSf Lat.) Crooked ; 
Cu'rvated. S bent. 
Curva'tion. (curvOf Lat.) The act of 

bending or making crooked. 
Cu'rvature. (curvaturot Ijat.) Flexure; 

crookedness ; inflexion. 
Curve. A flexure, or bending, in a regular 

form ; a portion of a circle. 
Cu'rved. Bent ; flexed. 
Curvili'near. (from curvus and lineaj 

Lat.) Consisting of curved or crooked 

Cu'rvity. Crookedness. 
Cu'sPATED. (from cuspis, Lat.) Pointed ; 

terminating in a point, as the leaves of 

the thistle. 
Cu'sPiDAL. Ending in a point. 


1. A botanical term, applied to leaves ter- 
minating in sharp rigid spines. 

2. In entomology, having a pointed pro- 
cess much extended, and nearly setiform. 

Cuta'neous. {cutaneCt Fr. cutaneOj It.) 

Pei-taining to the skin. 
Cu'ticlb. {cuticulaj Lat. cuticule, Fr.) 

1 . The scarf-skin ; the outermost skin. 
The cuticle is a thin, greyish, semi-trans- 
parent, insensible membrane, which covers 
the skin, and adheres to it by small vas- 
cular filaments. It is this which is sepa- 
rated by the application of blisters. 

2. In botany, the outward covering of 
plants. Every plant is covered by a cuti- 
cular expansion, analogous to the scarf- 
skin that covers animal bodies. The 
cuticle, or epidermis, of plants varies in 
thickness, being extremely delicate on 
some parts of a flower, and very thick, 
hard, and coarse on the trunks of many 

CuTi'cuLAR. Pertaining to the cuticle, or 
external covering of the body. 

Cu'tis. (Lat.) The skin, dermis, or true 
skin, as distinguished from the cuticle or 
scarf-skin. It lies immediately under the 
corpus mucosum, and gives a cohering to 
the whole body. It is formed of fibres 
intimately interwoven, and running in 
every direction, like the hairs in the felt 
of a hat, and is so plentifully supplied 
with nerves and blood-vessels, that the 
smallest puncture cannot be made in any 
part of it, without occasioning pain and a 
discharge of blood. It is that part of 
quadrupeds of which leather is made. 

The cutis can be entirely dissolved by the 

action of boiling water, and consists 
chiefly of gelatin, from which circum- 
stance it is a principal article in the 
manufacture of glue. 
Cu'ttle. ) The sepia of Linnaeus. A 

Cu'ttle-fish. 5 species of Cephalopoda, 
genus MoUusca. The bone of the sepia 
(which is an internal bone, flat and broad, 
somewhat resembling a sole in its appear- 
ance,) is found, commonly, washed up on 
our coasts, and when ground into fine 
powder is used as pounce, and is some- 
times employed in the making of tooth- 
powder. The sepia attains to an immense 
size in the seas of India and China, and 
it is said that its arms, which are eight in 
number, are sometimes several fathomi 
long, so that it will, by throwing them 
around a boat, endanger the safety of the 
boat's crew, and that it is nsual to keep 
on board a hatchet for the purpose of 
severing them on such occasions. The 
cuttle-fish having no external shell, ii 
protected from its enemies by a pecoUar 
internal provision, consisting of a bladder- 
shaped sac, containing a black and Tiidd 
ink, soluble in water, the ejection of 
which, by rendering the surroimding 
water opaque, conceals and defend^ the 
animal. The sepia has its feet around its 
head, and walks along the bottom of the 
sea with its head downwards. The feet 
are lined internally with little round 
serrated cups, or suckers, by which the 
animal both seizes its prey and adheres 
to other bodies. The month, which re- 
sembles a parrot's beak, or the bill of a 
hawk, is placed in the centre of the arms. 
The ink of the cuttle-fish is said to fDm 
an ingredient in the composition of Indian 

Professor Buckland states, in describmg 
the ink found in a fossil ink-bag of tiie 
cuttle-fish, ** So completely are tiie da- 
racters and qualities of the ink retained 
in its fossil state, that when, in 1826, I 
submitted a portion of it to my friend 
Sir Francis Chantrey, requesting him to 
try its power as a pigment, and he had 
prepared a dravring with a triturated por- 
tion of this fossil substance ; the drawing 
was shown to a celebrated painter, withoitf 
any information as to its origin, and he 
immediately pronounced it to be tinted 
with sepia of excellent quality.'* 

The common sepia used in dravring is 
from the ink-bag of an oriental spectes of 
Cy'anite. (from Kvavog, Gr. color «•- 
ruleus, or sky-coloured.) Call^ abo 
Kyanite, and by Saussure, Sappare, is a 
mineral of a grey, blue, and blueish-green 
colour. It occurs regularly crystal&edi 
as well as massive and disseminated. Iti 
textwxe \% io\\aXi&d. \ laminee long ; finf* 

enta eplinteiy. It feeli eomewbnt 
easy. Before the blaw-)>ipe it becomea 
most perfectly while, but it docs not 
Bit. Its cDiiBtitDEDt piLrts urc, bIudiuib 
l-.IO, aiUea 34-33, with a trace of oiide 
'iron and a very small portion of lime. 
,'THiroBM. (from cyat/au and /orma. 
It.) In the fona of a oup, or driDldng- 
lel; cnp-ehaped. 

iiXKov, Gr.) Bating cnp-Ehaped leaves. 
~ '~~A. (from tvKnq, cycu, Gr.) A 
of plants. The cycaJen bold nn 
ediatE place beiweeo the palmi, 
Eetdi, and coniferK. Some speciea ore 
m7 short, as the zamia ; others Bttain a. 
Bight of thirty feet and upwards. This 
Hutiful family of plants in thetr eiter- 
ll habit resemble that of palmBi whilst 
iMT intenml strnclure approiitaates to 
laC of coniferee. The cycadciE are na- 
raa of warm climatca, mostly tropical, 
found at the Cape of 
Hope. Lenvea of cyradeiE are of 
eqaent occurrence in the shale of the 
lUtic formation near Scuborough, and 
ley have been found in the Stoneaficld 
ate. Cycadete hare been found in the 
Ml formation of Bolieuiia. The tmuk 
[ the cycadea has no true bark, but it is 
irrouuded by a dejise case, composed of 
iraistent aciiles, which have formed the 
isea of laUen leaves ; these, together with 
lier rfmrtive scales, constitute a com- 
tct covering that supptjes the place of 
irk. The prevalence of cycadec gives 
diadnctive character to the flora of the 
iper Koondary formations. The stems 
and in the Isle of Portland, and the 
iveaand fruits in the oolitic formations 
Yorkihire, show considerable analogy 
the existiag forms of the tribe at the 
ape of Good Uope, in India, and Aus- 

nl species of cycas. Our fossil cycn- 
es are closely allied by many remark, 
a diaracters of structure to existing 
adea . — Buehian d. 

(kukuq, Gr.) A genus of plants, 

^ng to the first natural order Pnlmfe, 

cording to the flrst arrangemeot of 

iniueiu, but subsequetitly placed among 

}]UBi (pi. cyeladei.) A genus of 
BMtrines, or fresh-water bivalves. The 
lci{ia*OBS grit near Hastings is full uf 
es, and several apeciea of eyclas 
ur, in mjiiada, in the shales and 
northeWeolden formation.— Manfc". 
rho cyclas is an ovato- transverse hi- 
re, not iDHecled on the lore part i tlie 

7 ] C Y M 

hinge with three hinffc-teetli aud two 
Inleral teeth, compressed aud rather re- 
m ate. — Parkianon . 

While ttie cyclas of Europe ii de- 
scribed as smiill, thin, and homy, abound- 
ing in ditches, ponds, uud slow streams, 
that of Asia is stated to be very large. 
The cyclns is viviparous. 

Ci-'cLK. (from KvAoQ. Gr. ct/rli, Yt. eiclo. 
It.) A round of years which go on from 
first to last, and then return to the same 
order as before; a space in which the 
same revolutions begin again. 

Cv'cLoiD. {from titW. and Mac, Gr. 
eycloide, Pr.) A geometrical curve | 
a figure made by the npper end of the 
diameter of a circle, turning about a 
right line. 

CTCLo'toAL. Relating to a cycloid. 

CroLoi'niANs. (from ivjtXot, Gr.) Tha 
fourth order of fishes according to the 
arrangement of M. Agassiz. Families of 
this order have their scales smooth and 
simple at their margin, and oden oraa- 
mented with various figures at the upper 
surface. The salmon and herring are 

Cycloi'dean. Belonging to the fonrtb 
order of fishes, according to the arrange- 
ment of M. AgBssiz. The eycloidean and 
ctenoideon orders succeeded the placoU 
dean and gaDoideoa. 

Cv'cLOMTB. (fromtuuXus and XiOee,Gr.) 
Another name for madrepore. 

Cyo'net. (from cycnas, Lat.) A young 

Cv'LiNnEU. (KliXivfpoc, Gr. cylindnu, 
Lat. eylindre, Fr. cllindro, It,) A solid, 
formed by the revolution of a rectangular 
parallelogram about one of its aides, so 
that it is extended in length equally round, 

} Partaking of the natnre of 
. i a cylinder ; having the 
form of a cylinder ; having its circum- 
ference round, of indeterminate length, 
but of equal thickness throughout. 

"vLi'NDBiFoaM. Of the form of a cylin 
der ; round hke a roller. 

^vli'ndsoid. a solid, in many respects 
resembling a cylinder, but having ellipti- 
cal instead of circular extremities, yet 
paraUel and equal. 

:vi,iNnHiCo'oorr. The name given to a 
genus of oviparous quadrupeds. 

:iUE. (q/nia. Lat. xi/ia, Gr.) 

1. A form of inflorescence, the general 
appearance of which resembles an nmbel, 
and agrees tvith it in this respect, that its 
common stalksall spring from one centre; 
but differs in having those stalks alter- 
nately and variously divided, Theoksan^ 
der and elder ate oiamx>^e*. 

2. A aprout, iii q! n. ciCn^a^i. 

C Y M 



Ctmo'phaiyb. a name giTen bj Haiiy to 
the chrysoberyl, which see. 

Cruo^BJE. Plants whose inflorescence is 
disposed in the fonn of a cyme ; the 
sixty-third natural order of Linnaeus. 

CTPXRA'cBiB. A tribe of plants answering 
to the English sedges ; they are distin- 
guished from grasses by their stems being 
solid and generally triangular, instead of 
being hollow and round. Together with 
graminese, they constitute what writers 
on botanical geography often call glu- 
macefle. — Lyell, Principles of Geology, 

Cyvkm'a. (The cowry.) Animal a slug ; 
shell univalTe, oval, or oblong, inyolute, 
smooth, obtuse at each end ; aperture 
long, narrow, extending the whole length 
of the shell, and dentated on each side. 
The mantle sufficiently ample to fold 
oyer and envelope the shell, which at 
a certain age it covers with a layer of 
another colour. The genus cyprsea con- 
sists of beautifully coloured shells very 
highly polished. They live in sand at 
the bottom of the ocean ; the animal is 
provided with a membrane, which it 
throws over its shell, which not only 
preserves the fine polish, but prevents 
testacese from fixing on it. One hundred 
and twenty species have been described, 
one only of which belongs to our seas ; the 
rest are all tropical. In some parts the 
shell of this animal is used in the place of 
money, and passes current. By some it 
is thought that the cypreea casts its shell 

Ctpki'fbkoits. Containing ilidlff of tiie 
genus Cypris. Entire layera of stone 
are sometimes composed of the consoli- 
dated remains of the cypris ; tfaeae shells 
oecur in the Hastings sand and suid- 
stone, in the Sussex marble, and in tiie 
Purbeck limestone. 

Ct'pris. A genus of animals, endoied 
within two flat valres, like those of a 
bivalve shell, inhabiting the waters of 
lakes and marshes. The cypria throwi 
off its integuments erery year. Tkt 
cypris is a microscojHC crustacean, with 
which certain clay beds of the Wealdea 
are so abundantly charged, that the sur- 
faces of many laminte into which tiiis 
day is easily dividedi are often entirdy 
covered with them as with small seeds. 
The Sussex marble abounds in the shells 
of the cypris. 

Ct'prina. An equivalve, ineqnilateral, 
sub>orbicular, marine bivalve ; living in 
sandy mud. Fossil species occur in the 
tertiary deposits. 

CTTHERiS''A. A marine bivalve ; eqnivahe, 
lenticular, oval ; hinge with two cardinal 
teeth ; one anterior lateral tooth in each 
valve, which distinguishes this genus from 
Venus. It is found in dejAis of the 
ocean varying to fifty fathoms, in mud 
and coarse sands. Several species hsTe 
been found fossil in the tertiary deposits. 
Cythersea nitidula is mentioned by Dr. 
Mantell as occurring in the London day, 
and cythersea convexa in the Flactic day. 


Da'ourite. The siberite of Lermina. A 
variety of the red sehorl of Siberia, called 
also rubellite. This stone is found in 
Siberia mixed with white quartz. It is 
composed of silica 56, alumina 36, with 
some oxide of manganese, and oxide of 

Dasy'pus. (Samjirovci from datT-bc and 
TTo^C, Gr.)' The armadillo, which see. 

Dasyu'rus. An animal of the marsupial 
order. The dasyurus is said to be the 
largest of the carnivorous marsupial ani- 
mals. The head of a species of dasyurus 
has been discovered in the Eocene fresh- 
water limestone of Auvergne. 

Da'tholitb. ) The Dystom-spath of Mohs. 

Da'tolite. y A sort of spar- stone ; the 
siliceous borate^ of lime. According to 
Menil, it is a combination of silica 38*50, 
lime 35*60, boracic acid 21*30, water 
4*60. Its varieties are named Botryolite, 
Earthy Botryoidal Datolite, and Com- 
mon Datolite, It has been found prin- 

cipally in Norway, in beds of magnetic 

Deba'cle. {Debacle, Fr. Anuu de ffUifWU 
qui arrivent avec impetuosity, dan» «• 
d^gel subit, apres qu'une rimhrs tt (ti 
prise long-temps,) A violent torrent or 
rush of waters, which, overcoming aU 
opposing barriers, carries with it stonesi 
rocks, and other fragments, spreading 
them in all directions. 

Debou'che. {debouch^f Fr. L*e»ir4mUi 
d'un defile, d^un col de montagnes.) The 
outlet of a narrow pass. 

Debri's. {dibrisy^r.) The fragments of 
rocks ; the ruins of strata ; the rubbisht 
sand, grit, &c., brought down by tor- 

Decahe'dral. (from Uxa, and tSfta, Gr.) 
Having ten sides. 

Decahe'dron. a figure which hath tea 

Dbca'ndria. (firom ^cca, and &viipt Gr.) 
A cla&a of ^«nt8 characterised by hwriig 

U E C 

Bfen ttamena ; 
Kviifrags, See. 
BHma'ndriah. BeloDgiag to tlie cUbs 
K ]|ecandrLii ; haTing ten bUidpiis. 
DKCAFBv'i.tODS. (from fita. Dud ^iXXov, 

Gr. ) A calyi which hath ten leayea. 
Dbca'pdda. (from lita, ten, and iroiiCi 
fiwt.) The first order of craatncen. Thi> 
f order incladeB the lobster, crab, craw- 
I, shrimp I &c. 

I'poDAL, Belonging to the order De- 

gapodik ; bmbg ten feet. Sjnonymaiu 

■ ■ ■ mpednl. 

DkOB'ui'tti. (from decern and/sOTW, Lat.) 

Ten-cleft ! in botany, a term for a calyi, 

cleft, or dlTided, into ten parte. 

Dbo EMU)' CEIL AH. (from decern and tocu- 

- /iM,Lat.) Tea-celled; in botany, an epi- 

tt fbr a pericarp divided into ten loculi 


{deeidrnw, Lat.) 
_. Id botany, falling off; plants whith 
Bhte their leaves in autumn are called 
applied also to stipnlea falling 
X the autumn ; to calyces ^Ung aoon 
_ insion of the corolla ; and to 
s corolla when fpUing with the ita- 

^hoingy, to sheila baring a len- 
icy in the apei of the spire to fall off; 
crustaceans, annually catting their 

Dbci.e'iieion. (from dtclmatin, Lat.) 
DeclinatioQ ; desceut ; alope from or 
Diclhta'tiok. (declituilio, Lat.) Devia- 
from a right Une. 

VTTY. {declivitai, Lat. ileelieitf, 

ti.) Gradual descent of land, as distin- 

from precipitooa or perpendi- 

re. )((;Fc/icij,Lat.) Gradually 
■ei.i'vrronB. ( descending, as diatio- 
tuished from sudden and precipitous 

ICOMPo'babi.k. That may be reaolsed 
constitnent elements ; capable of 
iMing decomposed. 

I'gouposi. (/ieeoMpaaer, Fr. Riduire 
eorpt a ten principtK, ou siparer 

Ctiai doat it ml eompoKi.) To reaolv 
J into its constituent elements ; 
rareome the power of affinity, and 
lereby to lepaiate elementary particles. 
iOUPOgi'-riON. {dicompoiitiOH, Fr. 
efnration of parts prerioualy united 
leooiapoeitioa may be effected by van 
U methoda ; it is of two kinds, aimplf 
r WDgle, and complex, or doeble. 
coHFOiTT'D. Doubly compound- Leave 
are so called when the pedoles, instead of 
bearing leaftete, branch out into other 
jwtiolea to which the leaflets 
io'kVicatb. {decurtica, Lii.) To de- 

D E F 
if the bark or hnslt ; (o peel 

'. The stripping off th« 
hark or peel. 
De'cbembnt. (dtcrrmnttum, Lat.) Gra- 
dual waste, or wearing away, as of rocka 
by the action of water ; ^adnal diminu- 

DecBu'i-iTATK. {from decrfjio, Lat.) To 
fall into pieces with a crackling noise. 

Decrepita'tion. idferfpilation,Vi.) Tho 
crackling noise made by certain aub- 
Blonces in falling to pieces when heated. 

Decre'scent. idecreactnt, Lat.) Gra- 
dually becoming less. 
ecd'rrbnt, (from rfemrro, Lflt.) Run- 
ning downwards. Applied to sessile 
leaves when the base runs down the 
stem and forms a border or wing ; applied 
albO to stipules when extending down- 
wards along the stem. In some plants, 
as in some of the thistles, the margins of 
sessile leaves run down on each side of 
the stem, so as to appear to be of one 
piece with it ; these leaves are called 

[. The act of running down, ai 

Dect/keive. Running down. 

Decu'hsiveit pinna tb. Applied to leaves 
having their leaflets demirrent, or ran- 
ning along the petiole. 

Dbcc'ssatb, {rfscumw, Lnt.) To inter- 
sect at acute angles ; to cross each other 
at right angles. Applied to branches 
growing in pairs, and ^temately crossing 
each other at right angles ; applied also 
to leaves alternately opposite, la coa- 
chology, applied to striie, crossing or in- 
teraecting each other at acota angles. 

Decuhsa'tion. The set of crossing at 
uneijual angles i the crosriug of two lines, 
rays, or threads, when they meet in a 
point, and then proceed separately. 

DEPENTi'TroN. (from de and dmiiiiQ, 
Lat.) Ttie loss or shedding of the teeth, 
as distinguished from dentition or the 
appearing of the teeth. 

DEPLAGOAHi'Liir. (fh)m deflaffro, LaL) 
Combustibility i the property of igniting, 
and entirely consuming away. 

DErLA'cRABLE. That may be entirely 
consumed by Are. 

" ' ""o entirely consume by 

DarLAOiiA'TioN. {dtjlngraliu, Lat. defla- 
gration, Fr.) The operation by which a 
body is wholly consumed by fire. 

Defi.e'ct, {defleclo, Lat.) To turn 


[70 ] 


Dkflb'ction. The act of tnming aside 
from its straight course ; deviation. 

Dbflb'xed. (de/lejmSf Lat.) In ento- 
mology, having the sliarp edge bent 

Dbklb'xure. a turning aside from a 
straight course. 

Dbgrada'tion. {degradation fYx. H tig- 
nifie dipirUsementy etat de di^cadence, de 
mine,') This term is used by geologists 
to signify the lessening or wearing away 
of rocks, strata, &c., by the action of 
water, or other causes. 

Degra'de. {d^grader,¥r.) To diminish; 
to wear away ; to reduce in size. 

Degra'ded. Worn away ; reduced in size 
by attrition, &c. 

Dehi'scent. {dehiscenSf Lat.) In bo- 
tany, fruits which open when ripe, so as 
to enable the seeds to escape, are termed 
dehiscent. Gaping; opening. 

Dei'nte GRATE. To diminish ; to separate 
the integrant parts oL 

DELidu'ESCE. {deliqueacOy Lat.) To be- 
come fluid by the attraction of water from 
the atmosphere. 

Deliciue'scbnt. That which by exposure 
to the atmosphere attracts moisture, and 
becomes from a solid a fluid body. 

Dell. A narrow opening between hills ; a 
small valley. 

Delphi'nula. (from delphinus, Lat.) A 
turbinated, subdiscoidal, umbilicated uni- 
valve. The aperture round and pearly ; 
operculum horny. The delphinula creeps 
on rocks and sea-weeds. This genus is 
formed of shells formerly included by 
linneeus in his genus Turbo. Lamarck 
places delphinula in the family Scalariana. 
The fossU delphinula occurs in the ter- 
tiary deposits. 

De'lta. a term applied by geologists to 
the alluvial deposits formed at the 
mouths of rivers. It has obtained its 
name from a supposed resemblance to 
the Greek letter A. Deltas are occa- 
sionally of immense size, and they are 
divided into lacustrine, mediterranean, 
and oceanic, the first being those formed 
in lakes, as the delta at the mouth of the 
Rhone, at the upper end of the lake of 
Geneva; the second, or mediterranean, 
are those formed in inland seas, as that 
at the mouth of the Rhone, where it 
enters the Mediterranean; the third, or 
oceanic, are those formed on the bor- 
ders of the ocean, as the delta of the 

Dk'ltoid. (from delta, the fourth letter of 
the Greek alphabet.) The name of a 
muscle of the shoulder, from its supposed 
resemblance to the Greek letter A ; tri- 

De^ndrachate. (from devUpov and dx^i- 
rtjc, Gr.) An agate with delineations of 

trees, ferns, moss, &c. Some of tUie 
are exceedingly beautiful, and are to 
elegantly depicted that they have been 
erroneously taken for real plants, whence 
their name. These pebbles are fbood 
abundantly on the shore from Bognor to 
Brighton, and when cut and polished, an 
made into very beautiful necklaces, 
brooches, snuff-boxes, &c. &c. 

Db'ndrite. (dtvdpiTiQf Gr.) Tlie nme 
as dendrachate. 

Dendri'tical. Containing tiie resem- 
blance of trees, ferns, or moMes. 

De'ndroite. a fossil resembling the bnmch 
of a tree. 

De'ndrolite. (from iivSpov and \i9ot, 
Gr.) Fossil wood ; the fossil branch of a 

De'nsitt. (densitagf Lat. densiii, Fr. doh 
sitoi It.) Closeness ; compactness ; that 
property directly opposite to rarity, where- 
by bodies contain such a quantity of 
matter in such a bulk. The densities of 
bodies are proportional to their masses, 
divided by their volumes. Hence if tiie 
sun and planets be assumed to be sphens, 
their volumes will be as the cnbes of tiieir 
diameters. The strata of the teirestrisl 
spheroid are not only concentric and 
elliptical, but the lunar inequalities show 
that they increase in density from the 
surface of the earth to its centre. 

The absolute density of, or the quia- 
tity of matter contained in, the earAi 
compared with an equal bulk of any 
known substance, may be nearly deter- 
mined by the attractive force whidi any 
given mass of matter exerts upon a plnm- 
met, when suspended in its vicinity, to 
draw it from a vertical line. By this me- 
thod it has been found that the mean 
density of the earth is about five times 
greater than that of water, or nearly 
twice the average density of the rocks and 
stones on the surface. The mean den- 
sity of the ocean is only about one-fifU 
part of the mean density of the earth. 

De'ntal. (dentaliSf Lat. dentale, ¥r. 
dentale, It.) Relating to the teetii; re- 
sembling a tooth, as a dental process. 

De'ntal. ) (from <len«, Lat.) A^mII- 

Denta'lium. 5 fish belonging, acccHndiBg 
to Linnseus, to the class Vermes, older 
Testacea. The shell consists of one ttt- 
bulous arcuated cone, open at both ends* 
There are many species, disting^uished by 
the angles, striae, &c. of their shells. 

The observations of Deshayes lead to 
the conclusion that the genus Dentatiius 
approaches very closely to the moUiUGli 
if, indeed, it does not belong to then* 
The dentalia are found in deep watVt 
frequently near the shore, inhabiting die 
ocean only ; they are solitary. The ani- 
mal \& a^ tei^bella. The sheUs are Imoini 

DEN [ ;i 

commonlj by the name of tooth-shells, 
nr sea toelh. Twenty-two species have 
been described, seven of nbich inhabit 


Db'ntalite.' >(fTOin dent, a tooth, and 

Dx'uTALtTHE. ( X/eoc, B stone.) AfossU 
dentaliam found in the tertiary fannaCioDS, 
in the gait, and id the lower green aand. 
Of these Uiere are manj- speeiea ; as the 
Dentalinm planum, D. Btriatum, D. ellir- 
tiCDin, D. decuseatnoi, &c. 

Dshta'ta. a name giTen to the second 
vralebra of the spitial coloinn, from a. 


Di'NTAngif. i jagged; notched j toothed. 
Id Iratany, leaves are called dentated, 
when the border is beset with horizontal 
prtjecting points or teeth, with rather a 
distant space between each, and of the 
■sine noneiatence as the substaaoe of the 
leafiteelf: applied also to stipules hav- 
ing spreading teeth about the margin, 
remote from each other. 

Db'ntbd. (denl^, Fr. decoupf en poiniei 
Krr^nr lei tmei conirt let autrtt.) 
Motchfd; indented. 

Db'ntilk. a small tooth, aa that of a 
saw : a term used in conchology. 

DBNTr'cm.ATKD. (detiticulaivt, Lat.) Set 
with small teeth, as in the area, 

Dinticula'tion. The state of being eet 
with small teeth. 

Di^'NTironM. (from dens aod^onna, Lat.) 
Tooth -shaped. 

Dbnti'tidn. (denlilian, Fr.) The period 
at which the teeth are being formed within 
the jaws, and protruded through the 

DeVroiD. (from dena and illag, Gr.) Of 

the ahape, or foma, of a tooth, 
Db'hddatb. {denfido, Lat.) To Jay bare ; 

to atrip ; to divest of its covering. 
Dehddation. [denvdatio, Lat. denuda- 
tion, Fr.) The laying bare ; (he act of 
diveflting of its covering ; the nncovenng 
of strata by the washing away of their 
Dknd'de. (denudo, Lat. rffwuer, Fr. de- 
nufarf, It.) To ky bare; to divest of 
its covering ; to strip. 
Dind'ded. Laid bare ; exposed ; divested 
of its covering ; stripped. 
I Deobbtbo'ct. (from deotnlruo, Lat.) To 
X from impediments. 

1. ) To reduce from the state of 
lio'X'yiiiKii. i an oiyd by depriving it 
~ if its oiygen. 

I. ~l Deprived of oiygen ; dis- 
). 1 niiited, or separated 
in. r from the ojiygen with 
to. J which it was previously 

] D E R 

Ds'FTLoue. (from de and pilvt. Lat.) 

Having no hair. 
Dbpi.fma'tion. ideplumelio, Lat.) The 

plucking off the feathers. 
Dkflv'ue. (deplumer, Fr.) To pluck, o 

strip, of its feathers. 
Deplu'mbo. (Jepfcrai/, Fr,) Stripped of 

ita feathers. 
Dkpo'sit. Matter laid or thrown down ; 

that wliich having been suspended or 

carried along in a medium lighter than 

itself at length subsides, as mud, gravel. 

s, organ 

a, 3ic 

Defosi'tioh. That which is deposited oi 
thrown down. 

Dbpre'ssbd. (dfpfemit, Lat.) Preasec 
down ; low ; shallaw ; flat. In botany, 
leaves are called depressed when flattened 
vertically: radical leaves are thus called 
when they are pressed close (o the ground. 

Dbprg's3idm. {depretiio, Lat. depresnot 
Fr. deprtiiione. It.) The sinking, < 
falling in, of a surface. 

Defke'ssob. The name given to saeh 
muscles as have the power of depressing, 
as the depressor anguU oris, &c, 

DE'poaATE. i {dipvrer, Fr. readre plut 

Depd'bb. i pvr; depurare. It.) To 
free from impoiitlea ; to cleanse. 

De'fukath. ( {d(puri, Fr.) Cleansed; 

Dk'puratbd. \ freed from impurities. 

Dbpora'tiok. {dipuration, Fr. dgjiira- 
xione, It. depvraiio, Lat.) The aetioa 
of freeing from impurities, of cleansing, 

Dera'cihate. {diraanar, Fr. tirS" dt 
tare, arracher de terre «» arbre.) To 
tear op by the roots ; to extirpate. 

Dera'cinatind. Tearing up by the roots ; 
violently extirpating. 

De'rbvshirb hpab. This beautiful lub- 
Btance is flnace of lime, a combination of 
calcareous eartli with fluoric acid ; it oc- 
curs in nodular masses, and in crystals. 
It is found in great beauty and abun- 
dance in Derbyshire, whence it haa ob- 
tained its name, but it is also plentifnl in 
other parts of England. It ts also called 
flour-spar and blue-john, tpAicA laller 

Deriva'tion. (derivalio, Lat. dfrivaiion, ' 
Fr. delour qu'oH fait prendre a«x eana.' 
Tbo turning of water from its usua 
course ; the drawing off of water from it 


, (from detieeo, Lat.) To 

M e:(hBust of moisture. 

. To grow dry j to be freed 



Lat.) The 

Bbtte of being dried ; the 

Dbsi'ccative. Tliat lias the quality of 

maldiig dry. 
Dk'euink. a mineral found la tlie lava of 

SitiBct Yoloanoes accomiiunying sjiinel- 

laae ; its farm of crystallizatiou ia Id 

amall silhea tufts. 

IB. (despjiMO, Lat.) To throw 
' I discharge impu- 

n froth 

Dbsffma'tion. {deapumalio, Lat.) The 

throwing off of escreuientiCiouB matter 

and imparities ia froth, foam, or acnm. 

DssauAHA'TioN. (desqtiaoiaiio, from de 

and tguama, Lat.) The falling off of the 

_ cuticle in the fonn of scales. 

(dtsquamo, Lat.) To 
; to fall off ■ " ■ 



aring a- 


Slating I 


the whole series of stratitied rocks," saja 
Profesaor Bucldand, " that appear on the 
Borface of the (jlobe, there probably exists 
a fuitndation of utistratilied crystalline 
rocks, hearing an in'egular surface, from 
the detiitua of which the materials of 
Stratified rocks have in great measure 
been derived. ' ' 
DBUto'xiDE. 1 (from ^tuTipoc and oj:]i(i.) 
DbdTo'kyde. \ A substance in the se- 
cond degreeof oxidation, or containing two 
prime proportions of oxvgeo : aprotoxide 
is in the first or smallest degree ; a trit- 
oxide denotes a third proportion, and a 
peroxide has the greatest degree of oiida- 

DEVE'topE, {iivftopper, Fr.) To un- 
fold; to disclose; to dear from its cover- 
ing ; to nnravcl. 

Devk'i.opehent. {divelappemmt, Fr.) 
In this word and that which precedes it, 
the French derivation is iocarrectly spelt, 
in the former by Johnson, in the latter 
by Todd, who introduces it.) The act 
ofunlblding; the discoveringof something 


(dfi}fxiit, Lat,) Inclining dona- 
wards j declivous; bending dowa- 

EVE'fiTv. {daxaitaa, Lat.) Dedivilf 
a bending downwards. 

. {derolvlia, IjiX. d^volviim 
rone, It.) The act of "' 
B the removal of earth orst 
a valley. 
Devo'i-vb. idfvolm, Lat.) To roll d< 
as "every headlong stream devolves il 
winding waters to the main." In 
sense, however, the word is not mod 
ly used : in its cooiuon acceptM 
at the present day, it signifies to pai 
succession from one person to anoUie 
Dew. The fallowing accoant of d«ir] 
extracted from "Mrs. SomerriJle's C 
nejdon of the Physical SaieDoaa:' 
" Our sensations only measure compa 
tive di^recs of heat : when a body, ■ 
as ice, appears to be coLl, it impi 
fener calorific raya than it recervea ; aoil' 1 
when a substance seems to be warm, br I 
example, a Qre, it gives more caloric thML I 
it receives. The phenomena of dew oA M 
hoar-frost are owing to this ineqniaUtT 4 1 
exchange ; the caloric tadiated. dttdW 1 
the night by substances on the suifuwn J 
the earth into a cleoi' expanse of il>T'll I 
l09t, and no return is mads from the MSI V 
vault, BO that their temperaturs unln bl^fl 
low that of the air, whence the; abdawPl 
a part of that caloric which holds the li^l 
mospheric humidity in aoiation, and ■ ' 
t!tpo«lion of dew takes place. If thi 
radiation be great, the dew is frozen and 
becomes hoar-frost, which is the ice of 
dew. Cloudy weather is unfavourable to 
the formation of dew, by preventing tbs 
free radiation of caloric ; and actual eon- 
tact is requisite for its deposition, sini 
it is never saspended in the air like fa. 
"' ' ' ' 1 great part of their O0«- 


I power of radiation pecoUlc 

3 itself, they are capable of procuring ■ 
sufficient supply for their wants." 
JEW-Lir. The loose skin which h>B|t 
down under the throat of the cow and 
other animals, and thus called from iU 
licking or lapping tlie dew when gram^ 
Jex'teu. llLat.) The right, u op- 
lE'xTitAi,. i posed to the left. IneoD- 
chologj, shells are divided into d«ilnl 
and sinistral. The more common tnmof 
shells is with the apparent motion of the 
sun. or as the index or hand of a doA 
moves. On the contrary, a i 
sinistral, shell, when placed in a perpen- 
dicular position has its spiral volutjona ia 
an opposite direction to the motion of the 
index of a clock, and resemblea what it 
called a sinistral, or left-handed, urcsr. 
The smistral shells are sometimes termd 
heteroclitical, and heterostro|ihe shelU. 
There has been considerable conliuiM 
amongst conchological writers in describ' 

D I A [ 

ing tbe position in which Bbells ehould be 
held to ascertain the right fVom the left aide, 
fcc. Pfrhaps. Che moat simple plan is, to 
place the apex of any spiral shell towards 
the eye with the month downwards; dextral 
■hells nil] then be found to have their 
aperture on the right side of the axiti 
simatral ahelle, on the contrary, will have 
theirs on the left of the 

Di'ababe. Tbe French name for green- 
stone; a trap-rock, composed of horn- 
blende and feldspar. 

DtAm/i-niiA. (from A's and aJeXfoe, 
Gr.) The seventeenth class of plants in 
the artificial system of Linnsns. The 
atamcus are united into two parcels at 
die baae. This class has papilionaceous 
flowers and legaminona fhiits. Familmr 
• spoHmens will be found in the garden 
p«a, bean, &c. &c. 

DtADB'LFHOija. Having its stamens united 
into two parcels at the base ; belonging to 
the cluAa Diadelphia. 

Dia'oomal. (liayiuvlac, Gr. ab atiffuhad 
BnsuItaH ptrducltia : diagoniuii, Lat. dia- 
gonal, Fr. diasanate. It.) A line reach- 
ing from one angle to another, BO aa 
to divide a parallelogram into eqna! parts. 
Diagonals principally belong to quadrila- 
teral lignres. 

Dia'donallv. (rlitigonalemmt , Fr. (fia. 
gotkatemtnte. It. J In a diagonal direc- 

Di'allaok. Schiller-spar ; a variety of 
serpen line, or crystallized serpentine. 
The colour of 'diaUege is dark-green. 

Dia'hkteii. {,Gc.diamfteTlinfani 
dimtBtiau, pei- medium aecaia : diame- 
ter, Lat. diaj^lre, Fr. diamelro. It.) 
A straight line passing through a centre, 
and terminated both ways by the sides or 
(urface of a figure. 

DtAMn'TaAL. ) {diamHral, Fr. diame- 

DrAHB'TBicAL. ( Describing 
a diameter ; relating to the diameter, 

Dia'iikibai.i.v. I {diam^lra/ement , Fr. 

Diauk' t diamftyalmeaie, It.) 
In a diametrical direction ; In direct oppo- 
dtion ; directly. 

Di'amOkd. {diamant, Fr. diamante, It. 
iiaum, Gr. adamaa, Lat.) The hardest 
and most Tsjnabte of all the precious 
stonea- Strange as it may appear, dia- 
mond consists of pore carbon. If the 
best chamoalbe burnt in oiygen, carbonic 
add gss is farmed, the weight of which 
m nearly equal to that of the charcoal 
and llie oiygen, there being a small re- 
riduam of earthy ashes left alter the com- 
boation j bnLif, intiltemaiiner, adiamond 
be burnt in oiygen, carbonic acid gas is 
equally tbe result, though, in the latter 
yajie, there is no reaiduum, and the car- 
bonic acid gas obtained ia precisely equal 
in wciglit to the two elements, the oiygen 

3 ] Die 

and the diamond. Why, or how, It is 
that the same elementary substance can, 
with little or no addition, form two such 
excessively dissimilar bodies as diamond 
and charcoal,— the former the hardest and 
clearest body in nature, the latter a mere 
black, soft, brittle maaa, — is a mystery be- 
yond our finite powers to comprehend. 
Tbe primitive crystal of the diamond 
is tbe regular octahedron, each triangular 
facet of which is sometimes replaced by 
six secondary triangles hounded by carved 
lines ; so that the crystal beeomea sphe- 
roidal, with 48 facets. When rubbed, I 
tbe diamond shenrs positive electricity. 
It reflects all the light falling on its pos- 
terior sorfnce at an angle of incidenoo J 
greater than 24'' 13', whence its great 
brilliancy is derived. It is the natural 
edge of the diamond only that has tbe 
property of cuttmg glass, all artificially 
formed edges will only tear or scratch it. 
Diamonds are found of nearly every 
shade of colour, those which are colourlesi 
are deemedtheraostvaluable. Tbe largest 
diamond known is said to he that wUch 
belonged to the late Emperor of the Bra- 
zils ; it is nncut, and weighs IGBO carats, 
or II ouaccB 96 grains. This magnificent 
gem would be worth, supposing the table 
of rales to be applicable to stones above 
a certain size, 5,645,0U0i., but the highest 
price that has ever been given for a single 
diamond is 150,000/. A diamond in the 
possession of the Great Mogul is of the 
size of half a hen's egg. The Fitt dia- 
mond, now the property of the king of 
the French, was gold for 100,000/.; it 
weighs 136 carats, or nearly 1 ounce. 
Di'auond-ebafbd. Leaves are so called 
when approaching to a si^uare, having 
four sides, of which those opposite are 
eqaal ; the four angles are generally, two 

Dia'sdr'ia. (from l;i and rinip, Gr.) 
Tbe second class of plants in Luinceus' 
artificial arrangement ; they have two 
stamens. This is a very numerous class, 
consiating of three orders, and compre- 
hends all hermaphrodite flowers having 

Dia'nokian. Having two stHmcne ; be- 
longing to the class Diandria. 

Diaphane'ity. {diaphanfite, Fr.) Trans- 

Dia'phanocs. (Sio^av^c, from fia^ai'vw, 
Gr. diaphane, Fr.) Which may be seen 
thpongh ; transparent; pelludd. 

Di'afiikaom. {Ififfa-fna, Gr. dta- 
pbragma, Lat. diap&raffme, Fr. dia- 
fragma. It. ) A large transverse muscle, 
which scpacutes tbe chest from tbe belly ; 
tbe midrilf. 

Di'oEnAS. (from fis and iti(inc, Gr.) 
A genns of fossil sVieWa 6!\atti^ets.i. \ti 

D 1 C 

[ " ] 

H graniUar liniCEtoiie, and thua nnmed from | Du 
H poBsrsiing two prominent ajiiral umlionee, 

H nbich resemble two twiEted horns. 
■ Dicho'tdhocs. (ftomfixaaadtiiiv^.Gr. 
dicholomt, Fr. dicolOTHO, It.) Forked; 
regalarlf and continually divided by 
pairs from the top Ui the bottom : ap' 
plied to stemB dividing iota two parte ; 
example, the mialetoe. 
Di'cHROii. ) A mineral, called also io. 
Di'cQROiTE. i lite. The priematic quartz 
ofMohsi iolithe of Haiiy. Dichroite ii 
of K blue colour, shining luatre, and con- 
ehoidal fracture. It eanaists of nearly 
50 per cent, of silica, alumina 30, magne- 
sia 1 1 , oxide of iron 5 , with a trace oS 
oxide of manganese. It occurs in granite 
and gneiaa. 
Dico'ccouB. (from lie and tomag, Gr.} 
A capaule which consists of two cohering 
groins, or cells, with one aeed in each. 
Dicotylb'don. (.from ^ij andiDrwXijJiui'.) 
A plant which has two cotyledons or Be- 
rn in al leaTCB. 
DiooTYLK'noNons. Every plant the em- 
bryo of whose aeed is made np of two lobea, 
orwhieb possesses two cotyledons, or aemi- 
nal leaves, is included in this great diviaion 
of the vegetable kingdom ; or is a dico- 
tyledonous plant. The stems of dico- 
tyledonous plants are all exogenous, that 
is, they iacrease externally by the addi- 
lion of concentric layers from without ; 
these concentric additions beii 
annually, a vertical section of 
this division will shew, at nnce 
the number of rings or circles marking 
ita number of years. DicoCyledouous 
plants may always be distinguished from 
monocotyledonoua by their leaves: 

D I G 

xiA. (from 3ic and ^(vofiicGr.) 
me given to the 11th class in Lin- 
nieus's artiHcial arrangement : it has four 
atamenB,twolongandtwoshart. Tbisclaas 
ia easilydistinguishabla from the 4th class, 
Tetrandria, which has aleo four atunens. 
The flowers of this class are generally la- 
biate ; corolla monopetaloui. It is di- 
vided into two orders: Gymnospermia, 
with four naked seeda in the bottom of 
the calyx, and Augiospermia, the aeede 
numerous and contained in a seed-- 
In the drat order, with the naked 
the plants are mostly aromatic and whole- 
inder, a.1 

the seeds a 

easel, we find digitalii 
and other poisonous plants. 
Didvna'mic. ( Belonging to the class 
Didvna'mocs. I Didjnamia, Planla hav- 
ing four Btamena, two of which arc 
shorter than the othera, are called dtdy- 
Di'fFLCKNT. J {difflvFiu. Lat.) TU 
Di'PFLtiENCr. S quahty of flowing 
away on all sides, as does vrateri the 
effect of fluidity. 
Di'fFLnENT. Flowing everyway; not fixed. 
Water is diffluent, hut if it becou verted into 
ice it ceasea to be so, becoming fixed. 
DiFFti'sE. (from diffvndo, Lat.) To 

pour out ; to spread ; to disperse. 
DiFFu'sB. ( (ifijTiu, Fr. diffuM, It.) 
Diffu'hko. ) Poured out; scattered | 
spread. Widely spread out; scattered; 


their leaves parallel and not reticulated, 
while all dicotyledonous plantB have the 
veins of their leaves reticulated. 

Dida'ctylk. {liiuKTvXoi, Gr.) An 
mal having two toea only. 

DiDa'ctylous. Two-toed ; having 
toes only. 

Dioe'lfsiS. \ (from ;!e and ^eX^i-s, Gr. 

Didb'lphys. ( having two wombs.) A 
genua of animals, belonging (o the class 
Mammalia, order Fera. All the animals 
of this genus are marsupial, that is, pos- 
sess an eiternal abdominal pouch, mar- 
supium, or sac, in which the f^Etua ia 
placed after a very short period of uter- 
ine gestation, and where it remains sua- 
pended to the nipple by ita mouth, until 
EUflicientl; matured to come forth to the 
external air. The opossum and kangaroo 
are examples. The didelphys affordJs the 
only known example of mammalian le- 
moias in the secondary lormatioua. 

Didb'lphoid. Belonging to the genus di- 

Dn-FL'sKDNEBa. The State ot being wiWy 
spread out,of heiug scattered. 

Diffd'sivk, Having the qnalitj of spread- 
ing io all directions, as water. 

ic and yairri)(i, Or>) 

.ving t\ 

the second tribe of carnivora. The name 
digitegrada has been applied to dtan 
from tbe circumstance of the anivib 
which compose this tribe walking oa Iho 
ends of their toes. 
Di'oiTATE. i (digitatta,l.i.t.) A sort of 
Di'gitateJ). \ compound leaf, compoKd 
of two or more leaflets. BotnmsU in- 
clude under the name digitate, bioate iDil 
temate leaves, as well as those haviat 
more than Ave leaflets, aE the horte-clMS- 
nut, which baa aeven leaflets. 
Diqy'nia. (from ^!c and ynv^, Gr.) Tin 
second order in Linnffius's artificial ajt- 
tem, comprehending soch plants at ban 
two styles, or pistils. 
Dniv'NiAN. 1 Having two Styles, M pt- 
DiQy'Nione. ) tils; belonging; to ■!■ 
order Digynia. 

D I K [ ! 

p. A ditch ; a channel to receive water, 
mound; defence; wall; fortili cation, 
I. Geologists use the word diif to cipreas 
if mineral matter, catting through 
in nearl; a vertical direction. 
Isjell ohsenea, " That it is not easy to 
[raw the line heCween dikes and leius ; 
tiic former are generally of lar^r dimen- 
HionSt and hare their aidea parallel for 
CmsiderBble distances ; while veins have 
genvally many rBmifications, and these 
. often thiu away into sleoder threads." 
nDiTi'TiAi.. (diliaiiali>, Lat.) Relating 
) the deluge. A teim introduced by 
tofesBor Buckland to diBtinguiah acen- 
. inlationa consequent on the deluge. 
(♦■It is always," aaya Dr. Mantell, '■ in 
Sitatiat beds spread over the Gurfoee of 
'bina, or occnmulaCed in the bottoms of 
alleys, that the teeth and bonea of mam- 
'ia have been diacovered in various 
Es of England." 
ai^viALiST. One who attribntes cer- 
effects, denied by othcraf as conse- 
at on the Noachian deluge. 

(Lat.) A name applied by 
pTofeisor Bnckland to the superficial beds 
tf gravel, clay, and sand which he cansi- 
* a to have been produced by the No- 
ian deluge: looEe and waCer-wom 
strata not at all consolidated, and depo- 
sited by an inundation of water. 
Di'kglk. a dale ; a narrowvalleybetween 

hOla 1 a hollow. 

DlHDrHS'atUH. (&om Uvog, and Si]- 

., Gr.) An extinct genus of terres- 

il mamnialia. There are two known 

, » of dinotherium. The dinotheriom 

lay be considered to have been the 

eat of terrestrial mammalia. The 

t abundant fossil remains of this 

IB have been found at Epplesheim, in 

_ _ n various parts of the south 

k of France, large molar teeth and osaeons 

fr^ments of dinotheria have been found 

occBsionally, and these were referred by 

Cuvier to a gigantic species of (apir, and 

named by bim Tapir giganteus. 

Subsequent discoveries have enabled 

fciProf. Kaap to place the dinotherium in a 

"'- - - iQS. and to establiah the fact that 

n herbivorous aquatic animal, in- 

l marshes and lakes, and that it 

IBS attained the length of eighteen 

The dinotherinm holds an inter. 

diate place between the tapir and the 

Blodon, supplying a link between the 

f eetacea and pachydermata. The scapula, 

I, or shoal der-biade, ia the most remarkable 

bone hitherto discovered, belonging to 

this animal ; it resembles that of tlie 

tmole. and seems to indicate that the fore- 
leg was adapted for digging up the earth. 
It nppeara also certitiu that thii huge 

5 ] DIP 

creatare was ftimiahed with a probotei*. 
The dinolberlDm may be found fignred in 
Pr„f. Buckland'B Bri.lgewater Treatise, 
and in Mantell's Wonders of Geology, 
ftom which works much of the precediug 
account has been extracted. The dino- 
therinm ia referrible to the mioceno 

Di'oDON. In Cuvier's arrangement, a genua 
of fishes belonging to the family Gymno- 
dontes, and thus named in conse4Uence of 
their jaws being undivided, and forming 
one piece only above and one below. 
Their akin is in all parts so armed with 
apines, that they resemble the case of the 
fruit of the horse -chesnnt. Teeth sup- 
posed to belong to diodon hitlrix have 
been found in the chalk. 

Dtik-ch. (from Jic; and Dl«oe, Gr.) The 
twenty-second class of plants in Lin- 
neeus's artilicial system. The stamens 
and pistils are in separate flowers, and 
situated on two separate plants. The 
orders in thia class depend on the dr- 
cumBtancei of their male flowers. 

Dice'ciods. Belonging (ji the class Diteeis ; 
plants which have (he barren and fertile 
flowers growing from the two separata 

Dio'pKiDE. (from lio-^ii, Gr. trampmtwi.') 
A mineral known also as alalite, baikolite, 
and musile. It is a white or pale green 
variety of angite. It occurs massive, dis- 
seminated, and crystallixed. It ia found, 
generally imbedded in Serpentine, in 
Piedmont. It cocsigts of more than half 
Bilica, one fonrth lime, about eighteen 
percent, magnesia, with a trace of alu- 
mina and protoiide of iron. 

Dio'pTASE. TheCuivre Dioptaseofllaiiy. 
Emerald copper-ore, a very rare mineral 
of an emerald-green colour, cansistiug of 
oxide of copper and Bilica in nearly equal 
proportions, with about eleven per cent. 

Di'oKiTE. Avariety of greenstone. 

Dioai'Tic, Resembling diorite ; contain- 
ing diorite ; of the nature of diorite. 

Dip. To incline downwards ; to sink ; to 

Dip. In geology, the downward incUna- 
tion of strata. The point of the com- 
pass towards which strata incline is called 
their dip, and the angle of such inclina- 
tion with the horizon is termed the dip, 
or angle, of incUnation. It sometimes 
happens that a stratum, without varying 
its direction, may be so bent as to dip two 
ways in the same mountaiu, like the 
sloping sides of the roof of a house, or 
the letter V reversed j\ . 

Dipe'talous. (from ^ic and irkTiiXov, 
Gr.) Having two flower-leavesoi^ttoW. 

Di'pTBliA. (.trom iiii to4 kiip^-v, C.t.> 
The sislb otdei a\ \u»ec^i «i «»=■ Vm- 

D 1 P 

1 lyitdm, or insects biTing t 
The mDBCB, or common fly ; tbe 
ir gnat ; and the cEstrns, or gsd-Hy, 
are liimiUur exaiiiiiles. In Cuvier'o nr. 
ringemeiit dipCerx forms the twelfth ehss 
of iaaei^ln, nnd their diatiiiguiBhing cha- 
racters are Rsid to be the posseaaing >: 
feet, and two meiubrBDoaa extended wing 
accompanied geaerallj bj two moTeable 
bodiesi called balterea, which are jiUccd 
behind the wings; the organs of msnda- 
cation are a Hucker composed of Wjika- 
mou9, sectaceoua pieues. varying in num- 
ber fhim two to six, eneloaed in an inar- 
ticulated sheath, most freqoeally in tbi 
form of a proboscis. In these divieioni 
almost every eatomologist is dispoaed tc 
make alterations, and the tysteme pro- 

B far t 

Di'pTEaous. Two .winged inaecta; belong- 
ing to Che order Diptera. 

Divy'hk. a mineral, a variety of scapolitc 
found in the Pyrenees, thus nMned by 
Haiiy. It oonaista of silica 60'0, alun ' 
20-0, time lO'O, and aome water 

Dmo'iTEP, {diruplus, Lat.) Kant asun- 
der; broken away. 

Diac, ) (diima. Lat.) 

Disk. ) 1. In conchology, the middle part 
of the valves, or that which lies between 
the nmbo and the margin; the conves 
centre of a valve, or most prominent part 
of the valve, supposing it to lie with its 


I of a. 

! of cobeaioi 

Diaunity of parts ; ab- 

Discoi'dai. ( botany, plants, the petals 
of whose flowers are set so closely and 
evenly as to make the surface plain and 
flat like a dish- 

2. In conchology, when the whorls are so 
horiiontal ua to form a flattened spire, 

Discoi'dbs. a genus of fossil echinus, 
one species only of which has beenfoani), 
namely, discoidea subnculus. 

Disco'sBia. A genua of microacopic spiral 
discoidal univalvea. 

These have been thought by some au- 
thors, and the number includes Lamarck, 
to be found in a fossil state only; but 
Parkinson states that they are found 
recent on our coasts. 
Discorbi'tkb. FobiU shells of the geuns 

Eeparsted ; intermptol. 
Iiseubo'gdb. (Bailey and Johnson gi'e 
the etymology of this wont from drtem- 
boucher, Fr. ; bat I do not find any sncb 
word as dfiemboHclirr in the Dictionnairs 
de L'Academie ; indeed, the word itself 
is rarely modemly used.) To roll ordia- 
charge itself into the fea, as a large rivet 
doea ; to gain a vent ; to Sow. 

Dibbo'bok, (dfr/ort/er. Fr.) To vomit 
forth ; to eject with violence. 

Dibbo'rgkd. Vomited out ; ejected mlh 

Disi'ntbgbated. Separated into its 
grant parts by mechanical division. 

DisiNTEQHA'noN. The separaHon 
body into its integrant parts by mechs- 
nicd division; the wearing down of rocks. 

Disk. See Due. 

Di'sLOCATE. (duloquer,Fi. dalogart,lt.) 
To put ont of ita proper place. 

Disloca'tion. (dUlocatioii, Fr. diile- 
gatione, It.) The state of being dis- 
placed I displacement of portions of the 
earth's crust. Accordingto the theory of 
M. De Beaumont, the principal dislo- 
cations of the earth's crust of the sami 
geolo^cel age range in lines parallel tc 
one and the same great circle of the 
sphere ; those of different ages are parallel 
to different circles. The geological ei 
consequently, of the elevation of roou 
tains, may be ascertained from the direc- 
tion of their aies of movement. 

DisPB'auov9. (from llc.tni irirlp^a, Gr.) 
Two-seeded; an epithet for fruit contun- 
ing two seeds only ; stellate and ntnbel- 
late plants are thns termed. 

Disroo't, To tear away by lie roots ; In 
tear from its foundation. 

Disbdd'tbd. Torn up with its roots ; 
from its fuundation. 

DisRi/pTED. Rent asnnder; broVen Air. 


inng ai 

A forcible rending asunder ; 

reo( I 

aaejriTnentam, LaL) it 

botany, tbe partition which divi^ a 

capsule into cells. In many pF "" ''" 

diasepimtnii do not reach to tht 

centre, in some plants the disse^HmCott 

are not formed, or subsequently din^pcffi 

and leave the placenta in the centre oil— 

the ovarium, like a column, with Ibl g 

seeds adhering to it. 

Di'bthene. ) Distbene is tha ml 

Di'ethbm-bpath. ) given b; HaUyi ' 

Disthen-apath by Mobs, to the miiwi 

Kyanite or Cyanite, tehieh hat, itt, 

Di'fiTicHouB. (fiffTixuc, Gr. dtiNrM 

l/A.'i Two-taated-, applied to lei"* 

D I S [77 

I occupying two sidca of a brancli, bot not 
Tt^ntarly apposite st their irisertioa, as 
> tliefir,yew, &c. ; applied also to branches 
' when they eprend into two horizontnl 
■ direulione ; sod to flowers, placed in two 

- oppOBits ranks. 
"— b'rt. {ditlartus from dialarqueo, Lat.) 

twist from ita usual, or natural, 

■bapej to to ru away. 

^STtfaTRD. {ditlorliar.Ijat.) Twisted from 

. its usual or natural form ; turned awsy. 

IhBTo'RTiON. {disCorlh, Lat.) Unoa- 

- tural crookedness ; the tnmiug awry ; 
the act of twistiag from ita natural 

Dita'ricatk. (divarico, Lat.) To sepa- 

PivaRiCA'TioN. {divarKalio, Lat.) Sepa- 

- ration into two. 
pivB'Lt.ENT. [diveliena, X<at.) Separating ; 

drawing Hpoit, id diBerent directious. 
""""b'bgb. (rfiBerjio, Lat.) To tend from 

le point in various direotioiis. 
llhvi'aGENCE. A tending from one point, 
1 centre, in various directiana. 
'kgkM'. (divergent, Fr. dircrgcnte, 
It.) Radiating from a centre in different 
» directions ; tending to various parts from 
one point. 

'bging. In botany, applied to the 
ition cf leaves during sleep, signifjing 
t the leaflets approach at their base, 

Of forma differing from 
^^^ le another. 

Sive'kbitt. (diveriilal, Lat. disfrsM, Fr. 
I dittniti. It.) Dissimilarity ; variety. 
~ 'kt. (_ditierte, Lat. ditertir, Fr. dicer. 
!, It.) To turn aaide from its course. 
_ '1.B10H. (divuUia, Lat.) A pulling 
■ In pieces ; a forcible tearing aaunder. 
blf tri,BiTe. That rends asunder. 
Dode'caOon. (from Siuliica and yuivla, 
I Gr. dodecagone, Fr. dodecagana. It.) A 
. regoUr polygon having twelve equal sides 

Gr.) Ageom. 

■ nnder twelve c 

B pentagon. 

.. iilntonic bodies. 


e of U 

Having twelve equal 
L aides i relating Eo a dodecahedron. 
Bddbcahe'dbal corcnduu. Called also 
^'fipiael; the Spinelte and Pleonaste of 
I Haiiy. There are two varieties, the Cey- 
» JanitB and Spinel Ruby. Colours red, 
bine, brown, black, green and white. It 
consists of alumina 74, silica 16, magnesia 
8, oxide of iron one and a half, and lime 
[ 0-75 per cent. 

A species of 
. gunet containing ten subspecies or va- 
,. tieties; these are the GroBsuUoire, or 
BspuragUB-grecn variety ; the Pyrenaitc, 

] D O D 1 

or greyish black variety ; the Colopho- 
nite, or red variety in granuhir concre- 
tions ; the Precious Garnet, or highly 
crystnlliied and tranBjjarFnt red variety ; 
the Tupaiulite, nr yellow variety; the 
Melinite, or velvet-black opaque variety ; 
the Allochroitc, or brown, green, and 
grey massive variety ; the Pyrope, or 
deep blood -rrd variety ; the Easonitc, or 
hyaclnthine and oranga-jellow variety ; 
the Common Garuet, or brown and green 
variety in granular concretions and trans- 

Dodiicahe'oiial mgrcurt. Called also 
native amalgam, the Mercur Argental of 
Haiiy. A miitnre of mercury and silver 
in the proportions of nearly three -fourths 
of the former, and rather more than one- 
fourth of the latter. It is found in quick- 
silver mines together with cinnabar. It ia 
of tlie colour of silver, and regularly crys- 

Dddkca'koria. (from tuiiKa and dvi;fi, 
Gr.) The eleventh class of plants in 
IJnnieus's artitiaial system. The plants 
in this class have from twelve to nineteen 
stamens ; the common houseleek will 
illustrate it. 

Dodbca'ndrian. Belonging to the class 
Dodecandria ; having from twelve to 
nineteen stamens. 

Do'do. a genus of birds bclonpng to the 
order of BBllinro. The bill is contracted 
in the middle by two transverse rugie; 
each mandible ia inflected nt the point ; 
and the face is bare behind the eyes. 
Tlie dodo is a case in point serving 
strongly to illustrate the views and 
opinions of tliose who argue for the es- 
tinction of species, even in the present 
day. Ly ell says, "The most striking 
esanipla of the loss, even within the last 
two centuries, of a remarkable species, ia 
that of the dodo, a bird first seen by the 
Dutch, when they landed on the isle of 
France, at that time uninhabited, imme- 
diately after the diacoiery of the passage 
to the East Indies by the Cape of Good 
Hope. It was of a large size, and sin. 
gnlar form ; its wings short like those of ' 
an ostrich, and wholly incapable of sus- 
taining its heavy body, even for a short 
flight. In its general appearance it dif- 
fered frorei the ostrich, cassowary, or any 
known bird. Many naturalists gave fi- 
gures of the dodo after the 
ment of the seventeenth century ; 



Museum, which is said to have been 
token from a living individual. Beneath 
the painting is a leg, in a fine state of 
preservation, which ornithologists ard 
agreed cannot have belonged to any other 
known bird. In (he museum at Oxford, 
also, there is a foot and a head.'' ""VaB 

D L 

[ 78 ] 

" u Dr.Mnntell obwrves, "hwbeea 
uinihilated. nnd become ■ denizen of the 
fouU kingdam, almost before out eyes. 
The bones of tbe dodo have beea found Id 
1 tnfoeeoai depoait, beaeath a bed of 
IsTB, in the Isle of Pmnce ; m that if the 
verj few remuna of the recent bird, 
above alluded to, had uol been preserved, 
these foEsU relics would liove constiCuted 
the only record that such a creature bad 
ever existed on our planet.'' Nevertlie- 
leu, two centuries since, the dodo formed 
the principal food of the inhabitants of 
the isle of France. 

LA. A genus of uDivolvular mol- 
luscs the known species of which arc 
found in the Indian ocean and in the 
Mediterranean. They differ from Aply- 
ti« only iu the position of their branchise 
and their lurrounding envelope. 

Dola'bk[POKU. (from dolabra tnAforma, 
Lai.) Hatchet -abaped ; a term more 
commonly applied to leaves, cylindrical 
at tbe base and having the npper part 
dilated, thick on one edge and cutting on 
the other. 

Do'lbhiix. a variety of trap-rock, or 
greenstone, compoeed of augiCe and La- 

Do'lidh. (dofiun, LaLatub, atuu.) A 
aubglobular ventrose univalve, spirally 
ribbed in the direction of tbe whorla ; 
tbe inferior whorl ample and ventricose ; 
outer lip crenated, or dentaCed, through- 
oat its whole length. Aperture oblong, 
ample, and notched ; epidermis light and 
homy. Parkinson states that the dolaim 
has not been found fossil : this is not the 
case J one species, Dohum nodosum, has 
been found at Clayton, near UorsC, in 
Snssei, by R. Weekea, Esq. of Hurst. 

Do'lqhitb. a variety, or modification, of 
limestone, consisting of magnesian earth 
4B parts, and calcareous earth 52 parts. 
It derives its name from Dolamiea, a 
French geologist. There are three sub- 
species. Von Buch maintaiuE that lime- 
stone has been converted into dolomite 
by its pronimity to porphyry in fusion, 
and that the magnesia hu^ been trans- 
ferred from magnesian minerals in the 
Eorpbyry to the limestone ; the mapiesla 
cing reduced to vapour or gas. — Bake- 

The name Zechsteln (from zecke and 
itein. Germ.) has also Ijeen given Co dolo- 
mite or magnesian limestone. This is a 
oalcareous deposit, of a somewhat variable 
aspect ; It is fossiliferous. The zechstein 
has not yet afforded any remains of trilo- 
bites. Ic does not appear to be a deposit 
widely spread over the European area. 
As yet, it is principally known in Qer- 
man; and England. Dolomite is gene- 
ligbt fawn or yellow colour, and 


in some jiarts of a crjmtalline, in others of 
a concretionary, character. It is Inclodej 
in the new red sandstone group, its pOH- 
tioQ being immediately above the coal 
measores. It is frequently traversed by 
veins of carbonate of lime, and there Ire 
sometimes met with enclosed in it hoUo* 
geodea of calcareous spar, with SDlphste 
of strontian and sulphate of barytu. 

Do'LOMiTB ha'sble. A variety of dolo- 
mite of a white colour, occnrring in imd 
granular concretions -, these eoncretiaiil 
are frequently BO loosely unitud u to bD 
apart by the slightest pressure. 

Doloui'tic. Containing dolomite ; of the 
nature of dolomite. 

Do'mite. a variety of trachyte, and thus 
named from being found in the Pay dl 
Dome, iu Auvergne, in Prance. It hi* 
the appearance and gjitCy feel of natf 

Do'nax. (donax, lAt. lovat, Gt.) Ani- 
mal a tethjs 1 an equivalved ineqnilateral 
bivalve, tvitb a crenulate margin, tbt 
frontal margin obtnse ; hinge vitJi two 
cardinal teeth in one valve, one in tk( 
other ; the lateral teeth one or two, rath« 
distant. The shells of this genas are in 
general triangular, inequilateral, flattened, 
truncated before, and «cdge-ihaped. It 
is found in sands and sandy mud, it 
depths varying to ten fathoms. Nine- 
teen species have been described, six e 
which have been found in our seas. St 
verat fossil species occur in the nogfa 
bourhood of Paris. 

Do'bis. Iu the Linncean arrangement, 
genus of gasteropoda, belonging to tb 
class Mollusca. An animal inhabiting 
shell ; body, creeping, oblong, and flat' 
beneath ; mouth below, on the fbra partr 
vent behind, on the dorsum, surrouudBll 
by a fringe ; feelers two and four, retraM 
tile, and placed on the front of the u^ _ 
part of the body. They are all nurhtl^. 
and are found in every sea. In Cuvicc' 
arrangement doris is placed in the etiS 

{danai, Fr. donate. It. frawi 

Do'bsl'u. (ffarniiR, Lat.) The back 
ridge of a hill is sometimes called 
dorsum. In concbology, it generally 
means the ujiper surface of the body * 
the shell, nhcu laid upon the aperture < 
opening. In the genera of patella ai 
haliotis, the dorsum means the upper ca 

1. The fine soft under featliers of niN 
birds, as the swan, goose, &c. 

2. Tlie pubescence of plants, or tb 
soft, short hairs, coveting various pai 
of plants. 

; CDvereU 

DOW [ 

. A coTuiderabiB tract of elevated Und, 
enerallv covered with aliort gnaa, 
. Vnt. ' Soft ! notto 
vith taCt huri. 

idrupa, Lat. Spuirtv^, Gr.) A 
Ljmlpf pericarp, ot wed-TeBsel, ooDtaining 
a, aingle hard and boDj nut. to which it is 
■tteohed : the epicarp and sarcocarp sb. 
parable from each otber, uid from tlie 
•Bdocarp, which is gConf ; tbe nectarine, 
lUacb, apricot, Sec, fumiah us witbfami- 
uar examples. 

Lving tbe characters of a drupe* as 
» dnipaceoiu froiC. 

8. Bearing drupea, as dmpaceous trees. 
ItCDSB. A huUow space in veins of ore, 
t geneniUf lined with cryatsls. 
tucT. {dveint, Lat.) A tube, caaal, or 
I pasaage tlirough which anything ia cuu- 

Bjiatomy the duets are very nu- 
1 ; Iboi we have the cystic duct, 
ttbe hepatic duct, the nasal duct, &c. Ike. 
S. In botany, ducts are membranous 
^^ tnbea, baring their aides dotted or barred ; 
\tkBf are lai^e enough to be visible to 
ittie naked eye, and are plainly seen 
nrhen a cone, or oak, oi vine-branch, is 

■TACTILE, (duetilu', Lat. ductile. Fr. dat- 

l*i*, It.) That may be drawu ont into 

greater length without breaking. The 

term is applied to metola only, and is 

aometimea eoafounded with malleable, 

whereas the two have very different sig- 

•-ai&Bationi ; thus copper is both malleable 

«Dd ductile, but 1^ is only malleable 

■nd not dnotile ; Bome metals are neither 

HBalleable nor ductile, but brittle, aa anti- 

lony, manganeBB, tellurium, &c. ka. 

OTi'LiTr, (ductiliie, Fr. dullilila. It.) 

ih&t property which metals possess of 

"lug drawn ont into greater length with 

ninished thickness, without separation 

^ parts. The French used the word 

doctilite to express malleabihty ; hut we 

■do not. " La ductilitc est nn synonyme 

de mall&bilite." — Did. Dt L'Aead. 


ice. The teat or nipple. 
in'cONG. A species of phytuphagoos, or 
herbtTorouB, cetacea. 


DuNi. By geolo^cal writers, this word ia 
used to signify a low hill, or bank, of 
drifted sand, and in no respect is aynony- 
niouB with down, as might be inferred 
^om Todd and Webster. The downs, 
both north and south, are sery eitensive 
ranges of chalk hiJls, prineipaUy covered 
with short grass, affording eicellent herb- 
age fur sheep, whereas dunes are banks 
of drifted sand, scarcely of aafficieut 
heights to be ranked as tulle. 

DuonE'NuH. (i^oifniiiTn, Lat. duodenum, 
Fr.) The first of tbe small inteatines. 
immediately adjoining the stomaoh, and 
called duodennm from its length, sup- 
posed to be twelve inches. 

Duflica'tton. (duplicalio, Lat. duplica- 
tion, Fr. duplicasiant. It.) A doabliog, 
or folding, of any part. 

DuVdcaturg. Duptication. 

Dust. In botany, the pollen of the anther- 
The pollen or dast is contained in the 
anther. In dry and warm weather the 
anther contracts and bursts, when the 
pollen is thrown out. It is found, from 
microscopic eiamination, that each par- 
ticle of dnst ia generally a membrnnoas 
bag, either ronnd or angular, smooth or 
rough, which on meeting with any mois- 
ture instantly bursts aud discbarges a 
subtile vapour. To the perfecting the 
seeds of plants, it is necessary that the 
pistil, or female organ, be impregnated 
by the pollen of the autlier ) the fluid 
contained in the pollen, when the anther 
bursts, penetrates the stigma, and is con- 
veyed to the seeds, whereby they aro 
rendered fertile, or endued with the pro- 
perty of growing, and producing a plant 
resembling the parent one. 

Dtks. See Diie. 

Dv'NAMica GEot-oGiCAL. Thesc ioclada 
the nature and mode of operation of all 
kinds of physical agents, that have at any 
time, and in any manner, affected the 
surface and interior of the earth. — Buci- 
land'a Bridgev!. Trealiae. 

Dvhd'dilb. (ftom^ujiu^qcprfltiferofciM, 
/mlidus, Gr.) A mineral of a greenish 
colour found near Syracuse, whi^ burns 
like coal, but gives out during its com- 
bustion a most intolerable odour. 

LK-BTONB. Called also Eetites. A 
iety of argillaceous iron ore, of a no- 
dular form, something resembling a kid- 
in shape, aud containing a sort of 
loose kernel. It obtained its name from 
Bujiposition that tt was either found in, 
bad dropped tiom, tbe nesls of eagles. 

Sahth's ciiusT. That portion of onr 
planet which is accessible to our observa- 
tion and inspection. 

inou'LBMBNT. (Fr.) Fall of any de- 
tached rock. The fall of parts of moun- 
tains is so common an occurrence in the 
Alps, that it is exprasaively called an 

1 the verb ^bonier.— 

dhoulement, froii 

Ebdli-i'tion. (itvllilio, Lat. einttHion, 
Pr. tbotlizione, It.) Intestine motion or 
agiUCioQ, occaiuonnl bj the Btruggling or 
particlcB of diSercnt prapertiea ; iKiiling 
or babbling. 

Eau'aKA. (from ebvMut, Lst. ivory.) 
Au OTal or elongated nuivBlre with a 
deeply nmhilicated columelU ; the aper- 
ture oblong, and notrbed at the bottom. 
The recentebnrna lives insandy mud. Fdb- 
bU ebornaa are rarely i ' ' - - . 

BtateB that Lam an 

I not ni 


among the Fa 
exists among the Essex fossils which ho 
nnmes Ebnrna gUbrata. Dr. Mantell 
gives ebarna as a fossil of the chalk mark, 
but affiles a note of intetrogatioD to it, as 
though doubtful. 

Eocb'ntbic. See Excentric. 

EocGKTHi'ciTY. ScG ExcfnMciti/. 

EccHYMo'sis. (Uxifuitie, Gr. aatiyiiima 
tubmlem ptr grumoi effutio- ) A dark 
BDot on the skin, caused by an eitraiasa- 
tion of blood. 

Eohi'dna. {Ix'^va, Gr.) A genus of 
quadrupeds belonging to the order Mono- 
trema, an order eompiiaing only two 
genera, the Omitborhyuebus and Echidna. 
The spiny ant-eater of New Holland, a 
land quadruped, with a peculiar constrnc- 
tion of cUvicles and furcula. There are 
two species, echidna hystrix, or spiny 
echidna, and echidna setosa, or bristly- 

Echi'natb. 1 (echinaltia, Lat.) Bristled 

E'cETiNATBD. i like a hedge-hog ; set 
nith spines ; having sharp points or 

EcHiViDAN. A fossil belonging to the 
class EchinadermB. Prof. Buckland stales 
that the family of Echinidans appears to 
haie extended through all formations, 
frnm the epoch of the transition series to 
the present time. 

Eohi'nite. The fossil echinus, or sea- 
urchin. Echinites vary greatly both in 
form and structnre, and are arranged 
accordingly into many sob-genera ; they 
are all marine. The cbalk formation, 
abounds with these fossil shells, some of 
wbich are exceedingly heaatifnl from 
their elegant and minute decorations. 
The Aniinchjtcs eretosuii, a sub-genus, 
is found in some places in shoals, and in 
every condition from the yonngest to the 
oldest age. The Spatangns cor-marinum, 
anathcr sub-genus, sillcified, is freqnently 
found on our shores and in our graiel- 
pits, and the spines of the diii'erent sub- 
genera, detached from the sheila, arc 
Tery onmerously dispersed throughout 
the chalk. 
CHi'Nua, (ecliinai, Lat. ivr.JC. Gr.> 

le sea'nrchin, or e^. The 
included in the order Echtn< 

The shel 


posed of polygonal plates, closely litted 
to each other, and has attscbed to It 
many spines or prickles, which gene a 
instruments of motion. .Some species of 
the echinus are edible, more especially 
the E. EscnlentuB. The echinuB feeds 
principally on small shell-fish, which it 
seizes with its feet. 
Echinudeb'mata. ) Jfrom ix'^Ci ' 
Ecui'nodebms. t iiplia. Or.) 
order of radiated animals, inclndii^ ths 
Echinus, or sea-urchin; the Aaterias, W 
star-fish; the HolothuHa, and the 51- 
phnticulus. The skeletons of the aoimtli 
of this class are generally in the rormofi 

projecting spines. Echinoderros eitanl 
through all the formations, from Om; 
epoch of the transition series to the pre- 
sent time. They are composed of &» 
carbonate, mLied with a small, but Tl- 
riable, proportion of the phoaphats ol 
lime, and are hardened by animal matteri 
Of the radiated animals, Cuvier states that 
the Echinodermata are the most com^ 
cated. He divides them into two ordMit 

1. The Pedicellata, or those fiuTdahrf 
with feet, or with vesicular organs H 
filling the fnnctions of feet. 

2. TheApoda, or those destitute of til 
vesicular organs of progressire motia 
which the Pedicellata possess. 

In the first order he places the Asterta% 
Encrinu3,Echinus,andHolothQria! ill ' ■ 

Agassi)! has ra 
to the opinio^ 
tained, that lit 

always previi 

rays of Echlnoderms are dissimilar, 
not always connected with a nui 
centre; and that a bilateral aynimetij. 
anatogoas to that of the more perfUt 
classes of animals, exists throughont Ak 
ditferent families. 
icniNA'KTiius. The name giTen ' 
section of Catocysti by Leake. 
genus echinanthns comprises aE 
echinites of this seodon. Of this ^ 
there are many species, namely, Eduni 
thus humilis, Ech. altns, Ecb. 
Ech. orbicularis. The echinantl 
named Scutum by Klein. The b1 
■egular fignre, resembling 

On the hi 

i froi 

which ii 

argin, and I 

mouth is jjlaced in the re\itre of the b 
and Is of a pentagonal form. The wf 
of the surface is marked with very si 

E C H [ f 

depresaionfl, ofa circular form, with cen- 
jtral tubefcles. — Pariituon. 

, (from Ixtyos uid 

apaxv^. Or.) A genua of ecbiui be- 
. longing to the class Pleuroejsti. To tliis 
' genai Klein gave the name ArachnoideE, 
Iobinooo'rvs. Ageiiusof foBsilechinitea, 
fbia named b; Lrakf, belanging to the 
''--» or Catocjrsti. Tliia genua cam- 
» all those echinites which Klein di- 
vided into Galea sad Galeolie. There 
e eeveral apeoiea. 

iKODi'sCDS. The name given by Brey- 
OB to a Becdoa of echini belonging to 
e daai CatocfBti. The echiuoducos 
ts of a depressed diacoidal figure, whence 
it hax ita name, nearly fiat on both sides, 
Echinodisci are found both recent aud 
fossil. There are many species, 
Eda'cious. (from fdax, Lst.) Predaci- 
ous j voracions; rapacious. 
Edknta'ia, The siith order of Mamma- 
f Us, ia CDriet's arrangement, or quadru- 
■ peda without front teeth. This order 
■ . oompriees three tribes, Targigrada, Eden- 
E^ fata ordinaria, and Manotremata. 
■*I>1nta't<ij. (edfnlahit, Lat. frfen/e, Fr. 
tdentato, IL) Without teeth. 
E'diblb. (from edo, Lat.) That maybe 
eaten ; fit for food. 
_ Edi'notonitb, a mineral, resembling 
ies of felspar and prehnite. 
. C^mpes™, Lat.) To be 
of inteedne motion from the 
of gas, which is continnally 
the surface and making its 


(effeneacmtia, Lat. 
^tneteent!t. Fr. tff'frveipmia. It.) Thai 
commotion which taliea place in fiuids 
^tifiea gas is gcnerateil, riaes to the snr- 
^Ikce in small bubbles, and escapes ; it ia 

Blcoompanicd by a kind at hiesing noise. 
mOBB'sCBNCR. {ffflartscB, Lat, f_^o. 
y»«WB«, Fr. efftoreacenza, It.) 
'3. FmdactioD of flowers. 

3. Excrescencea in the form of flowers. 
la. The pulverescence of crystals on eipo- 
pnre to the atmoaphere. 

I. Shoodng out in the form of flowers. 

4. Becoming pulverulent en eipoaure to 
I the atmosphere ; the reierae of doliuues- 


IT tide. 

Ef»o'ssio«. (from effodio, Lat.) The 
digging out of the earth, as of fosaiU, &c. 

Erro'se. In oouchology, a term applied 
to ahelts where the aperture is not wliole 
behind, but the Upa are separated by a 

I ] £ L E 

Ela'olitk. (from i\aia, an oUve, and 
\iioi, a atone.) A sub-species of pyra- 
midal felspar, known also sa fettatein, or 
falstoiie, a name given to it from ita 
gressy feel. 

Ela'stio MiNKBAL PITCH. Called a^BO 
elaterite auil mineral caoutchouc ; a brown, 
massite, elasdc variety of bitumen i it 
consists of abont 53 per cent, of carbon, 
-to per cent, of oxygen, O'lb of nitrogen, 
and 8 per cent, of hydrogen. 

Ela'tbhite. Another name for elastic 
mineral pitch. 

Ble'ctbcm. ArgeutiferoBS gold ore, a 
variety of Uexahedral gold, of a pale brasa- 
yellow colour. Pliny informa us that it 
was a mixture of gold and silver, and thus 
writes, " Omni auro inest argentum vario 
pondere. Ubicunque quinte argeoti por- 
tio est, electram vocatur." It baa been 
attempted to prove that platinum is the 
electmm of the ancients, but such is not 

ELEUK'NTAnv. (eJnHmfnriuf, Lat, tie- 
nentaire, Fr. elemmtario, It.) Uncom- 
poundedi ancombinedi simple; primary. 

Elkme'ntabt BUBHTANCE9. There are 
fifty-five simple, or elementary substances 
at present known, that is, substancca 
which, unrler the coudidons yet applied 
to them, are found to be incapable of fur- 
ther analysis, and arc therefore called 
simple, or elpmenlaryi substances. Five 
of these eiist in a separate state as gases, 
namely, oxygen, hydrogen, chlorine, azote, 
and fluorine ; the last, however, of these 
has not yet been obtained in a separate 
state, and is only boowti to be a diatioct 
substance from tiie qualities of the com- 
pounds it formt with other matter. Seven 
are non-metallic solids and Uqnids, name- 
ly, sulphur, phosphoma, selenium, boron, 
carbon, bromine, and iodine; nf these, 
tbe two last, bromine and iodine, are 
either gaseous, liquid, or solid, according 
to the temperature. Sulphur, phospho- 
rus, selenium, boron, and carbon, are 
solids, but dilfer from the remaining forty- 
one in being non-conductors ofeleBtricity. 
Of tbe remainder, thirteen are metallic or 
metalloid bodies, uniting with oxygen to 
form the earths and alkalies ; namely, 
sodium, nlaminuRi, magnesium, calcium, 
lithium, potassium, glucinum, barium, 
ailicium, thorinum, strontium, yttrium, 
zirconium. Twenty-nine are what are 
commonly called metals ; of these, five, 
namely, iron, tin, cadmium, linc, and 
manganese, decompose water at a red 
heat ; tbe others do not decompose water, 
namely, arsenic, antimony, capper, mo- 
lybdenum, uraninm, tellurium, cbromiom, 
cerium, nickel, vanadium, cobalt, lead, 
tungatenum, titanium, mereory, colum- 
bium, blBmuth, osmium, silver, palla- 



E L E [ B2 ] E L E | 

dium, rhodium, plKtiiinm. gold, iri- 

was estimated at 100.000 square loilesj 


the rise upon the coast was from two [a 

To the cUas of metgls an sddildon hu 

four feet, inland it was from five to sese» 

racinUj been mnde by the discovery of 

feet," The following eitracta are fron 

LaHta«r, which make) the 55th Element- 

Mr. BakewoU's Introdnetinn U, Geology. 

ary bodj. '■ L'oiide de cerium, exlrtit 

" The granite-beds in the Alpa were uoT 

de iB c^rita pur le procedi; ordinairE, cou- 

elevated till a late geological epoch, after 

tienC ^ pcu prcB leg deui cinquiemea de 

the depoaitiOD of the oolites and chalk. 
M. Elle de Beaumont his proved, that 
whole mountain-ohains have Been elevated 

Kin poidB de roiidfl da noaveau metal, 

qui ne ohstige ijoe peales propridtts du 

ceriam, et qui t'j tient pour una! dire 

at one geological period, that great phy- 

cache. Cette raisun a eagsger M. Mo- 

sical regions have partaken of the same 

■ander i donner au tiouveau niftal le nom 

de I^Dtsno. L'oxide de Uinlane a. unc 

these parojcysma of elevatory force han 

eoulenr rouge de brique, qui ne partut 

come into action at many sueceasive pe- 

paa Stre due & la presence de I'oJide cc- 

riods. I agree with Professor Sedgwiti, 

iiqiie."—AHnaUi de Ckimie. 

and M. Elie de Beaumont, that the ele- 

Elbta'tion. The question of the eleTation 

and Eubsidence of the earth's surface is 

are nearly vertical, was effected by a sud- 

one which long gave iiEe to cootrotersy, 

den and violent upheaving, yet I sm per- 

and variODs were the argumeats adduced 

or extensive tracts of coantry, was (» 

nions which now are unhesitatingly and 

Mr. LyeU observes] a long continued 

nniveraaUy received, and on which the 

TitaUty, as it were, of geology depends. 

distinct frogi each other. The elevatioa 

It may not, however, be amisa to quote 

here some of the views of our best and 

effected by the same operation, which up- 

soundest geologists, on a point of so great 

r^sed the primary rocks. I conaider it 

importance, and one which, to the Neo- 

probable, that all large traeta of conntry 

phyte, Beems often so Btartling. The fact 

or coutinents emerged slowly from tbs 

Utive level of the sea and land is so weU 

lands, before the lower conntries wew 

r established, that the only remaining ques- 

raised above the level of the sen. In the 

1 tions regard the mode in wbicli these 

Wfialden beds the strata have been op- 

f alteratiouB have been effected. The evi. 

heaved and submerged more than ODM. 

" deaee in proof of grest and freqoent 

All the coal-basina were cither formed it 

inland marshes or lakes, or were SUN 

rounded by dry land ; but a great snt 

mergence of the land took plaee, and th(9 

operatioDs of volcanoes, is so various aud 

were covered in many parts by thick d^ 

1 BO strong, derived from so many different 

1 quarters on the surface of the globe, and 

sequent period they again emerged froB 

1 every day so much extended by recent in- 

the ocean with a covering of marine se- 

1 quiry, as almost to demonstrate that these 

condary strata. The elevations of limlldl 

have been the causes by which those great 

portions of the earth" s surfece, at a dis- 

revolutiouB were effected ; and that al- 

tance from any known volcanic agancy. 

though the action of the inward forces 

which protrude the hind has varied greatly 
in different countries, and at diiferent 

shingles of an ancient sea-beach, an 

periods, they are now, and ever have been. 

present level of the sea in many parti lE 

incessantly at work in operating present 

chauge, and preparing the way for future 

lands or continents was probably alwajt 

alteration in the exterior of our globe.— 

accompanied by the depression of olhs 

Dr. Fi/fon. 

portions of the earth's crust." M. Eb 
de Beaumont has discovered probable eA 

Mr. LyeU says, " We may regard the 

doctrine of the sudden elevation of whole' 

continents by paroxysmal eruptions as 

elevation, affecting the strata of EuTOp* 

invttUdated. In 1822, the coast of Chili 

The Isle of Portland affords us an adndX 

was visited by a most destructive eartb- 

■ qnake ; when the district round Valpa- 

M raiso was esamincd on the follovring day. 

1 . We have evidence of the rise of Port' 

^ the whole Une of coast, for the distance of 

land stone, till it reached the surface <i 

■ above 100 miles was found raised above 

the sea, wherein it was formed. 

■ iU former level. The area over which 

2. This sorfkCB became, for B. time, dq 


the dirt-bed, and by the 

growth in large petrified trunks of pros- 

traW treea, whouo roots bad grown ia this 


3. Wafind tbU forest to have been grn- 
duBll; snboicrged, Jirat beneath the waters 

. of s freah watar lake, neit of an estuary, 
■nd afterwards beDealh those of a. deep 
tSi in which cretaceous and tertiary strata 
ere deposited. 

4. The whole of these bare been elevated 
^^-J rabterraaean TJoleuoe. — Pr(tf. Buci- 


x clearly aacertained that the 
Thole country from Frederickshall, in 
" ' to Abo, in Finland, ia eIowIj and 
Msibly rising, nliile the coaat nf Green- 
'isbeingErKduallydeiiresBed. Certain 
^rts of Sweden are being gradually ele- 
"fBted at the rate of two or three feet ia a 

tLi'PTiCii,. ieUiptique, Fr. eUittico, It.) 
, Haling the form of an ellipsis ; oval. 
' BA. (from (\uTpov, Gr.J The hard 
ta which cover tbe wings of coleopte- 
< insects ; the wing-sheutha, or upper 
a membraaes, which caver the 
true membrauDUS wings of insects of tbe 
beetle tribe. 

J (eniorsT'no, Lat.) 
1. In botany, applied to leaves terrainatinj 
In a small acute nutcb at the summit. 
■2. In cDDcbalogy, to ahells having T<t 
omrpn; or when the edges, instead o 
beiDg level, are boQowed out. 
'3. In mineralogy, to minerals having all 
the edges of the primitive fbim truncated, 
ch by one face. 

■'drbd. Sunk in, and surroimded by, 
jotber snbstance. 

|>T0> iljiffpoov, Gr. embryon, Lat.) 

In botany, the germ, or most essentia 

DSrt of a aeed, and without which no seed 

IB perfect, or capable of re •production. 

Tbe embryo ia usually placed within the 

sabstance of the seed, either centrol, ej 

oentral oat of tbe centre, or eitemal ; il 

rsed or straight, and i 

spiral. — fHora Medics. 

thK oSspring yet enclosed in the utt 

1, and in the early stage only of nteri 

station ; afterwards called the fcetUR. 

BOCbd'iie. (Fr.) The month of 

er, or tbat jart where it enters tl 

Virmi.n. {emernHdi', Fr. fmaraldo, It. 
fiapayfcc, Gr. smaragdut, Lit.) A pre- 
cious stone of a green eoloar, found crys- 
taDiaed. Under the genua emerald are 
..eompriaed two' species, the first, tbe pris- 
tnalic emerald, or euclase of Werner and 
Haiiy, and prisraatiacher amaragd of 

1 E N C 

Mohs -, tbe second, the rhombobedral 
emerald, or rliomboednacher smaragd of 
Mobs. This last spectei containi two 
varieties, the predoos emerald and tbe 
beryl, or common emerald. The emerald 
and beryl are crystallized compounds of 
an earth called glycina, with silei, >lu- 
mine, lime, and oiide of iron j the splen- 
did green of the emerald is attributed to 
the presence of oiide of chramium. The 
finest emeralds are brougbt from Peru. 
Vanquelin, in analysing tbe emerald, first 
discovered the earth which he called gly- 
cina, or glucina. 
Emk'rgb. (antrgo, Lat.) To rise out of 
ly thing by which it is covered. 

r'liiiiiijr-E Ths ont nt pifinir nnt tit 



I of r 

by which it has been covered. 
EMi;:'RGEh-T. Rising out of that by which 

it was covered. 
Eme'rsion. [emersinny Fr. emersion*. It.) 

E'mkrt. (emm, Fr. pierre ferrugmeaie 
fori dure, doni on w terS potir polir hi 
tafia's^ ellenpierrea.) A massive, nearly 
opaque, grayiah-blaek variety of rhom- 
bobedral corundum, conaiBtiog of aluminft 
80'0. silica 3-0, oxide of iron 4-0. Emery 
powder is used for the purpose of polish- 
ing metola and hard stones, and also fbr 
domestic purposes, sprinkled upon, and 
fastened to, brown paper ; then called 

E'Mvs. (from il/iuiu, Gr.) Emydes, pi. 
Tbe fresh-water turtle or tortoise. This 
has five nails to the fore feet, and four to 
the hind ones. Moat of them feed on 
insects, small fishes. Sic. Their envelope 
ia generally more flattened than that of 
the land tortoises. In fresh-water tor- 
toises all the toes are nearly equal, and of 
moderate length ; in land tortoises the 
toea are also nearly equal, but they are 
short; In the marine tortuiae, or turtle, 
the loes are all long, and the middle toe 
of tbe fore paddle is considerably longer 
than tbe rest. Fossil spedes of the 
emys have been discovered in the Weal- «i 
den, as well as in lacustrine deposits of 
the tertiary period. 

Enck'pualoIj. (iyti^Xot, Gr.) The 

Dncri'ntte. (from uplvov, Gr. Klima.') 
A fossil encrinna. A genus of the order 
Crinoidea, known by the name of stone- 
lily. Dr. Mantell obaervea, "there are 
some kinds of star-lish which, instead of 
the five flat rays of the common species, 
have jointed arms, which surround tba 
body and month, bke tbe tentocuiaof the 
polypus. Tliese arms are composed of 

jf little bones, or uasicula, and 


E N T 

the whole ore inclofeU in tbe common 
integotnent or skin, The BBlerias is a free 
■nimid, flouting at liberty In the water. 
Nnw, if we imagine a slar-figh, like that 
ribedt to if 

tached to a rock, we shall haie a correct 
idea of the general character of the cri- 
no'idea, or Uly-ihnpeil Biiimils." Prof. 
Backland slates, " sacccGsionE of strata, 
each many feet in thicVnesa.andiuBny miles 
in extent, are often halfmsde up of the cal- 
careous nkeletonBorencriDites." The en- 
crinlte differs from the pentacrinite, ano- 
ther genna of the gome order, in having Che 
bonea of its column circular, or ellipIlCBl, 
whereas those of the pentacrinite are an- 
gular or pentitgonal. Two existing spe- 
des, the pentacrinus caput medusB and 
the comatuls timbriatie, alfard ns consi- 
derable insight of the nature of these fos- 
sii remains. In the eucrinites monili- 
formis, a species of encrinite, Mr. Par- 
kinson states the upper part of the ske- 
leton to consist of nearly 37,000 ossicula, 
or small booes. Fossil encrinitcs are so 
(arioDS that they hare been divided into 
Mreral subgenera, according to the forma- 
tion of the central body. 

BHCEtNl'TAL. Containing the remains of 
encriniles. The Derbyshire encrimlal 
marble is formed of the fossilized remains 
of the criuo'idea. cemented together by 
carbonate of lime. 

EscBi'NnB. A genus of the order Pedi- 
cellati, class Ecbinodermats, in Cnvier's 
~ 1 description, see 

J and jtutrnc, Gr.) 



E'NDOCAap. (from Irfov, within, and 
Ktipiric, f™t, Gr.) The stone or shell 
of certain fruits is called the rndoFarp, as 
in the peach, cherry, Ac. ; the outer skin 
tha epicarp .• the fleshy substance, the 

Endo'oenous. Plants are called endoge- 
. nous (from two Greek words, Muu and 
jivopni) tbe growth of whose stems takes 
place by addition ftom within, while 
those whose growth takes place by addi- 
tion from without are named eioeenona. 
Thefcmsand eqiiisetacese are endogenous 

Evdoobnt'tes Echika'tus. The name as- 
«gned by M. Brongniart to the fossil 
tnmk of a tree, nearly four feet in diame- 
ter, obtained from the calcaire giossier 
at Vaillet, near Soissons. 

Endoqeni'teb Eno'sA. A fossil plant dis- 
covered by Dr. Filton at Hastmgs, im- 
bedded in clay. The stems, when cot 
and polished, exhibit the mouocotyledo- 
Dous structure, and were considered re- 
Jated to the jwjma. It occurs in the 



strata of Tilgate [oreBt. A nnill speci- 
men exhibiting thai very peculiar eroded 

appearance of the exterior, which its apo- 
citic name denotes, is beantifnlly figured 
in Dr. Mantell'a Geology of the Sonth- 
East of England. 

JsBOai'pBONiTa. (from Ivlov and aifuy, 
Gr.) A cepbalopod, found in the Cam- 
brian rocks. Tbe aiphoncle is ventral, 
diflering therein from tbe ammonite, in 
which it is dorsal, and from tbe nautilus, 
in which it is central. 

i'NNEAGoN. (from Ji'i'io, nine, andywWa, 
angle, Gr.) A polygon with nine faces. 

iNNBAPB'TAi-iKJs. (from ivvia. nine, and 
TtrnXov, B petal, Gt.) In botany, aco- 
rolla having nine petals. 

i'NbiFORM. {ennifomiii. Lit.) Sword- 
shaped ; two-edged ; tapering towards the 
point like a sabre. In botany, applied 
to two-edged leaves, slightly convex oa 
both surfaces, and gradu^y tapering to a 
point from the base to the apex. 

!kti're. (en««r, Fr. in(m), It.) 'WTiolaj 
undivided ; complete in all its parts. In 
botany, a term applied to leaves when the 
margins are devoid of notches, serratioDS, 
or incisions. In conchology, when a shell 
is whole and undivided, neither interrupt- 
ed nor inlerraarginated, it ia termed en- 

and XiSoi;, a stone, Gr.) A fossil inaeoti 


given, erroneously, at ot ^^ 

trilobites. Fossil trilobites were loO) 
confounded with insects, under the ~ ~ 
of entomolithus paradoxus ; after : 
disputes, their plai .-m-i. 

,n of the 
. Relat 

Dlogy » 

Intomo'loqist. a person skilled in 
acienoe of entomology i one who ati 

Lntouo'logv. (from ivro/ia and Xiytf 
Gr.) That part of the sdence of loolog' 
which trea^ exclusively of insecta, I 
their history and habits; that branch I 
natural history which treats 
The object of entomology is, t< 
the nature of insects ; its design ia b 
sliow how the insect is organised r" 
formed, and why it was abhged to ailt 
this particular conformation and inten 
structure ; and, when this is accomplished 
it proceeds to the generalisation and dl 
velopment of the various vital phenomsd 
observable in the class. Its view, htm 
ever, is not limited to show tbe mere gl 
ucrni form df the body of the insect, bs 
it. a\so diBjVi^* \u)w t.lu8 general form ts 

I the sererai onleri of insects, uid 
ir this general [rnnafonnBtion nnd 
c may extend, without destruction, 

>BTo'iiATA. In the conchological 
B of De BlainiiUe, the entomDato- 
fbnn the eecond isuiily of Sijiho- 
biata, nnd include man; genera, is 
icdanm, doliam, cerithium, eburna, 
ftier nnivalveB. 

i'btbaca. (from Ivrn/ia, an inaeel, 
>Tpamv,i shell, Gr.) Shelled in- 
In Cuvier'a urangeiiient the en- 
traca form the second section of 
Icea. EatoinogtracB are both den- 
nid. edentsted ; they are moetly mi- 
Jiic, they are without eiceptioo 
e, and they mOBtly, tliougli not 
It exceptions, inhabit fre^h water. 
Btomostracans appear to hnve been 
Ifrepreaeatativea of the class Crus- 

II until after the depoaitioD of the 
■iferDDB strata. 

CsTRACocE. Belonging to the fa- 
f Entomoitracane. 
^■roiiT. (from ivToiia, an insect, 
IflMu, to cut, Gr.) The diasection 
leta, by which we learn their inter- 
utntntion, and become acquainted 
>e form and teitnre of their organa. 
A. tfrom hTbs and Z'^i), Gr.J 
ina] norma. 

aiTE. (from IV and Tpox*C. Gr. ) 
-4tone ; a name given to the broken 
tof fossil eacrinites. Some beds of 
fia limeitone are almost entirely 
Red of broken stems and branches 
jvinites, frequently called enlro- 
.' The deUched vertebne of the 
• are known by the name of tro- 
I and when several are united toge- 
B as to form part of a colamn, the 
b termed an entrochite. The per- 
Bi tn the centre of the veitebrte 
(> &ctlity foe stringing them as 
Urom wbich.^in ancient times, they 
■ed as roiarieE, and in the noithern 
t England they still continue to be 
I'-nnder the name of St. Cuthbert's 

^E. (eneelopper, Pr. iiitiilup- 
t,) To enclose on all sides ; to 
trith some covering. 
JFB- (^amelappe, Fr. inval/o. It.) 
fpa i s coyer ; an investing inte- 

B. (mmronner, Fr.) To encom- 
to sorronnd ; to enclose on every 
to encircle. 

( (from ^ie, anro™, and totvJc, 
. because, as Mr. I^yell observes, 
ry small propoilioii oS living epe- 

] E O C 

cie» contained In these strata indicates 
whnt may be considered the daiPH, or 
lirsC CO mm en cement, of the exislitig stale 
of the animate ciEatiOD.) M. Deshaves 
and Mr. Lyell bave proposed a fourfold 
diviaion of the marine formations of the 
tertiary series, founded on the propor- 
tions which tiieir fossil ahella bear to 
marine ahella of existing species. To 
these divisions Mr. Lyell has, with the 
soundest judgment, ajiplied the terms 
Eocene, Miocene, Older Pliocene, and 
Newer FUoeene, and weU waold it be for 
the advancement of geology, if its nomen- 
clature were, in all instances, derived 
from some universal language. In fully 
eiplaining the meaning of these terms, 1 
shall borrow largely from Mr. Lyell'a 
Principles of Geology. In proportion as 
geological investigation a have been ex- 
tended over a larger area, it has become 
necessary to intercalate new groups of an 
age intermediate between those first ei- 
amined; and we hare every reason to 
believe that, as the science advances, new 
links in the chain will be supplied, and 
that the passage from one period to 
another will become less abrupt. All 
those geological monamenta are by Mr. 
Lyell called tertiary, which are newer 
than the secondary formations, and which, 
on the other hand, cannot be proved to 
have originated since the earth was inha- 
bited by man. All formations, whether 
igneous or aqueous, which ran be ahevm 
by sjiy proofa to be of a date posterior to 
the introdnction of man will be called 
recent. The European strata may he 
referred to four successive periods, each 
characterised by containing a very dif- 
ferent proportion of foasil ^ells of recent 
species. These (bur periods will be 
called. Newer Pliocene, Older Pliocene, 
Miocene, and Eocene. In the older 
groupa we find an eitremely small number 
of fossils idendliable with species now 
living; but as we approach lie superior 
and newer sets,we find the traces of recent 
tesUeea in abundance. The latest of the 
four periods before alluded to, is that 
which immediately preceded the recent 
era. To this more modem period may 
be referred a portion of the strata of 
Sicily, the district round Naples, and 
seveial others. They are characterised 
by a great preponderance of fossil shells 
referable to speciea atill living, and may 
be called tiie Newer Pliocene strata. 

Out of 226 fossil species brought from 
beds belonging to this division, M. Dea- 
hayea found that no less than ^16 were 
of species still living, ten only being of 
extinct or unknown species. Neverthe- 
less., the ttnliqait^ (A some^ewctVoooeM. 

E C [I 

moat remote historical eras, most be'rery 
^eat, embr&cing perliapa myriads uf 
yeari. Tbere are □□ dita for iap)H>siag 
thKt there ia any hreak. or Blrongly 
marked line of deinarcation, batwEen tlie 
strata of this and the ncetit epoch ; bat. 
on the contrary, the moaumentB of the 
one Bcem to poEs insCDslblj into those of 
the other. 

The Older Pliocene strata contain 
among their fossil ahelis s large propor- 
tion of recent Epeciea, amounting to 
neirly one-half. Thas out of 5<i<l apeciei 



and 331 tc 

ir uuktiowti, 

next diiision of the marioe for- 
mations of the tertiary period is the 
Miocene, from fiiiuiv, minor, and caii^c, 
recens. In tbig division a amall minority, 
leas than eighteen per centnm, of toasil 
shells beiug rererabli\. to living apeciea- 
From an euuulnatioa of 1021 sheila of 
the Miocene period, M. Deehayea found 
17(> onl; to be recent. As there are 
some foaail species which are exduaively 
confined to the Pliocene, so are there 
many sheila equally characteristic of the 
Miocene period. Tbe Miocene strata are 
largely developed in Touraine, and in the 
South of France, near Bourdeanx ; in 
Piedmont; in the basin of Vienna, and 
other locaiities. 

The oldest division of the marine for- 
mationB of the tertiary period is the 
Eocene, the derivation of which term is 
given at the commencement of this ar- 
ticle. To this era the fonnationa, firat 
called tertiary, of the Farie and London 
basins, are referable. Tbe total number 
of foasil shells of this period known when 
the tables of M. Desbayea were con- 
structed, was 1238, of which number 42 
only are living apeoiea, being at the rate 
of Uiree and a half per centum. Of foasil 
apecies, not known aa recent, forty-two 
were found to he common to the Eocene 
and Miocene epochs. Of tbe present 
geographical distribution of those recent 
species which are foand fossil, in foi 
tioos of anch high antiquity aa those of 
the London and Faria basins, tbere is 
much of great interest and importance. 
Of the forty-two Eocene species, which 
occur fossil in England, France, and Bel- 
gium, and which are still living, about 
one-half now inhabit the seaa widiin, or 
near the tropics, and almost all the rest 
are inhabitants of the more Southern parts 
□f Eurupe. 

Aa a anmmary of tbe preceding, the 
numerical proportion of recent to extinct 
species of fossil sheila, in the four dif- 
ferent ccrtiary periods, ia as follows : — 


] E P 1 

Newer Pliocene period 90 to SH^ percen- 
Oider Pliocene period 35 to 50 ( tum of 
Miocene period . 18 ( recent 

le period . 31 J foasilt. 

IRRA. (i^ij^itpia, BJ lirl et ni^pa, 
Insects, so called from their short 
term of life in their perfect state. Thur 
body ia extremely soft, long, tapering, 
and terminated posteriorly by two or 
three long and articulated aetie. The 
antennae are very small and compoaed o( 
three joints, the last of which u vary 
long, and in the form of a conical thread. 
The ephemera osnally appear at snn-set, 
in fine weather, in summer and antmno, 
along the banks of rivers and lakes. The 
continuation of their species ia the only 
function these animals have to perform, 
for they take no food, and frequently die 
on the day of their metamorphosis. Is 
another conditiun, as larvee, their exis- 
tence is much longer, extending from two 
to three years. In this first state ttiej 

Ephe'merai.. 1 (iij^jitfioc, Gr. epAemirt, 

Ephu'mbbick. ( Fr. s^Mero, It.) Of 
tranbitorj' duration ; short-lived ; exist- 
ing only one day, 

Epme'ukbo!). (ifii/iepav, Gr. ephemenn, 
Lat.) A creature whose existence lasti 
but a day. 

E'picARP. (from IttI, upon, and impTuc, 
fruit, Gr.) In botany, the outer skin of 
fruits is called the ^icarp, the fleshy sab- 
stance, or edible portion, is termed tlie 
sareaearp, and the stone is called Che 

EpinE'aMAL. (Composed of epidt , 

EriDa'auTC. S laling to the epidernds| 

resembling Uie epi dermis. 
Epide'buis. (iitiSipfiXg, Gr. ^iiitrndt, 
Lat. epideme, Pr. epidertiiide, It.) TTie 
scarf-skin, or cnticle of animals, la 
conchology, tbe outer skin or cnlide, 
with which the exterior surface of many 
of the UDivalTe and bivalve shells is 
covered. It is membranaceous, and n- 
aemblea the periosteum which covers the 
bones of animals. This skin seems to be 
formed entirely by the animal, and U 
always met with _in some species, and 
never in others ; thoae shells with a 
ragged surface have almost alwaj 
epidermie. In some it is laminat 
vely, librouB, or rough; in othe 
thin and pellucid, allowing Che colouri rf 
the abell to show through it. It often 
falls off of its own accord, and withoat 
any injury to the surface of the shdl: 
the beauty of many shells is hidden by 
this outer coat.^In botany, tbe outward 
covering of plants : every plant Is coieied 
by a skin, or membrane, analogouEt to the 
Bcarf-skin that covers animal bodies; 
thia epidermis varies in thickness, beinj 



inated, v 

eitremeljt delicate and (liaphsnous on 
some parta of n fiovfpr. and veiy thick, 
hard, sod coarse, on the troBka of laaay 

Efidi'otmis. Qirilil«iiie,from iir'i, sni! 
SiSviine, Gr.) A body principally com- 
posed of minute, tender, elastic tubes, 
intricately convolnted, termed tubuli 
Beminifert, and placed at the outer and 
back part of the testis. 

E'piDoiK. The Prismatoidiacher Angit- 
Bpath of Mobs, and Pialaxit or Fistacite 
of Werner. A mineral of a green or grey 
colour; a aubspecies of prieuiatoiilal au- 
gite. It occurs regularly crjetalljied, ■□ 
graiialar, prismatic, and fibrous concre- 

tbe Greek word iirlMuiiti, (ram an en- 
largement of the base of the prism in one 
direction. It is brittle and easily brokeo. 
It ia foand, principal Ij, in primary 
rncVs, and in many parts of Scotland, as 
well as in England, Norway, France, 
&c. It coneists of silica 37'0, alumica 
27-0, lime 14-0, OHde of iron 17-0, oiide 
of maiiganeae I'b. There are many vs- 

Epiga'stric. (from ivi, above, and 

Siorqp, the beJly. Gr. fingaalrique, Fr.) 
elonging to the upper part of the sbijo- 
men, or epigastric region. 
Epica'stbiok. {ImyafJTpwv, Gr. epigaa- 
trimit, Lat. ipigasirf, Fr.) The upper 
part of tbe abdomen or belly. 
Efiqlo'ttis. (epiglollii, Lat. fpightie, 
Pr. iiriyXunroif, yel imyXwTTic, Gr. 
membrana cartUaginosa rotunilitatia ob- 
lODgnt guttnri claudendo et reserando.) 
One of the five cartilages of tbe laiyni, 
situated above the glottis, whose use is to 
close the glottis dnriug tbe act of swal- 
lowing and thereby to prevent the pas- 
sage of food into tbctraciiea, or windpipe. 
EpipHTLLDSFE'Buons. {from iiri.^iWov, 
and inripua, Gr.) A term in botany, 
applied to plants bearing their seed on 
the back part of their leaves. 
Eri'pBYSis, (iiri^iiffic. from JttiJuw, 
Gr.) A process of bone attached to a 
bone, but not being a part of tbe same 
I bone, as is tbe case of apophyaiB. 
I Eei'pldon. ifwiirXoou, from iirnr\i-i, Gr. 
t^ptoon, Fr.) The omentum, or caul; 
I Suit membranous expansion whicb hangs 
from tbe bottom of tbe stomach and co- 
vers the intestines. 
Epizoo'tic. (from iirJ and K&av, Gr.) 
Containing animal remains, as epizootic 
bills, or epizootic strata. 
E'foch. il-Jroxh, Gr. epocha, Lat. epoque, 
! Ft. «poM, It.) A term literally signify- 
ing a stop, a fixed point of time, from 
which succeeding years are oumbered ; 
Iw period at which a new computation, 
^ nckoning, u begaa. 

1 E Q U 

Epo'cha. (Lai.) The same as epoch. 

Eau*'NiiOI:AH. (fromiFjuaK and aiignlus, 
Lat. ) Tbe harshness of this word has 
caused it (a be supplanted by equiangu- 
lar, one far more euphooic. Consisting 
of equal angles ; having equal angles. 

Equa'tob. [eq-oalear, Fr. aqualar, Lat. 
equalort. It.) A great circle of the 
sphere, equally distant from the two 
poles of the world, or having the same 
poles with those of the world. It is 
called tbe equator, because when the sun 
ia in it, the days and oightB are equal ; 
wheacs also it is called the eqninoctiBl. 
Every point of the equator is a quad- 
rant's distance from the poles of the 
world ; whence it follows, that the equa- 
tor divides the sphere into two hemi- 
spheres, in one of wliich is the northern, 
and in the other the southern pole. 

EacATo'siAL. Pertaining to the e^jua- 
tor : the equatorial diameter nf our 
planet exceeds its polar diameter by 
about 27 miles ; tbe length of the eqaa- 
torial diameter being 7i}27 miles, that of 
tbe polar 79DO. 

EauiA'NGULAB. (from ^quus and angti. 
lui, Lat. iquiangak, Fr. equiangola, It.) 
A figure wiioae angles are all etjual ; con- 
sisting of equal angles ; having eq;aal 

EancRu'ttAL. (from aqnus and crua, 
Lat.) Having alt its legs of equal 

EaciDi'FFEBBNT. Arithmetically propor- 
tional j having equal difTerences. 

EauiDl'sTANT. {fguidutant, Fr. cgnidit- 
laale. It.) Being at equal distance 
from some one point. 

E'ttUiPOBM. (lEjni/omiw, Lot.) Having 
tbe same shape, form, or make. 

EauTKo'RMiTY. LikcQEss, Or resemblance, 
in form ; uniform equality. 

EauiiA'TEaAi, (nqiiUaltD and ffjiiiia- 
lerog, Lat. ^qnila/crel, Fr. eqjiUatero, 
It.) Having all the aides equal. Ia 
conchology, shells whose sides are alike, 
as iu those of ostrtea ; or when a line 
drawn perpendicularly from the apei of 
a bivalve would cut it into equal parts. 

EuDiV.tL. ) l^equimts, Lat.) Pertaining 

E'kltike. t to a horse; relating to a 

EauiaETA'cB*. (from equUetum, horse- 
tail.) The plants are known in this 
country as the horse-tail of our ditches. 
Equisetacece are found both fossil and 
recent. M. Ad. Brougniart has, in 
his " Histoira des Vegetaui Fossiies," 
divided fossil equisetacea; into two ge- 
nera [ tbe one eihibits the characters of 
living equiseta, and as a fossil is rare ; 
the other differa greatly in its form, fre- 
quently attaining an immense magnitude; 
these last have been arranged under tha 

E Q U [ 

distinct geauB Calamitea. EquiaeticcK 
■Tfl found from Upland to tbe Torrid 
Zone ; its species are most abundant in 
the temperate lone i as vre opproacb a 
more Mgid temperature tbej duninish in 
size and abnodanco, and in tbe warm and 
bumid region! of the tropica they acquire 
their greatest magnitnde. 
KwnasTBM. (Idt. A genus of the or- 
der Filicea, belonging to the Cryptogamia 
class of plants.) Horse-tail. Of thia 
i;enua there are numerous species. The 
eqnisetum iluTiaUle of our marsbes is the 
largest of all the species, growing Bome- 
timei to tbe lieigbt of three feet, and 
nearly an inch in diameter. It has a suc- 
culent, erect, jointed stem, with attenuated 
foliage surrounding the joints in whorla. 
In tbe coal meaaurea, remains of equiseta 
are ia great abundance, and occur of a 
magnitude quite unknown at the present 
day, some of the Btema being fourteen in- 
ches in diameter. M. Ad. Brongniart 
enumerates twelve species of cslamites 
and two of equiseta found in strata of 
the carboniferous series. Equiseta occa- 
sionally occur in the Wealdcn strata, and 
where they are found they are abun- 

E«dibb'tum Lyellk. The name giter 
by Dr. Mantell to a distinct species o1 
equiaetum, found in tbe grey and blue 
grit and limestone at Ponncefard, in 1 
nour of Professor Lyell. When perft 
it prnbahlj attained a height of two t 
or more. This plant is beautifully fi- 
gured in Dr. Mantell's " Geology of the 
South-east of England." 

EauiSB'TlFOBU. (from efjuUetum and 
/orma, Lat.) Hating tbe shape of 
equisetum, or horse-tml ; resembling equi- 

Eaui'vAi-KNT. (from aquas and ralea^, 
Lat.) In geology, where one bed sup- 
plies the place of another which, in tbat 
situation, is wanting, such bed is called 
the cqaivelfttl of the wanting bed. Whi 
a stratum suddenly termiaatea, and i 
place is supplied by a stratum of a di 
ferent character, the latter is called tbd 
eguiealeni of the former. In the beds 
of transition limestone at Llanymynah, 
says Mr_ BalceweU, which are very re- 
gularly stratified, one stratum of the best 
UmesUine suditeuly terminates, an 
place is supplied by a bed of marte of 
eqnal Ihickness ; in tbis case the marie ' 
the eqiiicaltnt of the absent limestone. 

E'auiVALVK. {from <Eq«ut and taha, Lat.) 
In conchology, when the shells of bivalve) 
are formed exactly alike, as regards theii 
length, width, depth, Sec. The shells of 
mja, solen, teUina, Sic., are g:enerally of 
the Idnd called tg»ivalve, while those of 
ostrea, pinna, &c.i are inequiTalve. 

) ERR 

.'ba. (wa, Lat. Written freqiiently*ni.) 
A particular accoant and reckaning uf 
time and years, from some remarkahtl 
e<ent. Webster, quutiiig from san» 
encyclopedia, says, " it differs from 
epoch in this ; era is a point of time fixed 
by some nation or denomination of meli 
epoch is a point fixed by historians and 
cbranologists. The Christian era begin 
at the epoch of the birth of Christ," 

la.ADiA'TiOM. tfrom e and raiUatio, Lat) 
Emission of rays. 

Ike'ctilb. (from erigo, Lat.) A tissue 
pecuUar to certain parts of the body, u 
the nipple, Slc. 

iae'cT. (*recftM, Lat.) In botany, leave* 
arc so called when they form a very acute 
angle with tbe stem. The term also it 
applied to branches rising iu an nprl^ 
direction ; to petioles rising nearly fo- 
pendicularly 1 and to dowers and pedidet 
rising perpendicularly. 

"niNite. A name given to a species of I' 
native arseniate of copper, from its hiv- 
ing been discovered in Ireland. It is of 
an emerald-green colonr ; its constitneni 
parts are oxide of copper, argeoic add, 
alumina, and water. 

lao'oBo. (_erodo, Lat.) Eaten away 



,, Lat.) 

. The act of gradually wearing away. 
2. The state of being gradually eaten a«i 
or corroded. 
Ero'sive. That has the property of gra- 
dually eating away. 
Ebo'se. ) (eriuuR, Lat.) Jagged ; applied 
Ebo'buh. i to leaves very irregularly 
cut or notched, and having the appear- 
ance of being gnawed or ei ' 

Ebo'tylus. a genus of insects, belong- 
ing to the Vivalpi, or tbe seventh &nuly 
of the Tetramera. In the erotyli the 

almost cyliudrical, and the club, I 
by the last ones, is oblong ; the iota 
and corneous division of their maiillalll 
terminated by two teeth. They ore fl 
enliar to South America. 

Ebina'cecs. (Lat.) The hedgehog. . 

Ebpkto'logist. (from erpetohgf.) ' 
n-ho studies, or is skilled in, that bn 
of natural history, which relate* toi^ 

EnrETo'LOGV. (from ipwirbc 

Gr.) Tbat branch of natural 1 
which treats of the structure, habiti,& 
of reptiles. 

Erra'tic. {erraiieta, from erro, 

erraligne, Fr. erralieo, It.) 'Wandsrilfij 
not fixed ; irregular. 

Erba'tic block gboup. One of 13 
divisions of detrital depoaitB. Prafiw*|hi 
Phillips observes, " In tne Britiah ii 

very considerable tricM of aountr]' hive 
(eea trnversed. lince the land had its 
present genera! aspect of bill and dale. 
^•-"■' Taa inhabited by Urge quadnipeda, 
iiTBiitB of iTBter dae to some nn- 
Q canie, whieh transported rock 

; a with CO great a degree of force, to 

]K)iiits BO elevated, in eueb directions. 
and >t gnch distoncea, that yet caanot 
inoid feeliag extreme astonishment, and 
look arouod in disappointment on the 
.physical procosaes now at work on the 
WrCb, for Bnjthiii£ similar. But it is 
Dnljr in pirttcolar tracts that the magni- 
tude of tbe tranaported rocks is such as 
to deaerre the name of erratic block: 
St appears to be oerUin that, in tbe dis- 
|ienioa of boulders, tbe present phyeical 
eonfigunition of the neighbooring regions 
liad great influence ; Haej are foDnd to 
descead from the Cumbrian mouotaina 
northward in the yale of Eden to Carlisle, 
^^aatward to the foot of the Peoine chain, 
southward by the Lune and the Kent 
to the narrow tract between Bolland Fo- 
mt and the bay of Morecambe ; and 
from the vicinity of Laacaster tbey are 
traced at intervals through the compara- 
Inel; low country of Preston and Man- 
chester, lying between the sea and the 
Torluhire and Derbyshire hills, to the 
valley of the Trent, the plains of Che- 
•bire and Staffordshire, and tbe vale of 
.the Severn, where they occar of great 
■ siagnitade." — P/iillipi' Treatiie on Geo- 

Hii'nc*LLT. Irregularly; withoutorder 
DT method. 

'scBNce. ] (from ervbe»eo, Lat.) 
'sckNCT. ( Kedness; the act of 
growing red. 

KVbe'scsnt. Inclining to redness ; ii 
i blushing. 

'i'TioN. {ernc/a(io,Lat, ^r»e;a/i'( , 
ft.) A violent belching forth of wind 
or other inattiir, as from a volcano 

bd'ginoiis. (from arvgo, Lat. « 
giaaix, Fr. mginoio, It.) Of the nati 
of copper. 

— ' — ^D. (from entmpo, Lat.) Forcibly 
m out, as from a volcano. 
'lOK. {eniplio, Lat. traytion, 
one, It.) A violent bursting forth 
_ of coDtamed matters. 

HA. An eiiuivalved, iu equilateral, 
transverse bivalve. The hinge-teeth, two, 
diverging upwards, with a small inter- 
mediate pit i the lateral teeth compressed 
*nd oblong. Tbe cartilage inserted in 
, the hinge-pit. Lamarck is of opinion 
that the shells of this genua exist onl; 
fossil, and ennmarates eleven species 
fbtuid in the environs of Paris. He 
place* them in the family Mactracea. 

] E T II 

Isca'lop. ) Commonly called scollop. A 

Isca'lloI'. ( bivalve, whose shell is regu- 
larly indented. 

IscaVphent. (tKUrpemfnl. Pr.) Tbe 
steep face of a ridge of high land \ the 
escarpment of a mountain range ia gene- 
rally on that side which ia neareat to 
Che sea. 

la'cSASA. {etckafa, Lat. ) 
t. Fishes which are said to chew the cud. 
2. In LinuKus' arrangement, eschara 
forms the unh order of Zoophytes, each 
polypus being contained in a calcareons 
or homy shell, withont any central aii>. 

Is'cDLENT. (E»™toi(a», Lat.) Fit for 
food ; that may be eaten. 

Iso'pHACoa. (from uu and poytTv, Gr. 
eiophage, Fr. eio/aga. It.) The canal, 
or passage, leading from the pharynx to 
the etomach, and through which the food 
passes from tbe mouth to the atomach 
It ia also written cesophagus. 

D'aox. (Lat.) The pike, a genua o 
fishes of the order Abdominalea. Tbe 
esox has small intermaiiUaries furnished 
with little pointed teeth in tbe middle i 
the upper jaw, of which they form the 
two-thirds, those on tbe sides of the jaw 
being edentated. Tbe vomer, palatines, 
tangne. pharyngeals, and rays of tbe 
hrancbiie, bristled with teeth resembling 
those of a carp. 

I^'eoi Lewesiensis. The name given to 
a species of fossil pike, by Dr- Mantell, 
found in the chalk, the jawa of which are 
beantifully figured in his Geology of the 
South-east of England. He states that 
its recent prototype ia unknown. 

circumstaDce which serves to distinguish 
a genua from every other genus. 

S'ssoNiTE. Another name for cinnam 
stone. A variety of dodecahedrai garnet, 
of an orange-yeUow or hyacinth colour. 
The finest are brought from Ceylon. See 

E'btivai,. (aa(!Bfi», Lat.) Pertaining ti 
the summer. 

E'sTDAxr. (icjfuartKiH, I>at.) An inlet 
of the land entered by the tide of the aea, 
and by fresh water from a river; 
mouth of a river or lake wh^e the salt and 
fresh water alternately prevail. 

E'sDHiNB. (from enurio, Lat.) Corrod- 
ing; eating. 

Stde'ria. a genus of large inequivalve 
molluBcs belonging to the family Oatracea. 
They differ from the ostreee in having two 
elongated muscular impressions in each 
valve, which are united by a slender pal- 
leal impression. The animal is not 
known to produce a by sans. 

E'thudid. (from ^9iii.s, a sieve, and 
(ifuc, like, Gr.) A bone of the nos 
which the name ethmoid has been given 


E T I [ U' 

from its being cribriform, or iicribrateiL 
like H riere, for the passage of the olfac- 
tory nerves. 

E'tiolate, {(Holer, Fr.) To blanch hy 
ooncealiag from the light. 

EriOLA'riDH. The becomiag white or 
blanched by concBBlnient from light. 
Thus the inner leaves of lettuces and en- 
dive are made white by being tied up, 
and celery is blanched by being earthed 

E'tite. See ^lilei. 

E'tvdb. a genus of cruBtaceans, some 
species of which have been discovered ia 
the gait. 

Eu'cLASE. (from (D and tXdm. Gr.) Tlie 
PriamitiscberSmaragd of Mobs. Prisma- 
tic Emerald. This stone has obtained 
its name from the eaae with which it is 
broken. It is a rare and beautiful mi- 
neral, anil nas brought first from Peru 
by Dombey ; it was at first confounded 
with the emerald, iu conaeqaence of its 
green colour. The primitive form of its 
crystals ia a rectangular jirism, whose 
bases are squares. It is of sufBcient hard- 
ness to soratub quartx. Its constituents 
■re silica, alumina, glucina, and the ox- 
ides of iron and tin. 

EttDi'ALira. A mineral of a brownish-red 
colour, having an octohedrsl cleavage. 

Eueai'bite. Cupreous seleninret of sil- 
ver, couiistiog of silver 39. selenium 26, 
copper S3, alumina 8. 

Eno HPHAi,t:B. A univalve uncbambered 
fossil shell, found in the mountain time- 

Eit'pona. The name given in Cuvier's 
" Rfigne Animale " to the fifth family of 
Tetramerous Coleoptera ; Eupodn com- 
prises two tribes, Si^rides aud Cridcc- 

Ed'biTE. White-atone, the weisa-atein of 
Werner. A variety of granite in which 
felspar predominates, and named UuriCe 
by the French mineralogists. It occurs 
in beds, in common granite, in Cornwall. 
In its most compact form, it becomes a 
porphyry, and ia closely allied to volosnic 
rocis in Auvergne ; felspathic granite. — 

Euhi'tic. Containing eurite ; coniposed 
of eurite ; resembling eurite. 

ElCAsns'sCENCE. (excandeneentia, fx. 
eandeieo, Lat. ) White heat ; extreme 



, Lat. e. 

, Fr.) 

To hollow I 
Excava'tion. {excavalio, Lat. eiamation 
Pr.l A cavity : a hollow formed by th 
removal ofa portiuu of the interior. 

It. ) Deviation from i 

Ekce'rned. Excreted, 

Exco'riated. (from exeBria, Lat. etw- 
ri(^s. Fr.) Abraded; deprived of its < 
cle or external covering. 

Excobia'tion. (eitcoTialion, Vr. ore 
iiime. It.) The state of being deprived. 
of its cuticle, or external natural co' ~~ 

Exco RTicATKD. Deprived of its bark. 

Ex'cRiiHENT. (ej^erententvm, Lat. exerl' 
men/, Fr. etcremento. It.) That which 
is separated from the aliment after digei- 
tion and is to be ejected downwards fmni 
the inlestinal canal i tiecal matte 
creted matter. 

ExcftEHKNTi'Tions, (,excr6maUeux, Fr. 
eicremfnlaaa. It.) Containing ei 
ments) (.■onaisljng of excreted natter. 

Excke'ecrncb. {from aiereico, Lat. 
eroiiaawee, Pr. estrejcenio. It.) A pre- 
ternatural growth of any substance: " 
body growing Qpon, or out of, anotl 
in an unnaturtU manner ; a deformity. 

Excbe'bcknt. Growing out of anotl 
body pre tern aturally. 

Excrb'te. (from excrma, Lat.) 
throw off by excretion. 

ExeaE'TioN. (ercretio, Lat. eirrrefiwli 
Fr. f»tr«tone. It.) 

1. Tlie act of separating and voidtncefr 
matter from the bW lol 

2, The substance excreted. 


tV. (M 

, Pr. 1 

It.) Organs which have the powet 
Exfo'liatb. {exjiilier, Pr,) To's^w 

Exfolia'tion. (e.r/olialion. Fr.) 1 
process of separation of dead bone. 

Exhala'tion. {fihalatio, lot. tsU 
mil, Fr. eualasione, It.) A vaponr ft 
animal or vegetable sabitancei. 

Exha'i.b. {exhttlo, Lat. exhaler, Tr. I 
tare. It.) To breathe out in vapoan 
fumea ; to emit odours ; to eire 

Exrijma'tiqn. (exhumation, Pr, elM 
I'onf, It.) The digging out of thofw 
what has been buried therein. 

Eihu'me. (arAHiwer, Fr.) To dig Ofl 
the earth what has been buried. 

ExHu'uBD. Disinterred. 

E'xoORN. Exogens are planta whitth I 
a pith in the centre of their stems, 
descending into the roots ; or ha' 
their woody system separated firoa 
cellular, and arranged in eoaCR 
ionea. They increase by additiou lo i 

itside dT their wood, u the nunc 
ipliea. See tha vtymolagj of Kio- 


NOUS, ((romtfui and ymam, Gr.) 
sin which Ihe growth takes place fay 
una trom without, or by eiteruij 

■B. (txoUlag, Sm.) Worn; faded. 

TKD. (Kronafw, Lat.) Deprived 
yf bnaes. 

ODS. (from ex and OMa, Lit.) 
Destitute of bonea ; Biiimala nut poaseaa- 
bg bonei, 

eosto'hIB. (from iS and iarmi', Gr.) A 
Uaeased growlb of bone. 

(e^ofirut, Lat. UaiTiKAc. Gr. 
^figiw. Ft. eaalico. It-} In botany, 

„ . C/<we. Pr- /act™. It- /""'«". La'.) 
lOoe of the figures which oompose tlie nil- 
^rficiei of a bod; ; the aurtaue whii:h 
— -:nt> itself to the dght. PnlybedFOna 

several races ; a cube has ta faces. 

■. (facflla. It.faceHe, Pr. Fim lien 
eSl4t iTiwi etirpg qui a pluineiire pelilt 
^cSlft.) A Buperliciea cat into ecreral 

plants not natiTes of the i 

which thej are cultiiated. 
'" "' . J{from«j ' 




^■AL ANBLS. An angle composed of 
ra lines, one ilravin lu the direction of 
e base of Ihe skull, from the ear to the 
ota of the superior inuisores, tile other 
MB that point to the superciliBr; ridge 
' the froDtltl boDc. 

mnovs- (/actitimi, Lat.) Made bj- 
"taa contrary to that formed by nature ; 

(from faces, Lat. ) Containing 

(fax, Lat. used plurally only.) 

lent ; sediment. Tkie fossil fsces 

certain fisheB are called coprolites ; the 

crement of dogs and wolves, album gne- 

U 1 of mice, album nigrum. 

U.ITHITB. (from FahlKB, in Sweden, 

rhere it is found.) Autotnolite, or oc- 

ndum. See AulDmoliie. 

In meadows and graBs-laDda, 

Ijircles of a different hue from the aur- 

"onnding grass are often seen -, these arc 

ominonly called Jairy-ringa, from a vul- 

BTWjing that at tiiglit fairies dance there- 

n. The true cause of these appearances, 

rhich have excited the aslonishment of 

lany, is as follows; ihey are eitsrnol 

without red blood. 

Extk'msok. tfrom rxlrndo. Lat. e^frawkr, 
Fr. ) The name of Hui-h mixsclet us ex^ 
tend or straighten the parts, and serve at 
antagonist muscleB to the flexors. 

B'xTIRrATE. (exlirpo, Lat, exlbjier, Fr. 
esttrfttTt, It.) To entirely destroy ; to 
root up j to eradicate. 

Exu'vi.c. (Lot.) Cast shells ; cast skins ; 

E^xuViABLE. That may be cast or thrown 
olT, as the sLulctous of articulated ani- 

indicationa of the centrifugal growth of 
the subterranean stems of certain agarics, 
which, originally springing from a com- 
inoQ point, continually spread out- 
wards upon the same plane, the centres, or 
Jirat formed ports, periahing as tbe cir- 
cumference, or lust formed partSf developc 

Faikv-IiToke. a name sometimes given 
to the echini te. 

Fa'i.catk. a figure fonned by two curves 
bending the same way, and meeting in a 
uoint at the apex, tbe base terminating 
In a straight margin, resembling a sickle. 

7a'i.cAtbii. ifalcatut, Lat.) Hooked; 
crooked like a reaping-hooli. 

Falca'tion. Crookedness. 

PA'ictFoiiM. (from/atrand/orma, Lat.) 
Shaped like a scythe or reapiuE-book. 

rALiiNG-slOKW. A meteoric body, com- 
monly called an aerolite. 

Pa'lun. (Fr. auemilage de coquillti 
brMet, qu'on l/'ouce en mans d «n« mr- 
laine prrfondeur de Itrre.) A provin- 
cial name given to same shelW strata in 
the neigbbourbaod of the Loire, and 
which resemhle, in their lithological cha. 
ractcrs, wliat is denominated the crag, 
Tbe faluuB, or marls of Tourrune and the 
Loire, constitute an extensive formation 
of marl beds, which are now admitted to 
be of later date than the most recent (rf 
tbe fresh-water beds in the Paris basin. 
They are regular depositions, formed da- 
ring an epocb of tranquillity, and sub- 
jected to Uwa of which the action is con- 
tinued on the present aborea. The great 
moss of fossil shells which these beds con- 
tain, dilTer from those of the Paris basin : 



aame state of niineraliza 
■hells. TliE bonea of the maatodou, rhi- 
noceros, and hippopotamus, 

f |>re 

B Ihose 

nhalca, and other cofaceoua animals, 
nbich thejr are iatennixed. Thef are coat- 
ed with miiriiie polypi and serpnlK, which 
proves that they were long eoTered by a 
tranqnil and etatianary aea. These Jalutu 
are distinct from the tertiary beds of the 
Seine, and more reeeat than any of them ; 
but they are themselrea the hjn ' ' 

of I 

le fonnationa of the 
Paris or London baeiDS, and nhlch has 
been continued to tbe present epoch, 
daring all the nnmerous up-beaiings of 
the ground, the chaoges in tbe relative 
level of seas and contiaentB, and tbe suu- 
cessive madilications of organic beings. 

Fabi'na. (Lat.) Meal; flour; in bo- 
tany, tbe pollen, or dust of the aotber. 
The poUeo, or farina, is contained in the 
anther. In dry and warm weather the 
anther contraets and burets, when the 
pollen is thrown out. From mioroscopie 
observation we find each particle of dust 
to be generally s membranons bag, either 
round or angular, smooth ar rough, wbicli 
on meeting with any mniature instantly 
bursts wi^ great force, and discharges a 
aubtile vapour. 

FAniHA'cEODS. Containing meal or flour. 
In batany, applied to those parts of vege- 
tables whioh yield starch. 

Fa'kino^e. In entomology, havmg tbe Eur- 
fece covered with dust, resembling flour, 
nhicb the slightest tonch will remove. 

FABBA'GiNotrs. {farrago, Lat.) Com. 
posed of many materials ; thus Kirwan 
wriCea " a farraginous momitain." Tlie 
word ia rarely uaed by geologists. 

Fa'sCia. (Lat.) The tendinons expanaioa 
of a muscle, inclosing others Uke a band. 

Fa'bciated. FiUeted, or enclosed with a 

Fa'bciclb, l/ateiculm, Lit.) A bundle, 
or little bundle: applied (o flowers on 
Email stalks, when many spring from one 
point, and are coUceled into a close and 
level bundle at tbe top { aa the aweet- 

Pa'sciclbd. Clustered together aa in a 

FaSct'culAb. (faicicukrit, Lat.) United, 
or growing together, in a bundle , applied 
to leaves growing in a clnster, or tuft, aa 
the larch, and some species of pine ; ap- 
plied also to roots, when many tubes pro- 
ceed from the same centre, shooting forth 
in an elongated form. 

Fascio'la. The fluVe-worm. A genns of 
internal worm belot>ging to tbe order Pa. 
renchymata, family Tremadolea, There 
are many species; (hey are furnished 

Is of sheep. 
L Eubfoaifomt nnivilve, 
I base, without any pro- 
* ' log two or threi 

ondemeath the body, 

with organs resembling cupping-glasses^ 

by which they adhere to the viscera. Im 

this genus ia included the Diatoms hepii'. 

tica, or Fasciola H. ' '^ 

which so infests, ani 

the hepatic vessi 

channelled at il 
jecting sutarea, 

very oblique folds on the colnmellB.— ■ 

Fascioli'tgs. a Bubcylindrical, shelly, or 
bony body, about half an inch in lengdi, 
rather tapering at the ends, and formal 
by the spiral arrangement of petpendica- 
lar, concamerated tubes, the tapering end 
of which ia obUquely and transversdf 
folded on that of the preceding one. IM 
tubes are seen to be distinct ; and, when 
the outer surface has been removed, tba 
cDDcanierations are perceived, reeulthig 
from the iuterpoattiou of very numennu 
and minute septa, tranaveraely disposed. 
The tubes are placed perpendicolariy 
round the centre, and it appean Ihit 
round the first formed tnbe, or obambeTr 
successive increasing columnar tqbeswaie 
disposed, folding over each other at their 
ends. Whether these several tubes weis 
internally connected with each other, 01 
not, or whether the 
eated, or not, with each other, by 

this body, when polished, has moi 
appearance of bone than of shell, and 
this and other circumstances, it see 
approximate nearer to the nommnlite thaa 
to any other fossil. — li. 

Fa'ssaitk. (from Fasaa in the Tyrol.) A 
mineral, a variety of augil«! 
it is also found in Scotland and Irdandi 
in beds of primitive trap, limestone, and 
magnetic ore. 

Faeti'oiatk. if/attigielf/f, Lat.) Pcuit- 

FAETi'ciATEfi. t ed ; a term applied ' 
stem, peduncles, umbel, Stc. 

Fa'thom. a measure of length equal to 
ail feet, or two yards. 

Fa'thomlbss. a depth which cannot b« 
ascertained by sounding ; a d^" " 
which no bottom can be fonnd. 

Fault. (/oM/e, Pr.) A break or inb 
tioD of strata ; interruption of the conti- 
nuity of strata, with displacement; tht 
idden interruption of the conlimn^' 

of > 

1 rhe s 

panied by a crack or fissure, varying 
width from a mere line to several het; 
such fissure being generally filled nA 
fragments, Sic. When a fault ocean iL 
strata they are generally either elevated HI 
depressed, se that in working a bed fl(' 
vein there appears to be a sudden termi- 

F A r 

Faulli consial of flsaurea 
sTersitig tbe strati, e:ilcndmg often for 
neral miles, >iid penetrating to a depth, 
I very few iDStBOces Baeerinined ; they 
V accompanied b; a sd1»'l ';uce of the 
iBtii on one aide of their line, or, which 
iDOuatR to the Bame thipg, an elevation 
r tbem on tbe other ; so that it appears. 
■at the Bune force which has reot the 
kIu thus asunder, has caased Die side 
F the fractured mass to riie, or the other 
to sink. If we suppose a thick sheet of 
be broken into frogmenta of irregu- 
9, and these fragments again united, 
receiving a alight degree of iiregnlar 
"a the plane of the original 
leet, the re-nnited fragments of ice will 
ipreient the appearance of the compo- 
ent portions of the broken masaes, while 
le intervemai; portion of more recent ice 
ipresents the clay and rubbish that till 
le fanlts. In the coal-Selds, these 
pUti operate as coffer-dams, and are of 
le greatest posaible advantage. 
ISA. ifaani. Let.) As the plants 

VD <lo tbe animals constitute its Jauna ,- 
<Hogj of a coudCtj. 
<?r.) That portion of the carity 
«f the firat chamber of a ahetl which may 
by looking in at the aperture. 
.!&. A geims of fuasil plants. 
Stem.forrowed. Scars of leavea small, 
uire, and of a breadth with the ridges 
the stem. In the favularia, the trunk 
Wu entirely covered witb a mass of dense- 
imbricated foliage, the bases of the 
iTM are nearly square, and the rows of 
iTet separateil by intermediate grooves, 
Tbe geniu ia believed to be extinct, hut is 
' ftmnd fossil io the coal-formation. 
Vsa'theht. Plumose ; applied to plants 

fumiahed witb lateral hairs. 
Fb'cal. See Fitcal. 
Fb'cks. See FaceK, 
ghwo't*, (froro/ffr, Lat./Au/e, Pr.) 
fc{3. Hie sediment or gronnds of an; liquid. 
^Rrbe word ftctiia, says Dr. Paris, origin- 
■ ally meant to imply any substance which 
L waa derived by apontancous subsidence 
from a liquid. 

2. The green matter of plants. 
Fb'cdmd. (facundus, hat./fcond, Fr./e- 

eomla. It.) Prolific; fruitful, 
Fkccnda'tion. W^condation, Fr. fecen- 

darione. It.) Impregnation. 
fscn'MDATE. (ficDHdare, It. ficondfr, 
Ft.) Toimpregnate ; to render fruitful. 
Fbcu NDiTY. (yacundilai, ljaX..f6ccmdH6, 
¥r. Jeconodiia, II.) Fruitfulness i pro- 
fertility; capahility of pro- 

Fbv'i.ebii. In conchology, those crenated 
■rms, evolved from the side of the Lepas 
snatifetB, and other shells of the second 

] PEL 

division of Lepas. While the animal ia in 
the water It continually moves its feelers, 
evidently for the purpose of entangling 
minute marine insects as food. — Jlroten. 
mineral which e 

the t 

1 of, 

terial of, many rocks. There are many 
specied and subspecies, or varieties, of 
this mineral, though all agree nearly in 
their chemical compoaitiou, and all are 
found both crystallized and massive. 
Feldspar is lamellar in its structure, but 
not in BO great a degree as mica ; it 
scratches glass, and is nearly opaque. Itis 
composed of silex 64, alumina 18, potaih 
l;i, lime 3, and some oxide ot^ iron. 
Common feldspar ie perhaps the most 
generally diffused mineral neit to quartz 

of granite, gneiss, and some other pri- 
mary rocks, and granite owes its variety 
of appearance and colour principally Io 
the abundance, or otbernise, of the feld- 
spar it contains. In some kinds of gra- 
nite the feldspar is in large whitish crys- 
tals of irregular forms, occasionally of 
one or two inches in length. From the 
liabihty of feldspar to be decomposed by 
atmospheric action, granite containing 
large crystals of it ia less durable than 
that which is liner grained, and it ia said 
that Waterloo-bridge, being unTortu- 
nately built of granite containing large 
crystals of feldspar, will be less durable 
than could be wielied for. Professor 
Jameson divides feldspar into live species, 
namely, 1. Rhomhohedral Feldspar, or 
Nepheline. 2. Prismatic Feldspar, or 
Common Feldspar. 3. Tetarto-prismatic 
Feldspar, or Scapolite. 4. Polychromatic 
or Labrador Feldspar. S. Pyramidal feld- 
spar, or Scapolite. 

1. The rbombohedral feldspar, or nephe- 
line of Haiiyand Werner, is of a white or 
grey colour, and occurs both massive and 
cryatalhzed ; it is eiternally splendent, 
internally vitreous and shining. Cleav- 
age fourfold. Fracture conchoidal, melts 
with difficulty before the hlow-pipe. Its 
crystals forro druses. It occurs in drusy 
cavities. Its constitnent parts are, ac- 
cording to Gmelin, silica 4U'3fi, alumina 
33'4», soda 13-36, potass M3. Other 
authors, however, give a different analy- 
sis, stating lime and oiide of iron to form 

2. Prismatic feldspar, or ^mmon feld- 
spar. Tbe prismatischer feldspath of 
Mohs. Potash feldspar. Of this there 
are many varietiBs, namely, adularia, or 
moonstone, a transparent variety with a 
ailvery or pearly opalescence ; glassy 
feldspar, a grey variety; common feld- 
spar, a tranaluc«Dt ■!UvWT,''ivfti. tKima 

quentl J So 

F E I, [3 

shadea of colour, such ai nhlte and red, 
which from its abundnnce has abtained 
its name ; amazon-Etone. ft hine or green 
variety ; Norwegian Labrador feldspar, a 
dark -green varietj with a beautiful 
changeableneas of cotonr, obtained from 
Frederickawarn, in Norway j compact 
feldspar, a fetbly transluoent yariety, 
with a spUtiterj fracture ; alaty feldspar, 
or clinkstone, a slaty variety; ponielaiD 
earth, earthy feldspar, and clayatone, va- 
rietiea, in a comparatively loose slato of 
aggregation, witliout iostre or transpa- 
rency, and Tsryiog io their deg;ree of com- 

3. Tetarto-prismatic feldspar, oralbite. 
See Albile. 

i. Polychromatic or I^hrador feldspar. 
Lima feldspar. The polychroroalischer 
feldspath of Molis. This beautiful mi- 
neral was first discovered on the coast of 
Labrador as a conatituent part of syenite . 
When light falls on it in certain direc- 
tions it eshibita the most beautifal change- 
ability of colour. It occnra massive and 
disSEtDinated. Cleavage splendent. Frac- 
glistening. It has been aubse- 
ly found in different parta of Europe . 
lioa about eleven per cent, of 
and fonr of soda. It brenks into 
rbomhoidal fragments. In its changea- 
bility of colour, it eihibits patches of 
blue, green, yellow, red, and grey colour. 

S. Pyramidal fehlspar, or acapolite. 
Meionite. Pyramidaler feldspath of 
Moha. Of this species of feldspar there 
are many varieties, namely, Weionite, 
Scapolite, Paranthine, Wernerile, Di- 
pyre, and Schmelaatein. These will be 
all deaciibed under their several heads. 

Fe'lsfa-cb"' \ ^^^ F^ldxpo'-- 

Felbfa'thic. ) Any mineral in whicli 

rsi-BFA'THOsa. ( feldspar greatly predo- 
dominates ; of the nature of feldspar. 

Fk'lib. (Lat.) A genua of quadrupeds 
belonging to the order of Ferce, the cha- 
racters of which are these :— The fore- 
teeth are equal ; the molares, or grindera, 
have three points ; the tongue is fur- 
nished with rough aharp prickles, point- 
ing backward ; the claws are sheathed 
and retractile, and being raiaed perpen- 
dicnlarly, and hidden between the toea 
when at rest, by the actiou of an elastic 
ligament, lose neither point nor edge, 
llie species of this genus are very numer- 
ons, and various with rr^rd to sixe and 
colour, though they are all Hmilar with 
respect to form. 

Fr'i.:nr, Belonging to the genna Felia. 

Fr'hobal. (Jemoralie, Lat.) Belonging 
to the thigh. 

Ce'uub. (Lat.) The thigh bone: the 

, thigh. 

F E T 

A brownish -blaek i 
occurring in qaactz t tbut named ifur 
Mr. Ferguson of Raith. 
Fkuk. (Sai. /earn.) Fema are diitili- 
guishablo from all other vegetables bj 
the peculiar division and distribntua it 
the veins of the leaves; and in arbore- 
scent species by their cylindrical s 
withont branches, and by the t^ular dii- 
poaitioa and ahape of the scars left npna 
the stem, at the point From which the pe- 
tioles, or leaf-stalks, have " " ~ "■ 
brake, or fern, of our con 
lands, is a familiar example of this re- 
markable and numerous family of plsots, 
distinguished by the peculiar distribntiaa 
□f the seed-vessels. The &mily of femi, 
botb in the living and fossil Bom, is the 
most tiuoierous of vascnlar eryptogameos 
plants. The total number of living spe- 
cies of ferns is about 1500. The large 
tree ferns ara confined almost exduilvel; 
to the tropica ; an elevated and uniform 
temperature and great humidity being ihe 
conditions most favourable to their deve- 
lopement. The existence of immense 
fossil arborescent ferns from thirty to 
forty feet in height in the ooal formation. 
IS ooe of the strongest possible evidences 
of the great diminution of temperature 
and change of climate which Cbc earth 
lias undergoue. Id the coal formadan, 
there are not fewer than 1.10 known spe- 
cies of ferns, nearly all of which belong 
to Iho tribe of Polypodiacen. An arbor- 
escent fern, forty-live feet bigh, from 
Silbct in Bengal, may be seen in the stair- 
case of the British Museum. In tbe 
strata of the secondary series there ii a 
considerable diminution in the absolate 
and reiotive number of fema ; and in 
the strata of the tertiary leries the 
ferns seem to bear nearly the same 
proportion to other vegetables as bi 
thif temperate regions of the earth at 
the preabntday. — Bvckland. Lyell, Man- 

Fe'rheous. (Jrrrevg, Lat.) Irony ; iJOn- 
tainingiron; resembling iron. 

Fbrri'pbroits. (from forum and /ert, 
Lat.) Producing iron ; yielding iron. 

FEanuGi'NEonH. ) i_femtgmeHt, l^.fir- 

FERftu'siNOCB. t nigineux,-BUMt, Fl< 
ferrugijtoao, It.) Containing partideiof 
iron ; resembling iron ore ; rost-coloaredl 
impregnated with iron; onyUiiiig con- 
tainiue iron. 


'e'tok, (falor. Lat. fflenr, Pr. fHar*. 

It.) A strong offensive smell. 
'k'tus. (/iflui, Lat.) Commonly w 

o faba. Of TiviparouB animiU, the 
noung in ntero ; of oviparous, the ;oaag 
D the Hhdl : in the earlieat Bl:agea of 
Itero-gestatian.tliejouDgii nsnallj called 
^B embryo, and whan fully formed, or 
Her K certain period, Che feCui. 
IBB. Ufihra, Ut, jiA™. Fr. fibra. It.) 
■BB. 1 A filnment or thread, whether 
f antnisl, vegetable, or mineral etrnc- 

MOS. f^reoitr, Fr./*niio,lt.) Com- 
ised of fibres ; coDtainuig fibrea. 
In botany, aflbrouB root consists of uu- 
erona fibres, either simple or branched ; 
eie are the most simple of all roots, 
nTeying nanrishment directly to the 
Em, or leatea. 

BOLITB. (from fihra, Lat. and \\Qo<i, 
r.) A mineral of a white or grey 
loor, occarring vith corundum. Cleav- 
fi imfierfect. Hardness more eonsi- 
nble than that of qnaitz. Conaista of 
nmina 46, aiiica 33, oxide of iron 13. 
ii composed of minute fibres, from 
liich oircomstance it obtain) its narae, 
me of whicli appear to he rhombotdal 
iama. It ia found in China and in the 

oTa . "(Lot) 

The small bone of the leg, thus named, 
cording to some aulhors, from lieing 
aoed opposite to the part where the 
me-bnckle, or claap, was formerly 

A fosnl echinite, resembling, not a 
ickle, but a button. By some oiyctola- 
■ta theae have been termed Bnfonitffi 
id ScolopendritK, and by others Filei ; 
d, by the English, Capstones. — Parkin- 

Agalmstotite, a variety 
Italc-mlca, of a grey, green, white, red, 
'. brown colour. The tinest are brought 
Dm China. 

&HBNT. ifitamenta, Lat. filament, Pr. 
lomoiia, It.) 

A loDj thread or fibre ; a slender 
nead-tike process. 

In botany, the long thread-like part 
lat mpportB the anther ; the lilBmeiit is 
rt easential, being sometimes wanting ; 
io fbnn ia various, being sometimes 
lort and thicti, or long and slender, or 
rked, one point only supporting the 
iQUT ; generally smooth, sDmetimca 
liry; the number varies from one to 
any. Most filaments are simple, some 
« bifid ( others tricuspidate or broad, 
id trifid Bt the eitremity. 


. Fr. fila 

I j P 1 R 

Fit.A'iii*. A genua of nematoidea, belong- 
ing to the class Entoioa. 

File. A name given by the chalk -diggers 
to the striated and prolonged cucurme riae 
clavicnlie of echinitea. 

PiLi'cBB. (filijc, Lat.) Fema, the first 
order of Cryptogamia, in Liimiena' artifi- 
cial system ; the first tribe of acotyle- 
donouB planta. 

PrLicuiDi! .E. {ftota filir, Lat, and fling, 
Gr.) Peru -like plants. 

Fi'lifoku. (from fihim and/Di™«, Ut.) 
Thread-like ; thread- shaped ; slender and 
of equal thickness. In botany, applied 
lo peduncles whea very fine, resembling 
threads -, applied also to the tube of 
■nonopetalous flowers when of a thread- 
like form ; and also to aments. 

Fi'mb&iathd IO*"*""'"*!^*-) •'""S*^' 

Fin. (Sai.) The organ in fishes by which 
they steady and keep upright their bo- 
dies in the water : the caudal fin alone 
assists in progressive motion, The fin 
consists of a membrane aiipported by 
ray9, or little bony or cartilaginous os- 

Fitj-FOOTP.n. Pnlmipedous ; having pal- 
mated feet, or feet with membranes be- 
the toes, connecting them with 


Wanting fins ; destitute of (ins. 

I'vNY. Having fins. 

LN-TOED. Palmipedous ; having mem- 
branes between the toes. 

I'oRiTB. 'A siliceous incrustation depo- 
sited by the thermal waters of Isohia, 
first noticed by Dr. Thompson. 

rne-DAMP. Choke-dmop. Carburetted hy- 
drogen gas. This is sometimes very abun- 
dantly evolved in coal mines, and is pro- 
ductive of the most dreadful resnlta, oeca- 
sionally nearly all employed in the mines 
perishing from its combustion. When 
carburetted hydrogen gas constitutes more 
than one-thirteenth of the volume of the 
atmosphere of pits and mines, the whole 
become eiplnsive whenever a flame is 
brought into contact with it ; to prevent 
the disastrous cDnseqaences which were 
so fre<jneotly resulting. Sir H. Davy in- 
vented a safety-lamp, which being formed 
of wire-gau^e, in the form of a cylinder, 
consumes, but does not eiplode, the ex- 
plosive mixture. Fire-damp, or oar- 
burelled hydrogen gss, appears to he 
generated by the deccmposition of iron 
pyrites in coal, and may often he heard 
issuing from the fissures in coal-beds 
with a bubbling noise, as it forces the 
water out along with it. 

IFIE-STONB. An arenaceo - argillaceous 
deposit of a greyish green colour, com- 
posed of mnrl and grains of silicate of 
iron : in some places, in a state of sand ; 

F I S 

in others, forming a stone sufficiently 
' hard for buildiag. The tranaition frod 
the marl to the Jire-slone is in man; 
locolitiefl EO gradBal, and the sandy par 
tides are eo eparingi; diatribuCed, tha-t 
the chalk-marl may be said to repose 
ImmediBtely on the gait ; in others, bow- 
erer, the cbaractera of Che fire-atone are 
verj peculiar, and acme geolo^ta have 
deemed them of Buffieicnt importance to 
rank this deposit as an independent for- 
mation. The fire-etone contains the same 
fossils BE the gre; marl, and a few species 
not found ia any other bed. — Dr. Man- 

Fi'ssiLB. (jIsriHj, Lat.) Capable of being 
split, or divided, in the direction of the 
grain or cleava^. 

be split, 


:s. A Tamil; of are . 
. hnt very distinct from all 
omera in loe beak, which is short, broad, 
horizontaQy flattened, slightly hooked, 
nnemai^nate, andnitb an attended cotn- 
miasure, sa that the opening of the mantb 
is very large, which enables them to 
swallow with ease the insects they cap- 
ture while on the wing : the swallow be- 
longs to this family, and is an example. 
Fi'sauaa. (jUeitra, iroia findo, LM. fisstire, 
Yi. famra. It.) A clefli a narrow 

Fi'sauBED. Cracked ; separated by narrow 
chasms; divided by clefts. 

Fissube'lla. a gasCeropod; a genus of 
the order Scutibrauchiata. A buckler- 
formed univalve, without spire : the ver- 
tex perforated by a small ovate or oblong 
orifice, which affords a passage to th 
water required for reHpiration ; thisoriflc 
penetrates into the cavity of thebranchios, 
which are situated on the fore part of the 
back. The fissurella has been found in 
the Essex cliffs. 

Fistula'na. a genua of the family Incluaa, 
diss Acephala, division MoUnsca. Nearly 
bU of the family inclusa live buried in sand, 
stones, ooie, or wood. The eitemal tube 
of fisCulana is entirely closed at its larger 
end, and is more or less like a bottle or 
d-ub. The fistulanKare sometimes found 
buried in submerged fragments of wood, 
or in fraits, aud the animal, like the 
teredo, has two small vdres, and as many 
palettes. Recent specimens are only ob- 
tained tram the Indian Ocean, but ^- 
tulante are found fossil in the Sbanklia 
aand, where, in same instances, the wood 
is studded with the remains of a amall 
species of fistalana, of a pyrifon 

the chnlkformation, andin thearenwemi ' 
limestone, or sandstone of Bognoi; ud 
Pistulana pyriformis, at the junctiiin ol 
the Gait and Shaoklin Sand, imbedded in 

(fromjJ«/B;aris,Lat.) EoUo. 


like a pipi 
Fi'sTDUFOBU, (from fieivla and /ams. 

Lat.) In round hollow columns. 
Fi'sTDLona. ifitluleax, Fr. it^Milo.lX.) 

Hollow; tube-like. 
Fixa'tioh, (JLtalion, Fr. fitmxiont, It.) 

Want of volatility \ that condition whitli 

resists evaporation, or volatilization b; 

Fi'xiTY. {fixiii, Fr. propriiU gu'ont jut/- 
guet corpa de n'eire poinl dimipft pat 
I'aclion dji fin.) Coherence of parts ! 
that property which some bodies posSCSJ 
of resisting dissipation by heat. 

Flabs'lliwobm. (from fiaieilum aad 
forma, Lat.) Fan-shaped. 

Flake, (floccui, Lat. /ate, Sw.) Astti 

Fla'sv. Composed of small strat* o 

layers; having scales or lamiiiEe. 
Fi-ammabi'litv. The quality of being ig- 
bum with a flame. 




a fire K 


Lat,) That vomits forth flames ; v( 

. (fiavua, Lat.) Yellow; 
yellow colour. 

Flaw, (from ^Xilu, Gr., ti 

crack ; a break or spht i a t 
Flawed. Cracked. 
Flexibi'litv. (fiexi&ilili, Fr. JieiitiMlili. 

Fc, fiexibilHai, LM.) Pliancy; the qu- 

hty of admitting to be beat. 
Fle'xiblb. (fiexibilis, Lat. fiexiiUe, tlM 
JtesHbile, It.) That can be bent; n«l^ 

brittle : pliable ; possessing elastic pRK 


o brittleo. 

Pliancy ; pUantness ; Q 

in different directions ; zigzag ; with : 
gles gently winding. 

Fle'kure. (fiemtra, Lat.) The dii 
in which anything Is bent. 

FuNT. (Sal.) Siliceoua earth, 
pure, Flint is the commooest foioi 
which quartz exhibits itself; it is ititt 
harder than quartz,and contains a mloBts 
portion of alumine and of oxide of iron; M 
per cent, being pure silei. A remaiiililt 
circumstance attending flint is, that it It 
found in masses, dispersed in teg<ilu 
paroUd beds, in chalk-rorks. Thil >• 
elucidated, and partly explained, in * 
beautiful manner in the manuractdringo' 
porcelain. Foicdain is made of flint oi 
day, pounded extremely fine, and nuDgltlJ 


Igether with water bo perfMtly, is to form 
amouth tlitiil, of thecaastsCenCG and co- 
tar of creHm ; if Uiis fluid be Itfl a 
me quite traniiuil, the flint separates from 
le clajf, and collects in aoioll mosses, in 
manner analagoua Co that in wbich tbe 
iturnl maasea occur in tlie cluJk. Wlien 
Int is first eitracteil from the quarry it 
i brittlG, has a coacboidal fracture, and 
bebls luBtre; thin fragments are trans- 
■cent. Specific grarity 2- 59-1. According 
> Slaproth's analysis, it consists oF silex 
8, lime 0-S, aluminc 0-2S, oiide of iron 
■iW, water 1. Tlio oonstant occurrence 
fffintinthe upper cbalk, and the ap- 
arent conversion of animal remains iul 
9nt, hu given rise to much specniatia 
~~pectingiCB origin I and it was at or 
.e maintained, that dint and chalk wei 
ton»ertible, or capable of nndergoiii 
1 mutual transmutation. I propose 1 
submit B few obserrations from the pens 
If our first *riteraoQ this interestiug and 
Intricate subject, for after having con- 
iddered the matter in every point of view ; 
after having carefully read the opinions of 
Wiera, and again and again ejamined 
rtrata of flint nodules and tabular dicta, 
E horizontally and diagonally diatri- 
\ thrDDghoiit the nuniEroas chalU- 
'i the neigh ho orhood ; after having 
-d their cruslied but not disordered 
, and having cnmmonly found 
bedded in flints, 1 am totally 
.able Co arrive at anything approaching 
a legitimate deduction. 
•■ That the beds of chalk and Bint ' 
lepoaitedperiDdically," says Dr. Mantell, 
*<»miDCadniit oftheslightestdoubt. Spe- 
nt unusual, in which angular 
r black flint, that nould not 
saibly have been origiDally formed : 
bar present state, are imbeddedin chalk. 
Bit Henry EngleS eld was the first 
Urected the attention of geologists tc 
mbject of the shattered condition of the 
s foond in certain strata. In a paper 
before the Linntean Society, he 
ioticei several beds of shattered Hints, 
a cbalk-pit at Carisbrook, 
a the Isle of Wight ; and, after describing 
^''- ""^ation and appearance, proceeds 
me conjectures upon the pro- 
le of their destmctiou. This he 
npposed might have been occasioned by 
iome sodden shock or convnlsion, which 
1 an instant shivered the flints, though 
loir resistance stopped the incipient r 
on; for tbe flints, though crushed, 
3t ^placed, which must have been the 
sue, lutd the beds slid sensibly. Chal- 
Sedony is often found occupying the 
allows of flints, and on this subject i' 
u4ieen remarked that although in tb 
reaeiit comiiact state of the matter c 

] F L 1 

flint, it is not easy, Chough poiublc, to 
force a fluid slowly ihrongh its pores, yet 
it is probable that before its consolidation 
was complete, it waa permeable to a fluid 
whose particles were finer than its own ; 
and that Che particles of chalcedony, 
whilst yet in a fluid state, being finer than 
those of lommon flint, did thus pass 
through the outer crust to the inner sta- 
tion they DOW occupy ) where Ibei/ also 
allowed a passage through their own in- 
Cerstieta to theatiSl purer siliceous matter, 
which is often crystallized, in the form of 
qnartz, in the centre of the chalcedony, 
and is so entirely surrounded by it, that 
it could have no access to its present 
place, except through the BubsCance of 
the chnlcBdony,andthe flint enclosing it." 
In Professor Buckland's Bridgcwater 
Treatise we find the following ; — '' We may 
in like manner refer the origin of those 
large qnantides of silei, which constitute 
the chert and flint beds of stratified forma- 
tions, to tbe waters of hot springs, holding 
siliceous earth in solution, and depositing 
it on eipoBure to reduced degrees of tem- 
perature and pressure, as silexis deposited 
by the hot waters that issue from the 
geysers of Iceland." .\gain Dr. Mantell, 
" the nodular masses of flint are very ir- 
regular in form, and variable in magni- 
tude ; some of them scarcely exceeding 
the size of a bullet, while others are se- 
veral feet in ciroumference. Although 
thickly distributed in horizontal beds and 
layers, they are never in contact with each 
other, but every nodule is completely sur- 
rounded by chalk. Flints so commonly 
enclose the remains of sponges, alcyonia, 
and other zoophytes, that some geologists 
are of opinion that the nucleus of every 
nodule was originally an organic body, 
and Townsead states, ' so far as my ob- 
servation goes, zoophytes appear univer- 
sally to have formed the nuclei of nodu- 
lated and coated flints.' The nodules of 
flint frequently eihibiC the internal struc- 
ture of the enclosed zoophyte mostbean- 
HfiiUy and delicately preserved." A theory 
ofl'ered by Professor Bueklaud is to this 
eflect : " It does not appear possible that 
flints could have been formed by iufil- 
tration into pre-eiisting cavities, like the 
regularly disseminated gcodes of the trap 
rocks. Assuming that the mass which is 
now separated into beds of chalk and flint, 
was, previously to its consolidatioD, a 
compound pulpy fluid, and that the or- 
ganic bodies now enveloped in the strata 
were lodged in the matter of the rock, 
before the separation of its calcareous 
from its Eiliceous ingredients, the bodiea 
thus dispersed throughout the mass would 
afl'urd nuclei, to which the flint, in sepa- 
ratiiii; from the chalk, would, upon the 

P L I [ <t 

principle of r.hemical affinity, liave a ten- 1 
dency !□ atlach itaelf. The cbalk and 
flint proceeded th rough ncoDterDporaneouK 
prooesB of coiuolidotion ; the Bcparation 
of the Biliceaui from (he calcareuua in- 
gredienta having been modifled b]r at- 
trartioni, which drew to certain centrei 
the particleE of the silicenna iiodnles. m 
thej were in the act of eeparation from 
the original componnd mass. The dia- 
tances of the Eiliceous strata muit have 
been regalnted by the intenale of pre- 
cipitation of the matter from which they 
are derived; each Den mass, aa it waa 
discharged, forniing a bed of pnlpy fluid 
■t the bottom of their existing ocean, 
which, being more recent than the bed 
prodnced by the preceding preci]ii[ are, 
nonld rest upon it as a foundation similar 
in sufastauce Co itself, but of nhich the 
conEolidiLtian was sufficiently a^lvanced to 
prevent the ingredieiita of the last de- 
posit, from penetrating or disturbing the 
productiooa of that which [ireccded it." 
Sir. H. DaTy found pure flint in the 
cuticle of many grassea ; it is also fuuud 
in the hollow ateme of bamboo ; the aahea 
of wheat atraw also are found to contain it. 

Fli'mtv blatb. Flinty slate differs from 
common aUte, in containing a larger pro- 
portion of eiliceoui earth. Slate and 
flinty slate not only pass into each other, 
but frequently alternate. When flinty 
slate ceases to have the slaty stnicfnre, it 
becomes bomstoae, or, what the Freoch 
geologists term petrosilex. If it contains 
crystala of felspar, it becomes homstone 
p orphyry .— BaieirsH. 

Fi^'atstonk. The white and grey poroas 
Tarietiea of rhombohedral quartz. In 
coneeqnence of their exCreoie porousnesa 
they snim on the enrjace of water, and 
have therefrnm been named floatstone, or 
Bpongiform quartz. 

Floeti!. (/iiVi, Germ.) The name given 
by Werner to certain rooks which were 
flat, horizontal, and parallel to each 

Fi.u'ra, (Lat.) As Che animals pecaliar 
to any country constitute its Jaima, so 
do the trees and planta its fiora ; the 
botany of a country. 

Flo'ral. {fiaratU, Lat.) An epithet for 
a bud or leaf; jiertalnitig to flowers ; bc> 
iDDging to the flower. The calyx is the 
outer set of the JJurai envelopes. 

FLo'a.KT. (Jteurtiit, petile Jtear, Fr.) A 
floret is a small monopetalous flower, 
many of which, enclosed in one calyx or 
perianthiuiUTand placed sassilc on a com- 
mon undivided receptacle, form a epeoiea 
of compound flower. 

FLoni'FBBons. {flor^er, Lat.) Bearing 
flowers; producing flnwera. 

Fi.o'aiF0ttM. tfrom ftos and forma. 

Having the fofm. or appeoranee, of 

with a saliflahle base. 
Lii'cAN. A provincial name for a fault 
dam ; partieularly used by the CorniA 

Lu'oB, KLat.) Octahedral 1 

Lo'oft SPAR, i Ootaedriaches Flna-H*- 
loide of Moha. Chstii Fluat^ of Hai^ 
Finale of lime ; oonsisling of 67-75 lime 
and 32-25 fluoric acid. ]f > cobe of floer 
spar be aplit with a knife and s 
it will yield only in the direction of tiM) 
solid angles, and if the division be pai- 
sued the result wili he an octaheanWb' 
There ui^e three vHrieSes of fluor %\ 
the first, with even fracture and ft 
laetrc, is called compact flue . 
in which the cleatage is distinct, I 
flnor 1 the third, which occurs inc 
other minemls, earthy fluor. Bee alia 
Bltte-jahn and DerhgthiTe tpar. 
"mo'itic Acio. An acid first procured Iw 
Gay Luasae, or by Margraff, and oaOn 
flunrine by Sir H . Davy. It may be ob-. 
taincd by putting a quantity of floor-l " 
in ponder into a leaden retorti pom 
over it an eqnal quantity of snlpb ^^ 
acid, and (hen applying a very gei^ 
heat. From its exceedingly destrnetii* 
properties it has been called yA/ore, tOBi 
^0cipiuj, Gr,, by M. Ampere. It deitn^' 
the skin, almost immediately, if i^plw! 
to it, producing very painful woimdli' 
The most singular property whioh it pni* 
sesses is that ai corroding glaif iBi 
siliceous bodies, especially when hot, 
tjie thickest glasa lessel can only i 
stand its action for a short time. 

Fluorine enters into 
some minerals which 
portions of great masses of rocka. 

com]tonctit parts of many rocks. Vini 
analyses of mica, from variosa parti 
the world, by Ktapruth, VauqneBn, "'■ 
and Bendant, afibrd as a mean, ~~ 
cent, of fluoric acid ; and B( 
analysis of hornblende, gives 1-5 per ai 
of the same substance. CalcnlatioB 
fords us 0'36 of fluoric acid in gnain i 
mica, 0-54 in mica slate, 0'75 pere 
in hornblende rock and greenstone, 0*1 
in granite with mica, O'S of the — 
substance in sienite, O'CS in granite 
p sed f |uarti 
bl nde an 1 . . 
gre n tone Fluor spar is, htiweTef, 
n D al m which the greatest relai 
m nt of fluorine is detected.— I* 


Lli'aTKA. A getiuB of polyimria, class 
Vennea, order Zoophytn. If wa OBrefullj- 
observe t)ie putehes of white cdeareous 
nutter, culled ttustm, that mn; be seen 
en Btery sea-weed or abell on tlie dliore, 
appearing like delicate lace, we shall dia- 
cover that these a^ipsreatly mere apecba 
of earth f snbstiuice lietong U> the aiiimal 
kingdom. Tbe Rustra, wbeu taken fresh 
and aliie out of the water, preseota tu 
the nsked eye the appearance of Dae net- 
work, coated over with a glossy varnish. 
With a gioiia of moderate powers, it is 
discovered to be fuU of pores, disponed 
»ith much regnUrity. If a powerful lens 
be employed, Hbile the llustra is immersed 
In sea-w»ter, very different pheuomena 
appear ; tbe surface is seen to be invested 
with a fleshy, or gelatinous, substance, 
and every pore to be the opening of a cell 
or cavity, whence issues a tube with 
■everal long Feetei's or tentacula ; theso 
expand, then suddenly close, withdraw 
into the cells, and again issue forth ; and 
the whole surface of the flnstra is studded 
with these hydra-like forma, sporting 
about ^n all the energy and sctif ity of 

life. For a 

B full a 

HanteU's Wonders of Geoloj 
tlie Bbore is taken. 

r'mn. Grooved! channelled; furrowed, 
.UVIa'tic. ~\fiitvialii, fivxiaticua, Lat, 
■Ii'tiai.. ^ finrialile, Fr.) Belong- 
,.l)'viATii,B.J ingtoariver; growing, or 
Hiving, in the fresh water ofrivers. 
LUX. (jftmw, Lat. /k; 
HffU de la taer vert le 
1. Tbe flow of the tiJsl wave : the flus is 
'fiie rise i the reflai, the ebb of the tide. 
S. Any substance added to facilitate the 
of metals or miaerats. 
See Feral. 
See Pens. 
[ODS. (fotiactua, Lat.) Leafy ; 
_ of leaves or lamina. 
'luos, (folium, Lat.) The leaves of 

LIATED. (folialug, Lat.) 
1. In botany, leased or having leaves. 
X. Jo conohology, in laminee or leaves, na 
irben the edges of the shelly layei-s are not 
Mmpact, but seem to separate from each 
"" is may easily be seen in the 
! oyster shell. 

L In botany, vernation or leafiug of trees, 

t. In mineralogy, the act of beating into 
lun leaves. 

U'renous. (/rom/u/inni saifcra, Lat.) 

Bearing leaves. 

"TBTONB MAKi.. A stifF marl, varying 

ccdenr from a light grey to a dark 

IB, more generally known nuder the 

U ] FOR 

provincial term Gait. The thickness oT 
this bed is in some places in the Sont' ' 
Suasei not less than between two 
three hundred feet. It is a memlier of , 
the cretaceous groujie, lying between the 
upper and lower green-sand. Where the 
Folkstone marl is exposed, and forms the 
snrfacB of the conatry, tbe soil is exceed- 
ingly tenacious, and ranks amongst the 
fineat aud most productive. The Folk- 
stone marl abounds in fossils. 
Po'llich. Ifalliculm, Lat. follieule, Fr. 
follicolo, It.) 

1. In botany, a nnivalvular pericarp, open- 
ing on one side longitudinally, and having 
the seeds loose in it ; a membranons seed- 
vessel of one valve and one cell, boTBting 
lengthwise, and having no apparent sa- 
ture to which the seeds are attached. 

2. In anatomy, a small secreting cavity. 
Fontank'l. ifaHlantlle, Fr. fantimtlla. 

It.) An opening left in the skull at birth, 
whieh is subsequently closed by osseou* 
deposit ) there are two. 
Foba'men. (Lat.) A hole ; an opening ; 
generally by which nerves or blood ves- 
sels obtain a passage tlirough bones, 
botany, the opening in the ovulnm. When 
the foramen is (islble on tno seed, as is 
the case in the beau and pea, it is called 
the microp'jte. 
FottA'titNATEO. } (from foTBTmao, Lat.) 
Fosa'mindvs. S Pierced withemallopen- 

iugs ; full of small holes ; parons. 
Porami'nifkr. a genus of microscopia 
shells. Mr. Lonsdale has discovered six- 
teen species of forsiamifers in the Eng- 
lish chalk, ond Mr. Searies Wood has 
discovered fifty species oi foraiain^ere in 
the lower crag formation of Suffolk. 
FoKAMiNi'vEROus. Belonging to the genua 
foraminifer. Some recent observations 
have induced M. Dngardln to refer the 
animals which construct tbe Miliola and 
some other microscopic foramiH^ftroui 
shells to a new class of animals of lower 
degree than the radiata, and possessing a 
locomotive power by means of minata 
tentacular filaments. — PfV. Buetlojul. 
Fo'bcipathd. (/orcijialai, Lat.) Hooked, 
or fumiahed with pincers, as the claws of 
a lobster, crab, &c. 
Fo'sBLAND. A promontory ; a jutting of 
high land into the sea, as the North- 
Foreland, in the Isle of Thanet, and the 
South-Foreland, near Dover. 
Fo'rkbd. Opening into two or more parts ; 

Fouma'tion. {formatio, Lat. Jbrmatien, 
Fr. /ormaiiotie, It.) Any assemblage of 
rocks possessing some chnracter in coi 
mon, either as regards their age, orig 
or composition. When a series of stn 
of a similar rock are arranged with oci 
sional strata intervening, of rocks uf lu 



ther kind, wliicb recur in different pirti 
or the series, they are regarded as having 
been all farmed nearly at the Bame epoch, 
■nd nndet similar clrcumBtiknceB ; and 
saoh series are called by geologists ^r- 
nufiDrut. ThuB, the strata nf shale, sand- 
stone, and iroD-stono, that accompany 
beds of coal, are called the coal^onBad'on. 
Strata of different kinds, in which a gra- 
dation is observed into each other, and 
vrhich contain similar sjiecies of organic 
remains, coastitute a geological farmo- 
lian. The chalk RJth flints above, the 
lower chalk mthout Hints, the chalk- 
mari,and the green-sand under the chalk, 
■re all regarded as members of the chalk 
Jt/rmalion, — Sakeaell, 

■ (/omicalu), Lat.) Concave 
mtlun, and convex without; vaulted; 

Fo'hkix. (L«.) In cOQchology, the ex- 
cavated part under the UHiio. It like- 
wise signifies the upper, or convex shell 
in the oatea. 

Fo'ssit. }(J'oainlit. Icomjbdio, Lat. Jo»- 

Fo'saiLE. ( tiU, Fr./otn7«, It.) Dag ont 
of the earth, as foseiL sheUs, fossil bones, 
fossil coal, &c. The adjective ia fre- 
quently Bpeltj^BsiVf , 

Fo'bsil. a substance dag out of the earth. 
At the present day, the nord fossil is used 
by geologists to eipress only the remains 
of aoimal, or vegetable, substances foucd 
buried in the earth's crust. 

Pobbili'fkhodb. (from /ossiliu and fero, 
Lat.) Producing fossils ; containiog fos- 
sil remains ; yielding fossils. 

Fa'saiLtHT. One who collects fossils ; who 
studies the nature and history of fossil 


into a fossil body. 
FftA'oiLE. {fragilia, Lat. Ji-agile, Fr. 

fragile, It.) Brittle ; easily broken ; 

Fbagi'i.itt. Ifiagilili, Tr.fragilita, It.) 
Brittleness ; weakoegs. 

FttA'GMEriT. (Jragmenfum, Lat. fiag- 
ment, Fr. frammenlo. It.) A part broken 
from the nhole { an imperfect piece. 

Fba'smenta^t. Composed of fragments. 
Dr. Johnson says, a word not elegant, 
nor in use : in elegance or euphony it ma; 
or may not be, defideat, hut, at the pre- 
sent day, it is in use by geologists, 

FeeE-Btone. Any kind of stone, the tex- 
tnre of which is so free or loose that it 
may he easily worked. 

FttiABi'LjTV. (friabiliU, Fr. friabiiUa. 
It.) The property of being easily crum- 
bled, broken small, and reduced to 

Fri'able. (Jriabilif, Lat. friable, Fr. 

iiTH. An ann of the sea, as the Fritk 
ofTay, the Frith of Forth. 
Frond. (Jront, Lat.) 

1. In botany, implies peculiar nnii 
the fructilication with the leaf and steiB, 
namelj, the flowers and fruit are pro- 
duced from the leaf itself. 

2. The herbaceous parts of floweden 

fitants, resembling leaves, are called 
ronds ; they differ from tme leaves in 

their structure in many respetrts. 
pROSBi'rFttooB. {fiondifer, from / 

and /era, Lat.) Producing fronds. 
Front. (Jront, Fr. fraaU, II.) In 

chologj, when the aperture in nnivslira 

is turned towards the observer. 
Frontal, (franlale, Let. frontai, '. 

fronlala, It.) Appertaining to the (bw- 

i/ruclifer, Lat.) . 

ing ftuit. 
fntttijicaiione. It.) 

1. The temporary part of a vegetable ap- 
propriated to generation, terminating tbi 
old vegetable, and beginning the new. ft 
consists of the following parts ; Damelyi 
the calyx, corolla, stamen, pistillum, pa- 
ricarpium, semen, and receptaculum. 

2. The act of bearmg fruit i fertility ;. 

pRu'cTDOus. (Jructiieu.x,-euse, Pr. fi^ 
luoso. It.) Fruitful. 

FBUOiVEttouB. {fn-gifer, LB,t.) PH 
dueing fruit or corn 1 fruitful. 

PrdgiVorous. ifmgivona, Lat.) fit 
gitore, Fr.) Animals which Eveonfrni 
and seeds. 

Fc'com. (from ^vkoi; and (Uoc, Gr.) . 
species of fucus. Fucoida are Tery abnn , 
ant in many of the strata, oucarrii^ bt 
the transition strata of North Amerin )» 
numerous thin layers. An account 4 
these has bee-n published by Dr. Halba) 
of .America, and by Mr. R. C. Tavlor, i» 
London's Magazine of Natural Histo^ 
Fucoids are found in great abundauee a 
the grauwacke slate of the maritime Alpl» 
in the lias, ind in the chalk. There if 
one species, the Pucoides targionii, tb 
abounds in the upper green-sand, Ts 
fine species, discovered in the clulk I 
Dr. Mantell, he has given the nunc Fl 
coides Brongniarti. 

Ptr'cus. (/iiciu, Lat. firnoi, Gr. pL^ . 
A genus of the order of Atgic, belol^lC 
to the class Cryptogamia. This ga»l 
comprehends most of those plant* oaf^^ 
manly called sea-weed. 

Fu'lgobite, {/ulgHTUvs. Lat.) An 
thing struck by lightning. Rocks, H 

^of fiuioo from the action of light- 
, aad occasionally Titreous tubes, 
Bdiug many feet into binka of aand, 
the |)Btb of the electric fluid. Some 
isgo, Dr. Fiedler exhibited tevernl 
tfitigariiei in London, which had 
^g out of the ESnd; plains of Si- 
Ind Eaateni Prassia. — Jfr». Somrr. 

)roD3. (fitliginoam, Lat. fiihgi- 
iAKK, Fr. ftUligitioto, It. ) I^oot j ; 
^'-lAKTH. A marl of a close tex- 
|oft and unctuoua, containing about 
r cent, of alumina. It deriTCa its 
ffrom it9 being used by foUcrB to 
fbe grease out of cloth before they 
jwoap. Any clay having its pi " 
■ silica very fine, may be cousidi 
pen' earth ; for it is the aluii 
■:which nets upon the cloth, on 
r'of its strong affinity for greasy sub- 

. light 

E8. (Jithya, Lat.) 
, with much yellow. 
|i. (Lat pi. fungi.) One of the 
■ of the claas Cryptogamia, according 
Jf artificial Eystem of Linnnua. A 

naturally belonging to 
any morbid gponge-like excre- 

Id botany, applied to 
popetalODg corolla, having a conical 
y placed upon a tube. 
^an. ifiirca, Lat.) Forked ; 
1^. (I^t.) A fork. A peculiar 

rn of bone in birds, of a fork-like 
The fiiTcuia, commonly knonn 
merry-thought-bone, is seldum 
b)E in birds. It is in form like 
rcommon to both ahonlders, and 
ftby its point to the most prominent 

r the c 

.of the 

ected I 

at end nf the clavicles, and the 
I of the Bcapulie, where tbese two 
[QOftiouiated with each otber, and 

nitti the OS humeri. Tbe forcala serves 
to keep the wings at a proper distance in 
Hying, and is strong and expanded in 

pidity. In the ostrieli and cassowary, it 
is imperfect, tbe lateral branches not 
uniting together. 

The omitbarhyncbns and ichthyosau- 
rus both possess a peculiar form of ster- 
num, resembling the furcala of birds. 
The echidna is tbe only known lood qua- 
drupcd that has a similar furcvla and 
clavicles. A cirtilaginoua rudiment of a 
furcula occurs also in the dasypus. 

Fhrfttra'ceoub. ( furfiiractin, from 
furfar, Lat.) Branny [ scaly, 

Fu'bcite. An opaqne mineral of a greyish 
or g;reenish-black colour, found in Nor- 
way, in masBes of granular (|uartz. 

Fu'acouB. (^cai, Lat.) Brown; tawny; 

Fcsibi'liTY. (JvsilibiliU, Fr. gvalita di 
cii Che i fiunbile. It ) The quality of 
being rendered fluid by a heat Rttaiaable 
by artificial means, and of again beooro- 
iug solid on coaling. 

Fd'siblb. (/ujmi, from fKndo, Lat. fu- 
Kibile, Fr. /aaibile, It.) Capable of being 
melted by tbe application of heat, and of 
again becoming solid when cooled. 

Fu'sioK. (/urio,LBt./u»i™,Fr.><ione,It.) 

1. Tlie action of melting by heat. 

2. The state of being melted by heat. 
Applied to niicierals atid metals. 

Fu'iJiFOKU. Spindle-shaped, swelling in 
the centre with the ends tapering ; inter- 
mediate between the conical and the oval. 

Fu'sus. A subfusiform univalve, ventricose 
in its middle or lower part, with a canali- 
culated base, aud no varicose sntores j an 
elongated spire, a stnootb colnmeUa, and 
the lip not slit. Tbe genus comprisea 
many species. The genus fiiitu com- 
prises all shells with a sahent and straight 
canat, which are destitute of varices. Fusi 
are found at depths varying to eleven 
fathoms, in mad, sandy mud, and sand. 

Fu'sus con'tr.a'iii<78, A species of fosus 
found in the crag of Suffolk, a sinister shell. 

with Dial. 

A mineral thas named after 
I, who first ascertained its compo- 
L Its colour is greenisb -black ; that 
I powder greeniBh-grEy. Occurs 
~~ ; in granular and prismatic coQ- 
. . Fractnre CDDchoidal and glassy, 
ding to Berzelius its constituent 
-■riaio-93, silica 24'16, pro- 
■um 1S30, pioloiide of iron 

11'34. It was first discovered at Ytterb" 
in Sweden, by Capt. Arbenius, in white 
felspar ; it is found also ia Ceylon, in 

ia'uniti!. Thus named from Gabn ; an- 
other name for antomalite. 
.ala'otite. (yaXaKririjE, Gr.) Milk- 

Ja'lba. (Lat.) A genus of echini, 
found fossi! only. Tliey are distin. 
guUhed by au oval base, from which 


[ 102] 


the shell rises in a vaulted , helmet-like, 

Galbo'la. a genus of echinites possess- 
ing the same characters as the gsdea, but 
differing in size. This circumstance in- 
duced Klein to divide them into two 
genera, but Leske deeming a mere dif- 
ference of size as insufficient to affect the 
genus, included them both under the 
genus echinocorys. — Parkinson. 

Ga'leated. ((jfaleaitis, Lat.) Helmet- 
shaped ; covered as with a helmet. In 
botany, plants bearing flowers of a helmet 
shape, as the monk's-hood. 

Gale'na. (galena f Lat.) A shining me- 
tallic ore composed of sulphur and lead ; 
sulphuret of lead ; lead-glance. Its colour 
18 bluish-grey, resembling lead. Occurs 
regularly crystallized, frequently in cubes 
and cubo-octahedrons. Before the blow- 
pipe it decrepitates and melts, emitting a 
sulphureous smell. It is found in every 
lead-mine. There are two varieties, 
common galena and compact galena. 

Gallina'ce^. Gallinse of Linnseus. The 
fourth order of the second class, Aves. 
So called from their affinity with the do- 
mestic cock. 

Gallina'ceous. (ffallinaceuSf Lat.) Be- 
longing to the order Gallinaceee. 

Galt. ^ A provincial name for a stiff marl, 

Gault. S varying in colour from a light 
grey to a dark blue. The upper and 
lower beds of the green>sand are in many 
places separated by the gait ; it has been 
also called Folkstone Marl. The gait 
abounds in fossil remains, remarkable for 
their beauty, the peai'ly covering of the 
shells being in many instances preserved. 
The gault is a member of the cretaceous 
group, passing, in its lower parts, into 
calcareous marl. The fossils hitherto 
found in the gait belong to forty-three 
species, among which are several species 
of ammonites and hamites ; nautili and 
belemnites ; nuculae and inocerami ; cary- 
ophillea, &c. The gait rarely exceeds 
100 feet in thickness ; although in some 
parts of Sussex it is not less than 250. 
It is a soil that must rank, says Mr. 
Young, among the finest in this or any 
other country, being pure clay and calca- 
reous earth. 

Gamope'talous. Another term for mo- 
nopetalous. Having the petals united by 
their edges ; a corolla, the petals of which 
are all united by their edges. 

Gamosb'palous. In botany, a term used 
for a calyx when the sepals of which it is 
composed are all united. 

Ga'noid. Belonging to the order Ganoi- 

Ganoi'dians. (from ydvog, Gr. splendour, 
from the brightness of their enamel.) 
The second order of fishes according to 

the arrangement of M. Agassis. The 
families of this order are characterised bf 
angular scales, composed of homy or 
bony plates, covered with a thick plate ol 
enamel. The bony pike and staigeons 
are of this order. It contains more An 
sixty genera, of which fifty are eztiBCt.— 
Prqf, Buekland, 

Ganoi'oian. Belonging to the order Ga* 
noidia. The ganoidian order of fishes 
with the placoidean prevailed, exdnsifdy, 
in all formations till the termination of 
the oolitic series, when they ceased sud- 
denly and were replaced by genera of new 
orders, the Ctenoidean and Cyckndean, 
then for the first time introduc^ — lb. 

Gap. In conchology, an opening, in iml- 
tivalves and bivalves, when the yalTes tn 
shut, as in the pholades, myse, &c. 

Ga'rnet. {grcnat, sorle de pierre pnd- . 
ettsct d*un rouge fonce^ comme le grot fin, 
Fr. granatOy It. pieira preziosa.) Then 
are eleven species of garnet, all of them 
crystals. The precious garnet is found is 
dodecahedrons, in mica-slate, amongst 
the oldest, or primary, rocks, in many 
parts of the world. It is of a beantifsl- 
red colour, sometimes with shades of yel- 
low or blue. Those from the kingdom of 
Pegu are most esteemed, and it is siqp- 
posed that this was the carbuncle of ^ 
ancients. It is harder than quartz, and 
consists of nearly equal parts of silez, 
alnmine, and oxide of iron, with traces of 
manganese. Common garnets are more 
opaque, of a duller colour, and less hari 
than the precious garnet, though harder 
than quartz. They are abundant in simi- 
lar localities in aU countries, sometima 
constituting nearly the whole mass of I 

Gas. The name given to all permanentily 
clastic, or aeriform, fluids, except tlie 
atmosphere. The term was first uised by 
Van Helmont, who appears to have in- 
tended to denote by it every thing which 
is driven off from bodies in the state of 
vapour by heat. 

Ga'seods. (from gas,) In the form 
of gas. 

Gaste'ropod. Belonging to the order ' 

Gastero'poda. (from yacrrijp, the beflyi 
and Tro^c, the foot, Gr.) The third 
class of MoUusca ; they have the head 
free, they crawl upon the belly, or upon 
a fleshy disk, situated under the bdly, 
which serves them as feet. They are 
univalvular or multivalvular, but in no 
case bivalvular. The back is furnished 
with a mantle which is more or less ex- 
tended, takes various forms, and in the 
greater number of genera, produces a 
shell. The tentacula are very small, si- 
tuated above the mouth, and do not snr- 


A S 

I, VBiying in number from two to 
pietimes thej are wanting »lto- 
The eyes are very Bmull, anil 
lea wanting. Seienil are eolirely 
others hme merely B concealeil 
lUt moit of thRm ire rurniahed 
B that U large enough to receive 
Iter them. Moet of the aqaatie 
Mds, with a apiral shell, have an 
jtm.H )iart sometimes homy, aome- 
»lcareoua, attached to the pas- 
art of the foot, which cIoecs the 
ten ita occupant is withdrawn into 
bided up. The Umax or slug is 
Ipls of uie class. Cavier divides 
U of Mollnaca into nine orders, 
,1. the Pulmonea; 2. the Nudi- 
|ta ) 3. the Inferobranchiata ; 4. 
Ubranchista ; S. the Heteropoda ; 
feotiiiibranchiata ; 7. the Tubuli. 
atiB i B. the Scutibranchiata ; 9. 

, (from yaiiT^p, Gr. jas/rijtie. 
Hce, It. > Bolonging to the sto- 


, A subdivision of the genus 
\p, charaoterized by the narrow, 
(d, almost oylindrical juwa, which 
t BxtrBmely lengthened muzile. — 

living species of the crocodile 
are twelve in numher, namely, 
rial, eight crocodiles, and three 
ts. Teeth of the fossil gavial 
Kn found in the Tilgate strata, 
t of these is ligored in Dr. Man- 
Kdogy of the South-east of Eng- 
|h> obierres, "it appears that the 
U Hlgate Forest contain the re- 
t Kt least two, if not four, species 
pdilesi that oue of these (that 
IPdec curved teeth) resembles the 
)t Caen, and probably was nhont 
tie feet in length. 
fs, A mineral allied to Veeu- 
(d named after Gehlin. Colours, 
, shaded of green and biown. 
f are not yet agreed as to its con- 

^. J Igel^e, Fr. gelalim. It.) A 
'. t concrete Bnimal substance; 
Ldple of jelly. It a piece of the 
Bn of an animal, after every im- 
a cai^fnlly sepamted, be put into 
ity of cold water, sod boiled for 
Ibe, part of it will be dissolved. 
) decaction be slowly evapnrHted 
iredoced to a small quantity, and 
It aude to cool. When cold, it 
^ maaumed a solid form, and pre- 
piemblB that tremnlous anhstance 
•« jelly. This is, what is called 
^ta, gelatin. If the evaporation 
led farther, the Gnbstaiice becomes 

hard, semltransparent, breaks with a 
glassy fracture, aad ia. In short, that 
aubHtaiicc known under the name of glue. 
Gelaiine therefore ia the same with glue, 
only that it is free from those impurities 
with which glue is ao oftea contaminated. 
Gelatine is coloarleas and transparent; 
when thrown into water it soon swells, 
and asBumoB 8 gelatinous appearance, and 
gradually dissolves away. By evaporat- 
ing the water it may again be uhtiined 
unaltered m the fonn of jelly. Cold 
water dissolves it slowly, but water at a 
temperature of 9(r rapidly. Gelatin is 
insoluble in alcohol. 
iBLi'TiNona. (gelalineax, -eiwe, Fr. qui 
rtiemble li de la gelee.) Of the nature 
of gelatine \ containing gelatine ; jelly- 

like ; 

To at 


Ge LATIN a'tion. The process of being 

coDverted into a jelly-like substance. 
Gbm. {^gemma, Lat.) 

1. Ia mineralogy, any precious stone- 
Gems may be divided into uatural and 
artificial ; the latter are made of what ia 
termed paste, coloured with different me- 
tallic oiidea. 

2. In. botany, the bud, a small conoid 
body, covered with scalea, formed during 
summer on the brauehes of trees, con- 
taining the radimenta of a future plant, 
or part of a plant: some plants produce 
flowei's and leaves, others Leaves only, and 
some flowers only. 

GEMEi].i'pAaoua. (fromy«HE«i and jiario, 

Lat.) Producing twins. 
Gb'mtkated. In conchology, marked with 

a doable elevated atrix connecting the 

Ge'hinous. (jemiBM*. Lat.) Double; 

Ge'mmule. a little bud. 

Ge'keb.a. The plural of genus. 

Grne'eic. \ igen4riqKe,'Pt.generiea,li.') 

Gbne'bical. ) That which coroprehendi 
the genas, or distiaguishes from another 
genus ; but does not disUnguiah the spe- 

Gene'eically. With regard lothegenua, 

though not to the species- 
Geni'culate. ) (;enJcuZafui,Lat.) Knot- 
GsNi'cuLATED. i ted) jointed 1 applied 

to calms bent like the knee ; also to 

peduncles bent at the joints. 
Ge'nus. (Lat.) 

1. That which is predicated of many 
things, as the material or common part 
of their essence. 

2. A aubdivisiou of any class or order of 
natural beings, whether of the animal, 
vegetable, or mineral kingdoms, all agree- 


{yta^'tq, froco yia, Gr.) 


GEO [ U 

ronndiih piece of mineral mttter, BOme- 
timei i>nly an incrusUtiou, genenlljr 
more or less hollon, amally liu«d with 
ci7itBls, or in eoine cobh Iddbb earthy 
matter. The geodes found in the green- 
■and near Sidmouth, aaje Mr. Bakewell, 
in Ma lalusble iDtraduction to Botany, 
■re composed of opaque chert on the 
outside, and cuataiu within, mammil- 
lated concretiDDB of beautiful chalcedouy, 
and oecaaionally perfect minute took- 

GEOONOfiT. (from y^ and yiTjiiE, Gr.) 
That branch of natural history nhich 
treats of the strocture of the earth. 
Werner and hia disciples, bb well aa some 
of the French geologiglg, have anbstitnled 
geognosy for geology, the former derired 
from -yij and yviumc, the lutter from yij 
and \ayos: Mr, Bakewell has jnatly ob- 
■erred, for thia change no sufficient reiisDii 
can be assigned, and it is contrary to 
established analogies of langunge. No- 
thing can he more onmeaning than the 
apologies that have been offered for aub- 
Btituting yviuTtCt knovledge. for \6yoq, 
reason. By the aame rule we ought to 
change meteorology, physiology, &c. into 
meteorognosy, phyaiognosy, &c. — Baie- 
wfll, Intredutlian to Geology. 

Geoi.o'qioal. Pertaining to the science 
of geology. 

Geo'looist. One versed in that branch of 
natural history which treats of the struc- 
ture of the earth. 

Geo'logv. (from y^ andXoyoc, Gr.) Geo- 
logy may be defined to be that iiraneh of 
natural hiatory which investigatea the 
successive changes that have taken place 
in the organic and inorganic kingdoms of 
nature. It is a science founded in exact 
observation and carefol induction ; it 
may be termed the physical history of 
onr globe; it investigates the structure 
of the planet on which we live, and ex- 
plains the character and causes of the 
Varioua changes in the organic and inor- 
ganic kingdoms of nature. It baa been 
emphatically termed the sister science of 
aatrouomy, ranking, undoubtedly, in the 
scale of sciences, neit to astrunomy, from 
the sublimity of the objects of which it 

Geology is as intimately related to al- 
most all the physical sciences, as is his- 
tory to the moral. As the historian 
sbouid, if possible, be at once profound- 
edly acquainted with ethics, politics, juris- 
prudence, the military art, theology ; in 
short, with all tliose branches of know- 
ledge, whereby any insight into human 
affairs, or into the moral and iiitellectnal 
nature of man can be obtained ; so is it 
desirable that tbe geologist should be 
well versed in obemistry, mineralogy ^ 

] GEO 

loology, botany, comparative anatomf 
in short, in every branch of adran 
relating to organic and inorganic niton! 
"It was long," says Prof. Ljell, "en 
the distinct nature and IcgitiniBtB objtctt 
of geology were tiiUy recognised, and it 
was at lirst confounded with many otlier 
branches of inquiry, just as the liinilii^ 
hiatory, poetry and mythology, wsre "' 
defined in the infancy of civiliiatioii-" 

Werner appears to have regarded geo- 
logy as little other than a subariluitg 
department of mineralogy, and Desmsntf 
included it under the head of phyiiml 
geography. Dr. Hutton, in his tr^tiw, 
published in 1795, first endeavoured 19 
draw a positive line of demarcatioa be- 
tween geology and cosmogony, declaring 
that geology was in no ways eoacEmed 
with questions as to the origin of thiags 
and, in fact, geology differs as widd] 
from cosmogony, as hypothesis conccn 
ing the mode of man's first creation diffen 
from history. Philosophers I 
ages past neglected the exami 
the earth, contenting themselves wiA 
vain EpeculationB respecting its fimu- 
tion ; and to SCrabo, who ffomiahed nndn 
Augustus, and died under Tiberias, 
the year 'i!i, and to the old philosopben, 
who studied tbe local pheuomena of tbcil 
countries, would the title of geolcgisa 
with more propriety be given than tD 
Burnet and Buffou, whose systems d 
cosmogony have more the air of 
of romance, than of a serious generalio- 
tion of facta. In tracing the history of 
geology from the close of the " "^ 

to the end of the eighteenth 
find the science retarded by the wild 
visionary speculations of a host of writ 
to enter on these would, however, tf 
exceed the limits of a work of tliis kiod, 
and those desirous of so doing, I woalJ 
refer to Mr. Lyell's admirable wottj 
Principles of Geology. 

Hutton, following the example of Net- 
ton in astronomy, endeavoured to pi* 
tiled principles to geology ; but, at tW 
' little progress had been '~ 

nable 1 

noble a project. A brighter period b 
now dawned, and the following oat fl 
only true method, namely, that of kctf 
ing within the boundary of iodiUti) 
philosophy, has led to the most impoitalt 

One of tbe greatest difficulties wA 
which geology has had to contend, ii 
false natioo entertained by many w 
meaning but weak persons, that gefll 
was opposed to Scripture revelatiDn,i 
that geological researches m^ht piv<> 
injurious to religion. UnfortmuWji 
prejudice and ignorance have too In- 

"GEO [ li 

I; colled In the Bid of rrligious 

tto tliwnrC and oppo9s Che progress 
Qtific knowledge ; nnd it is loo 
be feared that did the sntiu; 
R exist, the geolo^sts ot the 
It da; might auffer the sBine perse- 
a that Gallileo GaUilei did, nnd 
worka of Lyell, BnckUnd, De In 
>i CtfuvtieBre, Murchisan, Phillips, 
rick, Mantell, nnd a host of othera, 
Isnell thecatalngueof theforbidilea 

ly, it xaaj be asked, should persons 
b religious opinions are fauodeil od 
Msia of immntable truth fear the 
1 of truth ? or what has religion 
from the minutest, the most 
ling, investigation ? Let it ever ha 
ind that, an the one band, 
ler 1>e opposed to truth, and, 
lother, that error is only to be eSec- 
confounded by Bearching deep aud 

Sling can be more unfounded than 
^tqection which has been taken 
It the Btud; of natural philosophj;, 

Endeed, agmnst all scieuce, thnt it 
: in its cultiTstora an undue and 
«ening telf-conceit, lends them to 
the immortalitj of the soui, and 
tt at rerealed rdigion. Its natural 
on everj well regulated mind is, 
list be, (Meetly the reverse. Minds 
hsTe long been accustomed to date 
Igia of the universe, as veil as that 
haman race, from an era of about 
1 yean back, receive reluc- 
information , which, if true, 
ntoditicB^on of their 

ind, a 

1 agony, 
:t, geology has shared the 
infant sciences, in being for a 
teniidered hostile to revealed reli- 
'-to, like them, when fully under- 
lit itm be found a potent and eon- 

of the power, wiadoco, and good- 
the Creator. 
lujfurly be asked," says CheJmers, 

le persi 

Gt subject 
they can Imagine short of: 
m of omniscteuce, at which such a 
lion might have stopped, without 
taction or omission, lesa in degree, 
mtllr In kind, to that which they 
B to the GiiBtiDg narrative of Moses. 
Elation of so much only of astro- 
was Icnonu to Copernicus, would 
med imperfect after the disco- 
of Newton; and a revelation of the 
a of Newton would have appeared 
IvR to LiuilaRe. And unlei^s 1iu- 
re had been constitated other- 
it Ii, the above supposed ccm- 


phy cat dition of 

the human race. Does Moses even say, 
that when God ereated the henvens and 
Che earth he did more, at the time alluded 
to, than transform them out of previously 
existing materials ? Or does he ever say 
that there was not an interval of many 
ages between the firat act of creation, de- 
scribed in the tir^t book of Geueaia, and 
said to have been performed 'in the be- 
ginning," and those more detailed ope- 
rations, the account of which commences 
at the second verse, and which are de- 
scribed as having been performed in so 

by anything but the good rules of p 
sophical induction, which are essential to 
tlie right use of the intellectual strength 
which Gad has conferred upon tnao. (o be 
esercised on the mighty works of nature ; 
and least of all let him be deterred from 
the pursuit of truth by the vain and im- 
pious dread that he may go Coo far, and 
penetrate too deeply into those mysteries, 
which, among their other uses have this 
one, namely, that Chey continually aicite 
soul of man ; and, the m 

they are studied, lead Co deeper delight, 
and more awful contemplation of iSelr 
glorious and benelicent Author." 

Geology, aided not only by the higher 
branches of physics, but by recent disco- 
veries in mineralogy and chemistry, in 
botany, zoology, and comparative ana- 
tomy, is enabled to extract from the ar- 
chives of tbe interior of the earth, intelli- 
giiile records of former conditions of our 
planets, and to decipher documents, which 
were a sealed book Co our predecessors. 
Thus enlarged in its views, and provided 
with fit means fbr pursuing them^ geology 
extends its researches into regions more 
vast and remote, than come within the 
scape of any other physical science, ex- 
cept astronomy. — Danji. Buciland. 
Ha-achelt. Chalma-a. Lytli. PAlllipa. 
Manttll, Bakswell. 

Gkobau'kus. a fossil saurian of the oolita 
and lias formations. 

Germ, {germe, ¥r,germe, It. fninen, Lat.) 
1. In botany, the swollen base of the 
pistil, forming the rndinient of the froit 


2. Tbe embryo ; origin. So long m 
ofTspriug has no independent eiisti 
but participates in that of its parent, it is 
called a germ. The separation of the 
germ is called generation. 
Ik'rminast. (iierminnn*, Lat.) Sprout- 
ing; beginning to grow. 

G E R 

(gmnino, Lat. germer, Pr. 
genninare, It.) To Bpront ; to bod ) to 
Ehoot forth. 

GsaHiNA'TioN. (gerniinalion, Fr. germi- 
nozionf, It. germinatio, Lat.) The act 
of Bpronting or ahooting forth. 

Ge'tser. The name pyea to certain 
boiling Bprings or fountaing in Iceland. 
The vater of these geysers holds a consi- 
derable proportion of silex in solution. 
The following account of the geysers of 
Iceland is eitracKd from Mr. Ljell' 
Principles of Geology. " Theae inter 
mitleot hot springs occnr in a distric 
EttuB(«d in the south-western division c 
Iceland, where nearly one hundred of 
them are said to hreat ont within a cir- 
cle of two miles. They rise through a. 
thick current of lava which may, per- 
haps, have flowed from Mount Ilecla, the 
Eummtt of that volcano being seen from 
the spot at a distance of more than thirty 
miles. Pew of the geysers play longer 
than five or six minutes at a dme, and the 
intervals between their eruptions are, for 
the moat part, *ery irregular. The great 
geyser rises out of a spacious basiu at the 
sumnit of a circular mound composed 
of siliceous incruatations deposited from 
the spray of its waters. The diameter of 
this basin is fifty-six feet in one direction 
by forty-sii in aoother. To the centre 
is a pipe seventy-eight feet in perpen- 
dicular depth, and from eight to ten feet 
in diameter, but gradually widening as it 
riaes into the baaio. The circular basin 
is sometimes empty, but is usually filled 
■with beaotifully transparent water io a. 
state of ebullition. During the rise of the 
boiling water in Che pipe, eBgeoiBlly when 
the ebnlhtion is most violent, and when 
the water is thrown np in jets, auhterra- 
uean noises are heard, like the distant 
firing of cannon, and the earth is shgbtly 
ihaken. The sound then increases, and 
the motion becomes more violent, till at 
length a column of water is thrown op, 
with loud explosions, to the height of one 
or two hundred feet. After playing for 
a time like an artificial fountain, and 
g^TUig off clouds of vapour, the pipe or 
tube is emptied, and a column of steam 
roshing up with amazing force and a 
thondering noise, terminates the erup- 

If at 

:e throwi 

Che c 

er, they are instantiy ejected, i 
is the eiplosive force, that very hard 
rocks are sometimes shivered hy it into 
small pieces. 

Gi'bbous. (jiiSw*, Lat. gihbtaux, Fr. gib- 
£010, It.) Bossed; convex; bunched. 
In botany, applied to fleshy leaves having 
one or both sidea convex, arising from the 
great abundance of pulp. 

Gi BBSiTB. A mineral of a dirty wliite 

] OIL 

colour, found in America, and named 
after Mr. Gibbs. 
iiLL. The lung, or respiratory organ of 
the fish. The gills, or branchiee. lie in 
openings on each side of the head ; thdr 
form is semicircular ; they have a vast 
namher of Gbrilis standing ouc on each 
aide of them like a fringe, and very much 
resemble the vane of a feather. There 
are, io most fishes, four gills on each side, 
resting on an equal number of arched 
portions of cartilage or bone, connected 
with the OS hyoides. In some cartila- 
giuous fishes there are five gil^ on each 
side ; in the lamprey there are seven. 
The larger Crustacea have their branchiic 
sitnated on the under aide of their body, 
not only in order to obtain protection 
from the carapace, vhich is folded over 
them, but also for the sake of being 
attached to the haunches of the feet, 
jaws, and thnracio feet, and thus partici- 
pating in ibe DiovemeuCs of those organs. 
They may be seen in the lobster and in 
the crab, by raising the lower edge of the 

Id the greater number of motlnscl 
these important organs, although eitemal 
with respect to Che viscera, are within the 
shell, and are generally situated near it: 
outer margin. They are composed of 
parallel filaments, arranged like the teeth 
of a fine comb ; and an opening eiists 
in the mouth for admitting the water 
which is to act upon them. These iil>- 
ments appear, in many insCanees. to have 
the power of producing currents of water 
in their vicinity by the action of minute 
cilia, similar to those belonging to the 
tentacula of many polypi, where the same 
phenomenon is observable. In ttie Ace- | 
phala, or bivalve mollusca, the gills kl _ 
spread ont, in the form of lamins, raiuil| 
the margin of the shell, as is eiemp 
in the oyster when it is commonly knowi I 
by the name of beard. The aeraWt 1 
water is admitted through a fissure in the I 
mouth, and when it has performed iCl j 
office in respiration, is usually eipelM I 
by a separate opening. I 

All the sepice have their gills enclosed I 
in two lateral cavities, which comn 
cate with a funnel -shaped opening it 
middle of the neck, alternately receivin; 
and expelling the vrater by the mus " '"" 
action of its aides. The forms assi 
by the respiratory organs in this class art 
almost infinitely diversified. In filho 
the gills form large organs, and the con- 
tinuance of their action ia more esieatiil 
to life than it appears to be in any of the 
inferior classes. When their snrfiicti 
are minutelyeiamined, they are found to 
bo covered with innumerable minute pro- 
cesses, crowded together like the pile of 

GIN [ 1 

velvel; and on these are distrEbutfd 
mjriBdB of blood -vessels, spread like a 
delicate network, over ever; part of their 
nrface. & large flap, termed tLe oper- 
, Eitenda over the vfliole oi^ao, 
^feoding it from injury, and leaviug 
btdov B vide fissure far tbe escape of the 
•Bter which haa performed its office in 
RBpimtioa. For this purpose the water 
fl Uikea io by the mouth, and forced bj 
muscles of the tbivat through the 
qtertures whii:li lead to the branrhia! 

riea are brought forward and aepa- 
d to a certain distance from eacli 
:r, and the rush of wat«r through 
a unfolds, aad separates, each of the 
ttouaand minute filamenta of the bran- 
80 that they all receive the full 
of that fluid as it passes by them. 
atifihisUkeDOut ofthi 

md relie- 



cation It expenences in couse- 
^ence of the general collapse of the lila- 

J of those organs, whioh adhere 

lier in a masa, and can no longer 
re the vivi^ing influence of osygen. 
' It hu been generally stated," says Dr. 
""oget, "by pbysiologTstB, even of the 
ghest aathoritj, that the priocipal rea- 
n why Gabes cannot maintain life, when 
jtnrroiinded by air instead of nater, is 
at the brandiice become dry, and lose 
e power of acting when thus deprived 
' their natural moisture. The rectilica- 
jn of this error is duo to Flourens, who 

lioiD. (from yiyyXupftc and (I^oe, 
Reaemhling a hinge \ pertaining 
species of hinge-hke joint which 

t of flexion and eitenaion. 

'MDB. {yiyj^viibc Gr.) Articu- 

admittiug fiexion and 

-- (fromff^f ' * 


, Lat.) The u 

! given 

rariety of opal. The silex gii 
Brongniart, and (guarti resin ite girasi^ of 
"" iraaile is of a milk white 
eolonr, but it posaesaes a remarkable 
property of reflecting a red colour 
when turned towards the sun, or any 
bright light. From this pecnliar property 
_it obtaini its name. Giraeole is some- 
s strongly translucent, and the finest 
imeni resemble tranalucid jelly. 

, {glaber, Lat.) Smooth ; the 
topositc to hairy ; downy. 
Ri'riAi.. iglaciatii, Lat. glacial, Fr.) 

{glacier, Ft. Amat de mon- 
a de glace, qui le trouvenl en gvel- 
> endroili de la Suisse de la Saroie el 
K Davphinf, an lommet dtt montagnei.) 
'- t BceomDlations or etteasive fields 

of ice, common in monatninanB c 

possess a metallic. 

glance; 3. Lead-glance; 4. Tellur^ 
glance; 5. Molybdena-glance ; 6. Bia- 
moth-glance ; 7. Antimony-^ance ; 8. 
Melane -glance. 
iLANCE-coAL. (glonzkahle. Germ.) A 
variety of coal, known also as anthracite. 
This is the glanzkohle of Werner,; the 
glance-coal of Jameson, the native mine- 
ral carbon of Kirwan, and the blind- 
coal of aome nnthors. There are several 
varietiea of the glance-coa), namely, con- 
choidal glance.coal, or that having a 
coochoidal fracture and splendent lustre ; 
slaty glance-coat, or that with a slaty 
structure ; co/«»iiiar glmtce-eaal, and 
jUrons glance-eoal. This combustible, 
at first view, strongly resembles coal, 
from which, however, it materially differs. 
Its colour is black, or rather grayish and 
iron-black, aometimes tinged with bine 

the pure deep black of coal. Glance- 
coal, like the diamond, appears to be 
esaentiilly composed of pure carbon, hot 
in a very different state of aggregation. 
The glance-coal of Kilkenny contains 
about 97 per cent, of carbon ; that of 
Rhode Island about 94 or 95. It occurs 
in beds in the coal formation, in the 
secondary class of rocks ; it is occasion- 
ally found among rooks of the primary 

nearly allied to graphite. It may be dis- 
tinguished from coal by the difficulty 
with which it burna, by ita greater ape- 
cific gravity, and by its composition : it 
differs from graphite in being less heavy ; 
ita trace on paper is dull and blackSsh, 
whereas that of graphite is a shining 
metallic gray ; and graphite is unctnoua 
to tlie feel, whereas glance-coal is not. 
jLAND. (gtande, Pr. glandula. It.) 
1. Bodies employed to form or alter the 
different liquids in the animal body. 
There are two distinct sets of glands, the 
conglobate, and the conglomerate. Great 
variety is observable both in the form 
and structure of diSereut glands, and in 
the mods in which their blood-vessels 
are distributed. In some glands, the 
minute arteries suddenly divide into a 
great number of smaller branches, like 
the fibres of a camel-hair pencil ; this 
is called the pencillated structure. Some- 
times, the mittate btraniieti, \vwWa8ft. lA 
proceeding paiafiA to wj^ ^:Mma, *&kr 


their divisioD, separate like rays from a 
centre, preseoting a stelluted airaugE- 
metit. In the greater number of in- 
■tuncBs, the gmeller art) 


into spirals. It is onl; by 
microscopic aid that these minute atruc- 
torea can be rendered Tisible. 
2. In botany, a BOiall tranaparent tumour 
or vesiole, disdiargin); a floid, either oil; 
or vrntery, and situated on larionB parts 
of plants, aa the Btalk, caly;(, leaves, &c. 
These glands are composed of closely 
~ id cells, which perform the funo- 

I of s< 

r the c. 

the nutritious juices into parcicntai pi 
ducts required for various purposes in 
the economy of the plant. The perfume 
of the flowera and leavBH of plants ariaea 
' Ls from glands. 

i. (from glandifer, Lat.) 
-ns, or fruit resembling 




Of tl 

ir shape of i 

) (gleindvleux, Fr.glandKla- 
t 80, It. glaaduloita, Lat. ) 
. Pertaining to glands ; contcdning 
glaoda I full of glands. 
2. In botanj, applied to the margins of 
IcBTes baring glands. 

Glau'behitg. An bydroas salphate of 
soda and lime. A mineral of a white or 
yellow colour j crystallized in obliqne 
fbnr-sided prisms ; iionsisting of 51 parts 
sulphate of aoda, and 49 parts sulphate 
of lime. It is less hard than carbonate of 
lime, but scratches sulphate of lime. It 
is foond in New Castile, in Spain, dis - 
seminated in muriate of soda. 

GLAtr cocs. ((tlaucait, Lat. azure, yXavrb^, 

1. Of a sea-green colour ; grey or bine ; 

2. Ilk botany, applied to the leaves or 
stems of plants, when covered with a fine 
raeaJineas of a aea-green colour. 

Gle'noid. (from yX^vi, and iHos, Gr.J 

A part having a shallow cavity. 
Gli'uhek. (Germ.) The name ^ven by 

Werner to mica. 
Glo'hosb. (glotojua, Lat.) Round ; 

Globo'sitt. Iglobesita, It.) Roundness ; 

sphericity; sphericalness, 
Gto'sous. Spherical; round. 
Gld'solab. Round; spherical. 

o'bclb. (glolule, Pr. yiobetlo, It.l A 

imalt particle of matter having a round 

ir spherical form. 
Glo'bulous. {globulatx, Fr. gloMato, 

It.) Round; spherical. 
Glo'uebate. J (s/o»iero(u«, Lat.) Ga- 
Glo'hgrated. t tbered into a mass of a 
globular toim. 



e ] ONE 

Glo'msr[s. (fromfifOTnero, Lat. to gilhct I 
into a roond heap.) A myriapod,res 
bling a wQod-lnuse, whicb, like the ai 
diliu, when alarmed, rolls itself up into > 
spherical ball. 

Glo'mbhods. (glomerotut, Lat.) 
same as glomerate. 

Gto'iTca. (fromvXMrvo, Gr.) The up- 1 
per opening of the larynx, at the rootoC 
the tongue. 

Glvci'ha. (from yXvtiQ, Gr. aweel.) 
An earth obtainable from the emerald, 
beryl, stid euclase, of aU which it forms 
a constituent part. Sir H. Davy disco- 
vered that glucina consisted of three 
parts glucinnm and one part oiygoa, 
Glucina is soluble in the liquid Sied 
alkalies, in which respect it agrees with 
alomina. It is insoluble in 
but solutils in carbonate of amn 
combines with all the acids, i 
witli them sweelish salts, from whtth 
circumstance it obtained il 
was lirat diacovered by Vauquelin in 

Gldci'num. The metal which is thebou 
of the earth glucina ; it has not yet 1 
obtained in a separate state. 

Gluma'ceous. Having ginmes. 

Gloue. (gluma.lM.) Thebaskofo 
the chBiT; the outer haak of corn 
grasses : the caJyx of corn and grasBea. 
In the graases, and [ilants resembling 
them, the lloral envelopes are not caUed 
calyi and corolla, bat bracteiE. The t"o 
outer bracte^ are termed glumfi. 

Gld'tinotib. (gl'uliaeiLT, Pr. yJutinoWi 
It. gbiiijiosua, Lat.) Viacid ; tenauious; 

Gluti NOUS NESS. ViscoEit; ; tenacil; ; 

Glvcf/meris. > A transverse shell, gipbij 

Glvci'iieris. \ atbothe;(tremitiee;hii>g> 
calloQs, without tooth. 

GNABtED. Haviiig bard knots. 

Gneiss. Tlie name given by the Germm 
mineratogiats to it schistose or alnty gra- 
nite, abounding in mica. It is a member 
of the metamorphic roeks. 
geologists, gneiss has been called se- 
condary granite. Granite frequently nit; 
he observed passing by scarcely pe>- 
ceptibEo gradations into gneiss : WMS 
granite contains but little felspar, iiii 
the proportion of mica is increaaed. A*V 
mica being arranged in layers, it bi 
schistose, and we find a tme gaei 
Again, when the mica becomes i 
abundant, gneiss passes into mica-sl 
Gneiss occurs in Ireland and Scotlsnd)^ 
but it is rarely found in England a 
Wales. It is most abundant in S '' 
Gneiss ig composed of the same lngr»'l 
dients with granite, namely, fel^Ui H 
quartz, and mica, ita texture being equall; | 

Brystalline. According to the IlnttOQian 
tlieor;, the materials compobing gneiss 
trera originally deposited from wnter ; but 
^m tbe iuflaence of subl^rmiiean beat, 
became altered &o ob to as£uuie a new 
teitare. The structure or gneiss is nlwsf s 
TDore or less distinctly slaty, when viewed 
{n the massi although individual layers 
^ay possess a granular atnicture. When 
this mineral in broken perpendicularly to 
ithe direction of iU strata, its fracture has 
commonly a striped aspect. This rock, 
tJioDgh slaty in its structure, is rarely 
perfectly fissile. Gneiss, like granite, 
never contains any fossil remains ; when 
s with granite, it usually lies im- 
ly o»er the granite ; or, if the 
le highly inclined, it appears rather 
against (he granite than to be 
^cnmbeBt upon it. Gneiss is more or 
]esa distinctly stratilied, and the sti-ata 
are often ioclioed to tbe horizon at a 
■very great angle ; indeed, they are some- 
tiEueH nearly, or quite, vertical. Moun- 
tains composed of gneiss are seldom so 
■ts^ as those of granite, and their snm> 

Siita, instead of presenting those needle- 
ke points, or aiguilles, which charac- 
teriie granitic mountains, are usually 
anndGd. Few of the primary rocks are 
D metalliferouB as gneiss. Its ores oc- 
ax both in beds and veins : more fre- 
quently in lihe latter. 
bA'^DOLOtis OHKiss. Avanety ofgneies, 
^to. which the mica is sometimes ar- 
noged in nndolated layers,) presenting 
.llumerous small masses of felspar or 
qaarti, of a globular or elHpitical form, 
interspersed like glands through the 
isnass. From this circumstance it has 
9btuned its name. 

nJl. (Sax.) A metal, when pure, of a 
rich yellow colour : specific gravity IQ'3. 
|t doea not readily combine with oxygen ; 

Bitice it doea not rust when exposed to 
« air, and it may be melted and re- 
nelted frequeotly with scsrcely any dimi- 
Sution of its quantity. It is said to hnve 
len kept in a state of fusion for nearly 
jht months without imdergoing any 
|N!rceptibIe change. In ductility and 
Uulleability it surpasses all other metals, 
jad it may bs beaten into leaves so ei- 
beedlngly thin, that one grain of gold 
mall cover fifty-six square inches, such 
eaves having the thickness only of one 
iB2,0[)0th part of an inch. Its Ceoacity 
B inferior to that of iron, copper, pla- 
juum, and silver. Gold is soluble in 
litro-muriitia acid, and in a solution of 
The gold coins of this country 

_ inB-twelfth part of copper alloy : 

sellers' gold is a miiture of gold and 
Kipper in the proportions of three-fourths 
lOf pure gold and one-fourth of copper. 

'U ] G R E 

GoLT. See Gnutt. 

Goni'atites. a sub-genuB of ammonites, 

in which the last whorl covers the spire. 

Seven species have been found in the 

carboniferoua system, and seventeen In 

the primary strata. 
GoN 10' METER. (from •fuivta, an angle, 

meat invented by M. Carangean, for tbe 
accurate measarement of crystals. Dr. 
WollastOLi also invented a grmiomeier. 

Gonyle'ptks. a genua of the second order 
of Pseud arachni dans, the posterior legs 
enhibiting a raptorions character. 

Gorgo'nia. a genus of Ceratopbyta, of 
the family Corticati, class Polypi. These 
animals hare a homy skeleton, are Car- 
nivorous, feeding upon living animalcnles, 
The polypi of several species have been 
observed, and they are fonnd to poasesa 
eight denticulated arms, a stomach, &c. 

GRA'(.ii-e. An order of aiiuatic birds. Wa- 
ders; frequenting marshes and streams; 
having long naked legs ; long neck ; 
cylindrical bills. In this order are in- 
eluded the crane, stork, heron, bittern, 
See. &D. 

Gra'uina. (fframai, Lat.) The fourth 
order in LinnEeag's division ; the grasses. 

GnAMi'NBOOS. (graiHineiu, Lat.) Grassy ; 
resembling grass. Gramineous plants are 
such as have a long narrow leaf, and no 

and TOro, to devour, Lat.) Subsisting 
wholly on gross or vegetable food. Ani- 
mals which subsist wholly on vegetable 
food are called graminivorous, while those 
which Uve on 3esh alone are called car- 
nivorons ; those feeding on both are 
called omnivorous ; while those feeding 
solely on fishes are deuoniinated pisci- 


Brongniart to Treuiolin.) A mineral, a 
variety of hornblende, confined almost 
entirely to primary rocks. Colours white 
and blue. Disposed in fibrous, radiated, 
and granular concretions. 
Gka'natink. A name given by Mr. Kir- 
wan to a granular aggregate containing 
three ingredients, but those differing from 
the ingredients of granite. A compound 
embracing two ingredients only, he 
termed agranitell,- when three ingredi- 
ents are present, but not tbe three form- 
ing granite, ha called it a granatme 1 
when more than three ingredients form 
the compound, he termed it a granilitt. 
Goa'natite. ) The Prtsmatoidischer gra- 
Gre'natite. f nat of Mobs, Granatit of 
Werner, Staurotido otHaiiy. 
brown mineral, occnrcing in primary 
rocks in the Shetland Isles, and in many 
parts of Scotland, and in America. Ac- 


G R A [1 

cording to Vaaqudin, it consists of alu- 
mina 45, siUca 33, oxide of iron 13, 
oxide of manganeae 4. and linie 4. Its 
form snd iafusibility dietinguisU it from 
the garaet. 
Ga*.rii'FBBODS. (from jrimum and fero, 
Lat.) Pods wlilcli hear Be«da like 

Gbanili'te. An aggregate contatniDg 
more than three ooostituent parte ; thus 
named b<r Mr. tCirwan. 
.'Gha'nitb. (granilo, It. ffroHit, du granife, 
Fr. Pien-t fart dure, qui e«( tompoaie 
Sim aiierablagc d'a«ires pierrea de d^f- 
firentta poaleurf.) An aggregate of 
felepar, quartz, and mica, nhaterer may 
be Uie size or figure of the ueveral ingre- 
dients, or their relative proportions, is 
deaominated gianile. There are man; 
varieties of granite; as porpbyri tic granite, 
in vhich large crystals of felspar occur ; 
aienitic grasite, in which hornblende 
Buppliea the place of mica ; chloritic, or 
tolcy granite, composed of quartz, fel- 
spar, and talc or chlorite, instead of 
mica ; felapathic granite, Sic. &e. Gra- 
nite ia a compoand plutonic or igneons 
roch, unetratiGed and crystalline, of a 
granular structure, whence its name. 
From ita great relative depth, granite ie 
rarely met with but in mountainoos situ- 
Btiona, where it appears to bave been 
forced through the more BUperlicial co- 
vering. "It was at one lime supposed 
that granite was peculiar to the lowest 
portions of the rocks composing the crust 
of the earth, and that, in fact, it consti- 
tuted the fondamental rock upon nhich 

diecovered higher in the series. This 
opinion has given way before facts, for 
we lind grauitic rocks in situations wbere 
they must have heen ejected subsequent- 
ly to the period during which the creta- 
ceous group was deposited, as also in 
other places, into which they must havt 
been thrust at intermediate periods down 
to the oldest rocks inclusive. Granite 
is said to contain forty-eight per cent, ol 
osygen. Granite being an igneous rock, 
no organic fossil remains could be ex. 
pected to be found therein, nor have anj 
ever been discovered ; nevertheless gra- 
nite is occaBionally found overlying strati 
containing fossil organic remainsi as ii 
Norway ; a mass of granite has been dis- 
covered superincombent on secondary 
limestone, which contains orthocej ' 
*c. From these circumstances there 
no longer eiist a doubt but that grs 
has been formed at diSereut perioils, 
is of various ages, A comparatively 
dern granite may be observed in the Alps 
penetrating secondary strata, such i " 
condary strata containing fossils, such 

) ] G R A 

belemnites, refenible to the age of Iba 
English lias. Felspar is by far the Isigcit 
constituent of granite, and in some kindl 
it is found in large whitish crystala of 
irregular forms, occasioually of one or two 
inches in length. Granite of this kbd, 
however beautiful it may be to the en, 
is not well adapted for buildings, the w- 
spar being subject to decomposition (ran 
the continued actien of the atmoephen 
"Waterloo -bridge is unfortunately built of 
this perishable Icind of granite. It i 
be considered as a general law, 
wherever granite rises to any height above 
the EuHace of the earth, the strata of 
other Borroonding rocks rise towarda it, 
The highest point at which granite hai 
been discovered in atiy part of the worid 
is Mont Blane, 15,683 feet above Iha 
level of tbe ocean. Saussure, who htt 
published an aecounC of his a 
Mont Blanc, infers from his observatioM 
that the vertical beds of granite were 
originally horizontal and have been np- 
heaved by some violent eonvnisions of 
nature, and he states that what i 
forms the summit of the mountain must 
at some former period have bein n 
than two leagues below the Burfkee. 

Gb.a'nitel. ) A namegivenby Kirwanlo 

GaA'riiTBi-L. ( a binary aggregate c 
posed of any two of the following io_ 
dienta ; felspar, mica, sliorl, quaru, gar* 
net, steatites, hornblende, jade. 

GaANi'Tic. Composed of grains or 
tals united without a cement, as in 
nites and some sandstones. 

Grani'tical. Consistiug of granite; 
posed of granite. 

Grani'tic aggbeoate. a granular 
pound, consisting of tiro, three, or 
simple minerals, among which onl* sM 
of the essential ingredients of r '- ■- 
present. Among the granitic a^regaUfc 
which contain only one of the easentil 
ingredients of granite, may be ennmarata 
combinations of quartz and homblan' 
— quartz and BCtinoUte, — felspar ■ 
schorl,— mica and hornblende, — c 
hornblende, and garnet, — quartz, 
blende, and epidote, &:c. &c. 

Granitifica'tion. The act of 
formed into granite. 

Gkani'tifobm. Resembling granite it 

Gha'nitink. An a^r^ate of three n 
neral constituents, one or more differii 
from those which compose granite. Fol 
eiample, an aggregate of quarti, h' 
spar, and shorl is a granitine, as la one 
quartz, mica, and sborl; or quartz, ban 
blende and garnet ; and many others. . 

Grani'toid. (from jrnnt/e and t7foCt&f.] 
Resembling granite. 

Ghami'vdrous. (from gran 

^ ■ 


GRA [111] GRA ^^^^ 

Lat.) Eating gram; Bubaisting on 


present themBelvea ; bence ita derivation. 

Gka'mui.ab. } Bodiee conUioing, ar com. 

Gra'phite. Another name for black-lead. 

Gba'ndlart. ( posed of, small emiiis. 

orplumb^o; carburet of iron. Graphite 

is of a dark steel-gray, or nearly iron- 

carbunate at lime, the result of a uon- 

black. It leaves on paper a well defined, 

fiued or irregolar eryetaliiiation. Struc- 

shining trace, which bas very nearly the 

ture foliatad aod grauulnr. The graine 

colour cf the mass, aud conaists of minute 

ue of various tiies, from ooarae to Tery 

grains. It is perfectly opaque, easily 

scraped by a knife, and soils the fingers. 

mass appears ahnogt compact. When 

It is a conductor of electricity, and when 

theae grains arc white and of a moderate 

rubbed on aealiiig-wai till a metallic trace 

r white augar in eolid masses. Its fracture 

the wax. Specific gravity from 1-98 to 

K it foliated, and wben the structure is ter; 

Z-2(>. Conatituent parts, carbon 62-0, 

W floelj granolar, the fcacture often be- 

iron i-tl.—Cteateland. 

r comes a little splinterj. It ie more or 

Gra'ptolitk. a fossil zoophyte, found in 

leia tnmaluoent, but in the dark-coloured 

the Silurian shales. 

Tirieties, at the edges onlj. Its colour 

GraVel. Fragments of stones and flinta; 

u moat commonly white or graj, often 

small pebbles. 

Gravita'tion. (granilalion, Fr. gravita. 
Siotte, It.) The difference between gra- 

snoW'.white, and Bometimta grayish bmek. 
Someiarietieg are fleiibk when sawn into 

vity and the centrifugal force induced by 

in TGTf large maases, and ia almost eiclu- 

force which caases substances to fall to 

^elf found in primary rocks ; some'- 

the surface of the earth, and which retting 

tiniea it occore among secondarj, bnl 

the celestial bodies in their orbits ; iU 

aieuitB relatiTe age is eatUr determined 

intensity iqcreasea as the squares of the 

by the shells it contains, or the aecom- 

distance decrease- 

panjing minerala. In the Pjrennees 

Gra'vitt. (gravili, Vr. gratUh, It.) The 

TBrtical bed* of yTa»uiar Umestane alter- 

reciprocal attraction of matter on matter. 

The force of gravity is every where per. 

pendieular to the surface, and in direct 

There are fen countries in wbicb i/ra- 

proportion to the quantity of matter. 

nular limestone is not found. Italy and 

Gra'vwackk. ~i (from granu'acke. Germ. 

Greece IHirnished the ancienta with valu- 

Grau'wackk. 1 a compound of grau, 

kfale quarries. Both granular and com- 

GaAUWAcaa'. f grey, and Kockf, a 

Gbe'ywacke. J provindal term used by 

of marhlee, but thoae which belong to 

miners.) The name given to a group of 

the former eihibit a more nniform colour. 

rocks, being the lowest members of the 

ve generally ausceptible of a higher po- 

secondary strata. Mr. Lycli comprises in 

lish, and are oonacnueutlj njoBt esteemed 

this group the Ludiow, Weolock and 

for itatuary and some other purposes. — 

Dudley, Horderly and May Hill rocks, 

the Builth and Llandeilo flags, and the 

GaA'NnLATB. (graauler, Fr.) To be 

Lungmynd rocks. The French have 

formed into email grains. 

changed the name graawacke for trau- 

Gba'ndlated. Hating a structure resem- 

mate, a word as little euphonic as the 

bling grains i formed into grains ; bead- 

one repudUted. Mr. BakeweU obaerves. 

edi having amaU roundish elevations, 

" Graywacke, in ita most common form. 

placed in ro»9. 

may be described as a coarse slate con- 

GnaNCLA'TioN. {granulntion, Fr.) 

taining particles or fragments of other 

1. The operation by which metals are 

rocks or minerals, varying in size from 

reduced into small grains. 

two or more inches to the smallest grain." 

2, The act of formiug into bodies resem- 

bling aggregates of grains. 

tremely minute, graywacke passes into 

G&A KOLE. (diminutive of grain.) A email 

common slate. When the particles and 


Gba-'hulous. Composed of grains 1 fulLof 

which they are cemented can scarcely be 

small grains. 

perceived, graywacke becomes coane 

Gba'pbic ORA'Ni-rE. A variety of granite, 

menta are larger and angular, graywacke 

ranged as to produce an imperfect laminar 
■tmeture. When a section of graphic 

might be described as a breccia with a 

paste of slate. When the fragments are 

granite is made at right angles to the alter- 

rounded it might not improperly be called 

1 nations of the couHtitucnt minerals, bro- 



G R A [ 1 

- MlidBtone is a gmywacke, coloured red 
bf the Bt^cideatal admixCure of oxide of 
iron i it po«seasBs all the mineral charac- 
tera, &ad occupies the geological position 
of, grajwncke. Tbe rock, thongh com- 
posed of aabaCaaces of vsrimia coloura, 
usuiilly eihibita some ahade of gray or 
brown I it is Gometimes of considerable 
hardaees, and susceptible of a, higb potieh, 
Graynacke is often distincttj Btratitied, 
but the Btrata are not usually parallel to 
those of the subjacent rocks. Tbe com- 
mon and slaty varieties often alternate 
with Bach other, and both are traversed 
tz. This rock is remark- 


I; of the 
mines of the HiLrtz are contained ia gray- 

Graywaclte abounds in Germany and 
in Scotland i indeed, nearly all the moun- 
tains of Scotland north of the Frith of 
Forth are chiefly composed of it. In the 
neighbourhood of Mont Blnnc, and in 
other parts of the Alps, it occurs at a 
great elevatioa, farming large masses in 
vertical beds. 

Gra'vwacke slate, a Tariety of gray- 
■wacke, in which the grains are so minute 
DS to be scarcely perceptible by the naked 

Grken-earth, TheGriinErde ofWemer; 
the Tale Zographique of Haiiy ; the 
Chlorite Baldogce of firongniart. A va- 
riety of talc, occurring in vesicular cavi- 
ties in amygdaloid. Its colour is a plea- 
sant green, more or less deep, Bometimes 
blaJBh or grayisb-green, and passing tr> 
olive and blackish- green. Its fracture ia 
doU, and fine-grained earthy, oc slightly 
coDchoidal. It is somewhat unctuous to 
the tonch, and adheres to tbe tongue. 
Easily reducible to powder. Specific 
gravity 2-6:(. — Kirwan. 

According to Vauqaelin it couHsta of 
silex 52'0, magnesia (i'O, oiide of iron 
'23'i, alumina 7'0, potash 7'4, water 4'0- 
It is met with in the mountainous districta 
of England and Scotland. It is tbe moun- 
tain-green of artists ; end, when ground 
with oil, is employed as a paint. 

rTKEBM.BAND. A member of the cballc 
formatioD, called also Sbanklin Band. The 
beds of aaud, eandstone, and limestone, 
which form the lowermost strata of the 
chalk formation, have obtained tbe name 
of green-sand, from the circumstance of 
their containing a considerable quantity 
of chlorite, or green earth, scattered 
throughout their substance. In describ- 
ing tbe group of deposits to nhich the 
name of green. sand, or Sbanklin-sand, is 
appropriated, geologists state that they 
admit of a triple division! the first, or 
upjjermost, conaifils of sand, with irregular 

2 ] G R E 

cancretions of limestone and cbert, some- 
times disposed in caun^es oblique to tho 
general dii-ection of the strata. The K 
cond consists chiefly of sand, but in son 
places is so mixed with clay, or with oxide 
□f iron, as to retain water. The third, 
and lowest group, abounds much more ia 
stone ; tbe coucrerional beds being closer 
together and more neafly coatinuaa!. 
The total thickness of the green-iaDd, 
where it is fully developed, is more thu 
400 feet. The animal romams of the 
green-sand are exclusively marine. The 
French have denominated this formation 
glattcouie craycase, and crue chlorite. 
It is very common to divide the green- 
sand into the upper green-sand and tbe 
lower green-sand, tbe two being separatEd 
by the ganlt. 
Gbee'nstone. "Hie Griinstein of Weraer i 
Roche AmphiboliqUB of Haiiy ; the (tin- 
base of the French geologists. Agranoliir 
rock composed of hornblende and felspai, 
in the state of grains, or aomerimcs of 
small crystals. GreeUBtone contsins > 
larger quantity of felspar than haaalt, and 
the grains both of hornblende and felaptr 
ere less amalgamated. It is a variety of 
trap rock. The hornblende usually pre- 
dominates, and frequently gives to this 
aggregate a greenish hue, from which cir- 
cumstance it obtains its name. Green- 
stone occurs in beds of considerable mag- 
nitude, and sometimes forms whole momi- 
tains. It otlen appears in conical hilla, 
or presents high, mural predpiceSi whose 
fronts are frequently composed of nume- 
rous columns of various siaes, resembtiD| 
basalt. Sometimes it forms only tbe 
Bummits of niounUins. Small veins of 
actinolite, epidote, felspar, prchnitc, 
quartz, &c., Stc,, frequently ate found 

GaEnA'R.iODs, {gregarisH, Lat.) Uvlni! 
in flocks or herds; animals whose habit) 
lead them (o assemble in numbers. 

Gre'hatite. Prismatoidal garnet. Set 

A rock of greyish or green- 

nc. of th 
GnK'vwAcitE, For a full description of 

this, see Grayieade. 
Ghet-wkathkrs. The i 

large boulders of silicei 

"" ' ■ igular assemblage of tha 

erratic blocks in a field 
WUtshire, not far from Marlbi 
The immense blocks forming, 

bed, and calcareous deposit, at Brigbt 


G H I [J 

id may be observed lying on the sea. 
lore in oonsidernble iiiimbers, after ft 
«ent (all of Che clitT. Upon campsriD^ 
IB Htndgtoae of Stonehenge with that of 
percepCihIe difference can be 

in. The praviDi^iai term for a coar&e 
rilioeods sandstone. Some of the atratu 
of this description have been wnrked for 
mill-stonea. from wliich circDmstaiice 
thtj hare been called mill-stone grit. 
The mill-stoDe grit is an important depo- 
rt in the north of England, trom the 
Coquet to the Tyne, and oa the hills be- 
'ireen the dales of Durham and York, 
rom the Tyne to the Ribhle. 
ohbdla're. The flsparagus-green va- 
iety of dodeoabedral garnet. It is fonnd 
n Siberia. Ita constituents are, silica 
Hl-SO, alumina 20-10, lime 33-80, oiide 
if iron 5-DO, oiide of managanese 0-50. 
tfHjv'a. (from i/rypK, Lat. a griffin.) 
k fossil ineqnivajred bivalve | the lower 
•dve concave, terminated by a beob, and 
_ apwards and inwards ; the upper 
Ive DiBch amaller, like an opercnlum ; 
hinge toothless, the pit oblong and 
* : one impression in each valve, 
sheila of this genus arc found in 
eonaiderable numbers in different parts 
*f England. Prom the curved beali of 
Qie shell, Linnceus placed it among the 
inomite ; but Lamarck placed it under a 
diatmet genus. He notices nine dif- 
ferent ipecies. Parkinson observes, " on 
viewing the different apecimens of ostra- 
-•cjtea and gryphites, I cannot help doubt- 
teg as to the propriety of the formation 
of B distinct genus for this shell. I find 
K>ecimenB in which the beak and the 
body of tbe valve posaeas various degrees 
■ " ourrature, from the complete curve of 
gryphites to the slight turn of tbe 
edible oipter. The recent gryphasa is 
found at a shallow depth, in estuaries, on 
ign.tei and sand. 

Ktphi'te. [grypkites, I^t.) Belonging 

to the genus grypbtea. This deeply- 

fnconed bivalve is so abundant tu some 

of the beds of lias in France, as to have 

fWcaaioned them to he called Calcaire i, 

Bryphitea. These shells are known in 

tldl country by the provincial term of 

■■ miller's thumbs." 

DtDBPe'iimia. (from yi/tvoi, RKdus, 

iked, and mripita, seiRe», seed.) Tbe 

nt order in the fourteenth class, Didy- 

unis, in Linnsus's ariificial system ^ 

lluiTing four naked eeeds in the bottom of 

" eaiyx, with tbe exception of 

IB, Phryma, nhicb is mono. 



if o 



; naked seeib 

in the bottom of the calyx ; belonging tc 
the order Gymnospermia. 

GTNt'NDRtA. (from yvi-ij, a voman, and 
ni-^P, Gr. aman.) The name of the 20th 
class in Linnasus's sexual system, con- 
sisting of plants with hermaphrodite 
flowera, having the stamens growing upon 
the style, or having tbe stamina united 
with, or growing out of the pistil, and 
either proceeding from the gcnnen or tha 
style. The orders of this class are Mken 
from the number of the pistils, but bo- 
tanists are not agreed as to the admission 
of some of them into the class. 

Gina'ndbian. BelongiiiE to the class 

GTNA'Nnsoos. A term applied to a par- 
ticular class of plants, in which the sta- 
mens and pistils are united. The orders 
of this class depend on the number of tbe 

Gi'paEOUS. {gypteux, Fr.) HesemhHng 
gypsum; containing gypsum ; of the na- 
ture of gypsum. 
Iv'rsoM, ti-uifoc, Gr. gypsum, Lat. gvpet. 
Ft. geaso, It.) The tliaux sulfatee of 
Brongniart and Haiiy. Sulphate of lime ; 
it is composed of sulphuric acid 4G'0, 
lime 33'0, water 21 ■ It possesses double 
retraction. There is one variety known 
by the name of anhydrite, or anhydrous 
gypsum, which contains no water. Sul- 
phate of lime is an abundant mineral 
salt, presenting itself under various forms, 
crystalliied or otherwise. From gypsum 
is obtained plaster of Paris, tbe gjpsum 
being burnt in a kiln, and the water 
thereby driven off. The varieties of 
gypsum are numerous -, the crystalliied 

lenite ; the fibrous and earthy as gypsum ; 
and the granular and massive as alabas- 
ter. The salt mines of this country 
afford eiamptes of nearly all tbe varieties. 
The white powder obtained by exposing 
gypsum to a strong heat has obtained tbe 
name of plaster of Paris, from the ei- 
treme abundance of this mineral in tbe 
BEigbbourhood of that capital. Its infe- 
rior hardness, together with its chemical 
characters, will serve to distinguish it 
from the carbonate, fluate, and phos- 
phate of lime. " The gypsum formation 
consists of alternating beds of gypsum 
and argillaceous and calcareous marl, 
which are regularly arranged, and pre- 
serve the same order of succession where- 
evcr they have been examined. The 
gypsum forms three distinct masses. Tbe 
lowest consists of thin strata of gypBUin 
containing crystals of selenite, which al- 
ternate with strata of solid ealcat 
marl, and with argilli 
middle is like the lowest mass, except 
(hat tbe strata of gypsui 

ale. The j 
9S, except I 
e thicker, j 



y R [ 114 J HAM 1 

■nil the beds of inirL ure nol w> iiu- 


merong; It m vbipAy iu this ainst tlint 

ill Ibe oolite of PnrrUeim, iu Baden. 

fosul (ish are found. The vpiiennoBt 

Gvkd'oOnitb. (from Yupoc, eurv, sad 

mau is the most remirksble sud iinpor- 

r'tvoc, genus.) Fetritied seed-vessels of 

taut of all ; it is in some parts more lliaa 

the Chara hUpida. These bodies m 

wraty feet thick ; there are but fe« bads 

found in fresh-water deposits, uid were, 

of ni«rl in it ; the lower strain of gypsum 

not very long lince, supposed to be mi- 
croscopic shells, indeed they are thai 

in this muB have a columnar structure. 

In this upper maaa of Ejpsnm the skele- 

described by Parkinson, who concludei 

tons and scattered bones of birds and 

his notice of them by stating, ■■ Luoarck 

observes, that it has the form of a very 

Remains of turtles und crocndiles have 

small seed of some species of lacenii 

beeaalsofound in thesaoiestruU." Far 

a farther and more interesting detail, 

it as such for tlie pTesenl." 

Gy'kodus. a fossil fish of the family of 


HA'BrrAT. Habitation ; plsce of abode. 
H*'bituob. ( habilttdo, Lst. habitude. Fr. 

Ha'loidb;. (from ^\e, salt, and iLV. Gr- 

form or appearance.) An order of 

oMadine. It.) Castomarjr manner or 

mode of life. 

less ! specific gravity from 2-3 to 3-3. 

Halte'bkb. (_ak.Tijpfs, Gr. hatlerei. UL}. 

Ha'dinq. The dip from the perpendicular 

The poisers, so named fi'om their (op- 
posed use in balancing the body, or act- 

line of descent ; the dipping of a vein. 

justing with exactness the centre of gi»- 

tapii. Lat.) Biood-stone, an iron ore ; 

vity when the insect is flying. Intlicin 

it ooeurs in masses of various shapes, 

inaectB which compose the order DiptttM, 

both glohnlar aod stalactitie. 

we meet with two orgaoB, cooMsUog «£ 

Halio'tis. (from i\o, mare, and iric, 

cylindrical filaments, terminated in a. 

aurij, Gr.) The sea- ear. A shell, both 

clubbed estreraity: one aiTsing tnm 

fossil and recent, obtaining its imme from 

each side of the thorax, in the sitnatiaaL 

the eicessive amplitude of its aperture, 

in which the second pair of winga origi- 

nalein those insects that have fourwing*! 

spire, whence it has been likened to an 

these are called halt^-t,. WhatevK 

ear. The shells of this genus are said, 

may be their real utUity. they may atil 

by Mr. Parkinson, to be among the 

be regarded as rudiments of a saconi. 

rarest fosails. The recent shells are 

pair of wings. 

littoral, and found adhering to rooks ; 

HaVite. (fromSoni(«,LBt.ahook.)AgeBB», 

tbej are very beaudful, and are remarka- 

ble for the pearly irridEBcence of the 

Parkinson states that the hamite fall 

inner surface, and for the shell being 

perforated along the side of the columella 

take ; the aiphuncle of the hamite, Uke 

by a series of boles; tbev are amongst 

that of the ammonite, is placed on th« 

the most highly ornamented of aU the 

back, or outer margin of the shell, and M 

gasteropoda. Tlie sea-ears protect (heir 

some species this marginal aiphuncle hif 

open Bide by filing themselves to the 

a keel-shaped pipe raised over it. The tOf 

rocks, and preserve a communication 

temal shell is fortified by transverse foljl 

or riba, which serve to strengthen hot 

elevating their shells, by means of aline 

the outer and the sir chamben. Th 

of apertures, under the thickest margin, 

more especially that species known u 

when the animal is young, near the spire. 

Hamitea grandia ; some of them are ( 

and as it grows it stops up one and opens 

Ihedtameter of a man's wrist. NineapB 

another, as its occasions require. " I 

ciea are stated to have been diacoTet* 

have," says the Rev. W. Kirby, " a very 

in the ganlt or Speeton clay immediaK* 

large specimen, in which there are traces 

below the chalk in Yorkshire. Dr. Mas- 

of eighteen apertures, and nli but sii are 

tell givea the following as found in Si», 

stopped np." The Poft parts of the in- 

se<;— In the chalk one species, HamitW 

habitant of this sLeQ are eaten in some 

armatus. In the chalk mark fife apecieb 

places, and are esteemed as being deli- 

H. armatus, H. pUcatUis, II. altematdb 


H. ellipticus, H. attenuatus. In thegaltnS 

^ k 


H I 


H|>ecies, H 

intermeiiius, H. tennii, H. rotundus, H. 


\. (Aomui, IjbX.) Hooked. 
'QUE. (from apfibi, a jnint, and 
rffifu, [0 dinde.) The Kreutzsteiii of 
'Werner; Cross-Btone of JamesoQi Pierre 
.Dmcirorme of Brochaiit; Staurolite of 
'Kirwui. For ■ descripdoD of hamno- 

_ A genas of fihella piaccd hy 

iCurier in the feraily Buccinoida. order 
PectiuibranehiBts, class Gogteranoda. A 
twBDlifnl geoQB of shells, distinguisha- 
ble froiD all otliera by the regular lou' 
itudinal ribs tbat mark the Biteraal sur- 
ice, in some dtgree resemhling a stringed 
iiutrument, from whiuh the name is de- 
rived. The geuQE ia both fossil and re- 
the shells are marine, and are in- 
habitanti of warm cliniBtes ; they are 
easily recognized by the projecting trans- 
verae ribs on the wborli ; the last of 
which forms a lip on the margin. 
.'bfax. a genua of fossil shells de- 
eribed by Parkinson. They are of an 
iblong, and samewbat of a triangular, 
brni. The hinge is formed by two lung 
mtjectiag teeth, transserselj^ crenulated 
rn both sides, and diverging in the form 
t the letter V on the flat lolie. 
.'btatb. {haalalvt, Lat.) Spear- 

ineral adipocere, found 
of Mertbyr Tydfil in 
It ia insoluble in 
soluble in alcohol and ether, 
: rnseg at 160°. It ia of the hardness of 
ift tsUow. 

) Pyramidal manganese- 


:. The 

It c 

id Ger- 
of a brownUli-blsck colour, 
cooiists, according to Turner, of 
la of red o>ide of manganese, silica 
'34, oxygen 21, baryta, O'll, nater 


Dodecahedral Zeolite, e 



iXTStiAV^o- A triangular figure, hav- 
£ its base euarginate, lateral angles 
landed, and lateral margin slightly 

Sulphate of barytee, baro- 
prismatic heavy spar. The 
ItBti'e of Haiiy ; the Sehner 
ofWeroer; and Prismalischer hal- 
There are several va- 
js, namely, the compaot 
iTy gpar, having a splintery and uneven 
lure; the fibrona heavy spar; the 
light and curved lamctlBr heavy spar ; 
ndiated heavy spar ; the fetid heavy 

.'. ] II E L 

spar. giving out. on friction a hc)iatic 
odour, whence it ia also calleil he^tlte ; 
the earthy heavy apar; the prismatic 
heavy spar. 

Heavy spar consists of baryta 66 parts 
and sulphuric acid :« parts. It fre- 
qaently cotitains a trace of silei, olumine, 
oxide of iron, and sometimes of sulphate 
of atronttan. It occurs in veins, both 
massive and crystallized, in many jwrta 
of England, Ireland, Scotland, and Ger~ 
many, being found in primary, transition, 
and secondary rocka. It is of different 
colours. It strongly decrepitates when 
heated, and fuses into a white enamel, 
which in tbe course of some houra Alia 
intu ponder. Oneof the most strikingcha- 
racters of this mineral is its great specific 
gravity, which varies from 429 to 4-50. 
It is from this circnmstance it has ob- 
tained its name. It is harder than crys- 
tallized carbonate of lime, bat may be 
scratched by fiuate of lime. Heavy 
spar may be confounded with snlphate 
of strontiaii, but its specific gravity it 
greater. After fusion, the enamel pro- 
duced from heaty spar, if applied to the 
tongue, produces a taste similar to tbat 
of rotten eggs, this does not occur in the 
enamel of sulphate of strontian. Heavy 
spar is seldom found in large masses. 
It Ie sometimes employed as a flux in 
tnetallurgio operationa, and is said to bo 
a good base tiir water colonra. 

HE'ticAL. (Afli«, Fr. i'AiJ.Gr.) Spirals 

HE'i,totBOFK. (hfliolmpe, Fr. eliotrapia, 
It. httiolropitim. Lat. qXiorpdiriav, Gr. 
from qXio; and Tp'ftrio.) 

1. A plant, the turnsole. 

2. A variety of rhombobedral qnsrtz, of a 
deep green colour, with disseminated 
spots of yellow and red jasper. It ia 
more or less translucent. Fracture im- 
perfectly coachoidal. .Specific gravity 
about 26.1. The Unest specimens are 
brought from Siberia and Bucharia. Like 
agate, it is employed ha forming orna- 

eotal ai 
I. The I 




ir morgin, of the exter- 

A globular or orbicular 
shell ; spire short, convex or conoidal, 
last whorl ventrioose : opening entire, 
being wider than Inng ; no operculum. 
The helix aspera, or common snail, is a 
well-known illustration. Parkinson ob- 
serves of the tossU Lelii, ■' Shells of this 
genus are rarely found in a state of petrl- 

tion in which they are found are, gene- 
rally, such M are explicable on the aup- 
1>osition of their having become involved 
in the gradually accreting tufaoeous mat- 

ter, nhlch is deposiled by certain streamB 
■nd rivers ; or in the Btnluutittc coDcre- 

rocks, of comparatiTely modern forma- 
tion." It is observed tliat the terrestrial 
nnivalvES are never ermed with spines, 
tutierdes, or oEtier eleiations, but exhibit 
generally a levigated shell. 

He'lvimb. Tetrabedral garnet. 

He'uatite. (Hi^aritTic, Gr.) Iron ore. 
There are tno kinds of hematite, the red 
hematite, or rhomhobedrHl iron-ore, and 
the brown hematite, or prismatic iroo-ora. 
Also written Haematite. 

Hemati'tio. Composed of hematite ; con- 
taining hematite ; resembiing hematite. 

Hemi'ptera. (from i'l/iiiv and TrTtpov, 
Gr. So called, beeaueit their wing-covers 
at the base are of a Bnbstance resembling 
horn or leather, and at the tip are mem- 
branous.) An order of insects, compiis- 
ing two families, Geocoriste and tlydro- 
corisEB. These insects have four wings, 
wther stretched straight out, or resting 
across each other; the superior are co- 
riaceous at their base, with a membranous 
apex. The mouth of bemipterous insects 
is adapted for extracting fluids by suction 
only. They are carnivorous, or, more 
'fjiinimal-Buekers. The cockroach, 
sshopper, bng, lantern-fly, &c,, 
a this order. 
RAt,. 1 Belonging to the order 

properly, a 



which have one-half of their ivings coria- 
ceous, and the other half membraDOUs. 

Hs'iiiSFHERB. (Ii^nitphere, Fr. emiiifero. 
It. hemiiphierivm, I^t. iifiinfalpiov, Gr.) 
The half of a globe when it is supposed to 
be cut through its centre, in the plane of 
one of its greatest circles ; one-half of ths 
globe, or sphere, when divided into tva 
by a plane passing through its centre. 
The equator divides the sphere into two 
equal puts, culled the northern and 
southern hemispheres. The horizon also 
divides the sphere into two parts, the 
upper and the loner hemispheres. 

Hbmisphe^hic. ^Half round; contain- 

HE-uP^'alc^'i -6 half a globe. 

Hkmde'caOdn. (from ivStta and yuvla, 
~-t.) A fignre of eleven taces or angles. 
PA TIC. i{hepaticut, Lat. h^atigue, 

Hefa'tical. i Fr. epalitxi, It.) Belong- 
ing to the tiver ; pertaining to the liver. 

Hipa'tic cinnabak. a dark-coloured, 
■teel-gniy variety of tbe mercure sulphur^ 
ofHatiy, or cinnabar. 

Hbpa'tic pVBi'ruB, Hepatic aulpbnret of 
iron. A variety of prismatic iron-pyrlles, 
of a yellow colour, which, on enposure to 
the atmosphere, acqpires a brown tarnish. 
This embraces those varieties of eulphuret 
of iron, which are susceptible of a pecu- 

j H E T 

bar decomposition, by which the sulpbni 
is more or less disengaged. During Ihii 
process the pyrites is converted, whi5lj it 
in part, into a compact oiide of iron of i 
liver-brown colour, from which circnm- 
Etance it obtains its name. In CDOic- 
quence of this decomposition, the miu 
does not lose its original form, but ill 
hardness and specific gravity are somewhil 
diminished, and its lustre d 
The decomposition begins at the sufios, 
and gradually pafses into the centre. 

Ie'patitk. a mineral; a variety of h»?J ■ 
spar, or sniphato of barytes. This ■ " ^ 
is distingnished by its emitting i 
smell when rubbed, resembling Qal 
eulphnretted hydrogen, arising &ani ill] 
containing a portion of snlpUnr. 

Ie'fatulk. a name given by Kirwas lo 
certain combinations called by others ij- 

Ibptaca'psulab. (from Sirrd, Gr. uul 
eapmla, Lat.) Having eeven cells. 

Ie'ptabon. {tifptagmr tt eplaffoae, Ff. 
etlagana. It. *«rn and -fvvia, Gr.) S 
figure having seven aides and as miu; 

Iepta'gonal. Having seven sides and ii 

Ierba'ceouS. (herlracftia, Lat.) Ksnls 
that perish annually down to the route, 
having succulent stems, or stalks. Of 
herbaceous plants, some are annual, these 
perish, stem and root, every year i Mine 
are biennial, the roots subsisting Iwa 
years ; others are perennial, being perpe- 
tuated for many years by thmr roots, s 
new stem springing up every year. 

Ierba'iiiuii- (AwfioriHg, Lat.) A col- 
lection of dried plants ; a place set tfvt 
for growing herbs in. 

lEHBi'voRODB. (from kerba and von, 
Lat. to devour.) Subsisting on veetla- 



n -Kp,..;?, Mer. 

and -AjpoSir,, V 

Fr. ermapkrodilo 

It. A fabulou 

and Venus, Hermes and 

<ing both the male and female parts 

botany, plants ar 

BO caUed whiah 

nd ovarinm, m 


ction to moncEcio 

us and dioecioaa 



s skilled. in the n 
ory of Hwerts..T«Jp'JjijiC^ 

(ipiritic and Xoyoc, Gr.) 
That branch of natural history which 
treats of reptiles, their habita, &c- 

Iebscueli'tb. A mineral of ■ white co- 
lour, found by Herschel in olivine, and 
named after its discoverer. 

iErKBoCLi'iiCAL. In conchology, rertra- 
ed ; a term applied to sliells whose spim 

foliated » 

H E T [ 1 

im in a contrary direction to the usual 
ay ; siniBtral. In sliells, tbe axis of 
jvolution la termed tlie cohimttla, and 
fte turns of the Gplral are denominated 
ihorU. In consequence of tbe sitnation 
f tbe heart and great blood-veeaels rels- 
rtely to the shell, the left eide of the 
iBotle is more active than the right side, 
O that the lateral turns are miid« id the 
OOtrBry direatian. SametimFs, in con- 
eqnence of the heart being pluced on the 
Igbt lide tbe tarns of the spiral nre made 
D tbe left : this left-hnDdetl conTolntion 
i among the abella of land or 

iTtpdnrpof n, Gr. ex 
-ipoe et arpofi).) A term applied to 
nrersed shells, or shells nhose spirea 
bim in a contrnry direction lo the usual 
iVaj ; ainistral sheila. ■Synonjmoua with 

IlelDi-priamatic zeohte or 
!. The Sdlbite of Haiiy. A 
inns named after Houland. It 
drusy cavities, in secondary trap 
rocks, in tbe Harti mountains, in Ireland, 
Mad in Scotland. It is of different colours, 
Vhite, grey, brown, and red. Its consti- 
parta are silica 5^, alumina I6'87, 

ritaih a, (or, according to otherSi hme 
) water 16-5. 
I'lAGON. (A/jMpone, Fr. ftagono, It.) 
Ka-fuyBSt Gr. from t£, six. and yuvlu, 
angle.) A figure of six sides or angles ; 
it capacious of all the figures that 
added to each other without nny 
Interstice. The cells of the bonejcomb 

.'gonaj.. Six-sided. 
ABTN. (from ij, sis, and y«v^, Gr. 
Oman.) A plant bating six pistUa. 
.oi'miB, Having six piatils. 
BK&Hs'DaaL. Having aii sides equal to 
another; cabal. 

HB'uttON. (from !K and llpa, Gr. 
i£taidrf, Fr. eiaedra. It.) A cube ; a 
folid body having six equal faces. 

' PEA. ( from f£, six, and fivi)p,Gr. 
.] As plants which have six pistils 
are denominated bexagyns, so those with 
"■~ ' ' ed bexandera. 

tig six stamens ; be- 

iBnging to the sixth 
•exoBl method. 

lass in Linnieua's 

iKa'mqolar. (from H and fl»jr«I«j.) 
Jlaviag six angle.. 

I'xAFBi). J (iSojToc'ne, from U and ttovc, 
lafxAPOD. i Gr.) An animal with six 


Xir. a leaf.) A plan 
m. corolla oonaistiag of 

CmAPHv'LLODS. (fro 

4Jr.) Six-leaved. 

having six petals \ 
six petals. 
n U and fiiUav, 

U'tuH. ihiim,,, Lat. 

In botany, tbe 

7 ] HIP 

small mark On seeds showing the Spot 
where they were joined to the fruit. 
Hinge. In concholagy. the point by which 
bivalve shells are united : it is formed by 
the teeth of the one valve inserting them- 
selves between those of the other, or by 
the teeth of one valve fitting into the 
cavities or sockets of the opposite valve. 

It is OB the peculiar constmction of 
the hinge that the generic oliarscter of 
bivalve shells is mainly founded, in con- 
iiection with the general form of the 

Some hinsa have no visible teeth, and 
are termed inariicvlatt ; hingel with few 
teeth are termed arliculale i those having 
many teeth are called naiUiarliculala. 
Hippopo'tauus. (ijrjTOjrdrafioe, Gr. Aip- 
popotamt, Fr. ippopolamo. It.) lla 
hippopotamus, or river-borao, belongs to 
the order Pacbydermata. or tbick-akinred ' 
animals, class Mammalia. This genus of 
quadrupeds has four fore-teeth in the 
upper jaw, disposed in pairs at a distance 
from each other ; and four prominent k 
fore-teeth in the under jaw, the inter- 
mediate ones being longest. There are 
two tuskg in each jaw, those of the under 
being long, and obliquely truncated ; in 
both they stand sulitary, and are reeOT- 
vated. The feet are hoofed on the edges. 
The head is of an ejiormouB size, and the 
month vastly wide. Tbe ears are small 
and pointed. Tbe eyes sud nostrils are 
small. Tbe body is naked. The tail is 
about a foot lung, taper, compressed, and 
naked. The legs are short and thick ; 
the belly reaching to tbe ground. One 
species only is known, the hippopotamus 
ampbibins, conlined to the rivers of 

Fossil bones and teeth of the hippopo- 
tamus are abundantly found in Euglajid, 
France, Germany, and Italy; several ex- 
tinct species have been determined by 
Cuvier. The bead of a hippopotamus 
was found in Lancashire, under the peat; 
bones and teetb are found in large quan- 
tities in tbe Vol d'Arno, in Italy, and in 
alluvial depoeites in the neighbourhood of 

Hi'propDS. (from ^irirDc, a horse, and 

inequilateral shell ; Innnle closed with 
crenulated edges ; the hinge formed of 
two U>ng compressed entering teeth in one 
valve and three in the other ; the ores- 
cent closed. Parkinson states that he 
does not know of any fossil shells of this 
genus having been found, hut Sonerby 
mentions fossil species. 
HippoTHE'aiDM. (from 'iiriroc, and S.|- 
piov, Gr.) Ad extinct animal, allied to 
the hprse, belonging lo t 

HIP { 

Hi'ppuBlTK. A fossil bivalve, having i 
nnder shell of greot depth, and of a con 
cal form, with a Out Ud, or opercului 
This genus ia believed Co lie wfaoUy e. 
tincL The operculum is BOmetimea coi 
TBI, but generallj it ia concave. Tl 
particular econoaiy of the iahabiCaut of 
this slieU ia not known. Lnmarck has 
placed the hippitrite among hischambered 
cephalopoda, SpeciiocnB of the upper 
chamber of hippurites hare lately been 
found in the chalk, near Lewes. Dr. 
Mantell has oBmed a Bpeeiea there dis- 
covered Hlppnritea Mortoni, after Dr. 
Morton, Secretary to the Academy cf 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Hibsc'tb. (iirmhw, Lat.) Hairy ; rough ; 
shaggy; beset with strong hairs. 

HiRSu'TENBsa. Hairioesa ; shagginees. 

Hist'NGE&iTB. A mioeral of a daric co- 
lour, occurring massive, found in the 
cavities of calcareoos Epar. 

" ' I. } (hiijiidua, Lat.> Hairy ; beset 


. r 



i MlB 

iDied after Dr. Hib 


and found by Mm in the limestone of 
Burdie House. 
Holothu'rta. a zoophyte belongiog to 
the order Pedicellata, class Ecbinnder- 
mata. The boiothuria is covered with a 
thick coriaceous skin, whicb, by means of 
longitudinal and circular bands of mus- 
cular fibres, the animal can shorten or 
lengthen at pleasure. The body is ob- 
long, and open at each end ; numErous 
[entacula snrronnd the mouth. There are 

Ho'iMiTK. A mineral, a variety of car- 
bonate of lime, named after Mr. Holme, 
who analysed it. Its constituents are 
lime, carbonic add, oiide of iroo, silica. 

HoMoaBNu'iTT. ( AomojAi/ii^, Fr. omo- 
gmeita, It.) Of the same nature ; having 
the same nature throughout. 

HoMDGe'KKAL. 1 (o/ioyfvtlc, Gr. homo. 

Homooe'nkobs. i g^f, Fr. oiBojmeD, 
It.) Similitude of kind; sameness of 

Bo>io'i.oQ0U9. {hoiAitlogyie,¥t. ni»Blagii,\t. 
bjiikayo^, Gr. ) Having the same manner 
or proportions. 

HosB. {been. Sai.) Whetstone slate. 
A variety of tolay siate, containing parti- 
clea of quartz : when these particles arc 
eioecdingly minute, and the slate pos- 
sesses B certain degree of hardness with a. 
Quiform consistence, it yields hones of the ' 
heat quality. Kirwan gave to this mine- 

18 ] II O R 

ral the name novaculite, from Hotumla, 
the Latin for a nwor. 

Ho'fjEr.sTONB. Pyramidal mellite. Tie 
Hoiiigstein of Werner ; Mellite of Hid; 
and Broogniart ; and Mellilite of Kinnn. 
It is pyramidal, its primidTe formbeiiq! 
a pyramid of 118" 4' and 93° 22'. It >a 
first discovered in Thnringia, betw«a 
ibe layers of wood-coal. It is of a hang- 
yellow colour, sometimes a little tinpil 
with brown. Transparency considcTablc. 
When heated it whiteus, and in the open 
air bums without being sensibly charted. 
It yields neither Same, smoke, nor odou. 
It is composed of altimina, water, and u 
acid to which Klaproth gave the name dI 
mellitic acid : the latter conslitotes iiva 
cent, of the whole. It differs from amM 
in its weak electricity, doable refhutilin, 
and chemical character. 

Hobizo'ntal. {horizontal, Fr. 
laie. It.) Parallel to the horizon ; fltt. 

Horizosta.'lity. Flatness ; the stale tf 
being horizontal. 

Hohtzo'mtallt. In a direction paidld U 
the horizon. 

Ho'sNBLENDB. The amphibole of U>a;. 
A mineral of a black or tiark gnta 
colour, often intermixed ; heavier tbu. 
either quartz or felspar, but leai hi ' 
its specific gravity being between 3' 
to 3-33. It enters largely into the cora- 
poaition, and forms a constituent part dT 
several of the trap rocks, and appeal 10 
connect the primary with the volcanic. 
When breathed on, it yields a pecnliu 
bitter smell. Before the blow-pipe it 
melts easily into a black or grayiib- 
black, glass. There are many vsrietiet 
of hornblende, known aa carinlhine, tre. 
molite, actynolite, calamita, araianthu. 
&c. Ike. The constituents of hem- 
blende are, aiUca 45'60, magnesia IS-MI, 
lime 14, alumina 1'18, protoxide of iron 
7-50, fluoric acid 1'50. Its colonrs ait 
produced by the oiides of chrome and 
iron. Massive hornblende is generally 
coarsely granular and lamellar ; when 
intermixed with felspar in large lamellar 
grains, it forma sienitc. This very com- 
mon mineral may, generally, be easilj 
recognized. Though sonietimeB in regu- 
lar and distinct crystals, it ia more com- 
monly the result of a confused cryiul- 
lizaCion, and appears in masses i 
of Inminie, acicular crystals, i 
variously aggregated. Though i: 
to schorl in hardneas, hornblende ui 
will scratch glass, and, though with 4: 
culty, will yield sparks with steel, 
larainatcd structure, its inferior hardnea 
and its inability of becoming ele 
heat, distinguish it from schorl. 
less hard and more easily fusible t 
augite. It diflers from epidote u ' 

:a, and the resnlta oF fii&ion. lis pi 

soft t. 

ucl^ like 


Oue of the roe- 
norphic rocks, camposed priDdpally 
hprrxbl^ndcr vith an uncertain pro- 
rtion of felspar, and somelime! grains 
qu*rt« : its colour is usually black. 
-. M'CuIlocfa observes, " hornblende 
lilt may at GteC have been mere clay, 
r day or abale is found changed by trap 
x> Lydian stone, a substance diS'ering 
im hornbleode schist altnost solely in 
OompsctDBSB and in the uniformity of 
. taxtniB. ArgilleoeOUB schist, whan in 
ntaot with granite, is sometimes con- 
' ' a hornblende schist, the schist 
ming first eiliceona, and, at the con- 
homblendB schist.'' 

Lg hornblende : 
nbling borableode. ' ' ' ' 

4E. A siliceous mineral ; a sub- 
a of quarti!. It has usually a dull 
md splintery fracture, but sometimes it 
a conchoidal. It differs from felspar in 
[ infusible without the addition of 
hali. It occurs masaive, and in e.K- 
loos exteruat shapes ; lustre dull or 
meting, opaque or translucent on the 
; sometimes the whole oiass, if 
I, has the strong translacency of cef' 
I boras. According to Kirwan, its 
Btituents tie, silica 72, alnmiua 22, 
■rbonate of lime 6. Its colours are nu- 
^^Jierous, and commonly doll. Its infusi- 
lilil^ by the blow-pipe distinguishes it 
' a petrosilex and jade. Its translu- 
;y serrei to render it distinct from 
_ier. It is generally more dull thE 
flint, and emits sparlie more feebly wi 
eel. It is deficient in lustre in cot 
uison with quartz. 
ProfifflBOr Cleaseland observes, " i 
Dcb unbignity of meaning is attached 
to the word Aantilone, that it would he 
SiTDurable to the interests of mineralogy 
U Oil term could be banished from its 
It has by some been 
gnnfoDniled with hornblende: by others 
it hoa been applied to two minerals en. 
tbnly distinct. This confusion and oh- 
Heority in the use of the word hanutone, 
Mipear to haie ariscTi in part from acci- 
^dentat rarcumstances. It is asserted by 
rwan, on the authority of Menckel, 
t this word WIS originally employed 
by miners to designate a certain stone, 
which they found difficult to be cut 
tbrongh in consequence of ila teoscity. 
~ Mrtan degree of tranalucency is 

character of horn. Heiice, as 
mineraiogists did not observe both these 

erals, o 

: of 

Hu'hid. (hu 
It.) Moil 

which possessed tenacity only, while 
the other was traueluceut, but not re- 
markably tenacious. Hence the applica- 
tion of the term homsloue to the mineral 
now called hornblende." 
Ho'rnbtonb forthykt. Tlie Homstein 
porphir of Werner. A variety of por- 
phyry nf a red, brown, purple, or black-- 
ish colour. Fracture splintery and con- 
choidal. Emits sparks when stmck with 
steel. Is EuicepCible of a fine polish. 
Ho'aTiis siceua. {Lnl-> A oollBclioD of 

dried plants. 
Hd'uboi.dite. a rare mineral, thus named 

after Humboldt. 
Hu'hebal. (from Aumtnt, Lat.) Be- 
longing to the shoolder. 
" ■ I. (Lat.) The shoulder. 

humidiig, Lat. Aitmide, Fr. umido, 
: ; wet ; damp ) watery- 
{humidiU, Fr. vmidila. It.) 
Moisture; dampness, 
Hij'mitb. a reddish-brown mineral, found 
at Somma, thus named after Sir A. 
Hd'mmoce. a mound of land. 
IIi'aclnth. (uaeivflut, Gr. hyacinlkui, 
Lat. hyacinthe, Fr.) The Hia^inth of 
Werner ; Zircon hyaciulhe of Brong- 
niart. A mineral; a variety of pyrami- 
dal zircon, of a hyacinth-red colom'. It 
is crystallized, and when in distinct cry- 
stals its ordinary form is a four-sided 
prism, terminated by four rhombic planes. 
Each plane angle at the sommit is 73° 
W. It is found in beds of streams and 
rivers along with rubies, sapphires, &c., 
hut sometimes it occurs in the primary 
rocks. It consists of, zirconia 70, silica 
25, oiide of iron 0-5. It is considered a 
gem, but is little used as such. Before 
the blow-pipe it loses its colour, but re- 
tains its transparency. With borai it 
melts into a transparent glass. 
Htaci'nthink, a mineral of a brown or 
greenish colour, asnolly crystallized in 
rectangular eight-sided prisms- Frac- 
ture imperfectly coDchoidal. Transparent. 
Causes double refraction. 
Hyaci'nthine. Of the colour of hya- 
cinth ; resembling hyacinth ; containing 
Htalc'a. (So named from its semi- 
transparent shell.) A genus of Plero- 
pods, or animals furnished with organs 
only for swimming and sailing. TUe 
Hyateea has the appearance of a bivnlve 
with soldered valves, the upper one being 
the largest ; this difference of size of the 
" lg valves causes an aperture through 
nimal sends forth two large 
iolet wings, or sails, rounded 

which t 
yellow a 

H Y A [II 

and divided at their summil: ioCo three 
labBB. When its wiiige, or saib, are 
unfolded, it movea with grest velocity on 
the Btirface of the eea. The Pterspods, 
both from the beantiful colooring of their 
filmj wings, and from their numbor and 
ijmuietry, are better entitled to the sp- 
pellation of the butterflies of the ocean, 
than the escalop sheila, which have 
someUmea been 60 called.— R™. W. 
HT'ALiNB. (from/jyo/iw.Lat. iiiXoc. Gr.) 

Ht'alitk. (iidXoc, Gr.) A yellowish or 
greyiah Tariety of uncleavable quarta or 
opal. It exhibita the nanal appearance 
of 1 coacreCion, and differs bnt little 
from caleedonj, except in posaesaing s 
TitreoDB lostre, and anmetimes a loose 
teitnre. It is found in secondary trap 
rocka ; it occura in grains, filameuts, and 
rhomboidal masaea. It ia infusible befoie 
the blow-pipe. It is nearly all ailica, its 
component parts being silica 92-00, wa- 
ter 6'.S3, 

1. The w 

2. That part of the plant which defends 
the embryo from injuries arising from 

Hybe'iinai.. (hibenaa, Lat.) Belonging 

to the winter. 
!Ii'bbh.natk. To pass the winter in pUcea 

protected from the cold, as some animals 

borrow in the earth, others in the tmnks 

of trees, &c. &c. 

1. The passing of the winter season in a 
situation protected from cold. 

2. In many animals a general suspension 
of the actions of life, extending even to 
the vital functions of respiration and cir- 
culation, takes place during the winter 
roontha. constituting what ia termed by- 

Hv'BniD. (ii/3pic, Gr. hybrids, Lat. ky- 
bride, Fr.) Mongrel; a term applied 
both to plants and aniinals, when of a 

HyRODONT. (from i^isi and dm, Lat,} 
A sub-family of sharks, according to the 
■mmgement of M. Agassii. They seem 
to have begun with the coal formation, 
to have conlinued throughout the oolitir 
deposition, and to have ceased at the 
beginning of the chalk formatiou. The 
teeth of this sub-family possess characters 
intermediate between the blant crushing 
teeth of ceatraciouts, and the sharp cut- 
ting teeth of squaloids. 

Hr'BODCS. A genus of fishes that pre- 
vailed throughout the oolitic period. It 
is well remarked by Prof. Buckland, "not 
a single genua of nil that are found in 

the oolitic aeries exist at the preacri 

HtbaVid. (vSarIg, Gr. hydatide, Fr. 

An order of internal worms. In hydatid 
there has not been discovered any van ' 
system. Hydatids, so frequently foi 
in the liver and other parts of the b 
in mammalia, have been considered 
Bome as animals, consisting merely of I) 
stomach ; by others, as a matrix, dt 
womb, from something like young hydiM 
tids being frequently found adbering t 
their inner aide. Hydatids immersed ' 
warm water, immediately alter being <i 
tained from a living animal, are obKTV 
to have a contractile power, but the 
have no external opening ; they are pd 
lucid spherical boi^es, of diiferent si 
and kinda. Each eonssts of two no 
the inner of which is extremely deliosti 
They do not possess any visible blo~'* 
vessels, though the sac containing tli 
has abundance of vessels, nerves, i 
derived from those of the organ ■» 
which it is connected. Hydatida OQ 
not to be confounded with watery vi 
cics, connected occasionally with 
kidney, &c. which are not enclosed 
cysts, have no small hydatids adbering t 

their inner surface, and want c 

tility. There are many genera. 
Ht'drate, (from vSup, Gr.) A 

cal compound in definite proportiou * 
a solid body with water, atill ret«tiUB| 
solid form. It must, however, be bof 
in mind that when water in combl&ati 
with other bodies contribates (as ia of] 
tallized bodies) to their regular form n_^ 
transparency, it is tlien termed water) 
crystallization. The hydratea are mii 
reus, as hydrate of alumine, baryta, i 
bait, copper, limCj mi^nesia, potaMli ' 


^ its solid form. 
HvDBAu'iic. 1 WpnuXic. Qr.hvdr 
Htdhau'lical. ). ™t, Li - ■ ■ ' 
Hydrau'lick. J Ft. idr 

lating to the conveyance of wat« 
pipes. The siphuncle of the 
ammonite, belemnite, &c. forms 
beautiful and complete hydraniic 

Hv'DBAtiLics. The science of the 
of fluids, and the construcdon of ^1 
and macluQe* 

Hy'dhoobw. (frombfupoi 
One of the fifty-five simp 
bodies. InHamniable air, proved bj Cl 
vendish to be the basis of w"'" " *"' 

name. It can be obtained only ftoi^ 

water. Hydrogen is colonrlcsa, and Im 

commonly a slight odour of garlic; il i^ 

H Y D [ 1 

: Bbsotbable by water j it Is devoid of 
twte, and is destructive of life when re- 
qiired for an; time. It ia the lightest 
body knonn, 100 cubic iacheg weighing 
onlj 2'25 grains, or being nenrly thirteen 
times ligbter than ntmo«|)heric air. It ie 
eombiiscible, and, whea pure, burns with a 
yellovish -white flame. Hydrogen enters 
into the campoailian at all waters, and is 
evolted in a componnd state from vol- 
caooa, from certain fissures in the eartli, 
and in diiitrictB where coal is found. 

(Two votumee of hydrogen uoiCewith one 
0f oxygen in the production of water. 
)U for as the superRcifs of our planet is 
BBnaemed, water so predominates, that, at 
nwt sight, hydrogen might be considered 
■■ coiutitnting a aubstance of more rela- 
tive abuDdaoce than it really does. The 
quantity of hydrogen locked up in cool is 
cooaiderahle. According to Dr. Thom- 
I, csnne! ooal contains 21 per cent, of 
t, altbougb in the Newcastle caking coal 
'~e proportion is but a trifle more than 
nt. Hydrogen may be considered 
most important sabstance of 
3t to oxygen, which enters ii 
le compoaition of tbe earth's cmst. 

" jmbioed with hydi 

_ iB. (from vSiiip and ypaipw, 

■iSr> hydrographe, Fr. idrogrnfo,\t.) One 
^^\o draws maps of the sea-coast, rocks, 
ands, shoals, &c. 

) Relating to a descrip- 
t tion of the sea- 
ist, rooks, islands, &c. &c. 

(from Ubig and ypii^a, 
\ Gr. idrografia. It. hydrographie, Fr.) 
Seicription of the watery part of the 
l^obe ; the art of measoring and de- 
Rcribing the sea, rivers,. canals, lakes, &c. 
With regard to the sea, it gives an ac- 
count of its tides, counter- tides, sound- 
ings, bays, gulfs, creeks, &c. aa also of 
the rocks, sbelves, sands, shallows, pra- 
moutoriea, tiarhours ; the distance aud 
beariog of one point from anolber ; with 
CTcr; thing that is remarkable either at 
m or on the ooust. 
Hidko'hbtbe. (from iimp and piTfov, 
Gt. hgdromitfe, Fr. idromelro, It.) Aa 

for u 

I the e 

depth, gravity, density, and velocity of 

Hr^DBOFBANE. (from liJwn and ^nd 
Gr.) A variety of opal which is opaijue 
and wliite when dry, but by immersion i 
water becomes transparent. 

Hv'DaoPBTTB. (from vliup and ^vrbi 
Gr.) A plant which lives and growa i 
water. Mr. Lyell observes, " the nan 
ber of hydrophytes is very oonaidcrabL 
and their stations more varied than cool 
have been antioipated ; for while son 

] H Y M 

plants are covered and uncovered diily 
by the tide, othera live in abysses of the 
ocean, at the eitraordinary depth of one 
thousand feet : and although in sBch 
aitnationa there mast reign darkness more 
profound than night, at least to onr 
organs, many of these vegetables are 
highly colon red." — Principtfs of Geology. 



Y rwici Gr.) Kelat. 

Hvdkobta'ticai,. J ing to that biBQcli of 
science termed hydrostatics. 

Hv'dbobtatios. (from G^upand arariE&Ci 
Gr. hydroatatique, Fr. idrotlalica, It.) 
The science which treats of the natore, 
gravity, pressure, and equilibrium of 
fluids, and of tbe weighing of solids in 

I of hydrogen 

with a metal. 


Gr. hygromitre, Fr. iijrometTO, It.) An 
instrument for measuring tbe degree of 
moisture of the atmosphere. There are 
various kinds of hygrometers ; far what, 
ever either sweUs by moisture, or ahrinks 
by dryness, ia capable of being formed 
into an hygrometer. 
Ivgbome'tbiCal. Relating to hygro- 

IvGno'METRV. The art of measuring tbe 
degree of moiatnre in the atmosphere. 

iTLfOsAu'Kus. A foEsil lizsrd discovered 
in the wealden fomiatian of Tilgate 
forest by Dr. Mantell, and fully described 
by him in bis Geology of the South-Eaat 
of England. The Hylseosaurus, or Lisard 
of the Weald, was discovered in 1832. 
Its probable length was about twenty-live 
feet. It is characterised by a series of 
long, flat, and pointed bones, which ap- 
pear to have formed a lat^e dermal 
fringe, resembling the honea on the back 
of the modern iguana. In thia reptile the 
OEtBology of the lizard seems blended with 
that of tlie crocodile. Dr. Mantell ob- 
aervea, " the most eitraordinary parts are 
many enormous, angular spinous bones, 
wliidi lie in tbe direction of tbe vertebral 
column, and evidently eiteoded originally, 
like a serrated fringe, along the back of 
tbe animal." 

Iymkno'pteba. (from iiiiiv&VTtpo^, Gr. 
alas Btembranaceat habenei membrane- 
winged.) Cnvier makes Hymenoptera 
tlie ninth order of the class Insects. 
They have four membranoua wings, and 
the tail of tbe female is usually armed 
with a sting. Though the insects of thia 
order are included in the mandibulate 
section, for their month is furnished with 
mandibles and maiillie, yet they do not 
generally nse them to masticate their 
food, bnt for purposes usually connected 
with their Gei^viencB of 'vna'iSncu<, u "Cobi 

H Y M [I 

bee> in buildiug their celU ; Che wasps iu 
■oraping porticleii of wood froQi poaU aad 
nils for B similar purpose, and likewise 
to seixe their prey ; but the great instru- 
meot bf vhich the; collect their food is 
their tongae; this the beea pardcularly 
bBVB the power of inflating, and con wipe 
with it both convex and oonoRve eurfacei ; 
and with it the; iick, hut not mci, the 
honey from the biossoms, for Reanmnr 
has proved that this organ acta as a 
tongue and not as a pump. Some of 
the Hymenoptera prefer a TegeCable 
Htueno'fteb.ovs. Belonging to the order 
Hymenoptera ; having tour membranous 

B™/BarHB«E. ) (from iirtp and uekvos, 

Ht'pebstbne. t Gr. ) Prismatoidal 
Sohiiler-epur. Labrador Schiller -spar. A 
mineral of a greenish-black cotaur, bat 
en the cleavage of a copper-red. Occurs 
iu granular and lameUar concretions, 
and massive. It is foand in Lsbriulor, 
in the Isle of Skye, in Banffshire, and in 
the Shetland Isles. It is composed of 
lilica, magnesia, alumina, lime, and oxide 
of iroQ. the last of which is said to form 
one-fourth of the whole. 

Byfeilstbe'nic. Containiiig hyperatbene ; 
reaetabUng hypersthene. 

Hvpochate'riform. Salver-shaped ! a 
term apphed to a monopetalous corolla, 

] JAN 

the limb of which being placed 01 
spreads out homontaUy. 
IyFoe*'sTRic. (from utto and yaariip, 
Gr.) Belonging to that region of tha 
abdomen which is called tbe hypogat- 

Ivpoga'bth.iuh. The lower anterior re- 
gion of the abdomen, from a little below 
the umbilicus to the pnbes. 

Iy'pogene. (from uiru and yivotiai, GrJ 
A term applied to rocks, eipresiiog tbtf 
they have assumed their form, or sCroe- 
ture, at a depth from the surface. 

Mr. Lyell, who proposes to give thti 
term to certain rooks, obaervea, •' It wiH 
appear that the popular nomeaclature of 
geology, in reference to the so called 
' primary' roclcs, is not only imperfect, 
but in a great degree founded on a false 
theory ; inasmuch as some granites and 
granitie schists are of origin posterior to 
many secoudary rocks. In other word;, 
some primary formations can already be 
shown to be newer than many secondary 
groupB, amanifest cautradiotion in terms." 
To obviate this difficulty, Mr. Lyell pre- 
fers the term bypogene, as one not of 
chronological import, bat implying the 
theory that such rocks are netherformed, 
and have not assnmed their form and 
strnctnre at the surface.^ — Principta iff 

Iy'bthi.i. (Borp.?, Gr.) -fhe ] 

I J 

Ia'db. The Nephrit of Werner ; Neph- 
rite of Jameson ; called also nephritic 
stone, nephrite, and aie-stone. It was 
formerly much celebrated forits supposed 
medicinal properties in nephritic affec- 
tions, or diseases of the kidneys. It is 
found in Hungary and Siberia, America, 
Egypt, and China. The iuhabitauls of 
New Zealand form it into axes, and other 
cutting instruments, from which circum- 
stance it has obtained the name of axe- 
stone. Its surface is snioothj fracture 
splintery. It has a greasy feel. Colour 
dark le^-green. In hardness, jade is, at 

) qnar 

t pOSBI 

peouliar tenacity 
either to break, cut, or polish. Brocbant 
states its fresh fracture to present 
paler green than that of its surface. E 
fore the blow-pipe it fuses easily, and with 
a slight ebullition, into a bead of white 
semi-transparent glass. Its analysis 
very variously given by different authors ; 
its constituents are according to some 
silica, carbonate of magnesia, iron, alu- 
mina, carboaale of Lime ; others add 

chrome, onide of manganese, soda, and 
pntassB. In consequencs of its tenacity 
it has been wrought into chains and other 
delicate works. 
jA'iiQBD. Irregularly cut or notched, and 
with (he appearance of having been 
knawed ; denticulated i uneven; tiKillKd 

suing a 

A MK90NITB, A mineral, thus named after 
Prof. Jameson by Haldinger ; axotomuu 
antimony-glance. It was first disoovraed 
in Cornwall, in day-slate, and it ha* Iweii 
since found in Germany and Siixria. Iti 
colour is sleel-grey. It consists of lad, 
antimony, sulphur, and iron. 

A'stBiNA. (fromian/Aum, Lat. BTilrfft.) 
Tlie violet snail. A purple-colonred Bi- 
valve shell, nearly resembling a snail ii 
its form: it is recent, and oommosly 
fonnd in the Mediterranean. Ths iabi- 
bitaiits of this shell is said, when inl- 
tated, to dischai^ a purple secreaon. 

Ia'nthina fbaoilis. A species of jui- 

JAN [ 1 

io«. Mr. Lyell reniBrks "the janthina 
ngilig has wandered into almost nerv 
a, both tropical and temperate. Thi'a 
immon oceaoic shell derives its buoy.. 
icjf from an admirably contrived Host, 
bich has enabled it not ool; to liiaperge 
leir so uniteraall;, bat to becDme an 
itjve a^nt id diBseiniDating other spe- 
cs, which attach themeelves, or their 
r«, to its shell. — Principles nf Gealagy. 
According to the account giten by Bobc, 
\eJBiithiiut eihibits many remarkable pe- 
iliarittes. When the leaiscalm, these 
limali may be seea collected often in 
bands, swimming o*er the anrface 
means of a floating apparatna conaiat- 
; of aerial Yeaiclea produced by their 
<t. Daring this action their bead is 
■J prominent, and ihe foot is eo el- 
ided thut the float or line of vesicles 
ms an angle with the middle of the 
When the sea ia rough, the animal 
I the air from its vesicles, chani;ea 
e direction of its foot, contracts its body. 
\d lets itself sink. It does the same 
lieii in danger from any enemy, and 
le the cuttle-fish, has the power of 
ittting a coloured fluid, which, by 
d«rlcening the sarronnding water, serves 
conceal it from view. If the floating 
iparatuB be injured or deatroyed. there 
ists a reprodactivB power ia the Foot, 
ij which it can be restored. 

iB zircon jargon of Brong- 

. neral, a variety of zircon. 

'bi'SK. (jaupe, Fr. pierre dure et opaque, 
'\ la ttatare de ragale: jaipide. It.) 
sub-speciea, a variety of riiombohedral 
lartx. It ia an ingredient in the com- 
Kition of many moimtains. It occnra 
laatly in large amorphous masses, and 
imetimes alao cryataJlized in six-sided 
iima. Fracture conchoidal. It is aaid 
I compose the substance of entire ranges 
'the A.siatia mountains. When quart;! 
combined with a considerable propor- 
>n of iron andelnmine, it loses its trans- 
becomes jasper. There are 
ly varieties of jasper, diatingnished 
incipally by their dl&rent colours, and 
t srrangement of their colours. Mr. 
Jiewell states, "there can be little 
that jasper has been, in many in- 
inoes, formed by subterranean heat, 
ting with great intensity on beds of ar- 

I shale, containing iron.'' 

■I UK AH. ) Reeemblingjaaper ; contain- 

•i'dIOCB. ( ingjaaper. 

»wa.a. (from ice and berg, Germ.) 

ma, floating upon the sea, sometimes of 
onnouB mi^itude and great height, 
ebergshave been seen of the great height 
300 feet, and ae it has been ascertained 
it for every foot above the surface of 

3 ] I C il 

the sea-water there are eight feet below, 
the whole thickness must be immense. Id 
II geological point of view, icebergs are to 
be viewed as very importunt and power- 
ful agents, inasmuch as they arc the 
means of transporting to great dietanoea, 

IcHTBTODo'auLi^E. The fossil dorsal 

like hooks, or ])rickles. These were long 
supposed, says Prof. Buckland, to be 
jaws, and true teeth ; more recently they 
have been ascertained to be dorsal spines 
□f fishes, and, from their supposed defea< 
aive office, hate tieen named iehlAyodo- 
rulilet, from the Greek worda ixBie, a 
fish, i6pv, a spear, and Xiflns, a stone. 
I'cHravoLiTE. (from i\ei}<:, and Xifloc, 
Gr. icMgolifr. Fr.) Fossil fish; a pe- 
trified fish. Fossil fishes occur in all the 
Engliah formations, &om the old red 
sandstone to the tertiary deposits incla- 

IcHTHVOLo'oicAi.. Relating to ichthyo- 
logy, or that branch of zoology which 
treats of the structure, habits, &c. of 

Iohthvo'looist. One who pursues the 
study of ichthyology. 

IcHTQTo'Loor. (from lx9ic, a lish, and 
^oyos. Gr. discourse ; ichlyologie, Fr. 
ietologia. It.) That branch of aoology 
which treats of the structure, classifica- 
tion, habits, aod history of fishes. 

IcHTHYo'pHAGons. (fium lyeSff, n fish, 
and (Siiyui, Gr. to eat ; irhlhgnpkagt, Fr. 
coliii the tvm li eiba d'aUro jMorcM lU 
peKi, It.) Feeding on fish. 

IcHTHTo'pHAOT. The practice of feed- 

ohtbtosao'ros. (from 'x9iQ. a fish, 
and oavpac, Gr. a lizard) A lish-like 
lizard t an immense fossil marine-aaurian 
or reptile, having an intermediate orga- 
nization between that of a lizard and a 
fish. Thenameappearstohavebeengiven 
to it by Mr. Kiinig. The genua comprises 
many species; aome of these attain a 
magnitude not inferior to that of yoong 
whales. The head of the ichthyoaaurua 
resembled that of a dolphin, its teeth were 
conical, sharp, and striated, and exceed- 
ingly numeroos, in some cases amoontiDg 
to nearly two hundred, not encloBed in 
separate sockets, but as in the crocodile, 
ranged in one coutinnous groove, or fur- 
row, of the maxillary bone ; as also in 
the crocodile, abundant provision waa 
made for replacing the old teeth, as they 
were lost, by a supply of new ones. The 
eye was of enormous magnitude, the 
orbit in some instances meBj>aring four- 
teen inches in its longer diameter, and 
Professor Buckland stales, ■' We have 
evidence that it poEseased both micrg- 


nd I 

, , , the 

u before mentioned, those of 
dile ; the vertebrK nenrly resembled tho9« 
of the shark, being hour-gl»« abiped ; 
the Tertpbral column wna coinjioseiJ of 
more than one hmidred pieces; the riba 
were slender, and the uujorilj of them 
bifurcated , or forked, at the top j the 
bones of the sternum were atroog and 
largely developed, and combined nearly 
in the same manner as in the urnithoryn- 
choa or platypus. The iehthyoBaurua 
had four paddlee, the form of its ex- 
tremities deviating from the sauHana and 
approaching the mammalians, being uon- 
lerted from feet inti) tins ; these fina, or 

of 1 

:a eocloaed in one fold of iDtegnment ; 
the fore-paddle nras composed of nearly 
one hundred bonea, and like the mam- 
malians it possessed a humerus, or 
ahonlder bone, a radius and ulna, or the 
bonea of the fore arm, and pbalangca ; the 
bonea of the phaJnngca were polygonal 
and exceedingly nam era us, as before 
stated . The hind- paddles nere very 
mnch smaller, containing only from thirty 
to forty bones. The general cDufornia- 
tion of the icbtbyosaurua must hove 
greatly resembled that of Ihe Jiorpoise or 
grampus. Its teeth would hare EU9ici< 
entlj proved it to have been caroivorous, 
but the subseqaent discovery of its fiecal 

finding within the intestinal canal the 
half-digested remains of fishes and rep- 
tiles, render thia point quite certain ; 
UliB the crocodile, it muat hate gorged its 
prey entire ; its stomach was exceedingly 
capacious, forming a sort of pouch, or 
tac, and extending through nearfy the 
whole body. The fossil remaina of the 
Ichthyosaurus have been discovered in 
the bos formation, and it appears to have 
I become extinct at the termination of tbe 
secondai'y series of geological formations. 
It is however tbe opinion of Mr, Bake- 
well that tbe ichthyosaurus, or some spe- 
cies of a similar genus, is still existing in 
the present seas, and with bis remarks 
the description of tbe fish-like lizard wilL 



a large animal was seen for several sum- 
mers in the Atlantic, uear the coast of 
the United States, and was called tbe 
great eea-sErpent, I am informed by 
Professor Silliman, that many persons 
who attested the existence of the sea ser- 
pent from their own obaervations, were so 
highly respectable, both for intelligence 
and veracity, that their evidence could 
not be disputed. 1 remember one of the 
most particular descriptions of the sea- 
lerpent was given by an American csp- 

« the a 

■ Utgt 

body froiQ the water 
represenWd it as of great iength, asd 
about the bulk of a lar^e water oesk ; it 
had paddles somewhat like a turtle, asd 
eoormonsjawa like the crocodile. Thil 
description certainly approaches to, « 
may be said to correspond with, theiiih 
thyosauTDs, of which animal the CKpUn 
had probably never heard.-'— Aktwdfl 
IntraduelioB lo Grolopi/. 
iBTHVoPHTRA'LtfiTE. (from i^S^, at! 
i^BaXiiog, Gr.) Fish-eye slone; ip>- 
phyllite ; pyramidal zeolite ; the fisckaa' 
gensteio of Werner ; meaotype eponlfl: 
of Haiiy. It is of a white colour, mi 
semi-transparent, or tranalnceot. Oam) 
both crystallized, and massive. T 
primitive form of its crystals is a fiH 
sided prism, with reetangnlar baaea. 
is easily divisible by percussion, into '■ 
mins, whose broader surfaces ore spit 
dent and somewhat pearly. It searcdf. 
scratches gUss, and doe« not yield apaiki 
when atnick with steel. Speinfic gtaviQ, 
2'l(i. Before tbe blow-pipe it eifblicter 
froths, and eventually melts into • 
opaque bead. It is composed of lilii 
50, lime 23, potash 4, water IB, wilb 
trace of fluoric acid. It is found L 
secondary trap-rocks in the Hebrides uJ 
other parts of Scotland, in Sweden, 

■^ esprei 

a material ; those in erm indicate the 
terial itself : thus, niembransceus. resen- 
bling skin ; membraneua, skin itself; 
riaceous, leathery; latericius, reiemUiiiS 

Icoba^hg'dral. (from icosaiedrmt.) Hat- 
ing twenty equal sides or faces. 

Icosahe'bron. ((I'lOodtSpoc, Gr. 
dre, Fr. isusaedro, It.) A regular Bolid> 
consisting of twenty triangalar pyramid>t 
whose vertices meet in the centre of 
sphere supposed to circumscribe it j tt 
therefore have their height and baiel 
equal : wherefore the solidity of one of 
these pyramids multiplied by twenty, ths 
number of bases, gives tbe solid, conteoti 
of the icossibedron. 

Gr.) The twelllh class in Ldnni 


g of pi 

aphrodite flowers, tiimished 
twenty or more stamens, inserted int 
calyx. The first order of this class 
sisCs of trees bearing for the most 
stone fruits, surrounded by a pulp, a 
plum, peach, cherry, 4c. ; in the 
order we find the apple, pear, &c. ; u 
third order, the genus rosie. In thit 
the stamens grow out of tbe sides o1 
calyx, as in the strawberry, and it is 



might o 

nith E 

n fruit, need 
find the stomei 

itar of the insertion of Ibc stamens 

the caJyi holds good in other claesei, 

well u in the class Icosaodria ; thus. 

the genus Ribea, inoluding tha goofle- 

■ and curnuit, whiah belong to the 

FenCaaitria, the atomeDa grow out of 

e gbIji, and these fruits are well known 

be wbolEBonie, whUe many of the ber- 

a of the same cla?a, whose stamens 

re not a like inaertion, are often very 

t. Belonging to 
idria ; haring twenty or 
, inserted into the ealyi. 
lORASB. (fi'om Ilia and Kpi 
, mineral found in hiva, aoi 
iiBtaben for the hyacinth ; it 

rnRSONiTE. A mineral found in New 
eree;; colour olive-greea pasaing into 
is named ailer Mr. Jeffer- 

..C. Gr.) 
the Ve- 

(froRi Gaga, a river of Asia; jagel, 

.) The Jayet of Haiiy ; Lignite Jayet 

__ BrongoiarC ; Pech Kohle of Werner. 

A mineral subatauce. found in detached 

idney-formed massea iu many coutitriea. 
It U of a firm and very even atructure, 

U-der than aaphaltum, and susceptible of 
good polish. It beaomes electrical by 

nbbiiu;, attracting light bodies, like am- 

er. £i many respects it reaemblea can- 
Bcd-coa], its colour is Ml-black, and it 
doei not soil the Gngere. It ia, however, 
Bwily dblinguished from canoel-coal, in 
being specifically lighter tban water, which 

innel-eoal ia not, and in poasessing elec- 

fropertiea which connel-cool does 
□me peraons have supposed that 
>t ia a tme amber, differing only in the 
lere drcumatance of colour. During 
jombosldon it emits a bitamioODs smell. 
Et ii never found in strata or continued 
BUMS, bnt always in aeparate and uii- 
nninected heaps. 

It is formed into various trinkets, and 
li poiticnlarly used for making monrning 

" Its, such as ear-rings, brooches, 

I, buttona, &c. 
a-BlOHB. An extraneona fossil, being 
_ e elevated spine of a very large egg- 
ihaped sea-nrchin. or echinus. 
onotri. {ij/neut. Let. i^n^e, Yr. igneo, 
It.) Fiery; cunCainiug fire; produced 
i^ die BctioD of fire. In this last sense 
'* '- commonly used by geologists when 
ing of igiieous rocks, or igneous pro- 

gne'bcint. {ignttcmt, Lat.) Giving 

out sparki of fire when atmck. 
GtJi'^LUous. (igmfiuut, Lat.) Flowing 

with fire. 
SNiVoMoiTS. (igni 

vomits fire. Volca 

gua'na. a species of liisrd, a native of 
many porta of America and the Weat In- 
diea, is rarely m«t with any where north 
or south of the tropics. It is from three 
to five feet long, from the end of the 
anout to the tip of the toil. It inhabit! 
rocky and woody places, and feeds on in- 

the iguana aub»Bta apon fruit, grain, and 
leavea : Bosc, that it Uvea princiiially 
upon insects. It nestles in hollow roalia 
and trees. The female lays its egga, 
which have a thin skin Uke those of the 
turtle, and are about the size of those of 
a pigeon, in the sand. Tiiongh not am- 
pliibious, they are said to be able to re- 
main under water an hour. When they 
awim, they do not nae their feet, bnt placB 
them close to their body, and guide them- 
selvea with their tails. Captain Belcher 
found, in the island of Isabella, awarma 
of iguanas, that appeared omnivorouB. 
Thia statement proves both Cuvier and 
Bosc to be correct. Tha teeth of the 
iguana are not fitted for comminuting its 
food, and it ia said to awaUow it wliole. 
cua'hodon. Anestioct fossil colossal lizard, 
discovered in the strata of Tilgate Forest by 
that indefatigable historian of the chalk and 
Wealden formation, Dr. Maotell, to whose 
profound and scientific researches tbe 
world is indebted for a knoiriedge of thia 
genus, and whose splendid mnsenm has 
lately, to the disgrace of tbe county of 
Suasei, been removed from Brighton to 
the British Museum. The following de- 
scription of this huge animal ie almost 
entirely taken from Dr. Mantell's Geology 
of tbe Soutb-Eaat of Enghind. He ob- 
serves, " the discovery of the teeth and 
otberremains of a nondescript herbivorous 
reptile in the strata of Tilgate Forest, a 
needhy Cuv" ' ' ' 


e plus 


the most gratifying results of my labours. 
The remains of one of these immense ani- 
mals liave lately been found in tbe Kent- 
ish Rag, near Maidstone. The Kentish 
rag is a grey arensceoua limestone, be- 
longing to the Shanklio sands. From the 
great resemblance in the dentatiire, aa 
well as in many other extraordinary cha- 
racteristics, of this immense reptile to 
that of the iguana, Dr. Mantel! detemuned 
on Duming it the Iguanodon, signifying an 
animal having teeth hke tbe iguana. In 
the perfect teeth, and in those which have ' 

f 1MB [I: 

been bnt little worn, the crown is some- 
nliat of a prismatic form ; widest, uiJ 
must depressed, in front; conTei posCe- 
riorlf, and rather fl&ttened at tile sides. 
As Boon Bs the tooth emerges from the 
gum it gradualif enlai^s, sjid its edges 
approach each other and terminate in a 
point, making the upper part of the cronn 
angular ; the edges forming the side of 
this angle are deeply seiratEd, or i' 
tated t and the teeth exhibit two kinds of 
provisions to msintain sharp edges along 
the cutting surface : the first the serrated 
edge already described ; the second, a 
provision of eompensation for the gradual 
destruction of this edge, by substitu' 
a plate of thin enamel, to maintain a 
ting power io the anterior portion of the 
tooth, until its entire substance was con- 
sumed. These teeth were sometimes two 
inches and a half in length. While the 
crown of the tooth was diminishing above, 
an absorption of the fang was proceeding 
below, caused by the pressore of a new 
tooth rising to replace Ihe old one, until 
by continual consumption, both above and 
below, the middle portion of the older 
tooth was reduced to a hollow stump, 
which fell from the jaw to make room for 
its more efficient snccessor. The size at- 
tained by the iguanodon appears to have 
been enormous, the average length fi^im 
the snont to the tip of the tail being esti- 
mated by Dr. Maniell at seventy feet, 
while, be considers, some may have been 
one hundred feet in length. This Ust 
calculation Prof. Buckland deems impro- 
bable, but he gives a length of seventy 
feet to the iguanodon. A thigh-bone in 
the possession of Dr. ManteU is three 
feet eight inches long, and thirty-live 
inches round, at its lai^est extremity. 
The length of the hind foot is supposed to 
have been wi feet and a-balf; the cir- 
eomference of the body, fourteen feet and 
a-hilf. A most remarkable appendage 
possessed by the iguanodon was a horn of 
bone, placed upon the nose, equal in 
and resembling in form, the lesser 
of the rhinoceros ; here was a further 
analogy between the extinct fossil i_ 
nodon and the recent iguana. The base 
of this nasal horn was of an irregular 
form, ejid slightly concave. It posst 
an osseous stmcture, and appears to 
had no internal cnvit;. It is evident that 
it was not attached to the skull by a bony 

Imbe'dded. Inclosed by surrounding mat- 

1'UBBICATEU. {imbriealus, Lat.) Laid 
one over the other at the edges, like the 
tiles of a house. In botany, applied to 
leaves, when lying one over the other like 
tiif J upon a house ; applied also to tbs 

3 ] INC 

leaves of the calyx when lying one i 

(ua'llbaslk. Incapable of being cx>.> 
tended by hammering or beating. 

ipa'lfable. (impalpable, Fr. impa 
bile, It.) That cannot be fclt i not 
oeptible to the touch ; not giitty. 

ipK'nNoua. Wanting wings. 

ick'bfobAtk. ) (from in and perfiirabit, 

tPE'BroRATKn. i Lat.) l^ot perforate ; 
having no opening ; not pierced. 

ipEftMEAHi'LiTY. The State of being 

ipe'bheable. Not admitting the paange 
of fluids through its pores or intentlcei. 

ipe'rvious. Impenetrable ; nnpass^rie. 

MPBTua. {impetui, Lst.) Force; vio- 
lence ; the force with which one body 
dashes against another. 

' (in^'«;a, Lat.) To fall against ; 

" 1 



: of 

3 the exclusion of 
IPO Bocs. Devoid of pores, of inter- 

icande'scbnce. (from ineontf e#co, Lat.) 

White heat. 

iCANDE'ecEMT. White-hot; white fnm 

intense heat, far exceeding red-hot. 

lino, IL ) Bright carnation oolonr ; of a 

flesh colour. 
NCA.TATED. (tncoKattit, Lot.) Hol- 

lowed ; scooped out ; made hollow. 
;CAV ACTION. A hollow place. 
[ci'sEKATB. To burn to ashes, 
rciNBBA'TioN, Tho act of boming to 

Nci'soR. (from incirorw. Lit,) A fore 

or cutting tooth. 

icoub'kbnce. ) Want of cohesion ; want 
icobk'renct. i of adherence. 
jcohb'bent. Wanting coheaioni BD- 

connected ; loose. 

jcoubd'stible. (ineomliuetilile, Pr.) 

That will not burn ; that is not conmmed 

by the action of fire. 
icoMHu'sTiBLENESB. The propcrtf of 

resisting the action of fire. 

<condb'n SABLE. That cannot be fbreed 

into a smaller compass, 

ico'NOauona. {iricoBffruia, Lat. incm- 

ffm, Fr. jncon^ruD, It.) Unsuitable; 

not fitting. 

ico'hpobate. (^inearpore, Lat. iiunir- 

porer, Fr. incorporare. It.) To mingle 

difierent sabstancea so as to reduce thero 


Lai.) To 
I, Lat.) Much 

INC [ 1! 

loUea st one portion of its length ; 
lunded sad somewhat evoUea. 
bassa'tion. The act of thicVeoing; 
le Btate of growing Ibick. 
jnEHENT- {iiicremeHlum, Lot.) In- 
reasei matter added. 
Bi'scBNT. (iHcreicnu, Lat.) Increas- 
■g; growing larger. 

BtrsTA'TiON. (iHcrvKlalio, Lat. I'o- 
nutation, Fi. iiuroitalura, It.) An 
dhcrent coTHring; gomething BUpurin- 
coadng of ailiceona matter. 

fba'tion. (iHCuialio, Lat. inevbaliiM, 

■) The act of Bitting upon eggi for 

I pnrpose of hatching them. 

'kvatk. (iiicMfTO, Lat.) To bend; 

make crooked. 

A state of bending or 

and dfdduun, 
,) Not&Uing off; not shed, aa the 
es of trees, but evergreen . 
lOHPo'sABLE. That cannot be de- 
esolved, into its primnrj 

lUKiTE. A whitish or grey mineral, 
Itronght from the Camatic, found in 
BMisei, of a fbhated etructure, and hav- 
ing B shining lustre. 

RDICDLITB. (from indigo, and XiSof, 
Gr.) An indigo-cclonied mineral Found 
tin Sweden. It occors crjstallized, and 
it conaidered a variety of ahorl. 
IDi'eEHOUE. (indigata, hat. indigiTif, 
fc.y NatiTB to a country ; originally 
horn, or produced, in a particular coun- 
try. The term is more usually applied 
to plantB thiiD animals; thus plaots " ~ 
natural prodoce of any pardculai ( 
tfy, are Baid to be indigenous to 

ITdd'ctIdn. {induclio, induciioa, 
tfr.indaiirme. It.) A consequence drawn 
fi^tm Beroral propoaitiona or principles 
flrat laid down ; reasoning from particn- 
Ian to generaU, as when from several 
particular propositions ne infer on 
neral. The process hy which a 
principle ie collected from an a^emblage 
at facts, baa been termed indttclion. 

] INF 

MDc'siA. {indtmia, Lai.) The C3t»e Or 
covering of certain lanse ; generally used 
plnrally, indiaia, 

NDo'»iAi.. Compoaed of indnaiie; con* 
taining induaia. Mr. Lycll itatea, 
" there ig another remarkable form of 
fresh-water limestone inAuvergnei called 
indnnBl, from the caaea, or iudustie, of 
the larviB of Fhrygania, great heaps oF 
which have been encrustfd, as they lay, 
hy hard travertin, and farmed into a 

I.ndd'sial LTUBB-roMt, A fresh-water 
limestone to which Che name iuditidal has 
been given, Irom its containing the in- 
dusiu!, or cases, of the larvn of Pbrygania. 

T!ijBauiLA'TEB.*L. } Having unequal aides ; 
1ne<hjila'terai,. ) in eonchology, when 

the anterior and posterior sides make dif- 
ferent angles with the hinge. 
iNE'ainvALVB. ) Where one valve is 
iNKauivA'LvPLAH. ( morc eonves than 

the other, or dissimilar in any respect, as 

in the common oyster. 
iNE'BHOirB. (inermua, Lat.) Unarmed; 

devoid of spines, or thoma. 
Infi'ltratb. (infiltrer, Fr.) To enter 

by percolation ; to enter a bod; through 

its pores or inCenticea. 
iNFiLrHA'TiON. The diffusion of fluida 

through the inteisticeB or pores. 
IdFiNiTE'siHAi., (adj.) Infinitely dl- 

iNFiRtTE'siMAi. (subst.) An infinitely 
small quantity. 

Inflamuabi'lity. The property of ig- 
niting ; the quality of taking fire. 

Infla'hmable. {infianfmallf, Fr. rhepvi 
inflamtnarai, It.) Combustible; that may 
easily be set on fire ; capable of baming 

fiataraalion, Fr. infiamraaffione, It.) The 

act of setting on flamei 
Ihfla'tbd. (iiifialw, Lat.) Blown or 

puffed up ; swoln ; distended with ajr. 
I-iifLA'TiON. {infiatio, Lat.) A puBng 

up ; distention with w'--" 

ID. Bent ; bowed ; turned ; bent 

■sceode from particular facta to general 
principles, nud then descends again from 
these general principles to particular ap- 
plicstians and exemplifications. 

Md'ctItB BEA90S1NO. That kind of 

ipbitoaophic reasoning which ascends from 
particular facta to general principles, and 

"then descends again from these general 
principles to particular applications and 

I exein^ificatiuna. 

'musATBH. (indvratta, from indtno, 
laL) Hardened. 

{infiecUn, Lat.) The act of 
bending or turning! the state of being 

Infle'xbd. (inJleiKt, Lat.) Curved in- 
wards ; bent towards each other. 

Infi.ohe'scbSCB. {infloreacmtia, Lat.) A 
word used to express the particular man- 
ner in which flowers are placed upon a 
plant ; this by older writers was deuomi- 
nated the modus floreiidi, or manner of 
flowering. Botanists distinguish many- 
kinds of inflorescence, under the names 
whorl, chistpr or raceme, spike, corymb, 
fascicle, tuft, umbel, cyme, panicle, bunch, 


INF [11 

I'nrLDi. (it^iunu. L>t,) Tlie act of 
flowing into any thing or place. 

iNfo'aMOUR. (in/omii. lit, iryfome, Fr. 
informf. It.) WithoiK <bape i of no 
regular figure ; mii-shapen ; ilUfaahioiied. 

Iktba'ngible. (iit/ran^iiifM, L*t.) That 
cannot be broken. 

ItiruNT>[BiT'LtFDH.ii. (from ty\fundilnilutA 
and /ornifl. Lat.) Pn nnel- shaped ! in 
butany, applied to s mouopeCatous corolla, 
having a conical border placed upon a 

iFOacft'TloK. (infiucatio, Lat.) The 
act of darkening, ar making blickieh. 

liiru'BiBL*. That cannot be melted by the 
application of heat. 

liirg'aoRr ANiUA'l.Dtit.ES. i tremcly mi- 
nute as to be invisible to the naked eye, 
and which have only been discovered since 
the invention of the microscope. The 
infoBoria have been divided into two or- 
dera, the Rotifera and llomogenea. The 
order of Rotifera compriBes many genera. 
Brachiouua, Purcularia, Tubicolaria, and 
Vaginicola ; the Homogenea cornpriBea 
Urcolario.Tricboda, Leacophra, Kerona, 
Himantopea, &c., Ike. The most eitra- 
ordlnary genns of all is the Proteus. It 
is not possible to assign to them any de- 
tenuinate form ; their figure changes 
momentanly ; sometimea rounded, some- 
times divided. The bodies of tlie infuso- 
ria are, for the ni05t past, gelatinouE. 

When we place a drop of any decayed 
infusion of animal or vegetable mnttsr 
under a powerful microscope, and throw 
a light through that drop, and throngh 
the miorosoope to the eye, we discover in 
the drop of water various forms of living 
beings, Hotne of a rounded, some of a 
lengthened form, and some eihibiting 
ramifications shooting in all directions, 
but all apparently of a soft, transparent, 
gelatinous, and almost homogeneous tex- 
ture. These beings conatitnte the lowest 
form of animals with which we ar* 
present acquainted, and they were at first 
conaidered astomatous, that is, without 
any mouth, and agastric, or possessing no 
stomach, and were called infusoria, a de- 
nomination explanatory merely of their 
habitat, but not of their strncture. Upon 
further examination, it woe discovered 
ttiat there existed animalculse of a higher 
denomination ; these eiist in every stag- 
nant pool of water, iu every river, and in 
the ocean. Upon eianiining with great 
care many years since the effects of co- 
loured infusions upon these minute ani- 
malcnlse, it was found that they devoured 
great qoanttties of the coloured matter io 
which they were placed, and that they 

machs, which are sometimes extremely 

] INK 

nnmeroui in them. Those cavitiei aUt 
in almoit every kootcn genaa. Sometimd 
(here are nearly '.21)0 stomachs in a 
animalcule. Animalcules are foni 
eiceedingly minute that nearly five 
dred miUiona are contained iu a sio^ 
drop of water, that is, as many as liiere 
are individnals of our own race on tlu 
face of the earth. In those minnta beinp 
which constitute the simplest for 
animals, there are numerous stoi 
the lowest class is therefore called Pd;- 
gastrica. They are the food of big*- 
classes, particularly of loophjtea. Tb 
is no proper skeleton in tlie entire c1 
of animalcules called Polygastrica. Sc 
of tbe polygastrica exude on their surface 
a secretion which agglutinates, and laji 
hold of, foreign particles floating io tbt 
waters which surround them, anf 
form for themselves a partial coveriif. 
The earthy matter, however, is nof "'"" 
own produce .^iVij/'. Grant. 

Prof, liuckland observes, " Wb an 
more perplexed in attemptiug to cc 
hend the organization of the minut 
Jtitoria, than that of a whale ; and ana of 
the last conclnstons at which we airin,l| 
a conviction that the greatest and n 
important operations of natnre are i 
ducted by the agency of stoma too mil 
to be either perceptible by the hnnian qt, 
or comprehensible by the human ondci- 

Ehrenberg has ascertained that the IU' 
/aioria, which have heretofore been e 
sidered as scarcely organized, hare ania- 
ternal ttmctnre resembling that of lt~ 
higher animals. He has discoTend i-^_ 
them muscles, intestines, teeth, diStamt 
kinds of glands, eyes, nerves, ani .. ". 
and female organs of reprodocSoo. Vbi 
finds that some are horn alive, DtlM 
produced by eggs, and some mnltiplk 
by spontaneous divisions of thedr ba& 

powers of reproduction are so great, t]* 
from one individual a million were pR 
duced in ten days ; on the eleventh di 
four millions, and on the twelfth giiM 
niiliions. Ehrenherg has described al 
figured more than .'iflO spedes of aninHd 
cnles \ he has found them in fog, In riiDi 
and in snow. 

'nouinal, (from inpacn, Lat.) Pb 
ing to the groin. 

iNHDUA'TiQN. {inhumalio, Lat. ini 
fi'en, Fr.) A burying ; interment. 

^NBu'atE. (inAvrna, Lat. mAtinwr, IV.) 
To bury ; to cover over with eartb. 

^NK-BAG. A bladder- shaped sac found It i 

black and vismd fluid 

ejecting which, in ease of danger 

enemies, they are etiableJ ta render the 



1 N O [ 1 

urouDdiiig nater opaque, and tliua to 
jQceal tbemseliea. Eximples of this 
onlrivance may be aeen in the Sepia vol- 
isria and Loligo of our eeaa. To Miea 
darj Aimin g we owe the dtacovery of , 
HUB faseil ink-bnga, found in tlie 
( Lyme Regis, still distended, as 
fhea tbey formed parts of the Uiing ani- 
Oala. Ilie contents of the ink-bags of 
Cphatopods is used in drawing, the sort 
■referred is from an orieutal species of 
pia ; some of that extruuled from a fossil 
k-bag found in the lias was used by Sir 
T^^mcis Chuitrey, on the request of Prof. 
jSoclcbind, andwoa by a celebrated punter, 
IS ignorant of the partJoulars, pro- 
' ' ' le sepia of eicellent quality, 
e indestructibleness of scpla 
its being chiefly composed of 

enua of fossil blvalvular 
ilbElU of the chalk series, witli an oblique 
I iKak. Dr. Mantell, in hu geology of the 
Sooth East of England, states, " The 
s of the genus inoceiamns ore very 
Zemarkable, BQd ten species occur in the 
^^tiulk of the South of England. These 
J shells are more or less gibbous, and are 
,*Omnionly marked with transverse con- 
centric ndgea, and strice; their consti- 
tuent substance is invariably composed of 
(Vjstallized carbonate of lime, of a radiated 
«r fibrous stmcture. The hinge is a Ion- 
gitBdinal fiirrow, transversely crenulated, 
extending on one side of the beaks only. 
One spedes, the Inoceramus Cuvieri, at- 
tains s large size ; a length of three feet, 
by two in width -'n:c. ) Devoid of the organs of 
Inoboa'nicai.. i vitality- 
Void of organic structure. 
(&om in and aicular, Lat.) 
unite by apposition. 
icvl&'tioh. UdIdd by junction of the 

of vesEels, as arteries with veins. 

(tn«ee(o, Lat. inaecle, Fr. intet- 

It.) The third class of articulated 

isnimBla provided with articulated tegs ; 

*■ f possem a dorsal vessel aniilogouB to 

reitige of a heart, but are wholly des- 

' of any branch for tlie circulation. 

breathe atmospheric air by means 

iBK, which are most freely ramilied 

■ngh. ail parts of the body; they pos- 

conpound eyes. All insects, which 

en wings, metamorphose, or pass 

ingh certain changes, before they ar- 

ive Jit their perfect form. In their first 

■ " after leaving the egg, they form 

, or caterpillars. The bodies of in- 

:ts are diTided into bead, corslet, tieo- 

ftbdomen, and members. The head 

joined to the body, in some, by ball 

id socket 1 in others, by plidn surfaces ; 

] IMS 

in others, after the manner of a hinge. 
In some, the connection is entirely liga- 
mentous, the different motions correspond- 
ing with the nature of the joint. The 
corslet, or thorax, is situated between the 
pectus and head. The first pair of feet 
are joined to this, and it contains the 
' muscles for moving those and the haul. 
To the upper and lateral part of the pec- 
tus, Che wings, when present, are filed, 
and the four posterior feet to its nnder 
part. To the upper part a horny process 
is A'equently fixed, termed scuteUnm, Or 
Bscotcbeon. The pectus contains the mus- 
cles which move the wings atid fbor pair 
of the feet.— /ye. 

Cuvier divided insects into twelve or- 
ders;— 1. Myriapoda, or insects haring 
more than six feet, to twenty-four and up- 
wards ; the insects of this order are apte- 
rous, that is, destitute of wings. The 
royriapoda are also called centip^es. 2. 
ThyBBnoura; this order possesses sii legs 
and no wings, and is characterized by the 
abdomen being furnished with lateral 
moveable parts, resembling false feet, or 
appendages fitted for leaping. This order 
hns also been called aptera. 3. Paraaita, 
having six legs, no wings, and ocelli ; the 
mouth consists of a sort of snoot contain- 
ing a retractile sucker. 4. Suctoria, bar- 
ing si.v legs, but not supplied with vings. 
5. Coleoptera. having sis legs and four 
wings, with a homy case, under wliich 
the wings are folded. 6. Orthoptera, 
having sii legs and four wings, the two 
superior wing^ in the form of cases, and 
mandibles and jaws for mastication, co- 
vered at the extremity by a galea. 7. 
Hemipters, having four wings, either 
stretched straight out, or resting serosa 
each other : the blatta, gryUua, fulgora, 
cymen, &c.. are eiampies. 8. Neurop- 
ters, having four reticulated wings, the 
inferior being usually of equal size with 
the superior! the lihellqlH, ephemera, 4c. 
arc examples. U. Hymenoptera, baviug 
four wings, naked and membranous, and 
six feet ; these generally possess a sUug ; 
the vespi, apis, formica, termes, fuc, are 
examples. 10. The Lepidoptera, pos- 
BBssing a soft hairy body, and four ex- 
panded wings, membranous, and covered 
with small coloured scales resembling 
dust: the papilio, or butterfly, sphinx, 
and phalEcna, are examples. II. The 
Rhipiptera, having two membranous irings, 
folded like a fen, six tegs, and two cms- 
taceous moveable bodies. This order was 
established by Mr. Kirby, under the name 
of Siresiptera, or twieted wings ; two ge- 
nera are included in it, Stylops and Xe- 
noB. 12. Diptera, having two membra- 
nous extended wings and six legs, with, 
generally, two moveable \iaiwa ■^aoK& 

INS [13 

OTer tbe wings, called hnltcres. the use af 
which 19 not clearly untlBrsCood : the 
oestrns, or gad-fly, tbe musca, or common 
fly, tho cuW, or gnat, &c., sre enara- 

NSKOTi voBA. (from intect and wi'o, 
Lat.) In Cnviej-'s arrangement, a family 
of animals wbich lead a subtemuieous 
life, and hating jfriiiderB studded nlth 
conical points. They live prinripally on 
insects, and many of them, in cold cli- 

of torpidity. Tbe hedgehog and mole 

iSFi'ssATED, (from in and ipiaiatiis, 
Lat.) Thickened; made thick liy eva- 
poration. A term applicable only to 
fluids whose consislence hag been in- 

iapissa'tion. The act of making any 
liquid of a thick consistence. 

4STADRa'tion. (inttauralio, Lat. in- 
tlauration, Fr. Testauraiione, It.) Re- 
storation to its fonner condition after 
decay; renewal; reparation. 

ustac'batob. He who restores that 
which is decayed to its former condition. 

(stra'tieied. StratiSed within some 
Other body. 

NSVLAH.. (inmlarii, Lat. iiaulaire, Fr. 
iiolam, It,) Belonging to an inland. 

NSULATED, (from imvla, Lat.) De 
tached from all surrounding objects 
standing by itself ; not contignons. 

NTEHBAi.. {inUgral, Fr. inUgrale, I 
mtegtr, Lat.) A portion of a wholt 
being similar to the whole and not a 
elementary portion. Thus the smallest 

Eortion of carbonate of lime is still car- 
onato of lime, but if by any means we 
aeparate tbe carbonic acid from the iime , 
we no longer have in these, separately; 
integral portions but the elementary parts 
Intk'cuuent. {tntegumeitlum, Lat.) That 
which coTCrs or enyelopes anything ; 
commonly applied to the natural cOTer- 
ings of the body, as the cuticle, corpas 


vTeBHo'h'TANi!. (from infer and moNtii' 
nvt, Lat.) Placed between moDntains ; 
lying among mountains. 

iNrEBNo'DAl.. (from iW«' andnorfui, Lot.) 

Applied to flower-staUiB proceeding (rot 

tbe intermediate space of a branch bt 

tween two leaves. 
I'NTBnNODG. The space between one knot 

or joint and another ; a term used botb 

in ennchology and botany. 
Intbbo'sseal. J (from iater and M, Lat.) 
Inibbo'sseocs. ) Placed between bones, 

as interosseous mascleB, arteries, reins, 


lNTERRL''pTEn. Divided ; separated. 

IsfEnaiT^pTEDLY. In botany, applied ti; 
compound leaves when the principal 
leaflets are divided by intervals of smaller 
ones j applied also to spikes of flawen. 
when the larger spikes are divided by • 
series of smaUer ones. 

Ihtebste'llar. (from inter and i/pflo, 
Lat.) Placed between the stars ; aitB- 
atad amongst the stars i a term used to 
express those parts of tbe universe whieh 
are without and beyond our solar system. 

Intb'rstice. {mleratiiiKm, Lat. inter- 
stiee, Fr. infernii^io, It.) Tbe space 
between one thing and another ; time li«- 
tween one act and another. Neither of 
tbe above deUnitiona of Dr. Johnson't 
can be considered to elucidate the word 
interstice in its comman and usual signi' 
fication. A small hollow space between 
the parts of a body; the space betwEea 
one part of a body and another. 11 se dil 

Intbrco'stal. (from inter and costa. Lot. 

tniercoatttl, Fr.) Anything between the 

ribs, as the intercostal muscles, intercos - 

tal arteries, nerves, or veins. 
Ibtebja'cbnt. {interjateaH, Lat.) Lying 

between ; interretiing. 
Intebje'ctbd. (intetjecfua, Lat.) Thrown 

between other bodies. 
Intebla'himated. Placed between la- 

miuK of plates ; eiwlosed by lamina:. 
Interue'diatb. (iiitervi^diare, and in- 

term/dial, Fr. from inter and mediria, 

Lat.) Intervening; interposed ; between 

the eitremes. 

! plus 



I corpnscules contigiis an 

Intebsti'tial. Containing 
Intekbtra'tifibd. Stratified hi 

dies of a dilferent character. 
Intertro'pical. (fromin/«' 


md tr 

the tropics. 
Intesti'na. Linnffius divided the ( 
Vermes, or worms, into Ave orders, Ik 
jirst of which he named inteeliai 
mostly inhabit the bodies of oth^ ■■ 
mals ; they are denominated the s 
simple animals, being perfectly t 
and without limbs of any kind. CuA 
has divided them into cavitaria, or r — 
toidea, and parenchymata. The G 
ria DC nemotoidea are worms hHTing •■'S 
viiiea or stomachs, or an intestinal canilT 
tloHting in a distinct abdominal cavitF. ' 
such canal extending from the moutlilii 
the anus. Tbe parencbymata comptiut 
those species in which the body is flM 
with a cellular substance, or with a coa- 

oaoDi pBrenchynia ; the onlj slimeaUr}' 
■—nit contain a being mmitted canals. 
n'NAL. {intetliaal, ¥i. inlettinale, 
BeloDgiug Co die ' 


, Fr. 

»lf*tiHai, Lat.) Internal 
v'sTilieg. (This nard is genenitlT used 
I the plunJ,) All that portion of the 
limeDtuy canal wbich extends fram the 
jloric eitremity of the atomath to the 
nus ; comprehending, in man, the duo- 
lenuni, jejuDUin, and Uium, ar small in- 
UCiao, and the coscam, colon, and rec- 

m'sstoH. I (from mtorjuta, iatorium fl 
to^KnoN. t inlortum, Lat.) A. twist- 
Bgor turning in any parliciilBr direction. 
L term used in botany and conchology. 
Uafolia'ceous. Growing on the in- 
ide of ■ leaf. 

SfcANSMo'TABLE. (ffom in and Irana- 
tai/ai/c.) Unchangeable into any other 
Obitance ; not capi^le of being trims- 

ume'gcence. ( jnf URif tcenee, Fr. I'n/u- 
leico, Lat.) A eweliing or rising up ; 
1 wipuuion ID the form of bubbles ; a 

ILIH. (from inula.) A vegetable pro- 
net, rejcmbling starch, obtained from 
>e roota of the Inula Hellenium, or ela- 
Impouc, by boiling them in water. It 
BB thus named by Mr. Rose. 

weriione. It.) Change ot order or po- 
tion BO that tbe upper may be lower, or 
K lower upper ; the first last, or tbe 
lit lirst. In the order of mperposition 
f the different stratified rooks, aome 
natk may be wanting altogether, but 
lere will not be found an imtTiion of 
le ragular order of superposition. 
Vktbbhal. (fi-om in and rifrlfbral.) 
Fot poisessing Buy vertebral column, or 
■rd bony tube for the spinal cord, or 
nedulhi spinalis ; not having R back- 

!All those animals are 
int:eTle!irttled which 
M included in the three great divisions, 
noUuBca, or cyclo-gangliata ; articulata, 
» diplo-neura ; and radiata, or oyclo- 
tenra. The other great division includes 
be verl^Toia, or spini-cerebrats. In 
be cephalopodes, the invertebrate form 
t the lower divisions is beginning to be 
DBt, and the vertebrate form of that divi- 
itm, to which man belongs, to appear. 
rhe first of the true verlebraied animals, 
I the class of fishes ; from this class 
tpwards, inclttding piscea, amphibia, rep- 
iua, BTeS, and mammalia, all are verte- 
roUd. From the class Pisces down- 
lardi, including cephalopoda, pteropoda, 
juteropoda, conchiphera, tnnicata, of the 

rotifera, eiitozoa, of the division articu- 
lata ; ecbinoderma, acalepbn, pulypiphera, 
poripbera, polygastrica, of the division 
radiata, all are tmertebralfd. There ii 
one remarkable distinctian which sepa- 
rates the vertebrated from the inverte- 
brated animals, namely, that in the 
former, the muscles have no exteniai 
points of attachment ; and in the latter, 
with a few partial exceptions, no ialemal 

nve'rted. (from invtrto, itiveram, Lat.) 
Turned npside down ; turned inwards ; 
placed in contrary order to that which 
which is uEiial. 
Id contrary or reversed 

\ small or partial inToIncre. 
Involu'che. ) (inro/tumini, Lat. cui ali- 
IxvoLu'cRUM. ) quid intolmtur .') 
1. Any membranoos covering. 
3. In botany, a species ot calyi, remote 
from the Bower, and bearing a great re- 
semblance to bractete : the involucre ia 
composed of many small leaves placed at 
the foot of the general umbel ; in umbel- 
liferous plants, the involucre, accompany- 
ing the partial nmbels, is called the in- 
Iktolu'crbt. a small, imperfect, or pai- 
tia[ involucre, an involncel. 

(from intFoieo, Lat.) 
1. In botany, applied to 
when the margins are rolled in- 

dogy, where the exterior lip 


turned inwards, at tl 
the cypreie. 
IfivoLti'TioN. {inrolutio, Lat. involittion. 

3. That which infolds or inwraps any- 
thing ; that part which inwraps another. 
'onATE. A compound salt formed by the 
combination of iodine, ozygen, and a 
salifiable base ; as the. iodatos of ammo- 

'oDiDE. A compound of iodine and some 
metallic snbBtEince ; as iodide of iron, 
iodide of lead, Sic. Also a compound of 
iodine with a simple non-metallic sub- 
stance. When iodine combines with 
metals in more than one proportion, it 
forms a protiodide, or a periodide. 
'ODIH. ^({rom iotii^z, ex lav and lUot, 
'oDiNE. ( Gr.) This substance, which 
was discovered by Courtois, a manofac- 
turer of salt-petre, at Paris, in 1812, 
obtained its name from the colour of its 
vapour, which is a beHutiful violet. 
Iodine is procured from sea-water and 

1 O L 1 

from marine legetiiblet. It ia of a ffrej- 
iih-bUck colour and shining metallic 

ToMTH. <froni iav *nil UUos, Gr.) A 
■tone, u its name implieii, of • violet 
eoloor. Il ia the priamatitcher qnsrti of 
of Haiif. It is foand mutive and dis- 
ieminated, and cryatalliied, in Pinland, 
Norway. Greenland, Swilrerlflnd, and 
Spain 1 in gneisE and granite. It occura 
In regular eii and twelve-aided priama. 
Ita fracture ia concboidal and uneven , 
It is of a deep blue colour when seen 
alODg Che alia, nnd of a brownish ;ellaw 
when wea in a direction perpendicolar to 
the aiis of the priam. When we look 
aloBgCbe reenltantaiea, which are inclined 
62° 50' to one another, we see a ajrstem 
of rings which are pretty diatinct when 
the plnte is thin ; but when it ia thick, 
and when the piano pasaing through (he 
aiia ia in the plane of primitive polariaa- 
tion, branehaa of blae and while light are 
teen to diverge in the form of a croaa 
from the centre of the syBtem of ringa. 
It consists of silica, n^rly 50 per cent. 
alumina, magnesia, oxide of iroa. and 
oxide of nuinganese. 

Iside'scence. (from iris, Lat. the rain- 
bow.) The quality of shining with many 
colours, reaembling those of the rainbow. 

Ibide'scbnt. Sljining with the colonra of 
the rainbow. Many membronoua shells 
Eihibit, on several parts of their internal 
Bur&ce, a glistening, silvery, or iridescent 
appearance. This appearance is caused 
by the peculiar thinneas, tranaparEiicy, 
and regularity of arrangement, of the 
outer layers of the membrane, which, in 
conjunction with the particles of carbo- 
nate of time, enter into the formation of 
that part of the surface of the ahell. The 
surface, which has thus acquired a pearly 
lustre, was formerly believed to be a 
peculiar substanpe, and was termed mo- 
tber-of-pearl ; Sir David Brewster has, 
however, satisfactorily proved in the Phi- 
loBophica! Transactions, that the iride- 
scent colours eihibited by these surfaces 
are wholly the effect of the parallel 
grooves, consequent upon the regularity of 
arrangement in the successive deposites 
of shell. This iridescent property may 
be communicated to shell-lac, seaUng- 
wai, gum Arabic, balsam of Tola, or 
fusible metal, by taking an accurate cast 
or impression of the surface of mother-of- 
peart with any nne of these Bubataneea. — 
Dr. Rogel. 

Iri'ihcm. (from 1*™, Lat.) An exces- 
sively Infusible metal to which Ihia name 
has been given from same of ita salts 
having varied tints like those of the rain- 
bow, and from the variety of colours e\- i 

12 ] I R O 

hibiled by itj aalution- It was discoverdi 
by Mr. TennanI, in 1S03, who, ii 
aminiug Ihe black powder left lUftsr dib 
solving platiua, found that it coni 
two distinct metals, which he i 
iridium and oamium. It ia of a pib 
ateel-grey colour- Il occura ir """ ** 
alluvium, in South America. 
I'bib. (iriit, Lai. irit, Fr. iride, It. Iw, 

1. The rainbow. 

2. The membrane round the pupil of 0» 
eye, deriving its name from its ' ' 
colours. The colour of the iris 
sponds in general with that of the hair, 
being blue or grey where the hair il 
light, and brown or bhick where the bail, 
and complexion are of a dark coltnir. It 
floats in the aqueous humour, nnd » 
to regulate the quantity of light sei 
the bottom of the eye. 
3- A geous of plants; order Monogym% 
class Triandria ; the flag-flower. 

Iron- One of the most generally di( 
of ell solid minerals. Of all the n 
the oxides of which are nei 
nor earths, iron, geologically conudered, 
is the moat important. " emulating DM 
mean," aaya Mr. De La Beche, " <i 
thirty kinds of roclts, and negleclingim 
ores, properly so called, of every knid, 
iron constitutes, as an oxide, 5'& oftte 
lowest stratified rocks, amonntiiig to 
11'72 per cent, in mica slate with gic^ 
nets, and 15-31 per eent. in chlorite dtU. 
It forms 12-62 per cent, in hTpenthciC 
rock, and about 20 per cent, in baaall- 
Oxide of iron conatitotes about two ai 
three per cent, of the mass of granitei ui 
gneiss, and between three and four per 
cent- of the mass of greenatone t~ ' ■'^■° 
more common trappean rocks. 
we consider the large amount i 
which exists either in the state of aa 
oxide, a carbonate, n carburet, a 
or a sulphuret, therefore including lU 
iron ores of importance, we shall prtAihly 
not err greatly if we estimate iron U 
conatitnting about 2 per cent, of tht 
whole mineral crust of our globe. ITjenl 
is scarcely a rock without iron, — " 
gieal Resfarcho. 

It is to the presence of iron thai 
and stones most ii-equently owe 
colour, earths when pure being wluMi 
The specific gravity of all stones or tnOlf 
minerals if it much exceed 2-5 mlj ta 
attributed to the presence of i 

In its natural state icon is 
what we are hourly accustomed to Re it 
It presents itself every where only M 
earthy mass, a dirty impure mat ; 
even wben found tn the mine with a 
tallic lustre, it is still far from poesesBiV 
those qualities which are necessary (o fi( 


1 R O 

iplied, Man baa only to purify gold, 
.ver, &c. but hB hts, as it were, to 
eate iron. It do«s not appear to h»ve 
!en knoim lo early, or wrought aa easily, 
gold, ailver, and copper. For ita dia- 
ivery we must hare recourae to the 
ititms of tbe Eaat. Tbe writiaga of 
famiBh Bs with the most siople 
t how early a period it waa known 
Egypt and Fboeaicia. He mentions 
'orkiog iron, " and brought 
ie iron furnace ;'' the oi 

acted, ' 

1 land 

knivea, aiee, and tools fop 
s, were at that time made of 
if be amite him with ao In- 
iron, GO that he die. he ia a 
" and his hand fetcheth a 
Mroke witb Che aie to cnt down the 
i," " ebon ahalt not lift up any iron 
1 upon them," The knowledge of 
1 was brought over from Phrygia to 
Greece by the Dsitjli, aaoording to He- 
tfod, as quoted by Pliny, who settled in 
Crete daring the reign of Minos I. about 
1431 years before Christ. It would ap- 
pear that a knowledge of iron obtained 
pren before the deluge, for in Genesis we 
fad " And Zillah, she also bore Tubal- 
iGain, an instructer of every artificer in 
liraas and iron." 

Iron forme a constituent part of many 

tnimal and vegetable substances ; it enters 

into the composition of the blood; and 

the varioua shades of hue of some of the 

noat delicate flowers are more or less 

rang to ita presence. 

Inm is of a bluish-white colour, and 

)Mi polished, baa a considerable def^^e 

•f brilliancy. It has a styptic taste, and 

smell when rubbed. Its speeilic 

gravity is j-??. 

Iron is placed the eighth in order, as 

gards its maileability, poBseesing this 

lality in a less degree than gold, silver, 

ipper, tin, platinum, lead, and zinc. lu 

ictility it ranks fourth, being inferior 

'^ ' gold, silver, and platinum, and it 

ly be drawn out into wire as fine as a 

mail hair. In tenadty it ranks lirat, 

inm vrire one-tweUlh of an inch in 

being capable of supporting 9<I3 

IKHUidi without breaking. Iron is fusible 

•t a temperaCnie of 1797 Fahr. 

' ' nd native, and is generally 

be of Dieteorie origin, being 

■Uoyed with nickel and other metals ; 

" ete masses are called meteoric iron, 

id it eertainty appears that they have 

lien (torn tbe atmosphere. A maas was 


kg IfiBO lbs. A mass diacovered in Bahia, 

in Braiil, ia eatimated to weigh 14,000 lbs. 

A singular slructure is frequently ob- 
served in the argillaceous iron ores of 
coot disCncts. The SBbatance of the iron 
ore is formed into conical sheaths, in- 
volving one anotbcT, and marked by con- 
centric undulations and radiating strlK. 
Large spheroidal masses of iron ore, 
weighing at least a ton, are thus found, 
in conneiioD witb the cool, at Ingleton, 
in Yorkshire; and in the cool fidds of 
Staffordshire and South Wales, it is a 
well known form of aggregation. 

The quantity of iron manufactured 


n the 

les; it was calculated st 690,000 ti 
nearly one-half of which, or 296,000 
tons, was manufactnred in Wales, and 
upwards of 200,000 in Staffordabbe. 
For the mauufacturing of this immense 
lantity, three miilions seven hundred 

! thous 

would be required. 

In a supplementary note to Profeasor 
Bucklaud's Bridgenater Treatise, it is 
stated, " Ehrenberg has ascertained that 
a soft yellow ochreous substance, called 
Raseneisen, whicb is found in large 
quantities every spring in marshes about 
Berlin, covering the bottom of ditches, 
and in the footsteps of animals, is com- 
posed of iron secreted by infusorial ani- 
malcules of tbe genns Gaillonella. This 
iron may lia separated from the siliceous 
shields of these animals, whicb retain 
their form after the Mtraclion of the iron, 
['noNSTONB. A heavy mineral, poBseasing 
sometimes a apecllic gravity of 3'G, and 
composed chiefly of iron combined with 
oxygen, carbonic acid, sUei, and water, 
with, in some instances, calcareous earth. 
When of a superior quality, it will yield 
upwards of 36 per cent, of iron. Mr. 
Bakewell observes, "Wa know nothing, 
however, cerloin, respecting the forma- 
tion of ironstone ) but it e|>pcars to have 
been deposited in fresh water, as it oc- 
curs in fresh-water strata in the regular 
coal formation, and in the coal strata 
of the oolites of Yorkshire, and among 
the clay and sandstone strata in the 
wealds of Kent. Few geologists have 
attempted to explain tbe formation of 
ironstone. It may have been a deposi- 
tion from chalybeate waters, or was, 
perhaps, (he produce of decomposed ve- 
getation, as bog or peat iron is supposed 
to have been. If ever we arrive at ;' "' 
conclusions respecting the origin of ir 

nation of the strata in which it 

and the relation of these strata 

other. In the Missouri there ii 

of iron ore 300 feet in height, and five 

miles in extent, which yields 75 jier ci ' 

of fine malleable iron. 

1 R O [I 

Rbombohedral iron-ore; 

li^ite of HaOt ; tbe Roth eiseo- 

^ al Werner. A peroxide of iron, of 

k ^k mteel-grsj colour. There are 

lereral varietieg ; the red viriedes are 

called red iron ore, uid the Gbroiu, heioa- 

I'aoM pr'iiiTBS. See Pyrilei. 

I'aON SAND. A nriety of octahedral iroC' 

Ihhu'pted. (from irmmpo, Lat.j Broken 
violently, and with great force. 

Ielru'ptioV. {irrvptio, Lat. irruplion, 
ft.) A violanl breaking in [ a bnrsting 
ih ; a violent mihing into, 

IscBIA'ric. {uchiadicia, Lat. Is^uiiiicic, 
Gr.) Pertaining to tbe ischium, ts the 
iechintic notch, Itc. 

I'hchiuh. (itcAium, Lat. iexi^v, Gr.) 
One of the bones of the pelvis, sitoated 
in the lowest part thereof, and being that 
bone apon which we sit. It forms the 
nader, and largest portion of the aceta- 
bulum, or cup nhieh receives the head of 
tbe thigh bone. 

I'sEnrN. [from eittn. Germ.) A mineral 
of an irou-black colour, from which it 
derives its name. It coosistii of 48 per 
cent, of oiide of titanium, an equal pro- 
portioD of oiide of iron, and foor per 
cent, of uraDinm. It occnra in small 
obtose angular grains. 

Ieoca'bdta. a heart-shaped shell, with 
separated involuted and diverging beaks, 
The hinge formed by two flattened car- 
dinal inserted teeth, and an isolated 
lateral tooth under the cartilage slope. 
This genas iticludes the Chama cor. 
Some authors divide Che geUDS Chama 
into five, of which Isocardia ifl one. 

laOOHKl'uAL. (from ifl-of, equal, and 
X<I/ia. winter, Gr.) Of the same winter 
temperature : lines drawn through places 
having the same winter temperature are 
denominated itocheimal linet. 

lao'cHRONAL. (itocAroiie, Fr. from laos, 
and xpuroi;, Gr.) Having equal times ; 

The ii 


tions of a penduli 

formed in the same space of time ; 

the swings or vibrations of the sami 

dulum are, whether the arches it det 

are longer or shorter. 
1.40' CD BON A I. LiNB. That in which 

heavy body is supposed to descend with 

out any acceleration. 
Iso'citH.DNOiis. The same as isochronal. 

and Bip/iic, Gr.) Certain lines or divi- 
sions in the earth's crust possessing an 
equal degree of mean annoal tempera- 
ture. This word is not very common, and 
1 have met with it only in Mrs. Somer- 
ville's Connexion of the Physical Sciences. 
U is, however, more definite than iso- 

thermal, inasmuch as it applies solalyta 
divisions of the land, whereas isother- 
mal applies equally to air, land, aiul 

Isomo'bpbibm. (from isoc and 
Gr.) That quality which a sDb«tlD« 
possesses of replacing some other Bib- 
stance in a compound body, nithont utf 
alteration of its primitive form. 

Isoho'kpbdcs. That has tbe property oT' 
retaining its primitive form when muted 
with other substances in a compDunl 

Isofebiuk'trical. (&om taos, irijii, lal 
(lirpoif, Gr. ueperirnetro. It.) " ' 
figures as have equal perimetors ' 
cumferences, of which the circle 

Iso'foda. (from laoc and xoi^j G* 

the formatifl 
fourteen in 
braces the genua Oniscus. 

Ibo'bcelbs. {laaatik/ie. Gr. imeele, Fr, 
That which hath only two eidea equal. 

I'aoprRE. A mineral of a greyish 
black colour. Decors massive. FoDDd 
in CorQwall, imbedded in granite. 

Isa'TBBBAL. (from iirac and Oipoc, 
mer, Gr.) Of tbe same summer 
peraCure ; tines drawn through placM 
having the same annmier temperature 
denominated igotieral linn. 

Ikothe'rmal. (from laog and flippy, Gr.) 
Possessiug equal temperature. Linu 
drawn upon a map throngh e 
places having the same annual 1 
perature are termed inothermal lines, at 
lines of equal temperature. Mr. Lyell 
observes, " it is now well ascertained ' ' 
zones of equal warmth, both in 
atmosphere and In the waters of 
ocean, are neither parallel to the equatot 
nor to each other. It is also diaoOvend> 
that the same mean annual teroperBtnts 
may eiist in two places which enjoy ytxf 
different climates, for the seaaona 1 
be nearly equaliied or violently i 
traated. Thus the lines of equal m' 
temperature do nut coincide with 
lines of equal annual heat, or iaollb 
lines. If lines be drawn rotmd the 
through all those places which hs.i 
snme winter temperature, they are _ 
to deviate from the terrestrial paraUdl 
much farther than the 111 ' . " 

mean annual heat. The lines, fiir is- 
Btauca, of equal winter in Europe, atti 
often curved so as to reach paridlels 1/ 
latitude 9° or 10° distant from each - - 
whereas the isoiAermal iine« only 
from 4" to h°r— Principles qf GeohgT- 

Isothk'umal zones. As the " - 



1 M T [ la 

5 ] K A R 

bavc grouped them into banjs or xouti. 

I'voRr. (ejiir, Lat. ibmW. Pr. avorio. It.) 

Humboldt bRS divided tlie northern 

A hard, solid, and firm substance, of a 

white colour, and capable of a very good 
polish. It is the luak of the elephant. 


nn'BDS. A. genuB of that familj of 

The ivory from Ceylon is more valuable 

niiruinB called ieunnida, and thug named 

tban any other, from its not becoming 

bj Cuvier. The distinguishing character 

yellow in the wearing, as nearly all other 

of the genan Istinrus a an eleTited and 

ivory does. 

trenchant crest, extending alopg a por. 

Ju'kj. LiMESTONB. (co/efli™ rfe/uro./ura 

'6on of the tail, and supported by spinous 

*a(*.} The name given by some con. 

Upophjaes of the Tertebne. 

tinental geologists (o that group of rocks 

ma. The termination of adjectives in 

jhu ahovs merely the eiistence of sorae- 

itbing in general, as. for eiample, eun'fut. 

various qualities, clays, sands, and sand- 
stone, and contains the same foesUs ai 

fnrnished mth ears. 

fani.AK. (from jvgultiot, lat. Jagulaire. 

those found in tbe oolitic group of Eng- 

land. In the range of the Jnra and tho 

outer ranges of the Alps, tbe calcareous 

i'lnt' ] ('""'*■''«■ f^'-) 

formations are of such immense magni- 

tude, and the beds are often so highly 

|. In botany, a catkin ; a species of in- 

indurated and oryataliioe, that it is only 

AoreseeuoB consisting of chaffy scales 

from their relative position and imbedded 

BTTanged along a stalk ; they are woim- 

fossils, that we can traca their analogy to 

Hke tnfts, ichich at the heginning of the 

tbe English strata. 

year grow ont, and hang pendular down 
from the haile, walnut, lilberd. &c. 

expresses the nees or aptness of an 

:a. In loology, a genua of insects of the 

organ ; for example, raptorius, adapted 

■orfor Aptera. The feet are tery ou- 

to seize prey ; fossorius, fitted for digging ; 

jnerouH, being on each side twice as many 

M the segments of the body; the an- 

Jti'iTA-posi'TiOM. (Juxla-poriliiTi, Ft. 

lennE are moniliform ; there are two 

Juxia and potitio, Lat.) The state of ~ 

being placed in nearness or contiguity ; 




kNGABOo'. An animal of the genus di- 

ling crystals of mica; and of small quartu 

Jelphjs, tbe Didelphys giganleo of Lin- 

crystals. He says that he has found a 

amui. It is a native of New Holland. 

similar earth upon a stratum of granite, 

When of full growth it attains the si^e of 

and conjectures that it may be a decom- 

■ large sheep. The fore-legs are short, 

posed granite. The kaolin used in most 

countries for the manufacture of fine por- 

i.that it advances by leaping rather than 

celain or china, is generaUy produced 1 

walking or running. 

from the fL-lspar of decomposing granite, J 

a'olin. (The Poraellan Erde of Wertier ; 

in which the cause of decay is the disso- ^ 

lotion and separation of the alkaline in- y 
gredients. Cleveland says, '■ Kaolin ii \ 

Feldspath decompose of Haiiy.) Force- 

.luD day. The name of an earth which 

,ii used as one of tbe two ingredients in 

mine; the proportions are variable, but \ 

the manufacture of oriental porcelain. 

the sUei uanaUy predominates. When ] 

«r. Bakewell observes, " I believe it is 

pure kaolin is employed in tbe mann- 1 

,tiie soft earthy granite from tbe mouo- 

tuni of Auvergne which supplies the 

be added as a flux, as, when pure, it is In- \ 

fusible. There is satisfactory evidence 

thatkaDlinhasinmostcases,ifnotin aU, 

» iptdmen of their hest kaoUn : it eon- 

Wned crystals of pinite." M. Bromare 

rocks abounding in felspar, more par- 

Mys that by analysing some Chinese 

ticularly from graphic granite, which 

likaobn, he found it was a compound earth. 

consists almost entirely of quarts and 


tenacity T of calcareous earth i of spark- 

Ka'bphoiite. (from ica>^DC »nd Xifloc. 

K E E [ 1 

Gr.) A Btrnn-coloured minsral not long 
discovered, occurring in thin priBmatic 
concretions, and of a fibrous structure. 
Kbel. (,Kiel, Germ, guille, Fr.) 

1. In concliologf, the lon^Cudinal pro- 
niiiiEDCE in the Argoaaate. 

2. In botany, the term keel is applied to 
two of the petals in papilionaceona flow- 
ers ; the keel is composeil of two petals, 
separate or united, and eocloaes the in- 
ternal organs of fructification. 

3. In entomology, a sbarp, longitudinal, 
gradoally rising elevation upon the in- 

Kke'lbd , Applied to leaves vhen the back 
is very prominent lon^tudinally. 

KBn.A'TDFavi'E. A name ^ven to the 
homy iQOphyte. 

Kb'bATB. (from Kipag, Gr. a horn ; from 
the minerals placed in this order having a 
resemblaDce to horn in their outward 
aspect.) The name of the third order of 
earthy and metoiliferona minerals. The 
characters of the genera of this order are 
aa follDwa : the; are not metallic ; have a 
white atreok ; no single distinct cleavage ; 
bardnesB = 10 — 2-0 ; specific gravity 

Ki'llas. a provincial name for a coarse 
argillaceous schist ; a variety of slate. 
Mr. Bakewell, in mentioning the Ullaa of 
Cornwall, gays, " perhaps the best desig- 
nation of the iillat rock on this situation 
18, that of a minutely grained and highly 
indurated gnei.iB that had lost its Echis- 
tow character." 

Ki'i.LiNrTE. (Thna named from its having 
been discovered at Killinej, in Ireland, 
by Dr. Taylor.) A mineral of a pale 
green colour, occurring in veins of granite 
Ht Killiney, near Dublin. 

Ki'iiuEainoE clav. A blue and greyish- 
yeHoH slaty clay of the oohte formation ; 
amember of the oohte group, thos called 
from its being found abundantly at Kim- 
meridge. in the Isle of Purbeck. It is 
also found at Suuiiitig, near Oitbrd. It 
contains gypsum and bituminous slate. 
It is a marine deposit. Kimmeridge clay 
forms the base of the Isle of Portland. 

KiNG-cBAB. (on entomoBtracan, or shelled 
insect.) The Limulus polyphemus, known 
also OS the horse-shoe. It is very com- 

1 ] LAB 

mon on the coast of New Jersey. T 
king-crab is placed by Cuvier amon( 
the pu^cilopods. 

iNOS. {t»6ie!, knopf. Germ.) A Ita 
protuberance. In conohology, any pi 
of a shell bluntly rising above the rasL 

{no'bbsd. Containing pratuberancea ' 
knobs ; set with knobs. 

foA'LA. An extraordinary quadmped i 
habitini; the continent of Australia. Co* 
vier places the koala in morsupialia, 
the fourth order of Mammalia. This aj 
mal has a short stout body, short Idfttf' 
and no tail : it has the Ave toes, or fii 
gers, of the fore-feat divided into t* 
groups, the thumb and index forming oi 
group, and tbe three remaining toei of 
fingers the other. On the bind fe ' '' ~ 
thumb is altogether wonting. " 
its young for a long period on 
this separation of the toes of the &., 
feet enables it to take firmer hold of tM 
branches of the trees, on which ~ 

n of its 

KoTH. A name given by the Spaniards ta 
an earthy slimy substance ejected from Ui 
volcanoes of South America. It is of a 
blackish brown colour, an earthy textare, 
and is but slightly coherent. The 1 
fives call itMoya. 

Kou'puoLiTE. (from cov^sci light, and 
XiSsc, a stone, Gr.) The prehnite koB- 
photite of Brongniort. A mineral, a n-^ 
riety of prehnite. It occurs in Diinatfc 
rhotnboidal plates, is of a greenish or pall 
yellow colour, gUstening, and sligbljjl 
pearly. It has been found in the P)n 

Ky'anite. (from kvuvoq, blue colour. Of. 
This is frequently written Cyanite.) ~ 
Cyanit of Werner ; the Distheneof Hatiy,> 
and the Sappare of Kirwan. Kysnite 
occurs both massive and crystalUzed, tlie 
crystals, often very long, are &equenll;r 
grouped. Its colour, as its name importt. 
is blue, varying from on intense to atiglit 
sky-blue, It is infnsible, except under 
tbe compound blow-pipe. It consitta of 
alumina lil, silica 34, with a Email qusn- 
tity of oxide of iron and n trace of limei 
It is found in primary roclLg in ScotUad 

Lase'i-luh. {tabellum, Lat. a liHIe lip,) 
A term applied, in botany, to one of the 
three pipcea forming the corolla in orclii- 
deous plants. The calyx and oorolla 
consist of three pieces each, and one of 
those forming tbe latter, differs very much 

in size and form from the other tt 
calW the labeltum, and is often spncred. j 
lA'atAl.. (from labium, a lip, Lat. lal'"*' 

Fr. tttibiate. It.) Pertaining to tiie li| 
ia'biaTe, f In botany, plants are so ca 
ia'hiateo. \ which have tbe segnenl* M 


Kiiuons of their corotUs resf mbliug tbe 
tma of lips. 

Uia'ta . There ia a large dais of plimtB 
MUtd labiatiP, nhich hnve irregulsr mo- 
mpetslons corollas, aodtheEe. gcnerallf, 
trilabiaCe and riagent; the niiDt, nettle, 
(labium, Lat.) 
I. In entomology, the lover lip oF insects 
fa called the la/tittm ; the npper, the la- 
n. The lower |)!iir of jivs are bebind 
mandibles, and betneen them is situ- 
ated the labnim, or lower lip, vhich closes 
e mouth below, aa the labrum docs 
wve. The labium of insects consists of 
ro chief parts, each of which maj be 
iDudered as a sepaj-ate organ ; nstnetj. 
le chin and the toogue. 

In conchology, the inner lip of the 

iRdi. [Mrum, Lat.) 
In entomology, the npper lip of insects, 
he labram ia aitnated above, or rittier 
a front of, the mandibles, it is generally 
rf the fbrrn of the Be.gnient of a cirde, or 
ttriangnUr, or quadrangular, sometvhiit 
'"inTei, comeons plate, which is united 
isteriorly by a membranous hinge with 

In conchology, the outer lip ; that 
Ige of the aperture which is placed nt 
greatest distance from the aiis of the 


, JS, 

nnmed ftou 



he coast of Ubradi 
fartieutarly on the Island of St. Paul. 

This minersl was at one time 
called Labrador Hornblende, but its 
present name has very properly been 
mhstitnted for what was ineofreet. 
Labrador felspar has been found 
id disseminated only. Its 
B slightly curved ; lustre 
■sarty roetallic, and pearly on the per- 
tbct deavage faces. It ia distio^ished 
lij its iplendent changeability of colour, 
Mflecling very beautif^ colours wheo tbe 
light faUa upon it in oertain directions. 
Althongb principally occarring on the 
coast of liibrador, yet this mineral has 
been found In ■different parts of Europe. 
a'sbA-Doritr. a name for Labrador fel- 
I'BTKliiTB. (labj/rittlhiis, Lat- \a0ii- 

«v0oc. Gr. labt/rinlAe, Fr. laierinlo, It.) 
Ite name Siven to spveral cavitieB of the 
IT, from their fleiuoos position. The 
itetnal parts of the ear compose what is 
ignitted, from the intricacy of its 
i^ng passagea, the labyrinlA. It con 
. its of a middle portion, termed the vea- 
tibole, from which, on its upper and 
side, proceed three tubes, called 
their abape, semirircular canals ; to 

the Inxcer anterior side of the vestibule 
there ia attached B spiral canal, resem- 
bling the ahett of suuil, and termed tbe 
Laoe'it.i. (lacrrta, Lai.) A liiard. In 
Cuvier's arrangement, liicerta constitutes 
the second genusof l.acertinida,ar Ucer- 

Lace'btian. Belonging to the family La- 
certiaida; order Sauria. 

Lace'stine. Resembling a lizard. 

Laci'niatb. i{Iaci>tiatu», Lat. laciaif, 

Laci'niated. ) Fr.) Ragged at the 
edges ; jagged. In botany, applied to 
leaves cut into numerous irregular por- 

La'crtmal. (from lachryma, ret liiarymu, 
Lat. lacrymale, Fr.) Certdn parts 
about the eye, connected with the secrO' 
tion and passage of the tears, aa the 
lacryoial glands, the lacrymal ducts, &o. 
This word is also written lachrymal. 

Lacta'tios. {from lac, milk, Lat.) The 
act of suckling ; the period of suck- 

La'cteal. (from lac, Lat.) Tbe lacteals 
are numerous minute tubes cammenciog, 
by open and very minute ariSces, from 
the inner surface of the intestines, and 
uniting successively into larger vessels, 
till they form trnnka of cnnsidernble 
magnitude. The office of tbe Iscteuls is, 
to take up the chyle and transmit it to 
the heart. It ia only among the verte- 
bratn tbat lacleala are met with; in in- 
vertebrated animals, the absorption of 
the ehyle is performed by veins instead 
of lacteal vessels. The chyle of tbe 
higher orders of animals often contains a 
multitude of globules, wliicli give to it 
a milky ajfpearance, from which drcum- 
stance the vessels containing it have ob- 
tained their name. 

La'ctbOiis. (/ac(eu»,Lat.) Mnity ; of a 
white colour, resembling milk. 

Lacti'fekods. {from lac, milk, and/e™, 
to hear, Lat.} Conveying mitk j yielding 
a white juice, or milky liquor. 

LACo'n.B. (facvBB, Lat.) PI. Small el- 
cretory dncts. 

Lacc'nosk. 1 (from /ochwojiu, Lat.) Hav- 

Lacd'Sous. i ing the surface covered 
with small fiurows, pits, or depressions. 

I-ACu'sTaAL. Hfrom tocira, Lat.) Per- 

Lacd'strine, S taining to a lake. 

LAcn'sTHiHK DEPOSITS. Purely laCUBtriiiB 
deposits are almost unknown among any 
of the Btratified rocks of a date earlie): 
than tbe tertiary period, and it was not 
nntUthe publication of Cnvier and Brong- 
mart, on the environs of Paris, that the 
attention of geologists was much directed 
to the stndy of those numerous fresh- 
water deposits from which we may obtain 
a knowledge of tbe ancient condition of 


the linil. "If we dnio a lake," uja 
Mr. Lyell, " we rreiiueotl; find at the 
bottom ■ seriea of deposita, diepoaed wtlb 
great regoUrit; one above the other ; the 
uppermuit, perhaps, may be a stratum of 
peat, oeit belon a more compact variety 
of the tame, "till lower a bed of lami- 
nated marl, attemaling with peat. Bad 
then other bede of marl, alleiuating with 
clay. Now if we sink a second pit 
throDgh the same coHtinuDua lacuiirint 
depmil, at gome distance from the firat, 
we commonly meet with nearly the same 
Beriea uf beds, yet with slight variationB ; 
lome, for example, of the layers of aaud, 
claj, or marl may be wanting, one or 
more of them haviog thinned out, and 
giTen placo to othera, or aometimeg one 
of the raaaaes, lirat ejamined, i» ohsprred 
to increase in thickness to the exclnajoi 
of other beds. At length we arrive at i 
point where the whole assemblage of la. 
cugtrine strata termiDBle, as, for eiaoiple. 
when we arrive at the borders of the 
original Iske-bosin." Prof. J. Philips 
observes, " lacustrine deposits of un- 
doubtedly meiocene age are scarcely 
known. On the coaats of Yorkshire snd 
Lancashire, lacustrine depoaita occi 
many points, and present a considerable 
variety of circDmaCances as to level, a 
or below the sea, sandy, marly, or peaty 
composition ; but are always governed by 
the general condi^on, that they occupy 
small hollows on the surface of the dilnvial 

L*Q*'nuh. a. fossil echinite thus named 
by Klein, called also pancake. 

LAOo'ura. (from Xdyoc, a hare, and 
;.5e, a rat, Gr.) A rat hare. A gen' 
animals forming a link between the hare 
and the rat. The lagnmya a placed by 
Cnvier in the order rodenlia. They have 
been found in Siberia only, and are de 
scribed bj Pallas. There are severe. 
specieK ; one haa been found fossil in the 
osseous breccia of Corsica. The lagomyf 
has ears of a moderate size ; legs nearly 
alike ; clavicles almost perfect ; and no 
tail. The Rev. W. Kirby observes of the 
lagomys, "it ought rather lo have been 
called the hay-malitr, since tnan may, or 
might, have learned that part of the busi- 
oess of the agriculturist, which cousiats 
in providing a store of winter provender 
for his catUe, from this iadustrious ani- 
maL The Tungusiana, who inhabit the 
country beyond the lake of Baikal, call it 
Pika, which has been adopted as its 
trivial name. These animaU make their 
abode between the roelia, and during the 
summer employ themselves in making bay 
for B winter store. About the middle of 
August these little animals collect with 
admirable precaution their winter's pio- 

18 ] LAM 

vender, which is formed of QiK ch 
grsBsei and the awectesl herbs, wWek 
they bring near their habitations iod 
spread out to dry like hay. la Septem- 
ber, they form heaps or stacki of tkn 
fodder they have collected nnder the rocks, 
or in other places sheltered from the cVB 
or mow. Where many of them hsTB 
laboured together, their stacks are 
times at high as a man, and moii 
eight feet in diameter. A snbtemneii 
gallery leads from tlie burrow, beloirtf* 
masa of hay, so that neither frost dot 
snow can intercept their communicatiw 
with it. — Bridgewaltr Trealin. 

Lacoo'h. ) (lagma. It.) A saU-wotB 

Laoij'nb. ( lake. 

Lake, {lanti, Lat. taehe. Germ, lac ol 
laqve, Fr. lago, It.) A large collection of 
inland water. Some of the lakes of 
America are upwards of 1500 mi 
circuit. The filling np of lakes, and Ob 
formation of deltas at their mouths, fora 
subjects of great importance to tht _ 
logical Btadent. In lakes, the dimioa- 
lion of the surface, by the gradual ia- 
creaae of land at the montha of 
which flaw into them, is remarkable 
mud and debris brought by the RboM 
into the lake of Geneva, anddeposited netf 
its entrance, has cauaed on advanra of tbe 
land to the extent of two miles withts 
1/00 years, the Roman harbour PortM 
Valesiic, now called Port Vallais, b 
at this time two miles distant from tht 

Lama'ntis. J The manatus of Cuvior. 

Lama'ntine. ( species of herbivoroas 
cetacea, living npon the plants whidi 
grow at the bottom of the sea. T 
iamanlin appears to have existed diuiH 
the miocene and pUocene periods. FosW 
remains have been discovered in Froael,. 
The existing species of the lamBtMiiM •>* 
found near the mouths of rivers in. tkfr 
hottest parts of the Atlantic ocean audia 
the torrid zone, and the discovery of ihril' 
fossil remains in Europe adds anoto 
link to the long chain of evideoce of • 
diminished temperature of the climatt et 

Lambdoi'dai.. (from the Greek leMor 
\aii£a, and i\^o{. form.) The nans 
given to one of the sutures of the cn- 
ninm, from its supposed resemblance is 
form to the Greek letter A. 

Lahb'lla. {lamella, Lat.) A thin plats 
or scale. This word is generally used )■ 
the plural, lamella:. 

La'meliateo. Composed of thin plitN, 
layers, or scales. In conchology, whoos 
shell is divided into thin and diBtiaA 
plates or layers, overlying each other with 
the edges produced. 

Lame'llak. Composed of minute plalM 

LAM [ 1 

r layers placed one over the other ; 

LI hhancsia'ta. In l)e Blain- 
Tide's coDchological HrrangeineDt, the 
third order of Acephalophora, containing 

imiliea of biiiilvea. 

lioo'bmes. In Cnvier's nrrange- 

, the sixth family of pentamerous 
Boleoptera j thej hate foliated homi!, 
* m which circumetance they obtain their 

ini'ifEHOL-H. (tram lamella, n jmall 
plate, anifero, to bear, Lat.) Having n 
ttmcture composed of thin layers ; having 
a foliated atmctnre. 

IKEtLiBo'STREg. In Cnvier's arrange- 
Dent, the fourth family of the order of 
'■Imipedea The lamellirostrea have a 
hick bill, the edges uf which are farniahed , 
rith lamina, from which circumstance , 
hey have obtained their name. 
'UDfA. (lamina, Lat.) A thin plate or 
cale ; a thin layer of a stratam. Thi» 
rord is geaerally used in the plnrol, 

{lamM, Fr.) Disposed i 
ijera, placed one over another. 

mgement in layet 



: aU the vi 

jSelieB of gnei 

lehlst, hornblende achiit, &c. It is often 

rable in primary limeBtone, and 

imes in qaarti rocV. All the mem- 
bers of the carboniferous series display 
' ation, though in unequal degrees. 

: coarse sanF^tonesfrEqneatly," Bays 
Prof. Phillips, " present oblique lamina- 
, which, added to the irregularity of 
beds, renders it often embarrassing to 
My what is the true dip of auch rocka. 
amNiVEROHS. (from lamina aad/ero, 
Lat.) Maviiig a stracture consisting of 
lamina: or layers. 
La'vatk. 1 (from lanattu, Lat.) Woolly ; 
La'natep. I covered with a sort of pube- 
I (cence reserabliog short woolly hairs. 

OLATE. Lance-shaped; narrow and 

}. Id eoachology, applied to a shell of an 
Bblong shape, and gradually tapering to 
each end. 

^. In eotomology, in describing the figure 
tof the superficies, when the base is not so 
fenntd as the centre, and the lateral mar- 
'gine slightly, bat equally, swollen, gradu- 
mlly tapering towards the apex, where it 
terminates in a point, and the longitudinal 
ffiameter more than three times the length 
of the transverBB. — Bi 
3. In hotany, applied 
row oblong form, gradually tapering to- 
wards each end. 

»'bci?ohk. (from lancee and forma 
tat,) Spear-shaped i lance-shaped. 
ft'NUSLJP. A portion of land that hai 

n the main body, in conw- 


great extent occurred some years since at 
the back of the Isle of Wight, and another 
is announced, though not of such magni- 
tude, at Alum Bay, while I am writing 
the present account. Landslips must 
necessarily be often attended by fatal 
consequences, as in the falls of avalanches. 
We are informed that when the mountain 
nf Pit fell, in 17?2. three villages, with 
their entire poptilatioD, were covered ; 
and that when part of Mount Grenier, in 
Savoy, fell, in IZ48, Eve parishei were 
bnried, the ruins occupying an extent of 

\e sqiia 

;■.) The n> 

(Fr. _, 

le d'icrtfiate de 
I by the French to 
vulgaris of Leach i the 
cray-fish or thorny lobster. 

LamVebous. (from lana, wool, taAJero, 
to produce, Lat.) Bearing or producing 

LANi'GEROtia. (from lana, wool, and^fro, 
to bear, Lat.) Bearing wool. 

La'ntanh. (irora Xarflawu, to conceal, 
Gr.) A new elementary body, lately dis- 
covered, making the fif^-fifth. See Sle- 
menlary hody. 

Lanu'ginose. ) (from IttnuginoiKt, Lat.) 

Lanu'oinous. j In entomology, when 
longish curled hair ii spread Over the sur- 
face; covered with aotl hair resembling 

La'pides juda'ict. a name given to cer- 
tain fossil spines of echinites, formerly 
supposed to be petrified ohves. 

LAriDE'scENCB. (from lapideteo, Lat. to 
become stone.) Stony concretion j the 
process of being converted into atone. 

LArlDB'scK?<T. Growing or turning into 

ther substance; the act of form- 

(lapidifier, Fr.} To convert 
a to form stone. 
D. Converted into stone ; form- 

ja'pis la'zcm. TheLaiurstein ofWemerj 
Azure-stone of Jameson ; Laculite oF 
Haiiy ; Dodecaedrischer Knphon.spath 
of Mohs. When lapis lazuh is pure, it ia 
a mineral of a fine azure-blue colour; it 
occurs in rhombohedral dodecahedrons, 
massive, and disseminated. Structure 
finely granular, atmoet compact; liiictura J 

nnaven or conduudal ; tuatn feeble ) ■ I 
liUle truulucent Bt iti edges, tt icntcbcB ' 
gUaa, bat gives spnrka nitb slcel wilh dif- i 
ficolty. SpecitiogreTitr about 2-30. It* | 
anstyiii is very differently given by dlfTer- . 
cnt aathora. It contains silica, nearly I 
fifty per cent, carbonate of lime, alamina, \ 
Jiotasb, soda, oiide of iron, and sulphur 
«dd. It occurs associated witb primary 
rocks, especially granite. It is accompa- 
nied by garnets, quarti, felspar, Ike,, witb 
aomeofobicb it is often intermixed. It 
is fonnd cUiefly in China, Persia, 
Rnssia. It is capabla of a higb pidiib, 
and Is much eeteemed. Its cbief use, 
honever, is to furniab tbe uUra^mo 
blDe,Dsed by paintrr«i,,a pigment reinark- 
nble for the durability of its col iur. 

I.a'pib lETi'Tes. Eagle-stone. A mine 
which derives its name from the ancii 
belief that it was found in tbe nests of I 
eagle. It is a variety of iron ore, co 
monly met nith in the argillaceous mil 
of this country. lis supposed yirtues i 
described by Dioapo rides, (Etius, a 
Pliny, nho assert that if tied to the arrc 
will prevent abortion ; if fixed to the thigh 
it Kill facilitate delivery. 

La'rTnX. (\apwyf, Gr.) The upper 
of the Tind-pipe or tiacbea ; that car 
ginoas projection in tbe throat know 
thepomnraAdami,whicb St rir.tly is formed 
by one of the cartilages of tbe larynr only , 
namely, the thyroid. The larynx eonsir'" 
of five cnrttlages, (he cricoid, thyroid, t 
arytEenoid, and the epi|;lottis. 
.uk'TEBAL. llaleralh, Lat. lateral, Fr. la- 
terale, It. ) Pertaining to the side ; ei- 
tending to one side fi^jm the centre. 

IjATESi'tious. (laltritiua, Iiat.) Of the 
colour of briek-dust; applied generally to 

Latibo'stsous. (from laitis, broad, and 
rattram, a beak, Lat.) Broad beaked. 
i*'TiTUnB. {lalilwdo, Lat. latilvde, Fr. 
lalitudine, It.) The latitude of a place 
the earth's surface is its angular dla- 
ze from the equator, measured on its 
own terrestrial meridian : it is reckoned 
u degrees, minutes, and seconds, from 
up to 9D°, and nortliwards or southwards 
according to the hemisphere tbe plane 
lies in. Thus the observatory at Green- 
wich is situated in 51" 2B' 40'' north lati- 
tude. Latitude may also be thus defined, 
tbe angular distance between the direction 
of a plumb-line at any place and the plane 
of the equator. 

LOBITE. A mineral, thus named after 
Latrobe, baying been found by him on 
the coast of Labrador. Colour, pale 
pink; specific gravity 2-8. Occurs raaa- 
sive and crystallized. 

ia'tticed. In conchology, shells having 
longitudinal lines or furrows decussated 

<,. (larva, a mask, Lat.) . 
i caterpilkr state, before i 


. winged or perfect state. SddB 
insects, as the butterfly, moth of the ifflt- 
worm, ia., pass throogh bmj diituut 
states, namely, the egg; the lorra, at 
caterpillar ; the pupa, or cbrysiUs ; vA 
the imago, or perfect insect. "Hie eggi 
which is dcpoBited by the perfect insect, 
gives birth to a caterpillar, or lana ; at 
animal, ntucb, in oatwaiih shape, b«M 
not the slightest resemblajice to its parent, 
or to tbe form it is itself afterwards tD 
assume. It has, in fact, both Che eitemd 
resemblance, and the mechanical stmft- 
Inre, of a worm. Tbe same elongated 
cylindric shape, the same annular stric- 
ture of the denser parts of the int^Daeati. 
the same arrangements of longitDdinll 
aud oblique muscles connecting tbsM 
rings, the same apparatna of abort feel, 
with ckws, or bristles, or tufts of bair, 
for facilitating progression; in short, dt 
the circumstances most characteristic rf 
the vermifonn type are equally exempli- 


tbe different tribes of caterfHllan, 
the proper annelida. These exter- 
nal investments, which hide the real fiirB 
of the future animal, have been compaMd 
to a mask ; so that tbe insect, while weUh 
ing this disguise, has been termed lafvSf 
the Latin name for a mask.- — Rogtt. 

We have in tbe larvs of insects a kini 
of intermediate animal, in some dqjM 

iA'va. (This word, according to KlnniV. 
is derived from the Gothic, lopa or ha^in, 
to run, and is applied to tbe melted orH- 
guified matter, dhcharged from the mooOis 
of volcanoes.) The matter which Bom 
in a fused, or melted, state from ■ lid> 

Xavb, whatever be its chemical compo' 
sition, puts on very different appearanwif 
according to the circumstances vhid>a>" 

authors it has been divided Into compact 
lava, cellular lava, and cavernaua hnii 
Tbe mineral called felspar forma, in g<n»~, 
ral, more than half of tbe moss of modeWi 
lavas. When this is in great excess, InMi, 
are called tracbytic ; when, on the oth* 
hand, augite prevails, tbey are called b*-, 
saltic. When lava is observed as near H 
possible to the point whence it iiBOSti tt] 
IE found to be, for tbe most part, aiew 
fluid mass of tbe consistence of hone^ 
buE occasionally so liquid as to penetnM 
the fibre of wood. It soon cools elte^ 
iially, and consequently exhibits a roUfk' 
uneven surface ; but, from its being abll. 
conductor of beat, tbe internal nuuf 
mains Lquid long after that portion wl 

cxpoBcd to tbe air has brcome solid, 
at oflS22, aomedsrsBfterit liodbeen 
■ "sedthe thermome' " 



e feel 

diEtance of three fe«t Che te 
mrtxtlj exceaded that of bailing 
The temperature at which lava co: 

itate of fluidity is soffiuientljr great to 
tti«lt glsM and Bilver ; even etonea are 
•Bid to have been fnaed irhen thrown into 
tiiB lava of Etna and VesuTiuB. Tlie 
length of time during which streams of 
(■v> retain their heat is quite eatoni^hing : 
#iE current of lava which flowed from 
Stni in 1669 retains a portion of it to the 

m Jomtio, 


ear 1759, 

If a century afterwords. Sir W. Ha- 
nilCon lighted small pieces of wood in the 
Smnrei of a current of Veauviau lava four 
yetn after it had been ejected. The 
itreami of lava often become solid eiter. 
nail)', even while jet in motion, and their 
" ■» may be compared to two rocky walls, 
ch are EOmetimea inclined at an angle 
«f 45°. Of the immense bodies of lavs 
thrown out during volcanic eruptions, few 
persons entertain a just idea. Etna, 
which, rises upwards of 10,000 feet in 
, Iwight, and embraces a circumference of 
i60 milea. is composed entirely of lavas. 
," In the strnclure of this mountain," sajs 
[Pr. Daaben;, " every thing wears alike 
JOie character of yastnesa." The producia 
I the eruptions of Vesuvius may be said 
jalmOHt to sink into insignificance, when 
^towpared with these coul£ee, some of 
,«hicb are tout or five miles in breadth, 
n in length, and from fifty to oue 
d ^et in Chickuess. Rtill the emp. 
■e nothing when compared 
iritb that of Skapt^r Jokul, the following 
^coonnt of which is extracted from Mr. 
i^ell'i Principlea of Geology. " On the 
[jlth of June Skap tar Jokul threw out a 
lorrent of lava wliich flowed down into 
<^ river Skapt^, and completely dried it 
jbp. The channel of the river waa be- 
fneea high roeks, in many places from 
fcnr hundred to six hundred feet in depth, 
and near two hundred in breadth. Not 
pnlj did the lava (ill up these great defiles 
£0 the brink, but it overflowed the adja- 
^^ ...... J considerable extent. The 

, on issuing from the con- 
d locky gorge, was then arrested for 
le time hj a deep lake, which it en- 
^^. *lj filled. The cnrrent then again pto- 
«eeded, and reaching some ancient lava 
[&U of suhterraneoua caverna, penetrated 
And melted down part of it. On the ISth 
fat June, another ejection of liquid lava 
Aiahed from the volcano, which flowed 
I down with amaxlng velocity over tbe sur- 

I ] LEA 

face of the flrat stream. After flowing 
for aeveral days, it waa precipitated down 
a tremendous cataract called Stapafoaa, 
where it filled a (irofound abyss, whicfc 
that great waterfall had been hollowing 
out for ages, and again the fiery current 
pursaed its onward course. On the 3d of 
August, fresh floods of lava still pouring 
from the volcano, a new branch waa aent 
off in a diSereut direction. When the 
fiery lake which filled up the lower por- 
tion of the valley of the Skaptii had been 
augmented with new supplies, the lava 
flowed up the course of the river to the 
foot of the hilla whence the Skapta takea 
ita riae. This emption did not entirely 
cease till the end of two years, and al- 
thoagh the population of Iceland did not 
exceed fifty thousand, not fewer than 
twenty villagea were overwhelmed, besides 
(hose inundated by water, and more than 
nine thousand human beings perished, tO' 
gether with an immenae number of cattle. 
Of the two branches of liquid lava, which 
flowed in nearly opposite directions, lAe 
greater waa fifty, and the leater forty 
milea in length. The extreme breadth 
which tbe SkaptS. branch attained in the 
low countries waa from twelve to fifteen 
miles, that of the other about seven. The 
ordinary height of both currents was one 
hundred feet, but in narrow delilea it 
sometimes amounted to six hundred." 

LAti'MOHirs. Diatom Dua zeolite. A mine- 
ral thus named after ita discoverer, Giltet 
Laumont. It is of a white, or grayish' 
white colour, sometimes tinged with red. 
It occnra regularly crystallized, and in 
distinct granidar concretions. Its cryatala 
are four-sided prisma, aUghtly oblique, 
samctimes terminated by dtedrol summits, 
Bometimes truncated on their lateral edges. 
By exposure to the air, Laumonite diain- 
tegratea, and is at length reduced to a 
white powder. If, however, recent spe- 
cimens be immersed for two or three honn 
in a strong mucilage of gum, the action of 
the atmosphere upon them, and their 
efiloreacencB, will be prevented. Laumo- 
nite consists of BilicB52'0, alumina 21'20, 
limelO-50, Bndwateraboutl4. It oecura 
in Becondary trap-rocka in France, Scot- 
land, Iceland, and America. 

La'ziii.1. See Lapia laiali. 

La'zulite. a mineral of a light blue co- 
lour, Bupposed by some mineralogists to 
be a sub-Epecies of lapis laxuli. 

Lead, (licd. Sax.) Lend is of ahtnish- 
grey colour, with cDnsiderable lustre, but 
soon tarniahes by exposure to the atmo- 
sphere. By friction this metal exhales a 
peculiar, and somewhat dieagreeahle, 
odour. Its specific gravity is ll'i)5, or 
nearly eleven and a-half times heavier 
than water. It is soft and eafivli oui\ft4.. 


being fotible M Bbvot 
It ii the lofteiC of Bll the durable metili i 
it can be ■crttched by the luil, iJid ii 
euily cat bj ■ knife. Ila eUiticity, due- 
tililj, aod tenadty, KB comparatively low ; 
It cumot be drawD iulo wire thinner than 
s line in diameter. Lead ia very mallea- 
ble, and cau be beaten into thin learea, 
but these, from it* imperfect lenacitr, are 
einly torn. All the iaiti of thla metal 
are highly poiwaoai ; they are, however, 
moat ahamefully employed by unjirincipUil 
persons to correct or concotl the acidity 
of cider and wines. The prtaenue of lesj 
In tiieae liqnors may be detected by the 
following meuiB. Dissolve \'iO grains of 
Bulpburet of lime and 1 BO grains of super- 
tartrate of potub id 16 ouncea of distilled 
water, by repeated shaking < 
when perfectly diasolred, Ui 
tore to settle, and pour off the clear liquid 
into clean phials, adding about twenty 
drops of hydrochloric acid to each. A. 

glass of the inspected wine, will detect 
the smallest quantity of lead, if any be 
present, by producing a black predpt- 

Seieral instances of the occurrence of 
native lead have been mentioned, though 
in few of them does the fact appear to he 
well establiEbed. In the island of Ma- 
deira, it is found in small masses, in lava, 
and hoa undoubtedly hrm reduced to its 
present state hy volcanic tire. Neit la 
iron, lead may be eonsideroJ the most 
■bnndantiy dilTosed of all the metala ; it 
has been known from the earliest ages 
The lead of oor mines is in a state ol 
combination with sulphnr, forming a sul- 
phuret of lead ; this is coiled galena, oi 
leod-glanee. By eiposure to a strong 
heat the sulphur is driven off and pore 
lead is obtaiufd: the average produce of 
metal &^>m the Derbyshire ore is aboul 
66 per cent. 

Leou'mb, (legmen, Lat. legume, Fr. le- 
ynnie. It.) A species of fruit ; apod; s 
seed VBBSel peculiar to leguminous plants, 
formed of two oblong valves having nc 
longitudinal partition; the seeds ore at- 
tachsd to one of its margins only ; the 
beau, pea, vetch, and all the natural order 
ofleguminoaie, fui 

LBauMiND'B.s. An order of plants, calys 
five-toothed, inferior, the odd segment 
anterior, or farthest from the aiia : corolla 
papilionaceous, rarely regular; stameni 
definite or indelinite, perigynons, eithei 
diatinct, monadeljihona, or diodelpbona ; 
ovarium superior, one-celled, many seed- 
ed, style and stigma simple ; fmit a le- 
gume, or, rarely, a drupe ; seeds occa- 
aionally witli an arillua ; embryo, eialbu- 
s, cotyledons, eitherremaiuing under 

^ miuons, cotyledons, eitherre 

] L E N 

ground, or appearing above, in fennint- 
tion ; leave! compound, stipulate, iltu- 
nate ; leaflets stipulate ; infloiescnus 
usually aiillary, but variaut. 

One genua of this order, Detafimn, hH 
a drupe for ita fruit, and 
perfectly regular corolla. 

The pea, bean, banco, vetch, liqnorio^ 
clover, soinfoin, Incerae, tamarind, indlgai 
gum arable, Sic. &c.i belong to it. Ge- 
nerally, the order is innocent, if 
wholesome ; hot some few genen 


legume ft , 

that among all the legnmiaoiu or pq 

Ijonaceous tribe, do deleterioui plant 

to be found ; this, however, ia not ' ' ' 

.k'uuino. The X^pland marmo 
lemming has short ears and a ti 
the toes of its fore-feet peculiarly 
for digging. Cuvier ploves the lemmi 
in the order Rodentia, class Mammal 
Bones of the lemming have been fo* 
fossil in a breccia at Cette. 

^e'mnian earth, a mineral foimd lal 
island of Lemnos, in the Bgean 8. 
whence its name. It is also called ^Int' 
gide, from orfpayif, sigillum, a " " 
is of a reddish colour and bog 

jEns. {lens, a lentil, Lat. lenlitU, fx. 
tfjile. It.) So Darned from its noeM- 
hlauce to a seed of the lentil. A tmO- 
parent substance having its two lOrtoel 
so formed that the rays of light, in punng 
through it, hate their direction duDgaJi 

Of 1. 

I then 

sphere, all the ponill 
in its surface being equally distant boa 
the centre. A double convex laa, it* 
solid formed by two coDvei ipherial ii, 
surfaces, having their anrfacea on oppodlc 
aides of the lens. When the radii of iU 
two surfaces are equal, it is said to l« 
eQUalti/ conntx; when the radii on m- 
equal, it is said to be uneguaUy eim>tr. 1 
plano-convex leiti, is a lens baring OM if 
its surfaces convex and the other pbHi 
A dovblt eoneavt lens, is a solid, bonoM 
by two concave spherical snrikcei, 
may he either equally or unequally i 
cave. A plano-concave leas, is a 
one of whose surfaces is concave and 
other plane. A menincvii, is a lens oi 
whose surfaces is convei and ihe 
concave, and in which the two 
meetifcoutinued. A concaro-f 
is a leiiB one of whose surfaces 
and the other convex, and in which 
two surfaces will not me 

rei lenaea poasees peculiar ndTSD- 
br coneentradog the sun'a rayB, 
■conveying to on immense distance 
ansad and parallel beam of light. 
ost perfect burning lens ever COD- 
d WBB executed by Mr. Parker, of 
Itreet, at an expense of 7O0I. It 
ide of flint-glass, «as three feet in 
BT, and neighed 212 pounds. By 
of this ponerful bumiag leaa, 
, gold, silver, copper, tio, quarti, 
jasper, fliut, topaz, garnet, fee., 
lelted in a few seconds. — Brtie- 

1 by De 

The nan 
^rtain poin . 
, on the surface of tl 

ntomologyj a round body, with its 
te sides convex, meeting in a sharp 
In conchology, doubly convex 

TLAK ORE. The name given by 
n to obtuse octahedral arseniate of 
) a varictyof arseniate of copper ; 
llto lenticular arseniate of cojiper. 
li'h-a. a Bublenticalar, multilo- 
tpiral Doivalve ; a genus of micro- 
fcraminifera. Distinguished frum 
U by having no syphon. Three 
I have been found fossil in the 
Dorbood of Paris. 
ILITE. A fossil sheil of a lenticular 

»M. (from lena and/orma, Lat.) 

form of a lens, 

CTB. A mineral found in Genuaiiy, 
lu named after LenziuE, a German 
logiat. There are two kinds of 
be, tba opaline and Che argillaceous ; 
iner of a milk-while, the latter of a 
rtkitB colour. 

raa. The goose-barnacle. An 
If Cirripedes, the species of which 
Uingnisbed by a tendinous, con- 
<f, and often long tnbe, fixed by its 
9 some solid marine substance, 
ting a uompreased uhell, consisting 
IM united to each other by mem- 
, and by having six pairs of tenta- 
I >nna. They are usually found in 
(SipoBcd to tbe SuctuationG of the 
^kee. W. Kiriy. 
i (Xririlc, Gr. lepat, Lat. Ifpas, 
Mniuens included under the name 
til tbe cirripedes or mnltivalves. 
ri^pitH»1« are known i» this country 
luame of Barnacles. The lepas, or 
le, oonstitates a connecting link 
^ raoUuscDiis and articulated anl- 

the gills are attached to tbe bases 
I cirrbi, or jointed tentacula. In 

] L E P 

the Linnean system, the lepas constitutes 
the second genua of multivalve shells. 
The animal a tritoni shetl affixed at tbe 
bae, and consisting o( many unequal 
erect valves. They are without eyes, or 
any distinct head ; bave no powers of 
locomotion, but are fixed to various bo- 
dies. Their body, which hag no articula- 
tions, is enveloped in a mantle : their 
mouth is armed with transverse toothed 

and furnished with a feeler. 

genus consists of two femilies, or 
divisions, very different in their form, tba 
first of wbtcb is the Balanilfa, or Acom- 
bamaclEs, having a aheUy instead of a 
tendinous tube, with an operculum or lid, 
consisting generally of four, but eoDie. 
times of six valves, and being of a cub- 
conic form. The second family consists 
of the Lepadites, or Goose- barnacles, the 
species of which are distinguished by a 
tendinous, contractile, and often long 
tube or pedicle, which, being of a flexible 
nature, allows tbe animal, fixed by its 
base to some solid marine substance, to 
writhe about in quest of food. The ani- 
mals of this genus have only been found 
in tlie ocean. In Turton's Linnu thirty- 
two species of lepas are described ; titleen 
of these have been discovered in oar seas. 
jEPinoDE'NnBON. (from \ckI^ and Siv- 
tpoi-, Gr.) An extinct genus of foesil 
plan ts. of very frequent occurrence in the 
coal formation. It is stated by Lindley 
and Button that plants of this genus are, 
next to the calamites, the most abundant 
of the fossils in the coal formation of the 
north of England. Tbirty-faur species 
are enumerated by M. Ad. Brongniart. 
Lepidodendra are sonietimeB found of 
enormous sixe, fVagments of stems occur- 
ring upwards of forty feet in length, 

lained to be intermediate between coni- 
ferce and lycopodiacece. In some points 
of their structure they resemble coniferse, 
but in other respects, setting aside their 
great magnitude, they may be compared 
(o lycopodiacete. To bntanisis, this dia. 
coverj is of very high interest, as it proves 
that those eystematists are right, who 
contend for the possibility of certain 
chaams now existing between the grada- 
tions of organization, being caused by tbo 
extinction of genera, or even of whole 
orders, the existence of which was neces- 
sary to complete the harmony which it is 
heUeved originally existed in the stmcture 
of all parts of the vegetable kingdom. 
By means of I-epiffodeadrin, a better 
passage is establislied from flowering to 
flovrerleas plants, than by either equise- 
tum or cycas. or anv other known genus. 
—Lindley and Hvtton. 

Count Sternberg remarks, that we are 

L E P [ 1 

unMqutintcd with an; exiiting ipedea oF 
plinl, which, like the lepidodendroD, pre- 
aena at all >gcB> and tbroughoBt tlie 
whole eiteut of ihe tnink. the Kara 
formed bj the attachment of the prtiolea, 
or leaf-tCatks, or the markingt of the ad* 
besioD of the leavea themEelves. 

Lk'fidoidb. a hmil; of extinct fossil 
fiahe«, found in (he ooKtic levies : tbrj 
were remarkable for their largp rhomboidal 
boDj Bcatea, which were of great thick- 
neas, and covered nith enamel. The 
■ealeaoriepidoidsbada remarkable atmc- 
ture in being farnished on their upper 
margin with a hook-like process, placed 
liliB the hook or peg near the npper mar- 
gin of a roofing tile ; this hook fitted into 
a depression on the lower margin of the 
Kale placed immediatelji above it. In 
order to obtain a correct notion of tha 
form and appearance of the "eales, the 
reader is referred to Prof. Bucktand'ni 
BridgewBter Treatise, in which they are 
very accurately (ignred. 

Lspi'dolitk. (from \fin'c. R scale, and 
Xi'do;. a Btone, Gr.) The I^pidolith of 
Werner ; Hemiprismatiscber Talk-glim- 
mer of Mohe. LepidoUte Mica. A mi- 
neral of a peach -bloEsom, red, and lome- 
timea grey colour, oceurring maaBiTe and 
in small concretions. This mineral, at 

first V 


small grains, sometimes extremely 
bnt these grains, among which little pearly 
scales are oftea interspersed, are them, 
selves composed of a great number of mi- 
nute foliK or spangles, like those of mica, 
from which ' * ' ■ ■ ■ 

its I 

Its ( 

varionsly stated, 
thors, it contains silica aO'36, alumina 
28-.'i2, potash 0-0, oiide of manganese 
1'25, fluoric acid and water .'i'4l)| litbioa 
5-50. It exhibits two axes of double re- 
fractiou, from which circnmstance it has 
bEBD called Di-aiial mica. From the 
beauty of its colour it has been cut iutu 

Lbpido'ptbha. (from Xiwif, a scale, aod 
jrrtpAv, a wing, Gr.) Scaly-winged in- 
sects. Lepidoptera form tbe tenth order 
of insects in Cuvier's arraagemenC ; they 
have four wings, both sides of which are 
covered with smalt, coloured scales, re- 
sembling farinaceous dust. This order 
compriiiesbntterilies. moths, and spbinies. 
The scales are attached so slightly to the 
memhraae of the wing as to come off 
when touched with the fingers, to which 
they adhere like fine dust. When ei- 
amiued with the microscope, tb<' 

of these Kales are cacenlingly diveni£c|[, 
not only ia diiTerent species, bat t' 
diRerent |uitts of tbe same insect, 
proboscis of the Lepidoptera is a 



n be 


eiceedingly beautiful 

parallel and e<iuidistant striie, often 

crossed by still finer lines. The former 

Lei-ido'ptekal. > Belonging tr 

LHPIDo'PTnaOus. ( I.epidople 
wings covered with scales. Tl 
of the metamorphoses of ins< 
strikingly displayed in the history of lb 
htpidapterota, or butterfly and nutli 

Lefido'stri's. ) (The Lepisostena of La- 

Lepiso'steds. I cepede. ) A gemu at 
fishes inhabiting the rivers of NorthADft 
rica, one of the two living representat^""^^ 
genera of Sanroid fishes. Teeth of a \ 
related to Lepidos 

have been found in tbe Tilgate beds n 
in those of Stonesfield. 

Lepiso'stbus Fittoni. a species of fba 
Lepisosteus, thus named after Dr. Rt 
ton. Scales with bifurcating proeesutb 
helongiiig to the Lepisosteo 
very abundantly found in 

nngmg tc 

An extinct genua of Ml 

-,(ta ""'""""■ 

, white, Gr) T 
I by M. Bracoima 

to a white substance obtained from md 
culnr fibre, by treating it with snlphori 
acid, and subjecting it to a pecuUar pit 

.bo'cJte. (fromXiwic, Gr.) A ndnell 
of a white colour, found in volcanic rodo 
The Leuzit of Werner \ Amphigess 1 
Hauy : Vesuvian of Kirwan ; Traoenl 
daler KuphoQ-spath of Mobs. BaM 
the blow-pipe it is infOsible, a cjran^ 
stance which serves to distingniah IMd 
from the garnet and analcime. Its 
tuents are silex S3-7&, alnmiiie 
potash 21'3o. It occurs regnlaiiy 
talliied ; in granular concretions, ■ 
roundish grains. It is often emheddod 
in lava and in basalt. All lavas do not 
contain crystals of leucite. In the livt 
of Vesuvius they are abundant, but 
that of Etna they are rarely found. So 
authors have supposed that the cirsbd^ 
of leucite found in lava pre-existed id dl 
mineral fused by volconic heat, bat tkit 
in conseqaence of their infusibility 
crystals were not acted on ; others 
tain that tbe Leucite has cr] 
within the lava, 

.euci'tic. Coutaining leueite ; resepr 
bling leucite. 

.eu'ttrite. A mineral foond in Lenttnt 
in Saxony, and thus named from Oi 
circumstance. Colour, gi^Byiah-wUI 
tinged in places with an ochreooa brow 

ji'as. a provincial name, now beeoi 
conventional amongst geologists, for 

L 1 1) 

kind of limeglone, which, with its i 
cjated beda, farm a particular ^onp of 
the secondary seriea. Mr. Bakewell con- 
_^derG that the uamc Hat nas probably 
Lgiven ta thia formation b)' the proiincJiU 
Bproouaciatian of tbe irord iayeri, as the 
BStTBta of lias timestane are gcDerally very 
pr^ular and fiat, and can easily be raised 
Id sUb« from tbe qusirry. " The great 
bed of dark argi11iie«ans limestone, di- 
vided into tbia strata, called Hat, is tbe 
best cboracteriied of all the seconikry 
strata, (ejccept ehalk ) both by ita mineral 
charactera and tbe foeail remains im- 
bedded in it. The iioi cannot be mis- 
taken for any of the lower strata ; it 
serves as a key Co tbe geology of the 
flecondary formatians in EngUuid ; and 
the first enquiry which the student should 
make, whea be is in doubt respecting the 
position of say of the secondary beds, 
shonld be. doei it occur abma or beloa 
tht liai I 

When the liaa bedi are fully developed 
■itli their associated beds of clay, they 
fi)rm a mass of stratified limestone and 

h Tbe lias group is iilsced below the 
Witfiiand above the variegated sandEtone, 
II thil country ; in Prance and Germany, 
'~'~w the oolite and bIhivc the Mnscbel- 
helkalk baa not been 
ACOiered hitherto in England. It is in 
9 lias that the petrified inlc-baga of 
'igo tuve been found. Proofs are not 
tdng of intervals between tbe depo- 
nu of the component strata of the 
Twenty different kinds of ammo- 
■ have been discovered in the lias, 
inndant in it, that iij 
\e it has obtained the name of Cal- 
« i. QryphitBB ; and, indeed, the Gry- 
te sppesrs peculiar to, and character- 
IB of, the lias formation. 

In botany, a layer on the inner 
e, or that which is contigaoua to 
s wood, or the bark of trees ; tbe 
It layer of tbe bark. The liber 
a be formed from the cambium. 
fT. (ligammlum, Lat. ligamoit, 
; BgamtTito, It.) A strong, ileiible, 
' , oonipBet. membnne, serving to 
., Mgethereertaiii parts. 
*' Nothing,'' says Dr. Roget. " can be 
V artifidBlly contrived than the inter- 
ning of tbe fibres of ligaments ; for 
_ y aie not only disposed, as in a rope, 
in bundles placed aide by side, and appa- 
rently parcel, to each other ; but, on 
carefnl eiamiiiatian, they are found to be 
tied together by oblique fibres curiouBly 
^JDterlaMd in a way that no art can imi- 
Itla only after long maceration in 

I water, Uiat this wmpUcatcd and benatifiil 
Btmcture rxn he unravelled." 

In conchology, the membranacenua 
substance which connects the valves 
together ; tbe true ligament is always 

LioAUE'NTtL. ) Composed of ligament ; 

Liiia.>ie'ntdus. S resembling ligament. 

Li'oNBOtiB. {lignfut, Lat. ligneta:, Fr. 
ligneo. It.) Made of wood ; resembling 
wood ; containing woodj 

LiONi'rBnous. (from Hgnuni, wood, and 
/era, to produce, Lat.) Producbg wood ; 
fieidiog wood . 

Lisntfica'tion. The process of being 
converted into wood. 

Li'ONiN. ) From an analysis of lignin by 

Li'gninb. \ Dr. Front it is toond to con- 
sist of eqnal parts of water and carbon. 
Lignin is deposited, daring the growth of 
the plant, with the intention of forming a. 
permenent part of the vegetable structure 
constituting tbe basis of the woody fibre, 
and giving mechanical support and 
strength to the wliole fabric of tbe plant. 

LmxiPB'nnoirs. (from tigitom, wood, and 
perdo, to destroy, IjiL) A term applied 
to insects wliich destroy wood. 

Li'gsitb. (from lignum, Lat.) Wood- 
coal. Lignite is brown or black. Some 
lignite has the appearance of jet, ia of a 
velvet-black, does not soil the fingers, is 
very brittle, and bnms with a bright 
flame. Lignite is a much more recent 
formation tlian that of common coal. By 
some, lignite is considered to be an im- 
perfect coal, as wood not yet mineralited, 
or passed into a state of coal ; wiiile 
others doubt whether lignite ever becomes 
true coal. Lignite, like coal, is of vege- 
table origin, but it differs in many re- 
spects fromcommoncoal. There are several 
varieties of lignite ; these mostly bum 
with flame, but they neither swell nor 
cake like coal. 

Liomi'tic. Contaiiung lignite j resembling 

Li'gulatf. )(fromHjK/a, a strap, Lat.) 

Li'oDLATBD. i Strap-shaped. A term 
applied to the radical florets of compound 
flowers, when shaped like s strap or rib- 
bon. The projecting parts of the iimb of 
an irregular corolla are called lipii! when 
one lip is very long and narrow, compared 
to the length of the tube, the coioUs is 
called tigulale, or strap-shaped. 

Li'ouRiTE. (from liguria.) A mineral 
of an apple-green colour, ocooiionally 
speckled. It ranks as a gem. 

Li'LAtirK. Another name for the mineral 
lepidolilt, which see. 

Lilia'cbodb. IJUiacmt, Lot.) Resem- 
bling a lily ; lily-like. A coroUa baring 
six regular petals is termed a tiliactoia 

initFS monili- 

L I L 

Li'lt h'ncristte. (The 

fomiig.) So called, because cne ai-ms, 
when folded, resemble the head of the 
My. This is one of the xnoEt heaotifiil 
of the fossil crinDo'idea, hitherto found 
only in the muBchelkalk of the new red 
Baadstone group. Mr. Parkinson states 
tiiat, independently of tho numher of 
pieces which may bo contained in the 
vertebral coluniD, and which, from its 
probable length, msy be very numerouB, 
the ibssU skeleton of Che anperior part of 
the Ulff enerinite consists of at least 
twenty-six thousand six hnadred pieces. 
The body is supported by a long Tcrte- 
bral cotumn attached to the ground by 
■n enlai^ement of its base. It is com- 
posed of many cylindrical thick joints, 
articulating tinnly with each other, and. 
having a central aperture, like the spinal 
canal in the vertebra of a qoadmped, 
through which a small alimentary cavity 
descends from the stomach to the base of 
the colamn. From one extremity of the 
vertebral colamn to the other, and 
throDgbout the hands and fingers, the 
surface of each bone articulates with that 
adjacent to it, with the most perfect 
regularity and nicety of adjustment. 
" So exact and methodical Is this arrange- 
ment,'' says Prof. Bncliland, in his 
Bridgewater Treatise, " even to the ex. 
tremity of its minutest tentacula, that it 
is just as improbable, that the metals 
nhichcompose the wheels of a chronometer 
ebould for themselves have calculated 
and arranged the fonn and number of the 
teeth of each respective wheel, and that 
diese wheels should have placed them- 
selves in the precise position, fltted to 
attain the end resulting &om (he com- 
bined action of them all, as for the sac. 
cessive hundreds and thousands of little 
bones that cocapose an encrinite, to have 
Arran^d themselves, in a position subor- 
dinate to the end produced by the com- 
bined effect of their united mechanism ; 
Bach acting its pecttliar part in barmo- 
niouB subordination to the rest, and all 
conjointly producing a result which no 
■ingle aeries of them acting separately, 
coold possibly huTe eifected." The pelvis 
of the lilt/ etterinilt resembles in shape a 
depressed vase, and, by some, it is sup- 
posed that its npper part was closed by 
an integument, in the centre of which 
was placed the mouth. The encrinite 
differs from the penlacrinite in having its 
plates, or vertebrte, rounded, whereas in 
the pentacrinite they are pentagonal. 

Li'uA. {lima, Lat. a file.) A genos of 
ahells, placed by Cuvier in the family 
Oatraoea, order Arephala teatacea; and 
br Lamarck in the family Pecletiides. 
LiioK differ from pectens in the greater 

length of their shell ii 

ir to the hi 

they hav 


wide opening for the pas^ 
by which they are attached. The lima E 
a longitudinal, nearly eqaivaLved. eare-^f] 
bivalve, wlth^the beaks separated by ^ 
cavity. Hinge toolhlesa. The hing^_ 
pit, which receives the ligament, partX^r 
internal and partly external. The luna 3 
a marine shell, found at depths vnryi^ 
to thirty fathoms, moored by a ' 
Lamarck describes five fossil species M 
lime found in the neigbbourbood. of Paiji, 
namely, L. spatbulata, L. balloides, L. 
abliqua, L. dilatata, L. (ragilis. 

.i'max. {Umax, Lat. a snail.) Tte 
cochlea terrestris, or snail, so called Cnm 
its sliminess. 

jIUB. (from limbua, Lat.) 

1. Ad edge or border, as the i 
the moon's limb, &c. 

2. An extremity of the body, as the un 
or leg. 

3. In botany, the outer spreading portion 
of a monopetatons corolla. 

..I'uBiLiTB. (from Limbourg, in Swalna.} 
A compact mineral of a honey-yeUow 
colour, supposed to be a decomposed 

olivine. On espos '- '' " — '' 

the blow-pipe, it f 
shining, black enam 

.IMS. The oxide of calcium, one hnndral 
parts consisting of 72 of calcium, i 
tallic basis, and 28 of oxygen. LimailoM 
not exist in a pure sr ' ' . "' ' " 
so strong an affinity for carbonic odd it 
to absorb jt from the atmosphere, abta 
it becomes converted into carbonate el 
lime, constituting the different kinds it 
marble, chalk, and limestone, and torn- 
ing extensive strata, and the largeit 
mountain ranges. Lime is a wtdte H 
light grey earth, fusible only by the hi 
of a galvanic battery, or of a gas blip 
pipe ; it is exceedingly caustic, and 
water be sprinkled npon it, great heatil 
produced, the water unites with the lit 
farming a hydrate of lime. Ijmt 
partially soluble in water, and there is I 
singular circumstance connected wifl 
this, namely, that cold water diisolvti I 
larger proportion than hot water. 

..i'mbstonb. a genus of minerals ooe 
prising many species. Mr. Bakewell d 
serves, "however varioos in 
appearance limestone may be, 
pure, essentially composed of 57 pittl 
lime and 43 carbonic acid i but u "" 
rocks the limestone is intermixed 
msgnesia, alnmine, eilex, or iron. 
specific gravity of limestone varies 
2'50 to 2-8(1. All Umeatones ma 
scraped with a knife. They ar« inAisbk 
but when impure, by an 
with a portion of other earths, they 

L I M 

trifj in baming. All limeatones efferveicc 
1 Jrop of strong acid ia appiied on 
irface ; and they dissolve entirely 
■ic or murialJD anid. The specific 
gravity, hardnBM, and efferTestence with 
ids, taken collecliveiy, diatiagnish lime- 
me froin all other minerals." 
Limestone is foand in the three great 
uaea of rocka. priraary, transition, and 
condary: but most abundautly in the 
■t. It is bIeo not ancommon in alluvial 
ipoaites, and is knowu by the name of 
Icareous tofa. 

Hr. Maocultoch has attempted to re- 

the theory of some of llie earlier 

that all limeatones have ori- 

organized gubstancea. Ue 

we examine the ctuantit^ ' 


ud to bear a mnch Bmallcr proportii 
tbe aihceous and argillaceous rocks 
,D in the secondary ; and this may 
re snine connexion with the rarity of 
animals in the ancient ooean." 
further infers, that, in consequence of 
operations of animals, the ([nantity of 
sreoDs earth depoaited in the form of 
1 or stone ia always increasing i and 
t, as the secondary aeries far exceeds 
primary in this respect, so a third 
ea may hereafter aiiae from the depths 
^ the sea, which may exceed the last in 
^e proportion of its cnlcareoua strata. 
To this Mr. Lyell obscrvea, if these 
propontions went no farther titan to ang- 
riest that every particle of lime that now 
Miters into Che crust of the globe may 
^oaribly in ita torn have been aubaervient 
10 the purposes uf life, by entering into 
0ie compositiou of orgauiied bodies, I 
"'iDold not deem the specuUtion impro- 
. bat when it is hinted that lime 
be in animal product combined by 
le powers of vitality from aome simple 
lements, I can discover no snfBcient 
rounds for such an bypolheaia, and many 
lets which militate against it. 
Primary limestone has always a grsnu- 
ir itrnctate ; but the size of the grains ia 
iriable, and seema, in some degree, to 
>rrespond with the relative age of the 
lineral. Thua the limestone, which oc- 
m in beds in gneiss, and which is 
ipposed to belong to the older formn- 
Ons, baa Dsoally a coarse texture, and 
, granular concretions. But when 
beds exist in mica slate, or ai^llite, 
I texture becomes more finely grained, 
id its colour less uniform. Trausition 


colours are much varie- 
. often contains pctrifac- 
Secondary limestone has a com- 
teltare, a dull fracture, and usually 
lutoias shells, and somecimea other or- 


Mr. De La Beche states the quantity 
of lime in granite composed of tno-lifths 
qnartx, two-fifths febipar, and one-fifth 
mica, to be 0'37 ; and in greenstone, 
composed of equal parta of felspar and 
hornblende, to b« 7-2K. 

Liusm'k. KfromXiprdcGr.) Agcnasof 

LiuKm'A. i freah-water univalves, placed 
by Cutier in the order Pulmonea, olaii 
Gasteropoda ; and by Lamarck in the 
family Limnacea. The Limnea Is an 
Diato-canical, or tarretted univalve. Like 
the itttini, it has an oblong spire, and 
the aperture higher than it is wide ; bnt 
it may be distinguished from the ivlmi 
by the very oblique fold on the columella. 
The Limnea has been found fossil in the 
neighbourhood of Paris. The recent Lim- 
nea inhabits our lakes and pools ; its 
shell ia of a light amber colour. 

Lim'nitb. a foasil limnea. 

Li'hous. (from Utnotai, Lnt. slimy.) 
Moddy ; slimy. 

Li'upio. t^lirapidnt, Lat. limpide, Pr. lint- 
pidg, It.) Clear ; pure ; tran^arent. 

Limpi'dity. {limpidUe, Fr. Ihiipidtasa, 
It.) Clearness; pureness ; brightness; 

Li' The Molucca crab. A genus 
of crustaceans, or entomostracans, having 
a distinct carapace, or buckler, with two 
eyes in front of the shield. The limulus 
appears to approximate towards the trilo- 
bite, and Professor Buckland says, " the 
history of this genus is important, on 
account of its relations both to the exist- 
ing and extinct forma of crustaceans ; 
it has been found fossil in the coal forma- 
tions of Staffordshire and Derbyshire ( 
and in the Jurassic limestone of Aich- 
stadt, near Pappenheim ; a small fossil 
species is found in the iron-stane nodolel j 
of Coalbrook Dale. In the genus Xi'tnu- 
luf there are but faint traces of antennse. 
and the shield, which covers tbe anterior 
portion of the body, is expanded entirely 
over a aeries of small crastaceons legs. 
Of the tail of the recent hraulus, savages 
form a paint to tlioir arrows ; and when 
thus armed, they are much dreaded. Tbe 
eggs of the limulus are eaten by the Chi- 

LlNE OF BEABl.VG. See ilHB qf Dip. 

Like ov dip. Strata almost always 
cline, or dip down to some point of the 
horizon, and, of coarse, rise towards the 
opposite point, A line drawn through 
these points is called the line iff their 
dip. Is a book be raised in an inclined 
position, with the back resting lengthwise 
upon the table, tbe leaves may be sup- I 
posed to represent different strata, than a. 

tinetmU m g baa tbc ■ppo' edgca to 
tlM UUc win be dM iiM ^^.nd Atir 
direction lesgOwue wiU be tbdvlneq^ 

exlemal Incr u ahrayi the moH leceot. 
WntK. (fintarii, Lat.) 

I. la entomalDgT' ■ Ggore Living the 

lateral morgini nry doK together, uiil 

pinllcl thron^umt. 

Z. In canduilagy, composed of lines ; 

bang nurkal nith line*. 

3. In botuif, a term applied to dsitot 

leaTC*, wben thejr are of equal breadth 

thixhi^ont, the two edgEa being ■trught. 

•nd cqni-dittant from each other. 
Iil'XBArE. ilineatta, Lat.) Marked with 

lioea : marked with ioDgitndinal depres' 


4. f (from lioffua, the tongne, 
:. i and/orxu, shape, Lat.) 
TongDB-ahsped . 
Li'hocal. (linj/valt, Fr. from liagva, a 
tongne, Lat.) Pertaining (o the tongue, 
aa the lingoal arteries, lingual veina, Sic. 
i'nodla. a geniu of bivdve!, shelb 
compoaed of two calves, nearly equal, 
truncated aoteriarlj ; the binge haTing 
no tcetb : the beak of the valves pointed, 
and united to a tendioous lube, lerving 
for a ligament of atUebment. This is 
the on I J bivalve abell which a pedan- 
mlalsd. The recent lingula inhabits the 
Indian ocean j it has thin, botiiy, and 

grecniKh VBlvea. -'-- '--■' — n 

but onp valfe of ' 

Li'MCOxns. ffroD \ttpoq, pale, ud 
mU, H^ at dait, Gr.) A name given 
lo arseniate of copper. It i* ot a bhie 
or greea coloor, and ocean in copper 

Lr'THU. A new alkaline sabstance, diaeO' 
veredby H. AifwedsoD. a Swedish chemiit, 
in ISie, in the mineral called Petatlte. 

Li'TgiCM. The metallic baje of titbia, 
diacovered bf Sir H. Davy. 

Li'tbocamf. (from XiSoc. a atone, 
taprl,^, fhiit. Gr.) Petrified, or fguQ 

LiTHO'sEicDKOx. (from Xi'dof, a i 
and liripoi; a tice, Gr.) A name ^ 
to coral, from its tikeneta to pe^fied 

a atone, aoi 

ICB. (from i-iO 
build. Gr.) A 

gated, cjlindrical, man&e eqaivalve. A& 

fixed at firat by byaaoE to rocks, which it 

Bubseqnentlj penet 

after in the cavilj. It is a littoral ihelb 

found at depths varying 
■A moilutc, Rhich forma 

and EOhd rocka, which it eSecta, not d^^ 

chanically, by boring, but chemically, ' 

dissolving the rock. Generally oaed fl 

rally, lithodomi. 
LitHoDOMons. Belonging to the goi 

LlTHo'oENODa. (fiMm \i9os, atone, s 

yivrdu, to produce, Gr.) Belonging 

the claas of animals which form ooral. 
Lithoi'dai.. (from XiSof, a (toaa, ■ 

flfac, reaembUncc, Gr.) 

LiTnoLo'cicAL. (from Xlftjf, and Xoy«*B 
Gr.) ReUting to the science of atonal 
iu geology, a term used to CLpreaa li 
atony character or structnre of a m' 

■ H T II- 

lilkophage, Fr.) Molluscs which 
e iu Btonea aiiU rocks. While the 
ni penetrate rocks bf cbemicgil ac- 
ically perforate, or bore into them, 
iloag to Lamarck'i famil; of U- 

k'hidm. a family of terebrating 

YTS. (from \i9oq, a stone, and 

ipUnt, Gr. lithophyte, ft.) 

id; plant ; a coral. 

smmal which eecreUiB coral. 

ut, (from \iBas. stoae, and 

rood, Or.) Silicili»l wood, 

L. {iiilorala, LaC.) Pertaioing 

A fbsBil shell found io the trsa- 
mestDne together with the Ortho- 
, Tbe HtHite is a Dlianibered shell, 
r coiled up into a spiral form at 
ler extremitjr, its larger end being 
Dd into a straight cabe of cou- 
e length, geparaled by transiaraa 
outwirdlf concave, and scpa- 
y a siphnocle. — Prqfesior Buci- 

t A maltitocnlar nnitalve; a ge- 
mieroseopic foramiaifera, partly 
the last turn being straight at the 
rhey are found both receat and 
of the latter, Lamarck describes 

rE. A fossil lituols. 
(_tezard, Fr. lucertola. It. la- 

Lat.} Id Cnvier's arrangement 
rdi form Che second genns of La- 
«. They are distingoished by the 

which ig thin, eitenaible, and ter- 
KiDtwo threads. The eitremity 
palate is armed with two rows of 
fhich are generally either recur- 
r coDical. Lizards have usaally a 
perforated eye-lid, which, when 
by its orbicular muaule, eihibits 

a horizont^ slit. The body is 
with four feet and a tail ; and they 

the property of reproducing Che 
old it be lost. 

[lehm, Germ.) An earthy mix- 
I which sand and clay form large 
iona: whea the compound coo- 
Doh calcareous matter it is usually 
rurl ; a miiturs of sand and clay. 
1 wMeh does not cohere so strongly 
bat more strongly than chalk, is 
ted loam. 
ConCainlDg loam ; of the nature 

■\i. h 

lology, when the 
margin is divided by deep. 

9] L O L 

according to the nomber of lobes, the leaf 
is Cermed bilobate, trilobate, &c. 
LoBB. liobui, Lat. lobe, Fr, lo6o, U.> 

1. A rounded portion of certain bodies, 
aa the lobes of the brain, Che lobe of the 
ear, the lobes of the lungs, liver, &c. 

2. Id botany, the cotyledon of the seed is 
also called the lobe. 

Lo'bule, The diroinntive of lobe ; a little 

Locouo'tion. (from lomtani motio, Lat.) 
The power of moving at will from ooe 
place to another ; of transferring the 
whole body from one place to another. 
The power of locomotion constiCntes the 
most general and palpable feature of dis- 
tinction between animals and vegetables. 
Excepting a few among the lower orders 
of the creation, such as moUnses and zoo- 
phytes, all animals are gifted with the 
power of spontaneously changing their 

Locoho'tivb. Having the power of trans- 
ferring itself from one place to another. 

LocuLi'ciOAL. In botany, a iiarCicnlar 
kind of dehiscence. Some fruits open 
by the diviiling of eaclt carpellnm at its 
midrib, so that Che dissepiments stick to- 
gether, and to two halves of coatignons 
earpella; this is called laculicidal dehU- 

Lode, (a mining term.) A word used Co 
signify a regular vein or course, whether 
metallic or not ; but most commonly it 
signilieB a metallic vein. When the sub- 
stances forming the lodes are reducible to 
metal, the lodes are said to be alive ; 
otherwise, they are termed dead lodes. 

Loess. (Germ.) An alluvial tertiary de- 

eurring in patches between Cologne and 
Basle. It encloses freshwater and land 
sbells, as well as some few mammiterous 
remains. Mr. Lyell observes, " the loess 
is found reposing on every rocli, from the 
granite near Heidelberg to the gravel of 
the plains of the Rhine. It overhes al- 
most all the volcanic products, even those 
which have the most modem aspect ; and 
it has lilted up, in part, the crater of the 
Rodenbergi at Che bottom of which a 
well was sunk in 1833, through seventy 
feet of loess. Here, aa elsewhere, it is a 
yellow loam, with calcareons concretions, 
and has not Cbe character of a local al- 
LoLi'uo. (loligo, Lat.) A genns of the 
family of Sepiffi. In the loligo is found 
that peculiar provieioQ for defence, the 
ink-bag, a bladder- shaped sac, containing 
a black and viscid ink, the ejection of 
which, by rendering the smronoding 
water dark and opaqne, defends tlio ani- 
mal from the attacks of its enemies. In 
the lias of Linie Regis, ink-bags of the 

L O M 

fossil loligo are pregervEd, sdll diatended, 
as when they formed parts of the organi- 
zation of liviug bodies, and retaining the 
same juita-poaition to an internal rudi- 
mentary shell resembling a horoy pen, 
which the ink'bag of the eiieting lohgo 
bears to the pen within the body of that 
Lo'uoMiTG. Diatomous Geolite. Named 
after its discoverer, Gillet Laumont. For 
> descriptian of this mineral, 

LoNCHo'pTEBiB Mante'i.l(. A spccies of 
fossil fem found in the shales and clays of 
Tilgate Forest, and thus named after Dr. 
Wantell. It is eharacteriied, says Dr. 
Mantell, by (he distribution of tlie ner- 
vnres of the leaves. This fern probably 
did not exceed a few feet in height. The 
Lonchopteris ManteUi is yery beautifuUy 
figured in Dr. ManteU's Geology of the 
Sonth-East of England, and in his Won- 
.ders of Geology. 

London Basin. The deposits of the Lon- 
don basin belong to the eoceoe period ; 
they are aqueous. 

London Clat. This formatioQ consists 
of a bloish or blackish clay, lying imme- 
diately over the plastic clay aud sand, 
and is an upper member of the arena- 
ceoDS and urgillaceous formation that 
covers the chalk. Its thickiiesE is very 
considerable, sometimes exceeding 500 
feet, but varying from one to five hacdred 
feet. It contMns layers of ovate, or 
ilattish masses of argillaceous limestone. 
These masses, called septaria, are some- 
times continued through a thickness of 
two hundred feet; of these Parker 
cement is made. From the London clay 
three or four hundred ' " ■ ■ 

1 have been procured, but the only bones of 
vertebrated animals are those of reptile 
and fish. Remains of turtles have been 
dng out of this deposit at Highgate and 
Islington, and some bones of a crocodile 
were discovered by Mr. Parkinson ; nau- 
tilites also are found in it. The shells of 
tlie London clay mostly belong to genera 
inliabiting our present seas. The Lon- 
don clay belongs to the eocene period. 

LoNQico^iNEe. (from/o«jni»Rnd( 

long-horned.) A family of insects in Cu- 
vier's arrangement, and so named from the 
length of their antenuK, which are tiliform 
and cetaceous, and usually as long, often 
longer, than the body of the iosect. 

Lonoipb'nnes. (^from longtu and pennjs, 
Lat. long wings.) A family of birds in 
Cavier's arrangement, including those 
birds, which, ttota the great strength of 
their wings, are to be met with in all lati- 
tudes. Tliey are recognised by the great 
length of their wings, whence they de- 
rive their Hume, and by their bill, whicli 

] LOW 

in some genera is hooked at the end, % 
others simply pointed. 

.ONGino'tjTKGB. (from louguH and nw* I 
Irum, a beak, or bill, Lat.) A family ol 
birds comprising the waders, or birds with | 
long bills. 

.o'ncitu^e. (longiludo, Lat. ienj/iluii^ I 
Fr. longiladine. It.) The distance of altj I 
part of the earth to the east or west Ol T 
any place. The meridian passing throngfa 
the observatory at Greenwich is aS' 
sumcd by the British as a fixed origio, 
from whence terrestrial longitudes are 
measured. And as each point on the 
surface of the earth passes through 350°. 
or a complete circle, in twenty -four honra, 
at the rate of 1£>° in au hour, time be- 
comes a representative of angular molian. 
Uence, if the eclipse of a satellite happens 
at any place at eight o'clock in the even- 
ing, and the nautical almanack showi that 
the same phenomenon will take place at 
Greenwich at nine, the place of observa- 
tion will be 15° of west longitude. In 
the case of stations differing only in lati- 

at the same lime, bnt at different allilada. 
In that of stations differing only in 'dii;i- 
tuiU, it comes to the meridian at the 
same allilnde, but at different timet. 
Supposing, then, that an observer is in 
possession of any means by which he cm i 
certainly ascertain the time of a knows | 

his meridian, ho 
knows his longitude i or if he knows tbs 
ditference between its time of tronnt 
across his meridian and across that of u, 
other station, he knows the difierence ol 
longitudes between those two places. 
Longitu'dinai. (loni/iludineire, Pr. toii- 
gitudinate, It.) Pertaining to longitnrle 

In conchology, the length of the shell 
from the apex to the base ; thus, longi- 
tudinal striee, &c. , are those wliich radiate 
from the apex to the base. 

LopHi'oDON. (from Xo^fc and oSoin;, Gf.) j 
A fossil genua of animals, i ' '_ 

extinct, allied to the tapir, rhinoceros, 
and hippopotamus, and conneated wilb J 
the Anoplotherinm and PalKOthBriuu | ■ 
so named from certain points, i 
nences, on the teeth. Pifteoi spedci I 
have been discovered in the same fresh' ^ 
water formations as contain 

Lower chalk. The chalk formation or 
series is generally divided into six distiuct 
members, namely, the tower 
the gault ; tbe upper green-aaod ; 
ehalk uHthOKt fiintt, or the lovtr eAaU/J 
the chalk with flints, or the upper chiOt^ ■ 
and the Maestricht beds. This amog^J 
ment is, however, altered by some wdteriil 
inasmuch as a more minute subdivi^tal 

LOW [ 1 

r some of [he members ia concerned, dc- 
_ ending on local ippearnncea. Generally 
ipeaking. [he lower chalk ma; be distin- 

Kiahed irom the upper by the abaence of 
its, and by the superior hai'diieaa of the 
ehalk, nbich ia sometitnea used for build- 
tone. The lower is regularly ttratl- 
^^^ . In the nurth of Englaad, Profesaor 
phiUipa atilcs, " The loiuer chalk is of b 
nd aolour, and flints are found in it. Tbe 
yolj mineml found in the lover chalk is 
■-' - ' ' n. The foaail remains 
s and all of theta ma- 


t the chalk series ; called also ShantdiD 
«nd, from Shanklio, ia the Isle of Wight, 
nd iroa-aatid. A considerable mass of 
Teen, or ferruginous sanda, with layers 
>f chert, lacn! beds of gault, rocks of 
^ Mj or chalky limestone, and deposits 
ochre and fuller's- earth. In York- 
lire, this member of the seriea is wholly 
iDting, but in Lincotnahire it ia fully 
' led. The lover green-sand is a 
deposit. In some situations, the 
beds of Shaaklin, or loner green-eand 
triple diriaion; the first, or 
Uppermost, consists of sand, with irregu- 
Wr ooncreCions of limestoae and chert, 
■mnetimea diapoeed in coursea oblique to 
tlie general direction of the strats. The 
■econd consists ohiefly of sand, but in 
kome places ia 90 mixed with clay, or with 
ttiide of iron, aa Co retain water ; it is 
remarkable for its great larietion in its 
iIODT and consistency. The third, and 

Wlonr I 

; the concretional beds being oloaer 

together and caore continuous. The fos- 

~" ~ of the lower green-sand are not so 

those ofthe lower chalk. It 

, lards of thirty genera belong. 

ng to different classes ; among these may 

He enumerated ammonitea, nautilus, pa- 

bdla, turbo, natica suricnla, rostellaria, 

^leopsis, ice., of the class Molluaca ; 

orbua, EDcnIlea, gerrillia, inoceramns, 

Ola, modiota, mytitua, mya, nitcula, or- 

Icnla, pecten, pliuladomya, pinna, tellina 

wtii, terrebratula, trigonia, leuus, (te. 

r the class Conchifera ; dentalium and 

ia of Annelides ; spatangus, of 

clasa Rsdiaria, &c., &c. 

»OED. In entomology, of a qnadran- 

ihape, with two opposite angles 

ate, sod two obtuse. 

■I'oiTT. (tnbriaU, Fr.'i Smoothness 

mrfaoe ; etipperbieas. More particu- 

'1t applied to shells. 

n I.LITE. (from Laciut Lucalltis, a 

lebrated Roman, who is said greatly to 

ve admired it.) A black variety of 

inaition limestone, a black marble. 

ID. (from hitutui, Lat. lucide, Fr. 

il ] L Y C 

lucido. It.) Bright; shining; clear; 
pellucid ; traneparent. 

Ldci'ditY. {iKcidiU'. Fr.) Splendour ; 
brightnesB r transparency. 

Lu'uBAii. (from tianbiii, Lat.) Pertain- 
ing to the loins, aa the Imnbar region, 
the lumbar muacles, &e. 

Ldmini'ferohs. (from lumen, light, and 
firo, to produce, Lat.) Frodocing light ; 
yielding light. 

Ln'uiN-oua. (iiiniiru»us,lAt. iuminettr,Fr. 
iuniinom, It.) Shining; bright 1 emit- 
ting light- 

Ld'hiHodsnbss. Brightness ; the qnality 
of shining so as to emit light, or to ap- 
pear to do so, as the luminousness of the 
sea ; the lumiaonsness of phosphoric bo- 

Zm'sateo, (lunslua, Lat.) Crescent- 
ahaped ; formed like a half-moon, 

Ld'n¥i.atbd. Creacent-sliaped ; shaped 
like a half-moon ; semilunar. 

Lu'nulr. In conchology, a creacent-Cke 
mark or apot, situated near the anterior 
and posterior slopes in bivalve sheila. Ia 
different species of Venus they are pro- v. 
minent ; they are frequently very useful 
in assisting to ascertain the species. 

Lo'ndlet. In entomology, a half-moon 
shaped spot in insects, of a difiereut 
colour from the rest of the body. 

I.c'teous. {luteaii, Lat.) A brownish 
yellow, nomething of a clay colour. 

Lc'tose. (iu/otat, Lat.) Miry; cOTered 
with clay. 

LuTKA'aiA. A genns of bivalres, placed 
by Lamarck in the family Mactracea. A 
thin, transverse, inequilateral shell, gap- 
ing at the estremities ; two obliqne and 
diverging hinge-teeth accompanying a 
large pit for the cartilage. No lateral 
teeth, in which feature it differs from 
Mactra. One species, Lntraria com- 
preasa, has been found fossil in alluvial 
deposits, and another. Lutraria oblata, in 
tbe sandstone of Bognor. 

Lvcopobia'oea. The olub-mosaes ; or 
club-moss tribe. Plants of an inferior 
degree of organization to coniferEe, aome 
of which they greatly resemble in their 
foliage. This tribe, at the present day, 
contains no species more than three feet 
high, while many of the fossil species are 
aa lai^ as recent coniferEe, having at- 
tained to the size of forest trees. Their 
mode of reproduction is similar to that of 
ferns. The affinities of existing lycapo- 
diacere are intermediate between ferns 
and coniferse on the one hand, and ferns . 
and mosses on the other. They are 
related to ferns in the want of seiual 
apparatUB, and in the abundance of annu- 
lar ducts contained in thsir asis ; to coni- 
ferce in the aspect of their sterna ; and to 
moaaea in tlie\i jenetaV a'^iftMB.'ocit- t\i6 

L Y C [I 

Imtm of GuitlDg Ifcapodiues are umple, 
and irrangcil in spiral linei around tho 
atem, and impreiB on itx surface icar* of 
rhooiboidal, or tanccolatc fonn, marked 
irith prints of the iasertiani of vessels. — 
Buctland. Lindtey. LgtII. 

LtcOpodi'tbs. Fob^ plants of the genua 

Ltcofo'dium. a genos of planta of the 

Lv'diah stone. The Lydischer Btein of 
Werner ; I'B pierre de Lydie of lirochant ; 
Buaoite of Kirvan ; Lydiaa atone uf 
JameBon. A Tariety of Biliceooi alRte ; a 
black liliceous flint-Blatn. called by Bome 
black jasper. It diRers but little from 
the coouDon variety of siliceous slate. 
Colonr ^ayiah or bluisb-bkck, some- 
timeB qnlte black, 

Lyunji'a. Ste LinauBa, 

Lymph, (lympha, Lat. water.) A co- 
lonrlEBl liquid, foond in the lymphaticB. 

M A 

YMPH OB PLANTS. During the regeU-- 
tion of plantfl, there is a juice continOBnyJ 
ascending from their roots. Tbii a 
called the isp, or lymph of plants. Fron 
experiments made b; Vauquelin, it wu 
ascertaiaed that the lymph of the eaai- 
mon elm consisted bb foUowa :— Of 1039 
parts, 1027-904 water and volatile matter, 
■J'240 acetile of potasli, l-Olil) TF^eBlile 
matter. O'TSI) carbonate of lime. 
vmpha'tics. MinntB vessela pemding 
every part of the body, aheorhing Bni 



conveying the absorbed 
thoracic duct, to be afterwards oonveyid 
into the blood. The lymphatic! anifii|i- 
plied within with valves, and without wiHi 

Ly'iiATE. (from iyra. sharp, Lot.) Lyre- 
shaped ; D term applied to leaves dinded 
trangvereely into several ee^ents, As. 
aegmeots gradnally increasing in size i' 
they approach the extremity of Ha teaf- 


Machai'hoods. An extinct animal of the 
order Mnmmalia, referrilile to the Mio- 
cene period, and allied to the bear. 

The Italian word for a kind oF 

i. silice 



iingcalcBreousgrains,&c. Macigna 
piKcra, a very hard stone. 

Ma'clk. The Hohl spath of Werner; 
Hollow spar of Jameson. Made occurs 
only in crystals, the form of which is a 
four-sided prism. But each crystal, when 
viewed at its extremifies, or on a tmns- 
vecsc section, is ohvioualy composed of 
two very different snbstjinces ', and its 
general appearance is that of a black 
prism, passing longitudinally throngh the 
axis of another prism, which is whitish. 
These crystals, often long, are sometimes 
very minute ; in some instiinceB thair 
edges are rounded. The crystals of 
Macle present a oonsiderablE number of 
natural joints, which lead to an octohe- 
dron for their primitive forto. Made 
Scratclies glass ; its powder is soft and 
nnctnoos. It ia opaque, or sometimes 
translttccnt. Colour white or gray, often 
shaded with yellow, green, or red. Spe- 
cific gravity 2-94. It is found, generally, 
imbedded in black argillaceous slate. — 

Macld'keite. Called also Bmcite and 
Chondrodite. A mineral occurring in 
imbedded grains in small massive pieces, 
and in longish granular concretions. Co- 
lonrs yellow, straw-colour, orange, red, 
and brown ; translaecnt ; scratches glass ; 
fracture imperfectly conchoidal. Specific 

gravity 3-15 to 3-50. It coi 

nesia 34'0, silica 36-GO, fluoric Boid 4*^ 

oiide of iron 2-,10, potash 2'0, mangonel 

Macsdpo'ua. The name given by M 
Agassis to a genua of sanroid fiahes, tb 
fossil remains of which have been diioo 
vered in the chalk formation. The scall 
of the Macropoma are studded with bid 
low tubes, through which, it ia stateJ 
there flowed a fluid which Berved to labrf- 
cate the surface of the body. 

Macbopo'ha Mantbi.i.i. a specin c 
fossil fishes belonging to the genua Hl^' 
cropoma, found in the chalk Dear LawHj 
and named after Dr. ManteU. 1* 
length of a specimen figured id Dr. Msa< 
toll's Wonders of Geology is twen^-AM 

MlcRonVCTvi-i. (from^insj .. _ 
JarruXDc, finger, Gr.) The name gi 
to a family of birds in Cnvier's 
ment, having very long toes. The e 
rail, &C' are examplca. 

Macbokpo'ndylds. A fossil aauriuifb' 
ill the oolite and lias formations. 

Macbobto'mata. (from /laepic, It 
and nTifia, mouth, Gr.) A faisily I 
univalves, belonging to the order Trf^ 
cbellipoda, comprising tha genem SM 
mats, Stomatella, and Haliotis. 

Macrou'ba. (&om fioKphQ, long, IB 
livpi, a tail.) A family of cmstaceaai 
including the lobster, prawn, shrimp, M 
They are so named from their bavil, 
a long tail, which ia, at tesBt, as long a 
the body, and jirovidcd at ita termioada 

at frequcntlj 
This toil h 

lUy Mi 


'with appendages which o 

fbrm s tin on each side. 

always CDoipOjed of seyti 

TtoBais. Fossil genera of i 

■Croura hare been fouud in the Muschel- 

jkalk and in the lias. 

lu'ttona. Belonging to the family 
Uacronra. Fire or six geuefa of Ma- 
Ttmroiu decapods haie been recently ob- 
erred in the muHchel-kalk. 
L-'cTBA. (pdrrpo, Gr. tnacira, Lat. a 
;neadiag-trougb. ) Animal a tethjs. A 
fenus of equivalve, inequitatero!, tnna- 
~" ■": biraivBfl, slightly gaping at the 
imitiea ; the hinge, or middle tooth, 
complicated ; lateral teetli rather remote, 
pgmpreised, and inserted. Shells of this 
~ loa have only been found to inhabit 
( ocean, at depths yarying from 
tvelve fathoms, in aonds and sandr 
id. The French natucaliata divide 
■filaclra into tiro genera, Mactra and Lu- 
traria. In Turton's Linnc twenty-seven 
BpecieB are described ; twelve are inliabi- 
tants of our seas. The fossil species 
belong to the tertiary (ormitions. La- 
tnarck describes one species, Maclra 
aemisolcata, fonnd in the neighbourhood 
nf Paris ; and Parkinson mentions one, 
Ibnad in Essex. 

iK'cnLA. ^macula, Lat. macule, Fr. raa 
It.) A spot, generally of a dark 

a'cdIcATBd. Spotted; mBrked with amall 

^'drkpobb. (ntadr^ere, Fr. corpt tnan'R 
pierraix gvi reaemlle a dea raiaeaux, d 
~ \» tiig4tation.) Madrepores are stony 
polypi, with concentric lamiote, reaem- 
.feling stars. In a hving state, the stony 
sr is covered with a skin of living 
nlatinona matter, fringed with little 
tanchea of tentacula i these are the po- 
tbe skin and the polypi contract 
eta the slightest touch. Madrepores are 
Mmetimes united and lomctimes de- 
tached ; where the laminse take a serpen- 
tine direction they are called meandrina, 
HT brain-stone. — BakeweU's IntTodacliim 
to Gealoff!/. 

The term Madrepore is generally ap- 

JUed to all those corals which have super- 
cisl star-shaped cavities. lo the water, 
Madrepores are invested with a fleshy 
" rering of varioaa colours; when the 
imal dies this fleshy gelatinous covering 
'becomes deeninposed, and the a^is ap- 
: studded over with lamellated cells, 
iri. Madrepores raise up walls and 
leefa of coral rocks with astonishing rapi- 
dity, in tropical climates. 


1. Fosdl madrepore. 

S. A variety of limestone, found in large 

nmnded fragments, composed of numerous. 

small prisms, nearly cylindrical. Opaque ; 
surface dark brown ; fracture conchoidal 
and black. Constituent parts, carbonate 
of lime 63, iiles L), nlumiue 10, oiide of 

Mae'staicht beds. Tlie name given to 
the uppermost member of the cretaceous 
group, from Maestricht, a town of the 
Netherlands. The Maestricht beds are 
marine, and composed of a soft yellowish- 
white limestone, resembling chalk, and 
containing siliceous masses, ammonites, 
bamites, hipporitea, bacnlites, &e. The 
siliceous masses found in these beds are 
not composed of black flint, but of chert 
and calcedony. The Maestricht heda re< 
pose on the upper chalk with Hints. M, 
Desliayes has been unable to identify aay 
of the shells of the Maestricht beds with 
those of the tertiary depo9ites< 

Magi'lub. A genus of univalve shells be- 
longing to the family Cricostomata, ac- 
cording to the arrangement of De Blain- 
ville, and to the Order Tnbulibranchiata 
of Cuvier. The sheU is t^ck, tubular, 
and irregularly contorted, having a losgi- 
tndinaUy carinated tube, at lirst regularly 
spiral, and then eitending itself in a line 
more or less straight. The young of the 
genus Magilua has a very thin shell of a 
crystalline teMure, but, when it has at- 
tained its full size, and has formed for 
itself a lodgment in a coral, it fills up 
the cavity of the ahell with a glassy de- 
posite, leaving only, a amall conical space 

late layers of this material, so as to mun- 
tain its body at a level with the top of the 
coral to which it is attached, until the 
original shell is quite buried in this vi- 
treous substance. — Rogel. Cuvier. Sow- 

Magnesia. (iBfljnesfe, Fr.) An earth 
with a metallic basis called magnesium. 
Magnesia conaiata of magnesium 61*4, 
oxygen, 38'(i. Magnesia . 




composition of some of the primary rooks, 
to which it usually imparts a saponaceoua 
feel, producing also a striated texture, 
and frequently a greenish shade. Mag- 
nesia first became known abont the be- 
ginning of the Highteenth century. Little, 
however, was known concerning its na- 
ture, tilt Dr. Black published his cele- 
brated experiments on it in 1755. Mag- 
neaia may be thus prepared : sulphate of 
magnesia, a salt, composed of magnesia 
and sulphuric acid, is to be dissolved in 
water, and half its weight of potass added. 
The potass having a stronger affinity for 
the sulphuric acid than the magnesia has, 
seizes the sulphuric acid, and the mag- 
nesia is precipitated. Magnesia is often 
pteseot in Ibe chalk ; some of t^ ^KcVut. 

MAG [V, 

ia Frmce are wid to contnln teo per cent. 
of magnesia. Magnesia is present in all 
the inferior sti'iitified rocks, with the ex- 
ception of quartz rock, (without mica,) 
and certain eurites, or compact fnlepare. 
Ia the detrilal rocks it is also common, 
particnlarlj when micA forms any consi- 
derable portioa of them. There are few 
limestones which do not coatun mag- 
nesia. It is an essendal ingredient of 
dolomite, carbuuate of magnesia consti- 
tating more than forty per cent, of that 
rock. Magnesiu ia also diseeminatBd 
through the waters of the ocean, muriate 
of magneBia forming from 'QOl to '005 of 
their mass. 

MaOnk'bian. Containing magnesia ; re- 
sembling magnesia. 

Ma.qnk'bian li'kestone. a marine de- 
positj belonging to the new red sandstone 
group. It lies ahave the red conglome- 
rate and below the variegated aandatone. 
It is composed of cai'bonate of lime and 
carbonate of magnesia. The magneeian 
limeetone of this country is a dolomite of 
a yellow or yellowiBh-brown colour; it is 
distinctly stratified, the strata varying 
from a few inches to eeveral feet in thick- 
ness. This deposit is foasiliferous, and 
certain shells, produciie, appear for the 
first time in tlie magnesian limestone. 
Magneaian limestone forms the most du- 
rable building-stoae, and it is of this that 
the two new houses of parhament are to 
be built. It is to be lamented that Wa- 
terloo Bridge was not built of magnesian 
limestone instead of felspathic granite, a 
very perishable kind of stone. Magnesian 
limestone is also called zechstein. Where 
the magnesia is in excess the land is ste- 
rile, but when it is not in excess, the soil 
is fruitful, and, as a subsoil, healthful. 

Ma'gnesite. a mineral of a white or yel- 
lowiEh-white colour. It occurs massive, 
tuberose, reniform, and vesicular. Its 
fracture is conchoidal. Opaque. Speci- 
fic gravity 2'88I. It is infusible, and be- 
fore the blow-pipe becomes so hard as to 
scratch glass. It occurs in serpentine. 

Maqne'bium. Tbe metallic basis of mag- 
nesia, magnesia coneiadng of magnesium 
fil-4, oxygen 38-6. 

Maonb'tic tnoN ore. The Per oiydulc 
ofHauyi Magnet eisenstein of Werner. 
A black ore, possessing a slight metallic 
lostre. Occnra regularly crystallised i in 
granular concretions ; massive and disse- 
minated. It is magnetic, sometimes suf- 
ficiently so to take up a needle. It oc- 

rocks. Thia 

Ma'onbtism. (magnitisme, Fr.) The 
tendeoey of the iron towards the magnet, 
And tbe power of the magnet to produce 

4 1 M A L 

that tendency : the power 

that all bodies are more or less sosceplible 
of magiieliam. Many of tbe gems gin 
signs of it j titanium and nickel ilwtji 
possess the properties of attrpctioD and 
repulsion. But the magnetic agency tl 
most powerfully developed in iron, and il 
that particular ore of iron called the h»d- 
Btone, which consists of the pmtoiiib 
and peroxide of iron, together with mill 
portions of alumina and silica. A metal 
is often susceptible of magnetism if it 
oontnin only the 130,000th pait of iM 
weight of iron, a quantity too imill to b« 
detected by any chemical test. One of 
the most distinguishing testa of 
iam ia polarity, or the property ■ 
possesses when freely anspended, of spm- 
taneonsly pointing neai'ly north and saatt, 
and always returning to that pontiM 
when disturbed. Induction ia the powet 
which a mag^iet possessea of eicitini 
temporary or permanent magnetism ta 
such bodies in Its vicinity as are capabb 
of receiving it. By this property ^ 
mere approach of a magnet rendere ' — 
or steel magnetic, the more power! 
the less the distance. Iron acquires 
magnetism more rapidly than ateel, yet It. 
loses it as quickly on the retnovBl of tl» 
magnet, whereas the Bteel is impreHtf 
with a lasting polarity. There can hardlf 
be a doubt but that all the pbenomma a 
magnetism, like those of electricity, may 
be explained on the hypothec of ooB 
ethereal fluid, which is condensed 
dundant in the positive pole, and de 
in the negative. — ilea. Sommille. 

Mail, {rnaille, Fr. maglio, It.) Amwn 
tor the defence of the body, 

MAi't.Kn. Protected by an external 
covering, of scales or hard snbE 
which protects the body. 

Ma'lachite. (malachite, Fr. 

It.) An oxide of copper combined witk 
carbonic acid. It is of a bine colour, ' 
occurs in mineral veins and in bed 
gneiss, mica-slate, limestone, red-«ant 
atone, &c. 

Ma'laoolite, a variety of augita o( 
darkish green colour. 

M ALA co' STB AC AN. Certain orders li 
Crustaceans, distinguished by having SM- 
aile eyes, imbedded in the snbstaace of 
the head. 

Malleahi'lctv. {malleahilite, Fr.) It* 
property or capability of being hammered 

into different forms withoat breaking. 
^a'lleablb. (jnoUtabh. Fr. motfeA 
It.) That may be spread out by ham- 
mering. Of all the metals, the mDi' 
malleable is gold, five graina of wind 
may be hammered out so u to cDTCTi 
surface of Z73 square inches, tte Akl^ 

[M A L [ 1! 

BCBS of the leaf aaC eiceeding igyg^jth of an 
i'LLEtrs. {malleun, Lat. nhanimer.) 
1. One of Che bones of the ear, tbasnamed 
&om its BUpposed reaemblance to a ham- 

2. AbiTalveBhellofthofaraQyMaUeacea, 
M&LU KOCE- Tbe aaaie giiea to n varietf 
of firestouG, a member of Che chalk Eeries. 
Ma'^tba. a variety of hitumeu ; called 
alio mineral pitch. This substance bears 
a coDBiderable reaembluice to pitch. Co- 
lour black or dark brown. Spsciiic gra- 
TitjfromI"ia Co2'0f. 
Ha'uma. (mamma, Lat.) The breast. 
Hamma'lia. (fcomnianinia, Lat. the IjreasC 
A name given to that clus of animaia 
irhich Bnckle their joung by teats or Dip- 
pies.) The highest class of animaJs is 
'that which cnmprehends man, and all 
audB which, like man, possess a Tivi- 
olu mode of generatioa. These ani- 
li have a heart consisting' of fcnr cavi- 
i they have bot and red blood. Their 
(t esssatial oharacter is Chat of their 
igTiriparous, and suckling their young 
teats, und they are thence called Mam- 
malia. The mmamatia are placed at the 
tihead of the animal kingdom, not only be- 
se it is the class to which maa himself 
belongs, buC also because it is that whicU 
«|joyi the most numerons faculties, the 
It delicate seusaCions, the most varied 
"Bowen of motion, and in which all the 
AfFerent qualiLies seem combined in order 
to produce a more perfect degree of iatel- 
tigence — the one most fertile in resources, 
Uoat macepCibls of perfection, and least 
illie alBTG of instinct. The muEcular sys- 
tem uid the living 

Wrtobrated cluss, for some are organized 
la plough the deep or to clamber on the 
mdcyooutts ; some to burrow iu the earth 
'9 boand over the plains ; some to 
_ lie on loily trees or cliffs, or to wing 
&eir way through the air, and these dif- 
JterenC conditions affect more egpeciully 
the organs of motion. The bones of nil 
file mammalia are nearly of the same 
colour and general appearance as those nf 
■nao; theyarc covered with apedosleum, 
JKid eontiuD marrow, which in the whsde 
Mbe is fluid. The skeleton of mammalia 
b divided into bead, tmuk, and extremi. 
'Sea. Next to man, the ape tribe is found 
to have the largest ekull in proportion Co 
itbe face, but, even in Che ape, iC is found 
to be small when compared with (bat of 
aian. The facial angle, which in the adult 
j^nropean is abonC 85°, is in the onrang 
^tang 67°, gradnally descending ia some 
bf the monkeys as low as 30°, till among 
(he other genera o( quadrupeds it does 
B esceed 31}°. The young 

M t 


of mammalia are nourished for some time 
aftur birch by milk, a fluid peculiar to 
nnimals of this class, which is produced 
by the mammK at Che time of parCuriCion, 
and remains as long as it is necessary. 
MammaJia constitutes the tirst class of 
Spiui-Cerebrata or Tertebrata, and this 
class has been divided by some into tea 

1. Bimanum, or Cwo-handed ; the 
thumbs separate on the superior eitremi- 

2. QnadrumanB, or four-handed ; the 
thumb, or great toe, capable of being op- 
posed to the other fingers or toes on each 
of the four extremities. Ttie ape ia an 

'A. Bradypoda, or slow moving animals, 
with their bodies generally covered by a 
bard crust. The armadillo is an example, 

i. Cheiroptera, or animals having their 
fingers elongated for the expansion of 
membranes, which serve as wings. This 
membrane commences at the side of the 
□eck, extends between the feet and toes, 
serves to support them in the air, and 
enables such of th?m to fly as have their 
hands sufficiently derelnped for that pur- 
pose. The bat is ao example. 

5. Glires, or Rodeutia. Gnawing ani- 
mals, having large incisors in each jaw, 
separated from the molars by an empty 
space, by which they divide hard sub- 
stances. They have no canine teeth ; 
they cannot seize living prey nor tear 
Besh ; they cannot even, with their teeth, 
cat their food, but they gn]iw or flte it, 
hence their name. The squirrel, mouse, 
here, &c., are familiar examples. 

G. Ferie, or predaceous and carnivorous 
animals. They have large canine teeth, 
the molarea forming poiuCed prominences 
far tearing and catting the food. The 
bear, hedge-hog, &c., are examples. 

7. Solidungula, or Solipeda. Animals 
havinga single toe, or hoof, on each foot. 
These have six incisor teeth in each jaw, 
aud are all of them herbivorous. The 
horse is on example. 

B. Rumiuantia, or Pecora. The term 
ruminautia indicates Che peculiar property 
possessed by these anim^ of chewing the 
cud, that is, of masticating tbdr food a 
second time, by bringing it back to the 
month after hsvmg swallowed it. This 
property depends upon the structure of 
their slomachs, of which they have four, 
Che Chree first being so disposed tiiat the 
food may enter into either of them, the 
lesophagns, or gullet, terminating at the 

toes on each foot, and no incisors in the 
upper jaw. The sheep, goat, ox, Stc., are 
familiar examples. 

y. PachyderniflU, or Delluoa. Tldck- 


e than 

ti foot, B 
le of thea 

ig three, four, or fi\ 
faRve Urge taski, bhiI h protios 
elephant, rhiaoci-nis, hlppopotn 
are placed Id thii order. 

10. Cctsees. These are maniiniferam 
aniniBls, deetituCe of hind Teet ; 
tTDok termiaates in a thick horizontii tail 
with a cartilflginaus fio. They Utb Id the 
sea, and their external form ia that of 
fishes, the tin of the tail Mceptcd, which 
In cataeea it A'lrizonlal, n hile i. ' ' 
is Blways vrrtieal. ITiair respiring by 
lungi, instead of gills ; their poaseasing 
warm blood; theirTiTiparousproduction; 
and their having mamm^ with ivhich they 
Buckle their young, all entitle them to be 
placed in the class to which they belong. 
The armngeuient of mammalia by Cmier 
comawhat difiers from the aboie, and is 
aafoUowe:— l.Bimana; a. Qnadrumana; 
3. Camaria; 1. Maraupislia ; fl. Rnden- 
tia; 6. EdeatRta; 7. Pachydermataj 8. 
Ruminanlia; 9. Cetacea. 

As regards the fossil remains of mam- 
maUa, the Only terrealrial mammalia yet 
dluovered in any secondary stratum, are 
the small marsupial quadrupeds aUied to 
the opossum, which occur in the oolite 
formation, at Stonesfield, near Oxford. 
Prof. Bnckland obserres, in reference 
the secondary aeries, " With respect to 
the state of animal life, dunng the d 
aition of the secondary strata, although 
the petrified remains of zoophytes, 
tacea, testacca, and fishes, show thi 
seas in which these strata were fonned 
aboBuded with creaturea referrible t( 
four existing diWeions of the animal kiag- 
. dom ; still the condition of the globe 
seems not yet to have been snfficiently 
advanced in tranquillity, to admit of ge- 
neral occupation by warm-blooded terres- 
trial mammalia." Tlie opinion formerly 
entertained was, that during the whole of 
the primary and secondary periods, at 
least, the class of Mammalia had no ex- 
istence, and only came into being during 
the tertiary period. Bat this conclnsioa. 
founded upon the mere want of such re- 
mains, was easily seen to be insecure 
and at length proved to he erroneons b) 
the decision of Cnvier, that certain small 
jaw-bones, with teeth, found in the oolitic 
system, belonged to viviparous quadru- 

Mauma'lian. Belonging to the class 

Mamma'logist. (from iHomnio, Lat, and 

XiyoE, Gr.) One skilled in the study of 

mammiferons animals. 
MaMM ALl'f kbopb. (fro 
frro, lo produce, Lat.) A term applied 

the mamn 

Ia'mmifer. (from Taamnta, a brtast, lal 
/ero, to bear.) All animals havinghreuS 
and suckling tlieir young are indndcd 
amongst the mammifers. To these Lis- 
nieUB assigned the name Mamcnolia. Cs- 
vier. however, called them ManHRifm: 
but. as has been observed, there appean 
no good reason for altering the Driginll 

Iammi'fbkoits, Having breasts where, 
wit]] lo suckle their yonng ; belonging 10 
the order Mammalia. 


maU I 

projections aomethbis 
resembling teats or nipples ; studded wift 
rounded projections. 

Ia'mmillated. a term, like the anein- 
mediately preceding it, applied to eertail' 
appearances observed in minerals, whkk 
have the appearance of small bubbles, «' 
rounded protuberances. Flint conlaia' 
ing calcedony, is generally mammillated. 
In concbology, the apex of a ihd 
when rounded like a teat, is termed nw>- 

Ia'muots. (The etymology of this n«d 
does not appear quite agreed on ; sODia 
state it to be from a Russian word, nUh 
mnnt : some, that it is of Tartar origin; 
others, that it is derived from BebemMli) 
an Arabic word, signifying elepbanb 
Mammut, Germ.) The mammolli ap- 
pears to be quite extinct ; from the foaiD 
remains of it which have been disoo- 
vered, it appears to have had the tMt, 
tusks, trunk, and many other putionlm 
of conformation in common vrift to 
elephant; but it differed from the elepbut 
in its grinders. Two species hftte bf" 
distinguished. The bones of the mai 
moth are fonnd in great abundance 
Siberia, and not only the bones, but pcii- 
tinns of the flesh and the skin, and 
whole animals have been found in 
bergs and in frozen graveL Toward! Ifa 
close of the last century, the entire eu- 
cose of a mammoth was exposed, and at 
length fell to Che ground from a. cliff of 
ice and graYel, on the bants of the tivBT 
Lena. This animal was nine feet hi^i 
and abont sixteen feet in length ; &t 
f nsks were nine feet long. The akin wat 
coFered with hair, and it bad s i 
upon the neck. 

The mammoth appears to hare 
vived ill England when the temperaturt 
of our latitudes could not have been vary 
different from what it now is ; for re- 
mains of this animal have been foand in a 

MAM [11 

rastrina fonn»tion, ot North Cliff, in 
f Orksliire, in which all the land and 
:r shells can be identified with 
iw enating in Chat cuunty. It 
■ supposed, from the prodigiuui nuiober 
C bones found in certain places, that the 
Ummoth must have existed Id herdg of 
even Ihoosanda. According 
a Pallas, there is scarcely a river, from 
e Don, or the Tanais, to the eitremit^ 
t the promontory TchuBkninDsa, io the 
— '-- -' -'lieh the bones of the mam. 
; most abundant. There are 
Rro Urge islands near the mouth of the 
^Irer Indigerske, which are said to be 
tttirely composed of bones of the mam- 
ioth, mtermiied with ice and sand. 
[ The grinders of the itiammoth are 
med of tiro substances onl; ; an intcr- 
I bony substance, and a ibicli covering 
t enamel. The farm of their crown is 
_^Bnerally rectangular, the crown being 
divided by spreading grooves into a oei 
tain Dumber of Iransverse risings, each < 
which is divided, in the contrary direc 
tion, into two large obtaao, and some 
what qnadrangalar and pymmidical points 
the whole crown, when not worn, being 
beset with large points, arranged in i 
Id conseqaenue of several of these 
being mach worn down, not only U 
base of the pyramids, but even so 1( 
only to leave one square surface edged 
with enamel, It has lieen concluded that 
they were used in the tritaration of vi 
getable food. M. Cnvier particnlarizi 
three sorts of these grinders ; near! 
square, with three pairs of points, gem 
r^y much worn ; rectangular, with eight 
points, less worn ; atid others with fi' 
pairs of points, and a single smaller on 

dered he had distinguished five different 

Mana'tus. a genus of herbivorous ceta 
cea, pkced by Cuvier in the family Ceta. 
cea herbivora. The manatos appears ti 
have inhabited the seas of our latitudi 
during the Miocene and Pliocene periods 
The recent spedes are now found near thi 
coasts and moutlii of rivers, in thetorrii 
lOne. They have an oblong body, termi 
mated by an elongated oval tin : thi 
grinders have a, square crown, marked 
with two transverse elevations ; they 
eifht in nnmber throughout. Laman 
■ name often given to manatuE, is said to 
be merely a corruption of Mauatus. 
" ' (maadiliulvm, Lat. a 

, the upper jaws are called 
idibles ; the wider jaws, maiillaj. 
andibles of insects are two strong, 
;, somewhat bent hooks, their : 
_ n being more or less dentate ; they 
■rarticTLlate with the cheeks at their T 

] MAR 

basis, move by ginglymus, andare oppoMd 
to each other like the blades of adsson. 
VIand.'bolar. Pertaining to the jaw. 
Wanoanb'be. (manjaBHe, Fr. maganae. 
It.) A metal but httle known in its pure 
or metallic state, to which it is reduced 
with much difficulty, in consequence of 
its great affinity for oiygen. When pore, 
it has a grayish.white colour, with some 
lustre. Its textare is grsnolar ; hardness, 
nearly that of iron. Specific gravity 
from 70 to B-0. It has little or no 
malleability. It absorbs oiygen by ex- 
posure to the atmosphere ; and its melt- 
ing point is about 160° W. 

In its metallic state, manganese is not 
applied to any use. It is obtainable in 
Email quantities from the black o^iide by 
heating it in an intense furnace, with char- 
coal and a little oil. 

The common ore of manganese is the 
black, or peroiide, a valaahle substBOce 
to chemists, as that from which oxygen is 
most easily obtained. When added in 
small quantities to glass, it removes the 
greenish or yellowish tinge which arises 
from iron or other iropuritiea ; but if 
added in considerable quantity, it com- 
municates to glass or enamel a violet or 
purple colour. The ores of manganese 
present much diversity in their exter- 
nal characters. All minerals containing 
any considerable quantity of this metal, 
when melted with boras and a little nitre, 
yield a violet glass. One of the ores of 
manganese, known by the name of Black 
Wadd, is remarkable for its spontaneous 
JuilammBtiDu when mixed wi^ oil ; the 
reason of this does not appear to he un- 

Oiids of manganese occurs principally, 
though not exclusively, in primary and 
transition rocka, in nodules or irregular 
masses, in veins, and in beds. 

Of all the metals, the osidea of which 
are neither alkalies nor earths, iron and 
manganese are the most important, geolo- 
gically considered. It is remarkable that 
maitganese is almost, though not quite, 
as widely disseminated through rocks as 
is iron, the proportions, however, being 
much smaller. There is scarcely a rock 
without iron, and there are very few which 
do not afford some traceof manganese: ex- 
cept, however, in the places where its 
ores are worked, the latter eiists only in 
minute quantities. Its calculated amount 
is greatest in mica slate with gamels, 
where, as an oiide, it farms I -23 percent, 
of the constituent parts of the rocka. — 
De La Beche. Cleaveland. Vre. 
Manqame'sian. Contait;ing manganese ; 
resembling manganese ; having the pro- 
perties of manganese. 
Ma'bbi.e. (morire, Fr. marmo, It. war- 


[ 158] 


moTf Grerm. marmorf Lat.) Any lime- 
stone possessing sufficient hardness to 
take a polish may be called marble. 

Ma'roaratb. A compound of margaric 
acid with potash, soda, or some other base, 
and so named from its pearly lustre. — 
LyelVa Elements, 

Maroa'ric acid. An oleaginous acid, 
formed from different animal and vegetable 
fatty substances. — lb, 

Ma'rgarite. a mineral, of a grayish- 
white colour, occurring massive and in 
thin crystalline Isuuinee, intersecting each 
other in all directions. It bears some 
resemblance to sUvery mica. 

Ma'rgin. {marge^ Fr. marffine, It.) The 

border or edge. In conchology, the 

whole circumference or outline of the 

shell in bivalves. 

Ma'roinate. ) . ^ T ^ 

Ma'rginateo. ]««'rffinat«»,LB.t. 

1. In conchology, having a prominent 
margin or border. 

2. In entomology, when the sharp edge is 
margined, and surrounds the surface with 
a narrow border. 

Maroine'lla. An ovato-oblong, smooth, 
univalve, with a short spire. The lip 
thickly marginated on the outside. The 
base of the aperture slightly notched ; the 
columella plicated. Marginella differs 
from Voluta in the reflection of its outer 
lip. Recent marginellse are found in sand 
and sandy mud. Several fossil species 
have been discovered in the calcaire gros- 

Mari'genous. (from mare, the sea, and 
gignOj to produce, Lat.) Produced by or 
in the sea. 

Mari'ne. {marinus, Lat. marin, Fr. ma- 
rinOf It.) Belonging to the sea ; relating 
to the sea. 

Ma'rine allu'vium. Shingle thrown up 
by the sea ; materials cast upon the land 
by a wave of the sea, or those which 
a submarine current has left in its 

Mari'ne vegeta'tion. The marine ve- 
getation, says Mr. Lyell, is less known ; 
but we learn from Lamouroux, that it is 
divisible into different systems, appa- 
rently as distinct as those on the land, 
notwithstanding that the uniformity of 
temperature is so much greater in the 
ocean. The number of hydrophytes, or 
plants growing in water, is very consi- 
derable, and their stations are found to be 
infinitely more varied than could have 
been anticipated ; for while some plants 
are covered and uncovered daily by the 
tide, others live in abysses of the ocean, 
at the extraordinary depth of one thou- 
sand feet ; and although in such situa- 
tions there must reign darkness more 
profound than night, at least to our 

organs, many of these vegetables are 
highly coloured.— Princ(p/e» qf Geology* 

Marl, {mergel, margel. Germ.) A com- 
bination of common clay and calcareous 
earth ; a mixture of clay and lime. 

Ma'rly. Composed of marl ; containing 
marl ; resembling marl. 

Ma'rmorate. > (marmoratus, Lat.)'Wheii 

Ma'rmorated. S the markings or lines 
are variegated like marble. 

Marmora^ion. Incrustation with marble. 

Marsu'pial. (from marsupium, a pouch, 
Lat.) Having a pouch; belonging to 
the order Marsupialia. New Holland is 
known to contain a most singular assem- 
blage of mammiferous animals, consisting 
of more than forty species of the inarsK- 
pial family. 

Marsupia'lia. Animals possessing abdo- 
minal pouches. The marsupialia fDrm 
the fourth order of Mammalia, in Co- 
vier's arrangement. The economy of 
marsupialia is in many respects most sin- 
gular. One most striking peculiarity is 
the premature production of the foetns, 
whose state of ^development at birth is 
extremely small. Immediately on thdr 
birth they pass into a sort of second 
matrix. Incapable of motion, and scarcely 
displaying any germs of limbs or external 
organs, these diminutive beings attach 
themselves to the mammae of the mother, 
where they remain fixed by the mouth, 
until they have acquired a growth and 
development, resembling that of other 
newly-born animals. The skin of the 
animal is so arranged round the mammc 
as to form a pouch in which not only the 
imperfect foetus, attached to the nipple by 
its mouth, remains till fully devdoped, 
but into which, long after it is able to rui 
about, it leaps when alarmed, or when 
wishing to conceal itself. Tlie order 
Marsupiala holds an intermediate place 
between viviparous and oviparous ani- 
mals, forming a link, as it were, be- 
tween Mammalia and Reptiles. Tht 
order Marsupialia contains many genera, 
both herbivorous and carnivorous. The 
kangaroo and opossum are familiar ei- 
amples. Another peculiarity in these 
animals consists in this ; that the mem- 
bers of two litters are sometimes sucking 
at the same time. The New Holland 
opossums are very voracious, and devour 
carcasses as well as insects ; they enter 
into the houses, where their voracity is 
very troublesome. That most common, 
the Didelphys Yirginiana, attacks poultry 
in the night, and sucks their eggs. It is 
said to produce sixteen young ones in 
one litter, which, when first bom, do not 
weigh more than one grain each ; though 
blind, and almost shapeless, when {daoed 
in the pouch they instincttvelj find tte 

MAE [ 1 

iple, and adhere tu it tiU they atCain 

; Bizn of a mouaei nhich does not tBke 

till thoy are fifty dayi olil, at whinh 

i tliey begin to see. The discovery 

roarsnpialf '"""^ " '"" - ■ - 

, BhoT 

) far 

1 by Dt, MantcU, 

beinjf of more recent introdi 
other orders of Mammalia, tins 
is in reality the lirst and most 
M condition, under frbich animals 
)f tlii« class appeared upon our pla- 
nt, (from mars'ii^iimi, a purse, 
Jt.) The name ) 
a their resemblE 

ua of Crino'fdea found in the chalk. A 
^imen of one Epcciea, named by him 
Harsnpites Milleri, found near Brighton, 
't beaa^ully figfured in bis Geology of 
fae SQUth-Bast of Engtaud, aud in his 
BTonden of Geology. The following 
sriptiDD of the marsupite 1 have 
rocCed from the abore two works of Dr. 
lantoll's ;— "The toarenpiti 
ucons animal, of a aub-ovate foroi, hat- 
ig the iDOUth in the ceotre, and eur- 
suiided by arms, or tentacnla. The 
keleton was composed of crastaceons, 
sxaeonal [ilates ; the arms, nbich are 
■'idiTided into numerous branches, of 
icula, or little bones : the whole was 
estedjrith a muscular tissue, or mem- 
floating, the creature could 
' '■' ' and by 


3 prey, a 

month. The fossil 

la loophyCe, of which one species only 

known, have hitherto been found in 

be upper chalk of Sussex, Wiltshire, and 

torkihire only. The name of ' clatter- 

ttona,' pven to them by the quarry- 

iBen of Sussex, conveys an idea of their 

|sneral appearance. They may, how- 

*er, «o far as their body is concerned, be 

>Onipared to the fruit of the pine. The 

lody is orbicular, contained in a pdvis 

Eomposed of sixteen convex, radiated, 

mgular, crustaceoos plates." 

ABBu'piuu. The name given to a dark- 

oloared membrane situated iu the vitre- 

humoHT of the eye of birds. The 

of the marsupium is not ascertained, 

it is preseat in almost every bird hav- 

L^RAnxiNE. A native sulphate of am- 
id, by Mr. Mascagni, near the 
Vami spring of Sasso, ia Tuscany, and 
lumed after its discoverer, It has also 
liecn celled SoGsolia, from the place near 
iKbieh it vraa found. 

heir-} A muscle connected with the 

nder jaw of insects, and which assists in 


'sTODON. (from iiaorit, a breait, and 

;d ] MED 

iloit, a tooth, Gr.j For a full ittcrip- 
tion of tlic Mastodon, see MimmittA. 
Ma'sto:d. (from iiaarbs. the breast, and 
illoi, likeness, Gr.) Shaped Uke the 
breast, or like a nipple. Applied to 
some prominences of bones ; to a fora- 
men; to a muscle; and to cells in the 

Ma'tbth. (matrix, Lat. malrica, pi.) 
The earthy or stony matter in which a 
fossil is imbedded. 

Maki'lla. (maxilla, Lat.) The jaw- 
The lower jaws of insects are called 
maiillEe ; they are placed behind the 
mandibles, and between is situated the 
labinm, or lower lip. The roaxiUie are 
employed priucipalty for holding the sub- 
stances on which the grinding apparatoa 
of the maudibie ia exerted. 

Ma'sillasv. Belonging to the maxilla, or 
attached to it. 

Maw. (magai, Germ.) The Craw of 
fowls; the stomach of brutes. 

Mrandhi'ka. Brain-stone ; brain-coral. 
Madrepores in which the iamiuEE assume 

drin». Meandrina are large bemis- 
plierical corals, having their surface co- 
vered with serpentine ridges and depres- 
sions, resembling the convolutions of the 
cerebrum, or brain, from which circum- 
stance they have been called braio-atone. 
A very tine specimen, four feet in cir- 
cumference, may be seen in the British 
Museum, presented by tlie late Dr. Jar- 
vis, of Margate. 

Mea'tds. (mealia, Lat. from meo, to 
Sow.) A passage, as that leading to the 
ear, called the meatus auditorius, See, 

Mecha'nical oBioiN. A term used, sayi 
Mr. Lyell, to distinguish rocks of sand, 
pebbles, or fragments, from those of 
chemical origin ; or such rocks as are of a 

MEon'Lt*. (medulla, the morrow, Lat) 

1. In botany, the pitb of plants. 

2. The marrow in the cavities of bones. 
Mbdu'llary. {meduilaria, IM.) 

1. Relating to the braio, or to the marrow. 
The medullary sabstance composes the 
greater part of the brain, spinal marrow, 

2. In botany, relating to the pith of 

MEnu'u.TN. A name given by Dr. John to 
the porous pith of the snn-flower. 

Menc SA. A genus of marine mollusooas 
animals belonging to the class Acalepha. 
The medua/e approach nearly to the fluid 
state, appearing like a soft and trans- 
parent jelly, which by epontaneons de- 
composition after death, or by the appli- 
cation of heat, is resolved almost into a 
limpid watery fluid. The nsual form of 
a raedoia ta that of a hemisphere, with ■ 



Medina! are met with of tery variouB 
aizcB ; the lAJ^r abound iutlieaeaBBround 
our coaiti, but immense number! of tbe 
more minote, aud often microacopic, spec ies 
occur in every part of the ocean. In aome 
parts of tbe Greenland seas tbe Dumber of 
Medusns ia to great, that in a cubic ioch, 
taken up at random, there are not fewer 
than 64. In a cubic Foot this will amount 
to 110,592 ; and in a cubic mile, the num- 
ber ia Bucb, that allowing one person 
to count a million in a week, it would 
have required 80,000 persons from the 
creation of the world, to complete the 
—Dr. Raget. Dr. Kidd. 


ovv^, a claw, Gr.) A huge fossil 
malion, of the order Edentata, and thus 
named from tbe great siza of its unguical, 
or claw, bones. The remains of the 
Megalonyi were discoiered in the floor of 
a cavera, in the limestone of Virginia, in 

MBOALt'cHTBTfl. (from (liyoc, great, and 
'x^'^Ci * fish, Gr.> The name giTen to a 
fnasil aauroid fish, first discovered, by Dr. 
Hibbert, in the limestone near the bottom 
of the oool formation, near Edinburgh. 
Specimens of Megalichthjs have since 
been obtained by Sir F. Grey Egerton, 
Mr. Austin, and Mr. Mnrchison, in the 
coal formation. 

MEHALOSAu'KCa. (from l^iyQ, great, and 
eavpoi, a lizard, Gr. ) A genus of fossil 
amphibioDS animals, of great size, belong- 
ing to the saurian tribe. This genus was 
established by Professor Buckland. Cu- 
vier concludes, from a comparison of the 
fossil bones with those of eiistiug lizards, 
the megalosaurua to have been an enor- 
mous reptile measuring from forty to 
fitly, or even seventy, feet in length, and 
partaking of the stmcture of tbe croco- 
dile and monitor. Remains of the mega- 
losuurus have been found in the Oolite 
and in tlie Wealden. Tbis huge creature 
appeara to have been carnivorous, from 
the form of its teeth, and its head termi- 
nated in a straight and narrov snout. 

MkoAprt'ton. (from piyag, great, and 
l^ur^v, a plant.) An eitinct genua of 
plants belonging to the order Canifera. 
lu the genus Megaphyton tbe stem is not 
furroned, and the leaf scars are very 
large, resembling the shape of horse- 
shoes, and arranged on each side of the 
atam in two vcrticBl rows. It is found in 
the coal strata. 

Meqatbe'ridu. (from /liyac, great, and 
6iIpiov,aheaBt, Gr.) An eitinct animal, 
of great siie, belonging to the order Eden- 
tata. Fossil remains of the Megatherium 

] MEL 

have been discovered in South A 
in tbe aUuvial depoaites of the Ponipai. I 
Tbe Megatherium was about dght (eat I 
high, and its body twelve feet long " 
united part of the Btructnro of the ar 
dUlo with that of tbe sloth. The rdatiiB I 
proportions of the extremities of the mt' I 
gstlierinm dilTer greatly from those Ot ■ 
the sloth, and indeed from tluse of ai" ' 
known animal. Its teeth prove that 
lived on vegetables, and its fore-feet, 
robust, and armed nith sharp clan, 
show that rooti were its chief abjeeti of 
search. Its hide appears to ha' 

covered with a bony coat of an _ 

considerable thickness, the use of whid. 
was probably defensive, not onlyagaiiut 
the sharp claws of beasts of prey, bat 


Ida of ii 

surrounded it. " Secure within thepono- 
ply of bis defeasive armour," aaya Pro. 
fei-sor Ituckland, " where was the enemj 
that would dare encounter this behenwtt 
of the Pampas? a creature whose giant 
carcase was encased in an impenelrabte 
cuirass, and who, by a single pat of liii 
pan, or lash of hia tail, conld inaniuslmt 
have annihilated the congaar or the cio- 

ilEroMiTE. (from f'k'ui', less. Gr.) Tbt 
Meionit of Werner. A mineral, tha 
named from its terminating pyramidl 
being lower than those of simitar forma io 
the other minerala. Meionite much i^ 
aemblea Wernerite in the meaauroa of iK 
angles, but the terminating faces of Ver- 
nerite stand on the lateral faces of At 
primitive form, whereas in the meimule 
they correspond to the truncated latent 
edges of the primitive form. Meionitete 
a prisma to -pyramidal felspar. It oocbk 
in grains, or small crystals, whose moM 
common form is an eight-sided ptisn, 
trunCBted on its lateral edges, and toran*. 
nated by fonr low-sided pyramids. It » 
of a greyish-white colonr 
and sometimes transparent, 
glass, and before tbe blow., 
melts into a white spongy gli 
found at Mount Snmma, near VesDviui. 

tlEiA'Nii. (from /ifXnc, black, Gr.) A 
genus of univalve fresh-water shdb be- 
longing to the order Pectinihranchiaiti, 
class MoUoscB. Tbe meknU is a tor- 
reted univalve ; the aperture entire, ofit^. 
or oblong, and spread out at the base of 
the columeUa, which is smooth. RamdI 
melanite are found in rivers and estuarieii 
Fossil melaoiffi are found in the envfarooi 
of Paris. Lamarck describes twelve ipa- 

.lE'tANiTB. (from ^iXag, black, Gt.) 
The Metauit of Werner; Grenat noir <■ 
Haijy I G renat melanit of Brougtiiut, t- 
velvet-black, opaque, dodenhedral vuiet;^ 

C. It scrabM 
iw-pipe rcodO* 

MEL [ 

■ garnet. 1( occurs in crystals, which 

re dDdecacilrotis, with tnincated rdges. 

ractnra conchoidal. Specific gravity 
73. Its coDslitnents ore silei 35-5, 

me 32-5, oxide of icoo 25-2b, aluminc 
D, oxide of manganese 0-4. It is foand 

; Frascati, near Monnt Veauviaa, in Bo- 

Hnia, aad in North America. 

[lATio'psis. A genos of oral or oblong, 

laiforiD, umTilies, belonging to the fa- 
ns, in LamBMk's arrsnge- 

lent. Melaoopsides are found both re- 

Wl and fossil j they are diatingoished 

■om Molsniai by a notch in the aperture. 

basil meUnapsidcB are fouud in the ehale 

fthB Wealden, at Poonceford. 

jjiPBTSE. A Taiiely of black or py- 

aenic porphyry. 

LAsto'ma. (from ftiXac, blsck, and 

rdfio, month, Gr. ) A name given Co a 

Bnns of plants, belonging to the order 

[elastomacea, from the fruit staining the 

pi of a bluoli colour. 

Lixghi'na, a genus of biTalve mol- 

itcam, linoivn as the pearl-oyiier. Me- 
ina inhabit the Persian Gulf, the 
sstB of Ceylon, the sea of Nev Hol- 
ud, the Golf of Mexico, and the eoaats 
Japan, It attains perfection nowliere 
it in the equatorial seas, but in the pesrl 
liery of the ishind of Ceylon it is Che 
Bat oelebnited and prodnotive. The 
aria are situated in the fleshy part of 
« oyster, near the hinge. For one 
larl that is found perfectly round and 
between the memhranrs of the 
ntle, hundreds of irregnlar ones occur 
aohed to the interior of the shell, like 
many warta : they are sotnetimes so 
meroBi, that the animal cannot shut 
sllell, and so perishts. 
,ITA. (from mel, honey, Lat.) Honey- 
te. A genns of echinites, belonging to 


M.ATB. The name given to a salt, in 
lich the mellitic acid is combined with 
J salifiable base. 
;iLiTE. (from fklXi, honey, and Xi'eoc 

(tone, Gr.) _ Tt.e name given to a rare 
GTal from its honey colour. It occnrs 
' in very minute crystals, perfectly 
dar and well-defined, but not larger 
I H grain of millet- seed. These grains 
of a cubic or prismatic form j their 
often coated with an oxide of 
n. They are glistening, aemitranspa- 
It, and will scratch glaas. Before the 
iw-pipe, meliUte fu^es into a compact, 
leniah, transparent glass. It occora in 

.LITE, (from mel. boney, and \i6iiQ, a 
me.) Honey-stone. The Honigstein 
Werner ; La Pierre de miel of Bro- 
int 1 Pyramidales Mclichron-Harti of 
ihs. This mineral was tirst observed 

1 ] ME N 

in Thuringia, where it occurs asiociated 
with brown cool. It is of a hanej-yellow 
colour, whence its name, and is uanoUy 
crystallized in small octahedrons, whose 
angles are often truncated. Fracture 
conchoidal. Lustre shiuing or aptendent. 
By friction the crystals acquire a weak ne- 
gative electricity. They are mora or leas 
translucent, or even transparent, and ex- 
hibit double refriLCtioa. Mellite may be 
distinguished from amber by its wealc dec- 
tricity, and double refmctioa. It consiets 
of mellitic add 410, alumina 14'10, 
water 44-B. 

klF.MnRANA'cE0D8. (m(^/iiriinaeetu, Lst.) 
Rescinblin^ membrane. In bot^y, a 
membranaceous leaf has no dtstiiignish- 
able pulp between the two surfaces. 

VlEHBaA'NEODS. {mewbronevr , Ft, niflw- 
iraaoeo. It. memliraneai, Lat.] Con- 
sisting of membrane. In this and the 
preceding word may be observed the dif- 
ieronoe between words ending in flonu 
and eoui .- those ending in oceout eipresa 
a resemblance to a material, those ending 
in laaa mdicate the material itself. 

i1e'mbb.anb. (inemirfliw, Lat. memirant, 
Fr. meBtirana, It.) The membranes of 
auimuls are thin semitransparent bodies, 
which envelope certain parts of the body, 
to which tbpy furnish a covering for their 
support and protection. Membranes are 
modifications of cellular texture, the aor- 
facBB of the plates cohering so as to obli- 

being imperiious to fluids. Membranes 
also line the interior of all the large cavi- 
ties of the body ; these membranes, after 
lining the sides of their respective cavi- 
ties, are reflected back upon the Organs 
which are enclosed in those cavities, so 
as to furnish them with on external co- 
vering. Thns the bowels are covered by 
the peritoneum, the lungs by the pleurK ; 
nevertheless, in consequence of these 
membranes being reflected, the lungs and 
bowels may be said to be external to their 
investing membranes. 

Ie'ubbanous. Consisting of membrane ; 
resembling membrane. In botany, ap- 
plied to leaves of an extremely thin and 
pliable texture ; also to stems of a delicate 
substance, composed of several thin mem- 
branes laid one over the other ; opposed 
to AeriflCEOU*. 

,Ie'nachine. (from ifenacAan, a valley 
in Cornwall.) The name giveu t« a new 
metal, discovered by Ml'. Gregor, to 
which the name titanium is now mure ge- 
nerally applied. ThenianacAineofGr^Dr 
and the tilanium of Klaproth are the 
same substance, and to Gregor is owing 
the merit of the discovery. See 7T(a- 

(from Menac/ian, in 

M K N [ 

Cornwall.) Ao oiide of titinlum, oi 
meiucliine, comhineil «)th iron. Thii 

lubalBQce in foand abundaatly in the vil- 
ley of MenachBD, in Corawall, aail wu 
thui named bj he diicoverer, Mr. Grsgor. 
It la of a greyieb- black colour, aud ocuan 
ID sniall grains rcBembling gntipowder, of 
no determinate shape, and mLied with i 
fiuo grey aand. Specific graritj 4'* 
Before the blow-pipe it neicber decrepi' 
tatea nor melts. According Co the analjr' 
■U of KUpralh it coaeiHts of oxide of irot 
Gl'nO, axide of titaniam 45 25, ailica 
3'SO, oxide of n 
MkVilite. (fr 

Paria, where it U fonnd.) The Menilit 
of WdToer ; Silei menilite of Brongniart ; 
Quartz resinite eabluisant of Hail;. A 
brown or jellowiBh-gre; tnberoae laricty 
of unoleaTable quarti. Menilite occurs 
iti Bmall irregular or roundish mssses, 
often tuberoae. or marhed with little 
ridges on its surface. It ia transluceat, 
often only at its edges. Structure ratber 
alaty | fracture coDclioidai or splintery. 
It acratehea gloaa. Specific graiity 218. 
Infusible before the blow-pipe. Con- 

0-5, oxide of iron O'b, water and carbona- 

Meni'noes. (from (liji'ijS, Gr. a mem- 
brsne.) Aname given to the membracea 
which corer the brain. 

Mbsi'scus. (from|ii)»'i«oc, Gr.) A lens, 
one of whose surfaces is convex and Cbe 
other coDcare, and in which the two sur- 
faces meet if cODtiiiQed. As the convexity 
eiceeda the concavity, a meniacua may be 
regarded as a convex lens. 

Me'nstoccm. a solvent, 

Mbphi'tic. {mepAilie, Lat.) Oflensive 
to the smell ; noxious i pestilential. 

Msphi'tic a'cid. Another Dame for car- 
bonic acid. 

Mkpbi'tic aib. Another oame for nitro- 
gen gas. 



. It.) 

le of the fifty-five simple or elementary 
bodies. This metal is of the same colour 
BB bornished silver ; when pure and fiuid, 
it is still opaque, and nearly Bilver-white, 
with a Btcong lustre. Its specific gravity 
is l:]-aO, or thirteen times and s-half 
heavier than water, its deuaity being next 
to those of platinum and gold. Mercury 
fuses at a temperature of 39° or 40" below 
the zero of Fabrenheit, that is, at a tem- 
peratore of 71° below the freezing point 
of water Mercury, which when exposed 
to a lower temperature is a solid body, 
becomes fluid: consequently under com- I 
mon circnmEtanccB w« always find it fluid, 
and in this respect it remarkably diflers I 
from all the other metals. It has obtained | 
its name from its fluidity and colour. The ' 

12 ] M E R 

boiling point of mercury ia aomewhen 
about 680°, at which temperature it 
verted into vapour of a highly ei| 
power ; this vapour may be agni 
denied into the fluid metal, byb«ngm- 
ceired into cold vessels. Geoffroy te 
closed a qoanlity of mercury in an ira 
globe, strongly secured by iron hoops, i 
pot the whole into a furnace; soon li 
the globe became red-hot it bunt wi 
the violence of a bomb, nod oil the ms> 
cury was dissipated. 

Mercury has less affinity for oiy| 
than moat otber metals ; it may be & 
tilled over five hundred times, witho 
loss of qnantity. It combines, howeief 
with oxygen in two proporliona, tona' 
a red uiid a black oxide. By mei 
heating these in a retort the oxygen m 
be driven off, and the metal once mor 

The existence of mercury, even in and 
quantities, in any of its ores, may be it 
certsined by miugbng the ore with in 
filings, and heating this miitnre ta ni 
□ess under any cold body, as a plate A 
polisbed copper ; the meroury is tr'- 
eilized, and condensed in minute globl 
on the plate. In consequence of the 
lalility of mercury, it is usually 

with chlorine form : 
important medicines 
chloride of mercury, 
bichloride of mercury, or 
mate. From the fluid state in wldi 
mercury exists, it readily combines wi 
most of the metals, to which, if in sal 
cient quantity, it imparts a degree 
fusibility or softness : these compooik 
are termed amalgams^ An wmalgi^t^T 
mercnry and tin is employed for aUvetil 
the backs of lookiug-gliisEes, and I 
amalgam of four parts of mercury, ti 
of bismuth, one of lead, and one of tia, 
used for silvering the inside of ^ 
globea, the amalgam fusing on tlut^ 
being placed in hot water. The rac 
combination of mercury with gold orm 
ver, and tbe facility with which it maj b(. 
again separated from them by heat, rea- 
ders it of great value in the obtaiaint 
those metals from their ores and ^oys il 
the operations of mining. 

Mercury is also most useful in thei 
struction of barometers 
ters. It was known in tt 
and seems to have been employed bj 
the ancients in gilding, and in aepantiDg 
gold Irom other bodies, as in the present 
day. It possesses nei^er taste nor smelL 
Native mercury occurs in small globulet, 
disseminated in other metals. ThcH 
globules are but feebly united 

M E R [II 

.ftngne, and ttnj be liberated b; stnkiag 
or heatiag the eubatance whicb embrHcea 
them. It ia from the au1]ihiiret of m«r- 
I metal is princlpallj ob' 
'tuned. Sulpburet of mercury occurs in 
lietU, or large irrpgulur miaaea, and aanie- 
times in Tains. The minea which fur- 
, lulphuret of mercurj, are 
common ; Spain. Germany, 
ma Pern poBsesB the moat important. 
'a Spain, at Almaden, these mines ire in 
manntain of argillaceaos slate or shale. 
"he most celebrated, howeier, are at 
dria i theie are situated partly in gray 
pompact limestone, and partly in Bhnle. 
^^^lo working these mines is exceedingly 
Various to the health and life of these 
^^ anployed. Criminals, and those coa- 
■ricted of political offences, are sent hither 
to ete out a miserable eristeiioe. They 
^^ a lose their teeth, and are auhject to 
wraljais, coniulsions, and premature old 
^^^ — '1 ia said thai the surrounding die- 

10 affected by the noiiouB vapoora, 

that cattle cannot be reared there, and that 
hiit and grain do'noC come Co matarity. 
(/ifBivrLpiov, Gr. from 
liiiTDf, middle, and IvTigov, bowel.) A 
^ty membrane formed of (olJa of the 
^ntoDcum. This is a fine and delicate 
^""^mbrane which cannecta the intestines 
9 the apine, and which appears to be 
pterpaaed in order to allow to the intes- 
lues that freedom of matioo which ia so 
) the proper performance of 
ir functions. 

nte'bic. Partaining to the mesentery, 
he meaenCeric glanda, &c. 
iTno'nAX. (from /liaag, middle, and 
UpsE, chest.) In entomology, the meso- 
lorai gives origin to the second pair of 
ga, and also the first pair of niags, or to 
le elytra, of insects. 

'■ortPB. (from pino^, middle, and 
lisrar.form.) Prismatic zeohte ; asim|ite 
il of the zeolite family, occurring 
h dnuy cavities, or iu veins in seuondHry 
tap Tocki. I'he Frismalischer Kuphon- 
path of Mobs. Meaotype is of a while, 
^^^d, yellow, or yellowiab-brown colour. 
t occurs regularly crystallized. It con- 
bts of silica 54-40, alumina 1975, soda 
1-60, water y-gO. Specific 

(from (lerd, with, and 
wriat.) BelongiQg to the 
IE the metacarjial boaes, S:c. 

[o/nric, the wrist.) That part of the 
nperior eitremitj which connects the 
' rist with the fingers ; what is commonly 

Lown as the hand, but not including 
^her the wriat or the fingers. 

. . ■. (from ^(T<-j^oXX<j, Gr. to 

|di«Dge.) That lab-class of iniecU which 

] MET 

undergo a metamorphosis, and are usually 
fitted with wings in tbeir final state. The 
insects of the class Oondytopti may be 
di Tided into two sub .classes, namely, 
Ametabollans, or those that do not an- 
dergo any metamorpboaia, and have no 
wings; and Jlfefafo/ioiu. 
Je'tai.. C/itritXAuw, Gr. metallHSt, Lat. 
mHal, Fr. mflallo. It. wfl/aH, Germ.) 
Metals, B8 presented by nature, are some- 
times pure, or combined with each other 
only, and are aaid to elist in a metaUic 
state. But more frequently they are 
combined with oxygen, anlphur, &c., by 
which their peculiar metallic piopertica 
are more or leas diaguiaed ; in this caae 
the metal is said to he mineralized, and 
the oxygen, or sulphur, is called the mi- 
neralizer. All the individuals of the dasi 
of metati, with the exception perhaps of 
iron, are perfectly inert and hanijeas ; 
even arsenic, lead, copper, and mercury, 
which in certain states of combination 
!Ome of the most virnlent of 

the living system, unless they be in union 
with some other body ; but when so 
united, how valuable do they become, and 
what various medicinal effects may they 
not be made to produce 1 The metals at 
present known are forty-three in number. 
Of these, seven were known in tha earliest 
ages, and, in conaequence of a anpersti- 
tiouG belief in the influence of the stars 
over human affairs, were first djatinguiahed 
by the names and signs of the planets ; 
and as the latter were supposed to hold 
dominion over time, so were astrologers 
led Co believe that some, more than others, 
bad an influence on certain days of the 
week ; and, moreover, that they could 
impart to the corresponding roetUs con- 
siderable efficacy upon the particular days 
which were devoted to them. As regarcis 
the ages of metals, tin, molybdeua, tung- 
sten, and wolfram, are ranked as the most 
ancient ; nraninm and bismuth succeed. 
Gold and copper are deemed relatively 
and comparatively as new metals. Iron 
is of all ages. The specific gravity of 
metals, if we eiclnde those recently dis- 
covered by Sir H. Davy, is always greater 
than that of minerals ; tclhirium, the 
lightfat metal, being above 6*0, while the 
heaviest earthy body is less than 5-0. 
Metals are opaque; they poasess a pecu- 
liar lustre, which has been termed metallic 
lustre, retaining it even when reduced to 
powder. They are mostly malleable, or 
capable of being hammered into Tarious 
orders and thin leaves ; and ductile, or 
capable of being drawn into wires of 
greater or less flitenesa. They are not 
soluble in water. They aU unite with 
uiygen. and, probably, all with clilorina. 

MET [ : 

Thej an fuaible, or capable of bring ren- 
dered fluid by a heat altaiiuble bj trtili- 
ciolmeinE; bteomin; again solid on cool- 
ing. They are elastic, bard, hea«;, and, 
geosraUj, uiiioroua. Sooie of the melaJB 

a degree of U 

oell. All 


the metala 

their degree nf expansibility appears M 

bear B relation to their fuiibility. 

Mita'llic. ) {mtlallieta, Lat. mflal- 

Ueta'llical. t liqse, Fr. mttaitico. It.) 
Partaking of metal i coniisting of metal ; 
containing metal ; resembling meUl. 

Mita'llic iiEna. Some mEtalMc ores oc- 
cur in Che form of brdi in primary and 
traaiitioD rocks. Iron ore often forms 
bed) of coniiiderable thiekneaB, inlerposeil 
between rocks of gneiss, slate, and mica 
slate. The difference of eiternal character 
is so great between a pure metal and an 
earth, that it '\a difficult to conceiie, at 
first, bow metallic matter can form beds 
interstratifled with earthy rooks; the dia- 
coYcries, however, of modern chemistry 
have shown, that metallic and earthy mi. 
nerals are closely allied. — Bakrwelt. 

Hita'llic Lu'bthe. Ona of the most 
conapicuoitB properties of metals is a par- 
ticolar brilliancy wliich Ihey possess, and 
which has been called the mflallie luttre. 
There are other bodies which apparently 
possess this peculiar lustre, as, for eiam. 
pie, mica, but in them it is confined tO' 
the surface, and accordingly disappears 
when they are scratched, whereas it per- 
vades every part of metals. 

Mhta'llic DB.E. Metals existing in the 
■tate of an oiide, or a «alt, or united with 
B combustible, are called oru.- and this 
term is, by analogy, extended to the na- 
tive metals and alloys. 

The earthy, stony, saline, or combusti- 
ble BubsCsnue, which contains the ore, or 
U only mingled with it, without being- 
chemically combined, is called the gangue, 

Metals and their ores, are 
disseminated in other rocks ; 
they form irregular masses of various 
sizes, and sontetimea they coustitnte beds; 
but more frequently they are found in. 
veins, dther filling, the whole vein, or 
mixed with various saline and earthy mi- 
nerals. 'Iliey appear to he the production 
of every period, bat more frequently exist 
in primary and transition, than in secon- 
dary rocks, or tlian in aUuvial earths. 
M&ta'llic o'judb. a metal combined with 
any proportion of oxygen, is called a 
metallic oxide, provided it do not possess 
the properties of an acid. Hence the 
same metal, by uniting with different 
quantities of o:Lygen, often furniebcs two 
or more oxides, nhicli differ in colour and 
in other pToperties. All metals must be 

— CTrai 


Those BBltg which hi 
a metallic oxide for their base ; caiboD 
of lead is an example. 
Metallic veiks. ■' Perhaps," tayi II 
Bakewell, " the reader may obtain a den 
notion of a metallie cpni, by first Inag 
ing a crack or fissare in the earth, afi 
or mure in width, and eiteoding eaatl 
west on Che surface, many hundred y» 
Suppose the crack, or fiasure, to desElj^^ 
to an uuknown depth, not id a porped 
cular direction, but sloping a little to II 
north or south. Now, let us BUppaMNT 
side of the fissure to become coated Ifi 
mineral matter, of a difi'erent kind tt 
the rocks in which the fissure la maj 
aod then Che whole fissure to be GDed! 
successive layers .of various metallic as 
mineral substances ; we shall thm ban 
type of a metallic vein. Its coaraeAl 
east to west is called its direcHoa, t 
the dip from the perpendicular lioe 
descent, is called its hading.'' — Intni 
lion to Geology. 

While plain countries are Utterly di 
tute of all indicatianB of metallic tb 
there are few mountaini 
which they do not occur i 

" There is a remarkabie circmnsl. 
says Prof. Phillips, " in the distributiua. 
metallic veins in the same class of itit' 
fied rocks.^a peculiarity depending 
local inSuenceB ; such, that while I 
slates of Cornwall near the granitic at 
tiona, yield tin and copper, and the Sna 
donian slates, and those of Conid 
Water Head yield copper ; thorn 
Loweswater, Borrowdale. Patterdale, « 
Caldbeck feUs yield lead, or lead • 




. Qetalliferc 

dykes, &c. 
Mktalliza'tion. The act, or process,! 

forming into a metal. 
Metal lo'gbafht. (from ^iroXXov, 

metal, and ypa^ij, a description.J i 

treatise on metala, or mel^lic sabstaoM 
Meta'llurgv. (from fitTaXXow, a metll 

and Ipyov, a work, Gc. mftaltargit, ft. 

Some authors comprehend under ttit 

term, the wlinle art of working mela 
the glebe, or ore, to the ntensil; 

e assaying, 

parting, smitbery, gilding, &e., are oi^ft 
branches of metallurgy. Others re>tnb.B 
meiatlurgy to those operations reqnic<'B 
to separate r--'-'- " •■--- * 

c. (from p 
I, Gr.) A te 

MET [ 1 

icli bjpogene rocks as are atratified, or 
^ered b; stratification i aa; stratified 
rimar)' rock maj be termed metamorjrhic. 
f sooiB aothots the metanmrpbic rocks 
rre been divided into twu groupn ; 
unelf, tboBe which preaeat traces o( 
rBtificarion, and, aecondly, those wbieh 
esent no appearance of regular airange- 
BDt, but occur in amarplioua or sbape- 

ao'BPnoaia. (inTapSp-fioai,:, Gr. 

ige into another lurm, n^tamorphote, 

melamor/oli, It.) Trangformadons 

ih insects undergo previously to their 

;ir state of perfeotioii. The 

igresa of melamorphons of insects is 

Bt strikingly displayed in the history 

die Lepidopterous, or buttei'Sy and 

ih tribe. The egg, which is de- 

sited by the butterHy, gives birth Co a 

iterpillari an ammal which, in outward 

ispe, bears not the slightest resemblauce 

L its parent, or to the fDrm it is itself 

rards to asrame. It has, in fact, 

the eitemsl appearance, and the 

^banictd structure, of a norm. But 

le Termifarm insects contain in their 

rior the rudiments of all the organs 

:hB perfect insect. These organs are, 

■ever, concealed from view by a great 

iber of inembranoua coverings, wliich 

"vely invest one another, like tht 

B of a 


after another, as the internal porta 

re gradaally developed. These succea- 

ive peelings of the skin are bat so many 

tepg in preparation for a more impor- 

Int change, A time comes when the 

rliole of the coverings of the body are at 

nee cast off, and the insect assumes the 

arm of a pyp" or c/iryialia ; being wrapt 

I in a shroud, presenting no appearance 

it external members, and retaining but 

«ble indications of life. In this condi- 

Oa it remains for a certain period : its 

itemal system continuing in secret the 

'^er eonsolidatian of the organs ; until 

i period arrives when it is qualified to 

lerge into the world, by bursting asun- 

r the fetters which had confined it, and 

le worm, which so lately crawled with a 
iw and tedious pace along the surface 
the ground, now ranka among the 
oltive inhabitants of the air ; and ex- 
auBng its newly aci)uiredvringa,Unnches 
matd into the element on which it« 
nren can he freely exerted, and which 
to waft it Co the object of its gratifiea- 
ra, and to dew soeues of pleasure and 
Wight. Dr. Roget, B,-idgewaUr- Trea~ 

TranaturmaliouB quite a( 
3eur in several tribes of aui 
ig to other classes : such a: 


1 MET 

frog among reptiles, and of the lems 
among parasitic worms. Whether th 
bigbi?r order of crustaceans undergo 
real metamorphosis, has not been aatit 
factorily proved. They are known t 
change their sliells annually ; but it hs 
not been observed that this moult hn 
been attended by any change of form, c 
by the acquisition of any new locomodt 
or other organs. 
Jetata'rsai.. (from fiird and rapalu 
Gr.) Belonging to the I 

(from /iird and TOpiric, 
e, Fr.) That jmrt of the 
foot which lies between the ankle and the 
toes, corresponding to the metacarpus of 
the superior eitremities. The bones of 
the metatarsus in the most complete 
forms of dcveiopment are always live in 
number, in each limb. 

Metatbo'kax. (from jitrd, beyond, and 
Buipak, the chest.) In entomology, the 
third and last segment of the thorax, re- 
sembling the second in being of a more 
united structure than the first. The 
second and third segments are closely 
united together, but the original distinc-' 
tion into two portions is marked by a 
transverse line. To the second and third 
segments are attached both wings and 
legs, whereas the first segment has legs 
alone. The third sagment consists of 
seven pieces, which are similar to those 
of the second. The posterior wings are 
plnccd at the anterior angles, and often 
occupy the whole sides of the me(a- 
thorax. A pergamenteons partition at 
Che posterior margin, which descends in 
a perpendicular direction, bowing in its 
middle towards the abdomen, separates 
the niftaihorax from the abdomen. 

Mkteo'ric ikon. The Octaedriscbes eiaen 
of Mobs 1 Fer nadf of Haity. Colour 
pale Bteel-grey ; occurs ramose, and dis- 
seminated in naeteoiio stoues. Native, 
or meteoric iron, is composed of iron 
and nicVel, the proportion of nickel vary- 
ing ^m one to nearly teti per cent. In 
some specimens a trace of cobalt has been 

Pallas found a mass of native iron 
Ifigfi lbs. in weight, in Siberia, which tra- 
dition stated to have fallen from the dr. 
Meteoric iron is assuredly nnlike any 
iron of earthly origin, but it has been 
imitated by fusing iron with nickel. 

Mbtkoro'logi. (from ^Kriiupo, meCeors, 
and Xiiyoc, a deaeriprion, Gr.) The 
study of the phenomeoo of the atmo- 
sphere. It was not till the 17th century 
that any considerable progress was made 
in investigating the laws of meteorobgy. 

MIC [ 1 

Preiiousl; to tliat period, the want of 
proper instruments preclndec! tbe culti- 
»»tion of this science ; but the discovery 
of the bsrometer and tliermometer ia 
the 17th, and the invention of accurate 
hygrometers in the IBth century, sup- 
plied the pre-existiDg defects, aod ena- 
bled philoaophers to enter on meteoroli^- 
culobserratioDswith accuracy and facility. 
Hi'cA. (from mico, to glisten.) This 
mineral appears to be atirays the result 
of cryatallization, but is rarely found in 
regular, well-delined crystals. Most com.- 
monly it appears in tliia, flexible, elastic 
Uminie, which exhibit a high polish and 
strong Inetre. These laminie have some- 
times an estent of many si^nare inches, 
and, from this, gradually diminish till 
they become mere spangles, diacoTcrable, 
indeed, by their lustre, but wbose area is 
scarcely perceptible by the naked eye- 
cent, of oxygen. The laminse of mica 
are. easily separated, and may be rednced 
to a thickness not much exceeding the 
millionth part of an inch. Mica is easily 
Bcratubed nith a knile, and, commonly, 
even by the (inger-nail. Its surface ia 
smooth to the touch ; its powder is dull, 
usualtf grayish, and feels sotl. Its co- 
lours are silver-white, gray, green, brown, 
reddish, and hlack, or nearly black. Spe- 
cific gravity from 2-50 to 2'90. When 
mbhed on sealing-wax, it communicates 
to the was negaCivE electricity. Before 
the blow-pipe, it fnsea into a grey or 
black enamel. Its constititent parts are, 
according to Klaproth, silei 48'0, aln- 
mine 34-20, potash 8 75, oiide of iron 
4'5, oxide of manganese O'S. According 
to others, it is a compound of silicium, 
potasaium, magnesium, calcium, &c., 
combined with oxygen. Mica is one of 
t parts of granite, gni ' 


porphyry, and other primary rocks. To 
quartz and hmestone it frequently com- 
municates a slaty textnre. It may always 
be distinguished from talc by the elas- 
ticity of its plates, in its want of unctuo- 
sity, and by its communicating negative 
alectridty to sealing-wax. There are 
' ■-■'- - r Bub-species i Jaroe- 
. Mica has been em. 

penor to horn, hemg more transparent, 
and not so easily injured by the flame. 
Mica is a doubly refracting substaHce, 
with two optic axes \ along which, ligbt is 
refracted in one pencil. 
Mica'ceou9. Containing mica ; resem- 

Mica'ceoub iHON OHR, A Variety of 
oiide of iron. This occurs generally ' 

amorphous maaws, composed oTthln ill- 
silted laminie. Colour iron-block, or 
El-grey. Lnatre metallic. Opaque. 




gravity from 

yield nearly 70 per cent, of iron. 

Mi'cA SCHIST. ) A metamorphic rod, com- 

Mi'cA SLATE. ) posed of mica and qnarti; 
it passes by insensible gradntioni Into 
clay-slalc, and its texture is slaty. Soma* 
times the mica and quartz alternate, 
though commonly they ai ' ~ 

intimately mingled; the mica. oiiiaufH 
predominating. ■ 

Mi'cAneLLs. The Finite of Kirvan. SmB 
Piailt. M 

Mi'cROPYLE. (from fiicpAf, small, and 1 
jriiXoc, gate, Gr. ) A term for the fora- i 
men in the perfect seed ; thia foramen ii 
often visible, as in the pea and bean. 

Mi'cRoscoi-s, (from fjiicpDC, small, and 
oTDTtu, to behold, Ge. micrancBjie, Fr. 
microscopio, It.) A microscope is an 
optical instrument for examining and 
magnifying minute objects. Jansen lad 
Drebell are supposed to have separatdy 
invented the single microscope, and Fod- 
tana and Galileo seem to have been the 
first who constructed Ihe instrument ia 
its compound Form. The single micrO' 
scope is nothing more than a lent ff 
sphere of any transparent anbstance. I t M 
the focos of which minute objects It 
placed. The best single microscopes •< 
minute lenses ground and polished on t^ 
concave tool ; but as the perfect eiBM- T 
tion of these requires considerable skill, ' 
small spheres have often been canstruciri 
as a substitute. The moat perfect riD|lo 
microscopes ever executed, of solid (id>- J 
stances, are those made of the gems, sack J 
as garnet, ruhy, diamond, &c. Garnet 1^ 
the best material, as it has no donblelt 
fraction, and may be procured peift 
pure and homogenous. Wlien a sii^ 
microscope is used for opaque ohjectl, 
the lens is placed within a concave «lver 
speculum, which concentrates parallel or 
converging rays upon the face of the oil' 
joct next the eye. 

When a microscope consists of twv ff 
more lenses or specula, one of wlur 
forms sn enlarged image of olqecta, wUl 
the rest magnify that image, it is ci" * ' 
compound mierDtcapt, The ingeaidt 
philosophers and of HTtists7'»* ^ 
nearly exhausted in devising the h 
forms of otyect -glasses and of tj^ '"' 
for the compound microscope. - 

iicKosco'ric. That may he seen onljli]' 

the aid of a microscope. 

i'eiiitk. a mineral, thus named fto* 

having been found at Miemo, in T 

A green variety of Dolomite, occnrring 11, 

with & radisted wliicb 

(niillfpeda, Lat. from nille, 
a thousand, sud pet, a 
) laseuts whose bodf is generally 
rlindrical ; segincDtB hfllf oiembraDa- 
M)ua and half crusCaceons, each half 
Baring a pair of legs ; antennse seven- 
rinted, filiform, often a little thicker 
iwsrds the end. These are called milli- 
(de». The millijitdee beiong to the 
ecrophagoiu tribe, or those tchich de- 
[HIT dead animaU, or any other ps- 
CBcent subitaaces. — Rev. \V. Kirby, 
U.BFOBE. (fromnnV/e, athouBand.and 
JrWi a pore.) A ganna of lithophjfea 
F varioua forms, having the surface per- 
irated vith numerous small pares or 
ales, la miUepores Che cells are mare 
limate and closer than in madreporfi, 
id do not exhibit any star-like radia- 

xe'fOh.itk. a fassQ millepore, 
LioLA. ) A genns of microscopic mul- 
LLIOLA. \ tUocubr umvalvfB,notlarger 
lan a millet seed, with transverse cham- 
BTS, involving the mis altematelj, and 
I three directions ; the opening smull 
id circular, or oblong, at the base of the 
at chamber. Several species are found 
I en»t on our shores, and many recent 
ledmens have been obtained, on fiicus, 
ear the iaiaad of Corsica. 
blOLiTE. {The fossil Miliola. So nu- 

of the ] 

;s af a 

i flie quflrrit 
Biaute animals as the miltiola, have 
dded much more to the mags of mn- 
eiiok forming the earth's crust than the 
iouBS of the mammoths, whales, and 

'I.LBTDNE. Called also Burrhstone. The 
tnart^ agathe moLaire of Haiiy ; Silex 
tmliere of Brongniart. Tlie exterior 
Upeet of this mineral is somewhat pecu- 
^, being Adl of pores and cavities, 
rhich give it a corroded and ccllnlar 

IU9M, above the marine eoiid and saud- 

lae caviCieB or cells are to be found, 
llstooe ia of a white or greyish colour ; 
DBtdmes with B tinge of blue or yellow ; 
en iinmiied it is pure ailex. I' 

I the 
Euperpesitinn of the formatinns 
the neigh bourliood of Paris, it consti- 
:es the ninth horizoutal bed, counting 
im the ohalk upwards. In is of great 
B for mnking into millstones, from 

The n 

siliceous conglomerate, composed of the 
detritus of primary rocks. It has been 
thus named from some of the strata hav- 
ing been narked for millstones. It con- 
stitutes one of the members of the car. 

The mitlatDne giit forms a hed of const, 
de ruble thickness in some sitnadons, 
amounting to three or four hundred feet ; 
in others it is of very limited extent ; 
and sometimes it is wholly wanting. 

MiNEHAi. ADiroci'HS. A fetty bitumi- 
nous substance occarring in tlie argilla- 
ceous iron ore of Merthyr, in Wales. It 
is inaolnble in water, and fuses at a tem- 
perature of lEO". When cold it is in- 
odorous, bnt on being heated gives out a 
bituminous odour. 

Mi'nebai, CAQc'rcHDDC. Avariety ofbi- 
tumeti, inlermediats between the harder 
and softer kinds. It sometimes much 
resembles India rubber in its softness 
and elasticity, from whence it derives its 
name, and like that removes the traces of 
the pencil, but, at the same time, it soils 
slightly the paper. Colour brown, red- 
dish-brown, or hyacinth-red. Spceific 
gravity from 0'90 to 1-23. It bums with 
a bright flame, emitting during its com- 
bustion, a bituminous odour. It occnn 
near Castleton, in Derbyshire. 

Mi'nebal cha'hco*!.. A fibrous variety 
of non-bituminous mineral coal. 

Mi'nebal wa'ters. Waters impregnated 
with mineral substances. 

Minehaliza'tion. The process of con- 
verting into a mineral some body not 
previously such. 

Mi'nebalize. To convert into a mineral. 

Mi'MBdALizES. That which converts a 
substance into a mineral. Metals are 
combined with osygen, snlpiiur, &c. by 
which their peculiar metalhc properties 
are more or less disguised; in this case 
the metal is said to be mineralized, and 
the oiygen or snlphur is termed the mi- 

Mi'nebals. (minerale, Lat. mineral, Fr. 
mitKTale, It,) Those bodies wbicb are 
detlUvie of urgaHizatioH, and which na- 
tarally eiist within the earth or at its 
surface. The term /oaail is usually ap- 
propriated to those organic substances 
which have become penetrated by earthy 
or metallic particles. 

Minerals have been divided into two 
kinds ; simple, or homogeneous, and com- 
pound, or heterogeneous. Simple mineral* 
appear nniform and homogeneons in all 
theirparts. Theydo, in tact, usually con- 
tain several different elementary systems ; 
but these are so intimately combined, and 

M I N 

[ 1C8 ] 

M I N 

similarly blended, in every part, as to 
exhibit a uniformity of appearance. 

Compound minerals more or less evi- 
dently discover to the eye, that they are 
composed of two or more simple mine- 
rals, which either merely adhere to each 
other, or, as is sometimes the case, appear 
imbedded one in the other. Compound mi- 
nerals are frequently aggregates or rocks. 

The description of minerals, and their 
arrangement in systematic order, must 
result from an investigation of their pro- 
perties. These properties consist in cer- 
tain relations which minerals bear to our 
senses, or to other objects. Some of 
them are discoverable by mere inspection, 
or, at most, require some simple experi- 
ment to be made upon the mineral to as- 
certain its hardness, structure, gravity, 
&c. while others cannot be observed 
without a decomposition of the mineral. 
All these properties are usually called 
characters. We hence have a twofold 
division of the properties or characters of 
minerals into chemical and physical. — 
Mi'neralogy. That science, says Cleave- 
land, which has for its object a knowledge 
of the properties and relations of mine- 
rals, and enables us to distinguish, ar- 
range, and describe them. 

Jameson defines mineralogy to be that 
part of natural history which makes us ac- 
quainted with all the properties and rela- 
tions of minerals. It is divided, accord- 
ing to that professor, into two grand 
branches, namely, mineralogy properly so 
called, and geology. Mineralogy treats 
of the properties and relations of simple 
minerals ; while geology considers the 
various properties and relations of the 
atmosphere, the waters of the globe, the 
mountain rocks, or those mineral masses 
of which the earth is principally com- 
posed, and the form, density, heat, elec- 
tricity, and magnetism of the earth. 

The history of the materials of the 
crust of the globe, their properties as 
objects of philosophical enquiry, and their 
application to the useful arts and the 
embellishments of life, with the charac- 
ters by which they can be certainly dii^- 
tinguished one from another, form the 
object of mineralogy, taken in its most 
extended sense. 

There is no branch of science which 
presents so many points of contact with 
other departments of physical research, 
and serves as a connecting link between 
80 many distant points of philosophical 
speculation as this. Nor, with the ex- 
ception of chemistry, is there any which 
has undergone more revolutions, or been 
exhibited in a greater variety of forms. 
To the ancients it could scarcely be said 

to be known at all, and up to a com- 
paratively recent period, nothing oonld 
be more imperfect than its descriptions, 
or more inartificial or unnatoral than its 
classification. It was only, however, 
when chemical analysis had acqaired a 
certain degree of precision and universal 
applicability, that the importance of ffif- 
neralogy as a science began to be recog- 
nized, and the connection between a 
stone and its ingredient constituents 
brought into distinct notice. The ar- 
rangement of simple minerals has alwajs 
been a subject of controversy with miner- 
alogists ; and the discussions to whidi 
it has given rise have materially contri- 
buted to the advancement of our know- 
ledge of the natural and chemical historf 
of minerals. Berzelius contends for the 
chemical arrangement, according towhidi 
the species are grouped in conformitr 
with their chemical composition and 
characters. Werner rejects the pure che- 
mical, and adopts the mixed method, in 
which the species are arranged and de- 
termined according to the conjoined ex- 
ternal and chemical characters. Hie 
writers of the Wernerian school usnaDj 
divide mineralogy into the five foUowng 
branches ; namely, ory'ctognosy, chemi- 
cal mineralogy, geognosy, geographical 
mineralogy, and economical mineralogy. 
Of late years, the arrangement accorcting 
to external characters alone (named die 
natural history system) has been adro- 
cated by Mohs. Among the external 
characters of a stone, none were, how- 
ever, found to possess that eminent dis- 
tinctness which the crystalline form 
offers ; a character in the highest degree 
geometrical, and affording the strongest 
evidence of its necessary connection with 
the intimate constitution of the sub- 
stance. The fidl importance of this ch»> 
racter was, however, not felt until iti 
connection with the texture o» cleavage 
of a mineral was pointed out, and even 
then it required numerous and strikiiv 
instances of the critical discernment <rf 
Haiiy, and other eminent mineralogists 
in predicting from the measurement! of 
the angles of crystals which had been 
confounded together, that differences 
would be found to exist in their chemical 
composition, all which proved fully jus- 
tified in their result before the essential 
value of this character was acknowledged. 
A simple and elegant invention of Dr. 
WoUaston, the reflecting goniometer, gafO 
a fresh impulse to that view , of miner- 
alogy which makes the crystalline form 
the essential or leading character, hy 
putting it in the power of every one, 1^ 
the examination of even the smaUest 
portion of a broken crystal, to ascertaiB 

M I N 

[ 169 ] 

M O L 

the character on which the identity of a 
mineral in the system of Haiiy was made 
to depend. Mineralogy, however, as a 
branch of natural history, remains still 
distinct from either optics or crystallo- 
graphy. But whatever progress may have 
hitherto been made in mineralogical 
pursuits, every new advance has opened a 
wider and more interesting prospect. 
The science is still in its infancy, and in 
many of its paths can proceed only with 
a feiultering and uncertain step. — Hers- 
chell. Jameson. Cleaveland, 

Mi'nium. (miniumf Lat.) A red oxide 
of lead. Minium is of a bright scarlet ; 
it occurs in a loose state, or in masses, 
composed of flakes with a crystalline 
texture. It is found in the lead mines of 
Westphalia. It is used in glass-making, 
enamelling, and some other arts. 

Mi'ocENE. (from fxsiwvt less, and icafvo^, 
recent, Gr.) The name given by Mr. 
Lyell to a subdivision of the tertiary 
strata. He says, the European tertiary 
strata may be referred to four successive 
periods, each characterized by containing 
a very different proportion of fossil shells 
of recent species. These four periods he 
names. Newer Pliocene, Older Pliocene, 
Miocene, and Eocene. The Miocene 
period has been found to yield eighteen 
per cent, of recent fossils. This was the 
result of an examination of 1021 fossil 
species by M. Deshayes. Many shells 
belong exclusively to the Miocene period. 
The Miocene strata are largely developed 
in Touraine, and in the South of France 
near Bourdeaux, in the basin of Vienna, 
and other localities. The miocene strata 
contain an admixture ofthe extinct genera 
of lacustrine mammalia of the Eocene 
series, with the earliest forms of genera 
which exist at the present time. 

Mi'tra. a genus of shells belonging to 
the ColumeUaria in Lamarck's arrange- 
ment. It is a subfusiform univalve, with 
a long pointed turreted apex, a notched 
base, and no canal. Covered with an 
epidermis of a light brown colour. The 
columella is plicated ; the inferior plicae 
being the smallest. Mitres are found 
both fossil and recent. The recent are 
found at depths varying to seventeen 
fathoms, on reefs, in sands, and in sandy 
mud. Of the fossil mitres, Lamarck de- 
scribes thirteen species as having been 
found in the neighbourhood of Paris. 

Mo'cHA STONE, (from Mocha f in Arabia.) 

-' The quartz agathe arborise of Haiiy. 
Called also dendritic agate. A mineral, 
containing in its interior very beautiful 
delineations of leafless shrubs, trees, ^c, 
of a brown or dark colour. Mocha stones 
resemble those agates which are found on 
the Sussex coast caUsd dendrachatee. 

I MoDi'oLA. (from modiolus f Lat. a little 
measure.) A genus of shells belonging 
to the family Mytilacea. A transverse 
inequilateral bivalve. Parkinson states 
that modiolee do not attach themselves 
by a byssus, but this is incorrect. The 
modiola is a littoral shell, moored to 
rocks, stones, and shells. One species, 
modiola discorSj floats free, enveloped in 
its own silky byssus. One modiola lives 
in the ascidis, and another floats among 
the Gulf or Sargasso weed. The fossU 
species have been found in the neigh- 
bourhood of Paris, and some in this 
Mo'lar (from mola^ a mill, Lat. molaire^ 
Fr.) A grinder-tooth. The large double 
teeth are called molar teeth, or grinders ; 
these are, however, subdivided according 
to their different forms ; thus those with 
two fangs are called bicuspid, or false 
molar teeth. The posterior molar teeth 
are differently shaped in carnivorous ani- 
mals, for they are raised into sharp, and 
often serrated, edges, having many of the 
properties of cutting teeth. In insecti- 
vorous and frugivorous animals, their 
surface presents prominent tubercles, 
either pointed or round, for pounding the 
food ; while in graminivorous quadrupeds 
they are flat and rough, for the purpose 
simply of grinding. 
Mola'sse. (from mollis^ soft, Lat.) The 
name given to a soft green sandstone 
found in Switzerland ; one of the most 
recent of the tertiary deposites. — Lyell. 
In the Molasse of Switzerland there are 
many deposites affording sometimes coal 
of considerable purity. — Prof. Buckland. 
Mr. Bakewell observes, '* By many 
geologists it is maintained that the beds 
of soft sandstone, called molasse y belong 
to the London clay division of the ter- 
tiary formations. That some of these 
beds may be tertiary, I do not deny ; but 
I am fully convinced, that many beds 
called molasse, in Savoy, are covered by 
the Jura limestone and oolites, having re- 
peatedly seen them in contact, and got 
specimens from each bed at the line of 
Mo'lkcule. {molecule, Fr. petite jmrtie 
d^un corps. ^ A minute particle of a mass 
or body, differing from atom, inasmuch as 
it is always a portion of some nggregate. 
All substances consist of an assemblage 
of material particles, which are far too 
small to be visible by any means human 
ingenuity has yet been able to devise, 
and which are much beyond the limits of 
our perceptions. The size of the ulti- 
mate particles of matter must be small in 
the extreme. Organised beings, possess- 
ing life and all its functions, have been 
discovered so small that a million of them 

M O L 

[ 1-0] 

M O L 

would occupy less space than a grain of 
sand. The ingredients of granite, 'and 
of all other kinds of crystalline rocks » are 
composed of molecules which are invisibly 
minute y and each of these molecules is 
made up of still smaller and more minute 
molecules, every one of them combined in 
fixed and definite proportions, and afford- 
ing, at all the successive stages of their 
analysis, presumptive proof that they 
possess determinate geometrical figures. 
MoLLu'scA. {molluscaf a nut with a soft 
shell, Lat.) According to the arrange- 
ment of Cuvier, the second great division 
of the animal kingdom. This he subdi- 
vided into six classes, namely, Cephalo- 
poda, Pteropoda, Gasteropoda, Acephala, 
Brachiopoda, and Cirrhopoda. A vast 
multitude of species, possessing in com- 
mon many remarkable physiological cha- 
racters, are comprehended in' this great 
division. In all, as their name imports, 
the body is of soft consistence ; and it is 
enclosed, more or less completely, in a 
muscular envelope, called the mantle, 
composed of a layer of contractile fibres, 
which are interwoven with the soft and 
elastic integument. Openings are left in 
this mantle for the admission of the 
external fluid to the mouth and to the 
respiratory organs, and also protrusion 
of the head and the foot, when these 
organs exist. But a larger proportion of 
this class are acephalouSf that is, destitute 
of a head, and the mantle is then often 
elongated to form tubes, occasionally of 
considerable length, for the purpose of 
conducting water into the interior of the 

The general form of the body, and the 
kind of motions it performs, vary more in 
the molluscous than in the articulated 
classes of animals, and we observe a cor- 
responding diversity in their active organs 
of motion. In the molluscous classes 
there appear much greater variety, diver- 
sity, and want of symmetry in the whole 
muscular system. Many of the lower 
mollusca are fixed by long peduncles at 
the bottom of the sea; some, as the 
limaces, creep on the surface of the dry 
land ; the pteropods swim at the surface 
of the ocean, where the janthinse hang 
suspended by floats ; the naked cepha- 
lopods bound from the surface, and the 
pholades are fixed deep in cavities of 
rocks at the bottom ; the oyster is fixed 
to the rock, while the clam skips to and 
fro by the flapping of its shells ; the 
pinna is anchored to the bottom by its 
strong byssus, while the cardium swims 
along the still surface, suspended by its 
concave expanded foot. So that although 
none of these animals have wings to fly 
through the air, or jointed legs to creep 

upon the earth, or spines to oar them 
through the sea, they possess the means 
of almost every kind of motion, from the 
vibratile cilia of the fixed corals to the 
hands and feet of the finny tribe. 

The circulation of the mollusca is al- 
ways double ; that is, their pulmonary 
circulation describes a separate and dis- 
tinct circle. Their alimentary canal hardly 
ever passes straight through their body: 
nor is the anus terminal, as in most of 
the articulata. Their digestive cavities 
are more numerous and capacious, the 
intestine is more lengthened and convo- 
luted, and all the assistant glandular 
organs are developed on a higher plan, 
and more constant throughout &e classes. 
The lowest of the molluscous classes, 
the tunicated animals, shut up in the 
interior of a cartilaginous, more or less 
elastic, and biforate tunic, have no pre- 
hensile or masticating organs conn^^ 
with their mouth, l^e mouth, in fact, 
is placed at the bottom of the respiratory 
sac, and appears to be destitute even of 
those tentacula, appendices, or lips, which 
are so much devdoped, and so various in 
their forms, in the conchiferous animals. 

Many of the mollusca are formed for 
an existence as completely stationary as 
the zoophytes attached to a fixed base* 
This permanent attachment does not, 
however, take place till they have arrived 
at a certain period of their grov^. 

The mollusca are the only instance of 
a unipede structure in creation, but this 
one foot answers every purpose of a hand 
or leg ; it spins for the biyalves their 
byssus, is used by others as a trowel, by 
others as an augur, and by others for 
other manipulations, and is generally 
their sole organ of locomotion ; from iti 
soft and flexible substance it can adapt 
itself to the surfaces on which it moves, 
and by the slime that it copiously secretes 
lubricates them to facilitate its progress. 
It is probable that the foot may be also 
employed by these animals as an organ of 
touch. In the nervous system of mol- 
lusca, the ganglia have a circular arrange- 
ment. — Cuvier. Grant. Kirby. Bi^ 
MoLLu'scous. Animals belonging to the 
division mollusca, or soft, invertebral, 
inarticulate animals ; often protected hy 
a shell. The external skeleton of tibs 
molluscous animals is consolidated hy 
carbonate of lime, without the phosphate 
of lime which is common to the other 
great divisions of the animal kingdom* 
This earthy matter is secreted from tiie 
skin in successive layers, mixed with t 
glutinous coagulable animal matter, whidi 
gives firmness and tenacity to the whole 
mass, and the skeletons are not ezaviabte 
as in the articulated classes. 


M O L [ i: 

(ii-v'bdatb of lead. Tiie plomb malyb- 
iat6 of Haiiy ; pyramidoler blubaryt at 
Moha. Yellow lead ore. It U of o yel- 
low colour, varying from lemon yellow lo 
TCllowish brown. Occurs cryatallized snd 
aSBive. Its speciGi: gravity from 6'5 to 
9. Fractore uneven, or imperfectly 
inohoidsl. Slightly translucent, eipe- 
Uy at tha edges. Before the blow-pipe 
decrepitates, and fuses into a dark 
DOlonred mass. It consits of oxide of 
I, tnolybdic acid 38, oiide of iron 
'at Bleyberg, in Cariatbi 



assoclBted with gulpburet of 

ltbdk'na. a iDLDeral of a lead-grey 
dIoot, occarriog in Ihin Heiible leaves. 
tYSBK'NUM. (from ^oMBSaiva. Gr.) 
Ilia metal was discovered by Hielm in 
782. Molybdenum is externally of a 
'hitish yelloH cnlonr, bat its fmcture is 
whitish grey. Its epecific gravityabout 
■6. It ia nearly infusible. It has not 
eea applied to any use. It is obtained 
rom the mineral molybdena ia small 
grains, igglntinated together ia brittle 

;o hght 

Ehrenberg have brought 

gnce of monad), which are not 

larger than the 24,D00th of an inch, and 

iriueh are lo tbickly crowded in the fluid 

leavB intcrvala notgreaterthan their 

diameter. Hence he has mode the 

aomputation Chat each cubic line, which is 

nearly the bulk o( a single drop, contains 

a(H,O0D,l)0O of thBEe monads ; a number 

trhieh equals that of all the human beings 

the surface of the globe in one drop of 

id. Monads, which are the smallest of 

viaible animalcules, have been spoken 

U constituting " the altiniatc term of 


lo'KAa. A genus of animalcules, the 

tmallest visible. 

jOWA'NnHiA. (from pSvas, oue, and, 
1 man, Gr.) Tlie first class of plants in 
LiunsBus's artificial system. The plants 
if this class bavo only 

and c 

HDRIAN. Belonging to the class 
Uonandria ; having only one stamen. 
[OHi'i.iFOB.u. (from monile, a necklace, 
id Jbrma, form, Lst.) lUaemhlii^ a 

HITOB. (monitor, an admonisher. Lit.) 

genu of lizards or sauriaos, species of 

«Lich are found both fossil and recent ; 
■Hie recent inhabit the tropica, Cuvier 
^places this genus in the family Laccrti- 
nida. The monitors frequent marshet 
and the banks of rivers in hot climates ; 

j M O N 

they have received their name from a 
common but silly notion that they give 
warning of the approach of crocodiles and 
caymaDS by a whistling noiae. One spe- 
cies, the Lacerta nilotiea, devours the 
egga of crocodiles. Fossil remains of the 
monitor baiB been discovered in the 
strata of Tilgate Forest, in Sussex. 

MoNo'cEHOS. (from fiovoc, one, and aipac, 
bom, Gr.) A name given to the unicorn. 

Monocotvlk'oos. (from fidi'Of, one, and 
Kant\q^uii',aBeedlobe,Gr.) Aplaatwbich 
has only one cotyledon or seed-lobe. 
onocottlk'dosou«. Those plants, the 
seeds of which have either only one coty- 
ledon, or if more, those alternate on the 
embryo, are called monocotyledonous ; 
graasea, lilies, aloes, and palms, are ex- 
nmplea. MonocotyledonouB plants may 
be at all times recognised, from the cir- 
cumstance of the veins of their leaves 
being parallel, while those of dicotyledo- 
nous plants are retjcalated. 

MoNOi'ciA. (from /lowie, one, and 6ik!o, 
a house, Gr.) The twenty-first class of 
plants in the sirtiiicial system of LinntBua. 
In this class the stamina and pistils are 
in separate flowers, but growing on the 
same individual plant. The orders in this 
class depend upon the circumstances of 
their male flowers, and are nine or ten in 

Monie'cious. Plants belonging to the 
class Monoscia, or such as have male 
flowers, or flowers with stamens, only, 
and female flowers, or flowers with an 
ovarium. Only, on the same Individoal 

Mo'nodon. (from iidvUovq, Gr. having 
oue tooth.) The sea onicom, or narwhal, 
distinguished by its long tusk, or tuska, 
for there are sometimea two, extended in 
a horizontal direction. Only one species 
ia known, namely, the Monodon monoce- 
ros. The monodon belongs to the order 
Cetacea, class Mammalia. 

Monope'talods. (from ppcoj, one, and 
jreraXov, a petal, Gr.) Flowers are ao 
called which consist of only one leaf or 
petal ; or when the leaves which compose 
the corolla are united by their edges ; the 
convolvulus, houBysuclUe, &c. are eiam- 

Monofhv'li.OdS. (from fiivoc, sole, and 
fiWav, a leaf, Gr.) Having one leaf 
only, or formed of one leaf; applied to 
calices consisting of not more than one leaf. 

MoNOBs'FAi-otiE. (from liuvoe, sole, and 
lepal, a word without any derivation, but 
invenCed by botaniata to distinguish the 
parts of the calyi from thoae irf the co- 
rolla.) A term applied to the calyi of a 
flower, when the sepals which compose it 
ore united by their edges : the pink, cf 
volvulus, henbane, tkc. are examples. 

M O N 


M O U 

Monotha'lamous. (from ^6vogf single, 
and 9d\afiocy a chamber, Gr.) Shells 
whose chamber is undivided by partitions ; 
these are termed unilocular, or mono- 
thalamous : the argonaut is an example. 

Mo'notrkme. The Monotremes form Cu- 
Tier*s third tribe of Edentata, comprising 
two genera, namely. Echidna and Omi- 
thorhynchus. They are found only in 
New Holland. The Monotremes seem 
connected with the birds ; one genus, the 
ornithorhynchus, having a mouth resem- 
bling the bill of a duck, and being almost 
web-footed ; it has also been stated to be 
oviparous. The Monotremes have no 
marsupial pouch. They suckle their 
young from a mammary orifice. 

Monotre'matous. Belonging to the tribe 

Moo'nstone. a variety of felspar, called 
also adulariOf possessing a silveiy or 
pearly opalescence. Moonstone is trans- 
parent and translucent. Its colour is 
white, with sometimes a tinge of yellow, 
green, or red. When held in certain po- 
sitions, its surface is iridescent. It occurs 
massive, and in crystals. It is found in 
the fissures and cavities of granite, gneiss, 

Mora'ine. An accumulation of sand, 
stones, or debris, found upon icebergs, 
glaciers, &c. 

Mo'rdant. (from mordeOy to bite, Lat. 
mordant f Fr.) A substance, employed in 
the process of dying, which has an affinity 
both for the colouring matter and the 
material to be dyed. It is also termed a 
basis. Sulphate of iron and acetate of 
alumina are commonly employed as mor- 

MoRo'xiTE. A sub-species of apatite, oc- 
curring in crystals, of a brownish or 
greenish-blue colour. It is found in 
Norway, in primary rocks. 

Mosasau'rus. ^ ** The Mosasaurus,'* says 

Mos^sau'rus. > Prof. Buckland, ** has 

Mososau'rus. J been long known by the 
name of the Great Animal of Maestricht, 
occurring near that city, in the calcareous 
freestone, which forms the most recent 
deposit of the cretaceous formation. A 
nearly perfect head of this animal was 
discovered in 1780, and is now in the 
museum at Paris. This celebrated head, 
during many years, puzzled the most skil- 
ful naturalists ; some considered it to be 
that of a whale, others of a crocodile ; 
but its true place, in the animal kingdom, 
was first suggested by Adrian Camper, 
and, at length, confirmed by Cuvier. By 
their investigations, it is proved to have 
been a gigantic marine reptile, most nearly 
allied to the monitor. Some vertebra of 
the mososaurus have been discovered in 
the upper chalk near Lewes, in Sussex : 

these have the body conyex posteriorly, 
and concave anteriorly. Teeth of the 
mososaurus have been discovered, by Dr. 
Morton, in the green- sand of Virginia. 
Portions of jaws, with teeth of the mosae- 
saurus, may be seen in the British Mu- 
seum. Dr. Mantell observes, ** The mo- 
sosaurus was a reptile, holding an inter- 
mediate place between the monitor and 
iguana, about twenty-five feet long, and 
furnished with a tail of such constructiGii 
as must have rendered it a powerful oar, 
enabling the animal to stem the waves of 
the ocean, of which Cuvier supposes it to 
have been an inhabitant." 

** From the lias upwards," says Dr. 
Buckland, '^ to the commencement of the 
chalk formation, the ichthyosauri and 
plesiosauri were the tyrants of the ocean ; 
and just at the point of time when their 
existence terminated, during the deposi- 
tion of the chalk, the new genus mosa- 
saurus appears to have been introduced, 
to supply for a while their place and of- 
fice, being itself destined, in its turn, to 
give place to the cetacea of the tertiary 

Mou'ntain cork. The Berg kork of 
Werner ; Suber montanum of Kirwan ; 
Asbeste suberiforme of Brongniart. A 
white or grey variety of asbestos, to which 
the name of mountain cork has been 
given from its extreme lightness, its 
specific gravity being from 068 to 0*99, 
consequently so light as to swim in water. 
Its structure is fibrous ; the fibres pro- 
miscuous and interwoven. Its consti- 
tuents are silex 56*2, magnesia 26*1, lime 
12*7, iron 3*0, alumine 2*0. It occurs in 
France and Ssu[ony. 

Mou'ntain blue, a species of blue ma- 
lachite or blue copper. The Cuivre car- 
bonate bleu of Haiiy; Kupfer lazur of 
Werner. Carbonate of copper. The 
characteristic colour of mountain blue is 
azure-blue, often exceedingly beautiful 
and splendent. Occurs regularly crystal- 
lized in scopiform and stellular concre- 
tions, radiated, and also curved lamellar. 
When rubbed on paper it leaves a light 
blue streak. Specific gravity from 3*^ 
to 3*60. It dissolves with effervescence 
in nitric acid. It is scarcely fusible alone, 
but with borax, to which it communicates 
a fine green, it yields a globule of copper. 
Its constituents are copper 66*0, carbonic 
acid 18*0, oxygen 8*0, water 2*0. 

Mou'ntain li'mestone. a series of ma- 
rine limestone strata, whose geological 
position is immediately below the coal 
measures and above the old red-sandstone. 
To this formation the French have given 
the name of Calcaire de transition. Moun- 
tain limestone is one of the most imp<Mr- 
tant calcareous rocks in England and 

M U 

FalM, both from its extent, the tLicki 
id DDmbeT of its beds, tbe quantit; 
iriet; of its organic remains, and 
chnesE in metallic ores, parlicnlnrty of 
i>d. In Derbjabire, wbere Ibe dilferent 
edi of limestone hsTe been pierced 
hroogb by tbe miners, the average thick- 
lees of the three uppermost is abont IGC 
rarJs i the beds are separated bj bedg of 
I or hasalt, resembling ancient lavas, 
t limestone is generollj' sufficieotlj 
I poUsh, and forme what 
.1 denominated marbla, of considerable 
ieanty. Tbe rooantain limestone forma- 

mberlnnd, Durham, and Yorkshire, from 

i'hicb country it raus out in a curve (o 

Ocircle on the north, and partially on 

B aonth, the group of Cumbrian slate 

. >anttuD8. It also appears in great force 

tt Derbyshire, ranges through FUnt and 

^enbigb, to St. Orme's head and Angle- 

,- thovs slightly roond the Clee liills 

Shropshire ; and presents picturesqne 

fa on the Wye, near Monmonth. Tbe 

TBilinK charactBriBtic organic fossils 

■ ■■ ; of the 

e upper beds appear to 
• almost entirety composed. Mountain 
imestone is generally almost a pare car- 
ate of lime, bat sometimes it contains 
naiderable proportion of magnesia. 
tTAiw SOAP. A mineral, a variety of 
l«en earth, of a bronn or blackiab-bruwn 
idoar. It is massive, dull, smooth and 
bapf to the toach, and adheres strongly 
■j the tongue. It writes on paper. Its 
wstttoeDts are silent 44-0, alumine S6'2, 
lide of iron S-O, lime O'S, water 20'10. 
s in secondary rocks of the (rap 
in, in the Isle of Skye and iu 

. (mncrniialns, Lat. pointed.) 
. lo eatomology, nben from an obtuse 
ad a fine point suddenly proceeds. 
i In botany, when a small point termi- 
itea an entire leaf, as in the vetch, 
luse-leek, Sx. 

. In concbology, when a shell terminates 
'- a sharp rigid point. 

rA. The name given by tbe natives of 
tenth America to ttie mud and slime 
iected ftoia voloanos during the erup- 

ISPi'rai,. (from miilttii, many, and 
a, a spire, Lat.) In concbology, a 
a for a ehel) whose spire consists of 
ij whorls ; also to an operculum of 
ly volations. 

no'cDtAn. {from multva, many, 

_ locnhi, a chamber or shell, Lat.) A 

>rni applied to shells containing parti- 

, whicb divide them into several 

iben. Orthoceratites, baculites, ha- 

belemnites, &c., arc all 

palea, Talves, Lat.) Some of the mol- 
luBca have, in addition to the two prinoi' 
pal valres, small supplementary pieces of 
shell i Cbese have been comprised iu tbe 
order ot miiltivalvet. 

Ju'ttCBJSOSiTB. A new mineral, thos 
named in honour of Mr. Mnrcbison. Its 
constituents are silica GS'IO, alumina 16' E, 
potash ]4-B, It occnrs near Dawlish. 

dn'nKx. (wurej-, Lat. tnurex, Fr.) A 
genus of sheUs. Animal a Umax : shell 
nnivalve, spiral, rough, with membraneoQE 

tire straight, or slightly aBcending canal. 
The murex is an inhabitant of the ocean, 
found at depths varying from five to 
twentj-five fathoms, on dilferent bottom*. 
These shells, besides their long diannelled 
beaks, are remarkable for the beaat; and 
variety of tbeir spines. Mnrices, orrock- 
sbells, were in high esteem from the ear- 
liest ages, on accomit of the dye that 
some of them yielded ; cloths died vHth it 
bearing a higher price than others. More 
than one species yielded b dyej one, ac- 
cording to Bochart, a glaucous or azore 
colonr ; the other, a parplo. Diflerent 
species of fossil tMUfai are found in tbe 
London clay and in Bognor aandstoae, 
and Lamarck describes upwards of seveu- 
teen species found in tbe neigbbourhood 
of Paris. 
fId'bicated. (murieatia, Lat. fnll of 
sharp points and prickles.) Clothed with 
sharp ri^d points ; beset with short erect 

if u'hicite. The fossil mnrei. 

Iusa'cba, A family of tropical monoco. 
tyledonoDs plants, including tbe bauana 
and plaintains. — Lyeil, Principles iff 

iIu'scuKL KALK. (from muteAtl, shell, 
and talk, lime or chalk, Germ.) A 
compact hard limestone, of a greyish co- 
lour, found in Germany. It belongs to 
tbe red sandstone, group. Tbe muschel 
kalk has not yet been discovered in Eng- 
land, but tbe upper part of the moantaiQ 
limestone of the north of England is in 
some respects similar in nsineral proper- 
ties. In Bavaria and Wnrtemburg the 
mnscbel kalk is interposed between tbe 
red sandstone, on which it rests, and the 
variegated marls which lie over it, and 
with which, at the junction, it alternates. 
The muschel kalk abounds in Ol^nic 
remains ; its chief fossils are the lily 
encrinite, ammonite, and terebratula. Re- 
mains of iditbyosanri, plesiosauri, cro- 
codiles, and turtles, are also found in it. 
The salt mines of Wuitemburg are also 
in Ibis formation. 

H U S [ 1 

Mu'*ct.K-l)lND. The name giTen to a itrt,- 
tum of impcrfeat iroriBlone and indu- 
rated ibell, tomxd in thi: Derbyshire and 
YorkiUrc caal tields. The sheUa re- 
temblB freah-wster musclBi, and tliei art 
most abuniluit, 

Mc'siTE. ) A mineral, thus named from 

Ud'b«tte. t MuEBH, in I'iedmont, where 
it occurs. It is a white, or pale green, 
variety of augite. 

Mv'a. {from (luuv, n muacle. Gr.) A 

Situs of biTalves belonging to the family 
yuia. Animal an ascidia. Shell 
tranirerBe, dtbI, tliick, gaping at botb 
Gads ; ligament iotenial. Hinge with 
broad, thick, (trong, patulous tooth, sel- 
dom more (ban one, perpendicular to the 
valve, and giving attachment to the liga- 
menta. TheMya is found on beaches, in 
which it often lies huried, with ita tube 
juat projeoCing. It is found in the ten 
aud in rivers ; principslly in the silt of 
Bataaries. It belongs to the northern 
hamiaphere. Whether any shells of this 
genus hnve been, found fossil appears 

Cblematical. Lamarck states that he 
not met with any ; Parkinaon men- 
tions that a shell resembling Mya is 
found in the cliffs at Bognor, but that he 
is not able to speak decidedly with re- 
spect to it ; and Dr. Montell places it 
among the fossils of the ShanUjn aand, 
but with a note of interrogation. 

My'iiohateb. a genua of fossil Rays. 
Thej are abundant in the London clsy 
and in the crag. 

Mthia'hbter. (from )iipia, ten thou- 
sand, and /itrpov, measure, Gr.) A 
French measure, the length of ten thou- 
sand meters, equivalent to two mean 
leagues of tbe old measure. Brongniart 
has expressed, in strong terms, his im- 
pression on the subject of the distnr' 
bonce of the strata composing the earth'a 
crust, by saying that there is hardly a 
equare myriameier whicb is lelt in its 
original position. 

Mvsia'fOda. ((from /jipin, ten thousand, 

Mi'siAFons. ) and n'ovc, iruiUc, a foot, 
Gr.) A class of insects, commonly called 
Centipedes, possessing a number of feet, 
from six to some hundreds. The Myria- 
poda, in general, resemble little serpents, 
or Nereides, their feet being closely ap- 
proximated to each other throughout the 
whole extent of the body. MyriapodE 
exhibit the following general charactora. 
Animal undergoing a metamfirpbosis by 

1 ] M Y T I 

>c[|uiring in its progreai ft'om the tfgtt 
the adult state aevetol additional Kg- 
ments and Irga. Body without win^ 
divided into numerous pedigerou 
ments, with no distioctioii of tmnk iij> 
abdomen. Head witb a pair of ta* 
tenn» ; two compound eyes; a pmi d 
maudibles ; onder-lip connate with Ikl 

This class is divided li 
the Chilognatbana and the ChilopodlBI. 
The juliis terreslris, belonging t" *'" 
hrst of these two orders, has, i 
entrance into the world, only eight Wg- 
ments and six feet; bnt acquires, in &■ 1 
course of its development, fifty st^mcali I 
and about two hundred feet. Tba aa-B 
terior legs are directed obliqaely k 
words, and the rest more or le " ■■-■ 
words. The Myrispoda possess 
interna] structure an organiaatio: 
allied to the larva of insects. 
Mvtila'cba, In Cuvif 

the second family of the order Acq 
Testacea. All belonging ti " ' ' 
are bivalves, having a foot which ll 
use in crawling. Mytilacei 
Lamarck's system, Modiola, Mytilna,!! 


rlv'TiLCH. (nyliluii, Lat.) A gena* 9 
the family Mytilacea. The muscle. 7 
rough, longitudinal, bivalve ; with equal 
convex, and triangular valves ; the v 
terior, and longest side of the sh» 
allowing passage of the byssus. TI 
Myliiiit ia a httoral abell, moored M 
rocks, stones, crustaceans, Sec. The fool 
of the Mytilus edulia, or common mk 
can be advanced to the distance ol 
inches from the sliell, and appUed U 
Hxed body within that range. By attach- 
ing the point to such body, and n 
ing the foot, this animal drags iti 
towarda it ; and by repeating the open- 
tion ancceasivcly on other paints of tba 
filed object, continues slowly li 
Some Mytilt produce pearls. 

Lamarck describes two species of Ai 
sil Mytili, found at Grignan and L 
jumeau. Dr. Woodward mentiom 
veral shells of this genus found fbsnl ilB 
dltlerent i>arta of England ; and Dr. V 
tell states tbat they are found ii 


the I 

aand ; aud in the diluvin 
Dr. Msutellalsostates that shells of ^ I 
genus were found by liimself and HTi I 
Lyell in a bed of shale. 

K. (naerf, Fr, uicckera, It.) 

of mother-of-pearl. The foaail ink- 

of betemaites found in the lioa 

lunded by nacre. 

KOCB. Glistening ; silvery ; 

ent. Having the appearance of 

-Qf-peerl. Man; membranoas ai 

tut a necreoua appearance on \ 

tttaniBl aurface, as the Haliotii, or eea- 

lon, or fresh-water muecle, &c. 

{from nacre.) A mineral so 

ailed in oonsequencE of its pearly Imtre. 

[lu Tokite of Kiman. Nacritc occurs 

I reniform mBssea. composed of extremely 

liuute apeogles, or glittering scales. Co- 

inr pearly grey, with a tinge of red or 

[rein. It fuses easily before the biow- 

lipe. When rubbed between the fingerE 

I leaTes a pearly gloss. Unctaou 

he touch. Its consdtueuta are, 

>6'0, alamiae IR'25, potash S'SU, lime 

S-10, iron 4-20, water G'O. 

' CBD. {BflcW, Germ.) 

In botaity, applied to flowers having nc 

lices : to stems without leaves ; also tc 

ives when perfectly smooth, and quite 

stitute of hairs. 

In zoology, applied to molluscs, i 
B bod* is not defended by a calcareous 

; the Rhea 


, Gr. naptba. 

volatile, fluid, and inflammable ; 

ms to the touch, and constantly 

Miittiog a strong odour. Colours yel- 

'hite and yellowish-grey ; trsna- 

Specifio gravity from 0-70 to 

t ia highly combustible, igniting 

the approach of a hghted taper. 

It boms with a white or bloisb flatoe, 
'^elda a dense smoke, and yields no resi- 
ttaaas. It is bsoluble in alcohol. Wben 
iong exposed to the air, it becomea yellow 
■Hd then brown ; its consistence is in- 

.. passes into petroleum. 

Naphtha consists of carbon 82*2, hjdro- 

H-8. Springs of it elist in many 

itries, particularly in tiie neighbour. 
I of volcanoes. The finest varieties 
naphtha are found on the shores of 
the CaspiaD. The soil 
iiaarly, and the snrronndiDj^ 
>«aIcareotis. The naphtha is consCantty 
rising in the stale of an odorous iuflar 
Aiable vapour. Naphtha is burnt in lam 
instead of oil. 

,. J {narhfa!. vanrall. Germ, t 
iL. ) sea miioorns.) The Mo- 


nod on monoceros of LtnnsniB. Placed 
by Cnvier in the family Cetaeea ordi- 
naria, order Cetacea. The tnsk of this 
animal is sometimes ten feet long, and 
spirally furrowed. Portions of the skull 
of the narwhal have been found in the 
Lewes levels, in Sussex. 

[a'bes. (.from narii, Lat.) The ooa- 

[a'sax. (from maju, a nose, Lat. naial, 
Fr. satalf. It.) Pertaining to the noie. 

lA'sCEN-r. (naiceia, Lat. from nnicar, to 
be bom.) Beginning to eiiBt ; growing, 

Ia'tam. (from na(o,L«t. to swim.) Swim- 
ming in the water ; floaliug on [he eur- 
face of the water. 

Ia'tatohv. (from nalalor, Lat. a swim- 
mer.) Enabling to swim. Certain or- 
gans possessed by many auimals are 
Hatafary organs. Several of the ceplial- 
pods and pteropods, and other mollus- 
cana, have natatory appeodagos. 

Ia'tica. a genus of nearly globose, nm- 
bilicated, univalves, belonging to the fa- 
mily Neritacea. Aperture entire and 
semicircular ; columella transverse, with- 
out teeth, and caUaus externally. These 
shells, though strongly resembling Ne- 
ritEe, may be distinguished from those of 
that genua by their being always umhili- 
cated, and the columella never dentated. 
TherecentNaticais found in estuaries and 
tidal rivers, in mud and sandy mud, at 
depths varying to forty fathoms. 

Several species of fossil Natica are 
foQud in the London clay ; fioguor sand- 
stone ; Gait; and in the Rhanklin sand. 

iA'Tttoi.iTB. The Nalrolith of Werner; 
Natrolithe of Hauy. Considered by some 
mineralogists to be a variety of prismatic 



rregular masses, composed 
or very mmnte fibres. The fibres are 
divergent, or even radiate from a centre, 
and are sometimes extremely minute antl 
close. Colours yellow, yellowish brown, 
and brown, with striped-coloor delinea- 
tions. Translucent at the edges. Spe- 
cific gravity 2-lG to 221). Before the 
blow'pipe it fuses readily into a white 
glass. In nitric acid it is reduced, with- 
out any eRervescence, into a thick jelly. 
It derives its name from containing soda. 
Its constituents are silei 48'20, alumine 
24-5(1, soda Ifi'lO, oxide of iron 1'75, wa- 
ter 9-0. It occurs principally at Koegan, 
in Suabia, imbedded in amygdaloid. 
sIa'tron. {natron, Fr.) The Soude car- 
bonatce of Haiiy i L'alkali mineral natif 
of Brochant ; the Natron of Kirwan. A 


[ 17fi] 

N A U 

carbonate of soda occurring massive and 
crystallized, the principal supplies com- 
ing from lakes in Egypt and Hungary. 
Native specimens of Natron are always 
mixed with other salts, in Egypt, the 
lakes which yield Natron abundantly are 
called the lakes of Natron. These are 
six in number, to the westward of the 
Nile, not far from Terrana, in a valley, 
surrounded by limestone. 

Na'tural history. This extensive science 
has for its object the enquiry into the 
being of natural bodies, and their thorough 
investigation in reference to their various 
qualities, and the relative functions of 
their component parts. Understood in 
this extent, it presents us with a distinct 
unique entirety, which treats the natural 
body as complete, but gradually perfected ; 
and at the same time seeks to discover 
the means whereby it attained its com- 
pletion and perfection. Natural history, 
therefore, is no mere description of form, 
— ^no description of nature, as it has been, 
latterly, very incorrectly considered, but 
a true and pragmatical history, developed 
from its own fundamental principles. — 

Most unjustly has natural history been 
accused of favouring merely minute and 
curious enquiries into the small parts of 
creation, and of neglecting the larger 
views and contemplations which delight 
the man of taste and refined feeling. 
Whoever reads the works of Pallas, Hum- 
boldt, White, Sedgwick, or Lyell, will 
acknowledge the error of this misrepre- 

Navicula're. (from navicular dim. of 
naviSf Lat.) The name given to one of 
the bones of the wrist, and of the ankle. 

Nautila'cea. a family of Polythalamous 
cephalapods, in the arrangement of La- 
marck. This family comprises Discor- 
bites. Nautilus, Nummilites, Polysto- 
mella, Siderolites, and Verticialis. 

Nau'tilite. a fossil nautilus. 

Nau'tilus. a genus of shells belonging to 

• the family Nautilacea. A spiral, poly- 
thalamous, discoidal univalve with smooth 
sides. The turns contiguous, the outer 
side covering the inner. The chambers 
separated by transverse septa, which are 
concave outwards, and perforated by a 
tube passing through the disk. Three or 
four recent species are known. ** It is a 
curious fact," says Prof. Buckland, "that 
although the shells of the nautilus have 
been familiar to naturalists, from the days 
of Aristotle, and abound in every col- 
lection, the only authentic account of the 
animals inhabiting them, is that by Rum- 
phius, in his history of Amboyna.V^ 
Lately Mr. R. Owen has published a 
most admirable memoir on this subject. 

At the present day the naatilas is an in- 
habitant of tropical seas, but its fossil 
remains are found in formations of every 
age. From Mr. Owen's memoir we leain, 
that the animals by which all fossil nu- 
till were constructed, belong to the ex« 
isting family of Cephalopodous moUiucs, 
allied to the common cuttle-fish. The 
organ of locomotion in the naatilas ap- 
pears to be a foot, resembling that of the 
snail. This organ is expansive, and sur- 
mounts the head. The oral organs Rre 
much more complicated and nomerovs 
than those of the «uttle-fish, and are fur- 
nished with no suckers. Its tentacles are 
retractile within four processes, eack 
pierced by twelve canals protrnding an 
equal number of these organs, so that, in 
all, there are forty-eight. In fact, the 
whole oral apparatus, except the mandi- 
bles and the lip, is formed upon a plan 
different from that of the cuttle-fish, as 
likewise from that of the carnivorous tra- 
chelipod molluscans, and indicate very 
di£ferent modes of entrapping and catch- 
ing their prey : being deprived of suck- 
ers, they seem destitute of any powerfiil 
means of prehension and detention. Hie 
eye, also, is reduced to the simplest con- 
dition that the organ of vision can as- 
sume, without departing altogether firom 
the type of the higher classes, so that it 
appears not far removed from that of the 
proper molluscs. The nautilus has only 
a single heart, the branchial one being 
absent. The nautilus resides in the ca- 
pacious cavity of its first, or external, 
chamber ; and it is now well ascertained 
that this animal is not a piratical parasite, 
occupying the shell of another animal, 
which it has murdered, but that it lives, 
and sails in a ski£f of its own building. 
A siphuncle connects the body of the 
nautilus with the air chambers, passing 
through an aperture and short projecting 
tube in each transverse septum, till it 
terminates in the smallest chamber at the 
inner extremity of the shell. These in- 
ternal chambers contain only air, and have 
no communication with the outer cham- 
ber but by one small aperture in each 
septum through which the siphuncle 
passes. No water can by any possibility 
pass into these chambers,, between tiie 
exterior of the siphuncle and the siphonic 
apertures of the transverse plates, because 
the entire circumference of the mantle in 
which the siphuncle originates, is firmly 
attached to the shell by a homy girdle, 
impenetrable by any fluid. The numb^ 
of chambers varies greatly, according to 
the age of the animal. Dr. Hook states 
that he has found in some shells as many 
as forty. The ascent and descent of t^ 
nautilus by means of its siphuncle is very 

N A U 

_ iniously and heaattfolly eiplamed by 
'rof. Buckland. Tbe sipbonele, as ap- 
■ears froio Mr. Owen's statement, ter- 
ninates in a large sac surrounding Clie 
learE of the animal ; if we suppgie this 
m: to coutDin a. pericardial fluid, tlie 
Jlace of which is altomately cbouged from 
he pericardinm to the siphuncle, we shall 
lad in these organs an hydraulic sppa- 
Mtas for varying the specific gravi^ of 
be sKdl ; BO that it sinks when the peri- 
ls forced into the ei)ihunule, 
_ id beoomes bnnyant. when the same 
Inid retama to the pericardium. Tbe 
■abstance of the siphuncle is u tbin and 
■trang membrane, sumiunded by a coat 
at mngcnlar fibres, by which it coold con. 
■^ act or erpmd itself, in the process of 
inntting or ejecting any fluid to or from 
I interior. When the arms and body 
e expanded, the floid remains in the 
xicardium, and Tbe siphnncle is empty, 
id collapsed, and snrrounded by the 
irtions of air that are pernaanentiy coa- 
ted within each chamber ; in this state 
iHie speciflc graiity of the body and shell 
together ia such as to cause the animal to 
liae, and be Bustaiaed floating at tbe snr- 
When, on any alarm, the arms and 
body are contracted, and withdrawn intu 
tte ihell, the retraction of these parts, 
cuuing pressure on the pericardium, 
■^"OBS its fluid contents into the siphun- 
; and aa tbe cjuantity of matter within 
bUie shell is thus increased, without any 
Increase of magnitude, tbe specific gra- 
■rity of tbe entire animal is increased, 
■Bd it begins to sink. Rumphius states 
"^lat, at the bottom of the sea, the nautilus 
eeps with his boat above him. 
Fossil remains of the nautilus are found 
'Jbt strata from the monntain limestone 
■rds. In some of these the siphun- 
s is beaulifull;^ preserved. Bat while, 
genus, the nautilus occurs in fonna- 
I of every age, trom the transitioo 
upwards, yet certain species appear 
d to particular geological formations : 
.OB the nautilna multicarinatus is limited 

intilns bidorsatua, to the mnscbetkalk ; 
e oantitiLS obesua, and nautilus lineatus, 
the oolite : tbe oautilus elegans, anil 
atjlnx nndnlatas, to the chalk forma- 
m. Tbe eocene, miooene, and pliocene 
IB each its particular nautiU. — Bvck- 
ni. Kirby. Omen. Pariiimon, 

Ut'tilds st'pho. The name given to a 
y beautifal, camerated, sipbuncled fos- 
■hdl found in the tertiary strata at 
E, near Boardeaui. This fossil pie- 
ints deviations from the Dsual characters 
F the nautilus, whereby it Bpproiimates 
I the ammonite. 

77 } N K C 

NAu'TtLua zic lAC. A. fossil, cameratei*, 
sipbuncled shell, found in tbe London 
clay. Tbis and tbe nautilus Bypho ap- 
pear to form connecting links between 
the genera Nautilus and Ajnmonite. 

Nb'hula. (iiebHla, Lat.) A cloud i a 
cluiter of Btoi's. It is to Sir Wm. Uer- 
schel that we owe the most completa 
analysis of the great variety of ^ose 
objects which are generally classed under 
the common bead of Nebulie, bnt which 
have been separated by him into, — let, 
clusters of stars, in which the stars are 
clearly distinguishable ; and these, again, 
tntaglobvdarand irregular clusters ; '2nd, 
resolvable nebuls, or such as excite a 
suspicion that they consist of stars, and 
which any increase of the optical power 
of the telescope may be expected to re- 
solve into distinct stars ; 3d, nebuIiE, 
properly so Cidled, in which there is no 
appearaoce whatever of stars; which, 
again, have been subdivided into subor- 
dinate classes, according to their bright- 
ness and size; 1th, planetary nebuln; 3tb, 
stetlur nebuLe ; and, (ith, nebulous stars. 
Not fewer than 2000 nabulEB, and clus- 
ters of stars, were observed by Sir Wm. 
Herscbel, whose places have been com- 
puted from hia observations, reduced to a 
common epoch, and arranged into a cata- 
logue, in order of right ascenaioa. In a 
paper read before the Royal Society, Sir 
John Herscbel gives the places of 2,500 
nebuliE and clusters of stare ; of these 500 
are new. Nebula have great variety of 
forms. Tbe distribution of the nebulie 
over the heavens is even more irregular 
than that of the stars. In some places 
they are so crowded together as scarcely 
to allow one to pass through tbe fleld of 
thetelescopebefore another appears, while 
in other parts, hours elapse without a 
single nebula appearing, — Sir J. Her- 
achei. Mri. Somerville, 

Nb'hi7lar. Pertaining to nebula. 

NK'Bni.0D9. Cloudy; hazy. 

Nebclo'bitv. Tbe stole of being cloudy. 

NECiLo'rHAGOtis. (from vticpuf, dead, and 
^ayiiti, to eat, Gr.) Animals which de- 
vour dead substances. The unclean 
animals, with respect to their habits and 
food, were divided into two classes i 
namely, zoi/phago'us animals, or those 
which attack and devour living animals ; 
and neo-Bphayatu animals, or those which 
devour dead ones, or any other putres- 

NE'eaoMCTK. (from v«pAc, dead. Gr.l 
A mineral occurring in small masses in 
limestone ; found near Baltimore. When 
struck it exhales a fetid odour, resem- 
bling that of pntrid flesh; from this 
quality it obtained its name. 

NE'cTAftV. That part of a flower which 

NEE [ i; 

secretes and coutaina the honey, (an ul- 
Tnant universal fluid in Rowers) nnd is 
either a part of the corolla, or an organ 
distinct from it, and variously formed, as 
thB raonka'.hood, hiack heUebore, &c. i 
or it is a tubular elongation of the cfllyi, 
or of a petal i or, an assemblaga of 
glands. In moiiopetalonE floners, the 
honejr is uonCained in the Cube wl 

probably, i 


I: exclnsiTely eonfined to the 
flower ; in ROrne of the liliaceous tribe 
it exudes from the flower -stalli, and in 
the passiOD -flower it is secreted by glands 
situated in the peduncle. 

Nkb'di,k oaa. The Nadelerz of Werner. 
Colour steel-grey. Amorphous, or in 
acicular hesaedral prismg, which are oc- 
casionally invested with a yellowiah or 
greenish crust. Fracture uneven and 
metallic. Sgeciflc gravity fi'8. Consti- 
taeuts, bismnCh 43-G, lead 2i-b0, copper 
12-12, sulphur U-GO, nickel 1-58, teUu- 
iiaml'32. It occurs in a gold-mine neai 
Schlangeuherg, in Siberia. 

Nke'ble btdwe. a variety ofzoohte, of a 
yellowish- white colour, found in Ice- 

Nematu'ra. a genus of shells belonging 
to the family Turbinacea. Two species 
are known as recant, and one has beeti 
found fossil. 

Ne'pbei.inb. (irom vKpkXri, a cloud, Gr.) 
The Sommite of Jameson ; Nephehn of 
Werner. A mineral found only in the 
cavities of lava at Mount Somma, from 
which circumstance it has been called 
Sommite. Occurs generally in small, 
regular, sii-sided prisms, associated with 
mica, hornblende, and idiocrase. Specific 
gravity 3'2?. Colour greyish -white, or 
greenish -grey. It ia translucent, and 
BometiiDes transparent. Before the blow- 
pipe it fuses, with difficulty, into a trans- 
parent glass. Its constituents are silei 
46, aluD.ine4H, lime2, oiide of iron 1. 

Nb'phbitb. {from vippiTi)Q, ab vippbg, a 
kidney, Gr.) A mineral, formerly worn 
from an absurd notion that diseases of the 
kidney were relieved by so doing. It is 
a subspecies of jade, possessing the hard- 
ness of quartz, combined with a peculiar 
tenacity which renders it difficult either 
to break, cut, or polish. It is unctuous 
to the touch ; fracture splintery and dull ; 
translacent. Colours green, grey, ~ ' 
white. Specific gravity from 2*!l to 
Constitaents, silex b3-80, lime 127.% 
soda 10-80, potash 8'SO, alumine l-.^S, 
oxide of iron 5'0, oxide of manganese 2-0. 
water 2-30. Nephrite is brought from 
India, China, and Persia ; it is found 
also, in primary rocks, in Germany and 
Egypt. It is worked into handles far 
sabres, knives, daggers, Ike. 

NEPrn'KiAN thk'obt. That theory which 
attempted to prove that all the fnrmationi 
have been precipitated fratn water, or 
from a chaotic fluid. 


Nebjta'cba. A family of Tracfaelipodi,J 
including the genera Natica, Neiita, N»- 
ritina, Navicella, and Janthina. 

NEniTi'NA. A genus of fresh-water uni- 
valves, belonging to the family Neritacei. 
Shell thin, semiglobose, obliquely oval, 
smooth, flattish in front; spire short; 
aperture semicircular ; oater lip thin ; 
columellar-Iip broad, flat, denticulated, 
Dilfers from Nerita in the minuteness ol 
the denticulation of the colnmellB,— 

Dr. Mantell describes a species, Fonnd. 
in the state of easts, in the Ti^legril, 
which he has named Neritina Fittuni, in 
honour of Dr. Fitton. 
Nebi'ta, a genus of marine nnivild 
included ia the family Neritacea. Tit 
Nerita is a littoral shell, creeping on roclti 
and aea-weeda. A semi-globose univalve, 
depressed beneath, and having no nmbi- 
liens ; aperture entire and semicircnUr. 
The apertare is generally large in cooipi- 
rison with the shell, but it is fomiflicd 
with an operculum nhich completely 
closes it. 

species, one, Nerita Coaai' 

arkable, both oi 

form and the magnitnde which ii 


this geuna an 
Dr. ManteU n 

ly shells of 
English fos^ 
me species frH 
Liunarck ftf 
icnlarizes three species as being fooiul h 

ng, Gr.) Nerve-winged I 

9 the eighth order 
sects. The Neuroptera have fiinr niE»' 
branous wings, usnally reticulated 

or ovipositor. The Neuroptera aiemc 
bold, rapacioDB, an{1 sanguinliry; 
tnally chasing and devouring other i 
The libellula, or dragon-fly, is 

IROUS. Belonging b) the 
of Nenroptera, 

Ew B.EU SANnsTOKB- A series of bridl'i 
rod strata tying immediately above 



NEW [ 

rs ] ^^^H 

p«eniBh-gre;r eolonr. It is a cDnglooie- 

rate, its prenailing character being siii- 

tweeti silver and platina. When polished, 

eeons, bnt campriBJiig calcareous beds of 

it has a high lustre. Speellic gravity 

nnridereble magiiltude and E^xtcnt. By 

B'<)3. It is both ductile and malleable, 

and may be hammered into very thin 

tivided into three series ; the upper, the 

plates. It is diffiealt to be purified. lu 

middle, and the lower heda. Over a 

common with Iron, it is magnetic, capable 

■rge part of England the new red sand- 

of acquiring polarity, and may be formed 

Itone rests unconformably upon the cur- 

into permanent magnetic needles ; this 

property is destroyed by an alloy with 

ia* disturbed, dislocated, and partiailj 

arsenic. Nickel uuitea in alloys with 

WiQTed. before the former was aeoumn. 

g<jld, copper, tin, and arsenic, wlilch 

feted upon it i there, is, however, reason 

metals it renders brittle. With silver and 

to believe that in other parts of the Euro- 

iron its alloys are dncUle. 

Nickel was discovered as a distinct 

metal by Cronstadt, in i;51. Its solu- 

tion in nitric acid is nearly grass green. 

Nickel is found in all meteoric stones. 

Ni'ghihb. (from Kiger, Lat. hUck.) A 

leedlesa to observe when we contemplate 

variety of ferruginous oxide of titanium. 

occurring in grains, or rolled piecBB, 

loaed of matter which must have been 
teposited from water where it was, for 

consists of titanium 84'0. oiida of iron 

be time, mechanically snapanded, that 

Ni'tRATE. A compound of nitric odd with 

real variations should be espeeted at tlie 

a salifiable base. 

Ni'the, (.vWpov, Gr. nitrum. Lat. nitre. 

leing found, there sandstone or conglu- 

Fr. nitro. It.) Nitrate of potash ; salt- 
petre. The potasse nitratee of Haiiy j 

BUtler sboald be dispersed among it, 

naturlichet salpeter, of Werner. Nitre, 

ftoder favonrable circumstances, in suffi- 

or nitrate of potash, is found native in 

ient abundance to constitute numerous 

all countries, where there are circum- 


stances favourable to its production. It 

L A very remarkable discovery was made 

a 1B28 of the foot-marks of some uii- 

never eiists at a greater depth, than that 

knowQ quadrnped in strata of new red 

of a few yards beneath the surface, It 

occurs, naturally, either in masses, or in 

thin irregukr crystals ; it is white, semi- 

bity-five feet under tbe present surface ; 

transparent, and brittle i salt and cold in 

Qie strata are ioclined thirty-seven de- 

taste. When thrown on hot coals, it 

reea.—BateweU. FhUUpi. 

bums with a sparkling bright Ught, and 

VEBrLiocBNB PKHIOD. Mr. Lycll re- 

with a crackling noise. It crystoUiEes in 

m the European tertiary strata to four 

siK-sided prisms, terminated by adihedral 

MCWfrivo periods, each cbaracterised by 

summit, and retains no water of crystalli- 

imtuung a very different proportion of 
Mril sheila of r(ce.i( species. These 

zation. The crystals arc permanent, and 

BOlBble in seven parts of water at 60°, 

fcur periods he termed Newer PUocene, 

and in less than their own weight at 212". 

.Older Pliocene, Miocene and Eocene; 

Tlve principal supply of nitre is from 

he etymology of these terms will be fully 

India. One of the most remarkable lo- 

calities of nitre in Europe, is in (he Pula, 

fewer Pliooene periud is the latest of the 

or cavity of Molfetta, in tlie kingdom of 

bur periods, and immediately precedes 

Naples. This cavity, which is about one 

fae recent era. Nevertheless, tbe anH- 

hundred feet deep, contains several grot- 

[Bity of some Newer Pliocene strata, as 

tos or caverns, in the interior of which is 

found nitre in crusts, attached to compact 

orical eras, must be very great, em- 

liroeatone. When these crusts are re- 

moved, others appear in about a month. 

af 226 fossil species brought from the 

The yariouB sources of native nitre not 

. Bdlian hnds, M. Deshayea found that no 
fewer than 216 were of species still living. 

being sufficient to supply the great de- 

mand there ejiists for it, it is manufac- 

The newer pliocene formation is deve- 

tured wholesale, in the following manner. 

loped in Sicily and Tuscany ; its character 

Rubbish, consisting of lime, mortar. 

is marine, fresh water, and vulcanic. 

plaster, and earth, is miied up in heaps, 

Nl'ciCEi.. inicket. Germ.) A metal of 

under sheds, with deeaving vegetables 

P'soniiderBble hardness, nearly equal to 

and refuse matter, and left lo rot ; the 




N 1 T 




idxnaea tteing oceaikmnlly molBtened wilh 
■iiinml fluids, M urine, blood, Sec. The 
nitrogen, dieengnged from the comptitig 
nmts, unitei with the oxygen of the at- 
mosphere, tad forms nitric Bdil ; this, 
combiniug with the potash furnished by 
the Testable lubsCancei, produces an 
impure nitie. The salt is collected, and 
afterwBTda washed and purified. 
Ni'teogen. {from virpov, nitre, and 
ytvvdof, to produce, Gr.) Called also 
»)!0te. Nitrogen constitutes about four- \ 
Jiftha, or eighty per cent, of comi 
the rest being priDclpalty oxygen. In its 
pare state, nitrogen is remirliable for its 
negative qoalities ; that ia to say, far the 
difficulty with which it enters into combi- 
nation with other matlBrs. Thus, i 
neither combiutible, nor a supporter of 
combostion ; it is neither aeid, nor alka- 
line ; poBBCBses neither taste nor emeil : 
nor does it directly combine with an; 
known subetauce. Yet when made by 
peculiannanagementtounitewitb oijgeu, . 
hydrogen, or carbon, nitrogen forma some I 
of the moat energetic componnda we pos- 
sess ; thus, mixed with oxygen, it forutr 
atmoapberic air ; vnitfd with oxygen, it 
forms aqnafbrtiR, the must corro»iie of 
Uqnids ; imilfd with hydrogen, it forms 
the volatile alkali, or ammonia, likewise 
an energetic compound, but of an oppo- 
site nature ; while vnited with carbon and 
hydrogen, it forma pmaaic acid, the moat 
Tlrulent poison in eiiEtence. 

The existence of nitrogai in animal and 
yegetable life may be considered as se- 
condary, that is, derived from the atmo- 
sphere in the first instance. There is 
also every reaeon to suppose tbat it can- 
not be absent from numerous rocks which 
contain the organic remains of animals 
that have been entombed living, or at 
least with their flesh upon them. We 
have direct evidence in coal that nilrogen 
forms a portion of what may be con- 
sidered solid rock. Dr. Thomson found 
it to constitute 15-96 per cent, of the 
Newcastle caking coal, and there is good 
reason for supposing diat this ia rather an 
under-estimate of the amount of nitrogen 
contained in some coal, judging from the 
abundance of ammoniscal products given 
out during the distUtation of coal in gas- 

The absoqition of nitrogen daring re- 
spimtion, was one of the results Dr. 
Priestley had deduced from hia experi- 
ments ; and this fact, thonsh often 
doubted, appears, on the whole, to be 
tolerably well ascertained bv the ioquiriea 
of Davy, Pfaff, and Henderson. With 
reg»rd to the respiration of cold-blooded 
animals, it has been satisfactorily esta- 
hlished by the researches of Spallanzani, 

and more eapecially by thos« of linB- 
holdt and ProTcnfal, on fishes, that id- 
trogen is actually absorbed. A coofirma- 
tiun of this result baa been obtained by 
Macaire and Marcet, who have finad 
that the blood contains a larger propor- 
tion of nitrogfn than the diyle, finn 
which it is formed. 

Nitrogen has been recently found, ty 
Dr. Daubeny, to be contained very ge"" 
rally in the waters of mineral sprii 
The k-ing's bath, at Bath, evolves 96-S . 

ogen, 3'5 oxygen, and soortj 

The h 

t-weU a 

gen. The springs st Buxton. BAewd, 
and Stony Middleton. Deriiyahire, evoln 
nitrogen only. Those of the Spas, b' 
Germany, yield various proporttoas, u 
do the 01' ..... 

globe. - 
tiie easiest mode of pi"ocnrin| 

ia to abstract from atmospber 

the combustion of phoephoraa 

gen, the oxjgea with which it u ai 

ciated. Its specific gravity ia 0-9723. 

forms one of the fifty-five simple, 

elementary bodies. — Praut. Dt (a B 

Roget. Fhillipi. 

I'vBODB. twiwii*, Let.) Snowy; re 

bling snow ; at a snow-white colonr. 
Nha'csian. Pertaining to the grestddog* 

related by Moses, from which Noah ■>! 

his family were saved, and thus caBel 

after Noali. 
Nook. (RaJaa, a knot, Lat. nodui, tl 

nado, It.) A hard knot or swelling, 

In astronomy, the nodes of a satellite' 
orbit are the points in which it intcrted 
the plane of the orbit of a planet, th 
ascending node is the point through whigl^ 
the body passes in rising above VbK plaiw 
of the ecliptic, and the descending nodt 
is the point through which the b 
passes in sinking below the plane of 

NocTi'vAGANT. Hfrom lioa', the night, 
NocTi'vAGOus. ) eajror, to wandv, LaL]^ 
A name given to such animals aa wi 
in search of prey, daring the night. 
Nodosa'bia. a genus of ortbocerata, 
only fossil. They are polythalamoa 

No'nous. Knotty; fuUofknota. f] 

No'oDLAB. In the form of a nodnle or l| 
small lump. I 

No'oDi.AB IRON one. A variety of alpl- I i 
laceous oxide of iron ; occurring in mans, 1 1 
varying from the size of a walnut to tlul 
of a man's head. Their form ii qiktri- 
cal, oval, or nearly reniform, orsomelintf 
like a parallelopiped with rounded edgo , 
and angles. They have a rough surftcA 
andare essentiailycomposedofoononiliiil J 

NOD [ 

:rB. The«« nodnleB often contain, i 

centre, a kernel or nuclene, nliich : 

leciaiea mnveable, and alwaya dilTering 

>m tlie ejterior in colour, densiCy, e ' 

of Che elterioi .. 

.impact Kad solid ; bat the density gra- 

loalljdiminiiihes to the centre, wbich bis 

earthy taitnre. Specific graiity, sbout 

■57. Its 

7-0, ulex G-D, oxide 
lumine 0'5, water 13'5. Thea 
ISTC alaa been called (Etites and Eagle 
tones, from an opinion that they were 
hand in eagles' neatB, where, it was sup- 
loaed, they pretentol the eggs from be- 
sming rotten. 
Nodular iron ore is found disaeoiinated 
beds of ferragiuoUB clay in aecondary 
ths, and sometimes in alluvial d 
day, loom, or sand. This ore 
mtly worked, and yields very good 
1. Nothing very satisfactory can be 
Id oonceraing tlie manner in which these 
dnles have been formed. — Ctfaveland. 
'ddlb. (from tuidulas, a little knot, 
Mt.) A rounded, irregular shaped, mi 
leral maaa. 
'cBOBS. A foEsil resembling a belem 

MCLAToaE. (namenclalara, Lat. 

ulalure, Pr. coUertion dfa moIk qui 

proprei avx diffirmtfi paTlie» d'c 

ice on ifun art.) The names 

tUugs in any art or science, or the wli 

Tocabnlary of tecboicsl terms which i 

Appropriated to any particular branch 

The in 

name on any sub- 
ce. It not only 

] NOR 

culty in its estiblishiDent is felt. The 
faciUty with which the chemist, the bo- 
tanist, or the entomologist, refers by name 
to any individual object in his science, 
shows what may be effected in this way 
when characters are themselves distinct. 

Nomenclature, in a systematic point of 
view, is as much, perhaps more, a con. 
sequence than a cause of extended know. 
ledge. Any one may give an arbitrary 
- thing, merely to be able to talk 


of it 

give a 

^ of cootemplati 
yulory of great im' 
" lables na readily to refer tc 

writing, without circumlocntion. 
It, what is of more coosequence, it gives 
igniaed existence in ouj 
piinds, as a. matter for aeparate a 
conaideradon. How impoi 
good system of nomenclature is, 
«Dce be seen, by consideriog the in 

of apeciea preaented by almost 
lery branch of science of any extent, 
Whicli abaolately require to be distin- 
by names. Thog, the bi 
ooDverssnt with from SO, 000 to l( 
ledes of plants; the entooiologiat 
iperhaps, as many, of insects. And the 
ime as regards cbemiBtry,aEtronomy, &c. 
Nomenclature, then, ie, in itself, an 
part of science, a^ prevents 
Dfling lost in a wilderness of parti- 
in, and involved in inextrieable con- 
on. Happily, in those great branches 
science, where the objects of classi- 
tion are more numerous, and the ni~ 
, lity for a clear and convenient nomei 
«Uture most pressing, uo very great difl 

place in a aystem, we 
must know its properties; and we must 
have a system, large enough, and regular 
enough, to receive it m a place which be. 
longs to it and to no other. 

There is no aeience in which the evils 
resulting from a rage for nomenclature have 
been felt to such an extent as in mineralogy. 
The nomenclature of most minerals is at 
present so encumbered with synonyms, 
that it has become extremely perplexing 
to the student. This may be illustrated 
by the example of Epidote. This mineral, 
which is called ffidaie by Haiiy, is named 
piataiit by Werner, Ihallite by Lerae- 
therie, akanticone by Daodrada, delplu- 
nite by Saussure, gtassj/ aclinolile by 
Werner, arendalU by Karsten, gUutigtr 
itrahlflein by Emmerling, la rnj/omanit 
tiilreuat by Brochant, priamalQidaeAtr 
aagil-ipath by Mobs, Btc-Bic, 

In all subjects where comprehensive 
Leads of claBsiRcatioD do nut promi- 
nently offer themaelies, all nomenclature 
must be a balance of difficulties, and a 
good, short, unmeaning name, wbjch has 
once obtained a footing in usage, is pre- 
ferable to almost any other. When the 
composition is unknown, those namea, 
which are altogether unmeaning in re- 
gard to any property of the tMng, are, 
perhaps, the least objectionable; at all 

LinuEens was the tirst to introduce 
aystematic namea into natural history. 
By the introduction of these scientific, 
fixed, and universally valid names, lin- 
nseus has undoubtedly acquired bia great- 
eat merit in acience, and if every thing 
else which be baa done ahonld be for- 
gotten, thia, which is wholly his work, 
will secure his name from forgetfulneas. — 
Hertc/icl. Cleavelaiid. BiirmeUter. 

■Jo'hka. The name given by Cranstadt to 
an aggregate of quartz, mica, and garnet. 
This aggregate ia included by Kirwan in 
the granatin BB, 

"Jo'nroLK CH.AB. An English tertiary for- 
mation belonging to the older pliocene- 
It is observed to rest on the chalk and on 
the London clay. It consists of irregular 
beds of ferruginous sand clay, mixed with 
marine shells. According to an account 



NOV [ 182 1 NUT 1 

of Mr. S. Woodward, if ■ line be drawn 

vagne aud absurd notiooB respecting tludi 

from Cromer, on [he Dorthem cout of 

origin, and a yariely of names have bees 

Norfolk. 10 Wnybuni, about lu miles 

assigned to tbcm, Thus, they have ben 

weit, and from tlieoce extending in s 

named HelieilM, from their spiral ttmD- 

loulherlj direction towards Norwich, 

ture; Phacita, from their resemhluux 

about 18 milef, it wiU comprise «U the 

to a lentil ; and Salicita. from the rap- 

regular bedi of Norfolk crag. 

posed resembUnce of their scctiow M 

Nova'cdlitb. (from noromie, i raior, 

theleafofthewiUow. Pliny ia suppi««f 

Lat. ) The Weti BOhiefar of Werner : ar- 

to refer to them, nnder the name of 

gileschiBteQaenovBcnlflireofHfliiy. Hone- 

nias. when he mentions that Zoroaster en. 

Btone. SceHoae. 

ployed these substances for the cure at 

Nc'cLEUB. {oHclfU!, a kernel, Lat.) A 

epilepsy. They have been also temii 

solid centre or point, round whicli matter 

Lentes lapidex. Lapides cnmini, arat- 


Nu'ocLA. A genua of marine biTBlieslietls 

belonging to the family Aicacea. An 

that these bodies ought to be ranksd 

trigonal bivalve ; covered with an eui- 

which had Uved befare the flood. 

dermU. The hinge linear, bent at an 

angle formed by numerous, alternately 

minuteness, to an inch and n half in di» 

meter. Their anrface is in wmeneaill 

turned baokwnrdH. The recent upeciei of 

amooth, in othera rough and scabroil^ 

this genua are found in eatuaries, and in 

with numerous small projecting lraol», nt 

the ocean, at depths varying to aixty fa- 

thoms, in mud and sand. 

from nearly white to brown and red. and 

Of foaail species, one is mentioned by 

sometimes nearly blue. The number B^ 

Dr. Mantell, as foond in the upper green- 

spiral turns seems to depend on theagi 

and Eixe of the animal i in those oft 

Mr. Pukinson states that he has fonnd 

ahella of the Nucula morgaritacea, with 

three or four, while in those of the laigeM: 

their tine comb-Uke teeth, aud their pearly 

coat, quite perfect, in the Esaei bank of 

upwards of twenty. Lamarck divides 0« 

shells i aud in a perfect state, and of a 

genus into four species. 

microscopic siie, at Plnmiited ; also some 

minute caloedoDic specimens, in a perfect 

in the history of foasU shells, on accourt 

of the prodigious extent to which Uiey aft 

Several species are described by La- 

accmnulated in the later members of tht 


secondary, and in many of the tertiaty; 

Nn'DiHBANCHiATA. The BEcond Order of 

strata.) They are often piled on each otlM. 

□early in as close contact as the gruas bi 

cbiata have no shelJ whatever ; neither 

Nummitli'tic. Containing nnmmnHtMt 

cavity, their brauchis being exposed on 

some part of their back, from which cir- 

cnmetance they have obtained their name. 

Ku'tast. (from ntitaiu, nodding, Lat.) 

The triton, doria. Ice. are examples. 

A perpendicular part, the apex of which 

Nc'hmitlith. (from «umBi«a. money, Lat. 

bends over. 

and Xieor, a stone, Gr.) The nummu- 

Ncta'tion. (from niilatio, a nodding, laL 

lites compose a fossil extinct genus of mul- 

nvtalion, Fr.) A tremnlons or vibratoij; 

motion of tlie earth's axis, by which ill 

nally, a lenticular figure, without any 

inclination to the plane of the eoliptie l| 
continually varying, being, in iU annvd 

apparent opening, and, internally, a 

spiral cavity, divided by septa into iiu- 

revolution, twice inclined to the ectiFlih 

meroue cbambera ; they do not possess n. 

and as often returning to its ibnner pf 

aition. Both the celestial latitudea an) 

cate by meana of small foramina with each 

longitudes are altered to a amaU degmbr 
motion m the earth's axis, the pole-star. 

other. They have obtained their name 

of money. It is of atone composed of 

Little Bear, which was formerly 12°fium 

are constructed. The extreme obecurity 

the celestial pole, is now within 1° B*' rf, 

in which the nature of nnmmuUtes has 

been involved, almost to the present day. 

is witliin J°, after which it will retreat 

baa occasioucd Llie adoption of various 

from the pole for ages ; and 12,9.'M yawl 



NUT [ isa ] o C E 

e star a Lyrat will come within 
.° of the celestial pole, and become the 
poluBtar of the northern bemiaphcre. 

' 1 eicrescenoe which growa 

ime Bpecies of onks. These eicres- 

ea are piodiiced by the Cyuip quercus 

Hi, of Linnsua, a small insect which 

»iti ita egg in the tender shoota of 

the nilercuB infectoria, a species of oak 
ibandant in Aaia Minor. When the 
maj^ot is batched, it produces ■ morbid 
eiercBcence of the aumiuodiiig parts, and 
it nltimatelv eats its way out of the nidus 
thus furmeJ, and makea ita escape. Tbe 
beat galla are imiiorted from Smyrna and 
Aleppo. — Brandt, Man. nf PAarmaq/, 

Obco'udate. In botany, an epithet for an 
inverselj heart-shaped leaf, petal, or Ic- 

Obla'te- (o4/o(im, Lst.) Flattened or 
depressed at the poles ; genernll; applied 
to apherical bodies, flattened at the potes ; 
of the shape of an orange. 
Obla'tk bfqe'boid. a spheroid flattEued 
V' at the poles is called an oblate spheroid : 
H snoh is the form of the earth aod planets. 
^L'When, on the contrary, a spheroid is 
^rjmni out at the poles instead of 
'being flattened, it ia caUod a prolate 
Ouii'itcB. {obiiqtiua, iai. oblique, Fr. 
Bblito, It.) Not direct ; not perpendi' 
cnlar ; not parallel. 

(In botany, applied to the posidon of 
leaves, and implies that one part of the 
leaf is bariionlal and the other ler 
In conchology, applied to the whorls of 
jf^rel nni¥alYOB, which commooly are in 
an obUqne direction in refereQce to the 
sdi of the shell. The term is aluo up- 
plied to Invalvea when they slant ofi' from 
the nmhones. 
OBLi'auiTY. (from obliqvilaa, Lat. obli- 
gvM. Fr. obliiiuita. It.) Deviation from 
paralleliam or perpendicaUrity. 
O^LOHO. (oblongus, Lat. oblong, Fr.) 
B Having greater length thao breadth ; 
longer than broad. 

In botany, apphed to knves several 
times longer than broad. The term is 
iiBhiefly used to discriminate a leaf whose 
I form does not accurately come oudcr 
denomiaations oval, hnear, or 

gbLOHS o'vATE. Oblaug egj-shaped i 
■■between oblong and egg-shaped. 
(SO'VATE- In bntatiy, applied to leaves 
' iuiving the form of an egg, with the broad 
«Dd forming the base, and the pointed 
IX of the leaf. 

'dian. Vitreous lava, a volcanic j: 
duotiDai of a dark green colour approa 
Ing to black. An aiuilysis of obsic 
I from Honnt Hecla, by Vauquelin, gi 
constituents as follows, silica 71 
nina 10-0, potash G'O, lime I'O, e 

1*6, oxides of iron and manganese 

Obsidian has been divided into two 
kinds, the vitreous and pearl; ; these 
may be distinKUisbed by their fracture, 
which is either vitreous or pearly. 

Vitreous obsidian bears a strong re- 
semblance to the glass of nine-bottles. 
Its fracture is concboidal, showing fre- 
([Uently large cavities. Lustre vitreons. 
SpedJic gravity from 2'34 to 2-gO. It 
generally occnra in large amorphona 
masses, when it appears almost black ; it 
is sometimes found in rounded grains. 

Fearistone, tbe Obsidienne perle^ of 
Braugniart; this variety has a granDlar 
structure, and is traversed b^ fissarea in 
all directions. It is conse<iBentty very 
brittle. Its fracture is uneven or granu- 
lar, and, B3 before mentioned, pearly. 
When moistened by the breath it fre- 
quently returns an argillaceous odotir. It 
occurs amorphous only. 

Before the blow-pipe both varieties in- 
tnmesce, but the vitreous alone fuses into 
a globule. Obsidian bears indisputable 
characters of having once been in a. state 
of fusion. 

Obtu'se. (oitiiims, Lat. oblm, Fr.) An 
angle which is more than ninety d^rees, 
or that of a right angle. 

O'bvolute. In botany, applied to leaves, 
when their margins alternately embrace 
the straight margin of the opposite leaf. 

Qccide'ntal. {occidenlala, Lat. occiden- 
tal, Fr. occidentale, It.) Western, as 
opposed to oriental. 

Occi'piTAL. (from occipBl, the hind part 
of the head, Lst. occipital, Fr.) Per- 
taining to the hack part of the head. 

O'cciFOT. loeeiput, Lat. from ob and 
caput, occiput, Fr.) The back part of 
tbe head : the fore part is called sijuripui, 

CcEAN. (^iiKtavbi, Gr. oceama, Lat. 
ocfati, Fr. oceano. It.) That vast body of 
water which covers more than three-flfths 
of the earth's surface. The average depth 
of the ocean has been very variously esti- 
mated. Laplace considered, in order to 
account for the height of the tides ac- 
cording to the laws of gravitation, the 

ileptb to ■lemgc ten mllM ; othnri rate 
it at five oiile*. Tbc [treacat cannot be 
GOnsiderEd u bsiinK ulwiyn been tbc bed 
of the oneaa ; on Che contrsry. what are' 
now the most elerated portioni of llie 
earth's unuC were once Euhmerged, and 
over Iheui the ocean for agea rolled its 

of mndcrn geotogiitt, Ovid declare! Iko 

Hdtamurph-jai. iv. 

Ocia'hic. Pertaining to the Dcean ; in- 
habiting the oceBH. 

Ocka'nic de'ltjv. a delta formed at the 
month of rivets where they enter the 
ocean, bs diitingujebed from either lucuB- 
trine or mediterriinean deltas. Mr. Lyell 
observes, " whenever the -volame of fresh 
water is so great aa to oonnteract and 
almost neutrajize the force of tides and 
correnti), nnd in all cases where these 
agents have not safficieot power to remove 
to B distance the whole of the sediment 
periodically brought down by rivers, 
oceanic deliiu are produced. 

CcBt-LATBD. {oceUaltui, Lat.) In con- 
ohology, applied to shells, when marked 
with little eye-like spots. 

(yoBKE. (iJxpH, Gr. nc*ro, Lat. oCTf, Fr.) 
Red iron ore ; it yields good malleable 
icon. Colours red, yellow, and brown. 
It Occnrs in dull earthy masses, nearly or 
quite friable, which ■'-■■- 


ixide of ir 

a 83-0, Bile 

ling ochre ; re'sembtiDg 
Etng eight sides all 

OcTAe'raiTE. OctaiidrBl oaido of titaninm 
theTitane anatase of iirongnisrt; Octuii 
drit of Werner; Octaedrite of Jameson 
the Oisanite of I^meth. A pure oxide o 
titanium, crystallised in acute, elongatei 
octacdrans, cansiating of two pyramids 
whose faces are isosceles triangles, and 
whose bases are squares. Colours blue, 
blackish- blue, and brown. Lustre splen- 
dent and adamantine. Fracture foliated ; 
easily broken. It scratches glass. Spe- 
cilic gravity 3'8. Before the blow-pipe it 
is inliiaible by itself, but with borax it 
fnaea into a glass. It occurs in veins in 
Danphiny, Norway, Spain, and Brazil. 
OcTAeDB.ON. ) (iliTaiopoc, from Acrw, 
OcTAHG'nnoN. i eight, and ifipa,aside, 
":. octaedre, Fr.) The solid angles of 
a ocUedron are formed by four equal 

I I an ocUedron are formed by fou 

1 ] O E S 

and eqirilateral plane triaDglei ; codh- 
quenlly it is formed by two equal span 
pyramids joined together iil Ilieir bud, 
the side* whereof are e^uilatrrsl tfian^el, 
The DctaJiedron (unlike some forma rtitt 
are not lueceptible of variation, as the dll 
or cube, a solid invaviablj honnded by lb 
square surfaces or planes) is soioeBlihll 
of variation ; it ia sometincs flat and kw, 
and, at others, acute and high. 

Octoo'dbttk. See Octaedrite. 

O'cTortTB. (from dcrui, eight, and H: 
foot. Gr.) A genns of sepis. The attt- 
pita was the animal denominated poljpw 
by AristAIla. It has eight uTna, aD t( 
equal length, and contains in its interiff 
two very small radimental shells, Ibnuci 
by the inner surface of the mantle. Tit 
shell becomes much more distinct in Cbt 
loligo. — Bogtt. ■ 

O'CTODENTATB. (from OCfO, eight, i 

Aftitelia, toothed, Lat.) Having dgU 

teeth, and no more. 
CcTOMD. (from aelo, tright, andjfinfo,! 

cleave, Ut.) Eight-deft. In botuy, 

an epithet for s cnlyi divided into eigU 

OcTDLa'cCLATi. (^m Bclo, eight, I 

lacvtut, a cell or pocket, LaL) Eigbf' 

OcTONo'coLAK, (from oe(0, eight, an* 
oculut, an eye, Lat.) Having HgU 

OcTOPs'TAtODS. (from Certl, eight, i 

uiToKdv, a petal, Gr.) Having ei^ 

petals or flower-leaves. 
OcToaps'itMODS. (from <iKrw, eight, and 

•riripiia, seed, Gr.) E ighC -seeded ; htv- 

iog eight seeds. 
O'ouLATE. (oeHlalm, Lat.) Eavii; 


culm, I 

/oma, shape, Lat.) Reaei 
in its form ; eye-shaped. 

OnoRi'FEHODS. (from odor, scent, and 
Jero, to give, Lat. odorfferiml, Fr- odofv- 
jf™, It.) Yielding scent ; giving out 
perfume. Generally, but not always, o ' 
to denote sweet scent. 

CyniiROCB. {odoriail, Fr. odor\fera. It) 
PragraDt; sweet of scent. 

CEso'FHAt^uB. (asopAeffe, Fr.) The gld- 
!eC, or passage leading fi-om the moB^ta 
the stomach, through whioh tiie bad 
passes. In the structure of the cesophs- 
gus, we may trace an adaptation to the 
particular kind of food taken in by the 
animal. When it is swallowed entire, or 
but little changed, the lESophagns is t 
very wide canal, capable of being gm&t ^ 
dilated. Serpents, which swallow aniauls J 
of greater circumference than tbemsdvMi | 
"" ophagns admitting of gi 


mi thef 

e in the ci 

al, befor 

o G y [18 

,the sUmsoh. Grazing animali, whn 
carry their heiids close to the ground 
while feeding, kave the ofsophngua 
.iMrcngtheDed hj thick miiecalsr costs, 
irlierGb; the food is projielled tonards 
^e atDiDBch, the directjon beiug coptrary 
pi that or gravity. 

IIt'oiui. (from Ogyges, a cetebrattti 
nonarch, the most ancient of thoBB that 
reigned in Gioece.) Hia origin, the nge 
In which he lived, and tbc duration nf hit 
obacure and ualinDnn, that 
the epithet of Ogygian ia often applied to 
over; thing of dark antiquity. 
Br'BiAN ob'ldge. The tiatne giien to a 
delnge which happened in the reign uf 
■GsSS^i wliich so inundated the territories 
tof Attica, that they remained waste for 
arly 200 years. Ttiia is aupposcd to 
have happened about 1764 years before 
the Christian sra. 

BBtne given by Gnettard to 
« species of trilobite, from its being found 
" I most ancient rock formadona, 
J vestiges of organic life. 
i^BAifiTa. The name given by Lanieth (u 
jgyramidal titanium or auataae. 
ID BKD SAND^^TONE, The lowcst member 
'of the carboniferous group, extensively 
iderdoped in the counties of Sbropshire 
and Herefordshire, in England ; Breck- 
liockaMre, in Wales ; and Dumfriesshire 
Bnd ForJarshice, in Scotland. Tlie old 
,red aandstona strata lie between the car- 
iboniTerous series and the silurian racks, 
naiata of many varieties and alter- 
na of eilicious sandstones and congla- 
various colonra, red predomi- 
r. Bakewell says, '■ the old 
Ted sandstone, about which so mnch 1: 
], and so little understood, 
« greywBcke, coloured red by the ac 
dental admiitnre of oiida of iron, 
■poatessea all the mineral characters of 
Sreywocke, except the colour, which is a 
«iiality that nefer van be considered of 
Uiportaniw, being chiefly derived froi 
iocal or Bcciileatd causes. The old red 
Jtuidatone also occnpies the geological 
'position of greywacke, and greywacke 
slate, into which it pasaea merely by i 
[.change of colour. Until English geolO' 
;pats aluU renounce their prejudices, and 
' place the old red sandstone and monntain 
.'limestone in the tranaitinn class, as grey- 
wacke, and transition limestone, everj 
Attempt will be vain to identity this part 
.of the geology of England with that of 


Mr. Lyell has siib-d 
ided the tertiary epoch into four period) , 
tumely, the newer pliocene, the older 
lliocene, the mioceoe, and the eo 
term pliocene he derived fron 
two Greek words TtXiUur, more, 


lait'i'ic, recent. The older pliocene for- 
mations lie between the miocene and the 
newer pliocene. Of fossil shells examined 
by M. Deshayes, the older pliocene con- 
tained from thirty-five to fifty per cent, of 

Olea'cinocs. {oleagimie, Lat. ateagi- 
Bfiu-, Fr. oliosa. It.) Oily ; anctuons. 

Ole'cbanon. {oXitpui'ov, Gr. from viKivti, 
the nlna, and aipitvuv, the head.) A. 
process of one of the bones of the tore 
arm. the ulna, forming part of the elbow- 

Olfa'ctorv. {from olfaeio, to smell, to 
give a scent to, Lat. elf'aelmre, Fr. <tl- 
fattort. It. ) Having the sense of amell- 
ing ; pertaining to smelling : as the ol- 
factory nerves, &c. 

O'tiVA. (oKm, an olive, Lat.) So named 
from the obloug and elliptical shape of the 
shell. A marine snbcylindrical univalve ; 
aperture narrow, long, and emarginated | 
opposite to the apire, which ia short ; the 
plicie of the colatnella are nitmerous, end { 
resemble strice ; whorls sulciform. Mr. 
Gray baa ascertained that, in (he oliviE, 
shell is deposited, and most probably 
secreted, by the upper surface of the foot, 
which is tety lari;e, and not by the 
mantle, which ia small, and does not ex- 
tend beyond the edge of the month. The 
aheUs of this genua are very beanliful, 
and display a great variety of rich mark- 
ings and splendid colours. Kecent olivie 
are found at depths varying to twelve 
fathoms, in mud, sandy mud, coarse 
aand, &c. They are also caught by 
fishing lines. Fossil olivx are found in 
the cslcaire grosaier, and London clay. 
Several species have been described. 

Oliva'ceodb. Of an olive colour, a green 
with an admixtare of brown. 

Oii'vENiTH. An ore of copper of an olive- 
green colour. It coQsista of oxide of 
copper 6^0, phosphoric acid 2S'6. water 
8'4. Occurs with quartz ii 
clay-Blate, in drusy cavities. 

O'livinb. TllB prismatiacher chryaoliths 
of Mobs ; peridot of Haiij ; oUvin of 
Werner. A mineral, generally t' "~ 
olive-green colour, from which c' 
stance it obtains its name : it is son 
of an asparagus green, or yellowish green. 
Occurs in distinct granular concretions, 
or in rounded mosses. Structure foliated. 
Fracture imperfectly conchoidal. Lnatro 
shining, translucent, and, sometimes, 
transparent. Its constituents are, silei 
50'D, magnesia 37'5, oiideof iron MO, 
lime 0'5. It is found in basalt, a ' " 
constituent of many lavas. 

O'mhkia, (from B/i/3piu£, rain, Gr.) Fos- 
sil echini, to which the nsuie of ombrii 
lias been given, from a i 
tlicy fell frr^ra heaven ir 

O M ii [1 

hravf rain ; they are of > ruunilpcl forni. 
and have been compared to turban t. 

Duk'ntuu. (omenfuni, Lat.) The ciul. 

~ MNl'voBoli6. (rrom omnii, all, and voro. 

to doour, Lat.) Aaimalg whic^h « 

of aU kinds. 

'hOPLati. (from u^oc. the eh 
Kod irXnri'f, broadi Gt ) The guapuls, 
ur ahontder-blsde. 

'tyfCBtiK. A ^nUB of sharks, belonging U 
the snb-familT at Hjihodouls, teeth of 
which have beca found ia the liai 
Lyme Regia. 

'ffoHTB. (from iiiiv, an egg, and Xi'fl _ 
Btone, Gr. oolitei, Pr.) A group of 
strata, whose order of superpos''' 
below the Purbeck and aboie t 
called also the Jura limeetone. The two 
laneit memhcrs of this group, 
Immediately aboie the lias, are called the 
great oolite, and the inferior 
the memhere of the group 
depositea. The oolite hss been thus named 
from jCa being composed of spherical gra- 



, of a 


term of eonveuieuce, like those of carbo- 
niferous, red-Bandstoue, &c., for many 
limeatonea in other groups are oo"" 
The oolite is an accumulation of ss 
eandstDDGs, marls, clays, and limestones. 
A very strikiog zoological feature of this 
group is the imraense abundance of am- 
monitea and betemuites wliicb must hare 
existed previous to, and during, its 
posit i for, Dotwithstaoding the usual 
chances of destruction to which we 
Euppoae they were exposed, myriads of 
their shells haie been found entombed 
entire, and not unfrcquently the an 
must have been in them. One hundred 
and seventy-three species of ammon 
and Bixty-hve species of belemuites have 
been enomerated as discovered in the 
oolite. There can be little doubt thai 
this group, greatly eipanded in thickness, 
and mixed with sandstones, marls, and 
slates, possessing a very different as[ 
from the equivalent rocks in a large p 
tion of Western Europe, eilenda o 
various parts of Eastern Europe, 
present it seems to be considered t 
rocks equivaleni to the oolitic group h 
not been detected in North America. 
The aggregate average thickness of the 
oolite may be estimated at 1200 feet, 
some instances the spherical gram 
concretions, which are imbedded in m: 
of the strata, attain the size of a pea, i 
this variety has obtained the name 
piaiforra oolite. Some oolites have been 
used for building-stoiie, but [hey are said 
not to be durable, Somerset House is 
built of oolite. The vertebrated animals. 

] O O L 

Hshea and reptiles of the tame geni 

those discovered in the lias. Some strati 
of this group are composed, almost en- 
tirely, of madreporites, and these "^ ~~ 
been culled " coral ragg." Other i 
abound in the remains of fossil alcjooit 
and sponges, and with oonseries of minaCe 
milleports and madrepores. In England, 
the limestone of the oolite has a ydlow- 
ish brown, or ochreous colour, by which 
it may at once be distinguished from tke 
lies ; and the fossila partaking of the 
colour of the limestone, renders it easy 
to separate them from the fossils oC the 
lias. The oolite has been divided in 
three formations, the upper, the middl 
and the lower. Between the lower ii 
the middle division of oolites, there » 
curs a bed of dark blue clay, called Ox- 
ford, or clunch, clay, the thickDess of 
which has been stated to be SOD feet 
Between the middle and upper also, there 
is found a thick bed of clay, called Kim- 
meridge clay, of a thickness exceeding, 
in some parts, 100 feet. The oppennoit 
members of the oolite group are tha 
Portland beds, lying immediately under 
the Purheck beds. 

Ooolite has been also called roe-stonev 
from a supposition of tha older geologists, 
that the globules contained in it were tha 
petrified roes of fishes. In the litho- 
graphic limestone of Solenhofeo, belong- 
ing to one of the upper members of the 
oolite, a great variety of organic remuni 
is found ; and in the museum of Count 
Munsler, there are not fewer than i 
species of flying lizards, six sauriani, 
three tortoises, sixty species of 6 ' 
forty-sii species of Crustacea, and tirenty- 
six species of insects, taken {rain tlMt 

The lower division of the oolite in York- 
shire, and in Scotland, contuns coal for- 
mations. In the district north of &t 
river Hnmher, the lower ooiite asant 
new ehsracter: instead of finding bei 
the corohrash the forest marble and great 
oolitic beds of sandstone, shale and car- 
bonaceous matter are interpolated al 
the sand which covers the lias. Proceed- 
ing northwards, these strata rapidly in 
crease in thickness, and the carboaaceons 
layers gradually become concentrated 
into a stratum of coal, which, though 
never exceeding sixteen inches in tluck- 
ness, is, from local circumstances, of con- 
siderable value. 

The oolitic tracts of England present ■ 
broad hand of dry limestone surface, 
rising westward to elevations of from BOO 
to 1,400 feet, with escarpments com- 
manding very extensive prospects oret 
the undulating plains of lias and red 
marl. The whole tortuous line of oolitic 

eUje.—Bateirell. Dt La Becke. Lyfll. 
Cttweland. Maniell. PhiUipt. 

OLi'tic. Camposed of oolite I regembling 
tMlite. ThB name of a. large gronp of 
strata commencing with tbe Portland beds 
above, and tertuiusting to tlie inferiur 
oolite belov. 

OLiTi'iKaotis. Producing oolite, or to 

Ta'citt. (opairylBt, darkness, LiL op 
citi, Fr. opacila, It.) OpHquenest 
darkneBs. The ijnalitj of opacity is e 
B contrarff or aniagonul quality to that of 
tranEpareucj, bnt only its extreme loweEt 

FAL. The quartz reainite of Werner 
• untheilbarer quartz of Mohs. A auh 
isible quarti. Of thi 
there are many vorieticB, the principal of 
are,— 1 . The precioDs opal, a milk- 
Tariety, with a beauCitnl play of 
] rich colours. 2. Fire-opal ; a 
trutEparenC variety, brouglitfrota Mexico, 
with a carmine-red aod apple-green iri- 
' deicence of great beauty. 3. Common 
opal; a variety differing but tittle from 
the precious 0]ial in many of its charac- 
' ters, hut not presenting that efliilgence, 
ir play of colours, by nhich the precious 
'Dpat ig distinguished. Its colour is 
■ ■white, shaded with grey, green, or yellow, 
' (ometimes milk-nbite. When viewed 
liy transmitted light, the milk-nhite and 
ijp'Eenish varietiea often change their 
-DoloDTB. 4. Semi-npal ; a feebly trana- 
Incent variety, having a eonchoidal (rac- 
tore ; colours white, grey, and brown. 
Prof. Ehrenberg statei; that nodules of 
Mmi-opal, which occur in the Pollers- 
'ehiefer, are composed of silex derivad 
'from infusorial remains that have been 
i^iBolved and formed into siliceous eon- 
etiona, having dispersed through them 
munbErs of infusorial shields, partially 
dissolved, together with others that are 
Ualtered. Ebrenberg aUo thinks tbat 
)ie has found indications of minroscopic 
organic bodies of a spherical form in 
mi-opai from Champigny, and also 
mmi-opal from the dolerite of Stcin- 
inl, and in precious opal from the 
'Vorphyry of Ka^cban. A. Meiiilite ; a 
^wiety occurring in small, irregular, 
lonndish masaes, often tuberose, or 
teaiked with little edges on the surface. 

3 often 
the interior has a bro' 
appearance. Fracture coi 
is translucent. These variel 
Mat of silex in various proportii 
95 per cent., combin 
Qiide of iron 


or dark 



O'pALizKD. Converted into a BUbstanee 
resHubling opal. 

O'PALIZEU WOOD. Thifl has the form and 
tcilure of wood ; the vegetable matter 
having gradually given place to a ailiceoua 
depoeite poaseasin^ the characters of 
aemi-opal. Its texture is fibrous; frac- 
ture eonchoidal, with a moderate lostrc. 
It does not strike tire with steel. Spe- 
cific gravity between 2-0 and 2-6. Co- 
lours white and grey, often shaded with 
yellow or red, and paaaing into yellow or 
brown. Transluceut at the edges. It 
has been found in U angary, near Schem- 
nitz . — ClfaeelaBd. 

OFE'itcuLAR. Having a lid, or cover, or 

Ofe'bcdlch. (operculvra, Lat. from 
operio, to close or shut.) 

1. A lid, by means of which many of the 
moUuacouB animals close the aperture of 
their shells. It is in some animals tes- 
taceous; in others, homy or cartilaginous. 
It is affiled to the animal. The oper- 
culum of mnltivalves is composed of two 
or four picceB. The operculum is cal- 
culated for the protection of the animal 
when it retires within its dwelling, of 
which it may be termed the door ; it ia 
adapted to the shape of the aperture, 
which it closes completely. The carti- 
laginons operculum of the common peri- 
winkle is a familiar example. 

2. The flap which covers the gill, or organ 
of respiration, in fishes. " A large flap, 
termed the operculum," aaya Dr. Roget, 
" extends over the whole gill, defending it 
from injury, and leaving below a wide 
fissure for the escape of the water, which 
has performed its office in respiration." 

Ofhi^ia.. (from Sfts, a serpent, Gr.) 
The third order in the class Reptilia, in 
Cuvier's arraogement, comprising three 
families, Anguina, Serpeutia. and Nnda. 
In the structure of the skeleton of the 
serpents, the firat of the true reptiles, we 
muy observe a beautiful illustration of 
the simple means employed io organic 

ous and diversified ends, and of the re- 
sources of nature in adapting the forms of 
bones, in all their essential and common 
parts, to the Tarions uses the animal is to 
make of tbem in the living state. We 
have here animals destitute of anterior 
and posterior extremides, destitute of 
arms and legs, of hands and feet, yet ca- 
pable of a great variety of those active 
movements wbicb we see in animals the 
niusl gifted with lho=if parts. We stc 

O P H 

them a* i( running on all foora, [lUnuing 
their prey, rapidly vinding through thi 
turf. «niJ through the low vegetables thai 
cover eitenaive pluini. If the pre;, tc 
escape frnm danger, betake itself to tii< 
IrCFt, imagining there to be in ufetf , wi 
find these eerpeiLta winding round the 
tree, and ilmoiC without any apprirent 
motioa of any portion of their trunk, 
gliding. BB if they were aticking by luak- 
era to the tmnki of the trees they climb, 
till within reach, and then with a teto- 
city, like an elastia apring let loose, 
they dart forward and mine round 
their prey. If their prey Bhoutd even rise 
from the ground into the air, we see these 
■erpenta, as if they were gifted with wings, 
spring with velocity from the ground, dart 

,f the a 

, dropcd, and plunge for 
aafet; into the water, (he serpents still 
purEue them in that element, swimming 
like lishei. Yet, when we examine the 
condition pf the skeleton, we fin ' 
simply to consist of a vertebral column 
and ribs ; and with that simple condiUoi 
of the solid internal frame-work, we eei 
all those varied movements elfetled. Thi 
spine of serpents is formed of a great 
nnmber of vertebno ; in tlie rattle-anake 
there are about two hundred, and in the 
t coluber natrix above three hundred have 

been counted. These vertebrie are all 
united by ball and socket joints, the pos- 
terior rounded eminence of each vertebra 
being received iiito the anterior surface of 
tbe next. Serpents swallow thdr 
entire ; and it is well mcertained tha't 
they will BwnlZow ani mala having ten times 
the diameter of that of their own neck. 
The looae conneimii of all the hones 
snrrounding the mouth of serpents, en- 
oblea them Co distend their jaws and 
mouth to receive undivided prey, and 
thus, BO faraB food is concerned, to dis- 
penee with arms to grasp it, and assist in 
its sub-division. Neither are their teeth 
suited for mastication, being coDical, 
slender, sharp, osseous, and recurred. 

Venomous servients, or those with iso- 
lated fangs, have their organs of maadu- 
calion constructed on a very peculiar plan. 
Their superior maiillary hnnes are very 
small, attached to a long pedicle, and are 
very moveable ; in them is filed a sharp- 
pointed pervioas tooth, through which 
flows a liqaor which, poured into Che 
wound made by the tooth, produces 
effects according to the species of the 
reptile secreting it. This tooth, when 
tbe animal does not wish to nse it, is con - 
cealed in a fold of the gum, and behind it 
are several gerniB destined to replace it, 
in the event of its being broken. 

All those venomous sergieitts, whose 

f ] ORB 

mode of prodQction is well ascert 
bring forth living young ones, as 
eggs are hatched without being laidi— 
Gmnl. M'MurlTif. Roget. 

OFHi'niODs, Belonging to the 

Opri'olite. (from infit, a aerpent, ani 
Xi'HuC, a stone, Gr.) Another name In 
(he mineral serpentine. 

O'fhiti. (h^iTiK, lapitin modam Niyn^ 
tin macif/onu, eA Sfi^, b serpent, Gr,} 
Green porphyry, or serpentine. A \ ~ 
■tone, varying from blackisb-grei 
pistachio-green. It contains grei 
white crystals of felspar, which «_ 
polished Burface often shew themaelvMll 
paraUelograinB, and are sometimes a~ 
ciform. It occutb massive and din 
mioated. Lustre glistening and resineMi 
Fracture concboidat. and often ipliB. 

Iro'sauu. A genus of quadrupeds bdaog^ 
ing Co the order Marsupialia. He opM* 
sums are peculiar to America, and ir*^ 
remarkable for having B greater natnba 
of teeth than any other animal, amouDliq 
ill all to fifty. These teeth are thoa H 
vided : ten incisors above and eight below^ 
three anterior compressed grinders, ant 
four posterior brisded ones, which wiA 
the four canine make the fifty. Thar 
approach the quadrumones, by having ll* 
thumb of their hind foot opposed to A 
fingers, whence Aey have been caHe 
Iiedimaties •- Che thumb is not armed -nt 

The small opossnmi 
mation at Stoneafield, 

I have yet t 

discovered ii 

than Che Certiary. 
3'fposite. (njipotitiH, Lat.) 

applied to the posilion of lei 

exactly opposite each other on 

also Co branches growing in pairs ; au)dtt 

peduncles placed opposite to a InJl— ^ 

Mora Medina. 
I'rrics. (from iirrupnr, to see, Qt.\ 

That branch of science which b 

the properties of light and of vi 

performed by the human eye. 
I'ReED. Round i circular; formt 

iRni'coLA. (from OT-iJi, an orb, LaL} A 
genus of bivalve sheils helunging to the 1 
family Brachiopoda. The orbicula ia I 
very email inequivalved fiaC bivalve j 0* | 
lower vatve very thin and adherei 
other bodies. It is a marine shell, fonnd 
bC depths varying lo eixtcen fathoms, 
attached to stones, shells, sunken wrecks, 
&c. Orbiculee have not been fouail 



[ 1 

it. In bolanj, leaves are 
eir length and breadth ] 
eir form nesrl; circaiar. 
SIT. (orir'/n, Lat. orbUr. Ft. orbila, Tt.) 
lie line described by tlut retuludon of 
the path - ■ ■ 

Tbe n 

lan di^t 

c of a 

eijual ta half the major 
•lis of its orbit. A pUaet moves in its 
«UipbcBl orbit with a velocity varying 
^erery instant, in consequence of two 
ces, one lending to the centre of the 
I, and tbe other in the direction of 

I the 

BtiniitiTe ImpuUe, given at tbe time when 
fcma lannohed into space. 

■" om i'ji;(iC, Gr. orcAis, Lat.) 
monocotyledDaDiis plants. 
Perianth superior, sepals three, usualiy 
tiolonred, the odd one uppermost, from 
the tniating of tbe ovarium; petals three, 
iunally coloured, of which two are the 
ippermoet, while the third, called the 
■bellum, is nsDally lobed, and ditfers in 
gurti, colour, or size, from thf other 
■O, and ii often spurred ; stamens three, 
nited in a central eolamn, th<: two lateral 
EnersUy abortive, tbe central one per- 
9ct ; antiieT either persistent or deuidn- 
Bi; pollen either powdery or cohering 
I grannlsr or waiy maases ; ovarium 
ne-oelUd, with three parietal placentK ; 
lyte ibrming part of the rolnmn of the 
Eas>ens ; stigma a viscid Epace in frout 
•of the colaran \ froit usually a capsule, 
S^3 three valves, sometimes bac- 

lated, nu albumen, embryo a lolid 
ided fleshy mas j ; he rbaceauh plants, 
stemless, or forming a kind of 
above ground ; or sometimes with 

nnetimes articulated vrilh the atem ; in- 

oreHcencE terminal or radical spikes, 

icemes or panicles, oacasianally solitary. 

Natives of lUI countries, ei(-ept very 

dd or very dry. There are thirty-seven 

irittah ^ecies ; and, prabahly. altogether 

It fewer than fifteen hundred species. 

The flower of the orchidise is very pe- 

iliar; the calyi and corolla consist of 

iree pieces each, and one of thoae form- 

ig the latter, differs very greatly in size 

id form from the other two ; it is called 

le labellum, or little lip, and is often 

In many species, this resemhles 

, and hence they have received 

of bee, dy. spider, &c. &c. 

CTi'dbodk. Belonging to the order 

iircbideee; parasitical plants. 

^SB OF Suprrfosi'tion. That ar- 

•ngement of strata in whicb they are 

Bvariably found. The order of BUperpo- 

lAtion Ib never inverted. Strata are fte- 

qaently abienl, but tlie order of snperiiO' 

lition of such as are present is invariably 
the same. 

Obb. (fr:, Germ.) A metallic compound. 
Metals are touud usually combined with 
other substances : tbe compounds they 
thus form are called Ore*, when tbe metal 
exists in them in sufSdent quaotitiEB to 
form a considerable portion of the mass. 

OROA'stc. {bpyaviKhi, Gr. organiaa, Lat. 
orgaaiqsi, Fr. organteo. It.) Consisting 
of various parts eo-operating with each 
other ; consisting of natural instrumenta 
of action or operation. 

ObQa'nic bo'dieb. Sudi as possess na- 
tural instruments of action i ontheaction 
of each, and their co-operation together, 
depend the growth aud perfection of the 

Ohga'nic beuai'ns. Tbe relics of what 
were once living bodies : generally applied 
to the fossil remains of animals or pUnti, 

Obismo'loot. (from upio/ioc, definition, 
and Xnyoc, discourse, Gr.) Called alio 
terminology. In entomology, oriamology 
contains the various technical terms iu«d 
in ciplainiog tbe perceptible dlfferenoes 
in the body of an insect, and at tbe same 
time acquaints us with its exterior visible 
parts in the several periods of its exist- 
enne, until its full and perfect develop, 
ment. Mr. Kirby introduced the term 

Oribhold oiCAL. Relating to orismology. 

0«»iiTBi'cK KITES, (from uifvii;, H bird, 
and Siyiu, to touch, Gr.) Tbe footmarka 
of birds found in difierent formations. 
Some recent discoveries of oroithicknites 
are very remarkable ; tbe footsteps appear 
in regular succession, on the conlinooua 
track of an animal in the act of running 
or walking, with the right and left foot 
always in their relative places. Au ac- 
count of these has been pubhshed by 
Fi-of. Hiti:bcock, in tbe American Journal 
of Arts and Seiences : they were disco- 
vered in the new red sandstone of the 
valley of Connecticut. The most remark- 
able were those of a gigantic bird, twice 
the size ofan ostrich, wlrose foot measured 
fifteen inches in length, exclusive of the 
largest claw, which measured two inches. 
The discovery of these ornitbicknites is 
exceedingly interesting to tbe palKonCo- 
logist, as proving the eiisteace of birds at 
the early epoch of the new red sandstone 

OBNi'THOtiTE. (from ujifiE, a bird, and 
\ieos, a stone, Gr.) A fossil bird. Stones 
of various colours and forms, bearing tbe 
figures of birds. Specimens of Ibis kind 
may be obtained at Matlock, in Derby- 
shire, and at other places where the water 
is surcharged with lime. 

Orkitho'loby. (from Spi'ic, a bird, and 
Xoyof, discourse, Gr.) That department 

O R N [ 1! 

of natural hiBtorj which troU of Lirdi ; 
ile»cribe» their structure, eiternal anil 

intemal ; uid teochei their enunomj «uit 
their uiet. 
Obnitho'logibt. One *ersrd in tliat 
braach of uatiml hietorj wiiich treutH 
of the babitt, structure and uses of 

Obnithorby'nchds. (from £pi'ic. abird, 
and pl'ix''<!' ' beak, Gr.) The platjpUB 
of Shaw. "Hie dnck-bill ; an animal io- 
digenous to New HoUaod, and found in 
so other country- In this momtdoub 
animal, we have a i|nadruped clothed with 
fur, having a bill like a duck, with four 
webbed feet. Buckling its young, and most 
probably ov o- viviparous ; the male is 
furnished with spurs. The month of the 
oruitborh^ncbns has a form af construc- 
tion between that of qnadrniieda and birds, 
being furniabed, like the former, with 
grinding teeth at the posterior part of 
both the upper and lower jans, but the; 
are of a homy substance ; the moath 
is terminated in front by a homy bill, 
greatly resembling that of the duck, or the 
spoon-bill. It has also small cheek- 
pouches. Membranes unite the toes of 
the fore and hiud-feet; iu the fore-feet it 
extends bejond the nails, iu the hind-feet 

has also a flattened tail. It inhabits the 
rivers and marshes. 

(from ajtripigmetttum, liat. 
, Ft. arpimento, It.) The Arse- 
nic sulfur^ janne of Haiiy; Arsenic Bult'urc 
orpiment of Brongnisrt. Yellow sul- 
phuret of arsenic, an ore of arsenic com- 
bined with sulphur. Its colour is usually 
lemon-jellow, which is often shining and 
beanCiful. It occurs in laminated or 
lamellar masses ; in concretions ; and 
sometimes in minute crystals. It is 
principally volatilized befora the blow- 
pipe, with a wliitfi smoke, and with the 
odour of both eulphor and arsenic, leavinf 
a small earthy residue. According to 
Thenard it is composed of artieniu hj, 
snlpbur 43. Klaproth states his analysis 
to bearsenic 52, sulphur 38. 

The fohated structure of orpiment, and 
its arsenical odonr, when eiposed to heat, 
distinguish it from native sulphur. It 
occurs in veins, in various aielalliferous 
formations, in Hungary and Germany, 

Crthite. (from ipSJe, straight, Gr.) A 
mineral found in the mine of Pinbo, in 
Sweden, and thus named from its being 
always found in straight layers. 

Obthoce'bata. ^ (Trom op9bi, straight, 

I horn 

Gr.) An extinct genus of polytholamous, 
or many chambered, cerhalapoda, which 
inhabited straight shells. The orthoccm- 

] O S M 

tite resemble! an amino 

having its chambers separated by (n 

vex internally; the septa being p 
by a sipbuncle. There are many n 
ties ; some upwards i " " - - ■ 
OrthDceratitea are e 
the transition strata, appearing ti 
been early called into existence, and at a f 
early period to have been consigned U 
almost total destruction. Part of tbi 
pavement of the |>alace at Hampton Conn, J, 
and that of the hall of University CoUc) 
Oxford, are composed of marble ci ' 
ing remsins of Ortboceratites. 
species, fonnd in the carboniferoiu^ 
atone of Closeburn , in DumfriES-sbirc,^ 
nearly of the size of a man's thigh. 

The coverings of the wings, inslraii of I 
being of a homy texture, are soil ulA 
flexible. The wings themselves, bo^f 


1 use, folded longitudinally like i 

Lo'oiCAL. (from &paKT>iq, a Cnd, I 
anu Aoyof, discourse, Gr.) Pertoinintb I. 
that part of physics which trean if I 

Ortcto'logist. One who studies, or I 
versed in, that part of physics wMi 
treats of fossils. 

Obycto'i,ogv. (from upuicTSc. » fosail, ul I 
Mynq, discourse, Gr.) By so 
oryctognosy has been substituted fl 
oryctology, and geognosy for geotog 
for this there appears no valid t^u~ 
and if followed, we ought, by the si 
rule, to change metereology into mete 
ognosy, physiology into physiognoay, ^ 
Oryctology is that branch of mini ' 
which has for its object the c . 
of minerals ; or, in other words, it «. 
eists in the descriptian of minerals, da 1 
determination of their uomenclatnre, u ' 
the systematic arrangement of their ilif' 1 
ferent species. — Cleaveland. 

Oscilla'tion'. [oieillalia, Lat. otdlM 
Pr. oicillazimr. It.) Vibration ; theii^ 
of swinging to and ^ ; a i 
and fro, like the swinging of the p 
lum of a clock, or waves in 
tides are oscillalionB of the sf 

OfiMhRa'jDES MaNTe'llII. 

given by Dr. Msntell to an ichthynlilttf 
the chalk formation discovered in r 
Lenes chalk-pits. It is ckisely t 

suiUM. (from Air/i^. odoor, Gr.) 
metal discovered by Tennant ' 
platinum, and deriving its nami 

f, Lat.) Bony ; toil- ! 
LDbiing hone. I 

A IDB1S8 of fr-ognieDtB j 
. . nimala cemented toge- I 

ly ■ catcareouE gangiie, and cum- | 
found in fissures and caves. ' 

EiouiculBm, B little bone, Lnt.) | 
bone : some of the smell bonea ' 
BT into the fonnation of the ear 
d the oesicula sudlC&s. 
ra. (from oa, a bone, aadjero, 
ce, to bear, or contain, Lat.) 
bonea or fragments of bones ; 
g bones. Thus we hare t 
gTavel, ossiferoas cia;, ossifei 
.osnferoDS caies, &c. S:c. Large 
IS of tiiiB fcingdoin are covered by 
*r aggn^atiouB of gravelly sands 
tbbly clays, locally stored with the 
of various land quadrupeds. It ia 
fkable (net that the ossiferous caves 
SoreB are situated almost every 
ji limestonet 

/u^. (from 6f7rfdt>, a boae, and 
) glue, Gr.) Vegetables of the 
lelicate texture, vhen immersed in 
containing carbonate of lime, be- 
DcruEted. still preserviug their form 


an animal, and the pro]ierty 

^^ — the onion of fractured hones, 
(from 6ariov, a bone, and 
diiconree, Gr. onteologie, Fr. oitea- 
Et.) A description of the bonea ; 
' anatomy whicb treats of the 

witli thick bristles ; squatnosni, eoverrd 

Oti'icaop. A term naed by miners, to ei- 
press the exposure at the sarface of a 

On'TLiBtt. A portion of a stratum de- 
tached from the principal mass, and lying 
detached at some distance from it. 

ffvA angui'na. a species of fossil ci- 
daris or echinas. 

O'vAL. (from otiuni, an egg, Lat. avalf, 
Fr. ovale. It.) A rounded aurface, il« 
two right-angular diameters being of an 
unequal length, so that its longest trana- 
TcrsB diameter doea not pass throngh the 
centre of its longitudinal diameter, but 
lies nearer to one end. — Shueiard. 

Ova'riuu. ) (oTBtre, Fr. avaja. It.) That 

O'VARV. i part of tbe body which con- 
tains the ova, and in which impregnation 
is performed. In animals, it is only in 
the organs termed ovaries, that ova are 

In botany, that part of the flower which 
ripens into the fruit, and contains the 

O'vArE. (ovalM. made like an e^, from 
avuta, Lat.) Of the shape of on egg ; 

(yviuncT. (from op«m, an egg, and duc- 
tus, a passage, Lat.) A canal, or duct, 
through which the ova pase, alter impreg- 
nation, from the ovary to the uterus. In 
the human subject the oviducts are called 
the Fallopian tubes. 

O'viroHM. (from orrum, an egg, axidfonan, 
shape, Lat.) Of the form or shape of an 

Oolite, ' 

. i 

ced bivalve 


irithout a tooth. One muscular 
nou in each valve. The oyster i. 
both fossil and recent. Of this 
le hundred and tbirtj-seven spe- 
ro been described in Turton's 
Lamarck describes eighCeen 
as foDnd foBsQ in tbe neigbbour- 
t Paris. The most extraordinary 
tf this genna for size, saya Mr. 
■on, is the large fossil ojater, the 
•ualogue of which, from Virginia, 
■ to be depicted by Lister. Some 
to the length of twenty inches. 
Act valve in Mr. Parkinson's pos- 
I weighed four poundi, being tbir- 
' - 'n length aud three in tbictc- 


^eg, I 

Tbe ■ 


I fou 

varying to seventeen fathoms, in 
nn and in estoaries. Sometimes 
4 to rocks and other snbatances. 
Che termination of woids in omia 

~is fulness, or the abundant pre- 
f ■ quality ; eiamplcs, pilosus, 
i with much hair ; setoaus, covered 

pario, to produce, Lat. ( , 
paro, IL) All auimale which lay eggs, 
enclosed in a calcareous shell, are called 
oviparous. Oviparous production is thus 
characterized : tbe yonng animal is not 
otlached to tbe parielies of the ovidnct, 
but remaius separated from it by its ex- 
ternal envelope! its aliment being en- 
closed in a sac, which ia attached to its 
intestinal canal. 

Jvo'-viviFAaocs. Some animals, aoch as 
the salamander and the viper, never lay 
their eggs, but these are hatched within 
tbe body of the parent ; so tbut although 
originally contained in eggs, the offspring 
are brought forth in a living state. Such 
animals are termed ovo-viviparous. 

)viFd'siTiNG. The laying of eggs. 

IviFo'siTDB. A name given to tbe ter- 
minal apei of the abdomen of insects. 

)VuLE. J {dim. of OBUin, an egg, Lat.) 

J'vitLUM. ! In botany, the seed before it 
ia perfected. The small bodies produced 
on the margins of liie carpelb in the 

() X P 

[ 192 1 


pistil, are called ovula, or ovules ; when > 
perfected they become the seeds of the 
plant. The ovule is generally attached 
to the placenta of the ovarium by a very 
small stalk. 

O'xFOKi) CLAY. Called also clunch clay. 
A bed of dark blue clay, sometimes 
nearly two hundred feet in thickness, in- 
terposed between the lower and the mid- 
die oolites. One species of ichthyosau- 
rus, distinct from the species occurring in 
the lias, has been found in this deposit. 

Oxida'tion. That process by which me- 
tals, and other substances, are converted 
into oxides by their combination ¥dth 

O'xiDE. A substance combined with oxy- 
gen, without being in the state of an 

O'xiDiZED. Converted into an oxide, by 
combination with oxygen. 

CyxYOEN. (from 6^i^£, acid, and yevvao), 
to produce, Gr.) So called from its 
property of forming acids. One of the 
iifty-iive simple or elementary substances, 
and one of the five which exist as gas. 
So generally does oxygen enter into com • 
bination with metallic and non-metallic 

bodies, and in inch large pi 
that it has been computed thatone-lialf( 
the ponderable matter of the globe ' 
composed of oxygen gas. Oxygen ooi-| 
stitutes about one-20th per cent, of thi 
volume of the atmosphere; it fonui 
third part, by measure, of the gases eoa- 1 
posing pure water ; and is locked op ti 
an immense amount in the various neb, 
which are little else than a mass of osi" | 
dized substances. Plants give out oiy- 
gen, animals absorb it. It is to Ikil 
Priestley we owe the knowledge of tk 
former of these two facts ; and he it wj 
who first discovered oxygen, in 177i| 
Oxygen has neither taste nor smdl. It I 
is a trifle heavier than atmospheric ar, 
100 inches weighing 33*88 grains. 

Oxtgbna'tion. "This word,'* says Dr. 
Ure, " is often used for oxidation, ail 
frequently confounded with it: Irat it 
differs, in being of more general impoi^| 
as every union with oxygen, whatever tkj 
product may be, is an oxygenation ; 
oxidation takes place only when as oxili 
is formed.'' — Diet, qf Chem, 

O'ysanitb. a name given by Lameth ts \ 
pyramidal titanium, or anatase. 











Pachyde'rmata. (from rraxiiCf thick, 
and Skpfia, skin, Gr.) Thick-skinned 
animals. The seventh order of the class 
Mammalia, in Cuvier's arrangement. This 
order Cuvier divided into two families, 
namely, Proboscidiana, or those pachy> 
dermatous animals which have tusks and 
a proboscis, as the elephant and masto- 
don ; and pachydermata ordinaria, in 
which are included the hippopotamus, 
anoplotherium, palseotherium, tapir, &c. 

Several genera of the order Pachyder- 
mata have become extinct, their fossil 
remains alone proving that such ever 
existed. Amongst these are the masto- 
don, the anoplotherium, the palaeothe- 
rium, and the lophiodon. Of the exist- 
ing genera of pachydermata, many species 
which existed during the older and newer 
pliocene periods also seem to have be- 
come extinct. 

The pachydermata appear to be, as it 
were, only the remnants of a very exten- 
sive order, which formerly inhabited the 
earth, but have now almost entirely dis- 
appeared. They feed upon grass, but 
they do not ruminate. They are, for the 
most part, huge and unwieldy animals, 
vrith thick integuments ; solidity and 
strength appearing to be the objects 
chiefly regarded in their construction. 

Pachyde'rm ATons. Thick-slrinned { Ik- 
longing to the order Pachydermata. 

Pa'ddle. The swimming apparatus of the 
chelonian reptiles, and of the marine su- 
rians, has obtained the name of paddles. 

P^ciLo'poDA. (fi'om iroiKikoQ, and iro^ 
Gr. various footed.) The second orkt 
of the class Crustacea ; it comprises tis 
families, Xysophura and Siphonostoma. 

Pa'latal. Pertaining to the palate, or 
roof of the mouth. 

Pa'latb. {palatum, Lat. palms, Fr. jM- 
lato, It.) The roof, or upper part of the 

pALiBo'LOGY. (from iroLkaihg, ancient, ud 
Xoyoc, discourse, Gr.) The study of 
ancient things. This word is comoMHily 
written paleology. 

Pal^onto'logist. (from palaoniokff') 
One who studies, or is vers^ in, ^ 
history of fossil plants and animals. 

Pal^eonto'logy. (from iraXaibg, andent, 
ovTa, beings, and \6yoCf discourse, &•) 
The history of fossil plants and animals; 
that branch of natural history which treats 
of fossil and extinct animals and plants. 

Pal^bosau'rus. (from iraXatbCf ancient, 
and ffavpoQ, a lizard, Gr.) A genus of 
fossil saurians, now extinct, foand in the 
magnesian limestone. 

Pal2bothe'rium. (from iraXmbs, aneiait, 



pi 9tipiav, a villi beast, Gr.) An ex- 
it genua offoBiiil [|uadru|ieds, belong- 
to the ordar PBchydermsta, hiving 
^nty-eight molar teetli, or grinders, sii 
' lOrs, and tno CBnioe teeth in each 
It possessed three toea to each foot, 
J bad a short fleshy proboscis. Eleven 
f twelve apecies of the genus have been 

. "The place of the gennaPs- 

says Prof. Buckland, " is 
tenoeiliate between the rhinoceros, the 
brae, and the tapir. Some of the dia- 
il iiiecics were as large as n rhi- 
s, others were from the size of a 
to that of a hog. These animals 
robably lived upon the margins of the 
m existing lakee and rivera. 
BOTue'HiAN. Belonging to the genua 
Iseatherium, as palsotherian remaius, 

(pelea, chaff, Lat.) In botany, 
Bterm Bpplied to the two inner bracten of 
^TUsea : the paleB are membranous or 

'.A'Dim. (from the planet Pallas.) A 
ital of a greyish or hlnish-white colour. 
BscoTered by Dr. Wollaston in ISO'A, in 
platinum. It ia malleable, ductile, and 
llexible, bnt doea not poaeesa much elas- 
ticity. In hardness it surpasses all other 
metals, with the exception of tungsten, 
which it equals. Speciftc gravity ll'S. 
It is not oxidated by the action of the 
atmosphere. It is fusible only at a very 
high temperatnre. 
PA'LLEAt. (from pallium, a mantle, Lat.) 
In conchology, the name given ti 
mark or impression observed in blvj 
fbrmed by the mnscnlar attachment of the 

Pa'lmatb. \ {patmaius, Lat.) Webbed, 
Pa'i.uatgd. t like the feet of some wBter- 
birds i deeply divided into lobes like the 
fingers on the band ; resembling a band ; 
palmed or hand-like. Applied to leaves 
which are divided, half, or more than half- 
way, dowo the middle, into several nearly 
equal aegmenta, having a space between 

Pa'luipedEs. (from pelmipes, that hath 
its feet closed with a film or web, Lat.) 
The siith order of birds in Covier's ar- 
Tsngement. The goose and duck are 
^miliar examples. 
Palm, (from palma, Lat.) The palms 
conatitute a natural order of monocotyle- 
donous, or endogenous, plants. The 
I Sowers are hermaphrodite, or polyga- 
Perianth six-parted, persistent. 
erted into the base of the 
Both, definite or indefinite. Ovary 
r deeply three-lohed, with 
t ovale. Pniit baccate or dru- 
paceons. with fibrous flesh. Albumen 
cartilaginous ; embryo in a cavity at a 

t ] PAL 

distance From the liilum. Leaves ter- 
minal, large, pinnate, or Habellifbrm, 
plaited in vernation. Spadii enclosed 
in a valced apatha. Flowers small. 

A palm tree affords aa example of the 
mode of growth in endogenous plants. 
The stem of this tree is usually perfectly 
cyhndrical, atlains a great height, and 
bears on its summit a tuft of leaves. It 
is composed of an extremely dense ex- 
ternal cylindric layer of wood ; but the 
teitnre of the interior hecomes gradually 
softer and more porous as it approaches 
the centre. It hna neither medullary 
rays, nor central pilb, nor true outward 
bark. The first stage of its growth con- 
sists in the appearance of a circle of 
leaves, wliich shoot upwards &om the 
neck of the plant, and attain, during the 
first year, a certain siie. The following 
year another circle of leaves arises j but 
they grow from the interior of the former 
circle, which they force outwards as their 
vegetation advances, and aa Ugneous 
matter is deposited within them. As 
soon aa the outer layer has become too 
hard to yield to the pressure from within, 
the growth of the inner layers is imme- 
diately directed upwards] so that they 
rise in succession by diatinct stages, al- 
ways proceeding from the interior ; a 
mode of development which has been 
compared by De Candolle to the draw- 
ing out of the sliding Cubes of a telescope. 
The whole stem, whatever height it may 
attain, never increasea in diameter after 
ita outer layer has been consolidated. A 
circle of leaves annually sprouts from the 
margin of the new layer of wood ; these, 
when they fell off, leave tracea, conaisting 
of a circular impression, round the stem. 
By the number of these circles the age of 
the tree may be ascertained. The ex- 
isting family of polms is supposed to coii- 
liat of nearly a thousand species, of 
which the greater number are limited to 
peculiar regions of the torrid zone. It is 
not surprising to find the remains of 
palms in warm latitudes, where plants of 
this family are now indigenous ; beau- 
tifully ailiclfied stems of palm trees 
abound in Antigua, and in India ; but 
tbeit occurrence in the tertiary forma- 
tions of Europe, associated with the re- 
mains of crocodiles and tortoises, and with 
marine shells, nearly allied to forms now 
found in seas of a warmer temperature, 
seema to indicate that the climate of 
Europe, during the tertiary period, was 
warmer than at the present time. The 
palms have pervaded all the series of for- 
mations, though in small proportions. 
Pa'lpi. In entomology, the palpi, 
feelers, are the auxiliary organs of a t 
ticating mouth. Those upon the max- 





iUk are termed the palpi maxillares, or 
maxillary feelers; those placed laterally 
upon the labium, are designated the palpi 
labiates, or labial feelers. 

Paludi'na. a genus of fresh- water uni- 
valve!", belonging to the family Peristo- 
mata. Several species, Paludina elon- 
gata, Paludina fluviorum, Paludina cari- 
nifera, &c. have been found in the Weal- 
den formation. 

Pa'ncake. The name given by Klein to 
the Echinodiscus laganum, a species of 
fossil echinus, belonging to the division 

Panda'nea. } ({totd pandits y Lat. crooked.) 

Panda'nus. S The screw-pine, so named 
from the spiral arrangement of its leaves, 
is a monocotyledonous tree, growing 
only in the warmer zones, and princi- 
pally near the sea. The pandanea, like 
the cocoa-nut palm, is generally the first 
vegetable colonist of the newly-raised 
coral islands. Its appearance is that of a 
gigantic pine-apple plant with arbores- 
cent stems. The pandanus bears a large, 
spherical, drupaceous fruit : the seed 
within each drupe being enclosed within 
a hard nut. From the pandanus growing 
near to the sea, its fruit frequently drops 
into the water, and is drifted by the 

. waves and winds to distant shores : thus 
the elements of vegetation are transported 
to the emerging coral islands, where it 
vegetates. A fossil fruit of the pan- 
danus was found by Mr. Page in the in- 
ferior oolite, and is in the Oxford mu- 
seum. It is of the size of a large orange, 
and is covered by a stellated rind, or epi- 
carpium, composed of hexagonal tuber- 
cles, forming the summits of cells which 
occupy the entire surface of the fruit. 
Fruits of a genus, to which M. Adam 
Brongniart has given the name of Pan- 
danocarpum, occur, together with cocoa- 
nut fruit, at an early period of the ter- 
tiary formations, in the London clay of 
the Isle of Sheppey. 

Pa'ngolin. a species of manis, or scaly 
lizard ; called also the scaly ant-eater. Its 
armature is composed of separate, homy, 
moveable scales. It is destitute of teeth, 
has a very extensile tongue, and lives on 
ants and termites. 

Pa'niclb. {panicula, Lat. a bunch or 
cluster.) A species of inflorescence, in 
which the flowers are scattered on pedun- 
cles, variously subdivided without any 
order, and more or less close. The oat 
affords a familar example. When the 
middle branches of a panicle are longer 
than the others, it is termed a thyrsus. 

Panni'culus carno'sus. (from panni- 
culuSf a cloth, and camosttSf fleshy, Lat.) 
A peculiar set of sub-cutaneous mus- | 
cular bands which serve to erect the bris- I 

ties, or armour, of certain animals; as 
the hedge- hog, porcupine, &c. 

Panop.«'a. a genus of bivalve shells of 
the family Solenacea. The panopaea is a 
transverse inequilateral bivalve, gaping 
at both extremities. The hinge similar 
in both valves, with an acute cardinal 
tooth in each, and, on the right valve, a 
little pit, which receives, the toodi of the 
opposite valve. 

This shell appears to be of a mixed 
genus between mya and solen. It is 
found both recent and fossil, but no great 
deal appears to be known of the recent 

Pa'per coal, a bituminous shale, to 
which the name has been given from its 
divisibility into extremely thin leaves. In 
the brown coal formation, and in the 
surturbrand, are found beds that divide 
into laminee, as thin as paper, and are 
composed entirely of a congeries of many 
kinds of leaves. 

Pa'per nau'tilus. CaUed also the Paper 
Sailor. See Argonauta. 

Papi'lio. (papilio, Lat. a butterfly.) A 
genus of the family Diuma, belonging to 
the order Lepidoptera. The butterfly. 
The species are numerous. It has been 
well observed that the chrysalis is flie 
tomb of the caterpillar, and the cradle of 
the butterfly. 

Papiliona'ceous. Resembling a butterfly. 
In botany, the corolla is called papiliona- 
ceous when it consists of five petals of 
particular forms, of which the uppermost 
is generally the largest, and turned back ; 
the two next resemble each other, bat 
differ from the first ; they have their 
faces turned towards each other, and are 
called the alee ; the two lowermost are 
generally united by their lower edge, and 
form a keel-like figure, and are, from that 
circumstance, called the carina or keel; 
the two last, so united, contain, and pro- 
tect, the internal organs. 

Papi'lla. (papilla, Lat.) This word is 
generally used in the plural, papiUc 
Malpighi first discovered this structure 
in the foot of the pig, and gave to it its 
name. The exteriud surface of the skin 
presents a great number of minute pro- 
jecting filaments ; these are the papillae. 
" It is probable,*' says Dr. Roget, "that 
each of these papillae contains a separate 
branch of the nerves of touch, so that 
we may consider these papi^se as the 
principal and immediate organs of touch. 
The papillae are much more easfly per- 
ceived on some parts than others, but no 
where are they more perceptible than on 
the tongue, where, more especially in t 
morbid condition of the body, they are 
frequently much elevated. 

Papi'llous. (from papilla f Lat. a pimple.) 

HaTing the snrface covered witb pimples 
or doU. 

Lpi'lloss. In botan]', a term applied (a 
stems covered witb EOfl: tubeiclea ; aUo 
to leaves covered with fleshy duts or 

k'puLODs. (from papula, ■ kind of 
pimple.) Pull of piniples ; pimply; 
blistered . 

A'pptiB. ( pappus, Lst. thistle-down, 
•■ajrirot, Gr.) Tlie feathery appendage 
that croKHS many seeds which have uo 
periearpinm ; a particular form of caljs 
of which we have a familiar e.iample in 
the dandelion. 

ast'itOLA. (parabola, IM. irapafioXi). 
Gr. paraiole, Fr. parabola. It. ) One of 
the five conic sections : tbua, if a cone be 
cut by a plane parallel to one of its 
doping aides, the secdoo will be a para- 

»B.*Bo'LteK. (parabotigKf, Fr. paraboiieo, 
It.) Having the uature or form of a 

U-alI'B'i-ogb.aii. (from 7rapa\\7Xoc and 
ypoiipa, Gr. paralUlngrame, Fr. paral- 
Uogrammo, It.) In geometry, a right' 
.lined quadrilateral figure* whose opposite 
glides are parallel and equal. 
ItnALLELOn'pEii. (parallelipipide, Fr. 
terme de gAm^lrif, Corpt solide tfrmiaS 
ipar tilt paraiUlogrammes dont let nppnsf's 
• aonf parallilet enire eitx.) A solid lignre 
,4K>Eitained under six parallelograms, the 
.Opposites of which are parallel and equal ; 
'' ' a prism nhose base is a parallelo- 
jITam : it is always triple tO a pyramid of 

*■' ime base and height. 

leiNE. A rare mineral, thus named 
'by Haiiy, more commonly known as Sca- 
■polite, which tee. 

ItlUai'TA. (paraaifa, Lat. wapdairo^, 
S^J) In Cuvier's arrangement, the third 
lOrdar of Insecta ; they bare six legs aud 
^re apterouB. Mr. Kirby observes, "the 
iSrder of parasites, conaietiug of the most 
luulean and disgusting inimals of the 
Mhole class, infest both man, beast, and 
Jdrd, no less than four species being 
I^Mached to man, may be divided into two 
^^— lOtionH, namely, tiose that live by euc- 
, _ on, and those that masticate their fond. 
{r& Oie firat of these belong the human 
id tba dog-louse, and to die other the 
^^ irions lice that inhabit the birds, of which 

yiUnioit every species has a peculiar one. 
^H. _ _.< — J j_ jij ijotany^ applied to 
L. \ plants which tii their 
EM>ts into other plants, and from them, 
aatftad of from the earth, derive their 
.tumrishmBnt : the mistletoe is a familiar 

.S. In zoology, a name given to certain 
liuecti which live upon the animals they 

i ] TAR 

ParekcKv'ua. (B-apiyxufHj Gr. paren- 
chymt, Fr.) 

1. A spongy or porous substance farming 
the bulk of some of the viscera, as the 
parenchyma of the liver, Ike. 

2. In botany, a fine, transparent, mem- 
branous tiasne, lying immediately beneath 
the epidermis of plants ; it is of a deep 
green cotour, very tender, and succulent. 
When viewed with a microscope, it seems 
to be composed of fibres which cross each 
other in every direction. In its simplest 
state, it appears like a mass of globules or 
vesicles, crowded together; these, from 
pressure, assume a six-sided, or hexagonal 

Fahekchv'hatoIi.':. Consistiug of paren- 
chyma ; spongy ; porous. 

Fa'bGasite. The name given to a vaiiety 
of actinoUte, from its being found in the 
Isle of Pargas, in Finland. 

Pauie'tal. (itoat pariet, a wall, Lat.) 

1. Tbeuamegiven to certain bones of the 
skull , from thei r serving as walls to the brain. 

2. In botany, a term used to express aa 
adhesion of some part to the inner side of 
an organ \ as when the seeds are attached 
to the placenta;, the latter are termed 

Fa'sis ua'ein. a targe area, to which the 
name of Paris Basin has been given, about 
180 miles in length, from north-east to 
south-west, and about ninety miles wide, 
from east to west. The country in which 
the capital of France is situated, is per- 
haps the most remarkable that has yet 
been observed, both from the succession 
of different soils of which it is formed, 
and from the extraordinary organic re- 
mains which it contmns. Bones of land 
animals, of viliich the genera are entirely 
unknown, are found in certain parts ; 
other bones remarkable for their vast 
size, and of which some of similar genera 
exist only in distant countries, are found 
scattered in the upper beds. MiUiona of , 
marine shells, wluch alternate regularly 
with fresh -water shells, compose the 
principal mass. The strata composing 
the Paris basin rest upon chalk, lying, as 
it were, in a depression of the chalk. 
The depth of these strata varies from one 
to five hundred feet. MM. BrongniarC 
and Cuvier divided the strata into the 
five following formations, commencing 
with the undermost. 1. First fresh-water 
formation ; consisting of plastic clay, lig- 
nite, and first sandstone. 2. First marine 
formation ; comprising the calcaire gtos- 
aier. 3. Second fresh-water formation ; 
containing siliceous limestone, gypsum, 
with bones of animals, and fresh-water 
marls. 4. Second marine formation; 
consisting of gypseous marine marls. 

I* A R [ I£ 

upper nurine narli aiul liinutanci. ft. 
Third frcsh-KBler formatioQ ; cuatsining 
tUiccoua millalone nithout shclll, uliceoai 
miUatane with sheila, and upper freih- 
water mirle. fiubsequeaC abierTiitioni 
hiie proved that this diviuon, u well u 
rawaj of the views entertdned bjr MM. 
BroDgaiut and Cuvier, i> not io aocord. 
aiice with facta with which the; were nn- 
anjaainCsd, and mucli modificBtion of the 
atrnve BiraJigement ha> beeo the conse- 
nuencF. The ailieeoUB limestone, with 
freah -water and terreaCrial ahella and 
ptanta, and the calciure groiBier, or iirst 
mariae Formation, ofteu alteniate, and 
are deemed by M. Constant. Prevoat ta 
be contemporaneona farniationa ; end it 
ia not improbable that while the waters 
in one lake or basin might be marine, 
those in another might be freah, and thus 
two formations containing different Or- 
ganic remains might be deposited con- 
[emponmeonalj. — Lyell, Baitteell. 

Fa'bticles elkhi'ntaky. The final re- 
Bults of chemucBl analjaia. Elementary 
particlea are those ot which integrant 
particles are composed ; thus, while the 
latter remain invariable in the same body, 
the former must vary with the progresa 
of chomiatry. In bodies really simple, 
the inCegrant and elementary particles 
must he the eame. — Cleavelaitd. 

PA'ttircLMS I'NTEORiMT. These are the 
smallest particles into which a body i 
be reduued without destroyiog its natu , 
or, in other words, without decomposing 
iC Only tbree farms of integrant par- 
ticles have hitherto been ^covered. 
They are the three moat simple, geome- 
trical solids ; namely, a tetrnedron ; a tri- 
angular prism ; and a parallel opiped, ia- 
cludiDg all solids of six bides, parallel 

Fa'btiTB. (parliliu, Lat. from;iarfiar, to 
divide.) Divided. In botany, a partite 
leaf is one separated to the base. 

Pat«'lla. Ipalella, Lat. a little deep dish 
with a broad brim.) That bone of the 
leg commonly known as the knee-pan. 

Patk'ua. Iq concliology, the limpet shell. 
Animal a limai. A marine shell, uni- 
valve, eubconio, ahaped like a basin ; 
withoBt a spire. In Tnrton's Linnfe two 
hundred and forty species of patella, o: 
limpets, arc described : fonrteen of theai 
are inhabitants of onr coasts. The pateUa 
is found both recent and fossil. Recent 
patellie are found at depths varying to 
thirty fathoms, on rocky coasts, stones, 
and sea-weeds. Many species have been 
found fossil in the neighbourhoDd of 
Paris. Patellie have also been obtained 
from the Shanklin send, and from the 
Harwich cliffs. Mr. Parkinson mentions 
that he posEesses a fossil patella of the 

b J PEA 

species P. angarica, of the aiie of M 
inches and a-holf in its longest diameter. 

Fate'llifobh. <from paMIa, a dish, lal 
Jorma, form, Lat.) Of the form of ( 
small dish. 

Pate'llitk. a fossil patella. 

Pa'tdlodh. (paluhu, from palte, Lat CI 
be open.) In botany, spreading, ai ■ 
patoloas calyx. In conchologj, gqringi 
with a spreading aperture. 

(from pavo, Lat. a peacock.) 

ral with a deep and isolated cdL 
cell containing a large deprewt 
polypus, very sii 

uch cell € 

regards both its structure and sppcBma. 
In Dr. ManteU's Wonders of GeolDgf t 
species of pavonia, the P. lactuca, is bet*. 
tifuily figured. He sUtes Uiat the petjlt 
are of a deep green colour, and that thiot 
is a connecting, transparent, fleshy nl- 
Etance, which extends over the eilMU 
edges of the foliated expansion of tUl 

Pea onE. The name given to giai 
argillaceous oxide of iron, from its at 
ring in small masses or groins, nearly H 
quite splicrical. and of the size of apBk 
IC is the pisiform iroo'stone of Kirwm. 

Peak e'kcbinite. The Apiocrinitaa OK 
tundas, or Uradford ecrioite. A >pe('~ 
of crinoidea abounding in the ocditie lii 
stone in the neighbaurhaod of Bradford 
near Bath. When living, thrir roota wi 
conSueut, and formed a thick pavei 
over the bottom of the sea, &am i 
their stems and branches rose into 1 
thick submarine forest, composed of tb 
splendid zoophytes.' This bed of beau 
ful remaina lias been buried by a du 
stratum of clay. The body of the pi 
ecrinile was of a pyriform shape, fron 
which circumstance it has been thM 
named. The pear ecriiiite is conflnedta 
the middle oolite. 

Peahi., (perle, Germ, pirle, Fr. perla. It.) 
A spherical concretion consisting of con- 
centric coats of the same sabst&ooe as tin 
which forms Che mother-of-pearl of ik 
shell. It is produced by the extravaiaCioil 
of a lapidifying Huid, secreted in tin 
organs of the animal, the pcaii oyattr 
and filtered by its glands. The anior 
that produces pearls in the greatest abm 
dance, of the purest nature, and of ll 
highest value, has been formed bj I^mait 
into a genus named Meleagrina; liaM 
classed it with the musclea. It inhat?''Bi 
the Persian gulf, the coasts of Ceylon, ««. 
It attains perfection no where but in Qtt 
equatorial seas. The pearl fighery off ^ 
island of Ceylon is the most prodooln* 
of any ; the oyster-beds extending over A 
space thirty miles long by twenty-RW 
broad. The oysters at the greatest deptU 
yield the largest pearls, which Bi ' '"'' 


I [he fleshy pari, near Ihe liinge. For 
ne pearl that ia found (icrfecCly round 
id dBtached between Ibe memliraneB of 
le Duintle, bundreili oF irregulnr ones 
ecnr BtCached to the mo( her- of- pearl ; 
lese arc eametimea in soch numberB as 

> prevont the animal from dosing its 
■Ives, and thereby cause ita destruction. 

Tbe pearl ia supposed b; some nrilera 

> be the effect of disease ; it ia a fornin- 
On forced npon the oyster by some ei- 
laneouB substance within the shell, nhlch 
I covers with mother-of-pearl. Sir 
Iverard Home considered that the abor- 
ve eggs of the animsl were tbe nuclei 
pon which the penrU were formed. 

To collect the pearl oysters, divers are 
mployed; these men, provided with 
Bskets, descend to the bed at the bottom 
r the sea, and during their stay there, 
'hich does not e;iceed two miouteB, ge- 
irally a ulnate and a-half, collect into 
loir baskets every thing they can grasp, 
lien they are rapidly, at a signal given, 
anled up to the aurfbce. When the bed 
I richly Btored, a diver will collect 150 
pten at one dip, and a single diver will, 
1 one day, bring up from IDDD to 4000 
jaters. — Bev, FT. Kirby. Bridgfwatir 

LKL si'HTEn. Called also florite. A 
niety of siliceous sinter of a white or 
rey colour, found in volcanic tuff. 

T^aembling mother-of- 


L KLBTDNE. An igneous 
Mk with a mother-of-pearl lustre. 
BTllteiii of Werner ; Obsidienae peryi 
F Brongniart ; Lave yitreuse perlee oi 
[•ay. Pearlstone is a variety of obsidian 
scurring in globular and concentric !a- 

on. It BCPaCcbea glass. Specific gra- 
ly from 220 to 2-55. When breathed 
ipon, It frequently gives out an argilla- 
ouH odour. Its constituents are silica 
-0, alumina l.VO, lime and natron 2'6, 
itaih 1'4, oxides of manganese and iron 



solite. It 

^Cy of limestone, called 

iheroidal concretions of the size of a pea. 
! FUoUle. 

, (derived by some IVom the German 
rd gftitxe, a pool, or standing water.) 
intermediate substance between simple 
etable matter and lignite, the conver- 
\ of peat into lignite being gradual, 
ntd brought about by the action of water. 
Peat IB composed of the remains of many 
Efferent plants, but probably a great 
jrtioD is derived from the Sphagnum 
■Juitre, and the process by which these 
^BtaUes are thus converted is clearly 
Ml ID the sphagnum palustre. As (he 

] PEC 

lower extremity oF the plant djea, the 
upper eeiids forth Fresh roots, thus fur- 
nishing a perpetual supply of decomposing 
vegetable matter. Dr. MacuUoch sUtes, 
" where Che living plant is atill in contact 
with the peat, the roots of the rushes, 
and ligneous v^etablea, are found vacil- 
lating between life and death, in a apongj 
half decomposed mass. Lower down, 
the pulverized carbonaceous matter is 
soon mixed with similar fibres, still re- 
sisting decomposition. These gradually 
disappear, and at length a finely-powdered 
Bubstance alone is found, the process 

of peat, when not completely under 
water, is conliDed to moist situations, 
where tbe tEmperature is low, and where 
vegetables may decompose nidiout putri- 

Sir H. Davy states that one hundred 
parts of dry peat contain from sixty to 
ninety-nine parts of matter destructible 
by fire. One-tenth of the whole of the 
surface of Ireland is stated to be peat. 
At the bottom of peat-oiosses tliere is 
occasionally found a cake or pan of oxide 
□f iron ; whence this is derived does not 
appear to be clearly understood. The 
preservative property of peat is very re- 
markable ; bodies of persons who have 
perished in peat-bogs have been kept free 
from potrefection for many years. 

'e'cTEK. (pre/en, Lat. a comb.) A genus 
of marine bivalves, belonging to the family 
Ostracea, or, according to Lamarck's 
arrangement, to the family Pectenides. 
The pecten is a fossil as well as a recent 
shell, many species being found in our 
seas. Pectens arc found at depths vary- 
ing to twenty fathoms, in mud, sandy 
mud, and sand. It is a regular, eared, 
longitudinally ribbed, ineqnivalved bi- 
valve, with contiguous beaks, having a 
triangular auricle on each side of the nm- 
bones. Hinge toothless ; pit trigonal. 
One mnscnlar impression. Fosail pectens 
are founil in tbe neighbourhood of Paris, 
and in many parts of England ; in tbe 
Harwich cliff; in the green-sand of Wilt- 
shire ; near Thame in Oxfordshire ; in 
Gloueeatershire; andin Suasei. Amongst 
the fossils of Sussex one species of pecten 
is found in the chalk ; four species in the 
ehalk marl ; one species in the gait ; and 
three spedeB in the Shanklin sand. 

'e'ctinated ! {f'oja pecten, acomb, Lat.) 
I- In concbotogy. resembling a comb ; 
cut into regular, straight, segments like a 

2. In botany, applied to a pinnaiifid leaf, 
whose segments are eitreraely narrow, 
resembling the teeth of a comh. 


[ 1 

FkeTiNiBKANCBiA'TA. TliB iiith orilcr of 
moltuica, in Cuvier's arrangement. 

PKCTn'Noni.uB. A f enns of orbicular sub- 
ccjuiUteral morine biialieg, with an arched 
hinge i nomerauB teeth, alternately in- 

easily recognized by tlieir rounded or len- 
ticular form. MuBcular impreaaions two, 
and etrongl; marked. Recent pectunculi 
are found at depths tarying from fire to 
seventeen fathoms in sandy mnd and 
Bands. Foaail pectunculi are met with in 
the London clay and ealcaire groasier, and 
in the Bognor aandatone. 

Pe'datk. Ijiedatiu, Lat. &om pes, a foot. ) 
la botany, applied to leaves in which a 
bifid petiote connects several leaflets on 
the inside only ; also to a peculiar kind of 
ternate leaf, its latsral leaflet being caai- 

■ pounded in the fore part : the black helle- 

Pe'diclk. (pediixlua, Lat. a little foot.) 
The support of the Lejiaa anatifera, and 
its corresponding species, by which they 

Pe'dicel. In botany, a partial flower- 
Etalk, or a Eubdivision of the general 
one, each subdiviEiou being termed a 

PEni'GEBOUB. (from pa, a foot, and gfro, 
to bear, Lat.) Having legs; thus th* 
body uT the myriapod is divided into na- 
metons pedigeroaa segments. 

Pbdifa'lpi. The second family of Arach- 
aidana. They have very large palpi ter- 
minated by a forceps or claw. The prin- 
cipal aninialii among the pedipalps are tbe 
acorpions, possessing powerful organs fur 
seizing their prey, and having a tail ter- 
minating in a deadly sting. The other 
pedipalpa are not armed with a sting. 

Fe'duu. {pedum, Lat. a shepherd 'a 
crook.) A genus of marine bivalvnlar 
shells found attacbed by a bysaas to 
rocks. It is an eared iriequivalced bi- 
valve, gaping at the toner valve, and 
having ila beaks separated : hinge tooth- 
less ; ligament exterior ; inferior notch 
grooved. This genu^< does not appear to 
have been foond fossil. 

pE'nuNCLE, (jiedunculai, Lat. from pedo, 
a splay foot.) 

1. In botany, the stalk that heara the 
flower and fruit. 

2. lu coachDlogy. a sort of stem by whicli 
the sbells of the second division of lepaa 
are attached to wood, &i;. 

Pbdu'ncolatb. ) Attached to objects snch 

pBDti'Ncui,ATED. i as wood, rocks, &c., 
by a peduncle ; having a peduncle. 

Psomati'tb. a name given by the French 
mineralogists to a variety of granite com - 
posed of granular quartz and felspar. 

Pbla'gian. ) {pflagta, Lat. the sea.) 6a- 



inging t 


Lyell saye, " belonging to the ihif 

'ei.a'giak formations. Oceanic »ccu. 
muLttions ; depoaitcs by currents, of 
from other causes, at tbe bottom of tbe 



., Gr. blnen 

colour.) A bine coionrcd 
mineral resembUng iolite, of which il 
a variety. It is found in Bavaria. 
Pb'lliclk. (from pellieKla, Lat. d 
pellis, a little skin, pellieule, Fr. ptlli- 
cc(/a. It.) A film; B thin ( 

In botany, a membranons or maeila-l 
ginous covering, closely adhering 
outside of some seeds, so as to 
tbeir proper surface and colour. 

Pelta'te. (from ptila, Lat. a 
In botany, a term applied to leaves which I 
have their footstalk inserted in the middlE J 
of the leaf, and not joined to the edje i 
tbe nasturtium ia a familiar eianiple. T 

Pe'lvis. (pelvit, Lat. from n-iXuc, Gr.d 
in.) The lower part of the trunk 4^ 


4 name given to tlie belemniU>J 
Ii'e'nnate. ) (pennattin, Lat. fromjmM,! 
Pe'nnated. t wing.) Winged ; feathi 
Pehna'tvla. Called, commonlf. the 
pen. A polypus with a calcareoos 
or stem, having a double set of brat 
extending in the aame plane from bolh 
sides, like tbe vane of a quill. Penai- 
tnlie are not fiied by any attacbi 
Che ground, but float about in tbe 
of the ocean . carried hither and thither I 
tbe current may direct them. 
PE'sNiroRK. (from pm«a, a feather, n 
Jorm.) Having the form of > fealharf 
ijuill. In anatomy, musclea in wbil 
the muscular fibres pasB obliquely Ml 
wards on either side from a tendiDM 
centre, are termed penniform. Tha rM 
tus femoris alibrds an illuatration of 
penniform muscle. 
PENTACA'rauLAft. (from jri»n. Or. «fl 
and capsula, Lat. a cell or ctp«wl*i 
Having live cavities, capsules, or cdls 


species of at 

>r Stella n 

Stella m 

I the chalk and iu the London clij- 

enerinile.) So called from the pe 
gonnl formation of its vertebral csla 
The fossil pentacrinni 
abound iu the lower atrata of tbe o( 
forniation, and especially in the liaa; 
disapjiear entirely in the uppermost 

gists were disposed to limit their 
teuce to certain periods, and to ecm 
that the pentacrinite furnished the 

!■ E N [ 1 

extinct genus. Subsequent 
discoveriea, howeTer. proce that the pen. 
does still exist; too xpeciee, the 
niu caput medasee, and tlie Peci- 
europEus, having been lately 
i. Thu9, probably, it uiay be 
ith many genera which, in ignorance, 
ilogiBti deBcrihe to be extinct, merely 
they have not met with liviog or 
it ipedmeni. 

CKINUB. This inirual coosisU of 
igular flexible coluuin, romposeJ of 
frans joiutg, articulating by means 
rtilige, and perforated for tht ' 


id aonding forth at intervals, in whorls, 
vend articulated cylitidricnl branches, 
DTTing into X book at their aummit ; 
ixed at its hose, and supporting at its 
bee extremity a cup-like body, coutaiti- 
ng the mouth and larger viscera, con- 
"tliDg of several pieces, terminating 
•ore in Sve or six dichotomizing, ard- 
-oylinilrical arm a, fringed 
double aeries of tentacular iointed 
I, fomiahed below on eacb 

ith a 

9 of n 


Then expanded, resemble a star of 

(or ail) raya ; and wlien they con- 

{e, a pentapetalous or hexapetalous 

'er. The whole uuimsl, when tine. 

IsnppoBed to be invented with s gelaCi- 

ama mnicuUr iutegament.— Sep. W. 

Kriy.Bridg. Trealise. 

Two species of the genus peutacrinus 
mxe been lately ohtaiued ; one, the Pen- 
•crinna caput meduES, from the bottom 
If de«p seas in the West Indies ; the 
lier, Peutacrinus europteus, has been 
and on the coast of Ireland, attarbcd 
different kinds of Sertularia and Plus- 
loea. The calcareous joints which 
inposD the tingers of the pentacrinus 
mpEBua, are capable of expansion and 
ntraction in all directions ; now spread- 
[ outwards, like the petals of an ex- 
ed flower, and again rolled inwards 
lards the mouth in the form of a closed 
Mid. These organs serve to seize, and 
invey to the moutb, the food of the 
limal. The number of bonea in each 
limal ia compnted at thirty thousand. 
*. Bockland says that the number of 
)nG9 in the Briarean Pentacrinite, a 
leciea beautifully described in bis admi- 
ihle Bridgewater Treatiae. exceeded a 
- dred and fifty thousand. The num- 
of bones in the fingers and tentacnla 
loont at least to a hundred thoasand, 
d flfty thousand more, which ia conai. 
nbly under the real number, may be 
ded for the oa^cnla of the side arms. 
leh bone reqnirijig at least two lasdculi 
fibres, one for expansion, the other for 

must have had tbree hnndred thouund 
faacicnli of fibres equivalent to muBclea. 

PBsiTADA'cTifi,. (from irivTi. five, and 
t^HsruXoc, a finger, Gr.) llaving five 
fingers. Applied also to leavea. 

Pe'ntaqon. (from ivivTi, five,and yoivla, 
an angle, Gr. peutagane, Fr. pentayano, 
II, I A figure having Sve sides and five 

PenTA'iioSAi,. {penlagone, Pr. peiita- 
gonale. It.) Having five angles and five 
aides; quintjuongular. 


of the ilfllB marina, found ir 

the chalk pits of Kent. 
Pkhtaqona'stbb REori-A'Ris. A fosail 

aaterite, or species of ateila marina, found 

in the chalk pica of Kent. 
Pk'ntagvn, from ttUti, five, and jviiij, a 

woman, Ur. } A plant which has five 

Pentahe'draI:. Hai'ing five equal sidea. 

Pent AH e'd ROM. (from ttivti, five, and 

i!pa, a base, Gr.) A figure of five e([aal 


Pentaphylloi'dai., (from ■tiUti, five, 
^tXAoi', a leaf, and iWoj, resemblance, 
Gr.) Appealing to liave five leavea; 
resembhng five leavea. The Placents 
are all ornamEuted with a pentapbyllui^l 


, , Gr.) A spe- 
of the Lepas of Lin- 

Peperi'ho. The name given by Itahan 
geolagiata to a partlcalar form of volcanic 
tnif. composed of basaltic scori». 

Peha', a genus of marsiipiaUa. 
The following description is from Major 
Mitchell's Australia. "The moat re- 
markable incident of this day's jooiney 
was the discovery of an animal, of which 
I had seen only the head amongst the 
fossil specimens of Wellington valley. 
This animal was of the size of a wild 
yonng rabbit, and of nearly the same 
colour, having a broad bead, terminating 
in a long very slender snout, like the 
narrow neck of a wide bottle; and no 
tail. The feet, and especially the fore 
legs, were singularly formed i the latter 
resembling those of a hog, and the mar- 
supial opening was dowowarda, and not 
npnards, as in the kangaroo and others 
of that class of animals. This animal 
was discovered by our natives on the 
ground, but when pursued it took re^ge 
in a hollow tree, from which they took it 
alive ; all of them declaring that they bad 

PER [21 

never hefote acen an animal of that kind. 
Tbe origiiul hu been deposited in the 
Sydney Muaenm \ bat hsciag shown to 
my Mend Mr. Ogilvy a drawing of it, be 
has noticed the diecorery in the Pra- 
ceedingB of the Geologicid Society tor 
1838, deecribing Ibe ammal as belonging 
to s nev genuB ciosely allied to Fera- 
meles, but dilTBring in the fDrm of the 
fore feet, which hare only two middle 
toes reaembling those of a hog, and in 
the total absence of tail. This genoB re- 
qoires to be Tcritied by an exominHtiOD 
of the specimena at Sydney. It may 
erentualiy turn out to be a real Peraroeles , 
and in that case be called Perevitlet 
Beaudaitu, or, if generally distinct, Cba- 
ropus EcandatnE." 

Pe'bcolate. (from pef, through, and co/o, 
to strain, or filter.) To filter through ; 
tu Btraiii through ; to run through the 
porea, as through a filter. 

Percola'tion. Filtration ; tbe act of rn 
ning through tbe interaticea of a aCratiii 
as the percolation of water. 

PBaE'NNTAL. (peTennis, Lat. perem 
It.) In botany, applied to plants tt 
live many years, bearing flowers and fruit 

Pkri'q'i.iate. In botany, applied to lei 
when the stem appears to pass through 
their subatance. The common hsre'a-ear 

PK'BtAKTH, (from iTfpf. about, and HvQoq, 
a flower, Gr.) The calyi is bo called 
when it is nnited with the corolla, so aa 
to form only one floral envelope. 

Pebica'hdidu. (from mpl, round, and 
Kapeia, the heart, Gr. pMcarde, Fr. 
pericardia, It.) The membrane which 
envelopes the heart. 

[Vbicaiip. (from ir<pl, round, and cnpirit;, 
fruit, Gr. p^ricarpe, Fr.) Tbe ovarium, 
when ripened into fruit, is called the 
pericitrp ,- this consists of three parCs, 
which in some fruits, as the peach and 
plum, are easily separable. The outer 
skin is called epicorp ; tiie fleshy part. 
the aoreocarp ; the eCane, or sheU, the 
Hudocarp. There are ten different kinds 
of pericarps, namely, drupe, pome, berry, 
follicle, Bilicjue, silicic, legume, capsule, 
nut, and strobile. 

PinicLi'piiuu. The name given by foreign 
botanieta to a kind of involucre. See 
Perip Aoranliiiim. 

Pk'bipoi. The aamc given by Hauy to 
prismatic chrysolite. 

Pemoe'e. (from wipl, round, and yij, the 
earth, Gr. p4rigff, Fr.> A term used 
to denote that point where the sun is 
nearest to the earth. The perigee of the 
lunar orbit is the point where the moan 
is nearest to the earth. 

Pani'ttYNOUs. (from trtpi, aliout, and 

yvvi^, a woman, Gr.) Inserted onjQoJ 1 
tbe pistil. When the stamens graaiM I 
of the corolla, calyx, or perianth, or ui I 

anyway jc 

lined to the S( 

. irigynons. 
(from ircpi, around, i 
biTibv, a bone, Gr. perioite, Fr.) Tit I 
membrane which cavers all the boBM) 1 
that, however, which covers the bonesel J 
the sliull is called the pericranium. 
tHiPHOKA'NTBicM. When bractj ■ 
eoUectbd into a whorl, aa in a 
ferous planta, they are said Co f 
involuore, which, if very small, recarti 
the diminutive name of involacel. lUil 
kind of organ is very remarkable SkH 
compound - flowered planta, appeai' ~ 
aa if it constituted a calyx commoD 
many flowers ; and hence it used to 
called a common calyx. It, howe 
does not difi'er from tbe involucre in 
thing more than its bracts being ii 
numerous, more closely packed, and ffr ■ 
raltel with each other, inatead of diveri ' — 
Foreign botanists hovo gite 
PeripAoranlAiam oi ' " ' ' 
kind of involucre. 

genus established by I 

\ flat, i 



compressed, foliaceous, marine, tuTai 
Several parallel cavities acrtns the hiii|lf 
opposed to each other in the two valvil, 
and lodging as many elastic ligamenB: 
anterior mai^n with a passage for ■ 
byssuE. Recent Perns ere fonnd at 
depths varying to ten fatboma : they vc 
littoral shells ; moored by their byflu 
to mangrove trees and corals. Fooil 
Pemte have been foand on the border! of 
tbe Rbine. 

ERE i' STENT. (from pfrmalo, LaL I 
abide.) In botany, opposed to deoidsiM. 
Not withering and falling ; remidi^. 

e'ssonate. a term applied to a moM 
petalouB flower of an irregular form, 6 
border of tbe corolla having an otd ^ 
pearance with the labia closed. 

e'h.vioit3. Iperviai, J^t.) ^•'r''^ 
passage; capable of being penetraUd. 

b'tal. (jrirnXov, Gr. peio/e, Pr.) H 
name given to each leaf of the rarolUfl 
flower of a plant. 

e'i-alite. a mineral, of a reddidLi I 
greyish-white colour, which baa onlyba 
found in Sweden. It consists of nliea 774 
alumina 170. lithia 6'0 ; or aecordiiif! 
others, of silica 7e-ai, alt ■ '"^ 
litbia h-7€. It occurs in a i 
iron-ore, associated with spodunene^ I 
spar, tourmaline, mica, and quaiti. I 
fracture is foliated ; scrstchet giMI 
brittle, and translucent at the dl"^ 
Specific gravity 2G2. 

e'tiOle, (ftoia prtiolui, Lat. thestal 
fruits.) In bouny, a foot-slalk : 

)m, iriiicli oontwcti the lenf 

^e branch. 

Kjla. (from Ttrpof, a itonei Qr. 
ofe, to inhabit, Lat.) A genua of 
rerae, mequiliitern], bivHlve, marine 
tf belonging to the famil; LithopliBgi. 
mnacnlBr impresaionB ; two hinge- 
OD one Tslve, and a bifid ODe ou Che 
I aateriar side rounded, posterior 
toore or less alightly gspiug; liga- 
i eiternal. Petricolte are found at 
p varfiag to ten fntliaDifl ; they 
fit caritieg, or their own working, in 
i and sheUa. They may be diaCin- 
Ibd from saiicavn by the regularity 
Mr form, and by the teeth 

which ii 


: ubauh 

itbe animal ia full grown 
l'ctiov. Ipetrlfaction, Fr.) i 
kDce conTerled into stone. Sut: 
ft, either Hnimal or yegetahle. con 
i into atone hy the infiltratioD, e 


1, ofai 

[rowing i 


tAQU. (pftroie, Fr.l A mineral 
tthsT thicker than tar, and of a 
Ui-browa colour ; it haa obtained its 
Ifmm the circnmsLance of its oozing 
f rocks like oil. In tlie East it is 
\ aa oil. It ia unctuous tn the 
b and exhalea a strong and unplea- 
tdoar. It ia lighter than water, its 
fe gravity being D 87. In the island 
^nte, petroleum ia at the present 
obtained &om the eame spot, and in 
kme manner, as in the days of Hero- 
^ The most powerfnl springs pro. 
a petrolButn are on the Irawaddi, in 
Bunnan empire. In one locality 
tare >aid to br .SSO wells, yielding 
Oly 400.000 hogsheada of petroleum, 
nrs in moat coontriea where ooai is 

ll'i.EX. A fneible variety of horn- 
.; according to some authora, the 
,U clinkatone ; to others, compact 

iztl. The fetapathe pt^tuntze of 
Iniart. A. variety of felspar, osed 
i manufacture of porcelaiu. It ia 
(PetnntiB by the Chinese. 
ItTS ma'bbi.e. CaDed also Sussex 
m, occurs in layers varying from a 
l^hes to s foot and upwards in 
was, aeparated tram each other by 
i of clay. The Petworth or Sosseit 
B ia a timeatone of various shades of 
ti occurring in the Weald clay ; it is 
b«ed of the remains of freah-water 
Irea, ibella of Che paludiua, and 
t of Che cyprii faba, nnited into a 
let mariile Irr a gangue of calcareoBs 
It. The mora compact varieties 

II ] P H ( 

bear a beautiful polish, and are elegantly 
marked, when cut into slabs, by theaec- 
tiona of Che contained shells. 

Pii.bnora'udub. (from ^nieu, to abew. 
and yupot. marriage, (ir.) The name 
given to auch plants as have the stamens 
aud ovarium distinctly viaible. 

Pba'lank. pi. Phalangea. {faXayK. Gr. 
phalmgf, Fr. /alange. It) The bonea 
«OD3poiing Che fingers and toes are termed 
the phalanges. 

PHANBROGA^mo. } (from .pavEphc. maai- 

PuAVreaaoA'uoDs. ) fest. and yafioc> 
marriagB, Gr.) Plants in which the ata- 
meuB and ovarium are distiucCly visible ; 
planes having the reproductive organs 
visible. In all the p/ianeriigamoiui plants 
the whole of the double apparaCua ra- 

Suircd for reprodncCion is oonCnined in 
le flower. The Cerm is used in contra- 
distinction (0 ETj/ploi/arHOU*. 

Pn ARM a'co LITE. The nsmB given by Bfo- 
chanC to nrseniate of lime. 

Phakcanr'li.a. (from pAaiiaiuii, Lat. a 
pheasanC.) A genus of shells belonging 
to the faoiily Trochoida ; or. according 
Co Lamarck's arrangemenC, Turbinacea. 
Ic is a solid ovsCe or conical naivatve; 
opening longitudinal, ovate, and entire ; 
lip thin ; columella smooth, with an at- 
Cennated hase. Recent phaaiii 

I of Che I 

1, Chey ai 

found on the coaata and in eatuories, at 
small depths only. These sheila are 
marked with beaaCiful lines of various 
coloura, and are much esCeemed and 
sought after for their beauty. 

Two species of Phasianella have been 
found fossil at Grignon, F. turbinoides, 

Fsi'LiiPslTB. A mineral, found accom- 
panying Herschellte. It is a species of 
Harmotome or cross-stone, containing 
lime and potash instead of baryta. 

Pho'i-aS. (i^<uXd£, from fwXkv), Gr. to tic 
cuocealed.) A genua of marine bivalves, 
belonging to the family Inclusa; or, ac- 
cording to Lamarck's arrangement, the 
famiiy Pholadaria. A transverse gaping 
shell, composed of two principal valves, 
with several small accessory pieces placed 
on the ligamenC or at the hinge. A long 
curved tooth protrudes in each valve from 
beneath the umbones. Pholades are 
found at depths varying Co nine faChoms ; 
the; pierce wood, rocks, indurated clay, 
&B. They are much sought for in con- 
aequence of their delicious flavour. The 
history of none of the boring bivalves, 
saya Mr. Klrby, ia more interesting than 
that of the Pholada, or stone-borers. 
These animals ore defended hy two very 
fragile shells, strengthened indeed by sup- 
plementary pieces, and rough like a file, 
inhabited by a very soft animal which 

P H O [ 

appears to be rumiahed with no organ: 
adapted to boring so hard a anbatance a: 
a rock. When the yoDOg are discloaed 
froni the Egg, being cast npon the rook i 
which theip mother resiiies, they bore 
hole in it which they eulurge daily, auil 
which they never leave, unless compelled 
by force. Tbi» hole always communi 
cates with the water, and is the orific 
through which the- animal exerts it 
double siphons. One of these siphons ij 
its mouth, Bud the other its anal orifica 
Poll says they use their foot as an augur ii 
eieavating their crjpts, the shell rerolv 
ing upon it aa upon an axis. PLolsdes 
poEsesB a remarkable degree of phosphi 
reacent property. 

Fragments of fossils belonging to thia 
genus are found in Easei. 

Pho'laditb. a fossil or petrified pbolas. 

PHOLiDo'pHORua. A genns of ttshes of 
the Wealden formation that prevailed 
during the oolitic periad, hut believed 


puvq, Bound, 
XiSos, a stone, Gr.) Another nami 
clinkstone. A felspathic rock, 
when struck with a hammer, from wni 
circumstance it derives iU name. Wh. 
the texture of basalt is compact, and i 
felspar greatly prevails, it passes into ph 
lonite ; its colour ia generally grey, 
greenisb-groy. Again, when phonoli 
has a more earthy teiture it passes in 

Ho'spSATE. A salt formed by the unii 
of phosphoric acid with a salifiable 


the bones of animals, and constitutes 
their base, as well as in the mineral king- 
dom. It consists of iime 59-0, phospho- 
ric Bcid 41'D. It is destitute of taste, 
insoluble in water, and not atfected by 
exposure to the atmosphere. E;iposed tu 
a-very high temperitare it becomes soft, 
and is converted into a white semitrans- 
parent enamel, or rather porcelain. Hu- 
man bones, according to Berielius, con- 
tain 51'D4 of phosphate of lime, and the 
enamel of teeth, according to Mr. Pepys, 
is composed of 79 per cent, of it. Sul. 
phuric, nitric, muriatic, fluoric, and 
several vegetable acids are capable of 
more or less decomposing phosphate of 
lima. Mineral phoapbate of lime contains 
aoverat species, namely apatite, aaparagus 
stone, &c., which are described under 
their several names. 

luminous appearance of sea-nater arises 
from the praaence of immense numbers 
of microscopic meduss which people 
every region of the ocean, and, being^ 
s;>eri)ir?all7 lighter than the sea-water. 

i ] PHY 

float in incalculable multitudes on 

■iiosphorb'soknt. Emitting light in ■ 
dark without sensible heat. 

^Ho'spHORiTE. Amorphous phospale 
lime. The cbaux phosphate CerreiUB Ot 
Haliy; phosphorit of Werner ; pho^lw- 
rite of Jameson. A variety of apo^- 
with commonly an earthy aspect 
occurs in masses whose surface oftm iHl? 
plays mamillary projections, 
dull and earthy. Colour white or gnji 
often marked with spots or xones of I. 
brownish tinge. Specific gravity (rM 
28 to '3-2. Before the blow-pipe it k 

infusible, but its powder thrown 

live coals emits a yellowish-green 
phorescent hght. In Spain it 
whole mountains ; it is also met with U 
Germany. According to Pelletier, i 
tains lime 59-0, phosphoric acid 34" 
the remainder consists of the oar 
fluoric, and muriatic acids, with a tiidfai| 
portion of sUex and oxide of iri 

'Ho'apHOHDs, ( ^ai^pui;, Gr, pioiptenli 
Lat. pkasphore, Fr.) One of the fif-^ 
five simple or elementary inbatancei, i 
belonging to that sub-division 
non- metallic. Phosphor 

]o the chemical < 

As c 

I of a 
part of minerals, phosphorus ii ranj 
bat tlit^re must be some amount of fl 
entombed in foasiliferous rocks. Phos- 
phorus is never found pure in 
and is only to be obtained from 
matter by elaborate chemical 
It is yellow, and semi-transp 

aembling wax inaoftneas, but i . 

sive and ductile. Specific grarity J'W. 
Its affinity for oxygen is so great tbal^' 
burns spontaneously in the atmoiplun 
It should always be kept in bottlei filbl' 
with water, and well corked. 

PnvLLA'nu. The name given by D'Af 
buisson. and the French ■ - ■ — 
clay -slate. 

Pht'samtk. a variety of priamallc Kr 
paz, of agreeniah-wbitecolour. Itocett' 
in coarse granular concretions, hiving 
low degree oflustre. Edges feebly trnd 
lucent. It oonsbts of alumina £771 
silica 34'30, fluoric acid 7-82. It i 
found at Finbo, in Sweden, and at Aim 
berg, in Saxony. 

PHY'LtiTE. (from piiXXot-, a letT, u' 
Xidoc. a stone, Gr.) A petrified leaf. 

Phy'bical. (phytiqw.Vi.fitieo,\t.) ViT 
lating to nature or to natural phik»oph}l 
not moral ; pertaining to material thinp. 

Phtsios. (from pi'ioic, nature, Gr.) T»k«" 
in its most enlarged sense, comprebed 
the whola study of nature ; but in ill 
usual acceptation of the word , that braaci 
of science which treats of the 

of DKtural badies, and it indndeB natural 
faistorj and p1iilo»o]>liy- 

' niJs. (from fVTii; Gr. a plant, 

I, LaC. to devour.) Feeding on 

ilbied plant. 

irro'iOQiST. (from pAj/lalogy.) One 
killed ID tha stracture, *c. of plants. 
ito'lobt. (from purii', s plant, and 
iyo;, discourse, Gr.) That department 
s<neiice which treaU of the nature, 
Jitiea, &G. ofplaats. 
JODS. (from farov, a plant, 
Hid ^OYiTv, tu eat, Gr.) Feeding on 
^nta ; devouring plaiite ; feeding upon 
r^ietable gnbataueeH. 
iTOSAn'Kus. A fossil aaurian diBco- 
renid in the mdiferoua formation. 
ttoko'a. (from avrhi', a plant, nnd 
luuv, an animal, Gr.) PUnt-like animals. 
Ilnother, and more modern, as well aa 
lipropriate, name for zoophjtes. 

learl; black substance, which covers the 
srfacHg of the choroid memhraue of the 
lye, and gives to it its colour. 
LBUS. The name given to a genua of 
oaail echini ; pileus is another name for 

LLAB, In conchologj, the columella, or 
lerpendicular centre, wliich otends from 
he base to the apei, in most of the 
piral sheila. 

LLAit-Lir. In conchology, a contiiiua- 
Uon of the glossf process with which the 
aperture of shells is lined, expanded on 

iK. (pilaimi, Lat.) In entomology, 
Wrered with dispersed, long, and bent 

hj chrome o: 
) Then( 

A variety of st 

B, coloured 


This glan 
I to be the seat of the soul. 
■ (pmna, Lat. the fin of a fish,) A 
^ s of marine hivalves belonging to 

Ihe fiuiiily Mjtalacea. A cuneiform, loo- 
^todinal bivalve, witli an acute base, the 

ipper part gaping ; hinge witboat a 
tooth, lateral, and verj long ; valves 
coalesoent. Recent pinnte are found in 
the ocean at depths varying to seventeen 
Atfaoms ; thej are moored by a long 
rilky bjBsus, which baa been manufac- 
tnred into stockings and gloves. FinuEe 
baie baen found fossil at Grignoo, and in 
the limestone of Gloucestershire, Wilt- 
lAJre, >nd Someruetsbire. 

KSITB. A fossil pinna. 
K4T». (pinnaliu, Lat. winged.) In 

13 ] PIS 

botany, applied to compound leaves, ct 
posed of many leulleta, placed on e 
side of the petiole; these are placed 
pairs opposite to each other, and, in k 
cases, an odd leaflet at the terminati 
or, in others, a tendril : of the former tha 
rose furnishes an ciample \ of the latter, 
the vetch. 

Pinna'tifio. In botany, applied to leaves 
cut transversely into several deep, oblong, 
parallel segments, the incisions reacliing 
nearly to the midrib, and dividing the 
leaf into irregular forms, termed lobes. 
The groundsel aflorda a familiar illus- 

PiPB-CLAY. The Pfeifenthon of Weruer. 
This is the purest kind of potter's clay, 
and is called pipe-clay, from its being 
manufactured into tobacco-pipes. It is 
of a grey or greyish white colour; 
infusible ; and on expoanre to a aCrong 
heat it heoomea white. It is abundant 
in Devonshire and Stafford shite. 

FiBCi'voROUS. (from pitcis, a fish, and 
eoro, to devoor, Lot. ) Feeding on 
fishes; devouring fishes; subsisljug on 

Pi'siFOHM, (fromjiinim. a pea, aa&Jbmui, 
form, Lat.) Of the form of a pea; hav- 
ing a structure resembling peas. Gra- 
nular iron ore is called pisiform iron ore, 
from its containing small rounded mosses 
of the size of a pea. 
Fi'siFotiN IRON ORE. ) The pea ore of 
Pi'siirosu IKON stONE. | Jameson ; pi- 
siform iron stone of Kirwan. A variety 
of argillaceous oxide of iron, occurring in 
small masses or grains, nearly or quite 
spherical, and often eqQal in size to a 
pea, or even larger. These globules are 
composed of thin, concentric layers, 
which decrease in density as they ap- 
proach the centre. The exterior layeii 
are compact, and present on even, glis- 
tening fractare with a resinous lustre, 
whereas the centre of the grain is almost 
always friable, and haa a dull earth; 
fracture. They are easily broken, and 
may be cut by a knife. Specific gravity 
3'40. These grains, sometimes salitary, 
are generally united by a ferruginous 
cement, either calcareous or argillaceous, 
which adheres to their surface. This 
variety is composed of oxide of iron 71'5, 
water 14'5, silex 7'5, slumine S'.'i, onide 
of manganese 0'5. it is abundant in 
Prance, Switaeriand, and Germany i oc- 
cuj'ting in secondary rocks. It snme- 
times contains fossil shtlls, which become 
with oxide of iron. — Cleave- 



a called from 
I Bgglntinstion of pease, Tlie pisoLthe 
Bron^'uiarti the lie* '- " ' ' 

PtioKto ia nearl; or quite optque, Knd 

1 or 

|ioB«a ui uonceainc layen, each concre- 
tian biiing ■ grain of aaad for lu □□- 
dcDi, or ventre. These concretions, ag- 
glatinKted by • calcareous cement, form 
miuses of coDBiderible magnitude, and 
lomelimu continuous beds. 

Fiboli'tio. Composed of irisolite t con 
tainini; pisolite ; reietnbltng piaoljte. 

Pi'«TACiTi. Another name fur epidote. 
See Epidale. 

Pi'sTAZiTE. See E/iidaU. 

Pi'ani.. (froni;ji«(iHBni, Lat. piiilil, Pr.) 
In bolanj, the female organ of the plant ; 
aituated in the centre of the flower, and 
forming the rudiments of the fruit. A 
perfeol pistil ii composed of three parts, 
tlie ovarium, the style, and the stigma. 
Each modified leaf which forma the pis- 
til, is called a cargiellum : the carpella 
are so folded that the margins of the leaf 

:o the ai 

and fro] 

these a species of bud is produced, which 
la the seed. The form of the piatil muat 
de|>end on that of the carpella, on their 
number, and on their arrangement. 
PiTCH-STOMK. A vitreous lava, of a black- 
h-green. or a nearly black colour 

> aubstE 

IE laatn 

and appearance of pitch, 
• portion of bitumen. Specific gravity 
from 2'2y to 2'64. Before the blow-pipe 
it whitens, tumesces, and fuaes into a 
porouB, whitish enamel. It consists of 
■llei 73-0, alumine 14-S, soda 1'75, lime 
I'D, oxides of iron and manganese 1-1, 
water 8-.50. Pitch-stone occurs in veins 
and in beds ; Bometimea forming whole 


ually c 

our huuaes, and thus called from its 
being dug out of pits. See Caal. 

Placb'nta. {placenta, hat. a cake, pla- 
cenla. Ft.) 

1. In anatomy, tbe medium of commu- 
nication between the mother and the 

3. Id botany, that part uf the ovarium 
to which the seeds are attached. 
3. In fossilogy, the name given by Klein 
to a section of catocysti, from the sheUs 
being fiat, like a cake. They are all or- 
namented with a pentapbylloid flower. 
The month is in the middle of the base, 
and the anal orifice near the margin. 
Placentie are divided by Klein into three 
genera, mellita, laganum, and rotnla. 

Placoi'dian. (from irXilj;, a broad plate, 
and flSatt form, Gr.) One of the orders 
into which M. Agassiz divides the class 
of fishes. The placoidiaos are distin- 
guished by their skin being irregvdarly 
covered with plates of enamel. In this 
order ixt comprised all the eartilaginons 

I ] P L A 

fidim of Cvvier, the atnrgeon only 

Placoi'dian. Belonging to the order it 

PLAoio'aToMA. (from wXoyuit, oUiq» 
and arana, mouth, Gr.) A genu i 
Bub - equivalve, inequilateral, ohliai 
ehells, known only in a fosail state. "B 
plagiosloma ia one of the most ehin 
teristic abeUa of the clialk formalia 
Several apeciei are known, namdy, 
apinosum, F. Iloperi, P. elongatam, 
Bsper, &c. The PlagiostDma spinoa 
for the long slender spines atlaehel 
its upper valve. Tbe spines aiisefroi 
postae, which radi " ' .. . , . 

largm, I 


twenty, and seme of them ai 
and upwards in length. They are iiijr' 
nitmerons in the chalk pits betwe# 
Shoreham and Bramber. but then U 
great difficulty in extricating them bat 
the surrounding chalk without breakiq 
the spines. ^ 

Plano aats. (from planut, fist, and orH 
an orb, Lat.) A genus of diseoidt 
fresh- water univalves, resembling tbela 
monite, but not chambered. RanorUC 
belongs to the family Pulmouea in Db 
vier'B arrangement, and to Lymnaseal) 
Idmarck's and Btainville's. Planorix 
may be diatinguiahed from helic« bjth 
alight increase of the whorls of thd 
ehcll, by the convolutions being oearlj It 
one plane, and by tbe aperture beifl 
wider than it is high. All the ahelli^l 
this genus are reversed : they al 
pools and ditches. 

From the delicacy of their stmctDr^ 
as well as tbe slight degree of minertliu 
tion they have undergone, planorbes u 
rarely obtained as fossils in a perf^ 
stale. Three species have been found ll 
tbe neighbourhoad of Paris. Two a 
cies are mentioned as found in the all 
vial depoaites of Sussex ; and planoriW 
are also found in the fresh-water s'~'~ 
of the Isle of Wight. 

Pla'sma. a grass-green variLty of iH 
bohedral quarti. Fracture coodioidall 
lustre feeble t ■ " 

nental ai 
c Pa'b; 

■.s of drei 

gypsum. See Gypivm. 

'la'stgb stunb. Another name (bt 
of Paris. 

'la'htic clay, (from jrXom-.icic, Gr. « 
for the art of fashioning, plaitiqtu, ft.' 
A name given to one of the beda of thS 
eocene period, from its being and in llK 
muiaficture of pottery. The plaatie i ' ~ 

P L A 

B and the London clny are deemed by bi 
K gealngtsts as one foroiatioD, and, altliough 
f ■epaiBted by otters, Ibe line of sepatadoi 
appears Co be i|iiitB arbitrary. The plas 
tie cluy is in some plaaea of great [faielc- 


other pi 

3 four 

r five hundred 

. ta, where present, it 
very thin. It ia a marine deposit, oysters 
and other marine ahells being taund 

Pla'stbon. (plaatrrm, Fr.) A Damo given 

to th« sternum of reptiles. 
Plati'na. ) (platitia, Spaaiab.from plala, 
Plati'huu. i sUter) A metal, conati- 
tutiiig one of the fifty-five simple or ele- 
meatarj bodies. Platiauo) wasnol knowD 
in Europe till Mr. Wood brought some of 
it from America in 1 741. Wbeu pure, it 
U of ■ white colour, Ulie silver, but Dot so 
bright. It baa neither taste nor smell. 
It is eiceediogly malleable and ductile ; 
it nuij be hammered into plates of ex- 
treme tbinusEB, and Dr. WoUaston suc- 
ceeded in drawing nut a wire of this metal 
to the fineness of l'10,n00ath of an inch. 
flatinum is one of the most infusible of 
metals, not yielding before the utmost 
Iieat of the furnace ; it is soluble in chlo- 
rine and nitro-muriatic acid. It was first 
obtained from Choco and Santa Ft, in 
South America; it has since been die- 
mvered in the Brazils, Spain, and ia the 
Ural moantuna, in Siberia, lo the ore 
of plaUaum four new metals have been 
^■cotered, namely iridium, pulladiuin, 
osmium, and rhodium. 
PtBaosA'nntis. A fossil saurian of the lias 

■ad oolite. 
Plisiohad'rub. (from irXqirfoi', near to, 
•nd aavpa, a liiard, Gr.) A genus of 
I crxtiDct amphibious animals, nearly allied 
^ lo the Ichthyosaurus. Cuvier says 
W HoM inhabitant of the ancient world, is 
P |Mrhsps the most heterogeneous, and ap- 
I pears to merit the name of monster above 
nil others. It united the teeth of a cro- 
codile tn the head of a liinrd; its neck 
WBsof enormoUB length, exceeding that of 
its body, aad resembling tbe body of a 
■erpent) it possessed a trunk and tail 
of the proportiODS of an ordinary qua- 
druped; to all theae were added the pad- 
dles of a whale. The teeth were conical, 
Tery slender, curved inwards, finely stri- 
ated on the enamelled surface, and hollow 
throughout tbe intDrior. Five or aii: 
nwdes of the pleaioaauri are known : 
tney appenr to h.ive lived in shallow seas 

', they 

r the) 

, having the nt 

1, and darting it down at the prey 

rithin reach. Prodigious numbers of 

re found in the lias. Ver- 

r and teeth are found in the Hastings 

] P L U 

beds. Some of the plesiosauri were up- 
wards of twenty feet long. 
LEuaoev'sTi. The third class of echini- 
LEnaoTOMA'RiA. A fossil genns of tur- 
binated, spiral, anivaJve shells belonging 
to the family Turbinacea, They aro 
' nlj fossil, and occur in the ia- 


'ilieo, LaC. I 

, , . fold.) 

Plaited j folded. 
'li'ocbnb. (from irXiiwv, more, and 
anvis, recent, Gr.) The name given b; 
Mr. Lyell to a division of the supracni- 
taceoas group, or tertiary strata. Hie 
tertiary series Mr. Lyell divided into four 
principal groups, namely, the eocene, the 
miocene, the older pliocene, and the 
□ewer pliocene, each characterised by 
containing a very difierent proportion of 
fossil receal species. The newer pliocene, 
the lateat of tbe four, contains from 
ninety to ninety-five per cent, of retmt 
fossils ; the older pliocene contains from 
thirty-five to fifty per cent, of recmt 
fossils ; the miocene contains eighteen 

19 only tt 

a half 

t. of 

receni fossila. In tbe newer pliocene 
posites of tbe valley of Elaa, in Tuscany, 
six living species of teatacts were recog- 
nized by M. Deshayes. The newer plio- 
cene period is that which immediately 
preceded the recent era ; tbe older plio- 
cene period is (hat which intervened be- 
tween the miocene and the newer plio- 
cene. The newer plioceoe formations 
occnr in Sicily and Tuscany i the older 
pliocene at Nice, Perpignan, Norfolk, 
Sufi'olk, and near Sienna. Both the 
newer pliocene and tbe older pliocene 
exhibit marine as well as fresh-water 

Plw'uosb. ) (jifumowu, Lat. fuU of fea- 

Fld'hohb. ( tbers.) Feathery ; downy. 

Pld'hdle. (from plvmuUi, Lat. a little 

feather.) In botany, that part of the 

isible, hnt 
learccly perceptiblE 
nagnitjiug glass ; 

plants g 

lerally, il 
.t the aid of a 

nd in many it doea 
seed begins to ger- 
minate. The first indication of develop- 
ment, whenever the seed begins to ger- 
minate, is tbe appearance of the plu- 
mule, which is a collection of feathery 
fibres, bursting from the enveloping cap- 
sule of the germ, and which proceeds im- 
mediately to extend itself vertically up- 

Pmito'nic. (from Plulo, oae at V\ie. ■\«a.- 

and otkcn. of igatoma origin fenMd u i 
|nM dqiAi frOB ilie tarfcoe. Phtonir | 
ni«k« are dutiagaubed from thoaa wlucli i 
are otikd Tolonic, alttkongb ihey are | 
bodi igneofu ; isotonic rodu tuTiog i 
beta dabotaled in the deep ~ ' 

~ tke eartli, while the volcanic ar 
at or aear the mrfux. 

Phidha'ticb. (from nriv^rit^, Gr.) 
That branch of (cieoce *hich reiato ta 
the eqailibriam or Dunnaents of apriil 
fluids under all circaautaocei o[ preKurr, 
deniitT, and elaiticitj. The wci^t of 
the air, anil its preuure on ill the bodies ' 
on the earth's lurface, were quite ud- ' 
known to the ancients, and only 6nt ' 
perceived bj Galileo, on the orcasion of 
a lucking-pump refngiog to draw watw 
above a certain height. The tnAnoer in 
which the obiened law of equilibrium of 
an elastic fluid, like air, may be consder- . 
ed to originate in the mntnat repulsion of | 
it! particle>, hsa been iaiestigatcd by 
Newton, and the actual Gtstement o{ the 
law itself, aa announced by "ilBriotte, 
" that the density of the air, or the 
qiuatiCy of it contained in the same space, 
is, cfttcris paribas, proportional to the 
presaare it lupports," has recently been 
terified by direct experiment. This law ; 
containE the principle of solution of every 
dynamical qneatioo that can orcor re- ' 
latiie to the equllibrinm of elastic fluids, | 
and is therefore to be regarded a» one nf I 
(Ae bigAegl nxioua in the ecience of pneu- | 
maticB— WerjcA*/. , 

PoiKiLi'Tic. (froui TTouciXoc, Gr. variona, i 
variegated.) To the new red sandstone 
group, M. Brongniirt has applied the . 
name of Terrain Pqeiilien. Mr. Cony- 
bcare has proposed to ejiti 
Paeititic to the entire gro 
between the coal formatioa and the lias, 
comprising the new red oonglomerMei 
the msgnesian limestone, the variegated 
sandstone, the shell limestone, and the 
variegated marl. Somo common appel- 
lative, says Dr. Buckland, for all thesr 
formitions ba^ been long a deaideratnn 
in geology ; but the word pacilitic is, ii 
sound, BO like pisolite, that it may be 
better to adhere more literally to ' 
Greek root, and apply the commoD n 
of Poiiiliiic group to tbe strata in qi 

Po'llkn. {pollen, Lat. fine flour.) In 
botany, the fecundating powder or dust 
contained in the anther. In dry and 
warm weather the anther bDrste. and the 
pollen is thrown out. 

, beloE 

Wbea we place, saja Professor Gnt 
a drop of any decayed infusion of hub 
or v^elabie matter iuid«r a powetl 
micnMpope, and throw a light thnM| 

to the ere, we diKOver in the drop 
water varioUB forms of living ------ 

form, and some eihil ^ 
sboodng in ail directions bu 
rrntly of a soft, transparent, 
and almost homogeneous 
these minute animals there 
caiiliesorftomBcbs, insome oflhembe 
two houdred in number. There, is ei 
reason to believe that polygastrica c: 
in every drop of water. They form 
food of other classes, tnore especiiJIy 
loophytes. .\lmoGt all the known gsa 
of polygastrie animalcules possess eyM 
they are also found to possess i " 

sense of taste ; they distinguish. , 
and seiie their pre;, and, although 
excessively minute tbit five nulfil 
have beeo calculated as being eontui 
in one drop of water, they avoid ' 
fringing on one another while swimnni 
All their movemeots appear to be as « 
directed, regolar, methodical, and ^ 
tsueous. as those of the higher claiKt 
swimming animals. These movnae 
are effected by means of very ndmi 
hair-like, tapering, transparent, libnl 
filaments disposed frequrntly around I 

Duth, 1 

and longest. Ibere is no proper si 
in the whole order polygaatrica, ni 
secretion of shell on the snrftc 
there are parts destined to give sDppoct 
Some of tie poljgastric oniiDBls endt 
on their surface a secretion which igg'" 
tinates forpign particles floatjng in i 
waters which surround them, and Q 
furm far themselves a porloal oovernij 
In the majority of polygastric aaiiul 
there is an alimentary canal, with > 
oral and BO anal orifice, which traTni> 
the body. No teeth for mastication, U 
An; glandular organs Co assist ii 


ith standing their eitreme 

they appear tu be the : 

EnerooB, the most prolific, the mostaefitti 

and the must voracious of all livh^ 

beiogs,— iec/Hrw on Camp. A»atomt\ 

Po'ltoon. (froi 

angle, Gr.) A geometrioai figure of rnallj 

PoLv'GOKiL. (/io/ffjonc, Pr.) Having minj 


A mineritl fonnii at lechel, 
t OCC1IJ-E1 in masses of 
LDBtre pesrly. Sp«i>i1 

^pa, sidE, Gr.) 

J Having many sides o 

„o\it. many, aod 
lyvufii, to mil, Gr.) A newly iliaco- 
jred mineral, whicli hns been thus named 
I coiise([ueBce of the inriety of its con- 
itoent parta. It consists of titanic 
|(dd, eircoDia, lime, ytttia, the oiideg 
ceriam, and manganese, with 
portioDE of DiBgneaiB, potash, 
ilioa, and oxide of tin. It is of a blark 
Krioor ; cryBtallized in smalt prisms ; 
ICtHtcheB glass ; specific gravity iB. 
PractDTe concbaidal. Lustre almost me- 

'tTFS. The naoie given to each tube, 
inrrDunded with its teatacula, of the 
Polypns ; Polypns deaignatiag the entire 
Bimtd mass, composed of an aggregation 

TPa'bia. ) The fourth class of Radiala 
LYFt. ( or Zoophytes ; thus named 
om a supposed reaemblanoe to an Oe- 
ipos, calleJ Polypus by the ancients, 
lis resemblance arising from the ar- 
Lngement of the tentsuula around the 

These aiiimals are commonly known 
B Corals. From an idea which long 
mvuiled that these animala are allied to 
le plants, they obtained the name of 
Soophytes. The body is cylindrical or 
niucal, sometimes poaseasing no viscus 
mt its csiity \ at otbera poaseasing a 
imach, which is visible, and other or- 
US. The greater number of Polyparia 
E inhabitants of the ocean, and from 
be ocean's depChe they raiae thoae im- 
a reefa that at some future period 

nhabitants of the temperate zones. Al- 
^^^ugh Polypi abound in every part of 
■cean. still it is in the warmer re- 
that they grow in greatest Insnri- 
The tentacula of Polypi are ex- 
jwaitely sensible, and are frequently 
^- — ], either singly or altogether, bending 
[r extremities towards the mouth 
IQ any minute floatiog body comes in 
lOntact with them, A question arises, 
ays Dr. Roget, with regard to the eon- 
tttotion of these Zoophytes, similar to 
hatwhich has been proposed with regard 
\b trees, namely, what lunit Hbould ba 
ISBigned to their individuality ? la the 
iFhole mass, which appears to grow from 

and whicl 

ades of branch 

, proceeding from e 

common stem, to be considered as one 
individual animal, or is it an assemblage, 
or aggregation of smaller individuals ; 
each individual being characterized by 
having a single mouth, with its accom- 
panying tentacula, and yet the whole 
being animated by a common principle 
of life and growth ? The greater number 
of naturalists have adapted this latt«r 
view, regarding each portion as prorided 
with a distinct circle of tentacula, aa s 
separate aninud, associated with its neigh- 
habitation, and contributing its quota Co 
the general nourishment of thia animal 

PoLYPi'pEBA. 1 That class of animala com- 
PoLVFi'pHBBA. ( monly known by the 
name of Zoophytes. They are carni- 
vorous, feeding upon living animalcules. 
Theae animals precipitate immense quan- 
tities of carbonate of lime, especially in 

Polypi'ferol's. Animals which have po- 
lypi : aoopbytea. 

Polvfe'talodb. (from iraXiit^, many, and 
KiToXov, a leaf of the corolla, Gr.) In 
botany, a term applied to a corolla which 
has the petals separate. 

Poltse'paloijs. (from troXtFc, many.Bnd 
tepal, the name given to the parts of 
which the calyx ia composed.) la bo- 
tany, a term given to a calys which has 
its sepals separate from each other. 

Polvpotue'cia. a genus of spongoons 
aoopbytea found in flinta. Misa Bennett, 
in her catalogue of the organic remains of 
Wiltshire, has described seven species. 

Poly'pterus, a genus of fishes found in 
the Nile and in Ihe rivers of Senegal. 
M. Agassis has described two species. 
The Polypterus and Lepidosteus are the 
only known genera of living representa- 
tives of the saaraid fiahea. 

PoLrHPE'RMOOS. (from ito\vq, many, and 
HKipjta, seed, Gr.) In botany, a term 
applied to the ovarium and fruit when 
they contain many seeds. 

Politha'lahohs. (from woKii:, many, and 
eiXanos, a chamber,Gr.) Having many 
cells or chambers, as polyihalaauntt 
shells ; multiloculsr ; eamerated. 

PoBCELANA'oBoua. ) Resembhng poree- 

PottCELA'NBOns. ( lain. Shells have 
been divided into two classes. The first 

e of a 

:lled surface, and are generally beauti. 
fully variegated. The sheils of this class 
have been termed poreelanaeeous, or par- 
celaneoiit shells ; they contain but a 
small proportion of soft animal matter. 
Porcb'llanite. a mineral of various co- 
lours, from grey to nearly black, occur- 
ring in amorphona masses or fragments, 
which are often rifted. Porcellanite 

>etnble« a brick which hss i 

1 jBil. 

often W (lie *(p«!t or certain porcc- 
hina. It it 0|>iii|Ue, •er; brittle, aud lew 
bull thui qnartz. Before the blow-pipe 
it melts into ■ block scoria. An anal^ie 
of it fielded ulu 60- ;a, alBmine iJ-ii, 
potash 3-66, magnnia 3*00, oxide of 
IroD 2'50. It is moit likely an alteration 
uf lODie rarietj of argillaceoui slate by 
pseudo-iolcanie lirei : it does not const!- 
tatE a distinct species. It ia found in 
lai^ inasseB near the pitch-lake in Trini- 
dad, and occurs usually in the vicinity of 
eotd miiiea, — Cleavelmid. 
Pori'feka. Ifiom porta, ■ pore, and 
Potn'raKnA. ( fere, to bear.) A class 
of aaimals belonging to Cycla-Neura, 
or Radiata. Puriphera conatitute the 
second lowest class of animals, com- 
ing between Polypiphera and Polygas- 
trica. They farm the varions species 
of eponge which are met with in bucIi 
multitadeB on erery rocky eoast of the 
ocean, from tho shores of Greenland to 
those of Anstralia. On the shores of 
the sea, says Professor Grant, when the 
tide has retired, rocks and other mariae 
Bubstancei may be seen covered with 
a layer of a soft spongy substance, of tb- 
rious forms, coloors, and consistence, 
■ometimes hanging in branches from the 
cliffs which are covered by the sea, 

animals. This layer consists of beings 
which possesB an organisation extremely 
«mple. Their BUrfaee is porous ; those 
pores lead to canals which ramify through 
all parts of their teiture ; and those 
canala anastomosing into larger and 
larger trunks, lead, again, to orifices on 
the surface, from which Uiere issue con- 
stant streams of water. The poriferous 
animals present various am! remarkable 
forms in the skeleton ; and the simple 
gelatinous body of the animal is sap- 
ported by B skeleton composed of dif- 
ferent kinds of earth : in one group the 
earth is silica ; in another it is the car- 
bonate of lime ; in another it is a homy 
■nbitance. The skeleton, thus composed, 
has been called the aiia of the animal. 
The material of which the fleshy portion 
ia composed is of so tender and gelatinona 
a nature, that the slightest pressure is 
saffisient to tear it asunder, and allow 
the fluid parts to escapi 

Delta I 

a thin 

ily liqaid. 

The surface of a living sponge presents 
two kinds of oriflces ; the larger of a 
ronnded shape with raised margins, whici 
form projecting papillee \ the smaller, mi. 
nnteand numerous, constituting the pores 

] FOR 

of the sponge. It wbb long the 
opinion that the mperficial layer of gdh 
tinons substance possessed a conaden))!* 
degree of contractile power, HOT was it " 
Prof. Grant clearly demonstrated thai 
sponge does not possess any such uni| 
that the illasion was diagipBted. 
porifera present a digestive systeai.irf 
by its form and simplicity, approacbs! fl* 
nearest to that of plants. The od)'' 
tissue of their body is permeated is 
directions by anastomosing and rami^^ 
canals, which begin by minote superScia 
pores closely distributed over eveij pari, 
and terminate in larger orifices larioi ~'~ 
placed according to the form of the ei 
animal. The pares ire provided wil 
ge!Btinons|netwark and projecting spiesll. 
to protect them fi-om the Ui^rai' 
cnles and floating particles. The in 
canals, like the venous aystem, leadiil 
from capillaries to trunks, are bDawM 
by a more condensed poctiou of the gene 
cellular substance of the body, and t 
incessantly traversed by streams of «st 
passing inwards throngb themtnntepor 
and discharged through the larger iwifii 
or vents, hn^o polypi or ciUa have bt 
discovered in those parts, although fx 
analogy we might consider them neoi 
saty. From the tncessant streams ll 
are conveyed through the'bodiea of thi 
animals, it appears that all parts of tb 
interior perforations, as well as the generd 
eitemal surface of Ibis cellular slrDctarti 

matter into the interior substance of Ibl 
body. On watching the streams of ' 
which issue from the foecal orifices, 
may be seen minute flouculen) partidCI 
that are incessantly detached and throwa 
out, which appear as if they were Ihs 
residue of digestion, or pellicles eicreted 
from the body, and thrown off &am thi 
surface of internal canals. 

No nervous filaments have been de- 
tected in the soft gelatinous bodies of 
Eoriphera. Their ciliated gemmvlcsi. 
owever, are endowed with remarkshli 
living properties, and powers of aponti-' 
neons motion. They have an evidnl'' 
object in their motions ; they can acodfr- 
rate, retard, or cease, at pleasore, tlw 
vibrations of their cilia ; thej can (diiS|t. 
the direction of their course in the <r«let». 
perceive each other'a vicinity, rorrfw 
round each other, distinguish the molt 
suitable place for the fliing of each ipe- 
cies, or bound forward suddenly from * 
state of rest. They appear in this sUt* 
of freedom to be sensible to light, andt* 
shun it. 

Although sponges, or poriferous ant" 
mals, are permanently atlaohed to roAs, 
and other solid bodies in the ocean, anl 


nBequentl; destined [o ta existence 
» compleuly itatiunir; as that of pluite, 
et sucb is not the condition of thir earlier, 
nd more troasitorf stugea of tKeir deve- 
ipin(!i]t. On the gemmDle the poirer of 
Woination is conferred, until it has foDi ' 
ir itself a proper habitation ; tbischosei 
: there fiies itself and there continui 
br the remtuning period of ite eiisteoce 
to'siTT. {pomitS, Fr. paraaila. It 
qnalitj of having pprei ; of being 

8. (pwaue, Fr.jiorMo, It. t Hav- 
nDsU npiraclea, interstices, or pas- 

jnaEtj of being porons, 
PHTav. (from Ttopifv^a, purple, Gr. 
'pkyrilet, Lat. parphyre, Fr, porfirii, 
t. pBrj>hyr, Germ.) Porphyry liaa been 
V cidled in reference to the pnrplB, or 
eddish, colesr bo commonly perceptible 
} it Oenerally, any form of rock in 
lUch one or more mioerBls are scat- 
red through an earthy or compact base. 
'rphyry has generally a compact teilnre. 
netimes it is composed of tabular, 
nmnar, or globular distinct concre- 
ns ; and not unfreqnsntly it is tra- 
BTied by numerouB Eeama and rants, 
s are many varieties of porphyry, 
d according to the base of each, as 
Porphyry, FeUpar Por- 
hjry, ClinliBtone Poi-pbyry. Argillaceous 
oiphyry, Slc. Geologists liave described 
«r formationB of porphyry i but it ia 
merally agreed that there is much ua- 
ainty with respect to the situation of 
e EJrmatians. The porphyry which 
ira regnlariy imbedded in granite, or 
lucb appears to be formed by a mere 
lange of structure in that rocli, may 
rppcrly be classed with primary rocks ; 
's not considered to be an extensive 
mation. Porphyry also occurs in enor. 
00 massBB ; at the head of Glen 
imagan, a cliff of porphyry fifteen 
idred feet in height, in shape resem- 
■n oblique truncated pyramid , passes 
'"*' granite. In some mEtances por- 
, beyood all question, a volcanic 
■n. Near Christiana, in Norway, 
of porphyry, from 
to ZOOO feet in thickness, covers 
of gaeisE, limestone, and grey- 
Bcke. Dykes of porphyry cutting 
'OUgh the subjacent rocks iudisputably 
}ve the volcanic character of this im- 
mae maas. Porphyry and basalt often 
irer the primary mountains in the 
ides; resembling immeuse castles lifted 
Qto the sky. 

itki'tic. ) Resembling porphyry ; 
irciA'cEous. i containing porphyry ; 
iposed of a compact homogeneous 

J ] POT 

lire iinbeddi'd : thEvompactslonoii called 
the base, and aometimes the paste. The 
base, or paste, is generally felspar. 
i'o'sTl.AM) BEOS. A marine formation, 
occurring in the Isle of Portland and in 
Wiltshire. These beds consist of coarse 
shelly limestone, fine grained white lime- 
stoae, and compact limeslone, all pos- 
sessing an oolitic structure; and beds of 
chert. The Portland beds Ua imme- 
diately under the Purbeck beds, and 
above the Kimmeridge clay. They con- 
stitute the uppermost members of the 
loiite group, and abound ir ''" 

e, &c. 

f Oneofthemem- 
Po'ttTUMD STONE. I bera of the 
Portland beds ; a marine oolitic forxna- 
tion, obtained principally from Portland, 
whence the name, and used in boitding. 
This limestone is aoft when quarried, 
but hardens on exposure to the at- 

Po'tasu. Ad alkali obtained by the inci- 
neration of vegetables, or the woody parts 
ofplants that do not grow near the sea. 
The water in which the ashes are washed 
is evaporated in irou potsi from which 
circnmstonce it was called polath. Al j 
though potash is very widely dissemi- 
nated in the earth's crnst, its amount, 
collectivBly considered, is grea^ inferior 
to that of sitei and alumine. There are 
few, if any, of the inferior stratified rocks 
without potash ; and, viewing them in 
the mass, potash may be conaidered as 
constituting five or six per cent, of the 
whole. Potaih may be regarded as con- 
stituting between six and seveu per cent, 
of granites, greenstones, and rocks of 
that elass. 

Pota'ssium. a metal diaoovered by Sir 
H. Davy in 1808, At a temperatun! of 
32° potassium is bard and brittle, with ■ 
crystalline texture ; at bO" it becomes 
malleable, with a lustre like that of po- 
lished silver; and at 150° it tnses. Po- 
tassium is lighter than water, its spedfic 
gravity being 0-85 : to preserve it un- 
changed, it should be kept in a phial 
with pure naphtha. Sir H. Davy ob. 
tained potassium by submitting solid 
hydrate of potash to the action of vol- 
taic electricity ; it has, liowever, subse- 
quently been procured by other means, 
particularly by those described by Gay 
liussac and Thenard. 

Po'tstone. The Lapis ollaria of Pliny; 
Toftstein of Werner ; Talc ollatre of Haiiy. 
A variety of steatite, nearly e^ual in 
hardness to common steatite ; it is, how- 
ever, more tenacious, and though it may 
be turned with the lathe, it breaks irith 
difficulty. It is smooth and unctuous to 
the touch. It is uanally of a greenish- 

POT [21 

grej colour, with T»riou< «hnil«, and 
uflea ipoUcd. Iti fraclure curtcd, and, 
lomenaicii, almost foliated. Specific gra- 
rily trooi 2-8 Co 3-2. It emita an argil- 
liceouE odoui when breathed on, Froni 
its being farmed into culinBrf leueU it 
hai obtiuDed its name. From an analjiis 
b]r Wiegleb, the iiottitone of Corno, in 
Liombardy, where it occurs in gnat abun- 
datioe, consists of magnesia 3S'0, silica 
38-0, alumina 7 '0, iron ISO, carbonate of 
lime I'O, Auoric acid I'U. 

Po'tders' clav. a variet]r of claj, of a 
reddish or pej colour, which becomes 
red when heated. That used in onr pot- 
chiefly from DcTonshire. It is eiceed- 
ingly infusible, and coutains a large pro- 
portion of alumine. 

Pozzuola'na. Scorise or volcanic ashes, 
brought from Poiiuoli, a town in the bay 
of Naples, and named therefrom. Pox- 
zaolaaa is used, mixed with lime, for 
making a Roman, or water- setting, ce- 

The Prasen 

jri Q'lartE 


hyalin Terl obscor of Haiiy , 
prase of Brongniort. A leek- green trsns- 
lueenC variety of rhombohedral quartz : 
lustre vitreous ; fracture splintery. Spe. 
cific gravity 2-5. Praae appears to bf 
common quartz, coloured by aetynolite oi 

Pra'bihocb. (jiTBsinfa, Lat.) Ofalight 
green colour, indining to yellow. 

Pbbci'pitate. a deposit, in a sol 
of a body previously held in sola 

Pbici'fitate. IprAipiter, Fr. precipi- 
iare. It.) To throw down a substance 
that had previously been held in solu- 

PaKci'fiTOCB. (from priscfpa, Lat. pre- 
C^ileto, It.) Steep \ headlong, 

Prkda'cbOuh. (from yr*(Iri, Lai. booty.) 
Living upon prey. 

PaEiiE'HBU.E. (from prehendo, Lat. 
lay bold of.) That can lay hold of. The 
preheaiiU portion of the tails of monkeys 
is nsked beneath. 

PnE'nNiTB. A mineral thus named after 
Colonel Prehn, who brought it from th-e 
Cape of Good Hope. rreboiCe ' ' 
green, grey, or white colour. It 
cryttalUzed ; in granular, ecopifo: 
stellular fibrous distinct 
maesive and rcniform. Its 
liated. Fraclore uneven. Internal tuet re 
pearly. It scratches glass, though feebly, 
and gives sparks with steel. Specific 
gravity froon 2-60 to 2'S4. Mr. Bake- 
well was the first person who discovered 
prebnite in F.ngland ; he found it in ]81(i, 
in amygdaloidal wacke, in Gloucester- 
shire. It has since been found in the 
basalt of Suffordshire. 

1 P R I 

Pui'mabv. a t«rm applied to rocks or 
strata, because it was suppoied. froto the 
■bseuce of fossil remains, that tiiey nere 
formed before animals and v^etableii " 
well as that tJiey were the first rocki 
farmed. Mr. Lyell, with hia wonted 
acumen, proposes to snbscitnte the woM 
hypogeat for primary. It would *f- 
pear, says Mr. Lyell, tbat tiie popalu 
Domenclatnre of geology, in referenca ta 
the so called "primary'* rocks, is cot 
only imperfect, hot in a great dtgrsa 
founded on a false theory; inasmndi at 
some granrtea and granitic scliist) are of' 
origin posterior to many secondary rocki. 
In other words, same priniar}/ fonnl- 
tions can already be shown to he newer 
than many secondary groups, — a iniBi- 
fest coolradietion in terms. See Bgpt- 


probability, hereafter be colled hypo- 
gene. They are of crjatalline stmetuei 
and manifestly owe their present slats IP| 
igneous agency. Tae primary rocks si* 
those which are older than the moit 
ancient European group, (greywacke,) 
in which distinct fossils have as yet been 
discovered. Primary rocks are divisibla 
into two groups, the stratified and ifat 
unstratified. The stratified group eon- 
aista of the rocka callfid gndss, m)o 
schist, argillacFons schist, homblen&i 

Others. The unstratified, or Hutiudei 
is composed in n gi-eat measure of gri^ 
nite, and rocks closely allied to granite.- 
Lyell't Principles qfGeoIogg. 

ParMARi- srRA'TA. The primary strsU 
arc defined above by the old red sand- 
stone ; and when that is absent, by Ik* 
carboniferous limestone ; below, they 
usually rest, but sometimes unconforias- 
bly. upon granite. They consist, in > 
great measure, of mechanical aggr^tei, 
comparable with sandstones and clayf, 
but yet generally distinguishable by su- 
perior hardness, and somewhat of a crji- 
tallinc structure in mass, or teilnts in 
detail, from the secondary rocks. In the 
secondary rocks there ie more variety of 
arenaceous and eolcureous members. la 
the tertiary strata loose sands, marls, sad 
clays abound, while these scarcely occur 
at sll among the primary rocka.— Pt^' 

Pri'mitive. a term applied to certain 
rocks, from the circumstance of no fijsril 
remains of animals or vegetables, nee 
any fragments of other rocks, being fbnad 
in them. The term has given wly U 
what is considered a more approprittt 
one, namely, primary. With the ew 
tinued advance of geological knowledge). 

P R I 

e [«rni primary will, in all prubabilily. 
_ eld to that proposBa by Mr. Lyell. 
aiamel;, liypogCDe. 

kiuo'RDisL. (from primardium, Lai 
Jlrimordial, Fr.) Orij^d ; existing froii 
tiic beginaing ; Gret in order. 
ftiHM. (vpriT^ii, Gr. jtriarae, Fr^ priiraa^ 
ll.) A golid figure, the ends wherenf 
are parallel, eqaal, and similar plane 
Sgnres, and the eidea which connect the 
Ends are parallel ugrame. Prisma take 
jwrtieuUr names from the figure of their 
bUBE or ends, namely, triangular, square, 

^lar, pentagonal, hexagonal, &c. 

ijiia'na. a family of t]uadrupeds 
belonging to the order PBchydermata. ' 
The proboscideans have five toes to each 
Jbot ; tbey possess no canine teeth, bnt 
two tusks, which project from the month, 
and frequently attain to an immense eize. I 
Hie noBlrila are continued out into a I 
proboBcis, which is eiceedingly fleiihle, | 

raeasea great flexibility, and terminates : 
ft linger'litce appendage The pro- j 
bosds may be considered as the hand of 
tbe elephant. One living genua only of 
,thia bmily is known, namely, the ele- 
vfamt ; the Other genus, the mastodon, ia 
Mieved to be extinct. 
loBo'scis. (TTpu^JorTicic, Gt. from fioatai, 
.to feed, and npb, before, proboscis, Lat. 
froioaeidt, Fr, proboicide, It.) A 
lengthened tube, soout, or trunk belong- 
lug to certain animals. The proboacia of 
tiie elephant is of great length, serving 
the purposes of a band, conTeying to Che 
Month anything it desires to swallow. 
It is an instrument of most delicate 
touch, of Hcent, and breathing, and of 
orehension as adroit as tliat of a hand. ' 
iBy the extraordinary fleiibility with I 
which it is endowed, it can not only he | 
Inflected inwards to carry things to the i 
autb,but be bent upwards, downwards, or I 
laterally, to lay hold of things above, below, 
in either side ; and, by the assistance 
:s finger-like termination, it can grasp 

-readily as we can with our four fingers 
<and thumb. In insects, when the in- 
aent for auction extends for some 
^__„_h from the month, it is called a pro. 
iVmcIs ; sueb is the apparatus of the butter- 
Ay, the moth, the goat, tbe houae-fly, and 
other insects that snbsiat on fluid alimenr. 
tOco'xBENT. (procumiens, Lat.) Lying 
,do«rn ; prone. In botany, a term applied 
^ planta, the stems of wbich tie or fall 
ftpon the ground tbruugh weakness. 
^^ — u'cTA, An Bitinct genua of equila. 
ll inequivalTe, striated bivalves. It is 
nd in the mountain limestone and 
n secondary rocks only ; it is allied to 
^listing genus Terfbral«la, 


) wliat a 

1 ] PRO 

lermwl the spurious legs of iusecta. While 
the uutnber of the true lege ia limited 
to six, the prolegi are often very nu- 
merons ; they eonsist of fleshy and re- 
tractile tubercles. The true legs are 
generally protracted by horny scales ; but 
the coverings of the proirgi are wholly 
membranous. The office of the jn-ottgi 
apjiears to be merely to aerve as props to 
support the body while the insect is 
walking, and to prevent its hinder part 
from treading on the ground. They are 
frequently terminated by single or double 
books ; and also by a marginal coronet of 
recurred spinea. — Dr. Roget, Bridg. 
Pno'TEUs. {wpiiiTfVi, proltat, \M.) The 
name given to a genus of the order Ba- 
Irachia. One species only has been 
hitherto discovered, namely, the Proteus 
Anguinus. A subterranean saurian, 
which never makes its appearance on 
the earth's surface, but is always con- 
cealed at a considerable depth below it, 
being found in aubterraneous lakes and 
caves two or three hundred feet below 
the snrface of the ground. The following 
particulars are extracted from Sir H. 
Davy's Consolations in Travel :— " Inde- 
pendently of the natural beauties found 
in Illyria, and the various sources of 
smusement which a traveller fond of 
natural history may find in this region, it 
has a peculiar object of interest in the 
eitraordiiiary animals nhich are found in 
the bottom of its subterraoeDos cavities, 
namely, the Proteus angninus, a far 
greater wonder of nature tlilui auy of 
thuse which the Baron Valvasur detailed 
to the Royal Society a century and a half 
ago, as belonging to Carniola, 

Ac first view, you might snppoae thia 
animal to be a lizard, but it has the mo- 
tians of a fish. Its head, and the lower 
parts of its body, and its tail, bear a 
strong resemblance to those of the eel ; 
but it has no fins ; and its curious bron- 
chial organs are not like the gills of 
llshea ; they form a aingular vascular 
structure, almost like a crest, round the 
throat, which may he removed without 
oncasiouing the death of the animal, wiio 
ia likewise furnished with lungs. With 
this double apparatus for supplying mr to 
the blood, it can either live below or 
above the water. Its fore feet resemble 
hands, bnt they have only three claws or 
fingers, and are too feeble to be of use in 
grasping or supporting the weight of the 
animal ; the binder ^et have only two 
clawB or toes, and in the larger apecimena 
are found so imperfect as to be almost 
obliterated. It has small points instead 
of eyes, as if to preserve the analogy of 
nature. It i^ of a Hcaby whiteness or 


[ 212 ] 

P T E 

transparency in ita natural state, but 
when exposed to light/its skin gradually 
becomes darker, and at last gains an olive 
tint. Its nasal organs appear large ; and 
it is abundantly furnished with teeth, 
from which it may be concluded that it is 
an animal of prey ; yet in its confined 
state it has never been known to eat, and 
it has been kept alive for many years by 
occasionhlly changing the water in which 
it was placed. The proteus was first 
discovered in Illyria by the late Baron 
Zois ; but it