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Full text of "Dictionary and grammar of the language of Sa'a and Ulawa, Solomon Islands; with appendices"

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http://www.archive.org/details/dictionarygrammaOOivenuoft 






DICTIONARY AND GRAMMAR 



OF THE 



LANGUAGE OF SA«A AND 
ULAWA, SOLOMON ISLANDS 



BY 



10 



< 



WALTER G. IVENS, M. A. 



WITH APPENDICES 




! i Iff 



Published by the Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Washington, 191 8 



JL 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 
Publication No. 253 



PRESS OF GIBSON BROTHERS 
WASHINGTON 



-TT 



PREFACE. 

The two languages, Sa'a and Ulawa, of which a dictionary is here 
presented, belong to one of the Melanesian groups of the Oceanic 
family of languages. Ulawa is the language spoken in the ten villages 
of the small island of Ulawa, the Contrariete Island of the charts, in the 
southeast Solomons. Sa'a is spoken in its purity in the village of the 
same name, the last inhabited place on the southeast extremity of the 
large island of Malaita, which lies some 30 miles west of Ulawa. 

Malaita is composed of two islands, commonly called Big and Little 
Malaita, separated by a narrow channel designated Mara Masiki Chan- 
nel on the Admiralty chart, but called Laloi Su'u (literally "within-the- 
inlet") by the people who use the languages presented here. Sa'a is 
situated on the Malaita coast exactly opposite Ulawa, and there is con- 
stant communication between the two places during the calmer weather 
after the dropping of the southeast trade winds. The two languages 
are evidently from a common stock and are so closely allied that it has 
been found quite possible in the present work to adjust the various 
details to the same scheme of treatment, both as to grammar and 
vocabulary. 

Of the two, Sa'a is far more highly specialized than Ulawa. This 
specialization is shown: 

1. In the use of nouns in the singular number, and particularly of such 

as are the names of parts of the body, without the definite article 
nga being prefixed. 

2. In the very careful observance of the phonetic rule that the vowel a 

changes to e in certain words after a preceding i or u or after the 
verbal particle ko. 

3. In the very frequent use of the gerundive. 

4. In the richer vocabulary and in the employment of words not used in 

Ulawa in order to avoid uncertainty in meaning, e. g., Sa'a nume 
house, nime bowl, where Ulawa employs nima for both; Sa'a domu 
to fall (of persons only) in addition to l usu, where Ulawa has only 
'usu for both. 

5. In the fuller forms of the pronoun used as subject of the verb and in 

the more particular and careful use of the quasi-trinal forms end- 
ing in -lu. 

6. In the dropping of an inner consonant in the reduplication of stems. 

The name of Contrariete Island is Ulawa and not Ulava or Ulaua, as 
is sometimes found; the language has no v sound, and in Lau, where 
w changes to q (kw), the island is known as Ulaqa. The number of 
persons who live on Ulawa and who speak Ulawa is not more than 1 ,200 
at the outside; but the language has a certain and considerable extrinsic 
importance in view of the fact that a number of villages on Ugi, the 
island lying off" the east coast of San Cristoval, have Ulawa teachers 
and are using Ulawa books. 



iv PREFACE. 

The true Sa'a speech is spoken in its purity at two villages only, 
Sa'a itself and A'ulu. But the differences between Sa'a and Qaloto 
(Pwaloto), the language of the majority of the inhabitants of Little 
Malaita, 4,000 or 5,000 in number, are so slight, amounting largely to 
variety in accent and intonation, that Sa'a may be said to be the prin- 
cipal language of Little Malaita. 

The language of the north end of Little Malaita is called Tolo, and 
this is also the language of the south end of Big Malaita. On the north 
end of Big Malaita the language is known as Lau. These three lan- 
guages, Sa'a, Tolo, and Lau are closely akin, and with Ulawa they form 
a distinct subgroup in the linguistics of the Solomon Islands. Sa'a and 
Ulawa on their part have distinct likenesses with the languages of San 
Cristoval, and Lau at the other end of Malaita has several features 
which show a grammatical connection with the language of Florida. 

An important feature in both Sa'a and Ulawa is the use of shortened 
forms of the personal pronouns in the three persons singular and of 
additional forms in the third person plural, and the suffixing of these 
as objects to verbs and prepositions. This is the practice of Solomon 
Island languages generally. The presence of the third personal pos- 
sessive has not hitherto been recognized in the languages of San Cristo- 
val, but doubtless it exists, although not so commonly in use as in 
Sa'a and Ulawa. Certain examples seem to show its presence in the 
language of Florida (though Dr. Codrington has not marked it in his 
grammar of Florida) ; anggu and ana certainly occur, cf. ganagana oli 
anggu remembering me, ganagana oli ana remembering him. If these 
are compared with Sa'a 'amasi to'o aku feeling pity for me and 'amasi 
to'o ana feeling pity for him, it will be seen that the so-called suffix in 
Florida is anggu, ana, and not nggu and na, cf. "Melanesian Languages," 
page 524, nouns. 

This is the first essay toward the dictionary of any Solomon Island 
language. The compiler is fully aware of the scantiness of his work. 
Probably not more than one-third and certainly not one-half of the 
existing words have been collected by him. The languages are rich 
and, with proper opportunity, many additions might easily be made to 
the words herein set forth. 

Of the linguistic importance of the Melanesian languages there can be 
no possible doubt. Dr. Codrington in his book "The Melanesian 
Languages" has shown how certain features in a language so far 
removed geographically from Melanesia as Malagasy can be explained 
by referring to Melanesian habits of speech, and also how Melanesia is 
in many ways the linguistic key to the proper explanation of Polyne- 
sian. Mr. A. S. Atkinson, in a paper read in 1886 before the Nelson 
(New Zealand) Philosophical Society, said with reference to Dr. Cod- 
rington's "Melanesian Languages" that "this work will mark an epoch 
in Polynesian philology by showing the fundamental relation between 



PREFACE. V 

the Polynesian and the Melanesian languages." If this opinion is cor- 
rect, and Mr. Atkinson was an excellent judge, it is of the highest 
importance that matter such as is contained in this dictionary, the 
compilation of which is directly the result of the lead given by Dr. 
Codrington, should be placed before scholars in the hope that it may be 
of some further help in elucidating the philological problems of the 
Oceanic family of languages. 

It should be noted that it has not been thought necessary to print in 
this work many words common to the Oceanic family whose cognates 
are set out in full in the Mota dictionary. 

The compiler of this dictionary desires to put on record his indebted- 
ness herein to Dr. Codrington's example, and wishes to acknowledge 
that whatever value the dictionary may be found to possess will be due 
to his having endeavored to follow the lines laid down in two of the 
books from Dr. Codrington's pen, "Melanesian Languages" and the 
"Dictionary of Mota." 

The thanks of the author are also due to the officials of the Carnegie 
Institution of Washington for their readiness to print and publish the 
present volume, and to Mr. William Churchill, Associate of the Institu- 
tion, for assistance in arranging the matter presented in the dictionary. 

W. G. Ivens. 

Malvern, Victoria, June 1917. 



LITERATURE. 



List of books -printed in the languages of Sa' a and of Ulawa: 

1. Prayer Books containing Matins and Evensong, Litany, Selection of 

Psalms containing about 60 Psalms, Holy Communion Office with 
Collects, Occasional Services, Church Catechism. 

2. Hymn Books containing 50 Hymns. 

3. Complete New Testament. 

4. Catechism for the Children of the Church. 

Bibliography of Sa' a and Ulawa languages: 

1. Small grammars in Dr. Codrington's "Melanesian Languages." 

2. Separate grammars compiled by W. G. Ivens. 

Other Matter: 

Collection of Folk Lore Tales in Ulawa. 



CHECK-LIST OF LANGUAGES. 



Araga, Pentecost Island, New Hebrides. 

Bougainville Straits, Solomon Islands between 
Bougainville and Choiseul Islands. 

Bug., Bugotu, Ysabel, Solomon Islands. 

D. Y., Duke of York Island, Bismarck Archi- 
pelago. 

Epi, New Hebrides. 

Esp. Sto., Espiritii Santo, New Hebrides. 

Fate, New Hebrides (Efat6). 

Fagani, San Cristoval, Solomon Islands. 

Fiji Islands. 

Fl., Florida, Solomon Islands. 

Gilb., Gilbert Islands, Micronesia. 

Haw., Hawaii. 

Lau, Malaita, Solomon Islands. 

Maisin, Collingwood Bay, New Guinea. 

Mai., Malay. 

Malag., Malagasy, Madagascar. 

Malaita, Solomon Islands. 

Malekula, New Hebrides. 

Malo, New Hebrides. 

Mao., Maori, New Zealand. 

Marsh., Marshall Islands, Micronesia. 

Mel., Melanesia. 

Mota, Banks Islands (New Hebrides complex). 



Motu, Gulf of Papua, New Guinea. 

N. B., New Britain, Bismarck Archipelago. 

N. G., New Guinea. 

Nguna, New Hebrides. 

Niue, Savage Islands, Polynesia. 

Omba, Lepers' Island, New Hebrides. 

Pol., Polynesian. 

£>., Qaloto, Malaita, Solomon Islands. 

S., Sa'a, Malaita, Solomon Islands (see follow- 
ing note). 

Sam., Samoa, Polynesia. 

San Cr., San Cristoval, Solomon Islands. 

Ses., Sesake, New Hebrides. 

Sol., Solomon Islands. 

Sta. Cr., Santa Cruz, New Hebrides. 

Tah., Tahiti, southeast Polynesia. 

Tanna, New Hebrides. 

Tolo, Malaita, Solomon Islands. 

XJ., Ulawa, Contrariete Island, Solomon 
Islands (see following note). 

Vaturanga, Guadalcanar, Solomon Islands. 

Vili, the language of the Fiji Islands. 

Wango, San Cristoval, Solomon Islands. 

Wedau, Bartle Bay, New Guinea. 



Note. — When S. or U. is found after words it is intended to mark that 
word as peculiar to Sa'a or Ulawa respectively; where no such notation appears 
it is to be understood that the word is common to both languages. 



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS. 



adj., adjective. 

adv., adverb. 

art., article. 

(au) marks a preposition as taking the suffixed 
pronouns au, 'o, a. 

def., definite, definitive. 

demonst., demonstrative. 

deter m., determinative. 

excl., exclusive (of personal pronouns, exclud- 
ing the person addressed). 

exclam., exclamation. 

genit., genitive. 

gerund., gerundive. 

inch, inclusive (of personal pronouns, including 
the person addressed). 

inter j., interjection. 

interr., interrogative. 

(ku) marks a noun as taking the suffixed pro- 
nouns ku, mu, na. 

met., metaphorical. 

metath., metathesis. 

melon., metonymy. 

tt., noun. 

neg., negative. 

neut., neuter. 

(Na) or {na, ni) marks a noun as taking the 
suffixed pronoun in the third singular and 
in the neuter only of the third plural. 



obj., object. 

onomatop., onomatopoetic. 
part., particle. 
partic, participle. 
pers., person, personal. 
pl., plural. 
poss., possessive. 
pr., pronoun. 
Pref., prefix. 
Prep., preposition. 
prov., proverbial. 

redup., reduplication, reduplicated. 
sing., singular. 
subj., subject. 
suff., suffix, suffixed. 
term., termination. 
tr., transitive. 
v., verb. 

v. i., verb intransitive. 
v. p., verbal particle. 
v. tr., verb transitive. 
voc, vocative. 

M. A., Codrington's "Melanesian Anthro- 
pology." 
M. L„ Codrington's "Melanesian Languages." 
T. S. E. "Torres Straits Expedition," vol. iii. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGES 

Preface «*■**» 

Dictionary of Sa'a and Ulawa Languages 1-115 

Index to the Dictionary 1 17-136 

Appendices: 

A Brief Grammar of Sa'a and Ulawa 139-154 

The Lord's Prayer in Twenty Languages as used in the Diocese 

of Melanesia in the Islands of the South Pacific 155— 15^ 

Linguistics in the Western Pacific 157-176 

Melanesia and its People 177-191 

Natives of Melanesia 192-198 

Some Historical Notes concerning the Melanesian Mission. . . . 199-206 

"Yachting" in Melanesia 207-216 

The Queensland Labor Trade 217-232 

Santa Cruz 233~ 2 49 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Frontispiece. The Landing of John Williams at Tanna. 

Text-figure (p. 208). The Undine. 

Plate i. The Southern Cross at Santa Cruz. 

2. A. Recruiting Boat at a Market in Malaita. The Women in Canoes 

are waiting to exchange their Fish for Garden Produce. 
B. Women Traders, etc., Malaita. 

3. A. Sea-going Canoe, Malaita. 

B. Model of Canoe used for Bonito Fishing, Ulawa. 

C. Matema, Reef Group. 

4. A. Carved Food-bowls and Porpoise. 
B. Food-bowls from Ulawa. 

5. War-belts, Bowl, Lime-sticks, Ear-plug, Forehead Ornaments, 

Water-bottle, etc. 

6. A. Carvings from Ulawa: Man, Pig, and Dog. 

B. Ulawa Hair-combs. 

C. Forehead Ornaments made of Clam and Turtle Shell, from 
Florida. 

7. A. Clubs from Malaita, Solomon Islands. 
B. Clubs, etc., from Malaita and Ulawa. 

8. A. Ornaments of Shell for Forehead, Ear, and Nose, from Malaita 

and Ulawa. 
B. Nose Pendants and Fasteners for Bandolier. 

9. Belts, Bandolier, Necklaces, Armlets, etc., made of Native Money, 

Shells, Dogs' Teeth, Porpoise Teeth. 

10. A. Natural Flints incised, regarded as possessing Mana and 

causing Yams to fructify, from Solomons. 
B. Ghost made of Coral, from Ulawa. 

11. A. Young Man of Nukapu. 
B. Man of Qarea, Malaita. 

vii 



DICTIONARY 

OF 

SA'A AND ULAWA LANGUAGES 



DICTIONARY OF SA'A AND ULAWA LANGUAGES. 



a 1. personal article used with nouns and 
verbs: (a) when used with a common 
noun it indicates its use as a personal 
name; ola, thing, a ola, So-and-so; mwae, 
person, a mwaena, So-and-so; it is 
applied to all personal names, both 
native and foreign, male and female, 
a Wale, a John; it is seen also in atei, 
who? it is used to personify; a wawa ko 
'unu'unue mu ola a sae e honu eni, the 
mouth speaks of what the heart is full, 
(b) when used with a verb or adjective 
it indicates their use as a descriptive 
name; ero, to deceive; a eroero, a de- 
ceiver. In usage it corresponds to the 
* of Mota and Malagasy. 

a 2. termination of the verbal noun: hatale, 
to go along the shore; halalea, sea-coast. 

a 3. adverb of assent: 'o te urine? a, did you 
do thus? yes. 

a 4. pers. pron. 3d sing, suffixed to verb (with 
or without verbal suffix) as object, and 
to prepositions as anticipatory object 
and used both of persons and things, as 
him, her, it; it does not change to e after 
a preceding * or u before a proper name 
owing to the presence of the personal 
article a; li'oa e lio ahuiaa Dora, the 
spirit protected Dora. 

a 5. stem to which the pronouns ku, mu, na, 
etc., are suffixed in forming poss. 3. 
Polynesian ha, la. 

*n 6. prefix of condition, making participles: 
langu, to pluck, 'aldngu, come out of 
socket; htili, to break off, 'ahdli, broken 
off. Mota ga 3. 

*a 7. Ulawa v. p. of present or general time, 
joined in pronunciation to the personal 
pronoun used as subject, na'a, 'o'a. 
Lau ka, future particle; Fotuna, New 
Hebrides, ka, id. 

4 a 'a'a 8. exclam. negative, don't. 

*'i 'a'a 9. adj. term, suffixed to nouns, verbs 
and other adjectives; qiiqii, mud; 
qiiqii'e, muddy; mwako, to pierce; 
mwakomwako'a, prickly. Mota ga 5, 
Bugotu ga, Motu ka, Samoa a. 

*$. 10. suffix, (a) to poss. 2 and 3 in sing. 1 and 
2: ndku'd, naku'e, dkii'd, amu'a, ndmu'd. 
(b) to pers. pron. dual 2 and 3: i'emeru'e, 
kereru'e. Probably 'a 9. 

*$. 11. stem to which pronouns ku, mu, na, 
etc., are suffixed, forming poss. 1 of 
things to eat. cf. & 5. Mota ga 1, 
Bugotu ga. 

*'i 12. as I 6; 'dnguru from nguru. 

*a'a 1. exclam. negative, don't; 'a 8. 

*a'a 2. a large green parrot with red under the 
wings, the male of iloilo'a. New 
Guinea electus. San Cristoval kaka, 
Maori kaka. 



'a'a 3. to run, to be abundant, of creepers; 
hahalisi e 'a'a, the grass has spread; hule 
e 'a'a ha'ahia taoha, convolvulus had 
crept over the canoe house. Wango 
taga, to be in leaf. 

'a'a 4. to rise up clear, of the moon: waaro- 
waaro e mdnu 'a'a max ilengi, the moon 
has floated clear up on high. 

'a'a S. 5. to throw, to bowl: 'a'a to'ohaa, to 
contribute money. Wango gaga, to be 
spent; Lau taga, to throw. 

'a'a 6. adj. suff.; puru, frequent; purupuru'a'a, 
frequently; wdi, water; waiwei'a'a, 
watery, cf. 'a 9. 

'a'ada'i v. i., to importune, to vex, to beg, to 
dun. 
'a'ada'ini v. tr., to importune a person. 

'a'ade U., to see. cf. hd'iade'i. Wango aadai, 
to look. 

'a'ae (ku) S., n., leg, foot. cf. 'ae 1. 

'a'ai U. exclam. haha! 'a'ai laa, so there! 

'a'aila'a adj., firm, strong, powerful; ea'a'ila'a 
oto mae ana, he is very strong; redupli- 
cated 'aila with 'a 9. 
'a'ailahaana strength, its strength. 

'a'ala v. i., to bite; mwaa 'a'ala, poisonous 
snake, 'ala 3. 

'a'ala'i v. i., to increase, to spread, of plants. 
'a'a 3. 

'a'ana U. v. i., to vomit, 
'a'anata'ini v. tr. 

aani U., adverb preceding verb; at all, just 
now; e qake aani lae, he did not go at all; 
na'asi aani lae mai, I have just come. 

'a'a'o cf. 'a'o. 

'a'aoleanga S., v. n., lamentation. 

'a'aro v. t., to come aboard, of surf; hai naho e 
'a'aro melu, a wave came aboard us. 
a'aronga v. n., surf breaking on the shore. 

'a'ari v. i., to be rent asunder. Wango kari, 
Lau kakari, Florida tahari. 

'a'atasi v. i., to be odd, uneven, in number; 
nga hue e 'a'atasi, there is an odd one. 

'a'ate v. i., to be dry; hero 'a'ate, dregs of grated 
coconut after pressing out the milk. 

aau the season of the southeast trades, winter, 
the season of the ripe canarium nuts: 
aau kosi repo, the canarium nuts are just 
ripe; aau e repo kosi holaa, when the nuta 
are ripe the weather is calm; aau 
marawa, the nuts purpling before ripen- 
ing, the month of July. cf. maraau. 

'a'auhi v. tr., to help, to come to the aid of. 
ha'i'a'auhi. Wango aauhi; Mota kakau, 
to visit constantly. 

ada 1. poss. 3, pi. 3, among them, belonging to 
them, they (obj.). 

'ada 2. poss. 1. pi. 3, for them, theirs, of things 
to eat. 

adaada S., ataata U., v. L, to progress, to move 
on, to be in motion. 



ADA'ELU 



ada'elu 1. poss., 3, pi. 3, among them, for them, 

them (obj.); ada 1, 'elu. 
'ada'elu 2. poss. 1, pi. 3, for them, theirs, of 

things to eat; 'ada 2. 
adai 1. n., a cluster; a bunch: adai niu, a bunch 

of green coconuts, 
'ada'i S. 2. v. i., to rub: nunurete ko 'ada'i melu, 

fearfulness has come upon us. 
adairi S. v. i., to despise, used with poss. 3. 

adairinge'ini v. tr. Wango adairi, to 
separate. 
adlao n., a creeper used to make bowstrings. 
adaoro v. i., to crouch (oro, to stoop). In this 

word ao is diphthong. 
adaru'eS., adaru'aU., 1. poss. 3, dual 3, among, 
belonging to, the two of them; used also 
as object when the pronoun is separated 
from the verb, 
'adaru'e S., 'adaru'a U., 'adaru'i U., 2. poss. 1, 
dual 3, for the two of them, of things to 
eat. 
'ade U., to see: e qaleo la ne'e 'adea, I saw 

nothing, ha'i'ade'i. 
adi v. tr., to tabu, to set one's mark upon; n., a 
tabu mark; huui edi, S., huu ni edi, U., 
a bunch of leaves used as a tabu sign, 
adinga U., v. n., 'alu edinga, the placing of 

a tabu sign. 
adila-(ku), gerund, 
adi edi 1. n., yellow vascular tissue of gleichenia 
fern used in ornamentation on combs, 
spears, etc.: noma adiedi, a spear with 
grass plaiting; arapa adiedi, a comb so 
decorated. 
adiedi 2. v. i., to have pins and needles in the 

limbs: 'aeku ko ediedi, my legs tingle, 
adine S., n., of relationship, used with ro mwa: 
ro mwa adine, two cousins-german 
regarded as brother and sister, adi. 
adio n., a creeper which grows on banyans, used 
as fishing-lines or to tie together the 
teeth of combs {arapa) : nga hikei adio, 
a coil of adio. 
adiu v. i., to be out of joint, diul. 
ado v. i., to share in, to participate; (a) used 
with poss. 3; (b) used with suff. pron. 
ku, mu, na, da, ni, to befit; adoku, my 
deserts; le'u e adoku, my share, ha'aado. 
adonga S., v. n., used with dau 1, hele: noko deu 
adonga, I am making an attempt; mola 
adonga, merely tentatively, 
adoma'i, adoadoma'i U., v.i ., to think, to recol- 
lect; adoma'i mousi, to decide, to dare; 
adoma'i sae, to give thought to; adoma'i 
su'ate'e, to be anxious about, 
adoma'inga v. n., thought, recollection, 
adoma'ini v. tr., to think of a thing. 
adoma'inila-(ku) gerund. Wango adomai, 
Bugotu ado, to know, 
ttdu, aduedu v. i., to carve, to build, to dub out 
planks; ddu i'ola, to build a canoe; adu 
i'olanga, canoe building, 
adumi v. tr., to carve, etc. 
aduminge v. n. 

adumila-(ku), gerund. Wango adu. 
'ae, 'ae'ae (ku), n., leg, foot; 'aekueli'i, my legs 
are out of joint; 'ae loku, maimed in the 



'ae, 'ae'ae (continued). 

feet, halt; 'ae pule, dropsical; 'aeku ko 
ediedi, my foot tingles; 'aeku ko seunieu, 
my foot hurts; 'ato 'ae, to move quickly; 
huni lengu ha'aodohie 'aeka, to guide our 
feet; i ngadona 'aena, before, at the feet 
of, him; kolune 'ae, the heel; koukouli 'ae, 
the ankle; lau 'ae, be quick; ni'i 'ae la'o 
i'ola, to board a canoe; penatana 'ae, 
the sole; poupou ni 'ae'ae, the heel; tau 
'ae, to hurry; Mola i 'ae, to follow a 
master; umu i 'ae, to gather round the 
feet of. Maori wae, foot; Motu ae, foot; 
Bugotu nae, foot. 
'ae 2. n., mark, example. 

'ae 3. n., source, beginning; mu 'aei wala, first 
principles; a 'aei meurihe, the source of 
life; 'aei henue, the land of origin; 'aei 
hohola, the owner of the garden; 'aei 
'inoni nemue, thy dependents; 'ae hau, 
precipice. 
'aena because of, the beginning of; used 
with ana 7; 'aena ana, because of; 'aena 
maa, threshold; 'aena papali, the jaw. 
'ae 4. n., faeces, ordure; mu 'ae, faeces; huui 'ae, 
excrement. Polynesian tae, tutae, faeces. 
'ae 5. v. i., to uncover, to bring to light, to open 
out, to expose: walana ko 'ae ha'adai ana 
mu esoesohai dunge, his voice cleaveth 
the flames of fire. 
'aeli v. tr., used of the action of the sea, 
rain, etc., in exposing anything. 
'ae 6. specific numeral; 'aeni ue, five rolls (hikei 
ue) of dyed cane for plaiting wristlets, 
etc. 
'ae 7. ha'a'ae, to be fleeting, vain, 
'ae'aeniola v. i., to commit fornication. 

'ae'aeniolanga v. n., fornication, 
'aehota S. 1. v. tr., v. i., to begin. The root 
notion is that of generation, there is also 
inherent a notion of continuance; atei ni 
e 'aeholaa, who began it? melu 'aehota 
'unue, we began to say. 'ae 1. hota 1. 
'aehota 2. v. i., to conceive; v. tr., to generate, to 
beget, tala'aehota. 
'aehotalana S., gerund, the beginning; 'ure 
'oto mai i 'aehotalana, from the begin- 
ning up to now. 
'aela, 'ae'aela v. i., to be bad, no good, ill; inu 
'aela, nasty to drink, not fresh (of 
water); e la 'otoi 'aela, it is bad; e la 
'otoi 'aela mwaani nonola, it is worse 
than yesterday; laehaku e 'aela, I can not 
walk well; e lai 'aela, it is bad; lalona e 
'aela; loo 'aela, to be immodest, to offend 
against propriety; in a depreciatory 
sense e muaimwei 'aela, very small, too 
small; e no'i 'aela 'oto, to be bad; 
ngduhana e 'aela, he overeats himself; 
'osi kariheni 'aela laa, do not be such a 
nuisance; rako 'aela, unpleasant, irksome; 
e rako 'aela aku, it is against my grain; 
rongo 'aela, to make a din; noko sape 
'aela, I am ill; sapekue 'aela, I am ill; 
siho 'aela ana, to spread evil reports of; e 
tala'ai 'aela, e tala'aeni 'aela, it is begin- 



AHU'I 



'aela, 'ae'aela (continued). 

ning to spoil ; e tola 'aela aku, it was bad 
for me. 
'aelahaana gerund, its badness; 'aelahaana 

mn i'e, the bad fish, 
'aelasi v. tr., to cause to be no good, to 
spoil; used with dau 1; sae 'aelasi, to 
bear malice. Not connected with tata- 
'ala. cf. M. L., p. 54; probably 'ae 1, 
with la 3. 

'aelulu v. i., to step over, to neglect; used with 
prep, haahi; 'ae 1. 

'aena cf. 'ae 3. 'aeni. cf. 'ae 6. 

aha 1. n., a sparrow hawk. 

aha 2. v. i., to cut, to score, to notch, to mark 
by incising. 
ahasi v. tr. 
ahasila-(ku) gerund. Wango aha. 

aha 3. to recede, to dry up (of water). 

aha 4. v. tr., aha tahani, to warn, 
aha tahanila-(ku), gerund. 

ahaa 1. v. i., to be bitter to the taste; 'e'e ahaa, 
wild areca nut. 

ahaa 2. n., salt water, salt; me'i ahaa, some salt 
water. Bugotu aha. 

ahala'i, ahaahala'i partic, removed, changed 
in position; sae ahala'i, vexed at heart, 
unsettled, provoked, 
ahala'ini v. tr., to provoke, ha'aahala'ini. 

'ahali partic, broken off (of boughs); 'a 6, 
hali 1. 

ahare awalosi i ahare, the northeast wind. 

'aharo 1. v. i., to conduct a betrothal or wed- 
ding ceremony. 

'aharo 2. n., relations by marriage; 'aharo inau, 
my relatives by marriage. Heuru, 
S. C, aharo. 

'aharota v. n., a wedding feast; dau 'aharota 
ana kalena, wedding feast of his child; 
kara ni 'aharota, a large yam pudding 
for bridals. 

'ahe 1. n., surf, currents from wind or tide, tide- 
rip; 'ahe hiru, an eddy; hirune 'ahe, 
troublesome waves; 'ahe hirune i 
Nielaha'u, the tide rip at Cape Zelee; 
'ahe ko hurosieu, the surf whirls me 
about; 'ahe kosi tola, the current sets; 
'ahe Iduleu, strong current; 'ahe e 
lomosie 'iola, the surf buffeted the canoe; 
'ahe lulu, boiling tide; 'ahe i niu tangalau, 
a tide rip between Ulawa and Sa'a; holo 
'ahe, to divide the waves by incantation 
and make a way for a canoe, 
'ahela adj., strong current; e 'ahela, there is 

a strong current, 
'ahesi v. tr., to cause to drift; e 'ahesie, it 

has drifted. 
'ahesila-(ku) gerund. Polynesian tahe, to 
flow; Viti ndave, Mota ave, Florida tahe. 

'ahe 2. v. i., to melt away, to waste, to dis- 
appear; wa'e 'ahe, to waste. 
'ahela'ini v. tr., to cause to disappear. 

'ahe 3. n., a crab. Mota gave. 

'ahe S., 4. 'ahe tangalau, to bear bountifully (of 
a garden). 

'ahelidu, 'ahe'ahelidu S., v. L, to congregate, 
'ahelidunge v. n., congregating. 



aheta v. i., to stretch out the arms with weari- 
ness, premonitory of malaria. 

'aheulao v. i., to be a fornicator, fornicating; 
ulao. 

'ahewa'a v. i., to be fleeting, vanishing, melting 
away; 'ahe 2. wa'a 4. 

'Shi n., closet, chamber. 

'ahinga U., v. n., chamber; mwai keni ana 
'dhinga, women fond of staying in their 
chambers. 

'Ahi'a the southernmost village on the west 
coast of Ulawa. 

•ahi'e S., 'ahi'a U., n., Malay apple (Eugenia 
sp.); puli 'ehi'e, orange cowrie. Mota 
gaviga, Viti kavika. 

'ahihi partic, crouching, groveling (of a dog); 
hi hi. 

ahimawa v. i., to yawn. 

Ahina'i U., Ahina'i amau the name of a canoe 
in a story. 

'ahisu, 'ahi'ehisu partic, out of joint, fallen 
out of place, hisuhisu. maaku ko 
hini'i 'ehi'ehisu 'oto, my eyes nearly 
fell out. 

aho v., to be abraded (of skin). 

'aho'a partic, separate, apart from; used with 
poss. 3; 'aho'a aku, far off me. 'a 6, 
ho'a 2. 

ahoaho (na, ni) U., n., the inner shell of the 
canarium nut, film. 

'ahola partic, broad, wide, 'a 6, hola 1. 
'aholanga v. n., breadth, width. 

'aholo v. i., to fish for garfish (mwanole) with 
a kite; sa'o ni 'aholo, the kite. 
'aholonga v. n., fishing with a kite, 'a 6, 
holo 2. 

ahonga U., v. n., making trial, tentative, used 
with tdu 1; tola ahonga, to tempt; name 
ahonga, taste and try. malaahonga. 

ahowa n., open space of sea and sky. Wango 
ahowa. 

ahu talo ahu, a war band, fighting company. 

ahu, ahuahu U. 1, v. L, to be complete, perfect 
(of numbers) ; ahu mae, to cease hostili- 
ties; ma'uru ahu, to be sound asleep; 
talo ahu, to amass. 
ha'aahu v., to complete, to finish, 
ahusi v. tr., to affect completely, to extend 
all over, to encompass; dkusie mu le'u, 
everywhere; e dhusie hdnue, it has 
affected the whole place. Lau afu, 
complete; Maori ahu, to heap up; 
ahuatia, completed; Mota av, to pile; 
Ambrym ahu, ten; M. L., p. 458; Motu 
ahu, to inclose. 

ahu 2. v. i., to bring forth fruit. 

ahuhu v., to fade away, to droop. 

ahuhu'e S., n., crumbs of food; mu ehuhu'ei 
ngeulaa. 

ahui 1. n., a dancing club; mao pe'e dhui, to 
dance holding the dhui. M. A., p. 333. 
cf. mao hidehide. 

ahu'i 2. determ., from ahu 1, used as preposi- 
tion, around, protecting; hule ahu'i, to 
come for; lio ahu'i, to protect; para 
ahu'i, to protect with a fence; puli ehu'i, 
to gather in a crowd round a person; toto 



AHU'I 



ahu'i 2 (continued). 

ahu'i, to pay a fine on behalf of; t 
sapena i Dora ahu'i niu, an apostrophe 
addressed to Ugi, cf. ha'adahi. 

ahu'i 3. v. tr., to wrap up; ahu'i ola, a parcel. 
ahu 1; Wango ahui, to wrap; Lau afu, 
Samoa 'afu; Niue aft, to wrap. 

ahu'i 4. partic. used as adverb, altogether, 
completely; ke ahu'i saediana lokoloko, 
will completely rejoice together. 

ahu'i 5. n., ahu'i menu, a lily (Crinum asiat- 
icum) which grows on the beaches. 
Wango hii menu. 

ahu'i-(na) 6. n., a stump of a tree. 

ahulili n., seeds of a tree, strung in a bunch and 
worn on the backs of the fingers after 
the fashion of castanets in dances, cf. 
hidehide. 

ahululu n., a small yam pudding used in sacri- 
fices, ahu 1, lulu 2. 

ahuni determ. from ahu 1, used as an adverb; 
entirely, completely; more common in 
Ulawa; hauni, metathetic. 

'ahu'o n., owl; onomatop. San Cristoval 
kahuko. 

ahuora v., to be dusty, or a 2. 

ahuqa'i S., n., a dish of edible fig-leaves ('amusi) 
and pounded new canarium nuts (ngali). 
Shu'i 3. 

ahuraa U., ahuraa d&ni, to be on the move 
before daylight. 

ahuraka U., v. i., to come forth, proceed out of. 

ahurara v., to be abundant, to be green (of 
grass), ahu 2. Wango ahura. 

ahure v. i., to make holes with a digging-stick 
(pi'e 2) for yam planting. 

ahureha v. i., to be open, clear, of unimpeded 
vision, iihu 1. 

ahureu S., v., to do haphazard; ahureu ana 
hurunge, to run uncertainly. 

'ahuri n., the conch shell, blown as a summons; 
lahulana 'Shuri, the blowing of a conch; 
ngaratai 'ehuri, the sound of the conch; 
walana 'ahuri e tatalea walu tala i Tolo, 
the sound of the conch went through all 
the villages in Tolo; walowaloi 'ehuri, 
the sound of the conch. Bugotu tavuli. 

ahuta-(ku) v. n., all, completely, the whole of. 
ahu 1. ahutamere'i mango, both of us, 
ahutamolu mango, all of you; ahutana 
sapeku, my whole body; ahuleni, all 
(things) ; i'oe ahutemu, the whole of thee; 
mdni Shutaka, U., all of us. 

ahutata v., to be vanished, to have vanished. 
ahu 1, tata 2. 

'ai 1. n., a tree (more common in Ulawa); 'fit 
ha'angdu keni, ginger, given to women as 
an ordeal; 'ai ni haka, U., papaya; 'ai 
nehunehu, a rod, a stick; 'fit ni He, U., 
wood for making fire by friction; 'ai repo, 
a pestle for pounding taro to make tau- 
manga; hai 'ei, U., a log; hite 'di,\J., to split 
firewood; hou 'ei, U., the kidneys; huani 
'ei, U., fruit; iduidu mesi 'ei, U., jumped 
about on the firewood; kokopa ni 'ei, U., 
buttress flanges of certain trees; lolo'a 
ni 'ei, TJ., a thicket; maa ni 'ai, U., a 



'ai 1 (continued). 

stake, picket; mwa 'ai, U., firewood; 
mwai 'ei, U., trees; mwai ngangani 'ei, 
U., chips of wood; mwai rango ni 'ei, U., 
dead trees; pou ni 'ei, U., a log of wood; 
qa'ahita ni 'ei, U., a slab of wood; rai 'ei, 
U., plank; so'o 'ai, U., to pick up fire- 
wood; suli 'ei i qaoha, ridge-pole; tdu 'ei, 
U., to break firewood; uleuleni 'ei, U., 
twigs; 'ulu'ulu ni 'ei, U., branches, twigs 
and leaves; usu 'ei, S., firestick. Mota 
tangae (M. L., p. 95), Florida gai, 
Malagasy hazo. 

'ai 2. v. i., to be stiff, numb; nimeku e 'ai 'oto, 
my hand is numb. 

a'i 3. tr. suffix to verb; sasu, sasue'i. 

a'i 4. participial ending used adverbially; ere 
ha'ihonoa'i, to speak revilingly. 

ai 5. U., ai suu, to perish, to become extinct. 
suu 1. 

ai 6. ai uhi, to clean shoots off stored yams. cf. 
aite'i. 

'ai, 'ai'ai 7. exclam., mind, look out! 

'ai'aa 1. v., to be lost, missing, wanting. 
ha'a'di'aa. Wango aiaa. 
'ai'aanga v. n., destruction. 

ai'aa 2. exclam., alas, woe! 

'ai'aana without, unless, failing; used as ad- 
verb; 'ai'aana ineu, failing me, but for 
me. 'ai'aa 1, ana 2. 

aidea v., to be in pain. 

aideri specific numeral, ten parrot-fish caught 
with a dip net (kalu). aideri ni i'e. 

'ai'ei'aa adj., fleeting, transitory, 'ai'aa. 

'aihu v., to be uprooted, to fall, of trees in a 
storm. 

'aihuri n., lettuce tree, with yellow leaves, 
planted to mark landing-places, 'ai 1, 
huri. 

'aila cf. 'a'aila'a. 

'ailemu S., n., the banyan tree. 'Si 1. 

'aili 'aili lado, v. tr., to graft, lado 1. 

'aili'apaa U., n., a staff, walking-stick, 'ai 1, 
li 1, 'apaa. 

ailipo'u U., n., transverse beams, a cross (late 
use), 'ai 1, li 1, po'upo'u. 

Sim* tr. suff . to verb. S'i 3, ni 4. 

Aio an island off the east coast of Big Malaita. 

a'itada S., thus, in their style, just their way. 
da 2. 

a'itana S., thus, similarly to, just that way, like 
his style, na 2. cf. U. aliha 2. 

aitana'i, aieitana'i v. tr., to beseech, to beg, to 
entreat. 
aitana'inge v. n., entreaty, prayer. 
aitana'ila-(ku) gerund. 

aite'i v. i., to clean the rootlets off taro, etc. 
at 6. 
aite'ini v. tr. 

'aitepi n., a tree, Barringtonia edulis; hoi 'eitepi, 
its nut; trunk used for ridge-poles. 
'ai 1, tiipi. 

'ai walo'a adj., covered with creepers, entan- 
gled, 'fit It walo 1. 

aka poss. 3, pi. 1. inch, to, or on, us; used as 
object when the pronoun is separated 
from the verb. 



'ALA 



'aka 1. v. I., to pull out; 'aka Idu, to pull out 
violently, to defend, to help; 'aka niho, 
to pull teeth, 
'akani v. tr., noko 'okanie moono, I gouge 

his eyes out. 
'akanila-(ku) gerund. Lau aga, Mota tkaka. 

'aka 2. poss. 1, pi. 1, for us, of things to eat. 

aka'elu 1. poss. 3, pi. 1, to, or on, us; used as 
object when the pronoun is separated 
from the verb. 

'aka'elu 2. poss. 1, pi. 1, for us, of things to eat. 

'akalo 1. n., a ghost, a spirit; M. A., p. 260. cf. 
uraa'i. 'akalo e kausie i'ola, a ghost 
clutched the canoe and capsized it; 
'akalo ni ntatawa, a ghost of the open sea. 
cf. Ngorieru; hanue ni 'akalo, Malapa 
Island, hades; ho'o 'akalo, to tie a granny 
knot; maa ni 'akalo, eye of coconut; 
pdlolana mu 'akalo, worship of the 
ghosts; ta'e 'akalo, to raise a ghost; tola 
'akalo, to exorcise spirits; toto 'akalo, to 
exorcise a ghost, M. A., p. 137; uunu 
ola saana mu 'akalo, to offer burnt offer- 
ings to the ghosts, wai ni 'akalo, tears. 
Wango ataro, Mota tataro, Gilberts 
tataro, Viti tataro. M. L„ p. 146. 

'akalo 2, a dead person; nihoi 'akalo, dead 
man's tooth; para ni 'akalo, cemetery 
(late use). 

akara'i, akaru'e S. 1., poss. 3, dual 1, to, or on, 
us two, used as object when the pronoun 
is separated from the verb. 

'akara'i, 'akaru'e S. 2., poss. 1, dual 1, for us 
two (of things to eat). 

akau, akakau v., to be ready, to be lit, to be 
burning, ddu akau, to prepare, to make 
ready; e akau, is it alight? hele akau, to 
prepare, to make ready. 
akauni v. tr., ha'akauni, to cause to light. 
Wango agau. 

akauri v. tr., v. i., to be possessed of, to be pro- 

vided with. akau. ntelu akauri 'oto, 

we are furnished; mere 'asi akauri ihei, 

U., where are we likely to get anything? 

ha'aakaurisi causative. 

akauringe v. n., profit, possession. 

akauri si v. tr., to obtain possession of, to 

provide, to have. 
akaurisila-(ku) gerund. 

ake n., string fringe, the dress of married 
women hung suspended from the waist. 

akeake n., strand of rope, twig, sprig; akeake 

ni dili, sprig of dracaena. 
akera'i partic, come undone. 

'akera'ini v. tr., to undo, to destroy, to 
subvert. 

'akere 1. partic, untwisted. 

'akere (na) 2. n., border, edge, bank, kerekere. 

'akeu partic, on one side, overbalanced, tilting. 
'a 6, kau 1. 

'ako 1. v. i., to catch in the arms, to grasp, to 
wrestle. 
'akonga v. n. 
'ako'i v. tr. Wango agoi, Viti rako. 

ako 2. honu ako, to have pulmonary disease. 

akoako 1. v., to be out of heart, without energy; 
hele akoako, to do listlessly. 



'ako'ako 2. v., to deprecate wrath by saying 
'ako' ako saemu; not used to women. 

akohe v. i., to be listless, to neglect through 
laziness; e akohe mwaanie, he neglected 
it through laziness, 
akoheta'ini v. tr. 

akoheta'i partic, to neglect through lazi- 
ness; lae akoheta'i su'a ana maemaeha, 
run carelessly into danger. 

'akolu partic, excited in mind, 'a 6. 

aku 1. poss. 3, sing. 1, to, or upon, me, used as 
object of verb when the pronoun is 
separated from the verb; e kopi eku, 
touch me. Rafurafu, S. C mwane aku, 
my husband. 

'aku, 'aku'e 2. poss. 1, sing. 1, for me (of 
things to eat), 
'aku'i U., of many things for one person to 
eat; honi weieu 'aku'i, bonito for me to 
eat. 

akuu exclam., pish, humph, pooh. 

'ala, 'ala'ala 1. v. i., to answer; with poss. 3, 
to obey, to give attention to; nou ka'a 
'ala ana. I did not obey; 'ala qa'u, to 
nod the head backward in assent, 
'alami v. tr., to answer a person. 
'alamila-(ku) gerund. 

'alamalni v. tr., to respond to, to acknowl- 
edge, to give leave to, to consent. 
'alama'inila-(ku) gerund, 
'alama'i, ha'i'alama'i v. tr., to consent 
mutually. Florida talamagini. 

'ala 2. v. i., to be prosperous; e 'ala diana 'oto, 
it is doing well. 

'ala, 'ala'ala 3. v. i., to bite, to sting, to be sharp- 
edged; 'ala mumu, to close in like jaws; 
'ala tola, to bite at and miss; pa'ewa ko 
'ala tala, last two days of the moon. 
'ala'i v. tr. Motu karakara, fierce; New 
Britain karat, Kabadi arasia, Maisin 
karafe; Mota gar agar a, to clench the 
teeth. 

'ala 4. v. tr., to break off, to lop, of branches; 
'ala dango, to lop off limbs of a tree. 
Mota sal 1, Wango ala, Maori here. 

'ala 5. to cut the teeth, to get feathers; eke ko 
'ala, the white cockatoo is growing 
feathers; to flash as lightning; wa'ariri 
ko 'ala hitelie solo, the lightning-flash 
cleaves the sky; 'ala ngingita, U., to 
frown, to clench the teeth. Florida 
gala; Mota sar, to pierce, to shine. 

'ala 6. to set a net, to he in wait for, to go the 
rounds of the flying- fish floats (u'o); 
'ala poo, to catch pigs in a net; 'ala 
Pupulu haahi, to surround in a dense 
body; mae ko 'ala, enemies lie in wait, 
'alasi tr., hu'o kire 'alasie ka'u, the net that 

they have laid. 
'alaa'i v. i., 'alaa'ini tr., to plan, to lay out 

the plan of, to shape, to lay in order. 
'alaa'inila-(ku) gerund. Mota sal 2; 
Maori ftarahou, net. 

'ala 7. U., plural article in the vocative; 'ala 
mwane, you men. cf. 'alai 1. 

'ala 8. adjective ending; sasu'ala, smoky; 
iotonga'ala, resinous, 'a 9, la 4. 



'ALAA 



'alaa 1. n., a flock or covey of birds, 'alaa ni 
menu, ala 6. Mota Igara, spread, or 
sara 3, to gather. 

'ala'a 2. S., adv., up, upward; noko soi 'ala'a 
ana, I call upon him. Wango araa, 
Florida galaga. 

alaala n., croton; alaala pa'ewa, a variety with 
red leaves shaped like a shark's fin. 

alaha 1. n., a chief. In M. A., pp. 47, 51 (note), 
maelaha appears to be the Wango word 
maeraha. No such word occurs in Sa'a 
or Ulawa. dili alaha, red-leaved dra- 
caena used in incantations and in draw- 
ing lots; horana mwa alaha, U., under 
the power of the chiefs; huui alaha, a 
chiefly family; reoreo alaha, a large 
variety of nautilus, 'king' nautilus; 
tnwei ta'a alaha, dear lord; niniho alaha, 
a large hornet; pepe alaha, a butterfly; 
siri alaha, a parrot, Lorius chlorocercus. 

alaha 2. v. i., to rule; alaha haahi, to rule over. 
ha'aalaha. a 1, laha. 
alahanga v. n., rule, dominion, chieftain- 
ship, kingdom (late use). Wango araha. 

i lahuu, alaalahuu v. i., to talk in parables, to 
compare in words, 
alahuunge v. n., parables, metaphors, 
alahuute'ini S., alahuunge'ini U., v. tr., to 
use parabolic language. 

'alai U. 1. plur. art., used of persons only; cf. 
'alei; 'alai 'inoni, you people; 'alai 
Mwado'a, Mwado'a people; 'alai ola, 
you people. 

'Alai 2. n., northeast cape of Little Malaita, 
opposite the rock Hau Hari at the 
entrance of Mara Masiki Channel. 

'alali U.i v. tr., to apportion food, 'ala 6. 
Wango atari, to befit. 

alalu v. tr., to disobey, to mutiny against. 

alanga, Alanga kaule Selwyn Bay, on Ugi, a 
trading-station for copra. 

'alanga'i S., 'alanga'i i'ola ni tolo, fifth and 
sixth days of the moon; 'alanga'i hapa, 
first quarter of the moon; 'alanga'i roa, 
third and fourth days of the moon. 
'ala 6. 

'alangu partic, out of its socket, 'a 6, langu. 

'Ala Sa'a n., the northwest Alite mountain 
above Langalanga, Big Malaita. 

'alasi U., 'arasi S., v. tr., to fine down by scrap- 
ing (of bows, spears, combs, and other 
wooden articles); kira 'alasi pasi, they 
scrape bows. Niue alati, to scratch. 
cf. karasi. 

'alata'ini v. tr., to bait a hook, 'ala 6. 

ale, aleale v. tr., to give oneself airs. 

aleale 1. n., an umbrella palm. 

aleale 2. n., a frond of the umbrella palm cut 
into strips and dyed red with the root of 
the lettuce-leaf tree (kikiri), used for 
decorating canoes, combs, spears, etc.; 
pungui aleale, a bunch of dyed aleale. 

'alei, 'alai U.. pi. art., used of persons only; 
'alei ke'i nikana ineu, my family; 'alei 
'inoni, you people; 'alei 'inoni ineu, my 
relations. Florida lei used to form 
plurals. 



alele to be jubilant; alele ni (ani) kananga, to 
rejoice in song. 

'alenga adv., up; uwe 'alenga, to lift up the eyes. 

'a 6. 

'alelenga adv., up; lio 'alelenga, to look up. 

'alelenga'a adv. 1. upward. 2. v. tr., to 

lift up. Mota langa, to lift; Samoa 

langa, Viti langa. 

alepopo U., lae alepopo, to go sideways, to walk 
like a crab. 

'aleu partic, turned upward; maana e 'aleu, to 
have the whites of the eyes showing. 

'81i 1. v. i., to lie curled up as a snake or a dog; 
mwaa ko 'eli, a snake is curled up (an 
omen of danger, maemaeha). Mota tal, 
to go around. 

ali U. 2. v. tr., to cut the mortises (ra'iqe'u) on 
a pillar; kira 'asi 'alia i one, they mor- 
tised it down on the beach. 

'ali 3. a cord. cf. 'i'eli. Wango ari. 

'ali U. 4. 'ali 'ae, the first piece of ground planted 
in a garden. 

alide to travel by sea. 

alidanga v. n., 1. a sea journey. 2. a canoe- 
load of voyagers, alidanga e hule 
saaka'elu. 
alidangaha U., v. n., with double n. ter- 
mination, as 2. Wango arida, Lau alida. 

ali eli 1. n., logs in a yam garden marking the 
plots of different planters. 

ali eli 2. lio alieli, to look about. 

alielimui v., to abound. 

aliha U. 1. n., a centipede. Bugotu liva. 

aliha-(ku) U. 2. alihana, thus, similarly, just 
his way; alihamu, just your way; 
alihada, just what you might expect 
from them. cf. aitana, S., alitana, U. 

aliho'i 1. v. i., to return, to go back, ali 1, 
ho'i 3. ko tola aliho'i ana nunune, 
recovers its soul; mangona e puuto'o 
aliho'i, his breath returned; qi'e aliho'i, 
to recover health; susu eliho'i, restored 
whole. 2. adv., again, 
aliho'isi U., v. tr., to turn over, to reverse. 
Vaturanga hoi, again; Florida goi, again; 
Wango 'aho'i, ha'ari, to return. 

aliholo 1 . n., a depression in a mountain ridge, 
a pass. 2. a fosse cut on a ridge to 
prevent access by an enemy, holo. 

alihu'isi S., v. tr., to turn over, to reverse, hu'i 2. 
alihu'ite'ini Qaloto dialect, as alihu'isi. 
alihu'ita-(na) gerund, overturning, reversal; 
'oto esi elihu'itana mu huuilume, then 
shall the cities be destroyed. 

Ali'ite Northwest Sister Island, 'Olu Malau. 

'alili n., a shellfish (Turbo petholatus); musi 
ni 'elili, its operculum. Mota salili, 
Niue alili. 

alilo'a n., an eddy of the wind, 'ali 1. 

'alinge (ku) 1. n., ear; 'alinge ka'a kawa'ie, ear 
hath not heard; 'alingada e hi'e mwaanie 
rongo, ears weary of hearing; hu'esi 
'elinge, to turn the ear to; rongo ni 
'e inge, to hear with the ear; susu 'elinge, 
an ear-stick ornament; uwe 'alinge, to 
give ear to. 2. mushroom, large fungus. 
Polynesian talinga. 



ANA 



'alinge v. n., vying; huruhuru ni 'elinge, to run 

races, 
alingi v. tr., alingie ora ni uunu, to build up the 

altar of sacrifice, 
'alingo v. i., of the tongue, to "get round" a 

word; meaku ka'a 'alingo ana, my 
tongue can not pronounce it. 
alipono sasu alipono, thick smoke, pono. 
'alipuri v. i., to follow (of time). 'Mi 1, puri; 

esi 'elipuri ana, a little while after, 
'alisuu ma'ahu 'elisuu, to sleep sound; ma- 

'ahunge 'elisuu, sound sleep, 'ali 1, 

suu 1. 
'alisuute'ini v. tr., to be forgetful of. 
ali tana U., adv., even so, thus, alihana. 
'alite 1. n., a tree (Catappa terminalis); hoi 

'elite, its nut; 'alite ko mena, the 'alite is 

turning red. 2. n., a diamond-shape in 

ornament. Mota salite. 
alitehu n., rubbish heap. Lau tafu. 
'aliu 1. partic, reversed; saena e 'aliu, he 

repented, liu. 2. v. i., to turn round; 

'aliu haahie mwala, to turn round and 

face the people, ha'a'dliu. 
'aliunge v. n., 'aliunge ni sae, conversion 

of mind, 
'alo specific numeral, of taro, 100; 'alo ni hui, 

100 taro. Espiritu Santo taro, 100; 

Mota tar, 1,000. 
alo 'a 1. adj., suffering from yaws. 2. n., the 

yaws; mu alo'a, the frambcesia. 
'alohi v. tr., to anoint. Florida dalovi. 
alo'i to be loose (of teeth), 
'alopi partic, having a jagged edge. 
Alosi the north end of San Cristoval. 
'alo'u 1. partic, turned back upon itself, 'a 6. 

2. n., a verse, 'alo'u ni wala. 
alu 1. v., alu ana 'ape, to fish with a seine, 
'alu U. 2. v. tr., to put, to place. Lau alu; 

Florida talu, to put. 
'alu U. 3. v. n., to change into, to become (of 

ghosts); e 'alu ana pa'ewa, he changed 

into the form of a shark, 
aluhe S. 1. a centipede. 

'aluhe 2. partic, untied, loosened, 'a 6, luhe. 
aluhi, alueluhi 1. v. t., to wrap up, to cover up. 

2. n., a covering, cloak. 
aluhite-(ku) gerund, a covering, cloak, 
alunge'i partic, rongonga alunge'i, heedless, 
'alusae U., v. i., to meditate, to revolve in 

mind, 'alu 2. 
'araa-(ku) n., father, father's brother; 'amaku, 

voc, father; 'amana e ngaungeu, his 

father ate it, a railing exclamation; e 

usulie 'amana, he is like his father. 

Polynesian tama. 
'amaa partic, outside, at the door, 'a 6, maa. 
'ama'ama 1. v. i., to festoon with lycopodium 

fern. 2. n., a bandolier of shell money 

(haa) strung in a pattern with fringe of 

human teeth; Hi 'ama'ama, to make such 

a belt. 3. n., festive ornaments, belts, 

necklaces, bracelets, etc; 'ama'ama ni 

mae, panoply, war decoration, 
'amadi 1. v. L, to eat one thing with another as 

a relish, as fish with yams. 2. n., the 

thing so eaten. 



amami 1. poss. 3, pi. 1, excl., of us, for us, 
belonging to us, to us, used as object; 
'oke ha'ata'inie amami, show it to us. 

'amami 2. poss. 1, pi. 1, excl., for us to eat. 

amara to be barren, childless; muini e amara, 
the childless women. Wango amara. 

'amasi, 'ama'amasi v. tr., to feel pity for; 'amasi 
meuri, to be sorry for oneself, to save 
one's skin by avoidance, hd'i'amasi. 
'amasila-(ku) gerund, 'amasileku, woe is 
me. Wango amari. 

'amasito'o 1. v. i., used with poss. 3, to hold in 
memory. 2. to be homesick, to pine. 
'amasito'onga v. n., remembrance, recol- 
lection; 'amasito'onga amelu, remem- 
brance of us. 

amau U., n., a fig with edible leaves; mwai keni 
ana sili amaunga, women given up to 
getting amau. Ahina'i amau, the name 
of a canoe in an Ulawa story. 

'amaurila-(ku) gerund, living, alive; 'amaurila- 
daru'e, they two alive. 

amelu 1. poss. 3, pi. 1, excl., of, for, to, belong- 
ing to us. 

'amelu 2. poss. 3, pi. 1, excl., for us to eat. 

amere'i, ameru'e S. 1. poss. 1, dual 2, of, for, 
to, belonging to, us two; amere'i is 
sometimes used for amelu 1. 

'amere'i, 'ameru'e S. 2. poss. 1, dual 2, for us 
two to eat. 

'ami U., pers. pron., pi. 1, excl. 1. used as sub- 
ject, we. 2. used following the full 
form i'ami. 3. suffixed as object to 
verbs and prepositions. Florida garni, 
Malay kami. 

'amo'amo U., to commit adultery. 

'amo'amonga v. n., adultery. Wango kamo- 
kamo. 

amolu 1. poss. 3, pi, 2, of, for, to, belonging to, 
you. 

'amolu 2. poss. 1, pi. 2, for you to eat. 

'amu U. 1. pers. pron., pi. 2, used as subject, 
you. 2. suffixed as object to verbs and 
prepositions. Lau gamu, Motu amu. 

amu 3. poss. 3, sing. 2, of, for, to, belonging to, 
you. 

amu 4. v. i., to weed, to pull up weeds. San 
Cristoval amu. 

'amu'e poss. 1, sing. 2, yours to eat. 

'amu'i yours to eat, of many things. Motu 
amui, yours. 

'amumu to be dumb. Lau amu, dumb. 

'amuni partic, lost to sight, sunk below the 
horizon, 'a 6, mumuni. 

amusi,amu'emusiS. 1. to eat areca nut with lime 
and betel pepper, 
amusinge v. n., betel-chewing. 

amusi S. 2. a fig with edible leaves, placed 
under pork in ovens: also used to make 
ahuqa'i. cf. amau, U. 

'amute to be silent, to withhold speech; 
'amumu, la 3. 

'amwada partic, loose (of teeth). 

'amwaoro partic, bent down, bowed, 'a 6, 
mwa 1. 

amwoamwo U., n., a sprat. 

ana 1. poss. 3, sing. 3; a 5. (a) used as object 



ANA 



IO 



ana 1 (continued). 

when the preposition is separated from 
the verb, (b) to. for, concerning, of, 
against, him, her, it; calling on (of a 
ghost), U., e damu'ia meme ana Kiir- 
amo, he chewed areca nut to Kiiramo. 
Florida ana. cf. Preface. 

ana 2. prep., instrumental, used only with 
nouns to which the pron. 3 can be suf- 
fixed, the definite article may follow 
ana; ana specifies the instrument, ani 
the method; ana nga noma, with a spear; 
e sdunie ani noma, he killed him spear- 
wise; ana maaku, with my eye; ana nga 
taa, with what? why? ana saemami, 
with our hearts; ere Idle ana ma'unge, 
to talk confusedly from fear. 

ana 3. prep., belonging to, from, him, her, it; 
'o da nga muini ana muini 'ie, take some 
from these; nou da ana, I got it from 
him; e mauri ana mwela, delivered of a 
child. 

ana 4. place where; e hure'ita'a ana hau, it 
gushed forth from the rock; le'u e lae 
ana, the place to which he went; ana 
mu 'inoni, among men. 

ana 5. prep., after, by the name of; kite saaie 
ana a ola, they named him after So-and- 
so; poro (keni) ana a ola, the man 
(woman) named So-and-so. 

ana 6. adv., time when; ana aau, at the time 
of ripe canarium nuts; ana halisi, at 
harvest time. Mota ana, in anaqarig, 
ananora; Polynesian ana, of past time. 

ana 7. adv., if, for, because; ana e tahanie 
maamu ne, in that he opened your eyes; 
ana he ola mwamwadau, if possible; ana 
muni kire 'unua, if they say it; ana nge 
na ka'a diana, now herein it is not good; 
ana uri, for if, of supposititious cases; 
anoa ni 'ie ana 'omu lae mai, a marvel 
it is in that ye came. Mao. ana, there, 
when. 

ana 8. tangahulu ana, tenth in a series. Mota 
anai, pasopasoanai. 

'ana 9. poss. 1, sing. 3; for him to eat. 'all. 
Motu ana. 

anaanawela adj., without blemish. 

anahi to succor. 

'ana'i U., verb, part., denoting futurity of 
action; the 'a is attracted to the pre- 
ceding a of pronoun na 2 and to kira. 
na'a na'i lae 'olo, I shall be off. Oba 
na, M. L., p. 426. Bugotu da, M. L., 
p. 550. cf. ke'i. 

ane S., v. tr., to wonder at, to marvel at; ane i 
Malau, able to see 'Olu Malau; proverb 
of clear weather. Wango ha' ane, praise. 

'anene adv., gently; ooru 'anene, to blow gently. 
Maori hanene, to blow gently. 

ani 1. poss. 3, pi. 3; of things only; concerning, 
for, from among, to; used as object; 
ne'isae ani, think upon; nou da nga 
muini eni, I took a few of them. 

ani 2. prep., instrumental, used instead of ana 
when no article follows, but not used of 
persons; e sdunie ani taa? &ni hakis, 
with what did he kill him? with an axe; 



ani 2 (continued)." 

ani denotes the method, ana the instru- 
ment; dni is used of general and ana of 
particular signification; ani has an 
adverbial force; dni noma, spearwise; 
ani eronga, guilefully; holota'i eni to'ohaa, 
to promise in money; honu eni to'ohaa, 
filled with money; hute ani mesinge, born 
in adultery; ulo ani erenga, to lament 
with crying; ani he'idinge, at some future 
day; but when an adjective follows the 
noun ana may be used in the place of 
ani; ana ha'idinge tala'ala, in an evil 
day; ani houlaa, at the feast; laelae ani 
'uri isulie, walk in his footsteps; maa 
ani maa, niho dni niho, eye for eye, 
tooth for tooth; e hure'ita'a ani heu pulu, 
gushed out of the stony rock; ani meta- 
thetic upon nia. ni 1; a 4. Florida 
nia, instrumental; Mota nia. 

ani S. 3. prep., of, belonging to; used in com- 
position; ani suusuu, U., a cubit; 'apu 
eni sheep, the blood of sheep; hote ani 
henue, a native paddle; li'oa ani wala- 
'imolinge, the spirit of truth; mu na'ohai 
mwela dni 'inoni, the first-born children 
of men; qooqoota ani nume, foundations 
of the house; raaraa ani meurihe, light 
of life; supi eni heu, a stone club. 

'ano 1. ground; cf. i'ano. 'ano huu, the earth, 
opposed to 'dsi, sea; 'ano mola, cultivable 
ground, deep soil on top of the ridges of 
the upper hills, opposed to qa'u 4, the 
ground on the ridges immediately above 
the beach; hai 'ano, on the ground; hoi 
'ano, underground; odohaana me'i 'ano 
mola, in good ground; susu 'ano, to 
make holes for planting yams. Lau 
gano, Mota tano. 

'ano 2. v. i., to pass away, to disappear out of 
sight; 'ano suu, to perish and become 
extinct; 'ano talihuu, to vanish com- 
pletely. 

anoa n., a marvel, miracle, vision, apparition; 
anoa e wa'araa mdi, an apparition came 
into view. 

'anomi v. tr., to cover with earth, to bury. 
'ano 1. ka'a po'ote'e ada, ko anomire 
mola, no care is taken of them, they are 
merely buried, of the undistinguished 
dead. M. A., p. 263. 

anu, anuenu to be loose, unstable. 

anule'i partic, loosened, waving in the 
wind. Florida anu. 

Anute 1. the island of Florida. 2. Anute ni 
i'e, island at the eastern entrance to 
Mara Masiki Channel. 3. Anute Pdine, 
North Sister Island near Aio on the east 
coast of Big Malaita. Java nusa, 
island, cf. Anuda, Cherry Island. 

'anga 1. n., large woven basket for yams. 
Mota tanga. 

'anga 2. to open; 'anga wawa, to open the 
mouth to speak. Buogut hangavi. 

anga'i v. i., to carry, to act as porter. 

anga'ini v. tr. Mota anga, to shoot up; 
Malagasy anga, lifted up. 



II 



APE 



angi 1. v. tr., e la molai angie holaa, there was 

a flat calm. 
Sngi, angiengi 2. v. i., to be loose, insecure, 
shaky, 
angire'ini v. tr., to move backward and 

forward in order to loosen, 
angire'i partic, loose, capable of being 
worked out. 
angi, angiengi 3. to jerk, 
'ango 1. v. i., to creep, to crawl (of children). 
ha'a'ango. 
•angohi v. tr., to crawl to, to crawl over, to 
creep over; e 'angohia huu ni kana, he 
crawled over to the singers. 
'angohila-(ku) gerund. Mota kalo 3. 
'ango 2. v. i., ango walo, to roll fiber on the 
thigh into twine; ango dau, to lengthen 
out. 
'angohi v. tr. 
'angohila-(ku) gerund, 
'anguru partic, fallen out (of teeth, etc.). 

'd 12, ngurusi. 
•o 1. n., a bird, egret (Demiegretta sacra); 
onomatopoetic; ao eke, white egret; ao 
pulu, gray egret. Mota kaova. 
ao U. 2. qa'i ao, the hermit crab, 
'a'o, 'a'a'o S. 3. v. i., to catch fish, to go fishing. 
wa'owa'o, U. hinou ni 'a'a'o, hook for 
fishing. Fagani agoago. 
a'oho v. i., to be uprooted, to collapse (of a 
building), 
a'ohonga v. n., a fall, collapse. Wango 
arobo. 
'a'o'i U., partic, broken in two. 'a 6, 'o'i. 
'a'ole 1. n., a flying-fish; poro 'a'ole, used in 
addressing the fish as they fly; walopasa, 
10 flying-fish. 
'a'ole 2. v. i., to catch flying-fish. The bait of 
the flesh of crabs' claws (asusu) is 
whipped on a gorge (maai mudi) made 
of turtle shell or of the midrib or rachis 
of the sago-palm leaf, the line is tied to 
a float (u'o) which is watched ('ala 6). 
M. A., p. 317. 
aonga'i v. i., to look fixedly, to stare, 
aonga'ini v. tr., to stare at. 
aonga'inila-(ku) gerund. 
aopa v. i., different, exceedingly, ha'iaopa'i. 
d'du aopa, to make mistakes, to err; 
e aopa 'oto, it has got too bad already; 
e sa'a he'i aopa lo'u, it will never be 
different; kire qao aopara mwaanikolu, 
they treated them differently from us; 
si'o aopa, to separate. 
aori 1. v. tr., to expose a body for burial in a 
canoe or tree, or to lay it into a canoe. 
cf. stilu. Wango aora. 
aori 2. v. tr., to approach (of persons), 
'apa 1. n., a part, side, half; 'apai loa, hea- 
ven, sky; 'apai sato, afternoon; 'apai 
hui, 100,000 taro; 'apai niu, 100,000 
coconuts; 'apani uhi, U., 100,000 yams; 
'apani mae, a fighting party; 'apani mae 
pe'i'emi, to side with us; cf. Florida 
levu ni mate. 
'apa U. 2. to be different. 
'apa 3. n., a leaf; cf. 'apa' apa 1. mu 'apai 



'apa 3 (continued). 

dango, leaves of trees; 'apani paale'o, 
nautilus shell cut in triangular forma 
for inlaying; kala 'apani paale'o, to cut 
such pieces of shell. Florida gaba, 
branch. 4. side (not of persons); ko 
aweawehie ro 'apa na, walks on every 
side; the locative i is added; 'apai haha. 
Big Malaita, i. e„ downside; 'apaihenue, 
the west (down side) of the island; 'apai 
loa la'au, the heavens; 'apai sato, after- 
noon. 
'apaa n., a staff. 

'apa 'apa (ku) 1. n., wing, shoulder, leaves; 
'apa'apana mu menu, birds' wings; 
i 'apa'apana mu 'inoni, on the shoulders 
of men; * qe'une 'apa'apana, on his 
shoulders; mu 'apa'apai dango, tree 
leaves; tere 'apa'apa, to flap the wings; 
fete 'apa'apa, to flutter the wings; 'apai 
reu, a leaf; mu 'apai reu ana mu dango, 
the leaves of the trees; mwa 'apa' apani 
'ei, U., tree leaves, 'apa 3. Wango 
abaaba, shoulder, leaf; Viti tamba, wing; 
Florida gaba, branch; Samoa 'apa'apa, 
fin of a shark; Malay sapa, wing; Maori 
kapakapa, to flutter; Mota gava, to flap 
the wings. 
'apa'apa 2. n., a shed, hut; probably because 

built originally of leaves. 
'apa'apa 3. 'apa'apai i'i, a bird, a swift. Mota 

gapagapa, a swallow. 
'apahee n., a pig's ham. 
'apakere n., a yam. 

'apala U. 1. shoulder; qa'uli 'apala, the 
shoulder. 2. a sum of money {had) 
reaching from finger tips to opposite 
shoulder; ida 'apala, a yard and a 
quarter. 3. rua 'apala, a phase of the 
moon. 4. v. tr., to carry in the arms; 
e 'apalara, kure ke 'apala, let me carry 
you. Mota sapan, to lead ; Samoa sapa, 
sapai; San Cristoval abara. 
'apalili to make a detour, lili 1. Florida 

tabalili, apart. 
'apalolo U., n., the banyan; used in Sa'a of a 
special variety, 'apa 3, lolo 3. 'apalolo- 
e toli, the banyan has shed its leaves. 
Florida tabalolo. 
'apani ere 'apani, to talk in a dialect; wala 
'apani, speech, 'apa 3. 
'apanile-(ku) gerund., brogue. 
'apara'i partic, surprised, frightened, taken at 

a disadvantage, ha'a'apara'ini. 
'apasu partic, chipped, with the end broken 

off. 
apau side (not of persons); apau deni, U., 
toward morning; apau one, the lee side 
of an island, an inlet west of Cape Z61ee; 
e apau 'oto, it is afternoon; sato 'oto i 
apau, the sun declines. Wango abau, 
beside, outside. 
ape 1. to run aground, to prevent, to hinder, 
to serve as a barrier, ha'aape. ape 
hite, to curtail; ape hono, ape honosi, to- 
prevent; ape puri, to be last, in the rear, 
to follow after. 



APE 



12 



ape 2. ape sada S., ape dao U., to be level (of 
country). 

ape 3. v. tr., to encourage; e apea saena, he en- 
couraged him. 

•ape 4. a net, a seine; 'ape ni menu, nets set for 
birds across the openings in a ridge of 
hills; the place where such nets are set; 
'ape e tdu, the net has fish inclosed in it; 
alu ana 'ape, to fish with a seine; sau 
vi aa ana mu 'ape, to mend the meshes 
of the nets. Mota gape, Maori kupenga. 

'Ape 5. the constellation of the Southern Cross; 
ro mwane, the two pointers to that con- 
stellation. M. A., p. 349. 

api-(na) bordering on; i epina lalo, bordering 
on the garden. 

apiepi v. i., to border on, to be contiguous to. 
Malay apit, side by side; Maori apiti, 
to place side by side; Niue apiapi, 
narrow. 

apirawa a yam with purple flesh. 

apiopio a flowering creeper (Hoya). 

apite'i partic, sore, of feet; met., sore at heart. 

apo 1. v. tr., to epilate. 

apo 2. a bivalve shell used to pluck out hairs — 
it is held in the fingers and worked like 
pincers. 

apo 3. v. tr., to lever, to prize; e apoa mu heu, 
he prized up the rocks. 

'a polo 1. a piece of shell money (haa); 'ele 
'apolo, U., a small length of money, 
met., of a small piece of garden planted. 
Florida polo, up till. 

'apolo 2. partic, ceased, ended; hota ni mwane 
e 'apolo ana ro Dora, the succession of 
boys ceased with the two Doras; mae 
'apolo, paralyzed. 

'apoloa S., people, descendants; 'apoloa ineu, 
my people. 

apota apota ni honu, egg of turtle. 

'apu (ku) 1. blood, cf. ma'dpu'a; "dpu e siki 
ana, seed of copulation; 'dpu raharaha, 
an issue of blood; kokoi 'epu, a drop of 
blood; me'i 'epu, S., mdsi 'epu, U-, blood; 
e ngisuhie 'dpu, to spit blood; sulu 'epu, 
to adopt a child. 
'apule adj., bloody; qa'u 'apula, U., a person 
wounded in battle; awalaa'i 'epule, 
bloodshot; lili 'epule, turned into blood, 
'apunge v. n., sulu 'epunge, adoption of 
children. 

•apu 2. to be forbidden, tabu, to be final. 
ha'a'apu. e 'dpu laa, U., why not? (is 
it forbidden?); toli 'epu, to observe a 
tabu, to fast. 

'Apu 'Ala a district on Little Malaita over- 
looking Mara Masiki Channel. 

'apu'i v., to flatter, to cajole, to say 'ako'ako 
sae. ha'i'epu'i. 

'apulo partic, returned, turned back on a 
journey, 'a 6, pulo. 

apune wa'i n., stinging-nettle tree, wa'i 7. 

'apuru partic, crowded, 'a 6, puru. 

'Apurunge the Pleiades. M. A., p. 349. 
Maori apuru, to crowd. 

'aqa 1. to squat on the heels, to cower down, 
'aqahi tr., to crouch and await, to lie in 



'aqa 1 (continued). 

wait for; 'aqahi lue, shell-money orna- 
ment in pairs and worn by the women on 
breast and back, 
'aqaha'i v. i., to crouch, to brood over 

(of hens). 
'aqata'ini v. tr., to beset, to lie in wait for. 
Mota taqa, crouch; Wango 'aqa'aqa, 
Maori lawhi. 

'aqa (ku) U. 2. n., belly, cf. 'oqa. 

'aqa 3. ha'a'aqaha'ini, to measure by. 

'aqa'aqa n., bay, indentation in coast, 'aqa 2. 
'aqa'aqa'a adj., bay-shaped. San Cris- 
toval waqa, a cave. 

aqalao n., pus, matter in a sore. 

'aqalulu S., 'aqaruru U., n., coconut beetle. 

'aqaqo 'aqaqoi sa'o 1. fronds of sago palm. 2. 
raft made of the fronds. 

'aqelu partic, overturned, 'a 6, qelu. 

ara 1. n., dew; hu'ori ara, to be early afoot. 

ara, araara 2. v., to make an advance, to move 
forward, to get on; ko kele araara la'ane, 
it is moving slightly. 
arana tr., to move a thing on. 
arala-(ku) gerund, aralana, its being moved 
forward. 

ara 3. v., to be lost, dispersed. 

'arai v. i., to call out, to cry aloud. Bugotu 
larai. 

ara'idio v. L, to alight upon, to swoop, of 
birds, dio. 

arakau n., fish hawk (Haliaster girrenera). 
kdu 1. Wango arakau. 

arakoko n., taro pudding, pounded taro with 
grated raw coconut on top, considered 
poor cookery. 

aramu U., v., to itch. 

aranga n., a wild duck. 

arapa n., a wooden hair comb; it is made of 
separate pieces and not cut out of the 
solid: a cross-bar is tied with fibers of 
the creeper adio below the handle, the 
center piece projects beyond the others, 
which are bent and tied tightly to it, 
the flat handle is frequently inlaid with 
pieces of nautilus shell (reoreo), the 
teeth of the comb are very sharp and 
the hair is teased out with an upward 
movement; arapa adiedi, a comb made 
in Big Malaita and ornamented with 
dyed plaited cane (ue) and yellow fern 
tissue (adiedi) woven into a pattern on 
the handle, the ends passing between 
the pieces composing the comb; arapa 
reoreo, comb inlaid with nautilus shell. 
arapasi v. tr., to comb the hair. 

arapuu v. i., to make land when at sea, to reach. 
ara 2, puu 1. 
arapuunge v. n., a coming to land, reaching 
a destination. 

'arasi 1. to scrape, to fine down spears, etc., 
by scraping, kara 2; 'arasi niu, to 
grate coconut with a roa or sdukai; 
'arasi noma, to scrape spears with ngddi. 
Mota sarav, to stroke; Niue alati, to 
scratch. 

'arasi 2. v. i., 'arasi moo, to lead the chorus in 



13 



'ASI 



'arasi 2 (continued). 

a dance; ha'a ni 'arasi, ark of the 
covenant. 

arato U., seeds worn on the ankles in a dance. 

aratoto v. i., to get to a destination, ara 2. 

arau 1. n., a kind of canarium nut. 2. n., the 
place where such grow. 

'arawa adj., raw, unripe, uncooked; mae 
'arawa, to die suddenly or in youth; nolo 
'arawa, to die suddenly, 
'arawanga v. n., nolo 'arawanga, sudden 

death, 
'arawana its greenness, unripeness; 'ara- 
wana e ngdu diana, it eats well raw. 
'ara'arawa'a adj., raw. Wango marawa. 

arawana n., a tree on Malaita with large edible 
fruit brown in color. 

are, areare v. tr., to call upon a ghost (li'oa, 
'akald), to beg, to importune; arearedu 
ana uununge, call upon me with sacrifice, 
arenga'i v. i., arenga'i he'u, to use hot stones 
in the ordeal by fire, calling on a ghost 
to witness one's innocence. M.A., p. 212. 
'arenga'ini tr., to offer prayers and invo- 
cations to a ghost. 

are hd'iare, U., v. tr., to proffer help, to push 
oneself forward. 

areareo'a U., adj., ulcerous, crippled with 
ulcers. 

aree interj., exclamation of grief or pain. 

areka an acacia which grows in abandoned 
gardens. 

arenga-(ku) 1. duty, part; noko esu arengaku, I 
am doing my part. Lau arenga. 

Arenga 2. Arenga Manu, the northwest point 
of Ulawa, near Haraina. 

arikosi U., v., to work in common, to have a 
working bee. 
arikosinga v. n., work done in common, 
arikosilana gerund, the working of it, its 
being done. 

ariri, arieriri to tremble, to shiver from cold 
or fear. 
ariringe v. n., trembling. Bugotu ariri. 

arisi v. tr., to attack craftily, with deceit and 
guile. 
arisila-(ku) gerund. 

Sriu n., kingfish. 

aro 1. wild ginger, aro pue. 'apai aro, ginger- 
leaf wrapping of food in the oven; maai 
aro, stalks of ginger. 

aro 2. v., to soar, to hover. 

aro 3. poe aro, a nose-stick of bamboo or shell. 

aroaro v , to shout, to exult; rike pe'i aroaro, 
to rejoice and shout. 

'aroka partic, open, wide, 'a 6, roka. 

Arona n., the south cape of Ulawa and the 
village east of it. 

aropuU. 1. n., snail; hanua ana ngdu aropunga, 
a snail-eating place. 

aropu S. 2. toto aropu, to sip. 

aroqa'i to mix liquids, qd'i 2. 

aroqa'i'e adj., 'omu ke ruan anga aroqa'i'e 
hunie, give her a double mixture. 

'aroro 1. n., a wooden hook. 2. v. tr., to sus- 
pend, to hang on a hook. Florida 
dor or o. 



Aru i sapena i Aru ni i'e, apostrophe addressed 
to San Cristoval. cf. ha'adahi. 

aruhi n., a covering. 

asa v. i., to be difficult, mysterious, ha'aasa, 
ha'aasa'i. mango asa, to gasp; mu wei 
e asa, deep waters; rorongo asa, U., to 
be dull of hearing, 
asaasa'a adj., difficult. 
asa'i tr., to be too difficult for; e asa'ieu, it 
is. too difficult for me. Wango asa, 
mysterious. 

asai mango tree; hoi asai, mango fruit; te'ele'ei 
asai, dry mango seed used as a cover for 
the shell (apo) used as a razor. 

asaka n., coleus. 

asaunge n., sardine, caught with a shell hook 
(tootoo, toohe'o) from a stage built out 
in the bays; asaunge e ddu, the sardines 
have arrived. 

'asi 1 . sea, salt water, salt; 'dsi dodo, deep water; 
'asi ko kokohu, the sea is booming; 'dsi 
ko ulungaa hanue, the sea under the 
earth; 'asi mae, lee shore; 'dsi tnatawa, 
open sea; 'dsi meuri, weather side; 'dsi 
namo, quiet water inside a harbor; 'as 
rodo, deep water; 'dsi rodo, a month 
January (part); hdu ni 'esi, a wave; 
holosie 'asi, to cross the waves; kolune 
'dsi, the face of the sea; koukou 'esi, to 
gargle salt water; liu i 'esi, to travel by 
sea; moro tdria paro i'ola i 'esi, you 
launch the canoe yonder into the sea; 
mu suuleni 'esi, the paths of the sea; 
mwai malau i 'esi, U., the islands of the 
sea; nono 'dsi, sandfly, gnat; pine ni 
'esi, booby; pusu 'esi, whale; te'i 'esi, to 
dip and draw up salt water in a bamboo; 
i to'ulana 'dsi, on the surface of the sea. 
Mota tas, Ceram tasi, Polynesian tai. 

'asi-(ku) 2. S., man's brother, woman's sister; 
'asiku, my brother; 'asiku ineu, my 
brother; maeni 'esiku, my brethren; mu 
mwa 'asine, brethren: in Sa'a a sister 
may be spoken of by her brother as 
'asiku; in Ulawa 'asiku means a woman's 
brother or a sister-in-law; ro mwa 'asina, 
U., two sisters-in-law, each calling the 
other 'asiku (Su'uholo usage). Mota 
tasiu, Motu tadi, Polynesian tahi, lei. 

'asi 3. v. tr., to throw away; joined with certain 
words it denotes destruction, doing away 
with; dere 'asi, U., to throw away; ere 
'asi, U., to reproach, to vilify; horo 'asi, 
to decimate; hu'e 'asi, to overturn, to 
overthrow; kae 'asi, to pluck out (thorn) ; 
ne'isae 'asi, to forgive; ooho 'asi, to 
break up, to destroy; sae 'asi, to forgive, 
to neglect; susu 'asi, to prick and re- 
move; 'usunge'i 'asi, to despatch. 
'asila-(ku) gerund, uunu 'asilana, destroy- 
ing by burning. 
'asi'a U., adj., with notion of wasted; e 
paina 'asi' a, needlessly big; e udiudi 
'asi' a, rotting away; nga hudi e mala 
'asi'a, the bananas were rotting away 
unpicked. Florida asi, lost; Wango 
gasi; Malo asena, very. 



*ASI 



H 



'asi U. 4. adv., thereupon, consequently, 'a, 

v. p., si, illative. 
asihe U., to sneeze. 'asinge.S. M.A., p. 226. 
Bugotu achihe, Maori matihe, Niue tihe. 
Probably onomatop. 
'asile adj., saltish, brackish, 'dsi 1. 
'Asiloli'a U., the name of a canoe in a story, 
'asinge S., to sneeze, asihe, U.; considered a 

sign that someone is calling, 
asire'i v. i., to be taken unawares, to be unpre- 
pared for. ha'adsire'i. 
asoso v. i., to tremble, to shake, to be palsied, 
asu, asuesu 1. S., to work; asu hohola, to work 
in a yam patch; dsu maarue, to serve 
two masters; asu me'i ola, to minister 
at holy things; asu nani 'inoni, of work 
not faithfully done, eye service; dsu 
ramoramo'anga, mighty work; Hsu susu- 
le'i, to work unremittingly; asu talai 
ngeulaa, to work for food; iisu we'u, 
hard work, 
asunge v. n., work. 
asu'i tr., to work at a thing. 
asula-(ku) gerund., the doing of. 
asu, asuesu 2. v. i., to move from place to place, 
to be loose, 
asule'i partic, unstable. 
asuata exclam. of disapproval, 
asuhe n., a rat; 'asuhe e ngero'ie, rats nibbled 
it. Mota gasuwe, Viti kudhuve, Bugotu 
kuhi. 
asu'olo'olo v. i., to be loose, shaking, to move 

to and fro. asu 2, 'olo'olo. 
asusu coconut crab (Birgus latro), the flesh of 

claws used as bait for flying-fish. 
ata 1 S., a unit; methathetic upon ta'a 3. 'enite 
'ata, just how many? e ro 'ata tnwane, 
only two men. 
ata, ataata 2. U., to progress, to move on, to 
be in motion, adaada, S. 
atana tr., to move a thing slightly. 
atalawa v. i., to be set wide apart, 
atanau v. L, used with poss. 3; of a ghost, to 

fasten on, to attack a person, 
'ate, 'ate 'ate to be dry, to have no moisture on; 
ngisu 'ate, to be thirsty (parched lips); 
ngisu 'atenga, thirst. 
'atea S. 1. a coconut water-bottle, hou 'atea. 

2. a glass bottle. 
atei interrog. pron., sing., who; plural, kiratei; 
atei 'elekale, what child? atei e manata- 
'inie, who knows? (I can't say); ola 
atei, whose thing? the demonstrative 
ni may be added; atei ni ngeena, who is 
that? satana atei, what (who) is his 
name? Mota isei, Maori wai. 
ato 1. to be in motion; 'ato 'ae, to move quickly, 
to stride; 'ato 'ae su'ahia, U., to leap and 
encounter; 'ato hdu ilengi, to stone with 
stones; 'ato holo, to cross over the sea; 
'ato honosi, to oppose; 'ato huni, to lie 
in wait for; 'ato i na'ona huni, to be in 
worse plight, circumstances became 
worse for one; 'ato hu'o, to set a net; 'ato 
hu'onga, a plot; 'ato nime, to set out 
bowls of food at a feast; 'ato puri, with 
p ss. 3, to turn the back on. 



ato 1 (continued). 

'atoni tr., 'atoni lalo, to plan, to set out, a 
garden; 'atoni hu'o, to set a net; 'atoni 
ue, to steep and dye strips of cane; hu'eli 
'ato'ato, to wind dyed cane. 
'ato 2. n., rafter, generally of bamboo. Mota 
gaso, Bugotu gaho, Borneo kasau, Niue 
ato, Maori kaho, ato, thatch. 
'ato'ato 1. n., hu'eli 'ato'ato, to wind rolls of 

dyed cane. 
'ato'ato 2. v. i., to take a new canoe on a tour 
around the neighborhood and to nearby 
islands in order to raise money; i'ola 
'ato'ato, a canoe so taken. 
'ato'ato 3. 'ato'ato hdu, to perform the ordeal 
with hot stones. M. A., p. 212. dan 
he'u, id.; sulu 'ato, a song sung as an 
ordeal; sulu 'atonga v. n. 
'atohono n., a chamber, inner room, 'ato 2, 

hono. 

atowaa n., broad day, 10 a. m. to 2 p. m.; hai 

atowaa hd'ileku, a whole day long; mu 

hei atowaa, the days, as opposed to mu 

hei rodo, the nights; susu'e atowaa, all 

day long. 

au 1. n., a black, poisonous snake. M. A., p. 221. 

au 2. pers. pron., sing., 1, suffixed to verb and 

to preposition as object, i-na-u, M. L„ 

p. 116. 

au 3. n., the bamboo; au pungu, a large, strong 

kind of bamboo; au qe'i, a variety of 

bamboo with close joints, planted 

upright to retain walls of houses, also 

employed in making combs; au rarahi, 

the third finger; du susu, an ear-stick 

of reed; du wale, a flute; hai eu, a reed, 

a length of bamboo; huui eu, a stool of 

bamboo; qirei eu, a length of bamboo, a 

bamboo stalk. Mota awl. Motu bau. 

'au 4. 'du ta'a, to debouch (of a path), to end 

in, to proceed from. Mota au, to step. 

'a'u U. 5. exclam. of assent, yes. 

Sueu 1. a short bamboo plugged at one end, 

used as a receptacle. 2. a casket. 3. a 

match-box, dueu ni dunge. 

aueune v. i., to be discontented, upset in mind. 

auhenue 1. v., to be resident in a place, to be a 

native of a place, hdnue. 2. n., an 

inhabitant of a place; nou euhenue 'oto, 

I am acclimatized. 3. n., a neighbor; 

e sa'a saronie auhenue inge'ie, he will do 

no harm to his neighbor. 

'auhora v. i., to come open, to come apart, to 

be revealed, hd'ihora'i. salo ko euhora, 

the sky is opened; ddngi esi euhora, 

light has been revealed. 

a'ulu 1. specific numeral, ten of coconuts. 

d'ului niu. 
A'ulu 2. village on the east coast of Little 
Malaita next to Sa'a. 3. A'ulu Peine, 
A'ulu Talau, northeast end of Little 
Malaita. 
aunge-(ku) aungana, his master; aungani lalo, 

U., master of the garden. 
Xuqe'i a hill on the main ridge of Little Malaita 
in the Koru district at the head of the 
river Walo'a'a, near original home of 
Sa'a people. 



i5 



DA'IDERl'E 



'auru to be uprooted, to fall down (of a tree). 

San Cristoval auru, down; Maori auru. 
•ausala v. i., to be a gadabout, to neglect the 

home. Mota sola 1. 
'auta'a to proceed from, to come forth, 'au 4, 

ta'a 4. 
*autala ere 'dutala, to speak to the air, for 

naught, 
aw* 1. to be a sojourner in a foreign place; in 

proper names, Wateawa. noko awa 

max, I am a stranger here. 
awa 2. v. i., to roar (of flood, etc.); taa ni ko 

awa mat, what is that roaring? pine 

awa, the hornbill, from the rushing noise 

made by its wing. 
awaawata-(na) gerund.; awaawatana naho, 

the roaring of the surf. 
awa 3. to be brown in color; 'usu awa, a brown 

dog; hana awa, a pinkish- colored yam. 
awa 4. the walking-fish (Periophthalmus sp.). 
awa 5. U., awa tahu, to slip, to come loose (of 

bands). 
awa 6. U., tahanga awa nusi, a measure, just 

on a fathom. 
'awa 7. a tree (Nephelium pinnatum). Mota 

tawan, Viti ndawa. 
'awa 8. cf. 'awangi, 'awasi. 
awaa to be convalescent after fever, to be over 

the attack. 
awaawahane U., v. i., to sigh for; e'a awaa- 

wahane tnola amoro'i, he is forever 

sighing for you two. 
awala n., a ten, a tally, ha'aawala. nga 

awala, a ten; e ro awala, two tens, 

twenty; awala ha'ahuu, S., awala 'oto 

huu, U., a full ten; awala da'adala, an 

uneven tally; awala maia 'enita, awala 

tnwana 'enite, how many over ten; 

awala mwana rue, twelve (ten complete 

and two); kali awala, ten strings of 

shell money each a fathom long. Lau 

aqala. 
awalaa'i S., panic, awalaa'i 'epule, bloodshot, 

red (of eyes). 
awaleo creaking branches in a tree. 
awalosi 1. the wind between west and north 

blowing in the summer; awalosi i ahare, 

northeast wind; awalosi halale, north 

wind; awalosi i henue, northwest wind; 

awalosi i Kela, southwest wind (as Kela 

is the south point of Guadalcanar this 

shows that the wind notation rests 

upon the rhumb toward which the wind 

blows); awalosi i one, north-northeast 

wind; awalosi i su'u west wind. 
awalosi 2. a reed (Arundo sp.) with edible 

flower-heads, 
awanganga v. i., to open the mouth, to gape. 

Mota wanga, to gape; Lau faga, mouth; 

Maori wangai, to feed; NiuS fangai, 

to feed. 
'awangi v. tr., to expose to the air (of an ulcer 

or sore place). 
awara, awaawara to cry out, to yell, to whine; 

hau ni tnwela awara, the day after full 

moon, 
awaranga v. n., crying, yelling. 



awara (continued). 

awarasi tr., to cry over, to lament. 
VVango awara. 
'awasi to draw in the breath with a whistling 
sound when eating areca nut, 'awasi 
'e'e, S., 'awasi pua.U. 'awa 8, ?tawa, 
mouth, 
'awasirahe v. i., to groan, to mourn, to sigh, 
n., a groan 'awasi, rake. 
'awasirahenga v. n., groaning, 
awata'a to be a stranger and as such in evil 
plight, awa 1, ta'a 1. Wango awata'a. 
awe, aweawe v. i., to walk about. 

aweawehi tr., to travel up and down a place; 
ko aweawehie ro 'apana, walks on every 
side. 

D 

Before i d is pronounced as ch in the word 

church; adi a-chi, diena chi-e-na. In all other 

cases in pronouncing d the tongue is pressed 

against the palate and held there while the 

breath is forced against it, then the tongue is 

relaxed and the breath escapes, the resultant 

sound being equivalent to dr. 

da 1. pers. pron., pi. 3, suffixed to nouns and 
to certain verbs and gerundives. 

da 2. mwane da na kolu mae, lest we die. daa. 

daa, daadaa S., v. i., to give, to take, to do. 
taa, U. le'une nou daa 'oto, I did that 
already. 

dada U., to be smooth, to be flat, level. 
ha'adada, hd'idada, hu'idada. 

dadada'a U., adj., smooth, flat, level. 

dadanga'a S., burnished, shining. 

da'elu pers. pron., pi. 3, suffixed to nouns and 
to certain verbs and gerundives, da 1. 
i saada'elu. 

Daha a beach in 'Olu Su'u, the landing-place 
next north of Sa'a on the east coast. 

dahe v. tr., to adze down, to chip ground with 
the hoe. ha'adahe. 

dahi 1. the golden-lip pearl shell; 'u'u ntaai 
dehi, a pearl; suu dehi, to dive for pearl 
shell. 2. a crescentic breast ornament 
for men cut from this shell; dahi raha, 
a pearl-shell gorget worn with the 
convex side outward and the rounded 
outer edge plastered with pulu 3. 3. U.t 
a phase of the moon. 

dahi, da'idehi 4. to be favored, to be lucky; 
ha'adahi; to the reduplicated form the 
possessive pronoun is suffixed, and in 
Sa'a the o is replaced by e where no » or 
u precedes; nou dehi, lucky me; de'ide- 
hieu, de'idehire, happy me, happy they. 

dahi'e, da'idehi'e S., dahidahi'a U., adj., 
happy, fortunate, blessed. 

dahu the sheath covering the coconut flower, 
used when dry for tinder or for fire- 
kindling. 

da'i 1. seen in compounds, dd'idiena, da'ita'a, 
da'ilama'a. 

Da'i 2. Gower Island, north of Big Malaita. 

da'idengi adv., by daylight, dlingi. 

da'ideri'e n., a valley, dari. 



DA'IDIENA 



16 



da'idiena 1"., da'idiana S., to be in peace, to 
be in safety, diana. ani dinge ni 
de'idiana, in a day of salvation, 
da'idiananga v. n., i'o ni de'idiananga, to 
dwell in safety. 

da'ilama U., v., to be in peace, n., peace, 
da'ilama'a adj., peaceful, 
da'ilama'asi v. tr., to be at peace; e da'ila- 
ma'asira, they were in peace. 

da'ita'a v., to be in trouble, n., trouble. 

dala in the reduplicated form da'adala used 
to denote numbers above ten, not a full 
tally; e da'adala, it was a number over 
ten; awala da'adala, an uneven tally; nga 
muini da'adala, more than ten. Fagani 
malar a. 

dalao to have the skin broken; 'aeku e dalao, 
the skin of my leg is broken, abraded. 

dalo 1. a littoral tree (Calophyllum inophyl- 
lum); when growing by the landing- 
places the dalo is the scene of taho 
lalamoa, the payment for men killed, 
snu ola, also as the place for offerings 
to 'akalo; dalo ni me'esu, the paule tree. 
Viti ndilo. 

dalo 2. uwe dalo, to clear the throat of mucus. 

daluma U., middle, danume S. 

dama-(ku) U., fellow, mate. cf. sama. 
dantaku, my fellow; dama diu, of 
unequal length. 

dama 'a rank, row, of men in a dance. 

damadiu to overlap, cf. dama. 

damu U., v. L, to eat areca nut; demudemu 
totoria, a phase of the moon, 
damulaa areca nut and pepper leaf for 

chewing, idemu, loo 2. saru'e. 
damu'i tr., e ddmu'ia hou menu ana Kiiramo, 
he chewed a ball of meme calling on 
Kiiramo. San Cristoval lamu; Lau 
kamu, to chew areca nut; Maori kamu, 
eat; Samoa samusamu, to eat scraps. 

damuteke an inclosure sacred to an 'akalo 
inside a taoha or toohi round the central 
pillar and fenced with a heap of stones, 
or outside the door of dwelling-houses, 
into which areca-nut skins or scraps of 
food may be thrown without fear of an 
enemy getting them and using them for 
malign purposes. 

dana U., a bamboo for carrying water, holes 
being made through the joints. 

dani U., to be daylight, dangi, S. hd'idenie'i; 
ahuraa dani, to be on the move before 
daylight; apau deni, toward morning; 
e dani ha'ahulee, next day; e dani 'oto, 
it is day; marawa ni deni, daybreak, 
da'ideni daylight, by daylight, 
danita'i haudinga po'o danita'i, the follow- 
ing day. 
danite'ini tr., of the daylight dawning upon 
a person. Florida dani, day; danihagi. 

danu, da'udenu S., daidenu IT., v. i., to bale, 
to draw water; danu oku, to catch the 
palolo worm with coconut nets; danu 
ivei, to bale, to draw water; oku denu, 
name of a month, November, when the 
palolo worm appears, idenu. 



danu (continued). 

dSnu'i tr., to bale, to whet, to sprinkle 
with water. 

danume-(ku) middle, waist: with locative i; 
danumeku, my waist; i denume, in the 
midst; i denumana hdnue, in the middle 
of the island. .», 

dangi 1. S., to be daylight, dani, U. ha'iden- 
gie'i. Wango deni. dangi hoowa, the 
next day; e dangi 'oto, it is day; e dangi 
paro, as soon as it was day; idengi, 
tomorrow; susu'e dangi, every day. 
da'idengi by daylight; melu hule da'idengi 

ta'ane, we arrived in daylight, 
dangite'ini tr., of the day dawning upon a 
person; e dangite'ini 'emelu, day dawned 
upon us. Lau dani, 

dangi 2. n., wind; dangi ka'a ooru ike, there 
was no wind at all; hai maai dengi 
he'iliune, the four winds; qetolana dangi, 
qetohaana dangi, a wind gone down, 
qeto; ramohaana dangi, a gale, ramo. 
Mota lang, Florida dani, Polynesian 
langi, Malay angin. 

dango 1. S., n., a tree; dango mwamwako' a, a 
prickly tree; dango ni haka, papaya; 
dangona mwakana, trees of the field; 
hai dango, a log; hoi dango, U. (Ahi'a 
use), papaya; hoi dango, S., the kidneys; 
huesi dango, S., the kidneys; imiimine 
dango, root of a tree; mu 'apai reu ana 
mu dango, the leaves of the trees; rai 
dango, S., a plank; takai dango, a flower. 

dango 2. S., n., firewood; roto dango, to cut 
firewood; kite dango, to split firewood; 
so'o dango, S., to gather firewood. 
Malagasy trano. 

dao U., ape dao, to be level, of country. 

daoha, daodaoha U., v. i., to be ill. 

daohanga v. n., sickness, illness. Wango 
daoha. 

dara (ku) n., forehead; daraku, my forehead; 
* na'ona dara, on the forehead. 

daraha'ini S., v. tr., to fit a shell ring (hato) on 
the arm, to impale. Wango darasi. 

darasahu n., a bird, a tern (Sterna frontalis), 
having a white mark above the bill. 
dara, sahu 1. 

darasi S., deresi U., to draw a thing out of its 
covering, to unsheathe. 

dari dari mwaa, a torrent running only in the 
rains and dry {mwaa) at other times. 
da'ideri'e. 

daro, dadaro 1. v. i., to hit, to beat, to strike 
with a stick. 2. v. i., to cast a fishing- 
line for garfish (mwanole), to whiff for 
sardines with toohe'o. 
daro'i tr., to hit a person with a stick, 
daronga'ini U., tr., to strike and overthrow. 

daru'e pers. pron., dual 3, suffixed to nouns 
and to gerundives and to verbal nouns 
used as prepositions; 'amauriladaru'e, 
they two alive; 'amadaru'e, the father of 
those two; 'upuderu'e, their middle. 

dau 1. v. tr. and v. i., to do, to attempt, to cause, 
to make, to take, to get, to obtain; dau 
dunge, ordeal with hot stores. M. A„ 



17 



DIONGA'I 



dau 1. (continued). 

p. 212. ddu eu, to play tunes; ddu haahi, 
to omit; ddu hahola, S., to act the hypo- 
crite; ddu heu, ordeal with hot stones, 
M. A., p. 210. ddu hono, S., to hinder; 
ddu lalo ana, S., to be plunged into the 
midst of; ddu parasi, U., to hinder; ddu 
ramoramo'a, to do violence; ddu suu'i, 
to importune; ddu wala (few), to trans- 
gress; mu ola nou deu walaku eni, my 
offenses; ddu wei, to catch fish in pools 
when the river is low; dduddu poo, U., 
to sacrifice pigs; e ddu ni ere, he made 
to speak; lopo'i deu, to feign; mala kire 
tnanata'i deue, as they were wont; nou 
deu ni lae, I attempted to go; sulu 
dduddu, to make songs on. 
daulana gerund.; mu ola saemu eni deuleni, 
the things your heart is set upon doing. 
Wango dau, to touch; Viti ndau, to do. 

dau 2. to come to rest, to be stationary (of 
canoes), ha'addu. ddu suu weu, move 
farther up. 
daunge v. n., i'o ni deunge, to be a sojourner. 
Lau dau, to reach; Samoa tau, to anchor; 
Maori tau, to rest. 

daure'i U., v. i., to put layers of sago-palm leaf 
sewn on reeds on a roof to thateh it. 
daure'ini tr., to thatch a house. 

dawa (ku) 1. n., the mouth, ngidu, lip, is 
more commonly used in Sa'a for the 
sake of politeness. 

dawa 2. v., to be toothless. 

dawari U., v. tr., to chew with the gums 
because toothless. 

dede 1. v. i., to fill with fluid; dede ha'ahonu 
ana, fill it full; kara dede, yam mash 
run into a bamboo and cooked over a 
fire. 
dede'i tr., to fill with liquid. Lau dedengi, 
Florida dode. 

dede 2. v. tr., to drip, to protrude; ahulana 
'oqana e dede 'oto, all his bowels gushed 
out; 'apu e dede, the blood dripped. 

dede 3. dede qalu, an arrow. 

dele U., v. tr., to wrap up a parcel. 

deni U., as dani: e dent 'oto; ideni. 

dere 1. U., to throw away; with 'asi 3, dere 
'asia, throw it away. 

dere 2. deresi S., dereha'ini U., to insert, to 
sheathe. 

dere 3. U., dere unu, to get in between; dere 
unu ana para, between the pickets of 
the fence; u'i dere unu, to pierce with a 
blow. 

deu cf. ddu. 

di 1. with adv. 'oto; 'oto di, a long space of time 
either past or to come, forever, from of 
old; may be reduplicated, 'oto di 'oto di, 
forever and forever. 

Di 2. a bay in 'Olu Su'u just north of A'ulu. 

diana S., diena U., adj., good, proper, accurate, 
beloved, ha'adiana, dd'idiena. ke haro 
diana, when it is well; iteitana nga ola 
sa'a diana, nothing will be good; ke'i 
ne'i meuta'a diana, it will become quite 
strong; koni diana, to take good care 



diana (continued). 

of; e la 'oto i diana, it is good; lado 
diana, U., to explain; loo diana, to look 
good; maelona e ngdu diana, when ripe 
it eats well; mwane diena inau, my dear 
friend; ngdulana e diana, it is good to 
eat; e rako diana, it causes a pleasant 
sensation; sama diana, to correspond 
exactly, 
diananga, dienanga v. n., goodness; walu 

diananga ineu, all my goods, 
didiana'a, didiena'a adj., exceedingly good, 
dianaha S., dienala U., v. n., used with ana 
1; dianaha ana mu i'e, the good fishes; 
Lau diena, Tolo sieni, Malay dian, dien. 
The addition of the noun suffix nga 
seems to show that diana is a verb; 
possibly the na is a verb suffix and dia 
equates with Motaw*'a, good, ha'adiana. 

didi 1. to be small, undersized, dwarf. 

didi 2. to chop with an axe, to carve, to quarry; 
didi hato, to make a shell armlet; didi 
opa olanga, discrimination, partiality. 

didie'inge v. n., opposition. 

die n., a'club, long-handled and straight, used 
mostly on Big Malaita. Lifu jia, club. 

Die'i U., Su'u i Die'i, the landing-place at 
Mwouta on the east coast of Ulawa. 

dile S., v. L, to slip, to slip out of place, to be 
in vain. Florida dila. 'aeku e dile, my 
foot slipped; noru dile, to trust in vain, 
to be disappointed, 
dilehi tr., 'ala dilehi, to bite at and miss. 

dili 1. n., a dracaena; dili alaha, a dracaena 
with bright red leaves used in incanta- 
tions, also in drawing lots: a leaf ('apai 
dili) is held in the fingers and pulled, 
the test is according as the leaf breaks 
easily or not: the process is called 
hdhuto'o and ilala. 

dili 2. n., mwa'a dili sato, a snake observed as 
an omen. M. A., p. 221. 

dimwe n., a tree fern. 

dinge S., dinga U., a day. ddngi, dani, deni. 
ana nga' eta dinge, on another day; 
ha'idinge si'iri, to-day; nga ha'idinge, 
S., nga haudinga, U., a day; mu dinge 
hunge e liueu, many days passed over me. 
Motu dina, sun, day; Viti sinaa, day. 

dingadinga U., to be clear (of voice); walaku 
e dingadinga, my voice is clear. 

dingale a littoral tree whose hard wood is used 
in making paddles. 

dio v. i., to swoop (of pigeons), to jump from an 
eminence; dio hunu, to swoop; dio kunu 
ni sae, to be faint-hearted ; 'oke dio hou, 
leap down; urou e dio i'ano, the pigeon 
swooped down, 
diohi tr., to swoop down on; diohi malau, 
name of a canoe in a story, literally, 
swoop down on the islands. Wango dio, 

diodioru to chatter (of ivisi, a bird observed 
as an omen. M. A., p. 221). 

dionga'i 1. v. i., to be squally (of wind), dio. 
2. n., a wind squall. 
dionga'ini tr., e dionga'ini 'emelu, a squall 
descended upon us. 



DIU 



diu 1. to be uneven in length; dama diu, to 
overlap; madiu, overlapping; adiu, to 
be out of joint. Wango diu, to excel; 
Lau madiu, different. 

diu 2. U., to carve, to chip with blows. 

diuna U., adj., out of joint; 'aeku e diuna, my 
leg is dislocated, diu. 

do v. i., to gather, to pluck; do rou, to pluck 
leaves for use in wrapping up kara, 
grated yam cooked in leaves* r native 
oven, ora. 

dodo 1. to sink, to drown, to be composed, to 
be deep, ha'adodo. 'asi dodo hule i one, 
deep water right in to shore; sae dodo, 
dodonga ni sae, ease of mind; kara dodo, 
grated yam run into a bamboo and 
cooked over embers, 
dodoa'ini tr., to be of good comfort con- 
cerning a person; saeku e dodoa'ini 'omu, 
my mind is easy about you. 2. to dip 
into a liquid: to'oni kire dodoa'inie, a 
cloth dipped, 
dodonga'i partic, S., crouched down. 
Wango dodo, to sink; Motu dodo, to 
subside. 

dodo 2. dodo 'usu, the columella of a shell used 
as a gimlet. 

dodonga a piece, a bit. 

dola used in the reduplicated form dodola, 
various, mixed, of different sorts. 
dolali tr., to commingle, to dilute, to insert; 
ddu dolalie, put some with it; hele dolali, 
to take some of one thing and some of 
another, to vary; ngaini dolali' i, one 
here and there among them. Wango 
dorari, to mix. 

dolosi S., v. tr., to question; e dolosieu, he asked 
my name; e dolosie aku, he questioned 
me about it; ke mani dolosie salada, let 
him ask all their names. 
dolosinge v. n., questioning. 
dolosila-(ku) gerund. 

domana, domani, as if, like, just as if; e domana 
nou ka'a lae ike, it is as if I had never 
gone; ke 'o'o domani hune, shall be as 
it were a net. na 5, ni 5. 

domu, do'udomu S., to fall (used of persons 
only) ; Domu ni niu, Fall-from-Coconut, 
a nickname. 

done S., doni U., a prickly shrub growing in 
old gardens. 

donga 1. n., a pair, a couple: the definite article 
nga may be prefixed; nga ro donga, two 
pair; dongai niu, S., donga ni niu, U., a 
couple of coconuts tied together with 
strips of their husk; e 'asi totola donga 
ni mwai, wearing a couple of bags 
apiece; e ro donga, two couple. 

donga 2. v. tr., to lengthen, to draw out, to 
splice. 

dongadongaa, U., dongadonga'a ni qe'u, the skull. 

Dora the name of families of chiefs in Little 
Malaita. 

dora'i v. tr., to withhold; hele dora'ie ha'alunge, 
to break a promise. 

doro hot; used in compounds; ha'adoro, to heat 
up food; madoro, hot. 



dudu, dududu U., v. i., to move position; dudu 
mei, ease up; dudu weu, ease off; pua 
dududu i Kela, the areca palm that 
drew toward Kela; walo dududu, elastic, 
dudubi tr., to approach. Wango duuri, 
Florida dudu, to be near. 

dududu U., large glass beads; will dududu, to 
string beads. 

duidui yellow (vinegar) ants with painful bite. 

dumuli S., hele dumuli, to repress, to hold down. 

dunge S., dunga U., fire, firestick, matches: 
na 5 may be suffixed; dungana e diana, 
its fire is good, it burns well (of fire- 
wood); dunge ko mea, the fire is fierce; 
dunge ko qe'u, the fire smokes; dunga 
ni hen, U., to undergo the ordeal of 
fire; dunge ni raa, a burning-glass; ddu 
dunge, S., to undergo the ordeal of fire; 
esoesohana dunge, the flame of the fire; 
He dunge, to obtain fire by friction; koru 
dunge, to make a fire; maai, S. (maani 
U.), dunge, a match; mwai keni ana 
dunga rakanga, women who make too 
big fires; raw meameahai dunge, tongues 
of fire; raw melahai dunge, flames of 
fire; qa'uli dunge, smoke; ruru dunge, 
to build a fire; mu si'i dunge, sparks; 
wdiwei dunge, to wave a firestick. Tolo 
suna, Efate fanga, Malay panas, hot, 
Malagasy fana. 

duru h v. tr., to place in a store room (of 
yams). 2. a store chamber, cupboard, 
generally a section of the dwelling-house; 
laelaei duru, to go behind the partition, 
a sign of close acquaintanceship. 

du'u U., v. i., to move position, cf. dudu, 
su'u 6; du'u mei, ease up; du'u weu, ease 
off. 

du'una v. tr., to move up in position; 'o du'unaa 
paro, move it on a little. 

duuduu adv., from time to time, at intervals. 

du'u'e backward, to go backward, du'u. 

du'uhe'ini U., tr., to destroy, su'ulte'ini, S. 

E 

e 1. pers. pron., sing. 3; he, she, it. (a) fol- 
lowing inge'ie or nge'ie and supplying 
the place of a verbal particle: nge'ie e 
lae, he went; inge'ie nge'ie e lae, it was 
he who went. Following nouns used 
with verb in past tense: nemo e nemo, 
the rain it rained. With nouns having 
a collective force: mu wei e kone, the 
waters were out in flood; kira maeloonga 
hunie esi masa, his enemies were put to 
shame. With interrogative plural pro- 
noun: kiratei, who; kiratei ni e 'unue, 
who said so? (b) By itself as subject 
of verbs: e 'unue ta'ane, he said so. As 
meaning "there is": e ka'a ola, there is 
nothing; e sato 'oto, it is fine weather. 

e 2. S., contraction for ie; haahe for haahie, 
about it; pe'e for pe'ie; nga taa ni 'oko 
ngarase, what are you crying for? par'ie 
here, for paro'ie. 

'e 3. U., verbal particle; in pronunciation 'e 
is joined to the governing pronoun. In 



19 



ERE 



*e 3. (continued). 

the sense of, let, that it may: ne'e lae 
ka'u, let me go. Used with a negative: 
e qale ola vt'e loosia, there is nothing 
that I saw, I saw nothing. With the 
preposition muni, as subjunctive or 
optative: nau ha'alu muni ne'e lae, I 
promised that I would go; muni 'e 
lae mai, let him come; 'e 'ue, how? 
mwane 'e'ue, why not? Sa'a ke. cf. 
qa'ike, ha'ike. 

*e 4. v. p.. used with numerals and with nite; 
'e rue, two; 'e' 'olu, three; 'enite, 'enita, 
how many, 'e 3. Florida e, Maori e, 
ehia, how many? Epi ve vio, how man3 - ? 

'•5. suffixed to poss. 1 and 2 in sing. 1 and 2, 
added to ru in i'emeru'e, kereru'e. 

e'a U., pers. pron., sing. 3, and verbal particle 
'a. 

e'asi U., e'a, si, illative. 

'e'e S. 1. areca nut (Areca catechu); hoi 'e'e, 
the nut of the areca palm; mu 'e'e, areca- 
palm trees; 'e'e ahaa, wild areca nut; 
eaten only occasionally in Little Malaita, 
but generally in Big Malaita. 

'e'e S. 2. to be open, enlarged; wawaku ko 'e'e 
haahi 'omu, my mouth is enlarged 
against you. 

'e'eli U., v. i., to go astray, to swerve, ha'a'e'eli 
'e'elinga v. n., a going astray. 

'e'engo S., v. i., to chatter, to disturb by 
chattering. 

'ehi'e cf. 'dhi'e. 

eho n., a round ear ornament of clam shell with 
a pattern cut like the lines of a compass 
and radiating from the center; it is hung 
below the ear by a string through a hole 
in the center. 

ehoeho S., to prate, to be a tattler; wawa 
ehoeho, to boast. 

ehu native jews-harp; e sare to'o ehu, he wants 
a jews-harp. 

'ei 1. cf. 'ai 1. 

e'i 2. tr. suffix to verbs, participial ending. 
cf. a'i 3. 

'Ei'ei U., a water spring at Mwado'a, Ulawa. 

e'ini tr. suffix to verbs, cf. a'ini. 

eke the white cockatoo, used of other white 
birds; ao eke, the white egret. 

'ele U., kele S., adj., and adv., little, somewhat, 
just now; 'ele poo, a little pig; a 'ele ola, 
little So-and-so; nau si 'ele lae mai, I 
have just come; e 'asi 'ele diena, it is a 
little better. 

eleele 1. real, proper, good; mu eleelei wala, S., 
mwa eleele huu ni wala, U., real words: 
used also of yams (uhi) and of musical 
instruments (au 3). 

eleele (na) 2. n., top shoots of trees, etc.; to'o 
eleelena, its tip. 

'elekale U., a child; 'elekale inau, my child; 
'elekale werewere, an infant. 

'Ele maosi, the landing-place in the reef at 
Ngorangora. 

'eli, 'eli'eli v. tr., to dig; 'eli talana, to dig his 
grave, 
'elinga v. n., digging, yam digging, harvest. 



'eli, 'eli'eli (continued). 
'elila-(na) gerund, 
'elihe'ini tr., to dig post holes, foundations, 

etc. ; ko 'elihe'inie kokoro, dug it deep, 
'elihe'i v. i., noko 'elihe'i, I am digging post 
holes. Mota gil, Malay gali, Borneo 
kali, Maori keri. 

'elu 1. cf. 'olu, three; suffix limiting the meaning 
and added to (a) pers. pron., pi. 3: 
ikira'elu, kira'elu. (b) suff. pron., r'd, 
rii'elu. (c) in Ulawa to stem, ka form- 
ing pers. pron., pi. 1. inch, ka'elu we. 

'elu 2. used in Tolo for melu we. 

'emelu pers. pron., pi. 1. excl.; we, more limited 
and particular in meaning than i'emi. 

'emere, 'emere'i, 'emeru'e S. 1. pers. pron., 
dual 1, excl., we two. 2. pers. pron., 
dual 1, suffixed to verbs and preposi- 
tions as object. 

'emi S., pers. pron., pi. 1, excl. (a) as subject, 
we. (b) with the full form i'emi; i'emi 
emi lae mai, we have come, (c) suffixed 
as object to verbs and prepositions. 
Florida garni, Malay kami. 

emu cf. amu 3. 

'emu'e, 'emu'i S., cf. "dmu'e. 

ena S., demonstrative, that; possibly e 1, no 4. 
ngeena. ha'ike ena, not that, not so; 
mango ena, finished that, that ends it; 
nge manikulu'anga ineu ena ka'a ola 
ike, the glory, mine I mean, is nothing. 

eni cf. ani. 

'enite S., 'enita U., how many, so many, a few; 
the 'e 4 is detachable, see nite; the suff. 
pron. na may be added, ha'anite; 
'enite 'ata haidinge, just a few days ago; 
'enite lusu, what size (of a canoe), lit., 
how many ribs; 'enitana 'oto 'ie, the 
how-manyeth is this, what number; 
awala mdia 'enita, how many over ten; 
mana 'enite, what unit above ten; ta'e 
'enita He, just a few. 

eno, enoeno to lie down; eno taalenga, to lie 
on the back, 
enonga v. n., a lying down, reclining, 
enohi tr., to lie in, to lie on; e enohie hulite, 

he lay on a mat. 
enohilana gerund, 
ha'aenohi causative. Nguna one, Motu eno. 

epa 1. glandular swellings in the armpits and 
groins. 2. to have such swellings. 

epa 3. v. i., toto epa hanue, to cleanse well the 
village by a sacrifice. M. A., p. 137. 
epasi tr., to spread over. Mota epa, a mat. 

'epu'i hd'i'epu'i, to propitiate. 

'epule cf. 'apule. 

ere, ereere 1. v. i., to speak, to talk; with poss. 3, 
to forbid, to bid, to order, U. ha'aere. 
ere ana nga 'inoni, to forbid a person; 
ere ani le'ti honu, to boast; ere 'asi, U., 
to reproach, to vilify; ere 'autala, to 
speak in vain; ere ni ha'apu tako'ie, 
swore by him; ere haahi, to betroth, to 
bespeak a wife; ere hd'ihonoa'i, to curse; 
ere ha'isuru, to have altercations; ere 
h&'ilohe, to contradict; ere ni hedi 
olanga, to take an oath; ere laelae'i, 



ERE 



20 



ere, ereere 1 (continued). 

talk by the wayside; ere lole ana 
ma'unge, to talk confusedly from fear; 
ere luu'i, U., to forbid; ere maahoosi, to 
boast; ere maleledi, to rail at; ere 
mama'ila'a ana, to speak despisingly; 
ere mamakinanga, to reproach; nou ere 
pele, I spoke inadvertently; ere raradi'e, 
correction; ere raramaa, insolent speech; 
ere ni sae, to say with the heart; ere 
ta'anga, plain speech; ere taha'ira'a, to 
speak plainly; ere talihe, to defend one- 
self when accused, to deny; nou ere 
taliheku, I made my defense; ere 
tataa'ini, to curse; ere toli, to revile; 
ere to'o, to be correct in one's statement; 
'o ere to'o, verily; ere uqe, to talk 
enviously; ere warawara'a, clamorous; 
lopo'i ere, to deceive with words; toli 
ereere, to cease speaking. 
erenga v. n., speech. 

eresi U., tr., to plan in speech, to decide 
upon; hu'o ni pesi koro eresia, the war 
expedition over the bows which they 
planned. Motu erena, speech. 

ere, ereere 2. v. tr., to make up in a roll, to 

coil. 

ereereta v. n., a roll, a coil; mu ereeretai 

usuusu, the roll of the book. Lau ereere. 

ereerea'ile S., ereere'a U., ereeretai U., 

rolled up in a coil, round, disk-shaped. 

ereha'ini S., v. tr., to set alight, to light a torch. 
ereha'i partic, lighted. Lau ere, fire. 

'erete'a adj., whitish, pale; note sa'a kole wa 
nga me'i ola 'erete'a ke'i i'o i sapeka, the 
paddles must not rattle nor anything 
of light color be about our bodies. 
Maori kiritea, fair, lea, white; Samoa 
tea, white. 

ero, eroero S., v. tr., to deceive, to tell lies. 

ha' aero, ko ero, he is lying; tnwane 'o 

eroau, do not deceive me; a eroero, the 

deceiver. 

eronga v. n., lying, deceit; ko lehie eronga, 

in travail with lying. 
erola-(ku) gerund., erolana walumalau, the 

deceits of the world, 
erota'ini tr., to deceive. 

esi 1. e 1. si, illative; esi kele lolo, he has just 
washed. 

esi U. 2. n., a ghost, considered harmless. 
cf. 'akalo. 

eso, esoeso S., v. L, to flare up, to flame, to 
burn, ha'aeso. sae esoeso, to have 
indignation, 
esoesoha v. n., flame; used with poss. 3; 
esoesokaana dunge, the flame of the fire; 
esoesohai dunge, flame of fire, 
esolana gerund, its flaming. 

'eta S., numeral, one; used with definite article 
nga and denotes another, different, 'e 
4, for ta cf. ta'a 2. nga 'eta ola; nga 
'eta mu 'inoni, various people; 'eta 
muini, some; maholo 'eta mwane e 
ha'atau ue, while the other was yet far 
off; 'eta ina'o, to be in the lead. 



'eta (continued). 

'etana ordinal, first, the first time; 'etana 
ngaile, 'etana ngaini, the first one. 
Malay sa, one; Mota tea, indefinite 
pronoun. 

ete ha'aete, S., v. tr., to importune, to be per- 
sistent. 

eu ddu eu, to play tunes, au 3. 

eueu pepe i eueu, a butterfly. 

ewa U., to brandish a spear; ewa lulu, a measure 
of a yard and a half. 

ewe, eweewe 1. v. L, to have water in; e ewe 
ta'ane, it has water in it (said of a 
bamboo). 2. to be in a liquid state. 
3. n., flood; ewe e ulungaa maurihaaku, 
the floods have covered over my soul; 
ere koni, to gather together, of flood 
water, 
eweewe (na) n., juice; mu eweewei ola. 
liquid. 



ha termination of verbal nouns: mduri, to live; 
mdurihe, life. 

haa 1. shell-money discs made from the red 
hinge of the oyster shell (roma); the 
chief places of manufacture are Langa- 
langa in Big Malaita and Makira in 
San Cristoval. The Malaita shells are 
obtained in the Mara Masiki Channel. 
The discs are always strung on string 
and the value is proportionate to the 
length of the string and the smallness 
of the discs, 'enite haa, how many 
moneys? to make a haa four strings 
of shell discs are used, the strings are 
kept together by being passed through 
strips of tortoise shell hapa. cf. 
huresoso; haa i mwe'i, money in the 
bag, earnest money, security paid to 
the parents of a girl to insure getting 
her as a bride for some lad; haa pdine, 
large money discs, not considered of 
much value; haa ni siwe, blood money; 
haa tahanga, a sum of money consisting 
of four strings of haa tied together, each 
string a fathom long, the strings are 
separated by strips of tortoise shell; 
haa ni Ulawa, small and valuable shell- 
money discs, often strung in a kind of 
crochet pattern with malo and huresoso 
added to complete the design; haa ni 
wili, tribute money; hdu haa, red brain 
coral; hune haa, to display bridal 
moneys at the bride's home; ito ni haa, 
a bunch of money; lai loosi haa. to go and 
inspect the money given for a bride; 
mwaritei haa, a strand of money; sulu 
haa, to collect money; wili haa, to thread 
shell money; maapou, a measure of shell 
money, from finger tips to elbow; 
to'ohaa money, both shell and teeth 
(dogs and porpoise). Wango haa. 

ha'a 2. a platform for storing yams; ha'a ni 
'arasi, ark of the covenant; hd'u ha'a, to- 
tie the laths on a platform, to make a 



21 



HA'AHIRU 



ha'a 2 (continued). 

platform; laloi ha'a. within the garner. 
Maori whata. 
ha'angi v. tr., to place yams, etc., on a plat- 
form in order to store them, to put a 
dried coconut on a platform so that it 
may shoot. Samoa fata; Mao whata. 

ha'a 3. exclam., oh. 

ha'a 4. causative prefix applied to verbs and 
less frequently to nouns; it may be 
duplicated for emphasis; in Ulawa when 
ha'a is applied to a word beginning with 
a one a is dropped. Mota vaga, 
Maori whaka. 

ha'a 5. prefixed to cardinals to form multipli- 
catives; ha'arue, twice; to kunge, 
ha'ahunge, to multiply; to nite, ha'anite, 
how many; to tau, ha'atau, far. 

ha'aado v. tr., to apportion. 

ha'a'ae v. i., to be fleeting, vain. 

ha'aahala'ini v. tr., to provoke. 

ha'aahu v. tr., to complete a number, to make 
the tally, to round off; ha'aahu mae, to 
finish fighting, to cease hostilities. 

ha'a'ai'aa v. tr., to destroy, to cause to dis- 
appear. 

ha'aakaurisi v. tr., to provide a person with 
a thing. 

ha'aalaha v. tr., to exalt, to conduct the cere- 
mony of a chief's coming of age. 

ha'a'aliu v. tr., to cause to turn back, to turn 
around, to convert in mind. 
ha'a'aliula-(ku) gerund. 

ha'a'ango v. i., to tie up creepers, yam vines, 
to cause them to twine, 
ha'a'angohi tr. 
ha'a'angohila-(na, ni) gerund. 

ha'a'apara'ini v. tr., to surprise, to startle. 

ha'aape 1. v. tr., to make shipwreck of. 

ha'aapenga'ini tr. 2. ha'aape sae, to 
encourage. 

ha'a'apu 1. v. i., to make an oath. 2. v. tr., 
to put a person or thing under tabu. 
3. v. tr., to forbid. 

ha'a'apunge v. n., a vow to kill in revenge. 

ha'aasa ere ha'aasa, to take an oath. 

ha'aasa'i to stultify; ha'aasa'ie hurunge, to 
run to no purpose. 

ha'aasire'ini v. tr., to scare, to frighten. 

ha'aawala v. i., to tally, to count by tens; nou 
ha'aawala ha'anite, how many tens have 
I counted? 

ha'adada U., v. tr., to smooth, to flatten out. 

ha'adahe v. tr., to cause to be adzed down or 
to be hoed. 

ha'adahi 1. to cause a person to be fortunate, 
to thank, to make presents to, U. 2. 
when at sea to apostrophize the various 
islands in sight, the phrases being, 
Sa'a: i sapena i Sa'a ni menu, the con- 
figuration of Sa'a ni menu; Ulawa: 
i sapena i Ulawa e rara; Ugi: i sapena 
i Dara ahu'i niw, San Cristoval: i sapena 
i Aru ni i'e. 
ha'adahinga U., v. n., blessing, happiness. 

ha'ada'i S., partic, open, plain; soi ha'ada'i 
ada, call them out, 



ha'ada'inge soi ha'adainge, church (late use). 

ha'adau v. tr., to bring a canoe to a standstill, 
to cause to be stationary, to assign a 
position to a person. 

ha'adiana S., ha'adiena U., to do good to, to 
bless. 

ha'adodo v. tr., to cause to sink, to drown, 
to dip. 

ha'adoro v. tr., to heat up food. 

ha'a'e'eli U., v. tr., to divert, to cause to go 
out of the way. 

ha'aenohi v. tr., to lay down a child, to cradle. 

ha'aere v. tr., to scold, to wrangle, 
ha'aereere U., to engage in talk. 

ha'aero v. tr., to make jests upon, to jest, to 
deceive. 
ha'aeronga v. n., a jest. 

ha'aeso S., v. tr., to cause to flatme, to burn. 

ha'aete U., v. tr., to importune, to be persist- 
ent with. 

ha'aha'alu S. 1. v. tr., to renew, to make afresh. 
2. v. i., to make a covenant. 

ha'ahai four times. 

ha'ahalahala v. tr., to make firm, to confirm. 

ha'ahanenga'ini 1. v. tr., to lust after. 2. 
v. tr., to exalt. 

ha'aha'olu U., v. tr., to renew, to make afresh. 
ha'aha'alu, S. 

ha'ahaora U., v. tr., to abase, to humble. 
ha'ahaora'ala-(ku) gerund. 

haahe saeku e lae haahe, I forgot it. cf. haahi. 

ha'ahehe 1. v. tr., to pretend not to possess, 
to be niggardly over. 

ha'ahehe 2. v. i., to abound, to be in abun- 
dance, honu ha'ahehe. 

haahi (au) prep., because of, around, for, on 
account of: haahie contracts to haahe. 
haahie noko lae, because of my going; 
haahi taa, because of what, why; d'au 
haahi, to omit; haahira diana, on the 
good; hatonga'i wala haahi, to accuse; 
inemauri haahi, to rule over; lau haahi, 
to make a defense in words; luhe haahi, 
to be surety for; luqe'i lalawa haahi, to 
give a feigned excuse; mwa'e haahi, of 
those who clap their hands at dances; 
mwana haahi, to make pretence; ni'i 
nime haahi, to lay hands on; noko haahi, 
to keep watch over; sae haahi, parsi- 
monious; salo haahi, to make a sign to a 
person; wai e lama haahi ue kolune 
mwakano, water covered the face of 
the earth, 
haahaahi v. tr., to prize; nga me'i ola saena 

ke haahaahe, a thing his heart prized. 
haahila-(ku) gerund. ; mwananga haahilana, 
a cloaking, glossing over; ani to'oni 
haahilada, in clothing themselves. Lau 
fafi. 

ha'ahi'ito'o U., v. tr., to cause hurt to, punish. 
hi'ito'o. 

ha'ahili, ha'ahilihiii v. tr., to abstain from 
certain foods, to fast. 

ha'ahirerue in front of them. 

ha'ahiru v. i., to be slow, behindhand, 
ha'ahirunge v. n., delay, 
ha'ahirusi tr., to be a hindrance to. 



HA'AHITE 



22 



ha'ahite n., an ovenful of food, 
ha'ahiu seven times. 

ha'ahola v. tr., to create; mu ola ha'ahola, 
created things, 
ha'ahola'i tr., to inaugurate. Lau fafola. 
ha'aholi v. i., to expose for sale, to conduct 
operations for barter; used with poss. 3, 
meaning to make merchandise of. 
ha'aholinge'ini tr., to put up for sale, 
ha'aholo adv., crosswise, transversely, astride, 

aslant. Fagani fagaforo. 
ha'ahonu v. tr., to fill, 
ha'ahou v. i., to proclaim. 

ha'ahoulana gerund., a representation of. 
ha'ahoule'ini tr., to proclaim, 
ha'ahulee U., n., morning; i ha'ahulee, e dani 
ha'ahulee, tomorrow, in the morning; 
hai ha'ahulee, a morning; muni 'e hara 
ha'ahulee, as soon as it is daylight; sulia 
mwa hai ha'ahulee, every morning. 
ha'ahule'ita-(ku) S., a reaching up to, attain- 
ing, requiting, 
ha'ahuni S., v. tr., to be contrary to, in 

opposition to. 
ha'ahunge S. 1. adv., frequently. 2. v. tr., 
to make many, to multiply. 
ha'ahunga'a adv., frequently. 
ha'ahu'o to be in good time, early afoot in the 
morning; 'omu ke ha'ahu'o, be here 
early in the morning, 
ha'ahute to beget, of either parent. 

ha'ahutanga v. n., birth, generation. 
ha'ahutela-(ku) gerund., begetting, being 
begotten, 
ha'ahuu 1. adv., complete; awala ha'ahuu, a 
full ten. 2. v. tr., to complete the tally. 
ha'ahuu'e adj., faithful, tried; complete, 
tahanga ha'ahuu'a, U., a full fathom (of 
money); with suffixed pron. 3, sing.; 
ha'ahuu' ana mu ola, S., mwa ha'ahuu' ana 
ola, U., real things, the correct things; 
e ha'ahuu'ana 'olo, it is quite the real 
thing; with genitive i, mu ha'ahuu'ei ola, 
the real things. 
ha'ahuu'e-(ku) ha'ahuu' emu, your own self, 
ha'ahuu'ani U., adv., altogether, com- 
pletely, 
ha'a'i'i S., v. tr., to charge unduly for, to put 

on a big price, 
ha'a'inoni v. tr., to justify oneself, to find 

excuses, 
ha'ainuhi S. 1. v. tr., to give drink to, to cause 

to drink. 2. to drown, 
ha'ai'osi v. tr. 1. to cause to sit down. 2. used 
of ha'amalaohu, to cause to undergo the 
novitiate. M. A., p. 234. a Wate- 
ha'aodo ngaini ka'a ka'ai'ose i one, no 
one caused Wateha'aodo to be initiated 
down at the beach, 
ha'aisi adv., at all, precedes the verb, 
ha'aisita'anga'ini S., ha'aisitahanga'ini U., 
v. tr., to cause to emerge, to conduct out. 
ha'akakahuru S., v. tr., to surprise, used with 

poss. 3. 
ha'akale v. tr., to wait for, to watch, to keep 

an eye on. 
ha'akauni U., v. tr., to cause to light (of fire, 
pipe, etc.). 



ha'akena'i U., exclam., not used before women. 

cf. he'asikena'i. 
ha'akeneta'i U., ha'akineta'i S., to observe, 

to have a care for, to keep, 
ha'akeneta'ini U., ha'akineta'ini S., tr. 
ha'akeni v. tr., to marry a girl off, to conduct 

a betrothal. 
ha'akolo U., v. i., to be strange, foreign; mo ola 

ha'akolo, strange things, 
ha'akoru U., v. tr., to gather people together. 
ha'akorunga v. n., ha'akorunga ni 'inoni, a 

gathering of men. 
ha'akuku U. 1. to hang up, to suspend. 2. to 

lower, 
ha'alaa S., adv., used of conditional affirmation, 

the pronoun e coalesces; a ola, ha'alaa. 

So-and-so I grant you; kire ko te urine 

ha'alaa e diana, were they to do so it 

would be good; ko nemo, ha'alaa, if it 

rains granted; su'uri 'unue ha'alae diana, 

had you not mentioned it it were well, 
ha'alaelae v. tr., to cause to walk, to teach to 

walk, 
ha'alanga v. tr., to expose to the air in order to 

dry, to dry nets and clothes, 
ha'alangi n., a house on piles, cf. ilengi. Lau 

falangi. 
ha'alauni v. tr., to decorate, 
ha'alede U., v. tr., to break in pieces, 
ha'alete S., v. tr., to chasten, to punish, to 

persecute. 
ha'aletehi tr. 
ha'aletehinge v. n. 
ha'aletehila-(ku) gerund, 
ha'ali'e v. i., to be engaged in cooking, 
ha'ali'anga v. n., a cooking of food, 
ha'alili v. i., to change shape, of a ghostly 

apparition; e ha'alili ana pa'ewa, he 

took the form of a shark, 
ha'alime five times. 

ha'alio 1. v. tr., to awaken, to cause to awake. 
ha'ali'o 2. v. tr., to strangle, to hang by the neck. 

In M. A., p. 288, the woman strangled 

was named Hu'e siki ni uhi, and her 

husband was Olosango. 
ha'aloko U., v. tr., to gather people together, 
ha'aloo'i v. tr., to instruct, to punish, to make 

loo. 
ha'alounge v. n., quarreling, bickering, 
ha'alu, ha'aha'alu 1 . v. i., to promise, used with 

ana; e ha'alu ana 'olo, he promised it; 

ha'alu horana, to swear by a person or 

thing, 
ha'alunge v. n., a promise; hele dora'ie 

ha'alunge, to break a promise, 
ha'alunge'ini tr., to make a covenant. 
ha'alunge'inila-(ku) gerund. Lau gwalu. 
ha'alu S. 2. adj., new, fresh, recent; ha'olu, U.; 

kau ha'alu, heifer; keni ha'alu, virgin; 

poro ha'alu, bridegroom, 
ha'aluha v. n., used with poss. 3; ha'aluha 

ana, its newness. Nguna van, NiuS 

fou, Malay baru. 
ha'aluelu S., v. i., ko ere ha'aluelu, to give a 

sign with a word, 'alii 2. 
ha'amaa v. i., to dry canarium nuts (ngtili) 

in smoke. 



23 



HA'AOPO 



ha'amaahoosi U., to boast. 
ha'amaa'i v. i., to consecrate, to ordain, to 
set apart for sacred use. 
ha'amaa'inge v. n., holiness (late use). 
ha'amaa'ila-(ku) gerund., making holy, 
ha'ama'ani U., v. tr., to copy, to repeat after. 
cf. h&'imaani. 
ha'ama'aninge, v. n., copying, repeating 
after, 
ha'amaa'u U., v. i., to frighten. 

ha'amaa'usi tr. 
ha'amada v. tr., to soil, 
ha'amae to bray nuts, yams, taro in a mortar. 

ha'amaesi tr. 
ha'amaesi 1. to kill. 

ha'amaesi 2. to watch, as a cat a mouse. 
ha'amahoro v. i., to cover up. 

ha'amahorosi tr., to cause to pass in sight, 
ha'amala v. i., to copy; ko ha'amala po'upo'u 
ana, to make the sign of the cross on him. 
ha'amalala-(ku) gerund., doing like, 
ha'amalaohu v. tr. 1. to initiate. M. A., 
p. 233. hola ni mwane, all the boys 
who are eligible. 2. U., to use a thing 
for the first time, to hansel. 3. to assist 
a novice in catching his first bonito. 
ha'amalu v. i., to frighten fish or animals by 
one's shadow falling upon them, 
ha'amalusi tr. 
ha'amamakine v. tr., to inspire with dread, 
ha'amamalo v. tr., to cause to rest; used also 
with poss. 3; neke ha'amamalo 'amiu, I 
will cause you to rest, 
ha'amamaa'u U., v. i., to cause to fear. 

ha'amamaa'usi tr. 
ha'amamu v. i., to entice fish with scraps of 
food, to burly; met., to entice a person 
with suggestions, 
ha'amamue'i U., v. tr., to scorch, mdmu 2. 
ha'amamu'i v. tr., to char, to burn (of food). 

mamu 2. 
ha'amanata v. i., to train, to educate, to tame. 

ha'amanata'i tr. 
ha'amanikulu'e v. tr., to give praise to, to 
glorify, to make glorious. 
ha'amanikulu'ela-(ku) gerund, 
ha'amanola v. i., to give peace to, to cause 
peace; 'oke ha'amanola honotamami, 
give peace in our time, 
ha'amango 1. to bring to a finish. 2. to com- 
fort, to refresh; ha'amango sae, to com- 
fort the mind, 
ha'amasa v. i., to shame, to make ashamed: 

used with poss. 3. 
ha'amataqa v. i., to enlighten, to cast light 
upon, to let light in. 
ha'amataqasi S., ha'amataqali U., tr. 
ha'amataqasila-(ku) gerund, 
ha'ama'u S., v. L, to honor, used with poss. 3. 
ha'ama'unge v. n., respect, honor, 
ha'ama'usi tr., to terrify. 
ha'amau'o S., v. i., to offend, to cause to offend, 

used with poss. 3. 
ha'amauta'a v. tr., to strengthen, to make firm. 
ha'amedo v. tr., to steep, to wet. 
ha'amenamena v. L, to be false, to flatter, 
ha'amola v. tr., to cause to fail. 



ha'amola (continued). 

ha'amolahi tr., to cause to fail, to cause to 

miss, to make of no effect, 
ha'amotaahi S., v. tr., to inflict agony on, to 

persecute cruelly. 
ha'amotaahila-(ku) gerund, 
ha'amousi v. tr., to break off. 
ha'amwadausi v. tr., to soften, to make easy, 
ha'amwaimwei'e S., v. tr., to belittle, to make 

of no account, 
ha'amwaimwei'alana gerund, 
ha'amwamwate'a v. i., to make light of, to 

belittle; ne'isae ha 'amwamwate' alana, 

making light of it. 
ha'amwari v. tr., to enfeeble, to weaken by 

sickness or wounds. 
ha'amwarila-(ku) gerund, 
ha'amwasie'ini v. tr., to laugh at, to mock, to 

jest at. 
ha'anakusi U., v. tr., to seat, to cause to sit. 
ha'ananama'ini U., v. tr., to put spiritual 

power into, 
ha'ananau v. tr., to instruct, to practise. 

ha'ananaula-(ku) gerund. Wango ha'ana- 

nau'a, clearly, 
ha'ananoa'i, v. tr., to exercise, to accustom 

oneself to. 
ha'ana'o n., first fruits, early yams; mu 

ha'ana'o, the first fruits, 
ha'ana'ola'ini U., v. tr., to do a thing first, to 

do before anything else, 
ha'anemo S., ha'animo U., v. i., to get wet 

from rain, to be in the rain, 
ha'anemosi S., ha'animoli U., tr., to cause 

to get wet with rain, 
ha'anine S., v. tr., to accustom oneself, to be 

accustomed; mu tolaha e ha'anine, the 

wonted practices, 
ha'anipili S., n., anguish, pili. ha'anipili 

e pilingie, he travailed with anguish, 
ha'ano n., a scaffold, 
ha'anga'ingedi v. tr., to strengthen. 
ha'angau v. tr., to feed; 'ai ha'angau keni, 

ginger given to women as an ordeal, 
ha'aoa'i 1. v. tr., to apportion, to correspond 

to; 'ure'ure ha'aoa'ie hai suurei welu- 

malau, standing opposite to the four 

corners of the earth. 2. v. tr., to fulfill, 

to witness; 'unu ha'aoa'i, 'unu ha'aoa- 

'inge, witness, 
ha'aodo to straighten, to put straight, to 

direct; a Wate ha'aodo, a proper name, 
ha'aodohi hunt lengu ha'aodohie 'aeka, to 

guide our feet. 
ha'aodohila-(ku) gerund, 
ha'aohu v. tr., to cause to boil, to boil vege- 
tables, etc. 
ha'aohusi v. tr., to distribute, to apportion, 
ha'aola v. tr., to put to silence; ere ha'aola, to 

persuade, 
ha'a'olu three times, 
ha'aono six times. 
ha'a'o'oni v. tr., to cause to sink, to drown; 

to subject, to bring into submission; 

'akalo e ha'a'o'onie, a ghost took pos- 
session of him. 
ha'aopo v. tr., to heat up food already cooked. 



HA'AORA 



24 



ha'aora U., v. tr., to shine, of bright light. 
ha'aorata'ini tr., to enlighten. 

ha'apaine v. tr., to enlarge, to aggrandize, to 
exalt oneself, 
ha'apaina'ala (ku) gerund. 

ha'aparasi, ha'aqarasi U., v. tr., to hinder, to 
prevent. 

ha'apasu v. i., to threaten, to threaten the life 
of a person, 
ha'apasuli tr. 
ha'apasulinge v. n. 
ha'apasulila-(ku) gerund. 

ha'apiho U., v. tr., to divide into two parts. 

ha'apo'e n., yam or taro mash: the yams or 
taro are first roasted (sule) on embers, 
then the skin is scraped (ori) with a 
shell (le'ete'ei henu), and finally the 
vegetable is pounded in a wooden 
mortar (uli) with a pestle ('at repo), the 
mess is then placed in wooden bowls 
(nime) and heated up with hot stones 
(pit), coconut milk ('oni wet) being 
added; ha'apo'e uhi, yam mash; ha'apo'e 
hut, taro mash; maladi, stale, sour. 

ha'apolaha'i v. i., to cast away, to disregard, 
used with poss. 3. 

ha'apona v. i., to interrupt with questions, 
ha'aponanga v. n., questioning, 
ha'apona'i tr., to question. 

ha'aponosi v. tr., to overgrow and choke (of 
creepers) . 

ha'apu ere ni ha'apu iako'ie, swore by him. 
ha'apunge v. n. 

ha'apuli ruru ha'apuli, to throng together. 

ha'apulo v. i., to turn back before reaching 
one's destination, 
ha'apulonga'ini S., ha'apulosi U., tr., 1. to 
accompany a person, to attend on the 
way home. 2. to turn a thing over, to 
reverse. 

ha'apu'o v. i., to turn back before reaching 
one's destination, to return. 
ha'apu'osi S. 1 . to accompany a person on 
his return journey. 2. to return a thing. 

ha'aqaali U., v. tr., to break in two pieces. 

ha'aqaha'ini U., v. tr., to lay a thing along, 
to measure by. 

ha'aqala U., v. tr., to cause to be empty or 
vacant; sato e ha'aqalaa one, the sun 
had caused the beach to be deserted. 

ha'aqasi U., v. tr., to encircle with the arms. 

ha'aqe'u v. tr., to cause to be mad. 

ha'aqini U., v. tr., to steep, to wet. 

haara-(na) 1. n., smell: haarana ko wesu, its 
smell smells; haarana nga me'i ola, the 
smell of anything; haarani, plural, of 
many things that smell. Motu harahua, 
to be kissed, sniffed. 

ha'ara 2. a sign, mark, flag (late use). Wango 
ha'ara. 

ha'araa v. i., to sit in the sun, to bask. 
ha'araahi tr., to expose to the sun. 

ha'ara'i v. i., to summon, to call a person to 
come and partake of food. 

ha'ara'ini S., v. tr., to name, to give a person 
a name. U., haora'ini. 

ha'arako v. tr., to appease, to treat gently. 



ha'arangasi v. tr., to blow out. to puff up, to 

distend. 
ha'ararada v. tr., to broil, to fry (late use). 

Wango ha'aradahi. 
ha'ararao v. tr., to cause to cling, to cause to 

cleave to. 
ha'area U., v. i., tola ha'area, to send out a 

smell on all sides, 
ha'areke 1. to land passengers or goods from 

a canoe, used of labor vessels landing 

returned laborers. 2. to land trade 

goods which are left in charge of a 

native trader, 
ha'arekenga v. n., trade goods landed, 
ha'arekehi v. tr., to cause to skip, to cause to 

leap, 
ha'arepi v. tr., to make a prostitute of. 
ha'arere v. tr., to cleanse. 

ha'arere'anga v. n., cleansing, purification, 
ha'ariro v. tr., to entice with food, to offer 

food to a ghostly visitor in order to 

prove that he is not human, 
ha'arodo v. i., to darken, to stand in the light. 
ha'aro'i U., v. tr. to find, to come across; lai 

ha'aro'i, go and meet; tau ha'aro'i, to find, 
ha'arongo v. tr., to summon, to invite; the 

technical word for a summons to a 

feast delivered by a herald (hurulaa). 

Three days notice is given; ha'arongoa 

a ola, e ro ha'idinge, 'olune ni ngeu, 

summon So-and-so, there remain two 

days, on the third is the feast, 
ha'arongonga v. n., an invitation, summons, 

calling, 
ha'aroroa'i v. tr., to become indebted to, to 

involve oneself with, 
ha'aruru v. i., to conduct a marriage ceremony, 
ha'arurunge v. n., a marriage ceremony. 
ha'arurula-(ku) gerund., the marrying of. 
ha'asada 1. v. tr., to flatten, to make level. 

2. adj., flat, level. 
ha'asaediena U., v. tr., to thank, to salute in 

speech, 
ha'asaedienanga v. n., thanks. 
ha'asaedienala-(ku) gerund. 
ha'asaemango v. tr., to comfort, to settle the 

mind, 
ha'asaemangonga v. n., comfort, ease of 

mind. 
ha'asato v. i., to sit in the sun, to sun oneself, 
ha'asatoa'i tr., to expose a thing to the sun 

in order to dry it. 
ha'asauni v. tr., to vex, to cause trouble to. 
ha'asiho v. i., to land a passenger from a canoe. 

also of labor vessels landing returned 

laborers, 
ha'asiholi tr., to lower, to let down, 
ha'asihopulu n., a stone sinker for fishing-lines, 

rounded and grooved for the attachment 

of the line, 
ha'asikihi U., v. tr., to detach, 
ha'asilitaha U., v. tr., to cause to emerge, used 

with poss. 3. 
ha'asusu S., 1. to strengthen, to make firm, 

confirmation (late use) ; ha'asusu sae. 

to confirm the heart. 
ha'asusula-(ku) gerund. 



HAHA 



ha'asusu 2. v. tr., to suckle. 
ha'asusu 3. v. i., to tell tales about, to gossip, 
ha'asusunge v. n., gossip, 
ha'asusunge'ini tr., to spread tales about 

a person, to be a subject of gossip. 
ha'asusu 4. U., ha'asusu uhi, name of a month, 

March, susu 4. 
ha'ata'eli v. tr., to cause to embark, to take on 

board. 
ha'ata'ela'ini U., tr., to cause to arise, 
ha'ata'i partic, made plain, open; hunie tola 

i'oe ke'i ha'ata'i, that thy way may be 

made plain, 
ha'ata'ini v. tr., to show, to reveal, used 

with poss. 3; ha'ata'inie 'emclu, show 

it to us. Fagani fatagi. 
ha'atakalo v. tr., to lose, to lose the run of, 

to misplace, to cause to err. 
ha'atala'i v. tr., to egg on, to incite, 
ha'atalisi U., v. tr., to cause to awake, 
ha'atanauhi v. tr., to decoy a ghost or an 

animal by offering food. cf. ha'ariro. 

Mota vatanau. 
ha'atapala'a U., v. i., to cause to abound, 
ha'atata'ala v. tr., to harm, to cause evil to; 

mu ola ni ha'atata'ala 'emi, things that 

harm us. 
ha'atatanga'ini v. tr., to scatter, 
ha'atataqelu v. tr., to throw a person down 

headlong, 
ha'atataro v. tr., to cause to stumble. 
ha'atau v. i., to be far off, distant. 

ha'atauli S., ha'atauri U., determ., to be 

far off from. Wango ha'atau, Lau 

tau, Mota sau, Florida hau, Malay jau. 
ha'ateke v. i., to cause to fall; ngau ha'ateke, to 

drop crumbs while eating, 
ha'atengotengo v. tr., to droop, of lip or head, 
ha'atoha'ini v. tr., to give oneself airs, to 

boast, to make much of a person. 
ha'atoha'inila-(ku) gerund, 
ha'atohu 1. v. i., to make request for, to ask 

leave, to ask a favor: used with poss. 3. 

e ha'atohu eku, he asked my leave. 2. 

v. tr., to ask that a person or thing be 

granted to one. e ha'atohue ana, he 

asked him for it. 
ha'atohunge v. n., a making request. 
ha'atohula-(ku) gerund. 
ha'atola 1. v. i., to send a message, to send a 

thing. 2. U., n., a messenger: laa 

ha'atola, a person sent. 
ha'atolanga v. n., a message, command, 

order, epistle (late use). 
ha'atola 'i tr., to give a message to. 
ha'atolanga'ini tr., to give a message to. 
ha'atonohi U., v. tr., to offer drink, to cause to 

drink. 
ha'atonohila-(ku) gerund, 
ha'ato'o v. tr., to confirm, to accomplish; e 

ha'ato'oa saeku, he carried out my 

wish, 
ha'ato'osu'a U., v. tr., to cause to stumble, 
ha'atoretore U., v. i.; ha'atoretore maa, to act 

stealthily. 
Ha'au the landing-place at Oloha, west coast 

of Little Malaita. 



ha'a'uduhi v. tr., to drip on, to bespatter. 

ha'a'uku v. tr., to lower, to let down. 

ha'aulao v. i., to act the wanton. 

ha'a'ulu v. tr., to make blind, to cause to be 
blind, to cause the eye to close. 

ha'a'ure v. i., to set up, to cause to stand. 
ha'a'ure mauta'a. 
ha'a'uresi tr., to make to stand, to set on 

end, to build up, to edify. 
ha'a'uresila-(ku) gerund. 

ha'a'urenga'inl S., v. tr., to accompany a 
person on a journey. 

ha'a'ureruru S., v. tr., to make peace between, 
to restore friendship between, 
ha'a'urerurunge v. n. 

ha'auri v. tr., to save, to make alive, to put 
parrot-fish, i'a ni kalu, in a pool to keep 
them alive, cf. mauri. lopo ni ha'auri, 
pool of salvation, baptismal font, 
ha'auringe v. n., safety, salvation. 
ha'aurile-(ku) S., ha'aurita-(ku) U., gerund. 
1. the saving of. 2. the being saved, 
salvation; ini ni ha'aurilana 'oto, a 
person to be saved. 3. the person who 
saves; a ha'aurileku, my saviour. 

ha'aurine S., ha'aurina U., adv., thus, just so, 
that's the way. 

ha'a'usu U., v. i., to let fall. 

ha'a'usuli 1. v. tr., to let fall, to cause to drop. 

'usu 11. 

ha'ausuli 2. v. tr., to teach, to cause to do like. 

usuli. ini qaarongoisuli e ka'a liuta'ana 

ini ha'ausuli, the disciple is not above 

his master. 

ha'ausulinge v. n., teaching, instruction. 

maai ha'ausulinge, a lesson. 
ha'ausulila-(ku) gerund. 

ha'awa'a v. i., to desecrate, to defile; ere 
ha'awa'a, to speak blasphemy. 
ha'awaa'i U., v. tr., to dishonor. 

ha 'a wait eu v. i., to engender strife. 

ha'av/ali 1. v. i., to delay, to pass, of a short 
period of time. wali. 2. adv., a short 
time. 3. with suff. pron.: 'oke ha'awa- 
li'eu, wait a little while for me. 
ha'awalinge v. n., a delay. 

ha'awarasikale U., a scorpion: lit., causing the 
child to scream. 

ha'awasi v. tr., to hunt, to chase wild animals. 

ha'awaweta'a'i v. tr., to cause vexation to, to 
fash, to wrangle. 

ha'awe'o to cause to be weary; ko ha'awe'ora 
mola, trouble themselves for nothing. 

ha'aweweu U., v. i., to quarrel, to bicker. 

hada n., a bird, an eagle (Haliaetus leucogaster) 
used in Ulawa as an omen. Wango hada. 

hadi v. tr., to forbid under a curse, to prevent; 
h&di ola. hadi olanga, v. n., cursing; 
ere ni hedi olanga, to swear, to take an 
oath. 

hadonga U., n., a shellfish, univalve, mutton- 
fish, hangoda, S. 

haeta U., v. i., to appear, of ghostly visions. 

haha S. 1. adv., down, not used of points of 
compass, but apai haha, the downward 
side, i. e., Big Malaita; mai i haha, 
under the earth; hoi haha, under the 



HAHA 



26 



haha (continued). 

earth, the downward side; hahani 
'ono'onoma, a measure, a yard. 2. 
prep, (ku) ; i hahamu, underneath you. 
Wedau wava, west; Wango bahai, 
Samoa fafa, Vaturanga vava, Mao. haha 
earth, 
haha 3. v. tr., to carry a person on the back. 
Samoa fafa, Niue fafa, Viti vava. 

haha 4. hahai walo, a thicket. 

haha'iteli S., v. tr., to distinguish, Ho 
haha'iteli. 
haha'itelila-(ku) gerund, 
haha'itelinge'ini tr., to single out, to par- 
ticularize; e ka'a haha'itelinge'inie ike 
le'une, it was not confined to that par- 
ticular instance. 

hahale n., a cave, hale 1. 

hahalisi S., n., grass, of. halisi. Mota valis. 

hahaore'e U., adj., very small, diminutive. 
haora. 

hahari n., a bifurcation, used with genitive i 
S., ni U. hari 2. haharii tala, branch- 
ing roads. 

hahi v. tr., to cook in an oven with leaves and 
hot stones: a layer of hot stones on 
bottom, then the kara, etc., and then 
leaves to cover all. The floor of oven is 
level with the ground. 
hahinge v. n., a cooking in an oven. 
hahila-(ku) gerund. 

hahiteli U., v. tr., to distinguish, to separate 
between, haha'iteli, S. 

haho (ku) 1. prep., above; dinge la'i haliona, the 
day after it; with locative i: i haho, on 
top; ilengi i haho, in the sky above. 
2. n., U., uplands; mwa haho i Rahumaea. 
Fagani fafo, Lau fafo, Mota vawo. 

haho 3. n., a reef lying off shore. 

hahota S., n., used with dau 1; dau hahota, to 
deceive, to act the hypocrite; diiu 
hahotanga, v. n. haho 1. 

hahuilala U. 1. v. i., used with poss. 3, to 
exemplify. 2. n., a sign, an example. 

hahure'i v. tr., hahure'i maa, to lift up the 
eyes; hahure'i 'elinge, to incline the 
ears. 

hahuroto v. i., to be clear, of unimpeded vision; 
est ne'i maa hahuroto, his eye became 
clear; Ho hahuroto, to see clearly. 

hahuto'o v. i., to cast lots, to test by lots: a 
leaf of red dracaena ('apai dili) is held 
in the fingers and pulled; the judgment 
is given according as the leaf breaks 
easily or with difficulty, of. ilala. 
hahuto'onga v. n. 

hai 1. numeral, four; hai awala, forty is used 
as a unit in counting men. Mota vat, 
Maori wha. 

hai 2. contraction of hao i; hai 'ano, on the 
ground; hai la'ona, within; hai le'une, 
down there; hai nume, down in the 
house; hai tei, down where? 

hai 3. exclamation of reproof; hai raona, well 
I never; hai tnwaena, I say, you! 

hai 4. art., one, a; probably a contraction of 
Mm 4 and * 2; hdidinge, a day; ntu 



hai 4 (continued). 

heidinge, days; hdiwala, a word; hai 
naho, a wave, a breaker; hai rodo, a 
night; hai holaa, a calm; hai lama, a 
pool; hai teqe, a bamboo; nga hai ini, a 
length of bamboo. 

hai, haihei 5. v. tr., to scratch with the nails 
(of birds, dogs, etc.) ; kokoko ko hei, the 
brush-turkey scratches; hai note, to dig 
up worms for bait for i'e ni sane. 

ha'i 6. participial ending, erehd'i. Mota vag. 2. 

ha'i 7. suffix to verbs, used intransitively: to 
make it transitive ni is added, hd'ini. 

ha'i 8. prefix, may be doubled hd'ihe'i. (a) 
expresses reciprocity, (b) used with 
nouns of relationship; ro ha'i (mu he'i) 
ma'amana, father and son; kirerue ha'i 
maeloonga, they two are at enmity, 
(c) he'i, S., expresses repetition or con- 
tinuance; mwane hire he'i 'unue lo'u, they 
must not ever say it again; e sa'a he'i 
aopa lo'u, it will never be different; ko 
he'i sapeie, adds more to it; ha'i mai, U., 
to add to; kira'elu a ta'e ha'i 'clie'i. they 
embark on their return journey, (d) 
denotes relative action: ha'i 'amasi, to 
pity. M. L., p. 531, 186. cf. Florida 
vet arovi. Motu he, Viti vei, Florida 
vet, Wango ha'i. The pronunciation 
ha'i may have been adopted in order 
to distinguish it from hai 4. cf. hau 1 
(Mota vatu) and ha'u 6 (Mota vau). 

ha'i S. 9. used occasionally where Ulawa uses 
ha'a. cf. hd'imaani. 

ha'i U. 10, v. i., to call attention to; used with 
poss. 3. 

haia exclam., I say. 

ha'i'a'auhi v. tr., to deliver, to help. 

ha'i'ade'i v. i., to make a spectacle of, to look 
on at. 
ha'i'ade'inge v. n., a spectacle. 

ha'i'alama'i v. i., to consent mutually, to be 
agreed upon a policy. Wango haiaramai. 
ha'i'alama'inge v. n. 

ha'i'amasi to be merciful. 

ha'iaopa'i adj., different, various; mil ola 
hd'iaopa'i, different things. | 

ha'iare U., v. tr., to proffer help, to push one- 
self forward, e hd'iarea maraana, he 
pushed himself forward: not considered 
good form. 

ha'idada U., v. i., to be level. 

ha'i dad anga U., v. n., used as verb or adverb: 
used with poss. 3 equal to, agreeing with, 
sufficient, sadanga, S. e ha'idadanga 
maia, equal to it; e ha'idadanga ana, it 
corresponds to it. 

ha'idengie'i S., ha'idenie'i U., partic, until 
daylight. 

haidinge S. t n., a day; nga hdidinge; mu 
heidinge, days; suli heidinge, daily; e 
topoa hdidinge, to set a day. 

ha'i'epu'i v. tr., to propitiate a person, to 
smooth down temper. 

ha'ihe'i 1. reduplication of ha'i 8. 

ha'ihe'i 2. S., hd'ihe'i niu, a log of coconut 
wood, hd'uhe'u, U. 



27 



HA'ITALE 



hii'ihe'iohnge v. n., bounty. 

ha'iholota'i v. i., to promise, to have an agree- 
ment between, 
ha'iholota'inge v. n., an agreement. 

ha'ihonoa'i v. i., to curse; ere h'd'ihono'd'i, to 
speak revilingly. 
ha'ihononga v. n., cursing. 

ha'ihora'i U., partic, to be daybreak, cf. 
'auJiora. 

ha'ihoro'i U., v. i., to be at strife, to fight, 
ha'ihoronga v. n., variance, strife. 

haihu n., dugong, sea-cow. 

ha'ihuni U., v. tr., to desire, to wish for. hunt. 
ha'ihuninga v. n., desire, lust. 
ha'ihunila-(ku) gerund. Wango haahuni. 

ha'ike S. 1. negative, no: not used as negative 
particle; demonstrative na, ena, may 
be added for emphasis. 2. n., nothing, 
naught; nga ola taa'l what? ha'ike, 
nothing; ko ha'ike, otherwise, else; ha'ike 
na, oh no; ha'ike 'oto 'o'o, never at all; 
ha'ike ne, not yet. 3. to be nothing, 
not to be; ana ko ha'ike, if it is not so; 
maala ko ha'ike, even if not. Probably 
ha'i and ke 1 . cf. qa'ike, qa'i, U. Wango 
qai. 

ha'ikineta'i S., v. i., to take care, to be faithful, 
to guard against. 

ha'ilakali U., v. i., to have sexual intercourse 
with, ha'ilakali maia a ola. 

ha'ileku v. i., to be whole, entire: adv., com- 
pletely; hai atoivaa ha'ileku, whole da}' 
long; tola ha'ileku, to carry whole, in 
one piece. 

ha'ileledi v. tr., to mock at, to despise: v. i., 
to be abominable, 
ha'ileledinge v. n., abomination. 

ha'ileu v. i., to snatch, to be violent; ko 
he'ileuleu ana mola, merely snatched it 
with violence. 

ha'iliu adv., reciprocally; hai maai dengi 
he'iliune. the four winds; he'u to'oa'i 
he'iliu, wandering star, planet; kira 'asi 
lu'ua hii'iliu, U., they ceased hostilities; 
ko saewasu he'iliu, angry with one 
another; mdni oaoanga ha'iliu, equality; 
moro ko pu'ota'inie erenga ha'iliu, you 
are ignorant of one another's speech; 
opa ha'iUu, to be at variance, 
ha'iliunge'ini v. tr., to pass a thing from 
person to person. 

ha'ilu'u v. tr., to exhume human bones. M. A., 
p. 262: to remove. 
ha'ilu'unge'ini tr. 

ha'ima'amana n., used with numeral ro, two. 
na 7. ro ha'ima'amana, father and son. 
ha'ima'amananga n., mu he'ima'amananga, 
parents. 

ha'ima'ani S., v. tr., to copy, to do like. 
ha'amaani, U. ngara ha'ima'ani, to cry 
in sympathy with. 

ha'imalahune n., used with ro or mu. na 7. 
kireru'e ro ha'imalahune, they two are 
friends. 

ha'imauana n., used with ro: ro ha'imauana, 
man and wife; with ineu, etc., added, ro 
ha'imauana ineu, my parents, na 7. 



ha'imwa'eta'i 1. v. i., to assent, to be willing. 
2. v. i., to kiss. 

haine S., haina U., fourth, the fourth time. 
na 7. 

ha'ini tr. suff.; suu, to sink; suuhe'ini, to de- 
stroy. Florida vagini. 

ha'ioa v. i., to agree with, to agree together. 

ha'ioangi v. i., to cackle (of birds), to imitate 
to follow on with. 

ha'iodo'i v. i., to meet one another. 

ha'iohe v. i., to compete, to race. 

hii'i'ohi U., v. i., to query, to be doubtful about. 

ha'iohonginge n., trial, making trial of one 
another, fighting. 

ha'i'oli v. i., to turn back, to return, to take 
turn about; kakali he'ihe'i'oli, to take 
turns in guarding; lae ha'i'oli, to go 
and return, 
ha'i'olisi antiphonally, mutually; tapa 
ha'i'olisi, to converse. Wango heiheiori. 

ha'iore 1. v. i., to fail to return, to stay behind. 
lae ha'iore. 

ha'iore 2. v. i., to scold, to quarrel, 
ha'iorenga v. n., bickering. 

ha'ipani'i U., v. i., to strive with, to contend. 
to race, 
ha'ipani'inge v. n. 

ha'ipolanga v. n., insurrection, tumult. 

ha'ipuri 1. v. i., to be last. 2. adv., latest, at last. 

ha'ipurunga'i U., partic, close together, clus- 
tered. 

ha'iqa'aqana n., grandparents and grand- 
children, those who call one another 
qa'aqa: used with ro, mu, vvwa. 

hai raona S., hai raoni U., exclamation of 
reproof. 

ha'irape'i U., v. tr., to exhort. 

ha'irara v. i., to be zealous, diligent. 

ha'irarahi U., v. tr., to persuade, importune, 
ha'irarahinga U., v. n., persuasion. 

ha'irareta'i 1. v. i., to tend. 2. n., a servant. 

ha'irienga v. n., a contest; ani he'irienga pe'i 
sape, in subduing the body. 

hairodo n., a night; nga hairodo; mu heirodo, 
nights; hairodo si'iri, last night. 

ha'iruru U., v. i., to be lumped together, to be 
identical with. 

ha'isada v. i., to be flat, even. Wango taisada, 
agreeing with. 

ha'isa'iri v. i., to quarrel. 

ha'iseuni S., v. i., to be at strife, to be at 
variance, to fight. M. L., p. 186. 

ha'isiho U., v. i., to speak against, decry, to- 
prate; used with poss. 3. 

ha'isu'esu'e S., v. i., to meet one another. 

ha'isuhinga U., v. n., unction. 

ha'isuru v. i., ere ha'isuru, to have altercations. 

ha'isusu v. i., to be continuous, sustained; 
saewasu he'isusu, continued anger. 

ha'isuu v. i., to flit from place to place; 'i'i ko 
he'isuu, the swift flits about. 

ha'itako'i U., v. i., to swear an oath. 

ha'itale 1. v. tr., to search for; ana 'oto 'emi ka'a 
roro'a ha'italea 'amu, unless we seek it 
of thee; lio ha'itale U., to look in vain 
for. 2. v. i., to get out of the way; 
h&'ilale lalaku, make room for me. 



HA'ITALE 



28 



ha'itale (continued). 

ha'italenga v. n., a search. 
ha'italela-(ku) gerund. 
ha'italenga'ini tr., to look for. 
ha'itatanga'i U., partic, scattered, 
ha'itelili S., to be unruly. 

ha'itelilinge v. n., unruliness. 
hfi'ite'e adj., with whole skin, unpeeled. cf. 

hd'ileku. 
ha'iteu v. i., to move quickly, to hasten. 

ha'iteuhi tr., to deliver, to free, 
ha'itohe v. tr., to dispute with, to refuse to 
listen to; ere ha'itohe, to contradict, 
ha'itohenga v. n., refusal, disobedience. 
ha'itohela-(ku) gerund. Wango haitoke, 
harilohe. 
ha'itoli v. tr., to bury, to be a-burying. 
ha'itolinge v. n., burial. 
ha'itolila-(ku) gerund. 
ha'itolinge'ini tr., to bury, 
ha'itorangi v. tr., to exhort, 
ha 'i to tori U., v. i., to await, to expect; hd'ito- 
tori susuto'o, to hope (late use) ; hd'itoto- 
ringa susuto'o, v n., hope, 
ha'iuqeuqeni v. tr., to complain of. 

ha'iuqeuqeninge v. n., complaint, 
ha'iusi U., v. i., to traffic, to barter. 
ha'iusunge'i S., v. i., to send, to despatch. 
ha'iusunge'inge v. n., a command. 
ha'iusunge'ini tr., to give command to. 
ha'iuwelina U., n., a man and his sister's son, 
those who call one another uweli, used 
with ro, mwa. nd 7. 
ha'iuwesi v. L, to use oaths, to curse, 
ha'iwalo v. i., to be choked with vines; tnae 

ha'iwalo, to die prematurely, 
haka 1. v. i., to be torn, to tear; haka to'oni, to 
tear clothes, 
hakasi tr., to tear something. 
Haka 2. n., the Southern Cross Mission 
schooner; palapala ni Haka, omen of 
the Southern Cross coming, a sign of 
rain, 
haka 3. n., a ship; white people, foreign; haka 
lude mwane, a vessel of the labor trade; 
dango ni haka, papaya; hole ni haka, an 
oar; mu haka, white people; hudi ni 
haka, Musa cavendishii; ola ni haka, a 
foreign thing; poro ni haka, a man of the 
ship, white man; i haka, the white man's 
country; noko lai haka, I am going 
abroad. Probably Mota aka through 
San Cristoval, where Bishop Patteson 
first called and where the word was 
first learned by the peoples of Sa'a and 
Ulawa. 
haka 4. n., a herd; haka ni poo, herd of swine, 
hakis n., axe (English). 

kaku 1. v. i., to go together, to go in a company, 
hakusi S., hakuni U., tr., to go with, to 

accompany. 
hakusila-(ku) gerund. Wango hagu. 
haku 2. n., the prow of a canoe, separately 
made and tied on with cane: poop, v., 
to cut out the boards for the prow. 
hal* v. i., to attempt, used with ni; nou hala 
ni lae, I attempt to go. 



halahala firm, taut. 

halai 1. to be bald. 2. a bald person; a halai, 

the bald man. 
halaitana the top of a hill, lit., its baldness. 
halasi U., to be stiff, to stiffen, halahala. 
halata a wound, scar. 
hale 1. a shed, a yam-shed in a garden, nga hale. 

Florida vale, house; Maori whare. 
hale (ku) 2. the gums, palate; idemu ke suu i 

halena, the lime spatula shall pierce 

his gums. 
hale'ite U., adv., entirely, only, hali'ite, S. 

Lau fala'ete. 
Halele'i the island forming Port Adam, Little 

Malaita. 
hali, haliheli 1. v. tr., to break off branches; 

hdli 'e'e, to break areca branches, 
'ahali partic, broken off. 
halila-(ku) gerund, 
haliheli'e adj., broken off; ko hite hdliheli'e, 

breaks in pieces. Wango maharihari, 

ruined, 
hali 2. v. i., to strive; hdli wala, to dispute; hdli 

lualanga, S., v. n., disputation; wala 

hdlinge, v. n., strife; hdli ana hurunge, 

foot racing, 
halinge v. n., strife, bad feeling. 
halila-(ku) gerund. Mota valu, match; 

Viti valu, fight; Malagasy valy. 
hali 3. stingray. Mota var , Viti vai, Maoriwhai. 
halidu'u'a U., v. i., to stumble, 
hali'ite S., adv., entirely, only, hale'ite, U. 
haliono U., v. i., to close the eyes, 
halisi 1. harvest, crop, time of ripening; dango 

ni helisi, fruit (nut) tree; mar a halisi, 

northeast wind; mar a halisi i malawa, 

north-by-east wind. 2. yam season, 

year (late use) ; halisi kire 'elie 'oto, last 

yam-digging; halisi kire ke'i 'elie, the 

coming yam-digging season; halisi mei, 

next yam-digging; nga hdu ni helisi, a 

year. 3. U., grass, onion (late use). 

Mota valis, grass. 4. halisi pena, U., 

Coix lachryma, Job's tears. 
halo 1. v. tr., to bore, to drill. 2. n., a drill; 

halo mao, a pump drill: the sections of 

shell for money (haa) are all bored. 

Mota war, to twist. 
halo 3. v. tr., to helve an axe. 
halolo v. i., to come forcibly into contact with, 

used with poss. 3; e halolo ana nume 

ngeena, beat on that house, 
halu 1. n., some; used in Sa'a with genitive i, 

also with suffixed pronoun na; mu helui 

'inoni, mwa halu 'inoni, certain persons; 

hdluna ngaini, hdluna ngaile, U., one 

here and there. Florida balu, Niue 

falu. 
halu 2. S., rdui helu, 10,000 coconuts, 
halute'i v. tr., to paddle and overtake, hdlute'i 

haka. 
halute'inge'ini tr. Ulawa hdluta, in proper 

names. Wango haruta, to paddle; 

Fate balusa, paddle; Mota alo 3, to 

steer; Samoa alo, to paddle; Motu kalo. 

New Britain walu, Lifu galu. 
hama hatchet, tomahawk (English hammer) 



29 



HARO 



hana 1. n., a yam with prickly vines, twining 
to the left on its pole, whereas uhi twine 
to the right; it is planted whole; hana 
ni Kela, a hana planted head down- 
ward : other varieties are hana sa'o, hana 
tapole, hana tvai; hau hana, coral lime- 
stone; nini hana, U., a yam; sikei hana, 
a thorn on top of the tuber. 
hana 2. v. i., to shoot, with arrow or gun; hane 
takarurume'inire, to shoot several at 
one shot. 

hananga v. n. 

hanasi determ., to shoot anyone. 

hanasila-(ku) gerund. Florida vanahi, to 
shoot; Viti vana, Samoa fana, Niue 
fana, Malay panah, arrow. 

hanali determ., to covet; sae hanalinge, 
covetousness. 

hanalila-(ku) gerund. 
hane 1. v. n., to climb; hane poi ile'u, come up 
here to me. 2. used of the bridegroom's 
party visiting the bride's party at a 
wedding feast; mwala ko holi keni ko 
hane, ko lai hune ola, the people who are 
buying the bride go up and display the 
bridal moneys. 3. to rise, to ferment 
(of ha'apo'e that has stood in bowls). 
4. to leave the land and put out to sea 
when crossing to another island, to aim 
at a point of land, haulihane. 

hanenga v. n., climbing. 

hanenga'ini tr., determ., to climb and carry. 

haneta'a S., hanetaha U., v. i., to climb up. 

haneta'anga S., hanetahanga U., a slope, 
a steep place, a declivity. Fagani fane. 

hane'i tr., to covet, to desire. 

hanenga v. n., hanenga ni sae, saehanenga, 
covetousness. 

ha'ahanenga'ini to lust after, to exalt, 
hanue S., hanua U., land, country, village; in 
Sa'a the final e changes to a before the 
personal article a, resulting in a long 
vowel, hanuaa ola, the land of So-and-so. 
hanue huu, solid land, dry land, heri- 
tage; hanue maine, the place here, this 
land; hanue e niule, a place abounding 
in coconuts; hanue e qala, the village is 
empty; hanue sola, desert; mwa hanua, 
U., villagers, people; mwa hanua hunga, 
everybody; apai henue, the west side of 
an island; awalosi i henue, the north- 
west wind; i denumana hanue, in the 
middle of the island; e kuluhie hanue, 
upholds the earth; lai henue, to go on 
a journey; ngorana hanue, point of land, 
cape; qa'usi henue, he whose duty it is 
to approach the ancestor ghosts; sato 
e qa'alie hanue, the sun has risen on the 
earth; ta'i henue, S., in the uplands; 
ta'itelihana hanue, boundary of land; 
mu toloi henue, the hills; lolona hanue, 
the hill country; 'usu henue, the first 
finger; wai henue, up in the village. 
Hanua *Asi U., Lark Shoal south of Ulawa, 

figures in folklore, 
hanuelama S., to be at peace, cf. lama 4. 

hanuelamanga v. n., peace. 



hanuelama (continued). 

hanuelamasi tr., to have peace among men; 
e hanuelamasire, they were at peace. 

hanga v. i., to be jammed, to be too tight. 

hangoda S., hadonga U., a haliotis or sea-ear, 
strung and used as a bait for crayfish; 
hinui hangoda, its shell. 

hao S., adv., of direction, down, west; with 
locative i contracts to hai, hai one, hai 
'ano, hai la'ona; na'o hao, to go toward, 
to go west; po'o hao, S., farther west; 
poo hao likitemu, on beyond thee; qau 
hao, to be going north or west. 

ha'olu U., ha'alu S., adj., new, fresh. 
ha'aha'olu. Nguna vau, Wango ha'oru, 
Bougainville Straits faolu, Malay vau, 
Malagasy vao, Maori hou. 

haora, hahaore'e U., small. 

haoraha v. n., used with poss 3: boyhood, 
smallness; haoraha ana, the small size. 
haorasi tr., to be too small for. 

haora 'ini U., v. tr., to name, to give a name to. 

hapa 1. a plank, thwart of a canoe, rai (rau i) 
hapa. 2. plates of turtle shell, hapa ni 
honu; lolo hapa, to bend the shell. 
3. a phase of the moon; hapa ni na'o, 
'alanga'i hapa, U., first quarter. 

hara U., haro S. 1. adv., of time, used of con- 
secutive time, of unfinished action, pre- 
cedes verb, Ahi'a use. muni l e hara 
ha'ahulee, as soon as it is daylight; muni 
'e hara lae, begin to go gently. 

hara S. 2. hara pole, a phase of the moon, first 
quarter, day before full. 

hara 3. v. i., to be firm; puu hara, to get a firm 
footing; susu hara, to lean firmly, to 
rest upon. 

Haraina a village on the northwest corner of 
Ulawa. 

harasi v. tr., to chafe, to scratch. 

harehare U., v. i., to cram; susu harehare, to 
cram full. 

Hari Hau Hari, a rock at the east entrance to 
Mara Masiki Channel. 

hari, hariheri 1. v. tr., to ask about; soi heri, to 
question, to ask questions, U. 
harite'inga v. n., questioning, suka hdrite- 
'inga. Wango hari haate, Florida 
varigohi. 

hari 2. n., used with genitive i or ni; h'drii tola, 
S., hari ni tola, U., side track, bifur- 
cation of roads, hahari. 

hariheri S., n., a scorpion. Lau farifari, San 
Cristoval susu heri, Maori weri. hali 3. 

harihuni, hariherihuni S. 1. v. tr., to desire, to 
wish for. hari 1, huni. 
harihuninge v. n., desire. 
harihunila-(ku) gerund. 

harihuni, hariherihuni 2. adv., at all, precedes 
verb. 

harikokosi U., v. i., to be straitened, confined. 
koko 2. 

haro S., hara U., adv., of time, of consecutive 
or of unfinished action or of future time. 
cf. saro. ke haro diana, when it is well; 
ke haro hoowa ka'u, let it be first light, as 
soon as it is light; 'oke haro lae, go gently. 



HARO'A 



30 



haro'a U. (Su'uholo use), as hara 1. 
harua U., exclam. of assent, yes. 
nasi, ha'ihesi S., hasihasi U. 1. v. tr., to plant. 
cf. 'u'uhesi. 
hasinge v. n., a planting. 
hasila-(ku) gerund. Wango hasi, Lau/ost. 
hasi U. 2. maana e'a hasi i saroha, his eyes roll 

up to the ceiling, 
hasi'ei'ei S., twist tobacco in sticks. Wango 
hasi'ei, a tree; the first tobacco came to 
Sa'a from Wango. 
hasikokosi U., v. tr., to cause distress to. 

koko 2. 
hasile'ini U., v. tr., to set, place. 
Hasimo a bay on the west side of Ulawa 
between Lenga and Ripoo, the site of 
an old village. 
hasi'o (ku) n., flesh of body; me'i hesi'o i'e, this 
flesh, 
hasi'onga v. n., ngau hesi'onga, cannibalism; 
to'oni e mada'a ani hesi'onga ani, gar- 
ments defiled with the flesh, cf. 
hinesu. Wango hasi'o, Mota visogoi, 
Maisin visoa, Wedau vioa. 
hasi'ola adj., fleshy, with plenty of flesh on. 
hasipe'ule S., adj., hard, close in grain. 
hata, hatahata 1. v. i., to go together, to accom- 
pany one another, tola hatahata, to act 
in harmony. 2. v. i. f to set well, to be 
easy, comfortable; tori ineu e hata, my 
yoke is easy. 3. v. i., to be gentle (of 
wind); mawa hatahata mola, a gentle 
breeze. 4. suli hata, 40 dogs' teeth, a 
unit in reckoning money. M. A., pp. 
238, 325. 5. maraau wei hata, south- 
southeast wind, strong but with no rain, 
cloudy skies. 6. a tree of hard wood 
used to make drums; pig- proof fences 
are made of it in Guadalcanar. San 
Cristoval hata. 7. hata koula'a, to be 
noisy, chattering, 
hatanga v. n., fellowship, communion, 

palea tahanga, to keep fellowship. 
hataa'i v. i., to arrange, to place one along- 
side the other; hataa'i diena ana mwa 
ola, to put things in due order; hataa'i 
sae talani, to be careful to; le'u kire 
hataa'i heu ana, a pavement, 
hataa'ini tr. to cleave to, to accompany, 
to arrange, 
hatale, hatahatale v. i., to go along the beach 
as opposed to liu i henue, take the 
upper road; awalosi i hatale, the north 
wind, 
hatalea v. n., shore, coast. 
hatara v. i., to rest upon, to lean, to press 
against. 
hataranga'ini tr., to cause to lean upon. 
San Cristoval hatara, to reach. 
hatare on the side of, toward, used with suff. 

pron. a. hatarea i ola. 
hato 1. a large armlet made of clam-shell; 
daraha'ini halo, to fit the shell ring on 
the arm; didi hato, to make the shell 
ring: a hole is made by tapping with a 
piece of flint tied to a handle, then a 
stick studded with flints is inserted and 



hato 1 (continued). 

the hole made larger, the outside is 
rounded on coral rock and a groove is 
made; the old men, and often the blind, 
make the hato. 2. U., hika hato, the 
moon on the fifth day. 

hato 3 (ku) U., knee-cap. 

hatonga S. 1. suited to, used with poss. 3. 
e hatonga aku. 
hatonga'i v. i., to explain, to set out in 
words; hatonga'i wala haahi, to accuse, 
hatonga 'ini tr., to cite an example, to illus- 
trate, to give instructions about. 

hatonga U. 2. to be small. 

hau 1. rock, stone; hoi heu, a rock. cf. liliheu, 
suluheu. hau haa, red madrepore coral; 
hau hana, coral limestone; Hau Hari, 
a rock at the east entrance of Mara 
Masiki Channel; hau ni iu, twin rocks; 
Hau ni Keni, rock at Ali'ite where 
female ghosts congregate; hau ni lilie'i, 
a rock from which men cast for gar- 
fish; Hau Loho, a boat harbor south of 
Port Adam; Hau Maelo, a rock near 
Ngorangora on the east coast of Ulawa: 
prov. raa hitelia Hau Maelo, dry 
weather enough to crack Hau Maelo; 
hau menu, pumice; hau mou, an isolated 
rock; hau ngedi, flint; hau 'ono'ono, to 
swallow stones in an ordeal; hau pawa, 
soapstone; hau pie, a precipitous wall 
of rock; hau pulu, hard volcanic rock; 
hau pu'opu'o, a grindstone; hau susu, 
an immovable rock; hau suusuui karo, 
cornerstone; 'alo'ato hau, to perform the 
hot-stone ordeal; dau heu, the hot-stone 
ordeal. M. A., p. 210; dau dunge, 
dunga ni heu, to undergo the ordeal; 
i'e h'd'u, a stone fish; ipelu eni heu, to 
fight with stones; kakatai heu, iron rod; 
ki'iki'i heu, a rod of iron; lengine hau, 
above the rock; leu kire hataa'i heu ana, 
a pavement; nga odoni heu, a row of 
stones; qa'une hau, rocks on shore seen 
from the sea; rete hau, to grind the 
teeth; sae hau, hard heart (late use); 
e 'u'ile'inie nga hoi heu, a stone's throw. 
Mota vatu, stone; New Guinea vau: 
possibly pronounced hau and not ha'u 
in order to distinguish it from ha'u 
(Mota vau). 
hau 2. axe, stone axe, iron (late use); haukile- 
kile, a long-handled tomahawk with 
iron blade; hau roroho, a stone axe; rere 
hau, to sharpen an axe; rere h'aunge, 
v. n., axe sharpening; warei heu, ware 
ni hau, a short club with a stone head 
made at Waisisi, Big Malaita. 
haule adj., stony, 
ha'u 3. n., a log of wood; hau i contracts to hai, 
hai dango, S., hai 'ei, U., a log; hau lilt 
qana, a boom; nga hauheui niu, U., nga 
haihei, S., a log of coconut wood. Mota 
vat 3, Batak hau, tree; Malay kayu. M. 
L., p. 95. 
hau 4. n., (a) denotes a period of time; ngah&u- 
dinga, U., a day; nga hdu ni halisi, a 



31 



HELEHELE 



h£u 4 (continued). 

period of a year, (b) with numeral 
ta'a, S., ta'e, U., one, it makes hauta'a'i, 
haula'e, once: with genitive i, hau i 
contracts to hai, h&idinge, S., a day, 
hairodo, a night, (c) a row of teeth: 
rete hau, to grind the teeth; rete h'dunga, 
v. n., talai heune, a row of teeth; kulaa 
talai heune, to loosen teeth; used of 
things that are in succession with 
genitive *', li, ni; hau ni 'est, a wave; 
h&uliahe, tide-rips; hauliqongi, one day 
of a series, cf. au in Motu and Hula, 
Keapara hau prefixed to names of 
things of length. T.S.E. iii, p. 475. 

hau 5. U., used of phases of the moon; hau ni 
letni, full moon; hau ni mwela awara, day 
after full moon; ruana hau, second day 
after full moon. 

hau 6. a pandanus with broad leaves used to 
make umbrellas. 

hau 7. an umbrella of pandanus leaf sewn in 
strips, carried on journeys and used as a 
sleeping-mat, also to protect children 
when they are carried by the mother; 
mwela ko kerukeru la'o hau, the child's 
ghost scratches inside the umbrella. 

h3u 8. U., hau ni laretare, outrigger. 

ha'u 9. to plait; ha'u ha'a, to tie laths in a plat- 
form; ha'u mwe'i, to plait a native bag; 
ha'u ni'e, to plait a coconut mat; ha'u 
qaso, to plait a grass armlet; ha'u tahe, 
to make a platform, 
ha'usi tr. 

ha'usila-(ku) gerund. Mota vau, Florida 
vau, Samoa fatu. 

haudinga U., n., a day; suit haudinga, daily. 

hauheu'e adj., used as n., a precipice, rocky 
place. 

hauho eel, used in divination; hauho ni wei, 
fresh-water eel; hauho i dunga e 'ura 
ilengi, the eel in the fire stood erect; 
hauho ni 'esi, conger eel. 

haukama v. L, to be in opposition to, to oppose, 
to revolt: followed by prep, honosi, 
against, with suff . pron. as object, 
haukamanga v. n. 

haukari U., starfish. 

haule 1. v. tr., to nurse, to mind a child, to mind 
a house; noko haule, I am minding the 
house; noko haulaa mwela, I am minding 
the children. 

haule 2. adj., stony, rocky, rough. 

haulihane a rock from which a voyage starts, 
as at Waingile, Ulawa. 

ha'ulioku the end purlins of a house. 

hauliu (ku) n., the throat. 

hauni U., adv., altogether; precedes the verb; 
metathetic upon ahuni. 

hauta'a'i S., hauta'e U., once: the final 'i may 
be the verb suffix, in which case the 
composite may be regarded as a par- 
ticiple, cf. pele, pele'i. San Cristoval, 
ta'a'i, one. 

he 1. exclamation of encouragement; he i'oe, 
he'o, bravo. 2. v. tr., to urge, to bid. 

he'a, he'ahe'a 1. to defecate. 2. to rust. 



he'a, he'ahe'a (continued). 

he'asi tr., to defecate upon, to dirt upon. 
Possibly metathetic upon Mota tae, 
Motu tage, Polynesian tae, kae. 

he'a 3. exclamation, with demonstrative na 
or ni added; he'a na, S., he'a ni, U., there 
you are. 

he'asikena'i U., exclam., not used before 
women, cf. ha'akena'i. 

hehe 1. U., hoi hehe ani dunga, tinder, the accu- 
mulation at the outer end of the groove 
caused by rubbing two sticks together, 
He dunge. 

hehe 2. cf. ha'ahehe. 

heheoku U., n., a dove. cf. hiroiku. 

hehesi U., v. tr., to be obstinate, to dispute, 
hehesinga v. n., obstinacy. 

heheunge S., v. n., mentioning, speaking. 

heho v. i., to accuse a person of causing death 
by magic. 

hei 1. U., preceded by locative i, ihei, U., itei, 
S., where; e kei hei, from whence; nga laa 
ni hei, who is this person. 

he'i 2. cf. h'd'i 8: he'i is often used in Sa'a when 
the preceding vowel is neither i nor u. 

heko v. i., to be palsied, withered, of limbs. 

hele 1. v. i., to hold, to catch hold of, to work 
at, to do; hele dora'i, to withhold; hele 
dora'ie ha'alunge, to break a promise; 
hele dumuli, to repress, to hold down; 
hele hu'ihu'inge, unprofitableness; hele 
hu'isie nga le'u, to err in anything; hele 
huu, to inherit; hele isuli, to do accord- 
ing to; hele lakoma'inie, hold it together; 
hele langa'a, to hold up conspicuously; 
hele lolomi, to keep for oneself; hele 
manekosi, to handle gently; hele manire'i, 
to live orderly; hele manu sada, to hold 
level, upright; hele marangana, to take 
from amongst; hele marara, to act with 
diffidence; hele mauli, to do awkwardly; 
hele nga'ingedi, hold fast; hele 'o'i'o'i, to 
break; hele ola, to act; hele 'onime'i, to 
do cleverly; hele ni oraha'a, to do too 
much; hele pd'ipesi, to grasp firmly; hele 
ponosie wawana, keep his mouth shut; 
hele po'opo'oli'ili'i, to do perversely; 
hele pupupu'e, to keep intact; hele rodi, 
to grip, to hold tight; hele rorodo, to 
grant fair weather, to hold off squalls: 
a phrase used in incantations; hele 
saedami, U., with poss. 3 ana, to have 
enough; hele susuli, to inherit; hele 
suusuu ana, to do in succession, con- 
tinuously; hele tararuru, take hold all 
together; hele temweri, to touch; hele 
tolinge, to hold in subjection; hele tolo, 
to get for nothing; hele wa'ini'ini, to do 
diligently; hele walamango, to perfect; 
'osi hele hinoli'a taha ine, how well you 
have done it. 
helenga v. n., action, acts. 
helela-(ku) gerund., the doing of. 
helesi tr., to hold, to do, to work at. 
helesila-(ku) gerund. Wango heresi. 

hele 2. Florida vele, magic. M. A., p. 207. 

helehele 1. containing no coconut milk (of 



HELEHELE 



32 



helchele 1 (continued). 

yam puddings), unleavened. Wango 
herehere. 

helehele S. 2. of phases of the moon: helchele 
mwaimwei, seventh and eighth days; 
helehele paine, ninth and tenth days. 

helo a small fresh-water fish. 

helu cf. hdlu. 

hena S. 1. lime, uunu hena, to burn lime. 2. a 
lime box for use in chewing betel; hoi 
hena hoto, a gourd used for holding lime. 
Lau fena. 

henu a fresh-water cockle found in swamps, 
shell blue inside, used to scrape the 
charred part off sulanga and to kara 
with. 

heota'i v. i., to slander, to be jealous of, to 
accuse of infidelity; heota'inge, v. n., 
accusation of infidelity; heota'ini, tr.; 
heota'inie pe'ia ola, to accuse of infidelity 
with So-and-so. 

hera a courtyard; her a honu, a congregation; 
herai usinge, a market-place. Lau fera, 
village; Vaturanga, S. I., vera, Wango 
herahora. 

hereho S., a hereho, So-and-so: a Wango word 
meaning thing. 

hero scraped coconut, mu hero; hero 'a'ate, 
dregs of scraped coconut after straining 
the milk. 

herohero v. i., to be mad, out of one's mind. 

hete'i hete'i maa, to fix the eyes upon; hele'i 
maanga, v. n., a fixing of the eyes. 

hetela sasa hetela, thin, lean. 

he'u 1. star, hoihe'u; he'u to'oa'i he'iliu, planet; 
mu he'u sisine, shining stars; tnu he'une 
salo, the stars of heaven; 'u'ui he'u, a 
star. cf. 'u'u 2. he'u saisasu, U., 
comet. Mota vitu, Maori whetu, Bou- 
gainville Straits bito. 

he'u 2 cf. ha'u. 

He'u'e the hills at the head of the river 
Walo'a'a, Little Malaita. 

heulao v. i., to act the wanton, cf. ulao. 

heune cf. hau 4. 

heutaa U., mara'i heutaa, to droop (of flowers). 

hi tr. suff., lae, laehi. 

hi'a U., cf. hi'e, S. 

hide, hidehide v. i., to clap the hands; mao 
hidehide, to dance to the clapping of 
hands, not holding the ahui but with 
akulili on the fingers. 
hideli tr., to hit with the hand; hideli to'oni, 
to wash clothes by hitting them on a 
stone. 

hi'e S., hi'a U., v. i., 1. to be weary; alingada 
e hi'e mwaanie rongo; tola hi'e, to be 
heavy laden. 2. redup. hi'ehi'e, to be 
pregnant; e hi'ehi'e ana a ola, con- 
ceived by So-and-so; nikeku e hi'ehi'e 
aku, my mother conceived me. 
hi'e'i tr., to weigh heavily upon. Wango 
hi'a, Niu€ fila, wearied; Maori hia, 
difficulty. 

hihi v. i., to crouch (of dogs), hihi lo'uloku. 
cf. 'ahihi. 

hii, hiihii v. tr., to be in a state of perception; 



hii, hiihii (continued). 

noko kite sapeku, I feel my body, I am 

well, 
hiinge'ini tr., to perceive, to apprehend, 

to suspect. 
hiinge'inila-(ku) gerund. Lau fii; Maori 

hia, wish; Niue fia, Viti via. 
hi'ito'o U. 1. v. i., to be in pain. cf. sapehi'ito'o. 

hi'ito'onga v. n., pain. 
hi'ito'o S., adv., to excess; e paine 'oto hi'ito'o. 

it is far too big. Mota vivtig. 
hiiwala'imoli v. i., to believe, used with poss. 3. 

hii. 
hiiwala'imolinge v. n., belief, faith. 
hiiwala'imolila-(ku) gerund. 
hika U., hika halo, last stage of the moon. 
hikana cf. hike 2. 
hike 1. a roll of cane dyed red {hikei ue), used 

to make bracelets and anklets or collars, 

used also to ornament spears {noma 

adiedi) ; nga hikei adio, a coil of banyan 

creeper. 
hike (ku) 2. prep., of, among; ngaini hikemiu, 

one of you; nou ka'a Ho hikena nga ola, 

I saw nothing; ngau hikeni, to eat of it. 
hike 3. ten, of garfish (mwanole), hike ni i'e. 
hiku, hikuhiku v. i., to be entangled, cf. 

ta'ihikuhiku. 
hikusi tr., to wind around a thing (of 

creepers) ; nga walo e hikusie, tangled 

up by a creeper, 
hikute'ini tr., to wind around, to whip with 

string; e hikute'inia i denumana, he tied 

it round his waist. 
hilehile v. i., to be wounded. 
hili v. tr., to choose for one's own, to desire 

and take; to'o hili, with poss. 2. to'o hili 

nada, they alone, 
hili si tr., to pick, to choose, ha'ahili; lio 

hilisi, to choose; lio hilisie huni hu'e i'oe, 

choose her for your wife. 
hilisila-(ku) gerund. Lau la'ifili as to'o 

hili; Florida vili, to choose; Samoa fili; 

Niue fifili; Motu hidi. 
hilolo U., v., to be warped by the sun. 
hiluhilue'i S., partic, i'o hiluhilue'i, to be 

estranged. 
hinanga U.. kara ni mwane, yam pudding used 

in sacrifices, 
hinesu (ku) S., flesh, meat. Fl. vinahi. 
hini'i adv., nearly, almost; precedes the verb. 

cf. hiri'i. 
hinoli'a U., adj., beautiful; 'osi hele hinoli'a 

taha ine, how well you have done it. 
hinou a fish-hook made of turtle shell, not 

barbed: a steel hook; hinou ni 'a'ao, 

hook for fishing; hinou ni semu, a hook 

for deep-sea fish; hinou ni toli, hook for 

deep-sea fishing; wanawana hinou, to 

make turtle-shell hooks. Lau finau. 
hinu 1. shell of shellfish; hinui hangoda, shell 

of haliotis. 2. bark: hinui ue, bark of 

cane. Mota vinui, skin. 3. v. tr., to 

pull up the eyelid; 'o hinua maamu, 

peel your eye! 
hinuhinu eyelid, hinuhinui ma'a. cf. hiruhiru. 
hiohio U. 1. m-wahiohio, swayed, bent; tata- 



33 



HOTTE'I 



hiohio (continued). 

hiohio, to stagger. 2. twist trade 
tobacco. 

hi'olo, hi'ohi'olo v. i., to be hungry; olo ana 
hi'olo, to be faint from fasting, 
hi'olonga v. n., hunger, famine; hi'olonga e 
tola, there was a famine; hi'olonga e 
tolea hanue, hunger was upon the land. 
Florida vitolo, Motu hitolo. 

hi'ona U. ghost, spirit. Wango hi'ona, 
Florida vigona. M. A., p. 124. 

hiri, hirihiri 1. v. tr., to lap with a string, to 
bind. Mota vir, Viti wiri, Samoa fill. 

hiri 2. v. tr., to pay a fine for, to make atone- 
ment for a death by violence. 
hiritaa v. n., a fine paid; soi hiritaa, to 
demand a fine; hiritaana a ola, atone- 
ment for So-and-so. Motu hili. 

hiri'i adv., nearly, almost: precedes the verb. 
cf. hini'i. 

hiro v. i., to revolve. 

hirosi tr. Wango taihiro. 

hiroiku n., a dove. cf. heheoku. 

hirori 1. v. i., to be kinked. 2. v. i., to chatter 
indistinctly, cf. rori 4, 'irori, hirori. 

hiru 1. v. i., to be busy, engaged, to have a 
press of work, ha'ahiru; 'ahe hiru, 
hirune 'ahe, troublesome waves, boiling 
tide-rip; luqe'i hiru, to pretend to be 
busy, 
hirunga'a adj., used as n, hindrance, 
hirue'i partic, hindered; noko hirue'i lae, 

I am hindered from going, 
hiru'e S., hiru'a U.,adj.; sae hiru' a, a mind 

engaged; 'asi pouhiru'e, raging sea. 
hirusi tr., to get in the way of; oku e 
hirusia maana, the oku has got in its 
eye: said of the migratory plover 
(karikeri'ala) which arrives in November 
at time of palolo and is found exhausted 
in the gardens and open spaces. 

hiru 2. v., to be curly, of hair. 

hiruhiru U. cf. kinuhinu; hiruhiru ana maana, 
his eyelid. 

hisi U., rai hisi, a stake. 

hisu 1. v. tr., to pluck leaves, to pull fruit. 
2. TJ., to wean; hisu susu mwaani, to 
pluck the breast from. 

hisuhisu v. i., to be out of joint. 

hite S., hita U. 1. v. i., to split, cf. ha'ahile, 
wa'ahite; hite dango, S., hita 'ai, U., to 
split firewood; hite pewa'ali, to cleave; 
ape hite, to curtail; kala hite, to cut 
nautilus in rectangles with notched 
ends; 'ini hite, the thumb, used to split 
leaves, 
hiteli tr., opa hiteli, to cut up an animal; 
po'o hiteli, to cause to burst; iohu hiteli, 
to cleave asunder; raa hitelia Hdu 
Maelo. Wango hita. 

hite 2. v. i., to hit, to strike: used with poss. 3, 
e hita ana; hite tekala'ini, to strike and 
disperse; hite meenasi, to strike and 
break to pieces; dau hite, to score a hit. 
Wango hita. 

hiu 1. numeral, seven; ha'ahiu, seven times. 
Motu hitu, Nine fitu, Maori whitu. 



hi'u, hi'uhi'u 2. v. i., to turn from side to side; 
hi'uhi'u pote, S., hi'uhi'u kape, U., a 
bird, wagtail, fly-catcher, 
hi'une tr., to alter the position of. 
hi'usi U., tr., to turn, to alter the nature of, 

to change. 
hi'utana tr., to change the nature of. 
hi'ute'ini tr., to wag. 
hi'ute'i U., partic, changed, altered in 
position, moved. Mota vusiag. 

hi'uhi'ule adj., to'o hi'uhi'ule, spotted. 

hiune the seventh time. 

ho exclam., used in chorus. 

hoa, hoahoa 1. v. i., to make an incision in. 
hoa'i tr., to cut by making an incision in. 
hoasi tr., to cut marks upon, to carve. 

ho'a 2. v. tr., to take aside, to separate, cf. Iioka. 
ho'ala'i partic, used as v. i., to depart, to 
leave, cf. 'aho'a. Florida voka, sepa- 
rate, open; Sesake qoka. 

ho'asi v. i., to use oaths, to swear by, to curse; 
ho'asi sisinge'i, to clear with an oath, 
to adjure; ho'asi sisingana li'oa, to 
swear by a spirit, 
ho'asinge v. n. Wango hoasi, Fagani 
fogasi. 

hoda, hohoda v. i., to lave the hands or face; 
hoda maa, to wash the face; hoda 
maanga, v. n. 
hodali tr. 
hodalila-(ku) gerund. 

hoe exclam. 1. used to sum up a statement or 
argument. 2. expresses disapproba- 
tion. 3. calls the attention. 

hoho v. i., to cut undergrowth. 

hohola S., dsu hohola, to prepare a yam 
garden. 

hohoro v. i., to barter, to buy, to sell. cf. holt, 
holoholo. 
hohoronga v. n. 

hohoto n., long wooden mortar used for pound- 
ing yams, etc. 

hoi 1. art. a, one, used of things spherical in 
shape, fruit, eggs, shells; in the plural mu, 
mwa precede hoi; probably derives from 
hoa with genitive i. hoi dango, mu 
hoi dango, fruit, kidneys; hoi huu. fruit 
of the Barringtonia; hoi i'a, hoi i'e, fish; 
hoi kue, a hen's egg; hoi kuru, a ripe 
areca nut; hoi lite, a seed; hoi madeli, a 
fully ripe coconut; hoi menu, an egg; 
hoi sehu, U., a gourd. Mota wo, Mala- 
gasy voa, fruit. 

hoi 2. contraction of hou 2 and locative i. hoi 
haha, the downward side, under the 
earth; hoi saeka, in our hearts. 

ho'i 3. v. i., to wind. cf. 'dliho'i; ho'i ue, to 
roll dyed cane to make hikei ue. Vatur- 
anga hoi, to return; Florida goi, again; 
Wango ahoi, return. 

ho'i 4. U., v. i., to gather, collect; mwane nga 
rurukonileni esi ho'i ha'aro'iau, that no 
collection be made in my presence. 

hoiliwo S., houliwo U., a hill. 

ho'itana v. tr., to alter the nature of. cf. 
hu'ilana. 

ho'ite'i partic, changed, altered, cf. hu'ite'i. 



HOKA 



34 



hoka 1. to come apart. 2. to have a hole in 
the bottom, 
hokasi tr., to burst, to split. Florida voka, 
to come open; Lau foga, to burst open; 
Maori hokai, to spread out; Niue hoka, 
to pierce. 

hola 1. v. i., to spread. 

I holasi tr. Maori hora, mahora, spread out. 

hola 2. v. i., to spring forth in a jet. Florida 
vara. 

hola 3. v. i., to begin, ha'ahola; holai na'o, in 
former times, 
hola'i tr., atei ni e hola'ie, who began it. 
hola'i partic, used as adv., precedes the 
verb: formerly, at first, e hola'i na'o 
'oto wait, he first led the way; nou hola'i 
'unue, I first said it. 

holaa 1. v. i., to be calm (of the sea) ; aau e repo 
kosi holaa, when the nuts are ripe it is 
calm weather. 2. n., a calm, hai'holaa; 
holaa lotoweru'e, a flat calm. E Holaa, 
a rock on the west coast of Ulawa near 
the south cape. 
holaasi tr., to be in calm weather, e hola- 
asire; Met. to be in peace. 

holi, holiholi v. tr., to barter, to buy. ha'aholi; 
kire to'oana keni mwala ko holie, they 
own the girl who is being bought. 
holinge v. n., a sale. 
holiholinga U., n., a bought dependent. 
holite-(ku), holiholite v. n., price, payment, 
holilana, the price of it, its being sold. 
Mota wol, Malay beli, Malagasy vily, 
Bugotu voli. 

holo v. i., to divide, ha'aholo. cf. maholo, 
maaliholo, mouholo. holo 'ahe, to divide 
the waves by incantation and make a 
way for a canoe; holo onu, to divide and 
cut short; 'alo holo, to cross over the 
sea; langu holo, to break in two; 'o holo 
onu'e qongiku hao, thou hast shortened 
my days. 
holosi tr. 1. to cut a piece off. 2. to cross 

over; holosie 'asi, to cross the sea. 
holosila (ku) gerund. Wango horo, to 
cross; Mota wolos, to cut across; Lau 
jolo, Makula foro; Florida polo, when. 

holosi v. tr., to appoint, to assign. 

holota'ini determ., to make an appoint- 
ment, to agree upon, to arrange, cf. 
hd'iholota'i. 

holo holo 1. n., interval, part, portion, thing, U.; 
holoholo i sapeku, S., my duty; ngaite 
holoholo, U., a different thing. 2. 
irregular, intermittent; mata'i holoholo, 
intermittent fever. 3. U., v., to barter. 

honi U., contraction for hou ni, a, one, used of 
fish; honi weieu, a bonito; honi mehu, a 
mehu fish. 

hono, hohono v. i., to shut, to shut a door. cf. 
ha'ihonoa'i; hono sikihi, to shut off by 
itself; hono sisinge'i, to shut out; e hono 
sisingana, shut him in; ape hono, to 
prevent; ddu hono, S.. to hinder; noru 
hono, to be windbound; susu hono, to 
heal over (of a sore). 
honosl v. tr., used as prep., to meet, opposed 
to, over against; 'oto honosi, to oppose; 



hono, hohono (continued). 

hulo honosi, to close up an aperture; 
lae honosi, to go and meet; si'o honosi, to 
interrupt with questions; susu honosi, 
to close in on; 'ure honosi, to oppose. 
honota-(ku) gerund., protecting, guarding; 
e palo honotaka, our mediator; para 
honotaka, defend us. 
honohonota v. n., a shutter, an obstacle. 
Mota wono, Lau fono, Florida vongo, 
Malagasy fono. 

honu 1. n., a turtle; honu i'e, green turtle; honu 
hapa, hawksbill turtle; hapa ni honu, 
plates of turtle shell; tarihoa honu, to 
watch for turtles on the sands, cf. 
karenga. popo ni honu, tailpiece of 
turtle shell used for nose-rings at Santa 
Cruz; su'ai honu, a summerset. Nifilole 
fonu, Malagasy fano. 

honu 2. v. i., to be full, ha'ahonu; honu 
makealo, full to overflowing; ere ani 
le'u honu, to boast; hera honu, a con- 
gregation; i'e honu, a hundred fish- 
teeth; honu, honu leu'ae, poro ni tolo 
e hule 'oto pe'i oqai poo, a catch said 
when filling a bamboo rata at a spring, 
fill, fill quickly, a hill man has arrived 
bearing a pig's entrails. 
honulaa v. n., a crowd, a company, 
honule'i partic, filled, full. Wango honu, 
honurai, Florida vonu, Motu honu. 

honu 3. honu ako, to have pulmonary disease. 

hoo 1. exclam., of contempt, of disbelief. 

ho'o, ho'oho'o 2. v. tr., to bind, 
ho'onga v. n., a binding, 
ho'osi tr. 

ho'osila-(ku) gerund. 
iho'o n., a bundle. Wango hoo. 

ho'oho'odara n., a wreath, a crown, cf. dara. 

hoowa S., n., morning, between 8 and 10. cf. 
hu'o 2; dangi hoowa, the next day; ke 
haro hoowa kd'u, as soon as it is light. 

hora (ku) 1. prep., over against, in order to 
get, for; horana i ola, over against such- 
and-such a place; horana nga laa, what 
for? 2. U., ha'alu horana, to swear by 
a thing or person; 3. U., concerning. 
Fagani fora, subject to, under the rule 
of; horana mwa alaha, under the power 
of the chiefs. 

horaa'i v. tr., to turn round (of objects). 
horaa'ini tr. 

horahora'apu'i S., n., first fruits of nuts and 
yams. cf. 'apu 2. 

hora'i ha'ihora'i, partic, to be daybreak, cf. 
'auhora. 

horo, horohoro v. i., to beat, to strike, to kill; 
horo 'asi, to destroy utterly; horo ni 
loloto i purine maeta, to kill a man in 
order that men may bathe after cele- 
brating a death feast; horo mwamwaki, 
to kill wantonly; horo suuhe'ini, to kill 
out, to destroy; horo suulana, to kill 
in revenge; horo i tola, to kill to avenge; 
horo talaalasi, to kill without mercy; 
kire lahoa nana mwala e holo. 
koronga v. n. murder, killing; koronga 



35 



HUHUDARO 



horo horohoro (continued). 

maapala, murder; horonga i talada, 
revenge for them; horonga talaraaraa, 
indiscriminate slaughter. 
horotaa v. n., murder, killing. 
horo'i tr., ha'ihoro'i. 

hota 1. 'aehota, talaa'ehota, to begin. Mota 
wota. 

hota 2. hola ni mwane, all the boys who are 
eligible for ha'atnalaohu; e mou ue ena 
ngaini ka'a hota ni mwane lo'u, e mou 
ana Wateha'aodo, it is still in desuetude 
no boys are initiated into bonito catch' 
ing, it ceased with Wateha'aodo. M. A. 
p. 234. 

hote 1. v. i., to paddle, to row a boat (late use) 
2. n., a paddle, an oar; hote ani henue, a 
paddle; hote ni haka, an oar; hole ni 
monaki, bone of the cuttlefish; palupelu 
ni hote, handle of the paddle; tarasie 'asi 
ana hote, to feather the oar. 
hotenga v. n., paddling, rowing; ani 

hotenga, by paddling, 
hotela'ini tr., to propel by paddling, by 

rowing. 
hotela-(ku) gerund. Mota wose, Motu 
hode, Maori hoe. 

hoto n., a gourd used to hold lime for betel 
chewing; hoi hena hoto, a lime gourd. 

hot oho to 1. to shake (of gourd or bottle). 2. to 
rattle the spatula in the lime gourd; 
e hotoJwto ana lo'u hoi sehu. 
hoto'i, hotohoto'i tr. 
hotohoto'i U. v. L, to swing. 

hotohotomolita'a U., round in shape, cf. molt. 

hoto'i to bore (of beetles or worms in wood); 
hou e hoto'ie, it is wormeaten. 

hou 1. article, a; more frequently used in 
Ulawa; with genitive ni contracted to 
honi, U.; probably connected with hoi 1. 
hou atea, a coconut water-bottle; hou 
kao, a bottom plank in a canoe; honi 
mehu, a mehu fish; hou met, an ebb tide; 
hou ola, a thing of a round shape; hou 
pua, an areca nut; mai nga hou pua, give 
an areca nut; houhi, a yam; hou wei, a 
bamboo for carrying water; honi weieu, 
a bonito. 

hou 2. S., adv.. down: not used of direction; 
with locative i contracts to hoi. siho 
hou, lae hou, to descend; hoi sae, in the 
heart; hoi 'ano, underground. 

hou 3. dry rot, worm in wood, hou e hoto'ie. 

hou 4. v. i., to proclaim, to be proclaimed; 
e hou lilikeli, hou keli, proclaimed 
abroad, 
houle'i partic, proclaimed, made public, 
houle'ini tr., to proclaim, to tell out. 
houle'inila-(ku) gerund. Fagani fou. 

hou 5. U., dem. pron., this, these, cf. nihou. 
laa hou, vocative you! 

houhou n., a bier. 

houlaa v. n., a feast; dan houlaa, to have a 
feast, hou 4. 

houlana n., fame, kingdom; a Wango word 
hour ana. 

Houlanga a proper name. 



houliwo U., hoiliwo S., n., a hill. 

huasa n., a crocodile. Mota vua, crocodile, 
puasa lizard; Malagasy buaya, crocodile. 

Hu'atea a rock off Cape Arona, Ulawa. 

hudi 1. n., banana; hoi hudi, a banana fruit; 
hudi tolaka, a variety with erect bunch, 
plantain; hudi ni haka, introduced 
banana (Musa cavendishii) ; hungui 
hudi, a bunch of bananas; tangisi hudi, 
a hand of bananas; pi'e ni hudi, pi'ei 
hudi, banana sucker; nga hudi e mala 
'asi'a, the bananas are rotting away 
unpicked. Florida vudi, Viti vundi. 
Niue futi, Motu dui, Malagasy ontsy. 

hudi 2. S., first and second days of the moon. 

hudihudi n., a stripe, bruise, weal. 

hudihudi'e adj., bruised (of the body). 

hue S., hua U. (na) 1. article,- a, one, used of 
fruits only; huana i'ada, the fruit of 
their womb; huani 'ei, U., fruit; huesi 
dango, kidney (si genitive) ; kau mei nga 
hue, give me one. Wango hua, Mota 
woai, fruit; Motu huahua, fruit; Maori 
hua, Malay buwah. cf. pue. See M. L., 
p,71. 

hu'e S., hu'a U. 2. a married woman, wife; 
women in general in distinction from 
mwane, male; the demonstrative na, 
S., ni, U., may be added, a hu'ena, 
the woman, to'o hu'e, to be married; 
lo'o hu'anga, v. n., the being married; 
sike hu'e, to divorce a woman; sike 
hu'anga, v. n., divorce; e lio hunie hunt 
hu'e nana, he chooses her for his wife; 
lio hilisie huni hu'e i'oe, choose her for 
your wife; hu'e kire konie mola, a con- 
cubine; ta'e hu'a saena e diena, there's a 
good-hearted woman. 

hu'e 3. v. tr., to carry suspended from the head 
as native women do. Niue fua, to 
carry on the shoulder; Motu huai, to 
carry from the shoulder. 

hu'e 4. v. i., to reverse; hu'e asi, to overturn, 

to overthrow; hu'e hau, to dig up stones 

suitable for use in cooking hahi; hu'e 

tekela'ini, to uproot and destroy. 

hu'eli tr., hu'eli 'ato'alo, to wind rolls of 

dyed cane, 
hu'esi tr. 1. to reverse; hu'esi 'elinge, to 
turn the ear to. 2. to open a native 
oven. 
hu'esila-(ku) gerund. 

hu'eta'ini U., tr., to reverse. Niue veu, to 
uncover; Mota sug, to dig up, uqa. to 
lever, vut-uqa-uqa, to dig; Wango huke, 
reverse; Florida vuka; Maori hua, lever, 
overturn; huke, dig up; Malay bukai, 
open; Sulu ukai; Viti tevuka, open. 

huehue (na) fruit, mu huehuei ola, fruits; 
huehuana, its fruit. 

huhu 1. v. i., to leak, to drip, to spill out. 

huhusi tr., to pour upon. Wango huhu, 
spill; Lau fufusi, to sow broadcast. 

huhu 2. v. i., huhu la' ola' o ana wa'i, to be in 
contortions with tetanus. 

huhu 3. v. i., to pluck, to pick off. 

huhudaro U., v. i., to smite, strike, daro. 



HUHUNU 



36 



huhunu 1. v. tr., to poison fish with pounded 
leaves of Barringtonia. 2. n., dynamite 
used to shoot fish with. Mota vun, 
to poison fish; Efate buttu, death; 
Florida hunu, leaven. 

huhurere'a adj., dazzling white, cf. rere'a. 

hui 1. n., taro (Caladium esculentura) ; hui 
kerekere, a taro shot with veins; hui ni 
matawa, giant caladium, the only kind 
grown on Ulawa; nisi hui, to pull taro 
for eating; poe hui, to pull wild taro; 
tapali hui, to cut off the leaves of taro; 
to'oni hui, to plant taro; 'usu hui, to 
grate taro. 

hu'i 2. S., adj., troublous, hi'u 2. U.; mu ola 
hu'ihu'i, dangers, difficulties, hard cir- 
cumstances. 
hu'ihu'inge v. n., hele hu'ihu'inge, unprofit- 
ableness. 
hu'isi tr., to turn over, to reverse, to turn 
toward, to change the nature of, to 
harm; dau hu'isi, to overthrow, to put 
to wrong use, to bring to naught; hele 
hu'isie nga le'u, to err in anything. 
hu'isila-(ku) gerund. 
hu'itana tr., to change, to alter the nature 

of. cf. ho'itana. 
hu'ite'i, hu'ihu'ite'i partic, upset, undone, 
altered, cf. ho'ite'i; e ka'a me'i ola ke 
hu'ihu'ite'i, unchangeable; saeku e hu'i- 
te'i, my heart is undone. Mota vusiag. 

hu'i 3. v. tr., to pour water on. Mota vuvui. 

hu'idada U., v. i., to be level, smooth, cf. dada. 

hu'ihu'ite S., a marvel, a wonder, a miracle. 

hu'ine'i S., v. tr., to warp, to wrest aside. 

hulaa S., hula hula U., a spring, fountain, hulaa 
ni wei, wdi hulahula. cf. hulehule, 
hure'i. Florida vuravura, Mota vura, 
Viti vure, Niue, Mao. puna. 

hulaaholaa v. i., to be full (of the moon). Mota 
vula, moon; Malagasy volana. 

hule S., hula U., v. i. 1. to arrive; hule ahu'i, to 
come for; hule odo'i, to arrive and find; 
hula talahi, to fail to find a person at 
home; 'asi dodo hule i one, deep water 
right up to shore; lai hule, to reach; nga 
hale e koru hula i sinaha, the shed was 
full right up to the door; lai hulaana, 
till, until. 
hule'ita-(ku) gerund., up to, reaching to. 
ha'ahule'ita. sa'a hule'itana ike saena- 
naunge, never coming to wisdom, 
huleta'ini tr., to come and seek for. 

hule U. 2. to be in danger, distress; maenga 
hulahula, U., danger, 
hule si tr., to be dangerously ill; e hulesie, 
he has a bad attack. 

hule 3. a convolvulus growing on the beaches; 
hule e 'a'a haahia taoha, the convolvulus 
had climbed over the canoe house. 

hulehule ma, ni) 1. n., husks, chaff; hulehuleni, 
the chaff. 

hulehule S., hulahula U. 2. n., water springs, 
mu hulehule. cf. hulaa, hure'i. Florida 
vure, Viti vure, Mota vura, Dyak pura. 

hulemotaa S. v. i., to be in agony, cf. motaa. 

huli 1. v. tr., to overtake, to overcome. 



huli (ku) 2. S., a bed, a mat. hulite, S. 

huli 3. huli nunte, S., the site of a house, house 
plat, cf.talahuli. L,au fulifera, a village. 

hulihuli n., a black biting ant. 

hulite (ku) S. f a bed, a mat. huli 2. U. 

hulo 1. n., a sponge, a towel (late use). 

hulosi tr., to wipe. Samoa solo, Maori horoi, 
Viti vulo, to strain. 

hulo 2. v. i., hulo honosi, to close up an aperture. 

huluhilu S., v. i., to make a sacrificial offering. 

hulumota'a S., adj., hairy. Mota ului, hair, 
Maori huru. 

huna U., hune, S. 

hunata v. n., stakes driven to moor a canoe, 
an anchor (late use). 

hune S., huna U. 1. to anchor; liki hune, S., 
riki huna, U., to loosen mooring-stakes, 
to get up anchor. 2. to hang up, to 
display; hune haa, to hang up and dis- 
play the bridal moneys at the home of 
the bride, to conduct the initial cere- 
mony of a wedding. 
hunesi tr. 1. to anchor. 2. to display 
wedding moneys. Wango huna, Maori 
punga, anchor. 

hune S. 3. a snare, a gin. lolohuna, U. lolosi 
hune, to set a trap; toli hune, to lay a 
snare. Wango huna. 

huni (au) S. 1. dative preposition, for, to; huni 
lu'ue mo ola ineu, to remove my goods; 
huni lengu ha'aodohie 'aeka, to guide 
our feet; dau toli huni, to submit to, to 
be subject to; e hai lalamoa e mae hunia 
Qai, four dead men for Qai to pay a fine 
for; e ka'a hunie ike maenga, not unto 
death; kire husingi'i hunieu, I have 
become accustomed to it; lae huni'i, go 
to fetch them; le'u noko lae hunie, the 
place whither I go; Ho hilisie huni hu'e 
i'oe, choose her for your wife; Ho huni, 
to choose; e Ho hunie huni hu'e nana, he 
chose her for his wife; Ho huni maa, to 
exercise partiality; masi huni, to commit 
adultery with; qalu huni, to conceive 
by a person; ke s'dune huni ke mae, to be 
well mashed. Mota mun, Ulawa muni. 
2. adv., in order that, muni, U. : also as 
an optative; huni ke lae mat, that he 
may come, 
hunie adv., in order that; hunie esi hute 
'ulu 'ie, that he should be born blind 
thus. Wango huni. ha'ihuni. 

huni (ku) 3. U., skin disease, ringworm; huniku, 
my ringworm, 
hunila, adj., suffering from ringworm. 
Niue matafune. 

huni 4. h&'ihuni, U., harihuni, S., v. tr., to 
desire, to wish for. 

hunu 1. v. tr., to cut up an animal; hunu poo, 
to butcher a pig; kira hunu poo mala 
ideni, tomorrow they kill the pigs. 
Malagasy vono, to kill; Borneo bunoh. 

hunu 2. S., n., a mast. 

hunu, huhunu 3. v. i., to poison fish with 
Barringtonia leaves. 

hunu 4. dio hunu, to swoop (of pigeons); dio 
hunu ni sae, to be faint-hearted, to faint. 



37 



HU UTALA 



hungao-(ku) n., brother-in-law, sister-in-law, 
tnwane or keni added for distinction; 
kungaona, used with ro ha'i or ro ma: 
ro ha'i hungaona, U., ro ma hungaona, S., 
brothers-in-law, sisters-in-law. Wango 
hungo, Lau fungo, Maori hunaonga. 
hunge S., hunga U., many, enough, too much, 
to abound, ha'ahunge. mu dinge hunge, 
many days, 
hungehunga'a adv., frequently. Wango 
hunga, Maori hunga, a company. 
hungehunga'a S., adj., used as noun, hillock. 

Wango hungahunga. 
hungu, hunguhungu 1. to bear fruit. 2. n., a 
bunch of fruit; hungui hudi, a bunch of 
bananas, 
hunguha U., v. n., a fruiting, 
hungunge S., v. n., a fruiting; kire ko 
mwamwasu'i eni hungunge, become 
unfruitful. 
hunguta U., v. n., a bunch; hungutani pua, 
a bunch of areca nuts. Viti bunua, a 
bunch of nuts; Florida vungu, Mota 
rung, Samoa punupunu, a cluster of 
parasitical plants; Borneo bunga, flower. 
hu'o 1. n., fishing-net, seine; hu'o ni moke, a 
casting net; 'ato hu'o, to set a net; 'ato 
hu'onga, a plot; e soda ana hu'o, -he fell 
into the net; tola hu'o, to set a snare for; 
wa'i haahie ana hu'o, to draw a net 
about. Florida vugo, Motu huo, kan- 
garoo net. 
t'c 2. ha'ahu'o, to come early in the morning. 
mahu'ohu'o, dawn, early morning. 
hu'ori Hu'oriara, a proper name.Early-afoot. 
hure S., v. i., mwaa e hure ana, he was eaten of 

?• worms. 
hure'i, hure'ihure'i 1. v. i., to gush out. cf. 
hulaa, hulehule 2. e hure'i ta'a ana hau, 
to gush forth from the rock. Mota vura. 
hure'i 2. hure'i lade, name of a month, July. 
huresoso n., white shell discs used in ornamen- 
tation with haa and malo, used also to 
finish off the ends of strings of money. 
huri v. tr., to cut in sections; malo huri, black 
bugles cut from a creeper and used in 
ornament. Florida vuri. 
hurihuri U., to wallow, of a pig. 
huro, mahuro adj., disturbed, upset in mind, 
hurosi tr., to upset the mind, to disturb, to 
whirl about as surf; 'ahe ko hurosieu, the 
stream whirls me about. 
hurosila-(ku) gerund, 
hum, huruhuru v. i., to run; huru ni 'elinge, to 
race; huruhuru meumeuri'e, to be living, 
hurunge v. n., running; hdli ana hurunge, 

foot racing; ohoa hurunge, to race. 
hurunge'ini tr., to run and carry, 
hurulaa v. n., a messenger. 
huruhuru a bridge, a tree fallen over a stream, 

ladder, 
husingi v. tr., to make accustomed; kire hu- 
singi'i hunieu, I have become accus- 
tomed to it. 



hute, hutehute S. , huta U. , to be born, ha'ahute. 
e hute talahie qongine, born out of due 
time; hunie esi hute 'ulu' ie, that he 
should be born blind thus, 
hutanga v. n., birth. 
hutaa, hutelaa v. n., generation, birth. 
hutela-(ku) gerund, being born, birth. 
Mota wota; Niue mafuta, emerge, 
huto 1. cuscus, phalanger. M. A., p. 17. 

Wango huto. 
huto 2. v. i., to swarm (of ants, etc.). 
hutohuto (na) 1. froth, foam. Wango huto- 

huto, Viti vuto. 
hutohuto 2. name of a month, June, 
huu 1. n., a group, a bunch, with genitive i; 
huui 'ae, excrement; huui alaha, a chiefly 
family; huui edi, a bunch of leaves used 
as a tabu sign; huui eu, a stool of bam- 
boos; huu ni kana, a group of singers; 
huui keu, branching coral; huui lue, 
shoulder of pork; huui lume, huu lume, 
collection of houses, village; huui sata, 
the heel; huui tomwaso, a thicket of 
tomwaso bushes. Viti vutu, plenty of; 
Maori pu, tribe, bunch, 
huu 2. adj., real, permanent, ha'ahuu'e. 
awala 'oto huu, U., awala ha'ahuu, S., a 
full ten; h'dnue huu, solid land, dry land, 
heritage; hele huu., to inherit; i'o huu, to 
abide forever; mwado huu, the earth; 
'oni huu 'oto ana, to be settled therein; 
'oto huu, U., forever; te'ete'e huu, forever, 
abiding, for good, finally. Wango 
huuna, real; Samoa futu, to be a long 
time; Mota tur, real; Viti vu, bottom, 
root; Niue fu, trunk, cause; Florida 
puku, real, 
huu 3. v. i., to be sad; sae huu, to grieve; sae 
huunge, grief. Viti ku, to be angry; 
Motu hu, to look angry. 
huu 4. n., a littoral tree (Barringtonia speciosa) ; 
hoi huu, its fruit; huhunu, roma, to 
stupefy fish therewith. Mota vut, 
Viti vutu. 
hu'u 5. a cough, to cough. Mota vur, Viti vu, 

Motu hua. 
huuhuu to gush forth in a jet; ivdi e huuhuu 
'oto, the water spurted out; huuna wai, 
U., fountain head. Bugotu fuufutu, a 
spring, 
huuilume, huulume S., a village, cf. nume. 
uunu tara'a huuilume, burn up the 
village. 
huule'ini v. tr., to chop down, to fell a tree; 

'aihu, U., uprooted, 
huuraro n., rainbow: if pointed at (usu'i) bad 

luck results, 
hu'usi, hu'uhu'usi v. tr., to detach 'oha from 
a tree, to pluck leaves, cf. 'u'usi. 
Wango huusi. 
hu'utala U. v. i., to miss the mark, to fail, to 
be in vain. tala. 



38 



i 1. prep., locative; always used before names 
of places, also with adverbs of time and 
direction; itei, where; i Sa'a, i hoowa, 
in the morning; i nganite, when, with a 
preceding eoro there is a contraction 
to i: noko lai haka, I go abroad; tai Sa'a, 
up at Sa'a; hai Malau, down at Malau; 
laelae i rodo, go until nightfall. Forms 
the compound prepositions ilengi on; 
isuli, according to. Used in phrases, 
i ladoihaana, in a line with; i ladohaana, 
thereby; i nooruhaana, relying on, 
because of. Florida t, Viti *. 

i 2. prep., genitive, a variant of ni; joined in 
pronunciation to the preceding word: 
poloi haa, a strand of shell money; 
qirei eu, a stalk of bamboo. Used to 
express purpose: noko lai leesie, I go to 
see it. Expresses condition: e lai 'aela, 
it is bad; e la 'oto i diana, it is good. 
Used of continued action: hoi i'a e lae 
mat i rarada i saini one, the fish came 
and grounded on the beach. Used 
after tala'ae, to begin: e tala'ai 'aela, 
it is beginning to spoil. Follows ore, 
to fail: melu orei lae, we almost went. 
Bugotu i, Lau »". 

i 3. instrumental prefix forming noun from 
verb: ikeu, a crook; idenu, a baler; 
idemu, a lime spatula, from kau, danu, 
damn. Mota i, 4; Viti i; Motu i, in 
igui, a bundle; guia, to wrap; ikoko, a 
nail; kokoa, to nail. 

i 4. prefix to personal and demonstrative pro- 
nouns: ineu, i'oe, inge'ie, inihou. Mota 
j in inau; Maori i in ikoe. 

i 5. U., euphonic: saisemu, reduplicated from 
samu, saisesu from sasu, daidenu from 
d&nu. 

*i 6. verbal suffix, horo horo'i: forms a parti- 
ciple, pele pele'i. Viti i, Maori * {pao, 
paoi) , Florida gi. 

'i 7. suffixed to poss., 1. sing. 1 and 2 and dual, 
used of many things for one person to 
eat, moola aku'i; suffixed to poss. 2 and 
used of many things designed for one 
person; naku'i, for me. Florida gi, Lau 
gi, plural sign. 

'1 8. a suffix denoting plurality, used of things 
only; lae huni'i, go fetch them; dolali'i, 
among them, 'i 7. 

*i 9. suffixed to pers. pron., dual 1 and 2 excl. 
iemere'i, ikara'i, U., hunireru'i. 

i'a U. cf. i'e, S. 

'i'aa v. i., to be lost, missing, 'ai'aa. 

i'ami U., pers. pron., plur. 1 excl.: we, ours; 
when used as subject is followed by 'ami. 
Lau igami, Mota ikamam. 

i'amu U. pers. pron., plur. 2 : you, yours; more 
general in application than i'emelu; 
when used as subject is followed by 'amu. 

i'ano adv., on the ground, down; mai i'ano, on 
the earth; with demonstrative na added, 
i'anona, in that soil; of direction, west; 
haka e lai qai 'ano, the ship went west. 

1'au S., exclam. of assent. 



ida U. ida 'apala, a length of money from the 
finger tips to the opposite shoulder, a 
yard and a quarter. 

idemu n., a lime spatula, damn, idemu ni 
loo, a lime spatula used as a dagger on 
a person who is scared (loo) and hard 
to get near but who is enticed by the 
offer of areca nut; idemu ke suu i halena, 
the spatula shall pierce his gums. 

ideni U. tomorrow; kira hunu poo mala ideni, 
tomorrow they kill the pigs. 

idenu n., a canoe baler, danu. 

idengi S., tomorrow, dangi 1. 

idu, iduidu 1. v. i., to count; iduidu nume, to 

gad about (Florida idu vale) ; iduidu mesi 

'ei, U., jumped about on the firewood. 

idumi tr., idumia one, countless (count 

the sand). 
idumila-(ku) gerund. 

iduidunge v. n., numbering, number. 
Florida idu. 

idu, iduidu 2. to be weary of a thing, to be ill 
at ease. Florida idu. 

idu 3. n., a drill. 

idule'ini v. tr., to move the position of a thing, 
to ease a burden. 

'ie 1. S., demonstrative pron., this, these; fol- 
lows the noun; adverbially used as here, 
now, thus; hunie esi hute 'ulu 'ie, that 
he should be born blind thus; inge'ie 
'ie, this is he; maholo 'ie, now; ola'ie, 
this thing; 'oto 'ie, now; 'oto mola 'ie. 
just now. Mota ia, Bintulu ia. 

i'e S. i'a U. 2. a fish, a fish (porpoise) tooth; hoi 
i'e, a fish: mu i'e, mwa i'a, plural; used 
metaphorically in Ulawa as an excla- 
mation of astonishment at size, a big 
thing, a whopperl nga i'e, 100 por- 
poise teeth on a cord forming a unit 
of money; hoi i'a e lae mai i rarada i 
saini one, the fish came and grounded 
on the beach; i'e hdu, a stone fish; i'e 
honu, 100 fish teeth; i'e 'inoni, a fish 
caught with a scoop net; i'e ni sane, 
sea-bream (nate); i'e ni toli, deep-sea 
fish; Aru ni i'e, honorific phrase of San 
Cristoval. cf. ha'adahi. honu i'e, a 
green turtle; nihoi i'e, porpoise teeth; 
palapala ni i'a, a nose ornament of 
shell cut in the form of a frigate-bird; 
q&'ui i'e 4 porpoise teeth; to'o, to'oani 
i'e, 1,000 fish teeth; waawaatani i'a, 
pieces of fish. Mota iga, Maori ika. 

'ie S. 'ia U. (ku) 3. belly, womb, 'iana, S., 'iena, 
V., 'iana e maelo, pregnant; 'ieku e too, 
I am sick at the stomach. Mota tiana, 
pregnant; Bugotu tia, Maori lia, Malay 
tia. 

ie'iola v. i., to have the head thrown back. 

'i'eli 1. v. tr., to plait. 2. n., a rope; radu 
moumousie mu 'i'eli, to break the rope in 
pieces. Lau inali, Mota tali, Maori tari. 

i'emelu pers. pron., plur. 1, excl.; we, our; more 
restricted in meaning than i'emi. 

i'emere, i'emere'i pers. pron., dual 2. excl.; 
we two, our; when used as subject is 
followed by mere or mere'i respectively; 
ola i'emere'i, a thing belonging to us two. 



39 



IKURE 



i'emeru, i'emeru'e S., same as i'emere. 

i'emi pera. pron., plur. 1. excl.; we, our; more 

general in meaning than i'emelu; when 

used as subject is followed by 'emi. 
i'emiu U., Mwado'a dialect for i'amu. 
i'emu U., Mwado'a dialect for i'amu. 
'ienini demonstrative pron., this; Poro 'ienini, 

this man; adverb now, 'oto tnola 'ienini, 

just now. 
i epi (na) beside (of things only); * epine or a, 

i epine lalo, i epiepi ana, contiguous to. 

Maori apiti, Malay apit, to place side 

by side, 
ihaha 1. adv., below, underneath; m'ai ihaha, 

on earth. 2. prep, with suffixed pro- 
noun (ku); ihahamu, underneath you; 

ihahana salo, under the sky. Lau 

/a/a. haha. 
ihaho 1. adv., over, above; ilengi ihaho, in the 

sky above. 2. prep., with suffixed 

pronoun (ku); ihahomu, above you, 

over your head. haho. 
ihe-(ku) brother-in-law, sister-in-law; in Ulawa 

the personal article coalesces, aiheku. 
ihana ro mwaihana, S., ro aihana, U., two 

brothers-in-law or sisters-in-law. Motu 

ihana, brother-in-law. 
ihei 1. interrog. adv., where. itei,~ S. 2. 

interrog. pron., which, what, whether, 

of two; 'o'a sore ngau ihei, what will 

you eat; with article ngaihei, mwaihei, 

who. Mota a-vea. 
ihei 3. S., the monitor lizard (Varanus indicus). 
iho'o n„ a bundle; with genitive i, iho'oi ola, a 

bundle of goods, ho'o. 
ihu (ku) 1. n., hair, feather; with genitive i. 

waraihu, U. ihui menu, birds' feathers; 

ihui qe'u, hair of the head; 'olo kou'e 

ihune, shave his head close. Vatur- 

anga ivu, Motu hui. 
ihu 2. v. i., to cut, to chop down; ihu uweha, to 

cut bamboos for fishing-poles. 
'i'i 1. v. tr., to judge. 
H'inge v. n., judgment. 
'i'ila-(ku) gerund. 
'i'i 2. a bird, a swift; 'i'i ko he'isu'u, the swift 

flits from tree to tree; qaateru a 'i'i, a 

large snail, 
•i'i 3. ha'a'Vi, to set a high price, 
'i'ile'i partic, loud, resounding; ngara 'i'ile'i, to 

cry aloud. 
'i'iloha U., to hesitate. 
'i'ite 1. n., a round basket plaited of a coconut 

leaf and used for holding yams. 
'i'ite 2. v. tr., to find fault with, to censure. 
'i'ite'i tr., 'i'ite'i wala, to strive about 

words; v. n., 'i'ite'i walanga, strife 

about words. 
•i'ite 'ini tr. 

•i'ite'inila-(ku) gerund. 
ika'elu U., pers. pron., plural 1. inch: we, ours; 
more restricted in meaning than iki'a; 
when used as subject is followed by 
ka'elu. Wango igau. 
ikao 1. the bottom, at the bottom, kao. 2. 
with suffixed pronoun (ku), under a 
person, U., under a thing. 



ikara, ikara'i U., pers. pron., dual l.incl.: we 
two, ours; when used as subject is fol- 
lowed by kara or kara'i. Mota ikara 
excl. 
ike S., negative particle following closely the 
negatives ka'a and sa'a; when preceding 
word ends in a, ike is joined in pro- 
nunciation, e ka'a olaike, there is 
nothing at all; e ka'a hunie ike 
maenga, not unto death; e ka'a wala- 
'anga ike nga 'inoni, it is not the voice 
of a man; nou ka'a manata'ie ike, I do 
not know; sa'a hule'itana ike saena- 
naunge, never coming to wisdom. 
ikeke 1. Ulawa, Qaloto, adv., beside, outside, 
used of persons and things; kira konia 
ikeke, they excommunicated him; paro 
i keke, alongside. 2. with suffixed pro- 
noun (ku), prep., beside, alongside, of 
motion toward, to; * kekemu, U., i siemu, 
S., to you; i kekena tola, beside the path. 
3. adv., behind; lio ikeke, look behind. 
Lau gege. 
ikereru'e S., ikireru'i U., pers. pron., dual 3, 
they two, their; when used as subject 
is followed by kereru'e or kireru'i. 
ikeu S., ikau U., n., a stick with a hook, a crook 
with which to twitch off fruit and leaves. 
kau 1. 
'iki, 'iki'iki 1 . to knock with the knuckles. 2. to 
beat a wooden drum with a spathe of 
sago palm, 
'ikinge v. n. 
'ikingi tr. 

'ikila-(ku) gerund. Florida gidigidi, Mota 

ningi. 

iki'e S., iki'a U., pers. pron., plural 1. inch: we, 

ours; more general in meaning than 

ikolu, etc.; when used as subject is 

followed by ki'e or ki'a. Florida igita. 

ikira'elu pers. pron. plural 3, they, theirs; more 

restricted in meaning than ikire; when 

used as subject is followed by kira'elu. 

ikire S., ikira U., pers. pron., plural 3: they, 

theirs; used also as meaning "and the"; 

hahira diana ikire nga muini lo'u ka'a 

diana, on the good and the bad. Araga 

ikera. 

ikire'i U., as ikira, but not used of persons; 

ikire'ini, those are they, 
ikireni U., as ikira, but not used of persons. 
ikireru'e S., pers. pron., dual 3, they two, 
theirs; when used as subject is followed 
by kireru'e. 
ikolu S., pers. pron., plural 1, inch: we, ours; 
when used as subject is followed by kolu. 
ikoro, ikoro'i U., pers. pron., dual 3, they two, 
theirs; when used as subject is followed 
by koro, koro'i. 
ikule I, ashore; ta'i kule, on the shore; lai kule, 

to go up ashore, 
ikule 2. v. i., to hiccough, 
ikule'i partic, disturbed in mind; saena t 

ikule'i, his mind was upset, 
ikure S., pers. pron., dual 1, incl.: we two, ours; 
when used as subject is followed by 
kure. 



I LADOHAANA 



4 



i ladohaana S., thereby, cf. lado. 

i lado'ihaana S., joining onto it. in a line with. 

cf. lado. 
ilala v. i., to take an augury, to test a path by 
using dracaena leaf ('apai dili) in 
hahuto'o. Lau inala, Wango irara, to 
perceive. 
ilalo adv., within, inside; in Ulawa ku is suf- 
fixed, but for reasons of delicacy Sa'a 
prefers the poss. 3, ilalo aku. paro ilalo, 
on the inside; ilalo ana mu 'inoni, in 
man. 
ila'o adv., in, inside; used also with suffixed 
pronoun na, ni; ila'o i'ola, in the canoe; 
paro i la'ona, U., on the inside; ila'oni, 
plural, used of things only; ila'ona 
ma'usu, within the forest, la'o 3. 
ile 1. v. i., to produce fire by rubbing a stick 
in a groove; ile dunge, a stick of hard- 
wood is rubbed quickly to and fro in a 
groove made in a piece of soft wood, 
dust accumulates at the outer end of 
the groove and soon begins to smoulder, 
the dust is transferred to a piece of 
coconut husk which serves as tinder 
Qiehe). 
ile 2. U., n., one, tiling or person; the articles 
nga and rrvwa are prefixed and coalesce, 
ngaile, nga tnwaile; ile inau, my one, 
mine; ile keni, female; ile mwane, male; 
ile uritaha, what one; mwanganga ni ile, 
a few persons; ta'e 'enita ile, just a few. 
ile 3. n., Pandanus odoratissimus: hoi 'He, its 

fruit. Mota gire. 
'ile 4. stone axe. Lau kila, Florida kila, Motu 
ila, Alu, Shortland Islands, kilifela, flint, 
ilehu U., adv., here; paro ilehu, over here; 
with demonstrative na, ni, added; ile- 
huna, ilehuni, there, in that place. 
lahu 4. 
ile e ilele malo, to gasp, to pant. 
ileli U., v. tr., to distinguish, 
ilenimwa'e, ileilenimwa'e v. i., to rejoice. 

ilenimwa'enga v. n., joy. mwa'e 1. 
ilengi 1. adv., above, on top, sky, heaven, 
ashore, inland; ilengi ihaho, in the sky 
above. 2. prep, with suffixed pronoun 
(ku); ilengiku, on me; e loho ilengine, 
he swooped down on it; ta'e ilengine, 
mount up on it. 
ile'u S. adv., here; with demonstrative na 
added: mai ile'u, this way; ko nisi 'oto 
ile'u, this is the boundary; ile'une, there; 
ha'i le'une, down there, le'u. 
ili 1. adv., precedes verb; merely, only, barely: 
uri 'o ka'a 'am'amasie kalemu ana 'o 
ili ta'e, are you not sorry for your son 
in that you alone are mounted? 
ili 2. v. tr., ili mango, to draw in the breath. 
ili 3. n., swordfish: an imitation is made of wood 
and is used as a receptacle for dead 
bodies. M. A., p. 261. 
ilisi S., v. tr., to choose. Wango irisi. 
'ilisi'e S., adj., separated; 'ilisi'e 'omu, ye by 

yourselves. 
iloilo'a n., a large red parrot, the female of 'a'a. 
New Guinea electus. 



Uolo 1. n., a bowstring, ilolo ni pesi. 2. U., 

v. tr., to string a bow, kira ilolo pdsi. 
ilu U., v. i., to sup; ilu piinga, to sup yam soup. 
cf. inu. 
iluhi tr. 
imaa n., turtle-shell barb tied on the bonito 

hook (pasa). maa. 
i maana prep., on account of; i maana nga ta'a, 

wherefore, maa. 
'ime n., the bears-paw clam (Chama sp.) ; la'o, 
a frontlet carved therefrom; 'ima awa, 
U., yellow in color; 'ima erete'a, U., 
white clam; 'ima pulu, U., dark in 
color; 'ima susu, U., a clam difficult to 
detach; 'ima susulu, U., a clam easily 
detached. Mota gima, Maori kima. 
imiimi n., a root; with suffixed pronoun na, ni, 

imiimine dango, root of a tree, 
ina'o adv., before, formerly; 'eta ina'o, to be 
in the lead: with 'oto 1., 'oto ina'o, for- 
merly; with suffixed pronoun, ina'oku, 
before me; ina'ona mu maholo, in former 
times, na'o. 
ine 1. v. i., to take root (of yams, etc.); esi kele 

ine, it has just taken root. 
ine 2. U., demonstrative pronoun, that; mwai 
lehu ine, those places; 'osi hele hinoli'a 
taha ine, how well you have done it. 
Bintulu ina. 
inehu'i v. tr., to wrap up a parcel in leaves, to 

wrap up food in leaves for the oven, 
inemae 1. v. i., to be an orphan, to be bereft 
of parents. 2. n., an orphan. Lau 
inemae. ine 1. 
inemauri 1. v. i., to rule, to govern. 2. n., a 

ruler, ine 1. 
ineu S., inau U., pers. pron., sing. 1, 1: used as 
subject only and followed by nou, S., 
and nau, U.; ile inau, my one, mine; 
Mota inau, Florida inau. 
ini 1. S., n., a person, one (thing); nga and mu 
may be prefixed : ngaini, muini; ini ineu, 
my one; ini mwane, male; ini keni, 
female; ini ilei, what one; ini ni Sa'a, 
the Sa'a man; e ro ini, two things; ini 
qaarongoisuli e ka'a liuta'ana ini ha'au- 
suli, the disciple is not above his master; 
nga hai ini, a length of bamboo; ngaini 
ta'ane, yes, there is one; muini ineu, my 
ones; mwamwangaini, some odd ones, 
one here and there. 
ini 2. n., a sore under the foot, pitted, with hard 

coating, 
ini 3. U. (Su'uholo dialect), demonstrative 
pron. follows noun, that. Florida ini, 
Malay ini. 
ini 4. U., prefix to pronouns, inihou, iniparo, 

iniwau. cf. ni 4. 
4 ini 5. v. tr., to pinch, to pluck leaves, to crop 
with the fingers; 'ini reko, to pluck 
hibiscus; 'ini hite, thumb, used for 
pinching off leaves, etc. Mota gin; 
Mao. kini, pinch; Motu gini, thorn. 
inie-(ku) U., sister, brother; the personal 
article coalesces, ainieku. Florida Una, 
mother. 
1 inihou U., demonstrative pron. this, these; 



4i 



IPE 



inihou (continued). 

adv., here; 'oto inihou, now; 'oto mola 
inihou, just now. 

'ini'iniqaa U., adj., that has not had young 
(of animals). 

iniparo U., demonstrative pron., that, those; 
adv., there. 

'inoni n., man, human being, ha'a'inoni. 
ro 'inoni, voc, you two (of husband 
and wife); ro 'inoni ineu, my parents; 
Hsu nani 'inoni, of work not faithfully 
done; i'e 'inoni, a fish caught with kalu; 
i'emi mu me'i 'inoni, we humble people; 
Halo ana mu 'inoni, in man; e ka'a 
walana ike nga 'inoni, it is not the 
voice of a man; ki'iki'i ni 'inoni, a 
dwarf; lauleunitana nga 'inoni, orna- 
ments of men; manatana mu 'inoni, mu 
in an at a' 'i 'inoni, the nature of men; 
i matolai 'inoni, among men; ngeitei 
'inoni, what man? ohu 'inoni ohu sae, 
many men, many minds; qa'uli 'inoni, 
the name of a certain spear, man's head; 
a qa'uqesu 'inoni, a policeman; qera- 
qeraha ana mu 'inoni, exceeding many 
people; ride ni 'inoni, a dwarf ; ri'iri'i ni 
'inoni, a dwarf, a great number of men; 
ta'ena nga 'inoni, every man; td'ewau 
mu 'inoni, the common people. Wango 
noni, Florida tinoni. 
'inoninga U., v. n., to'o 'inoninga, possessing 
friends. 

iniwau U., demonstrative pron., that; adv., 
there. 

inu, inuinu 1. to drink; inu 'aela, not potable; 
tale'i inu mola'a, just drink without 
price. 2. to be drowned, 
inunge v. n., drinking. 
inuhi tr., ha'inuhi, to give to drink. 
inuhila-(ku) gerund. Mota un, Motu inua, 
Maori inu, Malay minum. 

i noruhaana S., trusting in, relying on, through. 

i nunuhaana S., through, by, because of. 

i nganite S., i ngenita U., adv., when; 'oto i 
nganite, when. Mota a ngaisa. 

inge'ie, inge'i S., inge'ia U., pers. pron., sing. 3; 
he, she, it, his, her, its; used as subject 
only and followed by e. Mota ineia, 
Florida anggaia. 

inge'ieni U., as inge'ia. 

'i'o, 'i'o'i'o 1. v. i., to sit, to live, to dwell, to 
be; 'i'o hiluhilue'i, estranged; 'i'o huu, 
abide forever; 'i'o ka'u, wait, to stay a 
while; 'i'o konito'o, rest assured; 'i'o 
loosi, to await; 'oke 'i'o kii'u loosieu, 
wait a while for me; mwala ko 'i'o loosi 
kire to'oana keni mwala ko holie, the 
party waiting, they own the girl who 
is being bought in marriage; 'i'o mama- 
nuto'o, to be at peace; 'i'o mamaware, to 
be in safety; 'i'o manire'i, to live 
orderly; 'i'o pe'i roe, the mourning before 
burial; 'i'o pe'i suke, sat and begged; 
'i'o ra'irehi, stay under the lee; 'i'o 
raqasi, to sojourn; 'i'o rarao, to be stuck 
tight; 'i'o raute'i, humble; e 'i'o sis- 
ingeku, stood in front of me; hai dan go 



'i'o, 'i'o'i'o 1 (continued). 

e 'i'o sisinge'i, the tree stood over 
against; 'i'o susu, to continue in one 
stay; 'i'o suu'i, to be present with; e 'i'o 
tohune, he was his own master; 'i'o toli, 
to be quiescent; 'i'o to'o, to be fixed, 
'i'onga v. n., way or manner of life; rara- 
maanga ana 'i'onga tata'ala, rebuking be- 
cause of evil ways. 
'i'ola-(ku) gerund., behavior. 
'i'osi tr., to dwell in (country), ha'a'i'osi. 
'i'ota'i v. i., to set about a thing; 'i'ota'i 
rongo keninga, to set about inquiring 
for girls as wives, 
'i'ota'ini tr., to set about doing. Viti tiko. 

'i'o 2. U., exclam., who can say, I don't know. 

i'oe pers. pron., sing. 2. thou, thine; when used 
as subject is followed by 'o. Florida 
igoe, Maori ikoe. 

'i'oha, 'i'o'i'oha v. n., station, place; with 
suffixed pronoun (ku), 'i'ohana, his 
place. 

'iola 1. canoe, 'iola 'ato'ato, a new canoe on a 
money-seeking voyage; 'iola e qa'a 'oto, 
the canoe is cracked; 'iola la'o, canoe 
inlaid with la'o; 'iola raku, canoe seating 
four; 'iola sarasara, bonito canoe, inlaid 
with reoreo; adu 'iola, to build a canoe; 
adu 'iolanga, v. n., canoe building: the 
canoes are all plank built and have no 
outriggers; 'ahe e lomosie 'iola, the surf 
buffeted the canoe; ana rao 'iola i qalo- 
qalo, on the right side of the ship; ila'o 
'iola, in the canoe; ma'ahu mala 'iola, 
to fast, lit., to sleep canoe fashion; moro 
taria paro 'iola i 'esi, you have launched 
the canoe yonder into the sea; ni'i 'ae 
la'o 'iola, to board a canoe; ro 'iola ko 
soma, the two canoes keep abreast; toli 
'iola, to steer for, to lay a canoe on her 
course. 2. metaphorically, a village; 
'iola 'i'emelu, our village, cf. na'oni'ola, 
Purini'ola. 3. a tree used to make 
planks for canoes. Lau ola, Florida 
tiola, Wango or a. 

iolaha v. i., to be disturbed in mind, excited. 

i'omolu pers. pron., plural 2, you, yours; more 
restricted in meaning than i'omu; when 
used as subject is followed by molu. 

i'omoro, i'omoro'i pers. pron., dual 2, you two, 
yours; when used as subject is followed 
by moro, moro'i. 

i'omoru'e S., pers. pron., dual 2, you two, 
yours; when used as subject is followed 
by 'omoru'e. 

i'omu pers. pron., plural 2, you, yours: more 
general in meaning than i'omolu; when 
used as subject is followed by 'omu. 
i'amu, U. Lau igamu. 

ioo v. i., to curdle, of coconut milk brought to 
the boil; the milk is boiled in the half 
shell (teu) placed on embers. 

ioqo v. i., to be dense (of smoke). 

ioroha U., prep., underneath; mai iorohana, on 
the earth. 

ipata S., hole where pigs wallow, upeta, U. 

ipe v. i., to wallow (of pigs), tataipeipe. 



IPEIPA 



42 



ipeipa U., pipe (English). 

ipelu S., ipalu U., ipeipelu v. i., to fight, to 

make war; ipelu eni heu, to fight with 

stones, 
ipelunga v. n., fighting, 
ipoipo'ala U., adj., muddy, 'ola 8. 
ipu n., a pool of water in a hole in a tree, 
ipuri adv., behind; prep., with suffixed pron. 
(feu) after; i purine maholo, after the 

time. puri. 
iqe 1. a lake. 2. calm water inside a reef. 

nerenere ni iqe kittiwake of the lagoon. 
ireki n. 1. tongs of bamboo for removing hot 

stones from the fire in cooking. 2. a 

constellation, the Southern Triangle. 

raki. 
ireune S., prep., beside, used of things; ireune 

wai, beside the water. 
'iri'o n., porpoise; porpoises are hunted and 

the teeth (nihoi i'e) form one of the 

currencies of the Solomons. Lau kiri'o, 

Mota ririgo. 
'iro, 'iro'iro 1. to look at, to look for, to see; 'iro 

keni, to look for a wife. Mota tiro. 
'iro 2. 'iro ni sato, drought. 
'Iro 3. the district on the hills on the west side 

of Mara Masiki Channel. 
'iro 'iro 1. a pool among rocks used as a mirror. 

2. a glass (late use). Mota tironin. 
'iro'iroa'i'e S., adj., reflecting like a mirror, 

glassy. 
'irori n., a parrot (Lorius cardinalis). cf. 

hirori, kirori. taka 'irori, proverbially, 

of confusion of voices, 
'ini, 'iru'iru 1. v. i., to blow (of wind). 2. n., 

wind. 
'iruhi v. tr., to blow on (of wind). Florida 

guri. 
i saa-(ku) S., not used in sing. 1 and 2, where 

the form * sie is used instead; at the 

house of, with, to; * saada'elu, at their 

house, at home, 
isi, isiisi 1. to curse, to use defiling words about, 
isiisinge v. n., cursing. 
isila-(ku) gerund. 
isi 2. isi ta'a, S., isi taha, U., to come out, to 

emerge, 
isita'anga, isitahanga v. n., ha'aisita- 

'anga'ini. 
isi 3. ha'aisi, adv., at all. 
i sie-(ku) at the house of, with, to. cf. i saa. 

nou lot tnai i siemu, I have come to you. 
i sinaha, i sihana, S., adv., outside the house, 
isipuri v. i., to be last, 
isuisu 1., v. L, to run along on top of a wave 

(of a canoe), cf. tataisuisu. 
isuisu 2. v. i., to play at cat's cradle. 

isuisunge v. n., cat's cradle, 
isuisu 3. U., isuisu ni 'ei, a splinter. 
i su'e adv., exterior to, on the outside. 
isule'i, isuisule'i partic, unstable, moving, 
isuli 1. adv., accordingly, after, alongside, by. 

cf. luluisuli. hele isuli, do according to; 

lio isuli, watch; rongo isuli, to be 

obedient to; si'o isuli, to follow the 

footsteps of; sulu isuli, to obey. 2. 

prep., with suff. pron. (au), after, 



isuli (continued). 

according to; hele isulieu, copy me. 
3. U., prep., of motion toward. 4. nono 
isuli, a strong-smelling herb. 

ite 1. U., one, another: nga is always prefixed, 
the plural article nvwa is used of persons 
only, ngaite ola, another thing, some- 
thing else; ngaite laa, another person; 
nga mwaite 'inoni, certain persons. 

ite 2. a round basket made of plaited coconut 
leaves for holding yams. 

'ite 3. v. tr., to find fault with, to reject. 
Wango ita, to reject. 

itehula- S., with poss. 3: because of, through 
the agency of. itehulaana a ola, because 
of So-and-so; itehulaamu, through thine 
agency. 

itei 1. S., interrog. adv.: where. U., ihei. 
2. interrog. pron., which, what, whether 
of two; ini itei, which one; 'oko sare 
ngau itei, which will you eat. 3. in 
phrase nge itei ue ena, that is just it. 
Mota vea, Niue fe. 

iteitana S., one, any: used with negative verbal 
particle ka'a, sa'a. e ka'a iteitana 
ngaini, there is not any one; iteitana nga 
ola sa'a diana, nothing will be good. 
Mota isei. 

ito 1. orchid. 2. bunch of money, ito ni haa. 

ito 3. v. tr., to offer, to make an offering to 
ghosts. 

itoli n., a shell ornament stuck in the tip of the 
nose, the man-o'-war hawk is carved on 
the projecting end, which is turned up 
to represent the neck and breast of a 
sea-bird, i 3. 

iwe'ite S., adv., the day before yesterday; 
i we' ite wau, three days ago. * 1. 

i welita U., adv., the day after tomorrow, cf. 
wali. i welita poo wau, three days hence. 



ka pron., plural 1. inch: suffixed to nouns and 
denoting possession; nimaka, our hands. 

ka'a S., negative verbal particle, used of both 
present and past time; ka'a balanced 
by wa with fee is used as the negative 
correlatives neither, nor. 'omu ka'a 
manata'inie wa 'omu fee leesie, ye 
neither know him nor have seen him; 
nou ka'a manata'ie ike, I don't know; 
e ka'a lae, he did not go; e ka'a ola, there 
is nothing; nou ka'a ola, I have nothing; 
melu ka'a ola ni ngaa, we have no food; 
ka'a equates with kaka. cf. Mota te, 
tete. Maori ka, Mota ga 4; Lau ka, 
future particle; Tolo fee, negative 
particle. 

kaakae U., child, baby. Wango kaakae. 

ka'alawa v. L. to be listless, inert, cf. lalawa; 
sapeku e ka'alawa, my body is listless. 

kaata cart (English). 

kae 1. v. i., to pluck; kae 'asi, to pluck out. 

kae, kaekae 2. U., v. tr., to deceive; lopo'i kae, 
to deceive, 
kaenga v. n., deceit. 



43 



KAO 



kae, kaekae 2 (continued). 

kaengaha v. n. (double noun ending) , deceit. 

kaesi tr. 

kaeta'ini tr. (Qaloto dialect). 

ka'elu 1. U., pers. pron., plural 1, incl.: we, 
more restricted than ki'a in meaning; 
with future particle 'e, ka'elu, contracts 
to ka'el'e. ka'eka'elu, come on, let us 
be off; ka'el'e lae, let us go. 2. pers. 
pron., plural 1, incl., suffixed to nouns; 
'amaka'elu, our father. 3. U., pers. 
pron., plural 1, incl., suffixed to verbs 
and prepositions; e saunika'elu, he 
beat us. 

kahite S., uwerikahite, rags. 

kahu cf. makahu. 

k&'i contraction of ka'u i; 'o lae ka'i tei, where 
did you go to. 

kaka v. i., to be torn, to be split, makaka. 
kakasi tr., to split. 

kakahite v. i., to gape open, to split, kahite. 

kakahu U., exclam. of astonishment at some- 
thing of great size; kakahu ni ola, a 
monsterl 

kakahuru S., v. i., to be taken by surprise. 
ha'akakahuru. 

kakalihe n., a guarding, a guard, kali 1. 

kakalo v. i., to grope with the hands; kakalo 
'ulu'ulu, to grope blindly. 

kakalu S., n., a well of water, kilu, U. 

kakamo U., v., to be stringy, of hana. 

kakamu 1. v. i., to itch. 

kakamu 2. n., with genitive ni; fringe, skirt. 

kakamuni n., an armlet of shell. 

kakapoo n., a strong-smelling herb. 

kakata n., a handle; kakatai heu, an iron rod; 
with suff. pron., kakatana, its handle. 
Mota kaka, to stretch out the hand 
and catch hold. 

kakau S., v. i., to shout, to cry aloud. 

kakau'e adj., prickly, kilu 1. 

kakawe (na) n., tentacles of octopus, cf. 'ahe 3. 
Mota gave, a crab, so named from its 
claws; Motu gave, tentacles of octopus. 

kala v. tr., to cut pieces of nautilus shell 
(reoreo) for purposes of inlaying; kala 
'apani paale'o, to cut nautilus shell in 
triangular patterns; kala kite, to cut it 
in rectangular pieces and to split the 
ends in V-shape; kala toohe'o, to cut 
shell hooks. 

kalani a fish, i'e ni kalani. 

kale 1. (ku) n., a child, a son, a daughter; with 
personal article a kale, the son; kalena 
a ola, son of So-and-so; kale madu ineu, 
my beloved child; kale ni ulao, a bastard; 
masi kaleku, my child; keni kalei Sion, 
daughter of Sion; nga keni mala a 
kdlemu, a girl a mate for your son. Lau 
gale, Florida dale, Wango gare, New 
Hebrides gari, New Britain garra. 
cf. kele. 

kale 2. ha'akale, to wait for, to watch, to keep 
an eye on. cf. kali. 

kale 'a adj., heavy with child, to be in childbirth. 

Kalenipa'ewa the name of a canoe in a story, 
Little Shark. 



kali, kakali, kakakali 1. v. tr., to watch, to 
surround, to double a point of land in a 
canoe, lilikeli. kali pele, to be cap- 
sized in rounding a cape at sea; kali la'a, 
to emerge; dau keli, to surround; 
kakali he'ihe'i'oli, to take turns in 
guarding; lili keli, to encircle; e piru keli 
eku, surrounded me; si'o kali, to spy; 
e kali i 'elingeku, it sounded in my ears, 
kakalinge v. n., watching, guarding. 
kalila-(ku) gerund, 
kalite'i partic, ko kelite'i honotamu, round 

about thee, 
kalite'ini tr., to keep watch over, to guard. 
Florida tali, Omba dali, round; Wango 
gari, Mota kal, to stir, tal, to go around. 

kali 2. kali awala, a sum of money (had) made 
up of ten strings (kawe) each a fathom 
long. 

kalikeli 1. adv., around. 2. prep., with suff. 
pron. (au), around. 

kalinga (na) U., a hole; kalingana, its hole. 

kalinge S., n., a well of water. 

Kalitaalu one of the legendary persons of 'Olu 
Malau; his drinking-place (tonohaana) 
is at Lenga in Ulawa where he is reputed 
to have thrust his fishing-rod into the 
stream as it poured over the rock into 
the sea and to have drunk the drippings* 

kalite'i'a U., adj., used as noun, a strand of 
rope; ro kalite'i'a, double thickness. 

kalona U., n., garden ground on the second 
range of hills above the beach, i kalona; 
uhi ni kalona, yams from this region, 
firm and hard as opposed to uhi ni qe'u, 
which are more mealy. 

kalu 1. n., a hand net tied to the four corners 
of two bent sticks laid at right angles 
to one another, a third stick serving 
as a handle. 2. v. tr., to use such a 
net in fishing from a canoe for parrot- 
fish (i'e ni kelu), a live fish tied by the 
gills to a stick is used as a decoy, where- 
upon fish of the same sort come out 
to the decoy and are caught in the net. 
The decoy fish when not in use is kept 
in an artificial pond (lopo). 
kalu'i tr., to catch fish with such a net. 

kalu 3. v. tr., to bend a bow. 

kana, kanakana 1. v. i., to sing. 2. n., a song. 
huu ni kana, a company of singers at a 
dance; nga odoni kana, a song sung 
straight through; supu kana, to com- 
pose songs. 
kananga v. n., a song; sulu kananga, a sing- 
ing of songs; supu kananga, v. n., com- 
posing songs. 
kanali tr. Wango gana. 

kao 1. n., the bottom planks of a canoe, the 
keel. ikao. 2. with suff. pron. 3 pers. 
na, kaona, the under part, the hold, of 
canoe or ship. 3. U., * kaomu, under- 
neath you; mwalo suhu kao, a rock that 
pierces the bottom, sunken rock; pali 
kao, a drop left in the bottom, dregs; 
e ka'a to'o kaona, bottomless. Wango> 
kao. 



KAOKAO 



44 



kaokao n., a half coconut shell used for drink- 
ing-cup (late use). Wango kaokao. 

kape hi'uhi'u kape, U., hi'uhi'u pole, S., to wag 
the tail feathers, a bird (the wagtail). 
Maori kapekapeta, to flutter; San Cris- 
toval, rurukape. 

kara, kara'i U. 1. pers. pron., dual 1, inch: we 
two. 2. suffixed to noun or verb or 
preposition as object. 3. suffixed to 
noun, of us two. Wango kara. 

kara 4. v. i., to scrape, to grate; kara uhi, kara 
uhinge, yam grating; 'usu kara, to grate 
yams for yam pudding. 5. grated-yam 
pudding tied up in leaves; kara ni 
'aharota, large puddings for a wedding 
feast; kara dodo, yam pudding put into 
bamboos and cooked over the embers; 
kara lalemo, yam pudding without 
coconut milk; kara ni mwane (hinanga), 
yam pudding used in sacrifices. Mota 
gar, cockle; Viti kari, to scrape; Maisin 
kari, Niue alati. 

kara'i adv., preceding the verb; nearly, almost; 
nou kara'i lae, I almost went. 

kara'ini 1. adv., as kara'i. 2. prep., with suff. 
pron. (aw), near, close to. Lau garangi, 
Wango garangi. 

kar'e U., contraction of kara'e, let us two; 
kar'e lae, let us be off! 

Kareimenu a fabulous person, half boy and 
half shark, changed by his mother, who 
cursed him because he frightened his 
younger brother by swimming with one 
arm bent and held at his side so as to 
resemble a shark's fin. 

karekare U., osani karekare, a cliff. 

karenga v. tr., to watch for turtles coming up 
to lay. 

kari n., squid; used largely for fish bait; tala'i 
keri, to entice squid with a white cowrie 
shell (puli) and red streamers (aleale). 
Mota wirita, octopus, Motu urita, 
Malagasy hurita. 

Karieu a ghost. M. A., p. 261. 

karikeri n., a piece, a bit. 

kariheni, karihani U., adv.; 'osi keriheni 'aela 
laa, do not be such a nuisance. 

kariwaaro v. i., to take a circuitous route. 
waaro. 

karikeri'ara S., karikeri'ala U., a bird, the 
migratory plover, arriving in November 
at the time of the palolo worm and 
found exhausted in the gardens and 
open spaces, whence it is said oku e 
hirusia maana, the palolo has got into 
its eye. 

karo S. 1. the side walls of a house; han suusuui 
karo, cornerstone. 

karo 2. v. tr., to pick canarium nuts, karoa 
ngali; karo siriunga, picking up cockles. 

karohure S., karohure e sasa'ae i kaona 'asi, the 
depths were troubled. 

karokaro (ku) side, ribs, of persons. Florida 
nggaro. 

Wru 1. v. i., used with poss. 3; to clutch, to 
hold; ka.ru ana, take hold of it; more 
common in Ulawa. 



karu, karukeru 2. v. i., to scratch with the 
finger nails; mwela ko keriikeru la'o ha'u, 
the child scratches in the umbrella: 
when a child is sick a wizard is called in 
and he declares that its soul has been 
stolen away; he takes leaves of dra- 
caena (dili) and collects the child's soul 
with the leaves and places it in the 
umbrella (Jia'u) where it is heard 
scratching; he shakes the umbrella 
over the child's body, the child is con- 
vulsed, the soul returns and the child 
recovers. 
karumi tr., to scratch the body when suffer- 
ing from skin disease or itching. Mota 
karu, Maori raku, Malay garut, Samoa 
la'u, Gilb, kori. 

karu 3. v. i., to suffer from skin disease. 

karu 4. v. i., to hollow out a log for a drum, 
karu 'o'o. 
karu'i v. tr. 
karu'ila-(na, ni) gerund. 

karu oe U., to be foolish, to talk foolishly. 

karu menu S., to endure hardness. 

kasu, ka'ukesu S., v. i., to be rotten, corrupt. 
kasunge v. n., corruption. 

kata n., a mortar for pounding areca nut, used 
by those who are toothless (dawa). 

kau, kaukeu 1. v. i., to clutch hold of (of thorny 
creepers), to catch hold of with ikca. 
kau lomolomo, the fourth finger; walo 
kaukeu, a thorny creeper, 
kausi tr., walo e kausie, the thorn caught 
him 'akalo e kausie i'ola, a ghost clutched 
and capsized the canoe; ikeu, a crook; 
for twitching off fruit and leaves. 
malakeu. Maori kakau, stalk; Lau 
kakau, fingers; Mota kau, Malay kauit; 
Niue keu, crooked. 

kau 2. n., branching coral, mu keu; huui keu, a 
spray of coral; uunu keu, to burn coral 
for lime used in areca chewing. 

kau 3. cow (English). 

ka'u 4. adv., follows verb, (a) forms a pre- 
terite, nou lae ka'u, I went, (b) at the 
beginning of a sentence it directs 
attention, and generally it makes speech 
less abrupt; ka'u, neke leesie, please let 
me see it; i'o ka'u, stay a while, wait; 
ka'u mei nga hue, give me one (fruit) 
please; kolu ke'u, let us be off; konia 
ka'u, wait, tarry a while; 'oke lae ka'u, 
you had better go; 'omu ke mala mwela 
ka'u, just become as little children; lio 
ka'u, behold; loo ka'u, look; neku ka'u, 
be seated; nge ke 'ue ka'u ne, how then 
will it be; 'oke i'o ka'u loosieu, wait a 
while for me; no'i ka'u, stay, wait a 
while; lae ka'u 'ohi'i, go fetch it; laa 
ka'u, let me see; tahi ke'u, be off, get 
out of the road. Wango gau. 

kaule S., kaula U., frigate-bird, man-o'-war 
hawk, nests on Bio by Ugi; on account 
of its size and voracity and of its asso- 
ciation with the bonito the frigate-bird 
figures largely in the art of the southern 
Solomons, poro kaule, mwane kaule. 



45 



Kl'E 



kaule (continued). 

the male bird: term used generally in 
speaking of the kaule; rapu keule, to 
tattoo the frigate-bird on the cheek: the 
tattoo takes the form of an inverted W 
where the two points represent the 
curve in the wing of the bird. A 
similar W pattern also called kd'ule i 
found on the flat blades of clubs 
(Guppy, "Solomon Islands," p. 74), and 
it may be that a further explanation of 
the device is that it is the conventional 
representation of the kaule. Florida 
daula. M. A., p. 126. 

kaumota n., adze; in old days made of a stone 
attached to V-shaped handle composed 
of a branch and part of the stem of a tree. 

kauwa'a S., n., must, mildew, rust. 

kawa'i S., v. tr., to hear; 'alinge ka'a kawa'ie, 
ear hath not heard. 

kawe n., a string of shell money (haa), nga 
kawe. Wango gawe. 

ke 1. S., verbal particle used of future time; 
saune hunt ke tnae, pound it so that it 
will be well mashed; ana ke ola nvwam- 
wadau, if possible; ke mani dolosie 
satada, let him ask all their names. 
With the negative particle ka'a: e ka'a 
ola ke laku, there is nothing whole; 
e ka'a ola neke leesie, I saw nothing. 
Used with negatives ka'a and sa'a cor- 
related with wa in the sense of neither, 
nor: 'omu ka'a manala'inie wa 'omu ke 
leesie, ye neither know him nor saw him, 
Florida te, of present time. Lo te ke. 
Mota te 1 ; Ulawa 'e. cf. ha'ike, qa'ike. 

ke 2. exclam., used when one has made a wrong 
statement. 

kei 1. n., a female (of persons only), cf. mwei; 
the personal article a precedes and de- 
monstrative na is suffixed; a keine, the 
woman; mu keine, the women; keine, 
vocative, woman; the addition of taa 
expresses commiseration; kei ta'a, poor 
dear; paine, big, is added in the case of 
important persons, kei ta'a paine, dear 
lady. Gilbert Islands nei, Lau ni, per- 
sonal article preceding the name of a 
woman; Trobriand na, Efate lei, Tangoa 
ve. cf. nvwae. 

kei, keikei 2. U., adv., of motion from, out of; 
e kei hei, whence; nau keikei ana, I am 
from thence. 

ke'i 3. S., verbal particle used of definite future. 
cf. ke 1. ke'i lae ta'ane, he will go cer- 
tainly; ke'i 'ue 'oto, how shall it be done; 
kire ke'i ne'i manata'a diana, they shall 
become well trained; melu ke'i tola 'oto, 
are we to begin to carry? Fagani i, 
Omba, Maewo i. 

keke 1. U., with locative i; i keke, beside, out- 
side; koni i keke, to excommunicate. 
2. with suff. pron. (ku), to (of persons 
only), Qaloto use. * kekemu, as i siemu, 
in your house; i kekena wai, beside the 
stream. 3. adv., behind; lio keke, look 
behind. 



keke (continued). 

kekea'i S., kekeni U., partic. lio i kekea'i 
maanga, to bear ill will, to have a spite 
against, malakeke. Wango gege, Lau 
gege, behind; Motu kekena, by the side of. 

Kela the southern end of Guadalcanal awalosi 
i Kela, the southwest wind; hana ni 
Kela, a yam planted head downward; 
qaso ni Kela, armlet of dyed grass. 

kele, 'ele U. 1. adv., somewhat, a little, just 
now: precedes the verb, est kele ine, it 
has just rooted; est kele loto, just washed ; 
kele me'i langa, it lets up a little. 2. 
adj., small, little: precedes the noun; 
kele mwau ineu, my little boy; kele 
mwela, little child; kele me'i ola, a little 
thing; kele poo, a little pig; a kele ola, 
young So-and-so. (Probably connected 
with kale.) Wango gere. 

keli cf. kali. 

kelu U., contraction of kira'elu, used as subject 
only. 

kemo U., v., to be straight, of hair. 

kena'i ha'akena'i, he'asikena'i, interjections, 
not to be used in the presence of women. 

keneta'ini U., v. tr., to safeguard, to observe 
and do. kineta'ini, S. 
keneta'inila-(ku) gerund, 
ha'akeneta'ini causative. 

keni n., woman, wife, female: added to proper 
names to show sex. ha'akeni. keni, mu 
keni, vocative; keni ana a ola, such-and- 
such a woman; nga keni mala a kalemu, 
a girl, a mate for your son; keni ha'alu, S., 
keni ha'olu, U., a maiden; keni ineu, my 
dear; keni raori'i, a virgin; keni toro, 
the lady; keni ulao, a harlot; 'ai ha'an- 
gdu keni, ginger given to women as an 
ordeal; hdu ni keni, a rock at Ali'ite 
where female ghosts congregate; He keni, 
female; ini keni, female; i'ota'i rongo 
keninga, to set about a betrothal; me'i 
keni reu, a lowly woman; tola keni, to 
take a wife. Motu kekeni, Doura, N. 
G., eneni; Rotuma hen. 

kere, kerekere v. tr., to incise, to draw, to 
outline, to cut lateral marks on nautilus 
plates. makere. Florida nggere, to 
write; Wedau teretere. 

kerehi, kerekerehi v. tr., to look at, to stare at. 

kerekere 1. hut kerekere, a taro shot with veins. 

kerekere-(na) 2. U., used with locative i, of 
things only; beside, by the side of. 
i kerekerena tala, beside the path. 

kereru'e S., pers. pron., dual 3: they two; used 
only as subject. 

kesi verbal particle: ke and si illative; nge 
laenga kesi lae, then the journey will 
take place. 

keta, ketaketa v. tr., to annoy, to provoke, 
ketanga v. n., uproar, upset. 
ketala-(ku) gerund. 

ki'e S., ki'a U., pers. pron., plural 1 inch: we; 
more general in meaning than kolu or 
ka'elu; used as subject, or suffixed as 
object to verbs and prepositions. 
Florida gita, Malay kit 



IEKIE 



46 



kiekie S., kiakia U., a club of crescent-shape 

with a point on the back. Guppy, 

"Solomon Islands," p. 74. 
ki'i, ki'iki'i (ku) 1. U., n., hand, finger, rod, 

stem; susue'i ki'i, to stretch out the hand; 

ki'iki'i ni he'u, a rod of iron. 2. a 

dwarf, ki'iki'i ni 'inoni. Makura wiri- 

kikin, Tavara nima-kiki. 
kiito n., a bird, gray fish-hawk (Baza gurneyi). 

Guadalcanar kiso. 
kikiri 1. n., a lettuce-leaf tree with large edible 

fruits considered a cure for coughs; the 

root affords the red dye used on strips 

of cane {tie, aleale). 
kikiri 2., kikiri qe'u, a ghost. M. A., p. 261. 
kikoa n., a bird, the black mynah. sikoa. 
kilekile 1. n., a small parrot (Trichoglossus 

massena). 
kilekile 2. n., a long-handled tomahawk used 

for fighting, with an iron head; a Florida 

word. 
kiliqe'u 1. n., a depression in the ground, a 

grave. 2. n., a pass in the hills above 

Su'uholo, Ulawa. 
kilokilo v. i., to beat the water with the hands 

in sport while bathing, making thereby 

a booming noise. 
kilu U. 1. a well of water, a hole in the ground; 

kilu ni wei, a water hole; kilu ni ngedi, 

a pit where flints are found. Florida 

gilu, grave; Lau kilugwou, grave; Wango 

giru, ditch; Viti kikilo, hole. 
kilu U. 2. contraction of kira'elu. cf. kelu. 
kineta'ini, kinekineta'ini S., to safeguard, to 

preserve, to observe and do. keneta'ini.V. 
Mneta'inila-(ku) gerund, 
ki'oki'o n., a bird, the large kingfisher. Santa 

Cruz kio, Mota sigo, Samoa Wo. 
kiraa for kire a, used of a company; kiraa ola, 

whom do you mean, lit., they the person; 

kiraa Wate, Wate and his companions, 
kiratei interrog. pron., plural 3: who; followed 

by e or kire; kiratei e lae mai, kiratei kire 

lae, who went? 
kire S., kira U., pers. pron., plural 3; used as 

subject only. 
kireru'e S., pers. pron., dual 3: they two; used 

as subject only, 
kirori n., a parrot (Lorius cardinalis), found on 

the blossoms of the Barringtonia and 

coconut, tamed as a pet. cf. hirori, 

'irori. Cruise of the Curacoa, p. 380. 

Motu kiloki. 
kiru U., rai kiru, a yam with reddish flesh, 
kiukiu rape n., a bird, wagtail, cf. hi'uhi'u 

rape. 
ko S., verbal particle used of general time; 

si illative may be added, kosi; in cases 

where a changes to e after a preceding 

i or u the same change takes place after 

ko. e 'ure'ure ko rarangi, he stood 

warming himself; 'oto kire kosi 'unue, 

thereupon they began to say it; ko 

ha'ike, otherwise, else; ko urine, that 

being so. Sesake ko, future particle. 
koe, koekoe U., v. i., to make fun of; with poss. 

3, to jest. 



kos, koekoe (continued). 

koenga, v. n., koengaha v. n. (double noun 

ending). Wango koe, Florida koehoru. 
koetana'a to scatter (of a flock of birds), 
kohe, ko'ekohe as koe, in Qaloto dialect, 
kohi adj., beautiful; e lio kohi, itlooks beautiful, 
kohikohila U., adj., beautiful. 
koho 1. snags, logs or branches in a stream, 
koho, kokoho 2. v. i., to be deceitful, to deceive; 

ko kokoho haahi wala, deceitful in speech, 
kohonga v. n. 
kohu 1. v. i., to be half grown, unripe, green 

(of fruit). 
kohu 2. U., v. i., to cut, to chop. 
kohukohuU., kohukohu laona salo, far-off clouds. 
koikoi U., v. i., to chew with toothless gums, 
ko'ikori a pudding of pounded taro and cana- 

rium nuts; kori. 
koine v. tr., to adopt. 

koinala-(ku) gerund, 
koke v. tr., to hasten unduly. 

kokela'i partic, flurried, hastily; nou lae 

kokela'i, I came away without making 

due preparations, 
kokela'ini tr. 
koko 1. kokoi epu, a drop of blood. Wango 

kokoru. 
koko 2. v. i., to be narrow, confined, hariko- 

kosi. Mota koko, Malagasy hohota. 
koko 3. kokoi sa'o, a frond of sago palm; kokoi 

selu, needles of casuarina. 
kokoho 'a a hill. 
kokohisi v. i., to be narrow, strait, confined. 

koko 2. 
kokohono v. i., to be black and lowering, koko 2. 

salo ko kokohono, the sky is lowering, 
koko'ie'i partic, narrow, confined, koko 2. 
kokolo n., a large hermit crab, (Ccenobita). 
kokolu U.. a coconut with hard flesh, fully 

grown; hoi niu kokolu, hoi kokolu. kolu 4. 

Espiritu Santo kolo, coconut. 
kokoluta'a adj., with corners, kolu 2. 
kokome n., round white shell armlet made of 

trochus (la'o). 
kokopa U., kokopa ni 'ei, a thin buttress on 

certain trees, such as the canarium and 

liki. 
kokorako v. i., to crow (of fowls). Mota 

kokorako. 
kokoro v. i., to sink deep into, to be deep. 

Mota koro, deep, 
kokosi U., hasi kokosi, to be in distress, koko 2. 
kole, kolekole v. i., to rattle, to rustle; hole sa'o 

kole wa nga me'i ola 'erete'a ke'i i'o » 

sapeka, the paddles must not rattle nor 

anything of light color be about our 

bodies. 
kolokolo 1. U. v. tr., to forget, to fail to recol- 
lect, ha'akolo. 
kolokolo 2. n., a bird (Turacaena crassirostris), 

a pigeon with a long tail and a crest, 

cries at evening and morning. 
kolu S. 1. pers. pron., plural 1 incl. : we, us; more 

restricted in meaning than ki'e; used as 

subject, also suffixed to verbs and prep- 
ositions as object, kolu ntone, let us be 

gone. Mukawa kota. 



47 



KUI 



kolu-(ku) 2. the back (of persons), the outside 
(of things); kolune 'asi, the face of the 
sea; w'ii e lama haahi ue kolune mwakano, 
water covered the face of the earth; 
kolune nime, the outside of a bowl. 
3. the heel, kolune 'ae. Motu dolu. 

kolu, kokolu 4. to gnaw, to champ with the 
teeth. 

koluhe v. n., the roof of a house, used with 
poss. 3 ana, koluhaana nume. kolu 2. 

koma v. i., to kick; used with poss. 3 as 
object. 

komu family, clan, sort, tribe (late use) ; in Sa'a 
pers. pron. sing 3 ne is suffixed; komu 
i'emelu, our family; komuna a ola. So- 
and-so's family. Florida komu, village; 
San Cristoval kumu. 

Komukomu n., the artificial islets off north 
Malaita. Florida kokomu, islet. 

kone v. i., to set (of current), to carry along in 
flow, to be in flood; kone e qera, much 
flood- waters; ewe kone, to gather to- 
gether (of flood- waters) ; wai ko kone, 
the river is in spate. Ambrym kone, 
to carry. 

koni, konikoni v. tr., to put, to place, to set, 
to keep, to adopt, to endow, to receive, 
to entertain, to nourish, koni diana, 
to take good care of; konia kau, U., 
wait a while; koni i keke, to excommuni- 
cate; manu koni, a tame bird; hu'e kire 
konie mola, a concubine, lit., wife enter- 
tained merely; ne'i koni, to lay up in 
store, to make provision; noko koni'o ana 
to'olaku, I endow thee with my property; 
'onime'i koni, to store up; si'o koni, to 
collect together; tola koni, to receive. 
konihe, konikonihe v. n., a servant, depend- 
ant. 
konila-(ku) gerund. Florida nggoni, Wan- 
go goni. 

konito'o adj., assured, in safety; i'o konito'o, 
rest in safety, koni. 

konokono (ku) n., throat, gullet, cf. 'ono'ono, 
to swallow. Florida sonosono, Wango 
gono, Ulawa tono, to drink; Mota gom, 
to hold liquid in the mouth, gonogono, 
hollow, with a mouth. 

koo v. i., to cause to boil by placing hot stones 
in, stone-boiling, 
koongi tr. 

kookoo a word used to deter children, probably 
connected with Lau koo a grandfather, 
and having to do with religious rites. 

kopi S., v. i., to touch, to flick with the finger; 
used with poss. 3 as object, e kopi eku, 
he touched me. 
kopi U., v. tr. 

korasi 1. v. tr., to scatter, to put to flight; 
e korasie mu na'ona'oi mae, he put to 
flight the ranks of the foe. 2. v. tr., to 
pour out upon. Mota gora, to push 
away. 

kore, korekore U. 1. v. tr., to sweep. 2. a 
besom made of midribs of sago frond- 
lets. 
kore 3. ruru kore, a landslip, avalanche. 



Korea Lama i Korea, a lake on Little Malaita 

above Su'u Peine, 
kori 1. a yam pudding, ko'ikori. 2. plug 

tobacco (late use). 
koro, koro'i U., pers. pron., dual 3; they two; 

used both as subject and as object; 

koro 'a mono 'oto i Kalona, they two 

live apart in Kalona. 
koru 1. v. tr., to heap up, to be heaped up; 

ha'akoru. koru dunge, to make a fire; 

nga hale e koru hula i sinaha, the shed 

was full right to the door. 
korute S., koruha, koruta U., a company, a 

collection, 
koruhe'ini tr., to heap up. 
Koru 2. a district on the hills of Little Malaita 

near Au Qe'i. 
korukoru 1. v. i., to water (of the mouth). 
korukoru 2. n., a piece, a morsel; nga koru- 

korui niu, a piece of coconut. 
kosi verbal particle of general time: ko and si 

illative; 'oto kire kosi 'unue, thereupon 

they began to say it; kosi mei, it has 

just begun to ebb. 
koso v. i., to drift (of a canoe) . 

kosola'ini tr., to be driven by a storm, to 

be drifted. 
kosu v. i., to be humpbacked. 
kotaa v. L, to chatter. 

kotaaha v. n., confusion, vexation, 
kotaahi tr., to chatter and vex, to annoy. 

Mota kota. 
kou 1. clean-shaven head. cf. torokou'e. suhi 

kou, to shave the head clean. 
kou'e clean shaven; 'olo kou'e ihune, shave 

his head close, torokou'e. 
ko'u 2. adj., maimed in foot or hand. 
ko'ukohu S., kohukohu U., with genitive i, 

a piece, cf. ko'uko'u. ko'ukohui poo, 

a piece of pork. 
koukou 1. v. i., to gargle; koukou wet, koukou 

'esi, to gargle with sweet water, with 

salt water, 
koukou 2. with genitive li, ni. cf. poupou 2; 

koukouli 'ae, S., koukou ni 'ae, U., 

ankle, 
koukou (na, ni) 3. n., kernel of canarium. 
ko'uko'u 4 as ko'ukohu. 
ko'uko'u 5 loud noise, bang, kokohu. rongo; 

ko'uko'u ana, to hear a loud report, 
ko'uko'uhe v. n., report, loud noise; 

ko'uko'uha ana siute, report of the gun. 
koukoule S., adj., short, stumpy. 
koulaa S., hata koulaa, noisy chattering, 
ku 1. pron., sing. 1, suffixed to nouns and to 

stem a forming poss. 3. Mota k, Poly- 
nesian ku. 
ku 2. exclam. of contempt. 
ku 3. v. tr., to mock at. 
ku 4. v. tr., to bark at; 'us2i e kueu, the dog 

barked at me. 
kue S., kua U. 1. n., a domestic fowl; hoi kue, hoi 

mwaopu ni kue, a fowl's egg. Wango kua. 
ku'e S., ku'a U. 2. pron., sing. 1, suffixed to 

stems 'a and na forming poss. 1 and 2. 
ku'i v. tr., to mock at. ku 3; mwala ko kit'ie, 

men mock him. 



KDKA 



4 8 



kuka U., 'u'e S., a mud crab, kuka pulu. 

kukao'e U., a cry to call distant attention. 

kuku U., 'u'u S. 1. v. i., to hang down, to 
depend, ha'akuku, mwakuku. 

kuku U. 2. to be bent; Jordan e kuku eliho'i, 
Jordan was turned back. Motu 
magugu, to crinkle; Maori kuku, pin- 
cers; Salakau, Borneo, kuku, a claw. 

kukulu U., v. i., to swing. 

kule 1. n., the shore, the beach, dry land; la'i 
kule, on the beach; lai kule, to go up 
on to the beach. 

kule, kulekule 2. v. tr., to loosen, to be loose; 
kulaa talai heune, to loosen the teeth. 
Viti kurekure, to wag the head. 

kulu v. i., to bury at sea, kulu rae, M. A., p. 
262; two canoes take the body out for 
burial, the body is weighted with stones 
and the knees hunched up and tied; 
after the committal one canoe paddles 
several times at a fast pace around the 
spot, the other paddles out to sea taking 
a mangile, q. v. 
kulu'i tr. 
kulu'ila-(ku) gerund. 

kuluhi v. tr., to sustain, cf. manikulu'e; 
e kuluhie hanue, he sustains the land. 

kumara sweet potato (Polynesian), called 
occasionally uhi ni haka, the imported 
yam; susu kumara, to plant the vines. 

kumu, kumukumu 1. v. i., to punch, to beat 
with the fist, 
kumu'i tr. 
kumu'ila-(ku) gerund. 

kumu 2. v. i., to be blunt, dull of edge. 

kumuri v. tr., to quench. 

kumwe S., kumwa U., v. i., to ebb, to go down, 
to abate, to slacken, to diminish, to wane, 
kumwesi 1. to shorten. 2. kumwesie tete, 
to take a stone wall to pieces. 

kure, kurekure 1. v. tr., to heal sickness; 
mwane kurekure, a witch doctor, 
kuranga v. n., healing, curing. 

kure S. 2. pers. pron., dual 1, incl.: we two, us 
two; used as subject and also suffixed to 
verbs and prepositions as object. 

kure 3. exclam., often reduplicated; kurekure, 
come on with you, let us (two) be off. 

kuru n., a ripe areca nut. cf. pue. hoi kuru; 
metaph. a full-grown person. 

kurukuru 1. U., a wood-pigeon, generic term. 
2. S., a pigeon without wattles on the 
beak, kurukuru ni Malau. 

kururaqa U., adj., deceitful (derived from the 
name of a person). 

kusi cat (English pussy). Samoa ngose. 

kute, kutekute v. tr., to shake, to move 
violently. 



la 1. v. i., to be, to go; e la 'otoi 'aela, it goes 
(is) bad; e la 'otoi 'aela mwaani nonola, 
it is worse than yesterday; e la 'oto i 
diana, it is good; saeku e la 'otoi wana, 
my heart was hot; e lai 'aela, it is bad. 
Tolo ra, to go; Mota al; Keapara laa, 
walk; Maisin rax, come; Trobriand la, go. 



la 2. verbal suffix; apa, apala. 

la 3. noun ending added to verbs, mae, maela. 

la 4. adjective ending added to verbs and 
participles, naho, nahola, ereerea'ile. 

la 5. gerundive ending, to which pronoun (few) 
is always suffixed, sau, saunilana, 
saunileku. 

la 6. root of langa, to lift; langi, sky. 

laa 1. noun ending, added to verbs, hou, houlaa, 
honu, honulaa. 

laa 2. U., a person; nga laa ni hei, who is this 
person? ngaite laa, a different person; 
laa hou, vocative, you; 'o si ta'ata'a, 
laa, don't, I say; 'oto ihei, laa, where to, 
boy. 

la'a 3. adjective ending, mamaela'a. 

la'a 4. U., adv. up; sulu la'a ana, lift it up. 

la'alapa v. i., to complain, to moan, lapata'i. 

La'alanga Alite Harbor, Langalanga, Big 
Malaita. 

la'alapasi cf. lapasi. 

lada 1. v. i., to pierce, to thrust through, 
ladami tr. 
ladamila-(ku) gerund. 

lada 2. ladaa'ini, to bow, to bend down; e 
ladaa'inie maana, he fell on his face, 
ladama'i partic, headlong, prostrate. 
Florida lada, to bend, to worship. 

lade 1. lade mae, deep sea. 2. deep-water 
anchorage at the end of a harbor, t Lade, 
e. g., at Tawaniahia. 3. S., name of 
certain months; hure'i lade, August; 
oku lade, September. 

lado 1. v. tr., to knot, to join, to graft. 

ladoha na v. n., a joint ; i lado'ihaana, in a line 
with, joining onto; i ladohaana, thereby, 
ladoha'ini tr., to join on. 
ladola-(ku) gerund. 

lado, lalado 2. v. tr., to recount, to tell, to 
recite a tale; lado diena, U., to explain; 
lado taliheku, to make my defense, 
laladonga v. n., story, tale, folk lore. 
ladoha'ini tr. Florida lada. 

lae, laelae v. i., to go, to come, lae mai, lae wau; 
to be, e lae uritaa, how is it; with loca- 
tive i, lae i contracts to lai; kiratei e lae 
mai, who are coming; kiratei kire lae, 
who went? lae ha'i'oli, to go and return; 
lae ha'iore, to stay behind; noko lai haka, 
I am going abroad; lai henue, to go a 
journey; lae honosi, to go and meet; lae 
hou, to descend; lai hule, to reach; lai 
hulaana, till, until; lae huni'i, go to 
fetch them; 'oke lae ka'u, you had better 
go; nou lae ka'u, I went; lae ka'u 'ohi'i, 
go fetch it; lae ka'u poi, come up here; 
nou lae kokela'i, I came away in a hurry; 
'oko lae mai 'ure itei, where are you from ? 
lae mdlumu, go quietly; ngeni nou lae mai, 
that's why I came; lae molai rako, go 
gently; lae mone, let us be gone; kira 'a 
mune'i lae, were they to go; muni 'e lae, 
go gently; muni 'e lae mai, let him come; 
muni nge'ia e lae mai, if he comes; lae 
ohonga, to go tentatively; lae ni oraha'a, 
to go very fast; na'a lae 'oto, I am going; 
e lae 'oto ni mae, he went like every- 



49 



LAMA 



lae, laelae (continued). 

thing; lae po'opo'oli'ili'i, to go way- 
wardly; lae mola qalaqala, to go for 
naught; ko lae ni ramo, he goes in his 
might; laelae i rodo, to go till nightfall; 
lae rorora, to go in a hurry; nge'i ke'i lae 
ta'ane, he will surely go; nou lae takalo, 
I am lost; lae tara'asi, to go straight on; 
lai toli, to be going to fish out at sea; 
muni'e hara lae, begin to go gently; 'oke 
haro lae, go gently; noko hirue'i lae, I 
am hindered from going; ka'el'e laelae, 
let us go; le'u noko lae ana, le'u noko lae 
hunie, whither I go; noko loona'i lae, I 
intend going; luqe'i lae, to pretend to 
go; mani ni'ilana sakanga e mani lae 
hunieu, all power is given unto me; 
tnelu orei lae, we almost went; e tau ni 
lae, he made to go. 
laeha v. n., a company traveling. 
laenga v. n. 1. a journey; maai laenga, S., 
maani laenga, U., a journey; nge laenga 
kesi lae, then the journey will take place. 
2. laenga (ku), U., laeha (ku), S., a going; 
laengana, his going; laehaku e 'aela, I 
can not walk well, 
laehi tr., to travel through a place. 
laeli, laelaeli tr. 1 . to cause the bowels to be 
open. 2. laeli wala, to make an oration; 
laeli walanga, oratory, address, speech- 
ifying. 
laelae'i partic, ere laelae'i, talk by the way 

side. 
laela-(ku) gerund., laelaku, my going. Lau 
lea, to go; Mailu laea, path. 

laha adj., big (not in common use); Su'u Laha, 
a boat harbor south of Su'u Peine; 
Pululaha, a harbor south of the west 
entrance to Mara Masiki Channel, cf. 
alalia, a chief. Mota lava, Florida haba, 
Maori raha. 

iahe v. tr., to praise, to extol, paalahe. 
lahe'a adj., praised, blessed. 
lahela-(ku) gerund. 

lahi, la'ilehi 1. to lay eggs. 2. v. tr., to be in 
travail with; ko lehie eronga, in travail 
with deceit. 

laho'a adj., foggy, cloudy. 

lahu 1. to be worn out. 2. worn out things, 
mu lehui ola; mu lehuni to'oni, ragged 
clothes. Lau lafu, Wango rahu, old; 
Florida ravu. 

lahu 3. v. i., to blow a conch shell. 

lahula-(ku) gerund., lahulana 'ahuri, the 
sound of the conch. 

lahu U. 4. n., place; ildhuna, ilehuna, there; 
mwai lehu ine, those places. Sa'a le'u, 
Florida levu. 

lahute'i U., partic, prostrate. 

lai 1. contraction of lae i: e lae ta'i Sa'a, he 
went to Sa'a; noko lai haka, I am going 
abroad; noko lai leesie, I go to see it; lai 
loosi haa, to go and inspect the money 
given for a bride; noko lai lou, I go 
bonito fishing; 2. e lai' aela; cf. la 1. 

la'i 3. participial ending, honu honule'i. 



lai 4. suffix to verb, used intransitively; to 
make it transitive ni is added , la'ini. 

la'ini tr., suffix, la'e, ta'ela'ini. 

laka to play (of shoals of bonito); mu seu ko 
laka, the bonito play in schools. 

lakali U., to have sexual intercourse, ha'ilakali. 

lakata'ini U., v. tr., to open the eye. 

lakelake U., tau lakelake, used with poss. 3, to 
give oneself airs. 

lakoma'ini S., v. tr., to be parallel to, to lay 
on longitudinally, rakoma'ini, U. hele 
lakoma'inie, hold it to, together with, 
on it. 
lakoma'i partic, laid out along, longitudi- 
nally; rdpu lakoma'i pe'i po'upo'u, to 
crucify; 'uri lakoma'i, to tread in the 
steps of. 

laku, la'uleku v. i., to be whole, entire, safe. 
ha'ileku, sapeldku; e ka'a ola ke laku, 
there is nothing whole. Lau lau. 

lalahu'e adj., worn out, old. lahu. 

lala'ini v. tr., to stretch out. Wango rarasi. 
lala'i partic, outstretched. 
lala'inila-(ku) gerund. 

lalako U., nanako S., v. i., to be sticky, to stick. 

lalamoa n., a person killed by violence, a 
victim; momo lalamoa, armlet, cf. 
momo; lalamoa mduri, a captive; poo ke 
ne'i lalamoa ko 'olisie 'oto a mwaena, a 
pig is the victim in place of the man; 
e hai lalamoa e mae hunia Qai, four dead 
men for Qai to pay a fine for; taho 
lalamoa, to pay for a man killed by 
violence. 

lalani U., lalani wala, to make an oration, to 
speechify. 

lalaunge'i S., 'unu lalaunge'i, to tell beforehand. 

lalawa 1. v. i., to be lazy, ka'alawa. 2. U., to 
be unwilling; luqe'i lalawa haahi, to give 
a feigned excuse, 
lalawanga v. n., laziness. 
lalawasi U., v. tr., to reject, to neglect 
through laziness. 

lalawa 3. n., the marrow; mu lalawai ola ana 
suli, the marrow of the bones. 

lalemo 1. without coconut milk; kara lalemo, 
yam pudding without the milk. 2. 
unfermented. 

lalo (ku) 1. n., inside, within; 'oto wdi lalo, 
inside; lalona e 'aela, it is bad inside; 
lalona e waawaa, nothing inside it; 
laloi ha' a, within the garner; laloi suli, 
within the bones. 2. U., laloku, my 
stomach, my insides. 3. ddu lalo ana, 
to be immersed in, to be plunged into. 
Mota lolo, Motu lalo, Wedau ano, pith; 
Wango raro, Gilberts nano. 

lalo 4. U., n., a garden; lalo indu, my garden; 
* epina lalo, bordering on the garden; 
'atoni lalo, to lay out a garden. 

lalo 'a adj., roomy, spacious. 

Laloi Su'u (lit., in the Su'u) Mara Masiki 
Channel, which divides Malaita. 

lama 1. v. tr., to cut up trees, to cut felled trees 
into billets convenient for burning; lama 
tali, to free a tree of creepers; met., to 
free persons. 



LAMA 



SO 



lama 1 (continued), 
lamasi tr. 
lamata'ini U., tr. 

lama 2. n., a lake, hai lama; lama i Korea, Lake 
Korea, Little Malaita. Mota lama, 
open sea; Borneo lama, lake. 

lama 3. v. i., to spread over, to cover; wax e 
lama haahi ue kolune mwakana, the 
water still covered the face of the earth. 

lama I. hanuelama, S., da'ilama'a, U., peace. 

lami n., a phase of the moon; hau ni lemi, full 
moon; to'ohunga lemi, S., full moon; 
lemi mivaa, U., full moon. 

langa 1. v. i., to moderate temporarily (of rain) ; 
n., a spell between the showers, ha'a- 
langa; U. la' a up. n., kele me'ilanga, it 
lets up a little. Lau lalanga, dry; 
Mota langa, to lift; Viti langa, Samoa 
langa, Niue langa, Mao. ranga, lift. 

langa 2. ha'alanga, to expose to the air in order 
to dry. 

langa'a, langalanga'a adj., up, on high, clear; 
hele langa'a, hele langalanga'a, to hold 
up conspicuously. Mao. rangai, raised. 

Langalanga a village on Big Malaita where 
shell money is made. 

langi ha'aldngi, a house on piles; ilengi, sky, 
heaven. Mota lang, wind; Maori rangi, 
sky; Salakau, Borneo, angin, wind. 

langilengi'e adj., aloft, lifted up. langi. Fate 
langilangi, proud. 

lango n., a fly; lango rae, bluebottle fly. Mota 
lango, Maori rango, Gilbert Islands 
nango. 

langu. v. i, to pluck up; huni lengu ha'aodohie 
'aeka, to guide our feet; langu holo, to 
break in two. 
langu'i tr. Wango rangui. 

la'o 1. nunula'o, stinging-nettle tree, nunu 4. 

la'o 2. in, inside; with suffixed pronoun na; 
locative i may be prefixed, cf. lalo 1. 
la'o i'ola, in the canoe; la'ona nime, in 
the bowl; hai la'ona, wai la'ona, within, 
inside; ni'i 'ae la'o i'ola, to board a 
canoe; kohukohu la'ona salo, far-off 
clouds. 

la'o 3. cone shell, trochus; a forehead ornament 
of trochus or tridachna shell, it is cir- 
cular or oval and incised with the device 
of a frigate-bird, the hair is threaded 
through a small hole in the la'o, which 
then hangs on the side of the forehead; 
semicircular pieces of trochus shell 
inlaid upon the sides of large canoes; 
i'ola la'o, a canoe thus inlaid; armlets 
(kokome) are cut from the trochus. 
Florida lago. 

la'ola'o huhu la'ola'o ana wa'i, to be contorted 
with spasms of tetanus. 

la'ongi S., la'oni U., v. tr., to step over, to 
cross over. 
la'ongila-(ku) gerund. Mota lago, Viti 
lako, Motu loo. 

lapasi, la'alapasi v. tr., to attempt a thing. 
Wango raba. 

lapata'i 1. v. i., to complain, to moan; noko 
lapala'i ulo 'oto, I complain in mourning. 



lapata'i, la'alapata'i 2. v. i., to be concerned 

about, to endeavor, la'alapa. 
lapi v. i., to change shape, to change appearance 

(of ghosts); e lapi ana pa'ewa, he 

changed into a shark. 
laqa 1. bracken. 2. I Laqa, a district on the 

hills above Sa'a on the ridges below 

'ano mola. 
laqi ointment, coconut oil for anointing, laqi 

ni su. 
laqitaa U., an oven of food, 
lasu 1. to be aged, paipeilesu'a. 2. used as 

an endearing term to a young boy, 

anglice "old man." 
lau, lauleu 1. v. L, to snatch; lau 'ae, be quick, 

quickly; 'aka lau, to pull out violently. 

2. to defend, to help; lau haahi, to make 

a defense in words. Mao. rau, catch, 
lauhi tr., to defend, to succor; lauhi ola, to 

help; lauhi olanga, v. n., succor. 
lauhila-(ku) gerund. Wango rau. 
lau 3. v. tr., to weed, 
lauhi green snail shell (Turbo petholatus); suu 

leuhi, to dive for the shell, 
lauleu 1 . to be quick, lau I. 2. quickly. Lau 

loulou, Wango raurau. 
lauleu'a U., adj., quick, fast. 
launa U., v. i., to be speechless, to lose one's 

voice in sickness. 
launa'o v. i., to go before, 
launi, lauleuni 1. v. tr., to adorn. 2. bodily 

ornaments, mu leuni. 
launihe (ku) bodily ornaments, launiheku. 
lauleunita-(ku) U., v. n., ornaments. 

lauleunitana nga 'inoni, ornaments of 

men. 
launga'i U., to occupy first, to be the first 

to live in. 
lauwanga S., the firmament, open space of 

heaven, rnaalau. 
lawa 1. spider's web; used as bait and made to 

skip on the surface of the sea (lilie'i) at 

the tail of a fish kite (sa'o) to catch 

garfish (mwanole). 2. a spider. Mota 

marawa, Viti lawa, net; viritalawalawa, 

cobweb; Visaya lawa, cobweb. 
lede U. 1. v. tr., to break, ha'alede, malelede; 

lede ola, to be mischievous; lede 

olanga, mischief. 
ledela-(ku) gerund. 
Lede 2. a boat harbor on Little Malaita north 

of Roasi Bay. 
ledi, leledi 1. v. tr., to refuse, to examine and 

reject, maleledi, ha'ileledi. 
ledila-(ku) gerund. 
ledi U. 2. v. i., to ask, to question; soe ledi, to 

question. Lau ledi. 
leesi, leeleesi S., v. tr., to see; noko lai leesie, 

go to see it; kau neke leesie, please let 

me see it; nou ka'a to'ohuunge'i leesie, 

I surely did not see it; na ni leesie palonga 

aku, and saw my works; e ka'a ola neke 

leesie, I saw nothing; 'omu ka'a mana- 

ta'inie wa 'omu ke leesie, ye neither 

know him nor have seen him. 
leesila-(ku) gerund. 
lehu, lahu U., le'u S. 1. place; 2. thing: the 



Si 



LILIKI 



lehu, lahu 1 (continued). 

demonstrative ni may be added; lehuna 
qa'ike, not that; mwai lehu raro, open 
plains, glades. Florida levu, portion, 
side. 

lehu 2. suu lehu, a kind of arrow. 

lei, leilei S., v. tr., to judge, 
leinge v. n., judgment. 
leila-(ku) gerund. 

lekoleko v. i., to hang down, to trail on the 
ground. 

leko'i U., to bark (of a dog). 

leku cf. laku. 

lele v. i., to squint; maana e lele, he squints. 

leledi cf. ledi. 

lelenga-(na) clear, unimpeded (of speech or 
hearing); ka'a rongo lelengani, not to 
hear plainly; 'unu lelengana, to speak 
clearly. 

lelengana U., drowsy; to'o lelengana, not 
aroused from sleep. 

Lenga a village on the west coast of Ulawa, 
i Lenga. 

leleu v. tr., to carry off, to abduct. 

lemi cf. liimi. 

lengi, langi (ku) top, above, on; with locative i. 
Id 6. lengine hd'u, on the top of the 
rock; ilengi, heaven, sky; ilengikw, above 
me; po'oilengi, U., south; qd'i lengi, 
east or south. 

lengu cf. Idngu. 

leo a tree (Hibiscus tiliaceus, Pariti tiliaceum) 
with yellow flowers, the bast is used as 
cord ; uhi leoleo, a variety of yam. 

lete 1. v. i., to be firm in opinion or in state- 
ment; 'unu lete, to affirm; ne'isae lete, 
to be set in intention, 
letehi tr., to affirm. 
letehila-(na, ni) gerund. 

lete 2. v. i., to be scared, wild, to scent danger. 
ha'alete. 
letehi tr., to punish, to castigate, ha'aletehi. 

le'u S. 1. place. ?. thing. 3. piece, part. 
4. with i sape, 'oto may be added: le'u 
i sapeku 'oto, my duty; le'u noko lae ana, 
le'u noko lae hunie, whither I go; le'u 
nou saaie nou saaie, what I know I 
know; le'une nou daa 'oto, I did that 
already; ere ni le'u honu, to boast; hele 
hu'isie nga le'u, to err in anything; mu 
le'u e mwadau, places easy to traverse; 
le'une e na'onga 'oto, the place is quite 
abandoned; po'o ni le'u, partly; nga 
Po'o ni le'u, a piece; le'u talaku, my 
place; mu le'u talahuliana, his wonted 
place. U., lahu, Florida levu. 

leu hd'ileu, to snatch, to be violent, leleu. 

leuni cf. Iduni. 

le'uqala S., a deserted place, qala. i'o ni 
le'uqala, to be deserted, alone. 

li 1. genitive particle, a variant of ni used in 
certain compounds, hd'ulihane, Qa'uli- 
mwaa, maalimwalo, 'dili'apaa, koukou- 
li'ae. Epi ri, Alite Malaita, li. 

li 2. verbal suffix, lae laeli. 

lidu, lilidu v. i., to crawl, to get along on all 
fours. 



li'e 1. n., ginger, given to women in ordeals 

('ai ha'angdu keni). Florida ria. 
li'e 2. v. i., to change shape, to throw back, of 

trees, e. g., oranges. Viti lia, to trans- 
form. 
li'e 3. ha'ali'e, to cook, to get a meal ready, 
li'eli'a'a adj., indistinctly, confusedly, li'e 2. 

ngara li'eli'a'a, to give out an uncertain 

note, 
lihu, lihulihu v. i., to travel along the coast in 

a canoe, to go by sea as opposed to liu 

i henue, go by land, 
lihunge v. n., a going by sea. 
lihue'ini tr., to convey a person in a canoe. 

Florida lilihi. 
lihue'ini v. tr., to borrow or lend possessions. 
lii 1. v. tr., to make qaso, threading the money 

(will haa), and making the ornaments; 

to lace, 
li'i 2. v. i., to be out of joint (of limbs), 'aeku 

e li'i. 
li'ite'i partic, twisted (of ankle), 
li'isi beyond, likisi. lae li'isi, to go beyond, 

to exceed, to outstrip; talo lili'isi, at 

irregular intervals. 
li'ite- cf. likite-. beyond, on the far side of; 

po'o wau li'itemu.on the other side of thee, 
liki, liliki, likiliki 1. v. i., to leap, pola likiliki. 

2. to be nervous; saeku e liki, I was 

nervous. 
liki 3. riki U., liki hune, to pull up the mooring- 

stakes of a canoe, to get up the anchor 

(late use). 
liki 4. a tree, rosewood, the branches live when 

planted, the trunk has buttress flanges 

(kokopa) . 
likisi v. tr., to go beyond, to cross, to outdo, 

to transgress; likisi to'i, a mouse. 

Florida lilinggi, to border on, to pass 

by; Nguna lingiraki, to leave, to 

abandon. 
likimaa-(na) adv., certainly, undoubtedly. 

likimaana 'oto; lisimaana, U. 
likitaa glandular swelling in the armpit and 

groin; to have such swellings. 
likite-(ku) beyond, on the far side of; po'o hao 

likitemu, on the other side of thee. 
lili 1. v. i., to change, to move about, ha'alili. 

lili 'epule, to be changed into blood; lili 

keli, to encircle; lili qana, to jibe a sail, 

to tack (of a canoe); hdu lili qana, the 

boom of a sail. 
lili 2 (ku) back teeth, 
lili 3. liliheu, lilikeli. 

lili'a'a adj., racked with rheumatic pains, 
lili'e rheumatic pains, lili. 
lilie'i v. L, to cast for garfish (ntwanole) with 

a rod and line, using spider web (lawa) 

as bait, the teeth of the fish becoming 

fast in the web; hdu ni lilie'i, a rock 

from which men cast for garfish. 
liliheu stone walls of taoha or of toohi. si'o 

liliheu, to collect stones for a wall, 
lilikeli v. tr., to encircle; adv., encircling, kali. 
liliki a mousetrap made of a hollow bamboo 

and a noose hung in front of it, a spring 

trap, liki 1. 



LILISI 



52 



lilisi 1. talo lilisi, to offer a certain proportion 
as a sacrifice, lilisi 2. tola lilisi, to walk 
about, lili 1. 

lime S., lima U., five: in pronunciation lima, 
U., tends to approach nima, hand. 
limana fifth. 

ha'alime five times. Mota limwa, five; 
Maori rima, hand. 

lingi, lingilingi v. i., to pour, malingilingi. 
lingisi tr. 

lingisila-(na, ni) gerund. Mota ling, Maori 
ringi. 

lio 1. v. i., to look to see, to be awake, to be 
careful, ha' alio, lio ahu'i, to protect; 
lio alieli, to look about one; lio haha- 
'itelili, to distinguish; lio hahuroto, to 
gaze, to see clearly; lio ha'itale, U., to 
look for in vain; nou ka'a lio hikena nga 
ola, I saw nothing; lio hilisi, to choose; 
lio hilisie huni hu'e i'oe, choose her for 
your wife; lio huni, to choose: e lio 
hunie huni hu'e nana; lio huni maa, S., 
to exercise partiality; lio isuli, to watch, 
to take care of (late use); lio ka'u, 
behold; lio keke, to look behind; lio 
i kekea'i maanga, to bear ill will, to have 
a spite against; e lio kohi, it looks beau- 
tiful; lio maai, U., to permit; lio maaila- 
'ini, to view with favor; hire ka'a lio 
mangini, they saw none of it; lio i 
ngaei maa, lio i ngaena maa, to look 
askance at, to envy, to be jealous of; 
lio i ngae maanga, jealousy; lio odo'i, to 
find; lio qa'ulunge'ini, to see indis- 
tinctly; lio qeru ngudu, lio qeru 'upu, 
to grudge, to hate; lio saai, S., lio sae, 
U., to perceive, to recognize; lio sae 
to'o, to favor; lio tola, to take care, to 
beware; lio talahi, to look for in vain; 
lio tale, to fail to see; lio tataileu, to 
appear beautiful; lio to'o, with poss. 3, 
to find; lio wasawasa, to see indistinctly. 
lioha-(na) S., liota-(na) U., v. n., looks, 
appearance. Mota ilo, to see. 

li'o 2. v. i., to hang oneself, ha'ali'o. Mota 
ligo, Motu rio, Maori niko, to form into 
a bight. 

li'oa S., n., spirit, ghost, M. A., pp. 136, 260: 
the word is li'oa and not lio'a; the mean- 
ing is rather spirit than ghost, though 
undoubtedly both meanings appear; 
there may be a connection with U. 
hi'ona. ho'asi sisingana li'oa, to swear 
by a spirit; ngeitei li'oa, what spirit? 
ngoria Li'oa, to quench the Spirit; 
nanamanga para'itana mu li'oa, power 
over the spirits; uraa'i, to make an 
offering to the spirits. 

lisi U., nisi, S., v. tr., to cut off a piece or sec- 
tion. Wango risi, to shave the head. 

lisimaa-(na) U., as rikimaa. 

lite (na) n., seed, kernel, hoi lite. 

lio, liuliu v. i., to come, to go, to pass by, to 
ply about, to become general, ha'iliu, 
liuta'a. liu i 'esi, travel by sea; liu i 
henue, travel by land, take the upper 
road, ant. hatale; liu hono, to intervene 



liu, liuliu (continued). 

(of time); ngaini sa'a liu ha'ahireru'e, 
none shall pass in front of them (and 
overcome them) ; mu dinge hunge e liueu, 
many days passed over me; liu takalo, 
to take a wrong path; liu tarau, to con- 
tinue; tola ni liu, path to travel by. 
Wango riu, Samoa liu, to turn; Florida 
liliu, to change; Mota riu, to move feet 
or legs; Nguna liu, excessive; Viti liu, 
to exceed; Mao. riu, to pass by. 

liuliu adv., about, to and fro; e tola liuliu, it 
has become general. 

liuliune v. tr., to turn over, to reverse, na 4. 

liunge v. n., a common complaint, a plague. 
liunge ni maelaa. 

liuta'a S., liutaha U. 1. v. i., to be beyond, to 
be excessive, used with poss. 3. muini 
liuta'ana a mwane 'ie e qao'i ne, more 
than those which this man has done; 
ini qaarongoisuli e ka'a liuta'ana ini 
ha'ausuli, the disciple is not above his 
master. 2. adv., excessively, exceed- 
ingly. 

liwe S., liwa U., a cave. Lau liqa. 

liwo hoiliwo, S., houliwo, U., a hill. 

loa 1. S., v. i., to be big, to be too big. 

loa 2. the heavens; apai loa ta'au, the heavens 
above. Bugotu maaloa. 

lo'a 3. adj., cracked. 

lo'a 4. S., the name of several months; lo'a 
madala. May; lo'a mali'e, April; lo'a 
maramarawai, lo'a wai mweimwei, 
February; lo'a wai peine, March. 

loamena S., v. tr., to patch, to mend, to darn; 
a patch. 

lodo 1. to conceive a child: of the child, to be 
conceived, nga mwela e lodo, the child 
is conceived, 
lodo'i tr., to imagine, to conceive a thought. 

lodo 2. v. tr., to carve, to construct. 

lodosae v. i., to ponder, to conceive in mind. 
lodo'i. 
lodosaenga v. n., plan, meditation. 

loha'ini, loloha'ini v. tr., to lay up in store, to 
put by. 
loha'inge v. n., something put by, stored, 

cold food, 
loha'i v. i. 

lohe 1. v. i., to sail. Wango rohe. 

lohe 2. to fit a bowstring to a bow. 

lohe 3. to mark out a yam garden; lohea hoftola, 
he marked out a garden. 

loho, loholoho 1. to fly, to swoop; met. of 
words, to reach; e loho ilengine, he 
swooped down upon it; walaku e loho 
i saena, my words reached his heart. 
hau loho, a boat harbor south of Port 
Adam; mwakana loho, dust, 
loho si tr., to cause to fly. Wango roho, 
Florida lovo, Mota rowo, Bougainville 
Straits, lofu; Motu roho. 

loho 2. (ku) ke sulu i lohona, i lohomu, be pleas- 
ing in his sight, thy sight. 

lo'ilohi n., charcoal. 

lo'ilohi'e adj., black with charcoal, soiled. 

lo'ilosi n., a sponge, losi. Florida loilosi. 



S3 



LO'U 



loka n., gall, figures in folk lore, the hero throws 

gall in the eyes of his enemies. 
loke n., the lamprey, found under rocks near 

the shore. 
loko 1. v. tr., to gather together, ha'aloko. 
2. to agree, loko pe'i, to agree with. 
lokonga v. n., friendship. 
lokota v. n., a bundle; lokotai sa'o, a bundle 
of sago leaves, 
lokoloko adv., altogether. 
lokoqaio n., a belt. 

loku, lo'uloku v. i., to be bent, bowed, doubled 
up; 'ae loku, halt, maimed in the feet; 
hihi lo'uloku, to crouch (dogs) . 
lokune tr., to bend, to double back; 
e lokunaa nime, he clenched the fist. 
Niue loku, Mota lokua, to fold up. 
lola v. L, to be great, mighty; walana e lolo, his 

word is mighty, 
lolata n., courtyard; rara haahie lolata inge'ie, 

guards his house. 
lole v. i., to be confused, dazed; ere lole ana 
ma'unge, to talk confusedly from fear. 
Maori rare, intoxicated. 
lolo 1. v. i., to bend; lolo hapa, to bend turtle- 
shell. 
lolosi tr., lolosi hune, to set a trap, lolosi hapa. 
lolota'i partic, bent down, bowed. 
lolosila-(ku) gerund. Wango rosi. 
lolo 2. n., red ants, sugar ants, lolo polali. 

Viti lolo. 
lolo 3. v. i., to be abundant (of herbage), to 
cover over (of creepers). 
lolo 4. luhe lolo, to clear away creepers, 
lolo'a U., n., a thicket; lolo'a ni 'ei, a clump of 

trees. 
loloha'ini cf. loha'ini. 

lolohuna U., n., a snare, a gin. lolo 1, hune 3. 
lololo n., a swamp in which sago grows, lololo 

ni sa'o. 
loloma'ini v. tr., to dip; loloma'inie nime, to 

dip the hand, 
lolomi v. tr., to grudge, to withhold; hele 

lolomi, to keep for oneself. 
lolongo n., mud, swamp, lololo. 
lolou v. L, to resound. 

lomolomo kau lomolomo, the fourth finger, 
lomosi v. tr., to buffet; 'ahe e lomosie i'ola, the 

surf buffeted the canoe. 
loo 1. v. i., a shortened form of lio to look, loo 
'aela, to be immodest; loo diana, to look 
good; loo ka'u, look! loo ta'a, to be 
immodest, to offend against propriety. 
loo 2. v. i., to be frightened, to be on one's 
guard, to be suspicious; idemu ni loo, a 
line spatula for one who is scared: when 
a man is on his guard (loo) and can not 
be ambushed and killed he is won over 
by false protestations of friendship and 
offers of areca (damulaa), then as he sits 
chewing the quid (dmusi) he is stabbed 
with a large spatula (idemu). 
loo'i tr., to take counsel, to consider. 

ha'aloo'i. 
loo'inge v. n., plan, intention. 
loona'ini tr., to deliberate about, to intend, 
to plan. 



loo 2 (continued). 

loona'i v. i., to plan; noko loona'i lae, I 

intend going, 
loona'inge v. n., plan, meditation, mae- 
loonga. Wango ro. 
looloo'a adj., scared, 
loohi, looloohi v. tr., to see, to look for. 

loohinge v. n., a searching, 
loosi U. 1. to see; nau qa'ike loosia, I saw it not. 
muni ne'e loosia, ta'ane na'a 'unua, if I 
see him I shall tell it. 2. lai loosi haa, 
to go and inspect the money given for 
a bride; i'o loosi, to await; mwala ko 
i'o loosi, kire too'ana keni mwala ko 
holie, the party awaiting, they own the 
girl who is being bought (sc, in mar- 
riage). 3. prep., with suffixed pronoun 
(au), awaiting; in M. L., p. 155, loosi 
is incorrectly assigned to the preposi- 
tional sense of motion to; 'oke i'o ka'u 
loosieu, wait a while for me. 
loosi 4. toll loosi, a charm set in the path, 
lopalopa v. i., to flap (of wings). 
lopo 1 . n„ a pool : an artificial pool used to keep 
alive i'e ni kelu; lopo ni ha'auri, bap- 
tismal font, lit., pool of salvation. San 
Cristoval robo. 
lopo 2. U., 'ato i lopo muni (parasi), to oppose. 
Lopo a boat harbor on the east coast of Ulawa. 
Lopo Su'u Heu a gorge above Su'uholo, Ulawa: 

figures in folklore, 
lopo'i v. i., to be specious, to pretend, to 
deceive, lopo'i ere, S., to deceive with 
words; lopo'i kae, U., to deceive; lopo'i 
wala, U., lopo'i deu, S., to feign. 
Iosi, lo'ilosi v. tr., to squeeze; ni'i losi, to 
squeeze, to wring out water; n., a 
sponge, mei lo'ilosi. Viti losi, a sponge 
loto, loloto v. i., to bathe; esi kele loto, just 
washed, i. e., convalescent after illness; 
horo ni loloto i purine maeta, to kill a 
man after celebrating a death feast in 
order that people may bathe (bathing 
being prohibited until some one was 
killed) ; loto maai, to baptize (late use) ; 
loto maainge, v. n., baptism, 
lotonga v. n., bathing, 
lotohi tr., to bathe a person; 'oke lotohi'o, 

bathe yourself. 
lotohila-(ku) gerund. 
lou 1. v. i., to fish for bonito; noko lai lou, I go 

bonito fishing. 
lou 2. v. i., to emerge; lou ta'a, to come forth. 
lo'u 3. v. i., to contract ceremonial defilement 
by walking under women, by eating 
with women in the case of boys who 
ha'amalaohu. cf. M. A., p. 233. 
Polynesian lotu. 
lo'u 4. v. tr., to bend, to double back, malo'u, 

lo'une tr. 
lo'u 5. adv. again, anew, also; hahira diana 
ikire nga muini lo'u ka'a diana, on the 
good and the bad; 'omu sa'a lio odo'ieu 
'oto lo'u, ye shall not see me again. 
Samoa lolou, to bend; Wango rou, 
Lau lau, Motu lou, again. 



LO'U'E 



54 



lo'u'e adj., used as n.; a bend, a verse; ta'ata'a 

me'i lo'u'e, one verse, 
lo'uhanga'a v. i., to be denied ceremonially. 

lo'u 3. 
lo'uloku cf. loku. 
loulou S., 'u'ulou U., v. i., to thunder; ngara 

I onion, to resound. 
lounge ha'alounge, quarreling, bickering. 
lousuu a short string of money made of a 
whitish shell, Big Malaita currency. 
Lau lousuu. 
lu ending of certain forms of pronouns in the 
plural, kolu, melu, tnolu; an abbreviation 
of 'olu, three, 
lua U., v. i., to grant. Florida lua. 
luana snli tolai luana, his shoulder blade. 
ludaa v. n., cargo. 

lude S., luda U., v. i., to carry cargo, to be 
heavily laden; lude olanga, v. n., carry- 
ing cargo; lude peli, to "blackbird," to 
recruit men without giving a payment 
(holite) to their relations; haka lude 
mwane, a labor vessel recruiting men. 
ludanga v. n., U., cargo, 
ludengi tr., to carry as cargo, to recruit 
men. Wango ruta, Florida luda, luluda. 
lue-(ku) S., lua-(ku) U. 1. neck; lue susu, sore 
throat, voice gone; ngora i lue, to growl; 
huui lue, a shoulder of pork given to 
chiefs as their portion at a feast; 'aqahi 
lue, paired back and breast ornament 
of shell money for women. Florida 
lua, Bougainville Straits, lualua. 
lue S., lua U. 2. n., the rising tide; lue qera, 
high spring tide; nisilana lue, high- 
water mark; salohi lue, a fiddler crab; 
'upui lue, high tide. 
lu'e, lu'elu'e S., lu'alu'a U. 3. a coconut-leaf 

basket for holding yams. 
lueli S., luengi U., to lessen a fire by removing 

some sticks. Mao. ruke, to remove, 
luelu ha'aluelu, S., v. i., to give a sign. 
luelue S., lualua U., n., a flood; luelue e take, 
the flood came. Wango ruarua, Florida 
lualua. 
luhe to remove, to free, to loosen, lakaluhe. 
luhe haahi. to be surety for: to take off 
clothing, to become a heathen again 
(late use); luhe lolo, to clear away 
creepers. Florida luba, Viti luva, Wango 
ruha, Motu ruhaia, Mota luka, in tawa- 
luka, to peel off. 
luhesi tr., to loosen, to free, to let go. 
luhesila-(ku) gerund. 
luhu v. i., to cut off branches from a tree. 

luhusi tr. 
lula U., n., a spear; generic term. 
lulu 1. v. i., to follow: used with isuli, luluisuli. 
luluisulinge v. n. 
luluisulila-(ku) gerund. 
lulu 2. v. i., to fold; a Lulu-reu, a proper name, 
lit. folder of leaves, 
lulungi tr. 

lulungila-(na, ni) gerund. 
lulu 3. qa'ilulu, v. i., to be dismayed, qd'i 2. 
lulu 4. v. i., to back water with paddles or oars; 
'ahe lulu, boiling tide. 



lulu 5. ora lulu, to belch; po'o lulu, to fill the 

mouth with food. 
luluhu n., a coconut frond, luluhui niu. 
lulusane n., a gecko lizard with projecting 

eyes, the children catch them with a 

grass noose or a coconut leaflet midrib. 
lume S., a variant of nume, house; huuilume, 

a village. 
lumu, lumute S., moss. Mota lutnuta, Malay 

lumut. Macassar lumu, malumu, soft. 
lumu'e adj., moss-covered, 
lumwe S., lumwalumwa U., to be long and 

matted (of hair) ; qa'une e lumwe, long- 
haired, 
lupu, lupulupu U., v. i., to strike; lupu ra- 

koma'ini, to nail upon, to crucify, 
lupu'i tr. 
lupunge'ini tr., to bump; maelupu'e, 

bruised, 
luqe'i v. i., to pretend; luqe'i laelae, to pretend 

to go; luqe'i hiru, to pretend to be busy; 

luqe'i lalaiva haahi, to give a feigned 

excuse, 
lusu n., the ribs in a canoe tied on to cleats 

left on the planks forming the hull. 

M. A., p. 295; 'enite lusu, what size 

canoe, lit. how many ribs, 
lusuinume S., lusuinima U., a large seagoing 

canoe, lit. ribbed like a house. 
lu'u v. tr., to move one's habitation, hd'ilu'u. 

huni lu'ue mo ola ineu, to remove my 

goods; kira 'asi lu'ua ha'iliu, they 

ceased hostilities. Viti luku, to remove, 
luu'i v. tr., to forbid, ere luu'i. 
luuluu sunge luuluu, elkhorn fern. 



ma 1. adjectival prefix of condition: lingi 
malingi, mena mamenamena. Mota ma, 
Maori ma. 

ma 2. S., a prefix used with nouns which express 
relationship; mwa. ro ma hungaona, 
two brothers-in-law; ro ma uweline, two 
maternal uncles. 

ma 3. as ma 1 : malumu. 

ma 4. a noun ending: 'ono 'ono'onoma, n&ku 
na'unekume. 

maa 1. the eye: maana e lele, he squints; maa 
noro, to be angry-eyed; maa ngangua, 
blear-eyed from smoke; maa rodo, blind, 
to forget; maaku e la'iere, I am dizzy; 
maana e ivaaro, goggle-eyed; hete'i maa, 
to fix the eyes upon; 'o hinua maamu, peel 
your eye; hinuhinu (hiruhiru) maa, eye- 
lid; lio i ngaei maa, to look askance at, 
to envy; maranga i maa, eyebrow; 
ma'arusi maa, to wink the eye; mimisi 
maa, the mantis, lit. squirt in the eye; 
nokomi maa, to turn the eyes away; 
para'imaa, eyeshade; rumu nue maa, 
eye ointment; sikili maa, excoecaria 
tree, lit. stings the eye; ana e tahanie 
maamu ne, in that he opened your 
eyes; e tditeia maana, he closed his eyes; 
'oke 'ulue maamu, you close your eyes; 



55 



MADALI 



maa 1 (continued). 

'u'ui maa, the eyeball; 'u'u maai dehi, 
a pearl. 

maa 2. the face; 'alo maa, to turn the face; 
hoda maa, to wash the face; e ladaa'inie 
maana, he fell on his face; lio huni maa, 
to exercise partiality; nunuku maa, to 
wrinkle the face; e palingitaa maana, he 
set his face; rdima'a, to cut and dis- 
figure the face; 'usu maa, to accuse, lit. 
to point at his face. 

maa 3. with genitive i in Sa'a, ni in Ulawa; hole, 
mesh, opening, outlet, door, gate, maai 
nume, S., maani nima, U., door; maai 
para, S., maani para, U., gate; qa'ulimaa, 
door lintel; sau maa ana mu 'ape, to mend 
the meshes of the nets; taha maa, to 
open the door; to'oni pono maa, patched 
clothes; maa ni qelusn, nostril. 

maa 4. edge, point, blade, brim; maai mudi, a 
gorge for flying-fish; maana nahi, the 
edge of the sword; pulu maai seu, a 
circular piece used in inlaying, a dot. 

maa 5. front of the house; i maa, outside; 
odona maa, a gate opening directly in 
front of one; oku i maa, wall in front. 

maa 6. a stick, a match; maai aro, a stalk of 
ginger; maai {maani) dunge, a "match. 

maa 7. one, a, also in plural, maai laenga, S., 
maani laenga, U., a journey; maai sala, 
U., a piece of bast cloth; hat maai dengi 
he' Mime, the four winds; kii'u met nga 
maa, give me one; ta'ata'a maai ngeu, 
one meal. 
maai S., maani U. v. tr., to eye, to watch; 
maai ngeu, S., maani ngeu, U., the 
evening star, so called because it shines 
at the time of the evening meal which 
it watches; maa shows no sign of a break 
in pronunciation. 
maani, maamaani tr., to copy, to do like, 
to watch. Mota matai, Polynesian 
mala. 

maa 8. dried canarium nuts, ngali maa, put 
into a cane basket (tangi) and kept 
above the fire, ha'amaa. 

ma'a 9. father, vocative: ma' a ineu, my dear 
father! mama'a. 

maadi U., v. tr., to reject. 
maadila-(ku) gerund. 

Maadi'a the landing-place for Ripoo, Ulawa. 

ma'ae n., a strong-smelling fish, caught with 
a bait of red clay in which crabs' claws 
have been set. 

maahoo v. i., to be new to, to be a novice at. 

maahoosi v. i., to boast: ere maahoosi. 

ma'ahu, ma'ama'ahu v. i., to sleep; ma'ahu 
mala i'ola, to fast; ma'ahu pole, to 
dream; nau ma'ahu qolea, I dreamt it; 
ma'ahu suu'i, to guard at night, 
ma'ahunge v. n., sleep, e to'o ni ma'ahunge, 
it is time for sleep. Motu mafuta. 

maai, maaimaai 1. v. tr., to permit, to allow; 
lio maai, toli maai, to allow, 
maaila'ini U., tr., lio maaila'ini, to view 
with favor. 

maa'i 2. adj., holy, sacred: ha'amaa'i. loto 



maa'i 2 (continued). 

maa'i, to baptize; loto maa'inge, bap- 
tism; ngdu maa'i, ngdu maa'inge, 

sacrificial eating. Mota matai, good; 

Tahiti maitai, Mao. maitai. 
maa'i 3. beloved; mwane maa'i ineu, my dear 

fellow, 
maakahi v. i., to peek, to peep, to peer, 
maakali v. tr., to visit. 
maala adv., even if, granted that, supposing. 

mala. 
maalau air, firmament, lauwanga. 
maaliholo the main doorway of a house, 
maalimae hostile bands: mu maalimae. Lau 

maalimaea, enemy. 
maalimwalo a staging for thatching (tahera'i) 

erected inside the house, 
maalitawa an opening in the shore reef, a 

landing-place. 
maamaa a fastening, a button, 
ma'amana ro ha'ima'amana, mu he'ima'aman- 

anga. 
ma'amasa'a adj., ashamed, reverential. 
Maana Odo Port Adam, Malaita. 
maana'o U., v. i., to be deserted (of a place); 

a desert place, na'onga. 
maani, maamaani v. tr., to copy, to do like, to 

repeat: ha'amaani, S., ha'imaani, U. 

maani moo, to watch the dance; si'o 

maani, to collect. 
maapala S., adj., unprovoked, malicious; 

horonga maapala, murder, 
maapou n. 1. a measure' of shell money, from 

the fingertips to the elbow, a cubit. 

2. a piece, a bit. 
ma'apu'a U., adj., bloody; n., stripes, bruises, 
ma'arara'i v. tr., to provoke, 
ma'aru U., v. i., to sleep, to twinkle; ma'aru 

lalahi, to go like winking, 
ma'arunga v. n., sleep, 
maarue S., asu maarue, to serve two masters, 
maarusi v. tr., to wink; maarusi maa, in a 

twinkling, 
maasilima U., ura maasilima, the second day 

of the moon, 
maatala U. 1. as maapala, S., unprovoked. 

2. in vain. Lau maabala. 
maatoli v. i., to visit. 
maatoto v. tr., to expect, to await; maatoto 

muni, U., to await, 
maa'u U., ma'u S., v. i., to fear, to be afraid. 

ha'amaa'u. 
maa'uni tr. 
mada 1. n., dirt, mu mada. ha'amada. 
mada 2. n., a fresh-water shell-fish (Nerita sp.). 
mada'a adj., dirty, soiled; to'oni e mada'a ani 

hesi'onga, garments defiled by the flesh, 
mada'anga n., filth. 
madala 1. the morning star; madala e qa'a, the 

day star is rising; nga madala mere 'ana'i 

qaroa adaru'a, when the day star rises 

we shall hitch it up for them. 2. lo'a 

madala, the name of a month, May. 

Viti mataka, morning; Bougainville 

Straits matatala, Orion's Belt. 
madali, mamadali adj., greasy, slippery; 

maenga {maemaeha) mamadali, fever. 



MADALI 



56 



madali, mamadali (continued). 

Viti dadala, Samoa malali, Lau afedali, 
Florida madali. 

madamada 1. v. i., to be dirty. 2. U., mada- 
tnada sulu, a month, October. 

madara'a adj., sweating, perspiring; noko 
madara'a, I sweat, 
madara'anga n., sweat. 

madeli U., a full grown coconut, hoi madeli. 

madiu U., adj., overlapping; v., to overlap. 

madoo S., adj., cooked. 

madoro adj., hot; ha'adoro. 

madoronga n., heat, fever. Malay darah, 
hot. 

madou U. 1. madou ni wala, a phrase. 2. 
adj., broken clean off. 3. cinnamon. 

madu S., adj., beloved, dear; kale madu ineu, 
my beloved child. 

mae, maemae 1. v. i., to die, to be ill, to be 
numb, to be eclipsed, of moon; mae 
'apolo, paralyzed; a olako mae, So-and- 
so is sick; a ola e mae 'oto, So-and-so is 
dead; e hai lalamoa e mae hunia Qai, 
Qai had the death of four men to account 
for; mwane da na kolu mae, lest we die; 
mae su'esu'ela'i, to die of hunger; roro 
mae, to strangle; uhu mae, a wig; e mae 
'o'o, quite dead, 
maenga v. n., sickness, death; maenga hula- 
hula, danger; maenga mamadali, fever; 
e ka'a hunie ike maenga, not unto death; 
mwaanie maenga, from death; e qa'ike 
munia nga maenga, not unto death, 
maeta (ku) v. n., death feast, death, U.; kite 
ngau maetana a ola, they eat the death 
feast of So-and-so; horo ni loloto i purine 
maeta, to kill a man after the death 
feast in order that persons may bathe, 
maeha U., maemaeha S., v. n., sickness; 

maemaeha mamadali, fever. 
maela (ku) v. n., danger, death; si'ohaa'i 

maela, to be in danger. 
maelaa v. n., danger, sickness; liunge ni 
maelaa, a plague, epidemic; maelaa ni 
qe'u, meningitis. 

mae 2. used to denote excess, with poss. 3. 
e 'a'aila'a 'oto mae ana, he is very strong; 
e lae 'oto ni mae, he went like anything; 
'u'u ni mae, heavy rain. 

mae 3. the lee shore, 'asi mae; lade mae, deep 
water. 

mae 4. to be well mashed (of areca nut); 
sctune ke mae, pound it to a pulp. 

maesi tr., to be ill of, to die of. Mota mate, 
Polynesian mate. 

mae 5. n., a fighting column, nga mae; mu 
na'ona'oi mae, armies, ma'alimae. 

mae 6. n., war; d&u mae huni, to make war on; 
ahu mae, to cease hostilities; ko apani 
mae pe'ikie, sides with us; li'oa ni mae, 
M. A., p. 260, a ghost associated with 
war. 

mae 7. weapons; tapo mae, to seize weapons. 

ma'e 8. a pronged spear used for fishing; uwa 
ma'e, a measure, 1 J yards. 

maea U., adj., holy, sacred, having to do with 
the ancestor ghosts. 



maea (continued). 

maeanga v. n., holiness (late use). Wango 
maea. 

maelo adj., ripe (of fruits); the suffixed pro- 
nouns na, ni may be added, 'iana ko 
maelo, pregnant, lit., her belly is ripe; 
hau maelo, a rock near Ngorangora; 
raa hitelia hau maelo, prov., dry enough 
to split hau maelo; maelona, its ripeness, 
when it is ripe; maelona e ngau diana, 
when ripe it is good eating; ngali maelo, 
ripe canarium nuts, the name of a 
month, August. 

maeloonga n., enemy, a maeloonga, mu 
maeloonga. Wango maeronga. 

maelupu'e S., adj., bruised, lupu. 

maemaea S., adj., used with the personal 
article; a maemaea, the sick man; mu 
maemaea, the sick. 

maemaeko'a adj., gentle, mamaeko'a. 

ma'emahe v. i., to decorate the person with 
make. 

maeni S., article plural vocative, maeni 'inoni, 
maeni mwane, maeni keni; used also in 
plain statement maeni 'inoni ineu, my 
own people. 

maenoto v. i., to be grave, sober, quiet. 

maha v. tr., to profane holy things, to use 
sacrilegiously. 
mahanga v. n., profanation. 

mahe a strong-smelling herb (Evodia hortensis) 
used to decorate the body, stuck in 
armlets. 
ma'emahe v. i., to decorate with mahe, to 
festoon in general; a garland. 

mahiri, ma'imehiri v. i., to be intoxicated from 
eating areca fruit. 
mahiringe v. n., intoxication. 

maholo 1. n., space, interval of time or distance; 
nga maholo, what a length of time! nga 
maholo e liu, time went on; maholo ni 
lae inge'ie, his time for going; maholo 
nou lae, at the time when I went; 
maholo 'eta mwane e ha'atau ue, while 
the other was yet far off; maholo 'ie, 
now; ina'ona mu maholo, in former 
times; ipurine maholo, after the time; 
ngoongoodo ana maholo, end of the time; 
maholo ni raori'i, time of virginity; to'o 
ta'e maholo, sometimes; maholo e toto, a 
proper time. Florida polo, when. holo. 

maholo 2. U., a thing, a piece, a part. 

maholo 3. v. i., to be parted; sae sa'a maholo 
wa ke mou, thoughts shall not be parted 
and shall not cease. 
maholota U., n., a piece; maholota ni pua, 
piece of areca nut. 

mahono U., tapa mahono, to interfere, to be a 
busybody, hono. 

mahoro v. i., to appear in view, to pass in view. 
ha'amahoro. 

mahu rau mehu, to abide; karu meku, to endure 
hardness. 

mahungaona n., ro mahungaona, father-in-law 
and son-in-law, mother-in-law and 
daughter-in-law; mwane male and keni 
female are added to distinguish the pairs. 



57 



MALAOHU 



mahu'ohu'o n., early morning, dawn; used with 

locative i. hu'o. 
mahuro adj., disturbed, muddy (of water); 
da mahuro ana, disturbed it. ma 3. 

mahuru adj., gentle, tractable, 
mai 1. adv., hither, here, this way; the demon- 
strative n& may be added; mat ana 
walumalau, in the world; mdi i 'ano, on 
the earth; mai i haha, on the earth; mai 
nana, under the earth; mai iorohana, on 
the earth; 'ure 'oto mai i 'aehotalana, 
from the beginning up till now; 'oko lae 
mai 'ure itei, where are you from; nou 
'ure mai i ola, I am from such-and-such 
a place; mai nga hou pua, give me an 
areca nut; hdnue maine, the place here; 
mai ileu, this way; mai i nume, into the 
house; po'o mai, hither, this side; qa'u 
mai, hither. Mota ma, Polynesian mai. 

mai 2. ebb, low tide, hou mei, U. kosi mei, 
it is low tide; mai rara, dead low water 
at spring tides; mai ana waarowaaro e 
qaa, ebb when the moon rises; mai ana 
waarowaaro e suu, ebb when the moon 
sets; hanua e la ni tola kau ana mai rara, 
the people have gone gathering coral at 
dead low water. Mota meat, Viti mati. 

mai, maimei 3., U., v. tr., to help, to be on the 
side of: used with numerals more than 
ten as an alternative to mana in the sense 
of and, with; awala maia 'enita, how 
many over ten. cf. M. L., pp. 151—153. 
Used as prep, meaning 'with'; the pron. 
au, 'o, a, etc., are suffixed; wala'a maia, 
speak with him. 
maila-(ku) gerund.; a mdilaku, my helper, 
maila'ini U., v. tr., lio maila'ini, to approve 
of. 

ma'i 4. participial ending, oro oroma'i. Mota 
mag. 

ma'i 5. suffix to verb used intransitively. 
cf. md'ini. 

maimepusu U., n., memepusu S., a tree 
(Ficus sp.) with bunches of flowers on 
the stem as well as on the branches; 
taka mala maimepusu, to flower like 
this tree. 

ma'ini verbal suffix, 'ono 'onomd'ini. 

maipo U., v. i., to be dirty, unclean. 

maitale v. i., to be poor, possessing nothing. 
tale 2. ulolada maitale, the cry of the 
poor, 
maitalenga v. n., poverty. 

makahu adj., soft, mealy (of yams when 
cooked) . 

makaka adj., broken into pieces, asunder, kaka. 
makaka'a adj., as makaka. 
makasi v. tr., to break into pieces. 

makeato to overflow; honu makeato, full and 
running over. 

makekesi U., v. tr., to disown, to put aside. 
keke. 

makemaketa (ku) n., wiles, devices. 

makere adj., gapped, with a broken edge. kere. 

makina'a U., adj., wet, damp. 

makulu adj., resounding, with a loud noise. 
Maori lakuru, thud. 



mala 1. adv., as, like, according to, as one might 
say, as it might be. mala kire manata'i 
deue, as they were wont to do; mala 'oto 
nou ka'a helesie ike, as though I had 
never done it; mala nga ta'a, like I don't 
know what; mala pdine, to give oneself 
airs; mala e 'u'ile'inie nga hoi heu, about 
a stone's throw; maahu mala i'ola, to 
fast, lit. to sleep canoe fashion; kira hunu 
poo mala ideni, they kill pigs (presum- 
ably) tomorrow; nga keni mala a kalemu, 
a girl a mate for your son; taka mala 
maimepusu, to flower like the maime- 
pusu tree. 

mala 2. U., maala S., granted that, supposing. 
3. to act like, to become like, to speak 
the language of. ha'amala. 'omu ke 
mala mwela kau, become like children; 
a porona ko malamala Sa'a, So-and-so 
speaks the language of Sa'a. San 
Cristoval mara, Fagani mwara, Omba 
mwere. 

mala 4. prefix of condition, malakeu. Mota 
mala 2. 

malaahonga S., v. L, to make trial of, to tempt: 
used with poss. 3. cf. mala, ahonga, 
malaohonga. 
malaahonganga v. n., trial, temptation. 
malaahongala-(ku) gerund. 

Mala 5. Florida name for Mwala. 

Malade a village at the northwest end of Port 
Adam, Malaita. 

maladi adj., stale, sour (of yam and taro mash, 
ha'apo'e). 

mala halisi U., same as mara hdlisi, northeast 
wind. 

malahu-(ku) n., friend, namesake; a malahaku, 
my friend; malahuku, vocative, friend; 
used with ha'i 7, ro ha'i malahune, mu 
he'i malahune, friends. Wango marahu. 

Malaita cf. mara 3. ita may possibly be a con- 
tracted form of Lau baita, big. 

malaka a wound. Lau maala, Wango maara. 
malaka'a adj., wounded. 

malakeke U., adj., unstable, keke. 

malakekesi v. tr., to cause to spill, to 
overturn. 

malalahu'e S., adj., covetous. 

malamala 1. v. i., to act wantonly, to behave 
badly, 
malamalanga v. n., wantonness, mischief, 

ill. 
malamala'anga n., evil, harm. Mota 
mala, bad. 

malamala 2. to talk the language of. mala 3. 

malamalaohe U-, light in weight. 

malamalau a pot hole in the ground. 

malamasi v. i., to destroy, used with poss. 3. 
malamala 1. 

malaohu (the ao is a diphthong) v. i., to be 
separated for initiation, of boys who 
live in the taoha on the beach with the 
men preparatory to catching their first 
bonito (sou) . lake ni malaohu. cf. take. 
ha'amalaohu v. tr., to initiate, to assist a 
novice in catching his first bonito: the 
man in the front of the canoe hooked 



MALAOHU 



58 



raalaohu (continued). 

the fish and the boy sitting behind 
him grasped the rod as the man swung 
the fish into the canoe. M. A., p. 233. 
San Cristoval maraohu. 

malaohonga U., v. i., to make trial of, to tempt. 
malaahonga. 
malaohonganga v. n., trial, temptation. 
malaohongala-(ku) gerund. 

Malapa an island in Marau Sound, Guadal- 
canal the hades of the Solomon Islands. 
M. A., p. 260. 

malapau'a'a U., adj., strong: papau, paula'a. 

malau 1. an island; malau mou, an islet. 

Malau 2. a bay west of Cape Zelee, Malaita. 
3. Port Adam. 4. 'Olu Malau, Three 
Sisters Islets, south of Ulawa, called 
also Malau ni I'e, the home of the 
ghosts and uninhabited; the names of 
the three islets are, West Sister Ali'ite, 
Middle Sister Malau Lalo, East Sister 
Malau Peine; on the side of Ali'ite 
facing Ulawa is the rock called Hau ni 
Keni, the women's rock, where the 
female ghosts emerge from the sea as 
they cross on their last journey. M. A., p. 
257; maraaui Malau, the southeast wind. 

malau 5. the fangs of dogs. 

malelede adj., broken in pieces, lede. 

maleledi v. tr., to rail at, to rebuke, ledi 1. 
tnaleledi oraha'a mwaanie ngaini, to 
rebuke a man for sin; ere maleledi, to 
rail at; sae maleledi, rage, 
maleledinge v. n., abuse. 

malengolengo adj., reclining, falling to one 
side, not upright. 

nialeqeleqe U., weak. 

maleqeleqenga v. n., weakness. 

maleu U., uhi maleu, a month, April. 

mali U., to be roasted; a Poro Wakio Mali, a 
legendary person, 
mali'a adj., cooked, roasted. Padas, Bor- 
neo, malia, red. 

mali'e S., lo'a mali'e, a month, April. 

malikiliki U., adj., leaping; 'ura malikiliki, to 
leap. 

malimeli adj., sweet. Niue lango meli, bee; 
humelie, sweet; Borneo manis. 

malingi, mamalingi adj., spilt, lingi. v. tr.,to 
overbalance, to lean; honu malingi, full 
to the brim, 
malingisi tr., to cause to spill. 

mali si (ku) to be fitting, becoming; e malisiku, 
it becomes me; nou ka'a malisi 'unue, 
I am not worthy to tell it. 

malo 1. black beads or bugles, sections of a 
creeper, used with haa and huresoso in 
the making of 'uri mwado, etc.: dark 
glass beads introduced in trade are also 
called malo; malo huri, beads cut off in 
sections; malo ute, beads rubbed down 
to size. 

malo 2. asthma, to suffer from asthma; ilele 
malo, to gasp for breath. 

malopi adj., with jagged edges. 

malo'u adj., bent, crooked, lo'u. Su'u Malo'u, 
a bay on Big Malaita opposite Aio, a 
bay at the north end of San Cristoval. 



malu, malumalu, mamalu 1. v. i., to shade, to 
overshadow, ha'amdlu. e malu haahe, 
it is in shadow; saulehi melumelu, dusk, 
malute (ku) shade, i Melutei Rara, under 
the shade of the coral tree, a village on 
Ugi; * melulana, under the rule of, used 
of the overshadowing power of chiefs. 
malu (ku) 2. n., i melune, under the rule of, seen 

in proper names 'ou'ou i Melune. 
maluha U., v. n., shade, used with poss. 3. 

Mota malu, Maori maru. 
malumu adj., soft, gentle; lae malumu, go 
quietly; sae mdlumunge, v. n., long- 
suffering. Mota malumlum, Viti 
malumu. 
mama'a vocative, father; a mama'a, of a par- 
ticular person; a mama'a e 'unue, father 
said so. 2. used as an affectionate 
address by the father to the male child. 
of. Polynesian lamaili (little father). 
ma'amana, n., ro hii'i ma'amana, ro 
ma'amana, U., vocative, father and son. 
mamadali adj., running with sweat, madali. 

ma'ema'eha mamadali, S., fever. 
mamadu adj., gentle, harmless, madu. 
mamae adj., fine, well ground; one mamae, fine 
sand; sae mamae, meek. Wango 
mamae, soft, 
mamaeko'a adj., gingerly, gently, subdued, 

meek, maemaeko'a. 
mamaela'a adj., weak, prone to sickness. 

mamaela'anga v. n., sickness, 
mamahu'e n., a tree, used for house posts. 
mama'ila'a adj., despisingly, used with poss. 3. 
la'a 3. ere mama'ila'a, to speak de- 
spisingly of. 
mama'ingi U., v. i., to despise, to reject; to 
attack, to be fierce (of a dog or a pig), 
used with poss. 3; mama'ingi 'asi, to 
reject, 
mama'ingi'a U., adj., disparagingly. 
mama'ingi'ala-(ku) gerund, 
mama'iraa v. i., to work at, to labor earnestly 

over, 
mamakare v. i., a children's game of hide and 

seek with an object held in the hands, 
mamakine adj., abashed, ashamed, with poss. 3. 
ha'amamakine. dan mamakine ada, put 
them to shame, 
mamakinanga n., ere mamakinanga, to 
reproach. Gilbert Islands makina, to 
fear. 
mamakola v. i., to reject, to handle shamefully, 
to be fierce, savage (of dogs and pigs), 
used with poss. 3. 
mamakolasi tr. 
mamala n., wild taro. 
Mamala Wii n., the Milky Way. 
mamalidu'a U., adj., quiet, peaceable, doing 

no harm, 
mamalo, mamamalo v. i., to rest, ha'amamalo. 
mamalonga v. n., rest, a resting-place, 
mamaloha v. n., a resting-place. Wango 
mamaro, Bugotu mamatho. 
mamalute-(ku) v. n., shade, shadow, veranda. 
i mamalutana nume, on the veranda. 
malu. 



59 



MANGO 



mamanuto'o v. i., to be at peace, free from 

strife, i'o mamanuto'o. manu 2, lo'o. 
mamango (ku) breath, mango 2. mamango 

i sae, metaph., heart, 
mamataku adj., fearful, dreadful, maa'u. 

Polynesian malaku, fear, 
mama'u adj., causing fear, fearful, ma'u. 
lio mama'u, to look ugly; mama'u ni 
mwane, a fearful lot of men, beyond 
count. 
mamau'a'a S., adj., smooth, with smooth 

surface, 
mama'udi v. i., to be cold (of the body). 

mama'udinge v. n., cold. Borneo madud. 

mamaurita'a adj., living, alive, mduri, ta'a 5. 

mama'uru'e S., ma'uma'uru'a U., adj., sleepy. 

ma'uru. 

mama'uru'anga v. n., sleepiness. 

mamaware adj., freed from, safe, in safety; i'o 

mamaware, to be in safety, 
mamenamena adj., broken to bits, menasi. 
mami S. 1. v. i., to taste; mami ohonga ana, 

taste and try it. Motu mami. 
mami 2. pron. plural 1 excl. suffixed to noun; 

nimemami, our hands, 
mamu 1. v. i., to entice animals with scraps of 
food, ha'amamu. 
mamu'i tr., to throw scraps of food to entice 
animals, 
mamu 2. to be burnt in cooking (of food). 

ha'amamu'i. 
mana U., used of numerals over ten; awala 
mana hai, fourteen; mana 'enite, what 
unit over ten. Probably ma, n., na, 
suffixed pronoun, cf. Arag ve, Espiritfi 
Santo va, Santa Cruz wa. M. L., 
p. 232. Viti mani. 
manata 1. v. i., to be taught, quiet (of animals) , 
broken in, tamed, harmless, 
manatanga v. n., wisdom, nature, knowl- 
edge. Motu manada, gentle; Wango 
manata. 
manata (ku) 2. v. n., nature, custom; tolai 
sulie manatana, according to his nature; 
manatana mu 'inoni, mu manatai 'inoni, 
the nature of men. manatana e rako. 
Florida manaha. 
manata'a adj., tame, kind, ha'amanata'a. 
ke'i ne'i manata'a diana, they shall 
become well tamed, 
manata'i, manate'i (Qaloto) v. tr., to know, to 
be accustomed; nou ka'a manata' ic ike, 
I do not know; mala hire manata'i deue, 
as they were wont, 
manata'ini, manate'ini tr., to know, to 
have; 'omu ka'a manata'inie wa 'omit ke 
leesie, ye neither know him nor have seen 
him; atei e manata'inie, who knows, as 
Spanish i quien sabe? I don't know; 
'o manata'inie hoi niu? nou pu'o, have 
you a coconut? I have not. Samoa 
manalu, to think; Lau manata, Florida 
manaha. 
manawa v. i., to proclaim oneself the cause of 
the death of another by magic. San 
Cristoval manaiva, to breathe. 



maneko, manemaneko v. i., to be gentle, harm- 
less. 
manekonga v. n., gentleness. 
manekosi U., tr., hele manekosi, to handle 
gently. Wango manigo. 
mani adv., entirely, altogether: precedes verb; 
mani ni'ilana sakanga e mani lac, the 
complete giving of power is completely 
given; ke mani dolosie satada, let him 
ask all their names; mani wala, S., to 
take counsel; mani dhutaka, U., all of us; 
mani oaoanga ha'iliu, equality. Wango 
mwani, article; Lau qaimani, altogether, 
manikulu'e adj., glorious, resplendent, re- 
nowned, ha'amanikulu'e, kuluhi. 
manikuluha n., glory, renown, used with 

poss. 3. 
manikulu'anga n., glory, praise, 
manini olo manini, to be of orderly behavior, 
manire'i 1. v. tr., to clean up, to put in order. 
2. partic, skilfully; hcle manire'i; i'o 
manire'i, to live orderly. 
manire'ini U., tr. 
manire'inila-(ku) gerund, 
manire'inge'ini tr., to work skilfully at. 
manola adj., clear, pure, clean, ha'amanola. 
manomanola'a, manomanoleta adj., unsul- 
lied, refined, 
manolanga v. n. Wango manora. 
manu 1. a bird, insect, mami poo, the pig- 
bird, with a cry like the grunt of a hog, 
a bird of ill omen; hoi menu, an egg; 
pipisi ana manu, tail feathers; ihui 
menu, feather; manu koni,a. tame bird. 
Sa'a ni menu, cf. ha'atfS&i. Mota 
manu, Polynesian manu. 
manu 2. v. i., to float; hdu menu, pumice stone; 
hele manu sada, to hold level, upright; 
manu odo, to be upright, level; waaro- 
waaro e manu 'a'a mdi ilengi, the moon 
floated clear in the sky. 
manule'i U., partic, raised up on high. 
Samoa, Maori manu, to float. 
mangi-(na, ni) 'unu mengini, to tell everything 
out; kire ka'a lio mdngini, they saw 
none of it. Wango mangina, at all. 
mangite (ku) a relic of the dead, an amulet, 
hair, bone, etc. cf. kulu. 
mangitana the dead body, 
mango 1. v. i., to be finished, completed; the 
adverb 'oto may be added : with dhuta has 
the sense of all. ha'amango. e mango 
'oto, quite finished; mango 'oto, that fin- 
ished, thereupon; melu mango 'oto mdi, we 
are all here; sae mango, sae mangonga, 
ha'asaemango, mental satisfaction; dhn- 
tamere'i mango, both of us; ahutamolu 
mango, all of you; mango te'ete'e, finished 
for good and all. 
mangomango adv., completely, follows 
verb, 
mango, mamango S., mangomango U. 2. to 
breathe; mango asa, to gasp; mango 
pdine, to sigh; mango toli, to faint, be 
insensible; Hi mango, to draw in the 



MANGO 



60 



mango, mamango 2 (continued). 

breath; lole mango, to hold the breath; 
to'o mango, to have breath, 
mango (ku) 3. breath, chest; mangoku, my 
life; mangoi ola, breath; mangona e suu, 
his breath has gone, he is dead ; mangona 
ue ana, he is still alive; mangona e 
puido'o dliho'i, his breath returned. 

mangoa'ini v. tr., to be satisfied with; 
mango 1. 

mangomango (ku) n., breath, chest. 

mangoni adv., rich, fat; wasu mangoni, to emit 
a rich savor. 

mangulungulu adj., resounding. 

mao, maomao 1. v. i., to dance; moo hidehide. 
to dance to the clapping of hands; mao 
pe'e dhui, to dance holding a dancing- 
club; 'arasi mao, to lead the chorus in a 
dance; maani mao, to watch the dance; 
ohoa mao, to practise the dance; sulu 
mao, to sing dancing-songs. 
maonga v. n., dancing; puulie maonga, to 

tread the dance, 
maoli tr., maoli mao, to join in the dance. 
maolila-(ku) gerund. Lau mao, Wango 
mao. 

mao 2. halo mao, a pump drill; a piece of hard 
palm wood is tipped with a flake of 
flint which is bound tightly on, two 
strings hang from the other end and are 
made fast to a short stick; these strings 
are then twisted around the palm wood 
and the drill revolves as the strings 
unwind and rewind by pushing down 
the short stick. 

ma'ohi, mama'ohi S., v. tr., to await, to expect. 
ohi 1. ma'ohi raqasi, to await, 
ma'ohinge v. n., expectation; ma'ohinge 

susuto'o, hope (late use). 
ma'ohila-(ku) gerund. 

ma'o'i 1. adj., broken in two. 2. n., a landslip. 
'o'i'o'i. 
ma'o'i'o'i altogether broken. Florida 
magoti. 

maomaopu'e S., adj., well grown, fatted; pdsu 
maomaopu'e, in full leaf. 

maoneone U., adj., sore smitten. 

maopaopa adj., distinct, showing up sepa- 
rately (of trees in a landscape), opa. 

mapipi adj., receding (of water); wai e mapipi 
'ohe 'oto ta'inie kolune mwakana, whether 
the water had receded off the face of 
the earth. 

mapo 1. n., a locust. 

Mapo 2. Roasi Bay, Malaita. 

mapusu U., adj., stinking, rotten. 

maputaputa U., adj., bruised. 

maqe n., Tahiti chestnut (Bocoa, Inocarpus 
edulis). Mota mwake, Tahiti mape. 

mara 1. * mora nume, the front of the house, 
platform at front door, courtyard. 

mara S., mala U. 2. mara halisi, the northeast 
wind. Possibly Mota maran, light. 

Mara 3. (Tolo) the island of Malaita. Sa'a 
Mwala; Mara masiki; Florida Mala. 

maraa-(ku) 1. n., lone, unaided; ineu maraaku. 



maraa-(ku) (continued). 

I by myself; ola maraana, nothing like 
it, superexcellent. 2. U., of one's own 
accord; e hd'iarea maraana, he pushed 
himself forward. 

maraa'imuni v. i., to do a thing secretly. 
mumuni. 

maraau the southeast trade wind blowing from 
south-southeast to east-northeast during 
the months from May to November. 
aau. maraau wei hata, south-southeast 
wind, a strong wind with cloudy days 
but no rain; maraau i Malau, southeast 
wind, from the direction of 'Olu Malau; 
maraau i qaro, south-by-east wind; 
maraau 'upu'upu, east wind, blows over 
the middle ('upu'upu) of Ulawa; 
maraau wei qini, east-by- north wind, 
brings rain; maraau ro one, east-north- 
east wind. Maori marangai, east wind. 

mara halisi northeast wind, fine weather with 
masses of cumulus clouds; mara halisi 
i malawa, north-by-east wind. 

mara'i heutaa U., v. i., to droop (of flowers). 

Maramara 'O'orou U., the name of a canoe 
in a story. 

maramarape'a adj., secure, serene, prosperous. 

maramarawai lo'a maramarawai, name of a 
month. 

maranga 1 . maranga i maa, eyebrow. 

maranga-(na, ni) 2. hele marangana, take from 
amongst. 

maraohu (ao diphthong) a large food-bowl. 

maraohu'e S., maraohu'a U., adj., stale, not 
fresh, brackish, water which tastes of the 
bamboo water-carrier. Wango mara- 
ohua. 

marapute'i adj., fallen headlong, rdpu. 

marara v. i., to be diffident, hesitating, to 
flinch; hele marara, to act with diffi- 
dence. Mota maragai, to tremble; 
Motu hemarai, to be coy. 

marare'a adj., white and glistening, re'a. 
Mota maran, light (lux). 

marariro'a adj., sumptuous, bright. 

marawa U., to be blackish, purplish, in color; 
marawa ni deni, daybreak; aau marawa, 
the nuts getting purple in color before 
ripening; a month, July. Mota mar as. 

marea n., a small fresh- water fish. 

mareho S. (a Wango word), a mareho, So-and 
so. hereho. 

mari'iri'i adj., broken into slivers. NiuS 
malipilipi. 

marou v. n., to be thirsty. Mota marou, 
Marshall Islands maru. 

maruda U., adj., tender, of flesh meat. 

masa to be shy, ashamed, respectful: used with 
poss. 3. ma'amasa'a, ha'amasa. e masa 
aku, he was shy of me; masa mwaani, to 
be shy of doing; masa suke, to be 
ashamed to beg. 
masanga v. n., shame, confusion. 

masi, ma'imesi S. 1. to commit adultery; mast 
huni, to commit adultery with; hanua 
ni masi, U., an adulterous place. 
masinge v. n., adultery. 



6i 



MAWA 



masi, ma'imesi 1 (continued). 

masilana gerund., her fornication. 

masi 2. U., article, a, a piece: used also in 
diminutive and depreciatory sense; 
nga and mwai may precede, masi 
kaleku, my child; nga masi taha, what 
(thing); mwai mesi sae, hearts; iditidu 
mesi 'ei, jumped about on the firewood. 
Wango: cf. si in hasi; hasi ei, a tree; 
hasi noni, a man; Lau si a. 

masi 3. dwarfs, pygmies: probably the autoch- 
thons, credited with being stupid. 
San Cristoval masi. 

masiki (Tolo word). Mara Masiki, Little 
Malaita. Mota rig, small; Motu 
maragi. 

mata 1. U., club (generic term); tahola'i mata, 
S., to wave the club in the air. Wango 
mata, Viti manda, Wedau mada. 

mata 2. U., to be rotting away; nga hudi e mata 
'asi'a, the bananas were rotting un- 
picked. 

mata'i to have an attack of malarial fever; 
nokomata'i, I have malaria; mata'i holo- 
holo, intermittent fever. Mota masag. 

mataka Qaloto form for mataqa, clear. 

matakara adj., unraveled, come undone. 
takara. 
matakarasi tr., to unravel. 

matamata soot. 

matanga adj., forked, branched, tanga. Lau 
matanga, between, in the midst of. 

mataqa adj., clear, open, plain, mataka, 
ha'amataqasi. 
mataqanga v. n., clear light, open space. 
mataqasi S., mataqali U., v. tr., to enlighten. 
Samoa matala, Maori malar a. 

mataraha flotsam, drift coconuts, tar a 1. 

matasi 1. adj., with the point broken off. 

matasi 2. n., a small fish. 

matawa n., the open sea. taw a. i matawa, 
the east; mora halisi i matawa, north-by- 
east wind; hui ni matawa, the giant taro; 
mwai matawa qaroqaro, U., natives of 
Santa Cruz; mu matawa 'uhi'uhi, S., 
foreigners with guns. San Cristoval 
matawa; Maori tawha, open; Omba 
wawa, the open sea; Niue tawana, open; 
Araga wawana, open sea; Mota wawana, 
wide and flat; Malagasy fafana. 

matola-(ku) the midst of, between, midway; 
i matolana i Uki na i Ulawa, half way 
between Ugi and Ulawa; i matolai 'inoni, 
among men. Wango madora. 

Matou a Poro Matou ni Wala, a ghost in Ulawa 
folklore. 

mau 1. to emerge, to debouch, to lead (of a 
path) ; ko mau i ola, leads to such-and- 
such a place. 

ma'u, ma'ume'u S. 2. v. i., to fear, to be afraid. 
maa'u, ha'amd'u. 
ma'unge v. n., fear; ere Idle ana ma'unge, to 
talk confusedly from fear; saeda e 
qa'ilulu eni me'unge, their hearts were 
dismayed through fear, 
ma'ute'ini tr. 
ma'ute'i v. i., to fear; noko ma'ute'i rara- 



mau, ma'ume'u (continued). 

ngana, I am afraid of it. Wango 
mamau, Malay mataut, Maori mataku. 

maua U. 1. v. i., to dye, to stain. 2. n., a dye: 
the dyes in use are obtained from the 
bark of the casuarina (sdlu) and the o'a 
(?Bischoffia javanica) and kikiri. 

mauana n., man and wife, parents: used with 
ro, ro ha'i, ro mauana, U., ro ha'i 
mauana, S., man and wife; ro ha'i 
mauana ineu, S., my parents. 

mauli, maumeuli left-handed, awkward; a 
Mduli, a proper name; hele mauli, to 
do awkwardly. Florida mauli, Maori 
maui, Viti mawi, Motu lauri, Nguna 
mauri. 

maumau'a'a, maumau'ala U., mamau'a'a S., 
adj., smooth. 

maumauri'a U., adj., alive, mauri. 

ma'uma'uru'a U., adj., sleepy, ma'uru. 

ma'ume'ule S., frightened, fearful, ma'u. 

maumeuli (ku) left, lefthanded, awkward. 
mauli. i meumeuli, on the left; nime 
i meumeuliku, my left hand, 
maumeuli'e adj., awkward. 

maumeuri'e adj., living, alive, mauri. huru- 
huru maumeuri'e to be living. 

ma'ume'uta-(ku) terrible, to'o ma'ume'utana, 
terrifying, ma'u. 

mau'o S., to be offended, ha'amdu'o. 

mauri, maumeuri 1. to live, to be alive, to 
recover health, ha'auri. 'asi meuri, 
weather side of an island; lalamoa mauri, 
a captive; tola mauri, to capture, used 
with poss. 3. 
maurihe v. n., life, soul: used with poss. 3. 
mdurihaaku, my soul, my life; a 'aei 
meurihe, source of life; raaraa ani 
meurihe, the light of life, 
mauringe v. n., life (abstract). 
maurisi tr., to survive, to escape from. 

mauri 2. v. i., to be delivered of a child; e mauri 
ana mwela, she was delivered of a child. 
Java urip, life; Mota maur, Malay 
murip, Ponape maur. Lau mori, to live 
may be connected with Sa'a moli true 
(wala'imoli) and with Maioriori, Chat- 
ham Islanders, Maori, New Zealander, 
rather than with mauri. cf. moli. 

maurihaa'i S., life, soul. Florida maurihali. 

ma'uru U. (dialectic), to sleep; ma'uru ahu, 
sound asleep, Fagani mauru, Mota 
maturu. 

ma'usu U., bush, forest; i la'ona ma'usu, in the 
bush; e ma'usu 'oto, it is all overgrown. 

mauta'a adj., firm, hard, exclam., hold tight. 
ha'amauta'a. hoi meuta'a, a ripe areca 
nut, hard; 'usu meuta'a, to affirm. 

mauweline n., with ro: ro mauweline, uncle and 
nephew, uweli. 

mawa, mamawa 1. to blow strong, to be a gale; 
mawa ta'a, to be exposed to the air (of 
a sore), 
mawaha U. v. n., tempest, gale. Wango 
mawa, wind. 

mawa 2. a tree, strong smelling when chopped 
and causing vomiting. 



MAWA 



62 



mawa 3. v. i., to shout. 

mawataa, mawaha S., mawanga U., a 

shout, a loud cry; sungie mawataa, to 

lift up a shout, 
mawasidengi S., mawasideni U., a storm of 

wind; mawasidengi e taharara'a, a storm 

swept down. 
mea(ku) 1. n., a tongue, the blade of a paddle; 

meaka'elu to'ola ka'elu, our tongues are 

our own; e rara mea, it burnt the tongue, 

hot (of a rebuke), 
meameaha S., meameata U., used with 

genitive i, ni; mu meameahai dunge, 

tongues of fire; meameatani ola, U., a 

huge thing. 
meali v. tr., to lick. 
mealila-(ku) gerund. 2. v. i., to be fierce 

(of fire) ; dunge ko mea, the fire is fervent. 

Mota gara-mweai, tongue; Maisin me. 
medo to be damp, wet. ha'amedo. Motu 

medu, rain, 
me'esu, me'eme'esu S., bush, forest, ma'usu, 

U. dalo ni me'esu, the paule tree; ola 

ni me'esu, an uncultivated thing, 
menu n., a fish caught near the rocks; honi 

mehu, U., one such fish. 
me'i S., article, a, one: nga and mu may be 

prefixed; also used in a diminutive or 

depreciatory sense, masi, U. nga me'i 

ola, a thing; me'i wala, a word; mu me'i 

wala; a me'i wala, the Word; kele me'i 

ola, a little thing; me'i mwakana, dust; 

me'i keni reu, a handmaid; i'emi mu 

me'i 'inoni, we humble folk, 
meimeile'ini v. tr., e tale'i meimeile'ini, he was 

in destitution, 
melaha, melamelaha n., fierce flame; mu 

melahai dunge, flames of fire. Mota 

mera, red glow; Maori miramira, red 

heat, 
melu 1. pers. pron., plural 2, excl., we: more 

restricted in meaning than ki'e. 2. pers. 

pron., plural 2, excl.: suffixed to nouns, 

our: suffixed to verbs and prepositions 

as object, us. lu. 
melu 3. n., a tree, the quandong (Eleocarpus 

sp.). 
melumelu sdulehi melumelu, dusk, 
melumelu'a'a adj., bluish, blackish, purplish; 

malu, shade. Sesake meluna tasi, 

depths of the sea. 
melumelu'e S., adj., glorious, 
meme n., a ball of masticated food; hou meme, 

chewed areca nut with betel leaf and 

lime, 
memela'ini v. tr., to masticate. Gilbert 

Islands mama, to masticate a ball of 

food for an infant; Viti mama, to chew; 

Niue mama, a mouthful, 
memelu'a'a as melumelu'a'a. 
memepusu S., a tree (Ficus sp.). mdimepusu. 
memeso v. tr., to break into powder, pili 

memesoa. 
mena to turn color (of leaves of deciduous 

trees); 'alite ko mena, the 'alite is 

turning red. Mota mena, ripe, 
menanga'ini v. tr., to do a thing perfectly. 



menasi v. tr., to break into pieces, ddu menasi, 
kite menasi, mamenamena, ha'amena- 
mena. 

mengo a shellfish (Oliva sp.). 

mere, mere'i pers. pron., dual 1, excl., we two: 
used as subject or as object of verbs 
and prepositions; mere'i is used also (a) 
following 'emere'i or i'emere'i as subject, 
and (b) suffixed to nouns, dhulamere'i. 

mero to be white in color; uhune e lai mero, his 
hair is white. 

meru'e S. as mere, used as subject of verb. 

mi 1. ('Ahi'a, U.), as 'ami 1. 

mi 2. article, used only in the phrase mi sala, 
a piece of any cloth. 

mi 3. verb suffix, inu inumi. 

mimi 1. to make water, urine. 2. the bladder. 
Mota meme, to urinate; Polynesian 
mimi. 

mimisi v. tr., to spurtle on (of juice, etc.); 
e mimisie maaku, it squirted in my face. 

mimisi maa 1. a tree (Exccecaria sp.). 2. the 
mantis, walking-stick insect, which 
spurts out a liquid when touched. Viti 
mimi mata, Mota memes mala. 

minga-(na, ni) S., as hikana; 'o ngdu mingana, 
did you eat of it? 

miu pron., plural 2, suffixed to noun. 

mo plural article used with nouns beginning 
with the letter o; mo ola, mo one, also 
colloquially mo 'inoni; huni lu'ue mo 
ola ineu, to remove my goods. 

moa S., v. i., to vomit. 
moana v. n., its vomit, 
moata'ini tr. 

mode to be listless, to faint; saeku e mode, I 
am listless. 

moka to wax old, to be fusty (of bags, etc.). 

moke, momoke 1. a hand net used in openings 
(ta'ataha) of the shore reef. 2. to use a 
hand net; moke ana pusu 'esi, to net 
whales; i sarona moke amu, in your 
sight, lit., opposite your net; uselie 
moke, to make a net; hu'o ni moke, a 
casting net. 

mola 1. v. i., to heal (of a wound or sore). 

mola 2. v. i., to fail, to miss; used with poss. 3. 
ha'amola. 
molahi tr., e molahie 'oto, it failed. 

mola 3. a numeral, 10,000, used properly of 
yams, molai uhi; followed by genitive 
i, S., ni, U.; denotes also a countless 
number; may be used for counting men. 
hu'e kire konie mola, a concubine; walu 
mola ni ola, all things. 
molata-(na) n., molalana nga ola, innumer- 
able things. Florida mola, a great 
number. 

mola 4. adv., merely, only; followed by genitive 
i. lac molai rako, go gently; nga 
ta'ata'a ini mola, only one person; 
e ta'ewau mola, e ta'e mola wau, it makes 
no difference; 'oto mola, 'oto tnolana, S., 
'oto molani, U., 'oto mola 'ie, S., 'oto 
mola inihou, U., all mean just now. 

mola 5. 'ano mola, good ground. 



63 



MUNI 



mola'a adj., free, without price; tale'i inu 
mola'a, just drink without price. 

mole v. tr., to stain, to daub with pigments; n., 
pigments, paint; salo molemole, red clouds. 

moli 1. n., wild orange, hotohotomolita'a. 
Mota mwol, Viti moli. 

moli 2. Su'u Moli, a boat harbor at the north- 
west corner of Ulawa. 

moli 3. wala'itnoli, true, i. e., to speak true. 
Niue moli, true. 

molu pers. pron., plural 2, you; used as subject 
or as object of verb or preposition; more 
restricted in meaning than 'omu; molu 
is also used (a) following 'omolu or 
i'omolu as subject, (b) suffixed to a 
noun, dhutamolu. 

momo v. i., to squeeze, to press on each side; 
tnomo lalamoa, a flat armlet of tridacna 
shell, so called from its being used to 
squeeze men to death, 
momo'i tr., to bring side by side. 

momo 2. rubbish, sweepings. Motu momo. 

momoke moke. 

momoru adj., small, little. 

monaki cuttlefish; hole ni monaki, the bone 
of the cuttlefish. 

mone adv., follows the verb, na may be added; 
gives clearness, explains lae mone, go! 
kolu mone, let us be gone; qongiku e to'o 
mone 'olo, my time is even now come; 
i'oe ni monena, it is you indeed. 

mono U., to live apart; koro 'a mono 'olo 
i Kalona, they two live apart in Kalona. 

moro, moro'i 1. pers. pron., dual 2, you two: 
used as subject or as object of verb or 
preposition: used in addressing a mar- 
ried woman, or a woman with a child, 
or a chief, or even a party: moro is also 
used (a) following i'omoro as subject, 
(b) suffixed to a noun; moro taria paro 
i'ola i 'esi ka'el'e laelae, you launch 
away the canoe into the sea, let us go. 

moro-(ku) 2. n., buttock. 

moru'e S., pers. pron., dual 2, you two; used 
as subject or following 'omoru'e. 

morumoru 1. U., small, little, momoru. 2. 
broken in pieces, qa'a morumoru. Lau 
morumoru. 

mota n., a mortar for pounding areca nut; used 
by toothless persons. 

motaa, motaahi S., v. tr., to cause agony to. 
ha'amotaahi, hulemotaa. 
motaahinge v. n., agony. 
motaahila-(ku) gerund. 

mou, moumou 1. v. L, to be broken, rara 
moumou. hdu moumou, an isolated 
rock; e to'o mou, it has ceased; sae sa'a 
maholo wa ke mou, thought shall not 
be parted and shall not cease; malau 
mou, an islet; e mou ue ana, still in 
desuetude, 
mousi, moute'ini tr., to break (of a rope, 
etc.). ha'amousi. radu moumousie mu 
'i'eli, they broke the rope; adoma'i mousi, 
U., to decide, to dare. 
mouta-(na, ni) e to'o moulana, it has ceased. 
mousila-(ku) gerund. 



mou, moumou 1 (continued). 

moute'i, moumoute'i partic, one, only. 
mwela moute'i, only child; ta'ata'a ola 
moumoute'i, one thing only; ne'isae 
moute'i, S., to determine, to dare. Mota 
mot, Polynesian motu. 

mou 2. U. (dialectic), forest, bush, i mou, oha 
ni mou. ma'usu. Mota mwot. 

mouholo v. i., to break across, holo. saeku 
e mouholo, I have no spirit left. 

mouqeli S., to get ready, to prepare, to be 
ready; used with suffixed pronouns ku, 
mu, nii, da instead of au, etc. ; e mouqe- 
line, it is prepared. 

moutoli v. i., to cease, to be ended. 

mu 1. pron., sing. 1, suffixed to noun: thine; 
nimemu, thy hand. 

mu 2. plural article, the: mui is used with nga 
in nga mui ta'a, what things; nga mui 
tola, paths. 

mudi 1. midrib of leaf of coconut, etc.; the 
suffixed pronoun na may be added. 
mudine; mudii niu, mudii sa'o, midrib 
of coconut, of sago; maai mudi, a gorge 
made of sago midrib or of tortoise shell 
for catching flying-fish, the bait being 
the flesh of the claws of the coconut 
crab (Birgus latro, dsusu). 

mudi 2. shear legs, maai mudi S., hou mudi U. 

mudimudi 1. U., a bird, yellow honey-sucker. 

mudimudi 2. U., mwimwidi S., to drip; 
mudimudi ura, to drip. 

muini eta muini, some; hahira diana ikire nga 
muini lo'u ka'a diana, on the good and 
the bad; muini e mwa'i, the rich people; 
muini e i'o mwakule, those who have 
no ties; muini liuta'ana a mwane He e 
qao'i ne, more than those which this 
man has done, ini 1. 

mumu 1. U., mumua qangoqango, to decorate a 
nose ornament with porpoise teeth. 

mumu 2. to close in on; 'ala mumu, to close in 
like jaws, 
mumu'i tr., to place adjoining, close 
together. 

mumu 3. mumulou, wild men, traditional. 
M. A., p. 355. 

mumuni 1. v. tr., to hide, to conceal. 2. to be 
hidden. Motu lahuni, Mota tavun, San 
Cristoval ahuni, Mao. nunumi. amuni. 

muna'i, mune'i U., adv., used in conditional 
sentences: subjunctive; kira 'a mune'i 
lae, were they to go. 

muni U. 1. (aw) prep, dative, for, to; e qa'ike 
munia nga maenga, not unto death; 
munia nga laha, what for. 

muni U. 2. adv., in order that: used as optative 
with verbal particle 'e; used with ana, if. 
muni 'e lae mat, let him come; muni 'e 
(mun'e) lae, gently; muni ne'e loosia, 
ta'ane na'a 'unua, if I see him I shall 
tell it; muni nge'ia 'e lae mai, if he come; 
ana muni kir'e 'unua, if they say it; 
muni 'ua, why, what for; nau 'unua uri 
muni ne'e mae 'oto, I thought I was done 
for; tau muni, to endeavor. Mota 
mun, Sa'a huni. 



MUNO 



6 4 



muno n., caterpillar, chrysalis. 

musi-(ku) 1. U., finger or toe nail, mwisi, S. 
2. operculum, met., a piece; musii elili, 
operculum of Turbo petholatus. 

MW 

mwa, mwamwa 1. prefix of condition as ma 1. 
mwamwanoto, mwahiohio. 

mwa 2. U., plural article, used before words 
beginning with a vowel or with h; 
tnwai. 

mwa 3. prefix to nouns expressing relationship, 
mu mwa'asine, ro mwa'adine. 

mwa 4. U., exclamation of surprise. 

mwaa 1. n., a snake; mwaa dili sato, a snake 
observed as an omen; saro ni mwaa, 
zigzag pattern in inlaying; mwaa 
nuenuala, glistening, brilliant, snake. 
Mota mwata. In M. A., p. 221, mati e 
sato should be mwaa dili sato. 

mwaa 2. n., a disease, lupus, mwaa e hure 
ana, he was eaten of worms. 

mwaa 3. lemi mwaa, U., full moon; oku mwaa, 
October. 

mwa'a 4. v. i., to be extinct (of fire or lamp). 
mwa'asi tr., to extinguish. 

mwaadalo to be innocent, meek. 

mwa'adine n., with ro, ro mwa'adine, two first 
cousins, 'adi. 

mwaadule earthworm. 

mwaamwaa worm, maggot; mwaamwaa puri, 
trepang, beche-de-mer; mwaamwaa ni 
ngali, U., woodlouse. Wango mwaa- 
mwaa. 

mwaamwaala adj., infested with worms. 

mwaani (au) prep., from, out of, since: the 
pron. sing. 3 is suffixed as anticipatory 
object; used in comparison of the 
adjective, mwaani ta'a, from what; 
'ulu mwaani, to overlook; dau toli 
mwaani, to submit to, to be subject to; 
fola mwaani, to desert a ship; e la 'otoi 
'aela mwaani nonola, it is worse than 
yesterday; mwaanie mu tata'alanga, 
from evils; mwaanie maenga, from 
death; e p'aine mwaanie, bigger than he; 
maleledi oraha'a mwaanie ngaini, to 
rebuke a man for sin; ore mwaani, to be 
left out. Wango bani, Epi dent. 

mwa'asine n., brethren; a mwa'asine, the 
brother; mu mwa'asine, the brethren; ro 
mwa'asina, U., two sisters-in-law. 'asi 2. 

mwada, mwa'amwada S., mwadamwada U. 1. 
to beat out seeds, to thresh; 'uri mwada, 
to tramp out seeds. 
mwadamwada'i U., tr. 

mwada 2. U., to lift. 

mwadamwadamu v. i., to masticate, to grind 
the teeth (of pig). 

mwadau, mwamwadau to be easy, possible, 
soft, pliable; ana ke ola mwamwadau, if 
possible; mu le'u e mwadau, places easy 
to traverse, 
mwadausi tr., to be easy for any one. 
ha'amwadausi. e ka'a mwadausieu ni lae, 
not easy for me to go. Wango mwadau. 



mwadi (na) the old yam from which the new 
has grown; mwadi ni uhi. mwadine, its 
old yam. 

mwado U., ground, soil, 'u'umwado. i mwado, 
on the ground; mwado huu, the earth; 
uruuru mwado, anklet of shell money, 
lit., gather dirt; mwado mwakita'a, mud; 
wahawaha ni mwado, dust; mwado w'dru, 
red earth. Florida meto; Espiritu 
Santo metu, dirty; Mota maeto; San 
Cristoval mato, ground. M. L., p. 57. 

mwadola adj., covered with earth, dirty. 

Mwado'a a village on the west side of Ulawa; 
Su'u i Teluhia, its boat harbor; 'Ei'ei, its 
spring. 

mwae 1. S., n., person, fellow, man; demon- 
strative na may be added; ta'a 6 may be 
used in conjunction; mwaena, hey, youl 
mu mwaena, you men! a mwaena. So- 
and-so, such a one; me'i mwae, mwei 
mwaena, mwaena, mu mwae, all used in 
exclamations; mwae ta'a, poor fellow; 
mu mwae ta'a, poor chaps; poo ke ne'i 
lalamoa ko 'olisie 'olo a mwaena, the pig 
is the victim in place of the man. 
Nggao, Ysabel mae; Bugotu mae, mas- 
culine article. 

mw'ae, mwa'emwa'e 2. to be willing, to be 
diligent, to assent, to rejoice, ha'imwa- 
'eta'i, ilenimwa'e. mwa'e haaki, said 
of those who clap their hands as an 
accompaniment to dances; kire mwa'e 
tolea, they consented to carry it. 
mwa'emwa'enga v. n., willingness. 
mwa'esi tr., to assent to. 
mwa'esilana gerund. Wango mwae. 

mwaelo used with numeral ro; ro mwaelo ana, 
his two wives. 

mwa'elu adj., crooked, bent. Wango mwaeru. 

mwa'emwa'eta (na, ni) n., rejoicing; ke sulu 
i mwa'emwa'etani, sing for joy over. 

mwaera adj., prolific, abundant, increasing. 

mwaero, mwaeroero adj., soft, pliable. 

mwahi to be crooked, bent. 

mwahiohio adj., swayed, bent by the wind. 
hiohio. 

mwai 1. U., plural article: when used before a 
vowel or h, mwa is used ; in certain words 
the vowels coalesce, e. g., mwauhi, yams. 
Used of reciprocal relationship; Wango 
mwani; Lau mwai. 

mwai 2. U., mwei S., used with adj. tata'ala 
or ta'a to express an endearing or com- 
miserative sense. 

mwa'i 3. n., a hand-bag. a bag slung over the 
shoulder, haa i mwe'i, earnest money, 
money given as earnest for the buying 
of a wife; mwela ni mwe'i, a bought 
child; ha'u mwe'i, to plait a bag. 4. the 
fiber used in weaving a mwa'i. 5. v. i., 
to be rich, to have bags of money; 
tnuini e mwa'i, the rich. 

mwaidi n., cockroach; the small indigenous 
variety, the larger imported one. 

mwaihana n., used with numeral ro; ro mwai' 
hana, two brothers-in-law. 



65 



MWANE 



mwaihei U., interrogative plural, who, what 

people, 
mwaiki v. n., to stand on tiptoe, to reach out to. 
mwa'ile cycas (Cycas circinalis). Mota mwele. 
mwaimwei S., to be small, ha'amw&imwei'e. 

e mwaimwei 'aela, it is very small; 

helehele mwaimwei, seventh and eighth 

days of the moon; lo'a wai mweimwei, 

February, 
mwaimweiha v. n., used with poss. 3; 

mw&imweihaana, when small, a small 

size, 
mwaimweisi tr., to be too small for. Tolo 

maimai. 
mwaka 1. v. i., to despise; used with poss. 3. 
mwakata'ini tr., to despise, to make naught 

of. 
mwakata'inila-(ku) gerund. Wango. 

mwagitaini. 
mwaka 2. green, unripe, not full grown; uhi 

mwaka, January. 
mwakana S., n., ground, earth, me'i mwakana. 

mwakana loho, dust; mwakana wai, 

moist ground; ngangai mwakana, dust; 

dangona mwakana, trees of the field; 

puulie mwakana, to tread the earth, 
mwakano S., n., ground; * mwakano, on- the 

ground; kolune mwakano, the surface of 

the earth; wai e lama haahi ue kolune 

mwakano, the water covered still the 

face of the earth; wai e mapipi 'ohe 'oto 

tainie kolune mwakano, whether the 

water had receded off the face of the 

earth, 
mwakano'a covered with earth, dirty. 

Probably connected with 'ano, earth. 

Lau gano, Mota tano, earth, 
mwakatereha'ini tr., to flout, to put to scorn. 

mwakatereha'inila-(ku) gerund. 
mwaketo U., adj., crooked, bent. 
mwakita'a U., adj., clayey; mwado mwakila'a, 

mud. 
mwako 1. v. i., to pierce, to prick. 

mwakoli tr. ; ona e mwakolie 'aeku, the spike 

of the ona has got into my foot. 
mwakolila-(ku) gerund, 
mwako 2. v. tr., to set open; nou mwakoa maa, 

I set a door open, 
mwakomwako'a U., adj., prickly. 
mwakule S., adj., with no tie3, unattached, 

bare; follows the verb; muini e i'o 

mwakule, they have no ties. 
mwakuku adj., loose, slack. 
mwala 1. n., people; nga mwala, a people, nation; 

mwala ineu, my people; mwala 'urei 

tei ni 'ie; mwala ko ku'ie, people mocked 

him. 
Mwala 2. Malaita; called also in Lau Mala and 

in Tolo Mara, 
mwalamwala'a adj., ashamed. 
mwali to foregather at a harbor waiting to 

embark. Viti melo. 
mwalo 1. n., a sunken rock, a reef; mwalo 

suhu kao, a rock that pierces the bottom. 

Mota mwalo. 
mwalo 2. maalimwalo, a platform, a staging. 
mwamwadilita U., adj., without blemish. 



mwamwadoleta i'o mwamwadolela, patient. 

mwamwakaula'a adj., of medium lightness 
cf. mwamwate. 

mwamwaki S., wantonly; horo mwamwaki, to 
kill wantonly, 
mwamwakinge v. n., wantonness. 

mwamwako'a S., adj., prickly, dango mwa- 
mwako'a. 

mwamwanoto adj., quiet. 

mwamwanga S., a few; used with ini 2. 

mwamwangaini odd ones, some here and 
there. 

mwamwasu U., wala'anga mwamwasu, up- 
braiding words. 

mwamwasu'i S., partic, of none effect, in vain; 
kire ko mwamwasu'i eni hungun'ge, they 
become unfruitful. 

mwamwate S., to be of light weight, ha'amwa- 
mwate'a. Viti mamada, light; Niue 
mama. 

mwamwatekola n., dust, flue, rubbish. 

mwana 1. v. i., to cover, to feign, to pretend. 
mwana haahi, to make pretence, 
mwananga v. n., mwananga haahilana, a 

cloaking. 
mwanamwana n., a covering, hatchway 
closure, deck. 

mwana 2. S., used to express the numerals 
above ten (pe'i 2); used also with units 
to express the tens, mana U., awala 
mwana 'enite 'oto, how many more than 
ten; awala mwana rue, ten and two, 
twelve; totola mwana hai, 440. Viti 
mani. 

mwanamwana'a adj., decorated. 

mwane 1. n., a male, man, boy; added to proper 
names and to certain other words to 
denote sex distinction, nga mwane, a 
man; mu mwane, the males; mwane, mu 
mwane, ro mwane, all used as exclama- 
tions; mwane poo, mwane 'usu, barrow 
pig, dog; a mwane kenturion, the cen- 
turion; mwane ineu, my dear fellow; 
mwane ana a ola, such-and-such a fellow; 
mwane ana a Uqe, the man called Uqe; 
mama'u ni mwane, a fearful lot of men, 
beyond count; hota ni mwane, all the 
boys who are eligible for ha'amalaohu; 
ile mwane, ini mwane, male; mwane 
kurekure, a witch doctor; haka lude 
mwane, a vessel in the labor trade; 
mwane maa'i ineu, my dear fellow; uri 
qa'une nge mwane, I mean that the head 
is the male; sau mwane, to commit 
murder; sou mwanenga, murder. 2. 
used to denote sex. ola mwane, male; 
mwane kaule, male frigate-bird; e lai 
mwane diana, fine, beautiful. 3. belong- 
ing to males, holy, ola ni mwane; nume 
ni mwane, church; kara ni mwane, 
yam pudding (hinanga) used in sacri- 
fices. Gilbert Islands mane, Florida 
mane, Malay mon, omani, manesh. 

mwane 4. adv., lest, mwane da na kolu 
mae, lest we die; mwane e 'ue, why 
not; mwane 'o ro'urohute'inie ngaralaku, 
hold not thy peace at my tears; mwane 



MWANE 



66 



mwane 4 (continued). 

'o opaopaa Li'oa mwaani'emi, take not 

the Spirit from us. 
m wan em wane 1. male (of trees), not producing 

fruit; dango mwanemwane, a staminate 

tree. 2. (ku) n., testicles. 
Mwanipue a village at Sa'a, site of the present 

mission school, 
mwanole garfish, caught by trolling from a 

rock or by means of a line at the tail of 

a kite (sa'o ni 'aholo) flown from a canoe, 

the bait is spiderweb (lawa) or a piece 

of tow. lilie'i, to cast for garfish; hike, 

ten garfish. Fagani mwarore. 
mwanganga U., a few. mwamwanga, S. 

mwanganga ni He, a few persons, 
mwaohe adj., pliable, 
mwaolaola adj., shaky, rickety, not firm. 

mwaolaolanga n., sedition. 
mwaopu n., egg; hoi mwaopu ni kue, the egg 

of a fowl, 
mwaora to run (of vines), 
mwaoroha'i partic, bent, bowed, stooping. 

San Cristoval mwaoro. 
Mwarada a village on the west coast of Ulawa; 

Waingile, a rocky promontory there, 
mwaramwara (na) n., a stalk, a twig. 
mwarau adj., thin, 
m ware 'a U. 1. adj., in good health; sapeku e 

qd'i mware'a, I am not feeling well. 

2. lively, animated (of speech); mwai 

keni e'asi qale wala'awala'a mware'a, 

what drawling women, 
mwarete U., hou mwaretei qd'u, skull, 
mwari to be ailing, noko mweri. ha'amwdri. 

mwari taha, U., to recover from wounds, 
mwarita'a U., a wounded person. Wango 

mari, a wound. 
mwarite coir, fiber of coconut; mwaritei niu, 

sennit; mwaritei haa, a strand of shell 

money, 
mwarohi U., adj., easy, possible; 'ura mwarohi, 

to be possible, 
mwasi, mwa'imwesi S., mwasimwasi U., to 

laugh; mwasi mwaani, to laugh at a 

person, 
mwasinge v. n. laughter, 
mwasie'ini to laugh at, to laugh to scorn. 

ha'amwdsie'ini. 
mwasuhurete U., a chink, a crack, mwa 1. 

suhu. 
mwau S., n., a boy, lad, nga mwau; kele mwau 

ineu, my little boy; mwaune, vocative, 

boy. 
mwaumwe S., to be naked, 
mwaumweule adj., foolish, 
mwa'uu adj., disorderly; sae mwa'uu, mutiny, 

rebellion, 
mwei S., mwai U., used with tata'ala or ta'a in 

commiseration, of males, as kei is of 

women; mwei ta'a alaha, dear lord (of 

persons in authority). 
mwela n., child, nga mwela, mu mwela; ta'ata'a 

mwela moute'i, an only child; mwela ni 

mwe'i, a bought child; mwela ni nume, 

a son of the house; hdu ni mwela awara, 

day after full moon; kele mwela. little 



mwela (continued). 

child; nga mwela e lodo, a child is con- 
ceived, 'omu ke mala mwela kdu, become 
as children; e mduri ana mwela, to be 
delivered of a child; tangoni mwela, all 
the children, 
mwemwela plural. Motu mero, memero. 

mweta foliage plant (Coleus sp.) . 

mwidimwidi S., mudimudi U., to drip. 

mwine to be thin (of liquids). 

mwirimwiri skirts, fringes. 

mwisi (ku) U., musi S., finger-nail, toe-nail. 
Savo karakara bisi, Mota pisui, fingers; 
Nifilole bisi nime. 

mwomwona to be rich, fat (of viands). Samoa 
momona. 

Mwouta a village on the east coast of Ulawa; 
its landing-place is Su'u i Die'i. 



In certain words there is a change of n to I; 

Sa'a ddnume middle, Ulawa daluma. cf. also 

ni and li genitives. M. L., p. 212. 

na 1. copulative, and; with uri thus, na uri I 
mean, that is. used in explanations. 
na taa, U., but. 

na 2. U., pers. pron., used with the verbal 
particles 'a, 'anai. na'a lae 'oto, I am 
going; na'a nai lae, I shall go; ngena'asi 
tduri, then said I. 

na 3. used in numeration, mu poo na, mu menu 
na, pigs, birds, e hane niu na, he 
climbed for coconuts and — ; e hali pua 
na, he broke off areca nuts and — . Used 
in phrases: ha' ike na, oh no; su'uri na, 
not so; ko urine ta'ane na, even suppos- 
ing it were so. 

na 4. verbal suffix; ara arand, qao qaond, hi'u 
hi'une, lo'u lo'une. 

na 5. demonstrative suffix, follows noun and 
adverb, that, there, these, those; may 
be joined to preceding word; mwaend, 
you fellow; a porond, the person; urine, 
urinena, thus; ile'une, there, that place; 
muini liuta'ana a mwane 'ie e qao'i ne, 
more than those which this man has 
done; ana e tahanie maamu ne, in that 
he opened your eyes; nge ke 'ue kd'u ne, 
how then will it be. At times equiva- 
lent to the and that, me'i oland, the 
thing; hdnue mdine, this land; lalai 
heune, row of teeth. Malay ne. 

na 6. pron., sing. 3 suffixed to noun, equivalent 
of genitive, nime, hand; nimand, his 
hand; » reune wdi, by the side of the 
water; he'une salo, stars of heaven; 
dangond mwakana, trees of the field; 
hirune 'ahe, troublesome waves. Mela- 
nesia na passim, Malay nga, Malagasy 
ny. 

na' 7. noun ending, used with nouns which 
express relationship; ro hd'i malahune, 
ro hd'i nikana, mu he'i tnaamana. Maori 
na (taina), NiuS na (hoana), Viti na 
(tamana). 

na 8. stem of ndkue, nana, etc., with a general 



67 



NE 



nil 8 (continued). 

notion of appertaining, possessing. Mota 

no 1, Florida ni. 
na'a, na'asi U., pers. pron., and verbal particle 

with illative; I, I am, I thereupon. 

muni ne'e loosia, ta'ane na'a 'unua, if I 

see him I shall tell it; nge na'asi tauri, 

then said I. 
naanaa for ngaangaa, eat, used to children, 
nada, nada'elu poss. 2, plural 3; for them. 

nil 8. 
nahi U., knife (English), 
naho surf, wave; hai naho, a wave; e ro hai naho, 

two waves; mu he'i naho, waves; awaa- 

watana naho, roar of surf; papa naho, a 

breaching fish; qa'awa'ali naho, a 

breaker, 
naho'a S., nahola U., rough sea on the coast; 

e nahola, it is rough. Mota nawo, sa 

water. 
nahunehu U., 'ai nehunehu, a rod, a stick. 
na'i verbal suffix used intransitively, loo 

loona'i. Mota nag. 
naihi S., nahi U., knife (English). 
na'ini transitive suffix, loo loona'ini. 
naka, naka'elu poss. 2, dual 1, incl.: for us 

two. n& 8. 
nakara'i poss. 2, dual 1, incl.: for us two. nS 8. 
nako v. i., to strengthen; nakolana mu suuraa'i, 

strengthening the corners. 
naku, nakuneku U., to sit; the form neku is 

employed without a preceding i or u. 

neku k&'u, be seated. Used in Sa'a to 

signify session at a feast; mwala ko neku, 

the people seat themselves. 
nakuma v. n., U., na'unekume S., a seat, 
nakusi determ., to occupy a place. 

ha'andkusi. Wango nagu. 
naku'e S., naku 'a U., poss. 2, sing. 1, for me. 
naku'i poss. 2, sing. 1, for me (of many things), 
nala'i, nanala'i U., to rub in the hands, as 

leaves. Wango nora. 
namami poss. 2, plural 1, excl.: for us. 
name U., v. i., to taste; name ahonga, to taste 

and try. 
nameli tr. Mota nam, Wango namo, 

Florida nami, Sulu anam, Malay nanam- 

iwei, Maori tami, to smack lips, 
namelu poss. 2, plural 1, excl.: for us. 
namere'i poss. 2, dual 1, excl. : for us two. 
namo 1. a landlocked harbor; i Qa'una Namo, 

North Cape, Ulawa. 
Namo 2. an inlet of Port Adam, Malaita. 

Samoa namo, a place in the lagoon 

abounding in fish; Gilbert Islands namo, 

a harbor; Mota namwo, lagoon in reef. 
Namona i Su'u Namona, i Namona. the open- 
ing in the reef at Sa'a. 
namu'e S., namu'a U., poss. 2, sing. 2: for thee, 
namu'i as namu'e, but used of many things 

for one person, 
nana poss. 2, sing. 3: for him, her, it; e lio hunie 

huni hu'e nana, he chose her for his wife. 
nanako S., to be sticky, to stick, lalako, U. 
nanakumae to be gentle, harmless, naku, 

maenoto. 
nanama to be powerful. 



nanama (continued). 

nanamanga v. n., power; nanamanga 
para'itana mu li'oa, power over the 
spirits. 
nanama'ini tr., to put power into, ha'ana- 
nama'ini. Mota mana, an invisible 
spiritual force or influence; Polynesian 
mana id. (metathetic). 

nanamu to travel fast, to be swift. 

nanau to be taught, to be wise, ha'ananau. 
sae nanau, S., to be wise of heart; sae 
nanaunge, wisdom. Florida naunau, 
Wango ha'ananaua, Mota vatanau, to 
learn, to teach. 
nanauhi v. tr., to approach, draw up to, 
draw near, go up to. Wango nanau. 

nani poss. 2, plural 3, neuter: for them (things) ; 
nani ralo, for the elders; asu nani 
'inoni, of work not faithfully done. 

nanoa'i U., to accustom; ha'ananoa'i. 

nano'i U., to produce pain (of an arrow, omo). 

nanga 1. the barb of an arrow. 2. the fin of a 
fish, hoi nanga. 

nangali'a U., flashing (of lightning). 

nangaliro'a U., flashing (of lightning), cf. 
rangariro'a, S. 

nao 1. numeral, a hundred (of yams), nga nao 
ni uhi. 

na'o, na'ona'o (ku) 2. front, before; i na'oku 
(face, time) before me; na'ona dara, 
forehead; na'ona i'ola, the bow of a 
canoe; hapa ni na'o, first quarter of the 
moon; holai na'o, in former times; to'o 
na'o, front teeth; mu na'ona'o i mae, 
armies; e korasie mu na'ona'o i mae, he 
put to flight the ranks of the enemy. 

na'o 3. v. L, to precede, to guide, to lead. 
e hola'i na'o 'oto wau, he went away 
first; a ola e na'oku 'oto, So-and-so 
preceded me; 'o na'o naka'elu, lead us 
on; na'o talana, lead the way for him. 

na'o 4. with locative i; ina'o of old, 'oto ina'o, 
holai na'o, formerly. 

na'o 5. to approach, to steer, to go toward. 
na'o susuhire, draw toward them; na'o 
susu ana, to make straight on toward; 
na'o uri, steer this way; na'o hao, keep 
her away, 
na'ohi tr., to steer. 
na'ohila-(ku) gerund. 
na'ola'ini tr., to do first, ha'ana'ola'ini. 
Mota nagoi, face; Santa Cruz nao, 
mouth. 

na'o (ku) 6. a widow, na'ona a ola. So-and- 
so's widow. Mota naro. 

na'onga a deserted place, i na'onga, at the 
old garden or deserted village; le'unge 
e na'onga 'oto, the place is quite deserted. 

nate a worm found in the beach sand and used 
as bait for sea bream (i'e ni sane); 
hai nate, to scratch up sand looking for 
the worms. 

nau 1. U., pers. pron., sing. 1. I. 

nau 2. a fruit tree. Mota natu. 

na'unekume S., n., a seat. naku. 

ne 1. pers. pron., sing. 1. I. used with verbal 
particles ke, ke'i, S., and 'e, U.. with all 



WE 



68 



ne 1 (continued). 

of which it coalesces as with illative si. 
kd'u, neke leesie, please let me see it; 
nekesi lae si'iri, I shall go to-day; nge 
nesi teuri, thereupon I said; ne'e lae 
kd'u, let me go; nau 'unua uri muni 
ne'e mae 'oto, I thought I was done for; 
na nest ne'i 'amamu 'oto, and I shall be 
your father; noko he'i lae lo'u met na 
nest leesi'o lo'u, I shall come back and 
shall see thee again. 

ne 2. demonstrative, cf. nd 4. 

ne'e 1. S., contraction for ne'ie; ne'e kd'u, wait 
a bit, stay. 

ne'e 2. U., pers. pron., sing 1, ne and verbal 
particle 'e. e qale ola ne'e adea, I saw 
nothing; muni ne'e loosia, ta'ane na'a 
'unua, if I see him I shall tell it. 

ne'ene'e U., v., to whine. 

ne'i, ne'ine'i S. 1. v. tr., to place, to put, to 
appoint, ne'i koni, to lay up in store, 
to make provision; ne'i siwe, to appoint 
a sum as blood money. 2. to become, 
to turn into, to be: ko ne'ie 'oto i'oe, if 
it be thou; poo ko ne'i lalamoa ko 'olisie 
'oto a mwaena, the pig becomes the 
victim instead of the person; na nesi ne'i 
'amamu 'oto, and I shall be your father. 

ne'isae S., v. i., to think, to call to remem- 
brance; ne'isae, exclamation, like any- 
thing! ne'isae 'asi, to forgive; ne'isae 
lete, to be set in intention; ne'isae 
moute'i, to determine, to dare; ne'isae 
su'ete'e, to be anxious about; ne'isae 
talihe, to reach in thought; ne'isae 
to'ote'e, to be anxious. 
ne'isaenga v. n., thought, remembrance. 

nekesi cf. ne 1 . 

nemo S., nimo U. 1. n., rain, ha'anemo. hoi 
nemo, a rain squall; nemo raaraa, S. 
nimo raaraa, U., drizzling rain, sun and 
rain. 2. v. i., to rain, nenemo. 
nemo si tr., to rain upon. 

nena S., demonstrative; a ola nena, that thing. 

nengenenge'a adj., glistening white. 

nerenere n., a sea-bird, the kittiwake; nerenere 
ni iqe, kittiwake of the lagoon. 

nesi pers. pron, sing. 1 ; ne with illative si. 

ni 1. genitive, of; sape ni 'inoni, men's bodies; 
rato ni mwane, elderly male, (a) 
expressive of purpose: ini ni ha'aurilana 
'oto, a person to be saved; kire hala ni lae, 
they attempted to go; e dau ni ere, he 
made to speak; e ka'a mwadausieu ni 
lae, not easy for me to go; tala ni liu, 
path to travel; hinou ni 'a'a'o, hook for 
fishing; walo ni pa'asahu, a hook for 
pa'asahu. (b) expressive of condition, 
lae ni ramo, go in might; ngdu ni pole, 
eat to satiety; lae ni oraha'a, to go very 
fast; lae 'oto ni mae, go like everything. 
May be rendered by with or in: rongo 
ni 'elinge, to hear with the ear; ere ni sae, 
to say with the heart; na ni leesie 
palonga aku, and saw (in seeing) my 
works, (c) used after tala'ae, U., 
tala'ae ni lae, begin to go. (d) added 



ni 1 (continued). 

to verbal suffix, a'ini, ha'ini, etc., transi- 
tive force. Mota nia, with; Florida ni; 
Fate ni. cf. genitive li 1. 

ni 2. interrogative, (a) used to call attention, 
ni mwaena? I say, you. (b) in the 
sense of is that so. (c) added for 
emphasis to atei, ilei, S., ihei, U., nga 
taa, S., nga laha, U.: nga taa ni 'oko 
ngarase, what are you crying for; 
mwala 'urei lei ni 'ie, whence are these 
people? Viti li. 

ni 3. demonstrative attached for emphasis to 
nouns in Ulawa, to pronouns, adverbs 
to si'iri and uri 2; may be reduplicated. 
ngeni nou lae, and so I went; ngaini ni 
eni usie, ngaini ni eni hohoro, one to his 
merchandise, another to his trading; 
a poroni. So-and-so; a laani. So-and-so; 
inge'i ni e qaoa, he it is who did it; 
ienini, this. Wango ni. 

ni 4. a detachable prefix to pronouns, niiiou, 
niparo, niwau, U. mu 'inoni mangoi 
ola mola ni kire, S., men are but breath; 
'oto to'ohuu ni ngeena, it is so in truth; 
'omu ka'a to'oto'olamiu ike ni 'omu, ye 
are not your own. Santa Cruz ni (in 
ninge) ; Florida ni. 

ni 5. suff. pron., plural 3, neut. i talani. 

ni 6. verbal suffix, sdu sduni. 

ni'e n., a sleeping-mat made of coconut leaf; 
ha'u ni'e, to plait a coconut leaf into a 
sleeping-mat. 

Nielaha'u Cape Zdlee, the southeast cape of 
Malaita; 'ahe hirune i Nielaha'u, its 
tide-rip. 

nihisi v. tr., to refrain; noko nihisie nitneku, I 
refrain my hand. 
nihisila-(ku) gerund. 

niho (ku) n., tooth, cf. alo'i, 'amwada, 
'anguru. nihoi i'e, porpoise-teeth cur- 
rency; ngdngddi niho, to gnash the 
teeth; e rdpu ngurusie nihona, knocked 
his teeth out; e sisie nihona, he bared 
his teeth in a grin. 

nihou U., demonstrative pron., this, here: 
pronounced sometimes niheu. 

ni'i, ni'ini'i 1. v. tr., to give, to present, with 
poss. 1, to feed ni'i ana. ni'i nime 
haahi, to lay hands on; ni'i 'ae la'o i'ola, 
to board a canoe; ni'i suu, ni'i toto, to 
make a free gift, 
ni'inge v. n., a gift, a giving, grace (late 

use); e honu eni ni'inge, full of grace. 
ni'ila-(ku) gerund, mani ni'ilana sakanga 
e mani lae, the complete giving of power 
is completely given. 

ni'i 2. ni'i losi, to squeeze, to wring out water. 

nike (ku) mother, aunt; for the vocative teitei 
is generally used; with the personal 
article a nike mother, i. e„ our mother 
in speaking of a particular person. 
nikei ola, S., nikeni ola, U., a big thing, 
lit., a mother thing; nikana, S., nikend, 
U., ro hd'i nikana, ro hd'i nikend, wife 
and child, mother and child; ro hd'i 
nikana ineu, my wife and child. 



69 



NORU 



nima U., nume S., house; nima indu, my house; 
maana nima, U., door; outeni nima, a 
row of houses; sa'osa'oha'i'a ani nima, 
an upper story in a house, a doubled 
house. 

nime, ninime S.. nima, nimanima U. (ku), 1. 
hand, arm, foreleg of animals, nimana 
mu 'inoni, men's hands (collective 
sense), nimanimada nga tnwa 'inoni, U.; 
talana mu ninimei 'inoni, talana nimana 
mu 'inoni, men's handiwork; to'o ro 
nime, with just one's two hands, i. e., 
unarmed; e lokunaa nime, he clenched 
the fist; loloma'ini nime, to dip the 
hands; nime i meumeuliku, my left hand; 
nihisie nimeku, refrain my hand; ni'i 
nime haahi, to lay hands on; ngaungeu 
nime, armlet; penatana nime, the palm; 
suusuune nime, elbow; taalengasie nime- 
mu, open your hand out flat; ngau i 
nimana nga keni, to live with a woman, 
lit., to eat from the hand of a woman. 

nime S., nima U. 2. food bowl; nime sarasara, 
a large bowl for feasts; 'alo nime, to set 
out bowls of food at a feast; kolune nime, 
the outside of a bowl; la'ona nime, in the 
bowl. 

nimo U., nemo S., rain, hoi nimo. ha'ahimo, 
nimonimo. 
nimoli tr., to rain on. 

nine ha'anine, S., to accustom oneself, to be 
accustomed to. 

nini-(na, ni) U., n., kernel; ninina, its kernel, 
its seed; nini hakis, an axe; nini uhi, a 
yam; nini hana, a hana tuber. 

niniho n., a hornet; niniho alaha, a large kind 
of hornet. 

niniko'a adj., trembling, wincing, shivering 
from cold or fright. 

ninginingi a small bat. 

niparo U., demonstrative pron., that, these, 
there; follows the noun. 

nisi, ninisi v. tr., to divide, to be the boundary; 
ko nisi 'oto ile'u, this is the boundary; 
nisi hue, to pull taro for eating. 
nisite (na) v. n., boundary, limit; nisitana 

lue, high-water mark. 
nisila-(ku) gerund. Florida ngiti. 

nite S., nita U., ha'anite, ha'anita how often; 
'enite, 'enitana, how many. Mota visa, 
Motu nida, Florida ngiha, Niue fiha. 

niu the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera), its nut 
nga hoi niu; nga niu, mu niu, coconut 
trees; niu tangalau, a heavily laden 
coconut tree; 'ahe i niu tangalau, a tide- 
rip between Ulawa and Sa'a; niu tesi, 
a variety of nut with thin skin; niu 
weru, a short-stemmed coconut with 
yellowish fronds and reddish-skinned 
fruit; hauheui i niu, U., nga haihei niu, 
S., a log of coconut wood; nga koru- 
korui niu, a chip of coconut meat; niu 
kokolu, a hard-fleshed coconut; luluhui 
niu, a coconut frond; mudii niu, midrib 
of the leaflet; mwaritei niu, sennit; pota 
niu, to crack a nut; qela ni niu, 1,000 
nuts; sdukai niu, to grate coconut; udi 



niu (continued). 

ni niu, 100,000 nut3; niu madeli, a fully 
ripe nut; 'oni, coconut milk; teu, half 
coconut shell ; opu, the early stage of the 
nut when the shell has not hardened; 
poupou, a green nut; hoi qito, a sprouting 
nut; tdui helu, 10,000 nuts; suhuli, to 
make an opening in a green nut; taho 
ta'a, to put a nut with the corpse in a 
canoe; uhu, to husk nuts; 'ulu'ulu, a 
dry nut; 'unu, the flower spathe. Poly- 
nesian niu. 

niu ni taoha a palm (Nipa fruticans). 

niu'e, niuniu'e adj., tasting of coconuts (as 
swine flesh). 

niule adj., possessing coconuts; hanue e niule, 
a place abounding in coconuts. 

niui (ku) n., a nest. Florida niku, Mota nigiu. 

niweu U., demonstrative pron., that, those, 
there; follows the noun. 

no S., pers. pron., sing. 1, used with verbal 
particle ko. noko I. 

no'i, no'ino'i U., v. tr., to put, to place; no'i 

ka'u, wait a while, stay. 2. to become, 

to be; e no'i 'aela 'oto, it has become no 

good. 

no'ila-(ku) gerund. Viti noi, to dwell in. 

no'iteu U., v. L, to delay, cf. ddu 2. 

noko 1. v. i., to guard, to keep watch over, 
noko haahi. 
nokomi tr. 1 . to guard . 2 . U. , to turn away, 
to avert; nokomi maa, to turn the eyes 
away. 

noko 2. cf. no. 

noma S., n., a spear, generic term; noma adiedi, 
a spear with grass plaiting on it. 

nono v. i., to place the face against, to kiss, to 
sniff; nono wasu, to smell. 
nononga v. n. 
nono'i S., nonohi U., tr. 
nono'ila- S., nonohila- U. (ku) gerund. 
Florida nonginongi. 

nono 'asi n., gnat, sandfly. 

nono isuli n., a strong-smelling herb. 

nonola yesterday, the locative i may precede. 
nonola nga rodo, the night before last; 
nonola wau, the day before yesterday; 
nonola 'oto wau, three days ago; e la 
'otoi 'aela mwaani nonola, it is worse 
than yesterday. Mota nora, Florida 
nola. 

nonoro'a S., adj., red. noro. 

nonowasu v. i., to sniff at, to smell; used with 
suffixed pronouns ku, mu, nd; e nono- 
wdsune, he smelled him. 
nonowasuli tr., to track by smelling, to get 
the scent of. 

nonganonga U., n., nonganonga tano, a ripple. 

no 'one adv., even, also: follows the word 
qualified; to'olamu no' one ada, thine 
they are. 

noonoo (na, ni) n., tips of shoots of creepers. 

nooruhaana i nooruhaana, relying on, because 
of. cf. noru. 

noro, nonoro'a to be red. 

noru, no'unoru S., norunoru U., v. i., to trust, 
to rely; noru dile, S., to be disappointed 



NORU 



70 



noru, no'unoru (continued). 

of one's hope; noru hono, to be wind- 
bound (of a sailing party), 
noruhe'ini tr. 
noruhe'i v. i., nou sa'a noruhe'i pele, I shall 

not be confounded. 
i noruha v. n., used with poss. 3; relying on, 
because of. Florida noru. 

coruto'o used with poss. 3; to trust, to rely 
on. to'o. 
noruto'onga trust. 

noto v. i., to cease, to desist, to be quiet. 
mwanvwanoto, tnaenoto. noto nguu, to 
cease speaking; noto 'araiva, to die 
suddenly; noto 'arawanga, sudden death. 
Wango ngoto. 

nou S., pers. pron., sing. 1; used as subject of 
verb. 

nue, nunue v. i., to anoint; rumu nue maa, eye 
ointment. 

nuenuala adj., glistening, brilliant; mwaa 
nuenuala, a glistening snake. 

nuku, nunuku v. i., to kink, to have corruga- 
tions in, to shrivel, wrinkle; nuku dara, 
to wrinkle the forehead; nuku maa, to 
wrinkle, to screw up, the face, 
nukumi tr., to crease, to fold. 

nukunukula U., adj.. shriveled up. 

nume S., nima U., n., a house; nume ineu, my 
house; nume ni mwane, church; i numaa 
ola, at So-and-so's house; nume qala, 
name of a cicada (empty house), its 
presence taken as a sign of death, a bad 
omen; hai nume, in the house; huli 
nume, house site, plat; huui lume, a 
collection of houses, village; iduidu 
nume, to go from house to house, to 
gad about; koluhaana nume, roof of a 
house; maai nume, door; mar a nume, in 
front of the house, courtyard; mai i 
nume, within the house; i mamalutana 
nume, on the veranda; mwela ni nume, 
child of the house; pipisine nume, eaves 
of the house; mu poopootana nume, 
foundations of the house; pungui nume, 
a group of houses; riridine nume, eaves 
of the house; ko ru'u i nume, goes back 
into the house; ko sisilihie mu nume, 
goes into houses; talaa nume, a besom; 
to'utohu nume, to build a house; poo ni 
nume, domesticated pig; wai nume, in 
the house. Mota imwa, San Cristoval 
rumwa, Wedau numa, Malay luma. 

nunu 1. v. i., to quake (of ground), to be 
unstable, loose (of a post). 2. v., and 
n., earthquake, nga nunu e nunu, there 
was an earthquake. Wango nunu, 
Maori rum. 

nunu 3. (ku) n., shadow (of persons), reflection, 
likeness, life, soul. M. A., p. 252; ko 
tola 'aliho'i ana nunune, recovers its 
soul; talo nunu, to photograph; nunu 
e tola, there was an earthquake. 
1 nunuha used with poss. 3; because of, 
owing to. Florida nunu, Malo nunu, 
Bougainville Straits nono, Wango nunu. 



nunu 4. nunuli, to sting (of the stinging trees) 

nunula'o and apune wa'i. 
nunu'e pulu nunu'e, to'o nunu'e, spotted, 

specked. Wango nunu, dust, 
nunuhe'i S., v. i., nunuhe'i qe'u, to enter, to 

be entangled in. 
nunula'o n., stinging-nettle tree, with large 

leaves, often planted as a fence, nunu 4. 
nunuli to sting, nunu 4. 
nunulu v. i., to wither (of trees, etc.). Mota 

nun, to shed leaves. 
nunurete 1. v. i., to be feeble, to tremble from 

weakness, nunu 1, rete. 2. n., trem- 
bling, fear, 
nusi U.. tahanga awa nusi, a measure, just on 

a fathom. 
nuto 1. n., a squid, caught by spearing with 

a hair comb (arapa) fastened on a rod. 
nuto, nutonuto 2. 'o'o nuto, to bow the head. 

NG 

The palatal nasal and has the sound of ng 

in singer. 

nga 1. article, demonstrative, a, the; used in 
the singular number only; in Sa'a as a 
rule nga is not used of parts of the body, 
but in Ulawa it is freely used; nouns in 
the singular may be used without nga 
except when there is a sense of any or a. 
nga taa, S., nga taha, U., what; ngaini, 
S., ngaile, U., some one; nga' eta, S., 
ngaite, U., another, a certain; ngaihei, 
U., who. 

nga 2. noun ending, added to verbs, adjectives 
and other nouns: mae, to die; maenga, 
death; mamaela'a, weak; mamaela'anga, 
weakness; ngangadi niho, to gnash the 
teeth; ngangadi nihonga, gnashing of 
the teeth. Maori nga. 

nga a, ngaangaa v. tr., to eat; naanaa, used to 
children; e ngaa 'oto, did he eat it; melu 
ka'a ola ni ngaa, we have no food, lit., 
thing of eating. 

ngaangaa 1. v. i., to spread (of ulcers). 2. v. i., 
to crack with a loud noise (of trees about 
to fall). 

ngadi 1. n., flint; me'i ngedi, S., m&singedi, U., 
a flint; hau ngedi, flint rock; kiln ni 
ngedi, a hole in which flints are found. 
2. an axe; ngadi weuwe, a stone axe 
(grandfather's axe). Motu nadi, stone; 
Florida nagi. Guppy "Solomon Is- 
lands," p. 77. 

ngadi, nga'ingedi 3. v. i., to be firm; suesuelaa 
e ngadi, the foundation is firm; hele 
ng&'ingedi, to hold fast. Wango nasi. 

ngado (na, ni) i ngadona 'aena, before him, at 
his feet. 

ngae (ku) 1. suli qeri ngae, suli qeri i ngaena, 
backbone. 2. lio i ngaei maa, S., lio 
i ngaena maa, TJ., to look askance at, 
to envy; lio i ngae maanga, n., envy. 

nga'eta S., ngaite U., some, one, another, a; 
'eta, ite. nga'eta po'o ni nime, the other 
hand ; ana nga'eta dinge, on another day. 

nga'i verb suffix used intransitively: usu usu- 
nge'i. ng&'ini. 



7i 



NGE 



ngaihei U., Interrog. pron., who: plural 
mwaihci. ngaihei e lae m&i, who came 
here; kira mwaihei, who are they. 

ngaile U., article, one, a: tie. ta'ana ngaile, 
every one; 'etana ngaile, the first; wala'a 
wa'ewa'e ana ngaile, to speak excessively 
to one. 

ngaini 1. S., article, one, a. ta'eta'ena ngaini, 
every one; iteitana ngaini ka'a lae mai, 
no one came; 'etana ngaini, the first 
one; e ka'a iteitana ngaini, there is not 
any one; ngaini sa'a liu ha'ahireru'e, 
none shall pass in front of them (and 
overcome them); maleledi oraha'a 
mwaanie ngaini, to rebuke a man for sin. 

nga'ini 2. verb suffix of transitive force, hit 
hiinge'ini. Mota ngai. 

nga'ingedi to be strong, to be firm, ng&di, 
ha'ang&'ingedi. 

cgaite U., article; ngaile holoholo, a different 
thing; ngaite laa, another person. 

ngali 1. n., canarium nut; ngali maa, smoked 
nuts stowed in a tangi. cf. repo. ngali 
maelo, the month of August, the time 
of ripe nuts; karoa ngali, to pick the 
nuts; kokopa, buttress flanges on the 
lower trunk of the tree; koukou, kernel 
of the nut; qa'akora, the outer skin of 
the nut. Mota ngai, Solomons ngali. 

ngali, ngalingeli U. 2. v. tr., to shake, to dis- 
turb, to move about restlessly, to move 
one's position. 

ngalute S., mu ngelulei ola, all and sundry 
things. 

nganite S., ngenita U., time when, with loca- 
tive *', inganite, when, at what time; 
used of future or past time. Florida 
ngiha, Mota ngaisa, Lau angila. 

nganga a crumb, used with genitive i, S., ni, 
U.; crumbs, shavings, dust, small pieces. 
mu ngangai ngeulaa, crumbs of food; 
ngangai mwakana, dust of the earth; 
mwai ngangani 'ei, chips of wood. 

ngangadi, ngangangadi v. tr., to creak, to 
grate, to grind the teeth; ngangadi niho, 
to grind the teeth, ngangadi nihonga, 
v. n. 

ngangau to spread (of ulcers), to blaze (of fire); 
maa ngangau, blear-eyed from smoke of 
cooking fires. 

ngara, ngarangara v. i., to cry, to buzz, of 
mosquito; ngara 'i'ile'i, to cry aloud; 
ngara li'eli'a'a, to give an uncertain 
note; ngara loulou, to resound; ngara 
mango ta'a, U., to sob; ngara tahela'i 
ana, to call upon him with weeping; 
ngara uloulo, to weep bitterly; ngara 
welewele'a, to have a solid sound, 
ngaraha U., v. n., cry. 
ngaranga v. n., weeping, 
ngarata v. n., sound ; ngaratai 'ehuri, sound 

of the conch, 
ngarasi tr., to cry for, to cry on account of. 
ngarala-(ku) gerund, mwane 'o ro'uro- 
hute'inie ngara'aku, hold not thy peace 



ngarala (continued). 

at my tears. Florida ngarahai to cry 
out. 

ngasi 1. v. i., to be tough (of food)* Lau 
ngasi, hard. 

ngasi, nga'ingesi S., ngasingasi U. 2. to chew, 
to roll about in the mouth. Wango 
ngasi. 

ngau, ngaungeu 1. v. tr., to eat; with poss. 3, 
ng&u ana, to eat of; ngau hikena, ngau 
hikeni, to partake of; ngau i nimana 
nga keni, to live with a woman, lit., to 
eat from the hand of a woman; ngau 
tapaika, to smoke tobacco; ngau maa'i, 
a sacrificial feast, ngau maa'inge; ngau 
'inoninge, cannibalism; ngau ni pole, 
to eat to satiety; ngau qe'u suu, to gorge, 
lit., to eat till the head drops; ngau 
saedami, to eat to repletion; ngau 
teketeke, nga mala eke, to drop crumbs 
while eating; 'o'a sare ngau ihei, what 
will you eat; ta'ata'a maai ngeu, one 
meal; maai, S. (maani, U.), ngeu, the 
evening star, lit., meal watcher; kire 
ng&u maetana a ola, they eat the death 
feast of So-and-so; maelona e ng&u 
diana, when ripe it eats well; 'o ngau 
mingana, did you eat of it; olo ngau, to 
fast, to abstain from food, 
ngauhe S., v. n., a feast; ng&uha, U., a feast, 

food. 
ngauhe- (ku) gerund.; ng&uhana e paipeine, 
he is a great eater; ng&uhana e 'aela, he 
overeats; supungie ng&uhana, to offer 
food to. 
ngaulaa v. n., food, things to eat, me'i 
ngeulaa, mu ngeulaa; mu ngangai 
ngeulaa, crumbs of food, 
ngaunge v. n., an eating, a meal; taataa 

maai ngeunge, one meal. 
ngaula-(ku) gerund.; ng&ulana e diana, it 
is good to eat. Wango ngau; Mota 
ngau, to chew; Motu gauai, Maori ngau. 

ngau 2. vocative, used of children of each sex: 
ng&u, ladl 'alai ngeu, U., you boys; ro 
ng&u, you two children. 

ngaungeu nime armlet made of haa, huresoso, 
malo. 

nge pers. pron., sing. 3, he, that; 1. used before 
proper names: ngea A woo, that man 
Awao. 'olo ngea Dora esi teuri, then said 
Dora. 2. a shortened form of inge'ie: 
'amamu nge itei, where is that father of 
yours; ngeatei, ngea ola, whom do you 
mean? 3. added for explanation: uri 
qa'une nge mwane, I mean that the male 
is the head; so nge, well then; nge, nga 
taa ni, hey! what's that? ngeni 'olo 
ngeena, yes, that's it; ngeni nou lae, 
that is why, thereupon, I went; mwai 
keni ana wala'anga ngeni, what women 
for talking; ohe nge e urine, possibly 
that is so; nge laenga kesi lae, then the 
journey will take place; nge ke 'ue k&'u 
ne, how then will it be? 



NGEENA 



72 



ngeena demonstrative pron., that: follows noun 
or pronoun; inge'i ngeena, that is he; nga 
ola taa ngeena, what is that thing? nge. 

nge'i pers. pron., sing. 3, he, she, it: a shortened 
form of nge'ie; used as subject followed 
by e. nge'i 'oto e 'unue, it was he who 
said it; nge'i nou ka'a lae, that is why 
I did not go. 

nge'ie S., nge'ia U., pers. pron., sing. 3, he, she, 
it: used as subject followed by e; three 
forms of the pronoun may be used 
together for emphasis: inge'ie nge'i 
e 'unue, it was he who said it; in Sa'a 
the final e becomes a before the personal 
article a and a long vowel results, nge'ie 
ni, that is it; nge'ia i Arona, nge'ia 
'ulehu, it is at Arona, the 'ulehu, I mean; 
nge'ia a ola e 'unua, he, So-and-so, said 
it. Mota neia. 

ngeitei S. 1. interrog. pron., what: used pre- 
ceding noun, ngeitei 'inoni, what man? 
ngeitei li'oa, what spirit? 2. ngeitei ue 
ena, that is just it, just so. 

ngengede-(na,ni) ngengedena, its end. Wango 
ngengede. 

ngeni cf. nge. 

ngenita U., used with locative i as nganite, 
q. v. 

ngerengereta adj., of a checked pattern. 

ngero v. L, to chew, to nibble (of rats, etc.). 
ngero'i tr., 'asuhe e ngero' ie, the rat gnawed 
it. 

ngeu cf. ng&u. 

ngi][verb suffix of transitive force, raa raangi. 

ngidu (ku) U. 1. the lip (of persons); by 
metonymy in Sa'a the mouth, tero 
ngidu, to pout the lip. 2. ngidu 'upu, 
ngingidu 'upu, to hate; ngidu 'upunge. 
hatred. Mota ngusui, Florida gidu, 
Viti ngusu, Motu udu, Sa'a ngudu. 

ngingidu'e the native bee, honey. Florida 
midua. 

ngingite 'ala ngingite, to clench the teeth. 

ngisu, ngingisu S., ngisungisu U., to spit; hoi 
ngisu, spittle, lungs; 'ono ngisu, to water 
at the mouth; sae ngisu, the lungs, 
ngisunge v. n., spitting, 
ngisuhi tr., to spit, to spit on; e ngisuhie 

'apu, he spat blood, 
ngisuhe'ini tr., to spit on. M. L., p. 91, 
Maisin kasufe. 

ngisu 'ate U., to be thirsty; ngisu 'atenga, n., 
thirst. 

ngo'a adj., blunt, with the point broken off; 
nga ngoongoo ni salo e ngo'a, the tip of 
the cloud was broken off. 

ngoli v. tr., to destroy a man's property after 
his death, huni ngolie to'oto'olana. 
M. A., p. 263. su'e ngoli, to fall back- 
ward and break the neck, 
ngolite v. n., a destruction of property: 

wrongly spelt in M. L., p. 263. 
ngolila-fku) gerund. Florida boli. 
ngoongoo (na, ni) U., end: with locative *,■ 
ngoongoona, its end, skirts; paro i 
ngoongoo, at the edge; * ngoongoo ana 



ngoongoo (continued). 

walumalau, S., at the world's end; 
i ngoongoo ana Kahua, Cape Keibeck, 
San Cristoval. Fagani ngo, lip; Santa 
Cruz ngo, nose. cf. M. L., p. 84. 

ngoongoodo S., end; ngoongoodo ana maholo, 
end of the time. 

ngora (na, ni) 1. a point of land, a cape, ngo- 
rana hanue. Mota ngaregi, point of 
land. 2. lip. cf. ngidu; d'au (tau, U.) 
ngora 'upu, to hate, lit., swollen lip; 
ngora 'upunge, n., hatred. 

ngora, ngongora 3. to snore, to grunt, snort; 
ngora i lue (ku), to growl. Mota 
ngora, Maori ngorongoro. 

ngorangora 1. an isthmus, a cape. 

Ngorangora 2. the village at the northeast end 
of Ulawa; Wai ni Tehulu, its lagoon; 
'Ele Maosi, its landing* place. 

ngori v. tr., to quench; ngoria Li'oa, to quench 
the Spirit. 

Ngorieru an 'akalo ni matawa armed with gar- 
fish, seen off Qa'ulo. M. A., p. 259. 

ngudu S., lip. cf. ngidu, U. lio qeru ngudu, 
to grudge, to hate; qa'u ngudu, the 
blackfish. Mota ngusui, lip; Poly- 
nesian ihu. M. L., p. 85. 

ngulu to resound; mwangulungulu, resounding. 

nguru, ngunguru, ngungunguru S., nguru- 
nguruU., 1. to growl or roar (of animals), 
to mumble or groan (of persons), 
nguruhi tr., to growl at (of dogs). Maori 
nguru, to grunt; Bugotu nguunguru, to 
growl; Niue ngungulu. 

nguru 2. pola nguru, U., name of a month, 
September, 
ngurusi v. tr., to knock out some (of things 
in a row), 'anguru. e r&Pu ngurusie 
nihona, knocked his teeth out, said of 
a young child when the teeth of his 
elder brother fall out. 

nguu v. i., to answer, to make response, 
nguuhi tr. 

nguuhila-(ku) gerund. Wango nguuhi; 
Samoa ngu, to growl. 



'0 1. exclamation of dissent. 

'o 2. pers. pron., sing. 2, thou; used as subject 
of verb either by itself or following i'oe; 
suffixed to verbs and prepositions as 
object. Florida o. 

oa 1. v. i., to share in, to be fulfilled, to come 
to pass, to be fitting, to suit, to be 
suited to, to permeate, ha'aoa'i, ha'ioa. 
melu oa 'oto ana, we share in it; mu 
maholo e oa 'oto, the time is fulfilled; 
e oa ana, it is suited to it; tolo oaoa, to 
permeate. 
oala-(ku) opposite to, over against, corre- 
sponding to, concerning; papanguru- 
nguru oalana, mutterings concerning. 
oaoanga v. n., a sharing in; mani oaoanga 

M'iliu, equality, 
oangi tr., to follow suit, ha'ioangi. 



73 



OKU 



oa (ku) 2. a pair, fellow; oaku, my fellow, my 
mate; oa ni ola, a pair of things; oa ni 
Puli, two cowries. Samoa oa, a pair. 

Oa 3. the two islands at the south end of San 
Cristoval; Oa Raha, Santa Anna, Oa 
Riki, Santa Catalina. Spelt wrongly 
as Owa. 

o'a 4. a tree, the bark used for purposes of 
staining; the red juice is extracted by 
pounding and squeezing and is mixed 
with charcoal, 
o'a'i v. tr., to stain with o'a. Samoa 'o'a, 
Bischoffia javanica; 'o'a'i, to dye with 
its stain. 

'o'a 5. to settle (of birds), to squat on the 
haunches. Samoa to'a, to settle; Mota 
toga, Niue tokai. 

'o'a 6. U., 'o 2, thou, 'a 7, verbal particle. 

'O'au an island in the Mara Masiki Channel. 

oda'i wd'i oda'i, to quarrel. 

odo, odoodo 1. to be straight, to go forward. 
ha'aodo, ha'iodo'i, tamwaodo. e odo 'oto 
ta'au, he went straight on; mdnu odo, 
to be level, upright; e odo, that's right 
(Mwouta, U., use); sulu odoodo, to go 
straight. 
odoodonga v. n., straightness, uprightness. 
odoha v. n., used with poss. 3. odohaana 
nte'i 'ano mola, in good ground; mu 
odohaana wala, words to the point; 
odohaana mu ola, correct, exact things; 
odohaana i ola, opposite to, off, such- 
and-such a place; 'uri odohaana tola, 
walk straight along the path. 

odo (na, ni) 2. odona maa, a gate opening 
directly opposite a person; nga odoni 
kana, a song sung straight through; nga 
odoni heu, a row of stones; odoni sae, 
moral uprightness. 

odo'i v. tr., to meet, to come across, lio odo'i, 
to find; hule odo'i, to arrive and find; 
taha odo'i, to come upon. 

odonga U., dau odonga, to make trial of. 

odota'i partic, just, fair, righteous; sulu 
odota'i, to act righteously. 
odota'inge v. n., justice, righteousness. 

o'e, o'eo'e U., to be crazy, delirious. 

'oha betel leaf (Piper betle), both leaves and 
catkins are eaten, 'oha ni me'esu 
(ma'usu, mou, U.), a wild variety; pute 
ni 'oha, a packet of betel leaf; sili 'oha, 
to get betel from the bush; hu'usi, to 
pluck leaves of betel. 

oha'i to be capsized; melu oha'i 'oto, we are 
capsized, 
oha'ini tr., to cause to capsize. 

ohe 1. v. tr., to drive away. 

'one 2. adv., perhaps, possibly, most likely; 
or it may be used at the beginning of a 
sentence, of supposititious cases, wa 
'ohe, unless; so 'ohe, perhaps; w'di e 
mapipi 'ohe 'oto ta'inie kolune mwakano, 
whether the water had receded off the 
face of the earth. 

ohera v. i., to race, to compete, ha'iohe. 

'ohi 1. (au) v., after, for, to fetch; lae ka'u 
'ohi'i, please go bring it; tau 'ohi, U., to 



'ohi 1 (continued). 

seek; tola 'ohi, to search for. Florida 

gohi, varigohi; Maori ohia, to long after, 
•ohi 2. U., ha'i'ohi, to be doubtful about, to ask 

questions, 
'ohi'a U., adv., perhaps, most likely, 
ohisi perineal bandage, T bandage of pandanus 

leaf worn by men. 
oho v. i., to fight, to strive with, to attempt. 

ohoa hurunge, to race; ohoa mao, to 

practice the dance. 
ohotaa v. n., a battle. 
ohongi tr., to make trial of, to practice. 

ha'iohonginge. Wango ohongi; Niu€ 

oho, to rush at. 
ohonga U., n., lae ohonga, to go tentatively; 

mala ohonga, to tempt; mala ohonganga 

(double n. ending), temptation, trial; 

m&mi ohonga ana, taste and try it. 
ohu 1. v. i., to be boiling, to boil (of water). 

ha'aohu. 
ohu 2. various, different; e ohu 'oto adaru'i, U., 

there is a difference between the two; 

ohu 'inoni ohu sae, many men of many 

minds. 
ohusi v. tr., to differentiate, to distribute. 

ha'aohusi. Florida ovu ni tinoni, a 

crowd of men. 
'ohu 3. n., sugar cane; 'ohu nunu. M. A., p. 

21. Mota tou, Motu tohu, Florida tovu. 
oi 1. exclamation, aha. 
'o'i 2. v. tr., to break, ma'o'i. 'o'i ri'iri'i, to 

break in pieces; hele 'o'i'o'i, to break; 

tale'i 'o'i'o'i, to trouble oneself. 
'o'i'o'i n., mu 'o'i'o'i, sections of roof for 

thatching. Florida goti. 
oka 1. U., to eat areca nut along with betel 

leaves and lime, 
oka 2. to eat food raw. Viti ndroka, Niue ota, 

Maori ota. 
oka, okaoka 3. v. i., to destroy gardens (of 

pigs) ; poo okaoka, a mischievous pig. 
oke, okeoke 1. v. tr., to draw, to drag. 
okenga v. n. 
okeni tr. Wango oge. 
'oke 2. 'o, thou; ke, verbal particle, cf. 'o'a 6. 
oko 1. a band, a creeper used in tying. 
oko 2. a tree (Acacia sp.); tarasi oko, a cuckoo, 
oko, okooko 3. black (earth) pigment used for 

the teeth, the idea being that the gums 

are hardened thereby. 
'oko 4. 'o, thou : ko, verbal particle, cf. 'oke, 'o'a 6. 
okooko a basket, a receptacle; okooko ni pasa, 

basket containing bonito hooks, 
okolu okolu tewa, eleventh and twelfth day of 

the moon, 
oku 1. n., a marine annelid, palolo (Eunice 

viridis, the epitokal segments), oku e 

hirusia maana, said of the migratory 

plover, cf. karikeri'ala. 2. names of 

certain months: oku lade, September; 

oku mwaa, October; oku denu, Novem- 
ber; oku peine, December. 3. summer 

time, as distinguished from aau, winter. 

4. names of certain days of the month: 

qa'i oku, toohuungei oku, S., second and 

third days after full moon. 



OKU 



74 



oku 5. the end-walls of the house; oku i tnaa, 
wall in front; oku i puri, wall behind; 
haulioku, end purlins of the house. 
oku 6. swollen stomach. 

ola n., thing; the noun ending may be added; 
with the personal article a ola, the person 
So-and-so, such a one; ro ola, man and 
wife, and as vocative, you two married 
folk; in phrase ko ola, if it be so. a ola ko 
mae, So-and-so is sick; a ola ko mae 'oto, 
So-and-so is dead; a kele ola, young So- 
and-so; komuna a ola, So-and-so's fam- 
ily; keni ana a ola, such-and-such a 
woman; kira a ola, whom do you mean; 
saai ola, to know things, to be wise; ola a 
Elija e na'o 'oto mat, how that verily 
Elijah came before; kele me'i ola, a little 
thing; e ka'a olaike, there is nothing at 
all; hele ola, to act; hou ola, a thing of a 
round shape; mu ola hu'ihu'i, dangers, 
difficulties; iho'oi ola, a bundle; raw 
lehui ola, worn-out things; lede ola, 
mischievous; nou 'ure m'di i ola, I am 
from such-and-such a place; mangoi ola, 
breath; meameatani ola, a huge thing; 
molatana nga ola, innumerable things; 
ana ke ola mwanvwadau, if possible; 
ola ni mwane, a sacred thing; me'i olana, 
the thing; nikei (nikeni) ola, a big thing; 
oa ni ola, a pair; odohaana mu ola, cor- 
rect, exact things; odohaana i ola, oppo- 
site to, off, such-and-such a place; mu 
qa'atai ola, shreds; si'ohaa'i ola, to be in 
a poor way; ta'ela'i i ola, beginning from ; 
mu le'itesi ola, flesh; mu tale'i ola mola, 
inferior things, nga ola, pooh ! absurd ! nga 
ola taa, what? nou ka'a to'oana nga ola, I 
have nothing. 

olanga, ere ni hedi olanga, to take an oath; 
lauhi olanga, succor; lede olanga, mis- 
chief; lude olanga, carrying cargo; saai 
olanga, wisdom, knowledge; tari olanga, 
riches. 
ole v. tr., to scrape with a shell, to get the skin 

off yams, etc. 
'oli v. i., to return, to relapse, ha'i'oli. melu 
'oli 'oto, we have returned; mu ola 
'oli'oli, changes; 'oli ana, to succeed to 
a thing, to inherit. 

'olinge v. n., return, h&'ihe'i'olinge, v. n., 
bounty. 

'olisi tr. to change, to alter; 'olisi to'ohaa, 
to exchange money, to buy; poo ke ne'i 
lalamoa ko 'olisie 'oto a mwaena, the pig 
is the victim in place of the man. 

'olisila-(ku) gerund. 

'olite-(ku) n., used as preposition, in place 
of. noko lae 'olitana, I come in his 
place. 

'oli 'oli te v. n., heir; a 'oli'olile, the heir. 
Wango ori, Mota kel. 
'olie'i v. i., to return, to turn back, to go home; 
kira'elu 'a ta'e h&'i 'olie'i, they embark 
on their return journey. 

'olie'inga U., v. n., return. 
olo, oloolo 1. v. La to swim. 

oloolonga v. n., swimming. 



olo, oloolo 1 (continued). 

olohi tr., to swim for and get. 
oloha'ini to swim with, holding. Florida 
olo, Wango oro. 

olo 2. v. i., olo ngdu, to abstain from food; olo 
ngaunge, fasting; olo ana hi'olo, to be 
faint from fasting; olo manini, to be of 
orderly behavior. 

'olo, 'olo'olo 3. v. tr., to cut the ends off; 'olo 
qa'u, to cut hair; 'olo kou'e ihune, to cut 
the hair off the whole head, 
'olo'i tr., to sever the shoots of; nga 'oka 
na kira 'olo'ia 'oto, the betel plants from 
which they cut off the shoots. Mota 
goro 2. 

Oloha a village on the west coast of Little 
Malaita, its landing-place Ha'au; the 
language of Oloha is Tolo, the speech 
of the people of the Mara Masiki Chan- 
nel; it was known to Bishop Patteson, 
who made a small sketch of its grammar. 

'olo'olo v. i., to reel, to stagger; dsu 'olo'olo, to 
be loose, unstable. 
'olo'oloa'i v. i., to stagger about. Mota 
gologolo, Malagasy horohoro. 

oloolonga U., n., a company, a party. 

olopa'i U., n., a yam with fruit on the vine. 

'olu 1. numeral, three; 'olune, third, third time; 
ha'a'olu, three times. Mota tol, Poly- 
nesian tolu. 

'olu 2. S., dialectic for molu. 

omi v. tr., to suck, to smoke tobacco. 

ominge v. n., sucking, smoking. Maori 
momi. 

omo n., arrow; nanga, the barb of an arrow; 
to'onga'i omo, to draw an arrow. 

'omolu pers. pron., plural 2: you; used as sub- 
ject, or attached to verb or preposition 
as object; more restricted in meaning 
than 'omu. 

'omu pers. pron., plural 2: you; used as sub- 
ject, or attached to verb or preposition 
as object; used following the longer 
form i'omu, 

'omoro, 'omoro'i, 'omoru'e S., pers. pron., 
dual 2; used as subject, or attached to 
verb or preposition as object. 

ona 1. fresh-water limpets with poisonous 
spines; ona e mwakolieu, the shellfish 
spiked my foot. 

ona 2. a deep-sea fish. 

onanala adj., lumpy (of taumanga, taro pud- 
ding), rough (of a road). 

one n., sand, beach; one mamae, fine sand; one 
piruu, S., one qiruu, U., black sand, such 
as is found on the beaches at San Cris* 
toval; apau one, the lee side of an island; 
'asi dodo hule i one, deep water right 
in to shore; awalosi i one, the north- 
northeast wind; idumia one, TJ., count- 
less; maraau ro one, the east-northeast 
wind; kira 'asi usuli one, they went 
then along the beach; e urihana nga 
one, like the sands, of countless num- 
bers; 'u'ui one, a grain of sand. 
one'a S., onela U., adj., sandy. Mota one, 
Maori one. 



75 



ORB 



'oni 1. to remain, to be settled; 'oni huu 'oto 
ana, dwell therein forever. 

'oni 2. v. i., to repeat, to go over again (of 
words); ko 'oni ana ta'ata'a nte'i wala 
ngeena, repeated the same words. San 
Cristoval onioni, a tale. 

'oni 3. coconut milk strained from the scraped 
flesh of the nut mixed with a little water, 
extracted by squeezing and used in the 
cooking of various vegetables; when 
without coconut milk the yam mash is 
known as helehele. tola, to curdle, pii 
'oni, to make coconut milk; 'oni wei 

(a) coconut milk boiled thin into oil; 

(b) a dish of pounded yam mash with 
coconut oil. 

'onime'i 1. v. i., to pack, to stow; 'onime'i koni, 
to store up. 2. partic, well, cleverly; 
hele 'onime'i, to do cleverly, 
'onime'ini tr., hele 'onime'inie, to do it 
well; to stow. Wango orimaini. 

'oni'oni adv., always. 

'onioninge v. n., a tale oft repeated, folklore. 

'onisae S., v. i., to change the mind, to repent, 
'onisaenga v. n., repentance. 

'oniteu v. i., to delay. 

ono 1. numeral, six; onona, sixth, the sixth 
time; ha'aono, six times. 

'ono, 'ono'ono 2. v. i., to swallow, konokono. 
'ono ngisu, to water at the mouth ; 'owo 
pola, to swallow whole; hoi 'ono'ono, a 
pill; hau 'ono'ono, stones to swallow in 
ordeal. M. A., p. 212. 
'onomi tr. 

'onomila-(ku) gerund, 
'onoma'ini tr. Florida sononti, Mota nolo, 
to swallow; Maori korokoro, throat; 
Motu hadonoa. 

'ono'onoma n., gullet, hahani 'ono'onoma, a 
measure, a yard. 

onu holo onu, to divide and cut short. 

onu'e adj., S., cut off short; 'o holo onu'e 
qongiku hao. 

'ongo n., mangrove. Florida tongo, Viti 
ndongo. 

'o'o 1. exclamation, of dissent. 

'o'o 2. n., a wooden drum; the inside is hol- 
lowed out {karu) through a narrow slit 
on the side, the drum when played is set 
upon the stem of a tree fern as a pedes- 
tal, the drumstick is a piece of sago- 
palm frond, the part of the drum hit is 
the center portion just above the open- 
ing. When a feast (houla) is being pre- 
pared the drums are kept in a house 
made for the purpose. Drumming is 
kept up constantly till the feast is over. 
Drums are beaten after a murder, kire 
horo. para ni 'o'o, a set of drums; ri'i, 
small, treble: laha 'o'o, tenor or middle 
size; toli, bass; ikiikingi 'o'o, sulu 'o'o, to 
beat the drums. Wango oo.Bugotu koko. 
'o'o, 'o'o'o 3. to stay, to remain behind, to be; 
'o'o ni lehinge, to be in flight. Lau too, 
Nguna toko. 
'o'o 4. adv., utterly, quite, e mae 'o'o, he is 
quite dead; ha' ike 'oto 'o'o, never at all. 



'o'oha'ini, 'o'ohi v. tr., to draw near to. 

ooho 1. v. i., to take down; ooho 'asi, to destroy, 
to break up (of a house); ooho toli, to 
descend, to fall headlong, 
ooho'i tr., to take to pieces (of a house), 
oohosi tr., to take down, to detach. Wango 
ohosi. 

ooho 2. v. i., to desist from, to cease. 

'O'olo'u an island in Mara Masiki Channel. 

'o'omae U., to'oni 'o'omae, mourning attire. 

'o'oni U., v. i., to sink, ha'a'o'oni. 

'o'onuto, 'o'onutonuto to incline the head, to 
bow. nuto 2. 

'o'orou U., Maramara 'O'orou, the name of a 
canoe in a story. 

ooru 1. to blow (of winds). 2. n., the wind, 
oorw ko ooru, the wind blows; ooru 
pe'ipesi, to blow strong. 
ooruhi tr., to blow on (of the wind). 

'o'oru'e S., adj., short. U., poru. 

opa, opaopa 1. to divide, to separate, to dis- 
tinguish, to take away from, maopaopa. 
susu opa, ornamental ridge covering; 
mwane 'o opaopaa Li'oa mwaani'emi, 
take not the Spirit from us; opa h'd'iliu, 
to be at variance; opa hiteli, to cut up 
an animal; opa sae, to be at variance; 
didi opa olanga, discrimination, par- 
tiality. 
opasaelaku gerund., my transgression. 
opanga v. n., division. 

opa 2. v. tr., to adopt children. 

'opa U., 3. for '03a, stomach. 

opo, to heat up food once cooked, ha'aopo. 

opu 1. green coconut in its early stage with, 
little flesh and with the shell still soft. 
2. the heart. 

opuopu uhi opuopu, U., the name of a month, 
February. 

'oqa (kn) belly, bowels, stomach, 'aqa. M. L., 
p. 55. Florida toba, Mota toqai. 

'oqa'oqa U., a bay, indentation of the coast. 

ora 1. oven, altar; or a ni uunu, the altar of 
burnt offering; i epine ora, beside the 
altar. 

ora 2. U., ashes; ahuora, dusty. 

ora 3. U., to flame, to burn brightly, ha'aora. 
Wango ora. 

ora 4. a boar pig. 

ora 5. ora lulu, to belch. 

oraa v. i., to flow. 

oraha'a 1. adj., excessive, hele ni oraha'a, to 
do too much; lae ni oraha'a, to go very 
fast. 2. v. i., to sin, to contravene the 
public standards of morality. 3. n., 
sin, ntu oraha'a, ddu oraha'a; maleledi 
oraha'a mwaanie ngaini, to rebuke a man 
for sin; sae 'asilana oraha'a, forgiveness 
of sins. 
oraha'ala adj., sinful; a oraha'ala, the sinner, 
oraha'anga n., sin. Wango oraoraa. 

oraora 1 . a holy person, one in touch with the 
ghosts. 

oraora 2. refuse, dung. cf. ora 2. 

ore 1. v. L, to remain behind, to be omitted; 
v. tr., to leave, ha'iore. ore tnwaani, 
to be left out; ruana ke'i orea, the other 



ORE 



76 



ore 1 (continued.) 

shall t>2 left; kire ngdu orea, they did 
not eat it all. 
creore n. with genitive i, ni, oreorei ola, an 

empty case, a shell. 
oreta (ku) v. n., an end. e 'unu oreta ana 
mu ivala, he spoke and finished the 
words; kesi oreta ana uunu 'asilana, 
whose end is burning; oretana mu 'inoni, 
the rest of the men. 
oretalana ana i oretalana, finally. 
oretanga v. n., the finish, final end. Motu 
ore, orena, remnant. 

ore 2. used with genitive i, ni; almost, nearly, 
just failing to. melu orei lae, we nearly 
went. 

ore S., ura U., 3. fresh-water prawn, ore ni ivei. 

ore S., 4. crayfish, ore ni 'esi. Mota ura, Maori 
koura. 

ore 5. ha'iore, to scold, to quarrel. 

orea to chatter (of th° bird wist), wisi ko orea. 
M. A., p. 220. 

ori, oriori v. tr., to peel; ori uhi, to peel yams; 
yams are peeled with a shell held 
between the thumb and index finger, 
the motion being away from the body 
and not toward it as with Europeans. 
Viti ori, to cut; Fate ori, Motu oria. 

oro, orooro v. i., to bend down, to stoop, to 
lean over; oro i 'ano, to stoop to the 
ground, 
oroha'i, oroma'i v. i., to bend down, to 
stoop, to slant, mwaoroha'i. 

oropa (ku) U., ulcer; oropaku, the ulcer on my 
body. 

orooro n., the beetle that bores the yams. 
orooro'a adj., eaten by yam beetles. 

oru n., grasshopper, locust. 

osa S. 1. (ku) ulcer; uweli osa, cerumen, wax 
in the ear. 2. to be rotten. 
osanga v. n., corruption. 

osani karekare U., cliff. 

osi 1. to cut, to score. 

osi 2. nimeku e osi, my arm has gone to sleep, 
pins-and-needles feeling. 

'osi 3. 'o, thou; si, illative. 

osiosi to be lukewarm, wawai osiosi. 

osiosita'a adj., striped, streaked. 

'o si'u'e exclamation of assent, yes; used in 
response to a negative question where 
English calls for no. 'uri ngaini ka'a 
'unue? 'o si'u'e, did no one speak? yes 
(scilicet, no one did speak). 

ote n., open bush- land just above the beach. 

'oto 1. adv., follows the verb; is used to denote 
the preterite; expresses finality; ex- 
presses emphasis; the demonstrative 
na or ni may be added ; used to connect 
the narrative and to show consecutive 
action, then, thereupon; marks cessa- 
tion of action; used to denote a few, of 
things just beginning or a few things 
left, kire lae mango 'oto, they all went; 
melu ke'i tola 'oto, are we to begin to 
carry? ineu 'oto, it is I; inge'ie 'oto itei, 
where is he? nou sa'a lae 'oto, I shall not 
go; ngaini 'oto ka'a qaoa nga le'u, no 



'oto 1 (continued). 

one at all did anything; 'omu sa'a lio 
odo'ieu 'oto lo'u, ye shall not see me 
again; 'oto 'ure mai, up till now; ngaini 
'oto atnelu, one of us; wa 'oto amolu, or 
one of you; mwaanie 'oto me'i olana, 
from that very thing; e honu eni ni'inge 
na 'oto ani wala'imolinge, full of grace 
and truth; to'olaka'elu 'oto, our own 
property; mala 'oto nou ka'a helesie ike, 
as though I had never done it; 'oto 
inganite, when? 'oto wai na'ona, right 
before his face; 'oto i qe'une, right on his 
head; 'oto ina'o, formerly; 'oto qani, of 
old; 'oto di, S., 'oto huu, U., forever; 'oto 
waite, long ago; 'oto ihei, laa, where to, 
lad? 'oto mola, 'oto molana, at this 
present, now; nga liwe 'otona, it was a 
cave; 'oto nou si teuri, then said I; kire 
si rohu, ka'a s'aunie 'oto, they then ceased 
and left off beating him; kire ka'a hala- 
hata'inie 'oto, they no longer accom- 
panied him; e ro 'ata ini 'oto, just a few 
as yet; e la'a kele le'u 'oto, only a little 
piece left; ko nisi 'oto ile'u, this is the 
boundary; e no'i 'aela 'oto, it has become 
bad; nonola 'oto wau, three days ago; 
e ngaa 'oto, did he eat it? 'oni huu 'oto 
ana, to be settled; ha' ike 'oto 'o'o, never 
at all; e pele 'oto, it is of no avail; ini ni 
ha'aurilana 'oto, a person to be saved; 
ko ne'ie 'oto i'oe, if it be thou; na nesi 
ne'i 'amamu 'oto, and I shall be your 
father; e holai na'o 'oto wau, he led 
the way first; a ola e na'oku 'oto. So- 
and-so preceded me; na'a lae 'oto, I am 
going; e la 'otoi 'aela mwaani nonola, it 
is worse than yesterday; koro 'a mono 
'oto i Kalona, they two live apart in 
Kalona; e molahie 'oto, it failed; e 
ma'usu 'oto, it is all overgrown; wai e 
mapipi 'ohe 'oto ta'inie kolune mwakano, 
whether the water had receded off the 
face of the earth; e mango 'oto, it is 
quite finished; mango 'oto, thereupon; 
melu mango 'oto mai, we are all here; 
'ure 'oto mai i ' aehotalana, from the 
beginning up to now; e lae 'oto ni mae, 
he went like everything; e 'a'aila'a 'oto 
mae ana, he is very strong; 'oto 'ie, now; 
'oto mola 'ienini, just now; 'oto inihou, 
just now; ke'i 'ue 'oto, how shall it be 
done? 'oto kire kosi 'unue, then they 
said it; poo ke ne'i lalamoa ko 'olisie 'oto 
a mwaena, the pig is the victim in 
place of the man; awala 'oto huu, U., a 
full ten; wai e huuhuu 'oto, water gushed 
forth; 'oto wai lalo, in the inside; noko 
lapata'i ulo 'oto, I lament with crying; 
le'une nou daa 'oto, I did that already; 
likimaana 'oto, certainly. Wango oto, 
oto hu, forever; Vaturanga noho; Maori 
noho, to sit. 

oto 2. (ku) cooked food taken on a journey. 
mu oto. otona laeha, food for a journey. 
Lau oso, Samoa oso, Viti odho, Maori o, 

'oto di used of indefinite space of time, past or 



77 



PAPA 



'oto di (continued). 

future, forever, from of old. 'oto di 'oto 

di, forever and ever. 
'oto 'ie S., 'oto inihou U., adv., now; 'oto mola 

'ie (Henini), just now, this minute. 
'otomi v. tr., to spear, to pierce with a spear. 
'oto 'o'o adv., for all time, ta'ata'a ola 'oto 'o'o, 

one and only one. 
ou 1 . pine ni ou, Nicobar pigeon; ground-pigeon. 
'o'u 2. the sandy land just above the beach. 
'O'u 3. the site of a former village south of 

Su'uholo, Ulawa. Wango gohu. 
'ou'ou n., champion, chief, great person. In 

M. A., p. 49, Ro ute'i seu 'ou'ou, are 

said to be brothers of Qa'ulo paine, 

whereas they were only two warriors, ro 

ramo mola. Mota wowut. 
oute U., outeni nima, a group of houses. 



paa S., n., bait, me'i paa. 

paalahe v. tr., to praise, to bless, to apostro- 
phize an island as in ha'addhi; paalahe'o, 
lucky you, blessed are you. 
paalahenga v. n., praise, blessing. 
paalahela-(ku) gerund. 

paalahea with personal article, a paalahea, 
So-and-so. 

paale'o n., breadfruit, 'apani paale'o, nauti- 
lus shell cut in triangular pieces for 
inlaying. San Cristoval qareo. 

pa'asahu n., a small fish caught among the 
shore rocks; hinou ni pa'asahu, a hook 
for pa'asahu. 

pa'e n., yam poles; v. tr., to pole yams. 

pa'elana gerund.; pa'elana hohola, poling 
up a yam garden. 

pa'ewa 1. n., a shark, e lapi ana pa'ewa, 
changed into a shark. 2. alaala pa'ewa, 
a croton with leaves like a shark's fin. 
3. pa'ewa ko 'ala tola, S., the last two 
days of the moon. Mota pagoa, shark; 
New Guinea paowa, Mailu baea, Florida 
bagea, Gilbert Islands bakoa. 

pai, paipei U., v. tr., to drive, to chase. Wango 
bat. 

painaa U., dialectic for qainaa. 

paine S., paina U., big, loud, to grow big. 
ha'apaine. e paina 'asi'a, needlessly 
big; helehele paine, ninth and tenth days 
of the moon; kei ta'a paine, poor lady; 
lo'a wdi peine, March; mala paine, to 
give oneself airs; mango paine, to sigh; 
e paine mwaanie, bigger; ngauhana t 
pdipeine, he is a great eater, lit., his 
eating is big; 
painanga v. n., bigness, size, 
painesi v. tr., to be too big for. 
painaha used with poss. 3; pdinahaana, its 
full size, adolescence. The root appears 
to be pai on comparison with pdipei- 
lesu'a, U-, big; and na is probably a 
verbal suffix. Alite baila, Lau baita, 
Ceram maina. M. L., p. 80. 

paipeilesu'a U., very large, paina, lasu. 

paipeina'a adj., very big. 



pa'ipesi S., pasipesi U., strong, firm; hele 
P&'ipesi, to grasp firmly; ooru pe'ipesi, 
to blow strong. 

pala to be light in color; niu pala, a coconut 
with light-colored leaves; poo pala, a 
white pig. 

palapala 1. an omen, sign; palapala ana haka, 
a sign of the ship (Southern Cross) 
coming, the particular palapala in this 
case is a shower of rain. 

palapala 2. U., palapala ni i'e, a nose-ornament 
of shell cut to represent the frigate-bird 
(Cruise of the Curacoa, p. 254). 

palapala 3. to be gray in color, whitish; qduku 
e palapala, my hair is gray. 

Palaule an inlet west of Cape Zelee in the bay 
known as 'Olu Su'u, the other two inden- 
tations being Apauone and Hulihuli. 

pale 1. v. tr., to preserve, to keep, to main- 
tain; palea hatanga, to keep fellowship. 

pale 2. U., Ngorangora dialect for qale, nega- 
tive particle. 

pale 3. U., v., to chirp, of crickets. 

pali S., Pali kao, a drop left in the bottom, 
dregs. Florida bali, part; Lau bali, 
side. 

palili v. i., to turn aside. Lau/aK. 

palingite v. tr., to set; e palingitaa maana, he 
set his face. 

palo, palopalo v. tr., to do, to act officially, to 
worship; e palo honotaka, our mediator, 
palonga v. n., act, worship; a palonga, the 
officiant; na ni leesie palonga aku, and 
saw my works; mu palonga rorodo'a, 
works of darkness. 
palola-(ku) gerund, palolana mu 'akalo, 
worship of the ghosts. 

palopalo 'a n., time, season. 

palupelu 1. the handle of a paddle, pdlupeht 
ni hote. 2. U., the buttress flange of a 
tree. 

palupelu 3. sae ni pelupelu, red hot. 

pani 1. U., v. tr., to drive away, ha'ipdni. 
panile'ini tr., to drag, to draw aside, to 

cause to drift out of the course. 
panile'inila-(ku) gerund. 

pani 2. U., n., the side walls of a house; qa'uli 
peni, purlin. 

panitora v. tr., to eject, to drive out. 

panga v. i., to wonder; used with poss. 3. huni 
'omu kesi panga ani, that ye may marvel 
thereat, 
pangara'ini U., pangata'ini S., tr. 
pangara'inila-(ku) , pangata'inila-(ku) 
gerund. 

pangupangu raha U., big, huge. 

panguu to be dumb. nguu. Mao. hangu, ngu. 

pao v. tr., to make plaited armlets of haa, etc. 

paonga S., battlefield. U., qaonga. 

papa v. i., to break by a sharp blow; papa hdu, 
to break stones by dashing one against 
the other; papa naho, a fish that leaps 
into the air dashing apart the water. 
papali tr., to break by dashing down, 
papata'ini tr., to break in pieces. 
papata'inila-(ku) gerund. Maori papa, 
Motu papa, to burst. 



PAPAKU'A 



78 



papaku'a U., adj., foolish, demented. 

papali (ku) n., cheek; 'aena papali, jaw. Lau 
bali, side (of position); Viti mbalu, 
cheek; Maori paparinga, Wango baba, 
Bougainville Straits papala. 

papangurunguru to murmur, to grumble, 
mutter; papangurunguru oalana, mut« 
terings concerning, nguru. 

papau U., to be firm, hard, malapau'a'a. 

para, parapara v. i., to fence, to guard; noko 
Para, I am making a fence; para hono- 
taka, defend us; para ahu'i, to protect 
with a fence; dere unu ana para, between 
the pickets of the fence; maai para, S., 
maana para, U., a gate, 
para'i tr., to defend, to protect. 
para'ila-(ku) gerund, ko 'ure para'ilana 
walumalau, defends the earth. Wango 
bora; Mota pala, set across; Espiritu 
Santo pala, fence. 

para n., para ni 'o'o, a set of drums. 

para'i ki'iki'i U., paw, of dog. 

para'imaa hat, sunshade of plaited coconut 
leaf worn when fishing. 

para'i nima U., knuckle. 

para'ita 1. U., the inclosure outside the men's 
house (toohi) planted with dili and make; 
areca skins are thrown into it for safety 
to insure their not being used in witch- 
craft. 

para'ita-(ku) 2. n., a para'iteku, my defender. 
nanamanga para'itana tnu li'oa, power 
over the spirits. 

parakoko U., suli parakoko, rib of the body. 

parangasi v. tr., to maintain one's innocence 
when accused, to make pretence, to 
bluff, to defy, ngasi. 

parapara S., n., side, loins; used with poss. 3; 
parapara aku, my loins. Mota para- 
para, beside, sidewise. 

parasi (au) U. 1. prep., against, around, in the 
way of. ha'aparasi. dau parasi, U., 
to hinder. 2. v. tr., to protect, to 
fence, to inclose. Wango parasi. 

par'ie cf. paro He, this side. 

parikota U., to be separated, divided, disturbed 
in mind. Florida bali, side. 

paro adv., beyond; paro He (contracts to par'ie), 
this side; paro i la'ona, on the inside, 
Paro uri, over there; niparo, iniparo, 
U., that; e dangi paro, as soon as it was 
day; 'o du'una paro, move it on a little; 
moro taria paro i'ola i 'esi, you launch 
the canoe into the sea; po'o paro, 
beyond; qa'u paro, beyond. Florida 
Pari, Sesake palo, Mota kalo, San 
Cristoval baro. 

pasa U., 1. paa S., n., bait for fish, mdsi pasa. 
M. A., p. 316. 

pasa 2. bonito hook for trolling, usually made 
of the clam ('tme) with a tortoise-shell 
barb (imaa). okooko ni pasa, basket 
containing pasa. 

pasi n., a bow. cf. kalu, lohe. ilolo ni pesi, a 
bowstring, to string a bow; taku ana 
pdsi, to grasp a bow. Gilolo pusi. 
Amboyna husul, apusa, Mota us. 



pasie'ili to be stiff (of the body). 

pasihi n., a small fish. 

pasipesi U.. pS'ipesi S., strong, firm. 

pasu 1. ha'apasu, v. i., to threaten the life of. 

pasu 2. to sprout; pasu maomaopu'e, in full 
leaf. San Cristoval basu. 

pau 1. to jam, to be stuck, papau. 

pau 2. pausi, S., paungi, U., to be master over. 
rakapau. 

pa'u 3. a corpse inclosed in the image of a 
swordfish (Hi) carved in wood and kept 
in the house. M. A., p. 261. 

paula'a U., adj., firm, hard, papau. 

paule n., a tree which grows on the hills, also 
known as dalo ni tne'esu, dalo of the 
forest, makes good masts for boats. 

pa'uwa'ata n., a two-handed crescentic club 
from San Cristoval, "head-splitter." 
Guppy, "Solomon Islands," p. 74. 

pawa hau pawa, soapstone. 

peapea (ku) n., footmark, sole of foot, U., 
example. Ta'a Pea, a female ghost who 
causes yams to fructify. Malay pea, foot. 

pee, peepee 1. v. i., to drive away; pee poo, to 
drive swine out of gardens. 
peesi tr. Wango beesi, Maori pel. 

pe'e 2. contraction of pe'ie with him, with it, 
withal, and. 

pei 1. U., n., a mortar for braying areca nut. 

pe'i 2., S., v. tr., to assist, to help; used in the 
sense of and; the equivalent of mwana of 
units above ten; pe'ie often contracts 
to pe'e; not a preposition of relationship 
as stated in M. L., p. 151. e i'o pe'i 
suke, he sat and begged; rdpu lakoma'i 
Pe'i po'upo'u, to crucify; i'o pe'i rae, 
the mourning before burial; saeda ka'a 
tararuru pe'ie, their hearts were not 
whole with him. 
pe'ini tr., to be associated with; pe'inie, 
moreover, and; ta'e pe'inie, but, never- 
theless. Wango bei, Fagani fagi, fagini, 
Qaloto ha'ini, Lau fai, faini, Mota vag 2. 

peinuhl U., to go secretly. Wango binihu, 
secret. 

pele v. i., by mischance, by mistake, in error, 
of no avail; e pele 'oto, it is of no avail, 
it is all up; nou deu pele, I did wrong; 
nou ere pele, I spoke inadvertently; 
kali pele, to capsize in rounding a cape; 
nou sa'a noruhe'i pele, I shall not be 
confounded. 
pelenga v. n., dau pelenga, error, mistake, 
pelenga'ini tr., dau pelenga'inie nga le'u, to 
do a thing in error. 

pele'i adv., precedes verb: by mischance; ko 
pele'i tarohia governor, if it come by 
chance to the governor's ears. 

peli, pelipeli v. tr., to steal, to rob, to steal 
from a person, to kidnap, to recruit 
labor without paying a commission 
(holite) to the relatives of the person 
recruited; e pelieu, he stole from me; 
lude peli, to steal labor recruits, 
pelinge S., v. n., theft, 
peliha U.. v. n., theft. 
pelila-(ku) gerund. Mota palu. 



79 



PONGAPONGA 



penapena n., a roller; v. i., to roll out taro 
puddings, 
penasi v. tr., to roll out, to flatten out. 

penata (ku) n., sole of foot, palm of hand, 
penatana 'ae, penatana nime. Florida 
pera ni lima, Mota tawerai, Ambrym 
vera, Malekula feran, hand; Malagasy 
tanana, hand. M. L. p. 75. 

pepe n., butterfly, moth; pepe alaha, a large 
butterfly; pepe ni weieu, a butterfly 
(Ornithoptera cassandra); pepe i eueu, 
a butterfly. Solomon Islands bebe, 
Polynesian pepe. 

pepela'ini TJ., v. tr., to cause to drift. 

peta U., n., house post. Mota pete. 

peto U., qeto S., to be feeble, weak, cowardly. 

pe'u n., tarantula, masi pe'u, U.; called ramo 
champion from its watchfulness and 
from the difficulty of hitting or spearing 
it. 

pe'ule n., a bird, the curlew. 

pewa'ali v. tr., to rend. wa'a. kite pewa'ali, 
to cleave. 

pie 1. hau pie, a precipitous wall of rock, a 
cascade. 

pi'e 2. a palm whose laths are used as cross- 
pieces for platforms. 3. a digging-stick 
made of pi'e. 

pi'e (na, ni) 3. a sucker of a tree; pi'ei hudi, 
banana sucker. 

piho ha'apiho, U., v. tr., to divide into two 
parts. 

pii 1. to cook with hot stones, stone boiling. 
M. A., p. 316. pi'i 'oni, to make coco- 
nut oil in a wooden bowl (nime). 
piinge v. n., yam soup; ilu piinga, U., to 

sup yam soup, 
piingi tr. 

pii 2. v. i., to strain the milk from scraped 
coconut (hero) with the net (unu) of the 
coconut leaf. 

pii 3. ute pii, torrential rain. 

pile 1. the young areca nut in its earliest edible 
stage. 

pile (na) 2. the roe of fish. Motu bela, spawn. 

pili, pilipili v. i., to press, ha'anipili, S. pili 
memeso, to break into powder; piliroro'i, 
to press down tight; pili tele, to oppress, 
to tread down, 
piliha U., v. n., distress. 
pilingi tr. 
pilila-(ku) gerund. Wango biringi. 

pilomo to be dented, to have a gapped edge, 
to be pitted. 

pine S., pina U., the name of several large birds; 
pine awa, the hornbill, so called from 
the rushing sound (awa) of its wings 
in flight; pine ni 'esi, the booby; pine 
ni ou, the Nicobar pigeon (Geophilus 
nicobaricus) . Florida bina. 

piola adj., thick. 

pipisi 1 (n'i, ni). the eaves of a house, pipisine 
nume. 2. pipisi ana m'anu, tail feathers 
of a bird. 

pipisu n., a bird, the shiny starling (Callornis 
metallica), building in colonies. 

piru 1. v. i., to close upon; e piru keli eku, sur- 



piru (continued). 

rounds me. 2. n., an ornamental collar 
made of dogs' teeth strung on cords 
with intervening sections of shell 
money (haa). 3. v. tr., to make such 
a collar; e pirue mu 'usu ineu, he made 
my dogs' teeth into a collar. 

pirupiru U., a sacred grove, altar. San Cris- 
toval birubiru. 

piruu S., qiruu U., black, grey, of sand as on 
San Cristoval, one piruu. 

pito S., qito U., v. i., to grow. 

poe 1. poe rare, to plait a mat out of green 
coconut leaves (rare) . 

poe 2. U., Poe hui, to pull wild taro, hui ni 
matawa. Mota koe. 

poe 3. to cram. 

poe 4. poe aro, a nose-stick of bamboo or shell. 

poe 5. U., poe i'a, a poisonous fish. 

po'e 6. to sprout. 

po'e 7. ha'apo'e, n., yam or taro mash. 

poepoe to sigh, to heave a sigh, to gasp. 

poi 1. S., adv., up, hither; lae kd'u poi, come 
up. here; hane poi ile'u, climb up, come 
up, here to me; 'omu ke ha'ahu'o poi, 
be here early in the morning; po'o poi, 
up here. Wango poi, hither. 

poi 2. to be concerned about; used with poss. 3. 

pola, polapola v. i., to jump, to assault, to 
attack; pola likiliki, to leap; pola 
mwaani, to desert a ship; pola nguru, a 
month, September; pola tala, U., to 
fail; 'ono pola, to gulp, to swallow whole, 
polahi tr., to leap on, pounce on, to assault. 

ha'apolahi, ha'ipolanga. 
polahila-(ku) gerund. 

polaha'i ha'apolaha'i, v. tr., to cast away, to 
disregard. 

polahiroa to meddle in. 

polahiwasa to gad about, to be a busybody. 

polale n., a bird, swamp-hen (Porphyrio sp.), 
destructive to gardens. 

polali lolo polali, red ant, sugar ant. 

pole S., qole U., ma'ahu pole, v. i., to dream, 
v. tr., to dream of; ma'ahu polenga, n., 
a dream, dreaming. 

pole, polepole 2. U., polepolei sesu, smoke. 

polo poloi haa, a strand of shell money, 'apolo. 

polopolo U., wart. 

pona 1 . a fountain, spring of water. Niue puna. 

pona 2. ha'apona, to interrupt with questions. 

pono, ponopono, popono v. i., to close, to mend, 
to be closed, stuffed up; simouke ineu 
e popono, my pipe is stuffed up; sisi 
pono, to be closed over (of a sore); 
to' oni pono maa, patched clothes; 
e popono papau i purida, closed up 
tightly behind them. 
ponosi tr., to stop up, to close, to dam; 
d&u ponosi, to put the lid on; hele 
ponosie wawana, keep his mouth shut. 
ponosila-(ku) gerund, ha'aponosi. Mota 

wono, Florida pono. 
ponopono n., lid, stopper, cork of bottle 
(late use). 

pongaponga to be loose, to fit badly. 



PONGI 



80 



pongi, pongipongi, qongi U., 1. v. tr., to promise; 
n., a promise, 
ponginge S., pongipongite S., pongiha U., 

v. n., a promise. 
pongila-(ku) gerund. 

pongi (ku), qongi U. 2., n., a time, season; 
pongiku, my appointed time; * pongine, 
in its day. Mota qong. 

poo 1. n., a pig, boar, barrow: any kind of 
quadruped; poo ha'aholo, a sheeted pig; 
poo mae, a dead pig, given as the people's 
portion (tolinge) at a feast; poo mduri, 
a live pig; poo noro, the planet Mars. 
M. A., p. 349. poo pala, a white pig; 
poo pulu, a black pig; poo okaoka, a mis- 
chievous pig; poo e sude, the pig rooted; 
poo tori, an ear-marked pig; daudau 
Poo, uunu poo saana mu'akalo to sacrifice 
pigs to the ghosts; haka ni poo, herd 
of swine; hunu poo, to cut up a pig; 
kele poo, a little pig, shoat; ko'u- 
kohui poo, a piece of pork; kakdli munia 
nga poo, met., for a human victim; 
manu poo, a bird observed as an omen, 
called pig-bird from its note; poo ke 
ne'i lalamoa ko 'olisie 'oto a mwaena, 
the pig is the victim in place of the man; 
wasi ni poo, a wild pig; upeta, a hog- 
wallow. Mota qoe. 

poo (ku) 2. n., navel. 

poo 3. to prop; hau ni poo, a prop, a log to 
prop with. 
poota, poopoota (na) v. n., a foundation, 

mu poopootana nume. 
poor.gi tr., to prop up, to support with 
props; poongiei kao, prop it underneath. 
poongila-(ku) gerund. 

po'o 4. side (of position) po'o hao, S., farther 
west; po'oi lengi, U., south; po'o mai, 
S., po'o me'i, U., hither, on this side; 
Po'o paro, beyond; po'o poi, S., up here; 
po'o puri, at the rear, after, during one's 
absence; po'o i sinaha, outside; po'o 
wau, on the far side; i welita po'o wan, 
three days hence. 

po'o 5. n., a part, piece; po'o ni le'u, partly; 
nga po'o ni le'u, a piece; nga' eta po'o ni 
ninime, ni papali, the other hand, the 
other cheek. Wango bo. 

po'o, po'opo'o 6. to care, to be concerned about; 
used with poss. 3. 

po'o 7. po'o hiteli, to cause to burst. 

po'o 8. po'o lulu, to fill the mouth with food. 

poola adj., possessing pigs, hanue e poola. 

poona a village, a section of a village gathered 
around a chief's house, Ulawa, Qaloto. 

poonga'ini U., v. tr., to carry, to act as porter, 
poonga'i v. i. 
poonga'inila-(ku) gerund. 

poopoo n., a shrine. 

po'opo'oli'ili'i to be wayward, perverse; lae 
po'opo'oli'ili'i, hele po'opo'oli'ili'i, to 
act perversely. /*'* 2. 

poopoota (na, ni) n., foundation. poo3. qooqoota. 

po'osu'a'a concerned about, po'o 5. non 
ka'a po'osu'a'a ike ana, I am not con- 
cerned about it. 



po'ote'e to concern oneself about; used with 
poss. 3. ka'a po'ote'e ada, ko 'anomire 
mola, cared not for them, just buried 
them, of the undistinguished dead. 
M. A., p. 263. 

popo, poponga 1. to be tight, close-fitting; 
tolanga e poponga, a burden awkward 
to carry. 

popo (ku) 2. buttock; popo ni honu, the tail- 
piece of shell on the back of the hawk- 
bill turtle, much prized at Santa Cruz 
and used to make nose-rings. 

popo 3. popo ana, the white (of egg). 

popo 4. v. tr., to carve; kira 'asi 'unua 'e popoa 
hoi i'a hau, they said he was to carve 
a fish in stone. 

popolo'u, popopolo'u v. i., to be afraid. 
popolo'unge v. n., fear, fright. 

popopo'a adj., square-shaped. 

poposane'a adj., riddled with borings of the 
white ants (sane). 

pore n., an armlet plaited of grass. 

poro 1. male, husband, person; a porona, S., 
a poroni, U., the person So-and-so; in 
the folklore the men's names generally 
begin with poro, a Poro hanua raha, a 
ghost, Mr. Big-land; a Poro matou ni 
wala, a ghost; Poro wauru i 'esi, a 
legendary person, Mr. Fall-into-the-sea. 
a porona ko malamala Sa'a, So-and-so 
speaks Sa'a; poro ni haka, white man, 
lit., man of the ship; poro ha'alu, a 
bridegroom; poro repo, poro Paine, used 
of important persons; poro kaule, male 
frigate-bird; to'o poro, to have a hus- 
band, to be married; to'o poronga, 
marriage. 

poro 2. poroi rare, a small mat plaited from 
green coconut leaves used as a dustpan 
or for holding rubbish. 

poru U., to be short, little in stature, 'o'oru'e. 

poso to be matted, tangled (of hair), curly. 
qa'une e poso. 

posiki to rebound, to ricochet. 

pota, potapota v. i., to break by knocking one 
thing against another; pota niu, to 
crack a coconut. 
potali tr. 

potalila-(na, ni) gerund. Mota wota 3, 
Florida pota, Mao. pota. 

potaa U., rubbish heap, refuse, dung. 

pote 1. v. i., to be replete with food, to have 
had sufficient to eat; ngau ni pole, to 
eat to satiety. 
potenga v. n., repletion; potenga ni sape, 
bodily repletion; potenga haahi, plenty 
to eat. 

pote 2. used of phases of the moon; hara pote, 
S., saro pote, U., the day before full 
moon. 

pote 3. n., a louse; uruurti pole, uruuru qe'u, to 
clean the hair of lice. Wango bote, 
Nengone ote. 

pote S., (ku) qote U., 4. buttock; hi'uhi'u pote, 
a bird, wagtail. 

potepote U., a pimple. 

potoi U., a firestick, mdsi potoi. 



PURA 



pou 1. a block of wood, a log, hat pon. pou 
ni 'ei, U. Maori pou, Samoa pou, post. 

pou 2. v. i., to become hard, firm in consist- 
ency, to set, to congeal (of liquids), to 
heal over (of sores), to be solid (of 
waves); susu pou, to run high without 
breaking (of waves). 

pouhiru'e adj., raging sea; sasa'ae e pouhiru'e, 
a raging sea is stirred up. 

poulolo U., n., the cross-beams of a house. 

poupou 1. a green coconut. Wango poupou, 
fruit, poupou kua, hen's egg. 

poupou (ku) 2. U., poupou ni 'ae'ae, poupou 
ni uli, heel. Wango poupou. 

po'upo'u 3. crossed sticks, a cross; rdpu 
lakoma'i pe'i po'upo'u, to crucify. 

po'uru'uru S., qo'uru'uru U., v. i., to kneel 
down, to stoop, to bend down, 'uru'uru. 
po'uru'urunge v. n. Wango bouru. 

pue S., pua U., areca nut, hoi pue, hou pua; 
hungutani pua, a bunch of nuts; 
tnaholota ni pua, a piece of areca; mahiri, 
to be intoxicated from eating areca; 
hou meme, the quid of areca, betel and 
lime; hoi meuta'a, a hard ripe areca nut; 
mota, S., pei, U., a mortar for pounding 
areca nut; oka, ddmu, to chew areca; 
pile, a young nut just edible. Borneo 
bua, fruit; pue is probably connected 
with hue 1. M. L., p. 71. 

pule 1. n., a young girl; a pulena, the girl; 
pulena, vocative, you girl; kele pule ineu, 
my little girl. 

pule 2. to be dropsical; 'ae pule, dropsical 
swelling of the leg. Mota pura. 

puli 1. a cowrie shell; puli 'ehi'e, orange cowrie; 
oa ni puli, a pair of cowries; talai puli, a 
string of cowries for the forehead. 
Samoa, Niue pule, Viti mbuli. 

puli 2. v. i., to crowd, to throng, ha'apuli- 
puli ahu'i, to throng round; ruru puli, 
U., to gather in a crowd, 
pulitaa U., v. n., a crowd, a throng, a mob, 
a company. 

pulo 1. v. i., to turn back, to return, ha'apulo. 
melu pulo i ola, we only reached such- 
and-such a place; pulo sa'asala ana, 
came short of it. failed to reach; 
la'ipulopulo, to come short of. 
pulosi tr., to turn about, to turn over, to 
twist. Wango buro, Florida pulo. 
pulo 2. n., a bowstring, pulo ni pesi. 
puloki (English bullock) susu ni puloki, cow's 

milk. 
pulongo S., v. i., to forget, to be forgetful, 
pulongosi tr. 

pulongota'ini tr., Qaloto. Wango buron- 
gosi. 
pulopulo lo'o pulopulo, specked. 
pulu 1. to be black; pulu nunu'e, stained; h'du 
pulu, volcanic rock; kuka pulu, a mud 
crab; poo pulu, a black pig; rodohono 
pupulu, pitch dark. 
pulu 2. gall, used in witchcraft to cause sleep 
to enemies; dere pulu haahi, to throw 
gall over them. 



pulu 3. pitch, gum, native cement; a nut, saie 
(Parinarium laurinum) is scraped on 
rough coral rock and darkened in color 
by a mixture of charcoal (lo'ilohi) and 
the juice of o'a, the cement hardens 
almost immediately; pulu maai seu, 
circular pieces of shell used in inlaying; 
soo pulu, to gather cement nuts, 
pulu'i v. tr., to calk with native cement. 
Mota pulu, Polynesian pulu. 

Pululaha a district on Little Malaita at the 
west entrance to Mara Masiki Channel. 

pulupulu n., a firefly; it is regarded as the soul 
of a dead person and is killed when it 
comes into a house, maaku e takara 
pulupulu, my eyes saw stars. Wango 
buruburu. 

pulupulu'e adj., black; natives as distinguished 
from white people, mwala pulupulu'e. 

punipuni v. i., to smear the face with juice of 
areca nut when chewing, to smear the 
body with lime, to decorate the body 
with strong-smelling herbs. San Cris- 
toyal bunt, Maori pani, to paint. 

pungu 1. to be deaf; a pungu, the deaf person. 
Wango bungu. 

pungu 2. a bunch; pungui aleale, a bunch of 
dyed aleale tied on a comb for decora- 
tion or hung on the bows of a canoe; 
pungui nume, a cluster of houses; au 
pungu, a large strong bamboo, 
pupungu v. i., to cluster in a bunch, cf. 
hunsu. Florida punguti, to cluster 
round. 

pu'o 1. to be ignorant, to be heathen (late use), 
to have none; 'o manata'inie hoi niu? 
nou pu'o, have you a coconut? I have 
not; tola mala pu'o, to behave like a 
heathen, 
pu'onga v. n., ignorance, heathenism, 
pu'ota'i v. i., to forget; noko pu'ota'i ulo 

'oto, I forget to cry. 
pu'ota'ini tr., to be ignorant of. not to have; 
moro ko Pu'ota'inie erenga ha'iliu, you 
do not know one another's speech. 

pu'o 2. v. i., to return, to come back, ha'apu'o. 

pu'o, pu'opu'o 3. v. i., to revolve, to turn round ; 
h'au pu'opu'o, a grindstone. 
pu'osi, pu'opu'osi tr. 

pupu 1. to rest assured; saeku e pupu 'oto ana, 
I rest assured of it; pupu to'o, to rely; 
used with poss. 3, to rely on. 

pupu 2. ta'ipupu'e, tangled. 

pupu 3. U., hoi pupu, the Southern Cross con- 
stellation. 

pupulu pulu 1; rodohono pupulu, pitch dark; 
'ala pupulu haahi, to surround in a 
dense body, 
pupulue'i v. tr., to darken the mind, to 
vex; e pupulue'ie saena, his mind was 
disturbed. 

pupungula U., adj., marked with a rash. 

pupupu to be whole, intact, safe, i'o pupupu. 
Wango bubu, Florida mabubu. 
pupupu'e adj., whole, entire; hele pupupu'e, 
keep intact. 

pupute S., puputa U., a bundle, a sheaf. 

pura U., pule S., to be drr.psical. 



PURAPURA 



82 



purapura U., si'o purapura, irregularly. 

puri (ku) back of, behind the back, the stern. 
ha'ipuri. e ro ini esi Puri mei, at the 
last came two persons; ape puri, to be 
last, in the rear; 'ato puri, to turn the 
back on; mwaamwaa puri, trepang, 
beche-de-mer; oku i puri, back wall of 
house; po'o puri, in the rear, after; su'e 
puri, to fall backward and break the 
neck; susu puri, last born, youngest 
child; toli puri, to turn the back on, to 
leave; purine, after that: used with 
locative i, behind, at the back of, after, 
at last; Purina lua, U., nape of neck; 
i purine maholo, after the time when; 
i purimu, in your absence; i purine 
m acta, after the death feast; qa'i Purina, 
behind, in the rear; ini (laa) i puri, the 
youngest; isipuri, to be last. Motu 
muri, Maori muri. 

Purihaha a village on the hill at Sa'a. 

purimwane n., the last born, youngest son. 

puri ni 'iola 1. the lee side of an island, lit., the 
stern of a canoe. 

Puri ni 'Iola 2. a district on the west side of 
Little Malaita. 

puru to be close, thick, frequent, hd'ipurunga, 
'apurunge. tnaenga kosi puru, deaths 
are frequent; puru hero, a dish of 
pounded taro with grated coconut 
(hero) on top, a Qaloto dish esteemed 
poor cookery. Florida buru, the Plei- 
ades; burungi, to crowd. 

purupuru'a'a adj., frequent; lae purupuru'a'a, 
to go frequently. 

pusu 1. v. i., to spurt out, to squirt; pusu 'est, 
a whale. 
pusue'ini, pusule'ini, pusuli tr., to splash 
a person, to spurtle on. Florida puhu, 
Mota pupus. 

pusu 2. n., a latrine, mdpusu. 

puta maputaputa, U., bruised. 

pute S., puta U., a bundle, a sheaf; pute ni 'oka, 
a packet of betel leaf. 

puu 1. v. i., to tread, to stamp, to rest, to stand 
firm, to rely on. 
puuli tr., to pounce on, of birds, to strike 
with the talons; puulie maonga, to tread 
the dance; puuli 1 mwakana, to tread 
the earth. Wango buuri. 

puu 2. n., mason bee, wasp. 

pu'u 3. mangrove borer. 

puuhara to stand firm, to get a footing, hala- 
hala. 

puulisi 'uri puulisi, to tread under foot. 

puupuulisi poo a prickly shrub. 

puuto'o, puupuuto'o to rely; used with poss. 3, 
to rely on. mangona e puuto'o dliho'i, 
his breath returned. 



The sound represented by Q is that of pw; 
there is an interchange of q and p in certain 
words, which, however, is not critical of 
dialectic difference between Sa'a and Ulawa, 
qeto, S., peto, U., pongi, S., qongi, U., qale, U., 
Pale, Ulawa-Ngorangora. 



qa'a, qa'aqa'a 1. v. i., to break, to crack, to 

be cracked; 'iola e qa'a 'oto, the canoe 

is wrecked; qa'a morumoru, broken to 

pieces, 
qa'asi tr., S., ddu may be prefixed, ddu 

qa'asi, to break; tere qa'asi, to peck and 

break. 
qa'asilana gerund., the breaking of it. 
qa'ali tr., U., tau may be prefixed. 

ha'aqa'ali. 
qa'ata'ini tr., to break to one's detriment; 

e 'olu 'iola e qa'ata'inieu, three times I 

suffered shipwreck, 
qa'ata v. n., with genitive i; mu qa'atai ola, 

shreds. 
qa'a 2. to rise (of the heavenly bodies); waaro- 

waaro e qa'a 'oto, the moon has risen; 

mai ana waarowaaro e qa'a, ebb tide 

at moonrise; madala e qa'a, the day star 

is risen; qa'aqa'a uweha, U., a phase of 

the moon, 
qa'ali tr., sato e qa'alie hanue, the sun has 

risen on the earth. 
qa'ala-(na) gerund; qa'alana sato, east, 
qa'ahita U., n., a slab; qa'ahita ni 'ei, a slab of 

wood, 
qa'ahulu'e adj., ruffled (of the surface of the 

sea), having goose flesh. Mota ului, 

hair; Maori hum. 
qa'akora (na) the outer skin of the canarium nut. 
qa'alinge n., echo, 'alinge. 
qa'aqa (ku) n., grandmother or grandchild; 

the personal article a may be employed, 

a qa'aqa; ro hii'i qa'aqana, grandmother 

and grandchild, the two between whom 

subsists the relation qa'aqa. 
qa'aqa'a with genitive li; qa'aqa'ali ndho, a 

wave, a breaker, 
qaaqi'a U., adj., stale or brackish (of water); 

tono qaaqi'a, to taste brackish, 
qaaqi'a'a U., adj., mawkish. 
qa'aqito v. i., to sprout, to spring up (of plants). 

pito. 
qa'arakau U., v. i., to break with a loud noise, 

as a bamboo bursting or a gun firing, 
qa'arete n., a blister, hou qa' arete, U. 
qa'arongo, qa'aqa'arongo v. i., to hearken, to 

listen, to pay attention, 
qa'arongonga v. n., listening. 
qa'arongoisuli 1. v. tr., to listen to, to pay 

attention to. 2. n., a listener, a dis- 
ciple; ini qa'arongoisuli e ka'a liuta'ana 

ini ha'ausuli, the disciple is not above 

his master, 
qa'asuulana n., the brink, cliff. 
qa'ateru n., a snail; qa'ateru a '*'**, a very large 

snail, 
qaeqae (ku) n., armpit. San Cristoval qaeqae. 
qa'i 1 . v. tr., to lever, to prize. 2. to stir round, 
qa'i 3. U., negative particle used of indefinite 

time, a short form of qa'ike. sapeku 

e qd'i mware'a, I am not in good health; 

nou qe'i sore, I am unwilling. Wango 

qai, Florida bei. 
qa'i 4. U., to be club-footed. 
qa'i 5. sane qa'i, a termite of a brownish color 

used as burly for the sea-bream. 



83 



QARI 



qS'l ao U., a large hermit crab, ao 2. 

qa'i oku second day after full moon. 

qa'ike U., negative adverb, used also as nega- 
tive particle; probably composed of 
q&'i 3 and ke 1. wa qa'ike, or else, 
otherwise; lehuna qa'ike, not that; nau 
qa'ike loosia, I did not see it; e qa'ike 
munia nga maenga, not unto death. 

qa'ileni S., the seventeenth day of the moon. 
cf. q&'i oku, the sixteenth. 

qa'ilulu v. L, to be dismayed, q&'i 2. saeda 
e qa'ilulu eni me'unge, their hearts were 
dismayed through fear. 

qainaa garden ground near the beach, used for 
planting hana. pdinaa. 

qaito (na) n., a twist made out of a leaf, gener- 
ally a leaf of wild ginger (aro), used as 
a stopper for bamboo water-carriers, a 
cork. 

qake U., negative particle, used of present or 
past time, qa'ike. 

qala v. i., to be empty, to be void of people. 
ha'aqala. hanue e qala, there is no one 
in the village; nume qala, a cicada which 
presages death, lit., empty house. 
qalasi tr., to be left without friends, to be 
alone; e qalasire, there is no one with 
them. Nguna maso qalo, wilderness; 
Wango qara, empty. 

qalaqala mere, empty; for naught, U. lae mola 
qalaqala, to go for nothing, ineffectually; 
moola qalaqala, things empty, valueless. 

qale (Ulawa, Su'uholo dialect) negative par- 
ticle, pale, qake. e qale ola ne'e adea, 
I saw nothing; mwai keni e'asi qale 
wala'awala'a mware'a, what drawling 
women. 

qali, qaliqeli 1. to deceive, to be mistaken; nou 
qeliqelieu, I was mistaken. 

qali 2. U., qali ka'o, a drop left in the bottom. 
pali. 

qali 3. qali ioulou, canoe-shaped drawings used 
in ornamenting la'o, etc. toutou. 

qaloqalo (ku) the right hand; with locative *, 
* qaloqalo, on the right hand (late use) ; 
position is shewn by hao, ta'au, paro, 
lengi, 'ano, etc. ana rao 'iola i qaloqalo, 
on the right side of the ship. 

Qaloto the hill district above Sa'a. M. A., 
p. 50. 

qala dede qalu, an arrow. 

qala v. i., to be with child; qalu huni, to conceive 
by a person. 

qalusu (ku) nose, beak of a bird; qalusu 'upu'e, 
S., a wood-pigeon with large wattles on 
the beak (Carpophaga rufigula) ; au susu 
qelusu, a bamboo nose-stick. Fagani 
burusu, Wango qarisu, Mota ?ngusui, 
lip. M. L. p. 85. 

qaaa 1. n., a pandanus with large leaves which 
are split down to make mats. 2. n., a 
sail; lilt qana, to jibe; hau lili qana, a 
boom. Wango qana. 

qani adv., long ago; precedes the verb; 'oto 
q&ni, formerly; melu qeni lae 'oto mai, 
we came here a long time ago. Fagani 
qani, already; Florida dania. 



qanio, qaniqenio U., v. i., to play, to have a 
game, 
qanionga v. n., a game, play. 

qanu n., a snare, gin; v. tr., to snare. 

qango 1. n., mucus, 'uru qango, S., 'usu qango, 
U., to wipe the nose. 

qango (na, ni) 2. tops of taro used for planting, 
qangoi hui. 

qango 3. U., qangoi sa'o, a measure, from finger 
tips to wrist. 

qango 4. marrow, qango laloi suli. 

qangoqango n., a nose-stick, an ornament of 
clam shell stuck in the nostril, bored at 
the outer end and decorated with por- 
poise teeth. (One is shown in The 
Cruise of the Curacoa, p. 246.) mumua 
qangoqango, U., to apply the teeth 
decoration. 

qao, qaoqao S., 1. v. tr., to do, to do to a person; 
to lay hands on a person, to appoint, to 
ordain (late use); to worship, to prac- 
tice religion, mu ola kire ko qao 'emi 
eni, the things they do to us; muini 
liicta'ana a mwane 'ie e qao'i ne, more 
than those which this man has done; 
qao olanga, n., worship, prayers. 

qao, qaohi 2. tr., to cover, to overlay. 

qaoha n., ridgepole; suli 'ei i qaoha, a ridge- 
pole; susu qaoha, to sew sago leaves for 
a ridge covering. 

qaoha'i v. L, to be capsized, to capsize; melu 
qaoha'i 'oto, we are capsized, 
qaoha 'ini tr., to overturn, to overlay, to 
lay on top; qaoha' inie ka'u haahie, lay 
it over it. 

qaohi n., a bird, the white-breasted fish-hawk. 

qaola'i S., qaola'i walanga, v. n., deceit, lying. 

qaona v. tr., to lay hands on officially, to 
appoint, to ordain (late use), 
qaonanga v. n., qaonanga ani nime, the 
laying on of hands, qao. 

qaonga U., battlefield, cf. paonga. 

qao ola v. i., to do officially, to do sacrifice, to 
worship, to pray; a qaoqao ola, the 
officer, the officiant; qao olanga, v. n., 
worship, prayer. 

qaqa 1. v. L, to lay eggs. 2. female (of animals), 
used to show sex as opposed to mwane, 
male; 'usu qaqa, a bitch, slut; poo qaqa, 
a sow. 

qaqahe U., v. i., to walk about; keni qaqahe, S., 
a harlot. Wango qaqahe uwa, sole of 
the foot. 

qaqahinu U., to have glandular swellings under 
the arms. 

qaqaitengili U., v. i., to be abandoned, left 
desolate of inhabitants. 

Qaqalaha the middle boat-harbor of the three 
between Roasi Bay and Port Adam, 
Little Malaita. 

qaqasu (na) knot on a tree, knot in bamboo. 

qara v. i., to be old, to be past child-bearing 
(of women). 

qarero S., to play, to have games, 
qareronga v. n., play, sport. 

qari 1. n., a small frog. 

qari 2. suli qeri i ngaena, backbone. 



QARO 



8 4 



qaro 1. v. tr., to catch in a noose, to lasso, to 
hitch; met., to kill, qaro haahi, to put 
a hitch on; qaro pa'ewa mala mwai 
matawa, to catch sharks in a noose like 
the Santa Cruz people, M. A., p. 294. 
nga madala mere 'ana'i qaroa adaru'a, 
when the day star rises we shall hitch it 
up for them, i. e„ to kill. 2. n., a noose, 
a hitch, maai qaro. maraau i qaro, 
south-by-east wind. Maori koro. 3. 
qaro haa, an armlet made of haa, hure- 
soso and malo strung in a pattern. 

qaroqaro mwai matawa qaroqaro, the Ulawa 
name for Santa Cruz men. 

qasaora S., n., dust, ashes, ora U. 

qasile S., to run (of mucus in the nose, of water 
in the eyes). 

qaso armlet plaited of dyed cane or grass; qaso 
ni Kela, an armlet of dyed grass from 
the western Solomons received through 
Guadalcanar (Kela) ; ha'u qaso, to weave 
an armlet; use qaso, to plait an armlet; 
lii qaso, to make an armlet of shell 
money. 

qasu, qa'uqesu v. tr., to tie up, to bind, a 
qa'uqesu 'inoni, a policeman. 

qate n., a large frog. 

qa'u (ku) 1. the head, top, chief; hou qa'u, U., 
skull; qa'u 'apula, U., a wounded person, 
lit., bloody head; qa'une hau, the rocks 
on shore as seen from sea; qd'usi henue, 
the head of the community, the person 
whose duty it is to approach the ances- 
tral ghosts; qa'ui i'e, four porpoise 
teeth; qa'uli 'inoni, the name of a cer- 
tain spear; qa'une e lumwe, with long 
hair; qd'ulimaa, door lintel; i Qa'una 
Namo, the north cape of Ulawa; qa'u 
ngudu, blackfish; qd'uku e palapala, my 
hair is gray; qa'u ni sawalo, four flying- 
fox teeth; qa'u teroliu, the second finger; 
qa'u ni tolinge, the chief portion at a 
feast; qd'uni uru, a phase of the moon; 
qa'ui 'usu, four dogs' teeth, a unit in 
counting; qa'u ni wala pe'i, to consult 
with; ihui qe'u, hair of the head; 
Kikiri qe'u, a ghost; maelaa ni qe'u, 
meningitis; 'olo i qe'une, right on the 
head; rd'iqe'u, the top of a house post; 
ruuqe'u, a stump; e leile'inie qa'une, he 
moves his head from side to side; to'o 
qa'u, to carry on the head; uwe qa'u, to 
lift the head; hou mwaretei qa'u, the 
skull; * qe'una 'apa'apana, on his 
shoulder. 

qa'u 2. used as adverb of direction; qa'u mci, 
hither; qa'u wau, U., qa'u paro, qa'u 
niparo, U., over there, beyond; qa'u 
hao, S., qa'u toli, S., going north or west; 
qa'u ta'au, S., qd'i (qa'u i) lengi, U., 
going south or east; qd'i 'ano, U., west; 
qd'i purina, U., behind him; qd'i pari, 
U., in the rear; to'oha'i qe'u ana, to be 
entangled in. Mota qatui, Niue patu, 
chief. 



qa'u 3. v. i., to smoke (of fire); dunge ko qe'u, 
the fire smokes; qa'uli dunge, smoke; 
qd'uli dunge ana, its smoke. 
qa'ula-(na, ni), gerund., qd'ulana'its smoke. 

qa'u 4. garden ground on the hills immediately 
above the beach, the yams grown there 
are tough and are mainly scraped to 
make kara. 

Qa'uli 'Inoni a village of Little Malaita at the 
head of the Walo'a'a River. 

Qa'ulimwaa the west entrance into Mara 
Masiki Channel. 

qa'ulipeni U., the top of the side-wall of a 
house, purlin. 

Qaulipesi, Qa'ulipoo names of two sections of 
the village (poona) at Mwado'a. 

Qa'ulo Bauro, name of the east end of San 
Cristoval, Alosi the west. 

Qa'ulopaine (in M. A., p. 48, wrongly spelled 
Pau-ulo) the ancestor eleven generations 
back of Sinehanue-'ou'ou of Sa'a, who 
died in 1900 and whose son Halutala is 
now chief at Sa'a. The genealogy is 
as follows: Qa'ulopaine begat Taheri- 
'usu-'ou'ou, who begat 'Ou'ou i Kela, 
who begat Sinehanue paine, who begat 
Dorahanue paine, who begat Wate- 
herohero. Wateherohero had only 
daughters and bought (adopted) Dora 
maesingedi, who begat Wate'ou'ou, 
who begat Sinehanue-'ou'ou, who begat 
Dora hoeniseu, who was the father of 
Sinehanue-'ou'ou. Wate'ou'ou also 
begat Halumwane, who begat Wate- 
'ou'ou, who begat Halukeni (female), 
who is now living. Wate'ou'ou also 
adopted Irokalani, who in recent times 
was the head of the heathen party. 
Wateherohero had a daughter Halutoro, 
whose son was Walakulu, who begat 
Soiolo, who begat Halutoro (female), 
who married Taheri'usu; their adopted 
daughter was Uqeho'i, whose daughter 
Halutoro is living. Dora maesingedi 
also begat Lapaite'e, who begat Dora- 
wewe, who begat a daughter Wate- 
'ou'ou keni, now married to P. Marita- 
lalo of Ulawa. For Dorawewe see 
M. A., p. 50; the young chief referred 
to in the note is Sinehanue-'ou'ou. 

qii'ulunge'ini S., v. tr., lio qa'ulunge'ini, to see 
indistinctly, 
qa'ulunge'i partic, indistinct, of irregular 
outline. 

qa'unge n., a generation. Lau gwounge. 

qa'ungudu blackfish. 

qa'uqe'ute fierce black smoke, qa'u 3. 

qa'uroro a knot in a line or rope, hou qa'uroro, 
U. Motu qatua, a knot. 

qa'u suu ngdu qa'u suu, to gorge, to eat till 
the head drops. 
ngdu qe'u suunge n., gluttony. 

qa'uto'u v. i., to incline the head, to bow, to 
duck the head. Wango qoutou. 

qa'uulunge 1. v. i., to pillow; used with poss. 3; 
qd'uulunge ana, to make a pillow of. 



85 



RAATA'I 



qa'uulunge (continued). 

2. n., a pillow, usually a piece of wood. 

3. n., a headland in a yam garden, 
qa'ulunge'ini v. tr., to support as a pillow. 
qe'i du qe'i, a bamboo with close joints. 
qela 1 . a thousand, of coconuts, qela ni niu. 
qela 2. v. i., to place alongside, to lay parallel. 

U., v. tr., to place upon, 
qelaa'ini tr. 
qeli 1. to be raveled. 

qeli qeliqeli 2. v. tr., to deceive, cheat; kie ko 
tale'i qeliqeliki'e mola, we merely deceive 
ourselves, qali 1. 
qelo, qeloqelo v. tr., to betray. 

qelola-(ku) gerund. Florida pero. 
qelu, qeluqelu 1. to roll, to cause to turn over. 
tataqeluqelu. 2. to accuse, to put the 
blame on, to charge with immorality; 
qelu wala ilengine ngaini, to accuse 
anyone; qelu ola, to accuse; qelu olanga, 
accusation, 
qelusi tr. 

qelusila-(ku) gerund. Mota wil, Malay, 
Dyak, Tagalog giling, Viti wiri. 
qera to be in flood, to be in abundance, gener- 
ally of flood waters; kone e qera, much 
flood waters; lue qera, spring tide, 
qeraqeraha v. n., used with poss. 3; qera- 
qeraha ana mu 'inoni, exceeding many 
people. 
qeru U., n., lip; qeru 'upu, to hate, lit., swollen 
lip, stuck out lip; Ho qeru 'upu, lio qeru 
ngudu, to grudge, to hate, 
qeruqeru U., n., lip. 
qesa'a S., adj., wet, damp. 
qeto to be feeble, weak, cowardly. 

qetola-(na, ni) U., gerund.; qetolana dangi, a 

wind decreased in force, gone down, 
qetoha S., v. n., used with poss. 3; qeto- 
haana dangi, a wind decreased in force. 
qetonga v. n., weakness, cowardice, 
qetosi tr., to be unable to do through weak- 
ness. Florida beto, still, calm. 
qe'u 1. to be foolish, ha'aqe'u. 

qe'unge v. n., foolishness; wai ni qe'unge, 
strong drink (late use). Wango qeu, 
Mota qure. 
qe'u 2. to be deaf and dumb; a qe'u, the deaf 

mute; qe'u ereere, dumb. 
qe'u 3. nunuhe'i qe'u, to enter, to be entangled 

in. qa'u 1. 
qe'uqe'u'a'a adj., foolish, silly. 

qe'uqe'u'a'anga v. n., foolishness; wai ni 
qe'uqe'u'a'anga, strong drink. 
qi'e S., qi'a U., to be in good health, to be fat, 
chubby; qi'e aliho'i, to recover soundness 
of health. Nguna qia, well, good; 
Mota wia, good; New Guinea, bie. 
qi'eqi'ala adj., fat, whole, healthy, 
qiiqii S., n., mud, slush. 

qiiqii'e adj., muddy, slushy. 
qilo'a adj., springy, pliable, 
qini'a U., adj., wet, damp, ha'aqini. maraau 
wei qini, east-by-north wind (brings 
rain). Lau givini. 
qire n., a stalk of bamboo, nga qire, qirei eu. 
qiruu U., piruu, S., one qirau, black sand. 



qisi v. i., to spurt, to splash. 

qisihi U., qisili S., tr., to splash a person. 
Samoa pisi, Motu pisili. 

qito S., pito U., to sprout, to shoot, to begin to 
grow; hohola e qito, the yams have 
sprouted. 2. n., a growing coconut, 
hoi qito. 3. n., a sprout; qilona, its 
sprout. Wango qito. 

qole U., pole S., to dream, ma'ahu qole. nau 
ma'ahu qolea, I dreamed it; ma'ahu 
qolenga, v. n., a dream. Mota qore, 
Florida maturu bole, to dream. 

qongi, qongiqongi U., pongi S. 1. v. tr., to 
promise, rodi qongi, to plight troth. 

qongi (ku) S. 2. n., a season, time, i qongina 
a ola, in So-and-so's day; ana qongine, 
in its season; hauliqongi, one day of a 
series; 'o holo onu'e qongiku hao, thou 
hast cut short my time; qongi ko sisiho 
'oto, the time is at hand; e hute talahie 
qongine, born out of due time, pongi 2. 

qooqoota S., foundation, poopoota. qooqoota 
ani nume, foundations of the house. 

qote (ku). U., pote S., n., buttock. 

qo'uru'uru U., po'uru'uru S., to kneel, 
qo'uru'urunga v. n., kneeling. 



ra 1. suffixed pron., plural 3, used of persons 

only; attached as object to verbs and 

prepositions; in Sa'a when ra is used of 

a body of people or a company, and i or 

u precedes, the a of ra does not change 

into e, hahird diana, on the good. 

Mota ra 2. 
ra' 2. forms part of rdru'e, raru'i, ra'elu, etc. 
raa, raaraa 1. v. i., to shine brightly, ha'araa. 

nemo raaraa, S., sun and rain, a sun 

shower. 
raahi tr., to scorch (of the sun). 
raangi tr., to shine on, to give light to, to 

enlighten. 2. n., the sun's light, 

radiance, bright light; dunge ni raa, a 

burning-glass; suuhai raa, drought. 

Wango raraha, Florida raraha, Maori ra, 

the sun. 
raa 3. the name of a month, January. 
Raa 4. a rock near Arona, southeast cape of 

Ulawa. cf. hau maelo. 
raapea a needle made of the midrib of the sago 

leaf {mudi sa'o). 
raaraa n., sunlight, radiance, brilliancy; raaraa 

ani meurihe, the light of life. 
ra'aranga-(ku) n., 1. the light of the sun, light; 

ra'arangaku, my light, met., glory; 

ra'arangana sato, light of the sun. 

2. ma'ute'i ra'arangana, to be in awe of 

it. ranga, cf. rara. 
ra'aranga 3. because of, on account of; used 

with poss. 3. 
ra'aranga'a adj., lightened by the rays of the 

sun; used of dazzling light, 
ra'arara U., adj., nimo ra'arara, sun and rain. 

rara. 
raata'i partic, regularly, frequently; 'emi ka'a 

are'o raata'i, we do not call upon thee 

regularly. 



RADE 



86 



rade n., a reed, maai rade. Florida ade. 
radu 1. v. i., to break up; radu mo'umo'usie tnu 

'i'eli, break the ropes in pieces. 
radu 2. U., v. tr., huru raduau, to run stretching 

out the body. 
rae 1. n., a corpse; used in Sa'a with poss. 3; 
rae ana a ola, the corpse of So-and-so; 
in Ulawa with suffixed pronoun na, 
raena, his corpse. In M. A., p. 260, the 
spelling is wrongly given as ra'e. kulu 
rae, to bury at sea; lango rae, a blue- 
bottle fly; i'o pe'i rae, S., the mourning 
before burial. M. A., pp. 261, 262. 
ra'e 2. n., a palm used for making spears; ra'e 
ni lolo, a spear with grass plaiting, made 
on Big Malaita near Waisisi. 
ra'elu suff. pron., plural 3; attached to verbs 

and prepositions as object. 
ra'era'e carefully, thoroughly. 
raha adj., big; not in common use. laha. 
Oa Raha, Santa Anna Island at south 
end of San Cristoval; pangupangu raha, 
U., big, huge; a Poro Hanua Raha, U., 
name of a ghost, Mr. Big-land. Florida 
haba, Borneo raya. 
raharaha 'apu raharaha, an issue of blood. 
rahe v. i., to be weary from work, to work hard, 
to work to no effect, 
rahenga v. n., hard work, weariness of body. 
San Cristoval rafe. 
rahito'u v. i., to be downcast (of eyes), to'u. 
raho n., layers of thatch made of sago leaf 
sewn on bamboo laths with walewale; 
siki raho, a beetle, held upside down 
against a strip of sa'o leaf, 
rahoraho (ku) IL, and Qaloto, n., sides, ribs 

(of persons). Wango ragaraga. 
rai 1 . contraction of rau i. 
rai 2. to clear undergrowth with intent to make 
a garden, 
raingi tr. 

raite'ini tr., to clear the undergrowth away 
from a thing, 
ra'i 3. v. tr., to adopt a child, to keep a tame 
animal, to keep a turtle in a bowl, to 
nourish; honu kira ra'ia, the turtle they 
kept; a Warahunuka ra'i i'a, a legendary 
person. 
ra'inge v. n., an orphan, an adopted child. 
ra'ila-(ku) gerund. 
r8'i 4. r&'i seu, a platform on the beach used in 

connection with bonito (sou). 
ra'i 5. verbal suffix used intransitively. 

taherd'i, taraure'i. 
ra'iqe'u n., the top of a pillar or house post 
cut into a hollow to hold the ridgepole, 
raimaa to cut and disfigure the face in 

mourning, 
ra'ini verbal suffix used transitively, tarau- 

re'ini. 
ra'irehi to be under the lee, sheltered; i'o 
rd'irehi, to stay sheltered. Florida 
rahi, hidden, 
ra'irehi'e adj., sheltered, 
ra'isinge n. weapons, tackle, mu re'isinge. 
raka U., v. i., excessive, dunga e raha, too 
big a fire; mwoi keni ana dunga rakanga, 



raka (continued). 

women who make too big fires; e paina 
raka, excessively big; uwe raka, to break 
with a loud noise. Wango rakahi, 
excessive. 

rakahi v. tr., to cause to melt (of fire), to heat 
and soften. 

rakapau v. i., to defend, to protect; used with 
poss. 3 and with preposition haahi. 
P'du 2. 

rakerake U., n., a rib of the body. 

raki v. i., to catch with tongs, 
rakisi tr. 
ireki n., tongs. 

rako 1. v. i., to give a sensation to; used with 
poss. 3. e rako diana, it causes a 
pleasant sensation, it is pleasant; rako 
'aela, rako ta'a, to be unpleasant, irk- 
some; e rako 'aela aku, it goes against 
my grain; rako 'aelanga, n., trouble, 
feeling of unpleasantness. 

rako 2. v. i., to be quiet, gentle, docile, easily 
entreated, ha'arako. manatana e rako, 
he is gentle in disposition; dau rako, to 
keep quiet; toli rako, to be patient, 
enduring. 
rakonga v. n., gentleness; sae rakonga, 
gentleness, docility of temper; toli 
rakonga, patience. 

rako 3. adv., gently, lae molai rako, go gently. 

rakoma'i S., partic, longitudinally. 

rakoma'ini S., lakoma'ini U., to place longi- 
tudinally upon, to affix; lupu rako- 
ma'ini, to nail upon, to crucify. 
rakoma'i U., v. tr., wala'a rakoma'ia ta'ane 
tolaha, to make advances in word. 

raku n., a canoe holding four men, 'iola raku. 

rakuhe (na) n., fat, caul fat; rakuhana poo, lard. 

rama, ramarama n., flotsam, floating matter 
collected in a tide-rip. 

Ramarama the village in the south end of Port 
Adam, Malaita. 

rame n., the edible catkins of the male su'e tree. 

ramo 1. v. i., to be strong, to be renowned in 
fighting, to be a champion; ramo suusuu, 
to be strong forever. 2. n., a champion, 
a fighting man; ko lae ni ramo, goes in 
his might. 
ramonga v. n., strength of body, prowess; 
dau ramonga ana ngaini, to treat any 
one with violence, 
ramoha S., v. n., strength; used with poss. 3 

ana. ramohaana ddngi, a gale. 
ramola-(na) gerund., used in Ulawa as 

ramoha. 
ramo'i tr., to force, to apply violence to. 
ramoramo'a adj., mightily; dau ramo- 
ramo'a, to force, to compel, to do 
violence; used with poss. 3. 
ramoramo'anga n., asu ramoramo'anga, 
mighty work. 

ranga v. i., to rise (of the moon), ra'aranga 1. 
ranga'a adj., risen; waarowaaro e ranga'a, 
the moon is up. 

rangariro'a S., adj., sparkling, cf. nangaliro'a. 

rangasi ha'arangasi, v. tr., to blow out, to 
distend. 



87 



RARATA 



rango 1. v. i., to be withered, dry, ripe (of 
yams when the vine withers). 2. n., 
mwai rango ni 'ei, dead trees; the mark 
of a garden, the larger trees were not 
felled but were killed by fire, 
rarango n., S., a dead bough, a spike, a 

horn (late use). 
rangorango U., as rarango. Wango rango- 
rango. 

rao 1. (na, ni) n., side (of things); ana rao 'tola 
i qaloqalo, on the right side of the ship; 
i raona wai, U., by the side of the stream. 

rao, rarao 2. v. i., to be stuck, to cling to; used 

\vithposs3. ha'ararao. nimekue rarao 

'oto ana, my hand clung fast to it. i'o 

rarao, to be fast, stuck tight, firm. 

raohi tr., to cling to, to adhere. 

raoha'ini tr., to place in conjunction with, 

to attach. 
raoha'i partic, in conjunction with, joined to. 

rao 3. exclam., 'ohe rao, used of matters of 
uncertainty when unwilling to commit 
oneself to a positive statement; rao kire 
sa'a sili 'oto, they certainly shall not 
enter. The demonstrative na is added 
in questioning, raona, is it not so? 
hat raona, S., hat raoni, U., expresses 
disapprobation; well I never. 

raomae, raraomae S., to act craftily. 
raomaenga v. n., craftiness, wiles. 

raori'i n., a virgin, male or female; keni raori'i, 
a virgin; maholo ni raori'i, time of 
virginity. 

rape kiukiu rape, a wagtail, hi'uhi'u kape. 

rape'i, raperape'i U., to stake, to prop, to 
strengthen, 
rape'ita (ku) n., a prop, a being strength- 
ened; rape'itana, to strengthen it. 
cf. sape'i. 

raporapo n., cross sticks, generally of waowao 
on a platform (take). 

rapu, ra'urepu S., rapurapu U., v. i., to strike, 
to hit, to tattoo, rapu kaule, to tattoo 
the frigate-bird on the cheek; rapu 
lakoma'i pe'i po'upo'u, to crucify; e rapu 
ngurusie nihona, knocked his teeth out. 
rapusi tr. 
rapute'ini tr., to collide with; e rdpute'inie 

totohota, he laid the measure along, 
rapute'i partic. qa'une e rapute'i i 'ano, 
his head bumped on the ground; 
e rapute'i salo molemole, a red sky. 
rapusila-(ku) gerund. Florida labu, Bou- 
gainville Straits lapu. 

Rapuanate a legendary hero of the Three 
Sisters Islands; his thigh bone is cur- 
rently reported to be in some place on 
Malau Paina. 

raqa U., v. i., to be deceitful, kururaqa. 
siho raqa ana, to exaggerate, 
raqatanga v. n. (double noun ending), 
deceit. 

raqasi S., temporarily; i'o raqasi, to sojourn; 
ma'ohi raqasi, to await. 

raqaraqa'a U., temporarily. 

rara, ra'arara 1. v. i., to be hot, pungent (of 
condiments) ; with preposition haahi, to 



rara 1 (continued). 

be zealous, to guard, to exercise super- 
vision over, to be jealous; used with 
poss. 3, to be greedy, to look after one's 
own ends. hS'irara. e rara mea, it 
burnt the tongue, met., it was unpleas- 
ant, it was hot (of words of rebuke); 
sato e rara mea, the sun shone with 
scorching heat; meaku e rara, my tongue 
is parched; me'i sae e rara, earnestness; 
rara haahie lolata inge'ie, guards his 
house; e rara ana, he looks after his 
own; i sapena i Ulawa e rara, apos- 
trophe addressed to Ulawa. cf. ha'addhi. 
Wango rara, Viti rara, powerful. 

rara 2. v. L, to be shriveled up, withered, ripe, 
parched (of trees and gardens); rara 
moumou, ripe and falling to pieces; 
m&i rara, dead low water at spring tides. 

rara 3. of days of the moon; rara talau, S., 
twenty-first and twenty-second days. 

rara 4. the coral tree (Erythrina indica) ; winter, 
the time of flowering of this tree; * 
Melutei Rara, name of a village on 
Ugi (lit., in the shade of the coral tree). 

rara 5. takarara, come undone. 

rarada U. 1. v. L, to come to land, to ground; 
hoi i'a e lae mat i rarada i saini one, the 
fish came and grounded on the beach. 

rarada 2. sae rarada, indignation. 

rarada 3. ha'ararada, v. tr., to broil, to fry 
(late use). 

raradi'e S., ere raradi'e, correction. 

raradu v. i., to stretch the arms. 

rarahi 1. v. tr., to importune, to urge, with 
dau, S., t'au, U., e tan rarahira. 

rarahi 2. du rarahi, the third finger. 

rara'i 1. U., v., to be rippled, of the surface of 
the sea. 

rara'i 2. U., to be beautiful. 

raramaa v. i., to reprove openly, to be insolent, 
wilful, barefaced; ere raramaa, insolent 
speech, 
raramaanga v. n., open rebuke, insolence; 
raramaanga ana i'onga tata'ala, rebuke 
for lasciviousness; i'o raramaanga, las- 
civiousness. Wango raramaa. 

raramea v. i., to be hot, scorching; sato e rara- 
mea, the sun is burning hot. 

raranga n., the spine of the sea-urchin. 

raranga'a adj., open, exposed to the sun, of 
situation. 

rarangana noko me'ute'i rarangana, I am afraid 
of it. 

rarango cf. rango. 

rarangi, rararangi 1. v. i., to warm oneself at a 
fire; e 'ure'ure ko rarangi, he stood 
warming himself. Mota rara 2, Poly- 
nesian rara. 

rarangi 2. v. tr., to be close to, to surround. 

rarapuupuu frequently, often. 

Rararo Cape Hartig, Little Malaita, west of 
Cape Zelee. 

rarasi 1. v. i., to be shriveled, withering, 
palsied. 2. U., a phase of the moon, the 
last quarter. 

rarata n., a skull. 



RARE 



88 



rare 1. a sleeping- mat plaited of coconut leaves; 
hd'u rare, poe rare, to plait such a mat. 
2. v. tr., to singe a pig with dry coconut 
leaves; an ordeal wherein the accused 
standing on a platform is singed with 
dry coconut leaf. M. A., p. 212. 

rareta'ini, ra'erareta'ini v. tr., to tend, to care 
for, to do chores, 
rareta'i v. tr. hd'irareta'i. 
rareta'inila-(ku) gerund. 

raro 1. S., adv., precedes the verb, used of con- 
secutive action; then, consequent upon, 
constantly, ko raro ma'ohie kd'u, they 
are still awaiting it. 

raro 2. U., tnwai lehu raro, open places, glades. 

raro 3. raro suue'i, to turn a bag inside out. 

raroni v. tr., to hurt, to do harm to; e sa'a 
raronie auhenue inge'ie, he will do no 
evil to his neighbor. 

raru'e S., raru'i U., pers. pron., dual. 3, suffixed 
to verbs and prepositions as object. 

rata a bamboo water-carrier; te'i rata, to fill a 
bamboo with water. San Cristoval 
rata. 

ratawaari U., half and half, neither one thing 
nor the other. 

rate ta'atakai rate, takalakai rate, down (of 
nestlings) . 

rato 1. v. i., to be full grown, of full age. 2. n., 
a full-grown person, an elder; mu rato 
ni mwane, old men; mu rato ni keni, old 
women; nani rato, for the elders. 
ratonga v. n., full growth. 

rau 1. n., a leaf used as a wrapper for food to 
be cooked; mwarau, thin; 'apai reu, a 
leaf; mu 'apai reu ana mu dango, the 
leaves of the trees; a Lulu reu, a proper 
name (lit., folder of leaves). Mota 
nau, Polynesian rau. 

rau 2. S. (na, ni), bank, side, of things; with 
locative i beside, ro raui wei, the two 
banks of the stream; i reune wdi, beside 
the stream. Wango rau, Florida lau. 

r8u 3. n., a plank; used with genitive i. rdureu. 
rdi hapa, a thwart; rdi dango, S., rdi 'ei, 
U., a plank; rdi hisi, a stake. 

r5u 4. v. tr., to scrape up, to gather up with 
the hand. Mota rau. 

rau 5. v. i., to heal over (of a wound). 6. n., a 
scab over a wound, a scar. 

rBu 7. v. i., to adhere, to abide; rau mehu, to 
abide. 
raungi tr., to adhere to, to abide in. 
rauhe'ini tr., to be constantly in a place, 
rausi tr., to adhere to and spoil; e ka'a me'i 

ola ke rdusie, pure, undented, 
rauhe'i v. i., to frequent; e tale'i reuhe'i 'oto 
ana, he frequented it. 

r3u 8. v. i., to be humble, lowly; me'i keni reu 
a lowly woman. 
raute'i partic, humble, i'o rdute'i. 

rau 9. raui helu, 10,000 coconuts, cf. 'apai niu. 

Rauehu the pinnacle rock at the east entrance 
to Mara Masiki Channel. 

rauka n., trigger of a gun (English lock). 

ra'urepu 1. jellyfish, Portuguese man-o'-war. 
rdpu. 2. a whip. 



raururu to abide constantly, rau 7. Wedau 
rau numa, to cohabit. 

re cf. rd 1. 

re'a adj., white, rere'a, marare'a, rere, 
huhurere'a. Viti rea, albino. 

reke v. L, to jump, to leap, ha'areke, ha'arekehi. 

reko esculent hibiscus. 

renga'a adj., glistening. 

reoreo the chambered nautilus, hoi reoreo; 
pieces of the shell cut in various patterns 
are used for inlaying, reoreo alaha, a 
large variety of nautilus; kola reoreo, 
kala kite, kala 'apani pa'aleo, to cut 
nautilus shell for inlaying; toli reoreo, to 
inlay with nautilus. 

repa, rerepa v. i., to be elliptical in shape, said 
of the shinbone, which is often distorted, 
owing to rheumatism, 
reparepata'a U., rounded in shape. 

repi n., a harlot, ha'arepi. Florida rebi. 

repo 1. v. i., to be ripe, full grown; aau kosi 
repo, the nuts are just ripening; aau e 
repo kosi holaa, when the nuts are ripe 
the weather is calm. 2. a fully grown 
person, repo ni mwane, an adult man; 
repo ni keni, an adult woman; poro repo, 
used of a person in authority. 
reponga v. n., full age. 
repoha v. n., used with poss. 3: repohaana, 

ripeness, old age. 
'ai repo a tree used to make pestles for 
pounding yams and taro. 

repo 3. v. tr., to suspend, to hang up (of things). 

rere 1. v. tr., to sharpen by rubbing, ha'arere. 
rere hdu, to sharpen an axe; rere hdunge, 
axe-sharpening. 
rere'a adj., white, clean, sharpened; prob- 
ably connected with rere. cf. re'a, 
M. L., p. 97, re'are'a does not appear; 
in Viti rea albino the final o is probably 
adjectival. 

rere 2. quicksands; * rere, the beach at A'ulu. 
saisai rere, a shoal, bank, at sea. 

rere'a adj., clean, white, ha'arere' a. 

rerede 1. v. tr., to slip, to slide. 2. U., a land- 
slip. 

rereha (na) U., rerehana wdieu, a school of 
bonito. 

rerepata'a S., adj., rounded in shape. 

rerepono v. i„ to be thick, closely matted, of 
bush. pono. 

rereqeluqelu U-, v. i., to be laid low, recum- 
bent, qelu. 

rete rete hdu, to gnash, to grind the teeth; rete 
hdunge, gnashing of teeth, nunurete. 

reu cf. rau. 

ri U., li S., verbal suffix, ha'atauri. 

ride U., ride ni 'inoni, a dwarf. 

rienga hd'irienga, v. n., a contest. 

rihu'e n., a cliff. Wango rihua. 

rihunge'ini v. tr., to pray to (a Wango word 
introduced in early days), 
rihunge'inge v. n., prayer. Florida liu- 
livuti. 

ri'i the treble drum in the para ni 'o'o. 

riirii 1. n., locust, cicada, its shrilling is taken 
as a bad omen. 



8 9 



RORO'A 



ri'iri'i (ku) 2. S., n., finger. 3. ri'iri'i ni 'inoni 
(a) a dwarf, (b) a great number of men. 
4. 'o'i ri'iri'i, v. tr., to break in pieces; 
'oke 'o'i ri'iri'ire, thou shalt break them 
in pieces. Vaturanga ririki, Florida 
nggiringgiri, Makura wiri-kikin, hand. 

rike, rikerike S., v. i., to rejoice, ritke U. 
rikanga v. n., sae rikanga, rejoicings of 
heart. Viti rika, to jump. 

riki 1. adj., small; Oa Riki, Little Oa Island. 

riki U. 2. liki S., riki huna, to loosen the bands 
holding a canoe, to take up anchor. 

Ripoo, Ripu, Rupoo S., a village on the west 
coast of Ulawa: Maadi'a, its landing- 
place. 

riridi (na) eaves of house; riridine nume, i riri- 
dine, under the eaves. 

ririholo U., a gap in the hills, a pass. 

riro ha'ariro, v. tr., to entice with food. 

ro numeral, two; used only in composition; 
used also in exclamation of a large num- 
ber; forms part of the pers. pron. moro, 
koro. e ro ola, two things; e ro 'ata, 
only two things; e ro ini, two things; ro 
ola, vocative, you two, of husband and 
wife; ro ntwane, you two, exclamation of 
surprise or vocative; ro mwane, the two 
pointers of the Southern Cross, M. A., 
p. 349; ro 'inoni, you two, of husband 
and wife; ro 'inoni ineu, my parents; ro 
ha'i ma'amana, ro ma'amana, father and 
son; maraau ro one, east-northeast wind. 

roa n., black-lip pearl shell used as a coconut 
scraper; it forms part of a man's ordi- 
nary baggage. 

roaroa windmill made of coconut leaf, a child's 
plaything. Hedley, Funafuti Exped., p. 
3°4. 

rodi v. tr., to confirm, to make firm, to grip; 
hele rodi, to grip, to hold tight; rodi 
qongi, to plight troth. 

rodo 1. n., night, ha'arodo, ha'irodo. i rodo, 

at night, by night; laelae i rodo, to go 

till nightfall; nga rodo, last night; si'iri 

i rodo, tonight. 2. v., redup., rorodo; 

e rodo 'oto, it is night; nga rodo e rodo, 

the night fell; ha'irodo e rodo, last night; 

maa rodo, to be blind. 3. to forget; 

sae rorodo, U., v. tr., to forget. 

rodosi v. tr., to be benighted, e rodosi'emelu. 

rodoma'ini S., rodoha'ini tr., to be benighted. 

rodoma'i, rodoha'i partic, till nightfall; lae 

rodoma'i, go till nightfall. Florida 

rorodo, blind; Omba dodo, cloud; mata- 

dodo, blind; Malo, N. H., bong dodo, 

night; Wango rodo, night. 

rodo 4. S., the name of a month, 'asi rodo, 

February, 
rodohono 1. v. i., to become dark, to be pitch 
dark. hono. e rodohono pupulu, mid- 
night, pitch dark; saeku e rodohono, I 
lost consciousness. 2. n., darkness, of 
day or night; me'i rodohono. 
rohu, ro'urohu v. i., to be silent, to cease 
speaking; toll rohu, to cease speaking, 
rohute'ini tr., to ignore, to hold one's 
peace at; mwane 'o ro'tirohule'inie ngar- 
alaku, hold not thy peace at my tears. 



roka, 'aroka adj., open, set open wide. 

rokasi v. tr., to open, to open out, to unfold. 

rokasila-(na) gerund. 

rokata'i partic, open, unfolded. 

roma 1. an oyster shell found in Mara Masiki 
Channel, the red part at the base is 
employed in the making of shell money 
(Jhaa). 

roma 2. v. i., to poison fish with Barringtonia, 
etc. 

rongo, rorongo S., rongorongo U., v. tr., to 
hear, to listen, to hear tidings of. 
ha'arongo, qa'arongo. ka'a rongo lele- 
ngani, not hearing clearly; e rongo 'oto 
mola ana walana, listened to his word; 
nou rongoa, I heard it; rongo 'aela, U., to 
make a din, to chatter and disturb; 
rongo keni, to inquire about a girl as a 
wife for a boy, to betroth; rongo 
keninge, v. n. i'ota'i rongo keninga, to 
set about a betrothal; rongo ni 'elinge, 
to hear with the ear; rongo odoodo, U., 
with poss. 3., to hear tidings of; rongo 
isuli, to be obedient to; qa'arongoisuli. 
rongonga v. n., hearing. 
rongola-(ku) gerund. Mota rongo, to 
apprehend; Maori rongo, to hear; Lau 
ro, to hear. 

rongorongo U. 1. n., a measure, from the finger- 
tips to the right ear. U. 2. n., nga rongo- 
rongo ni ola, a multitude of things. 

ro'o U., ro'o rua, to wind a fishing-line on a 
board. 

rorahi v. tr., to hasten a person unduly, to be 
too soon for. rorora. 
rorahila-(ku) gerund. 

rori 1. v. tr., to ram, to load a gun. 2. n., a 
ramrod. 

rori 3. v. tr., to take the pith from laths of 
palm wood, rori pi'e. 

rori, ro'irori 4. v. i., to babble, to prattle. 
kirori, hirori, 'irori. 

roro 1. v. L, to be tied tightly, to incur a debt, 
to render oneself liable; roro mae, to 
strangle; roro to'oni, a belt to hold up 
clothes. 
roro'i tr., to tie tightly, to draw tight, to 
brace, to hold tight; pili roro'i, to press 
down tight, 
roroa'i tr., to have incurred a debt, to 
involve oneself, to be placed in invid- 
ious case, ha'aroroa'i. 

roro (ku) 2. bosom, the belly of a snake; i rorona 
Abraham, on Abraham's bosom, 
roroma'i roroma'i sae, used with poss. 3 and 
locative i; i roroma'i sae ana, on his 
bosom. Mota rorot, to carry on the 
bosom. 

roro 3. roro waaro, to be diffused (of coloring 
matter in water), waaro. 

roro'a 1. adj., set on edge (of teeth). 

roro'a 2. adj., liable, at fault, ha'aroro'a'i. 
e sa'a roro'a, there will be no fault; all 
right; muel roro'a, we implicated our- 
selves, 
roro'anga n., debt, fault. 
roro'a 3. adv., precedes verb, nou sa'a roroa' 



RORO'A 



90 



roro'a 3 (continued). 

lae, I shall certainly not go; ana 'olo 'emi 
ka'a roro'a hd'italea 'amu, unless we 
seek it of thee. 

rorodara n., a fillet, band around the head, 
crown (late use) . dara. 

rorodo 1. to be lowering (of clouds). 2. n., a 
black cloud; hele rorodo, to keep off the 
clouds by magic, to provide fine weather. 
3. U., sae rorodo, to forget. 

rorodo'a 1. belonging to darkness, cloudy; mu 
palonga rorodo'a, deeds of darkness. 
2. U., a dark cloud, masi rorodo'a. 

roroho hdu roroho, a stone axe. Wango roroho. 

rorora hastily, in a hurry, rorahi. lae rorora, 
to go in a hurry; kire tola rorora ana 
tahinge, they fled precipitately. 

rotani U., v. tr., to rub in the hands. 
rotanila-(na) gerund. 

rotarota'i U., v., to shuffle the feet. 

roto 1. to cut into lengths (of wood) ; roro dango, 
to cut up firewood. 2. n., a piece, a 
part; nga roto, a part, partly. 
roto'i tr. 

roto 3. walo roto, the match-box bean, Queens- 
land bean. 

rotoa'ini tr., to rub out seed with the hands. 
Wango roto. 

rou 1. v. i., to hum native songs, singing in a 
monotone. Mota raw. 

rou 2. a large leaf (Heliconium sp.), used to 
wrap up for food for cooking; do rou, to 
gather leaves for use in cooking. Viti 
rourou, taro leaves cooked. 

ru variant of ro, two; cf. proper names, Rupoo, 
Ru'apu; added to personal pronouns, 
dual, kireru'e, 'omoru'e, raru'i. lu; ru 
poo 'emi ngeu, we had two pigs to eat. 

ruana second, the second time, anew; 'oto 
ruana 'est teuri, then the second time 
he said; ruana ke'i orea, the other shall 
be left. 

rue S., rua U., numeral, two; used with 'e, 'e rue; 
reduplicated ruerue. 'ala ruerue, two- 
edged. Mota nirua, Motu rua, Poly- 
nesian rua. 

ruerua'a adj., doubting, sae ruerua'a, doubt- 
ful mind; sae ruerua'anga, doubt, 
double-mindedness; saeku e ruerua'a 
suu'i'omu, I am in doubt concerning you. 

ruke, rukeruke v. i., to be joyful; more com- 
mon in Ulawa. rike, 
rukenga U., rukanga S., v. n., joy, glee. 

rumu (na, ni) n., oil, grease; rumu ni su, oint- 
ment; rumunue maa, eye salve. Wango 
rumu, Viti lumu, oil. 

rumu'e S.. rumu'a U., adj., oily, greasy. 

ruru, rururu to gather together, to collect, to 
enroll, ha'aruru, ha'iruru. ruru dunge, 
to build a fire, to gather the sticks 
together; ruru puli, ruru ha'apuli, U., to 
throng; ruru wala, to make an agreement. 
rurunge v. n., a gathering together. 
ruruhi tr., to throng, to press upon, 
ruruhe'ini tr., to gather together, 
rurute'i partic, gathered together. Wango 
ruru, Maori ruru, to draw together. 



ruru 2. U., ruru kore, landslip, avalanche. 

ruru'e S., ruru'e hule, a phase of the moon. 

ruruha U., n., a company, ruru. Wango 
ruruha. 

ru'u v. i., to draw back, to retire; ko ru'u i 
nume, retires into the house, 
ru'usi v. L, to shrink, to shrivel, to con- 
tract, to slough. Lau ruu, enter; 
Wedau ruui, enter; Florida rugu, Mota 
luk, to bend; Viti luku, to clench the 
hand. 

ruuqe'u U., uruqe'u S., a stump, ruuqe'u ni 'ei. 



saa- (ku) 1. S., noun used as preposition; at the 
house of, with, to (of motion to), to 
(of offering or sacrifice to) ; in the singu- 
lar used in third person only, in other 
persons singular sie- is used; the locative 
i may be prefixed, lae ka'u saana, go 
to him, go to his house; inge'ie saada'elu, 
he is at home; uunu ola saana mu 'akalo, 
offer burnt offerings to the ghosts; loho 
i saana, flew to him; mdurihe e rdu 
saana nume 'ie, salvation has come to 
this house. 

sa'a 2. S., negative particle used of future time, 
also as dehortative; sa'a balanced by 
wa is used as the negative correlatives 
neither-nor; probably sa'a is compound- 
ed of sa and 'a 4. cf. ka'a. nou sa'a 
lae, I shall not go; 'o sa'a lae, you shall 
not go; hole sa'a kole wa nga me'i ola 
'erete'a ke'i i'o i sapeka, the paddles 
must not rattle nor anything of light 
color be about our bodies; ngaini sa'a 
liu ha'ahireru'e, none shall pass in front 
of them; sae sa'a makolo wa ke mou, 
thoughts shall not be parted and shall 
not cease. Espiritu Santo sa, negative 
particle; Bugotu sa; Viti sa, future 
particle. 

Sa'a 3. the last village on the southeast coast 
of Little Malaita three miles from Cape, 
Zelee. i Sa'a ni menu, cf. ha'addhi. 
M. A., p. 48. 

saai, saasaai S., v. tr., to know, to read, saai 
bukanga, reading; saai ola, to know 
things, to be wise; saai olanga, wisdom; 
saai 'ulu, to repeat by heart; atei ke saai 
suuheni, who can enumerate? le'u nou 
saaie nou saaie, what I know I know; 
lio saai, to perceive; 'oke saaiaa mwane 
waune, say that person's name. 

saanau n., a young unmarried man, a youth, a 
widower, 
saanauha (ku) youth; in sing. 3 the poss 3 
ana is used: saanauhaana, its youth, his 
youth, youthfulness. 

sa'asala to be clear, without support, not 
touching the ground, sala 3. pulo 
sa'asala, to turn back before reaching. 

sada S. 1. v. i., to be fitting, proportionate to; 
used with poss. 3. U., dada, ha'asada, 
ha'isada. e sada amelu, fit for them; 
sada pe'ini, equal, equivalent to. 2. level. 



9i 



SAISESU 



sada (continued). 

flat, mu le'u e lai sada, flat places; ape 
sada, to be level; kele rnanu sada, to hold 
level, upright. Wango taisada. 
sadanga S., v. n., fitting, proportionate, e 

sadanga ana. 
sae (ku) 1. n., heart, mind, chest, liver: mwai 
mesi sae, hearts, cf. lodosae, ne'isae, 
'onisae. sae esoeso, to have indigna- 
tion; sae hanalinge, covetousness; sae 
hau, hard heart (late use) ; sae hiru'a, a 
mind engaged; sae huu, sae huunge, 
grief; sae maleledi, rage; sae malumunge, 
long suffering; sae marnae, meek; sae 
mango, mental satisfaction; sae nvwa'uu, 
mutiny, rebellion; sae nanau, wise of 
heart; sae nanaunge, wisdom; sae ngisu, 
lungs; ohu 'inoni ohu sae, many men, 
many minds; sae ni pelupelu, red hot; 
sae rakonga, gentleness; me'i sae e rara, 
earnestness; sae rarada, indignation; 
sae rikanga, rejoicing of heart; sae rorodo, 
to forget; sae ruerua'a, doubt; sae susu, 
confident; sae taha, happy; sae tata'ala 
hunt, to be evilly disposed toward; sae 
to'o, to desire; saeku e hu'ite'i, my heart 
is undone; saeku e lae haahe,~l over- 
looked it; saeku e liki, I am nervous; 
saeku e mode, I am listless; saeku e 
mo'uholo, I have no spirit left; saeku 
'oto ana, I love it; saeku e rodohono, I 
lost consciousness; saeku e ta'ela'i, I am 
excited; saeku e totongo, I have heart- 
burn; mu ola saemu eni deuleni, thy 
will; 'unu tahanie saemu, lay bare your 
mind; ta'e hu'a saena e diana, there's a 
goodhearted woman; hoi saeka, in our 
hearts; hata'ai sae talani, to be careful 
to; mamango i sae, metaph., the heart; 
odoni sae, moral righteousness; opa sae, 
to be at variance; i roroma'i sae ana, 
on his bosom. 
sae 2. S., v. tr., to talk about, kire saea wala. 
sae 3. U., v. tr., to know, to read, as saai. lio 

sae, to perceive; lio sae lo'o, to favor. 
sae 'aela to begrudge, to bear malice. 

sae 'aelasi tr. 

sae 'aelanga v. n., malice, spite. 
sae 'asi v. tr., to put out of one's mind, to 
forgive, to neglect. 

sae 'asilana oraha'a forgiveness of sins. 
saedami U., satisfied, enough, to repletion; 
hele saedami, to have enough; ngdu 
saedami, to gorge, to eat to repletion. 
saediana S., saediena U. 1. to rejoice, to be of 
good mind toward, ha'asaediena. 2. 
to love, used with poss. 3. 

saediananga n., goodness. 

saedienanga n., love. 
sae haahi S., to be sparing, parsimonious, to 

grudge. 
sae hanali, saesaehanali v. tr., to covet. 

saehanalinge v. n., covetousness. 

saehanalila-(na) gerund, 
saehanenga n., covetousness, hanenganisae. 
saehuu to grieve, to be sad. 

saehuunge n., grief. 



saemango ha'asaemango, v. tr., to comfort, to 
settle the mind. 

saenanau S., to be well instructed, wise. 

saenanaunge n., wisdom; sa'a hule'itana ike 
saenanaunge, never coming to wisdom. 

saeni 1. v. tr., to grudge, to keep back, to 
withhold, to spare. 2. U., to prize, to 
think much of. 

sa'esape'a adj., in peace, in safety, sape. 

saetaha to have a clear mind about, at ease in 
mind; saeku e taha, my mind is clear 
about it. 

saeto'o to wish, to want, to like; used with 
poss. 3. 
saeto'oa'i v. tr., to want, to covet, 
saeto'oa'ilana coveting it. 

sae unuhi v. tr., to bear a grudge against, to 
be spiteful to. 
sae unuhinge v. n., grudge, spite. 

saewasu, saesaewasu v. It, to be angry, to sulk; 
ko saewasu he'iliu, angry with one 
another; saewasu ha'isusu, continued 
anger, grudge, 
saewasunge v. n., anger, 
saewasuli tr., to be angry with a person, 
saewasulana his wrath. 

sahali 1. v. tr., to put layers of leaves under 
anything for its protection, as at the 
bottom of an oven. 2. to hire, as a 
canoe; metaphor, of lining it with 
money. Fagani tafari. 

saho n., native-grown tobacco. 

sahu 1. U., lime, a lime gourd; hoi sehu, U., a 
lime gourd; hoi sehu hoto, lime gourd; 
e hotohoto ana lo'u hoi sehu, to rattle the 
spatula in the gourd; uunu sahu, to 
burn lime. 2. a death charm (toli 
loosi) prepared with lime and placed 
in a path. Motu ahu, lime; Wango ahu. 

sahuru to be mildewed, mouldy. 

saie S., a tree (Parinarium laurinum) ; the nut 
(hoi seie) is used for cementing canoes, 
etc., the kernel is grated on coral stone 
and plastered on the joint of the wood, 
a stain composed of the bark of o'a and 
charcoal (lo'ilohi) is then spread over 
the saie. 

sailo n., a crab. 

saini 1. U., v. tr., to put on, to draw down, as a 
shell ring on the arm; saini mwado, to 
throw dust over anyone. 

saini 2. saini one, with locative i, on the beach; 
hoi i'a e lae mai i rarada i saini one, the 
fish came and grounded upon the beach. 

sa'iri hd'isa'iri, v. tr., to quarrel. 

saisai rere a bank, a shoal, at sea. 

saisemu U., a creeper cut into lengths and the 
bark peeled off and dried; when dry it 
is cut into strips and twisted into 
fishing-lines, the twisting is done on 
the thigh with a to-and-fro movement 
of the hands, beginning with the palm 
flat and ending with the palm turned 
toward the body; the i is inserted for 
euphony, cf. i 5, samu. 

saisesu U. 1. n., a waterspout. 2. n., a gale of 
wind, a squall. 



SAISESU 



92 



saisesu U. 3. v. i., to smoke (of fire), redup. of 
sasu, i 5. dunga e saisesu, the fire smokes. 

saka 1. v. i., to be strong, to be powerful. 
M. A., p. 192. 2. v. i., to be hot (of 
condiments), 
sakanga v. n., strength, power; dau sakanga 
ana, to pin one's faith to, to make a lot 
of; mdni ni'ilana sakanga, the complete 
giving of power. 
sakahi v. tr., to strengthen, to enable. 
Aneityum cap, hot, fire; Motu kakakaka, 
red; Maori kaka, red hot. 

sakasaka'a adj., firmly, vigorously, success- 
fully; dau sakasaka'a, to do actively; 
hele sakasaka'a ana, do it with vigor. 

sala 1. the paper mulberry tree (Broussonetia 
papyrifera). 2. cloth made from the 
bast of that tree. 3. European cloth. 
maai sala, a piece of bast cloth; mi sala, 
a piece of any cloth. Viti sala, a 
wrapper. 

sala, sa'asala S., sasala U., 4. desolate, unin- 
habited, wilderness; hdnue sala, desert. 

sale v. tr., to clear ground for a yam garden, 
salenga v. n., a clearing for a garden. Mota 
sara, open space, court. 

salema'i, sasalema'i U., v. i., to be wise, 
salema'inga v. n., wisdom. 

salinga'ini U., sangile'i S., to unload a canoe. 

salo 1. n., sky, heavens, clouds, charcoal draw- 
ings on canoes at bow and stern repre- 
senting clouds; mu salo, the heavens; 
i salo, in the clouds, salo ko kokohono, 
the sky is lowering; salo molemole, red 
clouds; * hahana salo, under the sky; 
mu he'une salo, the stars of heaven; 
kohukohu la'ona salo, far-off clouds; 
nga ngoongoo ni salo e ngo'a, the tip of 
the cloud was broken off; e rdpute'i 
salo molemole, a red sky; tone ta'i salo, 
up in the sky. Wango aro. 

salo 2. v. i., to beckon, to invite with signs; 
salo haahi, to make a sign to a person: 
in beckoning with the hand the palm is 
held down. 
salohi tr., salohi lue, a crab, lit., beckon 
the tide (Gelasimus sp.). Mota alovag, 
Gilbert Islands alofi, Wango arohi, 
Samoa lalo, Motu he-kalo. 

salu, sa'uselu 1. S., v. i., to be painful, to hurt. 
sapesdlu. 'aeku ko selu, my leg hurts me. 
salunge v. n., pain. 

salu 2. the ironwood (Casuarina equisetifolia). 
kokoi selu, casuarina needles; bodies 
when exposed for burial (aori) are 
covered with these needles; from the 
scraped bark of the tree a stain is made, 
this is the coloring matter seen on 
fishing-lines from Santa Cruz. 

sama v. i., to correspond to, to come in proper 
order, to be abreast of; sama diana, to 
correspond exactly, to be in keeping 
with; ro 'iola ko sama, the two canoes 
keep abreast of one another, 
samanga'ini tr., to lay in order, to arrange. 
cf. dama. 

■amo to stutter. Viti sami, to Usd. 



samu 1. n., a creeper, the bark is used for 
fishing-lines, s'a'isemu. 2. v. i., to 
fish for deep-sea fish; hinou ni semu, 
the hook. 

sane the white ant; hoi sane, its nest; sane 'ala, 
the destructive white ant, capable of 
giving a sharp bite ('ala); sane qa'i, an 
ant of a brownish color used as burly 
for sea-bream (i'e ni sane). Samoa 
ane, Mota gan. 
sane'a adj., eaten by white ants. Samoa 
anea. 

sangile'ini S., salinga'ini U., to unload a canoe. 

sangoni v. tr., to nourish, to adopt a child. 
Lau sango. 

sa'o n., the sago palm (Sagus sp.); sa'o ni 
'aholo, a kite made of sago-palm leaves 
for fishing for mwanole with a cobweb 
lure (lawa). M. A., p. 318. dau sa'o, 
to get sago leaves for thatching; kokoi 
sa'o, a frond of the sago palm; lokotai 
sa'o, a bundle of sago leaves; lololo ni 
sa'o, swamp in which sago grows; mudii 
sa'o, midrib of the leaf; qangoi sa'o, a 
measure, a hand's breadth; tdhi sa'o, to 
cut sago leaves; tdri sa'o, to split the 
sides of leaves to make arrows (topa) ; 
use sa'o, to stitch leaves for thatch; 
raapea, the midrib used as a needle; 
wede, to take out the midrib before 
sewing thatch. Borneo sago. 

sa'oni v. tr., to catch mwanole with the kite; 
'oto e sa'onia mwanole, then he caught 
garfish. Mota sao 2, Polynesian hao. 

sa'oha'ini v. tr., to double, to place in tiers, to 
fit a thing on. 
sa'oha'i partic, sa'oha'i ro ola, double, in 
two tiers. 

sa'olu egg of bird, hoi sa'olu ni menu. Mota 
toliu, Florida tolu. 

sa'osa'oha'i'a U., adj., double, in tiers; sa'osa- 
'oha'i'a ani nima, an upper story in a 
house, a doubled house. 

saosaola 1. adj., yellow, turmeric. 2. n., a 
tree with yellow pods which curve in a 
circle and are worn as ornaments in 
the ear. 

sape (ku) 1. n., the body, trunk, mass, figure, 
color, appearance; sape ni 'inoni, men's 
bodies; sape we'o, to be bodily tired; 
sapeku e ka'alawa, I am listless; sapeku 
e qa'i mware'a, I am not in good health; 
noko hiie sapeku, I am well, lit., I per- 
ceive my body; potenga ni sape, bodily 
repletion; e to'o sape, to have the shape, 
the appearance, of. 2. used in apos- 
trophizing the various islands with the 
locative *': * sapena i Sa'a ni menu, cf. 
ha'addhi. Wango abe. 3. n., duty, 
belonging to, part: le'u i sapeku, S., my 
duty; holoholo i sapeku, U., my duty. 
Florida sape, place, bed. 

sape 4. sapelaku. sa'esape'a. 

sape'i, sasape'i S., v. tr., to add to, to increase 
in number, cf. rape'i. 
sape'ita-(na) v. n., sape'itana, the increase 
of it, its being increased. 



93 



sAu 



sapelaku to be safe, unharmed, Idku. 

sapelakunge n., safety, being unharmed, 
uncircumcision (late use). 

sapemawa to be free from harm, unhurt, mawa. 
sapemawanga n. 

sapesalu S., to be in pain, sape hi'ito'o, U. 
sapesalunge n., pain. 

sapo, sasapo v. i., to chew, 
sapoli tr. 
sapolila-(ku) gerund. 

sara U., nima sara, a large food-bowl used at 
feasts, the contents of which are assigned 
as the portion of particular persons. 

sarasara 'iola sarasara, a canoe kept for bonito 
fishing, adorned with inlay of nautilus 
shell. 

sare v. i., to wish, to want; nou qe'i sare, U., 
I am unwilling; nou sare lae, I wish to 
go; 'o'a sare ngau ihei, what will you eat? 

sare'i S., v. i., to be unwilling; nou sere'i, I 
won't, 
sare'ini tr., to reject. 

sare to'o to wish, to desire; may be used with 
poss. 3. e sare to'o ana, he wants it; 
e sare to'o ehu, he wants a jews-harp; 
e sare to'o eku, he wants me for his wife. 

saro 1. v. i., to face, to turn oneself; saro mdi, 
turn this way; e saro wau, he faced 
about. Mao. aro, front. 

saro (ku) 2. over against, reposing on: with 
locative i. i sarona Abraham, on 
Abraham's bosom; i sarona moke amu, 
in your sight, lit., opposite your net. 
saroha v. n., used with poss. 3, ana. i 
sarohaana, over against, opposite to; 
i sarohaana wai, on the face of the 
waters; sarohaana li'oa, under the care 
of the spirit. Mota sarova, meeting. 

saro 3. saro ni mwaa, zigzag pattern in inlaying 
made by putting triangular pieces of 
nautilus shell face to face, the end of 
each piece in the center of the one 
opposite, cf. first and second patterns 
in Guppy "Solomon Islands," p. 138. 

saro 4. S., adv., used of consecutive motion, 
precedes the verb; thereupon, ko ngeu 
mango kesi saro 'unue, when he has 
eaten he will say it; kire sa'a ngau wa 
ke inu na kire ka'a saro saunie 'oto, they 
will not eat or drink till they have killed 
him. 

saro pote U., a phase of the moon, day before 
full moon. 

saroha with locative i: i saroha, in the roof 
between the layers of thatch. 

saru'e adj., used as noun, a charm, incantation, 
mu seru'e. M. A., p. 192. e walangia 
ani seru'a, he muttered magic over it. 
saru'i v. tr., to use a charm on, to make 
magic; ddmulaa kire saru'e, areca nut 
which they had used magic on. 

sasa 1. v. i., to fence with logs against pigs. 

sasa 2. sasa hetela, thin, lean. 

sasa'ae to be disturbed, stirred up; karohure 
e sasa'ae i ka'ona 'asi, the depths were 
troubled; sasa'ae e pouhiru'e, a raging 
sea is stirred up. 



sasaha (ku) n., thigh, lap. Borneo paha, thigh. 

sasa hetela U., to subside (of swellings on the 
body). 

sasala U., for sa'asala and sola 4. 

sasali U., v. tr., to strain with the net (www) of 
the coconut leaf. 

sasangota'a adj., light colored, fair, light 
hair. 

sasapou a log placed on top of the fence in front 
of the canoe house (taoha), a common 
place for sitting. 

sasara (ku) a limb, member of the body, branch 
of a tree; mu sasarai sape, the limbs of 
the body. San Cristoval rara, branch; 
Malay dahan. 

sasate (ku) jaw, chin, beard. Wango talete. 

sasu, sa'usesu S., saisesu U., 1. v. L, to smoke 
(of fire). 2. n., smoke; sasu ana wai, 
steam; sasu alipono, dense smoke. 
Mota asu, Niue ahu. 

sasu 3. toli sesu, to cast unripe fruit (of trees). 

sasu'ala adj., smoky; e sdsu'ala, it is smok- 
ing. 

sasue'i v. tr., said of smoke impeding one's 
vision; dunge e sdsue'ieu, the smoke of 
the fire got into my eyes; e sdsue'ie 
maaku, the smoke got into my eyes. 

sata (,ku) 1. n., a name; satana alei, what (who) 
is his name; ke mani dolosie satada, let 
him ask all their names; to'ohuunge'i 
satana, his real name. 

sata 2. huui sata, the heel. 

sataa'i v. tr., to chafe, to rub. 

sate sale unu, to overlap, sasate. 

sato sun, sunshine, fine weather, ha'asato. 
e sato 'oto, it is fine weather; sato 'oto i 
apau, the sun declines; sato e qa'alie 
hanue, the sun has risen on the earth; 
sato e rara mea, the sun was scorching; 
apai sato, afternoon; 'iro ni sato, 
drought; mwaa dili sato, a snake ob- 
served as an omen; qa'alana sato, the 
east; ra'arangana sato, the light of the 
sun; suulana sato, the going down of the 
sun. Florida aho, Lau saso, Maori 
aho, Mota loa. M. L., p. 93. 

satoa'i v. tr., to expose to the sun's rays, to 
dry in the sun, to air, to be exposed to 
the sun. 

sau, sauseu 1. v. i., to kill, to pound taro, to 
ram, to blow strong (of wind); sau 
mwane, to commit murder, sau mwa- 
nenga, n., murder, 
sauni tr., to kill, to beat, to thrash, to hurt, 
to punish, ha'asauni, hd'iseuni. saune 
hunt ke mae, pound it so that it be well 
mashed; 'aeku ko seunieu, my foot hurts 
me. 
saunila-(ku) gerund. 

sau 2. S., n., a bonito, hoi seu. Ro ute'i seu, 
a proper name, M. A., p. 49; mu seu 
ko laka, the bonito play in schools; r'a'i 
seu, a platform on the beach used in 
connection with bonito fishing; pulu 
maai seu, circular shell inlaid. 

sau 3. v. i., to darn, to mend holes in; sau maa 
ana mu 'ape, to mend the meshes of the 
nets. 



SAUKAI 



94 



saukai 1. v. i., to grate coconut on a scraper, 
sdukai niu. 2. n., a coconut scraper, 
made of a tree trunk with two branches 
for legs and the butt resting on the 
ground; a piece of clam shell with ser- 
rated edge is lashed to the upper end 
of the trunk; a man sits astride the 
sdukai holding a half coconut (leu), rubs 
the meat over the clam shell, and the 
grated nut falls into a bowl (nime) 
placed below. M. A., p. 338. Florida 
taukai. 

siiulehi n., evening, dusk, from about 4 o'clock 
on; e siiulehi 'oto, it is dusk; i seulehi, in 
the evening; sdulehi melumelu, dusk. 
Florida nulavi, Mota ravrav, Motu 
adorahi, Wango suurahi. 

saumaata-(na, da) U., n., used as verb, to know; 
nau qa'ike saumaatana, I don't know it. 

Sau mwa'elu the landing-place in the rocks 
opposite Mwado'a, Ulawa. 

saunge'ini v. tr., to put the handle on an axe. 

sa'usemu S. cf. sdmu. 

sa'usesu S., n., a whirlwind, waterspout, a 
squall of wind. sdsu. 

sawa n., a fish, mullet, found in the lake at 
Korea and in the lagoon at 'Olu Malau. 
melu lai tola sawa i Malau, we went to 
get mullet at the Three Sisters. 

sawalo n., the flying fox, a tooth of the flying 
fox used as money, qa'u ni sawalo, 
four flying-fox teeth, a unit in counting. 

sawaoli'e S., adj., darkened, black with clouds. 

sawaru, sasawaru v. L, to whisper. 

sawarunge v. n., a whisper, whispering. 
sawarunge'ini tr., to whisper anything. 
sawarunge'inila-(na) gerund. 

sese v. i., to fence, to protect; used with prep. 
ahu'i. 

seu cf. sdu. 

si 1. illative; then, thereupon; used with the 
verbal particle ko as kosi, or without it. 
'oto kire kosi teuri, thereupon they said; 
'oke lae tndi 'osi teuri, when you come 
here say this; nge nesi 'unue, then said 
I; mu rato e ngdu na kire si mae, the 
fathers ate and are dead. 2. adv., first, 
first time, just, only; noko si lae tndi 'ie, 
this is my first time here; nou si kele 
hele tnola, I only just touched it; maholo 
nou si lae wau, when I first went. 

si 3. U. dehortative; don't, 'o si ta'ata'a, laa, 
don't, I say. Lau si, negative particle. 

si 4. genitive; in certain phrases, tawa- 
sipua. tangisi hudi, a hand of bananas; 
qd'usi henue, the head of the community. 

si 5. verbal suffix; mae, to die; maesi, to die of. 

sie-(ku) 1. n., used as preposition; at the house 
of, with, to (motion toward), to (offering 
or sacrifice to) ; used in Sa'a only in the 
first and second singular, for the rest 
saa is used; in Ulawa used in all persons; 
the locative i may be prefixed, ro 'u'u 
maana siena a Ta'a Pea, his two eye- 
balls to Ta'a Pea (a curse) ; * siedaelu, in 
their house, at their home. Nengone 
se, with; Sesake se, si, here; there. 



si'e U. 2. negative particle, used of future time, 

also dehortative. 'o si'e lae, do not go. 

Savo sika, sia, prohibitive; Vaturanga 

jika. 
sihana S., with locative i, out of doors, oustide. 

sinaha. 
siho, sisiho 1. v. i., to descend, to disembark, 

to land, ha'asiko. siho hou, to de- 
scend; siho i one, to land on the beach. 

siho toli. 
siho 2. to be at hand, to befall, to happen; 

qongi ko sisiho 'oto, the time is at hand, 
siholi tr., to course through (of disease), 

to assault; e siholie sapeku, it went all 

through my body, 
sihola'i partic, passed through. Mota siwo. 
siho 3. v. i., to relate, to tell a tale; used with 

poss. 3. siho 'aela ana, to spread evil 

reports of; siho 'aelalamami, gerund., 

our evil report; siho raqa ana, U., to 

exaggerate, 
sihosihonga v. n., a tale, gossip, 
sihoa'i partic, mu sihoa'i wala, mere words, 

just a tale, 
siholi siholi wei, south wind, gentle breeze with 

fair weather, 
sihopulu ha'asihopulu, a stone sinker for a fish- 
line, 
sii 1. v. L, to break wind. Viti dhi. 2. to fly 

(of sparks), to flare (of fire); mu sii 

dunge, sparks, 
si'iri to-day, now; ni demonstrative may be 

suffixed and locative * prefixed, i si'iri, 

i si'irini, to-day; si'iri 'ie, in this day; 

haidinge si'iri, today; nekesi lae si'iri, 

let me go to-day; si'iri i rodo, to-night. 
si k are n., a variety of yam. 
sike 1. v. tr., to reject; 'asi 3 may be added. 

sike hu'e to divorce a woman; sike 

hu'anga, n., divorce; sika 'asi, to reject. 

Florida sika. 
sike 2. n., a thorn; sikei hana, thorn on top of 

the tuber of the spiny yam. Viti sika, 

needle. 
sikera'ini v. tr., to reject, to condemn, 
sikeri 1. v. tr., to plait. 2. n., a rope plaited 

flat, a wick (late use). 
siki 1. v. i., to come loose, to become detached; 

mei 'epu e siki ana, his seed, 
sikihi tr., to undo, to untie, to detach, to 

take off. ha'asikihi. e'a sikihia qd'una 

uhi, she takes off the heads of yams; 

hono sikihi, to shut off by itself; susu 

sikihi, to cast off, to reject, 
sikite v. n., mu sikitei ola, flakes, chips. 

Wango sigi, Florida siki, Viti singi, to 

move. 
sikile'ini tr., to detach, to set free, to loose, 
sikile'i partic, detached; v. i., to rebound, 
sikite 'ini tr., to detach, 
siki 2. v. i., to tap, to touch with the fingers. 

siki raho, a beetle which is caught and 

held upside down on a piece of thatch 

(raho) which it raps (siki). 
sikihi tr., to infect, to carry contagion to 

person after person. 
sikili tr., to twang with the fingers; to 



95 



SO'O 



siki 2 (continued). 

spurtle on; sikili maa, a tree (Excoe- 
caria sp.) found in estuaries, which 
when cut squirts out a juice dangerous 
to the eyes. 

sikoa a bird, the black mynah. kikoa. 

sili, sisili 1. v. i., to enter; rao kire sa'a sili 'olo, 

they certainly shall not enter. 2. to 

go into the bush after; sili 'oha, to get 

betel from the bush. 

silinge v. n., an entry. 

silihi tr., to enter, to go into; ko sisilihie mu 

nume, enters into houses, 
silihe'ini tr., to sheathe, to insert. Samoa 
sili, to lodge in; Wango siri, to enter; 
Nguna sili, to be under; Mota sir, to 
draw along; Florida sili; Fate sili. 

siliihi v. i., to patch a thatched roof with sago 
leaves. 

silitaha U., v. i., to emerge, ha'asilitaha. 

sime U., sume S., sandfly. 

simouke S., pipe (English smoke). 

simwe v. tr., to flay, to skin. 

sina U., sea-urchin. 

sinaa v. i., sinaa uhi, to clean the roots off 
newly dug yams, 
inaha used with locative i: i sinaha, out of 
doors, sihana. nga hale e koru hula 
i sinaha, the shed was full right to the 
door; po'o i sinaha, outside. 

sinata U., n., a tabu mark. 

sinei rara, dusk. 

sineli, sisineli 1. v. tr., to lighten, to give light 
to; v. i., to shine, hoi he'u e sisineli 
mei, the star has shone out. 2. moon- 
light; i sineli, by moonlight, 
sineliha v. n., used with poss. 3, ana; sine- 
lihaana, its light. Lau sinali, moon; 
Florida hinari. 

sinola specific numeral, 1,000 (of yams). 
inolai uhi. 

singo n., a littoral tree (Tournefortia argen- 
tifolia) much frequented by a butterfly 
(Euplcea sp.) which becomes intoxi- 
cated and falls to the ground. 

si'o 1. v. i., to collect, to gather, si'o aopa, to 
separate, to refine; si'o honosi, to inter- 
rupt with questions; si'o koni, to col- 
lect; si'o liliheu, to collect stones for a 
wall; si'o maani, to gather together, 
si'ohi tr. 
si'ohila-(ku) gerund. Wango sio. 

si'o 2. v. i., to track; si'o isuli, to follow the 
footsteps of, to require reparation for, 
si'o kali, to spy; si'o purapura, U., 
irregularly. 

si'o 3. v. i., to practice magic; si'o ku'isi, to do 
harm to. 
si'onga v. n., magic. 
si'ohi tr., to bewitch. San Cristoval siofi. 

si'ohaa 1. v. i., to be in evil plight, to be desti- 
tute. 2. n. (ku), si'ohaaku e tata'ala, I 
am in evil plight, 
si'ohaanga v. n., destitution, 
si'ohaa'i tr. si'ohaa'i maela, to be in 
danger; si'ohaa'i ola, to be in a poor way. 
Lau sikofa. 



I si'okoni v. tr., to collect, to harvest, 
si'okoninge v. n., harvest. 
si'ola exclamation of assent, cf. si'u'e. 
sipe v. i., to prick, to let pus out of a sore, 
sipengi tr. 
sipengila-(na) gerund. Mota sipe, to take 

out; Florida sipa. 
siri n., a parrot, siri alaha, Lorius chloro- 

cercus; siri 'u'u, a lory that hangs head 

downward. 
siriu U., n., a cockle, cf. henu. wwai keni 

ana karo siriunga, what women for 

collecting cockles. 
sisi 1. v. tr., to grin like a dog, to bare the 

teeth; e sisie nihona, he bared his teeth 

in a grin, 
sisi 2. sisi pono, to be closed over (of a sore), 
sisile n., a shellfish. 
sisimidi S., mudimudi U., a bird, the yellow 

honey eater. 
sisinge-(ku) S., noun used as preposition; in 

the way of, preventing, e hono sisi- 

ngana, shut him in; e i'o sisingeku, 

stood in front of me; ho'asi sisingana 

li'oa, to swear by a spirit; e ho'asi sisi- 

ngemu, bound you with an oath, 
sisinge'i partic, used as adverb; over against, 

in front of. hai dango e i'o sisinge'i, a 

tree stood in the way; ho'asi sisinge'i, 

to clear with an oath; hono sisinge'i, to 

shut out. 
si siri sisiri hapa, a bird, swallow. 
si'u'e S., si'u'a U., exclamation of assent. 

si'u'e 'oto, 'o si'u'e, ta'ane si'u'e, cer- 
tainly, verily, 
siute gun, rifle (English shoot), ko'uko'uha 

ana siute, report of a gun. 
siwe 1. numeral, nine. 

siwana ninth, for the ninth time. Lau 

siqa, Florida hiua, Viti dhiva, Tonga 

hiva, Indonesia sio. 
siwe 2. blood-money, haa ni siwe. ne'i siwe, 

to put out a sum as blood-money; tola 

siwe, to kill and earn the blood-money, 
so exclamation, to call attention; so nge, well 

then; so 'ohe, perhaps. 
soasoa native arrowroot, grows on the beaches. 
soda v. i., to encounter, to fall into danger; 

used with poss. 3. e soda ana hu'o, he 

fell into the net. Florida sodo, to meet; 

Viti sola, to meet, 
soe U., soe ledi, to question, 
soi, soisoi 1. v. tr., to call, to summon, soi 

ha'ada'inge, S., soi ha'ata'inge, U., 

church, ecclesia. 
soinge v. n., a calling; tote soinge, to raise 

aery, 
soi 2. U., v. tr., to ask, to question; soi heri, to 

question; e soia ada, he asked them 

about it. 
soi 3. v. i., to demand; soi totonga, soi hirita'a. 

to demand a fine, 
soinga'ini tr., to call, to summon, 
songo n., white shell discs tied as ornament on 

the knee or round the wrist. 
so'o v. i., to find, to pick up, to collect; so'o 



SO'O 



96 



so'o (continued). 

dango, S., so'o 'ai, U., to pick up fire- 
wood ; so'o tele, to build a stone fence, 
so'ohi tr. 
so'ohila-(ku) gerund. Fl. sodo, collect. 

su v. tr., to anoint; laqi ni su, coconut-oil 
ointment; rumu ni su, ointment, salve. 
suhi tr., to plaster the hair with lime, 
suhinge v. n., anointing. 
suhila-(ku) gerund. 

su'a U. 1. v. i., to move backward, to retire, 
to retreat. Wango sua. 

su'a U. 2. su'ai honu, a summerset. 

sualaa U., a foundation, suesuelaa. a Poro 
Sualaa Hanua, a legendary person, 
Mr. Foundation-of-the-Earth. 

sude v. tr., to root up the earth (of pigs), poo 
e sude. Mota sula, Wango sua. 

su'e S., su'a U. 1. a tree planted in the villages, 
the leaves and the catkins (rame) and 
berries are edible, the bark is used in 
Santa Cruz for making fish-lines. 

su'e, su'esu'e 2. v. i., to encounter, to meet; 
used with poss. 3. kire su'a ana, they 
met him. 
su'ehi tr., to encounter difficulty, to have 
hard work, to paddle against wind or 
tide, 'ato 'ae su'ahia, to leap and 
encounter; kire ko su'ehire, they lord 
it over them. 
su'ela'i partie., ke'i su'ela'i mola haahie 
qd'une, will recoil on his own head. 
hd'isu'esu'e, po'osu'a'a. Nguna sua, 
Wango sua, Lau suasua, encounter. 

su'e 3. S., used with locative *; i su'e, out of 
doors, outside, external. 

su'e 4. S., n., a spear. 

su'e S., su'a U. 5. v. i., to move backward, to 
retreat, to retire; su'e puri, to go back; 
su'e ngoli, to fall backward and break 
one's neck. 

su'esu'e S., su'a U., su'esu'e ni honu, a 
summerset. 

suesuelaa S., sualaa U., n., a foundation. 

su'esu'ela'i partie, mae su'esu'ela'i, to die of 
hunger, to starve. 

su'ete'e S., su'ate'e U., ne'isae su'ete'e, 
adoma'i su'ate'e, to be anxious about. 

suhi, su'isuhi S., suhisuhi U., v. tr., to shave 
the head or face; suhi kou, to shave the 
head clean, 
suhinge v. n., shaving. 
suhila-(ku) gerund. 

suhu 1. a bung, plug, bung-hole. 2. v. i., to 
fall through a thing; e 'uri suhu, his 
foot went through; mwalo suhu kao, a 
rock that pierces the bottom, 
suhuli tr., to make an opening in a green 
coconut, to take the plug out of a ca- 
noe. 

su'isuli (ku) S., n., a bone. suli. 

su'isungi v. tr., to broil on a fire. Mota tun- 

su'isungi'e S., n., a hill. 

suke, susuke S., suka, sukasuka U., to ask 
for, to beg, to borrow, to ask permis- 
sion; suka hdrite'i, U., to question; suka 
hdrite'inga, questioning; suke lalana. 



suke (continued). 

to ask on his behalf; masa suke, to be 
ashamed to beg; e i'o pe'i suke, sat and 
begged, 
sukanga v. n. 
suku (na) the vent of a fish. Viti buku, tail, 
sulaapoe U., v. tr., to cause to lodge, 
sulahita U., to be firm, rigid, 
sule S., sula U., v. tr., to roast on the embers. 
ko sulaa mu uhi, roasts yams, 
sulanga v. n., a roasting, yams roasted in 
the coals, ngau sulanga, the food eaten 
at a betrothal consisting of roasted yams. 
suli (au) 1. prep., after, according to; not used 
as dative as stated in M. L., p. 151. 
suli heidinge, daily; lae mai sulieu, come 
after me; tolai suli wala, to obey com- 
mands. Mota sur. 
suli, su'isuli S., susuli U. 2. n., a bone; suli 
qeri ngae, suli qeri i ngaena, the back- 
bone; suli tolai luana, his shoulder-blade; 
laloi suli, within the bones; mu lalawai', 
ola ana suli, the marrow of the bonesa 
qango laloi suli, the marrow. Motg, 
suriu, Florida huli, Borneo tulan 
Niue hui. 
suli 3. suli 'ei, wall-plate of a house; suli 'ei i 

qaoha, ridgepole. 
suli 4. suli hata, forty dogs' teeth, a sum of 
money considered equivalent to ten 
fathom strings of shell money (haa 
tahanga) . 
suliteru a bone needle. 

sulu 1. v. i., to lift, to carry up canoes to land, 
to start on a sea journey, to launch a 
canoe; sulu haa, to collect money; sulu 
la' a ana, to lift it up; sulu 'epu, to adopt 
a child; sulu 'epunge, n., adoption; sulu 
walanga, gossip; mu tale'i sulu walanga, 
mere gossip: sulu walanga ta'etate, bab- 
bling words, 
suluha U., v. n., a landing. 
sulu'i tr. 

sulu'ila-(ku) gerund. Wango suru. 
sulu, susulu 2. to sing, to make music; sulu 'ato, 
a song sung as an ordeal; sulu 'atonga, 
ordeal singing; sulu daudau, U., to 
make songs on; sulu kananga, singing 
of songs; sulu mao, to sing in company 
with men dancing; sulu 'o'o, to beat 
drums. Mota sur, to sing. 
suluhe (ku) n., song; suluheku, my song. 
sulu'i tr., to sing a song. 
sulula-(ku) gerund.; sululana, its being 
sung, 
sulu, susulu 3. v. tr., to follow, to do according 
to; sulu isuli, to obey, to walk according 
to; sulu odoodo, to go straight; sulu 
odola'i, to act righteously. 
sulu 4. with poss. 3 ana, to please, sulu i 
lohona, lohomu, pleasing in his sight, 
thy sight. 
sulu (na, ni) 5. liquid, water, madamada sulu, 
October. Nguna sulu, Mota sur mata, 
tears. 
sulu'e adj., with liquid, watery, containing 
too much water. 



97 



suu 



suluheu 1 . the stone walls of taoha. 

Suluheu 2. the artificial islets off the coast of 
Malaita. Lau sulufou. 

suluta'e U., v. i., to rise up, arise. 

suluta'enga v. n., a rising up. resurrection. 
Wango surulae. 

sume S., sime U., n., a sandfly. Alite sumi, 
mosquito; New Guinea kimu, simunika, 
sumoniku. 

sunge sunge luuluu, elkhorn fern. 

sungi S., v. tr., sungie mawataa, lift up a shout. 
Florida sungi. 

supi n., a short club, diamond-shaped, with a 
broad face and a rib down the center. 
Wango subi, Bugotu supa. 

supu v. tr., to compose (of songs), supu kana. 

supungi S., v. tr., to offer, to intreat; supungie 
ngauhana, to offer food to. 

supu'upu (na) S., v. tr., to build. 

suraa'i, susuraa'i S., v. tr., to revenge, to 
retaliate, to repay injuries; mwane 'o 
susuraa'ie tnu oraha'a i'emi huni'emi, 
deal not with us after our sins. 

suru 1. v. tr., to suspect, to have suspicions 
about. 

suru, susuru 2. v. L, to plane, to scrape with 
a flint or shell or glass, 
surumi tr. 

susu (ku) 1. n., breast, paps, dugs of animals, 
milk; susu ni puloki, susu ni keu, cow's 
milk; tori susu, to wear over the left 
shoulder as a bandolier. Mota sus, 
Wedau susu, Maori u. 

susu, sususu 2. v. i., to suck the breast, to 
have children at the breast, ha'asusu. 
susu puri, to be the last born; a susu 
puri, the youngest child. 

susu 3. v. i., to prick, to pierce, to impale, to 
sew. susu 'asi, to take out (of a thorn) ; 
susu 'elinge, an ear-stick; susu hara, to 
lean firmly on a staff; susu kumara, to 
plant sweet- potato vines; susu opa, 
ornamental ridge covering; susu qaoha, 
to sew sago leaves for a ridge covering; 
&u susu qelusu, a nose-stick; susu sikihi, 
U., to cast out, to reject, 
susu'i tr. 

susu'ite v. n., a seam, sewing, an awl; 
ta'ala'a maai su'isu'ite, one seam. 
Mota sis, sus, to pierce: susur, to sew; 
Samoa tui, Viti tutui, Niue tui, Motu 
turi. 

susu 4. v. i., to be solid, whole, unbroken, to 
heal up, to close over. ha'asusu, 
ha'isusu. susu eliho'i, to be filled up 
(of rounded shape), restored whole; 
susu harehare, to cram; susu hono, to 
heal over (of an ulcer); susu honosi, to 
close in on; susu pou, to rear up without 
breaking (of waves); 'ae susu, swollen 
leg; hdu susu, an immovable rock; 
i'o susu, to continue in one stay; lue 
susu, throat stuffed up, voice gone; sae 
susu, to be confident; sae susunge, n., 
confidence, to be of firm mind toward, 
to reject; saemu e wana ke susu ha'ahire, 
be stern towards them in thy wrath. 



susu 5. v. L, to approach; na'o susu ana, to 
make straight on toward, 
susuhi tr., to approach; na'o susuhire, draw 
toward thein. 

susu 6. ha'asusu, to gossip, to tell tales about. 

susu 7. susu 'ano, to choose ground for a yam 
garden. 

susua'ili S., susua'ili huni, to suggest to a 
person, to urge. 

susu'e adj., throughout; susu'e atowaa, all the 
day long; susu'e ddngi, every day, in 
the daytime. 

susue'ini tr., to stretch out, to hold out in the 
hand, 
susue'i partic, stretched out; susue'i ki'i, 
U., to stretch out the hand. Mota sis, 
to point. 

susuhaa'i v. tr., to plant a yam garden. 

susuhara to lean firmly, to rest upon. 

susuhono v. L, 'ulu susuhono, stone blind. 

susuimi v. i. , to have roots, to be rooted, imi imi. 

susu'ite n., a seam, an awl, a pricker. 

susule'ini v. tr., to affirm, to maintain. 

susule'i partic, firmly, fixedly, forever. 
asu susule'i, to work unremittingly; 
loli susule'i, to endure firmly, to be 
steadfast. 

susuli (au) 1. prep., in succession to. suli 1. 
hele susuli, to inherit. 2. v. i., to follow 
along; melu susuli uwo, we kept along 
the ridge; a Poro Susuli Uwo, a legend- 
ary person, Mr. Follow-the-Ridge. 

susuli 3. U., n., a bone. 

susumaa a projection from the ridge of a 
house, a pinnacle. 

susungi 1. v. tr., to approach, to draw near to. 

susungi 2. U., v. tr., to cook on embers, to 
broil, su'isungi. Wango susungi. 

susuru'u a pent-house, a lean-to. 

sususu 1. taumanga sususu, taro pudding not 
cut up into squares ^but left whole. 
susu 4. 

sususu 2. a disease of the lower limbs accom- 
panied by swelling. 

susuto'o v. i., to be firm, assured in mind, i'o 
susuto'o. ina'ohi susuto'o, ha'itotori 
susuto'o, to hope (late use). 

suu 1. v. i., to sink, to go down, to dive, to 
dip (of the sun), to die out, to become 
extinct; suu dehi, to dive for pearl shell; 
suu leuhi, to dive for turbo shell; 
ai suu, U., to die out, to perish, to 
cease; hanue e suu, the village is unin- 
habited; m&i ana waaroivaaro e suu, ebb 
when the moon sets; mangona e suu, 
his breath has gone, he is dead; ng&u 
qe'u suu, to gorge, lit., to eat until the 
head drops; uununge suu, burnt offering, 
suuhi tr., to dive for. 
suuhilana gerund, 
suulana sato the going down of the sun; 

with locative *', the West, 
suue'ini tr., to go down and leave (of the 

sun), 
suuhe (ni) v. n., atei ke saai suuheni, who 
can enumerate. Wango suu, Florida 
hu, Mota sus. 



suu 



98 



suu 2. suu taa, to appear above the horizon; 
suu lai lengi, to rise up; idemu ke suu 
i halena, the lime spatula shall pierce 
his gums. 

suu 3. to revenge, to repay; suu olanga, n., 
revenge; ni'i suu, to make a free gift 
expecting no return; ni'i suunge, v. n. 
suula-(ku) gerund., horo suulana, to kill 
in revenge for; e sa'a harihunie lo'u 
suulana. Wango suu. 

suu 4. suu leku, a certain kind of arrow. 

suu 5. harbor, bay, landing-place, awalosi 
i su'u, the west wind; t su'u namona, 
the opening in the reef at Sa'a; i Laloi 
Su'u, Mara Masiki Channel; 'Olu Su'u, 
the three inlets, a name for a number of 
inlets. 
su'ule-(ni) mu su'uleni 'est, the paths of 
the sea. San Cristoval sugu. 

su'u 6. S., v. i., to move position; su'u weu, 
su'u met, i'o su'u iveu, dau su'u weu. 
dudu. h&'isu'u. 

suue'i v. tr., raro suue'i, to turn inside out 
(of a bag). 

suuha U., suuhai raa, drought. 

suuhe'ini v. tr., to destroy, to kill out. horo 
suuhe'ini. 

Su'uheu Lopo Suuheu, a gorge above 
Su'uholo. 

Su'uholo a village on the east coast of Ulawa; 
its landing-place is i Su'u ntaea. 

su'ule'i U., to bulge, to project. 

suu'i (2u), suusuu'i (au) prep., around, about. 
dau suu'i, to intreat, to importune, to 
compel; i'o suu'i, to be present with; 
maahu suu'i, to guard at night; tola suu'i, 
to importune; 'tire suu'i, to attend on, 
to serve; saeku e ruerua'a suu'iomu, I 
am in doubt concerning you. Wango 
suustiui. 

Su'u Moli a boat harbor at the northwest 
corner of Ulawa. 

Su'u Peine a harbor on the west coast of Little 
Malaita; su'u peina, U., a boat harbor 
at Su'uholo. 

suuraa'i, suure, suurei, suusuure (na) S., 
foundation, corner. 

su'uri dehortative; don't; used also in sup- 
posititious cases, su'uri na, not so; 
'oke su'uri lae, do not go; huni 'oke 
su'uri 'unue ha'alae diana, had you not 
mentioned it it were well; ta'e walo 'ie 
ke su'uri, save for these bonds; ke su'uri 
urine, God forbid. 

Su'urodo the Mara Masiki Channel, cf. 
Laloi Su'u 

suusuu (ku) 1. elbow, corner, angle; h&u suusuui 
karo, corner stone; suusuu nime, elbow; 
&ni suusuu, V., a cubit. Mota susiu. 

suusuu 2. hele suusuu ana, to do in succession, 
continuously; ramo suusuu, to be strong 
forever. 

suute 1. v. tr., to wind a fishing-line. 2. (n3, 
ni) n., a place on a fishing-rod for wind- 
ing the line. 

■uwa U., v. i., to back, retire, to draw back. 



tft 1. U., to speak; t&uri, t'Auritaha, of reported 
speech, to speak thus. 

ta 2. noun suffix; viae, maet'd; waa'i, waa'ite. 

ta 3. adj., prefix of condition; tahiruhriu, 
lahisuhisu. tata 1. Mota ta, Maori ta. 

taa 1. noun suffix; horo, horotaa; puli, pulitaa. 

taa, taataa 2. U., daa S., to give, to take; to 
receive, to do. taa ka'u, let me see, 
wait a bit. Wango haa, Niue ta. 

taa 2. S., interrogative pron.; a shortened form 
of taha; what? why? nga mui taa, what 
things? horana nga taa, what for? mala 
nga laa, like I don't know what; nga taa, 
what? nga taa ni 'o ere urini, why did 
you say this? 

ta'a, ta'ata'a 3 S., n., numeral, one; ta'a ta'e, 
a one-man canoe; ta'ata'a mwane, one 
person; 'enile dial ta'ata'a, how many 
things? only one; ta'ata'a ola 'oto 'o'o, 
one and only one; nga ta'ata'a ini mola, 
only one person; e ta'ata'a mwane, one 
and the same person; ta'ata'a ini, one 
person at a time, h'duta'a'i, once. 
Niue taha, Bugotu sa, San Cristoval 
la'a'i, Polynesian tahi. 

ta'a 4. S., contraction of taha, adj., out. isi 
ta'a, to come out; au ta'a, to debouch; 
ulu ta'a, to emerge; ere ta'anga, plain 
speech; kali ta'a, to emerge; lou ta'a, 
to come forth; suu ta'a, to appear above 
the horizon; e hure'i ta'a ana hau, to 
gush forth from the rock ; mawa ta'a, to be 
exposed to the air (of a sore.) Lau tafa. 

ta'a 5. adj., suffix; rerepata'a, osiosita'a. 

ta'a 6. adj., bad; used in commiserating. 
tata'ala. mwae ta'a, poor fellow; mu 
mwae ta'a, poor fellows; rako ta'a, 
unpleasant, irksome; kei ta'a, poor 
dear (of women); kei ta'a paine, dear 
lady; loo ta'a, to be immodest, to offend 
against propriety; mwei ta'a aloha, dear 
lord. Lau taa, Mota tatas, Wango ta'a, 
Malay jahat. 

ta'a 7. U., adversative, but; commonly na ta'a; 
probably ta'a 3. 

ta'ahu U., v. i., to pull up weeds in a garden. 
Wango tagu. 

taalenga face upward; eno taalenga, to lie on 
one's back. 
taalengasi v. tr., to lay flat, to lay face 
upward; taalengasie nimemu, open your 
hand out flat. 
taalengasila-(ku) gerund. Samoa talianga, 
to lie on one's back. 

taalu n., shoal water, a coral patch; i Taalu, a 
patch of shoal water off the east coast 
of Ulawa. Kalitaalu, a proper name; 
tonohaana a Kalitaalu, his drinking- 
place at Lenga, Ulawa: he was one of 
the legendary people of 'Olu Malau. 

ta'ana, ta'ata'ana U., pron., every, each; ta'ana 
nga 'inoni, each man; ta'ana ngaile, 
every one. Florida tatana. 

ta'ane 1. adv., certainly, indeed; follows the 
verb, ineu ta'ane, yes, me: I am here 



99 



TAHALAA 



ia'ane 1 (continued). 

indeed; ta'ane si'u'e, certainly; neke'i 
lae ta'ane, I am surely going. 2. in 
Ulawa used in conditional affirmation, 
as ha'alaa, S. muni ne'e loosia, ta'ane 
na'a 'unua, if I see him I shall tell it; 
ko urine ta'ane na, S., even supposing 
it were so. 

Ta'a Pea a female ghost who makes yams 
fruitful; her name was given in Ripoo, 
Ulawa, to a natural formation in flint. 
This was placed in the yam gardens. 

ta'asi, taata'asi v. tr., to throw away, to 
remove, taa l;asi3. Wango taari. 

taataa 1. v. i., to defecate. Samoa tat a, to 
have the bowels relaxed. 

ta'ata'a 2. S., numeral, one, a. ta'ala'a me'i 
lo'u'e, one verse; ta'ata'a maai ngeu, one 
meal; ta'ata'a mwela moute'i, only child; 
ta'ata'a ola moumoute'i, one thing only. 

ta'ataha n., an opening in the shore reef, a 
chasm, taha 1. ukui ta'ataha, a break 
in the reef, a canoe passage. Maori 
tawha, chasm. 

ta'ataka ta'atakai rate, takalakai rale, U., the 
down of nestlings. 

ta'atala n., a line, a row; ta'alalai niu, a row 
of coconut trees; uku ni ta'atala, a row, 
a line. 

ta'atara 1. successive; mu wala ta'atara, tradi- 
tion; 'unu ta'atara, to relate in order. 

ta'atara 2. ta'atara wdi, the dragon-fly (Libel- 
lula sp.) . tarasi. 

ta'atarau mu wala ta'atarau, gossip, tarau. 

taate'i S., v. i., to be at a loss, to be ignorant, 
to be unwise. 
taate'inge v. n., fault, ignorance, 
taate'inge'ini v. tr., to deny, to repudiate. 
taate'inge'inila-(ku) gerund. Florida tale. 

taatewe S., to be at fault. 
taatewenga v. n., a fault. 

ta'au S., adv., of place, demonstrative ne may 
be added; onward, further, east, south. 
apai loa ta'au, the heavens above; e odo 
'oto ta'au, he went right on; po'o ta'au, 
farther east; qd'u ta'au, go east or south. 

ta'e 1. U., numeral, one; Sa'a prefers ta'a but 
has to'ota'e. ta'a ta'e, one-man canoe; 
ta'e hu'a saena e diena, there's a good- 
hearted woman; to'ota'e ola, to'ota'e ini, 
one here and there; e ta'e ro ola, only 
two; nga ta'e, exclamation. Probably 
metathetic upon 'eta. 

ta'e 2. adv. of direction, up, inland; when used 
with locative » contracts from ta'e i to 
ta'i. ta'i Sa'a, up at Sa'a; ta'i lengi, up 
above, in the sky; 'ure ta'i tolona hdnue, 
from out of the hills. Mota sage, 
Motu dae, Maori ake. 

ta'e 3. v. i., to rise up, to stand. 

ta'e 4. v. tr., to raise up. ta'e 'akalo, to raise 
a ghost. M. A., p. 219. Lau take, to 
stand. 

ta'e 5. v. i., to embark; kiraelu 'a ta'e hS'i 
'olie'i, they embark on their return 
journey; ta'e ilengine horse, to ride; ta'e 
ha'aholo, to be astride; ta'a ta'e, one- 



ta'e 5 (continued). 

man canoe; ta'e hai, four-man canoe; 
ta'e 'olu, three-man canoe. Ta'e 'Olu, 
Belt of Orion 
ta'eli tr., to embark, to get into a canoe. 

ha'ata'eli. 
ta'elila-(na, ni) gerund. 

ta'e 6. S., adversative, but, probably ta'e 1. 
ta'e walo 'ie ke su'uri, save for these 
bonds; ta'e pe'inie, nevertheless. Araga 
take. 

ta'ela'i 1. v. i., to set out, to arise, to start. 
ta'e 2. ta'ela'i i ola, beginning from. 
2. to be excited; saeku e ta'ela'i, I am 
excited, 
ta'ela'mi tr., to cause to arise. 

ta'ena, ta'eta'ena S., pron., each, every, ta'e 1. 
ta'ena nga 'inoni, every man. Motu 
taina, some. 

ta'ero v. i., to dribble (of spittle) ; wawe ko ta'ero 
ana, he dribbled at the mouth. 

ta'etate v. i., to chatter; sulu walanga la' elate, 
■ 'tis naught but idle chatter. 

ta'ewau wantonly, carelessly, any how. e 
ta'ewau mola, e ta'e mola wau, it's all 
one, it makes no difference; ta'ewau mu 
'inoni, S., the common people. 

taha, ta'ataha 1. to be open, to have a channel, 
to emerge; taha maa, to open the door; 
kire taha maa 'oto nge melu lae, we left 
as they were opening their doors (at 
daylight); taha ana nga 'inoni, to pay 
a visit to a person; taha odo'i, to come 
upon, to find; taha 'o'o, the tenor drum 
in the para ni 'o'o, the first notes are 
struck on it; mw'dri taha, to recover from 
wounds; sae taha, happy; sae tahanga, 
happiness; saeku e taha, my mind is 
clear about it; 'unu ta'ataha, to pro- 
nounce aloud; wdi e taha, the river 
mouth is open, navigable, 
tahani S., tr., to open, to be a pioneer; ana 
e tahanie maamu ne, in that he opened 
your eyes; 'unu tahanie saemu, lay bare 
your mind, (b) to emerge, to go 
through; tahanie 'asi, get through the 
surf, (c) aha tahani, tola tahani, to 
warn. 
tahangi U., tr., lahangia hdlisi, to eat the 
first fruits of the harvest; tahangia w&pu, 
to be the first to clear a piece of thick 
bush and thereby acquire a right over 
the land: prov., to be a pioneer. 
ha'aisita'anga'ini, ha'aisitahanga'ini, 
San Cristoval tafa, Lau tafa, Tanna 
lafa, outside; Maori tawha. 

taha 2. interrogative pron., what, more com- 
mon in Ulawa; nga taha, what? inge'ia 
taha 'oto, U., that is it, just so; nga mdsi 
taha, what thing? munia nga taha, what 
for? 'osi hele hinoli'a taha ine, how well 
you have done it. Mota sava, Maori 
aha. M. L., p. 133. 

taha'ira'a adv., clearly, plainly; ere taka'ira'a, 
to speak distinctly. 

tahalaa n., an opening in a reef, a way out. 



TAHANGA 



IOO 



tahanga n., a fathom; v. tr., to measure a 
fathom, tahanga awa nusi, U., a meas- 
ure, just a fathom long; haa tahanga, 
a sum of money, ten strings each a 
fathom long, the sum equivalent to 
40 dogs' teeth (suit hata). 

tahanga 'ini v. tr., to set wide open, ha'aisila- 
hanga'ini, ha'aisita'anga'ini. 

taharara'a mawasidengi e taharara'a, a storm 
swept down. 

tahaunutara through, from one side to the 
other; used with poss. 3. unu 3. 

tahe 1. n., a platform; ha'u take, to make a 
platform; tahe ni malaohu, a platform 
on which ceremonies are conducted in 
connection with malaohu, a boy's catch- 
ing his first bonito. 

tahe 2. v. i., to be abundant; hohola e tahe, the 
garden produced abundantly. 

tahe 3. to flow, to be in motion (of water) . 'ahe. 
luelue e tahe, the flood came. Poly- 
nesian tahe, to flow. 

tahe 4. tahe 'upu'upu, to be halfway in a 
journey. 

tahe U. 5. tahe tongo, to sip. 

tahela'ini, ta'etahela'ini v. tr., to lift up to 
view, to exalt, to mount, to ascend, 
tahela'i partic, up, upward; ngara tahela'i 
ana, to call upon him with weeping. 

tahera'i v. i., to thatch with layers of sago- 
palm leaf (raho). 
tahera'inge v. n., thatching, 
tahera'ini tr. 

taheri v. tr., to wear across the shoulder as a 
bandolier, a Taheri 'Usu, a proper 
name. 

tahi, ta'itehi v. i., to flee; t&hi ke'u, be off, get 
out of the way. 
tahinge v. n., flight; 'o'o ni tehinge, to be in 
flight; kire tola r or or a ana tahinge, they 
fled precipitately, 
tahisi tr., to escape from; tapo tahisi, to 
grab and miss. Lau tafi. 

tahi 2. to rend; tahi sa'o, to cut sago leaves. 

tahikuhiku U., adj., tangled, raveled, hiku- 

tahile'ini v. tr., to flee away and carry with one. 

tahirohiro n., a large fish that swims round in 
circles, hiro. 

tahisuhisu, tatahisuhisu said of a canoe, to 
run along on the top of a wave. 

taho 1. to purchase a man, to buy a dependent. 
2. to pay money to one who avenges a 
death; ke'i taho nana mwala e horo'ia 
mwaena, will make payments to the 
people who killed So-and-so, M. A., 
p. 243. kire tahoa nana mwala e horo, 
they paid up to the people who had 
killed; tahoa lalamoa, to pay for a man 
killed by violence, cf. dalo. 3. taho 
ta'a, the ritual placing of a coconut in 
a canoe containing a dead body, M. A., 
p. 136: taha, there should be taho. 

taho 4. taho ta'a, used with poss. 3, to arrive at. 

tahola'i v. L, to wave in the air as a sign of 
triumph; tahola'i mata, to wave the club, 
tahola'inl tr. 



tahu awa tahu, U., to slip, to come loose (of 
bands) . 

tahu'i v. tr., to take to pieces. Florida tavuti, 
to remove. 

tahule S., n., a mosquito. 

tahulu the black mussel employed in the manu- 
facture of bonito hooks (le'i). Wai ni 
Tehulu, the lagoon at Ngorangora, 
Ulawa. 

ta'i 1. prefix of condition, ta'iere. 2. contrac- 
tion of ta'e i, up at; noko lai tti'i Sa'a, I 
am going up to Sa'a; ta"i kule, shore, 
beach, dry land, dinge ta'i hahona, the 
day after. 3. participial ending: rapu, 
rapute'i. 4. verb suffix used intransi- 
tively: aite'i, ma'ute'i. Mota tag. 

ta'iere adj., dizzy, faint; maaku e ta'iere, I am 
giddy. 

tai'esi neap tide. Maori tai, taia. 

ta'ihikuhiku S., tangled, raveled. 

ta'ini verbal suffix, used transitively, rapu, 
rapute'ini; wai e mapipi 'ohe 'oto la'inie 
kolune mwakano, whether the water ha* 
receded off the face of the earth. 

ta'ingelu S., ta'ingalu U., adv., all together, 
ta'ingelute n., used as adv., all together. 

ta'ipulo adj., reversed. 

ta'ipulosi v. tr., to reverse. 

ta'ipulopulo U., adj., to come short of. 

ta'irara adj., to be earnest over, to use per- 
suasion, 
ta'iraranga n. 

tMitei 1. U., v. tr., to close the eyes, e taiteia 
maana. 

ta'itei 2. v. i., to deny; used with poss. 3. 

ta'iteli n., flowering hibiscus of many varieties. 

ta'itelihe-(na) n., a border, tali 1. ta'iteli- 
hana hanue, boundary of land. 

ta'itelihite to be split, to have cracks in. tSli 1_ 

ta'itesi S., n., flesh meat; mu te'itesi ola, flesh. 

taka, ta'ataka 1. v., to come into flower; taka 
mala maimepusu, to flower like the 
maimepusu. n., takai dango, a flower;. 
ta'atakana, its flower. Wango taga, to 
be in leaf. 

taka 2. prefix of spontaneity, takaluhe. Mota. 
tava, Maori taka, takahe; Malagasy tafa. 

taka 3. taka 'irori, proverb of confusion of 
voices. 

takalo, ta'atakalo S., takatakalo U., to be lost, 
astray, to go astray, ha'atakalo. nou 
lae takalo, I am lost; liu takalo, to take 
a wrong road. 
takalonga v. n., an error, 
takaloha'ini tr., to mislay. Maori ngaro, 
Niue ngalo, lost. 

takaluhe to be loosened, to come loose. 

takara 1. to come unraveled, matakara. 2. 
to abound, to prosper. 3. maaku e 
takara Pulupulu, I saw stars, 
takarasi tr., to unravel, to unwind, to 

unlace, 
takarara to come undone. 

takararuru in a bunch, together, hele takaruru, 
hold in a bunch; taka 2. 

takarurume'ini tr.; hane takarurumt'inire, to- 



IOI 



TALO 



takarurume'ini (continued). 

shoot a number at one shot. Mota 
takar, to take between the fingers. 

takihe-(ku) a relative, a member of the same 
family; a takiheku, a kinsman of mine. 

tako, tatako to bewail, to lament, ha'itako'i. 
takonga U., takola S., v. n., lamentation, 
takosi tr. 

tako'i-(au) prep., toward (of persons and 
things), of swearing by. ere ni ha'apu 
tako'ie, swore by him. 
tatako 'i v. tr., to approach a person. 
melu tatako 'ie paro. 

taku, ta'uteku v. i., to receive, to entertain; 
used with poss. 3. taku ana pasi, 
grasp a bow. 
takuhi S., takusi U., tr. 
takuhila-(ku) gerund, 
t'akume'ini U., tr., to dun. 

takume S., n., a yam with fruit on the vine. 

takuruhi S., v. tr., to crowd. 

tala 1. n., path, road, way; tola ineu, my path; 
tola ni liu, path to travel; Tala Odo, the 
main ridge of Little Malaita; harii tala, 
S., hart ni tala, U., forks of the road; 
i kerekerena tala, beside the path; maai 
tala rue, street corner; nga jnui tala, 
paths; 'uri odohaana tala, walk straight 
along the path; walu tala ni Tolo, all 
the villages of Tolo. Mota sala, 
Florida hala, Maori ara. 

tala 2. (ku) n., place, room, asu lalai nge'ulaa, 
work for food; 'eli talana, dig his grave; 
ha'itale talaku, make room for me; horo 
i tala, to kill in revenge; horonga i talada, 
revenge for them; fioli talaku, buy my 
footing; le'u talaku, my place; lio tala, 
beware; na'o talana, lead the way for 
him; e lo'o talaku, room for me. Florida 
talana, put it. 

tala, ta'atala 3. n., a row, a string; talai heune, 
a row of teeth; talai puli, a string of 
white cowries; kulaa talai heune, to 
loosen the teeth. 

tala 4. to miss, to fail, diiu tala. hu'utala. 
pa'ewa ko 'ala tala, the shark bites at 
and misses (the last two days of the 
moon); pola tala, U., to fail. Mao. hara. 
talahi tr., e hute talahie qongine, born out 
of due time. Wango tara, Viti dhala. 

tala 5. v. tr., to sweep; talaa nume, a besom. 

talaa a littoral tree of hard wood. 

tala'ae v. i., to begin; used with genitive *, ni. 

e tala'ai 'aela, e tala'aeni 'aela, it is 

beginning to spoil; tala'ae ni lae, begin 

to go. 

tala'aeha-(na) U., n., the beginning of, 

because of. 
tala'ae (na) S., beginning from. 

tala'aehota S., v. i., to begin, 'aehota. 

talaahu'e v. tr., to guard, to protect, to catch 
a ball. ahu. 

tala'aela'a v. i., to frolic, to play. 

talahi U., v. tr., to miss, hula talahi, U., to fail 
to find a person at home; lio talahi, U., 
to look for in vain; ma'aru talahi, to go 
like winking. 



talahuli the place of; with poss. 3. tala 2. 
i talahuli emu, in your right place; mu 
le'u talahuliana, his wonted place. 

tala'i v. tr., to entice, ha'atala'i. tala'i keri, 
to catch octopus. 

tala'ilisi continuously; huni polo lala'ilisi 
huni'o, to worship Thee continuously. 

talama'i v. i., to prepare for a feast, to collect 
materials, talama'i wala, U., to act as 
mediator, 
talama'inge v. n. 
talama'ini tr. 

talani hataa'i sae talani, to be careful to. tala 2. 

talau 1. U., to be alight (of fire), to blaze, to 
spread (of ulcer), rara talau, twenty- 
first and twenty-second days of the 
moon. Florida talau, continually. 

talau, tatalau 2. v. i., to walk along a log. 
tatalauhe. San Cristoval tatarau. 

tale (au) 1. U., prep., to, toward (of persona 
and things); lae talea, go to him; tale i 
ola, on the side of what you may call it. 
Malo tele. 

tale 2. v. i., to lack; melu tale ola, we lack 
things. 
talenga S., talengaha U. (double noun 
ending), v. n., a shortage, famine. 

tale 3. to miss, to look in vain for. ha'itale. 
lio talea, S., to fail to see. 

tale'i mere, inferior; mu tale'i ola, inferior 
things, merely, wantonly; nou tale'i 
lae mola, I just went for no reason; tale'i 
teu, to act wantonly; tale'i teunge, wan- 
ton mischief; tale'i 'o'i'o'i, to trouble 
oneself; e tale'i meimeile'ini, he was in 
destitution; tale'i inu mola'a, just drink 
without price. 

tali 1. v. i., to be bounded by, to end, to begin. 
ta'itelihe. lai teli, up to, until. San 
Cristoval tori, to reach; Florida taligu, 
back, again; Niue tali, until, since. 

tali 2. lama tali, to free a tree of creepers; t'dli 
wale, to strip the skin of cane (wale). 

talihe (ku) n., ere talihe, to defend oneself in 
speech, to deny, ere (lado) taliheku, make 
my defence; ne'isae talihe, to reach in 
thought. 

talihite cf. ta'itelihile. 

talihuu 'ano talihuu, to sink out of sight, to 
go down for good. 

talili v. tr., to transgress, to work wickedness. 
ha'ilelili. 
talilinge v. n. Wango tariri. 

talimaa v. i., to start, to come to an end; 
talimaa ana malwlo 'ie, S., from now on; 
talimaa 'oto nihou, U., up till now. 

talisi U., v. i., to be awake, to wake up. 
ha'atalisi. 

talo 1. a shield made of wood. 

talo 2. a tree whose bark is used for cerements. 

talo 3. v. tr., to tithe; talo ahu, to amass; 
e taloa huehuana dangona mwakana, he 
gives tithes of the trees of the field; talo 
lilisi, to offer a certain portion as a 
sacrifice. 

talo 4. U., talo wau i 'esi, to follow the coats 
by sea. 



TALO 



I02 



talo 5. talo nunu, to photograph, 
talo 6. U., v. i., to spread (of news). S., taro. 
taloha (na), tataloha (na) v. n., news, 
taloha'ini tr., to spread news, to proclaim, 
taloha 'i v. i. and partic. Wango taro, 
Samoa lala. 
talo 7. talo li'isi, at irregular intervals. 
talo 8. talo ahu, a fighting company, a war 

band, talo 1. 
talohi v. tr., to guard against a blow, to ward 

off, to shield, 
talo'ili U., taro'iri S., a paddle-shaped club 

with a long handle, used also as a shield. 

Guppy, "Solomon Islands" p. 74. 
taluhi 1. to draw out water, to draw at a well. 

cf. ddnu. 2. U., Su'u i Teluhi'a, the 

boat harbor at Mwado'a, Ulawa. 
tamwa prefix of condition. Mota tanta. 
tamwaodo v. i., to be clear, straightforward, 
tanauhi ha'atanauhi, v. tr., to decoy a ghost or 

animal by food, 
tane S., adv., of place; tane mat, here; tane wan, 

there; tane ta'i salo, up in the sky. 
tanga (ku) n., the crotch of the legs, matanga. 

Mota sanga, Sulu sanga, branch; Viti 

sanga. 
tangaa n., a span; v., to span with the hand. 

Viti dhanga. 
tangahulu numeral, ten: used only in counting; 

tangahulu ana, tenth. Mota sangavul, 

Florida hangavulu, Maori ngahuru, 

Niue hongofulu. 
tangalau 1. numeral, one hundred: used with 

genitive i, ni. tangalai mwane, an 

hundred men. San Cristoval tangarau. 
tangalau 2. niu tangalau, a heavily laden coco- 
nut. 'Ahe i Niu Tangalau, a tide-rip 

between Ulawa and Sa'a. 
tangatanga n., a forked stick, tanga. 
tangi 1. a basket made of split cane to hold 

canarium nuts for drying in the smoke 

(ngali maa). 
tangi 2. a hand of bananas, used with genitive 

si, tangisi hudi. Mota tingiu. 
tangi 3. to cleave, to rive, to split a log in two. 
tango S., used with genitive ni; tangoni mwela, 

all the children. 
tao v. i., to be upset (of the stomach); 'ieku 

e tao, I am sick at the stomach, 
taoha n., men's club-house on the beach used 

for stowing canoes. Wrongly spelt oha 

in M. A., p. 174. hide e 'a' a haahia 

taoha, the creeper had climbed all over 

the club-house; niu ni taoha, a palm 

(Nipa fruticans). Wango oha. 
taotaoro n., a tree from San Cristoval planted 

in the villages for shade, 
tapa, ta'atapa 1. v. L, to cut with a blow, to 

reap; tapa tekela'ini, to cut off and 

destroy; nahi la'atapa korn, a sickle. 
tapali tr., tapali hui, to cut off the stems 

of taro. San Cristoval taba, Maori 

tapa, tapahi. 
tapa ta'atapa 2. tapa h&'i'olisi, to exchange 

words, to converse. 
tapa 3. prefix of condition, tapa'oli, iapausu. 

Mota tava, Lau taba. 



tapaa a tree of soft wood used for making food 
bowls, the milk tree of North Queens- 
land. 

tapaika tobacco (English); ng'du tapaika, to 
smoke tobacco. 

tapala'a U., adj., abounding, ha'atapala'a. 
Wango tabarasi. 

tapaliu v. i., to pass by, to pass across, to cross. 

tapa'oli v. i., to exchange, to ransom. 

tapa'olite (ku) v. n., tapa'oliteku, in 

exchange for me. 
tapa'olisi tr. 
tapa'olisila-(ku) gerund. 

tapausu v. i., to pierce, to go right through; 
used with poss. 3. 

tapi U., v. tr., to chop, to cut down, 'aitepi. 
San Cristoval tabi. 

tapo v. i., to grab, to catch hold, to lay hands 
on; tapo mae, to seize weapons; tapo 
tahisi, to grab and miss, 
tapoli tr. 
tapolila-(ku) gerund. 

taqaosi S., to happen to, to do harm to. 

taqaruru U., bronze- wing dove, 'aqa 1. 

tara 1. v. L, to drift at sea, to be set by currents. 
malar aha. 

tara 2. adj., prefix, tararuru. 

tara 3. v. i., to skim, to pass over the surfaceo 

ta'atara wai, to skim the water, dragon-fly. 

tara'a adj., uunu tara'a huuilume, burn up the 
village. 

tara'asi continuously, straight on; lae lara'asi, 
to go straight on. 

tarakoni v. tr., to collect, to gather together. 

tarapiu to be blistered (of hands or feet). 

tararuru v. i., to be gathered together, to be 
associated with, to be united with; hele 
tararuru, take hold all together; saeda 
ka'a tararuru pe'ie, their hearts were 
not whole with him. Wango taruru. 

tarasi v. tr., to skim along the surface of; 
tarasie 'asi ana hote, feather the oar. 

tarasi oko a bird, cuckoo. 

tarasimwa'a adj., skinned, broken (of skin). 

tarau, tatarau v. i., to go straight on, to con- 
tinue; continuously, liu tarau, to go 
straight ahead. Florida talau. 

tarauhe'ini U., v. tr., to continue with, to 
persevere in. talau. 2. to light a lamp. 

taraure'i partic, continuously, continually; 
to continue on, to go straight on. 

taraure'ini U., v. tr., used as a preposition; 
right on through, throughout. 

tari, ta'iteri 1. v. tr., to gain, to obtain, tdri 
olanga, U., tari'e olanga, S., riches. 

tari 2. v. L, to stick fast in a tree or a noose. 
Mota tali, a. rope; Maori tari, a noose. 

tari 3. U., v. tr., to launch a canoe; moro tdria 
Paro 'iola i 'esi, you two launch the 
canoe into the sea. 
tari 4. tari sa'o, to split the sides off sago-palm 

leaves to make bird arrows (topd). 
tarie'ini wala II., to commit fornication. 

tarie'ini walanga v. n. 
tariho v. tr., to watch for turtles coming up 

to lay, tarihoa honu. 
tariki U., to stride. 



103 



TAUTO'O 



taro, tataro S., talo U., to spread (of news), to 

proclaim, 
taroha, tataroha (na) v. n.. news; tarohana 

e taro poi, the news has reached here, 
tataroha'i'e adj., used as n., news, 
tarohi tr., to come to one's ears. 
taroha'ini tr., to proclaim. 
tarohainila-(ku) gerund, 
taro'iri S. cf. talo'ili, U. 
taroisuli U., to add to. 
tSsi 1. v. i., to slip, to slide, to glance off. 
tasi 2. v. i., to strip off the outer skin; niu tesi, 

a thin-skinned variety of coconut, 
tata 1. adjectival prefix of condition, tata- 

qeluqelu. Wango ta, Florida ta, Viti ta. 
tata 2. v. i., to scatter, Shutata, tataa'ini. 
tataa S., to fade away, to wither. 
tataa'ini v. tr., to scatter, to sow broadcast, to 

shake out, to unfurl; lataa'i 'asi, to 

shake off; ere tataa'ini, to curse. Wango 

adaraini. 
tata'ala adj., bad. ta'a 6, la 4. ha'atata'ala. 

raramanga ana i'onga tata'ala, rebuke 

because of lasciviousness; si'ohaaku e 

tata'ala, I am in evil plight, 
tata'alanga n., evil; tnwaanie mu tata- 

'alanga, from evil, 
tata'alaha n., used with poss. 3. tata- 

'alahaana mu i'e, the bad fish, lit., its 

badness the fish, 
tata'alasi with dau, kele, to do harm to; 

horo tata'alasi, to kill without mercy, 
tatahana S., adv., in a little while, almost; 

tatahana 'oto muini ke'i helesie, some 

almost did it. 
tatahiohio to stagger about. 
tatahiruhiru headlong. 

tataipeipe v. i., to wallow, to roll about in a fit. 
tataisuisu to run along atop a wave (of a canoe), 
tataiteu S., lio tataiteu, to appear beautiful, 
tataku S., to be effeminate; hele tataku, to be a 

novice. 
tatalau 1. as talau 2. 2. U., in succession; hele 

tatalau, to do in succession; 'unu 

tatalau ana, to rehearse in order, 
tatahoradi U., adj., falling, of a meteor, tata 1. 
tatalauhe v. n., a means of crossing over, a 

bridge, a log over a stream. 
tatale U., v. tr., to go through or carry (of the 

sound of a conch); walana 'Shuri e 

latalea walu tala i Tolo, the sound of the 

conch went through all the villages in 

Tolo. 
Tatamwane a Tatamwane, a proper name, lit., 

scatter men. 
tatanga n., used as v. i., to be scattered, dis- 
persed, 
tatangasi tr., to be scattered over; tata- 

ngasie mu ote, scattered over the low- 
lands. 
tatanga'ini tr., to scatter, to disperse. 

ha'atalanga'ini. 
tatanga'i partic. h&'itatanga'i. 
tatangalungalu U., to be excited, 
tataqeluqelu headlong, head over heels. 

ha'atataqelu. 
tatara S., 'unu tatara, wala tatara, tradition. 



tatara'a adj., straight, tara'a. 

tataraaraa horonga tataraaraa, indiscriminate 
slaughter. 

tatarau 'unu latarau, gossip. 

tatarisi U., the monitor lizard (Varanus 
indicus). 

tataro v. L, to stumble, ha'atataro. 'aeku 
e tataro ana, my foot stumbled thereon. 

tatate'ete'e v. i., to bump, to collide. 

tatau U., v. i., to hurry, to hasten; kira'elu 'asi 
taleu weu, they then scurried away. 

tatawero'a S., adj., for naught, in vain, 
unprofitably. 

tatawisi, tatawisiwisi v. i., to run along on the 
top of a wave, to speed along. 

t3u U., dSu S. 1. v. i., to do, to act, to make, to 
be about to do, to endeavor, e t&u ni 
lae, he made to go; t&u muni, to en- 
deavor; t&u ha'aro'i, to find; tau 'ei, to 
break firewood; tau 'ae, to hurry; t&u 
lakelake, to give oneself airs; t&u rarahi, 
to urge, to incite; t&u rarahinga, impor- 
tunity; tale'i teu, S., to act wantonly; 
tale'i teunge, mischief; no'ileu, to delay; 
'onileu, to delay; h&'iteu, to hasten. 

tMu 2. v. i., 'ape e t&u, the net has fish enclosed 
in it. 

tau 3. t&u ta'a, to issue, to arrive at; used with 
poss. 3. e t&u ta'a ana, it issued in; 
raa tau ta'a mala sato, shine out like the 
sun; t&u taha, M. A., p. 136. 'au 4. 

tau 4. ha'alau, v. i., to be far off, distant. 

tauhe S., n., a feast. 

taule'ini v. tr., to get ready things for a journey, 
to make preparations. 
taule'i v. i. 
taule'inge v. n., preparation. 

tauma'i, taume'i U., conjunction, used in sup- 
posititious cases; if, supposing that. 
ana kira 'a taume'i lae, supposing that 
they go. 

taumanga n., a pudding made of pounded taro 
and coconut milk (oni) cut up into little 
squares; the taro is first roasted on the 
coals, then pounded, then rolled fiat 
and the coconut milk added, the squares 
are then rolled in leaves and roasted; 
t&umanga sususu, taro pudding not cut 
into blocks but left whole. 

taunge'ini, tauteunge'ini v. tr., to persecute. 
taunge'inila-(ku) gerund. 

tauri, tauritaha, taurini U. 1. v. i., to speak thus, 
to do thus; used of reported speech. 
nge na'asi t&uri, then said I. 

tauri, tauteuri 2. v. tr., to sew, to stitch; t&uri 
to' oni, to sew clothes; t&uri to'oninge, 
v. n. t&urilana, gerund, 
tauteurite v. n., a seam, a sewing; maai 
teuteurite, a seam. 

ta'utepunge n., slander. 

tauteu S., adv., carelessly, wantonly, unguard- 
edly, blasphemously. Wango tautau. 

Tauto'o U., a Poro Tauto'o, a legendary person 
belonging to Su'uholo and killed at San 
Cristoval in a raid. His head is said to 
have arrived back at Su'uho'o by 
magic (s&ru'a) and to have been found 



TATJTO'O 



IO4 



Tauto'o (continued). 

on the beach. A representation of him 
cut in coral formed one of the sacred 
things at Su'uholo. 

tawa an opening in the shore reef, used in the 
names of landing-places, maalitaua, 
malawa. Tawaodo, Tawaideu, Tawa 
ni Mae, Tawa ni 'Ehi'e; names of har- 
bors. Mao. awa, channel. 

Tawaine an inlet in 'Olu Su'u, west of Cape 
Zelee. 

Tawana a small pass just south of Roasi Bay, 
Little Malaita. 

tawari v. i., to strike out with the hands in 
swimming. 

Tawasipua U., a landing-place at 'Olu Malau. 

tawau n., a shrine, a sanctuary. San Cristoval 
tawao. 

te S., to speak, to say, to do; used of reported 
speech, tauri. e teuri, he said; e teuri 
taa, what did he say. nge nesi teuri, then 
said I; neke teurine ta'ane, I shall cer- 
tainly do thus. 

tea 1. v. i., to make speeches, to cry out in a 
loud voice, to declaim. Lau tea, to 
speak. 2. to bark, of a dog. 
teangi tr., to bark at, to bay. 

teanga'i U., v. i., to offer prayers to a ghost, 
teanga'inga v. n., prayer, worship, 
teanga'ini tr. 

tee, teetee 1. v. i., to tick, to tap, to smite, to 
hammer, to throb, 
teeli tr., teeli pelo, to ring the bell. 

te'e, te'ete'e 2. adv., for good, completely; 
te'ete'e huu, for good, finally, forever, 
abiding; mango te'ete'e, finished for good 
and all. 
te'ela'i partic, mango te'ela'i, quite finished. 
Lau tee fuu. 

te'e 3. Poo te'e, kire ka'a poo te'e ada, they did 
not trouble about them; su'asu'ate'e, 
to be anxious about. Lau tete, manata 
tetea, to be anxious. 

te'e 4. ha'ile'e, with whole skin, unpeeled. 
te'ete'e 2. 

te'ela'i v. i., to set; melu te'ela'i 'ae, our feet 
stand; mala nga poo ko te'ela'i ana, even 
if a beast come into contact with it. 
te'ela'ini tr., ko susue'inie nimana te'ela'inie 
ngidune, stretched out his hand and 
touched his lips. 

teetee 1. a sacred inclosure planted with dili 
at the door of the dwelling-house or 
toohi or an inclosure made round the 
central pillar into which scraps of food 
or fruit skins may be thrown without 
fear of their being used for purposes of 
witchcraft. 

te'ete'e (ku) 2. n., skin, bark, husk, rind. 
ha'ite'e. te'ete'ena sapeku, skin of my 
body. 2. n., a marine shell. Santa 
Cruz be. 

tehe n., a bird, the chicken-hawk. San Cris- 
toval lehe. 

tei S. 1. n., the place where; with locative *, 
itei. U., hei. itei ngeena, what place 
is that? 'o 'ure itei, where are you from, 



tei 1 (continued). 

whence come you? 'oko lai tei, whither 

are you going? hai tei, down where? 

mwala 'urei tei ni 'ie, from whence are 

these people. Mota vea, Maori hea. 
te'i 2. to draw water; te'i wei, to draw water; 

te'i weinge, a drawing of water; te'ie 

rata, to fill the bamboo water-carrier; 

nou te'ie i 'Ei'ei, I drew water from the 

spring 'Ei'ei. Mota tav. 
te'i 3. n., the bonito hook, made of tahulu or 

hapa or roa or 'ime, used with a rod in 

the bow of the canoe. 
teile'ini v. tr., to wag, to move from side to side. 

e leile'inie qa'une, he wags his head, 
te'inge'ini v. tr., to proffer, to call attention 

to, to point out. 
teitei mother, aunt; used in the vocative; used 

in affectionate address by a parent to 

female child, cf. mama'a. a teitei, 

mother, when speaking of a particular 

person; teitei ineu, my dear mother. 

Mota veve, Efate tete, Alite tetelia, Lau 

te. 
teke v. i., to fall, to drop to the ground. 

ha'ateke. ngdu teketeke, to drop crumbs 

of food when eating, to eat like a 

cockatoo, 
tekela'ini tr., used with preceding verb, as 

dau, kite, tola, etc.; to knock, to sweep 

and lose; hu'e tekela'ini, to uproot and 

destroy; tapa tekela'ini, to cut off and 

destroy, 
tekela'i partic, fallen and lost, misplaced 

and lost. Florida taga, Wango tegeraini. 
tekuruhi S., v. tr., to close in on a person, 
temweri U., hele temweri, to touch, 
tengotengo v. i., to droop, to fall to one side, 

to hang loose, ha'atengotengo. 
teo v. i., to be humble, lowly, helpless; used 

with poss. 3. muini e teo ada, the 

humble; i'o ni teo, to be humble in 

demeanor, 
teqe n., a bamboo, hai teqe. 
tere 1. v. i., to peck; tere qa'asi, to peck and 

break, 
tere 2. to flap; tere 'apa'apa, to flap the wings. 

terehi teterehi, tr., to fan. tetere. 
tereha'ini cf. mwakatereha'ini, to flout, to put 

to scorn, 
tero v. i., to hang down, to depend; to'oni e tero 

i 'ano, robes hanging down to the 

ground; tero ngidu, to pout the lip. 
teroliu excessive, beyond what is fitting; qd'u 

teroliu, the second finger. 
teru cf. suliteru, needle, 
tete 1. v. tr., to pull out the contents of a bag, 

to rifle; tete 'asi, to empty out contents. 

Florida tete, Mota sese. 
tete 2. to give money, to make a subscription, 
tete 3. to flutter; tete 'apa'apa. 
tete 4. to be spilled; hena e tete 'uru'uru, the 

lime is spilled. Fagani tete, loo.se. 
tete 5. v. tr., to lead by the hand. 
tete 6. a stone fence; so'o tete, to build a stone 

fence; kumwesie tete, to take down a 

stone wall. 



105 



TOLI 



tete 7. S., pili tete, to oppress, to tread down. 

tetela-(ku) gerund., with ku, mu, na, etc., 

pili tetelara, or pili telelada, oppress 

them. 

Tetele the ridge at the head of the river 

Walo'a'a. 
tetelenga U., a tabu, 
tetere n., a fan. 

tetewa'a S., adj., very long, very tall. tewa. 
teu n., the half shell of a coconut, cf. saukai. 
teuri, teurine, teuritaa. cf. le, nge nesi teuri, then 
said I ; 'oto nge a Dora esi teuri, then Dora 
said; 'otonousi teuri, then said I. 
tewa to be long, tall; okolu tewa, twelfth day 
of the moon, 
tewanga v. n., length, height. Wango tewa. 
tewatewa U., very tall, very long, 
toha to rejoice. 

toha'ini tr., to give oneself airs, to be proud, 

to speak well of. ha'atohai'ni. 
tohala'i partic, rejoicing in spirit. 
tohala'inge v. n., rejoicing; i'o ni tohala'inge, 
to be rejoicing; tolaha ni tohala'inge, 
exultation, 
tohe, ha'itohe to dispute. Wango tohe, to 

deny, to reject, 
toho, totoho S., tohotoho U., 1 . to measure with a 
rod, to measure. 
tohola-(ku) gerund. 

totohota S., tohotohota U., v. n., a measure; 
e rapute'inie totohota, he laid the measure 
along. Mota towo. 
toho 2. v. i., to quarrel, to scold, 
tohu, to'utohu S., tohutohu U. 1. v. tr., to chop 
down, to fell; tohu hiteli, to cleave 
asunder, to rive. 
tohula-(ku) gerund., ro maai tohulana, two 

choppings. 
tohule'ini tr., to chop down, to fell, 
tohu 2. v. tr., to build a house; noko lo'ulohu 
nume, I am housebuilding; noko tohue 
nga nume, I am building a house. 
tohula-(ku) gerund, 
tohu (ku) S. 3. used to express initiative in 
action, of one's own accord, ha'atohu. 
tohuku, of my own accord; e i'o tohune, 
he lived free, under no restrictions, his 
own master; 'tire tohune, to desire, 
tohule'ini 1. v. tr., to chop down, to fell. 2. 

v. tr., to point at, to accuse. 
to'i v. tr., to suspend, to hang up; likisi to'i, a 
mouse. 
to'inge v. n., something hung up. San 
Cristoval toki. 
toki U., v. tr., to hold fast, to grasp tightly. 
tola, totola 1. v. i., to carry, ha'atola. tola 
hi'e, to be heavy laden; tola siwe, to 
kill and earn the blood-money; tola 
mauri, with poss. 3, to carry captive; tola 
hd'ileku, to carry in one piece; suli tolai 
lue, shoulder-blade; ka tola aliho'i ana, 
to recover. 2. tola keni, to marry; tola 
keninge, marriage; tola rue, tola 'olu, 
to have two, three, wives. 3. to be in 
the doing, in the making, being carried 
out. 4. to obey, to give attention to; 
used with poss. 3. tolai suli, to obey; 



tola (continued). 

tolai suli wala, to obey orders; totola i 'ae, 
to follow a master; tola koni, to receive; 
tolai sulie manatana, according to his 
nature. 5. to affect adversely; nunu e 
tola, there was a famine; hi'olonga e tola, 
there was a famine; e tola 'aela aku, it 
was bad for me. 6. to set (of a current) ; 
'ahe kosi tola, there is a strong current. 

7. to act; tola mala pu'o, to behave like 
a heathen; tola hu'o, to lay a snare; tola 
lilisi, to walk about; tola lahani, to 
proclaim; tola ahonga, with poss. 3, to 
tempt; totola 'ohi, to search for; tola 
suu'i, to importune; kire tola r or or a 
ana tahinge, they fled away precipitately. 

8. tola 'akalo, to exorcise spirits; tola 
ha'area, U., to send out an odor on all 
sides; e tola liuliu, it has become general. 

9. to curdle (of coconut milk oni) . 
tolanga v. n., a burden, a carrying; tolanga 

e poponga, a load hard to carry. 
tolala-(ku) gerund., carrying. Wango tor a. 

tolaa'i v. tr., to entreat, to importune, to vex. 
tola. 

tolaha (ku) v. n., custom, way, manner, 
example, kind, disposition; tolaha ni 
tohala'inge, exultation. 

tolaka a banana with the fruit bunch growing 
erect, a plantain; hudi tolaka, a plan- 
tain. 

tolana S., tolani U., tolana'i, tolangani U., 
adv., immediately, forthwith; precedes 
verb. Wango tora. 

tole, totole v. tr., to fetch, to carry, to bring, 
with directives m'di and wau; to affect, 
to be the matter with; kire mwa'e tolea, 
they consented to carry it; hi'olonga e 
tolea hdnue, famine was over the land; 
tole soinge, to raise a cry; tole mango, to 
hold the breath. San Cristoval tore. 

toli, to'itoli S., totoli U. 1. v. i., to sink, to go 
to the bottom, ha'itoli. 2. to fish 
with lines in deep sea; hinou ni toli, a 
hook for deep-sea fishing; i'e ni toli, 
deep-water fish; lai toli, to be going to 
fish out at sea. 3. to shed leaves; 
'apalolo e toli, the banyan has shed its 
leaves; toli sesu, to cast unripe fruit. 
4. expresses downward motion; siho 
toli; lio toli mei, look down here; ooho 
toli, to fall headlong; qa'u toli, to be 
going north or west. 5. to lay a snare; 
toli hune, to set a snare; toli loosi, toli 
loosinge, a charm set in the path; toli 
sehu, a death charm prepared with lime 
and set in the path; toli uraa'inge, to 
offer sacrifice; toli puri, used with poss. 
3, to leave, to turn the back on; toli 
'iola, with ana or i, to steer for, to lay 
a canoe on a course; toli reoreo, to inlay 
with nautilus shell. 6. of enduring 
state; i'o toli, to be quiescent; toli 
susule'i, to endure; toli maai, to allow; 
dau toli huni, ddu toli mwaani, to be 
subject to, to submit to; toli to'o, 
to be patient; toli rako, patient; toli 



TOLI 



1 06 



toll (continued). 

rakonga, patience; toli rohu, to cease 
speaking; mango toll, to faint; toli ereere, 
to cease speaking; moutoli, to cease. 
7. ere toli, to revile. 8. to refrain from 
certain foods in mourning; toli ola, toli 
uhi, toli ngeulaa. 9. the bass drum in 
Para ni 'o'o. 10. toli 'epu, to fast, to 
observe a tabu; hanua e toli 'epu 
isulirii'elu, the village was fasting on 
their account. 

toliaa v. i., to leave off, to cease, to desist. 

toli'asi v. tr., to yield, to renounce, to remit, 
to grant, toli'asilana, gerund. 

tolimaa S., a mark, sign, proof. 

tolinge (ku) a portion, a share (of food at a 
feast); qa'u ni tolinge, the chief portion 
of food. 

tolingi 1. v. tr., to assign a portion of food to 
a person at a feast. 2. to permit, to 
grant. 3. hele tolingi, to hold in sub- 
jection. 4. to inlay with shell. 

tolo (na) 1. a hill; the hill country, mu toloi 
henue, the hill folk; 'ure ta'i tolona hanue, 
from out of the hills; i Tolona Hanue, 
a district of Little Malaita; mu Tolona 
Hanue, the people of that district. 

2. i Tolo, in strangers' country, Big 
Malaita; mu Tolo, people of Su'u Rodo 
or of Big Malaita; ra'e ni Tolo, a spear 
covered with plaiting of colored grass. 

3. to be a bushman, to be ignorant, 
uncouth, nou tolo, nou tolona hanue. 

4. the languages of Big Malaita, e mala 
Tolo. Wango toro, hill; Maori toro- 
puki, mound; Viti koro, heap of sand; 
Mailu oro, hill; New Guinea lolo, tola, 
kola; Florida tolo, to rise up. cf. totolo. 

tolo 5. 'u'u tolo, a piece of bread. 

Tolosi a district of Little Malaita above Mara 

Masiki Channel, 
tomwa, tomwatomwa v. i., to walk on tiptoe, 

to limp. 
tomwaso a shrub with large leaves which grows 

in clearing; huui tomwaso, a thicket of 

the shrub. 
tono, totono U., v. i., to drink, to drown. 

ha'atonohi, konokono. tono qaaqi'a, the 

water tastes brackish; tonohaana a 

Kalitaalu, Kalitaalu's drinking-place at 

Lenga, Ulawa. 
tononga v. n. 

tonobi tr., to drink anything. 
tonola-(ku) gerund. 
tongo 1. v. i., to begin to rise, to turn (of tide); 

e tongo 'oto, the tide has turned; 'esi kele 

tongo, the tide is rising a little. 2. take 

tongo, U., to sip. 
tongolili v. i., to straggle, to be long drawn out, 

one after another, irregular. Mota HI, 

astray, fall away from, 
too, tootoo 1. to be shallow (of the sea); mu 

le'u e tootoo, shallows, shoals. 
to'o, to'oto'o 2. to hit, to encounter, to succeed, 

to have, to be rich, to heal up. ha'ato'o. 

dau to'o, with poss. 3, to hit; sae to'o, 

with poss. 3, to desire, to wish to have; I 



to'o 2 (continued). 

to'o eleelena, its tip, the top; to'ohaa, mu 
to'ohaa, money; to'o hu'e, to have a 
wife; to'o hu'anga, marriage (of a man); 
e ka'a to'o kaona, bottomless; to'o 
mango, to have breath; to'o ola, to'o 
olanga, to have possessions, prosperity; 
to'o poro, to have a husband; to'o 
Poronga, marriage (of a woman); to'o 
q&'u, to carry on the head; to'o sape, to 
have the shape, the appearance of; 
e to'o talaku, room for me; kire to'oana 
keni mwala ko holie, they own the girl 
who is being bought. 3. to be, to be 
fixed, to set (of colors in dyeing); i'o 
to'o, to be fixed; i'o konito'o, to remain, 
to rest assured; e to'o mou, e to'o mou- 
tana, to cease, to be broken off; toli 
to'o, to be patient; ere to'o, to be correct 
in statement; 'o ere to'o, verily; to'o 
lelengana, not aroused from sleep; lio 
to'o, to find; lio sae to'o, to favor; e to'o 
i saena, it came into his mind; qongiku 
e to'o mone 'oto, my time has come; 
to'o md'ume'utana, terrifying; to'o 
nunu'e, spotted, speckled; to'o pulo- 
pulo, specked. 4. to be related to; 
melu to'o ada, they are our relations. 
5. to'o hili, with poss. 2, to'o hili nada, 
they alone apart from others. San 
Cristoval too. 
to 'obi tr., to desire, to be set upon (of the 
mind); saeku e to'ohie, my heart is set 
upon it. 

to'o 6. prefixed to numerals, at a time; to'o 
ta'e ini, one at a time, singly; to'o ta'e 
ola, objects singly; to'o ro ola, objects 
by twos; to'o ro nime, with just one's 
two hands, unarmed; to'o ta'e maholo, 
sometimes; to'o 'enite 'oto, how many 
altogether? Mota sogo, Samoa to'a. 

to'o 7. 1,000 (of fish teeth), to'oani i'e. Lau 
too, 1,000. 

to'o 8. to desire, sareto'o. 

to'oa'i 1. v. i., to be desirous; sae to'oa'i ola, 
avarice. 
to'oa'ila-(ku) gerund., sae to'oa'ilana, 
coveting. 

to'oa'i 2. ha'u to'oa'i he'iliu, wandering stars, 
planets. 

to'ohaa money, whether shell or teeth of dogs 
or porpoises, mu to'ohaa. 'olisi to'ohaa, 
to exchange money for goods, to buy. 

to'oha'i to'oha'i qe'u ana, to be entangled in, 
to be mixed up in. 

toohe'o small hooks of shell (roa) used without 
bait for catching sardines (asaunge); 
the fishing is conducted from a stage 
built out in the water (had) ; kola toohe'o, 
to cut the hooks. 

toohi men's club-house in the village; the 
unmarried men sleep and eat there, 
strangers are entertained in it and the 
married men foregather there, cf. 
Para'ita. 

to'ohi'uhi'ula'a adj., spotted, variegated in 
color. 



io7 



TOTONGA 



o'ohuu 1. v. i., to be true, real; mu ola 'oto 
to'ohuu, real true things; e to'ohuu 'oto, 
it is a fact. 2. S., exclamation, truly. 
to'ohuunge (ku) S., n., being true; to'ohuu- 
ngemu, your very self; to'ohuungana 
tne'i ola, the real thing. 

to'ohuunge'i S. 1. adv., expresses certainty, 
precedes the verb, nou to'ohuunge'i 
lae, I surely went; nou ka'a to'ohuunge'i 
leesie, I surely did not see it. 2. adj., 
real, to'ohuunge'i lemi, full moon; 
to'ohuunge'i oku, third day after full 
moon; to'ohuunge'i saiana, his real name. 

to'ola-(ku), to'oto'ola-(ku) n., property; 
to'olamu no'one ada, thine they are; 
to'olana 'oto, his property; meaka'elu 
to'ola ka'elu, our tongues are our own; 
noko koni'o ana to'olaku, I endow thee 
with my property; hunt ngolie to'oto- 
'olana,to destroy his property after death. 

to'oliu U., v. i., to exceed, exceedingly. 

to'olupu U., with poss. 3, to hit, to come into 
contact with. lupu. 

to'oma'i v. i., to gaze at, to stare. 
to'oma'ila-(ku) gerund. 

to'oni 1. to clothe, to put on, to wear; to'oni 
haahi sape, to clothe the body; -to'oni 
ana mu to'oni, to clothe with clothes. 
2. to pack, to stow. 3. n., clothes, 
vestiture. hideli to'oni, to wash clothes 
by pounding; mu lehu ni to'oni, worn- 
out clothes, rags; to'oni pono maa, 
patched clothes; to'oni 'o'omae, mourn- 
ing clothes; roro to'oni, a clothes belt; 
t'auri to'oni, to sew clothes, tduri 
to'oninge, v. n. Mota sogon, Fagani 
togoni, Florida kogoni. 

to'oni 4. v. L, to plant taro, to'oni hui. 

to'onunu'e adj., spotted, speckled. 

toonga U., n., mark, seal, tabu mark. 

to'onga'i to'onga'i omo, to draw an arrow on a 
bow. 

to'onga'ini v. tr., to dip, to insert. 

to'ongi v. tr., to dip, to dye. 

to'oqa'u with poss. 3, to carry on the head. 

to'ora-(na, ni) U., laa e to'orana, a rich man. 
to'ola. 

to'ora'ini U., v. tr., to appease. 

toorao S., toowao U., a pigeon with crest and 
long tail (Turacaena crassirostris) which 
cries in the morning and the evening. 

to'orodo U., blue, black, dark in color, rodo. 

to'osu'a U., with poss. 3, to stumble, to be 
offended, ha'ato'osu'a. 

to'ota'e one at a time; to'ota'e ola, one thing 
here and there. 

to'ote'e S., to be careful, anxious; ne'isae 
to'ote'e, to be worried. 

tootoo 1. a small shell hook used for whiffing 
sardines. 

to'oto'o 2. v. i., to be rich, to'o 2. 

to'oto'oa'i S., mu to'oto'oa'i wala, real words, 
fit and proper words. 

topa 1. n., a bird arrow made from the midrib 
of the sago-palm leaf. cf. tdri sa'o. 

topa 2. v. tr., to cut into slices; topa uhi, to 
slice yams for planting. 



topo v. tr., to appoint, to assign; e topoa 

hd'idinge, to appoint a day. 
topo'i U., v. i., to omit, to fail to do; e lopo'i 

'unua, to fail to say. 
torangi v. tr., to urge on, to incite, hd'itorangi. 
toretore U., ha'atoretore maa, to act stealthily, 
tori 1. v. i., to cut the end off, to earmark pigs; 

to circumcise (late use); tori poo, to 

earmark pigs; Poo tori, an earmarked 

pig. Maori tori. 
tori 2. n., a stick with which to carry burdens, 

a yoke; tori ineu e hata, my yoke is easy, 
tori 3. v. tr., to wear over the left shoulder as 

a bandolier, 
toro 1. n., the daughter of a chief; toro i'emelu, 

our chief's daughter; keni toro, the lady, 
toro 2. v. tr., to exalt, cf. tolo. 

torola-(ku) gerund. 
toro 3. v. i., to thrust; toro wawa, to shoot out 

the lips. Maori toro. 
toro, totoro 4. to transfix with a spear, 
toromi tr. 

toromila-(ku) gerund. 
Toro'a the hill at the head of the river Walo'a'a. 
Torokou the village on the hill above Sa'a. 
torokou'e, totorokou'e n., a hill, eminence, kou. 
toteu v. i., to cackle (of fowls). 
toto 1. v. tr., to pay a fine, to pay a fine to a 

husband's relatives when his wife leaves 

him; hu'ena hire totoa, they paid the 

fine for the woman; toto epa hdnue, a 

sacrifice on behalf of a sick person. 

M. A., p. 137. toto 'akalo, to exorcise 

a ghost; toto ahu'i, to pay a fine on 

behalf of; ni'i toto, to make a free gift; 

hele toto, to get for nothing, 
totonga v. n., a fine, a ransom. Niue totongi. 
toto 2. v. L, to be lacking; nga me'i ola e toto 

'amiu, lacked ye anything? 
toto 3. to dry up, to soak into; mu wei e toto 

mango 'oto, the water has dried right 

up; toto oaoa, to permeate; toto aropu, 

S., to sip. Motu dodo, to subside; 

Viti toto, to saturate. 
toto 4. v. i., fitting, proper; maholo e toto, the 

proper time. 
toto 5. maa tolo, to expect, to await. 

totori U., tr., maa totori, to await, h&'itotori. 
totorila-(ku) gerund. Wango totori. 
toto 6. prefix of condition, tototala, totoweru'e. 
toto'ala adj., resinous, glutinous. Polynesian 

toto, blood, 
toto'atala S., adv., in vain, tala 2. 
totohi 1. to sink into, be absorbed in, of liquids. 

toto 3. 2. U., tr., to sip. cf. tolo aropu. 
totohoa n., noise, sound. 
totola specific numeral, 400, of dogs' teeth; 

totola ni 'usu, 400 dogs' teeth; totola 

mwana hai, 440 dogs' teeth. 
totolo v. i., to cry aloud. 

totolonga'ini tr., to cry to a person, 
totolonga'i tr. Wango totoro. 
totoniho n., a tree, its yellow berries are eaten 

by pigeons, 
totonga (na, ni) 1. n., resin, sap, glue, toto'ala* 

Polynesian toto, blood, 
totonga 2. a fine, ransom, toto 1. 



TOTONGA'ALA 



108 



totonga'ala adj., resinous, gummy, toto'ala. 

totongisu 1. v. i., to water at the mouth, ngisu. 
2. U., to sip. 

totongo v. i., to smart; saeku e totongo, I have 
heartburn. 

totopulu n., the black ground-lizard (Nanno- 
scincus fuscus). pulu 1. 

totoqini U., v. i., to soak into, to soak up. qini. 

to tori U., v. tr., to expect, to await, cf. toto 5. 

totoro 1. a fish spear, a goad. 2. the crest, the 
comb, wattles, of birds, toro 2. 

tototala adv., in vain, to no purpose, toto- 
'ataiai 3. 

totowa'e wasted, lost, toto 6. 
totowa'enga n., waste, futility. 

totoweru'e holaa totoweru'e, fiat calm. 

tou 1. n., a bird, the bittern. 

Tou 2. the name of a ghost at Sa'a, "the 
pecker"; a piece of wood carved in 
the likeness of the head and neck of 
a bittern; it is reputed to have the 
power of causing death; it is never 
carelessly pointed at any one, but car- 
ried over the shoulder with the beak 
to the rear; when laid down the head 
is faced away. 

to'u 3. v. i., to be lame, to be crippled in the 
feet, unable to bend the limbs. 

to'u 4. qa'uto'u, to bow the head; rahito'u, 
downcast; 'uruto'u, to bend the knee. 

to'u 5. i to'ulana 'asi, on the surface of the sea. 

toutou n., the prow of a canoe, tied with cane 
to the hull; qali toutou, canoe-shaped 
drawings cut on la'o. 



ua U. cf. ue. 

ualapoa U., v. i., to crack with a loud noise. 

udi, udiudi v. L, to be rotting, wasting; udiudi 
'asi'a, rotting away. 

udi S., specific numeral, 100,000, of coconuts, 
udi ni niu. 

'udu, 'udu'udu to drip, ha'a'uduhi. 

'udu'uduhe v. n., a drop, drippings; 
'udu'uduha ana, droppings from. Flor- 
ida tudu, Borneo tudo. 

ue S., ua U. 1. adv., yet, as yet, still, to spare. 
ha' ike ue, not yet; e lae ue, not returned 
yet; e ro 'at a ini ue, as yet only two; 
hire ue, some left; e mou ue ena, still in 
desuetude; wdi e lama haahi ue kolune 
mwakano, water still covered the face 
of the earth; mangona ue ana, he is still 
alive; ngeitei ue ena, that's just it; 
Florida tua, already, again, in addition; 
Mota tuai; possibly pronounced ue and 
not 'ue to distinguish it from 'ue 4. 
cf. hau 1. 

ue S„ ua U. 2. of price in bargaining; ue ta'a, 
for how much? uaana nga taa, for what? 
ue holi, for sale. 

ue S., ua U. 3. rattan cane; 'atoni ue, to dye 
strips of cane; hikei ue, a roll of cane, 
dyed red for plaiting into bracelets; 
hinui ue, the bark of cane, dyed red; 
ho'i ue, to roll dyed cane into bundles. 



'ue S., 'ua U. 4. how, why; used with 'e 4. 
'e 'ue, how; 'e 'ue 'otona, how is it; molu 
'uara, what did you do to them; mwane 
'e 'ue, why not; 'e 'ua ata, exclamation of 
disapproval; ke 'ue 'oto, how shall it be 
done; muni 'ua, why, what for; nge ke 
'ue k'a'u ne, how shall it be. 

'ue S., 'ua U. 5. of course; ana ngaini ka'a 
ha'ara'i 'emelu 'e 'ue, why, because no 
one has summoned us; ta'ata'a me'iolana 
'e 'ue, why, it's just that very thing; nge 
itei 'ue ena, that's just it. Lau uta, 
Florida gua, Wango ua; Efate gua, how. 

'u'e S., kuka U. 6. the mud crab. 

uhi 1. tne'i uhi, S., houhi, U., a yam (Dioscorea 
8p.); muuhi, mwauhi, plural, coa'escent 
vowels; uhi ni kalona, upland yams, 
of good quality; uhi leoleo, a variety 
of yam; uhi maleu, April; uhi mwaka, 
January, lit., yams unripe; uhi opuopu, 
U., February, lit., yams rounded in 
shape; uhi ni qe'u, yams from near the 
beach, inferior in quality; kara uhi, to 
grate yams; molai uhi, 10,000 yams; 
mwadi ni uhi, the mother yam; nga 
nao ni uhi, 100 yams; nini uhi, a yam; 
olopa'i, U., a yam with fruit on the 
vine; e'a sikihia qa'una uhi, she takes 
off the heads of yams; sinaa uhi, to 
clean the rootlets off yams newly dug; 
sinolai uhi, 100 yams; sulaa mu uhi, to 
roast yams; susuhaa'i, to plant a yam 
garden; takume, a yam with fruit on 
the vine; topa uhi, to slice yams for 
planting; walona mu uhi, yam vines. 
Florida uvi, Niue ufi, Mao. uhi. 

uhi 2. warts on the hands. 

'uhi, 'uhi'uhi 3. v. tr., to blow with the mouth, 
to shoot with a gun, to buzz; mu 
matawa 'uhi'uhi, white men: lit., men 
of the sea who blow with their mouths, 
owing to the idea that guns were blown 
in order to discharge them, 
'uhinge v. n. 
'uhila-(ku) gerund. 

'uhile'ini tr., to breathe on. Wango uhi, 
Viti uvu, Mota pupus, vuv; Maori puhi, 
Maisin vuvu. 

uhu (ku) S., ihuU. \.hzxr;uhu wac.awig; uhune 
e lai mero, his hair is white. Motu hui. 

uhu 2. to husk coconuts, 
uhu'i tr. 

Uhu 3. the cape on Big Malaita northwest of 
Pwaulimwaa, ngorangora i Uhu, the 
lagoon shoreward is also called Uhu. 

'u'i, 'u'i'u'i v. tr., to throw (of a spear, a 
stone, etc.). 
'u'inge v. n. 

'u'ile'ini tr., mala e 'u'ile'inie nga hoi heu, 
about a stone's throw. Florida tupi, 
Mota vivir. 

UW Ugi, an island off the east coast of San 
Cristoval. 

uku n., a row, a layer; ukui heu, a layer of 
stones; uku ni la'ataha, a channel in 
the reef, a chasm; uku ni la'atala, a 
row, a line. Wango uku, a generation. 



ic»9 



'UPUTANA 



'uku 2. ha'a'uku, to lower, to let down. 

nlao harlot, keni ulao. 'aheulao, heulao, 

ha'aulao. kale ni ulao, bastard, 
ulapo U., v. i., used with poss. 3; to be ignorant 

of. 
Ulawa i sapena i Ulawa e rara, apostrophe 

addressed to Ulawa. ha'adahi. 
'ule-(ku) U., n., brother, sister. Florida kula. 
'ulehu a fish (Oligorus gigas). 
uleule S., ulaula U., n., sinew, tendon, vein ; 
uleuleni 'ei, U., twigs. Maori uaua, 
sinew. 
uli 1. n., a tree (Spondias dulcis); hou uli, its 

fruit. Mota us, ur; Oceanic uri. 
uli 2. U., koukou ni uli, ankle; poupou ni uli, 

heel. 
uli 3. v. tr., to rub, to massage; ulie sapena ani 
heu, to apply hot stones to the body as 
a foment. 
uli 4. uli 'ei, a wooden mortar for braying yams, 

etc. 
ulo, uloulo 1. to lament; ngara uloulo, to weep 
bitterly; noko pu'ota'i ulo 'olo, I forgot 
to cry; noko lapata'i ulo 'oto, I complain 
with lamentation. 
uloulonga v. n. 

ulola-(ku) gerund., ulolada maitale, the cry 
of the poor, 
ulo 2. v. tr., to wrap up, to make a parcel of. 
uloulo'ite (na) v. n., a wrapper, cover, husk, 
chaff. 
'ulu 1. to be blind, ha'a'ulu; a 'ulu, the blind 
man; saai 'ulu, to recite by heart; hunie 
esi hute 'ulu 'ie, that he should be born 
blind thus; kakalo 'ulu'ulu, to grope 
blindly with the hands; 'ulu susuhono, 
stone blind. 
'ulu 2. v. tr., to close the eyes; 'oke 'ulue maamu, 
you close your eyes; 'ulu mwaani, 'ulu 
haahi, to overlook. Wango kuru. 
ulu 3. v. tr., to carry in the arms. 
ulu 4. v. tr., to wade; ulu holo, to wade across; 
ulu ta'a, to emerge. 
'uluhe'ini tr., to wade and carry a person 
across the water. Wango uru. 
uluone a sandy tract above the beach. 
ulunge 1. v. tr., to serve as a pillow; ulungaa 
qa'u, to pillow the head; 'asi ko ulungaa 
hanue, the sea under the earth; hele 
ulunge, to uplift; ewe e ulungaa mauri- 
haaku, the floods have covered my soul. 
2. a pillow, 
ulunge'ini tr., to serve as a pillow. Mota 
ulunga. 
ulunge'ini tr., to sell; ko ulunge' inie lo'oto'olana, 
he sold his goods, 
ulunge 'i v. i. 
'ulu'ulu 1 . a full-grown coconut, hoi 'ulu'ulu, ntu 

'ulu'ulu. kuru. 
'ulu'ulu 2. U., 'ulu'ulu ni 'ei, twigs, leaves, 

branches, 
uluulu'a U., adj., leafy, 
uma U., incisor teeth. 

umu 1. U., native oven; a fire is made inside a 
ring of stones level with floor of house. 
Mota urn, Motu amu. 
umu 2. to gather; umu i 'ae, to gather round 
the feet of. 



umu 3. v. i., to weed, 
umu 4. umu kuru, to mutter, 
unehi (nH) n., the scales of fish; v., to scale a 
fish. The final hi was probably a 
verbal suffix originally. Motu una, 
unahi; Gilbert Islands ina; Samoa una, 
unafi; Maori unahi. 
'unu, 'unu'unu 1. v. tr., to say, to bid, to tell, 
to assign, to suppose, to reckon, nou 
'unue uri, I thought that; nau 'unua 
uri muni ne'e mae 'oto, I thought I was 
done for; nou hola'i 'unue, I first said 
it; 'oto kire kosi 'unue, thereupon they 
said it; topo'i 'unu, to neglect to say; 
'unu lalaunge'i, to tell beforehand; 
'unu lelengana, to speak clearly; 'unu 
lete, to affirm; a mama'a e 'unue, father 
said so; 'unu mengini, to tell everything 
out; muni ne'e loosia, ta'ane na'a'unua, 
if I see him I shall tell it; ana muni 
kir'e 'unua, if they say it; e 'unu oreta 
ana mu wala, he spoke and finished 
his words; 'unu ta'atara, to relate in 
order; 'unu ta'ataha, to pronounce 
aloud; 'unu tahanie saemu, lay bare 
your mind; 'unu latalau ana, to re- 
hearse in order; 'unu latara, tradition; 
'unu talarau, gossip. 
'unula-(ku) gerund. Wango unu. 
unu 2. n., the fibrous spathe of a coconut 
frond used (sasali, U.) for straining 
milk (oni) from grated coconut. Samoa 
unu, to strain. 
unu 3. sate unu, to overlap; dere unu, U., to 
get in between; dere unu ana para, 
between the pickets of the fence; 'u'i 
dere unu, to pierce with a blow; taha- 
unutara, through from one side to the 
other, 
unume'i partic, frequently, experienced; hele 
unume'i ana, to do a thing in a masterly 
fashion; sapesdlu unume'i, to suffer 
many things. 
u'o 1. n., the green lizard. 
u'o 2. n., fishing-float for flying-fish. Mota 

ulo, Maori pouto. M. A., p. 317. 
upe U., n., a hole in a tree where water lodge* 

in the rains, 
upeta U., ipata S., a wallowing-place for swine, 

upeta ni poo. 
'upu, 'upu'upu 1. to swell; ngora 'upu, tau 
ngora 'upu muni, to hate; ngidu 'upu, 
to hate; qeru 'upu, lio qeru 'upu, to 
grudge, to hate. 2. the center, middle. 
take 'upu'upu, to be half way over in a 
journey; 'upui lue, high tide; i'upu'upui 
dango, among the trees; * 'upuderu'e, 
midway between the two; maraau i 
'upu'upu, the east wind. Maori tupu, 
to grow; Viti tumbu,to swell; Motu lubu, 
to swell; Mota tou, to grow. 
'upu'e adj., used as n.; a swelling, a boil. 

qalusu 'upu'e, a wood-pigeon, 
'upuni adv., some time ago, long ago; precedes 
the verb, melu 'upunilae, we went long ago. 
'uputana with locative i; i 'uputana hanue, in 
the center of the land. 



UQE 



1 10 



uqe, uqeuqe v. i., to complain, to have ill 
feeling toward; ere uqe, to talk enviously; 
ere uqanga, malicious talk, 
uqanga v. n., envy. 
uqesi tr. ha'iuqeuqeni. Wango tiqa. 

ura U., 1. crayfish, prawn, ore 3. Mota ura, 
Maori koura. 

ura U., 2. ura maasilima, the second day of 
the moon. 

uraa'i S., v. i., to make an offering to 'akalo or 
li'oa; uraa'i ola, uraa'i olanga, making 
offerings; uraa'i saana tnu 'akalo. 
uraa'inge v. n., an offering, a sacrifice; 
toli uraa'inge, to offer sacrifice. San 
Cristoval urai. 

urate uratei ola, a piece, a crumb. 

'ure S., 'ura U., 'ure'ure 1. v. i., to stand up. 
ha'a'ure. 'ure honosi, to oppose; e 
'ure'ure ko rarangi, he stood warming 
himself; ko 'ure para'ilana walumalau, 
defends the earth; 'ure suu'i, to attend 
on, to serve. Mota tur, Viti tu, tura. 

'ure 2. used of motion from and equivalent 
to place whence, 'urei Sa'a, from 
Sa'a; 'urei tei, where from, whence; 
melu 'uraana, we are his offspring; 
'omu ka'a 'ure ike ana pulitaa ineu, ye 
are not of my flock; 'oto 'ure mai, up 
till now, henceforth; nou 'ure ani 'eta 
hanue, I am a stranger; 'ure lohune, to 
desire; 'ure ta'i tolona hdnue, from out 
of the hills; 'ure 'oto mai i 'aeholalana, 
from the beginning up till now; 'oko 
lae mai 'ure itei, where are you from, 
whence come you; nou 'ure mdi i ola, 
I am from such-and-such a place; 
tnwala 'urei lei ni 'ie, from whence are 
these people. 

'ure 3. mwimwidi 'ure, S., mudimudi 'ura, 
U., to drip. 

'ure 4. to come into leaf; tnu 'ure'urei dango, 
shoots of a tree ; 'ure'urena, its top shoots. 

Urehi S., a local spirit. M. A., p. 124. 

'ureipesi first fruits, betrothal money. 

'urenga'ini v. tr., to accompany a person on 
a journey, to set him on his way. 
ha' a' urenga'ini, 

'ureruru S., to be in accord, concord, ha'a'ure- 
ruru. 

uretohu (na) S., nou sa'a uretohune nga ola, I 
shall not desire anything. 

*uri, 'uri'uri 1. v. tr., to tread on, to pace, to 
measure, to stamp on; 'urie maonga, 
to tread the dance, 
'uri'urite v. n., a pace, a foothold. 
'urila-(ku) gerund. Florida luri. 

uri 2. adv., thus; used also of reported speech; 
na, ni, are added, e te urilaa, uri 'oke 
lae, what did he say? that you were to 
go? na uri, I mean, that is; nau 'unua 
uri muni ne'e mae 'oto, I thought I was 
done for; uri qa'une nge mwane, I mean 
that the male is the head; uri ana, if, 
that is (in explanation); ■paro uri, over 
there; wa uri, of an objection advanced; 
na'o uri, to go on this course; uri mala, 
as if. 



uri 3. ha'auri, v. tr., to save, to make alive. 
mduri. 

uriha-(mu, na, da) like, as if; urihana, like 
him, just his way; e urihana nga one, 
like the sands; urihada, their style. 

urine S., urina U., urini U., adv., thus, ha'a- 
urine, ha'aurini. ko urine, that being 
so; ko urine la'ane na, even supposing 
it were so; ke su'uri urine, God forbid. 

urinena S., adv., therefore, thus, on that 
account; isulie e urinena, wherefore. 

uritaa S., uritaha U., interrog. adv., how, what 
sort of. e te uritaa, what said he; He 
uritaha, what one; e lae uritaa, how 
did it go? 

urou S., a wood-pigeon with large wattles 
(Carpophaga rufigula). qalusu 'upu'e. 

'uru 1. v. i., to collect, to wipe, 'uru sane, to 
gather ants as burly for sea-bream; 
'uru'uru mwado, an anklet of shell 
money, etc., strung on a cord, lit., 
collect dirt; 'uru'uru pole, to clear the 
head of lice; 'uru qango, to wipe off 
mucus, to clear the nose; a Poro 'uru 
matawa, the man who tours the sea, 
a legendary ghost said to moke ana 
pusu 'esi, catch whales in a hand net. 
Mota surung, Mao. muru. 

uru 2. q&'uni uru, U., a phase of the moon. 

uru 3. white fleecy clouds; evening clouds 
painted in wavy lines on the prow of a 
canoe. 

'uru 4. 'uru'uru (ku), knee. 

'uruto'u to stoop, to bend the knee, to kneel. 
San Cristoval ruru, Viti duru, Florida 
tuturu, Samoa lull. 

'uru'uru tele 'uru'uru, to spill, to dribble out, 
as lime from a gourd. Fagani tele, 
Mota sur-mata, tear; Tonga tulu; Borneo 
turu, to drip; sulu, liquid. 

use, useuse v. i., to plait, to weave; use qaso, to 
plait armlets of dyed cane; use sa'o, 
to stitch sago leaves on a reed for 
thatch, 
useli tr., uselie moke, to make a hand net. 
uselie 'ae, to plait an anklet of dyed 
cane (ue) on the leg. 

usi, usiusi v. tr., to barter, to hold a market. 
usinge v. n., bartering, marketing; herai 

usinge, market-place, 
usi'e adj., used as n., hera i usi'e, market- 
place. 

usu, usuusu 1. v. tr., to push, tapausu, 
usutaha. molu usu, push; usu 'asi 
mwakule ana, to reject him ignomin- 
iously. 2. to write. 3. n., a writing, 
a letter, mu usuusu; mu maai usuusu, 
alphabetic characters, 
usuusue'ini tr., to pole, to shove, to push, 

to compel, 
usue'ini tr., to send, to dispatch. 
usunge'i v. i.. usunge'i 'asi, to dispatch. 

hd'iusunge'i. 
usunge'i nge v. n., a commandment, 

ordinance, 
usunge'ini tr., to send, dispatch. 
usunge'inila-(ku) gerund. 



Ill 



UWOLA INI 



usu 4. U., one; kd'u mei nga usu, give me one; 
usu indu, mine. 

usu 5. S., usu 'ei, a firestick. 
'usu, 'usu'usu 6. v. i., to rub. to daub, to 
scrape, to wipe, to grate; 'usu kara, 
to grate yams; 'usu hui, to grate taro. 
7. ag rater; 'usuri, tr., to wipe. Wango 
usu, Lau usu, Florida guduri. 
'usu, 'usu'usu 8. v. L, to point, to accuse; to 
point at the rainbow brings bad luck. 
'usu henue, the first finger; 'usu meuta'o, 
to affirm; 'usu ilengine ngaini, to accuse 
any one; 'usu maa (ku), to accuse, 
'usu'i tr., to point at; suisui, M. A., p. 192, 
should be 'usu'usu'i. 
'usu 9. n., a dog; 'usu qaqa, a slut; 'usu e kueu, 
the dog barked at me. Mota kurut, 
Maori kuri. 
'usu 10. n., a dog tooth; the two teeth in the 
upper jaw immediately behind the 
canines are used as money. M. A., 
p. 325. qci'ui 'usu, 4 dogs' teeth; 
totola ni 'usu, 400 dogs' teeth; piru ni 
'usu, a necklace of dogs' teeth; e pirue 
mu 'usu ineu, he made my dogs' teeth 
into a necklace. 

'usu 11. v. i., to fall down; in Sa'a not used of 
persons, in which sense it is replaced 
by domu. ha'a'usu, ha'a'usuli. Florida 
kutu. 

'usu 12. U., to wipe off mucus, 'usu qango. uru. 
Mota surung, 

'usule adj., possessing dogs. 

usuli tr., to copy, to follow, to succeed to. 
ha'ausuli. kira 'asi usuli one, they went 
along the beach; e usulie 'amana, like 
his father. San Cristoval, usuri, follow; 
Malekula usuri, to go along the coast; 
Mota usur, to pass on. 

usutaha U., to emerge. 

usuusu S. 1. usuusu ana, because of, through, 
owing to. 2. handiwork; usuusuana 
nitneku, my handiwork; usuusu ana 
dhutana manalanga a God, all the powers 
of the godhead. 

utakora U., v. L, to burst. 

ute 1. v. tr., to rub, to polish; malo ute, beads 
rubbed down to size. 

ute 2. ute pit, heavy rain. Lau uta, Viti udha, 
Polynesian uha. 

ute'i to gut fish, ro ute'i seu. M. A., p. 48. 
ute'ini tr. 

uto-(na) n., pith, core. Mota utoi; Maori uho, 
heart of a tree; Motu udo, navel; Samoa 
uso, pith, heart of a tree, umbilical 
cord. 

'u'u S., kuku U. 1. to hang down, to depend; 
siri 'u'u, a lory that hangs upside 
down. 

'u'u (na) 2. a round object, a lump in pounded 
food; 'u'u lolo, a piece of fish; 'u'ui one, 
S., 'u'una one, U., a grain of sand; 'u'ui 
he'u, S., 'u'u ni he'u, U., a star; 'u'ui 
sehu, U., a lump in the lime of betel 
chewing; 'u'ui maa, eyeball; ro 'u'u 
maana siena a Ta'a Pea, his two eye- 
balls to Ta'a Pea (an imprecation) ; 'u'u 



u'u' (continued). 

maai dehi, a pearl; 'u'u ni mae, heavy 
rain. Florida pugu ni pari, dust; 
Maori puku, knob. 
'u'u-(na) 3. real; 'u'une hanue, the real land. 
4. beginning, source, inge'i ni 'oto 
'u'une, he is the source. Florida puku, 
real, 
'u'uhesi S., to stand firm. 
'u'u'i-(na) n., tail of an animal. Viti mbui, 

Maori hiku, Malo uine, Samoa i'u. 
'u'ule n., a tree of hard wood. Florida gugula. 
'u'ulou U., loulou S., to thunder. 
'u'umwado U., dust. 

uunu, uunuunu 1. v. tr., to burn in the fire, 
to roast on the embers; used with saa, 
sie, to sacrifice, uunu hena, uunu keu, 
uunu s&hu, to burn lime; ora ni uunu, 
altar of burnt offering; uunu poo saana 
mu 'akalo, offer burnt offerings of pigs 
to the ghosts, uunu roe. M. A., 
p. 263, to cremate a corpse. Only one 
case known, that of Taramaesipue 
is the one mentioned, 
uununge v. n., burnt sacrifice; uununge 

suu, whole burnt offering. 
uunuhi tr. 

uunuhila-(ku) gerund, 
uunu 2. to raise cicatrices on the arms by 
burning. Maori tunu, roast; Lamanak 
(Borneo) tunu. 
uunu 3. a large tree-lizard (Corucia zebrata). 
uunuhi v. tr., to envy, to grudge, to vex, to 
grieve; sae uunuhi, to bear a grudge, to 
be spiteful to. 
uunuhinge v. n.. a grudge, sae uunuhinge. 
'u'usi 1. v. tr., to detach the betel vine from 
the stem of a tree by pulling it all down. 
hu'usi. 2. v. i., to slip off, to become 
detached, 
uwatohuna U., air, atmosphere, 
uwe S., uwa U. 1. v. tr., to lift up; uwaa qd'u, 
lift up the head; uwe 'alinge, to give ear 
to, to prick up the ears; uwe 'alenga, 
to look up. 2. to brandish a spear; 
uwa ma'e, U., a measure, a yard and 
three-quarters. 
uwe 3. to inclose (of a net), uwe haahi. kire 
ho uwaa 'oto la'eta'ena nga i'e, they 
inclosed every kind of fish. 
uwe 4. uwe dalo, to clear the throat, 
uwe 5. U., uwe raka, to break with a loud noise, 
uwe 6. uweli osa cerumen, wax in the ear. 
uweha a fishing-rod; qa'aqa'a uweha, U., a 

phase of the moon, 
uweli (ku) U., weli S. 1. maternal uncle. 

ha'iuweline, mauweline. 
uweli 2. v. tr., to castrate, 
uwerikahite tatters, rags, kakahite. 
uwesi to curse, ha'iuwesi. 
uwo 1. a ridge of hills; melu susuli uwo, we kept 

along the ridge. 
uwo-(na) 2. pith. uto. Niue" uho. 
uwota v. i., to appear on the horizon; mu toloi 
henue 'esi uwota, the hills appear on 
the horizon. Mota wota. 
uwola'ini tr., to rear up on high, to uplift. 
uwo 1. 



WA 



112 



W 



wa adversative conjunction, or; used at the 
end of sentence to express doubt or 
ignorance; used with uri to denote an 
objection raised; in correlation with the 
negative particles ka'a and ka'a in the 
sense of neither — nor. 'ohe ke'i lac 
m&i wa, will he come do you think? 
wa uri 'o 'untie, but you said; kire ka'a 
manata'inie wa kire ke leesie, neither know 
him nor have seen him; wa 'ohe, unless. 

waa, waawaa 1. to be empty, hollow, to have 
open doors, to have a hole in; lalona 
e waawaa, nothing inside it, to be open 
(of a door), to be desolate (of a place); 
qalusune e waawaa, his nostril is pierced. 

wa'a 2. to be split, to be cut into sections; to 
split, wa'a uhi, to cut up yams for 
planting; mu wa'a, sections of yams for 
planting, 
wa'ali tr. 

wa'alila-(na) gerund. San Cristoval waa; 
Maori mawawa cracked; Mota waka, 
open. 

wa'a 3. to be profaned. 

wa'a 4. 'ahewa'a, to vanish, ha'awa'a. 

wa'ahite v. i., to be cracked, to split (of 
timber); n., a crack, 
wa'ahiteli tr., to split, to divide. 
wa'ahitelila-(ku) gerund. 

waa'i, waawaa'i v. tr., to reward, to hire; waa'i 
'tola, to hire a canoe, 
waa'ite (ku) n., reward. 

wa'ali'e adj., to be daybreak; n., daybreak, 
dawn; i wa'ali'e, at dawn. Wango 
waaria. wa'a 2. 

wa'alinga U., to give attention, to turn the 
ear to. 'alinga. 

wa'araa to appear (of a vision) ; anoa e wa'araa 
mai, an apparition came into view. 

wa'arao a very strong creeper used in lashing 
canoe planks; wire nails. 

wa'arara U. 1. to be timid, nervous. 

wa'arara 2. to be cold, chilly (of weather). 

wa'arau'a U., cold (of the body). 

wa'ariri S., to flash (of lightning); n., lightning. 
mangali'a. 

waaro around, about, of position; kari waaro, 
to go a roundabout way; roro waaro, to 
be diffused (of coloring matter in water) ; 
maana e waaro, goggle-eyed. 

waarowaaro 1. the moon. 2. a month. 3. a 
biscuit, waarowaaro e ranga'a, the 
moon is up; waarowaaro e qa'a 'olo, the 
moon has risen; waarowaaro e manu 
'a'a miii ilengi, the moon floated clear in 
the sky; mai ana waarowaaro e qa'a, ebb 
tide when the moon rises; mai ana 
waarowaaro e suu, ebb tide when the 
moon sets. 

The names of the months in Sa'a 
beginning from July, the harvest 
season, are: ngali maelo, hure i lade; 
aau; oku lade; oku mwaa; oku denu; 
oku peine (cf. Viti mbalolo levu); raa; 
'dsi rodo; lo'a wai ntweimwei; lo'a wai 



waarowaaro 1 (continued.) 

peine; lo'a mali'e; lo'a madala; hutohuto. 
In Ulawa, beginning from August, 
they are: ngali maelo; pola nguru; 
madamada sulu; oku i lade; oku denu; 
oku peina; uhi mwaka; uhi opuopu; 
ha'asusu uhi; uhi repo; uhi maleu; 
'elinga; aau marawa. 

The phases of the moon in Sa'a are 
designated: waarowaaro e ranga'a; hudi; 
alanga'i roa; alanga'i i'ola ni tolo; 
helehele mwdimwei; helehele Paine; okolu 
iewa'a; hara pote; ruru'e hule; qa'ileni; 
to'ohuunge'i lemi; rara talau (hulaaholaa, 
full); pa'ewa ko 'ala tola; qd'i oku; 
to'ohuunge'i oku. 

In Ulawa they are: waarowaaro e 
ranga'a; hika hato; 'ura maasilima; 
rua 'apdla; dahi; alanga'i hapa; hapa 
ni na'o; saro pole; hau ni lemi, lemi 
mwaa (full); htiu ni tnwela awara; 
ruana hau; qa'uni 'uru; danu oku; 
demudemu totoria; qa'aqa'a uweha; rarasi. 

waato n., a digging-stick used in making holes 
for yam planting. Wango riwaalo. 

waawaata 1. an opening, hole, aperture. 

waawaata 2. U., waawaalani i'a, pieces of fish. 
Maori wawala, small lumps. 

wadi, wa'iwedi S., wadiwadi U., to whistle. 

wadu-(na, ni) n., point, tip. 

wa'e 1. to waste, wa'e 'ahe. 2. to do in vain, 

to ruin oneself; used with poss. 3. 

totowa'e. kire wa'e ada, they ruin 

themselves. 

wa'eta'ini tr., to waste. 

wa'eta'i partic, wasted, put to no good use. 

wa'eli tr., to do damage to; to pull up 

growing coconuts that have rooted 

themselves after falling from the tree. 

wa'ewa'e U., adv., excessive, very, much; 
follows the verb, wala'a wa'ewa'e ana 
ngaile, to upbraid anyone excessively, 
Wango waewae. 

waha to be foggy, dim, to darken; n., fog. 
vapor, mist, waha haahie maada, make 
their eyes dim. 
wahawaha U., wahawaha ni mwado, dust, 
wahawaha'a adj., dim. 

wai 1. water, me'i wei, mdsi wei. 2. fluid, urine. 
3. bamboo water-carrier, nga wai; 
coconut or bamboo water-bottle, glas3 
bottle, hou wei. 4. tears, wai ni 'akalo; 
wai hulahula, a spring, a fountain; wai 
e huuhuu 'oto, water gushed forth; wai 
ko kone, the river is in spate; wai ni 
qe'unge, strong drink; wai e taha, the 
river mouth is open; Wai ni Tehulu, 
the Ngorangora lagoon, Ulawa; mu wei 
e toto mango 'oto, the streams are all 
dried up; ddu wei, to catch fish in low 
water pools; hulaa ni wei, a spring, a 
fountain; huuna wai, U., fountain head; 
* kekena wai, beside the stream; kiln 
ni wei, a well; koukou wei, to gargle 
sweet water; lo'a wai mweimwei, Feb- 
ruary; lo'a wai peine, March; Mamala 



H3 



WALENGA'I 



wMi (continued). 

Wai, the Milky Way; mwakana wai, 
moist ground; wai wawai, cold water; 
wai e tnahuro, the water is muddied. * 
raona wai, i reune wai, beside the stream ; 
ro raui wei, the two banks of the stream ; 
sdsu ana wai, steam ; siholi wei, the south 
wind; ta'atara wai, a dragon-fly; laluhi, 
to draw water at a well; te'i wei, to draw 
water. Lau qai, Polynesian wai. M. 
L., p. 96, kuai should be qai. 
wai 5. contracted form of wtiu i; wai nutne, in 
the house; maraau wei hata, qini; wai 
la'ona, within, inside; 'oto wai lalo, in the 
heart; 'oto wai na'ona, right before his 
face. Tanna wei, to fare into the house, 
wa'i, wa'iwe'i 6. to drag, to pull, to draw, to 
pain; wa'i haahie ana hu'o, to draw a 
net about; wa'i oda'i, U., to quarrel, 
to fight, 
wa'ini tr. 

wa'inge v. n., pain. 
wa'inila-(ku) gerund, 
wa'i 7. tetanus; huhu la'ola'o ana w&'i, to be 

contorted with tetanus spasms, 
waieu U., n., a bonito; honi weieu, one bonito; 
rerehana w&ieu, a school of "bonito; 
pepe ni weieu, a butterfly (Ornithoptera 
cassandra). San Cristoval waiau. 
Waili a creek in Mara Masiki Channel used 
for the ordeals by swimming. M. A., 
p. 213. 
Waingile a rocky promontory near Mwarada, 

Ulawa. 
wa'ini'ini S., with diligence; hele wa'ini'ini, 

to do diligently. 
wairo-(na) U., n., a brim, 
waite S., 1. adv., of old, a long time ago, some 

days ago; 'oto waite, long ago. 
wa'ite S., walita U., 2. adv., the day before 
yesterday; i we'ite, two days ago; wd'ite 
wau, three days ago. 
waiteu, waiweiteu v. i., to quarrel, ha'awaiteu. 

waiteunge v. n. 
waiwei 1 . to wave to and fro (of a fire-stick) , 

w&iwei dunge. 
waiwei 2. to collect; waiwei to'o ro tne'i lo'ohaa, 
collect the two pieces of money from 
everyone, 
waiwei'a'a adj., watery, with too much water, 

thin (of soup), 
wakala'i v. i., to appear above the horizon (of 

a canoe coming into sight), 
waki, wa'iweki v. i., to hang up in festoons 
(of skulls hung up in taoha); used with 
poss. 3. e wa'iweki ana, he hung it up 
as a decoration, 
wakio a bird, the gray osprey; a Poro Wakio 

Mali, a legendary person. 
wala (ku) 1. a word, speech, voice, language; 
tne'i wala, S., hai wala, U., nga haiwala, 
U., a word, the word; a tne'i Wala, S., 
the Word; walaku, my word, kite 
saea wala, they talked about; qd'u ni 
wala pe'i, to consult with; walana e lola, 
his word is great; hatonga'i wala haahi, 
to accuse; ko kokoho haahi wala, deceitful 



wala (continued). 

in speech; laeli wala, to make an oration; 
laeli walanga, oratory, address; lalani 
wala, to make an oration; lopo'i wala, 
to feign; madou ni wala, a phrase; mani 
wala, S., to take counsel; a Poro Matou 
ni Wala, a ghost in folklore; mu odo- 
haana wala, words to the point; qelu 
wala ilengine ngaini, to accuse any one; 
ruru wala, to make an agreement; mu 
sihoa'i wala, mere words, just a tale; 
sulu walanga, gossip; mu tale'i sulu 
walanga, mere gossip; sulu walanga 
ta'etate, babbling words; mu wala 
ta'atara, tradition; mu wala la'alarau, 
gossip; talama'i wala, to act as mediator; 
tarie'ini wala, to commit fornication; 
walana ahuri, the sound of the conch; 
wala talara, tradition; lolai suit wala, to 
obey commands; to'oto'oa'i wala, fit 
and proper words. 2. v. i., to speak, 
used with qualifying words; mani wala, 
to consult, to take counsel; wala odoodo, 
S., to speak in one's own defence, to deny ; 
with poss. 3. 3. ddu wala, to be at 
fault, to transgress; nou deu walaku, 
I transgressed. Wango hara, mouth; 
Mota valai, mouth; Tubetube, N. G., 
wala, word. 

wala 4. v. i., to be scared, to be on the alert, 
to have learned a lesson, kire wala 'oto. 

wala'a, wala'awala'a U., adj., used as verb; 
to speak, mwai keni e'asi qale wala'a- 
wala'a mware'a, what drawling women; 
wala'a wa'ewa'e ana ngaile, to upbraid 
excessively any one. 
wala'anga U., v. n., speech; wala'anga 
mwamwasu, upbraiding words. 

walanga v. n., words, speaking; 'i'ite'i walanga, 
Btrife about words; qaola'i walanga, 
deceit, lying. 

wala'asi to speak. 

walana (da, ni) n., speech, sound of. 

walahalinge n., dispute, strife, h&li. 

wala'imoli, to be true (lit., to speak true); 
exclamation of assent, verily; hiiwala- 
'imoli, to believe, 
wala'imolinge n., truth. Niue moli, true; 
Efate ta-moli, real man. 

walamango prepared, ready; hele walamango, 
to get ready, to perfect; i'o walamango, 
to be ready. 

walangi U., v. tr., to address with words; e 
walangia ani seru'a, spoke an incanta- 
tion over it. 

walawala U. 1. adv., in excess, too much. 

walawala 2. v. i., to have the tongue hanging out 
by reason of the heat (of dogs), wana- 
wana. 

wale 1. au wale, a reed flute. 2. a thornless 
cane, the bark used to sew the leaves 
of thatch on to reeds or to fasten the 
layers of thatch on to the bamboo 
rafters; tali wale, to strip the bark of 
the cane. 

walenga'i to carry burdens; walenga'i heu, to 
carry stones. 



WALI 



114 



wali a space of time, long ago. ha'awali. 'oto 
'ure wali, from of old. 

walita U., wM'ite S., day after tomorrow, with 
locative i; i welita, two days hence; 
i welita po'o wau, three days hence. 
Florida valiha, Samoa alivu, Maori 
kareha, Malay lusu. 

walo 1. a creeper, rope, string, line, vine. 
ha'iwalo. walona mu uhi, yam vines; 
hahai walo, a thicket; nga walo e hikusie, 
the creepers twined round it; walo 
k&ukeu, a thorny creeper; walo ni 
pa'asahu, a fishing-line for pa'asahu; 
walo ni 'u'i, a sling; ta'e walo 'ie ke su'uri, 
save for these bonds; walo roto, match- 
box bean. 2. ten strings of shell money. 
3. ten coconuts made into copra and 
strung together in halves. Florida galo, 
Wango waro, Motu varo. 

walo 4. susu walo, an abscess; to suffer from 
abscesses. 

Walo'a'a the river that discharges into 
Roasi Bay, Little Malaita; Tetele, the 
ridge on which it rises; Toro'a, the hill 
at its head. 

walokaukeu a thorny creeper. 

waloliu, walowaloliu to travel about, to make 
excursions. 

walopasa ten flying-fish. 

walowalo walowaloi 'ehuri, the sound of the 
conch shell. 

walu numeral, eight; used also to express an 

indefinite number, waluola, everything; 

walu mola ni ola, all things; walu tala 

ni Tolo, all the villages of Tolo. 

waluta-(na, ni) walutana nga ola, S., 

waluteni ola, U., everything, 
walune eighth, the eighth time. Lau qalu, 
Florida alu, Viti walu. 

walumalau the world, all the islands, malau. 
ko 'ure para'ilana walumalau, defends 
the earth. 

wana, wanawana v. i., to sparkle, to shine, to 
be incensed; saeku e la 'otoi wana, my 
heart was hot. Lau qanga, lightning. 

wanawana 1. v. i., to scrape and clean, to file; 
wanawana hinou, to make shell hooks. 

wanawana 2. S., same as walawala 2. 

wanga U., to have fever, malaria, 
wangaha n., an attack of malaria. 

wangawanga S., to be bright, to sparkle. 
wanawana. 

wa'o, wao'wa'o U. 1. to catch fish, to go 
afishing. 

wa'o U. 2. a mast, hou wa'o. 

wa'oni'a U., adj., damp, dew. 

waowao 1. n., a shrub growing on the beach, 
has white flowers, grows best on rocky 
soil; the sticks are used as seat of plat- 
forms. 

waowao 2. (na, ni) tentacles, feelers. 

waowaolu wild dog. 

WHpu forest land which may be cleared for 
gardens and thus becomes the property 
of him who clears it. tahangie wapu, 
to clear forest country, met., of difficult 
work just started. 



wara to be very large, kira wara. 

Warahunuka a Warahunuka Rd'i I'a, a legend- 
ary person. 

waraihu, U. , ihu S. , hair, feathers. San Cristoval 
waraihu. 

warauku U., hair, feathers. 

warawara'a adj., ere warawara'a, clamorous. 

ware U. 1. v. tr., to destroy, to be mischievous, 
to pull up self-rooting coconuts. 

ware U. 2. adv., nearly, almost; precedes the 
verb. 

ware 3. warei heu, ware ni hdu, a short club 
used in central Malaita on the west 
coast; it is carried on the back, depending 
from the neck; its stone head is lashed 
to the haft with cane and the haft is 
inlaid; this is the club mentioned by 
the Spanish discoverers, see the Journal 
of Gallego in Guppy's Solomon Islands, 
p. 219; the port mentioned in the note 
is probably Waisisi. 

wariha (na, ni) S., 'unu weriheni, to tell clearly. 

warihiteli v. tr., to burst open. kite. 

waru 1. v. i., to be scorched, to burn, to get 
burnt; mu nume e warn 'oto, the houses 
are burned down; mwado wdru, U., red 
earth; niu wdru, a coconut with short 
stem, yellowish fronds, and reddish- 
skinned nut; i'e waru, a fish of red 
color caught in shore reef. 
waruhi tr., to burn. 
waruhila-(ku) gerund. Lau saru. 

waru 2. v. i., wdru ta'a, to emerge, to show up 
clear, to reach a place; tala ko weruta'a 
i Sa'a, the path emerges at Sa'a; 'dpu 
e wdruta'a ana qalusuku, blood gushed 
from my nose. Lau qalu. 

waruna U., adv., as if. 

warupe U., to be stringy, of hana. 

waruweru'a U., adj., red. 

wasawasa'a adj., indistinct, blurred; lio 
wasawasa'a, to see indistinctly. 

wasi 1. v. i., to be wild, not tame; n., a wild 
animal, ha'awdsi. wasi ni poo, U., a 
wild pig; nga wasi, mu wesi, a wild pig 
in contradistinction to nga poo ni nume, 
the domesticated swine. Florida asi. 

wasi, wa'iwesi 2. v. tr., to wash clothes, wasi 
to'oninge (English wash). 

wasi, wa'iwesi 3. wa'iwesi henue, to visit the 
villages. 

wasu, wa'uwesu 1. v. i., to smell, to smell of; 
wdsu 'aela, to stink; nimeku e wasu i'e, 
my hand smells of fish; wdsu mangoni, 
to emit a rich savor; nonowdsu, to sniff 
at, to smell, 
wasuli tr., to smell too strong for. 
wasulana its smell. 

wasu 2. saewasu, to be angry, to sulk. 

watamea U., to crackle (of fire), mea. 

Wate a proper name very common on Little 
Malaita. 

wate, wa'ewate to distribute food at a feast 
after making an oration, 
watenga'ini tr. 

watenga'i v. i. Wango wate, donate; Lau 
lali qate, to make an oration 



H5 



WOWALA'A 



wau 1. adverb of place, there; ne or ni may be 
added; when followed by the locative i, 
wau i contracts to wai. a mwane waune, 
S., that person; wai nume, in the house; 
i we' He wau, three days ago; * welita 
poo w'du, three days hence; e holai na'o 
'oto wau, he has gone on some time ago; 
nonola wau, day before yesterday; 
nonola 'oto wau, three days ago; talo wau 
i 'est, to follow the coast by sea. Wango 
wou, Lau go, Dobu wa. 

wa'u 2. to be excessive (of pain, work, plague); 
ko esu we'u, me'i esunge we'u, strenuous 
work. 

wauru U., to fall, to stumble and fall; a Poro 
Wauru i 'Est, a legendary person, 
Mr. Fall-at-Sea. 

wauwe (ku) grandfather, grandchild; ngadi 
weuwe, a stone axe (grandfather's axe) . 
wauwana n., used with mu he'i; mu he'i 
weuwana, grandfather and grandchild, 
wauwananga n., mu he'i weuwananga, de- 
scendants (double noun ending). 

wauwau U., to dispute, to squabble. 

wawa (ku) n., mouth; in Sa'a ngidu is used of 
the mouth of persons, wawa ehoeho, 
to boast; hele ponosie wawand, keep his 
mouth shut; toro wawa, to shoot out 
the lips. Mota vava, to speak; Maori 
waha, mouth; Lau faga, Maisin kawa. 

wawae to be empty; ola wawae mola, only ashell. 

wawai to be cold; to be cool, of water, wai 
wawai; sapeku e wawai, my body is cool; 
e wawai osiosi, lukewarm, 
wawainge v. n., moisture. 

Wawake Manu a ghost of the open sea, 'akalo 
ni matawa. M. A., p. 197. inge'i i 
sapena rihue i Qe'ulo, hole sa'a kole wa 
nga me'i ola erete'a ke i'o i sapeka, he is 
near the cliffs at Qa'ulo; paddles must 
not rattle nor anything white be on 
our bodies. 

wawala v. i., to carry, to act as porter. 

wawanu'e adj., sharp (of edge). 

wawe froth from the mouth, to slobber; wawe 
ko ta'ero ana, the spittle dribbles down. 

waweta'a adj., vexed, fashed, ha'awaweta'ai. 

wede to take out the midrib of the sago leaf 
before sewing the leaves for thatch. 
wede'i tr. 

weesi, weeweesi v. i., to fish, to catch a fish, 
to get shellfish at low spring tides 



weesi (continued). 

(mat rare); noko lai weesi, I am going 

fishing, 
weesinge S., v. n., fish caught; ng&u 

weesinge, to eat things caught (fish or 

flesh), as a relish with vegetables, 
weesingaha U., v. n., double noun ending; 

as weesinge. 
weewee S., a baby, infant, mu weewee. a Wee 

contraction of a Dora weewee. 
welewele a rod, a stick, maai welewele, S., hai 

welewele, U. 
welewele'a adj., ngara welewele' a, to have a 

firm, solid sound; to ring solid, 
weli (ku) S., uweli U., n., maternal uncle; 

a weli, my uncle, 
we'o, we'owe'o v. i., to be tired, ha'awe'o. 

sape we'o, to be bodily tired, 
we'onga v. n., weariness; sape we'onga, 

physical weariness. 
werewere small (of children), cf. weewee. 

mwela werewere, an infant. Mota were, 
. to make an inarticulate sound, 
wete 1. v. i., to hit; e wete i sapeku, it struck my 

body. 2. to reach; wete i ola, reach 

such-and-such a place. Wango wete- 

wete, firm, 
weweu U., v. i., to squabble, ha'aweweu. 

Maori wawau. 
wili 1. v. tr., to give tribute, to contribute 

money to a chief at a feast; haa ni wili, 

tribute money; wili to'ohaa, wili to'oha- 

anga, contributing money, 
wilinge v. n., a giving of tribute. 
wililana gerund. 
wili 2. to string, to thread; wili dududu, to 

string beads; wili haa, to string shell 

money, 
wili 3. to chip, to flake, to break off chips of 

flint, 
winiwini 1. v. tr., to handle shamefully, to 

maltreat. 
winiwinila-(ku) gerund, 
winiwini U. 2. carefully; hele winiwini ana, 

deal carefully with it. 
wiro a steering-paddle, a rudder, 
wisi a small gray bird, observed as an omen. 

wisi ko orea, the wisi chatters. M. A., 

p. 221. 
wowo (ku) the shinbone. 
wouwou a wooden ear-plug, 
wowala'a S., mwala e wowala'a, glorious. 



INDEX. 



a hai 4., masi, me'i, nga, ta'a 3., ta'ata'a, ta'e 1. 

abandon lae mwaani, qaqaitengili, toli'asi. 

abhor ha'ileledi, leledi. 

abide naku, i'o, i'o konito'o, i'o susu, 'o'o 3. 

able mwadausi, nanama, saka. 

aboard la'o 'iola, ni'i 'ae ila'ona 'iola, ta'e ana 

haka, ta'eli 'iola. 
abode leu tala, leu talahuli. 
abound ahurara, alielimui, hunge, takara, 

tapala'a. 
about ana, haahi, i maana, ra'arangana; kali. 
above haho, i haho, i lengi; liuta'a, liutaha. 
abraded aho, dalao. 
abreast hora, i odoha, sama. 
abroad kali, lilikeli. 
abscess epa 1., likita'a, mwaa 2., oropa, osa, 

qaqahinu, sususu, susu walo, 'upu'e. 
absorb totohi, totoqini. 
abundant 'a'a 3., lolo, mwaera, tahe 2. 
abuse ere leledi, ere mama'ila'a, ere mama'ingi, 

ha'asa'eri; «., maleledinge. 
accident dau (tau) pele. 
accompany ha'ipulonga'ini, haku, hata, 'uren- 

ga'ini. 
accomplish ha'aahu, ha'aoa'i, ha'ato'o. 
according ha'idadanga ana, isuli. sada ana. 
accumulate koni, si'okoni, tarakoni. 
accurate diana, hahuroto, mangine, warihana. 
accuse qelu, tohule'ini, 'usu 8, 'usu maa. 
accustom ha'anina, husingi, manata'i, nanoa'i. 
ache hi'ito'o, salu 1., wa'i. 
acid ahaa. 

acknowledge 'alama'ini. 
across ha'aholo. 

act arikosi, dada, dau, bele, qao, tau, taa 2. 
active dau sakasaka'a. 
add maai 1., pe'i, sape'i, taroisuli. 
admire ane. 

adopt koine, koni, opa, ni'i, sangoni, sulu'i. 
adorn ha'alauni, launi. 
adornments launi, launihe. 
adrift ahesi, hatara, kone, tara; mataraha. 
advance ara 2., dudu, nanauhi, 'o'ohi, susungi. 
adversary maeloonga. 
adult rato, repo. 

adultery 'amo'amo, masi 1., tarie'iniwala. 
adze dahe, v.; kaumota, hiiu. 
afar 'aho'a, ha'atau. 
affirm une lete. 
affix lakoma'ini, rakoraa'ini. 
afflicted ha'alete, ha'amotahi, si'ohaa. 
affright ha'amamakine, ha'amausi. 
afloat manumenu. 
afoot liu i henue, liu i tala. 
afraid maa'u, ma'ume'u, popolo'u, qa'ilulu. 
afresh ha 8. 'i lo'u 5., alioh'i. 
after huni, 'ohi, i puri, isuli, po'o puri, qii'i puri. 
afternoon apau, apai sato. 
afterwards mango ena, mango urina. 
again aliho'i, lo'u 5. 
against hatare, honosi, parasi, suli. 
aged lasu, repo. 



ago ina'o, 'oto, 'oto di. 

agree loko, ruru wala, sama diena. 

aground ape 1. 

ague mata'i, wanga. 

aid launi, maai 1., pe'i. 

aim nana 2. 

air maalau, mango, ooru, uwatohuna. 

akin takihe-. 

alarm ha'aasire'i, ha'aparasi. 

alight 'o'a 5., puu. 

alight adj., akau, eso. 

alike ha'idadanga, ha'isada, sada. 

alive mauri, maumeuri'e, mamaurita'a. 

all ahuta-, hauni, mani, mango. 

allot 'alali, ha'aado, ni'i, wate. 

allow lio maai, maai 1., toli 'asi, tolimaai. 

almost hini'i, kara'i. 

aloft 'ala'a, 'alenga, la'a, ilengi, ta'e. 

alone hale'ite, hali'itc, hahaiteli. 

along i epine, i suli, suli. 

aloof 'aho'a. 

aloud ha'ada'i, ha'ata'i, ilengi, paine, toto- 

longa'ini. 
already 'oto, qani, 'upuni. 
also lo'u 5. 

alter hele aopa, hi'une, hi'usi, hu'isi. 
altercate ere ha'isuru, ha'aere, waiteu, weuweu. 
alternate ha'iolisi. 
altogether ha'ahuu'ani, ha'ahuu'ei, hauni, mani, 

mangomango, to'uhuungana, to'ohuu- 

nge'i. 
always 'oni'oni, suli he'idinge. 
amidst i denume, i matola-. 
amiss pele, tala 4., tototala. 
among hike, i matola, i saa-, i sie-. 
amulet mangite. 
ancestor wauwe. 
anchor hau ni hune, hunata. 
and na, mana, pe'i, rnwana. 
anew ha'alu 2., ha'olu, lo'u 5., ruana. 
anger ha'iore, saewasu. 
angle suusuu 1. 
ankle koukou li 'ae, 
anklet 'uru mwado. 
annoy aite'ini, ha'asauni, kotaahi. 
anoint nue, su. 
another nga'eta, ngaite. 
answer 'ala, 'alama'ini, 'alami. 
ant duidui, hulihuli, lolo, sane. 
antennae kakawe, waowao 2. 
anticipate kokela'ini, rorahi. 
anxious adoma'i su'asu'ate'e, ikule'i, ne'isae 

to'ote'e. 
any ngaile, ngaini, nga mwaile, nga muini, 

ta'ana, ta'ena, iteitana. 
apart 'aho'a, auhora, hoka, siki 1. 
apiece ado, oa 1. 
apparition anoa, haeta. 
appear haata'i, haeta, manumenu, suu ta'a, 

uwota. 
appease ha'arako, to'ora'ini. 
apply raoha'ini. 



117 



APPOINT 



Il8 



appoint ha'a'uresi, holosi, holota'ini, topo. 
apportion 'alali, ha'ado, ni'i, opa, wate. 
approach aori 2., duduhi, nanauhi, 'o'oha'ini, 

'o'ohi, susuhi. 
areca 'e'e, kuru, mauta'a, pile, pua. 
arm nima, nimanima, nime, ninime. 
armlet hato, kakamuni, kokome, ngaungeu 

nime, pore, qaro haa. 
armpit qaeqae. 

around haahi, honota-, kali, kalikeli, parasi. 
arrange koni, ne'i, samanga'ini, si'o koni. 
arrive arapuu, hule 1. 

arrow dede qalu, omo, oa 4., suulehu, topa 1. 
as domana, mala 1., urihana, waruna. 
ascend hane, haneta'a, tahela'i. 
ashamed mamakine, masa. 
ashes ora 2., qasaora. 
aside 'e'eli, liu aopa, palili. 
ask dolosi, ha'atohu, hari, soi, suke. 
assault arisi, polahi, puuli, siholi. 
assemble ahelidu, loko, ruru. 
assent 'alama'ini, 'alaqa'u, mwa'emwa'e. 
assert unu lete, usu meuta'a. 
assign ha'aado, holosi 3. 
assist maai, pe'i, pe'ini. 
asthma malo. 
astray 'e'eli, takalo. 
astride ta'e odoodo, ta'e ha'aholo. 
asunder makaka. 
at hai 2., i 1., ta'i 2., wai 5. 
at all ha'aisi, ike, 'oto 'o'o. 
atonement hiri, tapa olisi, uraa'i. 
attach raoha'ini, lakoma'ini, rakoma'ini. 
attack mama'ingi, polahi. 
attain hulaana, su'aana, tail taha, usu ta'a. 
attempt dau adonga, dau ni, hala. 
aunt nike, teitei. 
avenge horo i tala, suu ola. 
avoid peinuhi. 

awake ha'alio, ha'atalisi, liolio, tiilisi. 
away mwaani, wau. 
awe maute'i ra'aranga-. 
awhile ha'awali, ka'u 4. 
awkward maumeuli'e. 
axe hau 2., 'ile 4., ngadi. 

babble ro'irori. 

baby 'elekale, mwela werewere, weewee. 

back kolu, puri; adv., aliho'i, 'oli, 'olie'i, ha'i'oli; 

taalenga 
backbone suli odo, suli qeri i ngae. 
bad 'aela, tata'ala; kasu, mapusu, osa. 
bag anga, mwa'i. 
bait paa, pasa; 'alata'ini, v. 
bake hahi, haali. 
bale pute; v., danu. 
baler idenu. 
bald halai. 
ball hou meme. 

bamboo au, dana, qirei eu, rata. 
banana hudi, piei hudi. 
band walo. 

bang kokohu, makulu; n., koukouhe. 
bank 'akere, keke, rao. 
barb, nanga. 



bare mwakule, qala. 

barefaced raramaa. 

barely asa, asa'i, hini'i, ili 1., kara'i, orei 2. 

bargain hohoro, 'olisi, usi. 

bark te'ete'e n.; ku, leko'i. 

barren amara, qala. 

barter ha'aholi, hohoro, holi, usi. 

bashful masa, mamasa'a. 

bask ha'araa. 

basket anga, ite, lu'alu'a, lu'e 3., mwa'i, tangi 1. 

bat ninginingi, sawalo. 

bathe loto. 

battlefield paonga. 

bawl arai, awara, kakau, tea. 

be i'o, la 1., lae, 'o'o 3. 

beach i kule, i one, one, qa'une hau. 

beak qalusu, wawa. 

bear anga'i, hele, karu, walenga'i; ha'ahute, 

hungu. 
beat daro, hide, horo, rapu, sauni; lili qana. 
beating daro'ilana, maai repusilana. 
beautiful hinoli'a, kohi, mwane diana, rara'i. 
because ana 7., 'aehotalana, i tehulaana, i nunu- 

haana, tala'aehana. 
beckon 'ala qa'u, salohi. 
become ne'i, no'i; malisi. 
beetle manu, orooro'a. 
before hola'i na'o, i na'o. 
beforehand kokela'i, rorahi. 
beg 'a'ada'ini, aitana'i ha'atohu. 
beget 'aehota, ha'ahute. 
begin 'aehota, tala'ae; adv. si 1. 
beginning 'aehotalana, tala'aehana. 
beguile ero, kae. 
behave i'o, naku, 'o'o 3., tola. 
behavior i'ola-, i'onga. 
behind i puri. 
bcUh ora lulu. 
believe hiiwala'imoli. 
belly 'aqa 2., i'e 3., 'oqa. 
belong ana 3., to'oana, to'ola-. 
below haha 1., i'ano, i haha, i oroha-, i ka'o. 
belt lokoqaio, roro to'oni. 
bend lolo 1., lo'u 4., lo'une, oroha'i, oroma'i; 

n., 'alo'u, lo'u'e. 
beneath i 'ano, i haha, i kao. 
bent 'amaoro, malo'u, matou, mwahiohio, 

mwaoroha'i. 
beseech aitana'i, tola suu'i. 
beset 'aqata'ini. 

beside i epine, i keke, i raona, i reune, isuli. 
besom korekore, tala 5. 
betel oha, oha ni me'esu. 
betray qelo. 

betroth aharo, ngau ni sulanga, rongo keni. 
between i matola. 
beware lio tala. 

bewilder lole, pangara'ini, pu'o. 
bewitch si'ohi. 
beyond li'ite, likite, 'oto wau, po'o wau, qa'u 

ni paro, qa'u wau. 
bid ha'atola, ha'iusunge'i, 'unu. 
big paine, paipeina'a, pangupangu raha, loa 1. 
bill qalusu. 
bind hiri, hoo, qasu. 
bird manu. 
birth ha'ahutanga, hutela. 



ii9 



CATCH 



bit ahuhue'i ola, dodongo, 'ele, karikeri, kele 

me'i, ko'ukohui poo, maapou, masi 2., 

me'i, musii 'elili, 'u'u tolo, waawaatani 

i'a. 
bite 'ala 3., sapo. 
bitter ahaa. 

black lo'ilohi'e, pulu, pulupulu'e, sawaoli'e. 
bladder mimi. 
blade maa 4. 
blame 'i'ite 2., 'i'ite'ini. 
blast esoesoha, mawaha. 
blaze eso, ngangau, talau. 
bliss dahi, da'idehi'e, ha'adahi, ha'adiana. 
blind ha'a'ulu, 'ulu. 
blister qa'arete, tarapiu. 
block hau 3., hai 4., ape hono. 
blood apu. 

bloody apule, lili 'epule. 
blossom taka. 

blow mawa, ooru, 'uhi 3.; n. maai repusilana. 
Wmc melumclu'a'a, pulupulu'e, to'orodo. 
blunt kumu, ngo'a. 
boar ora 4. 

board hapa, rai dango, rai 'ei, rai hapa, raureu. 
boast ere ani leu honu, ha'atoha'ini, wawa 

ehoeho. 
body sape. 

boil ha'aohu, koo, ohu 1., pii; n., 'upu'e. 
bond walo. 
bone su'isuli, susuli. 
boom hau lili qana. 
border 'akerena, i keke, i ngoongoo, i raona, 

i reune. 
bore halo, hoto'i. 
born hute. 

borrow lihue'ini, suke. 
bosom roro 2., roroma'i sae, saro. 
both ahutana ro ola. 
bottle hou 'atea, hou wei. 
bottom kao. 
bough sasara. 

bound pola liliki, reke; ho'o. 
boundary honohonota, nisita, ta'itelihana. 
bow n., pasi; v., qa'utou, 'o'onuto. 
bowels 'oqa, sae. 

bowl nime 2., nime sarasara, maraohu; v., 'a'a 5. 
bowstring ilolo, pulo 2. 
6oy 'elemwane, mwane, mwau, mwela, mwela 

mwane, mwemwela, plural, 
boyhood haoraha-, mwaimweiha. 
brace rape'i, roro'i; n., ro. 
brackish 'asile, maraohu'e, qaaqi'a. 
brain qango 3. 

branch luluhu, sasara, 'ulu'ulu 2. 
breadfruit pa'ale'o. 
break aaro, 'ala 4., ha'alede, ha'amousi, 

ha'aqa'ali, hali, hite, lede, makasi, 

mousi, nisi, papali, papata'ini, pota, 

qa'ali, qa'asi, radu. 
breast susu, roroma'i sae. 
breath mango 2., mangoi ola. 
breathe mamango, mangomango 2., malo 2., 

poepoe. 
breed ha'ahute. 

bride hu'e ha'alu, keni ha'alu (ha'olu). 
bridegroom poro ha'alu (ha'olu). 
bridge tatalauhe, huruhuru. 



bright marariro'a, raa, rere'a, wana, wanga- 

wanga. 
brilliant huhurere'a, marare'a, nuenuala, rara- 

nga'a. 
brim maa 4., wairona. 
bring tola, tole. 

brink qa'asulilana, i raona, i reune. 
bristle n., uhu, waraihu, warauhu. 
broad 'ahola, lalo'a. 
broil susungi 2., su'isungi, uunu 1. 
broken 'a'o'i, ma'o'i, mari'iri'i, langu holo, 

madou 2., makaka, makaka'a. 
brood v., aro 2. 
broom korekore, tala 5. 
brother 'asi-2., 'ule-. 

brother-in-law 'asi-, ihe-, ro aihana, ro mwaihana. 
brow dara, na'ona dara. 
bruised hudihudi'e, maelupu'e, maputaputa. 
brush kore, tala 5. 
bubble hutohuto, ohu 1. 
bud 'ure 4. 
buffet hideli, lomosi. 
build dau nime, tail nima, ha'auresi, tohu nime; 

soo tete. 
bulge suule'i. 
bump lupunge'ini, taate'e, tatate'ete'e, to'o- 

lupu. 
bunch adai, hungu, hunguha, hunguta, huu. 
bundle lokota, ihoo, putaputa, pute. 
burden ludaa, ludanga. 
burn eso, ha'amamu'i, mamu, raahi, talau, 

uunu 1., waru. 
burrow "eli. hai 5. 
burst qa'a, utakora. 
bury 'anomi, aori, 'eli tala, ha'itoli, ha'itoli- 

nge'ini. 
bush 'ai 1., dango, ma'usu, me'esu, mou, tolona 

hanue. 
busy hiru, hirunga'a. 
busybody polahiwasa. 
but ta'a 7., ta'e 6., ta'e pe'ini. 
butterfly pepe. 

buttock moro 3., popo 2., qote. 
buy holi, holoholo 3., hohoro, usi. 
by ana 2., ani 2., i keke, i raona, i reune, i saa, 

i sie, i suli. 

cackle tatarao, toteu. 

call arai, awara, ha'ara'i, soi. 

calm holaa. 

can mwadausi. 

cane 'ohu 3., ue 3., wale. 

canoe 'iola, 'iola sara, lusuinume, ta'a ta'e, 

ta'e hai, ta'e 'olu. 
capsize 'akeu. kausi, oha'i, qaoha'ini. 
careful ha'akeneta'i, ha'ikeneta'i, keneta'i, 

kineta'i, raerae. 
careless tauteu, ta'ewau. 
cargo ludaa, ludanga. 
carry anga'i, anga'ini, 'apala, hu'e 3., lude, 

poonga'ini, tola, to'o qa'u, walenga'ini, 

wawala. 
carve adu, adumi, diu 2., didi. 
cast 'a'a 5., 'asi 3., daro, dere, 'u'i, 'uile'ini, 

sikera'ini. 
castrate uweli. 
catch kausi, talaahu'e, tapoli. 



CATERPILLAR 



1 20 



caterpillar muno. 

cave hahale, liwe. 

caulk pulu'i. 

cause, v., dau 1., ha'aola, tau; n., 'ae'aena, 

'aehotalana, tala'aehana. 
cease mou, moutoli, noto, rohu, toli ereere, 

to'o mou tana, toli rohu, suu 1. 
cement pulu 3. 
centipede aliha, aluhe. 
chafe harasi, rotoa'ini, sataa'i, uli 3. 
chamber ahi, 'atohono. 
champ kokolu, sapoli. 
change alu, ha'alili, hi'usi, ho'itana, ho'ite'i, 

hu'isi, hu'itana, hu'ite'i, lapi, lie 2., 

'oli, 'olisi. 
channel ta'ataha, taha, tahalaa, ukui ta'ataha. 
charcoal lo'ilohi. 
charge ha'atolanga'ini, 'usu ilengi, 'usu maa; 

rori. 
charm «., mangite, sahu 2., si'onga; v., saru'i, 

toli loosi, walangi. 
chase pai 1., pani, pee 1. 
chatter 'e'engo, diodioru, kotaa, orea, rongo 

'aela. 
cheat ero, kae. 
cheek papali. 
cheer ha'aape, ilenimwa'e, rike, ruke, sae dodo, 

sae rukeruke. 
chest duru, toitoi; mango 2., sae. 
chew daweri, koikoi, kokolu, ngasi, ngero'i, 

sapoli. 
chief alaha, inemauri, rato. 
child 'elekale, 'elekale werewere, kale, mwela, 

mwela werewere, weewee. 
child-bearing ha'ahute mwela, kale'a. 
chin sasate. 
chink waawaata. 
chip dahe, didi, diu, tere, wili; «., masi 'ei. 

ngangai dango, ngangani 'ei, sikitani 

'ei, sikitei dango. 
chipped 'apasu. 

choose hili, 'ilisi, lio hilisi, lio huni. 
chop huule'ini, kohu 2., tapa, tapi, tohu 1. 
chorus ha'ioangi. 
cinnamon madou. 
circuit kali, kari waaro. 
clam 'ime. 
clap hide. 
clasp ako. 
clatter kole. 
claw ki'iki'i. 

clay 'ano mola, mwado waru. 
clean rere'a; v., ha'arere'a. 
cleanse hoda. 
clear ahureha, dingadinga, hahuroto, haha'iteli, 

langalanga'a, manola, mataqa, tam- 

waodo; v., rai, sale. 
cleave hite, hite pewa'ali, tangi, tohu 1., tohu 

hiteli, wa'ali; hataa'ini, rauhe'i. 
cleft ta'ataha, tahalaa. 
clench lokune, rete hau. 
clever saai ola, salema'i. 
cliff haneta'anga, hanetahanga, osani karekare, 

qa'asulilana. 
climb hane, hane'i, hanenga'ini. 
cling lalako, nanako, rauhe'ini. 
clip olo 3. 



close ahu'i 2., dau keli, ha'apuli, hohono, para 

ahu'i, ponosi; mumu, adj., kara'ini, 

puru, purupuru'a'a. 
close-cut kou. 
cloth mi sala, sala. 
cloud mamala wai, rorodo, rorodo'a, salo, 

uru3. 
clouded kokohono, rorodo, rorodo'a. 
club ahui 1., die, kiakia, mata, pa'uwa'ata, 

supi, taroiri. 
club-foot qa'i 4. 
clump huu 1., lolo'a ni 'ei. 
coarse wara. 

coast v., hatale; «., hatale'a. 
cobweb lawa. 
cockatoo eke. 

cockle hadonga, henu, mengo, hangoda. 
cockroach mwaidi. 
coconut niu; kokolu, madeli, opu, poupou 1., 

'ulu'ulu 1. 
coil ere 2. 

collect sio 1., sio koni, sio maani. 
color sape. 
comb arapa. 
combine loko. 

come dudu, hule, lae, susuhi, su'u 6. 
come out au ta'a, mau, tau ta'a, usu taha. 
command ha'atolanga'ini, usunge'ini. 
common ta'ewau, tauteu. 
compact sa'oha'ini. 

companion dama, maila-, oa 2., pe'ile-. 
company alidanga, alidangaha, herahonu, 

pulitaa, koruhe, laeha. 
compassion 'amasi, ha'i'amasi. 
compensate hiri 2., toto 1. 
complain uqe, ngara tahela'i. 
compete ahu 1., mango 1., mangomango, 

mouqeli. 
conceal mumuni. 
conceive 'aehota, lodo. 
concerned poi 2., po'ote'e. 
concerning ana, haahi, ra'arangana. 
conch 'ahuri. 
condition tolaha. 
condemn 'i'i 1., lei. 
conduct v., ha'apulonga'ini, na'o, tole, 'ure- 

nga'ini; n., tolaha. 
confess ha'ahou, unu tahanga'ini. 
confident sae moute'i, sae susu. 
confirm ha'asusu, ha'ato'o, rape'i. 
confused lole, pu'o, qa'ulunge'i, wasawasa'a. 
consent 'alama'ini, mwa'emwa'e. 
conspicuous langa'a. langalanga'a. 
constantly 'oni'oni, tarau, taraure'i. 
consult mani wala, qa'u ni wala. 
contend ha'itohe, ha'ipani'i, haukama. 
continue konito'o, susu 4., suusuu, taraasi, 

tarao, tarau, tarauhe'ini. 
contort huhu laolao ana wa'i. 
contract rarasi, ruusi. 
contradict ere ha'itohe. 
contribute tete, wili. 

convey ha'apulonga'ini, tole, 'urenga'ini. 
cook ha'ali'e, ha'aopo, hahi, koo, sule, susungi; 

su'isungi, uunu. 
cooked mali'a, madoo. 
cool wa'arara, wa'arau'a. 



121 



DIFFER 



copy ha'amaani, ha'imaani, ha'amala, maani, 

malamala 3. 
coral hau haa, kau 2. 
cord 'ali 3., i'eli, walo. 
core nini, uto. 
cork qaito. 

corner suraa'i, suusuu. 
corpse lalamoa, qa'u 'apula, rae. 
correct ha'aodo, odo. 
cough hu'u 5. 
counsel loo'inge. 
count idu 1. 
country hanue. 

courtyard 'amaa, lolata, mara nume. 
covenant n„ ha'alunge, ha'iholota'inge; v., 

ha'alu. 
cover v., aluhi, mwana 1., ponosi, qaoha'i; n., 

maa, ponopono. 
covet sae hanali, sae to'oa'i ola. 
covetous malalahu'e. 
cower 'aqa 1. 
cowry puli 1., puli 'ehi'e. 
crab ao 2., 'ahe 3., kuka, qa'i ao, 'u'e 6. 
crack kokohu, makulu, ngaangaa 2., qa'a 1., 

qa'arakau, ualapoa. 
cracked lo'a 3., qa'a, wa'ahite. 
crackle watamea, sii. 
crafty raomaenga. 

cram poe 3., susu harehare, to'oni 2. 
crash makulu, ngara loulou. 
crawfish ore ni 'esi, ura. 
crawl 'ango 1., lidu. 
creak awaleo, ngangadi. 
crease hirori 1. 
create ha'ahola. 
creep ango, huto 2. 
creeper walo. 
cripple lilidu, to'u 3. 
crocodile huasa. 

crook ikeu, mudi 2., tangatanga. 
crooked mwa'elu, mwahi, mwaketo. 
crop v., 'ini 5. 
cross v., holosi, la'oni, la'ongi, likisi, tapaliu, 

ulu holo; adv., ha'aholo; «., ailipo'u, 

po'upo'u. 
crotch tanga. 
croton alaala. 

crouch adaoro, 'ahihi, 'aqa 1., hihi. 
crow kokorako, tatarao. 
crowd ha'apuli, ruungi, takuruhi; n., honulaa, 

mwala, pulitaa. 
crown halaitana, ho'odara, rorodara, 'ure'urena. 
crumb ahuhu'e, nganga, urate. 
crush hite menasi, pili. 

crushed malelede, mamenamena, ma'o'i'o'i. 
cry arai, awara, kakau, ngara, ulo. 
cuckoo tarasioko. 
cull hu'usi, 'ini. 
cup kaokao. 
cupboard duru. 
cure kure 1. 
curl ali, lolosi. 

curse ere ha'ihonoa'i, hadi, isi, uwesi. 
curve repa. 
cuscus huto 1. 
cut aha 2., hoa 1., huri, kala, kohu 2., lisi, nisi, 

topa, tori 1. 



cuttlefish monaki. 

daily suli haudinga, suli he'idinge. 

dam n., koho; v., ponosi. 

damage mala masi, wa'eli, ware. 

damp makina'a, qesa'a, qini'a, waoni'a. 

dance mao 1. 

danger maelaa, siohaa'i maelaa. 

dare adoma'i mousi, ne'isae moute'i. 

dark rodo, rodohono; rodoha'i, rodoma'i, 

rorodo'a. 
darken ha'arodo. 
darkish marawa, maramarawa'a. 
dash papata'ini, pola. 
daub mole, 'usuri. 

daughter 'elekeni, kele keni, pule, teitei. 
daughter-in-law hungao-, keni. 
dawn ha'ihora'i, mahu'ohu'o, wa'ali'e. 
day atowa, dani, dangi, ha'idinge, haudinga. 
daybreak marawani deni, mahu'ohu'o, wa'ali'e. 
dazzle marare'a. 
dead mae. 
dea/pungu. 

deal hohoro, holi; 'alali, ha'aado, ni'ini'i, wate. 
dear diena, maa'i 2., madu. 
dearth hi'olonga, talenga. 
death maenga, maeta. 
debt roro'a, roro'anga. 
decay kasu, osa. 

deceit eronga, kaenga, raomaenga. 
deceive ero, kae, lopo'i, qali. 
deck ma'emahe; n., mwanamwana. 
declare ha'ahou, ha'ata'ini, hou 4., 'unu 1. 
decorate ha'alauni, launi, mumu. 
decoy ha'atanauhi, ha'amamu. 
deep asa, dodo, kokoro, lade mae. 
defecate he'a 1. 
defend ere talihe, lau haahi, para'ite-, talohi, 

'ure ahu'i, 'ura parasi. 
deficient ore 1., tale. 

defile ha'awa'a, lo'u 3., louhanga'a, maha. 
defy parangasi, haukama. 
degrees duuduu, raqaraqa'a. 
delay ha'ahiru, ha'awali, hirusi, 'oniteu; n., 

hirunga'a. 
delirious 'oe'oe. 

deliver ha'i'a'auhi, ha'iteuhi, luhelolo. 
dense pono, rerepono. 
deny ere talihe, taate'inge'ini, ulapo, wala'a 

odoodo. 
descend siho, sihola'i, siho toli. 
descendant wauwe. 
desert n., hanue sala, hiinua sasala, maana'o, 

na'onga; v., pola mwaani, tahi. 
desire ha'ihuni, harihuni. 
desist noto, rohu, toli 6., toliaa. 
desolate i'o ni leu qala, maana'o, na'onga, sala 

4., si'ohaa, waa 1. 
despise adairi, hii'aela, mama'ila'a, mama'ingi, 

mwaka 1. 
destroy duuhe'ini, ngoli, suuhe'ini, ware. 
detach sikile'ini. 
device loo'inge, loona'inge. 
dew ara 1., waoni'a. 
diarrhea tao. 
die ai suu, mae, suu 1 . 
differ aopa. 



DIFFICULT 



122 



difficult asa. 

diffident marara. 

dig ahure, 'eli, 'elihe'i. 

diligent ha'airara, mwa'emwa'e, rara 1. 

dim wahawaha'a, wasawasa'a. 

diminish kurawe, lueli, luengi. 

din 'e'engo, kotaa, rongo 'aela. 

dip ha'adodo, loloma'ini, suu 1., toongi; n„ 

aliholo, ririholo. 
dirt 'ano, mwado, mwakana, mwakano, qiqi. 
dirty mada'a, mwadola, rawakano'a, qiqi'e. 
dish nima, nime. 

disobey alalu, ha'itohe, lalawa, sare'i. 
disorderly mwa'uu, teroliu. 
disposition manata, manatanga. 
dispute ha'aere, haore, ha'isuru, waiteu, wala- 

hali, wauwau. 
distant 'aho'a, ha'atau. 
distinct maopaopa. 
distinguish haha'iteli, hahiteli, ileli, lio saai, 

opa. 
distress ha'aletehinga, motaahinge, si'ohaanga; 

v., motaahi, kotaahi, hasi kokosi. 
distribute ha'aado, ha'aohusi, ni'i, wate. 
disturb hurosi, ikule'i, iolaha, sasae; adj., 

mahuro. 
dive suu 1. 

diverge aliu, 'e'eli, liu aopa. 
divide hiteli, opa, nisi. 
divine dau dunge, dunga ni hau, hahuto'o, 

ilala. 
dizzy ta'iere. 

do arikosi, da, dau, hele, palo, qao, ta, tau. 
docile manata, rako. 
dodge talohi. 
dog 'usu 9. 
door hohono, raaa. 
dot pulu maai seu. 
double lo'u 4., kalitei'a, saoha'ini. 
doubt adoma'i ruarua'a, ne'isae ruerua'a, sae 

ruerua'a. 
dove heheoku, hiroiku, taqaruru. 
down hao, hou, i'ano, qa'i 'ano, siho. 
down n., ta'atakai rate. 
drag oke, panile'ini, wa'i. 
dragon-fly ta'atara wai. 
draw oke; kere; taluhi. 
dread niniko'a. 

dream ma'ahu pole, ma'ahu qole. 
dregs hero, pali kao. 
drift hatara, kosola'ini, tara. 
drill halo; «., halo, idu 3. 
drink ilu, inu. 
drip ha'auduhi, mudimudi 'ura, mwimwidi 

'ure, 'udu; n., 'udu'uduhe. 
drive pani, panitora, pee. 
drizzle nemo ra'arara. 
droop ahuhu, mara'i heutaa, tengotengo. 
drop domu, ha'ausuli 1., teke, tete, toli, toli 

sesu, 'usu 11. 
dropsy pule, pura. 
drought 'iro ni sato. 
drown ha'adodo, ha'a'o'oni, ha'ainuhi, ha'ato- 

nohi. 
drowsy mamauru'e. 
drum 'o'o 2., para ni 'o'o, ri'i, taha 'o'o, toli 9.; 

v., 'iki 2. 



drumstick kokoi sa'o. 

dry adj., 'a'ate, 'ate'ate, rango, rara 2.; r., 

ha'alanga; ha'amaa, ha'araa, rarasi. 
duck n., aranga. 
duck v., ha'adodo, qa'uto'u. 
dull kumu, rorodo'a. 
dumb 'amumu, panguu, qe'u ereere. 
dun 'a'ada'ini. 
dung 'ae, oraora 2. 

duration di, ha'awali, qani, wa'ite; n., maholo. 
dusk saulehi melumelu. 
dust mwakano loho, mwamwatekola, 'u'u- 

mwado, wahawaha ni mwado. 
dusty v., ahuora. 
dwarf didi 1., ki'iki'i ni 'inoni, masi 3., ride ni 

'inoni. 
dwell naku, i'o, i'o ni deunge, 'o'o 3. 
dwindle kumwe. 
dye 'atoni, to'ongi. 
dysentry 'apu. 

each ta'ena, ta'ana, iteitana. 

eagle hada. 

ear 'alinge. 

ear ornament au susu, eho, wouwou. 

early ha'ahu'o, mahu'ohu'o 

earnest n., ha'a i mwe'i; ha'irara. 

earth 'ano, mwado, mwakana, mwakano. 

earthquake nunu 1. 

east i matawa, i qa'alana sato, ta'au, ta'e. 

easy mwadau. 

eat 'amadi, ngaa, ngangau, ngau, oka. 

eaves pipisi, riridi. 

ebb kumwe, mai 2. 

echo qa'alinge. 

eddy 'ahe hiru, ali lo'a. 

edge api, keke, maa 4., rau 2., wairona. 

eel hauho. 

egg apota, hoi kue, hoi menu, mwaopu, saolu. 

eject 'asi 3., dere, 'u'ile'ini. 

elastic mwaeroero, mwaohe; n., walo lala'L 

walo dududu. 
elbow suusuu 1. 

eloquent ere taha'iraa, saai ere. 
elsewhere ana nga'eta le'u, ana ngaite lehu. 
embark ni'i 'ae, ta'e 4., ta'eli 'iola. 
ember lo'ilohi. 
embrace ako'i, 'apala 4. 
emerge au ta'a. 

empty oreorei ola, qala, waawaa, wawae. 
enable nanama'ini, sakaahi. 
enclose dau keli, hono sisinge'i, para ahu'i, tau: 

kali. 
encounter dau to'o, ha'iodo'i, hii'isu'esu'e, soda. 
encourage ha'aape sae, ha'amauta'a sae, 

ha'asusu sae. 
end ha'amangolana, ngoongoo, to'o moutana; 

v., ha'amango, nisi, talimaa; ha'a'uresi. 
endeavor dau ni, hala ni, tau muni. 
endure i'o susu, i'o susule'i, toli sesu. 
enemy maeloonga, 'apani mae. 
energy v., ha'irara, hele winiwini; «., sakanga. 
engaged hiru. 
enlighten ha'amataqali, ha'amataqasi, raangi, 

sineli. 
enlightenment mataqanga ni sae. 
enough adona. ha'idadanga, hunge, sada. 



123 



FIT 



enquire dolosi, soi, soi heri. 

entangled 'aiwalo'a, ta'ipupu'e; v., hikusi, tari 

2., to'oha'i qe'u. 
enter sili. 
entice ha'amamu, ha'ariro, ha'atanauhi, 

mamu. 
entire ha'ileku, laku, mangomango, pupupu. 
entrails 'oqa. 

entreat aitana'i, tolaa'i, tola suu'i. 
envelope v., ahu'i, ulo; n., hulehule, uloulo- 

'itana. 
envy lio i kekeni maa, Ho i ngaei maa. sae 

unuhi. 
equal n„ dama; adv., ha'idadanga, sada. 
err aopa, 'e'eli, pele, takalo. 
error dau pelenga, takaloha. 
establish ha'a'ure'si. 
eternal huu 2., 'oto di. 
even ha'idadanga, sada; noone. 
evening saulehi. 

ever huu 2., 'oni'oni, 'oto di, 'oto 'o'o. 
every ahuta-, ta'ana, ta'ena. 
everything ahutana mu ola, ta'ana nga ola, 

ta'ena nga ola, walumolani ola, walu- 

tana nga ola. 
everywhere ahusie mu le'u. 
evil 'aela, da'ita'a, tata'ala. 
exact odohana, odohaana. 
exalt tahela'ini, toro 2. 
example 'ae, peapea, tolaha. 
exceedingly] aopa, hi'ito'o, liu, Uuta'a, oraha'a, 
t 1., to'oliu, wa'ewa'e, walawala. 
excessive Jwa'u, hunge. 
exchange ha'ilu'u, 'olisi. 
excite 'akolu, ikule'i, iolaha, ta'ela'i, tatanga- 

lungalu. 
excrement 'ae, huui 'ae. 
excuse ha'a'inoni, lopo'i ere, lopo'i kae, lopo'i 

wala'a. 
exhort ha'itorangi, torangi. 
expect totori, maa toto. ma'ohi. 
expire mango suu, toli'asi mango. 
explain hatonga'ini, lado diena, 'unu taha- 

nga'ini. 
extend ahusi, lala'ini. 
exult manawa, tahola'i mata. 
eye maa; v., ha'akale, ha'amaesi 2. 
eyelid hinuhinui maa, hiruhiru ana maa. 
eyebrow maranga i maa. 

face maa, na'o; v., na'o, saro. 

fade ahuhu. 

faggot iho'oi dango, iho'oi 'ei. 

fail huutala, pele, mwamwasu'i, tala, tototala. 

faint mango toli, olo ana hi'olo, ta'iere. 

fair eke, erete'a, sasangota'a; odo. 

faith hiiwala'imolinge. 

fall 'aihu, 'auru, anguru, domu, lada, mara- 

pute'i, rapute'i, teke, toli, 'usu 11., 

wa'uru. 
false ero, ha'akae, ha'amenamena, kae, rao- 

maenga. 
falsehood eronga, kaenga. 
fame houla-, taloha, taroha. 
family komu. 

famine hi'olonga, talenga, talengaha. 
famish mae su'esu'ela'i. 



famous hou keli, hou lilikeli, manikulu'e. 
fan n., tetere; v., terehi. 
far 'aho'a, ha'atau. 

fast lauleu, lauleu'a, nanamu, tatawisiwisi; 
mauta'a, papau, pa'ipesi, pasipasi; v., 
ha'ahili, ma'ahu mala 'iola, ma'ahu 
qalawala, olo ngau, toli ola, toli ngeulaa. 
fat mangoni, mwomwona, qi'e; n., rakuhe. 
father 'ama-, ma'a, mama'a. 
fathom tahanga. 
fatigue rahe, we'o. 
fault dau wala, roro'a. 
favor lio maai, lio nanama'ini, lio sae to'o. 
favorite kale madu, mwane diena, mwane 

maa'i. 
fear maa'u, ma'u, ma'u ra'aranga. 
feast houlaa, ngauhe, tauhe. 
feather ihu, waraihu. 

feeble mamaela'a, peto, qeto, qake mware'a. 
feed ha'angau, ni'i, sangoni. 
feel hii. 

feign lopo'i deu, lopo'i teu. 
fellow dama, oa 2. 
female keni, qaqa 2. 
fence liliheu, para, sasa, suluheu, tete 6., v., 

para, sese, sio tete. 
ferment hane 3. 

fern dimwe, laqa, sunge luuluu. 
fester oropa, osa. 
festoon 'ama'ama, mahe, waki. 
fetch lae 'ohi, 'ohi 1., tola, tole. 
fever daohanga madoro, maenga mamadali, 

madoronga, mata'i, wanga. 
few mwamwanga, mwanganga. 
fiber mwarite, saisemu, samu, su'e, walo. 
fierce mama'ingi, mamakola, melaha. 
fight ha'ihoro'i, ha'iseuni, oho, wa'i oda'i. 
figure sape. 
fill dede'i. ha'ahonu. 
film ahoaho. 
filth mada'anga. 
fin nangananga. 
final ha'amangolana. 
find odo'i, ha'aro'i, soohi. 
fine hiritaa; sato. 
finger ki'iki'i, ri'iri'i; 1st, 'ini hite; 2nd, 'usu 

henue; 3rd, qa'u teroliu; 4th, au rarahi; 

5th, kau lomolomo. 
finish ha'amango, mango 1. 
fire dunge; liana 2. 
firebrand potoi, usu 'ei. 
firefly pulupulu. 
firewood 'ai, dango. 
firm halahala, mauta'a, nga'ingedi, papau, 

sulahita, susu 4.; v., ha'amauta'a, 

ha'asusu 1. 
first 'etana, hola'i, holai na'o; v., ha'ana'ola'ini, 

na'ola'ini. 
first born hola'i hute, na'ohai kale, na'ohana kale. 
first fruit ha'ana'o, horahora'apu'i. 
first time aani, hola'i, si 2. 
fish i'e 2.; v., 'aholo, 'a'o, daro 2., hunu 3., 

kalu, lilie'i, lou 2., ma'ae, moke, samu, 

toli 2., wa'o, weesi. 
fist lokunaa nime. 
fit adj., ha'idadanga, hatonga, malisi, sada^ 

v., daraha'ini, sa'oha'ini. 



FLAKE 



124 



flake sikite; v., didi, wili. 

flame esohaana dunge, meameahana dunge, 

melahai dunge; v., eso, mea 2., ora 3., 

talau. 
flank parapara, rahoraho. 
flap hideli, lopalopa. 
flare eso, sii 2. 
flash nangali'a, nangariro'a. 
flat dadada'a, hu'idada; ape dao, ape sada; 

sada. 
flatten ha'adada, ha'asada, penasi, taalengasi. 
flatter apu'i, ha'arako. 
flay simwe. 
flea pote 3. 
flee tahi. 

flesh hasi'o, hinesu, ta'itesi. 
fleshy hasi'ola. 
flick kopi. 

flinch marara, niniko'a. 
fling 'asi 3., dere, 'u'i 
float manu 2.; n., u'o. 

flock 'alaa, haka 4., koruhe, korutaa, pulitaa. 
flog daro, rapusi. 
flood kone, luelue. 
flotsam mataraha, ramarama. 
flow 'ahe I., kone, lue 2., oraa, ramarama, 

tahe 3. 
flower taka 1. 
fluid rumu, sulu 5., wai 1. 
flutter loho, tere 'apa'apa, tete 'apa'apa. 
fly n., lango, lango ni rae. 
fly v., loho. 
foam hutohuto. 
fold lulungi, nukumi. 
follow 'ahe isuli, lulu isuli, sulu isuli, susuli, 

'usuli, totola i 'ae. 
food ngauha, ngaulaa. 
fool herohero, karu oe, papaku'a, qe'u 1. 
foot 'a'ae, 'ae, peapea. 
foothold 'uriurite. 
footprint 'a'ae, peapea. 
forbid ere 1., ere luu'i, ha'a'apu, hadi. 
forefather wauwe-. 
forefinger 'usu henue. 
forehead dara, na'ona dara. 
foreign haka 3., matawa. 
forerun hurulaa, na'ona'o. 
forest ma'usu, me'esu, mou 2. 
forget pulongo, sae rorodo. 
forgive ne'isae 'asi, sae 'asi. 
fork matanga, tangatanga. 
form lioha-, liota-, sape. 
former holai na'o. 
formerly hola'i, i na'o, 'oto di, 'oto qani, 'oto 

waite, waite. 
fornication 'ae'aeniolanga, tarie'i ni wala. 
forsake lae mwaani, tahi mwaani, toli'asi. 
forth kei ana, ta'a 4., taha 1., 'ure ana. 
fortieth haine nga awala. 
forty hai awala ha'ahuu. 
forward ada wau, ata wau, odo, paro, ta'au, 

taraasi, tarao, taraure'i. 
foster sangoni. 

foundation, poopoota, qooqoota. 
fount hulaa, hulahula, huuna wai. 
four hai 1., 
fourth haine. 
fowl kue. 



fragment ahuhu'ei ola, ngangai ola, maapou, 

maholo. 
free i'o tohu, mamaware, sapemawa; v., 

luhelolo, luhesi, toli'asi. 
freely mola'a, ni'i suu, ni'i toto. 
freight ludaa, ludanga. 
frequent ha'ahunga'a, ha'ahunge, hungehunga'a, 

purupuru'a'a, rarapuupuu. 
fresh ha'alu, ha'olu. 
friend ha'imalahu-, malahu-. 
frighten ha'amalu, ha'amamakina, ha'ama'usi. 
fringe mwirimwiri, ngoongoo. 
from i 1., kei 2., mai 1., mwaani, 'ure. 
frond akeake. 
front maa, na'o. 
froth hutohuto. 
frown 'ala ngingita. 
fruit hoi 1., huani 'ei, hue, huehuei dango; 

v., hungu. 
fuel 'Si, dango. 
full-grown rato, repo. 
fungus 'alinge 2. 
furl lulungi. 
further adv., tarao, taraasi, taraure'i. 

gain tari 1. 

Kail loka, pulu 2. 

gapped makere, pilomo. 

gape awanganga. kakahite. 

garden hohola, lalo 4., qainaa, qa'u 4., kalona. 

gargle koukou 2. 

garland mahe. 

gasp ilele malo, mango asa, poepoe. 

gate maai para. 

gather ahelidu, loko, ruru, s'io 1. 

gaze aonga'i, lio hahuroto, maakahi, to'oma'i. 

gentle mahuru, malumu, rako. 

gently anene. 

ghost 'akalo, esi, urehi. 

giddy ta'iere. 

gift ni'inge. 

gills langasi-. 

ginger aro 1., lie. 

gird ho'o, roro'i. 

girdle lokoqaio, roro to'oni. 

girl 'ele keni, kele keni, keni, pule. 

give da, ni'i, ta, toli'asi. 

glad ilenimwa'e, sae diena, sae diana, sae rike, 

sae ruke. 
glance tasi. 
glide nanamu. 

glisten huhurere'a, marare'a, nuenuala. 
globe hoi 1. 
glorious manikulu'e. 
glory manikulu'anga. 
glue pulu 3., totonga 1. 
glutinous toto'ala, totonga'ala. 
gnaw kolu 4., ngero'i. 
gnash ngangadi, rete hau. 
go ha'iteu, la, lae, lau'ae, tau'ae. 
go-between ha'a'ureruru, talama'i wala. 
good diana, diena. 
gourd hena, hena hoto, sahu. 
graft lado. 

grandchild qa'aqa, wauwe. 
grant lua, ni'i, toli'asi. 
grasp hele, tapo, toki. 



125 



HUMP-BACKED 



grass hahalisi, halisi. 

grasshopper oru. 

grater 'usu kara. 

gratis mola'a, mwakule, qalaqala. 

grave v., didi; n., kalinge, kilu, kiliqe'u, pa'u 3; 

adj., maenoto. 
gray erete'a, palapala. 
gray hair qa'u palapala. 
grease rakuhe, rumu. 
greasy madali, rumu'e, rumula. 
great paine, paipeina'a, paipeilesu'a, raka. 
green arawa, araarawa'a, kohu; raarawa, 

maramarawa' a. 
grief sae huunge. 
grin sisi niho. 
grip puuhara, rodi, toki. 
groan awasirahe, la'alapa, ngunguru. 
groin tanga. 
grope kakalo. 
grove huu 1., lolo'a ni 'ei. 
ground 'ano, hanue, mwado, mwakano. 
grow paine, pasu, pito, po'e 6., qito. 
growl ngora i lue. 
grudge sae haahi, saeni, sae unuhi. 
grumble papangurunguru, uqe. 
grunt ngongora. 
guard kakali, noko 1., rara 1. 
guest awata'a. 
guide na'ohi. 
gullet konokono. 
gully da'ideri'e. 
gum hale 2.; pulu 3., saie. 
gulp 'ono pola. 
gush hure'i, pusu. 

habit ha'anina. nanoa'i, manata 2. 

hades hanue ni 'akalo; Malapa, 'Olu Malau, 

hair ihu, uhu, waraihu. 

hairy hulumota'a, poso. 

half 'apa 1., 'apolo, po'o 4., ratawaari, teu. 

ham 'apahee. 

hammer tee 1. 

hand nima, nime. 

handful rau 4. 

handiwork talana nime, usuusuana nime. 

handle kakata, ki'iki'i; v., helesi. 

handsome hinoli'a, kohi. 

hang 'aroro, ha'akuku, kuku 1., li'o 2., repo 3., 

to'i, 'u'u 1. 
hanker sae hanali. 
happen taqaosi, tole, to'o. 
happy dahi 4., sae rike, sae ruke. 
harass ha'aahala'ini, kotaahi, sae ahala'i. 
harbor su'u 5., lade 2., namo. 
hard hiisipe'ule, mauta'a, nga'ingedi, ngasi, 

papau. 
hardly asa, asaasa'a. 
harm dau hu'isi, ha'atata'alasi, mala masi, 

raroni, si'o hu'isi. 
harmless manata, maneko, nanakumae. 
haste ha'iteu, lau'ae, koke, kokela'ini, rorahi, 

rorora, tau'ae. 
hat para'imaa. 
hatchet hau 2., 'ile 4., masi ngedi, ngadi, nini 

ngedi, hama. 
hate lio qeru ngidu, ngidu 'upu, ngora 'upu, sae 

tata'ala. 



have akauri, akaurisi, manata'ini, to'o 2. 

hawk arakau, kiito, qaohi, tehe, wakio. 

haze laho'a, waha. 

he inge'ie, nge'ie, nge'i, nge, e. 

head qa'u, rarata. 

headlong ladama'i, marapute'i, tataqeluqelu. 

heal ha'auri, mola 1., susu 4., to'o 2. 

heap koru; n., koruha, korute. 

hear rongo, kawa'i. 

hearken qa'arongo. 

heart opu 2., sae. 

heat madoronga. 

heaven apai loa taa'u, i lengi, maalau, salo. 

heavy hi'e. 

heedless alunge'i. 

heel huui sata, kolune 'ae, poupou ni 'ae'ae. 

heir oliolite. 

help lauhi, maai 1., pe'i 2. 

helpless i'o ni teo, i'o ni leu qala. 

helve halo 3. 

hence keikei ilehu, mwaani ilehu, 'ure ile'u. 

her inge'ie, nge'ie, nge'i, a 4. 

herd haka 4.; v., kakali. 

here 'ie 1., ilehu, ile'u, inihou. 

hesitate 'i'iloha, marara. 

hew adu, didi 2., diu 2., karu 4., tangi. 

hibiscus leo, reko, ta'iteli. 

hiccough ikule 2. 

hide mumuni, peinuhi; n„ te'ete'e. 

high tetewa'a, tewa, uwola'ini. 

hill hoiliwo. houliwo, toloi henue, tolona hanue. 

hillock hungehunga'a, kokoho'a, su'isungi'e. 

torokou'e. 
him inge'ie, nge'ie, nge'i, a 4. 
hinder ape hono, ha'ahirusi, hirusi. 
hinder adj., i puri. 
hinder part i puri, kolu- 2. 
hire sahali. 

his inge'ie, ana, 'ana, to'oto'olana. 
hit dau to'o, horo, kumu'i, sauni, to'o. 
hitch maai qaro; v., qaro. 
hither mai 1. 
hoarse susu 4. 
hoary palapala. 
hoist hele 'ala'a, ha'a'uresi, sulu la'a, tahela'ini, 

wa'i ilengi. 
hold ako'i, hele, rao 2., tapo. 
hole kalinge, kilu, kiliqe'u, maa, waawaata, 

poposane'a, malamalau. 
hollow karu'i, waawaa; n., da'ideri'e, upe. 
holy 'apu, kookoo, maa'i, maea, ola ni mwane. 
hook aroro, hinou, pasa, te'i, toohe'o, tootoo 1. 
hop tomwa. 

hope ha'itotori, susuto'o, ma'ohi susuto'o. 
hospitable takuhi 'inoni, tola koni. 
hot madoro, raka, sae ni pelupelu, wana; v., 

ha'adoro, ha'amadoro, ha'aopo, mea 2. 
house hale, nima, nume, taoha, toohi. 
household 'aeinume, auhenue, aungani nima. 
hover aro 2., ha'adau. 
how e 'ue. 
how many nite. 
howl ku 4., tea, ulo. 
hug ako i lue. 
hum rou. 

humble masi 2., me'i; i'o ni teo, ra'u 8., raute'i. 
hump-backed kosu. 



HUNDRED 



126 



hundred 'alo, nao, tangalau. 

hunger hi'olonga, mae su'asu'ala'i. 

hunt ha'awasi. 

hurry ha'iteu, koke, rorahi, rorora, tau'ae, 

torangi. 
hurt hi'ito'o, salu I., sauni, wa'i 7., wa'eli, 

ware 1. 
husband poro. 

husk te'ete'e; v., tasi 2., uhu 2. 
hut apaapa 2., hale. 

/ ineu, nou, no, ne; inau, nau, na, ne. 

idle akohe, ka'alawa, lalawa. 

i/ana 7., mune'i, taume'i. 

ignorant pu'o, ulapo. 

ignore rohute'ini. 

iguana ihei 3., tatarisi. 

ill daoha, mae, mamaela'a. sape 'aela. 

illness daohanga, maelaa, maenga. 

image nunu 3. 

imitate ha'amaani, ha'imaani, maani, usuli. 

importune 'a'ada'ini, dau suu'i. 

impudent raramaa. 

in hai 2., i 1., ilalona, ila'ona. la'ona, wai 5. 

indistinctly qa'ulunge'ini, wasawasa'a. 

infect sikihi. 

inferior ta'ewau, tauten, tale'i. 

inhabit i'osi. 

inherit hele huu, 'oli. 

initiate ha'amalaohu, ha'ananau. 

injure ha'atata'alasi, mala masi, wa'eli, ware. 

inland i henue, ilengi, ta'e 2., ta'i henue, wai 

henue. 
inlay toli reoreo. 
inlet 'aqa'aqa. 
innocent mwadalo. 
insect manu 1. 

insert dereha'ini, deresi, silihe'ini. 
inside i lalo; hai nume, wai nume. 
insipid qaaqi'a. 
interchange ha'ihe'i'oli. 
interrupt ha'apona, sio honosi. 
interval 'apolo, duuduu, holoholo, maholo. 
intervene liu hono, talama'i wala. 
intoxicated mahiri. 
intricate ta'ipupu'e. 
introduce silihe'ini. 
involucre uloulo'ite. 
involved tatahiruhiru. 
inward hoi sae, i lalo, i sae, paro i sae, wai lalo, 

wai sae. 
iron hau 2. 

irregular holoholo, talo li'isi, tangolili. 
irritate 'a'ada'ini, ha'aahala'ini, kotaahi. 
island malau, malau mou. 
it inge'ie, e, a 4. 
itch aramu, kakamu. 

jab ladami, totoro, uhu'i. 
jagged 'alopi, malopi. 
jaw 'aena papali, sasate. 
jealous heota'ini, rara haahi. 
jeer ku 3. 
jest ha'aero, koe. 
join hataa'ini, lado 1. 

joint ladoha; out of joint 'adiu, 'ahisu, duuna, 
hisuhisu, li'i 2. 



joke ha'aero, koe. 

journey aratoto, 'at© 1., lai henue; n., laeha, 

laenga. 
joy ilenimwa'e, rikanga, rukenga, sae diananga. 
judge 'i'i, leilei. 
juice sulu, totonga 1. 
jump pola, reke. 
just ado, odo, odota'i; adv., aani, 'ele, kele, si 1. 

keep keneta'ini, kineta'ini, koni. 

kernel nini. 

kick koma. 

kidney hoi dango, hou 'ei, huesi dango. 

kill ha'amaesi 1., horo, sauni. 

kind sae diana, manata; tolaha. 

kindred takihe-. 

kinked hirori. 

kiss nono, nono'i. 

kite sa'o ni 'aholo. 

knee 'uru'uru. 

kneel po'uru'uru, qo'uru'uru. 

knife nahi, naihi. 

knob qaqasu, uhi 2. 

knock hide, 'iki, papa. 

knot qaqasu, qa'uroro; v., qaro. 

know manata'ini, saai, sae, saumaatana. 

ladder huruhuru. 

lagoon haho 2., lama, namo. 

lame to'u. 

land n., hanue; v., sulu. 

landing-place maalitawa, suluha. 

landslip ma'o'i, rerede. 

large loa 1., paine, paipeilesu'a, raka. 

lash qaro, qasu, rapusi. 

last alipuri, ha'amangolana, ha'ipuri, oreta. 

late ha'ahiru, ha'ipuri. 

latrine pusu 2. 

laugh mwasi. 

launch tiiri 3., oke 1., sulu 1. 

lay ha'aqaha'ini, koni, no'i, qela 2. 

layer saoha'i, saosaoha'i'a, uku. 

law ha'atolanga. 

lazy akohe, lalawa. 

lead ha'alaelae, mau 1., na'ona'o. 

leaf 'apa'apa 1. 

leafy lumwe. 

leak huhu 1., tete 'uru'uru. 

lean 'akeu, hatara, nooru, malingi, malakeke, 

malakeu, oroma'i, orooro. 
leap pola, reke. 
leave lae mwaani, toli'asi. 
lee ra'irehi, purine hanue. 
left maumeuli; ore. 
leg 'a'ae, 'ae, 'ae'ae. 
lend ni'i ha'awali, lihue'ini. 
lengthen donga 2. 
lest mwane 4. 

let maai 1., toli'asi, tolimaai, toliaa. 
level apedao, apesada, dadada'a, ha'idada, 

ha'isada, hu'idada, manu odo, manu 

sada. 
lever apo 3., qa'i 1. 
lick meali. 
lid maa, ponopono. 
lie 'aqa 1., eno. 
lie ero, kae. 



127 



MOTH 



life maurihe, mauringe. 

lift hele langa'a, sulu 1., tahela'ini, totolo- 

nga'ini. 
light n., dani, dangi; v., ereha'ini, ha'aakauni, 

koru dunge, tarauhe'ini; adv., mwala- 

mwalaohe, mwamwate, mwamwa- 

kaula'a. 
lighten sineli 1. 
lightning nangali'a, wa'ariri. 
like ha'idadanga, domana, mala, sada, sadanga, 

urihana, waruna. 
like v., saeni, sae to'o. 

liken alahuunge'ini, alahuute'ini, ha'amala. 
limb sasara. 

limp adj., akoako; v., tomwa. 
line ta'atala, uku, walo; adi'o, samu. 
linger ha'ahiru, no'iteu, 'oniteu. 
lintel qa'une maa. 
lip ngidu. ngora, qeruqeru. 
liquid sulu 5., wai 1.; v., ewe; adj., waiwei'a'a. 
listen qaarongo. 
listless akohe, ka'alawa, mode. 
little haora, mwaimwei. 
live mauri; i'o, naku, 'o'o. 
liver sae. 
living 'amauri-. 

load n., ludaa, ludanga; v., lude. 
loathe lalawasi, sare'ini. 
locust mapo 1. 
lodge sulaapoe. tiiri 2. 
lofty langilengi'e, tetewa'a, tewatewa. 
log hai datigo, hai pou, hau 3., pou ni Vi. 
loin karokaro, parapara, rahoraho. 
lone maraa-, qaqaitengili. 
long tewa. 
look aonga'i. ha'iade'i. 'iro, lio 1.. loosi, 

to'oma'i. 
loom wakala'i. 
loop maai qaro; v., qaro. 
loose alo'i, anuenu. amwada, angire'i, asuesu, 

asuoloolo, kulekule. luheta'i, ponga- 

ponga; v., luhesi, siki, toli'asi. ' 
lop luhusi. 

lopsided 'akeu, tnalakeke, malakeu. 
lose 'ai'aa. ha'atakalo, takalo. tale, tekela'i, 

talahi. 
lot hahuto'o, ilala. 
loud 'i'ile'i, paine. 
louse pote 3. 

love manata diana, sae paina. 
low lai 'ano, wai 'ano. 
lower v., ha'asiholi, ha'a'uku, oohosi; i 'ano, 

i haha, i orohana. 
lump 'u'u 2., onanala. 
lungs sae ngisu. 

mad herohero, 'oe'oe, qe'u 1. 

madrepore hau haa, kau 2. 

maggot mwaamwaa. 

maiden 'ini'iniqaa, raori'i. 

mainland hanue huu. 

maimed ko'u 2., to'u 3. 

maintain susule'ini, toli susule'i. 

make da, dau 1., qao, ta, tau 1. 

male mwane 1. 

malice maapala, sae'aela, sae ngora'upu. 

man 'inoni, mwane 1. 



manifest ha'ata'ini, te'inge'ini. 

manner tolaha-. 

many ha'a 4., nite, ta'e 5., to'o 6. 

mark ha'ara, hahuilala, tolimaa. 

marriage feast aharota. 

marrow lalawa 3. 

marry tola keni, to'o poro. 

marvel ane; n., anoa, anoaraa. 

mash ahuqa'i, ha'apoe, kara 5.; v., sau 1. 

mast hunu 2., wao. 

master alaha, aunge-; v., pau 2. 

masticate memela'ini, mwadamwadamu, sapoli. 

mat ni'e, qana, rara; v., ha'u 7. 

match ha'idadanga, sada; maai dunge. 

mate dama-, oa 2. 

matter aqalau; holoholo 1., ola, maholo. 

mature mena, qi'e, repo. 

mawkish qaaqi'a. 

me inau, meu, aku 1., au. 

mealy makahu. 

measure tohotoho, 'uri 1. 

mediator ha'a'ureruru, talama'i wala. 

medicine wai ni maelaa. 

meddle polahiroa. 

meek mamaeko'a, mwaadalo, sae mamae. 

meet ha'iodo'i, ha'isu'esu'e, odo'i, ruru. 

melt 'alio 2., rakahi. 

member sasara. 

mend ponosi, sau maa. 

merciful 'amasi, ha'i'amasi. 

mere hale'ite, hali'ite, ili 1., mola 4., mwakule. 

mesh maa, tau 2. 

messenger ha'atola, hurulaa. 

middle danume, 'upu'upu 2. 

midrib mudi; wede sa'o. 

midnight rodohono pupulu. upui rodo. 

midst ma tola-. 

mildew kauwa'a, sahuru. 

mind adoma'ini, keneta'ini, kineta'ini, ne'isae; 

«., sae. 
mingle aroqa'i, qa'i, roro waaro. 
mirror 'iro'iro. 
mischief lede ola, malamala. 
miserable ha'a'amasi, si'ohaa. 
mislead ha'atakalo. 
miss tala 4. 

missing 'ai'aa, takalo, tekela'i. 
mist laho'a, waha. 
mistake dau pele, pele, takalo. 
mix aroqa'i, qa'i. 
mixed dodola. 
moan la'alapa. 
mock ku 3. 
molest tiiunge'ini. 
money haa 1. 

month moon, waarowaaro. 
moonlight sineli. 

moreover ta'a 7., ta'e 6., ta'e pe'ini. 
morning dani, dangi, wa'ali'e. 
morrow dani ha'ahulee, dangi hoowa, haudinga 

po'odanita'i, i deni, i dengi. 
morsel ko'ukohu, masi 2., me'i. 
mortar hohoto, pei 1., mota, uli 'ei. 
mosquito sime, sume, tahule. 
mossy lumu, lumu'e. 
mote ngaangaa. 
moth pepe. 



MOTHER 



128 



mother nike, teitei. 

mould mwado, mwakano; sahuru, kauwa'a. 

mountain hoiliwo, houliwo, toloi henue, tolona 

hanue. 
mourn ha'ahili, tako, toli ngeulaa. 
mouth dawa, ngidu, wawa. 
move adaada, ara, arana, dudu, duu, ha'itale 2., 

lae, ngali 2., nananui. su'u 6. 
much hi'ito'o, liuta'a, paine, wa'ewa'e, wala- 

wala. 
mucus qango 1., uru (usu) qango. 
mud lolongo, mwado, mwakita'a, qiqi. 
muddy lolongo'a, qiqi'e. 
multiply ha'ahunge, mwaera, mwaora. 
multitude mwala, pulitaa, ruruha. 
mumble ngunguru. 
murder horo mwakule, horo ta'ewau, tale'i 

horo. 
murmur ha'itohe, papangurunguru, uqe. 
muscles uleule. 

my inau, ineu, aku 1., 'aku 2., nfiku'e, naku'i. 
mysterious asa, anoa, anoaraa. 

nail musi, misi; wa'arao. 

naked mwakule, qalaqala. 

name sata; a ola; v., ha'ara'ini, haora'ini. 

namesake malahu-. 

narrow koko. koko'ie'i, kokohisi. 

nature manata 2. 

nautilus reoreo. 

navel poo 2. 

neap ta'i 'esi. 

near duduhi, du'u mei, kata'ini, su'u mei. 

neck lue 1. 

needle raapea, suliteru. 

neglect 'aelulu, akoheta'ini. 

neighbor auhenue. 

nephew uweli, weli. 

nest niui. 

net 'ape 2., hu'o, kalu, moke. 

nettle apune wai, nunula'o. 

new ha'alu, ha'olu. 

newcomer mahoo. 

news tataloha, tataroha. 

nibble ngero'i. 

night ha'irodo, rodo. 

nine siwe 1. 

ninth siwana. 

nip 'ini. 

no ha'ike, qaake, qa'ike. 

nod 'ala qa'u. 

noise awaawatana, koukouhe; v., awa 2., uwe 

raka, mangulungulu. 
noisy 'e'engo, hata koula'a. 
none ka'a, qale; ka'a iteitana, 'oto 'o'o. 
noon 'upui atowa. 
noose qanu, qaro. 
nose qalusu. 
nostril maana qalusu. 

not ka'a, qa'ike, qa'i, qake, qale; sa'a, si'e. 
notch ahasi, kere. 

nothing ha'ike, qa'ike; ka'a ola, qale ola. 
nourish ha'angau, sangoni. 
novice mahoo, tataku. 
now 'ie 1., inihou, nihou, hou; 'oto 'ie, 'oto 

inihou. 
numb 'ai 2., mae 1. 



number idu 1. 

nut hoi 1., 'aitepi, 'alite 1., 'e'e, niu, ngali, pue. 

oar hofce. 

oath ha'a'apunge, hoasinge. 

obey 'ala 1., lulu isuli, tolai suli. 

obsidian ngadi. 

obstinate ha'itohe, hehesi. 

obstruct ape hono, dau sisinge'i. 

ocean 'asi matawa, matawa. 

occupy launga'i. 

occur to'o 2. 

odd 'a'atasi. 

of ni 1., i 2., li 1., si 4. 

off ha'atau, horana, mwaani; i odohaana. 

offend dau wala, ha'amau'o, ha'atataro; mau'o, 

tataro. 
offer ha'iare, supungi, teinge'ini, uraa'i. 
offering uraa'inge. 

often ha'ahunge, hungehunga'a, rarapuupuu. 
oh ai 7., ai'aa 2., hai 3. 
oil rumu, sulu. 

ointment laqi ni suu, rumu ni nue maa. 
old ina'o, lahu, lasu, moka, qara. 
omen hahuto'o, palapala 1., manu poo, had a, 

wisi. 
omit dau haahi. 

on ilengi, taraasi, tarau, taraure'i. 
once hautaa'i, hauta'e. 
one 'eta, hue 1., ngaile, ngaini, maa 7., ta'ata'a, 

ta'e. 
only hale'ite, hali'ite, hahaiteli. 
onward tarau, taraure'i, susule'i. 
open awangi, lakata'ini, mawa ta'a, suhu, 

taha 1., wa'awa'a. 
opening maa, wa'awa'ata, maalitawa, tahalaa. 
operculum musi. 
opinion sae. 
opossum huto 1. 
oppose haukama. 
opposite i odohaana, sisinge'i. 
oppress pili tete, tiiunge'ini. 
or wa. 

orate laelae ni wala, laeli wala, saai ere, tea. 
oration laeli walanga. 
orchid ito. 

ordain ha'atolanga'ini, qao, qaona. 
ordeal atoato, hau, dau dunga, dau heu. 
order ha'atola; in order huni, ta'atara 1. 
ordinary ta'ewau, tauteu; mola. 
ordure 'ae 4., he'a 1. 
ornament launihe. 
orphan inemae, ra'inge. 
osprey wakio. 

our ka, ka'elu, iki'e, 'aka 2. 
ours 'aka, 'aka'elu. 

ourselves i'emi maraamami, iki'e maraaka. 
out kei ana, mwaani, ta'a, taha 1., 'ura ana. 
outlet maa, mau 1., usu taha. 
outright 'o'o 4. 
outsail talo li'isi. 
outside kolu- 2., 'amaa, i su'e. 
outstretched lala'i. 

oven ha'ahite, laqitaa, ora 1., umu 1. 
over haho, la'ongi, likite-, li'ite-, po'o paro, 

po'o wau. 
overcome a'aila'asi, hulesi. 



129 



PREGNANT 



overflow honu makeato, kone, malingi. 

overlap dama diu, madiu, sate unu, teroliu. 

overlook lio haahi. 

overmuch hi'ito'o, liuta'a. 

overthrow hu'e 'asi, hu'e tekela'ini. 

overturn kausi, qaoha'ini. 

owe roro'a. 

owl 'ahu'o. 

own v., to'o 2. 

oyster ile, roma. 

Pardon ne'isae 'asi, sae 'asi. 

Pare ori. 

Parent ro ha'i mauana. 

Parrot 'a'a 2., iloilo'a, kilekile 1., kirori. siri. 

Parry talohi. 

Part ft., 'apa 1., 'apolo, holoholo, maholo. po'o 

5., roto; v., ha'apiho, hiteli, wa'ahiteli. 
Partake ado, oa 1. 
Particularize haha'itelinge'ini. 
Partition 'atohono. 
partner dama-, oa-. 
Party alidanga, laeha, mae 5., pulitaa. 
Pass li'isi, liu, mahoro, taro; *»., aliholo 1., 

ririholo. 
Past liu, mango 1., waite 1. 
Pastern popo. 
Patch loamena, pono. 
Path tala. 
Paience toli rako. 
Patrol v., kdli; n.. kakalihe. 
Palttem nunu 3., ba'amalalana. 
Pay hiri, holi, waai. 
peace dailama, hanuelama. 
Peaceable ha'amanola. 
Peak toloi henue. 
Pearl 'u'u maai dchi. 
Pebble hoi heu, 'u'u 2. 
Peck tere. 
Peel ori. 
Peep maakahi. 
Peer aonga'i. 
Pelt 'ato, u'i. 
Peninsula ngorangora. 
Penitent adoma'i oli, 'onisae. 
People apolo'a, hanua, mwala. 
perceive lio saai, lio sae. 
Perch 'o'a 5. 

perfect ahu 1., ha'aahu, manire'i, menanga'i. 
Perfume haarana. 
perhaps 'ohe, 'ohi'a. 
Peril maelaa, maenga. 
Perish ai suu, suu .1. 
permanent ha'ahuu'e, huu 2. 
Permit maai 1., toli'asi. 
Persecute ba'aletehi, taunge'ini. 
person ile, ini, 'inoni, laa. 
perspire madara'a. 
persuade ere ha'aola, ta'irara. 
pervade roro waaro. 
pet koni, ra'i. 
photograph talo nunu. 
pick hili, 'ini, karo 2., soohi. 
piece 'apolo, le'u, maholo, musii 'elili, polo, 

qa'u ulunga, roto, waawaata 2; makaka, 

mamenamena, mari'iri'i; v., tahu'i. 
pierce halo, mwakoli, toromi. 



pig poo 1., wasi; ora 4., qaqa. 

pigeon kolokolo, kurukuru, pine ni o'u, toorao, 

uoru. 
pile v., koru; koruha, korute. 
pillar qa'u ulunge, ulunge. 
pinch 'ini. 

pioneer hola'i, tahangi. 
pip lite. 

pipe ipeipa, simouke. 
pish akuu. 
piss mimi. 
pit kalinge, kilu. 
pitch pulu 3., totonga 1. 
pitchy totonga'ala. 
pith uto. 
pitted pilomo. 
pity 'amasi. 
place lehu, le'u. 
plague liunge. 
plain apedao, apesada; ha'ada'i, ha'ata'i, 

mwakule. 
plait i'eli, pao, sikeri, use. 
plan 'alaa'ini. 
plane didi 2., susuru. 
plank hapa, rau 3., raureu. 
plant hasi, susu'i, to'oni 4.; n., 'ai, dango. 
platform ha'a 3., tahe 1. 
play qani'o, qarero, tala'aela'a. 
pleasant rako diana. 
pledge haa i mwe'i. 
Pleiades 'apurunge. 
plentiful hunge, hungehunga'a, mwaera, mwa- 

ora, takara. 
pliable mwadau, mwaohe, mwaeroero. 
plot toli loosi. 
pluck do, hisu, 'ini, langu. 
plug qaito, suhu; v., ponosi. 
plump qi'e. 
plunder lau 1. 
plunge dio. 
ply liu. 

pocket mwa'i 3. 

Point ngoongoo, wadu; v., teinge'ini, usu 8. 
poison hunu 3. 
poke toromi. 
pole usue'ini. 
polish ute. 
pond iqe, lama 2. 
pool lopo. 
poor maitale. 
Porpoise 'iri'o. 
Port su'u 5. 
possess akauri, to'o 2. 
possible mwadau, 'ura mwarohi. 
pounce polahi, puuli. 
pound ha'amae, sau 1. 
pour lingi, ute pii. 
pout tero ngidu. 
powder wahawaha. 
power nanamanga, sakanga. 
practise oho. 
Praise ha'amanikulu'e. 
prawn ore 3. 
pray are, qao ola. 
preach laeli wala, tea. 
precipice hauheu'e, pie. 
pregnant hi'e, qalu. 



PREMATURE 



I30 



premature kokela'i, rorora. 

prepare akau, mwali, talama'ini, taule'ini. 

present 'ie 1., 'ienini, inihou. 

press momo, pili, roro. 

pretence dau hahota, lopo'i, luqe'i. 

pretty kohi, mwane diana, rara'i. 

prevent ape hono, dau sisinge'i, hadi. 

price holite. 

prick mwakoli, sipengi, susu'i. 

Prickle sike 2. 

Prize apo 3. 

proceed isi ta'a, 'ure 2., tau 3., usu taha. 

proclaim ha'ahou, hou 4., talo 6., taro. 

profane ha'awa'a, wa'a. 

proffer ha'iare, teinge'ini. 

promise ha'alu 1., ha'iholota'i, holota'i. 

prop mudi 2., poo 3., tangatanga. 

proper adona, ha'idadanga. 

propitiate tapa'oli. 

prosper takara. 

prostrate ladama'i. 

prostitute heulao, keni qaqahe, ulao. 

protect lio ahu'i, rakapau, sese ahu'i, talaahu'e. 

proud ale, toha'ini. 

proverb alahuu. 

provide ha'aakaurisi, ne'ikoni, talama'ini. 

provoke ha'ahala'ini, ha'atala'i. 

prow haku 2., na'o, toutou. 

puddle ipata, upeta. 

puff ha'arangasi, uhi 3. 

pull aka 1., oke 1., wa'i 6.; hote. 

pulp memeso'a. 

pumice hau menu. 

punch kumu. 

punish ha'aletehi, ha'aloo'i, ha'ananau. 

pupil qa'arongosuli. 

pure manola, manomanola'a. 

purge ha'amanola, laeli. 

purlin suli 'ei. 

purple melumelu'a'a. 

pursue pee, ohe 1. 

pus 'aqalao. 

push usu 1. 

put alu, koni, ne'i, no'i, to'oni. 

quake asoso. 

quarrel ha'isa'iri, ha'aweweu, halinge, waiteu. 

quench kumuri, mwaasi. 

question dolosi, ha'iohi, hari, ledi, soi. 

quick ha'iteu, lau'ae, lauleu. 

quicken ha'auri, lau'ae, tau'ae. 

quiet malumu, mwamwadoleta, mwamwanoto, 

noto, rako 2. 
quite 'o'o, te'ela'i, to'ohuungana. 
quiver «., pupute. 

race ha'ipani'i, ohera. 

raft aqaqoi sa'o. 

rafter 'ato 2. 

rage sae maleledi, saewasu. 

rail v., ere maleledi; n., raporapo. 

rain nemo, nimo. 

rainbow huuraro. 

raise hele 'ala'a, sulu la'a, tahela'ini. 

rake kara 4. 

ram rori 1., sauni. 

ramrod rori 1. 



rank damaa. 

rap 'iki. 

rasp n., usu kara; v., usu 4. 

rat 'asuhe, likisi to'i. 

rather 'ele, kele. 

rattan ue 3. 

rattle 'ikingi, kole. 

rave herohero, o'e. 

ravel qeli, ta'ipupu'e. 

raw arawa. 

ray hali 3. 

razor apo 2. 

reach arapuu, hule, tero. 

read sae, saai. 

ready akau, mouqeli. 

real ha'ahuu'ana, huu 2., to'ohuungana. 

really ha'ahuu'ei, to'ohuunge'i. 

rear puri. 

reap tapa, siokoni. 

rebound pola, posiki. 

recede aha 3., mapipi. 

receive hele, taku. 

reckon idu 1., 'unu 1. 

recognize hahaitelinge'ini, lio saai. 

recoil posiki. 

recollect amasito'o. 

reconcile ha'a'ureruru. 

recover awaa, mauri. 

red noro, waru, waruweru'a, awalaa'i 'epule. 

redeem tapa 'oli. 

reed rade. 

reef haho 2., mwalo; lulungi. 

reel 'olo'oloa'i. 

reflect alusae, ne'isae; nunu 3. 

refrain nihisi. 

refresh ha'amango. 

refuge le'u ni su'e puri ana, su'u 5. 

refuse v., lalawa, sare'i, saeni. 

refuse n„ alitehu, hero, mamatekola, oraora. 

reject lalawasi, sike. 

rejoice ilenimwa'e, rike, ruke. 

relapse 'oh, toliaa. 

relate lado, 'unu 1. 

relish 'amadi. 

remain i'o, naku, 'o'o 3. 

remember alusae, amasito'o. 

remnant oretai ola. 

remove ha'isuu, sulu, ta'asi, ta'ela'i. 

rend 'a'ari, haka 1. 

renew ha'aha'alu, ha'aha'olu. 

repair dau diana. 

repeat ha'amaani, ha'imaani, 'oni. 

repent adoma'i 'oli, 'onisae. 

reply 'ala 1., ta 1., te. 

report talo, taro. 

reproach isi 1., keta. 

reprove 'i'ite 2. 

reserve adi. 

resist haukama, 'ure honosi. 

resolve sae susu. 

resound mwakulu, ngara loulou. 

respond 'ala 1., nguu. 

rest mamalo; ore. 

restrain hele haahi, nihisi. 

result au ta'a. 

retire duu'e, ru'u, su'e 5. 

return aliho'i, ha'apu'o, 'oli, pu'o 2. 



I3i 



SHELTER 



reveal ha'ata'ini. 

revenge suraa'i, suu ola. 

reverse aliho'isi, alihu'isi, aliu, hi'usi, hu'isi, 

liuliune, qaoha'ini. 
revive ha'i meuri. 
revolve hiro, pu'opu'o. 
reward waaite. 
rheumatism lili'e. 
rib lusu. 

rich mwa'i, toora-. 
ridge uwo. 

ridge-pole qaoha, suli 'ei i qaoha. 
right odo, qaloqalo. 
rigid halasi, sulahita. 
rim keke, kerekere, wairo-. 
rind te'ete'e. 

ringworm huni 2., karu 3. 
ripe maelo, rara 2. 
rise ta'e, ta'ela'i, suu ta'a. 
river wai peine. 
road tala. 

roar awa, mwakulu, ngunguru. 
roas/ hahi, su'isungi, sule, susungi, uunu. 
rob peli. 

rock hau, hau mou. 
rod 'ai nehunehu, hau welewele. 
roe pile. 
ro// 'akeu, malakeke, malakeu, tataqelu; ere 2., 

ho'i 3., penasi, qelusi; ereerea'ile, 

ereereta'a; n., hike, 
roo/ koluhe, qaoha, saroha. 
room 'atohono, duru. 
root imiimi; ine 1., sude. 
rope 'ali, i'eli. 

rot hou 3.. kasu, mapusu, osa, sane'a. 
rough haule. 
round ereerea'ile, ereereta'a, hotohotomolita'a; 

ahu'i, haahi. 
rouse ahala'i, ha'alio, Ho. 
row hote, hotela'ini; «., ta'atala, uku. 
rub nanala'i, rotoa'ini, usuri, ute. 
rubbish alitehu, mamatekola, potaa. 
rudder wiro. 

ruin maana'o, na'onga; suuhe'ini, vva'eli, ware. 
rule alaha haahi. 
rump moro- 2. 
run huru. 

rush pola, nanamu, tatahiruhiru. 
rust he'a, kauwa'a. 

sack 'anga, mwa'i. 

sacred maa'i, maea, mwane. 

sad 'ala ngingite, rahito'u, sae huu. 

safe laku, mamanuto'o, mamaware, pupupu. 

sa'esape'a, sapelaku, sapemawa. 
safeguard keneta'ini, kineta'ini. 
sag makuku. 
sago sa'o. 

sake 'aena, i nooruhaana. 
saliva ngisu. 
salt 'asi 1., hu'i 'esi. 
salty 'asile. 
sand one. 

sandbank rere, saisai rere. 
sandfly nono 'asi. 
sandstone hau hana. 
sa£ totonga. 



satisfy ha'aahu, mangoa'ini, pote 1., saedami. 

savage mama'ingi, mamakola. 

save ha'auri, loloha'ini, ne'i koni. 

say ere 1., ta 1., te, 'unu, wala'a. 

scab rau 5. 

scaffold ha'ano. 

scales unehi. 

scared lete, loo, wala 4. 

scatter ha'atatanga'ini, koetana'a. tatanga. 

scent nono wasu. 

scoff mwasie'ini. 

scold ere, haa'ere, ha* ore. 

score aha 2. 

scorpion hariheri, ha'awarasi kale. 

scrape 'arasi, karasi, ole. 

scratch hai 5., karu 2. 

scream awara, ulo. 

screw hiro. 

scum hutohuto. 

sea 'asi 1., raatawa. 

K«m tauteurite. 

search ha'itale, totola ohi. 

seaside i one. 

5ea5o« halisi 2. 

sea/ i'oi'oha, na'unekume. 

second ruana. 

secret mumuni. 

secure daidiena, maramarape'a, sa'esape'a; 

mauta'a, papau. 
see aade, leesi, lio, loo 1. 
seed lite. 

seek ha'itale, loohi. 

seem lio 1., loo 1., domana, mala, urihana. 
seine hu'o. 
select hili. 
self maraa-. 

sell ha'aholi, hohoro, holi, taho. 
send usunge'ini. 
sensation hii. 

separate opa, ohu 2., sio aopa. 
serve rareta'ini. 

set ha'ai'osi, ne'i, no'i, suu 1., tola 6. 
settle i'osi, 'o'a 5. 
seventy hiu awala. 
sever holosi, mousi, tapali. 
sew susu 3., tauri. 
shade mamalu. 

shade malu, para'imaa, mamalute. 
shadow nunu 3. 
shaft kakata, ki'iki'i. 
shake asoso, asuoloolo, hotohoto'i, kulekule, 

mwaolaola, olooloa'i, tata'ini. 
shallow too 1. 

sham dau hahota, lopo'i kae. 
shame masa; ha'amasa. 
shape sape. 
share ado, oa 1. 
shark pa'ewa. 
sharp 'ala 1., rere'a. 
sharpen rere 1. 
shatter memeso, morumoru. 
shave apo 1., suhi. 

sheathe daraha'ini, dereha'ini, saini, silihe'ini. 
shed hale, taoha, toohi. 
shed v., toli. 
shell hinu, te'ete'e. 
shelter i'o ra'irehi. 



SHEW 



132 



shew 'ae 5., ha'ata'ini, hatonga'ini. 

shield talo, talaahu'e. 

shift 'olisi, sikile'i. 

shin wowo. 

shine raa, wanawana. 

ship haka 3. 

shipwreck ape 1., qa'ata'ini. 

shiver ariri. 

shoal taalu, tootoo. 

s/ioo/ hana 2. 

5/tore i kule, i one, saini one. 

short koukoule, ' o'oru'e, pulo sa'asala. 

shorten ape hite, kumwesi, onu. 

shoulder huui lue, qa'uli 'apala. 

shout kakau, tea, totolo. 

shove usu 1. 

shower hoi nemo, hoi nimo. 

shrink 'amasi meuri, niniko'a, rarasi. 

shrivel nuku, rara 2., ruusi. 

shun peinuhi. 

shut hohono. 

shy masa. 

sick daoha, mae, maemae'a, mamaela'a. 

sickness maela, maenga. 

side parapara, rahoraho. 

sigh ahimawa, mamango, poepoe. 

sight lionga. 

sign ha'aluelu, ha'ara, hiihuilala. 

silent amute. 

sill 'aena niaa. 

silly qe'uqe'u'a'a. 

similar ha'idada, sada. 

similarly aitana, alihana. 

simple qe'u, teo. 

sin oraha'a. 

since kei ana. mwaani, 'ura ana. 

sinew uleule. 

sing kana. 

single to'ota'e. 

sink dodo, 'o'oni. 

sinker ha'asihopulu. 

sinnet mwaritei niu. 

sip tahe tongo, toto aropu, totohi 1. 

sister 'asi- 2., inie-. 

sister-in-law ihe-. 

sit dodonga'i, i'o, naku. 

six ono. 

size painaha, painanga. 

skilful saai ola, salcma'i. 

skim tarasi. 

skin v., simwe, tasi 2., uhu 2. 

skin n„ te'ete'e. 

skip pola, reke. 

skirt kakamu, ngoongoo. 

sky apai loa, i lengi, maalau. 

slab qa'ahida, wa'ahite. 

slack mwakuku. 

slander heota'ini, ta'utepunge. 

slap daro, hide. 

slay horo, suuhe'ini. 

sleep ma'ahu, ma'aru, ma'uru. 

sleepiness mama'uru'anga. 

slice nisi, wa'a. 

slide rerede, tasi. 

slip awa tahu, dile, rerede. 

slippery mamauwa'a. 

slit hakasi. 



slope haneta'anga. 

slough ruusi. 

slow ha'ahiru. 

slumber ma'ahunge alisuu. 

small haora, hatonga, momoru, mwaimwel, 

werewere. 
smart totongo. 

smash makaka'a, makasi, potali, qa'a. 
smear punipuni, riiimaa. 
smell nono wasu, tola haarea, wasu. 
smile mwasi. 
smite horo, rapu. 
smoke ha'asasu, sasu; omi. 
smooth dadada'a, maumau'a'a. 
snail aropu, qaateru. 
snake mwaa 1. 
snap mousi. 

snare hune, lolohuna, qanu, qaro. 
snatch lau 1. 
sneeze asihe, asinge. 
snore ngora 3. 
snout qalusu. 
snuff nono wasu. 
so uri 2., urine. 
soak to'ongi, totohi, totoqini. 
soar aro 2. 
sober maenoto. 
soever ta'ana, ta'ena. 
soft malumu, mwadau. 
soften ha'amwadausi. 
soil 'ano, mwado, mwakana, mwakano. 
sole penatana 'ae. 

solid ngara welewele'a; hai pou, susu 4. 
some halu, muini, mwaile, mwaite. 
somehow uritaa. 

something holoholo, le'u, masi ola, me'i ola. 
sometimes halui maholo, to'ota'e maholo. 
son 'elekale, kale, mwela mwane. 
song kana. 

soon lauleu, lauleu'a, molana. 
soothe apu'i, ha'arako. 
sore apite'i, hi'ito'o, ini 2., malaka'a, oropa, 

osa, salu. 
sorrow saehuunge. 
sort uritaa; komu, manata 2., ta'ana, ta'ena, 

walute-. 
soul maurihaa'i. 
sound ha'ileku, laku; awaawatana, koukouhe, 

lolou. 
soup piinge. 
sour maladi, tola 9. 
south po'i lengi, qa'i lengi, taa'u, ta'e. 
sow hasi 1 . 
sow n., poo qaqa. 
space ahowa, maalau, maholo. 
spade waato. 
span tangaa. 
spare ore, ue 1. 
spare 'amasi, saeni. 
spark sii dunge. 
sparkle rangariro'a, wana. 
spatter qisi. 
spatula idemu. 
spawn pile. 

speak ere, ta 1., te, wala, wala'a. 
spear lula, noma, qa'uli 'inoni, ra'ei tolo, su'e 4. 
speckled to'o hi'uhi'ule. 



133 



SURROUND 



speech erenga, wala'anga. 

speed nanamu. 

spew 'a'ana, moa. 

spider lawa, pe'u. 

spill huhu, malakekesi, malingi. 

spin hirohiro. 

spine suli odo. 

spirit 'akalo, hi'ona, li'oa, urehi. 

spit ngisu. 

spite sae ngora. 

splash kilokilo, qisi. 

splice donga 2. 

split hite, tangi, wa'a. 

spoil wa'eta'ini, ware. 

sponge hulo 1. 

spontaneous maraa-, tohu-. 

spotted pulu nunu'e, to'o hi'uhi'ule, to'o nunu'e. 

spout pusu. 

sprain duutft, li'ite'i. 

spray 'asi 1., naho. 

spread 'a'ala'i, epasi, holasi, ngaangaa, nga- 

ngau, takara, talau. 
spring hulehule, hulaa; pola liliki. 
spring tide lue qera. 
sprinkle tata'ini. 
sprout pito, qito. 
spurt pusu. 

squabble ha'isa'iri, waiteu. 
squall dionga'i, hoi nemo. 
square popopo'a. 
squash makaka'a, pili memeso. 
squat 'o'a 5. 
squeak ngangadi. 
squeeze losi, momo, ni'i losi. 
squint lele. 
stab toromi. 
staff 'aili'apaa, 'apaa. 
stage tahe. 

stagger 'olo'oloa'i, tatahiohio. 
stain inaua. o'a'i. 
stair huruhuru. 
stalk mwaramwara. 
stammer samo. 
stamp puu, 'uri 1. 
stand 'ure. 

star hoi he'u, 'u'ui he'u, 'u'u ni he'u. 
stare aonga'i, to'oma'i. 
start 'aehota, ta'e 5., ta'ela'i, tala'ae. 
startle apara'i, asire'i, ha'aapara'ini, ha'asire'ini. 
starve hi'olo. maesi hi'olonga, mae su'esu'ela'i. 
slay i'o, naku, rauhe'i; ha'asusu, rape'i. 
stead 'olite-. 

steadfast halahala, mauta'a, nga'ingedi, papau. 
steal peli. 

stealthy ha'atoretore maa. 
steam sasu ana wai. 
steer na'ohi. 
stem kakata, ki'iki'i. 
step 'uri'urite. 
stern puri. 
stick 'ai nehunehu, 'apaa, dango welewele, 

qire; pau 1, rao 2. 
sticky totonga'ala. 

stiff 'ai 2., halasi, hasipeule, pasie'ili. 
still maneko, no to, rako; ue 1. 
sting 'ala 3., nunuli. 
stingy ha'ahehe. 



slink wasu, wasu 'aela. 

stir aroqa'i, ngalingeli, qa'i 2. 

stitch susu 3., tauri 2. 

stock ahu'ine. 

stomach 'ie 3., 'oqa. 

stone hau 1. 

stony haule. 

stoop mwaoroha'i, oro. 

stop noto, rohu, toli; dau 2., i'o, i'o konito'o, 

'o'o 3., susule'i. 
store duru, haangi, loha'ini, ne'i koni, no'i 

koni, 'onime'ini. 
storm mavva, mawasidengi. 
story laladonga, 'oni'oninge. 
straggle tongolili. 
straight odo. 

strain pii, sasali, wii'i halahala. 
strait tahalaa. 

strand akeake, kalite'i'a, kawe. 
strange aopa, ha'akolo, kolokolo. 
stranger awata'a, mahuara. 
strangle ha'ali'o, li'o 2. 
stray 'e'eli, liu aopa, takalo. 
strength 'a'aila'anga, nanamanga, sakanga. 
stretch aheta, kalu 3., lala'ini, raradu, susue'ini, 

tawari. 
strike daro, hide, horo, lupu, rapu, sauni, 

to'olupu, wete. 
string walo, wili. 
strip 'aeli. hu'esi, ta'asi. 
stripe hudidudi. 
stroll awe, qaqahe. 

strong 'a'aila'a, malapau'a'a, mauta'a, ramo. 
stubborn ha'itohe. 
stuff susu harehare. 
stumble halidu'u'a, mau'o, tataro. 
stump ahu'ine. ruuqe'u, uruqe'i dango. 
stumpy koukoule. 
stupid papaku'a qe'u. 
stutter samo. 

subdue ha'aooni, hele tolingi. 
subside kumwe, mapipi, sasa hetela. 
succeed 'oli, 'olisi. 
succor anahi, lau 2. 
such uri 2.. urine, urinena. 
suck omi, susu 2. 
sucker pi'e 3. 
suckle ha'asusu. 
successive ta'atara. 
sudden lauleu, maarusi maa. 
suffer sape hi'ito, sape salu. 
suffice ado, ha'idadanga. 
sugar-cane 'ohu 3. 
suit ado, hatonga. 
sulk saewasu. 
summer oku 3. 

summerset su'ai honu, su'esu'e ni honu. 
summon ha'ara'i, ha'arongo. 
sun sato. 

sunrise qa'alana sato. 
sup ilu, inu. 
supple qilo'a. 
support poongi, poopoota. 
sure susu 4. 

surf 'a'aronga, naho, qa'aqa'ali naho. 
surprise ha'aapara'ini, ha'akakahuru. 
surround dau keli, kali, piru keli. 



SUSPECT 



134 



suspect hi'inge'ini, sura 1. 

suspend repo 3., to'i. 

swallow 'ono 2. 

swamp lololo, lolongo. 

swarm huto 2. 

swaying mwahiohio. 

swear ha'aasa, ha'a'apu, ha'iuwesi, hoasi. 

sweat madara'a. 

sweet malimeli. 

swell 'upu. 

swelling epa, likitaa, qaqahinu, 'upu'e. 

swift lauleu; n., 'i'i 2. 

swtm olo. 

swoop dio. 

/a&oo adi, tetelenga. 

lacfe lili qana. 

tackle raisinge. 

tail 'u'u'i-. 

take da, dau 1., hele, ooho, riiu 4., ta, tete, 

tola. tole. 
tale laladonga, 'oni'oninge. 
talk ere, wala'a. 
tall tetewa'a, tewa. 
tally ha'aawala. 
tame koni, rii'i. 

tangled hiku, ta'ihikuhiku, tari. 
lap siki 2., tee 1. 
tarry i'o ni deunge. 
taste mami, meali, nameli. 
tattoo rapu. 

teach ha'aloo'i, ba'ananau, ha'ausuli. 
tear v., haka 1. 
tear wai ni 'akalo. 
tease ha'aero, ha'atalaa'i, koe. 
teem alielimui. 

tell ha'ahou, houle'ini, lado 2., siho, 'unu 1. 
tempest mawa, mawasidengi. 
temple poopoo. 

tempt mala ahonga, mala ohonga. 
temptation mala ohonganga. 
ten awala, tangahulu; aider!, a'ulu, walo, 

walo pasa. 
tendril kakawe, waowao 2. 
tenth tangahulu ana. 
terrible to'o maumeutana. 
terrify ha'ama'usi. 
tetanus wa'i 7. 
tether qaro, qiisu. 
than mwaani. 

thank ha'adahi, ha'asaediena, paalahe. 
that holoholoni, ine 3., le'une, olana, maholoni, 

ngeena. 
thatch daure'ini, tahera'ini; raho. 
the a 1., hai 4., hoi 1., hou 1., masi 2., me'i, mui, 

mwai, nga 1. 
theft peliha, pelinge. 
their ada 1., 'ada 2., ada'elu, adaru'e, 'adaru'e 

ikire, ikira'elu, ikireru'e. 
them ikire, ikira'elu, ra'elu, ra; dual, rSru'e, 

raru'i. 
then maholoni, si 1. 
thence mwaanie ile'une, 'urei ile'une. 
there ilehuna, ile'une, wau 1. 
thereby ana 2., ani 2. 
therefore 'aena le'une, 'aena ngeena. 
therein hai la'ona, hai le'une, ilalona. 



thereupon hara, haro, raro, saro; mango urine. 

these ikira inihou, muini 'ie. 

they ikire, ikireru'e, kire, kireru'e, koro'i. 

thick ioqo, piola, poso; pono. 

thicket lolo'a ni 'ei. 

thieve peli. 

thigh sasaha. 

thin mwarau, mwine. 

thine i'oe, namu'e, niimu'i. 

thing ola, le'u, holoholo, maholo. 

think adoma'ini, ne'isae. 

third 'olune. 

thirst marou. 

thirteen awala mwana 'olu. 

thirty 'olu awala. 

this 'ie 1., inihou, mai 1., maine. 

thither ileune. 

thorn sike 2., walo kakaru. 

thorny kakau'e, mwakomwako'a. 

those muini ngeena, mwaileni. 

thou i'oe. 

though maala, mala 1. 

thought adoma'inga, ne'isaenga. 

thousand alo, mola 3., qela 1., sinola, to'o 7. 

thread walo; v., hi 1., wili. 

threaten ha'apasuli, marara'i. 

three 'olu. 

thresh mwamwada. 

threshold 'aena maa. 

thrice ha'a'olu. 

throat lue 1., hauliu. 

throb tee 1. 

through tahaunutara, tapausu, taraure'ini. 

throw 'a'a 5., dere, 'u'i. 

thrust lada, toro 3. 

thumb 'ini hite. 

thump kumu. 

thus uri 2., urine. 

thwart hapa, lusu. 

thy amu'e, i'oe, namu'e, namu'i. 

tick tee 1. 

tide kumwe, lue 2., mai 2., tongo; lue qera, 

mai rara. 
tie ho'o, qaro, taheri. 
tight hanga, koko, popo. 
till hulaana. 
lilt kausi. 
timber 'ai, dango. 

time maholo; takararume'ini, to'o 6. 
time-to-time duuduu. 
tip noonoo, ngoongoo, to'o eleele, wadu. 
tiptoe mwaiki. 
tired ha'awe'o, we'o. 

to huni, muni, i 1., ni 1., saa-, sie-, tako'i, tale. 
tobacco saho; hasie'ie'i, hiohio, kori. 
together ruru, ta'ingelute, takararume'ini. 
tongs ireki. 
tongue mea. 
too lo'u 5. 

tooth niho, to'o na'o. 
toothless dawa 2. 
top lengi, qango 2. 
torcft sine. 

torment ha'aletehi, kotaahi, motaahi. 
torrent dari mwaa. 
tortoise-shell hapa 2. 
to/ter 'olo'oloa'i. 



135 



WANT 



toucan pine awa. 

touch hele temweri, kopi. 

tough ngasi 1. 

tow oke 1. 

toward isuli, tako'i, tale. 

town hanue, huuilume, poona. 

toy qanionga roaroa. 

track si'o isuli. 

traitor qelo. 

train ha'aango. 

trample 'ure puuli. 

translate 'olisi wala. 

/rai^J alide, laehi, lai henue, liu. 

tread puuli, 'uri. 

tree 'ai, dango. 

tree fern dimwe. 

tremble ariri, asoso, nunurete. 

trench aliholo. 

irepang mwamwaa puri. 

trickle mudimudi 'ura, mwimwdi 'ure. 

trouble hu'ihu'i, kotaha, mohinge, rako 

'aela, su'ehi. 
true to'ohuu, wala'imoli. 
trumpet 'ahuri. 
trust noruto'o, puuto'o. 
truth wala'imolinge. 
try ahonga, dau adonga, dau ahonga, oho 1., 

ohongi. 
tub ninie 2. 
tug oke 1., wa'i 6. 
tumble a'oho, doinu, 'usu 11. 
tumult ha'ipolanga, kotaha, 
turn alihu'isi, alihu'ite'ini, 'aliu, 'atomaa, 

'atopuri, hiro, hi'usi, 'oil; ha'i'oli, 

pulo, pu'o 3., saro 1.; lapi, ha'alili. 
turn mena, ne'i. 
turtle honu 1. 
tusk niho. 

twelve awala mwana rue, awala mana rua. 
twenty ro awala. 
twice ha'aru'e. 
twig akeake, 'ulu'ulu ni 'el. 
twilight saulehi, melumelu. 
twin iu. 

twine ha'a'angohi hiku, lolo 3., ta'ihikuhiku. 
twinkling ina'aru talahi. 
twirl hiro. 

twist 'ango 2., kalite'i'a, pulosi. 
two rue. 

ugly lio mamataku, loo mama'u. 

ulcer oropa, osa. 

umbrella ha'u 7. 

unarmed to'o ro nime. 

unawakened to'o lelengana. 

unbind luhesi. 

uncle ama-, uweli-, weli-. 

unclean lo'u 3 ; mada'a, maipo. 

uncoiled awa tahu. 

uncover 'ae 5., hu'esi. 

under haha, oroha-. 

understand rongo saai, rongo sae. 

undo luhe, tahu'i. 

undone 'aela, akera'i, luheta'i. 

unfasten sikite'ini. 

unfold 'aroka, rokasi. 

unfurl tata'ini. 



unhitch siki 1., takarara. 

unhurt sapemawa. 

unlace takarasi. 

unless 'ai'aana, wa 'ohe. 

unload salenga'ini, sangile'ini. 

unmarried raori'i, saanau. 

unravel matakara. 

unripe kohu, mwaka. 

unruly teroliu. 

unskilful maumeuli. 

untie 'aluhe, luhe. 

until hulaana, lai teli. 

untoward po'opo'oli'ili'i. 

unwilling lalawa, sare'ini. 

up 'ala'a, la'a, i haho, i lengi, ta'e, talimaa, 

ta'au. 
upbraid ere, wala mwamwasu. 
uplift ha'a'ure, sulu 1., tahela'ini; adj., langi- 

lengi'e. 
upon haho-, lengi-. 
upright odo, odota'i. 
uprooted aihu, 'a'uru. 
upset kiiusi, qaoha'ini. 
urge torangi. 
urine mimi, wai. 
us ka'elu, kolu; aka, aka'elu. 
use helesi. 
useless tototala. 
utterly 'o'o 4. 

vainly mwakule, tototala. 

valley da'ideri'e. 

vanish ahutata, wa'a 4. 

vanity 'ai'aa, 'ahewa'a. 

vapor laho'a, waha. 

various dodola. ha'iaopa'i, ngelute. 

vary aopa, hu'ite'i. 

verge apiepi. 

verse 'alo'u, lo'u'e. 

very ha'ahuu'ei, ha'ahuu'ana, raka, to'ohuu- 

ngana, to'ohuunge'i. 
vex 'a'ada'ini, ha'asauni, kotaahi, waweta'a. 
village huuilume, outeni nima, poona; m<?/.,'iola. 
vine walo. 
violate maha. 
virgin keni raori'i. 
visit maakali, maatoli, maatoto. 
voice wala. 
void qala, waawaa. 
vomit 'a'ana, moa. 
vow ha'a'apu. 
voyage alidanga. 

wade ulu 4. 

wag hi'ute'ini, teile'ini. 
wages holite, waaite. 

wagtail hi'uhi'u kape, hi'uhl'u qote, kiukiu rape. 
wail ngarasi, ulo 1. 
wait i'o loosi, ma'ohi, totori. 
wake ha' alio, lio 1. 
walk awe, qaqahe. 
wall liliheu, para, tete. 
wallow sude, tataipeipe. 
wander lae ha'iliu, takalo. 
wane kumwe. 

want 'ai'aa, meimeile'ini.Itale; sae to'o, sare 
to'o. 



WANTON 



I36 



wanton rawamwaki, tale'i. 

war ipelunga, ohotaa. 

ward talaahu'e, talohi. 

warm madoro, wawai, osiosi. 

warn aha tahani, ha'apasu. 

wart uhi 2. 

wary loo 2. 

wash hoda, loto. 

wasp niniho, puu 2. 

waste totowa'e, wa'e 1., wa'eta'ini, ware; sala. 

watch ha'akale, ha'amaesi 2., lio isuli, kakali. 

water wai 1.; v., hu'i 3., korukoru, mimi. 

waterfall pie 1. 

waterhole kakalu, kilu. 

waterspout saisesu, sa'usesu. 

wave 'a'aronga, hai naho, hau ni 'esi. 

wave v., salo 2., waiwei 1. 

waver sae ruerua'a. 

way tala 1. 

waylay 'aqata'ini, toll loosi. 

we i'emelu, ika'elu, ikolu; i'emere'i, ikara, ikure. 

weak maleqeleqe, mamaela'a, qeto. 

weapon mae 7., raisinge. 

wear to'oni 1. 

weary ha'awe'o, we'o. 

weave ha'u 9. 

web lawa. 

wed tola keni. 

wedding aharota. 

weed amu 4., ta'ahu. 

weep ngara, ulo 1. 

well awaa, mware'a. 

west hao, i 'ano, suulana sato. 

wet ha'amedo, ha'aqini; medo, qesa'a, qini'a. 

whale pusu 'esi. 

what taa 2., taha. 

when i nganite, maholona. 

whence kei hei, 'urei tei. 

where ihei, itei, lehuna, le'une. 

whet danuhi. 

whether 'ohe, 'ohi'a. 

which ihei, itei. 

while ha'awali, maholo. 

whip rapu. 

whisper sawaru. 

whistle wadi. 

white erete'a, mero, rere'a; haka, poro ni haka. 

who atei. 

whole ha'ileku, laku, pupupu. 

whose atei, 'ana atei, nana atei. 

why ana e 'ue, e 'ue, uritaa. 

wick sikeri. 

wicked 'aela, tata'ala, talili. 

wickedness oraha'a, talilinge. 

wide 'aroka, atalawa. 

widow na'o 6. 

wife hu'e 2., keni. 

wig uhumae. 

wild loo 2., looloo'a. 



wile makemaketa, raomae. 
wilful talili, raramaa. 
'fill sae. 

willing mwa'emwa'e. 
wince niniko'a. 
wind dani, dangi, ooru. 
windbound noruhono. 
wing 'apa'apa. 
wink ma'am. 
winter aau, rara 4. 
wipe 'usuri. 

wise saai ola, sae nanau, salema'i. 
wish sae to'o, sare to'o. 
witchcraft saru'e, si'onga. 
wither heko, nunulu, rara 3., rarasi. 
with ana 2., ani 2.; mai 3., pe'i 2. 
within hai 2., i lalo, ta'i, wai. 
without i 'amaa, i su'e; 'aho'a. 
withstand dau honosi, haukama, 'ure honosi. 
wizard mwane kurekure. 
woman hu'e 2., keni. 
womft i'e 3. 

wonder ane, pangata'ini; «., anoa, hu'ihu'ite. 
wood 'ai, dango. 
word wala. 
work asu, daumwa. 
7£'orW walumalau. 
worm mwaamwaa, mwaadule. 
worn lahu. 

worship palo, qao ola. 
worry 'a'ada'ini, tolaa'i. 
wound halata, hilehile, malaka. 
wrap aluhi, dele, inehu'i, ulo. 
wreath mahe. 
wrestle ako. 
wreck qa'ata'ini. 
wring losi, ni'i iosi. 
wrinkle nuku. 
write usu 2. 
writhe huhu laolao. 

wrong dau hu'isi, dau pele, dau wala; aopa, 
takalo. 

yam hana 1., olopa'i, uhi 1. 

yard qa'uli 'apala; lolata; i 'amaa. 

yawn ahimawa. 

yaws alo'a. 

year halisi. 

yellow saosaola. 

yes 'a'u, i'au, 'o si'u'e, si'ola. 

yesterday nonola; day before nonola wau. 

yet ue 1. 

yoke tori. 

yonder paro, wau 1. 

you i'oe, i'amu, i'omu, i'omolu; dual, i'omoro'i, 

i'omoru'e. 
youth saanau. 

zigzag saro ni mwaa. 



APPENDICES 



A BRIEF GRAMMAR OF SA'A AND ULAWA. 

LINGUISTICS IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC. 

MELANESIA AND ITS PEOPLE. 

HISTORICAL NOTES CONCERNING THE MELANESIAN MISSION. 

"YACHTING" IN MELANESIA. 

THE QUEENSLAND LABOR TRADE. 

SANTA CRUZ. 



137 



A BRIEF GRAMMAR OF SA'A AND ULAWA. 
THE ALPHABET. 

No letters are used in this dictionary with arbitrarily assigned values. 
In all the books printed in the two languages for the use of native 
readers two italic letters are used, n and m; n is printed for ng the palatal 
nasal to which n frequently mutates, and m is printed for mw which 
represents a lightly vocalized m. In this grammar and in the dictionary 
these two letters are given in full as ng and mw which are to be under- 
stood as representing those sounds of which the value has hitherto been 
represented in Sa'a and Ulawa texts by the italic letters n and m. 

The vowels are a, e, i, o, u, with the Italian sounds. All of these 
vowels may be long or short, the long sound being represented by 
doubling the vowel. Both Sa'a and Ulawa are fond of vowel sounds; 
many words consist only of vowels. The habit of dropping certain 
consonants is largely responsible for this excess of vowel sounds. 
Closed syllables do not exist and every word ends with a vowel. 

In Sa'a the vowel a in certain words changes to e when i or u or the 
verbal particle ko precedes it; the vowel following this a is always 
either i or u y this a is marked in the grammar and in the dictionary by 
the employment of the dieresis, a. In many words where the differ- 
ence between the Sa'a and Ulawa forms consists only of the change of 
this a to e the Sa'a form is the only one recorded. This change of 
vowel is known to the people of Ulawa, but they are not so careful 
about its observance as are the people of Sa'a; in certain words they 
change a to e where there is no preceding i or u, thus mdi hither, Sa'a 
po'o mdi on this side, Ulawa po'o mei. The change of vowel may be 
made in Ulawa at the beginning of a word, but the genius of the lan- 
guage is to refuse to make it at the end of the word; U. hdnua village, 
i henua in the village, S. i henue, but in Ulawa the addition of the 
demonstrative ni causes the final a to change to <?, i henueni in that 
village. The suffixed pronouns du of the first singular and d of the third 
singular change in Sa'a to eu and e respectively after i or «, but Ulawa 
does not observe this rule. In some words where Sa'a changes final e 
to a Ulawa keeps to e; nike mother, S. nikana his mother, U. nikena. 

The diphthongs are ae, ai, ao, au, ei, ou, as in sae, mai, hao y rau, mei, 
houy pronounced respectively as in the English words eye, iron, hour, 
how, hey, oh. 

The consonants are h; k; d, t; p, q; w; 1, r; s; m, mw, n, ng. 

The k is hard and there is no g; where the Melanesian g occurs in 
other languages, there is a decided break in the pronunciation of the 
cognate word in Sa'a and Ulawa; e. g., Mota iga fish, Sa'a i'e, Ulawa %a. 

Note. — This grammar has been compiled from the larger separate grammars published by 
the present writer. 

139 



I40 GRAMMAR OF SA A AND ULAWA. 

There is no preface of n in the sound of d, which holds of all the lan- 
guages of Malaita and is in contrast with the principle of prefacing the 
mutes with the nasal of their proper series which extends in Melanesia 
as far as Fiji. The nearest English equivalent to the sound of d in 
Sa'a and Ulawa is dr; before i d is sounded as ch in church. 

To pronounce the t the tongue is pressed against the teeth and the 
breath forced outward, the teeth being kept fairly close together, then 
the tongue is relaxed and dropped and the breath escapes with an 
explosive sound. Sa'a often prefers d where Ulawa has t. 

The sound represented by q is pw and p and q are interchangeable in 
certain words, e. g., pongi, qongi to promise. In some words Ulawa has 
p where Sa'a prefers q, e . g., U. pito, S. qito sprout. 

The sounds of 1 and r are distinct, and both are trilled. There is a 
change of 1 to n in Ulawa, i daluma for i danuma in the middle, and Ulawa 
at times has 1 where Sa'a has r, U. tataloha, S. tataroha news, report. 

In addition to the three nasals ng, n, m there is a variant upon the 
labial nasal,mw a semivocalization of the clearm. The pronunciation 
of the palatal nasal ng is that of ng in sing. 

Beside the loss of the Melanesian g, as shown before, the t, 1, k and 
h are likewise dropped in many words and the loss of the letter is shown 
by a break in the pronunciation and indicated to the eye by the employ- 
ment of inverted comma *; 'o'i to break, Fl. goti; 'a a green parrot, San 
Cr. kaka. This break has not been marked in the books used by the 
natives, but because of its importance in comparison of the languages it 
has been indicated in this dictionary. In the reduplication of verbs 
the inner consonant is often dropped in the former member of the dupli- 
cated form and there is a corresponding break in the pronunciation; 
Florida also drops the inner consonant in reduplication ,but one does 
not hear any such break in the sound as in Sa'a and Ulawa. 

Contractions are common, especially when the locative i is used; 
lai for lae i, ta'i for ta'e i y ke'i for ke'u i, pe'e for pe'ie y saune for sdunie 
kill him. 

ARTICLES. 

Sa'a (a) Demonstrative Sing, nga, me'i, mi, hoi, hou, hai. 

Plur. mui, mu, mo. 
(b) Personal a. 

Ulawa (a) Demonstrative Sing, nga, mast, hoi, hou, hai. 

Plur. mwai, mzoa, mo. 
(b) Personal a. 

1. In Sa'a nouns in the singular are used without an article, in Ulawa 
there is a more frequent use of nga in the singular, and parts of the body 
are preceded by nga f which is not the case in Sa'a. In Sa'a nga signi- 
fies a or any and is used only in this sense. This detail is characteristic 
of the language as a whole, Sa'a is far more particular in its usages and 
is more highly specialized than Ulawa. Nga is used with the inter- 
rogative taa, taha what, with ihei U. where, ngaihei who? The nouns 
ini S., He U., both meaning one, are used with nga; ta'ena ngaini S. 
ta'ana ngaile U. every one; laa U., a person, is preceded by nga. 



GRAMMAR OF SA A AND ULAWA. I4I 

2. me'i and masi denote a part, a piece; both also serve as diminu- 
tives in either a depreciatory or an endearing sense, me'i keni reu a 
handmaid, masi mwane inau dear lad. The form men may be used even 
when the preceding vowel is not i or u, mesi kaleku my child. Nga 
and mwai may precede masi; nga masi taha what thing is it, mwai mesi 
sae different minds. 

3 . mi is found with sala> mi sola a piece of cloth. 

4. hoi is used of things spherical in shape, hoi niu a coconut, hoi kue 
a hen's egg, nga hoi tahani what fruit is that? Also in connection with 
Other substantives naming objects not globular, hoi i'e a fish, hoi nemo 
a rain squall. 

hou is used more commonly in Ulawa, hoi hudi S., hou hudi U. a 
banana; houhi a yam, hou pua an areca nut; but Sa'a has hou 'atea a 
coconut water bottle, hou wei a bamboo water-carrier. 

5. hai in the sense of a, an, one, is used with certain words; hai seulehi 
an evening, haidinge a day, hai lama a pool, nga haiwala a word, hai 
holaa a calm. In some places where Sa'a has hai Ulawa uses hau; 
haidinge S., haudinga U. a day; and this hai may be a contraction of hau 
if where i is the genitive and hau denotes a period of time. 

6. maa eye or point is used with nga to indicate one, of sticks or 
matches; also with the genitive i S. or ni U., maai laenga, a going (Ulawa 
generally has nga preceding maa) ; 'olu maai qaoolanga three prayings. 

7. muiy mu y mwai, mwa all show plurality; nga may be prefixed; mu 
is the form commonly used in Sa'a, and, as is true of mwa, is always 
used before a vowel or h; mo is used with words beginning with the 
vowel 0, and is more commonly used in Sa'a than in Ulawa. 

8. The personal article is a. This is used with all proper names, male 
or female, native or foreign, and also with nouns expressing relationship 
or kindred. Any common noun becomes by the use of the personal 
article a a proper noun; a palopalo the priest, a me'i wala the Word, a 
porona the person, so-and-so. After the usage common to the Oceanic 
family the employment of the personal article with the common noun 
meaning thing supplies the locution for an indefinite personality, a ola 
so-and-so. 

NOUNS. 

1. Nouns with possessive suffixes: Certain nouns take the suffixed 
pronouns denoting the possessor. These are nouns denoting: 

a. Parts of the body: maa eye, maamu your eye; nime hand, nimana 
his hand; qa'u head, qa'uku my head. 

b. Certain states or doings of men, life, death, speech, custom, goings : 
mae to die, maetana his death; wala word, walaku my word; lae to go, 
laehana his journey. 

c. Position, end, middle, top: ngengedena its end, danumeku my 
waist, i hahona on top of it. 



142 GRAMMAR OF SA'a AND ULAWA. 

d. All the words expressing relationship or kindred except those for 
wife and husband and also mwela S. 'elekale U. child. 

These nouns are marked in the dictionary with (ku). Certain of 
this class are marked with (na, ni) which denotes that the pronoun is 
suffixed only in the third person, and in the case of ni is used of things 
only. In the case of the remaining nouns possession is denoted by the 
addition of the ordinary personal pronouns. 

2. Formation of nouns: Nouns which have a special termination 
showing them to be nouns substantive are (a) verbal nouns, and (b) 
independent nouns. 

a. Verbal nouns are formed from verbs by the terminations nga, ta, 
la, laa, ha, haa, a: mae to die, maenga death, maeta death feast, maelaa 
S. maeha U. sickness; si'o to harm, si'ohaa evil plight; hatale to go along 
the beach, hatalea, shore, coast. 

The form la generally denotes the gerundive and always has the 
suffixed pronoun attached. Similarly ha generally denotes a gerundive 
and is seldom used without the suffixed pronoun. In the dictionary 
words ending in ha, la, ta, which are never used without a suffixed pro- 
noun, have the hyphen attached. 

There are certain adjectives to which the termination nga is attached, 
diana good, diananga goodness; 'aela bad, 'aelanga badness, pdine 
pdinanga badness; but it is probable that these adjectives are really 
verbs. (See diana.) 

b. Independent nouns: The only termination is na, and this is 
(1) added to nouns which express relationship or kindred, and (2) 
appears also to be attached to cardinal numerals to form ordinals. 

1. Nouns so formed are always preceded by certain prefixes which 
mark reciprocity of relationship or of kindred, ma, mwa, ha'i, the nu- 
meral ro two, or the plural articles mu and mwa: nike mother, ro ha'i 
nikena mother and child, ro ha'i nikana ineu my wife and child; mu 
mwa 'asine brethren. 

2. Numerals: 'olu three, 'olune third. 

As stated before, gerundives are formed by the addition of the suf- 
fixed pronouns to forms in la, ha. Tala'ae to begin, tala'aehana its 
beginning; ha'auri to save, ha 1 aurileku my savior. The third person 
possessive is added to noun forms in ha: repo ripe, repohaana its old 
age, maturity. To neuter verbs the suffix ni or 'i is added : horo to 
kill, horo'i v. tr., horo'ilana the killing of him, sau to kill, sauni v. tr., 
saunilada the killing of them. 

In Ulawa certain nouns have double noun termination: wee si to 
catch fish, weesingaha fishing; alida to travel by sea, alidangaha a voy- 
age; tale to be short of, talengaha a shortage. 

3. Genitive relation: The genitive relation of nouns one to another 
is effected by the use of the preposition ni or the shorter form i, the 
latter being used more commonly in Sa'a, mwane ni Sa'a a Sa'a man, 
walo ni 'a'a'o a fishing-line, poloi haa a piece of money, 'u'ui he'u a star. 



GRAMMAR OF SA*A AND ULAWA. I43 

Both of these forms are also used to denote purpose: noko deu ni lae 
I am making to go, 'oke lae wai (wau i) leesie, go and see it. 

Other forms of the genitive are li, si: hdulihane, maaliholo, qd'usi 
henue, tangisi hudi. 

A genitive relation is also shown by the use of the suffixed pronoun 
of the third person singular or plural in agreement with the idea 
expressed in the second noun of the pair; i reune tala by the side of the 
way, ulolada mditale the cry of the poor. The suffixed pronoun may be 
used in the singular when the idea is collective or the second noun car- 
ries the sense of totality, ilengine mu nume on the tops of the houses. 

The ordinary possessive idea is shown by simple juxtaposition: 
nima inau my house, 'usu inge'ie his dog. 

The instrumental prefix i is common: kdu to hook, ikeu a hook for 
gathering fruit; ddnu to bale, idenu a baler. 

4. Plural: Definite plurality is marked by the presence of the arti- 
cles mui, mu, mwai, mwa, used of both persons and things; nga may be 
prefixed to these and the word hunge, many, may be added: mu 'inoni, 
nga mu 'inoni, men, mwa hdnua hunga the crowd, everybody. 

The numeral walu eight is used to express an indefinite number: 
walu henue all the lands, walu malau all the islands, the world, walu- 
tana ola S., waluteni ola U. every thing. 

To a noun dhuta- denoting totality (dhu to be complete) the pro- 
noun of the third person singular and of all persons in the plural is 
suffixed in agreement with the noun: ahutana sapeku my whole body, 
dhutana sapeda all their bodies, sapeda dhutada the bodies of them all, 
dhutakara'i both of us, dhutamelu all of us. 

To to'ohuu S. real, nga is suffixed and the personal pronoun na is 
added: to'ohuungana nga ola, the real thing, mu to'ohuunge'i ola real 
things. 

To itei S. which, ta is suffixed and the personal pronoun na is added: 
iteitana one, any. This is used only with the negative particles ka'a, 
sa'a, and thus comes to mean, no one, nothing: e ka'a iteitana nga me'i 
ola there is nothing at all. With this may be compared the use of 
isei in Mot a as the indefinite pronoun, some one. 

A noun hike is used with the suffixed pronoun to express of, from 
among: e ro ini hikada two men of them. 

Two nouns, mwai U. mwei S. and kei, are used with the adjective 
tata'ala or with its short form ta'a to express an endearing or a commis- 
erating sense; mwai, mwei being used of men, kei of women: mwai 
tata'ala inau my poor fellow, kei ta'a pdine dear lady. 

Sa'a has a plural in maeni which is generally used in the vocative: 
maeni 'inoni sirs, maeni mwela children. 

In mwela child the plural is formed by reduplication, mwemwela S. 
children. 

A unit is expressed in Sa'a by 'ata: 'enite 'ata how many, 'e ro 'ata 
two. 



144 



GRAMMAR OF SA A AND ULAWA. 



Certain nouns meaning one, ite U., He U., 'eta S., ini S., are used with 
or without nga, and with nga mu or nga mwa: ngaite ola a different 
thing, ta max ngaile give me one, nga mwaite 'inoni certain persons, nga 
mwaile some, nga' eta 'inoni another, a different man, nga muini some. 

Alai U., ala U., alei S. is used as a noun of multitude: alai Mwado'a 
you people of Mwado'a, alaile inau my people, ala mwane you men, 
alei 'inoni you people, alei ola the persons, alei saanau the young men. 

The word ngau is used familiarly to children of each sex as a voca- 
tive : ro ngau you two children. 

5. There is no grammatical gender: The words mwane male, keni and 
qaqa female, are added when the noun does not carry a sex distinction. 

6. Relationship or kindred: With the two exceptions of mama' a, 
ma'a father and nike mother in vocative employment, the nouns of 
relationship are always used: 

a. With a suffixed pronoun, 'asiku my brother, never 'asi; 

b. With the termination na and with a reciprocal prefix ha'i or mwa: 
ro ha'i nikana mother and child, ro mwa 'adine brethren, mu mwa'asine 
brothers. 

The terms mama' a father and teitei in the vocative are addressed by 
the parent hypocoristically to the boy or girl. 

The word denoting friend is always used with the suffixed pronoun, 
malahuku my friend, ro ha'i malahune the two friends. 

PRONOUNS. 
According as they are employed, pronouns may be classified as, 
(a) those used as the subject or object of a verb; (b) those suffixed to 
a verb or to a preposition as objects; (c) those suffixed to nouns 
substantive. 
A. 



Singular: 



PRONOUNS USED AS SUBJECT OR OBJECT OF A VERB. 
Sa'a. Ulawa. 

Singular: 



1. ineu, nou, no, ne. 

2. foe, '0. 

3. inge'ie, nge'ie, inge'i, nge'i, 

nge, e. 
Dual: 
Inclusive: 1. ikure, kure. 
Exclusive: 1. i'emere'i, 'emere'i, 'emeru'e, 

meru't, mere'i, mere. 

2. ? omoro'i, 'omoro'i, moro'i, 

moro, i'omoru'e, 'omoru'e, 
moru'e. 

3. ikireru't, kireru'e, kereru'e. 
Plural: 

Inclusive: 1. iki'e, ki'e, ikolu, kolu. 
Exclusive: 1. i'emi, 'emi, i'emelu, 'emelu, 
melu. 

2. i'omu, 4 omu, i'omolu, 'omolu, 

molu. 

3. ikire, kite, ikira'elu, kira'du. 



1. inau, nau, na, ne. 

2. i'oe, 'o. 

3. ingg'ia, nge'ia, nge, e. 



Dual: 

Inclusive: 1. ikara'i, kara'i, ikara, kara. 
Exclusive: 1. i'emere'i, 'emere'i, mere'i, mere. 

2. i'omoro'i, 'omoro'i, moro'i, 

moro. 

3. ikoro'i, koro'i, koro. 
Plural: 

Inclusive: I. iki'a, ki'a, ika'elu, ka'elu. 
Exclusive: I. i'ami, 'ami, i'emelu, 'emelu, 
melu. 

2. i'amu, 'amu, i'omolu, 'omolu, 

molu. 

3. ikire'i, ikira, kira, ikira'elu, 

kira'elu, kelu, kilu. 



I. The use of the initial i gives distinctness and force. The forms 
beginning with i are never used by themselves as the subject, but are 



GRAMMAR OF SA A AND ULAWA. 



145 



always accompanied by the shorter forms without z, these latter are 
used as subject. Similarly inge'ie is always followed by e. 

2. The forms in the singular are never used as the object of a verb or 
of a preposition with the single exception of '0. Forms without i are used 
in the dual and plural first and second persons as the object of a verb. 

3. The forms no and ne are used with the verbal particles of the same 
vowel facies, no with ko of general time, ne with ke and ke'i of future 
time, na with 'a of general time, and ne with *e future. 

4. Nge is used before proper names, and the personal article a 
coalesces, ngea Awao e lae Awao has gone. It is also used in phrases: 
so nge well then, nge ni 'oto that is it, e mae nge he is done for now. 

5. E is used as the subject of a verb. It is also used following the 
longer forms for the sake of emphasis: inge'ie nge'ie e 'unue he said it. 
It is equivalent also to there is, it is : e madoro it is hot, e qale ola there 
is nothing. It follows a noun as a secondary subject: nemo e nemo 
the rain rains, mwa hdnua e ruru the people came together; similarly 
it may follow a pronoun, kiratei e lae who went ? 

6. The forms in -lu denote a more restricted number of persons, 
but they are not used to form a trinal number. Sa'a is more careful 
than Ulawa in the proper use of these different forms. 

7. The pronouns of the third person singular and plural may be used 
of impersonal or of inanimate objects. Kire is used to form a passive: 
kire 'unue it has been said, lit. they have said it, mu i'e kire hahi'i 'oto 
have the fish been cooked? Kire followed by the personal article a 
and ola thing or a proper name is used also to denote a company or 
party: kiraa ola y So-and-so's party, kiraa Dora Dora's people. 

8. The forms in 1 are used to denote possession: poo ineu my pig, 
'elekale i'emere'i the child of us two, poro inge'ie her husband, hu'e i'oe 
thy wife. 

9. A chief or person of importance is always addressed in the dual, 
moro or molu; and a mother, either by herself or with her child, is 
addressed as moro. 

B. PRONOUNS SUFFIXED TO VERBS OR TO PREPOSITIONS AS OBJECT. 
Sa'a. Ulawa. 

Singular: Singular: 

1. au. I. au. 

2. '0. 2. 'o. 



3- a. 



3. a. 



Dual: 
Inclusive: 


1. 


kure. 


Dual: 
Inclusive: 


1. 


kara'i, kara. 


Exclusive: 


1. 


'emere'i, 'emeru'e, mere'i, mere. 


Exclusive: 


1. 


'emere'i, mere'i, mere. 




2. 


'omoro'i, moro'i, moro. 




2. 


'omoro'i, moro'i, moro, 


Plural: 
Inclusive: 
Exclusive: 


3- 

1. 

1. 
2. 
3- 


raru'e, raru'i. 

ki'e, kolu. 
'emi, melu. 
'omu, 'omolu, molu. 
ra, ra'elu, 'i. 


Plural: 
Inclusive: 
Exclusive: 


3- 

1. 
1. 

2. 
3- 


raru'a, raru'i. 

ki'a, ka'elu. 
'ami, melu. 
amu, 'omolu, molu. 
ra, ra'elu, 'i. 



Examples of usage are: noko leesi'o I see thee, e 'unue hunieu he told 
me. When the verb ends in a and au is suffixed only one a is sounded. 



146 



GRAMMAR OF Sa'a AND ULAWA. 



The form a is suffixed to a transitive verb as an anticipatory object: 
nou ka'a leesie nga 'inoni I did not see-him a person, melu helesie 'oto 
mu ola we have done-it the things. 

The forms a, rd may be used of inanimate or impersonal objects. 

The form 'i is used in place of rd when things and not persons are 
the object of the verb : lae wau huni'i go and fetch them. 

C. PRONOUNS SUFFIXED TO NOUNS OR TO VERBAL NOUNS USED AS PREP- 
OSITIONS, OR TO GERUNDIVES. 



Sa'a. 



Ulawa. 



Singular: 



Singular: 





1. 


ku. 




1. 


ku. 




2. 


mu. 




2. 


mu. 


Dual: 
Inclusive: 
Exclusive: 


3- 

1. 
1. 


na. 

kara'i. 
tnere'i. 


Dual: 
Inclusive: 
Exclusive: 


3- 

1. 
1. 


na. 

kara'i, kara. 
tnere'i, mere. 


Plural: 
Inclusive: 
Exclusive: 


2. 

3- 

1. 

1. 
2. 
3- 


moro'i, moro. 
daru'e. 

ka, ka'elu. 
mami, melu. 
miu, molu. 
da, da'elu; ni. 


Plural: 
Inclusive: 
Exclusive: 


2. 
3- 

1. 
1. 

2. 
3- 


moro'i, moro. 
daru'i. 

ka, ka'elu. 
mami, melu. 
miu, molu. 
da, da'elu; ni. 



1 . These are the pronouns denoting possession and they are suffixds 
to a certain class of nouns only, those which denote the names of paret 
of the body, or of family relationships, or of things in close relation- 
ship to the possessor; in all other cases possession is denoted by the use 
of the ordinary personal pronouns. 

2. Of the plural forms those ending in lu denote a restriction in the 
number of the persons concerned. 

3. When things are in question ni is used in place of da: lai ne'i i 
talani put the things in their places. 

4. Verbal nouns used as prepositions: honotaku opposite me, to 
meet me, honota is in form a verbal noun but it is not in independent 
use as a word. 

5. In words like sieku at my house, saada'elu at their house, 
maraamu by yourself, sisingana over against it, the roots are evidently 
nouns but they do not occur in independent use. In the dictionary 
all such words are followed by a hyphen, e. g., saa-. 

D. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 

These are *ie, 'ienini, ni S., inihou, nihou y ni U., this. 

ngeena y waune S. ; inizvau, nizvau> wauni U., that. 

1. 'ienini is more forcible than *ie; ni is used suffixed to nouns, to 
personal pronouns, to uri thus, and to si'iri today, in Ulawa it is also 
suffixed to adjectives and adverbs. 

2. ena is used by itself in Sa'a as a demonstrative, nge nou lae mat 
ena that is why I came; wau is the adverb meaning there. In certain 
villages in Ulawa a demonstrative ini is used in the sense of "that is it." 



GRAMMAR OF SA A AND ULAWA. 147 

3. na is suffixed to nouns and pronouns and to certain adverbs to 
give point and directness, its use is more common in Sa'a than inUlawa: 
mwalana the people; a mzvaend that person, mo ola 'oko qao'i ne the 
things that thou doest; ta'aune over there, urine, urinena thus, in that 
manner. 

Na is also used after the negatives ha'ike, qa'ike, ha'ike na, ha'ike ena 
no, not that; and after 'oto, inge'i 'oto na that is it. 

E. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 

The words used are tei who; taa S., taha U., what. The personal 
article a makes atei who (singular) kiratei plural. Both of these words 
are nouns. 

1 . atei is used for whose, ola atei whose thing, atei ola ( ie to whom does 
this belong? Tei stands for the name of the person and atei means, 
what is the name ? atei moro lae mai who came with you ? The demon- 
strative ni may be added: atei ni satamu what (who) is your name? 

In Sa'a atei has an indefinite use, atei e manata'inie who knows! 

2. With taa, taha, the definite article nga is used; nga taa, nga ola 
taa, nga taha what? The demonstrative ni may be added; nga taa ni 
e 'unue what said he? Taa, taha, may mean of what sort? hoi i'a 
tahani what sort offish? With the adverb uri thus taa, taha, make 
uritaa, uritaha of what sort? how? in what way? In Ulawa assent is 
shown by taha with 'oto, a particle denoting completed action; inge'ia 
tahato '0 'unueni it is as you have said. 

3. In Ulawa the interrogative adverb ihei is used as a pronoun: 
nga mwane ihei ni what man ? ngaihei nizveu who is that there ? When 
the question is which or where of two things Sa'a uses itei and Ulawa 
ihei: 'oko sare ngau itei what (where) will you eat? In Sa'a nge is 
prefixed to itei: ngeitei mwane what man? ngeitei li'oa what spirit? 

F. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. 

The uses of ini, 'eta S., He, ite U., one, have been dealt with under 
nouns. With the exception of He these words prefixed by nga, nga mu, 
nga mwai, are used as signifying some, other, different. 

1. Halu means some. In Sa'a the genitive i is suffixed: nga mu 
helui 'inoni S., nga mwa halu 'inoni U., some men. The pronoun na 
may be suffixed: haluna ngaini, haluna ngaile one here and there. 

2. Iteitana is used in Sa'a with the negative particle ka'a as meaning 
no one: e ka'a iteitana ngaini there is no one. 

3. Ta'ena, ta' eta' ena S., ta'ana, ta'ata'ana U., mean every: ta'ena 
ngaini every person. Ola thing and le'u S. lehu U. are used in the 
sense of any: nou ka'a to'oana nga le'u I have not anything, e ta nga 
lehu ana he took some of it. 

4. Mwamwanga S. manganga U. are used with ini, He, to express the 
sense of a few: mwamwangaini e saaie only a few know it. 



148 



GRAMMAR OF Sa'a AND ULAWA. 



G. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

There are no relative pronouns. Their place is supplied by various 
locutions. 

1. The suffixed pronoun: ineu 'ie kire usunge'inieu mei I am he whom 
they sent. The addition of the demonstratives na S. ni U. serves to 
make the meaning clearer: inge'ie a porona kire ko 'unue he is the person 
whom they speak of. 

2. By the use of a coordinate clause : i'emi 'ie mzvala e tahangie 'asi we 
are the people who came through the sea. 

H. POSSESSIVES. 

There are three possessives in Sa'a and Ulawa. 

1. The first is used only of things to eat and drink, with the stem 'a 
to which the pronouns are suffixed. In the first and second person 
singular 'e S. 'a U. is added, and this *e or 'a is replaced by H when 
several things are in view for one person to eat. 
Sa'a. 



Ulawa. 



Singular: 



Singular: 





1. 


'aku'e, 'aku'i. 




1. 


'aku'a, 'aku'i. 




2. 


'amu'e, 'amu'i. 




2. 


'amu'a, 'amu'i. 


Dual: 
Inclusive: 
Exclusive: 


3- 

1. 

1. 


'ana. 

'akara'i, 'akaru'e. 
'amere'i, 'ameru'e. 


Dual: 
Inclusive: 
Exclusive: 


3- 

1. 
1. 


'ana. 

'akara'i. 
'amere'i. 


Plural: 
Inclusive: 
Exclusive: 


2. 

3- 

1. 
1. 
2. 
3- 


'atnoro'i, 'amoro. 
'adaru'e, 'adaru'i. 

'aka, 'aka'elu. 
'amami, 'amelu. 
'amiu, 'amolu. 
'ada, 'ada'elu. 


Plural: 
Inclusive: 
Exclusive: 


2. 

3- 

1. 
1. 

2. 
3- 


'atnoro'i, 'amoro. 
'adaru'a, 'adaru'i. 

'aka, 'aka'elu. 
'amami, 'amelu. 
'amiu, 'amolu. 
'ada, 'ada'elu. 



Examples: hoi niu 'eku'e a coconut for me to eat, '0 ta 'amu'i take 
them to eat. 

In Ulawa the change of 'a to 'e after i or u in the first and second 
singular is optional. 

When the sense relates to food in general and not to a particular meal 
the ordinary personal pronouns are employed: mu ngeulaa i'emelu our 
food. 

2. The second possessive is na with which a suffixed pronoun is used 
only as meaning mine, or, for me, and never with a noun, as e. g., Maori 
tokuy toku rima my hand. It is declined in the same way as the pre- 
ceding: moola nana atei things for whom? moola namu'i things for you, 
da nakara'i take for you and me, asu nemu'e work for you. In the 
third person plural an additional form nani is used. 

3. The third possessive is similar in form to the first, but is used 
without the final a in the first and second persons singular, and the 
stem is a and not 'a; likewise ani is found in place of ada in the third 
person plural when the reference is to things and not to persons. The 
meaning is belonging to, with, at: nga naihi emu have you a knife with 



GRAMMAR OF SA A AND ULAWA. I49 

(on) you? '0 ta ana atei from whom did you get it? e tono ana wdi 
inihou he drank of this water. This possessive is also used — 

a. as the object of certain verbs to which the pronoun is not suffixed : 
nou hiiwald 'imoli ana I believed him. 

b. when the object is separated from a transitive verb: e ha'araH 
mumuni ana he called him secretly. In cases where a verb has been 
rendered transitive by the addition of a suffix this suffix is omitted when 
the third possessive is used, owing to the object being separated from 
the verb : horo to beat, horo'i transitive, kire ko horo tata'ala aku they 
beat me unmercifully. Certain verbs also employ this possessive as 
the object instead of using the suffixed pronoun. Cf. to'o 2. 

c. to show certain differences of meaning: e ere aku he forbade me, 
e ere naku'e he spoke for my benefit; e dolosieu he asked my name, e 
dolosie aku he asked me about it; also idiomatically ha'ata'inie aku show 
it to me. The adjective 'aho'a, apart from, is followed by this posses- 
sive, 'aho'a aku apart from me. So also is the preposition liuta'a S. 
liutaha U. beyond : e lae liuta'aku he went beyond me. 

d. in the third person plural ani is used of things: mu maholo ani the 
times for them, ne'isae pdinadni think much of them. Cf. ani 2. 

ADJECTIVES. 

1. Words which are qualifying terms may also be used in the form of 
verbs, but some may be used without verbal particles, following the 
qualified word: poro pdine big man, 'elekale haora small child. 

2. Some words have a form which is only used of adjectives, either of 
termination or of prefix. 

a. Adjectival terminations are ( d, Id, la* a, td, ta'a, of which 'a and 
Id are suffixed to nouns as well as to verbs but the others are suffixed to 
verbs only. 

'a: sane white ant sane'd infested with ants. An intensification of 
meaning is given to certain adjectives by doubling the first syllable or 
the first two syllables and by suffixing 'a: manola pure, manomanola'd 
very pure, diena good, didiena'd very good. 

'ala: sasu to smoke, sasuala smoky. 

Id: 'usu a dog/usule possessing dogs, kohi to be beautiful, kohikohild 
beautiful. 

td: ta'ingelu with one accord, ta'ingelute all together. 

la'a: mae to be sick, mamaela'a weakly, sickly. 

ta'a: repa to be curved, rerepata'a curved. 

b. Adjectival prefixes are ma, mwa, mala, taka, lata, toto. 

The prefixes ma and mwa are common in words which may fairly be 
called adjectives; like mala they show condition and are prefixed to 
verbs: t o*i to break, ma'o'i broken, hiohio to bend, mwahiohio swayed by 
the wind, keke side, malakeke on one side. 

'a is prefixed to verbs and forms participles: langu to pluck up, 'aldngu 
detached, hdli to break, 'ahdli broken off. 



I50 GRAMMAR OF Sa'a AND ULAWA. 

taka denotes spontaneity: luhe to loose, takaluhe come adrift. 

tata, toto denote condition : qelu to roll, tataqeluqelu headlong, qini wet, 
totoqini soaked. 

3. Comparison: Degrees of comparison are shown by the use of 
prepositions or adverbs, or by a simple positive statement. The prepo- 
sitions used are mwaani from, which always has the suffixed pronoun, 
and liuta'a S. liutaha U. beyond, in excess, which is followed by the 
third possessive. 

The adverbs employed are kele S., 'ele U., walawala U., wa'ewa'e U., 
hi'ito'o S., ha'ahuu'ei S., ha'ahuu'ani U. 

A positive statement carries comparison by implication: He nihou e 
diena y He niweu e 'aela this is good, that is bad, i. <?., this is better than 
that; inihou e diena this is best. 

VERBS. 

Almost any word may be used as a verb by prefixing the verbal par- 
ticles, but some words are naturally verbs as being the names of actions 
and not things. There are also verbs which have special forms as such 
by means of a prefix or termination. Verbal particles precede the verb, 
they have a temporal force. 

1. The verbal particles are ko, ke, ke'i S.; 'a, 'e, 'ana'i U. The par- 
ticles are written apart from the verb, but the speakers like to join them 
to the governing pronouns of the first and second persons singular, and 
the 'a of 'ana'i is joined in the same way. 

a. The use of ko S. ( a U. marks the time as present, but only in so far 
as the action is not regarded as past or future. The time having been 
shown to be past ko and 'a take up the narrative, and the illative si may 
be added. After ko the vowel a in certain words changes to e as it does 
after a preceding i or u. The illative si may replace ko. 

b. ke expresses a certain amount of futurity in the action, ke'i is used 
of the definite future; 'e conveys the sense of let, as also does ke; 'e and 
ke are also used following a negative, e ka'a ola neke manata'inie I know 
nothing. 

The adverb muni U. to, in order that, is used as a subjunctive or 
optative and is followed by 'e; muni 'e contracts to mun'e, and similar 
contractions occur with the pronouns kira and ka'elu when followed 
byV. 

c. 'ana'i U. denotes the time as more or less future, the illative si 
may be added. 

No particle is used when the time is past, but 'oto and kau follow the 
verb to denote a preterite. For the imperative no particle is employed. 

2. Times and moods: A subjunctive is formed by ana if, when, used 
in Sa'a with ko or ke, in Ulawa with 'a. Kosi by itself also denotes the 
subjunctive. 

Conditional affirmation is expressed by ha'alaa S. tdume'i y mune'i U. 



GRAMMAR OF SA A AND ULAWA. 151 

Mune'i U. and haro S. denote subsequence of action, the particles 'a 
or ko precede them. 

The illative is si and means then, thereupon, in that case, following 
on, for the first time; the verbal particles ko, ke, 'a, 'ana'i may precede it. 

The particle kd'u follows the verb: (a) it denotes a preterite, (b) it 
gives a sense of incompleteness to the action described, (c) it mitigates 
the directness or harshness of a request or of a command. 

3. Negative particles: The foregoing particles are not used in nega- 
tive sentences. The negative particles are ka'a, sa'a S.; qa'ike, qake, 
qa'i, qale, si'e, si U. 

a. Of these ka'a, qa'ike, qake, qa'i, qale may be used either of present 
or past time. 

b. sa'a, si'e are used of future time, and si'e and si are used as strong 
dehortatives. 

c. A negative imperative is used with mzvane lest, and with the dehor- 
tative su'uri don't. In Ulawa the particle 'e may be added after the 
subject. Both su'uri S. and si'e U. are used in negative conditional 
sentences. In Sa'a the particle ke is used preceding su'uri, but it is not 
used before mzvane. 

d. The genitives ni, i, are used to denote purpose. 

4. Suffixes to verbs: There are certain terminations which, when 
suffixed to neuter verbs or to verbs active in only a general way, make 
them definitely transitive, or determine their action upon some object. 
These are of two forms : 

a. A consonant with i: hi, li, mi, ni, ngi, si, or 'i by itself; e. g., 
tonohi, potali, ddumi, raangi, maesi, hoa'i. 

A less common suffix is na: ara, arana; this suffix may possibly be 
the ending of the word diana good or of pdina big, to each of which 
words the suffix is added. 

b. The termination a'i which is suffixed by itself to nouns to convert 
them into verbs, sato satoa'i. The forms in 'i and a'i are also used 
intransitively: pele by mischance, pele'i by mischance, 'olo'oloa'i to 
stagger. When a'i is suffixed to verbs the genitive ni is also added; 
su'u, su'ue'ini; and a'ini forms a transitive suffix. To this form d'ini 
the consonants h, I, m, n, ng, r, t are prefixed; e. g., 'urihe'ini, taheld'ini, 
onoma'ini, loona'ini, hi'inge'ini, sikerd'ini, papatd'ini. 

c. When the object is separated from the verb the suffixes 'i, hi, etc., 
are omitted and the third possessive is used as the object. 

d. When the verb is used intransitively the ni of the compound 
suffix is dropped. 

e. Certain participles are formed from verbs by the addition of the 
compound suffixes, ni being omitted; e. g., oroma'i, rdpute'i, luheta'i, 
moute'i. The compound suffix without ni is used intransitively, ta'e, 
ta'ela'i. 

Some verbs take both forms of the suffix: rdpu, rdpusi, rapute'ini; 
'ala, 'alami, 'alamd'ini; siki, sikihi, sikihe'ini. 



152 GRAMMAR OF SA A AND ULAWA. 

/. The syllabic suffix ha'ini is used with certain verbs as meaning 
with : olo to swim, oloha'ini to swim with a thing. 

5. Prefixes to verbs: These are causative and reciprocal. 

The causative is ha a; it may be prefixed to almost any word, and it 
may be used with verbs which have a transitive suffix. 

The reciprocal is ha'i. This sometimes denotes repetition or contin- 
uance of an action. With the addition of the adverb lo'u again, ha'i 
denotes a change or an addition. In ha'i' amasi to have compassionate 
feelings ha'i is comparable to Florida vei in veiarovi to take pity on. 

6. Passive: The passive is expressed by the use of the third personal 
pronoun plural kire S. kira U. as subject with the verb and the adverb 
'oto already; kire, kira, are also used impersonally. 

The gerundive is used with the verb lae, to go, in expression of the 
passive: saunilana e lae 'oto his being killed. This usage is more com- 
mon in Sa'a. The force of the gerundive is either active or passive. 

7. Reflexive verbs: The word maraa- with suffixed pronouns denotes 
reflexive action: e sdunie maraana he killed himself. 

8. Reduplication: Verbs are reduplicated in three ways. There is no 
difference among the various forms beyond an intensification. In the dic- 
tionary the reduplicated form is presented under the entry of the stem. 

a. By repetition of the first syllable or of the first two syllables: 
suluy susulu; qanio, qdniqenio. 

b. By repetition of the whole word: dsu, dsuesu. 

c. By repetition of the whole word with the omission in the former 
member of the inner consonant : domu, do'udomu. This is found only 
in Sa'a. In Ulawa there is also a repetition of the first syllable with 
the addition of euphonic i: sdsu, sdisesu. 

ADVERBS. 

There are pure adverbs in Sa'a and Ulawa, but many words used as 
adverbs are truly nouns and others are verbs, adjectives also may be 
used in this employment. 

The locative i is used with adverbs of place and time and it precedes 
every place name. The demonstrative nd S. ni U. is suffixed. 

Place where is regarded as place whence, after the habit of the usual 
Melanesian idiom; 'urei standing at, has the force of from. 

PREPOSITIONS. 
1. Simple prepositions: 

Locative, 1. Instrumental, ana, ani, eni S. 

Causation, haahi. Relation, ana, ani, eni S., pe'i S., max U., hike, sie-, saa- S. 

Motion to, tako'i S., tale U., isxdi, 'ohi. Genitive, ni, i. 

Motion from, mwaani. Position, parasi, U., sisinge S., hora U., honosi, ahu'i. 

Dative, huni S., muni U. 

The locative i is seen compounded in itei, ihei where. 
With the exception of the locative, the instrumental, and the geni- 
tive all the foregoing prepositions are used with a suffixed pronoun. 



GRAMMAR OF SA*A AND ULAWA. 1 53 

Of the two instrumental prepositions ana is the ordinary one, denot- 
ing with. When the noun denoting the instrument is not preceded by 
an article, or when the noun is used in a general sense, dni is used in the 
place of ana: lae dni 1 ola to go by canoe, dni eu with music, ana nga 
taa why, dni taa with what things. Ana also denotes at, in, place 
where, from among; dni is also used as neuter plural, from among, da 
nga muini eni take some of them. Ana denotes the actual instru- 
ment, dni denotes the method of action: sdunie dni noma kill him 
spear-wise. In Sa'a dni is used in the composition of nouns, supi 
eni heu a stone club. 

From meaning at saa- y sie— comes to have the meaning of motion to. 
Cf. 'tire. 

2. Compound: These are mostly nouns used with the locative; the 
pronoun is suffixed as the actual object, or as anticipatory object when 
a noun follows: i haho above; 1 haha S., i oroha- U., below; i lengi 
on top, above; t keke U., by the side of, beside; i la'o-, i lalo within. 

Some are constructed from verbal nouns to which the suffixed pro- 
noun is always added: 'oliteku in my place, in place of me; honotana 
on his behalf. 

Certain verbs are used as prepositions: loosi to await, kara'ini near 
to, ha'atauli far from. 

CONJUNCTIONS. 

Copulative, na. Disjunctive, tea. 

Adversative ta'e, ta'e pe'ini S., ta'a, Conditional, ana. 

na ta'a U. Illative, si. 
Connective, 'oto. 

A mark of quotation is uri. Neither .... nor is expressed by a 
negative followed by wa. The reason for an objection is introduced 
by wa uri. Until is hula ana or lai hula ana. Saro shows consecu- 
tiveness of action. 

NUMERALSr 

The numerical system is decimal, all numbers above the tens are 
expressed in tens. 

The cardinals are: 

1. 'eta, ta'ata'a S., ta'e U. 5. 'e lime S., V lima U. 9. 'e sitae S., V siwa U. 

2. V rue, 'e rua U. 6. 'e ono. IO. V tangahulu, awala. 

3. 'e 'olu. 7. 'e hiu. 

4. 'e hai. 8. V tvalu. 

In numbers other than 'eta one the V is omitted in quick counting; 
V is also omitted as a general rule with ro. 

In composition one is ta l ata ( a y two is ro. 

The prefix to'o forms distributives, to'ota'e ola one thing at a time. 

Walu eight is used also as an indefinite number, as also awala the 
tally of ten. Tangahulu is the tenth of a series. 



154 GRAMMAR OF SA A AND ULAWA. 

To express units above ten mwana S., mana U., is employed: four- 
teen awala mwana hai. An incomplete tally is expressed by da'adala. 

Special words are used as nouns for tens of different things: a'ulu 10 
coconuts, dideri 10 parrot-fish, hike 10 garfish, walo pasa 10 flying-fish, 
walo 10 native moneys. 

Tangalau is ioo. The sum above the hundred is expressed by 
mwana S., mana U.; tangalau e hai awala mwana hai 144. A word pe'i 
S., mai U., with, in addition to, may be used following tangalau. 
Occasionally the tens over one hundred are expressed simply as units: 
tangalau mwana 'eta may mean one hundred and ten. 

Special words are used for hundreds of various things: nao 100 
yams, alo 100 taro, i'e ico porpoise teeth, suit hata 40 dogs' teeth, 
totola 400 dogs' teeth. 

Sinola is 1,000; this is used correctly of yams; qela 1,000 coconuts. 

Mola signifies a countless number when used of men, molai uhi 
10,000 yams, molai hui 10,000 taro, raui helu S., 'apai niu U., 10,000 
coconuts. 

2. Ordinals: The cardinals with a substantival termination nd form 
ordinals. 

First, 'etana. Fourth, haine S., haina U. Seventh, hiune S., hiuna U. 

Second, ruana. Fifth, litnana. Eighth, walune S., waluna U. 

Third, 'olune S., 'oluna U. Sixth, onona. Ninth, sitvana. 

Ordinals precede the noun: ruana nga mwane the second man. 

Ordinals are used to express the number of times: ruana kira 'asi 
soea they asked him a second time. 

Tenth is expressed by tangahulu ana; the twelfth day awalai he'idinge 
mwana ruana; one hundred and twenty-first tangalau *e ro awala mwana 
'etana. 

'Enite how many is used with the substantival termination na: 
'enitana what number, howmanyeth. 

3. Multiplicatives are formed with the causative ha' a: ha'arue 
twice, ha'atangalau a hundred times; hduta'a'i S., hauta'e U., once. 

The word ta'e is used as a kind of descriptive prefix with the cardinals 
ta'e, 'oluy hai, and with * enite, when the holding capacity of a canoe is 
in question. 



THE LORD'S PRAYER. 



In Twenty Languages, as used in the Diocese of Melanesia among the 

Islands of the South Pacific. 



ENGLISH. 

OUR Father, which art in heaven, Hallowed bo 
thy Name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be 
"done in earth, As it is in heaven. Give ns this day 
our daily bread. And fOYgive ns onr trespasses, As 
we forgive them that trespass against us. And lead 
us not into temptation ; But deliver us from evil : 
For thine is the kingdom, the power, and the 
glory, For ever and ever. Amen. 

RAQA, New Hebrides. 

TATA amare, ihama na sabuga. Nom ute na 
mai. Nora doron na dum ataa kun amare. 
Lai garig lalai kamai ginaganiana vi dadariha liuri 
garigi. Goi binihi kaburai vnromai, kun kamai 
gam binihi kaburai vnrora. Govav fin te kamai lol 
kalkaliana ; gov lai kamai nin qatigoro. Huri nom 
ate, i rorono, i sarisaii vi togo vai tuai. Amen. 



LAKONA, Banks Island 

EM AM maken, llahax ni row. Mou vitiga ni 
van ma. Mot mares ni wesis vaan- mere . 
maken. Le ma qirig rami game en sinag ga tu eho 
qirig. Ke tretremwute pogeme, mere game ga 
tretremwute en poge. Sao ukukrag game le gal- 
galve ; Ke la game tren en gasgasa. En moit eu 
vitiga, sa eu man, sa en hewhew, ti ti tie. Amen. 

TORRES ISLANDS. 

MA raina, Nc Io ni ruar. Nc gamili ni ven me. 
Ne dotme ni mena na daw>i na raina. 01a 
me dome hi kemam ne hinega ta liine dome. Ke 
duamvit'i ne heme kemem dawn kemcm v«n duam- 
vitu ne hemehe. Tate vaiivaiiaKe kemem li dagare 
kemem ; *WoIa kemam du nc liiwhiw. Ne gamili, 
ni mena meke, mi nc heri ni toga ni toga. Amen. 



opa, New Hebrides. 

MAMA enlu, Nahemu vi gogona. Nomn ute 
vi himei. Noma tarani vin lei lolovavagi 
mere enlu. Lai himei gaqarigi a hi'naga vi eno 
huri gaqarigi. Gon ladovohogi nabugumei, mere 
gamai gam ladovohogi nabugure. Go mese siregi 
gamai lolo galegaleasi ; gon lai gamai dena gineu esi. 
Nomn a ute ko nomu a muremnre ko nomu a vara- 
vara, vi eno vi eno. Amen. 



8ANTA CRUZ. 

MELEMUG'E mako wnu, Nep ka Tc. Maboielcn 
ua om Ma tnti detuem nawida maka iu na 
apule wuu. Tuam abunaga ba</c dakanano na 
taplete ma abunaga. Ava aipteo alueje apule nije 
aipteo alued<\ Baku velc bame ni</e mana vaika ; 
Amilua n'vje mana vaioajal. Maboiuelen, ie malft, 
if nile, ti io ti io. Amen, 



MAEWO, New Hebrides. 

TATA a wonana, Nasaaana na roworono. Nona 
tunuqe na sumai. Nona tarani na lai le veina 
merea wonana. Lai sumai qariki min kami na sinnga 
n tarisa be qariki. Go tigi gins bugumi, mere kami 
mo tigi gina bugura. Go kare tektekerag kami tea 
ale galeana ; Go lair kami dani na anseseta. Anoxa 
a tunuqe, ti a aori, ti a sinara, na toga na toga. 
Amen. 



VANIKOLO. 

AHA nan. Nei/eno e tapu. Temio mare jaima. 
Iemie warneno ipiaine ino lent*. ne«e wan. 
Kuma neii damoida iemio toro nane pe damoida. 
Ayo kulamena </ami(u, tekamanli imetore newo 
./amitn nupe pianoa tekamaoli iedietore. Igai 
kureknre r/amitu aka boj/ila ; a</o kula (/amitu mena 
mamane fisale. Iemie mare, ya auka, j/a iremare 
ilu ilu. Amen. 



mota, Banks Island 

MAMA avunana, Nasasam% ni rono. Nora o 
marana ni mule ma. Nom o maros ni lai 
alalanana tama avunana. Le ma qarig mun kamam 
o Binaga. we tira ape qarig. Ka nomvitag napuga- 
mam; tama ikamam we nomvitag napugara. Nipea 
ukeukeg kamam ilo galeva ; Ka lav kamam nan o 
ganganor. Anoma o marana, wa o mana, wa o leuas 
ti toga ti toga. Amen. 



RUMATARI, 8. Cristoval. 

MAMA hahaha, Naatamu ni apnna. Narahana 
mu ni rao mai. Naheoqaniamu ni matakn 
mai iano raa/ia haha tauwa mai rikini tana garni na 
moro ni »au ni arari rikini. Kato kasia uagiuorai, 
mana i garni me kato kasia naginota. Kasiana 
watea garni ohoni gami ; go teua gami tenia na 
oraoraga. Pasimu narahaamu, mana menaamu, 
mana togatogaamn tare tare. Amen. 



WA/VO, 8. Cristoval. 

AM A vmami noai aro, Naatamu na maaea. Na- 
houramu ai boi. Naheiirisiamn ai wadan noai 
ano i bahai ona noai aro ; Hamai deini tanaami ta 
hereho inaa ai orana i deini ; Oi adomai nugasia ni 
tnomami, ona iami mi adomai nugasia ni inoda; Oi 
abui wateami ini ohoniami; Oi waiami bania i 
oraoraa. Na houramu, mana menaamu, mana rara- 
hamu, ai taro ores orea. Amen, 



F1U, Mala. 

MA A kami ilani, na sat am u e aabu. Na taloa 
oe leka mai. Kami sasii ru ko o^ai, iano 
diia kira sasii ilani. O qatia mai taena fuamia fa»a 
ki bolo fairiia taena. O lu</e uiania sasii taa.ua. kami 
ki, diia kami luye uiania sasii taawa kira ki. Alua 
dana ani kami saena oiia. xalia olitai kami fasia 
ru taa. Amen. 



155 



156 



THE LORD S PRAYER. 



FAGANI, S. Cristowal. 

MAMA ami afaafa ; I^a atama ni apnna. Ara- 
fana ama ai rago mai. Faigirisii amu ai 
mataka nogai siora niai-a afaafa. Tana mai itaini 
tanagami na marego niuau ai gorana itaini. Oo 
katomagi kasia na ginomi.-mara igaini mi katomagi 
kasia na ginota. Apnna go wategami agi of on igami ; 
Go tau garni bania na oraoraga. Faginigo arafana 
mana mena, maiia rarafamu, tewasia tewasia. 
Anion. 

ULAVVA. 

AMAMAMI ileni, na Satamu moni maea. Aa 
Alahana ioe muni lae mai. Na. haihunilamn 
mnui madan oto, mai i orohana mala oto ileni. O 
ta mai si iri maniami mai nanlaa ea haidadana ana 
eiirini. O sae asia na mai roroatta iami, mala iami 
a sae asia na mai rdroana alaile ami haaroroaira ani. 
sunri totoliasiami ilaona malahonana ; tola ami 
maania na laa ni orahaa. Ana o tooana na alahana, 
na na nanamana, na na manikulua/ia, na esie mano 
oto oo. Amen. 

8AA, Mala. 

AMAMAMI ileni, Satamu ke tnaai. Alahana 
ioe ke lae mat. Mn ola sa'emu eiu denleni ke 
madan oto, iano ilehu mala oto ileni. Da mai siiri 
hnniemi ma iteula ke adona siiri. Oke sae asie mai 
roroana iemi mala emi ko sai asie ma roroana hunie 
mala emi haaroroaire ani. Afaanie o toliasiemi laona 
malahonana ; Toleiemi maania orahaala. Ana o 
tooana alahana na nanamana na raraa, oto di oto di. 
Amen, 



LAU, Mala. 

MAA igami ilai.i. na Satamu ka aba. Na ala- 
falaa- oe ka lea mai. Na doo ragema ani 
adealana ka malnda na, iano ise ilinia Hani. Falea 
mai taraina f nagami na fanala e bobola fai taraina. 
manata asia na nalilana gami ilini garni mi manata 
asia na nalilnna gera. Fasia lugasi gami laona 
ilitoola ; lafaa gaini fasia f ualanaa. Ana do oe 
na alafalaa, ma na mamana, me na rara, ka too ka 
tau. Amen. 



vatura/va, Qaudaleanai*. 

MAMA ihota, ke ba taba Nasoamu. Ke mai 
natotumn. Kc mana na zajahamu i vavana 
ekoaza ihotu. Ko tnsa vanihami mai ke neni. Ko 
molotahani na kibomami e koaza ihami ami molcta- 
hani na kibodira. Ko jika na mololuani hami tana 
na gugure. Kp taho tahani hami tani na tanotobo. 
Animn na tototu, ma na mana, ma na totora ke ba 
baa, Amen, 



LOGU, Guadalcanal'. 

MAMA i Lani, eabn na thatama. Ge laja mai 
na ilo amn. Ge tanonama na uaoamu i vaa 
elivana i lani. Vuwatea mai i none na vana ge tha- 
danana i nene. Go nai vatau na molai palumami 
elivana i amiami nai vataa na molai paluda. Goge 
ln?ataini ami tana tovotovo, go ade ami vatan tana 
kiboa. Namoa na vule'mana nanama, mana lada, 
ge lae me lae. Amen. 

FLORIDA. 

MAMA i kokou, ke tabu na ahamn. Ke tona 
mai nimaa na kinakabn. Ke tanomana na 
lioma i pari te vajja i Jcokou. He gami mai taeni 
na va/ta te manana i taeni. Mo ko talukchai na lei 
pain mam i ke vaga igami kai talukebai na lei palu- 
dira. Ko bei labatigami ta na tabotabo, mo ko lavi 
gami ta na tanotanedika. Nimua na haba, ma na 
mana, ma na lada, ke vaa me vaa. Amen. 

BUOOTU. 

MAM A, Ko mono i popo ; Keda taba na Ahamn ; 
Keda mai na hngntamo ; Keda legna na 
hehemn i thepa ke vagagna i popo ; Hegami mai 
legnraagavu na vana ke nftbamami ikea^aicni ; Ko 
talotavoga na palnhamanii ke vagagna igami kiti 
talntavoga na paluhadia ; Ko sagoi labatigami kcri 
piapilan, mo Ko hatt aa gami kori koakoa ; cigna 
na nimua na hogdta, ma na thaba, ma na Hi lada, ke 
hau me hau. Amen. 



Melahesian Mission Press, Norfolk Island. VH5. 



LINGUISTICS IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC. 

The native peoples of the western Pacific (excluding the Australian 
aboriginals) are classified ethnologically in four divisions : Polynesian, 
Micronesian, Melanesian, Papuan. The languages of the first two 
divisions may be regarded practically as one and may be called, roughly, 
Polynesian. In Melanesia there are certain communities who do not 
speak Melanesian and whose language is reported to be allied closely 
to the language of Tonga, and who in consequence belong to the Poly- 
nesian division of speech. With the exception of these communities, 
all the other peoples in Melanesia use one type of spech. In Papua, 
at any rate on the south and north coasts, two completely different 
types of language exist — the one closely allied to Melanesian, the other 
separate and distinct and but slightly akin, if at all, to the languages 
even of the peoples in the neighboring islands of Torres Straits. 
This latter type Mr. S. H. Ray has named Papuan. 

In Polynesia proper there is but one type of language, and the 
Polynesian peoples inhabit the following group of islands: Hawaii, 
Marquesas, Tahiti, Paumotu, Mangareva, Niue, Samoa, Rarotonga, 
Tonga, New Zealand (Maori), Futuna and Uvea (Horn and Wallis 
Island), Tokelau (Ellice Group). In Melanesia, Polynesian-speaking 
peoples are found at Mele and Fila in Sandwich Island and on Fotuna 
and Aniwa in the southern New Hebrides; on Uea in the Loyalties; 
on Tikopia and Anuda; on Matema, Pileni, and Nukapu in the Reef 
Islands off Santa Cruz; on Rennell and Bellona south of San Cristoval; 
on Sikaiana north of Ulawa; on the coral atoll Ongtong Java north of 
Ysabel, and on Nukuoro in the Carolines. 

Mr. Ray reckons the number of separate forms of Polynesian speech 
as 19 or 20. With the Polynesians each group or each separate island 
has practically only one language, and the languages of all the Poly- 
nesian peoples (with the exception of those in Melanesia) have been 
reduced to writing and grammars and dictionaries of them have 
been published. The Presbyterian missionaries in the New Hebrides 
have made certain studies of the four Polynesian languages in their 
sphere, but no linguistic work has been done on the other Polynesian 
languages in Melanesia and there is no way of knowing what peculiar 
characteristics they present, if any. 

It would be of considerable interest linguistically to know whether, 
in the case of the languages of Matema, Pileni, and Nukapu, the influ- 
ence of the neighboring Melanesian peoples has in any way altered the 
characteristic Polynesian features of speech, and whether there is any 
sign of a mingling of Melanesian peculiarities of speech with the radical 
characteristics of the Polynesian stock — any cross, so to speak, such 
as was effected in English by the introduction, e. g., of the romance 
prefixes and suffixes. 

157 



158 LINGUISTICS IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC. 

However, since the Melanesian language in the neighboring island of 
Nifilole shows no sign of Polynesian influence at work, and since the 
tendency always is for the later and the more decayed types of speech 
to affect adversely the older and more complicated types, it can hardly 
be expected that the Polynesian languages in Melanesia shall have 
been affected by the Polynesian. 

Certain Papuan languages in New Guinea show very distinct signs 
of such a cross. Thus, Mr. Ray writes of Maisin (Cambridge Expedi- 
tion to Torres Straits, vol. 111) that it appears to be a Papuan language 
which has adopted an abnormal number of Melanesian words. "It 
has also adopted some Melanesian particles, the verbal auxiliaries 
entirely, and the use of possessives with post-positions; but in other 
respects its grammar is Papuan." The language of Mailu on the south 
coast is in the same mixed condition as regards its vocabulary. Maisin 
may represent a survival of a former Papuan population in Eastern 
Papua. 

Micronesia has six groups of islands, Carolines, Ebon-Marshall, 
Gilberts, Nauru, Palau, Tobi, and with the single exception of the 
Carolines each group has only one language. Mr. Ray states that in 
the Carolines there are at least five distinct languages, Ponape, Kusaie, 
Mortlock and Ruk, Yap, and Uluthi. In certain parts of Micronesia 
a jargon called Chamorro is spoken, presumably a mixture of Spanish 
and Micronesian. 

While reckoning the approximate number of Polynesian languages 
as 19 and of Micronesian as 15, Mr. Ray says that Melanesia has 180 
and New Guinea (Papua) certainly 150, with many others still un- 
named. He states also that in many of the Papuan or non-Melane- 
sian languages of New Guinea "the extraordinary difficulty of the 
grammar and the limited area in which the language is spoken make it 
extremely impossible that any one will ever take the trouble to learn 
one." As an example of a difficult language Mr. Ray quotes the 
Kiwai of the Fly River, the grammar of which he says is "awful," 
thus, e. g. y supposing that three people share a coconut between them 
and one of them says "we three are eating a coconut," nimo-ibi nao oi 
n-oruso-ibi-duru-mo; the literal translation of this is "we three one 
coconut we-eat-three-now-we." If a man eats three coconuts he says 
mo netowa naobi oi potoro n-iriso-ibi, i. e., "I two one coconut three I- 
eat-three." 

As to the New Guinea languages, it is enough for our present pur- 
pose to state that they seem to be of two types, viz. Melanesian and 
Papuan, i. <?., non-Melanesian. The Anglican Mission in New Guinea 
has to deal with both types of these languages. The language used at 
Wedau, the headquarters of the Mission, is of the usual Melanesian 
type, and Mr. Copland King, the original investigator of Wedauan, 
has also published a translation of the Gospel according to St. Luke in 



LINGUISTICS IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC. 1 59 

Binandere, an extremely difficult non-Melanesian language spoken on 
the Mamba River. Mr. King has stated recently that on the coast of 
German New Guinea both Melanesian and non-Melanesian languages 
occur. Both types also occur in the sphere of the London Missionary 
Society. 

Melanesian languages are spoken in Fiji, Rotuma, the Loyalties, New 
Caledonia, New Hebrides, Banks, Torres, Santa Cruz, Swallow Group, 
Solomons, New Britain and New Ireland, Admiralties, in the islands 
lying off New Guinea to the eastward, and in New Guinea itself. With 
the single exception of Savo in the Solomons, all of the Melanesian 
languages are practically of the same type and the grammars of all of 
them may be made up on the same framework. Santa Cruz contains 
the greatest number of exceptions to the regular type and is confessedly 
the most difficult of the Melanesian languages. Savo is regarded by 
Dr. Codrington as Melanesian, but of a more archaic type than the rest, 
as is shown by the absence of prepositions in it and by its failure to 
distinguish between parts of speech and also by its use of demonstra- 
tives as both pronouns and adverbs. 

PROMINENT LINGUISTIC PECULIARITIES. 

It will be of use to summarize here the most prominent linguistic 
peculiarities common both to Melanesian and Polynesian languages 
and to add further some special marks whereby the differences between 
these two types of the Oceanic languages may be readily recognized. 

1. POSSESSIVES. 

Possession is shown in the Melanesian languages by suffixing pro- 
nominal forms in ku, mu, na, to the noun: Mota qatuk, my head; Sa'a 
nimemu, thy hand; Florida tinana, his mother; and also to radicals no 
(na), mo, thus forming an expression answering to my, thy, his, in 
English, while another pair of radicals ga, ma, with the pronouns 
suffixed, represent, respectively, a thing belonging more closely to a 
person, and a thing for a person to drink. 

In Melanesia these pronominal forms are suffixed only to nouns of 
a certain class; those, namely, which signify parts of the body and 
degrees of relationship or a man's belongings. In Malay these pro- 
nouns are suffixed to nouns without any distinction of class, while in 
Maori they appear added to the vowels o and a or to these vowels sup- 
plemented by n or m: no, na, mo, ma, and are used preceding the noun. 
In Maori the differences in meaning of these possessives are shown by 
the changes between a and o, a signifying that the thing referred to is 
regarded as acted upon by the person with whom it is in relation, o that 
the action is from the thing on the person. "What the Polynesians do 
by the changes of a and o the Melanesians do by the use of four dis- 
tinct words, and in these it is the consonant and not the vowel which 



l6o LINGUISTICS IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC. 

gives the particular difference in signification. But both Polynesian 
and Melanesian have a stem, a noun, to which identical pronouns are 
suffixed to give a possessive sense." (Mel. Lang., p. 133.) 

2. PRONOUNS. 

Ail the Oceanic languages have inclusive and exclusive forms in the 
first person plural of the personal pronoun; in one case the person or 
persons addressed are included with the speaker, in the other they are 
excluded. Polynesian languages have no trinal number as apart from 
the plural; indeed, the Polynesian plural is practically composed of a 
plural to which the numeral tolu, three, has been added, and the so- 
called trinals in Melanesia have the same explanation. All Polynesian 
and Melanesian languages use a dual. 

3. VERBS. 

Verbal particles are used in all the families of Oceanic language. It 
is by means of these particles (which precede the verb) that a word 
expresses itself as a verb and also that the verb exercises its power of 
expressing tense and mood. Madagascar, Polynesia, and Melanesia 
all show the presence of these verbal particles in their languages. 

(a) In Melanesia the pronoun when used as object is suffixed to the 
verb, certain shortened forms of the pronoun being used; and in some 
languages in the Solomons the regular object is preceded by an antici- 
patory object consisting of this suffixed pronoun in the third person. 
Thus in Sa'a, I paddle a canoe, noko hotela 'inie ' iola, i. e. y I paddle it 
canoe. With this may be compared the "pidgin" English use "How 
many boy you catch 'im?" — where *im seems reminiscent of the native 
idiom. 

(b) The Melanesian languages freely add consonantal and syllabic 
suffixes to verbs in order to make them transitive or to give them a 
more definitely transitive force. These verbal suffixes can be found 
present in all the Oceanic languages with the possible exception of 
Malagasy. Their use is seen in fullest force in Melanesia. Many 
words in the Polynesian and Micronesian dictionaries show their 
presence, but Samoan is the only Polynesian language which uses them 
with anything like the fullness and freedom that obtains in Melanesia. 

(c) In all the Oceanic families of language a causative is used when 
a verb comes to signify the making to do or be. In Melanesia the 
causative prefix is va, pa> fa, either alone or with a second syllable 
ka> ga. In Polynesia the causative is zvhaka, faka> and this is plainly 
the same as the Melanesian forms. Identically the same forms appear 
in Malagasy, but Malay does not possess them. 

(d) Reciprocity of relationship or of action is marked in the Mela- 
nesian languages by a prefix to the verb. This prefix has two forms, 
var, and ha i (vag) or fe (w), and the latter form appears in Samoan, 
but nowhere else in Polynesia. 



LINGUISTICS IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC. l6l 

(e) The adjectival prefixes showing condition ma, ta, are almost 

universal in Melanesia, and the dictionaries show them as appearing 

also in Fiji, in Polynesia, in Malagasy, and in the languages of the 

Malay Archipelago, though the grammars of the various languages 

do not recognize them. 

4. NOUNS. 

In the Oceanic languages generally, Malagasy, Malay, Melanesian, 
Polynesian, there is a common practice of forming nouns by the 
addition of certain suffixes: nga, na, an, ana; ha, la, a; and in Mela- 
nesia nouns are formed also by prefixing i to the verb; Fiji sele to cut, 
isele a knife. Sa'a damn to eat areca nut, idemu a lime spatula. The 
only noun suffix regularly employed in Polynesia is nga, but several 
of the Polynesian languages show examples of verbal nouns formed by 
adding a or fa or la to the verb. Melanesia regularly employs all the 
noun suffixes stated above. 

5. ADJECTIVES. 

Melanesia also makes an extensive use of adjectival suffixes; these 

are added both to nouns and verbs. The forms are ga, g, a, ra, la, 

lata, It, ta, na, ina. Malagasy has forms in na, ana, ina, but Malay 

shows no sign of them, nor does the Maori of Polynesia. Tongan 

and Samoan both show the use of a as an adjectival suffix and odd 

instances occur in Polynesia of the use of na, and Maori has a few 

instances of a thus used. 

6. GENITIVE. 

The Melanesian languages employ a genitive preposition to convey 
the idea of possession when two nouns are in apposition, e. g., Ulawa 
'apa ni menu wing of bird, or else they suffix the pronoun in the third 
person to the first noun: Ulawa ' apa' apana manu its wing bird, i. e., 
bird's wing. 

The common genitive used throughout Melanesia is ni; in certain 
parts of Melanesia ni changes to li and si appears there also as a 
genitive. In Melanesia the juxtaposition of two nouns also conveys 
a genitive force: Sa'a nime hau house (of) stone, and in certain 
languages a genitive relation is conveyed by modification of the final 
vowel when two nouns are in juxtaposition: Mota ima house, ime 
vui house of the spirit. In Lau, Malaita, Solomons, an e is added to 
the first of two such nouns giving a genitive force : tolo hill, toloe fera 
heights of the land. In the Polynesian languages genitive relation is 
expressed by nouns in apposition or by the use of the possessive as 
above (i), and there is no special genitive preposition. 

The Polynesian languages on their side have a large and varied use 
of prepositions and there is much nicety in the use of them; this is 
partly owing to the distinction in the sense of a and o already men- 
tioned, a being used as active and o as passive. 



l62 LINGUISTICS IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC. 

7. PASSIVE FORMS. 

In Melanesia no passives are found, whereas all the Polynesian 
languages have regular passive endings to their verbs. In a pamphlet 
entitled "Certain suffixes in Oceanic languages" the present writer 
has shown that these passive suffixes are composed of adjectival suf- 
fixes (na y ina, a) added to transitive suffixes. 

CERTAIN DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE FORMS OF SPEECH. 

From the following note, supplied by Mr. Ray, it will be seen how 
great is the difference between the Polynesian and the Melanesian 
forms of speech and the Papuan or non-Melanesian of New Guinea. 
In the Papuan languages : Nouns and pronouns are defined by means 
of suffixed particles, e. g., "my hand" is not "hand my," as in Mela- 
nesia, but "me of hand"; "bird's wing" is not "wing of bird" or "bird 
its wing," as in the Melanesian examples above, but "bird of wing." 

Similarly, nouns have various case suffixes instead of prepositions: 
house-to, house-of, house-at, house-from. 

Adjectives usually precede the noun. 

Tenses of the verb are expressed by means of suffixes, not as in 
Melanesia or Polynesia by a variation in a preceding particle. 

Number and person in the verb are expressed by: (a) a prefix, (b) 
a change in the suffix, or (c) shown only by the pronoun. 

Number and person of the subject or object are indicated sometimes 
by a compound prefix. 

METHOD OF LEARNING A MELANESIAN LANGUAGE. 

To learn Mota is easy enough, since both a dictionary and a grammar 
have been compiled by Dr. Codrington. Ulawa and Sa'a are the only 
other languages in the sphere of the Melanesian Mission which have 
full grammars, and probably they are thus the easiest to learn after 
Mota, since good material exists for study in the shape of translations, 
etc. In learning any of these three languages, which may be regarded 
as typical Melanesian languages, the special points to be studied are: 

PRONOUNS. 

The personal pronouns should be written out and learned by heart; 
the inclusive and exclusive forms should be carefully noted in the first 
person plural. It is quite easy to make a blunder over these forms and 
to say, e. g., inina in Mota for ikamam, and the story is told of a 
certain missionary who on describing his experiences in England to a 
class at Norfolk Island kept on saying inina when he meant either 
ikamam or possibly ikara, i. <?., presumably, his wife and himself. His 
hearers protested sotto voce, inina tagai amaia "we were not with him." 
The suffixed pronouns and their uses must be carefully studied. 



LINGUISTICS IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC. 163 



THE VERB. 



Under this heading come verbal and negative particles, transitive 
suffixes, the native view of time, etc. 

PREPOSITIONS. 

A list of these should be made in Mota according to whether they can 
be followed or not by the demonstrative na before the noun. 

GENERAL DIRECTIONS. 

Many missionaries have to learn new Melanesian tongues and have 
to commit them to writing for the first time. It is always important 
to remember that practically one grammatical framework will serve 
for all the Melanesian languages; the style of the languages is the same 
throughout. 

One system of orthography will avail throughout and special pro- 
vision can be made for rare or exceptional sounds. Generally it will 
be found that the sounds in the Melanesian languages are not very 
different from the sounds in the well-known European languages, and 
in representing them it will be sufficient to take the ordinary sounds 
of the English alphabet and by the additional use of italic letters 
make provision for nasal or guttural variations of well-known sounds. 
Modifications of the vowels can be shown by the use of the diaeresis. 
The points noted above are the main points to be kept in view in the 
endeavor to acquire any new Melanesian language. 

As will be noticed farther on, familiarity with Mota was a decided 
help in linguistic study in Melanesia, but a man would be very apt to 
be led astray if he made Mota a rigid standard. 

Too much stress can not possibly be laid on the value of learning 
lists of words by heart: "Let each object bring some native sound 
ringing in your ears, so that the sound brings the object before your 
eyes. Do not be content to speak as a European. The real and most 
stringent test of the knowledge of a language is whether you can under- 
stand the natives speaking among themselves. To know thoroughly 
by book is a different thing from knowing by ear. I believe we must 
learn like children, through the ear, not by books much." (Pilking- 
ton, of Uganda.) 

TRANSLATION OF SCRIPTURE. 

The use of Melanesian languages by a missionary is confessedly only 
the preliminary to his using them as a vehicle for conveying the divine 
message of salvation. To the mind of the missionary the end and 
object of a native language, the very reason for its existence, is that it 
should be used for the worship of God and for the dissemination of 
religious ideas among the people who use it, and to the mind of the 
churchman a language has attained to the height of its glory when it 



164 LINGUISTICS IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC. 

has been used as a medium for the performance of the highest act of 
worship, the celebration of the holy mysteries. 

It may be predicated of all Melanesian languages that they are in 
themselves fit and proper instruments for use in God's work. The 
researches of scholars go to show that all languages are marvels of 
perfection, and the so-called jargons of savages are in their degree as 
perfect a creation as the language of the most highly civilized people. 
To question whether the Gospels can be translated, e. g., into one of the 
languages of Malaita because of the alleged absence from it of certain 
words and ideas which are the equivalent of or which correspond to 
certain words and ideas in the original Greek is, among other things, to 
forget the history of our own language. One has only to look at 
Coverdale's Bible, to say nothing of the Douai Bible, to see the immense 
number of foreign words expressive of religious ideas that have been 
imported bodily into English from the classical languages. In some 
cases it may be that the idea required did not exist in English; in other 
cases, though the idea and word might be present, yet the foreign word 
prevailed, e. g., conscience, where the English equivalent inwit survived 
until quite recently. Are we, then, to belittle the English language 
because either it lacked certain ideas or because it preferred to import 
bodily foreign words expressive of certain religious terms instead of 
using its own words or of making up words on existing lines? 

It can not be doubted that the actual foundation exists in every 
language whereon can be laid the superstructure of words necessary 
to convey the message of the Gospel. Nor can any existing language, 
Latin or English, be considered as the sacred language. The Blessed 
Saviour himself spoke in Aramaic, and yet the knowledge of His words 
and acts and the story of the carrying out of man's salvation, both by 
His words and also by His life, have come to the world not through 
Aramaic, but through another language, Greek. To-day the Roman 
Catholic Church looks upon Latin as the sacred language, and the 
English Church for its part is apt to regard English as the one and only 
language, whereas the message of Pentecost is that no one language is 
above another in this respect, and that every man has a right to look 
on his own language as God-inspired and as existing for the purpose of 
conveying to him and his the divine message of salvation. 

To doubt that the languages of so-called savages contain sufficient 
words and ideas to use in promulgating the Christian religion is surely 
tantamount to denying that man was made originally in the image of 
God and was intended to seek God if haply he might feel after Him and 
find Him. 

Wherever translations of the Bible, etc., have been made in Mela- 
nesia it has always been found that it was possible to provide from the 
native tongue words and terms corresponding to the root ideas of the 



LINGUISTICS IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC. 165 

original; thus, in the Solomons it is easy to render salvation, i. e. t 
health, Sa'a mauri to be alive, mauringe health, maurihe life; truth, 
Sa'a wala'imolinge; faith, Sa'a hii-walaimolinge, i. <?., feeling to be true; 
atonement, Sa'a haaureruru y i. e., cause to have friendly relations 
with. Similarly, renderings are available for such words as spirit, 
way, light, and for repent, redemption, i. <?., purchase, grace, i. <?., gift, 
though this latter rendering is confessedly imperfect. The idea of 
love is difficult to render into Melanesian; the word used in Mota, 
tapeva, denotes propitiation and gift as well as love; the Sa'a word used 
means kindly-natured; the root of the Polynesian aroha, which is 
rendered as love, is aro, which appears in Florida, Solomon Islands, as 
arovi to pity, and in the Mota ma-garo-sa compassionate. The Maori 
of New Zealand uses the quasi-English ripeneta for repent, but no 
doubt a native equivalent could have been found corresponding to 
the radical notion of change of mind. In Mota and in many Mela- 
nesian languages the word used as a translation of pray is tataro y which 
really implies the invocation of a dead person and which was used 
as a preliminary utterance before the real words of invocation. In 
the Solomons tataro appears in San Cristoval and in Sa'a *ataro or 
'akalo a ghost, and in Polynesia Hawaiian kalokalo prayer; Samoan 
tatahy prayer. 

Some difficulty was experienced in Sa'a and Ulawa in finding a word 
to express pray. At first rihunga'i y a San Cristoval imported word, was 
used; then a word was found, are to invoke a spirit, arenga'i he'u to 
perform an ordeal with hot stones, calling on the name of certain 
ghosts or spirits, but no verbal noun formed from this arenga or 
arengainga met with approval. Eventually recourse was had to a 
verbal noun qao olanga formed from qao ola to worship, hold communi- 
cation with the ghosts, as an equivalent for prayer. In Sa'a there is 
also a word, pah which means to act officially, to worship, and its verbal 
noun palonga is either an act or worship. The word used so largely in 
Polynesia as an equivalent both for prayer and also worship, lotu> has 
been imported into southern Melanesia and also into New Guinea by 
the missionaries. Dr. Codrington considers that the Sa'a word /o'w, to 
contract ceremonial defilement, is the same as this word lotu. The 
word lotu is said to mean bowing down as in prayer, and Dr. Codring- 
ton makes the Sa'a lo'u mean to fall from a ceremonial standard, be 
brought low. (Mel. Anthrop., p. 233.) Maori uses the quasi-English 
kororia for glory, where Mota has lengas bright radiance, and Sa'a has 
manikulit anga fame, prestige, and a similar word might have been 
found in Maori. 

The translation used in Sa'a for sin is oraha'a, the root idea of which 
is "excess," acting contrary to the accepted standard of morality of the 
place. The word conscience is extremely difficult to render into Mel- 



l66 LINGUISTICS IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC. 

anesian, and in Sa'a it was done by a periphrasis, the knowledge one 
has in oneself. But possibly the most difficult thing to translate into 
Melanesian is the Lord's Prayer. The very first phrase, "Our Father, " 
presents considerable difficulty, and in the Mota rendering the word 
"our" has been omitted altogether, and the word Mama (vocative) is 
used by itself. Dr. Codrington defended Mama as the correct voca- 
tive for both numbers, but nevertheless tamamam our father, father of 
us, does actually occur elsewhere (Isaiah 63, 16) as a vocative. The 
Melanesian is not accustomed to addressing or even to thinking of any 
person as father in a corporate relation to a number of people (beyond 
the more immediate family relationships) ; to his mind fatherhood is a 
personal and individual thing; nor again is he accustomed to think of 
the spiritual beings whom he worships as the fathers and protectors of 
their worshippers. Even in English the phrase "Our Father" occurs 
rarely as a vocative except in the biblical use or rarely in a poetic sense. 
Kingdom and will are both difficult words to find renderings for. A 
Melanesian knows nothing of a king, but chiefs occur everywhere 
and in Sa'a a word alahanga was adopted from alaha chief. For will 
the usual rendering is by a word equivalent to heart (breast) or by a 
periphrasis, what the heart is fixed on. A word for debt is common 
enough everywhere. In southern Melanesia there was a regular prac- 
tice of money-lending or usury. Forgive is generally rendered by the 
equivalent for think away, sae *asi in Sa'a, nom vitag in Mota. 

Mr. Copland King has published a pamphlet entitled "Theological 
terms in native languages," which deals with this whole question in the 
sphere of the Pacific. 

In an old catechism in the Mota language, printed by the Mission in 
the very early days, several things of interest occur, and light is thrown 
thereby on the development and evolution of the method of transla- 
tion now in use. The catechism uses two English words for which 
native equivalents have since been found: papataiso for baptism, now 
rendered in Mota vasug rongo holy washing; glori for glory, now ren- 
dered lengas radiance. Evidently no equivalent for kingdom had as yet 
been found; in the Lord's Prayer, in the first instance where the word 
occurs, "Thy kingdom come," the Mota renders it by a periphrasis, 
"Cause men to become Thy people"; in the second by the equivalent 
for "Thine are all things." 

Also, curiously enough, in the Lord's Prayer there is a rendering of 
the opening word Our, taman kamam, i. <?., Father-our, where the later 
books have only Mama Father; the relative pronoun "which" has been 
rendered iniko Thou, whereas the later books in Mota do not attempt 
to translate it, but have simply Mama avunana, O Father in heaven. 
In the Apostles' Creed the word now used as equivalent to believe, 
nomtup, had not come into use at the time of this catechism (nomtup = 
bring thought to a point, cease to have doubt, believe), nom to think 



LINGUISTICS IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC. 167 

being used alone. In the modern Mota books the words " from thence" 
in the Creed have no equivalent, but in this old catechism a perfectly 
correct rendering nan ia is given. 

It is quite clear that in the teaching of religion among the peoples of 
the western Pacific many foreign words and terms must necessarily be 
employed. Thus, in early days Bishop Patteson used in Mota the 
Greek word basileia as an equivalent for kingdom, there being no 
native word available; and just lately Mr. King has used the same 
word in the Binandere (Papuan) Gospel translation. But when intro- 
ducing this word what need is there for a translator to disguise it 
in the form pasideia, as is done in one London Missionary Society 
translation ? 

The Melanesian Mission, when importing classical words and New 
Testament words for which there is no equivalent, has preferred to 
write them in their English rather than their classical form, but the 
London Missionary Society in New Guinea and Torres Straits has used 
imported words in more or less of their classical form: auto, bread; 
karite, barley; satauro, cross; also the Hebrew kohena for priest. As a 
rendering for church, Bishop Patteson used log-lue in Mota, i. <?., called 
out; and similar words obtain throughout the Melanesian Mission. 
The London Missionary Society has used ekalesia for church. 

It is very difficult to render the word god. The Polynesian missions 
have all used the word atua, and this has also been imported by the 
Presbyterians into southern Melanesia among Melanesian peoples. 
This word atua seems to be on a level, possibly, with the Mota vui, as 
meaning a being that never was a man; or it may be that just as 
Fijian kalou, which once was supposed to mean god but now has been 
degraded from its high place — so perhaps, though one says it with 
fear and trembling, atua may in time be shown to be equivalent in a 
measure to the Fijian kalou or to the Mota tamate, and may mean a 
ghost of the dead, the disembodied spirit of a person. The mission- 
aries of the eastern Pacific all spoke of the spiritual beings whom the 
people worshipped as gods, just as in the same way they found idols 
everywhere; but however this may be, it is safe to say that in the 
western Pacific there are neither gods nor idols. Even in Melanesian 
Fiji it was the custom to call the objects of the old worship gods, but 
Dr. Codrington wrote that Mr. Fison was "inclined to think all the 
spiritual beings of Fiji, including the gods, kalou, simply the Mota 
tamate, ghosts." Mr. Hocart has shown the truth of this conjecture 
in a paper in the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, vol. 
xlii, 191 2. The Presbyterians of the New Hebrides also spoke of the 
spirits of the dead t-mat, Mota tamate, worshiped by the natives, as 
gods. 

In the islands of Torres Straits the word god was translated as ad, 
the meaning of which was "something about which a tale was told," 



l68 LINGUISTICS IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC. 

or as augady which meant totem. One translation in New Guinea has 
adopted the word god, but has disguised it as "kot." In Nguna, 
New Hebrides, the word used for god is suqe, which in the Banks 
Islands is the well-known secret society. When the stories about Qat 
in Mota first became known, it was supposed that the peoples of that 
part of the Banks Islands regarded Qat as creator and god. The 
Polynesian atua is given as meaning god in the dictionaries of the 
eastern Pacific, and Hazelwood gives god for kalou in Fijian, and doubt- 
less suqe and t-mat are rendered as god in the dictionaries of the New 
Hebrides. Even if the suqe of the New Hebrides (Codrington, Mel. 
Anthrop., p. 102) has no connection with the suqe club of the Banks 
Group, yet the meaning is at any rate spirit rather than god. The 
Melanesian Mission, following the lead of Bishop Patteson, has used 
everywhere the English word god and has written it in its ordinary 
English spelling. 

In every case where nothing is found akin to the idea required, and 
in consequence an English word is introduced, it seems better to intro- 
duce a foreign word whose meaning is above suspicion; the spelling of 
such word is a matter of lesser moment; but where such varieties of 
pronunciation prevail, and among such widely different languages, it 
seems better to write the word in its original form and then let each 
set of people pronounce it in their own way. 

There is no need to make a concession to the peculiarities of the 
native alphabet in each place, for it will generally be found that the 
peoples can make a sufficiently good attempt at the new sound to 
justify the retention of the old spelling, and God, e. g., to our eyes at 
least, looks better than Kot, and sheep than sipu. Once a concession 
is made to native orthography in such matters, the missionary finds 
himself writing, e. g., in Florida in the Solomons Guilikokusi for Wilcox, 
and Pulaneti for Plant. Santa Cruz is actually the only place in the 
sphere of the Melanesian Mission where the people find a real difficulty 
in pronouncing certain letters foreign to their alphabet. 

The possession of the two forms of the personal pronoun, first person 
plural or dual, the inclusive and the exclusive, enables some finer 
shades of meaning to be set forth with greater clearness than is possible 
in languages which have not those forms. Thus in St. Luke 7, 5, the 
difference between the two words our and us which is understood only in 
English, is clearly expressed in Melanesian, the inclusive form being 
used in the first case, since He to whom they spoke was also a Jew, and 
the exclusive in the second case, since the synagogue had been built 
for themselves, the people of Capernaum. A similar case occurs in 
St. Luke 24, 20, where the word "our" applies to the people of Judea 
only, the two speakers evidently regarding Him to whom they were 
speaking as a stranger. 



LINGUISTICS IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC. 169 

THE QUESTION OF STANDARD LANGUAGES. 

In Melanesia every island has its own distinct speech. These can 
all be shown by the grammarian to be kindred and allied, but for all 
practical purposes they are separate and distinct. A Mota man going 
to Motalava, 8 miles away, unless he had some previous knowledge of 
the language, would find himself unable to understand the speech of 
the people there. Many words, doubtless, would be the same, but the 
intonation is entirely different, the consonants and vowels are strangely 
at variance, and the Motalava words are clipped and chopped about 
almost beyond recognition. With more frequent communication 
bilingualism is getting more common, but it is a curious thing that 
when natives from various islands or places meet communication is 
held by each person or group of persons speaking in his or in their own 
tongue. Thus, a party from Malaita landing on Ulawa will speak Sa' a 
or Lau or Tolo and will be answered in Ulawan, and the general drift 
of the conversation seems to be understood quite readily. In a large 
measure this is doubtless due to that quickness of understanding 
which is characteristic of the Melanesian peoples generally. 

Whereas smaller differences of dialect exist on every island, an 
island of quite moderate size, like Santa Maria, in the Banks Group, 
has two separate languages which vary considerably and which cause 
the two peoples practically to be unintelligible to one another. This 
sort of thing is multiplied several times over in a large island like 
Malaita. The language at the south end of Malaita is the same as 
that spoken at the village of Sa'a; in the Mara Masiki Channel, which 
divides Malaita in two, the language is that known at Sa'a as Tolo, and 
to this belongs the language spoken at Oroha near Sa'a, the sketch 
of which made by Bishop Patteson appears in Von der Gabelentz's 
"Melanesischen Sprachen. " The language round the coast at the 
north end is known as Lau, and a knowledge of Lau will carry one 
from Sinerago, Diamond Harbor, on the northeast coast, to Langa- 
langa, Alite Harbor, on the northwest coast. In the interior, at the 
north end, the people speak a language much like Lau but having 
distinct peculiarities. Along the coast there will be found variations 
of these three main types, such variations amounting almost to sep- 
arate languages. Sa'a shows marked affinities to the Wango and 
Heuru languages in San Cristoval, whereas Lau has many points of 
similarity to the language of Florida, and the inland speech of the 
north end has likenesses to the language of Bugotu. All of the three 
main languages of Malaita have very decided resemblances to one 
another and all are certainly of a common stock, so that Sa'a, e. g. y 
is more like Tolo than it is like Wango or Heuru. 

Up to the present time the missionaries in the Melanesian Mission 
and in the Anglican Mission in New Guinea have been allowed to 
prepare translations of the Bible and prayer book, etc., in whatever 



I70 LINGUISTICS IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC. 

might be the language of their particular part, without any regard as 
to whether the language was or was not the language of a dominant 
people and as such likely to survive. This no doubt is very convenient 
for the people concerned and is also advantageous for the comparative 
philologist, who thus has valuable material provided for his studies, 
but where languages abound and translators are scarce it does not seem 
wise to let men labor at a language unless there is some chance of that 
language surviving or being of use in more than its own limited sphere. 
It can not be doubted that if the native peoples survive the shock of 
civilization certain factors will cause some languages to be used in the 
future more extensively than others; such factors are (i) the use of a 
language by government or by traders, or (2) the dissemination of any 
language by reason of the vigor or the numbers of the people using it. 

If the government of New Guinea were to adopt certain languages 
for use in specified areas, say, Motuan and Wedauan, to the exclusion 
of all others (at present the government officials use a jargon), then, 
although a certain amount of hardship would be imposed on the native 
peoples at the outset, the gain to the missions from having fixed 
languages for their educational work would ultimately more than com- 
pensate for any temporal hardships in that all linguistic work could be 
focussed on given languages and an ample literature could be created, 
and so far as the people themselves were concerned the children in 
one generation would have adapted themselves to the new conditions. 
One calls to mind that in England the standard Bible fixed the language 
just as Luther's Bible set the standard in Germany, and in France the 
language of the King's court became the standard language for the 
literature of the whole country. 

The language of the island of Florida, where the seat of government 
of the Solomons is situated and where there is a vigorous and a Chris- 
tian population, if taken up by the Government might be made to 
serve for all the eastern islands. The spread of such a standard literary 
language would be slow, and pending the establishment of such a literary 
language it is clearly the duty of the missionaries to reduce to writing 
the languages of the various parts and to use them for the purpose of 
teaching, though at the same time languages likely to be serviceable by 
virtue of their more extended use should be carefully selected. Failing 
the appointment of some one language for a group or district, the missions 
should develop various types of language in each island or sphere of 
work; thus for the greater part of San Cristoval the Heuru and Fagani 
languages might be made to serve, while Sa'a, Tolo, and Lau are also 
worthy of surviving on Malaita. 

Up till the year 1917 the Melanesian Mission used Mota as the edu- 
cational language in all its central schools. There was a time when 
owing to the congregating of all the members of the staff at Norfolk 
Island during the summer, and to the exclusive use of Mota in the 
school, all the other languages of the Mission came almost to be 



LINGUISTICS IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC. I7I 

neglected. Mota was in a fair way to being regarded as the sacred 
language of the Mission, and indeed it furnished popularly the standard 
by which all the other languages were supposed to be measured, and the 
fact that these languages were able to show words or usages that 
corresponded to those of Mota was apt to be construed philologically 
much in the same way as if the presence in the other Aryan tongues of 
words similar to Latin were held as proving that Latin was the root 
language of them all and not itself a branch language. 

When native teachers speaking various languages have an education 
in a language like Mota, which is foreign to most of them, much care 
must be exercised in order that the ideas given in the course of teaching 
may be made quite clear to the minds of the pupils. Dr. Codrington 
used to get his pupils to write down the gist of the lesson in their own 
tongues that he might test thereby their understanding of it. 

At the conference held in 1916 the staff of the Mission decided to 
make a change in the language used as the medium of instruction in the 
central schools; Mota was to be abolished and English substituted in its 
place. Effect has already been given to this determination. The 
reasons advanced publicly for the change from Mota to English were: 

(1) Mota is not well known by the English staff in the Solomons and 
the languages spoken by the boys at the two central schools there do 
not bear any very great superficial likeness to Mota, so that Mota may 
be said to be practically a foreign tongue to all concerned. 

(2) Only a small literature is available in Mota, and the learning of 
English would open the way for the provision of a larger literature. 

(3) English is likely to become the language of general communica- 
tion. 

(4) The trained teachers ought to be able to act as interpreters for 
any whites who might visit their villages. 

Now, there is undoubtedly every reason why English should be 
taught as a part of the curriculum in the central schools (and also in the 
village schools if possible), but to do this is surely a different thing from 
making it the only means of communication at the central schools. 
While not contending for the continuance of Mota in the schools of the 
Solomons, one does contend strongly for the principle that the Mela- 
nesian should be taught Christianity through the medium of one of his 
own languages. English is a foreign language, but when all is said and 
done Mota can not possibly be classed as foreign. Outwardly it may 
present many dissimilarities from the Solomon Island languages, yet it 
is thoroughly and typically Melanesian, and any Melanesian can learn 
it or be taught it without any trouble whatever. 

Mota has hitherto been of quite extraordinary value for purposes of 
translation; most of our translations into the other Melanesian lan- 
guages were made in the first instance from Mota as a basis, and in 
many places it was quite possible thereby for a teacher of average 



172 LINGUISTICS IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC. 

ability to make a fair rendering of psalms, canticles, and hymns for the 
beginnings of his work. 

Bishop G. A. Selwyn advocated the teaching of the Melanesians at 
St. John's, Auckland, in English, but this was before Patteson came on 
the scene. Selwyn was a scholar, but it is doubtful whether he could 
be characterized as a linguist, nor had he the time to give to linguistic 
studies as Patteson had. His Maoris he taught in Maori, and one 
hears nothing of any proposal of his to abolish Maori as a medium of 
communication. He had perforce to adopt English for his Melanesians, 
just as he had to bring them away from their own country in order to 
teach them. What one feels about the substitution of English for a 
native language now in the Mission is that a veritable cardinal principle 
is in danger of being abandoned thereby, viz., the principle that every 
man should "hear the Gospel" in his own language. 

THE NEED FOR A POLICY IN TRANSLATIONAL WORK. 

The whole Bible has been translated into almost every Polynesian 
language. In Melanesia no complete Bible exists as yet, though the 
Mota Bible is practically complete. Certain small sections of the 
earlier books of the Old Testament were omitted purposely from it. 
In Papua no complete Bible exists, but some of the languages have a 
complete New Testament. In setting out to translate the Bible, what 
portion is the missionary to start on? How much of the Bible, or 
rather, how much of the Old Testament, is really required? These 
two questions must have occurred to the minds of all missionaries, 
yet it would seem that no one mission has ever formulated a definite 
scheme in the matter of directing or controlling biblical transla- 
tions. With regard to the first question, as to what part of the Bible 
one should begin on, the Rev. Dr. Macfarlane, of the London Mis- 
sionary Society in Torres Straits, wrote asking this question of Dr. 
Codrington, and the answer given was that it seemed best to make a 
beginning with the Gospel according to St. Luke. In the Melanesian 
Mission St. Luke and the Acts were the first translations made by 
Bishop Patteson. Dr. Codrington states: "I wrote the middle of St. 
Matthew and St. Mark, the Passion being old. Bishop Patteson 
wrote St. John. I did almost all the Epistles. " 

Even apart from the necessity for translating the Psalms for use in 
the daily services, there can be no doubt that a translation of the 
Psalms should be made as soon as possible in order to encourage the 
devotional life of the people. The metrical version of the Psalms in 
the Indian language of Massachusetts was the first part of the Bible 
which John Eliot, the apostle of the American Indians, published, and 
in the singing of the Psalms he found the readiest means of arresting 
attention and the simplest expression for the religious feelings of his 
child-natured people. 



LINGUISTICS IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC. 173 

No choice could be made in the Epistles as to which should be trans- 
lated in preference to others, but the translator will naturally make 
what progress he can with them all. If a people is to receive the 
honor of having the Gospel message written in its own tongue the four 
Gospels and the Acts must surely be the minimum amount of trans- 
lation done, and it is hard to see how practical religion can be developed 
at all among a people unless they have a copy of the Epistles, the 
application of the Gospels, ready to their hands. 

In very few cases will it be possible for much of the Old Testament 
to be translated, either in the languages in the sphere of the Mela- 
nesian Mission or in those of New Guinea, owing to the multiplicity 
of languages and co the comparative dearth of missionaries and 
to the need of working in the first place on the New Testament. More- 
over, if the people have a New Testament it is hard to see what need 
there is to undertake any systematic translation of the whole of the 
Old Testament. 

A list of the translations and of books published for use in the 
Melanesian Mission is as follows: 

(1) New Hebrides. 

Raga: Prayer Book, St. Luke, Genesis, Harmonized Scripture Gospel 

Lessons, Hymns. 
Omba: Prayer Book, Harmonized Scripture Gospel Lessons, Hymns. 
Maewo: Prayer Book (small), Harmonized Scripture Gospel Lessons, 

Hymns. 

(2) Banks Islands. 

Lakona: Prayer Book (small). 

Mota: Prayer Book, New Testament, Old Testament, Harmonized 
Scripture Gospel Lessons, Commentary on St. Matthew, Instruc- 
tions for Catechumens, English Lesson Book, Codrington on the 
Miracles and Parables, Hymns. 

(3) Torres Islands. 

Vava: Prayer Book, Canonical Gospels and Epistles, Hymns. 

(4) Santa Cruz. 

Ndeni: Prayer Book, Canonical Gospels, Hymns. 

(5) Solomon Islands. 

Ulawa: Prayer Book, New Testament, Catechism for the Children of 
the Church, Hymns. 

Sa'a: Prayer Book, New Testament, Catechism for the Children of 
the Church, Hymns. 

Lau: Prayer Book (small), Gospels, Hymns (few). 

Fiu: Prayers and Hymns (small). 

Wango: Prayer Book (small) and Hymns, St. Luke, Harmonized 
Scripture Gospel Lessons. 

Guadalcanar: Prayer Book (small), St. Luke, Hymns. 

Florida: Prayer Book, Gospels, Canonical Epistles, Harmonized Scrip- 
ture Gospel Lessons, Catechism for the Children of the Church, 
Hymns. 

Bugotu: Prayer Book, Book of Psalms, New Testament, Portions of 
the Books of the Prophets, Hymns. 



174 LINGUISTICS IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC. 

From this table it will be seen that much translation yet remains to 
be done. Florida, which is by far the most important language in the 
Solomons, has no complete New Testament. Dr. Codrington has 
included a small grammar of the Florida language in his "Melanesian 
Languages," but naturally he was not able to do for it what he did for 
Mota and we still await a full grammar of the language. 

After sixty years of life, the Mission has only three complete New 
Testaments and only two dictionaries, including the present dictionary 
of Ulawa and Sa'a. A grammar of Wango exists in manuscript. 
The paucity of grammars is much to be deplored. Sketches made by 
Dr. Codrington might conceivably have been filled up even if no new 
ones were made independently, but the grammars of Sa'a, Ulawa, and 
Lau are the only ones that have been printed since Dr. Codrington's 
great work containing grammars of 38 Melanesian languages was 
published in 1884. 

It would certainly be desirable to get native teachers to make 
initial translations of the Gospels through the medium of Mota or 
otherwise. The Mota New Testament, however, needs revising. It 
was reprinted a year or two ago from stereotype plates and a few 
of the printers' errors were corrected, but the Society for the Promotion 
of Christian Knowledge would not allow any alterations that ran 
over two lines. 

Any translations made by natives would serve as a basis for future 
work by the missionaries themselves and would also provide gram- 
marians with valuable material for comparative study. Thus there 
seems to be no reason why in the case of the Tolo language, e. g., in 
Malaita, some of the teachers at Tawani'ahi'a on the west coast who 
know both Tolo and Sa'a should not use the Sa'a translation of the 
Gospels for work in their own language. Since Bishop Patteson's 
time no further investigation has been made of the Tolo language, 
though it is an important language both on Malaita and also at Marau 
Sound on the south end of Guadalcanal 

THE VALUE OF THE STUDY OF MELANESIAN LANGUAGES. 

The study of Melanesian languages is an absolute necessity for the 
elucidation of problems of language in the western Pacific, and one 
might go further and say that light had been thrown on languages so 
far away from Melanesia as Madagascar and Malay by the working 
out of the details of the grammars of the Melanesian languages. What 
a flood of interest is created by Dr. Codrington's discovery of the 
identity of the Omba, New Hebrides, word heno and the Florida hanu 
with the Malagasy anol In these three languages this word stands 
in place of a personal name, and the personal article is prefixed, so that 
i heno, a hanu, i ano, are identical and mean "so-and-so." The two 
great Melanesian scholars, Bishop Patteson and Dr. Codrington, by 



LINGUISTICS IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC. 1JS 

their analysis of words and by comparative studies, have shown that 
the structure of the Polynesian and Melanesian languages is prac- 
tically the same. They have shown that in both types the following 
features occur: 

Adjectives are formed by prefix or suffix. Time particles are used 
with verbs. Transitive suffixes are added to verbs. Pronouns are 
suffixed to nouns to denote possession. The personal pronouns are 
preceded by the personal article (Mota i-nau, I, Maori a-hau, Malay 
a-ku). 

In "Melanesian Languages" it has been proved conclusively, by 
evidence produced from languages of Melanesian stock, that the per- 
sonal pronouns are the same in all the Oceanic languages, also that the 
interrogatives are radically the same throughout and have similar uses. 
Polynesian scholars generally have paid little attention to Melanesia, 
yet the evidence of language is all conclusive of the close relationship 
which exists between Polynesian and Melanesian. The failure on the 
part of Polynesian scholars to study Melanesian languages has caused 
them to make considerable mistakes in etymology and also to overlook 
several very patent grammatical characteristics of the Polynesian lan- 
guages. A good many of the derivations in Tregear's "Maori Com- 
parative Dictionary" are shown to be incorrect on comparison with the 
kindred forms in Melanesia. Also, one can not but think that the 
tendency to philosophize about the religion of the Polynesian and his 
consequent outlook on life would have been kept within more moderate 
bounds had the investigators been a little more content to do spade 
work and dig into the matter after the practical fashion of Dr. Cod- 
rington in his book on Melanesian anthropology. 

It has been maintained that the Melanesians had adopted Polyne- 
sian forms of speech; that in fact the Polynesians were like the Romans 
of old and had imposed their speech upon the peoples with whom they 
mixed; but the facts of the case seem to be that, so far at least as lan- 
guage is concerned, the two peoples belong to one family, and also that 
of the two types the Melanesian is the older and is less worn and stands 
to Polynesian somewhat as Anglo-Saxon does to modern English; 
also that the explanation of many Polynesian peculiarities of speech is 
to be found in the typical Melanesian usages. 

Thus with regard to the use of the passive in Polynesian, a use which 
has no counterpart whatever in Melanesian, the present writer, owing 
to his knowledge of Melanesian, has been able to show elsewhere that 
the Polynesian passive is compounded of adjectival suffixes added to 
verbal suffixes, and that the gerundives, so common in Polynesia but 
hardly appearing at all in Melanesia, are composed of the verbal 
suffixes and noun endings. These verbal suffixes are among the 
commonest features of the Melanesian languages, but with the single 
exception of Samoan they can not be said to appear at all prominently 



I76 LINGUISTICS IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC. 

in Polynesia, though on Melanesian analogies their presence may be 
detected in the words in the dictionaries. Also, curiously enough, one 
of the Melanesian adjectival suffixes, na (which is a passive ending in 
Polynesia), has been noticed in only one Polynesian language in that 
capacity, and that only by deduction from a Melanesian example: 
Niuetavana clear, open ;Mota waivana wide and flat; Dy zk papan plank; 
Omba wawa open sea; Sa'a taha to be open, clear; Maori tawha chasm 
(Sa'a tahalaa chasm), tawhai to stretch forth the arms. 

Also in Malay, another example of a late language with much decayed 
forms of speech, Melanesia again supplies a means whereby correct 
deductions may be made as to the construction of various words and 
possibly also of various forms of speech, e. g., the presence of verbal 
suffixes and of noun suffixes. 

Apart from Dr. Codrington's study of the Melanesian forms, who 
would have known that apa in siapa, the interrogative pronoun in 
Malay, apa what? siapa who? is a form of the word which in Mela- 
nesia appears as sava, hava y etc., and that the si in siapa is really the 
personal article which appears in Javanese before the names of persons? 
Since in many words which are common to Malay and Javanese the 
Malagasy suppresses the initial s, this Javanese si, the personal article, 
is shown by Dr. Codrington to be in all probability the Malagasy t, 
which is a personal article placed before the proper names of persons. 
Thus siapa who, in Malay is shown to correspond to the Mota i sava 
who? and sa mate, the deceased, in Malay is i mate in Mota. 

In this way, through the study of Melanesian linguistics, "the use of 
a personal article — a remarkable feature in a language — is found to 
prevail in Melanesia, in Polynesia, in Madagascar, and in the Malay 
Archipelago." This discovery alone is surely sufficient to establish the 
importance of the study of the Melanesian languages. 



MELANESIA AND ITS PEOPLE. 

Melanesia is the geographical name given to various groups of islands 
in the Southwest Pacific. These are the nearest of the Pacific Islands 
to Australia and they lie in a semicircle off the northeast coast of that 
continent. New Caledonia, the southern end of the arc, is the nearest 
to Australia, and New Britain and New Ireland, lately acquired by 
the Australian Expeditionary Forces, form the northern end of the arc. 
The groups in the arc are five in number, the Bismarck Archipelago 
and the Solomons in the North, Santa Cruz in the center, the New 
Hebrides and New Caledonia in the South. The Admiralty Islands 
are included under the Bismarck Archipelago; the New Hebrides 
include the subgroups of Banks and Torres, and the Loyalties are asso- 
ciated with New Caledonia. The term Melanesia belongs properly 
to all of these groups of islands. Certain other groups lie outside the 
arc, but rank as Melanesian, to wit, Fiji and the islands which lie 
off the southeast coast of New Guinea, the Trobriands, D'Entre- 
casteaux, Woodlark, and the Louisiades. 

Etymologically, Melanesia ought to mean "black islands," just as 
Polynesia means "many islands" and Micronesia "small islands," 
but considering the wonderful verdure and greenness of the Melanesian 
islands one can only infer that those who named them originally had 
in their minds the comparatively dark skins of the inhabitants and 
that this distinguishing feature of the people was used as a means of 
designating the islands where they dwelt. Doubtless to the eye of any 
one accustomed to the lighter-skinned peoples of Polynesia these 
islands of the Southwest Pacific would seem to be "islands of the 
blacks." 

Several external characteristics of the Melanesian peoples serve to 
distinguish them from the Polynesians: (i) Shortness of stature, the 
average height of the males being possibly 5 feet 4 inches and of the 
females 4 feet 10^2 inches; (2) a chocolate-colored skin; (3) bushy 
hair, frizzed and tangled and standing erect, owing probably to the 
incessant teasing of it by the native combs. 

The languages spoken in Melanesia vary considerably among them- 
selves, but on examination they are shown to possess common features 
and to have a very large underlying sameness. The external resem- 
blances, however, between the Melanesian languages are much less 
than those between the languages of Polynesia; e. g., the external 
resemblances between Maori and Samoan are far greater than those 
between Mota and Florida. The witness of language would enable 
us to decide at once that Fiji belongs to Melanesia, though its prox- 
imity to Polynesia has largely affected the customs and habits and 
probably also the religion of its people. Similarly the peoples of the 

177 



I78 MELANESIA AND ITS PEOPLE. 

islands to the east of New Guinea can be shown to be Melanesian by 
reason of their languages, and if Melanesia be taken as a starting- 
point for nomenclature, the Malagasy language of Madagascar might 
even be classed as Melanesian. The peoples of New Guinea have the 
same three distinguishing physical characteristics that we have noted 
above, and the languages of a very considerable proportion of at least 
the coast peoples there can certainly be classed as Melanesian. 

Dr. Codrington has shown in "Melanesian Anthropology" that there 
is a large general resemblance in the religious beliefs and practices, 
the customs and ways of life, which prevail in Melanesia proper, and 
further research on the lines indicated by him will probably reveal the 
presence of similar beliefs and conditions of life among the Melanesian 
peoples of New Guinea and the neighboring islands. 

A distinguishing social condition of Melanesia is the complete ab- 
sence of tribes, if the word tribe is to be applied as it is to the Maori 
people of New Zealand, or as used in Fiji. Descent in nearly every 
part of Melanesia is counted through the mother and the people are 
everywhere divided into two classes which are exogamous. This 
division of the people is the foundation on which the fabric of native 
society is built up. 

THE GOVERNMENT OF MELANESIA. 

Previous to 1914 Germany held an important part of Melanesia, 
viz., the Bismarck Archipelago, which comprises the two large islands 
known prior to their annexation by Germany as New Britain and New 
Ireland, with many smaller islands in the group, notably the Duke of 
York, and also with two large islands in the Solomons, Bougainville 
and Choiseul, and the small island Buka. France holds New Cale- 
donia and the Loyalties, and a joint British and French protectorate, 
known as the Condominium, prevails in the case of the New Hebrides, 
Banks, and Torres groups, with the center of government at Vila, 
Sandwich Island. The Solomons and Santa Cruz are a British pro- 
tectorate with a resident commissioner stationed at Tulagi, Florida, 
Solomon Islands, and under the orders of the governor of Fiji, who is 
high commissioner for the Pacific. 

THE PROGRESS OF THE MELANESIAN MISSION. 

The nominal field of work of the Melanesian Mission is all the Mel- 
anesian islands from and including the Solomon Islands to the three 
northern New Hebrides, Raga, Omba, and Maewo, but excluding 
Fiji. All of the islands in this sphere as far north as Ysabel (with a 
few exceptions noted below) are more or less occupied by the Mission. 
The total number in its schools in 1914 was 15,000, of whom 9,000 are 
baptized. Many of the smaller islands are now completely Christian, 
but even on islands of moderate size, like Ulawa in the Solomons or 



MELANESIA AND ITS PEOPLE. 179 

Santa Maria in the Banks, a certain number are still Heathen, while in 
the large islands practically 85 per cent are still outside the Mission's 
influence. 

The total population of the islands in the sphere of the Mission 
numbers anything between 100,000 and 150,000, and the large islands, 
Malaita, San Cristoval, and Guadalcanar, contain on a moderate 
estimate 70,000 of the total. It is not surprising that on an island 
like Malaita, which is 100 miles long and contains a scattered popu- 
lation of 30,000 or 40,000 people, comparatively little progress has been 
made, but it is especially regrettable that there are still three Heathen 
villages on a small island like Ulawa, and that tiny places like Sikaiana, 
Rennell and Bellona, and Santa Anna are still unworked. However, 
it must be understood that the evangelizing of Melanesia is a pecul- 
iarly difficult task, as is shown by the fact that in Tanna in the New 
Hebrides, where the attack on Heathenism has been incessant and 
where the Presbyterian missionaries have been in actual residence 
from the very start of the work, a portion of the island is still Heathen. 
Nevertheless, better results might have been obtained in our own 
sphere. 

OTHER MISSIONARY AGENCIES IN MELANESIA. 

The Melanesian Mission is not the only evangelizing body in its 
sphere of work. Roman Catholic missionaries settled in the Solomons 
about 1897 and made their headquarters at a little island called Rua 
Sura, off the east coast of Guadalcanar and fairly close to the trading 
station at Aola. A good deal of their work has been done on the west 
coast of Guadalcanar near Mole. One of their methods of progress has 
been to adopt children from the Heathen parts and to rear them in 
Christian surroundings. They made settlements also along the north 
end of the island, often in the villages belonging to the Melanesian Mis- 
sion, and have begun work on the southeast coast of San Cristoval and 
on the west coast of Big Malaita. They have stations also at the south 
end of Raga, New Hebrides. 

The Kanaka labor trade was responsible for the advent of certain 
missionaries of Protestant bodies into the Solomons. Most of the 
Melanesians in Queensland who attended school and church were 
cared for by the Queensland Kanaka Mission, a Protestant body. 
At Malu, a place at the north end of Big Malaita, some returned Chris- 
tians who had been converted by the agency of these schools of the 
Queensland Kanaka Mission and some devoted white missionaries 
came to the Solomons in a labor vessel and settled at Malu. But the 
malarial conditions of the place and lack of proper equipment brought 
about their removal and two of them eventually died of malaria. 
When the Kanakas were all deported the Queensland Kanaka Mission 
followed their old pupils and made regular stations on Malaita. Their 



l8o MELANESIA AND ITS PEOPLE. 

mission is now known as the South Sea Evangelical Mission. Its 
operations are confined mainly to Malaita. 

In 1902 the veteran Dr. George Brown visited the western Solomons 
and made preparation for beginning a mission of the Methodist body 
in New Georgia. This mission is now well established and has extended 
its operations in New Georgia and Vella Lavella, and opened a school 
on Liuaniua (Ongtong Java, Lord Howe Island), an atoll north of 
Ysabel inhabited by Polynesians. 

In the New Hebrides, on Raga and Omba in the sphere of the Mel- 
anesian Mission, mission work is being done by missionaries of the 
Church of Christ. 

No delimitation of territory in the case of the various missions has 
been attempted by the governments concerned, such as has been done 
in New Guinea, and undoubtedly the clashing of the various interests 
is not the best thing for the natives. The marking out of a sphere of 
operations, with possibly a time limit for the effective occupying of 
them, would be the fairest for all concerned. 

SOME PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE ISLANDS. 

All the islands in the sphere of the Mission have a certain similarity 
of appearance from the sea in that they are all covered with dense 
forest. Florida and the east coast of Guadalcanar have wide, open 
spaces covered with high, rank grass and with a few trees, but in all 
the other islands dense bush covers the face of the country from high- 
water mark to the tops of the hills miles away in the interior. In the 
islands in the south giant creepers twine over all the trees and form a 
perfect network, almost blotting out the tops of the individual trees, 
and when seen from the sea the huge banyans seem to tower like 
observation posts above the flattened tops of the forest. In most of 
the islands the land rises abruptly from the beach and access to the 
interior is by narrow forest tracks which the frequent heavy rainfalls 
have converted into deep ruts. Tree roots cover everything and 
walking is extremely difficult in consequence. The paths are never 
kept clear and open and the trees that fall across them are allowed to 
lie there, and a new track is made round or under or over the obstacle. 

Dr. Guppy, in his book, "The Solomon Islands," has a graphic 
description of the experiences of the white man when travelling ashore 
in Melanesia: 

"Bush walking where there is no native track is a very tedious process. 
In districts of coral limestone such traverses are exceedingly trying to the 
soles of one's boots and to the measure of one's temper. After being pro- 
vokingly entangled in a thicket for some minutes, the persevering traveller 
walks briskly along through a comparatively clear space, when a creeper 
suddenly trips up his feet and over he goes to the ground. Picking him- 
self up, he no sooner starts again when he finds his face in the middle of a 



MELANESIA AND ITS PEOPLE. l8l 

strong web which some huge-bodied spider has been laboriously construct- 
ing. He proceeds on his way when he feels an uncomfortable sensation 
inside his helmet, in which he finds his friend the spider, with a body as big 
as a filbert, quite at his ease. Going down a steep slope, he clasps a stout- 
looking areca palm to prevent himself falling, when down comes the rotten 
palm, and the long-suffering traveller finds himself once more on the ground. 
To these inconveniences must be added the oppressive heat of a tropical 
forest and the continual perspiration in which the skin is bathed." 

A Melanesian is always careful to turn his toes in as he walks, and 
the narrowness of the bush tracks causes him no inconvenience, but 
the white man is not so careful how he plants his feet and is constantly 
striking the numerous objects which lie by the side of the track or on 
its surface. Moreover, a native person keeps his hands by his side as 
he walks, whereas the white man does not know the necessity for care 
in the matter and he frequently hits the numerous obstacles with his 
hands, and some of the leaves on the edge of the track are studded with 
sharp thorns! Every Melanesian carries a "scrub" knife, and with 
it he cuts away the limbs that fall over the path, but he cuts them at 
his own height and in an immediate line with the path; this suits him 
well, but proves awkward for any person who is taller or less careful 
about his method of progression. 

It can hardly be said that the Melanesian islands as a whole are 
beautiful, for the prevailing colors of the forest are too somber and dull; 
brilliant-colored shrubs grow round the houses, but none of the forest 
trees bear such flowers as one sees on the trees in North Queensland, 
and the ground is a tangled mass of undergrowth and creepers. Wide, 
open views, panoramic scenes, outlooks over mountain or glen or sea 
are impossible to obtain, since the bush closes in everything. But 
there is something peculiarly exhilarating, both to mind and body, 
when, after struggling along through the numerous obstructions 
of the paths and sweltering under the oppressive heat, one suddenly 
emerges from the trees on the weather coast of an island and feels the 
invigorating blast of the trade wind, and the eye rests with complete 
satisfaction on the wonderful blue of the sea and the red of the shore 
reef, and the creamy whiteness of the breakers as they beat against it. 

Certain places in the Solomons, however, may quite easily rank as 
beauty spots. The Ututha Channel, which divides the two eastern 
islands in the Floridas; the channel in the Rubiana Lagoon; and the 
western end of the Mara Masiki Channel, which divides Malaita in 
two — all have delightful vistas and charm one with their tortuous 
and sharp windings opening out on here an island, there a cascade; 
the giant growths of the coral under the boat fascinate one's gaze; 
beautifully colored fishes of vivid greens and reds dart about in the 
shallows, while up in the trees, on the side of the steep hills, innumer- 
able cockatoos rend the air with their harsh cries, or the big wood 



l82 MELANESIA AND ITS PEOPLE. 

pigeons boom out their melancholy note, reminding one of a cow lowing 
for its calf. Often, again, the course of a river (like that at Mwadoa, 
Ulawa), with its succession of cascades and its deep, clear pools, con- 
strains our admiration. 

The islands of the Floridas more especially appeal to the eye. They 
have more open spaces, the coast line is more indented, and beautiful 
bays abound; there are more islands lying off the coast, the beaches 
are more numerous, and the landing on them is easy. The villages 
in Florida nestle under the shade of innumerable coconut trees just 
above high-water mark. The beaches are lined with the feathery 
casuarina and here and there are coral trees {Erythrina indica) with 
their brilliant red flowers, or the gorgeous red leaves of the salite 
(Catappa terminalis) light up the whole beach with the glow of their 
dying splendor. The huge masses of the vutu {Barringtonia speciosa) 
spring right out of the saltwater and their biretta-shaped fruits may be 
seen floating on every tide. Going north from Norfolk Island, the 
sight of a floating fruit of the vutu was generally the first sign of our 
entrance into the tropics. Similarly the mighty limbs of the dalo 
(Fiji dilo, Calophyllum inophyllum) are washed by every wave and its 
small ball-like fruit is found lying on every beach. The smell of the 
sweet-scented white flowers of the dalo reminds one of nothing so much 
as of an orange grove in flower. 

But the real attraction and charm of Melanesia lie in the mystery 
of the people, their unwritten past, the strangeness of their languages, 
their views of life, their habits and customs, the strange flora of the 
country, the birds and butterflies, some of these latter measuring 8 or 
9 inches across, the excitement of a landing among the Heathen, the 
yearnings of soul, the longing to do them good, to lead them out of 
their darkness into light, to give them something more satisfying than 
the tobacco or calico or knife which they are clamoring for — these 
are the things that grip the heart of the missionary and constitute for 
him at least the charm of Melanesia. One stands on a beach of the 
great island Malaita, and all the fibers of one's being are stirred by 
the sight of hill rising upon hill, cape stretching out beyond cape, and 
by the knowledge that scattered all up and down the land are souls 
awaiting the enlightenment of the spirit of God. 

THE FOOD-STUFFS OF MELANESIA. 

The Melanesians may be called an agricultural people and a great 
deal of their time is given up to cultivation. Their two main crops 
are yams and taro, of both of which there are numerous varieties. The 
best yams are grown in the southern part of Melanesia; the Solomon 
Islanders never have enough yams to carry them through the summer 
months till harvest time in April, all the yams having been used for 
planting. But in the larger islands there is extensive cultivation of 



MELANESIA AND ITS PEOPLE. 183 

taro in the districts on the hills, and this food carries the people over 
the hunger times of the summer months. A yam garden is a sight 
worth seeing; the ground is kept perfectly clear of weeds (this is the 
women's share of the work), the yam vines are trained up long poles 
and then run along strings which are tied from pole to pole. The vines 
are of various shades of green, and when the leaves are dying they turn 
red in color and are very beautiful to look on. 

Breadfruit grows readily, and the trees have two crops a year, one 
coming opportunely during the summer. The canarium (almond) 
bears during the winter months, July and August. The nuts are put 
into cane baskets and are smoked ready for storing. The coconut 
is in bearing all the year through. The tree is at its best at the 
coast and just above high-water mark. The large islands of the 
eastern Solomons — Malaita,Guadalcanar, San Cristoval, and Ysabel — 
have comparatively few coconuts, and the only extensive coconut 
plantation on Malaita is along the coast at Sa'a, at the southeast end 
of the island. The scarcity of coconuts is largely owing to the fact 
that the trees thrive best near the sea, but owing to fear of raids the 
majority of the people on these large islands live away from the coast 
and so can not grow the trees in any quantity. 

Of so-called tropical fruits Melanesia has but few indigenous vari- 
eties. Of the common native fruits by far the most important is the 
coconut, and one is inclined to question whether any more wonderful 
fruit than the coconut grows on this earth ! The fruit is obtainable 
all the year round; it is nutritious whether eaten in the green stage 
or when it has begun to sprout and is ready for planting. The ripe 
nut is generally scraped and strained, and the resultant white juice, 
the only real coconut milk, is boiled in the half shell and mixed as a 
paste with grated yams or taro. What is commonly known as coconut 
milk, the fluid in the dry nut so dear to the hearts of children in Euro- 
pean countries, is never drunk by Melanesians, but if opportunity 
offers is poured into a basin and put by for the animals to drink. 

The oil of the coconut is extracted by the old-time process of stone 
boiling. Needless to say, dried or smoked coconut (copra) is by far 
the greatest article of export from Melanesia to-day. Ceylon used to 
be reckoned the planters' paradise so far as growing coconuts was 
concerned, but coconut plantations in the islands of the Solomons 
come into bearing quicker than in any other part of the world; the 
nuts are as good as the big Samoan nuts (indeed seed nuts have been 
imported from Samoa), the rainfall is abundant, and hurricanes are 
almost unknown. The oil is extracted from the copra and goes to make 
some of our best soaps. The shell of the nut is used by the natives 
to make cups and bottles, and since it contains oil it burns fiercely in 
the fire. From the outer covering of the nut both ropes and mats are 
made — the coir of commerce (coir, like copra, is a Singhalese word); 



184 MELANESIA AND ITS PEOPLE. 

and the natives themselves make sennit and string from it. The dry- 
sheath, the covering of the new bunch of fruit, serves the natives both as 
tinder and as a torch. The leaves of the tree make the very strongest 
baskets, and in some islands are used to make the walls of the 
houses. In the equatorial Pacific toddy is distilled from the growing 
tree and the topmost shoots form a veritable king's banquet, but the 
cutting of them destroys the tree. 

Other fruits are the vi-apple (Spondias dulcis, commonly known as 
uli or uri), the canarium nut (ngali), the nut of the salite tree, which is 
found oftenest growing at the mouths of the streams, the banana, and 
the breadfruit. Both the banana and breadfruit are always cooked. 
The indigenous banana needs cooking to make it eatable, but the com- 
mon varieties, Musa cavendishii or gros michel, or the sugar banana of 
Queensland, have been introduced and flourish. Many other tropical 
and subtropical fruits have also been introduced — oranges, mandarins, 
lemons, limes, granadilla, soursop, papaya, pineapples, mangoes, cocoa, 
coffee; most of these need careful cultivation, and with the exception 
of limes and papayas they all tend to die out if allowed to run wild. 

Animal food is but rarely partaken of by Melanesians. Pigs they 
all have, but they keep them for great events, for death feasts or for 
wedding banquets. Opossums (cuscus) and the large fruit-eating bats 
and wood pigeons and the monitor lizard are often eaten as relishes 
with the vegetable food. The coast people get large quantities of 
shellfish at the low spring tides, and on an island like Ulawa a great 
deal of fishing is done both from the rocks and also out of canoes. The 
people make all their own fishing-lines out of home-made string or out 
of strong creepers found in the forest, and in old days their hooks were 
cut out of tortoise-shell or out of black pearl-shell. Even to-day the 
hooks for the bonito fishing are of native manufacture and the tiny 
hooks for whiffing sardines are exquisitely made. 

Fishing with nets is followed extensively by the Lau-speaking 
peoples who live on the artificial islets off the northeast coast of Ma- 
laita. These peoples and the people of the Reef Islands at Santa Cruz 
live almost entirely on a fish diet. The flesh of the porpoise is much 
prized by the peoples of Malaita and regular drives of porpoises are 
held, the animals being surrounded and forced ashore into muddy 
creeks, where they are captured. The main value of the porpoise lies 
in the teeth, which form one of the native currencies. On the lee side 
of the large islands in the Solomons there is a great deal of fishing 
with hand nets; men stand in the water at the mouth of the 
streams, holding a pole to which two bent sticks are attached with a 
net tied to the four ends of the sticks, and lowered to the bottom. 
The small fish (sardines and others) are chased inshore by large 
kingfish, and pass over the net, which is promptly pulled up by the 
fisherman. The fish are transferred by a deft movement to a bag 
hanging on the man's back and suspended from his head. 



MELANESIA AND ITS PEOPLE. 185 

Bonito and flying-fish are esteemed as the greatest delicacies. The 
former is coarse, but the latter is indeed a dainty. The bonito is a 
very sacred fish to the mind of the southern Solomon Islander, and the 
catching of it was intimately connected with his religion. The bonito 
is caught from canoes, either by a hook trailed aft, no bait being used, 
or by a hook played up and down in a jerky fashion and attached to a 
strong rod and line. The flying-fish are caught on a gorge made of 
tortoise-shell or of the midrib of the rachis of the sago palm. The best 
bait is the claw of the robber crab (Birgus latro). The hook and line are 
made fast to a fishing float called u'o in Ulawa (Maori uto fish-float). 
Numbers of these are thrown out in places frequented by the flying-fish 
and the owner stands by in his canoe and watches them. 

Sea bream are the most delicate fish in Melanesia. They are caught 
with hook and line, and live white ants are thrown out as burly. The 
bait is a worm found in the sand at high-water mark. The white ant 
used is not the destructive white ant, which is capable of giving a sharp 
bite, but is of a brownish color. The ignorant bushmen are popularly 
supposed to use the wrong ant, with the result that the bream will 
disappear. 

THE HOUSES OF THE MELANESIANS. 

The houses are mainly of one type, one-roomed buildings, to which 
annexes may easily be added. Some of these houses are large enough 
to accommodate a chief and his twenty wives, small chambers being 
built within the main building. The commoners have their own 
houses, one house to each family, and it is rarely that two families 
live together. The roof is the first part of the house that is built. 
Three rows of posts are erected and ridge poles are set on them. The 
poles may rest in a groove or the tops of the posts may be forked. 
Bamboo rafters are tied from the center pole to the side, and thatch 
is laid on them longitudinally. The thatch is made of leaves, sago 
palm or nipa palm, or the leaves of sugar cane (this latter is only used 
in the south) sewn on to reeds or laths of bamboos and then tied in 
position. The people of Florida and of Ysabel put their thatch on 
in very close layers, and consequently the roof lasts very well, but in 
the other islands the thatch needs a good deal of repair after the second 
year. The smoke of the wood fires used in cooking hardens the thatch 
and tends to preserve it; but schools and churches, buildings where 
fires are not lighted, need constant repairs to the thatch. The sides 
are built in with lattice-work of thin bamboo, and a small doorway is 
left in the front which can be covered by a shutter of leaves. Orna- 
mental ridges are made on the ground and are hoisted up into position, 
and then made fast with creepers. 

The Malaita and San Cristoval houses have a platform in front, 
where the people sit in the evenings. To get into the house one has 



l86 MELANESIA AND ITS PEOPLE. 

to mount this platform and then drop through the tiny doorway. The 
Florida house is generally built upon piles and the floor is covered 
with split bamboos. The bed place may be raised or, as in Malaita, 
the people may sleep on the earth with no better mattress than one 
of the huge coconut leaves plaited. For the women and small children 
a platform is built to serve as a bed. Pillows as such are not much in 
use except in Santa Cruz, and a log or billet of wood makes an accept- 
able pillow for the Melanesian. 

The men and boys in the Solomons have club-houses, both in the 
villages and also down at the beach. In the club-house on the beach 
the canoes for bonito fishing are kept. Strangers are entertained in 
these club houses; the relics of the dead are kept in them and religious 
rites are performed in them. Women are excluded from the club 
houses. 

The cooking is all done at a fireplace of earth set inside a ring of 
stones on the floor. On a stand over the fire are the household cooking 
utensils, wooden bowls, and stores of smoked almonds. Yams are kept 
on stages built in the rear part of the house and generally screened off". 
Every house has its inner chamber that serves as a bedroom if required. 
Life is lived very much in public, and privacy is a thing not understood 
or desired. To be allowed to go behind the partition in any house is 
significant as a mark of close acquaintanceship. 

CLOTHING. 

Bark cloth (tapa) is made in Melanesia, but it never figured as an 
article of clothing and its main use was to form a kind of shawl in which 
the baby was slung when carried from the shoulder. Before the coming 
of the white man clothing of any sort was very little worn by Mela- 
nesians. The people of Santa Cruz, both men and women, were indeed 
clad sufficiently to satisfy our European notions of decency, and in 
the southern New Hebrides and in Florida and Ysabel the women 
wore petticoats made of mats or of grass, but in very many of the 
islands the women's dress was of the scantiest, and the men wore 
nothing but a section of a leaf of a large pandanus. In the southeast 
Solomons the men commonly were quite naked and the women wore 
but a scanty fringe, while on Big Malaita not even the traditional 
fig leaf was worn. In Santa Cruz, where all women and girls are 
swathed in mats and are kept in strict seclusion, there is more immoral- 
ity, and that of a gross and shocking sort, than in the Lau-speaking 
districts of Malaita, where the women wear no clothing of any sort 
whatever. Once the mind gets over the shock experienced at the idea 
of the unclothed body, it will be obvious to the unprejudiced person 
that the absence of clothing does not necessarily imply immodesty 
either of thought or action. A Heathen woman on Malaita knows no 
shame at the fact that her body is unclothed. 



MELANESIA AND ITS PEOPLE. 187 

Another point as to which incorrect ideas exist is the question of 
cannibalism. Doubtless cases of anthropophagy occurred in many 
of the Melanesian islands, but it was never characteristic of the people 
as a whole, and the man-eating propensities of the Fijian people could 
never be predicated of the whole people of any single group in the 
sphere of the Mission. So local and confined is the practice that, 
while portions of one island regularly follow it, other portions of the 
same island hold it in abhorrence, as is the case on Malaita. Joseph 
Wate, of Sa'a, a reliable witness, assured me that the Tolo peoples of 
Malaita were cannibals, but his own peoples were not, nor were the 
shore peoples of Big Malaita. The latter were fish-eaters, and those 
who lived on a fish diet did not practice as a regular thing the eating 
of human flesh. Cannibalism is the regular practice on San Cristoval,. 
but is held in abhorrence on Ulawa. Yet the belief in cannibalism is 
so firmly fixed that one reads in the reports and books of the Mission 
that the two Reef Islanders who were held captive at Port Adam in 
Bishop John Selwyn's time were being fattened up and kept for eating, 
whereas in all probability they were regarded as "live heads" {lalamoa 
mori) and kept for killing, should any necessity arise when a victim 
would be demanded, as, e. g. y at the death of any important person 
in the place, or they might be sold to anyone looking for a person to 
kill. The bodies after death would be buried. 

THE CLEANLINESS OF NATIVES. 

To bathe daily is the common practice of most Melanesians, but the 
bath is taken in the afternoon and usually after the day's work in the 
garden is over. The Melanesian never dreams of having a dip in the 
morning, as we whites do, and to the unthinking his failure to do so 
might seem to argue want of proper cleanliness. But, as Dr. Guppy 
says, these people are far more susceptible to a rise or fall in the tem- 
perature than we are, and he quotes Darwin as noticing that the 
Patagonians when over a fire were streaming with perspiration, whereas 
the white men with thick clothes on were enjoying the pleasant 
warmth. So a Melanesian likes to bathe when the day is warm; on 
days when the south wind is blowing — a strong wind with cloudy 
days — bathing is not much indulged in. 

Since these people wear no clothes and have no seat but the ground 
and take their rest on mats laid either on or just above the floor, and 
always with a fire going beside them, their bodies soon show the dirt, but 
it is a great mistake to imagine that they allow their bodies to go dirty 
or are slack about bathing. A man or woman with fever will abstain 
from washing (even in cases of strong fever it never occurs to anyone 
to sponge the patient) and to bathe is a sign of convalescence. If a 
person stays about a house and is evidently unwashed, one may take 
it for granted that he or she is indisposed. 



l88 MELANESIA AND ITS PEOPLE. 

THE CHILDREN. 

Great care is expended in bathing small children and shielding them 
from the rays of the sun. A young mother is excused from all work 
and she has the best time in all her life when her first baby is born. 
Her whole time is given up to the child, and it is seldom out of her 
arms. Owing to the lack of nourishing foods children are suckled 
till they are quite large. The Melanesian baby seems to have no 
natural liking for water and one often hears the shrill cries of small 
children being bathed in the streams or being washed in the houses. 
In the latter case water is poured from a bamboo into one of the wooden 
bowls and the child is then washed by hand. 

The children at a very early stage of their existence are freed from 
the authority of their parents. They have no household duties to 
perform; there is no set time for meals; in the morning they may be 
given something cold left over from the night before, or the mother 
may roast a yam on the fire, but as a rule there is no cooking done till 
the late afternoon, when the women return from their gardens. During 
the day, if the children are hungry they can get a coconut or a bread- 
fruit, or shell-fish, or they can roast a yam or a taro, and a fire can be 
made anywhere. The boys can get themselves an opossum or an 
iguana and in the hill districts they even find grasshoppers to eat. 
One and all they use large quantities of areca nut and pepper leaf and 
lime. These seem to be as necessary to the Melanesians of the north- 
ern islands as is a pipe to a confirmed smoker. 

One would expect that children freed thus early from any depend- 
ence on their elders would run riot and learn licentious ways and 
habits, but such does not seem to be the case. There is but little 
individuality in Melanesians, and they are not "inventors of evil 
things." They are bound by traditional customs, by the laws of the 
elders, by those social restrictions that the people have evolved for 
themselves as a safeguard against the breaking up of their society, 
and free agents though the children may be, and lacking parental 
control from our point of view, yet there is no such thing among them 
as the organized following or doing of evil, and the ruling moral ideas 
of the people are found as the guide also of their children. 

EVANGELIZATION. 

Apart from the duty and privilege which every Christian feels of 
winning the peoples of the earth for Christ, apart also from the prompt- 
ings of the Holy Spirit to bring the peoples of Melanesia to a knowl- 
edge of the power of Christ, there can be no conceivable reason for 
holding that Melanesians have no need of the Christian religion or 
could fail to grasp it when presented to them. In the first place, they 
certainly lose nothing by renouncing their old Heathen religion, which 
was the worship of their ancestors. The spirits of these ancestors 



MELANESIA AND ITS PEOPLE. 189 

provoke fear rather than love, and are invoked from a desire that their 
influence should be used to stave off any possible evil that might hap- 
pen rather than because they are conceived of as kindly dispositioned 
beings who love and want to do good to their worshippers. To a 
people with such a religion the knowledge of the Great Spirit God as 
a loving Father comes with the utmost force and power. 

Melanesians on the one hand are more or less incapable of individual 
and separate action; each one is just a copy of his neighbor, and every- 
thing is done by concerted agreement among the whole people; on the 
other hand, they have no means of preserving the welfare of themselves 
as a whole. They have no tribes, no kingdoms, no laws beyond the 
unwritten social laws relating to marriage, etc.; life is insecure, accu- 
sations of witchcraft are easily made, and death follows as a matter of 
course; infanticide is a common practice, big families are almost un- 
known, polygamy is a recognized thing. So Christianity comes to 
them as a means of insuring both individual and social vigor and only 
in so far as they become Christian will they be saved from extinction. 
If only from a humanitarian point of view, it were a charity to enlighten 
the darkness of these benighted people and to give them something to 
strive for, to set before them some spiritual end, to give them a higher 
standard of existence than their present one. 

There can, however, be no question of leaving them alone now, what- 
ever may have been the case in past years; civilization, i. e. y trade, is 
coming in fast and the inevitable consequence will be that the white 
man's view of life will alter the old style of things. Experience has 
taught us that wherever a people without a settled state and a kingdom 
and the external power of law is invaded by any of our western peoples, 
with their vigor and personality, the less-developed people lose all their 
pristine distinctiveness, all bonds are loosed, and inevitable decay sets 
in; in other words, the white man destroys the black. Benjamin 
Kidd shows this most conclusively in his book "Social Evolution." 
In the case of Melanesia the process may take time, but that the 
result is certain in the end is proved by the disappearance of the nomad 
Australian aboriginal, and with a people of a higher culture by the story 
of the capable Maori people of New Zealand under modern conditions. 

Drink and idleness are two of the main factors that have tended 
to the downfall of both the Maori and the Australian aboriginal; low- 
class whites have done much to ruin the latter, nor has the Maori 
been free from their influence. There is no fear of a large influx of 
whites into Melanesia, and the governments have it in their power to 
deport any undesirable person, but in the south of Melanesia, e. g., 
on Omba, unscrupulous traders have done incalculable harm. Under 
the Condominium of the New Hebrides, drink and firearms can still 
be obtained by natives, but the Solomon Island government entirely 
prohibits the sale of both. 



I90 MELANESIA AND ITS PEOPLE. 

In the more settled islands and districts provision can be made quite 
easily for the due employment of the people at regular and systematic 
work, so as to guard against the danger of idleness. There is ample 
land available everywhere for use either in growing the crops of food or 
for planting in coconuts. Hunger ought to be a thing of the past; the 
islands hardly know what a drought is; the foodstuffs, both indigenous 
and. introduced, are many and varied, and it needs only sufficient 
land to be kept under cultivation to insure a plentiful and regular 
supply of food. This is clear in our experience, for in our own garden 
at Ulawa, which was under the care of Elwin Dume, a man of Mera- 
lava, there was always a supply of food, sweet potatoes, yams, pana, 
pumpkins, tapioca (cassava), and even taro (which the people of the 
place said would not grow in Ulawa), bananas, and pineapples. It 
often was the case that when our garden was bearing well others were 
searching for food. Elwin used to return home through the village 
unconcernedly smoking his pipe and with the tip of a yam showing 
out of his bag. "Oh! look at these white men (mwa haka)," the 
people would exclaim as he passed, "they have yams while we have 
to go and scratch in the forest for food!" 

The exercise of due control both by the Mission and by government 
ought to obviate the dangers both of idleness and of hunger. As more 
and more traders come in, the danger will be that pressure is put on 
the government to acquire suitable land for planting, and great care 
will have to be taken that sufficient land is left in the neighborhood 
of the centers of population for the use of the people. On an island 
like Ugi in the Solomons very large tracts have been alienated, the 
original owners are but few, and possession is the more easily acquired. 
It is recalled that in the case of the sale of one large tract near the orig- 
inal trading station at Selwyn Bay the land was said to have been sold 
by a man who had only the very flimsiest right to it, since he was not 
an Ugi man at all but an adopted person. 

The cure for the existing evils and the means of staving off the 
threatened extinction of the people do not lie in their employment on 
plantations, as some hold. The moral elevation of the people and 
their advance in civilization used to be held up as valid reasons for 
their being recruited to work in Queensland, but from internal evidence 
one would say that the main influence which the labor trade has had 
on Melanesia is that it has sadly depopulated the islands. There has 
been no social elevation through the trade; the want of cohesion among 
the natives, apart from all other considerations, would have been 
sufficient to prevent it. The thousands of men who, throughout the 
years the trade was in existence, returned from civilization did nothing 
to better the conditions of life among their neighbors; they dissem- 
inated no knowledge, they started no spiritual movement for the 
uplifting of their people, they stirred up no divine discontent with 



MELANESIA AND ITS PEOPLE. I9I 

the old-time conditions. They brought back in a measure the outer 
trappings of civilization, but were ignorant of its power. While their 
axes lasted they made it easier for someone else to work; their pur- 
chases gave them for the time being a certain amount of importance; 
but once their stock was finished their influence was at an end. 

One of the cures for the present state of things in Melanesia is un- 
doubtedly work, but work on plantations for wages is not necessarily 
an agency that makes either for the setting up of the influences that 
have made nations great or insures the end which all desire who 
have the welfare of these child races at heart, viz, the ultimate sur- 
vival of these peoples. 

The comparative scantiness of the population is the real difficulty 
in the evangelization of Melanesia. There must be an assembling 
of the scattered units of population in the islands, and since one of 
the first results of the propagation of Christianity in Melanesia is 
the gathering together of the people in a community where hitherto 
they have been living as scattered units all over the face of the land, 
it seems obvious that the initiative in the program of work will lie 
with the missions. Once Christianity spreads, and, as a result of its 
spreading, peace is established, and old feuds die down and murder 
and bloodshed cease and villages are formed in these large islands 
with their scattered peoples, then the place of the government is to 
see that offenses against life and moral law and order are punished 
in order that the people may be given a chance to grow up and become 
settled and organized. How else shall it come to pass that "that 
which is no nation" shall become a nation? There can be no offense 
felt by the missionaries at the government thus guarding what is won; 
already cases of witchcraft among the Heathen are cognizable by the 
government authorities, and they punish breaches of the moral law 
among Christians when such are brought under their notice. The 
missions can still exercise their own discipline and the secular author- 
ities will not interfere with the spiritual side of the work. On the other 
hand, since the missions are the bringers of peace, the government 
can feel no offense in serving them and following them up and con- 
solidating the results of their work. The missions have the first and 
best opportunity in the matter; they are thoroughly in touch with 
the natives and have, or ought to have, an abundance of first-class 
material ready to their hands for compelling men to come in from the 
highways and hedges and fill the House of God. Nevertheless the 
government itself is doing much for the ultimate salvation of the 
peoples; head hunting has been stopped completely, and wild places 
like the north end of Malaita are being brought into order by the 
establishment of government stations. So far as the Melanesian Mis- 
sion is concerned it would seem obvious that the future demands a 
large increase of native clergy if the ground is to be won. 



192 MELANESIA AND ITS PEOPLE. 

NATIVES OF MELANESIA. 

Bishop G. A. Selwyn evidently had a very high opinion of the value 
of the work likely to be done by natives in the propagation of the Gos- 
pel in Melanesia, when he referred to them as the "black net," the 
white priests at the same time forming the "corks" of the gospel net. 
The Bishop's idea has been followed faithfully enough, so far as the 
mere manning of the Mission with native teachers goes, and the work 
of these native teachers occupies a very large place in the Melanesian 
Mission to-day; nor can there be any doubt whatever of their ability, 
under proper circumstances, to do what the founder of the Mission 
planned that they should do. Still, it can not be questioned that up to 
the present time the native Christians, teachers and people alike, fall 
short in the performance of their part in the casting of the Gospel net. 
The truth of the matter would seem to be that the native church has 
not yet risen to a sense of its duty in the work of evangelization; Chris- 
tianity has seemed to the converts to be more a thing brought from 
outside and to be accepted along with the rest of the white man's 
things than a matter vitally concerning themselves and depending on 
their cooperation. 

If the white teachers were removed from Melanesia to-day the prob- 
ability is that, though the daily services and daily school would still 
be held in most of the villages, yet there would be no advance and no 
enlargement of the work, no widening of the borders, and in such places 
as were manned by less able teachers it is doubtful whether the past 
gains of the Mission would be consolidated. The church life of the 
villages depends almost entirely on the teacher alone; the native church 
has not been trained in methods of self-government and no legislative 
machinery exists; there is no village council to advise or strengthen the 
hands of the teacher, and should he fail the whole work would probably 
come to an end. Nor is there anything in the way of self-support in 
the native church. The Mission supplies the teacher's pay and the 
people have no duties incumbent on them in connection with the 
upkeep of religion. 

It was thought originally that the withdrawal of the white mission- 
ary for four or six months every year would tend to encourage habits 
of self-reliance among the native teachers and would strengthen their 
characters and would foster the idea that eventually the native church 
must stand alone. But it certainly seemed as if the time when one 
was away was more fruitful in cases of wrong-doing than when one was 
actually present among the people. The Mission priest on returning 
to his work in the islands is apt to be faced with a sad account of what 
has happened "behind his back." He may notice the absence here 
and there, from church and school, of certain persons, and inquiry may 
elicit the information that they were "outside the inclosure," the 



MELANESIA AND ITS PEOPLE. IQ/$ 

victims of sin, mainly of impurity, and though not formally excom- 
municated yet self-judged, as their absence proved. Or he would 
hear of family quarrels, or of the petulancy of the chief and his arbi- 
trary tabu of certain things and of a consequent staying away from 
church and school. Or a Christian girl or a catechumen may have 
been given in marriage to a Heathen and so lost to the church, or 
perchance a Christian man had taken a heathen woman to wife and 
was living with her unmarried or even had taken a second wife and 
was living with two women. Or it might be that some promising 
Christian lad had gone off to live with heathen relatives. Or he 
might hear of cases of exorcism, of approaches made to the spirits 
of the dead, or of trials by fire or of adjuration of the spirits of the dead 
on the part of the Christians. At times he would find a village pre- 
paring to go and avenge the cruel murder of some Christian or school- 
man wantonly murdered by the heathen. In addition to the moral 
failures which occurred in his absence, he might find that the school 
and church required roofing, that the fences were down, and that the 
village pigs had made a shelter inside the buildings and that his own 
"prophet's chamber" was uninhabitable. 

What would happen were the white missionaries removed is made 
plain by the history of what has occurred in places that have had to 
do without the services of a white man for any length of time. Left 
to themselves and without the help of a native deacon or priest, the 
people tend to become very slack in church attendance and in the per- 
formance of their Christian duties, and the recent struggle that Bishop 
Wilson had against the secret societies in the northern Banks Group 
shows that Christianity there failed to alter fundamentally the original 
native view of life. 

The Banks Islands in particular have lacked for many years past the 
services of a white priest and with a few notable exceptions it may be 
said of this particular group that wherever the native teachers have 
been left to themselves the work has languished. Since Mr. Adams 
went to Vureas the Banks Islands have seen very little of the presence 
of a white missionary. Of the work at the Torres Group, once so 
promising, but little is heard now, and there can be no doubt that the 
continued absence of a white man or of a native priest has had a dele- 
terious effect on the work there. 

Where the people are strong in character and community life is more 
developed, as in the northern Banks Group, a native teacher alone can 
not make much headway, but a man in orders exercises a great deal 
more power and will be listened to. When the white man is present 
matters that had been wrong right themselves very quickly and there 
seem to be far fewer cases of wrong-doing. This is doubtless due 
partly to respect for his presence. The ordinary native teacher does 
not inspire this respect, and unless he were a man of strong moral fiber 



194 MELANESIA AND ITS PEOPLE. 

(as some of them are) and with his position well assured he could hardly 
venture to rebuke an act which he knew to be wrong. The teacher 
is in most cases a man of the place, and village and home associations 
and family relationships would prevent him uttering his protest 
against a meditated wrong. 

There is very little that goes on in a native village that is not known 
to most of the people, and things are very well discussed before any 
action is taken, and generally the whole village knows the doings and 
the intentions of every inhabitant. If the teacher did know before- 
hand the chances are that he could not prevent the wrong. Individual 
action is rare among Melanesians. A man would hardly dream of 
interfering if he saw another doing a thing which was inconsistent 
with his Christian calling and no one thinks of the necessity of setting 
a standard. Correction or direction or friendly advice is scarcely ever 
administered by one Melanesian to another. Even parents whose 
children are disobedient will bring them to a teacher or a missionary for 
reproof or correction rather than administer the correction themselves. 
The last thing that a Melanesian thinks of doing is the preventing 
of harm or interfering in a matter in order to right it. 

In the absence of the white missionary, if the knowledge of a medi- 
tated wrong came to the teacher's ears the existence of a village council 
or of a combined council of all the neighboring villages would avail in 
all probability to prevent the wrong being done. The nearest thing 
to such a council is the Vaukolu of Florida, a yearly gathering of all 
the chiefs and head teachers to discuss social, ecclesiastical, and educa- 
tional matters. But these gatherings have been held very irregularly 
and their decisions have been of little force since there were no sub- 
sidiary councils in the villages to assist the teachers in carrying them 
out. 

The isolation of the peoples in most of the Melanesian islands has 
in all probability been largely responsible for the lack of concerted 
action hitherto among the Christians. Social life as such was not 
known in Melanesia before the advent of Christianity. In their pre- 
Christian days these natives do not live in villages or hamlets, but in 
isolated groups with two or three houses or huts in a group. With the 
exception of certain places in Florida and also of the artificial islets off 
the northeast coast of Malaita, where hundreds of people live on tiny 
rookeries of stone just raised above the level of the tide, there was 
nothing that was worthy of the name of a village in the whole of the 
Mission's area in the Solomons. Consultative or joint action in a 
matter was practically unknown. Each subdistrict had its own petty 
chief with a following of half a dozen men in some cases. Every man 
knew who his own chief was and would support him when called 
upon. Each main district had also its head chief and to him tribute 
was paid whensoever he demanded it. Even these head chiefs had 



MELANESIA AND ITS PEOPLE. I95 

no state or surroundings. Thus at Roasi, on Little Malaita, Horo- 
hanue was the alaha paine> the main chief, but he had no immediate 
retinue and lived alone with his two wives, the guardian of his ances- 
tral spirits, 'akalo, and with the skulls of his dead in the house along 
with him. 

Roasi was composed of two parts, Upper and Lower, Roasi i haho, 
Roasi i l ano. A teacher, Johnson Telegsem, was accepted by the peo- 
ple of Lower Roasi, acting quite independently of Horohanue, as they 
had every right to do. After two moves they made a final settlement 
at Salenga just above the bay. Then two years later Horohanue 
himself also asked for a teacher and gathered his own particular people 
together and had a school-house built. 

The two Christian villages of Roasi were only half a mile apart, with 
a ravine in between, and yet separate teachers had to be found for them, 
owing to their unwillingness to move to some one central spot where a 
permanent church and school could be built. The Mission went so far 
as to buy a site down on the beach large enough to accommodate both 
sections of the people, who numbered something over 200, but after 
Horohanue's death petty jealousies and squabbles completely pre- 
vented any concerted action. 

At Sa'a, an important place at the southeast end of Malaita, the 
titular chief Sinehanue was the direct descendant, twelve generations 
removed, of the chiefs who had shared in the original migration from 
the hills of Little Malaita (Codrington, Mel. Anthrop., p. 49). He 
lived apart from the majority of the people with just his own immediate 
relatives and dependents around him. Four separate villages, huu i 
lume, collections of houses, formed what was known to the neighboring 
peoples as Sa'a, though no one village bore the name as such, and in 
each of these there was at least one person who was reckoned as alaha 
chief. 

The greatest possible difficulty was experienced in inducing the peo- 
ples of these four villages to act in concert and assign one place as the 
site for the church and school. We had journeys all over the neigh- 
borhood looking for a neutral place and houses were begun tentatively 
in several directions in order to accelerate union. 

With very few exceptions the people inhabiting any particular dis- 
trict are always a mere handful. At Sa'a the inhabitants of all the 
four villages numbered a little over 200, and the population of an aver- 
age Christian village in any of the large islands of the Solomons when 
all of the available people had been gathered in would seldom be much 
over 60. These villages, moreover, are several miles apart, and there 
is nothing in the nature of roads joining them, so it is plain that there 
must necessarily be a great deal of unavoidable isolation between the 
villages, and concerted action and corporate life will not be acquired 
easily. 



I96 MELANESIA AND ITS PEOPLE. 

CULTIVATION OF RESPONSIBILITY AND INDEPENDENCE IN THE 

NATIVE CHURCH. 

The native church in Melanesia has never really been asked as yet 
to undertake the support of its own clergy and teachers. Bishop 
Wood's charge in 191 5 was the first official acknowledgment of the 
need for the Melanesians to look to themselves rather than to the 
Mission for funds to pay the teachers. In 1914 the amount contributed 
for the support of the Mission by the native church was £31. This 
amount certainly seems out of all proportion, since at the same time 
the island stations cost £1,300 and most of this was for teachers' pay. 
Nor is it that an excessive wage is paid to the teachers. No native 
priest receives more than £25 a year, and some of the junior teachers 
are rated at only £1 a year. In old days these salaries were always 
paid in kind, with now and then a demand for a little cash, but nowa- 
days a good deal of payment is done in cash, since traders and stores are 
found in almost every place. 

There has never been any attempt made to organize a system of local 
contributions. If a village wanted to buy timber or iron for the build- 
ing of its church, copra was made and was sold for the purpose, the 
Mission ship occasionally carrying the copra to market, or curios were 
made and were sold abroad. At various times during Bishop Wilson's 
episcopate several villages gave contributions in curios and these were 
taken and were sold for the benefit of the Mission. But this never 
became a regular thing. There seems to be no reason why the support 
of the native teachers in the well-established Christian villages should 
not be laid as a duty on the native church, with moreover the certainty 
of success. Until the time of Bishop Wilson no such thing was thought 
of, and one looks in vain for any hint of it in the lives of the first two 
bishops. In their time the making of copra was far from being estab- 
lished as an industry in Melanesia, and with the exception of food 
and curios there was practically nothing that could serve as a means of 
raising money. The native money (shell money or the teeth of por- 
poises or dogs) was valueless, since there was no means of changing it, 
as no traders would take it as a means of exchange. 

THE QUESTION OF MAKING A RETURN FOR SPIRITUAL GIFTS. 

In himself the Melanesian knows but little, if anything at all, of 
gratitude, and he sees nothing incongruous in allowing the Mission to 
pay his teachers. Bishop Wilson tried to inculcate the idea that it 
was the duty of the natives to convey their Mission priests about in 
boats, acting as crews for them and receiving no pay. The missionaries 
are often at heavy expense in obtaining boats' crews (every man pays 
his own travelling expenses), and in the Banks Group Mr. Cullwick con- 
stantly had a crew of six men with him for three months at a stretch. 



MELANESIA AND ITS PEOPLE. K)J 

The various villages, even if they provide any food at all for the crews 
(and most of them will do a little to that end), soon tire of feeding 
strangers, and so the missionary has to buy food for his crew and carry 
it about with him in addition to paying them. 

In Malaita and San Cristoval there never was any difficulty in ob- 
taining crews, nor was there any bargaining about price (but this was 
before the return of the Kanakas from Queensland and the consequent 
introduction of a very different set of ideas), whereas in Florida the 
missionary has had regularly to hire his crew and appoint a fixed rate 
of wages before leaving. In places other than Florida half a crown a 
week was reckoned very good pay. A man would gaily leave on a six 
weeks' tour with no luggage beyond his pipe, shoulder-bag, and one 
loin-cloth. On the morning of departure our yard would be thronged 
with men and a spokesman from among them would approach and ask: 
"Are many going with you?" "Why?" "Oh, I did not know whether 
you had enough." Our own experience was that men had to be turned 
away at such times, and a double crew could always be got. But 
though they were content- with their pay, no one of them would have 
been willing to go for nothing, while at the same time the home duties of 
them all were practically nil. They and their people were being bene- 
fited very materially by the presence of the missionary, but it was per- 
haps too much to expect them to give their services free in carrying 
him about; moreover, they viewed the work as a chance of earning a 
little, and such chances were rare. 

The Melanesian attitude with regard to presents is peculiar. A 
number of women would come with yams in baskets for sale; one special 
basket would be reported as "not for sale," its contents (often inferior 
yams) were a gift — but it would have been the height of foolishness to 
accept such a gift without making a corresponding return. On being 
discharged from hospital a man would ask for a present in that he had 
been cured! Where there is no sense of debt there can be no showing 
of gratitude, gratitude being a spiritual and not a natural gift, a sense 
of the need to try to make a return for favors rendered. A Melanesian 
knows nothing of social duties; his life is lived apart from that of his 
fellows; he has no social sense, no dependence on his fellows, no common 
bonds of union such as spring up in community life; he asks nothing 
from his fellows nor they anything from him; he owes them nothing, 
and in consequence his circumstances have never been such as would 
be likely to encourage the growth of gratitude. He has never received 
anything; he has nothing to return. 

The average Melanesian is a person of few worldly possessions; his 
house furniture consists of a few wooden bowls, a mortar for pounding 
yams or taro, a supply of vegetables smaller or larger according to his 
energy, an axe or a cane-knife; also a little stock of native money and 
perhaps a canoe. Of clothes he has practically none and the mis- 



I98 MELANESIA AND ITS PEOPLE. 

sionary's simple wardrobe seems to him to be lavish in the extreme; 
he therefore has no compunction in asking for what he knows the white 
man to possess. If a person has practically never owned anything at 
all and if all his fellows are in the same condition too it is almost impos- 
sible to get him to understand that he should feel gratitude towards 
those who give him anything, since from his point of view they have so 
much in that they have anything at all. 

RELATIONS OF NATIVES WITH WHITES. 

The question of treachery follows on that of gratitude. It is a matter 
of common belief amongst Europeans that natives are treacherous. 
This idea of treachery is generally founded on ignorance of the point of 
view of the natives. It is generally supposed that one can not trust 
oneself to them; that their attitude is uncertain and that they are 
liable to turn and rend one without any provocation. While granting 
that the native is a person of moods, it is just as possible to foretell 
what action he is likely to take in a given case as it is with Europeans. 
In his actions he follows a line of reasoning quite as much as the white 
man does. Many attacks on and murders of white men have been 
ascribed to treachery on the part of the natives, but it is only fair to 
call to remembrance the awful indignities and atrocities perpetrated on 
them by the whites and to put these in the scale over against the accu- 
sations of treachery. The native certainly at times acts wickedly either 
on the impulse of the moment or for a wicked end, but in most cases of 
wrong done to whites in Melanesia there has been some antecedent 
cause, some evil associated with a white person somewhere. The occa- 
sion may have been remote and the connection faulty from our point 
of view, but in the mind of the native the provocation was there. With 
our notions of direct justice and of the necessity for the punishment of 
the actual wrong-doer himself we can not understand the point of view 
of the native, which is that justice is satisfied so long as some one of the 
same people who did the real or fancied wrong is made to suffer. 



IVENS 



PLATE 1 




SOME HISTORICAL NOTES CONCERNING THE MELANESIAN 

MISSION. 

The founding of the Melanesian Mission was due to the vigorous 
bodily energy and the apostolic fervor of Bishop George Augustus 
Selwyn. The fact that the founder was a Bishop, and as such pos- 
sessed the power and authority to insure the success of his plans and 
ideas, and had in addition a certain assured sum of money at his 
back, caused the Mission to be stamped from the outset with a definite 
style and imprinted upon it a traditional method of work. In consid- 
ering this style and tradition, we must remember that the founder 
of the Mission was Bishop of New Zealand and was thus debarred 
from settling in Melanesia and leading the attack on its Heathenism 
from within. Since his home and his main interests and his more 
regular sphere of work lay outside Melanesia, and since also the carry- 
ing out of the work at all seemed to depend on himself, it is obvious that 
the only way for him to begin the evangelization of Melanesia was 
by taking boys from it to some place where he could have them trained 
with a view to their becoming the future missionaries of Melanesia. 

Quite apart, however, from the fact of the foundation of the Mission 
by a bishop and from its receiving thereby a definite and a fixed char- 
acter at the outset, and apart also from the difficulty of changing a 
practice once firmly established, those who know the influence which 
Bishop Selwyn exercised in the matter of fixing the constitution of the 
Church of New Zealand would naturally expect to find something of 
the same rigidity and fixedness in the traditional methods and style of 
work in the Melanesian Mission. It must also be borne in mind, when 
reviewing the style and methods of work adopted in the Mission, that 
its policy herein has not been the result of the deliberations of the 
missionaries themselves and has not stood in the definite following of 
the teachings of the experience of the many, with alterations from time 
to time to suit the varying needs, but has been in effect the regular and 
one may say almost the mechanical following of the lines laid down by 
the founder. For all that, the Melanesian diocese was an offshoot of 
the Church of New Zealand and as such might have been expected to 
show the same spirit of cooperation in religious matters between clergy 
and chosen lay representatives consulting together, yet the Mission 
never had a synod (though every diocese in New Zealand has one), and 
the conference of whites and natives held in 191 1 was the first instance 
of any attempt made during the whole history of the Mission to gather 
the workers together and to take deliberative measures for the better 
carrying on of the work. 

Until the time, about 12 years ago, when the missionaries first 
tended to become permanent residents in the spheres of work in the 

199 



200 NOTES CONCERNING THE MELANESIAN MISSION. 

islands, practically the only changes made in the original plan of work 
in the Mission were: (i) the substitution of Mota for English as the 
language of the central school; (2) the removal of headquarters to 
Norfolk Island from Auckland. The hand of the founder seemed ever 
to lie on the Mission which his strong and vigorous nature and powerful 
personality had called into being and directed along its path of life. 

In the Melanesian Mission the bishop theoretically is the Mission; 
the clergy simply are the bishop's chaplains, and till fairly late in the 
episcopate of Bishop Wilson no license was issued to them, and so long 
as it was the tradition that they should return every summer to Nor- 
folk Island it is evident that they could not be instituted to any cure 
of souls. It is quite plain, moreover, that with only a small staff and 
with frequent absences or departures or losses entailing a considerable 
moving round of the men, nothing approaching the conditions neces- 
sary for the holding of a synod of the Australasian type is likely to 
occur, and it does not seem that the Mission is likely to grow quickly 
into a church which shall be self-governing unless (in order to com- 
pensate for the fewness of the white priests) a large number of native 
priests are ordained. 

SUPPORT. 

The bishop's chief intention in regard to the support of the Mission 
seems to have been that it should be a first charge on the Church of 
New Zealand, and he evidently regarded the Mission in Melanesia 
as part and parcel of the work of the Church of New Zealand. He 
also looked forward to the native Maori church as a source whence 
missionaries to Melanesia would be obtained. With the division of 
the original diocese of New Zealand into six and the consequent 
necessity, owing to influx of population, of providing for its own in- 
ternal needs, the Church of New Zealand rather failed for many years 
to fulfill its obligations to Melanesia. A resolution of General Synod 
was passed to the effect that the various dioceses be asked to appoint 
a missionary Sunday and to give their alms on that day to Melanesia. 
Four out of the six dioceses have now fallen into line with this reso- 
lution by appointing such a Sunday. 

The Christian Maoris have not realized as yet the hope that Bishop 
Selwyn entertained of them, viz, that they should become missionaries 
to Melanesia and that the Maori church should support its own foreign 
missionaries; but now, with the coming of the Marsden Centenary, a 
definite movement has been set on foot to send Maori missionaries to 
the Polynesian-speaking peoples in Melanesia. 

In Australia the Melanesian Mission was accepted through the Board 
of Missions as one of the activities of the church, yet in 1894 Australia's 
contribution to Melanesia was only £1,600, whereas in the same year 
New Zealand gave £2,750 and England £3,800. The revival of the 



NOTES CONCERNING THE MELANESIAN MISSION. 201 

Australian Board of Missions' interest in Australia six years ago caused 
a great improvement in the local contributions to the Melanesian Mis- 
sion, and in 191 3 these amounted to £2,928 as against £5,122 from 
New Zealand. 

In England, up till the time of the episcopate of Bishop Wilson, all 
interest in Melanesia was confined to the Eton Association and to the 
actual friends of the Mission — i. e.> those in close touch with particular 
missionaries. The Rev. Prebendary Selwyn had discharged all duties 
connected with the raising of the English income of the Mission, but 
in 1899 a paid secretary was appointed and an office was taken in 
the Church House, Westminster. The Rev. L. P. Robin was the first 
secretary and he was succeeded in 1905 by the Rev. A. E. Corner, 
who still occupies the position and who acts in an honorary capacity. 
For the last twelve years the Mission has had a regular lecturer touring 
in England and in 191 3 the English income was £8,800. 

THE LOG. 

Up till 1895 the Mission had no way of making its needs known and 
of spreading the knowledge of its work, except by its annual reports or 
by quarterly papers published by Bishop J. R. Selwyn in England. 
The first number of the "Southern Cross Log" appeared in 1895, and 
now for twenty years the "Log" has been published monthly, and an 
edition is also published in England. Undoubtedly the "Log" has 
helped greatly in the augmentation of interest in the Mission, and the 
fact that the Mission has at last emerged into full view and has taken 
its place as one of the missions of the whole church is owing largely to 
services rendered by the "Log." We may now say that whereas the 
Melanesian Mission started its life as the creation of the apostolic zeal 
of one man and was practically a private mission for many years, it 
has become at length the possession of the whole English Church. 

Before the episcopate of Bishop Wilson the leaders of the Mission 
contributed largely to its funds. In the building of the ships a large 
amount of private money was thus expended and the present Southern 
Cross is the only one built by public subscriptions. Bishop Wilson 
saw the necessity of bringing the needs of the Mission to the minds of 
the people of the Church at large and he greatly extended the already 
existing policy of apportioning native scholars to various schools and 
parishes; he also inaugurated the "Island" scheme, whereby a person 
or parish guarantees the upkeep of a mission school in a certain place; 
by this means he practically insured regular yearly contributions. 

The head office of the Mission is in Auckland. This is owing to old- 
time associations and also to the presence there of Archdeacon Dudley, 
who was for so many years the treasurer of the Mission. Latterly the 
organizing secretary for New Zealand has also had his headquarters in 
Auckland. Bishop Wilson appointed a committee of business men in 



202 NOTES CONCERNING THE MELANESIAN MISSION. 

Auckland to advise on monetary matters and to look after the Mis- 
sion's interest in the matter of repairs to the ship and the ordering of 
stores for the islands. Doubtless much money was saved by this step. 

NORFOLK ISLAND. 

It is in the matter of Norfolk Island that the lingai of the Mission — 
i. e., its adherence to tradition — has been most marked. Bishop G. A. 
Selwyn was forced at the outset of the work to choose a base of oper- 
ations outside Melanesia itself. His policy was to keep the work of 
the Mission under his own eye rather than to call for workers to go 
and settle in the islands and develop the mission work from within. 
It was assumed that for the development of the Mission the base of 
operations must necessarily be elsewhere than in the field to be devel- 
oped, and while the question of climate has always been supposed 
popularly to have been the main determining factor in the course which 
was pursued, yet in all probability the matter was settled by other 
considerations than those of climate. The climate of Melanesia is 
bad enough, but when Bishop Selwyn began his work in the islands 
white missionaries of the London Missionary Society and also Presby- 
terian missionaries were settled already in the New Hebrides, the 
French were in New Caledonia, and the Methodists were in New 
Britain. The climate of the New Hebrides is but little better, if at 
all, than that of the Banks Islands, where most of the early work of 
the Mission was done, and New Britain has almost the same climate 
as the Solomons, so it is evident that missionaries of the Melanesian 
Mission, or the Northern Mission as it was called at the outset, could 
have settled in their own sphere of work had the policy allowed. 

The report of 1857, written probably by Mr. Patteson, puts the 
matter very clearly from the standpoint of that time. Speaking of 
the Melanesians in the school at St. John's, Auckland, he writes: 

"They are delicate subjects and require careful handling, morally and 
physically. The strength of passion and weakness of constitution which 
belongs to their tropical nature require careful training. But if they can be 
acclimatized mentally as well as physically, and taught to unite the energy 
and perseverance of the inhabitants of a temperate region with their own 
fervor and impetuosity of character, there can be little reason to doubt but 
that they will prove most efficient teachers and missionaries to their own 
people, when once the grace of God's spirit shall have shined in their hearts. 
The pupil will probably, by the mere force of association, have received 
impressions and experienced a change of character which will prove very 
beneficial to him and which may induce him, on mixing once more with his 
own friends, to contrast their customs with ours. He will feel the sense of a 
want now created in him of something better than his own land supplies; 
he will desire to return again to New Zealand, and by degrees be borne along 
from one point to another till, under God's blessing, he emerges from his old 
dark Heathen state of mind into a state of conscious apprehension and accept- 



NOTES CONCERNING THE MELANESIAN MISSION. 203 

ance of that religion which has presented itself to him as modifying every 
part of his life and character, social, moral and spiritual. 

"It is useless to suppose that the 78 islands already visited by the Bishop of 
New Zealand can be permanently supplied with English missionaries. It is 
indeed beyond the bounds of all probability to suppose that even the twenty- 
one islands which have already yielded scholars to the Mission can be pro- 
vided with resident English teachers. While India, China, and Africa are 
now at length opened to us, and need every help which Christian zeal and 
love in England may supply, we can not expect any large number of mission- 
aries from home for the work in Melanesia. The only method now open, as 
we have said, is to avail ourselves of the strange curiosity which induces 
native men and lads to trust themselves with us, and to hope and believe 
that out of these some will be led to return again and again to New Zealand 
to receive direct Christian teaching. 

"In every case the attempt would be made to raise up a staff of teachers 
for each island from among the inhabitants of each island, and the English 
missionary, or any native teacher qualified for the work who might be asso- 
ciated with him, would not be regarded as permanently attached to the 
particular island with which they were at any given time brought into relation, 
but only until such time as the teachers trained up by them in the island 
during a part of the year, and in New Zealand during the remainder of it, 
could be taught to carry on the work under the superintendence of the 
Bishop making his rounds in the mission vessel. If each group of islands 
should be hereafter placed in charge of an English missionary, whose duty 
it would be in his small boat to be watching over the native clergy in each 
part of his district, and the Melanesian Bishop should be for six months 
visiting the islands, bringing back and taking away teachers and scholars, 
and for the remaining six superintending the missionary college in New Zea- 
land; some five or six active working men would constitute the whole of the 
necessary English staff." 

It was really Bishop Selwyn's strong personality and his vigor of 
mind and body that caused this new and hitherto untried method of 
evangelization to be adopted. The Bishop's method was a new one 
in the history of modern missions, though in a measure it might be 
regarded as an adaptation of the method adopted by St. Boniface 
in founding monasteries and in using them to educate missionaries 
gathered from the neighborhood. The ordinary way of starting and of 
carrying on the work to be done in Melanesia, viz., by residential 
missionaries, was difficult enough at that time owing to (1) the short- 
age of men, (2) the lack of regular communication other than by the 
Mission ship, (3) the difficulty of climate, (4) the multiplicity of lan- 
guages. But it must not be forgotten that the other missions in Mela- 
nesia, by their policy of settling residential missionaries from the very 
inception of their work, have proved that (1) men will offer for the 
work and (2) climatic conditions can be overcome. Of the other two 
difficulties, that of communication has already been solved and the 
language difficulty has not been found to be insuperable. 

The native teachers of the Melanesian Mission trained in a fairly 
cool climate at Norfolk Island and surrounded by the things of civil- 



204 NOTES CONCERNING THE MELANESIAN MISSION. 

ization, have certainly not proved any more useful as propagandists 
than the native teachers of other Missionary bodies in the Pacific 
who were trained in or near their own homes. 

It was during the episcopate of Bishop Wilson that those changes 
began which not only considerably altered the original plan of the 
Mission, but which also bid fair to change its character altogether. 
The Rev. H. Welchman was actually the first to make a change in the 
original plan of the Mission by settling with his wife at Siota, Florida. 
Dr. Comins bought Siota with the idea of establishing a preparatory 
school there for teachers, and he and Mr. Welchman had undertaken 
to conduct it in turn, Mr. Welchman taking the summer months and 
Dr. Comins returning from Norfolk Island during the southeastern 
trade season, when Mr. Welchman went back to his own work in 
Bugotu. Previous to this, however, Mr. Forrest had been living 
continuously at Santa Cruz all the year through, but the rest of the staff 
regularly spent the summer months at Norfolk Island. Bishop J. 
Selwyn, moreover, had long been desirous of doing something to aid the 
Christian life of the converts, because he recognized the necessity of 
building them up in their Christianity. He also wished to give them 
something to do in order to replace the misdirected efforts of the old 
Heathenism with some form of regular employment. His idea was to 
furnish a small vessel for trading purposes and to start a trading com- 
pany, thus providing an outlet for the energies of his people, now that 
the old avenues of their Heathen life were closed. 

FURTHER CHANGES. 

During Bishop Wilson's episcopate there were many new develop- 
ments of work. Preparatory schools were built at Bongana in Florida, 
at Pamua on San Cristoval, and at Vureas in the Banks Group. The 
missionaries began to reside permanently among their people and mis- 
sion houses were built in all the groups. Men took their wives to the 
islands and women workers were placed in pairs in various places. 
Still, so long as Norfolk Island remained the Bishop's headquarters it 
could not reasonably be said that these doings amounted to a radical 
change of front; they were only what might be expected, owing to 
the changes in the circumstances of the islands caused by the advent of 
trade and by the presence of other missionary bodies in the Mission's 
area. These two factors, viz., trade and opposition, have worked such 
a change in the Mission's plan that it may be said that practically 
all the missionaries are residential in the islands, i. e. y they no longer 
return to Norfolk Island during the summer. 

The growing importance of the work in the islands so impressed the 
authorities that when Bishop Wilson resigned it was felt that his suc- 
cessor must be prepared to have his headquarters in the islands. Nor- 



NOTES CONCERNING THE MELANESIAN MISSION. 205 

folk Island, however, was to continue, but was to take in only senior 
boys and no girls whatever; its numbers would thus be reduced consid- 
erably and special attention could then be given to individuals and 
special facilities afforded for the training of ordinands. Under these 
conditions it is obvious that the Bishop would have to intrust the head 
of the Norfolk Island school with considerable powers. But a prece- 
dent might have been found for this in the fact that Bishop Patteson 
had previously entertained the idea of locating himself in Fiji in order 
to conduct work among the Melanesian laborers there and of intrusting 
to others the care of St. Barnabas; Bishop J. R. Selwyn, also, proposed 
leaving Dr. Codrington in charge at St. Barnabas, so that he himself 
might be free to build up the lives of the Christians in the islands. 

The intention at the beginning of the episcopate of Bishop Wood was 
to modify the original plan of work by providing that the missionaries 
and the Bishop look upon the islands as their main field of operations 
and should definitely make their home in the islands, but that the chief 
training-school should be away from the islands, i. e.> that the original 
plan should still stand in part. But in the light both of the failure of 
the situation of the school (in a temperate climate) to affect materially 
the mental or spiritual vigor of the scholars as was hoped, and also 
having in consideration the undoubted fact that a school to serve the 
same purposes could easily be established in these days in the Solo- 
mons or in the New Hebrides, one can but think that the Norfolk 
Island school might well be closed altogether. The Presbyterians have 
their college on Tangoa in the New Hebrides and the Anglicans in 
Papua have theirs at Dogura, and both of these colleges can turn out 
teachers every bit as capable of doing their work as the Melanesian 
teachers from Norfolk Island are for doing theirs. 

Possibly it was thought that to close St. Barnabas altogether would 
entail the running counter to a vast amount of sentiment, and even if 
the closing of it could be shown to be likely to effect a saving financially 
considerations of sentiment seemed likely to rule out the project as 
impossible or as unwise. One remembers that there was some talk a 
few years ago of making Sydney the headquarters for the ship, but inas- 
much as the doing of this would have involved the changing of the 
business headquarters also (and these have been in Auckland from the 
start), it was deemed inadvisable to make any change. Sydney, how- 
ever, is the metropolis for the Pacific and caters specially for the island 
trade, and there is no doubt that the trade requirements of the Mission 
would have been more easily satisfied and a saving in price would also 
have been effected by dealing in Sydney; but old associations carried 
the day. The history of the monetary contributions to the mission in 
New Zealand shows, however, that propinquity to and constant asso- 
ciation with the Mission and its work are not the all-important factors 
in determining the amount of money likely to be subscribed in a place. 
The Auckland diocese used to be far ahead of all the other dioceses 



206 NOTES CONCERNING THE MELANESIAN MISSION. 

in New Zealand in its support of the Melanesian Mission, but of late 
years Christchurch has been a considerable rival to it. Possibly even 
a change of the headquarters of the ship to Sydney would not have 
affected New Zealand contributions over much. 

It can hardly be said that the Mission has any explicit or definite 
policy with regard to the requirements of the life of its missionaries in 
the islands, i. e.> in the matter of food, diet, care of the body, medicine, 
clothing, housing, learning of the local language, treatment of natives, 
method of propagation of Christianity. In the old days the newcomer 
did certainly get impregnated with the atmosphere of the Mission by 
living at Norfolk Island; he learned the lingai (a Mota word meaning 
"use") of the Mission, but nowadays newcomers go straight to their 
work in the islands and have to learn the lingai of the Mission as best 
they can. It would seem that there never has been any definite policy 
with regard to these matters; a man on being put down in the old days 
in charge of a particular place was left there quite alone and presumably 
was expected to know how to live his life without warning or direction. 
When Bishop Wilson at the outset of his work directed attention to 
the need of a set of directions and instructions for managing a whale- 
boat the opinion which found favor among the staff was that it was best 
to let a man learn by experience. And the question of linguistics was 
treated much in the same way — every man was supposed to pick up the 
language spoken in his particular district. The learning of Mota was a 
fairly simple problem, owing to the many books that were translated 
into it (the Mota dictionary was not published till 1896), but it was 
quite a different matter when faced with an unknown tongue which one 
was supposed to learn, while at the same time no help or directions 
were provided towards enabling one to set about the study of it. 

The common use of Mota tended, moreover, to cause a depreciation 
in the estimate of the value of the other languages of the Mission. 
Mota was the language and the enlightenment or the importance of a 
place was measured at times by the ability or otherwise of its people to 
speak Mota. The unquestioned usefulness and the predominance of 
Mota tended to put all the other languages into the background and 
had a prejudicial effect on the study of them. Britishers as a rule are 
inclined possibly to treat sets of instructions as unnecessary and grand- 
motherly, and the non-provision of the missionaries of the Melanesian 
Mission with the best wisdom of the day with regard to the needs of 
their life was due in the first place to this dislike of being ordered about 
and of having to live according to rule and of assimilating their ideas 
to a set of formal conditions, and in the second place was the direct con- 
sequence of the old view that the life of the missionaries in the islands 
was an incidental break in the regular round of duties at Norfolk Island. 



[YENS 



PLATE 2 



B 




1 holo by Beattie, I-Iobart. 

A. Recruiting Boat at a Market in Malaita. The Women in the Canoes are waiting 

to exchange their Fish for Garden Produce. 

B. Women Traders, etc., Malaita. 



"YACHTING" IN MELANESIA. 

It did not need the mistake of a clerk in drawing out the letters 
patent of Bishop G. A. Selwyn's commission to act as bishop from lat. 
50 S. to 34 N. (i. e. y from the Auckland Islands to the Carolines) to 
direct the Bishop's attention to the islands of Melanesia. In 1847, 
when Selwyn first went to Melanesia, Fiji had already been partially 
Christianized, Tonga and Samoa were practically Christian, the French 
were beginning to occupy New Caledonia, and the London Missionary 
Society had Rarotongan teachers in the southern New Hebrides and 
the Loyalties; John Williams had been murdered in Erromango, and 
a French Roman Catholic bishop had been killed at Ysabel, Solomon 
Islands. Selwyn wrote in 1849: 

"While I have been sleeping in my bed in New Zealand, these islands, 
the Isle of Pines, New Caledonia, New Hebrides, New Ireland, New Britain, 
New Guinea, the Loyalty Islands, the Kingsmills, etc., have been riddled 
through and through by the whale-fishers and traders of the South Sea. 
That odious black slug the beche-de-mer has been dragged out of its hole 
in every coral reef to make black broth for Chinese mandarins, while I, 
like a worse black slug as I am, have left the world all its field of mischief 
to itself. The same daring men have robbed every one of these islands of 
its sandalwood to furnish incense for the idolatrous worship of the Chinese 
temples, before I have taught a single islander to offer up his sacrifice of 
prayer to the true and only God. Even a mere Sydney speculator could 
induce nearly a hundred men to sail in his ships to Sydney to keep his flocks 
and herds, before I, to whom the Chief Shepherd has given commandment 
to seek out His sheep that are scattered over a thousand isles, have sought 
out or found out so much as one of those which have strayed or are lost.' 

Selwyn first reached New Zealand in 1842 and five years later his 
great mind and his godly strength and endurance prompted him to 
join H. M. S. Dido as acting chaplain on a voyage to Tonga and Samoa 
and to the southern New Hebrides and the Isle of Pines. It was at 
this last place that he saw a sandalwood trader, Captain Paddon, 
living in perfect security among a people credited with every evil 
passion and with a name for extreme treachery and cunning. Cap- 
tain Paddon ascribed his safety to just and straight dealing, and the 
Bishop at once saw the value of this lesson and called Paddon his 
tutor. Just dealing seldom fails to commend itself to natives, but 
the Melanesian Mission had sad cause later on to know that disin- 
terested conduct and the best of motives will not avail against out- 
raged feelings or superstitious beliefs or even against the involuntary 
breaking of a tabu or a going contrary to some established practice 
of native etiquette. 

On August 1, 1849, Selwyn sailed from Auckland in his own college 
schooner, the Undine, for New Caledonia and the New Hebrides, and 

207 



208 



YACHTING IN MELANESIA. 



thus began what his detractors in New Zealand called his "yachting 
cruises." The Undine was a fore-and-aft schooner of 21 tons, and a 
square sail could be hoisted on the foremast when the wind was aft. 
The Bishop had already made several trips round New Zealand in this 
little vessel with Champion as master. In his later years Champion 
lived on Norfolk Island, and during my occupation of the chaplaincy 
of the island I had many opportunities of converse with the old man. 
He was naturally full of stories about the Bishop and his prowess. One 
story was told to his own detriment. On one occasion, when about to 
leave Auckland for Wellington, the Bishop on coming aboard found his 
captain drunk. He promptly put him below, shut the hatch, got sails 





/ / 1 

/ / 1 


II 
1 

H 
\ \\ 

1 11 

1 t 

1 ■' 

U m 1 


\ 


7^ 









The Undine. 

set, and then took the wheel all night and navigated the ship past the 
many islets into open water. In the morning the Bishop opened the 
hatch and called out, "Champion, are you sober?" "Yes, my lord!" 
replied Champion. "Then come up and take the wheel while I sleep." 
On Selwyn's first voyage to Melanesia he had, of course, no modern 
charts to go by; all that he had were some old Russian and Spanish 
charts, the latter being 300 years old. Champion, at my request, made 
a model of the Undine and presented it to the Mission; it is now in the 
museum at Norfolk Island. The discomforts of life on a 20-ton schooner 
in the tropics must have been very great, and in addition the Bishop's 
cabin was often occupied with sick and ailing natives. The fare on 
board was doubtless composed mainly of "bully" beef and hard bis- 



"YACHTING" IN MELANESIA. 200, 

cuits, but one is inclined to think that the following story, if true, shows 
hardness run to the death. The Bishop had called in at Norfolk 
Island and on Sunday a roast turkey appeared on the table. The cook 
was called and was asked by the Bishop where he got the turkey. 
"Norfolk Island, my lord," he replied. Then said the Bishop, "Have 
you got no salt beef on board? Heave that thing over the side." 

Perhaps the most marvelous feat of endurance on the part of 
Bishop Selwyn was the compilation, while at sea in the Undine on the 
Melanesian trips, of his "Verbal Analysis of the Bible," which was 
intended to facilitate the translation of the Scriptures into foreign 
languages. Of this work it may be said that the scope of it is as 
yet too great for our present standards of scholarship. We are too 
parochial and confined in our thoughts, our efforts are too small and 
insignificant, our horizon is always so limited, and our efforts are too 
puny to allow us to work on such broad and comprehensive lines as 
the Bishop suggests. The greatness of his ideas fairly makes us stagger, 
so accustomed are we to puddling along in our own little corners. 

The book had a twofold object; it was intended to act as a manu- 
script note-book to assist in the translations of the Scriptures, and also 
to provide a complete course of annual instruction on the whole subject- 
matter of the Bible. All the words of the Bible can be classified under 
less than 250 heads, and these are arranged alphabetically in the 
analysis, and provision is made for 60 subheadings in each case. Ref- 
erences are given showing where each word occurs, either in the Old 
or in the New Testament. The book is so arranged as to supply a 
course of annual lessons on the Bible for every Sunday in the year and 
two or more of a less strictly religious character for every week. These 
are to be used for spelling and reading lessons, then with the references 
as lessons on the words of the Bible, then as the heads of catechetical 
instruction. The missionary is to write down in one of the columns 
the native equivalents for the various English words, thus enabling him 
to gain an accurate knowledge of the language of the people among 
whom he is working, so that the translations may be idiomatic and accu- 
rate, and so that as full and complete a list of words may be compiled 
as the language affords. With the assistance of others the Bishop 
hoped to expand the book into a complete polyglot dictionary of all 
languages and a universal cipher for international communication. 
And all the manuscript was prepared in the cabin of a 20-ton schooner 
in the tropics! A veritable triumph of mind and spirit over matter! 

Bishop Selwyn's powers of body were equally on as large a scale as 
those of his mind. His feat of diving and examining the copper sheath- 
ing on the bottom of the Undine, after she had been aground on a reef 
at Noumea, well merited the generous applause of the British and 
French men-of-war's men anchored near by. 



2IO YACHTING IN MELANESIA. 

The mission carpenter at Norfolk Island told me a story illustrating 
the general opinion held in Auckland as to the Bishop's ability to box. 
During the time of the Maori war a man-of-war's man and a marine 
were fighting in Queen Street when the Bishop happened to be passing 
by. An onlooker said to Kendall, the carpenter, "Do you see those 
two fellows fighting? Well, there goes someone who could take it out 
of the two of them with one hand ! " Kendall pretended ignorance and 
asked who was meant, "Why, the Bishop of course," said the other. 
Champion, of the Undine y used to recount how at Tanna, where the 
Bishop went first in 1849, a native came off and proceeded to air his 
knowledge of English, which was mostly of a blasphemous and filthy 
nature. The Bishop ordered the man to leave the ship and on his 
refusal bundled him over the side into the water. The man swam 
ashore and joined a group on the beach, and then the Bishop told 
Champion to lower the dinghy. " But, my lord," protested Champion, 
"surely you are not going to venture on shore." "Lower the dinghy" 
was the order. The Bishop then got into it and sculled himself to 
shore. 

Selwyn's lack of conventionality and his indifference to what is 
generally regarded as the convenances of his position and his desire to 
get on with what he had in hand are well exemplified by the story of his 
carrying ashore from the ship the boxes of his chaplain, who had just 
arrived from England, and in later years we read of Selwyn himself 
superintending the recoppering of the mission ship at Kawau. 

One result of Bishop Selwyn's first voyage to Melanesia in the 
Undine was that he obtained five native boys whom he took up to 
Auckland and thus practically started the Melanesian Mission. In the 
following year a voyage was made to the same islands again and Tanna 
also was visited. Some Anaiteum people were returned from Tanna 
and owing to heavy weather the crossing took two days, and the 
Undine had 35 people on board all that time. 

In 185 1 the Undine was replaced by the Border Maid, a schooner 
of ico tons and costing £1,200, the money being subscribed in Sydney 
and Newcastle. The support of the ship was guaranteed in Sydney 
and by the Eton Association for helping the Melanesian Mission, and 
ever since then Eton has nobly done its duty by the Mission year after 
year. The founding of the Australian Board of Missions was another 
of the results of Selwyn's visit to Sydney that year. The Bishop 
lamented the passing of the little Undine, which had carried him so 
well over 24,000 miles of sea. 

In company with Bishop Tyrrell of Newcastle, a voyage was made 
in the Border Maid to the southern New Hebrides, to New Caledonia, 
to Santa Cruz, and to the Solomons. At Malekula in the New Hebrides 
the whole ship's company were in serious peril of their lives, Bishop 



YACHTING IN MELANESIA. 211 

Selwyn being on shore filling water-casks and Bishop Tyrrell minding 
the ship. Stones were thrown and arrows were shot, but the calmness 
of the whole party undoubtedly saved them from being massacred. 

The Border Maid was found to be defective in gear and sails and 
was sold the next year. The natives who had been brought up to 
Auckland in her were taken to Sydney and were returned to their 
homes in a chartered brig named Gratitude. A voyage was made in 
the brig Victoria in 1853 as far as Norfolk Island and the Loyalties, 
the Bishop being accompanied by the governor of New Zealand, Sir 
George Gray. Thus Bishop Selwyn completed seven voyages to Mel- 
anesia. Anyone who has visited the islands of Melanesia and has 
had experience with the tropical heat and the wet and muggy atmos- 
phere, would hardly say that he had been on a "yachting cruise"; 
and when one considers the smallness of the Undine and the confined 
space in which the Bishop and his passengers lived, and their sen- 
sations in being hove-to in the tropics for 48 hours during a hurricane, 
their food salt beef or pork and biscuits, one marvels at the courage 
and determination and endurance of this great hero. There were not 
wanting those who viewed with great disfavor the Bishop's missionary 
voyages; he was frequently told that he had plenty to do at home 
without taking up this new work; but who can dictate to a St. Paul? 
The fruit of the Bishop's devoted labor is seen to-day in the great 
missionary diocese of Melanesia. 

When Selwyn visited a strange place his habit was to jump out from 
his whaleboat when 10 to 20 yards from the shore, and then to wade or 
swim to the beach; on his shoulders he strapped numerous presents, 
consisting of tomahawks, fish-hooks, handkerchiefs, prints, red tape. 
To the people who stood awaiting him on the beach he gave presents; 
he wrote down any names of people that he could obtain (how did he 
keep his notebook dry?), and made lists of words for future use. He 
bought their yams or coconuts and established friendly relations 
with them. In some places he produced one of the native boys who 
accompanied him and used him as a tame decoy, hoping to get a lad to 
accompany him. The Sydney Bulletin pictures to-day of missionaries 
in top hats and frock coats are at least 50 years behind the times. It 
was a common report in the Mission and it is an indisputable fact that 
both Selwyn and Patteson often went ashore in such regimentals, 
though we of to-day wonder how they managed to endure them. In 
my missionary play "Darkness and Dawn" I had represented Bishop 
Patteson as thus attired, but rather than seem to give countenance to 
the Bulletin idea I changed the dress. Bishop Wilson, on looking up 
his diary, wrote me that George Sarawia, Bishop Patteson's deacon, 
had informed him that he recollected the Bishop so dressed when he 
first saw him in the islands. The London Missionary Society also 



212 YACHTING IN MELANESIA. 

has pictures showing John Williams at Eromanga clad in silk hat and 
frock coat. The modern missionary's dress is of a peculiarly non- 
descript character. One remembers visiting a man-of-war in the 
Solomons and looking rather like a beachcomber than a mission priest, 
a battered straw hat, no coat, shirt torn, skin burned as brown as any 
native's, white trousers the worse for wear, and no boots on simply 
because there were none to put on; all were worn out with the rough 
travelling. We had just returned from a trip round Malaita (240 
miles) in a whaleboat. 

Some of the most pleasant natives one has known have been pro- 
fessional murderers, men who made their money by killing; they quite 
appreciate the value of Christian work among their neighbors. Most 
of the popular ideas as to cannibalism take their origin from descrip- 
tions of old Fijian habits or in a measure from the present-day prac- 
tices of certain African peoples, but cannibalism was never universal 
in Melanesia; in many of the islands, and even in parts of islands where 
it is known to be practiced, it is regarded with great abhorrence. Those 
of them who do eat human flesh eat it as a matter of course, associate 
it with no superstitious rites or ceremonies, and simply eat it because 
they learned the practice from their forefathers. The good old idea 
of the lurking savage going about with his chops watering, seeking whom 
he may devour, has no foundation in fact, and all writers of fiction have 
in the main abandoned it now under the light of ethnological research 
and with a better knowledge of the habits and customs of people. It 
may safely be said that the natives in Melanesia do not kill men purely 
for the sake of eating their flesh. Stories of ogres are common enough 
in the islands, men and women who have developed an inordinate taste 
for human flesh, but the ordinary native in a cannibalistic district makes 
no distinction between human flesh and pork; it is simply flesh meat. 

The first Southern Cross of the Mission was built at Blackwall by 
Wigram's. She was a schooner of 65 tons. Miss Yonge had sug- 
gested, when Bishop Selwyn visited England in 1853, that funds should 
be raised for a ship among the readers of "The Heir of RedclyfFe, " 
then just published. Mrs. Keble and some friends raised the required 
sum and gave it to the Bishop. The Southern Cross sailed in 1854 
from London on the same day that Selwyn and Patteson left England 
in the Duke of Portland. On arrival in New Zealand the ship was 
utilized for a trip to the South Island, and in 1856 Patteson made his 
first voyage to Melanesia in company with the Bishop. After the 
wreck of this vessel in i860 on the Hen and Chickens, the schooner 
Zillah was chartered for the Melanesian voyages. She was slow and 
unsuitable, after the smart and speedy and comfortable(?) Southern 
Cross, and Patteson said that she was guiltless of making 2 miles an 
hour to windward in a wind. 



"YACHTING" IN MELANESIA. 213 

The year of Bishop Patteson's consecration the Dunedin, a vessel of 
60 tons, was chartered. She was characterized as slow but sound. On 
all these ships the missionaries' practice was to have classes for the 
natives, and as in Patteson's time these classes were conducted in 
several languages which he alone knew, his time must have been well 
occupied. The principle on which he worked was that "to teach 
Christianity a man must know the language well." Certainly it is 
easy enough to acquire a few words and phrases, but in order to teach 
and to drive truths home a good, solid, idiomatic knowledge of a lan- 
guage is required. During this same year Patteson made a voyage to 
the Solomons in H. M. S. Cordelia and greatly appreciated the comfort 
of his new surroundings. He made a landing on Ysabel, where he 
acquired a list of 200 words and phrases. The Bishop's practice 
ever was to leave his boat's crew and go ashore wading or swimming. 
Patteson and Selwyn were both good swimmers, and it surely requires 
some skill to swim with a bundle of hatchets and adzes tied to one's 
shoulders. We read of Bishop Selwyn swimming out in a surf at 
Omba and of Patteson spending two days and a night in the Banks 
Group in an open boat in rain and wind riding to an anchor. If 
sailors do things of this sort we marvel at their intrepid behavior, 
but how much greater is it when men delicately reared act thus in the 
performance of their duty for Christ's sake ! We heard also of a mission 
priest last year in the Solomons who left an island at daybreak and after 
continuous rowing against wind and tide reached his destination the 
following night. And what shall we say of Dr. Welchman journeying 
across from Bugotu to Guadalcanar, 60 miles in an open boat, to visit 
the sick, and then returning the same way? "The noble love of Jesus 
impels a man to do great things." 

While waiting for the second Southern Cross the schooner Sea 
Breeze was chartered in 1862, and the following year the new Mission 
ship arrived under the charge of Captain Tilly, who had been navigat- 
ing lieutenant on the Cordelia and had volunteered to join Patteson. 
In later years we remember Captain Tilly as the Mission's secretary in 
Auckland. The second Southern Cross was a yawl-rigged brigantine 
of 93 tons and was also built at Wigram's. Her cost was £3,000, a large 
portion of which was contributed by Mr. Keble. Surely if Keble Col- 
lege realized the part Mr. Keble played in forwarding the work of the 
Melanesian Mission, some of their men would consider it their duty to 
volunteer for service in that Mission. 

No steward was carried on the Mission ship and the missionaries 
waited on themselves until some of the native boys volunteered to 
help. This was ever Patteson's way, and Selwyn's too; they were 
quite ready to do all the work and rather preferred to stir up and 
quicken their boys into helpfulness by letting the idea sink into their 



214 YACHTING IN MELANESIA. 

minds than to cause them to help through being commanded to do 
so; but this, of course, presupposes the working of a good deal of 
spiritual force in the mind of the natives, and one has to remember that 
a bishop or a person in high authority will often get attention shown 
him when an ordinary person may easily be passed over. A judicious 
mingling of the power of example and of the assertion of authority 
would seem to meet the case. If anything, the Mission, in following the 
practice of its great leaders, has somewhat failed to exercise the rights 
of its position, in trusting that the natives would themselves see and 
realize their duty by their spiritual fathers. 

Before Tilly's time the Bishop used to see to all the provisioning of 
the ship for the voyages, hired the seamen, kept all the accounts, and 
frequently was responsible for the navigation. temporal more si 
We latter-day missionaries, when clearing from Norfolk Island, so far 
from attending to navigation, cared little in our agony which way the 
ship's head was pointed. What lively times we used to have: a ship 
full of natives, boys and girls, the decks cumbered with livestock, the 
hold, the cabins, the natives' quarters filled with stores and with lug- 
gage. There was often no available space for the boys to lie down in; 
the 'tween decks was littered up with boxes, tables, furniture, packages, 
all piled one on top of the other. Lucky was the boy who could curl up 
on the underside of a table stowed upside down. Some people seem 
to fancy that Melanesians never suffer from the same ailments that 
Europeans do, are never seasick, never get malaria, etc. There is an 
equally prevalent belief that natives do not mind the sun's rays at sea, 
and also that they have no objection to getting wet with salt water, 
whereas when a spray comes on board they instinctively try to dodge it; 
possibly this is owing to their objection to having the salt dry on the 
bare skin; and also they will always congregate when possible under 
the shadow of the sail to avoid the sun. In rain natives start shivering 
and their teeth begin to chatter long before a white man shows any 
signs of feeling cold. 

Between Norfolk Island and the tropic one generally expected to 
have a bad time on the Southern Cross. The weather was often very 
rough, with a cross sea running, and then everything started rolling 
about. The 8-pound tins of meat stored in the lockers in the cabin 
would often be shot violently from one side to the other; the book- 
case door would threaten to break loose from its hinges, tumblers fell 
off the stand and were broken to pieces, lamps and doors swung wildly 
about with the rolling of the vessel, an occasional wave would dash 
into the side cabins, and to shut the doors meant suffocation. The 
bunks were arranged on both sides of the cabin, and where the ship 
was over full some luckless wight had to camp on the settee, and his 
experiences at night in a gale were somewhat exciting. As often as not 



YACHTING IN MELANESIA. 215 

one of the bunks was occupied by some boy who was being taken home 
ill. But the crown of it all was making up the teachers' pay in the 
store-room, commonly known as "the sweat-box," the temperature 
between 95 and ioo°, no air, a rolling ship, and the smell of the bilge 
water over all. 

The old Southern Cross had no bath and we hailed with delight a 
chance ->f standing under the rush of water that came off the deck- 
house in a shower. Tradition says that Bishop John Selwyn used to 
get them to turn the salt-water hose on him when they were washing 
down the decks. 

Captain Tilly resigned in 1870 and Captain Jacob succeeded him 
and was in charge of the ship at the time of the Bishop's murder. The 
third Southern Cross was built in 1874 and Bongard was her captain 
from 1875 till sne was sold. Bongard was the mate who took in the 
boat at Nukapu and picked up the Bishop's body. He had previously 
been mate on Henry Kingsley's yacht. The new ship was built in 
Auckland, a noted place for building good schooners. She was a three- 
masted topsail schooner of 180 tons, with a 24 horse-power auxiliary 
engine; her cost was about £5,000, of which £2,000 came from the Pat- 
teson Memorial Fund of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. 
After she was sold she was renamed Ysabel and was noted for her fast 
sailing. 

The fourth Southern Cross served from 1891 to 1903. She was 
built at Wyvenhoe in Essex by a noted yacht-builder, a friend of 
Bishop Selwyn's. Her cost was £9,000 and Bishop Selwyn and his 
friends contributed the money. In rig she was a three-masted fore- 
and-aft schooner with yards on the foremast, and still bearing her old 
name she is in the timber trade from Hobart to Melbourne and may 
often be seen in the Yarra just below Queen's Bridge. Her present 
owner speaks well of her sailing powers, but oh, when on her how one 
longed to be elsewhere! Her sail area was much reduced after she 
reached New Zealand, owing to a fear that the hull would not stand 
the strain, and this reduction in driving force, together with the drag 
of the propeller, made it very difficult to keep her well up when tacking. 
In 1901 the Bishop asked me to go to Tikopia in the ship from Mota, a 
distance of about 100 miles. On a previous voyage we had done the 
same journey in 17 hours; this second time we left on Monday about 
noon in a heavy swell; when Tuesday dawned we sighted the island 
a long way to windward and at noon we were 20 miles to leeward of it, 
and it was 10 a. m. the next day before we landed. It was always a 
struggle to get from the Solomons to Santa Cruz, and sometimes it 
took the better part of a week, but the last stretch of 600 miles from 
Vila to Norfolk Island was a veritable sea of growls. It was generally 
a case of making less than 100 miles a day tacking against the south- 



2l6 "YACHTING" IN MELANESIA. 

east trade-wind, and on one occasion we actually made a minus quantity 
in the 24 hours' run, so far as actual mileage was concerned, though we 
were in a better strategic position for getting south. Coming from the 
hot tropics, we felt the cold; our blood was thin and malaria insistent; 
supplies were apt to run short and we were perchance but poor expo- 
nents of Christian or even of Spartan fortitude. Captain Bongard 
remained in charge of the ship till 1897, and then he was succeeded by 
the mate, Mr. Huggett, a very old servant of the Mission, whom Mr. 
Hammond eventually succeeded. 

The present Southern Cross arrived in 1903. Originally she had sail 
power as well as steam, but the sails were taken off and the masts 
reduced in number and size. Her tonnage is 500, her speed 12 knots, 
and she cost £21,000. Captain Sinker commanded her for nearly 
ten years and wrote a descriptive account of his first voyage to the 
islands, which is entitled, " By Reef and Shoal. " 



IVENS 



PLATE 3 







Photo by I'eatlie, Hobarl. 



A. Sea-going Canoe, Malaita. 

B. Model of Canoe used for Bonito Fishing, Ulawa. 

C. Matema, Reef Group. 



THE QUEENSLAND LABOR TRADE. 

The first laborers imported into Queensland from the Pacific Islands 
arrived there in the year 1864. They were imported by Captain 
Towns, of Brisbane, for work on the cotton plantations. In 1847 
certain pastoralists of New South Wales had requisitioned ships to 
procure natives from the islands for employment as shepherds and 
drovers. Two ships were employed, the brig Portania and the schooner 
Velocity, and their object was described as "trading for cannibals," 
and when the so-called cannibals could not be obtained by fair means 
they were to be taken by force. These two ships called first at the 
Loyalties and obtained 30 men, who were far from being cannibals 
and who certainly had not the least idea of the agreement under which 
they were supposed to serve, but thought they were out on a pleasure 
trip to see the world. They next procured men from the Gilberts and 
Kingsmills and then made for Rotuma, where the Loyalty Islanders 
absconded. An affray followed, during which the whites fired on the 
natives, and one native was killed and two whites. Thus early was 
that traffic begun which was to lead to the death of so many men, 
both white and brown. 

In 1867 there were taken to Queensland, for a period of three years, 
382 natives, but only 78 of them returned. From this year till the 
end of 1890 there was a constant stream of native laborers flowing to 
Queensland from the islands. Then for a few months the trade ceased, 
owing to legislation passed in 1885, but it was revived in the following 
year for a period of ten years. In 1901 provision was made for its 
complete suppression and all the natives were ordered to be deported 
by December 1906. 

The trade has generally been called the "Polynesian labor trade" 
or the "Pacific Islands labor trade," and the laborers have been 
known as Polynesians or Kanakas, or occasionally as Papuans, but 
never once by their real name of Melanesians. The western Pacific 
has suffered from the fact of its late development and from the inhos- 
pitable character of its natives. The eastern Pacific, Polynesia 
proper, was well known to white people early in the nineteenth century 
and the hospitality of its natives was proverbial, whereas New Guinea 
and the islands of Melanesia, though close to Australia, long remained 
unexplored and unknown, the ferocity of the people being in a measure 
responsible for this. Accordingly everything was measured in white 
men's minds by Polynesia. Thus Dr. Codrington had a long fight to 
gain a hearing for the Melanesian languages and to convince people 
that they were real independent languages and not mere offshoots of 
Maori on the one side or of Samoan on the other. In effect he has 
triumphantly proved that Melanesian languages are really older than 

217 



2l8 THE QUEENSLAND LABOR TRADE. 

Polynesian and represent a much more primitive method of speech, 
and that the Polynesian languages might possibly be described as much- 
worn specimens of Melanesian rather than the Melanesian as crude 
forms of Polynesian, and one would not be in error in saying that the 
key to the study of the Polynesian languages etymologically is found 
in the Melanesian languages. 

It is curious, however, that these Melanesians in Queensland should 
have been described as Kanakas. Kanaka is an Hawaiian word mean- 
ing man, and is identical with the Maori tangata, so the Kanaka labor 
trade means really the trade in men. Possibly the use of the word is 
reminiscent of the labor trade carried on by the Spaniards from Lima 
for laborers in the mines. Numbers of their ships went kidnapping 
at the Sandwich Islands and at Samoa, and just as in Melanesia in 
later days the labor vessels were known as "men-buying" or "men- 
stealing" ships, so the Hawaiians probably named them "kanaka- 
stealers," but it is not certain how the Hawaiian word first came to 
be used in the trade in the western Pacific. 

Polynesians as such were but little recruited for Queensland or Fiji. 
In 1894 Bishop Wilson reported on a number of Gilbert Islanders 
(Micronesians) who had just been recruited, and in the early years 
raids were made on the Polynesians of Uvea in the Loyalties and on 
the Micronesians of the Line Islands. The Rotuma people included 
in that early raid are Polynesians in geographical situation, but speak 
a Melanesian language. Beyond these instances Polynesians as such 
seem not to have been recruited at all. However, a few were recruited 
from Rennell, an outlying island in the Solomons, and likewise from 
Ongtong Java (Lord Howe Island), north of the Solomons, and from 
Tikopia. Most of these recruits died and the survivors were returned 
to their homes before completing their three years. 

To call these Melanesians Papuans, as some of the labor-vessel 
captains did, or worse still, as some of the Presbyterian missionaries 
in the southern New Hebrides did, is really inexcusable from a lin- 
guistic point of view. Everyone in this part of the Pacific ought to 
know that the term Papuan is used to describe the peoples of New 
Guinea. The word Papua in itself is said to be a Malay word meaning 
frizzly or fuzzy and was applied by sea-going Malays to the frizzly- 
headed natives of New Guinea, they themselves of course having 
straight, long hair. So far, however, as the character of the hair goes, 
Melanesians might well be called Papuans. The Melanesian teachers 
in the Anglican Mission in Papua to-day are always called South Sea 
Islanders — a name imported from Queensland, whence they were 
obtained. All the legislation concerning the imported laborers in 
Queensland was under the heading of Pacific Islanders or Pacific 
island laborers. 



THE QUEENSLAND LABOR TRADE. 2IO. 

The labor trade may be summed up as having had three stages of 
development: (i) open kidnapping; (2) recruiting under conditions 
somewhat improved; (3) legitimate recruiting. Vessels of various 
sorts had been sailing in the Melanesian islands from about 1840 — 
sandalwood traders, whalers, beche-de-mer curers. Of these the 
whalers had perhaps been the least unsatisfactory, in that they at any 
rate did not murder the natives, though they certainly left terrible 
diseases behind them. The crews of two ships engaged in the sandal- 
wood trade in 1842 shot down 26 men in one of the southern New 
Hebrides and suffocated others with smoke in a cave. 

The regular and systematic exploitation of Melanesians as laborers 
in Queensland and Fiji did not begin before 1866-67. ^ n tne latter 
year Bishop Patteson wrote: 

"Reports are rife of a semi-legalized slave-trading between the South 
Sea Islands and New Caledonia and Fiji. I am told that the government 
sanctions natives being brought upon agreement to work for pay, etc., and 
passage home in two years. We know the impossibility of making contracts 
with New Hebrides or Solomon Island natives. It is a mere sham, an 
evasion of some law passed, I dare say, without any dishonorable intention 
to procure colonial labor. I saw a letter in a Sydney paper which spoke 
strongly and properly of the necessity of the most stringent rules to pre- 
vent the white settlers from injuring the colored men." 

In 1868 Bishop Patteson speaks of the recruiting from Tanna for 
Fiji and expresses his fears that natives were being taken under false 
pretences owing to the impossibility of the recruiters understanding 
the Tanna language, while to talk of making a contract with them was 
absurd. 

In 1869 it was found that the Noumea and Fiji vessels were using 
the Bishop's name in the Banks Group in order to entice people on 
board, pretending that they were his emissaries and accounting for 
his absence by saying that his ship had been wrecked, or that he had 
broken his leg, or had gone to England and had sent them to fetch 
natives to him. As yet no force had been used, but the people feared 
the recruiters. Certain English-speaking natives were employed as 
recruiting agents, and some of these had learned their English with 
the Bishop. In regard to this the Bishop wrote: 

"In most places where any of our young people happened to be on shore, 
they warned their companions against these men, but not always with 
success. This is a sad business, and very discreditable to the persons 
employed in it, for they must know that they can not control the masters 
of the vessels engaged in the trade. They may pass laws as to the treatment 
the natives are to receive on the plantations, but they know that the whole 
thing is dishonest. The natives don't intend or know anything about any 
service or labor; they don't know that they will have to work hard. They 
are brought away under false pretences, else why tell lies to induce them to 
go on board? I dare say that many young fellows go on board without 



220 THE QUEENSLAND LABOR TRADE. 

much persuasion. Many causes may be at work to induce them to do so, 
e. .g., sickness in the island, quarrels, love of excitement, the spirit of enter- 
prise, but if they knew what they were taken for I don't think they would go." 

The premium offered by the planters, £10 to £12 per head, was 
quite sufficient to tempt some shipmasters to obtain colored labor by 
foul means, if fair proved impossible. Accordingly in 1869 and 1870 
we begin to read of wholesale kidnapping and of outrageous acts of 
violence. Two cases were reported and the captains of naval vessels 
seized the schooners Daphne and Challenge on charges of slavery. 
However, their zeal for righteousness cost them dearly; the courts 
acquitted the accused, and the naval commanders were indicted by 
the owners of the vessels for detention and unlawful seizure, and a bill 
of £900 for damages was sent to one of them. It is recorded of the 
Challenge that she decoyed natives of the Torres Islands into the hold 
by means of gifts, beads, and trinkets; then the hatches were put on 
and a boat placed over the hatchway. The natives began to cut a 
hole in the ship's side and eventually were allowed to jump overboard 
when the ship was 7 miles off the shore. Later on, the schooner 
Helen was boarded by officers and was found to have no clearance and 
no license, but the fear of the courts had made the naval captains 
careful and, though the illegality was plain, all that was done was to 
make the master of the Helen sign a statement of the illegality of the 
proceedings and then the vessel was allowed to proceed. At Vanua 
Lava, in the Banks Group, two natives were knocked down into the 
hold and were carried to Fiji, and the captain was convicted on a 
charge of assault and sentenced to three years' imprisonment, but the 
charge of slavery failed. 

The most notorious case, however, was that of the brig Carl, which 
left Melbourne in 1871 to recruit for Fiji. When in the New Hebrides 
she was overhauled by H. M. S. Rosario and everything seemed to 
be quite in order and all straightforward, whereas an awful tragedy 
had happened on her a few days previously. In addition to the 
English crew there were a number of "passengers" on board, and one 
of these, a Melbourne doctor, was part owner of the ship. At Paama 
they dressed up one man as a missionary and endeavored to obtain 
recruits on the plea that they represented the Bishop. As canoes came 
round the ship the captain and crew threw pig iron into them and sank 
them; then the "passengers" lowered the boats and picked up the 
struggling natives; those who resisted were hit with clubs or with pieces 
of iron. In other places they lowered a boat on top of the canoes and 
sank them and then picked up the swimmers. The slaves were all 
stowed under hatches and an armed guard placed over them. The 
murder-lust seems to have maddened the white men and (inflamed 
probably with drink) they imagined that the slaves were about to 
mutiny and overpower them. Someone fired a shot at the crowd 



THE QUEENSLAND LABOR TRADE. 221 

below and then the madness broke forth and everyone on deck started 
shooting and kept it up all night long. In the morning they made an 
armed reconnaissance and found that the whole place was a shambles; 
some 50 had been killed outright and blood was flowing everywhere; 
16 were badly wounded and 10 slightly. The dead were thrown over- 
board and the legs and arms of the badly wounded were tied and they 
too went overboard. The doctor is described as a "monster in human 
shape," the instigator and ringleader of the atrocities; however, he 
turned Queen's evidence and so got off scot-free, while the master and 
one of the crew were sentenced to death, but the sentence was com- 
muted. 

In the same year a ship called the Marion Rennie was the scene of 
a terrible massacre. She had kidnapped men all over Melanesia, 
among them being Itei of Sa'a, who had paddled out to the ship and 
was captured, and Amasia of Fuaga near Ataa Bay, north Malaita. 
Itei was baptized by me in 1896 and Amasia after returning from Fiji 
with a Fijian wife and a son Inia, now a teacher in the Melanesian 
Mission, settled at Qai near Cape Astrolabe and shortly afterwards 
was killed at Ngore Fou on a trumped-up charge of witchcraft. The 
natives on the Marion Rennie mutinied and killed their white captors 
and then were left drifting helplessly about at sea. The Tanna men 
on board fraternized with the Solomon Islanders and killed and ate 
the natives of the other islands. Eventually a man-of-war fell in 
with the ship and conveyed her to Fiji. 

Four Fijians who had been crew on another ship returned without 
their white masters, and told a story of how they had been attacked 
by natives of Anuda, Cherry Island, near Tikopia, and the white men 
murdered. The Rosario investigated the case and decided that there 
was no truth in it; probably the crew had themselves murdered the 
whites. 

At the island of Florida, in the Solomons, canoes were decoyed under 
the stern of the recruiting ship and then boats were lowered on top of 
them and the struggling natives captured in the water; those who 
resisted had their heads chopped off with a long knife. The ships 
that did this sort of thing were purchasing tortoise-shell and were in 
league with the head-hunters of the western Solomons. Desire for 
trade caused the canoes to put out to the ships, which fairly swarmed 
in these years, brigs, schooners, ketches, recruiting mainly for Fiji. 
Some of them had no official license to recruit, some had painted out 
their names, others had no customs clearance from their last port. 
In some cases the men in the canoes were lassoed round the neck from 
the ship and were then hauled on board. In other cases the ship was 
painted to resemble the Southern Cross and a man in a black coat went 
on shore and invited the natives to go on board and see the Bishop. 
Four or five years of this recruiting had practically depopulated some 



222 THE QUEENSLAND LABOR TRADE. 

of the Banks Islands, and to make it worse women had been taken 
as well as men, thus opening up an infinite possibility of wrong-doing 
and confusion. 

Queensland had legislated in 1868, by the "Polynesian laborers act," 
with a view to prevent kidnapping, and the shipmasters had to enter 
into a bond of £500 that they would observe the provisions of the act. 
Also, the employers of labor entered into a bond of £10 per laborer to 
provide for return passages; this amount was afterwards lowered to £5. 
The act of 1868 also provided a form which was to be read in the pres- 
ence of any natives who desired to recruit and was to be signed by the 
resident missionary of the place, or by a European resident or a chief 
interpreter, to the effect that the native was recruited for a term of 
3 years or 39 moons with wages at £6 per annum and with clothes and 
rations provided, and with supervision by the Queensland government 
in his sphere of labor. Nothing is stated in this act about the official 
government agent who accompanied the ship to supervise the recruit- 
ing, although both the Queensland and the Fijian ships seem to have 
carried them then. The Queensland act of 1880 provides for the due 
appointment of fit and proper persons to be government agents to 
accompany the recruiting vessels. 

The Imperial Government, in the "Pacific Islanders protection 
act" of 1872, definitely provided against any repetition of the Daphne 
case, wherein naval officers had been sued for damages, by ordering 
that no officer or local authority should be held responsible, either 
civilly or criminally, in respect of the seizure or detention of any vessel 
suspected of kidnapping, and the act of 1875 provided for the appoint- 
ment of a high commissioner for the Pacific. 

In the act of 1884 a set of regulations was laid down for the trade 
which might be regarded as ideal; firearms and drink were not to be 
supplied to the natives; only such firearms were to be carried as were 
required for the ship's use; the ships were to be painted a distinguishing 
color, light slate with a black streak 6 inches wide running fore and aft, 
and were to carry a black ball at the masthead when recruiting. All 
laborers were to be recruited in the presence of the government agent, 
and two Europeans, not counting the agent, were to accompany every 
boat when ashore recruiting. If an islander deserted after being 
recruited he was not to be taken by force or intimidated. Women 
were not to be taken without their husbands or without the consent 
of their chiefs. All interpreters employed in the trade were to be paid 
fixed wages and all bonuses and commissions thus ceased. All laborers 
returned were to be landed at their own "passages" unless they them- 
selves expressly desired to be landed elsewhere. The government 
agent was given very summary powers, and if the regulations were 
faithfully carried out the recruiting would be unexceptionable. 



THE QUEENSLAND LABOR TRADE. 223 

The stopping of the practice of giving commissions and the paying 
of fixed wages to all concerned must have had a very salutary effect, 
but like the rest of the regulations it was easily evaded, as was shown 
in the case of the William Manson. This vessel in 1894 entered into 
an agreement with Qaisulia, the chief of Adagege, one of the artificial 
islets off the northeast coast of Malaita, whereby he was to receive 
a boat in payment for ten men recruited. Qaisulia and his braves 
violently seized a number of bush natives for his masters on the 
William Manson. The evidence as to the kidnapping was conclusive, 
but the white men concerned in it were acquitted and the judges 
characterized the acquittal as a miscarriage of justice. The value of 
the regulation ordering the government agent to supervise the recruit- 
ing and of the stipulation that at least two white men accompany the 
boats is seen in the contrast presented by the recruiting for Noumea, 
where one hears even now of the French boats going ashore manned 
by natives only and of cases of violence continually recurring. 

The recruiting of women was always a source of trouble in the islands. 
Any native for the nonce might pose as a chief and give his permission 
for a woman to leave, provided it were made worth his while, and in 
most of the Melanesian islands it is difficult to find out who is the 
chief, since there are practically no paramount chiefs. However, the 
spirit of the regulation was honest enough, for white men always 
regard it as a sine qua non that there must be of necessity regular 
chiefs in every place. One has frequently known cases where a man 
has persuaded a woman to recruit with him, posing as his wife, or vice 
versa, and no one in authority on shore was questioned as to their real 
status. On returning the pair were in difficulties and violence and 
bloodshed ensued. Their only chance of safety would be to land in 
a foreign place on the plea of visiting relations. 

Before English was well known in the Pacific the spirit of the regu- 
lations as to making recruits understand the terms of their engage- 
ment was undoubtedly difficult to carry out. Indeed, even the very 
letter of it was at times completely evaded. Pacific Islanders have 
no term corresponding to our word year, and cases are known where 
recruits were carefully schooled to hold up three fingers and say "three 
yam," i. e. y three harvests, yams being planted only once a year. 

In 1884 certain Queensland ships went recruiting in the islands off 
New Guinea, and several cases of actual kidnapping occurred, and 
many gross and violent murders of natives took place. The inter- 
preters acted as unscrupulous and uncontrolled recruiting agents and 
were rewarded according to, or were promised compensations corre- 
sponding with, the number of recruits obtained. According to the 
evidence given, men were recruited by these ships in complete ignorance 
of what was expected of them; some thought they were going for "three 
moons," others "to go to white men's country and walk about," 



224 THE QUEENSLAND LABOR TRADE. 

others "to go and work on the ship," or "to sail about." And doubt- 
less, even in Melanesia itself, the actual signing of the recruits was 
in many cases a mere farce. Men filed by the government agent and 
merely touched the tip of the pen he held in his hand, thus in the par- 
lance of the trade "marking paper," and often with no explanation 
whatever as to the matters involved. However, in time these abuses 
came to an end, owing to an extended knowledge among the natives 
of what were the processes involved. 

In later years the regulation that interpreters must be carried on the 
ships involved a good deal of heart-burning among the islanders, and 
also necessarily entailed the production of a set of first-rate humbugs 
as interpreters, men who were cordially detested by the shore people 
and who by virtue of their position on the ship gave themselves tre- 
mendous airs when ashore, and who were in consequence a menace 
to their various neighborhoods. In the later days of the trade, apart 
from the special provisions of the act, there was really no need for 
the employment of these interpreters, as there were people in every 
part who understood English. 

The practice grew up of recruits being obtained by means of a present 
given to their friends. This was thoroughly in accord with native 
ideas and was known in the native tongue everywhere as buying. 
Even Bishop Patteson had to do the same thing when he wanted to 
obtain boys as scholars, and the Mission has always followed his 
practice when dealing with people in Heathen districts. 

Recruiting ships were said by the natives to buy their men and in 
the Solomons were always known as the "ships that buy men," but 
in the New Hebrides and Banks Group, where deeds of violence had 
been more common, they were known as "thief ships." The giving 
of a present when recruiting was connived at by the authorities, 
though in itself it would probably have been held to be contrary to 
the spirit of the regulations. So long as this present consisted of harm- 
less things like tobacco and pipes and fish-hooks and print and axes 
and knives, no exception could possibly have been taken to the prac- 
tice. In later years gold was frequently given, even as much as £2 
or £3 being paid for a recruit. So firmly established was the practice 
that if the pay were not given for a recruit, or if it were reserved to 
be handed over to him in Queensland, or if a man ran away and got 
on board by stealth, and no pay were sent on shore for him, he was said 
by the people to have been stolen, and angry feelings were aroused and 
reprisals were sure to be made later on. (The English words sell and 
pay and even buy are frequently rendered by a single word in the 
Melanesian tongues.) Before the annexation of the Solomon Islands 
men were frequently bought with rifles. This of course was contrary 
to the regulations, but undoubtedly cases of gun-running were con- 
stantly occurring in the Solomons and in the New Hebrides. 



THE QUEENSLAND LABOR TRADE. 225 

Many a native went to Queensland with the express determination to 
get a rifle on the expiration of his agreement. No one in Queensland 
was allowed to sell rifles to a Kanaka, and yet they purchased them 
by the thousands. Snider carbines and Tower rifles abounded in the 
islands. The Samoan vessels were reputed to be the worst offenders 
with regard to the furnishing of rifles, one being given for every recruit, 
and another being brought back by the recruit on his return. All 
vessels leaving Queensland for the islands were examined by the 
customs officials and were searched for contraband goods, and the 
returning laborers were forced to adopt devious means of secreting 
their guns and ammunition. 

The regulation box given to returns when they were paid off was a 
huge affair, 36 by 1 8 inches, and sometimes these were fitted with false 
bottoms and carbines were stowed in them, the barrel being cut short 
or the stock being taken off. Innocent-looking boxes of Queensland 
plants were found to have earth on the top and a layer of cartridges 
underneath. During the Government inspection rifles were sunk in 
the water butts or stowed away in the sheep pens or even lowered over 
the side into the sea. The native crews would always stow away the 
rifles for a fee, concealing them on the ship or up aloft, or even under 
the ballast. These crews were mostly Tanna men or Loyalty Islanders, 
hardened ruffians, most of them grown old in the trade. 

When the Ivankoe was wrecked in Florida the commissioner had 
reason to think that the returns had a number of rifles on board, but 
a search of the ship revealed nothing. He then went ashore and after 
digging about in various places on the beach came across a whole 
consignment of rifles buried in the sand. Should the ship's company 
be likely to refuse to allow a return to land his rifle in public, a friend 
would come out in a canoe by night and the rifle would be lowered 
over the side. It was a common practice for returns to bring back 
charges of dynamite with fuse and cap all fixed ready for firing. 
These were used for dynamiting shoals of fish. Such charges of dyna- 
mite have been found stowed away under the ballast next to the ves- 
sel's skin. What wonder, then, that vessels like the Sybil and others 
have been lost at sea when carrying returned laborers. 

All boats going ashore to recruit were armed. The native crew had 
rifles slung under canvas covers on the sides of the boat and the white 
men carried revolvers and had rifles also. The regulations were that 
no boat should go ashore to recruit unless accompanied by a covering 
boat. The recruiting boat contained the white recruiter, who was 
generally the ship's boatswain or second mate, and two natives; the 
covering boat had two white men, one of them the government agent, 
and three natives. In the recruiter's boat was the trade box, and at 
times murderous attacks were made by the shore people to gain pos- 
session of this box. These boats always landed stern first, so as to 



226 THE QUEENSLAND LABOR TRADE. 

be able to get away quickly in the event of a quarrel on shore. They 
turned round just outside the breakers and then backed in. This is 
an operation requiring considerable skill, but most of the native 
crews had served a long apprenticeship and were very skilful boatmen. 
The boats were double-ended and were steered with a long steer-oar 
run through a strop. 

The governor-in-council reserved the right of forbidding recruiting 
in any certain part. For many years but little recruiting was done 
at Santa Cruz; the kidnapping there in the early years had been the 
direct cause of the murder of Bishop Patteson, and his death and the 
death of Commodore Goodenough, coupled with the known hostile 
character of the people, caused the labor ships to give Santa Cruz a 
wide berth. Moreover, in the other islands men were comparatively 
easy to obtain. However, one or two adventurous spirits tried 
recruiting at Santa Cruz and obtained men from the neighborhood of 
Graciosa Bay and also in considerable numbers from the Reef Islands. 
In the year 1888 there was an abnormal mortality among these Santa 
Cruz recruits in Queensland and it was decided to forbid recruiting 
there altogether. The poor things frequently died of nostalgia on 
their way to Queensland; they never learned enough English to enable 
them to communicate their needs, either to the whites or to men of 
their own color. No one besides themselves could talk their language, 
so that their lot in Queensland was indeed a hard one. Yet these 
laborers were so profitable to the state that in 1893 the regulation for- 
bidding recruiting at Santa Cruz was rescinded and more of the people 
were taken to the plantations, but with the same sad result. In one 
special case, the island of Tongoa in the New Hebrides, the native 
chiefs requested that their island be exempt; this was done, but their 
young men paddled over to the next island and recruited there. 

There can be no question that the labor trade has contributed very 
largely to the depopulation of the islands. We have the witness of 
Bishop Patteson, in 1 871, that all the Banks Islands, with the exception 
of Mota and part of Vanua Lava, were depopulated. Of Mae, in the 
New Hebrides, he wrote: 

"Nothing can be more deplorable than the state of the island — I counted 
in all about 48 people in the village where of old certainly 300 were to be 
seen. Noumea, Fiji, Brisbane, Tanna, is in everybody's mouth, muskets 
in everyone's hand, and many more in the houses." 

A very small percentage of these men ever returned home and many 
who did return brought contagious diseases. The possession of rifles 
also was an important factor in hastening the decrease of the popu- 
lation everywhere. Doubtless in most cases a spear is a far more 
deadly weapon in the hands of a Melanesian than a Snider carbine, for 
any shot at a moderate distance, but as a rule a native seldom risks a 
shot from far ofF and prefers fairly to scorch his enemy with the powder 
of the cartridge, sticking the barrel right up against him. 



THE QUEENSLAND LABOR TRADE. 227 

Stories are told of men of Malaita wrapping up old pin-fire rifle 
cartridges in a bamboo, binding the whole with string, and exploding 
the cartridge by striking the pin with a stone or a billet of wood. It 
had got to such a pass on Malaita in later years that for a man to be 
without a rifle was certain death; every able-bodied man carried a gun. 
Ramofolo, the chief of Fuaga, an artificial islet by Ataa Cove, Malaita, 
had a Winchester which he informed me he had taken from a bush 
chief after he had stalked and killed him in order to obtain it. At 
Su* u Malou, near Aio, on the east coast of Malaita, we landed once in the 
presence of a great crowd of armed men, and it was only after they had 
searched our boat and seen for themselves that there was no weapon 
on board that they believed our statement that we did not carry fire- 
arms. Their test of being a man was the possession of a rifle. 

Queensland was a veritable refuge for wrong-doers in the islands; 
murderers, sorcerers, adulterers, wife-stealers, thieves, discontented 
wives, rebellious children, all hailed the coming of a labor-vessel as a 
chance to be freed from the likelihood of punishment or from the irk- 
someness of home restrictions. However, even a residence of 30 years 
did not always avail to protect against home vengeance for wrong- 
doing, either actual or imaginary, as was seen in the case of Amasia of 
Qai, Malaita, who was shot on a charge (probably false) of witchcraft 
committed many long years before. Amasia was quite the Fijian 
when he returned; he wore his hair and his sulu in the Fijian style and 
had notices posted up in his house in Fijian forbidding people to eat 
areca nut there, and none of the people of the place could read. One 
used to hear of cases where men were landed elsewhere than at their own 
homes, owing to a fear of reprisals for some act of wrong-doing which 
they had committed and which had led to their recruiting. In due 
time the news of their return reached their home and their friends 
paid them a visit which would result in a request that they return home, 
and all would be overlooked. If the man were persuaded he and the 
woman he had stolen would return with the party and probably the 
two would be murdered on the road or at the landing-place. 

The acquiring of possessions abroad seldom proved of any benefit 
to the native on his return. The native law everywhere in the Pacific 
is that on returning a voyager shares with his neighbors all that he has 
acquired. This is absolutely de rigueur and the man quite expects it 
and thinks it natural, and when his turn comes will claim a share 
in someone else's things. In Sa'a a return was not allowed to open 
his boxes till the chief gave him permission; then so much was stipulated 
as the chief's share and had to be given before any apportioning was 
done. In one case the chief claimed the boxes after they were emptied. 

The trade in later years was carried on under respectable conditions, 
and might seem to have justified the claims of those who extolled it 
as a great instrument of moral and physical good to the natives. The 
laborers were employed under good conditions in Queensland, were well 



228 THE QUEENSLAND LABOR TRADE. 

fed, well housed, and well protected from exploitation; their hours of 
labor were not too long, they were well cared for when they were sick, 
and practically it was their labor that built up the sugar industry of 
Queensland. Their value as laborers is evinced by the fact that in 
later years the planters paid the shipowners £20 to £25 per head for 
all laborers recruited, and also paid the Government a capitation fee 
of £3 per head, and deposited £5 per head to cover the cost of the 
return passage. Regular food and regular employment under decent 
conditions made fine men of them physically, and the returns always 
compared favorably in physical appearance with the home men. But 
there is no question that the Queensland return, except those who 
had been at some mission school, was as a rule a person to be avoided; 
he had learned something of the white man's ways and had a certain 
amount of the externals of civilization, but the old-time respect for 
authority had all vanished and its place was taken by a bold, rough 
style of address which did not differentiate between a high commis- 
sioner or a bishop and a recruiter of a labor vessel. All alike were 
hailed by him as mate and all would be asked for tobacco. In effect 
he had lost the charm of the natural state. 

Bishop Patteson stated in 1871 that these returns bore a bad char- 
acter among their own people and were the ringleaders in wrong-doing. 
The general average of morality among the natives seems to have been 
lowered by their Queensland experiences. Those who went away 
undoubtedly improved in their physical condition, yet this was a poor 
compensation for the loss of their old Heathen surroundings with the 
air of mystery, and the time-honored etiquette and good manners 
belonging to them, and with nothing whatever to replace the loss, no 
new set of rules learned, no new motive provided for their lives, no new 
code of morals taught, no new outlook given, no new measure of man- 
kind impressed upon them by their residence in Queensland other 
than that of physical prowess and the mere gaining of money or the 
eating of food of a different character. The returns from Fiji were 
often improved by their stay in civilization, and this was mainly owing 
to the fact that they had either been employed as house servants in 
good families or had merely changed one set of native conditions for 
another — living on a plantation and learning Fijian or mixing almost 
entirely with natives and learning but little English. Practically they 
still were natives instead of being bad copies of a certain class of whites. 

A very great number of lives have been lost in and owing to the 
labor trade. The death of Bishop Patteson is an instance of the 
terrible result that may follow when men are determined to make 
money by acts of treachery to humanity or in defiance of the ordinary 
laws of hospitality. Peaceful traders have been assaulted, mission- 
aries have been killed, the boats of labor vessels have been attacked 
and the men in them killed. All these facts can be directly traced to 



THE QUEENSLAND LABOR TRADE. 229 

some connection with the labor trade, to wrongs done to natives in 
Queensland, to judicial punishment for crime committed, to the 
abduction or the recruiting of a man's relations, to their deaths or 
prolonged absences away from home and in the white man's country. 
In addition to these a desire to gain glory and reputation, the death of 
a chief or of some favorite child, any one of these may be the motive 
that leads to an attack upon a white man; many sudden and seemingly 
unprovoked attacks on a labor vessel's boats were caused by the mere 
fact of their recruiting women. 

Bishop Patteson was quite of the opinion that Melanesian natives 
as a general rule would respect whites and would not treacherously 
make attacks on them, but allowances have to be made for the require- 
ments of the Heathen superstition and for the peculiar workings of the 
native mind and to the feelings of revenge. But Melanesians generally 
give short shrift to shipwrecked people and to strangers who come among 
them in a helpless plight. In 1867 a crew of English sailors from a 
whaleboat landed at Maanaoba, an island on the northeast coast of 
Malaita. They had deserted from their ship in the Kingsmill Islands 
and had been drifting for weeks. Only one of the crew, a boy named 
Renton, was allowed to survive; the rest were killed. A chief called 
Kabau saved Renton and took him across to the mainland, where he 
lived for eight years. Ships passed in the interval, but he could not com- 
municate with them; however, a labor vessel, the Bobtail Nag, anchored 
near and he was able to send off to her a message scrawled on a board, 
a fragment of a canoe. This piece of wood is preserved in the Brisbane 
Museum. Large presents were given and Renton was rescued. 

The accusation of treachery so often brought against Melanesians 
has a certain amount of foundation from our point of view. Attacks 
have been made by natives on white men merely to satisfy a blood lust 
or for purposes of robbery, as in the case of the massacre on board of the 
Young Dick at Singerango, Malaita; but it is indisputable that the 
white man's behavior to natives in Melanesia has tended to cause an 
atmosphere of distrust and dislike, and in most cases is at the bottom 
of every attack by the natives. The man Rade, who chopped the 
recruiter of the Young Dick at Mapo, southeast Malaita, is reported to 
have done so with a view to killing him in revenge for the death of the 
Mapo chief in Fiji, but Rade informed me that the man was making 
indecent proposals to women; possibly both versions of the matter are 
correct. The massacre of the crew of the Dancing Wave, in Florida, in 
1876, was probably caused by a feeling of anger on the part of natives 
who had been sent home without any payment of their wages, owing to 
the estate on which they were working having passed into the hands of 
mortgagees. When due regard is had to the circumstances connected 
with the inception of the trade, one can not wonder at the amount of 
bloodshed and crime which it produced. 



23O THE QUEENSLAND LABOR TRADE. 

Before the establishment of local government in the Solomons 
British ships of war were employed in punishing any attacks made upon 
whites. After the death of Bishop Patteson, H. M. S. Rosario went to 
Nukapu to inquire into the causes of his murder. The natives fired 
on the ship's boats and the fire was returned both by rifles and by the 
ship's guns, but without intending to kill anyone. A party was landed 
and the native village was burned to teach the savages to respect white 
men. A sailor who was wounded by an arrow afterwards died of 
tetanus. The whole incident was unfortunate in that it embittered 
the people and made the reopening of Santa Cruz all the harder for the 
Mission. The natives of course thought the shooting was connected 
with punishment for the death of the Bishop. At Raga, New Hebrides, 
the paymaster of the Rosario was attacked and twice clubbed. Shots 
were fired from the ship in revenge and four villages were burned, the 
idea being that a salutary lesson was being taught to the natives, and in 
that the innocent suffered along with the guilty the commander argued 
that owners of the burned property would have to get their compensa- 
tion out of the guilty ones, as if the act would not have incensed them 
all, and a hatred for the whites as a whole would result in consequence 
of their burned homes, while they themselves rejoiced over the fact that 
no life had been taken among them! 

The indiscriminate shooting of shells and burning of villages never 
impressed the natives; the only thing they understand in the way of 
reprisals is the actual taking of life. Time and again ships of war 
fired shells into the bush, some of them entering the very houses, but 
due notice had been given and everybody had decamped. At Mapo 
one of the shells fired into the bush on the hills was dug out of the earth 
and was let into the ground and used as a seat. To fire shells thus into 
the bush was certainly an exhibition of power, but the native measured 
matters otherwise, and it was not long before the power of naval ships 
was despised, since they never actually killed anyone as a punishment 
for these attacks on the labor-trade vessels. 

The last legislation on the labor trade to Queensland was the com- 
monwealth act called the "Pacific Island laborers' act, 1901." No 
Melanesians were to enter Queensland after March 31, 1904, and on 
December 31, 1906, all agreements were to end and the final deporta- 
tion was to begin. Exemptions were granted to any who had been five 
years in Queensland before September 1, 1884, or who had been in 
Australia before September 1, 1879, or who had resided in Australia for 
20 years previous to December 31, 1906. Also, exemption was granted 
to natives who were registered owners of freehold in Queensland or were 
married to women not natives of the Pacific Islands, or were suffering 
from bodily infirmity or were of extreme age. 

The Melanesian Mission never felt it its duty to follow the natives of 
these islands to Queensland. Bishop Patteson in 1871 was planning a 



THE QUEENSLAND LABOR TRADE. 23 1 

visit to Fiji for the express purpose of devoting himself to the laborers 
there; but his death quite put Fiji out of the Mission's thoughts. In 
1876 Rev. Edward Wogale went to Fiji and started teaching there, but 
stayed only a year or two and no one succeeded him. Bishop John 
Selwyn visited Fiji in 1880 and made arrangements for teaching some 
of the laborers on Sundays. Dr. Comins and Luke Masuraa visited 
Fiji in 1894 and obtained some excellent teachers who eventually were 
responsible for the opening of mission work in the Lau district of north 
Malaita. It was not until the first year of Bishop Wilson's episcopate 
that any of the authorities visited Queensland with the definite idea of 
seeing to the Christian teaching of the Melanesians there. The church 
in Queensland as a whole did practically nothing for them, and with the 
exception of Mrs. Robinson's excellent school at Mackay and Mrs. 
Clayton's at Bundaberg, whatever teaching was given to the Melane- 
sian laborers was undenominational and much of it was in the hands of 
the Queensland Kanaka Mission, the officials of which were Plymouth 
Brethren. In 1896 Rev. P. T. Williams went to Queensland to organize 
work there for the Melanesian Mission among the laborers on the Isis, 
and Mr. Pritt was also at work on the Herbert River (called by the 
Melanesians the Albert River). 

The return from Queensland of so great a number of Kanakas, 9,000 
in all, was likely to have varied results. The actual Christian element 
among them would be sure to affect the Christian life in the Mission 
villages. The Heathen element was likely to be a cause of ferment and 
excitement and to give considerable trouble, both to their fellows and 
also to the whites. There were some who, in their ignorance of native 
life, looked for a great material advance in the status of the people of 
the islands, owing to the return of so many thousands of men who had 
been taught regular habits of industry; others feared that a great out- 
break of crime might follow and that endless feuds and desolating 
hatreds would be stirred up, and that murders would be rife. The 
missionaries themselves were glad that the trade had ceased, but knew 
that a great unsettlement of conditions would follow the repatriation. 

The work of landing the returns was very well done and all were 
landed at their own proper "passages," as the landing-places were 
termed. Where possible they were encouraged to attend the Christian 
schools. The government station at Tulagi was open to any who feared 
to return to their own homes. However, the leavening effect on the 
island people as a whole has been practically nil. Even those who 
had been most industrious in Queensland made but little attempt to 
improve the agricultural methods of their countrymen. For months 
after landing none of them, of course, did any work. The condi- 
tions were so totally different, the restraint of the plantation life was 
relaxed, all competition had ceased, and all that was now required was 
to get enough food for the day's needs. Besides, to a man who had 



232 THE QUEENSLAND LABOR TRADE. 

been accustomed for years to a regular diet of beef and bread or 
biscuit and sweet potatoes three times a day, the haphazard style of 
feeding which the islanders follow was certain to prove upsetting. 
If work was to be done in Queensland style, then a great deal more food 
must be forthcoming; of yams and taro for planting there never is 
an abundance, and though a man might have returned with a good 
round sum in gold, yet this would profit him but little if he wanted to 
use it to give himself a start in buying stuff" to plant. The large colony 
of returns at Fiu on Malaita had the greatest difficulty for years to get 
enough food to supply their bodily needs. 

Sewing-machines and gramophones might have been bought up 
cheaply a week or two after the returns had landed. In some cases 
sewing-machines were actually abandoned on the beach, for no one 
cared to carry them slung on a pole into the interior over razor-back 
ridges and up the bed of swollen mountain torrents. Brown boots 
and bowler hats and starched shirts and collars and ties were seen 
adorning the persons of all and sundry in the neighborhood when the 
trade boxes of the returns had been opened. Babies that were brought 
ashore in all the glory of woolen socks and bonnets and white clothes 
were rolling about naked by nightfall. 

The pure Heathen amongst the returns proved generally a menace 
to their neighborhoods by opening up old feuds and awakening feelings 
of malice and wickedness. Some of them in fact rejoiced in their 
reputation as "bad fellow alonga Queensland" and boasted of their 
proficiency in evil ways and stated their determination to cause trouble. 
The Christians among them, in proportion to their zeal and earnest- 
ness, aided the mission work, but in many cases they felt completely 
at sea, owing to their having learned their Christianity through the 
medium of English and not through their own tongue, and unless they 
were sincere and well instructed, their tendency was to hold aloof 
or gradually to absent themselves from the services of the Church. 

On the whole it may be said that the results of the repatriation have 
caused unrest and lawlessness and increased difficulty in carrying on 
any work whatever. The returns expected to buy goods in the traders' 
stores at Queensland prices; they demanded Queensland rates of pay, 
and both traders and missionaries were faced with labor troubles, and 
crude socialistic ideas circulated freely everywhere. In fine, while 
as a result of the repatriation, but few murders, comparatively speaking, 
were committed and but little suffering or hardship was entailed, yet 
the main result was unrest and disturbance, difficulty and confusion. 



SANTA CRUZ. 

The grave Spaniard Mendana, the discoverer of the Santa Cruz 
group, little knew how prophetic was this name of Holy Cross, which, 
in his religious zeal, he had bestowed on the island of Ndeni. To-day 
memorial crosses stand in Carlisle Bay and in Graciosa Bay on Ndeni, 
and on the beach at Nukapu, facing the setting sun. 

What a host of memories the name Santa Cruz calls up to the 
student of Melanesian history! The ill-fated Spanish admiral Don 
Alvaro de Mendana, after sailing twice across the Pacific, found his 
last home in the bay which he had named Graciosa, on the island of 
Ndeni. Three hundred years later the noble-hearted James Good- 
enough, commodore of Her Britannic Majesty's squadron on the 
Australian Station, met his death at the hands of the natives of Ndeni. 
" Poor Santa Cruz! poor people!" was the exclamation of Edwin Nobbs 
and Fisher Young, the faithful Norfolk Island lads in the company of 
Bishop Patteson, as they writhed in the agonies of tetanus brought 
on by wounds from those terrible Santa Cruz arrows. Mano Wad- 
rokal, the native deacon from the Loyalty Islands, the first missionary 
to Santa Cruz, braved the fury of these excitable people time and 
again in his efforts to win them for Christ and for peace. Mr. Lister 
Kaye's name will go down to posterity as that of the first white man 
to live on Santa Cruz after Mendana and his company. Mr. Forrest 
was the next white man to live there and for the whole of his time his 
life was constantly in danger. Dr. John Williams was content to 
sacrifice his worldly prospects and to devote himself to the healing of 
ulcers and the curing of ringworm on Santa Cruz bodies. Mr. O'Fer- 
rall and Mr. Nind endured innumerable dangers and perils by waters, 
visiting the islands in their whaleboats. The last victim claimed by 
Santa Cruz was the mission priest Guy Bury, who died in 191 1 after 
a short residence of a few months, the victim not of poisonous arrows, 
but of malignant island ulcers. 

Forty miles north of Santa Cruz lies the Swallow Group, commonly 
called the Reef Islands, and on the smallest of these, Nukapu, there 
perished the great mission hero Bishop Patteson. On the island of 
Vanikolo, 60 miles south of Santa Cruz, the famous French explorer 
La Perouse, who just failed of annexing Australia to the French crown, 
was ingloriously cast away. 

A brilliant galaxy of names — explorers, sailors, missionaries, admirals, 
bishops, priests, deacons — and still to-day Santa Cruz and its neigh- 
boring islands are mainly Heathen. 

Santa Cruz was discovered and named by Mendana in 1595, sailing 
from Callao in his endeavor to reach again and colonize the isles of 
Solomon, which he had himself discovered on a previous voyage in 

233 



234 SANTA CRUZ. 

1566. The night before the expedition sighted land the Almiranta> 
the fourth ship of the squadron, disappeared, being wrecked possibly 
on one of the Reef Islands or on the Duff Group, 95 miles northeast 
of Santa Cruz. Mendana made a settlement in a bay at the north- 
east end of the island, which he named Graciosa Bay. Here the expe- 
dition stayed for two months, their ranks being gradually thinned by 
disease and by the arrows of the natives. Mendana died and was 
buried at Santa Cruz. The rest of the company abandoned their 
ideas of colonization and set out for Manila, just failing to sight the 
Solomons when two days' sail from Santa Cruz. 

The Swallow Group was discovered and named by Carteret in 1766 
after his ship, the Swallow. The Duff Group, Taumako, was named 
after the mission ship of the London Missionary Society, the Duff, 
which sighted them when on a voyage returning from Tahiti in 1797. 
The fate of La Perouse was discovered by Dillon, who landed at Van- 
ikolo in 1826. 

The Santa Cruz Group lies to the east of the Solomons, and the 
large island Ndeni, which Mendana named Santa Cruz, is 200 miles 
from Ulawa and a little less from Santa Anna, the small island at the 
southern extremity of San Cristoval. Ndeni is 22 miles long and 10 
or 12 miles broad. Like most of the Melanesian islands, there is but 
little flat land on it; the center ridge rises to a height of 2,000 feet and 
the ridges which offset from it terminate right on the coast. The whole 
island is covered with the usual dense vegetation. The climate is 
wet and steamy and very trying to Europeans. The average number 
of days on which rain falls is probably in excess of the number of rainy 
days in the Solomons, which Dr. Guppy reckons as about 180. There 
seem to be hardly any bush villages at all, the population living in 
large villages on the shore. Graciosa Bay in particular, a deep inden- 
tation at the north end, has a large number of populous villages. The 
total population may be 8,000, but numbers died of dysentery in 191 5. 

Agriculture is followed to some extent, yams, and what are known 
in the Solomons as "pana," being grown. The "pana" is a yam that 
has a prickly vine. Coconuts are comparatively few in number, but 
Santa Cruz is renowned for its large canarium nut (almond). These 
are smoked and preserved in leg-of-mutton-shaped baskets plaited 
out of a coconut leaf. These baskets of nuts are brought off to the 
ships for trade, but the Cruzians are quite capable of filling them with 
rubbish and then palming them off on the unwary. 

The weapons of the peoples in all the islands of the group are bows 
and arrows. The bow is made of very tough wood, is of great 
length, and exceedingly hard to bend. The bowstring is twisted out 
of fiber made from the bark of a garden tree which in Ulawa is called 
su' a. The su* a tree has berries of the size and appearance of coffee 
berries. These are boiled in wooden bowls by means of placing hot 



SANTA CRUZ. 235 

stones in the bowls and are esteemed a great relish. The young shoots 
of the su'a are eaten as spinach, and so are the catkins of the male 
tree. Fishing-lines are made from the same bark, and some of the 
lines are strong enough to hold a shark. They are coated with a 
preparation made from the inner skin of the casuarina. 

The arrows of Santa Cruz are much to be dreaded. Dr. Codrington 
writes that they are uniformly 4 feet long and weigh about 2 ounces. 
The bone point is 7 inches long and the foreshaft (of hardwood curi- 
ously carved and colored) is 16 inches long. The bone head (human 
bone) is covered with a preparation of vegetable ashes which is 
supposed to give great supernatural power. The common result of a 
wound from any of these arrows is certainly tetanus. However, it 
is quite certain that no vegetable poisons are consciously used in the 
preparation of the arrows, but all the preparation is done while charms 
are being said to fasten supernatural qualities on the arrow. What 
the native seeks for is an arrow which shall have mana to hurt. The 
truth of the matter seems to be that while the arrows are poisonous, 
they are not deliberately poisoned. A punctured wound in the tropics 
may easily be followed by tetanus, especially if dirt be adhering to 
whatever caused the puncture; and the breaking off of a fine point of 
bone in a wound is sure to be dangerous and likely to be fatal. The 
introduction into the wound of an acrid or burning substance will 
increase the inflammation in it. In the case of natives, it is always 
expected that tetanus will surely follow and the expectation may go 
a long way to cause the symptoms. One would think that the rigidity 
of the bows and the weight of the arrows would militate considerably 
against the accuracy of the shooting; the Malaita bow is much more 
easily bent and the arrow is lighter, though a little longer. 

The men in the whole of the group wear a turtle-shell ring hanging 
from the septum of the nose. These rings are made out of the tail- 
piece of the turtle shell, which is of considerable thickness and has an 
aperture where it fits on to the carapace. This particular piece of 
the shell, called popo (stern) in Ulawa, is much sought after. When 
the man wishes to eat he has to lift up his nose ring. Numbers of 
rings made of strips of turtle shell are hung in the ears, the lobe of 
which becomes much distended, and it is a common thing for the rings 
to touch the shoulder. Great heavy discs of pure white clam-shell 
are suspended from the neck. The best of these are said to be made 
from clam shells of immemorial antiquity found inland in the bush 
and dating back to the time when the land was upheaved. On these 
discs (called te ma> moon) a piece of turtle shell is tied, cut into the 
conventional shape of the man-of-war hawk. Some of the discs are 
10 inches in diameter. 

The boys are clad in a native mat after attaining a certain age and 
the men all wear the native mat as a loin-cloth. The women also 



236 SANTA CRUZ. 

wear the native mat. In the Melanesian islands of the group the 
women are kept much in seclusion and do not mingle freely with the 
men, and in all the islands alike there is not as much freedom of 
intimacy between the sexes as one sees in the Solomons. Yellow 
ocher is much used and everything gets stained by it. The men plaster 
their hair with lime, thus bleaching it, and one often sees the hair done 
up by wrapping a piece of paper mulberry bark round it. The women's 
heads are shaven. 

Some 20 miles north of Graciosa Bay, and in full view, there towers 
the active volcanic cone called Tamami by the Ndeni people and 
Tinakula by the Reef Islanders. This volcano is about 2,000 feet 
high and rises straight out of the sea. Its top is generally covered 
with a cloud which is half mist and half steam, and at nights the red 
lava is often seen coursing down the steep face to the sea on the north- 
west side of the island. On his last voyage, as he lay becalmed near 
the volcano, Bishop Patteson noticed that it was in action, and Bishop 
John Selwyn saw pumice and gravel descending the sides. The 
earthquakes which are so common in the neighborhood, and which are 
felt so frequently at Ulawa in the Solomons, are probably caused by 
disturbances at this volcanic center. The weather coast of Ulawa 
is frequently covered with pumice-stone carried there by the southeast 
winds. Tinakula is uninhabited, but coconuts appear round the 
coast and the neighboring peoples of Nupani are said to be in the habit 
of visiting it to collect what food it offers. There is a striking likeness 
between Tinakula and Meralava in the Banks Group, and were Tina- 
kula to cease its activity the fertility of its soil would doubtless equal 
that of Meralava. 

The Swallow Group, or Reef Islands, lie about 40 miles northeast of 
Graciosa Bay. These islands are all small and low-lying, the largest 
of them, Fenua Loa, is 6 or 8 miles in length and very narrow, while 
others (like Pileni and Nukapu) are tiny places which one could walk 
round in half an hour. There is a deep-water passage on the east 
side of Fenua Loa, between it and the cluster of islands marked Lomlom 
on the chart. Lomlom is really the name of a village on Fenua Loa, 
and, so far from the Lomlom of the chart being one island, it is really 
a group of five clustered round a lagoon. The largest of these is named 
Ngailo, and the entrance to the lagoon is by a passage facing Fenua 
Loa. The lagoon is dotted with villages and the people of each island 
maintain their separate lives, often being at war with their next-door 
neighbors. There is a passage through to the south, but owing to 
the prevailing southeast wind this is negotiable only in calm weather. 
Two small islands lie off Ngailo, called Bange Netepa and BangeNinde. 
These differ from the rest of the group in having no encircling reef and 
rise precipitously to 150 feet, with no beach and with bad landings. 



SANTA CRUZ. 237 

Fenua Loa is separated only at high water from its northern neighbor 
Nifilole. Huge reefs stretch out west in a great arm from Fenua Loa, 
and inside the encircling reef lies Matema. When journeying from 
Ndeni by whaleboat to the Reef Islands the missionaries made for an 
opening in the reef opposite Matema and then sailed or rowed up in 
the quiet water under the lee of Fenua Loa. The little island Pileni 
lies 3 miles away from Nifilole, and there is a deep-water passage 
between the two; Pileni, like Nifilole, Nukapu, and Nupani, is raised 
only a few feet above sea-level, but it differs from them in having no 
encircling coral reef. Nukapu is 15 miles west of Pileni and Nupani 
20 miles still farther west. All the islands are covered with dense 
forest. 

The population of the Reefs is probably now not much more than 
500 all told, and two distinct types of language are spoken — Mela- 
nesian and Polynesian — each type being split up again into what 
almost amounts to local dialects. On Fenua Loa and Nifilole and the 
islands to the eastward the language is Melanesian and is akin to that 
spoken on Ndeni; on Matema, Pileni, Nukapu, and Nupani the 
language is a much-decayed form of a Polynesian language. It is 
probable that these four Polynesian-speaking islands do not differ to 
any very great extent in language, but that the differences in the Mela- 
nesian-speaking islands of the group are far more noticeable. It is 
worthy of note that of the Melanesian islands Fenua Loa (Long Island) 
has a distinctly Polynesian name, and Nifilole is almost certainly of 
the same language stock. 

On the Reef Islands there is but little food and no good fresh water. 
The people live largely on fish, coconuts, and breadfruit. Frequent 
journeys are made to Ndeni in the sailing canoes to get food, which is 
bartered for fish, dried breadfruit, and woven mats. The breadfruit 
is dried and made up in little plaited packets of cane or is kept in a 
silo in the ground and eaten when required. The smell of the bread- 
fruit thus preserved is too much for European nostrils. Fish abound 
in the shallow waters of the lagoons and are shot with arrows or caught 
with nets or hooks. The shells found in these waters are particularly 
numerous and beautiful. 

The Santa Cruz group claims particular notice for three reasons: 
its languages, its looms, its canoes. There has never been any attempt 
made to learn the Polynesian language spoken in the Reefs. Bishop 
G. A. Selwyn and Bishop Patteson were both Maori scholars and were 
able to hold converse with the Nukapu people. Dr. Codrington has 
published a small grammar of the Nifilole language and one a little 
fuller of the Ndeni language. 

The eating of areca nut with pepper leaf and quicklime, which is 
characteristic of all the groups from the Solomons westward to India, 
proceeds no farther eastward than Santa Cruz and Tikopia. In the 



238 SANTA CRUZ. 

rest of Melanesia, the New Hebrides, Banks, Torres, Fiji, and in the 
whole of Polynesia there is no eating of areca nut, but kava-drinking 
is found instead. In the Solomons and in New Guinea the lime is 
conveyed to the mouth from the lime gourd or the bamboo by means 
of a spatula or a stick, but the Cruzian scorns such delicate ways 
and, wetting his first finger, plunges it into the lime and thence into 
his mouth. As a result of this excessive use of lime the lips of the 
elders are caked quite hard and distinct articulation becomes impos- 
sible, so that it is from the lips of the children that the languages 
must be learned. 

The Melanesian languages of the group have vowels which in cer- 
tain parts of speech are inconstant, being attracted to the sound of 
the neighboring vowels, Thus a certain preposition may be ma, me, 
mo, according to the vowel in the word which it governs. All the vowels 
except i have a secondary or modified sound. The consonants also 
vary greatly; k and g constantly interchange, also k and ng, and d and /; 
p, b, and v are used indifferently in the same word; / and n also inter- 
change. The personal pronouns differ materially from those in ordi- 
nary use in Melanesia, there being only one set (instead of two or three) 
which is suffixed to nouns as possessive, to verbs as objects, to a stem 
ni as subjects. With the verbs the same use prevails as in the Solo- 
mons, the personal pronouns being suffixed as objects, the sense con- 
veyed being, however, rather participial or gerundival. The tran- 
sitive termination of verbs so common elsewhere in Melanesia does not 
seem to appear in Santa Cruz. 

But very little of the Bible has ever been translated into any of the 
Santa Cruz tongues. Parts of the Prayer Book were rendered by Mr. 
Forrest into the language of Ndeni, but the translation is reported to 
be very faulty and has practically been set aside. There is a great 
and honorable work awaiting someone who shall set himself to learn 
one of these tongues, to use it for the dissemination of Christian 
truths, to ascertain its rules and methods of speech, to produce its 
grammar and dictionary. Dr. Codrington has laid the foundations 
for such study in his specimen grammars of Ndeni and Nifilole. The 
main requisites for learning a native language are a good ear to catch 
the sounds and a good memory to be able to repeat the words and 
phrases, and a sympathetic mind that can put itself en rapport with 
the minds of the natives. 

In view of the special difficulty of the languages spoken in the Santa 
Cruz islands, the Melanesian Mission would be well advised to set 
one of its scholars to work on some one particular language in order 
to impart the information thus gained to others not so well qualified 
to work on a new language. The Rev. H. N. Drummond was of the 
opinion that one of the Polynesian tongues, say that of Pileni or 
Matema, should be made the standard tongue for the Reef Islands, 



SANTA CRUZ. 239 

and that it should be used as the basis for all linguistic work. The 
peoples speaking Polynesian never learn the Melanesian tongues, 
whereas those who speak Melanesian are nearly always bilingual. 
It would be advisable to take the language of some one island and 
definitely adopt it as the standard language for all translational work. 
To learn one language well and to make that the lingua franca seems 
a feasible project. 

Undoubtedly one of the chief reasons for the present religious stag- 
nation in Santa Cruz is the Mission's failure to learn any one of the 
languages and to make translations. Many boys have been taken 
from the neighborhood to Norfolk Island and have returned home in 
order to impart to their fellows what they had learned of Christianity. 
They might have done much even without assistance from the whites 
had they been provided with books, but with the exception of good 
Henry Leambi hardly one of them has risen to a sense of the duties 
of his high calling and has kept to his post. A Matema boy, Ben 
Teilo, has done excellent work on Vanikolo and Utupua, and has 
lately been ordained deacon. 

The Santa Cruz boys never throve when taken to Norfolk Island. 
As a whole they failed to show much sign of intellectuality, though 
some of them were sharp enough; they were always the first to fall ill, 
and during any epidemic they were a constant source of anxiety. It 
is reported that during one epidemic of meningitis five Cruzians 
died within a few days of one another, some sickening and dying within 
the day. In former years vessels endeavored to recruit laborers at 
Santa Cruz for Queensland, but the recruiting was stopped owing to 
the heavy mortality which occurred through nostalgia, men simply 
giving up the ghost in their homesickness. In later years the Mission 
has been taking Santa Cruz boys for training as teachers to the central 
school at Vureas, Banks Islands. There they seem to have kept in 
better health, but nevertheless they have been a source of great anxiety 
and some have died. 

Santa Cruz can also claim distinction as being the only place in 
Melanesia where the people use a hand loom. Looms do not appear 
in Polynesia at all, but the one used at Santa Cruz has great likeness 
to those used in the Carolines. Looms also appear in the Philippines 
and in Borneo. The Spaniards in 1595 remarked on the presence of 
these looms. The fiber used in the weaving is derived from the stem of 
a certain banana and is made into mats for wearing as dresses and into 
kits for men's use to carry their lime-boxes, etc. The weaving is done 
by the men. 

The wonderful sailing canoe of the Cruzians is called loju or tepukei. 
These are made principally in the DufF Group, Taumako. The foun- 
dation of the canoe is a large hollowed-out log, the aperture being 
covered eventually to keep out the water. On this log a big stage is 



24O SANTA CRUZ. 

built up with cross-timbers projecting on both sides, the timbers being 
tied with sennit. To keep the log upright there is a float of light wood 
into which strong stakes are driven; these are then fastened with sennit 
lashings and the other ends are made fast to the timbers of the stage. 
On the outrigger side of the stage there is a little apartment with walls 
and roof of sago palm, where a fire can be made, and on the opposite 
side is a sloping platform where the steersman stands holding his long 
paddle and where the merchandise is carried. 

The sail of these canoes is shaped like that of the New Guinea sailing 
canoes, a swallow tail, and is made of sago-palm leaf. The canoes sail 
either end first. The Cruzians make great voyages in these canoes, 
the Matema people journeying to Vanikolo, the better part of 100 
miles away. At times the sailing canoes are driven out of their course 
and reach the Solomon Islands. In one of the schools at Ulawa a 
large, wide plank, which was part of the well of one of these canoes, 
served as a table in the school-house. The wood was that beautiful 
rosewood known in Ulawa as liki and had been cut from the big flanges 
of the tree; it was a rich red in color and the graining was beautiful. 
The plank was sawed up to make the credence in the Mwadoa Church, 
Ulawa. 

The voyagers in these canoes experience great hardship at times 
when driven out of their course by rough winds. The Southern Cross 
rescued recently some natives out of a tepukei far out of sight of land. 
They had been at sea for a fortnight. A case is reported of a canoe 
with Christians on board returning from Taumako. The wind proved 
unfavorable and for ten days they were out of sight of land. Then 
water gave out and in their despair they prayed for rain. The next 
day a favorable wind sprang up accompanied by heavy showers, and 
they were able to catch some water, and then, marvellous to relate, 
they knew their position and steered for home. 

Ulawa has frequently received these tempest-driven canoes. In 
former days the crews were killed, but during Christian times their 
lives have been preserved. Some of them have married and settled 
down in Ulawa; Ngorangora village had a Reef Island woman who 
had married there. Some of these castaways have built small out- 
rigger canoes and set off for home paddling. At night they steered by 
the stars and they generally managed to reach home. Bishop Selwyn 
in 1878 wrote of a Nupani man who had paddled his way back from 
Ulawa. Some years ago, on the weather coast of Ulawa, just as the 
darkness was coming on, we sighted two Cruzians in one of their small 
canoes. Fires were lighted and every attempt was made to induce 
them to land, but they evidently were afraid of the reception which 
might be awaiting them and they paddled away into the darkness 
Their power of locating their position is wonderful. Captain Bon- 
gard, of the old Southern Cross, used to tell the story of Te Fonu, one 



SANTA CE.UZ. 241 

of the two Nifilole men driven away from Nupani, whom Bishop 
Selwyn rescued from Port Adam on Malaita in 1877 and returned to 
their homes and thus opened up the way again to Santa Cruz. In 
order to test Te Fonu's knowledge of the direction of Santa Cruz the 
captain used to call him up at night as they were sailing and ask him 
where Santa Cruz lay. Te Fonu would look at the stars and then 
would point unerringly in the direction of his home, no matter on 
what course the ship was lying. Santa Anna, one of the two small 
islands at the east end of San Cristoval, has a considerable number of 
Cruzians, who after being shipwrecked made their home there. 

The smaller paddling canoe of Santa Cruz is well worthy of mention; 
it is called jaolo in Ndeni. It is built in the same way as the sailing 
canoe, a hollow log with an outrigger and with a platform joining the 
two parts. The aperture in the log is very narrow and the paddlers 
sit on the lip and have their legs crossed. Both the small canoes and 
the sailing ones are coated with lime. The paddles have a large, heavy 
blade and a long handle, and look very clumsy in comparison with the 
long, tapering blades used in the eastern Solomons. 

When the coming of the ships was somewhat of a rare event, it was 
a great sight to see the numbers of canoes that came flocking out to 
barter their goods at the ship's side. Two men sat in each canoe, 
one on each side of the platform, and often a boy would be squatting 
on the platform among the goods brought for barter. These goods 
consisted of bows and bundles of arrows, paddles, dancing clubs, mats, 
kits, looms, fishing nets and lines, lassoes for shark catching, flying- 
fish floats, shell armlets, shells and shell spoons for scraping coconut, 
bundles of smoked canarium nuts, coconuts, dried and green bread- 
fruit, a few yams and pana, areca nuts and pepper leaves, wild wood 
pigeons, parrots, and native fowls. The scene alongside the ship was 
one of the wildest excitement, the men all shouting their loudest, some 
holding up various articles of barter and hissing to attract the atten- 
tion of the people on the ship, some maneuvering for place alongside, 
canoes getting foul of one another and occasionally one filling. To 
be capsized is no hardship for a Cruzian; his canoe may even turn turtle, 
but owing to the outrigger it will never sink. They are quite able to 
right an overturned canoe; then, catching hold of the end, they pull 
the canoe backward and forward, jerking the water out, and finally, 
jumping on board, they bail furiously till the craft is afloat again. 

To allow the Cruzians to come on board is fatal to the peace of the 
ship. They pester everyone to buy, thrusting their wares into one's 
face and muttering tambaika (tobacco). The price is arranged by the 
buyer holding up as many fingers as he thinks the article to be worth 
in sticks of tobacco, whereupon the Cruzian says mondu, i. <?., more, 
and the buyer airs his knowledge of the language by saying lege kalinge, 
"no, my friend," and so the process goes on. Great hands are laid 



242 SANTA CRUZ. 

on one's arm; huge mouths red with areca nut and lime are thrust in 
one's face; the scent of strong-smelling herbs worn in the shell armlets 
almost overpowers one; clothes are marked with stains of yellow ocher; 
an unmistakable odor of natives pervades everything, and keen eyes 
follow every movement; great heads bleached with lime or wrapped up 
in bark cloth are thrust into the windows; everything movable has to 
be put out of reach, and portholes have to be shut. Captain Bongard 
told the story of a Cruzian who endeavored to purloin one of the iron 
ringbolts fastened to the deck, returning time and again to have a pull 
at it. Cats are much prized by these peoples, and the ship's cat has 
to be guarded carefully when they are on board. 

As soon as the ship begins to move ahead and the decks are cleared 
the confusion becomes appalling. Men hang over the ship's side 
waiting for their canoes and expostulating furiously with the ship's 
company; others have to be forced to leave, offering their wares all 
the time. The ship's people throw tobacco into the water alongside 
the canoes and instantly men dive over (the white soles of their feet 
showing up plainly), seize the tobacco, and come up shaking the water 
out of their mops of hair and wiping the salt off their faces; then, leap- 
ing aboard and grasping their paddles, they start off after the rest of 
the flotilla. Tobacco wet with salt water would not tempt a white 
man, but the Nupani men are reported to have smoked tobacco mixed 
with dried shark fins! It requires skill to extricate the legs from the 
narrow openings in the canoe, and occasionally as the man goes to leap 
overboard his leg is caught and broken bones are the result. 

Those who are the last to leave the ship calmly drop into the water 
over the side, holding their wares extended in the left hand. So quietly 
do they slip into the water that the left hand is seldom submerged; 
then, swimming with the right, they make their way to their friends. 

The catching of sharks by the Cruzians deserves a word of notice. 
Each canoe carries a number of half coconut shells strung on a length 
of rattan cane. On arriving at a place frequented by sharks this hoop 
of cane is jerked up and down in the water and a kind of gurgling 
noise is produced by the shells which certainly attracts the sharks. 
The noise is popularly supposed to imitate the sound made by a shoal 
of bonito leaping out of the water, and sharks are always found where 
there are bonito. As soon as a shark is seen, a bait (usually consisting 
of a fish) is thrown out; this is tied to a string and is pulled in towards 
the canoe. The shark becoming bold follows the bait until (after a 
few throws) he gets right alongside the canoe. A man is sitting ready 
holding a noose in his hand and, as the shark passes him, the end of 
the noose is slipped over the shark's nose. The noose gradually 
tightens as the shark turns and then the battle begins. Eventually 
the shark is pulled alongside the canoe and is dispatched with blows on 
the head from a heavy club. The shark lines are twisted out of fiber 



SANTA CRUZ. 243 

made from the bark of the tree su'a y described previously. Shark 
is esteemed a great delicacy, but Europeans would be well advised 
if they refrained from visiting the villages where the flesh or the fins 
are being prepared, for the odor is almost unbearable. 

Mr. O'Ferrall noted that the Pileni men were sorry for themselves 
in that no sharks were left round their island! 

In 1906 Rev. H. Hawkins, now archdeacon in charge of the Maoris 
in the diocese of Auckland, went on the Southern Cross with a Maori 
priest round the Polynesian-speaking islands of the Mission to inquire 
into the pr? rticability of sending Maori missionaries to work on these 
islands. In addition to Matema, Pileni, Nukapu, and Nupani in the 
Reefs, there is Tikopia to the southeast, and in the Solomons Rennell 
and Bellona, west of San Cristoval, and Sikaiana, north of Ulawa, 
islands all lying out of the ordinary track. They were able by talking 
Maori to make themselves understood in all these islands, and were 
quite confident that Maori missionaries would be able to get on there 
from the very first without much hindrance. However, the isolation 
in which they would have been compelled to live their lives was felt 
to be a complete barrier against the Maoris taking up the work. The 
only chance of their being visited was during the biennial trips of the 
Southern Cross. For white men thus to be isolated is hard enough, 
but in the case of Maoris such isolation would be quite fatal. Never- 
theless, several Maoris volunteered for the work, and now that the 
Marsden Centenary has been celebrated the project is being revived 
and Maoris of the diocese of Waiapu are raising funds to support some 
of their own number as missionaries in Melanesia. 

But it can not be said that the problem of frequent communication 
with these islands has yet been solved. A small auxiliary schooner, 
the Selwyn, was built for the purpose of intercommunication between 
the various stations in the Solomons, but so far she has not proved a 
success and has spent a great deal of her time lying up in harbor, 
owing to engine defects. A new engine has now been installed, and 
better things are expected of the Selwyn y but her small size would 
militate against her making frequent and regular voyages to the out- 
lying Polynesian islands in the Solomons, and it would be quite out 
of the question to think of her visiting Santa Cruz. If the Maoris 
are to go as missionaries, then they must be regularly visited, for 
their health's sake as well as for the supervision of their work, and this 
would demand the presence of a powerful auxiliary schooner stationed 
possibly in the Solomons. 

In any case, it is quite out of the question for the work at Santa Cruz, 
when it is revived, to go on any longer without the missionaries being 
provided with some better means of locomotion than a whaleboat. 
Mr. Nind's breakdown in health was caused by prolonged journeys 
by boat. With their boats fitted with a small dipping lug-sail, when 



244 SANTA CRUZ. 

crossing over to the Reefs from Ndeni they had to get up as far east as 
possible, their sail being small and the westerly set very strong, and it 
was often doubtful whether they could make Matema or not; if they 
failed, they had to risk the reefs in the night and make for Nukapu. 
On the return journey they were lucky if they could make land at the 
west end of Ndeni, at Te Motu, and should the wind fail them or veer 
round there was the prospect of a steady pull for hours, often with an 
inferior crew, against wind and tide and current. With the settling 
of white missionaries again in the group, it will be absolutely necessary 
to provide a launch for the purpose of work round Ndeni itself, and in 
order to insure regular and easy voyages to the Reefs, even if no Maoris 
are sent. Utupua and Vanikolo lie too far away to be reached from 
Santa Cruz in a launch, but were there a powerful auxiliary schooner 
in the eastern Solomons regular visits could be paid to all these places. 

The Heathen religion in the Santa Cruz group consists of the worship 
of the dead. The people of importance become ghosts, duka y after 
death, and a stock of wood is set up in their houses to represent them. 
Offerings of pigs' flesh and of the first fruits of the crop are made to 
the duka from time to time and are laid in front of the stock. These 
offerings are not allowed to lie there long, and are soon eaten by the 
offerers on the plea that the duka having now eaten the immaterial 
substance of the gifts, the offerers are free to eat the fleshy part. 

The duka, when offended, causes sickness, and the doctor called in 
is one who possesses spiritual power, malete, and who owns a duka him- 
self. These wizards, mendeka, control the weather on a sea journey, 
taking the stock of their duka with them and setting it up in the deck- 
house; they also control the sunshine, the rain, and the wind. In the 
large villages on Ndeni and in the island of Nupani a number of these 
stocks are set up in one house, manduka, and the ghost-house is often a 
building showing some considerable artistic taste in the decoration of 
the pillars or in the carvings. The fear of the duka controls every 
department of life. 

Feather money is peculiar to Santa Cruz; it is made of the red 
breast-feathers of a small honey-eater, a bird of the glossiest black 
plumage all over save for the breast-feathers; the bill is long and 
curved. The birds are caught with birdlime, and they are sometimes 
worn alive tied by the legs to a man's waist-belt. The red feathers 
are gummed to pigeon's feathers, and these are bound on a prepared 
foundation in rows, so that only the red is seen. A length of this money 
is about 15 feet. 

Bishop G. A. Selwyn visited Santa Cruz in 1852, but did not land. 
Four years later he visited the place again and endeavored to make 
friends with the people. Mr. Patteson and the Bishop in the same 
year landed at Utupua, Vanikolo, and Nukapu. At the latter place 
their knowledge of Maori stood them in good stead. In 1862 Bishop 



SANTA CRUZ. 245 

Patteson went ashore in several places at Santa Cruz and was well 
received. Two years later an attack was made upon his boat in 
Graciosa Bay, and Edwin Nobbs and Fisher Young were shot with 
arrows and died of tetanus. The reason for the attack was that they 
probably were taken for ghosts, duka, and ghosts being really unsub- 
stantial could not be harmed by arrows. The natives have short- 
lived memories and are slow to receive impressions, and have no 
power of making comparisons or of drawing inferences, and though 
the news of the white men's coming must have been generally spread 
abroad, yet it would be long before it got into the minds of the people 
that these were real men like themselves, and came from a real country 
in a real canoe like their own sailing canoes, loju, and were not merely 
unsubstantial ghostly figures, embodied spirits of their ancestors. 

In 1870 Bishop Patteson landed at Nukapu, and in the following 
year he was killed there, Mr. Atkin and Stephen Taroaniaro being 
shot at the same time and dying afterwards of tetanus. The reason 
for the attack was to avenge the abduction and, to their mind, death, 
of five natives who had been kidnapped by a labor vessel a few days 
previously. In 1875 Commodore Goodenough was killed at Carlisle 
Bay, on Ndeni, a few miles east of Nelua. The attack on him seems 
to have been caused by jealousy between two villages, the attacking 
party being unfriendly to his guides and resenting his approaching 
them from the enemy's village, whereas had he not thus gone through 
the villages no attack would have been made. 

In 1877 communications were opened up again with the group after 
these two murders. Bishop John Selwyn was rescued and returned 
to Nupani with Te Fonu, one of two men who had been blown away 
and who were being kept at Port Adam, Malaita, as "live heads," 
ready for killing when needed. Mano Wadrokal, the native deacon 
from Nengone, with his wife, Carrie, volunteered the next year to leave 
Bugotu, where he had settled, and begin a school on Nifilole, Te Fonu's 
home. Wadrokal reported that the population of Nukapu had been 
greatly reduced by sickness; he himself was ill owing to want of food 
and of good water and was taken away from the Reefs. The follow- 
ing year the Bishop took a party of men from Nifilole accompanied by 
Wadrokal, and thus made friends with the people of Ndeni. While 
Wadrokal was at Nifilole a number of people from the mainland crossed 
over to the Reefs and visited him and made friends, and at his own 
request he was set down at Nelua to endeavor to start a school. All 
honor must be paid to the brave Wadrokal settling thus alone in the 
midst of these excitable and warlike people. His own spirit seems to 
have been a mettlesome one, and his white fathers found him hard to 
control, but he was ever a pioneer, and he paved the way for gentler 
and less fiery successors. 



246 SANTA CRUZ. 

In 1881 Mr. Lister Kaye joined Wadrokal at Nelua, and thus was 
the first white man after Mendafia's party to live on Santa Cruz. 
Wadrokal had made friends with the people and they had built him 
a good house, and a few of them were coming for instruction. The 
natives were found to be hospitable and friendly, and the attitude 
of suspicion and distrust with which they had been regarded owing to 
their attacks on the whites now seemed likely to be dispelled. Wad- 
rokal was withdrawn in 1883 owing to illness, and the Bishop lamented 
that he had no native volunteer helper to place at Santa Cruz. One 
or two attempted to stay, but the excitable character of the people 
and the loneliness proved too much for them. Wadrokal returned in 
1884, and was present at Nukapu when the Bishop and Mr. Kaye 
erected Bishop Patteson's cross there. Boys were taken the same year 
to Norfolk Island from Santa Cruz for the first time, but some of them 
died. Little progress was made with the mission work in these years, 
and there were no baptisms except those of scholars at Norfolk Island. 

The son of the chief of Nelua, Natei, and his affianced bride were 
allowed to go up to Norfolk Island, where they were afterwards bap- 
tized and given the names of James Goodenough and Monica. James 
was named after the Commodore, and Mrs. Goodenough was respon- 
sible for the cost of his education, but he never seemed to be satis- 
factory, and eventually had to be disrated. His wife was a very good 
woman and proved very helpful in keeping the women together. 
Santa Cruz has all along suffered from a want of firm and reliable head 
teachers, though Daniel Melamakaule did good work at Te Motu and 
Henry Leambi was ever a gentle and quiet Christian gentleman. 

In 1887 Mr. Forrest replaced Mr. Kaye, and the Bishop also spent a 
short time ashore and visited the villages on the north coast. By this 
time the school at Nelua was fairly well attended, but the teaching 
had been intermittent. A small school was started on Nifilole by a 
lad named Moses Tepukeia, who had been baptized at Norfolk Island. 

In 1889 Mr. Forrest started a school at Te Motu, a village on the 
island Guerta, at the west entrance to Graciosa Bay, and he had Dr. 
Welchman to assist him. Mr. Forrest and Daniel Melamakaule 
were shot at near Te Motu, on account of jealousy between two 
villages, they having had occasion to cross from one village to another, 
thus incurring the enmity of their attackers. Their courage and 
firmness alone saved them. The first adult baptisms were also held 
this year, six people being baptized at Nelua. The separation of the 
sexes is very closely observed in Santa Cruz, and separate schools had 
to be kept for the women; the one at Nelua was ably managed by 
Monica and Fanny. At Nifilole the men and the women are never 
together in public, not even in the gardens or in performing any house- 
hold work, and the absence of capable women teachers in the Reefs 
has proved a great hindrance. 



SANTA CRUZ. 247 

Sixteen adults were baptized in 1890 at Nelua, and a small begin- 
ning was made on Nukapu. Natei, the Heathen chief of Nelua, caused 
a great deal of trouble by attempts to blackmail some of the teachers. 
The following year baptisms were held both at Nelua and Te Motu, 
and a beginning was made on Pileni. In 1894 Mr. Forrest made a 
journey in a sailing canoe to the Duff Group, and George Domo con- 
sented to stay and start a school there. In 1895 tn e baptized Christians 
in the group numbered 116. Schools had been started at three places 
on Ndeni and the Reef Islands had two struggling schools. 

Dr. J. Williams was in charge during 1896 and he staid at Santa 
Cruz for a while with Mr. O'Ferrall during the following year. Daniel 
had done good work at Te Motu, and in 1896 Bishop Wilson conse- 
crated a new church there. The first baptism in the Reef Islands was 
held in 1897 at Nifilole; there were two candidates. The next year both 
of the schools on Ndeni were closed, the one owing to the teacher's sin, 
the other owing to the complete indifference and the practical lapse 
into Heathenism of the male teachers. The two women, Monica and 
Fanny, still persevered and saved the place from complete spiritual death. 

The Te Motu school was reopened in 1898 on the teacher's repent- 
ance, but nothing could be done at Nelua, and from then on till 
about 191 5 Christianity practically ceased at Nelua. Te Motu has 
somewhat relieved the darkness of the picture, but even there the work 
proceeded but fitfully. School work in the Reef Islands was greatly 
interrupted by the constant absences of the men on trading and fish- 
ing expeditions; there was also a lack of good teachers, the boys who 
were sent to Norfolk Island having to return before their time on 
account of ill health. During this year the British Protectorate was 
proclaimed over the group, but the resident commissioner was stationed 
in the Solomons. Traders were now being established on Ndeni and 
steamers were making occasional calls. The following year French 
vessels recruited illegally, but were ordered to return the natives and 
to pay a heavy fine. It does not appear that the punishment was 
enforced, but all recruiting ceased. 

In 1899 George Domo reopened the school on Pileni and a school 
was begun in one of the villages on Fenua Loa. Nothing much ever 
came of this, and the death of one of the school people brought the 
work to an end. A boy, Govili, was sent from Nukapu to Norfolk 
Island, but had to be returned owing to ill health. In 1900 there 
were 120 baptized people in the group. In this year Mr. Nind arrived 
to assist Mr. O'Ferrall. A new school was opened on Matema by 
Andrew Veleio, but the Reef Islands had no teachers for the women 
and the men were forever travelling about. 

In 1901 the first confirmation was held in Santa Cruz, at Te Motu, 
there being 14 candidates. Nimbi, a village close to Te Motu, sent 
four boys to Norfolk Island and new boys were obtained from Ngailo 



248 SANTA CRUZ. 

in the Reefs. In 1904 Mr. Drummond was relieving at the Reefs. 
Ben Teilo, a Matema boy, made good use of the trading connection 
existing between his home and Vanikolo, visiting the latter place and 
beginning a school there. George Domo also started a school on 
Nukapu, but died soon after. By the end of 1905 the Christians 
numbered 127. In 1906 a house was built for the missionaries in 
Graciosa Bay, for the purpose of starting a central training school for 
teachers. The site was easy of access, but proved to be too much on 
the highway for canoes passing up and down to allow of any quiet. 

A few small schools were opened on Ndeni, but the supply of teachers 
was not sufficient. Henry Leambi was the only one of the past who 
was still holding on. At Nifilole the people, never many in number, 
were nearly all dead; Pileni was in an unsatisfactory state, and the two 
teachers at Matema were making gallant efforts to hold their own. 
Teilo opened a new school on Utupua in 1908, having several Reef 
Island assistants, one of them being Govili of Nukapu. While home 
for a holiday Teilo had done good work in preaching and exhorting in 
Matema, Nukapu, and Pileni. A number of Reef Island boys were now 
at Vureas. The statistics for 1908 show the Christians as numbering 
only 77. No white missionary was available now for the group. 

The following year an attempt was made to work the group by 
means of a brotherhood, consisting of Rev. H. N. Drummond, Rev. 
C. Turner, and Mr. Blencowe; Mr. Drummond had left his work on 
Raga for this purpose. Taumako, in the Duff Group, was visited 
and a boy was obtained, and an attempt was made to start a school. 
Nupani, which had asked in vain in former years for a teacher, was 
now found closed against Christianity, owing to the devotion and 
respect paid to the ghosts, who had given them great success in fishing. 
Some catechumens on Nukapu were being instructed for baptism. 
Meanwhile nothing much was doing at Ndeni, except at Te Motu; 
the church at Nelua had fallen into ruins, and the people were content 
to lapse into heathenism. At the end of the year Mr. Drummond 
returned to Raga, and the next year Mr. Blencowe was the only mis- 
sionary left. Rev. G. Bury had come to assist, but died after only 
three months' work, the victim of malignant ulcers caused by scratches. 
In his ignorance he had healed them over with iodoform and subse- 
quently died of blood-poisoning. Despite the mission's long history, 
and the fact that all the missionaries suffered more or less from these 
ulcers on the legs, no certain means was known of preventing the 
scratches caused by coral, etc., from festering and turning into these 
ulcers. Corrosive sublimate, lysol, witch hazel, poulticing, iodoform, 
carbolic acid, all these had been tried in vain. No satisfying treatment 
was known, but the writer eventually found that antiphlogistine is a 
remedy and safeguard in the event of the legs being scratched. 

In 1910 the first baptisms were held on Nukapu, one of the persons 
baptized being the sister of Bishop Patteson's murderer. Volunteers 



SANTA CRUZ. 249 

from the Reef Islands offered for work in Tikopia, Utupua, Vanikolo, 
Taumako, and Santa Cruz. Mr. Blencowe left for England to read for 
holy orders, and the group was left in charge of a San Cristoval native 
teacher, Ben Monongai. Ben Teilo was taken in 1913 to the Solomons 
to read for deacon's orders, and Bishop Wood ordained him the same 
year. 

For the present all active mission work has ceased in Santa Cruz. 
It is the intention of Bishop Wood to make an attempt to open up 
things there again with Mr. Blencowe in charge, and with that object 
in view he is asking all the friends of the Mission to unite in prayer 
that the reproach of Santa Cruz may be wiped away. Already the 
prayers are being answered. On the main island, Ndeni, school- 
houses have been put in order and the people have shown themselves 
desirous of returning to Christian ways. In the Reef Islands vol- 
unteers have offered to go as teachers wherever they may be sent. 
Up to the present, however, no white men are available to act as leaders. 
Mr. Blencowe is serving as an army chaplain and the smallness of the 
Mission's staff precludes the idea of anyone being delegated for this 
special work. We can only wait in the certainty that our prayers will 
be answered and that leaders will be forthcoming. 

The difficulties to be overcome are undoubtedly great — climate, 
language, isolation, indifference, instability on the part of the people. 
However, the Christian influence of the past will have made itself felt, 
and there will no longer be the fear of the missionaries' lives being 
endangered by attacks from the natives. Volunteers are being called 
for among the native Christians in other parts of the Mission, and if 
picked men are sent and provision made for their instruction in the 
various languages, and also for a regular visitation of the stations, then 
it is quite certain that the success which has attended the work else- 
where will also attend it in Santa Cruz. 



Prayer for Santa Cruz. 

"0 God, our loving Father, we humbly ask Thee to 
send priests and teachers full of the Holy Ghost and 
of power to revive Thy Church in Santa Cruz; that the 
faithful may be strengthened, the lapsed restored, and 
the Heathen converted, through Jesus Christ our Lord." 
Amen. 



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