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VOL. I. 














Mated b^ S. ft J. Bim.iT, Wiuon, Ml fur, 

Bugcr H<me, Shoe Unc. 




CT. A. 

I.E. a 

■t H.B. 

A. J. C. 




\V. F. D. 

£. E. 

m. A. G. 


A. G. 



Albxander Allbn, Ph. D. 

Charlbs Thomas Arnold, M.A. 

One of the Masters in Rugby School. 

John Ernest Bodr, M.A. 

Student of Christ Church, Oxford. 

Edward Hbrbbrt Bunbuhv, M.A. 

Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

Albany James Christie, M.A. 

Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. 

Arthur Hdoh Clouoh, M.A. 

Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. 

George Edward Lynch Cotton, M.A. 

Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge ; one of the Masters in 
Rugby School. 

Samuel Davidson, LL.D. 
William Fishburn Donkin, M.A. 

Savilian Professor of Astronomy in the University of Oxford. 

Edward Elder, M.A. 

Head Master of Durham School. 

William Alexander Grbenhill, M.D. 
Trinity College, Oxford. 

John Thomas Graves, M.A., F.R.S. 

Algernon Grenpell, M.A. 

One of the Masters in Rugby School. 

William Ihne, Ph. D. 

Of the University of Bonn. 

uarr itr w iuiiub m toujme i. 

B. J. BBWAxn Jomrr, 3LA. 

FcikMr ad Tatar of Bafiol CoDc^c OsfMtL 

H. G. L. Hnmr Gwamsm Lnonx, M. A. 

SiMicm ad Tatar of Ovist CbHrd^ OsfiDrd. 

J. H. M. JoBK M4wnj. MACxnzn, MJL 

C P. M. Cauui Fkm Mamw, BJL 

Phifewor of Mithraiitift in CnirenitT CoDegc, Ltoodoa. 
W. P. Woxuji PutTB, LLJ). 

C. E. P. Coitar Axrm Esrux PBicBitsi>, BJL 

Fellov of Baliol CoDcge, OsSord. 

W. E. Wiuxui Bajuat, M.A. 

PtvlieMar of Hnmanity m tbe Uaiveniiy of Glasgow. 

L. ft. LanrHAKD Schutz, FIl. D. 

Late of the Unirenitj of Bonn. 

P. S. Pbilit Sutb, B.A. 

A. P. 8. Abtbcb PuTKarx Stahlkt, M.A. 

FeOow and Tutor of Unrreraity College, Oxford. 

A. 8. AjMMLvStAJaB, 

PrafeMor in the Gynmasiiim of Oldenbarg- 

L. U. LuDino UaucBs, 

Profesior in the Unirenity of Bonn. 

R. W. Robert Whutok, M.A. 

Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge 

Tbe Articles which have oo initials attached to them are written by the Editor. 

P II E F A C E. 

Tni present work has been conducted on tlic same principles, and ii designed 
•ly for the use of the same persons, as the " Dictionary of tJreek and Roman 
itii^uitics." It has been long felt by most j>ersons engaged in the study of 
iquity, that something better is required than we yet possess in the English 
for illustrating the Bio!n"aphy, Literature, and Mythology, of the 
Cntkmd Uoman nriters, and for enabling a diligent student to read them in 
thenmt profitable manner. The writings of modem continental philologists, as 
»tU u the works of some of our own scholars, have cleared up many of the 
dficttlties connected with these subjects, and enabled us to attain to more correct 
bpvledge and more comprehensive views than were formerly possessed. The 
articles in this Dictionary have been founded on a careful examination of the 
original sources ; the best modem authorities have been diligently consulted ; 
mi DO labour has been spared in order to bring up the subject to the present 
•Ute of philological learning upon the continent as well as at home. 
A work, like the present, embracing the whole circle of ancient history and 
^^-ijtcnture for upwards of two thousand years, would be the labour of at least 
^^■ne man's life, and could not in any case be written satisfactorily by a single 
^^Rxtividiul, aa no one man possesses the requisite knowledge of all the sub- 
^^HMto of which it treats. The lives, for instance, of the ancient mathema- 
^^^Pms, jurists, and physicians, rec|uirc in the person who writes them a 
coapelent knowledge of mathematics, law, and medicine ; and the same remark 
l^pplin, to a greater or less extent, to the history of philosophy, the arts, and 
nanoo* other subjects. The Editor of the present work has been fortunate in 
obttiniag the assistance of scholars, who had made certain departments of anti- 
^nttj their particular study, and he desires to take this opportunity of returning 
bMt thanks to them for their valuable aid, by which he has been able to pro- 
a work which could not have been accomplished by any single person. 
TVt initials of each writer's name are given at the end of the articles he has 
•riiten, and a list of the names of the contributors is prefixed to the work. 
TW biographical articles in this work include the names of all persons of 
? 'nportance which occur in the Greek and Roman writers, from the earliest 
•Wtdown to the extinction of the Western Empire in the year 476 of our era, 
to the extinction of the Eastern Empire by the capture of Consuintinoph- by 
itie Turk* in lb« year 1453. The lives of historical personages occurring in llic 
btslor; of the Byzantine empire are treated with comparative brevity, but acconi- 




pauied by sufficient references to ancient writers to enable the reader to obtain 
further information if he wishes. It liaa not been thought advisable to omit the 
lives of such persons altogether, as has usually been done in classical dictiona- 
ries : partly because there is no other period short of the one chosen at which a 
stop can conveniently be made ; and still more because the civil history of the 
Byzantine empire is more or less connected with the history of literature and 
science, and, down to the capture of Constantinople by the Turks, there was an 
interrupted series of Greek writers, the omission of whose lives and of an 
account of their works would be a serious deficiency in any work which aspired to 
give a complete view of Greek literature. 

The relative length of the articles containing the lives of historical persons 
lOt be fixed, in a work like the present, simply by the importance of a man's 
life. It would be impossible to give within any reasonable compass a full and 
elaborate account of the lives of the great actors in Greek and Roman history ; 
nor is it necessary : for the lives of such persons are conspicuous parts of history 
and, as such, are given at length in historical works. On the contrary, a Dic- 
tionary of Greek and Roman Biography is peculiarly useful for the lives of 
those persons who do not occupy so prominent a position in history, since a know- 
ledge of their actions and character is oftentimes of great importance to a proper 
understanding of the ancient writers, and information respecting such persons 
cannot be obtained in any other quarter. Accordingly, such articles have had a 
space assignea to them in the work which might have been deemed dispropor- 
tionate if it were not for this consideration. Woodcuts of ancient coins are 
given, wherever they could be referred to any individual or family. The draw- 
ings have been made from originals in the British Museum, except in a few 
cases, where the authority for the drawing is stated in the article. 

More space, relatively, has been given to the Greek and Roman Writers than 
tu any other articles, partly because we have no complete history of Greek and 
Roman Literature in the English language, and partly because the writings of 
modem German scholars contain on this subject more than on any other a store 
of valuable matter which has not yet found its way into English books, and has, 
hitherto, only partially and in a few instances, exercised any influence on our 
course of classical instruction. In these articles a full account of the Works, M 
well as of the Lives, of the Writers is given, and, likewise, a list of the best 
editions of the works, together with references to the principal modem works 
upon each subject. 

The lives of all Christian Writers, though usually omitted in similar publi- 
cations, have likewise been inserted in tlie present Work, since they constitute an 
iniportant part of the history of Greek and Roman literature, and an account of 
their biography and writings can be attained at present only by consulting a con- 
xidrrablr number of voluminous works. These articles are written rather from a 
literary than a theological point of view ; and accordingly the discussion of strictly 



tlwoiogical topics, such u the Bubjecta might easily have given rise to, has been 
arefully aToided. 

Care has been taken to separate the mythological articles from those of an 

Intorical nature, as a reference to any part of the book will shew. As it is ncces- 

nry to discriminate between the Greek and Italian Mythology, an account of the 

Grtek divinities is given under their Greek names, and of the Italian divinities 

— '-— thrir Latin names, a practice which is universally adopted by the conti- 

. '. writers, which has received the sanction of some of our own scholarti, and is 

— iwiti of such importance in guarding against endless confusions and mistakes 

t» to rrquiru no apology for its introduction into this work. In the treatment of 

ikr aniclea themselves, the mystical school of interpreters has been avoided, and 

tiote priociple6 followed which have been developed by Voss, Buttmann, Welcker, 

K.O.MiUler. Lobeck, and others. Less space, relatively, has been given to these 

Mklei than to any other portion of the work, as it has not been considered 

wmmry to repeat all the fanciful speculations which abound in the later Greek 

»wr» and in modem books upon this subject. 

The lives of Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, have been treated at con- 
■dvnble length, and- an account is given of all their works still extant, or of 
vkicb there is any record in ancient writers. These articles, it is hoped, will be 
■trfol to the artist as well as to the scholar. 

Sonw difficulty has been experienced respecting the admission or rejection of 
ernain names, but the following is the general principle which has been adopted; 
Tb* Dames of all persons are inserted, who are mentioned in more than one pus- 
af$ of an ancient writer ; but where a name occurs in only a single passage, and 
tlfcrny more is known of the person than that passage contains, that name is 
■ gtperal omitted. On the other hand, the names of such persons are inserted 
•ita lli«y are intimately connected with some great historical event, or there are 
oikcr penon* of the same name with whom they might be confounded. But 
as it is utt-ftil for many purposes to have as complete a list as possible of all 
MBes of persons occurring in the Greek and Roman Writers, it is proposed to 
pvc, in an "Ononiaslicon" at the end of the third volume, all such aa have not 
West thought deserving of a place in the body of the work. 

Wban there are several persons of the same name, the articles have been 

— iig » «l either in chronological or some alphabetical order. The latter plan 

te heea usually adopted where there are many persons of one name, as in the 

■• tt Alexander, Antiociius, and others, in which cases a chronological 

■MfODent would stand in the w.iy of ready reference to any particular indivi- 

daal •horn the reader might be in search of. In the case of Roman names, the 

( hiiiliiyii si order has, for obvious reasons, been always adopted, and they have 

baa Riveo under the cognomens, and not under the gentile names. There is, 

howrcr, S separate article devoted to each gens, in which is inserted a list of all 

iha eogatMMtu of that gens. 



It was originally intended to complete the present work in one volume, like the 
" Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities;" bnt althoug'h all possible concise- 
ness has been studied, consistent with a proper treatment of each subject, it has 
been found impossible to confine it to the size originally contemplated, without 
sacrificing the value and usefulness of the work. 

In ■ work written by several persons it is almost impossible to obtain exact 
uniformity of reference to the ancient Writers, but this has been done as far 
as was possible. Wherever an author is referred to by page, the particular ' 
edition used by the writer is generally stated ; but of the writers enumerated 
below, the following editions are always intended where no others are indicated : 
Plato, ed. H. Stephanus, 1578; Athenaeus, ed. Schweighiiuser, Argentorat. 
1801-7; the Moralia of Plutarch, ed. Francof. 1620; Strabo, ed. Casaubon, 
Paris. KJSO; Demosthenes, ed. Reiske, Lips. 1770 ; the other Attic Orators, 
ed. II. Stephanus, Paris, 1575; the Latin Grammarians, ed. H. I'utschius, I 
Hanov. 1605 ; Hippocrates, ed. Kiibn, Lips. 1825-7 ; Eroiianus, ed. Franj, Lips. 
1780; Dioscorides, ed. Sprengel, Lips. 18S9-S0; Aretaeus, ed. Kiihn, Lips. 
ISsiS; Rufus Ephesius, ed. Clinch, Lend. 1736; Soranus, ed. Dielz, Regim. I 
Pruss. 1838; Galen, ed. Kiihn, Lips. 1821-33; Oribasius, Aetius, Alexander I 
Trallianus, Paulus Aegineta, Celsus, cd. H. Stephanus, among the .Medicae Artis i 
Principes, Paris, 1567; Caelius Aurelianus, ed. Amman, Amstel. 4lo. 1709. 

Names of Places and Nations are not included in the Work, as they will form 
the subject of the forthcoming " Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography." 


London, October, 1 844. 


fa iW faUoiriiig list AV indicatrs that tho coin is of ^Id, M of silver, .£ nf copper, 1 M 6ret bronze 
^la^ %X tttoad bronw Uoman, il^ third bronzt^ Roman. The weight of all gold and Hilver coint 
)• p9fB^ vwh the exctfption of the auroi and denarii, which aro for the moHt port uf nearly the same 
i^ mtprctivel/. When a coin has been reduced ur (.'iiUrged in the dmwlijg, the diameter of the 
ipml com is given in the last column, the numbers in which refer to the subjoined scale : those 
l|ii4 kare do Dumben alfixcd to thein ore of the same size in the drawing as the originals. 

\ u 



Ob. (Empemt.) 
Akxuder BiiIks, king of 


Alexander I., king of 


Aknodar IL., king of 


**'»"'■**•' I., king of 

Mamianis .... 
Altatnder II., king of 

jucAQoniA ...... 

Aimndcr III. (tho 

Gtcal), king of Moce- 


Atetander (Roman em- 


Aloaoder Zebisa, king 

oi ojmft •....•. 

PI AajDtu, king of Moce- 


Bjvtat, king of Oalalia 

, king of Aaia 
i Oonalju . . 

ktu, king of Com- 




JR 250) 




















2)2 2 
216 I 

2" 7 1 I 
253| 1 





456 2 
458, 1 

AntiochuA VII. . . . 
Antioi'Ims VIII. . . . 

Antiochub IX 

Antiix'liut X 

Antiothin XI 

Antiochus XII. . . . 
Antiocbus XIII. . . 


Antoiiinut Piua . , . 

M. Antoniua 

C. Antonios 

L. Antnnins 

.lultn A(]uilia Sevem . 

Arciuiiui . 




Arianithcj V 

Ariarathci VI 

Arianithci VII. . . . 
Ariuborzanes I. . . . 
Ariohittzane* III. . . 


Araacra III 

Anuicea V 

Armcca VI 

Anace* VII 


AnoccsXXVni. . . 












Balhiit, Aciliua . . . 
Balhua, Antoniiu . . 
Bolhua, Atiua . . . . 
BalbcLa, Cornelius . . 
Balbua, Naeviiu . . . 
Balbus, Thoriui . . . 

25U 8} 

2.55 81 

245 8i 

242 81 

2504 71 








AMm8 PACaiai), a numiunr of Apnllo dr- 

0"^ 5^ ill' iii*n of Abiif in Fhutin, when? the 

"iplc. (Ilejjch. ». I'. 'ASoi ; Hrrod. 

.. SA. §1, &c.) [L.S.] 

-UUilili,'N MACIISTKK. [PoBPiivaius.] 

AmxriMnES {'AgarrMiit) nipiifict in 

y— i * li woi m luit uf AliuA, but U uM*d espod- 

i^ to iaif^mtt PcrvcuK, tbr (jreat-ffmndiuin iif 

At {<h. Hit. IV. 67», r. i:!R. JSti), and 

InJiM, a MO of Alno. ((.)<. jt/w. ir. ij'07.) A 

I^M AiBradant nf AUu, as Uonuc and Atalnntr, 

•a oJM Abuitau. [I-S.] 


IBA'NTIOAS ('Afai-rlSaf >, tin- oon of Poscas, 
klBt ^paal of Sicjon after inurjerinK Clein'uu, 
^Marcf Anbu, & c. '2(i4. Arams who wa< 
Aa air wmt ytan old. narrowly eatnped death. 
JMMi4< aw tmd of litetaturr, and wai aecu»- 
iM4 M allaid the philoiophinU disciUKJona irf 
AkiB add Ariatotle. the dioiectioiaik, in the agora 
tf finm ; •« otic of the«e occofiionji he wa<t niui^ 
4«ki hj ki* mnniea. lie wna iiicceedi-d in tltc 

&bT hit iuher, who niu put to death by 
( Plat. A roJ. 2. 7t ; Paui.. il ». J i ) 
AHARRA'RKA ('Keofeapi-n), a Nni.nd, who 
tat tm* mm, Acwput and Pediuut, Mi Bucolion, 
^ ^tmt bm illcguimate ion of tlio Tnijon King 
IflMrfw. (lUin. R Ti. 22, tie) Other writcra 
^Mtaeition ibi* nymnb, but llesychitu («. e.) 
■■MB 'A t *t^ t afi*i at AStt()ea\<uai a> the name 
<f > diM af a]nB{iha. [I.,. S.] 

miUS CA*^'). «<> of Seutbea, mu a 

l}^il««aii phot of Apollo (Herod, iv. 36), and 

^&i« the otantry about the Caucaaui (Uv. 

*» «. K) la Oncte, while hi» owi country waa 

'^A' W a ph(^. He wu endowed witii the 

^f fRvWf . and by thi> at well a» by hia 

^jAiM «*« and •implii'ity and honesty he 

^■al fmx Hn«alicn in (irri.>ce, and was held iu 

f^ ■•^ (StnU Tii. p. 30 1 . ) He liaTolled about 

■ 0^». (anTtng a-ith him an arrow im tlie 

*f*M d Apntlo, and ^%v omdeft. Tolaiid, in 

•*• ffjrtm) of ilie Ihiiids eoniider* him to hare 

■■• a UntUi nf il»r M»'*»ri«lr», Ui-niiM the arrtiw 

*^*^ • . .;n.» of a Oruid. His 

*fc*»y. • I ihii-al, i« reluteil in 

vniai ».,,-. ~.« »....v.. i^p with extraordinary 


particulani ; he is Maid to hare taken no parthly 
food (llerud. iv. 3(i}, and Ui have ridden on hit 
arrow, the gift of .\|)ol]o, through tiui air. (LolK*ck| 
Aii(<tu}ihamHx, I*. 3 14.) He cured discaiteii by in- 
conliitioui (PlaU Ckurmiil. p.1.18, a.), delivered tlie 
world from a plugiic (t>uidajv, «. e. 'Mapti), and 
built at Sparta a temple of Kopij aiiTupa, { Puu«. 
tii. 13. g *J.) Suidoii and Kudoeia ascribe to him 
>ever.d workii, such i\t iiicautntious Scj'tiiian 
orueles, a poem on the nuirriogu of the rivor 
Hebnia, ei7>iiilory foruiuhu, the arrival of Apollo 
among the HypiTbttreans, and a probe work uu ihu 
origin of the gods. But such works if tliey were 
really currrut in ancient times, were no more 
genuine limn his repulwl correspondence with 
Hhalari* the tyrant. The time of his appearance 
in Greece is stated ditferently, some fixing it in 
1>1. 3, othens in 01. *2I, and others again m.tkc 
him a contemporary of l-roesus. (IVntley, On lUe 
EfritL of I'hulnrit, p. .14.) Lubiik pliic^s it alwut 
the year n.c. .570, ue. about Ol. .I'J. Kespeciinj; 
the perplexing traditions about Aboris see Klupfer, 
MyOuiuyvxhet Woritrbuch, L p. 2 ; Zapf, Ltvputn- 
tia iiistoriat de AitaruU^ Lips. 1707; Larcher, an 
Uenxl. vol. iii. p. 446. [L. S.] 

.\BAS fAffai). I. A son of Metaneini, wo« 
changed by Demeter into a lizonl, lx>cause he 
mocked the goddess when she had come on her 
wanderings into the house of her niothi^, and 
dniuk eagerly to quench her thirst. (Nironder, 
Thenaea ; NataL Com. t. 14; Ov, Altt T. 
450.) Other traditions reUte the same storjr 
of a boy, .\scakbus, and call his niolllcr Miwue. 
(Antouin. Lib. "23.) 

2. The twelfth King of Aigos. He was the 
sou of Lynceus and llyiK'nunestra, and grand- 
son of Uaiuius. He married (Jcoteia, who Ixire 
liim twin sons, Aerisius and I'riK'tus. (ApolliMl. 
ii. 2. § 1 ; Hygin. /a4.17lt.) When he informed 
his fiilhcr of the deatli of Ditnitus, he wa« re- 
warded with the shield of his gnuidCither, 
which was sacrctl to lleni. He it described as 
a successful conqueror and as the founder of 
the town of Abac iu Phocis (Paus. x. 3,5. § I), 
and of the Pelade Atj^s in Theasaly. (Strah. 
ix. p. 431.) The tanie of his warlike spirit was 
so great, lluit even after liis death, when fH-uple 



remtti'il, wluini )»< had hiiUIuimU they wrn* put 
to Hight liy llt<* Miii|>U* nri u{ Klioniii^ tbtmi Wn, 
Rliiuhl. (V'ir^. ,lri*. iii, 'JH(i ; S.*rv. uii ^M-.) It wiu* 
fniii) tliin AUi* t)uit thr kin^i of Ar};iHi wrri^oillet] 
li}' tint luitruiiyiuii: AUuituulk [Aiiantiauk.1.] 


AIIAS CASat). 1. A Greek •o|ilint and 
rhcloriciun alioiit whow life nniliiii); it known. 
SiiidAt (f. V. 'Mas: roniparr Kiidoiui, p. b\} 
UM'rilic« to him ItrroptKi dvo^yri/urra nnd » wurk 
on rhetoric (t^x*^ ^T»TOf««nj). \Vh«l Photiii& 
(Cud, 1 90. p. 1 AO. li. €hI. liokkcr) quiitc» from him, 
b<'lniia» pnibnlilv tu the lomitT work. (Coui|ure 
Wnlr, HlirtifT, trnuc. vii. I. [k. '^03.) 

2. A ft riter of a work aillt'd Troiat, fn>rn which 
STvitu (aJ Aat. 'a. 2(!4) ha> pmerrcd n fmg- 
nicnl. [L. S.] 

ABASCANTUS ("AftlfficaiToj), a phjuicLui of 
Lii)tdiinuui (Ljoin), wlio prohably lived in tic 
UT'oiid ct'ntiiry nfti'r Chritt. llu IM aoTcnU tif»c« 
tiu'ntitinc^ by CiuU'n {1**^ t'*>ntjt*»^Mtditawt.$Betatd, 
/.^<v>, ix.i. vol.iiii. p.'J7H), whohaaslupreacrvcd 
un iiMtidotr iuviiiird by nini n(,'iunat thr bile uf 
•iri»'niv (/> AhIiI. it 12. vol. \if. p. 177.) The 
anio i> to br met with in numcrnut Latin in- 
criptioni in tiniter"* collection, live of which rvfer 
dninn of Augtnttiii, who i« «itppo*rd by 
^AdttiUim. a»t JClfh4-Jt. Altiiic. Vei. a J» A. 
■• b'M. <i'r." JCjIiU,.) to be the «ame 
penmn ihjit i& mentioned by fjnien. This however 
ift quite uncertain, n« al«o whether no^xurAifrior 
*A€aaita>^oi in Galen {Oe Compot. AfrJicam. 
mritmL Liicot. Tii. 3. voU xiii. p. 7 1 ) refern to the 
•object of ihit article. [ W. A. f ). ] 

(piidener, but of royuj de«ceiit, vwk nuiile king of 
2>tduii by Alexander the (ireni. (Curl. iv. I; Ju»t, 
x\. 10.) lie a colled UuUuuyniui by Uiodoms. 
(iviL 4K.) 

AllliK'UnSfAeSTipof), a ton of llcrmev or 
Bccunting III uthen of 'rhramiiik die Uicrukii. ( .\ pul- 
lod. ii. 5. 3 8; Stmh.Tii. |\. S3l.) lie wai>n favourite 
of llemcles, ami iraa torn to piece* by the marc* 
of Di.>medes which lleracle* hnd given hint to 
pMr»iie the lti»tnne». Ilenicle« it Mid to hate 

I ■ ■'■ • '' " ' - " ' -'■■:". Accord- 

t '^ n Ncrvont 

t : „ 'III nittoneik, 

and »-»<» killed by ileracl,-* together with hi* 
innnter nnd hi» four men-devnuring hnn,e*i. (Com- 
|«UT riiilo.tril. n<r,M: ;i. S 1 ; 19- 9 2.) (L. S.) 

AM|II.\S ('AffStai), the pretended author of an 

A til...; ..;,'...! I ' lli^tril cj' thtL Ajif- 

f • have Ifeen written 

II :*-d into *Jre»'k by 
t.utnrpiuK, Hjid tiicncT mt'i Latin by Juliuii Afri* 
cAiium. It waa however ori{i[inutly written in Latin. 

' out A. D. £) 1 0. 1 1 ij printttd in Fubriciufs 
EO^' Af>»>rnf^'kiu Xtjn Trrt. p. 4M2. Uvo. Ilamb. 
TUS. AUliat wo* colled too thr hrtl Dikhop of 
kbylon. [A.J.C] 

A!tt''I,I.IO, !. the fuunr of a ditinity found in 
i<nverrd at Cotmnitijfc* 
.. p. ,17. 4 1 J. 8cidi(jrr, 
'' 'iaann(A/yiMiy«ii^ 
> to b« the maat 


17). and iil«o (he Miine iim llelia or Ilelentifi mr 
tioniMl by Tertidlirui {AjuJu^/rt. 2,1) and ilerodiiui 
(viii. ,1; CMinp. CApitttl. A/usiuiin, 22). As the 
root of the word he ivcogiiiAes the S|>artnn B^Ao, 
Uf, the Min (lleftych. *. r.). which appeiii^ in tliu 
Svriac and Clialdojc Iklus or iSnal. [L. S.) 

"AUK'UCIU.S ST. ('AS^pxioj), the ►uppoted 
fiucceioHir of ^t. I'upiaii in the »ec <if Hiera|Kdift, 
flourished A. D. I5U. 'I'heiv are aicribed In him. 
I. An KputU to the Kmiimir A/orraji AHrrliit*^ a£ 
which l(4LroniuH iipe:tk« an extant, but he do 
not produce it ; and, 2. A Uuok of iJimplh 
{&iS\as SiSairiraAtas) nddrvaiiefl to hifcClei^ ; thi4 
too ia loht. See lllimtr. }-2ccIc». Ufvut. ScrijtL 
I'llar, li P. Ilulluit. Duac. I(i3(i. [A. .1. C] 

(*A^ya/>o5. ''Axtfafwr. Ai>7<^wx), a noino comiMoJ 
U> many mien of Kdctao, the capital of the dial 
of Uhrhuenc in Mciopotamia. it tcemi to luit| 
lieeu a title and not a proper name. (I'n 
UtU. I'm. ii. 1 2.) For the hitiory of the«c 1 
•ec Bayer, ** H ibtoria C>brhoena et Kdeftwiu 
nununit UluBttata," Petrop, 1734. Uf thne 
mo<.t important arc : 

1 . The ally of the Romani under I'nmpey, i 
trvacherounly dn*w Craasiia into an utiluvn 
po&ition before hia defeat, lie is called Au^ 
by Dion C^iMiut (U. 20), AcKirun the phyl 
of the Arabitina in the Parthian bittory 
to Appian (p. 34. Schw.), and Ariounea b; Ph 
lurch. (Oa».21.) 

2. The contemporary of Chrut. Soe the foUo^ 
iog article. 

3. The cliieC, who resiMed Mehenlates wha 
Chuidiuii wifthcMl to place on the Parthian thmn 
he is called a kiiij^ of the Arabian* by 1'a 
{Arm. xiL 12. 1 4), but was probably aiiOtrhoenM 

4. The euntentponiry of Trnjon, n ho sent 
•mil to dial enifieror when he invaded the 
and iubtnjuently wuiunl upon him and become I 
ally. (Dion Cou. hviii. IB. 21.) 

5. The contemporary of Cumcalbi, who i 
cruelly towardt hi« nation, and waa dep 
Caracniht (Dion Caw. Ixivii. 12.) 

A'HGARUS, Topoich of Ede«Ni, suii.oW 
Kntebini to have been the author i<l a lei 
written to otir Siiviour, whii h he found in a chit 
at Kdeiugi nnd trantlaled from the .^vrioc. 
letter is believed to be ipuriuui. It u givra 
Ku».l.iui. (//urf. /vW. L 13.) [A. J. CI 

A'UIA ('Afi'a), the nume of Hyllus a • 
Hrrru-len, She built a teniple of IIcrAcle^l 
in Mesaenta, for wbidi the llenu-lid Cretpha 
ttfterwAnl* honoun^d her in vurioui otJier- 
and alM> by clmnging the name of the town of 
into .\bia.'(l'aui. iv. :wi. § I.) !■•■&]] 

a noble Spjuiianl, oripnallv n friend of 
beiniyed the Spaniiih hof,ta^>e* nt Si^runtum* ' 
vvu- in the power of the C^U'tbagiiiiaii*, to 
Uomoji f:t-nemlii. the two Si-ipios after deecivj 
Ili.ktar. the Cortluigiuiaii coouuaiidrr. (Lir. 
22 ; PoMu iii. ilH. \c.) 

called FmbiMirua ('E^ica^t) by l)io<lorna (x 
90). an Indian kiii),' beyond the river Mvif 

Hhii>f tiTTil..ri- t.v III l)..> ni.iiiMt.-iiii, u-:il i 

iL u. *yj)^ iii^\ lJuI tt.v (it I'.h ;a Uui kaloi a« tht 
Uailie Apollo roimliunrd by (.'^u'aar (Bril, tiaU, ri. 

tU* *iUe of ill*- Ult4.r. AlcxuiiJi-r nut miij. .lUuw 
bin to tvtain hit kingdom, but iucn'j'i^d >t, • 


«■ kit dcaih ■p|tnifit''il hit ion m hU succcsior. 
(Ama. ^mL t. 8. 2U. 20 ; Cnrt nil 13. 13. 14. 
ix.L<. I.) 

ABI''^ ^ ""■""'" ' 'pled gofcnior of 

d^ifil. iL (Curt. ill. 4.) 

li* n c^ . ... at. (.Inui. ii. 4.) 

taaaoTiiti nnjKtttn* tiuit intlaiil of Abulamam 
(^^tniirjn.u frih'jHjtito^ We ougtit tu Kod AUcta 
m ■ *<•. 

\iirrt^iai>6t), the BOthor of a 
G«r«K lfT5illw^ /* / "'. .1 in the •ccond 

VihHB cf Ueler'i / /ki r.'nun .«/>- 

Mnai, fietaL8To.l8l., iitli- n<^ CMpui' 

n^Hiil'»i« 'A^'tmi Tov ^Lo^trrirov irapd /uf 
1«4o«f ^AAAq 'Cfurvi rov 2ira Vfroi 'AAXii viaO tov 
&»€, ««pd 8tf IroAtfit 'ASntiayov, Jle in the MUim 
ymotk a* the cclehmttrd .Vraliic plirticiuii ArintHHo^ 
mhaam n«l name va* Atu 'AU ttm Siiui^ A. li. 
Sit m J7S — J'-'R (... 1.. 980 or yil.>— IILIi), luiU 
ImD mhamp gmit work Kttdti ui-Kdnun Ji t-TrUi, 
Utr ^'-— -*■ Mmbauat, iku trcaliw is probably 

—hint [w. A. a.] 

ABLAIlIt'S CAt^ifm). 1. A phytirian on 
•&■» disath thrrc a jui epignun by Thcotfebia in 
Qnek Aoihology (vii. SS'J), in which he i^ 
inferior only to Hippociales and 
Willi loprct to hii dale, it it only 
Imvb tkat be miut have tivrd after Galrn, 
ikM t*> Mme Iko* falter than ihe ufond cvntiiry 
^trChntt. [W. A.r..] 

t. T1l9 tlliMtrimif [*lXXobcrpiot)^ ibv author of an 
■■pan in •'"• iir.>.k Anthology (ix. 7li"J) "on 
■■fwo: ''lek." Nuihini; more >• known 

W khm, < the same jienoa a* Ablabiu*, 

A» S'taL.^-^ ir^U'^i of NicaA-a, who wa> a diicipie 
4 iW rS*-u<ricuui Truilut, aitd hiniM;lf eminnit 
Mlk» •MacJiralieMioii, and who lived under lln- 
jalat arf Twiadaaiiu i 1., at the end of tin- fuurlh 
mi ik* bigiiiliiligaf the fiifth centnriea after Chriit. 
,//«<. iit TiL 12.) [H.S.] 

I'VirS. 1. Prefect of the city, the mi- 
1 fcrooiite of Conituntine the GrcnL, wus 
I wth^ the dratli of the Utter. (Zo»iniu.s, 

a Ml) " -iin.ul A. I>. .131. There i»:in 

^f^^am^ ..i>uted to him, in which the 

tmgBB '1 Co[i4tantine aru coiujuired. 

I l>tli. Ijo. n. iiil. nL Meyer.) 

- A Kooati hifturiaii. whoae age in nnknnwn, 
«n*r a biitary of the Ootha, which iih «ime- 
S^w quoted by Jonuinde* aa hia authority. 
»i»- ft^. n^f^ iv, H.VX) 

Ailiv \|i.\ 1 A> I'Mfiot^as), a king of So«a 
»J «t. — > "> °.*i'' .Avyruuia aftauut Cynu. Hia 
•* I'aaUria wm taken on tJie conquest of the 
Aanriao <^vp, virhile be wnt abtrut on a iiiiMiou 
» xk^ Rarsrua^ In conwqiience of the hunom- 
IktRSXamt which hi> wife n^rin-d frnm l'^nl.^, 
tt fi»r^ i^' iiii'-f »iili hi« fonca. He fJll in 
iMda, - 't the f'^-ptiiiiii. In- 

OTi^-. .(beia put an end tJi her 

9W KIk, tkSml iii-r :.xjiuiple wuji followed by her 
Cynu had a hii(b nitiund rained in 
MT : «D a pillar on Ibe Inp were inscribed 
■ of AhfrfalBa and Pantlicin in the Syriac 
»{ Mad tiuoe columns IhIuw bore the in- 
wr, iu honour of the eonuchn. 
.<\''>. ! »."«, vi. I. §3l,\c. 4. §2.&c viL 
Tn)«(i), a tumame of 

■ ' p. AT*.) [L. S.] 

xnitU'LUMiVb I'ASpmitiat), one of the ntrapi 



of .^rtoxerxr* Mnenion, wa» lenl with an anny of 
3II0,(HHI men to npiKue t'ynin on hi» march into 
ii|i|>er Asia. On llie nrrivnl of t'ynis al 'I'uraiu, 
A Ijnit'rumi)* waji Raid to be on tile i'^uphmtes ; anil ul 
Imu.1 four hundred hcavy-annod fjrwki, wh-i hud 
deserted .'Vbrocoman, joined C'yma. Abroeomns did 
Dot defend the Syrian paucs, aa waa expected, but 
mitrched to join the king. He burnt tame boats tu 
prevent Cyrua from crotung the Euphroua, but did 
not arrive in time for the battle of L'unaia. ( Xcn. 
A mil., i. 3. § 20, 4. § 3, S, IH, 7. § 12; Uarpocmt. 
and .Suidis, k. r.) 

AUIIU'CIIMI'S l'MpoKoni)t) and his brother 
lIyiK;raiithes {'TttpirOyis), the xiiu of Dariua by 
I'timtugune, the daughter of Artunea, were nlain at 
Tlieniiopylae while ttghtiiig over the body of Leo- 
ntd:us. (Herod, vii. 224.) 

AHIIUN or HAIIUON ("ASpow or'ASfMiK). 1. 
Son uf tlie Attic orator l.ycur]juii. (I'lut. I'll. dtc. 
IJtuI. p. H43.) 

2. i he son of Callins, of the deme of Bate in 
.'Vttica, wrote on the festivnla and sncrilieet of the 
Greeks. (Stepli. UyjL s, r. Bortl.) He also wrote a 
work rf^iX -wapvvv^iMV^ which is frc'iiueiitly referred 
to by Stephanun Uyi. (•. c. ■A>ii*ij,"Ao"5,&c.)aud 
other writers. 

3. A giwnmarian, a Phrygian or Rliodian, a pupil 
of Tryphou. and originally a nlave, taught at Koine 
under the tiret Caetan. (Suidaa, <. r. "Ali^v.) 

4. A rich pcnou at Aigoa, from whom the pm- 
Tcrfa 'AfpMvt /9iat, wfaicii waa applied to extiara- 
gant penona, is laid to have bceu derived. (bui> 
dOA, f. r.) 

AHUO'NIUS SILO, a Utin Poet, who lived 
in the latter port of tile Augustan ago, wnt a pupil 
of ['oirius l«itro. His son was alto a poet, but 
degraded himself by writing plays for paiitonumca. 
(SxMiec .SW». ii. p. 21. Hip.) 

AI!1(0'.NYC'1IL".S ('h^ryxot), the son of 
Lysidcii, an Atheiuan, was stationed at Thennopy- 
lar with a vessel to coiuiuiinicute between lAMindaa 
Olid the Heet at Artemisium. He was subse- 
quently M'lit as ambassdur to S)iarta with 'I'ho- 
mi>tiK:les and .\ristcides r>.»pecting the fbrtilicatioiu 
of Athens afur the Peniiau war. (Ilciud. viii. 21 ; 
Thiic. i. .Ml.) 

ABKO'TA ChSjxini), the daughter of On- 
chestus, tlie UiH'Oiiiui, and tlie wife of Nisus, king 
of Megarit. Un her death Nisus commmided all 
the Alegnrian women to wear a gamient of the 
siuuc kind as Abrota liod woni, which was culled 
(i/Jialiroma (dipaSpw/ia), and was still in use in tiie 
time of i'lutarch.iymirW. O'ftwr. p.295,a.)(\V. !S.J 

AUUU"roMJ.M ('AepcToni'), a Thmrian 
liarlot, who aeuinling to some accounts was the 
luoihcr of Theniistodes. There is an epigram piv- 
»<-ned freofding this fact. (I'luu Tirm. 1 ; Atheli. 
xiii. p. S;ii, c; Aelion. >'. //. xii. 43.) I'lutanh 
alto refers lo her in hit'E/Mrrucdt (p. 7.'>3, d.); and 
Lacian speaks of a harlot of the same name (ItutL 
Mrrctr. 1). 

AlUlU'l'OLIS, an ally of the Romans, who 
attacked the dominions of Putwus, and laid them 
waste as fur as Aniphipolis, but was afterwards 
driven out of his kingdom by I'eneus. (I^iv. 
xlii. l.\ 30. 41.1 



son of Aeetos, king of Colchis, and brolher of 
Medeia. His mother is suited diUcn-ntly ; Hygi- 

11 2 


rJUwiF'Jt, l.'l) mill" hiT l|Miii, Apnlloflnni* (i. 9. 
J'J3) lilvi;!, A[HillMii)nR fiii. 'J4I} AnlrnitliMn, nnd 
I Miim lli*cnti*j Ni'Ui-ni, or KurylyUi. (Sthol. mi 
Aftoitim, I. c.) Whi-n M«K*ia HimI with JoMin, 
■lie toulc litT lirullirr AUyrtit» wiiii hcT, mid wliL'ti 
fthf wiu iii-afU uvLTtakcii l>y hor IJilhi-'r, *hc niur- 
dcnnl bcr bntUicr, cut ItiK body in yivxv* and 
•ircwed thciii oil t)ic ruoiL that nrr father might 
thu» bo dftaiiicd by Knthcrin^ tli» linihii of hit 
chilli. Tomi, the plncc wiierc thi« horror was 
cnmniittod, wfu ticliovni to trnvc derived it* nauid 
fhiin T<)i»M, - cut" (ApoUod. L !). §'Jl ; Or. Trit(. 
iii. ; coutpan* ApoUoo. iv. 330, &c. 460, &c.) 
Accnnlin^ to auotber tmditioii AliayrtuJi wu* not 
tikki'U by Meileiu, but wu4 keiit out by hift futlicr 
ill pumuit of htT. lie OTcrtooit her in Carcyni, 
where nhe had Ik*u kiudly received by king 
AWiuout^who rvfuM'd to honvoder bertoAbsyrlUH. 
When bo oTertAJok her ft necoud time in the i&huid 
of MiuerTA, he W.1S ftUiii by .Janin. (llvffin. /(i/i. 
*J3,) A tniditioTi totluwed by l'acuviu»(i'.ic.r^Hu/. 
rfnir. iii. ly), Juttiu (xiii. 3), and Uiodorm (iv. 
iS), cnlled the >«n nf Aeetn, who wu murdered 
by Mrdeui, Aeftiolout, [I^ !^.] 

AHUM'TK-S ('A^auXiriif), the Bitrap of Stt»i- 
nna, ■uni'iiden'd Siiw to Alexander, when the 
hitter nppmuched the city. I'he iatrapy won re- 
•tufvd to hull by Alexander, but he nnd hi* w>n 
Oxyalhre* were uClerwwrdii executi'd by .\luxituder 
fur iJie criineA they hod committed in the govem- 
nieut of the •alnipy. (Curt. T. '1 ; Arriou, AnaU. 
ilL l(i. viL i ; Itiod. xvii. 66.) 

AitU'UlA UK.N'8, plebeian. On the coint of 
tbi* gnu we find the coiniumoD Oui„ which it 
perfaapt in aUirrviution of (jeminiu. The cuiiu 
B>Te DO bc«d> of porwin* on them. 

I. C Avt'iuuH WM one of the ambauadon tent 
to KfaiiniMs nod the Cartbii|jiniaii>, b. •:. 171. 
(Liv. iliL So.) 

% M. AntHli N tribune of the pleh*. n.r. 187, 
-^ppooed M. Kidviu* the pmcunnul in hift pa-tition 

ra triumph, but withdrew hib oppuftition chietly 

uugh tlie inriiu'occ nf hi* cnUea^fUe 'I'i. (inK-chiu. 
(Liv, xixiz. 4. A.) lie wa< piaetor pcrcuriniu, 
1I.C; I7«. (Ur. xli. 18. m.) 


ABYltf.NL'M. ('A$iiiiivi\), a Otxvk hittoriiuu 
who wrote a hi«tnry of Auyriu ('AinrujHOirrf). 
1'hr time at which he lived i> uncertain, but we 
know tJiai he oude uw of the wurkj of MegHa- 
tlinicft and lk-ro«u»; and Cyrillu* (aJi^.JmiutH, ftp. 
H, !l) •late*. Uul he vrrote in ttie luiiic dialert. 
S. ' ' 'unu of his work arc prp*erved by 
I ' !liu and t>yiiccUu>: it was particu- 

Lii ',. lor chronolo^v. An important frag- 

ment, which clean Dp tome dilhcultieii in Assyrian 
history, has been diKwend in the .Anneninn 
llMMlatian of the Chronicon of Eusrliius, The 
frvginmls nf bis hutorr have Ijeen published by 
f^calip^r, ** t)e KmeDclatiiMie Trm|ioruni,** and 
Kirhter, " Berusi Chaldororum Historiac," A.C 
Li|«. lH2i. 

AC.\CALLI.'i ('AmuiaAAii), d»u);hu-T ofMiiioi, 
by whom, luxunlinK to a t'tvtoii tnuliiion, Hertne* I 
be^t Cyduii ; Mhth* acxx>riltli^ li< .i 
Teyesion*, i'i don was a m'ii oI 1 

B^nlt.'d lu L'tclC tKlUt leges. ( I'.i . - ; 

ApoUo bcM bjf bar a •»ii MilituN wIh.ui, l.r I'.ir 
Ol bcr tMllcr, AooUlls eI|>osnl III n fiiml, u III re 
WQina watcbed and moM ibe child, untd he 
WW (Miad bj ilMipkad* wbo bmi|b( him up. 

(Antoniii. I.ili. 3k\.) Other unns of her aii4 
A|Mi|]o ore ,\mphithemiHnnd Onninuift. (Apollo 
iv. U!i(l, \c.) A|Mill.Hlonii. (iii. 1. § L'} i-alU thi^ 
daii(;hl4'r orMiiioH Aealle ('AadAAv}), hut does tia 
mention Miletus as her sun. Aaicallis wits 
Crete a common natne for a uorvissus. (.Athea 
XT. p. 681 ; llesych. i. r.) ( I" S. J 

ACA'CIUS('AiMUM)i),a rhetorician, of Cncs 
in I'alestiue, lived under the emperor .hilion, aii4 
whs a friend of Libanius. (E^iiidiis, j. r, 'Axdttu 
fueirios: Kunnpius, Aivcii 111.) Many uf i 
letters of Liliuniu ore luldrcisod to hiuL [B. J.] 

*J. A Syrian by birth, lived in a moiuisli 
near Antioch, and, for bin active defence of tb 
Chuirfa aguiiut Ariniiium, was made Itishop 
Rerrhoeo, A. n. 37H, by ^L Kusebiiis of SfimoMtlkl 
While u priefit, he(wiih I'uut, another piient) i 
to St. Epiphanius n letter, in conuNjuencc nf whic 
the latter composed his J'umiirium {x, n. 37i-6)u 
This letter i» prefixed to the vi'nrk. In *. u. J/T''^ 
K, he was sent tti Konie to confute A |H>lliniiris lio-i 
fore l'i>|ie SL Daniasu-i. He was present at ibal 
OtMrumcniaU Council of Cunstantiiiople a. It. 3U1,I 
and iMi the death of St. Meleiius ^Hlk jinrt ial 
Khivian'a ordination to the Se<5 nf Antioch, bra 
whom he was afterwards sent to the Pope in ortla 
to heal the schiBm between tlie churches of the We 
and Antiocli. Afterwords, he took part in lb 
peniccution Df^oinfet St. Chrysostnin (SKrate 
y/irf. AVc/. vi. 18), and again coiupmniiiH 
himself by oidiiiiiiiig at mcctuar to Flaviui,| 
I'oqiliyriiiK, a man unwortby of the epiM:o))at4 
He defended tlie hea-tic Nc^torius against 
Cyril, tliiiugh not himself prewiit at the Ccm 
cil of Kphesus. At u i^nat o^e, he hibuured to i 
concile St. Cyril and the Kostcm iiishops at 
Synod held at Ucrrhoeo, a. d. 432. He died a. 
437, at the nite of I Hi year^ Three of his letti 
rvmaiii in the original Greek, one to St. Cyril, 
(extant in the Coll«M:tion of CounciU by Maiu 
vol ir. p. lUAIi,) and two to Alexander, Ilislu 
of lliumixilis. (Jtml. pp.819, USU, c.41. M. (IS 

3. The One-eyed {i Mmi^a^fwt), the pap 
and successor in the Sec of Cocson-a of Kiiiebiu 
A. n. 340, whoM! life he wrote. (Sicrutes, //«aI 
Kori. ii, 4.) He was sble, leAnietl, and iuiw:rtt«| 
puluus. At first a Scmi-Arian like his nu 
be founded afterwards tlie Itomueaii |«rty 
wa* ooiidenuied by the Semi-Ariuns at 
A. D. 351). (Socmtea, UiM. AWV. ii. 39. 40^ 
Saaamcn. Hut. EtxL iv. '>.>. '23.) He 
quently faocame the associate of Ai-tiut (.AKTitiBl 
the author of the Anouiocon, then desenrd hioiJ 
at the cwnmand of Cunfttontius, and, under tbttj 
Catholic Jovian, subacrilied the Hoitioousion 
Cre<!d of Nicaa^a. He died a. d. .%)>. He wn 
seventeen liooks on KtrleMtuUt and six of ,\timrt-\ 
loMioL. (St. Jetvinc, I'lr. lU. i>ti.) St. Kpipha>| 
nius has preserved a fni^anent of hi* work a<pu^tt\ 
A/arrW/ss (r. i/ucr. 7'J), oiid uotliilig else of hiaJ 
is exiauu though Nisonieii »|tfuks ut lusiiy va1i>-| 
able works written by him, (Jtiit. hM. ui. '2.) 

4. Ilishop o( Constantinople, suceredcd lip 
> A. D. 471. aft<<r being it the hvoA aCj 

,'lutn AaTlan <A that city. He dislin^nisb* J 

ti««lf hy defending the Coun<il of CliaUvdami 

iU:iunst tJic empeivir liosiliacns, who fiivnurnl tb«l 
Mono)>bysite heresy. Thmugh his cKertions/ffio^J 
from w hoiu ll«»diac-u» Imd UMirjieij the eminn-, i 
nistotrd ('V. !>. 477), but the Moituphysim luo 


«U> tkl pinnt M nioch ttrragtb that it wnt 
^mti MruMm tn iHur a fiinnula, concitintnry 
Am U> mk&iilenaa, cmllcd the lli-nntinin, A. i>. 
Aaank mu 1ml ixito nthrr i;(iiic*-iwton% 
ittm Mfan him, on the acruuitinn nf John 
1 whofu h« <uppurtcd the claims of 
nar llmnt to ihc Sni uf Alexandria, thi^ 
M«ha» i Pa(« KrUx II. a. d. 484. Peter 
Mapa bid fuaad AcKiu*'> support by profc«»- 
mfmmm Xt n* lanoiu of Chalcnlan, though at 
Wan* UmmfkfuU<. Aociui rrfuinl to (pve up 
ftar UoifM, kilt RtMncd hit •e« till hit death, 
fc Ik 4ML Tba» mnain two tetton of his, one 

MiDii i iAMn', Tol. rii. p, »8'J), the other tn 
ffa Full", .Aithbicihop of Antioch, in the origiiwl 
(«■. (lUI. p ll'.'l.) 

i HMder al (a. n. 390), then the Bithnp of 

Mam {a. Ik 431). lie wrote A. n. 4:il, 

Vila Natorioo. ilii leol led him tn une 

^■■■S apiMvatlj BTOuring of the cnntnirr 

■■f. vtidi, br a Dme, ptrjudiced the cm- 

fOfTknaianwi tl. luainit St. Cyril, lie wo* 

^wa It tlu< Oerumenical Council of KphcAUs 

^ftlUvVid mn^tantly maintained itft niithority. 

1^ MMHl of hi* pniductinnH a Homily (in 

taA)Mi«rt><l at the Council, (>ee Chanlutrim 

Hmnatitiiii lUinui. vdL f. p. I Rl,) and a letter 

• Cl At H tn St. Crril, which wc have in a 

.1 . ( aid. pp. B60, sa8.) [ A. .1. c.i 

•^ ('Aiwurrlffioi), a ■umanie of 

!-»>, !■ iinm. HyiK. M Oi/tn. 143), for which 

■•■wj/^ xtL JR6; Od. x.'civ. 10) uwi the 

ii^MCfra (duoic^nii). Some writers derive it 

fc« Mm Anauiian Invm of Acacoiuin, in which 

W Ml Mirrvd to ha<re been bruuifht up by king 

la*>; otiwti froin tcutit, and auign to it the 

■■nqt ; llir pod who ctnnot be hurt, nr who does 

M Int. Tkr auiie attribute i« iil«> given to 

1 (Hah TkMj. «1 4), whence it may be 

thai ita tomoini; It that of beiipfnrtar nr 

'nnn enX (Cotnpare Sponh. •«< OiiUm, 

.,^,»t n rri. 18.5.) [US.) 

' ■ - ■ 1 ■ -ns 1 

: of [iycion and king 

.--.,.,u. ■.. Aiv.,....., .•. which be wiu believed 

»b*r fnoder. (Pan*. riiL 3. g I ; Stepb. Hvi. 

iCAOrMUi* CA«>Sii)m),an Attic herm who, 
^^m Cmbar Olid Polyfleure* invwlMl Atticn tn 
Hair fbtnt wtcr Helen. Ijelmyd to them thnt 
^ Mft \r\n runortiei at Aphidiiite. For thi* 
Mm IW Tyn«1''r)'i'^ nU-iv4 khowi-d him much 
PMi^ aaal • Uterdoemoninnii i»- 

<MAnn, I' <inid the land bekmg- 

^b &i»Wnia« ••li...!* L4V «>n the Cc]ihiuu«, six 
•fc liM Ai*--"*. ( Pint'. rV.. »■.' i Di.^. Ijiert. 
<^l t %■) Tti* piror of Und wiu tulH«'<^iu'iitty 
*A^i4 wilk plane and njive plftntntion% (Plut. 
'*■*- I IV Hid waa oiUed Academiu froui lU 
•■nef. [U 8 J 

'P. f A'-JMU.m.] 

j<). I. A (mn of The«enii 
■-ti»T of IJetnnphnou. (IHnd. 

■ .1 - I „ irf the f ln-.-k.» 

4PB« 7- re w?ut tn de- 

'^^ Ik ■ [iieunge HnoRT 

" MiwkuM «inl *My><»ua, lU X\. \:Vt, 
imritf hi« 'tay at Trny he won the 
'"•'—n ¥ I jintlnr. dwighter nf Priam ( Ponlieu. 
XoL A«l 1*^ toA kqgvt by her a ton, Munilus 


who wa» limught up by .\ptlim, the gnindnintber of 
.AcaniAA. (ScbnI. tui LycaiAr. 41)9, &r,) Virpil 
(.4e«i. ii. '2(i'J) menlious him ojiinng the (ireeks 
euncealed in tlic wmiden home at the luking of 
Trny. On his return home he wa» detjuned in 
Thmcc by hift love fur Phyllin ; but nftvr leaving 
Thrace and arriving in the ihhinil uf t'ypni*, ho 
was killed by a fuU from his horte u[ion his own 
swond. (SchoL ad LyviJir. I. c.) The promontory 
of Acnnuu in Cypnit, the town of Acamenliuni in 
Phrygio, and the .^ttic tritie Acainuntii*, derived 
their munes from him. (Sleph. Ilyx. .<. r. 'A^ro^uij^ 
Tior ; Pau.*. I 5. S 2.) He was painted in the 
Lesche at Delphi by Polygnotun. and there was oIm 
n sUttue of him at Delphi. ( Paiu. ^'26. § I , x. 
10. S 1.) 

2. A son of Antenor and Tiieono, wu one 
[>f the bravest Trojans. (Horn //. iL H23, jtii, 
100.) He avenged tlie death of his brntlier, who 
lind been killed by Ajax, ly slaying Prunuirhua 
the Bneotinn. {/I, xiv. 47li.) He hiniBclf woi 
bhxin by Meriont^n, {/L xvi. 342.) 

3. A son of Eunsonis, was one of the leaders 
of the Thracians in the Trojan war (Horn. //. ii 
1144., T. 46'J), and was slain bv the Telamonion 
.4jax. (//. vi. 8.) ■ [US.] 

ACANTHUS ('AKOJ^or), the Lacednemonian, 
was victor in the Slov^ot and the UfLix"' in the 
Olympic games in 01. IS, (n. r, 720,) and accord- 
ing to some accounts was the first who run naked 
in tiiese gomes. (Paus. v. 8. ^ 3 ; Dionys. vii. 72 ; 
African, apnj Katn/t. p. 143.) Otlu^r account* 
oscrilie this to Oreippus the Megarian. [*>rsip- 
rt'H.] Thucydidet says that the l.<accdaeuinniaiu 
were the first who contended naked in gymiuutic 
gomes. (L G.) 

ACAKNAN ('Airapi'db'), one of the Epigones, 
was a son of Alcnmeim and Cnlirrhoe, and brother 
nf Amphoieru*. Their father wa» murdered by 
Phegeus, when they were yet very young, and 
Calirrhoo prayed to Zeus to nmki* her sons gmw 
quickly, that they might be able to avenge the 
death of their fiilher. The prayer was granted, 
and Acaman with hit brother slew Phegeua, hi* 
wife, and his two tons. The inhobilantA of 
PsophiA, where the sons had l>een slain, puraued 
the mtirderers oa li^ as Tegi'a, where however they 
were received and resctied. At the ppquesl of 
.■\chelouB they carriiMl the neckla'je and peplus of 
Harmnnia to Delphi, imd fmm thence they wejit 
to Kpinu, where Acomun foundisl the state called 
after him Acanuuiia. (.\pollod. iii. 7. § .'i — 7 ; Ov. 
Mel. ix. 413, &c; Thucyd. iL 102; .Stmt), x. 
p. 462.) [U.S.] 

.\C.\STUS ('AiwuTToi), a son of Peliat, kingo 
lolcus, and of Anaxibia, or as others coll her, Phi- 
lunmche. He was luic nf the .Argunuutii(Apallod. 
i. 9. 9 10; Apollnn. Khod. i.224,Ac.),andal« look 
|«irt in the I'alydnninn hunt.(()v. Atrt. viii. 30,5, S;c.) 
.After the return uf the Argoniiuls his sisters were 
icduced by Mi-deia tn cut their Cither in pievei 
and boil them ; luid Auistus, when he bmrd thio, 
buri^Hl his father, dmvc lasnn and Medcia, and 
luoirding to Pausaniot (vii. II) his hisuin also, 
fnim Iulciis,and instituted funend gmuesin honour 
nf his father. (Hvgin. Fak. 24 and 273; Ajiolloil, 
i. .1. §27.&c.; Paus. iii. 13. ? 9, vL 20. § 9, v. 17. 
S 4 ; t Jv. Md. XL 409, 4lc. ) During these games it 
li.ippi'ned that Aslyibimia, the wife nf Acnttuo, 
who is also calhd llippnlyti-. fell in love with 
Peb-u-S whom Acastui had purified fruui the mu^ 


d»r of Eurytion. ^V^lcn Pelciw rpruwd to listen 
[tn Iter iuldri'^Aca^ siie nrcutietl liiiu to her huiilMuid 
of having atlcuiptod to diHbonour her. (Apollod. 
ill 13. $-J, &<:. ; Pind. AVflkiv. .qo.&c.) Aciulus 
howrvor, did not take immt'diato tr»mge for the 
allc|ir<t crime, but ahcr he nnd PcIeuN had been 
chuing on mount Pelion, nnd the latter had fnllcn 
i_«*lerp, Aoutiu t<x>k hit >word from him, and left 
I alone and exposed, ao that Peleiu wu neari; 
Idestroycd )iy the Centaun. Rut he wai niTed by 
F Cheimn or flerme*, returned to Aautus, and killed 
plim loRethor with hi» wife. (Apollod. I. c; Scbol. 
al AjMrn. Wuid. L 2-24.) The death of Ac&itiu 
ift not mentioned by .\pollodoruR, but according to 
him Feleus in ctinjuuction with loAon anil the 
UioKuri merely omiiuer and deatniy lolcua. 
(Apollod. iii. 13. 8 7.) IL.S.] 

ACBARU8. (AmiARiift.] 
^jjiytbical wonion who ocean in the itoriet in early 
hiitoty. Mncmbiuji (.Si/. I lU), with 
irhom PlntoTch (Quaat. liom. 3.5 ; UwhuI. S) 
in the main puinti, relutn the following 
litioo about her. In thereign of Ancut Maniu» 
a ferrant (ardiUtu) of the temple of UercuteA in- 
vited diiriitf; the holiday* the gixl to a gunie of 
Ijiiet, promiung that if he nhould low the |;iune, he 
onJa mat the god with a repast and a beautiful 
When the gnl had conquered the vervaiit, 
the hitter nhut up Acta Lanrentia, then the most 
beautiful and mo«t notorious woman, together with 
I well stored table in the temple of Hercules, who, 
{"Vhen she left the sanctuary, advised her to try to 
gain the afiection of the first wealthy man the 
■kottld meet. She succeeded in making Canitius, 
an Etnucan, or as I'luurch calls him, Tarnitiuv 
love ajid marry her. After hi« death she inherited 
his huge pru|ierty, whicli, when she herself died, 
' the left to the Roman people. Ancus, in gratitude 
r this, allowed her to be buried in the Vehibrtim, 
nd instituted an annual CmtiTol, the Utrenlalia, 
|M which socnlWes were offered to the Lares. 
{Comp. Varr. /Lm</. Lai. r. p. 85, ed. Bip.) Ac- 
ding to others (Macer, apmJ Maenh, I.e.; Or. 
Purf. Ui. 55, ic. ; Plin. JI. A', iviii. 2), Acca 
H the irife of the shephenl Fauitulus 
HHB of Baanlna and Remus after tiiey 
taken Gram the abe-wolC Plutarch iii- 

I statn, that this Laurratia was altogether a 
^liffeimt being bom the one occurring in the reign 

of Ancus ; but other writers, socb aa Macer, relate 
their stories as lielonging to the mme being. 
(,7.) Arconltng toMossuriu^Sabinus 
in rielliits {L r.) the wu* the mother of twelve 
sous, aiul when one of thrm died, Romulus stept 
into his place, and adopted in conjunction with 
the retuainuig eleven tlie name of fratirs omtles. 
.(Comp. Pliu. I. e.) Accoirling to other accounts 

II she was not the wife of Kauttulus, but a 
Utute who from her mmle of life i^'as oilled 

ki|tb]r tile fhepherdv and who left the propi-nr 
At gained in that way to the Uonuin jxHipje. 
(Valer. Ant op. GWt /. c; Livy, L *.) What- 
cTer may be thonght of the contradictory state- 
nents respecting Acca laurentia, thun much u-ems 
dor, that she was of Etmscan origin, and cmi- 

i with t^*" '-!•-'■ of the l^res, from whu-h 

1.. serins to lie derived. 

ka|ipears t' the number .of her sLtns, 

whw-h an4wers (•• Uuitoi the twelve country l^rrs, 
and from the cin'urastancc thai the day sucrcii to 


her was followed by one tncreJ to the 
( Macrob. .Si/. /. r. ; comjore Muller, Hriuirr,{ 
|i. I >l^, A.C. ; ilnrtuiig, Vie Hctykm der Humrr,i 
p. 144, &c,) [L.S.1 I 

L. A'CCIUS or ATTIUS. an early " 
man tragic poet and the ton of a froedmoa, i 
txim according to Jemme B. c. 170, and vra* I 
years younger than Pacuvius. He lived to a (^ 
age ; Cicero, when a young man, frequently 
versed with him. (Brut. 28.) Hit tragedies i 
/hielly imitated from the Greeks, especiaUy I 
Aeschylus, but he also wrote tome on Roman i 
jects {frueliutata) ; one of which, entitled BniB 
was proliably in honour of hit patron 1>. Bnit 
(L'ic.rfc Lry, ii.2I,/>ra Arci. 11.) Wcpossessoii 
fragments of his tragedies, of which the most i 
portant have been preserved by Cicero, but ta 
cient remains to justify the tenns of admiration j 
which he is spoken of by the ancient writi 
He it particularly praiM'd for the strength 
vigour of hit hiiiguage and the tubtiruity of j 
thoughts. (Cic ;<ru J'lanc. 24, /<ro .Serf, .it!, t 
Hor. Kp. ii. I. 56 ; QuinliL x. 1. S U7 i Ciell. ; 
2.) Dcaides these tragedies, he alra wnite At 
»!>/<-( in verse, containing the hittor}- of Rome, 
thote of Knnius ; and three prose works ** Uh 
Didascolion," which seems to have bt<eii a histia 
of [mctry, *• Libri Pragmaticon " and " I'aivtgit" 
of the two latter no frngrneiits are preserved. T|| 
fragments of his tragedies have been collected 1 
Sb-phonua in ** Frag. veL Poet. Lot." 1*1 
1 5ti4 ; Mailtaire, ** Opem et Frog. vet. Po 
LaL" Lond. 1713; and Bothe, " P.ieU Scon 
Latin.,** vol. v. Lijis. 1 B34 : and tlie fmgnienta i 
the Uidascalia by Modvig, " I)e L. Attii Dit 
caliis Comment." Uafniac, 1831. 

T. A'CCIUS, a native of Pisanrum in Umfa 
and a Roman knight, was the accuser of A. Ctu 
tius, whom Cicero defended u. c (><i. He 
pupil of Heunogonu, and is praised by Cicen I 
accuracy and tlueiicy, (Brut. 23, ^ ru OmaiL f 

ACCO, a chief of the Scnones in Qaul, who i 
doced his countrymen to revolt against Caesar, a. 
53. On the conclusion of the war Aceo was put ( 
death by Caesar. {IML Gall. vi. 4, 44.) 

ACCDLF.IA GK.N'S is known to us only 
coins and inscriptions. On a denarius we have I 
name P. Acculeius Lariscolua, and in two inn 
tions a P. Accoleios Enhemcnis, and a L. i 

ACfRATUSCAjn^fwroj ypait^irrutii),»(it, 
giammarian, and the author of an epigiiun 
lloctor in the Ureek Anthology, (vii. 138.) Ni 
thing is known of hit lile. ( P. &] 

ACERB.Vi, a Tjrion priest of Hcrrules, wh 
married Klissa, the daughter of king .Mulgvi, 
sister of Pygmalion. He wu posaosed aif i 
derable wealth, which, knowioc the 
Pygmalion, who luul succeeded hit Cither, he i 
cealed in the tarth. But Pygmalion, who I 
of these hidden treatiuvn, bad Acerlns mup' 
in hopes that through his sister he might ob 
pnmnion of them. But the prudence of 
saved the tnasiues, and she emigrated fnim Pho 
nicia. (Justin, xviii 4.) In this account Acerl 
is tile tome iienon as Sichai'us, and Klissa tlie i 
as Dido in ViixiL (.4ea. i. 343, 34B, ^kc) 
noine* in Justin are untloubtcdly nwiv ooirrct 1 
in Virgil ; for Servius ('W .int. i. 343) 
that Virgil here, u in other eaact, champsl a I 

on* more conrniicnt to liim. and 

dMt Ikr nal name a{ Sichanu wiu SicharUis, 
vkidi mam U \m identical wilii Acrrljat. [UiDO ; 
r<»«iU'»-l [US.] 

M'KKRCXMA, • Eririid of Agrijipinu, iho 
■<ka J Neni. «iu drownrtl in il. r. .59, wlirn an 
I aCldapt WIU nude at the tonic time to 
I A|r>{i|>>n& (Toe Am>. xiv. 4 ; I>iou Cosn. 


k)^ tk> Tar IB which Tibrriui dir^ (Tac. 

lifinil nWh 7M. 73), wu. jK-rluiija n de- 

i '0I Hw Ca. AuerroniuK, whom Ciccrn 

io bu uration br Talliiu, 8. c. 71> lu a 

(l«. tn.) 

^ {' Axf patKifiv^)^ A Bunuune 

of bi» beautil'ul bmr which 

<H "I ^n'jtiL (Ilom. /<. u. 3.1; I'iiid. 

tan.) lu .s-j 

5AXDKR {^Axitrafipoi) wrote a history 

-hoi. aJ Ji^Jl. 11. 1.5(il, I7.W ; ml 

iitit. 57.) Plutarch (."n/m/i. v. i. 

ik ■ ■ : .1 i.nrk. id hiji reii|j«;tiit(; Libya (»*pl 
... J i_,..\ [iruliahly be the same work n* 
ul ^ ^« .-cue. The time at which be lived 

i$ {'Attaat), a nalire of Snhunie in 

nrd f'lr hi* Mkill in wenvin;^ clntb with 

I ji9iM*m> f /fVj/int/rirtju). Ilriujd bift «4in 

iiiahi^d himself in the ^Jlme 

.\tlieiuieus. (ii. p. 4(1, b.) 

,, .ti. ......t-^ hut %xy% tluit 

ift«i I ' ... *A«rc<r(uT) was 

• Mli*> . > I Corynlu*. He 

lift «• oLo kjwt lliey were the lirat \vhu mode a 

|l|hi hr Aelimn fuliot. When tliey lived, we 

•» Ml 'Ml it uiiitl lui«e hern lx.'fore 

ArbBc .lid I'lulu, who mentiun this 

p#ab. ' -II: n,t. i:..ii.:,.i: . j!G.) A 

ipMir?! "I [' ' - ' ttsn nrtittA 

IfD^' i. ] :i|.'.- .11 |i.i|.:ii. Iiearin^! an 

•a i>- the I'iMi, iliut I'ultiw hiid ini|>iirtcd 

, •kill tn tlirir h.uid«. (C. P. M.] 

''""'St,M*('Ajf»ffiai), an ancient Opfk pliyHi- 

-« •o« ami coanliy an b<ith ujiknowu. 

> .^nuuied however that he lived at IciLst 

r k^lrrd ycar> before Cbrivt, u the proverb 

Utrxrro, .In'Mt atreU Atm, is quoted on 

-ii'pluuiet, ThiA Baying (by 

!> known to u«,) wiu used 

wv {^ * tu«eaje becamie wonio iiutejid of 

tTvatuK'iit, und ia mentioned 

{k c^ 'Aircfffai), /enobiua {/'raivrfi, 

Ll), niogrninnus (/VotrrA. ii. 3), Mi- 

nliu* {frarvHi. ii. '23), and I'lutorch 

yMt/MU Alemmjtr, mmi matt, § !>H). See 

^n«x^ f r.J. Hmll. g BJ, in (Jaitford't 

il iirvci, Hvo. Osiin. I6:ifi. It it 

Ml aaihor Ijeitring thi& name, and 

I \rf AtKcnaeut (xii. p. .'>lti, c) an bavin;; 

k a (7v«liMv on (be Art of Cooking {6\tafnv~ 

BMI)»M*y Itf otie and the uirae perMin, but of this 

no ortaiu infonnation. (J, J. Biiier, 

rfi. r^t. 4to. Lip*. 1718.) [\V..\. U.] 

It's (*Aj|(Viai), a fiunuune of .Apollo, 

' ■hkli k* <nu woriihipped in Klit, where he 

M* • tjJjaJiil temple in the ngora. I'his tur- 

■i^t vbkli hu the cane meaning as dxiarup 

Ml ik<(U««">, '■hnactcriatd the god at the 

tmnt-f ...i. 24. «S.) [L. S.) 

ACt> '''/sj, a iun of the Siciibui 


rivcr-gnd Crimi^ut and of a Trojan woman of thn 
luune of Egeita or Se;,'e»la (Virg. Am, I 195, ,5.'iO, 
v. 3<>, 711, &C.), who acrurdihv to Serviua was 
wut by her father llip{totei or l[i«ostntus to ISicilv, 
thnt the might not l)e devourod by the nionatcrs 
which iiifebled the terrilt)ry of Trtty, and which 
had been feent into tlie luiiil, beaiute the Tnijaiift 
luvd n-fused to reward Pniieidon and Apollo for 
liaving built the ivalls of their city. When Egentii 
arrired in Sicily, the river-god Crimi^ut in the 
fonn of a bear or n dog l)egui by her a son ,\ce«teN 
who waA aflerwarjs ivgunled at the hero who had 
founded the lowTi of Segirsta, (Ciiinp. Schnl. a*l 
L$/mfikr. 1151, y(i3.) The tradition of Acc*to« in 
lliouyiiiut (L !>'i), wlio calU him Aegestus (Klytt- 
Till), i« ditfcrent, for according to him iJie gnind- 
fttthcr of .Aegettus quiuTi'lled with Lnomedon, who 
itlew bill! und gave bis daughters [o some mer- 
diants to convey them to a dittnnt bind. A noble 
Tnijun iiowf\i*r einlmrked with tbeiii, and married 
one of tbeiii in Sicily, where t>he tubMiinently gnvo 
birth lo a ton, Aei^ettus. I>uring the war uguini^t 
Tixiy .Aegeatu* obtained permit»ion from Prioni to 
return and luke putt in llie cnwUent. and ufterwardt 
returned lo Sicily, wiiere .\cneitA on hit arrival 
wilt hutpiiably CL-cvived by biin und Elynius, and 
liiiill for them ibe lownt of Aege»ia and Klynie. 
Tile account of IJionysiuii nccuiii to be nothing but 
a nitioimlittic interpretation of the genuine leg<-iid. 
.V* to the incoiiaiisteiicies in Villi's account of 
Acente*, f*co lleync l-Urnrt, I, on Am, t. [L. S.] 

.\C'KSTODU'KlJS ['hKiariitttim), n IJreck 
bintoricul WTiU-r, who is ciu-d liy Plutarch (Thrm, 
13), and wliow work contained, at it uppenm. an 
account of t)ie battle of Snlimiit among other things. 
The time at which he lived is unknown. Ste- 
phanos («. r. V[f)aKri vif\is) tiieaks of an Avestt*- 
dorus of Megalopolis wlm wpite a work on cities 
(s-«pl woA^wi'), but whether this is the samoostbe 
above-mentioned writer is nut clear. 

AChi>TOU ('Aksittcbp). a suninmc of Apollo 
which charncteritea him na the god of the linding 
art, or in general as the avcrtcr of evil, like dxiaios. 
(Eurip. AmlrMii. ftOl.) (L. S.] 

ACKSTt>lt ( 'A««'oTw/j), «ini.imed Sucas (2a- 
icar), on account of his foreign origin, was a liugic 
po«i ut Athens, anil a couU'mporury of .Aristo- 
phanes, lie M*i-ms to have been either of Thmciiin 
or ilysiaii origin. (.Vristoph. Ai-a, 31 ; Schol. 
Oil inc.; IVjf^ir, I'JIG; SchoL ad loc, ; Phot, and 
Suid. «. r. Soitai : Welcker, Vit Gried, TViw/ii/, 
p. 1U3-2.) [R-Wl] 

ACFlSTOlt ('AiffffTwp), a sculptor mentioned 
by I'aUKanmo (vi, 17. § °i) as having executed a 
sUitue of Alexibius, a native of Herai^a in Arcadia, 
who h:ul gained a victory in the pentathlon at the 
Olympic games. He was bom at (.'nnsaus, or ut 
any rate exercised his profeuion there for sfime 
time. (PaUA. X. 15. jj 4.) He had a sou named 
Anipbion, wfio was uUo a sculptor, tuid had 
studied under Ptolichus of Corcyni (Pons, vi, 3. 
§ *2); so that Aceatur must have been a conlcrapo. 
rurv of the Litter, who flourished about Ol, U'J, 
(ILC. 45a) IC. P. M.] 

ACKSTO'KIDF.S {'AKtaropltrit), a Corintliion, 
was mnde supreme ctminiuiider by tiie Synicusjins 
in u. c. 3 1 7, and Isuiialied Agotliocles &om the city. 
(Uiod. xix. 5.) 

ACKSTO'UIUES wrot« four books of iDytaioU 
stories relating to every city (twi* Kord ir«i\ii' 
ftvSiKiiy), lu tlicsc he gave many teal historiial 

I 1" 


8 Acn 

■ccaunu, u well at thoSBMRRnrc merrly 
nythicil, bat he rntitlvd (hem fivBunt tu nr«id 
oUuiiiny luid t» indirati' thr pliiuniil iinturo uf the 
work. It wa* conipilrd frotn Ciinuiu AiMillodoniiu 
(*ruliiguni* and other*. (I'liot. liiU. cod. 189; 
Ttoti. CAil. vii. 144.) 

.\l_'ll.\K.\ ('Axa'*). « innianic of Demctor hy 
which she wo* wor»hipped lit Athent by the tii^ 
uhviaeiuit who bod emignilcd thither fhim Uorotia. 
(Ilcfod. V. Bl ; PluL /.. (i (Mir. p. 378, D.) 

i A sunuimc i>f Minerra worshipped at Lu- 
ceria in Apulia where the dnnana and the itnti<t of 
Ilioniedes wer? preaer^-ed iu her temple, (.\riittot. 
MmL .y.irnil. \]7.) [L.S.J 

ACH.\KL'S ('AX""^')- according to nearly all 
tradition* a miu of Xuthus and (.'reuia, and cuiim^ 
quenlly a brother of Ion and gnuidnon uf Hellen. 
The Arhueaiift re^rded him as the author of their 
mcr, and deriiTd from him their own name as well 
that nf i\chaia, which wa« fonuerly called 
.tptduft. When hiit unde Aeoln» in ThetuilVt 
'hence be bimM-dr had come to PeK>p«inne*u*, died, 
he went thither and made himself roaster of 
I'hihintis which now aluo tecetvrd from him the 
name of Achaia. (Pau*. Tit. 1. i '2 ; Strub. riii. 
p. 3H;t ; A(Kp|lod. i.7.i :i) Ser\iu. (uJ Ach. I 24'^) 
alone call* .Vcluu'Ui a vin of Jupiter and Pithia, 
which li pr\>bably mitwritten for Phthia. [L. S.] 

ACMAEI'S ('Axa^t), *»o "( .\ndninuu'hu<, 
whufte siBter Laudice married Seleucus C'allinicua, 
the bther of .\iitiochu* the Ureal. Achiwut 
fainurH nuuiiMl Idwdiw, (he daughter of Mitbri- 
doles king of Poouu. (Palyb. iv. 31. $ 4, viiL 
99. { 1 1 .) lie immipuiiod Sdcueut Cenuinui, th( 
MO of CallinicuK in hta expedition i 
Tannu againtt Atuiui, and after (he 
af Selnicu* reTrnged hia death ; and though he 
■ii|ht canly hare •<«uiiMd the royal pewer, he re- 
■■mill bithfttl to lh« 6atlj of Salraetu. Aixi- 
ocbitt the Oratt, (b* wmiubii cl SdnKW, ap- 
poortrd him to dw cnwmaad of oD Aaia oo thu 
tide of moonl Taurus t>. c. 'J2X Acboru* iv- 
tavvKd fior the Syrian empire all (he diniiett 
lb A t(a]u« had gained ; but hanug been 6»li«*ly 
iicd by Henneiaa, the minister of .\ntiochu&, 

intending to rerolt, he did to in adf-deiencr, 
aMumed the title cf king, and ruled 0«a the whole 
of .\«ia on thia >ide ot the Taurus Aa long at 
AatHKhus was tiipuged ui the war with Pt<ileiiiy, 
he cuuld not march agniiut .Vcbaeu* ; but after a 
pnur hail liccu concluded with Ptolemy, he cnnaed 
the Taurus united hi* force* with .\ttalus, de- 
liriTcO .\c)uMjui in one cmnpoign of all hit do- 
aiiiiiiHU arid tuuk Strdta with the exception of 
the citadel. Achaeus aftir ftutiaiiiing a siege of 
two yeOTB in the citadel at tati fell into the hand* 
of Aotkchua B. r. Hi, thruugh the trMchei^ of 
IMia. who hod bnn ooipluyeid by Saajbiaa, the 
of ftakmj, to doUnr hia from liia 
bat btii^yod bin to Antiodioa, who 
him to be put to dfath immediately. (PoU b. 
IT. S. f C. ir. 4t, T. 40. 1 7, 42, 57, fii. 15—18, 
»m 17— 2S.) 

AC'HA£r!> CAXM^i) of Entna in Enhoco, ■ 
tagic fmi, waa hara a. u 484, the year in which 
Aoodiylaa goinod hi* hrM nclory, and lout yeim 
h4an lb* bifth of Eoripidaab In a. c 477. bo 
contavdad with Sopbode* ODd Buipidci, lod 
Ihoagh Iw au U m^an n ly bropght oat Baaydiaaa*. 
annnlias Is iBaio aa many a* thirtr or iotty, he 

wi hil i only fuuod Uw priw anocii The 




frngmeoUiof .'^chaeut contain much ttrangemytl 
log)', and his exprrwiionft were often forced and 
obtcure. (Athen. x. p. 451, c.) Still in the ta-ityrical 
dmnia he munt have }H>!»«4*)«M'd connidenible merit, 
for in thi^ depqu-tmcnt Mime ancient critic* (huu;j;ht 
him inferior only to Aisacbyliu. (Uiog. Lacr. 
I:i3.) The title* of aeTea of hi* utyrical dn 
and of ten of hi* tiagedie* aiv ttill known. Tb 
extant fnginentt of hi* piece* have lieen coUi-ctcd, 
and edited by Urlichu, Uuun, 1834. (Suidaa, st^) 
Thi* Achaeut should not be conibunded with a 
later (logic writer of the Kune lume, who wa* a 
mitirc uf Syracuw. Accorduig to Suido* 
Phuvorinu* be wrote ten, according to Kudo 
rourte<-n tragwJSe*. (L"rlich», JIml.) [K, W.J 

ACllAfrMENES ('Axo'*'^'''!!)- '• The 
ceator of the Penian kings, who founded 
liuiiily of the Acbacmeiiidae ('AxaiMci'iSoj ), whit 
was the noblest fiuuily uf the Posurgudue, 
noUest of the Penian liibes Achaemuues i» i 
to hare been brought up by on eagle. Accon 
to a genealogy given by Xerxes the following i 
the order of the descent : Achaemcnea, Ta'ii 
Cambytei, Cyrus Tei'tpes Ariaiamne*, . 
Ilyslaipcs C^u*, Xerxes (llerod. i. I'.!5, vii.1 
Arlian, /UmL Amm. xii. '21.) The original acat 
thi* fiunily was .\cluwmonia in Persis (Steplu i 
'Axoi/urla.) The ftoinan poets use the adje 
Aciaemruiiu in the MUM of Penian. (Ilur. 
iii. I. 44, xiii. 8 ; Or. Ar. Am. i. 1ti6, MtL \ 

2. The son of Donu* I. wo* appointed bj I 
brother Xerxc* governor of Eg>'pt, B. c. 484. 
comnuuuled the Hg)'ptian fleet in the cxpeditiu 
Xerze* imain*! Ureccc, and strongly oppoaed I 
prudentadrioeafDcnuinitus When Kg}-pt rerolM 
under liumis the Libyan in ii. r. 4tiO, Adu 
wa* (ent to subdue it, but wa* defeated and I 
in battle by Initnu. (Herod, iii 12, viL 7,! 
23«; Diod. xi. 74.) 

son of Adomastu* of Ithaca, and a companion i 
Ulyiic* who left him behind in Sicily, when 
fled from the Cyclop*. Here he wa* found 
Aeneo* who took him with him. (V'irg. Aem^ j 
CI 3, &c. : Ot. £* I-ohL ii. '2. 25.) 1 L. S.J 

ACII.VICl'S,asuniamenfLJli sism-s 

ACHA'lCrS ('Axoiiofi), a philo.op!i,-T, 
wrote a work on Ethic*. Hi* time is unknoTi 
(IHog. Uiert, TL Of; Thcodor. Vratt. ajTriL i 
<iii. p. 919, ed. Scbulze ; Clem. Alex, ^mos i 
p. 4»)i, d.) 

ACllELO'IS. 1. A •unuune of iho 
the daughter* of Achelous and a uiiise. 
Ma. T. 55-2, liv. 87: Apollod. i. 7. § 10.) 

2. A general name for water-nymphs aa i 
ColuroelU (x. 2(i3), when the compauion* of i' 
Pegasids are called Acheloides [ L. t~ J 

ACHELO'US ('Axs^roi). the god of U»* n*i 
Achelous which wo* the greatest, and accordiitg I 
tnditioo, the moat ancient among the rive 
Oieece. He with 3000 brother-riven is de 
a* a *on of Oceana* and Thetys (lies Tlu 
or of Oceaaas and Uaea, or fautly of He 
Gaea. (NataL Com. k-ii. '2.) The origin 
river Achelous is thui described by {terriot ( 
Virf. Gcorjf. I 9; Aem. vnil 300): When i 
lom OB one occaaiaa hod loit hii daa^ti 
Siicoa, lad in hi* grief inToked hia notlMr ( 
A» meired him to her botom, ood nn the 
when liia received him, the auued the iiTcr I 


M trnh fiirth. llthcf occounU >liont 
f luitl iw iiwile an given hy 
Tin, Slralio {x. p. 4JU), oud 
(j» r.-ia. J'.'.) Achi-!oii» the gwl was 
« aaBftilur with ilcraclrs in the (uit for 
IVfantn, and fought with him for the bride. 
m cnrninuml in the cnntett, liut as he 
tlw pnnKr nf HMUinin^ various furais, he 
;J himx-lf tint into a serpent Biid 
to ■ liull. Bat in this fonn too he was con- 
bj Hentclett, and deprived of one of his 
which however he recovered by giving up 
Analthea.(Uv.jV('f.LX.8,Jtc.; Apullixi 
7. t 5.) Sophocles (TrarAin. », &c.) 
relate these occurrences in a some- 
It inaiuKr. According to Uvid (il/r-i. 
p Naiads changed the horn which 
from Achelous into the horn of 
Thesens returned home from the 
chase he was invited and hospitably 
tj Acheloas, who related to him in what 
^■v he bod created the islaods called Echinades. 
|Dk Mil Tiii. 547. tte.) The numeraus wives 
■i imadimts cf Achelous ore spoken of in 
«VHk wtadea. tHraho (x. p. 458) propones a 
interpretation of the legends about 
■11 of which according to him arose from 
ttwmat «f tile river ilselC It resembled a bull's 
«■ ia the noise of the water ; Its windings and 
hmEkt* gave rise to the slury abiiut his forming 
immU iabi a serpent and about his horns ; the 
^■Ml nf iakmU at the mouth of the river re- 

Stopbualion. His conquest by llrmcles 
fan to the embankments by which llemcles 
the river to its bed and thus gained huge 
tMsof had fbr cuttivatiniL, which are expressed 
horn of plenty. (Compare Voss, Mtttkoloff, 
Ixiit.) Others derive the legends about 
~ , and describe him as a second 
this may be, he was bom 
" ntA to be a great divinity 
Oivece (Horn. //. xxi. 194), and was 
Wakfd in pnyers, aacrificea, on tokijig oaths, &c. 
Or a l is w. MaarA. t. IR), and the Dulonenn 
Baa waur added to each oiacle he gave, the 
^■■Hd %o o^r sacrifices to Achelous. ( Ephonis, 
(t^ Tkia vide extent of the worship of Achelous 
4baBtoiista tat his being regarded as the repnv 
iaidt« of sirwt water in general, llint is, as the 
•*■» of all nourishment. ( Virg. Gear;), i. 9, with 
te MIe vt Voss.) The contett of .\cheloua with 
HvaVs waa lepmented on the throne of Amyclae 
't^ iL IB. } 9), and in the treasury of the 
Ivrass at OlxTnpin there was a statue of him 
■v^ DontJs of cedar-wood and gold. (Puus. 
LIIl I 9.) On several coins of Acamania the 
■ npramted us a bull with the head of an 
|ah (Comp. Philostr. Ima^i. n. 4.) [L. S.] 

KE'MDES. [Acii.itvENiDia.] 
'JCmtON (^Axifo). In ancient geography 
*■ ainir «e««ni nrer* of th i< name, all of which 
^u Uaal at one lime, believed to lie connected 
^ <k lomr vwld. The river lint looked upon 

* <kis Bifct <r>s the Acheron in Tbesprotio, in 
^■H> caoni. iK.nred to the earliest 
^Ma as ibt < rid in the west, and 
■biaiUtv -■ • t'> the bc'lief that 

* •« t^ mrld. AVhen 
•fci^Bn;! _ riev beyond the 
vkiaao bctUT knimii. the Athemn or the eii- 
)■■ la Ike l«««r world was txousfcrivd to other 

more distant imrta, and at hist the Acheron was 
pl»ci-d in the lower worij ilnclf. Tims we liiid in 
the Hnmcric poems (Oil. x. 51;) ; comii. l»nii». L 17. 
ii .5) the Acheron described ns a river of lludcs. into 
which the I'yriphlegetnn niid Cocjtus are said to 
flow. Vii^i (Acn. vi. 2!(7, with the noti- of Sei^ 
vius) describes it as the principal river of Tartanis, 
from which the Styx and Cocytus sprang. Ac- 
cording to ktcr traditions Athenin had been a son 
of Helios and Onea or I)enieter, and was changed 
infci the river bearing hi* name in the lower world, 
because he had refreshed the Titans with drink 
during their contest with Zeus, They further 
stute tliat Aicalaphus was a son of Acheron and 
Orphnc or Oorgyni. (Natal. Com. iiL 1.) In hite 
writers the name Acheron is used in a general 
sense to designate the whole of the lower world. 
( V'iig. Aen. vii. 312 ; Cic. port rtdit. m Senat. 10 ; 
C. Nepos, JtioK, 10.) The Ktrusrana too were 
ncquuinted with the worship of Acheron (Achcnins) 
from very early times, as we must infer from their 
Acheruntici libri, which among various other things 
treated on the deification of the souls, and on tiie 
siicrilices {Jcirniiilia lurru) by which this was lo 
be eiTected. (Muller, Ktruder, ii. 27. &c) The 
description of the Acheron nnd the lower world in 
geiitnil in Plato's Phiunio (p. 112) is very p«>cu- 
lior, and not very easy to understand. [ L. S. ) 

ACHERU'SIA ('AxspowTio \ifiyijf or 'Axs^u- 
irls), a luuiie given by the ancients to several bike* 
or swamps, which, Uke the various rivers of the 
nonie of Acheron, were at some time believed to 
be connected iriti the lower world, until at hut the 
Acherusia come to be considered to be wi the lower 
world itself. The lake to which this belief seems to 
have been first attached was the Acherusia in The«- 
protia, through which the river Acheron flowed. 
(Thuc. I 4li J Strab. vii. p. 324.) Other lakes or 
swamps of the same name, and believed to lie in con- 
nexion with the lower world, were near lleniiionc 
in Argnlis (Pans. ii. 35. § 7), ni-nr llcraclea in Ili- 
thynb (Xeu. Anuh. vi. 2. g 2; Uiod. xiv. 31), lie- 
tween Cunme and cape Misenuni in Campnnia 
(Plin. //. A', iii. 5; Strab. t. p. 243), and lastly 
in Egjpt, near Memphis. (Diod. i. 9fi.) [L.. S.] 

ACHILLAS ('Ax"AAaj), one of the guardians 
of the Egyptian king Ptolemy Dionysus, and 
commander of the troops, when Pumpey fled 
to Egypt, B. (:. 48. He is called by Caesar a man 
of extraordinary daring, and it was be and L. 
Septiniius who killed Pompey. (Caes. B. C iii. 
104; Liv. £i>U. 1(14; Dion Cass. xlii. 4.) He 
subsequently joined the eunnch Pnthiiius in re- 
sisting Caesar, and having had the command of the 
whole army entrusted to him by Potliiuus, he 
marched against Alexandria witli °JU,OOU foot nnd 
2000 hone. Caesar, who was at Alexandria, hud 
not suSident forces to oppose liim, and seut ain- 
bniuadors to treat with him, but these ,\chilhu 
murdered to remove all hopes of reconciliation. 
He then marched into Alexandria and obtiiined 
poftsession of the greatest part of the city. Mt*aii- 
while, however, Arainoe, the younger sisu-r of 
Ptolemy, escaped from Caesar and joined .\chilku ; 
but dissensions breaking out between them, shu 
had Achillas put to death by (innymedrs a eiiniieh, 
u. c 47, to whom she then entrusted the command 
of the forces. (Caes. H. C. iii. 1 08— Wi; U. Alnr. 
4; INon Cass. xliL 3fi — 40; Liicun. x. 519 — 

ACHILLES ('Ax<A^O- In Ute legends aUiut 



Achillr*. lu nhniit nil ilic- herrm of the Tmjmi war, 
the llnnirric tntditioitft ahuiilj lie nLrrfiilly kept 
apart fnim the i*»nnii« ;utilitifiii« mid cnibclliah- 
iii^ntA with wliicli the pi\» of the ancient (*Uiry 
have l^t'ii tillt'ii up l>y I.-tt«ir pnet* and iuytlu>gni- 
phcrs, not in<ic4.'d by faLni-alimift of tlicir own, but 
by nilnptiiiB tliow nupplementary details, by tvliich 
-»n»I tnulitinn in the count? of centurio* hnd va- 
rinn«ly nltetod and developed the aripnul Iccmcl 
of the iitnr}% or thofic Account* which were peculiar 
only to certain localilie!*. 

}ji)iurrit: ytttiy, Achilles WOK the Ron of Pcleus 
king of the Myrmidones in Hhthiotia, in TbruiUv, 
mid of the Nereid Thetis. (Horn. II. xx. 20i;, «x.) 
Trnm hi* faiherV name he i» often called nijAt/STir, 
n>)Ai|iiiS7)i, or n7jA<l»» (Mom, //. xviii. Illli ; i. 
I ; i. XHl ; Vir^'. J«. u. -2ii.3). and from that of 
hu gnutdfather Aeitcus, he derive<l his name Aea- 
cidcB (AioifiJiji, //. iL S'iO ; Virg. Am. i. 09). 
Wr wn4 educated from hia tender childhood by 
I'hoenix, who taui:ht him eIui[uenco and the arts 
of war^ and nccotupuiued hiui to the Trojan war, 
and to whom the hem alwiiyH fthewed ^rcat at- 
tachment (ix. 18.5, \c ; 43li, &c.) In the heal- 
ing jMt he wa.-. iubtnictA*d by Cheixnn, the centaur, 
(vi. 1132,} . His mother Thetis foretold him that 
hit fate via* cither to jrain glor>' and die early, or 
lo live a long but inglorioiu life, (ix, 4IU,&c.) 
'I'ho here choae the latti-r, and took part in the 
1'MJan war, fiom which he knew that he WiU not 
to rt^um. In fifty ships or according in later 
i(Ailitinn«, in «iity (Ily^nn. /'«4. f*7), he led hia 
llaiitii nf Myimldonea, llellenei, and Achaeoui 
'•piinut Troy. (ii. (illl, &c., xvi. llill.l Here the 
■wift-fooled Achillea was tlie fftvax bulwark of the 
Clrei'ka, and the wortliy fiiTourile of Athena uid 
Jlet*. (i. 11)5, 'JUU.) Hrrviotii to hia diapDte with 
Agnmemnotu he rnvnged the countr}' around Troy, 
and deatroyed twelve lowna on the coaat and ele- 
ven in the interior of the country, (ix. 3'.'R, \r.) 
When Airaniennioii wa; obliged to give up (.'hry- 
%ri% to hex father, he thraaMnad lo take away 
Ilriaeia from Achilles, who snnnuierod her on the 
penuouon o( Athnui, but at the aaine lime n-futrd 
to take any further pnrt in the war, and ahut him- 
self up iu hia teiiu Zeuv on the entreaty of The- 
tia, promiied that victory should Iw on the aide of 
the Trojuna, until the Achurajia ahoiiid have ho- 
nuurcd her aim. (i. 'J(i, to the end.) The afloina of 
the (]reeka declined in ctinai'i)iience, aitd they wrrn 
at U>1 pre»ai-d «o hard, that .Agnmeuinoti advised 
Ibrm to lake to lliubt. (ix. 17, &c.) Uut ulhet 
" "I'fa o] ^ * •' --l, and an embosar waa 

t ti< :'i) rich piTsents and the 

lonil: ll'l, &C.) ; bat in Tain. 

At Lul, however, he waa purauaded by Patroclna, 
hia deamat friend, to allow him to make uae of hia 
nirm hia bones, and his armour, (xvi. VJ, Sic) 
I'utniclua waa slain, and when this news reached 
Achillea, he wm seized with nntprakable grieC 

etia consoled him, and pnjmiacd ocw'anns, 
which were t^t bf mmin by Hephaeatiu, and Iris 
Uliwiilil to mnar him fmm his lamentations, and 
•SRflrted him to rvaciie the body of I'atroclua. 
(■ Vf.) Aihillrs now t<»e, and hia 

|i le alone put the Trojans to fliKhL 

U 1 . . - , -, - V ■- ■ 

he ; '■'' 

ii.-a 1.. ih- : .: . 

any drink ur fiKid until tix- de.ith 

slwuU be accii)^. (xix. Io.j. &c,) 

'?l to him, 
, and hur- 

1.^' lo take 
of hia fn'rnd 

lie wound- 


ed and stew numbers of Trojans (u. rx\.), 
at length met Hector, whom he chased thil 
nmiind tlir walla of the city. He thru alew hu 
tied hia body to hia chariot, and 
to the ships of the (ireeks. (xxii.) 
burnt the body of I'atroclus, togctlu'i 
young captive Trfijans who were sacriliced to I 
pease the spirit of his friend ; and sabaei|urnl^ 
gave up the body of Hector to Prioro, who i 
in person to lieg for it, (xxiii. xxiv.) Achil 
himself fell in the battle at the Scaean gate, I 
Troy was tiikcn. Ilia death itself does not i 
in the Iliad, but it is alluded to in a few [ 
(xxii. 358, &C., xxi. 278, &c.) It is expn 
mentioned in the Odyssey (xxiv. 3fi, fa.), 1 
it is said that his fall — his conqueror is not i 
tioned — was lamented by gods and men, that I 
remains together with those of Patrodus ' 
ried in a golden um which Dior.rsus had (^ 
a present to Thetis, and were deposited in I 
on the coast of the Ilclle»liont, where a 
wo* raised over them. Achilles is the pnu 
hem of the Iliad, and the poet dwells upon 
delineation of his character with lore and i 
tion, feelings in which his readers cannot bnt aj 
pathiw with him. Achilles is the hand* 
and bravest of all the tireeks ; he is affectio 
towards his mother and his friends, formidable 
battles, which arc his delight; open-hivirted i 
without fear, ond at the same time uisceptiU*! 
the gentle and quiet joys of home. Hia grMQ 
passion is ambition, and when his sense of hon 
hiiit, he is unrelenting in his revenge imd anger, I 
withal submits obediently to the will of thtj 

iMttr IniditiiM. These chiefly consii 
couiiu which fill up the histor}' of his yn 
death. His mnlhcr «ishiiig lo make her < 
mortal, is said to have conienled him by niglitl 
fire, in order to destmy tiie mort,il 
inheriled from hia father, and by ilii 
hiin with aiiibro''iiL Hut Peleus oP' 
verrd hia child in the lire, and cried out in 1 
Thetis left her son and fled, and Peleus enti 
him to Cheiron, who ediunted and insln 
in llie ana of riding, hunting, and play 
phomiinx, and also changed his m 
I.igyron, i. e. the "whining," into A. 
A'rBi. iii. fil, &c.; Orjih. Aryan. '.'■'•'■ 
Uhod. ir. 81!) : Slat. AekU. i. 2(iS. A:c. ; Ap 
iii. 13. if 6, 4ic) Cheiron fed his pupil with 
heoru of lions and tlic marrow of bran, 
ing lo other accounts, Thetis endeavoured to I 
Achilles immortal by dipping him in the rifl 
Styx, and succeeded with the exception of the 
kli-a, by which she held him (Fulgcnl. MftM. i 
7 ; StaL Ackill. i, 2>>i)), while others again 
that she put him in boiling water In test hi* I 
niortoliti , and llut he was found immortal rxo 
at the ankles. From his sixth year he fought i 
liona and bean, and cnn.' 
fieta. The muM CaUioj 
aiiigiiig to cheer bit frteii' 
ilrr. xix. 2.) When he had rracbetl the age \ 
nine, Colchas declared that Troy could not 
taken without hia aid, and Thetis kiiowii 
ihis war would be fatid In him, di"giiiaed 1 
maiden, and iiilrtHliired him among the ( 
of Lyci'iiu*dr» of Styn**, *liere he was ( 
the name of Pyrrha on ace ••out of his gold 
Uut his rcAl cbiuncter did not remaio 
lung, lor uuc of his compunioos DeidalDci^| 


raf t ino, I'vrrhua or NeoptolcmaK, by him. I 
1W OOBcfc* at but di«covtfrvil tiii pUice of cuncfnl- | 
■■^ m4 anViDboifty wait acnt (o I>ycomciht&, 
^^IJMiIlk ha deuiad the prvsencc of Achilles 
lallllMcd Ik* mstaeoiteni to tntrcli lii.s piilucL'. 
flli—ii diwmrcfMl tho yniing hriu Ijy a •tmta- 
fm, ud AcitiUn inunpcluili^ly prumlasd hit OMltt- 
— Itt ig (Ingln. (ApoUwl. /. c; Uygin. Full. 
k^cUt iL 200.) A differrnt aicouiit uf 
I bqrt"» U (fiveii by Plutarch ( Tin. 35) 
(//«-. xii. 3.) 
caoduct townrdi Iphigcneia at 


1kiai( llie «v a^inat Troy, Achilles »lr>w 
F ItoiLi u ln». in AnuHum, but mu dwpir moved 
■ lyd h«r bcanty ; and when Ther- 
t\im for his tenderueu of heart, 
> iLui.-a tne scoffer by a Uow with the Ijst. 
I^SBynk i. <i''>9, >Sx. ; Hnus. v. 11. §'2; ciimp. 
k^ tUod. 44.) ; Lycoph. Co.. .OS!) ; Tiolaai, 
^■•■a. lyA.) He alM fought with Mcnir.on and 
talM. <l^ .SniTin. ti. 48(1, Jtc; HyKin. >'u/<. 112: 
Ti^iA L 474, A:c.) The uxouot* of his death 
till mrj much, thnui^h all agnw in stating that 
W 4i n^* * - ' ^-- *--imiin hands, or at lotst not 
filtt - <e of the god .\pollo. Ac* 

^^ t 1 ins, he was killed by Apollo 

hnM (&>|il>. FkJirt. 334 ; Q. 5niym. Ul 61 ; 
Be (Wm. It. 6. 3, &c). at he liad been fure- 
ali (Uoa. It. xxi. 2711.) According to Hyginus 
(A4 107), ,\p<dlo aswmed the aiipearauce of 
nabLiUiiig him, while other* say that A|>ollii 
mlfAinclad the weapon of Paris agiiiust Achil- 
Klii Ihaa oiisod his death, as had been sug- 
fakd by the dying Hector. (Virg. Am. vi. 57; 
Ot.Jl4.xii liUl,&c.; Horn. IL xiii. 358, \c.) 
MnaCRtenaia (iiL 211) relates his death thus: 
iaiha IsTsd Polyxena, a daughter of Priain, and 
tapM by th« promiae that he should receive her 
» Im wiCs, if he wotdd join the Trojans, be went 
auhsvl arms into the temple of Apollo at Thjon- 
biLaad was juwusinated there bv Paris. (Comp. 
~ " ll.r. «ix. 1 1 ; Uygin. P'al: 107 and 1 10 ; 
I i*krTg. 34 ; Ij. Sniym. iii . htt ; Tzolr.. ml 
307.) His b<xly was rescued by Ody.s- 
wm and A^aa th# Telamonian ; bis armour was 
■■iini by Tbctia to the bmvcst among the 
fasfch •kicb pn rise U> a contest between the 
m Wnaa »bo had fcacued his b<idy. [.\j<kx.] 

bi* dcaith, Achilles beoune one of the 
a Uw iomr world, and dwelled in the Is- 
I af tha Miiawil. where be was united with 
p IpblgBDCUL The fiibulou« ishind of Leuce 
especially sacred to him, and 
I Acbiliea, because, according to some re- 
rwnained his body. ( Meb^ ii. 7 ; SchoL 
.N»m. h. 49; Paos. iii 19. ft 11.) Achilles 
na one of the national heroes of 
• Thnalians, at the comm.iud of the 
riXwiona, offered anuiud sucririces to him 
(Phil'xtr. Ht. xix. 14.) In the ancient 
at (llympia there was a cenotaph, at 
•uletmiitiea were performed before 
f* UijrafiB poBftt eomnmiced. (Pnus. ri. 23. 
1 1) <,..,-,«„i'«- ni Ai-hilleft exisUnl on the 
mtki, (Paas.iii2U. §11), on 

i^aftf I'. lip. 494), and other 

itaas. Ttis <>>iiu ul Ins life were frequently re- 
>t«< m aaomi worlis of art. (Hottiger, Fa- 
; iiL p. 14 4, Ac; Muvumi'lnnent. i 52, 
>lh^(. i»;Miu.Nap.>i'^!'') [l^&J 


ACHILLiy {'AxiWtii), a sou of Lyson nf 
Athens, who was believed t<) hiive first inlroduced 
in his native city the mode of sending |wrsons 
into exile by ostrarisiu. (Pt»lem. Ileph. vi. p. 333.) 
SovenU other and more credihie accounts, how- 
ever, nscriltc this institutiou witli more pmlMbility 
to other persons. [L, tf.] 

ACHILLKS TATIUS ("AxiAArut Tdrmi), or 
AS Suidas and Kudocia call him Achilles SUitius, 
iin Alexandrine rhet^irician, who was fonuerly lie- 
Uercd to have lived in the second or third century 
of our aera. Hut as it is a well-known fkct, 
whicb is also acknowledged by Photius, that ho 
imitated lleliodorus of Kraesa, he must Imve liveil 
after this writer, and therefore belongs either to 
the Utter half of the fifth or the beginning of tin; 
sixth century of our aera. Suidas states that he 
was originally a Pagan, and that subse<|ucnlly be 
waa converte<l to Cliriiiti.'inily. The truth of this 
assertion, as fiir ns .\chillL*s Tutius, tlie author of 
the romance., is concerned, is not supported by the 
work of Achilles, which bears no marks of Chris- 
tian thoughts, while it would nut lie dilficult to 
proTe from it tlint he was a hentheu. This 
romance is a hi<<tnry of the adventures of 
two lovers, CleitophiMi mid Lencippe. . It bears tJie 
title Td Kord AsuK^imii' iral KAfiTo^wvro, and 
consists of eight books. Notwithbtotiding all its 
defects, it is one of the best lovostorics of the 
tlreeks. Cleitophon is represcnttsl in it n-latiiig tti 
a friend tlie whole ci>urse of the events from be- 
ginning to end, a plan which renders the story 
nitber tclioiis, and uuikes the narrator apfRtir 
ull'ected and insipid. Achilles hke his predecessnir 
Ilelio<lonis, disdained having recourse to what is 
marvellous and improliabic in ilJ«lf, but the accu- 
mulation of adventures and of physical us well as 
moml dittirullies, which the lovers have t*> over- 
come, before they are happily uniteil, is too great 
an«l renders the story improltable, though their ar- 
mngement and succession ore skilfully uianiigLMl by 
the author. Numerous ports of the work howuver 
are written without taste and judgment, and do 
not appear connected with the story by any iiiler- 
nnl necessity. Besides thcs<', the work has a 
gresat many digressions which, although interest' 
ing in tliemselves and containing curious infor- 
mation, interrupt and imf>ede the progress of the 
narrative. The work is full of imitations of other 
writers front the lime of Pinto to that of .\chilles 
hiniM'lf, and while he thus trusts to his books and 
his learning, he appears ignorant of human nature 
and the atbiirs of real lUe. The l.iws of decency 
and morality are nut always paid due regard to, a 
defect which is even noticed by Phoiius. The 
style of the work, on which the author seems to 
have bestowed his principal core, is thoroughly 
rhetorical; there is a perpetual striring after ele- 
gance and beauty, after uuuges, puns, mid anti- 
theses. These things, however, were jint what 
the age of Achilles required, and that his novel 
was much read, is attested by the number of 
MSS. still extant. 

A part of it was first printed in a Latin trans- 
lation by Annibal della Croee (Crucejus), Ley- 
den, 1544 ; a complete translation appeared at 
Ibuel in 1554. The first edition of the (ireek 
original appe.-krcd nt Heidelberg, ItiOI, Hvo., print- 
ed together with similar works of l.,ongns and 
Pajtbenius. An etiition, with a voluuiinous though 
nttlicr candoai oonunentary, «raa pubbshed by Sal- 


incuiiit, l«(*y(lon« 1 fi>IO, Hm. TIk* best and tnoat m- 
cvnt edition U by Kr. .litL-obs Luifizt>i« IH'Jl, iQ 
2 vnlik. Kvo. Tbe fintt viiliiiito contaiiift the proIt> 
ffotiieiin, ibf ti'Xt uiid iho l^titiii cjunitlulion by 
Cmccjus i*"d liie ft*?cnnd the coniiiieiiUirY. There 
IB an Kiiulifth imiiftlntitm of the work, by A. 11. 
(Anthony IliKler*), l»xford, UiSH, Hvo. 

Suidxu nj>cribc4 to this tame Achilbrs TntJuA, a 
wtirk un ibr tphcre (vc^l apaipas), a fmgment uf 
which profeik&injr to be an introdiictiun to the 
rbai'MoniiMiu uf AmtUH (EiVa7ctf7T) *is to 'A^xtrow 
^patlffi^Lt¥a) i-» *iill exLiuL Hut Oh thift work \% 
referred to by FinnicuA (Atut/i*'*, iv. Ill), w-ho 
lived cJirlirr than the time wc have aui^cd Co 
AchiUe%f the author of the work on th** Sphrn* 
tnuit Imvc lived before the time of the writer of 
the mumnce. The work it«elf is of no pnrticulnr 
vnbie. It is print4.*d in PetJiviuiL, Cr»mtf*it/in^ 
Paris, Iti.'tO, and Am.sterdmn, ir<l<t, fnU Siiidiu 
bIm mentions a work of AcbilloK Tatiu& on Ktv- 
niolog)', and another entitled MiM.-«llaueoii« lli*- 
torir« ; as both are lost, it is impouiblc to deter- 
mine which Achilles was their author., [i*. S.] 

ACFIILLKTS nMumed the title of unipcror 
uiwlvr Diocletian and n* over Kyvpt for some 
time. Ho was ai length taken by ]>ii>cletian iift«-r 
n sii^fie of ei|;hi munthn in Alexandria, and put 
to death, a. u. 2i)(>. (Eutrop. ix. 14, 15 ; Aurd. 
Vicl. (/e n„*, MK) 

ACIU'M*n>KS, a jwtronyniio, formed from 
Achillea, and ^nven to his sou I'yrrhns. (Uv. 

//rr.^/. viii. :\.) [K S.] 

ACIII'UuK ('AxMX^)* or According to Apollo- 
dnrus(ii. 1. g 4) Artchinoe, which is |terhnp« a mi*- 
take for Anch)roi> wa« n dauKhter of Nilus, and 
the wife of ItebiK, by wham she l>ecaine the mother 
of Arjrypttis and Ihinan^ Atvordinff tu the scho- 
Itast im Lyrophmn (.51Kt and 1161), Ares befrot 
by her a «un, Sithoti, and according; to lletcvsippus 
(•>;f, .StyJk. hj/u «. r. naAAi}nj), also two dauf^ 
teni, I'alleiuu<a and Kh<K-t4<a, from whom two 
towns derived their name*. [L. S.] 

ACII1«YS ('AxAi/i), according to Mime ancient 
nMiniiyi)nii-«, the etertinl nigbu and the first 
crvfitcd bi'tiig which exisletl even U'foro Chatts. 
AiTiniliiig Ui HeMitHi, she was ibo person ilication 
nf miiiery and sadnesx nntl aa «nch the was tepne- 
srnloil on the ahield uf lluraclea {SatL Uctc. 2(U, 
A,r.): pall*, nmumled, and weeping, with cluitti-r- 
init trelit, swollen kners. luii>[ nails on her An)(rn, 
IiIoikIv eheekof and her shoulder* thickly covered 
Wtlh diisL [!«. S.) 

ACll MET, ton oT Scirim {*Axj^t vl6i Ittp^U), 
ttie uuiJiur of a work on the Intt^n'T^t^ttiun of 
l>miutft. 'OvttpoKptrttri^ is pntlubly the uune per- 
s«in as .\bu IV>kr M"hnuimeil IWn efirin, wbo^e 
work on the mhip vtibji'Ct is atill extant in Aralric 
in the Uoval Librnrii- at Pan<^ {CnOU. Ctni. A/tt- 
fni»-r, H*h-itk, Hr>i. f%iru. tul L p. '230, cn«L 
NctA..) ai)d who wa« U>ni a. m. 3X {*, u. fi.i3-4,) 
and died a. M. 1 10. ( a. u. 7*J(^9.) (S^i NiroU wid 
I^iSTT, Oi/'i/. rW. Mammmr. Amtt. BiUii^k. BiMU, 

tttl'i.) Tliis conjrcltirr will srrni the mnrv pro- 
ble whrn it i* r**c(ilhxti-d llial the twu luunt-t 

^k - ' -■' \ •■ Ttrt Mul MtJin r '. ' ■%'•{ unlike 

m< ^ iiuty appeal -.onRisl in 

Ar li'llrr* cuch. <i nlv in the 

Artt. Iberc nmst, howevi-r, ir wuto dilfcram 
brtwvm Achiort's work, iu the funn in wUoil W 
luw tC and that of Ibn Sinn, as the writer nfUif 
fiunvr (ur the tnuuLttur) api«sm fn>ui intemal «ri- 


denon to have been certainly a Christian, (c % 
IMl, &c) It exists unly in Greek, or mther (if 
the nlMive conjecture as to its nuthur lie eorrert) 
it biLH only U>en publixhed in that Innicuitp*. H 
conftifets uf tlin.*e laindn*d and fotir chnptrix, and 
professes to Ik* derivid from wluil lias Inu-n wrilleii 
on the «mnc subjtvt by the Indimis Persians, and < 
K^jitian«. It was tmuhl.'ited out of (in*ek into 
I I*aiin nlwut the year 1 ItJii, by !a*o Tuscus, of 
, which work two spoeinicn» are to be fnund in 
j Casp. Bitrtbii ^(/(vr*unii. (xxii. 14, ed. Krancofi 
18*.M, foil.) It wiw lirrtt published at Krankfortt 
lo77, Kvu., in a l^nlin tmnhlalion. made by I^eun- 
clavius, from a verj' imfM*rft-tt f Jreek manuscript, . 
with the title '* Apoioiuutris Apotelenuuita, sivo 
de Si^iticatis et Kventis Insomtiiunim, ex Indcw 
mm, Peraanmi, Ae(rj'ptiorum«iue Uitciplino." Thn 
word Apotmuare* is a corruption of ihe name of 
the fiuuous Albumaxar, or Abu MaMutr, and Leun- 
clavius afterwanls acknowledged his miktake in 
atlributin^ the work to him. It was published in 
Greek and Latin by Hi^iltiuK, and ap|>i-uded to 
his edition of the OttrintcrUiat of Arteniidorui^ 
hutnt Paris. l(i()3, 4Lu., and souio (irvek rarioua' 
H'sdingB aro inserted by Jac l>e Uhoer in bj« 
Otium DuvnUrimm^ p. 33H, &c Ihiviutr. 17(^3. 
Rvo. It has also tieen tiunalaied into Italian, 
French, and German. [W. A- G.] 

AritG'LIlTS held the office of Mu^er Ad- 
miti^mmm m the reign of Valerian, (b. c 255— 
*J(iU.) One of his works woh entitled Acta, and 
contained on account of the hii^Uin,- of Aiirrliiuu 
It was in nine b<*ok« at lawL. ( Vopisc. Atirri. I'i.) 
He also wrote the life of Alexander Sercruk 
(Uropnd. Alt^, M?r. 14. 48. liH.) 

ACHgLGK. ( IIarpyiak.] 

ACICHG'RIlTsi (Ajcix^pwO wa» one 
haulers of the Gauls, who invudi^ Thrace J 
Macedmiui in u. c. *JKO. He and Hrennua i 
mandcd the division that miiirbed into Paeon>a» 
In the following year, b. u '21^^ he uccompunied 
Rrrnnus iu his in^iuion uf (ireece. (Paua. x. 19. 
i 4, .5, *2'2. % 5, 23. M< &<*•) ^^^^ writen^ suppoM 
tliat Hrennuftnud Acichorius are the siune [lersono, 
the former U<in^ only a title mid the latter tlio 
reaJ name. (Schmidt, ** De funlibus vetentm auo- 
lumm in ermrrandis expeditinnibus a Gallia fai 
Mncedoniam sutceptis.'" Ilerol. 11134.) 

ACIDA'LIA, a snmanie of Venus (Viiy. A* 
i. 72U)) which accordiufi to Scnius was drrivrd 
fmra the well Acidalius near ni> whidi, 
Venus umnI to bathe with the Gmoct ; otbcta eoi 
nevt the luuuc with llie Gn-ek ^iSei, i. a cuvo i 
titmbles. [L. S.] 

ACIUI'NUS, a funily-name of Uio Maulia 
;*fns. Cicero speaks of tlie Acidini as among the 
lir>t men of a fonner a^e. [Ue U<}. tujr. ii. 21.) 

I. L. Manmi'm Arinisra, pntetor urlwtnus in 
K ('. 210, wafc sent by the senate into Sicily to 
bring liork the rnnsuJ Valerius to Ktime tn hold 
tl»o elections. (Liv. xxtL 23, xxviL 4.) In H.U 
207 he wan with the troops stationed at Namia to 
ii|t{HMe HuMlniluU and was the tir»t to send to 
Kmiie inlelligeucc of the defeat of the hitf^r. (Lir, 
AAtii. 50.) In ft. c 2t|({ he and U Cunudiu 
Leiitulus had the prorhwe of Spain entmkU'd to 
them with pmeonHikr power. In the following 
year he couquMwi tho Ausetani and Ilerxetea, , 
who hod rebeJlod agliiut the Uunians iu cons»> 
qoence of tbo iibacno* of S'i)it». He did not n»- 
tom to Rome till a. c IIIU, but wo* pn>voubed t/ 

1* OHP 

I*. Pnniiu Imvh fmm entfrin; the 

^•nlimia wKkli tbr •rnato hml ftroutctl 

r»»m. SU, tti«. 1—3, IS, xxiii. 7.) 

l^doitL .'-MK btit wiu oilopU'il 

^tkc M. ^ ^ >'-, ('.■■..-,. uiy ItT the Abovl^-men• 

Aciiliiiiu. (VVil. I'nt, ii, H.) IIp wim 
' nc l(tH,iutil hiul llio proriocc of tl iipaiiia 
allutiul to hini, where lie rvmaiunl till 
IBK. In ihn Uttor ycoc hp dcfuitcii the 
, mad luid it not been for the arrival of hi» 
r Vffulil lu<*e mjuccil the whole people to 
lie appiieri tor a triumph in conio- 
i,tiiitut>tAiiieduiUy an oration. ( Uy. xxiriiL 
SSt noL '21, 'J.'*.) In n. c 183 he was one of 
^ mliMrlnn vot into GoUia Tnuuolpina, and 
^m ahn i^ipuinteU one of liie triumrirs for found- 
■|A( Uuin colociy of Ai)uileiii, which wns how- 
Mi iMfaiDidrri till H. c IHI. (Lir xxrix. 54, 
l^(L34.) Ue wiu oin>ul B. r. 179, (Lir. xL 
<V) nii hu uwo lir>iher, <j, Fiilviiii Flaeciu, 
<Wi ii the Mily iii>uince of two hrothere bold- 
iif tkr cnnuiUhip nt the suae time. (Fail. 
r«^; Veil. I'nt. iL K.) Ai the election of 
.Vg^BM, U. bcipio decloretl him to he nnm 
ttm^ffnglimiiiiiit emm. (Cic. ile Or. ii. 114.) 
"■«jtuo» (AnniNi'R). who was qunontor 
I (Liv. xU. 13), if> pmliably one of the 
^.-iflini. who aiv mentioneil two yvan 
■■tith», nnd of whnin one wa» 
IS the other of L. Maiilius. 
i (■•> Latter i« prolMibly the fame 
. .ind the urn of No. 2. 
-. a younir man who wa« going to 
> hm (tiwlke* at .Athens at the laiue time ax 
rCiwro, K. 1^ 4i. (Cic. aJ AU. lii. 32.) lie 
» the amv .Acidiuu^ who sent intelli|{ence 
ki («^ iT«t«-cUag the death of ManrelUia. (Cic 

"" ■ '-> ., 

lA (itNS. The family-name* nf titis 

kr>fii^, U.ii.BL's.and (iLAumo, of wbitli 

I wrnr undoubUnlly p)e}i«*uin, as iticm- 

I «l 1br«r iiniilif ft wrre jrequcntly triliuuci uf 

ACILIA'.MJS, MINU'CHTS,a friend of Pliny 
IW )«aifcf, ■K • ' — -■ llrikia (ltreM:ia), and 
^(faa Mw of ' M.icrinuis who wun en- 

■W b^ \e»Y . _ thoee of praetorian 

■ik. Aaliaoiw »a« ■ueceMivcly qiiueiitur, tri- 
^■i^ Bid imetnr. Mid nt hi< death left Pliny Dart 
rfMapr. 1. 14. ii. !«.) 

AflN: '.U'RIUS (Tprrrip'ot 

». A. D. I.'MI, dintin- 

•''■ny with the Hejtyehajtt or 
%l»aD( Atho». He bupp^irted 
*i am^MlMl iUrUain in bin oppuflition to their 
■M« tbat tb« light which apprannl on the Mount 
^ iW TraaaligiUBtiaii wu merru/ni. The em- 
IBii Jolm Omfnnriun, took port (a. d. 1347) 
*■* Piliiwn, the tader nf the l^nietiat*, and ol>- 
1 thv oindnnnutiun of AcindynuA by scvernl 
at Coi))ili)iitincple, at one e<ipeaally in 
ll&l. Kctoaint of Acindynu* an*, Lh 
•i Oprratknm Uki aJrwmu tm/ieriiiam 
. 4'' ■ " ■' T'..ntlficum 

■ OaahoBi j 'i."p.77, 

lto« UH|oIsL ! -' , 'ft I'lmiii' 

PtUamar, - (imcciae tirtho- 

bj tm. Allatiu^ p. 755, voL L 

KSi [A.J. C] 

CAmi), MBonliiig to Ovid (AM. xiii. 

ACONTirs. 1.) 

750, &C.) a »on of Fnunus and Symnelhis. Iln 
was licloved by the nyuiph Oabilea,' mid I'olyphr- 
nius the Cyclop, jcalouA of liini, crushed him inuUr 
a h uj-e rock. 1 1 it bbud puhhiiig forth from under 
the rock was changed by tlic n_\-mph into the 
river Aci» or Acinius at the foot of mount .\ftiia. 
This itorj' doe» not occur any where elw, and in 
perhaps no more thiuj a bajipy liclion suijgi sted by 
the manner in which the little river springs forth 
fn>ni under a rock. [L. S.J 

AC.MK'.NKS ('Aic^fli'sr), a siiniame of certain 
nymphs worshipped at Klis, where a sacred eiiclo- 
liure contained their altar, together with thote ut 
other gods. (Paui. v. 15. § 4.) (h. S,) 

ACMiyXlUliS, one of tlie three Cyclopes (Ov. 
Fiut. iv. 2H11), is the same as I'yracinon in Virgil 
{Acn. viiL 425), and as Arges in must other uc- 
coants of the Cvtlopes. [L. S-] 

ACi)liTES (•A<tolTj|»), nwording to Orid (A/e/. 
iii. 5K2, Su:.) the soti of a poor fisheniuui in 
Maeonio, wlio served as pilot in a ship. Afl*'r 
landing nt the Lsland of Natos xonie of the sailors 
brought with them on board a beautiful sleeuiiig 
buy, whom they hiid found in the island and whom 
they wished to lake with them ; but Acm'tes, who 
ri'CLigiiisfd in the Isiy the god llncchus. dissuaded 
them from it, but m vain. When the ship had 
ruoched the open sea, the boy awoke, and desired 
to be carried bock to Nnxos. I'he tailom promised 
to do so, but did not keep tJuur word. Hereujmu 
the god showed himself to them in his own majesty : 
Tines began to twine nnind the vessel, tigers aj>- 
peared, and the sailors, seized with madness, juni|)- 
cd into the sea and perished. Acoetes alone «m 
saved and conveyed Ijack to Noxos, where he was 
initiated in the Bacchic mysteries and l)ccaiue a 
priest of the god. llyginus (/'uA. 134), whoso 
story on the whale agrees with that of Ovid, and 
all tile other writers who mention this adventure 
uf IWclius, call the crew of the ship Tyrrhenian 
pimtes, niid ilerive the name of the Tyrrhenian sea 
from them. (Comp. llom. Ilumn. w liaash ■• Ap<il- 
lod. iiL 5. § 3; Seneca, (M.' AM.) 


ACONTES or ACUNTlUa ("AmiKnn or 
'Aicdfrisf), a son of Lyaion, from wliian tlic town 
nf Acontium in Ari-adia derived its name. (Apol- 
lud. iii. b. § I ; Steph. Byn. ». e.'Aitii^Tioi'.) [U S.) 

ACD'NTIUS ('AititTUlf), a l)eautiful youth of 
the island of Ceos. On one occa«ion he came to 
iJelos U} celebrate the annual festival of Dioua, 
anil fell in love with Cydippe, the diiughter of a 
noLte Athenian. When he saw her silting in the 
tetuple attending to the tacrihce she was offering, 
he threw liefurc her nn apple upon which he lud 
wri tten tile words " 1 swear by the sanctuary of 
Diana to many Acontius." The nurse took np 
the apjile and handed it to Cydippe, who reml 
aloud what was written upon it, and then thri'W 
the apple away. But the goddess had heard her 
vow, as Aconuus hail wished. After tlie festival 
vma over, he went home, distracted by his lovft, 
but he wiuted for the result of what had happened 
and took no fiirther steps. After some time, when 
Cy(3i[?ii«'\ lather was about to give her in marrijifle 
tu aiinihcr man, she was taken ill just before t£e 
nuptial solemnities were U> begin, and this aorident 
wa» repeated tlireo limes. .Acontius, informed of 
the occurrence, hastened to Athens, and the Del- 
phic onicle, which was consulted by the maiden's 
&lher, declared tliat Diaiui by tlie repeated illncu 

li A'.i'.AtOI'HOIl'.'*. 

I. • •. V, !....••. ' . :■» '.-.; •.<r >■■• • rr. T". 

1/ .; Uhi-'l. .11. Jl ; •....••-. /-'.'. i:.. I'l. 73; 
ii! <: A/.»'Ji>-.' '•'• > tl^fitil. t. i*tf. .■.:-■: .-.&.¥-/ a.. ':';>'-'j 
I', i.-i u-..',-, J;..,'f .• ;,v •#! ;i.. I.. '■:.•, ;^^-tii. '•-p/-r.ui;;y 
•A t it ,/;..!/! . , *;.'j -ihr'/ti- :t jy. ..i •• .in Ir*: t*l.*.* 
' '!',-;'• 't t •■ "Ji.i.' **^ry ■*,'.». V. -• n.'!*::: «.ati'it.% 
, f ..iU't ii'. .\!,'t,i . i> LIv .*;i..« .'.»/'/'iii(, 1^ 'i! all 
.■i'.:.Mi..iii li' I. I'-f !/•■. ai.'l I t--_. ..;u M r.r.j ,. ( IK- 
■-iff - iffi'l li-j't'r jjiii, A/4/A««t''<^/. ii, ;», I !*>./ llf.^.J 

*.'' Olil- ' ' Ait'ttu'. f, k luit lit I.;';.l'l, Mii'-n-'i iii- 
l'> i:ii.ifi"- '/.A.I \,-."j iu*« 1.1m;/ iA ( yi'.ii^, a;f:iili^t 
l.ii If ' -ji.fii'-i, i-(i'-i.,'. Aft:ix' rxi's kinv "t i'i;r«i.'u 
jii.'>-:( fi, ' . 'lii'i'i^ iiii'J ;i-<.i-i"(] I.Vtiyoniii with hiiip^ 
jiii'l u.ut.'-'j. On till- i-Mi(liiM'iii of til*; war witii 
|-...i;"iM., u. t . '/ili'u till' I'crRiaim flinxti'ii tlii-ir 
hiui% ii'/'.i'ut'.l 1'.;,'. |it. A<i«rii o#lli'(-ti*(l u larf^; 
III my to iiji|f'i''' ftM-:iu iiii'l i*i<uM;fi*'l many ^irr<'k 
i>i'-M<-fiari<'«, *A whom hi* ii|>)ii>iiiti'i| rliahriuh j[<*iii>- 
i<il. f 'liuliria-s h'fW<*viT, wa^ n-callffl hy the Atlic- 
iiijitin on till- i-oiii|ilaiiil of I'liarnaliaxUH, who wan 
u|'|i'«iiiti-il hy ArtaxiTxt;ii to rontliict the war. 
Whin Ihf i'l'iMaii army riiti-n-il K;iy|it, which 
WH» not till II. r, 'AI'iU Ai'on«» wah alnsiily d*>ail. 
(HmxI. t\. 'J — I, H, '.>, -J!), II, \-i\ Tli<'<i|ii>in. >7«. 
/*/>o/, roil. t7'ij Syil*'«'llu.t (p. 7(i, IL ^.'miil^tk.) 
lUhU'iiv thirlriMi yi'iiih to hii* ri'i^'n. 

At'llAKA CAvfiala). I. A iliiUL-htiT of the- 
iic'i ff'Hl Ahtfriiiii iMtir .Myifnao, who top'thrr 
Willi hi'i' mstcni KiilifH*a anil Pnisyiiiiia tU-tt*d ah 
iiiirian III lli-ni. .A hill Airwu o|i|iiM>itr thit ti-iu|ilc 
■■I lli'ia iii-ar .Myn'iuiii iliTivril itn iiaiiiu I'roiu livr. 
(I'l ii. 17. is 'J.) 

'.'. Ai'tiK-ii anil .Xrnii'iiH an* ntno attriliiitoK ^ivi>n 

In lailiill" uiHlilr<.Ni«i iiimI ^oiIh whitM* tl*lll|ll<*H Wi'ri; 

•.ilu.ili'il 11)11111 hills •■■• h un Xi'iis lli-ni, AjthnKlitr, 
ralliiv .Xiti'iiiimuml otluTs. (I'aii«. i. I. i| :<, ii. 'Jl. 
ji \; A|iiilliiil. i. !l. !S '.')!; Vilniv, i. 7; Siunhriiii, 
<!./ ( 'o//ii». lluKiii >H ./or. If.'.) 1 1<. S I 

ACKAKI'ilKl'S ('Aw|«ii;hi!i), a mm of A|hiIIii, 

l<l whnlll till' tnlllMhltliill of till' IkHliliall liiWII of 

Ai-r.ii-)ihia *tf% iiN'i'ilH'il. .-\|ni1!ii, who wan wor- 
i>lii|i|a'il ill |iliiri\ ilrriti'il from it (he Miriiiiiiiv 
ft \i III •(■liiiix or .\rra<'|>liiiii'ii>>. (Sli'pli. Ilyn. ». r. 
'A»,i.i,vNj ; I'aiiH, i«. '.'.I. i ;i, 4<». S ■-'.) (l- S-l 

\('l< \<; A^ ('Ak|<<i-)at), a mmi of /.I'lm iiiiil thi- 
Oti'iiiiiil .Vmi'iiijk-, to ulioiii till- I'oiiiiilation of 
■ ill' ton II III ,\ ( Aiiiiiii-iitiiiii) in ^^il'ily wan 
iiM-nU-il. (Sirph. lU/. «. r. 'Aii^^arTti.) | lj. S.J 

.\l |{AliA>. an I'liKi.iii'r. or ili.ivr in sihiT, 
«l-'l.tii of In I'liiij, (wMii. I'J. S •'>•"'■) I' i» 'I"' 
koxnn I'lilii'i- wlirii HI whrii' hr wai Uirii. I'liiiy 
Ki\N ill 11 \ci.o:,o>, lloriliuH aiiil M\H wrrt* voii- 
ni.liii'.l lull tii!l, iiiltii.M to Mi'iiiitr. an arli>t of 
^1. il i->iii- III ilii' Niiiir I'l'iili-^Hiiin ; aiul lli.ll wuiki 
III .ill llii^T wi'ii- in rxi^li lu-i* 111 hi* i!a\. pr.'MTvrd 
III iiii<. iini li'iiii'li ^ in ltii> i'>l.iiiil of KliniliX 
'1 111"!.- .-t \ii.t,.i«, \«li.i wa« i'«;>. «:.iiiy f.inu'fl for 
l-i« Ii I II %.-iit,ili<ir.* ot hii;iti;i:: M'rnt'H on i-ii)ix 

Hi Ii' 1,1 |l:,- t, l.i',!,- ii| |t,kllui> .11 li!lii.l<'> ailil (Vll- 
mili'i! .■! I. I'* Hllh l'.;uu-- 1*1 Kir«;;.li' rrllLiUPi 

.• II.. I .M I'l'i II ihi' l.iii|;ii.ui' I'l I' n-j ji:":i:.i'» 

«> . . 1 1 II.-.; ll..t l!'.i' tlinv ,>l!l>".i wli.IH 111' 

I .1' ■* I.'.. J .1 ;-*.i! .1! ihi- Kii.'f tiiiii', i^.it wi'is'.l 
l'\ 1 . .l_i ,1 \,' ;. .1, .1 \'.w LilliT IwllSiil i.;.-m;!. 
i-^';!.'* I. , , .i> Ms* «.i* a »'\'iitrm(V:'.:r\ i'l' 
!•- I. If. I'. M'l 

\t :; V ' 1 1 rili'lti * i'\\.\i'.s.v.M>>, .1 "ir 

' a.:.i .' |i..< .„«. --s %%::.«.'. !.«■ u.i)i (:«'>i;;!MliU .» 


:!> i-ii'-r -.• -.-.-.-.-..i T.::-. i-.-j »f.:»!;:j'pe<l a. 
H:...-.»-.a .:: .S.'a:-- 'i'l.-. -.:;;. ; .'. J ■;.) iL. & 

.41 tS.'i'll^ »*' I IK? ;'A»^t;ti>t-iii . ;!;... illillkc' 
'.{ i;;..-:.;i.' J w-:.r. wi» a :...r> K'.r»:..j>i in Jlk. 
.'.ycr.u ;:. A'.lua. (f./.^z::. ■/. .iUi... iL p. 3ft/.' 
.\'.i.'iTi:::i:i lu i'it^nu.ina (i. 'J. ; i). n-o calls Uil 
*i:;.|.ly A^nta*. /.« voa or.^ of ::.e d;vi::e caapi.' 
iiioL, of lii'ji.ynui, wi.u was wur>^;;i>.'J in Attial 
yii'i-v.'iati saw i:u:i.'c at A:her>> i:i the hon" 

, of i'«iyti'<ii, wiii.'P.- it vhk t:x<nl in tl'iv wall. [L. & 

.A'l.'KATI.'S. a iri-vtlLian of Nero, who waa wt' 

l/V .Ncrri A. It. i;4. hiUi A>ia and Aihaia tu plundi 

th<; t<'iiiji!<.-k and Uikc away the ktat'ar> of the nd 

' Ci'iu. Auu. XV. 4.J. zvL 'J3; comp, Uiun CEl}!' 
/{IkjiI. p. 1144, i-d. iU]>kc.) 

AC'illON, a L/Kriaii. was a PythaLiimtn phili ' 

j Miphcr. (Cic. </< fill. v. °Jil.) Ilv is nu-Dtioncd b 
ValrriuK Maximut (viii. 7, cxt. 3, troiu tliia pa 

I Ki;,'e of CiccM) uudrr the name of Ariut, whidi : ' 

. a talw; n-adiii;:, inntead of Actmk. 

ACKI.SIONKl.Sajiatraiiyiuicnf D-aiUKsdaog} ' 
tiT of Acriaiuit. (Vipp'. AiK. vii. 4lii.) Horn' 
(//. xiv. 3l.'i) UM'K the fonn 'Anpuruiini, [L. & 
ACUISIU.NIAlJKii, a patnmymic of PeriM 
f;raiidiion of Acrikiuik (Uv. .l/r^ v. 7U.) [L. S, 
A('U CSI I 'S ('AjcpiViot), a ton of AUu, king i 
.'Vp^ia and of Ocilcia. He wan (;ranusoii of l>jn 
cvuii and Kivat-grandmui uf DaiiiiUii. His twir 
Imither win* I'ruetus, with whom he is liuid to hm 
■luamlled vveii in the womb of his mother. Wbc 
.Mnii died and Acrihius had grown up, he ezpeUt--. 
I'pN-tus from his iuhi-ritancc ; bul, hU|iported b'.- 
his liither-in-kiw loliatek, the Lrcian, I'ructua t> 
turned, and Acri-iiis was compcilcil to sliara Jf^- 
kingdom with his limther by ;jiviiih' up to lui'.. 
'iiryiis, while he retained Ar);in for liiniiiclf. A 
oRiele hod di-clarcd that Danae, the dauj(hter ■ 
Arrisius, would ([ire birth to a son, who wool' 
kill his );Riiiilfiither. Kor this n'avin lie kci 
I taiiaii shut up iu a subterraneous u)iartineut, or I . 
a br.iU'U tower. Itut here slie Uriuiic uiotber i 
I'ersens, iiotwithsbuidiiii; the pii'cnutions iil' bl. 
father, luxiirduii; to some accounts by her mid 
I'nsitiis and iicconling to others by Zeus, wb 
visited her iu the fonu of n shower of )(oId. Acr 
sius onlered uiother, and child to be czpooe . 
on the wide sea in a chest ; but the chest fluato . 
Inwards the i.ikind of S'ri)iliiis when- both vm 
n'M'uiil br Diclvs. the bnitiier of kin;: I'olydtscte 
( AiniUod.'ii. -.'. $ 1 , 4. $ 1 i Taui^ ii. I ti. ^ -J, -.'3. g i 
lii. I.'l, <Sli; llygin. /'»'<. I>:i.) .\s to the inanncr i 
nliich the oRicle wa<< subseijiienlly fnlrilled in tb 
e.iM- of .Xcrisiiis, MV fKHsM'.-i. .\ei:iinliii(( to tb 
>S'holi,i>t on Kuripidi-s (Ontt, il):t7), Acrisia 
na- the fniiiilcr of the l>i'l|ihir an.piiictyaay 
Mnilsi (i\. p. 4'.*ll) Is'lieii'H that this anipiiictyoD; ' 
e\i*ii'd Is'tiir^' the time of .Vcrii'.r.'H and that m 
was Hilly the tirst who re<..'iil:itril the aifairs of tbi 
amphutyons, ti\i'd the tnwiii v. ha-.'i were to tdn 
|iart in the rnnncil. i.i:ive in eaili iti tnli', and Kl 
tied the iiiri-ilii'tinii nf t!:e uuijiliiiiynus. (Comp 
l.iKiiiiii*, "r-i.*. viii. iii. 47'.*. I'd. U. like.) lL.!Sw[ 
ACKii.N. a ki;i^ <if tlie (.°.ii'iii:.i':.9i'S whia 
ltoiim!u« hiiiiM'if *l V.' ill l>.i:;:i . He iK-iliealn 
the ,irni> I'!' .ViTi'ii M .Ii,i:;iT Kentriiis aiH>/nlk 
Ofi'i-.i. (.-vi- /I.. •..»'. I 1. ;...•.:>;>.) Ijvy menv 
i:ii;-.* the i i:«-i.::i*i.ii.i - -.\ ;i;;<.-,:i .:.^;-;j !..•• iiaine a ■ 
t'\i- kn;. (I';!.t. /I'.'.i. lii; rsrv. , i. I'lr.-. Arn.yi 
oi'ii; l.i>. I. lii.l 

AfUuN (•.\*.>»iV c:: iv. ■'.•■.•. j'wi'.iaH ol 
.\.r:^in:ui:'., t'.v' >,' . it \ei!e!i. Ii;> wait dUc 


Mt« as h^ i« mrntintied as bcin^ 
Kmf^r^SotVr*. whn died about 

(iKc I'rlopoonttUn war, he nui*t 

r Aft fifth €9nUsry hvfnrc Christ. Kmm 
[W ««ftl to AtWtM« and there afxrncil a 
Lk^ii tt^nol {4tf^irr^v*y). It i% foud 
^«a» !■ thas citT donrm Uic grrut plague 
ft3^y, M»4 limt tftr^e fim f>)r the fiurpoM of 
^ tfe Mr w^re kindlnl ia the sUrcu by 
bMHa» which pnrvnl of f^m service Uj 
[j^tk* M^. (Pint. lMh.*t thif. 8(1; 

22S; Paul Acjou. ii. 35, 

bovrevxrr bo borne in mind of this in Thucy* 

). ami, if it i* true that Ein- 

(whu died K c. 467) wruti* 

Acron, it may be doubtnl 

ill Alhfus at the time of the 

rptnm tu i'\gritfvntD[n he was 

6uitily lomk and AppliL-d to 

, <if grooiid for that puq)o<»c on 

H af kw cs&iiamce u a phvuctan. Emp*:- 

rwr r*K*i^i this application aa btrin^ 

■y to tlic * 'iiy, and proposed 

oo UowiDg aiwjitic 

lfc(iKtlii >' /* • ^ quite impoiuHble 

flB wft to pRserre the paronouuuia of 



m^tf^t^i iMf99 warpHoj wcpoririji. 
fia* vm ceMaetimes read thw<i ; 

It rifiiot ixpas Karix*u 
Utribotcd the whnle epigram to 
C t^^Axptof ; Kudoc i'in/ttr^ 

Or. i. 49 ; Diog. Liiort. 

^Ve M^t of the Hmpirici, in order to 
p^«K<er Kntiquity ttun the Doffnmtici 
^TWmmV: -■ ' f '- V ., the 

if Iltppc* Mied 

iW^ f^'.. /. 4. 

<*' '!iey did not rcoUy cxiat 

iki-,. .'. fPHiMNis; Skba- 

.M/ (//. A^. 
- .1 iiowextnnt, 
liif l)>>uc du^lcKl on 
fhjaiai sabjecu, of which the litlcn 
by ^IJa* And Eudocia. [W. A.G.] 
f! ' *', a flomon grammarian, 

'v X. D., but who»c prc- 
Ki'"im. Jle wrote notes on Ho- 
liiic lo aumi: crilicA. th*; scholia 
fl© Pervitift- The fmginent» which 
t^ vTiHi im Uontce, though much muti- 
f«lali^ a« camtiumng the rt:marks of 
i&tisv Q. Termtiiu Scaum* and 
patjlikhed 6rst by A. Zorotti, 
4, aail tpnn in UU6, »nd have ofleii 
different edition* ; p( rhuph 
hj Oco. Fabridtu, in bis ed. of 
C JM.^, Lr-ipxig, 1571. A writer of 
■c prUaUy the viinte mxuu wrote a 
rr oQ Ti W 11 > vhieh i* lo«t, but which 
«» ty iba gannunan Chorihiu*. [A A.] 
CaOPOUTA, OE*-*''' ; ' ■ '< (ri*J^^«if 
■9i)« tW MD of t: lotn C'nn- 

AAv^ir'i^ r^* el'i. t.* a nuUe 

t IiKj xxi id reiatioiuhip to 

fc : Mica*. (AcropoIitA, !/7.) 

I - .pie in V2-20 {!b. 3.')), 

his sixteenth year t(» 

Vaae of .\''-'<.i 

^ b«« 1 

Nicaea, the rcMdrnc^ of ihr (Ireek eTn|xtror .Mm 
VatatK^ Diii^s. Thf-re he codtjiiui-d uiat liniaihoti 
his »tuiiieft nmbr ThcoilnniH Kxnptmk'u» and Ni- 
ci'phnnm Bleminiiln. (/&. 3'J.) 'Iho lunprror en»- 
pliived him aflervvards in diplomatic atfnir«, and 
.^cropolita iihe\wd htnisL-lf u very tliMrreet and 
sJcilfol negociator. In ]'J55 he commaiidett the 
Nicneaii anny in the war l)etwcen Mich:u*U deti- 
put of Epinta, ond the emperor Tlicodorc II. the 
*on and succe&scr of John. But he wa4 mode pri- 
sniiT, and wa* anly delivejed in I'JtfO by the me- 
diutiun of Mii.biit'l Pahieulogus. Previotuly lo 
tiiiiB he liad bii'n appointed preat lopoilietn, either 
by John or by Thi-odore, whom ho had in*itructed 
in tngiu. MtraAwhilc, Michael Pabeolog-us was 
proclaimed eitipflror of Niau-a in I'JfiO, and in I'JlJl 
he ejcpulM>d ttit LntinK from (.'(mHtantinnple, and 
became eroiKTor of the whole East; and from this 
moment Cieor^» Acrfipolita becomen known in 
the Itistory of the eajteni empire a» one of the 
giejiteiit diplununifita. After baring dibclmrged the 
function uf amt«Hsndur at the court of Onstantinr, 
kiiij( of the Hidgiui;ma, he retired for some yejin 
from public atS^rs at>d made tlie instruction of 
youth ikis solf occii|iaiion. But lie woa soon em- 
ployed in a very iniporumt negotiiiiion. Michael, 
ah'uid of a new I^lin in\Ti&ion, propoi>ed to pope 
Ck'mcns IV, to reunite the Greek and the I^Atiu 
Churche* ; and negociations ensued which were car- 
ried on during; the reijjn of 6ve popes C'lemenn I \. 
Grrjfor^- X. John XXI. Nicohiua III. and Mjirtin 
I V. and the happy residt of which was almost cn- 
ticvly owing tn the skill of Acropolito. As early as 
V21',\ Acrtipolita ivas wnt to po|«i Gregory X. and 
in 1*274, at the Council uf Lyons, he conHnned by 
on oath in the emperor^s name tliat tlmt confession 
of faith whicli hnd been previously sent to Con- 
staniinojile by the pope had been adopted by the 
Greeks. The ivunion of the two churches waj 
afterwards broken otf, but not through the £iult of 
Acropolito. In r2H2 Acropoliia was once more 
sent to Bulgaria, and shortly after his return bo 
died, in the nionlh uf December of the same year, 
in hift ti'Jnd yt«ir. 

.Acnipoliui is the author of scvenU works: the 
most importfuit of which is a histor}* of the Byran- 
line empire, under the title \poviK6v tis iv awoy^u 
rSv iv liffTtftou^ that is, from the taking of Con- 
stantino|de by tiie Latins iu 1*204, down to the 
year I2lil, when Michael Palacologusdelivea-d the 
city from the foreign yoke. The JklS. of this work 
wui found in the library of Gcorgius Canlacuxeuus 
at Conf.LantinopU% and afterwurds bniught to £u. 
rope, ( Fabricius, liiU. Graee. vol. vii. p. 7(>B.) Tho 
Rrst edition of this work, with a Latin traimlntion 
and notes, was published by Tbe(^»donis fJumca, 
Lugd. llnLiv. Idl4, Bvo.; but a more rritical one by 
Leo Allnliu-s who uw-d a Vatican MS. iind dinded 
the text inUi chaptirs. It has the title T^wfrfiov 
roO 'AKptrroKirav rou fLeydXov Kayodirtiu xpovuc^ 
<Fvyyfjd*p7j^ Gftftjii AcntpolUar^ fiuupii lAHfoUHian^ 
I/i»ton<L, Aic. Paris, ](i51. fnl. Thi& edition is re- 
printed in the '*Oirpus Byzontinorura Scripturum," 
Venice, 17*20, vol, srii. This clironicle conuunt 
one of the most remarkable period* of Bymntine 
history, but it is so short thul it iseems to l>e cnly 
an abridgment of another work of the smie author, 
which ift lost AcrupolitA perhaps comjHmed it with 
theTiewofgiving it as a compendium U^ ilioae young 
men who»<' KiientiBc education he sni»eriiitondcd, 
after his return from Ids firkt embassy to BulgnriiL 



Tike luatny of Micbnel I'akirolagui by rachymcrFii 
mny hi> cauMi(ti*rrd lu n cimtiiiontiuii of the work of 
Arntpttlitn. Bi-sidr* thi» work, Acropolita wnitr 
ii*teml (irutinnk, which he dclivcrcil in hi* c-apocity 
ojign'iit lo^ifthetn, and as dircctur jf tlic negtictatioiu 
vilh the [iO[)o ; but the«v omiiun* have uot be«n 
liuhlishrd. Fabticiut (voL viL [i 471) ipeakt of a 
Ids. which liM the title tltpl tit iiti «T(<rt«)i 

f VMnnarruMvwiKmt. Georgiiu, or Gre- 
gnriiu Cypriuis who bai writtrn a ihort encomium of 
AtTopolito. caUi him the Plato and the Amtotle of 
his time. Thi* "encnmhim" i« printed with a La- 
tin tniniilntian at the head of the edition of AcTt>- 
polita liy Th. Uouxa ; it contains useful information 
concentin^ .\cropolita, although it is full of odulo^ 
tion. punher information it conlaincd in Actopo- 
ltlji*t liiston^, espucinily in the latter [>art of it, and 
in Hiuliyniorr'». iv. -JH, i\. 20, M, «ci|. [W. P.] 
AC'HUllKirKS CKKpti)>tiTtit), a tunjiun« of 
Dionysus, under which he was worshippetl at 
Sicyofi, and which is synooymous with Kriphius, 
nndcr whicli name he n-ns worshipped at Meta- 
pnntiun in southern Italy. (Stcph. Dyi. j. r. 
VUp»(«/a.) [US.] 

ArRll'TATUS ("Anp^rBTOi). 1. The son of 
Cleoraeni'ii 1 1, kin^r of Oporto, incomd the diiplea- 
auiv of a laffre party at Sparta by opposing tiie de- 
me, which wns to relense from infiuny all who had 
tn\ from the battle, in which Antipater defeated 
A^K I1.C. .1.^1. He was thus glad to accept the 
llflcr of the .^grigentines, when they sent to Sparta 
fcr osaistancc in ii.r. 314 agninst Agnthocles of 
Syracuse, He first snilvd to Italy, and obtained 
Bsaistance from Tarentum ; but on his arrival at 
Agrigentum be octed with such cruelly and tyianoy 
that the inhabitanta nae against him, and com- 
pelled him to IcBTs the city. He retuined to 
epnrta, and died before the death of his father, 
which was ill B. c 3U9. He left a ion, Aivun, who 
tDcrecded C'leomene*. (Diod. zt. 70, 71 i Paiu. i. 
13. S 3, iii 6. S 1, 2 ; Plot. Ajji,, 3.) 

i. The grandson of the preceding, and the son 
~ Afrus I. king of ^[nrta. He hod unlawful in- 
;r«e will) Chrlidutiis, the young wife of Cleo- 
wKo wiu the uncle of hit blllier Areus ; 
and it was this, tognthrr with the disappointment 
of nut obtAining tfie throne, which led I'leonienes 
I inriu^ l*yrrlius to Sparia, B. c. 'll'i. Areus was 
len absent iii Crete^ and ibe safety of Sparta was 
'nly owing to the nlonr of AcroUitua. He (ue- 
•ded his (atbcr in & r. 26&, but was killed in 
I «me rear ia battle against Aristcdemiu, the 
nuit nf Megnlopniia. Pausooias, in speaking ol' 
» di'ntK, nilU him the son of C'lenmeues, but he 
[Ti. I' him for his gmutlfathcr, spoken of 

n /Vrr*.-.'f.--.'«; .l;/u,3; Pnus.iiLG.|S, 

1.... ., . .. ... .10.(3.} Acvusund Acrolatus are ac- 
cused by t'liylonlius {<t],. Jlirm. ir. p. 142, b.) of 
having corrupted the simplicity of bportao nuD- 
Defv I 

ACT.\EA ('Aurrala), a daughter of Nenkajuid 
I' ■'■ ". /'. x»iii. 4l , ApuUod. L '2. ? 7 ; 

I 7. ed. Stawifn.) ( L. sip* 

-, rA»Tai». 1 I >. n nf ArisUICUS 

He was 

I' ' /.Liur Chri- 

niu. Mid ua« liiu ru.iiil* inrii to pict. « by his own 
5U huuiuU on mount i'itluu'ron. The names nf 
tlies* hounds are gi>ni by ( It id ( .l/>'(. lii. 'JUii, Ax. t 
and ilygmujL (/-uL lul ; comp. Stat. Tkci. u. '2t»3.) 


The cauM of this misfortune ia difierently i 
according to some accounts it was bivaiise hv I 
seen Artrmij while she was bolhiiig in the vale i 
(iargaphia, on the discovery of which the gnd 
dcH changed him into a stag, in which fom hi 
was toni to pieces by his own dog*. (Ov. A/ft 
iiL IS5, Ac; Hygin. Fub. 181; Callim. A. ia 
I'aJlad. 110.) Others relate that he provoked th« 
anger of the goddess by his boasting that he ex- 
celled her in hunting, or by his using for a fcaat 
the gome which was destined us a sacrifice to her. 
(Eurip. BaaJi. 3'JO; Diod. iv. 81.) A tliird ac- 
count stated that ho was killed by his dogs at the 
command of Zeus because he sued fur the bond ol 
Scmclc. (Acusilaus, up. Af^Jlad. iii. 4. § 4.) Pau- 
aaniaa (ix. 2. 8 3) saw near Unrhomenos the rock on 
which Actoeon lued to rest when he was bligued 
by hunting, and from which he had teen ArU'mia 
in the bath ; but he is of opinion that the whole 
story arose ^m the circunistaiicc that Actoeon 
was destroyed by his dogs in a natural fit of mad- 
neu. Palaephatus (<. r. Adaxon) gives an abauid 
and trivial explanation of it. According to ths 
Urdiomenian tradition the rock of Actai-on »aa 
haunted by his spectre, and the oracle of Delphi 
ciiniuuuided the Orcbomenians tu bury the miuuoa 
of the hero, which they might hapfien to find, i 
fix an iron image of him upon the rock. ~ 
image still existed in the time of Pausaniaa (^ 
38. § 4), and the Ort:homenians oficrrd annual ■ 
crifice* to Aciaeon in that pUce. The manner ] 
which Actaeon and his mother were painted 
Polygnotus in the Lesche of Delphi, is dwriljed 
by Pautaniaa. (x. 30. § 3 ; comp. Miiller, Urrkom. 
p. 348, iuc) 

2. A ton of Melissoa, and grandaon of Ab 
who Imd fled from Argos to Corinth for fear < ~ 
tyrant Pheidon. Arcbias, a Corinthian, enamo 
ed with the beauty of Actaeon, endcavoi^ 
carry him off; but in the struggle which i 
lietween Melissus and Arcbias Acuu-on < 
Meliisus brought bis comphunts forward at 
Isthmian games, and pruying to the gods fiiri 
renge, be threw himself from a rock, llereup 
Corinth was visited by a plague and dn 
and the oracle ordeivd the Corinthians to 
tiate Poseidon, and avenge the death of t 
Upon this hint Arcbias emigrated to Sicily, wh 
be founded the town of Syracnse. (I'luL A* 
A'ljrr. p. 772 ; comp. Paus.T. 7. 8 2 ; Thucv 
3; Strab. viii. p. 3H0.) 

AWAI:LS ("AiTTafos). A son of 1 
and according to Pausanias (i. 2. i 
rarliext king of Attica. )Ie had three < 
Agraulos Herse, and Pandrosus, and was i 
ed by Cecrops, who married .Agrjulos. Ao 
ing to ApoUodiinu (iiL 14. 1.) on the other 1 
Cecmps was the first king of .\tlica. [L. Ssl 

ACTE, the concubine of Nero, was a 
woman, and origimdly a slave purchased 
Asia Minor. Nero loved her far more than 
wife Gclavia, and at one time thought uf marrya 
her ; whenw he pif ti-ndod tliat stic wo* i' 
from king Atiolua. She survived Na 
Ann. xiii. 1-J, 4(i, xiv. 'J ; Suet. AVr.*28,JS 
Cass. lii. 7.) 

ACTIACl'S, a surname nf Apollo, 
from Actiiim, one of the principal plaee« of 
woiahip. (((V. Mrt, xiii. 71.S; Stroll, x. p. 4J 
comfore Uurmann, ivi I'nMtrri, p, 434.) [L. I 
ACTl'SAN ES ('Airriffi^s), a king of Kthio 

•lenliira on the con- 
1.1 wui ^pccewlwl by 
L/i»>lora< so.v» timt Acti- 
wi'i : in the rci^ of AmuiK, for 

*r ■ -".tI Ammosis. At all 

i.\, riry of Cyruj, cannot 

ml. , , - ivi. p.759.) 

ni;S. (Attiub.] 

TUft fAxTup). I. A Mn of Deion nnd 

^tWdmgfcler of Xuthu*. He was thun 

f if Arttnrpeia, Aeuntui, Phrlucus nnd 

v'1 of Aepinn, fiithcr of Mi*- 

iB4a\ .1 . T of Pntrocliu. (ApuIIod. 

_ii. } 4. I ^ 8 : rind. UU ix. "a ; Horn. 

i 711a, >>i. 14.) 

L A UD of Phorlu* and Hyiminis and bu<bnnd 

lie WM t&ni a brother of Augpoi, 

' EUnrtiu and Cteatu*. (Apollod. ii. 

,T. i. §8, Tiii. 14. §6.) 

I of Aenoas (Virg. Jen. ir. .lOO), 

My the lamp who in another paMOi;? 

Bj]«>d an .^urunciuu and of wbo«c con- 

Tumu* nuulo a baujit. Thi« atory 

I to tuiTo giren rise to the praTcrtiiol Haying 

Mia ifoliiun " ( Juv. ii. 100), for anv poor 

JDES or ACTO'RION ("Airrop'Sm or 

r patronyuiic fomia of Actor, and ore 

given to dcvccndontA of an Actor, 

diw (Ot. Met. liii .173 ; TriM. i. 9. 

(Ov. .Mel. T. 79 ; conipnrc viii, 308, 

and Ctratui. (Horn. /'. ii. r,2\, 

. 750. iiiii. II3«.) [L.S.] 

>'RIliS NASO, iMmi to liavc writ- 

Joliii* Cacair, or a history of hit 

i liy Siiotoninn. {Jul. 9, Si.) 

ivrd ift unci-rtuin, hut &ftra 

-. -.. - ■ It i« refcrrrd to by Sutitoniun, 

Ii •MU abnoat teem to bave been a contsmpnniry 

ACrrATlIL'S (' Aitriniiftesy, the nimome by 
*M IS audcol Qtcck phyiician, whoae real 
■■• Joumea, is commonly known. Hia 
> Zachaiiaa ; he binuelf prnctiwd 
'btMalboplr. and, as it appears, witli some 
*** of (ndlu ut he was honoured with the title 
4 I '^T Wii^ a dignity frequently conferred at that 
^mfm fkjnaaD*. (lJKt.o/ Jul. f.iHl,h.) Very 
■^ ta kaawn of the ennts of hia life, nnd 
witti ii father nncertain, as some persons reckon 

* k bts* lirsd in the eleientb century-, and 
*M iaat him down a> low a> the begiiniin); of 

* tvMmth. He probably lited townrds the 
^*Ae thirteenth centnry, a* one of hia works 
■•"(■Bwl to his tutor, Joseph Rarendyivs, who 
^a the rrijni of .\ndronicuB II. Paloeologus, 
^^lai— 12-28^ Oo4f of his achool-frllows is 
*yW l» has* been Apocaachus, wbum he de- 
*M (1b«a(h without naming him) as going 

* ■ smbasfy to the north. {Ot Metk. Med. 
ViiurL pp. 139, 169.) 

(hi W ku works is entitled, n«p3 'Zftpyttuv itol 
^^etm TirniMoii Tlftvuarou *«d T^f Kar' a^6 
f^tr— * Iv Ac^cmihus et Atlitctibus Spiritus 
*jftk ijosijoe Nuintione." This is a psycho- 
2*^ *^ physiolrrgidl work in two books iu 
^** ^ ni Rasonintr. uys Freind, seems to be 
^^ "P" •'>• priiiciple-1 Uid down by Aristo- 
^^MB,aid 0lh«n. with reUtion to the tame 
*'^ Tk Myk at this tnct is by no means 


impure, and has a grrat mixture of /n- old Attic 
in it, which is ver)- tardy to bo met with in the 
later Greek writcn.. A tolerably full alistmct of 
it is given by Barchuwn, t/Ul. Afedic Dial. 1 4. p. 
338, &c. It «■»» first published, VeneU 1S47, 8to. 
in a Latin translation by .lul. Aleiuuidrinus dc 
NVuatiiin. The first edition of the original was 
pubtialu'd. Pur. 1557, l!vo. edited, without notes 
or preface, by Jar. Gonpyl. A second Greek edi- 
tion appeared in 1774, 8vo. Lips., under the care 
of J. K. Fischer. Ideler li.ns alw inserted it in the 
first volume of his JViysici tit Atrjici Itnseri Mi- 
juirri, HeroL Bvo. 1841 ; and the first port of J. S, 
U*'niardi Uetitjitiae Mrdivit-Critinic, ed. Gruuer, 
Jenne, 1795, 8vo. contains some Greek Scholia 
on the work. 

Another of his extant works is entitled, Scpa- 
Tnrruc^ MfSoSoi, " De Mcthodo Meilendi," in six 
books, which have hitherto) apix^nn-d c<>n<plete only 
in a Latin tnutslution, though i)ieu hiul, before hia 
death, cf>ll(*ctcd materials for a Greek edition uf 
this and his other works. (See his pn^lace to Gah*n 
Dc Duartt. Mtac.) In these books, says Ficiiid, 
thongh he ihicfly follows Galen, and vciy often 
AetiuM nnd Pnulus .\egineta H'ilhont naming him, 
yet he makes uw of whatever he finda to his pur- 
pose botli in the old mid nuiJeni wrilen, us well 
barbarians as Greeks ; and indeed we find in him 
several things that are not to be mot with else- 
where The work was written extempore, and 
designed for tlie use of Apocauchus during his 
embassy to the north. (PracC i. p. 139.) A l..itin 
trunalation of this work by ConL 11. Mnthiaius, 
was firet published VeneU 1554, 4to. The first 
four books uppear somclimcs to have been con- 
sidered to form a complete work, of which the 
first and second have been inserted liy Idelcr in 
the second ^olmnu of hia l*htfn. et .>/«/. 6'r. Min, 
Uerol. 1 842, under the title n»pl Utaynaatat 
noflttfi',**DeMorl)orumlJignotione," and from which 
the Greek eictnicU in H. Stephens's Lhdiftnarium 
\fct{icuiii^ Par. 15(i4, 8ro. are probably taken. 
The fifth and sixth books have also been taken fur 
a tpporate work, and were publiaheil by them- 
selves. Par. 1539, 8vo. ajid U««l. 1540." Bvo. in 
a Latin transbtion by J. Ruellius, with tiic title 
^ De Medicamentonim Compositione.** An extract 
from this work is inserted in KemePs collection of 
writers De FArUjiu, VencL 157l», fol. 

His other extnnt work is fltpl Oifir, " De 
Urinis,"in seven biMiks. He haa treated of this aub- 
ject very fully aiid distinctly, and, though he guca 
upoi3 the plan which Theophilua Proloajntharius had 
marked out, yet he has added a gntat dual of origi- 
nal mutter. It is the most couiplcte and systematic 
work on the subject that rcnmins from antiquity, 
ao much so that, till the chemiciU improvenu>nts of 
the last hundred years, he had left hardly niirthiiig 
new to \m; said by the modems, nuuiy of whom, 
aays Freind, transcribed it almoat wiird fiir word. 
This work was first published in a Latin transk- 
tion by .\mbrose Leo, which appeared in 1519, 
Venet, 4to.,and has Ijeen several times reprinted ; 
the Greek original has been published for the fintt 
time in the second volume of Ideler's work quoted 
above. Two Latin editions of hia collected 
works are said by Choulant (UamOtuc^ der Ilii- 
dmiamdr fiir die AtUere Mrdidu, U'ipiig, 1841), 
ta have been pnbliahed in the same year, 1556, 
one at Paris, and the other at Lyons, bath in Uvo. 
Hia thitsc works orv also inserted in the Medieue 



Jiii, /'nMiyM «r B. Stcpiwiiii, Par. IM7. M. 
{rnM"* IJmi. ^' /'iynr; 8|iRii|tFU //iA dt la 
MM. I iUU«T, mdiolk. Umiit. fraa. ; Bodiuaai. 
lit. MMit.) (W. A.O.) 

ACIJ'LKM Kxxin ■> • Hiraam* of C Fuiiu 
vfaii mu qaa>!*i<i( <i< L. iwpia, md wu coo- 
dMBSiid of pwTihiliw (Ln. naniii.55.) Acn- 
ba, bowmr, imb* not to ban been a regular fr- 
tBit]p-«aH of iba Foia gcna, bat enlj a laiaaaM 
givM M tUa ■ vUih • aBflB mumnit 
aam* in ifca foDasinf iMacle. 

C. ACVLEO. a Kaosn knifht, who oanied 
Ik* MMrr of Hclria, the motbrr of Ciccre. Ue 
wM wipaHxl b]r no onr in bit dajr in bia know- 
MfC « ibc Ronan lav, and poacMcd great 
■calaaaat of mind, but mu not dittinguiihed for 
adMr aUainmcnUL He waa a ftirnd of L. Liciniut 
Obmmm, and vaa defended bjr him upon one oc- 
caalon. The ton of Acnleo waa C. Viielliiu Vura ; 
•bmea it would appear thai Acnleo waa only a 
aufnam* (inn 10 the fittber from hia acnteneaa, and 
that hu full name waa C Viielliaa Varro Aculco. 
(( .. ./- r,. : 43, n. I, «S; BnL 76.) 

. I'S f Axoufunii), a phyiician of 
A ' ' ved in the 6fth century before Chnil, 

•ad M aicouoned ai the friend and companion 
■r SoaaUa. (I'lal. PItaedr. init. ; Xen. Mtmor. 
Hi. 1.1. I 2.) Me wa« the fiuher of EiTximachui, 
who wiu at«o A phrMctan, and who \% introduced 
aa one of the apeoken in HIalo'i Spopoeiam. ( PlaL 
I'rvtup. p. .Tlf), c. ; Syntp. p. 1 7(i, c.) He ii alvi 
mentioned in the collrctinn of letters first published 
bjr Leo AiUtius, i'arit, 1637, 4lo. with the title 
£put, Sxrutit W iSucni/Kt^rMM, and a^n by Orvl- 
lir ! ' IS. 8»u.ep. 14. p. 31. [\V. A.U.] 

If 8 ('AmvrUaof), of Argoa, one of 
ti' ' — l(loK«gnpben(//i[i.i/Xi>l. p.57'S, 

a.), who probably li«ed in (ho bilirr half of the 
•nth rrntary be. He is called Uie sou of Cubnu 
or tkabna, and is Rckoned by aome among the 
tbvrn Wise Man. Soidaa (s. r.) inyt, that be 
*nte (mMatoiiee fiom brooie tuhleta, which hit 
btbar was laid to hare dug up iu bia own house. 
ThrM books of hia OeoealngiM are quoted, which 
wrrv fur the most part only a transliition of Hesiud 
into pnisF. (Clem. Unm. ri. p. tJJi), a.) Like moil 
of (hv other Ii>gt>j|;mpheni, he wrutc m the Ionic 
duiUt-t. PLitu is the earliest writer by whom he 
is nirittiunril. (.Syi«i;j. p. I7H, li.) The Works whkh 
koK the tuiiu' uf .'Vciiailniift in a later age, were 
famous. (4. p. 'tttaerawt MiAviirioT, 'I<rTopi}o'cu, 
iirirtpdiptt.) The frattmriits of Acniilacls have 
Iierti piihli«hrd by Stuiu, (ieme, 1787 ; 2nd ed. 
Li(i«. Ill'Jj; and in the " M uteum Criticum,** i. 
p. ■Jli;, \c. Ciinib. l».'ti. 

M. ACI'TII'S trilrane of the plebs a. r, 401, 
was elertr<d hy the other trihooes (by co-opUiUon) 
in %iulatioii Iff the Trvljoiiia k*x, (Liv. t. lU; 
ViH.,,/ AkI. p. .ViU, a.) 

All.V (*Aia), the ihiiighlrr of HecatotTOiu. king 
of i'srtjt, and si*ter at M a ia s n lns, Aftemisia, 
ldneu>. Slid I'lindoroa. She waa married to ber 
brother Idricua, who smraaded Artemisia in it. \, 
Hi\ uid itied n. c. 344. On the death of her 
buahaoil she tUirerdiHl lo the throne of Ceria, but 
int e^pelli'al by her brother lliutlorus in u.c 340; 
and nil ihi' death »f the btller in u. c. XMt his awu- 

III '•■• •.■..• 1 ■• - - I ■■ -■ .. (■--. 


«..;. , . . 

the ftirtrei* a4 Aiutda, surrcudeied this ptecc to | 


him and beg)^ lean to adopt him as her ana. 
.Uter taking ilalicamaMiu, Alexander cnmmiued 
the goeemment of Caria to ber. (.\rTian, Am^ 
i. 23 ; Uiod. xn. 42, 74 ; Strah. xn. pp. 6S6, 657 ; 
Plot Ala. lU.) 

a Ureak engiammatic poet, a natire most pra- 
haUy of ItMedonia. The epithet ManUoot ia 
appended to bis name before the third epignua 
in the Vat. M& (Amik. Or. vi. 2-28) ; and the 
nbjecta of the second, eighth, ninth, and tenth 
epigrams agrw «itb this account of his origin. 
He lived io the time of Alexander the Great, to 
whose death be aUades. {Amtk. (fr. rii. 240.] 
The fifth epigram (Amii. Gr. rii. 305) is inscrifa 
*A38alov MrrvAifiviov, and there was a Mttylen 
of this name, who wrote two prose wruks fls^ 
'A^oA^ioTersouffS and riepl /^taBictus. (.\the 
ziii. p. 60fi. .t, xi. p. 471, r ) The time when I 
lircd cannot be fixed with certainty. Kciskei 
though on insufficient grounds, believes these twwj 
to be the ame person. (A nth. Umrt, vi. 328^1 
25B, rii. 51, 238, 240, 3U5. i. 20 ; Bninck, Am 
u. p. 2J4 ; Jacobs, xiiL p. 831.) [V. P. M.] 

ADAMANTEIA. [Amalthei*.] 

ADAMA'NTll'S ('Aitvidirioi), an ancie 
physician, bearing the title of /airoK^iltala (iarp 
Kir^mr aa^urr^i, Socrates, Hit Jicclei. rii. 13)^1 
fcir the meaning of which see Oirl. </ A» 
p. 507. Little is known of his penonal historyj 
except that be was by birth a Jew, and 
he was one of those who fled fmm Alrxaodri 
at the time of the expuiiion of the Jews from I 
city by the Patriarch Sl Cyril, a. D. 415. Ho wen 
bi Constantinople, was persuaded la embraca C 
tianity, apparently by Altictu tbe Patiiareh I 
city, and then returned to Alexandria. (S 
t. c) He is the author of a Cireek ttealiie 
physiognomy, ^iwioytw/ioviKd, in two books, whi< 
is still extant, and which is bomwed in a ( 
measure (as he himself confesses, i. Prooeiu. 
314, ed. Kranx.) from Polemo*s work on the 1 
Aubject. It is di'dlcatcd to Constuiiliuft, who lA 
sup{M)sed by Kabricius {liifttit4k, frritovu, voL ii. | 
171, xiiL 34, ed. veL) to be the |>erM>n who 1 
ried Piacidia, the daughter of Theodosius 
Great, and wlui reigned for aeren montht in < 
junction with tbe Kniperor Hoiiorius. It was tiial| 
published in lireck nt Parin, 1.540. Bvu., 
Ureck and Latin at Uasle, 1544, Kvo., and 1 
wards in Uinrk, together with Aeliau,Pai 
some other writers, at Hume, 1545, 4ta. ; 
and best edition is tlut by J.U. Fninxius,i 
inserted it in his collMtion of the Sf-riplofmi 
offHomuic IV/i*rc«, (jr. et LAt., AltcnU 178' 
Another of his works, n<pl 'hrifmr, Itr I's 
() the Scholiast tu llesiod, and an ext 
from it IS given by Airtius (tctmlk L ■mn. 3, i 
l(i3); it is said to be still in existence in 1 
■cri|>t in the Knyal Libraiy at Paris. SeTuiai 1 
his medical preKriptions are preserved by drill 
siu» and Aetius. [W, A. U.] 

AL>fcl.MA.\TUS('AJ«l/«UTM). 1. The. 
Ocytus, the Corinthian commander in the inv 
uf Orecoc by Xcrxnk Before the battle of An 
misium be threatened to aail away, but was I 
by Tbcmistodea lo tvanain. He opposed Th 
■ ■'■" with gmt inMktiicn in the cooacil 
'imanders beld bdfan the battle of f 
\ Miiiig to the Alkeniam be took to : 
the very jnmm an c a m ent of tho bottle, bat 



th* C«riiithlnii>i and the other 
{fhni. riiL i, M, 61, 94 ; PluL Tliem. 

i nt wg of LrucoluphiMiM, an Atbeiiian, wiu 
I rf tW canunmidcr* witit Alcibiodt^n in the ex- 
I Amlro*. B. c. 407. (Xcu. //tU, i. 
'H* w *gun apftointoil one of the Athe- 
> after the battle of ArginuMie, a c. 
unnnttod in office till the bottle of Aega>- 
l c 4U5, where he wa* one nf the com- 
M taken priionrr. He nrai the 
■If oor of th* AtheiUiin prLsnnen who was not 
fM tt iiMlu bwauae he had nppated the decree 
if ontiig at the ri)rht haodt of the Locedstemo- 
av >he iDigfat he tikm in the battle. He wu 
■11 i \ij manr of treachery in thin battle, and 
<i»Arrv*id> imprachtfd br Conon. {Xen./ffU.i. 

.§30-32; Paoikiv. 17.g-2,x.».3.ii Dem. 

p. «01.'. Lvfc c..<fc pp. U3, -Jl.) 

net <{>cak> of Adeiniontui in the ** Frngi " 

■kick wa* acted in the jear of the battle, 

: dnath wa* wiahed for ; and he also 

• ftpparcritly oat of jest, the ton of Leiico- 

liv *• While Cre«t." In the "Protn- 

■* ef Phuo, Adeimautut i> aUo tpokea of as 

paoit on that occaaion (p. 315, e.). 

}. The brother of Pbtto, who is frequently raen- 
Im4 by the bitter. {ApoL Sacr. p. 34, a., de 
lk^.i. f, 3I>'7. e. p. alR, d. e.) 

AnoANIllASTRIL'S. a chief of the Catti, 
"fcal Iff kill Anniniui if the Konuini woiUd tend 
ka fitna for thr purpoar ; bat Tiberius declined 
ttt,*,. (Tar. yl»». ii. aa) 

.UlHKRBAL ('ATdpCai). 1. A Carthaginian 
Mamaier in the fint Hanic war, who was pbiced 
■"vlktpun, and completely defeated the Roman 
•■■I P. Cbodiui in a aea tight nfT Urepana, b. c. 
M. fWjt. I 4!»— 5L>; Diod fH. iiir.) 

1 A CWtbafrinian commander under Mago in 
<■ tnnd Puiric war, who was defeated in a sea- 
lybtf CiRria. in Spain, by C. Loelius in B.C. 
S» II. •".) 

1 Vti- fl•^ and grandson of Masi- 

4mhki i.'ir >iij>.'.'<ui of Nnmidia left to him by 
IkMar IB mnjaiictiDD n-ith his brother llicmpsal 
■iAfVlka, B. u- 118. After the murder of his 
^■Aar by Juffurtba, Adherbnl tied to Rome and 
••s a stiBtd til hi> share of the kingdom by the 
laBain *. c 117. But Adherbol was again 
A^fid (if his dominions by Jugurtha and be- 
i^prf in CVta, where he was treacherously killed 
llHltittha in & c. 1 12, although he hod placed 
Iwrif mdar the protection of the Homans, 
M J^ &, LV 14. 24, is, 26 ; Ut. ^. 63 ; 
lU. £n-. iniT. (K. 60.^. ed. Wessw) 

ttUTuHIX ('A<MiTr(pi{), son of a tetrarch 
> fthlii. trloog«d to Antony's party, and killed 
■I •• BoBoas in Henclrla shortly before the 
^4 d Altitun. After this battle he was led as 
^■ar is tl>* triumph of Angustus, and put to 
■A witb his younger soil His elder son, 
^■■(•^ wm satMeqoently maile priest of the 
*1— ri jsdAtss in Conana. (Strab. xir. pp.543, 
t^tSti Oc ai Fam. ii. 12.) 

4iUlC*rK QAitd/ni). 1. A daugter of Oceanns 
■i<TW(yi(H««iad. rke^. 349), whom Ilygiiius 
i* iW pe<s0 tn h:« Ctblrs calls Adua'to and a 

^9^ltf«IP«nl< >'.l«sa. 

& A tm^iy' us and Antimacho or 

» was nuii^ied by her fiither to 

b iv k(T tha finll* of Ajca, which waa worn 


by Hippolyto, queen of the Amazons. (Apollod. ii. 
5. § 9.) According to Tr.etn's(<v/ Lycaplir. i;t27), 
she oceoDiiiaaied llcrarlcs on this expedition. 
There was n tradition (Allien, xr. p. 447).accop1ing 
to which Adnieto was nriginnlly a prieaU-siof Hera 
at Argos, but (Ud with the iiuage of thr goddess 
to Samos. Pirates were engaged by the Argives 
to fetch the image back, hut the enterprise did not 
succeed, for the ship when lodeu with the iuuige 
could not be made to more. The men thun took 
the image back to the coast of Samos mid sailed 
awny. When the Somians found it, they lied it 
to a tree, but Admete puritled it and rcBloKd it to 
the temple of Samos. In commemoration of this 
event the .Samions celebrated an annual festival 
called Toneo. This ston' secuu to bo an invention 
of the Argiros, by which ihoy iiiteiidi'd to prove 
that the worship of Hera in their place was older 
than in i^mos. [L. S.] 

AD.MK'TUS ('Mim^of), a son of Phcres, the 
founder and king of Pherae in Thes^y, and of 
Pcriclymene orClymene. (Apollod. i. 8.§-2, 9.§ 14.) 
He took part in the Cjilydonian chase mid the ex- 
pedition of the Argonaut*.. (Apollod. i.9. § IG; Hy- 
giu. FuL. 14. 173.) When he had succce<led his 
father as king of Phenie, he sued fur tile hand of 
Alcestis, the daughter of Peliiis, who promised her 
to liim on condition that he should come to her in 
a chariot drown by lions and boors. This lAsk 
Admetui performed by the assistance of Apollo, 
who served him occonling to some account* out of 
attachment to him (Schol. tvi Enrip, Alwti, *2 ; 
Callim. A. u Apoll. 46, &c.), or according to olliori 
because he n-ns obliged to serve a mortal for one 
year for haviug slain the Cyclops. (Apollod. iiL 10. 
3 4.) On the day of hit marriage with .\loestis, 
Admetus neglected to otfer a sacritico to Artemis, 
and when in the evening he entered the bridul 
chamber, he found there a number nf snakes rolled 
up in a lump. Apollo, however, reconciled 
Artemis to liim, and at the same time induced tlic 
Moirae to grant to Admetus deliverance from 
death, if at the hoar of his death his liither, mother, 
or wife would die for him. Alcestis did so, but 
Korn, or according to otht^rs Heracles, brought her 
bock to the upper world. (Apollod. i. 9. § 15 ; com- 
paPC ALCESTl.'i.) [L>. S.] 

AD.MK'TUS ("AJ^UToi), king of the .Mol..»- 
sians in the time of Thomistocles, who, when su- 
preme at Athens, had opposed him, perhaps not 
withcbut insult, in some suit to the people. But when 
tiying from the officers who were ordered to seize 
him as a party to the treason of Pausanios, and 
driven from Corcyra to Epirus, he found himself 
upon some emergency, with no hope of refuge but 
the bouse of .Admetus. Admetus was absent ; but 
Phlliia his queen welc^inied the stnmger, and bode 
him, as the most solemn form of supplication 
among the Molostians, take her son, the young 
prince, and sit with him in his hand* upon the 
hearth. Admetus on his return home assured hira 
of protection ; according to another account in 
I'tiilarcli, he hims<-lf, niid not Pthia enjoined the 
fonu OS alfordiug hiin a prtrtext for refuttol : he, at 
any rale, tliut his eani t^i oU that the Athenian 
Olid Ijocedaeinoiiian commissiuners, who soon oAer- 
wards arrived, could say ; and sent Themistodea 
safely to Pydiui on his wav to tlie Persian court. 
(Thucvd.L IM, 137; PIul7V«i.24.) [A. H.C.J 

AD.MK'TUS ('ASMirras), a Greek epignun- 
matist, who lived in llio early port of the second 

t 2 


oontur; after (.'hri«t. One liiir of hit in prcsrrrfd 
hv liiiciiin. {OrmoHiu, 44 ; Brunck, Amil. Lii. p. 
2l.) [C. F. M.) 

AD(VNEIJ.S CAS-niSi). 1. A iuniiun* of 
Riiccliiu, «igiittieii the Hulcr. (Aiuon. £/'iyr. xxix. 

.. Adonrtu U wtmntimet uied by Latin pn4>u 
far Adunii. (Plaul. MtnureA. i. ■>. 35 ; Catull. 
nix. 9.) [[,.!>.] 

AIlCNIS f AJwws), ftccordini; to A[Hillad<iniii 
(iii. I (. $ it) a ton of (.'inyma aiiJ Mi-darmv, occord- 
IttR to llrsiod (up. AptJIad. iii. U. § 4) a toii of 
Phocnit nnd AlpbeMboeo, and onurdiiift to th 
P »)f lie piM't Poiiyuit (u;>. Ai'MiJ. I. r.) a ^on uf 
Thciot, Icing of Aoyrio, who U-gut liim by lii> 
own diiughwr Sinym.!. (.Myrrha.) Thi- antifnt 
mory mil thus: Smyrna bad np|{l''ctrd iho wor- 
th ip of Aplinxliti*, mid wiu pitninbed by the god- 
d('N% with an unnattind love for her father. \Vilh 
ihe iu*i<tiincti of her nur«e i!:e contrived to frhare 
rher fothi'r'* Ijcd without being known to him. 
When he di«coyercd the crime he wished to kill 
her ; but iibc Hcd, and ou bring nearly oTertoJcen, 
prayed to the god> to tnake her intitible. They 
were moTed to pity and changed her into ■ tree 
called Vftipra, ASicr the lapse of nine months 
(he tree barst, and Adonis was bom. .aphrodite 
WHS so moch charmed with the beauty of the infant, 
that she concealed it in a chest which she entrust, 
rd to Persephone ; but when the latter discovcrtM] 
the tmuuiv she hod in ht-r keeping, she refuseil to 
•jive it up. The cone was bruuifht bi-fnre Zeus, 
llrho dccidol the dispute by declaring that durinn 
ifcur inunths of every year Adonis should be Icil to 
Ikiiiiself, during four months he should belong to 
Perv-phone, and during the remaining four to 
Aphrodite. Adonis however pci'ferriug to live 
with Aphrodite, also spent with her the four 
Linonths over which he had controuL After- 
ds Adonis died of a wound which he rT-Ci'iv(.d 
ma n b<«r during the chntr. Thus bt the sior\' 
' Adonis was related by I'uiyasis. Later wri lers 
bmish various ■Iterations and additions to it. 
lAcnirding to llygiiius {Ful. iS, 164, 251, 271), 
nynui was punished with the love for her fiitlier, 
auie her mother Cenchreis hod provoked the 
langrr of Aphnxlite by eitolling the beauty of her 
daughter aliove that of the godiiesi^ Smyrna after 
the diarovery of her cnme fled into a forest, where 
she »as cluingpd into a tree from which Adonis 
.Ouiie forth, when her fiither split it with his 
word. The dispute between Aphnxlite and Pcr- 
phuite was according to Mtine accounts settled by 
talliope, whom /cu% ap|>oinled as mediator be- 
»een tliera. (llygin. Furl. Attrrm. ii. 7.) Ovid 
(Mtl L 300, &c. ) adds the following features : 
Myrriui's loi« of hrt father was excited by the 
furii^ ; Lueina assisted her when she gave liirth to 
Alliens and the .Naiads anointed him with the 
(eftis of his mother, i. e. with the fluid which 
tnckli<<l from the tree. Adonis grew up a most 
bniutiful youth, uid Venos loved him and shared 
with him the pleasure* of the chiuM-, though she 
always cautioned hiro against the wild U^osis. 
.\t last he wounde,1 a Imiir which killed him in 
Its fiirr. Acconling to some tnulitinns Arrs 
(Mars), or, acronling to oihrrs, Ap4iUo assumed 
the ffirm of a Usir ajid thus killed .Vdonis, (bcrr. 

uJ rW tjt X. ID; Plolrm. lUliluirsL i. p. SOfi, 

ed. dale.) \ third sti»ry rrlaud tliat Oionreua 
earned nif .\donis. ( Plianodea i^ I'tmi. Sympm. 


iv. S.) \VIien .^plinHlite wa.s informed of 
tieloved lieing wounded, she haslened to the sp«| 
and sprinkled nectar into his bloiM), from which 
inmiediutely flowers spnuig up. Various otbet 
noMlifications of the stfiry may l>e read in llyginui 
(/•(W. Attnm. ii. 7). Theocritus (JJ;/U. iv.), 
Bion (IJyIl. i.), and in the scholiast un Ly<»- 
phron. (HiiP, \c.) From the double niurria^ ol 
Aphrodite with .\res and Adonis sprang Priapaa. 
(Schol. atJ AfxJluH. HIvl. i. U, 3'J.) tWsidca 
him Oolgos and Beroe are likewise called duldrra 
of Adonis and Aphrodite. (SchoL luJ TkeucnL xr. 
I Oil; Noniii IHoHi/i. xlL 155.) Ou his death 
Adonis was oliliged to descend into the lower 
world, but be was allowed to spend six months 
out of every year with his beloved Aphrodit« in 
the upper world. {Orjik, hyium. 55. 10.) 

The wonhbip of Adonis, which in hiter timos 
was spread over nearly all the counliies round tha 
Mi'diu^rrancan, was, as the story itself sullicienlljr 
indicates of Asiatic, or more especially of Phoeni- 
cian origin. (Lucian, c^e d«a Sj/r. c. G.) Thence it 
wits transferred to Assyria, Egypt, nneece, and 
even to Italy, though of course with Tarioiu nio- 
ditications. In the Homeric pocmi do Inicc of ic 
occurs and the later (jre<-k poet* changed lbs 
original s}-nibulic account of Adonis into a poetial 
ston'. In the Asiatic religions .\pbn>Jite wiis the 
fructifying principle uf nature, nnd Adonis apjiemr* 
to have reference to the death of nature in wmtvr 
and its revival in spring — hence he spends six 
mouths in the lower and six in the upper ivnrliL 
His death and bis return to life were lx•ll•!l^l 
in annual festivals ('Atwrla) at Ityblos, Alexand/ii 
in Kgypt, .\tbens, and utiier places. [ L. Sv] < 
AliKANL'S ( A>pa»(<t), a Sicilian divinity wk 
was worshipped in all the island, but especiully at 
.\dmnus, a town near Mount Aetna. (Pint. Timal, 
I'J ; Diodor. xiv. 37.) Hesychius (>. e. naAiicai) 
r<>pivseiits the god a* the father of the I'alid. 
.According tu Aelian (//uf. Amm. li. '.'0), ab 
I (100 socml dogs were kept near bis Icmpt 
.Some modem critics consider this divinity to be < 
eastern origin, and connect the name Ado 
with the Persian Adar (fire), and n'gnid him I 
the same as tlw Phoenician Adramelcch, and I 
a personification of the sun ur of fire in gencid 
(liochart, (;en/ru;iil. ftbero, p. 530 ) [US, 

TUS, a contemporory of .\iheniieus, who wrot«t 
commentary in tite books upon the work uf Tb«t 
phraatua, eutitlcd ws^ 'HMr, to which he added I 
sixth IxHik ni>un the Niconiochian Kthics of Ali 
tutlc (Atben. xi. p. 073, e. with ScbwedgluiiM^ 
note. ) 

ADRASTEIA CABpirrsia). 1. A Creta 
nyiiiph, dnugbler of Melisseus, to whom Hii« 
entrusted the inbuit Zeus to be mtcd in tbr l>it 
taean grotto. In this <ithee Adiasteia < 
by her sister Ida and the Cuirtes (ApoUodaJ 
8 f> ; CallimAch. A^vnia. in Jov. 47), wfaa ^ 
scholiast on Collinmchus tulls her brothcia, 
lonius Hhodius (iii. 13*2, Ac.) relate* tha 
to the inCtnt Zeus a lieautiful globe (« 
play with, and on s'liuc Cretan ooina 
n^preseuted sitting upon a globa. (Spanh. 
fu//m. L f.) 

3. A ninianw of Nemesis which ia darived I 
some writers ftutn Adiaatus, who ia mid to 
built the firal ■uictnary of .Vetneaia 
Atopos (Sliah. xiii p. 588), and br olbtn I 



t nA Utddnnir, Ktordiui; to which it would 

li ptf) thf fu<I4r« whom tuae can e»aipo, ( Vide- 

^WV/'nW. KL 4U.) [L. S.] 

""IsTl'NK. (Abbastd*.] 

i>TlIS CAJpoirroi), a Mn of Tiilnuii, 

klii<^ and of Ljiimache. (Apollod. i. i). 

pAutaniaa (ii. 6. § it) calU hi* mother 

aiul llrginui (/'u/f. (id) Eiirvnume. 

> SckoL arf X'»/^ /"iaw. i'iX) Ihiriug a 

! brtvccn the molt powerful houncs in Argo>, 

br Amphianius ond Adirutus 

oiu hia diiuiiiiions 6ed to I'olybiu, 

I Sicyon, W'ht-'D Polybui died with- 

Nl Ua. Adrasta* ftoccecded him on the throne 

rfS^Mi, mnd ditring hia ivign he u said to have 

MKaMd the Nensau gamei. (Horn. IL ii. 57:2 ; 

rU. AVb. U. 30, &c ; Herod, t. t>7 ; Pniu. ii. 

i|&^ Aftcnmrds however, Adinttua bccnme 

vadM In Anipbiarsiu, gave him hia titter Kri- 

ftfkia ffluriage, and returned to hib kingdom of 

i^nfc l>tihiig the tine he reigned there it hap- 

•aaj that Tydrut of Colydon and Polynicea of 

Ma, Wth {bgitire* from their nntive counlriei, 

w X KigD* near the palace of Adraatoa, and 

■B l> vorda and froin words to blows. On 

Wia( the ooiae, Adraitua hastened to them and 

i^MUfd the comhatanta, in whom he immediately 

' B^pnacd the two men that hud been promiaed to 

!■ bf an oocle aa the future hnaboiids of two 

(i kia faighten ; for one bore on hia ahi<-ld 

■k %v» of ■ hnar, and the other that of a 

i%ind the oracle waa, tliat one of hia dauuhtere 

Wi la aurj a hoar and the other a lion. Adnu- 

•• llkmfcn; gave hia daughter rieipyle lo Tydcna, 

Ki Aficaa to Polynicea, and at the aoine time 

^^ad la Inad each of theae phncea Itnck tn hia 

l«» Boanlry. Adiaatoa now pn-pared for war 

van Thrhra, although Amphiiimua furetold that 

•Ivlka ahunld engage in it ahould periah, with 

(b tnifitinn of Adniitiia. (ApoUud. iii, 6. § 1, 

»«.; Hjgin. Fii/K fi!t, 70.) 

Tha ame the criebmted war of the " Seven 
^aai Tlkche^*' in which Adriwtua waa joined by 
•mher hrti- . '" icea, Tydeua, Amphia- 

■i^C«p*aru> 1, and Parthenopaeua. 

lanad tt T}d — -. . ; ulynicca other U^^enda 
•ninB EuocIm and Mecialeua. Thia war ended 
■ •abnanatelT aa Amphioraui had predicted, 
■4 Atimiu alnte waa aaved by the atvittncM of 
hi Imim Amon, the gift of HenKJea. (Horn. //. 
lH Ut, &«. : Paua. viii. 25. § 5 ; ApoUod. iil 
K) Ctaoo of Tbebe* refusing tn allow the bodie* 
'^ II* kamet to be buried, .^draatua went to 
Alhm aad implored the aaii.'taiice of the Athe- 
)i^ Thcaeoa waa penuaded to undertake an 
I VIllbRi a^ioM Thebet ; he took the city and 
(■mJ ap Uw bodie* of the fiillcn heroea to 
' «* Wanda tv burial. (Apollod. iiL 7. § 1 ; 
f^h.9.1 I.) 

kl* T**'* '''"' '^^ Adraatua perauaded the 
* an* of (lie heroea, who hod tiilleu in the 
rauai Thebn, to moke a new atbick upon 
Mf. mas now declared that the 

Wf^' undertaking, and promiaed 

IMl t ' '^'-'^ '-^' -'• S '.2; AjMiUod. iii. 7. § 2.) 
■M*nr i* arletitaied in ancient stnr)- a* the war 
'tL KfigvBi I'ZrIyonM). Tbebea wo* taken and 
*■! I* ihr fmond, after the greater part of it* 
*AiiiMn hail left the citv on the oilvice of 
Tiaiaia. (A^nUod. iu. 7. § 2—4 ; llorud. v. 61 ; 
'^■h.i&. f, 3ii.) The only A/give hero that 


fell in thia war, waa Aegialeus, the ann of .^dra*- 
Uii. After having built a temple of NVmeaia in 
the neighbourhood of TheWa [Adkastkia], he a>t 
out M lii>, return home. But weighed down bv 
old age anil gri(?f ot the deuth of hia »nn he died at 
.Mi'gara and waa buried there. (Paua. i. 43. § 1.) 
AfltT his death he waa worshipped in beveral p.irt* 
of (jreece, at at Megara (I'aus. L c. ), at Sicyon 
wheiw hit memory waa celebrated in tragic clin- 
ruafB (llorod. v. t)7), and in Attica. (Pnua. i. .TO. 
§ 4.) The legend* about Adraatua and the two 
wars against Thebes have fumiahed moat ample 
materiolt for the epic oa well aa tragic poets of 
Ureecc (Paua. ii. i). § 3), and aomc worka of art 
relating to the stories about Adraatua arc mentioned 
in Pauaanias. (iii. IH. § 7. x. 10. § 2.) 

From Adraatua the female patrou}-mic Adrastine 
waa formed. (Ilom. //. v. 412.) [L. S.] 

ADRAjITlIS CA«(Xi(TT0t), a aon of the Phr>-- 
giiin king (.iordiua, who had unintentionally killed 
hia brother, and waa in contoquencc exjielled by 
his fiither and deprived of everything lie tooic 
refuge aa a suppliant at the court of king Croehus, 
who purified him and received him kindly. After 
some time he was acnt out a* guardian of Atya, 
the Mn of I'rocsuK, who was to deliver the coun- 
try frum a wild boar which had made great havoc 
all around. Admstua bad the uiiafortuno to kill 
prince Atya, while he Wtis aiming at the wild 
beast. Croesua pardoned the unfortunate man, aa 
he saw in this accident the will of the gods and 
the fulfilment of a prophecy ; but Adraatua could 
not endure to live longer and killed him^'lf on the 
tomb of Atya. (Herud. i. 3a — 4i.) [L. .S.] 

ADRASTL'si ('AS/xurros), of Aphrodisias, a 
Perip.ttetic philosopher, a'ho lived in the second 
century after Christ, the author of a treatise on 
thr arrangement of Aristotle's writings and hia 
ayatem of philosophy, quoted by Simplicius (/'rcie- 
/at, M n'ti. lili. J'hi/i.), and by Achillea Tatiua 
(p 82). Some commentaries of bis on the Tiraaeut 
of Plalo are oImi quoted by Por^iliyry (p. 270, i» 
Harmonica Jtufentar.i)^ and a treatise on the Cate- 
gories of Aristotle by Galen. None of theae have 
cotne down to us ; but a work on Harmonics, Vf^ 
'Kpfuivutm, ia preserved, in MS., iu the Vatican 
Library. [B. J.j 


At>KI A'NUS ('Alptayis), a Greek rhetorician 
bom at Tyre in Phoenicia, who flourished under 
the eiuperurs ^f. Antoninua and Commodus. He 
waa the pupil of tlie celebrated H(Ti>dcs Atticua, 
and obtained the choir of philosophy nt Athena 
during the lifetime of his master. His advance- 
ment does not seem to have iiupoired their mutual 
regard ; Herode* dechuvd that the unfinished 
apeechea of hia tchohir were " the fragroenta of a 
colossus," and Adrianus showed his gratitude by a 
ftineral oration which he pronounced over the ashes 
of hia master. Among a people who rivalled one 
another in their zeal \o do him honour, Adriaimi 
did not ahcw much of the discretion of a philoso- 
pher. Hia first lecture commenci-d with the modest 
encomium on himself iniAi^ ca ^ittitnti ypatkfiara^ 
while in the mogniiicencc of hia dress and equipage 
he alfected the style of the hierophaiit of philoso- 
phy. A story may be aeen in PbilostFatua of hia 
triisl and acquittal for tlic mnrder of a begging 
ao^fhisl who had insulted him : .Adrianus had ro 
tortcd by styling such insults ii^ftma xiptvp^ but 
his pupils were not content witll wcapoM of 


ridiculo. The Ti«it of M. Antoiiina» to Allicn« 
inadc him ncqiioiiitcd with A<!rininiJs wh^ni he 
invilctl to Rome luid honoured with hi* friendship; 
ihn cmpcfor even condescended to tet the lhesi« of 
a dcchiniAtion for him. After the death of Anto- 
ninui he hceame the private secretAT)' of Commodua. 
ilis death Imk place at Rome in the ei^'htieth year 
of his ot^, not Uler than A. 0. lirJ, if it In true 
ihut Commodas (who wo* ainuinated at the end 
of this year) tent him n letter on his dettth-hf¥d, 
whieh he is rvnresi'nted as kissing with devout 
eamejtiies« in his but moments. (Philostr. 111. 
AJritiH.; Suidus, j. e. 'ASpioWr.) i)f the works 
Attriliiited to him by Suidos t^rve decbimationH 
only ;tre extant. These have been edited by Leo 
AlUititts in the £1097161 Fima (rmminm Sn- 
jihixltiruiH ac /MetorieorttSi, Ronuie, l()4l, nnd by 
Wait in the lint Tolnine of the RMora Gnuci, 
insi [B.J.] 

ADRIA'Nl'S CAJ/MowJO- » "«*'' P"*"'- »''" 
wn>le an epic poem on the history "f .Alexander 
the Great, which was called 'A\«{oj^)j(ii«. Of this 
pueiD the seventh book is mentioned (Sleph. By«. 
1. e. Zcfrtia), hot wc potiwss only a fmffment con- 
sistini; of one Ifaie. (Steph. Byii. 1. r. 'Airr^o.) 
Suidns (j. r. 'K^iarit) mentions anioog other 
poems nf Arrianut one colleil ' KKt(,aytfiM, and 
there an lie no doubt that this is the work of 
Adrianus, which he by mistake attributes to his 
Arrianiis. (Meineke, in the .^lUowtf. <ier AeWso. 
Ahvl^ir. IH3.'. p. in.) [h. S.] 

ADRIA'SrS ('ASpionli) flourisheil, according 
to .Archbithop Usher, a. d. 433. There is extant 
•f his, in Orcck. /'*i.'/oi/r .s,j*nirum /.itfnsrum^ re- 
WOimended by Photius (No.2) to Vieginnem, edit4.-d 
Inr Dnr. Hoeschel, 4to. .\u(r. Vindel. IGO'i, and 
omonR thcfVi(i.-i Sucri.fol. Uind. KifiO. [A.J.C.] 

.\I>I''SI US {'Afloiaioi), according to the account 
of Xenopbon in the Cyropaodeia, was sent I13' 
C'ynis with an army into Caria, to put an end to 
the feuds which exitted in the country. He Bft»^ 
words assisted Hystaspes in subduing Fbry^a, 
iind wiu made satrap of Carta, as the inhabitimts 
bad t<->pie*trd. (vii. 4. | l,&c, viii. 6. § 7.) 

AK.\. [Oa«*.) 

.\K.\, a honlnM wIm ma metamacphosed by 
the Kods into lb* fiUnioiia uland bearing the saiBe 
uuiue, iu order 10 icsetw ber {ram toe pnmut 
of I'husis, the river-god. (Val. FUcc i. 74-2, t. 
426.) [L. S.1 

AK.'ACESCAiion), 1. The fiither of Syloton 
and I'olycrates, (Mend. iii. 3S, 13a, ri. 13.) 

2. The ion of Syloaoo, and the gnadssn of the 
•'pnnedinK, was tyrant of Samoa, bat waa deprived 
of his tyianny by Ariatapms, when the loniuas 
rrvnited from the Peruana, B. c. iUO. He then 
lied til the Penians, and induced the Somians to 
absndnn the otiier I onions in the seo-iight between 
the Per^utns and lunions. After this battle, in 
vt.- ' ■' ' ■•.,-t ware defeated, he was restoml to 
ti I SuBoa by the Pcnkiia,& c. 404. 

(I! '.>!, «L IS, 14,25.) 

.AKA'CIUI-.S (AlaxlSi)]), a patronymic from 
Aowus, aud given to viirious of his deseeodouts, 
•a Peleiis (l)v. Mtt. xi. J'.>7, Aic., xii. 365; Mom. 
It iri IS). Tetaninn (Ov. Mrl. viii. 4 ; Apoltnn. 
i. 193fH, I" '<!,. Mrt. vii. (;B8. ;»»), the 

aaw of ' ,tle>, the grandson of Aeoois 

(Ham. / : Virv. .4e.. i. 9!)); and 

Prrrhas tlie EnMl-grendwu of Aeocno. (Virg. 
Am. ui. -JSiii.) 11>S-J 


ARACIDES (A«K«t,t). the son of Arymboa, 
kin); of Epints, succeeded to the throne on the 
de:ilh of his cousin Alexander, who wni^ sinin in 
luJy. (Liv. viii. -24.) Aeacides married Plithia, 
the daughter of Menon of Pharaalus, by whom he 
had the celebrated Pjirhoa and two doughten, 
Deldameb and Troias. In b.c. 317 he assisted' 
Polyiperchon in restoring Olympios and the young 
Alexander, who was then only Ave years old^ to 
Macedonia. In the following year he marched to 
the assistance of Olympios, who was hard pressed 
by Caaaander ; but the Epirots disliked Ihu terrice^ 
rose against Aencides, and drove him from the 
kingdom. Pyrrhua, who was then only two 
yearn old, was with difficulty saved from destruc- 
tion by some faithful Aervanta. But becoming tired 
of the Macedonian rule, the Epirots recalled Ac*- 
cides in B. r. 313 ; Caaaander immediately tent an 
army against him nnder Philip, who conquered 
him the same year in two bottles, in the but of 
which he was kilted. (Paus. i. 1 1 ; Diod. xix. 1 1, 
36,74; Plut. /yrrA. I Q.) 

AE'ACUS (Afaxof ), a ton of Zeus and Aegina, 
a daughter of the river-god Asopua. He waa bom 
in the iahind of Oenone or (.K'nopia, whither 
Aegina had been carried by Zeua to accure ber 
from the anger of her parents, and whence this 
ishuid wu afbrwards called Aegina. (.\pollod. 
iii. 12. § 6 ; Hygin. Fab. S2 j Paut. iu -29. § 
3; comp. Nonn. IHonya vi. 212; Or. A/sC 
113, vii. 472, tec) According to tome 
counts Aeaeus was a ton of /eua and Eumpa. 
Some traditions related that at the time whea 
Aeaeus wvs bom, .\egina was not yet inhabited, 
and that Zeua changtsl the anta {^LvpfnJH^ti 
of the island into men (Myruiidones) over whom 
.\eacna ruled, or that be made men grow up 01 
of the earth, (ilea. Aiigr>ii.67, ed.Odtlling; Apol- 
lod. iii. 12. § 6i Paus. /. c.) Ovid (Met viL 520? 
comp. Mygin. ^'u^ 52; Stmb. viii. p. 375), on 
other hand, supposes that the iahind waa not 
habited at the time of the birth of Aeacua,and 
that, in the reign of Aeocut, Hera, jealous 
Aegina, lavaged the island bearing the name nf 
hitter by sending a phtgue or a fmrful dragun i 
it, by which nearly all its inhabitants were 
oili and that Zens restored the population 
changing the ants into men. These legenda, 
Miiller justly nmiarks {JetfimMiny, are nol 
but a mythical account of the colootiatioa 
Acgioo, which seems to have been originally 
habited by Pehisgians, and afterwards reeei' 
colonists from Phthiotis, the seat of the Myi 
dones, and from Phlius on the Aaopua. A 

while he reigned in .\egina was renowned in 

Greece for his jnsticc and piety, and vi-aa {r»*, 
quently called upon to aeltle diapuUv not only 
among men, bat even among the goda theuiaelvaa. 
(Iind. /<<*. viiL 48, iu. ; Paus. i. 3<J. § 5.) 1{« 
was such ■ (avouril* wilb tbo btter, that, wh«a| 
Uieeoe waa riaited by > dnnght in eonarquenoe 
a mntder which had been committed (l>i<id, 
no, (il ; Apollod. iii. 12. § ti), the opacIc uf Del; 
declared that the calamity would nut ccoae ui 
Aeacua pniyiKl to the giala tlint it might ; which' 
he accordingly did, and it reased in conkcquenoi, 

Aeacua himself shewed his (gratitude by ^ - -i 

temple to Zeus Patiliellenius on m(><: 
liniion (Piuis. ii. 30. jj 4), and the ^ ■ _ ':■ 

afterwards Irailt a lonctuary in their ialand 
Araccum, which was a square phwc okI 


hi. !• 


nutrblr. Amciu was beliercd in 
K Uirird undrc the aliar in this 
f KniUb iL "jy. § t). ) A U-gpii J pri-- 
'«. riii. 39, iu',) rv-btci that 
tiiok Aeocut Hi their assistant 
jiig mc niui* of Tfoy. When the worlc 
■•■•■iMid, time drains nnhcd n^inst the 
•■ft aa wMc the two of theni which nttiickrJ 
tWw fult of tire wnll built by the god» foil down 
ted, iIk third fntcrd iti way into the city thniu);h 
tkt nm built li) Aeacut. liereiipnu ApoUo pro- 
fki«l that Truy nuuld (all thruiigh the hands of 
te Itaridti Aeoeut was nlM> believed by the 
AlBMMi tp have surroundeil their island n-ith 
m^lblapivlectitivnuiikt pimtea. (Pntis. ii.'iil. 
f S.) SrtcnU other iniiji-nt> lonnected nith the 
<*■; nf Aesciu nre luentioiied by ( Ivid. ( Ai(/. viL 
)lk,ftc i%. 45j, \c.) Uy Endei's Aeaetis hnd 
•Maniv iriAUion wid Peleus, nnd by P«uuatlie 
« •«, Phucu*. whom he prvferred to ibe two 
A*, vb« tnntrired to kill Phociis during a 
and then fled from their native island. 
init; TblamuN.] After his d«ith Aeacut 
one of the three judges in Hades ((Jv. 
~ 'ih; II ur. Cam. ii. 13. 20), and actord- 
' no {(Jury. p. 5*23 ; cotnpaiti JpiUotj. p. 
at Eniif. ,1) especially for the shades of 
In works of art he woft represented 
I m-ptiv and the key* of Hade*. (A|>ollod. 
Find. Jttim. s'lii. 47, fee) Aencus 
ItnMiet both Ht Athens and in Aeginn 
2». § 6 ; Hesych. j. r.; Schol. ail I'M. 
\hh\ and the Aef^netiins regarded 
' tutrlarr deity of their ialaad. ( Pind. 
■22.) ■ [U S.) 

. (Aioia). 1, A Bmniune ot Medeio^ 
At^, the country where her father 
(AiKiUon. Iihod.*ui. 1135.) 
[•nrnamc nf Circe, the tister uf AeeteR. 
. if. 32 ; Apollun. Khod. iv. 5oi) ; Virg. 
].) !Ier MU Telegonus U likewiM.* 
I witfa this lunuune. {Acaeus^ Pmpcrt. 

> of Cnlrpin, who waa belierw! tn 

I a tniaU Ulurid of the ttntne of Aeiiea 

■11 Ilulj' nnd Sicily. (Pomp. 

ni. 10. 31.) [U S.] 

> . i...... ^AiJijn-iBi|T). 1. The tyrant of 

ll^ to whom liippbu gave bis daughter 

) in nmrmge. (Thiic x'\. 59.) 

gic picl of Atexundri.-L, mentioned n% 

wen poets who fonued the Tnipic 

' • ' !■■ of the second Ptolemy. 

. ;*3, ed. Piiw.; 
..- '.,.-■:. - uiulmd tvvo faD)ilie% the 
^toof which UQ CARim und Elva, The for 
■f w» ptelieian, ih.* latter patricinn ; b«t the 
9M »«• originally pn'ricinn, Oituu^n doc» not 
*■ to haw bwD a tuniiy-noxne, but only n sur- 
<M> fivmi to Pofttum i« Aebutiui Klva, who wn« 
^Md A B. c. 442. Thift gent was c)i&tinfniii>hed 
^lfc» nrij a^«, bill fnun the time of the above- 
MRkoiMil Ar)mcin» Elvn, nu patricinn m«mber of 
A Ud Any ciuule office till the pmeiur&liip of M. 
M«tiw« (Civ* in at. 17b'. 

Il iidbMibtful to which of the fiunily P. Aebatiai 
■^■pd, liho diacloted to the coniul the existence 
^^ Hirr>wnlia at Rome:, luid woj n'norded by 
,lLf, ia«. (Liv. xxxix, 
liffSIA(AiUtfiiaXafcuialti pliilunopbcrofthe 



now Platonic school, lived in the fifth century nftcr 
Christ nt Alexandria. She wnt a relation of Syrin- 
nus nnd the wife of Henneiat, and was equally 
celebmted for her beauty and her virtues. After 
the drath of her husband, she devoted herself to 
relifvinff the wants of the dintre&M'd nnd the edn- 
mlioii of her children. She accompanied tht* laiter 
to Athens, where they went to study phtlosopliy, 
nnd was received with prwnt distinction by nil the 
philosojihers there, and especially by ProcUis, to 
whom she bad been betrothed by Syrinnus, when 
she was quite yoinig. She lived to a cunsidrntble 
jiffi\ nnd her funeral oration was pronounced by 
Daniascius, who was then a young man, in liexo- 
nieter verses. The names of her sons were Ara- 
ninniiiiond Jleliodorus. (SuidoSf j. r, ; Dama»cina, 
/ip. Phoi. cod. 242, p. 341, h. ed. Bekkcr.) 

AEDE'SIUS (Aj'Scaiot), a Capfmdocian, called 
a Platonic or perhaps man? correctly nu I'A-leciic 
pliilowipher, who lived in the fourth centurj*, the 
friend and mostdistinguisheddisciplenf lainblicbus. 
After the death of his nmster the school of Syria 
wn« di<>]tersed, and Aedesius fearing the real or 
fancied hustility of the Christian emj»eror Constan- 
tino to philov)]ihy, louk refuge in divination. An 
omcle in liexnmeler verse n-presenled a pa»tund 
life as his only retreat, but his disciples, perhaps 
calming his fears by a mftnphorical intL*iprelatioti, 
compelled him to resume bis inhlructions. lie 
settled at Pergiuntis, where be numbered among 
hit pupils the em[K'r(ir Julian. After the acccsuon 
of the latter to the imiMjrial puq)le he invited 
Atnie^ius to contitme his inftlruclions, but tlie de- 
clining fttn'oglh of tile vige Ix'ing unequal to the 
tiisk, two of his must learned disciples, C'hrysnnthes 
nnd Eusebius, were by his own desire ap[H>inted to 
supply his place. (Eunap. \'it. Aedex,) [U..I.] 

AEF><)N ('AiiStoli'). I. A daughter of Panda- 
reua of Ephesus. According to jinmer (Of/, rix. 
A 1 7,^.) she ^vas the wife of /ethus, king of 
Thebes, and the mother of Itylus. Hnrious of 
Niobe, the wife of her brother Amphion, who had 
six sons nnd six daughters, she funned the phtn of 
killing the eldest of Niobe's sons but by mistake 
slew her own s<m Itylus. Zeus relieved Iter grief 
by changing her into a nightingale, whose melan- 
cbfdy limes are represented by the poet as Aedon's 
tunient;itiQns about her child. (Compare Pbere- 
cydrs, Frapm. p. 138, ed. Sturz ; ApoUod. iii. 
A. § 5.) According to a later tradition preserved 
in .\ntoninus Liln-ralis (c. 11), Aedon was the 
wife of Polytcchniis, an artist of Colophon, nnd 
boasted that she lived more happily with him ttuin 
lleru With Zeu«. Hem to revenge herself ordeivd 
Erts to induce Aedon to enter upon a cont(*t with 
her bu^band. Polytechnus was then making a 
chair,, nnd Aedon a piece of embroidery, and they 
oi^Tpi'd that whoever should finisli the work first 
should receive from the oUier a female sUve as the 
priw». When Ai-don had conquered hex huhbaml, 
he went to her father, and pn-tending that his 
wife wished to see her sister Chelidonis he took 
her with him. On his ivny home he mvisbed her, 
dnL*ssed her in slave's nttire, enjoined her to oWrve 
the strictest silence, nnd gave her to his wife as 
thtf* promised priee. After some time Chelidonis, 
believing herself unobserved, lamented her own 
fate, but she wiu ororfaeunl by ArdoTL, ai>d the 
two sikters conspdrvd against Polytechnus and 
killed bis son Itys, whom they placed before biui 
in a dish. Aedou tied with Chelidonis to Iter 

94 AEGA. 

fitther, wlin, wlwn Polytccliimtcnmc in pnmiil of 
liis wifi', hnil him buiiiuU ftmeurt'd wiifi lioiifv, 
nnd Ihuh e:(powd him (n the in«cct^ At'don mtv 
toalt [lity upon the kiiffrringi i>f hrr huiibaiid, and 
when her n-lntion» were on the (loiiit of killing her 
for ttu« weakueM, Zeuft t-hnn;;^*d Polytechnus into 
n pelicuii, the ))r*>ther of Acdnii into 5 whoop, hrr 
Cither into n <ea-ensle, Chelidnni> into a sinllow, 
and Aii'ilon hervelf into n ni^^htingalr. This mythus 
Menu to hare onginati-il in mere eCymulogiei, and 
M of the ume dau a* that alraut Philnmele and 
Pronw. [L. S.) 

AEETES or AEE'TA (AnJnuX n mo of 
lieli<i*and Pmeit. (Apolla.1. m. § 1 ; flet. Tteog. 
057.) According to uihera hit molher'i uame <va> 
Pen* (Hygin. Frarf. p. 14, ed. Slaveren), or 
Antiour. (Schol. <ui PM. Ol. xiii. S'2.) He wa* 
a brother of Circe, Paaiphne, and Penrn. (>Iygln. 
L e. ; ApoUod. /. c. ; Horn. ft/, x. 136, &c ; Cic 
A A/b/. Uior. iiL 19.) lie wan married to Idyia, 
• daughter of Oceanut, by whom he hail two 
daughten, Medeia and Cholciope, and one aon, 
Abayrtun (Iliiiod. Tkmc/.seo.; Apullod. L.4,23.). 
He wn« king of Colchit at ttie time when Phrixut 
brought thither the gulden Aeece. At one lime he 
wa* expelled from his kingdom liy his brother 
Perses but was restored by his daughter Medeia. 
(ApoUod. i. !). § ■in.) Compare .-Vil-ybtuh, Ar- 
ONAi'T.«(, Jamiv, and Mxukia. [U S.] 

rAEE'TI.S, AEETI.A..S. and AEETl'NE, ore 
nymic fonns from .\et!te«, nnd are used by 
ui poets to designate his daughter Medeia. 
(0». Met vii. 9, 296, //nx*/. vL 103 ; Val. Place 
Tiii. 233.) [L. S.) 

AEOA (AlyJi), according to Hyginiu {Fuel. 
Atlr. ii. 1 3) a daughta-r of (Jlenus, who wa« a de- 
scendant of Hepliae^tuft, Aega and her lister 
Helice nursed the infiint Zeus in Crete, and the 
fonner wa« afterwards changed by the god into 
the constellation called CufK'lla. .According to 
other traditions mentioned by Hyginus Aegn was 
a daogbtcr of Melifkseus king of Crete, and was 
chocen to suckle the infant Zeus ; but as she was 
foam] unable to do it, the servio; was |ierforroed 
by the gnnt .Auuilthea. .\ccording tn others, again, 
Aegn waji a daughter of Helios and of such douliiag 
brightness, that the Titans in their attack upon 
Olympus became fright4*ned and requested their 
mother Oaea to conceal her in the ennh. She was 
arcofdingly confined in a cave in Crete, where she 
became the nurse of Zeos. In the tight with the 
Titans Zeus waa commanded by an oracle to coTrr 
himself with her skin (■xjm). He obeyed the 
etnninand and raised A«a among the stani. 

Sim-'"- f^' '- ---'"^what dilferent accountss wer« 

gi^' mI others. (Eratosth. ^u/ujf/. 

T.i , ; Lactnnt. /lu/iti. 22. §19.) 

It is ctrMf lltat tu some of the»« stories Aegia 
is regactled as a nymph, and in others aa a goat, 
though the two idea* are not kept clearly distinct 
bma sach other, iter name is either camMcted 
srith alt, which tignifim • goat, or irith £{,agaleof 
wiwl ; and thia 1 iiwi— liiiiiii baa led aome critic* to 
(otMider the mylk aboal htr ■* made up of two 
distinct ones, oiw hm^ ft an aatmnomical luiare 
anil derired fmiB tht cnoMeUation CoiieUa, the rioe I 
of V. ' . atonna md tamiwau ( Atat. Plum. 

I.'.' odiar wfailng' la the goat which 

wni .^ . . :.i hart MckksTlfcr infant Zeus in 
Cfte. ((••ni|w« Battnma in /.W*^'. L'npntmg 
itmd B (f*lii«y Hfr ArasMasea, p, 3u;i ; BattigCT, 


AiiuMmi, i. p. 16, &c. ; Civuier, Sj/wM. iv. p. J 
45H Kc.) [U a. J 

AEOAEON (A47al»»), a son of irtaims liyj 
Gaea. .\egaron and his bnitheni Civges andj 
Cottut are known under the name of the Uninidil 
(lies. Tkfnj. 5fl2, &c.), and arc described as hugtJ 
monsten with a hundred anus {^iKm6yx*^i) aiid{ 
fifty heads. (Apollod. L I. § I ; lies Tkeog. U»,\ 
JEc.) Most writen mention the third Uranidj 
under the name of Ilrioreus instead of Aegaean,i 
which is explained in a pauage of Homer (//. 
403, &c ), who s,iy> that men called bun Argaevn, | 
but the gods liriareus. On one occasion wht;n tb* j 
OlynipiuN gods were about to put Zfu> iit chains, 1 
7'hetis called in the ahbistance of Aegiieon, wbai 
compelled the god* to desist from their intentian,.! 
fHom. //. i. 39B, &c.) According to HrMod^ 
{Tktog. 154, &C. G17, &c.), Aegneon and 
brothers were hated by Uranua from the time 
their birth, in consequence of which they 
concealed in the depth of the earth, where they J 
remained until the Titans began their war againitJ 
Zens. On the advice of Oaoa Zeu* delivered th«| 
Urouids from their priaon, tluit they might : 
him. The hundredarmcd giants conquered thai 
Titan* by burling at them tliree hundred rock* all 
once, and secured the victory to Zeua, who thn 
the Titans into Tartoru* and pbced the Hetatoo- 1 
chciret at it* gates, or, according to others, in tba j 
depth of the ocean to guard them. (He*. rAcogil 
617, &c. 81.% lu.) According to a legend laj 
Pauianias(ii. 1. § 6, ii. 4. § 7), Rriareus waschoaeal 
OS arliitmtor in the dispute between Poaeidou aodl 
Helios, and adjudgt^d the Isthmus to the formtf 4 
and the .Acmcorinthus to the latliT. The ScholiaatI 
on Apollunius Rhodiut (i. I16.S) represent* Ae-I 
gaeon a* a ton of Uaea and Pontu* and a* liviitgl 
a* a marine god in the Aegean tea. Ovid ( MtL\ 
ii. lU) and Philusti;itus ( Vil. ApMm. ir. 6) lik»- j 
wise regard hini as a marine gnd, while Virgil f 
{Aen. X. oG5) reckons him among tiio gianttl 
who storrned Olympus, and Collimachu* (//inaaw] 
in iMl. I4l,&c.), regarding him in the same lightfl 
place* him under mount Aetna. The Scholiast i 
Theocritus {l*ij/U. i. 65) calls Orioreus one of tb 
Cyclojx. The opinion which rrgaid* AetpKoni 
his brother* a* oiUy penHinificatioa* of the < 
ordiiuiry powers of naturr, nich aa ore maitifSBMdl 
in the violent ct)mmotions of the earth, t 
quakes votnanic eruptions and the like, 1 
explain best the various aocoont* about them. [ Ij.S.} \ 

AEOAEL'S {Alyalos), a •umame of Pa*M>| 
don, denvefl from the town of Aegae in Euboea,! 
near which he had a mognihcent temple upon 4 i 
hilL (SlnK ix. p. 4U5 ; Vii^. An. iii. 74, whetaJ 
Serviu* emneoualy derive* the name from tbti 
Aegean aea.) [U !^.] 

AEOEIDES (Ai'7«"l'). a patronymic fraaj 
.^egrua, and e«p(x;ially used to designate Thrsnikl 
(Horn. //. L 265; Ot. lleruid. iv. 59. iL 87 jj 
compare A KCKi's.) [I'.&J 

AEGE'HIA or GGE'RIA. one of the CamniaaJ 
in Roman mythology, from whom, iccordiag 
the legend* of early Roman •tory. Numi noeiTed'^ 
hi* iiistruction* respecting the forms nf worship ' 
which he introduced. (Ur. i. 19; VaL Mas. L 2. 
§ I.) The grove in which the king .Sad hit ia- 
teniews with the gnddwas and in which a wed ' 
gushed fiM-th from a darii rMVia, wa* dedicated by j 
him In the C^imeiue. (I.iv i. 21.) The Knman ' 
legcnda, however, point out two distinct plaor* j 

' Arida (Virg. An. rii. 
, tz.; (Jfid. FiOt. ill mx Kc: Strab. v. 
.Plot. Ami. 4. IjcUnt. i. 'i'J. $ 1), ami 
9 Ibc aly «f Kotnc at the I'urta 
t^tUftrj Dovr callol CaparvUa, where 
iU^ i-.i f-.n„n 6„ni hraren, and 
rlaa Xoibir.r lirvetl to have had 

L-tf>r** Ai'tK I' I ^iniciui. (Plut. yum. 

- ) 0»ul ( W't XT. 4:!1, A.C.; 
'■.) ivlatr* thut, after the death 
! fled into the bhady ^:Tuve in the 
i'<l thea* di«turlK-d tiy her lonien. 
.)tip of LHcAia which hod been 
from Tauri* by Orefctea, or, nc- 
'.^ by llippolytuft. Virntil (--len. 
^ liippolytuft and Aegeria the 
>, who vn* uoduabledly a native 
nt \» one of tbc most retnartcuble 
iiLtnner in which the worship of a 
_;....;. ■-: hero wa* engrafted upon and 
mtmi *ill> a palely Italian worship. Aegcria 
iMai^rted aa a pruphclic divinity, and also as 
^ pi* of Ufev whence she was invoked by 
Man mnKn. ( Fenlus, s. r. Egrriuc ; compare 
W^tj; Otmmtmtuiio dt Eijrrutt funte ft tptvu 
ttfrn 1^ iiMAat^ 1B-J4 ;' llurtutig, Dir lUlig. 
*rlSmr.a.f.-X\Lcaiii-2l\tuu) [L. S.] 
iKKTUS. lAcEnu.] 
iKCCS {kiytit). 1. According to some 
■olaa son of Pandion 11. king of Athens, and 
<f f;^ •kile oihen call him a %uo of Scyriiu ur 
fVBaik aiad slate that he was only an adopted 
■rrfl^Aoo. (Coiu. i. 5. i 3,&r.; Schol. ad 
lfiftr.4»ti Apollud. iii. IS. $ 5.) I'andion 
m tm» axptUcd from his kingdom by the 
IMmMi, bat Aegeos in conjunction with his 
tathaa, ISUw, Nysiu. a/id Lycus ivstored him, 
MA^rOi being the eldest of the brolhen suc- 
■jMrf hndMO. Acgeiu lint married Mcta, a 
^HilV i( Uoplca, and then ChaJiiope, the 
^^Blvof KbeMnor. neither of whom bore him 
^Batnok. (ApoUod. iii. l.V SH.&c.) >le ascrib- 
'^^^b ■MHtaae to the anger of .\phn>dite, and 
''■■la t* capfiiiate her iutrtxluceil her worship 
iilhm> (?n*. L 14. !i fi.) Afterwards he begot 
Nmi ij Aethra at Troeun. (Plut. Tlint. 3; 
VhiL la. li. I 7 ; Uygin. f.jA. 37.) When 
uM« ImI KTOwn op to nianhimd, and wiu in- 
had sf bis dncrat, he went to Athens mid de- 
hM lit Uty sons of bis uncle I'alW, who 
^■im tk* kioglf dignity of Athens bad made 
*■ ^m A<K*as and deposed him, and uUo 
■•^ t> eiclode Tbeteua from the successiuiu 
(f^rW 13;.) Aegeus was ivetored, but died 
**As. Ilu death is related in the following 
^■K : Wl*»n Th<'m»ii» went to Cnste to deliver 
^^^ tnao the tribute it bad to [lay to Minus 
^|iWMi4 bis fiilher that on his return he would 
Vivlilr «iU as a signal of his safety. On his 
4^iA l» the cnost of Attica be forgot his 
^■^ ami bi* father, who was watching on H 
^ « ti^ »*nrm*u nn prrceiviiig tlie bbick wiL, 
■mil 1>. - "I jifri^hed and tbrvw him- 

arif ots 'J. . ocL-urding to tonic tradi- 

1^ l>iri< . eienl tlie name of the 

4«paa >' n.n. 22 : IiLmI. iv. 61; 

haa i Z:. Fab. 43; Serr. iid Ach. iii 

(4.) Sl> i >• believed to have spent 

^■rlav- .1 her nrtum {rum Corinth 

k dackM, IS K»l lu lu>c become mother of u >«n, 
hj At^m*. (ApoU-id. i. i). § '.'U -, llygin. 


Fiik. 20.) Aogcn« wb» one of the eponymic 
henws of .\ttica j and one of the Attic tribe* 
(.Aeijeis) derived its name from him. (Paus. I 5. 
^2.) His grave, called the hertnuu of .\egeus was 
bclicvetl to be at Athens (Paus i. '22. fi o), and 
Pauaanias menlinni twn statues of him, one at 
Athens and the other at Delphi, the hitler of which 
had been made of the lilhes of the booty token 
by the Athenians at Marathon. (Paus i. &. ^ 2, 
I. 10. g I.) 

2. The eponmic hero of the phyle called the 
Aegi?id»e at Sparta, was a ion of Uiolycus and 
gnuidsoii of Tberas the founder of the colony in 
Thera. (Herod, iv. 149.) .\ll tlic Aegeids wer» 
believed to be C^dmeans who fonned a settlement 
at Sparta previous to the Doiian conquest. There 
Ih only this ditfercnce in the accounts, that, ac- 
cording to some, Aegcus was the leader of the 
Cudmean colonists at Sparta, white, according to 
Jlerodotus they received their name of Aegeids 
from the later Aegciu, the son of Uculycus ( Pind, 
PM. v. 101 ; /fti. vii. 18, &c., with the SehoL) 
There was at Sparta a heruum of Aegeus. ( I'nus. 
iii 15. § 6 ; compare iv. 7. § 3.) [L. S.] 

AKlil'ALE or AEtilALEU {AIy,i\i, or 
AiyioAria), a daiighl^T of .\drasluft and .\m- 
phithea, or of Aegiidcus the s<m of Adrnsliis, 
whence she bears the surname of .\dra<tine. (Horn. 
//. V. 412 ; Apollod. i. 8. § G, 9. § 13.) She was 
married to Uiumedcs who, on bis rt'tum from 
Troy, found her living in adultery with Cometea. 
(Eu*tnth, iij IL T. p. SC6.) The hero attributed 
this misfortune to the anger of Aphrodite, whom 
he had wounded in the war agninst Troy, but 
when Argiule went so for as to threaten liis life, 
he fled to Italy. (SchoL ad Lycoplir. filU; Or. 
Mtt. xiv. 47<), tic.) According to Dictys Cretensis 
(»l *2), Aegiale, like t'lyu-ainestra, had been 
seduced to her criminal conduct by a trcachcmus 
report, that L)iomedes wns returning with a Tnijuii 
woman who lived with him as his wife, and on his 
orrivsl nt Ainos Aegiale expelled him. In Uvid 
(/Ms, 349) we is described as the type of a bod 
wife. [L .S.] 

AEGI'AI.EUS (AfyioAeus). 1. A son of 
Adnutus and .\inpliithoa or Demmnassa. (Apollod 
i. 9. § 13; Hygin. f'-ii. 71.) He was the ouly 
one among the Epigones that fell in the war 
against Thebes (AfioUod. iii 7- §3; Paus ix. 3. ^7; 
compare AuRJi.STt's) He was worshipped as u 
hero at Pegae in Mcgnris and it wajt believed 
that hii body had been conveyed thither from 
Thebes and been boned there. (Paus. l 44. § 7.) 

2. .\ son of Inochus and the Oce«inid ^lelin, 
from whom the part of Peloponnesus after- 
wards called Achaia de.rived its name of Aegialeia. 
(.^piilloiL ii. I. § I.) According to u Sicyuuiau 
tradition he was an autochthon, brother of Phoro- 
neus and lirst king of Sicyon, to whom the 
foundation of the town of Aegialeia was ascribed. 
(Paus il .5. tj 5, vil I. § 1.) 

3. .\ son of Aeetes [AusvaTi's] [L. S.] 
AEGl'Dll'.S a Uoman coramiuidcr in (taiil 

nndcr Majuriaims (a. D. 457 — 4(il.) After the 
death of the hitter, he maintained nn iiide|iendeDt 
sovereignty in Uaul, mid was elccletl by llie Knuiks 
as their king, after they had limiished Childeric. 
Four years afterwards Childeric was restored ; but 
Aegidius did not oppose his return, and be retained 
his iiitlueiicc in Gaul till his death. (Uregor. Tu- 
ron. ii. 12.) 


■'MS at AiM\'fK:na-HA!y*n- 

X't ' ■ ' tumnnw of /<•««, lu the l«>arfr 

of th' which h» Mrikn trrror into the 

' im;iioaa uA hu rnrmin. (Hoai. /(. i. 'lOi, ii. 157. 
87 J, kt. : Pind. /«t*, ir. 9» ; Hygin. /'o»/. ^rfr. ii. 
13.) Olhen ilcritr the mrname tram al( a»<l <ix4< 
and take it a* an alituion U) Zeufc being fi--d by a 
gnat. (Hpnnh. aii dUlim. kfmn. in ./.ip. <(!(.) (L.S.] 

AlC'OIMfS, or AK(il'.\m".S (Afyi»u>», or 
Aiyf/tMt), oite iif lltr niii*t nnticnt of thn Greek 

Ehviidana, who i> uid bjr Galen (/> IHfrr. I'mlt. 
•J, IT. 2. II. ToL »iii. pi>. 49R. 716, 7.V2) to 
I tlw linrt |ierwn who wtoK a lreali>e on 
I rijh^ He WM ■ native of Vrlin in Ijucuiia, 
I b Mpp u t iJ 10 have lived bcfure the time of 
IliptHierabn, that ia, in the fifth century before 
ChriaL ill* work wu entitled n<f>l naKiui», Or 
J'a//itttUHe»itm», (a name which alone vutiicicntly 
indicotM its antiquity,) and ii not now in riisi- 
C'alliuiuchtiR {lip. Aiken, xiv. p. (i43, e.) men- 
ui author named Aegimiua, who wrote a 
i on the iirt nf makin); cheeaecake* (vAoicavr- 
TmroiM^K m^77^cvj/ia), and Pliny mention* a per- 
mn of the Kime name {H. N. rii. A'jy, who wb» 
■ftiti to have livetl two hundred year*; but whether 
theie an* the tame or different ijidividual» is quite 
imf»-rt«in [\V. A. O.] 

AWil'MIPS (AiV/uot), the mythical ancettor 

of the l)nric race, who ia dcacrilied as their king 

and biwffiver at the time when they were yet in- 

bnliiting the northern porta of Thessoly. (Pind. 

/'y'A. i. \'ii, ». M.) When inrolred in a war 

with the Lopithoe, he called flerades to his 

asaiatanct*. and promised him the third part of his 

Irrritory, if he delivered him of bis enemies. The 

Ijtpithao Wert* mnquered, but Heracles did not 

take for liiniai'If tlie territory prtmiiseil to him by 

Ai'ipuiiuft, and left it in trust to the king who was 

U> tireacrve il for the suns of llemcles. (,\pollod, 

' ii.7. S 7; Diud. iv. 37.) Aegimius hnd two aona, 

' Urnina and I'ainphylus who mi{;rated to Hel»pon- 

\ tirsus luul were rvgnriled as the anceatora of two 

rbninchra of the Doric race ( I >ymanea and Pam- 

Lphyliana), while the third biaiKh derived its name 

■ ftimi llyllus (llylleans), the son of lleniclea, who 

liad been adopted by Argimiua. (Apol)od. ii 8. 

|3; Sthol. wl /'.W. lyii. L Vi\.) Kespecting 

the connexion U'twecn .Kegimius and Ueniclea, 

•ee M'iller. iKir. L S5, &c. 

'I'here existed In antiquity an epic poem colled 

" Aetjimiui^" of which a few fragments are atill 

rf tant, and which is soraetinies ascribed to llesiod 

Mid •omeliines to t'ettnps of Miletus. (Alhen. li. 

I p. "ilij; Steph. Dyi. I.e. 'A»«>-r(i.) The main 

' aiil ' '^1' 'I'l' ■""■ii> t.. have been the war 

I' > I list the Lapithne. 

(i I ' Hml KuKil, ii. H4, 

LA>'.; .MulUc. Itur. L XI, .U.; Welcker, Her KfrMie 

iQrViu, p. "Jljti, &c. The ftogmenta on- ralletled 

"" Btaer, l>it Fntj/m, d. ejMtdk. /Vans, lier 

> Ut tmr X^U AlfJMul. p. £6, &c) [L. S.} 

ir\ A I V»»ri«.] 

Al''< ' Xiyisv/a), a surname of .\rtemis, 

under ^ ^ wnp«hi|t|wil at Sparta. (Paus. 

Si. I I '^!o huntress of cha- 

IliHi.... i(ai'7aWa). ri>.S.) 

'' ' ^1 mentioned 

|> Vholara ar<- 

[h- M'lmann was 

kill Itl slliq*' wiirti Ae<jimtii»r in 

-n— jj- at I'll: uc.'ely lite couutry 


of aaae aitiat, whose iraU muDc, (ar toaie i 
other, waa not pren. Hia bnithcr 
painia' of •ome diatinetioaa wm a piqnl of 1 
noa, who had been colonr-grinder to the ar^^ 
Nedtsea. We Icam from Plutarch (A nit. IS), 
that Nealce* waa a friend of Antua of Sicym, 
who was elected pnetor of the Achanui leunt 
B. r. 243. We shall not be £ar wnuig therefore ia 
assuming, that Acginela and his brother Hourisk- 
ed about Ol. rxi_ n. c. 220. (K. O. Miiller. Ank 
der Kiuul. p. ISl.) (C. P. .M.J ~ 



AKOrOCHUS. [ABoiDPfHiid.] 
AK'd'IPAN (luyiwar), that iN (io«t-r^in, 
■cvording to come statements a being distinct I 
Pan, while othen refiard him as identiail 
Pan. Mis ilory appears to In altogether of I 
origin. According to Hyginns {I'lJ,. \bb) he \ 
the son of Zens and a goat, or of Zeiu and 
thu vrife of Pan, and was transferred 10 
star*. (Hygin. /'or-/. .IWr. ii. 13. 8-'8.) 
again make Aegipon the hther of Pan, and i 
that he as well as his son woa n*presented aa I 
gnat and half lish. (Kratostb. (Xiliul. '.'7.) 
Zena in his cont(*st vt'ith the Titans waa dep 
of the sinews of bis hands and feet, llermca I 
.\egiftan aecrvtiy restored thian to bim and 6d 
them in their proper places. (Apollud. i. 6, ~ 
Hygin. Puet. Attr. L c.) Accordmg to a Ri 
tiadition mentioned by Plutan:h (/'uniAM, \ 
Aegipon hod s|>rung from the inoeatuoua 
conrae of Valeria of Tusculum and her 
Valerias, and was considered only a dil&ient i 
for Silvonus. (C'omp. Pan, and Voaa. A/jH 
Brir/i, i. p. 80, tic) (L. 

AEOISTHUS (Afyifffloi), a son of Thy 
who unwittingly begot him by his own < 
Pelopia. Immediately after his birth be i 
posed by his mother, liut wni, found .-iiid sarnll 
shepherds and suckled by a goal, whence bis f 
Aegistlius (fniin afj ; Hygin. J-'ali. 87. KD ; ,\ei 
r. //. xii. 42). t>ul»equenUy be was murchrd i 
and found by Atrcus, the brother of Tliyeatea, ^ 
hod bim educated as his own child, so theit e«i 
body believed Ai^gisthus to be his sou. I n the i 
in which Pelupia had shared the IkiI of her ( 
she had taken from him his swit'! " '" 
afterwarda gave to Acgisthus. Thii. 
the means by which the incestuous n 
tween her and her father was diiicuvi'i,.*d, wh 
upon she put an end to her own life. Aui-ua i 
enmity tovi'ards hia brother s. ^ \ 
him; but the sword which .\ 
the cause of the n-cognilion I" 
his son, and the latter retuni< . 
Atretu, while be was offerin- 
•owxiaat. Aegisthua and his father 
pooseauon of their htwful inheritance from wh 
they had been expelled by Atrvua. (Hyg 
and '252.) Homer appeal* Id know noti ~ 
these tm^c ocrurrrncet, and we learn fit 
only that, after the dialh of Thye*l<-«, Ae^ 
ruled as king at Mycenae and took no {art in ( 
TMJnn expeilition. (CU. iv. .'illl. &c.) W| 
.\gainemnon, the aon of Atirus, waa ab 
his expedilioD o^psinat Tray, Aegiathus acJa 
Clytemaeitn, iba wile of Agamemnon, and i 
wicked aa to oflbr up thonka to the gnda (or I 
Miccew) with which his criiuiniU exrrtiona 
cnarnesL (lloiu. (A/, tii. 2U3, 4tc.) luocdcti 


• ft arfriad bj the rrtuni of Agsrnnnnan, he 
nt Ht lyiei^ and whrn Aganifninoa came, 
Al^Mte nfitfd him to a nrput at which he bad 
Mi llltlliill Jj murdrmi (Hum. Od. iv. 5-24, 
fcl ha. ii. 10. $ a.) After thi» event Aegiithiiis 
i^pi4 arrni jam longer orer MycMiue, UDti) in 
tt i^klk Oratra, the aon of Agnnufmnon, r<^ 
•■•i kmc and an-nged thr death of hU fathiT 
trftaitf the Bdtilt«rrr to death. (Ilnm. Od. i. 

n,kc; On^tte ACAMCMNON, CLYTIllMtSTK.L, 
(••■CTCL) [US.] 

AGULB (AfyM). 1 - The nuMt brautifiil nf thr 
.Naii^ Jughirr of Znu and Neaeia ( Vir^. G^cg. 
n. Tty by whom Heliot be^t the ChiuHtet. 
(Paaii.1^ t I-) 

t A MtcT of Phaeton, and daughter of ){eh'M 
■iOrwncL (ilvgin. f.iA 154.151;.) In her 
fM« Ik* JutHk of her brother ahe and her liiitcn 
K> OBcvd into pophuv 

if (be He<pcride*. (Apollod. ii. 5. § 1 1 ; 

Ira. IT. -484 ; cnmp. HsAriHiDt«.) 

I A snipK danghter of Panopeua, who vnu 

ifcii Igr TWaena, and for whom he forwok Ari- 

*^rnu.n«.3(l;Athen.nilp.o.S7.) IL.S.] 

ItbUi IMyKii), one of the danghten of 

(PUn. //. y. niT. 40. 9 31) hy 

I tbe daogbler of the Son, according to 

(^ Sdtoi. n ArUlopK Pint. 70l ), or 

, anorduig to Suidaa. (f. v. 'Hvi^n|.) 

to have dcrired her none Arglr, 

' or ** Splendour," either fmm the 

taa<T rf (b* baman bodj when in good hmlth, 

• ha Urn bopour paid to the medical prufeuion. 
0. K. Hnbon. CummmL in llippocr. 'Juyjur." 
ImL te. U*X 4to. c 6. g 7, p. .^5.) (VV. A.O.] 

IfiOUTIS (AfyMiff ), a danghter of Ilyucinthut 
<li bid amifnled fnna LAcedaeraon to Athene 
h^ iW «t^ of Athena by UinM, in the reign 
4 Jtqpw, ibo together with her tiaten Antheia, 
Imi^ aad imhara, were mcrificed on the tnmb 
wfl iama a the C jcli^ for the puqwic of arert- 
Ifiprctkace cheo ruling at Athena. (.-Vpollod. 
kUll) [US.] 

AlflLGS (AfyKqf ), a Somiiin ntlilele, who was 
te^ ixyiMT^ hia voice when he mode an etTort 

• ■» atfifm to expraa hia indignatiun nt an 
aa|ft M mufum vpca him in a public contest 
(Be t. »i VaL MoK. L 8. est. 4.) 

AmUirrES (Ai7ATrn|>), that it, the radiant 
of Apollo. (Apolion. Khod. iv. 
. i. 9. § 2fi ; Hesyeh. .. r.) [US.] 
SLtJS (AJToWA'ji), the goat-killer, a 
• <f Utoujtiis, at Potniae in Bueotio. 
»Ji.S.|I.) [US.] 

'KR US (ASyicfpin), a tamame of Pan, 
of hi* 6guTe with the horns of a goat, 
t comniooJy the name given to one of the 
r So^w. (Lacan, ix. 536 ; Lucret. r. 
O-TTi. ™^m<. 213.) [US.] 
fi 'Ar7o^>oj), the goat-eater, 

ier which she was wonhip- 
uM:'-tu(-]iiuutan& (Paul. iii. 15. § 7 ; 
il Biym. M. •. e.) [US.] 

itXiUA ad BOaCILLL'S, two chiefs of the 
A^vpa, who had acfred Caeiar with great 
^^ttj ia iW Oiilie w«r, and were treated by 
M with ym distinction. Thf>y accoinp.inied 
'^ ia kfaoBpuglH against Pompey, but baviii)- 
^■^^ — ' *■- ■'.— T- -!• -.■. --(Ttt of depriving 
Vlvia^r ''ng tile hofity 

••A^»,, );,jn*y in Greece, 


(Cam. Hell. Ch. iii. 59, 60.) Aegiis wns after- 
wnrdii killed in an engagement lictwccn the caralr; 
of Cnesjir nnd Pomjiey. (iii. U4.) 

AKIJVPTUS (Aryimror), a son of Bclnn and 
Anchinoe or Achiroo, and twin-brother of Danaus. 
(Ap<illod. ii. 1. § 4; T«ta. ad lympkr. 3113, 
1155.) Enripides represented Cepheus and Phi- 
neus likowisc as bmthers of Aegyptus. Delus 
asaigned to Dunaus the sovereignty of Libya, and 
to Ai-gvptus he gnve Arabia. The hitter also sob- 
duitl ibe country of the Hchunpodes, which ho 
called Aegypt after his own nume. Aegyptus by 
his several wives had fifty sons, and it so hap- 
pened that his brother Danaus had just as many 
daughters. (Apollod. ii. 1. g i ; Hygin. Fali. 170.) 
I-hinauB had rvason to fear the sous of his brother, 
and Hed nnth his daughters to Argos iu Pelopon* 
nesus. Thither he was followed by the soiu of 
Aegyptus, who demanded his dnughten for their 
wives and promised Dutblijl alliance. Danaus 
complied with their request, and distributed his 
daughters among them, but to each of them he 
gave a dogger, with whidi they were to kill their 
husbands in the bridal night. All the sons of 
Aegyptus were thus murdered with the exceptim 
of Lvnceus, who was nvcd by Hypennnestn. 
The Dannids buried the heads of their murdend 
husbands in U:nia, and their bodies outside the 
town, and were ufteni'ards purified of tlieir crime 
hy Atheiui and Hermes ut the command of Zeus. 
PauHanias(ii. 24. § 3), who saw the monument under 
which the heads of the sons of Aegyptus were believ- 
ed to be buried, says that it stood on the way to 
Larisso, the citadeJ of Argos, and that their bodies 
were buried at Lema. In Hyginus {Fah. 168) 
the story is somewhat diRercnt. According to 
him, Aegj'ptuB formed the plan of mnrdenng 
Danaus and his daughters in order to gain posse»- 
sion of his dominions. When Danaus vm» io- 
fortncd uf this he Hed with his daughters to Argos. 
Aegyptus then sent out his sons in pursuit of the 
fiigitives, and enjoined them not to return unless 
they bad shiin Dnnaos. The suns of Aegj'ptus 
laid siege to Argos, and when Danaus saw that 
further resistance was useless, he put an end to the 
hostililiea by giving to each of the besiegers one of 
his daughters. The murder of the sons uf Aegyp- 
tus then took place in the bridal night. There 
was a tradition at Patme in Achaia, nccordiug to 
which Aegj'ptus himself came to Greece, and died 
at Aroe with grief for the fate of his sons. The 
temple nf Seiupis at Patrae contained a monument 
of Ai-gj-ptus. (Paus. viL 21. § 6.) [U S.] 

AEIMNESTUS ('Atl^uTjoroi), a Spartan, who 
killed Murdonius in the battle of I'lataea, a c. 479, 
and iiilerwards fell himself in the Mesaenian war, 
(Hervd. ix. (>4.) The Spartan who killed Mar- 
dunius, Plutarch {AruL 19) c&Us Arimuestua 

AE'LIA GENS, plebeian, of which the fiimily- 
nomes and sumaincs are Catu.s GALLt'a, Ura- 
cais. Lamia, Lioun, Paiti's, Staikni's, 
STiLrt, Ti'UKRU. On coins this gens is also 
written AUiu. but AUia seems to be a distinct 
gens. The only femily-nnnies and surnames of the 
Aelia gens upon coins are /iuAi, /^jmiu, J'luiu*, 
and Sefuiiu. Of Bala uoliiing is knotvn. Siyii- 
Hus is the name of the favorite of TilH-rius, who 
was adopted by one of the AcliL [SEJASfs.] 
The first member of this gens, who obtained the 
cuusnlship, was P. Aelius Paetus, in a, c. 337. 


l.'ntU:r the rmpirt' the Aviioji fuimr iMxnmc ■til) 
mure crlctfTiilcii. It wnk tha luunc of the cruprrur 
iliulruui, Mirl cunK(|uci)lly uf the Antoiiiuc*, whom 
be fliliipt^d. 

It ia doubtful to which fiunilr P. Aeliiu be- 
lnngpil who wna onr nf the hni plebeian quaeatons 
M. u 4ll!l. ( Liv. lY. A4.) 

AKLIA'NIJS wu« together with Amandus the 
l«u]er of lUi inuirnectioii of (jiollic pauaalt, oiUed 
Hii^udju% in tho rvign uf Ifiocletiftn. It vsu put 
down by the (.'unyir Miuimianus IlercuUut. (Ku- 
tivp. i»; 13 : Autel. Vict, d,: Cutm. 3<J.) 

AKLIA'NUS, CASfE'RIL'S, prefect of the 
I'roeturiun giurdi under Domitiao and Ner\'a. 
He excited an insurrection of the guard* nf(ain»t 
Nerva, in order to obtain the puiiiiJiment of •ome 
obnociouR perwmk, i)Ut waa killed by Trajan with 
hi» ncconiplicek. (Dion CaM. Ixviii. ^ S.) 

¥ii\, vjuk bom accunling to Suidat (f. v. AiAuu^s) 
at PmencAte in Italy, and lived at Kome. He 
calU hiniaclf a Iluuuui ( V. It. xii. 1h\ as pot- 
>c>unf; the righti of Itciunn citizeu'hip. He wai 
particularly fond of the (jreek* oud of Oreek lite- 
mture and omlory. ( V. //. iz. 3'2, xii. 23.) 
lie itudii'd under I'aiuuuiiu the rhetorician, and 
imitaUHl tlie elo4]ueDcc of Nicoatratu* and the style 
uf UioD ChrykONtoni ; but evpecinlly admired 
llettMle* AtticuA more than all. Ho taught rheto- 
ric at Home in the time of Hiulrian, and hence wa* 
call«l i (To^imlt. So complete waa the conunaiid 
b* Aciiuirod over the Givek language that he could 
apeftk 9* well oa a native Allienion, and hence waa 
colled (1 ^Ai7AarrT9t or ^\i^(iYlO\. (HhiK>*L IV/. 
A[i/tA. ii. 31.) That rhetoric, however, waa uot hi» 
forti: may nuily be beberrd (rum the atylc of hit 
work* ; and he nppran to have given up teaching 
for writing. Suidat calla him 'A^x**/"*^' (Poniifex). 
Ho lived to above uxty ycora of age, aiid had no 
children. He did not toarry, bccauae he would 
not have any. There are two ooiuidemble work* 
of hi» remaining : one a catlectiun of uiuicellaneottft 
hialury (rioucUi) 'Iirrapfa) in fourteen books com- 
HHMily allied hi* "Varia Hialoria," ami the other 
a work ou the imuliariliu of aniiiiaU (n<fil Zk 'm i' 
ttAmrm) in •cteiiirrn booki, commoiily called hia 
"lie Animalinm Natum." The foniu-r work cai> 
ttuia ihort uamtluua and atiecdotca, hiatorical, 
taanphial, uHHiuarian. &c, wlected fmm ranoua 
iraans gawnlly without their name* being given, 
and on a grrat variety of ubJKta. Ita chief value 
ahiTi* from W* coutaiaing maiiy pawgn from 
work* nf older author* which an now loat. It ia 
to be rrgtvtted that in keU^ting frum Thucydidea, 
llamdutns and oth^r writrra, he haa *ometime* 
0fiin himaelf the Inxible of altering their bngiB^e. 
U«l he tell* u> he liked to have lu* own way and 
to tallow hi* own taaie, and ao he wonid aaca to 
kavt ihcfad Cor iIm mn* Mke of putting mar- 
tUat atlmtUi. TIm lattw wodi ia of the mme 
kiaC HOfipy aad goaaipiiig. It i* partly collected 
fcan oUh writrn, and panly the rwilt of hi* own 
I both in Italy and afanad. Aiwocding 
I (ia riL) bo wao icaieely ovar out 
«f luly i bal ba tail* aa biawlf that b« lf*«WI(d 
a* C» a* ArfTpt ; and that b* aaw at Aloaaudiia 
aa oi »ith fit* hot. (th Jaua. ii. 40 -. c«Bi|>. zi 
11,) Tbia ba^ wwU annw to ban bMMM a 
(ifwraBd atoMUrd wiAaa ■ to l n gy. mpw »■ tbe 
eBatU7 Maaaal Pbitni a Bywitia* 
a it a MB an oioak At tb* 


end nf the work i* a concluding chwter (Mao)« 
where he atate* the general principiea on whiiii 
hat compoted hi> work : — that he ha* apent gii 
hibotir, care, and thought in writing it ; — that 
has preferred the puraait of knowledge to the f 
suit of wealth ; and that, for hi* p^in, he fofl 
much more pleoiure in obwrring the h.ibii* of I 
lion, the panther, and the fox, in liBlming to (] 
long of the nightingale, and in studying the 
gntioDs of cnuies than in mere heaping up ii<k 
and being numbered among the great : — tb 
ihniiighout hi* work ho hat lought to adhen 
the truth. Nothing can be imagined more drdc' 
iu armngemeut than this work : ho goes from 
subject to another without the lisist link of M 
atiou ; at (e. g.) from elephants (xi, 15) to di 
(xi. 16), from the liver of mice (iL 56) to the 
of oxen (li. 57). But this absence of arrangeniM 
treating llnngs woiictAa Tout/Aws, be savK it I 
tenlional \ he adopted this phtn to give varicti 
the work, and to avoid tedium to the reader. ] 
style, which be commends to the indulgeuci 
critics, though frc« from any gnst fault, hat 
particular merit. The simiUrity of plan in the I 
works, with other iiiteriuU evidences, 
shew that they were both written by the 
Aolion, and not, at Vota and Valckcnocf 
ture-, by two different persons. 

In Ixith work* he teems detiraua to ii 
raotiil and i«ligious principle* (tco V. H. vii. 
/> Anim. Ti. 2, vii. 10, II, ix. 7, and Eyiit^ 
and he wrote some ireatites expmslr oi» 
phical and religious aubjectt, espeaal^ 
Pnividcuce (riaiM nporuioi) in thn-e boaka(j 
f. r. 'ASotfoi'iirroif), and one ou the Uivina 
festations (n*pl Bcuav *£*'*p7twi'), directed 
the Epicureans whom he alludes to elte' 
(ZJc Anun. vii. 44.) There are also attributed 
Aelion twenty letter* on husbandry and such-N 
matters ('A^poMucol 'EiriirroAiii), which air 
feigned cimnicten, ate written iu a rhvloriod 
real style, and ara of no value. The tir»t edid 
of all his works was by Contud Oeaner. 1556, 
oontaining alio the works of Heraclules Poll 
Adamantuu asd Mehnpua. The ** Voria ilistoc 
wa* first edited by Camillus Peruacus Kal 
1.^45, 4ta.; the principal editiont siuoo am 
Perixoniua, I^yden, 17UI, Svo., by UiDOM 
Leyden, I7>11, 2 vols. 4ta., and by Kiihii. U 
lig. 1780, -2 vols. Svo. I'be 1> An 
Natum waa edited by Gronnviui, Ixmd. 17 
1 volt. 4to., and by J. G. Schneider, Loip 
1 784, i vols. 8niw The last udiuoii it that 
Fr. Jacoba, Jeaa, 1 832, '1 volt. 8va. Th 
the valuable mateiialt which Schneider bad 
lected aud left for a new edition. Tl 
werv publishinl apart from the otber 
.\ldua Manutiua in his ** CoUectio 
Giaccarum." Venice, 1499, 4lo. 

The \'aria Histotia hat beco tnndatad 
Latin by C Gtaner, and into linglitb bjr A* 
mine, Laind. 1576, and by Stanley, ItWi] 
latt bat been irprinud mon tbaa ome, TT 
Aoiaalittn Naiwa hat been tniitlalwl art* 
by Prtcf Uilliaa (a Fieoduaaa) and by 
UesKf. 1 tdoet not a]>p«ar to bare beco 
into Knglith. 

Then bat ala* baa attriboled to 

I tEUi'S'L'il. LU'Clirs, ODC of th« UiirtT ty- 
I (jkH 2&S^'i<f6) under tlie Koiium nnipirr. 
l»M^allllr pnrplrin (iaiil afur the dvalli of 
Na^n ami « . \ hit own wltlierk, hv- 

mmktvnli '.■ n to pUuuicr Mo^iio- 

Ma& Tnbr nj tithrn c-iU hini 

Utmm;tdu\ <. HL p. 4 IH) thiiiKt, 

llifct^ ttf nail- ^;iUB ; hut therv bccms 

»T m (4V"ur uf L. Aeliiinut. (Eatrap. 
»|L P"IL Try. 7>r. 4 ; AureL Vict de 

► AIXIASt'S ME'CCiUS('AiA«i»ij M<«»io.), 
bal phpidaru who idukI have livi'd in the 
mmti iranrr •ftcr ChrUt, lu he is mentioned hy 
Ww {IM Tkrmiea ad Pompkil. iuiu toL xir. 
|i9l) ai the rildeit of hif tuUm. Hia father it 
^fn4 tP bare ftl^o lieon a phv^icion, a* AelioiiuB 
• td^Oahn ilM iJumi. MmoJ. c. 1. p. 2. 
i^tttt] to hare rnade on epitoine of hin futher*ii 
Vlflkkl t» rcitic>. Oalen tfeaka of that p.*ut of 
bMk I of the Diiaection of the 

Ifate ~ . . in ftome repute in hift time 

t^\ «>1 \ii uivsuv^ mentions hi* tutor with re- 
^(AU. c 7, i^l. pp. II. .'>;.) During the 
^Ab> «f aa epidemic in I Inly, Aelianus ii^ 
■ilWOdm (A> Thrriam aH /'iiMfJiil. ibid.) to 
iw h4 tke Theriaca (Dkt. of AhI. art. Tkt- 
^) vilk fnai nicceta, both a* a nieons of cure 
•<<ia •• I prarrraliTr against the diioue. lie 
VM \m9 bwa a pcr»oa of Hume eetebritr, oa this 
Mi annate i< mentioned by tlir Arabic HiMo- 
kVFamj (//u/iif. OimiiTfiJ. Dymut. p. 
Ijy the ii.-ime cirruin»Linces except 
I Uij* rpid<*aiic to hiire broken out at 
"Xwl in Itnly. None of hift workx 
r i» nwjue) arc now extant. 
[ W. A. (!.] 
JUaiUrSUS. PI-AUTIUS, offered up the 
Lfaotifei. when the fint ttone of the 
aaa laid in a. D. 71. (Toi:. Hitt. ir. 
1 6<Rn an invription (Oruter, p. 4A3; 
l)i tliat hit full uanie wa* Ti. Plautiix 
n, that he held many important 
. . . and that he wna twice coniul. 

I iat i ii M ul ihip mat in a. o. 47 ; the date of 
1^ anknown. 

biy a Ureek, but not thi> vune tu 
He Ured in Hume and wrote 
|iiM]Mk'«a chapters on the Military Toc- 
*^~— ''■' (n«^l jTpqTTjyutBr T^fwv 
' dedicaird to the emperor 
- . 'rt a brief account of the 
••■*« tii a lUuuiu army at that time. The 
**••• b« sty* [Dedir,)^ from a convcrwliun 
■M «Tt!< tk* oBpenir Nerra at Kniiitinus't 
^ * faatmr. He promitei a work on 
>; but this, if it wot written, 
' ftnt edition of the Tactic* (n very 
I pibliabed in l.?3'2 ; the next, much 
TnttOMKua linhcirtelluiL, Wiiice, 
I eaoiaint a now I^tin vmiou by 
^— n __J la UbuOttlnl with uiouy rtitii. The 
r^deaa ■» 1^ innled by Klxevir nt Lryden, 
MU It B wail* (gaud bound up with Leu'a 
**» ILiDj. 

''•It trail kl»«j itil« l«tin firnf Kt Theodnnw 
"'TWikoiat. -■,:■:, ,.| 

• »w.l«t7, L. 

■INalnta.. I, „, .,. i, „,„■. 

'''^ wdidt thnttan contaixu two Latin ver- 



tiotii. It has been tnui>lal<-d into Riigliiib by 
CnpU John Hinghiun, Loud. IClb', fql., and by 
Lord Dillon, I»I4, 4to. [ A.. \ 1 

AK'LIII.S ASCI.EPI'ADES. tA«LapiAi)it.s.] 
AE'LILTS DIONY'SlUri. rUixNvmi's,] 
AK'LIUS DONA'Ti:S. [Donatiis.1 
AK'LIUS LAMPRl'DILtS. fL*Mi-Hii.n;s.] 
AE'LIUS MARCIA'NUS. [Maiicu.vis I 
AE'LIUS MAURirS. [MAi'ttu&] 
AE'LIUS PROMO'TUS {At\m n^tiwrot), 
on ancient physician of Alexandria, of whobc per- 
sonal history no particulars arc known, and whose 
date is uncertain. Hu is suppted by Villoison 
(yidecv/. Orofc. vol. ii. p. 179. note I) to liave 
lived after the time of Pompey the On-at, that it, 
in the tirst centur)* before Christ; by others ho is 
considered to be much more ancient ; and by 
ChoLllant {llttmlltuch der li'di-hrrktttidc fur die 
AeJtrre Afrdicin, Ed. *J. l«eipzig, 11)40, Uvo.), ou 
the other hand, he is placed as Inte as the second 
half of the first century after Christ. Ho is most 
probably the same perMin who is quoted by Galen 
(yje ComfMU, Afedkanu tecund, Lucos^ iv. 7, roL 
xii. p. 730) simply by the nimie of Adna. He 
wrote several (ireck medical works, which are still 
to be found in manuscript in (liiVerent libraries 
in Europe, but of which none (as fiir iis tile writer 
is aware) have ever been published, though Kuhn 
intended his works to liave been included in hit 
collection of Greek medical writers. Some extracts 
from one of his works entitled Ainu^t/xiv, * AMi- 
cinatium FuTmularum tUMectia^ are iuserted by C. 
G. Kuhn in hia Additiiin.wt Eicitclt. Med, Vet. a 
J.A.Fabrido m " fliW. O'r." £>/<>&., and by Bona 
in his Tradalut de Scorkato, Verona, 17B1, 4ln. 
IVo otiicr of his works arc quoted or mentioned 
by Micmn. Mercurialis in his rursue tactionftt^ iiL 
4, and his work Ur Vnmu et Muriu I'enciionM, 
i. 16, ii. °2; and also by Schneider in bis Prefaces 
to Nicaudcr'i Tlienua, p. xi., and Alutipliannuca, 
p. xix. [W. A. O.J 

AELLO. [IIarpvuk.] 
AELLOPUS ('AsAAiiour), a sanume of Iria, 
the Tneaseii}?er of the guds liy which she is do- 
scribed OS swift-footed like a storm-winiL Homer 
uses tlie form licAAiiTot. (11. viiL 4U<I.) [L. S.] 
AELUKUS. [TijjoTiiaus AiLtHus] 
AEMI'LIA. I. A vestal vii;giu, who, when 
the Bttcred Are was extinguished on one occasion, 
pmycd to the goddess for her assistance, and mim- 
culously rekindled it by throwing a piece of hor 
garment upon the extinct embers. (Dionys. ii 
(i8; Val. Max. I l.§7.) 

2. The third daughter of L. Aemilius Paulina, 
who fell in the battle of Cannae, wns the wife of 
■Scipin Africaniis I. and the mother of the celebmted 
Cornelia, the mother of the Gracchi. She was of 
a mild disposition, aud lung sunived her husband. 
Her property, which was large, was inherited hy 
hrr grondaon by adoption, Scipio Africouus 1 1., 
who guve it to his own mother Papiria, who hud 
been divorced by his own bllicr L. Aemilius. 

• Auraiifpdi' is a word used by the later Greek 
writers, and is explained by Du Cmige (iihiut. A/iht. 
rt infim. (w'rai-i-H.) to mean rw. rirtwi. It is how- 
ever frequently used in the sense given t4i it in the 
text. See Leo, OmtprcL Mrdic. iv. I, II, a|i. 
Enneriif. Amcd, Mid. Graoc pp. 153, 137. 


(PolyK XTxii. 12 ; IHixi. Kir. xni. ; Vnl. Max. 
Yi. 7. § I: I'lut Arm. •2\ I,iv. xiiinii. !>7.) 

3. Thp ihirJ dnugliipr of h. Acmiliiu I'nuUui 
Mucf^donicUK waft a little girl when her fnthrr uiu 
Hjipointed consul a ncctmil time to conduct the war 
■gAiiiftt Herseu*. l^pun n'tuniiiig home nftcr his 
elcctimi be found her in teans and iipnii iitqiiiriiig 
the mutnn ahe told him that i'eriicut had died, 
which mu the name of her doj; ; whereupon he 
exclaimed * I nceopl the omen," and rejjariicd it 
M a pledge of kj« tucceu in the war. (Cic </•• 
Itiv. i. 46, il 40; Pht. Jem. 10.) 

4. .'Vemilia Lcpiila. (LsriD.t.] 

5. \ re«tal virgin, who w«a put to death B. c. 
114 for having committeil incest npon Keveral oo 
ca^iont. She induced two of the ochtr veilaJ 
vir){ins Marcia and Licinia, to commit tbo ome 
crime, but these two were aciiuitted hy the ponti- 
licea, when Aemilin was condeutned, but wers 
•ubfte«]uently coridemned by the pnu'tor L. CoAsiufi. 
(riuL (iiHini. Rom. p. 284 ; Uv. £pU. V3 ; 
(trotius T. 15 ; Aicnn. in Cic. Mil. p. 4(i, ed. 

AEMI'LIA GENS, originally written AIMI- 
L1A, one of the mnat ancient putncian houae* at 
Home. la origin it referred to the time of N^unrn, 
and it in «nid to have lieen deMcended from Ma- 
merrus who recvived the name of .^emiliuii on ac- 
count of the {ler^ua^iveness of hift language (Bi' 
OiMi'^^a*' X^ov). Thui Mamercna ii rrprc«ented 
by WMUc on the son of Pylhagomi, and by olher» 
an the ion of Numa, while a tliird account tnue« 
hu origin to Aicaiuus who had two tone, Juliut 
and Aemylo*. (Plut. Jrmil. % Num. B, 21 j Fetlut, 
«. r. AftiiU.) Amnliat u alto mentioned a* one 
of the uicMtnrt of the Aemilii. (SiL Ital. riiL 297.) 
It •ecmt pretty clear that the Aemilii were of 
Sabine origin ; and Fettuft derireit the name Ma- 
mrmis from the Otcaa, Mamen in that language 
lieing the mac u Man. The Sabine* spoke 
Ovan. Since then the Aemilii weic tuppoaed to 
hare come to Home in the time of Nimu, and 
Nutna wuA vaid to hare be^Mi intimate with Pytha- 
p>nu. we can mw the oripin of the li-gind which 
make* the ancritor of the hmiie the mn of Pytha- 
gonu. I'he tint member of the hoiue who ob- 
tained the coiuuUbip was L. Aemiliu Momcrcut, 
in a (. 4H4. 

The fainily-namei of thii gene are : B*R(iri.A. 
llri'A. I.itriiii's M^MKiu'Vit or M.kMUtLiM'ts 
P^rrs T'.>ii 1,1 ». Rn)ULr<<, ScifBt;*. Of these 
name* Burn, !«eptdiik, Paultu^and Scauma ore the 
onlv "■" » ''"' '-'-iir on roiii^. 

A 1 ' '.S. 1. The wn of L. AeniiliuB 

Pool 1 .u«, was adopted by P. Cornelius 

bci|utk, Liie ikuii uf P. Cometins Scipio Africnnus, 
and was thus called P. Cornelias Scipio Aeniilianus 
Africanos. (Scii'io.] 

i. The gerenor of Pannnnia and Moesia in the 
ttign of Oalln^ He is alao called Aeiuilius; and 
en coins we And as his pmenon»-n t>oih Marcus 
tat Caiuk On one coin he is called C. .fuliui 
ActBHiuns t ^^ there i* sonte dnubt almnt the 
maofthewonl Juliu«.(Kckhel,«ir.p.372.) 

• — •• " ,'«.ut A. n. 20li. He 

.1(1 invaded bis pr^ 

llu' llauubr, A. D. 

' ^3. lie distribuftl Mr ,,» the Imoty 

|w> hail gnioed, and Wiu ' rar by them. 

U* then aaicbcd Into Itaiv, imt (inlliis who had 

■dimccd ID Maet Mo, was slain at Inlenuniu tu- 


gelher with his soti Volusianns by his own soUiM 
Aemiliauui was .'icknuwledged by the M-imte, I 
was slain after a reign of tlinfi or luur mouths by I 
soldiers near Sixdrlum, on the approach uf Val 
anus. According to other aocuunl« ho di< 
natural drntli. (Zosimus, i. 28, 2!l; Zonoini, i 
2 1 , 22 ; Kutrop. ix. 5 ; AureL Vict. <k Can, ) 
Hpil. 31.) 

3. Dae of the thirty tymnu (i. n. 259- 
wnj corapetk'd by the tmopt in Egypt to i 
the purple. He took the surname of .MexoiidfT^ 
Alexandrinus. Gallienus sent Theodotus 
him, by whom he was taken and sent priaoncrl 
Gal)tenu«. Aemiliaona was itnuighNl in 
(Trebell. Poll. Trw. Tar. 9-2,On//>c». 4, S.) 

AGMlLI.VNl;s'(n'ho is also aill<-d Je 
livi>d in the fifth centurj- after I'hrisU and^ 
known as a physician, confrasor, aod martyr, 
the reign of the Vandal King Himjicric {jbi 
477-484), during the Arion penuvution io A6' 
he was mott cruelly put to death. The 
church celebrates his memory on the sixth of | 
e«nber, the Greek church on the seventh. {I' 
tj/ntl. Hon. ed. Haron. ; Victor Vitetuis, Dm i 
maiL Vandal, y. I, with Kuinart's notra, 
8to. 1694 ; BooTius, Sonttnciator Stttfivmrn i 
ftttitme MedktiniiH.) [W. A. 0.fl 

AEMILIA'SUS (Ai|uiA(a»oi), a native of ( 

townof Nicacn, andan epigmnimaiic poet. No " 

fiirther is known about him. Three of his < 

grams have l>een preserved. (AnthnL (IraM, 

b-28, ix. 218, T.W.) [C. P.M.] 

AEMI'UrS .\SPER. [A»f«a.) 

AEMI'LU S SI.\CER. [.AUcaa.] 



AE.Ml'LIUS PACENSIS. [Pirawiia.] 






AKNE'.MlES (Ai»»idJ«), a patronymic 
Aeneat, and applied a* a loiname to thuw ' 
were believed to be dcfeeodad from him. 
as Ascanius, AuguUua, and Ike Knnmna 
general ( Virg Am. ix. 653; Or. Et I'tmU L i 
Met. XT. 68-2, C9.S.) 1 1.,. 8.| 

AF.NE'AS(AI«(ot). Il.murir Slnry. Am 
was the son of AmhiMfs and .Aphrodiln, and I 
on mmint Ida. On his foih--' - -' - he 
gTr»it-gnuidMin of 'l>'»fc, and ■. 
the rr'\tl house of 'rro>, lu 1' 
gnindsou uf 'i'nis. (Hoiu. ii, xs. 2Ja. ftc«^ 
820, V. 247. &c: lies. 7ik«^ I IMi;. <tk.-.) liel 
edocated fivm his infiuey at Daidaaav 
houst of Akaihuoa, the liorinad af bia siiti 


IK fvX «tL/ Ac tile De|pniimK or tnv wr nf 
ik Onvkt ftir*inst Tmy be did not takr Jiny piirt 
■ tftWdtbr i >T. H tbat thi*n.> i>xi»UHi nn 

i Mby br*. i!<i Priain, who iliti not 

jaiMnmt I. .. iLiinu. (//. xiii. 4(iO, Ax., 

n. ml ) This pnitjubtr arow from a decree of 
Wair, acoonlin^ to which Aenea« and his dc> 
cndnta wvn to ruJe ovi:r Tmy, iinco the* house 
if Plan had dreim opon itwif the hatred of 
(/i xz. 307.) Une day when Aeneas 
ttnif hi« flock* on mount fda, he was 
tfT Achillirik, who toolc his cattle and put 
in u tetin. Bat he wo* rescued by the gods, 
TVi rnat, h*«meT, and the lulmonition of Apollo, 
(■ul ki* tpiril, and he led hin Uardaniani agnintt 
•» terlu. ( //. u. B!>, &c I flO, \c., ii. 8 1 9, &cO 
RagilMl b* and Hector are the gnat bnlwarks 
if At Th>|nH aipiiost the Oreeki, and Aeneoi ap- 
^» lijii 1 1 J and honoared by goda and men. (//. 
d-H zri CI!), t. IRO, 467, vi. 77, &c.) lie i> 
MM^ ifte Trojana what Achillea ia among the 
OaAk. Bo<h are aon* of immortal mothers, both 
^ tf Ira4 with the ktn^ and both [lOMeM horaes 
rftfri»ar%iii. ( //. T. -.><;.5, &c.) Achilles him- 
aUkviuai Hector a«-nt hia inferiority, thiidci 
/Uaaa wwtby cotnppiiior. (II. xx. \7.'i.) The 
plkp vKdl Aenra* ocmpic« among the Trojans is 
ntniaiiar i1 ill I'hilottraius (//rr. 13), who says 
AMIW Onrk* called Hector the hand, and .^i-neai 
tb aial af ibe Trojans. Flespecling tlie brave and 
in which he protects tl» body of bis 
ae« //. V. 299. On one occasion 
k «« tafaK«d io a contest with IKomcdea, who 
Wrfs4 • vijcbty stone at him and broke his hip. 
ilawna feil to thr ground, and Aphroditi* hastened 
k laa mntwmr {IL r. 3U5), and when she too 
W vaoded, ApoUo carried hitn fnitn the tield of 
taw W has taniple, where he was cured by Leto 
md ifirmi^ (//. v. 34.'i. &c.) In the attack of 
fte Irsjaaa «pao the wall of the Greeks, Aeneas 
^■■Mdi^ the fourth hitst of the Tmjani, {//. 
I&M,) Hr a<en|!vd the death of Aleathuns by 
Ocaoouus and Aphateut, and hastened to 
of Hector, who was thrown on the 
^•al kjr Aftx. The lost feat Homer mentions 
• Ki aciu arilh Achillea. I In this as on all other 
oaME^ a fnd interposed and sn<ed him, and this 
At is waa by Poseidon, who although in general 
^ttk lawarda the Trojans, yet rescued Aeneas, 
tatW ^ — — ■ '• ■'■•<tiriy might lie fulfilled, and 
Aa^ ^. in;; might one dav rule orer 

Taa. (I . \,„ 3(1.1, &c.) Thus fiir only 

^ fa tfitfy of Aeiit.'as to be gathered from the 
^■oir pttfttu, and fitf from alluding to Aeueoa 
•H nnigiaSrd aft' ■ ~ " 

WftMiuW a lie. 
^ ^a dtMinctJy r. 
kwoa Ua«i«i. 
^ ^ »nm<tj«D of 1 
■ '18.) 

Accnniing to tb« Homeric hymn 

- »f»T»-:r." I .'.S7. Ac), Acneu waa binnght up 

^Aiffysiphs of mount Ida, and waa not token 

^ \« 'u-.[>,r .\iii-)ii».'k.' until he had reached bis 

• was, according to the wish 

"Ut aa the son of a nytnph. 

I. g l.S) KITS, that he was 

. the usnal teacher of the 

■ ■ - \" he even took 

lituverj' ill the 
xed in the Liter 

of Troy, and 
. a foreign land, 
:'■ he conceives 
' igning at Troy 
frianL (t'omp. 

_^^ _ AENEAS. 31 

[ tnrntimia as well oa in the earlier ones. (Ilvgin. 
/•V/. I l.i ; PhiJostr. L c) According to some ac- 
counts Ai-ueiui was not preacDt arilsit Tray ' 
luken, an he hod be«n sent by I'riam on an i 
ditioii to I'hrygio, while according to others 
was re(iucsk'd by Aphrodite, just before the iail of 
the city, to leave it, and acconiingly went to niimnt 
Ida, carrying his father on his shoulders. (Uiun. 
Hal. i. 4K.) A tJiird account makes him hold out 
at Troy to the last, and when all hopes disnppcaied, 
Aeneas with hii Uarduniuns anil the wiimnr* of 
Ophryniuni withdrew to the citiidel of Pergiiinus, 
where the most costly treasures of the 'I'nijans 
were kept. Hen: he repelled the enemy and re- 
ceived the fugitive Trojans, until he could hold out 
no longer. He then sent the people ahead to 
mount Ida, and followed them with his warriors, 
the images of the gods, his bthcr, his wife, and 
ilia children, hoping that be would be able to 
maiiiiaiu himself on the heights of mount Ida. But 
being threatened with an attack by the Gn^eks, ho 
entered into negotiutious with them, in couscqucnai 
of which be surrendered his position and waa 
jUluwed to depart in safety with his friends and 
treasures. ( Uionys. i. 46, &c. ; Aelian, I'. //. 
iii. '22 ; Ilygin. /liA. 254.) Others again related 
that he was led by his batnid of Horis to betray 
ilioii to the Gmeks, and waa allowed to depart 
free and safe in eonse'^uence. (iJiouys. I.e.) Livy 
(i. 1) states, that Aeneas and Antennr were the 
only Trojans against whom the Greeks did nut 
nuke use of their right of cnniiursL, on account of 
an ancient connexion of hospitality exinting lie- 
twecn them, or because Aeneas luul always advised 
hia countrymen to resture Helen to Mcnelaus. 
(Comp. Jiirab. /. c.) 

The farther part of the story of Aeneas, after 
halving mount Ida with his friends and the images 
of the gods, especially that of I'alLu {Palladium, 
I'aus. ii. 23. i 5) presents as many variations oa 
that relating to the taking of Troy. All accounts, 
however, agree in slating that he left the coasts of 
Aaia and crossed over into Europe. According to 
some he went across the Hellespont to the |ienin- 
sula of Pullcne and died there ; Oi'cording to otlicra 
he proceeded from Thiace to the Arcadian Oicho- 
ineuos and settled there. (Sirab. /. c. ; Paus. viii. 
12. g S J Dionys. Hal. L 49.) By far the greater 
uiuubcr of later writers, however, anxious to put 
him in connexion with the history of Laliuin and 
to make him the anccstoriol hero of the Romans, 
state tliat he went to Italy, though some assert 
that the Aencaa who come to Italy was not the 
son of Anchises and Aphrodite, and other* tluit 
after his arrival in Italy he returned to Troy, 
leaving his son Ascanius behind him. (Lvcophr. 
r2-J(i, ic; IHonys. i. 53; Liv. i. 1.) A de- 
scription of the wanderings of Aeneas before he 
reas'hed the cwut of Latium, and of the various 
towns and templet he waa U'lieved to have found- 
ed during his wanderings, is given by Dionysius 
(L 50, 4.C,), whose account is on llie whole tlio 
some as that followed by Virgil in his Aeni-id, 
oltltough the hitter makes various ombcllishnunu 
and additions, some of which, as his binding nt 
Carthage and meeting with Dido, are irreciincibblc 
with chronology. Kroui Palleiic (Thmce), whero 
.-Veneas stayed the winter after tlie taking of Troy, 
and founded the town of Aeneia on the Thermaic 
gllir(Liv. xl. 4), he s.'uled uith his cumpanioiis to 
llcliis, Cylhera (where he founded a temple of 



Aphrodite), Robp in Lncnnm (where he Imilt Kti> 
niiil Aphrodiiibi, Pbu>. iii. 33. $ 9), %>r}'iitlius 
(ivitiple of Aphrudito), l^ucai, Actiuni, AmUracia, 
Uid 10 Dodonjif where he met the Trojoii 
lIclrnuL From Epirru he tailed acrou the 
Ionian wa to Italy, whrre he landed at the 
lapvgian promontor)-. Hence he cfoned over to 
Sicily, where be met the Trojana, Eljmux and 
Aogr«tni (Aceatet), and built the towui of Elyme 
and Aetp^ata. Proiu Sicily he tailed back to Italy, 
landed in the port of Palinunii, coino to the 
■•kind of Lvoauia, and at last to the cooat of 
I^alttun. VarioQK lignA p<iin(ed out thia phice aa 
the end of hit wauderingt, and he and hia Trojant 
aceurdin(;Iy tettled in Latium. The phice where 
thi'V had Unded wot called Troy. Ijicinut, kin); 
of tile Aboriginea, when informed of the arrival uf 
the ttrangen, prepared for war, but afterwardt 
concluded an alliance with them, gave up to them 
a pnrt of hia doininiont, and with their aktittant-e 
cnni|uercd the Uululians with whom he wot then 
at war. AeneoA founded the town of Larinium. 
called after Uivinia, the daughter of Lalinui, 
*honi he married. A new war then followed be- 
tween I^tiniu and Tomui, in which Inth chioft 
Icll, whereupon Aeneai became aole ruler of the 
Aboriginct and Trojant, and both nationt united 
Into one. Soon after thit, however, Aeneaa fell in 
■ battle with the Rntuliant, who were OHitted by 
, liietenlius king of the Etnitcana. A> hit lx>dy 
tliiu not found after the battle, it waa believed that 
T It had been carried up to heaven, or that he had 
rperithed in the river Numiciut. I'he Latint 
arceted a monument to him, with the inicriplion 
To Iht fatiter and naiirr guL {Jori Imdifeli, 
Lir. L i ; Dionyt. I G4 ; Stnh. t. p. 239, xiiL 
p auij Ov. MrL liii. 633, lu., xiv. 75, &c., iv. 
1438, &c; Conon, Aarru/. 4b'; Flut. /inm. 3.) 
iTwo othat occannl* lomewhat dilTerenl from tliute 
Md ■bare «l« preterred in Serviut {a<l Am. 
• S94. bam the work of Aba> on Truy), and in 
etzei (ud Lymphr. 1353). Dionytiua pUcca the 
■nding of Aeneaa in Italy and the bailding of 
lltfviniuni about the end of the tecond year after 
\lOl0 taking of Troy, and the death of .\ennu in the 
(venth year. Virgil on the other hand repmcntt 
lAeneoa landing in Italy leven yenrt after the fiill 
Troy, and conipntet all the event* in Italy 
iftom the tiindiug to the death of Tumua within 
he tpoce of twenty day*. 
The ilory about the drtcent of the Roniant 
ni the Tp>jnnt thnuirli Acncaa waa generally 
■il and lielievfd at Home at an early period, 
ltd pfobolily OKMe from the loct, that the inhabil- 
Dt* of Lutiura and all the phu-ea which Aeneat 
at taid til have foundiNl, lay in conntriet inhabit* 
1 by people who were all of the tome ttock — 
PrLitf(tiint : hence alto the wnnhip of the Idoean 
Aplmidite in all placet the foundatiiin nf which is 
aMnlml til .Arni-at Aeti.'.i, Inin*. If. therefore, 
tutli .!• Il'- .i[i;i< ir> ill > ;^ and final 

K-Ul'lii'iil III l^luiMi. \* I. out the per 

uified idea "t m:i<' loiiiii.-u m:..iii. In thit 

kancter he vi.i. i Iii|.)»-.l in tin- larioua placet 

hich troceil ili'-ir ..r.;.'iii I" hirn. (Liv. il. 4.) 
■luna waa rrr>|M<Mly ri pr^i^ntrd in tiatuet anil 
linlingt ky aiu n-nt ar<i*u. (Pant. ii. 31. i 3, v. 
3'i i 3 i llin. //. S. iiiv. 10. i .Hi.) I»n (fein. 
and eoint he it nnmUy n^piv^euted at carrying hia 
bthcr on hit ihoulder, aod leading hu ion Aoek- 
uiut liy the baud. 


Kcapecting the incontitlenciet in the 
about Aeneas and the mode uf tolviug thecn, I 
Nicbuhr, llisL of' Romr, i. p. 179, A.C 
ing the colonic* ho it aaid to have foa 
Fiedler, Ijt ErrorUmt Aamar mi Phtimiciim 0il 
/MTfiaaiCiiiu, Wetcl. 1837. 4 to. Al»ut the t 
•hip and tdigioiu character of Aeneaa, tee Vm 
Gat/Udtte da TrojamirJm A'ruya^ Stutig 
I83b', p. 303.&C.; Iliirtung, (ladi'ichU drr Mif. 
Jrr homer, i. p. 83, &c. ; and above all R. il, 
Klauten, .^ateot uitddit I'tnuUn, ctjKcially I 
p. 34, itc [U S.I 

AENE'AS (AWai) OAXAEl'S. to 
from hit birth-place, dourithcd a. n. 4117. 
wot at lint a Platonitt and a Sophitt, 
ditciple of the philotoper llieroclet (at ap^ 
from hit TittfinuliuL, (inUaud. p. 639) and! 
friend of Procupiut (aawe know from hit KpintlcaJ 
Hit date thut atcertained it confinnod by hit 
ttatiug, that be had heard »peak tome of the I 
fetton whote tonguea llunneric had cut out. . 
4i>4. (/W<y. p. tiliS, c.) When a CliritUaa, I 
compotod a dialogue, Uu the Jmtnftrtttlilii i 
Soul ami tie ItrturrrdiuH alike Umly, called Til 
pJinutui from one of the interlocuinrv. Thii 
peoml firtt in a Latin vertiiui by Amb 
Camaldulentit, 8vo., Ven. 1513, and 4to, 
151d. The original Cireek, with the Lialin ve 
of WolC foL Tigur. 15.iM ; with the Latin ' 
and noiet of C. Ilarthiut, 4to. Lipt. H 
Fabriciuft, tie Veriiat, iieJu/. Chrut. SyiiaiAtM^i 
Ilamb. 173.i); al>o in (ialhindi't liiiJii 
trum, vol. X. p. 'J3Ii, \'en. I7*i(t ; and 
note* of Uoitionade, Hvo. Par. WM. 
IMctionary it the following refcri'nco : HVr 
Pr. dr Antea fioz.. Numb. 1817. 4tu. In 
Aldine f W/<i<»i« i/ i'/nMt In/ iirrrk A ulhon th* 
arc 35 by Aeneat, fir. 4 to., Ven. U99. See f 
bficiut, fUUtitt/i. (Jntee. vol. i. pp. b7»>-(i90. 
of the letter* of Aeneat nmy be found in the i 
ciofoediti PAiiuitM/HV of JtMMnet i'tituMi, Gr. 
Ven. 1710, voLl (A. J. C 

AENE'AS SI'LVIUS, wn of Silriiu, i 
grandaon of Atcmniu*. He i* the thinl in I 
of the mythical king* of Alba in l.«itium, a 
Silvii regarded him a* the founder of their hff 
(Liv. i. 3.) Dionytiai (L 71) atcrilict to 
reign of 31 year*. (C'omp. Virg. Am. vi. 7< 
Ovid (iUw. xiv. 610, Ax.) doc* not mention 
among the Alban king*. ( L. S- ] 

AENE'AS (A.Mhij), tunuimed TAlTI 
(d TaxTiitor), a fireek writer", whii»e pn-ciw dj 
not known. Xenophon (licJt. vii. 3. § liiuenti 
an .\enea* uf Slyniphalut, who about the 
the buttle iif Miintineia {iti'Z, B. c) dinting 
himtelf by hi* biavety and (kill at griien 
Aieadian*. Coaoabon *uppi:xe« thi* .\enai 
the auae, and the ouppoaition i* contina 
UHoi^ (Oo m m t nL Potion, 37) whrrr he i 
nuniliorly of on Arcadian proviniialiMn. 
however thi* may be, the general charairter of 1 
work, the name* he mention*, and the hi»to 
notice* which occur, with other interrud ei id 
alt point to u^iMtJ thit period. He wrote a 
work (Ml the whole art ol war, (rTpaTTr>i«cd &t€ 
or wfpi tip rrpvtrrjkKvv ilwo^iKiI^ara (Poly 
40; Sutdoa, «. e. Au'i(ar), coiititiing of bcverol ( 
( >f thrte only one i> pnierve^i, oilled Taariati 
Koi auAio^Mnrrur^** vwiia^iia W9fi rev vipt 
veAie)Mte4fWi«« inrixtm, eonmionljr called 
■neaiuiu* PeliMceticaK The object of tbe 


■ t> iktw how I ijpgv thuuld be mUtt^, the ia- 
am kads of iiutrauicnu to be Dml, moiUEUrreii 
ft !■ pnetanl, vfty* of Mnding l«t(en without 
WfMMkrf. and wilboat even thr bcnrvn know- 
if ■■! U (c 31, a nrf curiuui one), &c It 
mMbi goad deal of infuniuition on nuiny points 
■ atelbff, Mid U (Specially Taluuhlc u con- 
UlBf I kn* «tock of words and tethnical tcnnii 
na^d mth mr&rc, drnoting initrunicnti.i.'Kc., 
«^ tn not to be found in any other work. 
tim tt« mnte circnsutance, many poitiiigcii arc 

Tit kaak waa 6nt diica*ered by Sinilcr in the 

rokan tilnry. It mu edited lint by Isaac 

(imtoii villi « Latin Tension and notia, and a|h 

lOditd ta hi* rdltion of Polybini. (Paris lliUiJ.) 

una i»paUi*bed hy (ironoTiu^ in his I'litybiut, 

ni, in. AaiMrriam, KiiO, and by I'jncsti. U'ipzig. 

I'M The laat rdiiiuu i< that of J. C. Uielli, 

Um^ 1SI8. with Casubon'i vi-nion and noteb 

MB afij jil ial cominentary, publinhed oi a lupplc- 

»m •• Schmifthoeiuer't PolyhiuL BeMdo the 

Tnbb MS> itinv are three at Paris on which 

CbaiAiM fumifled his edition, and one in the Lnii- 

Mrili Vhnty at Florence. Thi» hut is according 

» (MB (PtarC |i. 6). the oldett of oil. The work 

OMMaaniBV irry corrupt and mimlnted pns>n|>i-^ 

A» jyilijcie of the whole book, not of the fnig- 

■m aw rentainin^, waa nuMlc by Cinens a The»- 

■k, *W waa tent U Rome by Pyrrhus -79, 

«& (AatfcMi. TaeC 1.) Thi< ubridi^cnt in re- 

Chen (ivl Fam. 1%. '25). [A. A.) 

""S or AENE'SIUS (a/H'oi or AiiT(- 

r of Zeni, under which he woi 

in the iaLind of Cephalenia, where he 

on mount Aenoa. (Ilea. ap. SJiu/. 

HinJ.n.-207.) (L. S.] 

AiXBSinE'ML'S (AiWiiiifui), the ton of 

one of the Iwdy-guard* of Hippo- 

td Oela, waa the ion of Thenin, the 

>tiim. in the time of the Peraian war. 


I ' Ai*^<T(9ii>ii'f ), a ce.ebrated 

.-• iu t-'rete, according to 
Lkrrtiiu (ix. 1 J(>), but at Aegar, occord- 
% « PWiaa (Cod. -2rj), probiibly lived a little 
kM Am Cic«ra. He wah a pupil of Hetucleides 
■i Iwiiul fmn him the chnir of philotophy, 
lliA kad bcsen handed down for utruve three hun- 
Aai y^va CrDia Fy rrhon, the founder of the aocl 
f^ a 1mA acnmnt of the aceptit-.-d syktem *ee 
ttWkaum. A' .^ennidemna didfered on many 
ftum fhm tlw orduiory aceptic, it will be convc- 
VMMif* |«rocr<ediiiK to hit particular opinions 
• K>ta tkan hvouni of 'Jie ayntem ilaelf 

iW vcpcac be^tan rind ended in universal 
ti^ II* ana equally removed from the ura- 
t^K aka iaaei, aa from the d'l^natic pliilnao- 
^m a^ aiiiiiiiil ; indeed, be atu>nipte<l to con- 
■ni tMfa tD oTke, and refute them by the «%me 
^paaaa. (Sext. Emp. i. I.) Truth, he laid, 
IB k* to W ilcminaj far its own wke, but for the 
■ktrfa cartaia tvpow of mind (drap>a{la) which 
Ikaad on it, an exid which the acrptic U'^t at- 
tiBd ia aaM^cr way. by aunpendini; fait judg- 
M« {t9*xi^ •nd tllowiiig himaelf literally to 
a< m itaM. (I 4.) With thia view be nmat 
taari wftr Ik* wbnia range of momi, metaphyai- 
■L mi ^ydol aciaue. HIa method i> the 
dT aypoaitra, and hia aole aim to prv>vc 
be proved, or what he termed. 


the itrtxredrtia of things. In comniou life he may 
.let upon ip<uy6ium with the rot of men : nature, 
htw, and cusitom ore allowed to have their inliu- 
ence ; only when ira[jeiled to any vehement effort 
we are tu remember that, here too, there it much 
to be aoid on Iwth aides and are not to loac our 
peace of mind by graaping at a ahudow. 

The fuinoua idxa Tp6wei of the aceptics were a 
nunilier of heads of argument intended to ovor- 
tlirow truth in whatever form it might appear. 
[I'viiRintN.] The oppotite uppeaniiicea of the 
uinral mid rmturul world (Sext Kmp. i. 14), the 
fallibility of intellect and tenac, and die illuaioni 
produced ujion them by iutervali of time and apace 
and by every change of poaition, were the finl 
urguraenla by which they aaaailed the reality of 
thinga. We cainiot explain what nuui is we can- 
nut explain what the acnaes are: atill less do we 
know the way in which they are acted upon by 
the mind (ii. 4 — 7): beginning with ooS^v dpl^w, 
we mUHt end with ov5<f /ioAAor. We are not 
certjun whether material objecta ore anything but 
ideaa in the mind : at any tale the different qua- 
lities which we perceive in them may be wholly 
defiendent on the percipient being ; or. auppoaing 
them to contain quality as well as aubatance, it 
m^>y be one quality varying Hnth the periTplive 
[lOwer of the different aenaes. (ii. 14.) Having 
thua confounded the world without and the world 
within, it woA a natiu^ tnmaition for the aceptio 
to confound physical and nietaphyaical arguments 
The rcaaoninga of natural philoi^ophy were over- 
thrown by nietaphyaical subtleties and mclaphy- 
aica made to look abaurd by illustrutiona only ap- 
pliaiblc to material things The acknowledged 
imperfection of Luignage waa also presaefl into the 
aervice ; words they said, were ever varying in 
their signification, ao that the ideas of which they 
were the signs must be alike variable. The lend- 
ing idea of the whole syst^'m was, that all truth 
involved cither a vicious circle or a potitio priu- 
cipii, for, even in the simplest truths aoniething 
must be assumed to moke the reasoning ajiplicoble. 
The truth of the senses was known to us from the 
iutellecl, but the intellect operated through the 
aenavs so that our knowlinlge of tlie nature of 
eitlier dep^'nda upon the other. There was how- 
ever, a di-epi'r hide to this philosophy. Kverj-- 
thing we know, confessedly, runs up into suiia<- 
thing we do not know : of the true nature of cause 
and effect we are ignorant, and hence to the 
fjirounte method, dird ToiJ rif £ircipoi' iit0a\\tw, or 
arguing backward frtim cause to caua«-, tlie very 
imperfection of human £aculties prevents our 
giving an answer. Wc must know what we 
believe ; and how can we be sure of secondary 
causes if the first cause be whoU}' beyond us? 
To judge, however, from the sketch of Sextus 
Kinpiricus (Pyrrb. Hn-p,), it was not this side 
of their system which the iceplics chiefly urged : 
for the most part, it must be confessi-d, liiat they 
contented tliemaelves uith dialectic subtleties 
whicb were at once too absurd for refutation, and 
impossible to refute. 

The causes of scepticism are more fully givt>n 
under the article Pyrkho.n. One of tlie must re- 
markable of its features was its connexion with the 
hiter philosophy of the Ionian K'hooL From the 6ul- 
ure of their attempts to exphiiii tile phenomena of 
the visible world, the Ionian philosophers were in- 
ftcnsiljlv led on to denv the order and harmuiiv of 



creation : they raw nothing but a pcrpetool and 
I evpr-clmnfpng chaos, acted upon, or mther R>lf- 
acting, by an mhemit power of motion, of wliich 
the nature was only known by ila effects. This 
wn« ihe doctrine of Heracleitus that **the world 
wa* a tire evor kindlin;^ and going out, which mndo 
[■ftll thiiitr* and wiik all ihingK/* It wns thin link of 
connexion betwren thi* iwfptical and loniati MrhnoU 
which Acne«idcnmft attempted to restore. The 
doctrine uf HeradtitUA, although it ipoke of a mb- 
1I0 tire, reidly meant nothing mure tlian n principle 
of change; and although it might teem abhurd to 
s ftrict sceptic like Sextu» Enipiriai* to affirm even 
a principlr of change, it involvi>d no real incoiuiv 
tcncy with the iccpticiil tyitem. We are lt?fl to 
conjecture as to the way in which Aene«idemu6 
urived at hi* conclutions : the following account of 
them tecmt probahlr. It «i!l be seen, from what 
baft been said, that the Hcrpticiil nystem had de- 
•troyed everything but H-nsalion. But teniation i* 
the effect of change, thr principle of motion work- 
ing internally. It wai vrry natural then that the 
, Krptic proceeding from the only d^x4 which re- 
\ Kiaiitcd to himt fthould tuggeit an ejrplanalion of 
the outward world, derived from that of which 
•lone he wa* certain, hi* own intenml kenflattonft. 
The mere •ugge^tion of a probable caune mifiht 
•eeiQ incoDniktrnt with the distinction which the 
•crptira drew between thfir own abiiolute uiicer- 
' taiuty and the probability t|H>krn of by the 
^Acmdemicft : indeed, it wo* inconkiAtcfit with their 
tnrlaphr*icnl pamdnxe* to dmw concluMon» at all : 
if no, we muit b« content to allow that Aenv^ide- 
mu* (as Sextuft Krapiricuii implies) got a little be- 
yond the dark region of scepiiciam into the light 
of probability. 

Other icattercd npinioui of Aenesidenius hare 
been prMerved to u«, wme of which teem to lead 
to the same conclukion. Time, he said, was r6 Jjr 
and r6 it^f^op vafia (Pyr. Hyp. iii. 17), prnbnbly 
iu ultitKiun to tht* doctrine of the Stoicv that all 
' existing subitance* were ffiifiara: in other 
irnnls, he meant to «ar that time was a realty ex- 
sting thing, and not nicrety a condition of thought. 
iThi* was ciHUH'cttd with the principle of change^ 
ivhich wiu infeepamble front a notion i>f time : if 
the one had a real exi«tencc (and upon iu caitt- 
cfhrc the whole syttcm defended), the other must 
"kewiftc have a real existence. In another place, 
ptmg hi* language to that of Heracleilus* be 
'*tinitt was air" (Sexl. fjnp. wlc. IjOfiicnt^ 
I probably meaning to illu«tnte it by tlie 
' • natarv of air, in the «aue way that 
motion of the worid wa* mid to work by a 
sithilr and invitible fin, All things, according to 
diH-trine, were but ^onfOftMya whirh irere 
vu|iht out and adapted to our prrceptiiins by 

•ir fT!f»"v' '"':'irif7il|y they might 

IW Mi<: >t uf lltnicleitoft'ti 

■Tr. I: i:ti h»w thiN unian 

of oppu«tU-* uuvlt* ilu-'iu MTittitile tn the facttltir* of 
man . pmtublv he wuuM mthrr have nuppurtrd 
'" thr mind conocjr- 
I a *ute of motion, 
. 1*., in a state of inn- 
III. Itiit ^aivtf^Ka are of two kinds 
m f^^'.t Kmp. ativ. />y, il 8), the 
yUMptions "' - and thosp rnnunon to 

nMdUttd. I ' .rnrftidrnuu necmi to lose 

rryiioki i^ *urttt, wbicli (in spTciitation 
kaet) admiCUai no dDgma of truth, doubt, or 


probability. The kouie remark tippliett to his ( 
tiiiction of K^Knins into Mera^aruc^ and /utim 
Tiinf, simple mutinn luid chongr. He st^ems alaoi 
have opposed the pcqdexity which the M-epcicsl 
dravoured to bring about between matter 
mind ; for he OAnerted that thought wai indep 
dent of tlie UkIv, and '^tlmt the ^eutient pon 
looked out through the cnuiniea of the schm 
(Adv. Lotj. i. 34!).) Lastly, his vigorous 
was aliove the paltry confusion of physical • 
metaphysical distinctions; for he decla 
HerBclettUK, **that a port was the a 
whole and yet different from it," The 
culiority of hi* »yttem was the atteu>pt to an 
soepticieon with the eoHicr philosophy, to nuieJ 
poNitire foundation for it by accounting from < 
nature of thingn fur the never-ceasing changes I 
in the material and spiritual world. 

SexiU!4 F.inpiricuK haft preserved hii argun 
againkt our knuu ledge of causes, as well aa j 
of eight methods by which all a yriori 1 
may be confuted, as all ai;guments whati 
be by the Bixa rpSwai, h Either the cauae i 
is unseen, and not proven by things wrn, as iCi 
person were to explain the motions of the [ 
by the music of the spheres. II. Uf if the < 
be icen, it cannot be shewn to exclude oU 
hypotheses : we muKt not only pTO\-c the 
but diipote of every other cause. III. A regit 
effect Oiay be attributed to an irregular 
OS if one were to ex]dain the moiitmi of 
heavenly bodies by a sudden tnipulftc. IV. , 
argue from things »oen to thing* unsc4-n, u» 
ing that they are governed by the same km 
V. Causes only menu opinion* of causes, which I 
inconsistent with phenometui and M'itb other < 
nions. VI. Kquolly probable causes ore 1 
or rejected as they agree with thi* or that [ 
ceived notion. VII. Thei* cauM-s arc at vari 
with phenomena ob well lu with abitnu'i principk 
VIII. Principleit muf>t be uncertain, ttroiuse T 
fact6 from which they proceed are uocertuiu. (Pj 
Hyp. i. I", ed. Kabr.) 

It ii to be regretteil that nothing is knows | 
the penonal history of Aenekidemus. A list of | 
work* and a sketch of their conti*nts have 
pre.MTved by Pholins. (Cod. 21*2.) He was 1 
author of three book* of riifvWi'fiat 'Tworv 
and i* meiitionetl as a Tvceut teacher of philo 
by Arictocles. {JptKt EutL. I*ra^nit\iL /vVt 
xiv. 18.) It is to AcnecidcmuR that SextvaJ 
piricu* was indebted for a cuusidcrablr pMt t 
work. [B.J4 

AENE'TE (A*Fi(ni), a daughter of Eo 
and wife of Aeneus, )>y whiuu »bo bad a 
Crxiaia, the founder of the town of thi* : 
(Apollon. Hhod. i. 950; Orph. Arytm.,W2, wb 
she is called Aenippc.) [L. S.] j 

AK'MCUS (Al^iifof), a Greek poet of tbe 4 
comedy, whose pkiy "Arrtta is referred to by f 
das. (jr. r. At¥tKot.) He seems to be the aam* I 
Kunicu* mintioned by Pollux, (x. 100.) {\\\ 

AKNI'DKS, a fntmnjTnic from Aeneas, wb 
b Ipplied by Valerius Klaccu« (lii. 4) to the 
habitAiita oif CyxkruK, whu*e town was beliav 
to have been founded by Cyzicus, the son 
Aeneaa. (L. &] , 

AKC/UOES (AtoAiSiff), a patnnymic gifeal 
the SOUK of Ar<iluft, as Athanias {Or. Mtt. 
511), Magm^ (Pans. vi. *J1. | 7)« Mocareaa (G 
JUaC ia. &0U). Uiacnus (Virg. Am^ vi. U 


i«tTT< ■■'■' •'-- liii. -20 ; Horn. //. vi. 15-1), 
CMftr. ri. -JS;). locittut (Tzctz. wi 

If^- 1 1 hif granHsnns lu Cepbaliu 

(Oi. Ma li. <.21 ), Odvnnu (Virg. An. vi. 529), 
jJPlUTiov (VoL Fljicc. i. 286.) Acilisi i« the 
of xhe fenule dcAccndanU of Acolua, 

1 ti> h» (Uugfatera Cornice and AIcvodv. 

.*/.* .. ^73; fUraiiL xi. 5.) [L. S.] 

~ I AlbAot). In the mythical hialory 

r'< are tbre« perwrnage* of thift name, 

%i> tn ^luiuEO of fa; ancient writen as connected 

9itk lA* aooth^. bat thi* cunoexion i» io C(in- 

Ibb^ t' ^'.Mihle to ^.nin a dear new of 

im. MK. p. 1»H. &c.) We«haU 

i.'., .^.-., -. Uo distuiguuhea between the 

ia other puaiM* be coofuundt 



1. A ton of Hellen and the nymph OrteTt. and 
of Dorn> and Xnthiu.. He is described 

mfef of Th«u]y, and regnrded oa the 
«t the Aeolic liranch of the Oret-fc nation. 
Enatete, the daughUT of Deunnchiu, 
If «Wm be had KTen sons and five daughters, 
mi mamlins to tome writen still more. (.\paUod. 
iT. |8; S«iol. aJ /\»./. Pf<i. ir. ISO.) Ac- 
eaJsf to MtiilerS supposition, the most ancient 
sriory kiiew only of four sons of 
^•yphus, Athamaa, Cretheus, and 
as ibc xepresentatives of the four main 
at the Aeolic race. The great extent of 
vliicli Uiit race occupird, and the desirv of 
^K^ part of is tu Uikce iu origin to some descend- 
aa df AsotuA, probohly gave ri«e to the rar^nng 
■oavM akout the number of bis chililren. .\c- 
II till (o Ujginos (Fnf: 23B. 242) Aeoln.i hod 
^ aA ml Ibc name of Macareus who, after hav- 
■g emasned inceit with hi> siiter CaruKe, put 
a aJ I* ilia own Uf>'. According to Ovid (//inviu/. 
U)Aaal«> liiTrw the fruit of thui love to the 
ft^ mii srnt bis danghter a sword hv which she 
«»*• kil bmrlf. (Comp. Plut. f'anJUI. p. 312.) 
Z [Halorus (iv. fi7) nys that the second 
JUi4^ w;ia thf grrat-gmndflun of the first Aeolus, 
bail tbs seo of Hippoles and Mehinippc, and 
Av ^and*aa ni Mimas the son of Aeolus. A me, 
tfb iwigliTil of this second .\eotuA, aftcrwanls be- 
W Mt^r of a third Aeolus. (Comp. F'aus. ix. 
A f &) In another paMOjfc (r. 7) Diodonis rc- 
/rwvta iW third Aeolas as a ton of Hippnte<i. 

2. A a ' J i'iinz to sonie accounts a s4in of Hij)- 
I - L- to others, of Poseidon and 
L of the second Aeolus, ilin 

vlxicn pnHMiiii refrra to the emigration of a 
■■■kef dM Aeoliui* to the west, is ilius related : 
1b»4b[1bhI to hor fiiiher that the was with child 
W t^i^loo, bot her Cither disbelieving her siate- 
aob ^v* bcr to a ittnnger of Metapontuni in 
vbfi lonk her to his n.-\tive town. Here the 
in hi r of two sons, Hneotui* and Aeo- 
^L)k vfajo were adopt«-d by the man of Meta- 
M^ in aopanUnce with an oracle. When they 
Urf ipwn vp to manhood, they took poKM-'^nion of 
te mrnr^iKty of Metapontum by force. Hut 
•ta a <ti^mtf aAcrwardt arose between their 
■4ar An>» oad tkeir foater-mother Autnlyte, the 
Ma Intkan akv the latter and lied with their 
a^MV tnm MelapoDCam. Aeolus went to Mtme 
4afc ta ik* Tfirneiiiin sea, which received from 
Mb a* aa^ of the Aeolian island <, and accnrd- 
^ It »m» w«nintt hrnilt the toa-n of Liparn. 
n«d. iv <7, V. J.) Here he reig;i-d aa a just 

and pions king, liehaved kindly to the natives, 
and Iiiuglil them the iijie of tails in nuvigiitinn. iind 
fon-told them from signs which he oh»ervcd in the 
tire the nature of the winds thot were tn rise. 
Hence, says Diodorua, Aeolus is described in 
mythology as the ruler over the winds, and it wna 
this Aeolus to whom Odysseus came during bis 
wanderings. A difien-nt account of the matter it 
given by Hyginut. {fab. llifi.) 

In tbcrso accounts Aeolus, the father of the 
.\eoIiau race, is place<l in rektionship with Aeolut 
the ruler and god of the winds. The ground work 
nn which this connexion lias been fonned by later 
poets and mythogruphers, is found in Homer. (OA 
X. "J, &C.) In Homer, however, Aeolus, the son 
of Hipfiotes, is neither the god nor the father of 
the winds, but merely the happy nder of the 
.\eolian island, whom Cmnion had made the 
Ta/i/))i of the winds, which he might soothe or ex- 
cite according to his pleasure. {OJ. x. 21. &.c.) 
This statement of Homer and the etymolugj' of 
iho name of Aeolus friim diWu wcrw the cause, 
that in later times Aeolus ivaa regarded ai the god 
and king of the winds, which be kept enclosed in 
a mountain. It is therefore to him that Juno ap- 
plies when she wishes to destroy the fleet of the 
Trojans, (Virg. Arn. i. 7U.) The Aeolian iskind 
of Homer \v:is in the lime of Pausonias Vielioved to 
be Liiiura ( Paus. x. 1 1. ^ 3), and this or Strongyla 
was accordingly regarded in later times as the place 
in which the god of the winds dwelled. (Viiig- 
^e«. \-iii. 416, i. 52; Stnib. vi. p. 27C.) Other 
accounts place the residence of Aeolus in Thrace 
(Apollon. Khod. i. U54, iv. 765 ; Cnllim. Jfymn. 
in ImL 26), or in the neighbourhood of Rhegiuin 
in Italy. (Tretx. t«/ £v>^Ar. 732; comp. Dtod. 
V. 8.) The following pasaages of later pools also 
sliew how universally Aeolus had gradually como 
to be n-gardod n« a god : Ov. Mri. i. 264, xL 748, 
liv. 223; Vol. Flaw. i. 575; Quint. Smym. xiv. 
475. Whether be waa represented by the an- 
cients in nTirks of art it nut certain, but we now 
|>assess no reprcsonlation of him. [L. S.] 

AE'PYTUS (ATrrwot). 1. One of the mythi- 
cal kings of Artudia. He was the son of Kibitut 
(Pind. Ul. vi. 54). .ind originally ruled over Pline- 
sarui on the .Mpheius in .'\rcadia. When Cleil-ir, 
the son of .\xaii, died without leaving any iwiiie, 
Aepylus succeeded him .-uid became king of the 
.\rc;uliuns, a juut of whose country wot calle<l 
lifter him Aepylit. (Paus. viii. 4. §'4. 34. § 3.) 
He is Hiid to have been killed during the chase on 
mount Sepia by the bite of a venomous tjiakc. 
(Pirns, viii 4. S 4, 16. § 2.) His tomb there w.ia 
still shewn in the time of Pausauiati, and he waa 
unxiout to tee it, because it vrus mentioned in 
Homer. (//. il 604.) 

2. The youngest son of Crcsphontet the }le- 
rnclid, king of Messenio, and of Merojie. the 
daughter of the Aimdian king Cj-pselus. Cre»- 
phontes and his other sons were murdered during 
an insurrection, and Aepylus alone, who waa 
educated in the house of hit gnuidfiitlier Cypsclna, 
escaped the danger. The throne of Cresphontos 
W!i« in the meantime occupied by the Hemclid 
PoljTjbontes, who also forced Mero|)e to liecome his 
wife, (ApoUod. li. 8. S 5.) When Aepuus hjid 
grown to manhood, be was enabled by the aid of 
Holcas, bis fitther-inlaw, to return lu his kingdom, 
punish the murderers of hit fiither, and put Poly- 
phonies to death. He left a son, tilaucut, and il 



WM from him that subtequcnllr iht; kings of Nfi-s- 
■enia were callnl AepTtid« instead of dtc morv 
general name IlcracIitU. (Puu«. iv. 3. § 3, Ax*., 
TiiL 5. 5 5; Hygin. Ftth. 137, 184.) 

3. A ion of Hippothons and king of Arcadia. 
ile was a grcflt-gnuid»on of the AepytUK mentioned 
first He was reigning at the time when (truittcs, 
in connequcnce of an orocle, left Myccn/u? and 
•ettled in Arcadia. Tliertt waa at Mantini'iii a 
•auctuary, whirh down to the lati^l time no mortal 
waJi ever allowed to enter. Aepytus diftrcgardin^ 
the aacred custom cn>ue<l the threnhold, but niiA 
immediately ttruck with blindne&s and died aoon 
after. He was ftuccecded by hiH »on C^'piwOuA. 
(Pbu«, Tiii. 5. § 3.) [U S.J 

AE'ItlUS ('A*pioi), Heretic, the intimate frirtid 
of Euttatliiuft of Sebatte in .Armenia, a. d. .'i(>0, 
Wft* living when St. Rpiphoniufc wrote hi» Uook 
against Ilen*«ieft, k. d. 374-ti. After living tt»gr- 
thtT an awtic life, Euvtnthiiu was mioed to thr 
ept»co[iAte, and by iiim At-riuh was ordained prictit 
and 'H't over the IlospitiU {vrmxo^po^lw) of Pon- 
tuii. (St. Epipb. ath, iStirr. 7■^. § 1.) But uotliing 
could oUay the envy of AeriuH at the elevutinn of 
his compttuioiL CanriMt and threatii wen? in vain. 
and at hut he left Eastathius, and publicly occuited 
him of cnvetouiineAt. He auembled a ircxtp of 
men and woudmi, who with him prufeMi'd tho 
renunciation of all worldly goodfr ((^oro^laj. De- 
nied entrance into the towns, they roamed about 
the field*** and lodged in the open air or in cares 
rKp«aed to the iiicl**niency of the teaions. Aerius 
superadded to the iireligion of Anus the following 
crrofii : I. The denial of a difference of order be- 
tween a bishop and a prifiU 2. The rejection of 
prayer and almn for the dead. 3. The refusal to 
oliM'rve Easter and stated fiuts, on the ground of 
such olMervaoce* being Jewish. St. Epiphuniu» 
refutes these errors. (7. e.) There were remains 
of hi* fuHoweni in the time of Sl .\uguittine. (.Mr. 
/Vurr. % .53, ?oL Tiil p. 18, which was written 
A. D. 4'28.) [.\.J. C] 

AE'UOPE CAsprfwij), a daughter of Craleu*. 
king nf Crete, and gmnddanghter of Mioos. Her 
fiither, who had received an oracle that he should 
\am bis life by one of hi» children, gave her and 
b«r natrr, Clymcnr, to NaiipIiuK who waA to kU 
lh«n in a fur^ign lamt Another >i*tt>r, Apentone, 
and her brother, Aetheraenea, who hud heard of tlic 
oracle, hatl Irfl Crrte and pww to Rhotles. Aerope 
aliorwanU uiarrietl Pleitttbenr%, tlic i»on of Auvus, 
ftfid bnauue by liim the mother of Agamemnon 
and Mciieliius. (ApoUod. lii. *i. § 1, Ar. ; Serv. nti 
An. i. 45U : Duty* Cret. i. 1.) Afu-r tlie dratli 
of Plrifttheiie* .At*ropG married .AtrruK and hrr Imo 
sons, who were mlucntcHl by Atreus, wrrc grnenUly 
brlirvnl to be his 4ons, Ao'rtipe. bowerer, became 
fiiithles* to Atreus, being seduced by Thyevivs. 
(Eurip. Orvtt, 5, Alc, IhUn. 3ft7 ; Hygiiu /•oA, 
87 I ^hoL od Horn, IL ii. 24d ; Serr. ad Aeu. xi. 
2tia) [L. S.) 

AE'ROPUS CAipons). 1. The bmther of 
Prrdkau, who waa the fint king of Macedonia of 
the landly of Trmenus. (Herod, riiu 137.) 

%m 1. King of Macrdonia. the son of Philip I., 
the neat-gmndson of I'erdicra*, the fir%t king, and 
Uw bther of Aloetta. (Herod, viii. 139.) 

3. IL King rf Manwlnnia, mrdiim of Omtea, 
ih« 1011 of ArchtlM^ n%Ked ncsriy six y«art 
from % c. SdO. Th« fint faiir jvaT% of this time 
h» tvigiwd jointly iritb OpM(n» nod the nrutaindcr 


alone. He was succeeded by his son Pati 

( I»iod. xiv. 37, 8-i ; Dexippu^rt;*. Sym>eiL p. 2tf3,i 

comp. Polym^n. ii. 1. § 17.) 

AE'SACUS (Ateroxos), a Ron of Priam 
Arisbc, the daughter of Merops, from whom Aa 
cui learned the art of inl**rpreiiTig dreams. 
Hecuba during her pregnancy with Paris ( 
that ithe was giring birth to a burning 
wood which spread oanflsgration through 
whole city, Aesacus explained tbik to mean, thii^ 
she would give birtli to a son who would lie the 
ruin of the city, aiid accordingly recomme^ided the 
expo«nre of the child after its birth. [Pxiua.], 
AeMU-'u* hiniwlf was mtirried to Atterope, 
daughter of the river-god Cebren, who died «a 
and while he wa» lumrnting her death he 
changed into a bird. (ApoHud. iii. 12. § A.) C 
(jl/tf/. xi. 7<^0) relates his story differenll}*. 
curding to him, Aesacui was the son of Alexirl 
the daughter of the river Granicu*. He livi-d 1 
frtim bin fatlier's court in the aoliiude of mounts 
forcfttiw Ileiipcria, however, the daughtl 
Cebren, kindled lore in his heart, and on < 
casiuu while he was pumuing her, she ' 
by a viper and died. Aeuicaa in his grief tfr 
himself into the sea and was cliangcd by Tb 
into an atpmiic bird. 

A V.'^A K A (AiV((fKi), of Lucnnia, 
Pythagorean [:hiloftophcr, said to be a ( 
Pythagonu, wiotea work ''about llunuui ] 
of which a fragment is preterved by Slo 
{Ed. L p. 847, ed. Heeren.) Some editoraj 
buto thiA fragment U* ArcMU, one of the lu 
of Pnhngoras, but Benlley prvfeni reading j 
She ift also mentioned in the life uf Pyt' 
(<!/.. Phol. C<mI, 24D, p. 438, b. ed. IlekkrV), 
llcntley readft Kiaipa instead of 2^^ (/ 
Hfum /'ftalarit, p. 277.) 

AE'SCH INKS (Awrx^i^j), the orator, m-ns 1 
in Attica in the demus uf Cuthocidat*, in u. r. J 
ns it clear from hi* «|>rfi-|i against I'imarchut | 
70), wb ch was delivtred in a c 34o. and 
which ho himn-if layft that he was then in his f 
fifth year. He wu» the ion of Tromc* ( 
cuthea, and if we litleu to the account of ] 
thenes, hik political antagunitL, hi« fiitbcr i 
a fre4! citi»n of Athens oat had been a 
the houw of El]jias a scboolmast4*r. Aft«r t 
turn of the Athenian exileb undex Tbn 
Tromes himRclf kept a small M'hiKd, and Ao 
in hit youth a»siBt«^ his father and 
such icmcei at were unworthy of a frt* Alhw 
youth. Demoslhcnci further ktates, lliat 
i-liin''«, in order in conccnl the low conditiuji uf t 
fatht-r, chjuigi'd bin imme Tnimcs into Alrume 
and that he afterwards usur|*ed the right* of i 
Athenian citizen. (Dem. A'^<iroi*. pp 313.3 
27(1) The mother of AcKhines i* described i 
origiimlly a diincer and a proKtitul*', who twn 
her marrij^re with I'rtjmeii continued to 
unlawful practices in her hoiiM?, and made 
by initiating low and Mi|M>ntiuuuft persona 
iort of private uvfti-'ries. She it mid to 
been grncrally known ai Athent under the ni 
name l-jnpusa. Ace>(trding to Aetchiues btmiol^l 
on the other hand, his fiilher Atrnmetu* wa 
Hrndcd from an honnurable fiunitj, and w^ 
•ame way even connected with the nolde 
&fflily of the Eteobutndne, He was origitUUy 
athlete, but lo«t hi* pntfierty dtiring the tim« 
the Pcloponnction war, and wns nfter^i'ards dri' 


fiaa ki* WSMrf iuuUt Ibe tvmonjr of the Thirty. 
It* t^i •mrj in the Atheiiiiin amiiea in A>ia 
mt tfvitt iIh< rrnuiiidrr of hi> lifr lit Athrna, at 
tM ta ladact-tl circuiu>taDCM. (Ancli. Dt fnU. 

IthrwiiTI citiBc-ii, lUiiJ tbc diiughtcr of (Ilaiicio* of 
AclukRHC Which nf thra« accuuiits i« true, cnn- 
•«t be ^NifWd, but there «nriDft to be no doubt 
Um T)»Wiiiltiiiiii i» ^iltr of L'xnggoration in hii 
•flh* pBTrntt of AcKhiuv* uul hii early 

had two brotbert, one of whom. Phi- 
older than himnolf^ and the otht-r, 
the yoangc*t of the three. Phi- 
al one time one of the ten Alheniiin 
•n offlar which wu conferred upon him 
Ifciw* nteomuTc yean ; Aphubetus followed 
of a scribe, but hud once liven icnt on 
ty tn the king of Peralii and waa after- 
■A cmne^'t^l w-iih the adiniuiAtmcion of the 
pirifat ivTvAoe of Athvn*. (Ae«cb. Dt /oU, Zej/. 
^ A) All ibaK tliin^n •e<rm to ointain ■tronx 
t* ' ■ '"i .Illy of Aetchini-^ although 
■ : -i wnie rcipcclability. Ile- 

b.. . u-li nothing ciu \k uid with 

ly, cxcir|>i iti>il he auitted his fiither in hit 
and that aftcr«*anU* being of a strong and 
cotiUilutiiiru he %:v> employed in the 
n^M» lot money, to contend with other young 
■M te Uvif 'Xerriir^ (Uem. />e C<irox. p. 313; 
ftaiu rSL X araL Actdt. p. 840.) It i> a fitvourite 
fSB^ 0^ hUe writers to phice great onitora, pbilo- 
■aadb*^ ^acta, Ac-, in the ri'lalion of teacher and 
«|ate tA m>* sfiotlier. and accordingly Aetchiueit 
li nvMnted a» u di>dple of SocrBti-t, Plato, and 
If tJie«« ttatentmt4, which axe even 
by tho ancient* themsrlvcM, were 
itmm would not hnTe omitted to men- 
the many opportunities he had. The 
~ orator and statesman AriNtophon en- 
ri^ as a •cribe, and in the some 
aOcrsruils terred Kubiilus, n man of 
ith the democrulical pjirty, with 
fnmcd an intimate friendship, .ind to 
principlr« he remained faithful to 
t£ Iris life. That he served two yean ns 
^tfhtttn, from his eigliiei'uth to his twentieth 
tioK. 9* all Ttmng men at .\theus did, Aeschines 
{btjUk. ! '1 t'lprrsaly slates, ami this 

af training must probably be 

bei.. - -. - iJiat be acted a* a icrilie to 

i foe we hnd that, after leaving the 
■r Eulmlus, be tried his fiirtuoe a* an actor, 
Iv vtiaii h« was provided by nature with a strnng 
■ij annsnii* < oice. He acted the poru nf TfUTo- 
^SNStfT^ ImS v«* uiuucccMfiil, and on one occa- 
Mi^ «hm he was performing in the rharui-ter 
rf Qtoafliattsk waa hisaed off the stage. (I>em. 
AOtm. r>- -08-) Afu-r this he left the stage 
■I^MMied to military ser^'ices, in which, accord- 
^ts his own accouut (Dt faU. Lnj. p. 50), he 
paarf grost disliiKlion. (Comp. [)em. Dr fait. 
£ap, |k 37&.) After sctrrat len important engnge- 
in 9ih«r parts of (irrete, Xw di9tin:.tii>lit'd 
io IL c 3(i'.' in the buttle uf Maijliiiria; 
in & r. 3.$(l, he al»> tuk port in 
of the Athenians ag-.iiii»t Kubora, 
hi the battle of Tainyiiai-, aud on this 
he (■intd such Linrels, that he was praised 
If ^ a^oab on the tpni. and, after the tiitory 
Hirt to carry the news of it to 


Athens. Tcmenides, who was sent with him, 
bors! witness to his coumge and bravery, and the 
Athenians honoun-d him with a crown.' (Aeach 
Ue/aJt Lrg.f.h\.) 

Two years before this campaign, the hist in 
which he took part, he had cnme forwiml nt .\thens 
as a public speaker (Aescli. Epul. 12), and the 
inilitarj- ferae which he hod now arqniivd estab- 
lished his reputation. Ilia former occupation as a 
scribe to Aristophon and Eubulus had made him 
acquainted with the laws and constitution of 
Athens, while his acting on the stage had Iteen a 
usefiil pn-|nratian fur public speaking. During 
the first period of hit public ciu>eer, be was, like 
all other Athenians, seolously engaged in directing 
the attention of his felloiv-cititens to the growing 
power of Philip, and exhorted them to check it in 
Its ^^wth. After the (iil) of ((K-nihut in B. r. 
348, Enbulus prevailed on the Atiienions to send 
an embassy to Peloponnesus with the object of 
uniting the (irecks against the common enemy, 
and Aeschincs was sent to Arcadia. Here Aea- 
chines spoke at Megalopolis against Hiemnymus, 
an emissary of Philip, but without success ; and 
fnitn this moment Aeschines, as well as oil his 
fellow-citi7.en^ gave up the hope of effecting any- 
thing by the united forces of (irvece. (Dera. IM 
faU. U,j. pp. 344, 438 ; Aesch. Ik fats. Uij. p. 3«.) 
When therefore Philip, in D. r. 347, gave t)ie 
.\tlieniaas to understand that he was inclined to 
moke peace with them, Philocrates urged the ne- 
cessity of sending on embassy to Philip to treat on 
the subject. Ten men, and among them Aeschincs 
and Demosthenes, were accordingly sent to Philip, 
who received them with the utmost poUteneHa,and 
Ae»chincs, when it was his turn to speak, re- 
minded tlie king of the rights which Athens had 
to his fricndhhip and alliance. The king promised 
to send forthwith jimhasaadors to Athens to nego- 
tiate the tenns of peace, AfWr the return of the 
.\tb'-nian amlnundora they were each rewarded 
with a wreath of olive, on the proposal of Demaa- 
thenes, fur the manner in which they had di»- 
chai^ed their duties. Aeachines from this moment 
forward was infleEible In his ojiinion, that nothing 
bat peace with Philip could avert utter ruin from 
his country. That this was perfectly in accordance 
with what Philip wished is clear, but there is no 
reason fur siipjMsing, that Acschines hod been 
bribed into this opinion, or that he urged the 
necessity of p<-acc with a view to ruin his country. 
(Aesch. to Claijik p. O"".'.) Antijnter and two 
other Macedonian ombasaidors arrived at Alliens 
soon after the return of the Athenian onea, and 
after various debates Demostlienes urgently advised 
the people to conclude the peace, and speedily to 
wnrl other ambassadors to Philip to receive his 
oath to it. The only difference Ix-tween Aetchines 
and Demosthenes was, that the former would have 
concluded the peace even without providing for 
the .^theni.on allies, which was happily prevented 
by Deniohtheties. Five Athenian amboscadorn, 
and among them Aetfhines but not Demosthenes 
{De C'onm. p. '23.')), s<!t out for Maeedonia the 
more speedily, as Philip was making war upon 
Cersobleptes, a Thracian prince and ally of Athens. 
They went to Pello to wait for the arrival of 
PhiUp from Thrace, and were kept there for a con- 
siderable time, fur Philip did not come until he 
had completely subdued Cenoblepteik At last, 
however, he swore to the peace, Irom which the 



Phociiuift vcn rxpre»hiy excluded. Philip honour- 
ed the Athenian uuluusadon with rich prrftcnts, 
proniitod to rc«tort' all Athenian prisonem without 
miMtom, and wmtc a polite letter to the people of 
Allien* Apologizing for having detained their um> 
btusulan fo Ung. (Dcm. /V /tiU. Lt'i. pp. SS-t, 
405.) llyporidea and Tinmrchuy, the former of 
whom W1U a friend of l)emo«theuev, brought for- 
Tord nn occoxttion ngoinit the imbaMudorm, 
chMKing them with high tmunn ngninU the re- 
pnblK, becauK they were bribed by the king. 
Ttnuucfaus nccusCMl Ae4Khinci, and l!)'peride» Phi- 
Incrates. But Aenchineii eroded the danger by 
bringing fiirward a eouitter-occuMition ugninil 
Tiuiorchut (r. i\ HiS), and by ahewing tliat the 
moral conduct of hit necutcr was such that he hiui 
no right to ipcalc bi-fore the people. Tho speech 
in which .\rwhine« attoikod Timarcliuii is «till ex- 
twil. ujul it> eti'cct Wiis thiit Tiiunnrhun wn> ol>li|{i'd 
to drop hi* accusation^ and .\e11cbine-4 giiined a bril- 
liant triiunplu The operations of PhiJip after this 
pcttoc-, and hit monrh towards Themiopyhie« mode 
the Athenians rcrj- nneasy, and Aeschiiiet, though 
he otsured tile people that the king had no hotlile 
intentions towards Alliens and only intended to 
cfaattite Thebit, wot again requested to go at om- 
bouador to Philip and insure hit abiding by the 
termt of hit poacr. But he deferred going on the 
pretext thai he wot ilL (Deni. DcfuU. Lnj. p. 
337.) On his return he pretended that the king 
had sectt'tly confided to him thiit he would iiuder- 
take nothing agninst either Phocit or .\tlient. 
DamottbciMa aaw through the king's plant at well 
a* the tmchery of Anchinet, and how just hit 
apprehensions were becumc evident soon after the 
return of Aeschines, when Philip announced to the 
Athenians thnl lie hud taken potseition of Phocit. 
The people of Athens, however, were silenced and 
lulled into security by the repeated Ostunuicct of 
the king and iho venal umtors who ndvocntod hi« 
cause at .\theiis. in B. t. 346, Aeschinet wot 
taol 01 n^cTfipas to the assembly of the aiiiphic- 
tyons at Pyhu which was couvokeil by Philip, 
nd at which he received givatcr honoon thin he 
floold ever have expected. 

At this time Aetchinei and Demootbeoe* were 
at the head of the two portiea, into which not 
onl^ Athens but all Oieeoe was divided, and 
their political enmity crratod and nourished pci^ 
tonal natred. This enmity cnine to a heml in the 
year a. c. U3, when Demosthenes charged .\e»- 
clitnet with having been bribed and having be- 
tmyrd the iiitere%is uf his country during the 
second emboMy to Philip. This duirge of Ueinu*- 
tbeiK* (irspl wa)>awptattl»i) was nut spoken, but 
publiihcil at a memurml, and Aeachioet answered 
II in ■ limilor memorial on the embassy (rspl 
— p <wiiw«*<lat), which vnt Ukewiw published 
(Vaa. Vt /all. U^. p. 337), and in tht aonpMi- 
tion of which he it said to mtc boa MifalM bj- 
his (rieiid Eubulus. The irtolt of these mutual 
attacks is unkiiovm, but there is do doubt that it 
gave a srrne shock In the popularity of Aeachinrt. 
At tlie time b« wmle hu memonal we gain a 
giimpsi* into hit private life. Some years before 
tlial orciinrni-c be had niorried a daughter of Phi- 
lod«oiu%, a man of high respectability in his trih« 
of Pouuiia. and iu MS he was Citlier of three 
liUla chUdieo. (Aetch. Dt/al,. I^j. f.y2.) 

It waa jtfobahly in B. 1. i\% that Antiphon 

*' iccaoii 

who bad n«a eailed and liicd in Macedonia. 

secretly returned to the Peinie«-«t with tho inten- 
tion of setting Are t^ the Atheninn hliips of war* 
Deinoslhenet discovered hini, and had hiia ar- 
retted. Aetchines denouncitd tho conduct of Dv- 
mosthenes at a violation of the democralical consti- 
tution. Antiphon was sentenced to death ; and 
although no disclosure of any kind could be ex- 
torU'd from him, still it secmt to have been be- 
lieved in many quorten that Ae!>cliine< had been 
his accomplice^ Henoe the honourable office of 
irivitKos to the sanctuary in Dclos, which had jutt 
lieon given him, was taken from bini and bettowed 
upon Hyperidet. (Dem< De Cunm. p. 271.) 
In B.C. 3411 Ae.ichincs was nguin present at I><-I|ihi 
as Athenian iruAa7dpa5, and caused the second 
skcred war against Amphitsa in Locris for lutrin; 
token into cultivation tome tacred landt. Philip 
entrusted with the tupreme command by the an- 
phictyons, matched into Locrii wiili an army of 
30,000 men, lavaged the country, and cstablithed 
himself in iU When in 338 be advanced south- 
ward as far OS Elnlaa, all Greece wot in conitema- 
lion. I)i-mokthenet alone persevered, and roused 
his countrymen to a hut and desp«^rate struggle. 
The battle of Cha*-roneia in this same year decided 
the fate of Greece. The misfortune of that day 
gave a handle to the enemies of Ueinosthenes for 
attacking him ; but notwithstanding the bribes 
which Aetchinet received fitun Aiitipatrr for ihi* 
purjiose, the pure and unstained palriolitm of lle- 
niosthenes was to generally recognised, that he 
n*ceived the bonoumble charge of delivering the 
funenil oration over thim^ who liiul fiiUen at Clue- 
nineio. Ctesiphon proposed that Ueniosthencs 
should be rewanled for ihc services be had doiM 
to his C4)untrf, with a golden cn)wii in the theatre 
At the great Dionysia. AeMihines availed himself 
uf ihe illegal fonn in which this reward was pro- 
posed to lie given, to bring a charge against Ctett- 
phon on that ground. But he did nut pmsecalc 
the nutter till eight years later, that is in B.C. 930, 
when after the death of Philip, and the victonet 
^*f .'Meximder, political al1air« hud assumed a dilE^ 
rent aspect in Greece. Aflx-r having commenced 
the pnMecutinn of Cte«ipl)on, be is said to haw 
gone for wirne time tu Miiu^Juniu. What indooed 
him to drop the prosecution of Ctesiphon, and la 
take it up ugoiii eight years afterward*, are qnea- 
lions which con only be answered by conjrclureik 
The speech in which he accused Clesiphnn in Hk C 
33U, and which is still extant, is so skilfiillj* ma- 
naged, that if he had succeeded he would hava 
totally destroyed all the piditical influence and 
authority of Dcinotthenea. The htlter aiiswerrd 
Aetchinet in hit celebrated ontion on the crowa 
(■*»fA oTt^divv). Even before Denioclhenea kad. 
finished his speech, Aeschines ocknowlodgad U^ ' 
self conquered, and withdrew from the cooit aadV 
bis country. When the matter wa* put to tho votM^ , 
not en*n a fifth of ihcm was m fiivour of AetdttoM. 
Aetchinet went to Asia Minor. The statement 
uf Plutarch, that Demotthenet provided him with 
the means of accomplishing his journey, it survl f a 
&dile. He spent several yean in Ionia and Garia, 
ocriipying himself with teaching rhetoric, aad 
anxiously waiting for the ivtum of Alexander to 
Kiirope. When in B. c. 3'J4 the report of the 
d»Ui of Alexander reached him, he left Asia and 
went to Rhodr^ where he established a school of 
eloquence, which nibtequently became yrj 
biated, and occupiet a middle potitioD bali 


> anlhaiaa of l!ir Anic uraton, and the offe- 
I litturiajiw of the lo-oailrd Aiiatic Mhool of 
Or one iKxiuioii he rrod to hia nuilipiicp 
I hi* •peech agauut Clesiphnn, nnil whiMi 
MMP of lu* hcaren cxprcMed their aitoni-shinent 
«t kit hafiag be«n d^frntrd notwitbitanding hi> 
ItflttMt mMMO, he Trplipd, ** Voti would craM to 
fc> MkfliahnU if jou hud henrd Drniof>th<Mic«.** 
(Cit. tm OnA al 56 ; PUn. H. M. rii. .10 ; Plin. 
f i) M U. 3 : QaioctiL xL 3. § S.) From Rliodet ho 
wmt la SaMot, when he died io n. c. 314. 

Tk« vondart of Aeachinn has bn^n ccntOKd by 
Ht ■! — ■ — •-' ^" •'?«;* ; and for thi» many rraunt 
n In the Ant phK*N and above 

t, i: iMnone to be coiutantly placed 

la jmxfc>p>*tLiua or oppo»ition to the ^jiotlrsa ^ory 
el theotmlhamee^ aud tUi* miut have made him ap- 
■ir iBV« guilty in the eye* of thote who uw 
I hi* action*, while in later times the con- 
i the gftat^st orators of the time was 
bafHBtly oMde the ibeme of rhetorical deckma- 
Ih^ (b which one of the two was praised or 
Ikaa^ M llw ciMt of the other, and less with rr- 
pirt la Imtk than to elfcct. Res|>cctitig the lost 
f«U <f hi* lite we acsrcely possess any other 
■^n fk mfcrmation than the sccnuntt of Inte 
■fliMi wl declamations. Another point tn 
|» mmtUUtvd in {orming a jmt estimate of the 
(bnator of Anchinct is that he had no ndvan- 
t^irs •€ nlucBlioo, and that he owed bis grratni'ss 
tsisoatf Wt bims«lf. His occu{utions during the 
aaly |Bit of his life were such as nece»arilr en- 
^■Amv4 Ia Ub the low desire of gain and wealth ; 
mA ImI Wr orc w ome these passions, he would 
ksft br^ e^nal to Demosthenes. There is, how- 
fsst, MM tbe sligbtMt ground for beJieving. that 
MtmUotB ncoBiamiei peace with Macedonia at 
fal If^ ^tj other motive than the desire of pro- 
IIm good of his country. Demosthenes 
in the same spirit at that lime, for 
of I'hilip ilrc.ived both of them. 
Dctuusthe/ies allen-d his policy on di»- 
; Cho OBcret intoutiona of the king, Aeschincs 
■I ta advocate the priiicipli-s of [»«ce. But 
I nolhifu; to juvtify the bflief that Aeschincs 
•• nin bis country, and it is much more 
thaS the crafty king made such an im- 
^emm apon him, tJuit he firmly believed he 
■•i ^tag fif ht, and was thus uucunaciously led 
m la bncaaw a traitor to his country. But no on- 
■■■I atiin vacrpt Ucotoathenaa choigcs him with 
lai«f icoavad brihca from the Macedonians for 
A* fmfmm at basminf hia eomitry. He appears 
■ hna bwa caniea away by the favour of the 
liai a*«l lh« people, who dplighte<l in hearing 
%im what they thrniw.lves wished, and, 
by the o]>|tnsttiou of Demosthenes 

•poke nn variiiua ocauions, but be 

anly three of his orations, namely, against 

on thy Kmtaiisy, and ogaiiut Ctcsiphon. 

he was mfchor to none but Denios- 

Ho waa aadowed by nature with cxtra- 

povtf^ of which his orations 

prp.if. Thf tVilily aud felicity 

llbc i 1 the rigour of bis 

arrr ...Icr now, as they 

'■■ )us Auiliencp. The nn- 

m V'' ''I) n-'marks, desigimtcd 

.1* the 6'njfrs, and the nine 

men extant in the time of I'hotius, 


a» the iUiurs. Besides the three orations, we now 
possess twelve letters which ore ascribed to Ae»- 
chines, which however arc in all proliability not 
more genuine than the so-cnlled epistles of Phalaria, 
and are nndouhtedly the work of late sophists. 

The principal sources of information concerning 
Aeschines arc : 1. The orations of Demosthenes on 
the Embassy, and on the Crown, and the orations 
of Aeschines on the Embassy and against Ctcsi- 
phon. Tbcw four orations were translated into 
I.dtin by Cicero ; but the translation ia lost, and 
tve now pouess only an essay which Cicero wrote 
as an introduction to them: '*Db optima guncra j 
Oratorum." 2. The life in Plutarch's TiAie Jccvmi 
Oralorunu 3. The life of Aeschines by Philoslratua. . 
4. The life of Aeschines by Libouius, 5. ApoUo- 
nius' Exegesis. The hist two works are printed 
in Reiske's cilltion, p. 10, foil. The best modem 
essay on Aeschines is that by Possow in Ersch and 
Ornber's EmifdDpdilie, iL p. 73, &c There ia 
also a work by E. Stechow, De Aetclunii OruloriM 
Vila, Berlin, 1841, 4 to., which is an attempt to 
dear the character of Aeschincs from all the re- 
proaches that have been attached to it; but the 
essay is written in exceedingly lud Latin, and the 
attempt is a mo«.t complete fiulure. 

The first edition of the omtions of Aeschincs it 
that of Aldus Manutius in his CotUelio Rhebmmg 
Gnueormn, Venice, 1513, fol. An edition with I 
Latin transhttion, which also contains the letter* 
ascribed to Aeschines, is that of II. Wolf, BoacL 
157'2, fol. Tho next important edition is tliat by 
Taylor, which conliiins tlie notes of Wolf, Taylor, 
and MnrkUud, and appeared at Cambridge in 
l748-.'>(i in his collection of the Attic orators. In 
Heiske's edition of the Attic orators Aeschines 
occupies the third volume. Lips. 1771, Bvo. The 
best editions are those of I. Uekkrr, vol. iiL of hia 
Orutont AUici, Oxford, 18-»-2, 8vo., for which 
thirteen new MSS. were collated, and of F. H. 
Bremi, Zurich, 1823, 2 vols. 8vo. The oration 
against Demosthenes has been translated into 
Knglish by Portal and I^buid. [U S.] 

AE'SC'HINE.S (Alirxl*i?«), an Athenian philo- 
sopher and rhetorician, son of a aauiage-seller, or, 
nccording to other accounts, of Lysaniaa (Diog. 
I.aert. ii. liU; i^llidas, >. r. 'Aiox'*^'), and a disciple, 
although by some of his contemporaries held an 
unworthy one, of Socrates. From the account of 
Laertius, he appears to Imve been the bmilior friend 
of his great master, who said that ** tho sausage- 
sfUer's son only knew how to honour him." The 
same writer has preserved a tradition that it waa 
Aeschines, and not Crilo, who otfered to aasiat 
Socrates in his escape from prison. 

The greater port of his life was spent in al>jeet 
poverty, which gave rise to the advice of Socrates 
to him, **to borrow money of himself^ by diminish- 
ing his daily wants," After the death of his mas- 
ter, according to the charge of Lysias (ii/in/V Atbrm. 
xiii. p. 611, c. f.), he kept a perfumer's shop with 
borrowed money, and presently U^oming bank- 
rupt, was obliged to leave Athens. Whether from 
necessity or inclination, he followed the fa>hion of 
the day, and retirisl to tlie Syrncusim court, where 
the friendship of Aristippus might console him for 
the contempt of Plato. He remained there until 
the expulsion of the younger Dionysius, and on 
his return, finding it useless to attempt a rivalry 
with his great contemporaries, he gave private lec- 
tures. One of the charges which hia opponents 



driifthtcd to rrpmt, i>nd which by SMociatiun of 
idnift cniiRtittitnl him a dophist in the eyt'<i of Plntu 
and his fullnwerx, wiu thul of rvcL'iving munry fur 
his iiifttnictionR. AnitthLT story wnA invented ttiut 
ihMc dluloipm wrrr milly tlic work of Sxrotcn ; 
and AHiitipptm cither fniui juke or malice, publicly 
chnrjted Ac«chine» with tlic theft while he wu 
n-nding Uiom at MeKiim. PUto is rchtted Vy 
Ilefieundn (u/nn/ Ali^n, x\. p. .i07, c.) to h»»o 
flltden fn^m him hi« mlitar)- nunil Xenocnitei. 

The three dinliyuev Hip) Ofxr^r, «i SiSairr6y, 
*Epv(lar 4 ve^ vAoin-ou, ^A^toxos ^ irtpi Boyctrov, 
hich hsTC come down to ui under the name of 

chines uv not genuine remaiiiti : it ia even 

'dnnbled whether they are the mme worki which 
lli« niicientt acknowled(ted u spurious. They 
have Wen edited by KiKher, the third edition of 
which (Uvo. Liph. 17nr>) contiiin* the criticikmH of 
VV'ilf. And f'irnift port of a volume of spuriuuft Pla- 
t" ' < {Simnnit Sotrntid lU videlvr diuloffi 

y :..ckh, Hcidel. lUIO. 

1 .. ^ .-.ic dialoguet, inta the ftlif^ht mcnticin 

Dwile of ihi'in by Uemetriu* Phalereiu, teem to 
hiive lieen full of SooBtic irony. Hermoronn, 
n<pl 'ISmv, coniider* Aewhine* u lupenor to 
Xennphon in elcgnnce and purity of ityle. A long 
iukI aiiiuung puuge i> quoted by Oiceiu from h'un. 
( I)r InrfHt. 1. 31 ; Diogenc* Loertius, ii. C1>-(J4, ajid 
the milhoritie» collected by Fi«cher.) [B. J.) 

Ali'.SC'IIINF..S (Ai'ffxliTii), of MiLKTUd, a con- 
tempomry of Cicero, and a distinguished omtor in 
the Aaialic ttyle of eloquence. lie ii wid by Dio- 
genm IjoertiuA to have written on Politic*. He 
died in eiile on account of having ipoken too freely 
to Ponipcy. (Cic. Unit. Sh \ Ui»g. LoerL iL 64 ; 
Slmh. liv. p, (>3S ; Sen. CoMlmr. i. 8.) 

AE'SCIlJNKS(A<ffx'»^»>.ofN»ATOLisa Peri- 
patetic philosopher, who wiu at the head of the 
Anidviny at Athens, toyi'ther with C'harmades and 
Clitomuchus about B. c. \Wt. (Cic de Oral. i. 1 1.) 

f'^- I 'rtiiis (ii. Ii4) lars, that he "at ■ 

|i thui the IthiKlian. 

Miii (Ai<rx'"l«), an ancient physi- 
cian, who lived in the latter half of the fourth 
century after ('hritt. lie was bom in the ishuid 
of Cbioa, and settled at Athens where he appean 
ts Imit* pnotiied with very little success, but ae- 
qnirvd gTvat fiune by a happy cuns of Kuoapins 
Sardiitnus, who on his voyage to Athena (as he tells 
us himself, ut rila Prvatra. p. 76, ed. Buissoa) 
had Ijeen seized with a fever of a very viole*nt 
kiiid, which yielded only to tn*nlnient of a peculiar 
nature. An Athenian pliy*iciiin of this nnine is 
quoted by I'liny (//, A', sxiii. 10). of whom il is 
only known, that he must have lived wnie time 
before the middle of the first century after 
Christ [W. A. 0.] 

AE'SCIIRION. of Syracuse, whose wife Pippo 
waa one of the miitresses of V'err*^ is frpqtieutly 
mentioned by ('icero m the V'errine Orations, (ii. 
1 1, V. I'i, ni.) He assisted Verrt-t in rn)'l>iiig the 
byrartisaus (it. 21), and obtained the binuing of 
tith«« of ttie llerhitenses for the puncMe of 

nidcriiig theni. (lii. S3.) 

AK'SI'IIKIUN (AiVxf'w). on iambic poet, a 
native of SunOS, lie is mentioned by Atheimeus 
(m, p. SlHt.LiiU. p.3.'U,c.), who has pmcrred some 
cboliiunbie vrnet of his, in which he defends the 
Samiaii Philaenis against t'i<lycrates. the Athenian 
rheinririan and sophist. >*onie of his vene* are 
«i>o quoted by Tutiet {wi Ijivfiir. V38). There 

wni an epic poet of the same name, who was A 
native of Milylenc and a pupil of Aristotle, 
who is said to have accomjianied Alexander i 
some of his exp^'ditions. He is mentioned 
Suidas (». r.) and Taeties {Ckil. viii. 406). 
he wai also a writer of iambics and choliombic^l 
many icholan have (uppoied him to be identical] 
with the Somian Aeschrion, and to have beca] 
called a Mityleuoeoii in consequence of having i 
dded for some time in that city. (Schncidcwii^J 
DeUchu Poftarmm imuUc. et mfUoonm Orate, [i 
Jacoba, AnO. Gran. xiii. 834.) [C. P. M.] 

AE'SCIIRION, a Oieek writer on agricnltu«vJ 
of whom nothing more is known. (Vorr. <U Af i 

AE'SCIIRION ('kiaxpim), a native of Per. I 
gnnius, and a physician in the seeond century aft<r j 
Christ, lie was one of Galen's tutors who laytl 
that be belonged to the sect of the Empirid, saAJ 
that he had a great knowledge of Pharmacy i 
Materia Medica. Aeichrion was the inventor of i 
celebrated soperatilious remedy for the bite of i 
mad dog, which is mentioned with approbation I 
Oalen and Oribasius (Synop*. iii. {i. 55), and 
which the moat important ingredient was powde: 
crawfish. These he directs to be caught at a I 
when the sun anil moon were in a particular nrlatin 
|io!iitio[i, and to be baked alive, (ftal. /V Simifi 
.\Mk. tWulL li. 34, vol. xiu p. 356 ; C. O. K'lih 
Addilam. ad E/eiiek. Med. Vtt. a J. A. 
in "UiU. dr." r^iUt.) [ W. A. O.l 

AE.SCHV'UDES {Ahrxvkltrit), wrote a i 
on agriculture, entitled rfs<p7ucd, which was i 
least in thrct? books, (.\then. xiv. p. 650, 
Aelian. rfe .4»im, xvi. .T2.) 

AE'SCIIY LUS (A.'ffxifAoi) was Iwm at 1 
in Attica in Ii. c. 5'25, so that he was thirty-l 
years of age at the lime of the liattlc of Maratb 
and contemporary with Simonides and Pin 
His bllier Euphorian was probably connected i 
the worship of Demeter, from which Aeschjh 
moy naturally be supposed to have received 
firtt religious impressions. He was himself^ i 
cording to some authorities, initiated in the my 
teries, with reference to which, and to his I ' 
place Elensio, Aristophanes (Am. 8(14) make* I 
pray to the Elenainian goddess. Puurania* (i. ' 
§2) relates oa aneodole of him, which, if 
^ewa that he was struck in very eariy youth i 
the exhibitions of the drama. According to 
story, ** When he was a Ixiy he was sot to y 
grnpi-s in the country, and there fell asleep, 
his aliinibers Dionysus appeared to him, 
urderiHl him to apply hinuelf to tngedy. At i 
br<-ak he made the attempt, and suooeeded 1 
easily." i>uch a dream as this could hardly 1 
l^rsulted from anything but the impression 
duced by tragic exhibitions upon a warm imagin 
tion. At the agi- of 25 (a. u 4 !).'(), be made 
first oppeaniiicr us a competitor for the 
tragedy, against Choerilus and Praliiuts, 1 
however being suceessful. ^Sixteen 
ward (a c. 484), Aeschylus gained his first i 
The titles of the pieces which he thru brou 
are not known, but his »>inpetiton « 

frotiably Pratiiuu and I'lir^nichus or 
light years afterwards he gained the 
the trilogy of which the Penae. the < 

extant dnmiaa, was one piece. The whole i 

of victories attributed to Aeschylns amounted 
thirteen, most of which were gaiined by him in I 



tliiri afcniialion wn> prrfcrTMl ngninit him, for 
hnvinir iu wmn of hU pluyi cither ilirul^d or 
profanely spoken of ihw iityslerieii of Citpr. Ac- 
conliiig to othrr*, the ehjirjftf originated from hit 
baring introUnced on the fttogo the dread god- 
dewM, tho Eimieiiidcs which he had done in auch 
a way u not only to do violence to popular pre- 
judice, but aJao to excite the greatest atami among 
the •[Ht'talon. Now, the Fumenidea contains no- 
thing which can be considered on a publication of 
the mysteries of Ceres, and therefore we ore in- 
clined to think that his political euemies arailed 
lhemw*tves of the unpopuhirity he had incurred by 
bis ** Chorus of Furies," to get up against him a 
charge of impiety, which they supported not only 
by what wa» olijectionnhle iu the Kumenides, but 
■In in other pbyt not now eitunt. At any rale, 
frofn the number of authorities all conlirming this 
conclusion, there can be no doubt that towards the 
end of his life AeM-hylus incurred the serious dis- 
pleasure of n strung party at Athens, and that 
after the exhibition of the Orcstean trilogy he 
retirrMl to Oela in Sicily, where he died B.C. -lAtJ, 
in the C9th year of his age, and three years after 
the representation of the Eunienides. On the 
manner of his death the ancient writers are unani- 
mous. (SuidoA, jF. r. Xt\vvTtnv£y.) An eagle, any 
they, mistaking the poet*s liald head for a stone, 
let n tortoise fall upon it to hn'ak the shell, and 
an fuiniled nn ornclc, according to which Aeschylus 
was fuled to die by a blow from hearen. The 
inhabitants of Ciela shewed their regard for 
his character, by public solemnities in his honour, 
by erecting a noble monument to him, and inscrib- 
ing it with an epitaph written by himselt (Paus. 
L U. < 4; Allien. liv. (j'-J*. d. VU. Ahoh.) In it 
iMat Is mentioned as the place of his burial, ond 
the fW-ld of Marathon as the phicc of bin most 
ffloriou* achievements ; but no mention is made of 
nia p«etr\\ tbe only subject of commemoration in 
III. ' rams written in his honour. At 

.•\ ■ ' name and memory were holden in 

€.,■ .-.. :' nee, and tho prophecy in which he 

(Athen. viii. Ii47, e. f.) is said to have predicted bis 
own posthumous fiune, when he was iirst defeated 
by 8<>pbocles, was amply fulfilled. His pieces 
were fre4)Ui'iitIy reproduced on the stage ; and by 
a sjirciul decree of the people, a chnms was pro- 
Tid*^! at the expens*- of the state for any one who 
tntgltl wish to exhibit his tragedies a second time. 
(Arislonh. jlrAur. 102; Aeachyl. Tita.) Hence 
Ariatnphaun (Hun. 892) nuUtes Anchyloa aay of 
himsrlf, that his (melry did not die with him ; and 
eren after his death, he tnay be laid to have 
gained many riclories over his successors in Attic 
tn^teily. (Kermunn, <>i'uf: ii. p. 1511.) The plays 
tlms exiiiliited tur the urftt time may either haxe 
bean thov wbith Aeschylus had not produced 
blmselC nr flu li OS had been represented in Sicily, 
and not at Athens, during hii lifetime. The io- 
dliiduaU who eiliibited his dnimniic remains on 
l)ir Attk stAgv were bis sons Euphonon and Bif»n; 
tlM (hbct of whom waa, in b.c. 431, victoriuns 
villi a tctmlngy orer Sophocles and EuripiJes 
(Argmn. Korip. Med.), and in oddiiinn to this is 
aid to hare gained four rictoriea with dramatic 

Kof hi* btlier's nerer before rvprraeoted. 
Md, at Aryitm. Ayam. p. -.'0.) Philoele* 
aho^ the •"'■ "' > '■■•'■■' "f Aeschylus, wa* ricto- 
linaa 01 < of Sopbode*. probably 

with a tr >. (Argun. Soph. Drd. 


TyT.) From and by means of these person* i 
what was called the Tragic School of Aeicbyla 
which continued for the s|iace of I'J.i year*. 

We have hitherto spoken of Aeschylus as a ] 
only ; but it miut nut be forgotten that he was a 
highly rcnoM-ned as a warrior. His firat achieT*' 
menta as a soldier were in the battle of Marathon, 
in which his brother C^naegeirus and himself so 
highly distinguished theni.selTes, that their eiploiti 
were conimeniuniled witli a descriptive {wiinting in 
the theatre of Athens, which was thought to bt 
much older tiuui the atatne there erected in hoooar 
of Aeschylus. (Pans. i. 21. § 2.) The epiUfk 
which he wrote on himsrlC proves that be «■» 
sidcrcd his share in that battle as the most glo- 
rious achievement of his life, though he wat 
also engaged at Artcinisium, Salamis, and Pit 
toca. (Paus. L 14. $ 4.) All his fiunily, indeot, 
were distinguished for bravery. Hit yonnijef 
brother Ameinias (Herod, riii. 84; Diod. xi -'*') 
was noted as baring commenced the attai I. i ri 
the Persian ships at Salamis, and at Marai)>'. < ■••• 
one was so perseveringly brave as Cynnef. mi,. 
(Herwl. vi. 114.) Hence we may not Mnn:i^' 
ably suppose, that the gratitude of tbe Athcnil 
for such services contributed somewhat to a < 
apptvciation of the ]>oet's merits, and to the I 
victory which he gained soon after the battle i 
Marallion (ac. 4(14) and before that of 
Nor can we wonder at the peculiar Wridnesa ; 
spirit with which he p<irtraYs the ^ [lomp and i 
cumttance" of war. at in the Pcraae, ^ 
■* Seven against Thebes," describing it* in 
and actions as one who had really been anl 
in scenes such as he paints. 

The style of Aeschylus is bold, energetic. I 
tublime, full of gorgeous imagery, and i 
expressions such as became the elevated c6 
of his drainaa, and the ideas be wished to exp 
(Aristoph. Am. 9.14.) This sublimity of die! 
wot however sometime* carried to an 
which m.ide hi^ buigoage turgid and 
that as Cjuintilian (x. 1) aay* of bin, 
gninililo({uent to a fliult." In the turn i 
pressions, the poetical predominates over ' 
tactical. He was peculiarly fond of metapi 
phrases and strange compounds and nbsoIJi 
guoge, so that he was much more 
laugunge than either Sophocles or Kuripid 
excelled in displaying strong feelings and J 
and describing the awful and the terrible, 
than in exhibiting the workings of the hn 
mind under llie infill - I and 1 

motives. But ui'i 

tiuM of his style, tli. - ,.,;W 

plays OS the watchman in the 

the nurse of (ireste* in tho Che* 

to use language fitting their station, and lea J 

moved fr^^m that of common life. 

Tbe charsctert of Aeschylus like hi* i 
are sublime and majestic, — they wetv goda i 
hemes of colossal magnitude, whose im|H>sin 
could be endured by the beroea of Mar^tl 
Salamis, but was too awful fur the conti 
of the next generation, who corapbiin 
Acvhylus' hmgnagc was not human. (Ad 
Ads. iO'iC.) Hence the general imp 
dnced liy the poetry of AeKhylas were f 
leligipus tiutft uf a moiul nature: hi* ]^ 
being both in action and ntlering, *uii 
and therefofr not always fitted to 

^ wlio painml for him the lirat (cenes which 
Ind »nt brcn drawn occonling to thi- priiuiplca of 
liiMM per«j>«tive. (VitruT. I'nir/. lib. ril.) ilc 
■1m furniahed hit acton with mure •uilable and 
mngnitin^nt dresMB, with si^ificant and vantim 
IDAalu, and with the thick-ftolcd cothurnus, to taiae 
their ttatue to thr height of hcrnpi. He moicovar 
bcatowed lo much attention on the choral donees, 
that he if laid to hare inrcntcd Torioua figures 
himself, and to have instructed the choritten in 
them without the ntd of the reguUr ballet-masters. 
(Athrn. i. p. 21.) So gnm was Aeschylus' skill lu 
m toAcher in thin respect, that Teh^tes, one of liis 
ehorillen, was able to eiprera by dance alone the 
vuiotts incidents of the piny of the Seven a^nst 
Thebei. (Athen. Lc.) The removal of all di-edi 
of bloodshed and murder from the public view, in 
eonformitT with the rule of Hotnce (A. f. 1(W), 
is aim said tn h:ive liren a pmctice introdticed by 
Aeschylas. (I'hilo«. I'il.AiHil. vL 11.) With him 
also arose the usape of representing nt the snme 
time a tri/iMfj/ of pUys connected in subject, so that 
each formed one act, as it were, of a gnsat wlinle, 
which mi);ht be compared with some of Shake- 
speare's hittoriml plays. Even before the time of 
Aeschylas, it had been customary to contend fur 
the priu- of tragedy with three pbys eihibitrd at 
the same lime, but it was tesorvrd for him to thew 
bow each of three trngedica might be complete in 
itself, and independent of the rest, and neverthe- 
less form a part of a harmonious and connected 
whi>le. The only example still extiint of such a 
trilogy is the Ori"*teia, as it was cidled. A Saty- 
rienl pLiy commonly fallowed each tnigic trilo^, 
atid it is n*conled that .\eschylus was no less a 
nia^tvT of the ludicrous thnii of the serious drama. 
(Pao.v ii. la § 5.) 

AeKhylus is mid to have written seventy tnge- 
Aw-i, Uf thcM' only seven am extant, namely, the 
•" Pen»ijinn," the "Seven ngainut ThelK-v" the 
"Suppliants," the "Prometheus," the *• Agnmein- 
lioii," the "C'hoephoroe," and " Eumeni-lcs ;" the 
but Ihm- forming, as already remarked, the trilogy 
of the "Dresleia." The "Perfiant" was acted in 
■. c. 47i. ajid the "Seven agnin«t TheU's" a year 
.ifterwiird*. The "Oresteia" wu* represented in 
M (. I.Ml ; the "Suppliants" and the " I'mroetheus" 
wen? bnmght out *»»nic time between the "Seven 
ii(t!>>ust Thelies" and the "limteio." It bos bern 
tuppowHl from some«ns in the " Sup|(liant«," 
that thi« pliiy was acted in B-i;. 4Ul, when Athens 
w.-ift allied with Argns. 

The first edition uf Aeschylus was printed at 
Venire, l.ilH, 8vo.; but purt^ uf the .Agonieninon 
and the I'boephorov aiv nut printetl in thisedititMi, 
and Ihom: which ore given, are made up into one 
pUy. i)f the suhtt»|oenl e«litions the Iwst was by 
SlanlsT, LoniL lf>li.\ fo. with the Scholia and a 
rommrntary, reeditc<l by Hutler. The Im'sI n'cent 
aditions an* by Wellauer. Lip*. 1R'J3, W. UinduK, 
IJps. III'.'*, aiid SchuUiheld. Cauib. llCtO. 1'hete 
ar« uunierou* eilitions uf various pUys, of which 
those must worthy of innitioD ore by lllumficld, 
.UUller, Khiusm, and Heile. 1he principal Kn|t- 
lisfa tnuislatious ore by i'otier, iiarfurd, nid Med- 
win, (P<;ter»eo, lit ,<e«rAv/i I'tta el /■'aJmlu, 
tiavniae, lal4; Wekker, tht A-ekfl. TrUaint 
/VoaMAnw, Darmstadt. 11)24, Axeittn^ nr Tri- 
ll^, Frankf. IK2ft, and /Is Untei. rm.nj-ln. 
Bonn, 1840; Klaa>rii, Tlml"jumrma Atfi^i 
rn^nn. BeioL I82:<.) [R. W.J | 


AE'SCHVLUS (AierxdAoj), of ALl!tA^•Dllta, 
on epic poet, who musl have lived previous to the 
end of tlie second century of our oeia, and whom 
Alhenaeus calls a weU-iufonncd man. One of hilH 
poems bore the title " Amj^hitryon," and onntbtJH 
" Measeniaca." A fragment of the former is pre- 
ferred in Atbenaeus. (xiiL p. i'JO.) According 
to Zenobius (v. 85), he had also written a work aii_ 
proverbs. ( fTspl napoifuur ; compare Schncidea 
/Vue/ti/. Purofmi^r. p. xi.) [L. S.J 

AK'SCHYLUS of C.MDrs, a contrmporarjr i 
Cicero, and one of the most colebnited rbet< 
in Asia Minor. (Cic Uriil. 01, 3,^.) 

AK'SCHYLUS (AiVxiiAoi), of Rhodes, 
appointed by Alexander the Great one of the ia 
hpectors of the goveniurs of that country after ia 
conquest in B.c. 33'i. (Arrinn, y<aci/i. iii. 5 ; i 
Curu iv. 8.) Ho is not spoken of again till B. L~ 
31'>, when he is mentioui'd as conveying in four 
shifts six hundred talents <if silver from Cilicia to 
Macedonia, which were detained at Ephesus bj 
Antigonus, in ortler to pay liis foreign merceiuuifk 
(Uiod. xviii. .VJ.) 

AESCULA'PIUS ('KaKkiiwidi), the god of t 
medical art. In tlic Homeric poems Ae«culapiq 
does not appear to lie considered as a divinity, 
merely as u hmnou being, which is indicated 1 
the adjective dfui/iw, which is never given 
god. No allusion is made to his descent, and I 
is \nerely mentioned as the iifriip J/iv/iWK, and I 
father of Mucbaun and I'udaleirius. (//. ii. 73 
iv. l!M, xi. ilU.) From the fact that Humcr (t 
iv. 232) colts all tliose who practiw? the he 
art deitceutlanUi tif Paeeon, and that Podoleiri 
and Machauu arc called the Mms of Ac« 
it Ims been inferred, that Aesculapius and P* 
are the same U'ing, and consequently a divT 
Uut wherever Homer mentions the healing ] 
is always Paei-on, and never .Aesctdapius ; 
in the poet's opinion nil physicians were de 
from Poeeun, he pruliably considen^d Ae« 
in the some light. This supposition is currohon 
by the fact, that in later times Paeeon was ido 
hed with AihiIIo, and that Aesculapius ia 
veradly descriU-d as a descendant of A|xiUo, 
two sons uf Aesculapius in the Hind, were 
physicians in the Cireek nnuy, and are deicrib 
as ruling over Tricca, Itbome, and Uechulia. 
ii. 72.1.) Accotding to Kustalhius (»</ //om. 
33U), Lapitbes was a son uf Apollo and Slilb«,< 
Aesculapius wo* a descendaut of Lapiihe ~ 
tradition scvms to be based on the ta 
work UM tile more common one, that 
wus a son of Apollo and Conmis, the dat^ 
Phlegvus, who is a descendant uf 
(Apoliud. iii. lU. § S, Find. y>«l. iii. li,l 
tiie SchoL) 

The common story tlien goes on as 
When CuroiiiR was with child by ApoUo^ 
became enuiuuured with Ischys, an An 
and Ajiollo infumie«i of this by a raven, 
he had set t4i watch her, or, according to Pii 
by his own prtiphetic powers, sent hit 
Artemis to kill Curonis. Artemis accoitlin 
strayed Corxmis in her own house at Lw-»r 
Thetaoly, on the sliure of lake IWbin. {C-at 
How. Hymn. 27. X) According to Uvid (MiCi 
m)S. Ac) and Hygiuus (/'orf. .4i<r. ii. 40), it i 
Ajiullu himself who killed C«rt>nis and la ~ 
NVkaa the body of Coronis was to lie burnt, Afuil 
or, teeacdiag to others (Paus. ii. 2C. $ &), He 


1 the cbiM (AefculApiaft) frvm the Hiuiu% and 
— I k J it la Cheinm, who iiistructird the bo}- in 
ifct t mt bcaling and iu hunting. (Pind. ly/M. 
~^, I. *r.; Apol'oi "i- 1". § 3 ; Pi»n». '■ "••) Ac- 
ting lo other ttsditinnf AcKulapiux wn* boni 
I Tnccm in Tbaanlr (Strah. xiv. p. f>47), nnd 
dihat a^io rrlaled ibat Coronit gnve birth to him 
Auiag aa expedition of her father I'hleg}-a> intu 
ftttfmaitmt, in the trnitory of I'pidaurut, and 
ttal Ae cxpiMcd him on mount Tittheion, which 
WM btftnc oUmI Myrtion. Here he wan fed by u 
Saat tai wmtched by a dog, until at la>t he wai 
I hf Amthaiia*, a shepherd, who saw tlie boy 
' ' hf » lu>tre like that of li);)iininp. 
(5w a difcltJ t account iu Pan*. TiiL 'iS. § 6.) 
rna Ihia dauling <plendour, or from hii having 
Wca Ranted bom the Aamc*. he was called by the 
I afyAa^ The trath of the tradition that 
u bom in the territory of Kpi- 
9 not the nn of Aninoi*, dniigliier 
rf laadppoa and bom in Mcurnia, woi atleit- 
•4 If ^ oncle which waa coiuulted to decide the 
(Pan*, u. Q6. { 6, i». 3. § 2 ; Cic. /> 
, Dtor. lii. 'i*2, where three dilfemnt Acwula- 
VOT made oat of the ditfen-nt iunU trnditionn 
I kMa.) After Ae«:ahtpiii« had grown up, 
rti tfirvod over all countries that he not only 
i al ihtr »itk, but allied the drnd to life again. 
t tW maiiuei in wliich he acquired thi» lult*;r 
|HanB; ibeiv wrrr two tmdiiiuUR in ancient tinieii. 
JUsariUag to the one (Ajiollod. /. r.), he had re- 
1 Athena the blood which hrvl flowed 
I ika ««in« of tiofgo, and the IiIinhI which had 
I the Tein* of the right »idc of hiT body 
lik* power of reotnring tlic dead to life, 
•o the other tradition, AcMiilnpiuft on 
w^u ihot up in the hou«e of (jilaucutt, 
I be mw0 lo ran*, and while he wai »taiiding 
ia thought, there canie a lerpeni which 
naad the (lafT, and which he killed. 
' 90rpm\ then came carr^'ing in itH raouth 
• Wfk wtlh which it recalled to life the one that 
itt bees killed, and Aeaoilapiut henceforth made 
■• af the laBe herb with tlie suse effect upon 
■■. fHyiin. Pott Aitr. ii. 14.) Serernl per- 
aar^ «a«ai Ae«culapiu> waa believed \» hare re- 
Mad to Isfr, are mentioned by the Scholiast on 
r (/yt lii. l**)) and by ApoUodoraa. (/. c) 
be WB> exercising this art upon Olaocus, 

> laOcd Anculapius with a flash of lightning, 

> frimd lent men might gradiutlly contrive to 
a Amxh altogether (A[Kil|.hl. iii. 'lU. j 4), or, 
~ _ to o<hen. liecause Pluto had compLiined 

tf Anmbiftus diminishing the numlK*r of the dead 
■iaaeh. (Diod. iv. 71 ; comp. Schul. ad fmil. 
tpL m. In-.'.) But, on the nijuest of Apollo, 
7fii ^ik< ■ i1 A«-*culapius among tho stars. (Hygin. 
AaUstr. iL 14.) Aesculapius is also said to 
Im« likes pan in the eipedition of the Argonauts 
^ m ibe Calydonian hunt. He was married to 
faaBK, aad besides the two sons spoken of by 
n^iC wv a]so find mention of the following cbil- 
^m af his : Janisctts, Alexenor, Amtna, Hygieia, 
Jbribk fas-, aixl Paiioo-ia (Schol ad fiml. Hi/lh. 
Hit : Paos. ii 10. g 3, i 34. $ -1), most of whom 
■• iB^ paaiwiMicHiona of the powers ascrilied to 



r aw lb* hgends about one of the most in- 
■d ODpoitant dirinicies of antiquity. 
Tm^ bypc<hm iwr* bc«n bmogfat forward to 
•l|bte die (OIJD af bia w«nhip in Greece ; and, 

while some consider Aesculapius to have been 
originally a peo! personage, wliora tradition liiid 
connected with various mar\'rllous stories, others 
have oxpbiined all the legends aliout him aa mere 
personitications of certain ideits. The serpent, the 
perpetual symbol of Aesculapius, has given risi' to 
ilic opinion, that the wornhip was derived from 
Egj-pl, and liiat Aesculapius was identical with 
the s<-ryicnt Ciiuph worshipped in Egypt, or with 
the Phoenieinn Esmun. (Euseb. J'rary. Evang, 
i. 10 ; comp. Pans. vii. 23. § 6.) But it does not 
seem necessary lo have recourse to foreign countries 
in order to exphiin the worship of this god. Hia 
story is undoubtedly a cnmbinatiun of real eventa 
with the ri'sulu of thoughts or ideas, which, as in 
so many instances in Greek mythology, are, like 
the former, considered as &cta. The kernel, out 
of which tlie whole myth has grown, is pcrhapa 
the account we read in Homer ; but gradually the 
Afdiere in which Aesculapius acted was so extend- 
eti, that he l>ecmie the representative or the per- 
sonilicatioti of the healing powers of natiin>, which 
are nnturally enough descrilied as the son (the 
eiTect*) of Helios, — Apollo, or the Sun. 

Aesculapius was worshipped all over Greece, 
and many towns, aa wo hare seen, claimed the 
honour of his birth. His temples were usuullj 
built in healthy places, on hills outride tlie town, 
and near wells which were believed to have 
healing powers. Thcae temples were not ouly 
places of worship, but were frequented by great 
iiiLiubers of sick persons, and may therefore be 
orajnivd to modem hospitala. (Plut. Qmirtl. Hmiu 
p. *JU(), t>.) The principal seat of his worship iu 
Greece was Epidaurus where he had a temple sur- 
roujided with on extensive grove, within which no 
one was allowed to die, and no woman to give birth 
to a child. His sanctuary contained a mognilicctit 
statue of ivory and gold, the workofTbrasymedoi, 
in which he was represented as a handsi^mc aod ' 
manly figure, resembling that of Zeus. (Paut. ii. 
2G mid 27.) He was seated on a throne, holding 
in one hand a staJf, and with the other resting 
upon the bead of a dragon (serpent), and by his 
aide lay a dog. (Poua. ii. 27. S 2.) Serpents 
were everywhere connected with the wonJiip of 
Aesculapius prolnbly because they were a symbol 
of prudence and renovotion, and were believed lo 
have the power of discovering herbs of wondnius 
powers, as is indicated in the story about Aescuhi- 
pius and tlie serpents in the house of (ilaucus, 
S*-rpenls were further believed to be guardians of 
well)) with salutary p<mers. For thsi« reasons a 
piH-ulitir kind of lame serpents, in which Epidaurus 
abounded, were not only kept in his temple (Paus, 
ii. 28, § 1 ), but the god himself fre<(uently ap- 
pcATed in the form of a wrpent. (Paus. iii. 23. 
g 4 ; VaL Max. i. 8. § 2 ; Liv. K):iL 1 1 ; compare 
the account of .Alexander Pseudoniontis in Lucian.) 
IWsides the temple of Epidaurus, whence the woi^ 
ship of the god was tronspLuited to various other 
pons of the ancient world, wo may mention those 
of Tricea (Strab. ix. p. 437),Cehieiiae (xiii. p. fi03), 
between Dynie and Patrae (viii. p. .ttlG), near 
Cyllene (viii. p. 337), in the isUnd of Cos (xiii. 
p. t).57 ; Paus. iii. 23. § 4), at Gerenia (Stnib. viii 
p. 3<iO). near Cans in Arcadia (Steph. Byi. ». rX 
at Sicyun (Paus. ii. lU. i 2). at Athens (L 21. § 7), 
near I'atroe (vii. 21. 8 ^)^ *t Titane in the terri- 
tory of Sicvun (vii. 23. § ti), at Thelpusa (vitL 25. 
§ 3). in Messene (Iv. 31. $ It), at Phlius (ii. 1.1. 


46 AESON. 

« 3), Anj.!« (ii. 23. § 4). Afgium (ii. 23. S S\ 
Mli-nc (vii. 27. 8 i), Awpas (iii. 22. $ 7), 
IVr^puDum (iii. 2l>. § 7), Ix>lK-nc in I'retr, 
Smyrna, [talapTie (il 2t>. i 7), Aiiibnuia (Liv. 
xxiriii. 5), at Rome ojid other placet. At Komc 
the worehip of AeM.-ukipiiu wm inlnKluciHl from 
Epidaanu nt the command nf the Delphic oracle 
or of the Sibylline hoakn. in B. r. 2!)3. for the 
piirpoK 01 averting a pe«tilence. llespectiiig the 
mimctilouK manner in which thi* was effected iee 
Valerinn Miurimu» (i. 8. (2), and Ovid. (A/rt. 
XT. (120. ic. ; comp. Niehuhr, //«<. n/ fiome, 
iii. p. 4118, &c. ; Lir. x. 47, xxix. 11; Suet. 
Clau.l. -2.1.) 

The »ick, who vi<ite<l the IcnipUM of Aetcula- 
piuft, hml ukhaIIv to spend one or more nights in 
hit KUU'tuiiry {KoSriJittr^ imvUtre^ Pan*. iL 27 
S 2), dutinK which they ohterved certaia mtei 
prewribed \>y the priesti. The god then umalljr 
revealed the rrmedica for tlie diieojio in a dream. 
(Ariitoph. riut. ««2, ice; Cic />c fMr. ii. Ml; 
Philostr. I'ila Ajuiltim. i. 7 ; Jambl. Ik Mu't. iii. 
2.) It wan in allaiion to this iKni/mlio that many 
temples of Aesculapius contained stAtur< repre- 
•enlin;; Sle<'p and Dtwun. (Pnu«. iL 10. S 2.) 
Those whom the god cured of tlieir diMMie offered 
a sacrifice to him. generally n cocV ( I'lat. Phaed. 
p. 1 IH) or a gn,ii (Fans. x. 32. § 8 ; Serv. ud I'ity. 
Gfiitit, ii. 3H0), and hung up in his temple a 
tablet recording the name of the sick, tlie disease, 
and the manner in which the cure had bt-en 
effected. The temples of Epidaunis, Tricca, and 
Co*, wen* full of such votive tablets, and several of 
them ore <tiU eitont. (Pans. ii. 27. IS 3; Stmb. 
viii. p, 374 ; comp. Oirt. *•/ Ami. p. t)73.) Ke- 
•pectinj: the ft'stivals celebrated in honour of Aes- 
culapius see l}iti. </ Aal. p. 103, Ju. The variuut 
surnames given to the god partly describe him an 
the healing or saving god, and ore partly derived 
fmn the places in which be waa worshipped. 
Some of his statues are described br Pausaniao, 
(iL 10. $ \ X. 32. ; 8.) Betide* the attribute* 
mentioned in the description of his statue at F.pi- 
dannis, he is sometime* reprvsentwl holding in one 
hand n phial, and in the other a staff ; sometimes 
also a b<>r it represented standing by his side, who 
i* the grnius of recovery, and is adled Telesphorus, 
Kuamerion, or Areiius. (Paus. ii. 11. jj7.) We 
still pos«4HU a cnnsiflemble number of marble 
■failtm and hiistt of .Aesculapius, a* well a* many 
tvprpsentalions on coin* and gem*. (Buttigcr, 
Amallhra, L p. 282 ; ii. p. 3(il ; 11 in. Mi,(Ui. 
BUHrH,. I p. 84 ; MuUer, /lamib. dcr AnkaaL 
p. .■>.17, Ac. 710.) 

Then- were in antiquity two work* which went 

nder the nam* of Aesculapius, which, however, 

WH» no more genuine than the works ascribed to 

Ombtni. (Kabriciu*. UiU. Crw,: i. p. .5^, \c) 

Th* dHtndonts of Aesculapiai werr* olIleH hy 

tke pmooTMio iMuue i-' '■■■■ {'AaKKirnJBoM.) 

Thaw wrlttti. wbo i" utapiu* a* a nal 

nnonagn. miut fs^ii i i<iadae a* bis mil 

aetcemlants, to whom lie tniiiwuttted his medical 
knowMgv, and whoso principal seat* were Co* 
■ud Cnidus. (Pht, </e M- J-M. iiL p. 40.i. Ac.) 
But the AarlepiaiLie were also regarded a* an 
ordvr or caste of priests, and for a long period 
the practice of medicine wn* intimately connected 
Willi i*liciaa. Tho knuwled^re of medicine wa* 
Kfardnl a* a sacTrd scrn:!. which wa* tranimitwd 
froia father to son in the (uaUJM «l the Aalvpia- 


dne, and we itill poaseat the oath which every i 
was obliged to take when be vas put in \ 
of the medical tecreta. (Cialen, A mil. ii. p. I2Q| 
Arislid. Orat. L p. 80 ; comp, K. SprengeL, Ga 
dfr AMkui. yo\. i.) [L. &] 

AE.SEHNI'Ni:S. [Marcxlli's.1 
AE'SIUN (AiVtoe), jm Athenian orator, wi 
contemporary of Demosthenes, with n'hom he ^ 
educated. (Suidas, t. v. A>|^u»e<>^t.; To «luu 
party he belonged during the Macedonian time is 
uncertain. When he wo* oakt^d what be tbou^'lit 
of the orators of hit time, he (aid, that when lie 
heard the other orators, he aibnircd their lieautifol J 
and sublime convorsatiuns with the [leople, 
that the sfjeeclies of Demosthenes, when read, 
celled all olbcrs by their skilful construction i 
their power. (Ilcrmiuput, a/i. f'lut. Dm, 1 
Aristotle (HJifl. iiL 10) mention* a beautiful 
preftsion of Aenioiu ( L. S. ) 

A ESON {Alrrur), a son of Cretheus • ' ■' 
of lolcuH, and of Tyni, tlie dangliter "■ 
He was excluded by hit slep-broiber i 
hit ftlmre in the kingdom of Tbessaly. He 
father of Jaton and Pronmchut, but the 
of his wife is diffenMitly *tati-d, at Polyc 
Aldmedc, Amphinome, Polypheme, Poly 
Ame, and Starphe. (Apollod. L 9. $ 1 1 aiid g I 
Mom. Od. XL '.'.ill ; Tjetx. ad l.ympir. 872 ; 
iv. iO : Schol. ml Apollon. i. 45 ; S:hol. aJ Uoi 
Or/, xii. 70.) Pelio* endeavoured to secure 
throne to himself by sending .laton away with 1 
.Argonauts but when one day he wa* tutj 
and frightened by the news of the return of 
Anronault, he attempted to get rid of Ae»oD 
force, but the bitter put an end to his own 
(.\piillod. L ». S 27.) According to an account i 
i)iodorut (iv. .W), Pelias conijielled Aeson to 
himself by drinking ox\ blood, for he luul rc<civi 
intdligenre lluit .loMin and his coinpani< 
perished in their expedition. According 
(Aftt, viL IC3, 2.'>0, &c.), Aeson surviv 
return of the Argonaut*, and wa* nmde yoa 
again by Aledeia. Jason a* the ton of .Aeaooj 
called Aetoiiides. (Hrph. Art/. Si.) 
AE.S(i'NU)ES. [AkosJ 
AESU'PUS (Afffonroj), a writer of Pal 
specie* of composition which ha* 
** analogical luurative*, intended to coDTg yj j 
moral lesson, in which inatioiutl animals c 
an introduced a* speaking." (I'kiUJoa. Mu. 
p. 280.) Of hi* works none are extant, { 
bis life tcarcely anything is known. He 
to have lived about ac. o70, for ilen>dotut(ii.'l 
mentions a woman named Khudopi* at a felioa 
slave of Aesop'*, and oiyt that the lived i( i 
time of Amatis king of Egypt, who began I 
u, c. 56!j. Plutarch nuikes him contemp 
Solon {Sfjtt. Sup. Oi»r. p. 1.52, c), and 
(L 72) urs, ihiit he Hourishod about 
Olympiad. The only ap[arent authority 
this dole is that of Suido* (s. r. Alffwoi); 
tho postage is plainly corrupt, and il we ado 
correction of Clinton, it gives about u. e. ti^ 
the date of hit birth ; his death is placed a. ( 
but Duy have oecuned a litllr later. ( See t 
l-'utt //c'J. sol. L pp. 213. 237, 2:i!i.) 

Suida* tells nt that Samot. Sardis Mr 
in Thrace, and Cotiocum in Pht^gia dispute lh»'j 
honour of having given hiio birth, ^\'e are laU>j 
that he waa originally a alave, and th« 
hit fin< wiilang (Mr* is given by Phaiilnii (i 

to Ddftd hj 


, S3, &C.) Amanc hu maiwri wen two 
Ksnt)m< lod iMmon, from the Inixer n( 
I his froMom. Upon thiA ho 
■ ncre wc ATP told tlmt ho re- 
■-• -■• !n the king), and 
y.f. PliiUireh (rfc 
;^. that hu WHS aont 
to diatribule aniuii^ the 
a pinw. But in cuUM!<|uutc« 
tl tmma ^ifutt ariidiig on the •uhjrel, he refuird 
I* fin anj wner *t all, upun which the enraged 
MyMii tknw Iiim from a |iiwi|>j<.'<>. PUgnet 
wm MHt i^aa tlwra from the g<Kl> lor the otfvnce, 
mi tlwjr fncUimod tlieir wiUiiigiu-M to give a 
for hit death to any one who couhl 
At Irngth ladmoo, the grandnn (f his 
rccaiTed the corapenation, tincv no 
I eould be found. (Herod, ij. 1:)4.) 
I no rcaaon to doubt thi» «tory about 
Ktion, and we have now stated all the 
I of .\esop\ lifo which ml on any an- 
tkiMT. Bat there are a net varietT of anecdotei 
■dal^tiUT* in which he bean tlie principal port. 
■latt af him prefixed to a hook of Fable* |>ur{)orl- 
■gtoW fci*« and aoUected hy Maxiinu» ^Uuludol^ 

• mmk of the 14th centary. This life rvprc- 
mtt» A<wp aa a perfect rooncter of oglincu and 

r ; a Doiion for which there ii nu nulhority 
F(tf be is mentioned in pouage* of 
aathofv whcrv an allution to luch per- 
MafaariUia would hare been most luituml, 
■ ifca afigfateat trace of any such alluttion. 
a tat inslaDce in Platarchls Convivium, 
I there are many jokes on his fonuer 
■ liare, then ore none on his a[>- 
; wa need not imngirie that the an- 
I be Rstnined from such jokes by any 
af 4f&Bcy^ since the nose of Socrates 
matter for raillery iu the Sympo- 
■■a al nia. Besides, the Atlieiiions cnusod 
tfW|iyM ta sml a statue iu hit honour, which 
W » hsva vulptured in accord.iucc with the 
itaw t/mrijiliim, would hare been the reTerse of 

TW nar'an howenr which we poesesa of Aesop 
■> •• toinRTd and of soch doubtful authority, 
' a^e not been wanting perw}as to tleuy 
r altogether. " In pueticnl philosophy," 
^a Vk» la bia .Somvuvi A'moixi, ** Aesop will Ijc 
i^l aaC la be any partiailar and actually exist- 
^■^^ tet tlic atntiaction of a dass of men, or 
ter repnpsentativo of tlie coropnuious 
nts of the heroes, snch as certainly 
iAiii b dMp time of the eeren Safica of Greece." 
Ylb hw s i u ia an excesa of scepticiso] into which 

• a«M Iw ^nat Barcasonable to plunge : whether 
AasM anjr writlai works at all, is a question 
^fHi ^hiia caosidenbls room for doubt, and to 

inclines to eivf a negative. Thas 
t ( Vnf. ! ~i nts Philoclcon as 

rkas Falilrs r '- and not out of a 

■I Socrates <•(>'< tum U thcin into poetry 
ihoae that "he kiX'W, and could most 
(t'lALVAuoU. p. SI, biUent- 
lOmOtfaUet qfArKf,p. ISIS.) 
r be, it is crrtau that tables, 
J A(a«p*> name, were popular at Athens in 
• aa« iaolltslail i^e. We lind tbeio frequently 
Mai if AmUfkmnm, One of the pleasorea of 

• 4bb« f 1*1^ S6e) wao, Ikat tmoag the candi- 
^■a kt (it Mumti a i i and *«te Hoe eodeaToured 



; to win his fiiTour by repeating to him fiibles, and 
souie Aiaiiwou ri y4\oim. Two speciiiieiis of 
thews 7«Ao(a or dnMcTva inoy be read in the 
IVijM,-, 1401, ic, .nnd in the Avet, 6.51, &c. The 
hitter however is said by tlic Scholia«I to be the 
coiuposiiion of Archilochus, and it is probable that 
many anecdotes and jests were attributed to 
Aesop, OS the most | of all authors of the 
kind, which really were not liis. Thi» is favour- 
able to Ik-ntley's theory, that his fublei were not 
collected in a written fonn, which also derivea 
additioiul probability from the fact that there is a 
variation in the imuiiicr in n Inch ancient aiitiiora 
quote Aesop, even tliough tluy are nuuiifeslly 
liefctTiug to the some &ble. Thus Arisiutie (De 
Part. Ariiut. ilL 'J) cites fnim him a compbijit of 
Monius, " that the bulPs horns were nt>t placed 
about his shoulders, where he might make tlic 
strongest pui>h, but in the tenderest port, his 
head," whilst Lucioii (A'»/r. 32) makes the fault 
to be " that his honis were not phicrd straight 
liefore his eyes." A written collection would have 
prevented such a diversity. 

Ilesidee the drotlenes above mentioned, there 
were probably fiibles of a graver dewription, siuce^ 
as wc Imve seen, Socrates cundeMviiiled to turn 
them into verse, of which u s|>ccimeii has lieen 
preserved by Diogenes Loerlius, Again, Plato, 
though he excluded lluimr's poeuis fn>ni his 
iuiaginar}- Republic, pmises tlie writings of .\e>iip. 
Oy him they ore uilled fiv^oi (/Viu«y. pp. (iO, (il), 
though lui oble writer in the l'liil<ilogicnl Muf^eum 
(i. p. 'J&l) thiuks tlul the muic ancient name for 
such tictioni was obei, a wonl explained by 
JIuttmann (Lr^nluitu, p. 60, Kng. trausl ), " a 
sjiecch full of meaning, or cunningly inuigined" 
(Hum. ikl, xiv. .'jOU), whence Ulysses is called 
woXi!<uraj in rifcrenco to the particuhir sort of 
speeches which nuirk his churucier. In llesioil 
{Op. rt Dia, '-'00), it )uu posKod into the wnse of 
a moral tible. The oZeoi or t^vBot of Aesop weiv 
ccrtaiuly in prose : — tliey ore called by Aristo- 
phanes \irfoi, and their author (Herod, ii. 134^ is 
AfiTo^oi i KoyinoiQty \6yos being the peculiar 
word for Prose, as Iittj was for verse, and iiiclud- 
iiig both fable and history, though afterwords 
restricted to oratory, when tlial become a sepunle 
bmuch of comp<»siliou. 

Following the example of Soeratrs, Demetrina 
Phalereuh (u. t: 320) turned Aesop's fiibles iiil 
pot-try, and collected them into o book \ luid ult4 
him an outlior, whose luiiiie is unknown, pi 
lished tltem iu Klegiocs, of which some fragmentl 
are preserved by Suidns. Dut the only (Ireok 
versitier of Aesop, of whose writings any whole 
bibles are preserved is Dabrius, an author of no 
mean powers and who may well take bis |>lace 
amongst Kabulisu with Phaedrus and La Kon- 
tnine. His version is in ChoUombics, t. e. lamr, 
kaUmg iambics (x»Aot, to/iSoi), verses which fol- 
low in all respecU the laws of the Iambic Tri- 
meter till the sixth foot, which is either a s|iondo 
or trochee, the tifth being properly an iambu 
This version was nuide a little before the ng^" 
Augustus, and consisted of tioi Bonks, of which i 
few hcnttere<l fiibles only are prcservi-d. Of i 
Latin wrilen of Aesopcau bbles, Phaedrus il the 
most celebrated. 

The fables now extant in prose, hearing the t 
of .\esop, are onquestiuimbly spurious. Uf thaoSrl 
there arc ihive principal coUoclions, the one con- 


tainini! \3e> fiibln, publiihrd fint a. D. IGIO, from 
MSS. »t Hridclborj;. Thi« it so dilin<y « forgt-rj-, 
ihat it tneiilioiit the ontor DrmaiiM, whu lived 200 
yean nftcr Anop, and conlniiii n whnlr Mnlence 
friiin the boolc of Jab (yvfwai yif ijABo/in- <ii 
•»irr*% yviwoX oZv dvf Acwto^cOo). Some id* tht* 
|»ft!iagc» IViitley ha» ftbcwn to be fmgnif*ntA of 
Choliambic TeniM, and ha* made it tolerably cer- 
tain that tbey were utolrii from IVibhux. The 
other collection nns mmle by the aliove mentioned 
monk of Con9tanlino|ile, Maximut Planude*. 
The«e contain at leiul one llebraium {fiiMr h Tp 
KOfSf^: conipore e. p. Eccle*. xi. I, tlvov i¥ Tp 
■rn/iSia >ioi'), and nmon); them are words entirely 
modenu a» 04iirraAif a binl^ fiovvtupotf a bcn«t, and 
alio trace* of the Choliambic* of Dabriu*. The 
third collection was found in a MS. at tloreoce, 
and iiuMislieil in 1 80!). lu date i> about a crn- 
tury lief.ire the time of Pbinude*, and it conuviii* 
tlie life which wn* prefixed to bis coUoctinn, oud 
ctimtnonly Buppo^ed to be hi* own. 

Uentley't ditacrtation on Aenop it appended to 
tho*e on Phalari*. ThegenuineiicMof the exi«tinR 
foriivrie* was wtoutly maintAijied by hi* (Jxford 
MntAgoni*t<4 (Preface to Jt-tujrictrwm t''almlarvm 
Jtrlo-tM, Oifonl ItliH); but UuTi! i* no one in our 
day who dinpiitcs hi* deciftitm. 

It remain* to notice briefly the theory which 
RMign* to Ae*np\ fable* an oriental origin. Among 
the writi-r* of Arabia, one of the mo*t famoua i* 
I.ukuuiii, whom lome tnulitinn* make oontrmjio- 
rary with l)nrid, other* the ton of a sister or 
nunl of Job, while ajniin he ha* been repr>'scnted 
u» an ancii-nt kinj; or chief of tlie trilie of Ad. 
** Luknuui'* wUdom** i* proverbial among the 
Arab*, and joined with Joaeph's beauty and 
UavidV melody. [See the Tbouwud and One 
Nigbl* (Ijuie'* tnui*latiou), Slor}' of Priiioe 
Kamer-ex-Zeman and Princes* l)udu<ir, and Note 
A9 to obopter X.] The Per*ian ocrount* of tbi* 
liikman represent him .i* on u^ly hinck «lAve, mid 
it aeem* pmbuble that the author of the Life rn- 
griilted this and other cinnmiKtanee<* in the < Mental 
trafUtii>n* of huknuui ujMiti the cla«*icid tale* re- 
specting Ae«op. The 6iJ)le* ascribed to .\(-*np have 
in many re«|)ect» on cA«iem chanscter, alludiii}; to 
Asiatic cu*to3;s, and iutroduciiif; piintlicrs p*'a- 
cock*» and monkeys among their dronmtis persona-. 
All thi* moke* it likely that the fobles altri- 
buU'd both to Lukmoo oiid Anop ore deriivd from 
the Kune Indo-Persion source. 

The primipal edition* of Ae«op*s Fn)»left an*. 
I. The collrclion formed by Pkinude* witli a 
L^tin tiuuslation. pu)ili«he<l at Mihtn by Ruono 
Aecorto at the end of the 1 .1th century. Q. An- 
editii>n of the same collection, with *Miie 

dilioiial feble* from a MS. in the Dibliotheque 
du rCoi at Paris by Robert Stephitims 1&-46. 
9. The edition of Nerelet, |(>I0, which added u> 
thew the lleidellierg rnllection, piiMishod at I'raiik- 
fart on the Main. Thes4' Iwvc liecn fullowed by 
edition* of all or *>ime of the Fables by Hudson at 
Oiford (1718), lUuptniann at Leiptig (174 1), 
tlmaiugrr at I^iptig (I7£(i), Kmesti at the 
■onu pUre (I7HI), and G. II. Schoefcr again at 
I^ptig ( 1 8 1 U, I U I U, I H-20 ). Francesco de Furia 
uUtd to the abu<e the new table* from the Flo- 
ivntine MS, and hi* edition wo* rrprinied by 
Cony at Pan* ( IIIIUl. All the bble* hate been 
put tofiethcr and nibuahcd, 331 in number, by J. 
(J. S:hiiaUtr,BtBNaiaa,iii I8IU. [G. E. I. C] 


AESCPUS, a Ureek hiitorian. who wrote i 
life of Alexander the (ircat. The original i* I 
but there is a Latin translation of it by Jnli^ 
Valeria* [Valerius], of which Franci«cu* Jureti 
had, he says {ad .SymnioWi. Kp. x. ■'<*), a roanq 
script. It wns ftmt publifthcd, however, by A. J 
from a M.S. in tlie Ambrosian library, Milan, 18IJ 
4tn., reprinted Fmnkforl, 1818, 8vo. The title J 
** Itinerarinm od Conttantinum Aogustum, elcj 
accedumt Julii Volerii Re* getta« Aleorandri Mi 
doni*," etc The time when Aeiopus lived i* u*" 
certain, and eren hi* existence baa been doubted. 
(Borth, Advmar. ii. 10.) Mai, in the prebce la 
hi* edition, contended that the work wo* writtn 
liefore 309, A. D., because the temple of Scmpis «i 
Alei^ndria, which waa de*troyed by order i^ 
Theodonus i> spoken of in the tratuJulnm (JaL 
Voler. L 31 ) a* still standing. But s<:riotts o1iji» 
tions to this inference have been raised by Ix-tronoa 
(Jtnim. da Savatu, 1HI8, p. 617), who refers it 
to the seventh or eighth century, which the v>i nil 
of internal evidence would rather {Hiint to. '1 lie 
book i* fuD of the most extravagant •toriet i 
gbiring mistakes, and isa work of no credit. [A.i 

most celebrated tragic actor at Rome in the ( 
ronion period, prolxibly a freedman of tbe Ck 
gen*. Horace (A)>. iL 1. Sfl) and other antl 
put him on a level with Rotciu*. ( Fronlo, | 
44, ed. Niebuhr.) Each wot preeminent in 
own department ; Rosciux in comedy, being, < 
re*pect to action and delivery {]tr%mmitiatu>)^ i 
rapid {ntutiuT, (jiiiiiliL /«/«. Or. xi. 3. ^ 1 1 1 ) : Ac 
sopiu in tragoly, being more weighty (ynnair, 
Quintil. Lc). Aesopu* took gient pain* to Mlfal 
himself in hi* art by rnrious method*. lie dlfr , 
gently ttudied the exhibition of character in i 
life ; and when any important trial wn* (toiiif i 
e«pecially, for example, when Hortentiu* 
plead, he was constantly in attendance, that 
might watch and be able to reprvseiit t}>e 
truthfully the feeling* which were nctunlly 
played on such occasion*. ( Vol. Max. viii. 1 0, J[ ' 
He never, it is said, put on the mask fur the ^ ' 
Tucter he bad to perform in, without brut h" 
at it attentively from a distance fi>r some tin 
that so in perfunning he might preserve bis vo 
and action in perfect keeping with the ap[ 
he would have. (Fronto, dr Eluq. a. I, p. 1 
Perbap* this anecdote may confirm tlie opjfl 
{hifl. ifAnl. t-r. I'm(ma\ that mntk* had ■ 
Ulely be<>n introduced in the regnlar dnnui I 
Kome, and were not alway* lued eren (or ] 
character* ; for, according to Cicero {ih Di^\ 
Aesopu* excelled in power of bee and fir 
;>roswa {Imdum ardonm ruUiatm attftt i 
which of course would not have been 
be had performed only with a uuuk. 
whole pa wage in Cicem and from the 
dote* recorded of him, hi* acting would 
have been characterised chiefly by strong emp 
and vehemence. On the whole, Cic*n) ealla 1 
tiimtntu artifa, and say* he wa* fitted to 
leading part no le«* in tcnl life than on the sa 
{Pro Srjtt. 56.) It does not appear tlial ' 
perfomed in comedy. Vnleriu* Maxima 
10. § 2) calls Aetopusand Kusciu* both "l 
arti* peritisaimo* virvM,*' but this may men 
note tbe theatrical art in general, including t 
a* well 0* comedy. (Coinp. Imlicrar tMue, T 
A'.xvi. 3<;.) Frantocall* him (p.87) TVuj^asj 



n the chuntctur uf Ajax 
utm* (Coiup. 7W. Qmtett, 

1 •'pni enjoyed tho intimacy of 
iW pwt •cUar, »liu callii him ooiiw- JonjMu (ad 
F—k. Hi. I), muttr /amitiaru (nd Qu. PniL I 2, 
t)s and Ikry waii la hare uught, from one an- 
•llaf\ aacicty, i n i p t m e ia ent. each in hi> n> 
ifMlivu aiL Durinit hi> rtilc, Ciccm mritred 
aajr (■loible mariti of Anopns'i frimdthip. f)n 
•■ amaiiian, in puliciihir, having to pcrfomi the 
prt ^ Trfannn. hani»hed frnni hi« countrr, in one 
rf > I vw m\ plavs the tragedian, by his manner and 
ikjftal OBpnAMA, and an occaitioDa] change of a 

' " 1 to the evident reiility of his (M-lings, 
■d in leading the audience to apply the 
> la Uio caw of Cicero, and u did him more 
ee than any direct defence of himself 
mM im,n ddoe. The whole bonie applauded. 
ilS«&(4LSS.) On another occasion, iniiead of 
*Br^m tfoi libertatem ci>-ium stabilivrniL," he 
^hHBttd TitHutM, and the audienoe gave uttcr- 
■i» I* vliwir enthaiiann by encoring the pa*«age 
'a Aaoaand time*" (millirt rrweatum til, Pro 
Art, IS). Tlie time of hi* death or hit age can- 
ttiC W fisv«d vrilh certointT ; but at the dedication 
•I iW tKcBtre of Pumpry (& c. 5.^), hi> wuuld nvm 
k la*» been eWerly, fur he was undensto<id prcvi- 
mif t» k>t* retimi from the itoge, and we do 
mt hmm tt Kia being panicidarly delicate : yet, 
hm At poMOge, iU-brolth or oge would appear to 
W«* focn the rrarun of bis retiring, fin that oo- 
aai^ hawo wi. in honour of the feitival, he ap- 
y ml afaoi ; but jait as he wa* coming to one 
4 <W ■■•* emphatic porta, the beginning of an 
^^ K rimt /aJJu, etcl. his voice fiuled him, and 
ke mU aet go through with the speech. He was 
tntedy lUnUe to proceed, so tliat ony one 
•■M tm4iij have excused Mm : a thing which, 
• ttapaiagv in Cicero implies (uJ f'am, vii. 1), 
■ ■■■• ndjeoee wotild not do for ordinor}- per- 
ftasv AoofHU. though far fmm frugal (Plin. 
A..V. T, 73), naliied, like Roicius, on immense 
I ij hi* profeMion. He left about 2(10,000 

> tv hia wn Clndiui, who proved a fmilish 

■" ( VaL Mai. ii. I. § 2.) It U said, for 

ibax ^"- i^i-.^.'f.l in vinegar and drank a 

|Bri •nrtk al' vhicb be look irom the 

mrn^ rf Ou , (Hor. Siii. il 3, 239 ; 

-t il. I. S J; .Mitcrub. SuL ii. 10; Plin. 

.<. 59), a biTourite feat of the extns- 

Ql|^ S7{ Xacnb. Sat. ii. 13.) The connexion 

' nam's icn-in-law Dobsbella with the same 

increased the distreu which Cicero 

.^liite proceedings of the son of his 

ti. IS.) [A. A.] 

~ f Ai<n/>un^f), a sumamr of 

... .1. I ,,^ gj Ruler, and 

■- Aroe in .-\t-haia. 

11 of his worsjiip 

>*• ; There woa at Troy an ancient 

. -as, the work of llrphoestus which 

/v-a» bxal (iuc« given as a pri'sent to Dardanus. 

U wm k*fl la a chest, and CaMAndm, or, occord- 

% <» Mkai^ Aeneao, left tbi* choU behind when 

da Mttaod <k- city, becauae ihc knew that it 

Mail to inrrrr to him who poascaaed it When 

fcOa^- ' ' !■ spoiU of Troy among them- 

•Am^ Ii. w the share of the Tbessalion 

irypylno, who on opening it suddenly fell iuio a 
state of nia/lnets. The omdc of Delphi, when 
cnusultrd nlioul liis recover}-, answered, " Wher» 
thi>u shall see men perfonniug a stnuige sacritice 
there shalt thou dedirato ihc chest, and there shall 
thou settle." When Eurjpylus came to Aroe in 
Acfaaio, it was just the season at which iia in- 
habilaiiu offered every yeor to Artemis Triclarin a 
human sacrihce, consisting of the fairest youth and 
the fairest maiden of the place. 1'his sacrifice ana 
oflbied as on atonement for a crime which had 
once been committed in the temple uf the giiddeso. 
Hut on oracle hod deckrod to them, that tliey 
should be roleaaed from the necessity of making 
[his sacrifice, if a foreign divinity should be 
brought to them by a fonign king. This oracle 
was now fulfilled. Eurypylus on seeing the vic- 
tims led to the altar was cun-d of his modnesii and 
perceived tluit lliis was the place pointed out to 
him by the oracle ; and the Aroisans also, on see- 
ing the god in the chest, remembered the old 
prophecy, stopped the saciitice, and institutiH] a 
festival of Dionysus .\csymnetes, for this was the 
name of the god in the cliest Nine men and nine 
w«jmen werv ap|>ointcd to attend to his worship. 
During one night of this festival a priest car- 
rit-d the chest outside the town, and all the 
ctiildivn of the place, adomed, as formerly the 
victims used to be, with garlands of rom-eara, 
w^nt down to the banks of the river Meilichius, 
which had before been called Ameilichius, hmig 
up their garlands, purified tliemseWes, and then 
put on other gorbinds of ivy, alter which thcr re- 
turned to the sanctuary of Dionysus Aesymnetcs. 
(Pans. vii. 19 and 30.) This tradition, though 
otherwise very obscure, evidently points to a time 
when human sacrifices were abolished at Aroe by 
tile introduction of a new worship. At Pntrne in 
.\chaia there was likewise a temple dedicated to 
Dionysus Ai'Nymnetes. (Paus. vii. -1. § I'J.) [L.S.] 

AKTHA'LIDES (AifloAtSTji), a son of llemiet 
OJid Eiipolemein, a daughter of Myrmidon, lie 
was the herald of the Argotmuts and bud received 
from his father the faculty of remembering every- 
thing, even in Hades, lie was further allowed to 
reside alternately in the upper and in the lower 
world. As his soul could nut forget anything even 
after death, it rrmembervd that from tlie body uf 
Aethalides it hnd successively migrated into those 
of Euphorbus, Kermotiiuus, Pyrrbus, and at last 
into tliat of Pythagoras, in whom it still retained 
the recollection of its former migrationo. (Apollon. 
Itlioii i. 54, ()40, &c.; Orph. Aryan. 131 ; Hygin. 
Fub. 14 ; Diog. Uen. viii. 1 . § 4, Alc ; Val. Fbujc 
i.437.) IUS.J 

AETHER (Aie^p), a pcrunified idea of the 
mythical cosmoguuies. According to that of Hy- 
girigs {J-'ali. J'rr/. p. 1, ed. Staveren), he woa, to- 
gether with Night, Day, and Etcbua, begotten by 
Chaos and Caligo (Darkness). According to that 
of Ilesiod (TImg. l'J4), Aether was the son of 
Erebus and hij> sisU'r Night, and a brother of 
Day. (Comp. Phomut. Dn A'aL Dour. IG.) The 
children of Aether mid Day were Laud, Heaven, 
and Sea, and from bis connexion with the Earth 
then* sprang all the vices which destroy the hmnun 
race, and also the Oionls and Tiuuis. (Hygin. 
Full. Prtf. p. 2, &c.) These aocoontt shew thai, 
in the Greek cosmogonies, Aetber was considered 
as one of the elementary substances out of which 
the Unircrsc was fonncd. In the Orphic hymns 



till- tool of the worid, fmn to thi 


(4) Aeihw nppcan 

which all life- riimiiatp*, an idnt which wiu also 
■dnpu^d hy xiiur of thi> Mrly philonnphcra of 
Orcrcr. In later tinw* Aether wn» ref{!mlp<l a* 
lh(* wiJe iipiU'C of Ilraven, ihp n**idenotr of ihc 
gixU. (Uid ZouR Rk thi! Lord of the AothiT, or Aether 
it^'lf penonified. (Pacuv. ap, Cic. tit AW, JJeur. 
ii. nti, 40; LiicrcU T. 499; Viig. Aea. xiL UO, 
<A«n;. ii. »2!>.) [L. S.] 

wriUT of the fourth century, a notiTe of Utria oc- 
coriing to his »unijune, or, nrcording to KnkiniiB 
Maunu, of Scythia, the author of a gen^'mphical 
worli. oUInl Aethici Cotmoginphio. Wo Inim 
ftom the prefjBCr that a meaaurvment of the wbole 
Roman world was onlercd hr Juliut Coeiar to be 
made by the moit nlile men, that thii meonnrrmcnt 
WU.4 b(-'pii) in the coinkuUhip of Jalioft Cueur and 
M.Anlunius i.e, 6.0,44; that three Ont-'ks were 
BpfMiinted for the imrpo«e, Zenodoxui, Theodotiu, 
and Pulycliiui ; that Zenodoxut meawred all the 
taatrm part, which occupied him twenty-one ypoi*, 
I five months and nine days, on to the thinl coniul- 
\ (hip of Au^ttui and Cniiuui ; that Theoitutu< 
jlBoaviired the northern part, which occupiefl him 
|,tw<»nty-nine ypar% eight uinnlhs and ten days, on 
[to the tenth coniuU)iip of Au^utas ; and that 
I PalyclituR meoAured the wiuthcni port, which oc- 
Icuptcd him thirty-two y«vr», one month, and ten 
[dnyk; that tluife the whole (Romnii) world wa« 
[grme over by the meajiiucn within thirty-two (?) 
[wean; and that a rrport of all it contained wa< 
[bud before the senate. So it ttondt iu the e<l(L; 
l^t the numbera arv evidenllv much corrupted : 
[the rtintrodictiirinesA of PolyclitUft^B shore taking 
nutrr thiin 32 yeur«, and the whole mennirement 
bciitK nuule in leM thiin (intm) ;VJ year« is ohrious. 
It is to lie obwrved that, in this intr<Hluctar}- 
■Matcmcnt, no mention is nuule of the western part 
F^which in the work itself conies next to the east- 
ern), except in the Vatican MS., where the enstvni 
firt is given to Nicodomos, and the weslem to 
A crnsns of all the people in the Roman subjoc~ 
tiitn was held under Augustus. (Siiidas s. r. 
AfYoiMTof.) Ry two late writers (Cassiodorus, 
Tar. iii. 52, by an emendation of lluschke^ p. (>, 
iUcr dm zur ZcU iter (ieliari Jetu Chrinti fjeKallenrH 
aaiHM,Hrv>lnii, 1040 ; and lsidonisOrv;.T. m. § 
A\ this numbering of the people is spoken of as 
cnnnecu-d with the meaauretnent of the bind. This 
work in (iict consists of two separate pieces. The 
fint bej^ins with a short introduction, the nilxtance 
•>( which has been given, and then pncecda with 
on aoronnt of the measurvnient of the Romaji world 
uiiiKt fnur heuds, Oirntalis, OcddentaUa, 8ept«n- 
Iriuiuiliv Mrridiana poia. Then come •otie* of 
"" » of names, arranged nnder hauls, Maria, Inan- 
Monti's, PiuTijicioe, Oppiilo, Klumina, and 
Oentcs. Theat am tare litis exo-pting that the 
rircrs ha*B an acnont of tlieir rix, counc, aiid 
lenifth annexed. This is the end of the first port, 
the Expositio. The second yaiX is railed Alia to- 
tius orbis Dncriptio, and (onsists of four divisions: 
(I.) Asiae Pmrincioe situs cum limitibus et popalis 
•uis; (i) Eimi|vup sims Ac,; (3.) Africae situs, 
^' ' Maris. This port, the 

1' .t variations in Orosius, 

< - ■- looks like the original 

k " I :. ! .1, Majorca nostti, Ac, ia twkcd on 


preceding part, the Expositio, 1 
IffMlK qttadripartitam (uUhm trrrue amtinrjiliam ii 
ffui ditHetM nnt. From this it wotdd appear tJial 
Aethiciis txirrtiwed it from (Jrosiiu. 

The work alwunds in errors. Sometiisiea ' 
some name occurs in dilTcrent lists ; aa, for exi 
pie, Cyprus and Rhodes bulb in the north and i 
tlic cast; Corsica both in the west and in 
south ; or a country is put as a town, aa Amliii] 
Noricum is put among tlie islands. Mistaka 
this kind would eauly be made in copyimi list 
eA|iocially if in double columns. Hut fjum ulbsl 
a^nMins and from quotations given by liicutl, i 
writer of the dth century, from the CnsmogTn|^ 
differing from the text as we have it, the whol 
appears lo be very corrupt. The whole is a »H 
meagre pmduction, but present* a few voluali 
points. Many successful emendations hav«^ 
mode by Salniosius in bis Exercitationes ] 
gicae, and there is a very valuable etaay < 
whale subject by Ritschl in the Aiaunicia Af w 
(l84'-'),i. 4. 

The sources of the Coamographia appear I 
been thi: meaaurementa above described, < 
dol lists and documents, and also, in all proh 
Agrippa's Commenturii, which ane cunsUintly I 
fem-d to by Pliny {//int. A'ui. iii. iv. v. \i,) 
authority, and his Chart of the World, which i 
founded on his ComnientoriL (Plin. J/iil, A'uA I 

Caisiodoroa {de uulit. dmn, U) dincribea 
cosmographical work by Julius Ilonoriua On 
in term* which suit exactly the work of .\elfai( 
and Salmosius regards Julius Honotius as the I 
author of this work, to which opinion Uitschl i 
to lean, reading Etlmicus instead uf .\cihicu*, i 
considering it as a mere apptdUlive. lo 
MSS. the appellatives Sophista and Philo 
are found. 

One of the oldaf MSS., if not the oldest, is I 
Vatican one. This is tlie only one which 
of the west in the introduction. But it is i 
lessly written : coHtulitna (e. g.) is several 
put for coHsiJtUum. Suu is found as a coali 
tiim {'•) for utpnumiitu. The introduction ia t 
dillvrent in this and in the other MSS. 

The lint edition of the Cosmographia wm ' 
Simler, Basel, 157.'i, together witli the itioeraria 
.\ntonini. Tliert* is an edition by Henry Step 
IJ77, with .Simler's notes, which also conn 
liionysius Poro{>oniui Mela, and Solinus. 
hut eiditiou is by Gronovius, in his edition of I 
ponius Mehi, Lcvden, 1722. [A. A,] 

AI'n'lllLI^\'(Af0iAAa or AfDvXAa), a daugkU 
of Laomedon and sister of Priam, .^stvoche^ i 
Medesicasle. After the fiill of Troy she 
the prisoner of Protesilaut, who took her, I 
with other captives, willi him on his voyagvl 
He hwded at Scione in Thraoe in order to take i 
fresh water. While Protcsilaus bod gone inlaM 
.\ethilla persuaded hex (ttUaw-priMineni to set lif«] 
to the shijts. This was done aitil ult n-nmiued i 
the spot and founded the town of Sciuuo. (Taett.1 
ad l^eopkr. 921, 107.5 ; Conon, NarruL IS ; i 
pore P. Mehs ii. 2. § 150; Stcph. llys. a. wA 
Xnuirt,.) (US. J 

AE'TII!OPS(Ai«(<>i), the Glowing or thcUlaek. ] 
I. A surname of Zetia, nnder which be was 
shipped in the ishind of Chins. (Lycuphfon, I 
597, with the note of Tirtse*,) 
3. A Kin of liqifaaestna, from whom AilUs|iil 


•" bore drriral iu name. (Plin. 

It. Cora. ii. «.) [L. S.] 

- ('Af'tfAjas), tho first king of Eli». 
$ LI.) He «iu ■ ton of Zeus and 
the daughter of Deucalion (Apollud. 
f^i Hjf^/Wk 1551 ood was miuTic'iI to 
Ciij«B, bj vhom be >)egot Endynuon. Acirordin^ 
to MBie aec«ijita Emljution was bimvlf ft ion of 
IrtM aai fint king of Git. (ApoUod. i. 7. § 5.) 
<llWr UBrditaont again made Aethlius a ion of 
Amhat, who ws* called b; the name of Zeus. 
(rMa. V. a. I 1.) [L.S.] 

AJSTULIUS rAieXwr), (he author of a work 
MUad *'8hibi Annals*' {'Opoi Sd^ioi), the Afth 
kak^ wUch it quoted by Athrnacut, although 
■ donbt about the genuiuenpss of the 
{or. p. 650, d. 653, L) Aethlius is also 
tD by Clemen* Aleiaudrinua {/'mtr. p. 
Eaatatbiiu {aJ Od. viL I'JU, p. I57:<), nnd 
iltvicum Mapium («. r. Wforroi), 
ne is w-rittea Athliua. 
{AtVfa). 1. A daughter of king 
■f Tt»czca. BcUemphon sm-d for her 
banished from Corinth before the 
place. (Paus. il 31. i !'.>,) She 
OD cgie occasion by Poseidon iu the 
•t Spbarrik, whither she had gone, in con- 
■■■ W a dltwn, ft>r the purpose of offering a 
ifio 4D di« mnb of Sphaeru. Aethm thcre- 
iMiaUti in the island a temple to Athena 
(the tVceitful), and called the ishuid 
of Sphaeha, and also intruduced 
■■If tW aMidens of Troexen the custom of dedi- 
Miaf Ouir ginllea to Athena Apaturia on the day 
i*mi*amm»^. (Pau. ii. 3!). ji 11.) At a later 
tea ika teTMoe the mother of Thewas by Aegcus. 
(Hm. riiik 8; Hygin. Fab. U.) In the night 
h oliik ttoa leak place, Poseidon also was lic- 
bn4 to km been with her. • (ApoUod. iii. 1 5. 
(7i UynB. Fahk 37.) According to Plutarch 
msB.<)lar fttber spread this re|iort merely that 
IWsiV atiffct be irgardcd aa the son of Poseidon, 
<Ab i«i VBC& frverfvl at Tiuexen. This opinion, 
Dothinir else but an attempt to strip 
Starr of iu marrels. After this event 
Cring in Attica, from whence she was 
tS M laeeiigrroon by Castor and Poly- 

ChhI ^**^n" a slave of Helen, with whom 
kdcrn to Troy. (PIuL Tka. M ; Hoin. 
U.) At the taking of Truy she omic to 
«i 1^ Greeks, where she was recognised 
I; Iv pmJMoa, and Demophon, one of tliem, 
to procure her liberation. 
Aorcniingly sent a messenger to Helrn 
• ^^mH ber to give np Aethra. 1'his was 
paaaii aail Aethra beaune free again. (Paus.x. 
^%i\ iJirt. Crvt. t. 13.) According to lly- 
IMjJWk 343) she afterwaids put an end to her 
•a Mb tma gn«f al the daub of her tons. The 
rf her bandage to Helen was represented 
' IniMd ehett of Cyptclus (Paus. it. 19. 
Qu^Mat. OnL 11), and in a pointing 
- — B tbeLetche of Delphi (Paus. x. 

bter M Ocrannt, by whom Atlas Ixv 
Hy«de^ and a sou, Htbs. (Ov. 
Hrgin. Fat. 19-2.) '[US.] 

BA (AffoMra), a dangbter of Poseidon 
woo was beloviMl by Apollo, aitd 
Eletfbci^ (ApuUod. UL 10. { I ; 

.»f2.) (ua] 



AETIIYIA (AIBuia), n surname of Athens, 
under which she waii woreliippcd in Megario. 
(Paus. i. 5. § 3; 41. g (i ; Lycophr. Gun. 359.) 
The word aXSvia signibes a direr, and Hguratively 
a ship, so that the name must have reference to 
the goddess teaching the art of shipbuilding or 
navi(talion. (Ticti. ad Lyoui>hr. L c) [L.. S.] 
AE'TION. [CvpsKLua] 
AETION (■AfTfo,*). 1. A Greek sculptor of 
Amphipolis, nientiuncd by Callimncbut {AiUJi. Or. 
ix. i'Mi) and Thuucritus (Ejiiyr. vii.), from whom 
we Icani thnt at the request of Nicias, a famous 
physician of MilstUJs he executed a statue of Acs- 
cuUpiub in cedar wiH>d. Me flourished about the 
middle nf the third century D. c. There waa ai 
engmvcr of the some name ; but when he lived is not 
known. (K. 0. MUller, jlrr^rfcr A'luu/, p. 151.) 
2. A celobmted painter, spoken of by Lucion 
(tie Afrnxrl. ConJ. 4'i, J/entd. or Ji'tion, 4, 
&c., /in(u/. 7), who gives a description of one of 
his pictures, representing tlie marriage of Alexan- 
der nnd Hoxniin. This painting excited sncb 
admi ration when exhibited at the Olympic games, 
thnt Prexenidas, one of the judges, gave the artist 
his daughter in marriage. Aetion sceras to lutve 
excelled particuhirly in the art of mixing and \ay- 
ing on his colours. It has commonly l]ecn sup- 
jioaed that he lived in the time of Alexander tlie 
Great ; but the words of Lncian (I/erod. 4) shew 
clearly that he must have lived about the time of 
Hadrian nnd the Antonines. (K. O. MUlIer, 
J rch. der Kumt. p. °J40 ; Kuglcr, Ktuu^aduchie, 
p. 3-.>(l.) [C. P. M.] 

AE'TIirS, a Roman general, who with his rival 
Bonifitce, has justly been called by Procnpius the 
hist of the Romans. He was bom at Durostaiui 
in Moesia (.lomondes, <f« nb. Get. 34), and hit 
father Gaudentint, s Scythian in the employ of 
the empire, ha\'ing been killed in a mutiny, he 
was early given a* s hottage to Alari(^ and under 
him leanit the arts of barbarian war. (Philotilorgius, 
xil 12.) After on ineffectual support of the usurper 
John with an army of C0,000 men (a. d. 424), he 
became the general of the Roman forces under 
Phuzidia, at that time guardian of her son, the 
empcnir V'alentinian III. In order to supplant in 
her lisTour his rival Boniface, by treacherous accu- 
satloas of each to the other, .^i'tius occasioned his 
revolt and the loss of Africa (Pnic-op. /fc//, rami. i. 
iJ, 4); the empress, however, discovered the fraud, 
and Aetius after having met Boniface at Ravenna, 
and killed him in single combat [BoNiTACIL's], woa 
himself compelled to retire in disgrace to the 
Hunnisb army which in 424 he had settled iu 
Poiiuonia. (Prosper, and Mnrrellinnt, in anno 

Restored with their help to Italy, he became 
patrician and sole director of the armies of t)te 
western empire. (.Inmandrs de nb. Gtt, 34.) In 
this capacity, through his long acquaintance with 
the barbarian settlers, and chiefly with the Huns 
and Attila himself^ in whose court his son Carpilio 
was brought up, he checked the tide of barbarian 
invasion, and maintained the Roman power in 
peace for seventeen years (43.V450) in Italy, S(iain, 
Britain, and Gaul, in which hut country especially 
he established his influence by means of bis Hun 
and Alan allies and by his treaty with Theo- 
doric the Visigoth. (Sidon. AjmlL Patftj. AriL 
300.) And when in 4.^0 this peace was broken by 
the iuvasiou of Attila, Aetitu iu concert wiia 

■ 3 


Thcwloric lUTMtwl it tirnt by the tinifly relief of 
l)rli-nii> and llu"!) by the victory of CluUona 
(<»re([. Ttinm. ii. 7 ; Jomnndeft, rfp rrh. iicL 
!tft), niid HtM only prevented frniu folloM'inff op hit 
■ncceate* in Italy by want of iupport both frnm 
Vulentinian and hii barbahan allin. (Idatiiit 
and Uidonii, in anno 450.) [Attila.] The 
atncM of hift position ai tlie ule itay of 
be empire, and m the wlc link betwci-n Chria- 
Vndom and the piijzan barlmriiinft, may well have 
given line to the b<>lief, whetlvr founded or not, 
that he desi^ied the imperial throne fur himtK-lf 
■nd « barbarian throne for hi* %nn Car^iilio (^id. 
ApoU. Pamtg. Ani. 'J04), and acrotdingly in 
4^4, he waa mnrdered by Valentiniun hiiuwtf in 
an aceeu of jealotity and tu>picion (Procop. Urll. 
VuHti. L 4), and with him (to uno the words of the 
coritemp-imry chninicler MorciUinus in anno 4.14), 
**ceeidit llenptrium Iniperium, necpotuit relevari." 
Hi>4 physioil and luoml ai'tivity well titled him 
for the life of a Roldier (Oref^r. Tiiron. ii. 8), and 
though destitute of any high principle, he liclongi* 
to the olaia of men like Auguitui and Cromwell, 
whoM early criroca are obwured by the luefiilneu 
and itlury of later life, and in whom a great and 
tryini; p<»ition really call* out new and unknown 

( Renatui Frigeridiu, in nregor. Toron. ii. 8. ; 

Procop. BfU. Vawi. i. .% 4 ; Jonmndev, i/o Jif^. 

(M, 34, ;tti ; Oiblwn, D«ii»t ami FulL c 33. .S.i ; 

Herliert'. Attila, p. 321) [A. P. S.j 

AfTIUS {'Airun), wnrnmed tb« Alkeitl, from 

[bia denial of the Ond of Kevetution (Su Atbana.1. 

^A Sfwid. 8 6, p. 83, of the lianilation, fixf. 1R4'J i 
Socr. Hut. Ectt. ii. 35 ; S<aom. Iliil. Ka-L i». 29). 
wo* brim in C'oclc Syria (Philotturg. flitl. Ecrt. 
iiL Ii ; Sl Diuil, ui/r. Kmam. i. p. lU) at Aniioch 
(Soc. ii 35 :* Suidii*, •. r. 'Airiet), and becainie 
the founder «( the Anumoean {iMtfuuoii) form of 
the Arian hereay. lie wn* left folhrrleu and in 
poverty when a child, ajid lircnnie the ■lave of a 
Tine-dreMrrV wifo(Sl.<iregDry Nozianz. e. £wAr#m. 
p. 29*J, c D; hnt vx Not. I'li/ioiii ail I'hildtl. iiL 
15), then a trHvelling tinker (S. fir. Uii*t.) or a 

I golttkniith. {V\\\\. Hint.) i'onnetion in a fraud or 
ambition led him to uliandon tlii» life, and he ap- 
plied himaelf to medicine under a iluock, and aoon 
•el up for himielf at Antioch. (iSoc iiL 15.) 
Fnim the ichotdt of medicine being Arion. he ac- 

auired a leaning ti>wardt> herr»y. He fret|ucn1ed 
ke diaputatioun meeting* of the phyaiciant (iS. (ir. 
». ?f)3, d) and made Mich progrrM in Lristiciani, 
Dal he beoune a piiil Mlvix'nte for audi n% wiahed 
their own thi«orie« ethibitiMJ moat ndvnntjigeoujjy. 
(>n hi* ntiitlier'* death be atudied under I'liulinut 
II., Ariiin Hiabnp of Antioch, a. n. 331 ; but liia 

fnwera of iliapulation having euwiieratrd aiilne in- 
neiilial pervin* about KuLiliua, the tiiceewor of 
IPaulinus he ww nliliiii'<l to ijiiit Antioch for 
'Anourbiu, where he rtniimeil the tmde uf a gold- 
Mnilh, A. n. 331. (PhiL iiL 15.) Here a profe*- 
•*ir of gnumnar noticed him, employed him na a 

* AlVer the tir»t reference, the ivferrnce* in thia 

■nicW are thua ablireviated : — St. Athanaaiua, 

i<l» STDodi* [S. .^th.J ; St. Hull, adv. Kunoinianoa 

. Itaa.]; St. Greftory Naxianzen adv. Eunomion. 

. fJr.J The lliaturiei of S«mt<'», Sotomcn, 

__ .eaalnret, and Philoatoiviua. the Arion puegyriu 

^«r AiOimi [Sac., Sot., Thdt., PhiL J; S. Kpipbaniiia, 

•dv. llacreae* [S. Kp.]. 


servant, and instructed him ; but he waa diamia 
in diagrace on publicly disputing againat hi^ 
niaater'a interprvtalion of the Scripture. Thi 
.\rian Ditthop of the city, named .\tliAiuuiua. i 
ccived hini and nrad with him the f*rj4;W«. Afwr- 
ward* he tt'nd the E}*uUrt with Antonius a prie4 
of Tort-uu till the promotion of the Inner to the 
Kpiscojiato, when he rtHumed to Antioch an4 
*tudi(^ the J'rophfts with the pricat Lermtiuh 
Ilia obtninvc irreligion obligi>d hini again to quit 
.\iitioch, and he t«Ktk n'fuge in Cilicia (tieforv a. a. 
348), where he was ilefented in argument by«isit 
of the groMeat (Borborian) Ontiatica, He irti 
cd to Antioch, but Mmn left it for Alesjindii 
being led ihitlicr hy the £ime of the 
Aphthoniua, against whom he recuveitrd the 1 
for diaputation which he hail lately lost, lie 
n'sunied the study of medicine under Sopoli* i 
timclised gratuitouhly, earning money by follow 
his former traile by night (PhiL iiL 15) or U**: 
ajmn others. (Theodoret, Hut, Juxi. iu 2X) 
chief employment, however, was on inrvereot i 
plication of logical figures and georoelrica] 
gnuns to the Nature of the Word of Und. 
Kpiphon, uiir. Hotm, § 2, and coiiip. § ti. p. ! 
He retomed to Antioch on the clo^tioii of I 
rormcr master Leontius to that See, a. ii. Ii4R, a 
WM by hiiii onloined Deacon (S. .\th. g 38, I 
p. 1*f<i), though he diM:lined the ordiiuiry duti«a| 
the l>iaonnate and accepted that of /nxAiwy, 
3.-in. (PhiL iii. 17.) The Catholic Uy 
DiodoruB and Flavian, protested agaiiitt this 
iliiiation, and L<-oiitius was obliged to di'[iose I 
(ThilL iL l!l.) His dispute with liosil of . 
c\ni, A. I). S.'il (fill.), is the lint indication of 4 
future schism in the Arian hereay. (PhiL iiL J4 
Basil incensed riullus (who became C« 
A. D. 351) against Atitius and Leontiua' i 
sion only saved the latter from death. 
Theophilus Plemmys introduced him to liallu*( 
Or. p. 2S4), who made him his friend, and i 
sent him to his brother Julian when in ( 
npostacy. (PhiL iiL 17.) There is a let! 
(lallut extant, coiigratnlating Julian 
heaitin to Chriatiunity, as he had ho 
Aetiiis, (i*ost. Kpiat. Juliitni^ p. 158, i 
Mogunt. 1828.) Ai'tius wa* implicated 
murder of Uomilino and Moniius (toe 
c. 19), A. D. 354 (S. Or. p. 2!I4, B), boT 
insignificance saved him from the irngoaiici 
Constantiut. However, he quitted .^uliodi 
Alexandri;!, where Sl, Athinuaias was nu 
ing Christ i;iiiity ognintt Arianism, and in , 
arti*d as l>eacon under Oeorgv of Capp 
violent interloper into the See of St. At 
(St Kp. 7<;. 8 I ; Thdt. ii. 24.1 Hera T 
became hia pupil (Phil. iiL 20) and 
(Soc iL 35.) He ia said by PhilostoTgin 
to luive refused ordination to the Kpi 
cnuae SeTTOs and Sceundus, who made 
had miied with the Catholics ; in a. d. I 
Kudoxius became bishop of Antioch (Thdt. j 
he returtn'd to that city, but popular f 
vented Kndnx ins from allowing him to act as I 
llie Atlian (Kunomian, see ARit>) acliitf 
begins to develop itself. The bold itrfligiaa I 
Aetiiu leads a section of Arians (whom wexnayc 
here Anti-Aetians) to accuse him to CotMand 
(So«. iv. 13); ihey allege also his connexion ' ' 
Oallua, and press the emperor to aummoD a \ 
Council fur the settlement of the 


The Aelim iiii«i«tt with Enipbiai 
k li)i tbe fowcifal Eonnch, diiidn the iii- 
bot DotwithiUinding, the Ai'tuiiit 
al Sttnwin. a. h. 3i9, and, diunlving 
hiit< II to Conitaotiu, at C'oiiiitiuiU- 
hit protection agnintt their op- 
^wnto. (9. Ath. timui pp. 73, 77. 88, 163, 
AtniBOt (irha are in fact the 
~ tui-Amot, «ee Altius) follow, 
su cxagt imMr oppPDcaCi with inninlnining a 
■■ Aitaaaar(fTtp>MilffuM') in the Trinity, 
■ p*p«r to that effect. A new Khiani 
tbe .^rtioni, and Artiiu it aliaD- 
Vj hi* frieodt (called Eoiebiaiit or Aca- 
«•• Auos) and Imniahed (S$. Bm. 14), 
itm ffolaMiBg againit hia componinna, who, 
ifUS^ tW aae JMrww^ifa with himwlf {rit. that 
Ab Sib •■• • mahuw, Kriaim), rrfuied to iw 
%amritifll tk« nceemry inference (riz. that He 
• if miiitt tmh^amrr to tbe f'alitr, iriuoior). 
rrik. i. 33; Sot. ir. 33; S. Or<^. p. 301, n. ; 
n*l ir. 13.) His late friendi would not let him 
■^■a at MapcuMtia, where he wu kindly re- 
ly Aiaxentiiu, the Biihop there : Acacius 
• hia bwiahiDenl to Amblada in Piiidia 
«. t), wiat be compoied hii 300 bhu- 
laptiaiu inference* from the fymbol of 
»ix. that JupntmUnta {dynniala) 
b itr ^moet {aifia) of Deity ; which ore refuted 
(ihi^ at bait which St. Epiphaniu* had ncen) in 
&. Efk Mfe. IJtur. 76. He there calU bit op- 
)iBna>Cfaraii(«>, i-r. Temporals with an apparent 
Aaa M thrtr courtly obaeqiiiounieM, (Pmefat. 
^X Akr conp. c 4.) 

0* CoMtsitiiu't death, Julian reralled the 
^■•aa rttlwl lutbopa, aa well at Ae'tiaa, whom 
!■ Mlad I* U* court (Ep. JiUiaai, 31, p. B1, 
•L ■giaaaB.V ginng him, too, a form in Let- 
W fniL iz. 4.) Eiuoiot, heretical Bithop of 
Aitaa, loak aS tbe ecclniattical candemoalion 
ha A«Ua> (Phil. Tii. 5), and he wo* mode 
1^ U CMtContinoplc (S. Ep. 76. p. 99*2, c.) 
b fiaada ki» bereay by fixing a bishop of hit 
•nloafigte U Conttontinople (HhiL riiL ■2)and 
V tit^mmaim, till the death of Joriiui, a. d. 364. 
M^k l wn »T, took part with Eudoxius, the 
Abbb Blabop of Constantinople, and Aetiui re- 
tt4 la t-"*****! «her« be narrowly escaped death 
■ lii laadt at the goTenor, pUccd there by 
htaaia io hia reroh againut Valeni, .«. D. 365. 
Ml (8n Oihbofi. cb. 19.) Again be took refuge 
k CMMMWaple« but was driven thence by hit 
In Toin be applied for protection 
now st Mordouuple with Voleni; 
m^h «. IS. i67 (PhiL li. 7) he died, it •ernu, at 
tsiipiticd by any but tlie equally 
iin, who buried him. (I'hil. ix. 
U IW ilartrinat ermn of .Ai'tiut are stated 
MlhiWIy IB the article on .Vkiuk From the 
MaBAaiB h* seemt to have Irnrned hii> licentious 
■■t^ wlucJi appeared in tbe most shocking Soli- 
which lie groiiiuli'd on a Gnostic 
of ^>t. Jiilin. xvti. 3. He denii-d, 
MbrT lt9T*fi'u^ the iiucrssity of fasting 
m. (S. Ep. .tdr. Ilarr. 76. § 4.) 
nr .Jth^T hr wilt a diMriple of Eusi^ 
• E},H. W3 [79] and 
35) speaks of ieveml 

iiid others. Hit 

haAv ['hoii. u<(r. Hitcr, 

:i.pL:.. ..'. IA.J.C-.] 

it WW tr 

AKTIU8. 53 

AETIUS (■Astioi, Aclim), a Greek medical 
writer, whose niuiie is commonly but incorreclly 
spell Acliia. ilistnriaiit are not iigTc«'d abi>ut 
his eiacl d.ile. He is pliio'd by tome writers at 
ftarly as the fourth crnturj' after Christ ; but it is 
plnin from hit o«ti work ilint he did not write till 
the verj- end of tbe Hflli or the beginning of tbe 
sixth, OS he refers (IrtnA. iii. term. i. 24, p. 464) 
not unly to St Cyril, Patriarch of Alei.indria, who 
died A. D. 444, but also {Irlnih. ii. nerm. iii. 110, 
p. 3.^7) to Petrus Arcliijiti'r, who tt-nt pliysiciiin 
to Thcodoric king of the Otlrogoths, and lliere- 
fore mutt have liird still bier ; he is himself 
quoted by Alexander Tralliannt (xii. 8, p. 346), 
who lired probably in the middle of the sixth 
centurj'. He wot a tmti»e of Amido, a city of 
Mcsopouimio (Phntiui, cod. 221) and studied at 
Alei.indria, which wns the most fiuiiaua mi'dicol 
school of the age. He wnt probably a Christian, 
which rony account perhaps for hit being con- 
founded with another person of the tame name, a 
famous Arinn uf Anlioch, who lived in the lime of 
the Fniprror Julian. In some manuscripts he hat 
the title of itobmits ilij'iwiou, rotnr$ rjn^fuii, which 
meant the chief ofHcer in attendance on the em- 
peror (sec I)u Cnnge, C.'lua. AM. rt Inf. iMIin.); 
this title, according to Photius (/. c), he attained 
at Constantinople, where he was practising medi- 
cine. Aetius seems to be the first Greek medical 
writer among the Christiani who gives any speci- 
men of the spells and charms so much in vogua 
with the Egyptians such at that of St. Rlaisa 
(Irtrnb. ii. serni. iv. 50, p. 404) in removing a 
bone which sticks in the throat, and another in re- 
lation to a Kislulx (Irtrah. iv. ferm. iii. 14, p.762.) 
The division of his work BitfAfa 'larpiicd 'EnKai- 
!«<[o. " Sixteen Hooks on Medicine," into four 
tctrabibli (T«T(>dfiiSAiii) was not made by himself, 
but (as Fabricius observes) vut tlie invention of 
some modem translator, aa his way of quoting 
his onii work is according to the numerical series 
of the books. Although his work does not con- 
tain mncb original matter, it is nevertheless one of 
the most valuable medical remains of antiquity, as 
being a very judicious ciimjiilation from the writ- 
ings of many authors whose works have been long 
since lost. The whole of it has never upiK-arcd 
in the original Greek ; one half wnt pulilith- 
ed at Venice, 1534, foL "in ned. Aldi." with 
the title *• Aelii Amideni I.ibroniro Medicinalium 
tomuB primus ; primi scilicet Lihri (.kto imuc 
primum in liicem editi, Gmece : " llif second 
volume never appeared. Some chnpt/-rs of the 
ninth book were publiKhed in Greek and Latin, by 
J. E. Hcbenttreit. Lips. 4to. 1757, under the title 
** Tentamen Philologicum Mediciim super Aii'tii 
Amideni Synopsis Medictjrum Veterum," &c.; and 
again in the some year, "Aetii Amideni AsfirSuTafV 

Specimen alierum." Another chapter of the 

tame book was edited in Gi^k and Latin by J. 
Magnus a Tcngstrciin, Aboae. 1817, 4to., with tlw 
title •* Commenttitionum in Aetii .Amideni Medici 
'AvsKStrra S|K.-ciinen Prininm." etc. Another ex- 
Irncl, also from the ninth Ixxik, is inserted by 
Mustoxydet and Schinas in their ** SuAAoTi) 
'EAAqviirwi' ' krnMrafy" Vciiet. 1816, 8vo. The 
twenty-fifth chapter of the ninth b<Hik was editt-d 
in Greek and Latiu by 3. C Horn, Lips. 1654, 
4to. ; and the chapter {^lclrut.\, trn/i. iii. 164) 
" De Significalionibns Sleibrum." it inserla.'d in 
(ir««k and Latin by Petaviut, in hit ~ I'maalo- 


pvnL," p. 421, eit Paris. Sit boik* {namely, 
fnjui iKc eighth to the thirtr^nth, inclusive), wrn* 
pabliihcd at Duel, 1 333, foL, tnuuUtod into Latin 
liy Janut Cornariui, with the title " Aetii An- 
tiiMrhcni Miilici it coj^oMendU et cunmdiff Morbit 
Scmuinc^ Sex jam primum in iucem editi," etc. In 
1533, the rrnukinintf ten book» wfre tmnalalodand 
pabliihcd at Biuel, by J. B. Monianui, in two 
TollOBMi 10 that the three volumes form togetiiera 
eoopleH and uniform edition of the work. In 
1.^34, 4to., a complete Latin tnuiilation wai pub- 
lished at Venice by the Juntai. In 154'2, Coma- 
rius completed and published a tnnslation of the 
whole work (Bant. foL); which was reprinted at 
RawU 1.M9, 8va; Venice, 1543, 1544, 8ro.; 
Lyons, 1J49, fol.; and in H. Stephens's " Me- 
dime Artis Principes," Paria. 15t)7, foL Two 
useful works on Aetius deserre to be mentioned ; 
one by C Oroscius (Horozcu), entitled " Anao- 
talioim in Interpretrt Aetii," BosiL 1 .S40, 4to. ; 
the other an academical disaertion by C Wei^>el, 
entitled ** Aetianarum Excicitationom Specimen," 
Lip^ 1(91, 4tft. (Ser Fnind's UitL of Pkfme, 
bum whose work many uf the preceding renmika 
hftv* been taken ; Cagnali Variae ObaerraL it, 
18 ; Boiler, mUimk. Attdic Pniet. vol. i. p. JOO ; 
annaisl, HaU da la MoUdme; Cbonlant, Haad- 
faol iir aUttrtmrnU far dm AtUm MmOdiu) 

(W. A. O.] 

AETIUS, SIC.\'MIUS (lualtLmi i'Airun), 
■ometijiiea called Melius Siamiiu or 6'scWiu, the 
aathur of a tmliae n«^ H(Aa7xoAi4t, De Mtbm- 
cfUu, which is commonly printed among the 
wurita of Uaka. ( VoL ziz. p. 699, &c) His date 
ia ttDCaftun, bat, if he be not the same person as 
Aelioa of Amida, he most have lived after him, as 
his treatise corresponds exactly with part of the 
lattvr's great n)edica] work (lelral). ii. mrm. ii. 9 
— I!, p. 250, Ac): it is compiled from Galen, 
Kobs. Posidonius and Mareelluk. [ W. A. (J. ] 

AETN.\ (AfT»i|), a Sicilian nymph, and accord- 
ing tu .-Vlcimus {ap, SduiL Thtoerii* i. *).*>), a d.iu£h- 
lef uf I'ranus and Gaea, or of Briareua. Siino- 
aidca said that she had acted as arbitrator between 
HcjphaMtaa and Demeter respecting the p n is r wi nn 
■f Sicily. By Zeus or Ilephaeatua she faecame the 
BOtber of the Palici. (Serr. ad Aem, ix. 584.) 
Monnt Aetna in Sicily was beliered to hare de- 
rirrtl its name &nm her, and under it Zens buried 
Typhon, Knrrladna, or Brianma, The monntain 
itaeif waa befiered to be the place in which He- 
phawftns and the Cyelupa made the thunderbolu 
far Zrm. (EuripL CfdL 296; Propert. iii 15. 21 ; 
Gt.DtDmint,a.\0.) [L-S.] 

ABTNA£US (Aimun), an epithet given to 
H*ail lodf and nythical being* connected with 
Mooit Aetna, such aa Zrca, of whoa then was a 
■Htw eo Boant Aetna, and to whom a (Mtival 
•M adabralrd ther% ciUed AeUaea (^<cfauL ad 
/WL OL tL 16-2), tiephaettiM. who had his work- 
llny is the moonlain, and • tmpla ocar it (Aeltao. 
HkU Alt. zi 3 ; Snnheim, ad OalUm. kfom. n 
Dim. M), aad the CTckipa. (Virg. Aoi. viiL 440, 
si2«S,in.768; OT.'£syoat.ii.2.1l5.) (US.] 

AFn'tYLK (AkssAif), a nmame of Artemis, by 
which she waa vonhip^ped at Nanpactus. In her 
laamle in thai lawn there was a statue of white 
—I till wyiiaanlim bet in iha a tt i l ode of thnving 
• jawlln. rPsu^ 1. SILiS.) [L. S.] 

APT' --\ii\. \. A iOB of Endyminn 

aaitthc. , or Iphianaaa. (Apollod. L 7. 


g 6.) According to I^Kuanias (v. i. % i\ hi* ■»- 
ther was calle<l Asterodia, Chramia, or Hypcoffb 
He was married to Pronoe, by whom be had (vi 
sons, Pleunn and Calydon. His bnrtheia wm 
I'ncon, Epeiui, and other*. (Steph. Byi. «. «<. Vifyii; 
Conou. Namt, 1 4 ; SchoL ad Pud. OL i. 28.) His 
father compelled him and his two bmtben Parsa 
and Epeius to decide fay a contest at Olyrop 
which of them w;is to succeed him in his kii^ 
Elis. Epeius gained the victory, and < 
throne after his Cstbcr, and on his demise he i 
succeeded by Artolus. Uiiring the funeial i 
which were celebrated in hoaonr of Azan, be I 
with his chariot over Apia, the aon of Jaaon i 
Salmonella, and killed him, wherrspon be wi 
pellrd by thf sons of Api*. (.\pollod. i.c,- Pi 
I. § 6 ; Sttab. viil p. 357.) After leaving Pd 
nesus, he went to the country of the Curvtt 
tween the Achelous and the Corinthian gulf, wh 
he slew Dorus Laodocus. and Polypoeles the ■ 
of Helio* and Phthia, and j^nve to the cuuntljr I 
name of Aelolia. (.Apollod. Paus. 0. n.) ~ 
story is only a mythical account of the < 
ofAetnlia. (Sttab. x. p. 463.) 

2. A son of Oxylus and Pieria, and bn 
Liaiaa. He died at a tender ago, and hia ] 
were enjoined by an oracle to bury him 
within nor without the town of Elia. Tbey s 
ingly buried him under the gate at which the i 
to Ulj-mpia commenced. The gymnasiareh of I 
used to ofler on annual sacrifice on hia toosb a* I 
as the time of Pausaniaa. (v. 4. f 2.) [ L. 9 

AFER, DGMI'TlUS,of Nrmansus (Nia 
in Gaul, waa praetor A. D. 26, and gained the I 
vonr of Tibernu by aecuaiiig Ctandia Pulchta, I 
consobrina of Agrippina, in a. n. 26. (Tac Au 
iv. 52.) From this time be became ooa tl l' 
most celebiated orators in Rome, but sanificHl I 
character by conducting aocnsation* for tbe i 
roent In the following year, a. d. 27, ha ia i 
mentioned by Tacitus as the accuser of 
Quintiliu*. the ton of Claudia Pulchia. (An 
66.) In con>e<|uence of the acrusation of i 
Pulchra, and of some offence whid he I 
to Caligula, he was accused by the < 
senate, but by concealing his own skij 
ing, and pretending to be overpowered 
eloquence of Caligula, he not only 
danger, but was tnade consul iiifTrctus in a. I 
(Dion Cass. lix. 19, ->0.) In his old age , 
much of his reputation by conliaaing to < 
public, when his puwcn weiv cxhaastML 
xii. ll.gS; Tac.4tn.iv. S2) Uo di< 
nrign of Nero, a. d. 60 (Tac. ^ns. xrr. || 
conseqnenoe of a turfcil, according to Hii 
in the Chronicoa of Eosehiofc 

Quintiliao, when a yomg lain, beard 
Afer (comp. Plin. Kp. ii. 1 4 ), and frrqa 
of him as the most distingnished ontor of | 
He aays that Dcinitins Afiw and Jalio* , 
wen the beat onton he had beard, and 
piefcrs the Conner to the latter, (x. 1. ) II 
Qoinliliain refers to a work of hia "On " 
(v. 7. I 7), to one entitled "Uieta" (vi. X %J 
and to sotne of his orations, uf which 1 
half of Domitilla, or noantilla, and 
Caluloa aeem to ban bten the : 
friii S. t 16. ix. 2. { 30, S. I 66; 4. 1 U, : 
t 24. Ac.) Reiperting the will tl nnnitlna i 
see Plin. Xy>. viii. IM. 

AFKA'NIA, CAIA or QAIA. Iha wifc rfri 

WMlPr Licinius Buccio, ■ very litigimn vs- 
■la^ «bo aJmT* pleaded her owii caiiieft beforv 
tfe yoKor, and tbu* gBTc ocauion to the piiblibh- 
mf if tke edict, which forbode all women to pasia- 
liiB. Sftw wa* pcrhap* the aifter of L. Afninius, 
■^■oi tD B. r. KO. She died a c. 4B. (Vid. Max. 
Tffi X 5 1 : ni- 3. tiu 1. ». 1. § 5.) 

' N S, plebeian, it Ant mentioned 
y & c. The only cognomen 
It inM gm*. nuicii ocean under the rrpulilic, is 
ftmxio : Ihmi imme* which have uo Cii^'nnmen 
i^ giw —df AyiLAMfS. Some pt^noiiii of thii 
■■■••wUmtly did not lielang to the Afmnin Genu. 
Om Mb* wr 6nd only S. Aftaniiu and M. Afin- 
■■^ ml wbon nothing ii known. (Kckhel, r. p. 

AFRA'NLL'S. 1. L. AriiANius, a Roman 
(■■c ^OTt, who liTcd at the beginning of the lint 
tmtmy il r. Hi* eomedie* detcribed Roman 
iMan aat iMiiiiiia [Cctmoalioe fajAi/w), and the 
mtfttt wwn Biatly token from the life of the 
{Cbmofdiae latermriit.) Thej were 
pelluted with dii(;ncefiil amours, which, 
taQuintiltui, were only a ivprueuuition uf 
sof Afianiiu. (z. I.g 100.) lledepicud. 
>*-~— ■* life with luch accuracy-, that he 
it ihmmt wuh Mtaumder, fmm whom indet-d he 
kaBa«4 kugrij. (Hor. J^. ii. I. 57; Mocrob. 
dal. ti. 1 1 CV. (i> ^W L X) He imitated the 
■vW i< C Titiiu, and hit language i< piaiied by 
~ {Ortt. 45.) Hit conu-die* ore «poken of 

lk« fci gb w t terma by the ancteut writcre, ami 
4r tke empin they not only continued to b>» 
ri, hat were eren acted, of which an example 
m tie time of Neru. (Veil. Fat. i. 17, ii. Ifl; 
m, V; Soet. Act. 11.) Tliey teem to hail- 
■afl kaown cen at the biter end of tiic 
(Aaun. Epiijr. 71.) AfrmiiuB 
a great many cnmedie*. lu the 
ita of between twenty and thirty 
Thne fragments have Itecu 
|ilMad kr Oeake, Foti. Lot Uniic. Frar/menta, 
MIW NaakJRfa, Ar/iiWa lanla linmitx. 

I !• Avaxnt'a, apprart to have been of ot>- 
■■1 >%^ aa be i* called by CireM in contempt 
*l^ aoi of Aaia^" a* a peraon of whom nobody 
W Wt4. (IV. of ^U. i. 16, -20.) He was fint 
kMf^ lat* aotice by Pompey, and was always 
!■ «^B 6iand a&d partiian. In ikc. 77 he was 
aetf ^■1^*7''^ levies in the war against Serto- 
■nd also terred Pompey in the same 
the Hithridatie war. (Plut, iiert. 19. 
M, M;. 3S ; Dion Out. xxiviu b.) On 
frtsrn to Rume, he was anrions to ob- 
for Afrnnio^ that he might the 
6ia own plans intu etfcct ; and, not- 
[ tfe oppoaition of a powerful pony, 
ikc electlMI cf Afranios by intluence 
■t WWry. Ihufng hi* consuUbip, however, 
IblO 'id not do much for Pompey 

ina t J"'), bat probably more from 

•■i m ri|<rr-'iicf in political aKiin tlian fn>n> 
■f WR m tocltnation. In a (. 59 Afranius hoil 
Ai [iiliw ctf Cisalpine (iaal (ounp Cic. ad Atl. 
tl>).asi4 H BBy hove been owing tu mme ad\-aii- 
t«p> W \mi guord ovcf the (hiula, that he ob- 
\imA rite Irtaaiph, of which Cicero speaks in hia 
«Mw ^ijMl Kisa. (c '2i.) 

Wkaa I ^Mi a j ebtiined the province* of the 
1^ 8|B<Ba ia In ((CDnd cnnsuUlii|> (a c. 55), 
^ wbA Afiranius ami Petrclu* to govern f'paiii 

in W« nnine, while he himself remained in Rome. 
(VeJL Pat. iL 48.) Uu Uie breaking out of 
the civil war, a c 49, Afranius was still in 
Spain with three legions, and after unitiug his 
forces with those of Petreius he had to oppose 
Caeior in the same year, who had crossed over ' 
iuto Spain as soon as he had obtained pobM**- 
si<in of Italy. After a short campaign, in which 
Afmnius and Petreius gtiined some tidvantngt'S at 
lint, tliey were reduced to such straila, that they 
were obliged to sue for the mercy of Caesur. I'his 
was granted, on condition that their troops should 
be disbanded, and that they should not s<'rve 
against him agnin. (Cacs. U, C. L 38-86; Appiau, 
U. C. ii. 42. 43; Uion Cass. xli. 20-23; Plut. 
Pump. 65, Caes, 3G.) Afmuius, however, did not 
keep his word ; he immediately joined Pomi^'V ut 
Dmhaciiun, w here he was accused by some uf the 
aristocraiv, though certainly without justice, uf 
treacherj- in Spain. After the lotlle of Dyrrha- 
cium, Afranius reccrr.mendcd an immediate leturu 
to Italy, especially as Pompey was master of the 
sen ; but this advice was overruled, and the battle 
of Pharsalia followed, a c. 411, in wliich Afranioa 
had the cliarge of the camp. (Appian, B. C ii. (i5, 
7<); Plut. I'amp. 66; l>iou Cass. xli. 52; VelL 
Pat. ii. 52.) As Afranius was one of ihiisc who 
cnulJ not hope for pardon, he fled to .\frica,. and 
joined the Pumpeian army under Cut" and .Scipiu. 
{Dion Cuss. xlii. 10.) After tlic defeat of tlie 
Pompcians at the battle of Thapsus, a c. 4G, at 
which he was present, he attempted to fly into 
Mauritania with Faustus Sulla and about 1500 
horsemen, but ma Uikai prisoner by P. Sittius, 
Olid killed a few days afterwards according to 
some accounts, in a sedition of the soldiers, and 
according to others by the comnuind of Caesar. 
(Hirt. Hell A/ric. !i5 ; Suet. tii«. 75 ; Uion Coas 
xliil 12; Floras iv. 2. § SO; Lit. £i>it. 114; 
Aur. Vict.</« IV. ///. 78.) 

Afranius seems to have hod some talent for war, 
hat little for civil alhtirs. Dion Cassias says "that 
hf w.w a belter dancer than a statesman" (ixxvii. 
4.'l), and Cicj^ro speaks of bim with the greatest 
cfinteiupt during his consnUhip {utKAtt, i. IH, 20), 
though at a btcr time, when Afnuiius was opposed 
to Caesar, he calls him nunmos diur. (Plat. liiL 1 4.) 

3. L. Afmnius son of the preceding, negotiated 
with Caesar in Spain through Sulpicius for his own 
and his fiithcr's preservation. He afterwords went 
aa a hostage to Caesar. (Caes. U. C. i. 74. 84.) 

4. AkIIANH'B PoTITl'S. [PoTITtlfc] 

5. AruANii's BuHRirN. [Bikrus.] 

6. AFIl.lMf8 Qt'INCTIA^t.S. [Qf INCTIANUR.] 

7. Ai'BASit;!* UaxTxa [Dxxtkb.J 

a. T. .AFKAMtJs or T. Afbenils no' » Roman, 
was one of the leaden of the 1 talian confedcratis 
in the Manic war, a c. flO. In conjunction with 
Jiidacilius and P. Ventidius ho defeuU-d llie legato 
PompeiuB Strabo, and pursued him into Kimium, 
before which, however, be was defeated in his 
turn, and was killed in the battle. (Appiun, U. C 
I 4(1, 47; Klorus iii. 18.) 

AFRICA'N'CS. [SciPial 

AFIUC.-V'NUS {'A<t^f>ulay6!), a writer on velc- 
rinory surgerj-, whose dute b not certainly known, 
but who may very probably be the same person as 
Sex. Julius .Africnnus whose work entitled Ktcrrol 
contained information upon medical siibjit'li*. 
(AcRic.iNtss Skx. Juries] His n-nmin» were 
published in the Collection of writers ou Vcleriiiaiy 



. JKedicinp, fini in a Latin traiidation b; J. Riit-I- 
fliua. Pur. \!i'M, ful.. and nftvrwontit In liirek. lias. 
1 1537. 4to. cilitod by ( irvnwun. [ \V. A. ( i. J 

AFRICA'.Nrs, Si:X. CAECI'LIUS, a cla^ 
' BC&] Honrnn jurisconiiulu «lio lived under Aiito- 
ninu> Piiu. He wa> probably r pnpil of Salviua 
Julianut, the cekbratcd rcfonner of tbc Edict 
undrr Ilndrian, [.iLXUNtis SALni'K.] He con- 
•ulted Juliiin un legal tubjecti (Dig. iS. tit. 3. ■■ 3. 
$ 4). and there it a controirerb-d piuugc in the 
Digest (jl/ncuHw lihro rtcanmo Ejiutotantm opud 
JaliuKum qumril, tic Dig. 30. tit. i. <. 39), which 
hu been explained in various vrnyi; either that 
he published a legal correftpondmce which poaAed 
between him and Julinnua, or that he commented 
open the epittohir; opinioni given by .lulianus in 
nniwer to the letten of clientt, or that he wrote a 
commentary upon .Inlianus in the form of lettem. 
On the other hand, Julianus "ex Sexto" ia (juated 
by Goiua (iL 218), which ahewt that Juliaoiu an- 
nolAted Sextua, the formula ^ex Sexto" bein;; 
aynonjmoui with "ad Seitum." (Neiiber, liit 
jurut. Kliusikrr^ 8. .9.) Who was Sextim but 
Afrioinuk ? Afhcanui wna the author of " Libri 
IX (Ju.-iettionum," fnim which many pure extmcti 
ate moile in the Digest, at may be teen in Horn- 
met't ** Palingeneaui Pandectorum," where the ex- 
tncU ftom each juritt are brought together, and 
Iboae that ore taken from Airicauui occupy 2G 
out of abuul 1800 page*. 

From his remoina, thua pretonred in the Dij^ptt, 
it it evident that he wot intimately acquainted 
with the opiniont of Jnlianua, who is the person 
alluded to when, without any expreiaed nominative., 
he uses the wordi aU^ enilimanL, imjaviL, pultnii^ 
iwpiii, mptmilit, piaaeU mituL This is pntved by 
L'ujas from ■ compuiaon of tome Greek scholia on 
the IJosUioi with pirallel extncta from Africonua 
in the Digrst. Paullus and Ulpian huve done 
Africanut the honour of citing hit authorilr. He 
WW fond of antiquarian lure ( Dig. 7. tit. 7. t. I, pr. 
wfacTB the true reading it .S*. CuxdliuM, not & wf e/ttu), 
and Us "Libri IX (juaestionum," from the con- 
MMima of the style, the great subtlety of the m- 
■omilg, and the knuttinns of the points ditcotaed, 
so puxxled the old gloMuitors, that when they aune 
to .in extract from Africauus, they were wont to 
exclaim Africani lex^ id at dfficilu. ( Heinecc. //uT. 
Jmr. Hum, § cecTi, n.) Maacorius {•!< Sertii Jw. 
4. S .1) sapixiies thai Afnconus belonged to the 
kgu aaet of the Sobiniani [Caphhj], and as our 
rathor wia ■ steady follower of Solvius Juliauus, 
who WM > Ssbinian (Uaiut, iL 217, 218), thii 
(appoatian may be regarded as established. In 
the daw of Antoninus Pius, the distinction of 
■boob or aects had not yet oom out, 

AaOBg the writers of the lives of ancient law- 
yen ( Pancirollus, Ja UertraiiduK Grotiuo, A.c) 
much dispute hot ariten as to the lime when Afri- 
canus wrote, in conaequeoce of a cumpt or erro- 
ncoiK [osnge in Lampridiiis (Loup. AUi. Acr. (!8). 
which would make bim a fnemt of Severus Alvx- 
Dderoiid a ditciple of Papinioii. Cujas ingeniously 
Aitsfiictunly ditposrs of this ouochronism by 
rrfvrring to the intcmal evidence of an extract 
from .\fhcaous (Dig. 30. lit. L a. 1U(I). which os- 
•BUca the validity o€ i legal maxim that was no 
loonf i& fioTCB trhcn Paptnsan wrote. 

Far naaoiu which it would be tedioas to detail, 
we hoU, onntrary to the opinion of Mcniige {Ammm. 
Jmr. c 2,^), that war 9r«tus Coeciliut Africaiiua it 


iilentlcal with the jurist wroetimes mentianed is 
the Digest by the name Cuedlius or S. (oecilius 
and also with tluit S. Caecilius whose dispute «iili 
Kavoritius fomit an amuftiii^ und interrsting rhapler 
in the Nodes .^tticae. (GeiL xx. 1.) (ielliut pf^ 
baps draws to some extent upon his own invention, 
but, at all events, the lawyer's defence of the Xtl 
Tables against the attacks of the philost^ibcr M 
"ben trovato." There is something homofvuly 
cruel in the concluding stroke of the conreraba^ 
in the pedantic way in which our jurisconsult via* 
dicatcs the dccemviral law against debtors — faHi 
tfmnto^ &.C. — by the example of Melius Fufetioi^ 
and the harsh sentiment of Virgil : 

"At tu dictis, Alliane, manerea." 

The remains of Africonus have been adminMy 
expounded by Cnjos {ad A/hcoMHm trxmtttuM I \. 
in Cujoc. Gpp. vol. I ), and have also born annouiej 
hy Scipio GentilL (Scip. Gentilis, Dim. l-tX ai 
A/nmnum, 4to. Altdorf. 1603-7.) 

(Stntuchius l'i4<u aJiifutit teto i iw jaristmyW 
lunau, Bvo. Jen. 1723 ; I. Zimmeni, Ami, /Oet^ 

iKtrkirhlr, $ 94.) (J. T. O.] 

AFRICA'NUS, JU'LIUS, a celebrated 
in the reign of Nero, seems to have been th« i 
of Julius Africanus. of the fiallic state of t ~ 
toni, who was condemned by Tiberius, 
(Tac. Ann, vi. 7.) Qninlilinn, who had 
Julius Africanus, speaks of him and llnmitiai 
Afcr as the best orators of their lime. Tbe < 
quence of Africanus was chieriy characterised by 
vehemence and ener;^. ((juintil. x. 1. $ I IK, 
lii. 10. g 1 1, comp. viii. 5. § lA; lHaL de Or^ 
15.) Pliny mentions a (naudson of thia Juliai 
Africanus, who a'os also an advocate and was 
opposed to him up«m one ociasion. (J^ vii. (.) 
He was consul suifectut in i. o. 108. 

writer at the beginning of the third cemury^j 
called by Suidaa a Libyan (>. r. 'A^fM 
paosed llie ereater part of his life at I 
Palestine, woeic, according to some, b< \ 
(Jerome, de Hr, III, 63.) When 
destroyed by fire, Africaimt «'as sent to 1 
to solicit its restoration, in which mission 
oe<-ded: the new town was called Nico|i<.lls. (a. 
221, Entebiua, Cknm. sub anno; tSynrellus, | 
3.>9, b.) A&icanus subsequently went to Aleii 
dria to hear the pbiloanpher Meiaclas, wit 
afterwards bishop of Alexandria. The htcrl 
wrilen sute, that he waa snbaoqaeotlr-' 
bishop. He was one of the moat IcaraeJ o 
early Christian writers. Sociatea (/tut. Kid. 
35) classes him with Origrn and Clemeut ; and j 
appi-on from hia letter on the History of I 
that he was acquainted with Hebrew. 

The chief work of Africanus waa a 
in five books (vri-rd^jfAior j^potnKTfutiir\ 
the creation of the world, which he pUm4 
5499 B. c to A. D. 221, the fourth year af I 
reign of Ehgafaalus. 'lliis work is lost, bat a < 
siderable part of it it extmcled by Eusebius in I 
^ Chronicon," and many fiagmcnts of it are i 
pteserved by Oeufiiiu Syncetlua, Cedrenns, and I 
tbe Paachale Chnmicon. (See Ideler. Ha 
d, Ckrnnot. Tol ii. p. 4A6, h.t.) Tbe bupm 
this work ore given by GaUandi (OiU. fmL), I 
Routh {Mrlitptitu Haenu), 

Africanus wrote a letter to Origen iiapugail 
tbe autliuiity of the book of tjusBanik la vk 


^ imlifd. Tbu Irttrr ii rxtont, and haa 
I fMUtti^ tnitf thcr with Origru't answer, hy 
~ ■ lii74, 4I/I, It in «Im contiiini'd 
{k P» b Rs^** cditinn nf Ong<ui. Afriouiuii iil&n 
tivM B letter tn Ari«tridca on the genenlngie« of 
Chmt ID Matthew and Luke (Hhot. HM. .14; 
tavk. tfitL KcrL rL 23^ of which tome eztract> 
■»pfiai k^ KiuefaiiUL (i. 7.) 

1lBi» m taexhtt work attributed to Africnnus, 
■>ilH Kaarai, that a, nnbroide-red ginllet, an 
lCa4 ftam t>i« celcbmtcd >rf<rr(jf iif Aphrodite, 
writrn tuppose thii work to have 
bjr ■omr one cite, but it can tcatccly 
k tariMad thai it wa> written by the nme A&i- 
lai^ MMv il i> exprvMlT mentioned among hii 
ttm *lltiiai> \iy Photiui {I. r.), Suidns (/. c), 
{I. t.), and £uKbiui. (ri. 23.) The 
af book* of which it conii>l«d, i> >tated 
lij, SuidaA mentiona twenty-four, PhotiuK 
■id Sv : It treated of a ra>t 

' of Mikt>- ii<% aftricnlture, natural 

, tW muii- . . wL.. and lefmi to have 

kmmt luml of comniuii-place book, in which the 
aiAat enteral the reiulo of hi* reading. Some 
tf ik» tagA» arv nid to exist ftill in luanuscnpU 
(IMmn, Ita^ Orofc. ToL iT. pp. -241), Alc.) 
tmm extmru from them are pobliihed by Tlievo- 
■M ta Ik* ** Malheraatici Vetcrea," Pani, 169:1, 
k mi tla» in the Geaponica of CaMianui Baiuuii. 
Pnlttiiim. ad Gtopon.) The part rc- 
to the military art waa translated into 
I by OiDehard in the thitvl volume of ** Mr- 
Haa (rit. rt hi>L sur pluueun Poinu d'Anti- 
friin iBtlitsim,' BerL 1774. Compare Ihireau 
it h Malle^ " Poliorcrtiiiue dea Ancicns," Paris, 
1119, llT«. 

AfRICA'NUS, T. SPXTIUS. a Roman of 
nib rank, «riu deterred by Agrippina from ma> 
ifm^ {SUaaa. In a. o. ti'2, he took the ceuaui in 
1^ u wi lliw of GauL together with (j. Vnlutiut 
■1 TnMliaa Maximum (Toe Ann. xiii. l.'l, 
tit, |4k) Uta nunc occar« in a ftngment of the 
tmu— Arralrt. (Grater, p. 11!).) There woa a 
T. iotia* Afiionnu cnnsul with Tmjan in a. n. 
lU^ «ka vaa pcolsbiy a detcendaot of tlie one 
mitammi ahoir. 
MAVLYTUS fA^wAvTifi). the nuthtir of a 

Kaot OiTmpia (•'•pi '0\vitwlas), which i> 
to bf iMidaa and Photiui. (>. n. Kin(r<Ai- 
|LIA$. [AoAl.LI!^] 
B.l;t fA7«i*Ali) of Coiryra, a female 
■DU vho wrote upon Ilfmicr. (Athcn. i. 
% U^ A^y Some hare mppoted from two p.iAM4(cft 
■ l^aAaa (i. r. *Ai'<^7ttXAir and ^Opx"^^)^ that 
It ami^t to read AnagaUit in thia poMoge of 
lAtmugu^ The Bcholiast upon Homer and Eu- 
■Aiaa (od tL xriii. 491) mention a gnuiimarian 
d ika aBOW of Agalliai, a pupil of Arittiiphnnos 
4i pBMtfa(iaa« alio a Corcyracan and a conimen- 
Mw apoai llaner, who may be the nme us Agul- 
Ki m acffana Imt fiitber. 
AOAXSl)E ("A-wnfan). 1. A daughter of 
aod w-ile of Muliua, who, according to 
(//. li. 7.1!)). waa acquainted with the benl- 
^ ■»■ <! » nf all the plant* that grow upon the 
tMk lly^iu (Fab. 157) make* her the mother 
<f Mb^ Actor, and [>ictyii, by Pojeidnn. 

X A 4a*giitrr of Iftaania, fnim whom Agamede, 
a plKs ia I^abm, was believed to have derived ila 
■H. (IM^ Byx. ^ r. -Kya^-ffii,.) [L. S.J 



and grmt-graiidMin of .Areas. (Pmi». viii,'4. § .5, 5. 
S 3.) He wa« fnlhiT of LVrcvim by Epicasle, who 
alio brought to him a atep-Mn, Trophoniiii, who 
wun by some believed to be a son of Ajiollo, Ac- 
cording to others, Agamedes was a ton of Apollo 
and Kpicastr, or uf /eus and locaste,, and fiithrr of 
'I'mphonins, The most common story however is, 
thai he WB« a sou of Krginus, king of Orchomcnns 
and bntther of Trophonius, These two brothel-* arc 
sold to hnve distingiiisbi d thcmselrea as architects, 
esp<:cially in building temples and pahtces. 
others, liiey built a temple of Apollo at Delphi, and 
a treasurv of Ilvrieus, king of Hyria in lliieotia. 
(Paun. ix." 37. g 3 ; Strab. ix. p, 421.) The K-hnlinst 
on Aristopliancs (Nub. 508) gives a somewhat diffe- 
rent account from Chanut,and makes them build the 
treasury for king Angeioa, The story about this 
tFPiuiury in Pnusanias bears a great reaemblanre to 
that which Hen>dotus(ii. 121)relutesof the treasury 
of the Exjptinii king Hham]inijiitu«. In the con- 
struction tif the treoAury of 11^-rieus, .Agamedes and 
Trophonius contrived tn place one stone in such a 
manner, that it could be taken away outside, and 
ihu* formed an entrance to the tR'Osurv', without 
any body perceiving it. Agamedes and Trophonius 
now coriKtontly roblied the treasury ; and the king, 
seeing that locks and seals were uninjured while his 
treasures were constantly derreAsing, set traps to 
catch the thief. Agamedes was thus ensnared, and 
Trophonius cut off his head to avert the discover}*. 
.After this, Trophonius was immediately swallowed 
up hr the earth. On this spot there was afterwards, 
in the grove of Lebndein, the so-called cave of Aga- 
medes with a column by the side of iL Here also 
was the omde of Trophonius, and those who con- 
sulted it first offered a mm to Agamedes and In- 
voked him. (Puus, ix. 39. § 4 ; compare Jjirt. of 
Ant p. C73,) A tradition mentioned by Cicero 
(Tme. Ijuarst. i. 47 ; comp. Pint, Jir contol. ad 
AprJInn. 14), stales that Agmnedes and Tropho- 
nius, after having built the temple of .Apollo at 
Delphi, pmyed to the god to grunt them in reward 
for their labour what was best for men. The god 
promised to do so on a certain day, and when the 
doy came, the two brothers died. The question oa 
to wlu'lher the story abimt the Eg^'ptiun treasury 
is derived from Greece, or whether the Greek story 
was an importation from Egypt, hns been answeivd 
by modem scholars in both ways; but Miiller 
{Ort^iim. p. 94, &c,) luks rendered it very probable 
that the tradition took its rise among the Minyons 
wn* tmnsferred from them to Augcias, alid was 
known in (ireece long before the reign of Psoinrni- 
tichus, during which the intercourse between the 
two countriM was njiened. [L. S.) 

AGAMEMNON ('Ato^m'"!'). 1. A son of 
Pleisthenes and grandson of Atreus, king of My- 
cenae, in whose house Agamemnon and Menelaus 
were educated after the death of their father. 
( Apollod. iii. 2, § 2 ; Schol. «rf Eanp. Or. i ; SchoL 
aJ Iliad, ii. 249.) Ilonierand several other writers 
call him a son of Atreus, grandson of Pelops, and 
great-grandson of Tantalus. (Horn. //. xi. 131 ; 
Eurip. Hrlen. 39() ; Txetx. ad Lycophr. 147; Hygin. 
^'ii'i. 97.) His mother was, according to most ac- 
count*, Ae'rope; but some call Eriphylo tlic wife 
of Pleisthenes and the mother of Agamemnon. 
WesiJes his brother Menehius, he had a sister, who 
is called AiuLxibia, Cyndmgom, or Astyot-hein. 
(Schol. Eariji. Vr. S; Hygin. Fu/i. 17.) -Agar 



mcmnnn nnd MrnclAOa were brought op together 
Kith A''K>'tl>'iS t'le un of Thyntes, in tho hoiue 
of Atrcu*. When thej' bod grown to maiihotid, 
Atreiu icDt Agamemnon and MeneUut to >epk 
Thyetti^ Thcj found him at Delphi, and carried 
him lo Atreua, who threw him into a dungeon. 
Aegitihuft waft afterward* commanded to kill him, 
but, reeogniiing bia father in him, he ubtftained 
firoD th< end daad, ilew Atrena, and after having 
•xptDad AgmoniMn and Mnnrlant, he and iii> 
incr OBcnped tha kindaiB of Mycenae. [Aaui»- 
luu* ! Tbe two bfDUisa wandered about for a 
time, and at lait oune to Sparta, where Agnmem- 
nmi married Clytsmneiliu, the daughter of T}-nda- 
reus, hy whom he became the fiither of Iphianoaca 
(IpUgmcia), Chryiothemia, Laodice ( Klectra), nud 
Omte*. (Horn. Jl. is. 143, with the note uf Ku«- 
tath. ; Lucret. L Bli.) The manner in which Aga- 
memnon came to the kingdom of Mycenae, i* dif- 
fanntly related. From Homer (//. ii. 1U8 ; comp. 
Punk is- 4U. S 6), it appcori u* if be bad peaceably 
•onMHled Thyntea, while, according lo olhen 
( AeeebyL Agam. IGOi), he cipeUed Thyeitei, and 
nnirpod hii throne. After he bad become king of 
Mrcvnae, he rendered Sicyoo and it* king lubji-ct 
lu liinitelf (Paua. ii. G. g 4), and became the must 
powerful prince in Oreece. A catalogue of Lib 
duroiniona ia given in the Ilixul. (ii. Afjfl, &c.; 
eomp. ijtrabb riii. p. 377 ; Tbucyd. L U.) When 
UoOMr {IL ii. lot!) attrihutct to .\gamenuion the 
•orenignty over all Argot, the name Axgoa ben; 
■ignifira I'eloponneuui, or the greater port of it, 
fur the city of Argoa waa go«med by Diomedct. 
{IL ii. A J!i, Ac) Stiabo {L c.) baa alio ahewn 
thai the name Argoi ia tometimea uied by the tra- 
gic poota a* aynoiiymoua with Mycenae. 

When Helen, the wife of Meoelaaa, waa carried 
off by Pari*, the ion of Piiom, Agamemnon and 
Meitelaiu called npon all the Greek chiefa for na- 
datnc* anainal Troy. ((Myn. uiv. 115.) The 
chtefii met at Argot in the palace of Diomedea, 
where Agamemnon waa choicn their chief coin- 
nuuider, either in coiueqacnce of hi* kuperior power 
(Euatalh, ad IL ii. 108 ; Thucyd. i. 9), or becnutc 
be hod gained the favour of the aaiomhled chiefs 
by giviuK then rich preMnt*. ( Dictyt, Cret. i. 1 5, 
l(>.) Aiier two years of preparution, the (irevk 
nnuy and fleet aaaembled in the port of Auiis in 
Boeotik Agamrmnon had previously consulted 
tKe ancle about the isnie of the enterprise, and 
ttM answer given waa, that Troy should hill nt the 
time when the meet distingninbed among the Gn»cks 
tllouU quarrel {Od. viii 00.) A similar prophecy 
waa derived from a morvelloaa occurrvnce which 
kappeani while the (irvek* were aaaembled at 
Aulia. Once when a lacriBce was oflered under 
tho boughs of a tree, a dragon crawled forth from 
r it, and devoured a neat on the tree containing 
•ight yenng birda and their mother. Calrhaa in- 
le r potad toe sign to indicate that the Qreeka 
would have to tight aguusl Troy for nine years, 
but that in the tenth the city would fiUl. (//. ii. 
80.1, Xc) An account of a didietent mindc por- 
Intding the same thing ia giien by Aeschylus. 
Ut/mMk 110. te.) Another inleitating incident 
■■mmA trhUe tk« lirerks were aaaembled at 
Adib Af I II II ""•[ it is siud, killed a stag which 
traa aKltd to Artanis, and in addition provoked 
tiw ■nftf of the nddeoa by imreffnt words. 
She ia ntura viaitaa the Uroelc army with a pc»- 
lilMM(^ and fniaeai a peifMt aim, so that the 


Greeks were nnable to leave thr pntt. When tks ' 
seen declared that the an^r of the goddess OMifd 
not be soothed unless Ipbi^eueia, the daughter tf j 
Agamemnon, were ol&red to her as an 
Bomfice, Diomedrs and Odyatcua were < 
fetch her to the amp under tbenetcxl that * 
waa to be matiied to *'•'■'"»* Soe ome ; to ■> 
the moment when ahe waa to be tactiticed, alx 
was carriod off by Artemis herself (acvordiDf! u 
otheii by Acliilles) to Tauris, and another virba 
was substituted in her pUce. (Hygin. Fat, St; 
Eurip. //'/i^. Ami. 9U, Ipkii/. Tuur. 15; Sophod. 
A'/nrf. 5(>5; Find. 1'</A. xi.35; Ov. Afe«. xiLIl; 
Diet. CreLi. lU; Sch'oL a<< /.jco/iAr. 1K3; Antoaia. 
Lib. 27.) After this tho calm ceased, and tht 
army sailed to the cuist of Troy. Agamemnsa 
alone had one hundred shipa, independent of locty 
which he hod lent to the Arcadians. ( //. a. 57t, 

In the tenli year of the siege of Troy — fer it i 
in this yenr that the Iliad opens — we find Afl^l 
memnon involved in a quarrel with Achillea i 
spccting the possession of DriieVs, whom Ach" 
was obliged to give up to Agamemnon. Achill 
withdrew from the field of battle, and the iit> 
Ken visiu-d by successive diasten. [AriiiLLaa]] 
Zeus seut a dream to .\gameranon to |irn>uad» I 
to looil the Grvcks to buttle against the Troji 
(//. ii. 8, &c) The king, in order to try 
Greeks, oomiuonded theui lo return home, vili 
which they readily complied, until their couiagtl 
a'Bs revived by <>dys-v:uN, who penuaded them I 
pn'parc fur battle. (//. ii. .'>5,&c.) After 
combat between Paris and Menelaua, a hallial 
IbUowed, in which Agomcionon killed aevenl <i 
the Trojans. Whcu iluctur challenged the brerert 
of the Greeks Agamemnon ofiiend to fight wilk 
him, but in bis stead Ajaz waa choaen by let 
Soon after this another battle took pbce, in which 
the Greeks were wonted (//. >'iiL), and Aganxa- 
non in despondence advised the (iteeks to lake I* 
Hight and return home. (IL ix. 10.) llul he 
was opposed by the other heroes. An atttnpl t* 
conciliate Achilles failed, and Agmnrmnop otn*- 
bled the chieb in the night to delibenls about the 
meai>urea to be adopted. {//, i. I, Ac) 
and Lliomedes were then sent out aa spies, i 
the day following the contest with the Trojanai 
renewed. Agamemnon himself waa agnin one of | 
the brareat, and slew many eneoiea with his on | 
hand. At last, however, he was woundixl by t'ooo 
and obliged to withdraw to his tent. ( IL xi. 'VM, ' 
&c) H«ctor now advanced victonously, and w 
memnon again advised the Greeks to tare < ' 
selves by HighL (IL xiv. 75. to.) But T " 
and Diomedea again resisted him, and the laMar^ 
prevailed upon him loretnm tothehatth; which < 
going on near the thipt. Poseidon alao • _ 
to Agamemnon in the fignre of an afsed nai^ a 
inspired him with new coiuiigeL (72. xiv. 1?~ 
The pressing danger of the tiiveks at lost indu 
Patroclus, the fhciid of .Achilles, to lake oa I 
energetic part in the battle, and his Call fDBsal j 
Achilles to new activity, and led to his loeanciUar j 
tion with Agnmcmnoa. Ja the piBca at 
funeral pyre of Patroclua, ^gameianwi gained ltf»| 
tint priie in throwing the ipeaf; (IL ziUl r 

Ac.) ., 

Agamemnon, iltbongh the ehiaf iiiaanniiilw m\ 
the Gnreka, it not the hen «f tha tlada waA i 
chivalrous spirit, bravery, and < 





tD AcMloL Rut be ncTonhelna riaea 
: an ibe Oncks br hi< iliiinity, power, aod 
' (//. lit. \66, Alc), and his eves aiid head 
Wt Moad to ^bamt of Zeoi, hi* girdle to that of 
Amis "^ '^ hoMt to that of Poaeidon. (//. u. 
^^L Ac.) AfHBcaiaoa k aiiuiag the Ure«k 
^Bn vMt Zeui n aaaog lite god* of Oljmpiu. 
^K adcK Mf iyt ma to h>Te guided the Oicek artiati, 
^Hbi » i u m1 aepniBBtatioin of Agninomuon still 
^Bm iho* i» k nmailtkbla reaeniblance to the 
I of ZruiL The emblem of hit power 
in Homer it a eccptrr, the work of 
, wUeh Zen* had once giren to Herrae*, 
to Pdopa, from whom it deacended 
la A^mumaaa. (/(. ii. 100, Sx.; conip. Paua. ix. 
Ml I C) lii* anixHir ia deacribed in the Iliad. 
In. IS). Ac) 
IW icnaunuur part of the ttory of Agrnneinnon 



in the Odjaaey, and by acrcnil later 
At the taking of Tray he received Coa- 
, tlic dau^ter of Priam, a« hia prite {(M. 
iDieL Cm. t, 13), by whom, according 
I la Pananniaa (it. 16. 9.5), he had two 
I and Pelopa. On hia return home 
driTen out of hia coane by atoniia, 
hm H Im* bUMkd in .'Vrgolia, in the dominion of 
A^tka^ who had aeduced Clytemnratra during 
AaaAviaar of h«r hoaband. He invited Agumem- 
tm ^ kia artiral to a npaat, and had him and hia 
(■ifaaaMia tnacherooaly mnrdc-rcd during the 
kaal {0>L m. 263) [Aiuin-Hl'«], and C'lytemne*- 
aa as ik* aame occaaion murdered Caaaandm. 
{Ui. xi. 400. Ac. 4-J-2, xxiv. 96, Ac.) Odyaaeua 
aa tb* itaila of Agametonon in the lower world. 
(01 iL a87, DiT. 20.) Meiichwa erected a 
■■^■■1 in honour of hia brother on the river 
A^CFftiK {Qi. iv. 584.) Pauaoiiiaa (ii. 16. § 
1} Mates ibat in hia time a monument of Agomein- 
la wan aliU extant at Myceiue. The tragic 
faato kare larienaly modif»d the atory of the 
■otor at A^tamemnon. Aeachylua {Jpnm. 1 492, 
te) aakra Clytemueatia alone murder Agamem- 
tm: tke ikivw a net over him while ho woa in 
1^ lilfc, and alrw him with three atrokes. Her 
^■n* ia fartly her jtalouay of Coaeandm, and 
^■ri^ lar aalBlteroaa life with Aegiathua. Ae- 
■4af ta TKttca (ad Lfeapkr. 1099), Aegiathua 
mmmiamk the murder with the aaaiatanee of Cly- 
laHB!alaa. Eorlpide* (Or. 26) mentiona a gnr- 
■■• «hicll ClytMnnntra threw over him inatcod 
•4a aa*, and bath Sopborlea (Hect. .530) and Eu- 
i%id« wpce«mt the aacrifice of Iphigeneia oa the 
tmam ttr which ahe mardered hjm. Aflnr the 
daitt af Ayana mnon and Caaaatidm, their two 

Ka oi dare d npon their tomb by .^egiiithuB. 
5. I S.) .According to Pindar (fi/tk. 
nimler of Agnmcumon look place at 
\ tamnica, and Pauiauioa (/. r.) ataloa 
*'"**- of thia place dijiputrd with 
jWf i J the poaaeaaion of the tomb of 
(Coop. Paoa. iiL 19. § 5.) In Inter 
■ of Agamemnon were erected in acveral 
pvft af Gt««o>, and he waa worshipped oa n hero 
■ A»j I >a I and tllympia. (Poua. iii. Ifl. g 5, v. 
tt { A) H« waa npmaited on the pedeatol of 
tvarfetoaad BfaMuoaiaa Nemeaia (i. 3.1. It ''), 
Mlia fiakt arjih Oaon oo the cheat of Cypwlus. 
^^B. I I.) He waa pointed in the Ixiacbe of 
^Pl. b]r PnlTipotiu. (x. 25. {2; com- 

rw Mia. II. S. xxxt. 36. § 5 ,- Quintil. ii. 13. 
iJt V^ Max. till 11. 1 «.) It ahuuld be re- 

marked that aoveral Lutlu poets mention a boatotd 
•on of Agamemnon, nf the nimic of Holesua, to 
whom the fnuniUtiun of the town of Kalisd or 
Alesium ia aacrilwd. (Uv. /W. iv. 73; Amor. 
iiL 13. 31 ; comp. Serv. ad Acn, vii. 695; SiL 
Ital. viiL 476.) 

2. A aumame of Zcua, under which be waa 
worahippad at Spana. (Lycophr. 335, with the 
ScfaoL ; BaMadu ad A iL 25.) KnslaUuiu thioka 
that the god dacrvsd tUt bbbm bam tha icaaaa- 
blonce between h'lm and AganemaaB ; nUle 
othera believe that it is a mere epithet signifying 
the Eternal, from d7<ii' and ittmr. ( U S,J 

AGAMK.MNO'NIDKS (^ Kyaiufirovltj,,). a 
patronymic funn from Agamemnon, which ia uaed 
to deiugnale his aon Urcatoa. (llom. (A/, i. 30; 
Ja». Tiii. 21.5.) [U S.1 

AUANl'CE or AOLAONI'CE ("A-yoj/l*, or 
'A-yAooKtoi), daughter of Hegetor, a Thcasalioii, 
who by her knowledge of Attronomy oould foretuU 
when the moon would disappear, and imposed 
upon creduloua women, by saying that ahe could 
draw down the moon. (Plut, dt Off. Cunjui/. p. 145, 
de iJefai. Orac. p. 417.) [L. S.] 

AUANIPPE ('AT^u-iinn,). 1. A nymph of 
the well of the sjune name at the foot of Mount 
Helioin, in Bocotio, which n'os conitidcred sacred 
to the Muses, and believed to hove the power of 
inspiring thow who drank of it. The nymph ia 
called a daughter of the river-god Pennirssua. 
(Paua. ix. 29. § 3; Vii^. Edug. z. 12.) The 
Muses are sometimes called Aganippides. 

2. The wife of Acriuua, and according to aome 
accounts the mother of Uouoe, although the latter 
ia cnora commonly called a daughter of Kurydice. 
(Hygin. Fab. 63; SchoL ad Apollon. JOod. n. 
1091.) [USw] 

AUANIPPIS, ia used by Ovid (FatL t. 7) aa 
an epithet of llippocrcno ; its int^uniiig however ia 
not ijuite clear. It is dirivcd from Agnippv, iho 
well or nymph, and as .'\gnnippidea is ustul to do- 
sigfiate tho Muses, Agonipjiis Hippocrene may 
mean nothing but " Hippucrcno, sacred to the 
Muses." [L. 8.] 

A(i.\l'E'NOH {'Ayaw^rap), a aon of Aucaeoa, 
and grandson of l.ycuigus. Ho was king of the 
Arcadians, and received sixty ahipa from Aga- 
memnon, in which he led hia Arcadians to Troy. 
(Hum. //. ii. 609, Ac.; Hygin. Fat. 87.) lio 
olsu occurs among the suitora of Helen. (Hygin. 
Fab. ttl ; Apollod. iii. 10. g U.) On his return 
litim Troy he waa caat by a alarm on the cmst of 
Cypnia, where he founded the town of Puphua, 
ami in it the bmous temple of Aphtudite. (Puus. 
viiL 5. § 2, Ac.) Ho also occurs in the story of 
Haruonla. (A[«llod. iii. 7. § 5, Ac [US.J 

AGAPE'TUS ('Aya-nrTit). 1. Melrupoliton 
Bishop of Rhodes, A. D. 467. When the Em- 
peror Leo wrote to him for the opinion of his 
ftUtiraguns and himself on the council of Ch&lcetlon, 
ho defended it agaiiuit Timotheus Aelurus. in a 
letter still extant in a Latin translation. Cbncv 
tiormm A^oea CUUHut d Mawfi. vol. vii. p. 5A0. 

2. Sl, bom at Kome, was Archdeacon and 
raisK-d to the Holy See a. n. 535. Ho was no 
auoniT conaecrated than he took off the onathemaa 
pronounced by Pope Uonifoce II. against his d» 
cuaaed rival Dioacorua on a 6ilse charge of Simony. 
He received an appeal from the L'^uthulics of Con- 
(tantinople when Anthimus the Munophysite, 
was toode their Uishop by Theodora. [ANTiil- 




uvs.] Thi? f.-ar of nn inva»ion of Italy liy 
Jiiniiiinn led tlif fiolli Thcotiatun tt. nhli((i- St. 
Afinp'tui to gn hini^rlf to ConttnntinnpU', in hojw 
tlmt JuKtinian miftht he divenfd from hi* purpose. 
(Sco lireriariHm & IMirratu ftp- MansL, fimniut^ 
«1. iic. p. fi.OS.) A« to thii liut obj«t he could 
moke no ijnprpwion on the exnperor, but be buo 
ceede<l in penuatling him to depote Anthlmiis 
and when Mennas wn* cho«en to Kucceed hiin, 
Agnpetos laid hi« own hand* apon him, Thp 
Conneil and the Srnodal (interpreted into Greek) 
■rat hy Afzapetui relating to thene nffnirs may be 
found ap. Mnnit, vol. viiL pp. Ri)9, 9'2I. Com- 
plninls were »ent him from various quanent ojrainst 
the Monophynite Acepboli ; hut he died luddenlr 
A. V. &3(i, .\pril 212, and iher were read in a 
Council held on Snd May, by Mennai. (Miuiwi, 
Hid. p. b74.) There are two letters from St. 
Agapetnt to Jaitinion in reply to a letter from the 
emperor, in the latter of which he refu<e« to nc- 
knowledge the Orderj of the ArioiK ; and there 
are two otbere: I. To the Itiihop* of Africa, on 
the •■mo aubject ; 3. To Reponitus, nii>hop of 
Otftlogo, in onkwer to a letter of con^tulntion 
on hit elevation tu the PontiAcate. (Mon&i, Cent- 
filia. viii. pp. Bltj — HSO.) 

X iU^cnn of the Church of St. Sophia, a. n. 
.527. Then- are two other Agujirli mentioned in 
a Council held by Mennati at thi* time at Con- 
•tantinopic, who were Archimandritei, or AbboU. 
Agapctua waa tutor to Ju<tinian, and, on the ac- 
caaioo of the latter to the empire, addressed to 
bim Aiimamitiima on Vu jMy n/ a /'n'nre, in 
73 Saetions tbo initial letten of which form the 
dedication (/irtfftrif it*^aAA/«r wofaivrrutip trx*- 
tuuttMa). The repute in which this work wn» 
bcM appears from its common title, vii. the fioyai 
Stdmu {cxiiv Paai\uti). It was published, 
with a Ijatin version, by /iiri. Callirrg. Rvo., Ven. 
IfiCW, afterwords by J. flrnsno, Bvo., Lips. Ififi!!, 
Onlrl, llvo., Li|is. 1 733, and in Gnllandi't HilJu,- 
titnt, voL li. p. 2.55, &c« Ven. 1766, after the 
edition of Bandurius (Benedictine). It wai tmns- 
laled into French by Louis XlIU Bvo. Par. 1612, 
and by Th. Payneil into English, l2nio., I^nd. 
M.50. [A. J. C.) 

AOAPE'Tl'S C^ymrot), an ancient Greek 
phytirian, whose remedy for the gout is mentioned 
with apprriliation by Alexander Tmllianns (ri. 
p. 3<>3) tind Paulus Aegineta, (iii. 78, p. 497, vii. 
1 1, p GCI.) He proliobly lived lietween the third 
and sixth crnturios after Christ, or certainly not 
later, as Alexander Traltianus, by whom he is 
quoted, is suppOMv] fi have duurishrd about the 
laginning of the siitb century. [W.A.O.] 

Afi A'l'irS('A7«irioi). an ancii-nt physician of 
Alrtaudria, who taught and practiied nirdicine at 
By - '^ -^ .! sufces* and n-pniation, and 
•c"; ■■*. I >f hi« Hate it can only 

b« 'i . '■ mutt have lived before tbe 

«fut ul the ntth ceniury after Chritt, as Damasciiia 
(from whom Phoiius, HiUiutk. cod. 242, and Snidas 
hai« taken their account of him) lived about 
that time. [W. A.O.] 

AOAKI5TA CATB^rffrni). I . The daughter of 
CUnlwDM. tynuit of Sicyon, whom her bther 
pnawcd to give in tnairia^ to the liest of the 
Oiwks. Soilun atut t« SicToa from all pans of 
Orsecf. mil moag aUwn MefpKles. the mn of 
AloMMa, from Atbnia. . AfW ti.ey bad bn-n 
1 ai SicTaa 6r a wiioir year, during whicli 

lime Cleitthenes moile trial of thcin in variw 
«'uy», he gave Agnritte to Alrmoeon. Kmm ihii 
marriage uimc the Cleiithenc* who divided ihs 
Athenians into ten trilies,aiul llippocratit (Ilovl 
ri. 120—130; comp. Athen. ri. p. 27.% b. «, 
xii. 541, h. c.) 

2. The daughter of the above-mentioned Hi|> 
pocmles, and the granddaughter of the abai» 
mentioned Agnritte, married Xanthippus aisl 
became the mother of Peridei. (Ilerud, ri. 130; 
Pint. I'rnd. 3.) 

AOA'SIAS ('A7a<rlas), a Stymphalian of St- I 
cadia (.Ken. Amib. iv. 1. § 27), is fmiuejillj 
roeiili-med by Xenophon as a brave and acQvv 
oHicer in the army of the Ten Thousand. (AmA. 
iv, 7. $ 11. V. 2. g 1.5, ii.c.) He was wounded 
while fighting against Atidotca. {Amili. viii, 8, 

AGA'SIAS ['KyiuTldi), son of Dasithens, a 
distinguished sculptor of Kphrcus. C)ne of the 
productions of hit chisel, the statue known by lbs 
name of the Burghcse ghuliator, is still prrs^nnl 
in the gallery of tbe Louvnr. This statue, at wril 
OS the Apollo Bi'lviderc, was discoi-ered aniung 
the ruins of a palncit of the Roman emperon on tka 
site of the ancient Antium (Oj/k> iTAitui), Fraa 
the attitude of the figure it is clear, tlmt the >L->t<ie 
represents not a gladiator, but a warrior cimti-iid- 
ing with a mounted coiubatant. Thiemch omiiv- 
tures that it was intended to represent Achilla 
fighting with Penthesilca. The only recon] that 
we have of tiiis artist is the inwription on ths 
pedestal of the statue ; nor are there any data foe 
ascertaining the age in which he lived, exi-ept tlw 
style of art dispUyed in the work itself, whick 
competent judges think cannot have been ptuducid 
earlier than tlie fourth centnr}', B. c. 

It is not quite clear whether the Agasins wba it 
mentiiined as the father of Heraclides, was llw j 
same as the author of the Boighese statue, or I 
differtnt person. 

There was another sculptor of the same naow, J 
also an Ephesian, the son of Menophilus. He 
mentioned in a Greek inscription, from which it] 
appeant that he eiercited hit art in DeJia wkil* 1 
that island was under the Ilouwu sway ; prubalib J 
•omewbere about lUU, u. r, (Thiersch^ EpodmtiA 
Uld. Kmut, p. 13U ; MilUcr, AnK. d, KmM 
p. I5i.) fC. I'M.) 

('AToffixAiif, ' KyiKiiKKiii, 'H-)T)<ro[A^i), a king i^J 
Sparta, the thirtfcnth of the line uf I'rocles. ila } 
was coutemp^trury M'iih tlie Agid Leuii, and «ar> I 
eeeded bis fiither Archidnmus I., pniliably afa 
B. c 590 or £00. During his reign the Land 
monians earned on an unsuecesafid war a^jaiMt^ 
Tegea, but prospered in their other war*. (Ilsnd. { 
i. 65 ; PauK iiL 7. g 6, 3. |. 5.) [C. P. M.J 

AGA'STIIKNE.S CA70fl««Ki)f), a s..n of A»- ] 

?cias, whom he succeeded in the kingdom of Elik I 
le had a son, Polyxenus, who occurs among ckai 
sailors of Helen. (Hom. 7/. iL 624; Paus-t. 11 
§ 4; Ap..llod. iii. 10. SB.) (L. S.] 

AGATIIA'.NGELUS, the mid of Collistialas I 
wrote the life of Gregory of .Armenia in Orec^ J 
which is printed in the Acta Samdurum, ml. vSl \ 
p. 320. There arc manuscripts of it in tbe pifaBl \ 
libraries both of Paris and yioreiicr. The time at ' 
which Agathaiigelut lived is unknown. (Fabt«; 
BiU. r.niw- vol. 1. p. 232. xi. p. .5.54.) 

AGATIIAtiE'TlUS ('Ky<M-nr<n), a Kliodiia, 


'. hi* fttate lo espQUsf^ th*^ side of 
ihr tcgiiminj; uf the war twtwecn 
rut. B. c. 171. (Folyb.xxviL U. 
. 4 S.) 

I'RCJIlIiES CA7o6opxIS'|i). nr 
fllL'S [' KyiBai>xos), s Gri-flt gnun- 
, (urn at Cnidm, llv wu brought up lir 
|[<p( ihr luinie of Ciiinoeiu ; wni, as Stnibo 
I 779) infanut un, aiuched tu the Pi-ripn- 
of philo*n|)hy, and wmte Muveml 
~ grogiaphicol worki. In hit youth 
cia of tartarj and rcadiT to 
nbof, who (according to Suidiu) 
^fcifni of Ptolemy rhilumetor. This 
^C. NO. Ue himaclf infonnk lu (in 
r Eijrthfacan Sra), that he wiu tub- 
Is one of the kinjpi of Egypt 
raimirity. ThU wot no daul)t one of 
of PtoleniT Physcon. Dodwell en- 
ta *liew that it wok the youn^^r aou, 
, BiiJ aliject> to Soter, that he mgned 
with hi* motJicr. Thio, however, wa« 
• ilh Aliriander likewiae. WcMeling 
an thiuk the elder bnUhcr to he the one 
I Sotcr 1 1. »«« more likely to have been a 
I hi* acvrMion in B. c. 117. than Alexan- 
107, ten after their fiithcr'a 
' l>odwell'ft dale would leave too 

I between the publication of Ag»- 

ft work on the Erythncan Sen (alxiut 
l)k uul the work of Arteniidoras. 

■lion uf the work* of Agatbarchidet 

^fbudui (Cud. 213). He wrote a 

, in lU bmiki, and one on Kumpe. 

I ; ■ grugmphicol work on the Kry- 

I Sm. in 5 booki, of the fint and fifth 

which PbotiuA give* an abstract; an 

I of llae la«( mentioned work ; a treatise on 

ID 5 books ; an epitome of the 

bus; an epitome of the works of 

[ written wtpl t^« mneftty^t 8av- 

an historical work, firum the 

I books of which .Vthenaen* quotes 

I7l> n, p. 251, L); and a treatise on 

of fhcndt. The fint three of 

been lead by Photius. Agathar. 

bis work on the Krythnmin tieo, 

binucir, in his old age (p. 14, ed. 

r Ac rcign probably of Ptolemy Soter II. 

hn«v contained a great deal uf valu- 

In the first book waa a discuisinn 

t^ origin of the luime. In tlie tifih 

I thi^ mode of bfe amongst the Snbaeans 

tile Ichthyophog), or fiih-eatrrs, 

> ia vkich elephants were caught by the 

, md the mode of working the gold 

t^ ■oontaina of Egj-pl, near the Hed 

I aMOOSt of the 1cblhyaph:igi and of the 

; the gold mines, ha> been copied 

i (ia. 12 — 18.) Amongst other ex; 

' nraals he mentions the camelnpord. 

ttd in the country of the Troglo- 

. the Attic dialect. His 

.lu^ was dignified anil per- 

) ahantwM in trnieutiuus passages, 

, m &vmuBble opinion of liis judg- 

I c«a>|KMlion of his •peechra he was 

ITkiwydide*, whom be equalled in 

(kwnesa. His rhouiricd 

k%Mf pmiiad by Photius He 


was acquainted with the bngunge of the Aethio- 
pittiu (<(<! Uubr. At. p. 4(i), and cppisin to huve 
been the first who discovered the Inie cniise of tlie 
yeorly inundjitions of the Nile. (Uiod. i. 41.) 

An AgiitliBfx-hides, of Simios, is mentioned by 
Plutiirch, a« the author of a work on Pcmia, auil 
one irepl \i6utv. Kabrit-ius hnwever, cojijecturi-s 
that tliL- true reading is .^gnlliyrftides, nut Aga- 
tharchidea. (Dodwell in Hudson's Orot/r. Srip/, fir, 
MiMorrt; Clinton. Fatii J/M. iii. p. 533.) [C.P..\I.) 

There is a curious obscmtion by Agathorchides 
preserved by Plutarvh (Spupoi. viii. 9. § 3), of 
the spccief. of worm called Filiiria Mftlin^usiA, or 
fiuiutvt Horm, which is the earlient account of 
it that is lo be mot with. See Justus Weihe, 
/Jr Fi/ar. Medim. CammenU, Berol. In32, Hvu,, 
and especially the rery learned work by G. H. 
VVelschius, Dc Vnna Metimeuti^ ^r,, August. 
Vindel. I(i74, 4to. [W'.A. O.) 

AGATHAftCHUS ("ATfiSapxor), a Symcusnii, 
who wns placed by tlie Syracusans over a fiect of 
twelve ships in n. c, 4 1 3, to visit their allies and 
bamts the Athenians. He was ofterwardis in the 
same year, one of the Syrocusan commanders in 
the decisive battle faiight in the harU>ur of Syra- 
cuse. (Thuc. vii. 25, 7l> ; l>iod. xiii. 13.) 

AGATIIAUCHUS (' KyiSapxof), nn Allienian 
artist, said by Vitnivius {Pnuf. wi titi, vii.) to 
have iiivenlcd scene-painting, and to have painted 
a hcene (somiom /rrit) for a tragedy which Aeschylus 
exliibited. As this apfiears to contradict Aristotle's 
assertion (FocL 4. § L(j), that scene-painting was 
intmduced by Soplioclea, some sch<ibirs understand 
Vitruvius to mean merely, that Agnthatchus cim- 
stnicted a stage. (Compare Hor. JS/>. ad Jti. 279 : 
ei modicu inftrarit jmlpiia tit/nu.) But the context 
shews clenrly that perspective painting must be 
meant, for Vitnivius goes on to say, that Uemocritu* 
and Anaxagorai, corr^'ing out the principles laid 
down in the treatise of Agntharchus, wrote on the 
some subject, shewing how, in drawing, the lines 
ought to be made to correspond, according to a na- 
tural proportion, to the figure which would be traced 
out on on imagituiry intervening pLine by a pencil 
of rays proceeding from the eye, as u fixed point 
of sight, to the several points of the object viewed. 

It was probably not till tommls the end of 
Aeschylus's career that scene-painting was intra, 
duced, and not till the time of Sophocles that it 
was generally made nsc of ; which may account 
for what Aristotle says. 

There was another Greek painter of the name 
of .\gatliarchas, who was a luttive of the island of 
Somus and the son of Kudcmus. He was a con- 
temporary of Alcibiades and Zeuxis. \Vc have no 
definite acconnta respecting his perfonnitnoes, but 
he does not appear to have lieen an artist of much 
merit : he pridt.*d himself chiefly on the i.ase imd 
rapidity with which he finished his works. ( I'lut. 
Perici.'\X) PluUirch {Al,-il. \G) and .\ndiicide« at 
greater length (('m Alrih. p. 31. 15) tell an anecdote 
of Alcibiades having inveigled Agatharehns to his 
house and kept him there for more tlian three 
months in strict durance, compt*11iitg him to .idoni 
it with his pencil The speech of .\ndocidet above 
referred tu seems to have been delivered after the 
destruction of Melos (b. c. 41(i) and beiore the 
expedition to Sicily (b. c. 415); so that from iho 
above data the age of Agatharchus nuiy bo accu- 
rately fixed. Some scholar* (as Beiilley, mittig«i).J 
and Mc-yer) have supposed him to be the lome i 



the contomponiry of Aeschylu*, who, howpTer, 
must havp pn-ccdi'd hira by a good half reiitury. 
(Mullor, AirA. d. Kmut, p. 88.) [C. P. M.] 

AdATIIE'MKRUS ('ATofii^upoi), the aon of 
Orthau, and thn nnthor of a nmal) gpo-,^phical 
work in two huokn, cnlitlnl tht ytuypapiAi 6yro- 
Ttnrof^tii iv /xiTn^p (** A Skt'tch of Gcflg^iphy 
in epilome^*), adilrcawfi to hift pupil Phtloii. Hin 
■ge cuinot br fiz«l with mach certainty, but be 
im lappoiwd to bare lired about the beginning of 
the third century afU;r Chriit. He lived rfler 
Ptolemy, whom he often quotes, and beforo the 
foundation of Constantinople on the site of Rymn- 
tium in A. D. 3*2K, oa he mcntioni only the old 
city Byzantium, (ii. 14.) Wendelin hai attempt- 
ad to iihew that he wrote in the beginning of the 
third century, from the ttatement be giret of the 
dintonce of the tropic from the equator ; but Dwl- 
well, who thinks he lived nearer the time of 
Ptolemy, contends that the calculation cannot Ik- 
dejieniled on. From hi» speaking of Albion iv ^ 
ffrpari-wtia TSpvrcu, it has been thought that be 
wrote not very long after the erection of the wall 
of Several. This is ptuhobly true, but the language 
is scarcely definite enough to establish the point. 

(lit work consists chiefly of ejctmct* from 
Ptolemy and other earlier writen. From a cnrn- 
pnri^in with Pliny, it appears that Artemidnrus, 
of whose work a sort of compendium iit contained 
in the first book, was one <if his main authorities. 
He gives a short account of the various forms 
■ssigned to the nuth by earlier wrilerk, treats of 
the dinoom tt the aaith, nas, and island*, the 
wimbk and the length and ihortness of the days, 
and then lays down the most important distances 
on tba inhabited p.irt of the earth, r»koned in 
atadia. The surname Agatbemenis frequently 
orciin in inioriptlonh (Dodwell in Hudson's Oro- 
ynipL Striptottt (!r. Mmtrra; Ukert, (J*iof/r. tier 
Ormiim «. Kom>r, pt. i. div. I. p. -2%.) [C. P. M.] 

*A7a>i)/i<fwi), an ancient lireek physician, who 
lived in the first century afU-r Christ. He was 
bom at Lacedaemon, and was a pupil of the philo- 
•r>fjher ComnEos, in whose house he became nc- 
quoinled with the poet Peniua about A. d. fiO. 
(nMdfrSaMoo. nto /Vni.) In the old editions 
« Snetooiu ho i« called Agatmuu, a mistake 
which was firit corrected by Fleinciius (!if«ti%ijma 
fium/tt. Amtiff. p. 610), frrrni the epitaph upon 
hint and his wife, MyrtaJe, which la pmerved 
in the MiMrnmn OLnmnMn and the Grerk A»- 
lialoj/y, vol. ill. p. SSI. ( 334, «d. Tauchn. 
Tba appumt anomaly of a Roman piaenomi-n 
hmng given 10 a Uniak, nay be oeoounted fr>r 
by the fact which wt learn from Suetonius 
( Tilirr. Ii ), <^ the Spartan* wen the berediuirv 
•liaato ol tka Oaoaia Ooia. [C. Q. Kuha, Ad- 
411ml mi AaoL MtJie. r*U mJ.A. Faljri-iiy in 
-MUUL Ofwea" mMUL) [ \V. A. ( i. ] 

AOA'THIAS ('Ari<i«), the son of Mamno- 
nios, a rhetorician, waa bom, as it seems, in 536 
or S'il A. fi. (tfui. ii. 16, and I'i^o A<jatkitu in ed. 
llonn. p. liv.), at Myrina, a tnwu at the mouth of 
the river Pythieus in Aeolia {AtfaduoB Pruaemimat, 
|k 9, rd. linnn. ; p. S, Par.; p. 7. Ven.), and re- 
iaiwd hts education in Alexandria, where he 
Mndicd lllentur. In 554 he went to Constonti- 
nnpW l/l)H. ii. 16), where his bther then most 
DnhaMf raiided, and studied (or aanml tmi* the 
lUmmt law. {Kf^. 4.) II 


with succi'ss the profession of an adfataMh I 
though only for tlie sake of a livelihuod, his ^ 
vouriie occapotiun baing the atndy of ai 
poetry (HuL iii. 1 ) ; and he pud partiealnr i 
tion to history. His profession of a lawyer wm \ 
the cause of bio sumaine 2)(o\a<rruc<!r (SaidaB,<.<l | 
*Ayat}ias)^ which w<ird HJi^iified an advocate in tba 1 
time of AgiLthios. Niebubr ( Viia Agntk, in «^ 
Bonn. p. XV.) believes, that he died during tl» 
reign of Tiberius Throx, a short time before tiw 
death of this emperor and the acceiaion of Mauri- 
tius in 58'2, at the age of only 44 or 45 yraa, 
Agnlhios, who was a Christian {Epiyr. 3, 5, and 
e&pecially -1), enjoyed during his life the esteem ul 
seveml great oiid distinguished men of his tinfl^ 
such w, Theodonu the decurio, Paulas Silenliaria\ 
Kutychiaiius the younger, and Maoedonius the ex- 
consul. Ho shewed them his gratitude by dediotf- 
ing to them tievcnd of his literary pn>diiction«,ao4 
hc< [taid particular homage to Poulus Silentiaria^ 
the son of Cynii* Florus, who was descended Groa 
an old and illustrious fiunily. (y/itt v. .<).) 

Agathiiu is the author of the following works: 

1. ^aipvuuca, a collection of small love 
diviiled into nine books ; the poem* are writtM i 
hexrm)rtre*i. Nothing is extant of this ( 
which the author calls u juvenile esony. (i 
yVuonru'vm, p. 6, ed. Bonn. ; p. 4, Par.; p^ ^ ' 

2. KiiicAof, an anthology containing 
early writers and of several of his contemn 
chiefly of such as werc bis protectors, among 1 
were Paulus Silentiarius and Macedoniui. 
collection was ilivided into seven books, but nothit^l 
of it i* extiint except the introdnction, which 
written by Agathins himself. However, lOR ep 
grams, which were in circuh\tion cithor belbcv I 
collected his KiixXsi, or which he coraposcd at i 
later period, have come down to ul Th« 
seven and several others of these epigivns are i 
nerally attributed to other writers, such as Pan] 
Silentiarius, Ax. The epigrams ure contained i 
the AnlMiifiia Gnura (iv, p. ,1, ed. Jaoobs), j 
in the editions of the historical work of Agathii 
Joseph Scaliger, Janus Douta, and Bonav 
Vulanins, have tmnsUtcd the greater part 
them into I^tin. The epigrams were wrillen i 
publithe<l after the ^at>¥uixi. 

3. *\yaSl9u ZxoAoo-rucou Mi^iMsfov '\OTopimf Ll 
** Agnthiae Scholoslici Myrinonsis llistutia 
Libri V." This is his principal work, ll 
taiiu the history (ram AoD — ^8 a, it., 
period, but rcmaritaUe iiif the important 
with which it is fillod np. The first book i 
the conquest of Italy by Nanes over the Oal 
and the first contests between the Oieeks and ( 
Franks ; the second book contains the en 
lion of these oonteita, the description of i 
earthquake of 554, and the beginning of I 
between the Urrcks and the Persians ; 
and the fourth books contain the conlinu 
this war until the first pcaee in 596; 
book reUtes the second gnat earthqnaka I 
the rebuilding of St. Sophia by Jn 
plague, the exploits of Belisojius over < 
and other barbarians in 55ft, and it 
abruptly with the 'J5th chapter. 

Agnlhias, aft<:r having reUted thai 
abandoned his poetical occupation for more \ 
studies (y'ruuemniM« ed. Uonii. pp. 6, 7; Par, |k i 
Ven. p. 6), tells OS that several di ' ' ' 
bod (uggorted to him the idea af wiiliBg Ihi I 


e( U* rim^ md br inlilv tlint he hiid undertaken 
i» ttA capMbUjr on th<< atlvicr of Ivutjchiouui. 
(/Ik) ll o wf l ei . he «ilU Kuiycliiuuu* tlic onia- 
■■■t «f ikr famQy of the V\<m, a family b> which 
did not brlon; ai all. It is therrforc 
U»t. iiMteud of Eutychianus tvu must 
nd Panlti* Silrntiariui; Nicbuhr is of tbifl opi- 
■an. ^^i. nsL 19.) .^^thin* i> not * great hi:iio- 
mo : k« oranu liisUiricU and geogmphical know- 
b^pi. |«inc>|iallr with rrgnrd to Italy, though he 
ktowv ihg &ut better. He •eldoni penctratcji into 
Ik tmi BiiiMii of thote grtmt events which fomi 
tit lakjeel* ct hi* book : his history is the work 
if * OMO of buMiifM, who adorns his style with 
fartinl niainitenice*. But he is honest and Im- 
pvtiilt sad in aU those things which be is able to 
■AnMMi iM> shews hiniKlf a man of good sense. 
Bis ttjif 9 often bombastic ; he praises himself ; 
■I Us Greek the Ionic dialect p^eTaib^ but it is the 
Issir of hi« time, degenerated from its classical 
WF'' rt of mixture <if all the other Greek 

te'" withstanding these deticiences the 

««iii K /tjcuujui* is of high value, beaiuse it con- 
kiaa • 0«at nombef of important facts concerning 
tat tl mm mnH eimlful periods of Roman history. 
'AfoBiov SxoAiurnxos vcpi riji Baat- 
riiiot E., nL Bonaventura 
ViAviak with a Latin tnui«iUtion, Lugduui, 1594. 
1W ftfiaiui edition, which is contained in the 
'GafiBSeripL Byxant." was published in I'JIiO; 
il a^MMB Busny errors and conjectural inuovn- 
laaiW vUdk have hc«n reprinted and augmented 
W A* sditars of the Venetiiin edition. Another 
afelin «■• published at Basel (in l.;7fi.^). A 
Id^B ttansialiaii by Chrisbjphorus Pers/ina was 
■■■Mrfy |Hltlished at Rome, 151 li, fol., and 
A u » a i < » •• A'lc.loiiv. 1519, 4to.; at Basel, 1531, 
U.mJ ^ ' .')4, Rto. The best edition 

• Itai •( .. iin. 1I1'28, Sto., which forms 

•<iliU4<e uf the " Corpus Scriptorum 
Bjrvaibiae.*' It rantains the Latin 
•ad tfaa notes of BonnTcnturu Vulcnnius. 
TW Wbb^ ftm an appendix of this ediiinn of 
■rafiiUy corrected the errors 
innoTBtiona of the Parisian 

[VV. P.] 
'\yittm), an eminent an- 
1'. the founder of a new 
V, v> „iii< M he gaTo the name of E/A- 
liW. (Oia. nf Aid. I. T. Episvnthetk'I.) 
^ %m» at Sparta and must have live<l in the 
after Christ, as he was the pupil of 
tlie tutor of Archigvnes. (Galuu. 
c. 14. ToL xix. pL 353 ; Suidas, s. r. 
Kodoc VwLir, ap. Villoison, A»ecd, 
(^ ^ i pi Ck) He is Slid to have been once 
■tiaii wA aa attack of delirium, brought on by 
«Bi 4itirf, 6wa which he was delivered by his 
Ml 4)«^i(mea, who ordered his head to be 
■■•M «ith a grcnt quantity of warm oil. 
ttka^ Mir. i. sens. iii. I7-, p. 1.56.) He is 
■ipHl^ ■■s<aj by Unlen, aho mentions him 
M^lh* l*Baaiiiatin. (If L>i;m<Ku /'■/t. i. 3, 
lAiii. ^ 7t7.) None of his writings are now 
■tat, tat a few bxftments on contained in 
CoQectaon, entitled XXI yctenan et 
Mfmliw ai Graenirum Vana dpuxvla., 
laoa. 4la. Sae also Polladius, 0>w 
mtt. m / f^ a r. *> Dt Mark PupuL lib. vi" ap. 
iMa. Abda ia Hiffmr. d Oaln. voL iL p. 56. 
^ ^tiaitt ofaaatt at hi* sect are not exactly 




known, hot they were probably nearly the aune 
0* those of the Eclectici. (Dki. of A Hi. : r. 
EcLICTK 1.) (See J. C. Oslerh.iu»eii, J/utur. .Sn/<ie 
PMrumUK. Mttt. Allort ITal, 8vo.; C. (1. Kiihn, 
AdtliUim. ad Klmch. Afedic I oL a J. A. Ptttmt^ 
ia » JiiUiolJi. draeca" eduhU.) [ W. A. G. ] 

.40ATH0CLE'.\ (■A7a»iiic\e<a), a mistress of 
the profligate Ptolemy Philopator, King of Egypt, 
and sister of his no lets profligate mini.<>ier 
Agalhocles. She and her brother, who both exer- 
cised the most unbounded influence over the king, 
were iiitniduced to him by their ambitious and 
avaricious mother, Oenanthe. After Ptolemy Imd 
put to death his wife and sister Eurjiiice, Aga- 
ihoclea became his favourite. On the death of 
Ptolemy (a c 205), Agathoclen and her friends 
kept the event secret, that they might have an 
opportunity of plundering the royal treasury. 
They also formed a conspiracy for setting Ago^ 
thocles on the throne, lie managed for some 
time, in conjunction with Sosibius, to net as 
guardian to the young king Ptolemy Epiphanes. 
At last the Eg^'ptions and the Macedonians of 
Alexandria, cxiisperatcd at his outrages, rose 
ngiiinst him, and Tlepolemus placed himself at 
their head. They surrounded the pabcc in tlie 
night, and foivod their way in. Agathocles and 
his sister implored in the roost abjt>ct manner that 
their lives might be spared, but in vain. The 
former wns killed by his friends, that he might not 
be exposed to a more cruel late. Agathocleu with 
ber sisters, and Oennnlhe, who had taken refuge 
in a, temple, were dragged forth, and in a state of 
nakedness exposed to the fury of the multitude, 
who litemlly tore them limb from limb. All their 
rehitioiu and thns(> who had had >-iny shore in the 
murder of Eurydicc were likewise put to death. 
(Polyb. V. b'3, xiv. 1 1, xv. 25—34 ; Justin, xxx. 
1,2; Athen. vi. p. 251, liii. p. 576 ; Plut. CUom. 
33.) There was another Agathoclen, the daughter 
of a man named Anstomenes, who was by birth 
on .Acamnnian, and rose to great power in Egypt. 
(Polyb. /.r.) [C.P. -M.'j 

AGA'THOCLE.-^ (•A7a»o«\i)j), a Sicilian of 
such remarkable ability and energy, that he raised 
him self fmm the station of a potter to that of tymnt 
of Syracuse and king of Sicily. He flourished in 
the latter port of tlie fourth and the b<!ginning of 
the third century, Ii. c, so that the period of his 
dominion is conU'mitornry with that of the second 
and third Snmnite wars, during which time his 
pntver must have been to Rome a cause of painful 
interest; yet so entire is the loss of all Roman 
history of that epoch, tluit be is not once mentioned 
in the ^h and 10th books of Livy, though we 
know that he had Somnites and Etruscans in his 
service, that assistance was asked from him by the 
TarentineB(Strab. Tip.380), and that he actually 
hinded in Italy. (Sec Arnold's /^ome, c ixxv.) 
The events of his life ore detailed by Diodunis and 
Justin, or these the fir«t has taken his account 
from Timneus of Tauromenium, a historian whom 
Agnthocles banished fiom Sicily, and whose love 
for censuring others was so great, that he was nick- 
nsined Ejiitimaeiu (&ultrfinder). (Athen. vi. p. 27'2. ) 
His natural propensity was not likely to be soft- 
en<-d when he was describing the author of his 
exile; and Diodorus himself does not hesitate to 
accuse him of having ealumniiited .^gnthodes very 
gioasly. {Frairm. lib. xxi.) Polybius too charges 
him with wilfully perverting the truth (xi. IS), so 



that tli« arcouiil which ho hat left must be mwiTed 
with much «i«picion. Manrelloaji stories are re- 
lAti*il nf tho early yean of Agathoclcg. Rtim at 
Thennae, a tovrn or Sicily nilijcci to Carthage, he 
ia laid to hare been eicpoMxl when on infiut, by 
hia bther, Cairinui of Rnegiam, in consequence of 
a sucL-trv^ion of troubletome drcomft, portending 
that he would be a wurce of much evil to Sicily. 
Hi« mnthftr, however, tecretly preaerred hii life, 
and at leven yean old he waa restored to hia fi^ 
ther, who hod long repented of hia conduct to the 
child. Dy him he was taken to Syracuse and 
brought up a> a potter. In his yonlh he M a 
L life of estrnTogance and dehaochety, bat waa re- 
f Morkable for strength and personal beauty, qoalities 
which recommended him to Damaa, a uoble Syro- 
caion, under whose auspices he was made fint a 
aoldier, then a chiliarch, and afterwards a military 
tribons. On the death of Damoa, he married his 
rich widow, and so became one of the wealthiest 
dtixens in Synuose. His ambitions schemes then 
dereloped thomselres, and he waa driren inUi 
.•xiie. After sevenl changes of fortune, he cnl- 
c(ed an army which oreiawed both the Synunuans 
od Cartha^nians and was restored under on nnth 
I'lhat he would not interfere with the democracy, 
Which oath he kept by murdering 4U00 and banish- 
ing fiOOO citis'^ns. He was immediately declmred 
sovereign of Syracuse, under the title of Autocrator. 
BuL H.-imilcnr, the Cortbogininn general in Sicily, 
kt-pt the held Miccessfuliy against him, after the 
whulc uf Sicily, which was not under the dominion 
of Carthage, had submitted to him. In the battle 
of Rimets, the anny of Agathocles was defeated 
with great shioghler, and immediately after, Syra- 
cuse itself was cloeely besieged. At this juncture, 
ke formed the bold detign of averting the ruin 
vhieh threatened him, by carrying the war into 
lAfrico. To obtain money fur thik purpose, bo of- 
[fced to let those who dreaded the miseries of a 
Iffotiacted siege depart from Syracuse, and then 
nt a body of amied men to plunder and murder 
r who accepted his offer. He kept his design 
profound svuet, eluded the Carthaginian lleei, 
was blockiuling the harbour, and though 
ely pursued by them for six days and nights, 
nded his men in safety on the shores of A&ica. 
I Advancing then into the midst of his anny, arrayed 
Ib s iplendid robe, and with a crown on his hesd, 
Winnonced llmt he had Towed, as a thank-offer- 
hf far his escape, to sacrifice his ships to Deuveter 
•nd the Kan, goddesses of Sicily. Thefeupoo, he 
bant thnn aU, and so left his wMieri no hope of 
•aCrtjr rieept in eonquesL 

ilu tucce*iea were most brilliant and impid. Of 
^Ibe two Sudelea of Cartilage, the one, OiMBilcar, 
at the tyranny, and opposed the inndei* 
rith little rigour; whihi the other, Honno, fell in 
laUle. He constantly defeated the troops of Car- 
Ihagf, and hod almost encamped under its walls, 
Whoo the detection and crucifixion of Bouilcar in* 
luti Dew lib into the war. Agnlhode* too was 

•"•""-' I (,„ni Afriai by the aHhin of Sicily, 

^' -Hgeulines hod suddenly inviU'd their 

I imen to shake ulf hi> yoke, and left 

hi* Aiitiy uitdiT his s<m Archogathiis, who was ud- 
ablx lo pn-rent a mutiny. i\gathocl>-s returned, 
but was defeatml ; uti, faring • I>ew outblcok on 
the [sut of hii trapa^ flnl mn hia camp with 
Alcugalhus, who, howncr, kial his way and was 
Ukatk A|athucle» escaped ; but in rerenge for 


tills desertion, the «4iMit-rs murdered his sotu, i 
then mode peaco wilh Carthage. New 
awaited him in Sicily, where lieinoctntess a Sjfl 
cuum exile, was at the head of a huge anny ■_ 
him. Out he made a treaty with the Cuthjiftiainih 
defeated the exiles, received Deinocrates into k 
vour, and then had no difficulty in n<duong ll» 
revolted cities of Sicily, of which isUind he hul 
some time before assumed the title of king. lU 
afterwards crossed the Ionian sen, and defeiuM 
Corcyn against Caosander. (Diod. xxi. Fna-jik.) 
He plandmd the Lipari isles, and alsij cum«d ka 
aims into Italy, in order to attack the liruitii. 

But hia designs were interrupted by seven; iA- 
IMS* accompanied by gn^at anxiety of mind, it 
consequence of fiunily distivsaes. Hia gxandssa 
Archagnthus murdered his son Agathoclea, for tht 
sake of succeeding to the crown, and the idd kill 
feared that the rest of his fiunily wouU share ka 
bte. Accordingly, he resolved to send hii. %i6 
Texena and her two children to Egypt, hir 
country; they wept at the thoughts of hi- 
thus uncared for and alone, and he at f<-' iml' ' •' 
depart as exiles from the dominion wIil!) !>• l.A 
won for them. They left him, and li.- li.ui. i4- 
lowed almost inunedialely. For thin t'Micliiiig u»^ 
(Utive, Timaeus and Diodonis after him iuli!.iit:i<4 
a monstrous and incredible story of bis bcM 
soned by Maeno, an associate of Arch.i. 
The poison, we are told, was concealed in iln i;^ 
with which he cleaned his teeth, and redticv^J Ints 
to su frightful a condition, that he vm ]>liu -il ii 
the fiukeral pile and burnt while yet litini;.<; 
unable to give any signs llutt ho was not dmii. 

There is no doubt that Agathocles was a a 
who did not hesitate to plunge into any ■ 
of cruelty and treachery to further hi* osn 
(uses. He petauaded Ophelliis, king oS Cy 
to enter into an alliance with him against C 
and then murdered him at a banquet, and i 
the oommand uf his army. He inrilsd the I 
pal Syracusaus to a festival, plied them with \ 
mixed freely nitb them, discovered 
feelings, and killed .'lUU who seemed nppiin4 I 
views. So that while we reject the 
Timocus, we can as little understand the i 
of Polybius, that though he used bloody i 
acqniii' his power, he afterwords become mM 
and gentle. To his great abilitic* m bM 
testimony of Scipio Afncanua, who whaa i 
what men were in hit opinion at once tba I 
worrinrs and wisest slateanen, replied, . 
and Diunysius. (Polyb. xv. 36.) He ape 
to have poiaosscd remarkable powers of wit I 
repartee, to have bees a moat i^reeablc coap 
and to have lived in Syracnse in 
tally unknown to the Gnvk tyrants, 
in public by guards, and trusting entiv 
the popularity or terror of his i 

As to the chronology of his lifie, his 1 
Africa was in the archonship of Ilien 
Athens, and accompanied by an eclipse i 
i.e. .\ug. l.i. a c. 311). '(Clinton, Fa 
lie quitted it at the end of H. c. ;1U7, dirtl n. <_ 
after a reign of 28 year«, aged 
Uiodorvs, though Lucion [Mamk. Ill), givt 
age 95. Wesscliug and Clinton (wrfi-r the i 
ment of DifMlonis. The Itdian meroenarkes i 
Agathocles left, were tlie Mainertini who afh 
death seised Mesaoua, and occaiioiwd tkt 
Funic war. lO. B. U C 



ording I 


lATITrtChES C^ya0oK\fi%). I. Th<> fa 
' us wn» A Thrunlian Prnc«t, but 
tf of Philip ihrougli HaUcry, und 
Vi n^%.U tij b'-m to high nuik. (TbL>n{>ofnpu&, 
^ itltrm. ri p. t259, t, &c.; ArriaiL, Analt, vi. 
tt. /ai^ IS.) 
% Tb« wm of Lyiimachiu by on Odrj^inn 
rulyaenuB (ri, 12) calls Mocm. 
» wmt by hit £ithef a^inf>t tho 
GviMt about a. r. 2d2, hut was dt-fi-atiHl and tnktm 
friMnnr. He ««■ kindly treated hy Druniichnttiii, 
Ik kklf of tb» Oetw, sod •ent bark to hh fittht-r 
Mik fivMcnU; bat Lyunmcfauft, nolwith.^tondiiig, 
I apaiiut the GrtacTand wm taken priHonpr 
H« tfio wa* also ivlnuei] hy Dromichae- 
k vbo iveesvcd is conx-qiience the dttughtrr of 
^^ImmAtm in mtfmf^. According to novate au- 
bit% it ITS" ""' " V.^iihocles, and according to 
ftov «q1; ., who wna taken prisoner. 

JEi'> . 'if, cd. W\>A|. ; Pau*. L 9. 

Tii. pp. aO'J, 305 ; Pint. Demrir. c. 39, 
, nW. p. ^55, d.) In b.c. 2fl7, Aga- 
I •etil by his fitthtT uf^ainst Denii'triun 
rbn had roanrhed into Asia to de- 
rhuB of Lydia and Carin, lu thi» 
he wa» lUcccMful ; he defeati^d Lyni- 
dmtr him out of his ftithor's pro- 
iL 'Dnuir, c 4(f.) Agntlinrles wns 
the tarcvMor of Lytimnchus, and 
■inonp hit Kubjcclk; but his iitop- 
T, Aniiiae. pajudicml the mind of his father 
BChI vSliex an nnsucceuful attempt to 
Lytintachn* ctut htm into priwn, 
• W «nH nranlered (r. c. t!tU ) by Pto1ema«-uft 
J who mi* a fugitive at the court of Ly»i- 
■Mft«4. Hi* widow LvNindm fifd with hiM chil- 
Im^ aarf Akxandcr, hi-^ brother, to S>!{>ucuii in 
&iiif mfcn aade wnr upi>n Lr*iimichus in conne- 

^^^^Bl4ckcr; Pnux. i. 1U; Justin, xvii. I.) 
I^^RnOfLK^i {'AyafioHAift)^ a Greek hiftto- 
^ - the histury of Cyxicus (irepl 

* called by Athttnacas both a 
[1. ItU, a. ix. p. 375, a) and a C^-zi- 
i^ fuf. p. 949« f.) lie may originntty have 
Wmhi^ Babylon, and have Arttled at Cyxicus. 
TW Im m4 third books are rvfrnvd to by Athe- 
fT p '^7^, f, Tii. p. 515, a.) The time at 
: l> unknown, and his work 
' lo have lieen extensively 
».,»... . -.^ .. IS referred lo by Cicpro {rif 
\'\my (ffisL \4it, Klenchuft of hooks 
other annmt writrn. Af^thttclirt 
af ihff ofi^ui of Rome. (Fetttus, $, v. 
Salmuv PvijfA. 1.) The M-hiili»«t on 
i(i». 7nl) cite* MrnioiM (iJwu^ki^^ioto) 
hoctr«, who i* usually sup^xtflcd to 1>e 
am the abov^cneotioued one. (C'omporc 
il$t%. 7Wa <H5; Steph. Byi. i. v. B4ff€ucof; 
V- a. r. Ai*TTj.) 

an irreml other writers of the ume 

, AguhwWs (if Atnix, who wrote a work 

utd, Saidiu, ■. r. KuciAiof). 2. 0( 

> •mrrr4e % work on agriculture. (Varro 

. die Ar Hml. u 1 ; PUn. //. A", xxii. 44.) 

, who wmte a work on nrvn. (Plut. 

. p^ 1 1^ c) 4. Of Soxnoft^ who wrote a 

I the cMMlifarmn of Peuinu*. (Plut. Ibid. 



OCLBS^InvCharofAgiihodea. [Aoa 

AG.XTHODA EMON {"AyaBo$aifw>i^nrAyttBAt 
3€<J«), the **Gotid God." a divinity in honour of 
whiini the Greeki drank a cup of unmixed wine at 
the «-nd of rvrrj- repa»t. A temple dedicated lo 
him was situated on ilie road from Megnlopolin to 
Macnalus in Arcadia. Pausanias (riii. S'f. g 3) 
conji-ctures that ihv name is a mercepithrtof Amis. 
(fomp. Lobcck, «</ Phiynit'h. p. i^i^\^.) [ L. S.) 

AtiATHoUAKMON {' KyaSaiai^Mt^), a naUre 
of Alexandria. All that '\h known of him is I'uil 
he was the designer of winie mapx to tict)ini]uuiy 
Ptolemy's Ot'ocmphy. CVipicR of thrw maps are 
found ap[)ended to wvend MSS. of Ptolemy. One 
of th<*se is at Vienna* anothrr at Venice. At the 
end of each of these MSS. is the following notice : 
*T,K TiiV KXauStou flToAc/io/ov rcbrypa^NiBK /3i- 
€\iwv 6mta riiv oikou^kii*' iracrov 'A^adoSaZ/iUK 
'AAf(avSpri>r xhrrrvirwTt (Annth. of Alrxjuidria 
delineated the whole inhabittil world according lo 
the eight books on Geography of t'l. Ptolemeaus). 
The Vienim MS. of Ptolemy is one of the most 
beautiful extant. The maps attached lo it, 27 in 
number, cimiprising I general map, 10 maps of 
Eunipe, 4 of Africa, and 12 of Adia, nrr coloured, 
the wuliT lieing grr-en, the raoimtains red or dark 
yellow, and the land white. The climates, piiral- 
lels, nnd tho hours of the loTigest day, an* marked 
on the Kast margin of the nmp% and the meridians 
on the North and Sfnith. We have no evidence 
as to when Agnthndocmon lived, ns the only notice 
preien'ed respecting him in that quoted above. 
There was a gmmmarinn of tlie some name, to 
whom some extant letters of Isidore of Pelusium 
are addressed. Some have thought him to be the 
Agnthodaemon in question. Ileeren, however, 
considers the delineator of the maps lu have l>een 
a* of Ptolemy, who (viii. I, 2) men- 
tions certjiin mnpsur tables (vlfajtcs), which agree 
in number and amuigenieut with those of Aga- 
ihodoemon in the MS8. 

Various errors having in the coarse of time crept 
into the copies of the mnp^ of AgatlxMlaemon, 
Nicolaus Donis, a Kenedictine monk, who Hou- 
rithed about a. h. 1470, no&tored and convtli-d 
them^ substituting Ijitin fur Greek names. His 
map* are appended to the Kbueriaii MS. of 
Ploleiny. They are the same in number and 
nearly the same in order willi those of Agatho- 
doi-mon. (Heeron, Cnmmmtalin Je FontUma iiexh 
ifmph. I*toirmari Tahularuimjm tig unne^mrum ; 
Kaldel, (7ommrvUttio niiinftiieraria de (■/. J*f/i/rniah 
(tfnt/nipftia tjiimju^ onJiWAio, p. 7.) [f. P. M.] 

A'CIATIION {'AydOwi^)^ the sou of the Maco- 
donian Philntas, and the brother of Pamieniou 
and Atandcr, wom given as a hostage to Antigonus 
in u. r. 313, by his brother Asander, who was 
•atrap of Corin, but was token back again by 
Aninder in a few days. (IHod. xix. 75.) Aguthon 
had a son, named Asander. who is mentioned in a 
Greek iuHcription. (Uiiekh, f or;*. /«jrr. 105.) 

A'GATHt»N {'AyaBwf)^ an Athenian tragic 
poet, wns bom nlMtut h. c. 447, rnul sprung fntm a 
nVh otul ivspectable family. He was conMcquenlly 
conU'ini>onir\' with Socrates and Alcibiades and 
the other divtinguished characters of their age, 
with many of whom he was on terms of intimate 
acquaintance. Amongst these was his fhend 
Euripides. He wnii remarkable for the handi>ome^ 
nes6 of his }H*rton and his variouH occMniplifthments. 
(PUL /'n^ai/. p. I5fi, b.) He gained bi»> first 
victory at the Lenooan festival in a c 416, when 



Up wnt a little ahnvn tbirty Venn of age: in hononr 
hicli Pbtii rppntcnU thi- Synipojiura, or ban- 
let, tu have been given, which he has nuide the 
oeciuiion of hit diuhigiie ao caileiL The icene i» 
laiil III A^'nihonV huiuw!, and unougit the interlo- 
culon are, A|iollo<ti>nis Sncmlci, /Vriitophanei, 
Uioiiuu, and Alcibiadca. Plato wot then fourteen 
yean of age, and a ipcctalor at the ttnfpc canteit, 
in which Ai^alhon wu rictarioua. (Athen. v. p. 
217, 0.) When Agnlbon waa about forty yeara of 

r(n. c 407), he vi»iled the court of Aa-helaua, 
king of Mitiedonui (Aeliau, V. II. liii. 4), 
wherr hi* old friend Ivuripidet wna ftlao n gue«t at 
the Gune time. From the expreuinn in the lianae 
(U3), that he waa gone ^i ttaxapuv fiWxtof, nothing 
ecrL-iin can be determined oa to the time of hi* 
death. The phnue adraiu of two meoningi, either 
that he wu Incn miding at the court of Archehiu^ 
or that he wa» dentL The former, howerer, \% the 
more probable interpretation. (Clinton, FaM. IhU. 
vuL ii. p. xxxiL) He i« generally tuppoied to 
ban died about B. c. 400, at the age of forty- 
•even. ( Bode, UfctadiU da- drum, DxUkumty i, 
p. h&W.) The poetic merita of Agathon were con- 
aiderable. but hia compoaitiona were more remork- 
Kble fiir elegance and tlawery omamenta than force, 
rigour, or aublimity. They abounded in onti- 
theaia and metaphor, " with cheerful thoughta and 
kindly imagea," (.\elinn, V. II. x\y. 13,) and he 
ia Nuil to have imitated in vene the prote of Qor- 
giaa the philoaopher. The hingUAge which PLato 
puta into hia month in the Sympn«ium, ia of the 
oajac character, full of hannoniouii worda and aoftly 
6owing pcrioda : an jAoiov ^«v>ta di|f j«pirrl ^ovros. 
The atyle of hia reraea^and eapeeially of hia lyrica] 
compoaitiona, ia reprearnled by Ariatnphanca in hia 
Thaaaophotiamanc ( I91> » affected and ellenu- 
■ati, correaponding with hia pcraona] appearance 
•ad IBMlDer. In that play (acted u. c. 4U9), where 
he ippeui aa the friend of Kuripidea, he ia ridiculed 
for Ott efftminacy, both ui monnera and actiuna, 
being brought on the atoge in female dreaa. In 
the Ronoe, octetl Ave yeara ofkerwardi, Aiialoplunca 
(peak* highly of him a* a poet and a man, calling 
MB an iyatit voivn)t nol vo^ivtlr Ta?! ^/Asii, 
la the Theamophoriaiuioe ('J9; alio, he calla him 
'A^-^Aair i Kktunt. In aotne napecta, Agathon 
waa inatnmu-nlol in oouaing the dedioe of tngedy 
nt Athene He woa the litvt tngic poet, according 
til .Vriatntlfl (Pnil. IB. § 2'2 ), who oommenced the 
practice of inaecting choruaea between the acta, the 
auliject-ntatu^r of which wua unconnected with the 
atory of the dmnu, and which were therefure 
colled J^A^\i^a, or intrnalory, aa being merely 
lyrical or muaicul interludes Tbe aome critic 
{Furl. m. f 17 ) alao blanea him for aekcting too 
CDitMMTe iitb)ceto for hia inndiM. Afpathon alao 
wmla pteeca. the atoiy ami ehonctan of which 
weie in* enationa of purr fiction. One of llicae 
■waa called the -Klower" ('Aj*>i, Ariau Pxl. 9. 
I 7) ; it* anbject-matter waa neither mythical nor 
kiatorinil, and therefore probably "neither aeriouoly 
adavung, aor IciribU." (Schlegel, Dram. IM. i. 
f. IS$,J W« oniMt bat rtgret the lua* of thia 
vorfc. which latiat ban been omiuing and origioaL 
The titlea of four only of hia tmgedjea ore known 
wkih rpTTtniiity '. they an-, tbe I'byeitea, tbe Telo- 
p' ' '»pe, and the Alauaeon. A hftli, 

'• .-<! Ill hull, ia of doubtful authuri ty. 

1: I- f ^,<- lliol Ahatophanea haa given ua 

atUcta fRna aoma of Aijathoo'i play* in tbe 


TheamophoriozuMO, v. 1 00- 1 30, The opinion ihrt ' 
Agnthon alao wrote comedic*, or that there waa i 
comic writer of thia name, ha* been n-fnted by 
Bcntlcy, in hia Ditaertation upon the Epialleaof 
Guripidea, p. 417. (Hitachi, CummmUUiu dt Jm- 
liimu rila. Arte et Tyoffoejianim rWaymu, Haui^ 
I8>9, 8vo.) [R. W.] 

A'GATHON f A-ydftw), of Smuo*, who wtot* 
a work upon Scvthia and another upon Rirov 
(Plot, de Hui: p. 11.56, e. 1159, a; Slobaa^ 
Srrm. til. 100. 10, ed. Uoiaford.) 

AO'ATIIU.N {'AyiBur), at fir«t Reader, liW 
wards Lilirariun, at ConaUuitinople. In A. o. itii, 
during hia llewlerahip, be waa Notary or 
porter at the 6ih (ieneral Council, which 
drmncd the Monothclitc bereay. He acut i 
of the acta, written by himielf, to tbe five Pal 
archatea. Ho wrote, A. D. 7I°2, a abort tnal> 
atill eitant in Greek, on the attvuipt* of Phi 
picua Bardonea (711 — 713} to revive the Ma 
thelile error, Cunciliunim Nona Co/ledio a Mai 
vol. lii. p. 189. (A.J, CJ 

AGATIIO'STllENES {•A7o9o<rt»aVi,i). a Gn ' 
hialurian or philoMijihcr of uncertain iLiU-, i 
referred to by Tretm-a {ad LyciFjiir. 7»4, 10 
CM. viL 64.5) oa hia authority in matter* cnna 
cd with geography. There ia nieutiou of a i 
of Agatho*lhcue* called " Aaiatica 
(Gennonicui, m Aral. Phaen. J4), wha 
(Notium Parlien. p. 125, &c.) wiahod 
the name Aglaoathene* ; for Aghiutthenc* < 
thenc*, who i* by >ome conaidered to be 
oa Agathoathenea, wrote a work on the 
of Noxoa, of which nothing ia cxtoJit, bi| 
waa much uacd by ancient wrilera, (Ily 
AtlT. ii. 16 : Eratoath. CoUut. ii. 37 ; 1 
83 ; Athen. ui. p. 78 ; Plin. //. .W. iv. *2.1 

AG ATHO'T YCHUS('A7o«iTi,x''i ), an i 
veterinary surgeon, whose date and history ore i 
known, but who probably bvcd in the Ibunk ( 
fifth century afU-r ChriaU Some fragment* yf 1 
writinga are to bo found in tbe collection < 
on this subject fint published in a Ldtiu I 
by Jo. Kuelliua, reimNuriue MtdicVMt . 
Paris. U30, foL, and afterward* in 
Grynaeua, Basil. 1537, 4to. [W. 

AOATHYLLUS ('A.yi3u>Aot), of 
a Greek elegiac poet, who ia quoted by ] 
in reference to the hiatory of Acneaa aad 1 
daliun of Rome. Some of his veraoe are ] 
by Uionysiua. (I 49, 72.) 

AGATHYRNUS {; AyaBupros), 
Aeolus regarded a* the founder of Agothj 
in Sicily. (Uiod. v. 8.) [1 

AGA'VE ('A^owrl). 1. A daughter of < 
and wife of the Spartan Echion, by 
became the mother of Penlln-us, who aucoedad I 
giandbther Codmu* a* king of Tbflio. A« 
wo* the aister of Autonois Inu, and S 
lod. iii. 4. § 2), and when Seuwli-. 
pregnancy with Dionysus, was Ueatrviwd u^ ibr 
fight of the aplenduur of Zeus, her UftU-rs afoal 

tbe report that she had only tr ' ■:- J9 

ceal her guilt, by preteudiiig f ^| 

Cather of her child, and llui li' > ^| 

juft punishiiurnt fur her * .ni;ii 

was afterwards moat acvi : 

Kor. after Dionyaus, the »>>ti <<: 

vencd the world, be come to I'M' 

the women lu eclcbratr his lJit> 

moimt Citliocron. Pcutheua wishing lu ymtt 





, went himself to 
but was mm to pi«cea thure by 
Akbvc, who in bor fn-nxy belicTcd 
* a wiid UaaL ( ApulKid. iil 5.' § '2 ; Or. 
1,735: oomp. PBNTiicUii.) Ilygintu (Fub. 
I) in»hr» Agave, afti-r thi> dwd, go to 
' kinR LycuthtTK*, whom how- 
la killnl ill ordrr to ^iii hi> 
[ fo W fcthor Cadmiu. Thi> iwcount U 
' mmpkicrd by Hyginiu. nnd inunt hurr 
I to an oi/Ufr port uf the lUiry of Agnvr. 
KnadUAk.] IL.S.] 

ISTI.S {'Ayilarit), s mythical Iwiiig cnn- 
ritb the Phrygian wonhip of Attos or 
•nJiu ( Tii 1 7. § 3) rclalct ihc follnw- 
. A^jdiAtiiw On one occiuion Zcu> 
by the Earth a laperhiunon 
I ai once man and woman, and 
•tia. The godk dreaded it and 
, aad from ila leTered aijcu there 
oA-Ute. Once when the daughter 
[ Songariiu wn* gathering the fruii 
, nhe put Mmie aimonds into her boaim ; 
' alniood« disappeared, and the became 
' of Atles, who waa of »uch cxtruordinary 
when he had grown up Aindistift tell 
I him. UisreUtivc*, however, destined 
the huibiuid of the daughter of the 
niu, whitlier he went accordingly. 
HI when the hymeneal tong had 
alia appeared, nod Attet wan 
t of Bmdneia, in which he unmanned 
Lika kiag who had given hiin hit duugh- 
AgdiftiM now ivpenled her 
I •taio'd fnm Zcaa the promiie that the 
•bonld Dot become decompoaod or 
ia, aaya Paunanias, the moat po- 
I «f an otbcrwiAe myaterioua atfair, 
lly part of a tymbulicul wonhip of 
rer« of luiture. A bill of the luuue 
I I'hr^'gia, at the foot of which Atlea 
I to br buried, ift mentioned by Pauna- 
1 L I 5.) According to Heaychiui (>. v.) 
. ft SUT; cunip. x. p. 4(i!>), Agdiati> 
ICybcle, who wai wondiipped at Pea- 
A aloiy Mmewhal diifer- 
1 17 Aruobhu. {Adv. Utnl. ix. 5. $ 4 ; 

FeUi, ■->].) [U S.] 

IDAii I'AyAdSat), a lutive of Argot 

, «i e. f 4. rii -J4. $ 2, x. 10. O •. pre- 

ialsaKiuahed as a ttatuary. Jli» inmt 

bjroia hating been the in>iruct<>r of 

jHat tnaatens Pludiaa (Suiduji, «. r. ; 

ArulofJi. Hiin. .^04 ; TlelieK, Ckiliad. 

•iik 191 — fur the luuuea 'EAiUov and 

Mjuealiuiuibly merely corruptions of 

Vd* ^TBt obtcrvcd by Meurhius with 

no, Tbiertcb, and Miiller agree), 

Ayidclua. (PUn. //. A', ixxiv. 8, a. 

atiou of the period when 

, has given rite to a great deal 

1 10 the apparently contradictory 

• writrra who mention the name. 

10. i •) lellt lis that Ageloibucait u 

I (who gained a victory in the 

tke b'titb Olympiad) with the 

ttd chahuteer, which wu* set up at 

IV anere alto at Olyiupia tlaluet by 

» iif lXt(ibi and Aitocbiit of Ti»- 

[ N*« T'lmwrtheut wat put Ui ilealh by the 

, Lt lua ptrtK-ijauou iu llie attempt of 

Iingoras in OL Ixviil 2 (u. c. 507); nnd Anorhua 
(aa we lenm from F.utcbiut) wat n victor in the 
games of the (i.5th OL So fer everything it clear; 
and if we tuppnuc Agrladas to have Ijeeii bom 
about B. c 540, he may very well have been the 
instructor of Phidias. On the other hand Pliny 
(/. e.) Hiyt that Agelados, with PulycUius, Phmd- 
mon. and Myron, Hourithed in the )l7th Ol. This 
agrees with the statement of the ischoliatt on 
Aritlnphonei, that nt Ktelite there was a statue of 
'H^kkXtji iU(|lKan», the work of Agelados lh« , 
Argive, which was >et up during the great petti- ' 
lence. (OL IxxxviL 3. 4.) To tliete uuihoritiei 
muit lie added a poaiage of Paiuania>(iv. AX g 3), 
where lie speaks of a statue of Zeus made by 
Ageladiu for the Metseiiians of NaupoctUii. This 
must have been after the year B. c. 4.5.5, when the 
Messeniuiii were allowed by the Athenians to 
settle at Naupactua. In order to reconcile these 
cunriicting utateuiejila, some suppose that Pliny's 
date ia wrong, and that the statue uf Hercules 
hod been made by .\gchidas Ipng before it was set 
np at Melile : utliers (as Meyer and Sielielii) that 
Pliny's dale is correct, but that Agvhidas did not 
make the statues of the Olympic victors mentiuned 
by Pauaaniot till many years after their victories ; 
which in the case of throe pi-rsout, the dates of 
whoie victories are to nearly the Munc, would be 
a very extraordinary coincidence. The most pro- 
bable solution of the dilticully is that of Thiersch, 
who thinks that there were two artists of thia 
name ; one an Argive, the instructor of Phidias, l>om , 
alwut u. c. 540, the other n native of Sicyon, who ( 
llouri>hi.-d at the date aosigiicd by Pliny, and was 
confounded by the Khuliaat on Arittophanes with 
his more illustrious namesake of Argot. ThiencJl 
sapporta this hypothesis by an able criticism on a 
paauge of Paotoaiaa. (t. 'J4. § I.) Sillig assumot] 
that there were two artists of the nanie of Agi^hidaa, 
but both Argives. .Ageladas the Argive exeiuted 
one of a grf>up of three Muses repn^seuting re- 
spectively the presiding geututes of the diatonic, 
chninmlic and enharmonic stylet of Greek music 
('aiiai:hus and Arittoclea of Sicyiiii made tlie otiier 
two. (Auti|«iter, AhIIi. I'ul. J'Uih. i'JO; Thiertch, 
A/kkJ. </. bUd. h.HH,d. pp. 15I^-IC4.) IC. P. M.J 

AGELAUS ("At^Aouj). I. A son uf Hera- 
cles and Umphalc, and the founder of tlic bouse of 
Cruesuiw (ApoU.Hl. iL 7. g U.) Herodotus (L 7) 
derives the family of Croesus &om one AlcaeiUt 
and Diudurua (iv. ii) from one CleuUus, while ha 
culls the Miu of Heracles and Oniplude Lamms and I 
oihen Laomedct. (Anton. Lib. '2 ; PahiephaL d* 
Inend. 45.) 

'J. A sou of Damastor, and one of the suitors of 
Penelope. (Horn. Ud. xx. 321.) In the struggle of j 
Odytseiu with the suitors, and after many of them ' 
hod fiillen, Agelaus encouraged and headed thoae 
who survived (xxii. 131. 'J4I). until at hut he too 
was struck dead by Odyucua with a javelin, 
(xxii 233.) 

3. A slave of Priam, who exposed the iniant 
Paris on mount Ida, in ciinHc<|ueucc ofadreamgf^ 
hit mother. When, ufter the bipM.- of bve days 
the skve foiuid the infant tiill ulive and tucklei 
by a bear, be took him to his own house 1 
brought him up. (Apollud. iii. 1'2. $ 4 ; camp 


Thei« are teveni] other mythical pertonageal 
the name of .\geLius. concerning whom no partica- 
hus aru known. (.\poUud. il U. $ 5; AntonJu. 

en An KNUR. 

Uh.2; I rum. //. riii. J".;, xi. 30-3 ; Pan*. Tiii, 

r.. «T.) |b-s-] 

ACiKLA'ITS ("A^^Aoof), of NnnpnflUN Vas a 
U-jdin^ mnii in the AfUiluin Ktato at tlir tiin« of 
tlio Aeh.i«iii Iwifjuo. He ift 6r»t mrniioncrt in 
U. c -21, wlifn hf nt'fptciflttnl the allinjicc between 
the lllvriAD chief Sccniiliiidiu and the Aetoliant. 
It wnft tlimuith hi» |M>ntiia.sive speech that Philip 
of Macpflonin and hi* alii'** wen» induced t** make 
piiice with the Ael('linn^ (u. i. 'JIH), and he was 
elected geneml of the latter in the fiillowin(f year, 
th<ii>i;h hi» conduct in twommendinjr peace «m« 
f>m>n .iflenvardft hl'itned bv bin tickle conntryinen. 
(Polvb. iv. Hi, r. l():t— 107.) 

AiiKLKIA or AfiKI.K'lS ('AytXita or 'Kyt- 
Aijtf), a fttimanie of Athen;i, by which she i* df«i^- 
nnted «» the leader or protectiw* of the people. 
(Horn. //. iv. 128, Y. 765, Ti. 269, r>. 213, 
<*/. iii .178. &c.) [US.] 

AOK'LMUS. [.\. Gellii's.] 

AdK'iNUft CAyilyMp). 1. A »nn of Poseidon 
and Libya, kin^ of Pttocnicia, and twin-brother of 
Ifc-lun. (Apollod. ii. I. 8 ■»•) "» ni.irTied Telc- 
phoMO, by whom he became the father of Cadmui, 
Phix'iiix, Cylix, Tluikus, Phineus and accord ini( 
to ftonte of Kuropa alio. (Schol. wl Kurip. Phticu. 
.1; Ilvpin. Fah. I7H; Pan., t. 2.";. $7; Sclol. 
ml AJfJhm. UIkjJ. ii. 178. iii. llH.i.) After hi» 
dauffhtrr Kuropii had been carried olf by Zruis 
A^eiior lent out hi* tons in learch of her, and en- 
joined Ibcui not to return without their mter. A> 
KMr<.|Mt wa« not to be found, none of them iv- 
tiini.-d. and all ieltled in forriKn countries. (.Apol- 
|.k1, iii. 1. § 1 ; llvKin, /■'..*. 17 H.) Virffil (Ant. 
i. 3;{JIJ rn\\% r-.iri}iiige the city of Alienor, by which 
he allude« to the detcent of I>ido from Af^enor. 
Iluttnuuin (.UyAo/m/. L p. 232, he) pointA out 
that the ifenuine FhoentcL'ui name of Agenor woa 
ChniiN which it the name ai Ciuiajui. and u|ion 
tli«-«i- fuel* l)e buildti the hypotheait thiit A^'iior 
or t'linaa it the uuie at the Canaan in the hookt 
of Mixri. 

2. .\ ton of Jauisand &therof Argui Pnnopiet, 
kinit of Arg04. (.\puUud. ii. 1. $ 2.) Hellonicut 
(/'Vtuiin. p. 47, ed. fituni.) fitaie« that Agenor wo* 
.1 '" M'lieu*, and bri'ther of .la^U). and IV 

'. It after their fiither'« d>-utli, the two 

til. .. :2 divided hit doininiont t)etwven 
UiemtelTet in tuch a maiaier. that PclunKUt re- 
OBivrd the country alwut the river l:^nMihut, nnd 

iit Limiaa, and Jatut the country about Ktit. 
r the death of tlie«e two, .\)fennr, the ynung- 
"Vt. invndni ibcir dominiuiu, and iliut became king 
of Arirn*. 

9. Til* wn ami tueeeasor of Trioiwa, in the 
king lto lB of Arrx. lie belonited to the houtn of 
nomwtM, and woa father of (.'rolopiu. ( Huu*. 
ii. 16. J 1; llyuin. /V.. U.x) 

4. A ton of Plenron and Xfinthippe, anil ^rand- 
■on of Aetnlnt. Kpicatte. the iUti]^liti>r of C'jity- 
tloR, 1>ec.iitie bv hint tlie mother of Pftrthaim and 
IVmoMioe. (A[K>tlod. i. 7. it 7.) Acotnling to 
PaowutM (iiL 1.1. g Hy, TlintiuK. the btbcr of 
Levin, it likewiM* a tiin of tiiit .\genor. 

&. A mm of Pbr^eua, kiiiA of Ptophit, in Arca- 
dia. He wa» brother of Prniiout aud .\ninoe. 
who «rat nutniiNl to Alcnioeoii, but wat abandoned 
b\' him- When .Alaiuu-ou wautetl to |;ive Lhe 
«vWUate<{ necklj.-p and peplut of llonnonia Xo Iii* 
■-, tue daughter of .\cheloiit. 
.■it and Pronout at the iiiati- 


fiation of Pheireux. But when the two bnxh^ 
came t<i Uelphi, when* ibey intended tn dedin 
the neckhice and peplut, they were killed by Aia>1 
plioterut and Acunian, the lont of .Mcouieoo raCi 
Cnlirrhoe. (A]MjlhHl. iii. 7. § .^.} P:iu»anuu (viiia'^ 
24. ji 4), who rvlntet the tome ttory, calU tlie cfai^ 
dren of Phegeut, Teincnut, Axioo, and Aljik^ 

6. A ton of the Trojan Antrnor and ThaaM^ 
the prieoteu of Athena, (llonu //. xi. it, «i 
2M7.) 11<* api>eart in the Iliad aa one of thi 
liraveit among tile Tnijaiia, and ii one of tluir 
lejtdert in the attack u|Kin tlie fortificatiout of i' 
(ireekt. (ir. 467, xii. !l.1, xiv. 42j.) He i 
ventnret to fight with Achilles who it wound 
liy him. (zxi. .^70, Ace.) Apollo retcued him i 
a cloud from the ungcr of Achillet, and then i 
turned him.«elf the appearance of Agenor, by wla 
meant he drew .Achillet away from the wiUal 
Troy, nnd alfordcd to the fugitivo TrojaMJ 
retreat to the city. (iii. in fine.) Ao 
Pantaniot (x. 27. § 1) Agenor wat tiaiii I 
ptolemut, and wot repretented by Polygiiototi 
the great painting in the Lenche of Delphi. 

Some other mythical |)cnu)nnget of thit 
occur iu the ftdlowiug poavaget: ApoUod. ii. 1, |4 
iii 5. § (! ; Hvgin. Ful>. 145. (US.] 

.\0ENU'K'11*ES ('AyiinpiSv'), a patronni ' 
of Agenor, designating a detcendani of au Ag 
inch as Cadmui (Uv. MH. iii. 8, 01, 90; 
5i;3), Phineut (Vol. Flocc ir. 582). and I'm 
(Uv. Afr/. iv. 7)1.) (L-8.H 

AOK'PllLIS {'Ayiwo\is), of Rhodea. waa I 
by hit countrj-men at ambaatador to th« ooomI ( 
Mitrciut PhilippUB, D. c l'>9, in the waf 
Perteus and had an interview with bim 
Heraceleum in Macedonia. In the follovring ] 
It. c. U{8, he went at ambottador to Koiai 
deprecate the anger of the llomana. (f 
ixviii. 14, 15, xxix. 4, 7; Lit. xIv. 3.) 

or'ATtcrlAooi), from iytu> and cMp or Aoiti, at 
name of Pluto or iladet, de«cribiiig hiin oa thai 
who ouriet away all men. (Calliin. Jfymm, i 
lad. 130, with $|ianbeim^ note; lle*r 
Aetchyl. up. Allm. iii. p. 99.) Nio 
Atlu-M. XV. p. Ii84) utcdft the form HYfirlAaaf^ I 

AUESANUEK, a tculptor, a nolin i 
itland of Uhudet. Hit name occun in 1io| 
except Pliny (//. A'. xixTi. 5. a. 4), 
know but of one work which he executed |,| 
work however which Uim the mott i 
timony to bit MirfNuoing geniua. In 
with Polydotva and AlMoodarut he 
the group of Laoouao, a woik which it i 
all competent judge* amoog the matt (Kifixi >(■ 
nieut of ori, rtpecially on aeoennt of the admiraU 
manner in which amidtt the intenae 
portrayed in every fiNiture, timli, oimI 
there it ttiU preterved tliat air oi tnblime i 
which chomctcrited the lieat productiont M • .fna 
geiiiiw. 7'hit celebrated group wot di«:-ivrrv'd i 
the year 1. '><)(!, near the bathi of Tiiat on I 
Ktquiline hill : it it now preterved iu the nu 
of the Vatican. Pliny doet not heailale to | 
nounce it tuperior to all other workt 
ilaluary and paiiiling. A gnat deal 
written reapecting the age whea 
tlouritliod, and vahuut opinians have k 
the tubjoct. Winckrlmauu and M&Uea, 
their jud^ncut bom the at>k of art di^il^jirf j 



tiMf\it u^gn it to the op? uf Lyftip- 
fMk If fti1«T thiukft tiiu intriiMt y of tiiitK'nnf? (Jt> 
id thr wiiucwbat theatrical iiir which 
thm ifniup. ahrw* lluit it bi>hing» to n 
kW ave Usui thai uf I'hidL-u. IjCMiiig aud 
T>* i "l I h «n ihr wtht^ hdnd. after *ulijc4ilng the 
ol Plioj U> an ai'curjto cjuimiiLitinn, h:ivc 
I the conclumi'in, that A>^raai*tli-r ami i\ic 
lirrd in the irijni "f Titus, and 
At group cJLpnr^iidy for tliut emiwrur; 
this afUiaB i» prvtty jrrn»!relly acquii*«cod iu. 
bMldiuoa to many other reasoiu thnt might br 
if Ajttce prTmitt».*d, if the Iju>co«ii tuid 
of Miiiii^utty. wo can hunlly undcr- 
ttmA bow Pliity chould hnvf; mnktd it ubuvc 
alt tW worka uf Vhidtax Puiyclelux I'nuiules 
m4 Urv^fnttL But we con account for his cxn^' 
i»r, if the erynip wm uiudrrn nnd the 
es,talL-d by itx eJteculiun in Uitme otill 
ThicrMJi haa written a ^rriit deal t<> ^bew 
tha yiMUC an did not decline ut early aa i* 
aiippovcd, but oiJittiniied to tluuri^h iu 

VMar Dun the tinw of PbidiaA uiiintemi|it- 
•Ay ••«■ io tfar reign nf Tittu. Pliny vtm de- 

im iBjinjK that the gmup wna tculptured out 
■f i^ Uaii* •• the Upie of lime baft dincuverrd a 
ftm ■ IW It a{Tprtira from on imcripliun on the 
' «f ft fttatue fufind at Ncttuno (the ancient 
) t^t Athenodiirus wn* the ftun uf A^e- 
TbM ttakc* it nut unlikely llut Pulyduru* 
■^ waa kia a^tt, and Uial ibc fother exetuti'd the 
l^ntflf tiai«xM>n himaelf, hie two »•'>< ' 

t^ta*fi[fiaHL (Leuinfc, I^oinfm : "^ 
Ih^W.A'Md; X. I, 1(1; Thierxh. . , 
Ul r«^ D. 318, &&; Mikllcr, Arvka*^p.! d» 
^ ia.rf.>!5r?) [C. P.M.J 

iUUS'*^ ' ^ -N (*A7if(rav8^(flai), tht; ion 

rf^pHMii' '.uc I 13d), lilt? cummnniler 

tf ttv l^cr(U''Tn<>i.t.ui deet Mnil Ui prolrct ihu 
■vik if Elton in a. r. 41 1, wu atiockrd liy the 
oar E»uij>, and uLliuncd a victor; 
(Thot liii. 91. 94, 95.) 
leji'ANAX fATixruiwif). « Gnwk poet, of 
&a((menl dvKriptive of the moon 
in Plulanh. (Ur/udt in ori. hmat, 
!f It ii unccruin whetbrr the poem to 
Ikia (lagneul beloii);e<l wu of oii rpic or 
; 4ifeiic duncter. [L. S.] 

A'il."?IAS ('ATijirlai), one of the laiiiLiilne, 
mi aa km<liUrj iirint uf Zrut at (llympiu. 

«^ff TtctorT' tiiiT; in the mule nice, ajid 
iHAed on that acnitiut by I'tndiir in the 
' ' ode. B<>ckh placci hi> victory in 

lUttnDA'mVS ('A>f)<ri3a«K)i), ton of Ar- 

Kptxrpbyriiui Locnan, who con- 

«4«i a bur. in b<iiiii|t in tbc Olympic 

(■i» Hr* •'' : l>y Pindar in 

•» IWh aod I ' i'lio Khulia>t 

^baa kia ticUJi;. ' 'Unipiiul. Mc 

I Aaiit ^rt to cnuieuoiW with Age^idjunun, the 

' lilv «[f rtlMiiiiH. who ia mentiuaed in tlic Ne* 

|^«4m. (L 43, is. as ) 

I AmmLAI.'.S I. ('AyikIaooi). wn nf Don-iMis 
t AA kJaf af tW And line at ^[sinii, •.itliKliii); 
Aito■Ala«^ acaavdmff to Apotloduruf. ifij.,'iic<i 
tW| liM T^uv. Biad died iu ABli ii. < . I'liuvinia^ 
ftrfkas haa mfpi a ahon uiie, but cuiil'-ui}H<r.iry 
' Mk A> trffili»»ni of L;cui)(ua. (I'aui. iii. 'J. | 3 ; 
~ !'•*. L 11 aM.) |A. II. CJ 


AOK-SII.A'l'S U~, Nui by bis avond wifi-, Eu- 
p<ilia, nf Archidnniin II., .nivc-ilid bin hnlf-br»- 
ibeT, Agij II. a« uijii-lot-nih king nf ihi- Liirypimtid 
line; excluding, i>u the ifiMiirni uf «puriiius binh, 
and by the interf«t of Lyamider, hik nephew, 
U-otyehides. [LxoTYriiihKs.] 1 lis reign extend* 
&wni 3HII to 3111 IH-, iKith inchmive ; during most 
of whiili time he wna, in riutunh"* wurdu, "aa 
gooil iii ihoujibl comnmnder and king of nil (in-iw," 
and wa* fur the wlmle of it greatly identitied with 
hill ci>untrj-"8 deeda and forlunetu The ponition of 
that cuuntn-. though inteniolly weak, wna exter- 
nally, in Greece, down to 3!)4, one of i,aprem.u-y 
acknowli-dged : the only lield of ili anibiliun 
Persia ; fnini 3it4 to 3B7, the Ciirintliiaii or lir»t 
ThcLon »nr, one of mpnunacy awiulU'd : in 3117 
that (upremoc}- wa» renlored over Urecce, in th« 
ponC"- of Anutlcidos by the uncrifice of Aaiatic pn>- 
ftpectk : and thuii more confined and more wcure, it 
became iiini mon- HTUiton. A fu-r 3711. when Thchea 
rvgnined her freedom, we find it again aaHoiled, 
and again fur one nionu-nt r<->tored, though on a 
lower level, in 371 ; then overthrown for ever at 
Leuctro, the next nine year% being a urugjfle fur 
exiAt4-nce oinid d.onger* within and witlinut. 

Of the youth uf Agekilaun we have no deuil, be- 
yond the mention of his iuliiruu-y witli Lyiouder. 
On the throne, which he anceuded alwmt the age of 
forty, we fir«t hear of him in the loppremion of 
Ciiuidun't cunkpinuy. [Cinadon.] In hit third 
year (300) he crmted into Aaia, ond afu-r n slmrt 
', and a winter uf ptvpomtion, he in the 
|('iwere«l the lwoiutn)pk,Ti*aapbeniehand 

1': -J'.izut>; and. in the i>pnitg uf 31)4. nTut en- 

cam|H'd in the plain of Tliebe, preparing to advance 
into the heart of the empire, when a meunge ar- 
rived to ftummju him to the war at home, ile 
calmly and pnjuiptly obeyed ; expreuing however 
to the Afiialic Greeks and doubtlejiii him&elf in- 
duli^ng, hopei of a speedy reium. AI.-Lrching rapid- 
ly b^' Xerxej*' rout4.'. he met and defeated atCuronein 
in Boeotia the allied forcet. In 3!^3 he waa engaged 
iti a ravaging invasion of Argolia, in 392 in one of 
the Corinthian territory, in 391 be reduced the 
Acamaniani to tubmiauon ; but, in the renmiuing 
ye«r»of the war, he i* not mentioned. In the inter- 
val of peace, we lind him disilining the command in 
Sparta^ti aggrea.siun on Mnntineia \ but heading. fr*)m 
motives, it ia taiil, of private (riendthip, that on 
I'hliua ; and openly jniitifying Pboebidoa' tteiiture of 
the CadmeiiL Uf the next war, the tir&t two yeora 
he commarided in Boeotia, morv however to the 
enemy's gain in point of experience, than Iom in 
any other ; from the five n^niiiining he waa with- 
drawn by severe illness. In the congreM of 371 
on altercation is recorded between him and Kpami- 
uondu ; and by his advice TheU'S wru |K-reuiplo- 
rily excluded fntm the peoce, and orders giv<*n for 
the fatal cunifiaign of Leuctru. In 37u we find 
him engaged in an emliauy to Afontineia, and 
reassuring the Spartans by an invasion of Arcadia; 
and iu 3(i9 to his skill, courage, and presence of 
mind, is to be aacrilied the maintermnce of the un- 
walled Sparta, aiuidf^l the atuu-ks uf four armies, 
and revolts and conttpinwies of lleliits, Periocci, 
and even 8)tarlans. Finally, in 3(i*2, he led his 
conulrymen into Arendijt ; by fortunate information 
was enabled to ri'lum in time to prevent the sur- 
prise of Spurta, and wnN it seems, joint if not aole 
cutaniundcr at the battle of Mantineio. To the 
ensuing winter must probably be refexrod his em- 



tKuay to the coast of Amu and iic;;otiationK for 
mimi'y witli the revolted Hatntps ulluJed to in an 
ubkctine [uiuagi; of Xenophon {Ai/ea'aiu^ iL 20, 'J7): 
mid, in perfcirnmnci- pcrhn[H of tome <tipulatinn 
then nuide, he crosHti, in the Hpring of 3t>l, with 
n body of Ijjicednemonian merccnorie* into Egypt. 
Hprc,aft«r diiplaving much uf hi> ancient tkilU he 
died, while prejiaring for hit voyage home, in the 
winter of Siil-iiU, after a life of obovc eighty yean 
and a reign of thiny-eight. 1 1 in body won ou- 
balmed in wax, and splendidly buried at SportiL. 

Referring to our tketch of Spartan hittory, wo 
find Ageiihius shining moit in iu Hrst and last 
[leritrd. Oft commencing and surrendering a glorious 
career in Asia, and a^ in extreme age, maintaining 
his prostrate coantry. From Coroneia to I^enrtni 
we see him [atrtly unemployed, at tiiucs yielding 
to weak motives, at times joining in wanton acu 
of public injustice. No one of !Sparta*s great de- 
feats, but some of bcr bad policy bcbmgs to him. 
In what others do, we miss him ; iu what he does, 
we mis* the greatnes* and coiuiitency belonging to 
unity of purpa«o and sole command. No doubt he 
was hampered at home ; perhaps, too, from a man 
withdmwn, when now near Hfty, from his cboaen 
confer, great action in a new one of any kind cuuld 
not be looked for. Plutarch gives among nicnerout 
ap<iplithi«gmiitn his letterto the ephora on his recall : 
•* We hare reduced most of Asia, driven bock the 
borliarians, made arms abundant in Ionia. Out 
■ince you bid me, according to the decree, come 
hiine, I shall follow my letter, may perluipa be even 
before it For my command ii not mine, but my 
coantry^i and her allies'. And a commander then 
comnuinds truly according tu right when he s<<es 
his own commander in the laws and ephors or 
others holding othcu in the state.** Also, an ex- 
(iomutiun on hearing of the battle of Corinth : 
"Ala* for Unrce! she has killed enough of her 
MO* to hare eonqnand all the bsthariaus." Of 
bia eounge, temperance, and hardinesa, many in- 
■IBWM ■» given : to theae he added, even in ex- 
ene, the Icm Spartan qualities of kindliness and 
tendeni«>« a* a father and a friend. Thus we 
have the story of his riding across a stick with his 
childrtrn ; and to gratify his son*s aflection for CI«o- 
nytinis a^in uf the culprit, he saved hphodriaa from 
the puiiitlimeni due, in right and p<ilicy, for his 
incursion into Attica in 3iU. So too the appoint- 
niont uf Peisander. [Pkhundik.] A letter of his 
nna, "If Nicias is innocent, acquit him for tluit; 
V guilty, for my wke ; any how acquit him.** 
FMb Spartoo euuidiiy and dishonesty, and uoatly, 
•ran is public life, ttom ill fiulh, lua chonctcr is 
cImt. In penon be wa* email, mean-looking, and 
ha^ on which last ground objection had been 
nade to his aroroion, on oracle, curiously fullillcd, 
hating warned Spnrta of evils awaiting her uufler 
a"Ume sovrn'igitty.** In his reign, indeed, her 
iisll t<Mik plaor, but not through bim. Agesihsus 
bim*elf was Sparta*s most perfect citixen and must 
consummate genemi ; in nuiiiy wars perhaps her 
gnalnt niau. (Xen. HM. iii. 3, tu tlic cud, Ar/r- 
•tfUM: Iliad, xiv. xt ; Paus.iil9, IU; Plut. uid'c. 
N . Plut Af,fpktkc,,m.) {K. 11. C] 

I *:S(*A7v»(rUaof ), u (jrrek hisbirian, 
»:.: . *ork on the early bisViry of Italy 

(*IraA,«^), frtgutriiis of which ore preserved in 
Plnunfi f /•.,i.,i/W.., Ik alV). lUid Sloheeus. (Flu- 

n ^.41^.lrv. lU.ed.tioisf.) [('. P.M.I 

lUL'S or IlEUiai'LOClIL'S 

('A7«<r(Xox'"< 'ATTfiTfAoxoi, 'HytaiKaxot), i 
chief nuigistmte {/'rytanu) of the Rhodiani» i 
the breaking out of the vai l>etween Rome i 
Perseus in h. r. 171, and recommended his cai»' 
trymen to espouse the side of the Romana. He 
was sent as ambassador to Rome in B. c 169, and 
to the consul Acmilius Paullus in lllacedania, a. c 
168. (Pnlyb. xxvii. 3, ixviii. 2, U, riix. 4.) 

AGF.Sr.MBItUTl'S, commander of the Bh» 
diaii deet in the war between the Romans aa4 
Philip, king of Macedonia, B. c 200 — 187. (Ut, 
xxxi. 46, xxxii. IC, 32.) 

AOKSI'PdLlS I. ("ArTirfiroAij), king of Sp 
the twenty-fimt of the Agids beginning with 
rysthcnes, succeeded his lather Paiuuiiiaa, 
yet a minor, in & a 394, and reigned 
years. He was pUoed under the guardiaaahip I 
Aristodemui, his nearest of kin. He c» 
the crown just about the time that the 
deracy (gionly brought about by the intn 
of the IV-rsiun satrap lithrnustes), whidi 
formed by Thebes, Athens, Corinth, 
against Sparta, tendered it neoeitaiy to i 
oolteogue, AgcsiUns II., from Asia; and 
military operation of his reign waa the < 
to Corinth, where the foice* of the 
were then assembled. The Spartan army ' 
by Aristodemus, and gained a sisoal victurj i 
the allies. (Xen. //W/L ir. 2. f 9.) In the 
& c. 390 Agesipolis, who had now reached 1 
majority, was entrusted with the oommand of i 
army for the invasion of Argohs. llaring 
cured the sanction of the Olympic and I^pl 
gods for disregarding any attempt which the J 
might make to suip his march, on the prruzt of* 
religious truce, he carried his imragm etill f 
than Agesikua had done in B. c 393 ; bat I 
suffered the aspect of the victims to deter hiiB I 
occupying a pennaiient post, the expedition yii 
no fruit but the plunder, (Xen, Hdi. iv. T. fi 
Pans. iii. 5. S 8.) In a. c 385 the Sp 
iiig upon some frivolous pretexts, sent ; 

tion against Moulineia, in which .\ge*ipolia I 

touk the command, afler it hod been decUael 1 
Agesiluus. In this expedition the Spanaoa ^ 
assisted by Thebes, and in a battle wUh the I 
tineans, Kpomiiioodas and Pelopida^ who 
fighting side by side, narrowly escaped dtath. 
took the town by diverting the river Oplli^ so a 
lay the kiw grounds at tlie foot of the walls i 
wutor. The basements, being made uf unh 
bricks, were unable to resist the acUon of the i 
The walls soon began to totter, and the 1 
were furced to surrender. They were ada 
terms on condition that the population al 
dispersed among the four haiiilots, out of 
had been collected tu furm the ca|>ituL The < 
cratwal leaders were permitted to go into < 
(Xen. HM. t. 2. g 1-7 ; Pau>. viil U. { i ; 
IV. S, tk.c; Plut. J'elup. 4 ; Isocr. /'iswy. p, t7,i 
Ue /'u«, p. I7!l, c) 

ijulj in B. c 3U2, on embosay oune to 1 
ft\>m the citioa ol Acanthus and .\|ioIlutiia, i 
iug asaiataiine aguust the tJl^uttiioiw, who 
endeavouiitg to oooipel iheni lo join their i 
racy. Tho tipailaia giBntod it, but 
lif«t very aueaaasfol. After ih* defeat and i 
of Teleutias in the aeooad oonaiga (a. l, I 
Agcsipulis took the cwiimand. Ue aet out IB i 
but did not liegin upenuions till llie spriiw of 1 
He then acted with gnsal vi^ur, and tMSt Ta 


I in the nii<l«t of ki< nocrim li« wiis 
tfer, which earned bim off In acven 
at Apbytix, in the pruiiisuia of 
nt» body was imoiened in hoiiL'V and 
e to Sparta for burioL Though 
in not thaie the ambitious riewi of 
chcrithcd by Agoilani, bit lou 
«■§ tWviy netted hj that prince, who aetrmi tu 
Ibw had a aiocaiv regard for him, (Xen. Nell. 
T. 3. f 8-9. 18-19; Diod. XT. 22; Thirlwall, f/UL 
y Oraaac. foL IT. pp. 105, 4'J8, &c , r. pp. £, &c 
SL) [C. P. M.] 

JUiESin^LIS 11., (on of Ceombrotua, wu 
^ iSfii king of the Agid line, ile aacendcd the 
ibiaa B. & S7I, and reigned one year (Pau». 
B. «. f I : Diod. XT. 60.) [C. P. M.] 

AOESI'POLIS III-, the .Hl>t of the Agid line, 
««a tW aoD of Agefipolia, and gT>ind«on of Cleoiu- 
tn^ IL After the death of Cleominci he wu 
alaMd kuR while ttill a minor, and phiccd under 
Ac yandianahip of hi* uncle Cleoraenn. (Polyb. 
h. S&) H« wu ho«-cver toon dcpued by hit col- 
faapw Lyvutgua, after the death of Cleomenet. 
W* War td him next in b. c. 195, when he wiu at 
Ik* had of the Laonlaenioninn exilet, who joined 
is hi* attack upon Nabia, the tyrant 
(Lit. xxxiT. °26.) He formed 
I A ^ ■mhaaty aeni about B. r. 183 to llome 
' A* Laccdaonionian exilei, and, with hi< corn- 
intercepted by pimtet and killed. 

lr.J,>^ .r,T. 11.) [C. P.M.] 

! ll.ATE. [Agis IV.] 
. - ('ATT^raf), commander-in-chief of the 
B. c. 217, made an incursion into 
id Epirut, and ravaged both couii- 
Hha. {f^S^ f- 31' 96.) 

AObTOR C^y^"!')^ * •urname giTen to tere- 

al mttt^ far instance, to Zeua at Locedaemon 

Ulm. A>w>. 42) : the name weiiu to dcicribe 

Xna a* iha lender and ruler of men ; but otiiert 

tii^ tknt il in tynonvmoua with Agiimemnon 

likMHunoN. 2]:— to Apollo (Kurip. AM. i2S) 

■tma t ai w w Elouley and others prefer ayrfray. 

—4a llcnicni who conducia the souU of men b> 

Ma tima w«ltd. Under thit name ff ennea had a 

Mto at MofiiopoUL (PauvTiii. 31. §4.) [L. :;.] 

JkOOB7<U8 U'HBICUS, a writer on the 

Maa «f dw Agtimenaote*. {Did. n/Aiil. p. .10.) 

tlii^HHttin when fa« liTed; but he appears to 

hm kaan • Chiiatian, and it a nut imprabubK- 

tm a^v «niiiii<iiii which ha uks, that be lived 

■ da hMi* (an of the fimrth centnry of our era. 

rtust wvrks aacribcd to him are : — ** Aggeni 

- Inlinm F>untiiiufflCommentariu>,''acam- 

m^arj upan iha work ** De .\gronuu Qnalitate,** 

^tik it aaoibed to Frontinu* ; " In .luliuni Fron- 

I CMB^MOtBfioruni Liber wcundu* qui I)ia2o- 

I ^fcjHf r ;** and ** Commentoriunim do Con- 

Agruum Pan prior et altera." The 

walk Niebnhr auppoiea to have been 

m ky Fraatunu, and in the time of Domition, 

iW aaikar •paaki of ** ptaestantiMimat 

^'* on czprewioa, which would never 

^tr brra ajfJicd to tkia tyrant afier hi* death. 

!. ii. p. 621.) 

.-, called XANDRAMES (3ai^ 

9f^ iij hj l^kMlonu, ibe ruler of the Gunguridae 

aai i*>aM M lodia, wia aid to bo the nou of a 

faitex; witrnt tk* fwcn hod mor.'ied. Alexander 

wm ftfaptfiag la anrch again«t him, when he wba 

1 kj Ua aiJdicn, who bad become tuod of 



the a'sr, to give up fiirther ronqueitii in India. 
(Curt. V, 2; Diod. xvii. 93, 04; Arriaii, Jnui. 
V. 2.'i. Ac; Plut. Jfcr. (JO.) 

A'OI.AS ('Ayfai), son of Agclochut and grand- 
son of TiMmienuft, a Spartan seer who predicted 
the victory of Lyaandcr nt Aegus-pouuiii. (Pbiu. 
iii. 1 1. S 5 ) [TiSAMKNi.'s.] 

A'(iIAS ('A7(or). 1. A Greek poet, whose 
name was fonuiTly written Augias, through a 
mistake of the first editor of the Kxrcrjitn of 
Prix:lus. Il has been currectod by Thiorwh in tho 
Aria I'HliU. Mixmc. ii. p. 584, from the I'udi'X 
Moimcensim which in one passage hoi Agiaa, 
and in another llagins. The name itself does not 
oci-ur in early Greek writers, unless it be suppoited 
tlint Egiiu or Hegias ('Hylar) in riemens Alexiin- J 
tirinus {Strrmi. ri. p. (>22), and Pausonias ( i. 2. 
^ 1 ), are only ditTen'nt forms of tlie some n«ime. 
ilo was a native of Tpteten, and the time at which 
he wrote appeiira to haTo been about the year 
B.C. 740. His poem was celebrated in antiquity, 
under the name of Nd(rroi, i. t. the history of tho 
return of the Achuenn heroes from Troy, and con- 
sisted of five books. The poem l»egun with tho 
cuuse of the misfortunes which K'fel the Achue.-iiis 
un their way home and after their arrival, that is, 
with the outmgt^ committed upon Cassandra and 
the Palladium ; and the whole poem tilled up the 
space whii'h was left lietween the work of the 
poet Arctinus and the Odyssey. The ancients 
themselves ,ippeurto have been uncertain about llio 
author of this poem, for they refer to it simply by 
the name of Ntfcrrot, and when they mention the 
author, they only call him i Ti>i}r Nborous Y/xltfaf. 
( Athen. vii. p. 2BI ; Pnus. x. 28. § 4, 29. § 2. .HO. 
i 2 ; ApoUod. il 1. | 5 ; Schol. u,l OJgtt. iv. 12 ; 
SchoL ad Arut'ifilt. Ei/uit. 1332; Lucian, He 
SiJIat, 4fi.) Hence some writers attributed the 
NdoToi to Homer ( Suid. «. r. r^ffToi ; AnthoL 
Plonud. iv. 30), while others call its author a Co- 
lophonion. (Eustath. oiV 0</jra. xvi. 116.) Simi- 
lar poems, and with the same title, were written 
by other poets also, such at Eiimelus of Corinth 
(SchoL ad PM. CH. xiii. 31), Aiiticleides of 
Athens (Athen. iv. p. 157. ix. p. 4<)ii), Clcidemui 
(Athen. xiii. p. G09), and Lvsimochus. (Athen. 
iv. p. 158; SchoL ad A/hJIom. Rhod. I 558.) 
Where the Nifirroi is mentioned without annmi^j 
we have generally to understand the work 

2. A comic writer. (Pollux, iiL 36 ; Meineku, 
Hal. Comic. (Irarc. pp. 404, 416.) [L. S.) 

A'GIAS ('Ayloi), tlie author of a work un 
Argolis. ('ApyoXucd, .\then. iii. p. 86, f.) He it 
czdled 6 /lovawAs in another passage of Atheiiocua 
(xiv. p. 626, f.), but the musician nuy b« anotlier 

AGIATIS. [Aois IV.] 

AG IS I. ('A71J), king of Sparta, son of Eu- 
rvstbenrs, liegiui to rcigu, it is snid, alwut B. c 
1*032. (MuUer, Dur. voL ii. p. 511. tnuisL) Ac- 
cording to Euaebius {C'linm. i p. 166) he reigned 
only one year; according to ApoUodonu, as it 
appears, about 31 years. Soring the reign of 
Eurysthcnes, the conquered people weiy admitted 
to an equality of political rignts with the Dorians^ 
Agis deprived them of these, and reduced them to 
the londiliun of sulijecu to the Sporlans. The 
inliabitanu of the town of Uelot attempted to 
shoke olT the joke, but they were mbdiied, and 
gave rise and luuue tu the data called Ueloia, 

-2 AG IS. 

(Rplinr. op. Stmb. Tiil p. 3lH ) To bii reign 
wa» rffomtl l)w colony vrhicli weut li» Civt* 
uiiilcT I'ottia and Urtphii*. (IVtiioa. Narr, 3(i.) 
Fmdi hiiu tho kings o( thiit linr wcir rallnl 
'Kfitau Hit coUcogUB tnu Soiu. (Pau>. iii. °2. 
§ 1.) [C. P. M.] 

ArilS 11, the I7lh of the Enrypontid Line 
(lic*};iiiiiing with Frniileft), Mucceeded hi« fathi-r 
Archittiutius, u. c, 427, nnd reigned n little ni«re 
than 'JU year«. In the aummer of b. c 4'2<(, he 
U>d an itnnT of IVIoponnc!ii:ui» and their allie» as 
Ut a> the isthmus uith the intention of inviuling 
Attica ; but they were deterred from adviiuciDg 
fiirthirr by u ftUa-esAion of eartlujiiakea which hap- 
pened when they hod p>t so £tii. (Thuc. iii. 
U!^) In the B})ring of the following year he led 
Afi anriy into Attiai, but quitted it fttteea days 
after he had entered it. (Thnc. iv. '2, 6.) In 
IL c. 415), the Ar^vt>«, at the instigation of AJci- 
hinilrs, attai:ked Kpidaunis ; and Agis with the 
whole fnrce of Laee<laeinon set out at tlie Bamc 
tinie arul niarrhtjd to the frontier city, LeuctiB. 
Nil one, Thiirydides tells us, knew t)ie purpoae of 
this ex|«>litioii. It was probablT to make a direr- 
sioii in fiivour of Epidaunis. (Thirlwall, toI. uL 
p. S4'.'.) At Leuctra the aspret of the aicriiiee* 
dctefTfd him fn>nj prficee*Iing. He therefiire led 
his troops back, and sent nmnd notice to the allies 
to Ih* reoily for un expt-^lition at the end of the 
nncred mouth of the L'ameau featival; and when 
the Argives repeated their attack ou Kpidaarus, 
the .Spartans again nuirchcd to the frontier town, 
Curyiie, and a^in turned hnck, pnifesnediy on 
uccuuiit of the aspect of the victims. In the mid- 
dle nf the following Miniiner (it. c. 418) the (^pi- 
dauriiiiK being still honl pn-saed by the Argives, 
the Luerduenioniaus with their whole force and 
•nnie allies under the coinniiind of .^gis, invaded 
Argolis By a skilfol nuiniH-iivre he succeeded in 
interiepting the Argives nnd p^isted his army nd- 
vantagenu'ly h>-iween them and the city. Hut 
jnst lu the battle was about to begin, Thrasyllus, 
one of the Argive genends, and Alciphnm cnmi* to 
Agi* and preroiled on him to conclude a truce for 
four u)aiith<«. Agis, without diH-losing bin motives 
drew otf hi* army. < In his return he was severely 
censiirt-d fur having thus thrown away the oppoi^ 
luiilty of reducing Argos, especially as the .\rgives 

1 seised the op|iurtuiuly alforded by his ivtum 
token Oichomenos It was proposed to pull 
dots n his houv, and inllict on him a fine of I UO,t>UO 
drwhmjM-. Hut on liis carorst eotieoty they ccm- 
trnti'd thenidelves with appointing a council of 
war, roHkistiug of 10 Spartans without whom be 
was lint to Uyul an army nut of the city. (Thuc. 
V. .V4, .^7. Ac.) Shortly afterw;mls th«y iwreiwed 
iutetltgencr from Tegr:i, that, if not promptly tuc- 
emiM, the pany tsvouiablv to Sparta in that city 
woald b> ciim|i«U«! to aive my. The Spartan's 
, JMIwdialcly «nt ibrir whol« fota.- under the cam- 

nd of Agis He irston-d trani|uillity at Tegea, 

I then marched to Mantuieio. Ity turning tiw 
nten ao aa to tlood the lomls of Moiilineia, be 
mmoimM io drawing the army of the Miuitincans 
to tbc leval poanl. A bat- 


I' '■ laaat iinpnftaDt battlM ever 

fought betwern tlreetan states (Thuc, v. 
71 — 73.) In a. c. 417, when m'ws tvnche,! Sparta 
of tbe tuunUrrr\-vnlution ai Vrgns, in which tbr 
oltf^idtical and S|artjui factiuu was uvertKrown, 


on nirny was sent there under Agis. lie was an- ' 
able to rfftt*ire the defeati'd party, but he de«tro3-ed 
the long wall* which the Argives hud liegnn Io 
carrj' down to the sea, and took Hysioe. (TbuL 
V. U3.) In the spring of n. u 413, Agis enteiM 
Attica with a Pcloponnesian army, and furtibod 
Dcix-leia, a steep eminence about 15 uiilei uurth- 
east of Athens (Thuc. viL 1!), 27); otid in tlw 
winter of the same ycor, ofliT the news of the 
diKutnius £ite of the Sicilian erpi-ditioo had 
rcachi-d Greece, be marched northwanls tii leryj 
contributions on the allies of Sparta, fur the pai^| 
pose of constructing a tleet. While at Uecdeia I 
acted in a gix'at measure independently of tlie S|a»>1 
tan government, and received eailiossii^s as wcA 
from the ditotfected allitui of the .Athenians •» 
from the Kocotiaiis and other allies of Spatla. 
(Thuc. viii. 3, o.) Ho teems to have nniMiind 
at Dcccleia till the end of the Peloponnesian «aL 
In 411, during the administration of the K-r 
Hundnnl. he made an uni>ucccssful attcnii' 
Athens itself. (Thuc. viii. 71.) In »■ c^ 4ul. 
the command of tbc war against Elis in 
cd to Agis who in the thinl year ooo 
Eleans to sue for pence. As be was rrtuS 
from Delphi, whither he bad gone to nowmtait \ 
ti-nth of tlie spoil, he fell sick at Henea i 
dia, and die,] in tlie course of a few days i 
n-acheil Sparta. (Xeu. JltJl. iii. 2. { 1 
3. § 1 — 4 ) He left a son, Loutychides, ' 
however was excluded from the throne, as 
was some sufepiciiin with ivgard to his leg 
While Alcibiades was at Sparta he made . 
imphicable enemy. Later writenb (Juslijt,^ 
Pint. Aldb. 23) assign as a mann, that th 
suspected him of having dishonoured 
Timaea. It was probably at the fti| 
Agis that orders were sent oat to .' 
put him to deatli. Alcihiadet hotroTtir : 
timely notice, (ocenrding to some 
I'iiDtica herself) and kept out of the I 
Sparumt. (Thuc viii 12, 4A; PlnL 

22. A^. 3.) (a r 

A(.HS 111., the elder son of .\rchidiunus II 
the 2()th king of the Eurypontid line, llii 
was short, but eventfid. I le succeeded 
in u. c. 338. In B. c. 333, we find I 
with a single trireme to the Henian cub 
in the Aegean, Phaniabaaiu and Auti 
dotes to request money and an armainent for c 
rytng on hostile operations against Aleio 
Greece. They gave him 3U talents and 
remea. The news of tlie buttle of Issus I 
put a check upon their plans He srnt i 
leys to his bmtlier Agi'^bius with instnicl 
sail with them to Crete, that be might 
tluit inland for the Sportaii interesL In t^ia I 
se<!mt in a gnat meaaure to hoTc 
Two ycara ofkcrwaida (b. r. SSI), 
•tadea which were leogtied together i 
ondcf, acsaed the op|Nirtunity u( the 
Zapyfim and the ivvolt of the '~ 
don war againat Mocodmiia. Agis ' 
with tha eooinaud, and with the \* 
Mouft, and o body of BUUU Ol«rk 
who had been pnaant it the bttUe 
gainad a decUiva rietnry orrr • MaoadoafaaS 
under Cnmtgus Having been joined hy 
other fon~ei of the league he hiid aie^ 
Megalopolis The city hrld out till .\nti 
to its relief, when a battle ensiled, in wb 

I defnitrd aiwl killed. It bappcnfil abonl 
• of thr Xnltie of Arbcla. (Arrian, ii. ['A ; 
6X, HR, sni. {>2; AckIi. r. f^itifik. 
\Cmn.ri\', Jitftin,iu. 1.) IC. P. M.] 

rV^ tlir elder w/cm of Kudomidu 1 1^ wu 
I kiflg of (he Kuryprmtid line. He iai> 
fiiibcr in H. c. '244. .-ind rei^med four 
In ■» c 24.\ ofur ilic liberation of Corinth 
If AnCw^ thr ^M-ral of the Achaean leugiie, Agiit 
ri an mnoy %^tk%i him, hot was defeated. 
fmtL. ii 8. i i.) The intemtt of hin reipi, hnw- 
rtf, i« dcrirMl fmtn evenU of a ditfen-nt kind. 
Iph^ liw inriux of wealth and luxiin-, with 
litatit rices the Spartani had greatly 
frtiin the ancient kimpticity and 
>««ffty cf RManen. Not abunr 700 fiimUie> of 
It f iiiiiiM ZtfttTUn ctock remained, and in cuiikc- 
wmm dl %k» innondon introduced by Epituleus, 
hi IHBKlvd A irpciil of the law which secured 
I fWfT SnrtaD head of a &mily an equal pnrtiuit 
' Im^ Ule londrd prnperty had pOAAed into the 
I af a few indiiiduols of whom u grvat num- 
to that unt above lUO i^pnTtan 
cttotev while the poor were 
I debt. A^«s who frrim hi* tiulient 
ewn hit attodkment to the iincieiit 
irrttiok to reform the«e abuiie«, and 
I lb« iastitutinnft of Lycurgut. For this 
ti h» JaftMmiined to lay before the S^iortan nenattt 
IMfHllMB far the aboUtioa of all debt^and a new 
Mltt^ W th«* Umda. Another part of hii> plan was 
1 0m tailed evtate* to the Pcrioeci. H ib kchenvca 
IMI^Walf aeronded hy the poorer dauea and the 
•■■ ■*■• and at ftrenaouAly opposed by the 
Mrf&y. He Miocveded, however,, in gaining over 
!■• W7 influential penoni, — hin uncle Ageii- 
Im (a vmn of large property, but who, being 
h»^j ia«olvod in debt, hoped to pmlit by the 
iOMMiMM of Agi^). Lysinder, and Mandro<cIeidt^i. 
HwIh iCMiotd Lyiouider to tie elected one of 
Ai VpHn* ha Uid hi> plans before the M'nate. 
Ki wfu^med that the Spartan territory nliould be 
AnM iato two pottions, une tu cousisi of 4500 
tmi yu^ to )k divided orotingst the Spartans, 
was xxaks wwe to be filled op by the admis- 
i«t respectable of the Pcrioeci and 
t other to contain 15,000 equal lot^, 
- Bnongst the Periocci. The senate 
I St fifst cmne to a decision on the matter. 
» llkrRlore, convoked the assembly of the 
I A^ ■ubmitted bis measure, oiid 
t tbe first sacrifice, by giving up his 
r* trlUng them that his mother aud 
r« who wvn; poaaeased of fjreat wealth, 
A^lPkis Illations and ftiendsf would &)Ilow his 
Hbk Hi* gciir/itftity drew down the ap- 
^^M «f th« multitude. The nppo«ile party, 
^^■b htMrtfil by Leoiiidos. the other king, who 
^^k«4 Ma luibiu at the lujiunoun luuri of 
JHEk IttBg ofSyrra, gut the ^Mmte to n-ject 
il> 4p^Kf«, thuuifh ou)y by one vote. Agia now 
fcawiuiil to rid htoiwlf of Lcorndos. Lyaander 
imSa^f anrnaffl him of having violati>d the kiws 
[ m atnxigrrand living in a furt'ign land. 
H deposed, and uoa succeeded by hif 
de Mitbiutu a, who co-operated with 
Ipa. 6md illtnntfdsi, however, LysunderV term 
t0m npind, ami the epbora of the fullnwing 
1 to Agis, Olid dmigned tu rvAture 
bnrugbt oJt atxnjiAtiun ngTunut 
K ilaodfuclritlev uf atlciuptiug to vio- 

AGIS. 73 

lote the laws. Alarmeil at the turn events were 
taking, the two tatter prevailed on the kings lo 
dejiuse the epliorii by force mid appoint others in 
their room. Ix^onidas, who had returned to 
the city, fled to Tegea, and in his flight was 
protect4;d by Agia from the violence medituteil 
against him by Agesilnua. The selfish uvorify.' of 
the Litter frustrated the plans of Agia, when ihoRi 
now seemed nothing to oppose the execution of 
them. He persuaded his nephew and Lyaander 
that the most eflectual way to secure the consent 
of the wealthy to the distribution of their lands, 
would be, to begin by concelling the debts. Ac- 
cordingly all bondA, n-gisters, and securities were 
piled up in the market pkice and burnt Agesi- 
Uus, having secured his own ends, contrived vari- 
ous pretexts for delaying the division of the huida. 
Meanwhile the Achoeans applied to Spnrta fur 
assistance against the Aetoliuns. Agis was ac- 
cordingly s(*nt at the head of an anny. The cau- 
tinuf movements of Aratua gave Agii> no opportu- 
nity of distinguishing himself in actiun, but he 
gained great credit by the excellt-nt diwipline he 
preserved among his tnwps. During his nbM'nre 
Agcjiilaus so incenM*d the |KHirer cloascs by hia 
insolent conduct and the euntinued [xistptincment 
of the division of the lands, tliut they miide no 
opposition when the enemies of Agis o{>only 
brought back Ijeonidos and set him on the tliroue, 
Agis and Cleombrotua fled for sanctuary, the 
former to the temple of AUiene Chalcioecus, the 
latter to the temple of Poseidon. Cleombrotua 
was suffered to |l;o into exile. Agis was entrapi*ed 
by some tmicherous friends mid thrown into 
prison. Leonidas intmedintclr came with a band 
of mercenaries and secured the prison without, 
while the ephors enten-d it, and went thruugh tlie 
mockery of a trial. \Vhcn asked if he did not 
n.*peut of what he hod nttemptedf Agis replied, 
that he should never repent of ho gloriirus a design, 
even in the face of death. He was cundemned« 
and precipitately executed, the ephors fearing a 
rvscutN as a great coDcourse of people hod assem- 
bled round the prison galea. Agia, observing that 
tine of hitt executioners was moved to teora, said, 
*• Weep not for me: suffering, as ] do, unjustly, 1 
am iu a hnppier casi' than my niurdenTs." His 
mother Agesi^trute and his grandmother were 
strangled on his body. Agis was the first king uf 
Spartu who had been put to defllb by tbe epitora. 
Pau&auios, who, however, is undoubtedly wrong, 
sayis (viii. 10. § 4, 27. $ 9), that he fell 'in bnlllc. 
His widow Agiatis was forcibly married by Leo- 
nidas to hia sou Cleomenea, but neverthelcsB they 
entertained fur each other a mutual otTection 
and esteem. ( Plutarch, JffiSj CTtKtmauui^ JriUus; 
Pans. vil7. g2.) [C. P.M.] 

AGIS fA-yu), a Orpek poet, a native of Argna, 
and a contom|Kirury of Alexander the (.iri'iit, whom 
he accompanied on his Asiatic expedition. Cur- 
tiua (viii. 5) as well as Arrian (.4mj£. iv. P) and 
Plutanh {De aduiat. ct amic. ducrim. p. GO) di*- 
scribo him as one of the basest Hattcrrrs of the 
king. Cortiufl calls him ** pes^imorum corminum 
post Choorilum conditor," which proliably n-ftr* 
rather to their flattering character than to their 
worth OS p4»etry. The Greek AnthoIog\' (vi. 
152) contains on epigram, which is probably the 
work of this flatterer. (Jaci>tm, AnthoL iii. p. 
H3(t ; Zimniemuuiu, iStiil»ckn/i Jiir die AUtfik, 
1841, p. lt>4.) 



Athenneui (xii. p. 5ll>) mrntinns one Ap» aa 
the auchor of a work on tfao art nf ci»kin|; 
{i^aintnuii). [ L. S.J 

AOLA'IA ('AyAdJo). 1. [Charites.] 

3. The wife of Chimpus anil mother of N irpiu, 
who led a tnioll liund frum the ialand of S^tbu 
■ganit Troy. (ilom. //. ii. (iit; Dii'd. r. Si.) 
Anothef Aglaia M mcotioDetl in ApoUodorut. (ii. 
7. § B.) [k S.] 

AOLAONI'CE. [Agasici.] 

AfiLAOHHfME. [Sirknis.] 

A0LA'(JI'110N {'AyKaotpii'), ii painter, bom 
in the iilond of Thaao*, the fother and ini>tructur 
pf PoljrgnatiM. (Suidu and I'holiiM, «. r. noAiJym*- 
Toi ; Ajith. Or. ii. 70U.) He hud another ton 
named Arutopbon. (I'laL Gory. p. 448. B.) A> 
Polygnotui flouhihrd before the 9Uth 01. (Plin. 
/f. N. xii». 9. ». 35), AKlaophon probahly liTod 
about OL 70. Quintilian (xii. 10. § 3) pmi»ci> his 
luunling*, which were diitinguibhed by the sim- 
plicity of their colouiiug, aa worthy of adinimtion 
on other groondk betides their antiquity. Then; 
was on Aghuiphoo who flouriibed in the 90th <IL 
according tu Pliny (//. \. xxxt. 9. a. 3(i), and hia 
atalemcnt is confirmed by a poatage of Atheniieat 
(lii. p. 543, D.), frum which we Icam that he 
ainted two pictures, in one of which Olympiiia 
Dd Pythioa, oa the preaiding geniasea of the 
'Olympic and Pythian punu, were repmontrd 
cniwuin^Alcibiodea ; in the other Nemca, the prc- 
tiding deity of the Ni-mean gome*, held Alctbiaalet 
on her kneca. Alcibiodea could not have gninetl 
any rictoriea much before 01. 91. (b. c. 4lfi.) It 
ia therefore exceedingly likely that thia artiat was 
the ton of Arittopbnn, and grandaon of the older 
AgUophon, ai among the tireelu the aon generally 
bnre the name not of hia father but of hia gtund- 
fathcr. riutareh {Aldb. It!) uya, that Arista- 
phou waa the author of the picture of Ncmea and 
Alcibuuiet. He may perhapa hare aaiiated hia 
•on. Thia Aglaophon wsa, according to tome, the 

i»t »ho K-preaented Victory with wingi. (Schal 

Ari.toph. .4iKf, 573.) fC. P. M.J 



AOL.\'l'S {'Aykait), a poor citizen of Ptophia 
in Arcadia, whom the Delphic oracle pronounced 
to be happier than (]ytn.-a, king of Lydiu, un ac- 
count of hia ciintentedneat, when the king atked 
the oracle, if any man waa happier than he. (V'al. 
i. I. S •-'; PUn. //. A', til 47.) Pauao- 
I (riii '24. g 7) phicea Aglooa in the time of 

,\(iN.\PTL'S, an architect mentioned by Pau- 
laniaa (r. l.S, S 4, n. '^0. jf 7) at tlie builder of a 
aoreh in the Altit at Olyinpio, which wo* called 
ij the Kleuiia the ** putch of Agiuptut." When 
iw ti>eil ia uiiix-naiiL (C P. M.] 

A'ONILd fAvnot), the (iither of Tiphyt, who 
•at the pilot of the ahip Argu (Apollod. i. 9. g IG; 
Otfh. Aryom, 54U), whence I'iphja it culled 
Agniadea. (I*&) 

AdNO'DlCE l'Ayvo»ljni), the name of the 
■•liiett midwife mentioned among the Ormka. 
Si* wo* a natire of Athou, where it «ru 
JbrUdden b; Uw for • wonua or a «Ut« to 
r Bedicinc. Aecorling, howerer, tn >ly^^^aa 
^974), on whute authority alone the whole 
'leaik, it would appear that Agnodice dit- 
I bertelf in man 'a clothe*, and ao contrired to 
the IcctuRa of a phyticiau named Uicio- 


' philut, — devoting heraelf chiefly to the (tody dm 
midwifery and the ditcuaet of wumeu. 
wardt, when the began practice, being fi 
cetjiful in these branchet of the profeaaa 
excited the jealousy of several of u>e otha | 
titionera, by whom the was tammaned 
Areiopngns, and accutcd of comipttng the i 
of her piitients. Upon her refiiting tht* < ' 
making known her aex, the was immediately I 
cnted of having viulatcd the ezitting Uw, 1 ' ' 
second danger the escaped by the wives of I 
chief persons in Athens, whom the had i 
ciiming forward in her behalf, and ni(cc«dia| I 
hut in getting the obnoxiout law ■boUahad. 
date whatever ia attached to this ttory, bw i 
penoni have, by calling the tutor of Agnodiitl 
the name of HeropkiUa instead of Hit 
placed it in the tliini or fourth century 
Chriat But thia emendation, though at hvA a 
very easy and plausible, does not appear altr 
bee from objections. For, in the first place, if 4 
story is to be ttelieved at all upon the authority i 
Hyginus, it would teem to belong rather to l' 
fifth or sixth century before Christ tlum the I' 
or fourth ; secondly, we have no raaaon fur lhi*lh~ 
ing that Agnodice was ever at Alexaudrii, e( 
Hi-rnphituB at Athens; and thirdly, it 
liordty probable that Hyginus would have < 
sn cclebnited a physician " u certain Ha 
(Hrni-hUui ijuidum.) [W. A! 0.] 

AUNON, a Greek rhetorician, who wtel* I 
work against rhetoric, which Quintilian (iL 
S 15) oJls " Rhetorices accutatio." Khu ' 
{Hilt. VHL Onit. Cr'niec p. xc.) and afiel 
moft modem scholan have conudeied this ^ 
to bo the same man aa Agnonidet, the 
far)- of Phocion, at the latter it in tami 
Cum. Nepot (Phoe. 3) called Agnon. 
manner in which Agnon is menuuned 
lilian, thewt tliat he it n rlietoriciiiu, vl 
a much hiter period. Whether however 
tame na the academic philosopher mcntj 
Athenaeua (xiii. p. GO'2), cannot be de 

AQNO'NIDKS ('Avwai'), an All 
demagogue and aycuphont, a coutem|«mry 
Theophiaattu and Phocion. The former wati 
coaed by Agnonidet of impiety, bnt wat i 
by the Aneiopagua, and Theuphrattus might 9 
ruined his accuser, hod he been Icaa generxiut. (t 
Lacrt. V. 37.) Agnonidet wo* oppoted to the I 
cedonion party at Athens, ond called Phudiaal 
tor, for which he waa exiled, aa toon aa i 
ton of Pulysperchon, gut posaetaioo of All 
Afterwunl% however, he oblaiiked fitn . 
jxTmission to rvtum to hit cotinliy i 
mediatiou of Phocion. (Pint. /K<«. 'J9.) 
the sycophant tuun forgot what he owed 10 I 
bcnefiictur, and nut only continued to a|>p< 
Macedonian puny in llie moat vehemcM 
but even induced the Atheniont to 
cion to death at a tnitor, who had deliv 
I'eiraeeus into the handt of .Nicanor. (Pit 
33. 35; Com. Nep. /'*oc. 3.) Hot the Athff 
toon repented of their condnct towards Pho 
and put Agnnnides to death to appease his i 
(i'lnt /'*.«. 38.) [I. ! 

.\GON ('Ayiir), a personification rf 
conical* (dyto*'*!). He wot represented in a aiCi 
at Olympia with i\Tfipts in his hands. Thia i 
tue was a work of Uionyaiut, and dedic 
Smicylhut of Khegium. (Pan*. T. 26. § J^ 

vho 1 


lOCNIUS ^Ayfiritn), i tumame nr ppilhrt of 
vfcsil foOv .VnchrliK {A;r"t. 513) iiiij Sophn- 
da ( Thtck. 'la) ate it of Apollu and '/.fm, luid 
■IfinMliy in the aerue of helpers in •tru^lc* and 
I1MI1I (Coinp^ Eiuiath. (u/ /A p. 1335.) But 
HjiwIm k mm* npecially lurd as a tnnuuno of 
BtfBMi^ wbo pRvidca OTcr all kinds of solemn 
tnUI—f. ("■"-" "ti«- »■ 1*. § 7 ; Find. Oli/mji. 
•i. in. « 1.) (L. S.] 

AOOK I ^ ^'ATOfr^prros), a famous 

nOitmay and Knlpuir, born in the iiland of Hoitii, 
wU dooRthMl from about OL 85 to Ol. HH. (Plin. 

B!V. XJtrri. 5. 1. 4.) tlr woa tho fiivouritc 
I of Pbidiaa (Pauk ix. 34. § 1), who is even 
by Plinj to havo inicribcd some of hi> 
wvriu with the naiDe of his diiciple. Only 
•f bia productions arc mentioned^ vix. a statue 
fit Zc«* and one of the lionian Athene in the 
IKKfk of tliat jjuldeu nt Athene (Paus. /. e.) ; a 
^Mm, prababl; of Cybele, in the temple of the 
Omm <J«dd»a at Athens (Plin. I. e.) ; and the 
Ihaaaaliui Nemesis. Ilopecting this hut work 
Atfl biB been a gnat deal of diseuMion. The 
■Bcnat srbkh Pliny gives of it is, that Agomoritus 
■MmAad vith Alouncnes (another distinguisht'ij 
Ai^lit «f Phidias) in making a statue of Venus ; 
mAAu tha Albenians, thmuKh on undue |nr- 
^^K towvnU their conntr>'nuuL, awarded the 
!SKy to Alomcnes. Agt>nicritus, indi^ituit at 
ISt Moll mide tome slight alleiations so oa to 
AmiP hia Venus into a Nemesis, and told it to 
Aa PKo^ of Uhamnus,on condition that it should 
■H b set np in Athens. Paumnioi (i. 33. § '2), 
vilWat m,Tiag a word about Agoracritus, says 
Alt lbs BMauoakn Nani»is was the work of 
FU^M, mat was made out of the block of Parian 
■tttii wbicb the Persians under Dntis and 
Aflafbcnws brought with them for the pnrpose of 
nviaf vp m tmphy. (See Thexietus and Parmr- 
m,Jmltol. Or. fl,ua,d. iv. TJ, -J-^l, 2-J-J.) This 
* however ho* been rejected as involving 

of the idou connected by the Greeks 
kiba goddeaa Nemesis. The statue moreover 
|aM af Parian, but of Pentelic marble. ( L'a- 
I lajfaailri I / tfff I. p. 43.) Suabo (ix. 
W), iKtsr* \CkUiad. viL 154), Suidos and 
jITe ocber rariations in speaking of thi> 
II ■oeuta generally agreed that Plitiy^s 
■t of th» ouitter is right in the main ; and 
Iwv bean various dissertations on the way 
slalac of Venus coidd hnvc been 
into one of Nemesis. (Winckelmaim, 
Werkt von J. Kiselein. vol. v. p 3()4 ; 

t, Jili.ifmiyra. |<p> 5(^-(i'.' ; K. U. .Muller, 
^ AwMC p. 10-.'.) [C P. M.] 

[)RAI:A and AGlJItAEUS ('A70^a and 
Sm), arc epithets given to scveml diviniliei 
TtK c-nuidcred as the protectors of the a>- 
■■Miea of the ur^ple in the dyofid^ such as Zeus 
tPlras. m. ti. § II, V. 15. § 3), Athena (iiu II. 
f II. .Vnctiils (V. l.i. § 3), and llrnm-s. (i. 15. 
I I. ti. 9. § 7, tt. 17. I 1.) As Hermes was the 
mA af CMBweiTr. this surname seem* to have re- 
■Brtaa lo iba iyofi as the umrket-pkce. | L. S.] 
AiURAKl'S {'AypaZjs), the hunter, a surname 
rfJ^iaAk Aftrr be bad kilted tiie lion uf Cithue- 
' > elected to him by Alcalhous at 

■ne uf Apolio Agrueus. (Paus. 
.md n.f.M\.) [L.S.] 
\VLt)a or AORAIJLE CA7pai.Aot or 
1. A daii|{fatcr of Actoeus, tbu drst 



king of Athens. Hy her hnsbond, Cecropa, she 
became the mother of Krj'sichthon, Agmulos, 
Herse, and Pnndrusoii, (ApoUo<L iii. 14. § 2; 
Paus. i. -2. § 5.) 

2, A daughter of Cecrops and Agraulos, and 
mother of Alcippe by Ares. This Agnalos ia 
on important pervinnge in the storioa uf Attica, 
and there were three different Intends nl>out her. 
I. According to Paaaania«(L IB. § '2) and llyginus 
(Fti/: Itili), Athena gave to lier and her sisters 
Erichthonius in a chest, with the express coimnand 
not to open it. Hut Agniulos and llersc could 
not control their curiosity, and opened it ; whero- 
upon they were seised with nuidness ut the sight 
of Erichthonius and threw themselves from the 
stet'p rock of the Acropolic, or according to flyginos 
into the sea. 3. According to Ovid [Mrl. ii. 710, 
Sec. ), Agmulos and her sister sur^'ived their ojren- 
ing the chest, and the fonuer, who had instlgatc-d 
her sister to open it, was punished in this manner. 
Hermes came to Athens during the cetetimtiou uf 
the Ponatlienacn, and fell in love with llerM*, 
Athena made Agmulos so jealous of her sister, that 
she even atterapti'd to prevent the god entering 
the house of Ilerse. Bat, indignant at lucli pro- 
sumption, he changed Agraulos into a stone. 
3. The thinl legend represents Agmulos in a 
totally dilTerent light. Athens was at one time 
involved in a long-protiacted war, and an omde 
declared that it would cease, if some^onc would 
sacriiice himself for tlie good of his country. 
Agraulos came forward and threw herself down 
the Acropolis. The Athenians, in gmtitudc for 
this, built her a temple on the Acropolis, in which 
it subsequent!}' became customary fur the young 
Athenians, on receiving their first suit of anntmr, 
to take an oath that they would always defend 
their country to tlie kisL (Suid. and Hesych. ». r. 
'AypauKos ; IJIpian, aJ DemaM. dc fili. let/.; He- 
rod, viii. 53 ; Plot. Alcib. IS; I'hilochorus, fym/m, 
p. 18, ed. Siebelis.) One of the Attic tijiuii 
(Agmule) derived its name from this heroine, and 
a festival mid mysteries were celehmted ut .\thena 
in bonnur of her, (Steph. Bya. i. p. 'AyfiavK^ ; 
t-obeck, Aylunjik. p. 89; Oict. uf AuL p. 'M\ a.) 
According to Porphyrj* (Z>e JMin.uAami/ni/. i. '2), 
she was olw) worshipped in Cyprus, where human 
sacrifices were offered to her down to a very lata 
time. [L. S.] 

AGUESPHON ("A-ypcVipMrl, a Greek grnm- 
marion mentioned by Suid.-ts. (s. r. 'AiroAA«»»'ior.) 
He wrute a work Ilfpl 'OiMamjfunf (concerning }ier- 
sunn of the same name). lie cannot have lived 
earlier than the reign of Hadrian, as in his work 
he spuke of an ApuLunius whu lived in the time of 
thai craperor. [C P. M.] 

AGKEUS ('A7p«lf), a hunter, occurs as a stir- 
nome of Pan and Aristaeus. (Pind. Ptftli. ix. 115; 
Apifllon. Rhod. ill 5U7 : Diud. iv. 81 ; Hestch. i.v.; 
Sohiuu. ml HJiH. p. 81.) [L S.] 

AURl'CUL.\, GNAEITS JULIUS, is one of 
the most remarkable men whom we meet with in 
the times of the first twelve emjierors of Rome, for 
his extraordinary ability as a general, his great 
powers, shewn in his guveniment of Britain, 
and borne witness to by the deep and universal 
feeling exciu-d in Home by his death (I'oc. Aijrie. 
43), his siugnlur inla'grity, and the esteem and 
love which he cummanded in all the private relar 
tiuna of life. 

Ills life of 55 yean (&om Juue 13th, a. u, 37, 


tn the S3nl Aagmt, A. D. 93) ciU-nda through tie 
mgns of th« nioe emperon fmni l'u)ik,'uta to llomi- 
liaii. He vtoa bom at Lhp Roman cftluny nf Koniiii 
Julii, the miideni Fri ju» in I'rovcncc. Ili» fiittier 
WD* Juliiu Gru«cinuft of •onatoriait mnk ; his ma- 
tber Julia ProcUla, who throufjbrjat his eJiicatiun 
•rrma la have watched with great care Riid lt> 
have exerteil great influence orer him. He Alutlied 
philooophy (the u>unl cducilion of a Roman of 
higher nuili) fmm bi> earliest youth at Manoillek. 
liu finit military Mrvicu waa under Suetoniut 
Pnulinui in Uriloin (a. d. CO), in the n'btion of 
ContulK-malifc (Sec Vict. ofAmt p. 284, a.) Hence 
he returned u> Rome, wa> monied to Doniitia 
Iteddiuno, and went the round of the magittracies ; 
the qunrsinnhip in Ania (a. 0. 1)3), under the pro- 
conmil tNkl>iu> Titionut, where hi> integrity vat 
khewn by hi> refusal to join the proconsul in the 
ordiimry system of extortion in the Homan pro- 
vinces ; the tribunate and the proetorthip, — in 
Nen>V time mere iiciiiiiiial Mttioes, filleil with Jan- 
ICT bi the man who held them, in wliieh a prudc-nt 
uwctiirity was the only safe course. By CaJba 
(a. ri. (i!l) he was appointed to examine the saci^d 
projirrty of the temple*, that Nero's system of 
rubiKry (SuetoD. jVer. 32) might be stopped. In 
th« ■ome year he lost his mother ; it wus in nv 
tmriag tnm her funeral in Ligurio, he heard 
itf Vrspasian't occessioit, and immediately joined 
his pnrty. Under Vespasian his hnt scrrice was 
the command of the 20th legion in Britain, (a. 1>. 
70.) On his return, he was raised by the emperor 
to the rank of patrician, and set orer the province 
of Aiiuitaiii.1, which be held for three years, (a. n. 
74-76.) He was retallinl to Rome to be ehtted 
consul (a. d. 77), and Britain, the great scene of 
his power, waa gireo to him, by general couiexit, 
as his pnrince. 

In this year he betrothed his daughter to the 

hi^tonan Tacitus ; in the following he gave her to 

alum in marriage, and was made governor of Britain, 

1 one of the college of pontitTs, 

Agricobi waa the twelfth Uonun general who 
kid been in Ilritoin ; he was the only one who 
oompletrly etfecteil the work of subjugation to the 
Roman*, not more by his consummate military 
skill, tluui by his masterly poliey In reconciling the 
Britons to that yoke which hitherto they had so 
ill liumc. He taught them the aru and luxuries of 
civilised life, to settle in towns, to build comfort- 
■blo dwelling-house* and temple*. He, established 
* •yatem of education for the aona of the Uritiali 
dlicfc, amongat whom at hut the Roman language 
*•• ipokeii, and the Roman togs worn aa a 
bihioiMble dnaa. 

He wa* fall seven year* in Britain, from the 
year a. I>. 78 tn a. d. 04. The but conquest of hit 
prvdecTMor .lulius Frontinu* had bn^n that of the 
8ilun'* (Siuth Wales); and the hut action of 
AgricuUt's cumiuand waa the action at the foot of 
the Uiampian hill*, which pat him in possession of 
die whole uf llritaiu u Cur Dottb aa the northern 
bsundory of i'crth and Argyle. Hii first campaign 

!A. o. 7tf) was occnpte^l in the ret;imi|ue«t of ^loIla 
AnsJesm), and the Ord"vi«» (North Wall's), the 
■Inin^aliU uf the DriniU ; and the rt>maiudcr of 
thi* T(wr. „it)i lii.. next, was gifen tn making tlie 
1> ' .iigrmeuls for the security of 

111 . M ill the alre.ndy eon>|ueral 

(uiU uJ Unuui. Til' li'K'l ,Au,y,'', (.i.u. UOj 


carried him northwards to the Taos,* 
the Solway Frith; and the fourth (a. d. Hi) i 
token up in fortifying and taking poascaaion of ' 
this tnict, and i-idvancing as &r north aa the Friths 
of Clyde and Forth. In the fiftli cam(>aign (a.d. 
02), he waa engaged in suliduing the tribe* ea 
the promontory opposite Irrhuid. In the sixtli 
(a. u. 83), ho explored with his 6ect and land 
forces the coast of Fife and Forfar, coming now 
for the first time into contaiit with Uie true I'alediv 
nions. They made a night attack on his taut 
(believed to Ix- at Loch C>re, where dilchrs ana 
other traces of a Konian ciuip ore still u> Iv soea^ 
and succeeded in nearly di'stroying the ninth Icyioa; 
but in the general battle, which fallowed, tbcy 
were repulae<L The seventii and but campaign ( x.>k 
84) gave Agricola complete and eutirp poMMsaina 
of the countnt', up to the northernmost point 
which he had reached, by a most decided rictesr 
over tlie oasembled Caledonians under t ' ' 

fiulgacus (at it is believed, from tbi- 

Hriti<»h reiuains fouiul there, and fii 

tumuli or sepulchral cairns) on the moor of Mordoch 
at the foot uf the Grampian hills. In this aunjat^ 
his fleet sailed northwards from the ooaat of I '•- 
round Britain to the Tmtulensian harbour I - - 
posed to be SandwichX thus for the first time du- 
covering Britain to be an isbtnd. He witbdivv 
bin army into winter quarter*, and aoon after (a.D 
B4) waa recalled by the jealous Domitiau. 

On his return to Koine, he lived in rrtin 
and when the governnicut either of .\&ia or Afr 
would have fallen to him, he considered it i 
prudent to decline the honour. He di • ! ■ 
his death was, a* his biogmpber [<! 
either immediately caused or certain 
by the emisaorie* of the emperor, who ruuhl maJ 
bear the pnrscDCO of u man pointed out bv niiin 
sal feeling aa alone fit to meet th<- • H 

limes in which the Koraitn anus h;i'! 
peati'd reverses in Ciemuiny and ili. 
north of the Danube. Uion Caaaius (Ixtl 20) i 
cxpn-ssly, that he was killed by llumitinn. 

In this (uxituiit we con do no more i - 
the beautiful and interusting descripl^ 
Tacitus {Aj/ric. 3fl — 16) of his life dunii 
lirement from office, his death, his per^ii, i 
ihurncter, which though it liad no held of i 
home in that dreary time, shewed it>«lf during I 
seven years in which it was unfeltemi in Britiia,^ 
as great and wise and good. (Tniitus, 

There is an epigram of Antiphilu» i 
Anthology (Aiilh. Bnmck. iL 180) U[.o 
cola, which is commonly tuppoaod to nfer tn tk*J 
celebrated one of this name. [C. T. A-] 

AOKICNIUS CKifOnn), a surname 
Dionysus, under which he was wor»hif>;,?<l 
llrehumcuus in Boootia, and from whi 
val Agtioniji in that pbee derived its i 
ofAuL p. 30; MiiUer, OrrJtuiH. |t l«e, 

AGRI'OHAS, a writer si«.ken of by riiaf 
A^ viiL 22, where some of the M5>r\ hurp j _^ 
or Ciqns.) He waa the author of an account rtt 
Olynqiie victors. (C. P. >|.J 

AURIPPA, an ondent name among tb* 
man*, was first naed as a pnenomeo, cad < 
wards aa a cognomen. It frequently i 

* As to whether the Taus was the Sulway (tMkl 
or the Prith of Tar, see Cbaluera' (' 


I ia Ike tuHy timn uf tlic empitv, but not 
' thr irpoblle. One n{ thi- mTlliii:al kingx of 
i&a » callrA (tv ihU uninc. (Liv. L 3.) Ac- 
JW. i» (».i. IB). PliiiT (//.A'. 

■ •- » ; i» (1), the word kigiiitiet a 

linl^vl »uifii ii\r Liiild i» iin<%eJitod with iu feet 
fcMVMt ; bol their dcnrutitjn of it from tit</re par- 
Mar ftm m almird riiuufih. (Comp. Sen. Oai. 8 1 3.) 
^BDRII'PA ('Aypnrnu), a Kcptica] pbiloMipher, 
^Bl-nsv-n Ui hafir lived btiT tlinu Aeiieftidrinuft, 
1m wteni|nt7Uj of Cicero, fnim whom be i» tnid 
•i la^ |p « M the fifth id doMent. He iH quoted 
W Bhgiiiii Lunrtiui, »ha probably wnile al>out 
■• tiam at M. Anltminiii. The "Kve gn>uud.i of 
l" (•! »i»T« Tjxfioi), which are given by 
I Eapirieo* IM ■ nnnmary of the Inter ncepli- 
ao. araaacflbcd bj Diognie* Locrtiu (ix. R8J to 


> fint of tlieae ukum from the annrutinty 
tfdv falsi <f common life, and of the opiniow of 
IL The H-cond from the ■* rejectio 
" all proof require* »ome further 
|n< ad M nn to inlinity. III. All things are 
Attmd an thrir ivlatiotu become changed, or, oa 
•• tak spoti them in different poiutn of view. 
aoerled ii merely an hrpoiheiiii ur, 
nciont cinle. (Sextut Empiricus, 

to lhe«e w/rr-f rprfroi it need 

that the fint and third are a 

r of the ten original groundi of doubt 

•an (be hotia of the earlier Kepticism. 

tfnMMMt.) Tbe three additional one* >hew a 

incma in dia aerplical iyilcm. and a tmntition 

Inm l&a onamon objuctiou* derived from the ialli- 

Vbtj af imar and opinion, to mote nbitmct and 

gronnda of doabL They seem to 

' atttmpt to ■y^tematize the sceptical 

h to tbe spirit of a later age. 

PhiluMjihu, tii4.) [a J.J 

.^r.SIUS, conjul A. D. 25, 

^Jf^M >^ ^'h wu* deaojnded from a family more 

nKMlai than ancient, and did not diigrace it by 

'^ lb*fc«ra(e. (T.u'..liu>.iv. 34.61.) 

AORIPKA CASTOR (^kyftmtas KaaTxp), 

'aC a. IK. 1 3&, praited a> a hiktorinn by Euie- 

ti^ind ioT hi« Iciuning by St Jerome {de Viris 

Jib*, c. 31), lived in the reign of Hadrian. He 

MMt tpintt the twenty-four books of the Alex- 

aiAsM (hio«lic Basilides, on the Gospel. Quota- 

^* WK fuulc from his work by Ensebiuiv. (ffuf. 

iMa. IT. 7 : ter OaUandi'i BiUioHeca Palram, 

i_5i.l. B.MO.) [.\.J. C] 

^^HIPF.\, FONTF.IUS. 1. One of the ac- 

^^■n sf LiUv. A. o. 16, i* again mentioned in 

^^n^ M, a» otbfing his daughter for a rettal vir- 

^■k (Tk. /laa. iL 31), 8li.) 

^^■a PNfaaUy the s<in of the precluding, comuuuid- 

^ 4» uorince of Aiia with pro-consuhir power, 

«•«.(!$, ind was itodled from thence by Vcspa. 

an, and placed over Moesia in a. v. 70. He 

>M sluniy aftf mrds killed in battle fay the Sai- 

WIBB. (Tac Hiat. iiL 46 ; Jo«epb. B. Jud. 

^^RIPPA, a HATE'BIUS, called by Taci- 
^B(J»«. iL .M) the propinqnus of Oennanicus, 
^Blnbsiw of the pleb* A. n. 15, pra^nor a. d. 17, 
wA obsbI a. a. ii. His moml chiuacter was 
to; lav. and h» i* «poken of in x, D. 32, as plot- 
lk| iW 4«tnMtion uf many illuslriuus men. 
(Tk. Jaa. L 77. ii. 51, in. 49, 52, vi 4.) 

• AGRIPPA. 77 

AORiri'A, n EHO'DES l.('Hp<«i)! 'Kyplmnt), 
raiU-A by Jusephos {Ant. JhJ. xviL 2. § 2), 
•'Agrippa the Great," was the son of Aristolmlus 
and IWrenicc, and grandson of Herod the Great. 
Shortly before the death of bis grandiitther, ho 
canic to Runie, where he wa* cdiiuitod with the 
future eraperor Claudius, and Unieiis the son of 
Tiborius. He squandered his property in giving 
sumptuous enlertainraenta to gratify his princely 
friends, and in bestowing lai^ssc* nn the freed- 
meii of the emperor, and became so deeply involved 
ill debt, that he wa» compelled to fly 6om Rome, 
and betook himself to a fortrew at Malatha in 
Idumaco. Through the medintiun of his wife 
Cypros, with his sister Herodius, the wife of He- 
rndes .\ntipas, he was allowed to take up hi* 
abode at I'iberiaa, and received the rank of oedile 
ill that city, with a tinall yearly income. But hav- 
ing quarrelled with his brotlier-in-law, he fled to 
Kloccus, the proconsul of Syria. Soon afterwards 
he was convicted, through tbe information of his 
brother Aristobulus, of having received a bribe 
from the Unnuucene(>, who wiuied to purchase hi* 
influence with the proconsul, and wo* again com- 
pelled to fly. He was arrested a* he wo* about to 
siil fur Italy, for a nun of money which he owed 
to the treasury of Caesar, but made his escape, sod 
reached Alexandria, where his wife snccceded in 
procuring a supply of money from Alexander the 
Alabarch. He then set sail, and binded at PuteolL 
He was favourably received by TiU'rius, who en- 
trusted him with the education of bis grandson 
Tibrrioa. He also formed on intimacy with Oiiu 
CaligiiU. Having one day incautiously expressed 
a wish that the latter might soon succeed to the 
throne, his words were reported by his freedinan 
Eutychus to Tilierius, who forthwith threw him 
into prison. Calif:ula, on his accession (a. n. 37). 
set him at liberty, and gave him the tetrarchies of 
Lyaanias (Abilene) and Philippus (Dalonai^a, 
Trochonitis, and Auranitis). He also presented 
him with a golden chain of equal weight with the 
iron one which ho had worn in prison. In the 
following year Agripjia took possession of his king- 
don3, anil after the banishment of Herode* .^tipoa, 
the telrorchy of the latter wo* added to hi* domi- 

On the death of Caligula, Agrippo, who woa at 
the time in Uome, materially assisted Claudius in 
gaining possession of the empire. As a reward for 
his service!!, Judaea and S.'uiuiria were annexed to 
his dominions, which were now even more exten- 
sive than those of Herod the Great. He wna also 
invested with the consular dignity, and a league 
wojs publicly made with him by Claudius in the 
forum. At his request, the kingdom of Chaici* 
was giien to hi» brother Herodes. (a. d. 41.) He 
then went to Jcnisalem, where he offered sncriticrs, 
and suspended in the treasury of the temple the 
golden chain which Caligula hod given him. His 
government was mild and gentle, and he wa* ex- 
ceedingly popubir amongst the Jews, In the city 
of Bcrjtus he built a theatre and amphitheatre, 
batbs, and porticoes. The suspicions of Claudius 
prevented him from finishing the impregnable for- 
tificntions with which he bad begun to surround 
Jenisalein. His friendship was courted by many 
of the neighltuuring kings and rulers. It waa 
probably to increase his popnhuity with the Jew* 
that he caused the apostle James, the brother of 
John, to be beheaded, and Peter to be cast into 

[in'Mn. (a- o, 44. AcO, mi.) It wu not however 
mrrvljr by <iicb ocu tluit he ttrove to win thrir 
CiTnar, u wc uc frum the way in which, at the 
ri«k of hift own life, or at lea«t of hift hhorty, he 
iult^rceded with Calij(ula on behalf of the Jewft, 
when timt emperor was attempting to ftet up bin 
statue in the temple at Jerukulein. The niaiirier 
uf bis di'ath, which look piuee at Cae«area in the 
■uite yeftr, as he was exhibiting games in hunour 
of the emperor, is robited in AcU xii., and is L'un- 
finned in all essentiul points by Josephut, who 
repeats Agrippa's words, in which he acknowledj^ed 
tlie justice of the puiu'shment thus indicted on him. 
After lingering tire days, ho expired, in the lifty- 
fourth year of his age. 

ily his wife Cyprus he hod a son named Agrippa, 
and three daughters, Berenice, who first married 
her uncle Ilemdt's, king of Chakis, afterwards 
lived with her brother Agrippa, and lubsequeotly 
married PoLamo, king of Cilicia ; she is alluded uy 
by Juvenal (Ni/. vi. 15l>); .Mnriomne, and UrusiUa, 
who married Kelix, (he procurator of Judaea. (Jo- 
seph. Ant. Jmi. xvii. 1. § -.>, xviii. 5-B, xix. 4-8; 
IkU. Jml. L 28. § I, ik 9. II; Uion Cos*, li. « ; 
Kuwb. Iliit. EerlM. ii. 10.) [C. P. M.J 

AliUII'rA.HKRu'UES II, the son of Agrippa 
I., was educated at the court of the emperor Clau- 
dius, and at the lime of his father's death was ouly 
frventeen years old. Claudius therefore kept him 
nt Home, and sent Cuspius Fados a* pracuntor of 
the kingilom, which thus again become a Roman 
provim-e. On the dentil of Herodes, king of 
Chalds (a. n. 4H), his little principality, witli the 
right of superintending the temple and appointing 
the high priest, was given to Agrippa, who four 
years afterwards received in its stead the tetmr- 
chie* formerly held by Philip and Lysanios, with 
the title of king. In a. u. 55, Nero added the 
ritie* of Tiberias and Torichcae in Galilee, and 
Julias, with fourteen rillagea near it, in Perana. 
Agrippa expended lar^ sums in beautifying Jeru- 
salem and other dtiesi, especially B<-rytus. His 
partiality for the htlter rendered him unpopular 
amongst his own subjects, and the capricious mon- 
Mt-r in which he appointed and deposed the high 
pnesis » ith some other act* which were distustefiil, 
niude huD on object of dislike to the Jews. Be- 
fore thf mitbmtk of the war with the Romans, 
A !<ted in vain to dissuade the people 

I' When the war waa begun, he 

«i.i< >. »•..• b<ie Romans, and was woonded at the 
•lege uf Oaniala. Afttr the capture of Jerusalem, 
he went with his sister Berenice to Home, where 
he WHS invested with the dignity of praetor. He 
died in the seventieth yfsr of hu age, in the third 
ymt ikf the rtfign of Trajan. Ho was the Uut 
plioca of the house of llie Ilerods. It was befi<re 
ihia i^rippa that the apottle Paul nude his de- 
&•(•. (a. It. 60. AeU. xxr. xxri.) He lived on 
MOW of intimacy with the historian Joaephus, 
who has prrsorved two of the lettrn he received 
fmm him. (Joseph. A»t. Jmi. xvii. h. $ 4, xix. 9. 

t A XX. 1. J 3, i. 8 ■>, 7. S 1. R. M M I. n. « 4 : 

flM.JaJ, ii. 1 1, t 6. I'-'- t I. ><>. 17. J I. iv. I. jj 3; 
ri. t. 54 ; Phot. cod. .13.) IC. P. M.J 

A(iUIPP.\, .MAKClCiN a uiau of the lowest 
ongiu, was appointed by Macrinus m u. c -17, 
tlrst to the government of pAiniouia and aftcr- 
wsrds to that uf Daiia. (Dion. Caso. Uxviii. \3.) 
II* wMms to tr the oime p>^t>on as the Morcius 
A(np|a, admiial of the dect, who is menltoned by 

of Aau 


AGRIPPA MENPNlUi [Mkivzxiitk.] 

AGRIPPA PU'STl'.Ml'S, a postbunioos an 
of M. Vipsonius Agrippa, by Julia, the dau^torif 
Augustus, was bom in B. c. 12. He was adopteJ 
by Augustus together with Tiberias in a. u. 4, 
and he assumed ihe toga virilis in the fnUoviag 
year, a. d. 5. (SueL Octiv. 64, 65 ; Dion Caa^ 
Uv. 29, Iv. '22.) Notwithstanding his adoption he 
was afterwords banished by Augustus to the ialaa4 
of Plonaaia, on the coast of Corsica, a di^piti 
which he incurred on account of his ava^ sad 
intractable cbarjicter ; but he was not guilty W 
any crime. There he was under the surreiUaiiM 
of soldiers, and Augustus obtained a 
sultum by which the banishment waa legally t 
firmed for the time of his life. The pnperiy i 
Agrippa was aaaigned by Augustus to toe ticasory 
of the army. It is said that during his capiiiii 
he received the visit of .Augustus, who 
went to Plauasia, accompanied by Fabius . 
mus. Augustus and Agrippa, both deeply i ~ 
shed tears when they met, and it was 
ed that Agrippa would be restorod to 
Uut the news of this visit reached Livia, 
mother of Tiberius and Agrippa remained ■ < 
tivc. After the accettsion of Tiberius, in a* fib 
Agrippa was murdered by a centurion, who 
lenid his prison and killed him after a 
struggle, for Agrippa was a man of great 
strength. When the centunon afu-rwonls weati 
Tiberius to give him an accuuni of the extx-uti 
the emperor denied having given any order i 
and it is very probable that Livia waa 
author of the crime. There waa n ninra 
.Augustus had left an order for the exr 
Agrippa, but this is positively cuiitnid 
Tacitus, (Tac. .,4nn, i. 3 — (i ; Dion Ca 
Ivii. 3 ; Suet. /. <• . JU. 22 ; Vellei. ii. 104, M 

.\ftcr the death of .\grippa, a slave of the i 
of Clemens, who was not infonued of the mu 
hinded on Pktnasia with the intention of 
Agrippa to liberty and carrying hiu a6 la 
army in Germany. When he heard el what I 
token pboe, he tried to pro&t by hi* grgot ] 
bUiicc to the murden^d captive, and h« 
self out at .Agrippa. He landed 
found many who believed him, or a£ecC< 
believe him, bat he wtu seizL<d and put to < 
by order of Tih'ritts. (Tac. Ann. ii. .til. 40.) 

The name of Agrip|ia Cocsor is iiiund on a ■ 
uf Corinth. I W. P.] 

.AGRIPPA, VIHirLF.'NUS, a Roaaa I 
who took poison in the seiuttc house at llw I 
his trial, a. d. 3b'; be had brought the jwiii t 
him in a ring. (Tac. Amu. tl 40; Okm. C 
Ivul 21.) 

AGRIPPA, M. VlPS.A'Nirs, wo* bm I 
B. r, 6X Ho was the son of Lucius, and waa i 
sceuded from a very obscure family. .At t)ie i 
of twenty he studied at Apollooia in lUyrio, I 
ther with young Octavios, afterward* Uctar 
aiid .Augustus. .After the murder of J. Cka 
B. <- 44, .Agrippa wa* one of thow intimate I 
of Uctavius, who advised him i 
ately to Rome, tktaviiu took . 
and chuxfed him to receive the outL u! liilclj 
several legions which hod declared in hi* j 
Having biMin chosen rtiusul in u. l^ 43, i 
gave to his friend .Agrippa the dclicM i 

C Canhn, nne of the mnnlcren of 
At tlw aallinak of the I'tfrunaiaii war 
OcturiiM, nnw Octerniius and L. Anto- 
in ik<^ 41, .Vgrippa, whu woa thitn prndor, 
■■Aad fmn of tfaf IbnM of OcUtvionuii, uiid 
JSit iMgu uhinp himwif bj nkilful manoeurtvi, 
Lk Anioniiii in Pcrutia. lie took thv 
ton ia •. c to, and towunU thr end of thr suie 
lar IMuak S^ouluni. ithich luul (iillcii into the 
Mali M M. AMUmtu. Id & u 38, .Agrippn ob- 
\mtd bak MCoeM in Gmul, where he >|iicUud a 
ttmtk «f iba oMm chieb ; he alto penetrited into 
■a br w th« coiuitr; of the Catti, and 
tW Ubii In the left bank of the 
vbcrrapoa he turned liii arms aftainit the 
A^uilani, whcim he toon brought to obe- 
Ilia nctoriM, ccpedaDf thote in Aqaitonio, 
nnaeli to wearing the power of Oclari- 
aad ba na iccalled by him to nnderlake the 
IbmbbI of ihs war agoinrt Seji. Pompeiui, 
kiiA •■■ OB ti>e point of breaking out, a. c. 37. 
DiMvaaa* aSoed him a triomph, which Agrippa 
h«t accepted the connildhip, to which he 
by Ui'Uvionus in b. c 37. IHon 
(alriik 4^) feen» to nv that he wnA con- 
mt vta W went to Gaul, but the wordi inrdrtM 
M ^avt Aewtfov F^AAmi seem to be lutpicioui, 
Mihai tkay un to be inierti-d a little higher, after 
Ti^ d* Aypl-rinf •nif tov mvrucou 
tyxtiflaat, which refer to an event 
fbt* during the coniolthip of Agrippa. 
V«tm vmrntAmbtlf after hit pmniution U> thit dig- 
•ilj, he waa duijed by Oclaviaiiu* with the coo- 
^imimm ot a fleet, which waa the more neoeiiiary, 
I ■ iimaa Paaprj waa nvuter of the leo. 

viMm thought* and deed> were 
(Vellei. ii. 79), executed thie 
laonpt energy. The Lucrine lake 
m waa tnuuforoied by him into a mfc 
wWh he c&Ued the Julian port in honour 
^ t klM fc ou ii, and where he exerclted his lailorB 
till they were able to encounter the 
ofPompey. In B,c. 3ti, A)frip- 
^tt^atai 8rx. Pfl&pey hrst at Myloc, and aftrr- 
•■dt K XaiJadtOB on the cuut of Sicily, and the 
laa W iLaa viewria* broke tbe nuTal tiipmnocy 
d ^mfff. He receiTed in conicquence the ho- 
vs tf a aava] ovwn, which wa* fint conferred 
iJtiHi^ according to other authorities, 
the fint whu obtained it from Poin- 
( Vellei. ii. «1 ; Lir. t/A 1J9; 
(Wtlix. 14; PtijuJ/.N.xri.X».4; Virg. 
va. nu.) 

a c Si, Agrippa had the cominuid nf the 
w a fUjria, ana afterward* serred under ijcto- 
^ « s..n tK>. laiisr hod ptuceedcd to that cnnn- 
''im, he vulujitarily accepted the 
> . .^3, olthiiugh he had been consul, 
r.ilni immense sunit of money upon great 
••lis. tie tt'itorcd the .\ppian, Marxian, 
aqorducU, constructed u now orie, 
m length, from the I'epala Ui Home, 
gptie the oamG of the Julian, in honour 
and had an immenao number of 
w«cks made, to distribute the water 
Ite At Wtn, He also hod the Urge cloaca of 
ttf^iMia* Prisms entirely cIiTnuMid. His various 
Maia w««* •ior'— ' "••'' -".fues by the finit ar- 
IM id lUcMV i<l buildings he uug- 

•n^ ia a. (^ '.:.' . ■.- third consulship, by 

mWtk Osl aiBMm these wa* tbe Puulheoii, 


on which wc still read the inscription : " M. Agrippa 
L. y. Cos. Tertiuni fetiL" (Uiou Cass. xlix. 43, 
au. 27 ; PUn. //. A^. xxxvi. 1.5. *. 24 § 3; Stnib. 
Y. p. "JS.") ; Krontiiu /Je Aifmrnl. 9.) 

When llie war broke out between Octaviono* 
and M. Antonius, Agrippa wa* appointed coni- 
manderin-chirr of the Hect, a c 'ii. He took 
Metlionc in the Peloponnesus, Leuau, Patrae, and 
Corinth; and in the bottle of Actium (a c. 31) 
where he commanded, the victory was mainly 
owing to his skilL On his return to Home in 
a c. 30, Uctavimius, now Augustus, reworded 
him with a ^ vexilltmi caeiuleum,*' or KO-grcen 

In B. c. 28, A^ipjia became conful for tbe sccoud 
timt! nith Augustus, oud about thin time nuirried 
Murci^lla, the niece of Ati^istms and tla* daughter 
of hi« biflter Uctavio. llii< fumitT wife, Pomprinia, 
the daughter of T. Fomponiu& Atticufl, was either 
dead or divorced, la the fbUowing year, u. c. 27, 
he wni again coniu) the third time with Augu»tui. 

In 11.C. 25, Afrrippa accuuponied Auguttuit to 
the war agniust the Cantabrians. Almut tliiii time 
jrnlmisy arow between him oud his hrother-in-law 
MarccUut, the nephew of Auguntuif and whn 
seemed to be destined at his succouor. Auguitui, 
aaxlous to prevent dilferencca tliat might huTi* hud 
serious conaef)uoncv« for him, sent Agrippo as pro- 
consol to Syria. Agrippa of court>e left Kome, but 
he stopped at Mityleiic in the Inland of I^sbos, 
leaving the govfrnnicnt of Syria to liis legate. 
The apprehciiAions of Augastiu were removed by 
the death of Miircellua in u. c. 23, and Agrippa 
immediately returued to Home, where he was tbe 
more anxiously expected, as troubloA had broken 
out during the etecUan of the cunsulx in a i% 21. 
AogUHtUii rehulved to receive his faithful friend 
into bis owu fiunily, and accordingly induced him 
to divorce his wife Maroello, and murry Julia, the 
widow of Morcelluvand tbe daughter of Augustas 
by his third wife, Scribonia. (u. c 21.) 

In B.C. 19, Agrippa went into Gaul. He paci- 
fied the turbulent iiutives, and constracted fcmr 
great public mods and a splendid aqueduct at 
NemnuBui (Ntmes). From thence be procecdod 
to Spain and subdued the Cantabrians aftera short 
but bloody and obstinate struggle ; but, in accord- 
ance v/ilh his uftual prudence, he neither announced 
his victorie« in pompous letters to the scuatt;, nor 
did he accept a triumph which Augustus uHered 
him. In B. a 18, be was invuhted with the tribu- 
nicion power fur five years together with Augustus ; 
and in the folluwing year (u. c 17), his two sons, 
Coius and Lucius, wore adopted by Augustus, 
At the close of the year, he accepted an invita- 
tion of Herod the Great, and went to Jerusa* 
lem. He fuunded the military colony of Betytut 
(lleynit), thence he proceeded in B. c 16 to the 
Puntus Kuxiuus, and compelled tbe Bosporani to 
accept Holemo for their king and to restore ths 
Kouian eagles which hail been taken by IVlithri- 
dates. On his return he stayed some time in 
Ionia, where he grunted privilrgrji lu the Jews 
wbo«e cause was pleaded by Hfrud (Jobeph. ^^R/ig. 
Jtui. xvL 2), and then prucceded to li^ime, where 
he arrived in u. <:. IX After his tribuniciuu power 
h.-ul betM) pn>loi)gfd for five yisirshe went to Pan- 
nunin tn restore tiunquillity to Uiut province. He 
returned in a. v. 12, after having bctrii succeufiil 
OS usual, and rvurcd to Campania. Theru he died 
uucxpeclodly, in tbe month uf March, B. c 12, m 


bUfilityrar. Il» Indy was carried to Romr, 
■nrl wn» buried in thp maiisnleuin nf AlJgUlltuI^ 
whn hini«"lf pronounced a fuiu'ml oration ovit iL 

Dion CaAiiiu* U'IIn ut (lii. 1« &c.), that in the 3*f>ar 
B. •'. *39 Au^ifttoa .uucmhlcd hit frifndfi and coun- 
aelloni, Aj^ppa and Marct^nnii, dcinandin|{ thrir 

^opinion a« to whether it wuuld ]m ndrijuihlc for 
Ilim to ufturp monarchical power, or to re«ton! to 
Ihp nation it» formrr n,-pubUcan government. 
Tliin i* corroboraljed by Suetoniu* (Orfup. -ti), 
who ayt that Au^stui twice delibenit>>il u)iun 

rihat nibject. The ipeecheii which Agri|>pa and 
Anecena« deliverpd on this oecaiiion are jfiven by 

r I)ion C'aiwiuK ; hut the artificial character of them 
malce^ them «uiipici(iuti. However it doeA not m^m 
likely fn>ui the funeral character of Dion Casnius 
u n historian that tboe (pecche* an invenu-d by 
him ; and it ia not improbable, and iuch a luppo- 
tition «uiti entirely the character of Augustus 
that tho«e iipeochet were really pronounced, though 
|>rvcnncerted lietween AagnJtun and hii counaellors 
to make the Roman tuition believe that the (ate of 
the republic wa< (till a matter of diKussion, and 
tliat Atij^ustu* would not aMume monanrhicol power 
till he had lieun convinced that it wa> oeceuory 

libr the welfare of the nation. Boidea, Agrippa, 
who iicconling to I>ii>n Couiui, adviwd Angi»tu> 
to n'otorv the republic, waa a man whoie political 
opinion* had evidently a monarchical tendency. 
Agrippa wu one of the moat di>tiugui>hed and 
important men of the age of Auguitui. lie 
mu«l b<' con»idrnNl a> a chief •npport of the rising 
uiimanhicnl constitution, and without Agrippa 
AiiinKtii* conlJ «carcely have tucceeded in making 

phimvtf the absolute nuuter uf the Roman empire. 

[Dion ('alt^iu■ (tir. 20, &c), VcUeiua I'aterculua 
(ii. "»). S.-necB (K/i. !I4), and Horace {(JJ. L C), 
•peak with equal ailuiiraliun of hii merit*. 

Pliny constantly refer* to the '*Comnientarii" of 
Agrippa aa an authority (Klenchuk, iii. iv. v. vi, 
comi>. iii. 2), which may indicate certain ofBci,-il 

b£>u drawn up by him in the meaturement of Uie 
~ world under Augiutut [Aktiiici'o], in 

khkh he may have taken port. 

Agrimi \m nranl children. By hit lint wife 
tapuua, Iw had Vipainia, who wa> married to 
Iberiu* Caeaar, the cncceMor of Auguatua. Uy 
kb aecond wife, Mancella, he hod teveml children 
who are not m<'ntioiied ; and by hia third wife, 
JuIlv he luvl two daaghterv Julio, married to 
h, .\>'millu> I'aullua, and Agrippina married to 

IIDermaniruK, ami three »ona, Caiua [(.'aksail, C], 
Uuiua (I'jiKHAn, I,.], and Adrippa I'nsTi.MiA. 
_i)ion Com. lib. 4.V.^4 ; Liv. E/^il. 117-I3«: 

FAppinn, Hrll. Or. lib. S; SiieL f)Wde.; Prandaen. 
M. i'ipmatktua .<#(n/y»^i, eiM*! bu/urut-Ae fntt-rfiurkuHtj 
iU-r dfntn lx*"i Mwt H'ir/Sn, Altoiia, l«3(i.) 
There are aevenvl meiL-iiK of Agrippa : in the one 

Ifigurvd below, he ia n*pre«entird with a 
own ; on the rcvcne ia Neptiuie indicating hia 
tucmabrani. I W.P.J 






AdRlPPI'NA I., Ihe yonngeat dwifihUrrfl 

Vipaanius Agrippa and of Julia, the daughter 1 
Augustus, waa l»om aome time bi'furv u. c 
She married Caeaar Oermaniciu, the aon of P 
Nero (iennanicua, by whom ahe hod nine < 
dren. Agrippim wna gifted with great paw 
of mind, a noble chamcter, and all the na 
and physical qualities that constituted the no 
of B (toinnn nuitrun : her love for her husband i 
ainceiv and lasting, her cliaatity was apntlr*, kv . 
fertility was a virtue in the eyes of the f 
and bor attachment to her children woa aa 4 
Hoivl feature of her character. She yielded to i 
dangerous paaaion, ambition, .^ugiutua 
her p.nrticuUr atu-ntion and attachincut. (So 

At the death of Angiuto* in 4. o. 14, aki 

on the Kower Rliinc with Oermanicui, wko I 
nianded the legiona there. Her hu»ljond * 
idol of the army, and the legions ou the 1 
dissatisfied with the acceaaion of Tibcriua, i 
fe&ted their intention of proclaiming 
master of the state. Tiberiua hated and 
1 ferKumicuA, and he ahewed as much anti 
Agrippina, aa he had love to her elder natcr, 1 
first wife. In this perilous situation, Oen 
and Agrippiim savMl themselves by their 
ener;g^'' ; he quelled the outbreak and paraqrd I 
war against the Qcmians. In the ensuing 
hia lieutenant Caeciiu, after having made an i 
sion into Germany, returned to the Ubine. 
campaign was not inglorioua for the UumaM, 1 
they were wnni out by hardshipa, and 
harassed on their march by some band* of (!■■ 
mans. Thus the rumour was spi>-ad that the n 
body of tlie Germans waa approaching to iur 
f>aul. Germaiiiciis woa a)>sent. and it 
posed to destroy the bridge over the Rfcil 
(L'omp. Stmb. iv. p. \9i.) If this bad 1 
the retreat of CaediuiS army would ham I 
off, but it wai saved by the firm npp 
.■\grippina to such a cowardly nieanirp. 
the troops approached, she went to iha ' 
acting as a general, and receiving th* 
they crosted it ; the wounded among lima i 
presented by her with clothes, and they I 
from her own hands everything necesaarrl 
cure of their wounds. (Tnc. Anit. i. 69 
uianicus having been recalled by Tiberiuf^ 
coui|unied her huslnnd to Aaia (*.!•. ^ 
afUT bis death, or rather murder [Oa 
she relumed to Italy. She stayed a 
the islanil of Coivyra ti) recover from 
and then lamled nt nrunduiitmi, acromponi^ 
two of her children, and holding in her arms i 
urn with the ashes of her husbaniL M tbe i 
of her arrival, the port, tile walls and rren 
roofs of the houses were occupied by 
piKiple who were anxious to see and 
$he was solemnly received by the olficviS^ 
Praelorvin cohorts, which Tiberius had 
Ilrundusium for the purpose of acoHnp 
to Rome ; tho um containing the aahea 
nica* wu bonw by tribune* and < 
the fiinenil pr o ma ion wa* meired on il* 4 
by the magistrates of Cakbria, Apulia, and 
pania ; by Drusua, the aon of Tiberiua ; 
Ihe fanlber of Germanicus ; hy the ottwr i 
of Oennanicua; and at hist, in the aatir 
Rome, by the consuls tlie senate, and ctoi 
the itanan peeiile. (Tho. Amu. iii. 1, fee) 

3rran Tibrriiis di^guiKei] hiftfaatml 
10 Agrifiptaa ; bat the moo beoune oxpofted to 
&cm«ititmt juid intriguer She asked the 
^MOD to choo(« anoiJier hu*bniid, 
her rrfoscd nor con*ented to lite 

1- - "' Trfcined an uiibuiuid- 

r > u a prey to meiital 

IV ^ ;t Ui^it the empeiMr 

to poitDO l>i*r. Aiaiiued at i>uch u report, 
10 «At an apple which the empemr 
bcr fivD Hi* table, and Tibcriuft in bis 
Wtm csaffaiiied of A^nppina it'^ii-diii^ him 
m a paipDiier, Acoonling lo Sucioniuk, all thi^ 
wmtn nitngur prvcoiicerteil betwurn the ein[jeror 
md ScJHUMy who, aft it Bceniii, hail fnrnied the 
^kmk W Irariing Affiippiim into £i)m: siep*. TilK^ 
Mi «•* cxtresncljr ftuspiciou* of A^ppino, ajid 
Ih> hoauW lbeUng» by allusive wohIa or 
Tbm were no cTidence* of 
|Aui* fiiinBcd bj Agrippina, but the 
LTififc b«en cpfmd that she would lly to 
ilkptt mj^ Iw Wnifthed bcr to the island of Pan- 
jHBi (a. d. 30) where her mother Julia had 
^^^b vtil*. lin sons Nero and Dninuft wen> 
^^Hfe fanntUwU and both died an uiinatuml 
^^^^ ^ShK liwd three yearn on that barren 
B^B: at bul ihf refuMrd to take any fot>d, 
md^mi awMt probftbl? by voluntary star\-ntii>n. 
Uft 4tmih took place prcd*ely two yenn after and 
•■ tte «ne da&e as the murder uf Sejaiiiis, that i> 
< fa t. fth 2X Tocitu* and Suetoiiiuh tell uj^ that 
boHted tiiat he hjid not btraiigled her. 
nk 53; Toe Awtu vL 'J5.) The at>he» 
id those of her wn Nerti wore 
Itmnght to Kouie by unlet of her fton, 
i«ligida, wht) ttruck varioiifi niedaU in 
«f kit nothcr. In llie one tt^ii^'d beluw, 
im %m4 ofOJigBU i* on one aide and that of tiiii 
Mdw Ml ihv odicr. The word* on each side are 

UMliMlj, C CAB^K, AVU. UKN. I*.K, TH- rUT., 

witmtrwmAM mat. u. caxs. avu. aun-u. 


M. Aim, i. — ri 

. AKtipu 

; Sueton. Oilar. 114, TO. /. e^ 
l.-iL.' -ii.) (W.P] 
. till* ilau^liU-T "if (icnnoni- 
iio rlilrr, ilaughirr of M. 

Shr n^u hnni tiotwt'cn a. ii. 

17, M the r>piiidiim Pbiormn, afterwunU 

hoDirtir of tier CoWiia Aizrippinn, now 

and thmi the )ieud-<)uarter« of the legionH 

by hrr fiither. In a. u. 'l\i, nhu niar- 

iiilta* Ahenolarbti*, a nian nut un- 

il whom »)ie ioMt in a. d. 4U. After 

%ip» UMTTird Crispiu PouienUK, who died 

aftrrvanl* ; and fthe woa accused of hav- 

' MiMMid htm, either for the purpose of obtain- 
tti hi WMI feiTune, or for some secret motive of 
■■A b^ptf UBp«rtance. She was already known 
te %gf srimUUiK conduct, for her mMt perfidi- 
and for an unbounded ambition. 
of baring committed incest with 
br •«■ IntWr, the rmperur Cains t'aliguL-L, 
«l» iSiltfr dtr prvteAt uf haviug discovered 
tte tkm kftd btw in on adulterous intcn-uurBc 


with M. Acmilius I^pidus the huslwnd of 
her sister Orusilla, hoiiisbed lier to the island of 
Pimlia, which wiu silunlcd in the Sinus Syrticus 
major, ou thccoa« of Libya. Mr.t sister Drtwilhi 
wait likewise banished to Pootia, and ii Sivius 
that tlieir exile was connected with the pllni^h- 
ment of Lepidms who u-as put to death for having 
conspired ngainnt tlio emi»eror. Pre\i'>u?.ly to her 
ejtile, Agrippina was cunipelied by her brother 
to carry to Home the ashen of Lepidus. This 
hiippeiud in A. D. 39. Agnppina and her sister 
WLTi' relejiswl in A. D. 4 1, by their uncle, f'lau- 
diLni, iinmediaudy after bis nccfs6ion« ujthongh 
his wife, Metuolino, was the mortal enemy 
of Agrippina. Mcssalina wns put lo dejith by 
order of Claudius in a. n. 4H; and in the follow- 
ing year, a. n. 4!}, Agrippina siiceeeded in mar- 
rying the emperor. Claudius wiut her uncle, but 
her niiirriiige was legalized by a teimtusconsul- 
turn., by which the marriage of a man with his 
brothcr^fi daughter was declared valid ; this scnatos- 
con^ultum was ofterwnrdH abrogated by the emper- 
ors Constantine and Constans. In this intrigue 
Agrippina displayed the qualities of on accomplished 
coiirte/An, and such was the iiiflncnce of her charms 
and 8ii[iorior talents over the old eni|HTor, that, in 
prejudice of his own son, Britonnicus, be odopt- 
ihI iKiinitius, the son of Agrippina by her hrst 
luisliund, Cn. Domitius Ahcnoharbus. (a. d. h\.) 
Agrippina was assisted in her secret pliuis by 
Pnllos, the porlidious contidant of CIaudiu^ 15y 
her inlrii^nes L. Junius Siliinus, the husbojid of 
Octaviii, the daughter of <.*Iaudius, was pat to 
diMth, and in a., n. ^5. Octuvia was manied to 
yoiiii^ Nero. Lollia PaulUnn, once the rival of 
Agrippina for tlie himd of the emperor, was accused 
of hi^h treason and condemned to duilh ; but she 
put nn end to her own life. Dmnitia Ijcpido, (he 
sistc-r of C'n. DomitiuH Ahenoluirbns* met with a 
similar fate. After tiavin^ thus removed ihosa 
whffse rivalsbip she dreaded, or whose virtues she 
envi(Hl, Agrippina resolved to get rid of her bus- 
hand, and to govern llie empire through her ascen- 
denty over her son Nero, his successor. A vague 
ruxQoLir of this reached the emjwror ; in u state of 
druiikenni'*>s, he forgot prudence, and talked abtiut 
punishing his ambitious wife. Having no time to 
lose, Agrippina, assisted by Lfocusta and Xcnophon, 
a (.Sreek physiiinn, poistnied llie old enijH?rur, in 
A. D. 54, at Sinuesio, u watering-pbu:e to which 
he luid n-tiriHl fur the sake of his health. Nero 
wim pmcbunied em{i4?ror, and presented to ilie 
tn>ops by llurrus, wliom Agrippina liad appointed 
praefectus pnwtorio. Narcis^ius the rich freedmaa 
of Ctautlius M. Junius Silanus, proconsul of Asia, 
the hrnther of L. Junius Siloiius, and a great- 
grniidson of Augustus lost tlieir lives ut tlte insti- 
tution of AgrippiiUL, who woidd have augmented 
the immlter of her victims but for the op[tosition 
nf Burnw and Scnwa, recalled by Agrippina fnmi 
bis exile to ctinduct the i^uaition of Nero. Mean- 
while, the young emperor took some steps to shake 
off the innnpportJible ascendency of his mother. 
Tho jealou&y of Agrippina ni*e from her son'« po*- 
sioti for Acle, and, after her, for Poppnea Sabino, 
the wife of M. Salvius Otlio. To ri'coni]urr his 
affection, Agrippina employed, but in vain, most 
daring and most P'volting meaiks. She threatened 
to *rp{iose Hritiuuiicus as a rival to the emiKTor ; 
but Mritunnieus was poisoned by Nero ; and slio 
even soliciu-d bcr sou to nu incestUiHis in(«r- 




count*. At liut, her dralli vnt molveil upon 
by Nc^^ wlin wistird to repudiate OctaviA and 
marry Pnppuca, but whose plan was thwarted 
by hu luoiher. Thiu petty fnuiniiiF inirigura 
bMome thr cauM of Agrippiou's niia. Nero 
invited her under the pretext of a rcconcilmtion 
to I'uil him at liiuae, on the nnut of Cninpanu. 
She wont thither by i(*a. In iheir conversation 
hypocruy iro* diiplayed on both ndc>. She 
1^ Baiae by the tame vay ; bnt the vcsud Wita 
•o contrived, that it <raa to break to plecet 
when out at tea. It only partly broke, and Ac:rip- 
pilu laved henelf by «wimmin^ to the nhore ; 
her attendant Accrronin wai> killed. Af;rip{>iiia 
6ed to her villa near the Lucrine Like, and inl'iirm- 
ed h«r urn of her happy escape. Now, Nero 
charged Burrus to murder hi» mother; but Burrut 
declining it, Anicetuv the commander of the KerL, 
who hod invented the itratagcm of tho ihip, wju> 
cotapelled by Nero and Bamu to undertake the 
laak. Anicetua went to her villa with a choaen 
kwul, and hi* men turpriied her in her bedrnum. 
"* Ventrcra fcri " »he cried out, after the wa« but 
ilighlly wounded, and immediately afterwardi ex- 
pired under the blowt of a centurion, (a. d. 6U.) 
(Tac. Ahn. xiv. 8.) It waa ttdd, that Nero went 
to the villa, and that he admired the beauty of iJie 
dead body of hiit mother ; thit was believed hy 
■ome, doubted by otbert. (xiv. !).) Agrippinn left 
commcntariet concerning her hiatory and that <if 
her fimiily, which Tocitua consulted, according to 
hit own ftatement {Iti, iv. oi ; camp. Plin. {lift. 
Xtit, viL 6. t. R, Elenchu«, vii. &c.) 

Therv are levenU med.ilt of .'Vgrippina, which 
are dittinguixhjible frrmi thote of her mother by 
the title of Augutta, which thote of her mot)ier 
nerer have. Un tome of her mcdali the it rcpre- 
aented with her huthund Claudiut, in others with 
her ton Nero. The former it the case in the one 
annexed. The wordt on each aide ore rmpectiTely, 
AuairpiNAi AVUVkTAE, and tl clavo. cauar. 
Avo. ssMi. r.v. TUB. roT. p.p. 

(Tec. Amn. Iib.iii. xiii xiv.; Dion Cant. liK lix. — 
lli.; Sueton.r/ueJ. 43,44, \rn>,\6.) [W.P.] 

AORIPITNUS. Dithop of Cartlmgr, of 
Teoerablo memory, but known for being the fini 
to maintain the Dccetkity of re-h(i|>tixing all 
hen<tic«. (Vincent. Lirinriit. (\tmm*tmt. L 9.) St. 
Cyprian regarded thit opinion as the rorrcction of 
■a emr (S. Auguttin. /V lUipiumo. ii. 7, vol il. 
p. 103. «d. Beoed-L and St. .Vuguttine teemt to 
imply he defended nit error in writing. {K/utt. 93, 
c. lU.) He held tlie Couucil of 7<l Ili>hn|it at 
rarth.ige about A. D. -'OO (Vulg. A. D. 21.1, Mant. 
A. i>. Jl") on the Mibject 'if llnpti<ni. Though he 
orivd in a matter yet undefineil by the Church. St. 
Augustine notices that neither he nor St. Cyprian 
tboiighl of arpanting from the Churelu (/At 
JhyiAaiaa. lii. 2, p. 109.) (A. J. C.) 

AORIPPI'NIJS, PACO'NIUS, whose father 
«M pot to death by Tiberius on a charge of tm- 
aoa. (Soct, 7U.S1.) Agrippinut waa accused at 


the tame time at Thnueo, a. d. 67. and vat la- 
ninhed frmn Italy. (Toe. Ann. xri. 2a. 2.'), .15.) 
lie via a .Stoic philnaopher, and is spoken of wilk 
praiac by Kpictetus (u;>. Stub. Serm. 7), and Aniao. j 
(i. !•) 

A'(iIlIlJS fAypiot), a son of Porthaon 
Kuryte, mid brother of (icneus king of Calydoo ia 
Actolia, Alcathous, Melas Leucopeut, and ^tcropt^ 
lie was lather of six sons, of whom Tkenitos wn 
one. These tons uf Agnus deprircd Oenent of 
hit kingdom, and gave it to their fiilher ; but all of 
them, with the exception of Tbercites, wvie tltni 
liy bioinedes, the grandson of Oeneus. ( Apnlled. 
i.°7. § II), U. § !>, Au.) Apollodonu placet ihcsi 
events b(^f^^e the expedition of the Greeks againit 
Troy, while Ilyginut (Fab, 171, camp. 24 J ui 
.'Vnuinin. Lib. 37) ttates, tlutt Diomedes, when he 
heard, after the (all of Troy, of the niiafortnne a( 
his grandfitther Oeneut, hastened Inck uud expelled 
.\grins who then put on end to his own lifr ; ac- 
cording to others, Agriua and his «ont were sUia 
liy Diomedes. (Comp. Paus. il 25. § 2 ; Ov. Hr- 
roiil. il. 15.1.) 

There ore tome other mythical penona^va of the 
name of Agnus, cnnceniing whom nothing of int^ j 
rest ia known. (Iletiod. 7'Aeny. lUl.^&cc: .\pnUe4l 
i. (i. 8 2, ii. S. 1^ 4.) 1I>. S.J 

gnuimuirian, the author of an extant work " Uef 
Drthngiaphia et DilTercnlia Semonis," inb-iidcd i 
n nipplement to a work on the aame siibject. 
Flnvius Cnp4>r, and dedicated to a bishop, Euch^ ' 
riua. 1I>' ia »u|>pated to have lived in the middle 
of the jlh centuiy of our era. Hit work it printed 
in Putachius' ** (Iiammuticac Latinae AudJm 
Anliqui," pp. 2261)- 2275. [C. P. M.J 

AOBOETAS CA^falTai), a Ore«k hisUsi " 
who wrote a work on Srythia (imtucd), froon I 
thirteenth book of which the ach-'--" --■ ^^ 
niua (lu 121H) quotes, and one >>. 
the fourth book of which is qu .' 
tcholiatt. (iv. 1396.) He is aisn tDeiiliooed kf^ 
SU'phanus Byi, («. e. 'A^iwf^oi.) [C P. M.) 

AORO.N CA7/*ie). 1. The son of Ninust' 
first of the Lydiau dj-na«ty of the He 
The tradition n-aa, that this dynasty supplanted I 
lutivc race of kings, having been ohginally i 
trusted with the goveniment as dcputiea. 
names Ninus and Helut in their gencali^ i 
it probable that they were cither Aatyrian j 
non, or prince* of Asiyrian origin, and 1 ' 
aoceaaion marks the period of on 
quest. (Herod, i. 7.) 

2. The son of Pleunttus, a king of IDytik 
the strength of his Und and naval torcr* he i 
passed all ibe preceding kings of that 
When the Aetolians attempted to compel the ) 
dionians to join their confederacy, 
took to protect ihcm, having Ix'en ind 
so by a hirge bribe which he received £ 
trius, the father of Philip. He aocardin^ij i 
their assistance a foive of 5U00 lllynaois 
gained a decisive victory over the 
Agron. overjoyed at the news of thi* an 
hima<'lf up to feasting, and, in coneeqaeac 
ci'!>a, contiacted a pleurisy, of whioh he i 
231.) He waa succeeded in the go* 
his wife Teuta. Just after his death, I 
arrived from the lUunans, who had sent to i 
in behalf of the inhabitauu of the itUnd of t« 
who had revolted from Agivn and placnl 

Afffon I 


proleclioii of the Ronrnni. By 
ICt, Tribrat&, wfaum he divorced, he had 
Ird Piuan. or Pinnoiu, who turrived 
*inm plocnl under the guordiiuithip of 
iPhariuK, «hu married bii mother after 
IT Teata. (IKon Cui xuiv. 48, 131 ; 
1^-4 : Aupian, IIL 7 ; Flor. u. 5 ; Plin. 
Sv. fi.) [C. P. M.] 

TEKA CA-fpmlpa), the huntn^ns, a tar- 
rtrmu. (lloiM. //. xxl 471.) At Agra« 
^DAi when* fthe woa believed to have tint 
|r her arrival from Llcloft, Arteinii Agrotcm 

rvith n >latue carrying a bow. (Paua. 
Under tlii* iiame (be «m alw wor- 
1 Aegciia. (vii. '26. § 2.) The luimc 
i (jiHiUj laoos with Agraea [AiiRAEi'K], 
Biiaa (a^ /(. p. 361) derim it from the 
■RMw Cooceming the wortliip of Arti:mii 
ft Atb«n>, we Due of Aid. i.e. 'Kypo- 
k^.*<l. [L. .S.] 

tL'^i ('A7»(^), a (umame of Apollo d»- 
yn ju the protector of the streets and 
•ra. A» •ucfa he wu womhipped at 
(FliBL i. 31. § 3). Mfcnme (ii 19. §7). 

r^ (viu. 53. § 1.) The origin of the 
ApoUo A(;yieiu in the hut of theae 
Irlftied by Ptaiuaniaa. (Compare iior. 
e. 28 ; Macrob. Sat i. 9.) [L. S.] 
I US {'Kyi^un), a nauve of CoUv- 
wiumi Andocidei iioniaillT call* rdv 
(<if MytL p. 65, ed. Reiike), after 
many yean for emhczxl9nient of 
oblotDol about R. c. 39.^ the nitor- 
Ir Tbrorican, and alio tripled the pay for 
nkc aaaenbly, though he reduced the 
fpcerioualy given to the comic writers. 
IL «. n. e*«|Mcit, 'kyi^un ; Suidaa, i. o. 
toiaa»; SchoL aj AriOopk. EccL 10-2; 
J^taer. p. 743.) By thit expvnditnrc of 
I RTCDUe Agyrrhiu* became m popular, 
Bnponrted general in a c. 309. (Xen. 
W. 1 SI : Uiod. xiv. !/9 ; Bbckh, I'M. 
\Atina. DO. 223, 224, .116, &c, 2nd ed. 
n iiin, iU Chmitiu^ p. 6.% ^cc) 

r . . le of a patrician fiunily of the 

ki^a. Thi-rc were oIao several persona of 
with the luune of Stmetiu Ahaia, who 
iscBwd a different family from the Ahn- 
|n Ott Alialae and Stracli Ahalae are 
' MBfaaaded, all tlie persons of these 
I uireD here. 

j»»villl.«, STRIWTtlS AHLlLi, consul B.C 

\ ' • of office, as appears from the 

i,... ..^.; ^TBUcTml AR.tLA, mogister 
A. r. 439, when L. Ciuciniiaius was ap- 
ictalor on the pretence that Sp. Maclius 
the state. In the night, in 
M appointed, the capiiol and 
post* were garrisoned by the juiti- 
• ^MlidBiUk In the mominij, when the 
liikd io the forum, and !^p. Moelius 
, Abals nUBDaned the btter to appear 
I ^ifti*^ ; and upon Maelius disobeying 
f nrfiaKV in the cniwd, Ahala ruAhed into 
f ■Ml killed bini. (Liv. iv. 13, 14 ; Zo- 
30 1 bwuy*. AJr. Mai, L p. 3.) This 
by lalar writiir* a> an example nf 
i> (raiomtlr referred to by 
':esl odmiraliuu (en Catit. 
16); but it no* in reality 



a case of nnrder, and wa* so regarded at the time. 
Ahala waa brought to trial, and only rN-nped con- 
demnation by a voluntarj' exile. (Vol Aliii. v. 3. 
§ 2 ; Cic. ilr Rrp. i. ,'), //ru Dum. 3J.) l.ivy posses 
over ihi«, and only mention, (iv. 21), th.-it a bill 
was brought iu ttirce years afterwards, a. c. 43G, 
by another Sp. Maeliu&, a tribune, fur coniiiicating 
the property of Almla, but that it fiiiled. 

A represeiitation of Ahala is given on a coin of 
M. Brutua, the murderer iif Caeiiar, but we cannot 
suppose it to be anything more than an inuiginary 
likeness. M. Brutus pretended that be was de». 
ccDiled from L. Brutufi, the lirst consul, on his 
fiither's hide, and from C. Ahala on his motherX 
and thus was spnuig from two tyrannicides. 
(Comp. Oic. 'iJ An. xnx. 40.) The of llnitus 
on the annexed coin is therefore iuteiided to repre- 
sent the fint oonniL 

3. C. SsBviLifs Q. F. C. N. Structps AsAtA, 
consul 11. c. 427. (Liv. iv. 30.) 

4. C. Servilu'S P. r. Q. n. STitucTi-g Ahaia, 
coiutulor tribune D.t'. 40(1, and magister equitnin in 
the same year ; which hitler dignity he obtained 
in consequence of supporting the seiuile against hit 
coUeaguca, who did not wish a dictator to be ap- 
pointed. For the same reason he was elected 
consular tribune a second time in the following 
year, 4U7. He was consuhir tribune a third time 
in 402, when he assisted the senate in compelling 
his colleagues to resign who had lieen dcfeat«d by 
the enemy. (Liv. iv. 56, 57, v. 8, 9.) 

5. C. SanviLiim hnxLj,, magister equitum 
B. r. 389, when Camillus waa appointed dictator a 
third time. (Liv. vi 2.) Ahala is spoken of as 
mngisler equitum in 3H5, nn occasion of the trial 
nf Manlius. Manlius summoned him to liear wit- 
ness in his fiiTour, as one of those whose lives he 
had savefl in battle ; but Ahala did not appear, 
(iv. 20.) Plinv, who mentions this circumstance, 
tolls Ahalii I'. .Ssnilius. (//. A", vii. 39.) 

S. Q. Sbhvilivs Q. r. Q. n. Ahjila, consul 
B. r. 365, and again n. c 362, in the latter of 
which years he appointed .\p. CUudius dictator, 
after his plebeian collcagne L. Oenucius had been 
■Iain in battle. In 360 he was himself appointed 
dictator in consequence of a Gallic /MmW/iu, and 
defeated the Gauls near the Colline pate, lie held 
the comilia as inteticx io 355. (Uv. vii. 1, 4, 6, 

7. Q. Skbvilius Q. p. Q. n. Ahala, magister 
oquitiira n. i- 351, when M. Fnliius was app-iinted 
dicutor to fruHtrate the Licinuin hiw, and coniml 
[I. c 34°2, at the beginning of the firvt Somnite 
war. H c remained in the city ; his coUongue had 
the charge nf the vrar. ( Liv. vii. 22, 38.) 

AHENOBAfUlUS, the name of a pleboiaii 
family of the 1)<i«itia Ge.n(i, so called fttim the 
red hair wliich many of iliis iiunily had. To ex- 
plain thin name, which «igni6cs "Red-Beard," and 
to n-Miiun a high antiquity to their family, it wn» 
said that the Dioscuri announced to one of their 




ancc«tnrR thr victory of the Uonmii* uver the Ijitint 
nt lake lt<);iUiu (u. c. ii)6), luul, tn cnitinii the 
trnth of wtuit they aoid, that thoy ttruked hit 


litark hnir and Imird, which immediatolv 
red. (Suet. Ner. 1 ; I'luL JrmO. "ifi, 
Diiiiiy.. vi. 13; Tcrtull. AjjoL-Ji.) 

Stbmma Ahsncibarborvii. 

1. Cn. Damitiiu Abcnalurbua, Coa. a c 192. 

2, Cn. Domitiiu Abenobiirbiu, Coa. SofT. B. u. 162. 

3. Cn. Domitiiu Ahrnnharlmis Coik B. c. 12'Z 

^. Cn. DoiDitins Ahenofaorbiu, Co*, v. c 96. 

A. L. DomltiuB Alieiioharbut, Coa. a. c. M. 

. Cn. Domitiiu Abenoborbua. Proboblr wn of 
No. 4. Died a c. SI. Married Cornelia, daugh- 
Ur of L. Conulioa Ciona, Coa. a c. 87. 

7. L. Domitiuii Ahraobarbiu^ Coil 
a c 54. Married Poroa, i 
of M. Calo. 

8. Cn. Domitiiu Abrnobaibiu, Coa. a & iS,\ 

I.. Dnmiliiu Ahenoharhus On. a c I (!. M irrivd 
Antaiiio, daughter of M. Antoiiiiit oiid ttctaria. 

10, Ca Domiliui Ahenobarliiiii. Co*. 
A. I>. 3'2, Married Aftrippino, 
daughter of tiermiiiiicuA. 

11. Domitio. Mar- 
ried Criapui Paa- 

I'l Dnniiiia 
Married M 
riui Mc 

13. L. Domitiaa Abcnofatrbua, the emperor Niao. 

1. Cn. Donrnuii L. r. L. n. AHiNOBAiiBra, 
plebeian aadilc a c. I9ff, protectiled, in cunjuiirLwn 
with hia collmgno C. Curio, many /ifcwirii, and 
with the finea miaed therefrom built a temple of 
Faunua in the ialand of the Tiljer, which he deili- 
cated in hia praetorahip, a r. 194. (Lit. xxxiii. 
40, ixxir. 42, 4.1, .5.'i.) He waa coiuul in IH'J, 
and WB> tent afjsiou the Doii, who tubmiited to 
him : but be icmained io their country till the 
folluwing year, when be waa lucceeded by the 
consul Scipio Naaica (xxzr. 1 0, 20, '.'-2, 40, uzvL 
37.) In 190, he waa lef^ate of the coiimil I.. Scipio 
io the war againat Antiochuft the Oreat. (xzxvii. 
39; PluL A/K^Jitii. Itom. Cn. Iknitit.) In lii> 
cnnkuUhip nue of hia oxen in uiid t4i luive uttered 
the warning "Roma, cave libi." (Lir. xxxr. 31 ; 
Val. Max. L C. | i, who blaely nya, Bella Putaeo 

2. Cn. Doiimt;a Cx. r. L. x. AHSNosAHBL'ts 
•on of the pncediug, waa chotrn pontifei in a r. 
17'.'. when a young man (Li>. iliL 28), and in 1<>9 
WM M'nt with two other* aa comniiaiaDer into 
AliicrduiiiiL (iHt. is.) In I'i7 he waa one of the 
Itii eomiuiaaioiiert for aminging the alUr* of Ma- 
eedunia in conjunction with Aemiliut Panllua (xIt. 
17); And when the cAn«uIi of 16*2 abdicated on 
account of tome fitult in the isatpice* in their elec- 
tion, be and Comelin* lientnlu* were chotcn cao- 
•nU in thrir •Iriid. (Cic. Jr \al. Otor. iL 4, ■<• Itiv. 
ii. ih; Vol. Max. L 1. J 3.) 

3. Cm. DtiHiTiua C.t. r. Cn. n. AuBNuuARBi'a, 
»B of the praeeding, waa aent in hit canHilahip, 
a c 133, agtlnat tk* Allabngca in OauL, becaiue 
thcT had rMaircd Tevtomalina, the king of the 
SwKTii and th* enemy of the Rnmana, and had 
hid waaie the territory of the Aedui, the friend* 
o( tba RoniaiM. In 121 he cotHjuervd the .\llo- 

ind their ally Vituitiu, king of the Arremi. 
Vindalium, at the cuoilucocc of the Sulga and 

the Rhodanm ; and he gained the battle i 
through tlie terror cauted by hit elt'phant*. 
commemuraled hit Ticlor>* by llie freflioii of tr*>- I 
phiea, and went in pnirewkion through the prorinca 1 
carried by an elcttluuit. lie triuinphrd in 130, 1 
(IA\. Ejiit.fA; Florut, iii. 2 ; Stnib. It. p. I VI ; 1 
Cic. pro Font. 12. Brul. 2(i ; Vellri. ii. 10, S»t j 
( )ro>. T. 1 3 ; Suet. AVr, 2, who omfounda hia J 
with hi< (on.) He wa« cenmr in 1 15 with i 
liut Metellut, and expelled twenty-two 
fnmi the wnate, ( I jv, liljtti. *i2 ; Cic, fim ( 
42.) He wat alio Pontifei. (Suet. /. r,) Tkt] 
Via Domitia in Oatd waa made by him. (Cic/ 

F(Mi. ft) 

4. Cn. DoMiTii-s Cn. p. Cn. n. Ahknobabm^J 
sou of the preceding, wot tribune of the pie 
104, in the kecond contuMiip of Moriua. 
« rS/me/. p. 81, ed. Ortlli.) When the e 
pontilTii did not elect him in place of hit father, 1 
brought forwiud the law {/.Me /JoiMifiu), by 
the ri^ht of election waa tmatferml Cnn 
pnettJy rollrget to tho peoples (liiet of Aid. \ 
TiX, b. 774, a.) Ilie people aftrmnuda 
him Pontifex Maximut out of gTatitiide. 
KfoL 67 ; Cic pro Itrinl. 1 1 ; VoL Max. vi. i, |J 
He ptnaeruted in hit tribuiuUe and 
apTeral of hit private encmict, aa Aemilin 
and Jnniut Silanut. (Vol. Max. t. e.,- Hi 
Fr. 1(10; Cic lUr. M Carfd. 20, far-. 
O/nxV. 2, /iro Siumr. I.) He wat conaul I 
with C. (.'attiuv and oentor ac 92, with 1 
Cnutut, the orator. In hit oeiiaonhip be and I 
colleague abut op the achooU of the l^tin i 
ciant (Cic dr dr^it. iil 24 ; Cell. xt. 11^ hot I 
wat the only thing in which they acted in t 
Their oentorebip H-oa long celebrated Car 1 
pout. Doniitiut waa of a riolent temper, i 
moneoTer ia fiivoar of the ancient timplirity of 1 
ing, while Ctuaua tored luxury and enaami 


_ ings recorded of botlt, 
told tfast CaMus obflerred, "that it wob no 
vmdcT that a man had a beaid of bran, who hnd 
t ia«iirh at no and a heart of lud." (Plin. //. A'. 
xrSi. 1 : 8ml tc- VaL Max. ii. 1. § 4 ; Macrob. 
&C IL II.) Gcaro tayt, that Dsmitius miu not 
ti ba nckonad imoDg the oraiun, but that he 
lyoka wtt enough and had tulficiont talent tu 
■wnttin hi* hi|;h rank. (Cic Brut. 44.) 

i. L. l>u«mi-«Cv r. Cn. n. Aiiknubahbi's 
MB of No. 3 and brother of No. 4, was pmctor in 
Sdj, pniablj in a r. 9l>, »hortly nftrr the Svr- 
vflt w^ when ilaTei had been forbidden to cnrry 
■B& He w«l« l t «l a tlaTc to be cmciAod fur kill- 
iag a wild tioar with a hunting ipeor. (Cic. Vrrr. 
t. 3 i VaL Max. vi 3. § 5.) lie ww cuniinl in 
Mw In the dnl war between Moriui and SuUu, 
Im miiiairj the fide of tiie hitler, juid wiu mur- 
Atfcd at Rcene, b; onlrr of the younger Mitrius, 
W tke f oti u u Ilamaiippua. (Appion, It. C. i. Htl ; 
,it$d.ii.iSt Oc(M.T. -JO.) 

C Ck. DoMtntis Cn. r. Cn. f. AiiKSonARBi'.s. 

^^■Mtly a aon of No. 4, married Cornelia, duugh- 

•s rf L. C-MBflin* Cinna, coutiul iu a. r. Ii7, and 

• tfcaflnl war between Mariusand Sulla espoused 

tkf flit af the former. When Sulla obtained the 

9^nmf power in 8*2, Abenobarbun waa proKrihed, 

ml tad to Ainea, where he was joined by many 

■k wvn in the lane condition w himu-lf. With 

of the Niuuidian king, Hiorbiu, he 

an anny, but wa« defeated near t J lien by 

Ok. pMifiiai, whom Salla hod >ent ogniiust him, 

■I waa ificmida killed in the ttotmiog of hi> 

OMfk, & A 81. Acconiing to «oine accountis he 

a« kBed aftrr the laltle bv command of Pomp«y, 

" r. B/A 89 ; PluL I'omp. 10, 1'2 ; Zonaraa, x. '2; 

t. 31 : VaL Max. ^-i. 2. f 8.) 

U ItoHinirs Cn. r. Cn. v. Ahenouarhus, 

■( Nfc 4, b 6nt mentioned in b. i\ 70 by 

m a witMB ■Qiinit V'errei. In 61 he 

cank wdile, wbea he exhibited a hundred 

Vaitfaa \ii>a», and continued the gauiea ao long, 

(ka Ike Jffit were obliged to leave the circua 

Mat die aahibitiun was over, in order to take 

iM, akidi waa the fiiM time they hnd done «>. 

(!»«• (Wl ict»iL 46 ; PliiL H. N. riii. hi ; this 

p* la the gaaw* waa called dilmliam, II or. E)'. 

^ l> 47.) He married Porcia, the titler of M. 

(ak>, ltd in hit oedilrahip rapported the latter in 

^ fnfnml» againit briliery at electiniu, which 

wi*teclol aKBintt Pompey, who waa purchoning 

*^ fer AfiaaiiiL The piiUtical opiaioua of Aho- 

■Ma toineidad with thoec of Cato ; he wn« 

ka^^aat Id* fife one of the ttrnngett tupporters 

'^mtooalical paity. He took an active port 

* ^fwnjt the mca'cam of Caeur and Pompey 

^ their omlrtion. and in .^9 woa ucciued by 

M^ It the imtigatian of Caeaor, of being an 

~ " > (a tin pictanded eoiupincy against the 



AkBalarbut waa praetor in a c JSR, and pro- 
^^ an inreatigation into the validity of the 
^Aa h«* of the prMciIing year ; but the aeiuite 
■ndaot entertain hi> propokitiona. lie was can- 
MHa fae (he emsakfaip of 55, and threatened 
te la wnaid ia hia coDiiiUhip carry into eiecu- 
^ Ita BaMona he had propoted in his pmetor- 
■i■^ ad deprive Caeaar of hia prorinoe. He waa 
■■VMd, hevevcT, by Poinpey and Crasaus, who 
■k htaaw »-—«i-t-r"-. (nd wa* driven ftam the 
C^^« KkiIb at the day of electiuo by force of 

anoa, }Io becrune a candidate again in the follow- 
ing year, and Caesar and Pumpi-y. whose power 
waa firmly established, did not oppose him. He 
waa accordingly elected consul for .'i4 with Ap. 
Claudius Pulcher, a relation of Pompey, but waa 
not able to effect anything against C-oeaor and 
Poinpey. He did not go tu a pnivince nt the ex- 
piration of hia considship ; niid as the friendship 
between (Waar and Poinpey cooled, be became 
closely allied with the latter. In B. c, 52, he waa 
chosen by Pompey to preside, as quncsilor, in the 
court for the trial of Clodius. For the next two 
or three years during Cicero's absence in Cili- 
cia, our inritnuatiLjn about Ahenobarbus is princi- 
pally derived from the letters of his enemy Coeliua 
to Cicero. In a c. 50 ho waa a candidate for the 
place in the college of au^^furs, vacant by the death 
of Hortenuua, but waa defeatiMl by Antony through 
the influence of Caeaar. 

The senate appointed him to succeed Caesar in 
the pruvince of further Oaul, and on the nuuxh of 
the latter into Italy (49), he waa the only one of 
the aristocmtiunl party who shewed any energy or 
courage. He threw himself into Curlinium with 
about twenty cohortu, expi-cting to be supported by 
Pompey; but as the hitter did nothing to oaaist 
him, be waa compelled by his own troojis to aur- 
rvuder to Caetar. Hia own aoldiera were incorpo- 
ralul into Caeaar'a army, bat Ahenolnrlius was 
disniisuMl by Cncsor uninjnied — an act of clemency 
which ho did not expect, and which he would cer- 
tainly not have shewed, if he hod lK>en the con- 
qui^ror. Ik'spairing of life, ho had ordered hia 
physician tu administer to hiro poiKin, but the lat- 
ter gave him only a sleeping draught. Ahcuolmrbua* 
feellnga agninst Caesar remained unaltered, but be 
wojs toa deeply offended by the conduct of Pompey 
to join hiin immediately. He retired for a short 
time to Cosa in Ktniria, and Eifterwnrds sailed to 
MxKsilia, of which the inhabitants appointed him 
governor. He prosecuted the war vigorously 
against Caesar ; but the town waa eventually taken, 
and Ahenobarbus escaped in a Teasel, which waa 
the only one that got oC 

Ahenobarbua now went to Pompey in Theoaly, 
and proposed that after the war all senators should 
be brought to trial who hail remained neutral 
in it Cicero, whom ho branded as a coward, was 
not a little afraid of him. He fell in the battle of 
Phnrs-dia (4U), where he commanded the left wing, 
and, according to Ciceru's assertion in the second 
Pliilipiiic, by the hand of Antony. Ahenobarboi 
woM a man of great energy of character; he re- 
mained Arm to his political principles, but waa 
little scnipulous in the means ho employed to 
inoiubun them. (Tho paaaagea of Cicero in which 
Ahenobarbua is mentioned are given in OieltTa 
Onomiiticoa TulliuHum ; Suet. Net. 1 ; Uion Caa^ 
lib. xxiix. xli. ; Cm-s. ttdl. rfc.) 

a. Cn. DoJJiTius L. r. Cn. n. AiiiNOBARBtii, 
son of the preceding, was taken with his fother at 
Cnrfinium (B. r. 49), and was present at the battle 
of Pharsalia (4)1), but did not take any further 
ftarl in the war. He did not however return to 
Italy till 4(i, when he waa pardoned by Ca&- 
sor. He probfibly hod no share in the murder 
of (44), though some writers expretaly 
assert that he was one of the conspiratora ; but he 
follnweil Brutus into Macedonia ai^r Caesar*a 
dentil, and was eundemne<l by tlic I<4*x Pcdia in 
43 as one of the murdcnin of Caesar. In 42 he 



eoowanded ■ Hoet u( fifty thipt in the Ionian v», 
and completely dcfeiitirU LKimitiui Calviuus mi ihc 
day of thr firtt battle of Hhilippi, oi the latter 
altciiiptod to lail out of Bnindiuiuin. He wb» 
■Ualod Impcntor in connequence, unJ a ivcord of 
lhi> victory ii pmerred in the annexed coin, which 
ivpre*cnt> a trophy plaad upon the prow of « 
vcMcL The head on the other tide of the coin 
ho* ■ beard, ia rcferenoe to the reputed origin of 
the fiuuily. 


After the battle of Phillppi (42), Ahenoborbus 
ruiiilucwd the war indrp>-:identlr of Sex. I'ompeitu, 
and with a fleet of ««Tenty tihipt and two legion* 
plundrn'd the c(ia*tii of the Ionian seo- 

In 4U Ahenoburbut became ivconciled to Antony, 
whtdt gave greAt otTencv to Uctaviunui, and wiu 
ploeod over Itilliynia by Antony. In the peace 
concluded witli ^^ex. Pompciuft in 3d, Antony pro- 
rided for the tofety of Ahenoborbuo, and obtained 
for him the promifle of the conauUhip for 32. 
Ahenobarbui remained a conoidenible time in 
Aftia, and accompanied Antony in hiH unfortunate 
campaign agoiiut the Panhioni in Mi. He became 
conwU acGurding to agreement, in 32, in which 
yaw the open rupture took place between Antony 
and .\ugu>tu«. Ahenoborbnt fled from Rome to 
Antony at Ephetua, where he found Cleopatia 
with him, and endearourcd, in vain, to obtain her 
lanoTil bom the army. Many of the loldien, 
dbgaited with the conduct of Antony, ofltcred the 
TTTnmn'' to him ; but ho prefonvd deiertiug the 
fWty altogether, and accordingly went over to 
Augnitaa thnrtly before the battle of .\ctiuni. lie 
wiw not, however, pnveiit at the battle, a* he died 
a few darn after joining .\ugu*tua. Suetoniui say* 
lliat he w:ui the be't uf lii> (omllr. (Cic. I'liil. ii. 
1 1, X. 6, Urul. 2A, aj film. n. 22 ; Appinn, H. C. 
T. S5, GS, (ii; Plul. Anb/n. '0, 71 ; Dion Com. 
lib. xlvii.— I; Vellel ii. 7li, 84; SueL AVr. 3; 
Toe. Amm. iv. 44.) 

9. L. Donmt's Cm. f. L. ». Auxhoiiaiisok, 
*0D of the preceding, wai betrotlied iu u. c. St!, at 
th* moetiiig of OottTiuiiu and Antony at Taicn- 
tum, to .^ntooia, the daughter of the Litter by 
OctATiib He wai u<>dile in a. c 22, and conftu] in 
n. c 1 6. After hiaconmUhip, an4 probauly n» the 
•oooMaor of Tibariuo, he commundcd the Kimum 
amy in Germany, ciouod the Elbe, and [lenclrai- 
td farther into the country than any of hi* prede< 
eneon had done. He received in ci>iuc«)uence the 
iw«gnia of a triumph. He died A. u. 2.^. Sueto- 
oiu* dncribci him oa haughty, prodigal, and cruel, 
tad n>Ute< that in hia aediletliip he commanded 
tfca eeflMT L. Plauen* to moke way fur him ; and 
(hat io hi* pnetonhip and cuiuuUhip be bmugbt 
Rana Iniflila and matmi* on the >iage. lie 
nUbilcd •bow* of wiU bea*t* in every qaarler of 
tk* dtXi lod hi* gbdiatorial oimbot* wore cau- 
doctpd with *o tasch bloodahed, that Aug\utiu 
>■* obliged to pat aomc nvtraint upon tliem. 
(Ssoel. AW. 4; Ik. itaa. i«.44i Uiou Com. liv. 
SO : VeUei u. 72.) 




10. Cn. Domitius L. p.Cn. n. AasNOBA&aur 
ion of the precoding, and btber of the emperor 
NiTo. He married Agrippina, the daughter tt 
Oemianicu*. He wa* oon*al A. D. 32, and after- 
word* proconiul in Sicily. He died at Pyrgi ia 
Etriiria uf drop<y. Hi> life wa* itained villi 
crinu'ft of even.- kind. He wa* accuaed a* the a^ 
complice of AlbnciUa of the crime* of odnltery nJ 
munlcr, and alto of inceit with hi* tister Domitii 
Lepida, and only escaped execution by the death 
of Tihehu*. When congratulated on tlie birth of 
hi* Min, afterward* Nero, he replied that whatenc 
wa* fprung from him and Agripuina ruold oily 
bring ruin to the state. (Suet. A'er. 5, 6 ; Tab 
Ann. iv. 75, vi. 1, 47, xii. C4 ; Vellei. iL JS| 
Dion Com. Iviii. 17.) 

1 1 . DijMiTiA, daughter of No. 9. [Downik] 

12. UusirriA Lei'ioa, daughter of No, t, 
[OuMiTU LariDA.] 

13. L. 1>USIITIL> .\UKNODABBt18, M>n of Nc 

10, afterward* the emperor Nero. [Nxnix] 

14. Cn. UuuiTii's .\iixNuuAHiit&, piaeinr !■ 
a c 54, prrtided at the *ocond trial of M, Coeliab 
(Cic. ad Qu. Fr. ii. 13.) He may hare been iht 
*an of No. 5, ' 

15. L. Uourrius Abbnoiukbiw, praetor 
BO, conunonded the province of nearer S|< 
tile title of procouuU. In 79, he waa ■ 
into further Spain by Q. MetcUui Piu*, 
in want of a*Ai(«t.'Uicc ogainat Sertoriu*, but 
wa* defuttted and killed by H inuleiu*, 4uaesltf 
.S<Ttoriii*, near the Anak (PluL iteri. 12; 
KpU. 00 ; Kutrop. vL 1 ; Flonia, iii. 23 ; Oim 
V. 2;i) 

AJAX ( Alas). I. A aon of Tehimnn. king 
Salami*, by Pcribooa or Kriboea (.\polli>d. iiL t 
i 7 ; Pans. i. 42. 14; Piud. Jt(i. vL t>S ; "" 
iv. 72), and agmndton of Aeocuo. Homar 
him Ajox the Telamoniaii, Ajox the Great 
*iinply .\jai (//. ii. 7iin, ii. mil, xiv. 4lU 
Pind. UH. vi. 38), whereo* the other Ajax, 
*on of Oileu*, i* always distiugiu*hed from 
fonner by some epithet. According Ui 11 
Ajox joined the expe<lilion uf the Grveki 
Troy, witli hi* Saliuuinian*, in twelve 
ii. 557 ; camp. Strab. ix. p. 394), and wa* 
.\cliillp* the mokt di*tiiigui*hed and t)w 
among the Greek*, (ii. 7(>8, xrii. 279, 
i* detciibed a* tall of itatuie, and hi* 
brood *houlden a* riaing above thuM 
Greek* (iiL 226, &c); in beauty he w 
to none but AchiUe*, {Od. iL 550, 
comp. Pau*. I 3.V § 3.) When Hector 
the braveit of the Greek* Ui aingle oonibat, 
came forward among «everal utheriL 111* 
pnyod that he might fight, and wbca 
fell to Ajax (//. vii. 17k, &c), and 
proached. Hector himaelf began to tremble. 
He wounded Hector and daalied him lu Uie 
by a huge stone. The combatant* were *r^ 
and upon parting tliey exchanged aim* with 
another a* a lokeu of mntuol olaeo. (305, 
Ajax waa al*o one of the amhuaodora whom J 
mcmnon aent to eoadliale Achillea, (ix. 169.) 
fought aevenl time* beoide* with Hector, a* in 
battle iitar the diip* of the Orrck* (xiv. 4I)U, Ai. iv. 
4 1 5, ivi. 1 1 4), and in protecting the boijy of I'l 
cliUk (xvii. 128, 7 32.) In the game* at Ut* ' 
pile of Patrodu*, Ajax fought with Udyaaeai, 
without gaining any decided advantigB 
(xxiii. 720, &c), and in like 




iiy, Ai. i«. 


la lb* Molact about the armour of Acbilla*, 

k vat iiiwiyii' n 1 bv UdyMciu, aud tfau, my» 

lUmr, hwiiiB ike cauw of bit daalh. (Oil. xi. 

MU Jt&) (MfMMu aftermmli rnvt hi> •pirit in 

ib^a, nl cadcaraared to ■ppea4e it, but in rain. 

1Va» far dba ttury of Aj&i, the Tebunonian, is 

lahlid n Hm Ilameric porms. Later v-ritera fur- 

lak a* wiik wion> other tnulitioiit about hii> 

natt^ k«< man opecialiy about hi* death, which 

» ao t^puAy aUoded to br Homer. According to 

tfiOtierum (iil 1 2. $ 7) and Pindur (IstA. vL 

jl, ^kc), AjjLX became invulnenihie in conne- 

fataoe oiT a pnjer which Heiucle6 oftensd to Zeus 

Hhi]e he waa on a nj»it in Salamia. The child 

w» caUed Alas frnm drr6ij an ea^le, which ap- 

iiBiDediately after the prayer as a favour- 

ca. Accurding to Lycophron (455 with the 

Si^aL), Ajas waa Ixim before Hemclci came to 

Tehami, and the hero made ihe child inrulner- 

M» fcy •napping him op in hit lion's ikin. 

(Car- Sciiiil. ad IL zxiii. H41.) Ajax ii alto 

— aiaMai among the niiton of Helen. (ApoUod. 

{R; Hygin. /'<i&. 81.) During the war 

Tny, AjaL, like Achillea, made excursion! 

' coantric*. The tir«t of them wna 

Chaicamema, where he took Poly- 

•on af Priam, who had been entnuted 

ii A* eua of king Polymneftior, together U'ith 

wA baotf . TbeiMe, he went into Phrygia, tiew 

Tcatbiaa, or Trieutu. in tingle combat, and 

atf cnac ipoiU, and Tecmeua, the king'i 

wIm became hit mi<tres!L (Diet. Cret. 

a ft: &»h. 4j. -J 10, 480. &c. ; Hor. Cann. it 

4. ft») la lAc content about the armour of .\chiUi*s, 

AfiBimuB« on the ad rice of Athena, awarded 

da frim 10 OdvMeoik This ditcouititurc threw 

k^ ina ao aafiil state of nuulness. In the 

h^ h« raabod fnrn his tent, attacked the sheep 

aiW Oivek army, made gtvat haruc among them, 

' dngftd dead and living animals into his tent, 

lha< tilPT were his enemies. When, in 

^•cxiiiig, be recorensd hi* senses and beheld 

*te ha had done, shame and despair led hint to 

^■■f kimwif with the iword which Hector luul 

■a ^i«a kiffl aa a present. (Pind. Sem. vii 

■JH^bk. Aj. «->, 277, 852; t>v. MH. xiii. 1, 

^^^^HpcBplir. /. e.) I'Cts (meticnl tmlitions 

^^^H^ls die by the hands of others. (Diet. 

^ T. 1 5 ; Dur. Phryg. 35, and the Greek nrgu- 

■•« to Siph. .Vjax.) His step-brother Teucnis 

^ ^tfei by TeUmon with the murder of .A ju, 

^Wmd«d in eUahng himself fixioi the nceiisa- 

^ (IVu. L 38. S 1 2.) A tradition mentioned 

^hMiiiis (L 35. ii; comp. Or. Met. xiii. 

'^'U.J sCil*^ that &OW hi* blood tlierc sprang 

9 s pnipit Aowet which bore the letters oi on it« 

*<n, wUtk a«n M onoe the initials of his name 

of a Mgh. Aecording to Dictys, 

111* tan of Achillea, depoailed Uia 

*''■ (f Ik* Iwo in a goldm am on mount Rho«- 

^^t aid a aa iiJii ig to Sophocbts, be was buried 

IntbfT Tmcrui against the will of the 

Sraj-m. T. 500 ; Philostr. Her. 

I' L. 19. g II) represents Ajax, 

ly nuiT ijtTiies, at bring after his death in 

Uttd of LwMK. It it taid that when, in the 

■f lh« aniprfor Hadrian^ the sea had washed 

^ ihs parve of AJax, bones of suiierbunuin sixe 

it, which the empernr, bowerer, 

(PhilosU. //«r. L'.'; 

the ttalo and 



•MatUW tmrietl again. (Pliil 
(^ fiL 39. f II.) Hetpecting 

wandering of his soul after hit death, see PUto, 
tM Re FuU. I. ill fin. ; Plut. Siimpm. ix. 5. 

Ajax was worshipped in Salaniis at the tntelary 
heiu of the isUnd, and had a temple with a statue 
there, and was honoured with a festival, KtiwnSa. 
{Di.'l. uf Ant. $. V.) At Athens too he was wop- 
shipped, and was one of the eponynic heroes, oaaj 
of the Attic tribes (AtimtU) being called after him, 
(Paut. L 35. § -2; Plut. Sj/mpM. i. 10.) Not for 
from the town Rhoeteiou, on the promontory of the 
some name, there was likewise a sanctuary of , 
Ajox, with a bi-nutiful statue, which Antoniua 
sent to Egypt, but which was restored to its ori- 
giiud place by Augustus. (Stnb. xiii. p. 5!I5.) 
According to Dictys Cretensis (v, 16) the wife of 
Ajax was Ghiuca, by whom she hod a son, Aean- 
tides ; by his beloved Tecmetsa, he had a ton, 
Eurysoces. (Soph. Aj. 333.) Several iUustriiiut 
Atlieuinns of the historical times, such at Miltiades, 
Cimon, and .Alcibiudes, traced their potligree to the 
Telomonian Ajox. (Pans. ii. '29. g 4 ; Plut. Alcib. 
1.) The traditions about this hero furnished 
plentiful materials, not only for poets, but also for 
uulptors and paintera. His single combat with 
Hector was represented on the chest of Cypselua 
(Paus. V. 19. S I) ; his statue formed a part of a 
large group at Olympio, the work of Lvcius. (Paus. 
V. 22. §2; comp. Plin. //. A^. xxxv. 10. J 36 ; ( 
Aclian, V. 7/. ix. 1 1.) A beautiful sculpturvd 
head, which is generally believed to be a head of 
Ajax, is still extant in the Egremont collection at 
Pctworth. (D"ttiger, AiiuMeti, iii. p. 2.')8.) 

2. The son of O'ileus, king of the I.<ocriiins, who 
is also allied the Lesser Ajnx. (Horn. //. ii. 527.) 
His mother's nunc was Eriopis. According to 
Strabo (ii. p. 425) his birthplace was Naryx in 
Locris, whence CIvid (Afet. xir. 4ti8) calls him 
Nan/aui hunts. According to the Iliad (ii. 527, 
Ice) be led his L<ocriaus in forty ships (Hygin. 
Fah. 97, says twenty) against Troy. He is de- 
scribed at one of the great heroes among the 
tJ reeks, and acts frequently in conjunction with 
the Telumoiiion Ajax. He is siunll of stature and 
wuan a linen cuirasa (XunUpiil), but is biaro 
and intrepid, especially skilled in throwing the 
spear, and, next to Achilles, the most swift-fouled 
among all the Greeks. {/I. xiv. 520, lie., xxiii. 
7119, ^c.) His principal exploits during the siege 
of Trov are mentioned in the following postages : 
xiii. 700, &C., xiv. 520, &c, xvi. 350, xvii. 256, 
732, &c. In the funeral games at the pyre of 
Putroclus he contended n-ith Odysseus and Anti- 
lochus for the prixe in the footrace ; but Atheim, 
wbo was hostih? towards him and favoured Odys- 
seus mode hira stumble and bll. so that ho 
gained only the second priie. (xxiii. 754, lu:) 
On his retnm from Troy his vessel vmt wrecked 
on the Whirling Kockt (Fupol w/rpoi), but he hini- 
telf escaped upon n rock llin>ugh the astiistancc of 
Poseidon, and would liare been saveil in spile of 
Athenn, but he used pmumptuuus words, and 
taid that he would escape the dangers of the tea 
in defiance of the immortals. Hereupon Poteidoa 
split the rock with his trident, and Ajax wai 
swallowed up by the sen. {(lil. iv. 499, Ac.) 

In later Imditinns this Ajax is called a son of 
Oileut and the nymph Rhone, and is also men- 
tioned among the suiton of Helen. (Hygin. /'oi. 
81,97; Apollod. iii. 10. g 8.) According to a 
tntdilion in Philostmtus ( flrr. viii. 1 ), Ajax had 
a tame dragon, five cubiu in length, which follow- 



e<l liim evpH'wliprc like n dof;. After tho takiji({ 
of Troy, it in laid, he nifthcd into tiie U'niple of 
Athenji, where Cjuaandni had tjiken refuge, iuid 
wn6 rmbniciiig the sUitiie of tho goddeiu u a iup- 
pluuu. AJ.1Z drrmged her awny with violence aiid 
1»m1 her to the other captives. (Vir;g. Acn. ii. -JtO; 
Kiirip. 7><«i./. 70, &c.; Diet. Cret. y. li; Hyi^u 
AWa I HJ.) Acoirding to wme itiitementJi he 
even viohjtcd CoMOndm in the temple of the ({od- 
dew (Tryphiod. 035 j t^. Siiiym. xiiL V2-2 ; 
Lyeophr. 300, with the iwhoL); Udyucna at liwct 
ocruMil him of this crime, and AJajc wiu to be 
■toned to death, but uved hiiaiclf by entabiishing 
hii innocence by an oath. (Paui. x.'26. § 1, ii. 
§ 1.) The whole charge, i« on the other hand, 
•aid to have been an invention of Agniucmnoii, 
who wanted to have Cauandni for himiielil Hut 
whether tnic or not, Athena hod •ulKcient rcoxin 
for beiiii; indignant, a* Ajnx hod dmggod a >iip- 

Kliant from her temple. When on hi* voyage 
omeword he came to the Capharaao rock* on the 
cna«t of Kubooa, hit thip wiu wracked in a norm, 
he himtelf «-.u killed by Athena with a diuh of 
lightning, nnd hin body wm washed upon the rucks, 
which heneeforth were called the rocka of Ajax. 
(Mycin. f''J>. Ilfi; (omp. V'irg. Am. L iO, lie., 
kI '2t)ii.) For a diliereot acooiuit of his death aee 
PhiltHtr. ffaT. viiu 3, and Schol. ad Lyajpkr, L 
After hill death hi* spirit dwelled in the ijJand of 
liDnce. (Pnu«. iii. I!). | 11.) The Opuntian 
Ijocrians worahippod .-Vjax at their national hero, 
and to gi«at waa their fiiith in him, that when 
Ihcy drew up their army in battle array, they al- 
ways left oae place open for liun, believing that, 
although inviaible to them, he wna fighting for nnd 
among them. (Paua. I.e.; C'onon. .V.irrat 111.) 
The »tory of Ajar WB» btquently uuule utu of by 
ancient pueta and artiata, and the hero whu ap- 
peon on some Locrian coini with the beUuet, 
•hield, and iward, i« probably Ajox the son of 
(Jileu.. (Mionnet, No. 570, Ac.) [L. S.] 

A'II»K.S. 'ABti., (llAnnvL] 
AIDO'NEUS {'A!i<wi%). I. A lengthened 
form of •Affliii. (Horn. //. v. 190, xi. (J I.) 


U. A mythical king of tho Moloflaiani, in 
Epainia, who ia repmented aa the husband of 
Penephone, and father of Core. After Thi^acus, 
with the aaaistancc of Peirithous, hod carried olf 
Helen, and concealed her at .^phidnae [Acmdb- 
iii!»|, he went with Priritlious to Epeirus to pro- 
cure for him as a n^wonl (.'ore, the daughter of 
AidoneuN, This king thinking the twu stnuigers 
I well-meaning suitors, otfereil the hand of his 
danghter to Peirithous, on comlitiun that he should 
fight and rimquer his dog, which hore the name of 
CcrU-r^is. Hut when .ATdoueus diacovcn<d that 
tkvy bad come with the intention of carrying olf 
kia daoitklar, be had Peirilhuus killisl by CorWrus, 
and k«(it Theseus in cujitivity, who wns aftrr- 
WiUiU nilms«d at the nxgucst of llemrles. (I'Int. 
Tin,. ;il. ,ti.) F.u«-I,ius (CVo». p. •.'7) calls the 
wife u1 Aid'Mieus, a daughter of ijucen ftemeter, 
with whom he had elo|ied. It is clear that the 
story »l»«it .\idimcus is nothing but the somMl 
legenil of the n\r of Per»i'phone, dn^ssiil up in 
the htm nf a history. and is undoubtedly the «.>rl> 
•fa Ule interprvlrr. or lather deaUoyer of genuine 
ml my tils. |l>. S.| 

Aids MhTTH.'S Of LOQIIKNS.a IbMiutn 
ditiniiy lu the inu u i:. 389, a short time bo- 


fore the invasion of tlie Gauls, a voice was I 
at Home in the Via novo, during llie 
night, announcing that the Gauls wen a 
(Uv. V. 32.) No attention was at the time 
to the n'aming, but aft^'r the (iauls hud wittidjma 
fnim l}ie dty, the Ilomans nrmeiubered the 
plietic voice, and atoned for their neglect by 
ing on the spot in the Via nova, wboiv the in 
had been hennl. a leiuiilum, tliat is, an altar \ 
a sacred enclosure around it, to Aius Locutiua, ) 
the ^ Announcing Speaker." (Liv. v. 50; V« 
»;>. OeU. xvi. 17; Cic de DivimU. I 45, 
3-2.) [L. S.) 

ALABANDUS ('AKigarSoz), a Coriaii 
son of Kuippus and Calirrhot', whom the inh 
ants of Alabanda worshipped as the foundrr 
their town. (Stepli. JJyi. s. t>. 'AAa<<u4a ; t'ii 
Je A'.rf. />..«■. iii. 15, Hi!) (L. S.J 

ALA(i<rNl.\ {'AXayurla), a daughter 
Zeus and Curo|ui, fnmi whom Alagonin. a town i 
Loconio, derived its name. (Paua. iii. '.21. f | 
26. 5 8 J Nat. Com. viii. 23.) [1^ S.] 

ALAI/:O.MENE'IS (•AAaXito;i.n)»r), a 
name of Athena, derived trwm the hero 
menos, or from the Boeotian villa^ of 
menae, where she wa« believed to have I 
Others derive the name from the verb 
so that it would signify the ** powcrfiil d« 
(Horn. //. iv. a : Uu-ph. Byi. s. r. 'AAoAac^ 
MuUer, On-lmm. p. 213.) [U SJ ' 

ALAIXU'.MKNKSJ ('AAa\iio/UKi)t), a Oacolia 
autochthon, who was believed to havo giia 
name to the Uoeotinn Aloloomenae, to 
brought up Athena, who was bora then, and 
have bacn the first who iutraducrd her wui 
(Pans. ix. 33. § 4.) According to Plntaivb (X 
iMuduL Fnif/M, 5), he advised Zeus to haw i 
ligure of oak-wood dressed in bridal attJit;, i 
carried about amidst hymeneal songa. ia otdtrj 
change the anger of lleia into jcmlouay. 
name of the wife of Alalooniene* was 
nais, and tluit of his son, Glaucopiu, bgA<j 
which refer to the goddess Athena. (Sleph, P 
s, r. 'AAaAxa^Jnov ; I'au& ix. 3. $ 3; 
lUct. of Am. >. r. AolSoAa; Miiller, 
213.) [UJ 

ALALCOMPNIA ('AXaAjro/is»(a), una) 
dnuj{litirrs of Ugyges, who as well aa btf 
sistera, Thelxiunoea and Aulia, were n'gai^Ied i 
lupenuitural beinga, who watched over isutu i 
•aw that they were not taken rashly or I 
Icssly. Their luune wiu n^itltroi, and ih^l 
a temple in conunon at the foot of lite Tc"_ " 
mount in lloeotia. The represeutatioiu oifj 
divinities consisted of mcrs heads, and no I 
animals we» aocriliocd to them, ozeepl 
(Paua. U. S3, g 2, 4 ; Panyasi*, t^ A^ 
I. r. Tf>s»iiAi) ; Suid. s. r. npofijlini ; Miilk 
cAum. p. 12H, &c) | Ul 

AL.\H1'CU8, in Genwin At.ric^ i. tvij 
rich,** king of the VisigoUis, ivn 
lieiiig the first of the Imrbarion diieia 
l4'hMl nnd socked the city of Rome, and 
enemy who luul np|H^artHl beforv its walls i 
tiliK- of ilanniljol. lie was of tli< 
or lliild, the second noblest fan^i 
(.lMnuinde>,iii:M/i.r;<<.2!l.) II. 
in history is in A. n. 394, when he was mr 
by 1'he<idiwius with the command of the (n 
auiiliarirs in his war with Kupoiiifc (i 
V. .'>.) lu 3%, (lonly troiu ai^er at iteing i 


th^ umiicft of ihtt MuUMTi empire, 

faiMif^iitivn of Rnfinus (Sicrales, 

Mt ll'X h"? inviulcU iiiul ilrviutnted 

hy ihr oiriral of Slilicho in 3U7, he 

ltd m FKapc lo Kpiras. WhiUt ihcri" 

the WRiknaa of Arcadiuv apfwinlrij 

Cutrrn Ill^Ticam (Zoiiimuji, v. 5, (>), mul 

10 this offico, axirl ihe awe he mniirt of 

for hi> own purposes, portly to 

nw bv his countrvnien elected 

IB, (Cbodiam Emtrvp. ii 212. Bdl. 6W. 

" of hi* life «iu «pent in the two inva- 

>. The fir»t (400-403), apparently 

famaght him only to Itaveniin, and, 

SekU at Pollentiii, in which his wife 

were token, and a nuKtcrly retreat 

WOlDft, Tii. 37 ), wa« ended by the tn'aty 

Wn, which transfcnrd his terricra from 

fe Hmariiu, uid made him prefect of the 

itmd of lb« eastern Illyricum. In lhi> 

f f-— ' '■;■ irinip at Aemona, in cjpecta- 

f ni» deuuiujj for [my, and 

. as the future home of hi* 

Hscund inviuion (40B-410) won m-cn- 

delay of thi« fiiifilmeut, and liy the 

le Oothic fimiilies in Italy on Stilicho'» 

nwrlted by the three <iegeii of Home. 

~), OS being a protracted Llocknde, 

»*Mr, but was rained by a mn«>m. 

(409), WW octationed by a refusal to 

' **Wie*s demands and, upon the octu- 

cnded in the unconditional surren- 

^ and in the Jitpoaol of the enipirv 

Attelus, till on discovery of his inca- 

it to Honorius. (Zosimujt,v. vi.) 

Iin), was occasioned by on assault upon 

•ndsr the imperial sanction, and was 

tmcbcrons opening of the Salnrion 

1 34, and the auk of the city for six 

MB imBKdiBteJy followed by the occti- 

h* wafh of Italy, and the desi^ of in- 

Ijr and Africa. This intention, how- 

Hornpted by his death, after a short 

jBoamtia, where he was buried in the 

adjaocnl Tiver Uiisentinus, and the 

iiKcment concealed by the maswicre of 

cntplojrcd on the occasion. (Orus. 


^■notsal Uaita that arc recorded of lum 

r 10 lb« Ruoian cmboMT with a honxiu' 

iv«r to their threat of desperate resitt- 

tki<k«r the hay, the easier mown," 

f to tltvir qnestioo of what he would 

"To»r lirrs" — are in the true savage 

bv^Mran cnnquettir. (Zosimus, v. 40.) 

yrewon left upon us by his geneml 

iif a higher order. The real militar}' 

^ in hi* escape from Greece, and in his 

VcfSB* ; the wish at Athenn to shew 

■I the Bs« of the bath and the other 

laf drfliaed life; the modenition nnd 

W observed towards the Honums in 

ME*; the humanity which distin- 

a flaring the Kick of Rome — indiaito 

tinr to the mere cmft and lawleis 

be seems to hare possessed in 

lartMrian chiefs. So also bii 

llttlting on Easter-day when at- 

Ba<k.and lus merence for the churches 

vl the eitj (Oros. vii. 37, 311), 


imply that the Christian £iiih, in which he had 
been instructed by Arian teachers, Imd laid some 
hold at least on hitt iniu^'nation, and had not 
been tinged with that fierce hostility against the 
orthodox party which marked the Arioiis of the 
Vandal tribes. Accordingly, we find that the 
Christian part of his contemporaries regarded him, 
in comparison with the other inradcrs of the empire 
OS the n'nn'»ent.itive of civiliTation and Christianity, 
and as the iit instrument of divine vengeance on 
the still half |ingnn city (Oros. vii. 37). and the 
very slight injury which the great buildings of 
Greece and Rome sustained from bis two inv.-uioni 
conHrm tlic same view. And amongst the Pagans 
the same sense of the protematund character of 
his invo-sifin pr*^vailed. though exprestu'd in a dif- 
fen-nt fomi. The dialogue which Claudiau (^Jlfli. 
Gel. 4H.'>-.'>4I)) n'pn-scnts him to have held with 
the aged counsellors of his own Irilie seems to be 
the heathtrn version of the ecclesiastical stor)*, that 
he sldpfM-d the monk who lieggod him to spare Rome 
with the answer, that he was driven on by a voice 
which he could not resist, (Socmle% Uist. /iW. 
vii. lO.) .Si also his vision of Achilles and .Mi- 
nerva appenring to defend the city of Athens, as 
recorded by Zosimus (v. (I), if it does not imply 
a lingering respect and fear in the mind of Alaric 
hiniM'If tdwards the ancient worshiji, — at least 
expresses the bt'lief of the pagan historian, that his 
invasion was of so momcntoaa a character as to 
call for divine interference. 

The permanent cflecti of his career OR to be 
fritinil only in the establishment of the Visigothic 
kingdom uf S|uuu by the warrion whoiD he waa 
till- first to lead into the west 

The authorities for the invasion of Greece and 
the first two sieges of Rome are Zosimus (v. vi); 
for the first invasion of Italy, Jomondes ik Art. 6W. 
3U ; Clnndinn, Ii. Oct. : for the third siege and 
sock of Home, Jonmndes, •&, ; Omsius, vii. 39 ; 
Aug. f Tr. JJn', i. 1-10 ; Hicrunvm. £y>ts(. ad Prm- 
fip. ; Procop. litil. VaniL i. '2; Sozomen, /furf. 
jiciJ. ix. 'J, 10; laid. Hispalemsis, CironkoH Out- 
lonm.\ The in\'asions of Italy ore involved in 
great confusion by these writers, especially by 
.lomaiides who blends tlie battle of Pollentia in 
403 with the massacre of the Outha in 401). By 
conjecture and inference they are reduced in GiblMn 
{c. 30, 31 ) to the order which has been benr follow- 
ed. SccoUo(!odefrnv,odWi/M/-rt-.xii..3. [A.P.S.] 

ALASTOR ('AAJurrsip). I. Acc<irding to lle- 
flychius and the Etymologicum M., a surname of 
Zi'iii, describing him Bi the avenger of evil deeds. 
Dut tile name is also used, especially by the tiagio 
writers, to designate any deity or demon who 
avenges wfY)ngs committed by men. (Paus. viii. 
•24. § 4 ; Plut. Df lief. Orar. 13, Ac; AeschyL 
Aiiam. 1479, lS08,/'eT». 343 ; Soph. rmniL 1092 ( 
Kurip. PItoeit. 1550,4c.) 

2. A son of Neleus and Chloris. When lleiacle* 
look Pylot, Ahwtor mid his brothers, except 
Nc^stor, w«re slain by him. (Apollod. i. 9. J 9; 
Schol. ad Apnlltm. Rhod. L K^(i.) According to 
Parthenius (c. 1 3) he was to lie married to Har- 
pnlyci'. who, however, was taken from him by her 
lather Clyiueiius. 

3. A Ljcian, who was a companion of Sarpe- 
don, and alain by Odysseus. (Horn. //. v. 677 ; 
<Jv, Mrl. siiL 257.) Another Alastor is mention- 
ed iu Horn. //. viii. .1.13, xiiL 422. [U &.\ 

ALASTU'KlDfa CAAooroplftfj), a patro- 



iiymii: frooi AbuUir, and girea hj Homer (fl. xx. 
4(j3) 10 Tro«, who wa* pn>b«bi; ■ ton of the 
Lyciui Abutor mentioned nborr. ( L. S. J 

diao, became with Saphrax, in a. u. 376, on the 
d«*«th of Vithiiiiir, the ^iionlian of Vithericiu, the 
young king of the Grviithunffi, the chief tribe of 
tlie Uatrogutbi. Alatheut and Saphrax led their 
pi-<i|ile aerou the Danube in thi> year, and uniting 
their faron with thoac of the Viaigothn under 
FriligeriL, took part af^iniU the Ronuin* in the 
battle of IJadrionople, a. o. 37S, in which the em- 
peror Valena woft defeattsd and killed. Af^ 
niutitnng the ntrrounding countr}-, AUtheua and 
Saphnu CTentuolly recroued the Uannbe, but 
appeared again on il> bank* in .18l>, with the in- 
tention of invading the Roman prorincei again. 
They werr, however, repuliied, and Alatheni woi 
tiain. (Amm. Marc. xxxi. 3, fic; Jomond. de 
Ueb. fJM. 26, 27 : CbuJiun, lU IV Cmt. llomor. 
ti'JU ; /<»imai, iv. 39.) 

ALBA i>I'LVIL'S, one of the mythical kingt 
of .Vlbo, laid Ui have been the nun of Ijntinua. and 
the father of Atys according to hivy, and of Ca- 
petua, according to nionyiiuL lie reigned thiny- 
nine year>. (Liv. i. 3; Uionyk. L 71.) 

A'LltlA GKNS. No perwmi of thu gena ob- 
tained Any ofKce* in the *tute till the hr«t century 
n. c. They all bnre the cognomen Carrin'as. 

L. ALBTNIUS. I. One of the tribunes of 
the plein, at the lint uittitution of the office, H. c 
4.44. (Lir. ii. .I.S.) Aaconiiu calU him L. Albi- 
niu« C, r. Pateaolufc (In Cic Cuntet. p. 76, cd. 

2. k plebeian, who waa conveying hit wife nnd 
children in a cart out of the city, after the defeat 
on the Alia, B. c. 3!I0, and overtook ou the Jani- 
culut, the prie<t< and vo>tala carrying the lacmi 
thing*: he made hii family alight nnd took ai 
many a* he wa* able to Caere. ( v. 40 ; VaL 
i. 1. $ 10.) The consular tribune in a. c. 
79. whom Lxiy (vi 30) cnlU M. Albinius ■• 

ohably the lame penon a> the above, (Couip. 
Xinbuhr, Uitl. of Romr, ii. n. 1201.) 

AI-BINOVA'NUS, C. PEHO, a friend nnd 
oo nl c m pofary of Ovid, to whom the latter addres- 
■M on* of hia Epiatlea frani I'ontiu. (iv. 10.) lie 
b daaaed by Quintilian (x. I) arauag the epic 
p<iet< ; Dvid alto ipnika lif hit poem on the ex- 
ploits of ThcM'u*, ajtd cnlU him titUrm Ptda, on 
acciiunt of the auklinuty of hi> atyle. (&. Pont. 
iv. 1(>. 6.) He i* auppoaed to have written as 
epic poem on the exploiu of Genuanicua, the aou 
of Druaui, of which twenty-three line* are ppe- 
•ervnl in the Smuoria of Seneca, (lib. i.) Thia 
fragment ia tuually entitled ** De Navigntione 
nrrmaiiici per CHreaniim SeptAntrionalem," uiid 
deacribe* the voyage of UermmiicQft tbrough the 
Amiaia (Em*) intn the northern ocean, A. D. 16. 
O'oinp. Tac^ Ah*, ii. 23.) It would aeem from 
&lanial (v. h), that Alhinovanua waa alan a writer 
of epuinuna. L. Seneca wa* acquainted with him, 
UiA okWt htm fahmUtlor lUgitmliMamiu. {Ep. VH.) 

Thnrr Idttn elagiea an attributed to Alhino- 
vanua, but withotit taj iOlficient authority : 
naniely, — I." AJ I.ivinn; Aiii;. de .Morte |iru«i," 
«hleh ia a«-ribe>l to Ond by many, and ha*be<-n 
fiubliahed aoiMmtcly by llrrmer, Ilelmai. 177A. 
2. " In ( tbitura Maeceiinti*." ;i. " t>e Vetbia .Man- 
eenati* roohbundi " (Weniadorf, Piittm Lutuii 
Mmutm, ui. pp. 121, h.f.. \ii, &c) 



The fragment of .'Vlbinonuiu* on the ' 
Germanicua, ho* Leon publiahed bj H. 
Fnujm. Pact., p. 416, 1'ilhoeu*, .fjmr/rum. <( j 
ret.,' p. 239, Bumiann, Anli. Lai. ii. ep. ISI,] 
Wemtdorf, PmU L,it. MiV iv. i. p. 229, *fc" 
.\U that hoa been aacribed to Albinovanua «a 
publiahed at Amaterdani, 1 703, with the note* J 
J. Scaliger and othera. The hut edition it hf 
Meinecke, which conlaina the text, and a ( 
tranahition in vcrae^ Qurdlinburg, 1819. 

to the party of Mariua in the firat civil war, 
wa* one of the twelve who were declared i 
of the itate in u. c. 87. He thereupon fled M 
Hiempaol in Numidin. After the defeat of Caiti 
and Norbonu* in n. c. 81, he obtained the pudoa 
of Sulb by tieacheronaly putting to dnitb Baaf 
of the principal oflicera of Norbanue. whom he hil 
invited to a banquet. Ariininium in conacquoMI 
revolted to Sulla, whence the Paendo-J 
Cfc. Vefr. p. 168, cd. Orelli) apeak* 
vanua U'traving it. (Appian, Jt. Ci, i 
Flonia, iii. 21. § 7.) 

ALBI'.MJSor ALBUSithanameof the] 
cipol fiunily of the patrician Pnttumia graa 
original name was .\lbtt*, as appeort from 
Fasti, which wa* afterward* lengthened into t 
nut. We fmd in proper name* in Latin, i' 
in <ui>u, rnut, and tms, lued withont any i 
ireaiiing, in the same aenae a* the »im{>le 
(Conip. Niebuhr, //tit </ Jiome, i. il 21'i.) 

1. A. PovTi'Mius P. r. Albl's Id 
waa, icoording to Livy, dictator b. ' 
he conquered the Latin* in the giv«i .....l^ 
kkc Kegillui, Roman ttory related lliai 
and Pollux were •sen fighting in thia buttle on 1 
•ide of the Roman*, whanee the dictautr i 
dedicated a temple to Caator and Pollux in i 
forum. He wa* cao*al B. c 496, 
•ome of the annals, according to Livy, | 
battle of the lake RqpUus ; and it i* to thi* ] 
that IKonyaiu* aatign* it. ( Liv. ii. 1 9, 20, ! 
Dionys. vL 2, Ac. ; VaL Max. i. 8. § I ; 
AW. /Aror. ii. 2, iii. 5.) The sunuunc ] 
ia usually auppuacd to have been derived I 
battle ; hut Niebuhr thinka that it i 
a place of midence, juat a* ths CUildH 1 
aame name, and that the Liter annalista i 
of Puttumiua a* commander in coiMequentY t 
name. Livy (xxx. 45) ttalea exprraaly, that ', 
Africanus waa the first Roman who olttainad | 
somamc from hi* oouqueit*. (Niebuhr, //«(,< 
Home., L p. 556.) 

Many of the coins of the Albini < 
thia victory of their ancestor, as in the one I 
On one ude the head uf Diana is reprrw-ntrd < 
the letl4*ra HiiMA underneath, which aiv 
elBiced, and on ibe reverae an three 
u; mpliug on a fuot-toldier. 



2. Sr. PciRTi'Miiia A. r P. k. Atac* , 
LCMsta, apparently, according to the Fh«i, I 
of the pn«ding, (though it must be iibwiii. 
in th«M earlv tana* no depcudauca cu ba i 


■I iwl'nio,) wu (oiunil u. c 466. 
Ut. Si. 2 ; IKoo^L ix. (iU.) Hp viu one of ihc 
' aioDrn meat iuU) GrMce to cfiliLi-t iu- 
t absot tiir Iftirs of that country, antl vfu* 
IMiMhar of tb« fint decrmrinitf in 4.^1. (Liv. 

BLSI.S}: '* - i'i 5ti.) He ominiiuiilMl. 

li Wipauv ' ' the K^inuui anny in ihe 

is «(': 'iuuuift and VoUcioni vcrv 

I in 44b. ( Ljt. ill. 70.) 

Hun-i'Miuii A. P. P. N. Albi'* Rsniu 
, afpmnlly wn of No. I, wu consul a c. 
■ak4 on war ngiiinit the Acquiaiit. 
Bl a* mntmOTilor to thr Ai.-<iuiau> in 
. <• wUch ooaaioii hi* vas innultvd by their 
■Hwfcr. (Lit. iii. 4, 5, Z') ; Dinnya. ix. li'J, 65.) 
t 8r. Poorriiivii 8p. r. A. k. Albi^-i KuiiL- 
t oppaneutiy vm of No 2, mu couiahtr tri- 
«. 4X2, Bsd KTTcd u letpitui in the war in 

t JM». (Ut. i». 2.1, 27.) 
, fSMCiuiii A. r. A. >. Ai.iu.vts Ksaa- 
«)>ofn Lirj alU Marcu*, km consular 
i&C 414, aod WW killed in an iniiurra:Liun 
, whom he hod deprived of the phin- 
r Ar^aiBQ toim nf Bujae, wliich he had 
(Ut. if. 49, SU.) 
k. ■.Paort'Mlt-s A. r. A. N. Albinuk R£i.-il- 
, i» owstioned by Liry (v. 1 ) a> consular 
» Im & c 4U3. hut WB* in reality censor in 
Hm 1^ viih M. Fttiiiu Camillaa. (fasti CtiyibJ.) 
I* AHr ooiMnkip a fine vtu impoted upon all 
Hi ako nauned tingle np to old ige. ( VaL Max. 
bt.|l; PWl. Ciim. 2; IM.rfAnt.i.r. Viorium.) 

7. A- PoTt'MU'^ AlRI.M'S tllUILLSNUli, con- 

tiitM lliiwiu K t*. 3P7, collected with hi» colleague 
tfcJiAaBMi army of volunteer^ unce the tribunes 
lynomarf tkeai from making a regular levy, and 
[oa dl a Wdf of Tarriuinienaaa, who were tetum- 
kMM mmt pUmdering <hc Romau territory. 
lOJT.t. U.) 

C 8r. INaaTiniitTS Albim's RaciLLKSiiis con- 
r Ik c }94. carried on the war ogainit 
kl k« at fir«t «uf{i*ri<d a defeiit, hut 
■onqiBrmi than completely. (Liv. t. 

i Sr. PixTi Miv« ALBJ.vt'a, waa onuol n. r. 

11^ tad Ui-niri, with hii colleague T. Veturiiu 

CAiH^ tW CDUDtry of the Sidicini ; hut, on nc- 

MM 4 lW gnal (nee* which the enemy had col- 

hft<ad lb« irfnti that tlie Samnite* were coni- 

^laAiir aMialanw, a dictator waa appointed. 

Oi^-VM. lr>, 17.) He wai ceniur in 332 and 

^Bi^ f^ailam in 327, when M. Cluudius Mor^ 

|-*fa «a< ^ipainted dictator to hold llie comilio. 

Bf^T, 331) In 321, he woa consul a tecond 

^^HMk T. V'tarios Caltinua, and marched 

^^H|Ab tMiMitri, bat waa defeated near Cau- 

^^^Eal akfigad to •nriender with hia whole 

^^^(*t* •«• acal muler the yoke. At the 

' f^ <l ih dttiTctaace and Uuit of the army, he 

>■' hii a^lamuT and the other conunanden 6wore, 

4l (h» mmr af ih* fvpuhlic, to u humiliating peace. 

tat •Btad^ oa llieir rvturn to llome, laid down 

^n aikr -•■ - — 1 dictat4ir ; and tlie 

iiiius resolved tliol 

iff P9SIO* I'le [leace ihould be 

■p f' 1 'osluiuius, with the 

lit to the ^inniu*s, 

i to *tcvjji llirni. (LiT. ix. I — 10; 

'm& i—t ; Cic tfa Of. iiL 30, 

Paart-itHia A, r. 1> x. Albinus, waa 


consul a c 242 with Lutatiua Catulot, who de- 
feat<.>d the Cartha^niana off the Acgntea, and thu* 
brought the Ant I'unic war to an end. Albino* 
was kept in the city, against his wiU, by the Pon- 
lifex Muximua, because he was Fhunen Mortiolis, 
(Liv. J-^. 19, xiiii. 13; Kutrop. ii. 27; Val. 
Mux. L I. § 2.) He wu cenwr in 234. {Faiti 

U. L. PusTUjiii's, A. r. A. N. Albinvs, ap- 
potvntly a son of Uie preceding, was consul a c 
234, and again in 229. In his second consulship 
he made war upon the lllyriaus. (Giitnip. iii. 4 ; 
Oron. iv. 13 ; Dion Ca.s». Fray. 151 ; Polyb. ii. 1 1, 
iLc, who erroneously calls him Ak/iu instead of 
Ludtu.) la 216, the third year of the aocond 
Punic war, he was made praetor, and sent into 
Cisalpine Gaul, and while absent waa elected con- 
sul the third time for the following year. 215. But 
he did not live to enter upon his consuUhip ; for 
he and his army were destroyed by llie Boil in the 
wood Litana in Cisalpine UauL His bead wu cut 
ofi^ and after being lined with gold wiu dedicated 
to the gods by tjie Uoii, and use<l as a sacred 
drinking-vesseL (Liv. xxiL 35, xxiii. 24 ; PolyU 
iii. 1U6, 11«; Cic. 7'.«^. L 37.) 

12. Sp. Postumius L. r. A. N. Aldini's, waa 
praetor peregrinus iu a a I U.I (Liv. xxxviL 47, 
5U), and conuil in 186. In hia consulship tlie 
senatutconsultiun wb» passed, which is still extant, 
supprrssing the worohip of Bacchus in Ilomc, ill 
couiiequeiice of the alNiniinable crimes which wero 
committed in coiuicxiun with it. (xxxix. G, II, 
ic.; Vol. Max. vi. 3. S 7 ; Plia //.A', ixxiii. 
10; IM. of Ant. p. 344.) He was also augur, 
and died in 179 at an advaoced age. (Lit xL 
42 ; Cic Gi/o, 3.) 

13. A. PoKrt'jiics K. r. A. N. ALDiNua, 
was curule oedile a c. 187, when he exhibited 
the Great Gomes, praetor 185, and consul IHU. 
(Liv. xxxix. 7, 23, xL 35.) In hia consulship 
he couducted the war against the Liguriant. 
(xL 41.) He was oenaor J74 with Q. Fulviua. 
Their censursliip waa a tOTere one ; they expelled 
nine members from the senate, and degraded many 
of equettrion rank. They executed, however, many 
public works, (xli. 32, xlii. 10 ; coiiip. Cic IVrr, 
i. 41.) ilc was elected in his oeniorsiiip one of 
the decemviri aacrormn in the place of L. Cumeliua 
Lentulus. (Liv. xUL lU.) Albinus was engaged 
in many 'public miiwiont. In 1 75 he was tent 
into nortlieni Greece to inquire into the trtilh of 
the rvpresentations of the Dordanians and 7'he»- 
saiiiuis about the l^tamae and Perseus. (Polyb. 
xxvi, 9.) In 171 be was sent at one of the am- 
boatadors to Crete (Lit. xliL 35); and after the 
conquest of Macedonia in 168 he was one of tlie 
ten commishiiiners ajipointed to settle the afTaini 
of the country with Acniilius Paullus. (xlv. 17.) 
Livy not mifrequently calls him Luacus, from 
which it wotdd soem that be was blind of one eye. 

14. Sp. PoMTi'Mii's A. P. A. n. Albinijs 
PAtiLLt'LUH, pnilnbly a brother of No. 13 and 15, 
perhaps obtained the surname of Paullulut, at 
being smni) of sLiture, to distinguish him more 
accurau-ly from his two brothers. Ho waa pnetor 
in Sicily, ac. 1 83, and consul, 174. (Lit. xxxix. 
45, xlL 26, iliii. 2^) 

15. L. piisTUMii's A. r. A. N. Albinus, pro- 
Uibly a lirothrr of No. 13 and 14, waa praetor 
a c 180, and ohtaincd the provinc-e of further 
Spoiu. His command was [Uijlongud in the follow^ 



inn y"* After coiiqiirring ihe Viucaci and l.ii- 
■ilani, he n'tuniod to itnme in 17H, and obtniiiod 
a triampli cm iiccount of liin viclnric*. (Liv. xL 
;iA, 44, 47, 48, .5(1, xli. », II.) He tnu coniiil in 
173, with M. Popilliu* Lnrniu ; and the war in 
LiKuriu wan aMi^'ned to hnth cniKuli. Albiuu*, 
however, wiu tint iient into ('am|iania to •eparat^ 
the land of the state from that of private prraona ; 
and thik liii«inew occupied him all the stinmier, *a 
that he vras unable to go into hi« province. He 
mu the fiT^i Roman mnpKtmte who put the alJiea 
In any expense in travelling through their terriio- 
rii-t. (ili. 3.'l, xlii. 1, 9.) Tfao festival of llic 
Flomlia, which had been diicnntinoed, wa> te- 
sto^■d in hit coimulkhip. (Or. Fiut. r. 3'Jll.) la 
171, he wns one of the nmbauadora lent to Miui- 
ni«a and the Carthaginiina in order to raiie troopt 
for the war asainat PerKUt. (Liv. ilil. Si.) In 
IttO he Wat an un«ucce«»ful condidiite for the c«*n- 
•omliip. (xliii. I'i.) He lerved under Aemiiiui 
Pntiitu* in Macedonia in ICR, and commanded the 
t«*eond legion in the tnttle with I'enkeu*. (xliv. 
41.) The tajit time he i« mentioned ia in tiiia 
war, when he wai irnt to plunder the town of the 
AeniL (xlv. 27.) 

IB. A. PosTUMIuii Al.BIN'is one of the officert 
in the anoy of Aeiniliut Haullu* in Macedonia, 
n. L. |I>H. He wat tent by Paulln> to treat with 
Pem^u ; ami aflerwanli Perwiut and hit ton Philip 
wen- committed to hit ore by Paallui. (Lir. 
xW. 4, •-•«.) 

17. I.. PoHTUunrs Sp. r. L. n., 
app.v<'nlly >«n of Nu. \% wu cuinlo ocdile n. c. 
I III, and exhibited the Ludi Megslciiiet, at which 
the Eunuch of Tcreneo waa acted. He waa coaaul 
in 1.^, and died tena daya after he had aet out 
fnmi KiHne in order to go tu hit province. It waa 
anppnwd that he waa poiaoned by hia wije. 
(OhMr<|. 7'> : VaL Max. tL 3. § R.) 

III. A. PuHTiiMita A. P. A. N. Albinus, ajipo- 
rently aon of No. 13, was praetor & c. Mi (L'ic 
AfuJ. ii. i& ; Polyb. xxxiiL 1), and ccmaul in I SI 
with L. Liciuiua LueuUua. He and hia colleague 
were thrown into priaon by the trilmnet for con- 
diiriin^ the leviea with too much aeverity. (Liv. 
£>;/. 4«; Polyb. xxiT. 3i Oroa. iv. 01.) He 
waa one of the amlauaodois aent in 1 53 to make 
nace between Atlalua and Pruaiaa (Polyb. xxxiiL 
1 1 ), and accompanied L. Mummiua Achaicut into 
OiMce in 1 4b' a* one of hia legaleL There waa a 
•tltiic erected to hia honour on the Itthmua. 
(Cia ai All. xiii. 3U, 32.) Albinua waa well ac- 
qaaJBted with Orerk literature, and wruto in that 
language a poem and a Koman htitory, the latter 
of which ia mentioned by teveral ancient writera. 
P.'lvbiut (iL 6) apnaka of him oa a vain and light- 
h>ii(li,l man, who diaparaf^d hia own people, and 
Wtt* tiUily devoted to tlie atndy of Greek literature. 
He ivlatc* a lale of hiui and tlic elder t'ato, who 
icpnnd Albinua aharply, bccauae in the piv&ce 
to hi* hittory he l>-(iged the pardon of hia raulcn, 
if h« tbould nake any miatoke* in writing in a 
fovign htnsttage ; Cato icfflinded him that he waa 
not oonpflM to write it all, bnt that if he choae to 
wrke, he liad no baaineia to aak for the indolgenoc 
of hia readcn. Tbia tale ia alao rvhited by (ielliut 
(iL H). Macrobina (Pnpfiice to Siturn.), Plutarch 
(Oito, 12), and Suidat (». r. AJAoi noar^^uai). 
Polybiua alao aaya that Albinua imitalrd the warat 
|iarta of the (ineek character, that he waa entirely 
derated to pleoaurc, and ahirkvd all hibuur and 


danger. He tvlatea that he retired to Tbi 
when the battle waa fought at Pbucia, on tbe | 
of indis|ioaition, but afterwards wrote an 
of it to the aenale aa if he had been prpaot 
Cicero apeaka with rather mora reipect of bU bie- 
lary mcrita ; be calla him dcelm kMo and Utew- 
liu rt ditrrtiu. (C'k. AttuL u. ih. Brut. 21.) .M* 
crobiua (ii. I (>) quote* a paaaagc from the tirat IjMk . 
of the AnnnU of Albinua reapecting Knitus an' 
aa he uaea the worda of Albinua, it haa lieen au^l 
poaod that the Greek history may have been I 
luted into IxitiiL A work of Albiiiiiv on 
arrival of Aencaa in Italy, ia rvferred to by Si^* 
viua {ml I'iry, Aem. ix. 710), and the author sfAe 
work •* I)e Origine Ticntia Komanae,'" a. II 
(Kmuae, t'Uac et Fniirm. VtUnm I/atorimnm 
Hotmimonan^ p. 127, &c) 

13. Sp. PosruMifR Albinua Maonv*, 
cnnaul B. c. 1 48, in which year a Rtcat fire 
pened at Home. (Obteq. 78.) It ia thia 
Albinua, of whom Cicero speidia in the llntm 
25), and aaya that there were nuuiy orationa 

20. Sp. PugTUMii'fi Sp. p. Sp. k. A; 
prol>ably aon of No. 19, waa conaul 0. c I 
obtained the province of Nuniidia to carry 
war against Jugurtha. He made rigornua 
rations for war, but when ho rtaiched the pi 
he did not adopt any active measun!*, bnt 
himaelf to be deceived by the artiAce* uf Jui 
who conatantly promised to surrender. Many 
aona auppcised that hia inactivity waa ititen! ' 
and that Jugnrtha had bought him over. 
.Mbinuk departed from Africa, he left hia bi 
Aulua in conmiiuid. [See No. 21.] After 
defeat of the latt4'r he returned to Numidia, 
in conaequencc of the diaargnnii<>d atate of 
army, he did not proaccute the war, and 
over tbe army in thia condition, in the folio 
VRor, to the consul Metellua. (Sail. Jmp. 35, 
39,44; Oma. iv. 15; Kutrvp. iv. 'ili.) iic 
condemned by the .Mamilia Lex, which waa 
to puniah all thoae who had 1x«n gnilty of 
able practice* with Jugurtha. (Cic AraL 
comp. Sail. Jm}. 40.) 

21. A. PuKTi-Mira Al.BiNcit,bntber of No. 
and probably aon of No. 19, waa left by hia 
ther aa pro- praetor, in commaud of the army 
Africa in a c. 1 10. [See No. 20.] ll>- r 
to beaiege Snthal, where the ttt-aaum of J 
were depoaited ; but Jugurtha, under the 
of giving hiiu a large aum of money, ii 
to lead hia army into a retired pUoe. 
waa suddenly attacked by the Nuniidian 
ordy aaved hia troop* from total 
allowing them to paaa under the yokc^ nd _ 
taking to Icare Nnmidia in ten day*. (SiilL' 

22. A. PosTi'niii.!. A. T. Sp. n.Mv.- — 
aon of No. 19, and probably aon of 
consul n. c. 99, with H. Antoniu*. I . 
viii. 7 ; Obaeq. lOti.) Oelliua (iv. 6) quotea 
worda of a aeBBtuaoonaidtum paaaed in their 
aulahip in conaeqnenoe of the aptnra of Man 
moved. Cicero aji that he sraa a good 
(Itrut. .15, pnti lied, oi Qmr. 5.) 

The following coin ia auppoaed by Kckl 
T. p. 2HH) and others to n-fer to thia' AUni 
one tide ia the head of a female with tha 
HtapAN., which may perhaps huve rrfej 
victory which hia anoeator L. .\ibiain 
Spain. (Sec Nu. 15.] On the other 


I itlvtciung out hu hnnd tn an eagle, 
llAMy ttoodMiit luid behind him are tho fiuct^t 
iMk Ih* snu On it arr the letti-n a. punt. a. p. 
Ik At>n (•■ m the coin, inntcad of Ai.niN.). Un 
lA> QMiM of tJkc Pn4tuinia gt-ns iJie pnunumcn 
ICiiM is al njr wrictcn & and not sp. 



SL A- PaarvMitm Albindi, a ponon of pnif- 

rin onk, oanuuiJfd the flcrt, u. c H9, in the 

mmt vac* and «aa kiiliMl hy his nuni wtldicn 

wtta iW fla* lilai he mcditatnl ticnchety, hut in 

■Agr •a Kxount of hi* ouvlty. Sulla, who vitu 

Am a liipUe of the conful Porciut Cato, incorpu- 

HaAtM* froopa with hi* onm, but did not puniiih 

a ^b^n. ( IJv. £j>t>. 75 ; Plut. &//<i, <>.) 

SL ^ P<><n-iiuiL'S Albini's won pl.TO-d by 

■■> <n«r S<<ily, B c. 48. ( Appian, U. I', ii. 4H.) 

M> H. JtTTvii'S Brlti'h Aluim's, BilnptL-d by 

X^ SL ^i4 u umi iie n inniled in the annexed coin, 

• llnliii b called aliiikv(«) b«vti. r. 

ALBI'NUSt proconitor of Jndam, in the reign 
tf X«^ abaot A. o. R3 and t>4, tui'cvcdi.-d Fcmua, 
■I «ia C*>ltj of alxamt every kind of crime in 
fayiaiaiiMiil He pardoned the vilest criniinaU 
Iraaaf, umI ahameleaaly plundered the pru- 
MMk He wa* auctreded by Moma. (Jo«-ph. 
*t.JmL zx. 8. S 1 ; /fctf. Ja.i. ii. 14. § I.) The 
Iw I \LMtsv* mentioned below may pouibly 
hm \mm the •aoe penon. 

iLBt'.\t'8('AAAMH), a Platonic philoaopher, 
•4a Imd aj Smyrna and was n ctrntempomrv of 
Mb. (Oalen. nL it. p. 37'A «L Baail.) ' A 
Ami Ma by hiim catiliad %unrftiY/j <if Tadi 
AaAiyaiit, baa come down to us, and is 
ia Ibe lecnad nimne (p. 44) of the lint 
^ Fahririua; but omittcil in the reprint 
te IM(« beatam it is to be found prefixed tn 
■■ifk editioB of thrw dialogues of Plato, Oxou. 
1*71; in4 to Fischer's four dialogues of Plato, 
I^tm It ecataina hardly anything of im- 
Alttf optninng the ruiturc of the 
which he compare* to a Dnuiui, the 
f«*» on io divide the Dialogues of Plato 
hrymovi^ i^ryicriKovi, ^mtucovt, 
moUaons anulhcr diviiion of them 
aeeonfoig to their subjecti. He 
lh« Aldbiadea, Ptuu.-du, llepublic, and 
Tl*■l^ Amid ba Itad in a trnt-s. 

TW mltma6»» *eip«ctuig Albiniu Itave been 
«k>ii bf Pahridn. (BiU. Umee. iiL p. 658.) 
% it mii U has* whUoi a work on the armnge- 
■Mrf lia wnliriB W Pinto. Another Albinus 
k MMiaarf kf Bactiriua and Cassiodorua, Avho 


wrote in Latin some works on music and geo- 
metn-. IB- J.J 

AllirNUS, CUVDIUS, whose iiill name 
wiu Uecimus Cludius C«ionius Septimius Al- 
binus, the son of Ccionius Pottumius and 
Aurelia Mcssolina, was bom at Adrumetum in 
Africa; but the year of his birth is not known. 
According to his fiitliur'i slau-ment (CapitoL 
C/orf. AUmi. 4). he received the luuiio of Albi- 
nus nu account of the extraordinary whiteness of 
liis budy. Shewing great disposition for a military 
lifi?, hu cnti-red the nnny at on oarly age and 
served with gn»t distinction, especially during tho 
rebellion of Avidins Cauins against the emperor 
Marcus Aurclius, in a. I). 17.'i. His merits were 
ackoowledpwl by the emperor in two letters {iii, 
10) in which hu colls Albinus an African, who te- 
wnil>led his countrymen but little, and who was 
pmiscworthy for his military experience, and the 
gnivily of his character. The emperor likewise 
decliu-i'd, tliat without Albimia tliu legions (in 
Bitliyiiia) would hare gone over to Aridius Ca»- 
sius, ajid that he intended to have him chosen 
conauL The eni|ieror Commodos gave Albinus a 
cominnnd in Oaul iind afterwords in Britain. A 
fnlix- rumour having been sprwiil that Coiumoduj 
hod dit-d, Albinus harangued llie army in Urilain 
on the occasion, attacking Commodus as a tytaut, 
and maintaining that it would be useful to the 
Rom.'m empire to restore to the senate its ancient 
dignity and power. Tho senate was Tery plcsoaed 
with these sentiments, but not to the emperor, 
who sunt Junius Severus to supersede .\lbinus in 
his command. At this time Albinus must havo 
been a very distinguished man, which we may 
conclude from the tict, that tome time licfore 
Commodus had offenrd him the title of Caesar, 
which he wisely declined. NutwithtUinding tho 
np(>nintmpnt of Junius Severus as his successor, 
Albinus kept his command till afUT tlie murder of 
Commodus and that of his successor Perlinox in 
A. D. IMS. It is doubtful if Albinus was the 
secret author of the murder of Pertiuox, to which 
Cnpitolinus nukes an allusion. (/&. 14.) 

After the death of Pcrtinax, Uidius Juliaau* 
purchased the throne by bribing the praetorians ; 
but immediately afterwards, C. Pcscennius Niger 
was proclaimed emperor by the legions in Syria ; 
L. Septimius Severus by the troops in Illyricnin 
and Paunonia ; and Albinus by the armies in Bri- 
tain and GauL Julianus having lieen put to death 
by order of the senate, who dreaded the power 
of Septimius Severus, tho latter turned his anna 
against Pescennius Niger. With regard to Al- 
biutis, we must lielieve that Severus mode a pro- 
visiniud anangcment with him, conferring u|H>n 
him tho title of Caesar, and holding with him 
the consulship in A. D. 104. But after the defeat 
and death of Niger in A. n. 194, and the complete 
discnmRture of his adherents, especially after the 
fell of Ilytantium in a. n. 19tJ, Severus resolved 
to make himself the absolute master of the Roman 
empire. Albinus seeing tlie dangcrof his position, 
which he had increased by his indolence, prepored 
for resistance. He narrowly escaped being 
assassimiteil by a messenger of Severus {ib. 7, 8), 
whereupon be put himself at the head of his anny, 
which is said to have consisted of 15U,0UU men. 
He met the equal forces of Severus at Lugdunum 
(Lyons), in Cinul, and there fought with him on 
the 1 Uth of February, 1 97 (Siortian. Sever. 1 1 ), a 



bloodjr battle, in which he wst at firat Tictorioiu, 
but at last wiu entirely defeated, and lost hia life 
eith(*r by iuicide^ or by order of S*venii, after 
having been made a priaouer. II ii body «nu ill 
treated by Severua, who wnt hi> head to Rome, 
and accompanied it with au innolent letter, in 
which he mocked the senate for their adherence to 
Albinni. The town of Lugduniun was plundered 
and dcatroyed, and the odhennila of Albinoa were 
cnielly prowcnted by Serania. 

Albiuu* was a man of great bodily beauty and 
strength ; he wai an eipeheuced geueml ; a ikii- 
lol gUdiator; a screre, and often cruel commander ; 
and be haa been called the Catiline of his time. 
He hod one son, ur perhajw two, who wea* put to 
death with their mother, by order of Severua. It 
i> said that bo wrote a treatise ou agriculture, 
and n culltvtion of stories called Milesian. (Capi- 
tolious Clitditu Alhmya : Uion Casa. Lxx. 4 — 7 ; 
Herodian, iu 15, iii. 5 — 7.) 

Then are leTenil medals of Albinua. In the 
one annexed he ia called o. cuio. sicrT. ai.iun. 
lUJia. [W. P.] 



ALBI'.NUS, MJCE'lUS. wa« made by Nero 
pnmrator of Mauivtania Coesoriensis, to which 
Gaiha added the prorince of Tingitano. After the 
dealli of Galba, a. a 69, he espoused the side of 
Otho, and prepared to iuTode Spain. Cluvius 
Ruhi, who commanded in Spain, being alarmed at 
this, sent centurions into Mauretania to induce the 
Mauri to revolt against Albinui. They accom- 
plished this without much difficulty ; and Albinua 
ras murdered with his wife. (Tac. Hitt. ii. 58, A9.) 
A'LBION or ALK'ni ( IN ('AAClsH' nr 'AAtCbr), 
, ft ion of Poieidon and hmther of Dercynua or 
Rerginn, together with whom he attacked Heracles, 
whrn he pcused tliruu^fa their country (Liguria) 
with the oicn of tieryon. But they paid for their 
pra«iiiii|iii>in with iheir Urea. (Apollod. ii. 5. § 10; 
r ■• ., ii. 5. § 39.) The Scholiast on Lyi-o- 

I cills the brother of Alebion, l.*ig>'s. 

I •> .il«o alluded to in Hyginu*(/'o«<. ^rfr. 

ii f>) and Oionyiiui. (L 41.) [L. S.] 

ALUL'CILL.V, the wife of Satriut Secuiidus, 

and infiunous lur her many omoiini, was accused iy 

the loM year of the reign of Tiberius (a. d. 37) of 

, or bnpiely, agninat the empeiur {impieiatit 

n]pni)kai>d, with her, Cn. Itoinitins Alieno- 

Vihia* Manna, and U Axiuntiua. aa ac- 

Sha waa coal into priam bjr wwiinand 

*«f ^ amate. after nakiBg an iiiefleeliial alteaipt 

lo d<---^ • (Tat Ann. ri 47. 4H.) 

A I 1 prophetic nvmph or Sibyl, to 

wd'r: ■■ --^-khI of Tiliur n grtire was 

• : awl a K-niple. Near it 

» i- I'l' !•. Kalidioi*. (\'\m. Am. 

1XU Ul./tc; lior. din. i, 7. \'i ; TibulL ii. .'>. 
69.) Ldrluiitius (Dc .Silyll. i. (i) stain, that the 
tenth SbvL called Albuiua, was worshipped at 
Tibur, auii thai het luagv, holding a lawk in one 




hand, waa found in the lied of the 
Her sortM, ur onules, which belonged Iu ll*1 
/utaJet, were, at the command of the senaccv dl| 
sited and kept in the I'upiloL The aiuall sqa 
temple of this Sibyl is still rilant at TivrJi. Str, 
specting the locality, tee Kepludidea, firnt% 4 
llalifn,\. p. VIS, tic [L. " 

ALUli'CIUSor ALllU'TIUS, a phT« 
Rome, who lived probably aliout the begin 
middle of the iirst century after Cbrisl, and i 
mentioned by Pliny (H. N. uix. 5} aa 
gained by his procdee the annual income i 
hundred and fifty thousand sesterces (about 1 
'2>. M.). This is coniidervd by Pliny lo be i 
large sum, and may thenrfore give us some c 
the fortunes mode by physicians at Home abuul 
beginning of the empire. ( W. .V I 

T. ALBU'CIUS or ALBU'TIUS, linisbc. 
studies Ht Athens at the hitler end nf the 
ceutury B. c, and belonged tu the Eiticureoa I 
He waa well acquainted with fjreek literatu 
rather, says Ciceru, was almost a Ureck. 
•15.) On account of his alfccting on every < 
the Greek langimge and philos<iphy, be «i 
riacd by Lucilius, whose lines upon him ai 
served by Cicero {de Fin. i. 3); ond Cicero I 
■peaks of him as a light-minded man. He i 
but unaneceasiiUly, Q. Modus ScaeroU, t>ia i 
of mabulminiatmlion (npaCimdue) in hit 
(flni/. 26, iJe OnU. il 70.) In m c 1 04 ! 
was praetor in Sardinia, and in cousequ 
tome insignificant success which he had 
over aonie Mbbers, he celebrated a triumph i 
province. !>n his return to Rome, he i 
the senate for the honour of a tupplicatiu, 
was icfused, and he was accuted in no 1 
n-petundne by C. Juliiu Caesar, and 
Cn. Porapeius Slrabo had offered himself i 
accuser, but he was not allowed to coodai 
prosecution, because he had been the i 
Albucins. {De Pror. Caa. 7, im Pmm. 38, i 
Ciuvil. 1 9, (If Of. ii. 1 4.) Afu-r his coiid 
he retired to .Athens and pursued the study \ 
losophr. (7>ue. V. .17.) He left liehind Uai I 
oratixns which had been read by Cicero. (AnAl 

Varro (i/e Ih Rial. iii. X ) 1 7) speaks af I 
tatiirs by !<. Albucius written in the style tt I 
lius : he ap|Hairt to be the same p«i«an as T" 

C. ALHU'CIMS SIL.\S. [Sii.*a.J 



ALCAEI7S('AA«ai>i). 1. A «>n of i 
and Andromeda, and married to Hip| 
daughter of Mimueoeus of Thebes, by who 
became the fitlher of Amphylhou and 
( Apollnd. ii. 4. S 5 ; SchoL ad Earip. Hirmi. J 
According to Pauunias (viii. 14. J '.21 hit 
name was Loootome, a daughter of tiie 
Uuneus or l.ysidice, a daughter of I'clups. 

2. According to Itiudorus (i. 14) iha 
nune of llencles, given him nn aicu 
deeoent from Alcaens, the tun of Pen 

.1. A ton of Heracles by a female «Ut« < 
danns, fmm whom the dynasty of the Uc 
in Lyilia were belieTrd to be descended, (I 
i. 7.) Utu4lonis (iv, 31) cills tliis I 
cles, Clenlaus. (Comp. llellanicus, aft. . 
». «. 'Axt'Alf ; Waattling. aJ iHud. t. n.) 

4. .Acmnling lo liiodorus (v. 79) a 
Ilhodaoiaulliyt, who pmentod biui with I 



AftBniant (ii. 5. !t !)) relntrt ihnt hr 
wm a aoD of Andra^cot (lii« wm of .Mini») an<I 
bKhH- n/3tbM<«liu, md that whrn tUnu-li^s, on 
^ aysdkion to fettfa ihe girJIp of Arrs which 
■ai ia the paonuon of the qut-cn of thr Anuuunm 
■iiii4 «i t^Hiia, wtsm al hiA compiuiion* wen 
iWa h]r ite •on* of Miaoa, rending thrrc. lit- 
|adn, is hi* a^gat, dsw the dnccndanbt of Minos 
and Stbeoeliu, whom hr took with 
m4 to vbom he afterwnrdt aui^i'd th« 
of Thaau at tbrir habitation. [Li-S,] 
ALCAEUS('AAi»ua«),of Ms>.«sne, the niithor 
• naiatiar of apignuiu in the (ireelc aiitholo);y, 
af whieb hi* date niay be e^ilr Axuil. 
a mUmpui iLfy with Philip IIU kiii^ of 
aad Mn of Demetrius n^utt whom 
■f hi* tpigranu nic pointed, ap|nrenlljr 
feeiingt. One of theM ppif;rain&, 
re oflence to the lloman 
.iDOs, than to Philip, on account of 
aicribing the Tictory of Cynunrephn- 
<ba ActolioM u mtich as to the Komant. 
MSf cartetMMl himwlf witli writing an epigmm 
Ib ftftf *• lim of Akoeais iu which he gare the 
'Mtmama a rtrr bniad hint of the falc he might 
wmptt jT he Cell into hit bonds (Pint fUmm. 
B^Ab ae|iiT hat ungnlariy enough led Solmotiut 
^^^na^ {L 449. tp. Ktbric. UiUu^i, Urate, ii. p. 
H^^ ■■W**' ^^l Alcaeut wat ncluull y crucified. 
pt^Miftitf epignun, in praite of Flomininus, the 
Harti* a( lb* Kaoian general^! naiue, Titut, led 
Rteaa (#^a<( y . it LgatflmH) into the error of 
^■^i^By A* afi il rtlffB of an epigninnuntist named 
the empvror Titut. Those epigrami 
rf AlaaiH tritkh bear internal evidence of their 
Caa, *«n arriRen between the yean 219 and 

Of tha iwvnty-iaro cjlignuBa in the Greek An- 
^^V whkh hear thr name of ^Alcaeus" two have 
4» aaa* "MTtfleDaeut" added to it ; bnt Jacohe 
<a^lD he perfactly right in taking this to be the 
itUa tt come ignonint copyiat. Othen boar 
*i ■■• of "Aleiiea« MecMeniut," and tome of 
^taaa abne. But in the lost cla«» there are 
^■■1 which muft. frnm internal evidence, hate 
^ a)4im br .Ucarnt of Me«iwne, and, in fiiit. 
"•••I» ae nguon to doubt hit being the author 
''*• wiolt twenty-two. 

tVn m BMntioned at coiitempomriet of Al- 

■^ too other pertont of the uuiie name, one of 

|hv^ KpicaKmn philotopher, who wa« expelled 

by a decree of the «en.-itc about 173 or 

"ion. ail Arliait, }'. If. ix. 2i ; Athon. 

Suidat, t. p. *EiriKuopoT): the other 

ly tpoken of by Polybiut at being 

1» ridieule the gramnmriiin Itocratet. 

xmL 6; B.C 160.) It i> juft potsible 

» two prTwnt, of Whom noihiug (iirthcr it 

*■•»•. M17 hate been idcnticil with each other, 

atf *Uk tliie ppignunmatitt. 

^ (JMthiW Jttct. ffnur. liii. pp. 836-838 ; there 

ta Alcaeut of Metiene in Rutebiut, 

_.. r.2.) {P. S.J 

S f AAxoioi), of MvTiLCNK, in the 

Ihe tarliett of the Aeuliiui lyric 

lamiih iu the 4.Znd Dlynipiod 

■I commenced between the noMes 

IW people in hit natiTe ttate. Alcaeut he- 

hy Inrtb to the former party, and warmly 

In the tecond year of the 

ti.c.6Il),wefisd the hrothert of 



I Alcaeut, namely, l'iei» and Antiriienidas fighting 
I umler I'iitacuii af^qiinst Mehiticlmn, who u de- 
scriU?d at the lynini of l>ci>bo&, and who (ell iu (he 
conflict. (Diog. Laert. i. 74, 7M ; Strab. xiii. p. 
*> 1 7 ; Suidat, «. r. KUif and nlTTa*or ; EtvuioL 
.M. p. .51;), it. r. KiSopoc, instead of KIkh; 'Clin- 
ton, Ptistu i< p. 'Jll>.) Alcaeut doct not appear 
to hnre taken part with hit bnithert on this ooca- 
tion : on the contrary, he tpcakt of Melnnclinit in 
termt of high praise. (Kr. 7, p. 426, Hlomfield.) 
Alcaeut it mentioned in connexion with the war 
in Tfioat, between the Atheniant and Mytilcnneant 
for the potsettion of Sigeum. (u. r. tiUti.) Though 
Pittucut, who commanded the nrm.r of Myiilene, 
fclew with hit own hand the leador of the Athe- 
nians, Phrj'non, an (Olympic victor, the Mytiln- 
nmiuit were defeated, and Alcaeut incurred the 
ditKnec of leaving hit armt behind on the field of 
liattlc ; thete onut were bimg up at a trophy by 
the Atheniant in the temple of Pallat at Sigeum. 
(Herod. V. 95; PluU de llmd. Maluj. %. 15, p. 
B58; Strab. \iii. pp. S»!», 600; Kuteb. VUrau. 
Olym. iliil 3; Clinton, Fatti, i p. '219.) Hi* 
lending home the newt of thit ditatter in a poem, 
oddneiiod to hit friend MeUinipput (Fr. 56, p. 
438, Blomt), teemt to ihew that ho had a reputa- 
tion for courage, tncb at a tingle diaastor could not 
endjinger; and accordingly we find him t|Hikcn of 
by ancient writer* at a bmve and ikiiful warrior. 
(AnthoL Palat. ix. 184; Cic. TVue. Dup. iv. 33; 
Hor. darm. i. 3'2. fi; Athcn. xt. p. 687.) He 
thought that hit lyre wat best employed in ani- 
mating hit friendt to warlike deeds, and hit house 
it di-tcribed by himtelf at furuibhed with the wca- 
pont of war lather than with the inatrumentt of 
hit art (Athcn. xiv. p. 627; Fr. 24, p. 430, 
Dlomf.) During the period which followed tlic 
war about Sigeum. the contett between the noblet 
and the people of Mytileiie u'ai biT>ught to a critit ; 
and the people, headed by u tuccuttion of leader*, 
who ore called tyrant*, and among whom are men* 
tionpd the name* of Myrsilut, Megalagjrui, and 
the Cleonaclidt, tucceeded in drinng the noble* 
into exile. During this civil war Alcaeut engaged 
actively on the tide of the noblet, whose spiritt he 
endeavoured to cheer hy a number of most ani- 
mated odet fiill of invcctivet ognintt the tynuitt ; 
and after the defeat of hit party, he, with hit bro- 
ther Antimonidat, led them again in an attempt to 
legnin their country. To oppuse thit attempt Pit- 
tacna wat unanimoutly chown by the people oa 
aUrvfur^rtii (dictator) or tyrant He held hit 
otfice for ten yeort (b. r, 589 — 579), and during 
tliat time be defeated all the etfont of tlie exiled 
nobles and ettablithed the constitution on a popn- 
hir botit ; and then he retigned hit power. 
(Strab. liii. p. 617; Alcaeus Fr. 23, p. 23(1, 
BloniL; Aritt. Hrj,. iii. 9. § 5, or iii. 14; Plut 
Amat. i 18, p. 763 ; Diog. Loert i. 79; Dionyt. 
T. p. 3.16, Sylb.) [PiTTACUR.] 

Notwithstanding the invectives of Alcaeua 
o^intt him, Pittociu is said to have tet him at 
lilierty when he had been taken prisoner, saying 
that " forgivcnets is belter than revenge." (Diog. 
Laert i. 76 ; Valer. Max. iv. 1 . g 6. ) Alcaeut 
hot not escaped the sutpicion of being moved by 
peruinol umiiition in his apposition to Pittaois 
(Strab. xiii. p. 61T.) When Alcaeut and Anii- 
menidns perceived lluit nil ho}ie of their rett'iration 
to Mylilcne wat gone, they trovelled over different 
countries Alcaeus visited Kgypt (Stmb. i. p. 37)i 



and he nppean to hnvf written [hmtus in which hit 
advt}nlurB« by *ca wrw dcscrilwd. (Mor. iUrm, ii, 
13.28.) Antimcnidas enterrd tho M*mce of the 
king uf Dabylon, and pcrfonucd au exploit which 
wiu celebmt«d by AlcaeuiL (Stmb. xiii. p. 617, 
i^T- 33, p. 433, lllomf.) Nothing in known of the 
|]ifo of Alcaetu after this pcTiinl ; but from ttie 
political itat« uf Mytilciic it in must proboblo thai 
be died in exile. 

AmonK the nine pnncipal lyric poeta of Gnece 
. fonm ancient writcn OMiign the first place, others the 
) Kcnnd, to AlcaeuA. His writings prcwut to u* the 
I Aeolian lyric at its highest (>i>int. Uul iheir circula- 
tion in Greece w-iMits to hure lK:en limited by tiio 
ttrangcneu of the Aeulic dialect, and pcrliaps their 
loM tn uft may be portly attributed tu the aonte cauAc. 
Two recennont of the works of Alcaeui were made 
by the gmnunarian* Anstorchua and Aristopbanea. 
Suuic fmgmenta of his poeui* which remain, and 
the eicellent imitntioni of Honure, ciuible us Vt 
undenlaiid komething of thoir character. 

Hi* poemft, which cunMHtcd of at lea»t ten l>ook« 
(Athrn. zi. p. 4UI), were called tii general Odea, 
ilyrnni, or Song* (^ff/urro). Tboao which luirc 
feceived the highe«t pnu«e are hi* warlike or pa- 
triotic ode* referring to the fiictions of hi* atato 
imurivriini or BixotmuriatrTUtd^ tbe^Alcaei nii- 
pacr* Caroocnne'* of jlotnce. {f\trm. u. 13. 'J7 ; 
Quinlil. X. 1. S fi3 ; Uiony^. Jr. Vit ScrijtL Emu. ii. 
8, p. 73, Sylk) Among the fragiucntA of these 
ore the conmtencement of a song of exultation over 
the dflAlh of M)'rsilus (Fr. 4. Itloiuf.), and [nirt of 
a OompAtiion of his ruinnl party to a dikabk-d ship 

gr. i% Blomt), both of which are finely imitated 
HoiMM* (Oirw. i. 37, i. 14.) Many fhtgnienlA 
■n pnaerrcd, e«pi<ciAlly by Alhenacus (x. pp. 4'.'!', 
430), in which tlic poet sings the pmisi-s of wine. 
(Fr. l,;i,I6, 1B,2I), HIomf.;comp.lior.rurw. 19. 
IR.) Muller remarks, that **it may be doubted 
wheth«*r Alcaeus compf>MHl a tepamlA claaa of 
drinking wingt {avfiworuca) ; ... it is more proba- 
ble that be connected every exhortation to drink 
with some reflectioii, either upon the particular 
, Cirtumstauoea of the time, or upon man*s destiny 
L in gvneml.** ()f his erotic poems we have but few 
irmaini. Among them were stime nddressiM to 
^ 8oppho ; one of which, with Sappho's reply, is 
[preserved b; Aristotle {iOtri. i. !J; Kr. 3H, lUunif.; 
I Bappho, fr. 30), and others to beautiful youths. 
(Hof. C'orm. L 3-'. 10; Cic. de Sat. Dror. u JB, 
9mL ir. 33.) Most of his remaining poenu 
iooa hynms aimI epii^rums. Many ol hi* 
1 poran we Addressed to hi» friends individually, 
l^e poetry uf Alciieut is always impassioned. 
^!nt nnly with him, but with the Aeulic sebool in 
I jmemL. iHietry was not a nierv art, but thi> iilain 
nd warn outpouring of the writer'a iinmist feelingK 
Tlir metre* of Alcaeoj were generally lively, 
and ti)» |M>enM aMm lo bam been conatnicted in 
abort sinule strophe*, in all of which the conea- 
i;.fondkttg Unrs were of the wine metre* oa in the 
^adas of llonce. He ia Mid to have infented tbe 
woU-kiiown Alcaic strophe. 

His UkeUf^«s is pre«*rv(^ tocetber with that of 
P " \ brass coin of Mytilene in the Koyal 

' )'<UT«« \thich is engraved by V'iscouli. 

t; No. 3.) 

'the tnuiDeuts of Alcaetii were fint colloclrd 
by Mich. Neaitder in his **Aristologia Pindarica," 
~ "" l.Wri, Hto,, ihm by Henry Stephens in his 
;tioo uf the fragments of the nine chief lyric 


poets of Orerce ( IA57), of which there ara4 
editions, and by Kulvius Ursiims, lof^U, ttfl 
more modem collections are tbo»e by .la 
San. 1780— 17H-.^ 4to. ; by Stnuige, Halle, 18 
Rvu. ; by Oiomficid, in tlie ^Mtueuni i'ritica 
vol. L p. 4*J1, \i-M Cainb. lH'2<i, reprinted in U^ 
ford''s ^HtK'Lae liraeci Minores;" and the 
complete (nlitiun is tlmt of Matthior, "Ak 
Mytilenaci rvliijuiae," Lipe.. 11127. Addiu 
{ra^ientk lutve been printed in the llhcfii»h J 
(H-um fur 1»-J9, lU33,and lB:i5; in Jahh's ^'Jd 
buch. fiir Philolog." for 1830; and in O 
"Auecdota Uraoai,"* voL L Oxf. J83.S. 

(Bode, OoKikichte der Lyriachcn I^icUttvmd i 
iieJJaum^ u. p. 378, Ac.) ( P. S.) 

ALCAKUS (AAjvoior), tbe ion of Miccua, 1 
a native of Mytilknb, aoconling to Suiibu, ' 
inayt however, have confounded him in this [ 
with the lyric poet. He is found exhibiting^ 
Athens as a jfoct of tlic old comedy, or mil 
tliat mixed comedy, which formed the tram 
betwrea the nld and the middle. In a. c 38tl^| 
brought lurword a play entil]v«l Tlduri^i}, in I 
some conlefat in which Aristophan<4 exhibited i 
second Plutus but, if the muaning of Su' 
rightly ujidenttood, ho obtained only thii 
place. He left ten plays, of which 
ments remain, and the following titles nr«l 
'AflcA^oi fUMX*von4vai^ rai'v^i}di)r, £»'8i/>i 
ydt^Sf KaAAifTToi, Kmn^orpay^ia^ floAa 

Alcaeus, a tragic poet, inentioned by Kaliri 
{liiUiuO', (>'ntcc ii. p. 'JII'J), does iu>t u{i|K;ar I 
u di^'rent jtenMU from Alcaeoa tlic cou 
'I'ho mistake of calling him a tta^o*: poet 
simply from ait erroneous reading of the title tim 
** ConifK-tlo-tTBgoediiu'' 

(Tbe Greek Argument lo the Plutus; 
«. r. ; Pollux, X. 1 ; (!iuaub»n on Alhciu ituj 
-06 ; Meineke, frajfm. thmir, ft'rurc. i. p. ! 
ii. p. HJ4 ; Ihxlc, (ittnhirhU* tUr iJrum 
UU:iiikHwft drr iltJIem-n^ ii. p. 3Hf;.) || 

ALCA'MKNl!^ CAA^oiiiwif), king i " 
1 0th of the Agids, sim of Teleclus < 
mnling to Paiisiuias in the nighl-i 
against Ampheia, which cminieuced the J 
seniau war, but died before its 4th ^-ear. 
would fix tbe 31t yeork as*igiuil him by Ap»Ucxl4 
aUmt 77.'Mo 74i n. c. In his nign lUlo* l 
taken, a phice noir the mouth of tho 
the lost independent hold most likely of I 
Achaean population, ami the snpiioBed i 
tcnn Helot (Pans. lii. %%1^ iv. 4. | \ 
Herod, vii. 1>04 ; Plut. Aj.'jfkUi. /oe.) (i 

ALCA'MKNES ('AAxo^i^i), the i 
neUides, whom Agi« appointed as ha 
Leabiausi, when they wished to revolt froca '. 
Athenians in u. u 412. When Alciinene* ] 
sea with twuniy-one ships to sail u* t^hin 
pursued by the Atheniau deet olF the 1« 
Corinth, and driven on shuie. The At 
tacked the sliips when on »hon% and , 
waa killfKl in the engagement. (Thuc viiui 

AIX'A'MENKS ('AAira^'nit), a 
statuary and sculptor, u lutive t^ All 
II. iV. xxivL b. s. 4.) Suidas (s.e.) 
l^mnL-iu (if by Akaueaea ba aieana tJw i 
This K. O. Muller (JrdL 4tr KmgL p. 9£> j 
prets tu mean that he was a clrruchiuk, oa j 
one of the arAifpm in Lemnos. Voss, «Ua j 
lowe«i by ThierM-h {Kftadmrn dgr htU, A'l 
1 30), conjectured tlut the tme raaduig u t 


been dcntroycd by the rretan*. (Piiii«. i. 41. § S.) 
In thi» WDfk lif wnn *aid lo hnvp U-cn a-'«'»i(.io(i Ky 
ApoUo, and tht> Atoitt% ii]Min which tlie '^tui imnl to 
pUco hill lyre while he woa at work, was even in 
Me timei bt<lieved, when struck, to give forth n 
tonnd similar to that of a I\tc. ( Pann. i. 4°J. § I ; 
Or. Afrt. riii. IS, &c; VirR. Cir. \(lh ; Tlieogn. 
761.) Echcpoliii, one of the mmH of Alcnthoun, 
wu killed durinfi the I'iilydoniiui hunt in Aetnlin, 
and when hi« brother L'alli|x>li» hiutened to carrj' 
the «ul liding:^ to his fiitber, he found him en- 
gaged in offering n sacriAce to Apollo, and think- 
ing it unfit to offer lacrihee* nt <uch a moment, 
he matched away the wood from the olior. Alca- 
thou* imagining thin to l)c an act of sacrilegious 
wontonneu, killed his son on the spot with n 
pii'ce of wood, (Pans. i. 42. § 7.) The acropolis 
of Megnra was cnlled hy a name derived from that 
of Alcathous. (i. 4-2. ji 7.) 

2. A son of Porthaon and Knn'le, who wn» 
tbin by Tydeus. (Apollod. L 7. § 10, 8. S .4; 
Diod. ir. 65.) 

3> A ion of Aesyeten and husband of Hippn- 
daraeio, the daughter of Anchises and sister of 
Aeneas, who wa.i educated in his house. (Mom. 
Jl. xiiL 4t>(>.) In the war of Troy he was one of 
the Trojan Icajlem, and was one of the handsomest 
and bmrest among them. (//. xii. 0.3, xiii, 427.) 
He was aUin by Idomcneus with the nssistnnce nf 
Poseidon, who stnick Alcathou* with blinilness 
and paralysed his limhs so that he could nut ffee. 
(/i. liiL 433, &c.) — .\nother personage of this 
name is mentioned by Viryil, Af«. x. 747. [I*. 8.) 

ALCEIDES ('AAntStii), according to some ac- 
counts the name which lienu-les originally bore 
(ApoUod. ii. 4. § 12), while, according to Uiodo- 
nU( hi* origiiuU iiiime was Avc^uv». [L. S.] 

ALCJ:sTIS or ALCESTK CAAicijffTn or "AA- 
Ki(rrri), a daughter uf Pelios and .\naxibin, and 
mother nf Kumelus and Admetus. (.\pollad. i. 9. 
S 10, IJ>.) Homer (//. ii. 71.S) calU her the fiiir- 
CTt among the daughter* nf Pelins. When AJnie- 
lus, king of Phenie, sued for her hand, Pelia.<s in 
order to get rid of the numertius suitors, di'cUrvd 
that be would give his daughter to him only who 
should come to his court in a cluiriot dmwn by 
linns and l)oars. This was accomplished by Ad- 
motut, with the aid of Apollo. For the furthc-r 
•tnry, see Adukti's. The sacrifice of hemelf for 
Admetu* was highly celebrated in antiquity. 
(Aelion, r. //. lir. 4S, Animal, i. 15 ; Philostr. 
Jfrr. a. 4 ; Ot. .4ri Am. iii. Ill ; Kurip. Alcrglis.) 
TowBJxls her (hther. too, she showed her filbl of- 
fcction, fur. at least, according to l>iodunis (ir. 52 ; 
conip. however, Palaeplu IMf iRmdiU. 41), she did 
not share in the crime of her sisten, who mur- 
ttt»i Ibeir father. 

Aacicnt ■• well a* modem critics have altempteil 

tB tspfaiin the rr! ' V '—.ii« to life in a nilioii- 

■BMk manner, '■ : that during a severe 

IMima abe wa* r life br a physician of 

tbattBM of HoadM. (Paiaeph. I.'e. : Pl'ut. Ama- 
lor. |k 761.) Alontis wo* represented on the 
ikMt of Cypsrius. in a groop shewing the funeral 
■k» of PeUas. fPau*. «. 17. § 4.) In tbe 
o( FWenca Uere is on olio relievo, tbe 
L of ClaOBdHa, whicii is bdieved to nrpment 
Altwria dnoliag hit«etf to death. ( Merer, (iacA. 
ArUldnmi. A'iimfr, i. p. I'VJ. ii. I59.)'(L. S.] 

A'Lt'KTAS ('AAornu), whose age is unknown, 
••* An asitliiir uf a woifc on tbr oflvtiogs (imtii- 




nara) in iJelphi, of which .Athennous quotes I 
second l>ook. (jriti. p. 591, c.) 

A'LCKTAS I. ('AXxeTai), king of EpiKcD, i 
the son of l'har)*pus. For some resuon or otk 
which we are nut informed of, be wns eTpells 
from his kingilora, and took refuge with the eliW 
Uionysins, tymni of Symcune^ by whom he vm 
reinstated. After his restoration we find him tW 
ally of the Athenians, and of JaaoD« the Togvis sf 
Thessaly. In u. c. 373, he appeared nt AtJirm 
with .lason, for the purpose of defei 
theus, who, through their influence, ». - 
On his death the kingdom, which till ihwji lu^ 
lieen governed by one king, was di\-<ded heI«Ma 
his two sous Ncoptolemus and Arjblias or ArT» 
lus. Diodorus (six. 811) calls him Arvhiloh 
(I'nus. i. II. § 3; Dem. 7'tnoM. pp. 1187, 1190; 
Diod. XT. 13. 3«.) [C. P. M.] 

A'l.CETAS II., king ofEpiRfs. Tm» the son rf 
Arymbos, and grandson of Alcet.- 
of his ungovenmblc t«m[>er. In 
his fiither, who apjwinted his younger ^>u. . 
to succeed him. (in the death of Acacid 
was killed in a battle fought with < 
31,'i, the Epirots recalled Alcetoa. 
on army aguinst him under the command < 
ciis, but soon after entered into an alliance \ 
(b. c. 312). The Epiml*. incensed at the i 
of Alcetas, rose against him and |iut him ' 
together with his two sons ; on which Pyn 
the son of Aeacidiii, was placed upon the 
by his protector Olaucias, king of the IIIt 
a c. 307. (Pans. 111.^5: Uiod. xix. 88. I 
Plut. Pyrrk. 3.) [l\ P. ; 

A'LCETAS CAAWtoj), the eighth 
Macedunia, counting from Caronus, and I 
counting from Perdiccas, reigned, 
Eutebius, twenty-nine yearn. He was i 
of Amyntas I., who reigned in the latter poi* i 
the sixth ccnturv a c. (Itcmd. viii. l.lii.) 

A'LCETAS (■■AAWTai), the brother of P» 
ciH and son of Orontes, is firvt mentiioiiid as i 
nf Alexander's generals in his Indian et[»e,3itid 
(Arrittn, iv. 27.) On the dtvth of Ab-xsimier, 
es]H)used bis bnitherS party, and, at his 
nnirdered in a r. 322 Cyane, the haW-aioXr i 
Alexander the f^reat, when she wished 
her daughter Eurj'dice to Philip An 
(Diod. xii. 52; Polyaen. riii. (iO; 
Pltol. p. 70, ed. Uekker.) At the time 
diccas' murder in Egjpl in 321, Alcetas i 
Eumenes in A«in .M inor engaged aiaioM 4 
and the army of Pi-rdiccas, whicB had 
from him and joined Ptolemy, condemiM<4 i 
and all tbe |uirtitans of his brotlier to d«atll 
war against .\lcetas, who hod now left 
and united his forces with tho^ of Attalia^ 
entrusted lo Antignnns. Alcetas and Attalss < 

defeated in Pisidiii in .12i> ' *' 

to Tcnnesmu. He wns '- 
inhabitants to Antignimi.. M 
his hands alive, slew himself. (Di.kI. 
44 — Iti ; Justin, xiii. ti, H; Amnn, 

ALl'IUl'AUES CAAKiftdJid). 
Cleiniaa, was bom at Athens al»at ■>. c 4< 
little nuiier. His father fell at Oimneta a, 
leaving Alcibiades and u younger son. ( Pbi. 
p. 320, a.) The last cara[migTi of tha 
Potidaea vnu in a r. 429. No 
served in this war, and the young Ath«n 
not sent out on forrign military Hnioe ' 


ow as Akill 

ffon? II. •'. -I'-'i), he hftd camcj u dtMTre Inr ii»- 
civtuiing th« Cributt* paid by tlie riubjtH't uII'um nf 
Athene, ami by liU nmiuigi-'moiii it waa nii«<Ml U* 
ibmblo lUv amuuiil lixrd by ArisleiJc-i. Alter the 
iltiilh *if CltHin then- wiw no rivul able at ill! lo 
cope with Alcibiadci* rxcfpt Nicuuw To the politi- 
cal views of thti lutter, who wuh anxious fur peace 
imd repose and avcrM to all pLuia of fon-if^ cau- 
qumtJL, Alcibiodcf wo* cnniptetcly nppimed, and hie 
jealousy of the inf1iu>nce ami hij{h chamctLT of bit 
rival* Ird him to entertain a very cordial diolilcL' 
towards him. On one occojdon otdy do we Hnd 
thoin united iu purpose and feidiug, and tluit Wtu 
when llyperbolu* thrratcned one of them with 
banitthincnt. On thi» thi<y united their intluenct*, 
and KyprrbotiiA hiniAelf wuh OAtmciwd. The date 
of thi» occurrence is uncertain. 

Alcibiadr*!* bad bi.H:n di-Ain>iift of reiu'win^ thosi; 
ties of h<<*>pitiility by which \iU fiunily had been 
connected with Sparta, but which hod Im^cu bniki^'n 
off by hi" grandfiithfT. With thi« vit*w he viml 
wilh Nicia* in his good oHicc* towards the SpnrLin 
pruonert taken in Spliuctoriu; but in the nc^titi^- 
tion> which ended iu the peace of 4'Jl, the S^mrbiiiii 
prfforred eniploytni; the int^-rventiun of Nicin* 
and l*iu:he«. InceuM'il at tbi» ^li^:hl, Alcibiudo 
ihntw oil hit inHtiencv into thr op|M>»itr Kitle, and 
in B. r. 4'20, after tricking the Spartan HmlMunadurB 
who hod ciune for the purpO!ie of thwarting; his 
plnnis brought oIkmiK on alliance with Ar^*}*, Elits 
and Mnntiueia. In 415) he was chosen Strategun, 
and at th«< ht^d of a «uuUl Athenian force nuircbed 
into PrlojMinnenns, and in vnriou* way» furthen*il 
the intenr«t» of the now coufedenicy. During the 
IMXt thrre yean lie took a pnimineut part in the 
eooiplicatcd negotialionb and roilibuy opemtiom* 
whieh were carried tm. Whether or not he u-n* 
thi< iu>ti([utor of tho unjunt expedition against the 
Meliunk t» nut clear : but he wa* at any ruu* the 
author "f ilie decrtf fur their bartianuik puni*h- 
menL, nntl biniiu'lf punhoiied a Mcliau wuniaiu by 
whiim lie hml u miu. 

In n. i\ 4I.S Atirilmidi'v ap|icar» as the foremrMit 
omoD); the aflvnattcA of the Sicilian expedition 
(Thur. ri.), which hii nndiilion led him to believe 
would be a fttep tnwnnU the comjueftt of Italy, 
Cnrthnf*r» nod tlie I*eloponiip»u*. (Thuc. vi. JHI.) 
\VI,.),. .1... ... — "'-Ml* for the expedition were 

gHii. ■ i] the myHterinuft mutilation 

of I A lunn named Pythouicui 

ehofffed AJiibuide« with having divulged and pro- 
Cuinl the Kleiiftinian tnytlenes; and another man, 
AiMlrwle«, endeavoured V* connect thi* and ■Unilar 
uAmcM with the umtiUliuu of the llemiaa. fu 
itt^ of hi* dfiuaiui* lor an in\<-* .-"••-> Alri- 
iM4ai WBn tent nut with Nicias n. - in 

daaaMnd of the lleeL, but wa« n < be 

routd cjury tml the plan of ujK-niliuiiii winch ut hi* 
■uggfatiim luul been adopted, nuiiiely, tot-ndKiVour 
to win over the (irerk town* in Sicily, except 
STracuw aiul S'linu> and exritr the native Sicrls 
to revolt, and then .-tltock >ynu:uiie. Me wiu 
tUtm'cd to ncmnipiuty the in hi* ov^-n 
ydWr. but nutna^'xd to e«cn|>o at 1'hurii, fmm 

whlui pkcv he cr>«vd owr to C'yllene, artd thcDCo 
ptocrcJod to Sparta at thf inviutinn of tlie 
Spartan guvennncuL He now npjiearpd a« the 
avownd cncui)' of Ktt country ; di«;lo»ed to the 
Sponana ihe plani uf the Athenians, aud rvcorn- 
isiinMlMi than lu wrud <i)bppu« to Symctiaa, atid 
to fortify IkxT'hria. (Thuc tl. BA, &c^ vii. Ut. 

defeat a plan which hod Imvh laid fur the ar<q<»*^ 
tion of Meit!iana. At Atheni> sentcnee of d<^ 
was poftM-d upMU him, bin proprfly cull' ' ' 

a CMThc pronounced upon him by tb< 
religion. At Sparta he rendenx! hini- .: , , 
by the focility with which he adopted the ^pi-''.<<i 
nuinnerfc. Through hiit instnniieniaJity nuLii\ 'i 
thn Aiiintic allies of Athens wen* induced to rewilu 
mid an alliance utu brought about with TMa*- 
phenieH(Thuc. viii.G,&.c.); but the luachluotiou* nl 
his enemy AgiA [Aulfi II.] induced him tnnhMidM 
the SpiirtanH and take ivfuge with Ti^(«^phe^^r• 
(n. <*-, 41*2), who»e favour ho w>on gained by bia 
unrivalled talentii for nocial inU.'rcourM*. TV 
eflCrongement of TtMnphemea from hi« SpnrLii. 
allies ensued. Alcibiade^, the enem^* of .SjMnA, 
wislied to return to Athene. lie aixoroinr 
ly t-nlered into correspondence with the im*t 
influentiid pen»on& in the Aiheniun tlert at S*nif*. 
offering to bring over TisKipheniej. to an rtlh,*i.. 
with Atbenit, but making it a condiliou. titut <>ii 
garchy should 1m* ei>tabliHhed there. I1ii* i<tii»ci 
ing with the wiithes of tho«>e with whom he 
nirgotiating, ihow political movements wer 
foot by Peitoinder, which ended (u. l\, 411) 
establiKhmennt of the Kour llundn*d. 
gorchii, however, fniding he could not |*erl 
his primiiHTS with re«p4H:t to Tiunpltrnies, 
couMrioUA that he had ut heart no nsil liking fori 
olignrrhy, would not riTnll him. Ibit thn 
in the annnment at Sllmn•^ be^iil. ' 
and Thrru>ylbih, de^liired their i 
democnicy, and |ia»*ed n vote, \>s .,.,.- .. .\ 
was pardoned and rrcollrd, and jtp|Miiutc<li 
their gvnemlb. He conferred an iiupurt^inC | 
on his country, by rcKimining tlie soldit 
returning at once to Athens and so coimn 
civil war ; and in the courw of the Mime 
nligunrliy wiih overlhnjwn without their i 
Alcibifules and the other exileit were i 
fi»r the next four year* he ixMrnunetl 
under hi)> command llie AlheniimH gained 
tone* irf" Cynoi>*enia, Abydos* «i>d l'\?-ifus 
got poMeiwion of (.'bnlcedon and Hvyiinttum. 
IL r, 407, ho returned to Athens ^^ * 
received with grvat rnthusinsm. 1 )■ 

the pHKeiMiM- -■ •■ • I 

his projjert) 
to tvcuiw ih'ii 

uutnder- ill-chief ul all the bind aud 
D'uhI xiii. t>9i I'luu^/e. X\\ Xen. ffr4L i 
13— -20.) He signalisod hi- - 
ing the mystic pn*cei<«ioii to I 
lieen interrupted since the oc« : 
But hi*'k»fnl expedili" 
ojid the dcfi-flt at Notium, occi- 
absence by the imprudtriicc* of his IwoU 
tiocbns, who bnmght on an engagement i 
orders, fiinii»bed hi« eneouie* with a baiidn 
him, and he was suprnedcd in hi* 

{tn\ 4oi;.) 

Thinking that Athent would Murnely be a < 
pbicc for bun, Alcibitules went into vobuitarjr i 

• Simnly after Uir riciory at AbyJ'«k AV 
biadrn paid a viiut to Tift«4pbernrv '^^ ' 
rived in the neighlMurhood of the U- 
woA arn*HuM by him and sent to Saf>ii<'. .\iui 
month** luipritMiinteiit, however, he «ui'e«>M||i«l i 
making hiti eM^[H>. (Xi?ii. iifilttu i. I. ^ :>J 


t 6irti/i*ii iliimain at Kiiujithc in Oie Tbnu-uin 
lie cnni<ctinj a Imiiil nf incnciMiuriea, 
wut im ilio nciRhhourinj; 'I'limcinn 
ttlbB^ hy vhicb mnnni ho cnnniilrmMy enriched 
btOMffiC ttrti nIfnriM pmt<4'tioii t/i th>.* iioi^'Ii)>nur- 
WfOrark r.' the fiitul bnttic nf Ao^'ut^ 

ntmaiiB ivo nn iiii'UV'ctiial wumirifj; i<> 

Ife AlBci. After till' r^tubluhmeiil 

tf Urn tfr I'birty (b. c. 4U4), hr wax 

■arfauol iii-nL Upon tliU he tixik 

NAht with I'humabaxuA, luiij wn* uhuut lu pn>- 
BM ta Uw cuutt of Arttxencs, when one night 
bk ksiup m* MUTnandcil by a Innd of amied men, 
H>l «rt nn firr. fU nuht-d out feword in hrnid, 
Ml Ml, (licncd »-ilh aimwt. (il ■'. -104.) Ao 
tttStf t* T>i<Hl<<ni« iin}l Kphoni* (IIIihI. xiv. 1 1) 
A* aflMMIM wpn? emiiwAriefi nf I'hnnuiltaxiu, who 
blfcoi led In thit itcp either by hi» own jcaloiuy 
t AIcMmIck or by the instig:itinn of the Spartan*. 
Il h mm probable th;it they were either emploj-cd 
\m lh» Sfwtaiiftv or (ufcording to one account in 
naaik) In' ibr brothcn of n Indy whuni Alci- 
kalM kaa) Kiluoed. ir» corpse was taken np 
by bi* niiitreu Tinuindm. Athitniu'aii 
, S74) mcntiiiiu a monument eivctcd to bi> 
r mi MeliMvt, the place of hi« death, and a 
rf him errct*Hl ibereon by the emperor 
whn al*) intitituted certain yearly sucri- 
bis honour, lie loft a win by hiA wife 
nancd .Alcibiadeo, who never diwtin- 
faiaielC It wni for hini that Inocnites 
yiith Tltpt Tai Ztiymt. Two of 
fmxhi* (xir. and xv.) tut directed 
UiB. The fortune which he left boliiiid 
^ Wwil iiut tn be HHioIler than hi> patrimony, 
i^tt, jUeA. And Sicitu: Thucyd. lib. v. — viii. ; 
, HttSrm. lib. i. ii. ; .^doc in Aleit. and 
Imct. Of Uii/it; Xe|Hn, Alcili.; Diod. 
™. 2— i,' 37— 41, 45, 4K, 49— .51, 
, I p. .1, i». p. 181. V. pp. 2ln, '216, 
I W, ti. p. 5WJ, xu. pp. S'Jo, 534, 53.5, xiii. 
Hi. i7S.) tC. P. M.l 

^ALTIBrADES ('AA«fuai|t). ■ Sfortan exile, 
^ W Li ml to hi* caiintry atmut li. r. Ift4, by the 
, bat wha ungnleful enough to go as nm~ 
r 6<un S|xina to Hume, in order to octuac 
I and the .\chat'an>. (Pulyb. xxiii. 4, 
ixir. J ; Lir. xxxix. 35.) 
lAM.VI^ ('AAxiS<vut), a Orcek tfieto- 
* » fattre of Rbu'a in Aeoliii, in A«ia 
((^uintil. ill. I.<1 10. with SpiiUinj;'* note.) 
] of fior^i.-m, .-uid reitidi'd at Alheiu 
jrar* n. i. 4.'S'J and 411. Hen- be 
na in el<M|uenoe, acconting to Kudo- 
t \9S), tu the wicti'iitor of hi» ina«ter, and 
' I kMt uf that «o|i)ii>tirnl •chool, with which 
- to pl(^*U4^ the 
■ l' word*. That 

,;ionge»t morkt 

echotd is nutied by Arit- 
. who cenimre* lii« poin|KiUft 
iMiti u)i4 rctrnAa^inl av of jxielicAl epilheta and 
F^K and by IHonv-iun (/Jr Itaca, 19), who 
* lu itTV Till ■':'-d. He is said to 

■•• ^mi on epi- ■cral«'« (Trx'tx. CftU. 

*"!), bM wh i .,.T.! refer» to rval 

P^Hl fuattT, "''ly an infei^ 

^kfiaaUttfaac, I .indenined the 

'^^ W Wfililqi omtloua tot Ule putpi»o of deli- 
"^lik«,b MBeotain. 
IV ■■trato ■■**"«i'~ Kfcnl work* of Alctdo- 



ma«, 4nch n« an Rulogy on lleuth, in which ho 
ciiuniemted the eviU of liniiiau life, ami of which 
Cicero no'ni.i to speak willi (jrvnt |.mi«' ( Thm.. i. 
48); n sliew-speech, c-alled AiJ-j-oi Mfirmjuiwrft 
(Arintot. Mrt. i. 13. § 5) ; n work nn music (Sui- 
doa, ». e. 'AKKiiifia!) ; and some siientitic works, 
viis. one (Ml rhetoric {rix"! ^o^ooj, I'lut. JJemustK 
5), and another adled Ao'yoi ^uffiitit (Diog. I,aert. 
viii. Mi) ; but all uf tlieui are now hut. Txetaea 
{I'/ii/. x'l. 752) hod otill In'fore him aeverol omtiona 
of .Alcidama», but we now pOMo^t only two decla- 
mations which go under lii» name. 1. 'OSuaatit, 
^ Kara IloXajiifSoi/j a-poJoir/aj, in which Odysiicua 
i» made to accuse Palaniedea of trcacherj' to the 
caii«e of the Oreoks during the sii'ge of Troy. '2. 
a-f/il (TwjMffTcSi', in which the author set* forth the 
adTantage<i of delivering citenipure speechea over 
those which have previously been written out. 
Theae two orulionis the tecond of which ii the Iwt- 
ter one, both in form oikI tboiighl, iM'ar Haircely 
any traces of the faults which /Xrislotle and liio- 
nysius cen»urc in tile works of Alcidamas ; their 
fault i« rather being frigid mid insipid. It baa 
therefore lieen maintained by several criticH, that 
theie orationt are not the works of Alcidimuw; 
and with regard to the fimt of them, the suppo- 
sition is supported by strong pruliability ; the se- 
cond may have been written by Alcidatnas with n 
view t4» couiitemet the indnence of isocmtes. The 
first irdition of them is tluit in the collection of 
lirc<'k orators publishi-d by Aldus, Venice, 1513, 
foL The bi«t modem editions are those in Iteiske'a 
Ortiliirff (Iriitvi, vol. viii. p. 64, Ac ; and in 
Ik'kker's OmUirn Attid, vol. vii. {Oxford.) [L.S.] 
A'WIDAS ('AAicilai), wa« appointed, a c. 
421t, commander of the Pelopoiuiesitin tieol, which 
was sent to Li'»bos for the ri'lief of jMyiilene, then 
besieged by the Athenians. Hut Mytilene sur- 
reiidea-d to the Atlieniana seven days before the 
Pehiponnesian fleet arrived on the coast of Asia ; 
and Alcidos, who, like most of the Sfxtrtan com- 
manders, had little cnterprists ivsolved to return 
home, although he was recnnimeiided either to at- 
tempt the recovery of Mytilene or to make a de- 
scent upon the Ionian coast. While sailing along 
the coast, he captured many vessels, and put to deittJi 
all the Atheniiui allies whom be took. From Ephesui 
he sailed home with the iitjnost s|>eed, lieing chased 
by tlie .'\theniBU fleet, under I'aches, ns far as I'atnios. 
(Thuc. iii. l(i, 2C — 33.) After receiving n-inforce- 
ments, Alcidas sailed to Cotvyra, B.C. 427; and 
when the Athenians and Corcyraeans sailed out tu 
meet him, he defeated them and drove them back 
to the island. With his habitual caution, how- 
ever, ho would not follow up the advantage he bad 
gained ; and being informed that a large Athenian 
fleet was apiiroachiiig, he sailed back to IVIopon- 
uesiis. (iii. (i;i — 111.) In Re. 42fi, he was one 
of the leaders of thu colony founded by the Lace- 
daemonians at lleracleio, near Thennopybe. (iii. 

ALCI'DU'E ("AAkiSIicti), the daughu r of Aleua, 
and wife of Salmoneiis, by whom she hml a daugh- 
ter. Tyro. .Mcidice died early, and Salmoneut 
aftej-wards married Sidero. (Diod. iv. 68 ; Ajiol- 
lod. i. 9. O') [I-S.J 

ALCr.MACHU.S, a painter mentioned by 
Pliny. (//. A' xiiT. 11. t. 4(1.) He is not 
spoken of by any other writer, and idl that it 
known about him is, that be pointed a picture of 
Uiuxipiius, a victor in the |iaiicnilluni at Olympiu 




I>ioup{nio lived w the tiuie of Alexander tlie 
Great. (Aelion. >'. //. x. •-'■2 ; Diod. rvii. 100; 
Athcn, n. p. 231, a.) Alcimochut therefore pro- 
bably lived ulmut the ume time. \C. P. M.] 

ALCl'MKDK ('AA<ti/ii«T,), a daughter of Phj- 
btcuiand Clvmene, the daughter of Miiiyaji. (A|)ol' 
l(.n. llhod. "i. \f> J Sthol. oJ toe. and u<i i. -I'M).) 
She innrried Aesun, by whom she bocaiae the 
mother of Jaiioii (l>v. Hfnid. iv. 105 ; Ilygiii. 
/■'a/i. In uiid l-l), who, however, i> called by others 
a kon of Polytnede, Ame, or Scarpbe. (ApoUod. i. 
9. 8 8 ; cntnp. AiMON, Jason.) [L, S,] 

AlXI'MKDtjN ('AAk.^'Jo,!'). 1. An Arca- 
dian hero, from whom the Arcailian plain Alciino- 
don derived its nuiue. He waft the father of 
Pbilln, by whom Henurlea begot a ton, Aechina- 
goniA, whom Alcimedun expoAcd, but ilenurles 
ured. (Paus. riii. 12. § 2.) [AECIIHAUORAti.] 

2. One of the Tyrrhenian aailork, who wanted 
t" carry off the infant Uiony»ii» from Naxos, but 
wu* mctaniorplifi&<<d. with hife enmpanions into a 
dolphin. (Uv. Met. iii. (ilb ; Hygin. Fab. KM ; 
couip. Aturru.) 

,'<. A mn of Laerceua, and one of the cnmnian- 
dec* of the Mytmidont under Palrodu*. (Horn. //. 
»ri. 197. xTii. 475, tie.) [L. S.] 

ALCI'MKDftN, an eml>ot»er or chaicr, iipoken 
of by Virgil (KrUxj. iii. 37, 44), who meu'.ionii 
•ome gnblet* of hi» wnrkmanihip. [C. P. M.] 

AU'I'.MKNKS ("AAKiMti^i). 1. A Hon of 
Gliiocui, who wa> unintentioiuilly killed by hit 
brother Bt-llemphon. According to wme tradi- 
tions thit brother of Rellerophon wai called Dcli- 
ade«, or Piiren. (Apollod. ii. 3. § 1.) 

% Oneof the wut of Jnton and Medeio. ^Vhen 
Jamn >iib«e<|uenlJy wanted to marrj- GUace, hit 
Hint .Mi'irjieiica and Tiiander were mnrdered by 
Medeiii, and won nfterwardi buried by .luaon in 
the uncCuary of Hera at Corinth. (Diod. iv. 54, 
55.) [L. S.] 

ALCt'MENESCAAiciM^mi), an Athenian comic 
poet, apparently a contemporary of Aetcfaylua. 
One of hit pieces it iup|Hited to have lieen the 
KoAi^utfou (the KenuUe Swimment). Hit workt 
were greatly admired by TyunichuA, a younger 
contemporar)' of Actchyliia. 

Thenr »M a tragic writer of the nine name, a 
native of Mrgnra. mi'ntionejl by Suidnt. (Meiueke, 
ilicH. Cnl. (_'owio>ruiH (j'ratr. p. 481 ; Suid. $, n, 
■AA«i>./«|i and "AAk^.) [f. p. M.] 

A'l.Cl.Mlj'S {'Af.Kiiws), alio called Jaiiwna. or 
him ('laniifioi), oneof the Jewiah priettt, who 
uted the i<yrian cauie. He wn* made high 

leil by Hemetnut, about B. c. l(!l, and wa% in- 
ttalleil in hit olGce by the help of a Syrian amy. 
In cnnteqaence of hit crueltie* he wan expelled by 
the .lewt, and uliliged to dy to Antioch, but wa* 
rettnrrd by the help of another Syri-iii army. He 
cnotinued in hit ofbce. under the pn)teclion of the 
Syriont. till hit death, which happened tuddrnly 
(tL c 1.50) while he wat pulling dou-n the wall of 
the t/-nrple that divided the rimrt ^if the Oentilet 
frtini that of the Itnolitct. (J'M«*ph. Ant. Jmi. xii. 
9. 8 7 ; I Mumlt. vli. ix.) 

A'LCIML'S f'AAiruioi). a Oreek tfaetorieian 

»t I> '■■ • I •-""■- Ol. 114) callt the niiMt 

• ' ' rheluriciant. tlouriidted 

A 'i eertain whether he it 

thi- «Airtr U-* ihe Ak-iittu* to whom Diogenea in 
another f«iMage(iii. 9)a«rri)ie« a work wpei *A^r- 
imr. Athenaeut in wveral pUeea tpeakt of a Si- 


cilian Alcimut, who appeart to haw 
author of a great hittorical work, part* of wb 
are referred to under the name* of 'ItoAuib i 
2iKf Auc^ l)ut whether he waa the innie at i 
rhetorician ,Alcimu%cannot be determintHl. (Athi 
X. p. 441, xii. p. SIB, vii. p. 322.) [L, &]! 

writer of teven short poemt in the Latin antboF 
whom Wenijdorf hiu shewn (Pnh't. Lot, Mim. i 
vi. p. 26, Sic.) to Ih- tile aune person a* Ah 
the rhetorician in .\quitania, in Gaul, who it ■ 
of in terms of high praise by Sidonius Apollia 
(EjHd. viii. n, T. 10,) and Ausoniut. (^n 
BurdiiKtl, ii.) Ilia date it determined by Hi< 
nymus in his Chronicon, who tays that 
mid Delphidiuft taught in Afiuilania in a.d. 1 
Hit poems are superior to most of hij^ 
They arc printed by Meier, in his •* j 
Latiiui," ep, 254 — 2t)0, and bv Wcnudo 
p. l.'»4. &c. 

AlATNOUS (•AA«(koo5). I. A son of K 
sithous and grandson of Poseidon. His ! 
colc'bnted in llie ttory of the Argonauts, and I 
more in tliat of the wanderings of Odysseus 
the fonner Alcinuus is represented as liviqg V 
his queen Arete in the iilond of Ihrpane. 1 
Argonauta, on their return from Colchis, mna 
his island, and wciv most hutpilaMy leceiv 
When the Colchians, in their pursuit of the t 
luiutt, likewise arrived in Drepnne, and deaai 
that Medi'ia should be delivered up to thel^ i 
nous dL-chired that if she was still ■ rooidea 
should Ix' nrstored to them, but if she waai 
the wife of Jason, he would protect her aad 
husband against the Colchians. The Colchians i 
obliged, by the contrivance of ,\rcte, to depart t 
out their princews and the Argonauts 
their voyage homewards, aiWr they had 
nmnifieent presents (ram Alcinout. (A|><>ltun. tU 
iv. 990-1225 ; Orph. ^rv^ia. 12S8, ic ; Ap 
L 9. § 25, 26.) Acconliiig to Homer, .Mriooi 
the hsippy ruler of the l'h.-u-ncians in the isl 
Seheria, who has by Arete hve sons and one i 
ter, Nauticna. (Or/, vi. 12. &c., 112, <fcc.) 
description nf his palace and his dmninion\ I 
mode in which Odykseus is recei\ed. the ml 
tainments given to him, and the stories be i 
to the king about hit own wandehngv oecaH 
considerable portion of the Odytsey (f^ro ImK 
to xiii.), and form one of its most chaming |a 
(Comp. Hygin. Fitl>. 125 and I2(i.) 

2. A son of HippoiliiKm, who, in voii jan d 
with his father and elevr.n bnthers expelled I 
rion and Tyndareus from I.ncedarmon, bat 
afterwards killed, with hit father and lirothei^ 
HenuJes. (Apollod. iii. 10. g 5.) [L. &! 

A'tXINOLuS CAAjtlvoM), a Platonic phS 
pher, who prolnbly lived under the Canan, 
thing is known of his personal history, btrt I w 
I entitled 'Ewirn^ vir nA<iTwof tvytiirir, 
taining an analytii of the PUtonic phUosophya 
it wnis set forth by late writers, luu been | 
The treatise is written tnther in the manoif 
Aristotle tliaii of PUto, and the author 
hesitated to introduce any of the views of i 
philoMphers which seemed to add to the co< 
nets of tile system. Thus the partt nf the 
gitm (e. 6), the doctrine of the mean an d if' 
<{«it and irtpytiai (c. 2. H), oir 
Plato ; as well a* the divition of plii 
waa cwnaoii to the Peripotrtia < 


• (ma the writiiign of Plato to get a 
I omplete in it* parte, wi<l hcDce the ttmp- 
) of ktv wiilcn. who Mu^ht for tyktcni, to 
fm Phio and Ariitoil«, without prrcci%-iii^ the 
MaMtcnty of ibe union, while even thing which 
mbd ikor fiufam «u fiatleuly aKrilwd to the 
tmiitt tl tWr own Met. In the treotiio of 
^Wmw, howsrer, thew are itill meet of the spi- 
t)i «( Plato* howrrer low on idea he gives of hii 
•n (ibit>*ii|ihical talent. He held the world and 
at aunating •oul to be rtcmul. Thia wul o( the 
ottnr (4 ^ 'A *) '""' 'ift""!) wia not created hy 
(M. hat, t» ua* the imiiite of Alrinoun, it wat 
ij bin D* from a pmfuuod sleep, and 
himwlf, "tliat it might look out 
^B iateOKtaal tbingi (c. 14) and receive formi 
•M akai from the divine mind." It was the fint 
ttfa iveoaioij of inteniieiliali- l)eing« between God 
fll BU. 1'he iS^ai prucveded immediately fnira 
tai aia^ of UimU and were the liigheitt object of 
••iuenect; the "fonn" of matter, the type* of 
■lAb thing*, having a real being in tltenuelves. 
\^%] He differed ^m the earlier Platonisti iu 
aatel the iS^Oi to geneful lawt ; it »eemed an 
••■■hj notion that God could conceive an iSia 
^^ Ita^ aitifirial or uunatunil. or of individimln 
• Mnlin, or of any thing niative. >Ic wcmi 
kiu* aimed at harmoouting the viewi> of I'lato 
■1 AiMUtle iin the Hitu, an he diminguished 
Aatat the <(S1^ form* of thingv, which he al- 
9mi w9e iiMrinmble ; a view which «eem» ne- 
^■Khr cannectml with the doctrine of the eternity 
■* CMiMtrocc of matter. God, the fir»t foaii- 
hB i^t^ i l^e i, could not be known aa he is ; it 
^ iBt a fciat notion of him we obt^iin fmin negn- 
tttt* Md aiakliifics : hi* tuiture is equally beyond 
^fovcff of ciprc«iiion or conception. Itelnw hun 
of briogt (Saiiiovti) who lufieriutend 
I of all living things and hold inter* 
The hmiian wul paxe* through 
I, ihu* connecting tlte aerie* 
r claaic* of being, until it i& finally 
I mt Im^red acceptable to God. It will 
' *■ thai hi* *y>teni wa* a compound of Plato 
mi AnoiitJe, with kiuic i>arti borrowed from the 
■^ wd pKrtia|M derived from a «tudy of the 
n^apwu) ivatem. (Kittcr, OrtehidUf der I'kilo- 

*■■•* fint appealed in the I^lin vemion of 
"•■ IfclK, whieh wa* publiahed at Rome with 
■k KfiS, fol. The Greek text wa* printed 
AMine edition of .\puleius 15°2I, )lvo. 
>» olition i* ihot of fell, Oxford, IfiW". 
w W i» by J. K. Fiachcr, Leipxig, 17ti;), 8vo. 
■ •• iantlatcd into Frirnch by J. J. Coml)e!^ 
Pah*. IBM), 8vi>., and into Koglish by 
■ ■ I H iatory of Philoaophy. [ ». J.'] 

Hit's ('AXirl^ipwv), a Greek aophisl, 
eminent among the Greek cpiatolo- 
Ko|Kcting hi* life or the ago in which 
. va pi i — »i i no dinvt infurmntion what- 
I of ibv rorlirr critics i>* Ui C'roie and 
|iUn4 him, without any plauiiblc 
' fifth iciitur)- oi our oeni. Ilergler, 
who (lOowcd him, placed Alciphnm 
hdwecn Luciaii and Ariktaenetui, 
I aw hctweoi A.II. 17U uul 330, while othem 
to hun a date even mrlicr than the 
The only circumttnnce timt 
htnn mpecting hi* age i» the fact, 
iMlen of Ahatacnetu* there ore 


two (i. h and 22) between Lucion and Alciphron ; 
now as Ariitoenetua i* nowhere guilty of any great 
hisUirieal inaccuracy, we may safely infer that 
Alciphron wo* a contemporary of Lucian — an infe- 
rence which ia not uicompatible with the opinion, 
whether true or fiil«e, that Alciphron imitated 

We poaaet* under the nome of Alciphron 1 1 6 
fictitious letters, in 3 b(xik*, the object of which 
is to delineate the characters of curtain classes of 
men, by introducing them as expressing tlieir pe. 
ciJiar sentiments und opinions upon subject* with 
which they wen- Kmiiliar. The classes of persons 
which Alciphron chose for thin puri>oBC are fiaher^ 
men, country people, [urnsites, and hctnctao or 
.-Vlhenion courtArzjms. All are nmde to express ] 
their sentiments in the most gniceful.and elegant 
language, even where the subject* are of a low 
or obscene kind. The characters are thus some- 
what rnifted above tlieir common standard, without 
any great violnlinn of the truth of reiility. The 
forai of these letters is exquisitely beautiful, and 
the huiguogc is the pure Attic diidect, such as it 
was spoken in the best times in familiar but ro- 
fined conversation at Athens. I'he scene from 
which the letters are dated is, with a few excep- 
tioiji,, .'\thens and its vicinity ; and the time, wher- 
ever it is discernible, is the perioil after the reign 
of .Mexaiider the Great, The new Attic comedy 
was tile priiici|ud source from wliich the author de- 
rived his infontmtiun rirspecting the choractens and 
nmnners wliicb be describes, mid far this reason 
these letters cnnlain much valuable information 
alMjut the private life of the Athenians of that time. 
It has lieen slid, that Alciphren is an imitator of 
Lucian ; but iK-sides the style, and, in a few in- 
stances, the subject matter, there is no resemblancs 
between the two writers: the spirit in which the 
two treat their subjects is totally different. Doth 
derived their materials from the mine soureca, and 
in style iHith aimed at the greatest perfection of the 
gcjiuiiie .\tlic Greek. Bergler has truly remarked, 
that .Mciphron stands in tlie same relation to Me- 
iimider ns Lucian to .Aristophanes. 1'he first edi- 
tion of .'VU-iphron's letters is that of Aldus, in his 
collf^lion of the Greek Epistolugrapliers, Venice, 
1499, 4to. This edition, however, contains only 
those letters which, in more modem editions, form 
the (it*t two iHiuks. Si'venty-two new letters were 
added from a \'ieniui imd a Vatican MS. by Bergler, 
in Ills edition (Leipzig, 171.5, Xvo.) with notes and 
a Latin translation. These seventy-two epistles 
fiirm the third imok in Bergler's edition. J. .\. 
Wagner, in his edition ( I>.'ipiEig, 1 7MII, 2 vols, 8vo., 
with the notes of Bergler), added two new letter* 
entire, and fragniunts of five others. One long 
letter, which bos not yet been published entire, 
exists in sevend Paris SiSS. [L. S.] 

ALCIPPE ('AAKdnn)). I. A daughter of 
Ares and Agraulo*, the daughter of Cecrops. Ha- 
lirrhotliius, the son of Poseidon, intended to viuhitc 
her, but was surprised by Ares, and killed, for 
which Poseidon liore a grudge against Are*. (Pans, 
i. 21. S 7 ; ApoUod. iii. 14. § 2.) 

2. .'V maiden, who was dishonoured by her own 
brethcr, ,\straeus, unwittingly. When Astnen* 
became aware of his deed, he tlirew himself into a 
river, which received fnim him tlie name of Astme- 
us hut was afterwards called I'aicus. (PluL l)t 

Other porsomiges of this name are mentioned in 



AimDoi]. iii. )5. SR; Uiixl. ir. l(i; Bastatb. aJ Horn, 
p. 77*;; Horn. O./. iv. I'.M. [ Alcvi)NIU«s.] [L.S.] 
ALCIS ('AAku), llint it, the ttttuim. 1. A 
■nmaiiiu nf Athrna, niiilcr which the wu wonhip- 
pQ<l in M.-tcfilnniu. (Liv. xlii. 5).) 

2. A ilrity iimun^ the NnharvDli, an ancient 
Gonnnn trib«L (Tacit OWih. iX) Grimm (Iteat- 
(ob MytluJ, p. 39) coniiilcra Aicia in the pasMgo 
■^ Toiittu to be the gcnitiro of AU, which, ac- 
-4ardin{( to him, signiiic« a lacrvd gruve, anil is 
COQnecti.ll with the (ini* S\aos. Another Alci» 
ottun in ApotliKlonii, iL I. § 5. [L. S.] 

ALl'I'STllD.ND, a female painter ipolcen of by 
riiny (//, A', xxxt. 11. h. 40), who nientiunt one 
of her pictures rvprcnentinn a ilancer. [C. P. M.J 
ALCITHdK. [Altatuuk.) 
A'LCITIMJS CAAnSoi), tent a* ambaundor by 
the Achacnns to Puilemy Philnmetnr, B.C. \GU, 
when they hiiinl that the ArnuUtrria (we Dwt, of' 
JhI. n. r.) wen? to be celebrated iji his honour. 
(Pnlyli. xiviii. 10, 16.) 

AliC.VIAEON ('AAK/joiau'), a son of Ampbio- 
miu ajid Eriphyle, and bruther of Amphitochus 
Kurydicc. and Uemonaua. (.\|Krllad. iil 7. S 2.) 
lli> mother was induced by the necklace of Har- 
nionia, which she received from I'olyneices, to per- 
Miadr her huslKuul Amphiarauit to take part iu the 
■xpedition oituin^t I'heties, (Horn. <Jd, xr. 247, 
ht,c) Rut )>efi>n* Ampliiaraui set out, he enjoineil 
his sons to kill their mother as soon a* they should 
he grown up. (ApoUod. iiL (>, § 2 ; llygin. /'>j/i. 
73.) When the F.pigoni prepared for a second 
expedition againnt Thebes, to avejige the death of 
their fntherx the omcle promivd them snccess and 
victory, if they chone .Mcintieon their leader. He 
was at fint di«incline<l to undertake the command, 
\ be ha<l not yet taken vengeance on his mother, 
ording to the desire of his father. Hut she, 
who had now received from Thersander. the son 
of Polyneices the pcplus of Hannonia also, in- 
duced him \u join the expedition. Alcmneon dis- 
tingiuslied himself gnally in it, and slew Lduida- 
noa, the aan of Eleodes. (ApoUod. iii. 7. !$ 2, &c. ; 
coinp. Diod. iv. A(i.) When, after the iiU] of 
ThelicA. he leanit the reason for which his mother 
had urged him on to take part in the expetlition, 
he ilew her on the advice of an oracle of Apollo, 
and, according to some tnulitions in conjunrtion 
with htn bpitlier Aniphitoi-hus. For thi» deed he 
becuine mad, and was haunted by the Krinnyn. lie 
first came to Kicleus in Arcadia, and thi?nce went 
tn Phegeii* in Pviphis, and being puriAed by tlie 
hitler, he married his daughter Aninoe or .Mphe- 
siboea (Pan*, viii. '24. $ 4), to whom he gave the 
nevkhue uid peplua of ilarmnnia. Rut the coun- 
try in whieh IM BOW resided was visited by acar- 
city. in coosequxiiee of his lieing the murderer of 
his mother, and the oracle advised him to go to 
.\ehrlaua. According to Paiiaaniaa, he left Psophis 
iM'ransi* hi« nuwlnesn did not yet cfntv, Pausanios 
and Tliucydi<lr«(ii. 102 ; oini(>. PluL Lh liril. p. 
Ii02) further atate, that the oracle coaunanded 
him to go |o n country which had been farmed 
•uli~>]niiit to the murder of his mother, and was 
therefore under no curve. The country thus (wiint- 
ed out was a tract of hind which hod been reti-nlly 
formed at the mouth of the river .\chelinu. Apol- 
lodoivs HrrcM with this account, but gives a de- 
1 MiTnaeon's wanderingsi until be 
kth»^i if AclicNm*, who gave him his 
. .. in marriage. Caiirrlioe bad a 

these fat 
om JmB 
hia ^H 


desire to poisesa tJie necklace and peplus of III 
mnnia, and Alcmaeoii, to gratify her wi»l^»enl 
Psophis to get them from Phegeu*, under the 
U'Xt that he intended to dedicate them at ~ 
in order to l>e freed from his iiiadni'**. 
cDiuplieil with his request, but when he 
the treasures were fetched for Calirrhoe, he 
his sons Pronous and Agcnor (Apollod. iii. 7- fl 
or, according to Pausanioi (viiL 24. § 4), Teroen 
and Axion, after him, with the comnuind to k 
him. This was done, but the sons of Alcioaeon 
Calirrhoi' took bloody veiigi-ance at the insi 
of their mother. (Aiwllod. Pans. U. or. ; Ot. 
ix. 407, tic.) 

The story about Alcraaeon furnished rich 
rials for the epic and tragic poets of Oreeof, 
their Roman imitators. Hut none of these 
is now extant, and we only know frv>ra 
darns (iil 7. § 7), that Euripides, iu hi 
" Alcmaeon," stated that after the Call 
he married Mnnto, the daughter of Tei 
that he had two childriMi by her, Ampbili 
Tisiphone, whom he gave to Creon, king of 
riiiili, to educate. The wife of t'rcoiu ji«loga 
the extraordinary beauty of Tisiphonr, aftiraa 
mid her as a aUve, and Alcmaeon bimoelf ' 
her, without knowing that nhe was his dangb 
(Diod. iv. (iB; Paus. vii. 3. § 1, ix. 33. { 
Alcmaeon ofU'r his death was worshipped ; 
hem, and at Thebes he seems to have had an ■ 
near the house of Pindar (I'flk. riii. HO, itc.), 
calls him his neighbour and the guardim of 
property, and also seems to suggest that ptoplM 
powen were aKrilied to him, a* to hi* fiUJur 4 
phioRius. At Psophis bis tomb wiu ibewiit I 
rounded with lofty and sanml eypreiaei, (j^ 
viil 24. § 4.) At ilmpus, in Attica, where 
phiaraos and Aiuphilochus were worshipped, 
maenn enjoyed no such honour*, because he 
nuitricide. (I'nus. i. S4. S 2.) He wna 
in a )itatue at Delphi, and on the cheat of Cy| 
lus. (x. 10. S 2. v. 17. «i 4) I"* S. 

AUMAEON (AAicMaJw), Mn of the 
who was guilty of sacrilege with ncpaet 
lowers of Cimon, was invited by Ci 
in consequence of the servioci be had 
on erobBssy tent by Cneiut to conaalt 
oracle. On his arrival at Sardis Ci 
him a prriient of as much gold as he could 
out of the treasury. Alcmaeon took the 
his word, by putting on a most 
the folds of which (as well as the 
a pair of very wide boots, also provided 
occasion) he stuffed with gold, and then fil 
luuutli and hair with gtild diiit Ci 
at the trick, and pn-si'iiled him with m 
(about 5!iO u. >:■). The wealth thus acqi 
to have contributed greatly to the sub>c<|oent | 
perity of the Alcmaeonidae. (Ilemd. vi 126., 
AJonoeon wo* a fatecdot of hor«e* tot <kl 
racea, and on one ocaaioa gained the \fAm 
clinriol-raee at Olympia. (llerod. f. c.,- laaci 
i/« /<!•/>>, c. 10. p. 3.') I.) We are iii fo n iis 4 
I'lutorrb (^Sulum, ell), that he commamM 
Athenians in the Cirrhaean wari whidi h 
u. ■ . (ioo. (P. 8 

AIXMAEON CAXK^art-), oite of the i 
eminent natural philosopher* of antiijiiity. 
native of Crauma in Magna Giaecia. ilia 
name wa» Pirithus, and he is said lo iMna k 
pupU of Pythagoiao, and must thcnfetc ta** 







'28. Alcibindca. 

arftn, 94 ; 
Frtjtaq, p. 

P<y. 37.) 


20.Alci-21.tVlini(i». 2-2.Alcilmilo«, S-lrlcinia*. 24.Callin». 2B.I»<Kli«=Cimon. 2(;.Paralui. 27 

liiailcs. (X<-nnpli. (the i(r«lt (I'laL (Thcrich (Pint. 

(XfiKipb. Conrir. gcnrml. Proliu/. CAtLUa.) dim, 4.) 

Ifr/lrnA. iv. li) AliIBI- p. 320.) 

2.^13.) AUK.1.) 

The Alcnutconidw were a branch of thr fiunily 
of ibr Nki.xidai, The Niileidoe were drivL-n oiti 
uf Pylut in Mnarnia by thr Uorianik, al»ut 1 lUd 
u. I., iumI WMit tn Athpiit, where Mclniithut, the 
rrpn-ieiiutive of the elder bmnch of the iiuuily be- 
came kln^, and Alcnueon, the reprewntative of the 
■econd brunch, liocanic a nuble and the ancestor of i)ie 
Alcmncniiidne, Alcuuirun wm the ^n^^t-jfraniliMin 
of Nestor. (Pauft. ii. IK. Ji 7.) Aiuonp the archonH 
fur life, the >ixth is named MrK^tcleii, and the la«t 
Alemaenn. But, ak the archunft for life appear 
to have been always taken froui the fiunily of Me- 
don, it it pnih:ihle that thoe were only Alcmaco- 
nidft on the niother't itide. Tbc fir«t remarkable 
nuut ftinong the Alcnuieonids waji the archon Me- 
gnclet, who brought upon the iiunily the |;uilt of 
tacrilrge by hi* treatment of the in6nr)(enls under 
Cyloii. (h. r. 612.) [CiMUN Mkoa(LK.s.] The ex- 
puUinn of the Alemaeouidit woJt now loudly de- 
manded, and Solon, who prubably law in such on 
event an important atep toward* hia intended re- 
forms adviivd them to nubmit their cauae to a 
tribunal of three hundred noblea. The iraujt waa 
that they wen> baniahitl from Athena and retired 
to Phoiis pnilwbly nlKiut .'>!l(i or iii5 a. c. Their 
wealth havini( been augmented by the libemlity of 
Crueaua to Alcmaeon, the aon of Mei^nielea [Ai.r- 
WAKOn], and their influence incrraaed by the mar- 
riajp* of Mefj:aclea, the aon of Alcnuu-on, to Agnriate, 
the daiitthter of Cleiatbenes tyrant of Sicyon, tliey 
took .id vantage uf the divided atate of Athena, and 
by joining the |«irty of Lycurgua, they effecU$d 
tbeir rptum ; and ahnrtly afterwards by a aixnihir 
nninii, they expelled Peiaiatratua aonn after he had 
arii.i'dlhegoveniraent(li.<'. .5.5f).)[Piiii>iSTHATi]8.] 
Ilia atate of ihingadid not hxat long ; for, at the cud 
ffive ye«r». Megaeleagnve hia daughter Cueayra in 
Nogc to Pcikiatmtus and aa*iited in his reaU'>m- 
Vo Athene. Itut a new qiuirrel immediately 
I out of the conduct of Peisistrutua towanla his 
wift*, and the .\lcinaranida once more expelled him. 
Ihiring the following ten yean, Peiaistratua col- 
le<*te<l nil array, with which he invaded Attica, 
Olid defeated the Alcmaconids who were now once 
^Biore driven into exile. They were, however, atill 
brniidable enemies After the death of llippar- 
bus, they t'ink poasf«*inn of Lipaydicum, a fort- 
on the frontier of Attica, and made on at- 
npt to realore thenuelvea, but were defeated by 
lippias They hod. bowcTer, a more important 
purcia of intluence. In the year .S48 u. e. the 
of Ajndlu at Itelphi woa burnt, and the 
onida liaving cioitrucU'd with the Amphic- 
r nmnin] lo rrhoitd it, exisruted the Wfirk in 
lutyy uf magniliceiicv which much exceeiled their 
BCTigemrnt- Thry thus g:iincd greot popularity 
t' while they ntntrivrd lo bring 

I 11 fidium by charging them with 

batiug iiiwi tiir- lire. The oracle, bexidc*, fa- 

voured Ihem thenceforth ; and whenever it 
consulted by a Spart^tn, on whatever matter, t 
anawer always contained an exhortatiuu to | 
AthiMia fn^edom ; and the result waa that at I 
the 8piu1aiis expelled llippias and ntumi \ 
Alcmmvmids (u. c .510.) The n-atored 
found themaelvea in an isolated poaitiun, beta 
the nobles who appear lo luive been iipp 
them, and the popular party which had 
therto attached to the Peiaiatrutids. Cleiai 
now the head of the Alcnmeouidiu., jiiiued 
ter [lartr, and gave a new constitution tn All 
Further particulars rcaiircting tile fkinQj { 
given under the namea of ita merobcrv. (l~ 
vi. 121-131 ; Pindar, i'ytJi. rii, and Uuckh'kl 
Clinton's /■-M/i, ii. p. 4," 2a».) [P. 

ALCMAN ('AAKjut'), called bv the .\ttici 
hiter (Iri-ek writers Aliraaeon ( AAXMoiair), J 
chief lyric jkicI of S|uirta, waa by birth a f 
of ^^ar<lia. Ilia father's name woa Damai 
nis lie waa brought into l..aeonia aa • i 
dently when very young. Hi* macMr* 
name woa .^gcaidaa, discovered hi* g<vil 
emancipated him ; and he then began to < 
hiniM-lf as a lyric (Hiet. (Suidiia, a. t>. ; lie 
Pont. I'M. p.'20l); Veil. Pat. i. 18; 
II, Welcker; Kpignuna by AleiandaCj 
Leonidas and Antipater Theas, in Ja 
finire. I p. 207, No. A, p. 175, No. B(l, IL fsl 
No. 5b'; in the Anthnl. PolaU vii. 7u!l, 19,J 
In the epigram last cited it is said, thaij 
continents strove for the honour of bia I" 
Suidaa (/. c.) colls him n"nian i/l 
which nujy mean, however, tlwit he nn* < 
aa a citizen of Measoa after liit eimincipatii 
almve atatementa seem lo be more 
with the authorities than the opinion of I 
Akmon's fiithcr was bniughl from Sinlia Ml 
a* a slave, and that Alenuui himself 
McMoo. It ■'• not known to wlut eaUBl I 
tallied the the rights of citixenahip. 

The time at which Alcman lived 
somewhat doubtful by tlic differi'iu 
ihe (iiwk and Armenian copies dl 
' of the chronc^graphcra who foUoweti mm. 
whole, however, the (ireek copy of ~ 
pears to lie right in pUcing him at tbv i 
of the twenty-seventh (llynipiad. (n. c. S7I,) 
vi-a* coulcmiiorary with .\rdya, king of 
who reigned from l>7B to C211, B. (-, Hnlh f 
the author of the "Little Ihod," and wok | 
pander, duriug the later years of these tua ] 
he waa older than Stesichorua, and be i« i 
hare been the teacher of Arioiu Knjia 
niiiutaDC<4, and from the fiict which w ] 
fnm himarlf (/'V.2'i), that he lired Ui a | 
we may conclude, with Clinton, that I 
tnm aboul nil to almui i>'i\ ». c (C 
I pp. IH!<, I'll. SiiA : Heniiaim, AaU 


,) He M MiJ lt> lutve died. liVa Sullii, of 
pnhcitlaru. (AriitoU /ful. Anim. v. 
n«a5 PIqL *««a, 3« : Plin. //. jV. xi. 33. 

IW peiind daring which molt of Alcmnn'n 
mm» vvf* cnmfio^ed, was that which folluwcd 
l» MKtMBMi nf thr iecond MesKniaii war. Dur- 
V tU> fariod of quiet, the Spartaiii tieitan to 
lank tMt twte for the npiritual enjnj-iiionU of 
tmj, which, though felt bv them lon){ bcfon-, 
li inv atlaijMd to a high »tate of cultivation, 
Ui Ifcair aitmtion was abaorbed in war. In 
ib mem ' i"nt Alcnuui waa imme- 

iMf pec' mder. on Aeolian pod, 

fltthcMt IJii ".w .1' B.(:., had reraored from 
iflfea ta the nminland of Greece, ami had iniro- 
)mi thv Aralian lyric into the Pt'luponnrtua. 
IMlMnr ttrle of poetry was speedily tuiapted tn 
Inkni dnn in which the Doric poelr}' had hiiher- 
kkn OMt, and loadually aappliuiicil that earlier 
MWr to the epic. In the HUrd 
Terpander nuulc hii^ great im- 
[TkkI'ANUkr.] lliiice 
character of the poetry of hi« 
mvtap'iniry, Alciniin, whiih prcsiMited 
" lyric in the highest excellence which 
«f Trrpuidrr enahled it tn reach. But 
alan an intimati* acquaintance with 
- ' '. ' •!! »tyle« of music, and he 
'if new fomu of rhythm, 
■i irne. 

tef* pncuon of Alcman'* poetry was orotic. 
ifctf, ht IP «id by inrae ancient writers to have 
totib BimtoTof erotic poetry. (Athen. xiii. 
||N| SMdaa, I. F.) From his poems of this 
■nuked by a freedom bonlering on 
, ha obtained the epithet» of "sweet" 
t" (yKvieii, x'f**")- Anioiijf tlicsc 
HUty hymeneal pieces. Dot the Par- 
form a branch of Alcmon's ptM^ms, 
\ Mt he cnnliiiinded with the erotic. They 
I m tallnl twcatiM? they wofh com{iosed for the 
■as of U T ' ^ rhonises of vir^ns, and 

uhjectA, which were very 
li eniiic, lint often reli- 
Alr^B*s oiii'i ,. . M. rmbTncc b^mns to 
, l'ni^"Ji 1. -..Hiti adapted for ditfe- 
festifula, and sliort ethical or philu- 
It is disputed whether he wrute 
AAainmic war-songs, or marches, 
called intoripta; bat it seems verj' 
< he shnold hare neglected a kind nf 
which had been rendered so popular 

are tct^ rarions. He is said by 
bf«ni the first poet who compiised 
• \m% dactylic hexameters. This iitiite- 
; bnt Snidaa seems tn refer t<> the 
I into which Alcman broke up 
In this practice, how- 
piMeded by Archilocfaus, from 
f \m bscrawMl serenl others of his peculiar 
■n; olkar* h« la*ent«I himMlL Among his 
IIm V* hoA various forms of the dactylic, ano- 
, and iambic a* well as lines coni- 
t rngtir a , for example, iiunhic and 
Critic lipxameter wiis n.'unl^d 
I bring its inventor. The [MiemH 
rimAj in strophes, composed of 
T thv wviio metre throughout the 
1 af dMcrcnt metre*. From their 


choral character we might conclude that they some- 
times hod an antistruphic form, and this iieoms to 
be conliraied by the statement of Ilephoestion 
(p. 134, OoisC), that he composed odes of fourtwn 
strophes, in which tlicro was a change of mctr« 
after the seventh strophe. There is no trace of an 
L'pode following the strophe and antintrophc, in his 

The dialect of .'Vlcman was the Spartan Doric, 
with on intermixture of the .-Veolic The papular 
idiom* of Laconia appear most frequently in his 
more familiar poems. 

The Alexandrian gmmmarians placed Alnmui 
at the head of tlieir ainon of the nine lyric poets. 
Among thr pniofs of his popularity may Ik.* men- 
tionri] the tradition, that his wings were sung, 
with tliose of Terjiuuder, at the first performance 
of the gyinnnpaedia nt S|«rttt (b. c. B(i.5, Aelion, 
V. If. lii. aO), and the asccrtjiineil fact, that they 
were fn-qnently afterwards used at timt festival. 
(.\then. XV, p. 07U.) The few fnignients which 
rvmaiii iicarc<*ly allow us to judge how fur be dfr- 
■ervctl his reputation ; but some of them display a 
true poetical spirit. 

Alcinon's pucms comprised six books, the ei- 
tant fragments of which arc included in the col- 
lectiuns of Neander, H. Stephens, and Fulvios 
Uninus. The latest and bent edition in tImt of 
Wclcker. Oiessen, 1816. [P. S.] 

ALCMfNE (' KkKiirivy)), a daughter of Elcc- 
tryon, king of Messene, by Auoxo, the daughter 
of Alcacus. (ApoUod. ii. -4. § >^.) Acnirding to 
other accounts her mother was oilled Lysidice 
(Schol. «,< I'M. Ol. vii. 49; Plut. Tlir,. 'j), or 
Eiirydicc. (Diod. iv. 9.) The poet A»ius repre- 
sented .\lcraene as a daughter of Ampliiuraus and 
Kriphyle. (Pans. v. 17. § 4.) Al^oll(nl^J^l^ men- 
tions ten linithcrs of Alcmene, who, with the ex- 
ception of one, Licymniuh, fell in a contest with 
the sons of PterchiUR, who Imd carried off the cattle 
of Elccti^-on. Electryon, on setting out to avenge 
the death of his sons, left his kingdom and lua 
daughter Alcraene to Amphitryon, who, unin- 
tcntiunally. kiUinl Klectryon. Slhr^uclus there- 
upon expi?lled Amphitryon, who, together with 
Alcmene and I.icymnius, went to 1'hebes. AJo- 
mene decbired that she would marry him who 
should avenge the death of her brothers. Amphi- 
tryon undertook the task, nnd invited Creon of 
Thebes to luaist him. During his absence, Zeus, 
in the disguise of Amphitn,'on, visited Alcmei»e, 
and, pretending to be her husband, related to her 
in wliut way he hod avenged tlio death of her 
hrothett. (Ai>uUod. ii. 4. § ti— 8 ; Or. jlmor. i. 
13. 45; Diod. iv. 9; Ilygitu Fab. 20 ; Lucian, 
rtialog. Dear, 10.) When .\mphitryon himself 
returned on the next day and wmited to give an 
account nf his achievements, she was surprised at 
the rcjielition, but Teiresios solved tbo mystery. 
Alcmene Ijccnme the mother of Heracles by Zeus, 
and of Iphicles by Amphitryon. Iletn, jealous 
of Alcmene, delayed the birth of Heracles for 
seven days, that Eurystheus might be bom first, 
and thus be entitled to greater rights, according to 
a Tovr of Zeus himself. (Hom. II. xix. 95, &c; 
Ov. Met. ix. 273, Ac. ; Dio<l. I. c.) After the 
death of Amphitrj'on, Alcmene married Rhadaraan- 
thys, a son of Zeus at < iriUiia in Bneutia. (ApoUod, 
ii. 4. § 11.) After Henicles was raised to the 
tank nf a god, Alcmene and his sons, in dr«ad of 
Euiyatheus, 6ed to Trachis, and thence to Athens. 



nnil when Hyllua h»il ajl iiff the hcinl of Kiirv«- 
tlit'ii-v, Alcuiene MitiiiHcd licr n?v»'iici: liy pickitii! 
thn eyp> out of the hcoil. (Apnlloil. ii. II. Ji 1.) 
Thi- acrniintii of her ilmth are Tcry ilitcivpiuit. 
Aa'ordinjr tn I'littftnniiu (i. 41. § 1), the died in 
Mfgnri*. on Hit wny fmm Argoa to Thcbc«, aiid 
u the Mim iif Hrmclcs dua(,Tced lu tn whether 
alic wni t"i be carried to Arj^s or to 'I'helK'n, she 
was buried in the pliicc where nhc had died, at the 
cdninuuid of an ontcle. According to Plutarch, 
( l)c Gm. Socr. |>. 5711.) her toinli and that of Rhiula- 
nuuithys were at lloliartuo ih Boeotis, and hen 
wa» opened by Agetilunt, for the pur^iow of emry- 
ing her trinoina to Sparta. According to Phero 
cydeii (Cti/i. Atilim. Lib. .3.1), iho lived with her 
Minn, nfU'r the death of Huryitheuis at Thcliets 
and died there at an adraiiced a^. When the 
MU> of lleniclen wi>he<l to bury her, Zeua aent 
flermct lo take her bo<ly awuy, and to carry it to 
the inlands of the blesu'd, and give her in marringe 
tliere to Khadamunthys. }lerme« accordingly took 
her out of her collin, and put into it a stone »o 
heavy that the Iferaclida could not move it from 
the apot When, on opening the coffin, they fuund 
the aUiiie, they erected it in a gfo^e near Thelies 
which in Utcr tiroea contained the aoiictuary of 
Alcniene. (Pans. ii. lU. 8 4.) .-Vt Athens, too, 
■he wna worahippetl oa a hen)ine, and on altar vat 
erected to her in the templcof Heracles. (f'jr»oaa«^a, 
Pan*, i. 1ft. § ;i.) .She waa repivaented on the cheat 
of (.'ypaelua (Paua. t. 18. S 1), an<l epic a< well aa 
tragic porta luade frvqaent nae of her atory, though 
no poem of the kind i> now extant. (He«..Srii/. //rrr. 
init; Paua. T. 17. U, 18. S 1.) (L. S.) 

» AtiCON or ALCO ^KXttn). I. A aon of Hip- 
pocoiii. wid one of the t'alydonian hunlera, wna 
killed, together with hi» father and brothers, by 
llexaclrs and had a beroum at Sparta. (Apollod. 
ifi. lU. i a ; ilrgin. Fah. 173; Paiu. iii. 14. § 7, 
IS. I 3.) 

1. A aon of Rrechtheut, king of Athena, and 
fether of Phulenia the Arifonaut. (ApoUon. Rhod. 
i. «7 ; llygiiL Fah. 14.) Valeriua Flaccua (i. 39.'), 
&c.) rrprcsenU him aa inch a akilful archer, that 
once, when a icrjxMil hod entwined bia aon, he 
ahni the terpent without hurting bia child. Viigil 
(/wV.y. V. U) mentiona an .\lcon, whom Serviua 
call* k Cretan, and of whom he relatea abuoal the 
■une atory aa that which Vuleriua Klocctu aacribea 
to Aleon, the ton of Enciitbeu*. 

Two other penonage* of the nme name oeciir in 
Cicero (ifr NaL Dnr. iiL 21), and in Hyginua. 
(F<J..\;x) [US.) 

A LC< 'N, a aurgeea {vtlmnm mudiemt) at Home 
in the reipi of Cluudiua, A. D. 41-54, who ia aaid 
by Pliny (//. .V. »iix. 8) to have been baniahed 
10 Oaol, and to liave been lined ten million of 
■lil<ini a U.S. mtin mt. mill, (about 7B,I'2.U.). 
Afl<r hi* retnm fmm latuialinieut, be ia aoid to 
hava (luned by hit praclio- an eqiml aum within b 
ttw yean, which, however, aeenu ao enonnona 
(enrnport ALniHriits and Arrhntii'k), that there 
mtwt probably be aome miatoke in the text. A 
•ur;ivon of the mtaa name, who ia mentioned hj 
•Martial (Kyigr. xi. S4) 0* a couUmporary. may 

mbly lie the aanw perwn. [ W. A. O. ) 

M.C'O.V, a .taluary mentioned by Pliny. {II. N. 
1 ( ,. to.) lie waa the author of a atntue 
; Thelies made of iron, aa •yniliolicol 
wluninie ol labour. [C P.M.J 

AUJV'UMi or IIALCY'ONK ^•AA«^ia^). 


1. \ Plelid, a dnughti?r of Atlaa and Pleire 
wliJini Poseidon In'got AethuKi, llyri-ii, .intl I 
(lerenor. (Apullod. iii. 10. § 1 ; ilrgin. /I 
Fat. p. 11, ed. Stuvercn ; Ov. Htn^l. Tax. XK 
To tbeae children Pausaniaa (ii. 30. § 7) add 
others, Hyp<>rvs and Anthaa. 

'1. A daughU'r of Aeolu* and Enaret* or j 
Slie wna married lo Cejx, and live.t ' 
liini, that they were pri>«imiptunii^ 
each tjiher Zeua and Hem, for wIjj.,.. .. . 
inf>rpliuM.d them into birda, iXxvir and 
( ApoU.>d. i. 7. § 3, &C. ; Hygin. Fal,. 6.^.) Hyi 
n-lutca thot Ceyx periahed in a abipwrcck, 
.Alcyone for grief threw herself into the lo^j 
that the goda, out of conipnaaion, chang«4i 
into birds. It wna fnbled, that during 
Unya before, and as many after, the abon 
the year, while the bird dAaruiji' wu 
then; alwaya pre\-ailed calina at aoo. An i 
li^hed form of the some atory is given bj I 
(A/e/. xi. 410, &c. ; eomp. Virg. Gtorg. i. 

3. A aunuuiic of Cleopatra, the wife ( 
ger, who died with grief at her huahl 
killed by A|)ollo. (Horn. //. ii. .WJ j 
ad Hum. p. 77<f ; Hygin. Ful,. 174.) 

ALCY'oNEUS('AA«w)I'»i!j). 1..1l _ 
kept posaeaaion of the latbmua of Coriotb 
time when Hcnicle* drove away the 
Geryon. The giant attacked him, cruahed ' 
waggona and lwenty-f<iur of tlio men of He 
with a huge block of atone. Ilermlea hi 
warded oiT the atone with hia club niol alrar 
oneua. The block, with which the giunt h*4j 
tempted tjie life of llemclet, wo* abewn M 
latiimua down to a very late period. (Plnd. \ 
iv. 44, with the SchoL) In another \» 
vi. 4.'), lie.) Pindar calla Alcyoneua i 
ahepbcrd, and place* the atruggle with I 
Pblcgiaean phiina. 

2. One of the giant*. [Oioantxs.] [I* 

ALCYd'N'lDF^S ('AAiti«K/8fi), tJie da 
of the giant Alcyoneus (2). AfU-r thdr 
death, they threw themwlvea into the 
wen- changed into ice-birdt. Their ni 
Plithonia, Anlhc, Methone, Alcipjie, 
Drimo, and Asteria. ( Eualnth. eu< //am. |^ 1 
.Suidaa, <. e. 'AAtrvov/Sd.) (l^T 

A'LEA ('AAa'a), a aumamu of Athcaa, i 
which ahe was wonhipped at Aloo, MaM 
and Tegea. (Pan*, viil iX j 1, 9. § S. ii J*. I 
Tlie temple of Athena Alea at Tegca. wbkiil 
tlic oldcat, wa« aaid to have been buill lir .'^ij 
the aon of Apheidaa, from whom the ^■■ijn* J 
lalily derived thia Btunaine. (Paua. «iu. 4. i 
Thia temple was burnt down in B. i:. 3M)1 
a new one built by Scopaa, which in ( 
aplendonr iuipaaaed all other temple* in I 
neana, and wu •arromuled by a triple 
columna of diffirrmt otden. The alatM 
gnddeaa, whirh was niadc by Endoeo* idl^ 
waa aubaequently carried to Roma by Aa 
adorn the Forum Augnati. (Paua. riii. 4J 
i 1 and 2, 47. 8 1.) The temple of Atl 
at Tegea wai an ancient and revered a»y 
the name* of many penon* ore recorded 1 
themselves by aeekmg refuge in it. (I" 
§i;. ii. 17. S 7. iii. 7. §11.) The 
Athena Alra at Tegea waa always a i 
held her office only until the reaehtal 
puberty. (Paiia. viii. 47. § 2.) viaf 
architcctuie and the aculpum* of llda ( 



|ty«r. Gttk. ttrr (tHiUihI. kumitf, ii. p. 99, ftc. 
k iti> raut frum Sfartu Ui Tlirnipiip thcrv was 
irmjtt a •CUuc o( Albriu Alea. (I'auo. UL 19. 
^.) [U S.J 

I ALF.OI«>N. [Aliuon.] 
'•• -V (FmuK.J 

ii (AA^irrwp). I. The fiilher of 

I . , .Viyjnjint. (ApoUod. i. 9. g l(i.) llo- 

tar {IL rrii. 602) alb liiin Alcctrjun. 

[S. A MO of Anumgnnu aud bthcr of Iphis, 

■(•/ Algoik He wna cuiuultcil by Pulyncicfs 

ike Baoner in which Ain)iliiarau> mij^hi Ix- 

lo take [an in the ox)icdiiiaii a^piinat 

(A|»U«d. iii. B. § -J; Paus. iL IB. tj 4.) 

Pm tibao o( the tame name are luciitiotivd in 

m. ((ML IT. 10 ; EuMath. ad Horn. pp. 303 

J.t»«.) IL. S.] 

— .MON. ALE-MO-NIDES. [Mv*iiLvs.] 

>^ (*AAirn)f), a »nn uf tlippoUii iind a 

of Itrmcln in the fifth degrw. lie it 

lakrii p<ifc»t*«»iuu uf rurinlli, tiud to 

•be Si»ypbid», llurly yi-ur» iiftor the 

iif I'cIi>|Mnni-«i» liy llie Kcracliiln. 

I, •unietiom Lalh-d the Alelidite, luiiin- 

Mtflve* at Coriolti duHii lo the time of 

(Paiu. ii. i. ^ 3, T. lU. g -2; btrah. viii. 

CUlin). lO.T; Piild. Ul. xiii. !7.) 

PuertulnA (i. 3) cnUs bim a deseendnut 

m the tijcth degree. He received im 

htm the ftovercignty of .\thcnft, if 

« WW, which was then going on, itt king 

OHin oninjured. This oracle became 

t Athou, and Codms lacriliced hiniMilf 

dairy. (C'onon, .Kumit. iU.) [Coorin.] 

pttvsa* of this name arc mentioned in 

^10. § C : Ilygiiu Fall. I'i".', and in 

.. i. I-'I, ix. 46J. LL. S.] 

;A» »»<1 ALEU'ADAE ("AAfuai and 

A, Aleiuu is tlie ance^torial hero of the 

^ or, mofv particularly, of the Larisaacan 

the Alcnadae. (Pind. Pyl^ x. 8, with 

The AJeaadae were the noblest and 

afflong all the Guuilies of Thessaly, 

>ta> (iii Ii) aills its mcuiliors 0aai- 

Uwd. iv. til. xvi. 14.) The first 

■ce ihe •uraune of ni/jt^ai, that is, 

b called king (here synmiyuious 

/Vi: ^'^B/. p. 9 3J) nt Thessaly, 

iMamiuit uf UenuJes through I'hessalus, 

aauiy tons uf llencle«, (Suidas, ». e. 

L'ljrUn, uJ JJrm. Olgnlh. u ; SchoL 

§Uni. ill. 1 090 ; Vellei. i. 3.) Plutarch 

4«, »4t, in fin.) states, thul be wiu hated by 

lokt oa anomit of his haughty and savage 

but his DQcle nevertheless contrived to 




*( kA rocted kill; and onctioocd by the gud ut 
M^tk. Um rrign wa» motr glorious than that of 
^y t/ kss Micaitan, and the nation n>se in power 
rtancc This .Vleiuis, who belongs to the 
(«ru>l »l Greek history, is in lul proba- 
«utso as Llic ojie who, according to jlege- 
. AwL A*ak. «iii. 11), was beloved by a 
Aoretdittg to Aristotle (up. //ariHicral, 

) th ' ■■ "f Thessaly into four 

af wkkh i: ' >1 duwii tu the latest 

,jii uf the fir»t AleuoH. 

this heiu in the {leriud between 

tan of the lU-raclids and the age of 

list pien earlier tlian the time of 

ih* (ubUt of the Aleuadae appears to 

didded into two branches, the Aleo- 

odae and the Seopndac, called aAer Scopoa. proba- 
bly a son of AleuiUv (Ov. Ilni, .512.) The Sco- 
pador inliiibitetl Crannon and perhaps Phnrsalua 
also, while the innin branch, tlie .'\ leuudae, remain- 
ed at lArista. The iiiHuenee of the liuiiilies how- 
ever, was not confined lo these towns, but extended 
more or less over the greater pun of Thessaly. 
They formed in reality a powerful anstoeratie 
party (0<uriA(7i) in opposition to the great body of 
the Ttiessuliana. (Herod, vii. 17'2.) 

Tho earliest historical ijerson, who probably be- 
long Ut the Aleiiudae, is Eur)'lochus, who t4*nai- 
nalcil the war of Cirrha nlnjut n.c. .590. (Strab. ix. 
p. 4 IB.) [Ei:hvi.o( iius.] In the time of the poet 
SiuiKiiides we find a second .\leuas, who was a 
rriend ^'i llie poet He is called a sou of Echecra- 
tides and Syris (SchoL lul Tlmx-ril. xvL 34); Imt 
besides the suggestion of i Ivid (/'<i.«, 'J'2.5), tluit he 
had a tragic end, nothing is known nbout him. 
.\t the time when Xerxes invnded (ireece, three 
siuis of this Aleuus, Thorax, Kurjpylns, mid Thiap 
sydaeus, cnme to him a<> anibos.sadui's, to requeat 
him to go on uith the war, and to promise him 
their assistance. (Herod, vii. 6.) [TiioKAX.] 
When, afl<?r the Persiim war. Leulycliides was 
si'iit lo Tlien&ily to chiistise those who hod acted 
as tniitors lo their country, he allnvvwl liinim'If to 
be bribed by the Alruadjie, although be might 
have subdued all Thessaly. (Ilerud. vi. 72; P.-ius. 
iii. 7. § tl.) This fed shews that the power of the 
Aleuiidae was then still us great as before. About 
the year a. r. 4liO, we find on Aleuad Urestes, *on 
of Echeemlidcs, who ciune to .\lhens us a fugitive, 
and persuaded the Athriiioiis tu exert themselves 
fur his restomlion. (Time, i. 111.) He lind 
been ex|)elled either by the Thessolians or more 
prulMibly by a faction of his own fiuiiily, who 
wished to exclude him from the dignity of /9airiAfi}r 
(i.«. probably Tagiu), for such feuds oniong tlie 
Aleuaibic themselves arc &v<|uently laeiitiouod. 
(Xen. -4»a/.. i. 1. § 10.) 

After the end of the Pelopoiinesian war, nnotlicr 
Thrssalian Eoinily, the djmasls of Pherae, grudoally 
rose to power and iidluence, and gave a great shock 
to the power of the .\leuadue. As early as I1.V. 
37a, Jason of Pherae, afti'r various struggles, soc- 
cceded in raising himself to the dignitv of Togiu, 
(Xen. IldUm. ii. 3. § 4 ; Diod. xiv. 112. xv. 60.) 
When the dynasta of Pherae became tymnnical, 
some of tile Lnrisaaean Aletiadac conspired to put 
an end to their rule, and for this purpose they invited 
Aleinnder, king uf Macedonia, the son of Amyntas. 
(IHihI. IV. (il.) Alexander took Ijdrissa and 
Crannon, but kept them lo himself. Afterwards, 
Pelopidaa restored the original state of things in 
TheMialy; but the dynnsls of Pherae soon reco- 
vered their power, and the .Vleuodoe again solicited 
the assistance of Alacedonia against them. Philip 
willingly complied with the request, broke the 
power of the tyrants of Pherae. restored the towns 
to an apfieanince tif freedom, and iiuide the .Meua- 
dae his faithful friends and allies. (Uiod. xvL 14.) 
In what manner Philip us4'd iheni for his purposes, 
and how little he spnrvil them when it was his 
interest to do so, is siitlicienlly attested. (Ucm. 
<U Cur. p. 241 ; Polyaen. iv. "2. § 1 1; Tlpian. /.e.) 
Among the tetrarchs whom he entrusted with the 
atliainistralioii of Thessaly, there is one Thrasy- 
dacus (Theoponip. up.AUim. vi. p. "249), who un- 
doubtedly belonged to the Aleuadae. just as tlie 
Thesoaliaii MiKlius, who is meutiuucd as one of 



the comiwiiion* nf Alexander the Great. (Plut />• 
TniiniHil, 13; conip, Stnib. li. p. 630.) The Ea- 
nitl^ now «irik into inttij^iticiuicf, and tlio latt 
certain trace uf an .\li-und i» Thomx, n friend of 
Aniigonuit. (Pint. Iirmrlr. 29.) Whelhi-r the 
Aculjilum Aleuiis menliotied by Plinr (//. .V. rxxiv. 
8), and Scupoji uf Pantb, wen? in any way von- 


nerted with the .\leumlne, cannot tje i 
See IJoetUlV f\imnitutar^ un Pinti. P^ 
Schneider, on AnjtUit. J'ntit. v. .S, I); but roof*| 
cuhirly liiittmmin. Vim 'Um twesckleckt lirr AU 
in hii* Mt/lfuJ. ii. p. *24ti. \i:., who has made ( 
follawing genealogical table of the AJeuailaa> 1 

Alri'as Ui^t, 
Kixn, an., of Thkssalv. 

Mather Arehedice. 

OL 40. Echccmtidv*. 
« SO. 



Scoiuu 1. 


I wife Dyierii. 

AntiMhiia, Tagut. 

Creon. Diactotide*. 
Sctipoi II. 

Tbunu, Eiuypyliu, Thnuydaeiia. 





SeopoA III.^ Tagu*. 

Eurylucbut. Eudicut. Simui. Thn»ydaeat. 

„ 115. Mediua. 

ALEttAS, nn nrtiat who ynu binoiit for hi* 
Hlatuei of philoMopheni. (Plin. //. \. zxxiv. 8. k 
19, 2ti.) [C. P. Ml 

A'LEUS {'AXtii), a ton of Apheidaa, and 
gmndwD of Arau. He iraa kin^ of Trgen in 
Amdin, and mairied to N'roem. and ii laid to 
hare founded tlie town uf .Mea and the fir»t tem- 
ple of Athena .Men at Ti^j^ea. (Paun. viii. 'iS. § I, 
4. S S. Xc; Ap..ll.Kl. lii. ii. ^ 1.) [ Al.«j.) [iJs.] 

XhEXA'.MENUS CA\f(aMtr6f), waa Reneral 
of the .Veloliani, u.i: \t)0 (Potyb. x?iiL 2«i), ond 
waa aent by the Aetoluuif, in H. c. 19*2, to obtain 
poaaeMinn of l^ei*da<tnon. He aucceeiled in hi* 
object, and killed Nabia, the tyrant of Ij^iredne- 
mon ; but the Lacedaeinoniana ri«ing agninat him 
ahortiv aftiT, he and moat of hia tMopa were killed. 
(Lir mv. 34 — 3<>.) 

ALE.V.VMENrs CAKtia^trii). of Teoa, 
WMk mnrding to .^rialoile, in hia work upon 
porta (»tpl »iMi|rTw»), the timt perMii who wrote 
dialoguea in the Sorralic aiyle la-fon- the lime of 
Plato. ( .\then. «i. p. .W\ b. c'.; Diog. Lain, iii 48.) 

ALKXA.VDKK. jPiKi...] 

ALEXANDEH CAArfJayJ^t), the defender of 
men, H aitmiune of Hem nuder which ahe lena 
wurahipiiril at Siryori. .A l*rniple had liern htiilt 
there t*» Hera .Mrtnndroa hy Admatua after hia 
fliljht (T<m Argoa. (Srhol. ad PimL AVm. ix. !M» ; 
romp. ApoUod. iii. I?. » 1.) IL. S.) 

.VLE.X.VNDI F; ^wf), a man whom 

Mithhilalea ia r !la with liiivint; aenl 

to aaauuiiiate NiioHi"! '. . , iif. /*- /v" U-">- 
fi7.) He aeenia til Ik 111 i - . S 

d«f tlie Paphlaifvnian. wt; . i. .il:; -^^^ ir-i [,<>,, "v. .J 
siienttoned aa tme of the j^neraU of MiUiridatea, 
and waa ma«le priaoner by Lomllua, who kept him 
to adorn hi* triumph at Rome. | L. S, ] 


ALEXA'NDER ('AA^farSpo.), a aai 
martyr, whose memory ia celebmted hy ih* 1 
church, together with the other m.nrtyn of 
and \'ienne, on the tecond of .lune. He 
niilive of I'hrj'pia, and a phyairinn by pW 
and wna put to death, a. d. 177, during the' 
cution that niged aipiiuat the chiirvlu-< of 
and Vienne under the emperor M.itiua .^ 
{Kpitt. AVWr*. LwiitnH. rt IVrf/n. apud Kuaell 
fuv/.v. I.p, l(!3.) He woA condemned, ta|;rtlli 
another Chriatian, to lie devoured by wiM 
in the amphitheatre, and died (u« the hi 
expreaaes it) ^neither uttering a gnuui 
lable, but conreraing in hia heart wilk 
(Htoviua, Nommd'jtnr SiitititM^m Pm)\ 
dieontm ; Marljfnl. HonuiH. ed. Hnron. ; A<1t 
tomiR, June 2.) ( \V, A. 

ALEX.\Nl)E!l, an Ai-arnamax. m\ 
once been a friend of Philip III. of 
but forviok him, ond inunualed hiniaeU 
into the fiivour of .Vntiochoa the I 
waa adroitt<-<l to hia moat aecret delil 
adviaed the king to in^ude (ireecc, 
him the moat brilliant pr»a|iecta of 
Rnmnna, n. c. 192. (Li«. jixt. 18.) 
folliiu-et] Ilia advice. In the battle uf C; 
in which .\ntiochua woa defi^ated by tW 
.Alexander a'aa covered with wonnda, aai 
at.ite hf rarriw! the newa of the defeat to b 
u' I iiiif at Thmnium, oii thf )Ta1i 

\\ Ii;:, on hia retreat from <i 

r tun in Eubo^*- -^ ' ^ '--r 

re. n. c. l!'l ' ) 

■ ^llKU of Al-.i. •i<a4t 

>a*oi), a (lenpaletic philoaopbcr, wtio 
Hume in the firat century, and a diaaplvl 
eelehrated raathenuttidan Boaigrnea, whole 


fjal Ann 
m, 1SS7. 
L II. A 


i4 by Julins lUu-tat for hi» corroclion 

He m* tutor lu the (•mpcror Nrro. 

'AA^{vV» AfToiOT ; Sui-t. Til,. 57.) 

an th« writin^t of Arittotlc arc atiri- 

I hr tnnHv but are aligned by other* 

nuiL I. On the Metforo- 

ri Orerlc by K. A<ulaiiiiv 

Alex. Piccolomini, la<(), 

on the Metaphysies. The 

been pablithed, but there ii a 

iion Vr Sepulreiln, Rom. l.i'i*. [B. .T.] 

ANDKR AEOb'S. [Al»xandkk IV., 


)KK ('AA/jarSpof), a ion of AsuK- 

of the cnnuiuindert of the M;ieedo- 

jpikMiswJiti in the army of Antij^onuH Uorion 

fafail the battle of Setloftia agnin«t Cleoniene» III. 

4 V<^ ■"> ■■ <=• ■"■J- (Polvb. ii. 6fi.) [U S.l 


- XI 

N|)ER {'AXiiar9pot), ton of Akro- 
"f the Maeedniiian dittrict called 
. lie i« UNually oUled Alexander 
U' lu.iin (xi. 1) innke<i the sin^lar 

rf oUing him a brother of Lyncettas, 
«da pamgw (xi. 7, xii. 1 4 ) he uia the 
t^vnuoQ. He waa a contemporary of 
Tk'*''^ and Alexander the Great, 
bnthen, Heromenes and Arrhnlsieun ; 
knifwrn to have been accomplices in 
of Philip, in B. r. .130". Alexander 
an hit arceMion pat to death all those 
lakm port in the murder, and Alexander 
vai the only one that woa par- 
ite he wo* the lint who did homage to 
A» Cimt ui his king. (Arriaii, .'<«aA. 
riL 1 ; Jaotin, xi. *2.) Rut king 
aet aihr panloned him, but even made 
lb tntai uid laiaed him to high honoar*. 
■■• fint entnisted with the command of an 
Tbnoe. uid aflervmnU received the coni- 
the Theaulian hor>e. In thi« capucity 
Alexander on hh eontem ex- 
la ■. r. 33i, when Alexnmler wm 
Pbavli*. be mu informed, that the 
•■• carrjing on a tecivt correnpondence 
Uarioa, and tlial a Urge ram of money 
for which he woi to murder his 
The bearer of the lelten firora fhirius 
hj Pannenion and brought iK'fore Alex- 
i the tftnchery wua niunifcAt. Yet 
I dretdiDg to cTvat4-* any hoHtite feeling 
tke trf^nt of Maredoniii, whoac 
VM narried to the Lynce>tian, thought 
■ol to put him to death, and h;id him 
(mm hi> office and kept in cu*- 
Ikia manner he mxs dmggisl about for 
Inc^Mn vitk the nrmy in Aniiu uutil in n. c. 
M^p^ wi , PWot»» i'i<u,r l„'.n put to denth for 
nMe, t)' i:iK dentanded that 

ike Ltii' dil likewise be tried 

ii)^ tit ill* deiert. King Alcx- 
y, ind aa the traitor irai unable to 
hr wmi put to death at I'niph- 
ifei Urn taaatrj of the Dmngw. (c'unius 
' fW. I : JtMiibxii. 1 1 : Dio<l. xrii. a'J, iio.) 
ttjta M lUa tailor wu prolnbly, with t)ie 
i i( Pimat. ta ipain pufw ion of the throne of 
iMadiai*. wkkb pnwiooa tn the reign of Amm- 
I Ii. laad far a tiM Wbngrd to hU family. [ L.'S.] 

EAUDM {.'UUbuipot), an Aktoman, 



who, ui conjunction with Uorymac]iu&, put himaelf 
in posaemion of the town of Aegcim in Aebai&, 
during the Social »iir, in a c 2"J0. But the con- 
duct Qf Alexander and hin nuociateH woa ao inso- 
lent and mpociou-s that the inliabitints of the 
town rose to expel the «ninll band of the .\etoliani. 
In the entuing contest Alexander woa killed while 
fighting. (Polvb. iv. 57, .i«.) [L. S.] 

AIJ;XANi)KU AETdLUS (•AA<£o»»pof i 
AiTuAo't), a (ireek poet and grtunmorian, who lived 
in the reign of Ptoleinaeus Pliiladelphus. He waa 
the Min of Sntyrus and Stratocleia, and a native of 
Pleuron in Aetolin, but sjient the greater part of 
his life at Alexandria, where he waft reckoned one 
of the seven tragic poet* who constituted the tragic 
pleiail (Suid. ». r.; Eudoc |i. 6'2 j Pans. ii. 2'X § 7 ; 
SehoL (id Horn. II. xvi. 233.) He had an office 
in the library at Alexandria, and was cnmmis- 
sioned by the king to make a collection of all the 
tragedies and satyric dramas that were extant. 
He spent some time, togi'tlicr with .\ntagorus and 
Aratas, at the court of Antigonus Gonatas. (Ara- 
tus J%itttomrna rt Viogtrm. ii. pp. 431, 443, &c. 
446, ed. Buhle.) Notwithstanding the distinction 
he enjoyed aa a tragic poet, he appears to have had 
greater merit a* a writer of epic poems elegies, 
epignuns, and cynaedi. Among his epic poems, 
we posseas the titles and some fnigments of three 
piecea: the Fishemvtn (cUinlj, Alhen. vii. p. 29K), 
Kirka or Krika (Athen. vii. p. '2R3), which, how- 
ever, is designated by Athenocus as doubtful, and 
Helena. (Bekker, A need. p. 96.) Of his elegiea, 
some beautiful fragments ate still extant, (.\then. 
iv. p. I70,xi. p. 4!»(), IV. p. ROi) ; Slrab. xii. p. 5Sfi, 
xiv. p. 681 ; I'arthen. Krol. 4 ; Tzetz. ad. Li/coplir. 
2fi6; Schol. and Euatatlu ttd It. iii. 314.) His 
Cynaedi, or ^luvtuA iroiif^ora, nre mentioned by 
SlmlHi (xir. p. (>4B) and Athenneus. (xiv. p. 1)20.) 
Some nnapoi-stic verses in praise of Eoripide* are 
preserved in Oellius. (xv. 20.) 

All the fragments of Alexander Aetolus arc col- 
lected in ^Alexandri Aetoli fragmcnta coll. et ilL 
\. Capt'lliunnn," Itoun, 1H29, flvo. ; comp. Welc- 
ker, Jtic (inet'b. Tmt/otiiM-it, p. I2fi3, &c,; Uiintxer, 
/>('e i^rtiiftn. tltrr Kfiitck. i*of*v drr iiricchen^ voh 
AlfjunU. dtm (iroswH, i^'tu p. 7«&c. [L. S.] 

A1>EXA.\I)ER ('AA/{a»8poi), (ST..) of Alex- 
andria, succeeded as patriarch of tliat city St. 
Achillas, (as his predecessor, St. Peter, had pre- 
dicteil, Miirij/r. S. I'rtri, ap. Surium. vol. vL p. 577,) 
A. n. 312, He, ** the noble C'himipion of Apostolic 
Doctrine," (Tlieodu Hut. Etrl, i. 2,) lirst laid buro 
the irreligion of Arius, and condemned him in his 
dispute with Alexander Raucalis. .St. Alexander 
was nt the Oecumenical Council of Nicaea, a. n. 
325, with his deacon, St. Athanasius, and, acarcety 
five months ofu-r, died, April 17th, a. n. 326. 
St. Epiphnuius {adv. Ilucrts. iV.K § 4) says he WTxitc 
some M.*ventr circular epistles ngiiinst Anus, and 
Socrates (H. K. i. 6), and Sotomcn (//. E. i. I), 
that he collected them into one volume. Two 
epistles remain ; I, to Alexander, bishop of (.oti- 
stontinople, written after the t'ouncil at Alexan- 
dria which condemned Anus, and before the other 
circular letters to the various bihbops. (See ThcodU 
//. E. 14; (jalland. BUJ. Pair. vol. iv. p. 441.) 
2. The Encyclic letter announcing Arius's depo- 
sition (Soer. //. A', i. 6, and Oalbtnd. I.e. p. 451), 
with the subscriptions from Gelosius Cyxiceii. 
(//irf. Can. Skuen. ii. 3, ap. Mans. ConcUvt. voL ii. 
p. BOl.) There temainit, too. The Drftimti(t' </" 




Ariia an*! kin, i.e. an Addres* to the Priests nnd 
iKsocons, desiring their coocunvnce thcn-in (iip. 
S. Allmims. vnL i. P». I. p. 3.%, Paris H>S8 ; *w 
(mtlttiid. t.i\ p. 455). Two frag^nent* nioro, apud 
Galtand. (/. c p. 45(>.) St. Athunaniiift aJito gives 
the »ccond fpi»ile. (/. c. p. 3J)7.) [A. J. t'.] 

ALEXANDKH ('AAJffai'S/wj), commander of 
the hofBc in the um»y of AntiuoSus Uom>n dur- 
ing the war ngain»t Cloomeno* III. of SiHtrta. 
(Polyb. ii. 66.) He fought agnin&t Philnpoemeiu 
then a young nuia, whose prudence and valour 
forced him to a di«advantigeoui engagement at 
ScUaua. (ii. tifl.) Thii Alexander is probably the 
same person a« the one whom Antigonus as the 
guardian of Philip, b»d appointed commander of 
Philip\ body-guard, and whii was calunininted hy 
ApvUe*. (iv. U7.) Subse<|ui*ntly he wu« sent by 
Philip a* ambiLMailur to Thebes t'> [leriiecule Me- 
gaJeOA. (v. 28.) PoIybiuK filutos that at all times 
he manifenttN] a miMt cxtmurdiuury utUichnicnt to 
his king. (vii. V2.) [L. S.J 

ALKXANUEK {*AXfiavSpas)^ of Antkhhj.v, 
a fnend of M. Antonius who Mng acquainted 
with the Syriac language, acti'd twice a* interpreter 
between Anlouiuft and one Mithridatos who be- 
tmyed to him the plana of the Parthiaus to save 
the Romans Thin hnppt'nrd in B. i". 'Mi. ( Pwudc*- 
Appian, /*ar/h, pp. .'*:!, !»;, cd. Schweigh.) [ I*, h.] 

ALKXANUER {'AXi^a^po,), son of Antu- 
NiiTK, the triumvir, and Clenpatra, queen of Egypt 
He and his twin-sister Cleopatra were bom B. c. 
40. AntuniuB l^estowed on hiin the titles of ** He- 
lios," aiul ** King of Kinif*." and railed his sister 
** Srlene.*^ He uIm) dcittined ftir him, as an iude- 
prndent kingdom, Armenia, and such countries as 
might yet be conquered Iwtwecn the Euphrates 
and Indus and KTote to the senattr to have his 
grant* confirmed; but his letter was not sutTered 
to be Rod in public, (it. c. 51.) After the con- 
quest of Armenia Antonins betrothed Jotfipe., the 
daughter of the Median king ArtavaMlcs to his 
son .'Viexander. When Uctavianus made himself 
mauler uf Alexandria, he ft|iared Alexander, but 
totik hini and hin Mstct to Koine, to oilom his 
trium]>h. Thoy were grn<'mo*ily rvccived hy <)c- 
tavin, the wife of Antonius who educated them 
with her own children. (Dion Cassios xlix. 32, 
40, 41, 44, I 25, IL JI ; Plut. Amttm. :W, 54, «"; 
Lif.Kpit. \:u, l:VJ.) [C. P. M.] 

ALKXANOEU ('AA^^oj^^t), bt*h"p of Apa- 
MRA, sent with his iiimicKike of Hii-ra[M>liD by 
John of Antioch to the Council of Ephe»ui^ A 
Irttrr by him is extant in I.atin in the Aoru f'ot- 
Uriin ( 'itm'UmrHtH a SUjJmh. tiiUttzi/i^ p. 8.^. c 
132. fnl, Paris I6«:i. [A.J. C] 

cvlpof 'AippoSiaifi/f ), a native of AphmdiMat in 
Ckria, who li*ed at the end of tho !^ii>iid iind the 
beipuaing of the third century after Christ* the mo«t 
celrbmtM of the citunin'iitatorii un Aristotle. He 
was thr distiple of Ht'nninuft and .\rialocle« the 
AlrMThian, and tike them cMulravourcd to free the 
PrritmU>tic phihwiphy fnmi the synrretitm of Ara- 
monius and otlicr*, and to n'«ton* ihi- gmiiine in- 
ttTfirt-tutinn of tli*< writings of AriBtotle. The tilJr 
rf ^iyrnrv^ *»• th»« tc»timony to iJir extent or the 
evccUence of ht« cmmnentaries About half his 
voluminous works wort* edited and tninitUiln] intn 
Laliu at the ffViVftl of literature; there am a few 
more rjiuiit m the onginal lireck, which have 
ni*viir hern |irtnictU, juiii an AflUtie nrsion \% pre- I 


served of several oiliem, wlio(»e lil 
in iho Bibliotheca of C-aniri. (Vol. i. p. 5' 
If wc view him as a philiMuipher, hia n 
not be rated highly. His cxctillencioa mi 
arc all on the model of his grmt maatcf ; 
the same perspicuity and power of onaJr^ 
with almost more than Aristotelian |wd 
style; everj- where "a thit surface," with 
to inti>mipt or strike the attention. In ■ 
thoroughly imhufd wtlh AriMotte, it conn 
]H'ct4.*d there thould be much pU^e for 
thonght. His only endeavour M Id ii 
works of his nutftter to the ^jiric and lafl 
his OH-n age ; but in doin-j m he is cxinsb 
called to the citHier pliilusophy. and ntt] 
gone opinions a** itiougli they had the tof 
power an when the writings uf Aristotle 
reeled aguinyt them. (Rittcr^ GrmJuckU dk 
lo/jAir, vol. iv. p. 'J55.) 

The PlatoniHts and earlier Stoics are ] 
op|Kineiil*, for he reganled the Kpicurroi 
M'li&ual and unphiluMphiuU to \w worth | 
answer. A^inst the notion of the lirat* 
worhl, although created, might yet by til 
God l»e miule imperishable, he urgc<l that (J 
not oiler the nnture of things iitid qtt 
Platoniftt doctrine of the nectrsaary coexil 
evil in all corruptible things (Rilter, 
(iod himiielf, he said, was the very 
things Yet, however diHiculi it maj 
enter into thin abstract notion of God. i 
be unjust, as si»me have done, to charve \ 
atheism, nH in many |wusages he attribul 
and intelligence to the divine llcing. 
one of the points in which he has broa 
the views of Aristotle more clearly, frum h 
in the light of a later uge. (jod, he inys(^ 
jthtfit. ix. p. ;t'20), is *• properly and unifdy i 
self-existent substance, the author of molj 
self unmoved, the great and giH»d r>eity, 
beginning and without end:** and ug;un (t'li 
xii. p. 31tl) he ansrrts that to deprive God 
vidence is the wme thing u» depriving k 
sweetness fire of wamilli, winw i»f whitci 
coolness or the stml of motion. The prorii 
(fod, however, is not directed in the sum 
the sublunary world and the rest of the in 
the hitter Xh ronmiitted not indeed to Uli 
funeral laws while the concerns of fnen 
immediate care of (lod, although he fin4 
the govemmenl of them the full )irHtTti4| 
Wing. {Qnaea. AW, I 25, ii. 21.) He ww a 
kifttency, ns perhaps there was none, 1n*t«n 
high notions of Uud and the tiiateriali^ 
which tliey were connected. As Ood ' 
form of all tilings, so the hunuin snul WM I 
a form of matter, which it was intpo««ible 
ceive as existing in an independent «Ml 
seems howevrr to have made a ^l!^tlli(^i..^l 1 
the powrr* of ri'Hi'Ctian and mi 
{fhAmtwu, i. p. 13ti), that the > 
body as an in^tniment to take io 
but was sufficient of itwlf ; uiii< 
lie lookrd upon us an incontti»t- 
has been Inl by the de»ir»» to I. 
Pcrijuilrtiriifln with the purer jj:.: . 
philrxophy. (Rnicker, vol. ii. p. 4ft 1 

The most ifti|>ortaitt trvntiw of 
come down to us i*^ the '*I^ 
into Uie opinions of Aristotle on 
Fate and Freewill. Il is pfxkfaablj 


written between tlir 

^?t 1 . Ictaoic iWicatcd to the joint era- 

*ih1 Caiacalla. Here the earlit'r 

kopponml*, who iMrrted that all 

I on eternal and iiidiwoluble chain 

cAcctk. The sulijfct is treated 

ipeculatively. Univerttal 

I DIP of language, and intorual 

■re hi* main onnimeoui. That fate 

I ezutcoce* ia proveil by the diytioction 

f bet«Ten bte. chance, and puMiliiliiy, and 

ifnr and necrMaty actions It is aunther 

I and >t> wnrkinga ore teen in the 

I af mm and thingi (c 6), for it i> lui all- 

M mU but not abtoliite, power. 

' the Stotca does avnty with fm^ 

•trojt mponubility : it i» at %-ari- 

I mrf thought, word, and deed, of our 

Stoics, indeed, attenipt to reconcile 

and freewill ; but, properly ipeakinf!, 

jfrmtrill in a new wniw for the attntury 

i of uur will in tlie decrees of natun: : 

thry cannot expect men to carry into 

[ihr uibtio distinction of a will necessarily 

' acting ; and hence, by destroying the 

I of man, they destroy the foundo- 

. and civil govenunenL 

fheir doctrinu true in 

, iiclion. And eii'en »pe- 

r afgomeot from the univenol chain 

f an (vdrr of sequence with a series 

If it be said again, that tlie 

an forekoowleilge of future events, 

liidy known must necessarily be, 

I by denying that in tlie nature of 

I be any such fun-knowledge, as fore- 

liuoed to divine power, and is a 

at divine power can p<*rfomi. The 

>ly leads to the conclusion, that 

{ onUnioioes of religion arc blosphe- 

k, which bos been editeil by Orclli, 

I of his style and method. Upon 

; be allowed that, although with 

. phuxhin high as an indepcniieut 

Fordid much to encourage the accurate 

I An«ontlr, and exerted an influence which, 

la Julius Staligrr, was still ielt in his 

, viL ii. p. mt.) 

owing liat of his works is abridged from 

, Kolaiciu*. (Vol r. p. 6.5U.) I. n«pl 

[ aas i ToO i^' vf^y, /At F'tttt^ lUvjur ro 

pnfi^lls ml: the short trratiiie 

dedicated to the emperon S>'- 

" firm printe<l by the suc- 

Um Manutius I A.'I4, folio, at the end 

I af Ttiemiitius : translated into listin 

in tKe eoUrction entitled "Veteruni 

dr Fato." Paris, lb'48, ivi„ 

, l^kBou and editnl by (Irrlli, Zurich, 

■idi a frafment of Alexander Aphrodis. 

nd lmitiv«uf AmiiiaDii)&,Plalinus&c. 

Bbj<'<t. II. Cammtiitariiu{'Twiiiyjuta) 

I Pritrrwn A risttttrliji^ 

|J -'fen. I.i21, 4to., wiih a 

Feliciniiua, III. T'om- 

/'rrjiurt^um^ Ven. Aldi, 

i hy fi, Dorotbetu, Ven. 

\IU I .i42, folio ; and another 

'.73, folio. IV. C'lm- 

■ ^T— — '^i' Oiaecc, Von. Aldi, 


1.520, fol.; Flor. 1520, fol. : tnuislated into Ijitin by 
J. B. Itatarius. V. Cimmail. u» Mrla/Jiystairum 
Xll lUina; ex Tcrsione J. O. Sepulvedae, Honi. 
1,527, Paris, I53C, Ven. 1.544 and 1561. The 
fins-k t<-xt has never lx«n printed, although it 
exists in the Paris library and several othcra. 
VI. In lUirum tie Setau el lu qtuu nb iensum cadumi; 
the Greek text is printed st the end of the eom- 
mentorr of Simplicius on the De Anima, Ven. Aldi, 
1527, folio ; there is also a l^tin version by Luci- 
lius Philuthaeus, Ven. 1544. 1549. 15.54, 1559, 
I57;t. VII. /■ AriKktUla Afrh-rrJoyioa ; Ven. 
Aldi, 1527; supposed by some not to Ik the 
wtirk of Alexxmder Aphrod. VI II. Ih' MiMifrnp; 
bound up in tlie same edition as the [in'oiliim. 
IX. De Anima lihri duo (two dintiiict works), 
printed in Greek at the end of Themistius : lliem 
is a Latin version by Ilieronymus Uuuatus, Ven. 
1502. 1 514. folio. X. Phynat Sdutit, tlMlalimm 
ct Kilutiona; in Greek, Ven. Trincavclli, 15:il!, 
fulio; in lAtin, by Hieron\nnus Bagoijnus, Ven. 
1541, 1549, 15.5.5, 1559, '1.563. XI. 'loTj^.ifd 
'AiropiJ^iora Koi ^vaaca npo<r£XifjuaTa, Qnai^liaMPM 
Afrdimr ri ProUimaia Pkt/siiii, XII. n«(j| flupr- 
Twy, LiMluA de Ft^firilttu. The last two tieatisi** 
are attributed by Themlnrc Gaza and many other 
writers to Alexander TrolUanus. They are spoken 
of below. 

His commentaries on tl)e Categories, on the lat- 
ter Analytics (of the Lost there was a tronslatinn 
by St. Jerome), on the lie Anima and Hhetttrical 
works nnd also on tho« irspl ytviatvi Kol 4>dof«r, 
together with a work entitled Liber I de Theologiit, 
probably di>,tinct friim the Coiumentiiries on the 
Metaphvciics, are still ext^iiit in Arabic. .\ Com- 
menlary ou the prior Analytics, on the De InU'r- 
pretatianc, a treatise on the Virtues, a work enti- 
tled Tfpl Soi/uJcwv AiiYoj, a treatise against Zeno- 
bius the Kpicurvan, and another on tlie nature nnd 
qualities of Stones, also a book of Allegories from 
mythological fables iirc all cither quoted by others 
or n-ferred to by himself. [H. .I.J 

Ilesiiii's the works universidly attributed to 
AlexanJer -Aphrtxlisiensis there arc extant two 
otiien, of which the outhor is not wruiinly known, 
but which are by some persons suppoM-d to belong 
to him, and which commonly go under hi.s name. 
The first of these is efititlcd ^larpiKi 'Airo^/iaTa 
Kol •^l/«rlKcl Tlpo^Aif^uxTa, Qtiwj,tiink-Ji Atiiiititi- rt 
/'fofJeMnitit /Vi(/»«w, which there an> strong rejiMUia 
for believing to be the work of some other writer. 
In the first place, it is not mentioned in the list of 
his works given by the Arabic author quoted by 
Cosiri {/Iditioth, Arxthi'o-Hirp. Fltcitrud, vol. i. 
p. 243) ; seoindly, it nppejirs to have lieen written 
by a perwin who belonged to the medical profession 
(ii. pravf. et § 1 1 ), which was not the cane with 
Alexander Aphrodiiiensis ; thirdly, the writer re- 
fer* (i. 117) to a work by himself, entitled 'AAAi^ 
7optal Twv #<! 6co^r 'Al'inrXoTTo^si'we nt9avi¥ 
'Itrroptwif^ AUeiffiriae IIUtoriarutH VrettilnliHw de 
Diu FiMinixihiniiii, which we do not find meniicui- 
ed among Alexander's works ; fourthly, he more 
than once sfM'oks of the soul as immortiLl (ii. prnef. 
et § b'3. (i7), which doctrine Alexander Aphnnli- 
siensis denied ; and fiftldy, the style and language 
of the work seem to belong to a hiter age. Several 
eminent critics suppose it to iH'Kiiig to AlexAnder 
Tmllianus but it does nut sttin likely tlint a 
Christian writer would have conipim-d the m\ llio- 
higical work mentioned above. It consists of two 



haakm mill contiunt ti'trml iiit4'rc«tinK medical <>)>■ 
wnnlioiiii alunu witli lunch lliiit i« friviilmiit nnd 
tririiiig. ll w:i4 tint imlitirthLnl in u l^ilin tnintJa- 
tion Ijy tienrge Valla. Veiii't. URII. fol. The 
Greek text it to b« I'oiiDd in titr Aldiiir rdiliuii i>f 
Aruitotlu*! works VvneL fol. l-l.'J.'i, nnd in timt by 
Sylburjnui, Fmncof. I5M5, Uvo. ; it wua piibli!thrd 
with a l^aiin iraiiAlutiou by J. Dnvion, PnrtA. l.'>40, 
1541, Uimo.; niid it U iiiM^rtcd in thn tint TolLimc 
of ldidrr'> fkynci ei Maiki (,'raed Mitiom, BePoL 
IK4I, »«>. 

Tho other work » n ibort traatUe, tltpl Uuftruv, 
itf I'^ehhltH*^ which lA luldreMi-d to a incdicnl pupil 
wli<pm thi' author ortVni to inntnict in any other 
branch of modicino ; it i> aI<o omittrd in the 
Anbic lilt of Alexundcr't worki montioncd ahon-. 
For thaw rauuns it dni-a not wem liktdy to br the 
work of AWxaiidrr Aphrmluienua, while the whole 
nf the twelfth book of the ftreat medicnl work nf 
Alexander Tmtl'ianui (to whom it haa alfo l>rrn 
attriliut4-d) i< taken np with the niiliject of Fever, 
and he would tmrdly have written two treativ« on 
the laine diiraie without making in either the 
>li;;hte<t alluiion to the other. It may [loiuibly 
lielong to one of the other numcmua phyiiciann of 
the name of Alexander. 1 1 wna tint puhlinhed in 
a Latin tmulatian by (ieorge Valla, Venet. 1 4 98, 
fol,, which waa several timet reprinted. The Greek 
Uxt fint appearrd in the Cambridf(« Aluteum 
Criti'mm, vol. iL pp. 359 — 3H9, tranicribed by De- 
Otetriua Schinoft from a raanuMTipt at Florence ; it 
waa publikhed, together with Valhi"* tianilation, by 
Franx Paicow, Vratitlav. 1822, -Ito., and alio in 
Pa<iow'< IJpatcuia .imdimtiai. Lip*. 1835, 8vo., 
p. 5'21. The (irrek text alone i« contained in the 
tint volume of ldeler'« Physici et MftJici Grxud 
.l/uiorr.. IWltil. III4I, 8vo. [W. A. G.] 

ALKXA.NDKK (' ^x^lal^ifot), the eldeot wn of 
AniMTOUi'Ll'H II., kin(7 of Judaea, was tAAeii jiri- 
*-iner, with hit father and brother, by Pompey, on 
the capture of .lerosUrm (a. c. 63), but made hia 
<-«c.ipe M they were iH-in;; conveyed to Rome. In 
IL (-. .S7, he appcnml in Jndaeo, raised on army of 
10,11110 fiHit uiid l.'ilIU horiH-, and fortified Alexan- 
drrioii and other strong poists. Ilyrcauus applied 
aid b> Oiibiniut, who brought a Ini^ army 
ntt Alexander, and sent M. Antiinius with a 

dy nf troops in advance In a buttle fou|[hl 
ncnr Jenunlem, Alexander waa defeated with ((reat 
lou, and took refu^ in the fortreM of Aleun- 
drrion, which wiu forthwith invested. 1hn)ugh 
the mediation of his mother he was (lemiitted to 
deport, on condition of surrendering all the for^ 
iTOsri still in his power. In the following year, 
during ibe expedition of liabinius into P^gvpi, 
Alcxandsr again excited the Jews to revolt, uid 
coUacted an army, lie uiiuacr\tl all the Komaiis 
who (nil in his way. and l>e>ie)(ed the nst, who Iwil 
taken nfugc on Mount Uerisim. .\fter n-jectin); 
llie tpniia of pcacv which woir ofFerrd to him hv 
(latiinius, he was ilefeuted near Mount Tabor with 
the loss of 111,000 nu-n. The spirit of his ad- 
herrntA, howrver, was not entirely crushed, for in 
H.fU .^3. on the dcitth oft.'nMSUs, he opiin coUecti'il 
some fuirrs, Imt was coni|)«lled to come to tcnn« liy 
OiMiuB, (n. I', o'.'.j In H. c 4!), an tiie hrmking 
out of the civil war. Caeasr set Aristnbuloa nl 
liberty, and sent him to Jn'Uua, to further his in- 
terests in that qimrier. He »'m poisoned on the 
jnumeT. Olid AlexAnder, who was pre^mrinif to 
support him, iswseiacd at tlwwmaiuid ol t'oiii|jey, 


nnd IjelieadeJ at Antimh. (Joaeph. Ami. Jt 
xiv. .1—7 : y*-//. Jml. i. 8, 9.) If. P. M.) 

ALKX.ANDKK. nf Athens, a mmic poet, i' 
son of Aristion, whose name occurs in on i 
tion given in Biickh {(^orp. Inter. L p. 7K5), ' 
refcrsii to the 1 45lh Olj-mpiad. (n. c 200.) ~ 
seems also to have been a poet of the same 
who wiis a writer of the middle comedy, i 
by the Sclinl. on Homer (//. ix. °JI6), and Arislaf 
(/itm. 8t>4), and Athen.(iv. p. 17U, e. z.p. 4lM,t 
Meinekc, Fruiim. Com. vol. i. p. 487.) \,C. P. I 

ALKXANUER ('AA«'{ai'I/»i), lui amlavM 
of king Attalus, sent to Rome in n. c. 193,1 
negotiate pejue with the Roouin vniUe. (Pti)l 
x\-ii. lU.) IL.SN) 

a person of low origin, iuiurp>-d the threoe i 
the Greek kingdom of Syria, in the year II 
B. r., pretending that he wiu the wn of Aatia 
lvpi|ilianes. His cbim was st^t up by 
who had ticen the treasurer of tlic late I 
chus Kpiphanes, but had been banished i 
by the rvigning king, Demetrius Soier; 
was supported by Ptulciny Philomelor, 
Plg^'pt, .Ariarthes Philopator, king of Capp 
and Atudus I'hiladrlphus, king of Pc 
Hemeleides also, having taken Alexander to I 
succeeded in obtaining a decive of the seni 
hia Cavour. Furnished with forces by these i 
Alexatider entered Syria in 15'.!, n. u, toah : 
•estion of Ptulemais and fought a battle 
I>emetrius Soter, in which, however, be •■ 
fcdted. In the year 15U u. r. Alexander 
met Demetrius in Ijattle with better sueoesk 
army of Ik'metriu* was completely muted, II 
himself perished in the Hight. Nu soodi* 
Alexander thus obtained the kingdom thfl 
gave up the administmtion of ofikirs to his I 
ter Ammonius, and himself to a life 
Ammonins pat to dcnth all the niemben i 
royal hmily who were in his |iowcr ; Imt two I 
of Demetrius were safe in Crete. The eld 
them, who was named Demetrius, took llie lis 
Cilicia against the nsurfier. Alexandar 
for help to his liither-in-law, Ptolemy Phil 
who marched into Syria, and tlien dedant I 
self in ^vour of Demetrius. Alexander 
tunied from Cilicia, whither he bad g<ine to i 
Ucuielrius, and eiignged in battle with I'lolemyi 
the river <Jenn|iarB*. In thi* buile, 
Ptolcuiy fell, Alexander waa oompletoly i 
and he wot afterwai^s muniered by •■ 
emir with whom he luid taken refuge. (■. c I 
The meaning of bis sunuune (ItAlas) is da 
ll is noit prabaU; a title signifying 


** king." On s:ime of lis coins b» it 

"* KpiplmtM-s" and ~ Jv'icrphnnis" nOrr Ms 

tended fntiier. tin others ■• Ku- 

" Tlieo]ial<>r," (Polyb. xxxiii. It, 1 

Lliii. ; Jiislin, xxv. ; Appian, J^rrw's, i. »ij 


1 1 • l.^„l, .^,/. liii, 2. § 4; EuspU 
lii. p.3'24.) [P. S.) 
: ' I luiKA ; he »nd Tliyrai» 
lAeueUiu«. Uic ton of Philip III. of 
. u Hendrim in il >-. 1 7!). (Lit. xl. '24 ; 
-m of Piiiiir.) [L. S,] 

rAA«(ay<^s), at fint bishop 
:.iunkhi»I A. D. 312. On tbc 
I A. D. 21 1, he Tiftited JeruJiali<m, 
coadjutor uf the aged Nnrciuui, 
fttAm rity, vhom he afterwiirdj tucccedi-d. 
. an ccdeiiattical lilmii; at Jrru«lfDi, 
made grvat ose in writing his 
denn(( under Severn* and Cara- 
I thnwD into prison at Caeiiarea, 
\ a good cor)f<--«sitm« died A. It. 
■ pnaerved fragment* of a letter 
■ kim to the Antinoi te* ; of another to 
eoea (HUl. BccL tL 11); of a third 
I (vi. I -4 h and of another, written In eon- 
Kwith Tlieueti*tuft of C^ac«area, to DHrae- 
enndria. (ri. 19.) [A. J. C.J 

i-MDER, CAH110N.\RIL'8 ("AAif 
'Ar^lMjttii), lluuriihed in the thiol 
To aToid tha daugera nf a hand- 
he dii^;uised hinitelf and lived a* 
at Ciimae, in Asia Minor. The see 
bring nuiint, the people asked .St. 
aturpis to come and ordain them n 
He frjrcted many who were ottered for 
L aiMl when he lode the pei>ple prefer 
in mockery crie<l out, " Well, 
nder, the cool-heaver, bishop!" 
him Minimoncd, discovered hia 
pkamg arrayed him in sacerdotal 
nied him to the people, who, with 
1 joy, accepted the »p|Kiintnient. He 
in homely but dignitied phmM', 
iho church till the Ihician persecution, 
na lioint, A. n. iil. (S. Ciri'K. Nysseiu 
Thn m a ltrrp. §3 19, '20, ap. Giilland. 
Ir. ToL iii. pp. 457—160.) [A. J. C] 
<DER {'AXilarSiMt), third son of 
R, kian of Macedonia, by Thessdnnica, 
) rf Aloander the Great. In his quarrel 
lis eider bntbrr Antipater for the govem- 
; lAimrA Tmal. he called in the aid of 
ana and Demetrius Poliorceles. 
b* waa compelled to surrender, as 
I alliaiKC, the land on the KcaK^oast 
, lofiether with the provinces of ,\ni- 
and Amphiluchia. (Plut. 
.S8C, h.) Demetrius, according to Plu- 
S8<i, d., Dtmetr. 90(i, a.), arrived 
had retired, and when matters, 
I loalialion, had been amoved between 
I>noetriu*, therefore, waa now an 
IT, and Alexander, while he n^- 
ail outward civility, ia said by 
t hKn iaid a plan fur murdering him at 
vtdck WB* baffled, however, by the 
•f Itaneirius. (Ikmitr. 90G, a. b.) 
' Doaetrius took his departure, and 
I him at fiu a* Tbeasaly. Here, 
to dine with Demetrius, and 
vilh him by a fancied reline- 
• asMiiinated, together with hin 
him. one of whom ia said to 
that Lknnetrras was only one day 
tliem. (PluL f>rmHr. (i. i)\\6, 
. J I Uwl. xxL Exc. 7.) ll-:.E.| 


ALKXANDKli ('AAtfoj'Jpoi), emperor of Cus- 
.sTANTiMii'i.B, was the tliird son of tlic emperur 
Uiuiiliiis and Eudocia. lie wan tmni nbout A. u. 
B'O, and, aft.^r his father's di-ath. he and hie bro- 
ther Leo, the philosopher, bore the title of imperat/ir 
in common. Leo died on the lllh of May, 911, 
and Alexander reciivcd the imperial crown, toge- 
ther with the guardianship of his brother's son. 
Coostantinus Porphyra^'eaitua, whom he would 
hove mutilated so as to render him unfit to govern, 
had he not been prevented. The reign of Alox- 
under, which lasted only for one year and some 
days, was one uninU?mi|)led scries of acts of 
cruelty, delmiicheri', and licentiousness; for the 
restininU which he had been obliged to put on 
himself during the lil'i'iimv of his brother, were 
thrown oflf immediately after his uccc&sion, and 
the woTtliiest persons were removed from the cotirt 
while tlic ministers to his lusts and passions were 
raised to the highest honouni. He involved his 
empire in a war with Simeon, king of the Didga- 
riiina, but he did not live to see its outbreak. He 
died oil the 7th of June, 91*2, in consequence of a 
debauch, after which he took violent exercise on 
horseliack. (Conftant. ia JJiuil. 26 ; Scvlit*. pp. 
569, 608 ; Zonani-s xvi. 15, &c.) (L. S.) 

ALEXANDEK (ST.), patriareh of Constanti- 
nople. (.Villus.) 

Kopi^Xios), siimomcd INjlvhistor (noAvtfrrw/i), 
a tireck writer and coiitcinpoRiry of .SuUik Accord- 
ing to Suidas ho wo^ a native of Ephesus and a 
pupil of C' rules, and during the war of Sulla in 
Ureece was nude prisoner and aokl as a sUvu tu 
Comeliiw Lentulus, who took him to Home and 
made him the paedngogus of his children. Afti^r- 
wards Lentulus restored him to freedom. From 
Suidns it would seem as if ho had received the 
gentile munc Cornelius from Lentulus, while Sei^ 
vius {ad Am. x. 3811) says, that he received tlio 
Ronuui fmnchise from L. Conielius Sulla. He 
died at Laurentiun in a 6re which consumed his 
linuse, and as toon as his wife heard uf the cala- 
mity, she bung herselC The statement of Suidns 
that he was a native of Kphesus is contradicted by 
Slephaiius Byiantius (t. v, KoTidmi'), who says 
that he was a native of Cotiaeum in Lesser Phrygia, 
and a son of .\sclepiades, and who is borne out by 
the Ktymologicum Magiiimi (<. fp. Hioixa and 
ir<pi^^2ijr), where Alexander is cidled KotiosiJi. 
The sum.'uiie of Polyhistor was given to him on 
account of his prodigious learning, fie is said ti» 
have written innumerable works, but the grvalest 
Olid most important among them waa one consisting 
of 42 books, which Stephanas Byrjintius calls 
nu^olair^i "TAtii A^Toi. This work appears to 
have contained historical and geographical accounts 
of ni^orly all cotintries of the ancient world. Each 
<if the forty books treated of a si'iionite country, 
and bore a corresponding title, such as Phrygiaut, 
Caricn, Lyciaca, \c Hut such titles ore not al- 
ways sure indications of a book fonuing only a 
part of the great work ; and in some cases it is 
manifest that particular countries were treated of 
iu separate works. Thus we find mention of the 
timt book of a 6«'[parate work im Crete (Schol. ad 
ApoUiM. UUiml. iv. 1492), and of another on the 
" Tractus Illyricus." (Vol. Max. viii. 13, exi. 7.) 
These geogmphico-hislurical works arc n'ferred to 
in inniimenible pastagvs of Slrphanus lly»iuiliii» 
luid Pliny, A seiiarate work on the I'hrygiiui 



muucioii* it mcntinnrcl liy I'liibirrh (/Mr Mm. 5), 
niifl there i« even' pn*ljability llmt AloxandiT I*oly- 
liiitor IB nlso thi' author of the work Aia2o;i[ai 
^%\iMripuy, which aeenift to he thf* groundwork of 
Dio^cnt-K UirrtiuL [Alexjindkr LvriiNiix.] A 
work on the tymboU of the I'ytluigorenns i> men- 
tioned liy Clemen* Alpiani]rinuk(>V(roM. L p. 131) 
ftiiil Cyrilliu (luyn. -/ii/w/i. is. p. 133). He tim 
wrote u hiittnn' of Juda<':i, of which a comidenble 
fiKgment i« prcvned in Kuiebiiu. {Pmep. Kmmg. 
ix. 17; comp. Clem. Alexnnd. .Stram. up 143; 
Steph. DyiL <. r. 'lavtoia.) A hiitory of Rome in five 
bnoK> i< mentioned hy Suiiliu, and a few fregmenu 
of it nre preserved in ServiuK. (Aii An. viii. 33U, 
X. SUB.) A complete list of all the known title* 
of the wotk« of Alexander Polyhintor i« piven in 
VoMilu, J)e Hill. Orun: p. lilt, &c., ed. Weoter- 
maau. [L.S.] 

ALEXANDER I. 11., king» of Egypt. [Pto- 


ALEXANDER ('AA<{a>4pot) I., kinf; of En- 
mm, wot the ton of Neuptolrmun luid brother of 
Olympiu, the mother of Alexniuler the lirait. 
He auBe at an early o^e to the court of Philip of 
Macedonia, and after the (irecian iiuihinn lieramc 
the object of hia attachment. Philip in reqiiitiU 
mode him king of Epirufti after dethroninfr hi* cou- 
sin Aeacidei, When Olyinpioa woa repudiated 
by her husband, »he went to her brother, and en- 
d«*nvourrd t<i induce him to make war on Philip, 
Philip, howerer, declined the coutejt, and fonned 
> Mcond alliance with him by giving him his 
dangfater Cleopatra in marriage. (B.r. 336.) At 
the wedding Philip waa uaauinated by Paiuaniaa. 
In & c. 33'2, Aleiander, at the rcqneiit of the 
Tarentinea, crotied over into Italy, to aid them 
■gaifut llie Locaniaiu and Dnittii. After a victory 
OTer the Somnite* and Lucuniani near Paotnra 
ho made a treaty with the Komanii, Saccna atill 
followed hit araiL He took Hemclea and Conwn- 
Ib from the Lucaiiians and Terina and Sipontuni 
ftuni the BruttiL Hut in &c 3°J6, through the 
treachery of Mtme l^ucnnian exileh, he was com- 
pelled to engage under unfnvnumble cireumftLinciii 
near Pamlotio, on the bauk% of the Acheron, and 
fell hy the hand of one of the exile*, at be wai 
cnHuiing the river; thu» aceomplithing the prophecy 
of the oracle of Dodona, which had bidden him be- 
ware of Paiidotia and the Acheron. He left a Kin, 
Neoptolemnt, and a daughter, Cailmeo. (Juttin, 
riii. 8, ix. 6, 7, xii. 2, iril 3. xviii. I, xiiii. 1 ; 
Ijr. riii. .1, 17, 24 ; Diod. xvi. 72.) The head on 
the annexed coin of Alexander I. repretrnu tluit 
of Jupiter. IC. P. M.J 

ALKX.ANUEK II.. king of Epiri'k, wat the 
•on of Pyrrhut and IjinaMH, the ilaughter of (he 
iKcilion lynuil Agathorlr*. He <uccerded hit fii- 
ihn in H. 1 . 272, and rontinned the war which hit 
fiufaer liad begun with Antignnat (imuitaa, whom 
he UKcef^led in driting bum the kingdam of 
Macedon. He voa, howerer, ditpaaeMM of both 

Macedon and Kpints hy DemetiiaiT 
Antigiiiius; upon which he took rvfuge 
the Aconu-uiiant. Ry their aaaiittance « 
hit own tubjectii, who entertained a gpn 
nicnt br him, he reeoTered Kpirna. Tl 
lliat he wat in alliance with the Aetolu 
married hit titter < HympioK. by whom h^ 
tons Pyrrhut and Ptolenuiruv, and n i 
Plithia. tin the death of ^Vlexwider, I 
attiimed the regency on licholf of her i 
nmtried Phthia to i>emetriu«. There ai 
tilverand copper eoint of thii king. Th 
hear a youthful head covered with the •! 
elephant^ head, a* appeart in the one 6f 
low. The reverse repretent« Pnllot huMitt 
ill one hand and a shield in the other, at 
her tuindt an eagle on a tliundcrlMlu (Jul 
I. xx\H. 2, .H, riYiiL I ; Polyb. u. 45, 
Pint. J'yrrk 9.) ICJ 

ALEX.ANDEU ('AA^torfpor), n f^rrrk 
MARIAN, who it mentioned aiii> 
of the einp<rror M. Antoninus. (' 
M. Antoniii. i. S !"•) We »tili |...~'.„ 
^rtT^^of pr(moiinc<il u|»<in him by the rb( 
Aritteidet. (Vol i. Onit. xii. p. 112, &c.) 

ALKXANIlKR, tun of Herod. [ lli» 

ALKXANDKU ('AA^{<u4^t). 1. U 
HlKRAI'oi.lH in Phrygia, doiirithed A. o. 2 
wilt the author of a book entitled. On iitm 
inlnrttacfU bjl Chnmt info thr ttiirid r( VaiV 
>'f7ir* Xpurris fis r6y K^anoy. itt^. 9' ; noi 

2. Uitliop of HiemiKilit, a. n. 431. \ 
sent by .lohn, bithop of Anlioch, to adlM 
caute of Nettoriut at the CouikI] of Rphm 
hottiliiy to St. Cyril wat such, that h» 
chaiyed him with A|M>lliiuuaiii«in, md 
the communion of John, I'heodotet, and tl 
Eattcm bitfaopt, ou their recoodliatian w 
H« appealed to th« pope, but waa.NJM4 
was at kot honithed by the e mpar w t» I 
in Kgv'pL Twenty-three lettcnofhioane 
Latin in the ^SnoiJinm adtrrnu Truj/utdimi 
»/•. A'oiyim CoUrcHimam Omatianm i Hal 
(i70, Ac. Paris I fins. (A. J 

ALEXAMlEK ('AA^JaMpw). ST.. V 
.SOLYMITANUS. a di«iple, linuof Pa( 
then of Sc Clemirnt, at Alexandria, when 
ounu acquainted with ( Irigen, ( Eiurk HuL , 
14,) wo* bishop of Klavio|iolit, (TiHenMi 
AM. iii. 415,) in Cappadocia. (S. liicc 
jS 62.) In the penecution under Sw ei tM 
thrown into prison, (cire. a.'i>. 304, Ptmih 
where he remained till Aaclepiadeo m 
Sempion at Antioih. a. o. 211. the ht^ 
Caracalla's reign. (See [a] the Episilo 8 
ander sent to the Antiechencs by Si. Ch 
Aleaodtia. Eusrb. //. £. n. 11 ~ 



% t.\ that by Diniie rrvclatiun he Inv 

caadJBtor biaiiup lo NorcinuA, biihop uf 

L«. JcrnMlem, A. n. 'il'i. (See Kutcli. 

£ Ti. 8: Ckrvne. mi a. d. 2-J8, nod Alexun- 

■l"* [0] Epiatir to the Antinoites ap. Eiueb. /f. E. 

' ' .) Ih>hng bit episcopate of nearly forty 

{dtr be cuntiiiueil bikhop ou the death uf 

•-■■I'-ited a valuable library cif 

birU exittcd in the time of 

|/j ".) He received Origen when 

at Alriaudria drove bini thence, A. u. 

V(iaad laade him, though a kiyman, vxphiiu the 

SibpUiM publicly, a prucM'ding which he justitinl 

hl>Jaiirpi>tlr lo lli«hupUrmetriu>,of Aleiiindrin, 

XoMb. U. H. «i. lU.) who, however, wiit 

daacon* to bring Origen home. A» i>rigei) 

tbitiugh Paleitine^ on some ncccuary 

St. Alexander ordained him priest, 

(& Ritf. Lc 1$ 54. CU.) which caused great dis- 

MhaBlD the church. [Oriuen.] .\ fragment of a 

P) tet friiD St. Alexander to Origen on the sub- 

|M>ai», ap. Eiudj. II. £. vi. 1 4. Sl Alexander 

'UatW ticciaa persecution, k. Ii. '2.'>l, in prison 

(IDm. AWx. <^ Eutrb. II. K vi. 46) after great 

■ftlBp {£ma^ vi. 3d), and is couiuiemoruted in 

Avfaacn chutrh on I'^th December, in the W'eat- 

Cl « IClb March. Maiubanes buccet^etl him. 

IkOsEStof .Alexandria dedicated to him his Or 

'— ^ r'--/r -■;-'■■•-■ -*.it]t tile obsen'anco of Easter. 

i-igments hare been meii- 

.il order, and are collected 

• I'tUr. ii. p. 201, and in Houth's 

. ,L p. .19. [A. J. C.l 

K, JAXNAEUS {•AAil'wipot 

■'■ son of Johannes }lytcanus.niid 

^ ..I .iii-uibulus 1., whom he succeeded, aA 

tt the Jews, in H. L. 104, after putting to 

nor of bis brotlierti, who laid claim t4i tlie 

He took advantage of the unijuiet state of 

(r* *■■ attack the cities of I'tolemaTs (Acre), 

IW, umI Oaia, which, with several others, had 

■■^ th enw glvrs independent. The p^'ople <»f 

■ppbed for aid to Ptolemy Liithyrus 

<f ^^rus, who came with an army of 

" men. Alexander was defeatwl on 

•f tbc Jordan, and I'tolemy ravaged the 

the most barbarous manner. In ii. c. 

came to the assistance of Alexan- 

• ftat and anny, and Ptulemy was coni- 

rrtsro to Cyprus, (a c:. 101.) Soon af- 

Aleaander invaded Coele Syria, and re- 

klai bs attsrks upon the inde|iendent cities. In 

^& K hs Itok (jaza, destroyed the city, and 

^Mnid aU iliii inhabitant*. The result of these 

■Ankiafts and his having attached himself to 

t^ fKy «f the Sodducees, drew upon him the 

^Mrfliic Pkahsee*, who were by for the more 

•^■h* fSMr. H« was attacked by the people 

kKt, >4, miSe officiating as high-priest at the 

^ rf Tltm^Iia i but the insurn-ctinn n'.is put 

^••t> aarf lis tfwiwml of the insurg<'nu >laiii. In 

tts tnt ;atf (b c 93) he made an expedition 

n\t»lk. aud nude the Arabs uf Uilead and 
■dkitaa Iributary. Out in 8. c. 'J2, in a 
■iaal UbMlaa, the emir of tlic Arabs of 
he iijl into an ambush in the moun- 
B s/ icsilani ; bis army was entirely destrtiyed, 
W innaarlf rasped with ditiiculty. The Pho- 
tim opportunity thus atfurded, aiid 
mm iTvult. At fimt tliry werv^ 
Jkia^aia waa coiu|ielled to lly to 


the mountains (a c ltd) ; but two yeaw after- 
wnrvis he gained two decisive victories. After the 
second of these, he caused eight hundivd of the 
chief men amongst the a'bels to be crucified, and 
their wives and children to be bub'hered before 
their eyes, a'hile he and bin concubines lianquclfd 
in sight of the victims. This act of atrocity pro- 
cured for him the name of " the Thracian." it 
produced its effect, however, and the relwllion was 
shortly afterwards suppressed, after the war had 
lasted six years. During the next three yeara 
.'Vlex.mder made some successful campaigns, reco- 
vered sevend citii-s and fortresses, and pushed his 
contjue»t« beyond the Jordan. t)n his return lo 
Jeruwlctii, in a. v. HI, his excessive drinking 
brought 1111 n quartiui ague, of which he died ihn-e 
years afterwards, while engaged in the siege of 
liagaba in Genuena, after a reign of twenty-seven 
years. lie left his kingdom to his wife Alexandra. 
Coins of this king are exlant, from which it op- 
peurs that his proitrr nimie was Jonathan, mid that 
Ak-xantler was a munc which he assumed accord- 
ing to the prct^ent custom. (Josephus, ^nt, Jml. 
xiii. I'.'-IS.) [C. P. M.) 

A LKX-ANDKR (*AA«(tt*^por), sunuimod Initk, 
the s-hief mnimander of the Aetolians, was a man 
nf considerable ubility and eloquence for an Aeto- 
liiin. (Liv. xjcxii. 33; Polyb. xvii. 3, Alc) 111 
u. c. I £)U he was prt'seut at a colloquy held at 
Nicnea on the Moliac gulf, and spoke against Phi- 
lip III. of Maceilonia, saying that the king ought 
to be compi-IIed to quit Greece, and to restore to 
the Aetoliiiis the towns which had formerly Ijcou 
subject to them. PhUi|i, indignant at such a de- 
mand being nuule by an Aetolion, answered him 
in n upeech from his ship. (Liv. xxxii. 34.) Soon 
ol'UT this meeting, he was sent as ambasH.a(lor of 
the Aetuliaus to Home, where, tugi-ther unth other 
envuys, ho wa« to tnsat with the senate about 
(leace, but at the same time to bring accusations 
against Philip. (Polyb. xvii. 10.) In a c 197, 
Alexander again took |iart in a meeting, at which 
T. IJuiiictius Fbuuiuinus with his allies and king 
Philip were present, and ot which fience with Phi- 
lip wus discussed. Alexxuider dissiiadeil his friends 
from any peucefiil arrangement with Philip. (Po- 
lyb. xriiL 19, &c i Appian, Mnasl, viL 1.) In 
B. <;. 195, when a congress of all the Greek states 
that were idlied with Rome was convoked by T. 
(^uinclius Fhimininus at Corinth, for the pur|>06C 
of considering tlie war tlmt was to be undertaken 
against Nabis, Alexander spoke against the .\thc- 
iiiaiis, .njid also insinuated that the Koroaiu wera 
lurtiiig fraudulently towards Otvcce. (Liv. xxxiv. 
2.3.) When in a c. IBS M. Fulvius Nobiliur, 
after bis victor}' over Antiochus, was expected to 
nuirch into .\etolia, the .Aetnli.ins sent enroys tu 
Athens and RhiKles; mid Alexander Isius, toge- 
ther with Ph.ineas and Lycopus, were sent to 
Rome to sue for peace. Alexander, now an old 
man, was at the bead of the embassy ; but he and 
his colleagues were made prisoners in Cisphalenia 
by the Epeirots, for the pur]>oae of extorting a heavj 
ransom, Alexander, however, although be was 
very wealthy, refus^Ml to jiay it, and was accord- 
ingly kept in captivity for some days "f'^'f which 
ho WHS libemte<l. at the command of the Romans, 
without any ransoia (Polyb. ixii. 9.) [LS.] 

ALEXANDI'iR ('AA^foKSpos), suniamed H- 
Ni'H (Ai'X*'*"), a Greek rhet4iriciHn and pocL He 
was a native uf ICphesiui, whence he is soiuetiuc* 



UlmI AlL'xnnder Kphciiui, and mutt hnvc livi-d 

[thurtly Ix'Cori' tlic time nf Slraho (liv. p. ti4'J), 

wli" iiu'iitioiis liiiii ninoiig the mon- recent Kphcsiaii 

niithnn, atid aim atatca, thnt he took a part in tlie 

politicil atluira of hiA luitive city. Stmbo iiMrrilieti 

to Jiim a hiiitor}', and poenu of a didactic kind, 

vix. one on astronomy and another on fjoigraphr, 

in which Tic describe* the great continents of the 

world, treating of each in a teporate work or Ixmk, 

, which, as we lenm from other toiirccs, boro the 

of the continent of which it cflntainl^d an 

Isccouut. What kind of history it was that Stiabo 

lallude* to, is uncrrtAin. The so-called Auirlius 

[Victor (d« Oriij. Unil. Rom. 9) ijuotes, it is true, 

the first book of a historj- of the Marsic wnr by 

Alexander the Ephcsion ; but this authority is 

morv than doubtful. Some writers have ttupposed 

that this Alexander is tho author of the history of 

the succession of Greek pbilosophen (al rmv ^lAo- 

ci^tn SiaSoxai), which is so often referred to hy 

l)iogGnes Loertius (i. I l(i, ii. 19, 106, iil. 4, A, 

IT. ti2, YU. 179, viii. 24, ix. Gl); but this work 

b<:l(H>ged pruliably to Alexander Polyhistor. His 

i geogruphical |>oeni, of which several fnigments are 

> Mill extant, is fre<|UfnUy referred to by Stenhonus 

]}y tuiitius and others. (Steph. Byz. $. or. AawitSof , 

TcnrpoSdyjf^ ^£pot, 'Tpicarul, MsXiTo/o, 6cc,\ cnmp. 

Eustalh. aii Oiofiyt. Ferity. 3«8, 591.) Of his 

•attonoiiiical poem a ftngmeni is still extant, which 

fhu besD erroneously attribuunl by Oole (Atf^tmJ. 

I ad PaHitm. p. 49) and Schneider (mi yUmr. ii. 

p. 23, &C.) to Alexander Aetidus. (Se« N'acke, 

SdMat CrUieat, p. 7, &c.) It is highly probable 

that Cicero {ud Alt. ii. 20, 22) is speaking of 

Alexander Lychnus when he says, that Alexander 

W not a good poet, a caix'lesa writer, but yet pos- 

CMCS sfiuie infiimiatiun. [U. S.] 


AvKovoAi-nii), was so called from Lycopolis, in 

Egypt, whether as bom there, or because hu was 

b'uuuip there, is uncertain. At tint a pagan, he 

waa next instructed in Manicheeism by persons 

■cqiiointed with Manes himself. Converted to the 

fidth, be wrote a confutation of the henwy ( Tnu^ 

laitu 4* PlacitU Mauichunrutii) in Greek, which 

was firat published by Combefis, with a liitin 

Ter«inn, in the Audiaium Nammmim Bill, a, 

Pulr. Ps. ii. poft. >% &c. It is published aim by 

Gallandi, B'Jil. Patr. vol. iv. p. 73. He »-as bi«hop 

of Lyoopolia, (Phot. Epitome dt Munich, op, 

\MimlfaitoM. BikL CoitHiu p. 354.) and prohabl; 

bnmrdiatelr preceded Melctius. (Lc Quien, Oritiu 

Jr«us. vol. ii. p. 597.) [A. J. C] 

ALE.VANUI:K i'AUltuitpot), the son of Lra- 

ltACiii;s by an Udrysiuii woman, whom Polyoenns 

(vi. 12) calls Macris. On the murder of his 

brtitht^r Ag;tllitK-les [see p. 65, a] by command of 

Ikts Utlier in n. c. 2H4, he fled into .\sia uith the 

widow nf hi» bmther. and solicited aid of Seleucus. 

A war ensued in consequence between Selcucus 

and l.rtiniachus, which t<'rmiiu>ted in the defeat 

and death of the latter, who was sLiin in battle in 

IL r, 281, in the plain of Conw in Phryjna, His 

tonrerrd by his vm .\lexandor to the 

, and there buried between Cordis and 

, wberv his tJimb was reninitiing in the time 

of PauaanioL (u 10, | 4. 5 ; .\ppian. Sitr. 64.) 

ALEXANDER I. (-AA^(a>4/Mi), the tenth king 

,of M>rsiiuMt, was the son of .Aniyutos I. When 

L Megshasus sent to Macoduiiia, alxiut a. ■:. 5U7, to 

denuoid earth and walrr, as u tokm of submission 

ig toem ■ 
ir •^1^ 



to Dnrius, Amynlas was still reigninp;. .\t 
<|uct given to the Persian envoys the latter 
inandcd the presence of the ladies of tlie court, 
Aniyntas througli of his gnccta, ordered ( 
to attend. Hut when the Persians proceeded 
otfcr indignities to them, .\lexaoder 
to retire, under prcti-nce of amiying tbeoi 
beautifully, and introduced in their 
Macedonian youths, dressed in female 
slew the Persians. As the Persians 
tun), Megnlnzus sent Bubares with 
into Macedonia ; but Alexander ^ 

ger by giving his sister Gygaea in marriaf* 
Persian general. According to Justin, Alei 
succeeded his father in the kingdom soon 
these events. (Herod, v. 17 — 21, viii 
Justin, rii. 2 — I.) hi B. c. 492, Ma«di 
was obliged to submit to the Persian general 
donius (Herod, vi. 44) ; and in Xerxes* 
of Greece (a o. 480), Alexander accompanied 
Persian army. He gained the confidence of " 
donius, and was s<-nt by him to .\thens after 
battle of Salnniis, to propose peace to the A 
nians, which he strongly recommended, undcl 
conviction that it woa impossible to contend 
the Persians. He was unsuccosaful in hi* 
sion ; but though be continued in the 
annr, he waa always secretly inclined to tho 
of the Greeks, and informed them the night \ 
the battle of Plataeac of the intention of Manli 
to fight on the following day. (viiL I3tl, I 
143, ix. 44, 45.) He was alive in B. c 
when Cimon recovered Thatos. (PluL dm. 
He was succeeded by Perdioca* II. 

Alexander was the first member of tb* I 
fiunilr of Macedonia, who presented himself 
competitor at the <!)1ympic games, and waa 
tod to tliera after proving his Orr«k 
(Herod. \. 22; Justin, vii. 2.) In his 
Macedonia received a considerable accvaaioa of 
ritory. (Thuc. ii. 99.) 



te«nth king of Mjicioonia, the ridnt 
Amyntos II., succeeded his father in >. r. 
and appt^ors to have retgneil m^rly two 
though Uiodoras assigns ordy one to his 
While engaged in Thessaly in ■ war with 
der of Pheroe, a usnrper rase up in M 
the name of Ptolemy AJorite*, whrnn lli 
apparently without good authority, calli 
of the king. Pelopidat, being called 
between them, left Alexander in 
kingdom, but took with him to 
hostages t among wham, accorliiig to 
counts, was Philip, the yonngMt tnUit 
onder. afterwards king of Macedonia, u 
.Alexander the Oivat. Rut he had 
Macedonia, before Alexander was i 
Ptolemy Aloriles, or acronling to Ji 
through the intrigues of bia nach 


E/u/«. Ix^ p. Wl) niunes ApoUn. 
nf th« nnnlciran, (liiiNl. xv. liU, 
V« 7l( 17 ; Hot. PAup. 26, 27; Athcii. xiv. 
,4.; Aochin. <<<ya<<. /^. p. SI, I. ^Z.) 


ALBXANHER III. CAAi{o*«^i), kinff nf 
^LL, ninuuopil the (in^t, was bom nt 
tbr xiitutnri nf II. r. 3.^H. lie wait the 
' Plulip 11, and (llynipinis and he inherited 
T the fiataral diBpo^itiun uf botli of hia pa- 
f cool ferrthoiigbt nnd practical wiiuldni 
ud the nrdtnt enthu»I:i!tm and uii- 
iMUoiu uf hift mutiier. His mother 
I Um royiU hoDM' of Kpt-iru-s and thiiiu):h 
meod bU detcent from the gmit hi^ro 
Hi> early edocatiun wni committed to 
and I.,v»iniachus the farmer of whom 
I of his toother's and the latter an 
Leuoidoft early acruktomed him to 
I tMl t»A haidihip, but Lytimwliiis recum- 
llianalf lo bit roral popil by oWijuiuui 
Bat AJrnodcr «u auo pUiccil under 
' of Aristotle, who actjuirrd aji inHik-ncr 
I nmd and chonieter, which it nianifeiit to 
prrioil of hill life. Arinoile wruti- for 
a trmti^ on the art of ^vemment ; nnd 
1 OOfnpn*heniiivc views nf the pnlitiud 
iifnli0n«Mid nf the nature of ^Dveninient. 
r »bf>w« in the mid^t nf all liiH con* 
fairly he ancrilrd to the leuous he 

I in hu ,f oiith from the grentenl nf phi- 

II is not inijMM«tble too that hi)* love 
whiih distinKuisheii him from the 

\ ntel cofiquenins, may nlw hare been im- 

I ift him by the rr*eai'chr» of Ari»totle. Nor 

fjkyiiol education neglected. He was 

f^onl in kll nanly and athletic tporta; in 

he eicelled all uf lii« ngi- ; aud in 

r he had the adrantigi: of his father's 

I lh> aiAf age of sixteen, Alexander was en- 

t *ilh the guTenuDcnt of Mncedimia liy his 

. vfcflb htf vu obliged to leave hi» kingiloni 

\ j^ainat Uyxootiuin. He first dintin^uLihed 

hnvev»T, nt the Istttle of Chaeroueia 

. y was luaiiily owing to 

( II r. 33l!), just nfler 
lo march into Asia at 
• ' (.ireeks, Alexander 
: Macedon, and found hiiu- 
iiiies on every side, .\ttalus 
''» IwW u( (.'ltO(^iti*, who bad been n'lit into 
^ by Pwnviucm with n cnii,idi rable force, os- 
V»i la iha thruoir ; the lirceks niiKed bv De- 
^■tWava, thrrw otf (he Matedoniun supremacy ; 
laj the tairfaii/tiijjs in the north itirralened his 
Nothing but the prnniplest energy 
t Vm ; (ml in this Alexander was never 
.1* M-izrtl and put to death. 
■ tile south nf Gn^ecc nver- 
cpp »!::.. ;i; Thelie-s * hich had Ijeeo 
liinst liiiT), sulinnttid when he aj^ 
^ils (!■■'< : anil the aiscmblcd Greeks at 




the Isthmus nf Corinth, with the sole exception o{ 
the Lacedaemonians elected him lo the command 
Bg'.unBt Persia, which had previously Ixwn bestowed 
upon bis fiither. Keing now at liberty to reduce 
llic barbarians of the uurtii to obedience, he 
marched (early in ac. 335) across mount Hacnnu, 
dele-utrd (he TrilialU, and adfanaid aa £u aa the 
On) mile, whicli he crossed, and received cmliasnes 
fioju the Scythians and oilier nations. (Jn his 
retuni, be marched westward, and subdued the 
Illyriaiift and TauLantii, who were obliged to sub- 
mit to tb<^ Mocedoniau supremacy. \Miile en- 
gaged in these distant countries, a report of his 
death reached Greece, and the Tliebans once mure 
took up arms. But a terrible puniiihnient await^rd 
them. He advanced into Boi'Otia by ivpid marches, 
uiid appeared befort- the gates of the city almost 
before the inhabitants had received intelligence of 
hin sippruach. The city was token by assault ; all the 
liuildings, with the exception of the house of Pin- 
dar, wenr levelled with the i^nund ; most of the 
inliribilants butchered, and the n-»t sold as slaves. 
Athens feared a simihir fut^s and s<'nt an emlwssy 
deprecating his wmlh ; hut Alexander did not ad- 
viuice further j the punuhraent of Thebes was a 
sutKcient warning to Greece. 

Alexander now din-ctt>d nil his energy to prepare 
for the expedition against Persia. In the spring 
of a. <;. 334, he crossed over tlie Hellespont into 
Asia with on anuy of almut 3.i,WI0 men. Uf 
these 3(l,ltOU were foot anil .lOIMt hnrse; and of 
tile fonuer only I'J.OOO were Macedimianii. But 
experience )md shewn that thin was a force which 
no Persian king could resist. Darius, the reigning 
king of Persia, hud no military skill, and coidd 
only hope lo oppose Alexander by engaging the 
services of merceiur}- Urecks, of whom he obtained 
hu;gc supplies. 

Alexander's first engagement with the Persians 
wa« on the banks of the Granicus, where they at- 
tempted (o prevent his passage over it. Meninon, 
a Ithodian Greek, was in the anuy of the Persians, 
and hud n-commendi-d them to u illidraw as Alexaii- 
ilor's anny advanced, and lay waste the country ; 
but this advice was not followed, and tile Persian* 
wen' defeated. Memnon was the ablest giMienil 
that Darius had, and his death in the following 
year (ii. i . 3:<3) n-lieved .Alexander from a fomiid- 
ftbli' opponent. After the capture of Malicninassur, 
Meuinun had collected a powerful fleet, in which 
.\lexander was greatly deficient ; he bud ud(en 
niatiy of the islands in the Aegneau, and thn-alened 

llefiire marching against Darius, Alexander 
thmiglil it expedient to subdue the chief towns ou 
the wi-steni coast of .Alia Minor. The last event 
of importance in the campaign was the capture of 
Hiilicamussus, which was not taken till bite in tlia 
nntuinn, after a vigorous defence by Meniium, 
Aleiuiidcr manhed along the cc-asl of l.ycio and 
I'luiiphylia, and then northward iiilo Phrygia and 
10 Goriiium, where he cut or untied (he celebluteil 
Gurdian knot, which, it was said, was to bo 
bwsened only by the conqueror of Asia. 

lu B.1^ 333, he was joined at Goidium by re- 
inforcements from Macedonia, and commenced bis 
secoud campaign. From Gordium be marched 
through the centre of Asia jMiiior into Cilicia to 
tlie city of Tarsus, where he nearly loht his life by 
a fever, brought on by his great exertions, or 
through throwing himself, when heated, into the 


cold waten of the C'ydniiii. Ihkriiu meantiine lind 
ciilWted nn iramfiut nmiy of i(J«,0O0, ur 1>()I>,01HI 
iiit'ii, with 30,(100 (invk mcrvcnorws ; but inttnul 
of waiting; fur Alexiuiilcr's npproach in the wid« 
jilniu of SiK)n, where he hail been itattoTii.^ for 
ftomc time, nud which wam favourable to his ntini- 
ben and the evolution of bin cnTitlry, he advoriced 
into the narniw phiin of Iuu«, where defeat wa> 
nlmobt certain. Alexander hod poued through 
thin pLiia into Syria before Dariu* reoehed it ; but 
M wMin OJi he received intelli;^nce of the move- 
mentu of Ihiriuii, he rvtraced bia iteps, and in the 
Inttle which followed the Penian nmiy wait de- 
featifl with dn^utful slnuifliter. Ditriui tmik to 
tli|{lit, .14 wmn an be mw hi^ left wui^ niuted, and 
r-Miifta'd acmw the KuphruteA by the ford of Tbap- 
iuiru!t ; but hift mother, wife-, and cluldren fell into 
the hand* of Alexander, who ireateii them with 
the utnioct delicacy and reipeet. The Uittlc of 
Imu>, which WII4 fonfthi towurdi the cloie of II. r. 
H'M^ rlecideil the fate of the IV-rsiun empire ; but 
.\lrxandc'r judxetl it uiont pnident not to purtue 
HnriiM, but to >ubduc I'hooniciu, which wa< cipe- 
ci.-iily formidable by iti luvy, and con>liUitly 
thruiti^ned thereby to attack the coaaU of (jnH'ce 
and Macedonia. Most uf the cities of Phoenicia 
■ubmittetl ai he approached ; Tyre alone refuted to 
Bum-'tider. Thi^ city woa not token till the niid- 
dle of u. u .lil'J, after .in obttinnte defence of •eren 
luunthR, and wa» fearfully punished bv the alnugh- 
ter uf 80OU Tyriant and the Kale of 3U,0UU inui 
khtvery. Next followed the siege of (Juko, which 
Kguin dcbyed .-Vlexander twi> months, and after- 
wards, according to Josephus, he uanrhed to Jeru- 
salem, intending to punish the people for refusing 
to assist htm, but he was diverted from his purpose 
by the ap[H*iinince nf the high priest, and pardoucM] 
the pcjiple. This storj' is nut mentioned by .\rriau, 
and n'sts on questionnblv evidence. 

Alexander neit tnarehed into Egypt, which 

k'' " ' '.ted til the conqueror, for the Eg^'p- 

t r hated the I'enians, who insulted 

rind viohiled their templet. In the 

I .lie following year (u, c. .131), Alex- 

I at the mouth of the western branch 

ui' the .N'ilf, the city of .Mexoodrin, which he in- 
tended should forai the centre ofctrntmetti* between 
tbo eastern and western worlds and which soon 
man tlutn n*aliAed the ex|M'cLiti(ins of its founder. 
lie now detenuined to visit the temple of Jupiter 
Amnion, and ofler proceeding from Alexmidria 
along tlie coast to Paraetonium, hu turned south- 
ward thr^>ugh the desert nod thus reached the tcaiplc. 
lis was saluted by the priests w tbo aon of Ju- 
piter .\nimoiu 

In the spring of the same year (b. c 331), 
Al"\:ii:>t.'r ^nt oQt to Hicet IMHus, wbo had col- 
r army. Ho marched thnmgh Phoe- 
I' < I - . i. I to the Eophiutes. which he crossed at 

till' turd tif Thapocus ; from theim he ptocccrded 
throu^lh Mrwipotamiji, crossed the TigriK auJ nt 
length met with the immense hovts of Itarius, said 
to have omounteil to niorv than a million of men, 
in the plaius uf I iaugnmehi. The hottlo wo* fought 
in the month of (ktuber, B. c S31, ud Midcd in 
the eomplvte ib-fcat of the i'eruoiii, who Hlflerad 
iromrnsp sLiugbter. Alexander pianiMd iho fugv 
livas to Artohi (Kriiil), which plaeo hu givsn its 

ti i ' ■ ' ' .llMftlt 

I Ihi 

f .^;. ...._ ......... ......... iti the 


day, Hed to Ecbatana (Hiiin»dan)i 
Alexander wa* now the coinjuerur of An) I 
he began to aname all the poiup and ■plradwrl 
on Asiatic despot. His adoption of Peniui I 
uiid customs tended doubtless to conciliate 
uffi^rtiuns of his new subjects ; but thd 
word signs orf nstcm royalty urere also 
]iaiiied by many acts worthy only of on 
tyrant; he exercised nu cuntroul over his 
sions, and frequently gave way to ibe miat < 
and nngovcmubic excesses. 

From .Arhchi, Alexander manrhcd to 
Suso, and I'crsepolis, whicli all surrendefvd i 
out strikini: a blow. He is said to have set fiiv| 
the palace of IVrsepolis, and. according to 
acconnts in the revelry of a biuiquet, at the ia 
gntion of ThniH, nu Athenian court^xaiu 

At the U'^jiniiing of n. c. .'I3I^ Ales 
marched fnim Persepolis into Media, where ] 
had colitTtod a new fnn?o. tin his 
Uiirius Hed tlmuiijh Hhugae and the pas*c»ofJ 
t'^lbure mountains, called by the ancient* the C 
plan (Jateii, int<i the Hactrian provinces. 
sto|iping a short time at Rcbstano, .Mexonda i 
tue<l him through the deserts uf I'arthia. and I 
nearly niiched him, when the unfortuiuile kim 
munlrred by Ressus satrap of Ifactrio, and I 
•ociates. Alexander sent his body to Pel 
be buried in the tombs of the Persian kingK 
escaped to Bactria, and awumed the title nf t 
of Pcraia, Aloxandcr advanced 'mu> Hyrcani^ 
order to gain over the tvmnant of the iV 
Darius's army, wbo wcrt^ assembled there, 
some negotiiition he succeeded ; they werr ail |^ 
donerU and a gp^at nuiny of them taken into | 
pay. After spending fifteen djiys at Zadr 
the capital nf Parthia, he marched to the fn 
of Aieia, which he entrusted to Satihamnes, | 
former aatrnp of the country, and set out ml 
march townrds nuctria to attack Itessus bQt ' 
not proceeded fnr, when he wns recalled bj I 
Tolt of Sotibananet. Ry incredible 
ivtumed to Anociann, tlie capital of ibe i 
in two days' march : the ntnip took to fliabls i 
anew governor was appointed. InaUaa (f| 
suming his march into liiulria, .Alexander 
to tiavu thought it more prudent to subdue 
Miuth-caslcm parts of .\rcia, and 
numbed into tlie country of the Diaagw 

During the army'* stay at Prophthasio, the < 
tal uf the Drangae, an event ocnirrr.l. < 
shews the altered character of.\Iev' 
pniient* him in the light of a sufj- 
desfwt. PhilotoK the son of his faiiDnii ^r 
Parmenion, and wbo had heru himself a ] 
frieud of Alexander, was accused of a plot i 
the king's life- He vras nocuard by .VleE 
liefore the army, condemned, and pat la 
Parmenion, who was at the head of i 
Kcbotaua, was also put to dentil by i 
Alexander, wbo faucd kit be ibanM 
revenge hii MA. Sewnl otb<r tM» bt 1 
fuUnwed. awl muiy Macedoniaa* i 

Alexiuider now advanced through the < 
of the Atiospi to tlie Arachuti, a people ' 
the Indus, whom he conquemL Ituilr 
and the complete subjugation of Aieia 
the winter of tliis year, (a r. 330.) 
giniiiiig of the following year (IL C 
crossed the luouuLuus of the I'j 


ITikIwi C«b«Ii ), and mairhml into Bactrift Of^inst 
4 hi till* appnuch of Alrnuider, Rc»u» 
■ Uw Oxm into Sogdioim. Alvxnndcr 
kim« and tmni«portc<l hit amiT iicnMii the 
ihv w the ikint of tl»* triit« tlufTrd with atniw. 
ttciljr lAa tfar [■amp Bewiu wu IwirnyiHl into 
lii WhmU. ■nd. tfier being cracllr mutilnh-d hv 
a<i.^ „r KU-xuiint, m* pnl to death. Fn>iu the 
..'>der adnnced a< fiir ru the Jasiirtei 
>• liich be ooued, and defeated tercnil 
Irilan north of that rirer. After 
■ riiT Alexandria on the Jaxaneii, he 
., rvct'nvd thf Oius and returned 
.■ tra, whorv ht* BjK-nl the winter 
.. ..« hrre ihttt Alcxiinder killiHl hi« 
in a drunkwi n-vrL [I'taiTi:!!.] 
ni; of K. (. 3°.'H, Alexander again 
)xu> tu cQni[ilete the tulijiigntiim of 
anu not able to effect it in the yeur, 
'.:'ify ninter (]UiUti*rs ut Nnu- 
Uf? of the pnivince. At the 

1 ..w:i(i TMir, lu i:, 327. he tunk 

fortnr«S in which I lxyarte&, n IWlriun 
d«'pQMted hi* vrife and djiuirhterv 
of iiriiaiia, one of the btlrr, captivated 
and be aecordingly made her hia 
Ab BMtfraigr with one of his enateni Alib- 
is MOinlance with the whole of hi« 
Baring coBpleted the coiii|iie«t of Sogdi- 
■■Sar nauched wuthwanl into lluctrio, 

Mvpanuiona for the invusimi of India. 

tai Baetrk. another con«pini<7 wii» diseov- 
•4 lar Ihr miudrr of the kin);. The phit waa 
fcnrf b; !! ' 'ith a number of the roval 

Mas aail . a pupil of .\risti>lle, vnu 

mimi ill ... .... conipiraton were put to 

did not lesTe flactria till late in the 
y^ •( K e. .T27. and cru<w.-d the Indus, pnibo- 
(^ Bar the ma<l«m Attock. He now enli'red 
of the Peujab, or the Five Ki<rer». 
tfcr kinfr of the [leople iannediulely eaat 
hmitted to him. and tliiu he met 
till he raiclKHl the i[yda>pc«, 
[le bank of which f'urti&, nn Indian 
paated villt t lugn army and a ouwider- 
of rbpinnti. Alexander manag'd lo 
Ititf onpctoiTed by the Indian kin^, 
•■ nbaoiaie battla fldlowed, in which 
t Aitmtd after a gallant refti«tance. and 
.\lezander re«torvd to him hiM 
tnatrd him with diitinguiahed 

tbinj dayt on the Ilydaapea, 
tlmt «hkk tiae ha fotwdrd two towna, one on 
■4 wdt af like mar: ona waa called Itucephalo, 
d h^«r «f bia hanr Boocphain*, who died hen-, 
Atr tMiju^ t bin ibroogh as manj vlctoriea ; and 
fc mW Niraia, to cofnaemonle hi> victory. 
liiB (braa* h« omichrd to the .\ce>iiie« (the 
<\*it), wUtb be cracnl, and »uhw<|uently to the 
ttylwahj (lk» BaTCp), which he alao cniaaed, 
* •ta'k aaalkar Porua, who had piapoRd 
to imttn iamL Bat aa be approoched nearer, 
bia dominions were given 
h tta Mum vhoB ha had coniiuered on the 
The Catbaei, however, who ul>o 
al IW Ilydnolea, offere<l a vigumu* 
bat arm HrfiHid Alexander »tiU 
till hr RBeiM!d the llyphnsi^ 
■■m), itht^ ha »a» pce|Bfing to cruia, when 

the Macedonians worn out by loiijj lerviee, and 
tifrd of tlie war, refused to proeet-d ; and .Mexnn- 
der, nolwilhulandinj; hli entn-iities and prayiTs, 
waa (ilillfjed to load them back. He relu'nu-d 
to the Hydas|)e«, where he had previounly given 
orders for the buildinf; of a fleet, nnil then nuIikI 
down the river with .itwat UdllU men, while the 
reiuiunder nmrclied ;il(irig the Ivuiks in Iwo di\i- 
siona. This wns bite in the (mtunin of 3'J7. The 
pcHiple on each aide of the river siibmitled with- 
out retiatonce, except the Malli, in the coiii|ue>t 
of une of whose places .\le\aiider was seveiely 
»-nunded. .\t the conlluence of the Acesines 
and the Indus .Alexander foundi-d a city, and 
left I'hilip at satmp, with a cunsidemble )>ody 
of Oreeka. Here he built some fre»li thips, and 
shortly afterwiirds sent about a third of the 
onnj-, nnder Cratenu, thruuxh the coiiiitrj- of 
the .Anichoti and Uraiiirae into Cumuinio. Ho 
himsielf continued bis viiya),if down the Indus 
founded n city at I'littuin, the npex of the delui 
of the Indus and Niiled into the Indian oann. 
He seems to have reached the mouth of the 
Indus about the middle of 3'2(i. Ni-archus was 
sent with the fleet to mil along the cn.-ut to 
the I'ersiau (.nilf [NKAKriii's], and Alexandi;! 
set tiut from Paltulu. about September, to return 
to Persia. In his nian:h ilinnijfh (jedro->i,i, bis 
army sutfered greatly fniin want of water and 
proviaiuns, till ilu-y arrived ut I'um, where they 
obtained supplies From Tura he advanced to 
Cannon (Kinnan), the capital of Carman ia, where 
he wa& joined by Cratenis with his detachment 
of the aniiy, and alto by Ncorchus who hod 
acconiphshed the voyage in aofety. Alexander 
sent the great body of the army, under Ho- 
phncstion, along the Persian gulf, while he him- 
srli^ with a small force, nuircbed to Paaargndae, 
and from thence to Perscpolis, where ho ap- 
pointed Peuce^tas a Macedonian, governor, in 
place of the former one, a Perxion, whom ho 
put to death, for oppressing the province. 

From Pen*epolis Alexander advanced to Susa, 
which he reachiKl in the lieginning of 3ii. Here 
he allowed himself and his tmopii some rest from 
their labours ; and faithful to his plan of fonning 
his Euro|iean and .Asiatic subjects into one people, 
he auigtu-d to oboul eighty of his generals .Asiatic 
wives, and giive with thein rich dowries. He him- 
self took a second wife, liarune, the eldest dniigli- 
ter of Dnriun, and according tu simie accuunls a 
third, Parysiitis the daughter of Ochus Atmul 
10,11110 Maiedoiiious also followed the example 
of their king and gi-nerals and married Asiatic 
women ; all thesi> n-ctived presents from the king. 
Alexander also enrolled large numberm of .Asiatics 
among his trtHips and taught them the Macedonian 
tactics He moreover directed his attention to tlie 
iiicmue of commerce, and for tbi.t pur]iosc bad the 
Kuphrates and Tigris made navigable, by removing 
the artilii'ial obstructions which liud been made in 
the river for the purpose of irrigation. 

The Mnci'donians who were discontente<l witli 
•eveml of the new amuiginnetits of the king, and 
especially at his placing the Persians on an eijiuility 
vrith themselves in many tesjiects, rose in mutiny 
against him, which he quelled with Nome little 
dilhculty, and lie afterwards disinissi^ aUiiit I U,(HMI 
Macedonian vetennis, who returned to Kurojio un- 
der the cuuinuind of Cmtrnis. 1'owards the closv; 
of the aome year (ii. i. 3'J5) he went tu Kclutamt, 



wber« he lost hiR ^^runt favourite Hephotiation ; and 
hift i{rief for Win I11441 kiipw uu boiintlh. Fnim Kclin- 
Innn hc> nuurhvtl to lialiyloii, •ubiluiiig in bin wuy 
the Ciiunet, n mouiitJiin Iribt* ; and bi'fon? ht* ruacji- 
ol nabylnii, he wit* mot by omlKiMadom from 
lUino«t vvpry part of dir known world, who bnd 
come to do houinge to the d«w conqueror of Astn. 

Alexander reached Dabrlon in the aprins; of a c. 
324, nbout a year before his dt^th, notwitlii<tjuid- 
injs the wamingft of the CbuldeouB, who pnnlictcd 
evil to him if beentrnnl the city at that time. He 
intended to moke llabylon the capital of bis empins 
M the bent point of conmiunication between bi> 
eulcm and weateni dominion*. Ilia nchenies were 
numemiu and gigantic. Hi^s Brst object waa the 
eoaquevt of Arabia, which waa to be followed, it 
waa aaid. by the aubjugntion of Italy, Oirtbii(te, 
and the weat. Rut hia viewa were not confined 
merely to conqueat. He aent Heraclcidea to build 
a fleet on the Caapioii, and to explorv that «ea, 
wkkh wa» aaid to be connected with the northern 
ooean. He alao intended to improve the diilribu- 
tinn of watcn in the Babylonian pbtin, and fur 
that purpoae aailed down the Kuphrate» to inapect 
the cajuil cntle<l Pnllacojua. (.)n hia rvtum to 
Ikibylon, he found the preparations for the Arabian 
expedition nearly complete ; but almost iuimedi- 
atrlv afterwnrda he was at(ncke<l by a fever, pro- 
tafaly broui;bt on by hia recent exertiona in the 
manhy diatricta nmiiud llabylon, and aggm- 
Tnted by the qunuiity of wine he had drunk 
oi A banquet fpven to hia principal oHicen. He 
died after an iUneu of eleven duya, in the month 
of May or June, u. 1 . U'J3. He died at tbc a^ of 
thirty-two, oftrr a reign of twelve ycnn and eight 
months. He appointed no one oa his aucceuor, 
but just before hia death he gave hia ring to I'er- 
diccnk Roxnna was with child at the lime of his 
drath, and afterwarda liotv a son, who is known by 
the name of AU-xaiider Aegua. 

The history of Alexander forma an impiirlani 
epoch ill the history of nuuikiiid. 17iitiki' ttther 
Asiatic conqucrDrs, hi* progress was marked by 
something more than devastation and rain ; at 
ewry step of hia course the (ireek Unguage and 
civilixation took root and riourisbed ; and after hia 
death Cireek kingdoms were formed in all porta of 
Ami, which continued to exist for centuries Uy 
bi* voaqncsta the knowledge of mankind was iii- 
anwed; the sciences of geography, natural history 
and otherv rcceifed nut additions; and it waa 
through him that a reed was opened to India, and 
that kuropenna become acquaiated with the pro- 
dod* of tile R-mole East 

No contenj[Mjrary author of the campaigns of 
Alexander survit es. Our bat McooiU conies from 
Armn, who lived in the second eentury of the 
Christian aera, but who drew up his histury from 
tb« acxuunu of I'toleniy, the sun of l^iAUs, and 
Aristoliulua uf Cassitndria. The history uf (juuitut 
i'urtius I'lulanch's life of AlexauUer, and the 



epitomes uf Justin and Uiodunis 8intUis« 1 
emupiled from earlier wrilcn. The tmt 
writers on the subject are : Su Croix, 
crUiiiur dtt aadaa J/utoriau iT Altaamin k 
Dniyattn, liacUclUe Aleuamdan dm Oram 
lioms Ij/r t/ Jlfjander; Thiilwall, M 
f/nsrtw, vols. vi. and vii. 

ALEXANDER IV. {'AXiiattfot), I 
Ma( kikima, tbc son of .Vlexaiider the 
Uuxiuia, was bom shortly after the daot 
futhcr, ill B. u .'l'23. He was acknowladgn 
jianner of Philip .^rrfaidoeus in the empire, 
under the guardianship of Peidiccas, the 
till the death of the hitler m B. c. 321. 
then for a short time placed under the guar 
of Pithon and the general ^Vrrhidoeua, an 
quenlly under that of Antipatcr, who e 
liim with his mother Koxano, and the kin 
Arrbidueus untl his wife to Macedonia 
(Iliud. x^iii. HO, 39.) Un the drath of A 
ill :)!!), the govemnient fell into the 1 
l'oly»pi'n;hon ; but Eurjdicc, the wife a 
Arrbidaeus, began to form a powerful | 
Macedonia in opposition to Polysperehc 
Uoxaua, dreading her inlluencc, fird with 
Alexander into Kpoirus, where (.lUmpiaa fa 
fur a long time. At the instigation of O 
Aencides, king of Kjieims nuido oooflM 
with Pulyspi-rchon, and restored the youi 
andnr to Macedonia in 317. [AitjtUDK&] 
dice and her husband were put to doolh, 
supreme power fell into the luiads of 
(xix. 1 1 ; Justin, xiv. A.) But in the i 
year Ciuaaodcr obtained p^^sM>ssiun uf Ma 
put Ulympios to death, and iiuprinuiied A) 
and hia mother. They remiiined in phaoa 
general peace made in 31 1, when Alezandi 
to the cmwn was recwnised. Many of 
tiuDs demanded that he shonkl be imn 
released from prison and pkiced upeo th« 
Cosaondrr therefore rexilveil to get rid o( 
geruus R rival, and caused him and his 
Uuxuiia lu lie murdered secretly in priaq 
311. Uiod. xix. 51, 5-2, 61, 105; Juln 
Paufc ix. 7. « 2.) 

ALEXANDER fAA^{ai4fx>i), a Ma 
LITAN. He was urigiiuiUy u Macodoiiiaa, 
received the franchiae and v>'us settled at 
polis alwut u. ('. I. 'III. He pretended to I 
scendant of Alexander the (jimt, and aco 
called his two sons Philip and Alcxondi 
daughter Apama was married to Amj 
king of the Athanuuiions. Her eklesl 
Philip, followed her to her court, and ba 
vain choiactor, be allowed hiiiiwlf to b* 
with the {MMMct of puning prinaaiaa 
throne of Macedonia. (Ut. xxxi. 47; Am^ 
13; coni|i. PiiiLii-, sun uf .\i.k\aniiiui.) 

A LEX A N DEIl ('AA^orSfwi), bn>ther n 
On the acci-ssion uf Antiocbus III,, ofi 
coiled the (ireaL, in ilc 224, he rntruata 
audcr with the govenuiient of the ntnipy n 
and Molo received Media. Antiochoa n 
only hftceu ytrars of age, and this aiuu 
together M-ith the 6ict that Hrnneia*. • k 
terer and crafty intriguer, whom tray tmt 
fear, was all-powerful at his court, inducad 
brothers to fonn the pUu of oausiag tb 
soinpira of the kingdom to retulL It 
•ecret wi»b of Hemu-ias to mt thn king ini 
at many difficulties as (tussililo, oihI / 

and j^l 


■ ilBt tbe wnr againd the rcbel< wu entnut- 

tan withoui eoonge and ability. In a. c. 

icr. Amiocfaiu hiuucif undertguk tbe 

JHolo wu dMeitcd by hif troops <u'd 

J into tbe hands of the kinfi, put an 

f evn hit. AO the leaden uf the rvixrl- 

hi* enmple, and one of them, who 

I ta Penu, killMl Molo't mother and chil- 

[■mnwled Alexandi^r to put on end to h'm 

\miA at hut killed himself upon the bmlies uf 

ftVBd* (PcilTb. ». 40. 41, 43, 54.) [U -S.] 

'iI.E.\ANDF.R the MnNK CAAtiarSpot ftmn- 

, ^hapft a natiri* of Crpmi. All we know 

>■!«■, that be lirpd before Michael Glycaa, 

kll^ who ({oMea him. Two oration* by him 

fvnut. I. A Panegyric on St. Bomabiu, op. 

md» Atta Satt^onm, vol zxi. p. 436. 2. Con- 

Kf the loTeution nf tbe Croa*, ap. GrrlMr. <le 

iQruli, 4to. IniulM. I6UU. [A. J. C] 

'■"■'SDEK ('AA^{a»8po«) of Mv.ndis in 

[writer on xo«lo);y of uncertain date. 

ore now Io«t, must have been 

*ery TainaUe by the ancient*, lince 

I to them rery frequently. The title* of 

Va Wit* ore : Knfnvv 'Iirropla, a lon^ fm^^ment 
t^via^ facJonring to the second book, is quoted 
. ^Alknarat. (r. p. 2°JI, comp. ii. p.tij; Aelian, 
I At J& Bi. 23. IT. 33, r. -27, x. 34.) Thit work 
•fniaUy the aune as that which in other pas- 
•hopty called n*pl TAvi¥^ and of which 
p. 392) likewise quotes the second 
irk on birds (n<pl nrqiwy, Plut 
Athen. ix. pp. 387, 388, 3!i(l, &c.) wai 
and the second book of it is quot- 
Dioftene* Laertius (■■ 29) men- 
of Myndus as the author of a 
ba, of wUch he quotes the ninth liook. 
beiog otherwise unknown, Mennge 
Bul 'AA^^ovSpoi 4 MiivJiof instead of 
01 everything in uncertain, and the 
least is ii'it Terv probable. [L. S.] 
IDKU NUME'.\IL'.S ('AX^Jaj^pof 
- h Nvv^ijWov. OS Suiilos call-* him), a 
■dan, who lived in tbe rei^ of Ha- 
t of the Antonines. Almut bis life 
awn. W« possess two works which 
o bin. The one which certainly is 
the title ftspl tim* Tijr Aioi'oiat icol 
', L e, *• I>e Kiguris Sententianim 
i. Rnfinionus in his work on the 
:(fkI9S, ed.Ruhnken) expressly states 
Soannia, in his treatise " De Figuris 
Eloaitioni*," took his materials 
h» AWiambr Namenitts' work mentioned above. 
1W ■end srarii hcorine the name of Alexander 
BMayi^ OOitlad n<(il 'Ev<}«irruc«i>, i.e. " On 
AsvMadna.'* i* admitted on all hands not to be 
w wk, hut ol a later gnunmorion of the name of 
Unmiia : it is, to speak more correctly, made up 
■iy doBsily bom two distinct ones, one of which 
■■ wnilcii try ooe Alexander, and the other by 
Mawilir. (Valo. ad KimA. HaL Etda. p. 28.) 

TW fim Miition of these two works is that of 
AitaS ia hi* collection of the fthrtoret Grueci, 
Tmkf, tMUt, kU vol. L p. .574, iLc They ore 
ria mm^iari in WaU's IVietarKi O'nuri, vol. viiL 
Tb psaint «aik of Alexander Nunieniui has 
•ia !■■ stftoda tntlxT *>th Minucianu* and 
na, br I^ KonnAnn, with u Lutin traiis- 
■MfaltMlaw I'polo, \r,<M, Uvo. (See 
adA^mL Ham. p. la», tic.; Wcstcr- 



mann, Gttei. drr Uriech. UeredUamlxil, S 95, ». 1 3, 
SI04,,.7.) [US.) 

ALEXANUKK, an Athenian painter, one of 
whose productions is extant, paintetl on a luarbiv 
tablet which bciirs hi* name. (WiiickeUusnii, 
vol, ii. p. 47, v. p. 120, ed. Eiselein.) I'hero woa 
n son of kiniii Peneus of this name, who was it 
ikUful lorcutos. (Plut. Atmil. Paul. 37.) There 
was also a M. Lollio* Akxander, an engmver, 
whose name occurs in an inscription in lAini, p. 
318, .No. 14. [C. P. M.] 

ALEXANDER ("AA^JacSpoi), the Papulaoo- 
NIAN, a celebrated impostor, who flounshud aUiut 
the beginning of the second centiuy (haaaiL Alrj. 
G). a native of Abnnoteichoii an the Euxiue, and 
tile pupil uf a friend of Apolbnius I'yanoeus. His 
history, which is told by Lucian with great namlc, 
is chiefly nn account of the various contrivances by 
which he established and maintained the credit of 
an oracle. Being, acconling to Lucian's account, at 
iiis ivil's end for the means of life, with many 
natural advantages of manner and pcnton. he de- 
termined on tlie following iinpoBture. After rais- 
ing the expectations of the Papblagoninns with a 
rt!pnrted visit of the god Aesculapius, and giving 
himself out, under the sanction nf an oiade, aa a 
dcTtcendant of Perijeuii, he grotitied the expectation 
which be Imd himself miscnl, by finding a serpent, 
which he juggled out of nn egg, in the foundations 
of tbe new temple of AesctUapius. A larger ser- 
pent, which he brought with him from Pella, was 
disguised with a human head, until the dull Papb- 
lagoninns really believed that a new god (Jlycon 
bnd appeared among them, and gave omdes in the 
likeness of a serpent. Dark and crowded rooms, 
juggling tricks, and the other arts of more vulgar 
mag[icians, were the chief means used to impOM 
on a credulous |H>pulace, which Lucimi detect* 
with as much test as any modem sceptic in tlw 
marvels of aninuU magnetism. Evecy one who 
attempted to expoae the impottar, was octniied uf 
being a Christian or Epicnnan; and even Lucian, 
whu amused himself with hi* contradictory ora- 
cles, hardly escaped the effects of bin nmligiiity. 
He had his spies at Kome, and bunied hinucif 
with the alfairs of the whole world : at the time 
when a pestilence was nging, many were executed 
at his instigation, as the authors of this calamity. 
He said, that the soul of Pythagonis had migruted 
into his body, and prophesied that he should live 
a htmdrcd and hfty ycors and then die from the 
fall of a thunderbolt : unfortunately, an ulcer in 
the leg put an end to his imposture in the seven- 
tieth year of his age, just as he was in the height 
of hi* glocy, and had ivquestod tbe emperor to 
hare a medal struck in honour of himself and the 
new god. The influence he attained over the 
populace seems incredible ; indeed, the narrative 
uf Lucian would appear to l)e a mere romance, 
H'ere it nut continued by some medal* of Antoninus 
and M. Aurelius, [R. J.] 

ALEXANDER {'A\Hat*pas) of Paphius a 
Qicek writer on mythology of uncertain date. 
Eustathius {ad Hum. <M. x. pp. l(i5U, 1713) refer* 
to him as bis authuritv. [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER (■AA^;o»8(<oi),sunu»med Pklo- 
PL ATO.N ( nijAoirAiiTeii'), a Greek rhetorician of the 
age of the Antonines, waa a son uf Alexander of 
Scleucio, in Cilicio, and of Seloncis. (Philostr. 
('if. Suplu ii. 5. § 1 , compared with ICfiitL AjuJtim. 
Tyuii. 13, where the father of Alexander I'elupla- 



Iini ia odlet! Stmtnri, which, huwevpr, may be a 

Bti'n* nuniuini*.) His fjsthrr vni% fli»tinguiftbrd us 

% pt<*nH>T in the cfjurti of jufttict% by which be ac- 

quifYMl cnriKiiirnblp proptrtr, but he died at aji age 

vhrii hih M>n yet wanted the care of a father. 

flit placr, hiiwever, wa< (applied by bit friend*, 

I ••iiecinllv by Apolloiiiui of Tyono, who U aid to 

rhan Iwn in love with Selencit on account of her 

I •Ktmordinnry bniutr, in which ahe wa* equalled 

hf her aon. Hit education wa* entnuted at fir*t 

to Phnvorinu)!, and uftfirwuids to Uionysiuft. He 

(p^ni th<- pn>peny which hi* father hid left him 

U|»ii |iU-u>iim, but, ay* Philostratui, not con- 

Iruiplilile pleiuuiv*. When he had attained the 

l^(t) of nuiii)i(Mid, the town of Heleucia, for some 

Inuiin now unknown, Knt Alexander a* ambaH*- 

dnr to the vin|icrur Antuninui Piun, who i« laid to 

hnrx ridii-iileil the yiiun); man for the extraragant 

cnn* hii tiratnwrd on hi« luitwuni apfiearance. He 

. apf'nt the gn'Ater jinrt of lii» life away fruiii hi* 

1 antiri* plnr*', iit Antinchio, Konie, Tarius and tra- 

I «elle<l ihn>U)(h all Kiivpt. a* Cir a* the country of 

i the ri;>ii'M, (Kthiopiniiii.) ]ttH*eniR to have Utin 

Ijnrin^ hi» «L-iy at Antiochia that he wa* api>ointed 

(ll%«'k ■rcri'tnrt' to the emperor M. Antoninui, 

who wa« airryinj; on a war in Punnonin, about 

A. I>. 1 7 1. Un hi« jounii-y to the emperor he 

mnile a vhort «tay at Athens where he met the 

erh'brotrd rhetofiiijin llenjdcA Altiru*. lie had 

[ H rhetorical conte«t with him in which he not only 

I tonqiwrrd hit fumou> adverury, but Ruined lii> 

fwleein and admimlion to >uch a degree, that 

I Heiudft hoiKiiireij him with a niunificvnt pn-tenL 

> One Ciinnthijin, hoHeser. of the name of Scrptc*, 

Nrhen nnkiul «tiat he thoujiht of Alexander, ex- 

nd lii* diuippoinlinent by laying tliat he had 

•* the clay (nijAot), but not I'bito." Tbi» 

)Pivc rim' to the Minuune of PelopbiLoiL 

[The place and time uf hi« detitlt an' not known. 

I I'hili'Atnitu* pve« the vnnouii Ktatementft which he 

' fcufid iilmut the*** )iotntn. Alexander waft one of 

he ^mUr«t rhetor)ri:tn!i uf hi* u^', and he i« 

I V*p«'t'i^tly pniiwM for the nublinjity of hi» Ktyle and 

i-tlu' h«»Iil(if4« ft hi* thniifhta ; but he i» not known 

I Id hatr wrillm nouhlni;. An account of hi* life 

I i* piven liy I'iiilinttnliia ( I'll, Sn/iX. u. ,5), who ha* 

rvl«> pri'tterveO M'Vemt of hi* Mvinft*, and MTiDe of 

Ithe (ubject* on which he nmde •peechct, (Cnnip. 

LSnidas L r- 'AA4£iu4|K» Ai><uai in ho.; c'udoc. 

|>.V.'.) (L. S.1 

y AI.K\AM>KI(('AX^Ca>4f>oi), *on of Pkrskis. 

ItiiK' of M.irrdonia, W.-U a child at the ct>ni|uc-*t of 

1 ' the Uoman«, and after the triumph 

,' 1 I'aullua in H. i: l(>7, wa* kept in cut- 

Itudy at Alln, lop-ther with h» Gilhrr. Ilo be- 

•kilfnl in ttie toiruiic art, Icunird the Latia 

, and bmnie a public notary. (I.iv. xlr. 

Jltm^ S*wul. 37.) 

ALRXANDER ('AA^iorapat), tyrant of Plllt 

aAB. The aMDunt* of hi* ii*ucpati<in rary anme- 

whnt in minor piiinl* ; IHndonu (i<r. til ) telU u* 

I :i«— «inal»nn nf Jaaim, a. r. 570, Po- 

I ' fwlher ruled far • yntr, and wa* then 

ni,«n-»i Mv AWsaailrt, aaotlicr tmtber. Arvord- 

l» XmfiKm (Moff. «L 4. i S4). P.>lyd«ni. 

I »nnlrtT-J l>« hi* fcwdif Ptljrphnm. amt I'oly- 

II. c X!^* by Alexandaf^ki* 

■ <■ PlKlartb. who atiaie* alM> tlM 


Thitiblr k al nrsM* 

th Paiuania* (>i. 
(i». 74.) 



.Alexander wonhippcd a* a god tka 
which be *lew his uncle. (Plut. Ptta^ 
We«». aii Diad. t. e.) .VJexander __ 
nically. and according to Utodoni* (7. e.), 
from the fanner ruleni, but Polyphroii. at 
•eem* to have tet him the example. ( Xen. I 
The Tbeaaalian •tales, however, which ha4 
knowledged the aulhorilv of Jawn the IV 
(Xen. HrU. vi. 1. | 4. i.ic; iJiod. x». CO), 
not >o willing to tubmit to the oppn-uion of . 
andcr the tyrant, and they applied thetrferr | 
eipccially the old family of the .Vleiutdae of 
risAa, who had most rea*uu t4> feur him) t4i A 
ander, king of Macedon, aou of Amyntaa 
The tymut, with hia choiucteriitN 
pared t^i meet hi* enemy in Maoedooia» 
king antici|intcd him, and, mcfaing 
admitted into the city, obliged the Thi 
under to Hee to IMierae, and left a 
ritiw, a> well nii in I'raium, which had 
over to him. (lliod. xv. lil.) Uut the 
having reiin-d, hi* friend* in 'l'he*«aly 
the ven^eaiK'c of Aleinuder, *enl far aid to Tht 
the policy of which Dtale, of cour>«, wo* to dM 
Itoighbour who niiuht otherwiH* lieconir ao 
able, and Pelopidas wiu acoirdingly dcspsklchl 
tuccourthem. I'll the arrival of the ktlev 
riua, whence according to Diodoru* ( x». 67 
dikliidged the Macedonian gurriMin, .Mcxand*! 
*ent(Hl hiiiuelf and otrnvd ftiibmiMion ; hat 
after eacapi'd by Hight, nUinned by the ind 
which Pelopidas expreuefl at the tabs* he h< 
hi* cnielty luid tyranniail pruliigacy. (I)iod. t 
Plut. I'riiji. p. 'Jul, d.) These ereut* appM 
be tvfenible to the early jmrt of the year itH, 
the summer of tluit year Pelupida* wa* 
into Theaaaly, in coiuequence of frpah 
agaioat Alexander. Accompanied by 1< 
went merely a* a negotiator, and witbi 
litary fuire, and venturing incautinualy 
[Miwer of the tyrant, wu* *eieed by 
thrown into priaoii. (l>iod. xv. 71; PluL 
-.■!)■>, d; Polyb. riii. I.) The langujua tl 
moithenex (e. .Irudier. p, titiO) •riU li 
•upport Mitford'i inference, that PclopMaa 
taken pritoner in battle. (See Mitfurd. O'r. i 
cb. 27. tec. 5.) 'I'he Thebont teiii a Urgt t 
into Thestaly lu reicue I'elupiiLi*. but they e 
nut keep the held against the >ujii*rior cavalij 
Ale-xander, who. n- ' ' * - -uviliufiea infla Al' 
pursued tliem t« . i ugbter; and tl» 

ttniction of the H I >:i army ■• aud t>~ 

been arened only by the ability uf GpaatlMH 
who wa* trrting in the campoigo, bat not ai 

The next year, 367, wa* *i)pialiiFd by a < 
men of .\lexanderV trenchertmt cruelty, io 
nuuMicre of the ciiiaeii* of N:ntu*aa ( PluL /V 
*i.*>.'); Uiod. \r. 7.>; PauN. vi. 5); and al*o br 
otluT ex)M>4)itHm of th*< Thebant audar " 
lU* into Theualy, to elfix't the ivleaac et 
According to Plutarch, the tyrant did 
otTer re*i>t,incr, and wo* gtad to punl 
thirty day*' truer by the delivery vt tha 
(Pluc fr/. pp. -JV.X Oiu ; Uii«L XT. Ji.f 
the Drst three year* AJejnadar Md*' 
have iv^uewcd hi* ailcnpta apaiaal th* 
ThcMaly. especially tbo*a af Ma|Hi«aa am 
ti* (PluL /W. p. 1'93. a), for at th* 
time, a. I'. Siii, Ke find iheoi i^^a 
Thcbca for |>«il>cUuo *Baaal him. Tk«i 


fitlti I* MBcfa uiuliT I'i'liipiibit i» mill lo hnvr 
Ha &a<ir<d by an fvlip«- (Juiir 13, So'-l), niitl 
hrvviiii; it heltiiKl, rnlorod Thvsioly at 
A»b«(t of thrpp litiTiilrvH vnluntrcr honvracn and 
■ttr m^nrnMXm. A bnttlo cn*ti«l Ht Cjiionoc- 
IkihN viiM^ip rrlnpidno wiu himsrlf ibin, but 
tiktii AlnvHlrr (I'liit. /V/. pp. 29.\ '.'»li ; 
IM. IT. 80) : and thi* victory wu> ilosolr ful- 
knl ky aoolbT of Uir Thrhant under Malcitck 
' wl DiofilMi, irh« oblii.'rd Alcxniidrr tu rrsturp t« 
fe Thf— liiim the c»ii<]Ufrvd town&, to ntniiuo 
to f*heniff^ aiid tt> lir ti dependent ally nf 
(I'luL Pt4. p. 21)7, tie.; Uiud. xy. 80; 
M Xa. //c^/. fii. .i. § 4. ) 

lV dnuli of Eptniinnndat in 'M'X if it freed 

l An i (nun fear nf Thelic^ appeuR» At the lajne 

tat IB ittre eT7>"*»^ ber to iUiUMrunre from Alrx- 

mta, »l lie felt ibnt he bad nn fur- 

Aicws* ii: up hi* Athetiiiui alliance, 

M^ ■ la^itir.ti u.-1-.-iit on Tenoft and othem »f 

teC^iaili**, plundering them, luid making iilnve* 

4 At iiiubitanu. Peparethu* too he bc«iej;ed, 

■4 *rrm litndrd Imnpt in Attica itwU^ and 

' tW port of Pannnnut, a little eastward of 

li«o»thene«, th« Athenian odmirtil, dc- 

■nd reliered Peparethut. but Alexon- 

hi> men fnini blockude in Piummiuis 

Attic triremes and pliindend the 

(Piod. n.95; PolyrK'n. vi. 2; Demnslh. 

l'M7, 1208; wtpl ffTf^ ris t^miijj. 

irlwall, G'r. UiML vol. v. p. '.'09 : but 

Account of the position of Panormua, 

Ih-I. t. c.) 
Ur nf vVlexander i* OMi^ed by T)iodo- 
ta la IL c 34«7. IMutart-h frives u detailed ac- 
flBl of ii, cuntainiuf* n lively picture of a Homi- 
Wliiiaii ladare. OuanJih wntcned thmu^hout it 
4 tW ni^t, vTcept nt the tynuit'* hedchuiul>er, 
*i<di <nu •ituated at the uip of a bwlder. and at 
At <l<qr of which a fenu inua don vra» chained. 
tim wifie and couitin of .Mexander, and 
ttJmoa (i'lut. rr/. p. '2.<i:t, u), concealed 
kMhcn in the huu«e during the day, 
Ck dag to bv ivmoTed when Alexander hod 
f !«•(« and having coveted the ttep« of the 
itlt wool, brought np the young men to 
chajnbcr. Though the hod taken 
r't iwotd, they f«aml to aet about 
lUI ah* Ibnalraed lo awake him and dirt- 
: th«y then entervd and deqiatehed him. 
hody wa» nMi forth into the ftrretii, and 
id to «i-T> indignity. Of Thefae't motirc 
■mrder differvni account! an* given. Plu- 
it to have been fear of her huiband, 
with hatred of hit cruel and brutal cha- 
*MiK mi MBrihti thew frelin^ principally to 
It* WnaHMIiana of Pelopida*, when the vt- 
■hi Ub (b hit priton. In Cicero the deed it 
WMm kabay. (Pint. Pel. pp. 293. b, 297, d; 
PM.11L l4: Xra. HeO. ri. 4. | 37; Cie. de Of. 
i-7. Het aUo C'ic dc /m. ii. 49, wbetv Alcx- 
illiiatnles ■ knotty point for >|ie- 
t bIm ArUtat. op. Cic. de Viv. L 25 ; 
in^) (E. E.] 

incient (.ireck physician, who 
lloraliAnu* (iv. p. |U2, d. ed. 
.tfr AimUttr Veru, and who 
the tiunv pnwin who it quoted br 
{/k Moeh. AaU. it I, p. 74) 
•f j U ata mitr LaodioentU, He 


livei) prohnbly towartla tlie end iif the firat n-nlury 
before Chri«t^ n« Stnibo apeak* of him (iji. i>. 5Uli| 
ii» a conteniixirart' ; he wai a pupil uf Asriepiades 
(Ottar. Iliinil. /.<-.>, tucceedeil Zeiuds a< heiiil of 
a cclfbniled llertipliileon iichoo] of medicine, esl*- 
b!i<iht'd in Hhrvi.'ia lietween Ijiodietu and rnnira 
(.Strab. /. c), nnd wn* tuuir to .\nhtoxenn6 and 
Demosthenes I'hilnli-tlieH. (iin]e\\. Dr DijTer. J'hIi, 
iv. 4, 10, vol. viii. pp. 727, 74(i.) He it leveral 
times mentioned by (iaien and oltio by Soranut 
[iM Arltt OUlrlr. c. 9.1, p. 210), and uppt-un to 
have written Mmic mediad works, which ore nu 
lunger extant. [\V. A. (!.] 

ALEX.\NI(ER ("AAfJai-Spos), wtt« np|Miinied 
gnvenior of PiUKifl by Philiji III. of Mncedonin. 
The Phociun town of Phanoteus was commanded 
by .lason, to whom he had entru>led this post. In 
concert with him he invited the AetolLins to o>me 
and take possession of the town, pramitiing that it 
should be opened nnd surrenilen'd to tliem. The 
Aeiolians under the cumiunnd of Aegetos. uccurd- 
ingly entea-d the town nt night; and when their 
bett men werr within the walls, they were made 
prisoners by .\lexunder nnd his associate. Thia 
bnpiiened iii B.C. 217. (Polyb. r. 9/i.) (L. S.) 


DKII CoHNRLl|t«. ] 

AhEXANDKU {'AXiitwtpot). ton of Potv»- 
rEtuiiov, the MactMlonian. The regent Anli- 
pat^r, on his dmlh (h. r. 320), left the regency to 
Polysperchon, to the exclusion and couM>quenl dis- 
content of hit own son, Cassandcr. (Diod. xnii. 
4» ; PluL />Aor. p. 7A.i, f.) The chief men, who had 
Iwen placed in authority by Anti[ttter in the gnr- 
riwined towns of (Jrivcc, were favounible to Cat- 
aonder, as their {tnlrtin^t ton, and Poly^perchonV 
policy, tlierefore, was to reverie the mcii^uri's of 
An tifKiter, and restore democracy when? it had been 
abolished by the hitter. It was then, in the pro- 
secutiim of this design, that his son Alexander was 
sent to Athens, u. c. 318. with the alleged object 
of delivering the city from Nicnnor. who by t'us- 
aander's appointment commanded the garrison 
pUced by AntipnU'r in Munychio. (Pint, J'luir. 
75.5. f 75(i, e. ; i>iod. xviii. t)5.) tii>foru his arrival 
Nicojior. besides strengthening himself with fresh 
troops in Munychio, had alto treacherously seized tlie 
Peirooeus, To occupy these two jHirls hiniM'lf soon 
appeared lo be no less the intention of Alexander, 
— fin intention which he had prolinbly fonnetl 
befurc any communication with Phocion, though 
Dindorus (/. <-.) teems to imply the contrary. The 
.\tlicniant, however, looked on Phocion as tlie au- 
thor of the design, and their suspicions nnd anger 
being excited by the private conference* of Alex- 
ander with Nicajior, Phocion was accused of tren- 
ton., and, fleeing with tcvemi of his friends to 
Alexander, wai by him despatched to Polyiper- 
chon. (Diod. iviiil 66 ; Pint Pkoe. 756. f. 757. a.) 
L'as«uider, arriving at Alhest toon after and oecu- 
p} iiig the Peiraecut, was there betieged by Poly- 
si>ei\:hon with a large force ; but the supplies of 
the latter being inadequate, he was ubliL;ed to with- 
draw a portion of his army, with which he went to 
atUrmpt the tvductiun nf Megnloptdis, while Alex- 
ander was left in commiuid of the remainder at 
Athens. (l>iod. xviii. 68.) Here he appears to 
have continued without effecting anything, till the 
treaty nnd capitulation nf Athens with Costaiider 
( Puns. i. 25 ; Diod. xviii. 74 ) g:ive the dty to the 
power of the latter. 



Wlirn Hiily<prn:liim, bollliHl at MrgnlopolU( Diixl. 
xriii. 7*2), withtlrt'W into Mncedtinia, his son «etfm* 
to have bet-n luft with oil anny in Peloponii«u«. 
whoK, n* we tvai in Dimlonu (xix. 'ia), the field 
wn* left open lu him, and the frieiidii nf oligarchy 
were jjrratly alarmed l>y the di'[>artiire of Cnsaaiidcr 
into Mucedon an the intolti^encc of the murdor of 
Arrhidueu* aiid Eiirydicc by Olymploa, H. i:. 317. 
(l*auA. i. 1 1 ; [hod. xix, 1 1.) Lhuing hi* ulucnee, 
Alexander succeeded in bringing oTer to himself 
Kvenil cities and importint place* in the Pelopon- 
mnniii ( Oiod. xix. 53) ; but, on Couonder't return 
to the fouth, after erujihing ( tlyntpitu in Maceilon, 
he in vuiu utti-iupt4*d to check him by hit fortifica- 
tion of the Istbmut, for Couimder, pauing to 
Epidannu by wo, regained Argo* and Ilennione., 
nnd aflerwoiUt alto the Meuenian tnwnit, with the 
exception of Ithorae. (I)iod. xix. .54.) 

In the next year, 315, Antigonua (whoae am- 
bition and auocctM* in the ea«t bad united againtt 
him Coaaaiider, Lytimacfaua, Aaindcr, and Ptolemy 
Soter), among other mouuraa, lent Ariatodemui 
into the Pelofonaeaua to form a Ica)ruc of amity 
with Polyapetchon and Alexander ; and the latter 
waa penuaded by Aristodemiu to pou over to Atia 
for a pemnol conierence with Aniigonu*. Finding 
him at Tyre, a treaty waa made between them, and 
Alexander returned ta Qreete with a prewnt of 
50U talenta from .\uttgona«, and a multitude of 
DUgTiificent promiaea. (Diod. xix. t>0, 61.) Yet, 
in the rery •amc year, we find him renouncing his 
•Danco with .\ntigonua, and bribed by the title of 
gova r nor of the Peloponnesus to tvconcile himself to 
QuMadar. (Diod. xix. 64.) 

In the ensuing year, 314, we read of him oa en- 
1 (or Casamder in the liege of Cyllene, which 
Dwairer was mised by Aristodemus and his 
I auxiliaries. After the return of .\risto- 
demns to Aetolia, the citinenrt of Djnne, in .\cbain, 
baring besieged the citadel, which was occupied by 
one of Caaaander's garrinanB, Alexander forced his 
way into the city, nnd mode himself master of it, 
punishing the advene party with death, imprison- 
ment, or exile. (Diod. xix. 66.) Very won after 
this he was mnrdered at Sicyon by Alexion, a 
iiicyonian, leaving the conmiiuid of his forces to 
one who (irored herself fidly adefjtukte to the task, 
— his wife Crau-npolia. (at. 314, Diod. lii. 

67.) (ai-:.] 

ALEXANDER CAA^favtpn), a RHoniAN. In 
the war against Catsins he was at the head of the 
pirpular party, and was raised to the olfice of pry- 
lanis, a. r. iX ( Appian, <<• BeU. Cce. ir. (ifi.) But 
•inn nfter, he and the Rhodian admiral, Mnascas, 
u I by CsMiut in a ten-fight off Cnidus. 

( /W/. fV... ir. 71.) [L-S-1 

....... a;,NDER (ST.), bishop of Rome, jt. D. 

10»— 119. (Eoseb. //ut. Enl. iv. 4.) Therv an- 
thnc Bfifllet (aliely ascribed to him by Isidore 
MercatOT. aa well as a drcret, according to I Imtian, 
(Maajri. (\mnliiu vuL L pp. <>43 — 6*1.) IletacleoD 
U aid (in the book I'raolrtlimttiu, m, tUtaunA. 
Opp. vol i. p. 470) to bare broached hi* hawy in 
Siuij in the time of ijL .\lcxjtnder, and to have 
faM« emfuted by biin. Rut UsndMm waa not, 
patkap^ ret l»ni. (A. J. C] 

ALK.^ ANDER, who asMinwd the title of Em- 
ranoaui' Rome in A. D. 31 1, waa, according to aome 
acruunls, a Phrygian, and according to others a 
Patiiiuntan, He was nppointed by Maxentius 
goTeniur of Africa, bat diacoTeriag thai M&xcii- 


tins was plotting against his life, he anumcd 
piiqjie, though lie was of an odranord ig* 
a timid nature. Maxentius sent 
ngiunst him under liufius V'olusianus, who 
down the iusunfction vi-ithout ditliculty. 
onder was taken and strangled. (Zoaimua, it. I 
1 4 ; AuT. \ icL ,lr Cue,. 40, JSSpit 4a) Thoei 
a few medals uf Alexander. In tka one anna 
ne find the wonis lur. Ai.BXAsnKB. P. K. An 
the rrvcrse represents Victor)", w^ith this 
tion, Victoria Alkxanohi Aug. N., 
the botUim, P. K. 


andeh Pkloplaton.] 

ALEXANDER, I. II., kings of Syria. (AU 
ANOXR Ualak and /kuina.] 

airipos), was liom nt Alexandria, of Jewish 
1 1 is father held the office of .\h>harc)i in Al 
nnd his uncle was I'hilo, the well-known « 
Alexander, however, did not continue in lb* 
uf hii ancestors, nnd was reworded for his 
by varions public appointments. In 
Claudius he succeeded Koilins 
Judaea, almut A. i>. 4(i, and was 
e<|uestrian order. We was sabteqnently 
by Nero procurator of Egypt ; and 
50,0(M) Jews were slain on one occasion at 
andria in a tumult in the city. It was 
during his government in Eg^'pt that he 
pnniea Corbiilo in his expedition into 
A. D, ti4 ; and he was in this campaign gi' 
one of the hostages to secure the safety of Tf 
when the bitter visited Uu Roman oamik 
ander was the fint RonaD gonmor wha 
in favour of V'cspadan ; and tb» day on 
administered the oath to the legions in the 
Vespasian, the Kalends of July, a. d. 69. 
garded as tha beginning of that cnpcfxit^ 
Alexander afterwards aeoompanied Titus in tl 
against Judaea, and waa pivsenl at tin 
of Jemsalen. (Joteph. Anl. Jnd. XX. 
lltU. Jad. ii. II. {! 6, 15. § 1, l». $ 7, 
H 6, vL 4. § 3 ; Tac. jloii. xr. 28, Hm. i. I 
74, 79 ; Suet. Vmp. 6.) 

rf TpoAAioe^f ), one of the most eminent of 
cient physicians, was bom at Tndlas, a 
Lydio, from whence he derives his naaaa 
date may safely be put in the sixth cralaq 
Cbrist, for he mentions A i'lias (xii I, & 
who probably did not write till tb« ena I 
fifth or the beginning of the aixtk vmlmif% 
he is himwif quoted by Paulas Aegiaeta (ift 
7B, vil 5. II. 151. pp. 447, 495, «J0, <SM, 
who is supposed to have lived in the 
aides which, he is mrulioned as a oM 
.Agnthias {llul. v. p. U!>), who art abast 
h» History in the beginning of the reign of 
the younger, about a. ik h6K. Hi ' ' 

vantage of Iwing brought up rnidw hia 
Stepbanua, who was himself a |ibyaciBa 


to niiiiT aiitidior |)<T«on, whow 
not mnilion. Irat t) whine son 
tmmt b* dedioUr* hi* chief work (xil i. p. 313), 
•iM ke vrotB out of innliiaiJc nt bi> rei|ueiiL 
Bin** nn> at mi ctU'nsivi' practice, of a vi-nr 
JM ityifiinf^, »tui of {{real rvpucatimi. not only 
M Kaat, bat wheister be tntrllcd iu Spnin, 
BbI, ail IibIj (i. IS. pp. lAti, Is?), whence he 
«■> allad br «>y of cmiaence ** Alexander the 
nk^ttdnL" Agathia* fttkt aim with gnat pmi<ie 
tUmiow trothvrs Anthemiiu, l)ioiKorutt, Metro- 
taw, imlOlrnipiiu, who wenr all eminent in their 
tfmmiynirmaofm, Alexander i» not n mcnr ctjni- 
f^ K* AMaa, Oiihuiaa, and others hut is lui 
mkmMfUIti a dt^mt atainp, and hni more the 
•btf ■ **^f~-' writer. He wrote hit ([ivat woric 
(•liliBiaiUinaeU, xiL 1. p. 313) iu on exttrme 
iM Mk fan the nanlta of hia own experieno.-, 
*Mb» wM DO longer bear the fiitigue of prac- 
flb Bi* ttrlr in the nuin, nya Krcind, is very 
pil ikct, war, and (to lue hi* own tcmi, xii. I, 
y Ml) cBtwiating of caamiffli exprewinni ; and 
4h^ (ibmni^b a mixture of some foreign words 
>mmm»t prriraps br his travels) not always pcr- 
fa%4rf;uit, yet «cry expmsiTe and intelligible. 
csnsiderv Alexander to hare belonged to 
Metbodicii bot in the opinion of 
■at narad •uAciently by the pas- 
Ine weakest and roost curious 
appears to be his belief in 
•ome of which may be quoted 
For a quotidian ague, " Gather 
laf belbre sanrise. write on it with cnm- 
■^ foi, a, and hang it round the neck " 
f. U9); (or the gout, " Write on a thin 
daring the waning of the moon, lui, 

it rouitd the nnklrs ; pronoancinj; nlio 
fiw. -Jpfii. $idr, x-"*" («• I. p. 313), 
ii terv of ilonier (//. $. <th\, 
[SI S dyof^, vwo y i«rToi'ox*{'eTo 7010, 
V^ iW aio0u is iti Libnt ; hut it in much better 
I A* thoold be in I-eo." [/M.) In exorcising 
ieyan {Md. p. 314) be says ** 1 adjure tIi>H^ by 
t» pm mtae 'lasi iatade," that is, HliT 
Ifmyt. sad a Uttk fhrthcx on, " I adjure thee 
^ 4s iah nsjnrs lo;^. 2c$aJtf, *A5wvai; *EA«i,*^ 

*■ -. viSw '3iM niNis nirr ; from 

<M W woold appear to have been either a Jew 
vsQoniui. Bid, liam his frequently prescribing 
**>s'i bah. it is most probable that he was a 
(Waa. His chief work, entitled BiSXla 'larpiitil 
Liiri VnnUrim dr Jit :\Miat, first 
ta on old, barbarous, and imperfect Latin 
I. .k . ...ij, jtf_ntf^ri YatntB Pnic- 
■ ., which was sevcmi times 
and amended by .\Uiunus 
I. It was first edited in 
. Par. I.S<«, fnl., n liennti- 
r(iiL .. .i.nt.nnii;/ :iUn Ithazue da 
IMtUu* • • >,. >'''!'. / r .;hi IN (traecum 
Ilwos |iiiljii<hi-il in <in-<'k with a new 
•eda liMiiliihin by Jn. (iuintirus Andcniaetia, 
Ite 1AM, 8f«., which is a mre and valuable 
QoiaaEf'W tianslation hn* been several 
amcia:^. nnj n inv-rt'-d hv (I. Stephens in 
Its IWn.- I.5t>7. foL; it 

11 uf Medical 
WatK^ liir— "" [ I i -, t\\i\ J vnls, 'I'hfi other 



•h** by J .. 


work of Alexander's tlial is slill extant it a short 
treatise, n«;il '^fitySwv, iJr J.uiiiliricit, which wna 
first published in <lreek and IjUtin by Ilieroii. Mer- 
curinlis, VeneL 1.570, 4to. It is also inserted in his 
work Df. MorUs fnfronm, Knincof. loH4. t)vo.,niid 
in the twelfth volume of the old edition of Fabrieius, 
mfJmtJinii Onu^^i ; the Ijatin tianslation alone is 
induiled in Haller*s Coilcction mentioned above. 
.\n Arabic tmnilatiun is mentioned by Dr. Spi«i((cr 
in his diswrtation /> Oriifinifttu Metlieinat Arttlii- 
nu tuti Kkali/'alik, Lugd. Iktt. 1 840, Ilvo. ; aiid 
also by J. O. W'enricli, /V Am-larum Ururcorum 
VvrsiuHtlms et ImiimfHtariu Si/riarit, Araimv^ 
Armcmui-Uy I'rrni'hfitif^ Lips. 1H4'2, Bvo, 

Alexander seems also to have written sereral 
other medieid works which ore now lost. He ex- 
presses his intention of writing a book on Fractures, 
and also on Wounds of the Head. A treatise on 
Urine written by him is olludcd to by Joanne* 
Actimrius (/*• Urin. Diffiir. c 2. p. 43), and he 
himself mentions a work of his on Diseases of the 
Kyes, which was translated into Arabic. (Sprenger, 
\Venrich,/.c) The other medical treatiee on Pleu- 
risy, which is said to have been also translated into 
Arabic, was probably only tlic sixth book of his 
great work, which is entirely devoted to the con- 
sidemtinn of this disaasc. A very full account of 
the life and works of Alexander Trallianus wus 
published at I«ndon, 1734, 8vo., by Edward Mil- 
ward, M. D., entitled '• Tndlianus Keviviscens j or, 
an Account of .\Iexander Tmilian, one of the Greek 
Writers that flourished after (Jalcn : shewing that 
these Authors an- far fmra desiTving the inipnta- 
tion of mere compilers," Ax. Two other medical 
works which are sometimes attributed to .Alexander 
Trallianus (vix. a C'oUcTtion of Meiliail and Physi- 
cal Problems, and a tit>atise on Fevers) are noticed 
under Ai.K.\.»NnKR Apiihoiii.siknsis. (Frcind'a 
Hitl. 0/ Phjim; whose words Imvc Ix-en sometimes 
borrnwcd ; Kabric-ius, lUU. finite, vol. xii. ]i. h\)'i, 
sq. cd. vet.; Hnller, HiUiolluitii Mnlidmit J'ratli- 
eae, lom. i. ; Sprengel, HuL dt la Mill. toin. it; 
Isenaec, GaciickU dtr AMidn ; Choulant, llnnd- 
Imdi dtr BSelurhmde fir dio Adirrr Medici^.) 

[W. A. O.J 
ALF.XANDER ("AXsfovSpof), of iTrichuniuii 
in Aetolia, wo» commander of the Aetolinns in 
B.C. 'JI8 and 219. ile atucked the mir of the 
army of Philip on his return from Themius, but 
the attempt was unsuccessful, and many Aelolions 
fell (PolvK V. 13.) [L. S.] 

('AA^favSpac ZaSioai), the son of a mercliant 
named Proljirchus, was st't up by Ptolemy Phyacoii, 
king of Egypt, as a pretender to the cro»Ti of tlie 
llreek kingdom of SjTia shortly afWr the death of 
.\ntiochus Sidetes and the return of Demetrius 
Nicator from his captivity anmng the Parthians. 
(B.C. 128.) Antiwh, Apami«, and several other 
citieo, disgusted with the tyranny of Demetrius 
acknowledged the authority of Alexander, who 
prctfnded to hare been adopted by Anliochus 
Sidetes ; but he never succeeded iu obtaining 
power over the whole of Syria. In the earlier 
port of the year 125 he defeated Demetrius, who 
fled to Tyre and was tliere killed ; but in the mid- 
dle of the aamo year Alexander's patron, the king 
of Bgypt, set up against him Anliochus Orypus, a 
•on of Demetrius by whom he was defeated in 
battle. Alexander fli-d to .\ntioch, whenr he 
attempted to phmder the temple of Jupiter, in order 


t« |«y liii troops : but tlir (irople row iignintt him 
mill Jnivc him uut of Uic city. Ilr imin fell into 
till- ImniU uf nililn-n, who delivcnsl him up to 
Antlorhun, by whom he wo» |iut Ui drnth, ii. c. 12"i. 
Up was weiik nml oBcminnli-, but Huinlinicii geiu> 
fuii». Ilia hiinuunf. /i-tiinn, whiib means ^a 
IpurchoMtl slavf," wa» npiilifil M dim as n tiTm of 
rrprott'.'h, tmm u report ihnt he Imd Ikou hr>U((ht 
by I'tiilemy a* a slave. S«'venil uf hi& coins ixtv 
eitaiiL In the one figuivd Ih<Iow Jupiter is re- 
prc^enlefl <>ii the reverse, boldiiijj in the right luunl 
a Miuill inut^* of vicuiry. 

(Justin, xxxix, 1,2; Joseph. Anliti. xiiL .1, 10 ; 
Clinton. /\uli, iii. p. 334 . ) [>'■£.] 

/y')l] -•-•\^ 




ALEXANUnA. [('*>i«ANnRA.] 

ALKXANItniDl---^ ('AAfioKapiJiii) of ndphi, 

a (Ireek historino of tincertJiin thit<.>. If we nmy 

jud^* from the subjects on which his histiirj* is 

quoted as nn nuthority. it wuulil seem his 

[work was n history of IK-Iphi. (PluL /.//*)>/,/. 18 ; 

f Bihol. ml Eun/i. Alcrfl. I, when- undoubtedly the 

Lttune |HT3on is meant, though the MS. rvudin^ is 

Aimumdndes; Schul. ad Arulujik, 1'IhL 9"26.) 

AI<EXA'NOK fAAt&fcwp), a son of Maelmon. 
and ffnindson of .XescuUpius who built to his sire 
a temple at Titane in the territory of Sicyon. He 
himself too was worshipficd therv, and sncrilices 
Were oflTeiml to him after sunset only. (Paus. ii. 
2.XS «, II. Ji;. &c.) [I-S.) 

AI.KXAKCHL'S ('KKilai>xot\ a (Jreelt his- 
torian, who wroli' a work on the history nf Italy 
('iToAiicii), of which I'lulanh (I'aniUd. 7) qootes 
the thinl liook. S'rvius (<ii/ Am, iiL 3114) men- 
lions an opim'nn of his resj^'ctinp the origin nf ihc 
names F.pi^inis nod Camptnin, which un*|uestiun- 
llily behmged to his work on Italy. The writer 
name, whom Plutarch mentions in another 
» (/* It. r/ Ut. p. 3t).i), is probably a dirirerent 
pennn. [1*8.] 

ALEXAnClILS CAAiJovx"!)- 1- A brother 

o' ' ■•• 'r of Mncvihiiiia, who is mentioned as 

I '>f a town called l'rano[Hilis, the site 

I'' unknown. Here he is saiid lii have 

[ intralucrd N number uf wunlt of his own coinage, 

'which. ihtMiffh very cipreMive. ap)>ear to have 

brm T I kiudof sLiiig. (.'^tben. iii. p. 9R,) 

II, who, while the I^icedaemo- 

Vians *■ ,. ,..,..,, ,iig Ueeeleia in .\ttica, n. r. 413, 

U»\ were sending an expetlition to Sicily, was 

' Entrusted with the cnmniand of 6'On hoplites, vrith 

whom be j<iiu«<! the Sicilian eipedition. (Tbncyd. 

Tii,19.> [L. S.] 

ALF.'XIAS ('AA'Pai). an n; (.hysi- 

rian, whn was a pupil of TIh ' < 'tinea, 

... 1 .1.1,. iil^iiK the lii..ii..- "1 111..- (.purtll 
n«t. Theophnutus iiuntiuiis 
<1 shortly before bis time {^lluL 


Plant ix. 16. g 8), and s|«iks highly .if hisi 
ties and aniuireinents. I W. A. (" 

ALEXl'CACUS CA*«5'««"X tl-e avi 
eviU is a sumwne given by the Grveks 
deities, n» — Zeus (Oq>h. lie hipid. I'l 
to Apfillo, who was worshipped under ; 
by the Athenians, iKt-ause he was believed lol 
st4ip[ie<l the plague which rageil at Athens ial 
time of the Prlojionnesian war (Paus. i. 3. f 
viii. 41. § .5), — and to ileraclcs. (I^arlont,^ 

ALEXRLES CAAsiofA^t), an All 
mU who U'longed to the oligarchial or U 
nian party at Athens. After the rvvuliitiunc 
411, be Oiid sevrrnl of his friends ijiiitted 1' 
and went to their friends at licceleto. Hut I 
afterwards mode firisoncr in Peimecns, an 
(enced to death for his |iartic*i[mlion in the | 
I'hrvnichus. (Thucyd. viii. S'J ; Lvciii]!;- m i 
p. I(i4.) ' IL.! 

philosopher who lived at the time nf Plata 
whose disciples continued to observe l' 
diet of the Pytlingounns, abstaining f 
gvther. (I'lut. .Vymjxu. viii. p. 7JU.) 
{wrson of this nmnc occur* in Pluuirch. }\ 


ALK'XIDA ('AAsjau), a daughter of . 
araus, frum whom certain divinities called 
( 'EAiiiTioi, u e. the averters of epileptic fits) 1 
believed to be descended, (I'lut. Quaat. <ir,\ 


ALEXI'NUS CAAsPwi), a philDM.pii«< 
ninlectic or Megarinn school and a disc'' "* 
bulides ( EicLIDKs], from his eristic [ 
facetiously named 'EAf)JIwi, who lii.^d i 
beginning of tlie third century Ixf ■ 
was a native of l'.3i«, .-ud a conteiii; 
Krom Elis he went to Oljoupia, in iIh- tain I 
it is said, i f founding a sect which might be c 
the Olympian ; but liis disciples soon txtsmcl 
giisled with the unhealthiness of the plaeaT 
their scanty means of talMistence. and leAJ 
with a single attendant, NVme uf his d« 
hare been pieserved to us, but from the brirf I 
tion made of him by Cicero {Anul. Ii. 34| 
serms to have deidt in MiphisUcal pucilr^J 
the rest of his sect. Athenueus (>v. p. S9 
mentions a piu'aii which he wrote in 
Cniterus, the Macedonian, and which wi 
Delphi to the sound of the lyrr. Alennai] 
wrote against Zeno, whose professed anu 
was, and against Kphorus the historian. 
I^mrrtius has pri*sen'ed some lines on his i 
which was occasioned by liis being 
a reed while swimming in the Aip 
L«n. ii. 109, 110.) 

ALfX KIN, an ancient phrsician, who i 
bably (judging fnini bis nanu^) a native uf ( 
he was a friend of Cicero, who praise* his i 
skill, and deeply laments his sudden doatii, I 
44. (/)rf^«.vii.2,xiiL2.5, IT. I.d2.) [V "' 

ALEX I'PPUS ('AAifnnroi), an i " 
physician, who is mentioned by Ptab 
c 41) a» having received a letter (ran 
himself, to thank him for having curad i 
one of bis officcn, of an illneaa. {irabaiiic<| 
327. IWJ 

ALEXIS CAAsfit). I. A I 
Tburii, iu M:igiia (jraecia (Suidaa s, m.*j 
adiuitted subsequently to the |iriTili 


mid enrolled in the dnnr OTov, 

; •• lh» tribe Loontu. (Sicph. Byt. >. r.) 

A* ■aeb uul iiutructor of Mviutndrr. 

I 1. «.'AA<j<i; l*n>leg. Amtoph. p. xxx.) 

I b< waa bom wr uv not ctpreasly told, but 

lltKd lu tbe 1^ of 106 (Plut Ikfrd. Orao. 

I4X •■)■ and wu liTing at lout a> latp a» 

. VIk Now the tova of Thurii wu de- 

bj the LoaminiM about a c. 390. It is 

■01 at an tmlUelr that the porenti of 

mmixr to eicipe from the threnteued d<v 

' r my , temoTtd ihortly before with 

i »B la Athen*. Perhup* thcirfore tve 

B. c. 394 a< the date of the 

ktf AbtS*. He had a ton Stephonua, who 

lolica. (Suidai '. r.) He appear* 

rather addicted to toe pleunm of 

Hhle. (Albro. riii. p. 344.) Accnrdini; to 

(Or .<u<a Jdmixut. Rripubl. p. 78.'>, b.), 

' gpoD the ctage while being crowned oa 

By the oM gnumnariant he it commonly 

• wntrr of the middle comedy, and frnf^ 

■rf the title* of many of hi> plnyi confirm 

Still, for more than 30 ycari he 

with Philippidcs Philemon, Me- 

Diphiluft, and sevcTnl fracment* ihew 

It du wrotr piece* which would be chuaed 

e «f the new comedy. He wna a re- 

fnK6c writer. Suida* aayi he wrote 

|^}\ and the titlei of 1 1 3 hare come doivn 

Hke VUf»ris, 'AyjcuXiwv, *0\vtxwtASvpos^ 

B^^nrat, to which he ridiculed Plato, wrrc 

cxkUtad a* early a* the IU4ih Ulym- 

'A7«»«, in which he ridiculed .VIi»- 

«» no doubt wriiveii while he wa* alirc, 

iMckiiw* (r. Timarri. pp. 6—8) in u.i', 34-5, 

tt Ub aa then liring. The 'A8tA^( and 

n which he latiriinl Demoithenei, 

4 dwrtly after a. c. 343. The 'Inroi, 

ha aDaded lo the decree of Sophoclei 

Ik* pbikMophetis in a v. 316. The 

in n. r. 312. The taptiOKOwmKri and 

ia BL c. 306. A* might have been 

IB a perton who wrote ao much, the aame 

h^ututly neciimd in aereral playi ; nor 

■n^Ia aooKtii iw from other 

«k fcrczmplr. ri. (Athen. i. 

t) Caryaiin* ■■' (n/i. Alin. ri. 

«.) «IT» be waa the hr»l who invented the 
fjtie paraaice. Thin ifi not ((uite correct, a* 
i^ Httr . ■ him by Epicharmu*; 

ipaan •. the lint who pive it 

It* ■*'■■ "--H-nrttl upoD the 

^^ift- in hi» eihibi- 

^ af »v are praiacd by 

2^^ar«a {ti. p. o!^. f.), whow teatimony is cnn- 
■••< bjr the extant bagmonta. A conaiderable 
"* 4 pacvliar woida and forma uacd by him i* 
pf^ hj llcvirlic. Hi* playa were ftwiucntly 
J^ixad In Ifcr Raman comic writer*, (Gell. ii. 
*M TW HMaiHUii we poaaet* of hia phiyi hare 
j^ pmr twiMUetf by Athenaeiu and Stohoena. 
yata, P^vym.Cm. n\. i. pp. 374—403; 
^ta, /Ml HrOmui, nnder the Tears abore 
P«*I Mctdaa. BM ' ii. 406, Ac.) 

I A wMir IMBtivr <"ua(x.p.418) 

* *• aaW «< a trait.; - .. -apitaiof. 

I K S a TT a m , the author of an historical work 
• 'CpK nr'Cpoi Za^imxtA {Samian An- 
wilrh Athanfni quote*. (liii. p. h',1, f., 
k»40,*.) [C. P. M.] 



ALEXIS CAAc{ir), a sculptor and atatoaty, 
mentioned by Pliny (xxxiv. 8. a. 19) as one of 
the pupils of Polrcletus. Pauaaniaa (vi. 3. § 3) 
mentiona an artist of the same name, a nntire of 
Sicyon, and fitther of the sculptor Cnnthorua. It 
cnnnot be sutisfiictorily aetlled whi'ther these ape 
the same, or diHcTt-nl pcrMins. Pliny's account 
implies that ho had the elder Polycletus in new, 
in which case Alexis could not have flourished 
later than OL 95 (b. c. 400), whereas Eutychidet, 
nnder whom Cantboma studied, flourished abotit 
01. 1-20, B. c. .'100. (Pliuy. //. N. ixiiv. 8. a. 
19.) If the two were identical, aa Thiej*ch 
(Epoclmt drr Ulid. Kutul. p. 276) thinks, we must 
suppose either tluit Pliny made a mistake, and tliat 
Alexia studied under the younger Polycletus <)' 
else that the Eutychides, whose date is gircn by 
Pliny, wo* not the artist under whom Cauthama 
studied. [C. P. M.] 

("AAaJit , or 'A\('Jioi Ko^uT|P(ii). cni]ietur of Con- 
stantinople, was moat probably born in A. D. 1048. 
Ho was the son of .lohn Comnenus, and the 
nephew of the emperor Isaac Conmenus, and re- 
ceived a careful education from his mother Anna. 
He accompanied the emperor Komanus Diogenea 
in the war against Alp-.Arslan, sultan of the Turks- 
Seljuks, and waa present at the batlJc of MolaiB- 
kenl, where thia euipcror was made a prisoner by 
the anitan. After the deposition of Romanus Dio- 
genes in 1071, .\texia Comnenus and his elder 
brother Iiaac joined the puny of the new emperor, 
Michael VII. Ducaa, who employed .\ lexis against 
the rebels who had proilticed great dinturljances in 
Asia Minor. In this n'ur .Mexis di-stinguiahed him- 
self .ts a successful general, and shewed tluit extra- 
ordiiiarj' shrewdness which afterwards bcotnie the 
princifial feature of his character. He defended 
Michael VII. against the reliel Nicephorus Bota- 
nintes, but the cause of Mich.-\(.-l having become hope- 
less, he readily joined the victorious rebel, who be- 
came emperor under the title of Nicephorus III. in 
1077. The authorilyofNicephoras II I. waa disobey- 
ed by several retiels, among whom Nicephorus 
Bryennina in Fpeinis was the most dangerous ; but 
Alexis defeated them one after the other, and tho 
grateful emperor conferred npon him the title of 
" Sebastns." Alexis was then considered aa the finrt 
general of the Byrautinc empire, but hia railitar}' re- 
nown made him suspected in the eyes of the emperor, 
who kept him at Constantinople and tried to get 
rid of him by l)ase intri^ruev But Alexia opposed in- 
trigues to intrigues,and aahe wasnol only the most 
gallant, but also the moat artful among his shrewd 
countrymen, he outdid the emperor, who at hut 
gave ordej*. that his eyes should be put out 
Alexis now fled to the army on the Danube, and 
was proclaimed emperor by the troops. Assisted 
by hia bmthirr Isaac, who acted »'ith great gene- 
rosity. Alexia marched to Constantinople, obtained 
possession of the city by a stratagem, deposed the 
emperor, and ascended the throne in 108 1. 

The Dymntine empire was then at the point of 
ruin. While Alexia carried on the war againat 
the rebel Nicephorus Bryennius, and aflerwarda 
daring his forced sojourn at Constantinople, and 
the time of hui differences with Nicephorus III., 
Melek-Shah, the ton of Alp-Ar»lin, and the 
greatest prince of the Seljuka. had conquered the 
Byiantine part of .\»ia Minor, which he ceded to 
his cousin Solimiiiu The Bulgarians threatened to 

130 ALFXIS. 

invTide Thnicc, and Rol)i>rt Uulioird, duk^ of 
Aputio, with a inij^hiy host of Numuiii k[uj{ht«, hmi 
croftwHl the AdriAtic and laid urge to Dnnuzu, the 
ancient Ih-rmchium. in tliis critical position 
Alciii erinccd citraordinnry activity. He con- 
cladcd pcoct) with the Scljukfs ceding Aiia to 
them ; he made an alliance with Vrnicr and Henry 
IV., empernr of Gorniauy ; and he aold the tacred 
TrueU iif the churchc* to pay hiii troopii. Ilia 
iitniggle with the Nonoani was lon^ and bloody, 
but famine, diteojiev civil tronble*, and a powerful 
iliTer*iufi of llcnry IV., coiuptdled the Nonnanii to 
learr Rpoirus in 10H4. During thia time the Sel- 
juki luiil recoinmenCL-d hottilitiei, and threatened 
to block up Cnnatantinopic with a fleet conitnictcd 
by (intek cnptivet. In thi» ertrcmity Alexis 
implored the OMisCancc of the Kuropean princes. 

The conqaest of Jerusalem by the Seijnki, the 
interruption of the piotu pilgriiii.iges to the holy 
grave, and tlie vvntioiu which the Christians in 
the Fjui had to endure from tlie intidels, had pro. 
duccil an extraordinary excitement among the 
nations in Europe. The idea of rescuing the town 
nf oar Saviour became popnlar ; the pope and the 
prinres shewed themselTes fiiToiuable to such an 
rx[MHlition, and they moWed upon it aft^T the 


Thi' life of Alexia luu been atr-'""- • 
very partially, desrribod by bit . 
I'omnena, in her AltMu, which i- 
snurce coMceniing this empenir. (Cunip. tjiy 
4 : Alliertus Aquensis, ii. 9- 1 9 ; WUhcliiius Tj; 
ii. !>, 23 ; comp. S. V. Wilki-n, ** Remm ' 
I., Juanne, Manuole et Alexia II. Col 
nun libri quatuor," IleidcllKtf;. 1811.) [' 

CAAelir or 'AA^^ior Ko^s^i^tt), ein^ 
atontitiople, the son of the cnipemr Mxni 
nenuiH was bom in llt>7. occordini; to N 
In 1 179, be married Agnes or Anna, Uw 
of king I<uuis VII. of Knince, and 
father in 1 1 HO, under the guardianship 
ther Maria, the daughter of Haymond, nriW 
Antioch. They both became victims of Uie uJ 
tiou of Androuicus Comoenus, who 6r>t 
the young emperor to sign the death of his 
and then put Alexis to death in 1 1 H3 ; wi 
he succeeded him on the throne. (N 
Manuel. Coum. JiL ; camp. Ducangc, /' 
nwlinae, p. 1H8.) (W. K 

('AAifii or 'AA/Jioi 'AvysXei), the lirotlicr rf 
emperor Isaac II. An^ehm whom he deposed 

amlsuudors of Alexis bad related to them at | t>linded in 119.'). Being s descendant of Alui 
"■ •...-.. ■ ... ,„ I Comnenus by TheodoiB, the yoiiageal daifgtat 

I tbe latter, he assumed the fimily-name <f 

, _ . I great ancestor, and is therefore commonly a, 

by Peter the Hermit and Waiter the Pennyless, j Alexis AngelufrComneuus. In 1 1 97 .ind 1 19S, 

Piocenza in 1 095 the bo|ieloss state of the Chrii 
tions in Asia. The fir^t Crtisoden appeared i 
Constantinople in 1096. They were conunanded 

and were tnthar a bond of vagibonda than an 
umy. Alexis hactnwd to lend them over to 
Ana, when they were maiiiered by the Turks. 
Soon after tkem came a powerful army, command- 
ed by Oodfny of Dooilloii, and their continued 
May in the neighbourhood of Constantinople gave 
ocosion to serious dit&renoes between the Latins 
md thefireeks. However Alexis, by the alternate 
Ofo of thrrati and pemaoioiu, not only ioeoeeded 
in getting rid of tho dangonnu foreigners by carry- 
ing them over to Asia, but also managed the pride 
of (lodfrey of Uouillon and his turbulent barons 
with BO much dexterity, that they consented to 
take the oath of raasalage for those provinces 
which they night conquer in Asia, and promised 
to restore to the emperor the Byuintinc territories, 
which had been taken by the Scljuks. In his 
tain bo (minised to assist them in their enterprise 
with ■ ftiong army, but the dangerous state of the 
onpirt prevented him tma keeping his wont. 
Howwcr, in proportion as the Cruindera, in I U97. 
■dnnced into AJsia, Alexia foUowod them with a 
ohoaeo body, and thns gradually rennitcd with bis 
onpiic NicoM, China, Rhodes, Smyrna, Ephesns, 
Sardea, and firally all Asia Minor. Tbe descend- 
ants of Bohemond, prince of Antioch, did homage 
to Akxis, to whom they restoicd Tanu* and 
Malmistn. Duriug the uttor yioii of hi* reign, 
Alexis was occnpied with eonaolidating the do- 
mestic pniee of his empire, which was then often 
disliirlird by religious Irmblea. He died in 1 1 IB, 
at tike age of srventy, and his mccragw waa his 
son Jahl^ generally called L'alo.Jonanaa. 

Alexis was the oatkar of a work entitled 
A»>« ^ it, which •■• pohiilhfd in the 4lli volume 
of the AimUela OnBta, Pnr. 1688, and alio from 
• kter maiittscript by Oronnvius at the end of his 
wofk iM Jb^rrfMs, Lngd. Bat. 1191. Respecting 
tho twhrinticml edi«l»ofAlaxiu.aeTenl of which 
m cxtBV •<• Pkfciis. BlU. Grme. tu. p^ 73«. 

carried on war with Peitia and tlio ^wljoka 

Koniah, but hit oimics were defeated. 

base, rapacious, and cruel, he inrurml the 

and contempt of his subjects, and prepared 

ruin. He lost tbe crown through his nepk 

Alexis, the son of Isaac II. Angclus, who, h 

escaped frtm Coiutantinoplc, succnrded in 

tuading the Crunden assemUod in Veaiet 

moke an ex|K><lition against the luiir|ier. Ai 

ing to '20,0(1(1 men, and oommandad by 

doge of Venice, they attacked Consi 

llie month of July, 1203; but before 

token this city. Alexis III. abaadoiml 

Olid fled to Italy, carrying with him I 

of gold. After his llighu CoiutantiiiopU 

cupicd by the Crusader*, who raeog 

perurs the blinded Isute and hia 

[Alexih IV.] He afterwards retumod la 

and treacherously blinded tho nnpenr 

V. Miirxophlus, who after his depnaitii 

1204, had fled to Alexis ML. whose 

he hod married. Meanwhile. T''--''" 

sncceedcd iu making himself in ~ S 

but was involved in a war m- >4^ 

sultan of Kimioh. In 1210, Alcxu 111. fa 

this sultan, and persuaded him to suppoft 

claims to the iJinine of B^-xontium, and to 

war against I'lutKlun' Lu>caris. Tho war 

fiital for the sultan, who was killed in the 

Antiitch, and Alexis III. 

Theuduro Laacaris had mairied Anna 

nena, the seooad daufhtrr of Alexis 111, lart 

ciraimslauce did not pieveni him irum 

his &ther-iii-L-iw to a monastery at N'ioaok (Ull 

Tlieie Alexis IIL died snoe yeannftartfi 

advanced age ; the exact year of hia hkA 

not known. (Niceta^ Al»f*i Atfilm*, Itmt 

Angelm^ iii. 8, &c; /s a oci a i rt At—, jt. a, 

Villehaidonin, IM la fimmmlt di ChaJmUmi 

Paria, 1838. c .M, 56, &c.) IW. PJ 


ft *AAJ{im 'AjytKn), wa* tbr aon o( the 
llMe II. AnpiiiUL It u mrndoni'd under 
|1U thai, niter the depositiuii uf thin em- 
(■tj ta» father were placed on the thrane 
iDadcf^ Al^xift ]V. was cTuwiu.'d tog«- 
k laue 11. on the -29th u( July, 1203, 
Irare himarU on the throne, engaged the 
I to ountinue at Constantinople, ilc had 
Id pot an end to the ichiflm of the 
bat did not do anything for thnt 
Ai h» fulfil his other engagements 
I***— At the Hune time, he did 
bow to maintain bit dignity among 
Bent and faanghty hamiu of Italy, France, 
rieei, who vere aaumblcd in hi» capital. 
i Hj BKt i consequently arow bctirecn him 
W l ' Wf"^ Alexit Ducoi. nmuimed Mur 
Ibd anbitiotu and enterprising man, took 
I of ihete Irrable^ and niddcnly teiied 
By hi» order Alciii IV. woa put to 
«lw 3Btb of Juinaiy, 1-204; Ifaac II. 
(Nicrtai, Itaariui Angeiui, iii. c. 8, 
tt Altsii fit ; Villehorduuin, lUd. c 
t, 10-2-1U7.) [W. P.J 

^ Amka), suraomcd "MuKZUPHLua," on 
If the clow junction of hii ahaggy eye- 
■I OOiVwd emperor of Conatantinople en 
TfArmrj, 1-201, after ha ring been pre- 
k Border of Alexia IV., who wa> put tu 
KaoHcr. II >* earlier Ufe i> olmoat un- 
r Kiaaliuv howerer, atates, that be boi) 
apodooa and Tolnptuoua ; on the 
be na a man of girat courage and 
[j oflrT he bod usurped the 
who were still osacmblod 
wall* a! Conatontinople, laid siege to this 
V. disdained to conclude peace with 
ible ctinditioii«, and prepared 
in which he waa rigDrtmaly aaajated 
Howerer, coatBge anddenly 
him. and he Bed to the depoaed em- 
kia 1 1 1., n-hnae daughter Eudoxu Angela- 
jW had joat married. Conatantinople 
k bj aMm by the Crusaden (l'2th of 
M). wbo, after having committed those 
t wkich Nicetaa, an eye-witneta, gires 
Ktnphalieal description, choae Baldwin, 
Indei^ emperor of Constantinople, but 
■ solr tbt fborth port of the empire 
I dapneed of sight by his &ther-in-law, 
fad M the Morea, hut waa arrested and 
CaaotutiDople, where the Croaadera put 
tfb bj coating him fmra the lop of the 
taotema. (121)4.) {Sicclai^Murzapliliu: 
la^vj '' c. 4, S; Gobi fram- 

[U: ., JIM. c SI, S(i, 60, 

kll :r.&c.) [W. P.] 

fR-S AKlST^;'NUS('AA<^lOJ■Afl<^^^ 
of ihi- Ureat Church at Conston- 
A. D. 116C. in which year he 
CoancO of Constantinople. He 
CStaomogi nith scholia, which is 
Pa mid ge in his PimdectM Cano- 
M. voL iL post pog. 188, and 
Other wotb by him are quoted. 
biaj.Cr.wLii. p. 280. [A. J.C] 
■■■rAA/«w), Patriarch of Constan- 
^^^hVr of the monaster}- of Studius 
^rMOji aMTfedwi Euatathius as Po- 



triuth A. D. 10-25. In a. d. 1034 he crowned 
Michael I V. tlie fiiraurile of Zoe, who, to mokg 
way for him, procured the death of her husbon], 
the Euipcror Rniniinus. He thwarted the attempt* 
of John (the emperor's brother) to gain the patri- 
archal see (a. o. 103G), and died a. o. 1043. Dr- 
rreet of his ore extant, ap. Jus Gr. Rom. toL i. 
lib. iv. p. 2.50, CeunchiT. Francof. 1S96. See 
Fabric BUJ. fir. toI. li. p. 5,58. (A. J. C] 

ALE'XIUS('AA^Eioi), Metropolilan of Nioaka, 
composed a Catutn or liymn on St. JJenurtrius tJke 
Afiirtyr. It is uncertain when he lived. Tho 
canon is in manuscript. See LamUdiu, Biblloth. 
Vindobon. vol. v. p. 599, ed. Kollor. [A. J. C] 

ALEXON ('AXiiur), an Achaean who served in 
the Carthaginian garrison at Lilybaeam while it 
was besieged by the Romans in B. c 2.50. During 
thi.i siege some of the Gallic mercenaries engaged 
in the service of the Carthaginians formed the plan 
of betraying the fortress into the hands of the Ro- 
mans. But Alexon, who had on a former occasion 
saved the ton-n of Agrigcntum from a similar 
atti^mpt of treacherous mercenaries, now acted iu 
the same (iuthful spirit, and gave information of tho 
plot to the Carthaginuin commander Iliniilco. He 
also assisted him in inducing the mercenaries to 
rumoin &ulhful and resist the temptations offered by 
their comrades. (Polyb. i. 43, ii. 7.) [L.. S.] 

ALEXON MYNDIU& [Alsxandkr Mvn- 


ALFF.'NUS VARUS. [Varus.] 
A'LFIUS FI.AVUS. [Flavls.) 
ALOOS ('AX-yoi), is used by llesiod (TImff. 
227) iu tho plural, as the personification of sorrows 
and griefs, which ore there represented as the 
daughters of Kris. [L. S.] 

ALIACMON. [Palaestinus.] 
L. ALlh:'NirS, plebeiaji acdilc n. c 454, ac- 
cused Vrturius, the cousul of the fonocr year, on 
account of selling the booty which had licen gained 
In WOT, and phicing the amount in the aeniiuia. 
(Liv. iii. 31.) 
ALIMENTI'S, L. CI'NCIUS, a cclcbratod 
Roman oimnlist, antiquary, and jurist, who waa 
pmetor in Sicily, b, c, 209, with the cominond 
of two legions. He wrote on ac»>unt of his im- 
prisonment iu the second Punic war, and a history 
of Gorgias Leontinus ; but these works )>rulinhly 
formed pan of his .,4fiNa^-. (Liv. xxi. 3H.) He ia 
frequently cited by Festus, and the fragments which 
have been tbus preserred were collected by Waasc, 
and may be found appended to Corte's Sallust. 

Niebubr (i. p. 272) praises Alimentus as a 
really critical investigator of antiquity, who threw 
light on the h'lstory of bis country by researches 
among ita ancient monuments. That he potaeaaed 
eminent personal qualities, such as strike a gratt 
man, is clear, inasmuch as Honmbal, who used to 
treat his Roman prisoners vcr}- roughly, mado a 
distinction in his behalf^ and gave him an account 
of his poaaage through Gaol and over the Alps, 
which Aiimentoa afterwards incorporated in his 
history. It is only in his fragments that wc find 
a distinct statement of the earlier relation between 
Rome and Lalium, which in all the uiinols hoa 
been misrepresented by national pride. The point, 
however, upon which NIebuhr Uys most stn-sa, is 
the remarkable difference Ijetween Alimentus and 
nil other chronologers in dating the building of the 
city about the fourth year of the 1 2th Olympiad. 



Thif difTcnncf i> ihr raorr imiiortaiit in an hiito- 
lici] view, from AliDDoiitun ba\intf written on thr 
M RntnAn cnlcndur and having carrfuUy ri- 
amijicd the most ancient F.tnikcun and Rnmaji 
chrnnolngr. It i* ingeniously accotuiteil for by 
Nii'huhr, liy iuppo«ing our author to have n>- 
duccd the ancient cyclical yeori, connitting of 
ten monthn, to an equivalent number of common 
Tcara of twelve months. Now, the pontiifii 
lerktinrd 13'2 cyclical year* before the rrign oF 
Taniuiniui I'riscui, from which time, according to 
Juliu» Oracchonuft, the uaa of the old calendar wa^ 
diKonlinued. The reduction moket a ditTcreiicr 

of 22 year^ for 132- 'Jli£ = 22, and 22 years, 

added to the en of Polybius and Nepoa, viz. 01. 

7. 2, bring ua Co the very dale of Alimenlua, Ol. 
12. 4. 

Alimcntnt eompoted a treatiie lie Officio Jaru- 
eofuulti, containing at leoat two books ; one book 
/>! IVWoi pmcii, one De Cimmlam fotttUdr, one 
/J» Comilni, one /* FaitU, two, nt leant, Myflayo- 
gimt, and leveral De He Mililuri. In the latter 
work he liandlos the nubjecl* of militjir)' levies, of 
the cercmonic* of declaring wiir, and generally of 
the Jiu FeriuU. (Ciell. xvi. 4 ; Voss. Iliil. (Jr. iv. 
].1, fia^ //i*l. 1^. i. 4; V. Lochnuuni, <le FunM. 
IfUlor. n. Lirii Com. i. 17, 4lu. 1822; Zinunrni, 
Ram. tUrUr^mrA. I if 73.) [J. T. ti.] 

AMMKNTUS, M. CI'MCIUS, tribune of the 
pleba a. c 304, pnpuaed iu his tribuneship the kw 
Imowii by the name of CVxrui fjex de Oonit el 
MmimliHt, or Mm—nilit Lti. (Liv. xuiiv. 4; 
Cic t'.i/o, 4, rfe Orat. ii. 7 1 , u<i Ml. I in-, Kestus 
p. e. Manemiu.) This law was confirmcfl In the 
tiiue of AnguitUA, {Diet, uf Ant. f. v. (\acin tjcj.) 
one of the s<ins of Lycaon, killed by Zeus with a 
flash of lightning for their inM>liincc. (.\[miIUm1. iii. 

8. 9 1.) The town of Aliphera or Alipheira in 
Aiadia wu believed tu have bc«n founded by 
hini, and to have derived its name from him. 
(Paus. viii. 3L § I, 26. § 4 ; Sicph. Bvz. f. v. 'A\i- 
^Vi) ' [L. S.] 

ALITT.\ or ALILATCAAirraor'AAiAdT), the 
name by which, according to IUTi^»tus(u 131, iiL 
ti), the .\rabs called Aphrotlice Urania. (L. S.] 

ALLKCTUS, was ratted to the highest digni- 
ties in Britain during the dominion of C-amu&ius ; 
but the crime* which he committed, ami the fear 
of punishment oo account of them, led him in a. i». 
2d3 to murder Caiaasius and assume the inifjo- 
ria] title in Britain for himself. He enjoyed his 
booours for three ycAn, at the end of which Cun- 
Mantias sent Asclepiodolui with an army and lleet 
■fidut him. Allectui was defntlrd in a. o. 296, 
u4 Britain was thus cleared of usurpers. (Aurel. 
Vict, is Cbes. 39 : Kutrap. ix. It.) Un the an- 
naud eoia the inacription is lur. C. Allkcti's. 
P. P. Ado. [I*S.J 

(I I I f; ' V r ' 

'<, I. A bimi of Cicvra'i. who 

'II in Ugh tnn^ lie was the 

in Aoa. >. c. <0 (Cic ait Q». 


Fr. i. 1. S 3). and praetor in ». c. 49. (AIM 
1,1.) In the following year, he ba<) thr 
of Sicily, and sent to Caesar, who was tiMI 
Africa, a L-u^ l>ody of troops, lie ctmtmtic4 
Sicily till B. c 47, and received the title of 
consul. Two of Cicero's letters are addi 
him. (Hirt. Bc/i .4/r. 2, 34 ; Cic aJ Fam. 
7H, 7^.) Mis name oerors on a coin, whvA 
on one side C. Caks. Imp. Cos. Itkh., and oi 
otiier A. Alliknvs Procos. 

2. Was sent liy Duhibello, B. c 43, Is hra|! 
him the legi<ins which were in Egypt. On kM 
turn from Kgypt with four legiuim he was 
prised by Ciissius in Pnlentine, who w« at 
head of eight legions. As his forces 
rior, AUicnus joined Cassius. (.^llpialw' 
78, ir. :,<) ; tic J'hU. li. 12, 13; CM,m^' 
aJ Ftttn. xii. 1 1, 12.) This Allienus may 
be the same [jcrson as No. 1. 

ALMJ'CI US, a prince of theCclu"li.-ri, betnti 
to a most beautiful virgin, who waa taiea 
by Scipio in Spain, B. c. 209. Scipio geiuni 
gave her to Allucius, and refused the present! 
parents offered bim. The story i* baauti/bfi/ 
iu l.ivv (xxvi. .00), and it also related hy • 
writenC (I'olvb. x. 19 ; Val. Mot iv. 3. | 1: 
lt.ll. IV. 268, ic) 

Ah.MO, the god of a river in the neighl 
of Home, who, like Tiberinua uid nthen, 
prayed to by the augurs. In the water of 
the statue of the mother of the gtMis use4 la 
wasbi'd. (Cic. de Nat. fJmr. iii. 20 ; camp. V< 
de Linij. hit. V. 71, eA .Miiller.) (U H 

ALMUPS('AA,u«i)i),agiaiit, the .mi.if I'n 
and Ilelle, from whom the district <if Mnvij. 
its inhabitants, the Almope^ i 
believed to Imvc derived thru 
J. r. 'AA^innr/o.) , .^ 

('A\a»ii3ai, AAwioSoi or 'AAsJaBai), are 
forms frtiin Alocus but are used to doi 
two sons of his wife Iphimedeia by P< 
Oius and Kphiidle*. The A I '' 
in the earliest stories of fir' 
dinary strength and daring , 
were nine years old, each of their liodirs 
nine cubits in breadth ujid twenty-setm in 
At this early age, they threatened the (Hj 
gods with war, and attempted to pde mtfa 
upon C>lympus and I'elinn upon Oiab 
wiitild have ai'otiiiptikhed llieir object, mja 
had they been alluwed b> gruw up (n the 
manhood; but .\pullo destrnved them Mb!* 
lieanls began tu appear. (M. xi. ,1A\ fe.) 
the Ili;id (v. 3«.i, &C.; comp. !' 
ii. I. § 1) the poet relates >. 
early age. They put the god .;.. 
kept him imprisoned fur tnirtotn i 
he would have perished, liad not Hc4 
formed nf it I13* Eriboea, and secntly Bb 
prisoner. The same stones arc ivUtrd I 
duni* (i. 7. ^ 4), who however does not 1 
[■eri«h in the alti'inpt ujNin Olrnipus. Ac 
to him, they actually piled the mcssntaiiM 1 
one aiiother, and threatened to cbai^ )m 
sea and sea into hind. They aiv ftiiitm 1 
bate grown every year one cubit in bnai 
three in height .\% another pruof «f tWir I 
it is related, thilt Ephialte* sued far iWf 
llerB, and (Jtui for tbat of ArtMHla. 
t4i their destruction in the vititi of Naxia^ 


./yi W. 156, &e.) Hera Artenu ippeand 

V fhta u iIm fbnn of a auig, and mn (wtwccn 
it xwo brolbtVK vho, both aiming at the aiiima! 

■ At asie time, tiiot ouli other dead. Hjginiu 
(M 31) ichle* tbctr death in a aimilor manner, 
ts mkm ApoUo wml the bial atiig. (Comp. 
OEm, Bfmm. if Dm. 2Si ; ApnUon. Rhod. i. 
tU, with the ScboL) A> ■ puniihinrnt for their 
|ma|Kioii, ther were, in Hades, tied to a pillar 
witk irfpmta, with their fiices turned away fri>ni 
■d atW, and werv perpetoallr tormented by 
t> ilknclu of an owl. (Munck, aii //tft/in. l.r.; 

, »i. Sifi.) Diodomi (r. 50, kc.), who 
Bltifn the Homeric itorieis eoutrives to 
larcmint an appeanuicc of history, Ac- 
t kim, the Aloeidne are The«salian henM^s 
t will out br their father Aloeus to fetch 
ttolher Iphimedeia and her daughter 
t had been carried off by Tiiraciau*. 
I aten*ken and drfiate<I the Tbracinnk 
»f Suongyle (Naion), they aeitled 
IJikn OTcr the Thracions. Rut toon after, 
each other in a diitpule which had 
I th<m, and the Naxiana womhipped 
The foundation of the Uinn of 
lis Thetady wa> aicrilwd tn them. (8teph. 
19,) la all Lhe» traditions the Aloeidae are 
only leniarV.ible for their gigantic 
liltTtigtb ; but there is another story which 
in a dilTerent ligbL P.-msanias (ix. 
that they were believed to hare 
of all men who wonihippcd the 
loo nmiul Helicon, and to hare coniectated 
t to them ; but they wonhipficd only 
-Meleti% Mneine, and ,\oide, and 
I of Ascm in Roeotiji. Sepulchral 
' the Aloeidae were aeen iu Uie time 
I (ix. 3*2. § A) near the Boeotian town 
litter tiroes &b1ed of ihcir bones 
is Tbnnly. (Philostr. I 3.) The in- 
j tMWiaa M these traditions by etymologies from 
I W» anl iXttd^ which has been attempted by 
I mi^a Kholan. i« little sntisiiictnrv. | U S.] 

AUCKL'S CAAwrit). I. A B.m of Poseidon 
I *4 P i a s n He married IphiniedeiiL, the daugh- 
|*irf Tnops, who was iu love with Poseidon, and 
I Is wMk by the wn-iidc, lake her hands (nil 
I Ukd sprinkle her bosom with it. The 
t whom she had hv Poseidon were called 
(Horn. IL T. 3«S,' OJ. XL 3US ; ApoUod. 


lios by Circe or .\ntiope, who 
I bther the soTereigntv orer the 
%*Bjm. (Paus-iLl. gt>,3. 8 8.) [L.S.J 
■ ( AA^m), a daughter of Cercyon, 
by Poeeidon uu account of her 
I Vady, ami became by him the mother of 
erpcaed immediately after his 
Dm a mnra came and suckled the child 
*lfl it aas Iwiul by ahqiherds, who fell into a 
^fOtmU «ba W1U to hare the benntifiil kingly 
jjai* tt the bey. The ease was btnugbt before 
^7*> "^ " it«ognising by the dress whose 
■W 1^ her ma, ordnrd Alopc to be imprisoned 

■ *'s> 18 H pot to dflith, and her child to be ex- 
P*! i^tfa. The Utter was fed and found in the 
^> MBDwr •• before, and the shepherds called 
M Hijfvdmu, [HipniTiioBs.] The body of 
"V was riaafN) by Poseidon into a well, which 

(Hygin. A"ii4. 1B7; Paus. i. 
^v. 533.) The town of Alope, 

ALPHEina 133 

in Thesaaly, was believed to hare derived its name 
from her. (Pherocyd. ap. SUfJi. B^i. i. r. 'AA<(wi), 
where, however, Philonidea speaks of an Alopc as 
a daughter of Actor.) There was a monument of 
Alope on the rood from Elouiis to Megara, on the 
spot where she was believed to have been killed 
by her father. (Paos. I 39. § 3.) [L. S.J 


ALlJKCUS, a Spaniard in Hannibal's army, 
who was a Mend and hospes of the Soguntines, 
went into Saguntum, when the city was reduced 
to the last extremity, to endeavour to persuade the 
inhabitants to accept Hannibal's terms. (Liv. xxi. 
12, Sic) 

('AA^cuo, *AA^fa/a, or 'AAi^toiJtrn), a sunuime of 
Artemis, which she derived from the river god 
Alphoius who l(»ved her, and under which she 
was worshipped at Letrini in Elia (Paus. vi. 22. g 
5 ; Strab. viii. p. 34 3), and in Ortygia. (SchoL 
uJ Pnd. Fyth. ii. 12, AVm. i. 3.) [h. S.J 

ALPIIEIAS, a namo by which Ovid (Met t. 
487) designates the nymph of (be Sicilian well 
Arethuso, because it a'as bi^lieved to have a sub- 
terraneous communioilian with the river Alpheiui, 
in Prln]ionne«u». [L. S.J 

'AA^HJi), the god of the river Alphcius in Pelo- 
p<mnehus a son of Oceanns and Thetys. (Pind. 
fiftm. i. 1 ; Hes. Tlimi). 338.) According to 
Pausonias (v. 7. § 2) Alpheins wiu a passionate 
hnnter and fell in love with the n^'mph Arethusa, 
but she fled from him to the island of Ortygia 
near Syracuse, and metamorphosed herself into a 
well, whereupon Alpheius became a river, which 
flowing from Peloponnesus under the sea to Or- 
tygia, there united iu wnti-rs with those of the 
well Aretliusa. (Comp. Schol. ml I'iud. S'em, i. 
3.) This story is related somewhat differently by 
Ovid. (Mei, T. 572, &C.) Arethnsa, a fairnymph, 
once while bathing in the river Alpheius in Aixa- 
dia, was surprised and pursued by the god ; but 
Artemis took pity upon her and changed her into 
a well, which Mowed under the eanh to the island 
of OrtvgiiL (Comp. Serv. ad Virg. Ed. x. 4; 
Virg. An. iii. (.'94; Stat. Silv. L 2, 203; TM>. 
i. 27 1 , iv. 239 ; Lucian, Dial. Marin. 3.) Artemis, 
who is here imly mentioned incidentally, was, ac- 
cording to other traditions, the object of the love of 
.\tpheius. Once, it is said, when pursued by him 
she Hed to I.etrini in Klis, and here she covered 
her (hce and tho«4! of lier comyionions (njnnphs) with 
mud, so that Alpheius could not discover or 
distinguish her, and was obligeil to return. ( Paus, 
vi. 22. $ .5.) This occasioned the building of a 
temple of Artemis Alphoea at Letrini. According 
to .inoilier version, the goddess fled to Ortygia, 
where she had likewise a temple under tho luune 
of Alphaea. (Schol. a,i Fiiul. Pylh. ii. 12.) An 
allusion to Alpheius' love of Artemis is also con- 
tained in the hut, that at Olympia the two divini- 
ties had one altar in common. (Paus. v. 14. § 5; 
SchoL ad Pind. 01. t. 10.) In these accounU 
two or more distinct stories teem to be mixed up 
together, but they probably originated in the 
[popular belief, that there was a natural subt4Tru- 
neous communication between the river Alpheius 
and the well Arethusa. For, amnni; several other 
things it was lielievcd, that a cup thrown into the 
Alpheius would make its reappearance in the well 
Arethusa in Ortygia. (Sttab. vi p. 270, viii. p. 

343 ; Seiicc. Quaat. iVaL iii. 26 ; Fulgent. Myli. 
m. 13.) Plutarch {Je FIhp. 19) ((ives an acoiunt 
which u oltogrthi^r rnicooucctcd with tho6c men- 
tioned above. According to him, Alphoius was a 
ion of Heliot, and kiJIed hit brother Cvnaphut in 
B contcit. Haunted by dctpoi: and the Erinnyes 
he leapt into the river Nyctimui which hence re- 
ceived the name Alpheiua. [L. S.] 

Al-PUK'NOR. [NioBB.] 


Al.l'HESIllOEA ("AA^ffiJoui). 1. The mo- 
ther of Adonit. [Adosih.] 

2. A dau(;hter of Pbegcut, who married Alc- 
maean. [Alcmakon.] 

S. According to Theocritat (iii. 45) a daughter 
of Biaa, and the wife of Peliaa. The latter, how- 
ever, ia oiuolly cnlted Anoxibia. 

4. An Indian nymph, who was passionately 
loved by Dionysus, but could not be induced to 
jield to his wishes, until the god changed himself 
into a tiger, and thus compelled her by fear to 
■Dow him to carry her acrou the river SoUox, 
which from this circumstance received the name of 
Tigri.. (PIuUrfcKur. 24.) [I.. S.) 

TiAijraiof ), the author of abont twelve epigrams 
in the Greek Anthology, some of which seem to 
point out the time when be wrote. In the seventh 
epigram (Jacobs) he refers to the state of the Ro- 
man cropin*, OS embracing almost all the known 
world ; in the ninth he sjicaks of the n-5tore<l and 
fluuriibing city of Troy ; and in the tenth he al- 
ludes to on epigram by Antipatcr Sidonias. Now 
Antipater lived under Augiutus u^d Troy had re- 
vived great fhvoun from .lolius Caesar and Au- 
([UStus. (Strob. liiL p. 86!'.) Hence it i* not 
improbable that Alphcus wrote under AngosUis, 
It is tnie that in the fourth epigram he addresses 
a certain Macrinus, but there is no reason to sup- 
pose that this was the emperor Macrinus. Ano- 
ther dilficulty has been started, on the ground that 
th« eleventh epianm was inscribed, as we leom 
inm Patuaojoa (viii. b'i. $ 3), on the statue of 
Philopovmen in Tegeo, and that it is very impro- 
balili' that such a statue should have stood without 
an inscription till the time of Alpheus. But the 
simple fact is, that no reason can lie discovered for 
attnlMiting this epigram to Alpheus. (Jacobs, Aitr 
UhJ. GroK. liii. p. 839.) (P. S.] 

ALPIUUS AVl'TCS. (AviTi's.) 

ALPI'NUS, a name which Horace (&/. i. 10. 
36) gives in ridicule to a bomlnstic poet. He pro- 
Isbly means M. Kuriua Riboculus. [BiBaCDLtia.] 

AU'l'NUS MONTA'NUS, one of the Trtsviri, 
th* nMwt powerful of the Belgic people, and the 
eoamiuider of a cohort in the army of Vitellius, 
WW wnt into Oennany after the battlo of Crenlolu^ 
A. u. 70. Together with his brother, D. Alpinua, 
be joined CivUis in the next Tear. (Tac. hul. iii 
Si, iv. 31, V. 59.) ICiviLifci 

AI.TIl.VF.A ('AAflaia), a daughter of the Arto- 

lian king Thestius and Eurythcmis, and sister of 

Lwlo, llypcrmnrstni, Iphiclus, Kuippus, &c. She 

' Was named to Oeneut, king of C^lyduu, by whom 

Am fanaune the mulher of Trtixeus, Thrreus, C'ly- 

' nsams, and Meleaoer, and of two daughters. Gorge 

' Ilrlaneiia. (Awllod. i. 7. i lU, 8. § 1.) 
I ftatct, ttiat according to some, Mele- 
lynlwt as Ik* fmit of her intercourse 
FAlv^ 0si thai she was mother of Del- 
ia by Uonysus. (C'ump. Hygin. Fab. 129, 

171, 174.) Al _^ 

ancient story on aeeamt ef the Ingie Me«f 
son Mcleager, who also became the cause tl 
deatli. Some say tj.nt she hung 
that she killed herself with a dagger. (. 
8. g 3 ; Ov. met. viii. 44i, &c) 

iriniyrit or 'AA6ai/i<vi)i), a son of Call 
Crete. In consequence of an orucle, that 
would lose his life by one of his childm, 
menes quitted Crete together with his 
mos^me, in order to avoid becoming the 
of bis father's death. He landed in ~ 
place which he called Cretenia, ojid in ivuieuitm 
of the god of his own native island, he erectid 
mount Atabyrus on altar to Zeus Atabyrius. I 
sister was seduced in Rhodes by Hermes, 1 
Allhenienea, disbelieving her acoount, killtd I 
by kicking her willi his foot. When Catrrail 
become advanced in years, he had an in' 
desire to see his only son once more, and to ^ 
his crown in his hands. He accordingly sail ' 
Rhodes. On his landing there, be and his 
panions were attacked by shepherds, who ad 
them for pirates. During the ensuing nn 
Althemencs came to the protection of his sal 
and shot his own lather dead. When he ~ 
aware of what he had done, he played to tlie 
and was swallowed up by the eaiih. Tkisiil 
account of ApoUodorus (iii. 2. § 1, &c), 
which Diodorus (v. S9) ngri'e* in tiie maia } 
except that he Kpresents Altliemenea ai 
ing about after the munler, and at last 
grief. He adds, tbnl the Rhodions si 
wonhippi'd him as n hero. 

ALTIIE'PUS CA\9n»o«), a son of 
nnd Ix'i's, a daughter of Cirus, king of 
The territory of Troeiien was csllrd 
Altliepio. In his reign Pallas and P( 
puted the possession of the conntfjr 
other. (Paus. ii. SO. § 8.) 

AbVATTES CAAwlm,.). king of L; 
ceeded his fiithc-r Sadyattcs, u. >-. (il8. Si^; 
during the lost sic yean Qf his reifn had 
gaged in a war with Miletns, which was 
by his son five years lunger. In the lai 
years Alyattes burnt a temple of Athena, 
ing sick shortly nftcrwnrdv he sent to ~ 
advice ; but the oracle refused to give hiia 
swer till he had rrbailt the temple. This 
and recovered in consequence, and mada 
with Miletus. He subsequently earned uu war 
Cyaxares, king of Media, drove the C'ii 
out of Asia, took Smyrna, and attacked C 
The war with Cyaxam, which lasted (or 6<e 
from 8. r. &90 to SSJ, aroae in ooni 
Alyattes receiving under his pniectiod 
thians who had fled to him after iajoring 
An eclipse of the sun, which happened wl 
armies of the two kings were tighting, led 
peace between them, and this was anmvtrf 
the maniage of Astyages,the son of Cyaiaic^ 
Aryenis, toe daughter of Alyattes Al; 
B. (% 56 1 or 560, after a reign at tttf 
and was succeeded by his son Crocna, 
to have been previously associated with hi* &i 
the government. (Herod, i. 16-■.^2, 2i, 73, 7 

The tomb (iriiMa) of ■^^l}'atte• is 
ncrodoiDs (l 93) as one of the woniisn 
It iras north of Soidia, mat the hke <h 
consisted of a huge nooiid of tank, rausd 


tt gnst Mom*. It wu elected by tbe 

' ' I) and courlcmii, and on 

of it tjien mre fire pillan, which Hcro- 

~ ofl which wen mentioned the dif- 

niaed by each ; from this it ap- 

^thml ibc oourtcsiDi did the greater part. 

nx ptdhjB and two iladja in circum- 

thiite«n piclhm in biradth. Accard- 

wiHca> it wai called the "tomb of the 

and WM CRCted by a mittrcM of Lirges. 

^ Attn. liii. p. 573, a.) Thii monnd 

Mr. Hamilton ny> (Rnrarcitt in Ana 

tcL l p. 145), that it bwlc him about ten 

ta ride round ita haae, which would give 

of nearly a mile ; and he alu 

that toward* the north it cuiuiiit« of tbe na- 

— a white, horixonially ctratified earthy 

est away to aa to appear part of the 

The upper portion, he addi, ia land 

upanntly bivnght from the bed of the 

a» (brad on the top the remain* of a 

iMai)y eighteen feet iquare, on the 

which *«■ a huge circular itone ten feet 

ler, with a flat bottom and a railed edge 

evidently placed there aa an ornament on 

of the tumnlua. 

'PIUS ('A^^wf), the author of a Greek 

bcatiae entitled ttaayvy^ fiui-cuc^. Then^ 

Mlenbly sure ground* fur identif_\'ing him 

mam of the rarioaa pctioni who bore the 

the tima* of the later empemn, and of 

■iDfy anything is known. Acoirding to 

phiiiiihla conjecture, he was that Alj-pius 

■pfOik in his Life of lamblichua, cele- 

hi* acute iolellet't {6 SmAcirriirajTarus 

i) mi diminutive itaiore, and who, being 

of lamblichna, probably flourished under 

•nd hit immediate sncceaaon. This Aly- 

of Aletaiulria, and died there at 

ago, and thorefure caii hardly have 

eaDed by Auimionus Marvelliuu* 

who was first prefect of Uri- 

afterwmnl* employed by .lulian in bis 

to rebuild the Jewish temple. Julian 

two rpistlei (39 and .30) to Alyfiiiu 

^AAwi^ d5(A^ Kttieuplov)^ in one of 

mlu hiB ibr a geographical treatise or 

■anid iann more Ukely that this wu.t the 

than that he was the Alexandrian 

aa Meunius uppoaet, if indeed be was 

or the other. larablichus wrote a life, 

p ntsjit, of the AlejsandriarL 

naa, \ct, ad Alfp. p. IKIi, dc. c ; Ju- 

it. TTJa. XXX. and noL p. IHT, ed. lleyler ; 

B, ViL lamMkk. and nuL toL d. p. i\\ ed. 

Itach: Aain. MarccU. zxiii. I. 3 'J; De 

k Umai Mr la Man/ae, toL ill p. 1 3:i.) 

varii at Alypiut consist* wholly, with the 

■ <f a short intruductiun, of lists of tlie 

) imd (both lit roice and instrunwut) to 

all tke loanda in the forty-livo koIcs pn>- 

||y tiduni CMb of the fifteen mode* in the 

MOk (niaionic. Chromatic, Enharmonic.) 

^ i Wi a tw , in laict, of only one (the fifth, 

l«f tbe aatm bnuches into which the sub- 

fcll■■d, dirided in the intruductiiiu ; and 
IJt im. nMTBly a fragment of a larger 
^i^e |j<«a moat valuable if any 
IT. I of ctamples had been left lu 

■tx-Ai uaj u( the system of notation de- 
ls It ; unfurtuitauly very few remain (tee 



Bumey, /IaLo/Miiaie,Toi. i. p. 83), and they teem 
to belling to an earlier stage of the science, ilow- 
erer, the work aerrca to throw some light on the 
obscure history of the modes. (.See llockh, ile 
MttT. Piad. c. 8. p. 23,1, c .1. 12.) The teit, 
which teeIIu^d hopeleatly corrupt to Meursius, its 
first editor, was restored, apparently with tuc- 
ccsa, by the labours of the learned and indefatiga- 
ble Mcibomius. (Antiquao Musicae Auclores 
Septem, ed. Marc. Meibomiua, AmstcL 1 (Ji'J ; 
Anstoxenna, Nicomachua, Alypius, ed. Job. Meur- 
sius, Lugd. Bat. 1616.) [W. K. D.] 

ALY'PIUS ('AAi/iiot), priest of the great 
church at Constantinople, flourished A. i>. 430. 
There is extant an epistle from him to St. Cyril 
(in Oroek), exhorting him to a vigorous reaiatonee 
against tbe heresy of Neslnrius. (See CfmeilioruHi 
/Voru CatUdtio, a Mafoi, vol y. p. U63.) [A. J.C.) 

ALYPUS CAXn-oi), a atatnary, a native of 
Sicyon. He studied under Naocydes, the Argive, 
His age may be 6xed from his having excculad 
bronxe atatuea of some Lacedaemonians who shared 
in the Tictory of Lyaander at Aegoapotami. (s c. 
405.) Pauaaniaa alao mentiona aome atatucs of 
Olympic victors made by him. (vi. 1, § 2, x. 9. § 4, 
vi. 1. S 2, «. § 3.) [C. P. M.] 

ALi'ZEl'S ('AXuftiJi), a son of Icariua and 
brother of Penelope and Leucndius. After hia 
fitther^ death, he reigned in conjunction with hia 
brother over Acamania, and is said to have founded 
the town of Alyzeia there. (Strab. x. p. 452 j 
Steph. Hv«. J. r. "AAiifsio.) [L. S.] 

(MifSuxoi), a common name among the ThradanL 
It was also, according to Ptolemy, the name of a 
people and mountains in Thrace. Paiuauioa (L 4. 
§ 4) speaks of an Amodocu* who came from lbs 

1. King of the Odtysar in Thrace, was a Iriend 
of Alcibiudes, and is mentioned at the time of the 
tattle of Aegospotami, a c 405. (Uiod. xiii. 105.) 
He and Seuthes were the moat powerfiil princess in 
Thrace when Xenophon visited tbe country in u. c, 
400. They were, however, frrqucntly at variance, 
but were reconciled to one another by ThrosybtUns, 
the Athenian commander, in B. c:. 390, and induced 
by him to become the allies of Athens. (Xen. 
Anah. viL 2. § 32, 3. § 16, 7. § 3, &c, llolL iv. 
8. § 2fi; Uiod. xiv. 94.) This Amadocus may 
perhap* be the tome aa the one mentioned by Aris- 
totle, who, he says, was attacked by hia genual 
Seuthea, a Thracian. ( /"oi. v. 8, p. 1 82, ed. OiJttling.) 

2. A Kuler in Thmce, who uiherited in cou- 
junction witli l)<>risadea and Cersiiblcptt^s the do- 
minions of Cotys, on the death of the latt4-r in 
n. c 35K. Amadocus was probably a ton of 
Cotys and a bmtlicr of the other two princea, 
though this is not stated by Oemosthene*. (Dem. 
ra.4ru/cicr. p. 62.1, &c) [CnuOBLKPTJia.] Ama- 
docus seems to have lind a son of the same name. 
(Isocr. Philipp. p. H3, d. compared with ilarpo- 
crat. «. T. 'A/ioSoKoi.) 

3. One of the princes of Thrace, who was do- 
fcated and taken prisoner by Philip, king of 
Macedonia, b. c. 184. (Liv. xxxix. 3.^.) 

AMAE'SIA SE'NTIA is mentioned by Vale- 
rius Maximua (vUi. 3. § 1) as an inttonco of a 
female who pleaded her own cause before the prae- 
tor. (AlKiut u. c. 77.) She was called Amlro- 
i/ipirt from liaving a man's spirit with a female 
form. Compare AfHANU and HoKTK.NNi.i. 


C. AMAFA'Nins or AMAPI'NIUS waj one 
nf the tarlk'At Komiui writers ui fovour of the Fpicu- 
n^aii phili)S4>phy. lie wrote Kverul works wliicli 
are aruhimii by Cicero u deficicut ill urnuigenienl 
and style. He i* mentioned by no other writer 
bnt Cicero. {AcatL L 2, Tiuc. iv. S.) 

AMALTHEIA ('A^atm). 1. The nnn» of 
the infant Zetu after hi^ birth in Crete. The an- 
cients thenuelre* appear to have been ai uncertain 
about the etymolof^ of the name as about the 
real nature of Amullheia. Hesychius derivei it 
finnn the verb dfM\0tv*Ly^ to nourish or to enrich ; 
others from d^ioA^oxrof, i. e. firm or hard ; and 
othen again from o^aAv) and 0fia^ according to 
which it would signify the divine goat, or the 
tender goddess. The common derivation is ^m 
itUJ^y*t¥^ to milk or suck. According to some 
traditions Anudtbeia is the goat who suckled the 
infant .love (llygin. Poet. Attr. it IS; Anit. 
Pitun. 163; Callim. Ifymn. in Jov. 49), and who 
was afterwords rewarded for this service by being 
placed among the stars. (Coni[i. Ap<illod. i. 1. § 
C.) [AaOA.] According to another set of tra- 
ditions Amalthria was a nymph, and daughter of 
Oceonuii. Helios, Hnenionius, or of the Cretan 
king Melisseus (^hol. ati Horn. il. xJiL lf>4 ; 
Krotosth. C'u/uW. 13; ApoUixl. il 7. %b\ Lac- 
tant. l»>til. i. '•il; llygin. I. e~, and Pah. 139, 
where he calls the uym]tb Adninantcia),and ic said 
10 have fed Zeo* with the milk of agoat. Wheu this 
goat onee broke off one of her homo, the nvmph 
Anultheia 6Ued it with fresh herbs and fnii t and 
gave it to Zeus, who tnmsplaced it together with 
th« goat among the starK ((Jrid, Piut. v. 115, 
&c.) According to other accounts Zeus himself 
Imike off one of the horns of the goat Amolthcia, 
gave it to the daughtcm of Melissens, and en- 
dowed it with such powers that whenever the pos- 
•rwor «i<hrd, it would iustnntaneouslr become filled 
with wlistcirr might be desired. (ApoUod. /. r, ; 
bduiL Oil CiUtitH. /. c.) This is the story about 

• origin of the celebrated horn of Amaltheiu, 

nmonly called the horn of plenty or cornucopia, 
whkh plays such a prominent part in the tturies 
o( lireece, and which wna used in hiter times as 
the symbol of plenty in gmenU. (Stiab. i. p. 45B, 
iiL p. l.Sl ; lliod. iv. 35.) [Acucuii's.] Uio- 
doms (lii, liR) givc« on iiccount of Amoltheia, 
wbirh ditfrn from uU the other traditions. Ac- 
cnnling to him the Uhyiui king Ainmoo married 
Amnltheia, n maiden of extmordinory beauty, and 
gave her a very fertile tract of bnd which hod the 
fomi of a bull's honi, and tvcttived fnxn its queen 
the name of the horn of Amaltheto. This occtmnt, 
however, is only one of the nuuiT specimena of a 
ralluDiUistic interpretation of tiw ancient mythna. 
The horn appvnn to be one of the most ancient 
(ltd ainipleal teasels for drinking, and thus we And 
Ike alofy of Amaltheia giving iteut to drink from 
k bora RORscnUd in an ancient work nf art still 
Mlaal. (Ualaris OiiBtiniari, it p. 61.) The 
honi of plenty was ftwjoently given as an attribute 
In the rr|>rp>entatians at Tyehe or Kortuna. ( I'aus. {4, vii. 'i6, § 3 ; comp, Bottigrr, A nutl- 
ttMO, odsr 4fr Cntmmmtm Zmt alt SaHglag; 
Wekkcr, Utiir tkt Onlmi* CUons m TIUm, 


•1. fine of the HibyU (TibalU ii. A. 67), whom 
lArtniitiu* (i. 6) identities with the Cuiiutmn 
Siliyl, who is «ud to bavo sold to king Taniuiniu* 
the rrlebratal iiihyllini) hooka. The same is slated 


by Serviiis (ml Arm. vi. 11) and by Lyda (i 
Mem. iv. 34) ; comp. Khtusen, A*mat tad i 
Paiairtu, p. -.'99, &c [ L. i) 

AMANULIS. [AEi.i*Ni's,p. 28, a) 
AMAR.\NTUS (' Kf^iimnot). of AlemiM 
vrrotc a cominentarv upon one of ThcooiM 
Idyls [ElyinoL M. f. T,X 40, ed. SylU), tU 
work entitled ntfA (riaiyilu Kespectiug hislH 
we only know that he lived subsc<|ucutly to )<i 
king of Mauretania. (AthciL viit p. 343, t, 
p. 414, C) 

AMARYN'CEUS {'Aiafuymi,), a chief ofl 
Eleani, and son of Oneainuicbu* or of 
(llygin. Fiik 97 ; EusUth. ad Ham. p. 303.) , 
cnrding to llyginus, Amorynoeiu bimvlf joiaed 
cxpeditionag&instTruy with ninebvn ships. Ilia 
on the other hand, only mentions hi^ son l)i4l 
fAnmryneeides) as partaking in the Trujaa 

\tL ii. 

6"2'2, iv. 517.) When Amari-nceus i 

his sons celebrated funeral games in hit honour, 
which Nestor, a* he himself telalea ( II. ixiii. ii 
&c), took part. According to Pauiauiias (i. b 
B ) Amarynceus had been of great service to Jil 
against llemrles, in return for which Aogetsd 
his throne with him. (L. &)i 

A.MAHYNTHUS CA^iweoi), a huuia 
Artemis, from whom the town of 
Euboca (Steph. Uya. says Enboea it>el() 
lieved to have derived its name, (r 
44fl.) From this hero, or rather from the 
Amarynthus, Artemis derived the Miman 
rynthia or Amarysia, under which she v 
shipped there and also in Attica. (Paus. i, 31.' 
3, camp. I>kl. vf A»L t. o. ' KiatfiijituL.) [L. " 

AMA'.SIS CA^iiurii). 1. King of I^^ 
early limes, according to Diodonis (i. 60), 
whose reign Egypt was conquered by 
king of Ethiopia. [ArTI)>AM».] 

'2. King of Egypt, succeeded Apries, ih* 
king of the line of Psammetichus, in a. c 
He was of cnrnjaratively low origin (Hi 
ii. 172, calls him IqfulTiii), and ' 
Siuph, a town in the Saitic nome. 
Egyptians revolted against Apriea, 
sent to quell the insurrection, bat 
to the side of the rebels, and wa< 
king by them. He defeated Apliea ia B 
near Momemphis, and took him priaooer. 
•enned disposed to tnat his captive with 
mildnesa. but was induced to deliver him 
the hands of the Egyptians, who put him 
It was probably to strengthen himafilf 
powerfid party formed against him 
warrior-caste, that he cultivated the 
the (jf%!eks. He not only gave up to them 
of Naucratis, which luid liitheria been their 
mart, but ojiencd all the mouths of tlw Nik 
them, and allowed them to build temples 
own deities. U« eontncted an alliance 
Greeks of Cynme, and himself married 
Cymnaic lady. (Herud. ii. 181.) He 
loniana and Carians, who were settled 
Pelasiac mnuth of the Nile, to Mi _ 
formed them into a body-guard far 
(ii. l.'>4.) He also entcrnl into 
Croesus (i. 77) and with PolTOMei^ 
nf iiamns (iji, 39, 40), who ia aid to 
troducrd Pythagoras to him by 
Laert. viii. 3.) Amaais also s 
several of the Unsek citica. (HeniL 
Solon in the onutr of hi* tiaTeb 



gcuL, Oneor, Syria, Arabia. Ei^t, and Libya. 
Th» connUy about the Thrnoalon with iti capital 
Tbemiicyni wiu inhabited only by the Amaxoni, 
who were goTeined by • qaeen. The Oargamuia, 
a race of men, wen leiMnled from them by a 
mountain, bnl onoe erery year the Aniozona met 
the Oaigaraona in tlia moaniaini for the purpote of 
pmpaguting their race, and then rrtomptl to their 
own cnuntry. Their children, when of the female 
■ex, were brought up by the Amazon mothers, and 
trained in their ciuiomary pnr«uit« of war. ridinn, 
hunting, and cultimting the land; but each girl 
had her right brvoit cut off ; their male childnjn, 
on the other hand, were tent to the Uargareant, or 
put to dvnih. (Strab. xi. p. 503, &c. ; Uiod. ii. 45, 
Ac, iiL 52, ttc; Justin, ii. 4.) The principal godi 
they wonhipped were Area and Artemis Taurt>- 
pnlot. The foundation of •ereial towua in Ana 
Minor and in the inlands of the Aegean is ascribed 
to them, «. <f. of Ephesus, Smyrna, Cyme, Myrina, 
and Paphos. Stxmbo doubts the existence of such 
a race of females, while Uiodorus attempts to give 
an account of them, which aammea all tae appear- 
ance of history. That the Amaxoiu were regwded 
■a a real historical race down \o a bite period, is 
evident frora the tradition, thati when Alcxnnder 
tb* OlMt approached the country of the Amazons, 
their qnean Tholestris hastened to him, in order to 
beeooe mother by the conqueror of Asia. (Flut. 
JUt. 46.) 

But we confine onrselTca hem to noticing some 
of the mythical adrentana with which the Ama- 
aooa ore connected. They are said to ha» in- 
ndcd Lycia in the reign of lohotes, but were de- 
itroyed by Bellerophontes, who happened to be 
■tnying at the king's court. (Hom. //. y\. 186, Ac; 
Seho\. ad LycopH \7 .) [DaLLKiinPUONTBS, Lao- 
HiUKiN.] At the time when Priam was yet a 
young man, they iuvud^Hl Phryfjio, and fought 
with the Phrygians and Trujaim. (Mam. //. iii. 
189, tu.) The ninlli among the labours imposed 
apon llcraclca by Eorystheus, was to take from 
liippolyte, the queen of the Amasnns, her girdle, 
the ensign of her kingly power, which she had te- 
eaifed a* a present from Ares. (Apollod. ii. ■'>. $ 9; 
Uiod. It. I R ; Hygin. FiA 3U ; QuinL Smym. xi. 
V44.) I HaHic !■.«.] In the ri'ijfn of The»eus thev 
inToded Altica. (Paus. i. 2; PluU Tka. 3\. 33.) 
(TMnaw.J Towards the end of the Trojan war, 
the Atnuons, under their queen Pentheaileia, 
«iae to the assistance of Priam ; but the ijueen 
wa« killed by Achilles, (^uint. Smyra. I GG9 ; 
Paus. T. 1 1, g 2 ; PhUostr. /ler. xix. 19.) [ PlN- 


The question as to what the Amazooa really 
wets, or miller, wbit gan rise to the belief ihu 
then' was Huh a race of women, has been much 
dacBOied by ancient aa well a* modem writerv 
Hendotaa (ir. 110) sayi, that in the Scythian 
Ingaige iheir name wia Oiorpala, which he ttana- 
ktea by Mfttrirtt. The Orerk name Amasonea 
ii uMukUy derived freo ttofit, the bnnat, and ia sup- 
paaed lo mean "brMatlees," or **not brought op by 
the breast," 'beings with smug bmsts," or " with 
aoc breoat." (Philoatr. Le,: Eoststh, aJ Horn. p. 
403.) Othen dcrire it from the Cinaaian word 
•MaOi aid to siprily the moon, or from EmmeteK 
srhidh aeeording to a Caucasian tradition, ia said 
te hn* been their original name. (Sprengel, Apo- 
Ugl» 4m HiftpaiTaIn, ii. p. 597: KUipniib, Hriit 
mA dtm OnMWaSa >• P- 055.) Among ibo roiious 


ways in which it has been attempted te i 
for the origin of the storj* about the Amasoav M 
deserve to be mentioned. One opinion is, that t 
peculiar way in which the women of some g( I 
Caucasian districts lived, and performed the ( 
which in other countries devolve upon 1 
ther with the many instance* of ' 
and courage which are noticed aa i 
fay modem travellers, were conveyed to the id 
bitanu of western .\sia and the Qreeks in i 
obscure reports, and thus gave rise lo the I 
the existence of such a warlike race of i 
that these rumours niid re|Mrt* were 
worked out and embelli<<hcd by popular 1 
and poetry. Others think that the 
were originally priestesses of Artemis (the i 
whose worship was widely spread in 
wiiich they are said to have established i 
ports. It is fiirther inferred, from the i 
Bones, that these prieBtcucs mutilated theirl 
cutting off their brt^a^ts in a manner i ' 
in which the Golli and other priests mnti 
bodies, and that thus the Amazons rrpresrnttdt 
male ideal in the female sex, just as the Galli i 
sented tho female ideal in the male sex. But it « 
be difficult, in the tint place, to prove the ex 
of such priestesses, and in the second, to i' 
they could have occasioned the belief ia j 
fenmle race of this kind. Neither the ] 
historical traditions about the Amaaom 
anything to render this opinion very 
and, in the absence of all positive ev;' 
lirst opinion luis much more to i 
(Com|>. Miiller, OrrAum, p. 356, &C.) 

The n?pre<entation of these wariike < 
cupied the Greek artists very eiteosively, i 
still possess a large series of the most ' 
works of art, such as paintings on vaaes ■ 
bronzes, reliefs, and gems, in which the j 
and their tattles with luru ore |iii (»f < a e m i 
most celebrated works of this kind in 
were the battle of the Amazons with the AH 
in the Poecile at Athens, by Nicon (Pam i I 
$ 2), on the shield of Athena, and on the 
stool of the tJlympion Zeus, by Phidias, (i. 17. |1 
Amazons were also represented by Ak 
the pediment of the temple of Zoos It I 
(v. lU. i 2.) Respecting the extant ■ 
of Amazon* and their ixlmne*, see U&Uer, i 
d. ArMiol. ii 36S, il7. IL..&11 

AMAZO'NIUS CAfogSyan). a suiraaw | 
Apollo, under which he was worsliipped, and I 
8 temple at Prrrfaicbut in Laronix '~ 
was derived either &vm the belief iUt ^ 
aon* had penetratM into Peloponne 
Pyrrfaicbns, or that they had founded the I 
there. (Pans. iii. 25. § 2.) [U &]' 

A-MBlliA'TUS, king of the Cell* ia i 
the reign of Tarquiuius Priscus. He ' 
the Uilurigcs, the most powerfel of lh« I 
pie. When AabijKa* «■• odvaaesd ia y<^l 
sent out BeUovean* and SigOTewa, the anm rf r 
sister, with laige (WinB* of hi* people to Mil I 
settlements, in conaeqaaiee of the | 
the population. BeUovceaa and 
lots as to the conn* tiwy dmnld tain ] 
in conaeqnence went to the Henrniu : 
the former into Italy. (Liv, v. 34.) 

A.MBrOKlX,achief of the EbargO(*,*< 
poiple between the Mruse and the Rhiish < 
were formerly tributary to the Adnasid, I 

Iijr CaoBir bom the paynwnt of thii tri- 
lllt, In II.C. 54, Ctaar placed a logiun uid five 
■iiRs maia the cnmmaQd of Q. Tiiuriiu Subiniu 
bI L Aaraaeokiiu Coita, in the temiorie* of 
tb EborsoM far the purpose of prumng the winter 
IkBn Bat fifiaea ilayt after the; hod been ito- 
fail in ihdr toritoriek, the Ebunmes revolted at 
At Hmigatifti of Ambioriz and Catirolciu, another 
ikL bastgai the Roman oamp, and dettrojed 
itant lU th« Rooim troop*, after thej had been 
ildiHd W Asnbiorix to ieare their camp under 
fmm tit nfeomdiict. After their deuruction 
iatiarix haatened In the Aduatici and Ncrrii, 
mi jadaced them, in conjunction with the Ebu- 
mti b attack the cunp of Q. Cicero, who waa 
MManl (u liw irinter among the Nerrii. The 
fnoai e( Ciearo. and the defeat of the Ganla on 
tiaihil of raiar. compelled Amblorix to mits 
tt i^fk Id the (oUowing yean Ambiorix con- 
ted n praecBle the war againat Caeur, but 
te|lk iD kia plana were thwarted, and the dif- 
kwt traopa ha niaed were defeated by Caesar, he 
itn% oaiped fitUing into the hands of the con- 
<pm. (Caea. D. O. r. 24, 26—01, ri 5, 29— 
A 'iii. 24, ttc; IKon Caia. xl. 5—10, 31, &c. ; 
Ut, Bfll. IU6.) According to Floras (iii. 10. 
i 1) W caaped the rengcancc of the Romoiu by 
%mf hryatid the Rhine. 
ANWJLOUt'KA ('A^CaXoTifpa), fiom in- 
•JM* ud ^^paf ~ delaying old age," aa a »ur- 
*■• af Aphrodite, who baid a atatue at Sporta 
■Iff ibk name. (Paai. iii. IB. $ I ; Plut. 
^i^o- iii- (••) [L. S.] 

IHBRA'CIA ('A^poKia), a daughter of Au- 
IPKlran whom the town of .\mbricia derived its 
■■a (Steph. Byx. >. r. : Euitath. ad Uionyi. f'c- 
nf 492.) Other traditions repn^sent her as a 
pw^fenghli I- of Apolln, and a daughter nf Alelo- 
Mik istf at the ijrynpes. (Anton. Lib. 4.) A 
ttri aeDwrnt derived the name of the town from 

m of Thesprotus and gmndson of 
Imm. (Strph. Bri. '. c.) [ L. S.] 
'•"■:?|('S1US CAji«(»Viof) ALEXANDKI'- 
^''iblcman and courtier ($. Kpiph. fufc. 
• 1 44] t S) Bouhihrd A. D. 230. At tirst 
> V auntiniaa (Esaeb. //. £. vii. 1 il ) and Marcionist, 
^ cj* wnn to the fiiith by Oriaen, whose con- 
Mi Ufew-atodent he beoma (Oagen, Up. ad 
4fiiim, ToL L p. 29), and waa ordained deacon, 
ft Bhr. Hr. lUMtlr. 56.) Ue plied Origvn with 
sard nsed him to write bis C'om- 
{ifyttmicnit y, supplying him with 
> ia aliuiidaiice. He shone as a Con- 
Ms donac the persecution of Julius Maximinus 
^■•k ti. la) a. D. 23(<, and died between a. o. 
VtalSiS. His letters to Origen (praised by 
^ Unac) arc lost ; part of one exists ap. Origen, 
l^ d> Orat. e. & p. 208. a. & (See Routh's 
''•M Saer. a. f^ 307.) Ongm dedicated to 
>* W FiitrttHm to MartyHom ; Boob agauut 
(^, fi nil fomSLJaJki'tOomt; and 0» 
N<r. [A. J. C] 

AJtSRaSIUS. ST., bishop of Milan, was 
^ fnkaUj ai Aognsta Trcriixirum (TVetws), 
*M aaa l2la aaat of gDverament for the province 
^Qmkol which Ua bihcr waa prefect. His 
l^piftsn diflaf aa to whether the date of his 
knt na 233 at 340 a. Du, but the latter is pro- 
Mjf iW In* dMc Cimnalancea occurred in 
ik mikutj wUck trart mirlriaVMid to portend his 

futnre greatness. His father having died, Am- 
brose, then a boy, occonipaniod his mother to 
Rome, where he received theodncation of on advo- 
cate under Anicius Probus and &>ynminchua. Ho 
began pleading causes at Milan, then the imperial 
residence, and soon gained a high rrputatinn fur 
forensic eloquence. This success, together with 
the influence of his family, led to his appointment 
(about 370 a. d., or a little later) as consular pre- 
fect of the provinces of Liguria and Aemilia, whose 
seat of government was Milan. 

The struggle between the Catholics and Ariana 
was now at its height in the A^'estcm Church, 
and upon the death of Auxentius, bishop of Milan, 
in 374, the question of the appointment of hia 
socceaoor led to an open conflict between the two 
partiet, Ambraso exerted his influence to restore 
peace, and addressed the people in n conciliatory 
speech, at the conclusion of which a child in the 
further part of the crowd cried out "AoUiroatu 
epiidupiu." The words were received as an oiaclc 
from heaven, and Ambrose waa elected bishop by 
the acclamation of the whole multitude, the bishopa 
of both parties imiliug in his election. It waa iu 
vain that he adopted the sttangcst devices to alter 
the determination of the people; nothing could 
moke them change their mind (Paulin. ViLAmbrot. 
pp. 2, 3): in vain did he dee from Milan in the 
niglit ; he mistook b)s way, and found himself the 
next morning before the gate of the city. At 
length he yielded to the eiprcaa command of the 
empcmr (Valentiniatr 1.), and was consecrated on 
the eighth day afier his baptism, for at the time of 
bis election he waa only a catechumen. 

Immediately after his election he gave all hia 
property to the church and the poor, and adopted 
an ascetic mode of life, while the public adminis- 
tntian of hia office was most firm and skilful. He 
was a great patron of monasticism : about two 
yeara after his consecration he wrote his three 
books ^l>e V'irginibus," and dedicated them to hia 
sister MaroelliiuL In the Arion controversy he 
espoused the orthodox side at his very entrance on 
hia bishnpric by demanding that his baptism should 
be performed by on orthodox bishop. He applied 
himaelf most diligently to the study of theology 
UDder Simplician, a presbyter of Rome, who aftar- 
wards became his successor in the bishopric. Hia 
influence soon became very great, both with the 
people and with the emperor Volentinian and his 
son Oratian, for whose instruction he composed hia 
ttvatisrs " Dc Fide," and " De Spiritu Sancto," 
In the year 377, iu consequence of on invasion of 
Italy by the northern barbarians, Ambrose fled to 
lllyricum, and afterwards(in Cave's opinion) visited 
Rome. After his return to Milan, he was employed 
by the court on important politicul aSairs. When 
Maximus, after the death of Gratian (3113), threat- 
ened. Italy, Justino, the mother of the young em- 
peror Volentinian II., sent Ambrose on an em- 
bassy to the usurper, whose advance the bishop 
succeeded in delaying. At a httcr period (387), 
Ambrose went .igain to Treves on a like mission ; 
bat his conduct on this oocasion gave such ulfenco 
to MnximuB, that he waa compelled to relom to 
Italy in haste. 

While rendering these political services to Jua- 
tina and Valentinian, Ambrose was at open va- 
riance with them on the great religious question of 
the age. Ju^tiiui was herself an Arian, and had 
brought up the young emperor iu the same tenets. 



ilcr cnntnt with Anibnnv bvcon in the vear 380, 
wheu the ap|H>inli'd on AriAn biihop to tne vacant 
1UX of Sirmiiim ; upnn which Ambrn« went to 
Sirmiuin, aiid, a miraculous judgTDenl on an Anon 
who intuited him having >truck terror into his op- 
ponrnls he conHtrntcd Ancminius, who was of 
the orthodox party, as ttiiiltop of Sirmium, and 
then returned to Milan, where Justina set on foot 
sevend intrignes against him, but v'ilhout effect 
In the year 382, PalUdins ojid Secundioniu. two 
Arijin bishops, petitioned Oration for a general 
council to decide ttic Arian coutroven>y ; but, 
through the influence of Ambro»e, invtoul of a 
geneml council, a synod of Italian, LUyriiui and 
Gallic bithups was n.sM'nibled at Aquileio, over 
which Ambrose pnrsidi^ and by which I'ulUdius 
and Secundijiuus wenj deposed. 

At length, in the yeai« 385 and 386, Ambrose 
and JuAiiiia came to open conflict Justina, in the 
luuae of the emperor, demanded of Ambrose the 
nae of at least one of the churches in Milan, for 
the performance of divine worship by Arinn eccle- 
•iaaties. Ambrose refused, and the people rose up 
to lake his part. At Easter (38.S) an attempt was 
made by Justina to take forcible posaeation of the 
basilica, but the show of rfsistance waa ao great, 
that the attempt was alundoned, and the court 
was even obliged to apply to Ambrose to quell the 
tumult lie answennl, that he hod not stirred 
up the pi*ople. and that God alone could still them. 
The people now kept guiird utmut the bishop's re- 
sidence and tlte bosUica, which the imfHTi.-d forces 
hesitated to attack. In fact, the pei»ple were ol- 
nost wholly on the side of Ambrow, the Arinn 
party consisting of few beyond the court and the 
Oot&ic troops, Auxeiitius, an Arian bishop, who 
was Justina's chief adviser in these proceedings^ 
now challenged .Ambrose to a public disputation in 
the emperor's (siloce ; but Ambrose refuiwd, saying 
that a conncil of the church was the only proper 
place for sach a discussion. He woa next com- 
manded to leave the city, which he at once refused 
to dis and in this refusal tlie people still supported 
faim. In urdrr tu keep up the spirits of the pei>- 
ple, be iiitro<luced into the church when they kept 
watch the regular periormance of antiphonal hymns, 
which had been long pmcciied in the tjutem 
Church, but not hitherto introduced into the West 
At U*ngth, the content was decided about a year 
after its commencement by the minu-les which aiv 
rvpoflxd ta have attended the discovery of the 
Miqaaa of two hithrrto unknown martyn, Qer%a- 
tin* and PialaaiuK A blind man was said to 
hare been Imlored to sight, and several demouiac* 
ditpotsfssad. These event* ai« recorded by Am- 
bnie hiniselL by his secretary I'aulinus, and by 
bis disciple Augustine, who was in Mihui at the 
timci but a paitiitilar discussion of the truth of 
tk*H aifaclc* would be nut of place here. They 
vn* d«ni<rd by the Arions and discnilitcd by the 
cnurt, but the imfirt'ssiun imide by them iipnii the 
people in gnient was such, that Justina thought it 
pnulent to desist from herattrmpt (.\mbros. A)ut 
aii. XX. xii, xxii. || '2. Uii. liv,; Foulin, ytl.Aimlmtf. 
f I*-I7, p. 4, Ben.; Auguslin. t'uH/cMt. ix, 7. S 14- 
16, Or tVr. /Ari, Xlil. H. 5 J, Srrm. ,118, ■.'««.) 

An imperial rescript was howev^er issued in the 
mnie jeor firr the toleratiou of all Hxts of Chris- 
IkiMs. anr iiHence ognirtsl which was made high 
ueasun |Vo<l. Throdos. IV. t)r A'Me tUikWm) ; 
but we liavo no oidciice that it* 


attempted ; and the state of the parties 
altered by the death of Justina in tha 
(3^7), when Vnlentinian became a Cat 
Hill more completely by the victory of Thi 
over Maximus (3B8), This event put the 
power of the empire into the hands of a 
who WHS a firm Catholic, and over whom Ai 
speedily acquired such influence, that after 
massacre at Theaaalonica in 35)0, be refuwd ~ 
dosins admission into the church of Milan im 
period of eight months, and only tcatored Iub 
he bod performed a public penance, and bat 
fcssed that he had learnt the di^fenee 
an emperor and a priest 

Am^broBc was an active oppcment not 
Ariaus, but of the Macedonians, 
and Novations, and of Jorinian. It 
abont the year 384 that he sacceasInUjr' 
the petition of Symmachns and the 
tore of Rome for the restoration of the 
Victory, He was the principal instniclor of i 
gustine in the Christian faith, [AuacaTiNiK) 

The latter years of his life, with the easfl 
of a short absence from Milan during the ub 
tion of Eugenius (3.')2), were derotad l«tb«i 
of his bishopric He died on the 4ti> of Al 
A. o, 397. 

As a writer, Ambrose cannot be ranked hi 
notwitkslanding his great eloquence. His ll 
logical knowledge acaroely extended licrnnd a 
acquaintance with tJie works of the (imk 
from whom he borrowed much. His wetia 
also the marks of haste. He was laliur a 
of action than of letters. 

His works are very nunienma, though 
them have been lost They cotisiat a 
JMrmons, and Urations, Commenlarie* 
ture, 'I'rcatisfla in commendatian of celibacy 
monasticism, and other treatises, of wl ' 
important are : •* Hexnemercin," an 
creation; "De Otiiciis Ministrorum," \ 
nerally considcrv^ his best work ; " De 
"Do Socramentis;" "Ue Poenitentia 
above-nicntioncd works, " He Fide,' 
ritu iiancto," which are both upon 
The well-known h)'mn, "Te Deiun lai 
been ascribed U* him, but its date is at 
tury Uter. Theje are other hymna 
him, but upon doubtful authority. He is 
to have settled the order of public woi 
churches of .Milan in the form wbidi it 
eighth century under tJ>e namca tt " 
brusioimm" and "Missa AnbcoauuL'* 

The best edition uf his works is that 
Benedictines, 2 vols. foL, Parii^ l<>H6 and 
with an .Appendix containing a life of 
his secretary Paulinus, another in Urpek, 
anonymoiu, and it chiefly copied bum 
Eodeaiastical History, and a lliml by the 
tine editora. Two works of AmbiOM, 
SymbiJi <k/ imitiimJtm, and ftyirinfa Jr tmU, 
been discnveivd by Angelo Mali, aud are 
by hun in the wventh volume of hit 
VcUrum Sam CXJJettio, 

A.MBKO'Slt'S, a hearer of Didymaa^ 
ondria, lived a. o. 39°i, and wi 
l\imttrrmhtrirt cm Jvl\ aud a hook 
ApoUinaris of Uwdioea. Neither ia cxtn Jr I'ir. lUmd. % |->G,) (A. J. 

A'MUKYUN (•Atiftmr) wrntv a n 
Theocritus the Chiau, tnoi wtiicli 




II) qtMlM aa epigram of Theocritui againit 

IRYSSIIS CAiitfixrcni), the mythical 
'«f tkc tom af Auibryuui or Amphryuuc 
B. (I>*a<. ». JS. $ 3.) [L. S.] 

Ak, *A>^o«A«M, uid 'A4iSoi\mt), •umomci 
rUck the Spvtant wanliipped Athpua, the 
i, aad Zeok. (P>u>. iu. 13. § 4.) The 
|uf tb* wune u tuicenoin, but it has been 
id ta be defived ftufn di'afiiAi.u, ond to de- 
thoM divinitiM m the delayen uf death. 
Bl'STUS. the name of a fiunily of the 
B Fabia Okvs. The first member of the 
jfta, who acquired this ci>gn»mco, wa* Q. 
nt^ibulanai, con«al in it. c. 4 1 'J, who appean 
I bren a ton of N. Fabiui Vitiulnnui, causal 
k 4J|. Fran thit time the name Vibulonui 

kod that «f Ambiulus took iu place, 
■■a in itA torn Mippkntcd by that of 
liik'Vliacb mu firM aa)uired by Q. Fabiiu, 
Ha 7 [aac below], and wu handed down 
IId U* dMBendanta. 

^PiaiCk H. r. Q. M. Vibulanus Ambl'k- 

mU u ac 41-2. (Ur. Iy. S'i.) 

ILftMlv* AMKVSTU.S Huntifex Moximut 

HV thai Home irat taken by the Uiiult, 

Wk fiia three aoiu [lee No*. 3, 4, niid 

I aDl aa anbuaidort to the Uauls when 

baaiigiim Clu»iam, and took part 

k ti tba bcaiegi^ o^inat the Gaulk The 

■ w ill ^ I ll that the Fabii ifaould be lur- 

I to iham for riojnting the law of luitiunn ; 

( tlw taBale refiisinK to give up the guilty 

they inarched a^utt Rome. Tliu three 

r> in the •amo year elected coiuulor tri- 

Ut. t. .Vv, 36. 41 : Plut. (am. 17.) 

a M. r. Q. N. AMur&Ti'S mu of 
to Nu^ 4 and £• was quaestor 
i ' '' -• as bis coUeagucA, 
> , quaestor* were 

: :... , il iv. 54.) He was 

■Itaiie tor the tint tmic in 404 (ir. tii). 
Ml (t. lU), a tbiid time iu 395 (v. 24), 
time in 3U0. (See No. i) 
. f ABit-s M. r. Q. X. Ahhl'stlts, ion of 
ud brother to Noa. 3 and 5, consular tri- 
I K r. 4(Mi ( it. 58), and agnin iu 390. 

^ Fsuua M. r. Q. n. Auavmui, son of 
ud bmther to Nas. 3 and 4, cunaolor tri- 
la.. S»0. [Sec No. -2.] 
L KsKiCM K. r. M. N. AuBvsTVi, ion, as 
lix of No. .1, wo* consular tribune in B. c 
'ii.) He had two dnughtcrs, of 
was murricd to Scr. Sulpicius, and 
C. Liciuius Slolo, tile autlior of the 
ioD*. According to the story re- 
, the younger Fabia inducol her 
her husband in obtaining the con- 

■'■ ^- -rdcr, into which *he had 

■ us was consular tribune 

'0"l: an active port iu 

t^t^LMsi' .. (rl3(t.) He 

irtaMl -/.) 

Fasic* N. r. M. N. Amuuktus, ton, as 

I, i4 No. t, waa consul in u. u S60, and 

B tW wmr igainst the Hemici, whom he 

^and olitailied an ovation in consequence. 

1 1 ) Aa Tmmpk) He woa consul a 



MCimd time in S.^li, and carried on the war against 
the F&lisci and Tarquinienset, whom he also con- 
quered. As he was absent from Komc when the 
time cajne for holding tlie coroitio, the senate, which 
did not like to entrust them to his colleague^ 
who hiul appointed a plebeian dictator, and still 
less to the dictator himself, nominated intcrregei 
for the purpose. The object of the patricians was 
to secure both pbces in the consulship for their 
own order again, which was effected by Ambustus, 
who seems to have returned to Rome meantime. 
He was appointed the eleventh interrex, and de- 
clared two patricians consuls in viohition of the 
Licinian Uw. (Liv. vii. 17.) He was consul a 
third time in 3.^4, when he conquered the Tiburtca 
and obtained a triumph in consequence. (Wi. 18, 
19; Fiul. TnumjJt.) In 351 he was appointed 
dictator merely to frustrate the Licinian kw again 
at the comitia, but did not succeed in his object. 
(Liv. TJL 22.) He was alive in 325, when his 
si)n. Q. Fabiufi Moxiinus Kullionus, was roaster of 
the horse to Papirius, and fled to Home to implora 
protection from the vengeance of the ili<.iator. Hd 
inteitedrd on his son's behalf both with the seiuta ' 
and the people, (viii. 33.) 

II. C. Fabii'S (C. r. M. n.) Ambitrtus, consul 
in B. c. 3511, iu which yoar a dictator was ap' 
pointed through fear of the Qauls. (Liv. vii. 12.) 

9. M. Fauii's M. r. N. .n. Aunu^TUii, son ap- j 
pan-ntly of No. 7, and brother to the great ^1 
Fabius Maximus Kullionus, was master of th*^ 
horse in a c. 322. (Liv. viii 3U.) 

IU. Q. FAiuuii (Q. p. Q. N.} AsiBi;gTi7ii, die- 
tator in B. c 321, but immcdiolelr resigned 
thniugh some fault in the election. (Liv. ix. 7.) 

11. C. FabiUs M. p. N. n. AsiBL'STtis, son ap- 
parently of No. 7, and brother to Na 9, wna 
appointed master uf the horse in a c. 315 in phwe 
of g. Aulius, who fell in battle. (Liv. ix. 23.) 

A.Mr.lNlAS. [NABcissui] 

AMI'U'NIAS {'Aiitudas), a younger brother of 
Aeschylus, of the Attic demos of Palleue oecord- 
ing to Herodotus (nii. 04, 93), or of that of 
Uecelca according to Plutarch (7'A<m. 14), distin- 
guished hiuiM'lf at the battle of Siihunis(a c. 4)10) 
by making the lirst attack apon the Persian ships, 
and also by his pursuit of Artemisia. He and 
Eumencs weni judged to have been the bravest on 
this na."tsion aiuuiig all the Athenijms. (Herod. 
PluU U. cc. ; Uiod. xi. 27.) Aelian mentions 
(r. //. v. 19), that .Vmeinias prevented the con- 
demnation of his bnithcr Aesdiylus by tlie .\reio- 
pogus. [Akm'iiyli;!!, p. 41, a.] 

A.MEINOCLES ("A/uiwitAnj), a Corinthian 
shipbuilder, who visited Samos about H. c. 704, 
ami built four ships for the Samians. (Thuc. i. 1 3.) 
Pliny (y/. A', vii. 66) says, that Thucydidcs men- 
tioned Ameinocles aa tho inventor of the trireme ; 
but thi« is a mistake, for Thucydides merely states 
that triremes were first built at Corinth in Greece, 
without ascribing their invention to Ameinocles. 
According to SyucelJus (p. 212, c), triremes were 
first built ut Athens by .^inieinocles. 

AXIKI'P.SIAS ('A^4iai), a comic poet of 
Athens, contempotarj' with Aristophanes, whom he 
twice cunqucred in the dramatic contests, gaining 
the second prize with his KiIcfoi wheu Aristo- 
phanes was third with tho ** Clouds'* (423 n. c), 
and the tirst with his Ksf/iaorai, when Aristo- 
phanes gained the scumd with the " Birds." (414 
B. c. ; Afjjum. in .\ristaph. Nut. et ^r.) Tho 



, KS¥¥t] ■ppein to hare had thr imnp tnbject and 
t^ni on the "C'liiucU." It U at leait certain that 
Socratea appeared in the play, and that the Cbonu 
enniinted of ♦fwrrHrroJ. (Dio)?. Ijicrt ii. 38; 
Athen. T. p. 218.) AnitnphanF6 alludea to 
Amripiiiai in the " Frogi" (t. 12 — 14), and wc 
are told in the anonymoui life of Ariitophnnea, 
that when Aristuphoncs fint exhibited hii playa, 
in the names of other poet>, Ameiptina applied to 
him the proTerb TcrpelSi yryartis, which meant 
** a prnon who Inboun for ntjirra," in allusinn to 
Hemcles who waa bom ou the fourth of the 

Ameipaiaa wrote many comediet, ont of which 

there remain only a few fnigmenti of the fuDow- 

iag : — *AiroicffrTwforT»r, KorcirOfwr (doubtful), 

KanvT, MmxoC, X«w<txi, i^pHini, and of some 

the Bamea of which ore unknown. Moit of hii 

plays were of the old comedy, but tome, in all 

I (robobilitT, were of the middle. (Mcinelce, Frag. 

f Com. L p! 199, il p. 701.1 [P. S.] 

AMELKSA'OnR.\,S ('A/uAwroT^poi) or ME- 

LEi5A'(i()ltAS(Mf\i)irtt>rf(iot). aa he ia called by 

, mhen, of Cholccdon, one of the early Greek hiito- 

I riana, from whom tior^iaa and Eudemui of Noxoa 

' liorTowed. (Clem. Alct Strom, tl p. 629, a ; 

Sehol. <ui Barip. Aleat 2; ApoUod. iii. 10. § 3, 

where Ileyne haa substituted MfAijffvytjpor for 

Hninrfifu.) Maximua Tyrius (.S<tiii. 38. § 3) 

rtka of • Meleiaganu, a native of F.leusis, and 
tigoniu of Caryatsa (//u/. Atinih. c. 12) of an 
Ameleiagonu of Athena, the htter of whom wrote 
■n accnunt of Attica ; these persona ore probably 
the tame, and perhaps also the nme as Ameleak- 
sorat of CholcedoiL (Voaaina, de HvL Grate, p. 
X2, ed. Westermnnn.) 

AME'/.Il'S ('A/iMioi), a natire of Apamea 
IBfleording U* Suidu* (i. r. A^Aioi), but n Tuscan 
(■Mordinit to I'orpbyry (rU, Ptulin.), belonged to 
|<1ha new Platonic school, and was the pupil of 
I VIoiiBtia and matter of Porphyry. He quoted the 
Mtpinioil of St. John about the jW^t withoat inen- 
plwiiing the name of the .\|><>stle : this extract has 
I Ven pnaerred by Eusebius. [Praefi. Emm;, li. 
rJ9.) See Suid. Porohyr. II, et,; Syrian, xii. 
[ JI/xTo/it js. p. 47, a. 61, b. 69, a. 88, a.; Bentley, 
Vtbmarh o» fVae-T'Amib'a^, p. 182, dec, Lond. 
1743 ; Kahric. B&t. Rniee. iii. p. 160. 

AMKNTE^ {' Ati^vr-rii), an ancient Greek tur- 
on, mentioned by Oalcn as the inventor of aome 
tenious bandagea. {Dt Patdit, c S8, 61. 89, 
I ail pp. 486, 487, 493, ed. Chart.) Some 
fmgmmts of the worka of a lurgeoo named 
Ampmlat (of which name ^atertfa ia very poaaibly 
»' ) still exist in the manuscript CoIIec- 

. A-al Writers by Nicetaa (Kabricius, 
i A. xiL p. 778, ed. vet.), and one ex- 

OBct i< preserved by Orilniins (OJI. Meelit. xlriii. 
30) in the fourth volume of Cardinal Mai's CoUee- 
[ tion of Cliimiti Anetvrra n Vti/irtuat CtitticHmMy p. 
19, Kotu. 1831, Rvo. His date it unknown, ex- 
t ikM^nust Imve livol in or before the second 
rl'hriit. He inay perhapabe the tame 
i ia said by the ^.-holiaat on Theocritus 
l/iiyt. itK. 12B) to ha»c beeu put to death by 
Tl"temT Philadelphus. ubuot n. c 264, fnr plotting 
a. lie. [W A. (J.) 

V4 (^Aittftat), of Macedonia, a gnutf 
uuu ....,, ,,„> wrote ■ work entitled TAjMrffoi, 
wMeb fnt aa accvont nl the meanini: of words, 
tal aaalW taOtd Tiferafuinii. (Athen. iv. p. 

176, e, e, TT. p. 681, i; &c; ScboL ad .ipoB.l 
iL 384, 1284 ; Kuiter. ad Uaych. i. r. 'A»vi<m.t| 

AMERISTUS (^Kf^furros), the bratbwrfll 
poet Steaichorua, u mentioned by Pnaciaa (i| 
Eutiid, ii. p. 19) aa one of the early Gnekf 
molei*. He lived in the hitter end of the ■ 
century B. c 

AMESTR18. [Amabtiuii.] 

AMIA'NUS, whom Cioero mentions ia a I 
to Attjcni (vi. 1. § 13), written B.c. 50, vat 
Imblv a debtor of Atiirus in Cilicio. 

who waa toid to have brouf^fat up the moimtci f 
maem. (Horn. IL xri. 328 ; Kustaih. iW 7/ta.j 
1062; ApoUod. iL 3. g 1; Aeliaa, II. A. it,i 
His tons Atymiiiot and Maris were tlain at T 
bv the sons of Nestor. (//. xvi. 317, tic) [US 

' A'MITON ("A^Tw), of Eleuthetae in ( 
is said to have been the first person who saa| I 
the l}Te amatory poems. Hie detcouUBta I 
cttlled^miV<irni('A/itTap(>). (Athen. xir. pwfl~ 
There teemt tome corruption in the Uxti' 
nncus, OS the two names AmUom and Am 
not correspond. Initead of tha I 
perhaps to read Amitor, (Comp. Btyn. M. |i1 
15, ed. Srlbur^f;.; Hetrch. s.o. A^irra^ltai.) 

A.MMi.VNUS ('A^uanii), a Oi«ek epi{l 
matisl, but probably a Ronun by birth. 
Greek Anthology contains 27 epignima I7 
(Jacobs, iii. pp. 93 — 98), to which must be 1 
another contained in the Vatican M!^ 
xiiL p. 693), and another, which is 
the anonymous epignuns, but which 
oatigii to Ammianna. (Jacobs, iv. p. 127, K«,a 
Thej Bie all of a fitcctious character. Ia 
Planndean MS. he is called Abbianoa, 
Wemsdorf supposes to be a Ofeek Cora rfJT 
or Avienut. ( PoeL Lot Mi*. T. p. iL p. C~ 

The time at which he lived may be i_ 
with tolerable certainly, from bis epignan ^ 
he wot a contemporary of the epigiainaatSal ] 
liut, who lived under Nero, haa been iatanll 
the circumstance that both attack an 
Flaccns. (AramiatL Ep. 2 ; Lucil. t^ [ 
Joeoba.) One of hit epigrams (13) is 
with the last two lines of one of Martial^ (fat I 
who is supposed by some to have tianali 
lines from Animianua, and therefore to I 
after him. But the bet is equally and 
on the supposition that the poeta wm 
ran'. From two other epignuns of 
(JacolM, vol iv. p. 127, No. 42, and 
p. 125), we find that he was contemn 
the sophist Antonius Polemo, who flouris] 
Tnjon and Hadrian. (Jacobs, AnlioL I 
pp. 312.313. xiiL p. 840.) [P. &) 

subject of Rome who composed a prottne '. 
in the Latin longuage," wna by biith a (incfc, I 
he himself frequeutly dechuea (xui. 
xxii. 8. g 33, xxiii. 6. g 20, kc). and a mtimj 
Syrian Antinch, aa we infer (tva a 1 
to bin by Libaniua. (See Vllfa.^M«^4ii 
Maredln,) At an eariy age he tmam 
fe»ion of arms, and waa admitted 
prolfdorcM dumegliei, which pmrn that be 1 
to a distinguished family, linre none were 
in that corps except young men of noble I 
officers whose valour and fidelity had T 
in long sen-ice. Of hia snhaeqaeot ] 
thing is known. He waa attached ta < 

an* af tlw mnt able among thr gfnrnils 

and acmmpBDiMl him tu the V'jui 

frt iim w l wiib hit comnuindcr to luly 

bma ihimce puwd over into 

d in thr rntcrpriw agaiiut Sylra- 

tirticintu when dc«fiatche<l for 

ta the fjat, anil appran to hare 

I tmn until the period of faia filial dit- 

SGO. Ammiamu tutxequmtly attended 

Jnlimn iii hi* campaign against the 

pfBent at Anttocfa in 371 • when the 

lerui wa« •l.-ireled in the nHgii of 

wttnewrd the torturei inflicted upon 

». (xxix. i. § 21.) ETciituiilly 

himself at Home, where he com- 

', and during the prognts of the 

•rni portions pnbUcIj, which were 

irith grnt applause. (Liban. E/nil. 

IXUL p. 60, cd. Wolf.) The precise date 

not frcorded, but it must have hap- 

lIKn 390, since a reference occurs to 

of NeoteriuK which belongs to that 

t mrk of Ammianns extended from the ac- 

Nerssi, a. D. 96, the point at which the 

«f Tacitiu and the biographies of Sueto- 

to the death of Valent, a. d. 378, 

a period of '282 yean. It was divided 

hanks, of which the first thirteen 

nn&huung eighteen embrace the acts 

fma a.D. 3.i3, the seventeenth year 

Mgctb«r with the whole career of 

Jorionaa, Volentiniantu, and 

poitka pw a w red inchidc* the tiana- 

Sto yean only, vhicli prorei 

books must have presented a very 

int of tlie cTcnta contained in 

orer which they stretched ; and 

■itT fiiel satisfied, that what has been 

■aco mare valuable than what has pc- 

(esp. xxtI) pays a weU-deserretl tri- 
I atrurac}-, fidelity, and impartiality of 
W« are indebted to him for a know- 
Buy important facta not elsewhere re- 
ad Utr much Taluable insight into the 
thofl^bl and the general tone of public 
ilia his day. Uithistory roust not, 
~ ~ a* • completo chronicle of that 
ooly are bniught forward 
which he himself was engaged, and 
statements admitted appear to lie 
I his ovm obaerrations, or upon the in- 
liTod tna trastworthy eye-witnetaes 
aamber of dis«<rrtation« and digres- 
htwdnwrd. many of them highly intcrcf t- 
nhiUai Soch are his notices of the 

- of the Saracens (xir. 4), 

'tWBcyttJiDand Sannatiant (xvii. 1-2), of the 

•i Alui (zxxi. '2), of the Kgyptians and 

t^uuj (xxii. 6, 14 — lU), and his geogns- 

A^.M^..„. ,....,. i:,.,i (TV. y), the Pontus 

4), although thr 

liiis lieen called in 

i itc and less 

upon earth- 

;rnnon:i.Mi iitquiries into 

I xiT. 10), and the rtgu- 

ixvi. 1), his medical rc- 

( rpidemics (lix. 4), his 

' destruction of lion* by 



ransqnitoes (iriii. 7 ), and his horticultural essay 
on thi- irnprcgniilion of |mlms (xxiv. 3). But in 
luMitiun to industry in rvsearvh and honesty of 
purpoae, he wa* gtflod with a bulge measure of 
strong common sense which enabled him in many 
pointa to rise superior to the prejudice of his day« 
and with a clearsighted independence of spirit 
which prevented hini from being dazzled or ovei^ 
awed by the nnd the terrors which en- 
veloped the ini[icna] throne. The WTetched 
vanity, weakness, and debauchery of I'onstantius 
rendering him an easy prey to the designs of the 
pn)tligate minions by whom he was surroundcil, 
the female intrignes which ruled the court of 
Oallua, and the conflicting elements of vice and 
virtue which were so strongly combined in the cha- 
racter of Valentinian, are oil sketched with bold- 
ncsa, Tigoar, and trutlu But although sutticiently 
acute in detecting and exposing the follies of olhcFS, 
and eapecially in ridiculmg the absurdities of po- 
pular superstition, Ammiaiius did not entirely 
escape the contagion. The general and deep- 
sealed belief in magic spoils, omens, prodigies, and 
oiadea, which appears to have gained additional 
strength upon the first introduction of Christianity, 
evidently ciereised no small influence over hi* 
mind. The old legends and doctrines of the Pagan 
creed and the subtle mysticism which philnsopheps 
pretended to discover lurking below, when mixc*d 
up with the pore and simple but startling tenets of 
the new fiiith, formed a confused mass which few 
intellect*, except those of the very highest class, 
could reduce to order and harmony. 

A keen controversy has been maintained with 
regard to the religious creed of our author. (See 
Barle.) There is nothing in his writings which 
can cDtitle us tododde the question positively. In 
several passages he speaks n-ith marked respect of 
Christianity and ita professor* (zxi. sub fin., xxii. 
11, xxvii. 3 ; compare xxii. 12, xxv. 4); but even 
his strongest expressions, which are all uttribut.^d 
by (iibbon " to the inconipamble |ili.incy of a 
polyllicist," afliird no conclusive evidence that he 
wa* himself a disciple of the cross. Un the otlicr 
hand he does not acruple to stigmatize with tiic 
ntmoct severity the savage fury of the contending 
seels (xxii. i), nor £iil to reprobate the bloody vio- 
lence of Damasus and Ursinus in the contest for 
the see of Home (ixvii. 3): the absence of all 
censure on the apostacy of Julian, and the tenns 
which he employs with regard to Nemesis (xiv. 
1 1, xxii. 3), the Genius (xxi. 14), Mereurius(xvi. 
&, xxv. 4), and other deities, a» by many con- 
sidered as decisive proofs that he va* a pagan. 
Indeed, as Heyne justly remarks, many of the 
wrilers of tliis epoch seem purposely to avoid 
committing themselte*. Being probably devoid of 
strong religious principles, they felt unwilling to 
luizard any decloiation which might one day ex- 
pose them to persecution and prevent them from 
adopting the various forms which the fiiith of the 
court might from time to time assume. 

Litllo can be said in praise of the style of Am- 
miannv The mi-lodious flow and simple dignity 
of the purer models of composition had long 
ceased to be relished, and we too often delect the 
harsh diction and involved periods of an imperfc«tly 
educated foreign soldier, relieved occasionally by the 
pompons inflation and flashy gKtter of the rhetori- 
cal schools. Hi* phraseology at it regards the sig- 
nification, grammatical inflexions, and ayntoctical 



eocnbiiiatioiu of word*, probably rrprpucnti the cor- 
rent language of the age, hut iiiiiiit h« pronounced 
fall uf barbaritin* and wtli<<iMiift when Judged ac- 
cording (o the ttaiidjud of Cicero nnd Lity. 

The Editio Priiicepi of Ammianua Mlm:e^inu^ 
edited br Angi'lus bubinuh, wa* printed at Rome, 
in folin, by < feorgc Sachkel and itanh. Ooltch in 
Che year 1474. It i» very incorrect, cuid coniaini 
13 book* only, from the 14th to the '26lh, lioth 
induuTb The remaining five were first publithed 
by Acconi, who, in hit edition printed in folio at 
Augiburg in 153*2, booati that he had corrected 
five ihoiuuid error*. 

TIm oiMt meful modem editions oie those of 
Oimorint, 4lo., Lugd. Bat. 1693 ; of Enietti. 8to. 
Lipik, 1773 ; but above all, that which wn> com- 
Birnced by Wagner, completed after his death by 
Kriiirdt, and publithed at Leipaic, in 3 toU. 8vo. 
180«. [W. R.] 

AMMON CA/ifum), originally an Aethinpiun 
or Libyan divinity, whose worship subsequently 
•picad all over Kgypt, a part of the nunheni coast 
of Africa, and many ports of Oreece. The real 
Kgypti;ui name was Aniun or Amniun (Herod, ii. 
4-2 ; PlulL i/e Im. ei On. 9) ; the Greeks called him 
Zeus Auimon, the Romans Jupiter Amnion, and 
the Hebrews Amon. (Jerem. xlvi. '25.) I'hnt in the 
countries where his worship was fir»t esLihlisbed 
he wna revered in certain nvpecta as the supreme 
divinity, is clear from the lacl, tliat the Orerks 
reeosnised in him their own Zeus, althougli the 
identity of the two gixlt in later times rrst» ui>on 
philtisophicnt s^ieculjitions made at a period when 
the original chanicter of Ammon wo* nlnnol lout 
light iif, nnd a more ■piriiuol view of him substi- 
tuted in its phice. 

Tbo most ancient seat of his worship appear* to 

have been Meror, where he had a much re»erfd 

omcle (Herod, ii. *29); thence it was introduced 

into Egx-pt, where the worship took the firmest 

root ;it Thebes in npi»»*r Kpypt, which was there- 

tun freiiuently called by the Greeks Diospolis, or 

llie cily of Zeus. ( Herod, ii. 4*2 ; IJiod. i. 1.5.) 

Another famous seat of the god, with a celebrated 

•fncle, was in the oasis of Ammonium (Siwah) in 

the l.iltyan desert ; the worship was also established 

111 I'viriuiica. (Pauk x. 13. § 3.) The god was 

rrprrafnied either in the form of a mm, or as a 

human being with the head of a mm (IK'rod. i. c; 

i$tinb. xvii. p. 81*2); but there are tome r?pn*sen- 

r latioti* in which he appears oltogether as a human 

I licing with only the hnnis «f a nuii. Terlalliiin 

I (<fr Pail, 3) calls him Jim onum. If we tjike all 

^ these circunutancvt into coiisidcmtion, it fcmt 

u that the original idea of Ainuion was that of 

(•pmicetor and leader of the Dot ks. The Aethio- 

' ma were a Domadic people, rincks of sheep con- 

1 ttitutrd their prineiud weiilih, and it is petiirctly 

I in scvordiince with the notinni of the Aetniopiaos 

s well •• Fgyptijiis to worship the animal which 

is the lender ,uid prolc-<tiir of the flock. This view 

i« •iiiMH.n.'d by various stories about Ammon. 

I -t. Atlr. i. 20) whose account is only 

: II interpretation of the origin of the 

. gtAlV Tviir«l(tp, rv*Ut4<s that some A&icau of the 

. ftomif of Amnion hn>ught to IJber, who was then 

I in poweMion of FgY|it, a large quantity of cattle 

In rvlnm for tliis, Ltber gave him a piece of land 

IT Thebes, and in cofniocmoration uf the benefits 

Iw had cxmlerrcd upon the god, he was rrpreaented as 

ahmaui being with biuns. What Pauiaiuis(iv.*J3. | 


g 5) and Gnstnthios {oH IHomyt. Pni^tViU 
mark, OS well as one of the many etymolafriasil 
name of Amnion from the Kgyplian wortfj 
which signifies a shepherd, or to fced^ J^ 
accord with the opinion that .\mmon wa 
the leader and protector of flocks. He 
bles a story to account for the ram's hcadf 
Herucles wanted to see Zeus, but the UttI 
to avoid the interview ; when, howeier, ] 
at last had recourse to entreaties, Zeus i 
the following expedient: he cut off the headt 
nun, and holding this before his own head, I 
huving covered the remaining part of bis ( 
with the skin of the rum, he appi'ar^ iH'fni* Ha 
cles. Hence, Herodotus adds, the Tbehani i 
sacrifice mms except once a year, and on thb ^ 
occasion they kill and flay a ram, and with its i 
they dress the statue of Zeus (Amnion); by ( 
side of this statue they then phice that of lln 
K similar account mentioned by Servins [ot/ j 
iv. 1 96] may serve as a commentary upon Herodol 
When IWchus, or according to others. Hen 
went to India and led hit army thmiii>h the- dn 
of Libya, he vi-as at hist quite exhausted 
thirst, and invoked his father, Jnpiter. Ha 
a ram appeared, which led Heracles u a j 
where it opened a spring in the aiid by i 
with its foot. For this reason, say* 
Jupiter Ammon, whoee name is derived 
ififun (sand), is represented with the koiMI 
ram. (Comp. Hygin. Pub. I3;t. I'ori. Atlt.V\ 

Lucan, y^artaZ. ix. 511.) Tl nj)'' 

trnditioui, with various moili n|| 

the time and phice of their ortKii> . <-<ii >iii i 
n*Iire*eiiling the rnm as t)ie ^uide and dej 
the ivanderiiig henls or henlsmen in the \ 
either in a direct way, or by giving oradt^ 
moll, therefore, who is identimi with the nv 
the guide nnd protector . . liii 

sessions; he stands in ' 
kind ns the common mn. i- .... .. ■< >.. 

The intriMluction of the worrthip of Ammon I 
Aethiopia into Kgypt was symlHtlirally 
in a ceremony which was performed 9X 
once in every year. On a crrtJiin day, the fe 
of the god was carried a>ro» the river N3t I 
Libya, and after some days it was brought I 
if the god had arrived from A»-i*"-"-' • ' ""^J 
The some account is given b> i 
//. V. p. I2H), though in a soon 
fur he reUte^ that according tu suum, th* i 
plana used to fetch the image* of Zcu* i 
gods from the great temple of Zetu at ' 
With these image* tbey went about, at a i 
|)eriod, in Libya, celebrated a eplendid iestinJ I 
twelve days^for this, he odds, is the ininW^ 
the god^ they worship. This number tvrlvr < 
tains an allusion to the number of signs m 
xodiac, of which the mm (»</vr) is one. Tims I 
arrive at the secnnd phasis in the diaiaclac I 
Amman, who it here conceiTed as the aai h \ 
sign of Caper. (Zeus disguised in the skis af a I 
See Hvgin. Kj/i. l.'»3, PoA. AOr. i. 20 ; "" 
Sit L'21. 18 ; Aelian, I'. //. x. 18.) This i 
nomical chanicter of Ammon is of lat/r urigui. i 
(lerbaps not older than the sixth ernlary 
ChrisL The specalaling Greeks of still \tatt I 
assigned to Amnion a more spiritual natniv. 
Diodorus though in a pesuge (iii. S^ i 
makes Ammon a king of Libya, d«*cxfl«al 
1 1, &c) OS the spirit pervading the ) 


r if tfl life in natare. (Comp. Plut. lU 
^1^21.) The new FlntooUu ptTcciycd 
' r dcmiurgiH, thjit is thr crcutnr and 
vorld. As this nubjoct belongs 
l« thr mythology of Egypt, we 
' intA & detailed discuMion about 
. ohtfnctcr which the later Grvekji 
\%o bim* or fai« connexion witlf Dionyiu* 
kIcs. R/M)iertin|; thcw points and the 
! L. rritio, u well u the 
1 Anunon still extant, 

.^...^^nAy., Pantketm A<^^.; 

yDaa alu Ind^n^ mil Utimi/erttr Uuciaicht 
, ii. CL 3. $ 9 ; J. C. Priclinrd. E<i;iiitiait 
r J. F. ChampoUion. PoMtkitm Eiiyptirn, 
i dn Ptrmmfoga dt ramdmne Eyyplr, S^c^ 

kip o{ Anmon wms introduced into 

, early pehod, probably throogb the 

Greek colony in Cyrenc, which 

icd A connexion with the great nm- 

t in the Oasis soon after its estubEiih- 

bad a temple and a statue, the 

, at Thebes (Pans. ix. Hi. § I ), and 

tba iiihabitants of which, as 

! 18. f 2) says consulted the oincle 

in Libya bum early time* more than 

r Oireks. .\t Aphytis, Ammon was woi^ 

I the lime of Lysander, as waloualy as 

Piodar the poet hunouml the god 

At Mrgalopolit the god wai rcpre- 

Dlh the held of a nun (Paua. riii. ii. § 1 ), 

rka of Cyrenaica dedicated at Delphi a 

"^MUueof Ainmon.(x.l3.§3.) The 

I Alexilider paid to the god in the 

'bowh. [U. S.] 

('AMiwr), a geometrician, who nuule 

of the walls of Koinc^ about the 

' first invaainn of the Gotlis, and found 

tbe *i\ miles in circuiL (OlyinpitMlonu, 

, (■<,{. 80. p. 63, ed. Bckker.) [P. S.) 

Ion CA/ifiOf). I. Itikhop of Hatlrionople, 

(in Oieek) On lie Hmrncti-M 

(not extant). A fnignwnt of 

Tllua work posaibly, may be found ap. 

[Atex. lAb. Ji Rteta FUe. (VuL T. pt. 2, ad 

cd. Paris. 1630.) He was present nt 

of Conitantinnple a. d. 394, held on 

^of the dedication of Rulinus^s church, 

(Sot HiiL EctL viii. 8. 3 ; Mansi, 

r Elearchia, io the Thebnide, in 

I renturies. To him is oddresaetl 

I of Theophilus of Alexandria, 

,voLi. pt. I, p. 170. Pape- 

[1 a Ijiiiiti version his 

Dt Vita et CunwTfatvme 

timxion (ap. BtilUnd. Ada SoHty 

f. .'UT, &c). It contains oo 

ntony. [A. J. C] 

i{^Knflrai)at AMOUN ('A/u>i;>'), 

of iha aost celehrated monastic 

EUrfil. Obliged by his relatinns 

1 bis bride to perpetual cou- 

//u*. Jitrl. L U) by the authority 

PCpialk to the Corinthiuus. (Socr. 

f». 2i) They lived together thus for 
, wbro at b<r wish, for greater perflation, 
mai be rttii«<d U> Scetis and Mt. 
I tk» nglll of Ldie Mareotia, where he 
, ntidii( hi* iiiter-wife twice in the 


year. (Ibid, and Pallad. Hi4. Laiu. c 7 ; Ruffin. 
VU. Pair. c. '2.Q.) He died bcfune St. Antony (from 
whom there is on epistle to him, S. .\thiin. 0pp. vol. 
L pt. 2, p. 9.59, cd. Hencd.), i. e. Iiefiire a. d. 3(iS, 
fur the latter asserted that he iK'held the soul of 
Amoun borne by angels to heaven ( I't/. S, Antonii k 
S. Athajios, § 60), and as St. .\than.'i8iuB*s hiMory 
of St. Antony preserTcs tlie order of time, he died 
perhaps about a. d. 3°J0. There arc seventeen or 
ninetei'n /iufti o/' Ascttidsm (HupoAata) o-scribed to 
him ; the Ore<!lc original exitit« in MS. (Lauibecius, 
IliUiitth. Viiiilol. lib. iv. cod. I5(), No. (i); they are 
published in the I..atin version of Gerlmrd Vossiui'^ 
in the liiljicdii. PP. AkvUco, voL iL p. 484, Paria.1 
1661. Titvttty-tiro Aacrtic Instiiutiiftts of the sanwa 
Amoun, or one bearing the some tuune, exist also 1 
iuMS. (Umboc. I.e. Cod. LIS, No. 2.) [.\.J.O.] 

AMV(-)'N1.\ ('A^/iwj-io), a surname of Hera, 
under which she was worshipped in Elis. I'ho 
inhabitants of Ells had from the earliest timet 
been in the habit of consnlting the omde of Zona 
Ammon in Libya. (Pau-s. v. 15. § 7.) [L. S.] 

AMMONIA'NUS (' KmiMiiav6i)y a Greek 
gninimariiin, who lived iu the fifth century after 
Chri«t. He was a relation and a friend of the phi- 
losopher Syrionua, and devoted his attention to 
the study of the Greek poets. It is recorded of 
him that he hod an au, which became so fond of 
poetry &om listening to itJi master, tiuit it neglect- 
ed ita food. ( Uamiuscius, up. Pkol. p. 3.'t9, a., ei ] 
Oekker ; Suid. ». r. 'A^wriai'iir and 'Ovos Kupas.') 

AMMO'NIUS, a favourite of Alexander 
Bahu, king of Syria, to whom Alexander entrust- 
ed the entire nunngrment of public otfiurs. Am- 
monius was araricious and cruel ; he put to death 
numerous friends of the king, the quecu Loodice, 
and .\ntigonus, the son of Demetrius. Being de- 
tected in plotting against the life of Ptolemy Phi- 
lometor, about B. c 147, the hitter required 
Alexander to surrender Ammonius to him; but 
though Alexander rrfuscnl to do this, Ammonius 
wna put to death by tlie inhabitants of Anliucb, 
whom Ptolemy had induced to espouse his cause. 
(Liv, A))t/. £0 ; Joseph. Ani. xiii. 4. § 6 ; Died, j 
Eic. -29, p. 628, ed. Wess.) 

AMMO'NIUS ('A^i^i'ioi) of Alexandru, 
the sun of Ammonius, was a pupil of Alexander, 
and one of the chief teacher* in the grammatical 
school founded by Aristorchat. (Suid. i. v. 'A>^ 
^rior.) He wrote commentaries upon Homer, 
Pindar^ and .\rislophancs, none of which are ex- 
tant. (Fabric BitJ. O'mec, v. p. 71-; Matter, 
£iiMij kittoriqma mtr CiaJe d" Alatondre, L ppi. 
179, 2.ia) 

AMMO'NIUS ('A^i^u"). of Alexandria, 
Presbyter and Oeconomus of the Church in that 
city, and an Egyptian by birth, A. D. 458. Ha 
suWribtfd the Epistle tent by the cleijj- of Egypt 
to the emperor Leo, in behalf of the Council of 
Chalcedon. {Coneilia, ed. Labbci, vol. iv. p. 897, 
b.) He wrote (in Greek) Oa Iha Uijpmm I 
Uttivm Noiure mi Pemm^ against the Mono- 
physitc heresy of Eutyches and Dioscarus (not 
extant) ; an KijuttUion nf lite bunk of Adi (ap, 
Calaut Grate Pair, in Art SS. Afottolonm, Svo., 
Oxon. 1838, ed. Cramer) ; a Oimmmtaiy <m ' 
lie Ptalmi (used by Nicetas in his Catena ; see 
Cod. 189, BiUiutli. Coislin., cd. Montiiiuc. p. 
244) ; On thr Heja'cmeron (no remains) ; On St. 
Join's Coepd., which exists in the Catena Graa- 
curum fatium in S. Joan. ed. Corderii, fol., 



^i&atw. 1630. He i> quoted in the Otlmat on the 
t o^SMtarmah and un OanieL (.Vooti Cot- 
lul. Seript. Vrl. ab Angclo Maio, p. ICb', &cToL i. 
*. D. 1H.'5.) [A. J.C.I 


profcuor orgrnmmiir at Alcxaiulriii. wiib llFllndiui, 

Bt the cloKO n{ the 4th ceiiturr. He wiu alto prieM 

. of the Egyptini) Ape. On the vi^orons overthrow of 

I idolatry in K|^-pt by the bishop ThenphiJus a. d. 

!8U!l-3il. Auinonini and HcUadiui lied to Con- 

I tfauitiuopb< and there returned their pp)feuion. 

I (Socr. I/uL EorL r. 16.) Animoniut n-rote, in 

I Greek, 0« ti* Diffenncsfi >/ Wordi of like Hijnificti- 

' tfon (vepl &tutiu¥ Km iau^pw Xi\mv), which is 

appended to inuiiy lexicons, e.y. to tliat of Scapula. 

It wairditcd by V'alcknener, 4to., I.ugd. Dnt. 1 739, 

tnd with further notes by Chr. Frid. Ammoii, 

8vn., ErUng. 1787. Thcro is ouothiT wurk by 

thi* Amnioiiius «<f>l iKvfio\ayia%, which hoa not 

y«t been printed. (Fabric. Ilihl. Grate toL t. 

y.'li.) The hiitorion Sormtei wu a pupil of 

Aramoniru. {Hal. Ecd. v. IB.) [A. J. C] 

AMMUNIUS ('Afi^Kiin), ton of HiRMiutis 
■tuilied with hit brother Ileliutlorui at Athens 
Bnder Ptuclus (whi; died A. D. 48-1), and woa ttie 
nutster of Simpliciuft, Atclepiut Tmliianuft, John 
Philopanii&, and Donutcioa. Hit CumineHlurirt (in 
OkcW) on PUto and Ptolemy are lotl, as well nt 
IDADJ CD Aristotle. Hit extant works are Citm- 
ttmtKMt on th>f Jtotfntje af Purpiiyry, or t^j Firr 
J'rtdk'iMa, fini published at Venice in I jOO, and 
Oh tin Catri/itrtet of A rutullt, and tk Imlerjirt- 
MWKf^ Ant published at Venice in 1 503. See too 
(p. Alexand. Aphrodit. Dt Fabi, p. 180, 8vo. 
Lond, l(>58. The abore-ruuned Commentaries on 
Aristotle ar« also published in the Scholia in 
Artitnt. ed. Bnindis. In MS. are his Commentaries 
oil ArittotleV Topics and Metaphysics, and his 
MttMiu cmilnnidi Aitrolabinm. (Fabric DiU. 
Ofwfc Tol. T. p. 707.) [A. J. C.) 

AMMONIL'S, of Lamprak, a village of 
Attica, a Peripatetic philosopher, who lived in 
the first century of the Christian oem. Ue was 
the intiructur of I'lulatch, who praise* hii great 
learning {S^mp. iiL 1), luid intrxluces bira dis- 
cooning on religion and sacred ritcL (ix. 1.^.) 
Corsini endeavours to shew (in vita Plmtarcii, p. 6), 
dial Ammonius of Lampme is really the some per- 
•on with Ammonias the Egyptian mentioned by 
EttOApiua, and concludes that it was from this 
malt* Pluuuch obiaituil the minute knuwledge of 
Egyptian worship whi<.h he hot tjiewu iu bis tica- 
tMC on Isi* and Osiris. 

Ammoniiu of Lampne is mentioned by Aramo- 
ninit the author of ibo work iM Ih/frmlUt I'rr^ 
kmns luider the word &»tiis, a* having written a 
tnatiae dtp) Bovoii-, or at the fuller title it given 
bj Atfaaoaeus n<)>l Bu^v xol HiKruir. (xi. p. 
47C,t) Whether the tome Ammonius wu the 
author of mother trork, n<pi nir 'Adttr^irw 
traifiitr, nmitiniMd by Athouaa (xiil p. 5ii7, 
a),i. {RJ.] 

A'i (•A>.^Mi«oi) LITHO'TOMUS. 

•a «^. ...... ......i.oii of Alexandria, mentioned by 

Cdom (Oi MMi. vii. PiaeC. p. 137), whose exact 
da&t ta not known, but who probably lived in the 
raign of Ptolemy Pbilad"lphus a. u '283 — '247, 
as hi» naniM orenrs in r«l«iu together with those 
of •r\' ' ' ' i livrd at tliat time. 
Ho 1. >^'ing been t hi; first 

> pcratju ..- ^ ^ a stone witliin the 


bladder when too Urge for eitiactiaa i 
which account he received the 
\iSoT({/ioc. An account of his modn tt i 
as described by CcUus (/*• .\M. vii. 
it given in dusJJicL u/'AtiL p. itiO. 
preparations used by a physician of the i 
occur alto in Aetius and Puulut Arj^ 
whether they all belong to the tame pmoB~El 
certain. [ \V. A O.Jj 

AMMO'NIl'S, the Monk, flourislicd A.11.J 
He was one of the Fuar Ureal UnjIKt't (•« < 
from their height), discipUa of Pombo, the I 
of Mt Nilria (l'i(<ie Putrum, ii. 1Z; i>alUd.i 
Imiu. c. 1'2, ed. Kotweyd. p. .S43.) He kiw«l| 
Bible by heart, and careAilly studied I>idyma^( 
gen, and the other ecclesiastical authors. la j 
339-34 1 he accomp.inied St. Athaoaiius I 
In A. n. 371-3, I'oter II. succeeded the I 
when A« fled to Home from hit Arian 
Ammonius retired from Canopnt into 
He witnetsed the cruelties of the Saraoent 1 
the monks of Mount Siuai a. d. 377, and 1 
inielligi-nce of the (.ufTerings of others near the I 
Sea. On his return to Egypt, he ti>ok ap I 
abode at Memphis, and described ttif >e distr 
in a iKiok which he wrote in F.gvptmn. 
being found at Naucratis by a priest, named Jfl 
was by him ttnnshitrd into Greek, and ia( 
form is extant, in Chr\iti .Murtyrmm ESttH [ 
umfAi (p. 88, rd. Conil>efis, Rvo.. I'ac It 
Amumnius is said to have cut oil an cor tai 
promotion to the episcopate ^Socr. ir. 33; I 
//ut /y»M. c. IJ.) (A. J. CI! 

AMMO'NIUS CAmm*''") the PuiiriTi 
who wrote only a few poems and decls 
He wot a ditTi'rcnt person from .\mmon<u^t 
tciu:her of Plotinus. (Lungin. o;>. /'.rj^. 
Plodii. rit c '20 ; Philostr. ii. '27 ; Ruhukiui i 
dt Lfmt/iito.) 

AMMO-NIUS ('Aftuini,!). 
who lived in the Tvign of the v 
He wrote an epic poem on t 
Qotba under Uainos (a. d. 4t"' t, 
rairia, and is laid to have rmd m a. u. 431 l»K 
emperor, who received it with great 1 
(SoctuL //ut /Jor/a. vi. C; Nici " 
Who this Ammonius was, and whelJwrH 
quoted in the Elymologicimi M^piiiin(tJ 
from one Ammonius, and the two i 
Anthologia Graeoi (iii. 3, p. 811, el 
which bear the tamo name, belong to biai, Wj 
ccrtaio. I ^ ^ 

boandor of pTOLBMAti'K Auli-ies who oat 
to llonie B, c. &C> to seek assistanco apUi 
Alexandrians who bad oppoaed the Lit^ 
<!</ I'lUH. i. 1.) He it perhaps the tan 
the .\nimt>iiiut who is tptiken of as 
agents of Cienpntra in n. c 44. (AJ AS^ 

A.M.MO'MUS, i-alhd SACCWS fA 
Sajcwar, Le, Soxito^pof), or aack-cunrr, 
his official employment wa* canyiag ihoc 
at Alexandria, at a public potter (a 
Gotbofml ltd Cad. Tlrudc. 14, tit. ti\, 1 
of Christian porenU. Porphyry aaatfia 
adr. Chri^im. ap. Euieb. //. K. vi. 10), 
[L r.) and St. Jeromo ( Vir. HI. J M) 1" 
be apostatiird from tho faith. Al 
cnmbined the study of philosophy whk < 
and is regarded by ihoaawhoMiaiMUil 
as the (Minder of the iMa 


|li>4ttdpln kra mentioiied Loaginiu, Hr- 
Miaa* (Amm. MmrccU. xiii.), both 
1 8l Uenclu. He died a. d. -J43, ai 
Ifip of son iteD 80 yean. A life of Ariito- 
h, niisd ta th* ComiMntuy of hii Qammke 
'■■iCi>Hiiriii, ku been ucribed to him, but it 

{tilfrid^ lk* woik of Jobn Philoponui. The 
ApilwUcs of Annnonio* held a kind of phi- 
hfUal aetfafr. Faith waa derired hj m- 
Wti pMipooQ ; God was threefold in meiuv, 
Itiffmi, (nt. in knowledge of himtelf) and 
■■r (tfa. in actiritrX the two latter iiotion> 
Ml Jdoiot to the fint ; the care of the world 
m cuUimwl la goda of an inferior lace, below 
tai apoi wrra daeinoni, good and bod : an 
■■de iiie and theurgy led to the knowledge of 

,j|| Ukite, who wmi worthipped by the vulgar, 

Rh their mtirnial deitiea. The Aleiandriim 
ki aid pijciuilogj were in accordance with 
i^riBdpicib If we are to connder him a 
~ ' B, hit wia, beudea hi> philosophy (which 
<t eoone, then be repnoented by Origen, 
M kr the fttum Aleundrian ichool u above 
ikd) noted for hi* writingi (Eiueb. //. E. ri. 
U^efoiaUyon the Scriptorei. (Eiueb. £./>if(. 
WOfw. a Gallandi't UM. Pair. vol. ii.) He 
•■^•■4 a /iwir«MiroR, or Ilanmmi/ o/tke Gotptit, 
itilk oiata in the Latin venion of Victor, bithop 
tf (^IM (in the tith cenL, who wrongly aacribed 
ktolMiaa) and of Lujciniui. (Sec Momanenta 
(WleAwyu' "/i^o, i- pt. 2, per Giynaeimi, pp. 
147, iiL, BsuL, 1569; E Omcco vena per 
iwiiuii. Ang. Vind. 4to., lo°23; and 
Ao^b., 8vo., lo24 ; the vcxiion of 
Mi«nnt.,8v&, 1524; Colon., 8vd., 153-2; 
Idpl et (.'onsitl. MomuL R. M. V. do 
tn. t;7( ; BUJiodi. Pulr. a Onlland., vol 
l ^ JJI, Venrt, 1766 ; where vid. Proltgom.) 
*~' the Haimony, Annnoniut wrote Ik Con- 
fJum (Enieb. //. E. vi. 1»). which 
r 8c Jerome ( Vir. lliutlr. § 5i), but 
[A. J. C] 
ISI'AOES fAMn"!^" "' 'AtwuDttt), 
of the river Amnijub in Crete, who 
in connexion with the wonhip of 
dbie. (Callim. Hymn, in Jjian. lA, l)i2 ; 
Rhod.Hl88l.) [US.] 

US ('A^>iiiTo»), a Greek writer of 

d<ic «ho wrote a work on the people 

Anad fPUn. H. .V. vi. 17. •. '20% and 

•Mdad 'Aixt«Aa»f f ( It<«i^»r. ( Antigou. 

Ma Mir, e. 164 ; comp. Aelinn, I*. //. 

,) W- ......1., probably to read 'Aiuiiairos 

I Sckoi ad ApoU. iu. 179, 

UUMf'll.'^ itblUS {'KiiBiupiffTos), com- 

' of the Pitanatjin lochiu in the Spartan 

I who nbard to inarch previoualy to the 

^if nMM*(k.c 470) to a part of the plain 

> d^, ■■ Pantaniaa uidered, becauu he 

Ual act a novenent waa equivalent to n 

Be at length changed hi« mind when br 

'i by th* other port of the aimy, ajid 

^oia Panianiai tie fell in the battle 

a«t« after distinguishing himself by iiis 

Bd «BS horieil among the Jnaus. 

. 5»— 57, 71. 85; PluL Aristid. 17. > 

of the last word ace Dkl. n/ 

. and Thirl wall, Hut. o/Grmt, ii. 

[OB, IW gti «f loTf and harmony. He hod 


no place in the religion of the Romans, who know 
and ftpeak of him only from what they had heard 
from the Greek% and translate the Greek name 
Eroe into Amor. [Erus.] (L. 8.J 

AMORAEGS('Amo/xu<i)i king of the Derbicae, 
in a war against whom, according to Ctesias 
{Ptrmic c. C, ed. Liou), Cyrus, the first king of 
Pernn, fell. 

AMORGES CA»»^priO- 1- A king of the 
Sacae, according to Ctesiaa, whom Cyrus, king of 
Persia, conquered in battle, but afterwards re- 
leased, when he himself was vanquished and taken 
prisoner by Spamithra, the wife of Amotges. 
Ctesias repmenu Araorget a* anhsequently one of 
the firmest allies of Cynia. (/Vrtic. cc 3, 4, 7, 8, 
ed. Lion.) 

2. A Persian commander, killed in Caria, in 
the revolt of the province, B. c. 498. (Herod. T. 

3. The bastard son of Pisanthus, who revolted 
in Caria about B. c. 413. The Peloponnesiana 
assisted Tissapbemes in putting down this revolt, 
and look loaus, a. c. 412, which was held by 
Amorges. The latter fell into their hands on the 
capture of the pUue, and was surrendered by them 
to Tiataphenies. (Thncviii. S, 19, 28, hi.) 

A.MPE'LIUS. We possess a short tract beai^ 
ing the title Anci'i Am}>flu LiUr Memorialis. It 
was first made known by Salnuuius, in 1638, from 
a MS. in the library of Jorvlus, and subsequent 
editors follou'ing his example have generally ap- 
pended it to editions of Florus. We conclude 
from internal evidence (cr. 29, 47), that it must 
have been ccimjioM-d after the reign of Trajan, and 
before the final division of the Roman cmpitv. 
Himcrius, Ammianus Marcellinus, and Symmachu* 
make frequent mejition of an Ampeliut, who en- 
joyed the high dignities of magister ofiiciorum, 
proconsul and praefertus urbi undcj Valentiuian 
and bis immedinte successors, and the name occurs 
iu connexion with thirteen laws of the Theodosian 
code. Sidonius ApoUinaris also (ix. 301) com- 
memorates the learning of an Ampelius but we 
nowhere find any allusion which wuuJd enable us to 
establish a connexion between the perwn or persona 
spoken of by these writers and the compiler of the 
Liber Memorialis. On the contrary Gliiser haa 
adduced reoAons (in Hhnniadiet Alvanrn for 1842, 
p. 145), which render it probable that the author 
of the Liber Memorialis lived at on earlier time 
than the above-mentioned persona. It it atated 

in c, 18 of this book, " Sulla primiu 

invaxit imperium, loliuqat dtpatuit.'^ Now as 
Diocletian and Maximianus resigned tile govern- 
ment in A. D. 305, and this event is spoken of by 
all the historians who treat of that -period, the 
Liber Memorialis would seem to have been com- 
posed at least before that year. 

This work, which is dedicated to a certain Ma- 
crinus or Marinua, equally unknown with the 
author himselC, is a sort of cominon-plnce-book, 
containing within a short compaia a condensed and 
meagre summary, collected from various sources, of 
the most striking object* and phaenomena of the 
uiaterial universe and the most tematlcable event! 
in the history,' nf the world, the whole daatifiod 
systematically under proper heads, and divided 
into fifty chapters. It is nf little value in any 
point of view. Nearly all tlte fiicta recorded are 
to be found elsewhere in a more detailed and satis- 
factory form, and truth is so blended with falie- 





hood, and the blunders committed m numeroua, 
thni it cannot be uied with safety for reference. 
The style, where it is not a mere cntalopje of 
names, is simple and nnaflfected, but both in the 
construction of the sentences and in the use of 
particular words, we can detect many traces of 
corrupted httiniir. The commentaries and criti- 
cisms of Solmjuius, Muretus, Freinsheim, Hein- 
sius, Perixonius and other scholars will bo found 
in the edition of Uuker at the end of his Flurui. 
(Lug. Bat. \7'2i — 1744, and reprinted at Leips. 
I8S'2.) Ampelius was first published in a separate 
form, with very useful prolegomena, by Tischucke 
(Leips. irss)^ and subsequently by Pockwitz 
(LiJnenb. 1823), and F. A. Deck. (Leips. 
18-2fi.) [W. R.] 

AMPIII'ANAX {'Aiutuivai), a king of Lycia. 
When Proetus was eipelled from Argos by his 
twin-hrotlier Acrisius, Amphinnax received lum at 
his court, gave him his daughter Anteia (some call 
her ijtheneboea) in marriage, and afterwards led 
him back to Argolis, wherv his shan- in the go- 
temnient and Tiryni were restored to him. Some 
traditions called this Lvcian king lobates. (Apol- 
lod. ii. 2. 8 1 J Horn. //: Ti. Ii7, &c.) [US.] 

AMPHIA'NUS, a Greek tragic poet at Alci- 
andria* (SchoL ad German, Aral. 3J*2, p. 78, ed. 

AMPHIARAI'DES, a natronymic from Aro- 
phisniu.v by which Orid (Fatl. ii. 43) calli his 
sou Atcntaeon. [L. S.] 

AMPlllARA'US ("AHxiW"). « "0 of Oictes 
and }Ivpermneslni, the daughwr of Thestius. 
(Horn. Od. IT. 244 ; Apollod. i. 8. § 2 ; Hycin. 
Fak. 73 ; Pans. ii. 21. S 2.) On his fiithcr's side 
he was JeK-ended from the Yimous seer Melampus. 
(Pana. n. 17. $ 4.) Some trndilimu represented 
Biffl •• a ton of ApoUo by Hypermnestrii. which, 
howercr, is mefcty a poetical expression to de- 
scribe him ai a seer and pmpheL (Hygio. Fall. 
70.) Amphianius is renowned in ancient %\ary as 
■ braie hero : be is mentioned among the hunters 
of the Catydonian boar, which he is said to have 
deprived of one ere, and also as one of the Argo- 
nauts. (Apollod.* i. 8. 8 2, 9. i 16.) For a time 
he reigned at Argos in common with Admstns ; 
but, in a feud which broke out between them, 
Adrastus took to HighL Afterwards, howerer, he 
became reconciled with Anphiaraus, and gnre him 
his sister Kriphyle in marriage [Aorastur], by 
whom Ampliiarnus became the father of Akmaeon, 
Amphilochus, Furydice, and DemcoaaflL On 
oarrying F.nphyle, .\mphiaraas had sworn, that 
)m vould abide by the decision of Eriphyle on any 
point in which he (boutd diiTer in opinion bom 
Adinstus. When, therrl'ure, the hitter called upon 
him to join the expedition of the Seren against 
ThebcK Amphiaiaua, although he fomnw ita uo- 
fenuirale issue and at tint refused to take any 
put in it, WIS neTertbelcM persuaded by his wife 
10 join bis friends, for Fnphyle bad been enticed 
to ladoc* her husband by the nedUan of Haimonia 
which Polyneicei had giren her. Amphiarau on 
Itarinf Anps enjoined his sons to avnige his 
death on their heartless mother. ( .\poUod. iii. fi. 
t i: Jlygin. Fnl.. 7.1; Iho.1. ir. M; Horn. Od. 
XT. 'J47,&c.) r>n their way to Thebes tite heroes 
iaalituted the Nemean garaea^ and Amphiaraus 
van the rictory in th« chariol-iace and in Inrawing 
tb* discus (ApoUod. iii. 6. f 4.) During the 
war gainst Tbebn, Amphiaraus fought bt»ciy 

(Pind. (M. ri. 2(1, &&), but still he eould Ml 
press his anger at the whole ondeitaking, I 
when Tydeus, whom he regarded as the I 
of the expedition, was sevei«ly wounded b; ] 
nippus, and Athena was hastening to rrnder I 
immortal, Amphiaraus cut off the head of 1' 
nippus, who had in the mean time been i 
gave Tydeus his brains to drink, and Athenml 
with horror at the sight, withdrew. (.\paUil| 
G. g fl.) When Adrastus and Amphiarau 1 
the only heroes who surrived, the latter ww i 
sued by Hcriilymenus, and fled lowarris the r 
Ismenius. Here the ennb opene<I hefonp \» i 
overtaken by his enemy, and swallow e>l up/ 
phiaraus together with his cluuiot, but /.em i 
him immortal. (Pind. Arm. ix. £7. Of. fV] 
&c; Plut. Hantl. 6; Cic. <ie DirhL. i 
Henceforth Amphiarous was worshipped as at 
lirat at Oropus and afterwards in all (it 
(l>aus. i. 34. g 2 ; Liv. xlv. 27.) He had si 
tuary at Aigos (Pans. ii. 23. f 2), a si 
Athens (i. 8. § 3). and a heroum at 
(MuUer, Orriom. pp. 146, 486.) The 
of Ampliiaraus from his home when he 
Thebes, was represented on the chest of ( ^_ 
(Puus. T. 17. § 4.) Respecting some exiaati 
of art, of which Aiuphiaiaus is the 
Orilneisen, Dit alt j/riniueJke Onrnzrimi 
Kabinetj in TiiUmffm^ Slutlg. and Tfih 

The prophetic power, which An 
believed to possess, was acconntod I 
scent from Mekunpus or Apollo, tbonafc i 
also a local tradition at Phlius, aecoidiag |« I 
he had acquired them in a night which ho| 
the prophetic house (ofjcoi /layrutit) «~ 
(Paus. u. 13. § 6; comp. i 34. f S.) 
like all seers, a favourite of Z«as nd . 
(Mom. OJ. XV. 24A.) Respecting |Jm> 
Amphiaraus see Diet, a/ Ant. s. r. Orm 
should be rcmarki-d here, that Virgil (Urn 
mentions three Cireek heroes as 
Acnea^ viz. Tibunus Catillus, and Coot^ltitl 
of whom was believed to be the (bniUUr of T' 
and is described by Pliny (//. X. xwi. B7) I 
of AmphLnraus. iL 

AMPHICLEIA ('A^rKAtia). th« " " 
Ariston, and the wife of the son of I 
ceived instruction in philosophy from 
(Poriihvr. n(. /'/o<in. c. 9.) 

AMPHl'CRATES ('AHMK^TTjf), kill 
mos in ancient times, in whose rngn dw \ 
invaded AegiiuL (llerud. uL 59.) 

AMPIircUATFS i'AM^Mp^init), m 
sophiitt and rheloriciuu of .\thens. H* ' 
conlemiJORiry of Tigraiies (ii. i. 70), 
exiled (we know not for what rtaaon)ISr« 
he went to Seleucoia on the Tigris. 11i« i 
of this pUce requested him to teach 
their city, but he haughtily ivfusrd, sarH^ I 
the vesaei was too amoU lo contain a diJpbilL I 
then went to Cleopatn, the daoghtar of T"^ 
datei, who was married to TjgiaiMi^ aa 
seems to have become attached to UaL 
crates soon drew suspicions npoA kiflMriC ' 
forbidden to have any intenounr with lias 4 
whereupon he starved himself to 
/MnO, 22.) Longinos (./e SMim. p. U, (4.1 
mentions bim along with Ifegestaa 
and censutt-s him for his affectatuxo ti i 
Whether he is the same pemni as tlia J 
who wrote a work on ceMoalad nan (v 

Diog. Uert ii. 101), 
rCRATES, a Greek Kulptor. pmbalily 
be WM the maker uf a Rtiitue 
iM ibe Atll«aiutf erected in honour of a cour- 
, «il0 huring leamt from IlaimmliuB mid 
1 tbeir ooiupirscT againit tlippuu aiid 
I taitnrcd to death by the tynuiu, 
ag the wcret. Her iiamc wan 
•): and the Athenians unwUlin); 
J to Iiimaur • courteiaui, had the statue made 
l^brm of » /maov; and, to point out the act 
i^ft «aa mtvnt to cmniDemoratif, the animaPs 
^B WM omitted. We knnv nothing of the 
PPil^ 1^ aalaa m may infer from the narra- 
M^MIbc itatac n* mode toon after the ripiil- 
b t( Ih* Peuiatntidar. (a. c. 510.) In the 
■■(t J PlinT, which ia our wle authority 
mi'. 19. 4 1'.'), ibrrr ia a nionifett corruption of 
k* (Bl> aBd the Koding AmjiHtratu is only a 
, ihMgh a moM probable one, br Sillig. 
. -amr.) [P.S.] 

TYON {' Afi^umxiv), a ton of l)eu- 
' I (ApoUod. L 7. § 'iy, or accordin;; 
cltlboii, who after having married 
bter of Cmnaui, king of Attica, 
'fctliarili-law from hia kingdom and 
I ikfuae. Me mled for twelve years, 
in lam expelled by Erichlhoiiius. 
,; 5. Sic; Pau». L 3. i 5.) Ac- 
Mtathiiu (uii ffom. p. i!77), he vtiu 
I Oilhotinpntra, by whom he hod :i sun, 
Ihff fiuSer of Locnift. Atxiirding to 
Braantim (c r. ^ffKor), however, 
la a icn and PhvKut a gnuidaon of 
He waa believed to have been the 
■attsdueed the cuitoro of mixing wine 
aud to have dedicated two allan to 
I Oithoa and the nymphs ( Enitath. ad 
1915.) Dionynua of Halioinmaaus (iv. 
■Bi aim a ton of llelleii, Pauauiioa (x. 
mi otfacn, regard Aniphictyon oa Uie 
' Ika aBphictyony of Thermopylae, and 
of tfaia belief a uactuary of Am- 
biuU in the >-illage of Anthehi on 
I whiA wu the moat ancient place of 
ftkiaBDphictyany. (lierod. vii. :>00.) 
t a Bif ia without any foundation, and 
' F apdrnta aiaigning the eitablithment 
ittfin tn ».m]e mythical hero. {Did. 
) [L. S.] 

AM^urruor(r), a tuniome 
, Acriird Irum Anthehi, where lihe waj» 
■adcr thia name, becauiie it wai the 
far the omphietyons of Thenno- 
I W«su«r ocnnccH were oflVred to her at 
L«f etery mc«ting. (liertjd. vii. '200 ; 
-9.) [L. 8.] 

IAS (^Afi^Mfuu). I. A Kin of 
IriaalJili. and father of Antiraoche, 
"■ ■ (ApoUod. ai. 9. S ■-'•) 

••— " ^viiL 4. 5 6) and Apolio- 
^^aA a ton of .Aleui*, and 
Uy 1 .1 l.ycurgua, Cepheut, and 

b>c4 part in the expedition of the 
{Ujg^a. Fat. U.) 

UWcia in Euboea, after whmte 

i (iineial game?, in which 

•< a poetical conteat. It 

I 'd, which he dedicated 

(Ilea, 0)n. e( />. «64, &c) 



3. The father of Clyaonymua, whom Patroclua 
killed when yet a child. (Horn. //, xxiii. 87 ; 
.\p<illcid. iii. 13. g 8.) Other mythical pcrtwnagei 
of this name occur in Apollod. il' 5. § 1 1 ; Hygin. 
Fab. 14 ; llom. //. x. -266, &c. [U S.l 

^iU/xa(, 'A>i^f8a;ioj), general of the Eleans in 
a r. ••18, wan token priaoner by Philip, king of 
^lacedonia, and carried to Olympia, but waa >et at 
liberty on hi» undertaking to bring over hin coun- 
trymen to Philip's tide. But not succeeding in 
his attempt, he went bock to Philip, and is spoken 
of as defending Amlua against tjio chargea of 
Apellea. (Polvb. iv. 75, «4, 86.) 

AMPHI'DICUS ("A/KpfJiitoj), a Theban who, 
in the war of the Seven agnintl hit native city, 
slew Porthennpneua. (Apollod. iii. 6. § 8.) Ad- 
cording to Euripidea (/'^oea. 1156), however, it 
was Periclvmenua who killed Porthcnnpaeut. 
I'auioniaa (ix. 18. § 4) calls him Asphodicus, 
whence tome critics wish to introduce the same 
imnie in .^ptillodorut. [L. S.J 

^«tt|i), a surname of Dionysut. (Orph. Hymn. 
5->. 1, 51. 10.) It is believed that at Athens 
where the Uionysiac fcstiviUs were held annually, 
the name signitied yearly, while at Thebea, where 
they wet* celebnit<«l everj' third year, it waa in- 
terpretated to be synonymous with rpirnji. fUS.] 
A.VIPllRiYEEIS('A>i4iO"^"t). lauie or limp- 
ing im both feet, a surmune of llepliaestus given 
him because Zeus threw him from Olympus upon 
the earth for having wished to iup|K}rt Menu 
(Mora. //. L 5!)9; comp. Ap<dlod. i. 3. § 5.) 
[IIkPH ISKTC9.] [I>. S.J 

AMPIU'LOCIIUS f'A^^Aoxoi), a ton of 
Amphiaraiu and Eriphyle, ajid brother of Ale- 
maeon. (Apollod. iii. 7.'§ 2; Horn. Od. xv. 248.) 
When hit fiithcr went againti Thebes, Amphi- 
lochus was, accTirding to Pousanias (v. 17. § 4), 
yet an infant, althuuj^h ten years afterwards he ia 
mentioned at one of the Kpigont, aitd according to 
some traditions oiMsted his brotlicr in the murder 
of hia tnutber. [Alcmaion.] He it alto men- 
tioned among tlie tuitors of Helen, and at having 
token port in the Trojan war. On the return 
from this expedition he together with Mnpsua, 
who wat like himself a seer, fotiuded the town of 
Malloa in C'ilicia. Hence he proceeded to hia 
native pbcc. Argot. But aa he waa not latisfied 
with the state uf affiiirs there, he tvtumed to 
Mallos. When Mopsot refused to allow him any 
shore in the government of their common colony, 
the twa seers fought a single combat in which both 
were killed. This combat vm described by tome 
ajt having arisen out of a dispute about their pro- 
phetic powers. Their tombs, which were pUtced 
in such a manner that the one could not be teen 
from the other, exishsd at bte aa the time of 
Stisbo, near mount Morgasa, not far from Pyta- 
mut, (Stiab. xiv. p. 675; Lycophrtin, 439, with 
the Schol.) According to other tmditiont (Strab. 
xiv. p. 64'2), Amphilochui and Calchaa, on their 
return from Trny, went on foot to the celebrated 
grove of the Chuian Apollo near Colophon. In 
some accounts he waa said to have been killed by 
Apollo. (Het. ap. Struh. liv. p. G7(!.) According 
to Thucydidet (ii. 68) Araphilochus relumed from 
Troy to Argos but Iwing disaalisficd there, he 
emigrated and founded Argos .\mphilochinm on 
the Anibiscian gulf. Other accounts, however, 


BtcrilM the foundntioii of (hu town to Alcniaeon 
(Smb. TiL p. 32S), (ir to Amphilochui the M>n of 
Alcnucon. (Apollod. iii. 7. § 7.) Being a ion of 
the Mcr Amphiainiu, Anipbilnchui wu UJcewiK 
believed to U) endowed with prophetic powcn ; 
■nd at Mallot in Cilicia there wai on oruIc of 
Amphilochui, which in the time of Pauuniu (i. 
34. i 2) was regarded as the most truthful of all. 
{Did. of Ant. p. 673.) He wa« wonbipprd to- 
gether with bis bther at Oropus; at Athens he 
hod an altar, and at Sparta a oeroum. (Paus. i. 
84. § 2, iii. IS. 8 6.) 

There are two other mythical personages of this 
Dame, one a giandsoo of our Amphilochus ( Apollnd. 
iii. 7. § 7), aud the other a son of Dryas. ( Partlicn. 
Erot.ll.) (U.S.1 

AMPHI'LOCnCS, of Atmns a writer on 
agriculture mcotiooed by Varro (It H. i. 1 ) and 
Columella (L 1). Pliny also >pe.-il[S of a work of 
his - De Medica et CyUso." (//. N. xrui. 18. 
s. 43.) 

AMPHILO'CHIUS ('kn^\6xun), metropo- 
litan of CvziCL'fl in the middle of the ninth cen- 
tury, to whom Photius, the patriarch of Cnnstanti- 
Dople, wrote screml letters, nnd whose answers 
are still extant in manuscript. ( Fabric liiU, Gnut. 
Tiii. p. 382.) 

AMPHILO'CHIUS, ST., bishop of IcoNiuu, 
the friend of St. Biisil and Sl Gregory of Naxionius, 
was boni at CW^vx-ia, and begnn life as a pleader. 
(Dosnage, AhiuU. P<Jillc. ftx/. iii. p. I4£, A. ; and 
GaltiiMdii BiUiot/i. Pair. toI. vi. Prolegom. ; J-!pul. 
& Ofstf. A'uj. 9 [159]. Paris. 1840.) He lired 
in retiremeot with his Either at Ozizolis In Cappa- 
docia, till he was snmmoncd to prtiiide over the 
Mc of Iconium in Lycaooia, or Pisiilia 'i^, jk. d. 
373-4. St. Basil** Congratolator}- Epistle on the 
occasion is extant. (^, 393, oL I til, toI. iii. p. 
351, ed. Bened.) He soon after paid St. Basil a 
risit, and penuuuled him to undertake his work 
"On the Holy Ghost' (vol. iii. p. 1 ), which he 
finished a. D. 37^tl. St l^irs Osnonicnl EftiMlf* 
are addressed to St Amphilochius (L r. pp. 2(i8, 
290, 324, written A. D. .174, 37.i). The latter had 
received St. Btiiil's promised book on the Divinity 
of the Holy Ghost, when in a. d. 377 he sent a 
STnodieal letter (extant, ap, Mansi'i CtmcUia. vol. 
ilL p. fiOS) to certain bishops, probably of Lycio, 
infiMlcd with, or in danger of, Macedonianism. 
The Arian persecution of tbe church ceased on the 
death of Valcns (a. d. 37(1), and in .181, Amphi- 
loehiu* was present at the (Oecumenical Council of 
Constantinople. While there, he signed, as ■ wit- 
DMa, St. Gregory Xuianien'a will (Opp. S. Oreg. 
p. 204, A. B.), and he was nominated with Optimus 
of Antioch in Pisidia as the centre of catholic com- 
aonion in the diocese of Asia. In A. o. 383, he 
obtained from Theodosins a prohibition of Arioo 
•saemblies, practically exhibiting the slight other- 
wise put on tbe Son of God by a contemptuous 
tnatinent of the yuung .\rcadiiis. (Flenrj's Ecd. 
Um. xviii. c. 27.) This same year he called a 
I aoimcil at Side In PamphyHa, and condemned the 
Masgiliin heretic*, who aaide the whole of religion 
cansist in prayer. (Thcodt Harrrt. Fak. iv. 11.) 
In a. D. 394 he was at the Council of Constanti- 
nnple [see Ahmon of Hailrionoplc], which con- 
linnfd Bagadius in the v€ of IVistm. This is 
the last we hoar of hint. He died before the pet^ 
•fcalion of 9t Ch ijmtii i u , probably a. d. 395, 
— * *"- ia coomeaMrated on Nov 2Sid. His re- 


mains (in Greek) have been edited b]r. 
with those of Methodius of PaL'tra and i 
Crete, fol. Par. 1644. 0( Ei<M llondliii 
to him, some at least are supposititious ( 
gives A'ra among bis works, vol vi. BUJintk. Pi 
as is the L(/r i/Sl. BtuiL There is aUnhni 
him on iambic poem of 333 verses (in tcft 
to the Trinity) addressed to Scleucos, nrphii 
St Olympios (who had herself been brought if 
Theodokia, sister to St Amphilochius) and 
son of the general Trajan, who periamd wi 
master, Valens, at liudrianople, a. D. S78. 
landi adds the testimony of Cosntoa ladii 
(tith cent) to that of John Damascene, 
tutd Ralsamnn, in favour of the ant 
poem. CurnU'fis hn* collected hia 
pp. 1 38- 1 54 ), and Gnlkndi baa added to 
p. 497, &c., and ProUfi. p. 12). Uis wait «' 
Holy (ihost is lost (St Jerome, cb j)t^ 
1 33 ; Fabric RitiL Grate, vol. viii. pp. 37 
St Gregory Naiianaen alatea, that ** by pn; 
adniatiun uf the Trinity, and sacrificoi, be nk 
the puin of diseases." (Oirm. ad filoL ToLiJ 
10.10, V. 244.) The 9th, 2*— 28th, 62ad. W 
nnd I84lb Episthis of St Oftsgwy are i 
to him. (A. J. 

AMPHILO'CHIUS, bishop of Sioa ia 
phytio, who was present at the council nf Epti 
in which Nestorius was condemned, a. n. 421,1 
who was probably the onthor of snme 
that go under the luune of Am|Jitlix:hiiis </ I 
niura. (Phot GmI. 52, p. 13, a., Ci-L 2SQ,|i] 
a., cd. Bek k. ; Lahbeus, dr Script Ecdi, vol L a. I 

AMPIIl'LYTUS (;AM(piXi«-oj), 
seer in the time of Peisistratus. Henxlnlss(i 
calls him nn Acaraanion, but Plato ( TUa^ f^lli' 
and Clemens Alexandrinus (Stnau i. p. SU)^ 
of him aa an Athenian. He may ban bHit 
ginally an Acamanian, and perhaps rccaitat I 
franchise at Athens iirom Peisistratus. Tk> I 
position removes the necessity of Va 
emeridntion. (Ad ffrrmi. Le.) 

AMPHI'.MAC]1US ('A/i^^(/uxe>V LAl 
of Cteatus and Theronice, and grandaOB tf i 
or of Poseidon. He is mentioiMd among iIhI 
on of Helen, and was one of tbe fonrcwk 
led the Epeians againu Troy. ( ApoUod. Si, I 
Paus. V. 3. § 4 ; Hom. IL ii. 62U.) Ue «■!< 
by Hector. (7t xiiL I8.S &e.) 

2. A son of Nomion, who together with Msl 
ther Nostes led a host of Cariaui ui thi- 
ef tbe Trojans. He went to bottle nchly i 
with gold, but was thrown by AchiUM/ 
Scamander. (Horn. //. ii. 870, &c.) 
rut. 6) calls him a king of the Lydaaa, 

Two other mnhicnl penonage* tl lUbl 
cur in .Apnilod. ii. 4. § 5, and Pana. *. i. f 4 

satrapy of Mesopoumia, together with , 
the division of the province* by Antip 
321. (Arrian, ap. PhaL p. 71, b, 26, i 
Diod. xviii. 39.) 

AMPHl'MEDON Ch)t^»tMm»), ai 
loneus of Ithaca, with whom Ag 
been slaying when he came to aii upon Odyi 
to join the Greek* a^nst I'ruy. aiul 
afterwards rvTOgniscd in Hadee. (Horn. 04.1 
lU.t, &c ) He was one of the soiloc* <t I 
and was slain by Telemachus. (rAl i 
Another mythical personage of thi* i 
Ovid. (Mft. V. 75.) 


AMPHl'STHATlIS CA,i4il<rr(>QToi) and hu 
brother Rhecu wore the charioUvn of the Dio»^ 
curi. They were believed to hare taken part in 
tlie expedition of JoMin to Colchin, and to have oc- 
cupied a part of that country which wnj called 
after them tieniochia, as ^vloxos tignifiei a 
charioteer. (Stiab. xt p. 495 ; Jiutin. zlii. 3.) 
PUn; (//. A', vi. A) colli tliein Amphilus and Thel- 
chiiu. (Cotnp. Mfia, L 19. g 110; Ikidor. Oriy. 
XV. I; Mnrci-Uin. iiii. 8.) [L. S.] 

AMPHI'STRATL'S {•Afuplrrparof), a Greek 
Kolptor, flouriihcd about B. c. 3'J4. From the 
noticot of two of hii workt by Pliny (xjixvi. 4. 
i 10) and Tatlan {Onit. in Urate. 52, p. 114, 
Worth.), it is supposed that mott of hit statues 
were czut in bronze-, and that many of them were 
likeiip^aen. [P. S.] 

A.MPHITIIEMIS {•Afuplettut), a son of 
Apollo and Acnadlis, who became the fiilher of 
Naianon and Caphaurus, or (Vphalion, by the 
nj-niph Trilnnit. (Mygin. Fab. 14; Apnllon. 
Rhod. iv. 1494.) [L. a] 

AMPHITRI'TE ('KiufirplrT)), according to 
Iletiod (Tlierxi. 243) and Apollodonis (L 2. § 7) 
■ Nereid, though in other places Apollodorus (L 2. 
f 2, i. 4. § 6) calls her an Oceanid. She is rrprr- 
•ented as the wife of Poseidon and the goddess of 
the sea (the Mediterranran), and she is theneforc 
a kind of female Poseidon. In the Homeric 
poem* she doe* not occur as a goddess, and Am- 
phitrila i* merely the name of the sea. The inost 
■nrient passage* in which she occurs as a real 
goddess IS that of Ilesiod above referred to and 
the Homeric hymn on the Delion Apollo (94), 
where she is represented as having been pre- 
lent at the birth of Apollo. Wben Poteidon 
<ucd fur her hand, she Aed to Atlas, but her 
lover sent spies after her, and among them one 
Oelphinns, who brought about the marriage be- 
tween her and Putciilon, and the grateful gnd 
Rworded his service by placing him among the 
Slurs. (Kratosth. C\Mtatl. 31 ; Hygin. Fori. Aitr. 
ii. 17.) NVheo afterwards Poseidon shewed some 
■tlocbmeut to Scyllo, Amphitrite's jealousy was 
ititi to snch a degree, that she threw aoroe 
: herbs into the well in which Scylhi used to 
ttatne, and thereby cliangcd her rival into a monster 
ivith •!( heads and twelve feeL (Tieti. ad /.i/co/ik. 
|4«5, 649.) She became by Po«eidon the mother of 
riton, Rhode, or Rhodos, and Renthesicvme. 
'(Heaiod. ri«Mj. 930. &c; ApoU.Kl. i. 4. 8 ti'; iii. 
15. ( 4.) Later poeta ri'gord Amphitrite as the 
gnddes* of the ira in general, or the ocean. (Eurip. 
~rf, "02; Ov. Atn. i. 14.) Amphitrite was fri- 
Daj-ntly reprrs>-nled in ancient works of art ; her 
resembled that of Aphrodite, but she was 
distinguished &om her by a sort of net 
kept her hair together, and by the claws of 
a crab on her forehead. She wo* sometimes re- 
pre«rnted as riding on marine animals, and soroe- 
tiinev as drawn by them. The temple of Poseidon 
on the Connthiun isthmoi contained a statue of 
Amphitrite (Paut. ii. J. § 7), and her figure ap- 
p mn d among the relief ornaments of the temple of 
Apoflo at Amyclae (iii. 19. { 4). on the thruoe of 
the Olympian Zeus, and in other placet, (v. 3. f 3, 
cvnn|L I. 17. g S, v. Vt. 8 2.) We still poeseas a 
cxmaideiable number of representations of Aoiphi- 
Irila. A rnlflssai statue nf her exist* in the Vilhi 
Alhaai, and the fre<|iiently appears on coina of 
^yianue. The OMtl beautiful specimen extant it 


that on the arch of .\uguBtus at Rimini. (VTn 
kelmann, AUe Dmhnatrr^ L 3() ; Hirt, Myt 
BiUrrl,M*,u. p. I.V9.) [LS.) 

rp6ttf)^ a son of Alcaeus, king of Troeses, I 
llipponomc, the daujihler of Menoeccua. (.\p ' 
ii. 4. § o.) Pausonios (viii. 14. i 2) colli I 
mother I^onome. While Electrjoii, the 
of Alcaeus, was reigning at Mycenae, 
Pterelaus together with the Taphiont inil 
territory, demanded the surrender of the 1 
and drove away his oxen. The aooa of f 
entered upon a contest with the aons of I 
hut the combatants on both side* all f " 
Flectri'on had only one son, Licymain*, j 
Pterelaus likewise only one, Euerea, 
phians however, escaped with the oxa 
tbey cnlmited to Polyxenut, king of tha^ 
Thence they were afterwards brought hocl | 
Mycenae by Amphitr}'on after he had ftad ^ 
ransom. Electrj-on now resolved upon avn _ 
the death of his tons, and to make war upaa i 
Taphians. During his absence he cnti ' '' 
kingdom and his daughter Alcniene to Ao 
on condition thnt he should not marry 1 
after his return firom the war. Amphitrron I 
restored to Electryon the oxen he bud 
back to Mycenae ; one of thero tarried ^ 
as Araphitrj'on attempted to strike it 
club, he accidenuilly hit the head of Ele 
killed him on the spot Sthenelus, the I 
Klectrj-on, availed himself of this opporl 
the purpose of expelling .\niphitryon. who I 
with Alcmene and Licymnius went to Tb 
Here he was purified by Creon, his uncle, 
order to win the liaiid of Alcmene, Ainpfait 
prepared to avenge the death of Alcin'" ■ '- '■■'■' 
on the Taphiant (Teleboans), and n > 
to assist him in his enterprise, wli:. 
promised on condition that Amphitryon khuuid i 
liver the Cadinean country from a wihl fox i " 
was making groat havoc there. But *« it i 
decreed by fiite that tliit fox should not be i 
taken by any one, Amphiuyon went to , 
of Athens, who pof*e*sed a fauiuus diig,4 
according to another decree of (ate, uve 
animal it pursued. C'epholus was induced ( 
Amphitryon his dog on condition that b* | 
receive a part of the spoils of the expediliool 
the Taphiant. Now when the dog 
the fox, Fate got oat of its dilemma 
changing the two animals into stone. A* 
Cephalus, Panopeut, lleleius and Civ«ii,.i 
tr}'ou now attacked and ravaged the ia[ 
Taphiant, but could not tubdne them to i 
Pterelaus lived. This chief hod on hi* I 
goldf*n hair, the gift of Puvidon, which I 
him immortal. II in daughter Comaetlio, \ 
in love with Amphitryon, cut off tfai* hA, I 
after Pterelaut had died in conseqnenoi^^ 
tryon took possestion of the island* ; aad ] 
put to death Comaetho, and given the 
C'ephalu* and Heleius, he returned to Tb 
bis spoilt, out of which he dedicated a 
Apollo Iimcniut. (.^pollod. ii. 4. 8 6, 7j 
ix. 10. 8 4 ; Herod, v. 9.) Respecting I 
of Zeui with Almienc during the abMinc* i 
phitryon tee .\lcmk.vk. Amphitryon fell in at 
•gaiu*t Erginut, king of the .Minrans, in wh 
he aiul Heracirt delivered Thcbet from the tiib 
which the city had to pay to Krginot a* i 

tfatWaodcr of Cljiuenui. (Apollod. iL 4. 
Ilttt) Hit tomb wu «b«wii at TlieU-a in tlie 
tat of Fnniiiaik (i. 41. § I ; compare Hum. Oil. 
&, !!(.*&■, Uet. .Sntf. //m. init ; Uiod. ir. 9, 
tft: Hnio- f'tt- 39, 244; MuUer, OrcAon. p. 
Mate) A«»ehylai and Sopboclu wrote each a 
Mi|i4t (f i^ nmw of Amphitryon, which are 
■« hat W« itill poaeu a comedy of Plautun, 
■WAapUtmOi'* the lubject of which is a ludi- 
OMifv^mentxtion of the viiiit of Zons to Alcinene 

Kl ' her lorer .\mphitrvon. ['-^ S.] 

A • iSVA.l>E>< or AMPHITRYiy- 

iii^~ V n4^*i fjimifinArisy, a putronj'mif: fnim 
AafhiDJuu* b^ which JlemcleH is sometimes 
^flrignted, bcrantr bis mother was married to 
ABpkitTTDii. (fiT. MtL ii. UO, IT. 49 ; Find. 
Ot m. 3b, Ink. ri. 56.) [L. &] 

A'lll'HII.'S ('A^i^i), a son of Merops and 
tntW of Adraattoa. These two brothers took 
fvt io the Trojan war again«t their £nther'» ad- 
nac,ad were tiain by Uiumtrdes. (Horn. //. ii. 
n, fe, li. 3*28, &.C.) (Another hero of this 
■mn (ho n* an oUt of the Trojans, occurs in 
/tilli [L. S.] 

AHWOTKRUS ('Att^tfot), a ton of Ah.- 
■na b; Calirrfaoe, ood brother of Acaraan. 
11.] A Trojan of this name occun linm. 
t4li. [L.S.) 

UPHOTERUS ('Afupartpii), the brother of 
appointed by Aleianiler the (,ir«at 
r of the fleet in the MeUespont, a c 3.t3. 
as rabdafd the ishuid* between Greece 
I which did not acknowledge Alexander, 
itmd CrtU of the Persians and pitalea, and sail- 
ilM Pclepnnnesiu a. c 331, to put down a rising; 
' I IJW Muiedanian power. (Arrian, i. 25, iii. 

. iL 1, ir. S, 8.) 
lA'MPIL'S BALBUS. (B*i.Bt;R.] 
;_A'MPItJS FLWIA'NUS. [Flaviani's.] 
"TY'C'I1)ES {'AfAWvKiitjr)^ a pntroiiyniic 
tAttpfau or An]pyx,iipplied to Mopsus. (Ov. 
Ht Tia. Sit, 35U. xii. 45t>, .i'J4 ; Apoliun. Khod. 
irtWlomp. Orok^rv. 721.) IL.S.J 

A'SfPtirS CA/nrvKOf). 1. A sou of Peliaa, 
I of Chloriv and ^ther of the famous seer 
Ijmu. ftl>. U, 128; Apollon. Rhod. 
life/, xii. 4ob'.) PausanioA (t. 17. 
k| 4) cbU* him Ampyx. 
I«f JapelD*, a bard and priest of Ceres, 
iIbs (t the marriage of Peneus. (Ov. 
•!t petunoge of this niune 
[L. S.] 
..-;-,,. l.[AMrycDS.J 2. There 
mvtiiicaJ penonoijes of this nojnc. 
Ift*; xii. 4iO.) IL.S.] 


j'.S, a Konun painter, who waa chicUy 
1 4nMntxng tbe UoUlen House of Ni-ru. 
a adta waa a picture of Minerva, which 

^ at ihe spectator, whatever point of 

'^WAn*. Pliny oiUa him ^grans et aererua, 
^^V (kikliu,'* and odd*, that he only painted 
*aWkatD* kn th« day, and thai with such a 
^■iWUa e«B dignity, that he would not luy 
*^ lis t■g^ cTca when employed in the midst 
•ad BMchincry. (Plin. xxrv. 37 : 
fnrt]ilA!iun of thia passage, among 
tes FulrtUiuB for Aniutitu, 
y Junius and Sillig; bat 


be no sulBciest ground to reject the 


AMYCLAEUS ('AMuicAaibi), a aiimnroe of 
Apollo, derived from the lown of Amycbe in La- 
couio, where he had a celebrated sanc'tu.-iry. Ilia 
coloasal statue there is estimated by Pausanias (iii. 
19. g 2) at thirty cubits in height. It appoan to 
have liecn very ancient, for with the exception of 
the he^, hands, and feet, the whole res<'mbled 
more- a brazen pillar than a statue. This figure of 
the god wore a helmet, and in his hands be held a 
spear and a bow. The women of Amyclne mado 
every year a new x"'^" f"' 'he god, and the pbce 
where they made it was also called the Chilom. 
(Paus. iii. IG. § 2.) The sanctuary of Apollocon- 
t.iined the throne of Amyclae, a work of Buthyclei 
of Magnesia, which Pausanias saw. (iii. 18. §6, 
Alc. j comp. Welcker, ZriUrkriJl fur Goth, der 
alt. Kuial. i. 2, p. 280, lie) [L. S.] 

AMYCLAEUS fA^ontAoror), a Corinthian 
sculptor, who, in conjunction with Diyllua, exe- 
cuted in bronxe a group which tlie Phocions dedi- 
cated at Delphi, after their victory over the The*- 
saltans at tbe beginning of the Persian war, B, c 
4H0. (Pons. I. 1. § 4, 1.1 § 4 ; Jlcrod. viii. 27.) 
The nibjcct of this piece of sculpture waa the con- 
test »f Heracles with Apollo for the sacred tripod. 
Hemclea and Apollo were repn*aented as both 
having hold of the trip<jd. while Leto and Arto- 
mit supported .^[lollo, and Heracles was encouraged 
by Athene. The legend to which the group re- 
ferred la rekt«d by Pausiinins (x. 13. § 4) ; the 
reason for such n subject being chosen by the Pho- 
cions on this necosion, seems to be their own con- 
nexion with .\iK>lln as guardians of the Delphic 
ntucle, and, on the other hand, because the Thea* 
salian chiefs were I leroclcidae, and their war-cry 
**.\theue Itonia." (MtlUer, Archaal. der A'uajrf, § 
89, an. 3.) The attempt of Henwles to carry olT 
the tripod seems to have been a favourite subject 
with the Orcek artists : two or three representa- 
tions of it are mill extant. ( Winckelmann, H'rrfca, 
ix. p. 2&(i, cd. 1 1125 ; SiUig,f.r.,' compare Divi.LUS, 
CaioNiR.) [P. S.] 

AMYCLAS CAm^kAai), a son of Laccdae- 
mon and Sparta, and fiilber of llyacinthus by 
Diani«de, the daughter of I^pitbus. (Apollod. iii. 
10. g 3 : P.-IUS. X. 9. § 3, vii. IB. § 4.) He waa 
king of IjaconiiL, and was regnrded lUi the founder 
of the town of Amyclae. (Paus. iiL 1. § 3.) Two 
other mythical peraoiuigea of this name occur in 
Parthen. Emt. 15, and Apollod. iii. 9. § 1. [L.S.J 

A.MYCI.I'DES, a patnmymic from Amychu, 
by which Ovid (A/e/. x. I(i2) designates Hyaciu- 
thus, who, according to some traditions, was a son 
of Amvdus. [L. S.] 

A.M YCLUS CA>ii/KXoi), or AMYCLAS ('kiii- 
K\ai) of iferacleia, one of i'lato^s disciples. (Diog. 
Laert. iii. 4(i ; Aelian, I'. //. iii. 19.) 

A'MYCt'S ('Ammoi). 1. A urn of Poaeidon 
by Dilliynift, or by the Bithrnion nymph Melia. 
lie was ruler of the country of the Dcbrjcea, and 
when the AigomnU landed on the coast of hia 
dominions, he challenged the bravest of them to a 
boxing match. Polydeuees, who accepted the 
challenge, killed him. '(Apollod. i. 9. § 20; Hj-gin. 
Full. 17 ; Apollon. Khod. ii. init.) The Scholiast 
on Apollonius (ii. 98) reUu-s, that Polydeuees 
bound Amycus. Previous to this fatjil encounter 
with the Argonauts, Amycus had had a feud with 
Lycua, king of Mysia, who was sopiiorted by Hc- 
raclea, and in it Mydon, the brother of Amycua, 
fell by the hands of Jlciacles. (Apollod. ii. .^. $ 9 ; 



Apollon. Rhud. ii 7o4.) Pliny (//. <V. xri. 89) 
pplntci, that upon tlic tomb of Amycus there gtrvc 
a spocicfi of laurvl (tauriu iiuana)^ which tuui the 
effect that, when a bnincfa of it vat uiken on 
board a rcuel, the crew began t<i qnarreL, and did 
not ceue until the branch wiu thrown overboud. 
Threv other niylhiad iierwMiages of this name oc- 
cur in 0». McL xii. 2+i ; Viig. Jn. i. 7U5, com- 
pmd with Hois. //. ri. 389; Viig. Aem. xii. 509, 
compared with t. 297. (L. S.] 

AMYMCNE ("AMw^Mi"!). one of the dnughlerj 
of Donaiu and Elrpbantii. ^Vhen Uwiaut arrived 
in Aigoo, the country, according to the wish of 
Pomdoo, who wiu indignant at Inochut, wo* tuf- 
faring from a drought, and I)iinaa< leut out Amy- 
moDe to fetch water. Meeting a stag, ihe tbot at 
it, but hit a (Ueping tatyr, who mu and punucd 
her. Powidon appcored, and mcued the maiden 
from the latyr, but appropriated her to hiniwlf, 
and then thcwed her the well* at Lema. (Apollod. 
ii 1. f 4.) According to another fumi nf the tra- 
dition, Antymooe fell uleep uu her expedition in 
•eanh of water, and K~ai tuqiriwd by a aatrr. 
She iuToked Puccidon, who appeared and caiat his 
trident at the latyr, which howefer itnick into a 
nek, ao that the Satyr neaped. Poteidan, after 
inTithing the maiden, bode her draw the trident 
from the rock, from which a threefold ftpnng gush- 
ed forth immediately, which waa calli-il oftrr her 
Ih* well of .^mymune. Her ton by Poieidoti wo* 
called Naupliut. (Hrgin. Fall, 169 ; Lucion, DiiU. 
Maria. 6 ; Paui. ii. 37. $ 1.) The Nory of Aray- 
Wmt waa the nubject of one of the latyric dmnuu 
of Ae*chyhu,and i* repmeuted upon aTue which 
waa diacoTered at Naplea in 1790. (Bbttigcr, 
Amanita, ii. p. ■27.'>.) [ L. S.] 

AMYNA.VDllH ('AAufrartpot), king of the 
Alhanaoas lint appear* in hiatory aa mediator 
betweao Philip of Alacedunia and the Aetoliona. 
(b. c 30&) When the llonians were about to 
4ni(|c war on Philip, they wnt ambuaadan to 
Amyiiander to inform him of their intention. 
On the cummencrment of the war he came to the 
cuDp of tile Roman* and promiaed themaMiitance: 
tW tuk of bringing orer the Aetolion* to an 
■lUoBce with the Roouna waa oaaigiwd to him. 
In ac 19S ba took ihe town* of Pbock and 
Oonphi, and ranged Thrily. He waa preaent 
at tM eanfmnee hotwegi Flaminiu* and Philip, 
■■i diniag tho alKirt trace waa lenl by the former 
to Rook. He waa «fui pnaent at tile coaftranoe 
IM-Mwitb Philip after the butle of CynMcraUae. 
I )n the concloaiaa at peace he waa allowea to re- 
tain all the fortreaaca which he had taken from 
Pkilipb In the war which the Romaoa, Hipported 
by Philip, waged with Antiocho* IK. Amynander 
waa uduced by hi* brother-in-law, Philip of 
Mefoiapalia, to aide with Antiochu*, to whom he 
laaMeted aetata terriee. Dot in a. c 191 be waa 
dntan from hi* kingdoa by Philip, and fled with 
ki* wifB and ckildren to Ambiaciik The Romana 
H^aifod that ha ahaold be deJiTend ujs but tlierr 
' mmal »m not conpliad with, and with the 

MUM* at ika Aelaiiana be recoTeted hi* king- 

■. He teat mt— itoa to Rone and lo t£e 
, Upiaa fai Alfa, to IMU fcr peace, which waa 
fraitteJ Vm. (a. c. 1S9.) Urn ifWwarla indntcd 
Ik* Aahaciau to MOaidar to tbo aooan*. 

Ho tmakd Ahmm, tte dhMwhter of a Uagalo- 
, lolllai aaMd Matattt. lU^eetiaf hi* dntlh 

i !■»■ aa iwnaan (Ur. xxtiL 30, uix. 12, 

noihiai I 


' t^putadi I 


xxxi. 28, xTxii. U, xixiii. 3, 34, xirr. 47, nW 

7— 10. 1 4, 2«, 32, ixxTuL 1, S, 9 ; PolvK. iri % 
xrii. 1, in, xrui. 1!), 30, xx. lU, xui. II, 11 
Appian, A>r. 17.) [CP.M.)i 

AM Y NO'MACHUS {'Jmrn^iutx't), tba mi 
Philocratea, woo, together with Tiinoctatn, ll 
heir of Epicorua. (Diog. Locrt. ix. lU, I7i Cic:i 
Fin. ii. 31.) 

AW YNTAS {•A^rras) I., king of 
wn of .\lcetaa, and fifth in deacent from P( 
tho founder of the dynoiiy. (Ilcrud. Tiii. 1 
coDip. Thucvd. iL 100 ; Juat. vii. 1, xxcil 
Paua. ix. 40!) 

It waa under him that Macedonia 
butary to the Peruana. Megabaxui^ wl 
on hia return from hia Scythian expcdidog 
left at the head of 80,000 men in Europe (Hi 
It. 143), acnt after tlie conqueat of Poeonia 
quite earth nnJ water of Amyutoa, who 
atcly complied with hia dcmuud. The V* 
envoy* on thia occaaion behaved with 
tolencc at tho banquet to which Amyntaa it' 
them, and were murdered by hi* aun Ali 
(Seep. 118, b.) After thia we find 
corded of Am3mtae, except hi* ofltsr to the 1' 
tratidae of Anthemua in Chalddicn, when 
hod juat been diaappointed in hia bojir of a 
tiun to Athena by the power of thi- 
fedcFOcy. (Herod, v. 94 ; MiilL Jiur. 
16 ; Waaac, aJ Thac. ii. 99.) AmyniM 
about 498 a c leaving the kingdom to Ale. 
Herodotua (viiL 13G) apcaka of a aou tt ' 
and Gygaea, called Amyntoa after hi* _ 

'i. 1 L king of Macedonia, waa aon af 
the brother of Petdiccaa II. (Thne. fi. 
He aocceeded his fiithor in hia appnnago i 
Macedonia, of which Perdiccaa 
wished to deprive him, a* he had 
oured to aivat it from Phili|), but 
dercd by the .\theniana. (Tbiic. i. .i7.) 

In the year 42'.' B. c. Aiiiynua, aided by 
talcea, king of the Odryaian Tbraci<ll^ il 
forward to contcat with Perdiccaa the thtaaa 
Macedonia ilaelf; but the buier ouiliitci 
obtain powe through the mediation of ScMla^l 
nephew of the Thiaeian king (Thoc ii. II 
and AmyniB* wa* tfau* obliged to eontoai Ua 
with hia hereditary principalltjr. In the tki 
fifUi year, however, after tUa, m. c. 394, W 
tained the crown by the murder id Pauaanias 
of tho neurper Aeroptu. (Uiod. xi*. 88.) It 
neicrthde** cnntealed with him by 
aon of Pauaania*, who wa* auppoited by 
the lUytian chief : the reault waa, tbat Amj* 
wa* driven from Macedouia, but found %!■ 
among the Theanliant. and wa* i niMrd 
their aid to recover bi* kingdom. (DM. si*, 
laocr. Ardtid. p. 125, h. c; oncof, Oiad. 
4; Cic. Jt Of. ii. 11.) But befen bi* 
when bard pieaaed by Atgaea* and 
he hail given op to the Ulynthian* a 
territory bordering apon their own,' 
a* it would aeem, of a mtnration to ibo 
and willing to cede the land in quevtioa I* 
thua rather than to hia rival, (liiod. xav. 
19.) On hia ivtum he ckimrd Imck what kr 

* There i* aome di*crepancy of 
ibi* point. Juatin (vii. 4} 
call Amynto* the ion of Meaalmk 
IHod. XT. 60, and Wcaaelii^ ad Itt. 


i tt ban artnnted to them u • drpoul, and 
to i?«luTe it, h^ applied to Sparta 
(Diod. XT. 1.9.) A liniilur applioitinn 
» ika nadr, & c. 382, bj the toim* of Aouithiu 
oi ApriBonia, whicfa hod been thimtmcd bj 
(MMi far dacfining to join her conMeracr. 
Cm. lUL T. S. I 1 1, &e.) With the conient of 
■• lEa af Syaita, the requiml tuccour wai 
|i<ii| Oder iha command mcceMiTely of Endn- 
■te («ilh whom hi> brother Phoebidju wai 
■MMidJL Tclcutiai, Agnipolis and Polybiades, 
bjlklHt of whom Olrnthu n-as reduced, B. c, 
«l (Di«L x». 1»— 23 J Xen. UdL t. 2, 3.) 
Itapkmit the war, the Spartans were Tigoroiuly 
«HM hj Amyntaa, and by Derdas, hia kin»- 
■B, (nme of Eljmia. Beaidee thia alliance with 
%ink vlncb he appeara to have prescrred with- 
«d btomplkm to hit death, AJnyntaa united 
IsBatftln with Jason of Phrme (Uiod. xt. 60), 
ml CBefaUy coltitated the friendthip of Athens, 
vtt akich aiate he would have a bond of onion 
ii lUt enomon jealousr nf Olvnthus and pro- 
WIt ilu of Thebe*. Of his friendship towards 
Its Iklhniana he gare proof, 1st, by ailTncnting 
thwckin 10 the pOMession of/Vniphipolis (Aeach. 
Dl* Daparp. p. 32J ; and, 2ndly, by adopting 
^iiniM IS bis aoo. (/</. p. 32.) 

biffaars to hare been in the reign of .\niyntni, 
• iipahapi implied by Strabo (£if. riL p. 330), 
lb* at taal uf the Macedonian gorcmment was 
■vrcd 6om Aegae or Edewa to Pella, thoagh 
Ik ianer still coiitinaeil to be the hurying-ploce 
<Hh kb«s. 

Jmia ^riL 4) relates, that a plot wsa laid for 
fc'sBisiimion by his wife Eurydice, who wished 
<• H*> li<r soD-in-law and ponunoar, Ptolemy of 
tMm, tm the throne, but that the design was 

I to An jnias by her dauohtrr. Uiodorus 
(n./l ) alls PhSemy of Alcirus the loa of Amyn- 
*•; hot we Wesseling's note ad tue„ and Thirl- 
wll tV. UiM, TtiL T, p. \iVi. Amynliis died in 
■ itaneed age. He. 370, loaring three legitimate 
•nkAleonder, Perdiocaa, and the £unuus Philip. 
('lit./.c;; Diod.XT. 60.) 

i, O t amb o u of Amyntas II., was left an infiint 
■Muilial uaaa>siiiin of the ihnine of Macedonia, 
<rtai Us father Perdiccas III. (ell in battle against 
*• Qyiins B, r. 360. (Uiod. xvL 2.) He wna 
t^M; ndoded from the kingly power by hia 
■•ti PMif, ■. c 3A9, who had at first acted 
■"■^ M »gent (Just. Tii. 5), and who felt bim- 
''•Mb ID Ida ttsnrpation, that he brought up 
'■TMm al fcia eoort, and gave him one of his 
^■lIlBt ia laairiaia In the first year of the 
*ipi it AleaandsT ue Ortat, a. c. 336, Amyntas 
*• oacBlsl far a plot against the king's lift-. 
nVil*. Gr. HaL tuL t. pp. IliS, 166, 177. ToL 
'>'^S>9, and the authohlira to which he refers ; 
'•* lii. 6, aad Freinshciui, ad C>r(. ri. !), 17.) 

4. A Macedonian officer in Alexander's army, 
son of Andrumene*. (Dii>d. xrii. 45; Cnrt. ». I. 
§ 40; Arrian, iii. p. 72, f., ed. Steph.) After the 
battle of the (Jianicus, ac 334, when the garrison 
of Sordis was quietly snrreudered to Alexander, 
Amyntas was the oflicer sent forward to receive it 
from the commander, Mithrenea. (Arr. i. p. 17, c. ; 
Freinsh. Shju in (\rt. ii. 6. § 1 2.) Two yeors after, 
332, we again hear of him as being tient into Ma- 
cedonia to collect levies, while .Alexander after the 
siege of Uoza advanced to Egypt ; and he retunied 
with them in the ensuing year, when the king was 
in possession of Susa. (An. iii. p. 64, c ; CurL iv. 
B. g30, V. I. §40, riL 1. San) 

After the execution of Philolas on a chaige of 
treason, B. r. 330, Amyntas and two other sons of 
Andromenea (Attains and Simmias) were arrested 
on suspicion of having been engaged in the plot 
The suBpicion was strengthened by their knoivn 
intimacy with I'hilotna, and by the fiict that their 
brother Polcmo had lied from the cnmp when the 
latter was apprehended (Arr. iii. pp. 72, t, 73, a.), 
or according to Curtius (vii. I. § 10), when he woa 
given up to the torture. Amyntas defended himself 
and his brothers ably (CurL vii. I. j! IR, &c), and 
their iunocencc being further established by Polemo'a 
re-appenmnce (Curt. vii. 2. § 1, &C.; Arr. iii. p. 73, 
a.), they were acquitted. Some little time after, 
Amynuis was killed by an arrow at the siege of 
a village. (Arr. iii. L c.) It is doubtful whether 
the son of Andromenes is the Amyntas mentioned 
by Curtius (iii. 9. g 7) as commander of a portion 
of the Macedonian troops at the battle of Issus, 
B. c 333 ; or again, the person spoken of as lead- 
ing a brigade at the forcing of the ■* Persian (jatei,'* 
B. c 831. (Curt. v. 4. §20.) But "Amyntas'* 
appears to hare been a common name among the 
Macedonians. (See Cart. iv. 13. £ 28, t. 2. S 5, 
viii. 2. § 14, 16, vL 7. i 15, vL 9. § '28.) 

5. The Macedonian fugitive and tmitor, son 
of Antiochua. Arrinn (p. 17, f.) ascrilxrs his 
fli;;ht from Macedonia tn hia hatred and fear of 
.Alexander the Great; the ground of these feel- 
ings ia not stated, but Milfnnl (ch. 44. sect 1) 
connects him with the plot of Pausonias and tha 
murder nf Philip. He took n'fuge in Ephcaui 
under Per^ilm protf^etion ; whence, however, after 
the battle of the Uranicus, fearing the approach of 
Alexander, ho escaped with the Greek mercenaries 
who garrisoned the phue, and fled to the court uf 
Dareiua. (Arr. Lc.) In the winter of the snino 
yew, B. c. 333, while Alexander »-as at Pluiselis 
in Lycia, discovery was made of a plot against his 
life, in which Amyntaa was iniplicau-d. lie ap- 
pears to have acted as the channii through whom 
Uareius had been negotiating with Alexander the 
Lyncestian, and hod promised to aid him in mount- 
ing the throne of Macedonia on condition of his 
assassinating hia master. 1'he design was disco- 
vered thrrtugh the confession of Atisines, aPersiiui, 
whom Ihircius had despatched on a secret mission 
to the Lyncestian, and who was apprehended by 
Pannenio in Phrygia. (Arr. i. pp. 24, o., 25, b.) 

At the Imttle of Issns we hear again of Amyntaa 
aa a commuiider of Greek mercenaries iii the Per- 
sian service (Curt, ill II. § lb; comp. Arr. ii. p. 
40, b.) ; and Plutarch and Arrian mention his ad- 
vice vainly given to Darius shortly before, to await 
AJexaiidiT'a approach in the large open pkiins to 
the westward of Cilida. (Plut. Altt. p. 675, b.; 
An. ii. pp. 33, e., 34, a.) 


On the liefeat of thr Peninni at the battle of 
Iuu>, Amynlai fled with a lai<^ body of Circekn 
to Tripoli^ in Phuonicia. There he lotzed some 
I *hip<, with which he poued orer to Cyprnit, and 
1 thence to E(I)'pt, of the noTeieignty of which — tt 
double trnilnr — he duAigticd to poueu hijiisolf. 
The ptt<n of PeluAium were opened to him on iii» 
preteudiitg that he came with authority from Da- 
nios : thence he prcaied on to Memphis, and being 
joined by a large number of Egyjitiont, dofentiMl in 
a bottle the PcrBian garrinon under Mazaccft. But 
thi« victory made hiH tnmpi iiver-coutident and in- 
autiuua, and, while they were diaperied for piun- 
' X, Manoe* mlliod forth upon them, luid Ain\-nla& 
T waa killed with the greater part of hia men. 

EkL ZTii. Ml ; Arr. iL p. 40, c ; Curt. ir. 1. g -2i, 
i». 7. § 1, 2.) 
It ia pouible that the luhject of the preient arti- 
} may have been the Amyntas who \» mentioned 
song the amla*iadofv kent to the Boeotians by 
tPhilip, u. c. 338, to prevent the contemplnted 
^lUiance of Thcbe* with Athens. It ihimj/ ai«o bare 
been the «m of Andromenea, (Pint. Uem. pp. 849, 
&.U; Diod. ivL 8o.) 

fi. A king of Oulatin and leveml of the adja- 
cent rnuntrir'ii, mentiancd by ^tmbo (xii. p. 5ti|') 
Wk contenip<irary with lunui>lf. He aecm* to have 
fint jiokm^smhI Lycuiinia, where he imiintained 
mure than .'(01) fliKka. (Strab. lii. p. jt',a.) To 
thin he added the territory of Uerbe by the murder 
of iti prince, .Xntipatcr. the friend of Cicero ( Cie. 
ad fam, Jtiii. 73), and Itaura and Cappadocia by 
HtOMIi brour. Plulanh, who ennmctBte* him 
MDMif the adherent! of Antony at Actium (.-Inl. 
p. 944, r.), ipeukt prububly by anticipation in call- 
ing hull king of <ialnlia, for be did not suctifd to 
that till the death of l)eiotaru» (Strab. xii. p. .5G7); 
and the Litter ia meiitiune<l by Pluloivh hin»e]f 
(A Hi. p. U45, b.) a* detening to Oclaviiu, jiitt be- 
fore the battle, together with Amyatu. 

NS'hil* puraning hia wheniea of aRgnuidiiement, 
and endi^tvnuriiig to rc<liire the retmclory high- 
Undrnt arnund him, AmynloA made himself maater 
of Homonada (Stnib. xii. p. oli.t), or Homoiut 
( Pliii. //. A'. T. v!7 ), and alew the prince of that 
place ; but hia death waji avenged by hii widow, 
and .\inyiitiu fell a victim to an ambuah which 
ahc laid for him. (btisb. /. c.) [E. E.J 


nn OP AMvxTaa, kcio or OAiaTiA. 

AMYNTAS Chf^imt). % Otcck writer of a 
wnrk entitled iraSfuil, wbi<h waa probably' u ao- 
cmiiit of the ditfemit h.-lltin(^placM of Alennder 
th« Qrrat in hia A* ''inn. lie perhap* 

•eecotpanied Aiexuli ' 'hturiiiu^ p. *J<>.i.) 

Prom the nrfereiiccB : ..- ule t« it, it a«*enia 

to have nintaiueii a gaud deal nf hiatnrimJ infuniui- 
t»in. (Alheii. ii. p. 67, a., i. p. 4t'2. lu. xi. p. .'lUO, d., 
aii.pftAl4.J,.VJfl.e.i A.lian,/AA'.v. 

AMVNT.iS, aargvon. lA>)(^TttL] 

AMYNTIA'NUS ('A;iin^«Mti). th*iallM« 
a M'ork on .\lexander the fireat, dedicated la 
emjieror M. Aiitoninua, the style of wbieh Pbotil 
blaincR. He also wrote the life of Ol^inpia^tk 
mather of AJexandcr, and a few other bingti^hil 
(Phut. Cat. 131, p. 97, a^ ed. Bekker.) n 
Scholinat on Pindar {ad Ol. iiL o°2} refa* Is 
work of .\myntianux on eleplianta. 

A.MYNT'OK ('AMVKTvp}. according to Ha 
( //. X. 2li(i), a ton of Onnenna of Kleon in Theaalj 
where Autolycus broke into bi^ house and itq 
the beatitifijl helmet, which afterwards came inl 
ihc bands of Meriones, who wore it during A 
war against Troy. Amrntor waa the (ntber 
t'rantnr, Kiuemon, Astydnmeia, and Pboeui 
The Ust of the«e was cursed and expelled ^ 
Amyntor for having entertjiined, at the insti|^lil 
<i( his mother Clevbule or ilippoUonieia. an unlM 
ful inlcrcourse with his fiither's mistma (Hi 
//. ii. 434, \c; Lycophr. 417.) Acturdug 
.^IHillodorus (ii. 7. 8 7, iii. 13. 8 7), who 
chut Amrntor blinded his sod Phoenix, he w« 
king of Umienium. and was shun by Ilrndcs, 
u'bntn be refused a paasoKe through his dominiiia 
and the hand of bis daughter Aatydiuneio. (C 
Diud. iv. 37.1 Accnnling to (J\i<l (J/rf. riii. 311 
xii. 3(;4, Aic), Amyntor niok part in the t'aly< 
iiian hunt, and was king of the lloKifies, and wli 
conquered in a war by Pdcus, he gave him his • 
CnmtOr ns a hostage. [ I.. ■>•] 

A'M YKIS i'/i-twpu), of Sybaria in Italy. M 
named **the Wise," whose sun was one of d 
suitors of .Agoriata, at the bi*ginning of the 
century, H. ■:. Amyris wa* sent by hia fellow-eil 
tens to consult tlie Delphic oracle. II a repulati< 
for wisdom gave rise to the praverl>,^A^u^i« ttair^n 
"the wise man is mad." ( Ilemd. vi. Vlti ; Athea V 
p. o'JO, a. -, Suidas. >. r. ; Kualath. lui /I, ikp. 291 
Zenobius, Parotmim/r. iv. 27.) 

A.MYRTAi:L's'(A»u.>n'oI»j). I. The 
according to Ctesias {u/j. Phot. Cod. 72, p. 
B<<J(ker), of the king of Egypt who waa caaq/a 
by l^ambyses. [PsAMMeNiTt'K] 

'2. A Saite, who, having been invested iriltt tl 
title of king of Egj'pl, was joined with luarn* 
Libyan in the cfiminand of the Egyptiafis wl 
they rcbeUiMi ngniiist .Art.ixerxes Lxfiigimattaa(s.^ 
46U). After the tint success of the Egyptian 
B. a 45S (Ai.:HaEMK.viM], Anaxene* seat 
•econd immense army against them, by which ih^ 
were totally defeated. Amyrtaeos eaoiped t« tk 
island of Elbo, and mninlaiiied himself as king i 
the marshy districts of Lower K •■ • " -'ml th 
year 414 B. u, when the Kg> -i A 

Persians, and .AwyrtajMis reigif 
the only king ul the '28ih dynnsir. liia natas 
the monunienls is thought to be A<inuliMli 
Euacbius (alls him Anvnes and Am} 
CAliufrriroi). (Hcnid. ii.' 140, iiL IA ; Thur. 
110; l)i.J, xi.74, 7i: riesias. up. /■' ' 
3% 40. Dekker; Eusek Chrum. An,:- 
342, ed. Zohrab and iim; Wdk. L 

E.iy,4.\. p. 205.) IP. SJ 

A'MYRl'8 ('A^vpof), a son of Huaeidoii, Cn 
whmn the town and river Amyrus in The«aat 
were believed to have derived their name. (Sl#p| 
llyx. ». e.; VnL Klace. ii. 1 1.) I U KJ 

AMYTIIA'ON {•A^<M>»»), a «>u of frvthe 
and Tyro (Horn. CW. xi. 235, *c). and brnlk4 
of Ae«in and Phenw. (Ilom. Od. xi. ■2S9.) H 
dwelt at I'yio* iu Meascnia, and hjr Iduturae I14 



I dw filher of Biai, Mrbunpa*, and Aeolia. 

lll«Li.». } II, 7. S7.J According U) Piiidnr 
(/ylir.SlOiftc.]^ he aod mveisI other meiubcri 
if ha fcadr went to lotcn* to intcrctKle with 
Nwao brhktf of Juoiu Psuianiat (v. 8. § 1) 
■nlida* turn omoog thoae to whom the rfstoracion 
tf lk> Olympiui gunc* wu aicnbed. [L. S.] 
AMYTUAO'NIL'S, a patronymic from Amy- 
Im. by which hi» too, the t«er Mchinipui, is 
IlllMi ilrMgnaleiL (Virg. Oevnj. iii. ,530 ; 
CitadL 1. 348.) The detccntUuiu uf Amythn<jn 

■ |anil *i* tailed by the GreeJu Amythoonidoe. 
(MkiuLp.3;'i.) [L. S.J 

AHVllb ('A^wru). 1. The daughter of A»- 
l;9% the wtb! of Cyras and the mother of Com- 
tji>\ KconiiaK to Cte«u, (J'cn. c 2, 10, &.c, 

lUtdngiiter of Xcrxe*, the wifu of Megsr 
Ijm, »d thr mother of Aohmnnenet, who pe- 
nMis Egvpu according to Claiiiaa. (/'en.ctlO, 
Ua.30, M, 39. &c.) 
I'-NACtS [Anax, No. 2.] 
A.N.\CHAKijIS (' Kfixfitt), a Scythian of 
'} auk. aecarding to Herodotni (ir. 7'>), the 
~ n«, aod brutlier of Sauliua, king ol 
I; aocuniing lo Lucion (.Scy<Aa) the ton of 
tal He left hi> nutire country to tnirel in 
lal knairledgc, and came to Athena just at 
I thai &>lon was occupied with his Icgisla- 
Ue bcaune acquaiuu-d n-ith Silon, 
mplidty of his way of living, his 
I kja aeaie obserrations on the institu- 
I of the Greeks, he excited gencnil 
\mA admintiaii. The fiuue of his wisdom 
that he waa even reckoned by some 
fait vreo aigek. Some writers alfirmed, 
titer haring beau honoured with the Athenian 
■hja". '— ■»*» initiated into the Kleufiinion 
^•i»- to the account in Herodotus, 

• l»r'.' v.r'. he was killed by hi* bro- 

'biiJHUiiias while celebrating the orgies of Cybelo 

■ Hjlira, Diogenes Uiertius gires a somewhat 
ifciliU stnaoo — thai be was killed by his bro- 
■calila hmtliitg. He is said to have written it 
**al <nrk on Icgisbuion and tlie on of war. 
C^ITaab Uiif, T. 3°2) quotes from one of his 
■■■^ <t which seterel, though of doubtful au- 
J^My. are still Mtnnu Various nyings of his 
*• hen prcwrred by Diogena and Athemien*. 
I1«4 ji. «G. 76, 77 ; Plot. Sol. i. C'odrfr. 
%i%B>^; Diog. Loen. i. 101, &c.: Slrab. vii. 
yWi; Ijodaa^ Scytka tjai Amadanu; Athen. 
(K U>. 1. PPL 4-J8. 4S7, xnr. p. 613 ; AeUao, 

. f« V 7.) [C. P. M.] 

AMA'CREON ('Araxpitn'), one of the principal 

'^^ lyilff Borts, ns a native of the Ionian city 

<'7aa,(a Asia Minor. The accounts of hi* life 

^ l^pr* aod confused, but he seems to have 

^1 bs joatb ai bis native city, and to have re- 

^«1> WMb the great body of its iohabitmita, to 

^'AiK io Tbnee, when Teos was token by Uar- 

l|V^dir frasiat of Cyru* (about a. l-. 540 ; Simb. 

"•■^M^). The early port of his middle life 

** fW at iliaaoa, nndrr the patronage of Poly- 

**^ b vtioK pniiv .\nacreun wrote luanv 

^p. t?l.-Ah. s,T. p. 638; lleroJ.iii. 121.) H"e 

" .li favour with the tymnt, and is 

" vned his temper by the cbitnns of 

*■<- (iliiim. TjT. Dm. xxxvii. i.) After 

<W iMh of Polyetataa (b. c. &2-J), he went to 

iMIba ianlaliaa of the tymnt Hipponrhui, 


who tent a galley of fifty ours lo fetch him. (PlaU 
/fipjHiTcJt. p. '.''28.) At .Athens he became ac- 
quainted with 8imonides and other poets, whom 
the taste of llipparchus bod collected round him, 
and he waa admitted to intimacy by other nuble 
fiuniliea besides tlie I'eisistratidoe, among whom he 
especially celebrated the beauty of Critiiu, the son 
of Unipidcs. (PhiL Cliam. p. 157; Uerghk's 
AiiacreoH, fr. 55.) He died at the age of 85, pro- 
bably about B. c. 478. (Lucian, Mai-rut,. c. •Jli.) 
Siuioiiides wrote two epitaphs upon him (.4«Mu/. 
fal. viL °i4, 25), the Athenians set up his statue 
in the Acropolis (I'uus. i. 25. § 1), and the I'einnt 
struck liis portrait on ttieir coins. (Visconti, lam, 
lireaim, pL iii. 6.) The place of his death, how- 
ever, is uncerlaiiL The second epitaph of Simo- 
nidea appears to say clearly that he was buried at 
Teoo, whither he is supposed to have returned after 
the death of Uipparchus (u. c. 514) ; but there is 
also a tradiliou that, after his return to Teos, he 
tied a second time to Abdrra, in consequence of 
the revolt of lli?,tiiieu8. (u. c. 41^5; Suidas, s. v. 
'As'OJc^Gtfi' and T^oi.) This tradition has, however, 
verj" probably arisen from a confusion with the 
original emigration of the Teiaiis to Abdem. 

The universal tradition of antiquity represents 
Anacreon as a most consummate voluptuar}' ; and 
hia poems prove the truth of the tradition. Though 
Athenaeus (z. p. 429) thought that their drunkeu 
tone Vi'iu alVected, arguing that the poet must have 
been tolerably sober while in the act of writing, it 
is plain that Anocnvn sings of love and wine with 
hearty good will, and that his songs in honour of 
Polycrau*s come less from the heart than the ex- 
pressions of his love for the beautiful youths whom 
the tyrant hod gathered round him. {AnIM. J'aL 
viL 25 ; Maxim. Tyr. Urn. xxvi. 1.) W'e see in 
him tlie luxury of the Ionian inl1aml^d by the 
ferrour of the poet. The tale that he loved Sappho 
is very improbable. (Atheii. xiii. p. 59U.) llis 
death was worthy of his life, if we may believe the 
account, which looks, however, too lilie a poetical 
fiction, that be was choked by a gra|>e-stona. 
(PUn. vii. 5; Val. Max. ix. 12. i 8.) The idea 
funued of Anacreon by nearly all ancient writers, 
as a grey-haired old man, aeenis to have been de- 
rived from his later poema, in fotgetfulness of the 
beX that when his fame was at its height, at the 
court of Polycrales, he was a very young man ; the 
deliuion being aided by the unabated watmth of 
his poetry to the very lost. 

ill the time of Suidas five books of Anacreon*a 
pcema wens extant, but of these only a few genuine 
fragments have come down to us. The " Udes" 
attributed to him are now universally admitted to 
be spurious. All of them are Inter than the time 
of Anacreon. Though some of them are very 
graceful, othen arc verj- dclicient in poetical feel- 
ing ; and all are wauling in the lone of eamestnaaa 
which the poetry of Anacivon always breathed. 
The usuil metre in these Odes is the Iambic 
Dimeter Caulectic, which occurs only once in the 
genuine faagmenta of Anacreon. His fiivourite 
metres are tlie Cliuriambic and the Ionic a 

The editions of Anacreon are very Dumerona. 
The best are those of Urunck, Strasb. 1 78U ; Fischer. 
l.ip>. 1793: Mehlhoni, Uloguu, 1825; and 
Beruhk. Lips. 1834. [P. S.) 

ANAL'YN1).\UAXES ('AKOJCwSofiCni), the 
father of tsirdamipolus, king of Assyria. (Anion, 





^». ii. 5 ; Strab. xir. p. 672; Atbon. viii. p. 3i&, (., 
lii. pp. 52!), e, 530. b.) 

ANAllYO'MENK CAroSw/Mrn), the mdiicM 
minB out of the lea, a nimamr given to Aphrodite, 
ill nlliiiion to the itnry of her being liom trom the 
foam of the tea. This surname hud not much ce- 
lebrity preTious to the time of Apellea, but his 
&mnuK painting of Aphrodite Aimdyomeue, in 
which the goddess was reprewntcd as rising from 
tJte ten and drying her hair nnth her hands, at 
once drew great attention to this poetical idea^ and 
ricited the eniuUtion of other artista, painten as 
well OS •cnlptors. The [lainting of Apelles was 
made for the inhabitants of the isbind of Cos, who 
aet it up in their temple iif Asclepius. Its beauty 
induced Augustus U> have it removed to Rome, 
and the Conns were indemnified by a reduction in 
their t&xea of 100 inlcnta. In the time of Nero 
the greater part of the picture had become effnocdf 
aiid it was replaced by the work of another artist. 
(Stnb, liv. p. 657; I'lin. //. A". mi». 'Mi. §§ 12. 
and 15 ; Auum. Ep. 106 ; I'aus. ii. 1. § 7.) [ll. i^.] 

ANAEA {'AraU), an Amazon, from whom the 
town of Annoa in Coria derived its name. (Steph. 
By*. ».«.,- Eu«tath.i*i/>/.«vs. /*eriy.«28.) LU.S.] 

ANAOALLIS. [Auallis.] 

ANA(JNOSTE.S JOA.NNES ('\miyvr,s'Ain- 
yviiaTJif), wrota an account of the storming of bis 
native city, Theasolonicn, by the Turks under 
Amumth II. (a. d. 14.10), to which it added a 
" Muuudia," or lamentation for the event, in prose. 
The wurk is printed, in Greek and Latin, in the 
. Skiiitiittra of I.eo .\itatius, Kom. 165.1, Ovo., pp. 
818 — 380. The author wo* present at the kiege, 
•fker which he left the city, but woa induced to 
letam to it by the promisra of the can<|ueriir, who 
two yciu« oflcruards deprived him of all his pn>- 
|ierty. (Itaiiekius, i/e /lul. Bfx. Scrip), i. .18, 
p. 636 : VVhuitoo, SHpp. to Cave, tial. Lit. u. 
Il1;I0.) (P.S.] 

ANAI'TIS fArafrif), an Asiatic divinity, 
r vhoM luune appear* in varinas modifications, Mnne- 
writlen .\iuiea (Strab. >vi. p. 738), some- 
t Aneitia (Plut. .irlu*. 27), sometime* Tanaii 
(.(Clenu Alex. J'n>lr>jit. p. 43), or Nanaea. (Moccab. 
il. 1. IS.) iler worship was sprmd over several 
part* of Asia, such as Armenia, Cappadocia, A*«y- 
ria. Persii^ \c (Strab. xi. p. 512, lii. p. 559. xv. 
p. 733.) In most places where she was w<ir>hi)>- 
ped we find numerous slaves (Itp^5«uXoi) of both 
•rxe* consecrated to her, and in Aciliseoe these 
•lave* wvrv taken from the most distinguished 
families. The female slave* proatituted thnu- 
hItc* lor a number of yean benre ihcy married. 
Thear piie*t* seem to have been in the enjoyment 
of Iha sacnd land connecled irith her temples, and 
ir* find mention of laered cow* also being kept at 
•urh templesL (PluL Lunil. 24.) Krom this and 
other circumstance* it ha* been inferred, that the 
wonhip of Anailis was a bnuich of ih* ladian 
, vmbip uf nature. 1 1 irem^ at any nia, dear 
that it wa* a part of the worakip ao eonmon among 
the Asiatics of the erratic e puwer* of nature, liuth 
Bitle and female. The Greek writer* sometime* 
idrfittfy Auaiti* with their Artcuiis (Paus. iii. 16. 
$ 6 ; Pint. Lc.y, and Mimetimes »iih tlieij Aphro- 
aita. (' ' " \ Lr.; Agathiaa, i. 2 ; Ammian. 
IJtlaic. ^rtian. Game 7 ; coiop. Creiuer, 

\c.) [L.S.) 

AXANlL'a (AWrior), a Oirek iambic poet, 
wuh Uippunaa (about 540 a. c) 


The invention of the tatyric iambic 
Scaxon is ascribed to him a* well aa to I 
(Hcphoest. p. 30, 1 1, GaihT.) Some 
Ammiu* are preserved by Athenarus (pp.711,! 
370), and all that is known of him has beene 
lected by Welcker. (Hgipomaeiu tl Amum /« 
iiraphoruM FrafftnaUa^ p. 109, A-c) (P. S.J 

ANAPHAS ('AxB^), was said to have I 
one of the seven who slew the Magi in B. c 5ilj 
and to have been lineally dc«cendcd from Ale 
the sitter of Cambyscs, who was the ialliei ot I 
great Cyrus. The Cappodocian king* tractd C 
origin to Anaphai, who received the 
of Cappododa, free from taxes. Aoapkati 
cceded by hi* son of the same name, and 1 
by Ihitame*. (I)iod. xxxi. BcL 3.) 

ANAST.VS1.\, a noble Roman hidy, wbai 
fercd martyrdom in the Diocletian pen 
(a. d. 303.) Two letters wriii4.'n by her in j 
are extant in Suidos j. e. Tifuciyom. 

ANASTA'SIUS {■ Kratrriawt), the 1 
a Latin epigram of eighteen line* 
a certain Annatus, "De Katione Vi< 
p<Mt locitom Venom ct Emiasum 
which i* to be found in teveral editi 
Hr;Hmat SanitatU Sakmiamum. {e.g./ 
I2mn.) The life and date of the author i 
unknown, but ho was probably a Utc untrr. i 
is lherc>fore not to be confounded ««ith a Gn 
physician of the aime name, whoae remedy (uti 
gout, which waa to be taken during a whole j 
i* .quoted with approliation by .\iftitu (fa 
scrm. iv. 47, p. 609), and who most ihei 
lived some time during or before the fifth t 
alter Chrjat (W. A. 0.11 

ANASTA'SIUS L II., pntriarcJis of Akik 
[Anastasii's Sikaita.] 

ANASTA'SIUS \. ( 'AmrrirMi ), 
of CoNkTANTINOPLK, tuniiuned Diotnt (A 
fos) on account of the diA'eivnl colour <i I 
eye-ball*, was bora about 430 A. " "' '■' 
chium in Epeitu*. He «w deac. 
unknown fiimily, and we ire ac, 
only a few circumstance* concerning hi* Ufa | 
viously to his accession. \\'e know, 
tluit he wa* a tealoiu Eutychiau, that b* i 
married, and that he terved in the impariali 
guard of the .Silenti.irii, which h-i* tt»^ itiummII 
be'uig generally called Anasta- 
emperor Zeuo, the Isanrion, 
*'ithout mole i**ue, it wa* geuvRiily l.c^u >cd 1 
his brother Ijoiiginu* would succeed him ; t«t I 
oonaequenoe of an intrigue carried oa i 
time, a* it aeem*, between Anaatauua ■ 
pre** Ariadne, Ana*la*itt* wa* pnciaioMill 
Shortly afterward* he married .\riada*. faol I 
not appear that be had bad an adnllainai i 
couiac with her during the life of bar 
When Amutasiu* aiccndrd the tlutn* «(„ 
Caaleni empire be waa a man of at l*a«t i 
though, notwithalMxting hia advanced < 
evinnd nneomman energy, hi* rei^ b i 
most deplorable periods of Ilyiautuir historr, I 
turbed a* it wa* by foreign and intnlme wan i 
by the still greater calamity of i 
Immediately after his aeeeai ' 
brother of Zeno, Longimu Ma|ialav 
and Longiou* Selinuntiiui, nac aytiaa Ui^l 
being all native* of Iiaiuia, vboB ibey I 
influennv they made thi* proiinnt iha i 
their ^Tfi ilif n * anijiat the mpciiil UiaB 

ilkk • known in hi<tnry anilEr the nnmr of 
luted till 4!<7. uiid pnnly till 
ii-K*'d to llle advuntAiir iif the 
b; ;v «iid dfatli of the ring- 

«o(lri John the Scythiiui, John 

Ik BaMbbockieti, luid under tbein Ju«tinuv who 
}tam aftenrsriU emperor, distinguished them- 
•ini tnallj u commanden of the amii>>s of 
AhMbbl Tbe fcUowing jrean were nif.' 
^liidiliMi in Coactantiouple occnsioned br div 
M^Nften between the finctions of the Diue and the 
(^o, by nrligiauB trouble* which the emperor 
WtMr Lo qoell only by hift own honiiliatiun, by 
fm >itb tbar AmlM and tbe Biilguhanft« nnd by 
«B^l^>«i, bmine. ind plague, (a. d. AUO.) 
AaflriM triad to n-lievo hi» people by nbolishin^ 
ti 'tf rni n i l t h ■ heavy poll-tax which wba paid 
UfcaUr for men and for dome«tic nnimola. 
kMriiMCfff kfier thew oloniitiet, Aiuutaiini wni 
hMM m t war with Cabadit, the king of Peniit, 
tbiMrayrd the Ryiantine army commanded by 
" tnd Pitrirint Phrj-giui, uid niTnged 

dmidfiU manner, Anastanns 
peace in 505 by paying 1 1 ,000 pound* 
4 aU to the Penian', who, being threatened 
■KftM iiimaon of the Huns, re«lored to the em- 
fwiftt pfDvinces which they luid ovt-min. From 
JtmimtUtat mat hit