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t. uid thk-klf I 34) plan 

H.) [E.B.J.) h 
IDC. iLIUUi Xmoi. M 

h> irrt oC CvfrhM . I 

p. il,) In Lrakci 

Lof Aatiocli(;v 

iportimc*, ricrjil _ 
f U>* dcitj ■liuo I i 

™«. ( T^ .l"^ ii 
It), who -U. Uk. 

« to thr r>Mr o( il! 

i^ Tc4. 1. pp. tU. 
[E. B. J.] 

(Se» b»ki».) Thr 111.1 

licta armd inlo 
. b* rirht (ukI 1 

■Ting txTO Ai.-T:a 

. Thiu Hrli I ll hu tan iDpi 
il K« in thii ' Kifot af Pt<>l>^ 

X'. ' 

H- 2 5i 





London : 

SpoTTrswooKEJS AnA Sham, 
Nrw »tr<.H.'l-Squart . 





VOL. I. 





*RD ITT LASB, rAiiKMoani mow ; 





£. H. B. Edward Herbert Bunburt, M. A. 

Late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

W. B. D. William Bodham Donne. 

J. S. H. J. S. HowsoN, M. A. 

Principal of the Collegiate Institution, Liverpool 

£. B. J. Edward Boucher James, M. A. 

Fellow and Tutor of Queen's College, Oxford. 

K. G. L. Robert Gordon Latham^ M. A. 

Late Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. 

G. L. George Long, M. A. 

Late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

W. R. William Ramsay, M. A. 

Professor of Humanity in the University of Glasgow. 

L. S. Leonhard Schmitz, Ph. D., LL. D., F. R. S. E. 

Rector of the High School of Edinburgh. 

P. 8. Philip Smith, B. A. 

Head Master of Mill Hill School. 

V. W. S. W. Vaux, M. A. 

Of the British Museum. 

G. W. Geokge Williams, B. D. 

Fellow of King's College, Cumbridge. 

H. W. Henrt Walford, M. A. 

Of Wadham College, Oxford. 

The Articles which have no initials attached to theui are written by the Editor. 


The present work completes the Series of Classical Dictionaries, and 
forms^ with the Dictionaries of *< Greek and Roman Antiquities" and 
** Greek and Roman Biography " already published, an Encjclopssdia of 
Clasdcal Antiquity. The Dictionary of Geography, like the other two 
works, is designed mainly to illustrate the Greek and Roman writers, and 
to enable a diligent student to read them in the most profitable manner ; 
bat it has been thought advisable to include the geographical names which 
occur in the Sacred Scriptures, and thus to make the work a Dictionary 
of Ancient Greography in the widest acceptation of the term. The name 
" Greek and Roman " has however been retained, partly for the sake of 
UQiformity, but chiefly to indicate the principal object of the work. 

Our knowledge of ancient Greography has been much enlarged within 
the last few years by the researches of modem travellers, many of whom 
have united an accurate knowledge of the ancient writers with great 
powers of observation and accuracy of description. There are few 
countries of the ancient world which have not been explored and described 
by our own countrymen ; but a knowledge of the results thus obtained is 
confined to a few, and has not yet been made available for the purposes 
of instruction. Hitherto there has not existed, either in the English or in 
the German language, any work sufliciently comprehensive and accurate 
to satisfy the demands of modem scliolarship. The German works upon 
this subject are unusually scanty. In English, the only systematic works 
worthy of mention are the well-known treatises of Cramer upon Greece, 
Italy, and Asia Minor, which however have now become obsolete. Since 
the publication of his '' Greece," for instance, we have had the incomparable 
travels of Colonel Leake, the results of the discoveries of the French Com- 
mission in the Peloponnesus, and the works of Ross, Ulrichs, Curtius, and 
other learned German travellers. No apology is therefore necessary for 
the publication of a new work upon Ancient Geography, which is in many 
respects more needed by the student than the two former Dictionaries. 

This work is an historical as well as a geograpliical one. An account is 
given of the political history both of countries and cities under their re- 
spective names ; and an attempt is made to trace, as far as possible, tlie 
history of the more importtfht buildings of the cities, and to give an ac- 
count of their present condition, wherever they still exist. The history is, 
for the roost part, brought down to the fall of the Western Empire in the 
year 476 of our era : but it was impossible to observe any general rule upon 


this point ; and it 1ms sometimes been necessary to trace the history of a 
town through the middle ajjes, in order to explain the existing remains ol" 

Separate articles are given to the geographical names which occur in the 
chi' r classical authors, as well as to those which are found in the Geogra- 
phers and Itinerarif^s, wherever the latter are of importance in consequence 
of their connection with more celebrated names, or of their representing 
modern towns, or from other causes. Rut it has been considered worse 
than useless to load the work with a barren list of names, manv of them 
corrupt, and of which absolutely nothing is known. Tlie reader, however, 
is not to conclude that a name i^ altoirether omitted till he has consulted 
the Index ; since in some cases an account is given, under other articles, of 
names which did not deserve a separate notice. 

The Illustrations consist of plans of cities, districts, and battles, repre- 
sentations of public buihlings and other ancient works, and coins of the 
more important places. The second volume of the work will be followed 
by an Atlas of Ancient Geography, which will be on a sufliciently large 
scale to be of service to the more advanced student. 


London. December. IS.'i.'J 


Cdntf Abieaeinim 

CaoTAbden . . . . 



Can rf Aomairia 

C«B4]fAdttia . . . ■ 

CdistfAchDpo - - - • 

C«af Acmonia 

• ■i of Actiom - - - - 

Cm rf AiitMimfn . • - 

GoBorAdria . . . . 

IUm «f Um temple of Aeeina 

Fiat ckntioo of the temple of Aegina re- 


^ofAeghiin . . - • 

C«i of AegotpoCami 

Coai«fAcDeia . . . . 

C«i«fAcoiiB . . . . 


G«i«fActoa . . . . 

CwofAcUilia . . . . 

■■■ ■ Af,i igeutmn - - . 

Coip of Agrigc ntu m 
C«n of A|i[frioin 

C«i«fA]aaa . . « . 

Rm of Alba FoccfMia - 
P« of Akxaodxcia 

CatfAHark . . - . 

Cat flf Ahiotntm 

C«BtfAJjiia - - - - 

ihf of the golf of lenu, and of the sur- 
*W HMim g ooontiy - . - 

Coioof Aoiaatru 
F*"* «f Ambrada 

— tfAoiiea* - - - 

1^ tf the oeighboorbood of AmphipoIiA 
Caitf Aoiphipolis 

Cat rf ^*»* tiaj».j.. 

CvtfAaMoa - 

C«BflfAney» - - - 

WirfAahw . 


, «rAat>ocfa . 
tti tf Apmeia in Phijgia 




C<nn of Aphrodisiae in Caria 



Coin of ApoUonia in 111 jria 



Coin of Aptera .... 



Coin of Aqninom ... 



Coin of Andns .... 



Coins of Arcadia ... 



Boina of a Pyramid in the Axgeia - 



Plan of Argoe .... 



Site of the Heraenm ... 



Coin of Argoe .... 



Map of the coast of Ampbilochia - 



Coin of Argoe Amidiilochicnm 


Coin of Arpi .... 



Gate of Aipinnm ... 



Coin of Aspendns ... 



Coin of Anoms - ... 



Cinnof Assos .... 



Enviroos of Athens ... 



The Acropolis restored ... 



Groond plan of the Acropohs and the imme- 


diate neighbonrhood ... 



Gnmnd plan of the Prupjlaea 



The Propjlaea restored ... 



Temple of Nike Apteros ... 



The Parthenon restored ... 



Ground plan of the Parthenon 



The Erechtheiom restored, viewed from the 


NW. angle .... 



Groond plim of the Erechtheimn . 



The salt well of the Erechtheiom - 



Plan of the Pnyx ... 


The Bema of the Pnjz ... 



Monnment of Philopappos 



Monoment of Thrasyllos ... 



Theatre of Dioojsos, from coin 



Theatre of Dioojsos, from a rase - 



Coin showing the Care of Pan, the Partbe. 


Doo, and Athena Promachos 



Ground plan of the Theeeinm 



The Theseinm .... 



Rains of the Oljmpieinm 



The Horologiom of Androoicos Cjrrhestes . 



Choragic monument of Ljsicrates 



Street of the Tripods, from a bas-relief 



Arch of Hadrian ... 



Portico of Athena Archegetis 



Ionic temple of the lUssus 




I'lan of the Port-Towns - 

Coins of Athens 

Coin of Avenio - - - 

Coins of Axus - - - 

Kuins at Azani - - - 

Coin of Azani - - - 

Coin of Azolium 

Mons Bagistanus 

Sculptures of Mons Bagistanus 

Coin of Barca - - - 

Coin of Barium - - - 

Coin of Bcncventum 

C'oin of Beroca in Syria - 

Coin of Berytus - - - 

Coin of the Bisaltae 

Coin of Bizya - - - 

Map of the basin of the Copais 

Coin of Boeotia - - - 

rian of Brundusium 

Coin of Brundusinm 

Coin of Bruttii - - - 

Coin of Cahellio . - - 

Coin of Caelia « - - 

Coin of Cacna - - - 

Plan of Caere - - - 

Coin of Caesareia Mazaca 

Coin of Calacte - - - 

Coin of Cales - - - 

Coin of Caniarina 

Plan of ('annae - - - 

Coin of Capua - - • 

Coin of CarJia - - - 

Coin of Carino - - - 

Map of Car path us 

Coin of Cart(^ia - - - 

Map of Zeiif:itana 

Coins of Cartliape 

Plan of Carthage, according to M.innert 

Plan of Carthage, according to Kitttr 

Coin of Caryhlu> in Euboea 

Coin of Cai»so|)c - - - 

Coin of (\atana - - - 

Coin of Caulonia - - - 

Coin of Celcnderis 

Coin of C«nturi[>a 

Coin of Carlliaea in Ceos - 

C'lin of (Vplialoodium 

Coin of Chaicr<lon 

C«»in of Ci:alci<lice in Macidonia - 

Coin of Clialcis in Kul)»i\a 

Coin of Chrrsonesus in Crete 

Coin of Chios - - - 

Coin of Cibvra - - - 

Coin of Cissa - - - 

Coin of Cius - - - 

Coin of CIiizoTurnae 

Coin of Cli'oiiao - - - 

Harbour and niiiis of Cnidus 

Coin of Cniihis - - - 

Coin of CiioMjs - - - 

Coin of Colophon 

Coin of Comana in Pontus 

Coin of Byzantium 

Plan of Coiu>tantinople - 

Coin of Corey ra - - - 

Plan «»f Coiinth - - - 

Colonial coin of Corinth - 

Harbour of Conthreae 

PI:in of the L-lhniiaa :>ancluarv 

Pa ire 



Coin of Corinth - 






Coin of Coroneia - 






Coin of Corycus in Cilicia 





Coin of Cos 






Coin of Cossura - 






Coin of Cragus - 






Coin of Cranii - 






Coin of Cromna - 






Coins of C rot on - 






Coin of Cuniae - 






Coin of Cydonia - 






Coin of Cyme 






Coin of Cvparissia 






C.'ins of Cyrene - 






Coin of Cythnus - 






Coin of Cyzicus - 






iJcmains of Trajan's Bridge 





Coin of Damascus 






Coin of Dania^tium 






Coin of Deios 






Map of l)e]j)hi 






Coin of Deijihi - 






Coin of iKinetrias 






Map of the environs of Dii'cntift 





Coin of I >ioiiy.^op(.iii» in 




1 4 1 


Coin of Dociniia - 






Coin of Dyrrhachium 






Coin of tli«' Kbnr-nes 






Coin of Kdo^5^a in Meif* 






C(/m of Klaea 






Plan of Kk-u>is - 






Coin of Klouhis - 






Coin of Kb^utherna 






C(»ins of Klis 






Coin of Klyrus - 






Coin of Kuiesa - 






Coin of Em}M)riae 






Coin of Enna 






Coin of Entella - 






Coin of EjH-irns - 






Plan of Ephc^us - 






Coin of Ei-hi'Mis - 






Coin of Epidaurus 






Coin (jf Ej»i{>lianria in 






Plan (if Mount Ercta 




84 5 

f a " 

View oi' Mould I!r«ta 






Coin of Entria in Eul 






Coin of Erytlirac 






Coin of Eryx 






Coin <tf I'lulntoa - 






Coin i>f Eucarpia 






Coin of EuiiKMnia 






Coin of (labala - 






Coin (»f (rub's 






Coin of (lalalia - 






( 'oin of (laulos - 




9 71) 


Coin of (iaza 






Coin of (bla 





Paiiorainic vi-w < f the 






Plan «'f the Mountain 

uf (ii-r^o 

via and 



fin irons 






C"in of (li-rnia in Mysia - 





C«'in of Goinpbi - 






Coin <.f (Jortyi;a - 






Coin a>-iL"iinl to Ciavi 






Coin of (iyrton - 






Coin <»1 ii) tbiuiu 






Coin ol Hadriann|Kilis 






BjuUouui, or lIalica^na^^>us 





Cm of HrfiMntfra ... 10S9 

Ibf ^emiag tlw positMO of Caaear'f murus 

iBtfaeBbone - 
Coil oi H a a clga in Uacedania 
On of HcradcU m Lncama 
Cat of BflneloA in Bithjnia 
CncTHtfatt . 
Caaof ffiaapoGb in Phxygia 

- 1042 

- ]046 

- 1048 

- 1050 
. 1051 

- 1064 

- 1064 

Coin of HienpTtoa 
Coin of Himen . 
Coin of Hipponinm 
Coin iscribed to HiBpania 
Coin of Hybk "hU^ 
Coin of Hyrcanis in Lydia 
Coin of H jm in Campania 
Com of Hjitadna 







ABACAENUK (*AA(raiyor, DkdL, Steph Byx.: 
'Attntm, Ptol. : Etk. 'A€anuwatos : nr. 7Wpi,Ba.), 
a dly of SkOj, dtiiatod aboat 4 miks from the N. 
tmtt, betmn TyndAzis and Hylae, and 8 from the 
knatr aty. It iras a dty of the SicoH, and does 
Mt ap|«ar to havB ever receiTed a Greek odonj, 
tko^ it partook hirgdj of the influence of Grade 
«t and drObatiaii. Its tenitoiy originally included 
fttt of Tjndaria, wfakh waa aepanted fhm it by 
te ddff JHanyaiiia when he founded that dty in 
i.c396(DM)d. xiv. 78). From the way in which 
it ■ jamdmed in the wan of Dionynus, Agathoclee, 
aad ffieroD (Died. adr. 90, xiz. 65, 110, xzii. £zc. 
BwchfeL p. 499), it is dear that it was a place of 
pOTv nd xmportazKse : but from the time of Hienm 
B iappcan from history, and no mention is found 
rf it in the VerriDe ontiaos cf Cicero. Its name is, 
k0»eiv. finnd in Ptolemy (iii. 4. § 12), so that it 
ipp*" <* have still contimied to exist in his day. 
iu didxDt was pcxibaUy owing to the increasing 
Fn^mty of the neighboaring dty of Tyndaris. 

There can be little doubt tibftt the ruins visible in 
At tBDe of FaaeDo, at the foot of the hill on which 
tfe aodem town of Tripi is situated, were those of 
Ahfwiinni He speaks of fragments of mascniy, 
pwtnte oohmms, and the restiges of walls, indi- 
o^ tht Mte of a large dty, but which had been 
^<i"iiyul to its fbnndatioos. The locality does not 
■o to have been exsmined by any more recent 
imt&r. (FaseDos, <fe lUb. Sic ix, 7; CluTer. 
&iL ^lat p. 38«.) 

IVn are feond coins of Abacaennm, both in 
*)*v ad copper. The boar and acorn, which are 
tb otnsnao type of the Conner, eridentfy refer to 
^ peat foRsta of oak which still oover the ndgh- 
^<vtag moontaitts, aoid afford pastare to large hods 
ofwi*. [E.H.B.] 


ABAC CA«n. EUL 'Afaibr: near Exariho, 
^y, an aadcnt town of Phods, near the frontiers 
d thi OpvBtian Locriaos, said to have been built 
^ tke Arpre Abas, son of Lynoeus and Hypenn- 
*irtnt sad gmndson of Danaus. Near the town 
^ • the road towards Hyampolis was an nndent 


temple and orade of Apdlo, who hence derived the 
surname of Abaeut. So celebrated was this orade, 
that it was consulted both by Croesus and by Mar- 
donius. Before the Persian invasion the t^nple 
was richly adorned with treasuries and votive offer- 
ings. It was twice destroyed by fire; the first time 
by the Persians in their maroh through Phods 
(b. c. 480), and a second time by the Boeotians in 
the Sacred or Phodan war (b. c. 346). Hadrian 
caused a smaller temple to be built near the ruins 
of the former one. In the new t^nple there were 
three andent statues in brass of Apollo, Leto, and 
Artemis, which had been dedicated by the Abad, 
and had perhaps been saved from the former temple. 
The andent agora and the andent theatre still ex- 
isted in the town in the time of Pausanias. Ac- 
cording to the statement of Aristotle, as preserved 
by Stiabo, Thradans from the Phodan town of 
Abae emigrated to Enboea, and gave to the inha- 
bitants tbe name of Abantes. The ruins of Abae 
are on a peaked hill to the W. of Exarkhd. There 
are now no renudns oo the summit of the peak ; but 
the walls and some of the gates may still be traced 
on the SW. side. There are also remains of the 
walls, which formed the indosure of the temple. 
(Pans. X. 35; Herod. L 46, viii. 134, 33; Diod. 
xvi 530; Stiab. pp. 423, 445; Steph. Byz. s. v.; 
Cell, Itmerarj/f p. 226; Leake, Northern Greece^ 
vol. ii. p. 163, seq.) 

ABAXLABA, a Boman castle in Britannia In- 
ferior, whose dte is unknown. It is mentioned in 
the Noiitia Imperii as the quarters of a troop of 
Knmidian horse (Mauri Aureliani) in the 3rd cen- 
tury A. D. Antiquaries refer it to Appleby on the 
Eden, and its name, contiuning the Celtic word 
Awmj water, indicates its position near a stream. 
WiUckcrott in Cumberland also claims to be the 
andent Aballaba. It was certainly, however, one of 
the forts upon the rampart erected by Hadrian in 
A.D. 120, between the rivers Esk and Tyne, to 
protect the province of Britain from the incursions 
of the Caledonians. [W. B. D.] 

ABALUS, was said by Pytheas to be an island 
in the northern ocean, upon which amber was 
washed by the waves, distant a day's sail from the 
aestuaiy called Mentonomon, on which the Gothones 
dwdt. This island was called Basilia by Timaeus, 
and Baltia by Xenophon of Lampeacus. It was 
probably a portion of the Prussian coast upon the 
Baltic (Plin. xxxvu. 7. s. 11 ; Diod. v. 23 ; 
Ukert, Gtoffraphiej vol. ii. pt. iL p. 33, seq.) 



ARAN"Ti:S, ABANTIS. [rLiHir.*.] I Ih^ O.Wy 

of JiiMiTiiiiii ; hut th^ .-I ,■ ■ ii i :l ii, tl..-.' ; ^ ■■ 

»ns .11 k'n^t M M .V III.; liii f ll.'r«l.<1ii-(.ii. 

9:).:iii<l)uuci'iilillual1otlic|.n!~nitti:iK. (ArrM^i. 
r, rljl. l-OBt. Har. ]>. \i; l-roiup,& Oolh. iv, ;;, 
B. P^rt. ii. aO i Sl^|.ii. II. 1. 1: SimToi.) [l'..S.] i 
AliASI.TS. AllASr.r-S. [AiiAsil.] \ 

A'HATOS. a n. k,>- m (lio Ml-, niir Ph;- , 
I;..'. « liiili lilt |irjr-ih iiUiiii' «iTi. [-niiilkil to ciiK'i. 
(S..IL.T, II \. iv. 3i I.,i,-,i». s. li-Aa.) 

AllEIA^SfS 'ir AMIIASLM (Al.lti-u., I.iv.; 
■AfiSoffor. Sl.-iili. 11. f. r.: £ih. 'AuJoalTjjt), n 
(»»n cif l'lir>'!.-iii. sn llw fnitnli-r^i i>f iLc TolUn.l^.ii, 

1.ASSK 1^ til.- t\.iiiicik, CUicnxki, j., G7H, bIiIi 

WV>M.lillL-> Itilh'.) 

AUUK'KA. I. (Ta'Af?uii". ■■I-'i'ASSdp'.^ 


AI.Ji.ra, :.ikI «,k«.,«\.- 


►.■viiiilur ..f -..M. 'Ill 

ii. an 

AWora *, tlw wi-au.nui 

1 (lit. k 


kUj UcvM fQcfa in the ragn of thit emperor. 
(Sbib. p. 249; PKn. in. 5. § 9; Ptol. iiL 1. § 68; 
LO. Colon, p. SSO ; Grater. Jnaer. ^ 1096, 1 ; 
Za9t,<ifCo2iNMit,p.40a) We levn from Viipl 
nd fflhB Italknis that its teiiitij iy was not fertUe 
b can, bot rich in frnit-tzeei (mal\f€rae AbeUae): 
IfaiKighbooriMod tho ahoonded in filberts or hazel- 
taSt d a fvfj choice qnaUtj, which were called 
froB tfanee mioef AvttUmoA (Virg. Am, vii. 740; 
SL HaL vin. 545; PHn. sr. 23; Senr. ad Oeor^. 
i. $i). The modem town of AvtOa is situated m 
Ifai pUi near the loot of the Apennines; Imt the re- 
■aiis of the aneieDtcity, still called AveUa Veeekia, 
^ttapf a Inll of coosidnahle height, fofming one of 
die wwytfant of the moantains, aiad command an 
ateoBfe view of the plain beneath; hence Virgil's 
tt|swriu a **dd p eelatitmoeniaAbdlae." The mins 
m* dsKribed as extensive, including the Tostiges of 
tt sB i j i h i th e a t i e, a templo, and other edifices, as well 
SI a portion of the ancient waDs. (Pratilli, Via 
Apfm, p. 445; Lvpnli, Iter Vemtm. p. 19; Bo- 
HodB, ToL ffi. p. 597; Swinborae, TVorefr, roL i. 
p. 105.) Of the iramerooB relies of antiqaitj dis- 
■mul hoe, the most interesting is a long iincrip- 
tiM ii ^ Osean Umgnage, whidi records a treatj 
if affinoe bs t wee u the dtiaens of Abella and those 
if Koh. It dates (aoooeding to Monmieen) fitnn a 
fniod ifaoitly after the Second Pnnic War, and is 
■at only eorioos oo aoeoont of details eonoeraing the 
wwaripal magistrates, bot is one of the most im- 
pvtaat anzi^irica we possess for a stndj of the 
(Jhcaa kngnagp. This cnrions monument still re- 
min in the uuaeum of the Seminary at Nola: it 
bae bem repeatedly pobliahed, among others by 
F^inri (Liagmaa (keae Specimm Smgviaref fbl. 
Knae, I774X bat in the most complete and satis- 
h(^ manner by Lepeius {In$cr. Umbr. et Ote. 
^uL)anAMaBax^ai{Die Unter-ItalueheH Dia- 
U«e,p.ll9). [E.H.B.] 

ABELLI'KUMC'Af^XAiyor, 1?M. AbeUinas^is). 
1. A eonaiderable city of the Hirpini, situated 
■ tlie npper TaDey of the Sabatus, near the frontier 
tf Cenpania. Pliny, indeed, appears to have re- 
pr^ h is inclmird in that country, as he enu> 
■entcs it among the cities of the first region 
<f Aai^wtns, bat Ptolemy is probably correct in 
nriflihig it among those of the Hnqpim. It is 
f^foA 1^ the Tabda Peatingeriana on the road 
frva BoMTOtam to Sakmum, at a distance of 16 
tman imlaa from the former city. No mention of 
it b faond in history prior to the Roman conquest; 
■A il appears to hare first risen to be a place of im- 
partanoe under the Roman Empire. The period at 
*Ucb it became a cokoy is uncertain: Pliny calls it 
^ m *^ oppidum," but it appeanvfrom the Lffter 
di Crtomm that it must have recdved a colony 
laiiMMa to his time, probably as early as the second 
TriiiBTxnate; and we learn mm various inscriptioas 
if iaperiU times that it oontimied to enjoy this rank 
'wa to a kte period. Theee mention numerous 
heal ongiBkrates, and prove that it must have been 
« pisfe of conodeable wealth and importance, at 
^ aa late as the time of Valentinian. (Plin. iiL 
S.t9; Pud.ffi. 1. § 68; Lib, de Colon, p. 229; 
brr. ap. OrdL Nos. 1 180, 1181 ; LupuB, Iter Ve- 
•■ia. pp. 84, 55, 56.) 

The ancieot aif was destroyed during the wars 
^■'»u the Greeks and the Lombards, and the in- 
^"■itants estibfiefacd themselves on the dte of the 
■^>^ AweOmOf wbadi has thus retained the name, 
WtiattbBsitaatioa,of theandentAbellinum. The 


mins of the latter are still v^ible about two miles 
from the modem dty, near the village of Atripaldi, 
and immediatdy above the river SiMato. Some ves* 
tiges of an amphitheatre may be traced, as well as 
pcnrtions of tiie dty walls, and other firagments of reti- 
culated masonry. Great numbers of inscriptions, 
bas-reliefii, alturs, and minor rdics of antiquity, have 
also been discovered on the site. (LupuU, /.c pp. 33, 
34; Romanclli, vol. ii. p. 310; Swinburne, Travela, 
voL i. p. 118; Craven, Abruui^ vol. ii. p. 201.) 
The neighbourhood still abounds with filbert-trees, 
which are extensively cultivated, as they were in 
ancient times; on which account tiie name of the 
fMiees Avellanae was frequently derived from Abelfi- 
num rather than Abdla. (Harduin. aJ P{m. xv. 22.) 

2. Beddes the Abellinnm mentioned by Pliny in 
the first region of Italy, he enumerates also in the 
s«»ndf which included the Hirpini and Apnlians, 
** AbelHnates cognomine Protropi,** and '* Abdlinates 
cognoroinati Mani.** The first have been generally 
supposed to be the inhabitants of the dty already 
mentioned, but it would certainly appear that Pliny 
meant to distinguish them. No clue exists to the 
position of dther of these two towns: the conjecture 
of the Italian topographers who have placed the 
Abdlinates Mard at Afarsico Veterey in Lucania, 
having nothing, except the slight similarity of name, 
to recommend it, as that ate would have been in the 
<*W region. [E.H.B.] 

A'BIA (^ 'A9la: nr. Zamata\ a town of Mes- 
senia, on the Messenian gulf, and a little above the 
woody dell, named Ghoerius, which formed the 
boundary between Messenia and Laconia in the 
time of Pausanias. It is said to have been the 
same town as the Ira of the Jliad (ix. 292), one of 
the seven towns which Agamemnon ofiered to 
Achilles, and to have derived its later name from 
Abia, the nurse of Hyllus, the son of Hercules. 
Subsequently it belonged, with Thuria and Phanie, 
to the Achaean League. It continued to be a place 
of s<Hne importance down to the reign of Hadrian, as 
we leam irom an extant inscription of that period. 
(Pans. iv. 30; Polyb. xxv. 1; Padandi, Monum, 
Pelopon. ii. pp. 77, 145, dted by Hofimann, Griech- 
eniandj p. 1020 ; Leake, Morta^ vol. i. p. 325.) 

ABU'NUS ('AftorJi), a river of Scythia (Sar- 
matia) falling into the Euxine, mentioned only in 
the work of Alexander on the Euxine, as giving 
name to the Ann, who dwelt on its banks. (Stephl 
Byz. s. V. "Atftoi.) Stephanus elsewhere quotes 
Alexander as saying that the district of Hylea on 
the Euxine was called 'Atfimf, which he inti^rprets 
by 'TAoia, toootfy (Steph. Byz. #. v. 'TA^a). [P. S.] 

A'Bn ("A^ioi), a Scythian people, plaoed by 
Ptolemy in the extreme N. of Scythia extra Imaum, 
near the Hippophagi ; but there were very difierent 
opinions about them. Homer {JL xiii. 5, 6) repre- 
sents Zeus, on the summit of M. Ida, as turning 
away his eyes from the battle before the Greek 
camp, and " looking down upon the land of the 
Thracians familiar with horses," MiKrfiy r* otx'- 
/idxctfi^, iral hyoofw IvmifxoXyAv, yXaKro<l>dyWf 
iuSitfP Tff, 9utmordr»w i»$p^mr. Ancient and 
modem commentatora have doubted greatly which 
of these words to take as proper names, except the 
first two, which nearly idl agree to refer to the 
Mysians of Thrace. The fact would seem to be 
that the poet had heard accounts of the great no- 
made peoples who inhabited the steppes NW. and 
N. of the Euxine, whose whole wealth lay in their 
herds, especially of horses, on the milk of which 

B 2 

4 AlilLA. 

tlioy livrd, ami who worr snp]i«.,st^<l to |iiv>rn»'> th<^ 
iniiooenco «»f h state of iiatun* ; niul of tlicin, then-- 
furc. In- >)»«>aks <"ol|t'ctiv.|y !'V cjiithcts .vulli-<l to <\nh 
dt'><rijiti<'iis, aii'l. aiiioiiL: tli«' Yr>X, as &^ioi, poor, 
vlth scanft/ 7/ii(iit.<( ofVifi' (from a and )3i<)$). 'llif 
jM'oph> tlms dfscrilKil aii^ncr to tlif lati-r notions 
n-^j/t'itiiii: the IIy{)orl)on'ans, \vho>e name d'tc? n'.t 
occur in Homor. Aftonvards, tlio ojiitl»ct.>i apjilicd 
by Hoinor to tins 8U|ij)o>tHl j.riniitive j'niplc wtMc 
taki-n a.^ pro|HT nanu-s, and wrre a^si^rnrd to dif- 
ferent trilM's of tlif Si-ythians, >o tliat we have 
mention of tlie Sytliae Ajavi. IIip]h'niolt:i, (Jalac- 
topha-ji (and ilalacto^Kitae) and Ahii. I he la>t are 
mentioned as a distinct |HH>|'le by Ae»;chyhi'<, who 
])retixes a ;:uttnnil to the name, and descrilw-s the 
<ialiii as tlie mo>t just and ho>jiitahlc' of nun, living 
on tlie >elf->own fruits of the untille<l eartli ; Imt we 
liavo no indication of wliere he jilaeed theiii (Proi/i. 
S'l'tt. Vr. 184). Of those CJ>nnnentator>, uho take 
tlie word in Homer for a )»roj»«'r name, .some plaee 
them in 'Jhnice, sonic in S«'ytliia, and some near the 
Ama/ous. who in vain urjcd them to take jwft-t in an 
c.\|n'<ntion atraiust Asia (Eustath. nd 11. I. r. ]>. 910 : 
Steph. By/.. /. c); in fatt. like tlie correspondent 
fal>ulous jK'opK'. the HyjM-rlH.rei, they sei-ru to have 
biH'U m<ned hack, as kno\\led;:e advanci-d. further 
and further into the miknown rc'^ions of the north. 
In the histories of Alexander's exjxdition we arc 
told that ambass.atlors came to him at Manuanda 
(Sdinnrknud) from the Ahii Seythae, ;i tribe who 
lia<l IxM-n indejx'nd'iit since the tiuic of Cyrus, antl 
Were renownetl for th-ir Ju^t anil jKacefnl eharac ter 
(Airian. Aiuih. iv. 1; Q. ("urt. vii. 0): but the 
.•^iK'cific nauK" (tf the triVie (.f Sythiaus who sent lliis 
CMuha-isy is probably (tidy an in-tan-e i.f the attenipts 
made to ilhistnite the old mythical p'o;:i-:ipliv by 
Alexan<ler's con'jucsts. In tlicsc aecoimts their 
jtH'c ise IfKalify is not Indieate<l : Aniini;inu- Mar- 
cellinus ]»laee5 thtiu X. of llyrcania (xxiii. (l). An 
extended diseu.ssion will U^ found in Mh.Ihi of the 
v.irioiis opinions resj)<»ctini; the Abii nj> to his time 
(pp. 2'.>6. :{(K3, .311, ')M; Droy.en, in th" Ix'/oln. 
J/^/w. \ol. ii. p. 02, 18;U). ' [!'• >J 

A'lilLA ('A§iAa: Eth. 'A€t\w6s). It woidd 
aj>jN'ar that there were .several towns l;<arin;_' thi^ 
aj>ix'llation in tlic districts whi« h Ixmier upon P.i- 
Ic'stine. The most imjxirtant (»f tln-se was a j*lnce of 
^tren:rth in (.'fn-le- Syria, now Xthi Ahii, situated 
between lIeIio)xjli.«; and Damascus, in lat. .'b'l-'.JS' X., 
l<»n::. 'M\^ IH' \V. it was the chief town of the 
tetrarchy of Auilknk. an<i is fre<iuently tenrjcd. by 
way <if distinction. Abil.i Ly.viniae ("A^tAa iiriKa- 
Xov^(vr} Avoaviou). [Aru.hM .J 

liellcye has written a di-vriiation in the Tran<- 
aetioiis of the Aeademy of Belles I.c'ttres to prove 
that this Ahila is the same with Lt nrnji on the 
ri\iT Chrysorrho.'ui. which at one |K'rio<l assumed 
the n.ame of <'liiinlio}foti.<, a> we learn from sonn' 
coijis deseriU'd by Kckhel. The .|Uestion is much 
comjilicated by the circumstance that nicd iK have 
Ix-en ]tn'sen»'d (»f a town in C'm-le-.^yria (ailed 
Abila Leucas, whidi. as can In* demonvtritcil from 
the piec«\s themselves, nmst have Im-cu dillen-nt tVoni 
Abila Lys;miae. (Ilikhcl, vol. iii. ]•)'. 3.'C 34.'>: 
Ttol. V. 15. §22; I'lin. V. 18; Antonin. Itiner. 
pp. 19S, 199, cd. Wessel.) [W. K.J 

ABILE'XK, or A'BILA {;A€i\r,in), 
"PiiiKa), a distnct in t'oele-Syria, of wliieh the 
thief town Aiui.A. The limits t»f this rejicHi 
an* nowhere exactly delintd. but it seems U* have 
iiidudol the t;iitcni sloj-cs uf AntilibaniLs, and to 


have extended S. and SK. of Damascus as far .as 
the Ix-rders of ('',Hlilaea. Batanaea, and Trachonitis. 
Abil.iie. when tirst mentioned in liistorv. was i:<f- 
venied by a certain Ptoleinaeiis, son (tf Mennacns, 
who was succeeded, alwiut n. ('. 40, by a M>n nani»il 
Lys-mias, I.ysaiiias was ]»ut to de-ith in it. c. .'J.T, 
at the insti^'ation of Cleoj.atra. and the j-rim ij-ality 
jiassed. by a sort of pun base a]'i>arently, into the 
hands of one Zen(Klorus. from whom it wa< trans- 
feiTcd (p.. c. 31) toHer.Hl the Creat. At the death 
of the l.'.tter (a. n. .3) one jMution of it was amiex»i1 
to the tetranhy of his son rhijiji. and the r«'mainder 
lH^'t<^»wed njMin that Lysanias who is named by .M. 
Luke (iii. 1). Imm<'«liately after the d.ath of Ti- 
l)erius (a. d. 37), Calijula made over to llenMl 
Ai^ripici, at th.-it time a yirisom r in Ilonie. the te- 
trarchy of Philip and the tetrarchy of LyNanias. 
while Claudius, ujx'U his arcessi.iu (a. i>. 41). not 
only con tirme<l the liberality of his pre<le(essur towards 
AL'ri].j>a, but aided all that jx-rtiou of .Iuda*a and 
Nimaria whieh had beloiiL'*'*! to the kimrdom of his 
jLTrandfatherHenxl the(ireat,toi:ether(says .Tusejihus) 
with Al'ila, which had apjx-rtained to Lysanias 
("A^iAai' 5€ Ti]v Auftai'iou). and the adjoining: reL'ion 
of Libanus. Lastly, in a. n. o3, Claudius ;:rante«l 
to the yiiunpT Ac'ripi'^i the tetranhy uf I'hiliji with 
Balanaea and Trachonitis and AhiUi — \vcavia 5* 
avTT) iy^^ovn TiTpayxia. (.JuM-ph. Ant. xiv. 4. 
ij 4, 7. ^ 4. xviii. 7. i; 10. \i\. .'). ij 1. xx. G. J^ 1. 
B. J. i. 13. ^ 1, XX. 4.) .b.-ephus, at tir.-t si^ht. 
seems to c(»ntnidict him-'elt. in so far that in (-ne 
jia.-sai:e (Ant. xviii. 7. ij 10) he represents Callirul.i 
as bestowing' n[««>n IIchhI A*_'rip)';i the tctnm h_\ of 
Lysania^, while in another {Ant. xix. 5. § 1 ) h»* 
states that Abila of Lvsainas was adde<l bv Clan- 
dins to the lormer dominii'ns of Ai:ri]'jia, but. in 
reality, these expressions nnist be explained as re- 
ferrini: to the ilivision <f Abilene which took plae«» 
on tin- death of Ib-nnl tlu-Cnat. We tiiid Abihi 
mentioned anioii:: the jilaccs captur'fl b_\ I'la'iilus, 
one of \'es I Asian's generals, in A. i>. 09 or 70 
(.lo^eph. />'. J. iv. 7. ij .*)), and tVom that tinn^ for- 
ward it )'<Tmani-ntlv annexed to the )<n.vince «tf 
Svrla. ' [\V. li.J 

' A'liNOB A(Af^«^oga : Srhn-ar: >rahl Bhnk- /'on .s(), 
a raULoot' lulls in (lennany, exten<lin.: lri»m the Olt-r- 
1 lud ctt B iden ii'irtlnvard as far as the nuKleni town 
ot" Pfor/.heim. in I iter time,> it was somctinies callcnl 
Si/ra Mnn'hnia. On itx'i^teiMi side arc" tlie somcej* 
ol the Danulw. It.> name is ^oiueiimes sjielt .VnioKv 
or Arlw»na. but the c^•ITect ortho-jraj-hy is established 
by inscriptions. (drelli. lit.<ri\ Lut. no. 19^0.) 
I'tolemy (ii. 11. ^ 7) inc-orrec tly ]>la< c-s the raiiLie of 
the' Ahiioba to» tar X. l»'tween the .Maine .and the 
soun •" of tln" Kins. (Taeit. Cnnn. 1; l'c>t. A^ien. 
Ihsrript. (h-h. 437; I'lin. iv. 12. s. 24: Martian. 
Cai'll. ^i. 5^ r)ri2: c><ni]t. Creu/er, Z'l" (l<.-<ch. tit r 
Alt-hont. ( ultnr. pp. 0."), lOS.) L'-^-] 

AlioCiTS or AlU Neb's ('AgoiO'KiS, I't.-l. i\. 7. 
J^ 10: I'liu. \i. 29. s. 3.*). ii IM. AUniis in cd.l 
editions, Abun< is in Sillii:s: Ahito.<'nNhi I or Jp.<iTiu- 
li'-l), a town in Aethi' pi a. b.twcen the Sconil 
Cataract and Mene, situated ..n the left bank of 
the Nile. niebrate<l ctu :u count of the two maLTniti- 
cent 'j-rotto temples, whieh were di-covend at thi.s 
jilace by llel/oni. '1 he walls of the larj<T ot' the two 
tcanj.lcs are covered with jKaintini's, which reeord 
the ^ictc•ries of Ivauises 111. «Aer \arion^ natictns <>f 
Atrii.i and Asia. (Keiau k, Aiuunt Ji;,"f/>t, \o\. i. 
}». 24, s.-.p) 



Tib. P*bL; PtoL u. 13. § 5 Abuzacum, Vit S. 
Mica- fS% ft town of Visddkia, probably ooin- 
djiag witfa the modern Epfack on the river Lech, 
when Temnns of Roman bnildmgs are still extant 
Tin tfatkoB, iKmerer, in the Itineraries and the 
PmtimeriaB TaUe are not easily identified with 
tht ste of Epfo(k; and Abodiacom is placed bj 
MM topogiaphen at the hamlet of iViten&er^, on 
tlw ikfie of a hill with the same name, or in the 
aoj^Uioarhood of Bosenbeim in Bavaria. (Itin. 
AfltBB.; Mnchar, Noriem^ p. 283.) [W. B. D.] 

ABOLLA (^AfaAAa), a city of Sicuy, mentioned 
«lv by Stephanos Byuntinns («. v.), who affords 
BO doe to its postioii, but it has beim snppoeed, on 
secant of the resemblance of the name, to have 
«ni{)»nl the site of Avola, b^ween Syxacnse and 
A'flfo. A coin of tiiis dty has been published by 
trOrrilk {Sic^ pt ii. tab. 20), bat is of very 
■arvrtain authority. (Eckhel, toL i. p. 189 ; CastelL 
SeH VH. Xwm, p. 4.) [E. H. B.] 

ABOKI-TEICHOS ('ACiirov rtixof : Etk, *A€wpo> 
v w ^ifriK : JmeMi)^ a town on the coast of Paphla- 
pm^ with a harbcmr, memorable as the birthplace 
4 tfa» impostor Aluander, of whom Locian has 
Wi V n amnwing account in the traitise bearing 
Ui ume. {Diet, of Biogr, vol L p. 123.) Ac- 
ttdbf^ to Lacian (Alex. § 58), Alexander pe- 
tknird the emperor (probably Antoninus Pins) 
IhBl the name of his native ^aoe should be changed 
6tn Abon-Teichos into looopolis ; and whether 
tU emperor granted the request or not, we know 
Ite the town was called looopolis in later times. 
Hoc only doe* this name occur in Marrianus and 
Hieroeles; but oo coins of the time of Antoninus 
ad L Verus we find the legend lONOnOAITAN, 
isvijlat ABONOTEIXirnN. The modem /ne- 
M b evidently only a corruption of lonopolis. 
(8tnh. pL 545; Arrian, Peripl, p. 15 ; Lucian, 
Akx^ piwim; Harden. PtripL p. 72; PtoL v. 4. 
ft : ffierocL p. 696; Steph. B. t, v, *MAvov 

ABORTQIXES ('A«opryiMs), a name given by 
afl the Bonan and Greek writers to the eariiest in- 
fcitifiiitii cf Latiuxn, before they assumed the appel- 
yjm «f Latoti. There can be no doubt that the 
i^viioi derivmtifln of this bame (ab or^vte) is tiie 
tRB one, and that it could never have beoi a national 
titfe nelly borne by any people, but was a mere ab- 
Oiet sppDatko invented in later times, and in- 
tedad, like the Autochthones of the Greeks, to de- 
■j^ate the primitive and original inhabitants of the 
aialry. The other derivittioos suggested by later 
VQicn, — each aa Aherrigmu^ from their wander- 
'^ hdhits, v the absurd one which Dionysins seems 
■Oaad to Miopt, ** ab ip^i^'' from their dwellmg in 
tfe BBontaina, — are mere etymdogical fimdes, sug- 
pMted pRibehly widi a view of escaping from the 
tfnhy, that, acoording to later researches, they 
*»t net really antochtboDes, but foreignerB coming 
hm a ifafanre (Dionys. L 10; Aur. Vict. Orig, 
<?al Bom, 4). Their real name appears to have 
bna Casci (S«ilcinB, ap. Serv. ad Am. i. 6), an 

used among the Bomans to 
aajthtng primitl r e or old-£uhiooed. The 

*TM>rt of Saerxmif supposed by Nidrahr to have 
^ sIm anatkoal af^iellatioo, would appear to have 
M a voaif restricted sense, and to have been con- 
Cai4 to a partknlar tribe or subdivisioo of the race. 
^ il is ootainly remarkable that the name of 
^^■QKXBes most have been established in general use 
''•leriod aa early as the fifth century of Borne; 


for (if we may trust the accuracy of Dionysius) it 
wsA already used by Callias, the historian cS Aga- 
thocles, who termed Latinus " king of the Abori- 
gines " (Dionys. i. 72): and we find that Lycophron 
(writing imder Ptolemy Philaddphus) spealoB of 
Aeneas as founding thii^ dties ** in the land of the 
Bort^onoi^ a name which is evidently a mere cor- 
ruption of Aborigines. (Lycophr. Alex. 1253; Tzetz. 
ad he.; Kiebuhr, vol. i. p. 80.) 

A tradition recorded both by Cato and Varro, and 
which Niebuhr justly regards as one of the most cre- 
dible of those teansmitted to us frvxn antiquity, related 
that these Aborigines first dwelt in the high mountain 
districts around Beate and in the valHes which ex- 
tend from thence towards the Mt Velino and the 
Lake Fudnus. From h«ioe they were expdUed by 
the Sabines, who descended upon them from the stiU 
more devated regions around Amitemum, and drove 
them forwards towards the W. coast: yielding to this 
pressure, they descended into the valley of the Anio, 
and from thoice gradually extended themsdves into 
the pluns of Latinm. Here they came in contact 
with the Siculi, who were at that time in possession 
of the country; and it was not till after a long con- 
t^ that the Aborigines made themselves masters of 
the land, expelled or reduced to slavery its S«""lmn 
populati(ni, and extended their dominion not only 
over Latium itself, but the whde plain between the 
Volsdan mountains and the sea, and even as far as 
the river Liris. (Dionys. i. 9, 10, 13, 14, iL 49; 
Cato, ap, Prisciem. v. 12. § 65.) In this war we 
are told that the Aborigines were assisted by a Pe- 
lasgian tribe, with whom they became in some de- 
gree intermingled, and from whom they first learned 
^e art of fortifying their towns. In coi^unction 
with these allies they continued to occupy the plaina 
of Latium until about the period of the Trojsn war, 
when they assumed the appellation d Latiiai, from 
their king Latinus. (Dionys. L 9, 60; Liv. L 1, 2.) 

Whatever d^ree of historical authority we may 
attach to this tndition, there can be no doubt tiiat 
it correctly represents the fact that the Latin race, 
such as we find it in historical times, was composed 
of two distinct elements: the one of Pelasgic (nrigin, 
and doeely allied with other Pelasgic races in Italy; 
the other essentially difierent in language and origin. 
Both these dements are distinctly to be traced in the 
Latin language, in which one class of words is dosdy 
related to the Greek, another wholly distinct firom it, 
and evidently connected with the languages of the 
Oecan race. The Aborigines may be considered as 
representing the mm-FeJa»gic part of the Latin 
people; and to them we may refer that portion of the 
Latin language which is strikingly H!afi'»'^*^' to the 
Greek. The obvious rdatiim cf this to the Oscan 
dialects would at once lead us to the same c<»idusion 
with the historical traditions above related: namely, 
that the Ab<»rigines or Casd, a mountain race frdn 
the central Apennines, were nearly akin to the Aequi, 
Volsd, and other andent natiims of Italy, who are 
generally induded under the term of Osi^ns or Au- 
sonians; and as dearly distinct from the tribes of 
Pelasgic origin, on Ihe one hand, and frmn the great 
Sabellian fondly on the other. (Niebuhr, vol. i. p. 
78 — 84; Donaldson, VammianuSf p. 3; Abeken, 
MiUeUtalien, pp. 46, 47.) 

Dionysius tells us that the greater part of the 
dties originally inhabited by the Aborigines in their 
mountain hfnnes had ceased to exist in his time; but 
he has preserved to us (i. 14) a catalogue of them, 
as given by Varro in his AntiquiUes^ which is of 

B 3 


inu< h int^n»^t. I'lifurtunatcly ino'it of tho n.imos 
foiitaiiu'il ill it aif ollicnvisi' wiioily iiuUi.uwii. and 
tln' ir<'"_ra|.liii .il tiata are nd suln<i'-utly prin !>«• to 
fiiablr us to tix thiir ]x>.-.iii'in uitli any (crtainty. 
Tlic ri'.M-anlifs of nt iiit travi-llers> lia\<', however, 
of latr ytar>> ii'iwu in< ivaM'd iiitcn'.st to the pa^sa^^e 
in ^[lH-^tion. Ity otalili-hiiii:; Xlw fart that tli*' iniu'li- 
li'inrhixnl oi' lirato, ami cs]-»cial]y tlie valley of tho 
Sdlto, ji (li-tri»t ci.ninioiily lallt'il the Ct'rohnto, 
ah<iuii'l witli vr.->t !;_'<•>< of aiKiriit citir^, whit h, liMiii 
thi' j*»lyi.''»nal. or x^-ralltti ('yr|(.j«-;ui style <«f tlxir 
Oi>ii>tnution, ha\c \hvu n-ft-rn-d to a vory early ])t'ri<xl 
of antii|tiity. Many attenijit-s havt- heeii con.v'ijnently 
niadf to identify these .vitf.s with the tities mentioned 
by N'arn'; but hitherto with little Micee.s>. The 
iui»t recent inve>tii:atiiiiis of thi«i snlijeet are th<».Ne 
by i\IarteUi (an Italian antiijuarian w1iom> loal 
kiU'wledije i:i\f> wei'jlii to his <.j.iiii.ii:>) in hi> Sforla 
<h:i Si<>i!i (A'juila. IS.'iO, hvo.), and by Buiiscn 
(Antif/ii StiihUuiunti Jtuliti, in the Auiml'i liilC 
Jii.<titntii (li C'iirri.</)<>ntii lizn Arrh nlmjirti, vol. vi. 
j». 1(K). rx't}.'). l»ut the conij'letf diver>ity of their 
re>uhs proves liow little certainty i> to Ik' attained. 
In tlie foildwinL' enunieration of thein. we can only 
attenijtt to ;:ive the de>cri|jtioTi «.f the Imalities 
uceonlin'^ to X'arro. imd to notio,' briefly their ^UJ)- 
}t«j>e<i ideiititicati'iiis. 

1. I'ai.atil M. from which the city on the Pala- 
tine hill at lioine was snj-|«»ed to have derived its 
name (\'aiT. */' L. L. v. § o.'i ; S^iin. 1. § 14). is 
]ila<-ed by N'aru) at 25 sta<iia from Keate : and 
wnuld a]'ie;ir to jiave b»'en still iniiabited in his 
time. (S-e r.un.M'ii. j». 129, who>e sUL:L'e>tion of 
■jtoAjj olKovuivri fir irdAfccy olKov^iivr)$ i.s certainly 
Very }»lau-ible.) ]{uins of it are .xiid to exist at a 
place .vtill cal]--<l PitUanti, n<ar Torricella, to tho 
riirht of the I'm Suhiriit, at about the ijiven dis- 
tance from IJeate. (.Martejli, p. ll»j.) (ieil. on 
the othtr hand. ]ilace> it near the convent vi La 
Fcrtst't. to the N. of Jii'fi. where remains of a 
]»'lyL'onal iharat tiT are ;d-o t".>und. r.un-«cn coim urs 
in jilacinu' it in thi> direction, but without tixin^: 

the >ite. 

2. Tunui.A (Tpi€o\a), about fA) i^ta.lia from 
I»eate ; }'hui'd by Huiim-ii at Saut'i I-'tlicf . IkI<iw the 
modern town of (_\in(<ilict\ who've ji-ilyi^i.nal walls 
Were lii.M uventl bv I><*lwelL Ma:telli api*\irs to 
rontound it with TiciHiLV Ml iiscA. from which 
it i^ pvubabiy distinct. 

3. SLi.>r.j I.A. or Vnsr.ri^v (the MSS. of hio- 
ll\>ius varv betvveeii SftfT^uAa and OiKcrSoKa). at 
the «>;ime ili^taiue (♦»(> >ta»iia) tVoiii Trilmla. near 
the C'eraunian Mount. iius. TheM' are otlnrwi.x? 
imkiiown, but ^uJl^»o^^>tl l»y Bunseii io U' the Mn/iti 
Ji f.itimsjtti, aiitl that Sueibula was near the sit*' of 
the little citv oi Lomsjid, from which ihev derive 
their name. 

4. SiNA (Soi'/rrj). di'-tant 40 stadia from Sues- 
l>ola, with a very an< i«nt temj-Ie of Mar>: .'i. Mk- 
riiYi.A (MT7<^eAa), al»>'Ut .'»(> ^tadia tVoiii Suiia. of 
whi<h s-'iiie ruins and traces of walls wca* >till 
visible in the time of X'arro; and 0. Okvimim 
{'Of'ovtyiov), 40 staiUa from Mej.hyla. the niius of 
which. a.s well a.s its aiicii'iit sej'ult hres. atte>tt>l it:> 
former magnitude; — are all wholly unku'-wii, but 
are probably to U' sou;:ht iH-twceu the M>>nti </* 
Lfonfsjd and the valKy of the Wl'mn. MurteUi. 
however. tran.*t"ers this whole eroiip of cities (in- 
cludintr Tribula anil Suobula), which are pla< •■•i by 
Bunxn to the N. of lil'ti. to the vullie> of tho 
Tui'uHo and Stlto S. of that city. 


7. CoiisT'LA {Kop(Toi\a). a city do-troyod shortly 
I'cfore the time of N'arro, i«< jijaeed l»y him at SO >ta- 
dia from L'eate, alon^' the \'ia CriMA. at the fimt 
of Mt. C'oitKTiM. 1 hi.> road i> othei-v\iM' un- 
known*, but was probably that wliit h le<l from ?Jeate 
towards Ttrni (Interamna), and if so. CorNula mu-'t 
have k'on on the loft bank of the Wlinus, but its 
.site is unknowii. 

Jn the sanie tlirfction were: 8. Is.sA, a town situ- 
ated on an i>land in a lake. ]»r"bably the .vame n->w 
called the LiKjit dtl I'ic ili Lutjo : and 9. M.vKia - 
VH'.M (Mapwiov), sit\iat«-<l at iIp' extreiuitv lyf the 
Same lake. Near this whto the Si:rTi;M A«^rAi;, 
tho }K»>ition of which in this fertile \all<y between 
Keate and Interamna is conlirmed by their menti"ii 
in Cicero {<i<l Atf. iv. 1.')). 

10. iCetuniin;; ai'ain to LN'ate, and j)ri.*eedint; 
alon:: the valley of tho S<i/fo towanls tho Lake 
rucinus (Diuiiy-ius has rijy ttrl Aarim^y v6'uy €«Vt- 
ovcTiy. i'oT which Bunvn would reaii rrji/ cVl Kiuyriy. 
but in any ca.^- it seems j.n-hable that this is the 
direction meant), N'arro mentions tirst I>.\Tl.v or 
Vatia (BttTto), uf which no trace is to bo fountl : 
then comes 

1 1. 'JKurA. ?uni:mitTl Matil.nk (Tiu'pa, i^ kclXov- 
^iVT) MaTJT;t'j7). where there was a very an* ient 
oracle of Mars, the re^j^^n^es of which were delivenil 
by a wo(>dj»«'< ker. This is phu etl, according: t'l VarP), 
at .'JOO stadia iVom Keate. a di>t;uice whi( h so ruui h 
exif'ds all the others, that it ha^ l>'«'n su])]w».n1 to 
l>' oornij.t : but it coincides well with tho 
di^tanci' (36 miles) from R'uti to a sjM>t nameil 
('usfi'n\ near .S7//. AimtuUd, in th«- nj'jK-r valley of 
the Silto, which was undoubtedly the site of an 
ancient city, and j»re>ents exten.^ive remains of" walls 
of ]>..lyi:nnal construction. (Bunsen. }>. 1 15: AU-k'-n, 
Mittilitalit n. p. 87.) X\e l.arn al-u from early 
Murtyrolo'.'ies. that Ma. Anatolia, who has p\eii 
name tc» the nnxleni villaL''-, wa"? ].ut to death '* in 
civitate Thora. aj.ud lacum \'. linnui." (C'luver. 
Itnl. ]i. r,^4.) Ibiice it >eet:i>< j^r' b ibl.' that the 
name of ('(/.■^fort: is a eornipti'U of ('a— T>'ra (Ca>- 
tellum Torae). and that the ruins visible there are 
really those of Tiora.f 

12. LisTA (Aiara). calle<l by Varro the inetro- 
]H)li> of the Aborigines, is jilaecil by him. acct.nlin.r 
to our j/ri'sent text of I)ion\>ius. at 24 stadia tVoiii 
Tiora : but there .'•eem strouj rea-^ons tor suj.]-'>«irii; 
that thi> is a ndst ike. and that l.i-?a wa> nallv 
>ituated in the immediate ncii:hb'>urliij«Kl of lleate. 

13. 1 he last city a>>i_nie<l liy \ arro t-> the AIk>- 
rijines is Ct»rvLiA, or Ci tii.ia (Kon'-Ata). (ele- 
brated lor its lake, con< irniu:: the >ite of whit h 
(l)ef>\een f'iritu Dt/cult and AntriMluci.>^ tlioro 
o\i>t>no doubt. [Cirii.iA.j 

AmoUi: the cities of I.;itium it^ It". Ulonv^ins 

(i. 44. ii. .S.'t) exj.res-ly as-i-ns to the Ab-tniriiie:* 

the f 'Uiidati-'U of' Antemnae. (.'aetiina. Ficuhie.-i, 

TelleTae. and Til-ur: some <.f whiih wen^* wre>led 

* The .MSS. of I»i oiiy-ius have 5ia tt)? *Ioi/piar 
<J5ou, a name whi»h i» certainlv c«>rnipt. Ntiiio 
«tlit"rs wiiuld \\m\ Tuun'a?. but the enienilation of 
Kuupiar sii<jTe>tol by Buiiseu is fir nmre probable. 
Kor th<' lurther investigation of thi.^ jK.>int, ^ee 


t lb l^tcniu*. however (.\'<.r. rtJ (7m r/r. p. 114), 
plice> I ii.ra in the valley of the Tuvnun, at a ))lace 
t.illol Ciilh I'ii-mlo, where there is also a celebrated 
chuixh of S;a. Anatolia. 

tf thai fnm (fat SnHui*, othm ifipuntlj Dnr 
■iminnKlli Ljdk hitforjcAl d^Hujencs cu of 

MMItbui oifciii, trcoksk* d' AJb*. 

SiUbH {CaL S) ipMki of tlx Aborif;iDes w > 
nda [HFia, intliaDt &ud luvs or dwdtiags, but 
till '» fntsblf > man rbetincal >i>f;gcntka: it 
• dot that VuTD *t kwt nf;snltd ibem u pns- 
^■ri of fstifitd town), tanplis, mclca, &c ; and 
Ikt Mtire lT»^tMDi of the Latiiu ccHHiiing Jaaoi 

p m ntf art! << dijluatim brfon the period itf the 
■{feecd Tngu cslcor. [E. H. B.] 

AfiORSBAS. [CuAiiouj.] 

ABKAL'ANNUS ('Af r>r»an>«, PtoL u. 3. § 2\ 
I Dtv of Britamu Bartian, vhich dijchuf;ed lU^ 

■ Eok satlmRl of the PranaDtorinia NoFintiim, 

■ Han itf GwiSanj islo Lnce-BaJ. Alniamiui 
a ynfca U y tha etnam which flows thnngh Loch 
t|«a iMo thi aea — Ab-BTin, or the o&pring of 
^u, baaic <aailr eoiwtible into Ih* Banan fenn 
<(«> mid Ah-Byaa-iu— AhraTannuL [^.B.D.] 


ABBJKCATCI, a Gallic Idbe (Plin. It. 18), 
■at aiiilnaail bj Cacaar, whoM fnxiliel mu near 
Ik CukatU/Um. Thdr town Ii^eii*, called Ainin- 
utm a the Notitia Imperii, bu giien iti nam* 
M the mudcni ^triMoho ; and their lerriCoj 
*sld inlablr DDtnaiiBid to the dinuw of Ao- 
f«a(U>. [G. L.] 

ABBOTOSUM fAMrerw), a Phoenician at, 
B th* oeaat li M. Africa, ia Ihe diitrict of Tripoli- 
liM. bOmn Ibo STTtea, neaallj idontified with 

(Scfki, p.47; Sinh.i<.SU; Staph. B. (, c. ; Plin. 
..*.) [P.S.] 

ABSlltTIDES or AFBYltTIQES ('Ai^v^lbi ; 
£(L'A4*^iii, 'A^v^ra: Clem aod Ohto), the 

— if nniMiiiiliiiirilii iiair iif llljll .Ill I illiit 

bodac, acenrd iD g ta one tiaditioa, Abajrtni waa 
ttaJB^b^hvaatBUediBalidbf JaacB. Ptolemy 
■■tiuM (Btj iH iikad Anouwi ('A<W^i), dd 
■Ui b {iaCM tm town* Cnpaa (Kp'fa) and 
IpHTM. (Seah. ;. 319; SMph. Bfi. t. v.; UeL 
iL 7: PEn. iiL Mj PtoL ii. 16. g la) 

AB1» (J'ACm) or ABA (F^ t. S4. a. SO), a 
w^taiB in AiBMBa, fonning a part nf the E. 
|iiiai|jilini af tiw AnH-Tawiu chain, and lepa- 
iaa('ihelaaiaa</the Amcaaiid of the Anaiuaa 
-£.tnii^of IbeEDphiMeaCifNmQ. Thelattsr 

tmi^ la ttaha, Iba fonner bJ» ri« en jti N. 
wit, Acaardiaff faj thia atatezDoit, tba raage muat 
bt ottaidand to b^in aa br W. an the neighbour- 
bd <f &nnieai, while it erlaidi E. to Um Anxea 
i. rf Aitaiata. Uen it tannuutee in the giwt 
UMd peak, I7.S10 feet high, and covand with 

nL 4X aad wtaA ia atill called Ararat or Agri- 
ihf4, B^ b; the P«iaiiB, K^U-NA {mamtaiit 
If .V«ai); it k titwted in 39° 41' K. laL, and 
44'at'S. loac. Tlda Rimmit (anna lb« ctdmioating 
pitetfW.Aiia. TkeclMiBit*elfiacalled^lit.(jiifit. 
(anb.pfi.S»,5Sl; PtoL T. 13.) [P. S.] 

ABLII ('Afat, Ptel. ii. 3. § 6 : Uwnbtrf, one of 
tte piBtipal rinn, ernther . ■ .. « 

*■*■ aaif ttftntariaii aod diachargc* ilaelf into the 


Gerrovi Ocam xiath of 0(*liun Pranontorium 
{Spurn Head). Iti left tank waj iiihabil«d bj 
the Celtic tiibe, vhoDi the Banana entitled Paris, 
but accnidiiig to a mcdieral poet citad bj Cam- 
dcD, iw great town or dt]> anciestlj itood on ill 

ABUSIlfA, ABOSENA, a town of V 

neaclj to the modeiD AbaiAers. Aboana itood 
near to the oMcrn toimnation of the high mad 
which ran Iran the Boman military atation Vinda- 
LiiB^ on the Aar to the Dannbe. Roman walls an 
atill extant, and Boman remaina atill diacorered at 
Ahaisberg. [W. fi. D.] 

ABY'DUS. 1. (ji'hhOu, Abjdnm, Plin. t, 32: 
EA. 'ACvIigt^t, Abf denni), a dtj of Mjaia on the 
Hellespontna, nearly oppcate Eeatuj on the Euro- 
pean ehore. It ii mentioned ai one of the towns in 
alliance with the Trojana. {IL ii. 636.) Aidoi 
or Avido, a modem village on the Hellespont, maj 
be the rite of Abjdoa, thongh the concloaitn from a 
name ii not certain. Abydng stood at the narroweat 
point of the Hellcspoaliu, where the channel ii onl; 
T atadia wide, and it had ■ email pert. It waa 
probalilj a Xhncian town originallj, bat it becuae 
a Uileaian colenj. (Thnc.™.61.) Atapwnta 
little north of this town Xene* plattd hia bridge of 
boata, bj which hia tnwpe ware conveyed aeroaa the 
channel to the opponta town of Seatiu, D. a 480. 
(Herod. lil. 33.) The bridge of boaCa extended, 
irodotna, baa Abjdiu U 

toy on the European > 

Madytna. The town poeHeesed a small territory 
which contained aome gold miiiee, bat Strain speaka 
of them as eihauited. It mu bnmt by Darina, the 
ion of Hystaaprg. ttiei hia Scythian eipeditian, for 
fear that the Scythinna, who wen said to be in pui- 
niit rf him, ehoald take poaaoaiini of it (S^b. 
p. 59 1 ) I but it most foon hare recorered finn thii 
calami^, for it wai afterwarda a town of some note; 
and Herodotua (t. 1 1 7) alatea that it was captured 
by the Fenian general, Dauriaca, with other ctttea 
on the Hellespont (a. c. 498), shortly after the 
comDienccment of the Ionian revolt. In D. c. 41), 
Abydos ifolted trotn Athene and jdiied DertyUidas, 
the Spartan commander in those pvta. (Thnc. 
Till. 63.) Suhaeqneutly, Abydus made a vipt- 
rona defnice ajcainat Philip II., king of Macedonia, 
before it anrrendered. On the rancloaion of the 
war with Philip (b. c. 19G), the Romans declared 
Abydna, with other Asiatic cities, to be tiee. 
(Liv. xuiii. 30.) The names of Ahydus and 
Sestna ato coupled together in the old story of 
Hero and Leander, who ia said to have iwsm 
acroas the channel to rint his mistrcsc at Sestns. 
The distance between Abydus and Seelns, tironi 
port to port, wu aboot 30 stadia, according to 
Stiabo. [G. L.] 



2. In anolent times tcrinod Tins, in Coptic 
Kht'A, now Ardbat el Mutfoon, wms the iliiif 
town oi tho NoMos TiiiNiTES, and w;ls situatoti 
on the Bahr Ymuf, at a sli<trt distance frmn the 
jH'int whore that, water-course strikt^s oft" from tlie 
Nile, U^'wv;:^ al^jut 7^ miles to the wci-t ol' the river, 
in lat. 20^ 10' N., lon^. 32^ 3' E. It w:ls one of 
the most imfxirtant cities in E;xyjtt under tiie native 
kiii^s, an<i in tlie Tlicbaid rank<'d next to Thebes 
itself. Here, aecordinj; to the heUef generally pre- 
valent, was the l)uryint:-{)lace of 0>iri.^: liere Menes, 
tlie tir>t mortal monarch, was born, and the two lirst 
dyna.->tie.s in Manetho ;ire ciniijx^'^i'd of Tijinite ino- 
nan hs. In the time of Stralio it had "".unk to a 
mere village, but it wius still in exi^tencl' when 
AmmianiLs Marcdlinus wrote, and the seat of an 
oracle i»f the c^l Besa. 

Abvdu.s haj, ac'Hiired creat celebritv of late years 
in ettn'-e(|uenec of tlie imjxjrtant ruins, nearly buried 
in ^and, discovered on the tuicient site, luul from the 
immerous toml>s, some of thenj beloni^in;:^ to a very 
ri'inote ejxKh, whieh are found in the neiLrhlx'Urin^ 
liills. Indivd Plutarch exyavssly states that men 
<<f (hstin< tion anioni: the K^ryj.tians frequently se- 
lected Abydus as their ]» of sej<ultuix', in order 
that their remains nii::ht rejxise near those of Osiris. 
The two j^reat editices, of whieh remains still 
ei:i>t. are: — 1. An extensive pile, called the raluce 
of MLinnon {Mitxvdviou ^aaiXaov, J/< miutnis rif/ia) 
bv Strabo and I'liuv; and de>cribed bv the t'ormer 
as n^semblin;^ the Labyrinth in <:<Mieral plan, althoui,'h 
neither so «•xtensi^e nor so complicated. It has 
Ix-en jiroved l)y n-cent in\(.'-tiL:ations that this build- 
int: wa.s the work of a kint: U'l'tnL^ing to the 18th 
dyna>ty, Iiam.^es II., father of ilam.^es the Great. 
2. A temple of 0.>iris. built, or at lexst comjilcted 
by iJaniM-s the Great himself. In one of the lateral 
apartments, Mr. Bankes discovered in 1818 the 
famous list of Eiryi>ti;ui kiIlL^"^. now in the Iiriti.>h 
Museum, known as the Tabht of' Ahi/Jos, wliich is 
one of the most ])recious ot all the Eiryjitian monu- 
ments hitherto broUL'ht to li;:ht. It contains a 
doul)le series of 26 shields of the predecessors of 
Iiain.>es the Great. 

It niust be observed that the identity of Abydus 
with 1 his cannot be demonstrated. Wc tind fre- 
quent mention of the Thinite Nome, and of Abydus 
.as its chief to\Mi, but no ancient geo;:raplier names 
This excejtt Stejihanus liy/antiuus. who tells us that 
it wa:> a town of Ejviit in the vit initv of Abvdus. 
It is jxM-fertly clear, however, that if they were 
distinct they nmst liave been intimately connected, 
and that Abvdus must have obscured and eventually 
taken the place of This. (Strab. p. 813, seq.; I'lut. 
h. tt (h. 18; I'liu. y. 9; Ptol. iv. 5; Antoniu. Itiner. 
p. 1.08, ed. Wessel.; Steph. B. #. r. 0ij; Amm. 
Maic. xix. 12. § 3; \\ilkinson, Topotji'aitht/ of 
Tlichts, p. 3'J7; Kenrick, Ancknt Eijiijit, v<j1. i 
p. 45.) tw.K.] 

('A^uAt; or 'AgiAr; (Tt-V/At;. "A^yAi/^, En»to.>th.: 
Xii/iiera, Jibtl-cl-MuM, or Mtnite dtl I/nc/io), a 
hi;_'h precij»itous rock, forming the l'^.. extremity of 
the S., or African, coast of the luirrow entrance from 
the Atlantic to the Me<literranean (Iretum Gadi- 
tanura or Herculcum, Straits <>/ Glbniltar). It 
forms an oullviui: sjHir of the ranee of mountains 
which runs parallel to the coast under the name <if 
tH'j)t»in Fratres {Jtbti Zntmit, i. e. Apt's Hill), 
and which apjK'ar to have been originally included 
under the name of .Vbyla. They may L>e regarded 


as the XW', end of the Lesser Atl.ts. The rock is 
connected svith the main rauire by a low and narrow 
tongue of land, about 3 miles long, occu})ied, in 
ancient times, by a Koman fortress (Gastelhun ad 
Septem Fratres), and now by the S[i.anish town of 
(.\uta or Stbta, the citadel of which is on the hill 
itself. The rrxk of Abyla, with the op]«xsite rock 
of Cal]>c {Ciibraltnr) on the coast of S|*^iin, formed 
the renowned '* Colunms of Hercules " ('HpowcAciai 
cTTTJAoi, or simply ar^Kai), so calU-d from the 
fable that they \Nere oriL'inally one mountain, which 
was torn asunder by Hercules. (Strab. ]•]>. 170, 
829 ; Plin. iii. jiroixm.. v. 1 : M-da, ii. ; Ex- 
pli^ration Scitutijitjuc dc lAhjiri':^ lom. viii. p. 
301.) [P. S.] 

ACACE'SIUM ("AKaKi^aiov: Kfh. 'AKaK-ntnos), 
a town of .Vrcadia in the di.^trict of rarilia.sia, at 
the foot of a hill of the same name, :md 36 .^ta<lia 
on the road from MegalojK»Iis to Phigalea. It is 
said to have been tounded by Aeacus. son of Lycaou; 
and according to sttme traditions Hennes was brought 
up at this place by Acaeus, and hence ilerived tho 
surname of vlcaoo/w.*. Ujxiu the hill there was a 
statue in stone, in the time of Pau«ania.s, of Hcrrnes 
Acaee.^ius; and four stadia from the town N\as a 
celebrated temple of l>e^j»i>ena. This temple \>u^- 
bably stoocl on the hill, on wliich are now the re- 
mains of the cIrutIi of St. l^lias. (Pans. viii. 3. 
§ 2, viii. 27. § 4. viii. 36. § 10; St-ph. P.yz. .<. r.; 
lloss, Iiti.^cn i/ii Ptlnponins, vol. i. ji. 87.) 

AGADEMFA. [Athknae.] 

ACADE'PA or ACADFRA, a region in the K^V 
of India, traversed by Alexander. (Curt. viii. 10. 
§19.) [P.S.] 

ACALANDRUS ('AfcaAoi'5pos), a river of Lu- 
cania, llo\\iiig into the jirulf of Tarentum, It is men- 
tioned both by Phny and Stralnj, the f'ornier of wjioni 
ajiptars to place it to the north <^f lb raclea: l>ut his 
authority is not very distinct, and Strabo, on the con- 
trar}', clearly sliites that it was in the territory of 
Thurii.on which account .Vlexander of Fjiirus sought 
to transt'er to its banks the general a^^cmbly of the 
Italian Greeks that had Iw-en previously held at He- 
raclca. [1Ieu.\clea.] Cluverius and other topo- 
graphers, folluwhig the authority of Pliny, have idcn- 
titied itwith the SuUifulrclla, a small river betwt^-n tlie 
liasit nto and Affri ; but there can Ix- little doubt 
Barrio and Romanelli are correct in sujq>osing it to 
Ix? a small stream, still called the Caluuflro, tiowin*^ 
into the sea a little X. of Rostto, and alx'Ut 10 miles 
S. of the mouth of the Siris or Siuno. It was prc>- 
bably the boundary between the territories of Hera- 
clea and Thurii. (Plin. iii. 11. § 15; Stral). p. 
280: Cluver. ItnL p. 1277 ; Barrius </c Ant. Calahr. 
v. 20; Romanelli. vol. i. p. 244.) [E. II. B.] 


ACAXTHUS {'PiKavdos : Eth. 'AKaveios: 
Erisso), a town on the E. side of the isthmus, 
which connects the ]k iiin>ula of Acte with Ghuki- 
<iice, and about 1^ mile above the lanal of Xerxes. 
[Atiios.] It was founded by a colony from An- 
dros. :ind became a j'lace of coa-^iderable inqM»rtaiice. 
Xerxes stopjK.'d here on his march into Greect^ (u. c 
480) and praised the hihabitants for the zeal which 
they di>])layed in his vervice. Acanthus surrendered 
to BrasitUis 11 C.424, and its indej^-ndence was shortly 
atterward.s guaranteeil in the treaty of jx-ace imide 
between Athens and Sjiarta. 1 he Acanthians main- 
tained their independence .aizaiust the Ulynthiaus, 
but eventually btname subject to the kings of Mace- 
donia. In the war between the Romans and Pliilip 


tW fart of tfaa RpiAlie. StnOn and PIdiaDj i 

(DllMntiB: tilt snr maf han ptrfakps uiun finn 
Iki tmiiig y el AootlnH hatiiig Mntchad its br *g 
lb Safftii: gaU. At Eritto, tbe riW of AouUiiu, 
Itn m t]w nniii et a lug* indtnt mule, idmiciDi; 
a I cam into tbc Ma. ud al*a, m the N. lide of 
tJM hffl apon vliich thfl TiOage stands, smie re- 

ikcb of gnf paoiu. On the cda of Aonthns 
fcand hiua ig a ben kUUnc a boll, whicb onflRu 
tk ammt ef Bcrodotw (vii. I!S), Uut co ibe 
■nfc if XirxM fnm Atanthiu to Thennc, lioni 
koH Ikt f*iw*W whirh carried the proriBkni. 
(Oni. Tii. 119, aeq. ISl.aoq.; Thac. it.M, teq. 
'■ IS; Xm. ifc/i. T. 9; Ut. iuL 49; Plut. 
teaC Cnwc 30; Stiab. p. 330; Loit, JVn-U- 
n CrWEC, nd. iiL p. 147.) 

1 (JlOitHr), a dlj of Egfpt, OD Ihe mrtern 
t^ if tl» Nile, ISO itadia 8. (f Memphis. It 
na n Iht Mnrphite Sane, and, lb«r(fo(«, in the 

lli^imiiii It «m» nlebntrd fbr a templo of 
>Wii. and iraritrd iu niiw fnm a aanmi encto- 
it rempf»»d ef tha Acanthus. (Stnb. p. 

Ued. i. 97 i Stcpfa. B 

; FUi.n 


>r IUAii.) 

ACABNA'XIA CAxfrarla : 'Anaprdr, Snt. 
**^Tii. -Ims), the moet Wfoterlj ]voTiDC« cf 
Onv*. waa boDnded n the N. bf the Ambiarian 
(alt <■ thr NE. bj AmphilacbU, im the W. and SW. 
^ tfe koiB] ara, and oa tba E. br Aetulia. It 
■ Hill 1 ahoW 1571 tqoare milea. Unddr <ha Bo- 
^Ba. « fntKbl]' a iinle aarlier, the rirer Achcloiu 
fa^ ad tha bandaij between Afaniania and Aetotia ; 
hiB il the time of the Peloponnesian war, the terri- 

^n*. odaded E. <d' thia lircr. The interior of 
with funsts and nuantaiai of 
B which tfOOB modem wrilen 
e of Cnnbk [Crajiu.] 
tbftB are setenJ Uka, 
The chief river of the 
rfairh in the lower part of 
m throogh a Tait i^ain of |;reat na- 
t*Bl tttiUxj, ailed after itaelf Ibe Pancheldlis. 
Tkt fU» » at fntaa eamtd with marehes, and 
^ (nW (ait of it appean to tare brcn fonntd 
if Am nOnia] JepmJTiiuM of the Achekma. Owing 
Wlka rinaiDtfauia, aad to the riTer luTing fre- 
Taad j attend its channel, the nnthem part of the 

■^ -^^ - It c< the AcheloUL in Anuiuiiiia i. 


S. of SintDS. There ai 

t, but of II 

I, (be pmioBtctj of AcniiK 

that ofCritlMta (KpiSMl^), on the W. OMst, fiom' 
ing ODe side of lbs small bay, oo which the hiwn of 
AMacni Mood. Of the inland lakee, the oulj odb 
romtkoed bj nvae is that of Uelite (HfAlri) : Tri- 
jbinfta), 30 stadia long and 30 broad, N. of tba 
nioath of the Achcloos, in the territory of the Oeni- 
adae. There was a iagon, or salt lake, between 
LcDcas and the Amhracian gulf, to which Straba 
(p. 459) gins the name of Ujituntimn (Ht;p- 
TBirrm). Although the sol of Acainaaia wu 
fertile, it was not mneh cnlttvited bj the inha- 
bitants. The prudncl* of the conntry an nmlj 
Pliny speaks of 


ri. IS, s. 30), ■ 

so of a pasrl- 

fishery off Actinir 
states tiat the ncki in Acaniania indicate, in many 
placea, the pnsenre of copper, and be was also 
uiJbnned, on good anthori^, that Ibe monntaiiij 
produce cod and lolpbiiT ia ibnndance. (Joamal 
of Ot Geagrapiiail Socitlg, toL iii. p. 79.) The 
chief wealth of tlie inhabitants <»nusted in Ibetr 
herds and flocks, which pastnifd in the rich meit- 
dows in the lower part of the Acheloos. There 

lunia. Of these the most important were tlie 
EcniNADEB, extending frotn the moath of the 
Achsloos .-dong the shoe to the N. ; the Tafhue 
InatTLAE, lying between Lencas and Acamatiia, and 
Leucah itself, which otiginally funned part of the 
tniunland of Acamaiiia, bat was afterwards acpa- 
nled finn the Utln- by a canal. (Respecting Acar- 
nania in general ue Strsb. p. 4S9, seq. ; Leake, 
AWtUra Crete*, ml, iiL p. 488, seq.; Fiedler, 
Jtrite darf* Gritchtnlmid, vol. i. p. 1S8, set].) 

AmiAiluehia, wluch is sometunn reckoned a part 
of Acamuila, Is spoken of in a separate article. 

The name of Acamsnia appears to hare been 

the (onntry opporite Ilfaan and CephaUenis, ondcr 
the general name of Epdnis (firiifm), or the maui' 
land (Strsb. p4Sl, >ub fin,), althongh he frequently 

The oomitry is said to have been originally in- 
habited by tbe Tiphii, or Teleboae, Ihe Leleges, 
and the Curetea. The Taphii, or Teieboae were 
chiefly (bund m the islands off the western coast 
of Acaninnia, where they munlained themselves 
by piracy. [Tklkboab.] The Leiegea were mors 
widely disseminated, and were aleo ui possasioti at 
period of Actolia, Locris, sod other puts of 

GtTCce. [Lelioes.] TheCoretes an aaidto 
come ^om Aetolia, and to have settled in Acamania, 
after they had been eippUod from the tbraier country 
by Aetulns and his foUowers (Stnb. p. 46S). The 
name of Amnania is derivni fmn Acaman, the sen 
of Alcmaeon, who is said to hate settled at the month 
of the Achelons. (Tboc ii. 109.) If this tra- 
ditioD ii of any nine, it vtoald intimate that an 
Argive colony tetlled on the coast of Acamania at 
an eariy period. In the middle of the 7th century 

■ In the year b. c 939, the Acai 
Hubassy which they sent (o Rome lo iniKit aami- 
aDce, pleaded that they had taken i» pan iu Ihe 
expedition against Tn^, the anccAtv cf Bmie, being 
the finl time probably, as Tbirlwall remarks, that 
they had ever boasted of the snisiion of their name 
6oln the Iloneric catah^. (Justin, uiviii. I ; 
Stnb. p. 463 ; ThiihraU, Hil. iff Gmct, vol. viii. 
pp. 119,130.) 


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miy «H md a Acarank, whkh led from Actiiun 
■iair tkt «Mt to OdydoB ia Aetolk. 

wmi Bmm), a r iwiikii ■hk inhiKl dtj cf Hi«p>ni» 
TsacflMMiy QQ titt bacdan of Baetka; nnder the 
Bvaaa a eolony, with the Jos f^tinnm, under the 
M mmuB ef Goknk Jofia QemeOa Acdtana. Its 
•■Bi aa Bunenos, bearing the beads of Angnstns, 
Tikrias, GenaamcQa, Drams, and Cahgok, and 
Iht fiMJgiB of the kgkos iiL and tl, from which it 
■■i o^ iai wii l bj Jolios or Angafltns, and from 
wkeh it dflored the name of QemeUa (Itin. Ant. 
pfk. 401, 404; Plio. IiL 3. 8. 4; Inscr. ap. Grater, 
^171; £ckhel, voL L pp. 34-^35; BsaBhe,«.v.) 
toMaoobias (Sol. L 10), Han was wor- 
m with his head simoanded with the 
njs, onder the nasM of Ketos. 8ach an 
k sem OD the ous. [P. S.] 

AITCUA, a emaU town of ApoHa, mentioned 
«iT hf Ury (zBT. 20) as one of the places recorered 
If g. Fabras fron the CaitJMginkns in the fifth 
jiv if the Seeead Ponk War, b. o. 214. It ap- 
from thk pMaa^ to hat« been somewhere m 
■Bfbfaooihood of LoMria, bat its exact site k 

[E. H. B.] 

ACE CAkv: £ik'AtuSos), the AccHO CA«X«) 
tf thiOU T«tanMBt(Jadg. L 31), the Akka of the 
Aak, a uhka t f d town and harbour on the shores 
if Fkoida, m ht, 3aP ^\ kng. 35° 6' £. It k 
OB the point of a small promootorf , the 
cUi en ut/ of a drcnkr baj, of which the 
er a uath a n bom k lovmed bj one of the 
of Moant CanneL Daring the period that 
tor was in pneifeiinn of Code-Syria, it 
the name of Ptolbmais (Ilro^^f : £th, 
ntwU^stry, Or9k»fUM6s)f by which it was long 
Arts^^iMhed. In the feign of the emperor Ckodios 
B kiBiin a Bomaa ookoj, and was s^led CoLOiOA 
iXuma Cabsabu Ptolkmais, or simply Colonia 
Pmldlub; bat firam the time when it was occapkd 
W tke ksghu of Si. John of Jernaakm, it has been 
(iMaBf known all over Chrktendom as St Jean 
mA£F$y m WBBftf Aor€* 

Tbi sdvaotages ofiwed by the poeitioa of Acre 
^ wn|iBaiiii! finom an early penod by thoee who 
^«nd t» keep the fommanH of the Syrian coast, 
M it £d not rke to eminence until after the decay 
iljn anl SUoD. When Strsbo wrote (p. 758), it 
«» ahiiiy a great dtjr; and althoogh it has onder- 
pae noiy iii'iitinWa, it has alwayi maintained 
t estain degree of importance. It originally be- 
•^M to the Phfoenicians, and, thoogh nommally 
iirkkil within the tenitofy of the tribe of A^dier, 
^■■evereaoqaaiedbythelscaelites. It afterwards 
the hands of the Babf lonians, and from 
k the PcnNUM. According to the first dis- 
«f the dnwiininns of AiwTsnder it was 
to Ptofemy Soter, bot sobeeqoently fell 
the Sekuridar, and after changing hands re- 
Tolidly evvsitiially ^ nnder the dnmkion of Rome, 
b ii laid at peeeent to contain firom 15,000 to 
MJDOO inhihiTairfs, [W. R.] 

ACELCM iAjtoto), a town of the mtcrior of 
Vtttis, ataated near the foot of the Alps, about 
l« ifiil« XW. of Trerijo. (Plin. iiL 19.s.23;PtoL 
'i 1. { 30.) The name k written 'Aff«3or in our 
ottw flf Piniany, bat the correctness of the form 
Mn pvm by Pfiny is confiimed by that of the 
■iai town. We kani from Panics Diaconns (iil 
A wbee it k oormpUy written Aciiimm), that it 
«■ a hHbop's see in the 6tb ceotaxy. [E. H. B.I 

ACERBAECAx^^tAcenranns). 1. Adtyin 
the interior of Campania, about 8 miles NE. of 
Naples, still called ulcerro. It first appears in his- 
tory as an independent aHj during the great war of 
the Campanians and Latks sgainst Borne; shortly 
after the conclusiaa of which, in b.c. 332, the Acer- 
rani, in common with several other Campanian dtks, 
obtained the Soman *" dvitas,'* but without the r^t 
of soffiage. The period at which this ktter privi- 
lege was granted them k not mentioned, but it k 
certain that they ultimatdy obtained the full rights 
of Bcunan dtizens. (iiv. viii. 17 ; Festus, s. v. 
ifiMMC^pttNn, Mmticepiy and PraefoctHra^ pp. 127, 
142, 233, ed. Mailer.) In the second Punk war 
it was futhfiil to the Boman allisnce, on which ac- 
count it was besieged by Hannibal in b. c. 216, and 
being abandoned by the inhabitants in despair, was 
plundered and burnt. But after the expulsion of 
Hannibal from Campania, the Aoerrani, with the 
consent of the Boman soiate, returned to and rebuilt 
their dty, b.c. 210. (Lir. xxiii. 17, xxvii. 3.) 

During the Social War it was besieged by the 
Sanmite general, C. Papins, but (^ered so vigorous 
a resistanoe that he was unabk to reduce it. (Ap- 
pian. B, C, L 42, 45.) Virgil praises the fertility of 
its territoiy, but the town itoelf had sufiered so much 
fimn the fivqumt inundations of the river Clanins, 
OD which it was ntuated, that it was in his time al- 
OMst deserted. (Virg. Gtorg, iL 225; and Servius 
ad toe.; SiL ItaL viiL 537; Vib. Seq. p. 21.) It 
subsequently recdved a colony under Augustus (Lib. 
Colon, p. 229), and Strsbo speaks of it in coigunc- 
tion wiUi Nola and Nuceria, apparently as a place of 
some consequence. It does not seem, however, to 
have retained its colonial rank, but k mentioned by 
Pliny as an ordinary munidpal town. (Strab. t. 
pp. 247, 249; Plin. iii. 5. s. 9; Orell. Inscr, no. 
3716.) The OMdem town of Acerra retains the 
site as well as the name of the andent one, but it 
does not appear that any vestiges of antiquity, except 
a few inscnptians, remain there. (Lupuli, Iter Vttm- 
sm. p. 10 — 12.) The coins with an Oscan legend 
whioi were referred by Eckhd and earlier numisma- 
tists to Acenae, belong properly to Atklla. (Mil- 
lingen, XumUmatique de lAnciatne ItatUf p. 190; 
Friedl&nder, Oslaschen Munun^ p. 15.) 

2. A dty of Cisalpine Gaul, in the territory of 
the Insubres. Polybius describes it merely as situ- 
ated between the Alps and the Po; and hk words 
are copied by Stephanas of Byzantium : but Strebo 
tdk us that it was near Cremona: and the Tabuk 
places it on the road from that dty to Laus Pompek 
(Lodi Veechio)y at a distance of 22 Boman miles 
man the latter place, and 13 from Cremona. These 
distances cdndde with the podtion of Gkerra cc 
Gtra, a village, or rather subuxb of Pizzighetioney 
on the right bank of the river Adda, It appears U> 
have been a place of condderabk strength and im- 
portance (probably as commanding the passage of the 
Adda) even befor« the Boman conquest: and in B.C. 
222, held oat for a conddcrabte time against the 
consuk MarceUus and Sdpo, but was compelled to 
surrender after the Utile of Clastidium. (PoU 11. 34 ; 

Plut Marc, 6 ; Zomur. viiL 20 ; Stnib. t. p. 247 ; 
Steph.B.#.r.; Tab. Pent.; Cl^Ter. /tol. p. 244.) 
sTa third town of the name, distmguished by the 

ttitbet of Vatbiak, U mentioned by Pliny (iii. 14. 
« 19) M having beei. AtoMlUi in Umbna, but itwM 
Sii^y d^yll in hi. time, «ul Jl cl.^ to ,U^ 

" ACES C^.), . river of Jbim Bowing through 


a jflMJn surroiHulod by niumitaiiis, ro>p<-ctIii'^ ■wlilt h 
a .story istoM by HenKlotiis (iii. 117). (i«'«>'4mjiliiM> 
are nut a;:n-iii as to tbf IiXMlity. It mmmus to \>c 
hoiiiowlicrc ill ('<Mitr:il A>ia, 1^. i»f tb«' l';i>j)iau. It 
is pivtty cli-ar, at all ovrnts, tbal tb** A<'e.> of }\v- 
r'niotiiN i.s ii->t tlic Indian ri\fr A«'i'>in< s. [1*. S.] 

ACKSINKS ('AKcrrtVTjs), a rivt-r of Si< ily. \viii. li 
llow.s^ into the >oa to th** H<ntii of TanroiiM-iiiiun. 
Its name tx-curs (tiily in Tbm uliilt'.s (iv. 25) on 
occ;i>iou of tlie attack iikwIo on Xa\os by tlio M<'>- 
M-nians in h. c. 425 : but it i> cviiK-ntly the same 
river whicli i.s calK'*! by IMiny (iii. 8) A.>inks, ami 
by Vibiu> S''jU<'>t»T (j*. 4) AsiMi s. IJotb tbtsc 
writers jihut- it in the iunu'ilJat*' n<-i_'hbiKnhiHHl nf 
Tauronirniuni. autl it uui U' no oIImt than the rivi-r 
now tall'il by tiie Arabic name of Cnnt'ira, a con- 
sitlcrable ^tn•aIll, which, after f'llowinj; tlironuhout 
its course the northern l>««uii<iaiy of Aetna, <li>- 
«liar:jc> it>e]f into the .s4'.i inanciliately to the S. of 
Capo Scli'ir.i), th<' site of the ancient Naxos. The 
OnoiiALAS of Ap[iian {H.(\\. Ul'J) is jirobably 
only an>»thcr name for the sanie river. du\erius 
ajijj«-ars to ]»e mistaken in rei:arilin;x the J-'iunu' 
Frublo a> the Ai esine> : it i.> a very ^niall 
while the ('iiittnrd i< inn" oi the lar;_e-t rivers in 
Sicily, ami conM hardly lia\e Ini-n omitte<i by 
riinv. (Clnver. Sicil. }•. 93 ; Mannert, vo]. ix. pt. 
ii. I).'284.) ^ [i:. II. ]{.] 

ACKSINK.S ('A«€(n'r7jj : Chnnth : Dioiiy^ius 
iVriejetes. V. ll-'JS. niako> the i \<^w^. if any 
to Consider this an authority), the chief of the 
live ;:reat tribut.irie> of the Indu-, \\hith :;ive tln! 
ii;im<» of Pditjiil) (i. e. Firt Wat* r.<) to lh<' irreat 
]<l;iin of NW. India. The-e n\er> ;ire des(.|i|„nl, 
in their connection with eat h other, under India. 
The ,Vcesine.<, was the >ccond of them, ict koniiii; 
from the \V.. ami, after recrivin;; the wafers of .dl 
the, retained it> name to it.s jiineti-.n with the 
Indus, in lal. 28^ 55' X., l..n;:/7()^ 2S' K. Its 
Sanscrit name was t/i(iiniruh/nu/(i, which would 
have b<*en Ilelleiii/.ed into ^av5pu<pdyos. a word so 
like to 'Ay^poipdyoi, or 'A\f^aibpo<pdyoi. that th<' 
follower.> of Alexander chauu'ed the name to av.tid 
the evil omen, the more .-"O ]»erh.ij»s on acc'-uiit <>t" the 
disaster which lieftdl the M.iie.louitn tleet at the 
turbulent jun<tion of the river with the H_\da^l'<*s 
(Hitter. Enikutuh' mn Asinh, vol. i\ . pt, i. p. 45G: 
for other ivfereiice.s see Imjia.) [!'. S.j 

ACKSTA. [Sh<ihsTA.] 

ACILVKI ('Axa<o/). one of the f.>nr VMi'^ into 
which tlie Hellenes an- usually tli\ided. In the 
lieroie a^e they are t'ound in that i';irt of Tlie.>.saly 
in which IMithia and Hellas were situated, and 
in the ea.stern iwirt of relojxiimesus, nion- eftiK' 
in Arp»)s and >j«arta. .fVr;:os was tVe-jUcntly Called 
the Achaean Arjos (^"Apyos 'Axai*'<o»', IIoui. //. 
L\. 141) to di>tini:ui>h it fioin the I*ela>L!ian 
Arjras in Thes.sily; but Spart.i is trcncrally nien- 
tioutnl as the head-ijuarters of the A< li.iean race 
in PelojKtnne.'-us. Thes.s;ily and ^e^'^Hlnne.•^^Ls were 
thus the two (hief alnxles of this ]«'oj.le; but 
there were various tniditions re.sjKrtim; their origin, 
and a ditb'rence of oj>inion<il anionic the .an- 
cients, whether the Thes-alian or the reloj^iinie.sian 
Achae;uis were the more anci<nt. They w»re 
usiully reprc.sentiii as deM.-endants of A( haeus, the 
.s«»n of Xnthus and Creusa. and eousetjueiitly the 
brother of Ion and L'randson (»f lb Hen. 
(vii. 1) nl.ated that Aih.ieus went back to Thessaly, 
and recovered the dominiMns of which his father, 
Xnthus, luJ Ut'u dejdived; and then, in or<le:' to 


exjliin the existence of the A( liaean*^ in PcIoJioti- 
nf-us, he adds that Archander and Architeles. the 
son> of xVdiaeus, came baek from Phthioti> to ArL'"-, 
iiiarried the two dauirhtcrs of Danaus, and .a«'iuirM 
sm h iiitlucnce at Ar_'o.> and Spart.i. that the\ callevl 
the )ni'ple A< haeaus alter their father A* haeus. 
On the other hand, Stnibo in one passi^'o .savs (p. 
.'JS.'i), that At haeus ha\in:r Heti from Attiia, where 
liis father Xnthus had scttlctl. ,settle<l in Late- 
•laeuion and i:ave to the inhabitants the iiaii.e of 
Achaeans. In another jf.i^-saire. htwcver, he relates 
(]>. .')(>5), that I'eloj'S brouiiht witli him into IVK>- 
j^inne^us the I'hlhiotan At haeans. w]it> settle*! in 
L.aconia. It WouM Ik- nnprotitabje to pnr-ue fur- 
ther the variations in the lejeuds; but we mav 
.^.ifidy Iwlitne that the Acb.ieaiis in Thes-alvwtre 
molt' ancient than those in I*clo|)..iuiesus, sime all 
tradition jM.ints to Th'->saly as the t nnUe nf the 
Hellenic race, 'j'liere i-> a tot.dly iliilereiit att'tiit.t, 
whit h rej-resents the At hieaiis as t.f Tcla-Lric t.ri;,in. 
It is prestnt.'tl by l)ion\^ius t>f Il.diiariia^sus (i. 17), 
who rel.ites that At haeus, Phthius, aiitl relas-vui 
wi re .sons of po.seiilou aiitl Lari>s;i: antl tliey 
mi^'rateii iVoni Pcloj^onnesiiN to 1 he>valy, where 
tiny di\idtHl the c.niitry into tiiree j-.-uis. (all<ii 
alter them Aih.iia. ITithiotis and I'^'ioti-. A 
iiiiNlern writer is di^iM.stij to at i ept this tKeiitiou so 
tar, as tt) assi;;!! a I'el.i-Li<" origin to tie- A< 
tht»ui:h he n jaitls the riithi-.lan Athaeaiis as nii.rv 
am ieiit th.m their bnthnii in the I'tdoiLiinesus. 
( Ihirlnall, Hist, of Cruet;, vol. i. p. loy, se.p) 
Ihe onlv fiict known in the ea;li«--t bi^t-irv of th*» 
jtcoplf. whirh we can atimit with (crl.iiiity, is their 
exi-teiice as the j» rate in the .soutli t»f 
Thessaly. and tm lie- castt-rn side t.f r»do[KU nesii*^. 
The;* an; rcpii'sentctl by Homer as a brave aial 
Warlike jf.iple. and x) ili.>tin.:ui-li«-d wt-rc the_\ tliat 
he usu.illy talis the (iretks iu i^meral A< haeans or 
I' haeaus (naja\ai<'<, //. ii. 404, \ii. "-J, ^i-.). 
In the s.'ime niuimr l\'I"j>oiihe-its, and sonio- 

lime.-. till' wh'le <if (ireeee, i-, t .dlt d by the jw»,-t th»» 

At haeaii land. ('Axaus yaia, Horn. //. i. 254, 
^>'/. xiii. 249.) Un the toinjur-t il" Pel'jv.miesus 
by the Dorians, SO \ alter tlie Tn-jan war, the 
Ath.ieaiis were thiMii t>ut of .\r'_tis aiitl I.atouJa, 
ami who remaineil bthin'l were rcdutcil to tlie 

( oiiditioU ttf a Coli.jUeU'd j"' 'pie. Most «.f the e\- 

Inlled, led by i i-a!nenus, the .son of 
Orestes. prt>ct'ctled to the land on the norihern o<i-t 
of I'eloj-.imc.sus. whit h was t.alled simply Ae:;ialus 
(A/7jaAt.)j) tir the' " Coa^t,'' and was iidiabite<l by 
buiians. Tin- latter were tief.ateil by tin- A< haeaiis 
ami crttssed over to Attita antl Asia Mint.r, lea%iu<^ 
their coimtry to tlnir tontjn<'ror.s, from wh 'in it w:is 
hentrf.rth called At h.ii i. (>trab. p. .'iS.'i; PauH. 
\ii. 1: Pol. ii. 41; comj). Ibn-tj. i. 145.) The 
further history tif the A< is i:i\en untlcr 
A<ii.\i.\. 1 he At haeans I'ounded several ttijonics, 
of which the iiiosi t ilfbr.ited were i'roton and 
Syb.iris. [('i:<»ToN': ^vnAnIs.] 

ArilA'I.V ('Axa;a. Ion. 'AxauT): Fth. 'Axa*<^5, 
Ach.ieiis, Achh iis.yl '/;. and mlj. \-^\aids. Athai;ut, 
Aihais; .1///. 'A\a«>vus. At liaicus, Ach.iius). 1, 
A tjistrict in the S. of Thes.^ily, in whith Phthia 
and Htdlas wtre .'•ituated. It a)'i'*ars to h.ive \nr\\ 
the ori'jinal alM>tle i»f the Achaeans, wht. h.'uoe 
called Atdiacans ('Axa"-*' oi +*^ja5Ta<) to 
tlistiieiuish them from the At haeans in the Ptdtj- 
j/t.nne.Mis. [Tor details .s.-e At HAF.i.J It was 
tiom this jart t>f Ihe^sily that A« hilles e.aine. ami 
Homer says tliat the;. of this luro wci'o 


oBnl MynaidaD^ tad HeDcDcs, mnd Achaeans. 
{II u. 684.) This distnct oaitinDed to retam the 
3flB» d Acbak in the time of Herodotus (viL 173, 
197), and the inhabitanta of Phthia were called 
Pktkiacaa Achaeaas tiD a stiU later period. (Tbac. 
m.3.) An aoooont of this part of Tbessalj is 
pvra mdir Thxsbaua* 

1 OngiaaUy called Akoialvs or Aeoialeia 
(Ao«aUr, AiytdXttOf Horn. //. ii. 575; Paus. vii. 
1. j I; Strah. pw 383), that is, "« the Coast," a 
ponDot in the N. of Peiopoanenis, extended along 
tfa C«iathian goH firam the river Larissos, a littk 
& flf the prcfnootorj Araania, which separated it 
fren EZis, to the rirer Sjthaa, which separated it 
iim iSkjQom. On the S. it was bordered by Ar- 
ofia. sad OQ the SW. by Etis. Its (ipreatest length 
ihaf the coast ia ahoiiit 65 Knglikh miles: its 
Wtb fnxa about 13 to 20 miles. Its area was 
pihUj about 650 aqoare miles. Achaia is thns 
•It • namiw slip of coontiy, Ijing upon the slope 
4 tW northern range of Arcadiaf throogh which 
■p deep and naitow gorges, by which alone Achaia 
ea y invaded from the soath. From this moon- 
tm nage d esceo d nomenMU ridges mnning down 
■Cs the sea, or separated from it by narrow levels. 
TIk pkms cB the coaat at the foot of these monn- 
ta* aod the vaUiea between thorn are generally 
ny fertile. At the pneent day cnltiration ends 
vith the plain of Piatra, and the whole of the west- 
« part of Achaia is forest or pasture. The plains 
m drand bynnmenxu streams; bnt in consequence 
ri the proximity of the monntains to the sea the 
o«i» «f these torrents is necessarily short, and 
^ fd thim are dry in snmmer. The coast is 
paafly kw, and deficient in good harbours. 
CiA«d Leake remarks, that the level along the 
e«rt if Achaia " appears to have been firmed in the 
o^ne tif age* by the soil deposited by the torrents 
vbtA deaccnd from the lofty mountains that rise 
fcawi a fri^ at the back of the |dains. Wlierever 
lia nm» are Urgeat, the {Jains are roost extensive, 
•ai mth river haa its correspondent pranontory 
in like manner to its Tolome. These 
are in general nearly opposite to the 
at which the rivers emerge from the 
.* (iWopoftaefMCo, p. 390) 
The high es t moontain in Achaia is situated be- 
kM Pauae ; it is called Mo!fs Paxacuaicus 
^ iVjhtmis, and is, perhaps, the same as the Sdo- 
«« ^ Ptiny (r^ TUanxaiichw Spos^ Pol. v. 30 ; 
n>. iv. 6: VoitUkia). It is 6329 English feet in 
NfChL (Lemke, TrateU m Morta, v^. iL p. 138, 
/W^aBai Willi u, p. 204.) Thne are three conspi- 
c^ pnoHBtorMs on the coast. 1. Drkpahum 
(Maawr: C. J>htrtpamo\ the most northerly 
fv* ia PekfRxmcsos, is oonibunded by Strabo with 
^ noghhoarini; promontory of Bhitmi, but it is 
ikt Imt nndy point 4 miles eastward of the latter. 
hi tmut is cj iDe c t ed by Pansanias with the sickle 
^Cnooi; but vre know that this name was often 
>nM fay the anriwita to low sandy promontories, 
*^ aamme the fbnn of a Sp^oroy, or sickle. 
(Sb^ p.a35 ; Pans, rii 23. §. 4; Leake, Morta, 
*^«».^415.) 2. BmvM (Pfor: Cattk of the 
•^•vs), 4 miies westward of Drepannm, as men- 
iMid afaim>, 19 opposite the promontory of AimB- 
■VTM, scBwtimes abo called Rhitmi (^Kmi^iw, 
<^ •/ AmflOi on the borders of Aetolia and 
^^ff*^ In order to distinguiah them from each 
^Wthefamer was callcil t^ 'Axcu'^") and the 
vi MeAMTpiicdr, tnax its vichiity to the town 



ot Molycreinm. These two promontories formed 
the entrance of the Corintluan gulf. The breadth 
of the strait is stated both by Dodwell and Leake 
to be about a mile and a half; but the ancient 
writers make the distance less. Thn<rjrdide8 makes 
it 7 stadia, Strabo 5 stadia, and Pliny nearly a 
Soman mile. On the promontory of Shiimi tha« 
was a tem]^ of Poseidon. (Thuc ii 86 ; Strab. 
pp. 335, 336; Plin. rr. 6; Steph. B. s. v.; Dod- 
well, Claatical Tour^ toL i. p. 126; Leake, Morea^ 
vol ii. p. 147^.) 3. Araxus ("Apo^or: Kalogria)^ 
W. of Dyme,*formerly the bocn^buy between Achaia 
and £lis, but the confines were afterwards extended 
to the river Larissus. (PoL iv. 65; Strab. pp. 335, 
336; Pans. vi. 26. § 10.) 

The following is a list of the rivers of Achaia 
from £. to W. Of these the only two of any im- 
portance are the Ciathis (No. 3) and the Peirus 
(No. 14). 1. Sythas, or Sys (7,{fOai, 2i/s), form- 
ing the boundary between Achaia and S^cyonia. 
We may iafisr th^ this river was at no great dis- 
tance from Slcyon, from the statement of Pausanias, 
that at the festival of Apollo there was a procession 
of children from Sicyon to the Sythas, and back 
again to the city. (Paus. IL 7. § 8, iL 12. § 2, 
Tii. 27. § 12; Ptol. iii 16. § 4; comp. Leake, 
Jtforea, vol. iii. p. 383, PelopotmeaiacOj p. 403.) 
2. Cbius (Kpi^j), rising in the mountains above 
Pellene, and flowing into the sea a little W. of 
Aegeira. (Paus. viL 27. § 11.) 3. Crathis 
{KpaBis : Akrata)^ rising in a mountain of the same 
name in Arcadia, and falling into the sea near 
Aq^e. It is described as icyvoof , to distinguish 
it from the other streams in Achaia, which were 
mostly dry in summer, as stated above. The Styx, 
which rises in the Arcadian mountain cf Aroonia, 
is a tributary of the Crathis. (Uerod. i. 145 ; Cal- 
ling in Jov, 26; Strab. p. 386; Paus. vii. 25. 
§ 11, vin. 15. §§ 8, 9, viii. 18. § 4; Leake, if oreo, 
vol iii pp. 394, 407.) 4. BuRAicus {woratths 
BovfKait6ti river of Kalavryta, or river of Bura), 
ribing in Arcadia, and falling into the sea £. of 
Bura. It appears frtnn Strabo that its proper name 
was Erasmus. (Paus. vii. 25. § 10; Strab. p. 371 ; 
Leake, /. c.) 5. Certhites (Kcpvylnyf: Bok- 
hutia)f flowing from the mountain Ceryneia, in 
Arcadia, and fiUling into the sea probably E. of 
Helice. (Pans. vii. 25. § 5; Leake, /. c.) 6. 
Seldtus (2f XiroCs : river of VostUza)^ flowing into 
the sea between Helice and Aeginm. Strabo erro- 
neously describes it as flowing through Ai^tun. 
(Paus. vii 24. § 5; Strab. p. 387; Leake, /. c.) 
7, 8. Heoakitas (MryorlTO}) and Phoenix 
(^iyi|), both falling into the sea W. of Aegium. 
(Pans, vii 23. § 5.) 9. Boukaeus (BoXinubr), 
flowing into the sea a little E. of the promontory 
Drepanum, so called frtxn an ancient town Bolina, 
which had disappeared in the time of Pausanias. 
(Pans. vH. 24. § 4.) 10. Sblemnus (2^A(/iyos), 
flowing into the sea between the prcnnontories Dre- 
panum and Rhinm, a little £. of Argyra. (Paus. 
vii 23. § 1.) 11, 12. Cbabadrus (Xd^por: 
river of Fe/rtto*)and Meiucuus (MclAixof: river 
oi Syhena), both falling into the sea between the 
TOiomontoiy Rhinm and Patrae. *(Pans. vii. 22. 
I 11, vii. 19. § 9, 20. § 1.) 13. Glaucus 
(rXovKor : Lefka^ or Lafka\ falling into the sea, 
a little S. of Patrae. (Pans. vii. 18. § 2; Leake, 
vol. ii. p. 123.) 14. Peirus (fltipos : Kame- 
ndm), also called Achelous, frlUng into the sea 
near Olentis. This river was mentioned by Hesiod 

14 ACHAT A. 

under the name of I'iMius, jls wc learn from Stra1)o. 
It i.-> il»'.>crilM-<l 1»y Ij-ako as wide aii<l tircj) in tlh> 
latter i-nd of rchruaiy, altlniu^h uu rain liad fallen 
for souH- weeks. Into the I'cirus li'>we(l tiie Teii- 
thea.s (Tti/^tay). whi( h in its turn reciiveil the 
Cancjtn. The Teirns Mowf'd past Pharae, wjietv it 
w;us called l'ie'rns(nif^)o.s;), hnt the iidiahitant^ of the 
iyr.isi oalletl it hy the f..niier name. (Strah. p. 342; 
Iler.Hl. i. 145; Van.s. \u. 18. § 1. 22. ^ 1; Leake, 
vol. ii. p. 1.55.) Strains in another j>a>-ai;e ealls it 
Melfts (MfAav), hnt the readiiiic i> i»rul)ahly cor- 
rupt. I)iony>in.s iVriej^'etes mentions the alon^^ 
uith the Oathis anion-; the rivers tiwinic from Mt. 
Erymanthns. (Strah. p. .38(> ; Dionys. 416.) 15. 
Laki^ls {Adpiaus: Mnn^i), finning tiie l>»nndary 
iM'tween Aehaia and Klis, risini; in Mt. S-ollis. 
and fallirii; into the sea 30 st;iilia from l>yme. 
(Tans. vji. 17. § 5; Strah. p. .'387; Liv. x.\vii.;U.) 

The original inhahitants of Aehaia are said t'» 
have Uhmi I'elasirians. and wen- call.-<l Aeirialeis 
(A<7(aAfr$), or the " Coa•^t-^Ien," from Aeiriahis, 
tlie ancient name of th<.* conntry, thoni^h some 
writers suntrht a mythical oi-iirin for the name, and 
derived it tVom Ae'zialeus, kin>r of Sicyonia. (Ilenxl. 
vii. 94; I'an^. vii. I.) The lonians snh.>et|nently 
settlid in the conntrv. Ac<-ordinir tt) the invthieal 
aeeomit. Ion, the son of Xnthns, crossed over from 
Attica at the head of an army, hut comlnded an al- 
lian*e with S'linn'«, the kini:of the eonntry, niarried 
his <lan<:hterlleliee,and snci i-eded him on tlie throne. 
From this time the land waN call»'d Ionia, and the in- 
hahitants lonians or Ae::ialian lonians. Jhe lonians 
remained in ]Mi.v«e*sion of the country till the invasion 
of reloponiioiis hy tin' Dorians, when the Ach;ieans, 
who had heen driven out of Ar;ios andLacedaeinon hy 
the invaders, manhe.l airiinst the lonians in order 
to ohtain new homes for themselves in the conntry 
of the latter Under the cunnnanil of their kin;; 
Tisameiius, the son of Oreste-, they defeated the 
lonians in hattle. The latter shut themselves U]» in 
lleliee. where tlx-y su>tained a >iei:e for a time, hut 
th'-v tlnallv iinitti'tl the conntrv and son;jht refu;:e 
in Attica. The .Vhaeans thus Inx-anie masters of 
the country, whi<h wa.< heiuet'orth calle«l atU-r 
them Aehaia- (Herod, i. 145; Pol. ii. 41 ; Pans. 
vii. I; Strah. p. 383.) This i.> the connnon leu'end, 
hut it rhould U- oh>erved that Homer take^ no no- 
tice of lonians on the north'-ni co;ist of Pelojviu- 
nesus; hnt on the i-oiitrary, the^rue in the 
Ili;ul distinctly includes this territory under the do- 
minions of Aijamennjon. Hence there stvms reason 
for tjuevtioiiin;; the mcujiation of northeni Pelo|>on- 
iiesus hy the lonians and their I'xpnlsion trom it hy 
TisamenuA; and it is more i)rohahle that the histo- 
rical Achae;u)s in the north \<u'X of PeloiHinnevu-. are 
a small undi-tnrhcil n'uniant of the .Achaean pitpu- 
lation once distrihuted throu::h the whole penin.-ula. 
((irote, IliMonj of (iri'ice^ vol. ii. ]>. 17.) 

The lonians are .s^iid to have dwelt in villai:''s. 
and the cities in the country to have he.-n first hnilt 
hy the Achaeans. S'veral of the.«.f villajes wcii" 
luiited to tV»nu a to\\^l ; thus Patrae wa> f mncd hy 
an union of seven vilLiL'cs, I)yme of ei^'ht, and ] 
Ae<'inm also of si-von or eiu'ht. The Arha<ans in's- ■ 

O ' I 

sessed twelve cities, the teriitory (»f each of which 
was dividtnl into sevi-n or eiu'ht <l<;ni. (Strah. |i. 
38G.) This nund»er of 12 is said to have Inrn 
borroweil from the lonians, who were divid'-d into 
12 jiarts {^fp^a). wIh-u tlif^y o<cnjiied the country, 
and who acconlin;:ly rt-fu-ed to allow of more than 
twelve cities in their lea;;ue. AlthoU'.;h there are | 


ITinmI rea'Jons for Irt-lievincj tlut there were more than 
twelve inde|»ndent ( ities in Aehaia ((irote, lligt. f>j' 
(Jritrr, vol. ii. j». G14), yet the an< it-nt writer^ al- 
ways n'co^Mii/.e only 12, and tiiis seems to have N-en 
reL'-iid<"<l a>^ the estahlish.-d nmidM-r of the coiifeiie- 
nilion. These cities continued to !«• i:ovenie»l hy tho 
tle^eendants of 'i'is.ijiicnus down to OiryL'us. after 
whose di-ath they aholi.shed the kinirly rule and os- 
tahlished a tleinoi racy, Kach of the cities loniiCTi a 
separate rejinhlic, hnt w«re united toilet her by p-'- 
rio<lical sacritices and testi\als. where they arran;itii 
their tlisi»utes and settled their common concerns. 
In the time of Henxlotus (i. 145) the twelve ritit-> 
w«'re Pellene. Aep^ira, Ac^'ae. Hura, Helice, AciriuTn, 
KhyjK's, Patreis (ae), Phareis (ae), ( denns, Dyiup, 
Tritaeeis ( Tritaea). This list is copied hy >tr:iU> 
(pp. 385, 380) ; hut it ap|M'ars from the li^t in 
I'olybius (ii. 41), that Lfontium and <"ervn<ia were 
afterwards suh>tilnteil in the ])lacc f»f lihyies an<i 
/\ei:ae. which had talln into decay. Pausania> (vii. 
6. § 1 ) retains both llhy|>*-s and Ae:;ae, and suh-ii- 
tutes Cer}'neia for Patrae; hut his authority is of no 
value in opjxisition to Polyl/ius. 1 lie tx.ini <if union 
Ix'tween these cities was \i-ry loose, and tht-ii- connec- 
tion was of a rrlii:ions rather than of a jrf' 
nature. Thus we tind thmi sometimes a<tini: <|uitf 
inde[Hmdently of one another. Pellene alone joimsl 
the Lacedaemonians at the commencement <>t' the 
I'eloj»onne>ian war, while the n^'^t remained r.entnl; 
and at a Liter j>erio<l of the war I'atrae alon*- c->- 
jV'Used the .Vthcnian cause. (Ihuc. ii. D, v. 52.) 
Their on^'inal jdace of in.etini; was at ll'li< e. when.'; 
they otlertd a common s;u vitice to po-^eidou, the tute- 
lary Liul of the place; hut after this ( ity h nl U't-n 
swallowed up hy the sea in li. c. 373 [IIei.hi-.J, 
they tran>tV*n'ed their meetini^s to A'-uium, where 
they sa( rifued to Zeus llonia^ryrius. or lloni.irius, 
and to the Panac haean Dimeter. (Pans. \ii. 24; 
P.»l. V. 94.) 

The A< haeans are rarely inentioneil during: thr 
flourishiuL' ]H'rio.l r,f (Irccian hi>tory. Imiuj e<|Uallv 
unconnecteil with the L'teat Ionian and Doric races, 
they kept alrH>f for the mo^t part from the struj-Lrles 
iK'tWLvn the (Ireek i^tates. and apjwar to have en- 
joyed a state of almo>t uninterrupted pro>peritv dow^l 

to tin- tin f Philip. Thi-y did not a>-i>t the oiJier 

(Irecks in re)»ellin'_f the per.-ians. In v.. r. 454 they 
fornieil an alliune with the Atle nians, hut tho lattrr 
wt're ohliired to surrender Ach lia in tho tru< e fua- 
thirty years, which they coududol with Sparta and 
her allies in r.. o. 445. (Thnc. i. HI, 115.) In 
the Course of the Pfloi)onne>ian war tlnv i. -iiu'd the 
Lacedaemonian^-, thou^'h iirohaMv wvs relu> tatitlv. 
(Ihuc. ii. 9.) Ih.y retained, howiver. .i hi::h cha- 
racter amou;: tin- other (Jrceks, .and wfM'e e>teem»\l 
on account of their sincerity and l,'oo<1 taith. S> 
hiuhly were they valued, that at an early •,i<j:\- some 
t»f the jMtwert'ul (Jrei-k < ojoi ies in Italy ajiplict] for 
thi'ir mediation and adopted their in>tlt uti^us, an<i 
.at a later time they werechos.-n hy the Spartans and 
Thchans a* arbiters .at'ter the hattle «»f Ltnutra. 
(Pol. ii. 39.) The first ^nat blow whi«h tho 
Achaeans e\]><'rienced was at the battle ..f iTiaero- 
neia (n. <■. 338), when they lon^'ht with the Athe- 
nians and l)04'otiins aj-aiust Phili|» and lo>t Mtnie of 
their hravt^>t citi/.ens. L.iLrht ytai-s .aftcrwaI■li^ (u. c. 
33(») .all the Aclia<an towns, with the t'xoption of 
pellene, Joined the Sj'artans in the cause of Grecian 
frctlom, iind sh irnl in the rli>astrons d»'feat at Man- 
tineia, in whi(h Auis fell. This .vevere blow U-fl 
them so prostrate that they were unable to render 


to the cupft ife rate Gn^ in the L»- 
•ftcr the death of Alexander. (Pans. vii. 
«.) Bvt their u id e| >eiMle ut spirit had awakened the 
jeehniy of the MacedoiMn mkn, and Demetrius, 
raTKkr, ^d Antj^onni Qooatas placed ganiaons 
■ their dtaw, er held posMMon of them ^ mtana 
<tftTnMa. Soch a state of tUngs at length be- 
c^ iDMppartable, and the oommadana hi Mace- 
dnk, vhich hlkmtd tha death of LyBhuachna (b. o. 
Sil), afiinied then a fiaToanUe opportonitf for 
ttevwfaiKotf the yoke <if their oppretson; and the 
tiaofiih iBTaikn which ihortly followed effectoaUj 
pvfvntod the Maoedoaiaaa firom interfering in the 
rf^cf the PdopoDneaoa. Patiaa and Dyme were 
tte tnt two cities whieh expelled the Macedonians. 
Itttr exampla wm speedily followed bj Tritaea 
«d FbtfM ; aad theee four towns now resolred to 
nnw the arient League. The date of this 
mat was B. c 380. Fite years afterwards (b. c. 
S7S) tivy woe joined by Aeginm and Bora, and 
thi wfwsiwi of tha fanner city was the mora im- 
prtaBt,Mit h*d been the regnlar place of meeting 
4f tb «rfier Laaf^oe altar the destroction of Helice, 
m kM been already rdated. The main principles of 
tfacaatimtiaii of the newLeagnewero nowfixed,aud 
• talai WM creeled inscribed with the names of the 
9mm. Almost immediately afterwards 
acUed to the League. Theie were now 
m^ thiee mneining dtks of the andeut League, 
viadi bad do* joined the new co nfed eratioo, nainely, 
Um/Atmu Ae|;m, and Pellane; for HeUce had been 
■valbwed vp by the sea, and Olenns was soon after- 
ev^abaiiAcasd by its inhabitants. The three dties 
■■tkned abofe sooo afWwards nnited themselTes 
ti tia Lettfpie, which thus consisted of ten cities. 
{hL i. 41 ; Strab. p. 384; Pans. ru. 18. § 1.) 

The Ailiawii Leagne thns renewed erentnaUy 
ymam the most powerfol political body in Greece ; 
mi, h >tf sr y*tM<it hj a strange cotncidenoe that the 
pifle, who had enjoyed the greatest celebrity in the 
bei who had ateiost disappeared from 
Ibr srrenl centuries, again became the 
amoog the Greek states in the last days 
rf tfas Mirwsi*! independence. An accownt of the 
avtintaM of this League is given in the Dictionary 
<f AalsfQitJes (art. Aehaiemn Foedm)^ and it is 
oedy necessary to gire here a brief re- 
ef its fVmdamental laws. The great 
•f the new League was to effect a mncfa 
pB tM>*l union than had existed in the former 
^. No dty WM allowed to make peace or war or 
ii timt with say fordgn powo- apart from the entire 
aAvn, although each was aUcwed the undisturbed 
«wtrai«f ite internal ai&irs. This sorenign power 
RiiM ffi the federal assembly (^rsSet. ittKKri<r(a, 
nmi^fv) which was heU twice a year origmally 
St Aitmnj afterwards at Corinth or other places, 
tf»^ extraordinary meetings might be conrened 
W the ofkers of the League either at Aegium or 
ihabiia At an theee meetings, every Achaean, 
«he tel attained the age of 30, was allowed to 
if^ ; but quertkos were not decided by an ab- 
■isle na>«ity of the citiaeos, trat by a majority of 
A» ciliea, wfakh were members of the League. In 
riftMB to the geoenl as se mb ly thera was a Council 
(SwAi^X ^^^^ previously decided upon the ques- 
lum that were ti> be submitted to the assembly. 
TW vriftchial oAxrs of the League were: 1. The 



^ r or general (lTp«Tirrrf»),wh«ee duties were 
pvtf^'ufitary and partly civil, and who was the 
bead of the confederacy. For the 

first 25 yean ihere were two Strategi ; but at the 
end of that time (b.o. 255) only one was appmnted. 
Marcus of Ceryneia was the first who held the sole 
office. (Pol. ii. 43 ; Strab. p. 385.) It was pro> 
bably at this time that an Hippan^Mi (Jmwapxos) 
or commander of the cavalry was then first appointed 
in pUce of the Strategus, whose office had been 
abolished. We also r^ of an Under-Strategns 
(6wo<rTpaTin^s), but we have no account of the 
extent of his powers or of the relation in which he 
stood to the chief Strategus. 2. A Secretory of 
St(Ue(yfmmAOfr9vs), 3. Ten Dtm i ttrgi (dt>M«oi»pyo<), 
who formed a kind of permanent committee, anid 
who probably represented at first the 10 Achaean 
cities, of which the League consisted. The num- 
ber of the Deroiargi, however, was not increased, 
when new cities were subsequently added to the 
Lesgue. AH these officers were elected for one 
year at the spring meeting of the assembly, and the 
Strat^ns was not eligible for re-electioD till a year 
had elapsed after the expiration of his office. If the 
Strategus died under the period of his office, his 
place was filled up by his predecessor, until the 
time fat the new elections arrived. 

It remains to give a brief sketch of the history of 
the League. At the time of its revival its numbers 
were so inconsiderable, that the collective popnlatioo 
of the confederate states was scarcely equal to the 
inhabitants <^ a single city accordi^ to Plutarch. 
(^Arat. 9) Its greatness may be traced to its con- 
nection with Aratns. Up to this time the League 
was confined to the Achaean cities, and the idea 
does not seem to have been entertained of incor- 
porating foreign cities with it. But when Aratus 
had delivered his native city Sicyon fmn its tyrant, 
and had persuaded his fellow-citizens to unite them- 
selves to the League (b.c. 251), a new impulse 
was given to the latter. Aratus, although only 20 
years of age, became the soul of the Lei^ie. The 
great object of hb policy was to liberate the Pelo- 
ponnesian cities firom their tyrants, who were all 
more or less dependent upon Macedonia, and to 
incorporate them with the League ; and under his 
able management the confederacy constantly re- 
ceived fresh accessions. Antigonus Gonatas, king 
of Macedonia, and his successor Demetrius II., used 
every effint to crush the growing power oif the 
Achaeans, and they were supported in their efforts 
by the Aetolians, who were equally jealous of the 
confederacy. Aratus however triumphed over their 
opposition, and for many years the League enjoyed 
an uniBterrupted succession of prosperity. In b. c. 
243 Aratus surprised Corinth, expelled the tymnt, 
and united this important city to the League. The 
neighbouring cities of Megara, Troezen, and Epi- 
daurus followed the example thus set th«n, and 
joined the League in the course of the same year. 
A few years aftervrards, probably in b. c. 239, Mega- 
IqMlis also became a member of the League ; and 
in B.C. 236 it received the accession of the powerful 
dty of Argos. It now seemed to Aratus that the 
time had arrived when the whole of Peloponnesus 
might be annexed to the League, but he experienced 
a fiir more formidable opposition frrrni Sparta than he 
had anticipated. Cleomencs III., who Imd lately as* 
cended the Spartan throne, was a man of energy; and 
his militaiy abilities proved to be fiu* superior to those 
of Aratus. Neither he nor the Spartan government 
was disposed to place themselves on a level with the 
Achaean towns ; and accordingly when Aratus at- 
tempted to obtain possession of Orchomenus, Tegea, 

10 ACHAIA. A( H.\LV 

ar. : M;.-.! ;"• : i. -^ ' .1 \ :. . 1 ; '.:.'^l \h^ Aot. 'ILin Lf-irse b. <: . 1 ^^ '' j r .../ _• :h'- l* rtif.. ati'-tns f>f the citr and 

\i c ' ' ke ■ :: S.-r^'^ r. >:o.rta f.r. i tl:-- A h .•^:tL 5'jVvr>:'.j , ,.:.--^r-i ly :Lt ^r.ate ; and e\i-n- sucrtt-"!- 

L--.r.-. F..i\ li'jr. I:. :l> ".J", (ull-i ly }', ;\l.:.i? i:.^' t^;t.r-^..' 1 1 :. '::-:w^-:. thv L-:<irae -ind the s^^nate 

t:. ^/.-'Z:.'.:^ '»^,ir. tie A' I.j^-h:.? '^vrt ^i' :< -*:•■! i:, .>>h 'a- i >!i.l r. >r: ^il-orly tLv ?uV»>.i t-mditiuii of the 

^r^Tj^ b.::.-:? uLi : <>: ^ r:.-' iu.p rtur,t j^l..^-: a.' d A Lr.*::-. IL- II ::-.ii-i. L '-.^cvcr, i>till ackii'iw- 

s:- ur->>u^ :->-:•-! Ltd ih-y l^t^:,. tL-il thi'v a: !• nj-.h l-i^*- i Lr. r.::;.e !L- ii.i' j^ni- nee of the A(ha«'an5; 

r-.- >ci :• :' r^ d v ali::.>r. < r -.uAaLkX' ■with >;. .na, a:, i :L-; ::. rv T.itn ■:;• }<in •.>{ the natiin coniinuwi 

;* "SLL ^"'-i.'ir.j 1. ;»- n:»T.'-- a> :h t « hirf. Ar^f.i- ^-■ i nV r '* c r.5ilr..:: r^l re<i>tai;r«? to iill the Roman 

w^- •^'^. .' : . Ir ► k thi^ h'^ril:..:! : . .r.d ir. a:i » %^.l t-r. ta.^L:: • r.ts v.t-r: tht- iiVrlies of the League, 

h -T u: '. "^'i !' A-.!ij-':.'> l*-- '- ! r h-!];. Th:- ^^h• -.-•.t-r :}.:- »■ ul i 1-; d r.e witbont adnr-lini: the 

t,: i :r^ :L'^ rr*-^! ■«". rk •! h:^ I!:-. :ir: : n.,.ki: j tl.- K : .j.:."< .»Ly j.r !'X! :" r -i^ar. At tho ht-wl <>{ thii 

A L^Aii *.!::•.'- aj.ilr. dvT-ni-:.: •u:« l >Lu . ; • :a. ].inv tT^> ;-- ::.-■?.. ai.i alt'-r hi? d»'ath, Lr- 

-Aj.tij.::'^- ■v^iHii.jlv ;r'.:.d^'--i l> ..-':-:a:.c>^ : ;ti- 1 *. rt.i.-. X-l n. ^.d P. '.;b:"o. Ca'licniteu on the 

iL' :,. J :". .t: '-j.- wj:!; <;>■:;.. i.^-* %v. > r k- :: ^.-n. K.f. ' :L':r Lu. : v.^,, it th-.- h-a*! <■•:' an'>ther l«arty, whi<h 

2:i4. TL'.- wa< Ir-'.-.jht : - ar. -l : 'r v :h-" iv :"- »: c :i:.-li-i .^ >tr.:le ;u" nd-^i.-a to the >erate, aiid 

' : i ".- rL.t:J(•^ by A:,::_' a::> ..: thv .^- ->-t bi::ir ' :" ^ ."^jL: t • k^in xrjrar, i:;.m'-::t by the sobjec- 

>-■".. -ii. B.C. 1*1' 1. Cii- :. or.v> ::..rr.- :..'.''.y l^f: th.- i: :: ■ :' :h-:r *. 'XLtr.-. In rd-r t.. j..t rid uf his 

. ",:/n- :r d ^,^■^■-l atx iV t J K.-v;.!. A'T: J n;> thu> > li::..d •; ;•■:.-:.:-. (.'.r.dv r,.:i ?. aftt-r the dttVit r.f 

K .»-..._ ir.i-^rul" N-.-ta: ^-.t L^ d:l l ■: ..'.ir.t x it rtr-t-.i> iy th-'' }; c^an^. iL-ei*- up a ibt of Kmm) 

t :L'' A :. .'■-ill L'>,jj„''. ;i^ i: \^^ -lj ;^*n vf Li; A/iif-..-!^. -.'.ir l-t-5: x'.i i^rvy*. ^.^^r: ..f the mji'in, 

J. '., y : . ■>jjr..:."L <.* :':»■ Ir/.-T. ^h ":- •.:.■• II r:..v:i> v irri-^ : ■ n :-.> It.dy (b. c. 167) 

1.." r. x: "tv.,.-. i'; \x:.:' h iL- Acr..;.a::r -w* r^-" or.- "::. 1 r tLi ] r- :.»x: «. f :L> j ut^-rded h'lp to 

J-j d. aj ,ki "■::.i-v\i th ir h';::dl: .:: »:! ar.d du- I'^ "- 1-. I:.- II :: iT.? :.rv.. .- t .- .^jh: tL>-v j ri-^-rA-rs 

]'./.:. .-.;•:. M.i'A:.r.i.i. In r.c. i;2'i v.'.i:;;'.t-:.' t-i to :r!-ik I-:: k-::: ::.-•:.. i:. ihe : '•frn> ^.f It;ily : and 

:.-■ >«ti.ii .t> it i> ii-addy lad -:. Th-- Aet''.;..?^ it ■^.«^- l t tid ..r- r th^: i o--'- ■■! 17 year^. aud ^h-^n 

L.v,:..>i I'. 1 -J. r/^t>'.L« on: d..b\i:t-d tlie A» h.caiL-. tl«.:r r/mdi-r w.v- T'-"..;.^*: to :><mi. th..: tiie Kn;tte 

■v^ :.•>";:• n .Vrat'o aj;d-vi :r .d i t<> I'liilip, J.v^. th- m i^r. i.-?i •:. : > rttuT. tv Gr'X-(.~e. .\in"rp 

-5^1,' h..'i sn..^^-- in'i Ar.t:j :. .> r.a th-- .^Ii■'. i^ t:. m- w^ -. r-. t:. .> r^^t r.;-i t ■ tbtdr < ■^nt.'y, thf-re 

l'. ill thr-i.o. Tie y -v.nj :i. o:'nluv.!<.\i th-^ ■^^rre >■::..- :: -i. .: :r.b-:. ^ ^r 1 :,lij;»y, Uke the i^iih vtrik:; J .1: idty ;a:. i ^ll«;<e^<: .t:. i ti,-^ hi-t-ri.j. Pdy i .> : but ld.:r^ i\^rv.:L'r- tt" wvak 

A-t.d^.^ h.i^d.j U^v :..r \'>i\iT} if*. :h(' t:":.:,.-^: w.-^- ; idj::.^'.t -: : \i !'l: t.i-^" l>. wh:> Lid b"acxa^- 

^1.'^ t (. :. !:..:c .» ji-u."- ii. B.i . 217. Th-. A...- .-> ]-rjtvi :y :l :r 1 '.j .ili i.:.'-;>t c :.n'.e:;.ii:t. and 

r. « tm: i.:.'A ;.! }»,iO- it ^ -r-.e yiMr> : b-it :by ii .d "''•L * :. .v r ... i.y urj'\i id-ir «. ^.'ry ii.:o a '"Mr vdth 

^ t-t IL' yr r.-i | rv-t:in:> r.> v th' y tnitTiy «■:> ll r^--. A ..-: .t-. :-.\i:.j .iri-.:. ';-, t'tv.,-, n >}.uria A&i 

" •si'b a: : h.» i L-r ore l:;:!o Utt.-r '''■i.r.: :1k' \.i>-,d.> t .. L.-ij':-. ::.' ^' r_>:e - :.t .»•. <:..b.i*>v i.-^to On^ve 

i-f M.. .-.1 - ia. r.T.t !b<' ir/i'i'iii" 'f'iv ,x, ;:,->: i:. r.. c.UT. ..• . -■ 'ri :::;it >'j irta. (' Tiiith, 

tbr>,.i.'i-y r r:.d.:T'. aTi-i it ^\a^ ^ :: 'y. :lvl»/.\oi Ar-j «>. .k' i '.'..-r /d-- >: di Iv ^^•.vi'-^^l tr ':n the 

iL.t hi? (^l:.<.-. 213) w.»> ^ i>; : .^i by .1 >i u I,< i_v... :'. ;- -.-b. :• j .t ..■ . >♦ :.. i:^ -.rizi'.al O'H- 

}► i- n ai':u:.>t''r'-i by th'^ ki: j'> . -,:< r. Ti.c rr- d.:; •; \\\.'.:. :: ::. '.^.■.^\ \'.\ :: * A. tvwci. 

J- !.r.,t: 1. I'l" ti!-- L' ...:';<:■ "A,. ^ d:;v^ t' I'dd >•:.'::. 1 ^:> i^.:. r.i-^.-r. . !•••-. ■.vitb tb.- ;::!i...>t ii.di;:iu- 

i :.' : b:.t' t\w • ■..•.''.».■,:•,-". in :b.- bitttr d.;- - t: i-. ,. ". *.-;: L.-. '\ L - ■* »- ::.. ir ^-. iierah U:^^! 

t.: Lin via:! ::. u;-:-i:. . IL' -:iiv>d jr- ..: c^-rry t" n : i.„-. r - ::..: T.»--i ::> vi tL^ {*<-i'le 

r- : -:> m t)if ■..:..•.::..:. t: t tih- A^il.' in ..rz.y. aj.i-.-t r.-' }I : ..n^. I:.- -jb ;d- i:.:b;':.'V Ui*' 

.1-. i .K. •>! :n'-i ::.-. t'tb- t.;.:;.^ i-l' :br M.-- A' :.>.,.:.? r:- i- ^. : r-^Ktn- II \..iT.-_,n i d.t I ir»>l 

d-':d.»:.- a', i t ti.v. vi -^ .irr..y .1 ti.e ] h.d..:.x. 1-y "^*-r j .::.< >; r .. i ..^ t% i> f .:dvd':.t t.' a de- 

th-; ;i> -ni^vy d hi? jt :.: l^ :ti. i vbir.. t^r. b- \..'..: ^ : %v. r .\j :.«: T, :x it-ib and wa^ ^♦> 

a.;•d^.^i _:■ it :nb>n^ ^•■^bi•^ c •::.!":.•:...:. i n: . r-:"\ ': • ' ■ :.. :. r:.— . In thv v.rinj ..f 14f> 

b:- ..:bt-i int ■ ti.^n. a : »r:id ^; irit. 1^} :1 ^r n t .-.> C-.: i.» .- : ..r :.- . : r'i. vj-d> : :- ujh I>..»^'!ii into 

hf <n.t".«i<-i :b'-..i :•• r_"..t t;;-b:r^o\-. va--\ ...- i t .- .•^. . :' L ->-by. ;-.:.-..'.>-»!--.: -n thi' ..i i-r-ich *f 

i>n brvu tbt.n t ^ >n •■ tx:<nt ii.dv^H,:, !• -.t w M... - ^b * d --■^.. .... ..: -^ aj .:!->t id:n fr ni M:\m'- 

d :na. Hi?dtb»t ^ :" K . b. n.r.a-. :\ . i' >>^.r:.i .i ■...■., H:- v.,>, n.-^-.'-T. 'wrtA^n by M.-tvhua 

(u. 0. 2(i'^b Ik:[\ k< ."' ..-n -i bis • ^^n n: -;: /.. . . n..: s. .'•/.>... ., .it:.. ^, . : !:• r. :-}b.e ; id- ibnt-s 

ani v,.:w.; ;i,-' A b.u .'( .ir..- -.^.dn t' \ r>-;-.tri vv-" ; -..: t tn^ r .;t. r/.':.' id- - it '.v.t- T.fv.-r lit-ani 

in «>r'.' 0. In tb.-- -v^.ir l«t".in ti.v II'-: .- - .-■.: : .*'". r :b- ' •:... .^!-:.i"i.-! '/ -v'.-i tbt- t-ijitivt> 

ridi:;. x\:e A b..t /.- t-> .M-i ti •' ^..n-c t" tb* t.- .'...::.. 1'. .^ >. \^n ■ > .v ►^•b^l C.ibivrate> 

Ibn ^ r. an i r ^ - bn.vsi a t'» .ty « t" )h i.t' ''^:tb :;.<,■ in tb rbv- • :" »' -.--.i. r- i\oi to (•■-..tiniie the 

nt.d .a. mo. l;iS. Ab •;: :id- ti: a . .»: : b r m v - ^ nt- >v. ..- i.: 1. vi i-- n :< : tbe jr..;:,. ttr- of the 

s-;:---'-;..' :,; the A i;..-,i'.> ^\•,^v' t- j.j.d: .:; ^v..r .t. i a.: ; '\ -i...t i- b..d n* h- 1*' I'f yvird-.n fp'm 

h -t;..::! > ■« itii N.d t>. \v:;. n...i >n-\a.«..\. M.ti.^n;- t.'it II n ,-.>. ^!■,vnt•.n.^. ti.v.' o n-'.d 3Pi:utmii-> ar- 

d.i> .i< tyrant .'t >;..rt.i, N.d: i^ ^.i- >i.d-.^ l\ .vno riMV. at 'l:- l-*bn-..> .v> tbt- vu<.. v^^or of Mrleliui. 

.\' t ii.tti> in, B.C. 1'.'2 : «i.'-tn>n Id b ""tn. -n L-..^.nr,.^- •; I1 ,>- -^ < t-^^inc snivo^^ .nc^ainst the 

lni-t( ned to Sjc»rt.% ;.nn in i .,«•: tb* * t^ to ' r; the ll n. r. ,•/:..-:-. I> w -> \,:.!-.n^: t.. , ffrr battle to 

l.-.jr.e. In tbe ti'u::^- \,.,r i^n. o. 190 tb" tL K n .»n-. 1 >■ A b .• ..n- ^^.,>• t-a-ily d..-tVate«.i and 

^^ ■N>< ni-ins an-' tbe V . ,.- - i^ ■• -v; t:.r !.< .j ;'\ C ---.-rt' i r.-i Ti>i-i. -.t .i 11 'W. Sirnal ven- 

"1 .ill!, the wb .\v vi \\ . ;• -.. ;- -n^ ^\ .- at b , jth .in- j' -n- v '(^ .- :..'.rv. •. ;• r t.".- imtbrtnnale city. The 

ia-x«^l to tb.i- Ltaj .-.'■; ivit ;t^ ind >-d'. n.i^ x^a- r. n -« "t ; .: :. th- vw ra : tb-^ -w^.i^rn and childirn 

Tort dttit n; o' th-Ui n n it- .1. :»nd. ;:> ond'.ni svA «*.-.' r\> r^iNt ..- ^...\t>: ani ^'tcr the city had 

jTvx^x-'iiT.js Were rx^jn.Uttvi t.> a JT^.lt ixtent by the K>n >tr.; t vt .b.i i*> tn a;nrf? -r. i -nrorks of art, its 

lie, i.-b>n> ff ti:e K n:*n scn-tte. W nen the Av i^^e.^:.? b'aniirjs ^^t:e i n\i to the tiarras, B.C. 

under rLiI.^i\vn:(.n %«.ntiirfd lo ju:-.i>h >jvirt.i m 146. ;^l.^::imhi >-_^ ibt^- j* rl>hvi the A(.Iacan 


Laifm^ and vhh H tbe iodqiendence of Greece ; 
bit tihe reeoOectkm of the Achaean power was perpe- 
toatol bj the nanw of Achaia, which the Rcsnans 
pn to the sooth of Greece, when they fonned it into 
hjmuK, (Pans. rii. 16| snh fin.) 

Tht hirtorj of the Achaean League has been 
tmted with abOitj bj sereral rnodeni writers. The 
km woiis on the subject are: — Hehringf Ges- 
fiieke de$ Ackaitekem Btmde*, Longo, 1829 ; 
Scbora. Gttckichte Griechenhmd's von der EnUte- 
hmg da Aetal, vnd Achducktn Bumks bit auf 
<• Zfntdrwtff CorvUks, Bom, 1833 ; Flathe's 
Qf»dtkkt€ Moetdomtnt, nA, H., Ldpz. 1832 ; Mer- 
U«r, Adittkonm lAbri IIL, Dannst. 1837 ; 
Brukhtiter, Ge«dL de» AetoiUckm Landes, Volkes 
md Bmdet, Bcriin, 1844; Droyeen, ffettemsmut, 
vL £., Hamborg, 1843 ; TMrlwall, Eittory of 
GrMoe^ToL tuL 

The&Uowing is a list of the towns of Achaia 
fro £. to W.: PEIXE2CK, with its harbour Aristo- 
tnCMf sad its dependent fortresses Olurus and 
Gaoo&Uf or IXomiaBa: Aeoeira, with its fortress 
IVlloi : Aeoae : Bura : Cebtkeia : Hkucb: 
AicfDCf with the dependent pUces Lenctrum and 
EoMom : the harbour of Panormcs between the pro • 
■otdriei of Dirpanom and Bhium: Patrax, with 
tW depadent ]dacea Botine and Argjra : Ouorrs 
*itl the depexkdent places Peirae and Eniyteiae : 
Dno, with the dependent places Teichoe, Heca^ 
^mimtan and Langon. In the interior Pharas: 
Uoamnf: TKrrAKA. The following towns, of 
*tich the sites are unknofwn, are mentioned onlj bj 
Sbpluuus BTzantlnus : Acarra (^Aico^) : Alos 
f AA«t) : Aittoe (*Avrfffi|) : Ascheion (^Aaxftop) : 
AjDtas (AC«rr9f): PeUa (niWa) : Phaestns 
(♦•irrif): Politeia (noAfrtra): Psophis (Vftw^fs): 
hA (2«(Xis) : Tame (Tippti) : Tencium (T^ 
Mv): Thrifbi (6p«ovf), which first belonged to 
iriMH, afterwards to Ells, and laj near Patrae. 
(zir. p. 658) mentions an Achaean town, 
Tramlesa (Tpo^«ia) celetotted for its 



Bnpecting the geogrmphj of Achaia in general 
■« IHDer, Doriam$, toL ii. p. 428, seq.; Leake's 
ifWoi, ▼ds. a. & iiL, and Pdopotmeiiaca; Boblaje, 
imAaria, pi 15, aeq. ; Curtius, Pelop<mneto*f yqL 
if 408. acq. 


S. Achaia, the Soman prorince, including the 
*tefe flf Peloponnceus and the greater part of 
B4m [nper with the adjacent islands. The 
tBi. Wwem-, at whidi this country was reduced 
fe tfa^ fcrm of a Boman province, as wdl as its 
oact Imritt , are open to much discussion. It is 
ttedr stated bj modem writers that the prorince 
«« fanned on the oooqnest of the Achaeans in 
^c. 146; but there an aereral reasons fir ques- 
^"■^K *^ statemmt, In the first place it is not 
^■^ by any ancient writer that Greece was foraied 
^ a pnmnre at this time. Tbe sUcnce of Poly- 
^ <B the nbJBCt woold be oondusiTe, if we poe- 
^nd oitire tluit part of his history which related 
^ rwqaul of the Achaeans; but in the existing 
^H*ata of that portko of his work, there is no 

allusion to the establishment of a Bconan prorince, 
although we find mention of various regulations 
adopted by the Bomans for the consolidation of 
their power. 2. Many of these regulations would 
have been unnecessary if a provincial government 
had been established. Thus we are told that the 
government of each city was placed in the hands of 
the wealthy, and that all f^eral assemblies were 
abolished. Through the influence of Polybius the 
federal assemblies were afterwards allowed to be held, 
and some of the more stringent r^ulations were re- 
pealed. (Pol. xl. 8—10 ; Pans. vii. 16. § 10.) 
The re-establishment of these ancient forms appears 
to have been described by the Bomans as a restora- 
tion of liberty to Greece. Thus we find in an in- 
8cripti<Mi discovered at Dyme mention of ^ &wo8«So- 
fityfi KOT^ Koufhv roa *£AXi}0'iy 4Ktv$9pla, and 
also of 1^ dwolkMffa roTs *Axcdois {nrh 'Pwfto/wv 
woX^Tfia, language which could not have been used 
if the Boman jnrisdicticm had been intixMluoed into 
the country. (Bockh, Corp. JrucHpt No. 1543; 
oomp. Thirlwall, vol. viii. p. 458.) 3. We are ex- 
pressly told by Plutarch (Ctm. 2), that in the time 
of Lucullus the Bomans had not yet begun to send 
praetors into Greece {oihrtt tls r^v '£AX<i^ yctfUMt 
arparnyobs 9trw4fiwovTo'); and that disputes in the 
country were referred to the decision of the governor 
of Macedonia. There is the less reason fyr ques- 
tioning this statement, since it is in accordance 
with the description of the proceedings of L. Piso, 
when governor of Macedonia, who is represented as 
plundering the countries of southern Greece, and ex- 
ercising sovereignty over them, which he could hardly 
have done, if they had been subject to a provincial 
administration of their own. (Cic c. Pis. 40.) It 
is probable that the south of Greece was first made 
a separate province by Julius Caesar; since the first 
governor of the province of whom any mention is 
made (as £ar as we are aware) was Serv. Sulpidus, 
and he was appointed to this office by Caesai^ (Cic. 
ad Fam. vi. 6. § 10.) 

In tbe division of the provinces made by Au- 
gustus, the whole of Greece was divided into the 
provinces of Achaia, Macedonia, and Epeirus, the 
latter of which formed part of lUyris. Achaia was 
one of the provinces assigned to the senate and was 
governed by a proconsul. (Strab. p. 840; Dion 
Cass, liii 12.) Tiberius in the second year of his 
reign (a. d. 16) took it away firom the senate and 
made it an imperial province (Tac. Arm, L 76), 
but Claudius gave it back again to the senate (Suet. 
ClawL 25). In the reign of this emperor Corinth 
was the reeidence of the proconsul, and it was here 
that the Apoetle Paul was brought before Junius 
Gallio as proconsul of Achaia. (^Acta Apott. vii. 12.) 
Kero abolished the province of Achaia, and gave the 
Greeks their liberty ; but Vespasian again established 
the provincial government and compelled the Greeks 
to pay a yearly tribute. (Pans. vii. 1 7. §§ 3, 4 ; Suet. 
Vetp. 8.) 

The boundaries between the provinces of Mace- 
donia, Epeirus, and Achaia, are difficult to deter- 
mine. S6«bo (p. 840), in his enumeration of the pro- 
vinces of the Boman empire,says: *Z^iiy\¥ ^Kx^doM 
lUxpi SrrraXJat koI A^rwAorr koI *AKapvdywy, koI 
riimy *HitupciriKti¥ iBvUv^ S<ra t^ McuccSoW^ 
wpoc^purrat. " The seventh (province) is Achaia, up 
to Thessaly and the Aetolians and Acamanians and 
some Epeirot tribes, which border upon Macedonia." 
Most UMxlem writers understand M^XP' ^ inclusive, 
and consequently make Achaia include Thessaly, 



A^olia, and Acarnania. Their interpretation is ron- 
lirnied by a j>:j>saL'e in Tacitns, in uliicli Jsioo[>olis 
in the south ot' Ejx'irus is railed by Tat it us (Ann. 
ii. 53) H city of Aehaia ; but t(H> much stress must 
not bo laid u[)on this jia>s;i^e, as Tacitus may only 
have used Achaiu in its widest sii:nificati"n as 
o<]nivalent to Cirecce. If /xf'xpi is not inclusive, 
The,ssaly, Aetcdia, and Acamania nuist be assiijned 
either wholly to Maco<lonia, or pirtly to ALicedonia 
and partly to K{«"irus. Ptolemy (iii. 2, se(i.), in 
his division of Greece, as>i;;ns Tliessaly to Mace- 
donia, Acamania to E[>eiraH, and Aetolia to Achaia; 
and it is probable that this represents the pditical 
«livi.>iori of the country at the time at which he lived 
(a.i>. l.j()). Achaia contimied to l>e a Koman pro- 
vince povenied by pnx^onsuls down to the time of 
Justinian. (Kruse, Ildla^, vol. i. p. 573.) 

ACHA'RACA ('Ax«ipaKo), a villa^^e of Lydia, 
on the road from Tralles to Nysa, witli a Plutonium 
era temple of Pluto, and a cave, named Char»>iiium, 
where the sick were healetl under the direction of 
the priests. (Strab. xiv. j»p. 649. 650.) 

ACHAHXAK {'hxo-pvai : A7A. 'Axapi'fvs. Achar- 
nanus, Nep. Them. 1.; Adj. *Axap»'tf<>s), the prin- 
cijwd (b-nms of Attica, l)elon!j:int]; to the tiibe Oeneis, 
was situated 60 stadia N. of Athens, and coiisc- 
tjuently not far from the foot of Mt. Panics. It was 
from the wrnxls of this inomitain that the Adiar- 
nians were enabled to carry on that trallic in char- 
ctxal for which they were notctl among the Athenians. 
(Aristoph. AcJiarn. 332.) Thc-ir land was fertile ; 
their population was rough and warlike ; and they 
fumishetl at the commencement c»f the Pelinxamesian 
war 3000 hojtUtes, or a tenth of tlie whole iniantry 
of the republic. They ]K)ssess»Ni sanctuaries or 
altars of Ap>ollo Aguieus, of Heracles, of Athena 
Hygieia, of Athena Hippia, of Dionysus Meljximcnus, 
and of Dionysus Cissus, so called, because the 
Achamians said that the ivy lirst •jrew in this 
demu5. One of the ])lays of Aristophanes l>ears the 
name of the A<haniians. Lcike suj»i»oses that 
bmnch of the plain of Athens, whic h is included 
between the fiH)t of the hills of Khassii and a 
proJHcti«^»n of the range of Aegalws, stret< hing east- 
ward from the northern termination of that momi- 
t'lin, to have been the dL^trict of the demus Acharuae. 
The e^xact situation of the town has not yet been 
discovered. Some Hellenic remains, situated J of a 
mile to the westward of Menidhi, have generally 
been taken for those of iVrchaniae ; but Mtnidhi is 
more probably a corruption of Waiovihai. (Thuc. ii. 
13, 19 — 21; Lucian, Icaro-Menip. 18; Pind. 
Ntm. ii. 25; Pans. i. 31. § 6 ; Athen. p. 234 ; 
Steph. B. ."r, r. ; Le:d<e, Demi of Attica^ p. 35, se<^.) 

ArilARRAE, a town of Thessaly in the distrii t 
Thessijliotis, on the river Piuuisus, mentioned only 
by \A\y (xxxii. 13), but apparently the ^ame place 
as the Achame of Pliny (iv. 9. s. 16). 

ACHA'TES ('AxeiTTjj), a small river in Sicily, 
noticed by Silius Italicu.s for the remarkable clear- 
ness of it.s waters (pfrhicttitem sjtUmlenti ffuvf/tfe 
Achatfti, xiv. 228), and by various other writers as 
the ]>lace where atiates were found, and from whence 
they derived the name of " lapis Achates," which 
they have retained in all mtxlem languages. It has 
bieu identifie<l by ('luverius (tollow<'d by most m«v 
deni geographers) with the river Itirillo, a small 
stn*am on the S. coast of Sicily, about 7 miles E. of 
Terran4)V(iy which Ls indeed n*markable for the clear- 
ness of it.s waters: but Pliny, the oidy author who 
atiords any clue to ita position, distinctly jilaces the 


' Achates l>etween Thermae and vSclinus, in the S\V. 
quarter of the island. It cannot, therefore, be the 
Dirillo^ but its nuKlem name is unknown. (Plin. iii. 
8. s. 14, xxx\ii. 10. s. 54 ; Theuphrast. dt- Lojnd. 
i^ 31; Vib. Svp p. 3; S<jUn. 5. § 25; C\\\yox. Sicil. 
p. 201.) [E.H.P.] 

ACHELOTTS ('AxeAqUoy, Epic '^xf\mos\ 
1. (Aspropotnmo), the largest and most celcbnUed 
river in Greece, rose in Mount Pindus, and after 
flowing thn»ngh the mountainous country of the 
I)<«l<ipi:iM;i and Agraeans, entered the plain of 
Acaniauia and Aetolia near Stnitns, and di.^eh.argtHl 
itself into the I(»nian sea, near the A<arnanian 
town of Oenixidae. It sulisc<|nently fonninl the 
boundar)' between Acamania and Aetolia, but in 
the thne of Thucydides the teiritory of t)eni; 
exfendetl east of the river. It is usually called a 
river of Acarnajiia, but it is sometimes a.s>igned to 
Aetol'i. Its general direction is from north to 
.south. Its waters are of a whitish yellow or cream 
colour, whence it derives its niovlem name of Aspro- 
potamo or the White river, and to whiih DionysiiLS 
(432) probably alhule.s in the ejtithet apyvpohivr\s. 
It is s,'iid to have been called more anciently Th<Kis, 
Axenus and Thestius (Time. ii. 102: Stnd». pp. 
449, 450. 458; Pint, de Fluv. 22; Steph. U. *. r.) 
We learn from Leake that the reputed sonnet of 
the Acbelous art> at a village called Khaliki, which 
is probably a cormi>t ion of Chalcis. at whieh place 
Diony>iiis Periegetes (496) j^laces the souree> of 
the river. Its waters are swelled by imincroiLs 
torrents, which it receives in its ji;i>sage thnniijh 
the mountains, and when it emerires into the plain 
near Stratus its bed is ni>t less than three-quart en* 
of a mile in width. In winter the entire bed 
is t)ften filled, but ill the niidiile of summer tiie 
river is divided into fi\e or six rapid streams, of 
whi<h only two are of a con>iderable size. Atler 
leaving Stratus the river becomes narroAver; and, 
in the loA\er part of its course, the plain through 
whi( h it flows was called in antitpiity Paraelieloiti-s 
at'ter the river. Thi>> jilain Avas (elebnited for its 
fertility, though covered in great part with marshes, 
f:everal of A\hieh were formed by the ovcrflowiuirs of 
the Ach.'lous. In this jiart of its «ourse the river 
j»re>ents the extraordinary series of wander- 
in-js; and these deflexions, obserses a recent tra- 
veller, an.» not only so siublen, but so extensive, 
as to rentier it diJli* ult to tniie the exact line of its 
Ix-d, — an»l soniet lilies, tor several miles, haviiii: its 
direct course towards the sea, it aj>j>ears to tl«»\v 
luick into the mountaLns in which it ri>es. The brings donn fmm the mountains an (piantity of earthy j».'irti< les, which have 
formed a mnnln'r of small i>lands at its mouth, 
whit h U'loiig to the group anciently called K«hi- 
nades; and |«irt of the mainland near its mouth is 
only alluvial dejHx-Nition. [EcmNAi>Ks.] (Evake, 
Sortlit I'll (irtrre, vol. i. p. 136, .M'tp, vol. iii. p. 
513, vol. iv. p. 211; Mure, Jour/uil of' a Tnur in 
Crtice, vol. i. p. 102.) 'i'he chief tribut.aries 
of the A(helons were: — on it> left, the CAMrvLrs 
(KaMTi'Aoj, Diod. xix. 67: Jftdif/mmy a rivj-r of 
(■onsiderable >i/.e, flowing from Dolopia tlm»ugh the 
territory of the I>r)oj«s and Euryt.uies, and the 
CvATurs (KtWoy, Pol, ap, Ath. p. 424, c.) flow- 
in;:; out of the lake Hyrie into the main stnani just 
alM»ve CoiioiM': — on its right the PhTiTARis (Liv. 
xliii. 22) in Ap^rantia, and the Anaits (V»'airos), 
which fell into the main stream in Acamania 80 
stadia S. of Stratu.s. (Thuc. ii. 82.) 




Tbi Afhfiwit wai ngirded as the ruler and 
nftmaiabn of all fimh water in HeHas. Hence 
bii called hy Hoaier (/I zx. 194) Kpttmv 'Ax«- 
lJk%aad vat wonhij^ped as a mighty god thrcmgh- 
flU Gneee. He is ceMrated in mjthologj on 
aocant of hb ocmbat with Heraclet for the posaes- 
■■ <tf Delaaein. Tbe liTcr^ firrt attacked 
Beadfli xb the fonn of a serpent, and on hdng 
wnlidaMimiedthat of ahoIL The hero wrenched 
if 000 of his horns, which forthwith became a 
oaraDeafia,orbocnof plentj. (SopL Trat^ 9 ; Or, 
Md, is. 8, SK).; AitoOod. iL 7. § 5.) This legend 
•BadM sjni a wuU y to some efibrts made at an early 
ftati to check the latages, which the innndatioas 
4 the firer caosed in tl^ district; and if the rirer 
«« csafined within its bed by embankments^ the 
npoa woold be oonterted in modem times into a 
had flf plenty. For further details respecting the 
■Ttfaolopcal rhagmctw of the Achekms, see Diet, of 

b the Soman poets w« find AehetdSdet^ i. e. the 
SacMi, the daogfaters of Achdoos (Ov. Met, t, 
my. AckeUtia CaOirkoS, becaanse CallirhoS was 
tb (boshter of Achebos (Or. Met ix. 413): 
pKsb AekeUiia^ L e. water in general (Vug. 
Gmf. I 9): Aekelobu keroi, that is, Tydeos, 
Hi if Oenens, king of Calydon, Aekdof^ here 
Usf e^airaknt to Astolian. (Stat Tkeb, il 

1 Arim of Thesaaly, in the district of Mails, 
imiK near Lamia. (SCrab. pp. 434, 450.) 

1 A ■'"^mt^m tonent in Arcadia, flowing into 
tb AlpheoB, from the north of Mount Lycaeus. 
(Pfeui TOL 88. § 9.) 

4 Abo caOed Pkirus, a rirer in Achaia, flowing 
BcarDTme. (Strah. pp. 34S, 450.) 

ACHEBDUS (*Ax«p8eCf, -ovftoj: Eth, *Ax«p- 
UnarX * domns of Attks of uncertain site, be- 
lapair to the tribe Hippothoontis. Aristophanes 
{led. 363) in joke, uses the form 'AxpoMtriot 
imli^ of Vix^>*o^«or. (Steph. B. s. w. 'Ax«p- 
b^'AxMs^; AeschhLtit71ii».§110,ed.Bek- 
br: Lake, Ikmm o/Attka, p. 185.) 

ACHERTNI, the mK>i«ifni» of a small town in 
ScSj, —ntinned only by Cicero among the victims 
<f tW inmiaiimii of Verres. Its positian is quite 
onrtsm; whenoe modem scholars propose to read 
D,or Achetini finom AoHETUM, a town 
to be i neu t i w isd by Silius ItaUcus (xir. 
MS): bit the ** pabes Hquentis AeMeti'' (orAckaeti, 
MtbasBi stands in the best MSS.) of that author 
*«U nan to w****^** a rirer rather than a town. 
1W il, howrrer, no authority for either emendation. 
(Ck. 43; Zompt ad he.; OrelL Onomatt. 
fC; Cfamr.SeiZ. p.381.) [E.H. B.] 

AtHERON ('Ax^MMT), the name of sereral 
n"n» an of which were, at least at one time, be- 
fc^tabe connected with the lower workL The 
Arhnn as a river of the lower world, b described 
» tb /)iel ofBiogr. muiMytk, 

t A rinr of Epeiros in Thespntia, which passed 
^««gh the lake Acherasb (*Ax«povo'fa Xifun^), and 
lAv raoeirisg the river Cocytus (Kiiinrror), flowed 
■to the Ionian sea, 8. of the promontory Cheime- 
f^ PliBy (iv. 1) enponeoosly states that the 
ran fiwed mto the Ambradot gulf. The bay of 
te ^ iuo which it flowed was usually called 
<^m Umen (rXswH Aim^) ^ Sweet-Harbour, 
beaaae the water was fresh on account of the quan- 
ttv yovid fflto it frvm the lake and river. Scylax 
mi hriny call the harbour Ebea CEAom), and 

the surrounding district bore according to Thucy- 
dides the name of Elaeatis (*EAmarir). The 
Acheron is the modem Gurla or river of SuUj the 
Cocytus is the Fifvo, and the great marsh cr lake 
bekiw Kattri the AJcherusia. The water of the 
Vtn6 is reported to be bad, which agrees with the 
account of Pausanias (L 17. § 5) in reUtion to the 
water of the Cocytus (0S«^ artfrwiararw). The 
Olycys limen is otdled Port jFondrt, and its water b 
still fresh ; and in the lower part of the plain the 
river b commonly called the river of FandrL The 
upper part of the plain b called QUfhy; and thus 
the ancient name of the harbour has been transferred 
frxxn the coast into tiie interior. On the Acherm 
Aidoneus, the king of the lower world, b said to have 
reigned, and to have detained here Theseus as a 
prisoner; snd on its banks was an oracle called 
reicvofuiyrfibr (Herod, v. 92. § 7), which was con- 
sulted by evoking the spirits tS the dead. (Thuc 
L 46 ; Liv. vixi. 24 ; Strab. p. 324 ; Steph. B. s. v. ; 
Pans. L 17. § 5 ; Dion Caas. 1. 12 ; Scylax, p. 11 ; 
Ptolem. iiL 14. § 5 ; Leake, Northern Greece^ vol. L 
p. 232, seq. iv. p. 53.) 

2. A river of EHs, a tributaiy of the Alpheius. 
(Strab. p. 344; Leake, J/orea, voL ii. p. 89.) 

A'CHEBON ('Ax^y), a small river in Brat- 
tium, near Pandosia. Its name b menticmed in 
ooqjonction with that city both by Strabo and 
Justin, fmoi whom we leam that it was on its 
banks that Alexander, king of Epirus, fell in battle 
against the Lncanians and Brattians, B. c. 326. 
(Stiab. p. 256 ; Justin. xiL 2.) PUny also men- 
tions it as a river of Brattium (iii. 5. s. 10.), but 
appears erroneously to connect it with the town of 
Acherontb in Lncania. It has been snppoeed to 
be a small stream, still called the ArconH, which 
folb into the river Crathb just bebw Consentb; 
but its idoitiflcation must depend upon that of 
Pandosia. [Pandosia.] rKH.B.] 

ACHERCyNTIA CAx^porrfr or ^Ax^fwyrlo), 
a small town of Apulia, near the frontiers of Lucania, 
situated about 14 miles S. of Vennsia, and 6 SE. of 
Ferentum. Its position on a loAy hill b alluded to 
by Horace in a weU-known passsge {ceUae nidmn 
AcKerontiae, Carm. iii. 4. 14 ; and Acron ad loe.)y 
and the modem town of Acererua retains the site as 
well as name of the ancient one. It b built on a 
hill of ccmsiderable ebvation, precipitous on three 
sides, and affording only a very steep approach on 
the fourth. (Romanelli, vol. ii. p. 238.) It seems 
to have been always but a small town, and b not men- 
tioned by any ancient geographer; but the strength 
of its position gave it importance in a military point 
of view: and during the wars of the Goths against 
the generab of Justinian, it was occupied by Totib 
with a garrison, and became one of the chief strong- 
hdds of the Gothic leaders throughout the contest. 
(Prooop. de B. Q. iii. 23, 26, iv. 26, 33.) The read- 
ing AcKerunto in Livy (ix. 20), which has been 
adopted by Romanelli ud Cramer, and considered to 
refer to the same pbce, b wholly unsupported by 
authority. (Abch^aki, ad loc.) The coins assigned 
to thu city bekxig to Aquilohia. [E. H. B.] 

ACHEBirSLA PALUS (*AxfpoiMr(a Ai/irq), the 
name of several lakes, which, like the various 
rivers of the name of Acheron, were at sane time 
believed to be connected with the lower worid, until 
at last the Acherusb came to be considered in the 
lower world itselt The most important of these was 
the lake in Thesprotia, through which the Acheron 
flowed. [AouKBOir.] There was a small bke of 




tliis name near Ilemii'-no in Ar^.ili^. (Pans. ii. 35. 
§ 10.) 

AClIElir'SIA TALUS (Ax^povaia \lni'v\ lh.' 
name Lrivt'H toa.Miiall lakr dr yallwatt-r ]'»>! in Caii!- 
jxmia H-juu'atcil iVniu the sea only liy a l-ar of >aiiil. 
bt'tweciK'ninat' alll.]Ca]«■Mi■^oImnl,^ll>\v^•alll'^-l ArK/(> i/l 
Fiu<f>ro. Tlu' name ajijHMrs tn ha\e Ihsmi Imv^IouviI oh 
it (pniba'ily l>y tln' Gn» k> I'f Ciunai') in ron^t'iiufnce 
of its [iro.\iii:ity to A\t'rnns, v,\w\\ tlu« lrL:rinl> con- 
nivtini: that lake with the entraiKc t*> the infernal 
rcirions h;nl l>e« oiiio ('.-.tahli.-vhcil. ["Avr.nNLS.] On 
tlii> accoTuit the name \Nas by some a]i|'lie»l to thi' 
Lncrine lake, while Art<inii|<'rn;> maintained that the 
Achcru^ian lakr and Avi-rmis wit*- the J^atne. (Strah. 
v.p|..24.'?.245: riin.iii. .■>. s. 0.) IhrLof/odi Fu.^ni'o 
muld nev.r havt- Jiad any diri'<t e(>iniceti>«n with the 
volcanir ].h*'n'>nifna of tho i\'^ii>n. nor conld it have 
iiartaken of the irl'xiniv and mv.^tfrion^ rharattt-r of 
Lake AwnuK. Th'' ex|»re>^ion«^ aj)}>lied to it by 
Lyeojjhntn (^Al'X. Gl).*)) aiv niciv ]w>iiial ln']vrbHle: 
and \ ivi^il. wlicre he >ji'aks (»f t<nthr<i.<ii j)'ilu.^ 
Arlitroiitt nf'n.'io (A> n. vi. 107), AVuuld s<iMn to re- 
fer to Avi'nuiN it-<-lf rather than to tli'- lake in "pies- 
tion. In lat'T tinie^, it>^ bank> \\rre ail<trr,«il. in i -un- 
nioii with the liL-iirhbonrin.: -h<Mvs i*f liaia'-, with the 
vilhis of wealthy lJon!an>; one of tlx-^o, whii h K'- 
lonp'd to Servihus Vatia, is jijirtirularly dt-oril.K'd 
bv S-ner:» {Fp. b'>). [K. 11. K. j 

' ACIIKTIM. [ArininNT.] 

AriULl.A. AnioLLA. or ACHILLA ('Ax'>A- 
Aa : 7:7//. 'AxoAAau»s, Acliinitrinn>: FlAlinh. lar^«' 
llti.), a town on the ^ea-^oa^t <>f Alri(a rn<]'ri-v 
(Uy/art'na), a little al^'vo the X. extrtinity of tl)<' 
L<->>er Syrti^. and ab"nt *Ji) (1. naK'v S. of 'Ihaj'-n-. 
It was a mluny tVoni tho island of Mlit i {Mnlln), 
the j^'oj'b' of which wtr«^ (•oloni>t> from (artha.f. 
I'mler the IJomans, it was a fn-i» ciiy. In th«' 
African war. i;. <\ 4(». it snhmittcd to ra'-sar, tor 
whom it was h.jd i>y Mt'->ius: and it \.a> in vain 
besie:jnl bv the. l*onij> ian eonnnaii'lcr ("onNi<Jiu<. 
Amoni: it.s rnins, of a late st_\ ie. bat vt'ry e.\t«-:i>i\.', 
there lias l«'<-n lonn<l .an intcre^tini: bil;nj.nal iii- 
^eriy•tion, in PhiH'nii ian ami Latin, in whiih the 
name is sjM'lt .Vi bulla (Stfjih. L>. s. v. ; Mra1>. y. 
8:H : Liv. xxNJii. 4S: Api'lan. Pxu. 1)4; llirtiu-, 
BJL Afnr.'X\—A^: I'lin. v. 4 ; Ptok; Tab. iVnt., 
namcroiTnptnl inti)Anolla; >haw'.> Trnt\l<.\\. ID.'l; 
Harth, Waiul'riiii'jtn, O'"- vol. i. j>, 17G; •l«-Mniu.>, 
Monnni. J'/oH»lr.\>. LTJ.) [l'->-J 

Ai'HlLLLON IH:()M<)S (A^'ouos 'Ax^VA>;as. or 
'Ax'A\(ci'y, or 'A\iAAfioy, or 'Ax'AAi'jiov), a lon^; 
narrow btrip of land in the Kuxine. X\V. (»f tie* 
Cdi<Tson<'sn'> laurl<a (Cri'HK/) wuA .S. of the month 
of the liory-then«'>- (J>tiifptr), rmminj W. and K., 
with a sli: ht inclination X. and S.. for alxmt J*0 
mile-;, inclu'lin^ that j toil ion of the c«i;i.^t from win"rh 
it is .1 ])roloni:ation li^^th wayx. It is now divid<- 1 
bv a narrow trap, vdnch insulates its W. j'trtion. 
into two j>;irtj<. «'al!ttl A'o.fff (i. e. to/uro) 'J'l ii'Irn <m 
the \V., and Kosa ])j(n' l;i<'J>h on the K. Li th.- 
ancient lejemls. whi. h connected A'iuIlc-> with the 
XNV. shons of the Knxine. thi^ strip of wa^ 
jitch'-vl ujH'n as a .sort of nafiral >^tadi;lm on whi«li 
lie iniirht have exen i^e*l that switlne^s < f f.>ot whit h 
Homer sim.''; ^I'sd he wa- -.uje'-'-ol to ha\c in-titute,i 
^MHies there. Further to the \\ .. <.il" the month of th,- 
Ister, lav a ^mall i>lan kal^o ^acn-d to tiie In ro. wh.t 
had a tem|>le tljen\ Ihi^ iNlaiul. c.illed A< hilli> In- 
hula.or L4'nc<-('Ax'AA*'*'^ h AiVKi) rfj^os).w:is ^aid 
ti> U" the p!ue to which 1 lieti.> traii^pirJed the li^xly 
of AthilU>. P»v vomc it wa^ made the al.xwic "t the 


.shades of the bbvst. wlure Achilles and other heroes 
Were the iu<l::e.s i»f the dcail. tieoijnij'hers iilentifv 
it with the little island of /fm/cfot, or (Julan AiI^i.ku 
(i.e. Strpt/its I.ilatid) in 30^ 10' K l-n^'., 45^ 1.V 
, X. hit. (Ucrod. i\. .55, TG; Enrij). Ji'h'nj. in Taur, 
4;?8; Pin.l. Oh/aip. ii. 85; Pans. iii. PJ. § 11; 
Stnib. p}>. .^OG — 308, folk; and other ji:i->a^e> col- 
lected by I'kert, vol. iii. }>. 2. ])j». 442, fjlk. antl For- 
bieer, v.'.l. iii. ]>p. 1121 — 1122.) U'-^-] 

At'IlII.LL'LM ('Ax«AA6ior), a small t<Avn near 
the promontory Sijeum in the Tn ad (ilcnKl, v. 1»4), 
^\here, aici>rilini; to tradition, the tomi; of Acliiiles 
wa>. (Stnib. p. 5'.»4.) When Alexander visited 
the ]»lace on hi.s Asiatic expe.litii'n. u. c. 334, he 
placed t haplets on the tomb of Achilles. (Arriaii. 
J. 12.) [<1. L.] 

[ ACHILLIS IXsVLA. [Ac hilleos Dromus.] 

.VLllOLLA. [Achilla.] 
I ACllL'ADrS. [AciiLKDi^.] 

A(lIi:lS, or A'CllPll A. [LvruMDr.-i.] 

.A.TIL-V ('A«;Ao). which .Mvms to Im- iil>n!i(al 
with ()( jrLLS ("OktjAis), now Z'f ///// or (/'//» ///, 
a -c;4>"rt of the S;iba> i Numades, in Arabia Felix, a 
I short «!i-tance to the S. of Mnrlm. ami t-t the X. of 
the opt ninu' of the strait of UnUl M>in<Uh. (>tnib. 
p. 7G9: PUn. vi. 23. .<;. 2G, 28. s. 32; Ptol. \i. 7. 
§ 7.) P>y .•^ome ireojraj'hers it is i«leiailied with the 
BouAfK'as of the liomerilae mentioned bv Pn>c<'pius 
{IIP. i. 110. '[W.K.] 

AtlMlNc l"M, AUrMIXCUM CAnov^iyKoy, 
Ptol. ii. IG. ■$ 5 : ^lit-^^dhiuLt nitn),a station or ]a'T- 
manent tavalry b.'irrack in i'ann"nia. (Anim.Mare. 
xix. 11. ^7: Xotit. Imp.) I'.y (lorje irf llaNemirt 
(iv. ll»). and on the iVutin^erian TaMe, the name 
i.^ written Ac i nl.m. [\V. P. D.J 

ACINTIM. .V<>riXrrM ('AKofovot', Ptol. ik 
IG. §4; Tab. Pent.; Ordli, ///.m'///-/. 5nG, 951b 
9f).'l, ,3924; Amm. .Nl arc. x\x. 5; hin. Anton.), a 
Poman c^lojiy and a str..M: f'rtre^x in pannonia, 
A\liere the Kui 'n Aljatrix .Stniala wa^ in pirrisj-'n 
(l>ion. ('as>. Iv. 24). .ttid where abo th- re a 
lari:e matintui tory of bnckb rs. Acincum. Uin:: 
the «ei;tre tf tl.e njn'ration>- "ii the IJnniaii frontier 
.ijain-^t the niiL'lilwinrinii; la.:} ^'es {Sl-inirs), was 
iM»a>ionally the head-(jnar:ers of the enijciors. It 
an-wers to the j'lVscnt Alt-Iin-hi^ where Poinan ba-'-e- 
ments an*! biokeii pillars of a<incilucis are still visible. 
On the op]^)site bauk of the l)amdK\ and within 
the territory of the I.i/}^'es. stinnl a Koman fort «>r 
outy-ost call-d. from its relative jx-sition. C'ontni- 
Acinciun (^Not. Im]i.), whi^h was connecti'd witli 
Acincnm ly a briiije. T-'ntnt-Acitu nm i> natu<Hl 
n«7(Tu>f by Pt-Kmy (iii. 7. ^ 2). i^W. P. D.J 

Ari'MPO {^' AKiViTTTTw: Kviula li \'uj<i. lin, 
2 ler^'tiCN X. t>f Ji'i>h<l'i).:\. town of Ili^jtaiiia iiaetici. 
on a 1. tty mountain. Ptol-'niy (alls it a citv t.f the 
("eh'.ci {u. 4. sj 15.) It> site i> n.ark'd by the niins 
of an a'pu-cluet and a theativ.^t wlijch n/iny 
c .ins are f >;mii inscriln d with the nan:e of the 
]ioe. (Flore/.. /.Vy*. ^>u;r. Vol. i.\. j.p. 16 — GO; V'l. i. p. 14.) ' [I*. >•] 


." r' '<, 

K t>lN OF .v« iNiro. 


ACIRIS (*A«ipct), m river of LacaniAi mentioiied 
kotii hj Pfioj end SCrmbo, m flomog near to He- 
ndn on Umi N. side, u the Siris did on the S. 
b M ftiQ called the Aeri or Agri, and has a coarse 
rf abore 50 mika, rising in the Apennines near 
Marmeo Nmovo, and flowing into the Gulf of T»- 
RBtmn, a little to the N. (^ PoUeoro^ the site of 
tk mdent Heradesu (Plin. iii. 11. s. 15 ; Strab. 
Ik. 364.) The AdPUM of the Itineraiy is supposed 
Bj OaTmos to be a comipdon of this name, but it 
•oold MppoK to be that of a town, rather than a 
liter. (Ida. AnL pu 104.) [E. H. B.] 

ACIS CAto), a river of Sidlj, on the eastern 
eotat of the isliuod, and immediately at the foot of 
Aetna. It is od^arated on aocoont of the mytho- 
lificil fiiUe eoimected with its origin, which was 
■Kiibed to the blood of the jonthfol Ads, cmshed 
tsder an coonnoos rock by his riral Polyphemus. 
(Oril Mtt im. 750, &c; SiL ItaL adv. 221—226; 
Astk Lat. L 148 ; Serr. ad Virg, Ed ix. 39, who 
nnoeoatly writes the name Aonius.) It is evi- 
dntly in alhuun to the same story that Theocritus 
ipab of the " scared waters of Ads.** ^AKtios 
itf^Umf, Idgfi, L 69.) From this fiible itself we 
■aj infer that it was a small stream gushing forth 
kr a rock; the extreme coldness of its 
0tMd by SoHnus (SoUn. 5. § 17) also 
to the same conclosinn. The last drcnm- 
might lead us to identify it with the stream 
tm called Fimme Freddo^ but there is every ap- 
ponaee that the town of Adnm derived its name 
fran the river, and this was certainly further south. 
Thtn out be no doubt that Cluverina is right in 
littlifyiog it with the Uttle river still called Fiume 
A' .Zan, known also by the name of the Aeque 
Cimtii, mhkh rises under a rock of lava, and has 
t fcry ihort oooxse to the sea, passing by the 
nnden town of Aei Reak (Adum). The Ads 
«« eertainly quite distinct from the Aoesines or 
with which it has been ooofounded by 
writexB. (Cluver. SicU. p. 115; Smyth's 
^M%, |k 133 ; Ortolani, Diz, Gtoyr. p. 9 ; Ferrara, 
ItmcncdtS Etna.^^A,') [E.H.B.] 

A'CITlf, a small town oo the E. coast of Sicily, 
■otiaed only in the Itinerary (Itin. Ant p 87), 
rtkh plaees it on the high road from CaUna to 
Ttuiaunium, at the distMice of 9 M. P. from the 
fatatr dty. It evidently derived its name from 
tkBtthrirerAda, and is probably identical with 
tk taodeni Ati Realty a coosidrtrahle town, about a 
■ii froa the sea, in the neighbourhood of which, 
tt Um nad to Gitama, are extensive remains of 
Waa Thflcmae. (Biscari, Viaggio in Sicilian 
^tt; Ortobai, Dw. Gtogr. p. 9.) [£. H. B.] 

ACMiyKU ('A«|Mr^: EtK, 'Ac^vic^, 'Av/io- 
"H, AcnHnends), a dty of Phrygia, mentioned by 
GoBv {Pro Flaec 15.) It was on the road from 
B«7l*eam to Philadelphia, 36 Roman miles SW. of 
Ci^Msm; and under the Bomans belonged to the 
Csrotai Jwidicua of Apamea. The site has been 
isd It Akatioi; bat it still seems doubtful. (Ha- 
■iLA, £f4MrrAe«, ^ voL L p. 115.) [G. L.] 




AC(yNTIA or ACU'TIA ('AjfOKrlo. Strab. p. 
152 ; 'Axoi^cia, Steph. B.), a town of the Vaccaei, in 
Hispania Tarraconensis, on the river Durius (^Douro), 
which had a ford here. Its site u unknown. [P. S.] 

ACONTISMA, a station in Macedonia on the 
coast and on the Via Egnatla, 8 or 9 miles eastward 
of Neapolis, is placed by Leake near the end of the 
passes of the Sapad, which were formed by the 
mountainous coast stretching eastward from JTord/o. 
Tafel considers it to be identical with Christopolis 
and the modem Kavdla, (Amm. Marc, xxvii. 4 ; It. 
Ant and Hierod.; Leake, Northern Greece^ voL iii. 
p. 180; Tafel, De Viae Egnatiae Parte Orient, 
p. 13, seq.) 

A'CORIS ('Airopis),a town of Egypt, on the east 
bank of the Nile in the Cynopolite Nome, 17 miles 
N. of AntinoopoUs. (Ptol. iv. 5. § 59 ; Tab. Pent) 

ACRA LEUCE ("Axpa AtMc^), a great city of 
Hispania Tarraconensis, founded by Hamilcar Barcas 
(Diod. Sic XXV. 2), and probably identical with the 
Castrum Album of Livy (xxiv. 41). Its position 
seems to have been on the coast of the Sinus Hid- 
tanus, N. of Hid, near the modem Alicante (Ukert, 
voLiLptl,p.403). [P.S.] 

ACRAE (^AKpai^ Thuc. et alii; "Avpo, Steph. 
B.; "Axpcuoi, Ptol.; 'Avpeuol, Stqth. B.; Acren- 
ses, Plin.; Palaxzoki)^ a dty of Sidly, situated in 
the southem portion of the island, on a kfty liiH^ 
nearly due W. of Syracuse, from which it was distant, 
according to the Itineraries, 24 Roman miles (Itin. 
Ant p. 87 ; Tab. Pent). It was a colony of Syra- 
cuse, founded, as we leam from Thucydides, 70 years 
after its parent dty, t. e. 663 b. c. (Thuc vL 5), 
but it did not rise to any great importance, and con- 
tinued almost always in a state of dependence on 
Syracuse. Its podtion must, however, have always 
given it some consequence in a military point of 
view; and we find Dion, when marching upon Syra- 
CUM, halting at Acrae to watch the effect of his pro- 
ceedings. (Pint Dionj 27, where we should certainly 
read "AKpas for Mcucpdr.) By the treaty conduded 
by the Romans with Hieron, Idng of Syracuse, Acrae 
was indnded in the dominions of that monarch (Diod. 
xxiiL Exc p. 502), and this was probably the period 
of its greatest prosperity. During the Second Punic 
War it followed the fortunes of Syracuse, and afforded 
a pUce of refuge to Hippocrates, after hb defeat by 
MarccUus at Acrillae, B.C. 214. (Liv. xxiv. 36.) 
This is the last mention of it in history, and its name 
is not once noticed by Cicero. It was probably in 
his time a mere dependency of Syracuse, though it is 
found in Pliny's list of the " stipendiarine dvitates,** 
so that it must then have possessed a separate mtmi- 
dpal existence (Plin. iii. 8 ; Ptql iiL 4. § 14.) 
The rite of Acrae was correctly fixed by Fazello at 
the modem Paiazzolo^ the lofty and bleak situation 
of which corresponds with the descripti<m <£ Silius 
ItaUcus (''tumulis gladalibus Acrae,** xiv. 206), and 
its distance from Syracuse with that assigned by the 
Itinerari€«. The summit of the hill occupied by the 
modem town is said to be still called Acremonte, 
Fazello speaks of the ruins visible there as " egreginm 
urbis cadaver," and the recent researches and excava- 
tions carried on by the Baron Judica have brought 
to light andent remains of much interest The moat 
considerable of these are two theatres, boUi in very 
fair preservation, of which the largest is turned to- 
wards Uie N., while immediately adjacent to it on 
the W. is a much smaller one, hollowed out in great 
part from the rock, and supposed fiwm iwne pecu- 
liarities in its construction to have been mtended to 

c 3 




sorve as an Otleuin. or th»atn; lor music. Nuinerous 
ollif-r an liitetTural iVnLTiiieiits. ;itt<".tiiiir tlir cxi-tciice 
(»t teiii]'|.-> and utli»M* buildjni;>^, lia\«' also l>fp)i hroiii^ht 
t') li:^'ljt, a-> w.-ll as statiu"*, |>^di,'.stal.s, i!i>criplions, 
and otluT niitior ndirs, On an adioinini: hill art* 
^'nat nuinlxTs ot" tombs excavated in tiio nxk, while 
on the hill oi Am innjifr it.M-lf are some momunents 
of a siiiLMdar eh.inu.ter; lit^'ures a.> larije :ls Ufe, h<'\vii 
in ndief in .>liall<>w niches on the surface ol the native 
rock. As the princijal liL'ure in all these .sculptures 
aj>}M-ars to i>e that of the iT'xMess Isis, they be- 
loiii^r t<i a lafi' jHTiod. (Fazell. /A; Jith. JSic. vul. i. p. 
4.'>2; SMTa «li Faleo, Anti<:hitii di Sh'H'ia, vol. iv. }>. 
158, sei|. ; Judica, Anfichiti't ill Acre.) [E.II. B.] 

AClIAE ("AH^fjai), a town in Aetolia ot" uncer- 
tain site, on the road from Metapa to Conope. 
.Stephanas erroneously call> it an Acanianian town. 
(I'ol. V. 13; Strph. B. s. V. "Akpu.) 

ACIJAEA ('ApKoio), a mountahi in ArL'olis, o|>- 
jMisite th'- lieraeum, or LMeat temple of Hera. (I'aus. 
ii. 17. § 2; Leake, Morui, vol. ii. p. 393, I'tlopon- 
i^^larn. p. *iG3.) 

rillU.M, ACKAEPHNHM {'kKpaicpia, ISteph. B. 
s. v.\ Her«;«-1. viii. 13."), Acraephia, Liv. xxxiii. 2'J; 
l*hn. iv. 7. .'^. 12; 'AKpanpiai, Strah. p. 410; 'AKpai- 
(pioi/, Strab. p. 413.; 'AKfjaKpyiov, Tans. ix. 23. § .5: 
TO 'AKpai(pvia^ TheojMnip. ap. Steph. B. s. v. ; Eth. 
^AKpaitpLaios, 'AKpal'pios, ^Anpaicppioi^ 'AKpaKpt'iw- 
tt;?, 'AKpai(pvifv$, Steph. B. s. r. ; 'AKpaicpifvi, 
Jiixkh, Imcr. 1587: nr. Kanlhifza), a to\ni of 
Jiof'otia on the .'>1ojk' of Mt. I'toum {Tlroioy) and on 
the ea.steni bank of the lake Copais, which was here 
called 'AKpaifpU Ki^unj from the town. Acrafjiliia 
i.s said to have been by Athama.s or Acrae- 
pheu.s, .Son of Ap«jilo; and according to some writers 
it was the same :is the Homeric Arne. Hero the 
Thebans took ret'n^re, when their city was d«'>troyed 
by Alfxander. It contained a ten",ple of Dionysus. 
(Stvph. B. s. v.; Strab. p. 413; Bans. /. c.) At the 
distance of 15 stailia from the town, on the ni:ht 
of the nad. and ujm.u .Mt. Ptoum, was a celeliraled 
.sanctuary and oracle of Aj^ollo JMous. This ora<le 
was coiLsulted by Alardonias beibre the battle of 
IHataea, and is said to have answered his emi>sary, 
who was a Carian, in the lanirnaire of the latter. 
TIk' name of the mountain was derived by some 
from I'toiiii, a sun of A[><illo and Euxipj)o, and by 
others from Leto h.ivin>: I'Cen fri'jhteneil (^vro4w) by 
a boar, when she was about to brini: forth in this 
jtlace. Both Acraephia .and the oracle belonged to 
Thebes. There no tempi*' of the I'toan Ajxdlo, 
j)ro])«"rly so called; Blutarch (Gn/llus^ 7) mention.s a 
fdoAos, but othvr writers sjx'.ik only of a rf/j.(yos, 
Up6v, XP''l'^''^vptov or ^amt^ov. (Steph. B. s.v.; 
Strab. /. ('. ; Baus. /. c, iv. 32. § 5; llerol. viii. 135; 
Plut. JMnj). If).) Accordin;; to Bau.sanias the or.acle 
cea.^ed after the capture of TheU'-S by Alex.ander; 
but the sanctu.iry still continucil t<> retain its cele- 
brity, a>. we .see from the^'reat Acnirphi.m inscription, 
which Bikkh ]»lace,s in the time of M. Aurelius and 
his son Comni<Hlus after A.l>. 177. it apjK-ars from 
this in.srri|»tion that a festival was celebrated iu)ionc»ur 
of the Ptojui AjK'llo every four years. (Bbckh, Jnsrr. 
No. 1G25.) The niins of Acraephia arc situated at 
a short distance to the S. of Kurilhitza. The re- 
mains of the acro[)olis are visible on an isolated hill, 
a .spur of Mt. Ptoum, above the Cojaic .sea, and at 
it.s f.x»t on the N. and W. are traces of the an( ient 
town. Here stands the clmrch of St. Georp' built 
out of the stones of the old town, aud containing 


many frac^ments of .inti<[uity. In this church Leake 
discovered the cr''at inscription alluded to alnive, 
which is in honour of one ot' the citizens of the j^lace 
cai't'd E|Kiminoudas. The ruins near the founiain, 
which is now called PtrdlLohri/.tL't, j>robably bidonc; 
to the sanctuary of the Ptoan Ajxillo. The pix-t 
.iVlcaeus (a p. Strab. p. 413) irave the epithet Tptica- 
pavov to Mt. Ptoum, and the three summits now 
bear the names of J 'alt ii, S(ru(zl/uJ, and Skropomri 
resfHHtively. These fonn the central [i^irt of Mt. 
Ptoum, which in a wider siiiuilicatiou extendi^l from 
the Tenerian plain a.s fir .as Larynma and the Eu- 
Ixx'an sea, separating; the Copiiic lake on the E. from 
the kikes of Hylae and Uarma. (Leake, S<>rtht-rn 
Greece, vol. ii. p. 295, seq.; Ulrichs, ReUcn in 
GriecfitultUi^I, vol. i. p. 239, seq.; Forchhamuier, 
Ildltnika, p. 1S2.) 

ACBA(iA.S. [AoRioKXTiM.] 

A'CRIAE or ACIUEAE (*A»fpia(, Pans. iii. 21, 
§ 7, 22. §§ 4, 5: Pol. 5. 19. § vS ; 'AKporai, Strab. 
pp. 343, 303 ; "Axpfio, Ptol. iii' 16. § 9 : Eth. 'AKpi- 
oTTjs), a town of Laconia, on the ea.>teni side of the 
Laconian bay, 30 ttadia S. of Ilelos. Stralxt (/.<'.) 
ilescribes the Eurotas as llowin<: into the sea between 
A( riae and (iythinm. Acriae jx»>scd a sanctiury 
and a statue of the mother of the jX'xls, which w;is 
said bv the iidi.ibitants ot the town to l»e the mo>t 
.'incicnt in the PelojKtnne.sus. Leake was unable to 
discover any reuiains uf Acriae; the French exjM'di- 
tion ];lace its ruins at the harbour of Kohiuio. 
(Leake, Morea., vol. i. p. 229; Boblaye, A'tcAercAcj, 
p. 95.) 

ACBIDO'PHAGI C'^Kpi^oepdyoi), or '• Locust- 
eaters," the name civen by Diodorus (iii. 29) and 
Stral)o (p. 770) to one of the halt-siivai^c tril>es c»f 
Acthiopia Intrdering on tlie Bed Sa, who received 
their denomination from their mode of hfe or their 
staple f.Kul. [W. B.J 

ACHILLA or ACBILLAE C'AffptAAo), a town of 
Sicily, known only from Sti-jihamis (tf Byiantium 
(.*. r.), ^^ho telK us that it wa.s not far from Syni- 
cuse. But theiv can be no doubt that it is the .sjune 
Vilace mentioned by Livy (xxiv. 35) where the Syra- 
ciisan army under Hipjxxrates wastb-tcated by Mar- 
cellus. The old e<litions of Livy have Accili^ve, 
tor which Acrillae, tiie emendation of Cluverius, luis 
b*."*']! receivetJ by all the recent editors. From this 
j»as>aL'e we le.aru that it was on the line of march 
t'roui AuriL'cntum to Svracu-se, and not far from 
Acrae; but the exact site is midetermineil. Plutanh 
{MarcelL 18), in relatiuij the same event, writes the 
name 'A»ciAas or 'AkIWus. [E. H. B.] 

ACRITAS ('AKpiTas: C. Galh), the most south- 
erly promontory in Messenia. (Strab. p. 359; Paus. 
iv.'34. § 12 ;'Ptol. iii. 16. § 7; Plin. iv. 5. s. 7 ; 
Leake, Morea, vol. i. p. 443.) 




ACKOKEIA ('AfffK^p(ia), the mountainous dis- 
trict of Elis on the borders of An adia, in which tiio 
rivers Peneius and L.ulon take their ri>e. The in- 
h.ibitants of the district were calb^l Acrmreii 
{'AKpo}p(7oi), and their towns .appear to have been 
Tlir.aiustus, Aliuni, Opus, and Eui>a_'ium. The 
n.ame is used in o]<{x-)>ition to Koj'At) or Hollow Elis. 
Ste})b.inus (.«. r.), who is followed by many mcxlcrn 
writers, m.ikes Acn^Mvii a to\m, and j)l.u^es it in 
Trij'hylia ; but thi.s error ap]ifars to have arisen 
from confounding thf Acmcrcii with the Paroreat:uj 
in Triphylia. (Diod. xiv. 17; Xen. I/cU. iii. 2. § 

m *£. 4. f 14; Lak*, Merea, toI. 3. p. SOS; 
Bobhjf. ttedUrcAa, p. IBS.) 
m, Tboc IT. 109j Str»b, p. 

SI:Sc^ -- ' • " 


d lit f— i"— '*, {mbablr npcD the hU of tha mo- 
Im lam Stnbo, Pfinr, utd ll«U Mon to hnie 
■I^Mul Ihil ActMbooD (Mod upon the fite of Ut. 
Itkv; bM thu b u impoMJUHtj. [Arnoa.] It 
m Kdid hj Uda «iid stbcr uidait writcn that 
tt> alutiilBBW «f Acntbiij liTed Imger thu ordi- 

ACrr ('AsT^X BgaBai k piae* of lud nii)mi« 
■tt Ae KK, and atticlwd to nK4ber Ui^er psce ol 
tad. b« Dot Biia— rily I7 a uitdw Deck. Tbu 
BindiiiiB tira Um naioa oT Acts to Ana Humr aa 
ni^afd •iUi tiw rat of Aua (if. 38), and alio to 
lUa ilidf aa jntliiie oat bnn Aiia (it. 41). 

>.>.) lAmca.] Tba name of Ade, 
■b ^<n ipco^allT appfifld to the eaotea 
'' '' ~ ~ itonca JDttiiig out fttm ChalcidiM 

D which UL AthDa atanda. It ia 

A the a 

hK>4 Onlf iOuif 0/ .dHa) off which Aogiutoa 
pM bu cdcbnted Ticto(7 oror Antonr and 
CkfKn,n>SeptifDb*rliid,B.c31. Then waa 
• Vmflt d ApoUo m tUa pronKntaiy, which 
" " ' ■ (i. £9) aa mtoatid in the 

Thii tempb was of gnat 

didku and Aetiaeat. Then waa alio an aDcient 
h^nl laiiiBd Aelia, oelebnted here in hmoor of 
At fjA. Ai^Ditiia after hia ■nrXorj enlarged the 
»i^ aul iwnnA the ancioiC featiTa]. which waa 
D four jfars (wfrroa- 

a, and bone race*. (Dion Ci 
)M.dBf.I8.) We Wara frmi a Gmk inaciijAioo 
ini m tba ajM of ActfniD, and which ii piobaUj 
^ IB tha tuna of AoKosttu, lliat the chief prieat 
•t tke UDiAa waa tsUed Itpa* jAoi, and that hia 
■^ «M anplofcd in olBcial docnmoita, like that 
rf Ik Snt Anhm at Alhou, to marie the date. 
(Bckk. Car^m Imtcript. Kol 1TS3.) Stiaho laja 
(> aU) thM the temple wu ntnaled od an 
ttBOR, and that bdnr waa a plain with 1 gmt 
rfDHa, aad a dock-fard; and in another paasage 
(> tSl) ^ dta cri bea tlie harboar aa ritnalod ODl- 
nit tt tba goU. On the opposite mast of Ejxnia, 
i a r ta i *Tr'-V-l tbe dtj oF Nio^ii in honour 
4 tit tirtary. [XicomUB.] Actiom waa pn>- 
fdj ■« a lawn, thoogh it ia •cmetimea dmribed 
■ xdi; Vat alter the finmdatiwi of Kicopolia, a 
b* ladfiigi ■prm|> Dp araond the temple, and it 
■M ■ a kiod if aabarb to Mimpotia. 

Tbi lita rf Aftinm haa beat a aohjcct of diapnte. 
Tba ma a^ny iag pkn of the entrasai of tbe 
ti^fiiil gnli; lakni fmn the map pobUahed b<r 
>*& Wdfa (Jowml of 04 Sojal GtoyrapUaJ 
Sna^. nL iiL) wiD gira tha nada a daai idea of 

1. Rnina of iVeMao. 

S. C. Za Scan. 

S. Fran. Aotiiun. La 

4. C.itadoitaa. 

Tbe entrance of tbe Ambraciot gulf lies between 
tbo low point off Aounania, on wUcb atanda Fort 
La Pimla (5), and the pomontorj of Epraa, m 
whicb ilanda the nudera town of l\waa (I), 
near the aite of tbe ancient Nicopidia. The nar- 
roweat jart of thia enbanee la oolj 700 jaids, 
bat the arerage distaace between the two ihon* ii 
I mile. After paaiing throngb this atiait, tha 
tains ahmptly roond a email point to tbe SB., 
fbmiing a haj aboat 4 miha in width, called the 
Bag 0/ Pmaa (P). A >eiind antnnce ia then 
' rmed to the larger baein of the golf bj tbe two 
gb capea of La Scara (S) in Epeima, and of 
f aj a—a (4) in Aomania, tbe width of tbii 
and mtranet being aboot one mile and a hal£ 
ow Bome modem writen, among otbera D'Anrille, 
ippoee ActioRi to have been mtoated on Ctg/e 
Madoima, and Anactniom, nbicb Stnbo (p. 451) 
deacribai as 40 stadia ban Actimn, on La Ptmla. 
hare led them to adopt this oondosifln; 

le the rr 

called j4»d (6). which name is apparentlj a 
pticn of the ancient Actinm; and, aeccndlj, 
ge the temple of ApoUo is said by Stnbo to 
etood CO a height, wbicb desmption answers 

tha low pei^nsnla of La PuHta. But these nasona 
coDclDsive, and time can be Dodoobt that 
of Actium Dormpraids to La limta. For 
it sboDld be cbeerved, Bist, that the name .Isia 
ii unknown to the Oreek), and appears to hire been 
introdnced bj tbe Venetians, who conjectored that 
the nina on C Afadavia irera thoee of Actinm, 
and therefore inrenled the woid ; and, secondl j, that 
Ibongh Stnbo plana tbe temple oF Apollo od a 
height, he dOFO not say that thia bnght was m the 
•n, bnt on tbe contiarj, that it wae at sonu little 
distance from the bik. In other napccta Stnho's 
evidence is decisive in &Tonr of tbe identification of 
Actinm with La Anita. He aajs that Actjom ia 
one faint which fomis tbe entrance of the baji and 
it ia dear that be nmsidered the cntnnce aC tba 
baj Id be between Prtvaa and La Pimla, becansa 
be makes the bnadth of tbe strait " a little man 
than four stadia," or half a mile, which ia trtie 
whm applied to the flrat narrow entnaoe, bnt not 
to tbe second. That the stnit between Prtinta 
and La Prntla fat regarded as the entrance of the 
Ambradot gnlf, is dear, not onlj from the diatanca 
assigned to it Iqi Stnbo, but fnm the statements of 



I'olybius (iv. 03), •\vlir> iiiak.'s it 5 >tii<ll:i. of S<\vl:ix 
(r. KafffTuiToi), ^vll(» iiiak<'> it 4 .*<ta<]ia, aiul of 
riiiiv (iv. I) wlio makes it .')(»<) |.i(r>. Ana<t'Mi!UU 
In (l.'.scrilMMl by StiTiItt) as "sitiiat'-<l within the bay," 
\\\i\\>- Aitimii makfs ** tlu* im.uth of th«* bay." 
(Strab. ]i\K '.V2'), 4.')1.) Ana< toriuin. thtTefore, 
must be plai eil on tlie jToni-'Utory of C. M«uli/nna. 
[Tor its exact site, sec AxAcroiur.M.J The te.sti- 
iii'iiiv (*f Strabo is conlinnod by that of Dion 
(\iv-ius. 'I he latt'T writ<T says (h 12) that 
** Aetiiim is a tenijil*' of Aj-'Il'S and is >ituate<l 
iM'tnre the ni"Uth of tlie .'-trait of the AnibniriHt 
^'ulf, o\<'r a^'ain^t tlie liarbi»ur> of NieojKjIis." 
(Jieero tells ns (ad Foni. \\'\. i\, 9) that in i<»a-tinu' Patrae to (,'i.reyni In- tuurhe.l at Ai tiuni, 
Avhieh he conKl har-Uy have done, if it were so far 
out of iiis way as the inner >trait Ix-tweeu C. La 
,Sc(ir<i aii«l (.\ Mwliinna. Tlius we ct>nie to the 
ceiiii hi>i<tii that the j>r()niont"ry ftf A< tiiuii wa> the 
int-d.-rn La Pimfd (3), and that the tenq.le ot 
Ai><)ll-' ^^as situated a little to th<' S., ont>ide the 
^lrait, probably near the Fvrt La ]\inta (5). 

A few remarks are nere-^ary n-jtet lini: the site 
of the battle, 'v\ljieh has eMiiffn-i->l its < hi<f celebrity 
u|».in Actium. The ll»-.-t of Antony w.xs stationed 
in the linij o/Pnn.-iii (P). Ilis tnMijj.s had built 
tower> on i-at h side of the mouth of the >tniit, and 
ihcv occuj ied the channel it>elf with their ships. 
Their camp was near the teni]'le of Aj»ollo, on a 
level t-patious groimd. Aui/ustus ua.s encamjK'd 
on the opj»-»ite coa^t of l'piiu>, on tlie i-i^il where 
TSieopdis afterwards sttn^l; hi.-< tleet ajtpears to have 
beiMi statione<l in the JJay of Comaros, now the 
harbour (»f .Mitika, U> the- N. of Xieoj^^.lis^ in the 
Ionian sea. Antony Avas ab^ent from his anny at 
I'atrae; but as i.(>on as he heard of the arrival 
of AuL'ustns, he jiroceeded to Actiuni, and after 
a short time crov cd over the slnut to Prevesa, 
and pii( bed his camp near that of Anirustu.s. I3ut 
havint; exjMrieneed >ome nusfortunes, he subse- 
<[uentlv re-ert»>sed the strait and joined the main 
IhkIv of his anny at Aetium. liy the ad\iee of 
('leo|»;itni he now determined to return to E;:yi't. 
He aec«trdiii,ily sailetl out of the stniit. but \\as 
comfK-lled by the mano<'Uvre> of Aui:ustu> to tii^ht. 
After the battle had ki^teil some hours C'leojKitni, 
who was ftUowcd by Antony, .sailed throui:h the 
middle of the Contending: tleets, and t<M)k to Hi-^'ht. 
They ^ueci'eded in niakiii:^ their ev(aj»<', but ln^l^t 
of their .shi]»s were destroyed. The battle was, 
therefore, fouirht ttutside of the strait, between l^i 
Punta and Preves:i (If^at tu>v (rrwwv, Dion Cass. 
1. 31), and not in the Bay of Prevesa, as is .stated 
by some writers. (Dion Otss. 1. 12, se.p: Leake, 
Northern (lr*«re, vol. iv. p. 28, se.p; Wolte. /.<•.) 

A'DADA ('A5a5a: Lth. 'ASaSfiW, Ptol.; *A5a- 
5aT7) in old etlit. of Stralw); '05a^a, Hienxl.), a 
town in Pisidi.i of tuuert.iin site. On coins ttf Va- 
lerian and ii.iiru'uus we find AAAAEfiN. Adad.i 
is meutioni'il in the Coum ils as the s.-.^ ot a bishop. 
(Artemi<Hi. ap. Stnih. \ii. p. j70; Ptol. v. 5. §8; 
llicr<Kl. p. G74. \Nith \\ e>s<lin::'s note.) 

A'D.VNA (ra 'A5ara: Lf/i. *A5a«'H's). a town vf 
Cilicia, which keeps its am lent name, ou the w*'st 
side of the Sariis, now the Syfu'on or S'flh'nt. It 
l.iv on the militapk' road from TarsUs to Nsus. in a 
feitile Country. There an' the renuiins of a }»ortieo. 
Pomji'V settk-^i heir .s,.nie of the Ciliriau pinifes 
\\homhehad com|t lied to submit. (Aj'pian. Mit/t. 
yf).) Dion i"as-ius (xhii. 31) sj-iaks oflarsus 
and Ad;ma being ah\:»ys (purrellin;4, [0. L.j 


ADAXE ('A8at^, Philostortr. /A E. iii. 4). railed 
ATHAXA by Pliny (vi, 28. s. 32), and ARABIA 
TELIX (JApaSla fo^aiucov), in the IV'ri]>lus of 
Arrian (p. 14), now Adtn, the chief seajxTt in the 
country of llomeritae «>n the .S. coast of Anibia. 
It Ixcamc at a very early j^«.'riiHl the ^reat mart 
for the tnide between F.L'ypt. Arabia, and India; 
and althouu'h destroyed by the Romans, probably by 
AeUus Ciallus in his t'xjH-dition aL'ainst Arabia, in 
the reitrn of Auirn-tus, it six-edily revived, and lias 
ever since remained a pia<e of note. It has revived 
con>]iieuonsly \\ithin the last few years. iKniuLr 
fallen into the |KisM',s>i,)n of the Kmrli-^h, and W-rome 
one of the j-tatioiis for the steamers whii h iu\ii:ate 
the hVd S-a. [W. R.J 

A'Di)rA (<J 'A5ouas: Add>^), a river of (iallia 
Ci>alpina, one of the larirest of the tributaries an Inch 
brini: <lo\ni the water.s of the Alps to the Po. It ris<'S 
in the IMiaeti.ui Alps near Bonnio, and tlows throu^^-^h 
the \'alt<ifi>ic, into the Lacus Larius or Lo'jf/ di 
Coino, tVoui which it a^'ain issues at its south-eastern 
extremity near L^'Xo, and from thence ha> a course 
of .ilxive 50 Utiles to the Po, which it joins iK-tw.t-n 
Placentia and (.'ii'mona. Durin:: this latter ]<irt n{ 
its course it .seems to have firmed ilie limit lvtwe<'n 
the lnj>ubres an<l the C'eUomani. It is a bnwid and 
rapid stream: the clearne.v.«, t»f its bhu' wat«'rs. re- 
sultini: from their j'iLss.itxe throuL'h a dee|» lake, is 
alluded to by Clau.liau (M 17. C<>!>.<. Jl'/n. 196). 
Strabo crroneuu^ly pla< cs its sources in Mr. Aoi'LA, 
where, .ac* ordini: to him. the K'hine aUo rises; it is 
probable that he w;i.s imixrrt'ectly ,aL-]u:untetl with 
this ji;irt of the Alps, and su)ij>o>cd the stream >shich 
descends from the Si>lii>j>n to tli.- hea'l of the bike 
of Cotno to be the original A'ldua, iustc^ul of the 
nuich lariTer river which cTiters it from the Vnl- 
UHin*\ (Mrab. iv. j^p. 192, 2(>4: v. p. 213; Plin. 
iii. 16. s. 20; Pol. ii. 32, xxxiv. 1(>; Tm. JIhf. ii. 
40.) [K. H. 11.] 

ADIABE'XK ('Adia€vyv). [.\ssyki.\.] 

ADIS or ADES ('A5ty,''A5T75: j.rob. A'W/^;?), a 
considerable tiiy of Atric.a, on the (iult'of Tunis, in 
the Cartha-jinian territory, whi* h l.'ei'uhis lH*sie;:i'd 
and to<»k, and bef .re whidi he defeated the Cartlia- 
trinians, in the loth year of the tir-t Punic War, 
It. r. 2.'i5. (Pol. i.3(b) As there is no subs.^jnent 
mention of the ])lace, it is .su]t|M>sed to h.ave btvn 
supplanted, or at Kast reduced to insiLTniticance, by 
the later town of M.vxii.v. [P. .S.] 

ADO'XTS (*'A5u)»'i.<i : Xahr el Ihmhin), a small 
river of Syria, wliich risiuL' in Motmt Libanus enters 
the Mediterranean a few miles to the S. of livbhis. 
Maundii'll records the fact which he himself wit- 
nessed, that after a sudden fall of rain, the river 
de.scciidirii; in llixuls is tin^'ed of a d<Tp red bv the 
st'il of the hills in which it t.akes its and imjkirts 
this Colour to the s^a f>r a considerable (Ustaiu e. 
Hence v,,iue have .snueht to explain the leireud of tho 
lnantifid Ad"uis, who was killed by a wild Uuar oa 
Mount I. i! anus (.Str.U». p. 7j.">;, de iMa 
Si/r. 0; Plin. v. 2«».; Xonn. J)ionvs. iii. 80, xx. 
144.) ' [W. R.] 

ADoREES. the n.ime of a moimtain of G.alatia, 
now i'Jtindi Jtti'jh. in the nei:_ddMinrho<Hl of Pe,sstnn>, 
in A>ia. Eivy (^\xx\iii. 18.) .s;iys that it cont.iius 
the source of the river SanL'ariu>. [(J. L.J 

ADoKSI. [Aoiisi.] 

ADIJA \ ('AWa. ]:uscb. Onoui'u^t. : "AJpa Ptol. 
V. 1,'). ^ 23: LXX. 'E5/»a(tV. ESpatV : Eni:. Vers. 
Ei»itLl : .and })rokibly the 'K^^^curaos of lIiero< les, 
p. 273 : Ihuia), a town in Palestine, near the sources 

J da rint Hinniiai, sad dnplj «Diliaj«d in Ibe 
ipni rf ttn EDcontftiq chaui pf HerTnon. Before 
Sk cDOfiiHt of CiDua bj Joabn*, it ww cm of tbe 
cWdiHof Og,kmg of Buhu. AfUrbitdeTHt 
lal tad a m asipwl to Uh half Iribe of Ua- 
uvk. vUch irttkd to ths (utcm ude of J«du. 
Ii nt Ik KBt of ■ ChiBtun tagbop at an «arlj time, 
■d I tiib(p (f Adns art in tbs ooandl of Sekoda 
[■.EL»l),Bidof Chakedoo (x.d.451). Bj th> 
en^ it WH calM Adna, aal by Clu Cnusdsrs 
*^'*— lU nmiA coTCT a circmt of about 2 mils, 
{f wfatk tlw IDA importajit ia a lai^e Toctaji^tilar 
lii3iliic, HDRnndBd bj a douUe corcnd colonnade, 
^ ml a eaun in tlie middk. (Nomben, ui. 33 ; 
DmUnm. L 1, in. 10 i Jgahoa lIL 4, liii, 13, 31 ; 
Ja^k Awiif. IT. 5. g 4Si Bnckingbam. Triadi, 
'<ii^lt6;BaITklH(llt,•d:p.341.) [W.B.D.] 
ADRAISTAZ ('Alpuiml). a pe^l* <« N. India 
(Tie /Wrat). iritb a capital citj Fimpiama (Hl/t- 

bm ^it Hjdiaotea (Saiva), im hil Enanfa I 
Sanii. [Arrian. Aiui.T.Sa. §3.) I '^ 

■' -' wilhtjan ' ■ - '" 

u (i^nUAwtomto, 

i-M^ 'Uifm^Mu, PtoL; Aitun, Perip. p. IS), an 
inbn tnbc in tin district ChatiamNids of Anbia 
Fib. ThnmmitoaifdtntlieccutafUieRalSM 
n^ Miii ef Aden, and tiwr name ia (lill prucrred 
B tti Bsdmi 0arfpaai(Bi<. Like Iheir iiomediate 
■BlUian in Aiabia Felix, the Adnmilaa were 
■OmiT >n|nfed in the drag and spot bade, of 
Ttirk thfir cspiial Subbatha inu Ihe eaiporinra. 
Tii7 av* piTaBc d b; a race of kioga. wbo bore 
lb tailT « (Ada] lUla of Eieaiar. [Chitba- 
»anr«,] [W. B. D.] 


«<mw, 'Ufmiiirrtm, 'ATpBBimor, 'ArpafiOi- 
nm: EA, 'ABp^tv> n rrf<, AdramjttenoA ; ^ifro- 
■Ai « fdpOHl), B lawi) Mtnaled at the hnd of the 
bv. oOtd fhHD it Admnjttamu, and oi the river 
Okm,ai Ujm, aod DO Ihe road tnm the Uelles- 
pvtB ta iVf7"nqir. Accanhog to tntditivn it was 
taU bj Adramja, a Imtber of Cmeans, king of 
l>te: tni ■enkinj of AtbcDiaoa iiuid tohanaub- 
^mlriWUlhen. (Strab.p. 606.) The place 
vulf becaBM a Gnck town. Thncydida (v. I ; 
<B. 101] aha ncDlkai a letlletiKat hen friiDi 
UBi madi bj tbc Deliaui whom the Atfaeniaoa 
mmil fam tha island B. c 4S3. After the 
■iWiliinmt of the djuastf of the kingi of Per- 
P/^MH, it vai a a ea ^ t of aome note ; and that it 
U mme Mpfioft apfVAra fnxn a paaea^ in the 
to If Ihe ApntlM (urii. S). Under the 
l^Hi it waa a Cairentai jDridkn* in Ibe pro- 
•■B ^ Asa, ec place to which the inbabilanla of 
^ di^nct RBortad aa Ibe (cart town. There are 

UHtANA (£cfer), a rirer of Gennan; in Ibe 
^Btt'TiftlieCbaRi.HuCaaKl. (Tac^a* LS6.) 

^aU; Hjutmam, Itiuer. Hieroa. p. 960i SI. 
"^M a tU DiasbeiK), a town in NoricDin, litn- 
"i hoiH Ibe lowiu Aamcoa and Celela, in the 
^ Hpntin^ lit. Cetioa fnm Ut. Camncai. 
A intip 1^ in Kman orifpn or wcnpatioo elill 
wrmm JQ ill )aral aj^icllatiao of Trajft^ier-dorf or 
ln»"'»^hmL (ftin. Antoo.) fw, B. D.] 

'U'U'KUU, V HADKA'NUU (^Aif^y, Diod. 


Steph. B. Hadrahdh , SiL Ita3. : EA. 'Alpoa^nn, 

Hadranitjuin»: JderniJ.aciljofthoinleriorofSicilj, 
situated at the foot of Ihe weatem elope of Mt. Aetna 
above the Tallej of the jSnneJo, and about 7 nules from 
CenturipL We learn fnm Diodonu (liv. 37) lliat 
then edsted here fiom verf ancimt times a temple 
of a local dsitj named Adraana, when wtsihlp was 
extennTclj ipread tbrangbSicilj.andappeantohaye 
been connected with that of the Palid. (HceTcb.r.f. 
noAuioi.) But there wai no ei(y cf the name until 
400 B. c. when it waa fonnded by the elder 


the inloior of the iiland. (Diod. L c.) 
It probably continaed to be a dependency of Syra- 
cni«; but in 345 B. a. it fell into Ihe hands of Ti- 
moleon. ([d. zri. 68,' Pint. TimoL 12.) It was 
one of the citia taken by the Romani at (he com- 
mencement of the Ftnt Punic War (Diod. xiiii. 
Ejic. Hoesch. p. 501), and probably on this account 
continned afterwards in s relation to Kome inferior 
to Ibat of m»t other Sicilian cities. Thie may per. 
hapt aoeoont for the ctrctunstance thai its naoM is 
not CDCC mentiontd by Cicero (ece Zumpt ad Cic. 
Verr. iii. 6, p. 437)j but we learn from Pliny that 
it was in hia lime included in the clasa of the " sli- 
pendiaiiae ciiitatee " of Scily. (if. N. iii. S.) 

Both Diodoma and Plutarch apeak of it as a aniall 
town owing ita importance chiefly to ths aazictity <f 
ita temple: bnC eiindiig itmajns piwe that it mnat 
have htea at coe time a place of eome conaideTBtion. 
These conaiat of portioni of the andent walls and 
toweni, built in a maasive atyle of large sqoand blocks 
of lava; of massive suhstmcliona, aupposed to tave 
been those rf the temple <f Adranna ; and the ruins 
of a lai^ building which appears to have belonged 
to Boman Thermae. NonKrous sppokbro alio 
have bean discovered and euatated in dis immediate 
neigbbonrbood. The modern town of Adtmi n- 

derable place, with above 6000 iobalataiits. (fits- 
can, Viaggio t'n Siciiia, pp. i7 — 60; Ortolani, iHi. 
Gtoffr. dtOa Sicilia, p. 13; BoIL dell. Inst. Arch. 
1843, D. 139.) 

Slephwus Byianliniu ipealca ef the dtyas ntuated 
on a river (£ the same naiDa; this was evidently no 
olher than the northern branch al the Smehi (Sy- 
maethns) which ii still lilea called Ihe FituM d 
Adtna. [E. H. B.] 


CAi)>(a or 'Arplo). It is imposuble to ntabliab any 

(as has been dune by KVenl aulhm) to one dty, 
and another to the other. The oldest form appears 
lo have been Hathu, nliich we find on ccdns, while 
Uadria is that used in all inscriptions: some MSS. 
of Livy bare Adkia, and others Atria. Pliny 
tells Ds that Atbia was the more andent form, 
which was afletwaids changed into Adria, but tba 
Greeks seem lo have eirly used 'AtpJa for the dty, 



as woll as 'ASpias for tlio soa. 1. A city of CIs- 
al]>iiio (laiil, ^ituat••ll ln-twocn tlif I'adiis iiiitl the 
Ath»^•^is, lint far tVoiii their iiiMiiths, and still callrtl 
Ailr'ut. It i^ now Jivtant irion' than 14 iiiiifs tVoin 
the M-a, hut was oriiriiialiy a .-••a-jM)rt of 1,'rrat o-lc- 
hrity. Its fouiuiation is a>-pnh<'<l to l>ionic(l by 
Stcjjhaiin.s Hy/.antinus. aii'l .some otluT late writers: 
.Ju>tiii also Cxx. 1), ]»rol).iMy t'oilo\niii; 'rhetijKMnjms, 
calls it a city of (in-ek ori'^iii; but these testimonies 
are tar ••ulweiprji,.,! l)y th<»e t»f the lloman wnters, 
who aij^ree in de-criliini: it as an Ktrn-^can colony. 
It was probably estal'lish.-il at tlie sinie jwri«xl with 
their (ttlii-r M-ttlements on the north side of the 
Ajx-niiines, and beeann', from its position, tlie prin- 
cijud <'nnM>rium tor th<ir tn»d<' with the Adriatic; 
by which means it attaine<l to so tlom-i>hinf: a con- 
dition, aji to liave i^ivt-n nnme to the i;nlt', or jMirtion 
of tlio s<:'a in its inniu'diate nei>xhl)ourliood, from 
wheiiee till' a]>i«-llation was pnidnally extended to 
the whole of the inland sea still calh-d the Adriatic. 
To this jx'riod may also Ik* axribed the ^n-ut canals 
and works which facilitat<Ml its connnunications with 
tlie adjoining: rivers, and thront^h them with the 
interior of Cisalpine (Jaul, at the sime time thnt 
they drained the marshes which wonbl ot!n'rwi>e 
have n-ndrred it uninhabitable. (Liv, v. ',V.\ ; IMin. iii. 
16. s. 20; Stnd). v. p. 214; Varro r/e L. L. v. 161 ; 
Festiis, p. 13, ed. Miiller: Tint. Comill. 16.) 
Notwithstanding; its early celebrity, we have scarcely 
anv information concerniu'' its hi>t<>rv; but the de- 
dine of its jxmer aiwl j'rosjM'rity may reasonal)Iy be 
ascrilusl to the coivpiest of the iieiLdibourinL: countries 
by the (lanls, and to the coiiseijuent nei^lect of the 
canals and streams in its nei;:hb(»Mho(Kl. 'J'he in- 
cn-asiuf; coumierc*" of the Giveks with the Adiiatic 
probably contributed to the same result. It has 
b<*en sup]Kis«Ml l»y some writers that it p-* ejved. at 
ditlerent ]«"ri'«ls, (ireek colonies, one from Kpiilaumns 
and the other from Syracuse; but both statements 
a]>j»e:ir to rest njjon nn.Mitiiceptions of' tin- i>.i>^au'es 
of l)io«lorns, from which tlu-y are deri\e<l. (l)i<M|. ix. 
Kxc. \'at. p. 17, XV. 13; in l>oih of \vhiel) j«.ass;i'j-es 
the Wonls Tov *A.hpi(xv teitaiidy ref«r to tin- Adriatic 
sea or ''ulf, not to the eitv. tin* name of which is 
always J* ntiniiu .) The abundance of vases of 
(ireek manutaeture found here, of precisely 
chanieter with those <tf Nola and Vfilcl, sntbeiently 
attests a ijreat amount of (ireek inten(»urse and 
intlneiice, but camn»t be admitted as any })r<H>f of u 
(lre«'k cob-nv, :inv more than in the uirallel case of 
V'ti/ci. (IM^'Khette in the Aimali (Ult Inst. Arch. 
vol. vi. ]). 21)2; Weleker. Yns'i di .\drhi in the 
JinWttino (Itir luAt. 1834, p. 134.) Vnder the 
lioinans Adria ajijicars never to have been a pl;ue of 
lunch coiiN-rpience, Stral>o (/. c.) sj^-aks of it as a 
small town, communieatinix by a short naviLration 
with the sea; and we leani from 'J'aeitus {Hi.<t. iii. 
12) that it was still accessible for the lii^ht Libur- 
iiian shijis of war as late as the time of N'itellius. 
After the fdlof the Western Kmjiire it was iiubuUvl 
in the exarchate of R'lvemia. but fell ni)ii<lly into 
decay durin;; the middle aiji's, though it iieser ce-x^eil 
to exist, and always continuiHl an ejiiscojcd see. 
Since the oj>enin;; of new canals it has considerably 
reviv^tl, and has noAV a |>oj)u]ation of 1(),()(><) sonl.s. 
Considerable remains of the ancient city have Ixrn 
discoventl a little to the south of the nuKlern town 
tov.ards Rdvt fjiintu) ; they an* all of Koman d.ite, and 
comprise the ruins of a theatre, baths, inos,'»io jiave- 
nicnts. and p;irt of the ancient walls, all which have 
been buried to a considerable depth under the accu- 


Tiiidations of alluvial soil. Of the ntimerons mirnTr 
antiquities dixovered there, the most inten'stin;: aro 
the \ases already alludeil t^». (Si-e Miiller, J-ynuikt r, 
i. ]>. 229, an<l th<- authors then' cited.) Tlie coins 
ascribed to this citv ceinainlv Ixdonff to Aiiria in 

A river of the same name (<5 'A5^taj) is nion- 
tioned by Hecataeus (,ip. Stcph. liyz. s. v.), an«l by 
'I'heojHtmpiis (a]>. Stmb. \ii. p. 317); it is calbni 
by rtoleiny 'Arpiavh^ iroTOfo^s, and inti>t pro- 
bably be tlie same called by the Koinans Tartarus 
(I'liu. iii. 16. s. 2U). and still known in the nppt-r 
p;irt of its Course as the T(trtnnt. It ris^s in the 
hills to the SK. of the Latjo <li (innhi, and ll'>ws 
by the moilern Adria, but is known by the naiiip <jf 
('(tmd Jiiiiuro in the lower yttrt of its courx': it 
conmnmicates, by canals, with the /V* and the Adifjf, 

2. A city of riceimin, still calle<l Atri, situat«-<i 
;dx)nt .5 miles from the Adriatic S'a, l)etwwn the 
rivers Wmianus and ^lati'inns. A<conlim: to \lw 
Itiiierary it was distant 15 Koman miles fnun Cas- 
trnm Novum, and 14 from Teate. (Itin, Ant. jtjt. 
308, 310, 313; comj.. Tab. IVut.) It has U-.u 
supyK»se<l, with much jimbabilitv, to he of Ktrus<'nn 
oiiu'in, and ;i colony from the more celebrated city <*f 
the name (Ma/occhi, Ttd). llfrml. p. .532; Miiller^ 
.AVr?/.s-A< r, vol. i. p. 145). thou;:h we have no his- 
torical evidence ..f the fact. It has al>o Uvri 
i:enerally atlinitted tliat a (ireek ccdony wa-s loun-ltHi 
there by Dionvsius the I'.l.ler, at the time that he 
was seekin;^ to est.-iblish hi> jKiWfr in the Adriatic, 
about B.C. 385; but tJiis st.atement rests on v.-ry 
doubtful authority (l:tyni. Ma^n. v. 'AS^ms), and 
no subsequent trace of the settlement is found in 
history. The lirst certain historical notice we find of 
Adria is the estaliJi-huH'iit of a IJouian cob^ny there 
ab..ut 282 i;.o. (Liv. Kpit. xi.; Madv iL'.</'- CoUtuiU^ 
p. 2'J8.) In the early of the S-cond I'lUiic 
War (i'..r. 217) its territory was rava^red by Han- 
nibal; bnt notwithstanding: tiiis calamity, it was«>no 
of the 18 Latin colonies wliith, in p.. <\ 209, were 
taithlul to the cau-e of iJome, and wiiliui; to con- 
tinue their contributions both of men and nionev. 
(Liv. xxii. D, xxvii. lO; I'olyb. iii. 88.) At a latt-r 
jK-riod, as we le;ini iVoni the LiN'r dc C(doniis. it 
mn->t have recei\t'd a fre>-h (olony. j>robably nndor 
An^'ustus: hence it is ti-rniei] a Colonia. U>iji hy 
riiuy and in iu-criptions. One of these ;rives it the 
titles of "Colonia .Velia Hadria." whence it would 
apjx-ar that it had Inen re-cstablisheil by tiie eni- 
^^(•r Hailrian, whos(> familv was oriirinallv dcriviHl 
tn)m heiK «'. thonuh he was hiuiselt" a native of 
Spain. (Lib. Colon, j). 227 ; IMin. //. A. iii. 13. 
s. 18; Oiell. l,K<,'r. no. 148, 3018; (hiiter, p. 1022 ; 
Zumjit <l<' Colon, p. 349; Sp'irtian. Hadrian. 1.; 
\'ictor, F.pit. 14.) The territory of Adria (airfr 
Adriamis), thouLdi sub^^-queutly inchuU-d in Picenum, 
a])]M-.irs to have (riL^nally fonned a .sejarate and iu- 
(JejM-nilent district, bonndtsl on the N. by the rivt»r 
Voinanus ( \'oninno), and on the S. by the Matriniis 
(/a J^iondui): at the month of this latter river w;\s 
a toWTi lM\iiinLC the name of Maticintm, which 
servetl as the port of Adria; the city its*df sttxxl on 
a hill a few miles inland, on the same site still 
(Mcu]>ied by the nuMlern Afri, a of .some con- 
sideration, with the title of a city, and the see of a 
bishop, (Jn-at |>art of the circuit of tlie ancient 
walls m.iy be still ti^actd. and mosaic pavements 
and other remains of building's are akso j in»s*'r\Hxi. 
(Strrd). v. j.. 241; Sil. Ital. viii. 439; IMol. iii. 1. 
§ 52; Mela, ii. 4; Komanelli, vol. iii. p. 3U7.) Ac- 

(■Aft hi tlw Itin. Asl. (pp. 30e, 310) Adria «u 
dv pBd rf jimetHi tj tba Vis SaWu uuj VKJeriA^ 

b^BtMGB ud BoDTuiiiBg cmditioa under tha 

^HBf the luvist tfftmttoM kumu, acadtng 
■Hfte tic most aiKient Bcnua uao. On thU 
moBt tbpj hans been ■soigned Eo A very RtDolfl 
■SUBlj. KiB» idaring them to the Etoisaui, 
dm to tha Gm^ aattkn. Bat then leema much 
■Mv la belien thM thsf «n not mllj » uic»nt, 
■ibriag, ia &et, to the Banui ccknj, vhkh ns 
toM pnoBoa to the geoenJ ndoctiaa of ths 
hibiilnncniia^ (Eddwl, toI.L i>.9B; HiUIer, p. 308; BSckb, MtlrolBfie,f.379; 
UniiBi, 2tu Jidmitci* JfinuiHMK, p. SSI ; Mil' 
hta. y i» i M nf | -^ — .fe rjtato, p. 81 6.) [E,H J] 

ADBUTICCM HABE (d ■ABptv). » the lume 
pm Mb bj Oreek uid LUin writera to the inland 
IB i<ill ulkd tb< .4 drut^, whkh Mjantea Italy from 
Qhrkun, Dalmatia and Epcvna, aod la CDimected 
II ill mthan eitJMnJtf Irith tha looiao Seal It 
■IfiKi to hiTe b«n at Snt tr^anled by the Gmks 

■ 1 Dm gtilf or inkt tt tha Imiiui Sea, whence tha 
•ajinvn i '/klflat (crfXirai ac.), ithich Snt came 
■Bn Be. Waipe ao &ialr «tahiuhed that it alnaya 
waiiiiinil ita gnaoA amccf; the Greek writen of 
the bat if^t and it la ooij at a later period ta in 
■PTrt r w al caaea that wa find the exprasioiu i 
't*r^ <* 'ASpHtruHl MAwnra. (The fonner m- 
irana a ospIoTed b; Sctduiiu Cbiat, 36S; ud 
lb kiter m CDa'instaoc* bf Stnbo, iv. f. 3(M.) 
Tbi I^iina fnqogMlj Itnned it Hark SurEsuM, 
'■k I'pp* Sea, aa OHwaed to th« Tyirbeniaii m 
^^iD Sea (Uat Infemm); and thaphnse ts cojied 
in ^wa bj Fidjfaiui and other Gieek writen. It 
^fon pnbaUe indeed that Ihis wat the ecnunon or 

'^ ■OH of ilie Adriatic wai a men f;eDgraphicaI 
^ ■ FMmi . psfaapa bonowed in the fint initance 
^ tkf Gmeka. The um ef Adria or Uadru 

■ iMil br tha name tt tha as, na certainlj a 
^n CnedgB, fint introduced bj tha poeta (Hot. 
C^H. La IS, bi. 3. 5, &c.; Catoll. luvi. 15), 
Ika^ a ii moetiiaea lued hj pnm writera aln. 
(Si«. f p. 90 ; Mria. n. 3, 4t.) 

AconttoK to Uemdotaa (i. 103) the Phocaeana 
■m tW fim of t)K Greeks *ho diaconred the Adri- 
^ ' Bl kaat tlH fint to eiplm ita iKeaBca. but 
te thifuiilaiB tmut hale been •rell acqaainted with 
•WWon, ■■ the]' had traded >ilh the Veneliaaa 
t uahfT frun a lety «rir period. It has, indeed, 
^n dBMided, that t 'Al^lqt in Herodoliu (both 
h itu pMga lod in IT. 33, t. 9) meaoa Dot tbo 


tampiil to called, bat a r^on or district ahoat 
tha biad of it. Bat in this cue it leeniB highly 
unprciahlB that fiecigelj the aame eiprMsion shonld 
haTB come into general use, aa we certainly find it 
not long after the time of UerodotQi, tbr the an 
itself.* Hecataeos >1» (if we can trust to the ac- 
coracycfStephannaB. t. V. 'Aiplot) af^eara tobava 
need the fall eipnaajon ii^X*oi 'Atpfat. 

The natml limils of tha Adriatic are very clearly 
marked by the contiactioa of the oppcate ahorca at 
its enlnuwa, so as to form a Idnd of atiait, not ei- 
ceeiBng 40 G. milea in bnsdth, between the Acn>- 
ceraonian promontory in Epiraa, and the cmbI of 
Calabria deu Hydruntun. ia Italy. This is accetd- 
ingly conectly aianmed both by Strabo and Pliny aa 
tbe soathem hmita of the Adriatic, aa it was at an 
earlier period by Scylai and Foljbins, the latter of 
whom eijffMsly tells as that Oricua was the first cily 
on the right hand after entering the Adriatie. 
(Stiab.Tii.p.3ITj Plin.iii. 11. s, IG: Scjlai,SU 
p. 5, § 27, p. 11; Pol. yii. 19; MeU, ii. *.) But 
it appears to haie been nme time befaie the appel- 
lation was receiied in this definite sense, and the nse 
of the name both of the Adriatic and of the Ionian 
Gnlf was for some time very npK and floctnating. 
II is ptsbable, that in the earliest times the name cf 
i 'Aiplai waa mnfined to the part of the sea in tha 
imiDHiiate neighbourfaood of Adria itself and Uw 
montha d the Padua, m at least to the airier [art 
near the head of the galph, as in the passages of 
Bemdotns and Hecataeua above cited ; bat it seema 
that Hecataena hUDself in another passi^ (_ap. 
Sleph. B. I. e. 'larpw) described the Istrians as 
dwelling m lie lomm gv^f. and Heilamcos (up. 
Dvm. Hal. i. SS) ipoke of the Padns as flowing into 
tltt lonan gidf. In lie manner Thncydides (i. S*) 
devribea Epidamnns n a city on the right hand aa 
yon enter the Ionian gul£ At this pniod, then- 
fore, the latter expreaaiia] seema to have been at 
least the mon conunon one, as appUed to the whole 
aea. But very bood after we find the mtos Lyaias 
and Isocratee employing the lenn i ^tJ^as in its 
more extended sense : and Scylai (who muat have 
been nearly coatemponry with the latter) ex- 
pressly tells na that the Adriatic snd Imian gnlfii 
wen one and the same. (Lys. Or. c. Diog. g 38, 
p. 908; Isoer. PhtUpp.^T; ScjLu.fa?, p. II.) 
Tnxa this time no cha^ appears to have taken 
place m the ose cf the name, i 'Aiplai being bmi. 
liarly nwd by Onek wrilen for the modraii Adiialio 
(Tbeopbr.iv. S. §§ 3, 6; Psend. ArislM. dt Afirab. 
§g 80, gS; Scran- C>>- >33, IS3, &e.; Pol. ii. 
17, iii. 86, 87, &c.) nntil after the Chriatun en. 
Bat snbseqnenOy to that date a veiy singnlar change 
was {ntrodnced ; for while the name of the Adriatic 
Cni/" (i 'AJ/ilai, or 'AlfimTutii iiMvai) became re- 
stricted to tlw npper portirai of the inland sea now 
known by the same name, and the lower portioo nearer 
the stnjt or entnnce was commonly known aa the 

irfPolybiaa (iv. It, 16) cited 1 
MUler (£(r<wjbr, i. p. 141) in enppart of th 
view, certainly cannot be nlicd on, as the name 
6 -ASpliu was fntly ertablisfaol as that cf the se 
long before his lime, and is lepwtedly used by bin 
self in this sense. Bnt his exptvsaiimB an singi 
larly vagne and dactaating ; thos we find within 
few pages, 6 itarii top 'AX^tar irfoirsi, A TOu worr. 
'ABptou livx^i, i 'KiptrriKii furxi^t 4 tsri ri 
■AtjiJarSiUaTTfl.etG. (Sea SchwngUnaei'a Index 
PoIjWna, p. 197.) 


Ioni:i!i Ciulf, tliosi-.i witlioiit tlmt entnmcf', pi-cvii.n>ly 
known as tlie Ionian or .SRilinn. canii' to be (.:ill<<l 
the Adriafic Sea. Tlif bt^^innin'^ of this aUcra- 
tion niav ah-oadv be fouml in Strabo. who six-ak.s of 
tlie Ionian Gulf as a part of the Adriatic: but it 
is found fully (lf'VeloiX-(l in Ptolemy, who nuikos th(' 
jtroniontory of Garganus llie Uniit btlwwn tho Adri- 
atic Gulf (^ 'A5pias koAttos) and the Ionian Sta 
(to 'Iwviov Tr4\ayos), while he calls the .sea whi( h 
bathes the ea.stoni .chores of Bnittiuni and Sieily, 
the Adriatic »SVa (^rd 'AdpiariKov TT^Xayoi): and 
althdiiLrh the later geoir raj 'hers, t)iony>ius I'erii'i:<'le,s 
and Agatheinerus, ajijJy the name of the Adriatic 
within the same limits a.s Strabo, the common u>ai:;e 
of In'storians and other waters under the IJoman 
Emjtire is in conformity with that of Pt"lciny. Thus 
we iind tli^'m almo.>l uidfonnly sjA-akm;^ of the 
Ionian Gulf for the l'»wer put of th»^ ino»lern Adri- 
atic: while the name of the latter had so ci>mp]el*-ly 
^u])^'r^<•ded the oriL^nal aj)jK'llatiun of the Ionian Sra 
for that which bathes the western shores ^>i' Greece, 
that I'hiUtetratus sj>caks of the i>thmus of Corinth 
as sejviratin;::; the Achaean Sea from the Adriatic. 
And at a still later j-ciioi we fmd ri'o«.'o|,iu.>s and 
Orfi>ius still further extendiuLr the apjicllation as far 
as Crete on the one side, and Malta on the otiier. 
(Ptol. iii. 1. §§ 1, 10. 14, 17, 20, 4. §§ 1, 8; 
Dionys. r.-r. 92—94, 380, 481: AiiathemerM. 3, ii. 
14; Af.jiian, .%r. G3, B. C. ii. 39, iii. 9, v. T.."); 
Dion C.i.>s, xli. 44, xiv. 3; Iler.«lian. viii. 1; Phi- 
lo.>tr. Jnujfjg, ii. IG; Pau-an. v. 25. § 3, Wii. 54. § 
3; liieronym. Kp. 80; Pnx'op, Ii. (i. i. 15, iii. 40, 
iv. G, B. V. i. 13, 14, 23; Oros. i. 2.) Concerniui; 
the various fluctuations and chanires in the ai»|ilica- 
tioii and sii'iiitiration of the name, >ee Lareht-rs 
Aot'.-i on lierodotua (vol. i. p. 157, EnL'. trinsl.), 
and \M\rom\e i^Rtchf relies sur Dicitil. p. 170 — 218), 
who has, however, carrieil to an extreme extent tin- 
distinctions he attempts to est.ablish. The L'eneral 
form of the Adriatic .S>a was ^\» II known to tlie an- 
cients, at least in the time of Strabo, who corn-etly 
describes it il^ loni; and narrow, extendin:^ towards 
the N\V'., and corre>|>ondini; in its general dimen- 
f-ions with the jart of Italy to whieh it is jarnllel, 
from the Iaj>yi:ian ])run)ontory to the mouths of the 
P;ulus. He :ilsu uives its L'reafrst breadth invtlv 
correctly at about 1200 stadia, but much ovt'r^fates 
its length at GOOO stadia. Ai^athemerus, on the 
contrarv, while he ai'm-s with Strabo as to thi; 
brcadtlj, .assi;,'ns it o\\\y 3000 stadia in lenj^'th, 
which is as nmeh Iwlow the truth, as Striibo exceeds 
it. (Strab. ii. ]). 123, v. p. 211; A-jathemer. 14.) 
The (Jreeks ;ipj>ear to have at tir.>t regarded the nei'jh- 
bourhiHxi of Adria and the mouths of the Paxlus 
as the he.'ul or inmost recess of the trulf, but Strabo 
and Ptolemy more justly place its extremity at the 
^uif near Atjuileia and the mouth of the Tilaveniptus 
( Ta<jUaiii(ido). (Stntb. ii. p. 123, iv. p. 20G ; Ptol. 
iii. 1. §§ 1, 2G.) 

The navipitii^n of the Adriatic was much dnvided 
on account of the frequent and smlden sti^rms to 
which it was sul»ie«t : its evil character on this ac- 
count is rei«'at(Hlly alhuled to by Horace. {Car/a. 
i. 3. 15, 33. 15, ii. 14. 14, iii. 9. 23, ivc.) 

There is no doubt that the name of the Adriatic 
w.'Ls derive<i from the Etruscan city of Adria or 
Atria, near the mouths of the Padus. Livy, Pliny, 
and Strabo, all concur in this statement, as well as 
in extollini; the an< lent power and ((^mmercial in- 
fluen<e of that city [.VintlA, N<». Ij, and it is pro- 
bably only by a confu^ion between the two cities of 


tlie s;\]ne name, that some later writers h.avc derived 
the aj>j>ellation of tlie sea from Adria in Piceimm, 
which was situated at some di.^taiice tVoni the C'*:t-t, 
and is not known to have been a place of any i-.u- 
l>oi1ance in earlv times. [E. II. P.] 

ADnCME'TUM. [Hadicumltim.] 
ADPUS (Alharafjimi), a river of Hi^pania Liisi- 
tanica. llowin:^ from the X. into the Anas (^(tu<uU- 
nna) ojijwsite \o Bn'Jajoz (I tin. Aid. p. 418 ; I kert, 
vol. ii. ])t. 1, pp. 289— 392V [P. S.J 

ADl'A'ilCA or ADUA'TUCA, a ca^tellum r.r 
fortitied ])lace mentioned by Cae.sir (/>'. <J. vi. 32) 
as situated about the centre of the country of the 
Eburones, the greater }>art of which country lay 
Ixtween the Mo>a (.!/((<-/,<) and the Phenu.s. There 
is no further indication of its i>.»>ition iji Cae-ar. 
C^>. Cicert), who w;ls [wtsted here with a lepi-n in 
It. V. 53. su'^taiiu d and rcjxlled a sudden attack of 
the Sigandiii (iV. 0. vi. 35, vS;c.), in the same camp 
in which Titurius and Aurunculeiu> had winteri-d in 
J'., c. 54 (/>*. 0. v. 2G). If it be the same i»lacc ils 
the Aduaca Tun::i-onmi of the Antonine Itinerary, 
it is the modern l\>ii<i>rn, in the l>eluian provincx- 
of Eimburir, where there are remain^ »,»f <dd walls, 
and many antiquities. Thouuh only ;i ca.stelluni c«r 
temjxiiary fort in Caesar's time, the jilace i> hkelv 
enon-jh to have U'cn the site of a lan'er tc»wn at 
a later date. [G. L.] 

ADUAITCI ('ArouaTivo/. I)ion Cas^.), a p^-o- 
]'le of lleli^ic (iaul, the neiihl'^urs of the Eburones 
and Nervii. They were the docendants of GODO 
Cimbri and Teutoiie^, who were lelt behind bv the 
re>t of lhc.--c barl'arians on their inarih to Italv, 
tor tht^ j>ur[io>e of lix.kiii:,' after the kiL';:a_'C which 
their comrades ( oidd not conveniently take with 
them. At'ter the detl-at of the Cimbri and Teutonc-., 
Jiear Ai.c by C. .Marius ( n. c. Hl2). and apiin in 
tiie north of Italy, th'>e GOOO men maintained them- 
selves in the country. (Caes. J',. C. ii. 29.) Their 
hi ad ijunrters w.-re ;i .strong natural jwi.-iti.<n on a 
^teel> elevation, to which there was <*nlv i.:ic :i[>- 
]>roach. Ca'->ar (Ih-s not eive the jtlaie a n.aiije, 
and no indiiMtionof its .•-ite. I)'Au\ilIe Mipj«»-<'-; 
that it is Fiihtia <mi tie- Mrh<ii<;iit\ The tniet 
occujtied by the AduMtici app'ar> to be in .S,.i,t/t 
lirafxtnt. Winn tlu ir >troM;_^ }»"Mti'tn was taken bv 
Caesar, 4000 of the A«luati. i jMri-Iied, and 53,000 
were N.ld for >l:t\es. ( //. (J. ii. .'',:{.) [G. L.] 

ADU'E.V MONS {6 'AouvKas), tlie name uiven 
to a jartieidar -roup of the Alps, in which, aeeurJ- 
ing to the re]Haied ^tatement of .Nralxj, U)th the 
Khine and the Addua take their rise, the one tlowinfr 
northwar(l^, the other soutliwanl into the Lariau 
Eake. This view i-, n(»t howv-v.r correct, the real 
source of the Addua King in the glaciers of the 
E'haetian Alps, at the h, ad of the E/y/rc/Z/ja', while 
both branches of the llhine ri-emucli farther tu the 
W. It is ],robabli- that St rabc) considered the river 
which desiiuds tVoin the Splifnu to the head <tf the 
lake of (.'o/./o (and uhidi ti.e.vs from X, to S.") as 
thtr true Addua, overl.Mtkini: the gr.-atlv .suijeric.r 
macnitude of that which omes down iVoni the Val- 
t> 1(1 lie. The sources of this ri\er are in lact not far 
iVitui those of the brandi of the jJliiue now- chilled the 
J/intir ]<hrin, and which, havinj: the niure dins?! 
course from S. to N., was prubnldy ngarde.l bv the 
ancients as the true origin of the river. Mt. Adula 
Would thus signil'y the lot'ty mountain group alnrnt 
th(! pas-e.s of the Sidiiiji n and *S. lirriiardino. and al 
the head of the valley of the //infer K/i^in, rather 
th:in the Mt. St. (Jothurd, a^s suppjM.'vl by luust 


nodn pBugn if bera^ Imt we miut not expect great 
■rronc; in the aw of the term. Ptoleinj, who also 
r»pnMnis the Bhioe as rising in Mt. Adola, sajs 
utbio; of the Addoa; bat errooeoasty deecribei tliis 
put (< the Alps as that where the chain alters its 
BUD ^jnc&ja from E. (Strab.iv.pp. 192, 204, 
T. p.ai3; PtoL xL 9. S 5, i". 1- § 1) [E. H. B.] 

ADDXE or ADUXIS CA5©^Ai|, PtoL iy. 7. § 8, 
m. 16. j 1 1 ; Anrian. PeripL; Eiatoeth. pp. 2, 3; 
*AlMAi5, Stepk B. «.«.; 'A8o^Aci, Joeeph. Antiq. 
E 5; Praoop. B, Pen. L 19; oppdom adoalit6n, 
Rffl. F. A^ iri 29. a. 54: Etk. 'A^ovXirvf, Ptol. 
ir. 8; Adolxta, PHn. L e.: Adj. 'ASeiAirta^i), 
tb priaeipa] haven and dtj of the Adolitae, a people 
dtaxad origin in the rqpo Troglodytica, situated on 
• bij <tf the Bed Sea caDed Adalicus Siinis ('A8ov- 
Imh e^Avw, Atmesley Bay). Adole is the modem 
rWIs or ZMoj proooonced, accordbg to Mr. Salt, 
Attok, and stands in ht 15^ 35' N. Ruins are 
■id to cxirt there. D^AnTille, indeed, in his Map 
of the Bed Sea, places Adale at Arheeko on the 
■u ooaat, ahoot 22^ N. of TAiiAi. According in- 
imA to CoBmas, Adnle was not immediatelj on the 
eaat^bot shoot two miles inland. It was founded bj 
hptive ilares from the neighboaring kingdom of 
EfijpC sad under the Bonans was the haven of 
inrae. Adule was an emporiom for hides (river- 
kni sad rh i a o ccro s ), irocy (elephant and rhinoceros 
tab), tod tortoiae-sheD. It had also a large 
■kiv-oarket, and was a cararan station for the 
tiaiB of the interior of Africa. The apes which the 
Bam ladies of high birth kept as pets, and for 
vtich they often gare high prices, came prindpalJj 
im Adole. At Adnle was the celebrated Monu- 
■wafaa AdmHtamtn^ the inscription of which, in 
Gnek letters, was, in the 6th century of the Chris- 
bm m, copied by Cosmas the Indian merchant (In- 
^Bfiemtes ; see Diet of Biog. art Cosmos) into 
tb acoDd book of his '' Christian Topography.'* 
Tk nomunait is a throne of white marble, with a 
>abcf uoe diflereot stooe behind it. Both throne 
ad ilib icem to have been corered with Greek cha- 
latlmi. Coamas appears to hare put two inscrip- 
taft iito one, and thereby occasioned no little per- 
pitxitj to feained men. Mr. Salt's discovery of the 
Mfflptioa at Axame^and the oootentB of the Adnlitan 
lacfiptiao itsrif; show that the Utter was bipartite. 
The first portioQ b in the third person, and re- 
twAi tiat Ptolnny Energetes (b. c. 247—222) 
raved from the Troglodjte Arsbs and Aethio- 
pai ocrtBffl elephaixts which his fiither, the second 
^ of the Macedonian dynasty, and himself, had 
^im m hosting in tlw region of Adule, and trained 
te w ia their own kingdom. The second portion 
«f the inariptiao is in the first person, and com- 
^■Bnates the oon q oeets of an anonjmoos Aethio- 
|ia kiaf b Arabia and Aetlw^da, as fiu* as the 
&ait^ of Egypt. Among other names, which we 
an identify with the extant appeOatioas of African 
^Sitrictj^occnrs that of the most mountainous r^on 
B Abyuiaia, the Scmenae, or Samen, and that of a 
^ vhkh is evidently the Astaboras or Tacaze^f 
t «ua tributary of the Nile. The Adulitan in- 
"'^j^iai is printed in the works of Cosmas, in the 
Coftel No9. PMr. ti Setyd. Graoc by Mont- 
fcuB, Ft- u. ppi 113—346; in ChisoU's Antiq. 
^^Mt; lad in Fahridns, BM. Graec. iv. p. 245. 
"^ bat eommentary opon it is by Buttmann, Jftis. 
*r ilferfifcua. iL 1. p. 105. [W. B. D.] 

ADCLTTAE, [Aduiju] 

AOTRMA CHIDAE {'AdipftaxtiM), a people of 



N. Africa, mentioned by Herodottis as the first 
Libyan people W. of Egypt (Herod, iv. 168.) Their 
extent was from the finntier of Egypt (that is, ac- 
cording to Herodotus, from the ^us Plinthinetes 
(ii. 6), but according to Scylax (p. 44, Hndson), 
from the Canopic mouth of the Nile), to the harbour 
of Plynoe, near the Catabathmus Major. Herodotus 
distinguishes them from the other Libyan tribes in 
the E. of N. Africa, who were chiefiy nomade (iv. 
191), by saying that their manners and customs 
resembled those of the Egyptians (iv. 168). He 
also mentions some remarkable usages which pre- 
vailed amongst them (/. c). At a later period Uiey 
are found fdrther to the S., in the interior of Mar- 
marica. (Ptol; Plin. v. 6; SiL ItaL iiL 278, fblL, 
ix. 223, fbU.) [P. S.] 

AEA. [Colchis.] 

AEACE'UM. [AEonrA.] 

AEA'NTIUM (A/(£KrioK: rnifeerO, a promontoiy 
in Magnesia in Thessaly, forming the entrance to 
the Pagasaean bay. According to Ptolemy there 
was a town of the same name upon it Its highest 
simmiit was called Mt Tisaeum. (Plin. iv. 9. s. 16; 
PtoL iii- 13. § 16; Leake, Northern Greece^ vol. iv. 

p. 897.) [TlSAEtTM.] 

AEAS. [Aous.] 

AEBUHA (ATCovpa: Eth. AHovfHuos : prob. 
Cuervo), a town of the Carpetani, in Hispania Tar- 
raconensis (liv. xL 30; Strab. op, Steph. B. s. r.), 
probably the Ai€6pa of Ptolemy (ii. 6). Its name 
aj^iears on coins as Aipora and Apora. (Mionnet, 
vol i. p. 55, Supp. vol i. pp. Ill, 112). [P. S.] 

AEC AE ( Alicoi : Eth. Aecanus : Trofa\ a town of 
Apulia mentioned both by Polybius and Llvy, during 
the military operations oT Hannibal and Fabius in 
that country. In common with many other Apnlian 
cities it had joined the Carthaginians after the battle 
of Cannae, but was recovered by Fabius Maximus 
in B. c. 214, though iK>t without a r^Iar siege. 
(PoL iii. 88 ; Liv. xxiv. 20.) Pliny also enumerates 
the Aecani among the inlimd towns of Apulia (iii. 
11); but its position is more clearly determined by 
the Itineraries, which place it on the Appian Way 
between Eqnus Tuticus and Herdonia, at a distance 
of 18 or 19 miles from the Utter city. (Itin. Ant 
p. 116; Itin. Hier. p. 610; the Tab. Pent places it 
between Eqnus Tnticus and Luceria, but without 
giving the distances.) This interval exactly accords 
with the position of the modem city of Trojoj and 
confirms tiie statements of several chrmiiclers of the 
middle ages, that the latter was founded about the 
beginning of the eleventh century, on the ruins of 
the ancient Aecae. Cluverius emmeously identified 
Aecae with AccadiOf a village in the mountains S. 
of Bovmo; but his error was rectified by Holstenius. 
Troja is an episcopal see, and a pUce of some con- 
sideration; it stands on a hill of moderate elevation, 
riang above the fertile plain of Puglia, and is 9 miles 
S. of Luctroy and 14 SW. of Foggia. (Holstra. 
Not. in Cluvtr. p. 271 ; Bomanelli, vol. ii. p. 227 ; 
Giustiniani, Diz. Geogr. vol. ix. p. 260.) [E.H.B.] 

Appian, Ptol.: Eth. Aeculanus, Plin.; but the con- 
tracted form Aeclanus and Aeclanensis is tiie only (Hie 
found in inscriptions: — the reading Aeculanum in 
Cic.a<^iiM. xvi.2, is very uncertain: — later inscrip- 
tions and the Itineraries write the name Eclanum), 
a city of Samnium, in the territory of the Hirpini, is 
correcUy placed by the Itinerary of Antoninus on 
the Via Appia, 15 Roman miles from Beneventum. 
(Plm. iiL 11.8. 16; PtoL iii 1. § 71; Itin. Ant p 



1*20; Tall. Pent.) No niciition of it is found in 
lii>tnrv (luriiiLC tlio wars ol" tin' K'niiians A\illi tlw 
5'';iiiinili'^, t!ii>u;:li it aj'|n\'irs to have Iuth oiir <if tlif 
cliii-f cities of the Hir|iini: I'lit <Iuiiii!^ tlif SK-ial War 
(ii. c. 8'0 it \^as tai<«'n and |>lun(l<-rr(l liv Siilla^ 
\\lii(Ii It'll to till' siil)nii>si<tn (»1 almost all tli<* nciu'li- 
boiirini: ritifs. (A]>|>ian, B. C. i. ol.) It apjHars 
to have Im-i'ii soon atirr ri'ston-d: the civrtion of it.s 
nt'w walls, t:at<\s, an*l towers ]»<-ii 11^ nsoidcd liv an in- 
M'ri|itii>n still extant, and wlii<li iirnhaMy bclun^s to 
a dati" shortly aftrr the Sn^ial War. At a later 
]H'ri'Kl wr fin<l that ]«irt *y( it> torritory was jioilioned 
out to new roK>ni>t>, ])r>ibal>ly nixlrr Otavian, but 
it rctaintil tin* coiuiiti'Mi <•! a niunirijtiiun (as we 
li'ani lVi>ni I'liny and si-xeral inMrii»ti«'U'i) until \-n\.z 
atterwards. It was )>r«.bably in the nM;:n of Trajan 
that it at t|\nr('<l the n\nk and title of a roloiiy which 
we find a>sii:ned to it in later in>eri{»tions. (Lilo. 
Colon. i>|.. 210, 260: ( >rell. Jtu^rr. no. oOG, 3108, 
r)020: /.nnipt. </» CoInniU, p. 401.) 

The >ite of Aectdanmn wxs errcnieously refeiTed 
l)v ("lu\eriu> (//■(//. p. I20.*i) to Fri'i* 11(0. Hul^lenius 
was the tir^t to )>oint out its true jxtNition at a ]>laoe 
rallied /» (rro//f . aht>nt a mile tVoui .IZ/nj/x //'J. an<l 
tdoxc to the T<irirnii (l>l l\is..<(>, on the ni«Hlern hi_;h 
mad troni Na}ili\s into I'ikiHh. Here the e.\t<'n>i\e 
remains of an aiK'i<mt eity have been t"und: a eiiiwi- 
deiahje part <>f the anejent walN. as well as ruins 
and t'ouiidations of Thermae, ajuednets. temple>. an 
aiiij.liith.atre auil other buildiuirs ha\e been dl^eo- 
\er«-d. th"iiLdi niaiiy of them have viiiee ]fri-he<l: 
.and the \\h.<le -ite ab^nniK in <i>in^. u'eins. hr.n/i'--. 
and I'lher min><r relieN of aiiti juity. I'he i:is. rij.jjons 
t'-snitl hetv. .xs Well a> the siiuaiiou on the A|']iau 
NNav, and the di-taui'i' tVoni llen(ni-nt'>. eharly j>'ove 
the^e n-main^ to Iv tho^e of A<s ul iiif.m. and atte-t 
its vplcnd.iur and imp'rtanee TUidiT the i»'.",iian em- 
p'ui'. It eontinuiil to l>e a tl iuri>uin^' }'ia< e until 
the Tth erntury. but wa> il-str-'ye^i in a. 1>. f»'>2. hy 
t!ie emj«TiM- f',".i»tans II. i'.i iii> war- with tht' l.'iu- 
ImhIn. a town a:>i>-e out <>t' it^ rv.i'^. w iiuh "b- 
tail;.^l the uaine <>\ IJi iMoiM.riMr M lr':n i!> }--i- 
ti'u at that di-tai:et' m.m l>eueve:i:um. aulw;;h!i 
eoiitimi.^i :•> exi-t to the llth eeutury wheu it iia i 
f.i'I'ii int.* i-.>;n].le:e d<^■ay. a-.!>l ih'Mew re:i aiiiiiij i'.i- 
hahiMr.t- nvuneNl ti< tl;e i-aNtle ot .I/m* ''" 'V''. ere, ted 
bv tiie Ntm an> o\\ a r.-i j!i!» 'un;:,' l.ill. (^ H Kteu. 
.\^'^ /'> ('.'.'>'•. p. 2r">: L'.y.'.li. I''r' I'f •. ' .•/■f. y\\ 

74 — 12S; Itl'i-in'ui. Ki.'-rrhi .»"'.. T f:,'.''V'I ( ''M '// 
/'.•■;;;>. 4!.\ Na;"U. 1814; K v;.a:.r l.i. \ 1. ii. pp. 

.•?2 5- :?•_>>> * [i:.n.r..j 

Ai:i>ld'>rS tAr5T7Cev: Ftl. Ald-^.oi: A.Vv.y 
atowu 'M 'he N\V. ovi^t ^i I..'.'' va. lf.() >t.i.i;i 
tV ';n l'^",^.ls - ii t!;e op>v-:re e^\^-t o[ tl.e » ':'U::f. ir. 
{.■<'.{. It '; '.I'lusl ^^.•.r:n '^■ath- saer^>l to^. 


of tlie Alli'broiijes. The ciiief to\vn of tho Aedtii 
in rae>ar"s time was I'dbraett^, and if w.^ assti:ije 
it to be on the >ite of tlie lat<"r town of Aii;ju->t'>- 
diuuiin (.-1/^////f), we obt.iin ];robaldy a fixed c<'n- 
tral j)osition in tlie territory of the Ao<iui, in the 
ohi (hvi^jou of JioiirriofiU''. 1 he Aedui Averc t»!je 
of the nio>t ]»owertul t»f th'^ Celtie nations, but 
Udbiv ('.ae>ar's pnK (lUsulsldp of (iallia. they- li.-ni 
bee!i liroU'^dit mider the dominion of the S'.jtjnTii. 
whoiiad in\ited Gennans from Ix'vond tho Khirc* 
to :i>>ir.t them. The A'dui had In'CU (k-elart.-%l 
friends of the Roman jo'ople Udore this calamity 
j iK'lel them; and I)ivitia<us. an Aednan, weut to 
Kome to a-k tor the a>d<-tanee of the senate, but 
he returned without a(ei>iu}thshin£: the olije^'t of 
his nii>>i(tn. Cae-ar, on his arrival in iiaul (ii. c. 
^ti''). iv,->tored these Aedui to their f"nner iiidi^i^-n- 
I denie and jiower. lliere was amon;:^ them ;i LK>ir 
I of nobility and a sinate, and they had a irn^at num- 
j b/r ot' ( hentes, as C'aesir ealls them, who a[.}«-ar to 
iiave Ix'en in the nature of va>--al>. The ( lit-utes of 
the Aedui are enunier.tted by C.VNir (Zf. G. \-\\. 
75). The Aedui j"iued in the ^'reat reln-llion 
ajain^t the llonians, whi* h i^ the subject of the 
se\enth b><>k of the (iallie war (7^. (i. vii. 42. &o.); 
hut C;u\<ar ndmed them to subjit tion. In the 
relu'n of Tibrius a. d, 21. Juliu> S;\erovir, a Gaul. 
att«!npted an in>urrei:tion anioui: the Aedui and 
Sri.'.rd Auju>todujiuui. but tie; ridiiiT ^^'.'ts ."M^ni p.ut 

d"W-n by C. .8ilius. (Tae. .1 /;/.'. iii. 43 IG.) The 

liead of tlie e >]iunonwt*ilth of the Aedui in Cae>a.r's 
time was railed Ver^' iuvius. He was t-hvted by 
the ]irie>:--. and b'-ld his oftie f 'r one year. He 
had the jx'Wer of l;ie and d'-ath over hi^ p.stplo. a* 
l'ae>ar says, hy wiiieh t-xpre^si 'U he n^.i ans proK-ibly 
that he was sujireme ju.ije. (^li. (',. \. 16. vii. .3.3.) 

1 lie • li'UteN. or >n all < '>nitiiui.iri'-s de|.»iid«'nt on 
the Aed li. \ven' the S-ju-iaui. aliealy nieutio!i.-(i; 
th" A:;jl'ivareti. wh.> w.-ro apNinntly <iti the ii'Tthoni 
b'U'i'ia'-y ..f ti:e Aod'.ii ira;.- M -a:n. (,/). (/'. iv. 9); 
ajiiithe A:il'-n i"vi.:e- 'ArLr.i;eiJ. The Au)- 
harri. al:-i-a.iy iv-et-.ti-ned as ki::-n>':i <<\ ti^e Aetim, 
an' n 't e:m:r.enite.i a:i^'i._' th" < ii-ntes ( />'. tr. vii. 
.').")). Mtie of liie p.iji ..r di'-i-;.i;;- <f the A<:-ihu 
was eali^ii Ir^-.T'Tes (^Liv. v 
a bniy .'.f l; ni. wit. l;a,i 
th'ir a' to s< ttie Th- : 
ni.t'.Ti in ili<- teiTtt'Tv ..f til 


A"; - 


W I- 

-.r.-.v n 

w!;:- h wfv ',>«>.'. ^'\ th«' >i;« 


:ir>' s'- , 
i A.,s:.: 

riat. >' 

■A\.\ ib'Ut a 

vt-.T >•,!.. a. 




lb- -e ^^a^•^ 
f i:-'ve /.•;•'• '. the 
tH». 42.*> ; A';.'-!, p. 
4. w :%:>• r.i\—v-.'? :> 

eert.ii::: if the r a 1; 
]s;-»a,'e >■;(' I'-a-, ::;■• 
\\ t};e »ii.i:e..)Ni v • 

ak»;ai: iu b;- 

• t A- ::a: i. ar \ "•!:■• •' 

• U ). C.i«>.ir ail'twctl 
■ i- -d th'- lb Ivetii in 
.s' iv.N i:; (ia'al. to ^e^- 
A' i .1 (i)'. (/. i. 28). 
Ivtw.— n \[ic L'-:re .and the 
li> L'."i\ I i'> y iiv-1 .'V ti.)wn, 
'J ). til- -i'e y-x wi::, h is iin- 
j Torj A:a i> ;v t-pted in this 

I l.t 

:; :>t r.-! tn- e. 'r.f .iin.k-.i 
A-'.r:i. r<i- L.] 

1. « '• Ai .. V (, A>/a\ a 

t;.^ 12 A ;vva: 
«. :-,;ti.> u: 1 :;:• 
T . -i. 


1 til'' . oajst. 

fil-e -^tkiii,-: Stt'h. Iv .*. e. ; I't'l. r.i. I". ^ -'^ 
21: I.^ake. A ■'■■.'.'< c r-j K'^t-cx, \A. u. p. 

- :: • '.I'-ioiuNi bj 
a! tiu.os tV.r 

r; -i. :v 


/-••'•' '.<. .)^'-. I'. 'I A 

AK 1>IT. HF. L»ri vA.J-'io;. >:• -b. p. isr,\ .i 

r-l:.>' ;«'^'.'N\ ^a':!'' ■'^en' s,«Tari\si fr":n ih-" >.-, ^ar.i 

;vir: .>f 

{■"tw.,;; A'\:i. -a a: 

11 v:-:^. w. i u i.- ^,\ 

it- n"^h:; f V ^oi : :;. It w .:> att- nvaris de-ertCHl 

bv lis ;••.'•. a: .ta:.t-. ^^ h ^ :> 

:.wn .f A-vi~i: .»::•: i' 


A~i' i^^-t '>*-A. w}:i.!'. fr;"^-i 

i«."v. « > •. rh'^ W. :h.v we-y 

■ bitu'iji-s b' ::>' u: >T o':.-s* 

> \ .V- <^' \-<i" s:att"s \^ H. '' 

n. •>> the I . .: ■■ -, .»■ L !•> 

\\y A -i a .\: a.— '. yh. 

V ^a-\t^^i f.^ ■;: !' 

.->\ r> t;>.. m: 

U). a.i::.>:ix':i of 

I. \\\. 

I- , 

e::e ••! the 

i"e-v-„ .1. 

A'i'tni vs 

Ui' ".V ,^\ r 
i< -■••'. \*. ; 
th. : t": ivi' 

v->i ••■ the r.e-jf.biurini: 

I '. a.'>aiy reax^l t'^ V>e 

12 A Iw .;•; . .t ■- •:: th- o -v ^ al .f the 

H. V". 2"»i>. -.t^ : * ' '•"'i''- <vv ".'.lie.l \,\- 

\:< ' a: •' i . -. : : , , ir \i\ V AbiiJ. 

t A J I." t" .■■ e '. -sXt 'r-ir^-t. '' •;: j; prv>- 

■v>; the >i:.- , t the K..i': f.i v".:.'.i. which 

■•>'" -i '"•■■• ■■ » ■ ':■■ Z h ■_;;:: !-;-;•:- fn,jn 

Si:;..wr- ir.v:;::.-a v';; w.::.:i t'a.:-.i 

t ae C miiui it 


«laod«bat it pnbaUj itood on Uie left bank, since 
tW jifM M ^ oiMi often imuidAted. (Ham. //. Tiii. 
S09: Bemt i. 145; Stnb. fp. 386—387; Patu. 
viL S5. § IS; Leake, Morta, voL Hi. p. 394; Cor- 
tu% iWopOMMwotf, ToL L p. 472.) 

S. A town in Ematlua in Macedonia, and the 
barial-|ilae« ci tbe Macedonian kings, is prc^blj 
tkr noM as Edesaa, thcngh some writers make 
tfaem two <fiftrent towns. [Edesba.] 

X A town in Eoboea <n the western coast N. of 
CUos, and a little S. of Orobiae. Strabo says 
tkt it was 120 stadia from Anthedon in Boeotia. 
b a Bifntinnnd bj Homer, but bad disi4^)eBred in 
tk> tns of Strabob It was cdebnUed ix its wor- 
ibip «f Poaeidflo from the eariiest dmes; and its 
«f tins god stin continoed to exist when 
wTCia, bc^ situated upoo a \dty moontain. 
1k» ktnr writer derives the name of the A^aean 
fiaa 6«B thos town. Leake soppoees it to have 
Hood Bar lAomL (Horn. IL xiii 21; Strab. pp. 
3M,405; Steph. B. «. o. ; Leake, J^ortA«n» Oeec<;, 
T^ uL p. 275.) 

AEOAE in Asia, 1. (Alyai, Aiyauu, Atytcu: Eth. 
Jiiyf^f Alytdnit ; Aytu K<Ja, or Kalasmf)^ a town 
SB tht ooart of Cifida, on the north side of the bajr 
W Isns. It B now separated from the oatlet of the 
f^nanis {Jykook) by a long narrow aestnaiy called 
Jfv Bif . In Stnbo^s time (p. 676) it was a 
■bbU citf with a port. (Curopu Lncan, iiL 227.) 
was a Greek town, bat the origin of it is 
A Greek inscription c£ the Roman period 
hM beat disce n ei e d there (Beaofort, Karcmumia, 
}^ 299); and under the Roman dcniinion it was 
a pbea «f some importance. Tacitus calls it Aegeae 
(Amm. zfi. 8.) 

2. {Atytd: £U.Af)«uof,Afyaic^),an Aeolian city 
(Bend. L 149^ « little distance from the coast of 
If^nis, and in the neigbbooriiood of Cnme and 
TviKta. It b mentioaed bj Xenophcm {Helkn, 
IT. 8. { 5) nnder the name Aiyus, which Schneider 
hm albend into A/yoJ. It snfiered frtim the great 
•srthqaake, wfajch in the time of Tiberias (a. d. 
17) dvoktcd 12 of the dties of Asia. (Tadt 
iaa. o. 47.) [G. L.] 

A£GA£AE. [Ajcoiab.] 

AEGAECM MARE (rh hJytuow iriXayos, 
BenA. ir. 85; Aeach. A^am, 659 ; Strab. paaim; or 
«aifil3r ri Aiysulvr, Herod, rii. 55 ; ^ Aiytuos vi- 
te]«e, Hecod. iL 97), the part of the Mediterranean 
mm caOed tbe Arek^ptlaffo, and by the Tnrks the 
SliaeSso, to distingoish it from the Black Sea. It 
w beuded oa the N. by Macedonia and Thrace, 
«■ the W. by Greece and on the E. by Asia Minor. 
At its KE. corner it was connected with the Pro- 
fia^ by the Hdkspont [HEiXESPOirrus.] lu 
fitiat was dillerently estimated by the ancient 
*nbn; b«t tiw name was gmerally applied to the 
«kJe ses as fitf S. as the islands ik Crete and 
ftodH. Its name was rarkrasly derived by the an- 
oat Kf annual ian s, either from the town of Aegae 
■ Gekoea; or from Acf^eos, tbe fiUher of Theseos, 
vW threw himnlf into it; or from A^aea, the 
«f the Amaaoos, who perished there; or from 
who was rsprawited as a marine god living 
a; or, lastly, from sJyiSy a sqnall, on account 
MoRDiu Its real eCymoIcgy ia uncertain. Its 
~^'!a was dangeroos to ancient navigi^ors on 
of its mmi e iuus \daa^ aiid rocks, which 
eddies of wind sod s coofosed sea, and also 
of the Etesian or northerly winds, which 
Mm vith great fay, cspeeuJl J nboni tbe equinoxee. 




To the storms of the Aegaean the poets frequently 
allude. Thus Horace {Carm. ii. 16): Otium divot 
rogtU M paUnti prengus Aega^o; and Virgil (Aen. 
xii. 365) : Ac velut Edoni Boreae cum tpiriiua alto 
insonat Aeffoeo, The A^aean contained numerous 
islands. Of these the most numerous w«re in the 
southern port of the sea ; they were divided into 
two principal groups, the Cydades, lying off the 
coasts of Attica and Peloponnesus, and the Sporades, 
lying akmg the coasts of Caria and Ionia. [Gt- 
GI4ADES; Sporades.] In the northcm part of the 
sea were the larger islands of Euboea, Thasos and 
Somothraoe, and off the coast of Asia those of Samos, 
Chios uad Lesbos. 

The Aegaean sea was divided into: 1. Marb 
Thraciitm {i SptiiKtOM w6rroSy Hom. 72. xjdii. 230; 
rb SpriUtotf vcAoyoi, Herod, vii. 176; comp. Soph. 
OecL R. 197), the northern part of the Aegaean, 
washing the shores of Thrace and Macedonia, and 
extending as far S. as the northern coast of the island 
of Euboea. 

2. Mabe Myrtoum (Hot. Carm. i. 1. 14; t^ 
VLvprSow xcAoyor), the part of the Aegaean S. of 
Euboea, Attica and Argolis, which derived its name 
from the small island Myrtus, though others suppose 
it to come from Myrtilus, wbinn Pelops threw into 
this sea, or from the maiden Myrto. Pliny (iv. 11. 
s. 18) makes the Myrtoan sea a part of the Aegaean; 
but Strabo (pp. 124, 323) distinguishes between 
the two, representing the Aegaean as terminating 
at the promontory Sunium in Attica. 

3. Mark Icarium (Hor. Carm, i. 1. 15; 'I^dpior 
irdPTOS, H<Hn. //. ii 145; ^hcdpioy ir4\ayos, Herod, 
vi. 95), the SE. part of the Aegaean along the coasts 
of Caria and Ionia, which derived its name from the 
island of Icaria, though according to tradition it was 
so called from Icarus, the wm of Daedalus, having 
fallen into it. 

4. Mare Crbticum (t^ Kpvrriicby w^Xotoi, 
Thuciv. 53), the most southerly part of the Aegaean, 
N. of the isUnd of Crete. Strabo (I c), however, 
makes this sea, as well as the Myrtoan and Icarian, 
distinct from the Aegaean. 

AEGA'LEOS (A>ya\««s, Herod, viii. 90 ; rh 
AfydAew 6pos, Thuc. ii. 19 : Skarmanga), a range 
of mountains in Attica, lying between the phuns of 
Athens andElcusis, from which Xerxes witnessed the 
batUeofSaUmis. (Herod, tc.) It ended in a promon- 
tory, called Amphialb ('A/i^^ioAij), opposite Satoia, 
from which it was distant only two stadia according 
to Strabo (p. 395). The southern part of this range 
near the coast was called Cortdalus or ^^^^''^ 
DAiJLU8(Ko^u«aX^s, Kofw8oAA<Jj) from a demua o« 
this name (Strab. L c), and another part, throiign 
which there b a pass from the plain of Athena into 
that of Eleusis, waa named Poecilum (nouclAo^, 
Pans. L 37. § 7.) (Leake, Demi of AUica, p. », 

AEGATES I'NSULAE, the name given to » 
group of three smaU islands, lying off the wcatem 
«ti^ty of SicUy, nearly opposite ^^^^"f^J^ 
Lilybaeum. The name ia supposed V^^^^^^^'^T^^ 
froi, the Greek AlT^^e,, the " G«\"^^ V, ^^^ 
this form is not found in any Greek author, «nd the 
Latin writers have nniversally Aegates. S»J\^.*^ 

licus also (i. 61) makes the •«^^.*?^^^.^?^S; 
1. Tbe westermniit of the three which is ^^^ 
about 22 G. miles frtmi the <:^ ?^ ^^V^^?^!^ 
Hikra CUp^ »^o», Ptol. Polyb. Diod.); but «^ 
S^^^'^^ the name <i^™^>^''^ 
STy^fer out to sea (Itin. Mant. p. 49a>, and 



is <:\\ t\i!l'-l ^f<lr^:ti!lio. 2. T};c southprnm<r>t nnl 
i>ar»'>t I-' I.:l\ la'-'un. i> (.'il'.ol. \>y I't' vAi.y a:i'l 
riir.y. AEt.r>A ( At7'n"rra); but tho !;ittt'rt'rr.>:,''.'U>Iy 
IJ '"u^.i^ it •«"ith A''t].u>;i. It is tho l.-\r2e>t <«f tli-.- 
t:;r*t\ on which arr.-im: its i.a:;.e w;i> >r.;n'-ti:..*s 
exto:.d•^i t^' the wh"l>' jT'-n^ (a< Ka\nvu(i-ai Aiyov- 
cai. P.'L i. 44); it i^ n-'W i ali'->l Farl^nwui. ni.d 
ho-s a c -r^ii- r;ihle j-j-ula;; ^n. .'5. 'lliv H'rlh-rri- 
n. »: a:. I Nihall.-^t of the jT"up, n'\irly ..]j»'-;tt.' t-t 
r>rv:c-,\ rn. i^ «all-^l }«v rt..I<-:i;v l'Hoi;KANriA , 
(4»t>tSarTm). hut i.-> proh.ihly tlio same uith thi; 
lir«-iNNA "t" rii::y, a i.ann' vrr 'Jit- 'U-ly supj-";*-'! by 
>:e;.h. IJ. (".*. r. Bo'jKivva) to U: that <<t' a cif-/ ■'{ 
>'.' IW. It is n<.\v cnll.-il L-' (Pt<.l. iii. 4. § 
17: Plin. iihS.^. 14: >:i.ytii'> .^//-/V /.].{.. 244—247.) 

1 h-M- iNlir;.!^ ^i.-rive an }n-i"n. al < . 1. bnty tV.-'.u 
tb'^ Ci^at :.av;il viet'TV ••b!ai:.'-.i by C. Luta'/i- 
Cat;iiU> "Ver th^' Ca'^haji:.ia:i> in B. (.■. 241. uiii.h 
y\X an »nd to the l-'ir>t Pnnif War. Ilinii-'. th'- 
Carthiji'.iau ain.iral, had |r"AU'-;is to the battle 
tak'U ui> hU jitati'-n at the i-hi::.i "f lli-ra. and ' 
tn i'-avourni to takt^ a^ivantaje ..f a lair ■^vi;;-! to nin 
>traijht in to I»r>;tin:>nni. in onior to rdi'V..- the 
a-r.y vf Han^il^ar Bana. lh' n !il"«:ka-l. d, .-n M'unt 
Kryx: but he ■was ii^ten .p..-,! ly Catalus. ar.d c 'Ui- * 
j«'u'.--i to enjaje on diNii^at.tajt^ius t* r:n>. '\\\<: 
!••:.-':' jU-niee was th** c 'n.j leto dtttat <.^X the C'artlia- 
cii.i.ui l^.'i't, of w'ni^ h .*)•» -ii:;.s w.,n? snnk. and 70 ' 
taken by the oL-^my. with n-ar'.y lU.»XiU j.ri-- !> rs. 
(P-L I. 6u. 61: Ih'A. xxiv. Lxr. II. p. JuU: Liv. , 
K:;t. xix.: « »r. -. iv, U>: Kl tr. ii. I: Hutroj . ii. 27 : 
C 'TV.. NVp. Ilr\<'r. I ; M. la. ii. 7: >ii. Itah i. t>l.) 

Th • i^! I.I .V-^j":-;! ha> !•<■• n ,-npt"^.'ii by trja.iy 
wri:»'r> to \>-': tho ^^y d«-". r:>\l by II 'n.-T in t]ie 
<*iy->^y (ix. 11«)) a- I^inj < p]--itf to the Ian 1 > f 
th'- Cy !■ i---. an 1 .t'-'Ur, h;.j in %\lli j^at-. Put all 
^::' h att<> to i; ntiry the If.aliti'-.^ d'-^riUd in 
the w an lfrlT,::> t-f I ly-^?s ni:»v it-:- sat .y di-:n.i^Kd 
ai Tu t.*n:.h;.\ 'P. H. Ii.] 

AP«i}:ii;A (Af7fv.->a: K'h. A'r,€~paTr,s. le:n. 
A<7€iparij). a to'Mi "l Aohiia. and > n,e oi tl>^ 12 
A ]..i-.-^n «it:' -. >:tuat- i )•< tw*vT-. A' _■ ae an^i P< lh n»n 
i< 'ir>».ri>d by PolyM is as opp-ite M'>n:it Pan a-- 
s';-, -itr.atol nj- n hr.l> ^tr. tij ani ditn nit of aj^- 
]' ■..■ h. M \'*n ^ta lia from tin- >- a. an.i raar a ri\ar. 
'rh:> rivrr ^^a> } '- iba'-iy the (.Vln-. \\hii.h ^io^\.^i 
int.* tho sta. a littb' to th-^ W. » f the town. Ae- 
(v.r.linj to Pausaiiias tl:e uj'j^^r ilty was 12 >ta.ini 
{t >v.\ it> ]"rt. and 72 st i-tia fr»':!i the ora^ e* uf 
II'Tt l'^-^ Bnraions, (ibr-Ki. i. 14ft: StniH. vih. p, 
:iS6; Pol. in 41, iv. o7 : Pans. mI. 2f.. ^ 1: Phn. 
iv. fi.) Pan*ania< (I.e.) relates that A- *_'• ira '<ci. ::- 
}■;-. 1 tlie sito of tho H •!..< rlo Ih rtui >ia (Txt^rrjc-iTj. 
II. Vi. .'573. XV. 2.")4: .*>trab. p.3^3: £fh."l'r(ijr,<Tiivs), 
an i tluit it <ban_nrd it.< nana' dnrln.: tht- «.H.cnjati -n 
of the c eantry by the P-n^ian^. He a-ids tln*t tin* 
anilent nann' ■^till i 'ntlnned in n-^^ li« ::< e ^\e lind 
that Pa.-:-; of Hy[« rc-ia \\ .i-; j-r>il.,::n'd "vl.tor in 
the 23rd H:yn;j.:a 1, (Pan-. i\ . 1.5. i; \.) On the 
do ay of the n< L'hb'Urinj toWTi of A' ja.' its i:.:.a^*- 
itants w.-re trar.-twT*" i to Atjiira. (>trab. {-. 3^^1.) 
In the lir^t year ot the SH,lal w.j- (b. *\ 22' ») 
Ao_nini ^^.X'n 5iirprl>ed by a party *'f Aetolian-. wh* M?t -^iil fro:n the lyp'-lte towui cf «KMiithtla in 
Locri*. but were driven «>ut by tlie Ai ^rat;in> after 
they ha«i obtaine.! pt-M'-^ion of th'' plate. (P >1. iv. 
57. 5S.) Th-* m-ot imj^trt.ant >A the public bmld- 
iiL^* t»f Ae-^tim wa> a temple of Z«ns. It al^» i>m- 
taineJ a vtry an.< i"::t t«-ni].l" of A|-oll->. :ind teTi.ple>« 
of Artemi*, ^1 Af-hr-nlite Ur.inia, i\h • w:tN wor-hij ]h\\ 
in the to^m al>jve all other divinities, aiid of the 


.Syr'an 2 »l'b ss. (Pan>i. Aii.2C.) Thcport of Ae^eln 
L'akn j/;a. v< at Mm-ra Lit/taria, i.e., tho PUfk 
L'<>«k-, to tho i ft < t whi- h. on the summit of a hill, 
are N»me vc-tij'.- ,.f an ancient rity, whidi mu-t 
have b -en A« -_•• i:-a. At t)ie distance of 40 stadia 
from A'-L'-'ira. thr 'njli tli«» mountains, there a 
f-rtres- lall^-d I'iiin.i.Mi: (4>*AAo7j, ]iear Znkhnli). 
al-'undinj i:i >}.rin_'- of wat'-r. (P:«u>. vii. 26. § lO; 
L«ak'n M',r<n. Vol. hi. p. 387, seij.) 

AP.GPIIIIS. rAL(,ii:Mt»A.] 

AKGIAP or APGAKAK (A<Vai, Pans. iii. 21. 
^ .") : Ai^aiai. S!r:i'n. ji. 364: Limtii), a town of Li- 
tonit, at tht' ii:-«*e of .3*) ^^ia from Gythium, 
sup]"'-oi t'' }:>e tho -ame a> tlie Homeric A 
{, Jl. ii. ")^:) : «.t!;ip. .stopli. IJ. g. r.) It 
j,.^-,sv,-,l a t< '.njl- .ij d lake of Neptune. Its >ite L* 
{-1 .' rii (>y till- Pre* h C nri.i-'-ii'n at Limni. s^t ealbd 
fr ■:;. an cxt*'n-ive n.a-'h i;i ilse \ alley <.l the Ha.'«teni 
brn.ih of the ri'. er > t J'it.K-"ira. (Leake, I'tlojnm- 
nt.i'i'K'i. ]-. 17'*.) 


AK<ilI>A. a to'.^Ti of Ivtria. mentioned only bj 
Pliny iii. P.«. s. 23). ^^hich aj']»>ars to ha>e 
l-^n v\ h;> ti: ea }lait-.,f little imjK-trtancc; bat 
iV 'in an in-erhti -m < in-ii !>y Cl;\erins (Vra/. p. 2lo) 
it api'.irs that it va^ re-tored by the empen-r 
Ju-t;n II. A^h> U-t"^v>d on it the name of JrM> 
Nc»i'i>Li*>. Thi> in- rlf ti 'Ti is j.n-.MTvaxl at Cnj>o 
dh*ri'U now a c :.-. i>r.dile town, situated on a 
s::.all inland v inri to the Und bv a causewav, 
whi'h a}|> to law Um termed vVi.GliUS In- 
>; LA. ani was jr-vablvthe >ite of tlio Ae'ji<ia .i 
Plinv. * [E. H.B.] 

A F. GILA (to Ar/Aa). a town of L.-ut.nia with 
a teniple ii De-neter, tf un- eitain site, but pl.utd 
by Le.tke o:i th<^ ^--al: cf sk'.tarL (Pau>. iv. 17. § 1 ; 
Liake. M'^i, \ 1. i. p. 27>.) 

AKGl PIA vAiviA.a). 1. Or AE«aLr> (»? Af- 
7o\oj, dho 1 r. i, 147 : J?Ji. Ai")tAi't'j), a demus in 
Attica bcl'/^.nr.z to thr trli"' .Vi-tin ids. -it :jat«i] on the 
we>toni c .»,-; l-^t^^ei-n l^i.;4tra aiid Sj'hottiL*. It 
na- cekbrat-:d f ^r it> tij-. (AoaAiSff iV;to5«j, 
Ati.:n Jl. 6o2. e. : Tl.-'r. /. r.) It is ]»lace<i by 
P- at Tzw* './. th<- -in- ' f a ruLn'^l vilUje on the 
si. .-e. at the f ..t - f Mr. KlytaU'. (Mrab. p. 398 ; 
Har}-' rat.. >tf; h. B. .<. r. : L<-ake, Jhni, p. 61.) 

2. Vr .Vi:<,iLi:i.\. {Ai-yiKfta). a stn.ill L-land irfT 
tlie we-tem * -a-t of KnK-^-a. and near the town of 
.^tvr.i. to whi' h it \»l n_'e«l. Hon* the IVr?Laii5 left 
th.e c:.]>ti\e K:etrLiiv>. I • tore tia-y cro»e»l over to 
Mirath n. in r. 4tH». (Her J. \i. lol. 107.) 

3. Or Ai4_,ii.v (-if7i\a: (.Vr/^o'^./), a smhU 
ivlar.ii i-•t^\^•»;n I'vthora tn 1 (Vote. ( Plat. CUom, 31 ; 
N. th. B. .<. r. : Plin. iv. 12. s. ly.) 


ALvilMl BUS {Ai'i>uoi>os : Z">cainour or 
Z' ' ^-(7\ al fty i-ia:.d, >urnun.dcd by danjoroa,* 
*litt>. of:" the c a-^t of .Vf. i».a. at the mouth of tL* 
irnlj.: • f <\irthaje. (Llv. xxx. 24: Strnb. pp. 123, 
277. S34.> Pl:T:y •all- it AejiTia-ri (v. 7); 
a::d th. n i> no d 'ui t that it bs the stu.e as thf Ar^ 
of Virjil {A<n. i. 10^ V [P. S.] 

APvilNA {Alicia: Kt't. Aotn^y, Aegin-'ti. 
At_ino:.«L-. fe:n. AlynijTH: .iiij. Alyiyatos, Aiyi^- 
TiKvs. Aejineti* us : £"';.'-<'j'i).an i-^land in the .Nm.-uie 
irtil:. >nrron:.d.\i by Atti»>a. >P j:iris. .and Epi<Lnmi\ 
tr tn fa', h 'f whi<h it wa^ di> al>out 100 stadia- 
(>trab. p. .375) It contain- ab-jut 41 s«]aare English 
i:dlo>. a:.'l is .-sdd by Xrab.> {I.e.) to U' 180 stadia 
in circnn.finnce. In ^ha'^K•' it is .an irrepilar tri.iDs:l*"- 
lt-> 'rt extern h.alf>Lst:> oi a pUiu, which, Lhoiii^'b 

- - 1 

-r.81 «^,,L8B,«^.(Th, 

mselvej .bore all ifac otb* 
/■ (HmxL yiii. 46. 93.) F 

' «L ^ ^ 1^'™°'^ town, which mto . 

I--J™-' ■« bocMn,°™M«™i ta 436. The Aepoeli 

*■ f ""mwUl .'*r "'' *^" AlbtniM mpiii, a 

*'l«t,^™J'*^'*^tbatwt ■ 

8 f "" ' *™ |"j in aiutiul 

^■^ *l^ ■Ua -.^r* Ukfet .r^ ^*^* ZI^'**^**-!^^*^ ' 

-_. tribalr^ (Tbac 
- — ™„,uoo of Ibdr Mcienl a*, 
^. •"tisfy the AlfaenuDi, who f« 
« mch diiHuntmtal sobJKta. 
r^ ■" «« Argina U,, ^.™ 
' **"' "" Ilt.fHu^,, Arim. i 
C't.^O^iii 11); „d«™l 
! «« of tbo Peloponntsui, war 
■»» lapeJIed U» whole nopolatk 
"d fUlBl thrir i,lK«%rilhji 
opetlal infashitaiila ireie «lt]B 
ra «t Tbji™, They *m mbN 
t-jsinder after the battle rf 
. and regtoml to their tnm tool 
"eted their fbnuer stale of pn 

I bolpjdiu, in hu celebrated 

J, > atoaled ox the i»rUi-we«t 

gi the public baildiiun of ih 

in ■» <ii. 29, 30>. Of U«e 

I A ■Aeiceimn (Aj(£jc(,ar),<ir 


^__1 __j1 

J'^l llji'l 

Tn !(»■ inimm- -f th<. i.-l;, 
Ori (Ofn), al 111.' .li.|.m.t 


(V»T»fc), ininmitlj ■ monoUui 
•f 17 ttalB fiom the ftrmer, u* 1» 
Inf^a (/f<^ T. 1, § 10). but thrir gxudtian u 
■cHtiiB. (Dodwell, To<k- tkroagk Grttee, Yol. I 
p SM. mn.: L«ak>, JTma, toL [i. p. 431, nBq^ 
W i J i " iil »i ■ . F a?<*i »«q-; Wordiworth, ^Oeiu 
aJ Attn t. i6±, tn\, ; BiiiJaye, Seekerche* Gca- 
j riftifMI, p. M; Prekcach. Aniic«n^ici<«n, 
-ii. p.MO, Kq.; yWler, ' ' 
BnL IHi;.) 

•TO: Aiyiii), ■ toitn of the Tjrnpluei ia ThesMlj 
it WhIbI br Liry wi > pUt* of ([rrat utim^h mnd 
»iHiim[«);ii»hfc (Lit. xuiL 15), It i« frrHjurnlly 
T^vjvd m the Bodimii nn m Grwrr. It wi 
r^m tp to plondtr bj L. Acmihru PhqIiu fi 
tjrii]- irfoni to open iu ^tvs after the battk of 
l^*a. It HM bnc th»l CsesK- JD hig mvcb from 
Afft«k r^rtnl ■ joiKtioo with Domitios. It 
*^pn] tbr Hl( of tbe modRIi Slagii, ■ town >t > 
'In diuan frem the Petmu. At this pU« 
Inli (sand u nBcription, in whirh AfKiniam ii 

J"?T«EniI»r rnrlu. ■trafdn with Liij*! miount of 
^ fait™. (Stn*. p. 337; IJT. ixiii. 15, num. 
11. iB., ts, itF. 27; €««. A C. iU. 79; L(Jte, 
■^-^imi Ortret. toI. L p. 4ai, iib|.) 

AEfilpLWCTUS. [Meoarm.] 

AEniBOESKA (_ASyif6tata), ■ citj wbich 
X-nV<iiii(i. 149)niiuTimte) wnme the II ntiei 
■'*•*; but Bolhinir a known of it. Forbijter 
' '/t^UM ihrt ibe hiatoTvn tmt mean Af^nu 

■ ^w). in Ihr i>Uiid of !-«hm. [G. L.] 

AEGls<L*S or AEGYPSUS (Afxim«t, Hierocl. 
» W; AJyiflTot. Prmnp, 4, 7; A»(7paiu, Ov.), n 

■ 1 it ICoKii. nr±r th* month of ihe Duinbe. It 
-' mxJKin) b> Orid u haHn^ been taken fron 
J kbc of Thrw, at that time ondpr the pro- 
>'^K -t Knnr, bT a ludilen inconioli of the GMae, 
o< nrinuni bj ^'Tt«llina, who waa in commaDd of 
' toaa amij in th»t .jiuuwr. Oiid cdebrato 
*■ ilmf diiplaToi by hi« friend V««t«li» npon the 
■':•^^{Ep.rxPom^o,i.S.\a,^^.7.3^.) [H.W.l 

AEGITHALLL'S (ArylfcAAoi, Died. ; AlyC 
'"*'. Ttaz.- A^rltapat, PtoL) a isaiDaotoi7 on 
'=■ V. owl of tnrilT, nor LilylHain, whieh nx 
"1^ ud faRHM 17 the Rooian cnisnl L. Jnniiu 
**( Ihr Km Panic War (b. c. 349), with a 
r" >■ "■ffo't the opentkna a^aiiut LiljWnin, 
^ •« iW TO w l bj the Cartha^nian goneral Cur- 
^■kulomijaAj with a jlnsi;]^ garrison. Piodonu 
4 « it wu olbd in hia tiiM AceUAN, bnt it 


1« eridentlj the rame with the /JylSapai Sjipa of 
Ptolemy, which ha places between Drepannm and 
LilybanuD ; and in pnbahly the headland now called 
C^M S, Ttodirro, which ii immediately oppoate to 
the ialand of SiBTiHK. (Diod. hit. Exc. H. p. SOj 
Zonar. viii. 15; Ptol. iii. 4. § 1; Clover. SkiL 
p. 248.) [E. H. B.] 

AEQITtUM (AfylrBw), a town in AetDlia E[ic- 
tMos, on the borden of Lociit, sitnatsd in tbe midst 
of monnlaina, abont 60 stadin fhom the sea. Here 
Demogthenes was defeated bytbe Aelohans, B.C.4S6. 
Leake places it near Vamaiota, where he Ibnnd 

ffmtiam Grtax, toI. ii. p. 617.) 

AE'GlUM (AfTw, AfTfioi', Athen. p. 606; 
KA. Aiyiiit, Aegiensia; Vo/fifia), a town of 
Achaia, and oce of the IS Acha^ cities, was 
iitnated npon tbe coMt W. of the river Sellnos, 
30 stadia from Rhjpae, and 40 stadia frc«D Rslice. 
It stood between two promontories in the comer of a 
bay, which formed the best harbour in Achaia next 
to that of Patrae. It is saii! to have been fonned 
out of an nnion of 7 or 8 Tillages. It it mentioDcd 
in the Hotneric catalogue ; and, after the destruction 
of the nFi);hbourine dly of Helice by an earth- 
qnake, in D. c 373 [Helice], it obtained the 
lenilOTj of the latter, and thus became the chief 
dty of Aekaia. From this time Ari^nm was 
chosen as the place of meeting for the Ix'aeoe, and 
it retained this distinction, on Ihe revival of the 
Leifpie, till Philopoemen carried a law that the 
merting might be held in any of the towns of the 
confrdeFHcy. Even under the Roman empire the 
Achseans were allowed to keep up the form of 
their periodica] meetings at Aegium, just as the 
Ampbictyons were permitted to meet at Ther- 
mopylie and Delphi. (Paoi. vii. 2*. § 4.) 

IT the N 


Jomorwn, sacred to Zens Ho- 
magyrioa or Homarioi ('Oiiayupm, 'Opipiar; in 
Strdi. pp. 389, 387. '0>«ffuw should be nsd m- 
Itead of 'AfrifHO* and Alripiar). Close to thia 
giove wu ■ temple of Demeter Panchaea. The 
words i7oini^jirtiin, "assembly," and Iltnnariuin, 
" nniffli," • have Trferercs to those meotinin, thongh 
in later times they were explained as indicatinf; the 
spot where Agamemnon assembled Ihe Grerian 
chieftuns before the Trojan War. There were 
Kvenl other temples and public boildinf^ at 
Aecinm, of which an account is given by I'aosa- 
nia., (Horn. /(. ii. 674: Herod, i. UH; Pol. ii. 
41, T. 93; Stnib. pp. .^37, 385, seq.; Paiit. vii. 
33, 24i Liv. xxxviiL 30; Plin. iv. 6.) Vailiaa, 
tlich occupies the idte of Ihe ancient Aegium, is 
place of fi4ime importancfi. It derives its name 
from Ihe gardens by which it is sarroonded (from 
$iim, Borrdn, garden). It stands on a lull, 
lerminatin^ Itiwsnb the sea in a cliff about SO fpel 
' 'gh. There is a irmarkable opening in the cliff, 
iginally pethape artificial, which leads fnnn the 


Ai:(;( »sr(n AMI. 

town to \hf ordinrin' yhuc of cTiiliMrkatioii. A part of tlie town was clc^-trDVod hy an carth- 
<|nak'' in 1810, of which an account is rrivcn under 
Hf.licf,. The jrincij'al remains of th»' ancient , 
town liave boon lately (li^cf»^••^e(l on u hill to the E. ' 
of Vos<(if:n. There arc ;i|>o several tVairnieiits of 
architecture and sculpture, inserted in the walls of 
tlie at \'ostit/.a. (Leake, Moretf, vol. iii. p. 
18.5, seq. ; Curtiu>, Ptioponmsos, v*»l. i. p. 45*J, 

AEC.OSPOTAMI {Alyhs -rrorauoi Ae-os flu- 
nieii, pomp. Mel. ii. 2; PUn. il. 59: £th. AiyoiX- 
iroTauJTTjj), i. e. the Goat-Kiver, a stream in the 
(Miersonesas, with, at one time, a to\^n of the .same 
name njMtn it. It here liiut the famous defeat 
of the Athenian fleet by Eys.inder took place, b. c. 
4H5, which pnt a close to the Pelojr>nne^ian war. 
There seems, however, to h.ave been no town there 
at this time, for it is mentioned as a great error on 
the part of tlie Athenian p^nenils, that they re- 
mained at a station where they no town at hand 
to sup}>ly a market for provisions. (Pint. Air. .'iG; 
Dio<l. xiii. 10.^; Strah. p. 287 ; eomp. Grote, Jlist. 
of Greece, vol. viii. p. 293.) In later times there 
must Inve Ixn'n a town there, as the i^eii^'rajihers 
especially mention it (Steph. Byz. ;*. r.). and there 
arc coins of it extant. [il. W.] 


AEGCSTIIEXA (ra Alyoadefa: Eth. Aiyo- 
ffOfvirrjs : (i/if nnaw>). a town in Mt'_Mris, on the 
Alcyonian or Corinthian gidf, at the fo..t of Mount 
Cithaerou, and on the borders of Bo<'>.tia. It |k»s- 
K'sseil a tem]»le of the seer Melamjtus. Between 
AcijuNthena and C'reu'-is, the jx»rt-town of IvMotia, 
there was no pas^ace aloncT the shore excr^pt a jiath 
on the mountain's side. The Lacfdacmoni.ins under 
C'leombrotu:«i, in marching; tVom('rensi> t<» Aei:o>thcnu 
ali»n;r this r«>;id in the winter of n. <\ .379 — .378. were 
overtaken by a >'iolent temjM-st ; and such was the 
force of the wind, that the shields of the soldiers 
were wTcsted from their hands, .and many of the ;usses 
that carried the burthens were blown over the pre- 
cipices into the sea. It was by this road that the 
Lacedaemonians retp^ated after their defeat at Leue- 
tra in 371. There was a sweet ^^ine irrown at Ae- 
posthena. (Pans. i. 44. § 4, se.j. ; Xen. JLIL v. 4. 
§§ 16—18, vi. 4. §§ 2.7—26; Athen. p. 440.: 
Steph. B. s.v.i Leake, Xorthtrn Greece, vol. ii. p. 

AKGU'.SA. [Aeoatf.s.] 

AEGYPSrS. [^Aegissi.s.] 

AEGYPTU.S (77 AtyvTrros : Eth. Alyv:moi, 
Ae<:yptius). L Xarii'S and bouu'lnr'us <if K<j>ii>t. 
EL'>"]>t, ])ro|)erly so called, is that jH)rtion of the 
valiey of the Nile which lies between Lit. 24^ 3' 
and lat. 31^ 37' X., or between the inlands of 
Philie and Elephantine, an<l tlie .Me litermnean S*'a. 
In the lauLTua'^e of the earliest iidiabit.ants it was 
onlitleil Cui'.Mi, or the Black Earth; by the He- 
brew- it x\as called Mizkaim ; by the Anibians (coinp. Mi:'crT/>;j, .Weph. AiUiq. i. 1); by 


the Greeks >'; Atyvirrosi and ]»y the Cpts Ei- 
KFRiT, or inundateil )an<l. The l>i»undaries of 
Eirypt have in all aL'es been nearly the s:uih\ — 
to tlie S., Aethioj.ia; to the E.. the Anibian Gulf, 
the Stony Arabia, Idumaea. and the southwestern 
frontier oi Palestine; to the N., the Meiliterranenn 
Sea; and to the W.. the Libyan desert. llonj^T 
(()(/. iv. 477) calls the Nile itself (5 Ar7inrTOf ; nor 
is the apjiellation mis/ij)plii'd. por the Valley- of 
E'jypt is eni}<hatically the " Gil't of the NiW*."' 
without whose fertili^in:x waters the tnict fr<>;;i 
Syenc to C'ercasorum would only be a dt'vji fum-w- 
in the sandy and gravelly desert ninnin.; panill-l 
with the K(h1 Sea. 

An ar-count of the Nile is given fl>cw hen^. 
[NiLVs.] Here it is suihcient to remark x\u- 
vallfv which it irriiiates \> L'enenillv, excriit in tin* 
Delt.a or Lower ICgypt, a jiarrow strip of allnvi il 
dejMj^it, occupying li->.> than half the sj>;ue bi'tw«-<ii 
the Arabian mountains a:id the Lil>y;in dc^-il. The 
average breadth of this valley from r>ne of lhi--4' 
barriers to the other, as far as lat. ,30^ N., i^ afwnt 
7nules; while that of the cultivalile land, dej*'ud- 
inix njMm the overflow of the ii\er, scarctdy exiT^^-U 
5.^ miK'S. Between Cairo in Lower an«i Krij'tut 
(A|H.lIinopM>lis Magna) in r]»]KT Egy]»t the extre:ne 
breadth is aUnit 11 nd]e>: tlje narrowest ]iart. in- 
cludinir the nver itself, is about 2 Jidlcs. lint 
northward, Itetween Edfoo and Af^aounn (.'Nycn'*), 
the vriiley contracts so much that, in plac<>s, then' 
is scarcely any soil on either side of the river, anil 
the granite or limestone sjirlngs n]> from its banks 
a muiiil entrenchment. The whole are:i of tb-'- 
valley between Sy cue and the bifurcation of the Xilc 
at Cerc.asonmi contains .about 2255 s'juare mile-, ex- 
clusive of the district of /-^///ot^w (Ar>iiii>e, Mocri-), 
which comprises about 34tK The Delta itself i> 
estimated at 1970 s<|uare miles between the main 
branches of the river — the modern l)amietta and 
Kosetta arms. But both E. and W. of this trurt 
stretches a con>iderable level of irri_:atf?l l.onil, 
uhich, hicludhig the l>elta, entbmces aN-ut 45(X> 
square mile-:. The leuirth of Egypt fnjin Syerif to 
the Mediterranean is about 520 miles. The total 
surface of molcrn Egy}»t is somewhat larger than 
that of the country hi aiuimt tinie>, sin< e. iji >j.ite 
of a le>s regular sy>tem of irngatiou, the inuiuia- 
tions of the Nile have increased since the eras of 
the Phai-aolr^ antl the Ptolemies. 

Egypt, in its genenil eonti;:umtion, i> a lonr 
rock-l)ound vailey, terminating in a <Uvp Kay, ari-i 
re>embling in form .an in\erle<l (.Jreek ui>^ili»n (]x]- 
Its £;eiilo_' stnicture is trij^artite. The Nile- 
valley shelves down to the Me»Ut>'rranean hi a Maries 
of step*-, consi^tiui: of ^andy or gnwelly iiUitt.'au^, 
.sejanited by e-ranite <»r limestow riilL'"e.>, which the 
river cuts di;igoiially. Erom Syene to K<lj<fo gr:iniie 
or red sand>tone prev.ails : at E</f'<>o lime-toue suc- 
rt^ed>; until in lat. 30*-' 10' the rocks diverge NK. 
and X\V., and the alluvial Delta tills up an enik\vtxl 
triangle, whfi.v* apex is at Cercasorum, and who^e 
li;w i> the sea. 

The jK.litical and ]iliy>iral divisions of Ecypt 
«» near.y coincide that we may treat of tht-m 
under one head. Erom Sytaie to (\r( xsorum the 
whole of the Nile-valley was denominated l'p|H'r 
Egypt: with the fork «>f the river Lower E^ypt 
began. This was iuilecil a natural divi-ion l»ot\Vi«t'ii 
the jirimitive and tin- alluvial regions : and the 
di>tinctiou was reco'j;ni>cd from the carliot tim»-.< 
bv dillciTut niunumciital .^vmliuls — natural auJ 


The common k/toB (Njmphaea), 
ami; oat of » clod of csrth, represented the V^fet 
comtrj; the root of the {«p]rraB, opoo a clod, the 
bmec SdMU wm the goddess of the Upper, Neith 
«f tb§ Lower coontiy. A white crown denoted the 
fans-, t red crown the hitter; white and red crowns 
sailed cnmpoKid the £adem of the king of all the 
koi The Upper coontry, however, was genersllj 
lofadinded into two portions, H) Umwr Egypt 
Pnper, or the Tbdiaid (i^ eiv^tft , ol dm r^ot), 
wlndi extended from Sjene to Hennopolis Msgna, 
is he 38^ N.: and (2) Middle Egypt, also called 
H qiCsf i wiis , or the Seren Cantons (jh ftrra^b x'^: 
ItranDfiis), which reached from the neighbonr- 
kood of Hennopolis to the apex of the Delta. This 
tkedbU partxtioo has been adopted by the Arabs, 
who deoominated Uf^w, Ifiddle, and Lower Egypt 
npctiTcly, Said, Wmstdni, and EURif, 

The trsTelkr who ascends the NUe from its 
imths to Sycne passes thraogh seren degree* of 
kdade, and Tirtoally sureys two distinct regicnu. 
Uwer Egypt is an immmse phun: Upper Egypt, a 
avTwing TaOey. The fenner, in the roam, re- 
aUes the neighbooring ooasthmd of Africa; the 
htter is more aJdn to Nobia, and its climate, its 
FuBs snd its Flora, indicate the approaching tropic. 
Tk Ear of demarcation commences abont the 27th 
'I'irw of N. latitude. Rain nunely fidls in the The- 
W: the sycamore mxA the acacia almost disappear; 
the riwpisntsand moUoscaasenme new types: the 
TWtu or Dbonm palm, with itsdiTazkated branches, 
pOTi beade the date pafan: the crocodile, the jackal, 
thr rinr-horae, and hyena become more nomeroos. 

Wt mst now retnm to the general boondaries of 
t^jfH which affected, in Tarioos degrees, the cli- 
■tfr, the popolatioo, and the social and political 
ckmct^r of the Xile-Talley. 

1. Tfe £4utem bot mdary . In this region lay 

^ prbcipal minerBl wealth of Egypt, including the 

([■Hna, which famished maU^>ids for this land of 

e i w ii put s. B^iinnii^ with tne Pelnsiac month of 

tW K3e, sad along the frontier of Stony Arabia, we 

iad the faarrni and lerel region of Casiotis, whose 

mIj dmticn is the ridge or tabk hmd of Mt. Ca- 

tm (i Kitf^ior, Stnb. pp. 38, 50, 55, 58, &c.; 

)U&. L 10; Ptm. T. 11, xiL 13; Locan. viiL 539, 

t> i33). The E^Qrptian Casios {El Km or £1 

Ittid) is. according to Strabo (xvL 2), a round 

mdiUKM ridge {x6*pot dir^r). It contained the 

D'*^ ai Co. Pompdos Magnus, and a temple of 

ln» Gwios. At a Tery early poiod the Egyptians 

'vtii&hed coloniea upon the Idumaean and Ara- 

Mu bwda-. Copper, mixed with iron ore, and 

^■p» of seoriM from Egyptian smelting-houses, are 

«£ fuxad <B the wratem Bank of Mt. Sinai, and 

»cri{it>jiH at Wadp-Afaffora in this district, and 

^»n|;ljtlidiics and fragmoita of pottery at Surabit- 

tlK^im^ on tbe modem road from Soez to Sinai, 

<teit the «Utj«<^ of settlements coeral with at 

0« ty 18th dyiasty of kings. Ascending from 

tk he»d of the Delta, and about 50 miles fr«n the 

Ankisa Sea, we come upon a range of tertiaiy 

htQs (Tpwucov \i9ov ipot, PtoL; &\a- 

r, id.) parallel with the Heptanomis, 

north ai^ sooth, and sloping westward to 

^ KBp, «kd eMtward to the Bed Sea (fyni rii 

Vl«< Herod. iL 8). A nigion of basalt and 

rvi^TTy bepas in the parallel oif Antaeopolis, and 

*^mk ta that of Tentyra or Coptos (Tloppvplrm 

W, il). This is again succeeded by limestone 

« Aki w Aeu (A]ks, id.; Plin. vi. 29. § 33), 



and at Acabe (*Afcd^, Ptol.), where, nearly oppo- 
site Latopolis, are rast quarries of white marble. 
From Mt Smaragdus, which next follows, the Egyp- 
tians obtained the fine green breccia {Verde tJT 
EffitUy), and emeralds in abtmdanoe. llie breccia 
quarries, as inscriptions testify, were woriced as &r 
back as the 6th dynasty of Idtngs (Manetho). The 
principal quarry was at Mount Zaburah. From 
Berenice southward are found, in various propor^ 
tions, limestone and porphyry again. Mt Basanites 
(Bcufov^Tov ?d$0v 5pof , Ptol.), consisting of a spe- 
cies of h(»nblend, terminated the eastern boundary 
of the Nfle-valley. Beyond this, and of uncertain 
extent, are the gold mines S£. of the Thebaid. 
They are about ten days' journey S£. from Apolli- 
nopolis Magna, in the present Buhdree desert 
The {Hocess of gold-waslung appears to be repre- 
sented on tombs of the age of Osirtasen. Silrer 
and lead were also found, and sulphur abounded in 
this mineral regim. 

The eastern frontier was mostly arid and barren, 
but neither uninhabited nor unfrequented by tra- 
vellers. More than one caravan track, whose bear- 
ings are still marked l^* ruined cisterns and brick 
pyramids, followed the gorges of the hills; and occa- 
sional temples imply a settled population in towns 
or villages. The sides and passes of tlie moon- 
tains afforded also pasture for flocks and herds, 
and wild deer, wolves, &c. found here their abode. 
Two jMincipal roads, diverging from Coptos on the 
Nile — the northern leading to Philoteras (JTosmr), 
lat 26^ 9', and Myos Hormos or Arnnoe; the 
southem to Berenice — penetrated the nHrantain- 
barrier, and connected the Nile-valley with the Red 
Sea. The population of this district was more Ara- 
bian than Coptic, and its physical characteristics 
were Arabian, not Libyan. 

2. The Western boundary of Egypt is more par- 
ticularly described under Oasis. The Libyan desert 
is not, as the ancients believed, merely an ocean of 
drifting sand, tenanted by serpents, and swept by 
pestilential blasts (Lucan, ix. 765) : on the ccmtrary, 
its gravelly surfiKe presents considerable inequalities, 
and the blasts are noxious only in relaxing tbe 
human frame, or by obliterating tiie traveller's path 
with eddies of blinding sand. Everywhere this 
plateau rests upon a liinest(Hie basis, ind descends 
in shelves to the Medit^ranean. 

3. T%e Northern boundary is the Mediterranean. 
From the western limit of Egypt to Pelnsium the 
coast-line extends to abont 180 geographical miles, 
and presents the convex form common to the allu- 
vial deposits of great rivers. From the depression 
of its shore, the approach to Egypt is ds^gerous 
to the navigator. He finds himself in Ludlow water 
almost before he detects the low and sinuous mud 
banks which mask the land. Indeed, frtxn Parae- 
tonium in Libya to Joppa in Syria, Pharos afforded 
the only secure approach, and the only good an- 
chorage (Diod. iL 31). Nor is it pnbable that any 
considerable advance of the shore has taken pUce 
within historical times. 

4. The Southern boundary is spoken of under 

IL InhahUantt, 

Tbe ancient Egyptians believed themselves to be 
autochthonous. This was no improbable conception 
in a land yearly covered with the life-teeming mud 
of the Nile. When the omqueets of Alexander had 
rendered the Greeks acquainted with Western India, 





tlu*y inferred, from eertain himilanties of dix^trinc ] staiitially tlie same a.s tlie o]<l Eiiyptian. It i^ 
aiul u^au't'S, that the Indian.-^, Kthioj.iaiis or Nubians, i imj^eH't'ctly under>t()od, siiir*' it has loiij:; tt^a.-od to 
and Eirvptiau's ut-re derived from the same >to«'k l>e a Hviiiii; 5.{»«'erh. Yet the uhimate aaaly>i». t>f 
(Arriaii, Indie, vi. 9); and L)i'Ml.»n.i>, who liad eon- ' its elemenl.s .^li«nvs it to have Wen akin tu the So- 

v<T>od ^vith Aethiojiian envoys in Kiryift ahuut d. c. 
58, derives both the KL\V})tian.s and thrir civih-sation 
from Merw (iii. 11). iii'th o]iinion.s have found 
immennis Mij)porten> in aiieicnt and nnxlern tinier, 
and liefivu has const rueteil ujhhi L>ii>dom.s a tlieory 
ot' a ])rie.>tly colnnisitinii of KL'ypt from Men>o, which 
i.> iiitere-tini; without hcini^ convincinir. 

mitic, and derived from a common source. 

III. Population. 

Many cau-ses combined to q-ivc the Gi-eek an«l 

R'lnan writers an exairijerated coTjecption of the 

I»o]mlation of K^^ypt, — the ;zreat works ()f ma.-«iiiry, 

the inrinitesimal cuUivatiou of the soil, and tlie faet 

No nati-'U lias bequeathed to us s<j many or .^ueh ' that, the kin^s and hii:her ord«T of prie>t.s except*^]. 

a'Turate memorials of its f)rm, complexion, and 
iiliv-io-noniv as the Euvittian. We have in its 
miuiiniie.^ portraits, and ujK»n its tombs pictures 

everv Et:vj.tian was either a husbandman or a iiuiuu- 
i'acturer. "I'o theM3 causes, imjilyini: a vast aUKjUfit 
of di>jt<»sable laKuir, yet arirnin;,' also a oonifilete 

<»f its people as they l«M)ked ami lived, indi\idually ' couunand of it by the e;ovenmient, nmst Ijo addetl 
and sMially. That the Kiz-yjitiaiis were darker in the chea}»ness of f(M«l, and the small quantity t>f it 
hue than either the Greeks or even the neiu'hbour- ' cousmned by the jH'ople pucraliy. Health an.l 
ini' Asiatic.-, is .-hoAvu by the terms in whidi Greek, louL'evity were conuuon in a land where the cli:iiate 
Laliti, aticl Hebrew wnters mention them. To was salubrious, diet simple, and indolence ahuo->t 

their pr-'i'enitor the Hebrews gave the name of 
Ham, or o<bi.<t ((jtias. x. (j): Hero<lotus, sj„.;ik. 
iiiL' of the Golchians, says that they were an Ivzvp- 

unknown. The Eu'yi-tiau women were unu>uallv 
fruitful; thou;zh we can hardly ejve credence to tlie 
statements ot" ancient writers, that live childreu at 

tian colony becaii>e they were black in complexion ^ a birth were connn-'U (Aristot. J/i.^f. Aniin. vii. ,5), 
(ufAa7\f>afi), an<l curly-!iaire«l {ov\/npixfi, ii. . and that even seven were not reckoned pr-Mliirioiis 

104): Lueian, in his Afirh/ianh (vol. viii. p. 15;"), 
lii|K>nt ed.). deMiib<'s a \oun'4 l^j-yptian mariner 
a> like a uei^o: and Anmiianus (xxii. !<>. ^ 2.H) 
calU ihem saft/a,^culi tt atrati. But the K;:yj.tians 

(PHn. y/. A', vii. .3; Strab. xvi. 605). Still there 
i-". reason to think that the }«.pnlation fell short of 
the estimates transmitted by am iiiit wviter>. 

That a Census ^vas |«Mii>dically taken, is jjntbaMoi 

Were not a ne:_M-o race — a supj>o>ition «'ontradicted • from the fact S-^o.stris tanked the land to be 
alike by osteolo^jy .and by monumental jaintiii'is, | aecurately surveyed, and Amasi>, towards the end 
where nej;roes (.tien apjM'ar, but always cither as . of the monarchy, com ]»< lied every to rej).->rt to 
tributaries or ca}»tives. It i.> ]trobable, indeed, that a magistrate his mean> of livelih'HKl. (HenKl. ii. 
the Nile-valley contained thrtv ni* es, with an I 109, 177.) Herodotu>, however, iri\es no« 
admixture of a fourth. On the eastern iVontier ' of the j>opidatIt>n, n>>r lia.> anv ivcoid of a ceftsiis 

the Arabian ty{>e prevailed: on the we>teni, the 
Lile.;iii; while the f.urth variety .•lro^e from inter- 

been hitheilo ili--euvered on the nati\e nuinuniciits. 
Di'xiorus (i, HI) sa\.s that it ;im"mitii.l, in the 

mani.ajes U'tween the Kuyptians I'rojKT and the , Plwiraonic era, to se\cii niillious, and that it was not 
Nubians or Aethio])ians of MenN-, The rulini: Ic^s in his own day {v.. v. 5S ). (iermanicus (Tac. 
<a-te, however, v\as an elder branch of the Synv Ann. ii. GO: com]<are Stnd). p. SIO) was infor:u«tJ, 
Arabian family, which in two separate divisions in A. I). IG, by the jivie^ts of Thebes, that Ei:vj»t, in 
de-e»Mided the TiLcris an«l the Euphrates; and while I the reiL^i of Kmue-o .Sesovtris. contained 7tM)JXM) 
thi' northern stream coloni-ed the land of Canaan [ nx'n of the military a;:e. If that aire, as at Athens, 
a!id the t'uture emnires of Kabvlon and Nineveh, the extended from eiuhttvn to sixtv, and ' be allowed 
sonthe/n sjjread over Arabia Eelix, and entered for adults l>etwe<'u tho.ic ]wriod«, of lite, the entire 

E;:ypt from the east. This snpj'o-itiou, and this 
alone, will account f-T the Caucasian tyj-; of the 
Coptic ^kull and tacial (»utliue, and Cf)rre-]-ond.> with 

|H)].nlatiuu (5 x 700,000) will amount to 3.5(>0.<K»0. 
..Mlow 500,(*00 for error, and adii ', for slaves and 
casual re^ident.x, and G.oon.OOO will U^ the maxi- 

the Mo-aie ethnolo':;v in the loth thai.iterof (jcnesis, nmni of the census ot Ejvot. In the Macedoniiia 
whieh tlerivcs the lvj-y]4ians from Ham. We m:iy i and Koman era^, ;3(»0.000 mu^t In; iiiclnd<'d for the 

allow, too, for cou>iderabl«' adnuxture, even ("f the 
rulini; ca-te>, with the coeriate r.aees to the south 

lixed or lloatin;^ jK)pulation of Alexandiia (dos<'ph. 
B.J. ii. IG). Accordin;^' to HenHlotus (ii. 177), 

and east; and heinH', on the one hand, the I'ullness < there were, in the reiiin of Amasis, iO.OlH) inhabited 
of lips, and, on the other, the eloneateil Nubian «'ye, t>wiis, and Dio^lorus (/• c.) s-u.s that 18.000 towns 

neetl not ((^mpel us to detiue the iidKd>itants of the 
Nile-vallev as ati African rather than an Asiatic 

were entered on the rei:i>ter. Many of the>c, how- 
ever, were probably little nitm' than wall-xl villa_'«>s^ 

race. The EL'yptiaus may be s:iid to be intermediate nor have we any means of knoAviu::: their averiL'e 
betwtrn the .Syro-Aml/ian and the Ethi"pic type; i area or ])opnIa!iou. Vet it >hould U^ remeiidK-nsl 

and as at this day the Copt is at on< e recoi:niM'd 
in Syria by liis ilark liue(u/< jteou noir>jti'i\ \'olney, 
Vi>y<i<j(\ Vol. i. ]». 114), the duskier coni]»lexion — 
brown, with a tin^e of red — of the ancient Eiryji- 
ti:ins may l>e a>eril»ed solely to tin ir dimate, and to 
tho>e m<Khf\ini^ causeo> which, in the course of irene- 
r.uions, atlect both the osteoloLry and the phy-iobcy 

that, I'ven allouiii;; for the less jn'rtlct system of 
endankiiient and irri^ratiou in modern times, th»? 
extent of ]>roductive s.,il hxs iKtl dccrea^-d. Two 
centurio airo the jH)pulation of m«"lern EL'y]>t w;is 
bKoely estimate<l at 4niillions. I)mi!iL: the French 
cccn]>ation t»f the country in 1798 — l^'Ol. it w:u5 
conijiuted at 2j millii'ns. Sir Gardner WilkliUMiii 

of loni:--''ttled races. Nor diM>s their lani:ua:,'e (Modtru /.''////'/ <in'! ThthtS, vol. i. p. *250) nxlui-ea 
contradict this statement, althou-^'h the variation; it to 1 ^ million. 

b<.'tue,-n the Coptic and Syn»- Arabian idioms an- more 
striking than tho.>e (tf form an.l colour. The C.ipti«', 
the kuiu'uaee of the native Chri>tian {M^pidation of 

I\'. The Xi'int'S. 
The Nile-valley was j^arcelb-d out into .a num'o«T 

Eirypt, is now univer^ally acknowledged to Ix' bul>- , of canton>, varying in si/.c and luunWr. Each of 


Iktm ciatflBi was called a nome (»6fwt) by the 
Graclu, pta afe cinra <^)pidonim bj the Bomans. 
faA had it* dril g o v ernor, the Nomarch {¥6/mp- 
X*f ), who eollected the crown rereiiaes, and ppesided 
■ tbt local capital and chief cotirt of justice. Each 
aott, too, bad ita Hfarate priesthood, its temple, 
<kirf ad iiArior towoa, its inagistrateB, r^istration 
tai pKofiar creed, oeremonies, and customs, and 
mtk was apparentlj independMit of every other 
At certain seaaons delegates from the varioos 
met in the palace of the Labyrinth far con- 
OD public afiairs (Strab. p. 811). Accord- 
to Dio^mia (L 54), the somes date from 
Bat they did not originate with that man- 
ifd^ bat emanated probably finm the distinctiaiui 
if aaiiBal worship; and the extent of the local 
vsiUp prababiy detennined the bonndary of the 
«■■. T noa in the nome of Thebais, where the ram- 
hadid deity was worshii^ied, the sheep was sacred, 
tbr cMt was eatcQ and sacrificed: in that of Mendes, 
*bve the goat was worshipped, the sheep was a 
vietBB and an artick of food. Again, in the nome 
tf Ctabas, divine hoooors were paid to Uie croco- 
G»: m that of TentyiB, it was hunted and abomi- 
Mcd; and between Omboa and Tentyra there 
wtbeA an internecine fend. ( Ja7. Sak xt.) The 
«xt«t and nnmber of the nocnes cannot be ascer- 
tnsei They probably raried with the politica] 
Mitt «f Egypt. Under a dynasty of conquerors, 
t% voold extend eastward and westward to the 
fid Sm. and Libyan deserts: under the Hyksos, the 
Artiispin caoqoest, and the times of anarchy subse- 
fHC to the Pcnian invasion, th^ wonld shrink 
vilkB the Nife-TaDey. The kingdoms of Sais and 
Xm and the fomidatiaa of Alexandria probably 
laritipfied the Deltaic cantons: and genemlly, com- 
Bocc, or the readeoce of the miHtary caste, wonld 
sSacC the nones to Lower Egypt According 
ti Stabo (pp. 787, 811), the Labyrinth, or hall 
if tbt Nonarchs, cootained 27 chamben, and thns, 
< ■■ penod, tha nomas mnst have been 27 in 
iflibsr, 10 in the Thefaaid, 10 in the DelU, and 
7, as ka name imphes, in the Heptanomis. But 
tb flcptanomis, at another period, contained 16 
•aaai, and the som of these cantons is Tarionsly 
omL From the dodecardiy or government of 12 
kimp^aadfrom Herodotos' assertion (ii 148)that 
1^ weca only 12 halls in the Labyrinth, we are 
AifMad to inder, that at one time there were only 
It if theae cantaw, and that there were always 
UlHftr or prqxnderating names. According to 
d» &ts given by Plmy (v. 9. § 9) and Ptolemy, 
^^tn msm have been at least 45 nomes; but each 
*i tba» writeiB gives several names not found in 
tW atbir, and if we sboold add the variations of 
the «» fiat to the other, the sum would be much 



Tbov WM, under the Maffdonian kings, a sub- 
iffmrn «f the nocnea into toparchies, which was 
IPiAiMj an amngeroent to meet the fiscal system 
tftfeOneka. (Herod, ii. 164; Died. L 54; Strab. 
s*ii; CyrilL Alex, ad Imtiam^ xix. 2 ; Epiphan 
«•*» 24. § 7.) 

Tbi ftAarag fist of the principal Komes will 
Sartnte tlv variety of these territorial subdivisions 
• leprdi rehgioQa worship. 

A- Xoxxs or THE Delta. The most im- 

l. Tfap Mnirlaite; chief town Canobus, with a 
«4p»)ratadtmiple and oracle of Seiapis (Strab. p. 801 ; 
n«.i# dOiair. c27.) 

2. The Andropolite; chief town Andropolis. 

3. The Sebennytic; capital Pachnamunis (PtoL), 
worshipped Latona. 

4. The Chemmite (Herod. iL 165); capital Buto. 
Its deity was also called Buto, whom the Greeks 
identified with Leto. Ptolemy calls this canton 
♦9«y^f, and Pliny (t. 9) Ptenetha. 

5. The Gnuj^te; chief town Onuphis. (Herod, 
ii. 166.) 

6. The Phthemphuthite: capital Tava. (♦tfcft- 
^ov6l voia6s^ Ptol.; Phthempha, Plm. v. 9.) 

7. The &ute; chief city Sais, worshipped Ndth 
or Athene, and contained a tomb and a sanctuary of 
Osiris. (Herod, ii. 170; Strab. p. 802.) Under the 
dynas^ of the Saitic Kings this was the principal of 
the Deltaic cantons. 

8. The Busirite; capital Busiris, worshipped Isis, 
and at one epoch, according to Hellenic tradition at 
least, sacrifioisd the red-coloured men who came over 
the sea, i. e. the nomades of Syria and Arabia 
(Herod, i. 59, 33, 165; Strab. p. 802; Plut. de 1$, 
et 0: p. 30.) 

9. The Thmuite; chief town Thmuis (Herod, ii. 
168), afterwards incorporated with the fdllowing: 

10. The Mendesian; capital Mendes (Herod, ii. 
42, 46; Diod. L 84), worshipped the goat Mendes, 
or the homed Pan. 

11. The Tanite; chief town Tanis. (Herod, ii. 166; 
Strab. p. 802.) In this nome tradition affirmed 
that the Hebrew legislator was bom and educated. 

12. The Bubastite; capital Bubastus, contained a 
noble temple of Bubastis or Artemis. (Herod, ii. 
59, 67, 137.) 

13. The Athribite; captal Athribis, where the 
shrewmouse and crocodile were held in reverence. 

14. The Heliopolite, west of the Delta, uid sacred 
to the sun, firom whom its capital Heliopolis (On) 
derived ita name. (Herod, ii. 9 ; Diod. v. 56 ; Joseph. 
AfU, iL 3.) 

15. The Heroopollte; chief town Heroopolis, a 
principal seat of the worship of Typhon, the evil or 
destroying genius. 

Beeodes tibese the Delta contained other less im- 
portant nomes, — the Nitriote, where the Natron 
Lakes, Nitrariae (Plin. y. 9) were situated; the 
Letopolite (Strab. p. 807); the Prosopite; the Leon- 
topoUte; the Mentelite; the Pharbaethite; and the 

B. NoMZS OF THE Heptamomis. The most 
important were : — 

1. The Memphite, whose chief city Memphis was 
the capital of Egypt, and the residence of the Pha- 
raohs, who succeeded Psammetichus b. a 616. The 
Memphite Nome rose into importanoe on the decline 
of the kingdom of Thebais, and was itself in turn 
eclipsed by the Hellenic kingdom of Alexandria. 

2. The Aphroditopolite; chief town Aphrodito- 
polis, was dedicated to Athor or Aphrodite. 

3. The Arsinoite, the Fayoom, (^lebrated for its 
worship of the crocodile, from which its capital 
Crooodilopolis, afUrwards Arsinoe, derived its name. 
[Absinoe] The Labyrinth «nd the Lake of 
Moeris were in this canton. 

4. The Heracleote, in which the ichneumon was 
worshipped. Its principal town was Hcracleopolis 

5. The Hermopolite, the border nome between 
Middle and Upper Epypt. This was at a very 
early period a flourishing canton. Its chief city 
Hermopolis stood near the frontiers of the Hepta- 



IK Mils, a little to the north of thf castle aii'l tolJ-hoiHe | 
('Ep,uo'7ro\iTaj'Tj <pv\aKri, Strah. p. 8l.*i). whore the 
|><)rtai:e w.a.s levied on all cnitt euining tVoin the 
rp|>er Country. 

6. The CynnjK>lite, the scat of the W()r>hip of the 
hnund and d'»n;-headed deity Annhis. lis capital 
was ('vn'>|x»li>, wjiirh mu^t however 1m» di^tini:ui>he<l 
tVoiii the bfltaic city and other tuWTis of the ^anio 
name. (Strab. p. 812; Ptuh; I'lut. h.itOsh. c. 72.) 

The Greater (>a>is (Amnioniuni) anij the Loser 
w<'re reekoiH-il amonjj tlie Heptanomit** Cantons: but 
both were considered as one nonie only. [Oasks.J 

('. NoMEH OF Uri'KU El;yit. The most ini« 
pirtaiit were: — 

1. The LycojK»lite, dedicated to the wor>lup of 
the Wolf. Its chief town wa^ Lyco]oli>. 

2. 1 he Antaeo]K)lite, probably wt>r.sliijiiH' 1 Tyjihon 
(Dio.l. 1. 21); its capital was Antaeoj)oli.> (I'Int. 
t/e Sol'rt. Anim. 23.) 

3. The Aiihr<Hlito|Militc [Cutnp. Xonie (2), Ib-p- 
tanoinis.] In casev where a southern and a northeni 
catit'tii pis.scss.xl .similar objects of w"or>hip, the ^ 
lat'er was probably an otfset or e.»lony of th-* I'oniier, I 
a- the Tlirbaid was the oriu'inal t radlf of E;iyptian ! 
( i\ ilisition. which a»lvanced n >rtliward. I 

4. The Pano|>o|ite or, as it wis atlerwanls called, 
tlu" Clit'mmite,ori'<rcd hero-W(»r>hi)» to an a|«jthe.(.si/.cd 
Tian, whom the (Ircek^ citnipared to tlii> Minyan hero 
I'<'r>eus. (IIi-hmI. ii. Ul.) 'Ibis canton, whose eldef , 
town was I*ano|Kilis (»r Ch«'nnui.> (Diod. i. 18), was 
priiK ipally inhabited by hnt.•n-w^•a^ers and ^tone- ' 
ma^on--. I 

f). The Thinite, probably one of the most an<-it'nt, .as ' 
it wa.> oriiiinally tli<' l<'a<lini; nome of the Tb«'!'aid, 
and the n<»me or kin2-dom of M'Mie.-, of Thi>, the 
founder of the E::yj)tian nionan liy. The Tbinite 
nome worshi[»[»ed Osiris, containt-d a Mennioninm, 
an<l. in K/tnian tiiiics at least (.\mm. Marc. xix. 12; 
.N]-.irtian. Jlivlrinn. 14). an orad*- of I'.i'^a. its <a- 
pital Was Abydiis, ur, a> it w;u callnl iMilier, Thi^. 


(j. The Tentyrito worshi[.[Hvl Athor (AjdinHlile), 
Isis, and T\phon. Its inhabitants linnted the 
croi'xlile, and were .accord in;:ly at iViid with the 
On, bit.' nome. (Juv. xv.) Its chief towjj was 

7. The Coptite, who-e inhabitants werf'.princi])ally 
fHcnpi<-il in th'^ caravan trade bttv\et'n I>en-!iice, 
Myi»s Ilornios, and the interior of Aralna and Libya. 
Its capital wa> Coptos. [Corxos.] 

8. The llt'rnionthite, wor.shij)j>eil (V^iris and his 
son Orus: its chi<'f town was lirrniontbis. 

9. The AiMtllonite, like the Tentyrite nome, de- 
strovcd the cr<K'«Hlil»' (Strab. p. 817; I'lin. v. 9 : ' 
A. rim, //. .U. X. 21 ; Pint. fs. tt Os. 50). and 
r-'ver-'-nccd the sun. Its capital wms AiM'lliiio}H.|is 
.^1 una. Thi^i nome is ^ometinles amn-xcd to th«' 
pre rdintr. | 

10. The Ombite (Ombites ])raefcctnra, Plin. //. X. , 
V. y). worshipjK'd the cr<K<Hlile ;is thf emblem of 
Sbak (comp. supra (6) and (9), aiul the Arsinoite 
(.'{). IL'jitanomite nom<'.s). Ond»o.s wa.s its 
The ijuarries «if s;ui<Lstone, so nnu h eniploy<-<l in 
ICi'yptian arehitecturc, were principally .seated in this 

V. Animal Worship. 

Animal worship is so intimately connected with 
till' division of the coimtry into nomcs, and, in some ' 
df^'ne, witli the in>titution of castes, that we must 
brielly allude to it, althouirh the subject is much 


too extensive for more than allii-ion. The worship 
of animals was t-ithcr i.cneral or jiarticid^ir. couunou 
to the whole nation, or .^evenil to lh<» nome. Thui 
throu:jliout I^.'^pt, the ox, the dojr, and tin- cat, th«^ 
ibis and the hawk, and the fishes lejiidotus and 
oxyrrynchus, were objfct.s of \enenition. lb'' j-hi^p 
was wor>hip|K'd only in the S.uti*' and 'llultud 
Homes: the ;^'<\at at .Mendcs; th'* wolf at Lyco|..lis; 
the cej.iis (:i kiinl of a|H>) at Babylon, n«'ar .Mem- 
phis ; the lion at Leonto|H.lis, the cai^le at Thfix-s, 
the at Athribi-, and others rdsewhiTe, 
as will be particularly notiir.l when we sj.cak of 
their rcsjicctivo temples. As we have already 
sit-n, the object of reverence in one nome wa-s a*?- 
comited common and unelean, if not, i'ldecd, the 
t»l)i«'ct <tf jicrsecutiou in another. Animal wur>hip 
has Imiii in all ai'cs the opprobrium of E;:ypt (coinji. 
Chin. Alex. iii. 2, p. 2.j.'), P(»tter; Di.xl. i. 84). 
The Hebrew proplu-ts den(»unc<tl. tiie anthnip*- 
niorphic reliirionists of llclbis derided it. To the 
extent to which the Ejjyjitians carried it, osffciallr 
in the dcfliiie of the nation, it certainly appnciditil 
to the fetish sUjX'r>titions of the nei;_dibouriti;nr 
Libya. iJnt we must U'ar in nund. th:it onr^erlrers 
to the Coptic tem{»|e>, .are (jrciks wh(», l.tin:; ijTi«>- 
r.aiit <tf the l.mirtiajt', misunderstcKxl mm h that thov 
lit'ard, and Iwinir ])reoccupied by their own ritual i»r 
j)hilo.M»jdiy, mi-intcr])rete<l nuich that tiny .saw, 
(Jne ^^.(kI frtfct may l)c a^crilx'd to this form «-.f 
su]*«M->titiMii. In no country was liumanity to the 
brute cir.itiMn so system:iti<ally pr.icti>rd. The 
(>ri_'in of animal worship has \u\n variou-ly, but 
nexi-r .satisfactorily, aoouiitcd for. If tb'-y w«»re 
wor^hi]i]»e<i as tlu' auxiliaries of the lui^bandman in 
pr>Klu< ini: f.Mid or de^troyim; veninn, how ean \re 
ac(<)unt for the omis.sinn <if swine aiid asse^, (»r for 
tin- .'nloptiitn of lions and wolv.-s atnoni; th«' obj^^^ts 
t>f viiiri-ati<-n? The (ire<'k-, as wa.s tln'ir wunt, 
f'und many idle .solutions of an cnijma which pn>- 
bably \<i]cd a fetdini; orijinally earne-.t and ]»ioivs. 
1 hey im.ii^iiK'd animaU were worsbip|H\l l>o- 
caiise thfir clh*:ies were tlie standards in war, like 
the Ifoman Dii Castrorum. This is evidently a 
substitution of cause for etVeet. Tin- repres«'n tat ions 
of animals on ensiuns were the st.uidards of 
the various nomes (Diod. i, 8.">). Lu» ian {A,<(rol^j. 
V. ]). 215, s«-.p Ui]«.nt) snuirc-tcd that the bull, the 
li'>n, the fi-h, the i-am, and the t'o-'it, iv.c. were 
c<»rrtlates to the zodiacal embbMiis; but thi?> surmise 
lea\es the cnHodilf, the cat, .and the ibi>, &c. of th»» 
temple.^ unexplained. It is much more probable 
that, aniotii: a coutcmpl.ilive and .serious race, as 
the KL'yptians certaiidy wrre. animal-wur<hi{» aro<io 
out of the detection of certain analoi:ies l>«.*tween in- 
?tinct and reason, and that to tYie initiat<*«l the revo- 
rence jaid to Inasts a primitive expression of 
jcmtheism, or the rei-oi'iiition of the Creator in every 
tyjH^ of his Work. Thi- Euyj»tians are not the only 
jH'.ipb' who have convnled ty|H' into sniistance, or 
adopt, d in a litenil sense the m«'ta[>horical .symU'ls 
of faith. 

VI. Cartes and Political fnsfiditioiis. 

The nundM-r of the K:zyptian c.asi.'s is yen- va- 
riously stat.d. Herod..tus (ii. lG4).says that they 
wrre M'Vtn — tin- sa .and iIk- uiilitary. henljs- 
men, swinidienK, sl,opk«riH'i-s, int< r|>r<'t«-rs, and 
bo.atnifn. Plato {Tiinatujt, iii. p. 24) n-ckons six; 
I>i<Mloru.s. in .-n.- jn^^aL'e (i. 2S) rej.n-.s» nt.s th.-:n as 
tlire*' — prii'-ts and husb.mdni.n, from whom tho 
army was Ie\ied, ;ind a'■li^ans. But in anctther 


Ct 74) be extend* the munber to five, by the addi- 
tiai of mlUkn sod sbepherda. Strmbo limits them 
to thne — pnestSr soldiers, and husbandmen — 
nd u ikn partition is nrtnallj oorrect, we shall 
■Aft it after brief explanatioo. The existence of 
<atka a a cwrub u tative proof of the Asiatic origin 
df the EfTpttus. The stamp of caste was not in 
EcTT^ " ^ aoroetimes asserted, indelible. The son 
•MaOr, bot not ineritablj, followed his &ther^8 
tnhctpnfeMaaiL From s<nne of the pariah classes 
■dBfd— sorb as that of th« swineherds — it was 
nrerff possible to escape. 

The had in ^jpt npon which the institntian of 
cartes rested bdoi^^ in fee oolj to the king, the 
fOBMB^aad the soldierB. We know from Genesis 
(xhs. S6) that all other proprietors of the soil had 
i MMjiJ^ f d their rights to the crown, and received 
Mr hods Mffan subject to an annual rent of ^ 
<f tbt prodoce. The priests we know (Genes. /. c), 
it nUieri we infer (Diod. i. 74), retained their 
tMate owDenhip; and in so productive a country 
n i(j^ the husbandman was too important a per- 
■■ ta be deprived at ooce of all his political rights. 
B» VIS m Curt an mtc^^ral although an inferior 
««tiao of the war-caste. The privileged ordera 
bwnc wm the king, the priest, the sddier: — 

K The Kmg was at first elective, and always a 
vn^ of the priesthood. He afterwards became 
JRTv&xrr, sad was taken indifferently from the 
wwdoti] and military orden. If however he were 
W birth a rnddier, be was adopted on his accession 
W dr priests. Even the Ptolcmiw were not allowed 
to nisn without such previoua adoption. His initi- 
■Ma into the sarred mysteries was represented oa 
— i ii intn by the tow, Uie emblem of life and the 
W7 ti Knerv, impressed upon his lips (Plut. de U. 
< (Mr. p. 954, B.; PUt. J2ep. it p. 290). 

Tbe king, when not engaged in war, was occupied 

b jwiaifictko and the aenrice of religion. The 

mrii X6t «aa one long ceremony. His rising and 

tt Inng down; his meals, his recreations, and the 

«thv of bis empfeyments, were rigidly prescribed 

to kjo. Some hberty in law-nuddng indeed was 

ilWcd bin, since we read of the laws of Sewstris, 

!■•«, and other Egyptian rulors: and, with vigo- 

nu «miputs of the throne, it is probable that the 

■AdM' oorasiaDally transgressed the priestly ordi« 

toartL As but few, however, of the Egyptian 

tossirhs acnn to have grossly abused their power, 

« Bsj eowhide that the hierarchy at least tempered 

(^ devpotisra. In paintings the king is always re- 

pneatad as naoy degrees taller and more robust than 

Ui i^nert warrion. A thousand fly before him, 

■tA be bolib strings of prisoners by the hair. The 

^CftiaB king wean also the emblems and some- 

^■* eTfB the features of the gods; and it is fee- 

fastly ifificnh to (hstinguish <ni the monuments 

'^wtttcn, AmniMpht, &c. finom Osiris. It is re- 

^■^abfe that females were not excluded from a 

Ibnae w aaoerdotaL A queen, Nitocris, occurs in 

<br axth dyoaa^; another, Scemiophris, in the 

f**^ftb, and other »^*jwpl»* are feund in the sculp- 

*B«L On the decease of a soverrign a kind of 

^^bmuoB jadgment was exercised on his character 

^KwvaaHot. His embafaued body was placed 

^ ^ stpakhre, and all men were permitted to bring 

*nMttiqQs against him. Virtuous princes received 

* i^iai of deificatkm: condemned princes were 

■■•"•d frooi lepaltme. 
t 71« iVfefto however were, in ordinary times, 

tU nU gvreremg body of Egypt Their lands were 



exempt from tribute: their persons were greeted 
with servile homage; they were the sole depositaries of 
kaming and science : and they alcoie were acquainted 
with all the formularies which in £g3rpt r^ulated 
nearly every action of life. Their various and in* 
cessant occupations appear even in the titles of the 
subdivisions of the priest-caste. '* Each deity," says 
Herodotus (iL 37), ^ had several priests [jMriestenes] 
and a high priest.** The chiefe or pontiffs were the 
judges of the land, the conndllors of the sovereign, 
the legislates and the guardians of the great mys- 
teries. The minor priests were prophets, inferior 
judges and magistrates, hierophants, hiero-grammats 
or sacred scribM, basilico-gnimmats or royal scribes, 
dressers and keepers of the royal and sacerdotal 
wardrobes, physicians, heralds, keepers of the sacred 
animals, architects, draughtsmen, beadles, vergers, 
sprinklere of water, fen bearers, &c. (Wilkinson, 
if. and C. vol. i. p. 238). So numerous a staff 
was not in the peculiar polity of Egypt nlt<^ther 
superfluous, neither does it seem to have been pe- 
culiarly burdensome to the nation, since it derived its 
support firom regular taxes and firom its pn^rietary 
lands. Nowhere in the ancioit world was the numb^ 
of temples so great as in Egypt: nowhere were there 
so many religious feetivtds ; nowhere was ordi- 
nary life so intimately blended with religion. The 
^iest therefore was mixed up in affiurs of the 
nurket, the Uw court, the shop, the house, in ad- 
dition to his proper vocation in the temple. His life 
was the reverse of ascetic: in the cUinate of Egypt 
fiequent ablutions, linen garments, papyrus sandals^ 
were luxuries, — only pdyguny was ferbidden him. 
But he was enjoined to many, and the son succeeded 
the fether in the sacred office (Herod, ii. 143). 
Herodotus (comp. ii. 35, 55) contradicts himself 
in saying that females could not fulfil sacerdotal 
duties, — women might be incapable of the highest 
oflSces, but both sculptures and documents prove, 
that they were employed in many of the minor 
duties connected with the tranples. 

3. The Soldiers. The whole military force of Egypt 
amounted to 410,000 men (Herod, ii. 165—166; 
Diod. i. 54). It was divided into two corps, the 
Cabsirians and the Hermotyluans. The finrmer 
were the noore numerous, and in the most flourishing 
era of Egypt, the 18th and 19th dynasties, were 
estimated at 250,000 men. Each of these divisions 
furnished a thousand men annually to perform the 
duty of royal body guards. During the term of their 
attendance they received firom the king daily rations 
of bread, beef, and wine. When summoned to the 
field or to garrison duty, each soldier provided himself 
with the necessary arms and baggage. The prin- 
cipal garrisons of Egypt were on its southern and 
eastern borders, at Syene and Elephantine, at Hiera- 
oompolis and Eilethyas, which towns, on opposite 
sides of the river, commanded the Nile-valley above 
Thebes, and at Marea and Pelusium. The western 
frontier was, until Egypt stretched to the Cyrenaica, 
guarded sufficiently by the Libyan desert. In time of 
peace the troops who were not in garrisons or at court 
were settled in various nomes principally east of the 
Nile, and in the Delta; since it was in that quarter 
Egypt was most exposed to invasion firom the pas- 
tcml Arabs or the yet more fermidable nomade tribes 
of Assyria and Palestine. According to Herodotus 
(ii. 168), each soldier was allowed 12 arourae of 
land, or about six acres fi:ee from all charge or 
tribute, firom which allotment he defrayed the cost 
I of his arms and equipment. To the Egyptian soldiec 

42 AEGYI'irS. 

h:iii'li<Taft enijiloviiicnt \v:is lorbi<Mf!i, airnmlhinil 
lalMiurs wen* t'lijoiiietl. The ininuumMit> rxliibit ofH- 
CfTs with rorruitinc: part'u's, M)Mi<'r.s »'i)Lrat:«-«l in L'yiii- 
na^tic t'xcn i>os. ami in tho natth* ])it'<»'>, wliiili aa- 
cxtnMiK'ly .'>}iiriti;d. all tin' arts <>t" orti-nsi\»: ami dt-- 
tVn^ive war praoti.M-d hy tlic Kiryptiaiis an- rrjnv- 
sentt^d. The war-t.a.ste ^^a'^ iircrssirilv a v«.-rv iin- 
]»<)rtaut flement in a >tato uhi<h was iVcqiu'iitly 
en:ja;j('<l in di>taiit eonquots, and iiad a witlo exti'nt 
of territ'iry to <lH"t'nd. \vl until tiio n-ijns of 
S'tiios. when the jn'iest.s invaded it> privili'ir»->. and 
(»f I'.N;iinnn'ti<"hiL">, wlien the kiniT encruu iu-d n}><»n 
tlu'in, wp lind n" trai-e tif inntiny or < ivil \\ar in 
Kuypt, — a j»r(»uf that thi> Cala^iri.-ins and llt-nni^- 
tyhian> were nut only ui'll disciplined, l»ut aKo, in 
tlie main, contentinl witli their lot. 

VII. Cii'll Ilistnnj. 

The History of Kijypt is pr<<jrtriy arran^'t'd tinder 
five eras. 

1. l^^yl't Tind<T its native nders — the IMiarannic 
Kra. Its eoimnt'ncfnient \^ unknown: it (lo>es 
witli the con'lue^t of the land hv C,'andtvs<'> in 15. C. 

2. The P<*r-ian Kra, from n. c. 525, to the 
Macedonian invasion, n. <;■. W.Vl. 

3. The M:ufdonian or Hellenie Kra. 'I'his ]».'ri<Kl 
is enni|)nted eith<'r from the foundation of Ah-xan- 
dria. in it. c. .*J."i2, or from ii. c .'VJ.'t. when I'tol.-my. 
the >on of Lairn^, nuiverted the >atrai'y of Ki'vpt 
iuto an iiereditary kini'dom. This ]K'n<Ml exliixls 
to the death of Cleo|,atra. in \\. c. .'i(L 

4. The lioniaii Kra, f mm the >urrender (»f AL-x- 
audria to Ani:nstu>. in n. C. .'iO, to the eaptur^ of 
that « ity hy the Khalif Omar in A. i.. 04O. 

5. The Mahommedan Kra, from a. i>. r)40 to the 
pn-.^ent time. 

The la*t of these f>eri<Mls Ih-Ioults to modem his- 
tory, and does not r-omo within thi* .se<i[H- of this 
Work. The tirst of them nmst he very hri«tly 
treate<l, )>;irtly he<au^e it in^^'l\es ijuestions whi<h 
it Would demand a volmne to diseus.>. and jtartly 
iM-eausc KL'yi»t <-ame int.. the fi« Id of cla.ssical his- 
tory throu'^h its relations with the K.-rsians, tlreeks, 
and Hoiuans. For eonipl<'te information the ^tndent 
of the rharaouii' era imist consult the lartrer work.s 
of Denon, YomiLT, l'hani|«iHion, KoH'Him. lleeren, 
"W' Hun^en ami Lepsius: or the v<'rv hnid 
ahstrict of this jM-riod in Keiiriek's ,l»e/« y/^ /'-7/.'//0^ 
wliich. indeed, eontain.s all that the general rcjuler 
can re.juire. 

1. PJiarnniiic Era. 
Antlon'itim. — The on.:inal records of Kijvpt 
Wen' kej»t with no ordinary care, and weiv \<-ry 
varioUN ui kind, sculpture, smiJK.I. uritinir, all con- 
trihutiiiiT to their e<»nteiit'^. llenMJotu.s (ii. 72 — ^12), 
Theophrastns {op. ]*nrpJnjr. iff Ahsfiia ut. ii. 5), 
('i< «'ro ('//> Rtj)nh. iii. 8) <(»ncur in descnhiie^ the 
K;:y]>tians jisi the nio>t k-arned and a( curate of 
mankind in whatst^ner coin ern<Ml th<dr native 
annals. The piio^ts. l)i.nIoru> (i. 44) a-ssures us, 
had tran.sniitted in unbroken .succession written 
de.scription.s of all their kin<xs — their ])hysic;il 
j»<»wers and dis|)osition, and their iKT'^onal exj>loitN. 
The anfi'piity of writini: in Kirypt is no ionirer a 
suhji'ct of dis]tnte. Lepsius (/iuak of tlic Jho/l, 
Keij)/.ii:, 1842, Vn^i'. p. 17) found on monuments 
as early as the 12lh «iynasty, the hieroi,dv|)hic >it:n 
of the papynii; and on the 4th that of iIk- stylus 
and iiikslaml. The Kiryptians themselves also 


ol.M'rved the distinction In-tween the dry j»f»iitifi<al 
ihronicle and mUhical and licroical D.irrati\*s 
cou<hed in jMM'try and somr. To this iiia^.s •»( 
written d'Kument.s are to Im.' adde<l the stulpturk-d 
monum«-nts themselves, the toiuhs. olK-lisks. and 
I tem))le walls, who>c ]taintiuu's and inscriptions liaxe 
Iwen }uu-tially det-yjihered hy m<Hleni .scholars, and 
are found i^ciicr.illy to con'c>}Kind with the written 
, lists of kinLTs couijiiled. in the tirst instana-, i>y tne 
native hi^torian Manetho. KL'>ptian histor\". luiw- 
ever, in the modern acce]'tation of tlie \Nord, Ixir.aii 
.it'ter the estahli.shment of the Greek .sovereii'-nty of 
Kirypt. The n.atives, with the natural pride of 
' a once rulim: hut now suhject rate, were eairer to 
imparl to their Ilelleuie ni.i>*er-> more corre* t iio- 
tioiiv dj" their liistory and re!i_Mon tiian couLl 1.*» 
I oht.iined either from tlie rekaions of (Ireek tn*- 
I vellers, sneh as Thalcs ;uid .^'I'-n, or tVoin tlie 
I n.uTatives of IIe( at.ii'U.s, I>eni«M ritUs, and II«-nMl<»tii'i. 
I ( M" Manet ho, oj' Next Us .lulius Afrieamis, from wli<--f» 
' chrouieon. in ti\e l»o<iks. }.u>e|iius derived a e^'n- 
sider.'dile i)4'rtion of his own chioni<oii. of (ietir-ji^.s 
the Syiuellu.s, of Krato>theiies. the Alexandrian 
iiiatheniatician. who treated lar'^'f ly of Ki:_v j'ti.-m 
t hronolo::y. aeiounts have been ;:i\eu in tlie />/*- 
lintKirij of iirdk ainl RoifUiu Jhi>'jriij>}iii. and to its 
coluimis we must refer for the l/iblioi:i;i)»hy t'f 
Ki:\|'tian history. La-tly. we n;ust ]»oint out tli** 
(xttenie value of the Hebrew s< riptures an<l ol 
d">ej'bus amoDL' the renirds of the N:le-\al]ey. 
The remote anti-juity of ivjyjiti.m annaU i-» n-'t 
e-^enti;illy an objeitiou to their credibility. 1 he 
Svnrellus as>i:^nis .'?555 vear- .as ijic duritiou of 
M.iiiciho'.-s thirty dyna-tie-. I hesc beini; K;j}pti;in 
years, are c<(iii\alent to .'Joj.'J .lulian ye-ii's, aiil, 
addefl to ',\'VJ \\. c. when the tliirtieth dyna-ty ex- 
jtiii-*!. irive .■}MJ2 n. r. as the coniuiencenient ot the 
reiirn <»f .Menes. the toniider ol' the uionan h_\. B'lt 
allhoULdi liuiisin .and other (ii-t!iii:ni>!ied KL'vj.t- 
olo^ri-rs are di.s^ to a-»i^ni an ht^torii .il |»;r.s<.ii- 
ality to .Nleiit'^, ins very name, as the luiiiie of an 
individu.'d m.m, seinis ^u^pieious. It too nearlv 
rex'inbles the Menu of the Indians, the Mii,ya-s .hiiJ 
Miuos of tlie (ireeks, the Menert'a of the Ktrusi aiis^ 
and the ^lannus of the rierniaii> — in all whi'h 
lanLTU.ap's the name is coiinecteil with a nn.t — 
M<in — siL'nit'v iiiL' "to think .and sj^-.ik " {x-^' 
(,»ti.arterly l.'eview, vol. 7S. p. 140) — to be actcpted 
imj'liritly as a jterson.'il de^ii' nation. 

I he I'haraoiiic era «'t Ki:\i'ti;m history inav l>e 
divided inti> three ]>..rtiins- th«' Hid, the >Kddli-, 
.and the New nionan hy. The lir^t extends tVoin tla* 
t'oiindation of the kin^'dom in n. « . '\S\\'2. to the 
invasion of tlie Hyks..-.. J'ti,- n»-.(.m(! froui tie* con- 
ijuest of I.ouer Ivjypt by the Hvkso> and tl,«.* 
e>tal>lt'-hment of an indepfu<|eiit kiuL'doiu in tite 
'1 Iieb,iid. to the expnMon of the ll\k-o>. The 
third from the re-est.d'li^hmetit of the native 
nioii.'iri hv bv Amosis to the final conoue^t bv ('am- 
byn's iu n. ^\ 525. (Keniiek, Ainitut I'l'iij't^ 
vol. ii. p. 1 10.) 

(1.) Thf <>hl M<>nar{')tii. The < hroUol.ijv of 
this .iiid the sncceediii;.! division of tlie KLTvi.tian 
inonai-chy i.^ be.-vet with, at presriit, insunnountablo 
diiHrnlties; .since, in llie tii>t ]»l:n e. there are no 
synchronisms in the .-innds of other countries t«» 
gui<le the iiKiuirer, .and in the next, we know not 
whether the dynast i«'s in .Manet ho sliouKl be taken 
.as a s,.iies. or whether he enunienites eontemp^ 
nineous lamilies of kiiiLis. some of whom rei::ned, 
at the s.ime time, at .Meiii}>his, and others at Sais, 


Thites, &C. Aad even if Miuietho him- 

•rif ioimfed his <fyiuutut to fi)Uow one anoUwr 

ii <tiract ofdo', tbe quartioa ttill reiiMuiis whether hit 

Mth m i t iM did ao too. Gods, spirita, dwnigwJw, and 

Many or the aoals <^ men wcRf according to Honetho, 

tfeftnCraknorEnrpt. Thej began with Ptha or 

ItphM^ni aad ciosed with Honu. Then follow 

iMnj iljiM>iiw d nwrtal kings, 300 in nmnber, 

•iroding to the lowestf and 500, according to the 

Ufhat onmpntatinn. The time over which they 

ixtewl varies ako b e t wee n the limits of 3555 and 

5049 jtmn, ManethoV accoont of these djnasties 

» nattiaed in three volumes: Herodotns, Diodonis, 

and Manet ho, amid their manj dis- 

, eoocvr in this statement — that Menes of 

Ihk wa» the first mortal king of Miziaim, the double 

M i. e., L'pper and Lower Egyp^. Here, indeed, 

thnr coioridence eods. For Herodotns makes Moies 

tW ftiuBdrr «f Aieaiphis, as well as of the monarchy: 

wfamai IHodems states that Hemphis, the embank- 

■at* vhkh supported ita area, and the direnion 

<tf tkt NOe stream wen the works of a monarch, 

sis fired many centuries afterwards. Tbe second 

an* in the 4tii dynasty is Suphis, to whom Hane- 

tkt Mcrflies tbe building of the Great Pyramid. 

Btn we seem to touch upon historical ground, 

mn m a nKcntly opened room of that pyramid 

htM ban decypbeied tbe name of Chnfu or Shnfn, 

tk Cheops d Herodotus, who, howoTer, places that 

mocb lower. The erecti<Hi of the Seamd 

is attribated by Herodotus and Diodrans 

ti Girphno; and upon the neighbouring tombs, 

W tks pyramid itself seems to be uninscribed, has 

Wa read the name of Shafre, accompanied by a 

ITiiRiidal figure. There is sufficient approzim*- 

b« hFtneoi Sbafine «nd Chephren to identify them 

*it^ mth other, aUhough no corresponding name 

«ftvi in cstber Eratosthenes or Hanetho. Fourth 

• tht 4tk dynasty is Mencberes, tbe builder of the 
tfciri p.fTumd, tbe Mycerinus of Herodotus (ii. 127) 
aai Dioilcra (L 64^; and their statement is fully 
'lainnBd by tbe discovery of a mummy case in 
^ pyxmmid, wHb tbe inscriptian, Menkera. Ha- 
t*tif\ indeed, makea Nitocris, a queen of the 6th 
«rt»^. the Nttocria of Herodotus (iL 100), to have 
'mk the third pyramid. The 7th dynasty was 
iffamiily a pcnud of anarchy, since it contains 70 
)lw{4ite kbigs, who reigned for 70 days only. 
TW ware pe^iabl j inteneges or vice-ldi^ Of 
^ 7tk, Stb, 9tb, 10th, and llth dynasties not 
•*<« the names of the kings are known. Two of 
tiew acre Uemphtte dynasties, two Heradeopolitan, 
k^ OK Diotpabtan, the dynasty being in each case 
u^nI apparatly finom tbe birth-place of its 
hoder. The 12tli dynasty bears in Manetho's 
b« s very historical a»pect, since its catalogue of 
wim Dnspofitan kings is not only complete, but 
ntiinwt abo tbe name of Sesostris, or more pro- 
V*^ Swatasai or Scsortosis, who, it is said, " sub- 
^rd a3 Asia in niiw years, and part of Europe as 
hr SA Thtace,** as well as that of Lacharis (Lamaris 
« Xscas), who boilt tbe Labyrinth in the Arsinoite 
■np. Yet, until recently this list has received 

* oofinnatiaa from bjenglypbics. Even the oon- 
iwli of Sesostris probably bdoog to the 18th 
f!*MCy and to Ramrsws UL Both Herodotus and 

place Sesostris much later: and the former 
nien tbe eractioa of the Labjrrinth to the 
fr^ «f the Dofkcarchia. The 13th dynasty con- 
•^ vl 60 Diospolite kings, who reigned, it is 
«< iU years, and tbe Uth of 76 Xoite kings, 



who reigned 184 years, but the names and acts of 
both have perished. With the 14th dynasty closes 
the first poiod of the Phara<mic era. 

(2.) The Middle Monarchy, The second p&. 
nod, cmsisting of three dynasties, is that of the 
^epherd Kings. A passage of Manetho's lost work 
Ae.gjfptiac€ty cited by Josephus in his rejdnder to 
the Graeoo-Egyptian grammarian Apion (Joseph, 
c Apian. L 14), places this period in comparative 
light before us. That a Nomadic Arab horde for 
several centuries occupied and made Egypt tribu- 
taiy; that their capital was MemjJus; that in the 
Sethrute nome they constructed an immense earth- 
camp which they called Abaris; that at a certain 
period of their occupation two independent Idngdoms 
were formed in Egypt, one in the Thebaid, in intimate 
relatacHis with Aethlofda, anotho* at Xois, among the 
marshes of the Nile; that, finally, the Egyptians re- 
gained their independence and expelled the Hyksos, 
who thereupon retired into Palestine, are probably 
authentic facts, and indeed involve in themselves no 
just cause for doubt. The only suspicious circum- 
stance in Manetho 8 narrative is the exaggemtion of 
numbers, but this is a defect comnxHi to all primeval 
record. The Hyksos indeed left behind them no 
architectural memorials, and the Egyptians, when 
they recovered Lower Egypt, would not be likely to 
perpetuate their own subjection, nor the priests who 
instructed Herodotus and Diodorus to confess that 
the Nile-vaUey had ever paid tithe or toll to an 
abominable race of shepherd kings. The silence of 
annalists and monuments is therefore at least a 
negative argument in support of the truth of Ma- 
netho's account: nor is it improbable that the long 
and inveterate hatred with which the Egyptians 
regarded the pastoral tribes of Arabia owed its origin 
to their remembrance of this period of himiiliation. 

The Middle Mcmarchy extended over a period of 
953 years according to the SynceUus and Africanus: 
but, according to ilanetho, the Hyksos were lords of 
Egypt <»dy 511 years. The larger number probably 
includes the sum of the years df the three contem- 
poraneous dynasties at Xois, Memphis, and Thebes. 

(3.) The New Monarchy, The third period, or 
the New Monarchy, extends from the commencement 
of the 18th to the end of the 30th dynasty. 

The New Monarchy commences with tbe expulsion 
of the Hyksos, or rather perhaps with the revolt of 
the Thebaid which effected it. The earlier kings of 
the 18th dynasty, Amosis, Misphragmuthoeis, &c. 
were apparently engaged in successive attacks nptm 
the intruders. But, afUr its final vict<n7, Egypt 
again, or perhaps now for the first time a tmited 
kingdom, attained a long and striking prosperity. 
The names of Thutmosis (Thothmcs), of .^eno- 
phis (the Greek Memnon ?), and above all, of Ra- 
meees lU., are read on various monuments in Nubia 
and Egypt, and most conspicuously in the Thebaid 
temples at Luxor and Karnwk The 18th dynasty 
was the fiotuishing age of Egyptian art: its sculp- 
ture became bolder, its paintings more artistic and 
elaborate : the appliances and inventions of civilisa- 
tion more diversified. Rameses, if indeed under his 
name are not embodied the acts of his dynasty, waa 
the Alexander of the Nile-valley. Seventeen cen- 
tmries after his reign Germanicus visited Thebes, 
and the priests read to him, on the numuments, the 
acts and wars, the tresMires and the tributes, the 
subjects and the domains of this powerful king 
(Tac. Ann, ii. 60). This was no Eastern exaggera- 
tion. The " Tablet of Kamak," says Kenrick (voL ii. 


p. 229), wliOftC in.scri^'tinii ua>^ intoqtn'ted to Tlt- ' 722, cnt'^n-tl Lito an Hlll.auf (2 Kinz/s, xvli. 4); 
manicus in a. d. 1G, "was strictly an lii.^turital and wliilo Tarkiis is 1 iriiakah, kini: of Etliiojtia. llio 
stati>tiral tl<H-unifnt. Its datt's .'iro preii-^j.*; and rni-niy uf A»yna and S'ruiarluTib {hm'n/i, xxxvii. 
tli>»nLdi wo niav Iw unaMc to iik-ntitV the conntrios 9). lI«'r(Mlutn^ indct'd niakfs no mrntioii of anr 
nanied, tlu* oxactnoss with which they aiv ennnio- \ Kthinpian kini; cxci'j.t Sahaco (S'hii'ho>), x\\i'\ 
rated, with tin* woiirhts anil nundxTs of th<' ohjc ts .-ucordiii:^^ to liis acconnt. rclLrned for half a oi-ntrinr, 
which they brin^, proves that wo have Ivfon- u> an and then voluntarily withdrew into his own Nuhim 
nntlieiitie re<-ord. at hast of the trihntc tnj/iirinl doniinion-i. (Herod, ii. 189.) The Acthi''»jiiaii 
np»n the nation>." About this time the southern d\na>ty was the K'C(»nd foreiirn <.HMU}».ation (»f Eirypt. 
frontier of Ei:y}>t extended Ix-vond the Svrjnd Cata- hut it dilfered materially tVoni the earlier u>ur[i:iti<iu 
raet : to the wot the |,<>wer »>( Thothnies f)r Ua- \ of tlie land by the }Iyk>os. The 2.Jth dyna>ty thm'^ 
nie>es ifached over the ne.:ro trilws of the interior: j not a}>i»<\ar to have been reijardtd by tlu* Eir^p- 
the ea>t wa> guarded by .^tron;; fortresses: while by tian^ themselves as a jwriod of pa'iicular vr<>e or 
the north the Eiryptian Tnonarch went forth a.s a op})re>sion. The alliance betwtM-n the eonntri 
conqueror, and, procettliiii; aloni; tlie Syrian eu'ist, I and the eountry bt-low Eh-jjhantine and the St-oDti 
]i;is>cd into A>ia Minor, and planted his standard on ■ Cataract w;i> ajipirently, at all times, very «l*«s<': 
the frontiers of l%M>ia. and n]>on the ^hores of the ' the n-liirion and maimers of the :idjoinini: kinirdoirLS 
C'a.spian S-a. Hi> eanijtaiL'ns n-quired the C(>»]>era- I ditli-red hut little from one another: and the Aethii>- 
tion of a llect ; and Eirypt became, tor the lir>t time pian ^overeiLMls )x'rh;ips merely exehani:*-*!, during 
in hi-tory, a maritime pover. It is }>robablc in- j their tennre of Eirypt. a less eivili.Ned f»r a iii*>re 
deed that its navv w;is furni>hed bv its subjects, civilised realm. On the retirement of tho Etlii-^- 
the inhabitants of the e«xist of Western A-ia. The pi:ins, then* was an apj-^in-nt re-a( tion. since S«'tlj<«s, 
jM'riod of time axii^ned to this tlpiasty is about two , a priest of Phtah. made hiiiiM'lf ma-ster of th'^ 
c^'iitnries and a half. IJamesos HE, there is every throne. His ]>ower se«ins to have Ikimi exen'i>»ti 
roiLson to think, is tlie S-so.stri.s or S^'sortaseu of tyrannically, if Henxlotus (ii. 147) is com^'t in 
HeriKjotus and l)i«Hlorus. sayin;,' that after the death or de})oslti,,n of tliin 

'j'he names of tlu* m nandis of the 18th dynasty ' " ]»riest of Ilephaestos " the Eif\ptians wore '* >et 
an- obtained tVom two imjiortaiit miinmnents, the free." One imptrlant change, indicating a <iee;i_v of 
Tabbt of Abydos and the Tal'let of Karnak. | the ancient eou-titiition, «K-curred in this n'i_:ru 

'Jhe I9th dynasty is jn'obably a continuation of The niilitarv caste wa^^ dcirnid^nl, an<l the cn>wn 
its jtredecessor. and its details are extreundy con- even attempted to deprive them of their lands. It 
fused and uncertain. The 20th was comj»o.-cd I is probable that this w•a^ a revolutionary plia.s*» 
entirely of kinirs In-arliiL^ the name of Eame-e^ (lla- common to all countries at certain eras. Eirypl hail 
nn'n-s I\'. — XilE), of whom llame-e.s I\'. alone | beco:iie in some dcL'rcc a naval jtower. The com- 
maintained the ntilitary nnown of his illostrious menial cla^.se< were rnaliim: in p.wer the aLTritMil- 
pn'cursors. The 21st is nnintere^tiuL''. Pnt in the tnral and nu'litary. anil the ]»rie->t-kinir. tor his own 
22nd we come uj^on the tirst appertained synchro- t')ok part with the finner. S-thos ^\a^ 
nisin with the annals of the Hebn-ws, and conse- ! suc<eeded (u. r. 7(K) — 070) l>y the dtKlccarchy. ''»r 
quently at this jMtint Eizyjjtian chronoli.'_'y l.e;xins to I twelve (ont'-mporancus; kim^s; whether this niiniU^r 
lilend with that of the Lreuer.d history of the world, were the re-^nlt of convention, or whether the tv^ehe 
There is no doubt that Abraham and liis sou\isited | reLMiliwerethe headsof the twelve(ircatcrXonH•:<.c.■ln- 
EL^yI»t; that the Nile-valley liad at one era a He- , not Ik- ascertained. En tm the commencement of tlii* 
brew ])rime minister, who married a dauirhter of j;K'rio<l, however, we enter npou ;i tlctinite chronoloiry. 
the hiL'h ]Mnest of Heliopdis; or that the il- History i.s cojuju'mhI of credible facts, and the lists of 
Instrious of the Hebrew monanhs maintained close ' the kin/s are coid'ormable with the monuments 
political and cmnnenial niations with Euypt. .ind I Es.vm.mktkhis E, who niiriied 54 year*, n. c 
allied liimself with its royal fmiily. But althou;Ldi 071 — 017, suiqilantcd the dodee.mhy by the aid of 
the facts are certain, the dates are va:^ue. Now, (ireck and IMex-nician auxiliaries, and in Lower 
however, in the 22nd «lyna>ty, avo can not only | El'} pt at least founded a c..>mo|«i|ite kinu'doiu, such 
identify the Shishak who tix»k and jilundered Je- as the I'tolemies esialili^hed three c<M)turi»'s afior- 
nisjileni with the .S'sonchis «)r S'.soncho>is of the wards. (Hiod. i. 00; llenHl. i, 171: l^-lyaeu. >7rr/^. 
(irtH'ks and the .She>ht»nk of the native monuments, vii. .3.) Hi'^ loidan and Carian or Milesian auxilia- 
biit we can also assiirn to him contem]M>rancity witli 1 ries he settled in a district on the I'clu-iac bniuch 
lichoboam, and tix the date of liis uiptnre of .leru- of the Nile, lwtwi-.-n the ^h-diterrauean .and tht* 
salem to ah Mit the year r,. (\ 972. Ky the esta- Bubastite Nome; wliile the rinHui* ians who had 
blishment o{ the dati* of Sheshonk's phmderinir of [ lielpcd him t«t the thnme were ]-robab|y liH-ated near 
Jerusalem, we also come to the knowled^re that the Menii<his. in an allotment called the T\ rian camp. 
Pharaoh whose dauirhtcr was espiuscd to S>lomon, (HenKl. ii. 112.) The native militia wi-rc now 
and the sister of whose queen Tah|HMies was, in the sUjH-rsede.l by Hellem'c n'u'ular -oMjcrs, anil a j-'ir- 
reii^'u of David, married to Hadad the Edoinite, tion :it least of the war-( a>!e miirratcd, ju dndL:e<»ri 
was a mon:in h of the 21stdynasty (I A'/«^s", ix. 10; ' at this pn-t'crence, to Aethiopia. Historians havo 
xi. 19, si-q.). to<) nadily t.aken f)r tirant-d that this was a n»i- 

Osorthen or Osorclio, Shesh'mk's successor, is ^M-ation of the whole iKuly of the Hcrmot}bians and 
probably the Zer.di of Scripture (2 A7»v.v, xvii. 4.; 2 ' Calasirians. It was more ].n'bably a n-volt of the 
C7/row. xiv. 9). The Sosostrid kini'dom was now on south<'rn garrisons on the Nnltian fn-ntier. In the 
the decline,.and at the <|o.s.> of the 24th dynasty E;:ypt rei;:n of P-annnetichus also instituted the cast*? sid)jui:;ited by the Ethio|iians, and thne kin;:s , of interpn'ters or dniiromans iM-tween the natives 
of that nation, .Sdhnro, Sthichos or St n'hK<, and and fon'iirners; and it strikinirly marks the decline 
Torkujt, rei;:ned for 44 years, and composed the of the ancient system that Psannnet it bus caii^>d his 
25th dvuastv. S'\ekos is obviovisly the .s> *v/, kinu | own soils to Ik? instructed in the leaming of the 
of Ei^ypt, with wliom Hoshea, kin^r of Isitiel, in n.<'. (Ineks (Hio-l. i. 07). 


Paoneliclm was sooeeecfed bj his son Neco or 

XMHAOf tliB PlMnoh Nedw of the second book of 

Imgi, wbo Ttigiwd 16 jeMn^ B. a 617 — 601. 

jkaoi^tbe fjtMlat at his works was Uw canal be- 

tmta the Nile and the Red Sea. Whether he 

caa p fat e d it or not b doabtfal ; in the reign of 

Daim H was, howenrer, oertainlj open for vessels 

ti Isrge burden, and was finished bj the Ptolemies 

(Ptia. ri. 33). Modem surTejs hare ascertained 

tki tkti eaaal left the Nile m the neighboorhood of 

tk Bnfera town ot Bdbds — probably the Bobastis 

AfHA «f the Greeks — and nn E. and S. to Soez. 

(hand. ir. 43; Diod. L 33.) At Neoo's command 

afae the Pboemdana imdertoc^ the drcnmnaTigation 

^ th» Aincan pemnaola. The success of this «!• 

iofnm is problematica], but, as Major Bennell, in 

ka EsiBj on the Geogra{^j of Herodotus, has 

ifatwn, bj no means impondble. In the rdgn of 

S«ko Ef^TptouDe into direct cdHfliim with the Baby- 

Mun MDpire, at that time rising upon the rains of 

tk* AmjnasL Egypt seems to hare been in alliance 

villi the latter, since about the time when Cyazares 

MOBMd the siege of KiniTeh, Necho marched to> 

w^ tke Eaphxmtes, ap p ar e n tly to relieve the be- 

h n n red city. Judah was then in league with 

Bibfiaa; and its kii^ Jonah threw himself in the 

vij ti Nctho, and was defeated by him at Megiddo. 

TW Jewiah mooarch died of his wounds at Jem- 

akn, sDd the cooqueror entered the holy dty, pro- 

Milj the Cadytia of Herodotus (u. 159, iii. 5). 

Wks drpoaed and soit captive to Egypt Jeboihaz, 

tk sou and snoreasor of Josiah, made his younger 

hntbcr FHakim king in his stead, and imposed an 

■Baal tribote on Jodaea. The Judaean monarchs 

«nt foot yean later avenged. From the plains of 

Cwthemiah or Circesium, <m the eastern bank of the 

Ca{ibnies, Neoo 6ed to Egypt, leaving all his Asiatic 

wt^ eii ts to the victor Nebuchadnezzar. 

\>rh» was sooceeded by his son Psamxis, who 
niKand 6 years, b. c 601 — 595, and Psamrais 
bf ha son Atbieb, the Uaphris of the monuments, 
ai the Pharaoh Hophra of the Scriptures, who 
RiCMd S5 yean, b. o. 595 — 570. The earlier 
7MO ef Aftits wer« signalised by his victories over 
ikTTTiuis, i»doniAns, Phoenicians, and Cy|niots. 
Bis tbne aoqai»itions were tran»ent, and there is 
n>Mi to nppaee that Lower Egypt at least was 
muM by SebodLadnezzar (Stnb. p. 687 ; Jere- 
M4, xfiiL 13, xlvL 13—26 ; JSteJnel, udx). 
Afrn experimoed even greater caUmides on his 
•"•■u fitntier, a quarter from which Egypt had 
b"n httbmo unasaidlfBd. The Greeks oif Cyrene 
aStroBMUd his army at Irasa (^m Ertevi), be- 
(«•*« the hay of Bomba and Cyrene. His defeat, 
•^ tkr cmehies to which it led, rendered him 
«■« (0 his sabjecta. A fortunate soklier, Amasis 
m Aamia, dcfoeed, aoooeeded, and finally strangled 

Ajuss rngned 44 years, B. a 570 — 526. He 
B tk fint Egyptian monarch with whose personal 
c^nrter w 1mt« any acquaintance. His friend- 
^ with Polycratai iswell known. Hewas ashrewd, 
•ttivp, sad inteltigent aovereign, who possessed the 
■** << the aoUien and the people, and nearly dis- 
**9wM the nalea and oereoianies of the priests. 
Ha info was eminently prosperous, and his death 
■"^nivl just in time to prevent his witnessing the 
■t^^oben of Egypt by the Perrians under Cam- 
W**, vkich took place in the reign of Us son Psam- 
nanvB (B.r. 525), who sat upon the throne only 

2. Periian Era. 


The 27th dynasty contains 8 Persian kings, and 
extends over a period of 124 yean, b. c. 525—401. 
Egypt became a satrapy, not, however, without 
much reluctati(« and various Tevoluti(His; for be- 
tween the worshippen of animals and the wor- 
shippen of fire a religious antipathy subsisted which 
aggmvated the pressure of conquest and the burden 
of subjection. The Persians indeed were the only 
masten of Egypt who assaUed by violence, as well 
as regarded with contempt, its religious and political 
instituticms. From this cause, no less than from 
the numerous Greek and Hebrew settlere in the 
Delta, the Macedonian conqueror, in b. g. 332, found 
scarcely any impediment to his occupation of Egypt. 
During the 27th dynasty Egypt becsme, for the 
first time, involved in European politics. A revolt, 
which commenced in the reign of Darius, b. c 488, 
and which delayed for three yean the second Per- 
siui invasim of Greece, was reiwessed by his aaa 
and successor Xerxes, in b. o. 486. A seoond re- 
volt, in b. g. 462, was put down, in b. c. 456, by 
the satnp Megabyzus; but its leader Inaroe, son of 
Psammitichus, was aided by the Athenians. 

The 28th dynasty contams only one name, that 
of Amtrtaeus the Saite. In his reign of six yean, 
through some unexplained weakness in Persia, 
Egypt regained its independence, for monuments at 
Kamak and EiUth^ prove that the Saite monarch 
was king of the whole buid. Amyrtaeus was mag- 
nificently interred in a sarcophagus of green breccia, 
which, alter passing from an Egyptian tomb to a 
Greek basilica, from a Greek basilica to a Moslem 
mosque, finally rests in the British Museum. The 
29th dynasty contained four kings, of whom hardly 
any thing is related, and the 30th dynasty three 
kings, Nectahebus I., Tachos, and Nectane- 
BU8 II., who are better known from their con- 
nection with Grecian lust(»y. In the reign of 
Nectanebus II., and in the year b. c. 350, Egypt 
was reconquered by Bagoas and Mentor, the gene- 
rals of Darius Ochus, and the last Phaiaoh ^ the 
30 dynasties retired an exile into Aethiopia. The 
succession of Egyptian monarchs, embracing a pfr- 
riod of 3553 yean, is unexampled in history. Upon 
the amuds of their successon the Ptolemies we shall 
not however enter, since the lives of the Macedonian 
kings are given in the Dictionary of Bic^raphy 
(art. Ptokmaem). It will suffice in this pla<« 
to make a few general remarks upon the political 
aspect of Egypt under its Greek and Roman masters. 

3. Macedonian or HtUemc Era, 

Many causes rendered the accession of a Greek 
dynasty an easy and even a welcome transition to 
the Eg^tian people. In the decline of the native 
monarchy, they had sufiered much from anarchy 
and civil wars. For two centuries the yoke of Penia 
had pressed heavily upon their trade, agriculture and 
religion : their wealth had been drained, their chil- 
dren enslavedftheir ceremonial and national prejudices 
systematically outraged by their rulen. For the 
advent of the Greeks a gradual preparation had been 
made since the reign of Psammetichus. Hellenic 
colonies had penetrated to the Great Oasis and the 
coast of the Bed Sea. Greek travellen and philo- 
sophen had explored the Thebaid, and Greek immi- 
grants had established numerous colonies in the 
Delta. Lower Egypt too had admitted Spartans and 
Athenians alternately as the allies of the Saite and 
Mempbite sovereigns: so that when in b.c. 332 

48 AIXniTl'S. AKGVS. 

The rt'xt iinjv.rtniit nvnlntiou »'f Iviyj.t u.'i< its Antonvti, \vlii( ii is n-u;illv ;iMril^>»'^i to tJjo pmjKTiT 

tf:ii|v.v.irv <HHU)i:trii.n hy /.«-ii«»hi:i, tjuo»ii ot' I'.ilir.yr.i. M. Aun'li'i^ Aiit«iiiiiius. 

in A. i». :*•)'.>. riio K_'y [)!<►-( ir'-fk>. w.-rf ii»w at t!i<* AtH-tnliiij' t<t tin' tratliti»n> of the Church, Chn<- 

f", i "I* ^ix rtMitnrif> ai:ain i;iil';.-«'t t<» an A-^iitii- tianity Ma> iutPxlmrd into K^'vpt hv llic cvnnj'riJ.-t 

in-'Uf-.h. lint her piwor 1 i>tol only a few nionths. St. ^Iark. lt>< n'ifj.'ion and jtroirn'ss ruu^t Ih' rr.ii 

'[[a> invaviou, li 'Wcvor. >tiiiinlat<Ml tlic native Y^yn- in iv(.le>ia--!i< al annaN. We can onlv nTimrk h*r''. 

lati >n. n 'W exn^iiierahlv interininirKsl with Arah^. tliat the i:l.H»inv an<i meditative jr,.nius of th<* KlT'^'.^ 

and they >et up. after a few months' sn!>nii»ion to tians was a favouraMe >oil f»r the .i:n»wth of hcn>T; 
AuD'li m. a Syrian of Sleneia, named Kirnms. a> ' that the Arians and Athana•^ian^ t^hed torrrnt'" of 

eMijH-ror. A. i>. 272. (Vopisv-. /7r;//. .").) Finnns w:i.s hU«l in their eontn'ver>ir>; and that ni..iia«dii>]n 

MUtiHNlf,! Iiy a reKd ehiettain nainod Doinilius !)«►- tt-ndtii litvuiy as iniuli as eivil or reli^-i.tus ^^:l^^ to 

niili r.iUN (/o-im. i. 41)): but both of the.M' ^.n-tenders th«- d»'i»«i>'dation of tlie Niio-vallrv. 7i»e d»->prt.- ef 

were ultimately erib<hi^l by Amvlian. Both Iion;e the The'>aid. the mar.-hos of the l)<dta. and the i>land' 

and IL'yi't surieri'd uivatly tluriuir this }H:-riotl of lVirm»'d by tho la.:'Nin-; and e-tuarios of the Nilo. w.-re 

an ireh> : the one t'roni the irrepUarity of the ^u]']-ly throni:»d with oonvruts and henuitaLre>; an-i jJa* 

of ^orw. the other from the ravauf^ of pr«-dat'iry le^'.nd- of the >aints are, in ern^ideralde j-n .jK.rr:' ,>. 

Kir.d>. aval from the encroirh:n. -ntM-f tlb' barb »ri ms th<' L:r>wt]j of F._'y]'ti:in t'aney and as<-eiit i>:n. In 

on t i:h-T fo'atier. lii a. i>. 27ti. Trobu^. who ha>l th<' reijn .-f The-xlo-iu,- 1.. a. i). 379. the eiliri %vbi( h 

K-ea military |»reteet of L.'\]it. was. on the death y'i den<'Uiuol Tajani'^m levfll>"d at one blow thoaiuier.! 

Taeitn-i. jTii^ laiuusi em|« .■ r by his l.-jion^. and rolythei^m of the Niio-varn-v. and coTivii;iit'?l to nii'i 

th--ir <h ■!. e w i< eontirmcl !>\ the other j^rovinvi-s of and nej:le. t all of its temj»les whioh had TKit pr»*- 

th'' f ujtiie. Trobus Wax M..n recalled to hi-' f>rnier viou>ly be.n ci>nverted. jKirtiallv or wlioHv, ii,T.-i 

}>rovi',ce l>y the turbu!en< e of the B!enunye>: and as C'hri>-tiau Cliun he^. Fn>mthi>cpxh wf nn»v rej^irii 

e\»'i I'tolciuais. the i qital o\ the Ihcbud. \\a<i in tJK- hi-tory of tlu' F..-yj>ti.m-, as a ]«'ctdiar {j«^>idt". 

ji .x^,>>.-.ion of the iM<'i:.:» nt-*. we may e>tini itt' the ilo-.-.! : t!:- ir otily '-!ib-e|ncnt revolutions lifuc-e- 

jt.wcr iA the Arib> in the Nile-\allfy. S> dar.^er- lorward brii j th«ir >n^ju_'at:on by Persia in a. i>. 

on-. \\\ we!v the>e ri\olt>. that Frobu^ deeniol (US. .cd th-ir (on-ju --t by .\mrou. the j^eneral of th** 

hi^ victory ovor the Fdcmmxes not unuorthv .-f .i Khaliph < > in a. l>. t»40. The yuk»» t»f Arahii 

tnunij'h. (^\'oiM-e. /'/••>''. D, >e.j.') wa> th<n!y inii^.-ed uj-'U the land of Mivr.iirn. 

The reii:!) ^'X 1>;.h I,t:an. .\. i>. 28.*). wa> a leri,*,! and it>; ir. -i'tii h:-ton- ('^mnu'ne*:^; — ^ lii'«t'H-\ of 

(>fc ilimity to F.^ypt. A «cn!ury o\ war> \\\A ren- decre]vitud' ar.d d.cli:,t' iiMJl the ]ir»>piit cc-nturv. 
dcred it^ jv «|'le a'>le and tom.idable soldiei-v; and The v,>nn e^ x^i information for K£rA"|iti;m hI>ti«rT 

A( !r.!I'\;s, the Ici.l. r of the invurjcnt^, \\a> yv^^ a:;d _:<'>>_Ta]liy are of lour kind-*. (l)\Vork5 <.f 

»lti!;i.%l by th<NU «';ni".'n'r. 1>: -clcti m j-r- ''.ally c ^-'rajhy. sm. h a- tl:o-e «f l^toh-my, .Mnilk», Kra- 

di'.wtcl his camjuiju^. and reinctvl. at'ti\- ;i t^-ii 'U> to^th' ;,.•-. V\\\.y an i Mda. (2) <X hiMorv, such as 

si''_','. tlie eitie> of ("op! ON and 1'. i>)ri>. Fi tiii> r.i_n th-.-e .f the iVijuatits of Manetho, Africanri-, ih** 

aK> the Koman frontier ua^ witiuiran n lVo;n A»tbio- .Nyv.v.ll i^. F".v,'.,iuv. lI.n«lotu> and l)i<xioru> .alrv-tuiv 

pi I, and rc>t-'r>\l to illcphantiu'-. who-e i"ortii\ .itio'-.N cit.d. (3) fie A'-aM in ( horojraj.liors. — an. I (4) 

were *tr»n^tIu'no«l an i L:ar;i^on'> aujuu utod. <ia- •!;•■;-»- i.a h-v of n.oiern tniv. 1Ut< and Ei:vt.t'd<>j'»'n> 

loins a': 1 Mixi'.iiiu -ucte>^i\tly mi^^ox, >-!.,, i }._■% j t ; \:\'\-\ K:"']ivr to P.-.iti-i n n'ld LcpvitiN; anion;; thn 

wji 1*0 liiNton h' t;> « (■■'r'<^ r-l 'H'»o;ne> lilt'a Uioiv tiiau f r", cr \\< ■>:-?■ ' i!!v «;.--_':. iic tie' works of the f-]d<T 

ar«c>.-dofa n;.,ioi> |> r-v ^ T.i n. Ni'b/.r. V< ^ kc ,v. • rir';c.-. P.un^k ami UrJ- 

Attcr th.' time ,.f i" >r.x:ai:ti;.c. the a.'.n.";ii-t'-at; ■•; .'.-. i; iIk -; ' '...: i « W-^ :: >n-- f i>r:fvu andtljepr^rK-h 

and. di\i-vu of F^yi^t wdv co",ip\'a !\ c!. ir.^cd. \\ >.,\a'>. 17!.»>: «;ai"> w -k on the inonninent'^ itf 

was I'.a n d.i\'d ;n;o s;x pn.\;:;. c: \^\^ A>j\pt'> F -Aer N.;i '. i. a" 1 >:r tia'-.'.r.i-r U iikiuxtn's .lAi/?/j^r# 

Fro-ivia; ^^2') Au,-usta;vu".ca : v,-»MI' "( tan ';;m- i^a::' r- .■". / i <* .< / '>'> l-.-or,/ }-j;,,>t>nns, d vm]-*. 8v.i. 

w ir.i> Avcalia>; (^4> Ih^ ba> ; i^,*»> Fil'Na F.Vr; >r: F> tb.--,^ -- ,y '-> ...i i.xl. .v- ^U"!'. irie» of tht- wrilJT)!"* 

^^^'^^ I-t>\a Mr.H'ri-'r (^i o-.o.Nt; ^- of tlie ('\ rvr.a:* F- ;- of :'i\.".r- . ' ■; - '. "..--s. H-'TenV JitX'tirr/t^j: t'nfj 

tao.:.>V The div>;>i,.M i'lt > :; '■.e- li^:<\l I., the t' ■ /' '.' >-. / '--r- ."^- ..,'<'! Tr ff' of tht Car-th^i- 

>,\.";;i v»:itur\ a''tc'.- ^'an-t. All t!'e ant', -/.i. < ,•" '.•.x-. { ' ; ' -"• '■:•*-! !■'■: h^niit.<. '2 x^tU, ^v,t. 

hk\i'.\; a'i\ nl^'^u to the F.-'iiu j r \ i .e .f F _'.. tra\-. !>:?>: t''a> rt> cnt \\"rk. Kenri^^kV _-J n- 

A'-^>l't ae c y.- ;<>! i.\ Mar;.;r.dt. m IV - n. > ,' ' /" : r. 2 v ''x. Sv,.. 1 >.">'»: and the two vuIhuk-'n 

//,■ ,"■'..•■ .;' -A ..'.v' . A.: •.''. . .' ". \ ''.in. ; :.i. ■ . ;;,.■ 1 ■.' -,-y f F.:.:- rt..': :..j Knowl.>L'e. <'ntitU-i 

]\ 207. >e.j. /■ ;> ■"'.<; \; y . /" . '■,;,( .1 r-initi^m, '<^liich, 

F'. .c t!:. K vM^N '.be . '.". f rvid- in F:m" \v ■■' ^x -a-'.-r .r. •■,;r\- i .; ! -:o. t..n:,.:n a tniiii ,,f 

i'l ' 1 - '•< r. i>'.e I \t '.vb-.i f'^ "1 l^■;■,!-i P- '•>••,'. - ■ ;,.,: ,. ■ 1 \ , ■ .■v ; ! -• ..• •■.. \\ w. uld \m^ easv to 

N >' '. a" ''.: t';e ,.,-•.( '\r.''.v .t :hr N'.e t > U /'^ '. ■; « \:. i :'■- ^ :\\ _• -- > f .» .:"'. riti-s; but th*- t:v:i<'r:tl 

oj-v^'c NF>', :'.■-. a' I !'; ; v- ] r.H^>\'.,Nl ^v H^ la'- '\a'.i,- ^v ' : i ,.. I ■...'^.-.m the authors we h:i\e 

y i.N to ti:- } ;■.! \n'.. -c l.a'i--. > i .'a! c'.-'- ,i ; ..■ ew ■ -f ;. ^\\\ \\ j> -. 

h\d Va. \ v,^.- i ' ,i o M M •vib.x to 1', : IV- o,^. VI *a > ^a:^;«: / '". ; oi-rj)?. Faus.; Alyiirl-^^ 

A ; '"u\i the 1'---: at N-.a-, ',.;;. av i a ^ -A-.^vi .i I '■.- •'■ -p. r; . '*' '. /•'. *. •-. ^, a towTi of Kaoiji;,/ 

s!;.';cr ro '.te ac■^'-^ t!..' -b-o;. .\ f^';':i ^^c^: c, ::,■ • :• -^ : A-. • . ». - '-i:::tia!ly K l.-n-i-.l t.» 

:,I >':, the \\e>'a':u ! a' \ ^A t'.v Nile tr-^n IF..;.; V *.• \- i ..r -. -,: -a ,.«. . - ■.;. n-^i at au oarlv jn^ri' «i 

.a-".'-. »s iM \a: I to \;\r ...i. \ fr.!; -x i b >; S i ',.•.', -. :'. '>•,/, i :.- ; ^-ew ,.f Fyv ur-^u^, ana 

t..>n Fl",cv'-,> ta WNi'ia, c -l •'.'-. .*\ •, : t" ■ .;■ ■ \, ■ !• I ., ;. F> t. mtor^-. caded At':j-vt tc- 

rv.vt ,t th.' Mci !.-■ ; . . 1 f. -" Kr. '' . to F. . '.^ .; ■ . ^.-V.^T-.^V i ..,--:. :,.>• \.-.. oVijiiuilly of s.".n>*- 

;or. '.i^ the \^\cO .: \ ;• >y>. I •« -'\.b •\/ ,\' '. V . : ' .■ . -. /., oi .i'.i the \illai:.^> in xl,,. 

b-l t'.-a i\>,';os » M \V.c \.: ■ : . p.^-.v^ •'. : ^ K >'. .; ^;v. :> - \; .; --s a- i l ■ -'.iti^. Kven at tli-r- 

Nm, a" I »o-,.: i;". .1 t» '1 vt ,'a'-v, ,Mv I a'^'.t .\^. !\ ' .. ::• : . '. r ■ ■ t N! ■ -..^ "j<oii>. tlie nihaKit.*uit> 

ti\c nule^ .r.vkit tu<'u on ' r ''.or 1 t' b' -•• ■ . \ \\ -. \- ,,'.'. ~. -•-.!>, k ,••; ^i-in:: Sirtoitixu j j 

r.vuN v\ Foi^ -v^' de>o;'.y\i :u tie .' .,-,-, .-. \:^\.j, ^.'.vi. H": ■. i, a-.d L-Uvtruin, o*.«ntiiiu«.ni 

-A^^;^^^^ lie- *'f**^J^lU 

^fPlb.* l>»-'*r,_i.h Ihe otl>" " ,^ » in" '"i . vaa*in»^, moimtai" ^^ima*"" 



iiiil<^'"<l, ii-^s biilh iii'liffVri'iitlv. (S*»' nUn, 
/?, r. V. f/J.) Livy, in oiw ].;i-sap' (viii. "22). n|« ak> 
<il" " Aciiaria ot ritluH'u-:is," and Mrla (ii. 7) al>o 
fiiuiiirrates M-]<irat«'ly l'illn-in>a, A'uaria, and Pro- 
chvta. lint this is cli'arly a iiH-rf coiitu-ii'ii arisiiii: 
from till- douMi' a]>}>tdlatiuii. Tliny tt'll^ us (iii. 6. 
12) tliat the Tin-rk iiaiin' was d«-ri\<*.l tii'iii tlie jx't- 
tiTv (^-niOoi) niaimfaclurfd llicn'. ni»t as coimnonly 
Mijt|>)--<'«1 tVt'in its a!>i)uridiiic: in :i\n'> (Tri6T] koi). Hut 
tin- lattfT drrivatiun was the |x>iiular one, and Avas 
coniK'ctt'd, liy some writers, with the mytholui^ical 
talf iif thi' (\-ni>[K»s. (\«'na;:i>r;us tij). Harpocr. ». v. 
K(pKii}\\i\ Ovid. Mt.t. \\\. 90.) 

Thf name of Inaiumk is jjernliar to the Latin 
j»f)ets, and sc<;ni.s to have arisen from a confusion 
witli the "Apifioi of IIoukt and lIesi»Hl. after the 
falde i>f TvjifKM'Us liad been trausiern-d tVom A>«ia to 
the A.tlranic re;rions of Italy and Sicily. (Strah. v. 
p. 248, xiii. p. G2<); I'herecyd. aj). S:/i'iI. tnl ^Ipoll. 
Jih'xl. ii. 1210.) The earth. juakos and volcanic 
outhnrsts of this island were already ascribed by 
Piinlar (i*'/'^'- '• 1^) t'> *''** stru'i'-'les of the im- 
])ri^oned iriant, but the name of Inarime is first 
found in \'ir^'il, from whom it is rcjH'fttcd by many 
later pt'ts. (J\id erroneously distiuL^uishes Inarime 
fn>m IMthecU'^ae. (Vir;;. A^n. \k. 716: (Jvid. J/f /. 
xiv. 90: Sil. Ital. viii. 542, xii. 147; Lucan. v. 1 00: 
Stat. Sih\ ii. 2. 70; and see Ileyiu', K.rc. ii. tul 
Vlnj. Ai n. ix.; Wernsdorf, P.xr. iii. (ul Luvll. Ad- 
tidiii.) The idea, that both tliis and the nei_dibour- 
inu' inland of PriwhUa had been at one time united 
to the mainland, and l)roken oif from it by the 
vio!.;iee of the s.ame volcanic causes which were still 
in ojKration. is tound both in Str.dw ami IMiny, anil 
was a natural inference fr<>m the jihenoniena aetnally 
observed, but cannot be rei'-arded as re>tintx nj^m 
anv histoneal tradition. (Strab. ii. p. GO, v, p. 258; 
riin. ii. 88.) [i:. H. IJ.] 

AKXKIA (Afi'fia: FAh. hlv^L^m, AiVccCttjs), a 
town of Chaleidice in Macedonia, said to have been 
foimd<Mi by Aeneas, was situated, accordini: to \a\\, 
o|)]jo.>ite Tydiia, and 15 miles from The<s;il-.nica. It 
a]>]K'ars to have st<MKl on the promontory of the ^'reat 
Kunihtfriiu, whieh fnnns the N\V. corn<r of the 
jK'uin^ula of Chalcidice. an<l which, beini: .about 10 
peou;r.ij>hical miles in tlirecl distauvf from TbevsaliH 
nl<-a. may l>e idcntilied with the jironioiitory Aen<-ium 
of Synunis. Aeneia mu'-t therefore have been 
further N. than Pytlna. It was coloui-ed by the 
Corinthians. (S^■vnum■^ Ch. 627.) It is mentioned 
by Her'xlutus. and continued to be a place of im- 
j)ort.'mce down to the time of the IJoman wars in 
iJreecp, althouirh we are told that a L'reat jtart of its 
p'>]julation was n-nioved to Thessalonica, A\hen the 
latter city wjis f Minded by Ca<>andcr. (lienid. vii. 
12.'J; Strab. p. ."WO; Dionvs. i. 49: I.ycophr. 12.S6 
and S-hol.; Virc A* n. iii. 16: Ste|.h. IJ. .*. r.; I.iv. 
xl. 4, xliv. 10, 32; Leake. A'orM'r;/ (rmce, vol. iii. 
p. 451.) 



throuirh which one i«f the mouths of the Ilebm* 
makes it.s way into the se:i. Acconlinij to Viridl 
(,ltn. iii. 18), it was founded by Aeneas wh'Mi he 
l.audeil there (»n his w;iy from Troy, but there do«s 
not sec-m any more authority for this statement tluu 
till* similarity of the names; but its antiquity is 
a'tested by the fact of it--", beini: mentioneil by Homer 
(//. iv. 519). Accordim: to llennlotus (vii. .58) 
and Thmydiiles (vii, 57), Aenus w:is an A'^'lic 
Colony. NeilJier of them, h<A\ever, mentions from 
what |«irticular jilace it was colonised. S'ynnuL> 
Chins (696) attributes its t'ound.ition to Mytileiie; 
Stephamis IJyzant. to Cumae, or, accorduii: to Mti- 
liekcs edition, to tlie two ]>laces conjointly. Accord- 
ing: to Strabo (]). 319), a nuire ancient name ot the 
l>la(e was Poltyobiia. Steph:mait says it A>as also 
called Ajointhus. 

Little CNjKcial niention of Aenus ocoars till a 
comjiarativejy late |^'ri-Kl r»f (Ireeiau bi>tor>'. It ii> 
mentioned by 'i'hueydides (/. c.) that Aenus .sent 
forces to the Sieijiau exjK'diliou a^ a subject aiiy 
of Athens, At a hiter pi'ri<xi wetind it succ*»>sively 
in the jiossession of I'lob-my rhilo|«4t«>r, n. c. 222 
(Pol. v. 34). of Philii), kiie^ of Mace<lonia, B. c. 
200 (Liv. xxxi. 16), an«l of Antio(hus the Great. 
After the deteat of the latter by the llotnaus, 
Aenus was declared free. (Liv. xxxviii.60.) It mus 
still a free city in the time <d' Pliny (iv. II). 

Athenaeu> (\k 351) sjM>aks of tb.e < liuiatc (>f 
Aenus as beimx |>et-uliariy un;:enial. He de^criU-s 
the year there as con>istin:^ of ei^dil months of t^ild, 
and four of winter. [11. W.J 

-i( m 


AF.XIA'XKS. [Tni-^^AiJA.] ^ 

AKNTS (Alvo?: h'fh. Ah'tos, AlyidrTjs. Aenins: 
^«'h), a town of Thraee, sitn.atcd ujx.n .a promon- 
tory on the touth-casteni tide of the Pahis Stenluri.>, 

Coix OF ai:ni.'^. 

AFAl'S (Alyos, Ptol. ii. II. § 5; Oeims. Itin. 
Anton.: Int)). a rivir ri-iuLr in the Ph.u'tian or 
Tridi-Titiu'- Al|>s. dixidini: l.'haeti.i S-cnnda (N'inde- 
licia) fn-m Nori* um. and tjowint:' into the I>anulv, 
f»f whit h it \\;is one of the feed*TS. at 
Pa-au. (Tac. ///.< iii. 5.) [W. II. !>.] 

AH'OLLS (A^oA^rO nr AKO'LII, one of the four 
r;iees inti> which the Hellenes are usually dind.^l, .la* 
re|)reseutcd as <b'>cendants of the mythical Aeolus, 
the of llcllen. {[>i<t. ff liiiiijr. S. r. Ainhis.) 
Hellen is s.iid to have left his kini^^doui in Tliovsaly 
to Aeohls, his eldest ^oli. (Ajx'1I<m1. i. 7. § 3.) A 

ptrtion of The-saly was in ancient times «'alb-«l 
Aeolis, in which Arne was the chi<-f town. It was 
from this district that the Aeolian Bix'otians were 
driven out by the Thes<alians, and came to pMHs«tia. 
(llenHl. vii. "l 76: Diod. iv. 67; Time. i. 12.) It is 
supposed by .some tliuf this Aeolis was the district 
on the Pau'Jtv.-tie rtdf; but there .are C'*"*! reas<ins for 
beIie\-inLr it w;is in the centre of The,s.s.aly, anvl 
nearly the same ;is the district Thcs'^alioiis in later 
times. (MiilliT, /><>n''tits. vo|. ii. p. 475, ■'^e^J.) We 
find the Acolians in many other j)ai"ts of (ireeco, 1m»- 
sidcs Thessaly and H<H'oti a; and in the e.nliot times 
they ;ij»jK'ar .as the mos( jh.wcii'ul and the nKist nu- 
merous of the Hellenic races. The weaitliy Mitivue 
ai' to hav*- beiu Ac diaiis; and we have inentiou 


aTAeoGoss in Actolui and Locris, «t Corinth, in 

£&, is P>flns and in Messenia. Thos a great part 

ft oorthcrn Greece, and the western side of Pek^cm- 

nam wens inhabited at an earlj period bj the 

Aeofian net. In naoet of these Aeolian settlements 

wtfjod a prediloctkn for nuuritime sitnations; and 

pQKidoo apfiears to have been the deitj chieflj wor- 

■kipfied bj thoa. The Aeolians also migrated to 

Am IGnor where thcj settled in the district called 

after than Aeolis [Asoub], and also in the island 

if Lesbos. The Aeolian migratian is genendlj re- 

fRMtted aa the first of the series of movements 

pradaoed bj the irmptian of the Aetdians into 

BoeoUa, and of the Iknians into Peloponnesus. The 

^rlnaias, who had been drivoi finom their homes in 

the Pdopcanesos bj the Dorians, were believed to 

bate been joaoed in Boeotia bj a part of the ancient 

inhabiiaata of Boeotia and of their Aeolian conqnerors. 

The htttr seem to hav^ been pwdominant in inflnence, 

6rfiram them the migration was called the Aeolian, 

nd ■ometimes the Boeotian. An account of the 

cndj wrttlfmrnt s and migmtioos of the Aeolians is 

pv«a at length bj Thidwall, to which we most refer 

Mir teaden» for details and authorities. {Hitt, of 

Crtecs, rvL i. p. 88, aeq. vol. ii. p. 82, seq.; comp. 

Gnitc, ffuL of Greiscey roL L p. 145, seq., vol. iL 

p. S€, seq.) The Aeolian dialect of tlie Greek lan- 

inage oomprised aeveral subordinate modifications; 

hot the variety established bj the colonists in Lesbos 

■CMlathe opposite coasts of Aaia, became eventuallj 

it< pofnlar wtandard, having been carried to perfection 

hr the Lesbian school of lyric poetry. (Mure, History 

•ftimLamguage^ 4c, of GreecCy voL L p. 108, seq.) 

Tlutt «e find the Boman poets calling Sappho Aeolia 

pmUa (Hot. Carm. iv. 9. 12), and the lyric poetiy 

tfAkaeoa and Sappho J eo&im connen, ^eoKa^/Scfef 

sad AecHa lyra. (Hor. Carm, iii. 30. 13, iL 13. 24; 

Of. Htr. XT. 200.) 

AEOXLAE I'NSUI-AE (^MoXiZu v^ffot, Diod. 
kUK&» nfffw, Tbuc Strab.),a group of volcanic 
hknda, lying in the Tyrrhenian Sea to the north of 
.SkDy, b e t w e en that islamd and the coast oi Lucania. 
Tbrv derived the name of Aeolian from some fimded 
ctnnNiion with the &buloas island of Aeolus men- 
tuaad by Homer in the Odyssey (x. 1, &c), but 
a^j were also frequently termed VuLCAiriAB or 
UrrfiAXsTiAB, from their yolcamc character, which 
««• asribed to the subterranean operations of Vulcan, 
as veil as Lipara£A3T {al Atwapalonf vrjaot^ Strab. 
il p. 123), from LiPA&i, the largest and most im- 
pcctant aimm^ them, from which they still derive the 
nunr <^ the lApari Idamda, 

Aocirat antbors goieraDy agree in reckoning 
tlvB as mremx. in number (Strab. vi. p. 275 ; Plin. 
n.8. 14; Scymn. Ch.255; Diod. v. 7; Mela,ii. 7; 
bnyt. Peric^ 465; SchoL ad Apoli. Rhod. iii. 
41), which is correct, if the smaller bkts be omitted. 
Btt then b coosideiable diversity with regard to 
tb«r names, and the confusion has been greatly aug- 
anted by socna modem geographers. They areenu- 
mtaexA as follows by Stnbo, Diodorus, and Pliny: 

1. Upaka, stfll called L^Mnri; the most con- 
adcnble cf the seven, and tbs only one which con- 
tabked a town of any importance. [Lipara.] 

2. HnuLA, situated between Lipara and the coast 
dSniy. Its original name according to Strabo 
«■• TlMmessa (S4pfMitava), or, as Pliny writes it, 
IhoaMa, bot it was commonly known to the Greeks 
m 1«^ ur *Upk 'H^alcrrov, being considered sacred 
teVoitaa on account of the Tokamc phenomena which 
k fririHted. For the same reason it was called by 



the Romans Vuix:A2a Insula, from whence its mo- 
dem appellation of Vulcano, It is the soathem- 
moet of the whole group, and is distant only 12 G. 
miles from Capo Caiava, the nearest point on the 
coast of Sicily. 

3. Stronotle (Srpo77^Ai7, now Strombolx)^ so 
called from its general roundness of form (Strab. 
I, c.f Ludl. Aetnay 431): the northernmost of the 
islands, and like Hiera an active volcano. 

4. DiDTME (AiSiVii;), now caDed Salina, or 
Iwla delle Saline^ is next to Lipara the largest of 
the whole group. Its ancient name was derived (as 
Strabo expressly tells us, vi. p. 276), from its 
form, which circumstance leaves no doubt oi its 
being the same with the modem ScUmoy that island 
being oonsjacuous for two high conical mountwns 
which rise to a height of 3,500 feet (Smyth's Sicily^ 
p. 272 ; Fenara, Campi FUgrti deUa SiciUoy p. 243 ; 
Daubeny, On Volcanoes, p. 262). Groekurd (ad 
Strab. L c), Mannert, and Forbiger, have erroneously 
identified IHdyme with Panariaf and thns thrown 
the whole subject into confusion. It is distant only 
three miles NW. from Lipara. 

5. Phoenicusa (^otMueovffO'eij Strab. ^otvurti^s, 
Diod.), 80 called from the palms (^oivuccs) in which 
it abounded, is evidently Fdicudi about 12 miles 
W. af^a/ina. 

6. Ebicusa (*Efuicoi)0'<ra or *Epfiri^f\ probably 
named from its abundance of heath (^p€un)), is the 
little island f£ AUcudiy the westernmost of the whole 
group. These two were both veiy small islands 
and were occupied only for pasturage. 

7. Euontmus (EvctfKvfios), which we are ex- 
pressly told was the smallest of the seven and un- 
inhabited. The other six being clearly identified, 
there can be no doubt that this is the island now 
called Panaria, which is situated between Lipara 
and Strongyle, though it does not accord with 
Strabo's description that it lira the farthest out to 
sea (w«Aa7(a itAXurra). But it agrees, better at least 
than any other, with his statement that it lay on th^ 
left hand as one sailed from Lipara towards Sicily, 
from whence he 8U[^)06es it to have derived its name. 

Several small islets adjacent to Panaria, are now 
called the XkUtole, the largest of which BasilvezOj 
is probably the Uicesia of Ptolemy ('iKtffla, PtoL 
iiL 4. § 16; 'iKiaioy^ Eustath. ad Horn. Odyss, 
X. 1), whose list, with the exception of this addition, 
corresponds with that of Stndw. That of Mela 
(ii. 7) is very confused and erroneous: he is cer* 
tainly in error in including Osteodes in the 
Aeolian group. 

The volcanic character of these isknds was early 
noticed by the Greeks: and Diodorus justly remarks 
(v. 7) that they had aU been evidently at one time 
vents of eraptive action, as appeared frmn their still 
extant craters, though in his time two only, Iliera and 
Strongyle, were active volcanoes. Strabo iiideed (I. c. 
p. 275) appears to speak of volcanic erapticms in the 
island of Lipara itself, but his expre8si(ms, which 
are not very precise, may probably refer only to out- 
breaks of volcanic vapours and hot springs, such as 
are Btin £Dund there. Earlier writers, as Thucy- 
dides and Scymnus Chins, allude to the eraptions of 
Hiera (mly, and these were probably in ancient 
times the most frequent and violent, as they appear 
to have attracted much more attention than those of 
Strongyle, which is now by far the meet active of 
the two. Hence arose the idea that this was the 
abode of Vulcan, and the peculiar sounds that 
accompanied its internal agitations were attributed 

E 2 



to the lianuiters and fomos nf th<' f;«Hl and lii^. work- 
iiu'ii tlu- Cy« lojx's. ('I'linc. iii. 88; S-yiiin. ('li. '2'>7 
— 2(11; Sliul. ad ApolL Ilh<>d. iii. 41; \ iri,^ Ai u. 
vlii. 418). Airordiii;: to Stru!n> then' were tluvc 
cratiT.s oil tlii.s i>laiid, the larcfM «>f wliith was in a 
stat<* of till." must viokiit »M-U}>;inii. l\)l_vbiu.> (aj». 
Slnib. \\. p. 276), who apjKars to have \i.-ittd 
it himx'lf, dt'MTilH'd tlie jniuriial riMtt-r as live 
fctadia in cirrmiifi'renri', Imt diniini>irH)i; ;^radually 
to a uidtli of only fifty foot, and estimated its 
di'ptli at a statlium. From this < rater wire vomited 
forth s<»metime.> tiames,atotl)ers red hot stone.s, cinders 
and aNhe>, which were carried to a ^'reat distance. 
Xo ancient writer mentions streams of lava (/Suawts) 
.similar to those of Aetna. Tlu- intensity and cha- 
racter «»f thcftC eni|)ti«tns was said to \ary very nmch 
accordinix to the direction of the wintl, ami iVom 
these inilicatioiis, as well .'is the ^atlierini: of mi.sts 
and clonds aronnd the snmmit, the inhabitants of 
the nei^rhbonrin;^ i^^and of Lijiara prnto^Ai to fore- 
tell the winds and weather, a circiun^tan<e whirh 
was bdievod to have given rise to the fable <.t 
Aeolus ruling the winds. 1 he nujdern Lijwinot.s still 
maintain the same ]iretcnsion. (Strab, I. c. ; Sniyth's 
SiciJtj, i». 270.) At a later jhtioiI W'wyw seems |o 
lia\i' abated nmch tif its acti\ity, and the vouiiuei' 
i.utilins (a conteni[>ontry iA Seuet a) si)eak.s (»f its 
fires as in a gixat mca>nre cookd. (Lncil. Attn. 

We liear nuu h less from ancient antlinrs t.f the 
volcanic {)henomrria of .Stmnjyle than those of 
iiiera: but DiiKl.irus de>cri!ie>) them a.s of similar 
chanuti'r, while Strabo tells n.s that the eru]»tions 
Were less violent, but pnxluceil a more l)rilliant liLdit. 
riinv savs nearlv the same lliinir: and .Mela sin-aks 
of both lliera and Stron;rvle as " bnrnin'j with H-r- 
jx^lnal fnx'." Lucilius on tlie contrary {Ai (iut,-\'M) 
descriU's tlie latter as merely sniokinLS and im ca- 
sionally kindled into a bla/.e, but for a short time. 
Di'xiorus tell.> u> that the ern])tion.s both of Iiiera 
and StroriiTvlc* were ob>ervcd lor the mo>t part t<» 
alternate with those of Aetna, on which a<-count it 
was sujux^eil by many that th^re was a subter- 
ranean communication l»«-tueen them. 

Besides these onlinary volianit: jJienomena, which 
apjK-ar to have Urn in ancient times (a.s they ^till 
an* in the case of Stromholi) in ahno^t coii.stant 
oj^'nition, we tind mention of M'Veral mojx^ remark- 
able and unusual ontbur^ts. The earliest of thes*- 
is th*' one n*c<irde<l by Ari>t<»tle (Mttiorol. ii. 8), 
where he tells us that " in the island of Hiera the 
earth swelkil up with a loud noiv.., and ro>e into thi- 
form of a considenible hill-Kk, which at length }>ui>t 
and M'Ut forth not (tnly va|>our, but hot < inder.s and 
Holies in sueli (piautities that they <overed the whole 
city of LijKini. and some of them wrj-e canie<i even 
to the cojtst of Italy." The vent iVom which they 
is^ued (he adds) remained still vi.-ible; and thi> \\a> 
T-robablv one «)f the cnitcr.^ seen bv l'oI\l)iu^. At a 
later ]»'ri<»d I'osidonins dcMribr.1 an eruption that 
took place in the s^^-a Utween lliera and Kuon\mus, 
which after ]»nHlncing a \iolent aL^tation of the 
waters, arul destroying all the, eontiiuicd to }>our 
fodli nmd, lin* and suioke for seven»! days, and 
eufied with gi^ing rise to a small island of a r>Kk 
like mill>tone (lava), on which the praetor T. Fla- 
mininus landeil and oli'.-red sacriti(e>. (l*o>idon. ay*. 
S.fiih. vi. ]). 277.) Tliis event is me. tioned by 
l'o>idonius a.s occurring within his (»wn memory; 
and from the mention of Flamininn.-- as juae'or it is 
.ili.^bt ccrtiiin that it is the .--auic (iicuuj.>la!iee 


recorded by Fliny (ii. 87) .us occurring in 01. 165. 
*3, or It. <•. 120. The s,anie phenomenon is less 
a'curately dcsenlx-d by Julius ()bse.|uen.s (89) aod 
(>ro>ius (v. 10), Iwtth of whom contirm the abi»ve 
date: but the last anth<»r narrates (iv. 20) at a 
nmch earlier jx-riixl (h. t\ 18r») the .sudden emer- 
gence from the .sea of an inland, nhich he erron»i»n-ly 
sujti»o.-es to have Ihh-u the Vulcani Insula it.s«df: but 
which was ]>robably no other than the nxk now- 
called Vuh-diull"^ situated at the NK. extreirdty oi* 
T'///cr//M*, and united to that island onlv bv a narrow 
isthnms Ibrmcd of \olcauic Nintl and a■^hes. It still 
emits smoke and vajKtur and contains two small 

X<me of the A»i'lian islands, except Li}i.ara, apju-ar 
to have Iwen inhabited in .ancient tiuics to any ex- 
tent. Thucydides cxprcs.-ly tells u> (iii. 88) that iu 
his day Lij^ira .alone was inhabited, and the other 
island^, Strongyle, Didune, and Hicia, Avere cul- 
tivated by th»' Liparaeans; and this statement is 
continued by Diodorns (v. 9). Stralxt lu<we\€T 
sj>»'ak.-> of lOuonyums as uninhabiied in a manner 
that sei-nis to imply the l;iri:« r inlands wen- not 
so: and the reniain> of antii-nt bnildinijs which luivt; 
bi'cn l"ound not only on Sitlinn and Stroinholi. but 
ev.-n on the little ro4k oi' h'asiluzzii, prove that thev 
w.-re resorted to by the IJomaiis, jirobably for the 
.s;ike of medical batlis, for whieh the vojeanic vaj>*»urs 
altordcd every facility, lliera on the contniry ap- 
ji;in-ntly remained always nninhabititl. as it d(je.s at 
the present day. lint the excelliiiec of its port 
(Lutil. Aftii. 442) rcuderiil it of im)»ortance as a 
na\al station, and we tind both Ili'-ra and Striingyle 
o<cupi<-d by the tltrt of Augustus during the war witU 
Sex. r«inijK ins in i;. «•. 36. (Ajtpian. Ji. C. v. KU').) 
All the i>lands sntfcred gr<-;it disadvantage, as they 
still do, liom the want of water, on the 
liirht :inil }»or«iu> natun- of the \ol(anic .M>il. (I hue 
iii. 88; Smyth's N/r////. p. 249.) But though little 
.adapted for agriculture thi'V }k»»i->m«<1 jj^ieat re- 
.sources in their stores of alum. >ulphur, and ]*unu((*, 
whieh were dcn\cil bith from lliera an>l Stn^ngvje, 
an<l ex]Kii-t«.'d in lar-je quantities. The sea al-^* 
abound'd in ti'>h; ami ]iro<hutHl coral of the tine>t 
•piality. (I'liu. xxxii. 2. § 11, xxxv. 15. ^§ 50, 
52, xxxvi. 21. § 42: Lncil. Atfu. 4.32.) 

It is s« an <•!¥ nccessirv to iuiiuiix' which of the 
Aeolian i-l:in<ls has the most claim to l>e considered 
as tlie re.-ideiice of Aeolus him>elt. Homer ctatainly 
s)«-aks only of onr island, and is tollowi-^l in this 
r. >\nct by Virgil. lUit the " fl-.atiiii: i.^Iand " of the 
elder jHX't, "girt all around with a w.ill of^" j^ 
^carceiy susoptiblf of any jticii^e geogni]iln«-,'il ile- 
tcnnin.ition. Theidiumou tr;idiiion among the later 
(ircek> seems t<< ha\e cho.M'u the inland of l.ij.;ini 
it>e|f a> the tlwclling of .\eolus, and the exjdanation 
ol' the fable abo\e alluded to is evidently adaptt-il to 
thi> a-simiittiou. lint Strabo and I'liny l)oth phu'o 
the abnle of the nder of the Aviiid> in Strongyle, .-md 
the latter tian.-fers to that inland what others relatevl 
of lliera. I'tolimv on the (ontnirv, bv a .straiiije 
coiitu.-<iou, mentions the i■^land of Aeolus (AioKvu 
vyaus, iii. 4. ^ 17) as .s.^iucthinLT .altogether distinct 
IVom the Aeolian i-laiids. whieh he had j»re\ioiLs|y 
ciiumeratcd sepanitely : while KustathiiLs («</ //f>w. 
iff///.ift. X. I) rcck'tus it as one of the M'veii, omitting 
Fuonvinu> to make unnn for it, tlntugh in anotlu-r 

* The sHUiC e\ent aj')H\ir> to be more obscurely 
alhulcd to by Livy (xxxii,. oC>). 


pMMf^e (ad IHonjfi, Per, 461) he follows Strabo*s 
vahtontjt tod idendfitt it with Stztngyle. 

F(r aa account d the presmt state of the Upari 
Idamit and their vricaiuc phenomeiia the reader 
mar amsah Smjth'a SieUyj chap. Tii. p. 274 — 278 ; 
F«mn, Campi FUgrti deUa S^cilia, p. 199->252; 
Dubenr, Om Voletmoes, ch. 14, pp. 245-- 263, 2iid 
•fit. The hiatorj of the islaiide is almost wfaoU j 
ie^eo^a d oo that of Lipaba, and will be found in 
tlttt article. [E. H. B.] 

AFOLIS (AloXls, Aeotia), a district on the west 
tmA at Asia JiGoar, which is included bj Strabo 
ia the krgcr division of Mjsia. The limits of 
Aeo&s are variooslj defined hj the andent geo- 
paphtra. Stzabo (p. 582) jmkea the river Her- 
otet and Phocaea the aoolhem limits of Aeolis and 
tkuvthmi of Ionia. He observes (p. 586), 
llat ** aa Uomer makes osie of Aeolis and Troja, 
ad the Aeolians occnpied the whole coontrj from 
Ifca Homos to the coast in the neighbourhood of 
CfocTu and fimnded cities, neither shall I im- 
pniwtJj make my description bj putting together 
tkt vhkh is now properlj called Aed^, which 
dittib from the Hennas to Lectum, and the 
cDtntry which extends from Lectum to the Ae- 
mfm.' AeoKs, thecefore, properlj so called, ex- 
toM as hx north as the promontory of Lectnm, 
at tht Borthem entrance of the bay of Adramyttiom. 
TW bay of Adramyttiam is formed by the S. 
cBBit of the moontainoas tract in which Iliam 
itoi by the island of Lesbos, and by the coast of 
Atc&i S. of Admmyttiam, which runs from that 
tom in a SW. direction. The coast is irregnlar. 
Si«ih of the bay of Adramyttium is a recess, at the 
aorthcn point a£ which are the Hecatcnmesi, a 
eaoMnjas gnxip of small islands, and the southern 
hwtdaiy of which is the projecting pomt of the 
winliad, which lies nearest opposite to the southern 
otmnity of Lesbos. The peninsula cm which the 
tiwa of Phocaea stood, aepacmtes the gulf of Cume 
« the N. from the hay of Smyrna on the S. The 
i;alf flfCame receives the rivers Evenus andCalcus. 
7W territory of the (^ Aeolian cities extended 
Mtfawanl frxan the Hermus to the Caktis, com- 
pnoag the coast and a tract reaching 10 or 12 
BikB inlaod. Between the bay of Adramyttium 
■id the Caleos were the foDawing towns: — Cisthcne 
(Iis H » n , Ck i r i m hoi), on a promontory, a deserted 
f^ in SCxaho*s time. There was a port, and a 
opfMr mine in the interior, above Clithaie. Fur- 
tWr noth werv Coryphantis (Kopv^ovrfr), Hera- 
«kia(*l|^aKXc(a),and Attca ("Arrfo, Ajamat^hoi). 
Cvyphantis and Heracleia once bekmged to the 
MTtitmiianB Herodotus (i. 149) describes the 
tact qf fuontiy which these Aeolians possessed, as 
ffmtx m frrtilxty to the coontry occupied by the 
citin tf the Ionian confederatian, but inferior in 
■^kKite. He enizmerates the fbUowing 11 cities: 
Coie, called Phiioonis; Lerissae, Neon Teichos, 
Tcoaas, Cilia, Xotium, Aegiroessa, Pitane, Ae- 
peas, Mjrina, and Grynexa. Smyrna, which was 
■%iBaily one of theni, and made tlM number 12, 
MI mto the hands of the looians. Herodotus says, 
tte thcM U were an the Aeolian cities on the 
^■il a nd , except those in the Ida; " for these are 
"Pnted" (i 151); and in another {dace (v. 122) 
^■•Aalaa calls those people Aeolians who in> 
kitited the Ihas, or district of Dinrn. [G. L.] 

AHPKIA (Atma: Eth. AiVeirns). 1. One of 
^ •n«n li>M^Tiin towns, ofiered by Agamemnon 
to AxhiflBB^ ia supposed by Straho U be the same 



as Thuria, and by Pausanias the same as Corone. 
(Hom. //. ix. 152 ; Strab. p. 360; Paus. iv. 34. § 5.) 

2. A town in Cyprus, situated <m a mountain, 
the ruler of which is said to have removed to the 
plain, upon the advice of Solon, and to have named 
the new town Soli in honour of the Athenian. There 
is still a place, called Epe^ npcm the mountain above 
the ruins of Soli (Plut SoL 26; Steph. B. s. o.; 
Engel, Kjfproty vol. i. p. 75.) 

AEPY (Alw: Eth. Alw{rrris), a town in Ells, so 
called frnm its lofhr situation, is mentioned by Homer, 
and is probably the same as the Triphylian town 
Epeium ("Hvcioy, "Etiov, A/v^ov), which stood be- 
tween Macistus and Heraea. Leake places it on the 
high peaked mountain which lies between the villages 
c^ Vrmd and Anemo, about 6 miles in direct distance 
from Olympia. Boblaye supposes it to occupy the 
site of HeUenitta^ the name of 8(»ne ruins on a hill 
between Platiana and Barakou. (H<xn. IL ii. 592 
Xen. UeU. iU. 2. § 30; PoL iv. 77. § 9, iv. 80. § 13 
Strab. p. 349; Ste|^. B. s. 9.; Stat TUb. iv. 180 
Leake, Morea, vol ii p. 206; Boblaye, Recherchet, 
&C., p. 136.) 

(AIkoi and Aficoi/oi, Strab.; A2icayo(, Dion. Hal.; 
AlicovacXol, Ptol.; AiffcisAoi, Diod.), one of the most 
ancient and warlike nations of Itidy, who play a 
conspicuous part in the early history of Rome. 
They inhabited the mountainous district around the 
upper valley of the Anio, and extending from thence 
to the Lake Fudnus, between the Latins and the 
Marsi, and adjoining the Hemid on the east, and the 
Sabines on the west. Their territory was subse- 
quently included in Latium, in the more extended 
sense given to that name under the Boman empire 
(Strab. V. p. 228, 231). There appears no doubt 
that the Aequicuu or Aequioou are the same 
people with the Abqui, though in the usage of later 
times the former name was restricted to the inhabit- 
ants of the more central and lofty vallies of the 
Apomines, while those who aj^iroached the benders 
of the Latin plain, and whose constant wars with 
the Bomans have made them so familiarly known to 
us, imiformly appear tmder the name of Aequi. It 
is probable that their original abode was in the high- 
land districts, to which we find them again limited 
at a later period of their history. The AeqnicuU 
axe forcibly described by Virgil as a nation of rude 
mountaineers, addicted to the chase and to predatory 
habits, by which they sought to supply the defi- 
dendes of their rugged and barren seal (Virg. Aeru 
vii. 747; SiL ItaL viii. 371; Ovid. Fast. iii. 93). 
As the only town he assigns to them is Nersae, the 
site of which is unknown, there is some uncertainty 
as to the geographical position of the people of whom 
he is speaking, but he appears to place them next 
to the Marsians. Strabo speaks of them in one 
passage as adjoining the Sabines near Cures, in 
another as bordering on the Latin Way (v. pp. 231, 
237) : both of whi(^ statements are correct, if the 
name be taken in its widest signification. The form 
AEQUici7LA2n first appears in Pliny (iii. 12. § 17), 
who !iowever uses Aequiculi also as equivalent to 
it: he appears to restrict the term to the inhabitants 
of the vallies bordering on the Marsi, and the osAj 
towns he assigns to them are Carseoli and Clitemia 
At a later period the name appears to have been 
almost confined to the population of the upper valley 
of the ScUio, between Keate and the Lake Fucinus, 
a district which still retains the name of CwoUmo^ 
evidently a corruption from Aequiculanum. 

E 3 

->i AiJ.TL AEQUr. 

N'.) i!i.!I' ^t:l>n i- fuiul in any aiuicnt author of ar propo solcnnc m 5iiiLnil*>s anncs l>olIum," Liv. iii. 

til' ii" '-ri.:'! iT il(-i tilt : uut tli'-ir ^..Il^taIlt a^^it*ia- I.")). N'otwitli^tantiin^ the ex;«;^M:frati«>n> a)nl |j'«'ti>al 

ti^n wiili ti.«- \<>\'i i iif> \\.iu!.l lra<l u> to ivtVr theiii oinlH-lli>lnia-iit.s with wliicli th«- i»i^t<•ry ot" tln'>«* wars 

t'l a n.iiiniH'.i >t ■( k with tliat iiati"ii. aii-l thi> cir- ] h.i.s hr<Ti di^L'ui^oil, we may (li>coni ]<rftty ch-i^irly 

cniii^t:m'«', a< n<-|l as thi-ir jHisitiim in tin- nt-jir^'il ' throe iliticrfut {.■♦•ri«Hisor ]'ha^o> into which th'-y ir..jy 

uj.IiikI ili-tri< ts of the Aioiiniiu's, rfiiil.'rs it ].rohaMt; ' he iiivi<ictl. 1. Fnun n. c. 494 to about the time 

tliat tln-y iM-lMii^r.-d to tl)«- L'i«-at (Kian or Ausoiiian of tlie l)('c<'in\ irate u. c. 4'>() was tln' i'jMK-h of the 

racf, wliif ii, so far as our n-M'an h<'s < an (.'Xti'inl. may creatot jxiwcr and Murc>>«'s of th«' Ae<|iuan>. In 

]>•■ r<'_'ard<d a< th<' primeval |H'pii!ation of a hir^'c- ii. C. 463 thi'V arc fir.^t mciilioncd as cTii-anipin:: on 

]Mrt of <i-ntral Italy, 'lli'-y a|ij'<'ar to ha\o nMcivcd Mount Al^idu^. whirli fri'ii] thmcitorth lx.\aiiic tliC 

at a later jwri'xl a coiLsidfral'lf amount of Saliino ' con.starit .scene of the conlii( t.s l-ctwccn tii«'in and the 

iulluiiicc. and |»roh.d»ly .s(»nif adiiaxturc with tliat ! Komans; and it srcms certain that duritc tltii 

ra< e, c-i^rially wht-rc tho two natioim bordered on J^'HikI the Latin towns of liola, \'it«'Hia, Corbi>>, La- 

oih' another: but tln-re is no '_M-ound lor jusMimini; bicum, and rcdiim fell into th.cir hands. 1 he alli-ji-d 

niiy cninniimity of •»ri;rin (Nicl'uhr, vol. i. p. 72; victory of Cindnnatu.s in n. v. 4.*>8, on whi<|i w> 

Alx\nu..Ui((t^lJtiilitn,\>'[).4C>.47,>^4). nnu h stress has bi-rii laid bv s'.inc later wrii<Ts 

'I'lif Aeqiiian.s tir^t apjn'ar in llonian hist.iry as 
(K'cujjyini: th»' ruL'ir'"d mountain dj>tri< t at the hark 

(I'lonis i. 11), aji]«<'ars to have in reaHty d«>r.e little 
to (heck their pru::rc'-. 2. From li. c 4'A) to the 

of 1 iltur and {'ra'-ne-te (U)th of ^hi* h always eon- ' inva>i"n of the (laul.> their amis were ennij arati\e'.r 
tinned to Im' Latin to\vn>), and cxtendinu iVom misiu* essful : and th'iui:h avc lind them ^^ill con- 
tlienec to the (online^ of the Jlernicans. and the tendin;z on teniis with tlie Iloman^ and with 
valley iif the 'IVenis «»r .V/cco. l»ut they j^raduallv I many viusvitudes of tortmie, it is eh-ar that on tiie 
etiernaeht'd ni^on th<ir Latin nei_dilM)ur>. a!i<l ex- ! wh-rle thev had lost irromid. 'i he irreat vii t«>rv' 
tended their jtower to the nioimtain trout iumiediatelv ' ;:ained over them by the dictator A. I'ostnmius I u- 
ab>\e the j-laiiis (>f Latiinri. '1 hn^, whi<h ' U-rtus in R. <■. 428 may ]in'bably be rejard«-<l a< the 
ori'/inally a Latin town, was ueeupied hy them f.ra turninL:-j*oiut of their f.';1iuie> (Liv. iv. 26 — 21*; 
considerable jHTii-d (Liv. iv. 49): and thf.ULh they Diinl. ,xii. 04; Ovitl. /Vn/. vi. 721 ; Niebuhr, v<-l. ii. 
Were ni'\er altle to lednce the .strong; fortress <»f ]). 4.')4): and the \e;»r Ji. i . 41. j i^ the last in whirli 
I*raene-,te, thev ci.ntinuallv cr-'SM-d the v.dlev which ' "c tin«l them oecui'vin,: tleir cust..marv ixt^itioji on 
separaterl thein from tlie All'au hills .and fKa:uj<ied j Mount Aliridus (Liv. iv. 4."»). It i> i:oi inij»rubab]c, 
the heijlits of Mt. AL'idus. 'I'Ih- irreat develo])ment i ;^^ MiL'L'ested by Niehuhr. that the i^rowiuL: {«iwer of 
of their jKAver was cuinciilent with that of the \'<d- | the Sanmites, who were jiicssinr: un the N'nlscians 
^( ian<. with whom they wen- so constantly a.sso- ' UjK»n the side, may have drawn oti" t])e 
ciated, that it is jirobalde th.'it the names and ' force; of the Aei|uians abo to the suf'iiort of their 
oj.4'rations of t!ie two ii;,ti')tis have fre|Uently bi-en allies, and thus rendered them les^ able to f..},> ^^ith 
conf mnded. 'I'lius Ni.buhr has j>ointcd (.ut that the jx»wer of L'ome, Uut it i>s certain that Infure 
the «-oiiiiuest.s as-i'nied bv the jeixendarv hi^torv to ' the end ot'this iieritKl most of the town^ wliieh thev 

Coriolaiuis, douhtlex^ reprex nf not only th<»sc of the 
N'oNeiaiis. but ot the Ae pii Ills ;ib»: and the "c;i,s- 
tellmn ad laenm Fucinnm."' whieh Livy «b->erilM'.s 
(iv. r>7) :is taken iVom the Vobeian^ in u. <-. 4U.5. 
inu-t in all prohahihty h i\e b.-.-n an .Xepiian I'ortre-s 
(Niebuhr. Vol. i. p. 72, \ol. ii. pp. 244. 2.'/.<). It 
is impi-siMc here to recaj'ital ite the endless j-ettv 
Wars l.etwe.-n the Ae jiiiails and leiloins .- the |o|- 
lowin'r lirief >tmini«ry will supj-ly a ;.ential iHitline 
of their j.rinri[ial teatures. 

1 he fir-t mention of the .\e,jni in IJoman history 
is durinij the rei.-n <tf Tariiuiiiius I'riscus*, who 
wa^'ed war with tlic-m wi»li L'leat .success, :iud n'- 
ihiced them to at lea-t a no;iiinal submis>if»n (.*^trab. 

had cou'juerel from the Latins ha.l been airaiu 
Avre>ted tVoiii their hands. 3, At'ter the itiv:tsion of 
the (iauls the Ac.juiaus .appeir ;iirain in the tield, 
but with ::reat]y tlimini>he.| le-onrces: jirobaldv 
they Mitlered s^•vercly tVoin tlte s-ni i-.dxe swanus of 
barleinan in\aders whi<li 5>we|it o\rr this part of 
Italy: and after two im>uc(e>-!;d campai^'n^ in n. c. 
■JSi) a!id .'ivS') they appear to have ah in<ii m^i the 
conte-t as hoj«lr-^s: iiir does their iian:e ULrain a]>- 
]Kar in iJouian history for the spaee 1 f al-tve ^it) 
years. Kut in n. c. .'{1)4 the latc of tln-ir neijh- 
lM»ur> the llernieauv aroused them to a la-t sinii.u'le 
whieh terminated in their total ibleat .md subjei ti..n. 
Tlieir towns tell one alter aiu.ther into the h.ind> (.f 

v. ji.-J.'U ; C'ic.f/'' Ji'jt.'n. 2(»). 'Ihe second r.»r'|uin the vieti.nons L'oni.ans. ;ind the Ae<piian natit^n (»av> 
is abo mentioned a-* ha\inc: «on( hidnl a jteaee with Livy) a\;ls .almost ntterl_\ exteniiinat<il (Liv. ix. 4.")). 
thein, whieh ma\ j-rhajis refer to th»- s.amc tran.s- ' 'I'hi.s e\jtre>sion is hoW('\er cert liidv t'x;ij-L'«sl, 
action (Liv. i. .'iT); Nieltnhr. vol. i. j>. 3.')1>). Itut for we find them aLTaiii bavin:,' rccour.-e to .ar.n.s twice 
it was not till after the fall of the Hoinan monarchy Avithin the next few }.-ars, thou<;h on U>ih ma\u-i.>n.N 
that they ;i]»]M-ir in their more formidahle asjM'i t In without .smcess (Liv. x. 1, D). It w.i.s pn'b.itdv 
n. r. 494 they are lirst mentioned as invadint: the ' after the last of thc-e attempts that thev wore ad'- 
territory of the Latins, whidi led that jxMple to mittcd to the rights of Koman citi/eus: :ind b.-.-an^e 
ap|ily for :is>istance to jjoine: and from this time iutlutlcd in the two new tribes, the Anieii^JN :vn<l Te- 
f<>rth the wars ln-tween the AcjuiaJis and Vobcians ' rentina, whieh were creatctl at this }'<'riod (Cie. «/<? 
on the one ^\,\,\ and the L'omans ;«,ted by the | <^jf'. i. 1 1 : Liv. x. 9; Niehuhr, vol. iii. p. 207). 
Lritius and <<n the other, were events of 1 From this time tlie name of the Ac.jui alt"<; 
al;iio>.t re;,nilar .and annual reenrren(e (" statum jam I di.^aj'ii'ars jn>m history, .and would seem to have 

— - --- — — — ' fdlcn into di-n>c, bein:,' probably mcrp'd in iJnt 

* A tniditioji. stranu'ely at variance with the of the L;itins: but tho-e of Aequiculi an<l Ac»inieii_ 
«»ther ae< ounts of their hal'its and < har.actcr. repre- ' l.mi still <Kcur ibr the inh ihitants ,,{' jj,,, nj.lm.i 
.sellt^ them its tile jHi.j.jf tVoiii wh'>m the L'oinans and nntn- s, (ln<te.i \airie> whiih were iioi iiudialel 
deri\ed the .Fun Fetiale (Liv. i. .'12; I)ion. H.d. ii. A\ithiu the limits of L;itium. btit be|omr,Hl to tlu^ 
72). Others \^ith more jilau-ibility reterie.l this to louth re^-i -n of .Vn -ustus: and .aftcrw.ards to the 
the Ac'pii Falisii (S-rv. ail Am. \\\. (i9.">). 1 j >■ '^ ince * all.-d Naleria. in lii'jHaial limes \vc cwn 


fiad Ac Acqaknlani ia the rallej of the Salto oon- 
etitBUDg a reyralar mtmicipal hodj, so that ** Bee 
PoUka AeqwcaUDamm " and a " Momcipiam Ae- 
m iituhD om m* are fboxul in inscriptiona of that 
jMDaa (OnU. no. 9931 ; ^im. deU, In$L rd, vi. 
p^ 111, not.). Probablj thie was a mere agj^regation 
1^ Mattered villagei and hamlets sndi as are still 
Umd m the ^strict of the Cicolamo, In the Liber 
CufanianBD (pw S55) we find mentkm of the " Ecicy- 
hum ifor,* eridentlj a oomptko of Aeqnioolanas, 
t» is iImwd bj the recorreoce of the same form in 
ckrtcn nd d u ci u ue nts of the middle ages (Holsten. 
•at ad Cheer, p. 156). 

h is not a little wenarkahle that the names of 
aoredj aoj- dtka beluoging to the Aeqmans have 
Wn tnutfndtted to na. LiTj tells ns that in the 
ktMft campaign of b. c 304, /ortf-one Aeqnian 
(MBS were taken hj the Boman oonsnls (ix. 45): 
hot he mrntinns none of them bjname, and from the 
mm and nfoditj with which thej were reduced, it 
ii peitafck that they were places of little importance. 
HsBTof the smalkr towns and Tillages now scat- 
tend in the hill coontiy between the rallies of the 
Smx9 mid the Anio probablj oocnpjr andoit sites: 
tw ti thoe, CwiUUa and OUfDomo, present remains 
tf ififxnt waUs snd sobstmctions of mde polygonal 
SBsaarf , which mny probably be refinrred to a ireiy 
«|T pcciod (Abekcn, MitUl ItaUm, pp. 140, 147; 
BdktL deO. Im&L 1841, p. 49). The nomeroas 
*mi|M flf apciept cities found in theyaUey of the 
Ma», nay abo belong in many instances to the 
I ■{■■■, rather than the Ab3Hgines, to whom they 
km beoi generaDy referred. The only towns ex- 
ynmkf asBgned to the Aeqmcnfi by PHny and Pto- 
kvjsrBCAXSEOLi in the upper ralley ofthe TWono, 
■dCumanA in that of the 5aAo. Tothesemay 
W added Alba Fccbnsis, which we are expressly 
taU by Liry was founded in the territory of the 
Acqiiau. thoogh on aooonnt of its superior im- 
pBtace, Pliny ranks the Albenses as a separate 
p«#(P&iyiiL 12. 17; PtoLiiLl.§ 56; Ut.x. 1). 
Vaiu, which is assigned to the Aequians by several 
m dua writers, nppears to have been properly a 
Mioe town. Nbbsak, mentioned by Virgil {Aen. 
tn. 744) as the chief place of the Aeqniculi, is not 
•Hioeil by any other writer, and its site is wholly 
lanntain Bcsiifaa these, Ptiny (t c.) mentions the 
^misL, Tsifiates, CaedJd, and Alfatemi as towns 
w fWMM ai iiiia s of the Aeqniculi, which had ceased 
I* cart in his tiooe: all four names are otherwise 
«My nknmn. [E. H. B.] 

flUaeai), a Boomn fort in Upper Pannooia, situ- 
itod Qp« the Dwrabe, and according to the Notitia 
liiparn, the quartos of a squadron of Dalmatian 
walrr. (Tab. Pent.; Itin. Antonm.) [W.B.D.] 

AJSOPTS, a moontain in Greek Olyria, on the 
rlMT AflOB, and oppcaate to Mount Asnaus. Aeropns 
^■baUy <iaieepimli to Trtbmait^ and Asnaus to 
SmMaJtn. (Lit. xxxiL 5 ; Leake, Northern 
C»wre, vdL L p. 389.) 

AESETCS (i A2rif«ot), a river of Northern 
Mvw, meiitinnfd by Homer (77. n. 825, &c.) as 
A>«iBg past Zfpleia, at the foot of Ida; and in another 
fimt9 {tl, JM. 21) m one ofthe streams that flow 
^ Ua. According to Strabo's interpretation of 
r, the Amepns was the eastern boundary of 
The AflvpQS is the largest river of Mysia. 
to SCimbo, it risea in Mount Cotylus, one 
d !h» •onansti </ Ida (p. 602), and the distance 
its saorce and its outlet is near 500 stadia. 



It is jmned on tlie left bank by the Caresns, another 
stream which flows fnmi Cotylus; and then taking 
a NE. and N. course, it enters the Propontis, be- 
tween the mouth of the Granicus and the dty of 
Cyzicus. The modem name appears not to be 
clearly ascertained. Leake calls it Boklu. [G. L.] 
AESEKNIA (AlfffpWa: £th, Aeeeminus; but 
Pliny and later writers have £8eminus),a city of Sam- 
nium, included within the territory of the Pentrian 
tribe, situated in the vaUey of the Vultumus, on a 
small stream flowing into that river, and distant 14 
miles from Venafrum. The Itineraiy (in which the 
name is corruptly written Semt) places it on the road 
from Aufidena to Bovianum, at the distance of 28 
M. P. finom the former, and 18 from the latter; but the 
fonner number is corrupt, as are the distances in the 
Tabula. (Itm. Ant p. 102; Tab. Pent; Plin. iii. 
12. 17; PtoL iu. 1. § 67; SU. Ital viii. 568.) The 
modem dty of Isemia retains the andent site as 
wen as name. The first mention of it in history 
occurs in b. c. 295, at which time it had already 
fallen into the hands of the Romans, together with 
the whdie valley of the Vultumus. (Liv. x. 31.) 
After the complete subjugation of the Samnites, a 
colony, with Latin rights (colonia Latina) was settled 
there by the Romans in b. c. 264; and this is again 
mentioned in b. o. 209 as one of the dghteen which 
remained &ithful to Rome at the most trying period 
of the Second Punic War. (Liv. Epdt xvi. xxviL 
10; VeU. Pat L 14.) During the Social War it 
adhered to the Roman cause, «ad was gallantly de- 
fended against the Samnite general Vettius Cato, by 
Maroellus, nor was it till after a long protracted e\ege 
Uiat it was compelled by fomine to surrender, b. o. 
90. Henceforth it continued in the hands of the 
confederates ; and at a later period of the contest 
afforded a shelter to the Samnite leader, Papius Mu- 
tilus, after his defeat by Sulla. It even became for 
a time, after the successive foil of Corflnium and 
Bovianum, the head quarters of the Italian allies. 
(Liv. Epit Ixxii, Ixxiii.; Appian. B. C. i. 41, 51; 
Died, xxxvii. Exc Phot. p. 539 ; Sisenna ap. Noimtmj 
p. 70.) At this time it was evidently a place of 
importance and a strong fortress, but it was so se- 
verely punished for its defection by Sulla after the 
final defeat of the Samnites, that Strabo speaks of it 
as in his time utterly deserted. (Strab. v. p. 238, 
250.) We team, however, that a colony was sent 
th«re by Caesar, and again by Augustus; but appa- 
rently with little success, on which account it was re- 
colonized under Nero. It never, however, enjoyed the 
rank of a colony, but appears from inscripdons to 
have been a municipal town of some importance in 
the time of Trajan and the Antonines. To this 
period belong the remains of an aqueduct and a fine 
Roman bridge, still visible; while the lower parts of 
the modem walls present considen^le portions of 
pdygonal constraction, vdiich may be assigned dther 
to the andent Samnite dty, or to the first Roman 
colony. The modem dty is still the see of a bishop, 
and contains about 7000 inhabitants. (Lib. Colon, 
pp. 233, 260 ; Zumpt, de Cohmis^ pp. 307, 360, 


E 4 



392: Inscrr. ap. Koinan'-lli, v<.l, ii. pp. 470, 471 : 
('niven'fi Ahruzzi, v«>l. ii. p. 8'J; lloaivs Cli^slcdl 
'Jour, vol. i. p. 227.) 

Tin* c«>iiis of AoNrrnin, wliit-h arc fminl only in 
ci'j'iHT, ;iiul havt^ the 1»'l'«'ii<1 aiskknino, Ik.'I'Ui; to 
the jxtiikI of tin* tir-t K<'ii'an coli.ny; tla* stylo of 
tlu'ir t'xccution uttt'«.ts the intinciuc of the iiei.^h- 
boiirini,' C.'ainjiaiii.i, (^Mil!iu::eii, y,inti'iiii'ifi'jNr dt: 
ritalle, p. 218.) [K.II. I'..] 

AK'."sl('A, was a IJoinan frontier (a>.tle in the 
line of llailriaii's ranijuirt, and |)roliaIily (■orre>j>'>inls 
to the site of ^//7 ((^-/f'.v^ r. It is, however, pl;i< nl 
by some anti'piarifs at the l>ani>h villa,:e of A'»> 
thti'lij, on the river Esk. It is n)entione<l by 
(Jeor^e of Iliivenna, and in \\v^ Sntlila Impfrii, and th" ipiarters of I. Astoruin. [\V. W. D.J 

AKSIS (A/Tt5, Strab. ; Ala'ivos, App.), a river on 
the e:Lst coast of Italy, which rises in the Aj^Mniines 
near Matilica, antl tl>>\v5 into the Aijriatic, K^tweeu 
Aneona and S'na (ialli<-a; it is still (idled the Eaiiio. 
It con>tituted in early ti^nes the boundary between 
the territory of the Seiionian (Jauls and Pieennni; 
an<l was, therefore, rei:ar<led as the iiortlnni limit of 
Italy on the >ido of the Adriatic. But after the de- 
struction (»f the Smioucs. when the confines of Italy 
were extendiHi to the Hubit ou, tlie Ac-is fn-i-ame the 
boundary In'tween the tuo province.', of I.'mbria and 
Picenuin. (Strab. v. pj). 217, 227, 241 ; I'lin. iii. 
14. 19; Mela. ii. 4; Ptol. iii. 1. ij 22, wh.'re the 
nanje is cf»rruptly written 'A fl-ios; Liv. v. 3.5.) Ac- 
cording: to Sihus Italicus (viii. 440) it <lerived its 
ain-ellatio!! from a l'ela-' chief of that najne. who rule.l over this part of Italy. Th'-re <an l)e no 
doubt the Aesinus of A]'])ian {Ii. (\ i. 87). on 
the l)anks of which a f^reat battle w.'is fouirht b'-tween 
Metcllus .and Caruias. the lientenant of Carbo, in 
B. c. 82, is the same with the Ae-is of other wiiters. 

In the Ituierary we tind a station (ad Af.sim) .at 
the mouth of the river, which wa.> distant 12 M. I*. 
from S^'iia Gallica, and 8 iVom Ancna. (It hi. Ant. 
J. ..310.) [K. II. H.] 

AE.SIS or AE'SII'M {kUis, Ptol.; Ar-rioi'. Strab.; 
Kth. Aesinas, -atiN), a tomi of I'nibria situated on 
the X. bank of the rivt-r of the same name, about 10 
niile> I'rom its mouth. It is still called hsi. ajxl is 
an ej>iscoj>;il town of some cousider.ition. Pliny men- 
tions it only as an ordinary munii town: but we 
learn iVom several inscriptions that it was a IJoman 
colonv. thou;;hthe |ieriod when it att.ainnl this rank 
is unknown. (In^rr. aj». Gruter. p. 440. 1. 2; 
Orelli. no. .3899. .3900; Zumj^t, de Culon. \\ 3.".9.) 
AccrdiuL' to Pliny (//. A', xi. 42, 97) it wa^ n >teiJ 
for th«* exeellence of its chee>e.s. 

The form Ae>iuni, which is found only in Strabo, 
is )»robably erron<'ous, PuTiov beini:, aeeuniiu:^' to 
Kramer, a «-orrupt readinix for 'A(Tia-iOi'. (^trab. v. p. 
227; Ptol. iii. l.ij .W; Plin. iii. 14. 19.) [E. II. H.J 

AESI'TAE (A/airai or hvahat, Ptol. v. 19. ^ 2; 
romp. Bixhart. J'/tahff. il. 8), were jirobably the 
inhabitants of th" reirion uj^on the InirdiTs of Ghal- 
daea. which the lb-brews tle>iirnated a^ the land of 
V'Z {Ji'h,'\. 1, XV. 17 ; J< rtf/i. xxv. 20)- ;»i"l ^\ hicii the 
70 tran-lators render by the word Aualris (ettmp. 
Winer, B'lhl. RtiiltrdrUrh. mA.W. p. 75.")). Strab » 
(p. 707) calls the KciiioAesitanim Marina (MavtW;). 
'Ihev were a nom.adc race, but from th<-ir jxoses^in;; 
liouses and vill.tL'cs, h id apparently .settled j>astures 
on the Chaldaean U.rder. ' [W. B. D.J 

AESON or AESO'XIS (Afrraji', Aicwvis: l-Jh. 
Al(Tu!Uios), a town of MauTie^ia iti Tlies-aly. the 
luime of which b derivcvl from Aeson, the father uf 


' Jason. (Aj>)ll. liliml. i. 411, and Sch*!.; Stoph. 
B. .>-. r.) 

I Al-!'STl'I ( tliis is the currect n-adinir), a p«'o}!le 
of (icrmany, coiisi>tini: of several tril>es (Ae.^tuo- 
rnm ^''nte*;), whose m.amicrs .are minutely de?criUii 
b\ T,i<itu>^ ((rV /•//<. 4.')). They dwelt in the NE. of 

j (Jerm.any, (»u the SE. or E. of the Baltic, U>rderini; 
on tlie \'enedi of Sannatia. In their ^reneral a[>- 

I jH'arance .and rnamiers they re•^cmbbHi the Suevi; 

I their lanixuaire wxs nearer to that of Britain. 'Ihey 

' worshij'irt'd the mother of the ^.Hlv,in wh'«se honour 

I they Wore ini.a;:es of boars, whiih served them as 

' amulets in war. They h:ul little iron, ;iiid useti 

I clubs iu'-tead of it. 'i'hev worke<l more lijilientlv ;it 

1 tillini: the land than the rest of the (ienijaius. Ihev 
tr.atlu-red amber on their coasts, ^ellimr it for the 

' Ii'onian market, with astonishment at it.s price. 

I They called it (iltAffim, ]>erha})s (iln.'t, i. o. //A/.v*. 

I They are also mentioiipd by Ca>siodorus ( IV/r, v. 

' Ep. 2.) They were the occupant:? of the jtresent 
cojust of J*ruc:si(i and ('nurlnnd, as is evident bj 
what Tacitus .siys .alH)ut tleir <ratherini:j amber. 

j Their name is pn>b,ibly c<»llective, and sitjnities llie 
E:ist men. It ap|M'ars to have re.iclie<l Tacitas in 

' the fomi Knsti-, .and is .still ]treser\ed in the nuAlcrn 
EsthfU, the (i<-i'man name of the Esthonians. The 
statement of Ta<itu--, the lani:aai:e of the Aestiii 
was nearer to that of Britain, is expl.iiiutl by Dr. 

I Lathrun l)y th-- suppovition that the laiiuMiaire of the 
Aestui wa> then called /V-?/.-'^'/^^, and that the i-iuii- 

I larity of this word to JiritUh caused it to Ih' mi«i- 

I taken fir the latter. On the various <jue>tiuiis 
re>[KH^tiii:j: the .V'stui. see I'kert, vol. iii. ].t. i. \>\i, 
420 — 422, and Latham, THk (jtrnian'm of Tori/us^ 
p. 100. se.p *[P. S.J 

AE'>ULA(AVA. Ae.sulanus), a city of Eatiiiui, 
ni'iiiioued by Pliny auion^ tho->e whirh in hi> time 
had entirely ceased to exi>t (iii.."). i; 9). It a]i|«-ars 
from hi^ .statement t<» have been one <<t' the c<tlo!d»*s 
r>r de|HMiilen< ies of Alba, but it.^ nan;c »l"<-s n^t maiir 
in the e.irly hist.iry of pome. In the .S'<-oi)il Puido 
War, h(»\\(-\cr, the Arx Aesidania is mentionisj bv 
Eivy as one of the .stn>!iuhoKl> whiih it wa> difnuni 
nece>.-ary to o(«upy with airani^.n on the a}'prc-:udi 
of llamul>al. (Eiv. xx\i. 9.) The well-kuowu .allu- 
sion of Horace (Curui. iii. 29. 0) to the " d. alive 
arvum" shnw.^ that its name at le;L"<t was 
still finuliarly kuown hi his day, whethv-r the citv 
still existed or not, and p^int- to it^ situation in full 
view of pome, prob.ibly on th«' hill> near Tibtir. 
(i(-ll has with much prubability }»laced it on the 
slojH' nf the mountain t'all«-<l Montt^ AjUiano, aUnit 
2 miles SE. of Tivoli, which is a cou-piciious t)l^- 
ject in the view from Ponu', and the suininit of 
whit h connnands .an extensive pro^jK-ct, so ;L>i tu 
render it wdl ada}'ted for a l(M)k-out st.ation. The. 
^Vrx mentioned by Eivy w;ks jmjbably on the sumndt 
of the nioimtain, and tlie town lower «lo\vii, where 
(ii-ll ob-erved vevtiL'e.> of ancient road«-. an<l *• niauv 
founilalions of th«- ancient walK in irre„'ular bl.K'ks." 
iSibby Mi]»|H»-c> it t" have .H-cujiicd a hill, call«-<i in 
the mitlilje .ai:e^ t\>Ur Ftutsthtiitiio, which is a low^r 
otf-hiNit of th«- same m«.unt:u]i, further towanls the 
S. ; but this }»osition diM-s not >»-ein to conv.siKiu*! so 
well with the «•^pre^^i .us either of Eivy or ILirat-e. 
(Gell. To]>')f/ra/>/{>^ f>/ Rnriu\ p. 9 ; Nibby. />tM^,r«i 
di Rnina.yol. i. p. 32.) Veil, ins Paterculus (^i. 14) 
sjH-aks of a Col my bcini: s^'ut in the %ear 240 u. c. 
to Aesili'M; but it >eems im]M».xvible that a plut^ 
So cl'ise to liome itself .-hoi dd have Imcu <'ol<<lu/^^i .'it 
so late a {>* ritnl^ and that no .subsequent uieuliou 


ibottU be faoDd of it; it is therefore probable that 
vr tinjoid read AacuLUM. [£. H. B.] 


AETBAEA (AMu«: ZO. Aieattis), a town of 
M wuiik of ankDown aite, the inhabitants oi which 
pTtikad 6un Sparta with the Thoriatae in b. c. 
464. (Thae. L 101 ; Steph. B. t. v.) 

AETHIXJES, a barbaroos Epirot dan, who lived 
bj- nUberjf ate placed by Strabo on the Thessalian 
»Rk id Kodiu. Thej are menttooed by Homer, 
vho rdata that the Centaon, expelled by Peirithous 
fna Ml PetioQ, took refiige among the Aethices. 
(Bra. II iL 744; Strab. pp. 327, 434; Steph. B. 

AETHiaPIA (^k Al0u»rta, Herod, iii. 1 14; Dion 
Ctti. fir. 5; Strab. pp. 2, 31, 38, &c; Plin. H. N, 
r. 6. $ a, TL 3a § 35; Seneca, Q. N. iv. 2, &c; 
Sqik.R.: EdL jJeio^, AZ^iovf^, Aethiope, fern. 
kiimns: Adj. Al9wwuc6s^ Aethiopicua: the Kubh 
d tk Hebrews, Ezech. zxxjjl 10; Job. xzviii. 19; 
Aboi iz. 7), oorropoods, in ita more extended ac- 
cef(ili«x, to the modem regions of Nubia^ Senaaar, 
iard^fm and northern Abyadma. In describing 
iiC>)Bii|sB bowercr, we most distinguish between the 
•Bpiogwit of the name as an ethnic or generic 
«!«eDatiaa so tbt ooe hand, and, on the o^ber, as 
n^rictsd to the province or kingdom of MeroS, or 
tk dnhnd Aettuopia (i^ AiBunrla &wkp Af/virrov, 
«M Afyvrrar, Herod. E. 146; Ptol. iv. 7.) 

Artkiofia, as a generic or ethnic designation, 
riBmiMi the inhabitants of Africa who dwelt be- 
twa thi eqnator, the Bed Sea, and the Athintic, 
if Stebo speaks of Hesperian Aethiopians S. of the 
f^mrm snl Uaori, and Uerodotns (iv. 197) de- 
efta tbem as occof^ring the whole of South Libya. 
TW Bsaie Aethiopians is probably Semitic, and if 
'nlfmuu s, certainly ao, since the Aethiopic language 
» pan Stmitk. Mr. Salt says that to this day the 
JUrTMsiaas call themselves Jtiapjawan, The Greek 
t^4;n{ibeni however derived the name from cUB^t — 
M, aid sppfied it to all the son-bumt dark-com- 
fvxMied reces above Egypt< Hat)dotus (iii. 94, 
^ 70) indeed speaks of Aethiopians of Asia, whom 
kjvUtUv so des^^nated from their being of a darker 
IH thu their immediate neighbours. Like the 
A<rtinptniofthe Kile, they were tributary to Penia 
« the nipi of Darina. They were a straight-haired 
^^^ vinie their Libyan namesakes were, according 
b tb» hiMocian, wooUy^haired. But the expression 
(MAircrtr jplxmfia) must not be construed too 
^'v^, as neither the ancient Aethiopians, as de- 
^■tsnd on the monaments, nor their modem repre- 
ntitim^the Biahiries and ShangaUas, have,8trictly 
^csAasK, the nef^ro-hair. The Asiatic Aethiopians 
^ w epestrian people, wearing crests and hc^ 
nade of the hide and manes of horses. From 
{l c) we infer that they were a Mongolic 
foisted in the stei^tes of Kurdistan. 
Tl* tkvadarics of the African Aethiopians are ne- 
^■rily indefinite. If they were, as se^ns probable, 
^ acotors of the ShangaUas^ Bithdrus, and Nu ■ 
fam, tkdr firootiere may be loosely stated as to the 
^^ Or Abjnankn Highlands, to the W. the Libyan 
^am, ti the K. E^TpC and Marmarica, and to the 
L tk ta&B Ocean and the Bed Sea. The boun- 
<*M </ Asthiopia Proper, or Meroe, will admit of 
=*» t^'^icnkr definitkn. 

TW Eastern frontier however being a coast line 
=■? U 4Acribed. It extended from kt. 9 to lat. 
U X. Beginning at the headland of Prasum (Cape 
^ *«•*), where Africa Biirbaria commences, wc 



come snooesaively npcm the promontory of Bhaptum 
('Fairr6if lpos\ Noti Comu (N^ow 'c^P^u)} Point 
Zingis (Ztyyff), Annnata (ipuftdrȴ SJcpoy. Cape 
Gttorda/ui)^ the easternmost point of Africa; the 
headland of Elephas (*EAc^ar: Djebel Feeh or Cape 
Felix); Mnemium (Mrq^iby: Cape Caimez), the 
extreme spur of Mt. Isium ("Icrfoi' ^')» <^* &ially, 
the headland of Barium, a little to the souUi of the 
Sinus Immundus, or Foul Bay^ nearly in the parallel 
i£ Syene. The coast line was much indented, and 
contained some good harbours, Avaliticus Sinus, 
Aduliticus Sinus, &c, which in the Macedonian era, 
if not earlier, were the emporia of an active commerce 
both with Arabia and Libya. (Ptd.; Strabo; Plin.) 

From the headland oi Bazium to Mount Zingis, a 
barrier of primitive rocks intermingled with basalt and 
limestone extends and rises to a height of 8000 
feet in some parts. In the north of this range were 
the gold mines, from which the Aethiopans derived 
an abundance of that metaL Aethiopia was thus se- 
parated from its coast and harbours, which were ac- 
cessible from the interior only by certain gorges, the 
caravan roads. The western slope of this range was 
also steep, and the streams were rapid and often 
dried up in summer. A tract, called the eastern 
desert, accordingly intervened between the Arabian 
hills and the Nile and its tributary the Astaboras. 
The river system of Aethiopia differed indeed consi- 
derably from that of Egy^jt. The Nile from its 
junction with the Astaboras or Tacazzi presented, 
during a course of nearly 700 miles, alternate rapids 
and cataracts, so that it was scarcely available for 
inland navigation. Its fertilising overflow was also 
much restricted by high escarped banks of limestone, 
and its alluvial deposit rarely extended two miles on 
either side of the stream, and more frequently covered 
only a narrow strip. Near the river dhourra ia millet 
was rudely cultivated, and canals now choked up with 
sand, show that the Aethiopians practised the art of 
irrigation. Further from the Nile were pastures and 
thick jungle-forests, where, in the rainy seasons, the 
gadfly prevailed, and drove the herdsmen and their 
cattle into the Arabian hills. The jungle and swamps 
abounded with wild beasts, and elephants were both 
caught for sale and used as food by the natives. As 
rain falls scantily in the north, Aethiopia must have 
contained a considerable portion of waste land beside 
its eastern and western deserts. In the south the 
Abyssinian highlands are the cause of greater hu- 
midity, and consequently of more general fertility. 
The whole oi this region has at present been very 
imperfectly explored. The natives who have been 
for centuries carried off by their northern neigh- 
bours to the slave-markets are hostile to strangera. 
Bruce and Burckhardt skirted only the northern 
and southern borders of Aethiopia above Meroe : jungle 
fever and wild beasts exclude the traveller from the 
valleys of the Astapus and Astaboras : and the sanda 
have buried most of the cultivable soil of ancient 
Aethiopia. Yet it is probable that two thousand 
years have made few changes in the general aspect 
of its inhabitants. 

The population of this vague region was a mixture 
of Arabian and Libyan races in combination with the 
genuine Aethiopians. The latter were distinguished 
by well formed and supple limbs, and by a fiicial 
outline re-embling the Caucasian in all but its in- 
clination to prominent lips and a somewhat sloping 
forehead. The elongated Nubian eye, depictured on 
the monumenU, is still seen in the ShangaUas. As 
neither Greeks nor Bomans penetrated beyond Napata. 

r,8 AinillOPIA. AKTHIOrlA. 

till' ;inrit-nt o;i] nf M.'nu'. unr aroivint^; of tlio ' monccil a lit tli^ above the modem villa-^o of A'/mrfm/m, 

\.iriuiis Ai'tlii"iii.iit tiiUs .-in' cnImmih-Iv mmuIv aiid whin- tin- //'////•<'/ .k/rX-, Bluf or l>ark liiver.> 

|^'^|ll^■vi^.'. Their jiiiii.iinl il:viNi..ii> wrn' the ('ol-''»i, uiili tin- /A/Ar </ J/>a?'/.t.r White Nile. (Lat. 13^ 

thi- UK-mmycs. tli.- Iri!iyw|,h.ii;i. tht- Macrubii. and 37' X., l-iii:. 33^ K.) The desert yoi Bahu>u<Li m 

tli«' rr.>L'l'Hlvtae. I5ut hf-id.- thfse A\<'n' variolic th.' Irft hank of" tin* Nil(» tonruxl its \ve>teni 

trie's. iTohahlv however <»t" th<' same st«'«k, whiili it«i castiTii tVoiiticr was the river A>talw>ras and the 

\vcri' ili-vi-Miatcd aceonlinuMu thrir j-(uli;ir (lift and tinrtlnTii nj-laiiil of Ahy»ima — the KpTjfUfoi ttjj 

t'm).l..\ Incuts. Tl)«- llhi/<'i'iiai:i '*r Ut^.t-caters. who 'Apa^las of l)i(Mli.rus (i. 33). To tlie N. A«*thi.>j/u 

fi'.l ujw'ii dhourni knc.ido*! with th<- hark of trees; the '\va> l>ound<d hy ;i j.nAinrt- called UtwiocasfliocniL- or 

(.'ri'tij'h.iuM, who lived on Uiilctl tloh. and wi-re a Aethinj.ia Aciry|iti — a dihatcahle land Mdjt'ct soiiii^- 

pa t.>ral triU'; the t'hclcn<>j.ha::i, whose t(HMl was times t" tlie Tliehaid and sometimes to the kiiu:^ (.<f 

shell-ti-h eanuht in tlie saline esiuarie.s; the Ai'ri.lo- Mer<»<'-. The iii_di civihVation of Aetlii<'j/ia, a-s at- 

I'ha-^i <ir IiH-nst- eaters: the Stnithe]-ha^i and Kle- tested hy hi-»furians and coiihrnietl by its UK'numeiits, 

]'lian!"j'iini:i, who hunttd tlie ostrich and ehjihant. was eont^ned to tih* in^nlar .area of Mer<»t* and to 

anil some others who, like the inhabitants of the Aethio],!;! A-'ifvpti. and i< nion- jarticularly J-^- 

is!.ii;l «ii^';uida. tiH>k their name from a j'lrti'idir st.ribi-d !uid«T tiie head of Mkkok. 

locilitv, 'I'he f illowiii^-. however, ha-l a fixed ha- The e,.:;:,.(tion between Ki^yj.t and Aetliloj.ia w !•« 

l':ta!i>n, abhoujli we lind them ocea>ionnll\ men- at all ]^';;ikK \cry intiniat*'. 'j'he inhabitan'^ "f 

ti"ied ;;! >o;:ie distance from the probable site ot" tlie the Nile \;il>y and of Aelliioj.ia were indeed br.ii.eb-:* 

iv.aiu tr;b.'. of liie saine lla'oite stream, and din<'r«M| fi.]\ in 

(l.^) The r.i.r.vnn I s. and Mia;AiLvr.i. who <lw. It d-jn-e of ii\ili-atioii. Wiicther relijioii and the .^irts 

between the Arabian hilU and the /V<-(/::. were ae- de-(e;n!<d or a^(.ei,i!ed tiie Nile ha^ b»n_' been a 

eonlin.: to (>uatremere de (Viiney (^.l/» vo //•,.< s-ir vub;.vt ot" d;-cu->ioii. Tr.en lbTi><l"ta-^ (ii. '2'.^) it 

r /'<' ii>!'\ n. \K \'27), the .-nil e-vt-irs of the ni'v'^Tn w.eiJd a; ]«'ar t!iar tiie wor^hiji of Am^ivm an<l « Kiris 

/)'•">,''■. -e/f ,<.'. wlio'ji earlier w i".t'T> denonin iti- /)'/>r (/eu>, auii I>i' !;y-;u-) wa-. ieijarted by Meri<t* to 

/v /,''f<. d'hoy j-racti-ed a rudeki',1 ! t,t"a_'-r;aii'ar. : but l"_yj'I. He- a'..:iuil ]'r'ee-si,.n ,,[' the Holy Sliip, 

the _-:iater [art were herd.>;.an. hu:.t'i>, a:. I (..ira\an with the -hri'.K' of th ■ Kau;-lieaded ,::'>il. fn-rn TlHSrS 

LTui.'.e^. [ i'.i i.MMVi s. j {^'2) K iin<M'iiA<.;i er rMi- to the Libyan -i/ie >i the Nile. a> d<-|.ic!ed <ea tb: 

ealet-N. dwelt on tlie sea eoa-t i« tAvteii the S:!:u- i<-r j le ot" Kari.ak a:..i on se\er:d Nabiaii n.«-r.unieLt-, 

Adaheus an I the II. _;o I'rujI ^'.ytiea. and. ot all the-e ; •% ' ably e 'n.:;.e;i:'.ra!e> tlie !i.:_-ration «>f AniDX-ti- 

.sa\a.:e raee.s were pri'bablv the Last <.i\i!ised. Ac- w..r>!iii- fr on M r'-" to L"; t er KL:\{-t. I)i»lon.i> al.vj 

o>r\!:ii^ to l>iotb'ni>. :!u- Ivlhy.'j-hi^i w, re a tiejr idi>l >ay> (iii. 3) tb,' a!i've M« r'K- worship 

bra:\ U of the rro_!,'dvtae. 1"!;. ir dwells. j> w.-re l->. I'an. Henul- -. a: .1 /.eU->: ar.d fu^ assertion wov/.d 

tbt'ts :»rl h 'lev ill the r-^ks. ard tliey did r.>t e\en f'e ( nt^rn -^i b\ n ^ .'.i-.nei.t- ii. I'I'I-'T Nubia l^'.a.n'.^ 

j..v^,->> ,;::\ t> iMip!e;nent->. bat 1^1 on t!:e f-h th- liva.i of !•>;>. c\'.. « '-.;'. I w..- Ii.- i crt.iia of th^' d ite 

w ! \ !; t!;e*b'* let't K'!i-.;il. W-: Mtn-'b-tus intbnr.s ef t!i<ir c-txt: •.. 11. e A' :i'i 'pa:; niouar* hy wa^s 

u> vi-^- -'^"^ ^''''' C'amb\>es e-.;:pIo\el lell:} ojL t_:i .'ven ::; re stri. tly -ae, •- ■ t .1 tLa:; that of K-^yi.t, ."it 

f -^ •- i'.lc; li.v'.wi'ae in V\ >'r Kjyjt. a-^ ,•>! :e> | re\ i - i-. '■';i>: tb.>- [• wer i t' ti.*- ] :'.• -*::-''i was loT;;jer imd--^ 

to hi> e\j.\;;ti>'n the inter: ^r — an .;; ■.•tie al pit^d.. - In A' :"..; ; i i." .vty- in -1 'ra^ (iii. 6). '* tli« 

j^- ft' iA t'le tnaert liu site a: d wuie disiN--- >-:,.:> ir: stsx^ta s'.:*.- .ce . t" ... ,,th to tiie kiiicr. n-beii 

o{ t'le Ac'!:" 'I i i:'. tri""<s. (3> ri:e MAei:<niii or :!:.y th".' k be b i^ ;;'..,;;.••_-» :io-ijh. 1 h»- ^.-rder t*' 

le!,--'.:\ .1 \. t!;; ^' ■ i',>. — Ot" tliis rit' «n. it it w-re .iir- -.-> a '; r. !.!e * :]•_ ^ ..^." !•; :!]. aje ^'f Ptolen^v 

:^'!tb.^> -'e 't" M - >\ it i- i:"j" ---ib'.e to .b-.-ver i'b'.la b/' ^^r-.t .2>4 — •J4^'» b 'Wevc- an in){»..rtar.t 

th. s-ie. Tn •■; tt: ■ avvou: : .t' lU :%<.;!:> v^--!"'' i* ^^^ l:;!: :i t * \ : b. e. l>_ .;.■ ..e^.a : , eiarv h ^^ h.> li.^d 

a' j'-.^rv tb i! tb-y 'v,r\> a l\a-:> 1. 1 i'l vivilr-a*: "i. sr> e » ;:^ ti: . :;.r • • f lb"- k. .i.t^ .: ' ^ bil --o: by. put u^l 

tl: 1. :x^^- x5,^l I k'-j. bvvs. a : "-i-. i. a- i a '//.a^.s. t: :'.; t r: -:> t • <b :'[. ^1» .b. ";.♦'>. ^ 3>. avd pluLde^-l 

u- iv-Nt .*l the w rk: ^ t : a ! iN. ba : ^ ! I ia ah;n- t!u :r ^ ! 1 ': :■ : : !- a: N.;;..-a A--^^^r). If Ile- 

d i'\e. ar • b il "\id ^ -. -"le I '-.::-><•- iu t::^ a;:-. Yet r 'i Vi- (,:i. lo<'^ w -^ '^ :::;-: ;f n.-vl by tluM-ri-'-tA 

V t aj-.-iv ■.;I:-;r^ tb.y k".-w r. tb.-^.j. t rt'tay we:vu:.i - ^ :' M .'.;".:.<. 1> A :Ib t an k/.j^ «,:>• a:;,.,; _^ the 

cu;' tel wit!: ^'-^ab Ii— •: ta> i bi> e> ib.e-;: e:: t'.;e :•>,'. . , >- r- .f ^- :ti->'-. Ii:* ir. \-ii. . :,t> h.>\^.>^e^ 

e'" tb^ l" baa v'^-a-; •• a: :!>• t'^irtbi-: *. n-z'-.-t' i ■ " ^: r\ -:'bi.-'arb r ly >:y. S_-. rt.i^^^n is va; i 

"'\" I* It T.\ lb:--;..' > b: i : : a; ; r a !: :1 . b" ' y tl - ;■ " ■< r^ .-i t > :\.v ..." iiero'l A. thi^pA 

^- i.i:-T k- >;<■ 'n - . t" :.: > M .. r ' :: "a . H " -b : . 1>h; ^ ■. ^ r. b"> . .;■ a*" n ': 'i-t have Kt-n 

s . "^ 

k . 

« . - 

!"^ ■ r^ ;• rt. l'";.e v^a. ; . o">4> ; bi v- tb ■ : :.' :b. ■: . - b fr v ::. ^1 . ^ b. al- -;:'lr. - tbat tbo «x>xir!try 
'• - b f y- ;■ •. :•. tl .- b.w - t,irt • :" :b. J :.: .*^' K, ;: b ;l :■■-.•.'■:. ->d ^iii. lil). R:it 
t ■•■:-• -, ' ■ '—. .ii- \ \' \ •: ■< :b s; i ^ , t" :b N . :•; tb Lit: r :..- t tb ' >-b . .^t.^-v w. c. an Aetid- 
..\ . -^^i-l- th>-a a- > - "v. y^4^ 1 b- b»:.»- • . r\ t\-^^-: . -1 tJ'tl: t" Kj;. \t. n i^\.4 in L..wer 
.-.: .»:^\ I vf '^l^e-l\ -^w. -> >-■ it ^i '.. '^v '-.:.. bj\:...- i • l""'>'e"^/_^ — .^ S-Vu hus, 
bv ■" '. > i'-i ^1 'J • i"".. »■ *. ■- I' - .. ' A^.k" .'- r : I i~.> > - 1 ,n' ' A' f.- f>-.h tho :i.r nals 
V ' s v'r :^ .^ :. -5 '- ^ ^. ■. ^2. -^^^ t. y ^^ v -A- '.:•." - ■ - • — bb •;: A . r^al hi-tory. 
b -"--■ -^ :"■ tb '--<■. ^.* b •'- '• .-.'^ t : . - ■-. 'v. a '.: .">-.' — -^ ^. -T '^1 t: N -;a*a. J.^.»^l.^Mv 
l : - ' . • ^: X w - • : - - . / :-. - t/ ' . Nv s.a'..: .1- b ;: ■'• : •" t. N 1 wb r-- tho riH^kV 
l.t.a-:b.-' ^: t \ ;'•«.. L 1 :' • .b -t -^ a- : :>' * i t^:J'^' 1 ^: 1 - ••> -t-- ..:: . The invasi.>a 
v;-ir'>. '- jk.. t''- I :. \ - ' > »: N .' ' >. '\ . " " ' ■: r r _:;' : ^ b • \ ; • v. k.: j bttli- niorv 
: ^ rv-\ > .w ■■ t" \ :-,'•-■• \. - ' - "- -.-. 1" -r ; a. . . . j • ■• ■ .<v. .v- : r ; v! fa:^nlit'> t-t 
♦■^,1 w ».> •- \ v: i . . fi*: <*" It' > • ■•:- :'- f k ..*■-■;■-'.' -: '•'^: '/^I:.-*! hv in- 
: > ^.i:--: ■ • v< .^> -. .^' .w<v.. -.t : ■ i- i^ >, h » ".. : " >• h_;- ; '" ;:> i^.n^arv h 

: • ■. . -vi' ■- *" V •• y"i r •.- ■ A~- - :; ^. :!:'.:>.- 

; •r,.. \s ■r' ■ ' .- - • ' - b " ^ ' ' " - - 1 - " b 

*.-,'•:. :-...- ■ - N. ... -- s^ ^- ■ 





:h bv 


itl«'r a<i 


« t 

-^ *' 

• <. . 

i. i:i7) 



- . 


1> o.;t.- 


vakry hSb/mr in the mioes for the panUhment of 
wmtk Diodonw aLio celebrates the miklDetM and 
jii^ire of aootber Aethic^nau king, whom he colls 
^ftwMirw, aiki ramonra of such viitnee may have 
pcared for the Aethiopian r»oe the epithet of *' the 
Sundew.' (Ham, ILL 423.) 

Sikkksm, the So or Seva of the Scriptures, was 
tW Ml sad ffacceaaor of Sabaoo. He was an ally 
tf IMiM, kin^ of In^ael; but he was mwble, or too 


reason to consider these, mrHo from tbeir nainc 
have once composed the fc/lc vrixi^ of the EpyP*- 
anny, the exiled war>caste. In that frontier 
sition they wonld have been avaihible to 
adopted country as a peniiaxient garrison 
invasion from the north. 

The Persian dynasty was scareely estabUsb^^ - 
Egypt, when Cambysea nxulertook an cxpo^^^J" 
into Aethioiaa. He prepared, for it by aenf^' 

tmij in his moremmts, to prevent the capture of . certain Icthyophagi from Klepliantiiie as envoy«<r 

by Sbalmaneser, kin^ of Assyria, in B. c. 
'H- Ooe result of the captivity of Israel was an 
xln «f Hebmr exiles into E^ypt and Aethiopia, 
•al ncntoaHy the diasemination of the Mosaic re- 
-^ria IB the eoontry north <^ Elephantine. Before 
tia ciiartrapbe, the Psahnist and the Prophets 
[Pmim, bcxxviL 4 ; IsaiaA, xx. 5 ; Nakmm, iiL 9 ; 
f'^t XXX. 4) had celebrated the military power of 
tat JWtioiifAaaB, and the historical writings of the 
J-r« m»rd their inrasioas of Palestine. Isaiah 

rather as 

spies, to the lun^ of 

_ the 

(Herod, iii. 17 — ^25.) But tlie hxvaaion 
ill-phmned, or encountered, sncli phyncal ob»*^^^^ 
in the desert, that the I*er8mn army reti 
Memphis, enfeebled and di^^lieartened. Of 
road the magazines of Oa,xnl>y8es (^TOfwcTo ^^ 

<row, Ptd. iv. 7. § 15>, probably tbe town of Cairal^y^^ 
(Plin. J7. iNT. %!. 29), on tbe left bank of tbe :^^:^** 
near its great cnrve to the "weat, 'was the only 
manent record. The Persiain occupation of tbe^ 
(lo. 18) prtdicts the rrtnra of Israel from the Und 1 valley opened the country abo\-e Philae to 
iVwh: and the stoty of Queen Candace's treasurer, traveUcrs. The philosopher I>emocntns, n 
a lir .\rta rf the Aportles (ch. viii.), shows that younger than Herodotus, wrote an account 
a* IMvrw Scriptiirea were current in the more hicroelyphics of Meroe CI>iog. Laert. ix. 49 >, 

yimd parts of that region. Sehichos was sue- 
'"W by Tirhakah — the Tarcus or Taracus of 
^I^arthix The commrntaton on the Book of Kings 
\X 19) oreaDy describe this monarch as an Aia- 
Lj£ ffepftain: but his name is recorded on the 

from this era we may probably date the 

ment of Greek emporia upon the shore of th 

Sea. Under the Ptolemies, the arts, as well 

enterprise of the Greeks, entered Aethiopia, and 

_ __^ ..«««™ « the destruction of the sacerdotal government, s 

nr^ rf a ti^l »t Medinei-Aboo, and at"ce6e^ 1 the foundation or extensioii of the HeUemc toI 

W-a>K » BarhU, in Nubia. He was, therefore, Din^-Beremces, Arsinoe, ^<i^«. J^^T^^^ 

rfArtk«ii«iH«a^,xv.p.687) on the coast, where, "^^^^ ^ ^^^ 

^CthTrnS^ rivalled sSjrtaUn, ^ ^ invasion in the 7 th "^^^^^^ZJ^^r^ff ^X9 
--« ra., b h» conqnerts, wWch extended to the waa carried on bct«^ Lib^ 

ra« rf Herruka, me^ring, probably, tbe Phoe- In^ «r ^eyV* (C^^ Tap^*an^^^^ 
«».c(tkniaits on the northern coast of Africa. In the rogn ^^^^^t^'^S J^^T^'. 

rr« BArrw rec«d. (2 JT^^, x^-iii, xix.; Isaiah. th«r Q^^.^^^J^i^^'^^Klephantine. ^ 
nrri, ixiTii.X we know that Tlrhakah was on his gamaons at / J^TTV^^j^^ob, the legati*-. 
«■«* ti» RfiPTv Jodaea fi«n tbe invasion of Sen- \ were ^^^ J^^^^J^'na GaUoa, who placed 


*««*(».€. 588); but his advance was rendered . prefectof Egypt. '^Tihf^m^ 'and poreucd 

-«ary by the peetileDce which swept off the \ garrison in ^^^.M^eichboarhood of 

■a ny near Pehuhnn (HeixxL iL 141 ; treating army to "»« *^ eecond camp^T^ ^^^^.^ 

•a. BieroyL I 50> Tirbakah, howerer, waa i^oa Cass, ^^.^'^^.^j,^ to aend ov^^^jfe^^^ 

in «ly in the Thetaid : one, if not two, i troniuB «*°^^^.J„ to Aapi»tiia (b. c, ^^*^*^^s^^ 

continnea •« '»;^ ^ the fcdlowers of 
i chnxche-^J^ ^^ ,^ the so^ 

«-i^ ECTtian kiapi. reigned eootemparmneoaaly l g«*«,?™^^^J^,„e of Aethiopia abov. 

'^ hM H Memphia and Saia. AooonUn^ to the But the B«n^^. ^^^ ^ DiocleU,^^^ 

^-^^'^^GM^Birkl, Tirhakah reigned at ' waa -^^^JVl^^X 'ooontry aooth «f p^^ 

•* t«>tT yam in Upper Egypt. Hepodotoa, m- \ Ca.i>. 2®*-^^^{^ that onperor to th^ 

W t^aeh the 25th or Aethiopian dynasty in \ ceded g^oenixj j .^^^ j£ ,>ot earlier, ^^ 

^??* as eoDprned in the TOf^ and j 

^ slae, to whom he as sign * * ^ P 

•^n- Bat there were certainly three 

t±a Bk, ad a Ibnrth, Anuneria, ia mentiooecl in 

'^yt^ £aadma. Tbe hiatooan C". ia9> 

'i^ tfe RttnemcBt of the last Aethiopian 

*'»*«iB^ which BMj perhaps be interpreted 

*■** fan the hienreby at Napata to fore^ro hia 

«■!■«■ bdow Phike. 

h tb nipi rf Paaameticlras C^- ^- 630>, tlie 
«»«v<arteof £|7pt Bdgrated into Aetliiopia. 
*«>^«* (b. 30) mya thai the deaertcrs C Anto- 
^)KtieiiBa<btrictasx«cnotefinaKn 1 
b (Xapta) M that city 
^ l««, the 

Dttdcns (L 67) 
• ■roW ia the 

WiSexandria, and confinn^ 

; s?£SS:S£s-.*s?s 

"SUs^ Axianntamm 
north, of whiA was 



idnlitae awl Monnt Tam^ c^ th^ ^^..^^^^ 
. '■ Colobi, who according to Apthar^iA,^^^.,^ th 




a W(x«ly and niouiitaiiious district (6,\(ro^ Ko^oSatv, 
Strab. I. c; opos KoXoSd^v, VuA. iv. S). Al><>v<- tli».>e 
■vvero the MfumoTics (Meuvovus^, a ii.inii- (ilchratiii 
by till' p(»st-lI(»imMic }Hn't,s of tli<" Tn' \var, ami 
who are suj)|)oseJ hy .soiiu- to have hofii a colotiy 
from Western India (J'/ii/oI<>(/iriil Musri/ni, v<»l. ii. 
p. 14G); and al>ove those, north of tlu* HKiinuycs 
and Me;:ahan, are tlie Adiaharae, who >kirtid to the 
ea^t the jiruvince of Dolv'c.-ischiw-inis or Afthi<)j>ia 
ahovc E^rypt. But of all the^e trilx's we know the 
names only, and e\en thfse very inipedVctly. Mo<icrn 
travellers can only cuni.-ctin^dly conneit them A\ith 
thr/itffjns. Jii-ichnr'u.'t, >i/nin(/fi!lir^t, and other Nnliiati 
or Arabian raee^; and neither (Jreeks nor Koman-< 
surveyed the Tiei;jhl>onrh<:Hj<l of their colunies hey<»nd 
the hi;:h roads which led to their }>rinciiial havens 
on the lied S-a. 

The we>tern pirtion of Aethiopia, owinf;; to its 
f^eiierally arid <:hiraeter, was nnuh more scantily 
jt'oph'd, and the tribes that >hiftcd t»ver rather tlian 
oc«aij)ied it,s scanty jia^tures were mostly of Libyan 
orit:in, a mixe«l Ne-^ro and Harabra race. Parallel 
with the Astapus and the Nile after their confluence, 
htretchcd a limestone ranije of hilU, dcnominat«.'<l by 
I'tolemy the Aetiiii'))ian mountains (ra AidiotriKh 
opt}, iv. 8). They separated Aethiopia from the 
Garaniantes. West of the elbow land which lay 
between Menw" and Najtata was a district called 
Terp^lum. North of Terircdum the Nubae came 
down to the Nile-bank between the towns of Primis 
Parva and Phturi: and northward of these were the 
aUjve-mentioneil Euonymitae, who e.xtended to P^elcis 
in lat. *2.'i*^. 

In the reirion I)o«lecasehi>enus or Aetliiopia above 
Kiryi>t Were the lollowini; towas: IIikua Svc.VMiNi'S 
('Upd '^vKOLLiivos : Ptol. ; Plin. vi. 29. s. 32; Itin. 
Anton, p. 1G2; ^vKciuivov, Philo>trat. Apoll. Ttjan. 
iv, 2). the southernmost town of the district (^Waihj 
Malutrrakuh, liurckhardt's '/'rarJw.p. 100): CouTi-: 
(Koprio TTpunrj, AL'irthan ides, p. 22; It. Anton. 
p. 162). Kortt. four miles north of Iliera Sycamiuos; 
and on the nLiht bank of the Nile Tacuomi'So 
(Taxofixpu) : Herml. ii. 20; Mela. i. IK §2: Mera- 
KOfxv^ti, Ptol. iv. .'); Taconii>M)s. Plin. vi. 29. s. 35) 
was .situated ujHni an inland (j»r<>bably Jknn) n\Hm 
the eastern side of the river, aJid was occujjied by 
Aethiojiiaiis and EL'yj'tians. Upon the opj^osite bank 
was PsKl.i'ls (TeAKis. Strab. p. 820; Ari^tid, Atfjui. 
i. p. .■)12). It was built in the era of the Ptolen)ies, 
and its erection was .>o injurious to Tachompso, tkit 
the latter came to be denouiiuateti Contra Pselcis, and 
lost its proper apjwdlation. pM-Icis was eiidit miles 
from Iliera Sycamiuos, and the htMtl-<|uarters of a 
foliurt of (ii-nnan horse (A'o/. /nt]>.} in the Koman 
poriod. On the left bank of the Nile was TiTZis 
(/>^cA/rf/.<<7/^7/). where some remarkable monuments 
still exist: and T.MMiis (TaTTi's, Olympiad, ap. J*/io- 
tinm, SO, p. 194; Tat?if, Ptol, iv. .5), opi>osite to 
which was Contra-T.iphis (Ttjfnh), where ruin> have 
been dix'xvered, and in the nei;:hl>ourh<xKl of which 
are lar^e stone-i|uarries. Finally, Pakkmuom:, 
the frontier-garrison of Ejy]tt, wliere even so late as 
the 4th century A. d. h Homan Iccion was stationed. 

Pliny, in lii"s account of the war with Candace 
(r. r. 22), has preserved a brief re< ord of the route 
of Petronius in his second invasion of Men h-. which 
contains the names of some places of ini{K>rtance. 
The Ponian i^eiieral passed by the valley of the Nile 
throuj:h Doui^ola and Nubia, and (xcupiiMl i«r haltt-d 
at the tollowini: stations: Psclris, Primis .Mai:na. or 
Prenuiia (^Ibrhii) on the ri;:ht bank (»t liie river, 


Plituris (Farraji), and Al>«>cris or Abuncis (.^tot*- 
siinhfl^ Jp.ouithfil on the left, Cambysi*^ (To/iJ€»o 
Ka/uguffof) and Atteva or Attoba, ne^ir the thr-l 
cataract. If .Fosejihus can Ih* relie«l uji«»n indf-d, 
the Persians have )»enetrattil the Nile-vnuf-y 
nmch higher up than the Poinans, and thiin eilb-r 
Ih'r<H|otus or l)i(Klorus (i, .34) will jn^nnit u> t^-* 
siqijHtse, For the Jewi>h historiiui (Antifj. ii. pt) 
rfj>resents ('ambyse.s :is conijucrini: the cajiitil .f 
Aethiopia, and chaniriu.i: its n:une fruui Salm to 

The an hitectural remains of Nubia Wlniir^ to 
Meroi' and are bncHy deserilnd under that head. To 
.Meroe also, .is the centre and jx-rliajjs the creaturp 
of the iidand tnnle of Aethiojfia, we refer for an a«- 
countof the natural and artificial prodmiiuur. of ilw 
land a!)ove Et^ypt. 

The princij«il nuKlem travellers who have expl'^ 
or described the country ;d)ove E.L'ypt are brdt-^, 
Burckhartlt. lUlzoni, Minutoli. (lau and l^«^ciii•,i. 
Lord Valentia and Mr.S;dt's Travels, Waddin;jrt"ua!id 
Ilanbury'sJournals.PiijijH^rs and Cailb^uid's Tnivels, 
tS:e., '' Ilceren's Historical Researches," vid. i. pp.2i»5 
— 473. and the f:eor:;raj)hical work of Pitter ha\e t»tn 
consulted for the preceilini: article. [W. B. I).] 

AETNA (AJfri'j;: L'th.AiTvcuoi, Aetnensis), a cirr 
of .Sicily, situated at the f<x>t of the nH»uiit:uu of th? 
same name, on its southern declivity. It was i»ri- 
uinallv a Sicelian citv, and wjis called Ini->sa or 
Inessum ("Iirjacra, Thuc. Strab.; "lirrjatjov, StqJi. 
Byz. V. AfTj'Tj; Di^Klorns Inis the comipi form 'Ef- 
uriaia): but after the death of Hierun 1. and llif 
ex})ulsi<in of the colonists whom he had es.iablished at 
('atana. the latter wiilidrew to Inessa, a place i-f 
trreat n;itural strenm),^ which they tK-cupi«>«i, ai^i 
tran*^ferred to it the name of Aetna, }»renuu^ly ci*'«'^ 
by Ilieron to his new colony at Catan^i. [Catana.] 
In ronseijuence t,i this they c(»ntinued to n'ijjtrl 
Ilieron as their oekist or founder. (I)i<Ki. xi. 76; 
Strab. vi. p. 2t)8.) The new n:une. however. ap]*^ars 
not to have been uni\ersally :ulo]it«il. and we tiA 
Thucydides at a later jrf'ri<wi still emj-loyiuij the < Id 
apjH'llation of Inessa. It seems to have fallen iiit*» 
the j)ower of the Syracusau'^, and w:is (K■cupi^^i by 
them with a strong' parrisuu; and in B. i\ 42G "e 
tind the Athenians under L:iches in vain attem}'ti].r 
to wrest it tVom their hands. (Thuc.iii. 103.) Duriiii 
the threat Athenian exj>e«lition, Ine.vsa. as well as the 
neiLdd»ourinfr citvof llvbla, continued steadfa^^t in the 
alli;inee of Syracuse, on which account their lands 
were ravaged by the AtheiiiaiLS, (Id. vi. 96.) At 
a subseijuent ]teri<xi the stren^'th of its |<isition as a 
fortress, rendered it a place of im})ortance in theri^il 
dissensions of Sicilv, and it K-canie the n'fuire of the 
.Syracusan kniirhts who had o]»|n"»sed the eh-vation *i( 
l)i«»ny.sius. But in n. c. 403, that tles|.H')t made him- 
self master of Aetna, where he soon alter estahll"shrd 
;i iKKlyof ('am])anian mercenaries, whoha<l pnn-iously 
been settled at Cat:ina. These continued faithful to 
Diony.sius, riotwithstandinir the ;:en<'ral defection uf 
his allies, during the Carthapni;m invjision iu luc. 
.396, and retained pxss;e.s.<ion of the city till B.C. 339, 
when it w;us taken by Timoleon, an<l its C.Hinjjeuiian 
(Kcupants put to the sword. (l)io<l. xiii. 113, xif. 7, 
8, 9, 14, 58, 61, xvi. 67, 82.) We find no mention 
of it from this time till the days of C'icen\ who rp- 
jK-atedly sjKaks of it as a nuinicij>.al to\Mi of consj- 
dendde im}X)rtance; its temtory Win;: tmo of the 
most fertile in com of all Sicily. Its citizens s-utfertNl 
se\(rcly from the exactions of Vent's and his lu^ents. 
(('ic. IV/T. iii. 23, 44. 4.'), iv. 51.) The Aetiu-usfS 


Mt abo nmtkiied bjr Pliny mumg the " popdi sti- 
^Modttrii ' of SicQj; and the name of the city b 
iiuui bodi io Ptofemj and the Itiiierancs, bat its 
••iMqwot history and the period of its destructioQ 



Gnit doubt exists as to the site of Aetna. Strabo 
ttJk u (vi pi S73) that it waaiMor Centmnpiy and 
nm thr place frotn whence travellen Dsnally as- 
tadd tbe mnnntain Bat in another passage (ib. 
f. 2tt) be expreealj says that it was only 60 
ca& fron Catana. The Itin. Ant (p. 93) plaoee 
A M IS M. P. finxn Catana, and the same distance 
6«BCcfiCiiri|i; its posttloii between these two cities 
a tether ooofinDcd by Thocydides (tL 96). Bat 
wCvithitaDdii^ these annsaaUy precise data, its 
rati ■tairiwi cannot be fixed with certainty. Si- 
*imi astiqnaries geoenlly place it at Sta Maria di 
iMdM, which agrees well with the strong positkn 
•f tk city, bot is certainly too distant from Catana. 
<« the odier hand 8, Nicolo ddt AremOj a conrent 
.«( aben Xieoltmiy which is regarded by CluTerius 
• tk ate, is too h^ op the mountain to hare ever 
ki« « the high road from Catana to Centnripi. 
M^KTtf bovevvr, speaks of rains at a place called 
CaHro. slMMit S| mika N. £. from PcUemd, on a hill 
p^lKtiqg from the foot of the moontain, whidi he 
Mprdi Si the site of Aetna, and which woald oer- 
tasdr iirnc well with the requisite conditions. He 
<^ DM dte his aothority, and the spot is not de- 
trhti by soy recent trareUer. (Claver. Sicil p. 123 ; 
Acic La. Topogr, Sic roL iii. p. 50; Uannert, 
AiiL vd. n. p^ 293.) 

Tkncxiit cams of Aetna in considerable nambers, 
ki iribdpdSy of copper; they bear the name of the 
pi^ K fall, ATTNAinN. Thoee of sUrer, which 
M ivy rare, are similar to some of Catana, bat bear 
WytkabkenatMl legend ATTN. [E.H.B.] 


ATTKA (AJmi), a celebrated rolcanic monntain 

'^^7, fitaatcd in the NE. part of the isUnd, 

^lokg tbe sea co—t betw e en Taororocniam and 

''^■a. It k now calkd by the peasantry of Sicily 

'^«fMo,a nameoomfMionded of the Italian MonUy 

bJ tk Ankc JiM^ a moontain; bat u still well- 

^^^^^UMBmal Etm, It is by frur the bfticst 

•<««v k Sidly, iking to a height of 10,874 feet 

«^tkkftl of tha sea, whik its base k not kas 

^•* M ndks in ciiiumfa eace. Like most volcamc 

it krma a distinct and XBolated mass, 

red oaaiectkB with the mountain gronps 

^ tk X. (/ it, frm wfakfa it k separated by the 

'«f the Accaiiifes, or Akumtara; whik its limits 

t^W. nd Sl are defined by the river Symaethns 

•r GMTTiCtoX and on the E. l^r the sea. 

i hfiMjmnia which it presents on a fv 

«ak than k seen ekrwherem Earope, eariy 

'^'^'^ the ittwitkn of the ancients, and there k 

"*"^ vy efajecC ti phyiical geography of which 

^^aoiv n i mwu iM aod ampk notices. 

^ » ortHi ham gvological considerations, that 
^ ^ w aytkus of Aetna most hare long preceded 
ra^ and if any nliance could be placed 

on the &ct recorded by Diodoros (v. 6), that the 
Sicanians were compelled to abandon their original 
settkments in the E. part of the island in conee- 
quence of the frieqaency and videnoe of these oot- 
borsts, we should have sufficient evidence that it was 
in a state of active operation at the earliest period at 
which Sicily was inhabited. It k difficult, however, 
to belkve that any such tradition was really pre- 
served; and it k far more probable, as related by Thu- 
cydides (vL 2), that the Sicanians were driven to the 
W. portion of the island by the invasion of the Si- 
celians, or Siculi: on the other hand, the silence of 
Homer oonceming Aetna has been frequently urged 
as a proof that the mountain was not then in astate 
of vdcanic activity, and though it would be absurd 
to infer finm thence (as has been done by some au- 
thors) that there had been no previous erapti(Mu», it 
may friirly be assumed that these phenomena were 
not very frequent or violent in the days of the poet, 
otherwise some vague rumour of them must have 
reached him among the other manrek of " the far 
west.** But the name at least of Aetna, and pro- 
bably its vdcanic character, was known to Hesiod 
(Eratosth. ap. Strab. L p. 23), and from the time of 
the Greek settlements in Sicily, it attracted general 
attention. Pindar describes the phenomena of the 
mountain in a manner equally accurate and poetical 
— the streams of fire that were vomited forth from 
its inmost recesses, and the rivers (of kva) that gave 
forth only smoke in the daytime, but in the liftrVp^^fff 
assumed the appearance of sheets of crimson fire 
lolling down into thedeep sea. (/yA i. 40.) Aea- 
chylus also alludes distinctly to the " rivers of fire, 
devouring with their fierce jaws the smooth fields of 
the fertik Sicily." (iVom. F. 368.) Great eruptions, 
accompanied with streams of kva, were not, however, 
fr^uent We kara firom Thucydides (iii. 116) that 
the one whidi he records in the sixth year of the 
Pekponnesian war (b. c. 425) was only the third 
whidi had taken jdaoe since the establishment of the 
Greeks in the island. The date of the earliest k not 
mentioned; the second (which k evidently the one 
more particularly referred to by Pindarand Aeschylus) 
took place, according to Thucydides, 50 years before 
the above date, or b. c. 475 ; but it k placed by the 
Parian Chronicle in the same year with the battk 
of Plataea, b. a 479. (Marm.Par.68, ed. C. MtUkr.) 
The next after that of B.C. 425 k the one recorded by 
Diodorus in b. c. 396, as having occurred shortly be- 
fjre that date, which had laid waste so considombk 
a part of the tract between Tauromenium and Catana, 
as to render it impossibk for the Carthaginian general 
Mago to advance with hk army along the coast. 
(Diod. xiv. 59; the same eruption k noticed by 
Orosius, iL 18.) From thk time we have no account 
of any great outbreak till b. c. 140, when the numn- 
tain seems to have suddenly assumed a condition of 
extraordinary activity, and we find no less than four 
vkknteraptions recorded within 20 years, viz. in b.c. 
140, 135, 126, 121 ; the last of which infficted the 
most serious damage, not only on the territory but 
the city of Catana. (Oros. v. 6, 10, 13; JuL Obeeq. 
82, 85, 89.) Other eruptions are also mentioned as 
accompanying the ontbrMk of the civil war between 
Pompey and Caeear, b. c. 49, and hnmediately pre- 
ceding the death of the latter, b. c 44 (Virg. G, i, 
471 ; liv. ap. Serv. ad Virg. L c. ; Petron, de B. C. 
135; Lucan. i. 545), and these successive outbursts 
appear to have so completely devastated the wh<^ 
tract on the eastern side of the mountain, as to have 
rendered it uninhabitabk and ahnost impassabk fruiu 



w.iiit of wattT. (Appiaii, Ji. (\ v. 1 14.) A/ni;!. in 
!'..«•. '.\^. th<' V>»lr;inii ;il'lx:il> t'» IriVi- Kii'ii in .it I'lA 
;i |i,i/ ><' i>t' cnij.ti 111 (III. \. I 17). ami y.-.u'^ 
atti-rwanK. jn-t iM-tun- tin- untlmak <il' tl<<' ti\i! war 
lHt\\i-<-ii ()(ta\ian ami Aiitmi;.-, Dion ('a>-iu> n-- 
niril> 'I iiiori- M'rimis oiithur>t, ai-("ni]i.ini<-il witli a 
.sti'iMiu of lava wiiicli ili<l ^'rcat ilaiiia.:'' to tin* .m1- 
joiiiiiii; coiuilrv. (l)ioii C';l->. I. 8.) lUU IVmih \\\\> 
tiiiif I'irtli tin' vuKanlf ;i::rury a]<[x'ar> t<> have l»<-«ii 
coiiijiarativi'ly (juic»<riit : tlu' .^in 'ki* ami iii'i^ts \n ITit h 
t'Tiiti.'il the i'liiju-n'r CaliL'ul.i (^u«'t. (al. .M ) wm- 
jiroli.ihjy iiiithidix vt-rv rxtra<<nliiiary. .ami ni'h this 
<'X<<*|iti<iii \v<' hrar nnly of two «'ni|.ti'in^ <luiini: tin- 
]n'i-iii<l of thf Ivoiiiaii riii]iin'. on.- in tlif nii-ii ol \\'>- 
j>a^i;tn, A. i> 70, ami tla* otluT in ilia! of l)«Hiu>. 
A. 1). 251. iiritJH'r of wliirji is m.tin'd hy r"ntnii- 
jdirary writ»'rs, and may tlicnl'on' he |.rt'-uniiil to 
liavf Im'i'u ot' no vi-ry foniiid.ahlo < t>ri.>ins, 
^^^itiIlL'■ in tin* lH>:^Mnnin:: of tli'- fifth (■(■■;tury. >|/^m1v^ 
of Artn.i .I- liaxiiiLT llii-ti Immoiui' liannli-^<. and only 
sin'il.iiii: rti'iu^li to -j-ivi* rndit to tin- ^t"rii*> of it> 
l»i»t \i>-!i-mi-. (Mat. Chrnit. ml <;/,//. 70; \'ita 
St. A'.'itlKU'. op. Cbd'ir. Sirll. ]i. l(M'); Or.K. ii. 

I'l-'ini tln'-o acC'innts it is (nidrnt that th<' vul- 
» .mil- a<;ion of Aotna was in amii'nt, as it ^till r-m- 
tinui's in nio-h-rn tiin»'.>. of a very irn.Mdar and intcf- 
initt'Mit char.n tcr. and ii" dt)M'ndtMH<- ran !>•■ 
jilai'i'd njHintho,-i'^ai''^^. whftli<'r of juK-ts or |ir"^f 
writtT"'. which aj']'.i:»'ntly di--' rih.- it ;is in <on-;.»nt 
and .univo ojx-tatiori. lint with «-vt'ry allow. m' •• fir 
<'\.ijj»T.iti'ai, it Mi'rns |troh.ihli' that th-' tirtiiniry 
Vohanir |ilifnoin<Mi;i wiiirh it (•.\hihit''d \\«*n* ni'>n' 
.strikini: and con^i.icnou.^ in th<' :vs*' of Straho and 
I'liay than at tiu' im' mt <lay. 'Iho (■xi)n'N>.i..n>, 
lM\V('\»'r. of the lattiT wntrr, its noiM' ht-ard 
in the more di-t.ant parts of Sirily, .and that it-^ 
:i>h<'> wi-ro canai'd not oidy to lanronn-niinn aii<l 
Catana. htit to a di>t.i!MO of \'){) niilrs. of i<iurM^ re- 
fiT only to ti'iK'S ot' Ni' ta'nptio'i. Livy ;il-o n^- 
for.U in tli'- y«'ar r.. c. 44, tlu- hot >and and 
;v>h''> wrre ('.irri*'.! a- a-- llhi .:inni. (I'lin. Jl. .V. 
ii. liKi. l(tC». iii. h. 14: Liv. ap. S-rv. ml (,'>i>r</. i. 
471.) It i> unm'l■«'^xary to do n:or<' than alhidr to 
tin- wi-lI-kno".v n <!«--nipti'>n of ilw rrnplions of A'tna 
in N'irLril. whiih h.a^ l«»-n iniit:(ti'd Im^iIi hy Siliti^ 
ltaliiai> and Claiidian. (\'ir'/. Atn. iii. r)70 — ■■i77: 
Sil. .\i\. .'>S — (j'J; riaudi m (f< H'(pt. J'rcMrj). 

i. ir,i.) 

'1 h" L:»^m'ral ajixvir.anrc of the ino'iiilain i^ \y>'\\ 
ili'-rrilw-d hy .'«», \\\\<> trlN ns th*- np] <t 
J art> ucrt' h.irf and coMMid \\h\\ a^hrs, hut with 
Miow ia tilt' winter, wiiile the liwrr .sloj<>> w«rt' 
v\ ithfd with f >iv>ts. an«l with ]»Ianti'd irroimils, th<^ 
Volcanic a-<hc>, whi( h \wve at lir>l so dc-tru< ti\«', 
ultimately prodmimr a s"il <if i:rcat fertility. ♦•.>]>«■- 
rially ad.-iptcd I'or thf LTowth ot \inf>. 'Ihc ^ 
<tf the uiounf.'tin. .a.> dt'->cnlM'd to hi'n hy th"vi- who 
had Lately a-<cmlcd it. w.a.> a lc\cl | of alM.ut 20 
.st.adi.'t in eircnnifcrcncf. siiriMinidcd hy a hrow or 
rid^'c like a wall. In tin- midt of thi> plain, which 
eon^i-^tcd of deep and hot ^.md, rove a .-m.all hillo«k 
<»t -iiiiilar avjx'it. over which hnn;x -'i <lond of .-•nioke 
rivinir to a hei:_dit of alH)nt 200 feet. He, howfver, 
Jnstly :idd>, these .apiK-araiuc-N were suhject to 
e'listaiit variations, and there w:t> Knm-tinie.s 

* For th»* nion» recent history of the )nonnt.aui 
atid its «'rnption>, vee Fer;.Hr;i, J hs'-rui>>yi< ihit t.tna, 
ralcnno, Lsl^; and Daul<eny o/j \'olv<niOf.s, 2d 
edit. pp. 2b:J — 20O. 


only o!:c cr .tcr, .•- iii.etirie.s nmre. (.^trah. vi. pp. 2»»'.*. 
27.'>. '-'74.) It i- evi'lei.t iVoni thi> aLco'int iLu 
thi- a>i ' ;it of the nioinitain w;ls in his tine a c. : i- 
nioii «-iitcr]iii/e. Lmiliu.^ aKo vj»ak.s oj it av '■ t 
umi-iial lor jcple to .i-icnd to the \-4ry itlzi' of ;!if 
crater, and oder inccn-e to the tnttlarv ''o<ls uf tb' 
inonnt.iin {\a\i'\\. Ai f/ni, .'i.'JO; see al-o .S.-mi a. A/', 
710' •""! \^*" '"■'■ t'*l'i tl'^it the tmjxTor H:i^irian, hI.c" 
he vi.dled >icily, made the ascent for tl;e j»,ir{»o>^ <>:' 
sccini: the snn ri>e Ironi thence, ( Ilndr. \',\.) 
It is therefuri' u .straiii'e mi-take in Claudian ('/» 
Jiojtf. J^rnst r/f. i. l.")h) to repicM-nt the Muuniit i^ 
iiM' ce-sil,|,-. At a di-tance ot |c-s than l4«M)tun 
from the hiudie-t jwint are some reni.iins of a hrii k 
hnildiiii', ( le.irly of work, coinmonly kii wii 
hv the name ot the Torr» ild J\'lt>,<nf\i, from a \ul- 
ii'AV tradition eonnrctin;:; it with Lm|ie^lo< If'*: tLL'J 
\i:\- Iwen .vnpjHtved, with tar more |.l.-msihihty. to <k>- 
ri\e its orii:in from tlie vi^it of Hadrian. (^>'nMb'> 
.S/c /■///. p. 149; FeiTara, Ihsi rh. (ttlC Etna, p. 2^.) 
Many ant lent wnters di-eriU' the upj<*^T jiart i-t 
Aetna as clothed with iKM-jn-tual viiow, I'indiir ralU 
it *■ the nnrse of the keen ^now all the year Ki* :: " 
{/*'/'//. i. ,*JC), ami the .-ipparent eontradii liuii vi it-. 
|'«T]N-tnal 1h-e.> and c\e! lasting,' .-vnow, i^ t\ favouht'* 
sulijeet of declamation with tiie rhet<»ri<.'il {"»t*t? :\u\ 
j.rovc writi'i-.s of a Liter jn'rifwl. (Sil. Ital, xiv. 5H — 
»;U: CLmdian.f/t' Rfipt. I'ro.^. i. 104; Sdin. 5. ij H.) 
.^tiaho and I'liny more ri'i^i-nahly .state that it w.i^ 
Oo\»Ted with snow in tin fcinhr; and the.^e i* n-' to iHleve it-> londition in earlv a_'f> 

dilleied iVoiii il^ plCM-nt -t.tte in this respect. li'f' 
hi^diest part> of the an* stiil oovert-J "Rirk 
-now for .M'\en cr ci_lit month"- in the >ear, ami <t- 
ca-ioiially patehe,-> o| it will lie in hoHuw.s aiui ni;> 
thronidiont the whole ^umm(■r. '1 he torotswhuK 
( lothe the middle rejioHNf^it" the mountain are ullad^i 
to hy many writers (.*<trah. vi. p, 27-3: (.^Luid. L'-. 
l.'»'.»): •'"id I)io<loriiN tellv ns that Diony-ius . f s% -i. 
« u«-e di-rivinl fn-m tlniiie •j::r:\\ j.iPt ot the lu;ilen..;s 
f .r the con>tru(tion of hl> ll-tt in u. c. 3U9. (^l)!-.-!. 
.\iv. 42.) 

It wa> natural s]h< illations should tarlv I-- 
ilni cted to the caii>e> uf the reinarkahie pheiioii <-:\i 
exinhited h\ Aetn.i. xV niyllmlo-jiial t'ahle. aih-p'.rii 
Ia almost all the ]>'»ets frmn I'iiidar ilowuwariU. a.— 
crihed them to the .-trn-Lle of the ^'iant Tv]i1i«»his (-f 
l.i]i el;idii> accord in 'J to others), who had Iweri Inui'-. 
iimNr the lofty ] i!e hy /eu-- at"terthe defeat «(f ri' 
L' (Find. J)/f/>. i. 'A^y; Ai-m h. I*r<nn. .36."> ; Vlrj. 
A>:>. iii. .j78; ()\id..lA/. v. 'MCt; Claail. I.e. 152. 
I.ii' il. A'tii't, 41 — 71.) ()thei> ;i.^si;^'iied it .as tL. 
Workshop of X'nlcan, thouidi thi.s was plao*d h\ liif 
ni'-re ordinary tradition in the Aeoli.m i>laiuLs. I.:itf r 
.ind more writers a.scriW i tlh' cmpto>n'' 
to the \ iolence ..1 ihe wind^. |>ent nj) in suhterrniic u 
e;i\eni-. alMimdim: with .vnlolmr and other iiitii;.i- 
m.ihle ^nl'vi.HiK e>: while others con(»d%e.l tL»*:;j \> 
ori.iii.ite t'roin the aition «if the waters of tli.' ^-. 
nj- n the vame ni.iteri.dN. U,,th tlu>e th»-orir^ an 
di>cn->ve I and tle\elo],e.l hy Fucrelins, hut at uui- ! 
V'reil<r len_'th hy the author <if a separate i^H'tii • m 
titled " Aetn.i." which w.a^ for a loni; time av<ri^N< 
to Conn Tuix N'Veru"-, hot has U-eii attiihuted l>v it 
more recent e<litoi>. Wi'rn>doif .and Jao.h, t<»' th 
}onnirer Lncilins, the fnend .and eonti-in|">rarv . 
!^en<-c.t.f It contains .soini' j)owerfiil ]>.a>va"«*>^ Vui 
i'6 di-fi-ured hy oI.m tuity, and adds little tu <nj 

t For a fuller di>.envvi,,n of tliis tiue>tioii, s^*- \\] 
Bi'ifjr. JJict. art Luc'dun Junior. 


kanrWi^ <d the histofj or pbenonioia of the moim- 
tuA. (Laovt tL 640 — ^703; Ludl. Aetna, 92, ct 
•nq.; Jortin, iv. 1 ; Seneca, Epiit, 79 ; Claodisn, t e, 
169 — 176.) The oonoe^ioo of these volcanic ]^e- 
wiih the cartfaqtukes by which the bland 
frvpeotlj agitated, waa too obvioas to escape 
■ad was indued implied in the popolar tra- 
Some WTiten also anerted that there waa a 
eonunanicatiao between Aetna and the 
iMfiaa taUoda, and that the ernptioDs of the former 
««n ^j btgre d to alternate with thoee of Hiera and 
fim^Tb. (Diod. r. 7.) 

Tbi aaiK of Aetna waa evidently derived from its 
ttaj i^mwcUTf and has the same root as dfOw, to 
But in later times a mythological orii^in was 
&r it, and the moontain was supposed to have 
mtmd ita name from a n jmph, Aetna, the daughter 
^ Craaas and Gaea, or, according to others, of 
Brinvoa. (ScboL ad Theocr. Id. i. 65.) The monn- 
tia ittrlf is spoken of bj Pindar (P*fth. L 57) as 
wjwuated to Zens; bat at a later period Solinus 
oA it aamd to Vokan ; and wo levn that there 
cxubd 00 it a temple of that deitj. This was not, 
W » im, as nppoeed by seme writers, near the sum- 
m «f the mountain, bat in the middle or forest 
npm^ as we are toJd that it was surrounded by a 
p<m gf aacred trees. (Solin. 5. § 9 ; Ae lian, ff. A. 
xL 3.) [E. H. B.] 

AETOXl A (AlrarAio : Eth, Ahtc\6% Aetohis), a 
frtrirt of Gr e ece , the boondaries of which varied 
at iJBani periods. In the time of Strabo it was 
faKBiM on the W. by Aeamania, trcm which it was 
vparated by the ii ve r Arbelous, on the N. by the 
! ■— ii iniao as ooontr^ inhabited by the Athamanee, 
Mfea, ssd Diyopes, on the NE. by Doris and 
lULs a the SE. by Locris, and on tiie S. by the 
vatnacc to the Corinthian golf. It contained about 
l\6i wtjaan miles. It was divided into two dis- 
tridi, calkd Old Aetolia (v ipxala AlruMa), and 
AftJa Efktetaa (^ frfmyret), or the Acquired. 
TW fcrmer extended along the coast from the 
AeUuQs to the Evenoa, and inland as £u> as Ther- 
■■a, offoMte the Acamanian town of Stratus: the 
bdff indoded the northern and more mountainous 
|st of the province, and also the country on the 
nart bftwaen the Evenoa and Locris. When this 
4Ti»« was introdooed is unknown; but it cannot 
half hem Coanded upon conquest, for the inland 
IrtiOBas were never snbdned. The country between 
tte Acbdooa and the Evenos appears in tradition 
» th^ original abode of the Aetolians; and the 
tera E{acteCaa probably only indicates the snbec- 
not *-rti»»<in^ of thrir name to the remainder of 
rW cuantiy. Strabo makes the promontory An- 
tiniiam the boandary between Aetolia and Locris, 
lis aoae of the towns between this promontory and 
tip Eforu bekaiged originally to the Ozolian Lo- 
oin^ (Stiab. pp. 336, 450, 459.) 

Tfap eoantrj oo the coast between the Achelous 
cj the Evenos ia a fintile plain, called Pamche- 
< t» (Tlm^x^XjmTtt), after the former river. This 
f^ h boandnl oo the north by a range of hills 
'^ZM AneyBthna, north of which and of the lakes 
Hrm and Trkhonifl there again opens out another 
n*mmn plain oppoote the town of Stratus. These 
■* thp only two plaina in Aetolia of any extent. 
7W i fiMi»u«' of the coontry is traversed in every 
£:«rtioa by ro|Qged moontains, covered with forests, 
aaA (Ji of dangerooa ravines. These mountains 
V* a aontlv-wesieriv continuation of Mt. Pindus, and 
Ma» ae%«r been croased by any road, either in ancient 



or modem times. The following mirantains are 
mentioned by special names by the ancient writers: 
— I.Tymphbestds (Tvfuf>p7j<rr6s)j(m the northern 
frontier, was a southerly continuation of Mt. Pindus, 
and more properly belongs to Diyojus. [Drtopis.] 
2. BoMi (B«0/uot), on the north-eastern frontier, waa 
the most westerly part of Mt. Oeta, inhabited by the 
Bomienses. In it were the sources of the Evenus. 
(Strab. X. p. 451; Thuc in. 96; Steph. B. #. v. 
BoffioL) 3. CoRAX (lUpa^), abo on the north- 
eastern frtxitier, was a south-westeriy continuation 
of Oeta, and is described by Strabo as the greatest 
mountain in Aetolia. There was a pass through it 
leading to Thermopylae, which the consul Acilius 
Glabrio crossed with great difficulty and the loss of 
many beasts of bturthen in his passage, when he 
marched from Thermopylae to Naupactus in b. c. 
191. Leake remarks that the route of Glabrio was 
probably hj the vale of the VislrUza into that of 
the KokkmOy over the ridges which connect Vtlukhi 
with Vardkuaiy but very near the latter mountain, 
which is thus identified with Corax. Corax is de- 
scribed on that occasion by Livy as a very high 
mountain, lying between Callipolis and Naupactus. 
(Strab. X. p. 450; Liv. xxxvi. 30; Steph. B. #.r.; 
Leake, Northern Greece, vol. il p. 624.) 4. Ta- 
PHIASSUS (Ja<piaff(r6s: Kaki-skaia), a southerly 
continuation of Corax, extended down to the Co- 
rinthian gulf, where it terminated in a lofty moun- 
tain near the town of Macynia. In this mountain 
Nessus and the other Centaurs were said to have 
been buried, and from their corpses arose the stinking 
waters which flowed into the sea, and fitnn which 
the western Locrians are said to have derived the 
name of Ozolae, or the Stinking. Modem travellers 
have found at the base of Mt. Taphiassus a number 
of springs of fetid water. Taphiassus derives its 
modem name of Kakiskala, or " Bad-ladder," from 
the dangerous road, which runs along the face of a 
precipitous cliff overhanging the sea, half way up 
the mountain. (Strab. pp. 427, 451, 460; Antig. 
Caiyst. 129; Plin. iv. 2; Leake, vol i. p. Ill; 
Mure, Tour in Greece, vol. L p. 135; Gell, Itiner, 
p. 292.) 5. Chalcis or Chalceia (XcU/ru fl 
XaXjcla: Vardssova), an offshoot of Taphiassus, 
running down to the Corinthian gulf, between the 
mouth of the Evenos and Taphiassus. At its foot 
was a town of the same name. Taphiassus and 
Chalcis are the ancient names of the two great 
mount^ns running close down to the sea-coast, a 
little west of the promontory Antirrhium, and sepa- 
rated from each other by some low ground. Each 
of these mountains rises from the sea in one dark 
gloomy mass. (Strab. pp. 451, 460; Horn. IL ii. 
640; Leake, I c; More, vol. L p. 171.) 6. Ara- 
cnrTHUS ('ApcUwv^oy: Zygos), a range of moun- 
tains running in a south-easterly direction from the 
Achelous to the Evenus, and separating the lower 
plain of Aetolia near the sea from the upper plain 
above the lakes Hyria and Trichonis. (Strab. x. 
p. 450.) [Aracynthus.] 7. Panaetouum 
\Viena), a mountain NE. 5f Tlicrmmn, in which 
city the Aetolians held the meetings of their league. 
(Plin. iv. 2; PoL v. 8; Leake, vol. i. p. 131.) 

8. Myenus (t^ tpos Vi\ni¥o¥, Plut. de Fluviis, 
p. 44), between the rivers Evenus and Hylaethna. 

9. Macyhivm, mentioned only by Pliny (/. c), 
must, from its name, have been near the town of 

' Macynia on the coast, and consequently a part of 
Mt. Tapliiassus. 10. Curium (Kovpioi'), a moun- 
tam between Pleuron and lake Trichonis, frxmi which 


til"' rnrotos were sniil to have derived tlnir name. 
It i> a liraikh of Ani< \nllia>i. (Strab. x. j». 40 1.) 

The two cliiet" rivers <»t" ^Vrtolia were the Acheloii.s 
:ind the Kveiius, which tluwcd in the lower [art of 
thi'ir eour>e nrarly i)Mrallel to one another. [Aciii;- 
uus: KvF.Nls.j Tlirre \Nere no other nver> in the 
eoinitry wurthy of mention, with the »'xcej)ti<»n ol tlie 
Canijiyhis and C'vathus, both of uhi«-h were tribu- 
taries^ of til'' Aelielou>. [AciiELors.] 

There were M-veral hikes in the two j^reat j)lains 
of AetoHa. 'I'he upiK-r |»lahi, N. of Mt. Anwynthus, 
rontaineti two lar;;e hvke>, whieli eonmnuiieatetl witli 
each otlier. Tile eastern and the larger of the two 

\\a^ eall«'d Trielionis (Tpix'^*''^? 1''>I- ^'- "' ^>- ** '- J^'^f^'" 
of Apitkuro)y the wotern was nanieil llyria (^LfUr 
of' Zi/tjiK<y, and fn>ni tlie hitter issued the rivir 
("yalhn>, whieh tk»we.i into tlie Aehelous near the 
town of Cuii'i] e, afterwanhs Ar>in<>e (Ath. x. \>. 424). 
rhi> hike, named llyrie by Ovid (.1/f ^ vii. 37 1, >eii.) 
i> (.died lly<h-a ("Ti^a) in tlie eonnnontext of Strabo, 
fiMiii \\h«tm \\e leani it was afterwards ealh-d 
J.y^iniaehia (^Avai^ax'ia) tVom a town ol' that name 
n]x>n it> .southern .shore. (."<trab. p. 4<>0.) Its pmjH-r 
name ajtjn\irs to have K-en liyria. whieh nui»ht ea.sily 
W eh.iii;,'ed into lly<h-a. (Miilkr, Uorlans, voh ii. 
J). 4Sl.) This lake is also named Cnn^'jn' by Anto- 
ninus I.ilH-ralis (,l/t7. 12). The nn-untain Araeynthus 
runs down towards the shorv's <>f both lakes, aii<l near 
the lake Hyrie there is a nivine, whieh Ovid (/. c.) 
«alls the '• (.'yeneia Tenijx\" b*-*ause Cuniis was 
s liil ti> have Ih^'Ii here tdianced into a swan liy A}»<ill«t. 
Tlie j) .sourees which iVirni both tlie lake> aiv 
at the fo't of the steep mountain o\*rhan:,'in:r the 
ea'>ti'ni, (tr lake Trivhoui>: a current tiows tVoin K. 
to \V. throULdi the two lakes; and the river of 
(.'yathus is nothiu:: inoiv than a continuation of the 
same stream (Leake, vol. i. p. 154). In the lower 
I'laiu of Aetolia then- were sevi-ral smaller lakes or 
la:,'o'>ns. Of the.s«> Strait) (pp. 4.V.). 4»>0) mentions 
tiii'o'. 1. C'Miia (Kuna). which A\as (iO stadia I<»u^' 
an<l 20 broad, ami communicated with the -M-a. 2. 
I'ria {Ovpia). \\hi«h was nuich smaller than the 
jtHH-eilini: and half a stadium from the sea. 3. A 
l.irj-e lake near Oalydon. U'luiirinu' to the Kouiaus of 
Patnie: this l,ik'', accrdim: to StraU), .alMunde.l in 
t'sh (tfo-ioO. ''''d the ijastrcuouiic ]«Ht .VrcheNiratus 
said that it was ccl«bnitcvl for the labrax (-Va^^^a^), 
a ra\cnous kln<l of ti.-h. (Atli. Nii. ]». 311. a.) 
'l"he:>' is >miu»- diiF.culty in id":itit"_\iii^' :hc>e lake^. as 
t!ie coa^t has underj'-ne nunn-rous (!..in_is; but 
Le.ike 5up|»"scs that tlie jaj'-'ii of An<tf'-Hk'<t uas 
l'\nia. that y>\ M- . <<•!(, ji'jid { lia, and tl*at ot linkf.ori 
the l.ik*' of I'.ilydou. l he la>t of the.M> l.ike> is 
l-^rhaj^^ the ,N;iMie as the laketMithis ('OJt'i's). uliich 
N.iander (ap. Sh >!. <ul Xu-nihl. F/nr, 214) s}iaks 
of in co!,n., ;i..n with Nauj actus. (^Leake. \ol. iii. 
\K ,*):3. v^c.) 

In the two creat pLiiu'* o( .Vt'tolia e\''ci!eut com 
was :jro\vn. a:',d the sl(»j< v (,f the mour.ta;;is \ •: * d 
:_.«*! wi'ie a:id < il. Ihe^e j lain-^ aI>o atV'n!<\l .i' in- 
dance i>\ j<i-tur\' tor hor-ev; and the A<t''li.ui h "r-t-s 
wi'ri' ntkoT <^1 only s«vond to those ot lhcs^al\. In 
the mountains then' w«'rv^ many wild Uasts, anionj 
which we find UM-ntion of Kmrs and even ot li'-ns. 
f«r llerinl'tu^ i:i\cs the Thnici.ri Nc>tus an I tlie 
A».hcl »us as the limits with'j; whiJi lions wen- feaml 
in r.ur .j-s (H- n^l. v. 12b.> 

Tiie ir.habitants of Aetoli.'i arv said to 
h.'ivo b<vu I'r.n te<. who a-x' 'rdin:: to .^o:re anour.ts 
hid o>:;ie tVom KiiK^a. (Stnib. x. p. 4rt.").) '1 hey 
i.,>:tol the j'ains lvf»vccn the AJ.el *'is and th.o 


Evenns, and the country n'ceived in rmi.*<cquonre th** 
name of Cnn-tis. Be-ides them we also fiml iu»^.ili n 
of the Lelep's and the Hyantes, the Latter c-f wh-ui 
lijid l>ei'n driven out (»f I4o«'oti.a. (."<tnil>. pp. 3:i2, 
404.) These three }>i>oples probably U lon'^»-*i l** tli'* 
i:reat Pcla^C'i'" race, and wfre at all ev«'nt^i ii'»t H*'!- 
leiies. The tirst irrcat Ilclienio .'settlement in tL^ 
country is said to have Iwvn that of the K[i»aii.N, l*»il 
by Aetolus, the son of Kndyini-»n, who cro^^x^l <.\er 
frc»m Elis in Peloj-omiesus. sulxlued the rnn-t^-N, arei 
^ave his name to the country and the ]«e«:>plr-». six 
piierations before the 'Trojan war. Aetohi?* foiunjATl 
the town of Calydoii, which lie «-.'illed after liL^ sj^r.. 
and which iM-eame the eajtital of his doininioiLs. Tli'» 
Curetes ci>ntinue<l to resi<ie at their ancient ca] itul 
Pleuroii at the foot of Mt. Curium, and far a l"i,i: 
time carried on war with the inhabitants of Calyd.n,. 
Snbseijuently the furetes were driven out of i*lt^unj'r.. 
and are s.aid to have o\er into AcamajiLi. 
At the time i»f the Trojan war rieumn as ^^€•I1 as 
Calydon were L'ovenied by the Aetohan chief Th^ia*. 
(rails. V. I. § 8: Hom. //. ix. r)2'J, M''}. ; Slrari. 
j>. 403.) Since Pleuron ajtjx'ar.s in the hiler j.'<Ti<>i 
of the heroic aje as an Aetohan city, it is>«?iiTt-ii 
.'US sU( h fn>m tin- l)e-innin;: in some le:;en«l>. lli'uce 
rieurou, like Calydon, i.> said to have derivt-ti it*. 
nam<- from a sou of Aetolus (AjN'lliKi.i. 7. § 7); aiiii 
at tlu' very time that some legends repn-^+'iit it as 
th<' cajiital of tho Cureto, and eni:;«L'ed in war with 
Oeiieu>. kin<x of Calydon, otlnTs relate tluit it w.v* 
fTovernetl by his own brother The-tius. Act«dia wa-s 
celebrated iu tin- heroic aire of Chieee (in account oi 
the hunt of the Cdydoniaii lH>ar, aiid the cxpLdt^s t»f 
Tydeus. MelcaL^'-r and the other henx-s of Ciilydi^n 
and l*leuri»n. The Aetoli.ius al-o t^wk jxtrl in the 
Trojan war under the eonmiand of 'Tlituus; they cann* 
iu 40 ships from Plenron, ("alydou. Oleiuu*. Pyl« tw* 
and Clialcis (Hom. JL ii. 03>). Sixtv vcars ai'tfr 
the 'Tro'an war souic Aedians. who hid Utm drivtri 
out of The>,saly aloKi: \\i;h the lio^-oiLiin^, ii;ijTut*t.l 
into Aetoli.i. an<l settled in the country arouiul Plcur«»n 
and ("alylou, wliieh was leiue c.iie-d Ac-. dis aftt-r 
them. (Mrab. ]k 404: 1 hue. iii. 102.) KpliMms 
(aj). .^trab. p. 40.")) ho\\e\er jl.ices this miLrration ij£ 
tlie Aeoiians uuudi c.irlier, f >r he r» lat«"-s '* that th»* 
Aeolians oni e in\a.led th-' di-trict of Pleunui, \% hich 
was inhabited by the C'urctes and ciIleT Cun?ti-t 
and exj-Iied this {^-oj'.e." Twenty Aear> alter^vurds 
• Hemrtil the ^ 1>. 'riau inva>-iou of Peloj».>nno>us 
under the couini.ind ^A the deseeiidants of llennTcs.. 
1 he A<t" ihiet Oxylus to<«k ]»;irt in this inN;csit.n, 
a. id londuittnl the O.irians across the Coriutlu.ia 
LTTiit". In return f^r his >vnices he recvivc'd Kirs 
u}»'u the co'i ]ue>t of Pel {i-tnnesus. 

T'rom this tinu' till the eonmiencein»'nt <»f the 
Peloj>.::n<>~ia'.i war we know uotiiin^ of the hi>t<:>rv 
<'i tile A't"ii uis. Notwii!i^ta:.<ihij their fanio in 
tlie luToic i^'e, they .ijii^i'ir ;it the tine of tht* 
l\.l,.j. ,,:;., -via:, war as oi-e "t'the ni'^t un» ivili/:e»i uf 
the (iii.iin trib'-; .i'\>\ Thuiydi.les (j. "j) inouti«kn*i 
them. t.'.:eth'r with tl.iir nei^iiU.urs the O^.^diaii 
I.'Hri.iUs a!id Aea^n.u i in-, as n'tiinm^r all tlic 
habits of a ru ie and b.irbar- us aje. At this j^^-rioii 
tli'Tv^ were tlu'tf in tin <\\\\-: us of thr AetolLf»n>, 
th.'- Ai-d ti. O; h: "ei ve>. .luvl Kurytane^. The 
!.i-t. who uvri> t!ie Ti ■ -t n'.;!'iirons ...f the tbrtv-, 
-|>ok'' a he juiu'e w!r, li uas uvmtcIiiciMe, and wrn? 
in th-- h d'it of k.i\[:\^ raw nuat. ( Thue. iii. 102.) 
T!i'i< v,l; le-. I; 'w«\er. u^-'s not call tht'in Ba L>^apoi ; 
a:id n tw itt^>tar;vilr,j their b w culture and uiic iviliztxl 
h bits, the Aav' ra!.k».d as Hc'rUos, jvirtlv 


itafpcws, OS accoant of tbeir legmiarj fenowli, 
Mid pMtlT oo accoant of their acknowledged con- 
BTtiua with the Eleans in Pdoponnesos. Each of 
tbe« three dhintons was snbdivided into several 
TiUfi^ tidies. Their villages were unfortified, and 
BdM of the inhabitantA lired bj plunder. Their tribes 
wffmr to have been independent of each other, and 
a w» oolr in circumstances of common danger 
tfatf thtf acted m concert. The inhabitants of the 
iakad mountains were brave, active, and inviu' 
cibfe. TbcT were unrivalled in the u^e of the 
jrefia, for which they are celebrated by Euripides. 
(/Wmm. 139, 140; cooip. Thuc. iii. 97.) 

Tbe Apoduti, Ojiiionenses, and Eurytanes, in- 
ybitfd fliily the central districts of Aetolia, and 
6i aut occnpj any part of the pkin between the 
Kf«tts» and the Acheloiui, which was the abode of 
tfcp more civilized part of the nation, who bore no 
«tter oame than that of AetoUans. The Apodoti 
^kwOmt, Thuc. iil 94; 'Aw^JJoroi, Pul. xviL 5) 
■hikitid the mountains above Naopactus, on the 
kedm of Locris. They are said by Poly hi us not 
Ui have been I^Uenes. (Corop. Liv. xxxii. 34.) 
ICorth of these dwelt the Ophionenses or Ophienses 
COfiirrif.Thoc. Lc; *Oipu7s, Strab. pp. 45 1,465), 
aad ta then belonged the smaller tribes of the Bomi- 
em» (fitf^^T, Thuc. iiL 96; Strab. p. 431 ; Steph. 
lfi.<.c.Biiot)aDd CalIienae8(KaAXi>7y,Thuc /.c), 
W(^ of which inhabited the ridge of Oeta running 
Ami toHvda tbe Malic gulf: the fonner are placed 
W Stnbo {L c.) at the- aoorces of the Evenus, and 
tte poBtkn of the Utter is fixed by that of their 
eifibl town Calliom. [Gaixuxm.] The Eury* 
taoB {lipmriwrs, Thuc iii. 94, et alu) dwelt 
Mtk of the Opbioocn^es, as far, apparently, as Mt. 
TTaphzutua, at the foot of which was the town 
(^cUia, which ^rabo describes as a place belong- 
■Y t* this peoplau They are said to have possessed 
13 wade of OdyBseos. (Strab. pp 448, 451, 465 ; 
Mttltt/Iyo^r. 799.) 

The AgtMt, who inhabited the north-west corner 
tf ietolia, bordtrinj; upon Amhracia, were not a 
inoM of the Artolian nation, but a separate people, 
rMned at the time of the Pelopoon^ian war by a 
k^ of their own, and only united to Aetolia at a 
k» pviod. The Aperanti, who lived in the same 
teirt, appear to have been a subdivision of the 
icna. [AftgAFT; APKRAam.] Pliny(iv. 3)men- 
t^ varioos other peoples as belonging to Aetolia,. 
MTi M the AihamjLnes, Tymphaei, I)ol<^)es, &c. ; 
bitt this atatatnent is only true of the later period 
^ tb Aetdun League, when the Aetolions had ex- 
traiU thffir dominioa over most of the neighbouring 
ta^ 'd Efima and Thssaaly. 

At the oaonneDcenient of the Pdopennesian war 
t^ Vtofiaoa had formed no alliance either with 
>fvu or Athena, and consequently are not men- 
t-«eii bf Thncydides (ii. 9^ in his enimieration of 
t^ tBtd fcrcM of the two nations. It was the 
■ifRMknl invasion of their country hy the Athe- 
>Mi n the sixth year of the war (b. c. 455), 
*^rli M then to espouse the Lacedaemonian side. 
U lUi year the Meesenians. who had been settled 
tf %K{B(ta» by the Athenians, and who had suf- 
^»i r**Mly from the inroads of the Aetolians, 
the Athenian geoeaal, Demosthenes, to 
the interior of Aetolia, with the hope of 
tke three grrat tribes of the Apodoti, 
and Eorytanes, since if they were 
**>4«d the Athenians would became masters of 
te viok ooontTj between the Ambracian gulf and 



Parnassus. Having collected a considerable force, 
Demosthenes set out from Naupactus; but the eX' 
pedition pro>'ed a complete failure. After advancing 
a few miles into the interior, he was attacked at 
Aegitium by the whole force of the Aetolians, who 
had occupied the adjacent hills. The rugged nature 
of the groiud prevented the Athenian hoplites from 
coming to close quarters with their active foe ; De- 
mosthenes hod with him only a small number of 
light-armed troope; and in the end the Athenians 
were completely defeated, and fled in disorder to the 
coast. Shortly afterwards the Aetolians joined the 
Pcloponncsians under Euiylochus in making an 
attack upon Naupactus, which Demosthenes ^aved 
with difficulty, by the help of the Acamanians. 
(Thuc. iii. 94, &c.) The Aetolians took no further 
part in the Pelopcamesian war; for those of the na- 
tion who fought imder the Athenians in Sicily were 
only mercenaries. (Thuc. vii. 57.) From this time 
till that of the Macedonian supremacy, we find 
scarcely any mention of the Aetolians. They ap- 
pear to have been frequently engaged in hostilities 
with their neighbours and ancient enemies, ther 
Acamanians. [Acarnania.] 

After the death of Alexander the Great (s. c. 
323) the Aetolians joined the confederate Greeks in 
what is usuaUy called the Lamian war. This war 
was brought to a close by the defeat of the confer 
derates at Crannon (b. c. 322); whereupon Anti- 
pater and Craterus, having first made peace with 
Athens, invaded Aetolia with a large army. The 
Aetolians, however, instead of yielding to the in- 
' vaders, abandoned their villages in the plains and 
retired to their impregnable mountains, where tliey 
remained in safety, till the Macedonian generals 
were obliged to evacuate their territory in order to. 
march against Perdiecas. (Diod. xviii. 24, 25.) 
In the wars which followed between the different 
usurpers of the Macedonian throne, the alliance of 
the Aetolians was eagerly c(mrted by the contending 
amnes; and their bmve and warlike population 
enabled them to exercise great influence upon the 
politics of Greece. The prominent part they took 
in the expulsion of the Gauls from Greece (b. c. 
279) still further increased their reputation. In 
the army which the Greeks assembled at Thermo^ 
pylae to oppose the Gauls, the contingent of the 
Aetolians was by far the largest, and they here dis- 
tinguished themselves by their braveiy in repulsing' 
the attacks of the enemy; but they earned their 
chief glory by destroying the greater part of a body 
of 40,000 GatUs, who had invaded tbeir country, and 
had taken the town of Gallium, and committed the 
most hcHTible abm^itics on the inhabitants. The 
Aetolians also assisted in the defence of Delplii when 
it was attacked by the Gauls, and in the pursuit of 
the enemy in their retreat (Pans. x. 20 — 23.)» 
To commemorate the vengeance they had inflicted 
upon the Gauls for the destruction of Gallium, thtf 
Aetolians dedicated at Delphi a trophy and a statue 
of an armed heroine, representing Aetolia. They 
also dedicated in the some temple the statues of the 
generals tmder whom they had fought in this war. 
(Pans. X. 18. § 7, x. 15. § 2.) 

From this time the Aetolians appear as one of 
the three great powers in Greece, the other two 
being the Macedonians and Achaeans. Like the 
Achaeans, the Aetolians were united in a confederacy 
or league. At what time this league was first 
formed is uncertain. It is inferred that the Aeto- 
lianf mtist have been united into some form of con- 



ft.Nlfracy at least as e:irly as the time of Pliilip, the 
father of Alfxaiider the Great, from an in>(ri]'tioii 
on the statue of Aet«>hi.s at Thcnnum, qu'it«d hy 
Kjihorus (Strab. p. 4G3: AiruKhy Tdub* a.i'ft)TjKav 
Air(t)\ol (r(p€T(pds hvtju aptrns ^aopav), anil from 
the ctf^sidu of Nau|>actus, which was made to them 
by Philip. (Strah. p. 427: tVxt 5c ivv AItwKwv^ 
^iKiinrou nooaKpit^ayroi, (|uoteiJ by Tliirluall, ///.<^ 
ofdretce. vol. viii. p. 207.) IJut it w:i.s not till after 
tht* ileatli of Ah'xan-ltT the (In-at that tho Kniruo 
aji]rt*irs to have come into full activity ; ami it was 
pruhalily the invasion of their country by Antipatcr 
and Cratmis, and the eouM'tjui'iit necessity of con- 
ccrtini: nx.'a.sure.-* fur tlu-ir f(tnnn<in dcfiMU'e, that 
hrou^^ht the Actolians into a elo>cr |>olitic:il a.sMM-ia- 
ti<>n. The cunbtitntioii of the leai^ne wa^ drnuK'ra- 
tiial, like that of the Aflohan towns and tribes. 
The irreat couueil of the nation, eallcil the Pnn- 
aetolirou (I.iv. xxxi. 9), in which it is prohaMe 
that every freeman alntve the a;re of thirty had the 
riu'ht of votinL', niet every antunm at 'I'hermum, f )r 
the ele(ti<»n of nlal:i•^trates, general lejji.^lation, and 
the deci.^iiin of all questions re^jx»ctini; jjcace and 
war with foreitrn nations. There was also anotlier 
ileliherative b<Kly, called AjK>cIeti ('AttokAt/toi), 
which ap[M-ar.s to have been a kind of }>ermanent 
coniioittee. (Poh xx. 1: lav. xxxvi. 28.) The 
thief mairistrate Iwire the title of Strate'^us {iTparrj ■ 
yS^). He was elected annually, pre.>iiled in the as- 
iemblies, and had the connnand of the tro<>p> in 
war. Tiie ollicers next in rank were tlie Hipparchus 
{"inxapxos), or conunaiider of the cavalry, and tlw 
ciiief Secretary (Fpaw^aTfus), bt)th of whom were 
elected annually. (For further detaiK res[;»Mtinu' 
the constitution of the ka^ne, see Jjict. vj' Antiij. 
art. Aetoltcum Fof:d/iJi.) 

After the expul.-^ion <>f the Gauls fr<>m Greece, the 
Actolians bei^an to extend their doniinitms over the 
nei'^dibouriufr nations. Thev still retained the ru<le 
and barbarous hal)its which had ciiaracterivcd tiiem 
in the time of Thucydide>, an<l ^^ere still accus- 
tomed to live to a irreat extent by roblx-rv and piracy. 
Their love of raj/me wi.s their irreat incentive t(» 
war, and in their maraudinir exjK'ditions they sjiared 
neititer friends nor foes, neither thinirs s.icred nor 
profane. Such is the character ^iveu to them by 
Polybiiis (e. g. ii. 45, 46, iv. 67, ix. 38), and hi.> 
account is contimuHl in the leadinrj outlines bv the 
testimony of otin'r writers: thouL'h ju>tice requin's 
ns to add tiiat the enndty of the Aetolians to the 
Achaeans has probal)ly led the histt»rian to exaL'^e- 
rate rather than underrate the vices of the Aetoljan 
jH'ople. At the time <»f their greatest j-^mer, they 
w«>re Tna'»tcrs of the whole of we>teni A<arnania. (tf 
the south of Kpirus and The^saly, and of Locris, 
Pli«Mi>, and B'H'otia. They likewiM* assununl the 
entire control of the Delphic onn le and of the 
Amphicty(»nic a>.-embly. (IMut. Ihni'tr. 40; Pol. 
iv. 25; thirhvall. vol. viii. p. 210.) Their lea;^Mie 
al>o embraceil several towns in the heart of Pejo- 
p>ime^us, the i>land of Cej>hallenia, and •■ven citi<'s 
in Thrace and Asia Miiutr, .such as Ly>iniachia on 
the Hellcs|x.nt, and Cios on the Proj>ontis. Tlie 
relation of these distant j)laces to the league is a 
matter of uncertainty. They could not have taken 
any jart in the manairement of the bu-iness of the 
confederacy ; and the towns in A>ia Minor .and Thnice 
jinvbablv juined it in order to {»rotcct tlicmselvL^ 
airain^t the attacks of the Aetoliiin privateer>. 

The Aetolians were at the hei;;ht of their jx.wcr 
in B. c. 220, when their unprovoked inv;i>iou of 


Mes«;e!)ia en-jn^cd them in a war with the Acba»^iL<. 
usiully called the Social War. The Acha^^iiL-i were 
supjMtitcd by the youthtul numarch of M ict^b-nia, 
Philip v., who inllicted a severe bl.»w uj^.ii the 
Aetolians in n.«'. 218 by an miexin^ctcd march into 
the interior of their countiy, where he .«iuq>rir*<l tlit^ 
c:ij)ital city of Thennum, in which all the wi-alth atni 
trea-ures of the Aeti»lian leaders were d<'j»»>>itc*<i. The 
whole of tliese t'-ll into the hand> of the kiu'j. and wr*Te 
either earri<-d olVor dcstntyed; and Ivfore quittini: tlje 
pla<(', I'hilip set tire to the sacnnl buildiniZf^. t'> i> ta- 
liateforthe destruction of Dhim and Di-b-iia by tho 
Aeto|inn.>. (Pol. v.2 — 9, 13, 14; for tin- iletails of 
Philili's march, see TiiEHMLM.) TheS< war'w.i.s 
brouL'ht to a close by a treaty of |K-a<v cnnchid«>i in 
H. <\217. Six years aftcnvanls (u. <". 211) tlif 
Aetolians aLrain tleclared war aL'ain>t Philip, in con- 
scijuciice of havin;xf'»nned an <>ll"ensive aixl tlotVii>i%*» 
alliance with the Honians, who w..-re then cmruz't^l 
in ho'^tiliti'-s with Phihp. The attention of the 
PoUians wa> too much txcupied by the war acairtst 
Hannibal in Italy to enable them to atTonl imua 
a>>istanee to the A*'tolians, Ujcu whom, tliervfvrv, 
the burden of the war chiefly tell. In the c»)Un!^ c-f 
this war I'hilip ai'ain took Thennum (Pol. xi. 4). 
and the Aetolians became so <iisheartened that tliey 
concluded peace with him in it. r. 205. Thi- ]<*a4;e 
was f'lloweil ahniKst innnedi.itcly by one botweva 
Philip and the Pomans. 

On the n-newal of the war betwe<^n Philip and 
the jjomans in n. c. 200, the Aetolians at fii>t re- 
solvt'd to remain iM'Utnil; but the of the 
ciii^ul Galba induced th'-m to cbanije tln'ir detonui- 
nation. anil bt-tore the «'tid of thetirst can"i]i:iij-n tlo-v 
d«-. l.ued war aijainst Philip. They fon;jlit at tlio 
b:ittle of Cyiio-rfjihalae in u. (\ PJ7. when tin ir 
cavalry contributed materially to tlie snct>es> of i}je 
y\Ay. (Liv. xxxiii. 7.) The settlement of the 
allairs of Greece bv Plandniims atler thi> violi>rv 
cau>cd ;:reat di-aj-jH/nitment to the Aetolians ; and 
a> voi»n as Flamininus returned to Italy, tliey inviltii 
Aiitio< has to invadi* Greece, uuil shortly afttrwards 
d<<larcd war aizain>t the pomans. (ji. c. 192.) 
The defeat of Aiitiochns at Thermopylae ( b. o. 191) 
drove the monarch back to A>ia. and left the Aeto- 
lian>^ exjxiv4'd to the full veni^'cance of the lIonjaii.s- 
riiev obtained a short re».i>ite bva truce wliich thfV 
solicited from llu> lioman^; but havim: MibM^.jueiitlr 
rc>niiied hostilities on rumours of some snc«'»«>v.'s tif 
Antioi hu> in A^ia, the Poman consul M. Kulviivn 
N'ohilior crovv#*d ov«t into Gn>\e, and conniivtii-^'^i 
o]MMalions by layini: sieire to Aird)ra(ia (ii. t\ 1^9), 
\\lii< li was then oin- (»f the strontjt'.st t<tMns Ind^'Uiziiitj 
to the lea.'ue. McantiuiC news had arnvcd of l!ie 
total dct'cat of Antio(hus at the battle of MaL''Uo>La, 
and the Aetolians re>o|ved to ]>nn ha-e jn-atx' at aiiv 
]-ri(v. It was L'ran'ed to tli.'m by the Pumans, but 
on terms which ilestro^ed f.r e\er their indcj»<^iuU 
cnce. and rendentl tlieni only the viu^sals of lloiix*. 
(Pol. xNii. 15; Piv. xxxviii. 11.) Alter the con- 
.[uc-t (.f Pcr>euN(H. r. 167), the l{<iman jiurtv in 
A»'tolia, a^>i^te(] by a b.«ly of Poinan si>bii«»r5 
maN>acred 550 of the b-adiiiu' }>atriots. All tlie sur- 
viv(.rs, who were su.^i-'ctcd of op{K»sition to th^ 
Poinan yiolicy, were carri<'d olf as prisoners to Italv. 
It wa> at tbi> tiii>e that the league was forniallv 
(iiv>ol\e.|. (Liv. xlv. 28. 31; .Iu>tin, xxxiii. Prxd. 
aul 2.) Aetolia sub-e.puiitly fi>nued j^tart of tti© 
prvivince of Acliaia; tiioUL'h it is doubtful whether 
it fonned jart of this pnnince as it was at first 
n.siitutcd. [ AciiAiA.] The inhabitants of se\ era! 



of ib toirm trm remored hy Augustus to people the 

drr (if Nkx^iotis, which he fmmded to oommeinorate 

btoTktury at Actimn, b. c. 3) ; and in his time the 

cooitry ii <)esmbed by Strabo as utterlj worn oat 

lad exhaosted. (Strab. p. 460.) Under the Bo- 

DOH tfaf ArtoGans appear to have remained in the 

mat rade cnodition in which they had always been. 

Tlir iDtmor of Aetotia was probably rarely vbited by 

tlic Bflouuis, for they bad no road in the inland part 

of tk country; and their only road was one leading 

fm the coast of Acamania across the Achekms, 

W Plnxron and Calydon to Chalcis and Molycreia 

«• tfar Attolian oust. (Comp. Brandstlten, Die 

GtMkkktem Jes AeiolUcAen Landes, Volket wid 

Bmda, Brrlin, 1844.) 

The towns in Aetolia were: L In Old Aetolia. 

I. h the lower plain, between the sea and Mount 

Aacrntlras, Calydox, PLErRow, Olenus, Pt- 

usi, CiiAixrts (these 5 are the Aetolian towns 

viboQed bj Homer), Rauctiina, Elaeus, Pas- 

isira or pRASA, pRoecHiuM, Ituoria, CoKors 

(^tennid* Amno?), Lysuiacuia. In the upper 

ftM X. of Mount AiACjmthus, Acrab, Metapa, 

pAxraiAfPHYTxcM, Tricuoxitm, Thestienses, 

TBCkJcnu. In Aetclia EpictetuSf on the sea-coast, 

Mactvia, Moltcreiux or Molycreia: a little in 

tk iBtoior, on the borders of Locris, Potidajcia, 

fucTUDm, TEicRJCif, Aegitium: further in 

tk isscriir, C aluum, Oechaha [see p. 65, a.] , Ate- 

uarriA, Aorihtum, Ef^yra, the last of which was 

A twa «f the AgraeL rAoRAEi.] The site of 

tk hAmint^ towns is quite unknown : — Ellopium 

ClMjfwmr, PuL ap. Steph. B. a. r.); Thorax (81^ 

K> <- r.); Pberae (^«pa^ Steph. B. s. v.). 




AEKyXE. [AxncA.] 
AFFILAE (Etk. Affikmn), a town of Latium^in 
^ ■«« eztaoded sense of the term, but which must 
M"Uj hanre in earlier times belonged to the Hcr- 
It Is stin called AJSU^ and is situated in the 
district S. of the ralley of the Anio, 
nUes from Aioioco. we learn frocn tho 
ascribed to Fraotxnns (die Colon, p. 230), 
■^ its lirntarf was colonized in the time of the 
*''>Brk, bat it nrrcr «njoyed the rank of a coloay, 
■*A Piay nwtiuus it only among the ** oppida " of 
^■■B. (/T. y. m. 5. § 9.) Inscriptioos, fragments 
^ ■!■>■•, said other ancient relics are still risible in 
nOHPe of AjfiU. (Nibby, Dintomi di 

i.p.41.) rE.H.B.] 


^f fan sf the luone af^iearB to be the more 

c) w« the name gircn in ancient times to a 

■aar Tftnr, fronting the phun of the 

B and now called if oale iS. ^R^eZo, though 

«■ Gcirs map as Jfonle AffiUmo. The 

I > ^ a Minct was carried at its foot, where the 

«f it attll -risible are remarkable for the 

mH graadeor of their construction. An 

. m which ncords the eompletian of some of 

««ks has pmervcd to us the ancient name of 

the roonntam. (Nibby, Dmtomi di Boma, vol. i. 
p. 25; Fabretti, /user. p. 637.) [E. H. B.] 

ATRICA i*A4tpuHi: AdJ, Afer, Africus, Afnca- 
nus), the name by which the quarter of the world still 
called A/rca was known to the Romans, who re- 
ceired it from the Carthaginians, and appHed it first 
to that part of Africa with which they became first 
acquainted, namely, the part about Carthage, and 
afterwards to the whole contment. In the latter 
sense the Greeks used the name Libya ('Aippuctj only 
occurring as the Greek form of the Latin Africa); 
and the same name is continually used by Roman 
writers. In this work the continoit is treated qf 
under Libya; and the present article is confined to 
that portion of N. Africa which the Romans called 
specifically Africa, or Africa Propria (or Vera), or 
Africa Provincia {*A^piKii if Ui(efs), and which may 
be roughly described as the okl Carthaginian terri • 
tory, constituted a Roman province after the Third 
Punic War (b. c. 146). 

The N. coast of Africa^ after trending W. and E. 
with a slight rise to the N., from the Straits of 
Gibraltar to near tho centre oif the Mediterranean^ 
suddenly fiills off to the S. at C. Bon (Mercurii Pr.) 
in 37° 4' 20" N. kt., and 10° 53' 35" E. long., and 
preserves this general direction for about 3° (d kti- 
tnde, to the bottom of the GvlfofKhabt^ the an- 
cient Lesser Syrtis; the three chief salient points of 
this E. part of the coast, namely, the promontories 
of Clypea (at the N., a little S. of C. Bon) and Caput 
Vada {Kapovdiah, about the middle), and the 
island of Meninx {Jerbah, at the S.), lying on the 
same meridian. The country within this angls, 
formed of the kst low ridges by which the Atlas 
sinks down to the sea, bounded on the S. and SW. 
by tho Great Desert, and on the W. extending 
about as far as 9° £. long., formed, roughly speak- 
ing, the Africa of the Romans; but the predse limits 
of the country included under the name at different 
periods can only be understood by a brief historical 

That part of the continent of Africa, which 
forms tlie S. »bore of the Mediterranean, W. of the 
Delta of the Kile, consists of a strip of habitabk 
knd, hemmed in between the sea cm the N. and the 
Great Desert (S&h&ra) on the 8., varying greatly in 
breadth in its E. and W. halres. The W. part of 
this sea-board has the great chain of Atlas inter- 
posed as a barrier against the torrid sands of the 
Stih&ra; and the N. slope of this range, descending 
in a series of natural terraces to the sea, watered by 
many streams, and lying on the S. margin of the N. 
temperate zone, forms one of the finest regions on 
the surface of the earth. But, at the great bend in 
the coast above described (namely, about C. Bon). 
the chain of the Atks ceases; and, from the shores 
of the Lesser Syrtis, the desert comes dose to the 
sea, leaving only narrow slips of habitable land, till, 
at the bottom of another great bend to the S., form- 
ing the Greater Syrtis ( (hUf of Sidra), the sand and 
water meet (about 19° E. long.), fwming a natural 
division between the 2 parts of N. Africa. E. of 
thk point ky Cyrexaica, the history of which u 
totally distinct frvnn that of the W. porticm, with 
which we are now concerned. . 

For what follows, certun land-marks must be 
borne in mind. Following the coast £. of the Fretum 
Gaditanum (Straits of Gibraltar) to near 2^ W. 
long., we reach the largest river of N. Africa, the 
Malva, Molucha, or Mokchath (Wady MuUoia or 
Mokalou)f which now forms the boundary of ifo- 


68 AFKICA. MllkA. 

rocco aiitl Ah)hi\ ami was an oijually ii;i]'<iit,nit waiil> a> Zi.riiiTANA, I'Ut rcac lil'.i: ftirth-r 

froiitkT in aiuii'ut timo. TIh- iu\t j-oint *A n t<i' alon-^' ih-- \\ . cM.i^t. iii'l i.oi -•> t'sr iul iii'l oniln^W. 
eiiio iv H lu-adlathl at a}>out 4"-* V.. Ii'nu., lli" ^i:-- "f "Ilii-. mp t\»i !.'>>. w.i-- tin- rxlt-at i-i" «iiuMr_v .tt fir-' 

tilt' aiiiient titv dt Sam>.\f;. K. ut' ;lli^. a:;aiii, ^niu--- iialuiir.l liv th,' K ,]ii m^ uiidif iIk- naiSK- ni" At*"! .i. 

what Im'UHuI l)"^ K. luiii;,, i> anntlK-r Iruiititr ri\«-r, aiul to tin.- \< i} il;i\ it l'<'ar> tin- >aint' iiaM.f, /V-iW' 

the A.Mr-sAtiA {W'li'/f/ 1 1 K<h/i-): t'urtlifr on, I'cir "V Aj'rilm/i. It i> nM;:arka!i|f tli it, ii<illi»T in !i.' 

8^ K. i-'ti_'., atiotlicr river, tin- Ki r.i:i« am ^ (ll''''/'/ \var> «i|" Auaih-K-K'- n<>r <•!' tli»- i;<'iua;i> with rani. i> 

S' t'f'ons). at th<' iiM'Hth i>f \Nhuh >ttKHl 11iit<» h'l.- in A!Vna. doi'- any iu>!i;i'>a <w riir <'t ii iiitar} <>|-.r;t- 

«.n s {/)i>;>o/i): aii.i, aK.tit 1" laith-T 1".., th.* v'n--: tiMii> out of ihl- ii :iii«<l <li-triit. Hut ^till.Ul '•■ 

1 r>« A ( ir<('///-' :-/('/")• III'' l<"t IT'"* at oj" ' ihi- N\ar^ with l!"i!i«-. thi- t'iri'.-Tv «.t' Carlha.-f IikI 

thi^ rua>t, W. «it" thi-^nat tiiniiii )">in; {('. />'"'/). ri'Mi\i'l ^.»iiit' a--, c -v;.,!!. (Jn !!;.■ 1>. i>>a-t. S. . :' 

In tilt' Ma<;kai»an ( .l/(i/f /-(/'/A ). t.l i'l^ iiUi. ih'' ^. a .'1»»- \. Kt.. t! 'iii-h.i.j :i: itiiiMa- riiii^ Lul l^^'. Ul"\v C. Farimi, \\iv W. h' li as i (a> ' '. Ji"/i i -taMi-h--.!. S'>iiu' — a> I.']'ti> aij'l Ila^i uim tun; — 

In t!if »'a->tt'ni) tit' till- ureat '•"[(<>!' J in is. ]\>av Hu- cww ht-toif C'arlhau'", ai,*! s-nia- hv the ( artl i- 

rt-ntrf itt w hi' li a r»H ky i-r-'iii'Miti-r. a,;.i i<- ih>' -itt' "t Li:iia..>, Th'^f ^ ;:;« > wt-i-f ! at kf-l by a Scrtiif i'lt 

C'artha_'i'. Lastly, lot IH i;"lo tl.i- hi'::.»:a <! th-' narrow j.!a;:). I. tn Ji^l i>\\ t\,r W. hy a raii.v "t 

LTi-at iiuh' oailf.l t!ic I.f-^'a- >y:li-<. at the S. f.\- iii'i!nitaii;>. wlii.h taii.f^l thf fii.inal 1>y/.a< li M. a 

trt'iiiitv tit' thf ]]. vtri^t alrtatiy ii I'u <!. wi'h the tii>!:i(t, atii.r.i^'j t" ri:;,y, 2.">0 li.^iiMii n i'.--^ i:. 

i;.-;^'!i!> MiriiiL' u'l'-'t ^alt-lakf t>t . 1 /-> ^''/. ' '-. tli-- an- tiia 'lit. ai 1 t .\ti*!ii!/. ^ >.-".\ir'U a>. i ir a^ Tliii •. 

I it ii; I'lltis Trii'iii^, U;uttn '.V\^' aiul '\-i" N. lat.: oj'j' '^i'.f \\.r i>]a;nl i<t ("in it, a (In aU^ut .'U^ -">*' N. 

N. au'l NNV. ft" whitii the funtry i> h'V \\i>- u.<>-\ la!.), wi.iif ili-- Lt>^tr Miii,^ wa- ».fii^i.!» rtil to l- - 

j'lrt ikxrt, as tar a--> thf v^l,. ^1i'Jh->. uI' ;1,.- Aili*. _iii. 1 hi- .I'-trit ; ha'l K- »ai aiM'-.l t" the j»')v>.v>!""> 

I : ain. I h-* t-imnlry i!ninf.lia!«'I\ ai' I'le Itl.f of the Carilt i_iiiiaii^, aiul r<ilyh:ii> ( lii. 2"J) <-]*ukN 

it^elt' tvnii-i the K.-int*Nt ot a .-t-iic^ ^r ca-e-. wLivii *<'' th'ir aii\it't\ t in-al it tr^hi th«- km wl'^lL-'f 'l 

.•xtri-'t'li tV"ni K. tt) \\ . aloiij tli.' >. !"•■": f! the A:! <^ th-- II •;;. I'l-. a> wtil a^ tia-ir r"ii int-n ial >«:t!'-aa:.l^ 
*hain, a'nl ali>n^ thf N. n.arj.n ft ll •• >,tliaia. a: .: t I'thfi- al"a,' thf e-'a-t. ta'.lf"l I-MTokia. 11 i^wtnl. 
tiris uta'k eut a natural >. li' ;.'.ar t-tr liii> j^* ti ai 1 ';a«'Li t. th ■ i_h atu TAaV'!-- n-.-.l a-v tL^^ iiajut^ "t i 
ot N. Atn a. tii-:.;'t. t!f.. .t..i at t"r-t. mi o-.tir.,' tt) it.s ]>^-]*-r 
in the eaili ^^t ti;iie^ ree '!''.e.l, thf w'' '^f X. » M-t n •• i.i/i,'. ^i \\V-[ .•].:> t~ -! a !'i: -],»■• 1 l^r tlie s ikf "t Cfiii- 
of tlie 1-.111'. i'.ifUt \V. ft" 1 -} I'' wa> j f-jit 4 hy \a'i > ;- i. >■ .' f ; a,.>l i: .'•, ; • ar- t'- li i\f i;a In atl ull the Tu -- 
triN'^ ft" tlieuTiat I.:!'* ri Vff. nis. lur.-'. !x- i arf- :.: . ;. „:'.l < a; tii tjii.ian e >! ; ;f> al-nj the w'.. i- 
l;ui_\ lii^ni.^-'u-he^i t'rf.a tiie I'.i.'.i ; : i:i ttr ^•^;■<>'a■f- ^ --i-' tV m th- N. t\ti>"i.ity t.f the Lr-xT >}rti> t" 
nt'tiie i!itfri»ir. S. ft thf Li!'\aa tril-f-. an.i "H tl:f tht* h \i''\i\ "i lie- (ii'ater >yrti^. Any ]'v»-»'>>.'ii 
N. l.aiiN t.t thf >ah:ira. tlu.h th^- «ivi nil a:.; "t ;!;• 1". |'.rt ->! xlA-- !< _: 'U. ::i a ^tr.ttiv tvrrit-nJ 
il \i: v>i \\rr<. ■.'.'.1 S. ft' thf-f. K'^.-. ! ::..• ti.^t'rt. ^'■.-'. w i;.*! have \"<-v, worth!'-— t' ""a thf mtuif 't 
th^ jT' [fr li'hijian^ fp iif^:"f>. 1 h'^ I..i'}a!i> tla* v 'i.i.tiy. hat thi' t"^^l.-^ W'-c i!;ai: t aim 4 a*; <•-":.- 
werx' ft' tlie i.■a^^a>iaIl ta'.'..l\ ft'.-. I. an.i f r t;- - t' » : :: > ri <■ \\!;li ih ■ i:,l ^n i tri'«-^, a'..'l :*> - 
the in »t {".art ft' n •: .a-if ii -' ::>. At [' ri«!> -f <a"-.y a i ! :; : .i". - > -ri'y. h, -;,;, * th- <:• -> rt. aj.iiu-t a:/. 
n> t « Ih- >t:ll n.\:i;-.iai ^ t'' 'i''*ff (.-•. v Ifia-t- I'l -ni iLr .fr 1 ■<'..\ \L d^'-k .-tal'^^ ft t \]-f;aita. 
th,> \\ . ef-i>ts ^ t A-ia -t :il i fK :hf -h re- "t A! i« a. > ■ ii wa- tia- _' • -mI j .-:\ :. d' th" rar*.:.-- 
a.. I f-{- V ia'.l\ f-a tif* ','iri :; -w trf ;..; * :. >. ; ,-: _•'■. .:; .i .•;,!..; •; u. A;' :• a a: tl.f :::. e t.t" thf l''a •: 
h .> J 'f-f'\eii \ t -irifv.s tra if.i -a re-jfciinj thf t .r ■ \\ > "-: f\:. -'''.i- _■ . ^ a r th :r f'-*T: inai'fviiate t<mt"'7 
lif-t A-i I'K' * "i"ni>!>. t ' win h a hire ritf.traf i> '.' i' .t >0 i .!. - ^. - • :' ■■ < .• :t ,1. a:..l al"! 2 th*' i- 
v>M_!i yJ ;•'■"'. l>\ Ihf vh'.t' f. ; ,\'s u ;,. > ,-; . t" / ' "- .-. i ;- ".,*.-l j >.i: th.- W . jar: <■{" 
:h -t> ,.t ;',f I'n -'■;'•.">. «-n«h i- Hiria* / vi:\ 1 1 >. :\ ■ < > i-t (J-' '/. I i;. v.h!.' ii.-., r tli-tri' t in 
I I It V. Ti M ^. 11 vi'K! Nil ri M. l.M-ii^. a';.; ..'. ■\ e I. f • ■ .:':,[ .,: . ^\\*. ; .;:-.! ;1 f l.itfr j.r' vinT -f 
a!'.. 'J; ''ijh fm> ' ! th- \ <\<. ^ \\,\ii Un*. lat'.-. A aa'\>- ia :].■ ; —.--in ..t thf I/ Ir'-y, 
^. ::!'■:> a'.s the l';j -. ni : I'.- e-',.i' h-i.t i :' ;. .\ - w .,-.-. rx ;. - <- n * .■: •.•-(artii ^e i-'ultl el I.vU 
a- tr.ivlep. ra'Jjer t:. ra ». -n ii' r :^: m.A :' '.< \ ■! • i\' t in war. " i! w\ ■ >'-,, ;..■•. ,t f\an at:- •u|.tcii te i^^*- 
>.--■;:> I. i\f tr»ftl '..4 ;'..<: .- iw>..h.'i, !■•■ _'■,_' ti.f >;;.-. 1 ;. -.■ :, '.^ .,-,• x; k. .i t.f l«v «;ri k :t'.'J 
r. .; '. - j^' j i' - i'.'tf -u ' :: '•. i\'it ><> : »: a- w -. 1 »:•• u '■•.:,•■> ■; ; - _< ' « 1 n a «• >^ '.i> li <ii-tr.'.-^ 
V .'/ai ! 'r tl'ir i wa -.f,:r;:_\. l\kr;ha.e. \\\/./'a th .: ■• -if r :■ .> v.f .'l- :;: j i t p 'inf.!. Neua'ff, 
w I- aa 1: '•-.:;.-':■)-! V ■•' k -J I'-i'.-: .»' t... ■ -. ::. t". • Lr ■ : • . Xi \ni»AK. 1 ia-v j.-^. ^--i 
v., !'' ■ i-t. ..".'i :.u!\ -■— • --1 i ..h :!;«■ '.t: tr V[ •- '[.■ . a ••} .." • j S ■ S. t a-t .i- W . a- lie? 
n ' ta e . -.f>. .r. i '> ■ j'.t th- a. ..> .<'..'■ -. it" .- : ..-- ^trai*-: '■ ;t th v.- • :' . - :. at w» -.• >«■: thil t'> t.i'" 
^; . •-. t > .1 -v a w ., ,^, h- r - .; ■» a: f . >h.' .".- > W . >: r". f rt\ r }{.'.. a a^ - "f i .i!'. tl \,\ x th'f 
I . '; e ■: i >'■::- " f va a. • ^ t;. w!-. I. i i-t, •■ . . « . Mauv.. • - • . •- t a. a ::r» .itt-r darkat-> f 
I- • ■ -i.e .Vat- tf th. S •: V .t t'.f iir. .t v ; v. v,- ; \ -;. ,c •. ,.:•- ■ •; ■ . tia' K-iaiTi^ cnli.ii \\i* 
[ .. a-t: : > t" th- • \t' at .r.'i . i: .: .'. «. i- - * \. :-\ W . . :' t' M. , MAitarAXiA: ■";■.> 
t i^- 1 a a -a'ia. "aU. -.j- :a aa tt. : .i.t. f T vi:- t' .t Ih . t" t". M. .... t t!- \V . tr.'Utier .tf ('u■- 
TUv..*• : \ :' A i> tt .--..-y .. -> t'.ii\.rt -: '} t: ■_ . a- i .u- » >\\ . r- i >. nt" the (hirtbajiniia 
t«' !'- V ■ .; ": .. wa t.i' K ...i'.- rr-t ^' i* f .i> - !» -^ ,» • > a- 1 1" .'..- : r 'i I'l thf >vrte.-, "-s 
t. ..i tt-. w: ; t. . * r tr\. At th .' t. ■ t .- : - > r : . . : ■ ^ ; r th ^ . -^' »ti n ..f Ni miph. 
t.T'tt ry !»^.i w ■•- e :.'■. l^^.^.•,^' > '"•-■ ^^ I- ': •- t _. ,, .' • i •; ti-f .Va..;.^! Ta ii< 
1; it> t' a •. t .^ .'% ;t-'h'. [.. -e..- .>' N\ . . 1 W .'. t> f. ,-w > • .- • -* ;.-wi rt'iil : han all tx 
>. -t '■. ^ . -v- tv' .- ; n- ■ - K. ; .• .- . • :> - . ■ .-■ • ■'..< \\ • . -_ rj-rti T.U-twet'a t'M 
H;; ' K _; - • '' W .. t a -. ; t N. . • i! . .• •: - M ., . , . A - , .. ti.f Ma-c*\k>m,ii 
'•.aiay. a: •^'> N ! tt. * ■ ' t ., ^.. .. : tl . ;- -•,•."• ;.-■ ' 'If i- »ifni J/y.-r 
1- .ir : a. * ^ :-• -.% r . ,^- i-. i t t * - • . . : ' :'. . 'r •• t' ' \. r A {- u'l .if tl r< '* 
t. -ta. .-i' 'vv I- rr. . ' :■ .•'. < r _■ . a ■." -_. f w! '", a .. .• '• - ' t Vt" aj.-. ' ... Mw-'viJi 
v: C^-t. v^e. vvrT\>j^ •. a J- '; ' t.. :t_. • ,i - t. ix-.ta^x :w'.. ^ „ t ::..;: .c.i^tU I. V th. lly.iuin 


iMf, was ct tbe strong natural fort of Cutta {Cob- 
l—fi'ai4): reenlar cities w«re, in their earlier his- 
tanr, aloMBt, if not aH<^ether, nnknown to the 
JiggAfiatw. Tbe relations of these tribes to Car- 
tki^earv moat important, as affecting the boondxuies 
d Roman Africa. 

Tit fint chief of tbe Maf«ylii mentioned in his- 
twv. Gala, is fappo«ed to have already deprived the 
Cutlkaeiniana of tbe important town of Hippo {Bo- 
mk\ iuaumQch as it ia meotiuned with the epithet of 
Rt^imt m Livj'a narrative of the Second Punic War 
( Lrr. xxis. 3); hot, lor an obvious reason, we cannot 
liT aiBrb strcM on tbis point of evidence. Much 
Lvn in.portant ia it to b^ in mind that, in these 
forti^ the epithet Rt$iv* applied to a city does prove 
tka it Wjoci^, at aome time^to tbeKomidian princes. 
Ia the Second Panic War we find Gala in lea^e 
•.th tbe ('artba^nians ; but their cause was aban- 
ac«d in B.C. 206 bj bis son Ma^inissa, whoee 
ruied fertnnes this is not tbe place to follow out 
vi drtafl. Defeated again and again bj tbe united 
intt (/ the Carthaginians and <^ Syphax, chief 
*{ tbr 3la«<safa<i lii, be retired into the deserts of 
has Ntncidia, that is, the SE. jiart, abeut the 
Uwr Sjrtick, and there maintained hhnself till the 
i»fiBjj of S'i}40 in Africa, b. r. 204, when he 
, «d tbe Bonwuis and greatly contributed to their 
*TeaL At the coDchud*m of the war, his ser\'i« es 
•w» ttnply rrwardcd. He was rebtorcd to his 
W-'iiiurr dnmininiu, to which was added the 
^rmfft part of tbe country of the Matsacsylii; 
M^Jux having been taken pri^ionrr in B. c. 203, 
rji mvX to lUime, where be soon died. The con- 
cat «f tbe Riimnns on this occasion displayed quite 
^ nj ' j c h pulicy as gratitude, and MiLsinis^a s con- 
<^ «tt)n sii'iwed that be knew he had been M?t 
»i t thjm ill the side of Carthage. Under cover 
•f thf terms of the treaty aiMi with the connirance 
'* firmr. h*" nwttie a scries of aggressions on the 
' rtla*iman territory, b<Hh on the NW. and on the 
>£^ Kiiing the rich Emporia on tbe latter side, 
r-J, vQ ibe finrrr. the country W. of the river 
T-»»a, and the district called the Great Plain, SE. 
W iJr Dagradas an iind 36® N. lat,, where the name 
i 'tjooA Rt^ia Vi a witness of Numidian rule. 
Pos whrt hi* f*n^^tant per&ecntion at length pro- 
•*Aid the <'arthai;:imAiui to the act of re-^ii^tance 
»**k Earned the occa>ion of the Third Punic War, 
Mais;»ra\ kingdom extended from the river Malva 
X ti# &Qolirr fldf Cyrenaica, while the Carthaginians 
«"W brncotM-d tip in the r/urow NE. comer of 
/r^uia which tbey h.'ui at first possesMid, and 
.i tfcr nnall district of Byzacium ; the?*, their only 
:^vaBc po»V9^ion«, extending along the coa^t 
^"mk tbe Ttvra to tbe N. extremity of tbe Lesser 
f^tig, uppopite Crrcina. 

Sow. krrt IPC Atfre the original limifs of 
A» Siptmam prvrinet of Africa, The treaty of 
(«■*, at the cJoee of tbe Second Punic War, 
£j4 alWjjwd to Alasinissa all tbe territory which 
'm B a ^j tu i i bad ever possessed ; be had suc- 
«««M IB carrying oct this provision to its full 
•u**, if not beyond it ; and at the close of 
■W Tfaird Pnnic War, tbe Bomans left bis sons their 
'sfcmtacre ondiminisbed, MaAuisea himtcif having 
• W Kt the iw* year of tbe war, b. c. 148. (Ap- 
«a. I\tk. H»6.) Tbos, tbe Roman province of 
AfrvA, wbirb wan cnciPtituted in B. c 146, in- 
'j^dnl «kiy tbe pctt-e»Mons which Carthage had 
** Vut baTut {J*ig. 19) accurately describes the 
*fjS». *i tl* (a*r nn«fer tbe Miccessont of Maionissa : 



— " Igitnr bello Jngurthino pleraqne eat Punicia 
oppida et finis Carthaginiensium, ^uoff novissume 
habveroMty populus Romanus per magistratus ad- 
ministrabat : Gaetulorum magna pars et Nomidae 
usque ad fiumen Mulucbaro sub Jugurtha erant." 
And, as to the SE. frontier of the Roman province, 
we learn from Pliny (v. 4. s. 3) that it remained aa 
under Masinissa, and that Scipio Africanus marked 
out the boundary line between the Roman province 
and the princes (regfs) of Numidia, by a fossa 
which reached the sea at Thenae, thus leaving 
the Emporia and the region of the Syrtes to tbe 
latter. Thus the province of Africa embraced the 
districts of Zeugitana and Byzacium, or the N. and 
E. parts of the Regency of Ttmis, from the river 
Tusca to Thenae at the N. end of the Lesser Syrtis. 
It was constituted by Scipio, with the aid of ten 
legati, or commissioners, appointed by the senate 
from its own body, as was usual when a conquered 
country was reduced to a province, and on the fol- 
lowing terms. (Appian. iVa. 135; Cic. de Leg. 
Agr. ii. 19.) Such ruins of Carthage as remaineid 
were to be utterly destroyed, and men were forbidden, 
under a curse, to dwell upwi its site; the cities 
which had taken part with Carthage were devoted 
to destruction, and their land was partly made ager 
pubiicus (comp. Cic. /. c. 22), and partly assigned 
to those cities which had sided with Rome, namely, 
rtica, Thapj-us, Leptis Minor, Acholla, Usalis, 
Teudalis, and probably Hadrumetimi (Lex Thoria, 
lin. 79; Marquardt, Becker g Handbuch d. Rom. 
AUerih. vol. iil pt. 1, p. 226). Utica received all 
the land from Hippo Zarytus to Carthage, and was 
made the seat of government. The inhabitants, 
except of the favoured cities, were burthened witb 
heavy taxes, assesfed on persons as well as on the 
land. The province was placed under praetorian 
government, and was divided into conventuSj we 
arc not told how many, but from the mention of 
those of Zeugis (Oroe. i. 2) and Hadrumetnm (Hirt. 
Bell. Afr. 97), we may perhaps infer that the 
former included the whole N. aistrict, Zeugis or 
Zeugitana, and the latter the S. district, Byzacium. 

The war with Jugurtha caused no alteration of 
territories; but the Itomans gained possession of 
some cities in the SE. part of Numidia, the chief of 
which was Leptis Magna, between the Syrtes. (SalL 
Jvg. 77.) 

Africa pbycd an important part in tbe Civil War 
of Pompey and Caesar. Early in the war, it was 
seized for the senate by Attius Varus, who, aided 
by Juba, king of Numidia, defeated and slew Cae- 
sar's lieutenant Curio: of the remains of Caesar's 
army, some escaped to Sicily, and some sturendered 
to Juba; and the province remained in the hands of 
the Pompeian party, b. c. 49. (Caes. B. C. ii. 23 — 
44.) After Pomf»ey*s dea h, and while Caesar 
played the lover at Alexandria, and " came, saw, 
conquered" in Pontus (b. c. 47), the Pompeiana 
gathered their forces fur a final stand in Africa, under 
Q. Metellus Scipio, Afranius, and Petrcius. TheM 
leaders were joined by Cato, who, having collected 
an army at Cyrcne, performed a most difficult march 
round the shores of the Syrtes, and undertook tlie 
defence of Utica, the chief city of the province: bow 
he performed the task, his surname and the story of 
his death have long bume witness. The Pompeians 
were supported by Juba, king of Numidia, but lie 
was kept in check by the army of Bocchus and 
Bogud, kings f*f Mauretania, under P. Sittius, j^n 
adventurer, who Iiad taken advantage of the discoid* 


bt'twcon tlio kiiijrs of Manntania and Xttniiilia to (Strali. pp. 828, 831.) [ Ma u RET AN I a.] Tlius 

iiiakt* a ]>,irty ot his iavii, c<'in|i"H-(l cf a<lvoiitun'rs the two pntviiKM's o( Atnoa wore tinally uriiteil to 

liki' liiniMlt'. and wlio imw i->jM>n>(il Xlw causo i»f , tlic Unman fnipin^, C(m>i.>tiiii; of Old Africa, or tlj«' 

r ir-ar. (.Vppian. Ji. C. iv. 54: l>i<»n (\a<>. xliv. | nncifiit C'arTliaL'ii<ian trrriton'. uaiiivly, Zeud'aiJi 

:\.) .Iu>t hrtuv tin* cl<<M« (if a. «", 47, (.'a''>ar LuitU'd and IUv.a< inni, and New Africa, or. us it wa.> aUi 

I * 

in AfVira; and. alter a brii-f bnt critical cainpaiirn, I called, Nunndia I'r«'\in(ia; the Ixundario Ik-iii;:, (m 

('NiTthn'W the united forces of the other pjirty in the the \\'., at, \vh<re Africa joinwl MauretaTiia 

hiUleof Ihap-us, in April. 4r». 'Ihe kinplom of Cafvarien^is, and on the K.. tiie moniinu-iit <<f tli*' 

Xtuuidia wa- now taken jH»se»ir)n ot' hy Caoar, who rhiiuni. at the hottoni of tin- lirrat Syrli>. wherv 

faceted it into a j'rovjnce. and cvMnniitti-d it^ LTovcni- Afriea toiu hed CyrenaVca. 'Ihe lMiundarie> U'twifn 

nient to SaihiNtiu^. the historian, as pr'Xon>ul, "in Old and New Africa iiMiiained a> iM^lnre. nan ely. mi 

name." >ays Dion Cas-ins. '* to <:o\eni. hnt in deed the N. t'oa>t, the New I*r<Ainee wa-* diviiUtl tr-ui 

to pluii.ler."* (llirt. /y. Af'r. 97: I'ion Oa>s. xliii. the Old by the river Tn>ca, and (»n the K. cvi.vt by 

•» ; Api'ian. li.C ii. 1(U).) Hencet'orth Ntiniidia the dyke of S ij'io, which tenninat<-<l at Thehae. at 

became known by the name of New AtVI< a. and the the N. entiatiee ,.f the Syrti> .Minor. (Tlin. v. 4. 

t'oniu'r K'tiian provnuv as Old AtVici. (Apptn. >. .*i.) 'IIun ]iro\ince of Africa a-^^iiTi'etl to the 

y>. ( '. i\ . ."i.'J : rini. V. 4, s. .'i.) lint t'urther. within .senate, an.l made a pr.M .a.'-nlar ]'rovini.-«', b. c. '27 

the pr»>\i!Ke of New Alrica its.-lt". (.'.le^ar is -aid to (xrab, {.. ^4^): iMoti (. ;i>>, lai. 12). 
have ma.le a partition, to reward the >ervie.> ut >it- A farther thani:e was ihado by OaliL'ula in !«<> 

tnis antl of the kimzs of .Mnureta!i; » : jivint: to the partieu!:ir^. Fir.-t. as to the we-tem U.uhdar;-: 

Inter the \V. j.arl of Nnmidia, a> tar K. (]'ro|.al>i\ ) when, havimi put to d.eath Flolcr.y. the -oii .-f 

a- Sal.iae (^p'vNil>l\- to the .\:np-a^a\ ard to tlic ,Iuba II.. he n.a>le li;> kii,i:d"!ii of Miup-'ta'.ia a 

t ';•;!, ev tiie territory abut Cirta. ( A] j i.m. 7t'. (\ lioiuan provii.ce. le- al>o ,\!t i.dod it^ IvHindnT-;. <M't- 

\\ . .'>4A \ er\ i^robably thi> pirtitieu aa;ounted t'» ward- fmni ."^aidae to tiic ri\er A:iij><a_'a, wuich U'- 

no;iui,j more than lea\ii:: hi> allie>, tor the pro-eut, eame th'i.ccf'rth tiie W. hiundary ^i Nuu.idia. or 

in p. ^-ev>iou <'f what they hid already >eovii, e-j-r^- New Atriea. (lac. ///.*/. i. 11.) But Ije u1m> 

«ialh a-, in hi> acxiety to nnuni tit K.'U'e. C'l.-ar ehanjol the L'ovennr.ei.t iA' the j^rovince. Vnder 

.setiivd the atiair.x o\ .\tViia in jnat lia>ie. (l»'..'n. Auju-tns ar.d 1 ilx-rius. the one leLrion (111-*), wiuili 

xhd. 14. ra t« d\.\a «V tt; 'A<pinKrj 5. a 3ea\f.»v. wa- «ie<'',ud -uiHeient to jiroteet the pr- viio v aCH't.-l 

uv ii?,y ua\oTTa. vaTaTTT^tTaJ.) Am-'ij the e.\;'ic> the barbarian* <ii the S. tVotitier, liad Utu iu,«ier th*? 

tVe'u .Vt ic I y>t the de!ea•^^l party, w ;io had taxcu ord.T> of the jriHoi>ul; but I'alijula. imwii by fi-ir 

nua^e wi:h the -. I's of p.'Uijvy iu S;aiit. w i- a -•!' tiie ]-o\rr and ]>"pd irity of the j r-K -n-ul M. S- 

t<rtaiM A";i:'i' n. wh«n» .\p};ati {i\. ."•4 > v.dU a .--n !a:.u>. de[i'-i\.-vi hini "t" the n.ilitarv" von, :i. and, uiA 

» : a urtaiu Ma-inis^.i. the a Iv .t du'-a. I iii- t,: ,''. p. i' . i the lej;":i ut.der a /(■Vl^^*.< of hi- own. (T;if- 

atter i. .e-u"> uurder. t\':ur,.evi to N r' idia. e\jii...i //'.<*. iv. -|s.) Fr'-.n tlie ate..!inT of I)i.n Ca.--ius, 

l". > I hus. a-;ii -i'U .^:ttra- t'\ >tr ita^-';n. li ;■> -t-Ty widvh i-. hewt\tr, o''\: i>iy i:a\att in >on:e pant-, 

1 •' A:; ! It. .- 1- c :tu>t%i a., i •! ".b'tr.!. e\t a wltii th.' i: would -et-m tiiat Nutidiia w;is alt"j.tluT j^^j i- 

ii- it' .f a f'W .'b-cure w. ;>!- \u a I't'- ." «t ('.'<■.■> r.i',-A l-'Ui Africa, a:. 1 n.a b- an iu:}<.'riai proviiae 
u' \ h i;a^e -.-uic ai {» i*- ii'.*' f i ■ Ur'- 'r.ij; it. ( I-/ lu.i- r :l;e /..,• i*i,..- * \u<:::rii. ( I)i .n Ca^*.-. lix. 2«>: «rai 

I'-NV. 17. -l'-''*'/ '.J '/' >i''o 'i>\ '(•<:.<'.• r- : \^-:i.\\ ^i\a t6 It^tos yt.uas. (Tt^'u: to T€ (TTpoLTia!TiKbv 

D: '^ <.\i--. \1m.\ 22A Ko. rae? ioua3a$ rot y X€S^ avro Tk> )*T€Ta^(.) Tj- 

lu til- ar-.c. _'-.ue -.s ..f ti •• V,,, ;1 tv;-i'c\ irate, ri*:;- d'«:s r.,.; r.'--t;..r. t!.:- -e; .'..--ati n. b.u rather 

v.. i, 4.>. t:.e wh 'e ..1 Af: .V a w.o a--'_; ■■>! to > i't- ou! the . \ .1 n -..!t- ot" t::e /.;\'.itii anth.rirv 

O. •,i\-ru vi »•,>:; la--. xM. oo; At ; a''- 7»- ('■ «.'f the p- ■« 'ti-;! ..: •.: '.- _ iti;- iu a way wiJch -*^'»-;i> 

IN. ."' i "I I. Sxtius. a ! r:;T I. ;-.uo <f d.'us to l:v\\y riiit tiuy K-ii < "-^u. tte {>.'We.--i in the 

r - r. w..- jo\r"-; r "t rh'- N- w I'-^we; \\;;uc s.i'"t. \r \\-: ••. .\ ''>e:.t ^- : .t« r -uj_-'"-t- Nu- 

ij. i' ■: t' ir.- a" 1 l». I.e. i- 1; ]-{ « 'Id AtVi. i tT u ; ii i w i> ./.ua-- :< _* ir..'>i. tV f; ti.o time *>{ the 

T ■ -■- .: '-; '-■-;•■.'' :t pir'^. ..-It' t' u '■ a: y'.-" ■•.: \y \\, -tu-. .;- a ;r M:ae di>:inct from 

■ - ;\. - w'r; ■ ^ iie^, .', i fr ■■,;!..►■.'•,.'•.• - o'. i AtV: i; ''.i r. it r.ty :.i'.e S-,-; jove.n.ed bra 

;• \--^ i: K ■' >. A '^ :r . -u-\t. the . ^ t • !< 1 J .! u- ..-r*:,' ; - ■. •>.;: a.i thtt tlu» only 

.4-^- :• .1' \i t'V - ■ ■') "j\ V. K \. -t -: r -; * ' ■ _-e • * t^ ' ) <.\u j;' i w.i^ :;.r :i,..k;n;z thi- i«»- 

.>>, ;u ti •• -:• t a: .»■ i :* /!, ^ t i' r- :'u ; i- j .' ;- ;•■ ■ . v . - i u^ : : ■.: n the c:i.j».n<r (^Mor- 

;-. r. V. 42. v^^,.'-'- '''•'-'• '■'"- J*''. '••• /.i'lt. /.-v'.-- A' , .{ ;. v 1. ;■■. p. 22*J): ai^i 

:;-'. ^2 -^o: [*'. ; i' .— . \.v.- . ^l."* .\'--a- t'.r . "t. ;- .y. u t' • '-: jax u ly Ih r. (".i— in- (iili. 12) 

.f . -u ■ '... -t - „■_- w.t.. i". 1- .• _^ ■. w'-. ;> t..-o . : tu- I r ' : - •.- V - -• : ;:.,i by A:u-u>:u>, Na- 

.--:-' >.■-■ r :• : ,- -^ I*. '. i. .l--. \. . 22 - ■..»-••••'•. - • ^- -^ ".: i- Atn-a. Ou ib»> w-h"i«>» 

-:\ V: ." .^" ^ 12. 2''. 7.'»\^\- .- t' u ; '; w n -.::-.,- ^' .• :" vuT r. lit: u . f the New 

■ . - :' . , ■: t _>■•.■ ' 'U • • ^ -V- . .■ ; - p- - • . ' ,\'- . : •': « '. l. fr ;.; :",e :i : ►• .,f ^*a_ 

■^ • - t \ ' >. : ' w 1. ■ t' . . ; ■ •■ u V-- ; d _ ,. i : : •: • ! ' v : j- . :. u>: U- c i^ r<.-d xs 

• ■ - ' -x I r.i , ■ "- 1 . . t t •. -> - . vt , .. :* ... 

.x' •: ' "' : I -. '• ". .- " i -t: - ' ^ 1 i - v >: - .; -. -... -.v -■ -y .^i '. in nu-r. vin; 

" I- •' F-u- , s V . 4 '. l>- t ■. -■-TT' ,'•::>, t .■"-■«. i: :.■ ,1 :u u- -^-t : .:r^ the >ta:e- 

l . > '^ ;.. • - .\- . ■ ;"^" - ■ ■ ■- : '' ■ ' ■•^t-:> ^- ->:■->» •.- j th-' Un. its <»f 

I- -t -•■>■.-:• ^ • . • r. v\ '>'^. r ■ .•' V' ■ ... '^I ; 7 ; v - ; . .\ t}\ -k-vw.^ in the 

' -■ '' V ^ . . -. .;'.e- A-- ^ ::- ^^ i--t f5.torit. 


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,.' ■ V..—. . I ■ , ■. • - ■-. , '■ -> . -, •^•-■>. ."; ■t > -• .'. vv • , 7 ' -p ■'> to r:.o Ar.»e 

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C « ^ '.- a . -\ X ^- t • >: ;-:.-.- • v ^ \ * .- •...••. A:.:-..ji t.> lb*- 

L. >.^ -...1 .:'- ^ *.....-•. > ^ : \ '. *: >. ... . ...... V • : 1 .^.^ •..'.-.:- • t;,- ^1* 


Cjranla, yet $feaks of the 3 {mmnces in the 

dMac cmmwtion {X mrndi a e ei Africat ah A mpsaga 

ImjUmdfl DLXxx. H. P.X and seems even to include 

Ika both ooder the name of Africa (Africa a fi»- 

fw JnpM^n popolos xsri habet). Ptoleiny (ir. 3) 

pf«i Africa tbe same extent as Mela, f^om the 

Awpwgi to the bottom of tbe Great Sjrtu; while 

k apfiiei tbe name New Nonudia {JAwymhUk v4a) 

to a part of the ooontrj, evidently corresponding 

vHb tbe later Nomidia of other writers (§ 29), the 

tfkhet Sew htsof^ used in contradistinction to the 

anent Nomidia, the W. and greater part oi which 

bftd bcca added to Manretania. In Ptolem/s list 

•f tbe prarioces (viiL 29), Africa and Numidia are 

aotiuned together. 

In tbe 3rd century, probablj under Diocletian, 
tbp vbole coontry, from the Ampsaga to Cjrre- 
aira, was divided into the four provinces of Am- 
■atfa , Africa Propria or ZeuffUana^ Byzachan 
m Bymerma, Mad TripoiU or Trtpo&tana, (Sext. 
Sai Brf9, 8.) Nomidia no longer extended S. of 
Za^ntem and Byzaciain, bat that part of it was 
added to Byzacioin; while its £. part, on and 
bttwen the Syrtea, formed tbe province of Tripoli- 
tiM. We are enabled to draw the boundair-lines 
9Jsk tofenble exactness by means of the records of 
Ibt namenns eccfeeiastical councils of Africa, in 
viBcb tbe Mveral bi^boprics have the names of their 
jnmaca appended to them. (For the fullest in- 
fcf a ttiu n , see Moreelli, Africa ChriHUma^ Brixiae, 
1817, 3 Tub. 4to.) Zeugitana, to which, in the 
irr^aSaaa of time, the name of Africa had thus 
one w be again appropriated, remained a senatorial 
pwiace under the ProconttU AfricoBy and was 
din ctUod simply iVortncia ProcoHsulari* ; the 
ntf ««re imperial proviDces, Byzadum and Numidia 
ksog t>u » gu e d by Omtularet^ and Tripoiis by a 
/Vmn. The ProoonMi] Afrkae (who was the mly 
4ai ia the W. empire, and hence was often called 
iMtftj Praansnl) bad under him two l^^ti and a 
^unrtor, beudes l^ati for special branches of ad- 
mmLi niiaL His re»idence was at the restored city 
4 Cactbage. Tbe other three provinces, as well as 
tW twt Uaurvtanias, were subject to the praetorian 
pitfrct of Italy, who governed them by his repre- 
«iative, the Vicarivt Afrieae. (Becking, Notitia 
UjmMum^ voL iL c. 17, 19, &c) Referring for 
tbr waaining details to the articles on the separate 
|R*tBce», we proceed to a hnei account of the later 
Mrient histoty of Africa. 

At tbe time refored to, the name of Africa, besides 
ib mnomttl senoe, as properly belonging to the 
fntvmkr province, and its widest meaning, as 
<f9&d to the whole continent, was constantly used 
V Birkkik ail the provintes of N. Africa, W. of the 
2^yrtia, and tbe following events refer, for the 
part, to that extent of country. At the set- 
ef the empire undet Constantine, the African 
pvriatci were among the most prosperous in the 
k«iiB wtffid. The valieya of llauretania and 
Siaaidia, and the pbuns of Zeugitana and Byzacium, 
M ahrays been provcrhml for their fertility; and 
^ (Cnat cities along tbe coast bad a floarishing 
twanwte. Tbe intenial tranquillity of Africa was 
•Idqn dintnrbed, the only formidable insurrection 
^«C that mder the two Gordians, which was 
•pnAy repreaaed, ▲. D. 338. The emperors Sep> 
Ciuat 6emv and 3il»crinus were natives of N. 
AAva. AakUt tbe proeperoas pt^mlation of these 
^n6d prorincca, Cbiistianitr had eariy taken firm 
AX; tbe reoorda of ecdesiasticiil biatory attest tbe 



great number of the African churches and bishoprics, 
and the frequency of their synods; and the fervid 
spirit of tbe Africans displayed itself alike in the 
stead&stness of their martyrs, tbe energy of their 
bencvoluice, the %'ehemcnce oif their controversies, 
and the genius of their leaduig writers, as, for ex- 
ample, Tertullian, Cyprian, and Augustine. 

But here, as on the other frontiers of the empire, 
the diminished vitality of the extremities bore witness 
to the declining energy of the heart. That perfect 
subjection of the native tribes, which forms such 
a singular cratrast with the modem history of 
Algeria, had already been disturbed; and we read 
of increased military forces, insurrections of native 
princes, and incursions of the Numidians, or, as 
they now came to be generally called, the Moors, 
even before the end of the 3rd century. There is 
not space to recount the wars and troubles in Africa 
during tbe struggles of Constantine and his com- 
petitors for the empire; nor those under bis suc- 
cessors, including the revolt of Firmus, and the 
exploits of the count Theodosius, under the 1st and 
2nd Valentinian (a. d. 373 — 376), the usurpation 
of Maximus, after the death of Valentinian II.; and 
the revolt of the count Gildon, after the death of 
Theodosius the Great, stippressed by Stilicbo, a. d. 
398. At the final partition of the empire, on the 
death of Theodosius (a. d. 395), the .^irican pro- 
vinces were assigned to the W. onpire, under 
Honoritis, whone dominions met those of his brother, 
Arcadins, at tbe Great Syrtls. 

Under Valentinian III., the successor of Honorins, 
the African provinces were lost to the W. empire. 
Boniface, count of Africa, who had successfully de- 
fended the frontiers against the Moors, was recalled 
from his government by the intrigues of Aetius, and 
on his resistance an army was sent against him (a.d. 
427). In his despair, Bcmiface sought aid fnmi the 
Vandals, who were already established in Spain; and, 
in May, 429, Geiserich (or Genserich) the Vandal 
king, led an army of about 50,000 Vandals, Goths, 
and Alans, across the Straits of Gades into Maure- 
tania. He was joined by many of the Moors, and 
apparently favoured by the Donatists, a sect of 
heretics, or rather schismatics, who had lately 
suffered severe persecution. But, upon urgent so- 
licitations from the court of Ravenna, accompanied 
by the discovery of the intrigues of Aetius, Boniface 
rcpente<l of his invitation, ind tried, too kite, to 
repair his error. He was defeated and shut up in 
Hippo Regius; the only other cities left to the 
Rcnnans being Carthage and Cirta. The Vandals 
overran the whole country from the Straits to the 
Syrtes ; and those fertile provinces were utterly 
bdd waste amidst scenes of fearful cruelty to the 
inhabitants. The siege of Hippo lasted fourteen 
months. At length, encouraged by reinforcements 
from the eastern empire, Boniface hazarded another 
battle, in which be was totally defeated, A.b. 431. 
But the final loss of Africa was delayed by n^otia- 
tion for stnne years, during wliich various partitions 
of the country were made between the Romans and 
the Vandals; but the exact terms of these truces 
are as obscura as their duration was tmoertain. 
The end of one of them was signalized by the stir- 
prise and sack of Carthage, Oct. 9, 439 ; and before 
the death of Valentinian III. the Vandals were in 
undisputed po6^eiwion of tbe African provinces. 
Leo, the emperor of the East, sent an unsuccesKful 
expedition against them, under Heraclius, a. d. 468; 
and, in 476. Zeno made a treaty with Gelaeric, 



vliicli la^tM till tho timo (»f JiL-tinian, uiulor wliom ' AGANIPPE FUXS. [HELia>x.] 

tin' cuintrv -svas ricovt'iv.l for tlif Eastern Empire, I A'GAIil (''A7a^0i), a Scytliiari jjcojilc ^-'f Sarmal'.i 

ami tilt' \';i!Hials almo'-t cxti-nninaleU. hy iJilis-uiu^, Eiin)jiai\'i, on the N. >ln)re <it th<^ Palu-> Maentj.s (.N« 

A. i>. 5.'i3 — .).'J4. (Eor ail account <>f the Vaiiilal f^\l>:or), alxiut a jtromontory Ai^anini u»i»i a rivf-r 

kincrs of Africa, sw Vani».\i.i: for thcliistorv of this i A:.'arus. jiroit.ilily ri't far E. of the l.-tJiniU'.. '1 

]M_'ri<Ml, tlu* chief authority is Pn^'opius, Ji< llAowL) wore skillul in nic<!i( ine, aixl art* viid to hav»' fin-d 

Of the state and coiiNlitution of Afiica nmler >voiuiils ^\ith ^tTp- r.t>' veiiou!! S«iiio of tUvn\ al- 

Ju^tiiiiau, AVti have nio>t iiitere>tiii:c iiienioriaN iu , \vay> atteiulcil on Mitln-iilatc> tlie <i:eaT. u< J'hy- 

tv.o rc>cri|it>. a(Kii"e>>«il by the emperor, the one to | .vii ian-. (A|i[ iaii.J//V/'r S8; Pt"l. iii. .'). ^ 1'!.) A 

Aichelaiis. the jiraetorian ])ract'eot of Africa, anil the fniiirus cailid Airaviciim (proh. iitnmin /r'/o'^r), 

other to B»'li>Hnu^ him-olf. (Hinkiiij-, XofU. l^ifjii. inucji u>e(l in ain icnt iii»ilicine, was siitl to I'liu in 

Vol. ii. pj). l.")4, toll. ) From the f>rn:er we l.-arn tiicir cDunt/y (i'hn. xxv. i». 8.57; I>i'>sriir. iii. 1; 

that the S' n n African jnov inces, of wjii.h the ! ('i:\\<u, d^ j'uc. .•<t/rij>. mtr/. p. 150). hitxjoni.-. (.w. 

i-ta;iil of Sanlinia uow male "lie. were ereeicd into Li-I-), nicntion^ Ac;nu'«. a kiuu of the Scythiaii>. i>*'.iT 

a f, Pirate pra- lecture, under a /'/v;._/J.c/;/.< /'/7/f7o>vV> | tiie Ciinnicriau^, n. r. 'J4(). (K-k-kh, Cvr^ 

Mit;/ii'H--n.<: and the iwo re-rript> -ciih' their (i\il j»i.< ln.<rr. Vol. li. }>. i>2; L'kert, vol. iii. pt. '2. \'\\. 

and mill -.vry coii-tiJu;ion re-jw-iutly. It >hMuld Ik,' 2.')0, 4.").'i.) [P. S.j 

oh-ervcil that .^Iameta;lia 1 in-itaiia (tVom the river AdASSA or AfiASSAE, a towTi in I'ietia i'l 

.Muhii ha to the Ocean), wliich hail loriU'rly he- | Mait-donia, near the river Mitys. Eivy, in reia'in;^ 

1 'n_:ed to Spain, was n'>w in^ huied in the African ' the campaign of r.. r. MYJ a'jain>l Per>»-u*. >;i*'-< 

pro\ iiici' of ^Liuretania ('.loarieusis. [(.'onip. M.vr- ' that the l.''»man consul made three daw' n.ari h 

i:i;rAXiA.J The >e\cn AlVican ]>ro\iiices , heyond Dium, the tii>t of Avhi. !» tennina'ed at the 

(from E. toW.). (1) Irip.lis or '1 rij> ilitana. (2) river Mitys, the second at AL:;i^>a, and the third at 

I5y/ai inni or liy/accna, (■)) Alri^a or /.en_is or i iho ri\er AMonhis. The la>t apj-ears to U' tlie 

CarthaiT'*. (4) Niimidia, (.)) Matiretania Sitif''nsi> s.-mie as th<- Acertios, whiih occur.s in the 'lahnl-ir 

ttr /aha. ((■)) Mill" taiiia ('a'->aii'n«-is. a:id(7)Sar- i Itinerary, thnurrli jiot marked as a river. L'^ake 

<liiita: the thre.- w'w ^oVi-rned liy Coiwi/idd'ti*, su].piH'.s that the Mitys was the n\er of A''!/- nf-'i, 

the la-,t f»nr hy J^ni'sir/i .■>. ainl that .Vcordos was a tnhutary of the Haliacnion. 

The history of Atiica under the I\, empire eon- | ( I.iv. xiiv, 7, xlv. 27; Li-ake, Xifri/iern Ort'^cr, 

Joists of a sene.> of inte.sjiur' troulde.s ari-ini: from vol. iii. ]). 42.'i, s^'.j.) 

court intriirnes, and t»f MiK»rish insurreiiions which AOAlIil'SA. [ Iki.o.s.] 

h.'<anie more and more .lirKcult to ie{-l. Ihe AO.X'lin K'XA or AliATIIVRXl'M ('A^atV''. 

>) leiulid edili' rs and f >rtiticati.'us, of wliirli .Ins- Pol\ h, ajt. Sieph. I»y/.'A7a^U»/J^'ol', Ptol. : A.ixathvn.a, 

tiniaii was peculiarly lavish in tliis \<\vt of his Sil. hal. .\iv.2.")0; Liv.: A^'^atliyrnum, Pliii.), a « itv 

do iiinioiis, were a iHHir snhstitnle for the vital on the X. coast of >i< ilv Ifiween T\iidaris a'li 

ener'j;y \\hi< h was almost extinct. (Procop. Jc.-Im///'. Cakicte. It was supj«.><Ml to h i\e dcn\e,| it.< na:;,<» 

Justin.) At leni:th the deln^^e of AraMin inva-iou fn>ni .Vuathynnis, a sun of Aeohis. who Ls said to 

.swept over the « hoiccst }>arts of iIk* Ka-tern ICni- i have scttlo'l in this part of ."^icily (l>i'»<i. v, b). But 

jtire, and the eon | of K-'ypt was no s<»ouer thon'j;li it may !«• iiit'err*-*! tVom heiue that it was an 

foiiij.K'icd. than the Caliph Olhinan >iMit an army ancient city, aixl prohahly of ^ii-^-lim ori'^^in. wf t>iii 

under AKlallah airainst AtVi< a. a. i>. ♦i47. The no tuention of it in history uniil atier Si< liv ^^.•.•an>e 

praet'ect CJrei'ory was defeatcil and slain in the ^i-eat i a Pouian j>roviii< i\ l)urinix the Svoiid Piinic \\ tr 

hattl.' of Sut'etula in the centre of Ily/ac<Mia ; hut it U-ianu' tiie head- piariers of a hand of ri'hl^^rs 

th«' .Vrah tore** was inaileijuate to complete the con- and trcchi»')tfr>-. who extended their raNa_'e> over I J ic 

qu-'st. In CO.") the ent«rpri/e was renewed hy neiLdiliouiinL' country. l»ut were reducixi hv the eoij- 

Aklith. who overnni the whole (oiintry to the shore> snl Laeviuus iu n. c. 210. who transj».)rt«tl 4(KM» of 

of the .Vtlintic; and foundctl the Lueat -\rah dty ' them to 1,'li.Li'ini. (Liv. xx\i. 40, xxvii. 12.) It 

of Al-Kiiinran (i. e. (ht ciirdnrn), in the heart of very jMohaiily w;i.s dcpnviil on this o<nm>)oii * if the? 

Bv/at inm, al»ut 20 miles S. W. of the ancient nmnjcij'al rights couce<ie.l to most «.f tlie M< ili:in 

llailrumetuni. Its inland position protected it from towns, which may account lor our fmdini: no noti<-e 

tiie lleets of the (ireeks. wiia were still lua.sters of ot" it ill CiciM-o, thou:.di it is na-ntionci l>v Strril.<> 

tlje Coast. I>nt the Moorish triltes nmde connnou ann-n:: the few citi<-s stdl sul>d-tinj- on the X. vxKt 

eaUH' with the Africans, and the forces of Akhah of Sit ilv. as w<'ll ;us at'terw.nd'^ hv Plinv, Pt'.lenar 

were cut to piece-. His >uceessor, Znheir. i:;»ined and the Itinerarii-s. (.Mrah. \i. p. 2f»0: Plin. iii. t<; 

M-veial battles, but was det'eated by an arm\ sent i'tol. iii. 4. § 2; Itin. Ant. }>. 92; Tab. Pent.) It.- 

iVom Consianiin 'Jilt'. 1 he eontr-st was ]trolon_'ed by situation ha> been much di-puttsl, on accouut i.f the 

the internal ilis>en»ioiis of the suc(i> of the e-reat tliM lepaney be[we<-n the authoiities just eit«\l. 

}>rophet ; but, in a. i>. iyj2, a new force enten-d ^ Strabo places it :\{) lennnu niile> from lyndaris. and 

AtVica under Hassan, the LToveruor of E.'ypt, and tli'- -ame distance from Alae-i. '1 he Itinerarv jri^es 

i'artlia:je was taken and (b-lnA.-il in i\*J^. Ajain 2S M. P. trom TMidaris and 20 tVoni Calacte: while 

^vere the Ai"abs driveji out by a irenend insum-ction i the Tabula (ot wiii(h the nuinbers sc»'m t<» be m«>re 

of the Moors, or. as we n-w tind them talle.l, by the trustworthy f .r this ^vart of Sicily than tho^e of th« 

name ever since applied to tlie nati\e- of X. .\lVic.i. Itinerary) L'ivi-s 2<> from Tyndaris, and only 12 from 

the f}> rl>< rs ( tntiii 0ap§aao.) ; but the (Jre.ks .and (\ilacti'. It t! is last mea-un ment Im* .«;upp>^\l 

ponians of ,\tn<a fuund their douunati'-n more c.»rn-<t it would exactly coiinidewith IIm* distance 

intol i.ible than th;it of the Arabs, autl welcomed t'n»m Cnron'm (<'alacte) to a jlace the ^e*- 

the return of their cou-pierors nuilcr Mu-a, who coiist < allnl .ley" hnh i h\\>i\\ s. FHfufdfo (cn\[<^ 

MiUhu'd the country finally. an<l nili-ted most of on r.t cut maps N. rrnt.lln) atid al^.ut 2 miles \V. 

the M-Ts under the fiith and standard of the pnv- of >/<» .Iv''". ^^here Fa/,ello d-'seriU-> mins of ron- 

phet. A. D. 705 — 70'.>. With the Anib eon<piest ^iilerable mau^dtude a.s extant in his dav : hut which 

ciida the ancient historv- of Alrica. [P. S] , he. in counnuu with C'luvcrias, n-gardeU as> the re- 


nhs of Alontiiim. The latter dty may, however^ 
hf fkctd with much more probftbifity at S. Mirco 

^UcmuM] : tad the nuns Dear S. FraUUo would 
!jv hr Uhm of AgathTma, th«v being do other dtj 
d tttf ma^tiide that w« know of in this part of 
iifih. Ti*o objectioDS, howcreTf remain: 1. that 
tht<fiitur» (ram thiff ate to Tjndaris is greater than 
ibt ehcs by waj of the anthoritieSf being certainly 
»4 h> than 36 mik»: 2. that both PUnj and Pto- 
>TiT. fron the Qcder of their ommeraticMi, appear to 
;iiK Ajcitfajroa b^wecn Alontimn and Tyndaria, 
ud thm^irF if the former city be correctly fixed at 
X. ifonv, AgaUiynia must be looked fw to the £. 
-ftbttdwn. FawUo accordingly placed it near Capo 
'tckaio. bat admits that th«re were scarcely any 
Tndfts vfetible there. The question is ooe hardly 
Mrr})tible of a satirfJsctory oonclusioa, as it is im- 
jMsfile 00 any riew to reconcile the data of all our 
k^ohiriian, bat the arguments in fiiToar of the Aeque 
I^ mm OQ the whole to predominate. TJnfMtn ' 
ukjj tbt rains there have not been eiaminerl by 
Kf ncoit tnrdler, and have rexy probably disap- 
paivd. Captain Smyth, however, speaks of the re- 
"vim ef a 6ne Roman bridge as visible in the 
fwMra iRAotaJiarma between this place and S. 
ifaxa. (FazeD. ix. 4, p. 384, 5. p. 391 ; Clnver. 
6^ f S95; Smyth*s Sunfy, p. 97.) [E. H. B.] 

AGATHYRSI (AydBvpaoi, *AytMp<noi), a 
pfif td Sarmatia Europaea, very frequently men- 
'^vihy ]h6 ancient writers, but in difierrat posi- 
'' x^ TWir name was known to the Greeks very 
•)Ht. if thf Fnaander, tnm whom Suidas (#. v.) 
FK Mrphamu Byxantinus («. r.) quote an absurd 
s**Uial etymology of the name (iwh riv bipctcp 
m ttim^mt) be the poet Peiaander of Rhodes, 
L c $45; but be is much more probably the 
fr^ PdModer of Larauda, A.D. 2S2. Another 
snh ii jf!Yoa»A by Herodotus, who heard it from 
tarGfwks OQ the Enxine; that Hercules, on his 
^rn fivm his adventure against Geiyon, passed 
'inach thf npaa of UyUea, and thov met the 
bbktt, who bore him three sons, Agathyrsns, 
' iwiitiad Scythes; of whom the last alone was 
»% to bod a bow and to wear a belt, which Her- 
rJei had left behind, in the same manner as Her- 
rin UiBsetf had used them ; and, accordingly, in 
««iiare to their father*s conmumd, the Echidna 
'3^ the two ekfer out of the land, and gave it to 
>«th» (Hetod. iv. 7—10 : awip. Tietz. Chil. viii. 
Itt7»), Herodotus himsdf, also, Trgarda the 
inthTni m not a Scythian people, but as ckwely 
rtecd to the SrythiaxM. He places them about 
tv iqifm- c0w«r of the river Claris {Maro$ch\ that 
K is tV SR. put of iXicia, or the modem Tran- 
■vwMa (tv. 4: the Maria, however, does not fall 
t«<ftlT, as be states, into the later, Ikmube^ but 
rfc tkst gnat tributary of the Danube, tiie Theissy, 
^yj vm the first oif the peoples bordering on 
^7^ t* cNw goiuf inland from the later; and 
tm totbn the Neuri (rr. 100> Being thus se- 
*«inA>d by the ^ Carpatkitm mountains fVtHU 
sriu, tlvy wen> able to reftise the Scythians, 
^^ be&n Dareraa, an entrance into their coontiy 
Bni iv. Xtsy. How far N. they extended cannot 
"r 4<iiin'iMd tnm Herodotus, for he assigns an 
'^^■■a oome to the later, K. of which he con- 
- an thr bai to be quite dtaert. [ScmnA.] The 
jAw vmm, far the moat part, pUce the Agathyrai 
'vtbr t« tht !t, as if the case with nearly all the 
*|'jib>Btribas; soma place them on the Palus Mae- 
4aad nne iafauid; aad they are generally spoken 



of in closjB connection with the Sarmatians and tl.e 
Geloni, and are regarded as a Scythian tribe (Ephor. 
ap. Scymn. Fr, v. 123, or 823, ed. Meineke ; Mela 
ii. 1 ; Plin. iv. 26 ; PtoL iii. 5; Dion. Perieg. 310; 
Avien. Descr. Orb. 447 ; Steph. B. #. v.; Suid. s. v. 
&C.). In their country was found gold and also 
nrecions stones, among which was the diamond, 
MdfMs vofAifK^pwy (Herod, iv. 104; Amm. Marc 
xxii. 8; Dion. Perieg. 317). According to Hero- 
dotus, they were a luxurious race (aC'^rdroi, Ritter 
explains this as referring to fine clothing), and wore 
much gold: they had a community of wives, in order 
that all the people might regard each other as 
brethren ; and in their other customs they resembled 
the Thradans (iv. 104). They lived under kingly 
government; and Herodotus mentions their king 
Spargapeithes as the murderer of the Scythian king, 
Ariapeithes (iv. 78). Frequent allosions are made 
by later writers to their custom of painting (or 
rather tattooing) their bodies, in a way to indicate 
their rank, and staining their hair a dark blue ( Virg. 
Aen. iv. 146; Serv. ad loc.f Plin. iv. 36; Solin. 20 ; 
Avien. Lc; Ammian. Lc; Mehi ii. 1: Agathyrai 
ora artusque pingunt: ut quique majoribus prae^ 
Mtant, ita ntoffU, vel minuM: ctierum iisdem omne» 
notitf et sic ut ablui nequeant), Aristotle men- 
tions their practice of solcnmly reciting their laws 
lest they should forget them, as observed in his time 
{Prob. xix. 28). Finally, tliey are mentioned by 
Virgil (/. c.) among the worshippers of the Delian 
Apollo, where their name is, doubtless, used as a 
specific poetical synonym for the Hyperboreans in 
general: — 

** mixtiqne altaria circnm 
Gretesque Dryopesque fremunt pictiqne Agathyrsi." 

Niebuhr {Kleine Schr\ftenj voL L p. 377) regards 
the Agathyrsi of Herodotus, or at least the people 
who occupied the positicxi assigned to them by Hero- 
dotus, as the same people as the Getae or Daciana 
(Ukert, 2, pp. 418-421 ; Georgii,vol. ii.pp. 
302, 303 ; Ritter, Varhatte, pp. 287, foU.) [P. S.] 

AGBATANA. [Ecbatana.] 

tinger Table, one of the chief towns of the Senones 
in the time of Caesar (J9. G. vi. 44, vii. 10, 57). 
The orthography of the word varies in the M8S. 
of Caesar, where there is Agendicum, Agedincnm, 
and Agedicum. If it is the town which was after- 
wards called Senones (Anun. Marc, xvi 3, Senonas 
oppidum), we may conclude that it is represented 
by the modem town of Sens^ on the river Yonne. 
Some critics have supposed that Provins represents 
Agendicum. Under the Roman empire, in the later 
division of Gallia, Agendicum was the chief town of 
Lugdunensis Quarta, and it was the centre of several 
Roman roads. In the walls of the city there are 
some stones with Roman inscriptions and sculptures. 
The name Agredicum in the Antonine Itinerary 
may be a corraption of Agendicum. [G. L.l 

AGINNUM or AGENNUM {Agm), was the 
chief town of the Kitiobriges, a tribe situated be- 
tween the Garumna and the Ligeris in Cacsar^a 
time {B. G, vii. 7, 75). Aginnum was on the road 
from BurdigaU to Argentomagus (It Antonin.). 
It is the origin of the modem town of Agtn^ on the 
river Gannme, in the department of Lot and Garonne, 
and contains s«ne Roman remains. Aginnum is 
mentioned by Ausonius (Up. xxiv. 79); and it was 
the birthplace of Sulpicius Severus. [G. L.] 

AGISYMBA (*A7/<rv/A(a), the general nam* 

74 AGORA. 

iiniVr wliich PtolpiTiy includes tlie wli«;le int»rior of 
AtVita S. of the Kjuator; wliicli lie roL';inl> a?> be- 
loiuiiiLC to Aetliit'pia (^i. 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, iv. 8, vii. 
0> ' ^ [P.S.] 

A'<i()IIA ( Ayopa), a timii sitn-itej ahniit the 
iTiiiltllc of the narrow neck «'t' tlie 'I'luarian ChersiK 
ne>u>. and not far from Cardia. Xerxes, wlwu iii- 
vadiiii; (inH'ce. jKi^^se.l thmuiih it. (Herod, vii. 58; 
fck.vhix. p. 28: Stejdi. P>. s. r.) [L. S.] 

Adli.A ('A7pa 'ApaGlas, I'tol. vi. 7. i$ .") ; Sl.-j-h. 
li. *. vv. 'iddpnnTa/Eypa).'^ small di>triet uf Arabia 
Felix, s<ituatetl at th" f x.t uf M.-unt Himius, nn tlie 
t'asteni cua^t of the Kcd Sra. in lat. 29 \ S. (Akr(f). 
JathripjKi or Lathri}»])a .srenis to have been its ])rin- 
tijial town. [\V. li. D.J 

a<;i;ai:. paitka.] 

Al.'K'AEI CAy^ahi, Thuc. iii. lOG; Strab. p. 
449: 'Aypafls, Pol. xvii. .'>: Ncj h. Wy/.. s. r.), a 
jR'ople in the N\V. of .Vetojia. boundtd on the \V. 
by Atamania. from -uhieh il was >rjMrated by 
Mount Ihyamns (Sjxirforihti); on the N\\. by the 
territ(»ry oi Arp>> .\ni[ihil<.< hiciim; and on the 
X. by Doloj.ia, Thiir territory wa< called A'jrah, 
or Aijraia {'AypaU, -i5<is, Thue. iii. Ill; ^c\ypaia, 
Stral). p. 338). and the ri\fr A«h'lou.s flowed 
through the centre of it. The A;:ra»i were a iion- 
ilcllcnic |(ro|,l,', and at the connntncenicnt of the 
1*' loj)onne,^ian nar wen- i:o\cnic.l by a native kinir, 
<allcd .Salynthius, \;ho is nientioiicd as an ally of the 
Anii)raci.>ts, when the latter were dcfi-atcd i)y the 
Acariianians and Demosthenes in r.. c. 426. Two 
years al"lerward^ (424) l)eiuo>thenes'cjicd anain^-t 
Nilunhlus and tlie A<:raei, and eom|elleil them to 
join the Athenian .alliance. .Sub>e.]uently they Im?- 
came subject to the Aetolians, and are called an 
Aetolian jn'ople by Strab.i. ( Thue. ii. 102, iii. 106, 
114, iv, 77; Stral*. p. 449; P'»l. x\ii. .*); Liv. 
.\\\ii. 34.) This pi'ojde is nienti'Mied by ("i> cro 
( '// Pi.ion. 37), under the name of Ai'rinai-, which 
i^ 1 erhaj"^ acorrujit form, Mrab » (p. .'?38) Jik ntions 
a v]lla_'e c.aljed Kphyra in their country; and A'sn- 
nimn would also apjK-ar from its name to h;i\e been 
one ot't I, fir towns. [Kimiyua: .\(iKiMi m.J The 
Ajeraiiti were perh.iji^ .-v trilH- of the Ai^raei. 
[ An.KANTiA.J The Ajraei wi-ie a dillerent [><'oj)le 
fc iiu the Airrianes. \\\\) Ijverl on the bi»rders of 
Macedonia. [ A<;ki.\M':s.] 

.'\(;HA1:1 (■A7,.ai.jj. Piol. v. 19. §2; l.ratosth. 
(i/>. Sti'dh. p. 7ti7 ). a trii>e i.f Arabs situated near the 
main road u hich led tVom the In ad ot the lied S'h 
to the Kuj'hrates. '1 hey bordered on the Nal>a- 
tha-;in Arabs, if they ucn- not indeed a j«irlion of 
that race, Accordin.: to llieronynms ((^nutsf. in 
G' n. 2.">). the Ai^raei iidialii'ed the tii^trict which 
the !iel).i'\vs d«'-i_'natcd as Midian. Pliny (v. 11. 
s. 12) plaies the A.'raei nunh farther we^t^ard in 
the vicinitv i»f the Laeiiitae and the ea-tern shore of 
the Ped s'a. [W.IJ.D.] 

Ar.PAlT.E or Ar.PVPP. [Aitka.J 

A<;PI DPl'lAPVTKS or DMT MAXI (from 
iliriiwa, tithe), tithe land>. a name ^/iwu by the 
lIoman> to the country K. «»f the Pbine ant! X. of 
the [)anulH'. whiih they t<«ik j»o>-esviou of on the 
withdrawal of the (Jermans to the P., ainl which they 
cave to the immiu'ratinL' liauPand >ub,eet (iermans, 
and subse'pientiy to th»-ir own v<'teran>. on the jiay- 
me,«t of a tenth of the jtroiiuce. '1 owards the end of 
the tir>t «ir the Iwvrinnimrof the >er-ond century after 
noi-t, the country became part of the adjoinin:^ 
P 'Uian pro\inceof llbaetia. and was thus ineor|x»rate(i 
ivith tbeenn iiv. (Ta* it. (Arm. 29.) lt.> boundary 


towards tl)e free part of Germany was protcoteti pirtlj 
by a wall (IVom Patisbon to Pon-h). and j.artl} \r. i 
mound (from Porch to the Phine. in the neijh^ iir- 
hoo«l jtf Toloixne) and Pomaii irarrisoni*. l he y.n>- 
tection of those districts aL'ain>t the ever nn,ew*d 
attacks of the Germans re<,nire<l a considerable mi.i- 
tary force, and this ^ave ri.<e to a munber of t<w!ts 
and military ro;uls, of wlii< h many tnwes still f-xist. 
Put still the Romans were unable to m:untaiu tii*-!!;- 
sehes, and the part whidi w;i> lost sceiu» tit 
have been the eountry alxtut the river Maine aud 
Mount launus. The southeni pirtion v\a^ pn>Uil ly 
lost soon alter the death of the fni]>eror Pr. itiw 
(a. I) 283), when the Alemanni t<»ok jK»>-e-.«ion >•; it. 
i he latest of the lioinaii inscnption-> foimd iiitla: 
couittrv Udonirs to the reiini of (Jallienus (a.i». 2b0 
— 2f»8). (Comji. Pei* htleii, Si/ncif/cn nut r 'l-n 
Jxoiiicrit, Freibur'.:. 1825, 8vo.) The towns in ll." 
Decnn.ates Airri were An.biatimis vi<us. Ausi m, 
l»i\itia, ties<niia.\ ictori.t, Uibenia, Afpiae Matliu'Uf, 
Mnnin.entum Trajani. Art:iunum, Triburiuni. Ura- 
tro<lurum or Prajtttlunmu, Pudoiis, C'arithtii, niiJ 
others. (\»mp. Piiaktia. [P. S.j 

AGPPV.M-S ('Aypidvrjs: I'rfjino^, a small rio-r 
in TInaci'. and one of the tributaries uf the Heb-iK 
(HiTivd. iv. 89,) It llows from Mount liieroii ii. a 
N\V. direct iou. till it ioius the Hebru-s. S»n.p lnve 
sujipised it to be the >anie its the Kripii. \^lii< h. 
howcNcr, i> imj'O.-sible, the latt r Uing a trilcKarv 
of the \\ius. [P. S.J 

AGPPV'NPS (Wypitii'fs), a Paeonlan p ■jl-'. 
<h\ellin^ near the sonrce.> of the Strvinon. lb*'? 
firmed excellent liLdit-anned trooji>, and are fn?- 
tjuently menlionrd in the campaii^ns of Alexaiufvr 
thellrcat. (Strab. ]k 331: Hero*!, v. IG: TimciL 
90; Arrian, Aimh. i. 1. ^ 11, i, 5. § 1, el alib.) 

AGl.TliPNTlM i'AKpdyas *■//■: th. Mid A<}j. 
^AKpayamlvDs, A_'ri::ei;iiuus: (iii'f/mti). one i.f 
the most i>«>werful and celebratni of the lin-ek oiti*. 
in Si(ily, was .*=itnatcd on the S\V, co.asl of the 
i>land, aliont n.idway iHtween 8e]inus uiid P>tli. 
It stiHHl on a hill between two and three ndlcs f ri m 
the sea, the fiK.t of whi( h wa.> W;L>.hi-«l on the K. 
and .S, by a ri\er n.amej] the A« i:A<iA?«, tVom wheiaf 
the city it>clf derived its a]je|]alion. on the W. 
and S\V. by another stream iiametl the IIvi'S.vs, 
which nnit«'s its waters with thoM^ <tf the AcTa.'a* 
just below thedty.and abotit a mile from itb mou'.b. 
Ihe firmer is now called the Ftiinw iii S. BintjKU 
the latter the J>nnjo, while their nni;«^l stti-ani ii 
<onnnonly known as the J-'itmic <// diiytnti (Pcbb. 
ix.27; Siefert. .•Unn/ff." n.sdn (i,hi(f, j.. 20 — 22). 

We leani from 'I'luuydidc> that Airri-entum was 
f »unded by a colony from Gela, 108 ye;ir> after the 
establishment of the parent eity, or H.c. :582, The 
leaders ol the <'olony were Ari>lonous ami I*v»tihi>, 
and it recei\ed the Dorian insiitutions <»f the niotlier 
country, in» ludintr the 5acred rite> and ob-t'rvanc»^ 
which had be<-n tlerived by Gela itself tVoju Rh<Hle». 
On this a«-connt it i.s sometimes calloil » Ph-tliua 
eolony. (Thiu-. vi. 4; S.ynm, Gh. 292; Strab. \i. 
p. 272, where Kramerju>tly n-ad- PeA'ji'a'i' f »r 'Iwfu-r-^ 
Pojylt. ix. 27. Goncerniii;: the date of its founili- 
tion .-ee Schol. ad Find. Ol. ii. 60: and Clinton. F. It. 
v<»l. ii. ]). 205.) \V«- ha\e v«ry little infunnati-tn 
conccniim: its early hi>tory, but it .ajij^-aiN to have 
very rapidly hmu to ;rre:it pnjsjerity and j«i\\cr: 

* The f tnu A* UA<.As or Ar.UAr.As in \ji\\n ii 
fomid only in the Roman p<x^ts. (Virg. Atn. ii . 
703; Sib Ital. xiv. 210.) 


Ik^ck it jB w u f wl tU liberty for bnt a rerjr short 
praJhlbmit iUl under the joke of Phakri9(aboat 
S70 •. c). The historj of that d»pot is invohred 
ii m moth nncertaiiitj that it is difficnlt to know 
vkat part of it can be depended on as really his- 
tnal [Diet, ofBioffr. art. Phat.ariw, vol. iii.] 
Bet it aecfDi certain that be raised Agiigentom to 
hr «n (^ the most powafal cities in Sidlj, and ex- 
Kadsd hti dominion by force of anrai over a con- 
liitnUi part of the bland. Bat the creel and 
nnsskal diaiacter of his internal |;Qiveminent at 
liazth proimked a freneral insurrection, in which 
fhalarii hintelf perisbedf and the Agrigen:ines re- 
cvwnd their liberty. (Died. Ewe. VaL p. 25 ; Cic. 
A(/. iL 7; Hendides, I\>IU, 37.) From thb 
pid tin the acccsaian of Theron, an interval of 
ikot 60 j<an, we hare no information concerning 
igggwitmn, eioept a casual notice that it was sue* 
fMpi^ygtweroed by Alcamenes and Akandms (bnt 
«Wber ss despots or chief magistrates does not 
ffmt^ sod that it rose to great wealth and pros- 
poitj imder their rule. (Heraclid. L c.) The 
pmM iste i*hcn Therm attained to the sovereignty 
4 Ui nstive dty, as well as the steps by which he 
tH b> power, are unknown to os: bat he appears to 
bt« lecooe despot of Agrigentam as early as b. c. 
m. (Diod. li. 53.) By his alliance with Gelon of 
5TTsme, sod still nwre by the expulsion of Terillus 
6tn HxDcra, and the annexation of that city to his 
«^^-^fr^, Theron extoided as well as confirmed 
kii pmrr, and the great Carthaginian invasion in 
s. r. 480, which for a time threatened destruction 
to afl the Greek cities in Sicily, ultimately became 
A nttrtc <f increased p rospe ri ty to Agrigentum. For 
An- tke prat victory of Gelon and Theron at Hi- 
ma, s vast noKbcr of Carthaginian prisoners fell 
tUA Um hands of the Agrigentines, and were em- 
f^?«d by them partly in the cultivation of their 
wmm snd fertile territory, partly in the con- 
areetjca of public works in the city itself, the 
tapaficeoce of which was long afterwards a subject 
rf sdnntian. (Diod. xL 25.) Nor does the go- 
*wijMac of Theron appear to have been oppressive, 
ad bi oootiaiMd in the undisturbed possession of 
tU avera^ power till his death, B. r. 472. His 
■a Tbraplaeas on the contrary quickly alienated 
im Mbjerts by his violent and arbitrary conduct, 
oi w cxpeQed from Agrigentum within a year 
•^w bk Other's death. (Id. xL 53. For further 
4fttA% e M« Mwi t|U j^ the history of Agrigentam during 
tbapiriad. Me the articles TukroX and Thrast- 
b4in ia the Diet of Biogr. voL iiL) 

TW Acrif^cntioea now established a democratic 
tni 4 fpvmaoexxL, which they retained without 
Memftitt Cor the space of above 60 years, until 
t.* r«tbapaian invasion in d. c 406 -^a period 
*ticb nwj bt rrgarded as the moet pr osperous and 
JwiiiH^ b the history of Agrigentum, as well as 
^ OMt othen of the Siciban cities. The great 
1"^ ««ks whkh were cummcnced or completed 
^as; tlas interval were the wonder of suoc^tng 
lea; tbe dty itself was adorned with buildings 
^ pdbfic and private, inferior to none in Greece, 
*< tkt vfekh and OMignificcnce of its inhabitants 
^txm akaoit pcorer bi aL Their own citizen £m- 
p^Kh t n said to have remarked that they built 
•s^ bfVKfl M if they were to lix-e for ever, but gave 
"^■wttcs ap to loxory as if they were to dk on 
t»*«wTwr. (Dieg. Laert. viii. 2. § 63.) 

TV Kunbv ti citizens of Agrigentum at this 
^iiiU£«4Vj Diodrrus at 20,000: but be esti- 



mates the whole population (incloding probably 
slaves as well as strangers) at not less than 200,000 
(Diod. xiii. 84 and 90), a statement by no means 
improbable, while that of IHogenes I^aertius (t c), 
who makes the population of Uie city alone amount 
to 800,000, b certainly a gross exaggeration. 

This period was however by no means one of un- 
broken peace. Agrigentum could not avoid parti- 
cipating — though in a less d^^ree than many other 
cities — in the troubles consequent on the expuhjon 
of the Gelonian dynasty frmn Syracuse, and the 
revolutions that followed in different parts of Sicily. 
Shortly afterwards we find it oigaged in hostilities 
with the Sicel chief Ducetius, and the conduct of 
the Syracusans towaids that chieftain led to a war 
between them and the Agrigentines, which ended in 
a great defeat of the latter at the river Himera, 
B. c. 446. (Diod. xi. 76, 9 1 , xii. 8.) We find also 
obscure notices of internal dissensions, which were 
allayed by the wisdom and moderation of Empedocles. 
(Diog. Laert. viiL 2. § 64 — 67.) On occasion of the 
great Athenian exp^tion to Sicily in b. c. 415, 
Agrigentum maintained a strict neutrali^, and not 
only declined sending auxiliaries to either party but 
refu&ed to allow a passage through their territory to 
those of other cities. And even when the tide of 
fortune had turned decidedly against the Athenians, 
all the eflbrts of tho Syracusan partisans within tlie 
walls of Agrigentum fiiiled in inducing their fellow- 
citizens to declare for the victorious party. (Tbuc. 
vii. 32, 33, 46, 50, 58.) 

A more formidable danger was at hand. The 
Carthaginians, whose intervention was invoked by 
the Segestans, were contented in their first expedition 
(b. c. 409) with the capture of Selinus and Himera: 
but when the second was 8cnt in b. c. 406 it was 
Agrigentum that was destined to bear the first brunt 
of the attack. The luxurious habits of the Agri- 
gentines had probably rendered them little fit for 
warfare, but they were supported by a body of mer- 
cenaries under the comnumd of a Lacedaemonian 
named Dexippus, who occupied the citadel, and the 
natural strength of the city in great measure defied 
the efibrts of the assailants. But notwithstanding 
these advantages and the efficient aid rendered them 
by a Syracusan army under Daphnaeus, they were 
reduced to such distress by famine that after a siege 
of eight months they found it impossible to hold out 
longer, and to avoid surrendering to the enemy, 
abandoned their city, and migrated to Gela. The 
sick and helpless inhabitants were massacred, and 
the city itself with all its wealth and magnificence 
plundoied by the Carthaginians, who occupied it as 
their quarters during the winter, but completed its de- 
struction when they quitted it in the spring, B.C. 405. 
(DuxL xiii. 80—91, 108; Xen. Hell. i. 5. § 21.) 

Agrigentum noer recovered from this fatal blow, 
though by the terms of the peace concluded with 
Di(Hiyidus by the Carthaginians, the fugitive inha- 
bitants were permitted to return, and to occupy the 
ruined city, subject however to the Carthaginian 
rule, and on condition of not restoring the fortifica- 
tions, a permission of which many appear to have 
availed themselves. (Diod. xiii. 1 14.) A few years 
later they were even able to shake off the yoke of 
Carthage and attach themselves to tlie cause of 
Dionysius, and the peace of n. c. 383, which fixed 
the ri\'er Halycus as the boundary of the Cartha- 
ginian dominions, must have left them in the ei\joy- 
ment of their liberty; but though we find them re- 
peatedly rr.cntioncd during the wars of Dicny^iua 



nml liis surrr><.or>, it i-< o\i'lint tint t)io rity nn5 
tar tV"in li.i\ii'.j ncov^'red ii>- |tn-\iMiis i!i)|H.r;.ni< o. 
:\ii<l r.tii'iiiiii-il t4) ].l;iy Imt :i Mil'or.lin.itf | irt. (I)i'il. 
xiv. 4»i, NS. xv. 17, xvi. 9 ; I'l it. 7^/"//. 2.'.. !>»"•. V.i. ) 
III tlif u'finral >('ttl<':ii<;it <it tin- :itl'ii)s cl >i(i|\ 1<\- 
'limHlroii, alter lii< i:r<;it virtury u\cr tlu' (.'artli.i- 
i^iiiiaiis <iii tin' CniiiH^nv, n. c. .'MD. In- tn;ii;i| 
A;rri_iMitiiiii in a '•tate <»t' sncli tlriiii'--if ii that In- 
ri*>.il\ri| to n-( .4'>:.i-i' it %\iih «iii/fii> tV-.m \« li.i in 
Italy ( riiit. Tltif'iK ."{.').): a iJ!»a-ur>- nlii' li. i onil.ii,. ,] 
witli otlicr 1'c:iriit-«. |iriV('<l of sii'li aihanta.c t<> tL*- 
(ity. that 'l"i;iHtlt'..ii wa- lo-'k'-tl \\\^>\\ a^ iIhh- ^.>ui,.1 
t'uiiiulcr: a)i<l "Im'iiiLr tlif intci'val >>t' jicaif ^vllil h t.i|- 
lowi'l, ALn'i:.'«'iitiiin airaiii ti' sii' ii irrt-it 
]»r'i^].<Tity a-' to Ii»\i»:ik' oinf \\\<>\\' tli<' ri\al ot 

Sliitrtly aft'T tli*' ac(('->in',i «if' .\]i(Mlo^. tin- 
A;^ri.:fiitiiirv. IxTiiiuiiiiT a]-) r. iirii^ivt' that li<' ^^a^ 
.•i|iiriii:_' to til ' i''fhiiii'.ii <■! tht- Nvh'ih' i-la.i'l. fiMniil 
ijlto a hair.K' \\!tli tii'- (ul.iaiK aiil .M''--' ni ilis to 
o|»j»<t^«' his ]»'.\tT. aii'l chtaiM'tl lV<.iii S|nrta tiie 
a^^i'-tam •■ «<! .\<r<'!atn^ tin- >>\\ "t" ( [<'^ a- tht ir 
;j('iioral: \>\\\ th*- i har u-tiT <•!' that ].rji< r t: ii-« 
all th'-ir ]tlan<, ainl at'tiT ]ii-< <'\|'iiM'iii they \\.t<' 
<iiiii]«'ll.'<l to I •irrha^t' J(M<i> \\,^\\\ ^\;aciiM' l.v iln' 
aikiio\vlc.!_ciiii lit ol'iln- H'-i«'iiii»iiy of su].i<-itia'y ot' 
that « ity. it.r. .'U4. ( Ui-xl. xix. 7n.7 I.) .'^om,' \.ai> 
att<TnanlN. in U. V. .'{O',*. tin- ah-i !i< p <-} Ai: ith-t |.> in 
Alrioa. and th'' r''\'T--«-s sii^taiw.j l.y iii- |.a:ti-aii^ 
in Sicilv, a} j'^an-i; a^aia tooth-ra l;r. oiu'aM'' ojH-i.iai: 
to tlu' anilii'i'ii of th<^ Airnj' ntin.s. uh,, (]i,tv,. 
X»'nKl.HMis t^r Laniral, ami o] <'nly a-jiirf! to 
tin- llfiTi-inoiiv ot' >ii ily. \>\'<« laia.iaj" at tla* >a;!:<' 
tinio till' ih'h'i" nliii'O o|' thi* ><■•»•, al <i;i'S, '1 ht-y 
\\<T(' at lir-t \v\\ Micic->t'ul: th" i>.i\v<'rtiil (iti'-.-i of 
<i''la ami ICiiiia _]■ i;i«-.l tliijr (a!M% llirh*'vvu> a!nl 
]■!< h'-tla wtai' ta!v<-n \<y loin-; hat ulxn X':io<Ii'< ns 
\cntnn'ii on a j'io lif i haitl • uitli L-'i'lii i--^ a:. I !)«•- 
nio]'hiha~. th.' -_• n- nds ol" A_ rho, li-s. In- sn'tai)i--<l 
a >f\i'r«' d'l-'at. and \\a>- < .»a j. jl^d to 5ht;l hta -< it' 
np within tlif \vall> ot' A.:ii .' ntn'o, A^ith. (|.'> 
Jiiai-'lt ^li'ill; all' luard^ ii-tiniitd li"in A!ii« a. rui'l 
<|ui' klv irr .v<- .-d alMi>-t ;dl tliat h<' had I'-t : lii> 
;:«'n»'ial L<p'.ii:"- iiA iil<-d th'' t<'r; itory of ALnj'iituni, 
totally di t« lU d X< no I. ( ns, and •■■•nii»-lli-d tin- Airri- 
;_^Milii)c> on' «• more to >ni' lor j/<'ac<'. (^l)ioil, .\x. .'Jl. 

;j2. .■)«;. t.-j.) 

Attrr till' drath of Ai'ath « l.<. Airrij' :i::itii f* II 
jinder the y,.k<' of rhjntia^. \\ Ihi h<'<aMir d ■-[■ot ol 
th*' tity, aiiil a'-'Un.'d th*' lit].- ot kin.'- ^\^• h i\r 
\rrv little inloniiati"n <-..nM-('n!ii/ tlii- i"!"!"! of lii'^ 
iid<\ lint In- I]', iar> to ha\<' attai.-d to ]o-,\(r, 
a^ wo I'ind A.}iiuMi and otlur < iii'-^ of thi- iatuior 
.•^nl'ji'i-t to hi^ d )iainion, n-. \\ill a^ (I'll, v.h.i. h he 
dt'^troyrd, in ovl'-r to t'oin.d a n'U cit} naiLrl afior 
]iiin>-<dt'. ['ii.i.v.j J'Im' ]H'ri<Hl ot' his . \[.aNion i> 
nnkiiouti, It'it at tli*- tin:*' uhm rvnhns la:d<-.l in 
^ii ilv wo lad \::r:'.'o:itnni o«.nj.iid hy S'^i traltis 
^^itll a >tro;i_'- tone o| ii,-'n.nit\ tr'»"i<s, u!. » li-n-- 
<'vrr lia.>toiitd to niak'- iii-> ^nh iii-vi,,)i j,, ;|.,. !^; j r ,,(" 
Kjxini'*. (hi'HJ. wii. J'xc. //<>'s</i. j*. 4'.>."» — 4'.t7.) 

On tin* <onan<n< ciiirnt of th,- Mr^t rnnii War, 
AL'i'iir«"iituni t >j oUM'd tlu" can-f <it thr < ' irthajir.iaus, 
and «'\»'n ]N'rniiJtfd thrir l'< nta-.d Hannihd to fiitity 
tlifir fitad'-I. and iKciijiy th<' (ity with a Cailha- 
^diiian ^ani-oii. Hiik.'* att«T tin- l.'onians had 
."M'iurcd tlif ajlian'c of lli.ron of SyiainM-. tli' ir 
]iriini|uil <liort> we v dinrtrd to thi* r>-dinii.-n of 
.X^'iiii'-ntntn, a. id in u. « . :i02 tin* two «on.-nI- L. 
l'<tvtuniius and (^. Mamilin-i laid sii-jf to it i\illi 
tlirir wliolr lo,t"'*. Ill*' ^'u'^o iastid inarlv a.> loii;; 


' as that by the Cartlia-jinians in n. r. 400. a:.. I t'..' 
h'onian< .-ntim-d sev«rtly from di-4':i>f and wmt -f 
]'rovi>'ion'<. hnt tin* ifrivations ot llit* U-vif^j-.-ii %\«r«» 
>rill LMi-itcr, and the CartliaLMiiian ;:«Mi«'r:il lla: rio, 
who had a.!\am<'l Asitli a htiL"- ariiiy to ndi? vr tia* 

' ( itv. Iia\it:'j- Ixfii tttallv tjit, ;it<>l l>v tlx' I^-Taaii 
r<iii-snlN. JIaanihal who niiiiniand»"d th<' anny wit.^n 
tlu' wall> t'^nnd it ini]Mi^sih]i' to li..Id out any 1»»:!^.--, 
and liia'li lii> rMaj«- in tl.f i.iLdit with llir 4 'a:\Ji »- 
'jiiiiaa and ni*r< • nary troo|». livninu tin' « i!\ to it^ 
\aU\ It wa^ inma .!iat< 1\ i« < nj«i''d I'V tli«^ K'f;;.ai.s 
V, ho <arri.d oil' 2.").nt)(» itf t!i<- ii.haiiitant-^ into >lt- 
V. ry. 1 ii.' >u jf had la.->t«'d al'o\«' v«'\in>, 
and is said to have th<'. \iitorions aniiy isiorv 
than .'H».<KM» nii'ii. (DJ'nI. xxiii. Err. U"» .-rlt. p. ,*tnl 

I - :^y.\: I'ohh. i. 17—10; Zonar. viii. U>.) At a 
Iat«'r ]>i'iiod of tlu- war (i;. « . 2.").')) snctcv.^-iw li.>s.-^ 
at MM hn\i'i.r irratly w-akriinl tlio iJoniaii ]-<»\\tT in 
^i< j!y, tl.i- t'arlhauiiiian piifral Carthalo n/f'\ ♦ 
j.o>v,.,v>i, 11 of Ai:ii_«'ntn;n with roni]anui\< 1%- jiirlf* 
<a;rt;,lty, wh> n Ik- onco nion- lai<l tln' «iry in a^i,*^ 
a,..i ra/.id it> wads, thf sju-\i\ini: inliahit.'iiit> ii-ivi: j 
tak.n v«ti.'j«' in tlu* trmj'h.' ol iIk- (.UMi.j.ia!! /.r; v. 
(lii'l. /. r. p. .'il).").) 

rroiii litis tinif \vt' luar no nion' of -\;j'-!_o:i::.:n 
til! till- end of th'- I' I*\ini<" War. wlnj; it |-.t,s-.-l 
niidrr till' dominion of |,'onn': l»nt it inn-t ha%.-»ii 
soinr di'iMci' ii'ro\cr('d froiii its latr ( alandcios, ^4> ;♦ 
l'Iay> no nnini]>ortant part win n tin- roiil.-st 5m ti\n a 
j.'oaii' and ('a'lhi.'c was rm'-wt-d in tin- St. nd 
j'lniic \\ar. On thisiKta-i-n it coi.'dnncl >{, a .r'.i^t 
in it.s adlii niici' to tin- l,'.iniai;s. hut was .sttrj rj-."i 
and laki a hy iliniij.-i. U |t.r<- Mar* > ihis (ould .ar-ive 
to its sn] jiort (I,iv. xxii. .'l."t.): and tVoin h- ii- > f. ..i:i 
hi'ianio th<- chit'f >troni:hoM ..f il..- < 'artha.:i]iian> in 
Sir ily, and h>ld ont a;.' lin-t tin- Ifoin^n <Nai-.l 
Lai\inn.s \i,\v^ att<-r tlio oth<r c itji's in tluM-luai Ij^d 
snhiinf.vd. ,\t I'i'jth tlif N'nniidiin Muti!:.'-. \>^ 
u ho.M- ( itnrai:'' :iiid >kill lln- 1 "arthairiii n:s it\\f«l tl;"ir 
j-'-'trai!.- 1 tiit.-ni c, li:i\in.r l>i> n of:, n. led l.v tli- ir 
L'-ii'ial llaraio. U tmyrd tin- rity ii-to th<" haii.N »'t' 
I-ai'\ nuis. Tt. <". 21(». riu' ItMilin.: ri; i/.'iis AM-T-^* -.Ml 

^ to dath. anl the >old as >Li\cs. (Liv. xxv. 4«», 

i 41, xwi. 41'.) 

I A.'n'j^.ntnin now Ih-canu'. in t-onnnon ^\\}x t].«» 
rest ot t!i<' Sit iiian citii--. ].<r i!an''nlly Mihai-t to 

I Ir-'ia': hit it was t]iatrd with niu<di .ni <1 
«':.^ >\<d n any ]iii\il' ^i-s. 'I linM- yoar;> atti-r im 
(ap:ar<- a nninhir of n<\\ ( iti/rns from othor ]strt-s «if 
Si ily wm- I'siaMi-l.i' 1 tlu-rf hy th.- i-rit-tor .Man.ilin*, 
andtuoy.ais aft' r this the nnniirij.-il rijiits .i;,.i 
]iii\ ii'Lc-- ot ill"' (iti/.-ns w.-ri" d.ti rniii:.'d fiv S* ij '».» 
-\tiiian:i> in a niann-r s.. sati-fartory that th'-^ <i.ri- 
til ;!'-d nnaltti'd till th.- tint'' of \'(Trt».. (i'.n* 
r.i"at'dly ni<'n!iii:s ^VitIl' iitnni ns on.' «>f th.' rM»st 
\v. allliy and popul ais fiti.'s of ^jrjly. the f»'rtilit\ »tf 
its tf ritoiy and lIi.- fonM-iii.iH c of it s |»irt niui. .-in » 
,t .jn>' of till' <lii''f i.-niji'i'innis t.-r ihi- trait' iti f. r-ii. 
(( i< . I './•/•. ii. .')(>. r,o, iii. 4.], iv. :{:j. 4;{.) It i^. 
r. talti. lio'A('\.r. that it .lid not in his day ra* k i'l 
a liOiaiii I'l.'iiy. aad it is vt-ry dotihttul whcih.-r it 
t\cr .attain. '1 thi> di-tin( lion, tlion^di wa- find tJMt it 
was m11..u.'i1 to -triko coins, with tin- Latin JTis^n-ii^ 
tion A*.iti(.i.\TiM, a< latr as th'' time of ATiirn^tuv. 
(lakh'l. D.X. \..l. i. p. I'.K'k)* If it nally .l.tain.^1 
ihi' titli' aii.l jiiiN ilc^rcs of a colony under that »"in— 
jH-ror. it mnsj h.i\t' s<Mni lost them, .as ntitlior I'lir.v 

* Moinniscn {Jtns Ju>,»i.^<hr Jfii/i:-\\'*Sfn. t». 
2'>7) •■on iilcrs A'jricntuni to h;iv»' Ufn <in tli** 
f»otin_' of .1 C"<»l'>nia Latina. like Ncnausus in (i:niJ. 


Mr Ptoieoif redDOO it among the Roman colonies in 
gidlf . Fram the time of Aus^tus we find no hi«- 
toial BMntioo d it under the Roman empire, but 
it! ooBtiBiiid exiitcDce is attested bj the geogmphers 
Md Itjoervies, and as kog as Sicily renrained 
Kib;«rt to the Greek empire, Agrifcentom is still 
BtfcttOKd as one of its most contddcrable cities. 
(Stnb. n. j>.a72; PHn. H. N, iii. 8. § U; Ptol. iu. 
4. 414; Itin. Ant. p. 88 ; Tab. Pent,; Const. Porph. 
di Prov. a. 10.) It was one of the first places that 
inl into the hands of the Saracens on their iurasion 
ei^Aalj in 8S7, and was wrested from them hj the 
Nomaos nndrr Roger Gniscard in 1086. The 
Mdm city of GtrffoUi still contains about 13,000 
isiuiNtaDti, and is the see of a blAhop, and capital 
«j I4W of the seven districts or Inteudenze into which 
SkUj is DOW dJTided. 

Tihe fitoatiQa of A^gentnm is Fell described by 
Nytios (ix. 27). It occupied a hill of considerable 
tttttl, rvini; between two small rivers, the Acragas 
aai Uypeas, of which the sonthem front, though of 
nJl ekiratko, presented a steep escarpment, mn- 
tiaC nearly in a straight line from E. to W. From 
laee the f^nmnd slo^ gradually upwards, though 
tmnmvd by a cross ralley cr depression, towards a 
urh mors elerated ridge which formed the northern 
|tftui d the city, and was divided into two sum- 
liu, the iurth> western, on which stands the modem 
ti»7 rf Giryenti, and the north-eastern, which de- 
cnd £nain a temp^ of Athena, that crowned its 
Wbt, the iwme of the Athenaean hill (6 'ABn^atos 
A^M««f, Died. xiii. 85). This summit, which at- 
tabi to the height of 1200 feet above the sea, and 
h tb« mmt elevated of the whole city, is completely 
pnri}«tOQ9 and inaccessible towards the K. and E., 
sad enold be approached only by one steep and 
tMtfm path from the dty itself. Hence, it formed 
tW catoral citadel or acropolis of Agrigentimi, while 
tW pule slnpe» and brood valley which separate it 
frn the ■oQthera rid|::e, — now covered with gardens 
rU frait- trees, — affixded ample space for the ex- 
Wvks sad dcv<4opiDent of the dty itself. Great 
■ Oft the natmral strength of its positicm, the whole 
•xj «» soTTonnded with walls, of which consider- 
tkk pnrtMB still remain, especially along the southern 
ftrat : thnr whole circuit was about 6 mike. The 
fHsfisritics of its satoatko sufficiently explain the 
csraxstances of the two great sieges of Agrigentum, 
m bath of which it will be observed that the as- 
Mlsots cwofiDed all their attacks to the southern 
md »nth-westem parts of the dty, wholly neglect- 
mi the mth azul east. Diodoros, indeed, expressly 
fe4 u that there was only one quarter (that ad- 
jmakt the river Hypaos) where the walls could be 
ifptw-hed by military engines, and assaulted with 
asT pn^Kct of success. (Diod. xiil. 85.) ^ 

Af^r ^y nxnm waft Dot less celebrated in ancient 
taei fur the beaoty of its architecture, and the 
•^l«tr soi variety of its buildings, both public 
>id fimae, than for its strength as a fortress. 
hadar callc it ** the fiurf«t of mortal dties " (icaA- 
* rrm ap»T«ar voA^wr, /yA. xii. 2), though many 
^ its ua4 striking ornaments were probably not 
•*«t«d tin after his time. The magnificence of the 
FTnie dvvUings of the Agrigentines is sufficiently 
ittfstid bv the wymg of Empedocles already cited : 
ttnr pabbc edifices are the theme of admiration 
««h asany ancient writers. Of its temples, pro- 
Mjy thp most ancient were that of Zens Atabyrios, 
«W wifaip they derived from Rhodes, and that 
rf JUheaa, both of which stood oo the highest 



summit of the Athenaean hill above the dty. 
(Polyb. /. c.) The temple of 2>us Polieus, the 
constructi(m of which is ascribed to Phalaris (Po- 
lynen. v. 1. § 1), is supposed to have stood on the 
hill occupied by the modem city of Girgentiy which 
appears to have formed a second dtadel or acropolis, 
in some measure detached from the more lofty 
summit to the east of it. Some fragments of 
andent walls, still existing in those of the church 
of Sta Maria d£ Grtciy are considered to have 
belonged to this temple. But far more celebrated 
than these was the great temple of the Olympian 
Zeus, which was commenced by the Agrigentines 
at the period of their greatest power and prosperity, 
but was not quite finished at the time of the Car- 
thaginian invasion in B. c. 406, and in consequence 
of that calamity was never completed. It is de- 
scribed in considerable detail by Diodorus, who tells 
us that it was 340 feet long, 160 broad, and 120 
in height, without reckoning the basement. 'J lie 
columns were not detached, but engaged in the 
wall, from which only half of thdr (irciunfeMiicc 
projected: so gigantic were their dimensions, iliat 
each of the flntings would admit a man's body. 
(Diod. xiii. 82; Polyb. ix. 27.) Of this vast 
edifice nothing remains but the basement, and a 
few fragments of the columns and entablature, but 
even these suffice to confirm the accuracy of the 
statements of Diodorus, and to prove that the 
temple must not only have greatly exceeded all 
others in Sicily, but was probably surpassed in 
magnitude by no Grecian building of the kind, 
except that of Diana at Ephesus. A considerable 
portion of it (indnding several columns, and three 
gigantic figures, which served as Atlantes to sup- 
port an entablature), appears to have remained stand- 
ing till the year 1401, when it fell down : and the 
vast masses of fallen fragments were subsequently 
employed in the constmction of the mole, which 
protects the present port of GirgetUu (FazelL vol. L 
p. 248 ; Smyths Sicily, p 203.) 

Besides these, we find menticMi in ancient writers 
of a temple of Hercules, near the Agora, containing 
a statue of that deity of singular b^uty and excel- 
lence (Cic, Verr, iv. 43), and one of Aesculapius 
vrithoQt the walls, on the south side of the city 
(Cic. I c. ; Polyb. i 1^), the remains of which are 
still visible, not far from the bank of the river 
Acragas. It contained a celebrated statue of Apolls, 
in brcmze, the work of Myron, which Verres in vain 
endeavoured to carry off. Of the other temples, the 
ruins of which are extant on the site of Agrigentum, 
and are celebrated by all travellers in Sicily, the 
andent appellations cannot be determined with any 
certainty. The most conspicuous are two which 
stand on the southern ridge facing the sea : one of 
these at the S. E. angle of the dty, is commonly 
known as the temple of Juno Ladnia, a name which 
rests only on a misconception of a passage of Pliny 
(iir. N, XXXV. 9. § 36) : it is in a half mined state, 
but its basement is complete, and many of its columns 
still standing. Its position on the projecting angle 
of the ridge, with a precipitous bank below it on 
two sides, gives it a singularly picturesque and 
striking character. A few hundred paces to the 
W. of this stands another temple, in far better pre- 
servation, being indeed the most perfect which 
remains in Sicily ; it is commonly called the temple 
of Concord, from an inscription said to have b^n 
discovered thero, but which (if authentic) is of 
Roman date; while both this temple and that just 


descril)('»d mu>'t certaiiilv bo rij'nrril to tlif in<>.st 
Iburi.^liin;; jxmIoiI ot" A^ni;cntiiH' lii.>lory, ur the linli 
centurv ». c Tlu'V arc both of tin* Doric ortlor, 
and of much the >anu» (liineii>iun.s : both are pt^ri- 
pteral, vr .siirniuiKieil with a jK^rtifo, con>i.>tiiii: of G 
fuhiinris in troiit. and 13 on each .^ide. The e.\i.>:in<x 
ve.>ti:^»'S ol nther teuij)les are luiuh le.-s coii>idcrablo: 
one to tlje W. «»f that of C«>ni'(»rd, uf which uuly one 
cohunn is Ntanthiii;, i.s commonly re_'ardcd ;us tiiat of 
Herculi'.s, mentioned by Cicero. Its phm and (ioi^^n 
have been eonijfletely ascertained by recent exca- 
vations, which iiave proved that it w;is nmcli the 
largest of thoM' remainin;^ at A::;riirentam. aficr thai 
of the Olympian Zeus : it had 15 iohnniis in tiie side 
and G in front. Another, a little to the north uf it, 


of whi<h con.-iderabl*- pftrtitjns have bocn ]»:H>crvo>l, 
and broniilit to liL'lit by exca\ation on the s>p«t, 
bears tile name, th'iu^h certainly without uutli'inry, 
uf Ca>tor and Pollux: \\liile another, on the o\>- 
|josite hide of a deej) hollow or ravine, of which lW'> 
colunni.s remahi, i» j^tylcd that of Vulcan. A sniaU 
temple or aedicula, near the convent uf 5. Sicolv, is 
commoidv known bv the desii^nation of the Uratorv 
of rhalan.s : it i» of;^nilicant .'^i^e, and certiutuy 
of Koman date. Tlie church of St.B/asi, or ^.Uiuf/io, 
near the e:ii.teni extremitv of the Athenaean hill, is 
I'ormed out of the cella ot an ancient temple, wliloh 
is subiMKcd. but without anv aulhoritv, t** have tie.-a 
detlicated to Ceres and Proserpine. (For full details 
concerning these temples, and the otJier ruiui stiU 

A A. Modem City of dircrenti. 

HB. The Athenaean Hill. 

C C. Ancient Walls of Ai^ritrentnm. 

D. Ancient I'ort. 

K. Modem l*ort. 

F F. Ancient liurial G round. 

G G. liiver IIyi)sis (/•'. /fr<u/o\ 

H H. liiver Acrairas (F. di S. liiogi)). 

1. Temple of Zens I'olieus. 

2. of Athena (?). 




of Ceres and Proserpine 

Temjfle of Juno Lacinia. 
.'). (*f Coiiconl. 

C. of Ib-reu!''S. 

7. of Zeus ( )|vmpins. 

8. of (\Mvtor and Pollux. 

9. of Vulca!!. 

10. »)f .\e>'nl:tpins. 

1 1. (Mlled the Oratory of PJialaris. 

12. Tomb of Theron. 

13. Sup|xA-ed site of Piscina descrilxvl by Dioiloms, 


it GirfoUiy Mt Swiiibanie*ft TroreZt, vol. il. 
^tta-S91; Sajih's Sunlg, p. 207— 212; D'Or- 
nOr'i Sicmia, ^ 8»— 103 ; Skfert, Akraffot, p. 24 
— <38; wd eqiedalfy Sara di Faloo, A nUckita delta 
SieSt, nL m^ who gires the resolu of recent 
kktn <ii the spot, many of which were onknowQ 
to traer wntvs.} 

Xcxt to the temj^e of the Olympian ZmSj the 
|«Uc irork of which Diodorus speaks with the 
ircateit sdnuritMn (xL 25, xm. 72), was a piscina^ 
or naomir of water, coostructed in the time ci 
ThnoB, which was not len than seven stadia in cir- 
cadcreKe, sad wis ptentifnll; stocked with fish, and 
fcMfKBted hj mimeroas swans. It had fellen into 
4(r]T, tad become filled with mod in the time of the 
butoritt, but its site is supposed to be still indicated 
y t dsp hollow or depr&ision in the S. western 
ftftJn d the d^, between the temple of Vulcan 
l4 that of Castor and PoOnx, now converted into 
I prka. Connected with this was an extensive 
men of sobtcrraDean sewcra and ooodoits for 
■Ks, ciostrvcted on a scale hr superior to those 
rf BT other Greek city : these were caUed Phaeaces, 
irm the name of their suchitect Phaeax. 

b was nt onlj in their public buildings that the 
AripttiaM, daring the flourishing period of their 
(irr. kncd to displaj their wealth ud luxury. An 
atfatitioQs maf^ificence appears to have charac- 
tRfoA thor habits of liie, in cdier respects also : 
uA ibwed itself especially in their kwe of horses 
vd charioti. Their territory was celebrated for 
tk aaOcDce of ita breed of bones (Virg. Aen,m, 
TM). mi adrintage which enabled them repeatedly 
%i bear sway the priae in the chariot-raoe at the 
(tni]ae games : aad it is recorded that after one 
it tknt occasiaoa tba victor Exaenetus was accom- 
pmd « his trimnphant entry into his native city 
W ■» kn thn three hundred chariots, all drawn 
^ vtitt kcMS. (Diod. xiii. 82.) Not leas con- 
gill— mi splendid were the hospitalities of the 
awt woihhy dtizcos. Those of Theron are cele- 
!i^ by Pbdar (OL iiL 70), hut even these pn>- 
MirM ibort of thoM of later days. Gellias, a 
^6m Bofced even at Agrigentum for hu wealth 
■i ipkidnaf of living, is said to have lodged and 
^it»d St oooe five hundred knights from Gda, and 
AattthaMi, on nmawi of his daughter's marriage, 
fvaiiW a banquet to all the citizens of Agri- 
P^Eim B the several quarters they inhabited. 
(IM. xn. 83, 84.) Tbcae luxurious habits were 
** nsecooipaiued with a refined taste for the cul- 
t^nba cf tht fins arts : their tonples and public 
^•d&fs wow adorned with the choicest works of 
Miiptarv and painting, many of whidi were carried 
^br Hoiiho to Carthage, and some of them after 
^ U tf that city restored to Agrigentnm by Sctpio 
^SacmuL (Diod. xiiL 90 ; Cic Verr. iv. 43; Plin. 
£ .V. XXXV. 9. t. 36.) A like spirit of ostentation 
v« diiplaved in the magnitude and sjdendour of 
ikit wpokhral monuments; and they are said to 
^ «««a erected costly tombs to favourite horses 
«3A to pM birds. (Diod. xiii. 82 ; Plin. i7. i^. 42. 
^; lMk.45. { 11.) The plain in front of the 
'if. •teopipng the space from the southern wall to 
^ fwt i inaT cf the two rivers, was full of these 
jHikiu aad monmnents, among which that of 
•3v« Was oompacuooa lor ita magnitude (Diod. 
^ M) : ^ name is now commonly given to the 
**^ itnrtin of the kind which remains, though 
' ^dmeauoieahU dimensions, and bekngs, in all 
^"■lifliij, ta the Boman period. 



For this extraordinary wealth Agrigentum was 
indebted, in a great measure, to the fertility of its 
territory, which abounded not only in com, as it 
continued to do in the time of Cicero, and still does 
at the present day, but was especially fruitful in 
vines anid olives, with the produce of which it sup- 
plied Carthage, and the whole of the adjcnning parts 
of Africa, where their cultivatiou was as yet un- 
known. (Diod. xL 25, xiii. 81.) The vast multi- 
tude of slaves which fell to the lot of the Agrigen- 
tines, after the great victory of Himera, contributed 
greatly to their proepe ity, by enabling them to 
bring into careful, cultivation the whole of their 
extensive and fertile domain. The vallies on the 
banks of its river furnished excellent pasture for 
sheep (Pind. iVA. xii. 4), and in later times, when 
the neighbouring country bad ceased to be so richly 
cultivated, it was noted for the excellence of ita 
cheeses. (Plm. H. N. xL 42. 97.) 

It is difficult to determine with precision the 
extent and boundaries of the territory of Agri- 
gentnm, which must indeed have varied greatly at 
different times : but it would seem to have extended 
as far as the river Himera en the £., and to have 
been bounded by the Halycus on the W. ; though 
at one time it must have comprised a considerable 
extent of country beyond that river; and on the 
other hand Heraclea Mlnoa, on the eastern bank of 
the Halycus, was for a long time independent of 
Agrigentum. Towards the interior it probably 
extended as far as the mountain range in which 
those two rivers have their sources, the Kebrodes 
Mons, or Monte Madoma^ which separated it from 
the territory of Himera. (Siefert, A kragagy p. 9 — 11.) 
Among the smaller towns and places subject to ita 
dominion are mentioned Mottuh and Erbessus, 
in the interior of the country, Camicus, the ancient 
fortress of Cocalus (erroneously supposed by many 
writers to have occupied the site of the modem 
town of Girgenti)^ Ecnomus on the borders of the 
territory of Gela, and subsequently Phintias, 
founded by the despot of that name, on the site of 
the modem Alicatti, 

Of the two rivers which flowed beneath the walls 
of Agrigentum, the most considerable was the 
AcRAOAS, fixnn whence according to the common 
consent of noost ancient authors the city derived its 
name. Hence it was worshipped as one of the 
tutelary deities of the city, and statues erected to it 
by the Agrigentines, both in Sicily and at Delphi, 
in which it was represented under the figure of a 
young man, probably with horns on his forehead, as 
we find it on the coins of Agrigentum. (Pind. OL 
iL 16, Ptfth,jX\. 5, and SchoL ad locc.; Empedocles 
ap, Diog. Laert viii. 2. § 63 ; Steph. Byz. v. 
'AicpdTOj ; Aelian. F. II. il 33 ; CasteU. Numtn, 
Sic, Vet. p. 8.) At its mouth was situated the 
Port or Emporium of Agrigentum, mentioned by 
Strabo and Ptolemy ; but notwithstanding the ex- 
tensive commerce oif which this was at one time the 
centre, it had little natural advantages, and must 
have been mainly formed by artificial constmctions. 
Considerable remains of these, half buried in sand, 
were still visible in the time of FazcUo, but have 
since in great measure disappeared. The modem 
port of GirgenH is situated above three miles further 
west (Strab. vi. pp. 266, 272 ; PtoL iii. 4. § 6 ; 
Fazell. vi. 1. p. 246 ; Smyth's Sicily, pp. 202, 203.) 
Among the natural productions of the neighbour- 
hood of Agrigentum, we find no mention in ancient 
authors of the mines of sulphur, which are at the 


b lfa«« ' bii jokt, and ■ fnr jtara aftarmrda ws 
W tht Act™*™"* oo Mtodlf lenni with Hieran 
tag rf S^nniii, fir •riiieb thcj wsn nwudcd b; 
At {A rf half tlw trrritcrj that hid belonged lo 
IhAud. [l)k>d.iuLEic.H(Hi:li.p]).i99,'t99.) 
l^^s t^ RoDBD gmfmnivnt thfly <x<itiQaBd to be 
> >i^^'"g tul ralthj comtoiuiity, uid Cicem 
jfHkLft t' AjfTnom ifl ooa of the mmt cceuid«rabJe 
obii itf Saij. ItB with n» chieflj dcriTed &om 
^ fatiStf if ita t(iTiIi]i7 in corn : which prFvioDi 
u tbt ■mnl of Venn foond anplojmoit far SSO 
faBBi (mlott). > nambtr JimJniiJied b; the ci- 
■(H<<biipnet(inhiptoi»m<n thuBO. (Cic. 
r*r. iiLIB. 17— 31,51, 53.) From this period 
•t tan Snk fnttlur notice tf it, In indent times. 
It ■ dtaed bj Pliny imong th« " popult stipendiarii" 
rfSoljiiul thanaiH ii roond both io Plnlenj and 

bn^ la a chnRh of St. Philip with a miraculoiu 
■far, frsi wbinB tbe madani name of the Iowa 'a 
MniL It became in oaoaequeiKe a gnat mori of 
)Qpia fmn aD fUiU i£ the inland, aod ii Mill a 
i»atoiMt pbee, with the title of a citj and abore 
WK> mUitaiiti. <Plin.iiL8.U;Ptal.iii.4.§l3; 
toAdiSii.aiaU.i'i.'i. f.*35; QrUAuii, Sit. 
OfT. Ali, SiciSa, ^ 111.) 

Ita Uttunan Diodcns Skolos wu a natiTe tt 
Igfriim, and haa pewrred to tu aererel paitir 
"^m ia g hia natiTe town. Numennu man 
rat peao^ed then of the intended visit of He- 

^•■1 in Ihc nek, and a lake or pool four stadia in 
IS beliered to have been eiavatcd 
KW or RBCied grore in the neigh- 
B cooBWrraled to Gerjones, 
tch *']M an object uf peculiar 
. . gnnxs and BUiiScee were 
r both cf that hen md of He- 
wka Umirlf. (Diod. L 4,iT. 21.) At a later period 
Tifbai was the chief bene&ictor of the cilj, nbere 
^ OBrfiwted HTeral temples, a Bcotealerion and 
ipn, as well as a tbestre which Diodoms tclli oa 
ra tta tnmt in all Sirily, after that of Sjiacnse, 
(liiTi*3.) fiouwlj anj lemama cf these build- 
'^> B< DC* tiidhle, the only restiges of antiqnity 
k^ a 1^ mdcftiKd fragments of masonrj. Tbe 
nnad cMk « the sumnnl of the hill, attribnted bj 
^ Tritera In the Cncks, is a work of tbe Siracena 
EltateBh ofntorj. (Amico, ad FaitS. p. ^0; 

t^ T<r^. sicnLif. aa.) [e. h. b.] 



buhnd ./ the r: 

, AHABTiA. a town tf Etniria, meotioaed onlr bf 
'Lifi (i. !SJ during the campaign (f Fsbioa in that 
■»«rj, B.C. MS. He aflocdi no duo to ita po- 
««. "irirh ti ulterlj nnknown. Clnverina and 
<ki >Tilen ban mppond it to be the same with 
^OL Val 1Mb aecms scarcrlj recoDCilahle with the 
"^ ■■ ■MiLa rf tha cuuugD. (Clnrer. ItiU 

ym.) [E, H. B.] 

A1A3 0( ACAS (Abt Sfat, PId. It. S. S 14; 
f^ ti. n. 1.33), w» a W-Pf"^ <^ the UmeMone 

nnge which Mparates Upper Egjpt from ths Red 
Sea. It wu in the panltcl of Thebei, and S. of the 
modem Xoseir (Philotenu), in Ut. S9J. The dis- 
trict occoped by tbe Icthyophigi commenced a little 
to tho north of the h(*dlimd of Aim. [W. B. D.l 

ALABANDA (^ •AfMarSa, ii 'AfM-via: EA. 
'AXaSairSiit, Alabandeiu, Alabuidenss, Alabonde- 
nns: Adj. Alabandicns), a city of Caria, was silo- 
aled IBI) stadia S. of Tnll«, and wit sepaiated 
from the plain of Mjisu by a mountain tract. 
Strabo describes it aa lying at the foot of two hills 
(as some read the passage), which are so dose 
together aa to praent Ihe appearance of an aaa with 
its paniuers on. The modem site ia doubtful ; but 
Arab Bind, on a lai^ brnnch of the Maeander, now 
called the TMn, nhich jdns that river on tbe S. 
bulk, IB Buppuaed by Leake to repnsent Alnbanda ; 
and Ihe naturs of the gmond ronoponds well 
enoogh with Strabo'a description. The TMna msy 
probably be the Mirsyas of Herodotus (r. 118). 
There are the reniaini of a theatre and many other 
buildinga on this site; bat Teiy few inscriptions. 
Alabanda was noted for the luiutions hahiu of 
the citiiens. Under Ihe Roman empre it was 
the seal <£ a Conventiu Jnridicus or court house, 
and one of tbe moat flourinhing towns of the pro- 
vince of Asia. A atone called '* bpa Alabandicns,'* 
found in the neighbourhood, was fntdbte (Plin. 
k^jvi S. a. 13), and used for making glass, and for 
glaimg vessels. 

Stephanos mentions two atiea of the name of 
Alabanda in Caris, hot it doe* not appear that any 
other writer menliofis two. Herodotus, however 
(Tii. 19S), speaka of Alabanda m Curia {tH* h rg 
Kaf>fp), which ia tbe Alabanda of Slrobo. Tbe 
words of ilescription added by Hemdotos seem lo 
imply that there was another citj of tbe name ; snd 
in fact he speaka, in another [osssge (viiL I3G), of 
Alabanda, a lar^ city of Pfarygia. llils Alabanda 
of Phrygia cannot be the town on tbe TMna, for 
Phrygia never eitended is fat is there. [G. L.l 

'SxUampur ■w6\a, PIol. iv. S. g S9; PHn. v. 9. 
s. II, mrii. 8. B. 32), adty of Egypt, whose ailo is 
diSirently elated by Fliny and Ptolemy. Pliny places 
il in Upper Egypt ; Ptolemy in tbe Ueptanomis. It 
would sccordinglj be nther south or north of Ihe 
Mons Alalastriles. It was doubtlras connected with 
the olalnster quarries uf that mountain. If Ala- 
bailia stood in the Heplanomis, it fa an inland 
town, connecled with lbs Nils by on of the tniny 
roads which pervade the legion between that river 
and the Aiabiao hills. [W. B. D] 

Ptol. iv. 5. § S7), formed a portion of Ihe limcMcine 
Tocka whicli niD woslnnrd from the Arabian hills 
into Upper and Middle Egypt. This uplaud ridge 
or spar wu to the east of the city of Hermopolis 
Higiu, in lit. 3TJ, and gave its name lo the town 
af Alaiaatra. It contuned laige quanies of (he 
beautifully veined and while alabaster which Ihe 
Ef7ptians so largely employed for their siUToplniigi 
and other irorka of art. The grottoes in this ridge 
an by some irriters snppoeed to occupy the eiie of 
the dty Alabsstn (en precedmg irticle), hut Ihia 
WBS probably further from the meunloin. They were 
first VLsiled by SirGirdner Wilkinson in 1824. The 
gmttoea of Koma-tl-Ahmar an beliered to be the 



cr'>ttoi\-i at Bi'TiiIia.*.^tf7i. Tlio srulittmvs in tlio^i' ^ 
i'atar.i]iil)s art' chiefly i!i'\o'u'(l to military j.ul'jr('[s 
— j-nH'<-s>i'»ii>. in which the kiiiu', iin'iiiitt'il mi a 
iliaii'»t, is t"<»lli»\vcil l»y his sol»iiii> on t»«<>t, vr in 
\<tts, with ili-^tiiutive w»a|»:>ii> ami -taiiilav'ls. 
The iiK'iiariii i> al>u rrpn-M-iite'l a-, h .nu- in a kiml 
of ii|ru iiltiT or >iirini', ami a<lvan< in.: ^viih his 
otfriiuiis t<i tho toiiiplr ul" iMita'ii. Hi> attomlants 
sffin. iVoin tlx'ir ilivv^, t'» holonir t<» th-- military 
ra.-tf alone, (^ Wilkinson, Tnjxnjrnphti of TIkIks. 

].. aso.; ^[vd. Kqiipt, VMJ. 11. {..4^.) '[\v. i:. d.j 

AJ.AIilS, ALAI'.rS or ALAI'.oX ('AAaga-i/, 
Strj,h. i;y/., L)i<Kl. : "AAagos. Pt..I.: Ai^vi;i>. Sil. Ital. 
xiv. 227), a small nver on the \\. (•ri;i>t *>{ Si( ily. 
tio-.-. ini: into the Sinus Mi-'jarcii^is. l>iiHl<'rus de- 
s( rill 'S it as a f<)n>i.liTaliK' j;Uvan» issnin:i iruni a 
lar^e hi-in, of artitioial eon-tructinn. whi( h \va^ 
rt-.-anloi as the work of Daedalus, and cmj.tyini: 
it^-i-lf after a short cour^-e int<> tlf sea. (l)i>Hl. iv. 
7S; Vih. Si'qnost. p. 4.) Thi> dox-rij-tinn exaetly 
aeenrds with that ;:iven hy ("hnrrius uf a stieain 
called Lo i'lUitarOy which i>sues fr^ni a very civ 
jii'tiis source <>nly half a nuN' tr<im the ca^t. and 
tl'iws into the sea jiL^t npiH.-itc the n]< t ity i<f 
Amjitfita. .Sune tra<*-s «tf IinildinL,'> w.-re in liis 
time still vi>i!>le anaind the ha>in of its source. 
(Cluver. Slril. p. \;V.\: Ka/ell. vol. i. p. l.-,S.) It 
i< prohahle that the An<>Lrs ("A^oAos) of plutareh. 
«•!) the hanks of which limol'itn <lefeated M imercu<, 
the tMvu.t a jiitched hattle. is lio other 
than the Alabus. (Tint. Tinml M.) A town of 
the same name with the liver i> mentioned hy Me- 
j'li inus of i'.y/.antiuni (v. 'A\a§a'i'). hut is not 
noticed hy anv other writer. [K. II. 15.] 

AI.AKSA or HALK SA ('AAa/rra. Diod.; Str i'..: 
I'tol.: Sil. Ital. xiv. 218; Hile^ini. Cic. 
riin.). a eity of Sicily, situated near the north coast \ 
of the i^lauil. hetween ('eiihalmtlium and Calacta. 
It w.ts of Si<Mlian origin, and its touuilatiou is re- | 
lated hy Di'nlonis, \\ho inform^ ns that in n. i\ 4U.'J 
the inhahitants of Ilerhita (a Sicidian tity), iKuinj ' 
OiMii'luded jioacc with l>iony>ias ot' Syraeu>e. their 
ruler fir chief niaL:i^trati> Arelionidc- det«Tiiiiued to ' 
• luit the city and t'ound a iu>w colony, which lie 
scttl'il partly with citi.'.en> of Herhita. and partly 
with mereenaries and othor stran_'er> who collet tel 
aronuil him thron:L:h enmity toward> Hiony^ius. lie 
t:»\e to thi> new colony the name of AIae«a. to 
whi<h the c]iithet Aichonid«\a wa.-> frciiueiitl} added 
for the purjM^se ul" di-^tiiu tiou. <)ther-> attrihiitcil 
th- f 'undation of the city, hut err<ineon->ly. to the 
Carthairinians. (Di'^l. .\iv. UJ.) It «iuickly ro-e i 
to proNjurity hy maritinu' connnirce: and at the 
coumieiiiemeni of the First I'miic wa^ one of 
thetii'^t of the Sicilian cities to make it>> ^uliiin-^ii'n 
to the jl.iinan';, to whose alliance it continued ste.idily 
faitht'iil. It was doulith>«. to it.N condiut in thi-; 
rc-jH-ct, au*l to the serxici's that it wa-> ahle to ren- 
der to the Komans duriii:: their wars in Sicily, that 
it wa-< iuilehte<l f r tlie |H^-uiiar i-riviieje of reiaui- 
iiij; its own jaws .and i!idc|-<'!i.!ci n\ <.\emj't 1V« m all 
taNttion: — an ad\anta'j:c en;.«yed hy only }i\i' * ities 
of Sicily. (Diixl. xi\. IT., .will. Kxe. II. p. .*)0l : 
Cie. I'crr. ii. 49, (VJ. iii. G.) In c<*nve.jnence of 
this advantai:i'ons |i>)>ition it ro'-e rapidly in wealth 
ai 1 pro>|K.'rlty. and hecame one ot' the mo>t f'onrl^h- 
in^ cities of Sicily. On one mu asiou it^ citi/'ens. 
liavin:; Ik-cu involved in di->)'Utes amoni; !he!l;-elve^ 
(•oncemin.: the dioici- of the senate. ('. ('| lulio.s 
TuK her wa>> ^ent. at tlnir own reipte-t in mr. *.»a. 
lo le^'ulate the matter In a law. width In' tlid to 


the satisfaction of all parties. Rut tin ir privi- 
li-H'-^ tliil not j-mtect them from the exactioruH <Tt 
Verivs, who inijHi.-ed on theui an enonn<nLS contri- 
hutioii 1,0th in corn and money. (Id. ih. ".'i — 75: 
Kp. wl Fain, xiii, o2.) The city apj*e;ir> tc» have 
snhse.|uently <leclineth and had simk in the tint^' of 
.Viijustus to the C'Oidition of an ordinary muni- 
cipal town (Ca-tell. hisn-. p. 27): but waj .-till 
one of the tew platt-s on th*- nortli coa>t of Sicilv 
which Str:d«o tieenietl worthy of mention. (.Stral. 
vi. \K 272.) riiny al-o enumerati-s it anionj the 
'■ stiiK'ndiariae ci\itates "" of Sicily. (//. A', iii. ^,) 
(treat "litierence of ttpiniou ha> exi.-«t<\l w itlj reirari 
tf> the site of Alaesa. ari>ini: )'ririci).aily tr<ini the 
di-crepancy in the di>tan< e> a>-it:ne.l l.y Stralni. tbe 
Itinerary, and the 'I'ahnia. SfU.e of the>e :u>' un- 
ilouhtedly ctinuj't t»r erroneou>, hut on the whole 
there can he no tlouht tliat it>- situation is cttmvtiv 
lixetl hy Clnverlus aiitl Torn-niuzza at the sjt.t 
marked hy an oUl < hnrch calletl Sta. Marui le 
J*i(l'ifi. near the m<xlern town of Tasa, and aUtvp 
the river J\tti)/io. Thi> site ctirieides j<TlVr!ly 
with the expres>ion of I)i'rflonis (xiv. 16). tiiat tho 
town was hnilt "on a hill ah >ut 8 stadia from the 
sea:" a.> well a> with the tli>tanee of ciL'hteen M. I*. 
trom ('ej.hal'>edium a>>i„'ned hy the TahnI i. (The 
Ilimrarv i:ive> 28 l-v an ea^v error.) The raiic> 
dcMril't'd hy Fa'.tdlo as vi-ihle there in Jjis tiuio 
were ^uch as to ii.dit ate the ^ite of a iar;L;e city, ai,U 
several ii'x riptions ha\e heen foun<l on the r^^mt. 
>o!i;e of them referrinir ilistiui ily to Alaesa. UDt^idf 
these, which is of cousider.d'le lenirth and ini}»^.rt- 
am ••, e-ivcs numerous loi al details nmcernini; the 
tiivi.xious of land. iS:e.. and mentioll^ rej"«'atnl!v a 
river Ai.\>.>rs. evidently the s:uiie with the Ha- 
LESUs of Cohuiiella (X. 2Gx).and whith is j»rohahly 
the nuKlern J't'ftintif ; a< will as a fotmtalu Jut::uii 
Ii'YKnirA. This i> ]«rhaps the same ^J;okcIl <*{ l-y 
S'linus (5. § '20) and Prisciaii (/'./•/.'/».-». olMf), hut 
without nicnti"ni!;i: it.s name, :i.s existin;,' in the terri- 
tt>ry of Haloa. the w.itei-s of which wtre swtdri mni 
aLritatol hy the >onnd of nuisic. Fazello descritw's 
the ruins ;is exteiulini: from the sea-sin >re, on which 
were the remains of a 1 ir^re huiMu;^ (prol»aMy 
haths), fi-r the >].ace of more than a mile tc» the 
summit of a hill, ou whiih were the remaiiL< of the 
t ita'lel. AI>out .'i mil'-s further inlan<l was a lar_:e 
torn. tain (j.r.t!.;i!.ly the Ijiyrrha of the ins<^ri].th>!i ), 
witli extens!\e rentain.s of the a'pieduel that oh,- 
vi-yctl its waters to the city. All trace of the>«* 
rniu-s has iiow «iisa]'j«;ared. extept some jt^rtioiLs ot 
the a. pit duct: I)Ut frairment.s of statues, as well ri> 
c>'ius .and inMri}4ions, ha\e U-en frequently dis- 
covered on the s|>»)t. (Fa.ill. «/*' lith. Sic. ix. 4: 
C!u\er. .Sc.7, pp. 288— 2'.»0: B'^ckh, (\ /. ton,. iiL 
p]'. «)12 — 621; (.'astelli. J/i<(. AUit.-^fu, 1' iiM.r-.n. 
l7.'»-i: hi. I>i<i'r. Sic. p. lU'J; llisvari, Fo;^;./!-! i,-» 

si'iiin,\K'2A-A.) [i:. iiVu.] 


AF.\<10'XI.\ (*A\ayovia), .i tow-n of Laeonhi 
near the Me.seni.iu fn<ntier, U'longing to the Kk-u- 


tlKn>>Laoaiie«, wwtjuning temples of DioaytmB and 

Aitenk This town was distant 30 stadia from 

Gcnois, but its ate is unknown. (Pans. iiL 21. 

§7,iiL26. § 11.) 

ALALCCMENAE. 1. CAAaXic(MA«ya/, Strab., 

Puiu; *AXaXKotUiHW, Ste^ B.; Eth. *AAaAico- 

fttnth/AkaJucofuwatos/AXaXMOfitnof: StiUndri)^ 

so sneiat town in Boeotia, situated at the foot of 

Ml Tnpboisiiun, a little to the E. of Coroneia, and 

tsmr tb» Isks Gopais. It was celebrated for the 

moliip of Athena, who was said to have been born 

tbm, and who is hence caUed AUlcomeneis (*AAa\- 

Mponi^) in Homer. The temple of the goddess 

Awd, St a httle distance from the town, on the 

TritoQ, a small stream flowing into the lake Copals. 

B«7<nd the modem Tillage of SttUndrif the site 

tf Akkomenae, are some pdjgonal foundations, 

sppsnntlj thoM of a single bmlding, which are 

proUblf remains of the peribolns of the temple. 

Both the town and the temple were plondered bj 

SdQs, who carried off the statoe of the goddess. 

(Hflm. /I ir. 8; Pans. ix. 3. § 4, ix. 3d. § 5, seq.; 

Stzah. pp. 410, 411, 413; Steph. B. t. v.; Leake, 

Xeriham Grteee, roL iL p. 135; Forchhamioer, 

ffi&Mco, pu 185.) 

1 Or Aloomemae QAXjcofurttC)^ said to be a 
tBvn in Ithaca (Plot. Quoeif. Cfraee. 43; Steph. B. 
«.«•), or in the small Lsknd Astoris in the neigh- 
bDuhood of Ithaca. (Strab. p. 456.) 

ALAXIA. [Aleria-] 

ALAXDEB, a river of Phrygia (Liv. xxxviiL 
15, \B\ which is twice mentioned by Livy, in his 
anoDOBt of the march of Cn. Manlins. It was pro- 
sify s branch of the Sangaxins, as Hamilton {Re- 
Mreftsf M Asia Minor, toL L pp. 458, 467) oon- 
jat&ro, and the stream which flows in the TaUey of 
B<iad; bat he gives no modem name to it [G.L.] 

ALATd (*AAaro^, 'AAovyoi), a people, fbond 
bolb ifl Aaa and in Eorope, whose precise geogra- 
fUcil pWtK'nff and ethnographical relations are diffi- 
rait to determine. Thej probablj became first 
bown to the R«"«w through the Mithridatic war, 
mA the ezpeditioo of Pompey into the countries 
ikit the Caocasos; whoi they were fbtrnd in the 
E. f«t «f Gancasos, in the region which was called 
Ak&iaby the Bonmns, but Alania by Greek writers, 
ad vhtre Alaoi are foond down to a late period of 
the Qmk empire. (Joseph. AnL Jud. xviii. 4. s. 
•; Lvaa, z. 454; Procop. Per$. iL 29, Goth. iv. 
4; Cout. Poqih. de Adm. Imp, 42.) Valerias 
them {Arg. vi 42) mentions them among the 
pM^ cf the Caocasns, near the Heniochi Am- 
■■noi Marcdfinos, who tells ns nuHre about the 
Aism thsn any other ancient writer, makes Julian 
c^oaa^ hn soldiers by the example of Pom- 
p;, ** who, breaking his way throngh the Albani 
■>d the Uasiagvtaa, whom we now call Alani, 
■* U» vaten of the Caspian ** (xxiiL 5). In the 
ktur half of the first ceotory we hear of the Alani 
Q two very remote positiona. On the one hand, 
iaepfaos, who describes them as Scythians dwelling 
ibott the riw TanaXs (^Don) and the Lake Maeotis 
iSm^Aao9% relates bow, in the time of Vespasian, 
hq»)( pmaitted by the king of Hyrcania to traverse 
' the psis wfaidi Alezan<^ had closed with iron 
P^** they BBva^^ Media and Armenia, and re- 
iantA hosae again. On the other hand, they are 
*i*uad bj Seneca {ThfetL 629) as dwelling on 
tie hicr ( AMM&e); and Martial {Epigr. viL 30) ex- 
P^l caOs them iMumatians; and Pliny (iv. 12. 
«.») neotiDw Alani and Bcnalani (i. e. Rmi- 



Ahna) among the generic names applied at difierent 
times to the inhabitants of the European Scythia or 
Sarmatia. Thus there were Alani both in Asia, in 
the Caucasus, and in Europe, on the Maeotis and the 
Enzine; and also, according to Josephus, between 
these two positions, in the great plains N. of the 
Caucasus; so that they seem to have been spread 
over all the S. part of Russia in Europe. Under 
Hadrian and the Antonines we find the European 
Alani constantly troubling the frontier of the Da- 
nube (Ael. Spart ffad. 4. s. 6; Jul. Cajnt. Ant. Pi. 
6. s. 8, Marc. 22, where they are mentioned with 
the Boxalani, Bastamae, and Peucini); while the 
Alani of the E. again overran Media and Armenia, 
and threatened Cappadocia. (Dion Cass. Izix. 15.) 
On this occasion the historian Arrian, who was go- 
vernor of Cappadocia under Hadrian, composed a 
work on the Tactics to be observed against the 
Alani (licTa{<s icor' ^AXoywi'), which is mentioned 
by Photius (^Cod. Iviii. p. 15, a., Bekker), and of 
which a considerable fragment is preserved (Arrian. 
ed. Dtibner, in Didot's &:ript. Grace. Bibl pp. 250 
— 253). Their force consisted in cavalry, like that 
of the European Alani (the woXvtinngy ^v\ov 
*AXa»S»v of Dionysius Peri^ete8,T. 308); and they 
fought without armour for themselves or their horses. 
As another mark of resembknce, though Arrian 
speaks of them as Scythians, a name which was 
vaguely used in his time for all the barbarians of 
NW. Asia (jCfmL AlanoSy 30), he speaks of them 
elsewhere (^Tact. 4) in close connecti(m with the 
Sauromatae (Sarmatians), as practising the same 
mode of fighting for which the Polish lancers^ de- 
scendants of the Sarmatians, have been renowned. 
Ptolemy, who wrote under the Antonines, mentions 
the European Alani, by the name of *AAov>vi 2Sx^ 
0CU, as one of the seven chief peoples of Sarmatia 
Europaea, namely, the Venedae, Peucini, Bastamae, 
lazyges, Roxohuii, Hamaxobii, and Alauni Scythae; 
of whom he placies the lazyges and Rozolani along 
the whole shore of the Maeotis, and then the last 
two further inland (iii. 5. § 19). He also mentions 
(iL 14. § 2) Alauni in the W. of Pannonia, no doubt 
a body who, in course of invasion, had established 
themselves on the Eoman side of the Danube. Pto- 
lemy speaks of a Mt. Alaunus {rh 'AXauyoK ipos^ 
in Sarmatia, and Eustathius (^ad Dion. Perieg. 
305) says that the Alani probably derived their 
name from the Alanus, a mountain of Sarmatia. It 
is hard to find any range of mountains answering to 
Ptolemy's M. Alaunus near the positicm he assigns 
to the Alauni : some geographers suppose the term 
to describe no mowUainSj properly so called, but the 
elevated tract of land which forms the watershed 
between the Dniester and the Dnieper. The Euro- 
pean Alani are found in the geographers who fol- 
lowed Ptolemy. Dionysius Periegetes (v. 305) 
mentions them, first vaguely, among the peoples N. 
of the Palus MEieotis, with the Germans, Sarmatians, 
Getae, Bastamae, and Dacians; and then, more spe- 
cifically, he says (308) that their land extends N. 
of the Tauri, ** where are the Melauchlaeni, and Gc- 
loni, and Hippemolgi, and Netui, and Agathyrsi, 
where the Boiysthenes mingles with the Enxine." 
Some suppose the two passage to refer to difierent 
bodies of the Alani. (Bemhardy, ad loc.) They 
ture likewise called Sarmatians by Mardan of Hera- 
cleia (r&y 'AKayw SopfuirwF l^Bros : Peripl. p. 100, 
ed. Miller; Hudson, Geog. Min. vol. L p. 56). 
llie Asiatic Alani ('AAovol :iK6dai) are placed by 
Ptolemy (vL 14. § 9) in the extreme N. <k Scythia 



^vllIl^M the Iir.aii-, n-ar the " ri.kii avd L;in<i ;" th<^ art of war. Tln\v .I.'vj.l><» c<nnz ^^n f.tot. In 

an.l h r.', t-"*. ^^•' ti'.A i.;' ■,;.•,./:!.- ot tin- ^ai.n- ]ia;i.«' ]>*t*uii thty an- ut-arlv all tail ai.U liaifi^-'riH-; ihcir 

(-a 'AAava uf.>77. ^j -i. 11). K. ' l' th«- IIyj« rl'-'ni b\ir i> >li_iitiy \v1Im\ : ih.-_v ;tn' tf-Tihlt' f'tr th«^ 

M.; li',' i> .I'li'-rally >ij. ;...•• I t" :,"a;i the N. j irt ul" t' i Jati'-I ^^« :-ii!it>s ,.t tli'ir vyc<. TIjo liL:hl:i','s> cf 

th.- /^'/y// < iiaiii. !■» wiiicii In- ( r.- L" tu^l/ jiws a tht ir arin"Ur ai'i> tli' ir i.atural ^^^iUnt'>^: atir. uni- 

dir'-* ti -n W. an 1 E. ^ta^l<■e iin-'.iti^-nr.l a!-n, i*.^ wf havf st^n. b_v Arri;in. 

ji<' t t>:iK-- ; .1 r' i.ii'' _'" " --o^ a;«i :i'<>m ,;,•.,. I'i i.> ;., u.*- \\..\ iiif >'.aA>' i a ii.t\ ]'n'-a:^(«i. iin' lu- 

tla' H lu^ ^\lli< 1j. in til'- n i_'ii "t" \'ai ■',•-. j r. « Ij it.itt .1 X-:-*-. .*^li\.r_v ua- .r.^'. \ ii t" tli'Mi: all amti' i-t" 

th<' <»"tli> uj-di tilt' l; .:i;an < :iii irt\ A. i>. .'JrO. Alu-r n I'l-- ).;rth. l!\<u tl.i :r jU'!l'<'> N\cn- 5•••^■^t^^l :".r 

(it>« ri!*:nir tile iliui> (xxxi. 2), 1;<' >ay,> tjiat th-v iKtir l :iL'-tr". .] jir -< :i i;,' !,' <■ i:i war. S-\oral .it 

a»lva;i< e<l ;iN lar .li. "' ll.«' Ala'ii. tli^' a::i i' lit Ma->a- thcM' j.a; ti< a!ar>« a-*' < .-.ifin:.. d by J.tnLar.iit»-< (>:" 

|:.-ta<"'.'' t't' wliMin ho uii<l»Ttak'> ti> L'ive a N-tt<T Jt' h>.< (,,firi<. 24). (la'.ili.n aK>> un'uli-'U-i il^. 

.,. .,..,,,.» »i, ... V, ..1 .., ,-..f 1 ...„. ,..,».i" ],. ) r..,,T. »i... M.T^; .^. .1,. r;. , . ,. .;, . m . .: . ., i ... *i. . . 

|:.-ta<"'. t'l wiiMin no uii<i»TraK'> ii> li\o a h-Ii<t y»'V'A* (nrtrx, 'j-l). i la'.ui.n al^>> un'un-'U-i ii^. 

a'f'uut than hi'l as yet Ion {>uMi-li' .1, rr"ni tlu' Alani a^ ih\' Hinj "ii tii'- M i'-'ti,-. ;.:;.l i<»nia'rt«« tl;t ui 

I>tfr t'.> the Tan,.V> «l\v.ll thr Sanr-"in!a.'; an^l .n cI"M-ly with thr .M.i>-.i_«:.a- {la llijhi. i. Jil'i): 
tho A-iatic ^iih- oi tlir Tanj'i^ liio A!a;ii i:i!i i''it tJit^ '- , i -,•»,. , 

^ast-.litu.h•^..t•.<.ythla:havi:utl^irn;r^,.t•:^.n.Ihat '' >^^^-»lvtc.. Ma.-utula Al.inus.- 
(it thi'ir ni<iunt.iiu> (<j* in'mtihn: nj>j/> n<itt<N' C"'r<"- rM:ii_MaMiini^h« ■! li\ tii ■ Ilun-, who atta* k'tl tht ni 

iiiiit'iti, uhirh ^MInt• uniltr>ta;.ii {<> iiuaa that Ahini I in the j Luii- 1,. it tl.f T ai u'v, the prat Uxlv of 

c.iMn'N ivxinahi. a wiifd >iji,it";. i'lj a uio'in'a'm). I'.y ' thi'.\!.'ii _ iii''l thoir < . ;, (lu-rcr^ iuth-ir iiiV.'i>i< ii ot' 

til* ir (.'"•i,.jUf>t> lht\v e^f* ;/</.</ r/«f//* ;^^;/^- . a^ \\ •■II as the ♦ in'J.i.- kiii_'>i 'in «it liTi:.iK-ic (a. I>. .'^75 ), *f( 

tii'ir ]*»uiT, <>\t'r the nri_hh -nriiij I! iti 'n.>: 'n>t a> whi'li t!i'' ihi'i j-»:t i\ tiir Kir.'}4Mn AI:*ui \m n- 

till' l'ir~ia!i iianio w.i^ --iirra.h 1I<' th-n <]'-itiU'^ aln.ijx thf ^^h.-tr-. \-\ th.- v\ar \\hi<h •^•"•n bn-k- 

t!n'>-t:' nt-;jhhturin_' i.ati'tn^; thi* X< iri. i.,l»rnl. n. ar "^it l"t\\«-'ii ihf (i>()i- a;: I l^.:llan^ in Maf-ia, «.> 

l-.tty ni.»nntain>: the IJiLiiiu an-l (i.l>:,i: th<' Aj i- nury -l ih-' llan> ui.l A! i; i i:,«vl th.- (.;>. ih..i 

thyr>i: the M -lani hi i-iii aii.l AMthr-i-'phaji: tn in \\ y an .ii-!:,i<;!\ iM.tii.d ;.;i,<:;- the in\;ii»r>» 

A\hoai a trart <it" UhiiJi thiti 'I laiul e\:< iii!''4 I"..- v. ii » were /.' leat. il hy lh'<"i ^iu-^. a. i>. 37'J — .S^^J. 

wani> to the .>in:H\ At au"ther jart tin- Ali'ii 11' ■ ■ < :•«: th \\t' Ji'il, in tii'- \\ .. th<' Al mi ti>u-t:"!;t iv 

hunhTL-d on the Ani.i,'."r.>, tuwanU the \\, (th" a-^M 1 it< '1 with the ^i"th^ aii.l w ilh the X'an.lahN, >.> 

An:a/.ons Iw-ini; j>laM>i hy him on the l.i'iaVs an 1 in'e li ^^ that rriM,.jin> ial!> tluni a triho ot thf^ 

the Ca^l'ian). wluiHc ih'-y Won- ^( attrn.i nver ina^y Ci 'lh> {^ToTt^iKov tOios; ]'(tiu]. i. .3). [\u* tin ir 

jM'.ijiU-s throa^'lmai A-ia. a> tar a> th<' <ian_-<'*. ni'i\«-tij'i;t^ .tie ii <'if 1 1- -cly c imir* f-l with tli'j»-<' of 

'Ihron^h th'M' inimeiiM- K .:i.>;i>. h'lt "itiii lar :i|-;t!t th'- \'a;i<!ai*. in ♦ ''n 'Uieti'-n A\ith wh'-ni tlu v arv 

iVuni one ;in<'th<T. tin- r<irt<^isfri'"S ut tlie Al .i.i m:1 to ha\'' -cttlo.l ni l'.i:iii<;.ia; awil. retiring: tLiMn *• 

li\r<l a no;ii:i ii- lit.-: a".i>l il v. iv ..:,',; iu j r ■< i'-> of thi^ULh t.arft th> (J ;h->. tie* two jw.i'Its invatjiti 

tinie tint thry iMiiK' t'> he call .1 h_\ th-- si:i;r na'iir. (I.ial i'l 40»\, ;•• l >[ i-n in 4o'.t. (I'i.k i]». /. c. ; 

llo th< n di-M-rilx'N tlifir mann'-r-. Ih'} n-itlur .hi''i'"-. 'A J^r''. d-i.'-W: C'iiiilon, /'. A'. *. «.; 

ha\«' hniM'> ii-.r till the l.t .{; th« V tof.l oi, tlo-h a:.ii (lenp. <i;: '^ i . c. .'lit. ;il.) 

milk, aii'l <lwtli on wa:ji.!,>. Winn tht-y io;,ie to in 411 tii-- Aliiii aii- t'-ui I in itanl. aotinir \\\i]i 

a |.i>tnre tlxy make a »a;'.jt. by j la. he: th'lr waj- the I'oi! jn:;... ni^. A'.a;'.a: i i. ai:l F'nii.k-. ((, linton, 

i^"i!s in .a oiii le; a!.>l i!.- y at '\«' <in a_'ain wh' n th<' ,<. <>.) A> iho < i>.tl:^ :i i\.i«,, ,-,1 i:,t.. Smin. 4 14, ihf 

loi-a:;i' i> exhan>te.|. Th-ir ll.>-k* aii'l iient-- l:" \\ith A! i:,i a;..! \"a:.'!iK. witii :!.•' Silir.j^i, ivtr«-atol h«*lor«* 

tii.iii. an'l their t hiff eaif i> for th'ir hor-.'>. 1 hf\ the a l.u-ilanii a:. J Hi.ii*.,. (<.'liiiton. .«. a. 

aie ne\<r rnlut Oil to want, for the r<.nntry th'.on-h 4l»<.) In tie- • n>e,i!,_' . av i-ai.-ii';, in whi^h iho 

•whirh ihoy wan<hT e'>ii-i>t> o\ Lr^a-■^_\ h. KN, with Ci-thie ki:.^' Wailia !■ n ,nop->l .Sjaiu (4l>). th«» 

frnit-tret's inti"r>jH-r>eil. an'l wal<Me.l h\ many rlv«'r.^. A!a:.> lo-t th>ir kiii^ Ata* r-. .anil wert* so rtsliUf^i 

'Ihe weak. tVoni a:,'e or sex, >ta_\ l'\ t lie wa '_"-'• 'll^ an>l in nunih(r> that th-\ L'avo nj. thrjr .vejiarate iiaii<>D- 

}«rtonii the li':hter otliee.s; whilo the yonn:; nun are nlity, aiul traii-t'trn .1 th. ir al!o:;ian»e to tiiimk-rie, 

triined to^.-tjier from th» ir lirst l»o\htM>,l to ih<' the kii.L' of tho A'aiuiaU. (C"Iinton. x. n. 41>. ) 

]»ractiec of hor-wnian-^hlp and a .-ound knowlolire oi Alter Clunderie\ death, in 42JS, the allicvi kirhariaiici 


prtitiaoed Sptin, the Soeri obUining Gallaecia, the 

AlsBJ Lofttania and the proviiMx of New Cartha^, 

■Ml tht Vandak Baettca. ^Clmton, «. a.) Most 

d tfaen iooompaiued Geiaenc m his inTasion of 

ifrica m the (bUowiiig year (429: Africa, Van- 

DAuX nd amoog other mdications of their oon- 

tintd o onae qu Bice in Africa, we find an edict of 

BbmHc addrsMed, in 483, to the biahops of the 

VJiDiidi mid AkmM (Clinton, «. a.); while in Spain 

m ban- no men of them or of the Vandals, but the 

phee of both is occnpied bj the Soevi. Meanwhile, 

wimuim; to Europe, at the time of Attila's invasion 

d thf Boraan empire, we find in his camp the de- 

•roMkats of those Alans who had at first joined the 

Hbds; and the personal infloenoe of AStins with 

Attik obtained the sorices of a bodj of Alani, who 

«ff« settJed in Gaol, about Valence and Orleans. 

(GibboQ, c 35.) When Attik invaded Gaul, 451, 

fat Mens to lave depended parti j tm the sympathy 

d tbtte Ahni (Gibbon speaks of a pnmise fnxn 

tbeir king Saa^ban to betray Orleans); and the 

fEtast netory of Chahns, ifhen they served wider 

Tbndooe against the Hnns, was nearly lost by their 

Mkfiiai (451). Among the acts recorded of To- 

Qmond, in the sangle year of his reign (451 — 452), 

m tbt coenjuest of the Alani, who may be supposed 

u baw rebelled. (CHnton, «. a.) In the last years 

<f the W. cmpin the Alans are mentimed with other 

harfairiuis as orerronning Gaul and advancing even 

■to Lifnria, and as resisted by the prowess of Ma- 

>ria (Chnton, #. a. 461; Gibbon, c 36); bnt 

thsvcferth their uune disappears, swallowed up in 

tW peat kingdom of the Visigoths. So much for 


AB this time, and later, they are still fonnd in 
tlMtr soeieat s^tlenMnts in the E., between the Don 
mi F«^ and in the Cancasns. They are men- 
tawd tmder Jostintan; and, at the breaking out of 
th» war b e t we e n Jostin II. and Chosroes, king of 
fenia, they are (bond among the allies of the Ar- 
mmmm^ mider their king Saroes, 572—^. (Theo- 
tfcybct. mfK Phot. Cod, Ixv. p. 26, b. 37, ed. Bekker.) 
lit Alam of the Cancasos are <X)n8tantly men> 
tsnd, both by Byzantine and Arabian writers, in 
tfe Boddk afi^s, aLd many geographers suppose the 
Omekn of DagkeMtm to be their descendants. The 
wdkval writws, both Greek and Arab, call the 
<mtajj aboot the £. end of Caucasus Ahmia. 

Aioidat these materials, conjecture has naturally 
km busy. From the Afghans to the Poles, there 
is mrrriy a race of wariike horsemen which has not 
Wm identified with the Alani; and, in fiu:t, the 
Bsgfat be applied, consistently with the ancient 
to almost any of the notnade peoples, con- 
kondad by the anckaafes under the vague name of Scy- 
tkaoi, except the Mongols. They were evidently a 
bnck of tiwt great nomade race which is found, 
ia ck begtnnxng of recorded history, in the NW. of 
Aas snd theSE. of Europe; and perhaps we should 
•« be &r wrong in pUchig their original seats in 
4s eoastiy of the Kirghiz Tartar$, round the head 
d tla Caspian, whence we may suppose them to 
bf« spread W^ward round the Euzine, and espe- 
Qa3y to bare occnpied the great plains N. of the 
Caaram between the Dom and VtAgt^ tidience they 

firth into W. Asia by the passes of the Can- 
Their '^*>rmmn^>nt settlement also in Sar- 

(m S. Rmmia) is clearly ostablbhed, and a 
of the description of them by Ammianus 
with the fimrth book of Herodotus can 
kw* Ink donbC tint they were a kindred race to 



the Scythians of the latter, that is, the people of 
European Sarmatia. Of their language, one soli- 
tary relic has been preserved. In the Periphu of 
the Euxme (p. 5, Hudson, p. 213, Gail) we are told 
that the city of Theodosia was called in the Alan or 
Tatmc dialect Ap8(£ff8a or 'Ap8a^, that is, the 
cUif of the Seven gods. (Klaproth, TcMeaux de 
FAsie; Bitter, Erdhtnde^ vol. ii. pp. 845 — 850; 
Stritter, Mem. Pop. vol. iv. pp. 232, 395; De 
Guignes, Hist, des Huns^ vol. ii. p. 279; Ukert, 
vol. iii. pt. 2. pp. 550 — 555; Georgii, vol. i. p. 
152, vol. ii. p. 312.) PP. S.] 


ALA'NIA [Alani.] 

ALATA C ASTRA (irrffwriK orpartfwfSoy, 
Ptol. ii. 3. § 13), in the territory of the Vacomagi 
(Murray and Inverness-shire) was the northernmost 
station of the Bomans in Britain, and near Inverness. 
This fi)rt was probably raised by LoUius Urbicus 
after his victories in Britannia Barbara a. d. 139, 
to repress the incursions of tho Caled(»uan clans : 
but it was soon abandoned, and all vestige of it 
obliterated. (Cajatolin. Antomn. P. 5 ; Pausan. viii. 
43. § 3.) [W. B. D.] 

ALATRIUM or ALETRIUM (^AXfrpiov, Strab. ; 
Alatrikates, Liv. ; Aletrinates, Plin. et Inscr.), 
a dty of the Hemicans, situated to the E. of the 
Via Latina, about 7 miles from Ferentinum, and 
still called Alatri In early times it appears to 
have been one of the principal cities of the Hemican 
league, and in b. c. 306, when the general council 
of the nation was assembled to deliberate concerning 
war with Rome, the Alatrians, in conjunction with 
the citizois of Ferentinum and Veruli, pronounced 
against it. For this they were rewarded, after tho 
defeat of the other Hemicans, by being allowed to 
retain their own laws, which they preferred to the 
Roman citizenship, with the mutual right of connu- 
bium among the three cities. (Liv. ix. 42, 43.) 
Its name is found in Plautus (Captivij iv. 2, 104), 
and Cicero speaks of it as in his time a municipal 
torm of consideration {Or. pro Ghent. 16, 17). It 
subsequently became a colony, but at what period 
we know not: Pliny mentions it only among the 
"opjrid*'* of the first region: and its municipal 
rank is confirmed by inscriptions of imperial times 
(Lf6. Colon, p. 230; Plin. iii. 5. 9; Inscr. ap. 
Gruter. pp.422. 3, 424. 7; Orelli, Inscr. 3785; 
Zumpt, de Colon, p. 359). Being removed from 
the high road, it is not mentioned in the Itineraries, 
but Strabo notices it among the cities of Latium, 
though he erroneously places it on the right or south 
side of the Via Latina. (v. p. 237.) 

The modem town of Alatri^ which contains a 
population of above 8000 inhsbitants, and is an 
episcopal see, retains tho site of the ancient dty, on 
a steep hill of considerable elevation, at the foot of 
which flows the little river Coaa. It baa few monu- 
ments of Roman times, but the remains of its massive 
ancient fortifications are among the most striking in 
Italy. Of the walls which surroimded the city itself 
great portions still remain, built of large polygonal 
blocks ^ stone, without cement, in the same style 
as those of Signia, Norba, and Ferentinum. But 
much more remarkable than these are the remains 
of the andent dtadel, which crowned the summit of 
the hill : its form is an irregular oblong, of about 
660 yards in circuit, constituting a nearly level 
terrace supported on all sides by walls of the most 
massive polygonal constraction, varying in height 
according to the dedivity of the ground, but which 

G 3 


attain at tho SK. awz\o a", olovatifii of nut ]«.>.s j ailji-iniiio- tlx"" forritoiy of the Mnrsians. Pt'-I'^mr 

than 50 iVot. It ha> two cratr>, one of wliieii, on tiic ! cii t'li' c»<ntrary ivrk'tns it as a Margie city, as 

N. .''i'lt*. ajijif'irs to hive b<vn in<. a ]>''"tt'rn or <lo Siliu<* Ilalicns and Fc-tus (l*toI. iii. 1. § 57; 

sa!!y-j»i-t. cMnniuiiiratin^ !)y a >t»v|> an<l naiT-'W Sil. Ital. viii. ;>(»C: tV'-tns v. AUks'io, p. 4. *^i. 

^^I't. rr.nt'an pa•^■^:u'^' uitli thf i.l.itt«»nn ahoVf-; th'^ i MiIH't): ami tlii> view h:i,s l>oi'n follnwt^l by mtjst 

p-' ciitranro Im,!:!,' <>n th<^ .-nitli >i*l.', noir the ni'>«lfrn writers. The fa<'t proha^ly L^, thit it was 

.^K. a'.^I''. lh«- _M*.-uay- in l'"th in^taiuvs are oriiriiially an A«^'piian town, hut U'iii:: >itiLiT*Ni on 

> ■■ur«'-h' .i<l''.l. the ariuitr.i\<' l>«'iiij' f"nned <«f <»ne tlu- frontier;, <»f the two uatinus, and the M.irsians 

• - ;ii;nu> hi. •< k »'f -:■•::<'. whiJi in th-' prjneipal fjate liaxinij in later tinie«. Income far more ceU-hratt-d 

i> Hture than 15 tvvt in !• ii_'!h hy 5^ in iifi^'ht. .and p.wertul than their iieijijlHiun.. .-Uba (aineto 

X'cvti^i-s (if rade h.i--n'lit'f^ nay h" >till ol!-er\eil In.* eoinnioidy av^iirned to them. I'liny (//. X. iii. 

ah've the viiiill-r jate. All th.'-.' walN, aN w.-H as 12 — 17) reek"n.> the .(\Jl>enses as di-^linct both fntin 

th '-e of the lity it>eli. are hnilt ef tlie hard liine-t'-ne tlie Mar>i and Ae'inicnli: and it ajip-.ars fntni in- 

of !li<' A]'*'nni!ie>. in tie- style ealh'd l'<ilyi:"nal or ^eriptions that thf-y beh.njed t • the Fahi.iri tritK*, 

rt'la-j'ii-. as oj.p^-.d to the rnd-r Cyi l«.|H.aii, and are \\hil'' the Mar.-i, as well a^ tho Sahines and Pelij^a, 

aM -n.: the h. ■>! sp-'in.ens extant of that in-xle of were iiie|nd'-<l in the S-r:jian. No historical nien- 

e"'ii ;ion. l.tMi \0'\\\ their ei, >r;iioUs ^oiidity. and ti-'n of Aiha i> fnrid ji-.wiou.s to the totuitl itiou .if 

th ' art ur tey Mith wliirli the vt..ii'> are fitted to- the lemian col.ny: luit it lias Imm-u i^fTurally a.*- 

Li-'li'-r. In ih-' eeiiire of tin- ifi.iltorin or terra'-e sunuil to he a vrrv aiieient eitv. Niehulir i'Mzi 

>*'i .'is the ni'^li-m ( in all j'robahility > snjij"»-e^ that tin- name of All'a I-onja was deri»<ti 

o "j.\i:i_' the .site <<i an aiu i<iit tein|'I''. The fn-ni liienee: thonuh Aj'j/ian telU U'* on the (> n- 

r<;..a:'.s at Ai'itri h■l^e j.r.n lieMrih'd and tiiriireil trary that the liomans L'ave this name to th^ir 

by .\l:iii i:iif l>ii:ii._'i (l7<wv/o in (i/nn/e Ci'ff'i (hi colony tVoin th<ir own nioiht-r-dty (/. r.). It i> more 

J.'i/it, l^Miea. l-^n'j). ar.d \ ie\\ > of theui are I'iven in ]>roha!t|e that the name was, in iMttJi ('a>e'j, onLrinal, 

l)-l\v<ir- P< I'lMjir J\t <i,'i'>ii.<. 111. IJ^ — "JO. [K.H.lJ.J and was fntni th'-ir lot":y situatio)i. Ki'ij 

.M.ArX.V. a t'Avn ot' the I'Melil. a< Cai-var {B. G. eoiiiuatod \\ith the ^anie rimt :ls AIjk The reniai:.^ 

ii. 34) talb the j-'oj I,-, or \'ri,«ti. as I'tole.ny call> of it.s aneient f >rt:rieati"ns mav li'.v\e\er Ix' n^^'ankd 

lleMi. It is probaiily the origin ot' the iiiodeiai t Avn as a to^tiniony to its antli|'aity. tbou_h w.- lintl no 

of Al"i'i>ii*'. near \ alo_'iie-». in tiie d<'j>a;tniHnt of sp-rial mention of it ;ts a pla< e of .srren_:th })reW»us 

La Manehe. where there are .siid to be lloni.m to the K Mnan eoii.ju.>t. Btit innm-di ittly atter the 

re:i,ain<. [<». L.] snhiujatiou of th*- Ae.jni. in ii. r. ."^02. tlie Kon-ans 

AL.VrXL [.Vlvni.] ha-teiied to oeeuj-y it \Nith a b «lv of not le.-s than 

ALA7.«»X (I' lo. .«=. 11). or ALA/O'XU'S Guoo colonists {\Av. x. 1; Veil. Vat. i. U). aihi it 

('AAa^'vt'jaos, Stral>. p. 5(M): ,lA/.s'f///. J /'/e/..<). a river b.eame from this tiine a fortress .if the first eLLs<. 

I'f the Caueasus, tlowin^' SK. into the Candiyse^ a In v,.r. 211, un onasi.-n of the sudden advan'^e of 

little aboVf its anietion with the <'vras, and loniiiniT llannihal nnoii K.-ine. the citizens of Alha sent a 

the bonndary ot Albania .and Ibi-ri.t. Its jx.sition l)'ily ot 2<>(Kl men to assist the l^.^nian^ in th** 

s.TUis to eorre.s])ond with the Ahas of IMntareh and dit.-nee of the eity. Hut notwith.-tandinix th^ir 

Dion Cassius. [An.v^.j [I*. S.] zeal and pn.mptitnde on this .ncasion we tiiid them 

AL.V/O'XK.S ('AAd^'ctf »'€$). a .S4-ythian ]H'opl.' on oidy two yfar.> .»l"i<'r (in n. < . 2010 amoii^' the 

th'- I'.'irvstlienes (/>/</(/>'/•). X. of the ("alli|ii.lae. ami twelve iol..nie^ wbirh deel ire^l llnins.dve^ unahl«» to 

S. of tlie au'iieullunl S ythians; th'-y irn-w for furnish any t'nrther «ontincents. nor did tln-ir j re- 

th'iroun use. (H'l at. oy>. Strali. p. 55(>: HenMl. vittus sor\i<<'-> t-Xiinpt them from the same piua-lri;ent 

iv. 17. 52: ."^teiib. II. jf. >:•, Val. llaec. vi. lOl ; w ith the rest tor this d.lanlt. (.\j,|.ian. J/ivi'^. ai«; 

rk'Tt, \oI. iii. }.t. 2. J'. 4K'<.) [I*. .'^.J , Liv. xwii. 9, .\Ni.\. 15.) \\v afterwzirds tind Ai\a 

ALII.V IXH'ILIA, a town on the e. as' of Li^nria, rei«'it<'dly >el.'tttd on account of its ^'reat >>trf)i:rth 

known onlv froai the Tabula I'eutinje: iaiha, whieh and inland ptsitiou as a plaee of continein<-nt for 

].lnes it on the coast n-ad Iroin (b-nua to V.ida .state prisoners ; am-ini: whom Sy phax. kini: of Nu- 

S it'l'ita. The ilistanecs are so eorrnjit .is to alford midia. l'er>eus, kiuLT of Maecdonia. an<i BitnitTK, 

Us no as-i-t;in(e in determining' its pi-;iion: but it kinj of the Ar\erni, are ]>ai-tieul.irly inejitioij.-d. 

i^ J r 'bable that ("luvrr is ri^ht in id'HtifvinL' it (.Nrab. v. p. 240; Liv. xxx. 17, 45; xlv. 42; 

with the ni'HliTii .\lhi.<.«'hr. a \ill.n:'' abo-at .'J miles \'al. M.ix. is. fi. Jj ,'i.) 

trxMi Siti'iiiin. on th" ri>ad t> tJi-noa. The ori::in On the outbnak of the Snial War, Albi wiih- 

;ind me mill.' of the n.ime are u'.known. (lab. I'eut.; sj,«k1 a .siejf tVom the coate^h-rate fon es. b'al it w ,is 

C'hner. /?'//. i>. 70.) [K.II.15.] nllim itely comj*. ll.-d to snn>'niler (Liv. Kpit. Ixxii.). 

ALB.V IT'tdiXSIS or rrCKXTLs ("AA^a, Durin.: the Ci\il Wars also it is re]« at.slly nieu- 

Str.ib.: "AXS'a •fr'ji'VffTiS, Pt' 1.: the ethnic .VllH-n-es. tioiiol in a manner that sntliiiently attests its 

n «t Alhai.i; s<-e Varr. »/» L. J.. \n\. >^ "b")), an ini- imp«rt.ince in a military ]>oint of \iew. (r;i.»>. 

]v..rtant city ajid fortress of r< ntral I'aly, situat^^l li. C '\. 15.24; Aj.]'ian. Ch\ iii. 45, 47, v. .'^O; 

on the \'ia V;i!''ri:i, on a hill of eonsider.iMe eli-\a- Tie. */// Atf. \ni. 12, A, ix. fi: PhUipp. iii. 3, 15, iv, 

ti.iu, .alx'Ut '.\ miles the n'-rth-rn sh -res of the 2. Niii. '.»)• ''"t under the lanpiie it .itfracteii little 

L.ike I'd. inus, and'-ly at tie' ft^tt of a't'iition. ,aiid wc find no hi>tori<al mention i»f it 

Monte WliitiK Then> is cousiderahl.' di-< "fj'aney duriiii: that j-tri,.!: thomrh its continui-<l e\ist»-noe 

amoni: .ancient writers. ;i.s to tin* n.ition to which , ."is a provincial t-wn u{ ><.nie Tiote i.s attestiti bv 

it Itelomrel: but Livy e\>s]y tell> iLs thit it ins* riji;i.)n> and otjirr extant remains, ;us well a-s bv 

in the territory of the A«'>j'aian< (.1/'»0''N //* .h^/zo,*. j the notices vi it in I't'leiny and the Itinerari*^. 

.\. 1). and in another passau''' (xxvi. 11) he >pMk.s , (I'tol. I.e.; Itin. Ant. ]». .'iitt*; T.ib. iVut.; Lib. 

of the '• .\l'-"lsi■^ .azer" .as < learly distia.t fr-'Ui Col -n. ]i. 25:i: Muratori. //j.svr. 1021. 5, l<i:t8. 1; 

that of the Hi> testimony is e liifirnied < Onll. no. 4 1 r,(',.) Its territory, on .aecoimt of its 

le. Api-i iU (^Aiinih. .'{'.O .ind by S'.ri'Mi (v. pp. eh-\ iled sit,,iti..n, was inon- b'rtile in tniit tl.a;i 

2.'!8. 24l>), who calls it the n.osl inland L;«tin city, ' c,>rn, and w.u- p.irlical.n'ly celebrated tor the i-x- 


adowrfitiinto. (SiLIIal.Tui. 604; P1iD.i7. J/. ' 
IT. 14.) Dnnoe the UUr tgK of the Honun 
rtrfBr Alba K«n 10 hate declin«) ud nuk inlo 
oifxiaLBt, u it did not hecoma ths He of ■ 
tabp, Dr« B it! nu» msitiaoHl bj Pwilns Diaco- 
tat lacDg the cftiAs oi tha prcmnce (f ValeTu. 

Al thi [nasit da; the Dime ol Alba a ttih 
nUbtd b; ■ poor lilUge al tinai 150 iuhibitiuiti, 
■bid eceDpM the uarthem ud mnt ikrUed 
■BOBt rf iht hill OD (rliich stmi the iiBcieiil dtj. 
TW nuuu cf the hitter ue exteniiie ud mler- 
ntjBr. TfrHaFly tbAe o£ the w^la, which pnaoit 
I* if (hr neat ptrftcl apednien) d uudent fmti£- 
oM to be fiaul m ltd; . Thai circuit 1) about 
ita* m^ lal tbcT eockH Ihne Kpanta heighti 
■ mmiti d the hill, each of nbicb apptan to 
bm kid it! pulicnlai deftucee 

Tb^ Tbej an of diihtnt 
^*iitj bdaw Id di&iut pericdg: (he greater 
pal i/ iban beiofi canpaHd of muaiTe, but ir- 
Kplv, pgjjginal bkidoi, in the luw muner u ii 
im^ a H luajothtT dtiatf Cmtnl Italj: irhile 
KbK totkoa, cgpeciillj a kind nf idruccd <mt- 
Mtimml orach more npUar pol jpjoal mieceiry, 
a Cackg In the wall iv ninpart, 
liich is composad of rubble-woik. 
tjm ia gPOeraUj referred 

Uaae tobnj. (See 'hmrever on this anbjact a 
r^ ii tha Claaaical Hnaemn, lol. ii. p. 173.) 
BailB thfai KBuini there eiiat alio the truea uF 
■ BBfUthealn, a Ibeatn, baailica, and other public 
Mdinia. ud aetenl tempka.meof which has beu 
eamtHi iota ■ cborch, and preeenu ita ucient 
*"HiiTi-nr, pUdt and columns. It standa on a bill 
aaaeiDid after it the CoUt ifi S. iWlro, which fbnni 
^ tf iW fummita afaw) j deBoihed ; the twu pthoa 
■IT BwaBed the CoOe ifi/>eUor>M and Cotfs iii^B«, 
lb l«s brine the nte of the modoD Tillaffe. (^ 
:bt aaued plan). Namcinu inaniiHiiiu beUnging 
uilba ban been tnaaported to tiu Doghbouiiug 


A. CeOe £ Albe (aile ctf the m 

B. Cdb di .>t. IVtn. 
C rdf di PattsriuL 


town of A MteoKi, en the banka of the lake Fudniu : 
bile moDj tuarblea uid other architectural oma- 
lenta wen canied off bj Charles of Anjoo to adorn 
IS conTent and chorch fraadad by turn in com- 
Kmoration of hia rictor? at Ta^UacOKto, A. D. 
S68. (Promia, AnticUla di A&a fucente. Sn>. 
Roma, 1838; Kramer, Zier/^iii>Kr,Su. p. 59— 57 { 
^lan's Cleaieal Tour, yoI, i. p. 371). [E. H. B.] 
a. 5. ET. 3. a. ♦.), a dtj of the Helrii, a tribe meo- 
tiooed bj Caeaar (£. G. viL 7, B) aa Bejuated from 
the Arrenu bj tin Mooa CereiiDa. The modem 
Alpt «- Api, which 19 piobabl; on the site cf this 
Alba, cuiUint Boman remaioa. An Atba Angnala, 
itiined bj Plolemj, is anppoeed by D'AnTiUe 
(!fetia dt la GauU Andame) ud others to be the 

as Alba Helriomm ; ' 
Ao^^ta to be rrpjtaented by .^tow. 
ALBA LONGA ('AA«a: AiUai), ■ vei? au- 
nt dtj of Latinm, utoated cai the eaileni side of 
e lake, to which it gan the name of Lactis AJ- 
banuB, ud on the m^tbern declivity of the nionnliuD, 
' Doim aa Mona Albaana. All ucient writen 
agree in re|«esenting it aa at one time the most 
powerful dtj in Latiuin,aad the head of a league or 
confederacy of the Lstiu dUea, over which it eier- 
ciied a kind of iDpmnacy or Hegemony ; of muy of 
thffie it »u ilaelf the parent, aroong otberr of Rome 
itedf. Bat it waa deatroytd at audi an tarly period, 
[a biat«y is mixed np with ao madi that ia 
fabniona and poetical, that it ia almost impoaaibie to 
aeparate ^om thenae the really historical elements. 
According to the li^eDdaiy history oiuvetBally 
adopted by Grreic and Boman mitera. Alba was 
' indat 1^ AKaniuB, the son of Aeneas, who re- 
reed Ihiliier the seat of goTemmenl from Lati- 
na thirty years after the Imilding of the latter city 
nr.i. 3!Diun.Ua].i.66; Stiab. p. 229) ; and ths 
rlieat fonn of the aame tnditioa appears to hars 
ligntd a period of 300 yean from its fonodaticD 
that of Borne, or 400 yean Ibr its total dnratim 
I ita destnictim by Tnlliu Boalilina. (IJv.i,39i 
Joatin. iliii, 1; Virg. ^ea. i. 272; Niebnhr, Td.L 
p. 305.) The forntei interral waa afterwarda ex- 
tended to 360 years in order to sqnare irith the date 
aangned by Gnek chronologers to the Trojan war, 
and the apace cf time thos aanuncd wu fortioiKd 
out among the pretoided kings of Alba. There can 
be no donbt that the serial of these kings is a cltunay 
forgery of a late period; bnt it nay probably bo ad- 
mitted aa historical tliat a gilriu boose or geiu was 
the reigning family at Alba. (Niebubr, 1. c.) From 
this house the H«nana derived the origin of their 
own foonder Bomolus; bat Rome itself was not a 
cokny of Alba in the atrict senae cf the term ; nor 
do m find uy eridenoe ef those mataal nUtimi 
which might b« expected to snbtist between a metro- 
polia or parent dty and its o&pring. In &ct, no 
menboti of Alba ocean in Boman biatory from the 
foundation of Rome till the reign of Tulloa Hoatiliot, 
when the war broke (nt whidi terminated in the de - 
feat and sabmiseion of Alba, and ita total deatraction 
a few yean afterwaids aa a punishment Ibr the 
tieachery of its generul Melitu Fufetios. The detaila 
of thia war an ohviniisly poetical, bnt the destruction 
of Alba may probably be received as u historical 
event, though there ia much reason to aappoee that 

and that B«ne had comparatively little share in it) 
BDom^iistanenL (Lit. i. S9{ Dion. Hal. iii, 31: 



Strab. V. p. 231 ; Nie]»nhr, vol. I p. 3:)0,.3:)1.) The 
city was iiev«»r n-bnilt; its t»'iiipl«'.s ul<»nc had Wvn 
s{>an'(], i\\u\ t]ii'-<r u|i|«';ir t<» li,i\t' Incii .still existius; 
in tlu' tiiiio ot" Aiiiru^tns. I'lu* iiaiin'. lu)\Vf\rr, \v:u> 
ri'taiijf't] not only hy th»' mnuntain and lake, btit the 
valU'V inniKHliatilv sul)iartMit was callt'il the Valli.'^ 
Alitalia, and ;is late as u.c. 339 we lind a Ixnly of 
iJuHian troops de.sorilM-il as eneanipin^ '' ^ub jniro 
Albae Lon jai' " (Liv. vii. 39), by whieli we nnist 
eertainly un(lor>taiid the riil^e on which the <-ity 
sttKwi, not the mountain above it. The wh^'le >nr- 
rtuuiditiu' l«Tiit"ry \\;ls trruK-J the '' a;:t'r Albamis," 
wluMiee the iianie ot' AH'anuni was t.'i\en to the town 
\\hieh in lal<r a_'es i:iew n]i on the <»pj«>.>itc .side of 
the lake. [ Al.i'.ANr-M.] le>nian tradition derived 
from Alba tln" orijin of several of the ino>t illu>tri"ii\.s 
jiatrieiaii fimilie> — th«- Jidii, Tullii, Ser\ilii, (^iiintii. 
iScc. — the-f reiin-sentod :i.s miirralini; thither 
after tie- fill i»f tln-ir native « ity. (I.iv. i. 30; Tae. 
>l/?n. xi. 24.) Aiiotber tradition apj^'ars to have 
described the exindled inbabitanls as >ettlin2: at llo- 
villa«% wlienee we Jind the ]H'oplr uf that town as- 
^;mnitif^ in inxriptions the title of •' Albani Lon^'ani 
IJovillenses." (Orell. no. U9, 22:.2.) 

But, tew as are the hi-torieal events related of 
Alba, all authorities eoueur in representiu:^ it .-us 
haviui: been at one time the centre of the leau'Ue 
titmito-ed of the thirty Latin cities, and as exer- 
ei^iiii:; o\r-r the-e the same kind (»f supninacy to 
whi< h L'ome afterwards suceeeded. It was even 
p'uerally admitted that all th-'ve cities were, in fact, 
coluiiies from Alba (Liv. i. .')2; Dion. Hal. iii. 34), 
though many of th"m, as Ardea, L-itucntum, La- 
viuinm, rraen<->te, Tusculuni, ive., v.ere, aecorilini: 
to other ree.-i\ed tra lilious, more ancient than Alba 
itselt". Thia-e e;in be no iloubt that thi- \iew was 
alto'jether erroneous; nor can any de|H!iden(T be 
j<Ia( ed upon the lists of the sn|)i)osed All'an <olonies 
jire>erved by I)io<ioru> (Lib. vii. <ip. Knsib. Ann. 
y. 18.')), and by the author of the Ort';/o (it uds 
Riiintiiinf (e. 17), but it is posilde that N'iriril may 
have hul some better authority for aseribiuL' to Alba 
the foimdatiou of till' eii:ht citie> enunierati'd by him, 
vi/.. Xomeulum, (lal)ii, Fidenae, Collatia, Pometia, 
Ca-trum luai, Hola. and Ci»ra, (.(<-«. vi. 773.) A 
statement of a very ditiereut character ha> been pre- 
>erved to ns by IMiny, where he ciuunevates tb.e 
" jiij'uli Albeuses " who Were accustomed to ahniui 
ii'ifh t/it i>fh> r Latins in the >acriticcs on the Alitan 
Mount (iii. 5, 9). His list, after exchulini; the 
All»aui tlieuwhes, contains ju^t thirtfj names; but 
of thc>e only six or seven are found ami.>n;j the cities 
that eomp>M'd the Latin lea.:iie in n. r. 493: ^ixor 
.seveu otli'M's an- known to us iVoin other sources, ;ls 
auioii;^ the smaller towns of Latinni*, \vhili' all the 
others are ;\ holly unknown. It is evident that we 
have here a catalo^rue derived from a nmch earlier 
state of things, v.hcn Alba was the head of :i minor 
le'c_Mie, comptsed principally of places of secondary 
t ink, ^^hich were jirobably either colonies or de- 
]»."iden< ics of her <»wn, a relation which w;ls after- 
waiils erroneously tran-^ferrol to that sulci stinj l>e- 
tween Alb I and the Latin leaizue. (Niebnhr, vol. i. 
pp. 2U2,2()3. vol. ii. pp. 18 — 22: who, however. pn>- 
b.d'lv u'"*'-i tot» fir in rejardiuL: these " p'puli Al- 
biice^ " as mere ih nin or to\vn>hii«s in the territorj' 
of Alba.) J-Vo'ii the e\]»re>.'vions uf riiny it would 
>ce'.ii clear that thi.s minor confederacvco-exi>ted with 

* The di^cu.ssioM of this h>t uf I'linv is iriven 
under the article L.VTIM. 


a lartjer one includini,' all tlie Latin cities; far tliere 
can be no doubt that the common sacriiices on the 
Alban Mount were typii al of .such a Ujnd of union 
anion-,; the ^tate^ that part4^)k of them; and the fact 
that the sanetnary on the Morts .fVlbanus was the 
scene of the>c sacred riti-s ati'ord.s stroni; continn- 
atioii of the fa<.'t that Alba wa:i really the chief city 
of the whole Latin confederacy. Perhai«s a s>till 
stron;7er ]ir(H»f is found in the cireunistancx* that the 
Lucus Lerentinae, innncdiately without the walL* 
of Alba itself, wa.s the scene of their political as- 

If any historical nieziniui^: or v:ilue could IjO at- 
t.ached to the Trojan IcLTcnd, we should be h>l to c*jn- 
nect the orii'in tT Alba with that of Lavinium, .ind 
to :Lscribe them both to a Tehisixian .source. But 
there are ceitaiidy stron;; R-a.^-ons for the contrary 
view adojited by Niebnhr. .aceordimr to ANliich A\\k\ 
auil La\inium were e>-.>cntially di.-tinct, an<l even of*. 
jtosed to one another; the latter bcin,L' the head of the 
I'ela^^ian braueh of the Latin race, while the fonner 
was founded by the S;u rani or C;isci, and became 
the centre and representative of the C)^can clement 
in the |>opnlation uf Latium. [Latini.] Its name 
— which was coimectctl. ac<'ordinir to the Trojan le- 
i:<'nd, with the n'hitv >ow di.^covi-n.Hl by Aeneas on his 
landin:: (Viri:. Atn. iii. 390, viii.45; Stv. ad U>c.\ 
Varr. th. L.L.\. 144; Prop<rt. iv. 1. 35) — was 
])robably, in reality, derived from its lofty or Alpine 

The site of Alba Lonira, thouiih descril>etl with 
imich accuracy by ancient writer>, had been in nrvo- 
deni times 1 -st siifht of, until it was n.tlisoc»vere«i by 
Sir W. (hll. B'^th Livy and L)iony>ius disrin<tlv 
des<'ribe it as occuj»yini: a lonir and narrow ridi^e l»e- 
twecu the mountain and th*.' 1 ike; from whit h cir- 
cumstance it derived its disti'utive epithet of L<»ii'.:a. 
(Liv. i. 3; Dion. Hal. i. 66; Varr. /. c.) VxxHr'x^Ay 
stich u ridi;e runs out from the f<M of the central 
mountain — the Mons Albamis, now Montr Cai*o — 
partini,' from it by the convent of J\ilazz<>lo. urtd ox- 
leudiui:; aloui: the eastern shore of the lake to its 
north-eastern extremity, nearly opjiosife tlie >illa;re 
of Marhuf. The side of this ridire toward.s the lake 
is com]iletely precipitous, and has the ajijK^axanctr of 
ha\in:^ been artitic ially scarj'<'d (»r hewn uwav in its 
upj-cr part; at its northern extremity remain iiianr 
blocks and frai^nieiits of massive niasotiry, which 
nmst have formed part of the ancient walls: at the 
o)i])osite end. nearest to Pidnzzulo, is u cominan«Uni^ 
kuoll formiui: the tenninatiun of the ri<i'je in that 
direction, which {)roba)ily was the site of the Ant 
or citadel. The declivity towanfs the E. and NE. 
is les^ abrupt than toward.s the lake, but still wrr 
steep, so that the city must have Iwen coiitin.^1, as 
dcM-ril)ed by ant ient authors, to the narrow sunindt 
of the ridife. and have extended more than a mile in 
leiiizth. No other ruins than the fra^^nients of the 
\vills now remain; but an ancient road may W dis- 
tinctly traced from the knoll, now calb-d Mte. Cturxru^ 
aloULT the m.ardn of the lake to the northern ex- 
tremity of the lily, where one (>f its tjates must hare 
Imtu situatiil. In the diep vaHey or nivine iH'tWi.-en 
til'' site of Albn and J/or/V), is a fountain with a co- 

]iious suiij.Iyofwater,v\ Inch was undoulitiHllvtheA^ina 
I'erentina. where the ci>nl'etlcrate L.atius u.seii to hold 
tle-ir national assemblies; a custom which evidently 
oriL'inated while Alba the liead of the lea^it» 
but continued Ioul' after its destniction. (G»^JJ 
To/xyfi: of Jioinc, ]>. 90; Nibby, Dintorni di Rotn^x^ 
vol. i. p. 61—65; Niebulir, vol. i. p. 199.) Th« 


initflijcf AfiA, wych stai retained the name of 

** agB" Aftamu * was fertile and well coltiTAtod, and 

edabntad in pardcolar for tins exodlenoe of its wine, 

vUeb wai eoBfidered mfenor only to the Faleraian. 

(DiAL HaL L66; Plin. H, N.xxm. 1. 8.20; Hor. 

(««. IT. U. S. &1I. iL 8. 16.) It produced also 

tkandofvoieaiiic stooe^ now called PeperiaOyWlnckL 

jrmllj exeeOfBd the oommwi tafo of Borne as a bnild- 

af ntarial, andwaaexteoaiy«]7 used as such under 

tk ISM of '* l^is Albanns.** The ancient quarries 

■ST bt idll seen in the vaDej between Alba and 

JMo. (TttniT. ti. 7 ; Plin. ^. a: xxxvL 22. 8. 48 ; 

intL Aw^ 7S; Nibbf, Jiotma AmUeOj voL i. p. 240.) 

Prenons to the tnne of Sir W. Gell, the eite of 

Aiks Loafs was generallj sapposed to be occupied bj 

rk» oanrwt of FolaaaolOy m situation which does not 

tf »U caofsfood with the descriptum oi the site 

(md in sadent aathors, and is too confined a space 

to have fffvr afforded roam for an ancient dij. Nie- 

babr t« oertamly in enor where he speaks of the 

aakn TiDa^ Id Roecadi Papa as having been the 

arxaf A&a Longa (toL L p. 200), that spot being 

fcr ta> £staat to have ever had anj imme(hate con- 

Mia with the ancient citj. [E.H.B.] 

ALBA POMPELACAAfo noiimfiu, PtoL: Al- 

Pcnipeiaai), a oonsiderable town of the 

cf L^nriaf aitmited on the river Tanams, 

•or tha mctlwm foot of the Apennines, still called 

iAa. We haM no acooont in any ancient writer 

^M faandatinn, or the origin of its name, but there 

H ff««7 praiability that it derived its distinctive 

«fpdtfiDO fram Cn. Pompeius Strabo (the fother 

^ fmofgf the Great) who conferred man/ privileges 

« tht Ciaalpna Gaols. An inscription died bj 

^fnB(ifMoe£ p. 163), according to which it was 

a iiaua cokoj, foonded hj Sdpo AMcanos and 

bj PorapetttB Magnus, is undoubtedly spu- 

(Sw Mannert. toL i. p. 295.) It did not 

eoknial rank, bat appears as a mumdpal 

^"» both b Pliny and 00 inscriptions: though the 

^>raar aatfaor reokona it among the ** nobilia oppida" 

rf Linria. (PKn. m. 5. s. 7; Ptol. iii 1. § 45; 

<JnL /aacr. 2179) It was the bnth-plaoe of the 

«f«nr Partinaz, whose father had a viUa in the 

■B Ctoai hood nan»d the ViUa Kartis. (Dion Cass. 

iuoL 3; JoL CapitoL Ptri, 1, 3.) Its territory 

*» pHttcalariy fiavoorable to the growth of vines. 

(P&.XTn.4. S.3.) ^l&a is still a considerable town 

•idi a n^htiffli of 7000 souls; it is an episcopal 

Miad tha capital of a district. [E.H.B.J 


ALfiA-NU (4 'KkUAoL'. Eik, and Adj. 'AX- 

te*k 'AAAbtst, Albanus, Albanius), a countiy of 

A«, Ijsi; about the E. part of the chain of Cau- 

*>*«. The first distinct information conoeming it 

^1 ^bcaioBd by the Romans and Greeks through 

^Vfiy*! ezpediticn into the Caucasian countries in 

rn^ «f Ifithridates (b. c. 65); and the know- 

hlff ttooMd firom than to the time of Atigustus is 

^iMU in SlzBbo*s full description of the country 

•4 paapit (pp 501, IbIL). According to him, 

^^l^waa boottded on the E. by theCaspian, here 

«U ihi AfecBiaa Se* (Mare Albanum, Plm.); 

»i«1haX.bytbeGaiicssos, here called Ceraunius 

(fivided it fran Sarmatia Asiatka. On 



^V. It jaioed Ifaow: Strsbo gives no exact boun- 
^, Wot W mratifliia 9m a part of Albania the 
^Anrt if CflBDbjwDe. that is, the valley of the 
^snfaftit, viMTC be says the Armenians touch both 
lb [Win «h1 the Albttniana. On the S. it was 
^^'tM fnn ^ Gnat Annenia by the river Cyrus 

(^Kour). Later writers give the N. and W. boun- 
daries differently. It was found that the Albanians 
dwelt on both sides of the Caucasus, and accordingly 
Pliny carries the country further N. as far as the 
river Casins (vi. 13. s. 15); and he also makes the 
river AukZON (^AUuan) the W. boundaiy towards 
Iberia (vi. 10. s. 11). Ptolemy (v. 12) names the 
river Soana (2odya) as the N. boundary; and for 
the W. he assigns a line which he does not exactly 
describe, but which, from what follows, seems to lie 
either between the Alazon and the Cambyses, or 
even W. of the Cambyses. The Souia of Ptolemy 
is probably the Svlak or S. branch of the great river 
Tertk (mth. in 43° 45' N. lat.), S. of which Ptolemy 
mentions the Gerrhus (^AUaayf); then the Caesius, 
no doubt the Casius of Pliny (iTotfou); S. of which 
again both Pliny and Ptolemy place the Albanus 
(prob. Somottr), near the dty of Albana {Derbent), 
To these rivers, which foil into the Caspian N. of 
the Caucasus, Pliny adds the Cyrus and its tribu- 
tary, the Cambyses. Three other tributaries of the 
Cyrus, rising in the Caucasus, are named by Strabo 
as navigable rivers, the Sandobanee, Bhoetaces, and 
Canes. The country corresponds to the parts of 
Georgia called SeJwrvan or Gmrvan^ with the ad- 
ditioo (in its wider extent) of Leghistan and Daghe*- 
tan, Strabo's description of the country must, of 
course, be understood as applying to the part cf it 
known in his time, namely, the plain between the 
Caucasus and the Cyrus. Part of it, namely, in 
Camby^ene (on the W.), was mountainous; the rest 
was an extensive plain. The mud brought down 
by the Cyrus made the land along the shore of the 
Caspian marshy, but in general it was extremely 
fertile, produdng com, the vine, and vegetables of 
various kinds almost spontaneously; in some parts 
three harvests were gathered in the year from one 
sowing, the first of them yielding fifty-fold. The 
wild and d(miesticated animals were the finest of 
their kind ; the dogs were able to cope with lions : 
but there were also scorpions and venomous spiders 
(the tarantula). Many of these particulars are con- 
firmed by modem travellers. 

The inhabitants were a fine race of men, tall and 
handsome, and more civilised than thrir neighbours 
the Iberians. They had evidently been originally a 
nonuule people, and they continued so in a great 
degree. Paying only slight attention to agriculture, 
they lived chiefly by hunting, fishing, and the pro- 
duce <rf their flocks and herds. They were a war- 
like race, their force being chiefly in thdr cavalry, 
but not exdusively. When Pompey marched into 
their country, they met him with an army of 60,000 
mfantry, and 22,000 cavalry. (Plut. Pomp, 35.) 
They were armed with javelins and bows and arrows, 
and leathern helmets and shields, and many of their 
cavalry were dothed in complete armour. (Plut. 
/. c. ; Strab. p. 530.) They made frequent preda- 
Xorj attacks on their more civilised agricultural 
neighbours of Armenia. Of peaceful industry they 
were almost ignorant; their traflic was by barter, 
money being sc^rcdy known to them, nor any regular 
system of weights and measures. Thdr power of 
arithmetical computation is said to have only reached 
to the number 100. (Eustath. ad Dion. Perieg. 
729.) They buried the moveable property of the 
dead with them, and sons recdved no inheritance 
from thdr fothers; so that they never accumulated 
wealth. We find among them the same diversity of 
race and hmguage that still exists in the regions of 
the Caucasus ; they spoke 26 diflBsrent dialects, and 


voro iliviilcd into 12 linnlos, o.uli i^ovcrnf'.l !>y its r.wn ' A'ii r." (Cic. <•/«' L^fj.Aqr. ii. 25.) During \lc 
^Ili^•}'. luit all, ill StnUi's liiiic. Mil>i<-<t to (die kiiii'. lattt-r )M-iii>il i.f tlio n'ituMi<-, it l^n.-iinc a ta\'iiirlt..- 
Aiii'ini; tlnir trihis wvn' the Eeijar (Ar^^ai). wli-t.x' , r.'>ori ot' tlio wealthy li'miiati iH)l»k'>, wiio coiLstracIni 
iiamr i.s --^till pre^r-rvotl in L';///i\<tuiK aniHJclai' (Vv- villas hen' on a niairnitircnt scale. \Vc nu'ni ol ■■ui h 
Aat) in tho mountain^ on thf X. ami XW. (Strah. ] a> iM-h-nuiiiir to I'onijx'y, to CliKlins — who was 
]t. 503), and the Gorrhi (Fc'/J^ot) on the river kille.l hy Milo clo^e to hi> own \iUa — to BriitiL^ and 
Cierrhns (I'ti.l.). to Curio. (<M«-. Or. in Pijfon.'M. pro MiJ.\0. 

The xMhanians \vitr>hi])|K<l a tleity whom Straho ' I'J, 20, Kp. ii'I Alt. vii. 5, ix. 15. dt Ornt. ii. 5.3: 
ideulitie'^ with Zeus, an<I the Sun, hut ah(.ve all the ' I'hit. r<>ii>j>. 5'J.) l)f these the Nillu uf Puinj^v. 
M<.H>n, whose teinple w;us near the Irontier of llwHa. ' «all<'tl areordin^ to the Latin idiom '" All»aiium 
Ilor rankeil next to tiie kiui,': aiul had under Ponqnii," aj'i>»-ars to have Ix-en th'" niost consjiiiunns 
In.s euniinand a rith and exten«-ive >a*rt'il domain, ' and is re|K-atcdly alluded to hy (?-ii-ero. It t-'ll ;»flfr 
and a hinly ot" tfinj>l('-f>lave< {lip6^ov\oi^, many of tin- di-ath of ponijKn' into the hands of I>i>l;iSia 
whom projihf.sicd in tits of fn-n/.y. 'llie suhject o{ (("ie. 7'//////)/). xiii. 5). hut apjH'ars to havi- uiiim;it']_r 
such a p.aroxysm was st'i/.ed :i5 lie waiulered alone . passed int<t those of Anirustu'^. and U'«ainf a 
throuirh the forest-, ami kept ;i yi-ar in the hands of \ lavourit<- place of resort hoth uith him ami hi?- 
tlu' ]'ri<'st.s, and lln-ii oth'n'd as a satrltirc to Srli-ui*: ' sueeessors. (Su<'t. A' r. 25: l)ion Ca.s^. iiii. '•-. 
and auLTurics were dra\\ii from the mannt-r o( his | hiii. 24.) It wa^, however, t»» Douiitian t).;\t .* 
lieath: tlie rite is fully descrihed hy Straho. ; owed its chief aL'i^ramliscnient : that em}«'r"r niiV 

The origin of tlie Alhanians i.s a nnnh disputed it n-^t nieri'ly a place ut retin-ment, hut his hahittiiJ 
point. It was hv Pom]H'v'^ i-x]iedition into the (_'au- ri-^i.lenee, where lie transacteil puhlio business 
<asiau reirions in pursuit of Milhritlati-s. (p.. <•. 05) exinhited 'jhwliatorial shows, and even <-uninior;ol 
that they first h.(amc known to the Ijomans ami .ivsend»li'-s of the M'uafe. (Suet. Jhrndt. 4, 19; 
(In'<-k.s, who were prepared to find in that whole l>ion Cass. Ixvi. 9, Ixvii. 1; Juv. >Vr/, iv.; (bU. 
rei:i"n traces of the Arjon;iutie voyaL'e. Accord- luscr. Xo. .'^.'HS.) Existini: remains sutfit I'-'itl}' 
inu'ly the jK'i.ple were said to have ile-cendi-d fri>m allot the extent and inaL'uilitiiH'e of the ^Mr-iii.^ 
Jason and his comrades (Strah. ]i{). 45, 503. 520: and e<lifices <tf all descriptions with whiih \v' 
Plin. vL 13, s. 15: Sojin. 15): .and Tacitus relates adonierl it; ;uid it is jfrohahly from hi>^ ti:ne 
(.1////. vi. 34) that the IhcH and Alhani elaini'-d de- we may 'late the jMrmanent esfahlislnuent there t'l 
.v<-ent from the riies-alians whoacconij'.mied.Iason, of I a detaehment itf Praetorian Lruarii>, who luul a 
whom .and of the oraile of Phrixns they preserved ! reifidar fortilieil camp. ;is at Ifoine. The pro.viii iir 
maiiv leu'end'^. a!id that thcv ahstained from ofh-riii:: of this eamii to the citv naturallv f^.are it nnrh 
ram^ in sacrifice. Another lejcnd derived them from , inqxirtauee. and we find it reju-atedly meutiouM l>y 
the eonijianions of Ifercules, whof.llowed him out of! sm-, •,-,., limr writers dowTi to the time t.f Oon.stantiiR-. 
It.ily Avhen le- drove away the oxou of <ieryou; and (Ael. Sp.irt. CuvdCdU. 2: Jul. Cajiit. Afiurimin.'I^: 
lieuce tlu' Alh,inian>^ irreeted the sohliers of pom]»»'y Herodian. viii. 5.) It is douhllesj> on act^mnt '4 
as th'-ir brethren. (JuMiu. xlii. 3.) Several (*f the this f .rtitied c.iiup that we tin<i the title .»f " Am 
later writers reirard them .a< a Scythian jH'opIe, ;d<in Alhana" ajiplii^i to the imjwrial n^idenee <>f 
to the Massa;:etae, and identical ^^itll the Alani; l>omitian. ( Af/ric. 45: Jnv, S^ii. iv. 145.) 
.and it is still disputeil whether they w^-re, or not. , \\'e have no di>tinct evidence its to the f«eri*d 
orii^inal inhabitants of the Caucasus. [Alani.] | when the foiro of Alhanum first aro-e. but tinn* 

Of the history of Alli.ania there is almosf nothiie^' can he little doul>t that it nmst have ln-jun to jt'W 
to 1x7 ^aid. The jH'ople nominally submitted to ' uj) as simui as the ]>lacc became an imj»»^rirtl n*<ideaiv 
Pompy, hut remained really inde|x-ndent. 1 and |H>rmanent military sl.itioii. We tir-t tind it 

I'tolemy mentions .several cities of Alb.iuia, but mentioned in eecle<i,istical records dnrini: the n-i,ii 
none of .any cons.ipience except .Vlbana {Ih rhrnil), of' Cousfantin'-. and iti the fifth c-iitury it*- 
which connnaiKled the creat pass on the shore of the .see of .a bisho]». which it lias continued i\»r 
the C;Lspian called the Albaniae <tr C:p>]'iae l'yl;u; sinee. (Nibl.y, vol. i. p. 79.) Pr<M-opius. in ih^ 
(/*«.« of Derhntd). It is formed by a NE. sjiur sixth century, nnntions it as ;i city (trdKKTfjJx). ar«i 
of Canc.i->U5:, to which some Lrcoi:raj)hers miw the one of the placi-s oc< ti]tie»l by UelisiiriiL'i for tb« 
ii.ame of Cerannius M., which Straho a])plied to tho ^ defence of Pome. (/>'. /;. ii. 4.) It is now l-u*. 
E. fart of Caucasus itself. It is sometimes con- a small town, thonirh retaininir the nink oi a &}, 
founded with the inland pa<-s, calhtl Caicast.vk j with about 5000 inhabitants, bnt is a favdirte 
Pylai:. The (Janirara or Gaetara of Ptolemy is ' ])lace of resoit in sunnner with the ni<«leni Konun 
snp[)Osetl to he /jirt/.w/i, famous for its naphtha s]>nn;Xs. ' nobles. ;i.s it was with their ]>nileces>.)rs, vn accvuml 
I*liny mentions Cabalaca. in the interior, as the of the salubrity .and freshne>s of the air. arisui:: 
capitak Pe.six'ctim; the districts of Caspiene and from its elevated situation, and the nhumkuice el 
Camby.'^ene, which some of the ancient L'eo^iaphers ■ sha<le fnnu'shed by the neii:hb<»urin,L' wtxxls, 
mention as biduni:ini: to Albania, .see the se]»arate There still remain extensive niin.s of Koman 
articles. (Ukeit, vol. iii. pt. 2, li}*. 501, &c. ; times; the :rreater part of which miqnostionably 
Geori^di, vol. i. i)p. 151, »tc.) [P. S.] Indoni: to the villa of Domitian, and its appnr- 

ALliA'XIAE POKTAE. [Albania,'iae tcnanees, iiK ludim: inairnlticent, an Am- 
PoKTAK.] phitheatre, and various other n-maios. S-m? 

ALBA'XrM (JW€av6p), a town of E.itium, ' frai,Mnents of reticulated mn.sonry are snpprtscJ. by 
situat^Hl on the western hi.»rder of the Lacns Albanus, 1 Nibby, to haver Iwdon^ed to the villa of I'onipey. and 
and on the Via Appia, at the dist.ance of 14 niiles | the extensive terrains now included in the g.-mlcoi. 
from Kome. It is still called .-l//>ffoo. There i.s I of the Villn JiarWrini, \K'iv,c{'i\ Albofio axul Cttff^i 
no trace of the exi.stence of a town ui»<tn this sjH.t Ga/u/oljo, thouu'h in their prc.scnt state bebmirm,' 
in early times, but its .site formed part of the ter- nndou!)tedly to the imjH'rial villa, may pn»bably U' 
ritory of Alba Lon^ra, which contimu-d loni,' after basi-.l n|xtn the " insanae substnu'ti«»nes '' of Clo«ir.n 
tlic full ufth:it city to retain the name of '* Alb;ums alluded to hy Cicero. {Pro Mil. 20.) lJc--ii'i 


tLw ruMj grait put of th« walls and one of the 

eaa of tbt Pnetorian camp may be observed in 

Uk toini otAtbamo: it was as nsoal of qoadrilateral 

f xa, aod the walk which sornmnd it are built of 

uuBft blfocks of peperimOy acme of them not less 

tkn 12 feet in length, and presenting mnch re- 

wny«>fs to the mora ancient fortifirations of 

Italian dtiea, from which they differ, 

, b their comparatively small thidmess. 

ifluy the most interesting remains of an- 

tfpjtj vtiil visible at AJboRO may be noticed 

thnt miarkable sepulchral moomnents. One of 

Use, about half a mile firom AUxmo on the road 

% Rume, exceeding 30 foet in ekraticm, is com- 

nnij, but srrooeoasly, deemed the sepalchre of 

n«ihu: soother, on Xk» same road dose to the 

nl« d ^ftono, baa a fiu- beUer claim to be 

njsuded SI that of Pompey, who was really buried, 

11 «» kam fiftxn Plutarch, in the immediate neigh- 

jat^ooi of his Alban villa. (Phit Pomp. 80.) 

Tk third, aztnated near the opposite gate of the 

vm Oft the road to Arida, and vulgarly known as 

tx Sepdchre of the Horatii and Coriatii, has been 

fpoiftl hj ifcae modem antiquarians to be the 

:iab 4 Anms, son of Pozsoia, who was killed in 

b«th Mar AnoA. It is, however, probable that 

i: ii flf much later date, and was constructed in 

awioo of the Etmscan style towards the close 

of tbt Raman repobUc (Nibby, Icp. 93; Canina 

• Jm. Aff' Imt Arch. voL ix. p. 57.) For fuU 
i*ah eoooening the Boman remains at Albano, 
m SCU^. Drntomi <U Jiama, p. 88—97; Riccy, 
A<fmSA&a Ltmga^ 4to. Borne, 1787; Piranesi, 
iKidUc <fi AUxmo, Boma, 1762. [£. H. B.] 

AUATkTS. [Albania.] 

ilBATiUS LAOUS, DOW called the Logo di 
i&aa», is a remarkable lake of Latium, situated 
■CBidiatdy bfpfnth the mountain of Uie same 
imm (ivv McmU Cava), about 14 miles S. £. of 
Boe. b is of an oral £ann, about six miles in 
tmuiafacuc e, and has no natural cmtlet, being 
■cj e mial qq aQ sides by steep or predpitous 
hoki of volcaok tufo, which rise in many parts to 
k k^fat f£ three or fiior hundred feet above the 
M if tl^ lake. It undoubtedly formed, at a veiy 
wh pcffiid, the crater of a volcano, but this must 
bri« oBHed to exist long before the historical era. 
Tk^ litiated appar«ntfy at the foot of the Mons 
*><«>, it is at a cooaiderahle devation above the 
/■MM d Latiom, the levd of its waters being 918 
tet akm the sea: their depth is said to be veiy 
PKt The moat interesting circumstance con- 
^rgnii with this lake is the construction of the 
'1^'^nteil wauarj or tunnd to carry oS its super- 
i-^n njtun, tiie formation of which is narrated 
^ by lify and IHooysius, while the wwk itself 
pssbi at the preeent day, to confirm the accuracy 
4 thnr soooonts. According to the statement thus 
to us, this tunnel was a work of the 
uodotakeQ in the year 397 b. c, and was 
by an ezti^ordiuary swelling of the lake, 
^M vtten of whirfa rose ftf above their accustomed 
^.^ •• m fvtn to overflow their lofty banks. 
Tk» iqtni, which connected this prodigy and the 
««i itMtf with the siege of Veii, may be safely 
f ri^ial as anfaastorical, but there seems no reason 
Ir it}Kiiii^ the date thus assigned to it. ^Liv. v. 
15-19; MoL HaL xii. 11—16, Fr. Mai; Cic 

* Ifirim. L 44.) This remarkable work, which, 
A tW presort day, after the lapse of more than 
SU00}aa,«at3inies ioMrre the purpose for which 



it was originaUy designed, is carried under the ridge 
that forms the western boundary of the lake near 
Cartel Ckmdolfoy and which rises in this part to a 
height of 430 foot above the level of the water; 
its actual length is about 6000 feet; it is 4 feet 
6 inches wide, and 6^ feet high at its entrance, but 
the height rapidly diminishes so as in some places 
not to exceed 2 feet, and it is, in consequence, 
impossible to penetrate farther than about 130 
yards from the opening. The entrance from the 
lake is through a fiat archway, constructed of large 
blocks of peperino, with a kind of court or quadri- 
lateral space endosed by massive masonry, and a 
8ec(md archway over the actual opening of the 
tunnd. But, notwithstanding the simple and solid 
style of their construction, it may be doubted whe- 
ther these works are coeval with the emissary itsel£ 
The opposite extremity of it is at a spot called 
U Mole, near Castel Savellif about a mile from 
Albano, where the waters that issue from it form a 
considerable stream, now known as the RivoAlbanOy 
which, after a course of about 15 miles, joins the 
Tiber near a spot caUed La Valca. Numerous 
openings or shafts from above (" spiramma'^) were 
necessarily sunk during the process of construction, 
some of which remain open to this day. The whole 
work is cut with the chisel, and is computed to 
have required a period of not less than t^ years for 
its completion: it is not however, as asserted by 
Niebuhr, cut through 'Mava hard as iron," but 
through the soft volcanic tufo of which all these 
hills are composed. (Gell, Topogr. of Rome, p. 22 
—29; Nibby, Dtntomi di Roma, vol. i. p. 98— 
105; Westpbal, RomischeKampagnej p.25;Abeken, 
Mittel-ItaUen, p. 178; Niebuhr, voL iL pp. 475, 
507.) Cicero justly remarks (de Divin. ii. 32) 
that such a work must have been intended not only 
to cany off the superfiuous waters of the lake, but 
to irrigate the subjacent plain : a purpose which is 
stiD in great measure served by the Rivo Albano. 
The banks of the lake seem to have been in andent 
times, as they are now, in great part covered with 
wood, whence it is called by Livy (v. 15) "lacus 
in nemore Albano.** At a later period, when its 
western bank became covered with the villas of 
wealthy Romans, numerous edifices were erected cm 
its immediate shores, among which the remains of 
two grottoes or " Nymphaea " are conspicuous. 
One of these, immediately adjoining the entrance of 
the emissary, was probably connected with the villa 
of Domitian. Other vestiges of ancient buildings 
are visible below the surface of the water, and tlus 
circumstance has probably given rise to the tradition 
common both in andent and modem times of tho 
submersion of a previously existing dty. (Dion. 
HaL L 71; Niebuhr, voL i. p. 200, with note by 
the translators.) [£. H. B.] 

ALBA'NUS MONS (rh 'AX€ayhr 6pos, Strab.; 
MofUe Caw) was the name given to the highest 
and central summit of a remarkable group of 
mountains in Latium, which forms one of the most 
important physical features of that country. The 
name of Albon Hills, or Monti Albani, is commonly 
applied in modem usage to the whole of this group, 
which rises from the surrounding plain in an isolated 
mass, nearly 40 miles in circumference, and is 
wholly detached from the mountains that rise above 
Praen<»te on the east, as well as from the Volscian 
motmtoins or Monti Lepini on the south. But 
this more extended use of the name appears to have 
been unknown to the ondents, who speak only of 


tho Molls Alharms in the ^^l;_MlIar. :is ili-sit'iiatinij 
tht^ liii:Iio>t jM'ak. T\\t- wiiol*- ii)a>.s is clearly of 
Vulcanic (tri'j;iiu auil may In' ci»iKriv»J a-^ liavini; 
oiicc iWriMcil a vast crater, nf whicii the I'.'t'ty r'uh^v 
ii<»w called Montf Ai'vuin constitntcil the southern 
siile, \\hile tlie hcii'lits uf Mt. Aliri'lii^^. and those 
(H'cu]>i'-il hv Rucrn I*ri<>n' and Tuxuhini cuntinin'd 
the cir< le on the E. and NK. Towards the sea the 
original iiiountain wall of this crater has iMven way, 
and has heen re^.laceJ hy the lak<*> ot" Alba/to aii<l 
Nf^ini, the'n--ches proKahly at "lie time Ne]iarati' 
VJ'nt> uf Volcanic erui'tinn. Within thi^ outer rircle 
ri<es an inner lieiijlit, <•!' a somewhat loineal fljnn, 
the {iroper Mniis Alhanns, which pre-ciits a lejM-ti- 
tiou of the same formatii'ii. iiavin_' its <.>\vn sniaili-r 
crater surrounded oii three sides l»y >tee]) ni'»untain 
ridi^es, while the feurth (that turned t<i"ard"^ le>nie) 
has no j^ueh harrier, and j<resents to view a u'lven 
mountain plain, commonly known as the Cimijxi di 
Anitlhal'\ from the heliet" — whfiliy un>up[f>rted hy 
anv ancient aulhoritv — that it was at one time 
occupied hy the C irthaLiiniau pi-neral. The highest 
of the surrouiidini >iuumits, whit h ri-cs to niure 
than .*3()»)U tW-t ahove the l.-vci of the sea, is the 
culminatinir ]K>iut of the whole irroup, an<l vva> 
occupied in aneicnt time> hy the temple of Jupiter 
Latiaris. {{'\r. pro Mil. :\\ -, Lucan. i. 11»S.) It 
is fr-'Ui lience that VirL'il npre.-ents Juno as con- 
teni]ilatiiiLj the contest hitwe.-u the Tr'»;ans and 
Latins (.!/«. xii. K34), and the mairniHeeiit j-ro- 
.s|K'ct which it commands over the wh'tle of the 
surrouudiu':: country renders it peeuliarly lit for 
such a station, as well as the natural site tor the 
central sanctuary of the Latin nation. For the same 
n'ason we Hnd it occupied as a military post uu tlie 
alarm of the sudden advance of Ilanuihal n[j*->n 
Jiome. {\.\\\ xxvi. *J,) 

Then- can \^- no d(»uht that the temjile of Jiijiiter 
Lati irix* had hecome the centre and place 
of mcetiui:; of the Latins loui; Im-IoH' the dominion of 
L'ome: and its connettion with AlUi renders it 
almost certain that it owed its selection lor thi> 
]>ur}>ose to the pivduminance of that city. Tar- 
quinius .Sujierl'Us, who iv reprevciited Itv the letiuau 
annalists rts lir>t in>titutini: this <.h>ervan(e (l>ion. 
Hal. iv. 410« [irohaldy did no more than a>-crt 
for Home that pre-itlinj authority whiih hail ]ire- 
viou^ly Ix-en enjoyed hy Alha. The annual saerillco 
on the Alhan .Mount at thcKcriae Latinae coritiiuutl 
to he celehrated loui: after the dissolution of the 
Latin leau'ne, .and tie- cesvatiou of their n.atioual 
:issemhlie>: even in the days of Cicero and Auirus- 
tus the decayed Muuicij.ia of Lafium still sent 
deputies to rerei\e their sh;ire of the Aiitim immo- 
lated on their <ommon helmlf, and ])re-ente<l with 
jiriiiutivi; .sbujtlieity tlicir oHi-rimrs of lamhs, milk, 
and ch'-ese. (Liv. v. 17, xxi. 63, xxxii. 1; (ic. 
pro rhnic. 9, f/c J>iii/K i. 11 ; Dion. Hal. iv. 49; 
Suet. C/itU'l. 4.) 

Another rusfoiu whieli was douhtle^s derived 
from a mon- aneicnt |«riod, hut rrtained hy the 
Loiuans, ^\;Ls that of eelehratini: triumphs on the 
Alhan Mount, a pra<tiee whieh wa--. howe\er, re- 
sorted to hy Komau ecnrrals only when they failed 
in i»ht;iining the honours of a reirular triumph at 
Koine. The lirst per>on who intnKlueed thi^ mode 
of evailini: the autliority of the senate, was C. I'api- 

* Conceniini^ the fornu^, Latians and Lati dis, see 
Orell. Onnmast. vol. ii. p. 3.'iG; Ernest, ad !Suc*. 
CaUg. 22. 


riu<= Maso, who w;ts consul in b. c. 2.'^1 : a tn- t 

illustrious exam])le was that of Marccllus. rL^.cr tii-' 
captm-e of Syracu-e, B. c. 211. Only five iiist:i]!'vs 
in all are recorded of iriumjihs thus "vliLratri. 
(\'al. M.ix. iii. 0. § 5; Liv. xxvi. 21, xxxiii. -i^J. 
xlii. 21 : Fast. Capit.) 

The remains <f the temple on the snuniiit of th** 
mountain were 'still extant till near the cl<we of tL*' 
la^t century, hut wen- destroyed in 178*1, whm'!.? 
clnu'eh and con\ent whiih now o( cujiy tlie ^it^' ^-t-- 
rehuilt. Some of t!ie ma-.Nive hlock-r of }>ri»ritf> 
wlii( h forn:cd the suh^truetiou may l>e still st^i 
(thoifj^h removed fntm their oriLMual site) in tit 
\valls of the convent and huildiu-^.> annexri te it. 
The maixiiitiecnce of the marhl'-s and other anli- 
tcrtiu'al deeonitions noticed hy e.irlier ar.tiqaanav. 
as di<.c(nrri(l here, .slmw that the temple must tnr;' 
heeu ivhedlt or restored at a com].'ir'iti\.'h h'' 
j-eiind. (l*irane>i, Anfic/iifi't di .\lb'Uio; )s\\>\]. 
JHuiorul di Rnnin, Vol. i. J.p. 112. 113.) !> ' 
thi»ui;h the temple itself has disapjit-antl, ll.* 
li'omau road whidi h-d up to it is ^tiil pre>erV'N , 
and, from tin* ah>ence of ;J1 tr.itiic, remaiik- ir> % 
state of viuL'ul u' j-«-rl"ei tiou. The i^'lytjonal bl'il- 
• •f hard hasaltic lav.i, of which the piiveii^nt b 
com|MH d, are Jetted toj-.ther w'\\\\ the xiv^'A .>>• 
t uracy, while the " crepidines "' or curh-Nt'ties ;..*-■ 
still ]ire-er\ed ou eat h ^ide, and altoj-vth-T it p'- 
seiits hy tar the mo.-t ]«'iie<t sjeeimen of an ar>:r.t 
Kouian road in its orininal >tate. It is oiilv 8 t =ft 
in hreadth. and is carried with much skill np tb^ 
steep a<e|i\iTy of the niotrntain. Tliis nad nny !»■ 
traced dowm to the cle-smit wcMids 1k-!ow A'.nv.i r'i 
/*"/>".• it app« ar^ t<.« have pa^-ed hv /'(T^ct- '•», 
whtre We lind a leinarkaMe moumiieut ttit ir. tV 
faee of the roek. whi'h has he.-u conje. tured t" v 
that of t'n. C'onieliiis Sripio, who died in p.. c. \7f>. 
(Nihhv. /. c. j'p. 73, 114, ll.'j; GA\, Top. of Rk'h*, 
p. 32.) 

Numerous ]irodi_des are recorded hv FJen.-in 
writer, as o<'currin'^ (tn the Alhan .Mount: ara-'.: 
these the lallin^ of slenKirs of stou.> !■, frcip-.i-iitlv 
mentioned, a circum-^taut e whi'h hts U'ru >• pj'-^d 
hy '-oiiie writer^ to in<lieate that the \oKaiu<' ei-c-jy 
of these niomitains coutinu'd iu hi-!'»neal ti' i-*:-; 
hut this vUL'-^'stiou i> sullieit nlly di>pr<<^ell h} li:^- 
torical, as well as u'eoloi^it al, con>ider.itions. (IKili- 
heny lOi I'oAf/Z'Of.v. p. I(i9, .se.p [!'.. II. H.] 

A'LliKT.a hirhaiic jx-ople, as Caesar t-nl!s th-m 
(li. (\ i. 34). who inhahited the mount.ains aS h^ 
Masvilia (.l/f/r.vr/VA ). They were ouijil'Vi^i nn 
hoard their Vv'^vcK hy the Mas^ilien^es to opj-^-** 
Cae-ar's tieet, whi<li wa^. un>ler the oiiniuri! 'f 
1>. lirutus. and they fouidit hravely in the >t^»-f jf.t 
otr Mas>iiia, 15. c.'49 ((;u-. U/C. i. 57). 11'" 
name of thi> jH-ople in StralKi Is 'AA§«?s and 'A.\- 
^ioiKoi (p. 203); tor it do^^s not seem jin bable 
he means two j^eople.s, and if he iloes mean t^o 
trihes, ih.-y are hoth mountain trihos, and in th** 
>ame inoimtaiu tract. D'.Auville infers that a plw 
<alled Alhixar. whiih is ahout two Iea:ra«*N ir^'n 
Lie/, in the dej.artnieut of liasse^ AIj-'s, retain- the 
ti*;iee> of the uame of this jt.-ople. R;. L.] 

ALTUL ALILVNT .MANTES {ra'k\€ia or?. 
St rah. vii. p.314:Tt) 'A\€avhf 6pos, Ptol. ii. U.§ 1), 
wa.s an c.-L-tern -pur of Mount C'arvaiicjvs. :ind tiKt«T- 
mination <if the t'arnie or .Julian Alps on theeonlir"-* 
of lllyrieum. ■] he .\lhii Montes dip <lown U^ t^*^ 
hanks of the Sa.i\e. .and couneet Mount (^.-irv aiicn,"^ 
with Mount t'etius, incIo-iuL; Aenioiia. and forp in^ 
the .suutiieni l>ouiul iry of Fannoni;u [W. B. D. ] 


ALBrSGAUNUM. [AuiurM Ixgachum.] 

ALfifXlA, a eoosidefmble river of EtroriA, t»till 
atW tfe A&fyma, rma^ in the moanUins at the 
hrk flf Satunda, and tkming into tbe sea between 
tk PMbs TdaaHok and tbe remarkable promontocy 
oUtd Hon A/ventarioa. Tbe name is found onlj 
b dm Tabob; but tbe Auokia or Auoxa of tbie 
ihritime ItinHiry (p. 500) ia evidentlj the same 
jmr. [£. 11. B.J 

ALBINTEMELIUM. [Alsicm Iktkmsuuh.] 

AlBIOK. [BBiTAinnA.] 

ALBIS f AACtf or ''AAfiof : die Elbe), cue of the 
rmt imn of Gennanj. It flows firom S£. to 
XV^ ad cnptka itaelf in tbe Northern or Ger- 
u! Ocoo, bavinj^ its •oarces near the Sckneehoppe 
m^BabmmimdBiiiihsRiaengMrge. Tadtna 
{G*rm. 41) phces ita sooices in tlw country of the 
Smaaadori, wfaicb is too fiv east, perhaps because 
b^oafcankd tbe Elbe witb tbe E^; Ptolemy (iL 
i 1 } pall tbem too fiu* from tbe Ascibnrgian moun- 
taoL DioD CasNoa (It. 1) mora correctly repre- 
^O it H naoff m tbe Vandal nxmntains. Strabo 
(fOO) dsMnbes its ooorMas pvalkl^and as of equal 
i«kA with that of tbe Rhine, both of which notions 
tn «raMQ& Tbe Albia was tbe roost easterly and 
t-ftWly jnrr reached by tbe Bomans in Germany. 
TWf flzit raacked its banks in B.C. 9, under Claudius 
I»fWM, bvtdal not crosa it. (Liv. Epit 140; Dion 
CsMLle.) Donitina Abenobarbus, B. c. 3, was tbe 
fat vbtt crassad tbe river (Tadt. Ann, iv. 44), and 
^n ymn later be caow to tbe banks of the lower 
iHiifiMdog tbe fleet which bad sailed up the river 
ftwUvaoL (JmdtLe.; VelLTaLii. 106; Dion 
i4&}r.S8.) After tbattame tbe Bomans, not think- 
i::ritait to keep tbeir legioDS at so great a distance, 
*!iaaidRKb wu-fike natioos, never again proceeded 
aiwatbsAIbM^sotbat Tadtns, in speaking of it, 
«n : Jkaaem imeimtmn et nolnm olim; mmc tantnm 
«rf*r. [L. S.] 


( i\ 6n ^m, S^abs Ptol.: AJbenga\ a dty on 

^ nwt of Lignria, about 50 miles SW. of Genua, 

*^ tbt ofital of tbe tribe of the IngaunL There 

'v W QD doobt that tbe full form of the name, 

.VTnm bgaoamn (given by Pliny, iiL 5. s. 7, and 

Vmo, de it £. iiL 9. § 17), b the correct, or at 

^ tbp orijEinal one: but it seems to have been 

•v«<T ibbnviiled into Albingaonum, which is found 

r ""tiiiM, Ptoiemy, and tfae Itineraries, and is re- 

I'^elt vith little alteratkii, in tbe modem name 

f Iftmy. Strabo places it at 370 stadia from 

Vak !MM)ita(F«fe), wbicb is much beyond the 

trstk: tbp Itin. Ant. giv<ps tbe same distance at 20 

M- Pn wiocb is ratbcr leea tban the real amount. 

"cak p. 303; PtoL iiL 1. § 3; Itin. Ant p. 

»5; Itin. MariL pt 502; Tab. Pent) It ap- 

Mn t» have been a mnnidpal town of some im- 

W^mrt lader tbe Boman empire, and was occupied 

^ tki tnopi of Otbo daring tbe civH war between 

Um «i tbe Vit«Aiatta. (Tac HUL iL 15.) At 

* bicr period it k mentiatied as tbe birthplace of 

i» opmr Prociihia. (Vopisc PtoenL 12.) The 

(^"^ oty itf Alhemgn contains only about 4000 

'•kNtti, but is an efiaoopal see, and the capital 

< t <fistriot S<me iaacripttons and other Roman 

^SMii bivi> been found bore: and a bridge, called 

^ iW» f— JO. is oQtiaidered to be of B«nan con- 

''viw. The rity b situated at tbe mouth of the 

"w ^'■Ai. whirh has been erroneously supposed 

^^tkr Mnuuk of Pliny: that river, which stiU 

name, flows into tbe sea at An- 



dorcL, about 10 m. further S. Nearly opposite to 
Albenga is a little island, called Galukaria In- 
sula, finom its abounding in fowb in a half-wild 
state: it still retains the nan^ of GtUUnara, (Varr. 
L c; Columell. viiL 2. § 2.) [E. H. B.] 

LIUM ("AA^ioy 'lyT*fi4?aov, Strab.; •AACu'Tf^^- 
Aioy, PtoL: VintimigUa), a dty on the coast of 
Liguria, situated at the foot of the Maritime Alps, 
at the mouth of the river Butuba. It was the 
capital of the tribe of the Intemelii, and was distant 
16 Boman miles fix»n the Portns Monoed {Monaco, 
Itin. Marit. p. 502). Stiabo mentions it as a dty 
of considerable size (p. 202), and we learn from 
Tadtus that it was of munidpal rank. It was 
plundered by the troops of the emperor Otho, while 
resisting those of Vitellius, on which occasion the 
mother of Agricola lost her life. (Tac. HUt. ii. 13, 
Affr, 7.) According to Strabo (L c), the name of 
Albium applied to this dty, as well as the capital 
of the Ingauni, was derived from their Alpine situ- 
ation, and is ccnmected with the Celtic word Alb or 
Alp. There is no doubt that in this case also the 
full form is the older, but the contracted name 
Albintemelium is ahueady found in Tacitus, as wdl 
as in the Itifieraries; in one of which, however, it is 
corrupted into Vintimilium, from whence comes the 
modem name of Vmtmiglia, It is still a consider- 
able town, with about 5000 inhabitants, and an 
episcopal see: but contains no antiquities, except a 
few Boman inscriptions. 

It is situated at the mouth of the river Hofa, the 
Butuba of Pliny and Lucan, a torrent of a for- 
midable character, appropriately termed by the latter 
auth(nr ** cavus," from the deep bed between predpi- 
tous bonks which it has hollowed out for itself near 
its mouth. (Plin. /. c. ; Lucan. ii. 422.) [E.H. B.] 

ALBUCELLA CAA^ArfAo: Villa Fasila), a city 
of the Vaccad in Hispania Tarraconensis (Itin. Ant ; 
PtoL), probably the Arbocala ('Ap€ovKd\7i) which 
is mentioned by Polybius (iii. 14), Livy (xxi. 5), 
and Stepbanus Byzantinus (#. r.), as the chief 
dty of the Vaccaei, the taking of which, after an 
obstinate resistance, was one of Hannibal's first ex- 
ploits in Spain, b. c. 218. [P. S.] 

AXBULA. 1. The ancient name of the Tiber. 


2. A snudl river of Picenum, mentioned only by 
Pliny (iii. 13. s. 18), who appears to phM» it N. of 
the Truentns, but there is great difficulty in as. 
signing its position with any certainty, and the text 
of Pliny is very corrupt: the old editions give Al- 
BULATE8 for the name of the river. [Picenum.] 

3. A small river or stream of sulphureous water 
near Tibur, fiowing into the Anio. It rises m a 
pool or small lake about a mile on the left of the 
modem road from Borne to Tivoli, but which was 
situated on the actual line of the ancient Via Tibur- 
tina, at a duttance of 16 M. P. from Bome. (Tab. 
Pent; Vitruv. viii. 3. § 2.) The name of AlbuU 
is applied to this stream by Vitruvius, Martial (i. 13. 
2), and Statins {Silv. i. 3. 75), but more commonly 
we find the source itself designated by the name 
of Albnlae Aquae (t^ ''AA^ovAa tdwra, Strab. p. 
208). The waters both of the lake and stream are 
strongly impregnated with sulphur, and were in great 
request among the Bomans for their medicinal pro> 
perties, so that they were frequently carried to Bome 
for the use of baths: while extensive Thermae were 
erected near the lake itself, the ruins of which 
are still visible. Thdr oonstructioti is commonly 


a>(ril>t'il. but without autli<'rity, to A'jrij.ia. The 1. A to\\-n of tlio Deuriopcs on tlic Erii'on, in Pai-^- 

u.'U< r> wrn- not hot. liki' iiii>>t -nlj'liuri''ms M>urit's, iii.i in M.ufilunia. (Stnil). \>. 327.) 

but luKl, (»r at lra>t c<«'l, tluir attual trinjx-ratuiv i 2. [Ai^vi.«'»»mi;n.\k, Ni>. 2.] 

Ihiii;: ultDut M»'^ v>t' Falirt'iili'lt : but m» >tr(»ni: is the ' ALCYO'NIA (WKKvoi'ia), a lake in Arj-tli-. 

MiIjiliUi'-'MiN va]»«'Mr that exhah-s tVoni th«ir Niufa'C near tin* Lenia»-au trrow, thnni^li whifh Ihou^-Oh 

a> {>> </\\\' tliLin thf ap|H'arain«- alhi«l';«l t'> hy ^hal■li.^l, was >ai.l to hav»' (Ipm. mini t'>ih<' lu'.vcr MrorUKiu'Tlfr 

itf " >nw>kiiii:." {CdiKi'iiie ."(filjifit'rt is Alhtil't J'u/ii'ft to hriiiif l.ia« k Smiu1<- tniin Ha.Jos. I'auviuits siv^ 

aqnU. I.e.) Tix' nauic uas tl^«lll^t]l'>^ fU'rivcJ from that itMl'-jttiiw;us uiifithoinahle, ami that Nfnihi.1 n't 

tin* v.liiti.iuss of th(* \vatir: tliv iaki* is now com- duun several .>ta<lia of rojic, loaiied with h'.nl. with- 

nionly known as thi' Si'tfntdra. (I'lin. xxxi. 2. s. fi; out linilinij; a bottom. A.s I'ausani.xs (i-n-^ n-it rn^^n- 

Stnib. I.e.: Tans. iv. .'i.'), 4j lO; Suet. Auff.i<'2, tiou a lake Lt'ma. but only a dLstrict of this iia:i>>\ 

A'« /•. 31 ; \'itniv. I. c.) No aliu>ion i> f'Uml in it is jirobabK' that tin* like calK'il Ah-y..i.L:i U 

an* ii'ut autiiors to tlie ]iroj»rty ]xi--e'St*'l by tlu-o Pau-auias is the same a> the l-ema <»f other v\Tii*fr^. 

water> of inenistini: all the Neuetati'iu on tlieir banks (Pans. ii. 37. § 5, te.[. ; Leake, Mona, vjI. .1 

with earljoiiate of lime, a pnKesis whi-Ii LTneN <>n with p. 473.) 

^ndi rapidity that L'reat }art «'f the lake itstlf i> ALCYO'NIl'M ^LVKL. [CouiNTiiiAcfs S- 

crn>tf<l o\t'r, and pH»rtions of the ilejx«>it thus formed, Ni'S.J 

breakiiiLr oil from time to time. -live n>e to little A'LEA ('AAf'a: Eth. *AAeos, 'AAfarrjO. a tMivL 

tl"atinir islands, analoL' to tho<e <b-seribed bv of ^Vreadia. between Orehonienus and St\ni:h:ih< 

aneient wnters in the Cutilian Lake, For the same contained, in the time of Pausanias, t«Mi:ples ut tib' 

reason th<' pre>ent ehann«-l of the stream lias re- Kphe.xian Artends, of Athena Alea. and of l>i .iiy>n\ 

quin-d to Iw^ artiii'- inlly exea\;it«-d, thron;:h the ma^s It aj'jx'ars to have been situated in the territ«'7 

of traveiline whieh it hail itsrlf deposited. (Nibby, either of i^tymj.halus or Orehonienus. Tausirii* 
JUiitorni di Rnma, Vol. i. }>p. 4 — G; dell, Top. vf (viii, 27. § 3) eall> Alea a town of the Maeri-ih iii- ; 

Ju'ine. ]■>]*. 40, 41.) but we oujht j-robably to read A->ea in tliis jasvace. 

It ha> l>HMi treuendly sn])j»(^>ed tliat the Albunea in>tead of Al<'a. The ruins (tf Alea have Ixvn >1>- 

of Horace and Viru'il wa> iiUiitical with the Albula, covered bv the IVeneh C'onmii->sion in the middle >i 

but there a])}H'ar no sulli< ient erounds for this as- tlie dark valley i>f A^J.otini, aitout a ndle to the NL 

.sunijiiiou : and it seems almost cenain that the of the vilkiire of Jiuydfi. Alea was never a towii 

"doiuu^ Albuneae resonanli> *' of tiie former( (.Vfrw. i. of im|M>rtanee : but son:e n.odem ■v%"Titers \w\^. 

7. 12) was the temple of the Sibyl at Tii»ur it-elt'. thoujii inadvertently. ]. laced at thi^ town the ^■e!^- 

in the iunm-diate nei,L:hbeturh<HHl of the ca'-cade brated tenij'le of Athena Alea, whieh %vas hitiuit'd 

[riun:]. while there are strong; reasons for at Te;:ea. [Tegla.] (Pans. Aiii. 23. § 1 ; Stt;JL 

tranvfi-rrini: the crove and oraele of Faunus, and the B. .?. t". ; Bobl.iye, lOiftf^rcfit^, ifc, "p. 147; Leatc, 

fountahi of Albunea connected with them (Vir^:. Pcloi>onn<.<itv:a. ]>. 3s3.) 

Aifi, vii. 82), to the nei;;hbourho<Hl of Ardea. ' ALEFSIU.^I. [Alksiafi'M.] 

[Akdea.] [E. H. B.] I ALE lUA or ALALIA (AAaAiTj. Herod.; 'AA- 

AKBIM PIiO.MOXTOBirM(Phn.v. 19.5. 17), AoAta. Steph. B. ; 'AAtpia. Ptol.: 'AAAoAioIo?. 

w;i,s tin- wotern extremity of tlie mountain ram^e Steph. B.), one ot thtMhltt' cities <tf C-or>iea. sitiiaV i 

Anti-Libanu>^. a few miles south of aiu lent Tyre on tlie E, coast of iho idand. near the ni"Utli of tii*^ 

(Palai-T\ni.s). Between the Meditenariean S>a aiid rivi-r L'hotanus {Tiiv'><j>inn<>^. It was ori'rin.illy » 

the I'a;^' «4" the headland Album nui a nan"ow road, finek colony, f hulIimI abont i\. c. 564, by the phi- 

in i'j;u;es ntit nx^re than six l"«vt in bn-a Ith, cut out caems of Ionia. Twt-nty year> later, when tbf 

of tile ^olid rock, and :i>cnlH-d. at le.i^t by tradition, pirent city was captured by llarjuiju^, a hjr:^e jior- 

to .Vlexander the <ircat. This wa'^ the connnuni- tion of its inha])itants repaired to their ci'louy i.( 

cation betwreii a small fort or ea^tl'■ e.dieil Alexan- Alalia, where they dwelt f 'r live years, but theL' 

dro-chene (.S'ca;^/*;////'//) -'I'ld the M( viionauean. (It. jiiratical conduct inv<<lvetl them in hostilities Miih 

Ili<'ro«., p. ■)84.) llie Alb'am Promoutonnm is the the I \'nheiiians and Carthairiuians; aiui in a 'ZynX 

ni'Hlem Cnjte Jilaiu\ '.\\A \\[\s one liour'> joune'_\ to sei-tii:ht with the couibiried fbets of thi**^ two 

the uorlh of Eeclij'iua (yAv7aVM>r Z//;). [\V. Ji. I). J nations they ^utiered such heavy lov^. j^s iuduce>l 

ALBUKNLS M(>NS, a juountain of Lucania, th-in to abandon the inland, and repair to the S. ef 

mt'iitioued in a will-kiiuwn p;i->a:.'-e of Vir^dl {(ifinj. Italy, wh.-re tln-y ultimately e>tabli>he».l them.^-l\e? 

iii. 14G), from whih Wf l._ irn that it wa^ in the at N'eHa in Luiania. (Herod, i. 1 Go — 107; Sttrh. 

nei^l;bourh<«»d of the liver Silani^. Tlie name of B.: l>iiKl.v. 13, where KaAaf)ty is evidi'Htlv a oir- 

Jloutf Alhfirno i> ^aid by Italian toiK.^raphers to U- nipt readin:: for 'AAa^jta.) No further mention i> 

.»itill retaiaod by th-' loi';y moun'ain cnuip whieii fnuid of the dreek e-'lonv. but the citv aj-j'-ar' 

ri-<-s to tile S. of tiiat river, belwi.-n its two tiibu- aLain, under the Komau f •rm of the luuuo, Ak-ria, 

tarii>, thf To)Hiijro and (.'nh>r<:. it i'» more c<im- duriiu* the fir>t Pimie war, when it w;is captun-d 

nionly call« il tlie Monte <H r>>slh}li>>ui . tn.m the by the Ilonian lb et imder L. S ijHii, in ii. r. 2.'>9, an 

Miiall town of that name on its norlh'-ni decli\ ity, e\e!it which litl to tlie snbmi>^iou of tht* w hole i>bul, 

and aecordiiij' t'.> (iuverius is >till (o\ereii with and wa> deemed worthv to be e.xnn's^lv ineuti'i^'i 

fiieNf* of h 'Im-oak^. and infi-ttd wiih ;^Md-tlies. in hi> ipitajih. (Zouar. viii. 11; Fior. ii. 2; (.*reil. 

((.duv.-r. Jt,tl. p. 12.')4; lioman.Ui, \ol. i. p. 418; ///.<c/-. no. r)"t2.) It subM-ipiently receiv«xi a Roni*ii 

Zaniioni. Corta tlfl ]i"jnn di yirjiuli) colony und-a* the dietator SuU.i. an<l a}i|K"ar> to ha>P 

We lind m«-ntion, in a frajn.ent of Lucilin>. vi' a retaintd it^ coloni d rank, .ami continued t«» be oc 

]N»Krrs Ai.iuuNiN, whieli ait|itar.> to have Ihsu ot the ( hit f uti.s of Corsica under the Roman tm- 

s^ituated at the mouth of the rivir Mlarus, .and jin>- j.ire. (Plin. iii. G. s. 12; Mela, ii. 7: l>i»Rl. v. Li; 

bably d«'ri\ed it> name from the m >untain. (Lncil. S^nec i. Cons, ad Jhlr. S; I'tol. iii. 2. §5; Itin. 

/v. i>. 11, <^l. <ierla«h; Probus, ad \ i/y. (i. iii. Ant. p. 8.").) 
14G: Vib. S^l. p. 18, with UUrlhi.) [E. H. Bj Its ruinv .ire still visibb- near the scuth Kink of 

ALCO MENAE('AAKou€i'oi: Lth.^hKKOfxiViVi'). the river Tavifj/mito : they are now above hah a 


bBp barn dw eout, though it was in the Boman 
taKs a ttMfott. f £. H. B.J 

ALE'SIA (AKae), » town of the Mandnbii, who 

vttc odif^dxiara of the AedoL The name is some- 

Aam viitteo Alexia (Floras, itL 10, note, ed. Doker, 

md dKwbav). Traditiaii made it a very old town, 

ftr tie fltory was that it was foonded bj Hercules 

«t Ui Rtun Iran Iberia; and the Celtae were said 

to naente it as the hearth (^i^rla) and mother city 

tf ill Cdtica (Died. ir. 19). Stiabo (p. 191) de- 

nte Akaia as sitiiated on a lofty hill, and sur- 

nmkd by naoantains and by two streams. This 

^wriptko may be txiken finom that of Caesar (B. G. 

fi. 69), wbo adds that in front of the town there 

w a plain about three Roman miles long. The 

n» oorrapaida to that of Mont Auxois^ close to 

•iath is a phce now called Ste Reitie dAlUe, The 

tv» Uraams are the Loaeram and the Loze^ both 

of the yomie. In B. a 52 the GaUi 

a kot'cfibrt to throw off the Roman yoke, and 

dbr they had sostamed aereral defeats, a large 

int sader Verdi^getorix shut themselTes up in 

Afaaa. Afier a Tigoroas reustance, the place was 

li ta ii it w] to Caesar, and Vercingetorix was made 

a prauMT {B, G. viL 68 — 90). Caesar does not 

■yak of the destractkn of the place, but Florus 

am that it was burnt, a circumstance which is not 

JwfAufnt with its being afterwards restored. 

ris7 (xxxhr. 17. s. 4S) spedLs of Alesia as noted for 

a!««r4fadzi(g artides of harness for horses and beasts 

4 ban^ Traces of several Roman roads tend 

lu«w4« thk town, which appeare to bave been finally 

rvMd aboot the ninth century of our aera. [G. L.J 

ALTSIAE (*AA««rtat), a village m Laoraiia, on 
!l» ni^ from Tberapoe to Ht. Taygetus, is placed 
br Leake nearly in a line between the southern ex- 
trvaiT of Sparta and the site of Bryseae. (Paus. 
ii aOL § S; Leake, PeJopotmesiaca, p. 164.) 

AL£SU£UM CAAc<ruubr), called ALEI'SIUM 
(hkhMvm) by Homer, a town of Pisatis, sitaated 
ipD tbe rtad kading across the mountains from Elis 
lu iijm\U. Its site is uncertain. (Strab. p. 341 ; 
Bon. /I E. 617; Steph. B. #. v. *AA^«rioy.) 

ALESirS MONS. [MAirrarEiA.] 

AUrnm CAXi^ioy Ptol lil. 1. § 76; Eth, 
Pfitt. uL 11. s. 16), a town of Calabria, 
both by Pliny aiui Ptolemy, among the 
dtiu which they assign to the SalentinL Its 
n (g ivBjam sly plaoed by Cluver at Ltcce) is 
'"cwh mariwd by the ancient church of ^Sto Maria 
Ma Uan (fbnnerly an episcopal see) near the 
Tlh^ of FtMotUj about 5 miles from GaU^U^ on 
t' nttd to Otranio, Here many ancient remains 
hr* bMB ditooivered, among which are numerous 
tY^ Tith inscripiCioDS in the Messapian dialect. 
(VfXxrSk, AnaL ciogr. de tItaUe, p. 233; Moram- 
■=. Cmter-Ital. IHaleJkte, p. 57.) The name is 
-•■TBpUy wntten Baktinm in the Tab. Pcut., which 
k«*nv oofrecCly places it between Keretum {Nar- 
4} mA UxeDtam (^Cgemto)^ though the distances 
Ctvfa ira iucmiatc. In Strabo, also, it is probable 
t^ V* ahovki rewi with Kramer 'AAirr^ for 2<u 
which he describes as a town in the interior 
a abort distance from the sea. (Strob. 
^ tSS; aad Kiamer, ad loe.^ [E. H. B.] 

ALEIAXDREIA, -LA or -EA (ji 'AXt^dyipfia: 
Ilk *AA«(Bi4yM^, more rarely 'AAc^avSpfnjT, 
'i\4mMfirns, 'AX*iap9fHay6s, 'AAc^aW^Tyof, 
*AA<04iHrvf, AJexandrinns ; /em. 'A\tiayipis: 
tbi ao^n ElSbmderisk), the HeUenic capital of 
E0mwHfaiiDdedby Alezaoder the Great in B.C. 



332. Itstoodinlat3lON.;long.47®E. (Arrian, 
iil. 1, p. 156; Q. Curt iv. 8. § 2.) On his voyage 
from Memphis to Canobus he was struck by the 
natural advantages of the little town of Rhacdtis, 
on the north-eastern angle of the Lake Mareotis. 
The harbour of Rhac6tis, with the adjacent island 
of Pharos, had been from very remote ages (Horn. 
Od. iv. 355) the resort of Greek and Phoenician 
sea-rovers, imd in the former place the Pharaohs kept 
a permanent garrison, to prevent foreigners entering 
their dominions by any other approach than the city 
of Naucratis and the Canobic branch of the Kile. 
At RhacStis Alexander determined to construct the 
future capital of his western conquests. His archi- 
tect Deinocrates was instructed to survey the harbour, 
and to draw out a plan of a military and commereial 
metropolis of the first rank. (Vitruv. u.prooem.; 
Solm.c32; Amm. Maro.xxiL40; VaLMax.i. 4.§ 1.) 
The ground-plan was traced by Alexander himself; 
the building was conmienced immediately, but the 
city was not completed imtil the reign of the second 
monarch of the Lagid line, Ptolemy Philadelphus. 
It continued to receive embelliiihment and extension 
from nearly every monarch of that dynasty. The plan 
of Deinocrates was carried out by another architect, 
named Clecmienes, of Naucratis. (Justin, xiii. 4. § 1 .) 
Ancient writers (Strab. p. 791, seq.; Plut. Alex. 
26; Plin. v. 10. s. 11) compare the general form 
of Alexandreia to the cloak (chlamys) worn by the 
Macedonian cavalry. It was of an oblong figure, 
rounded at the SE. and SW. extremities. Its length 
from £. to W. was nearly 4 miles; its breadth from 
S. to N. nearly a mile, and its cireumference, ac- 
cording to Pliny (/. c.) was about 15 miles. The 
interior was laid out in parallelograms : the streets 
crossed one another at right angles, and were all 
wide enough to admit of both wheel carriages and 
foot-passengers. Two grand thoroughfares nearly 
bisected the city. They ran in straight lines to its 
four principal gates, and each was a plethrum, or 
about 200 feet wide. The longest, 40 stadia in 
length, ran from the Canobic gate to that of the 
Necropolis (E. — ^W.): the shorter, 7 — 8 stadia in 
length, extended from the Gate of the Sun to the 
Gate oif the Moon (S. — N.). On its northern side 
Alexandreia was boimded by the sea, sometimes de- 
nominated the Egyptian Sea: (m the south by the 
Lake of Marea or Mareotis; to the west were the 
Necropolis and its numerous gardens; to the east 
the Elensinian road and the Great Hippodrome. The 
tongue of land upon which Alexandreia stood was 
singularly adapted to a commercial city. The island 
of Pharos broke the force of the north wind, and of 
the occasional high floods of the Mediterranean. 
The headland of Lochias sheltered its harbours to 
the east; the Lake Mareotis was both a wet-dock 
and the general haven of the inland navigation of 
the Nile- valley, whether direct from Syene, or by 
the royal canal from Arsinoe on the Red Sea, while 
various other canals connected the lake with the 
Deltaic branches of the river. The springs of Rha- 
cotls were few and brackish; but an aqueduct con- 
veyed the Nile water into the southern section of the 
city, and tanks, manj of which are still in use, dis- 
tributed fresh water to both public and private edi- 
fices. (Hirtius, B. Alex. c. 5.) The soil, partly 
sandy and partly calcareous, rendered drainage 
nearly superfluous. The fogs which periodically 
linger on the shores d Cyrenc and Egypt were dis- 
persed by the north winds which, in the summer 
season, ventilate the Delta; while the salubrious 


ir\ cill.-.l'l;lin..-'iis II 

LLtv. and shplleriiic iMh in ''»'■ 
|.i.jmrT..TM,i„l..f l'lur.8. !l ™ 


tfaeOMiQUc iDoath of tbeNile. Atitseaitern 
itood tht far-hmed lighthooae, the work of So- 
I «f Cudot, and, DMrer the Heptastadiom, was 
• mple of Phtah or Hephaestus. The Pharos was 
Ukib bj PtolHDj Soter, bat oorapleted hj his snc- 
eoMT, and dedicated by him to " the gods So- 
imSf'or SoCcrand Beroi^, his parents. (Strab. p. 
792.) It mnwuted of several stories, and is said to 
kn ben four himdred feet in height The old 
lii^fat-boast of Alczandreia still occa|nes the site of 
fas aadent predecessor. A deep ba j on the northern 
«4«f the fedanl was called the "" Pirates' Haven,** 
frB ifei having been an carij place of refuge for 
GniKi and Samian mariners. The islets which 
«ad the aorthcm coast of Pharos became, in the 
4tk ad 5th centiincs a. d., the resort of Christian 
—Iwitrs . The island is said bj Strabo to have 
bra mariy deaolated by Julias Caesar when he was 
WnqM by the AlezaDdrians in B. c 46. (Hirt 
A ike 17.) 

Tht Phsroa wbs connected with the mainland by 
a artificia] mooad or caoseway, called, from its 
^rth(7 stadia, 4S70 English feet, or f of a mile), 
tfat Hiftastadiam. There were two breaks in the 
lUe t» Irt the water flow throagh, and prevent the 
of silth ; over thoie passages bridges 
bid, which ooald be raised up at need. The 
rf Bephaastos on Pharos stood at one ez- 
tnMtv of the Mde, and the Gate of the Moon on 
te iMinhnd at the other. The form of the Hepta- 
OD longer be distingnished, since modem 
is principally erected upon it, and upon 
lb* «rth which has accumulated about its piers. It 
pvbUy Isy in a direct line between fort CafarelU 
1^ the tabfid. 

/ afc j tsf of ike City. Aksandreia was divided 
■Is three tcpcav. (l)The Regio Judaeorum. (2) 
1W *»"''**'"TP or Pyrocheiani, the Royal or Greek 
^ w tM. (3) The Bhac6tis or Egyptian Quarter, 
oorrespaixied to the tluee original con- 
«f the Alexandrian population (rpia y4ni, 
PM. xxziT. 14; Stnih. p. 797, seq.) AAer 
B. c 31 the |t/«w»« added a ftmrth element, but 
tbi «■• principally military and financial (the garri- 
■■^tht govcrameot, and its official staff, and the 
■liablwiii), and confined to the Begioo Brucheimn. 

1. Mtfio Jmiwmrum, or Jews* Quarter, occupied 
B* SE. angle of the city, and was encompassed by 
tte !«, the city walls, and the Brucheium. Like 
tbs Jany of modem European cities, it had walls 

of its own, which were at times highly 
for its secoiity, since between the Alexan- 
Grwks and Jews frequent hostilities raged, 
both by politifal jealousy and religious 
brtnd. The Jews were governed by their own 
Eikastth, or Arabarches (Joseph. Antiq. ziv. 7. § 2, 
ML { 1, xvm. 6. S 3, xiz.5. § 2, B.J. n. 18. § 7), 
^ a ■ a be diim or senate, and their own national 
Aagostoa Caeear, in n. c. 31, granted to the 
Jews eqnal privileges wHh their Greek 
and reconled hiu grant by a public 
(Id. AmUq. zii. 3, c Apum. 2.) Philo 
(ttysf. m Caimm) gives a full account of 
of the U^io Judaeorom. They 
^^ t^ ^atai iy confirmed or annulled by sncces- 
■^ baau cBperon. (Sharpe, BitL of Egjfpt, 
fMT^saq. tad edit.) 

2. ^ft w liwaa, or Pp^teheimn (Bpvx^or, Tlvpo- 
ZM, Sabmiaa, mi SparHtm. Eadriam.c20), the 
fany V Qntk Quarter, was bounded to the S. and 
L by the dty waBs, K. by the Greater Harbour, 



and W. by the region Rhacdtis and the main street 
which connected the Gate of the Sun with that of 
the Moon and the Heptastadinm. It was also sur* 
rounded by its own walls, and was the quarter in 
which Caesar defended himself against the Alex- 
andrians. (Hirtius, B. Alex. 1.) The Brucheium 
was bisected by the High Street, which ran from the 
Canobic Gate to the Necropolis, and was supplied 
with water from the Kile by a tunnel or aqueduct, 
which entered the city on the south, and passed a 
little to the west of the Gymnasium. This was the 
quarter of the Alexandrians proper, or Hellenic citi- 
zens, the Royal Residence, and the district in which 
were cmtained the most conspicuous of the public 
buildings. It was so much adorned and extended 
by the later Ptolemies Uiat it eventually occupied 
one-fiflh of the entire city. (Plin. v. 10. s. 1 1.) It 
contaiiied the following remarkable edifices : On the 
Lochias, the Palace of the Ptolemies, with the smaller 
palaces appropriated to their children and the adja- 
cent gardens and groves. The iar-fiuned Library 
and Museum, with its Theatre for lectures and 
public assemblies, connected with one another and 
with the palaces by long colonnades of the most 
costly marble frran the Egyptian quarries, and 
adorned with obelisks and sphinxes taken from the 
Pharaonic cities. The Library contamed, according 
to one account, 700,000 volumes, according to 
another 400,000 (Joseph. AnHq. xii. 2; Athen. i. 
p. 3); part, however, of this unrivalled collection was 
lodged in the temple of Serapis, in the quarter Rha- 
cdtis. Here were deposited the 200,000 volumes 
collected by the kings of Pei^amus, and presented 
by M. Ant^us to Cleopatra. The library of the 
Museum was destroyed during the blockade of Julius 
Caesar in the Bmcheium ; that of the Serapeion 
was frequently injured by the civil broils of Alex- 
andreia, and especially when that temple was de- 
stroyed by the Christian fanatics in the 4th century 
A. D. It was finally destroyed by the orders of the 
khalif Omar, a. d. 640. The collection was begun 
by Ptolemy Soter, augmented by his successors, — 
for the worst of the Lagidae were patrons of btera- 
ture, — and respected, if not increased, by the Cae- 
sars, who, like their predecessors, appoint«l and sala- 
ried the librarians and the professors of the Museum. 
The Macedonian kings replenished the shelves of the 
Library zealously but unscrapulously, since they laid 
an embargo on all books, whether public or private 
property, which were brought to Alexandreia, retained 
the originals, and gave copies of them to their proper 
owners. In this way Ptolemy Euergetce (b. c. 246 
— 221) is said to have got possession of authentic 
copies of the works of Aeschylus, Soj^oclcs, and 
Euripides, and to have returned transcripts of them to 
the Athenians, with an accompanying compensation 
of fifreen talents. The Museum succeeded the <H)ce 
renowned college of Heliopolis as the University of 
Egypt, It contained a great hall or banqueting 
room (oZrot /i^>as), where the professOTS dined in 
common; an exterior peristyle, or corridor (irtptira- 
Toi), for exercise and ambulatory lectures; a theatre 
where public disputations and schoUstic festivals 
were held; chambm for the difierent professors; and 
possessed a botanical garden which Ptolemy Phila- 
delphus enriched with tropical flora (Philostrat. Vit, 
ApoUon. vi 24), and a menagerie (Athen. xiv. p. 
654). It was divided into four principal sections, — 
poetry, mathematics, astronomy, and medicine, — and 
enrolled among its professors or pupils the illustrious 
names of Euclid, Ctesibius, Callunachus, Aratua, 




Ari;>t4t]»lumos and Ari^tarclius, the n-itios ami ixn^m- 
iiiarians, tlio two Hcm^, Ainiii'iiiius S.i(va>, l'«f- 
Iciiio. ClciiK'ii^, < )nL'eii, AtliaiKL-vius, I'lu'on aii'l lii^ 
rrK-hnitt>.l (lauirlittT Hyjiatia, with many otluTs. 
Aiiiitl the turbul>'iit tartiiiii>< ainl fiv"|iu'nt ralaini'ics 
ot" Ali'xaiKlr^^ia, the Museum maiiitaiiu'*! it> reputa- 
tion, until the Saraeeu inva^inn iu A. D. C4<^. 1 he 
em{»t'rors, like their ]»re(le«e>M>r.s the Ptolemies. k''|;t 
in tht'ir o\\-n hands the imminatiun of the I're-ident 
<»t' the Muveiim, who was ruii^ideved one ot^ the t<'ur 
chief niairistrates of the city. For llie A'.exandnau 
lahrary and MuM-um the following' work.s may he eon- 
suited : — Strah. ]>j». Ol)'.), 791, se.[. ; \ilniv. vii. 
pmotm.; .I">e].h. AfUh/. xii. '2, c. Ajilim. ii. 7; 
Clem. Alex. Strom, i. 22; Cyrill. Hiero>. ('(itrclnt. 
iv. 34; K|ni-han. Miiis. it PomL e. 9; AuLni>tin. 
('ii\ 1). x\iii. 4*2: Li|»ius, df U'thltotli. § ii.; 1»'h 
iiamy, Miin. tl< f Ar(ui. <U.< liijfrt'. ix. 10; Matter, 
I'Kcidc d'Alfrt/iu/rft, vol. i. ]». 47; Fahrie. 7)'//^/. 
(irtitr. vol. iii. p. .500. 

In tlie Brueheium al.^o sIikmI tlie rae>anum, or 
Temple ot the Caesars, >Nhere divine lionours were 
p.aid to the emiHM-ors, deeea^nl or livinir. Its site is 
still markeil hy tlie two uranite oheli^ks called '* I'leo- 
jatra's Needle>," which is a tower )k iha|)s ni»t 
iiia|>{iroj»riateIy named the *' Tower of the K'omaiis." 
J^riK-eeilini; westward, wc come to the jiuhlie ;:i'a- 
iiaries (Caes.'ir, ii. (Ve. iii. 112) and the .Mansolemii 
of the I'tolemie.s, which, from its containiuL' the ho<ly 
of Alexander the (Ireat, was denominated Simia 
(Sc^jua, or 2v,ua. Strah, p. 794). The remains of 
the Macedonian hero were originally inelosed in a 
colHn of ir^ld, which. alH>ut it. c. IIS, was st.ilm hy 
rtolt-my Stter II., an<l re]»la(«'d i»y i>ne of, in 
whi( h the eorp,se was vi4'v\ed hy Auirustus in i;. < . 
tM). (Snett.n. Iht'ir. 18.) A huildinir to whieh 
tradition as^i'_iis the name of the " Tomh of Alex- 
ander " is found anioni: the ruins of the old city, hut 
its site doo.s not corresjMind with that of the N)ma. 
It is nuu'li n*v»"n'nced hy the Moslems. In torm it 
res<Mnhle.s an ordinary sheikh's tomh, and it stands to 
the west of the ro;id leading from the Frank (Quarter 
to the I'onqn'y's-rillar <iate. in the Stma were aKo 
dei<osited the remains of M. Antonins. the only alien 
admitted into the Mausoleum (IMut. Anf. 82). In 
tins i|uarteralso were the HiL'h Court of .Iu<ti<e (/>/- 
citjiftriit/n). in which, under the Flolemies, the senate 
assemlth'd and disehariTiNl such maunsteriai duties ;us 
a ut'arly d»>s|)otic iC'Vernment allowed to them, and 
where afterwards the IJoman Jnrlditus ln-ld \\\< 
<'ourt. A stadium, a L^ynma^-ium, a jalestra. and an 
am[)hitheatre. provided exercise and amu>ement tor 
the .speitaile-lo\in'_' Alexandrians. The Ar.sinotnim, 
on the western side of the nrucheiuni, was a monu- 
ment raised hy Ftolemy riiiladeljijuis to the njcmory 
of his I'nvourite sifter Ar.sin.K-'; and the Paninm was 
n stone moun<l, or cone, with a s])ira] ascent <»n the 
outside, from whose sunnnit was visi!»le ev«M"y «juarter 
of the city. 1 he purple <»f this structure is. how- 
ever, not ascertained. The tHlifues of the l»nu heiuni 
lijyl heen so arran^ced hy Dcinixrates as to conmiand 
a pro.>|M>ct of the (Jreat Ilarhour and the IMiaros. 
in its »eutre was a sjyicious septan-, surrotmded hy 
(loi steins ami Hankeil to the north hy the «jnays — 
the KmjMirium, or Alexandrian l',\rhan'4e. Hither, 
for ncaily ei^-lit ccnturie>, every nation of the ci\il- 
i/ed world sent its repr«»x'ntati\es. AlexantlnMa liad 
inherited the connnen-e of hoth fyre and Carthaixe, 
and iollected in this anvi the tralli*- and sjM-culation 
of thr«t' continents. 'I'he Ilomans .idmitted AI'-\- 
andreia to he the second iit\ of tile world; hut th^ 


qn.ays of tho Tiller j)re>ented no such sj^iectiiflp a< 
the EmiMtrium. In the seventh i-entur)', wluii tl*^ 
Arahs entered Alexandreia, the Brueheium v>a^ n 
ruins and <leserte<l. 

3. I'fic Jilinrutit, or l.fjii}>t'hin f2?""'/< r, nccHj iM 
the site of the ancient KluKoiis. Its princijsil \'U.,a- 
iiiLTs were L'ranaiiea aloni: the woteni ann ot '.h<f 
cihotu.s or ha.^in, a .stadium, and the Temple of N^ 
rapis. The .Vrap-ion was ere( ted by tlie tiK <>t 
sec'.'Utl of the I'toleniies. The ima;:e of the C'*l 
which was of w<>o<l, was acconlini; to Clemens (t.l''- 
niens Alex. Protrtpf. c. 4. § 48), inclo-«ed or plit«^l 
over with layers of every kind of mi-tal and jirtniaLs 
stones : it si^-nis a]>o, either from the sn,«>ke kA ji- 
cense or from \anii*h, toha\e Ih-^-u of a hlack t^.W. 
Its oriirin and imj>*>rt are douhtt'ul. S-rapis is wUm:- 
times defined to Ix- (.)siri-Apis; and sometinu's tiie 
Siuoj.ite /.eus, v\hich may imply cither tliat hf 
was hrouirht from the hill Sinoj.«'ion near MeinihiN 
or front Sino|v in I'ontus, whence Ptolemy S'Ut 
or Philadeli>luLs is sai«l to liave iinpi>rtcd it l<» 
adorn his new ca])ital. That the idol was a pio- 
theistic emhlem uiay Ik- interred, both from the i:j- 
ti-ri.ds of which it wris comp»>cd.and fnnn its b«-uc 
adopti'd hv a dNiiastv of so^erei-'ns ^^h{> souirlit t'^ 
hleiid in one mass the creeiU of llelhus and E:r'}t. 
'i'he N'raiA'ion w:u< d.-troved in A. I>. tVAO bv iLr*- 
philus, jwitriareh of Alexandreia, in olM-dience to tb^ 
n'script of tlie enijx'ror The(Kloviii5, wliich aU'li-tol 
paizani^m ( Cf/er I'hfndi:*, x\i. I, 2).* The V.'''*y>- 
ti<' jiopulation of this quarter were not pn-jierly Airi- 
andrian citi/.eus, but enjoyed a iiiteriif 
to that of the (ireek.s. (Pliii. A/^/W. x. 5. 22, i^V. 
-Joseph, r. Ajiinft. c. 2. $ G.) The Alexandnia wLnS 
the Arahs hoicLred was nearly identical with tin 
li'hacutis. It had snth-nil many cahunities \.»>tt 
from civil feud and from/on-i^n war. Its' S'r3]^i"H 
was twice consumed by fire, once in the rei:5i !<♦ 
Marcus Anivlius. and a^L'ain in that t»f Co!n\U'»li>-- 
But this di.striit survived both the Juyio JuJatoruA 
ami the Jirnrlnitim. 

iji the remarkable Iwautv of Alexandreui {r\ KaAl 
'AA6^av5f)«(a. Athen. i. p. ,*>), we have the t»^tj- 
mony of numerous writers who s;iw it in it,** prir.«^. 
Annnianus (x.xii. If)) calls it *' vertex tnmnmii cixi- 
tatuni;" .Strab«» (xvii. p. 832) «lesenbe-, it a^ >*«7«t- 
Tuv ijx-na^yuov ttjj oiKou/u6Kr;s; Tlnnxritus (^Iti'M 
xvii.), Philo (</// Flocc. ii. }>. 541), K^^tathivl^ \,ll 
B.). Cn'irt)ry of Ny->a ( \i(. (irtf/or. ThauvintHr*].\ 
and «tt hers, write iu the same strain. (Coid;. 
Di'Mlor. xvii. 52; Pausan. viii. 33.) Pi-rhnfia., hi>v 
ever, one of the most striking; dc>eriptioii» of it 
etfect niN.n a stranirer is that of Achilles. Tatia* b 
his romance of Cleit<nihon .and LeucipjM? (v. \\ It 
dilajtidation was not the etlect of time, hut of th 
hand of man. Its dry atmosphen' preser\«Hl, for i ■"fa 
tnries after their erection, the sh.irp outline and 2i 
Colours of its buildinirs; and when in ..v^ l». 120 tii 
emjM^ror Hadrian ^nrveye^l Alexandrei:i, he U-b 1 
almost the viri:in city of the PtoU-ujies. (^Sj^ailiii 

* The followini::; reterences will aid tho rc.uW 
forming: his own ojiiniou re^j^ectini: the nmch v\i 
trovertid (juestioji of the ori,:xin and nu-aiuni: 
S-rapis: — lac. Hist. iv. 84; Macri»l». *S<i^ \. ^ 
Vopixns, Soturuin. 8; Anun. Mare. xx. 16; Ph. 
Is. it {hh\ cc. 27, 28; Uictant, hu^t, i. 21 ; O-J 
Alex. Cohort, ad Gent. 4. § 31, Strt^rn, i. 1 : A 
rust. Cir. />. x\iii. 5; ^f/l>l. dr VAcoff, dts f^t** 
vol. X. p. 500; (jibbon,y>. and J\ xxviii. |». 113, 


c 13.) It soffefed much from the intesthie 
ftttis ai the Jews and Greeks, and the Bnicheiain 
vat aaarij rebgilt by th« emperor Gallieous, A. d. 
MO— 4. But the seal of its Christian popuhttion 
iQixaaRdeRtrDCtiTe; and the Saracens only com- 
ffated thor prerioas work of demolition. 

I^/mlatim ofAteaumdreia. DiodorosSicnlns^who 

mttd Alnafrirfia aboot b. c. 58, estimates (xvii. 

51) its free dtixcBs at 300,000, to which smn at least 

ae^MlmuDbermiiBt be added fbrslayesand casoal 

naiata, Besidea Jews, Greeks, and Egyptians, 

tkt piprialinn ^^*«wp«»^, according to Dion Chry> 

ntan, who saw the chy in A. d. 69 {Orat, xzxiL), 

if "hafians, Syrxana, Libyans, Cilidans, Aethiopians, 

AnliimB, Bactrians, Persians, Scythians, and In- 

£ns;' aod P6lybias (xxxix. 14) and Strabo 

^ 797) confirm his statement Ancient writers 

psoai^ ^ire the Alexandrians an ill name, as 

» ^oabfe-toajrned (Hirtitis, B, Alex, 24), fiictions 

(T"WL Pofl. Triff. Tynm, c 22), misdWe (PhiL 

Wr. Fhcc iL p. 519), blood-thirsty, yet coinudly 

lit (Duo Cass. L p. 621). Athenaeos speaks of 

1^ as a jonal, botsteroos race (x. p. 420), and 

thdr pasaioD for music and the number and 

appelladons of their musical instroments 

r«i n. 176, xiv. p. 664). Dioo Chrysostom (Orat. 

uni.) opbraids ti^m with their levity, their insane 

^ cf ^ectades, horae races, gambling, and dissi- 

pKin. Tbry were, bowerer, singidarly industrious. 

finafa their export tnde, thedty was full of manu- 

&(lns cf paper, finm, glass, and muslin (VopLsc. 

' ^ i * sa>. 8). Eren the lame and blind had their 

•ccopatkas. For their rulers, Greek or R(»nan, they 

■wataj aickmmea. The better Ptolemies and Cae- 

tn teaked at these affronts, while Phyaoon and 

Cif illi repaid them by a g«)eral massacre. For 

wn pvticular infarmation respecting Akxandreia 

«* Rliv ti> Matter, tEcoU eTAlezandrie, 2 vols. ; 

ti» artirk ^ AleamdrimMche Sckule ** in Paoly's 

Am^ Ema/tiap m die ; and to Mr. Sharpens Hiitory 

-/^Ejjyt, 2nd ed. 

Tkt Gitvermmemi of Alexemdrtia. Under the 
Pliluiues the Alexandrians possetssed at least the 
■ wAhaii of a eoostitutian. Its Greek inhabitants 
i^imd the paivil^ e s of bearing arms, of meeting in 
!• Gyniaaam to discuss their general interests, 
ud to petitian for redress of grievances; and they 
■dimanl in royal proclamations as " Men of 
But they had no political constitution 
^ tsresist the grtsp of despotism; and, after the 
■*ina of the first three kings of the Lagid house, 
*s^ d f p ri»e d of even the shadow of freedom. To 
tfai ad the drrisiaii of the dty into three nations 
fc"ctly eontribiited; for the Greeks vrere ever ready 
^ iak« op arms against the Jews, and the Egyp- 
^■s farad and contemned them both. A connn- 
deed, existed between the latter and the 
(LetPottor, Inter, i. p. 99.) Of the govem- 
4f the JrwB by an Etluuurh and a Sanhedrim 
ire alnMiy vpoken: how the quarter Rhacdtis 
tejnjacered we do not know; it was probably 
a priesthood of its own: but we find in in- 
aad in other scattered notices that the 
nktioo was divided into tribes (ipvkal)^ 
*W Ota vaida (hifwl). The tribes woe nine in 
CAAMf, 'A^MSrif, Ai|4arfipir, Aiomwtf, 
6f#r(r, Boorrtf, MctfotviSf Sro^Air). 
JiMfarta AUxtmdrimi, p. 346, seq. BerL 
Thfve was, indeed, some variation in the 
of the trihes, since ApoQonius of Rhodes, 
of the Argommtioay belonged to a tribe 




called nroAc/io/f . ( VU, ApoU. Rhod. ed. Bnmk.) 
The senate was dected from the principal members 
of the wards (At^/i^oi). Its functions were chiefly 
judicial. In inscriptions we meet with the titles 

iipxi^uedjrfis^ ieyopdyoftos, &c. (Letionne, Jiecueil 
des Inter. Gr. et Lot, de VEgypte^ vol. i. 1842, 
Paris; id. Reeherchet pow servir a VHittoire de 
VEgypte, &c Paris, 1823—8.) From the reign 
of Augustus, B. c. 31, to that of Septimios Seve- 
ros, A. D. 194, the functions of the senate were 
suspended, and their place supplied by the Roman 
Juridkutf or Chief Justice, whose authority was 
inferior only to that of the Prae/ectug AuffustaiiM. 
(Winkler, de Jvrid, Alex. Lips. 1827—8.) The 
latter emperor restored the *^jtu buleirtarum,^ 
(Spartian. Severtu^ c 17.) 

The Roman government of Alexandreia was alto- 
gether peculiar. The country was assigned neither 
to the senatorian nor the imperial provinces, but 
was made dependent on the Caesar alone. For 
this regulation there were valid reasons. The Nile- 
valley was not easy of access; might be easily de- 
fended by an ambitious prefect; was opulent and 
populous; and was one of the principal granaries of 
Rome. Hence Augustus interdicted the senatorian 
order, and even the more illustrious equites (Tac. 
Ann, ii. 59) fnnn visiting Egypt without special 
licence. The prefect he selected, and his successors 
observed the rule, either from his personal adherents, 
or from equites who looked to him alone for pro- 
motion. Under the prefect, but nominated by the 
emperor, was the Juridicus (^ipxi^ucdams)^ who 
presided over a numerous staff of inferior magis- 
trates, and whose decisions could be annulled by the 
prefect, or perhaps the emperor alone. The Caesar 
appdnted also the keeper of the public records 
(inrofunrifuer^ypa^tos^ the chief of the police (rvK» 
Tfpufhs irrparrry6s)j the Interpreter of Egyptian 
law (^f^rfYrtriis warpiuy vot»wv\ the praefectus an- 
nonae or warden of the markets (^in/icAiTT^s T«r 
T^ ir^Xci xp^^l*^^\ <^ the President of the Mu- 
seum. All these ofiicers, as Caesarian nominees, 
wore a scarlet-bordered robe. (Strab. p. 797, seq.) In 
other respects the domination of Rome was highly 
conducive to the welfiue of Alexandreia. Trade, 
which had declined under the later Ptolemies, 
revived and attained a prosperity hitherto unex- 
ampled : the army, instead of being a horde of lawless 
and oppressive mercenaries, was restrained under 
strict discipline: the privileges and naticmal custcmis 
of the tiiree constituents of its population were re- 
spected: the luxury of Rome gave new vigour to 
ccnnmerce with the East; the corn-supply to Italy 
promoted the cultivation of the Delta and the busi- 
ness of the Emporium; and the frequent inscription 
of the imperial names upon the temples attested that 
Alexandreia at least had benefited by exchanging 
the Ptolemies for the Caesars. 

The History of Alexandreia may be divided 
into three periods. (1) The Hellenic. (2) The 
Roman. (3) The Christian. The details of the 
first of these may be read in the History of the Pto- 
lemies {Dictionary of Biography ^ pp. 665 — 599). 
Here it will suffice to renmrk, that the dty pros- 
pered under the wisdom of Soter and the genius of 
Phifaidelphus ; lost somewhat of its Hellenic cha- 
racter under Euergetes, and be^an to decline under 
Philopator, who was a mere Eastern despot, sur- 
rounded and governed by women, eunuchs, and fa- 
vourites. From Epphanes downwards these evils 

u 2 



Avcre ajLT.'ivattii. Tlio army wmn <li>orpini-.o<l; trade | 
aiitl a.'nrulmri' «ltHlinfil ; tlu' Al»-xan«lrian ]»'t>|)lo 
ijnnv mor»' x'^il*' and virinii-: cvfu tlu' Mummuii 
i'xhil'itod >yiiij»t<>iiis of <li'rn'j>itu"lt'. Its |)r<'t<'.>M>rs 
oMUiiiucd, iiiilt'»-*l, to ciiltixatf M-i«'iu-«> ami c•riti«■i■^nl, 
but invention and ta-^te had i'X)tin'd. It di'|wMidrd 
nj> >n IJo:iu.' uliftlicr .\,l<-\atidrii i >liould Ihmoiiio 
triUutarv to Aiiliorli. or rccruo a in'oi «.ii*nl tV.»iii ihe 
M'liat*^. 1 li"' \var> ot IJoan- with (' irthnL'f. .Ma«^d««ii, 
ainl S\na al '\\o d«t"'-rr<'d tin* dtini-iti>n of th»* \.\- 
i:idat'. TIi«^ iutlu«'iii<' t)f IIoiiu' in the rio|<-inai<' \ 
kiii_'d'^;n ioiiiiiU'iir<-d |»rojn'rly in n. <\ 'iU4, \s\v\\ 
th>' iTuardiaiis of Kpijih tno> jilaif.l th'-ir iiif iiit ward 
und'-r thf proti-itioii of thi* •M-natc. a^ lii^ only n-fui^o 
u"aiii>t lilt' do^tqi-i of the Matcionian and Svnan 
moiianh>. (.Iii>tin. xxx. 2.) M. Arniirui> LcpidiH 
Ava'i a|i|>*>int<'d Lrnardiaa to tin* yonn:; Ptoli'iny, and 
the lt'L.'1'ad ** Tutor Rgis'' nji m the A<'iiiilian coins 
ooaimt-nioratt'^ this tru^t. (K<khfl, vol, v. p. 128.) 
In II. c. Ifi'} the IJoinans adjndiiated h<'tw«fn the 
brofht'rs PtoItMny IMiilouctor and Ku<'ri;<'t<'>. The 
latlt^r D'coivi'd Cyrene; tlh- fornuT rctaini-d Alex- 
andn-ia and E.'yjit. In n. <\ 14.), Sij>io AtVicanns 
the yonn^iT wa> ai>]>ointrd to M»ttl«' the dl^-tra' tions 
■which cnsncd uj»«»n th«' innrdfr of Knpator. (.In.>tin. 
x.xxviii. 8; C'i<-. Acud. (I iv. 2, OJ'. iii. 2: Di'Kl. 
Lrfjiif. .32: Cn'll. .V. .-1. xviii. 9.) An inMri]»non, 
uf al>ont this daff, re'ord<'<l at I)»'Ios th*- cxiNtt^nro of 
mnitv U-twt*cn Alfxandn-ia ami Ifoiiif, (I.etritini<\ 
Jit.<cr. vol.i. p. U)2.) In b.c.DT, rtol.niy Ajuondf- 
\'i.>*^l hy will the province of Cyrcne to the Konian se- 
nate (Liv. l.xx. A/»/V.), and his exatnjde was followed. 
in u. c. 80, l)V I'toleniy Alexander, who hf.jiieathed 
tothem Alexandreia and his kinirdoni. The he>|nest, 
however, w.xs not innnediately enf 'reed, ils the re- 
pnblic was (»ccn}»ied with civil convnisions at home. 
Twenty years later Ptolemv Anlete> mort^^a'jcil his 
revenues to a wealthy h'onian senator, liabirius Pos- 
tumus (Cie. Fnujin. xvii. Orelli, p. 458), and in 
B. V. 55 Alexandreia was draw n into the innnediate 
v<)rtex of the Iloman revitlntion. and tVom this |Ma-i<«l. 
until its sul)mi.»ion to .VuL'n>tns in h. c. .'JO, it fol- 
lowi\l the tortune> altcrnat*dy of Ponijiey, (labinins. 
<jae<ar, Cas>iiLs *he liU'rator, and M. Antonins. 

The wealth of Alexandreia in the la>t centnry B.C. 
mav Ik* infern'd from the fact, that, in (j.'i, 6250 
talents, or a million sterlini:, weiv ji;ii<l t*> the trea- 
sury as [xTt dues alaie, (Di-^l. x\ii. 52: .'^tiiib. 
p. 8.32.) L'n<ler the emi>eror.>, ih.- history (»f Alex- 
andreia exhibits little variety. It was, ujnhi the 
^vhoIe, leniently ;roverne<l, for it was the interest of 
the l^ae>ars to be L'enerally |»opular in a city which 
roinmanded one of the i;i;in;iries of iJome. Aniru^tus, 
indeevl, marke«l lii^ displ.a>ure at the support ::iven 
to M. Antonin>, by buiMini: Xieo]«>|i.s about thnv 
mile^ tti the ea^t of the C'anol.ii- ijate a^ itsri\al, .and 
bv ilejiri\in4 the lirerk- of Ale.\andrei.i of the only 
J. tliliial di^tim lion whi< h ih'- Ptolemies had Kit them 
— the jndieial functions <»f the senate. Ihe city. 
hr>wever, slnred in the pro^jn-rity «>f Iv.'ypt 
under IJomaii rnle. lb'- |«>rti..n of it.s [->]>ula:i>'n 
that came jn<»st tVisju<ntly ifj c"Ili>ion with the 
»'\eeuti\e was that of the j4-wiNh (^utrter. Smie- 
times emjxM'orH, like CaH^'ul a, deiiuinditl that the 
imiM-riiil etJiu'ies or military .st;rfndards should U' 
bet u]» in their t^-mpJe, .at others the Tfreeks ridi- 
rubNl or ontniired the Hebrew ceremonies. Both 
the>*o causes were attentb'd with s.ani:uin iry results, 
and even with pill.i;:e and bnniin;; of the 
city. Alex.indreia was fa\oure.l by Claudius, wlio 
uddcil a win:; U> the Miwnm; was thre.atened with 


a visit from Nero, who covet<Hl the skilful applanst 
of its vhitfin iifs in the theatre (Suet4»u. Str. 20): 
was the hea<l-i|uarter. for some months, of Ve^ja-ian 
( Tae. Ili<t. iii. 48, iv. 82) durin<: the ciNil wars 
whleh jireecdcd his a<ces-.i..n; was >ubjett«Ml to mili- 
tary lawle^vIl,•.>^^ nnd'-r I>omitian (.luv. S<it. x\i. ): 
was i:o\crned miMly by Traian, who even >uppl""'i 
the city, during' a d»arth, with com (Plin. Pan'irrr. 
.31. § 2.3); and w.i> vi-ited by Hidrian in A. i». 122, 
who has b-ft .a irraphic j)i(tnre of the jjii].ii^ati ^ii. 
(Voj'isc, Siitxrn. 8.) The tir-^t imjjortant ch-inct 
in their jN.lity that intn«lue(»d by the eni}»T)r 
S'Veriis iu A. IK lHf». The Alexandrian (intks 
w«'re no lom^t'r f irmid.ible. an<l .*N'verus a<'<ordir.jlr 
restored their >enate .and nnmiripal ;^'>vi-m::i»iit. 
He aKo oniameiitt'd the city with a temple of liLn, 
ami with a public l).ith — Tht rwof Stptimiawie. 

Alex.iudrei.a, however. sutVered more fntmaaiu;:^^ 
visit of Caracall.i from the tyranny or capri-* 
of .any of his predece^.sors. That emjH^ror h.a«i U-fn 
ridiculed by its Natirieal ptpul.icc for atVectinir to t»? 
the Achillea and Ale.x.andcr of his time. The rn- 
moiu's or can< atnre^ which reacluHl him in ltal_\ ncr^ 
not t"or::otten on his tour throuirh the j»roviuc»^; ao^i 
althou^di he ^'reeled with hi'iatombs on liis arri- 
val at Ab-xandreia in a. i>. 211 (IlenHiian. iv. 9), 
he did not omit to rep.iy the insult by a <:eueral nii.s- 
>acre of the youth of milit.iry :«L:e. (Dion Cs-"v>. 
lxx\ii. 22; Si^ntiaii. ('(inuiilL d.) Cara< .dla al'O 
intnHluc«d jonie imp"rtant chanties in the civil n-ia- 
tioiis of the Alcx.andrians. To mark his di>ple.usure 
with the (irceks, he admitt<'d the ihii-f men of lie 
'ju.arter UhacAtis — i. «. n.ative KL\vjttians — into 
tlu" PoUian seu.ate. (i>ion Cass. li. 17; Sf«artix'». 
(.\ir(U(ill. {)); he i^Kitronised a tenijde of Isis at 
pome; and lie j)unishe<l the citi/.ens of the Bruchfiuni 
by retrenching: their public ^'ames ami their allow- 
ance of com. Ihe liH'ck «juarter charged with 
the maintenance <if an lioinan v^arristm, 
an<l its inner walls wt-re reiiaireJ uud liued wi'Jj 
' f)rt^. 

From the works of An-taeus (r/e Morb. AcvL 
i.) We Ic.ini Ab-.x.jndreia w:ls visitcil by a \*^ 
I tilentv in the reiLin of (iallus, a. L>. 253. In 265, 
' the prelect Aemilianus w.o jmndaiiiietl Ca*>Ar 
by his soldiers. (Treb.ll. Pol. Triff. I'l/rann. 22, 
} (itiHit'H. 4.) In 27t), the rumie ui i^eiii>l»ia. tpi-m 
I of Palmyra, apjM-ars on the Alexandrian ci«inac*'; 
I and the city had it.s full >hare of tla* eviU t^iC- 
I scjUfut UjMtn th»' fre.|uent n.'Volnti<»n.»> of the R^- 
nian empire. (\'opisc. Aimlian, 32.) After this 
jM-riod, A. i>. 271, -Vlexandnia lo>t nuu-h (»f its pn*- 
dominan«'e in KL'y)»t, since the native pi.piilati««L, 
hardcuttl by rej^ated \\.ii>, and reiid'onx-*! hv Ai»- 
bi.ui immii:rant>, had become a martial aiiti turhiileot 
ra«e. In A. i). 297 (Kutroj). ix. 22), l)i*vietlau bi*- 
I sic'jed .and r i^.aincd Alexan«lreia, which luul de\ bmi 
* it.self i I fivoiir of the usurjier Achilleus. "J he em- 
j-ror, however, m.ade a lenient u<e of his xictorr, 
and punhiM-d th»* favour of the jjopuhtce by m 
in* rea^«tl larje>s of <orn. The column, luiw woU 
known a.s pomj«'\'.> Pillar, once hUf>j>i»rtt^l x statir 

of this cmi-i'ir, an<l still Wars on it> Ijom* the i!>- 
I . . . , 

>t riptioii, '• To the most hououroil em}»«'n»r, the de- 
liverer of Alexandreia, the in\-incible iHixdetJAn."* 

Alexandreia its full shan' of tlio p»*r^«»ruti<in< 
of this reijn. The Jewish rabbinisni and (in^k 
philo.M.jihy of the (<ity had jvaved the way for Chris- 
tianity, and the serious temj-er of the Ki:y}'*i»n 
|»oj'idatiou sympjthistnl with the e.amestn»"2J,s c»l" tlv 
new taith. 1 he Christian j»*>}»nlation t»t" AJe.xaa- 


aooordiiiglj miineraas when the imperial 
t&a «tre pot in force. Nor were maxtjn wanting. 
Tbttkj WM almdj an episcopal see; and its bishop 
ham, with the preabjten Faostns, Dins, and Am- 
maum^ were amoof the first Tictims of Diocletian's 
nnipL The Chnsdan annab of Akzandreia have 
• ittfe that b peculiar to the city, that it will 
M&c to refisr the reader to the general histoiy of 

It k nve interesting to torn from the Arian and 
^ttsneimn fends, which sometimes delnged the 
rtnrts of the dtj with Uood, and sometinies made 
If* SMI? the interreotion of the Prefect, to the 
Kfect which Alexaodieia presented to the ArabSf in 
A. D. 640, sficr so manj rerohitions, dvil and re- 
ipoaa The Pharos and Heptastadiom were stUl 
injand: the Sebaste or Caesarinm, the Soma, and 
tit Qasitcr Bhao6cas, retained almost their original 
fnodeor. But the Hippodrome at the Canobic 
Cite «is a nan, and a new If oseom had rejdaced 
is tbi Ef^Tptisn BegioD the more ample structure of 
de Piakmies in the Bmchdnm. The Greek quar- 
to vasialBed near! jdeeerted: theBegioJudaeorum 
«« oecupied bj a few miserable tenants, who pur- 
Amtd from the Alexandrian patriarch the right to 
fcfisv their nataocal kw. The Serapdon had been 
■nnrttd into a Cathedral; and some of Uie more 
baUdii^ of the Hellenic dty had be- 
thc Christiui Churchce of St Mark, St John, 
St. Mbit, &c. Yet Amrm reported to his master 
tbe Disfif Omar that Akxandreia was a dty con- 
tniar fomr thousand palaces, four thousand public 
hithi, fear hondred theatres, forty thousand Jews 
*W psid tribute, aod twehe thousand persMis who 
fU Ms. (Eotycfa. AmuU. a. d. 640.) The 
anUt of AraUaa deaohitioo was, that the dtj, which 
W Madled into the Egyptian Quarter, shrunk 
Bii the Omits of the Heptastadium, and, after the 
?«ar 1497, when the Portuguese, by discovering the 
ptmfB raond the Cape of Good Hope, changed the 
*hdi cvTCBt of Indkui trade, it degenerated still 
fatkv into an obscure town, with a population of 
iOOO, inferior probably to that of the original 



tjf A iex am d re i a. These may be divided 

dasses: (1) indistinguishable mounds of 

sad (S) firagroeots of buildings which 

dcgne, be identified with andent sites 

* The Old Town" is surrounded by a double 
«sll, with bftj towers, and five gates. The Bosetta 
Giii ii the iiliiiii eotranoe into this circuit; but it 
^Brt cemspoad with the oU Canobic Gate, which 
^« half a mile further to the east The space in- 
«i«4 is about 10,000 feet in length, and in its 
from 3200 to 1600 feet. It contains 
ma sse s of ruins, consisting of 
fnimnns and capitab, cisterns choked with 
nrtiA, and fa mme n ts of pottery and glass. Some 
tf iW aunaik are eonrered by the villas and gardens of 
infaahitanta of Alexandreia. Nearly in 
of the iDckisure,and probably in the ^gh 
the Canobic and Necropolitan Gates, 
^*i a few years since three grsnite columns. They 
*^ Bavly opfoslte the Mosque of St Athanadus, 
lad wa« pnhapa the last remnants of the colonnade 
Hkh himA the Uigh Street (From this mosque 
** tska, in 1801, the sarcophagus of green 
W«aa which is now in the Brituh Museum.) 
CmA Deosnbcr, 1841, there was also on the road 
^■d^r to tha BoaeCU Gate the base of another 

simiUr column. But these, as well as other rem- 
nants of the captal of the Ptolemies, have disap< 
peared; although, twenty years ago, the intersection 
of its two main streets was distinctly visible, at a 
point near the Frank Square, and not very far from 
the Catholic convent Excavatians in the Old 
Town occasionally, indeed, bring to light parts of 
statues, laige columns, and fragments of masonry: 
but the ground-plan of Alexsndreia is now pro- 
bably lost irretrievably, as the ruins have been con- 
verted into building materials, without note being 
taken at the time of the site or character of the 
remnants removed. Vestiges of baths and other 
buildings may be traced along the inner and outer 
bay; auod numerous tanks are still In use which 
formed part of the cisterns that supplied the dty 
with Nile-water. They were often ctf considerable 
nze; were built under the houses; and, bdng arched 
and coated with a thick red plaster, have in many 
cases remained perfect to tlus day. One set of 
these reservoirs runs parallel to the eastern issue of 
the Mahmoodeh Canal, which nearly represents the 
old Canobic Canal; others are found in the convents 
which occupy part of the site of the Old Town; 
and others again are met with bdow the mound of 
Pompey's Pillar. The descent into these chambers 
is either by steps in the side (h: by an opening in the 
roof, through which the water is drawn up by 
ropes and buckets. 

The most striking renuuns (^ andent Alexandreia 
are the Obelisks and Pompey's PiUar. The former 
are universally known by the inappropriate name of 
" Cleopatra's Needles.** The feme of Cleopatra has 
preserved her memory among the illiterate Arabs, 
who regard her as a khid of enchantress, and ascribe 
to her many of the great works of her capital, — the 
Pharos and Heptastadium included. Meselleh is, 
moreover, the Arabic word for ** a packing Needle,** 
and is given generally to obelisks. The two columns, 
however, which bear this appdlation, are red granite 
obelisks which were brought by one of the Caesars 
tntn Hdiopolis, and, according to Pliny (zzxvi. 9), 
woe set up in frrait of the Sebaste or Caesarium. 
They are about 57 paces apart from each other: one 
is still vertical, the other has been tiirown down. 
They stood each on two steps of white limestone. 
The vertical obelisk is 73 feet high, the diameter at 
its base is 7 feet and 7 inches; the feUen obelisk 
has been mutilated, and, with the same diameter, is 
shorter. The Utter was presented by Mohammed 
Ali to the English government: and the |tfopriety of 
its removal to England has been discussed during 
the present year. Pliny (L c) ascribes them to an 
Egyptian king named Mesphres: nor is he altogether 
wrong. The Pharaoh whose oval they exhibit was 
the third ThoUmies, and in Manetho's list the first 
and seocndThothmes ( 1 8th Dynasty : Eenrick, vol. ii. 
p. 199) are written as Mesphra-Thothmosis. Ba- 
meses IIL and Osird II., }m third successor, have 
also thdr ovals upon these obelisks. 

Pompey's Pillar, as it is erroneously termed, is de- 
nominated by the Arabs Amood i sowari ; tori or so- 
fBori being applied by them to any lofty monument 
which suggests tiie image of a " mast** It might 
more ftfoperly lie termed Diodetian's Pillar, since a 
statue of that emperor once occupied its summit, com- 
m^ncMrating the capture of Alexandreia in a. d. 297, 
after an obstinate si^e of dght months. The total 
bdght of this column is 98 feet 9 inches, the shaft 
is 73 feet, the circumference 29 feet 8 inches, and 
the diameter at the top of the capital is 16 feet 6 

H 3 



inches. Tho shaft, rai-ital. aiul jM'.lcstal riro ap- 
part'iitly of JiiVcn-iit a;r<'s; tho hitter are of very in- 
ferior workinanshijt to the .shaft. The Mibstnictions 
of the culuiiin are traiTTiients of older iiioiiuiiieiits. ami 
the name tif I'saniiiietielni.s ^^^th a few hierou'lyphic^ 
is in>erih«'d ujmhi them. 

'J'lie oriirin of ijie name Pomjiev's PilUir is very 
(lonotfnl. It has Iwen dtTived from Tloixiraios, " eon- 
duct inir," since tlic e'llnnni servi-d for a land-mark. 
In the in><Ti|»ti<'n ctpit'd liy Sir (Iar<hi<-r Wilkiiixni 
and .Mr. Salt, it i^ stated that " TnLlins the Kjianh 
of Kj-yiit." eivcted it in ]io]n>nr <>f DI-k l«tian. For 
I'nhiin.s it has Iwi-n ]ir.ij><»v«'d to read " l*itm|)<'ins." 
The riliar oriiriualiy Ntixxl in the centre of a ])aved 
an\'i beneath the K-vel of the L'round, like so many 
of tin* later Ko.nan memorial eolnmns. The }>a\e- 
ment, however. Iia^ loni; Ih^-u broken np and carried 
away. If Arabian traditions maybe trnsted, this 
now solitary I'illar onee sto<Nl hi a Stoa with 4n() 
oth'Ts. and funned jiart of the jxjrist} le of the an- 
cient S'rai«'iiin. 

Next in intere'Jt are the Catacombs or n'mains of 
the aiieient }\e< njpolis be_\ond the \\'e>teni (late. 
The ai']iroai'h to this cemetery was through vineyaid> 
and LMrib-ii.N, which both .\t)ii-naeus and Strab.i cile- 
hnite. I'lie extent of the Catacombs is n'markable; 
they are ent p-artly in a ridu'e of >andy cab are<in,s 
stone, and ]iartly in the calcareous ro< k that ta<<-< 
the sea. They all c )niiJiunii ate \\iih the sea by 
narrow vanlts. and the most s]iacious of them is 
abont nS:iO y<ls. S\V. of I'ompey's Tillar. Their 
style of decora! i«^n is ]>urely (ireek, and in one .if 
the chambers are a Doric eiitablatnre and mindd- 
inirs, which evince no d«'<line in art at the jeri'Kl of 
tlu'ir erei-tion. S-veral tomb> in that direction, at 
the Water's c<b_'e. and some even below its level, are 
entitled " Bii*jiil di d'Cjidfra.'" 

A niore particnlar aict»nnt of the fit(iit.< of Ahx- 
unilrtla will lie f>unil in Sir (.Jardner Wilkinson's 
Ti)/)i>i/r(ij>/t// of Tlit}ni<, p. .'iSO, se(|.. and his llonil- 
Bo*>k for Trnr< lUrs hi I'-'JlipL pl'-7 1 — lOO. Murray, 
1847. lb-sides the refereixes already eiveii f.»r 
Alexandreia, its to]xitn-ap|iy atid history, the fejlow- 
ini: writer?, may l>e consulted : — Stra!». p. 71U, se<| ; 
Ptol. iv. .'i. § <j. vii. ,'■>. i}^ !.•}. U, c\(. cScc; Di.Kl. 
xvii. 52; I'ansan. v. 21. viii. 33 ; Arrian, A>//. 
Abx. iii. 1, ^ 5. se«|.; (^). Cnrtia^. iv. S. ij 2, x. 10. 
§20: Pint. JA.r. 20; Mela. i. 1>. ^^9; p'lin. v, 10, 
11; Amm. Marc. xxii. lO; It. Anton. ]ii>. lu , 70; 
Jos,.],h. />'. J. ii. 28; Polvb.xxxix. 14; Caesar. 11. C. 
iii. 112.) ' [W. W. 1>.J 

ALKXAXDKKIA (VAAe(ai'5p€ta). Beddes the 
celebrated .-Vlexandreia mentioned a'oove, there were 
si'Veral other towns of this name, fiAUnled by Alex- 
ander or his successors. 

1. In AitAciiosiA, also called Alex:indro]Kilis, on 
the river ArachotiLs; its site is unknown. (Annn. 
Marc, xxiii. 6.) 

2. In AruA.VA (^ iv 'Ap/o<5, or Alex indreia Anon 
as Pliny, vi. 17, names it), the thief eity of the 
C4tuntry, now limit, the caj'ital of K}i<irafi.<on, a 
town whieh has a considerable trade. The traditioii 
iiitiiat Alexan«ler the (Jreat I'ounded this Alex.indr.-ia, 
but like others of the name it wa> jirobably only so 
called in honour of him. (Strab, pp. .514, 516, 723; 
Amm. Mare, xxiii. 6.) 

3. In Bactki.vxa, a town in IJactriana, near 
Bactra (Stejih. Byz.). 

4. In C.\nMAMA, tijp caj>ital of the country, now 
KernMn, (Anun. Marc, xxiii. 6.) 

. 5. Ad lasuM (^ icar* "laaov. A/examlrtuin, 


Ish uji run), a ti»wn on the east side of the Guif of 
Issus, and ])robably on or i los4i to the biw ot llw 
.Myrian<lrns of Xenophon {Anah. i. 4), ainl .\rrii:. 
(Anal), ii. 6). It seems probable that the pkui? re- 
ceived a nen name in hononr of iVlcx.mder. Stf- 
I ]>hanus mentii mis both Myriauvlrus and Alexaiidri;nt 
L'ilicia, by which he means this jtl.ace; but thi< d-*'S 
not prove that there were two towns in lii"> tin.i*. 
lioth Stephanns and Strabo (p. 076) i>la«v this Alf^x- 
antlria in (ilicia [Amam<J. A j'lace c die<l-Ia"l.\ 
\\\dl, in the neJi:hbonrhiHid of Iskendenin, has Uvu 
snpjHi>ed to be the site of Myri.andru.s {Loinlon (io>*j. 
.Ii)iiru. Vol. vii. p, 414); but no i»p»«'f isid^-'n yf this 
assertion. fiif:i'ii<l< run is alkjut G miles SSW . ol ti** 
Pylae (.'ilici;ie direct distance. [.VjkiANfs,] Tlw 
place is uiihealthy in snuuner, and containeil Kik 
sixty or seventy mean houses when Niebiihr \isil^ 
it; l)nt in reciait times it is said to have iuipri-vt-d. 
(Niebtdn*, Rt i<i}>< nchn ihntuj. vol. iii. p. 19; L<rt*d»^ 
(i<<"j. 'lonrn. vol. x. p. 51 1.) » 
(». OXIANA. [Sn<;l)I ANA.] 

I 7. In PAi;or\Mi>rs. [pAKorAMiSAi>AK.] 

1 {^. TrioAs ('AA€|arSp€ta 7; Tf^tijay, sou.etii fs 
i-alled sinijtly Alexandreia, and sonictimesTria-(Aiti 
Ap<»st. xvi. S), 11' iw K^kl Stintihnl or Ohi $taiJ>f*l 
was situated on the coast of Tmas, opposite tu tb*" 

' sontb-ea.^tern iMtjnt ot* the island of Ten«iitc, JUKI 

, north of Asvus. It was tonndetl by AtUiiionn*. tw 
of the most able of Alexander's succc-»ors, uinl^rtb*' 

' name of AntiL'on.ia Troas, and |>«-<'[>led \nth s<*ttj»n 
from Scepsis and other nciu;hlMinrInir towns. It wt* 
improM'd by L\simaclms kin;^ of Tlira<e. and ruiLoi 
Alexandreia Troas; but l>oth names, Antiiionoij. ard 
Alexanilreia, apj^- ir on some c<»ius. It was a ti<»u- 
rishiui: plui- under the Pouian cm])ire. and rv- 
<ei\ed a Poman celoiiy when Stralw* w n»te (p. .'tl'-O. 

I which was s.-nt in the time of AuL'U^tus, ai th<* 
name ('oi- .'\\'<;. Ti:<>A> on a cviin ?h"ws. Ifl 
the time of llailrian an aipiednct s^'vcral milr? in 

I lenL'th was constructed, ]iar:ly ;it the ex]<'a-^ ^i 
Hero<les Atticus, to \\v\\\'Z watta" to the citv fn^in Itii. 

' M any of the snp]«>rts of the a«|Uetluct still reiiiain, 
but all the arches are broken. The ruins efttif 
city c«)Ver a lai^'c surlaee. Chandler .s;iy.s tkit tl< 
walls, the largest part of which remain, an' s<wiral 
nules in circnmter«'n< e. The remains ut' the Tht-mi-H" 
or baths are very considerable, ;ind doul.»tle^s Moic 
to the Poma!! jx-riod. There is little marble on tlj*" 
site of the eiiy, tor the materials have Ih-cu cam»-J 
olf to bnild hou-t's antl j»ublic editi<es at Con>l:Uili- 
no]>le. The jtlace is now nearly desert cxl. 

1 here is a story, jrfahaps not worth much, that iIk 
di( tator (.'aesar thon.:;ht <'f transferrinij the s<^l "f 
enijiire to this Alexandreia or to Ilium (Suet. Coti- 
79); and some writers have con V<tur»'<i that Ao- 
i^Ustws had a like d,>ii'n, as may U- inferred fpd 
the Words of lb»raee (Curni. iii. 3. 37, &c.>. It may 
b«' true that Ci-ustaiitine thouidit of AlexaiKirrla 
(/.osim. ii, 3()) tbr his new caj>it.U, but in the toi 
lie made a letter M'le( ti<>n. 

9. Vltima ('AAf^drSpfia i<TX(iry\^ or 'AX«(«^ 
^p((rxaTa, Apj»ian. S'/r. 57), a « ity fouude^l »rr»tntf 
the Scythian.s, accordiuL' t(» .\]-].ian. It was f«»und»Hi 
by .\lexander ujxtu the daxartes, which the iirrt-i* 
called the Tanais, as a bulwark airnin>Jt tlu» ea>tenj 
Ivirbarlaiis The coloni^t.s were Hellenic men^nrtrif*. 
Macedoruans who wen* jcist ser\icc, .and S4>meof thf 
adjacent barbarians: the city was 60 stadi.a in cirttiit. 
(Arrian. Auah. iv. I. 3; Cuitius, vii. 6.) Then* i* 
no e\idence to detcnniiie the exact site. >\hich xi^'f 
be that of KlioiJjimf a-* some suf»p»>sc. |^ii. L.} 


AAi ^^ ^^ii /li^pnf). It wu a weU-known cnstom 
tf Ikt afMaoit oonqoann finom Sesostris dofwnwards 
to mack tkar pragmi, and capedaDj its furtlMst 
Wti, bj Bnwinmepto ; and Unis, in Centni Asia, 
Bar dw mcr Jamailm (SHotm), tliere were shown 
ikan «f HcfToka and Bacchus, Cynu, Seminmis 
mi AkxaiKlBr. (Plm. tL 16. t. 18; Solin. 49.) 
HaiT adds that Alexander's soldiers supposed the 
to ba the Taoals, and Ptolenqr (iii. 5. § 86) 
piaoaa altars of Alexander uo the true 
Tiasli (/>MsX which Ammianus MsrceUinus 
(xxi. SX cmrrjiDg the confiisian a step forther, 
taarfen to the BarjBthenes. (Ukert, voL iiL pt. 2, 
Pfk 96, 40, 71, 191, 196.) Respecting Alexander's 
«an ia India, aaa Htthasis. [P. S.3 

▲XG1DU8 ('AX^i^X * moontam of Latium, 
knimg part of the Tolainio group of the Alban 
Mi, tboofh detached from the central summit, the 
Ihas Albaniia or Momie Cam, and separated, as 
^ from that aa from the Tusculan hills, by an 
«kr*i*ed vaflej of oonsiderahle breadth. The extent 
a vbkh tfat name was iqiplied is not certain, but it 
to haw been a ganeial appellation i<x the 
partioo of the Alban group, rather than 
ihi* tf a parttcnlar moontain summit. It is cele- 
hatid bf Horace lor its black woods of holm-oaks 
(■ ij f ai ftrtMci fromdis «a Algido), and for its cold 
<ai saowy dmiata {nicaii Aiffido, Carm. L 31. 6, 
i.tl9, ir. 4. 58): but ita lower slopes became 
<An«ds moch frequented b/ the Boman nobles 
■ ft fiaa of sammar retirement, wheooe Silins Itali- 
cs gnv it the epithet of omom a Algida (Sil. 
IbL n. 536; Martial, X. Sa 6). IthasnowTery 
■acb Mnmed ita ancient aspect, and is corered with 
te* favCa, which art fratjuentlj the haunts of 



At m futter period it plays an important part in 

^ fc i ^w T «f Rome, being the theatre of numberless 

"rf if t i Wlwsen the Roiinans and Aequians. It is 

^ <har whether it was — as supposed bj Diooysius 

•LllXi^M followed hj Niebufar (vol il p. 258) 

in the proper territories of the 

t: the ensaaawHW of hrrj would certainly 

'■'toft eaatngy conclnstnn ; but it was continually 

*>fiid hj them as an adranoed poet, which at once 

*csiithiir own oomanndcatioiis with the Vdsdans, 

■ianiispieil those of the Romans and Latins with 

^ ilEa the Hendcans. The elevated pUin 

«M Mfsatod it from the Tuscnkn hills thus 

tbdr babitna] field of battle. (Ut. iii 2. 

I A.tS,&c: OksL HaL x. 21, XL 8, 23, &c; Orid, 

'««-^7iL) OftheaxploitBofwhichitwasthe 

^^ ^ BBst wM w itt d are the victory of Cindn- 

*^ the Aequians under Clodius Gracchus, 

^ *-c 4M, loi that of Poetumitts Tubertus, in 

l^^" «M, «m the eomfained forces of the Aequians 

^^*a««. The bst occasion on which we find 

'^ ^'■v T^fl* mcsmping on Mt. Algidus, was in 

^*"Bal paasiges Dioayiins speaks of a town 

^A lpAas, bat livy nowhere alludes to the 

**"**> rf sath a plaoe, nor does his narrative 

y^^tfci taypoeition: and it b probable that 

f?j** ^ nistakcn the language of the an- 

?*'"d«sdHad**in Algido ** by Iv w^ci 'AX- 

'^^^2^) ^ the name (Strab. p. 237): but if 
"" ^ bit words itricUy, this must have 

been lower down, on the southern sbpe of the hill; 
and was probably a growth of later times. It was 
situated on the Via Latina; and the goige or narrow 
pass through which that road onerged from the hills 
is still called la Cava deW Aglio, the latter word 
being evidently a corruption cf Algidus. (Nibby, 
DwUmd di Roma, vol i. p. 123.) 

We find mention in very early times of a temple 
of Fortune on Mt Algidus (Liv. xxi. 62), and we 
learn also that the mountain itself was sacred to 
Diana, who appears to have had there a temple of 
ancient oelebri^. (Hor. Carm, Saec, 69.) Exist- 
ing remains on the summit of one of the prnks of the 
ridge are referred, with much probability, to this 
temple, which appears to have stood on an elevated 
platform, supported by terraces and walls of a very 
massive construction, giving to the whole much ^ 
the character of a fortress, in the same manner as 
in the case of the Capitol at Rome. These remains 
— which are not easy of access, on account of the 
dense woods with which they are surrounded, and 
hence appear to have been unknown to earlier writers 
— are described by Gell {Topography of Rome, p. 
42) and Nibby {DuUomi di Roma, vol. i. p. 121), 
but more fully and accurately by Abeken {MUt^ 
/taliefi, p. 215). [E.U.B.] 

ALINDA CAAiy&x: Eth, 'Aka^Ms), a dty of 
Caria, which was surrendered to Alexander by Ada, 
queen of Caria. It was one of the strongest places 
in Caria (Arrian. Anab. L 23; Strab. p. 657). Its 
position seems to be properly fixed by FeUows {DU- 
coveriea in Lycia, p. 58) at Demmeergee-derasg, 
between Arab Hissa and Karpuslee, on a steep 
rock. He found no inscriptions, but out of twenty 
copper coins obtained here five had the epigraph 
Alinda. [G. L.] 

ALIPHEICA ('AX(4»npa, Pans.; Aliphera, Liv.; 
*AAl^<pa, Polyb. : Eth. 'AAi^pf ^, *A\t^peuits, on 
coins AAI^EIPEHN, Aliphiraeus, Plin. iv. 6. s. 10. 
§ 22), a town of Arcadia, in the district Cynuria, 
said to have been built by Alipherus, a son of Lycaon, 
was situated upon a steep and lofty hill, 40 stadia b. 
of the Alpheins and near the fraitiers of Eii». A 
Urge number of its inhabitanta removed to Megii- 
lopolis upon the foundation of the latter city iii 
B.C. 371; but it still continued to be a yU<f of 
some importance. It was ceded to the Eleauh by 
Lydiades, when tyrant of MegakpoUs; bat it *% ah 
taken from them by Philip in the Social >^ ar, n. i . 
219, and restored to MegalopoliB. It couimii**?^ 
temples of Aaclepius and Athena, and a c«kil*n»u- 
bronze statue by Hypatodoms of the lattrr fi^otki^ 
who was said to have been bom here- TiMfi* •*• 
still considerable remains of this town «o ti**- iu « 
Nerovitta, which has a tabuho- summit ai*«*.' ow^ 
yards long in the direction of E. and \^ .. l«*# .>.*.• 
broad, and surnmnded by remains of ilt'l*^»*" • ■ 
At the south-eastern angle, a part rau** -• — 
than the rest formed an acropoU.<. li •>• • * 
70 yards long and half as nraili bcwu 
are built of polygonal and nrui»' ui— — 
mixed. (Pans. viiL 3. § 4, UC. ^ " 
Polyb. iv. 77, 78; Ut. xxviii. h ^^^m 
Leake,iforea, voLiL p. 72, »*«i u. 

PeloponMM, voL L p. 1U2; CuiUi> 
vol. i. p.361,seq.) 

ALl'SO or ALI'Sl'M ('fcA-**' 

haps EUen, near Pad^rb**rt* 
Germany, buDt by l>rui«*' • 
pose of securing the •*••*-■ - 
gained, and to have » irtii* i*— 

i. t. 

iiiiil 111.'!- vfie lotallv dffiaifd -> 

i iiiL." C'>-vL28j EulP( .. 

i.ij i.|' ihis (vlirliratrd, bat iit-i^i. 
iiirirkiii vfilb uniu>iuil pwi-n. 

:■ II- aliiii. Iinilcl muUiur infn -. 
■ •..Iiir." {v. 37.) Tl»(l.ul.- 

Iifa into llib {nr. 
/.«<n. which ei— ;. 
xZr/ b'n'tfo about 1- 
><f> ('unco, Khit'l -^ 
cut the *ile of I'l 
', bnt tliwe in a .' ' 
Viu Salaris M .V" ' 
Ihr <Ll.v. The f r 

ir to KoDie, where ii 
ugipuird the tnttl'i- 

alia<:k. Boiti ' 

■ «i botU'f' 

though ti- 

H UinMij:}. 

<mal *» tl» true 

tJ with UTJi 

h. h 

na ilctoocn 


cria the 

h. ««. U Kre«t»r, , 


b. ut.j. 

h th. tlebrocd! 


u [I 

■ nmun a h>» ' 

<nal mil 

V. h« ob»«^ 


in U m. 

nr nwhJiLivy 


MiMty's iiotrs ; Nilihv, Dlntovni if! Jionifi, Vol. i. 
j). l.'JO; (it'll, Toj). iff Ji.u]ut, \). 4S; l>uiL't>s, An- 
tl</t/iti(j< of Ji<u/i(\ v«il. i. ]», 107.) FiMin this 
^|M)t, \vlii( li ih :il»<'Ut halt a mile tVoui tlio diuivb of 
S. S'htuilitiiuf, Mini two miles l'n>m the gratis of 
Koiiir, tlif Aliiii* has a c'Mirse <<{' hctweeii W and 
4 milrs t<» its funlhifiiro witii the Tilur, rrossiii^Lj on 
till" w;iy hoth tiic \'ia Aj'i'ia and the Via 0.>tiensis. 
It \v;i«, at the sjiut wiirre it Jitins the Tilu-r that tin; 
relrlmttrd statU"' ot" Cyhel.' was l;uided, wju'ii it was 
lM-"nL'ht tVcui res>inn>. in riiiy^ia to K'onie in is. c. 
204; anil in menmiy ot' this ♦ irrninstame the sin- 
irnlar e'Tfaiony was oh>erved of wasliinir the ima^e 
of tlic ;u'odde>;s h<'i>elf, as well as ln-r saereil imjile- 
inents, in thcr \Naters of the Almo. on a certain day 
(G Kal. A})!"., or the 27th of Mareh) in every year: 
a sn|KM>tition whi(li suloisted down to the tinal 
extinction of |iaiani>ni. (<Jv. Ftt^t. iv. 3;37 — 340; i. GOO; Martial, iii. 47. 2; .Stat. Sllr. v. 1. 
222; Sil. Ital. viii. .*?♦>.*); Anmi. .M arc. xxiii. 3. § 7.) 
The little Ntieam a)))KMr> to have n-tained the name 
of Almo as late as the .s.-vcnth century; it is now 
connii'-nly calhd tjie At ijmitucfia. a name whicli is 
snj*i><"^i'd l»v .some to be a cHmipiion (»f Ac/wi 
tfA/'pi'i, from its crn.-.sinu' the \'ia ,\]>pia. The>jH»t 
where it is tra\frN<'d hy tliat road v.a^ ahont 1.^ mile 
from the an< ient iVirta Cajn-na; hut the lir>t rcirioii 
oi tlie citv, accordin:^ to the arranL't'ini-nt of Au- 
Liu^tu*'. was cxtendtd to the \rry hank of the Almo. 
(I'rell.r. I>n h'.yinnnt. yi/>//<w. ].. 2.) [K. II. U.] 

ALM'>'ri.\ {'AKf^Mnia), A di.strit t in Macedonia 
inhal'ited by th'- Ai.m«»!«ks ("AAjuajTr^s), is sai<l to 
have been one of the e.irly c.'iiijne.sts of the Ar^rive 
colonv of the ItMuenidae. Le.ike snj'jioscs it to l>e 
the same ci>untry n-Av called Mo'ihna, whii h bor- 
dered njHin the ancient Kde-s.i t" the NK. I't^b-my 
a.s>ijns to the .\lm<>j>*'» tinw towns. Hurma ("Opyua). 
Knropns (^Ef'^Jo'Tros). and Aps dns (^\^^a\os^. 
(Time. ii.9l»; Stepli. li. .<. r.; 1238; Tt-I. 
iii. 13. >j24; la ike.. Vo/V/u r/< './•»' cc. vol. iii. ii.-144.) 

Al.('>Nr.V (".AAiJi'Ta: J 'n't I), one of the thief 
rivers of S.irmalia A>ia!ica. tlnwin^ into the W . ^id*- 
o( tlie ra>i.iin. S. ef th«- I M^'n (()i^5'a,'>'. Komiid), 
will, h i> S, of l!ie Kha ( W'';!';). I'liis order. i:iveii 
1)V i'l-ileiuv (v. y. ^ 12). seems sutri. lent to ideutitv 
theri\ers; :ls th<' Kha i'> certaitily the IVA///, antl 
the Ki'niiii and I\rtl: are the only l.ir_'e riveis tiiat 
t-an .answer to tlie <>tlier two. Ihe 1 1 rtk n>c< \i\ 
M. /•'/■>f<"/:. the lii_'hrxt summit "f the (\aui a^u>. 
and al"'.' r .i rapid e<'ur^e nearly d'le K.f ^r 3.')0mile.>. 
falN into the C';isj ian b\ several nieiith^ n> 44" 

N. lat. ^ * ^ [l*-^-] 

A LOTH ('A\<»»r7j: /.7/j. 'AAojr/rTjv. 'AAoTtes). 
I. A town of riithiotls in rhe--aly. pla>-»il by >te- 
]ihaiui>i lx't\\<cn Liri>-a l'rem:.>te .-.nd Kchinuv. 
Th< re w;i.s :i di-puto ani' !::: the anucnt cri;ie>. 
whe:l;er thi> town was the ^aiiie as the Alej «• in 
Ilo;i:ei (^//. n.f.M': >tra!>.pi>.427.4-)2 : Sleph. li. .'.'•. V 

2. A t"'.\u ef llie • »p'uaian L iTians ell tlif e. a^t 
K'twe. a l)aplitin^ ar.d i'ymi'^. Its rains i;a\e U'en 
di"., oven- 1 i'v »i.;i I'll .m msu! it«'d iiiil n-vir the 
.shore, (^fii'u. ii. 2»'.: Str.ib. p. 42G; Jvyl. p. 23; 
lit II. hi'^r. p. :2:V.\A 

3. A to\v:i ot :hf O^di-ui L'^.-ians of micert.iin 
sitf. ^>tra'\ p. 427.> 

AI.<» ri:» K. fArncv.] 

.\1.< •riA* >NNk >r> \^' XX'^'irtK' >tT!<Tos). n t wn 
on tae we-:eni c a>t ^t the Ihraiian rhep-'''T- -us. 
It '-vx-; n'a A'""'!!!"' c I'i'.v, ;\:id "a-» Ni'.eveil !•> imxxv 
denv. ri •.:•» y.r.ix f:^ 'ii ih-- iut tl;at the set; Icr^ w.-ri 
diiCvt-d bv .tU i' le to e>ta''Ii'h tile culo! V. \Me.-,'> 


they .'ihouKl first meet a fox with its cub. (.Ntpli. 
B. .■?. r.; Nymnus, 29; Liv. xxxi. 16; IVnip. M'Li, 
ii. 2.) In the time of the Macedonian n-M-tiHUmv. 
it was allied with, and under the pn)tKtion i^ 
Athens. (Dem. (/e Cor&n. p. 256, c. ArUUrr. 
p. 675.) [L. S.] 

ALO'KIS {"AXupos: Kth. 'AAojptTTjs), a towu l4 
.Macedonia in the district Botti.iea, i* }>l;i<XMi br 
Stephanus in the innermost recess of the Theniuic 
culf. Accordin_^' to .Vylax it was sitiiatc«l l»-tw.<n 
the Haliacmon and, Leake .supp>>i's it to 
iiave occujiied the site of raha-Uurra, near Kap- 
sokht'n'i The town is chiefly kjiow n on acct»uiit >i 
its beini: tlie birthplace of rtob-my, who iLsuq*^ 
the throne .after tlie murder of Al^-x- 
ander II., son of Amyntas, and who is usually califd 
Ptolemaeu^ Alorhes. (Scyl. }>. 26 ; Steph. B. ■♦. r; 
Strab. J). 330; l.cike, Stn'thern (irtcc, vul. iii. 
p. 435, seq.; Ifict. of' Biof/r. vol. iii. \k 568.) 

ALPiyXl ('AAxTji^ot, llerod. vii. 176; "AAnjKif 
TToAis, Herod. \ii. 216; A'tfi. 'AAirrjros), a towii of 
the Kpienemidii L<.Mi-i at the E. entrance of the pa-ss 
of l-'or details, s<'e TiiekM(»iml.vk, 

ALPE.S (at "AATTffs; sometimes also, but nrvlj 
TO. 'AATTcu'tt upi] and to "AATria opr]), w:is the iwui*' 
Lciven in am ient as well as nnxlern times totherrtat 
eliain of mountains — the mo>i extensive an*! loIliis>t 
in Kurope, — which forms the northern l)oundary oj 
Italy, sej.aratiiii: that coimtry from (Jaul and Ger- 
many. They extend without inteiTUption from th<? 
co.ast of the MediteiTanean In-lween Mii.v>ilia ami 
(Icnua, to that <»f the Adriatic near Jrit.^U, but thcii 
bound.iries are impertectly deiined. it Udnir ahntisl 
imiH>»ibK' to ti\ on any |»oint of demarcation U-twivn 
the Alps and the AjK'imines. while at tlio oy-j.^jcitf 
extnniity. the eastern ridu^es of the Ali«s, which 
separ.-ite the Adriatic from the vallies of the Sirt 
and the Ih-tirt\ are clo>ely eoimectcd with tlie Illy- 
riau ran_'i's of mountains, whirh continue jdniot 
without interm))tion to the lUaek S\i. Hence Plinj 
s]«'.iks of the ridizes of the Aljws as S'>ft> nun} as tb^-T 
dcst'cnd into illyriium ("' mitest .-ntia Aljiium Jup 
[x-r mt-dium Illyrii nm." iii. 25. .s. 28.), and Mela pn 
>o fir as to assert that tlie Alps extend into Thraa' 
(Mela. ii. 4). I'.ut thoujli tie-re is mmh jd.iusibiiiiy 
ill this \ie\v cou-aleied a> a que>tion of jrcuijraphical 
theory, it i> not probable that the term w;\s evrt 
t'amiliarly emj' in >... extensive a .seTis<^. On the 
otht-r baud Mratx* seems to con>ider the Jura Jind 
e\en the moiuit.iius of the lUaek Korest in Swabu, 
inwhieh the l>.(nube take^ its rise, as mere (•fts*ti 
of the Alp> (['.207). The nam.- is probably de- 
rived tVoiii ;» C'cltii Word Alh or Al}>, siiruif^ in<; '*» 
lieijht ;" th'iijh others derive it from an ndjtrtive 
.1//' •* wli::.'.'" wliuh i> con:. evted with the LiUio 
AH'U-s. and i> the ro.'t of the naire of Albi-.n. (.*^trab. 
['. 202: and ^»v Ann'-tron::'s i,<i,lir Virtiot^iry.) 

It wa> not till .1 lat>' j- H.hI tint the llrefk,>« apj-i^or 
to have obtain"-'! anv di>titiet kiiowjoi^je of the Ai J*, 
wlii< h were pi'o'.i'iy m early time.s re;japled asi a 
part ot the Kln-^ itviimt.iins, a irenenil apfrlla- 
tion f'r the mountain (bain, wluch formed tlie 
extreme limit .'f iLeir _.-.'jr..j.iueal knowleil;^e to the 
north. I.^opiiri; i^ tii..- e.iriie-t extant author » ho 
ha.'- menti'n<\i ti.'ir A\h;i h he however em>- 
neo'.^y wr:te> 2a\Tta (.iZ-r. l-ihl); and tht' ac- 
cou-at jiven by .V;^ li niu^ Kh'«iius (iv. 630, ful.). <^< 
the S'ur. es y>\ tile llli naiuis au.l the F.rith'ums proves 
biN er.tire ijnoniTj e .Nf the L.t^'-jniphr iif th«-s<'» rcci<'n«. 
l!ie eoii;';.-t of (.'.valpin'- Teiai by the linmans, and 
still m-a- tile {vL-c-.i,e of Hiumijal over the Alf's, 




fint flw pntnl 

sttention to the moontains in 
tnd Polybhu, who had himself Tinted the 
pftisB ti the Alpine chain between Italj and Gaol, 
wm th» frit to pre an aecnrate description of them. 
JUl his gwy ajAi cal knowledge of their ooorse and 
cant VIS xtry i iup qfe ct ; he jnstlj describes them 
mntn&Bg firam the nagfaboorhood of Massilia to 
tkr bead </ the Adriatic fi;nlf, bot pUces the sources 
(/thr Shoos in the neti^hbonrbood of the ktter, and 
nonAsn the Alps and that rircr as mnning parallel 
wkb jMfa other fitxn NE. to 8W. (Poljb. ii. 14, 
\i, m. 47.) Strabo more oorrectlj describes the 
JUjpi as fbnninfr * great cnrre like a bow, the con- 
on odi of which was turned towards the plains of 
hd?: ths apex at the cnrre being the territory of 
Tfat'Sdaisi, while both extremities make a bend 
mai, the one to the Lignrian shore near Genoa, the 
tW to ttoheMl of the Adriatic (Strab. pp. 128, 
lia) He jnsOj adds that throoghout this whole 
otaat they fcrmed a continnoas chain or ridge, so 
tkt they might he afanoat regarded as one monn- 
^: bat that to the east and north they sent ont 
i&bootB mad minor ranges in difiimnt direo- 
(M. !▼. p. 207.) Alrwdy prerioos to the 
^mr UStnho the complete sobjngation of the Alpine 
9vai by A ugurt UB, and the construction of several 
^ mads acroaa the principal passes of the chain, 
■ «41 as the increased oommercial interooorse with 
tfer DBtMis oo tbe other aide, had begun to render 
tb Alps eamparmtiTely frwwKar to the Romans. But 
5trafao himself remarks (p. 71) that their geogra- 
jkJal poaitian waa still imperfectly known, and the 
"nn of detail of which he is guilty in describing 
thMB blly confirm the statement Ptolemy, though 
viilimr at a later period, seems to have been still 
'mtr i^erfrrtly acquainted with them, as he re- 
pRwAs the Mom AdoU (the SL Oothard or SpUt- 
^) m the point where the chain takes its great 
imi fra a nortbem to an easterly direction, while 
ittaho eorrectly assigns the tenitofy of the Salassi 
IS the pant where thia change takes pboe. 

As the f^nn^^^ became better acquainted with 
Ai JUps, they began to diBtingui^h the different 
1 'itm of the chain by rarions appellations, which 
fmtt^^A in nae under the empire, and are still ge- 
■nSy adopted by geogvaphers. These distinctire 
«ftf^aveas lullows: 

L Altss MAKiTtMAK (^AXmit wapdXuH, or wo- 
>A\iitisi), the Maritime Alps, was the name given, 
p^iUy fron an early period, to that portion of the 
nae* which abota innnediatehy upcm the Tyrrhenian 
Ssi, ktwvtti ManeiUes and Genoa. Their limit was 
iasi hy tome wiitefa at tbe Portus Monoed or Mo- 
•■rs, i aiiMi fi a til y above which rises a lofty headland 
m «hrh stood Uie trophy erected by Augustus to 
—■mil the subjugation of the Alpine tribes. 
[TMirAxnc Arorsn.l Strabo however more 
f^amiAy n^^v^M tbe whole range along the coast 
rfZ«ana aa &r as Vada Sabbata iVado% as be- 
lacng to the Maritime Alps: and this appears to 
Smbnn in aceordanoe with the common usage of 
jar timsa, ^ we find both the Intemelii and In- 
pBeraQy fec kn oed among the Alpine tribes. 
pf. 901, 209; liv. zxviiL 46; Tac i7w^ 
a. U; V«|«e. ProcuL 12.) From this point as hr 
m lbs riv«r Varus ( Var) the mountains descend 
^um to the sea-sbon: bot from the mouth of the 
Vsros tbsy trend to tbe north, and this continues to 
of the main chain as fiu" as the corn- 
ed ths Pennine Alps. Tbe only moun- 
ts ihss pan ol tbe range of which the ancient 

names have been preserved to us are the Mons Cema, 
in which the Varus had its source (Plin. iii. 4. s. 5), 
now called la CaiUole; and the Mons Vbsulus, now 
Monte VisOj from which tbe Padus takes its rise. 
(Plin. iii 16. s. 20; Mek, ii.4; Serv.ot^^en. x.708.) 
Pliny caUs this the most lofty summit of the Alps, 
which is far from being correct, but its isolated cha- 
racter, and proximi^ to the plains of Italy, oombined 
with its reiQly great elevation of 1 1,200 feet above 
the sea, woukl readily convey this impression to an 
unscieirtific observer. 

At a later period of the empire we find the Alpes 
Maritimae constituting a separate province j with its 
own Procurator (Orell. Inter. 2214, 3331, 5040), 
but the district thus designated was much more ez' 
tensive than the limits just stated, as the capital of 
the province was Ebrodunum {EnUnnm) in Gaul. 
(BSckiag, ad NotiL Dign, pp. 473, 488.) 

2. AijnB CoTTiAE, or Cottiakas, the Cottian 
Alps, included the next portion of the chain, fitim 
the Mons Veeolus northward, extending apparently 
to the neighbourhood of the Mont Cents, though 
their limit is not clearly defined. They derived their 
name from Cottius, an Alpine chieftain, who having 
conciliated the fiivour and friendship of Augustus, 
was left by him in possession of this portion of the 
Alps, with the title of Praefect. His territory, which 
comprised twelve petty tribes, appears to have ex- 
tendbsd from EbrodTmum or Embrun in Gaul, as far 
as Segusio or Suta in Italy, and included the pass of 
the Mont GenStrty one of the most frequented and 
important lines of communication between the two 
countries. (Strab. pp. 179, 204; Plin. iii 20. s.24; 
Tac. Hist i 61, iv. 68; Amm. Marc xv. 10.) The 
territory of Cottius was united by Nero to the Roman 
empire, and constituted a sepaurate province under 
the name of Alpes Cottiae. But after the time of 
CiHistantine this appellation was extended so as to 
comprise the whole of the province or region of Italy 
prerionsly known as Liguria. [Liouria.] (Orell. 
In$cr, 2156, 3601 ; NoUt. Dign, ii p 66, and 
Boddng, ad loc.; P. Diac. ii. 17.) The principal 
rivers which have their sources in this part of the 
Alps are tbe Dritextia {Durance) on the W. 
and the Durla {Dora Riparia) on the £., which 
is confounded by Strabo (p. 203) with the river of 
the same name (now called Dora BaUea) that flowa 
through the country of the Salassi 

3. Alpes Graiae ( AAirctf Tptuai, PtoL) called 
also Mons Graius (Tac Hitt, iv. 68), was the name 
given to the Alps through which lay the pass now 
known as the Little SL Bernard. The precise ex- 
tent in which the t^m was employed cannot be fixed, 
and probably was never defined by the ancients 
themselves; but modem geographers generally regard 
it as comprising the portion of the chain which ex- 
tends frtMu the Mont Cem» to Mont Blanc, The 
real origin of the appellation is imknown; it is pro- 
bid)ly derived from some Celtic word, but the Romans 
in later times interjnvted it as meaning Grecian, and 
connected it with the fiibulous passage of tbe Alps 
by Hercules on his return fiiom Spain. In confirm* 
ation of this it appears that some ancient altars 
(probably Celtic monuments) were r^^arded as 
having been erected by him upon this occasion, and 
the mountains themselves are called by scsne writers 
AiPBS Graecae. (Plin. iii. 20. s. 24 ; Anun. Marc 
XV. 10. 9 9 ; Petnm. de B. C. 144—151 ; Nep. Ha$m. 
3.) Livy appears to apply the name of ** Cremonis ju- 
gum'^to this part of the Alps (xxi.38), a name which 
has been supposed to be retained by the Cramont, a 

108 ALri:s. 

iiKMiiitain lU'ar St.Jt'uHir. I'liny (xi. 42. s.97) t<»nns 
tln-iii Alit.s Ckn tumnhwf, fnnii tlic (;;iuli>li trilx^ 
of till- Coutr<>lu•^, who <>ccui»i('il tlivir ^v^•^t^•^l >1ojh'S. 

4. Ai.rKN riiNNiNAK. or 1*(»i:mnae, the IVmiiiiy 
Al{)S. was thf aii)><'ll:iti'>n bv wliicli tin* lioimui.s ilr- 
^iL'uat^•ll the lotiiot and iii«i>t c»MitraI jart of tl)t' 
(1) lin. HXtfiulins; fioiu th<' Moaf Jilaiic on tlio W., to 
tin- Mniite /xosit oil tin' K. Tlic i]v>{ fonn of the 
iiaiiK* is i'vitlt iitly tlu- nio>t corrtMt. anil wa.s (IfrivciJ 
from tlic ('«'ltio ** I\n'' «»r *" Bt n." a hoiirlit or mihi- 
mit : luit till' opinion Iiavini: jrainod t^rouml that tin* 
|>i^> ot tlu- (rfidt S . Ihrnord ovtT tliosc nioiuitaiiLs 
^^;ls tli«' mutt* |Mn->ui'<l l>y Hainiihal. the name was 
t'on-^i>h-reil to he connecttil \\\X\i that of tile Cartha- 
^luiaiis (I'tH-ni). an<l heiu-e the funn P'UMiiiiae is 
fre<[urnt]y a(lo|ite<l hy later writers. Livy him.^elf 
p«»ints out the error, and atlds that the name was 
reallv deriveil, aceordinu' to the testimony of the in- 
hahitants, from a d»ity to whom an altar was conse- 
erattnl on the >iimmit of the pass. jirohaMy tiie s.ame 
>vh ) ^^;ts afterwards wor.>hij«}M'<l hy the Ivoman^ 
them>elves a^ Juj)iter IVnninu.s. (Liv. xxi. 38; Plin. 
iii. 17. s. 21; Slrah. p. 203; Tai . IliM. i. 01, 87; 
Annu. Mare. xv. lO; Nrv. tul Vn-'j. Atii. x. 13; 
OnJl. limr. vol. i. }», l04.) The limits of the 
Pennine Alj»s are n<tuh«n* v.'ry clearl) di>ii];naled; 
but it sri'uis that the wIim],- uj'jx-r valley of the 
Khone. the m xh-rn r(/A//.v. wa^. tailed Vallis PtH-iiina 
(xv Orell. I/iM-r. 211), nnd Annniamis exj»re»ly 
pla< e> the >ounes of the Ilh-'ne in the l\imine A\\» 
(xv. 11. § Hi), so that the tenn nm-^t' have l>eeii 
fre<[ueu'iy ajiplied to tlie whole extent of the moun- 
tain ehain fn.m the Mont lilain" ex-^tward a> far as 
the >■ . (iitthnnf. Th«' name of Ai,im:.s LKroNTiAi: 
from the (iauli^h trilK> of the LejK.ntii, is fivtjuently 
ajt[>iieil hy nuMlern t:''"-ra['hers to the yavi of the 
ran^re inhahitixi hy thi-m U'tween the Mo/Utf yi' 
and the Mi/itt S . liothnnl, hut there is no ancient 
authonty for tlie nauie. TIk* " Ali-tr*? (iraiae et 
Poiiiina*'." during' the later pritnls of the Roman 
emj.iie. eojivtitatcil a M-jiarale provim e. which wa^ 
unit<-d with Trau-alpine (.iaul. lt> chi>-f towns wvre 
Daranta^ia and <Kt"^luru>. (Amm. Mare, xv, 11. 
§12: Oivll. ltk.<ci\ 3^^S: A'../. lh>in. ii. p. 72: 
Bin kinj. iul /ot*. p. 472.) ('oniierr<nl with thf>e 
we fnul mentioIl.^l tin* Al}«-^ Alra« ti:n).U' or Atreiti-, a name othfrwiNi> wjiully 'wu. 

.*). The Ai.i'i > KiiAKTit AK. or K'lat !ia:i Alp^.tnay 
be eon>iden>l a» a ij nw'wvz the rriiiiii.e .Vlj^ on the 
t'lLst. anil iueludiiJi: the i:n'ater )>art ot the ccuntrio 
now eall«Hl the Urinous and the I'ui-ol, I'nder this 
in-Ti' >:rn«Tal apj« llation .aj-j^virs to have Uvn •'"•m- 
pri-i-^1 the tu-'Uiitain nia^N ial\il Mfii^ Adula, in 
which lK>th Sttalxt and l'l"le;t;y place th<' >» unr-- .>t 
tlu- Kliii.e [Aini.A Mons], wiijl,- la* itu> cx{ n N^]y 
tells \i% tliat that river rivs in of.e of tin- mo^t 
O's^if'le and l't't\ m<»'Uitai'rs »<f the lihactian Alps. 
(f»f''"4. 1.) The mor\' ea-t«"T» }">rtii'n of th«- Kh le- 
tjan Alps, in wld>ii the Alli. *is and At.iji> hive 
tlulr M'U'o-s. is lall'il ^'v V\\\\\- and by \ari ni" other 
writers th- Ai \'\ s iLiPtM iNAv;.tV..m :hc imi^-rta:;: 
city yA rndfutum iu the S'Uth.-r.i lyrul. ^^^l;n. iii. 
Iti. >. 20; hion lasN. li\. -J-J ; 11, .r. iii. 4.) 

♦k riie r.i.Nte'-n {*»"!: *M of th'' .Mj^s fn.'u the \ \\\< y 
of the .\the>is .And tlu- {ci>s ,»i' the I-irt'\f,^r to ilu' 
plain< <>( Pannoiii i a:>d tii " s,.urv i-s ot the Sjrr ap;-* ^r 
to lia\e U'l'U known oy \ari 'Us ap|-i llati'U^. (<i whi^h 
it is ui t e.i-sv to dt ten-line tie- p;>Ni-^' « \tc'»t '^r aj>- 
jdic.tti >n, 1 he iv>rth.'ni am \^\ the i ii c.;i. wlu, li 
rxteuxls lhr\nuh Noru am tt> tlie i.« :..!ii.'-> ir'\ »^i y>i 
ViemiA, W4J. kn.'wji ,-vs the Ali'Is Nv»i;icak ^II.t. 


iii. 4; Plin. iii. 25. s. 28), while the mon^ .v-Tit!!-^ 
ranu'«', wlii( h bounds the phiins of Venetia, aud cunf-* 
round the modern Frioul to the neii:lilx«urhi«ii u 
Trirstf, was variouslv known as the Au'F.h Car- 
NKAE and J (MAE. The former desiL'iiatiipa, pd- 
jdovfd by Pliny (A r.), they derived fnm the Cani 
who inhabitefl their mountain fa^tlu•SM.'!.: the bttit, 
whirh a]i|K'ars to have become cuitoiiuiry in hit: 
times (lae. J/Ut. iii. 8; vVmm. Mare. xxi. 9, liii. 
16; Itin. Hier. p. 560; Sx. Kuf. Bnruir. 1). 
from .Tulius Caesir, who tirst re»luced the CanJ lo 
subie(tii>n, and founded in tlnir territory the ti.^ss 
of .fnlium C'arnicum and Foniin Jidii, of whi'h tie 
latt«-r has triven to the province its m<"»leni laiii^ d 
the Frind. We tiiid als«» this |<irt of the Alfc siv- 
times tt-rmetl Alpes Vkxetae (Amnu M.irc. uai. 
16. § 7) from their l>orderinir on the pni\in«e y\ 
Venotia. The mountain rid;:e imni(^li:itely !i!»-^« 
Trit^sfr, whi( h sejxirates the waters of the Ailriitic 
from the valley of the S;»ve, and ctmneits the Alf»^. 
pro}H'rly so <;ilK'd, with the ux^untains of«tii 
and lUyricum, was known to tlie Pomaii-? a-* Mons 
OricA (OKpu, Strab. p. 207: Ptoi. iii. 1. §1). 
from wbi-ine one of the l)etty trilMt*s in the i^ij.- 
bourhoiHl of Terire^te was (alh-^l the .MilNx-rim, {V^i. 
iii. 20. s. 24.) Strain, iustiv ..b>erve> that tlii.N^tL.' 

»' • 

lowot ]>,-irt of tin- whole Alj*ine ran;:e: iii (oUN^iLtLr 
of whirh it Was from a very e.irly in-rimi travt-Tsri 
by a mu( h fn-'ju<'nted jkiss, be«-ame the u<-d;ura 
ot activt' comuH-rcial inton ourse fn>m the liiciu 
colony of .Vipiihia with the vall<-ys of the Sa^t ii/i 
y>/v//v,and by nn-ans of tleKe river> with the piiii»5 
on the banks of the Danube. 

7. We also tind. as aln-ady mentioned, the lA'^t 
of the Alps .vonietime.s exteiuhnl to the nioiiLtaii 
ran^'os of Illyri«um and Dalmatia: thus Pliny (ii. 
42. >. 1)7) sjx ak< of the Aei'ES D^u^ ahJ 
Ta( itus of the Ai.i'Es Pann«>nr AE {Jlist. ii. ^\ 
iii. 1), by whit h iiuwever he ]»erhajis means lit:.* 
more than the Julian Alps. But thi^ exteu^i^e u* 
of the tenn does not st-em to have e\er been ^^eLtrii]' 

Ihe physical char.icters u( the Alps, and th'*e pht-n'tincna whith, though not pecuUir t*> 
tht-iii, thr\ \rl exhibit on a L'reator sc.ile than ju.^ 
otie-r mountain-- of Kurojie. must iiave early attract'J 
tin- attention nt" tr.i\ and ::e»»;„'ra} hers: aii<i ibf 
dith" ultie-s aiid dancers of the j^ki.s>e> over theui were. 
a> was natund, jr'-atly exairirerated. Pohbius wi-^ 
the tirst to i:i\e a account of them. iii>i iw* 
described tii<-ir < haracteristic fe.itim^ on (hta*;'* 
of tlu- iuis>.i-(- of Hannibal in a manner of which the 
art uracy h is U«-n att«'-st»sl by all nn-lem writiT*, 
MralNi.dxi. ^'i\,> a\er^ _'it«l account uf them. notiiic,: 
jvirtindarly the d ri:j--r arisim: from the arahutclrs 
'•r sud«icu f i!l> ot >ii tw and iie, which detatiyl 
th»'nsei\»'s tri»m the vast trozeii in;usst»> al»ove. ari 
hurri.^i tla- traveller over the side of the j-mtfw* 
(^p. 2iU). Few attempts a]'{n-ar to have b»^Ti 
:c. eie to estimate their atfaal hei jht ; but P.>lyKu3 
r\ t .i:ks that it ^'o-atly e\te»ii< that y>X tlie biilii-^t 
\\\ 'u;i! lii.sof untneand rhr.uv.(>I_nnpus,(Ksji,Atiii>% 
\c.: lor tli4t almo^t any of thcM,' mountains mi^iit 
^'w- ,i.N, ,;i>ied by an a(-ti\e walker in a sin^h' «i'».^. 
w!r.;.- he wotild s(..iriviy a.stv!id the Al]* in ti\*': • 
state" '-.t irreatlv e\ i_'L'«-rate*i. (Polyb. «/). ^/rnfr. 
p. 2i»'-*A >:ial«.. on the contrary telU a-, ihi* 
di-ev t i>ti;.t oi" tb.e hi^hext summitsof the inountiua* 
ill tlu- tt.r'-.tory of the M.slulii. did x\i< ein*d 
loo Nt.i.ii.i. a"..i the Niiae dist.iuiv for the de-iV-t *in 
the oti.^r s;ie into Italy {\\ 203), wble Phiiy 


fd. (5) *pft»a to iwitiinato the perpeDdicalar height 
c^ man ci the krftieBt sommita at not less than fifty 
milm! The kagth of the wh<de mag^ is eBtimated 
in NjtHU at oolj S200 stadia, while Caelios An- 
tipter (4]Qgc«d bj Plinj iiL 18. s. 22) stated it as 
BoC Im than 1000 miks, reckoning along the foot of 
thp ■witaina finom sea to sea. Ptinj himself esti- 
■itas ths aama distanre calculated from the river 
VtfOi Id the Axsia at 745 miles, a hui approxima- 
UM Id the tratlu He alao jostlj remarks that the 
t^ diftroit eertimates of the breadth of the Alps 
pifn bj SSmsat aothocB wen founded on the faict 
«f its p:«Bt iAequaHtj: the eastern portion of the 
aagt between Gennanj and Italy being not less than 
Utfnnfes acrooa, while the other portions did not 
fXDMdra (PIin.iiL 19. a. 23.) Strabo tells ns that 
■U» the more \oltj snminits of the Alps were either 
turtnA with perpetnal snow, or so bare and nigged 
M to be altoge t be r nmnhabttable, the sides were 
a<hed with extensive forests, and the lower slopes 
od valEca w«r coItiTated and well peopled. There 
«« bflfireTer ahrajs a scarcity of com, which the 
JiWiratitB procored from those of the phiins in ex- 
<^iaf« ftr the pcudnctians of their mountains, the 
<-W«f which were resin, pitch, pine wood for torches, 
«ix, koMj, and cheese. Preiionfl to the time of 
l^fCvatVA, the Alpme tribes had been given to pre- 
Iti, and were continaally plondering their 
wealthy neighbours, bat after they had been 
Ti a phtely sttbdoed and roads made through their 
tKsnunm they devoted themselves more to the arts 
4 pM* and hosbandry. (Strab. pp. 206, 207.) 
5w wm the Alps wanting in more valuable pro- 
^viiBoa. GfAd. mines or ratho' washings were 
Meiid in them in varioas places, especially in the 
tn3t«y oi the Sakaei (the Vol dAosta), where 
a* Eoaaas derived a considerable revenue frwii them; 
aad ia tbr Noric Alps, near Aquileia, where gold was 
iaad in lamps aa big as a bean after digging only a 
frv fat bekFw the maitat (Strab. pp. 205, 208). 
TW boa minea of the None Alps were also well 
kaiwa to the Romans, and highly esteemed for the 
anOeai quality uf the metal ftimished by them, 
is^iA WH peeufiarly well adapted for swords. (Plin. 
xxziv.l4.a.41;Uar.CanM.l. 16. 9,i:|NMixvii.71.) 
Tfe zBck crystal ao abundant in the Alps was much 
vibal by the Bomana, and diligently sought for in 
fi— ifiBi ty the natives. (Plin.xxxvii.2.s.9,10.) 
Sima l kinds of animals are also noticed by ancient 
vittn aa pecolitf to the Alps; among these are the 
tbniaM (the rmpict^ra of Pliny), the Ibex, and the 
M*— iL Pliny also mentions white hares and white 
frmM or Ptarmigan. (Plin. viii 79. s. 81, x. 68. 
«.U; Varr. de R.R. iiL 12.) Polybius dttcribed a 
ar^ snimal of the deer kind, butvrith a neck like a 
vhI baar,eTidently the Elk(Cervus Aloes) now found 
•viva tfe north of Europe. ( Poly b. op. 5tra6. p.208.) 
U vuaU be impoBRble here to enumerate in detail 
s3 the petty tribes vrhich inhabited the vaUies and 
^/fm xi th» Alps. The inscription on the tropt^y 
rf Aaj^iitas already mentiooed, gives the names of 
■* ki» than fcrty-foor ** Gentes Alpinae devictae," 
««7 «f which are otherwise wholly unknown (Plin. 
i^Sil.sL24). The inscription on the arch at iSusa 
MM>^ ftmrtcta tribes that were subject to Cottins, 
d vhirh tlv greater part are equally obecure. 
(Oeri. Imcr, 626; MUfin, Fby. e» ISkmofA, vol. i. 
^ UK.) Tboae trftes, whose locality can be deter- 
with tolerable certainty, or whose names ap- 
B fasflliivy, wtD be found under their respective 
Igr aa namination of the whde lut the 



reader may consult Walckenaer, Gtographie da 
Gatdes vol. u, pp. 43 — 66. 

The eternal snows and glaciers of the Alps are the 
sources from which flow several of the largest rivers 
of Europe : the Rhone, the Rhine, and the Po, as well 
as the great tributaries of the Danube, the Inn, the 
Drave and the Save. It would be useless here to 
enter into a geographical or detailed enumeration of 
the countless minor streams which derive their 
sources from the Alps, and which will be found under 
the countries to which they severally belong. 

PaaMe$ of the Alps. 

Many of the passes across the great central chain 
of the Alps are so clearly indicated by the course of 
the rivers which rise in them, and the vallies through 
which these flow, that they must probably have been 
known to the neighbouring tribes from a very early 
period. Long before the passage of the western 
Alps by Hannibal, we know that these mountains 
were crossed by successive swarms of Gaulish in- 
vaders (Polyb. iiL 48 ; Liv. v. 83), and there is every 
reason to suppose that the more easily accessible passes 
of the Rhaetian and Julian Alps had afforded a way 
for the migrations of nations in still earlier ages. 
The particular route taken by Hannibal is still a 
subject of controversy.* But it is dear from the whole 
narrative of Polybius, that it was one ah-eady pre- 
viously known and frequented by the mountaineers 
that guided him: and a few years later his brother 
Hasdrubal appears to have crossed the same pass 
vrith comparatively little difliculty. Polybius, ac- 
cording to Strabo, was acquainted with only four 
passes, viz. : 1. that through Liguria by the Maritime 
Alps; 2. that through the Taurini, which was the 
one traversed by Hannibal; 3. that through the Sa- 
lassi; and 4. that through the Rhaetians. (Polyb. 
ap, Strab. p. 209.) At a kter period Pompey, on 
Ins march into Spain (b. c. 77), opened out a pas- 
sage for his army, which he describes as *^ different 
from that of Himnibid, but more convenient for the 
Romans.** (Pompeii Epitt, ap. SaUutt, Hist, iiL 
p. 230, ed. Gerlach.) Shortly after this time Vano 
(in a passage in which there appears to be much 
confusion) speaks of Jive passes across the Alps 
(without including the more easterly ones), which 
be enumerates as follows: **Una, quae est juxta 
mare per Liguns; altera qua Hannibal transiit; 
tenia qua Pompeius ad Hispaniense helium pro- 
fectus est: quarta qua Hasdrubal de Gallia in 
Italiam venit: quinta, quae quondam a Graecis 
possessa est, quae exinde Alpes Graeciae appel- 
lantnr." (Varr. ap, Serv. ad Aen. x. 13.) From 
the time of the reduction of the Transalpine Gauls 
by J. Caesar, and that of the Alpine tribes by Au- 
gustus, the passes over the Alps came to be well 
known, and were traversed by high roads, several of 
which, however, on account of the natural difficulties 
of the mountains, were not practicable for carriages. 
These passes were the following : — 

1. " Per Alpes ^Iabitimas," along the coast 
of Liguria, at the foot of the Maritime Alps from 
Genua to the mouth of the Varus. Though the 
line of sea-ooost must always have offered a natund 
means of communication, it could hardly have been 
frequented by the Romans until the wild tribes of 
the Ligurians had been efilMtually subdued ; and it 
appears^certain that no r^ular road was constructed 

* See the article Hannibal^Iu the DicL ofBiogr. 
vol iL p. 333, and the works there referred to. 

no ALPES. 

qIoii;: it till tlif time of AtiLMistus. Thf Tnonnnirnt 
wliich that ("1111 K'r»'r«Tc<t<'<l<iv.'r tin- hi;:: hot part ot'tlic 
jia^s (jii-t ahtivc the I'ortus MnmH-ci), to coiniiKMiio- 
niti* th«' iv<lintiun i»l" th*- Alpiiir trihc<. is >till <*x- 
taiit, and the Koiiiaii road may Im- (li^tiiictly tracod 
for SfVfral iiiih-; on oach side of it. [Tuni'AKA 
Ar<ir>Ti.] It clid not foll-jw tin- .sinii- line ;is the 
niodt-ni road, hnt, aftrr a^ cndini'' ironi mar .l/< ^z- 
tone to the >nnniiit of tin* j;;iv> at Tnrh'td, d<'M'('nd<*il 
a >id'' vallfv to ('(.'nuni-ho!! ((////</';). and ]«r(tct'<'d«'d 
from tli«'n<<* diiivt to the moutli of li]f\'arii>, Iruxini: 
Ni(at'a on the K'ft. 'I'ho stations al-aiir this ncul 
from Vada Nd'l)ata (IV/f//») to Antij>oli> are thiLs 

L'ivtii in the itin. Ant. p. 'l*J{j: — 

M.P. M.P. 

I*nll<t)tiro - xii. Lumono - - x. 
Alhinirauno A1|m' Snmma (r^/r^/cV?) vi. 

{lihfit//(i) - viii. C<-m»MirIo (<VmAc) - viii. 

Lnio ildiinani - xv. Varnm tinmon - \ i. 

Covt.i lialtnao - x\i. Antijioli^ {AndUs) - x. 
Al!'intimilio( 17/?- 

tiiniijlia) - xvi. 

This line of road is irivf-n in tiu' Ttinfrnry as a part 
of tlu- Via Aiut'H I. of which it wh.> niitl'tuhti'dly a 
<-i»ntinnntion: hnt wi* Icam from th'- in^rii|iti(in> of 
the niil<---.ton''s (ilM-ftvcn-d near Tnrhln tiiat it wa.> 
jtrojH'rly «all<'d the Via Jidia. 

'1. " Ti-K Ai.i'hN C'«»TTiAs." hy thn jviss now 
called the M<nit (i< if crt\f\-aiu Aniru'^ta Tanrinornm 
to IlriLMnlio ( /y/v'«//rr>«) ami KI)r<Miuiium {Ei/ihrun^ 
in (lanl. '^his^A;Ls the most dinnt line of oonimnni- 
rati'Mi tVom tin- north <»f Italy to' (ianl: 
it is evidently that followrd hy ('a«.-ar when In; 
h isti-nf<l to ojijK<N(' tlio H<'lvt-tii. '* ipia ]troximmn 
itt*r in nltcriorrm (lalliam jK-r AIjh's crat " (/>'. (/. i, 
10), and Ls ]»rohal>ly tin' same aln-aily nicntionod a.-> 
Jjavini; hern tir>t explored hy I'nmjx'y. It was after- 
wards one of the |ia>>cs nio^t tVe"|uenteil hy the Ko- 
inins, anil is t«'rmed hy Ammianus (xv. lO)*'\Li 
ine.lia ct <oni|«'iidiari'i." 'I hat writer has ifiven a 
det.iiletl aeriMHit of the ]»as^, the hiL.die-t ridire of 
whirh was kiioAii hy the name of ,M \i i:»»nai*. MoNs, 
a nanx' retained in tlie middle ai-^e^-, and foimd in 
the Itin, Ilierosol. p. ^)')(\. .In^t at its t"<M)t, on the 
Italian >ide, was the station Ai» MAicris. pn^l-ahly 
ne jr the niod'-rn villai:e of t)al.r. 1 he di>tances 
driven ill the itin. Ant. (j». .*141) are. tiMiii launiii 
(Au_'n-ta Taiiriii irnm) to N'u'n-io (S>,.< •) '}\ M. ]*. 
(« L'reat o\.T>t ileiuent : the eorrert di-tan«.e N\onld 
l)e .'$<»); thence — 

Ad Mart is - xvi. iJim.'ie - XAiii. 
r.iMjantio - x\iii. KlnipH|..iiik xNiii. 
Thi'MLrh n"W little iVe.plented, this p.i>% {•> ..nenf the 
I'tne^t ;md ea^ie-«t uf tliove over the main < h'.in. 

:\. " Pl.ic Am'»,s <;i:aias;' hy the /,/■///» ^, U'l'- 
tiftnl. This route, whieli h-d tV«'m .Milan ..nd the 
plains of the I'o hy the \ alley <if the .Silav^i to An- 
trnsta Praetoiia ( Jo.^•^0, and Irom theiiee across the 
mountain jfi^s iuti* the valley of the |> ira (, 
and thronu'h the Tar* iifdi-^t to \'ienna and I.u,'- 
dmmm. i-> >iipiM<^ed hv many writers to have Ik en 
that f>lloT,\ed hy lla-mihal. It wa«. errtaiuly crov^.-d 
hv |). Brut'is >\lth hi> aiiuy after the hitlle uf Mn- 
tina. 15. <\ 4.*{. Hut th«'njh it p'-e-ent^ nmch le-s 
jiatural liifHeulties than it> rieiLdihom- the (ir<(it > . 
J)' man/, it ap|»«'arN to have h.-.n little fre*(uente,l, 
on ae(iiunt of the predat'Ty hahit> of the Sala^si ui^, 
until Au.rustas, atter haviui; enmpN'tely 4>ulMlueil 
that jn'opli', emi-trneted a cirri. f_'e ntnl over the 
(iraian Alj»>, whi<-li thencefurwanl hoeame «»ne «tt 
the most inijNirtant and tie-piented liiius ol' conmmni- 


ration hctweon Italy and Gaiil. (StraK p. 2"S: 
Tae. //isf. ii. CG. iv. 08.) 

I he stations on this route an' tliii^ L'i\«-ii in '.b' 
Itinerary, heiriniunLT from EjK»re<lia, at the uLTi'jr 
ot the \'nl ii\ln.sfti : — 


A'itricimn ( I'trrt.:) - - - xxi. 

Aujusta I'raetoiia (Aostn) - Xi^. 

Arehrii:ium (.v. y^i'/Ztr) - - xx\. 

iJorjintrum (Tiniiiy. S. Jfanrice) xxiv. 

Daiantasiu (J/f>M,<?/er»') - - xra. 

Ohilinum - _ _ - xlI. 

Ad ruhlieanos (^Cojtffanjf) - iii. 

From thi'ne«* thore hramhed off two lines of n'fl 
the one hy Leminemn {CZ/nmht n/) ami AiiT'^t* 
Allohroifum to Viemia, the other iiorthwanLi to Or- 
ne\a and the Laens Lemannus. 

4. '• Phii Ai.i'iis Pknninas." by the ^^■^'f >. 
Jit nuirtJ. This route, which hramhed otf i'mii tt» 
fonner at Auiru'-ta Praetoria, and Kxl <lir<vt jurvt'* 
the mountain, from thence to (Kt«Mlunis (JMWr.'^*) 
in the valley of the Ilhoiie. and tlie heaii ot tht^ Li*. 
Lemamms, ap]tears to have In'en known aD<i tr-- 
ijnented from \ery early times, though it wx* n^rf 
rendered jir.icticahle tor carria-je^. Caesar sjfik* -^ 
it JUS heini,' u^eil to a eon^iijcraMe extent by '^^r- 
ihants and traders, nrttwithstandiu;! the ex:K ti'«i^ t«* 
which they were .suiijectt'd hy the wild triU> il-l 
then oecupied this of the AIp'J. (/A (i. iii. I) 
The immerou-' inscriptions and vi»tive tah'eta tliil 
have Im-cu diMiAerevl sm'hciently atte>t bow iBi-t 
this pass was freipieiited in later times: and it »->- 
rejH'atcdly traverse<l by Poman araiie.s. ((•>! 
lusrr. v..i. i. p. 104: Tae. lli.<(. i. 61, iv. 6S.> Tt^ 
distances hy this road are thus L'ivcn in the Itii^'ivr. 
From Auu'Usta Prietoria to the .summit of t h'^ {».»>*. 
Simuno Peimino, where stooil a temjtle of Juj'ittT — 
•M. P. xxv.; thcn« e to OctiMlonw {Aforfif/iui) VJ \ 
and from thence to \'i\i.-emn (I'tr'/y) ;i4 mi*?, 
pa'-siu^ two oh.Nciu'e stations, the iuime> of whicliJirf 
j.roh;il»ly corrupt. 

f). 'Ihe next j'a^s. for which wo find no app*- 
pri ate name, led from the head of the La( u.s Ijiriii* 
to liiiirantia (/in >/> >r.), on the jAikf of ConsUmt. 
W'e tind no meiiii.iu of this route in early tinie>: l-^il 
it mu.-t ha\e hceu that taken hy .Miliidio. in tbt'i>[-tti 
of winter, when he ]»r«ne<'ded froiu Me-li-'U'unv 
throuudi the PInctian All's to suunnon the \i'il^ 
li( ian.> and Xoii. ans to th-- relief of H«.norius, ((,'I.i> 
di m. B. (iff. v. .S20 — lifiO.) The Itinorari*^ ji^? 
two routes across tlii> p;»rt of the Al])^: th^ e* 
a|<ii;irently ft»ll.>winLj the line of the modem {•*•*•'< 
the Sj,Iii<i* Ik, i»y ('la\i'nna {f />uin titta) and T»r- 
\a'^>e.|ii ( y ) to Curia { Cnin): the other enf^sii-:: tV 
]<iss nt" the Stjifiin'r. hy Mums and Timuli-t (rf»- 
z> n) to Cnria. wht re it rejoined the j»r« eediiii; r at' 
i). •' Pi ic Ai,i'i:s Piialticas or 1" 
throuLdi the nutdeni Tyi'ol, which, from the iKitunv' 
ficilities it ]»reM'nts. must always li;i\ e l>eini on^' '< 
the lU'-st oh\ ions meair*- of comimuiii atit»n Itetwi^n 
It dy and the countrie> on the S. of the Jlaiiit*' 
The hiL;h road led from Verona to Trident um (wh*!^ 
it wa^ •■•iued l>y aero>s ri»;id fptm Opilerjium tbn';..'' 
the \'(il Siff/diui), and thence up the v;dlev of 'd*' 
Athevis as lar .as //<»/:/ w. from wjiirh f«<uit it t'^- 
lowed the AtaLfi^ or I'.'tMuh to its source, and env^ J 
the pi«.s of the Un-mier to Veldidana ( li'iA/«'«. rra,- 
///N-Zy/v/r/.), and from thence a< ros,s anotiier inounUJ 
pi-s to AnL''n>ta Vindcliionnn. [Piiai.tia.] 

7. .\ HKul led fr<»m A'juileia to .lulium Camit^ni 
(Z'"//o/), and from theute across the Jiili:in AI{^ 'i 


ii dw nJlflf o£ the GoO, and by tbat vaUej 
nd thf /Wcr Thai to join the preceding road at 
Vifbann, otar the fiwt of the Bi^ mme r . The sta- 
tud (few of which can be determined with anj 
mtatj) an thM gireo (Itin. Ant p. 379): — 

From Adiaileia Ad Tricesinmm - xxx. 
Julitim Camicum zxz. 
LoQcio - - xxiL 
Agunto - - x\'iiL 
Uttamo - - xxiii. 
Sebato • - xxiii. 
Mpiteno - - xxxiiL 
& AaoUier high road led fiptm Aqnileia eastward 
If tk raUqr of the W^i>pack, and from thence 
VIM thf bamn moantainoua tract of oomparativelj 
MiD dratioQ (the Mans Ocra), which separatee it 
(v the rallry of the Sams, to Aemona in Pan- 
•at. Thera can be no doobt that this pass, which 
jiMits BO cooiidefahle natural difficnkiee, was from 
tjtf MfittC ages the highwaj of nations from the 
teb of the Uaaobe into Italy, as it again became 
xwthtfidl of the Boman empire. (P. Diac ii. 10.) 
7* (fiitsooB from Aqoikia to Aeniona is given by 
Ik Iiis. Ant. at 76 Boraan miles, which cannot be 
hrfina the troth; bnt the intermediate stations are 
TWT sDociiain. [^K* H. B.J 

ALPHEirS CAA^ofo: Brnfia, Rufid or R^ 
mi Hmr rf Koritma\ the chief river of Pelo- 
pMavBi, risci in the SE. of Arcadia on the fron- 
limif Laooaia, flows in a westerly direction through 
Aiaia sad Efis, and after passing Olympia fiUls 
cii (W kniu Sm. The Alphdns, like several 
dihv nrsn and Ukea in Arcadia, disappears more 
^m «ao» in the limestone mountains of the coontry, 
•hf thoB emecgns again, after flowing some distance 
» t r|r s iuil Pansanias (viii. 54. § 1, seq., 44. 
\ \) niMe» that the soorce of the Alpheins is at 
ftjlw, «o the frontaen of Arcadia and Laconia; 
■ai tfaal, aftv reccrring a stream rising from many 
«■£ fanntains, at a pbce caDcd SjmboU, it flows 
uii the tsritory of Tegea, where it sinks nnder- 
jTi^l k risea again at the distance of 5 stadia 
^ Asea, dose to the fountain of the Eurotas. 
Tl» t«« riren then mix their waters, and after 
:w«g in ft oonuDoo channel for the distance of 
iwij 20 stadia, they again sink underground, and 
"Siftar, — the EoroCas in Ijtfnnia, the Alpbeius 
« IVtae, the Fountains, in the territory of Mrga- 
kpi& b Areacfia. Strabo (p. 343) also states that 
t» AJ|4ms and Borotas rise from two fountains 
and that, after flowing several stadia 
the Eorotas reappears in the Blemi- 
and the Alpbeius in Arcadia. In 
(pi 275) Strabo relates, that it was 
belief that if two chaplets dedicated to 
tt> Aijhnos aod the Eorotas were thrown into the 
<nHiaear Asea, each would leai^xmr at the sources 
' thr lifir to which it was destined. This story 
with the statrment of Pansanias as to the 
«f tbe WBten from the two fountains, and 
in a cvmmoo channel. The account of 
is ocnfinned in many particulars by the 
of Coluiel Leake vA others. The 
A «, ia the fint put of its course, is now called 
L« Jlsnaii^ which rues at Kt}^ Kf^wi, the ancient 
l^keik, end whkh receives, a little below Kr^fa 
' *yai a stxma fcrmed of several small mocmtain 
t«'«^ by which the ancient SymboU is reoog- 
*M<1 Oacatning the Tcgeatic plain, the ^oroiMiia 
jfw k«« to the KE.; but there are strong reasons 



for believing that it anciently flowed to the NW., 
and disapp^ired in the Eatav6thra of the manA of 
Taki,* (Leake, Peiopomtesiacay p. 112, seq.) 
The two reputed sources of the Ailpheius and Eu- 
rotas are fbond near the remains of Asea, at the 
copious source of water called FrangSvrysi; but 
whether the source of the Alpbeius be really the 
vent of the lake of Taki, cannot be decided with 
certainty. These two fountains unite their waters, 
as Pansanias describes, and again sink into the 
earth. After passing under a mountain called Ttvn- 
btmUf the Alpbeius reappears at M&rmara^ probably 
Pegae. (Leake, Morea^ vol. iii p. 37, seq.) 

Below Pegae, the Alpbeius receives the Ueussom 
('EAi^iriir: River of Dan&\ on which Megalopolis 
was situated, 30 stadia from the confluence. Below 
this, and near the town of Brenthe {KaHtena)^ the 
Alpbeius flows through a deflle in the mountains, 
called the pass of Lddha. This pass is the only 
opening in the mountains, by which the waters of 
central Arcadia find their way to the western sea. 
It divides the upper plain of the Alpbeius, of which 
Megalopolis was the chief place, from the lower 
pUm, in which Heraea was situated. (Leake, 
Moreaj voL ii. p. 19, seq.) Below Heraea, the 
Alpbeius receives the Ladon (Ad5«r), which risea 
near Cleitor, and is celebrated in mythology as the 
fiither of Daphne. The Ladon is now called Ru/eOy 
Rufid or Rqfiaf by which name the Alpbeius is 
called below its junction with the Ladon. In the 
upper part of its course the Alpbeius is usually 
called the River of KariUna, Below the Ladon, 
at the distance of 20 stadia, the Alpbeius receives 
the Ebtmaicthus ('Ep^^Aoytfof), rising in the 
mountiun of the same name, and forming the botm- 
dary between Elis and the territories of Heraea in 
Arcadia. After entering Elis, it flows past Olym- 
pia, forming the boundary between Pisatis and 
Triphylia, and foils into the Cyparissian gulf in the 
Ionian sea. At the noouth of the river was a temple 
and grove of Artemis Alpbeionia. From the pass of 
Lavdha to the sea, the Alpbeius is wide and shal- 
low: in summer it is divided into several torrents, 
flowing between islands or sandbanks over a wide 
gravelly bed, while in winter it is full, rapid, and 
turbid. Its banks produce a great number of huge 
plane-trees. (Leake, Jforea^ vol. ii. p. 67, Pelo^ 
potmetiacay p. 8.) 

Alpbeius appears as a celebrated river-god in 
mythology; and it was apparently the subterranean 
passage of the river in the upper part of its course 
which gave rise to the foble that the Alpheins flowed 
beneath the sea, and attempted to mingle its waters 
with the fotmtain of Arethusa in the ishmd of Or- 
tygia b Syracuse. {Diet, of Biogr. art. Alphehu.) 
Hence Ovid calls the nymph Arethusa, AlphOas. 
(Met. V. 487.) Firgil (Aen. x. 1 79) gives the epi- 
thet of A Ipheae to the Etruscan city of Pisae, because 
the latter was said^to liave been fimnded by colonists 
firom Pisa in Elis, near which the Alpheins flowed. 

ALSA, a small river of Venetia (Plin. iii 18. s.22) 
still called the^tisa, which flows into the lagunes of 
MaranOj a few miles W. of Aquileia. A battle 
was fought on its banks in a. d. 340, between the 
younger Constantino and the generals (^ his brother 
Ckmstans, in which Ck>nstantine himself was slain, 
and hb body thrown into the river Alsa. (Victor, 
EpiL 41. § 21 ; Hieron. Chron, ad tmn. 2356.) 

* The preceding account will be made clearer by 
referring to the map under Mantikkia. 


ALSIETI'XUS LACUS. a small lako in Ftniria, 
al»<»ut 2 milrs distant tVoiii tlic La»us Sabatiims, 
iM'twccn it and tlie ba^in or crati-r otBin^CdUo, iioav 
«:;illed tlie Lttt/o di Mnrtlf/nano. Its ancitiit iiaino 
is pri'sorved to us only liv Fniiitinus, iVoni whom \v«' 
li'ani tiiat AuL'ustus otnvcvi'd tli'- wator tVoni tlicncc 
to HouK- by an a<iU('diicl, nanu'd tht' Aqua Al.>i<-tina, 
inoH' than 22 niih'> in IrnL'th. The water was, 
hnurvcr, of intrrjor (juality, and served only to 
snj>|>ly a Xauniaehia, and tor jiuriKjses ot" iniuation. 
It was joined at (.'akkiae, a station on the Via 
C'lauilia, 15 miles from Koine, by another branch 
brinu'inL' water from tlie Lai-us Sabatiiuis. (Krontin, 
rA- A(pi(U'(L ^§ 1 1. 71.) The ehanntd of the aque- 
duct is >till in f::<H>d |) reservation, where it i>su»'s 
from the lake, and may be traced tor many miles 
of its course. (Nibbv, iJutfonii, vol. i. j>i>. I'.il] 

— la:.) ' [i:. ii. b.] 

A'LSIUM C'AAn-ior: Alsiensis: Palo), a < ity on 
the coa>t of Ktniria, Ix-tween l'yri;i and Fref^cnae. 
at the distance of 18 miles from tlie Portus An-nisti 
{Por(o) at the mouth of the Tiber, (Itin. Ant. 
]).301.) Its name is mentioned by l>iony>ius (i. 20) 
anion;: the cities which wen* founded bv tin- IV- 
Ia><:ians in i'onne« ti(»u with tlu' abori;:ines. and 
afterwards wre««ti'd from thi'm by the lyrrhenians 
(Ktrnscan?<). But no mention of it wcurs in his- 
tory Jis an Ktruscan city, or durin'j the wars of th.-it 
jK'ople with Bomo. In n. r. 245 a Iv>nian colony 
wa> establi>hed there, whi' h was jilaced on the s,ime 
f>M»tin;r with the other ** coluuiae;" and in 
coimnon with these claimed exemption from all 
military MTvice. a claim whiih was, however, (»v«t- 
ruled duririi:; the exijj'ucies of the Second Punic 
War. (Veil. Tat. i. 14; Liv. xxvii. .38.) Xo snb- 
.seipient notice of it (Mcurs in hi>tory, but its name 
is meiitione<l bv Stral»o, I'iinv, and rtolemv, and we 
learn from an inscription of the time of (.'aracalla 
that it still retained its colonial rank, and corre^jxiud- 
inu' municijKil organisation. (Mrab. pp. 225, 226; 
IMin, iii. 5. s. 8; Ttol, iii. 1. § 4; tiruter, I user. 
J). 271. 3.) It a}»{»«ars to have early become a 
favourite resort with the wealthy Romans as a pla<'e 
of retirement and j»h'asure ('" jiiarifiintis et v<>ln]>- 
UiritiA btrtu^r Front(», I'.p. p. 207, ed. Kom.); thn> 
wc find tiiat I'omjx'y the (Jreat had a villa there, 
and Caesar also, where he landed on his return from 
Africa, and at whii h all the n<>ble> of B..nie hastennl 
to '^reet liim. (Cic. pnt Mllmi. 20, ad Fajii. ix. 6, 
ad Att. xiii. .50.) Another i.s mentioned as l»eli>n;:- 
iniT to Veri^inius I{ufu>, the guardian of I'liny. and 
we learn from Fronto that tin' emjM-ror M. Aurelius 
liad a villa there, to which s4-v«'ral of liis e}'istl<-s are 
addresM'd. (I'lin.Ay). vi. 10; Fronto, pp. p. 205 — 
215.) At a later ]M-rioii the town itself had l"all<n 
into utter deray, but the site w;i> still ocenpied by 
villas, as well a^^ that of the neiLrhlKjurini^ l*yr;:i. 
(Butil. Itiit. i. 223.) 

The >\W of Alsium is clearly fixed by the distance 
from J*>ii'ti>, at the un*lern villai^e of Pala, a |>oor 
place with a fort and nioje of the 17th century, in 
the cou>tru<tiou of whidi many ancient mat«'rials 
have been u>ed. lieside.s these, the whole shore to 
th»' K. of the villaL'c, for the si>:ice of more than a 
mile, is (k< upied by the remains of buildinL's which 
aj'fH'ar to have belonged to a Roman villa of im- 
jxrial date, and of the most ma;rniti<ent scale and 
fetyle of construction. These ruins arc dcMribed 
in detail bv Nibby (^PinUn'ni di Roma, v<»l. iii. 
j.p. ;527, 528). * [K. H. B.] 

ALTHAEA ('AAOa/a: Eth. 'WOcuos), the chief 


city of the Oltade.s in Sfiain, not far from 
Nova. Its capture w.^s Hannibal's first exjA'it in 
Sj'ain. (Bolyb. iii. 13; Steph. Jiyz. s. r.) Itii j»«>ili»a 
is unknown. Livv calls it Cartoia (.xxi. 5). [I*. ^J 

ALTFNFM ("AAtii/oi/ ; Altinn), a city of Ye- 
netia situated on the Imnler of the lairune>. and on 
the riL'ht bank of the little river Silis (.V//)i(C4r 
its mouth. We learn from the Itiueniries tlut it 
wa.s di>tant 32 Roman niile.s from Pat.iviuin. an-i 
31 from Concordia. (Itui. Ant. j.p. 128, 281.) 
Strabo de.s<'ril»es it ;us situated in a mar>h or lacTiLKr*, 
like Ravemia, and we leani tra^elle^s were in 
the habit of proceeding; by water alon>x the Lirimrt 
from Ii;ivenna to Altinum. Tacitus als<i ppeak> (4 
it as ojn-u to attack by sea ; but at the pr*'>»Tit 
day it is distant about 2 niile^ from the Ltiro;**. 
(Strab. p. 214; Vitruv. i. 4. § 1 1 ; Itin. Ant. 
p. 126 ; Tac. J/isf. iii. 6.) The first hlst(jri--»l 
mention of Altiuum is found in VelleiiLs Patennilos 
(ii. 76) durin;; the wars of the Sx'ond Iriunn-irat*'. 
and it apjH^u-s to have fieen then, rts it ^'■rrtltUlv,»^l 
tmder the Roman Emj>in% one of the iiKist 0*1- 
siderable places in this j^irt of Italy. I'liny a.>?ijTS 
it oidy the rank of a nnmii ipium ; but we ieani 
from inscriptions that it subsequently liecanw a 
<olony, probably in the time of Trajan. (Plin. iii. 
18. s. 22 ; Urell. Jiutcr. 4082 ; Zunii.t (It CoU^n. 
]). 402.) Besides its nmnicijwil ini}x»nano**, the 
shores of the adjoinini: lapunes became a favounTtr 
ivsidence of the wealthy Romans, and were gradually 
lined with villas which are de.scrilxil by M:\rtiil 
(iv. 25) as ri\aHin<: those of Bai;u'. The ailjcaninc 
plains wi-re celebrated for the excellence* of tii'ir 
wool, while th<' lairunes alxtuiulcd in fi>h of .til 
kinds, esi)ecially shell-fi>h. (Mart. xiv. 155; Plin. 
xxxii. 11. s. 53; Ca^ssiotl. Pj). Varr. xii. 22.) U 
was lierc that the eini»^ror L. Venis dittl «jf ap>- 
jilexy ilk A. i». 169. (Eutrop. viii. 10; Jul. CajdL 
lV/\ 9; Vict, dt ('a^jf. 15.) The nnnlem villac* 
of Altino is a very \xnjr ])lace; the |i«"riod of th^ 
decay or destruction u\' the ancient city is imknown, 
but its inJiabitants are supj<o>ed to have fled f«x 
refu^re from the inv;v>iMns of the kirlnvrians to Tor- 
Cfl/o, an island in the lajrunes alxnit 4 miles distant, 
to which the ejiiscojml mh? was tran>ferrwi in a. ix. 
635. [E.H.B.] 

ALTL< [Oi.vMi-iA.] 

ALL NTllM or IIALr'NTIUM ('AAaKrior, 
Ptol.; 'AAou»'Ttoi', Dion. Hal.: 'AAoitivos, Haluiv- 
tinus), a city on the N. of Sicily, betwetm 
lyndaris and Cahuta. Its foundation Wiis ascrib*^i 
by so!iie autlntrs to a ]x»rtion of the Ct»mjiani<>n5 of 
•Aeneas, who remaine.1 Ivhind in Sicilv under a 
leader named Patron (I)ionys. i. 51); but it pa:x>- 
balily w;is, ill reality, a Sicelian town. No nn^ntJoa 
of it is found in Di.nlunis, nor i> it notice»l in hir«- 
t<»ry pHur to the Roman conquest of .sicijy. liut in 
the time of t'itero it a|>[ieai-s to have \ievn a place of 
sonie inqMut-'mce. He mentions it as having suf- 
fereil severely from the exactions of Venrs, wh<», 
not content with ruinous extortions of com, cuto- 
I»«-lled the inhabitants to ijive up all their omanifntml 
}>late. (Cic. IVrr. iii. 43, iv. 23.) We leani fn^xn 
mscriptions that it retained the nink t»f a iniinici- 
pium, and was a flourishing to\Mi at Ie;iiit as late aai 
the reii:n of Auixustu.s. 

Its >ite has be<Mi a matter of nuich dispute, bat 
there are very stroni,' argmnents to prove that it 
(Kcupied the same situation as the ni'tdcni to«"n of 
San Marco, which rixs on a lofty hill of tstivp .ir.d 
dilhcult juscent, alnjut 3 miles from the Tjrrrheniaii 


M. ( SbTth't Sjd%, p. 9J.) This position exactly 

Kcard* whh that deicribed by Cicero, who tella xu 

ikMt Verrcs iroaJd not take the troable to tisit the 

tOTn himfflf ''qiiod emt diffidli ascensu atqne 

vdaot* bat icsMoned on tlw beach below while he 

Mst AiHwpirhnit to execute his behests (iv. 23). 

VaiMu ioicnptions abo are preserved at S, Marco, 

or hare beco discovered there, one of which begins 

vitb the wonk r6 Movratlviov T»y 'AXorrfrwy. 

(C«ttll./aicr.^iica. p. 55; Boekb, CI. Na5608.) 

Xo<»TtWsnHfng these argmnoits, Clurerios, M- 

kwiof FaatUn, placed Alontiom at a spot near 

S.Fibdti/o^ where the ruins of an ancient city 

sm then viaUe, and regarded & Marco as the site 

tf Agsthyma. It most be admitted that this ar- 

napnat avoids some difficoHies [Aoathtrna] ; 

tat ths above pnoCi in fiivoor of the contiary hy- 

pAaat nem afanoct conclusive. (Clnver. SiciL 

^m;Faaea.«efi^e&.^.ix.4.p.384.) [E.H.B.] 



cx>cr or Atxrsrmm, 

ALTDDA fAAijMa), a town of Phrygia men- 
kmd is the Peotii^er Table. Arondell (/>MCorertes 
mAMmMmor, I p. 105) gives his reasons for snp- 
pm^ t^ it may have been at or near UshtUt, on 
tk Md between Sort and AJbmn KaraMstar, and 
ttet it wu afterwards caDed Flaviopolis. He found 
wiwil Gnck inscriptions there, but none that con- 
uad the nams o( the place. [G. L.] 

AirZlA CAA«<ta, Thnc vu.31 , ct alii ; 'AAv^io, 
,%|h.B. J.e.: Etk. 'AXwff^, 'AAi<o*»f, 'AAiJftioi, 
i^ BSefch. CbfTW /Mcnpl. No. 1793: KandiU), 
« toea «■ the west const c^ Acamania. According 
k> iknbo it was distant 15 stadia from the sea, on 
*^kh k fiarwrd a baiboor and a sanctuary, both 
^dkitad tP Hetacke. In this sanctuary were some 
««fcs if srt by Lysippns, representing the labours 
< Hnvalo, which a Boinan general caused to be 
siMvid to Some on aoeoont d[ the deserted state 
^tkflaee. The remains of Alyzia are still visible 
A tht valley of KandUL The distance of the bay 
«i Kn^ fram the ruins of Lencas corresponds 
vtk tfe ISO etadM which Cicero assigns lor the 
Uan between Alvxia and Leucas. (Strab. pp. 
4311, 4M: Ck. ad Fam, zvi. 8; Plin. iv. 2 ; Ptolem. 
B. U.) Alyxia is said to have derived its name 
<v AJyiBVB, a son of Icams. (Strab. p. 452; 
«*»*». 1^ s. V.) it is first mentioned by Thucy- 
<(^ hi a. c. 374, a naval battle was fought in 
t» Mfbhsarbood of Alyxia between the Athenians 
«iv Tnothens and the Lacedaemonians under 


Nicolochus. The Athenians, says Xsnoi^on, erected 
their trophy at Alyzia, and the Lacedaemonians in 
the nearest islands. We learn from Scylax that the 
island immediately opposite Alyzia was called Cainus, 
the modem Kalamo, (Thuc. viL 31; Xen. IfeU. 
V. 4. §§ 65, 66; Scylax, p. 13; Leake, Wor^Asm 
Greece f vol. iv. p. 14, seq.) 

AMADOGI ('AftdSoiroi), a people of Sarmatia 
Europaea, mentioned by Hellanicus (Steph. B. a. v.) 
Their country was called Amadocium. Ptolemy 
(iiL 5) mentions the Amadoci Montes, £. of the 
Borysthenes (^Dmeper)y as an £. prolongation of M. 
Peuce, and in these mountains the Amadoci, with a 
city Amodoca and a lake of the same name, the 
source of a river falling into the Borysthmes. The 
positions are probably in the S. Russian province of 
JekaterinotUttfj or in Kherson. [P. S.] 

AMALEKITAE ('A/toAiiirTrai, Joseph. Ant. in. 
2 ; in LXX 'A/xoA^ir), the descendants a( Amalek 
the grandson of Esau. {Geu. xxvi. 9 — 12.) This 
tribe of Edomite Arabs extended as hr south as the 
peninsula of Mount Sinai, where '* they fought with 
Israel inRephidim" {Exod. xvu. 8, &c) They 
occupied the southern borders of the Pnnnised Land, 
between the Canaanites (Philistines) of the west 
coast, and the Amorites, whose country lay to the 
SW. of the Dead Sea. (Compare GetL xiv. 7 with 
Numbers xiii. 29, xiv. 25, 43 — 45.) They dispos- 
sessed the Ishmaelite Bedouins, and occupied their 
country " from Havilah unto Shur, that is before 
Egypt." (Compare Gen. xxv. 18 and 1 Sam. xv. 7.) 
They were nearly exterminated by Saul and David 
(1 Sam. XV., xxvii. 8, 9, xxx.); and the remnant 
were destroyed by the Simeonites in the days of 
Hezekiah. (1 Chron. iv. 42, 43.) They are the 
Edomites whom David smote in the Valley of Salt 
(2 Sam. viii. 12, 13; a title to Psahn Ix.), doubtless 
identical with Wady MaUkh, about (even hours 
south of Hebron (Keland's Palestine, pp. 78 — 82 : 
Winer's Bib. Real. s. v. ; Williams's Holy City, vol. L 
appendix i. pp. 463, 464.) [G. W.] 

AMANIDES PYLAE (^Ktu»»t»u or 'AAtoi^ucol 
flvAoi), or Amanicae Pylae (Curtius, iii. 18), orPor- 
taeAmani Montis (Plin. V. 27. s. 22). "There are," 
says Cicero (jad Fam. xv. 4), " two passes from Syria 
into Cilida, each of which can be held with a small 
force owmg to their narrowness.'' These are the 
passes in the Amanus or mountain range which runs 
northward from Rds el Khdmir, which promcmtory 
is at the southern entrance of the gulf of /sibendenm 
(gulf oi Issus). This range of Anianus runs along 
the bay of lekenderun, and joins the great mass of 
Taurus, forming a wall between Syria and Cilida. 
" There is nothing," says Cicero, speaking of this 
range of Amanus, *' which is better protected sgainst 
Syria than Cilicia." Of the two passes meant by 
Cicero, Uie southern seems to be the pass of Beilan, 
by which a man can go from Iskenderun to Antioch; 
this may be called the lower Amanian pass. The 
other pass, to which Cicero refers, appears to be NNE. 
of Issus, in the same range of mountams (Amanus), 
over which there is still a road from Bayas on the 
east side ci the bay of Issus, ioMarash : this northern 
pass seems to be the Amanides Pylae of Arrian and 
Curtius. It was by the Amanides Pylae (Arrian. 
Anab. ii. 7) that Darius crossed the mountains into 
Cilida and came upon Issus, which Alexander had 
left shortly bef«ire. Darius was thus in the rear of 
Alexander, who had advanced as far as Myriaodrus, 
the site of which is near Iskenderwu Alexander 
turned back and met the Persian king at the river 




I'liiarus, ln^tw.-^i-'n I--iis ami'lrn^. ^\llcr^' \vas 
f..iii'lit llii- l'attl«' rall'il ill*' l..ittlr .'1 [--u.-. 'I'lu- 
i;.in;ili\<' •'! Aitmh ii,.i_v li«- < ..aij .ucl wiih ihf mni- 
iiuiit.iry i.t ri.l\l'iii- (\ii. 17, I'J). 

,s;i;i!i"r> (li-^cripti'iii t,\' ih-- Aiiiaiii'K'> (]>. VtlO) i- 
X\u>: " .'il'trr Mallus in A<-.M' u-. wliuli lia- a Miiall 
t'lrt; tlK-ntlif Aiiiaiil'li'^ pvla.-. li:»\ 'uil' an aiiili.ira,'t' 
ImV >liii.>. al wliiili (|i\lat) tiTiniiia'c tlic AiiiaiiU' 
i.i.niiilaiiis, <-.\tr:i(liii;i (low II iVoiii lln' 1 aiini>. — ai',< 
:ill« r A<'L'a«'.if i> I.-mi"-. a ^iiiall tirt liavinir an aii- 
< liMMu"'. ;"nl tlji- ii\<r riiiaiii-."' Stralxi tlnTit'«n' 
|. lair- til'- Amaiiiilr^ r\ la.- i).■t^\l•t■n A'-jac anil N»u>. 
aii'l ii'-ar lln- <na>t ; ainl tli'- .**>tai!i i<-iiiu- ami I't"- 
Iriiiv ••i\(' till- v;i'iic |( iMtioii t<» tlif Auiaiii<li-i. '1 liis 
|«a>-N i> r>|irt-niti il liv a |tla<c ii^iw (all'<l /\<irii Ki'/u/ 
on till- ri>a<l bi'twf -.1 Milium on tin- ryiMniu> (./( A*/// ) 
an. I l-^n-. I>nt tli'ir \va> aii'>lli<r j.iv., '• \\lii(li" 
(a.> Mav'i- llt-Mii'll <.ltMT\rs, a:i.l l.-akr aLTc.-s wilh 
\\\\\\) '• l•l•.l^-illL' .M>iint Aiiianu^ Ir-nn tin' »a>t\\ai>l. 
(li'x tiidi-il ujH'ii til-' ccmn' <>\' tlif liia-I (.r tin- -^miIi'. 
i>«Mr l>sii>. liv this ).as> it lliat hariu^ man lii<l 
iVoni S"liu<. aii'l t'X'U u|> lii> |»<i>iti -ii i»ii tlx- l<.ii.k> 
i.r til'" I'liiaru-.; I«y \\lii<li inovt-nit-nt AIf.\,unli r. wli.i 
jia'l in-t l'«'t->n' inar» li-'d tV«'!n .Mallu> tu M\ ri an.h ii--, 
lliiuujli tli«- twii inariiiMu- ).ylar,\\a^ ] la<(il hrtw-t-n 
tlir rrr^ians and Syria."' ( Lrakc. ./<>///•//'// iijd Iniir 
in A. flu Min4)i\ )>. 210.) 'I'liis is the whirli 
lias ht'cii avsiiiiinl t'» b<' tlu' Ainaiii'l<'s (»t Anian ami 
Curtiii-. aUout NNK. of l»ns. It full.c.vs iV'-ni this 
that till- Aniaiiirai* I'ylaf of Ataian {Annli. ii. 7) ai<' 
ii'>t th'' Aniaiii«l<'> of StralMj, i}. Curtiiis sjmmU^ of 
a j.a>>\Nhi(h Al<-xan(l»T had to '.'othrouirh in inarrhinL: 
tiMMi tin- I'yrannis to K.sus, and tiiis |»a>> must \-y' 
Kara. Kttjiti. K'tni Knpu is not on tin' ca^t, hut 
it is not far from it. if Straho caiU'd thi-> the 
Ainanid<'s I'yla*', a.s hf sci-ms to havo doiio, h'- < t-r- 
tainlvL'avc tho name to a dilK-n-iit jiassfroin that hy 
which l>arins descended .f.)!! I>sus. There is another 
])as>au'<' "f Stral**! (|>. 7.")1) in whieh he >ays: " ad- 
jacent to (lindarus is J'ljrae in the territory of 
Anti<M h. a stroni: jx'st lyim: in the line of the |(a>,s 
over the Ainanns. I mem that j«ass whieli Ieail> finin 
the Anianides i'yiae into Syria," Leake is clearly 
li.'ht ill Hot adojitinu' Mij'-r Kennells su].]«-ition 
that Straho hy this |m->s means the Anianides. lie 
I'vidently means another )»ass. that of Jd ilmi, whieh 
leails trom l>kenderun t<» llaknts or I'a^'ras. whi< h 
is the m'Klern name of Pai/rae; and Straho is so tar 
<'on>-istent that he de>( rihes this pass ot' Tairrae as 
leadiiiL: from the j.a^s wlmh h>- lias lalled Aniaiiitae, 
J.eake sho\v^ that the Anianides I'yiae of Straho are 
U'tween -Aei.'ae le and h>u>, hut he hxs not sniii' iently 
liotiei-d the dilleienee hetweeii Stia!)o and Arriail. as 
Cramer ol>>erve>. (.I.vo/ Minnr. vol. ii. ji.'J.M)). 1 he 
nia|» whieh illustrates Mr. Ain^uoitlfs jiajter on the 
I'ilieian and Syrian dates (Lomluu (iiinj. Jiminnl. 
vol. viii. jt. 18.')), and whieli is copied on tli<' oj)- 
jia-ite j>a'i<\ en d«le> u.s to f'»rin ;i mure (dnett .[ud^^- 
ineiit of the text of the an< ient writtrs; and we 
ni IV ni»\v consider it certain that the Ainanicae I'yiae 
<if the hi>t'>rians of .Alexander i^ the jui» NNK. of 
Is^iis. and that Str.ioo h is ::iM'n the name Ainanides 
to a dilferent pass. [(i. L,] 

A.M.A'N TIA (*A^o»'Tio: 'Ajuarrui's, Sleigh. 
W. f.r.\ 'Aua*^a'<n, I'lol. ii. 10. ^ .'i; Amantinns, 
I'lin. iv. 10. s. 17. §.'i'); Amautiaims, Caes. Ji. ('. 
iii. 12; 'A^ayrfs, Ktym. M..f. i\: Aniante>, I'lin. iii. 
23. ^. 20. ij 4.')), a town and di>iriet in (Jieek II- 
Ivria. It is -aid to have heen t'timded hv the Ah iiite> 
of I'.uhoea, who, actordin.: to tradiiion. >ettle.| near 
the Ccrauiiiaii niouutaius, and founded Auiaulia and 


Throiiium. From h-Ud- the oricinal nariio fi .\'i .tv- 

ti I i-^ -aiil to jiave 1" .n Ah ii.'.ia. ;in«l the ^U^TM;M ,.; _• 
ei.untiy to h.l\f h> ell «.dle! .Vltilitl-. (>'<j!i. h. 

.". r. A^at'Ti'j. "Auat'Tia; I.tyiii. M. .«. r. 'AiUiTti; 
I'aii-. v. 22. ^ "5.) Auiantia proliahly -•t""'] -it >- ::c 
di>taiiee iVom ill'- ("a-t. S. of the river Aon-, uhi'ii 
,a trihntary of ih.- lailer, named l'..l\ .mt lie-, (fi. 
«ophr. 1(»4:».) It i> ] luel hy Leake at A.ri'.a. 
where there are the ren.ain- of Ih llenie walU. \i\< 
>ite ai'iee- W ilh the <li>taners alio! i,!ed hy S vl,i\ ;i, 1 
the labidar Itinerary, the t'ornu-r of whirh 'Ici-- 
Aii.antia at .'{2<> sl.idia. a:id the la:t«'r at ."Id l;../ :.:, 
mile- I'lom .\jKil!oi,i I. I'loli-my •-j-«Mks ..f a, ,\|.^i,. 
tia on the eoa^L.-md aiiothi-r town ot the -an . : .r,.'.' 
inland: wle'me we may |ii'rhap> iiil<rthat li.<- Li"<'' 
had a port ot the ,~amf name, more e- pei i il|\ .■t^ 'tr 
laiiuua'je ot' (■ai--ar ( /»'. (\ iii. 40) would i'.i'pU !l.i' 
.Vipantia w;c> si'n.iled on the eiui-t. Amaiu'-MVi- 
.a piaci- of .--ouie iiiUH.itanie in the eivil uar- i^'.v.ou 
('a»-ar and l'oi.ij»y: and it <.oiitIi.u«-,l jo Jm- h .ii- 
tiii.e:! in the time ot ih«- liy/.tiitiue i nij«r<<:>. (^ i--. 
/;. C. iii. 12. 4(>: t i' . J 'In/. \\. 11 : Le.ike, J?we'( 
, (lr< « rr, \ol, i. p. .'J7 '). "-<• !•) 

AM.\'Nr> (0 'Auai'iis, TO 'Ajuai'ji). i^ (l«-.<Tit.>'l 
h\ Straho a> a detai lied I'art (an-o.-TTTarrao ) of I.i in-. 
I and as firmin;^ the -oulhein Kaind iry ..f fli- jLia 
I ot' (ataonia. lie .-upi«'-c.- this ranu'e t<> hnuili'!? 
' from the 'faurns in (ilii ia. at th.- .s^nnc phur wii-rv 
' the Antitauru- hranc hf.> otl and takes a iiion- nortL- 
eilv din'eii.>ii, 1' ruiiuL' the iiorthriTi iH.nndAiy >i 
,rata'»nia. (Strah, ]i. .'»."J.').) Ii.- eonsider> the A' :i 
nu^ to extend ea-tward to the Li'.phrat«'«. and M i- 
I teii(\ wh<-re Comniajeiie l«>idei> vn C'ap)wai»iV 
Here the nuii:!' i> interrupted hy the Lu|.hni<^. 
Iiut it rccommeiKe^ on the east side of the n\fr. m 
a lar^'iT mass, n.ore ( |e\ated, auil nK>re irre;:ubr I'j 
form. (Strah. ]•. .')21.) He further ;idd> : "tl!.' 
mountain raiii:>' "f Amann.-> exti'iids (p. o.'tj) t" V',- 
li( ia and the Syrian sea to the w-e>t fnt'in l."a;;i <.:- 
and to the .south; and hy sm h a divisj.n (5*a<rTcur«i) 
it iiieludes tbe wh lie L'ldf tif I>.su-, and thf in'.'^T- 
mediate CirKaan v.alleys towani- tho Tam-us." 'Ita* 
.-eeiu,> to he the me.iuinL' of the de-i-ription of liaf 
.\manu> in Str.iho. (iro-kurd, in his (.Jeniian ^?t- 
sioii (\ol. ii. p. 44S) translates SiatrToxTft ^ir^lplv l< 
'"extent" {(i/i.></f fiiiii/tf/)[ hut hy attendiniT tf»Sinh.'» 
Words anil the order ^<\ thein. we t-vv\i\ to dolucr '^ 
nieaiiini^ that the donhle direction of the inoun*:i'.'. 
iiM hides th'- ;:ulfof Is^ns, Au<l tlii* a:rnH-> with 
what Straho says cl-ewhere, wlieii he inake> tlf 
.\manus des< end to the uMiIt of Isv,ils Ix'twivu ArL".« 
and Issus. [A.m,\mi»l> I'] 

'I he ti'rm Aniatins in StralM") then ap]^%irs to l< 
apj lied t<» the hi-h eround which descend.s from tltt 
mass of Taurns to the LTulf of Issns, arnl Uumd^ il < 
east side of it, and also to the hiLrhl.ind wiii«h »'\- 
ten<ls in tile direction already indieai»>l u> lit* 
Luphratc.s, whi» h it strikes north of Siiud-^ita (N' 1 he ,l<hr,ir Jhtijh ai'jx-ars to he the ira-^ 
deni name of .it least a part of the north-4"a>ti-n 
cour,-e of the Amanus. The ])ranch of the An .-iuu 
w hi. h descends to the Mediterranean on the eiL^t -iu' 
of the ijulf of Is.-ns i- said to att.ain an avera^«* «V 
vatiou ot ."iOOO feet, .an<l it tcnnin.ates ahn>j-ll\ i 
./till I h/iiSinl: and lui.f-tl-Khiht.zlr. This tap 
see, lis to he Lhosus, or the Lho>icns S'opUiu> c 
I'tol-niy. Then- was mar it a town Lhosus. \\hi- 
St<'phanu-(.«. e, 'Po-rrov) j.laces in Cili< ia. Kl»<i-r^ 
now Av.<ii.<. '1 here is another short rani^e w hi* h 
eomsi-cted with .\manus. .and advanees ri^ht t«» tl 
h .rders of the .sea, hetwecn JutJS'tl-K/tut:iriUKl ti 


r nia aout or ibsds, a 

I. Bu-d-KUniir. 
S. BeOaaPiu*. 

3. B(«hruPaw. 

4. PaH froD BajtM. 

1. Demir K>pa, or Kan Eapo. 

I. Pynimtu. 
I. Sdeaceia. 
}. OroDtoi. 
i. Antiochda, 
'. Pagrae. 

116 AM ANUS. 

month of the Orontcs: this app.irs to bo the Pu'iia 
of Stnibo (p. 751). On iho M)Uth-\\o>t base of this 
rrinLTo, calk-d PicriM, was S«'I«-utri;i, which Str:il>o (p. 
670) aMisitU'rs to hr tho tir^t city in Syria aftor 
Icnvini; CiHcia. Acfonliniriy, he ooii-^iilcrs the irnnni- 
tain ran;ip of AmaiiiL'^, which terminates on the ea>^t 
Siide of the £,'ulf of Is>us, to mark tlie houndary k-- 
tween Cilicia and Syria; and tliis is a cerrcct view 
of tlie physical! ixeo^raphy nf tlie conntiy. 

Cicero' (mZ /«/«. ii. 10), who wa,s jxoverrK.r of 
Cilicia, descrilx'^ tlie Amanus as eotnmnii to him and 
Bihnliis, wh<» was ptverncir i>f Svria; and he calls it 
tho water -shell of the .streams, hy which descriptii»n 
he means the rant,'*- which hounds the cast side of 
tlie <ailf of Issns. llis descrijainn in another pas- 
saire aUo (/((/ F<im. xv. 4) shows that his Amanus 
is the rauije which hits its termination in /^f/^'-tY- 
KhiUiZir. Cicero canietl on a campaiL'n against 
the mountaineers of this rani:e dnrini,' his j:uvcrn- 
nient of Cilicia (n. c. 51), and took and dcstroy.xl 
several of their hill forts. He enumerates anion;; 
tlu-ni Krana (as tho name jstands in our j)re>ciit 
texts), which was the chief town of tho Anianus, 
Sepyra, and C(»mmores. Ho also tfx>k Tindojiissus, 
a town of the Kleutlicr.H ilices, wlii« h was on a hiiih 
jK/mt, and a place of threat stren;;th. The jiasses in 
the Amamis hav<' Iveeii already enumerated. Ou the 
hav, In'tween I>kendernn and Jiatia.f, the U.iiae of 
StralxKind the Itineraries, is the small river J/c/V.-rr, 
supjiosed to bo the Karens or Kersns of Xenophon 
{Auah. i. 4). On the south side of this small stream 
is a st(»ne wall, which crosses tho narrow I'lain bo- 
tw»vn tho Amanus and tho soa, and terminates on 
the coast in a tower. There are also ruins on tho 
north side of the Kersns; and nearer to tlie moun- 
tain there are traoes of "a double wall between 
which the river flowed." (Ainswoi-th, Lomloi (Jvtxf. 
Jaurnal vol. viii.) At the hea«l of tho river Kerens 
is the stoop |>.ass of Bofjhras B^li, one of the pa>s(s 
of the Amanus. This deseription .seems to atrreo 
with that of the Cilieian and Syrian L'ates of Xeno- 
phon. Tho Cilieian pi>s wa^ a ^'att-way in a wall 
whicli descendeil from the mountains to tho sea north 
of the Kersus; and the Syrian jiass was a LTatoway 
in tho wall which extended in the .same direction to 
the south of the river. Cyrus marched from the 
Svrian jiass live [uarasanLTs to Myriandrus. which 
may be near the Mto of liiktmUrun. We nenl not 
.supi^oso that the jin^ent walls near the Mtrhz are 
as old as tho time of Cynis (n. v. 401); but it 
.M-enis ja-obable that this sjNit, haviuL,' once been 
cho>en as a strong tVoiitier iK)>ition, wouM be main- 
tained as such. If the Korsus is projxMly identified 
with the Ml rkcz, we aUo consider it as the 
L'ates throu-'h which Alexander man IumI from Malliis 
to Myrian<lriis, and through which ho ret unu'd from 
Mvriandrus to give battle to l)ariiis, who had de- 
sccnih'd ui>«>n Issus, and thus put himself in the rear 
of the Cireeks. (Arrian. Aiutb. ii. 6, 8.) From 
these L'ates Alexander retnicctl his man h to the 
river I'inarus (/V/« C//<u'), near which w:i>. fought 
the battle of l.^sus (ii. r. .'Vi3). If the exact ]>o- 
sition of Issus were ascertained, we might feel more 
certain as to the interpretations of Arrian and Cur- 
tias. Nieluihr (JieiMn ilnrch St/ncn, Sec, 18.'^7, 
Anfiditf/, p. 151), who followed the road tVom Is- 
btulerun along the e.-u^t ooast of the bay of Issus on 
his n)ad to Con-^tantinoj.le, (.bservos that XenophoU 
makes tlie march of Cyrus 15 jKirasan^s from tho 
rvmmus to Issus; and he observes that it is 15 hours 

by the road from Boyaa to the ryraniuij. Cyrus \ ri\or tlow^j north, and enters the southern 


nianhed 5 parasangs from Issus to the Cilieian an«i 
Svrian irates; and [gkt mh run is 5 hours from />'< i »/"■»• 
Hut still he tiiinks that Myriandnis is at /sL* r^i^- 
rnn, and that the Cihcian and Syrian po^jc* is at 
Mcrki'Z ; but he add>-, we must then remove l«su3 
to Jk/iiir K'ljiH ; and this makes a new .iilHiuIty, 
for it is certainly not 15 parasangs from Dt utir KftjfU 
tj> the Tyranms. Ile.-ides, tho ixi.sition of I^>il< al. 
Ikialr Kapn will not agree with tho nianh «'f Alex- 
ander as descril>ed bv Curtius; for Alexander ntadi? 
two days' march from Mallus, that is, from the I'y- 
ramns, to Cast.abalum : and (tne dav's rnarth fr««in 
Castabalum to Is>us. Castabalum, th«Mi» may l-» 
rejnvNented by Jkinir Knpu, undoubteilly the nr- 
niains of a town, and l>sus is somewht-iv ea-st of 
it. The IVntinger Table jtlaees Issun n«*xt to Ca5- 
tabalum, and then comes Alexandreia (ad Issam)- 
C<»n>eipieiitly we should l<H)k for Issus s•>n.t•^^ h*:*?* 
on tlie road Ix'tweon Lkmir Knpfi and Isk* ndt^rtin. 
Now Issus, or Is-i, as XeiiMphnu calls it. ■was crti i»r 
near tln^ ooast (Xen. Anah. i. 4; Strab. \>. 676); 
and Darius manhed from Issus to the l*inanij» to 
meet Alexander; aiul AU'Xaiider relumed from Myri- 
andrus, thnmgh tho I'yiae, toniect Darius. It a^^-tns 
tliat as the plain about the I'inarus (orro>i»»iids to 
Arrian's descii|»tion, this river must have U-^.-n tlial 
whin* the two armies met, and that wt» nm>t \*»-\i 
for Issus a little north of the Pinarus. and nt-^u* \\ye 
head of tho bay of Issus. Tho>e who hav<* ex- 
amined this district do not, however, s<'ora to hav« 
exhausted tho subject; nor has it boon treated bj 
the latest writers with suthcicnt exactne>.s. 

Stej.hanu.s (.v. i'.'Irrtroy) s;^iys that Issus was calle^l 
Xic(»[H»lis in eonse<iuence of Alexander's vicT<»rT. 
Stral)o makes NicitjM.Jis a ditll-rpnt jdar-e; bat his 
description of the spots on the bay of Isi^us i«* c«»i^- 
fused. Cioem, in the description of his CilicLan 
campaign, says that he encainiH'il at the Ame Ai«ex- 
andri. near the base of the mountains, lie irive* do 
other indication of tbe site; but we may be sitrr 
that it was north of the Cilieian Pylao, and prv»l<»Vdy 
it was near Issus. (^U. L..J 

AMAIIDI, or MAKDl {'^^ia^ol, MapSoO, m 
warlike Asiatic tribe. Stephanus {s. r. *A^taf>doi). 
following StralM), places the Amardi near tht- Hvr- 
eani; and adds '' there are also Persian M:irdi with- 
out the a." Stnibo (p. 514) says, '• in a cireie n~>aiMi 
the Caspian sea after the Ilyreani are tho Aiiidinii, 
^c." Coder Mardi, Stephanus (quoting Api>lhj<i\>fTi>) 
sjK'aks of them as an Ilyrcanian triU*, who wer^ 
robbers and arc hers. Curtius (vi. 5) de.s<;ril»e5i th^cn 
as iM.rdering on Ilyrcania. and inhaliitiii£r mouuli«ji»« 
which We're covered with forests. Tlioy occunir^l 
thi-nfore part of tjic mountain tract whiiTi f«>rm3 \ht^ 
southern boundary of tin* basin of the C:ts]>i;4n. 

The name Mardi or Amardi. which we may ass-nm** 
to be till" same, was widely spread, for wo find Manli 
mentioned as being in Ilyrcania. and Marixiatia, ».b.o 
as a iKHiiadic Persian tribe (Herul. i. 125; Stm^v. 
p. 5:24). and as being in Annenia (Tacit. An9K xiv. 
23), and in otiier jiln es. This wide diMrihuti<.n oftb'*-! 
name niay \n' partly attributed to the iiri^ortincv ad. 
the Onek and ponian writers of tlie get'graf hv cj 
Asia, but ni't entiielv. [^G. l'i 

AMAHDUS, or .MARDUS CAMap5o», Md^^s^, 
Dionys. Perieg. v. 734), a river of Molia, mt'ntioTj^-Oj 
by Aminianus Marccllinus in his c«»nfused dorscri"*. 
tion of the Persian provinces (xxiii. 6). I*tc.|'-'j « 
(vi. 2. § 2) i»la<es it in Mnlia, and if wc take ^i j 
mnnbers a,s correct, its source is in the Zarjnvs, Tti< 

coast CH 


Iht Gif|iiaiL II appeus to be the S^ftd^md^ or 
KaU Oiim as H is othenriae called. As Ptolemy 
fi«a the Amardi round the soath coast of the 
CwfiiB and extending into the interior, we may 
Bifpsp that they were ooce at least situated on and 
cUot tills river. [G. L.] 

AIU'BI LACUS (jal -rutpcd Ktfirat, Stiab. xvii. 
pk904; Plin. ri. 39. a. 33), wen a closter of salt- 
kmi cart of the I>elta, between the city of He- 
niptiGa aa) thedetertof Etham — the taodtmScheib, 
Tbff Bitter Lakes had a slight inclination from N. to 
L. sad thrir general ontline resnnbled the leaf of 
iki fjctmore. Until the reign of Ptolemy Phila- 
AJpfav (a. c 885—247), they were the termination 
tf the niysl canal, by which the native monarchs 
ufl the Penbtt kinga attempted, bnt ine^ctoally, 
t6 ma the Peloisiac branch of the Kile with the 
Vd Sem. Philadelphns carried the canal through 
ikrw lagoons to the city of Arsinoe. The mineral 
^aitia ai these lakes were nearly destroyed by the 
atnAedun of the Nile-water. A temple of Se- 
ofii stood on the northern extremity of the Bitter 
Lik«. [W. B. D.] 

AMABYXTHUS CAM'vreoY : £th. 'Afutpweuts, 
'l^^iriot), a town npon the coast of Eoboea, only 
7 fltaia from Eretria, to which it belonged. It pos- 
■nd a cekhrated temple of Artemis, who was 
knr» caDed Amarynthia or Amarysia, and in whose 
kAMT then was « featiTal of this name celebrated, 
WdkEaboem and Attica. (Strab. p. 448 ; Pans. 
I31.{5; Ut. zzxT. 38; Steph.B. «.r.; DicLo/ 
ill art Amnpmtkia.^ 

AMASETa^S, a imall river of LaUmn, still called 
tb Ammmmo, which rises in the Vdsdan mountains 
Aw Prirernnm, and descends finom thence to the 
fMior marAw, thnmgh which it finds its way to 
Utt «a, betwwQ Tarradna and the Circeian pro- 
fidars its ooorae was artificially regulated 
together with its ooafluent the Ufens, one of 
tW <kid agenta in the formation of those marshes. 
h» mae is not dand in Phny or Stzabo, but is re- 
jmaOj aicatioiied by Virgil (Aen. riL 684, xi.547). 
Smiai^ ia hia note on the fanner passage, errone- 
«d/ places it near Anagnia, eridently misled by the 
n^nmam d VlrgiL VlUua Sequester (p. 3) cor- 
mdr asji ** Amaaeniia Privematium.'* [E. U. B.] 

AJilA*SIA ('AittUreia, ^AfMiria : £lh. 'A/uurc^: 
Ammm^ Am^iak^ or JaMAJfoA), a town of Pon- 
t«. «B the river Iris, or YeshU Ermak. The 
•Via tf the dty ia unknown. It was at one time 
ua laadoice of the princes of Pontus, and after- 
*vb ^^ffttn to hare been a free city under the 
!!«■» ^ the time of Domitian. It is said that 
*J IW oMM to the time of Domitian have only the 
??«rah Amasfia or Amasia, bat that fix>m this 
*<am taey bear the effigy and the name of a Roman 



The coins from the time of Trajan bear 
tbiich Ui>ni|nJiw, and it appears to have been the 
{WdtVflf pQctna. 

AaMia warn the birthidace of the geographer 
yinko^ who iiauilwa it in the (crowing words (p. 
4<1}: **«ar city fies in a deep and extensive gorge, 
t^nm^h which the river Iris flows; and it is wonder- 
Uy oastriKted both by art and by nature, being 
"AifieA to ewe the purpose both of a city and 
< a Ut For there b a kifty rock, steep on all 
ate, sad iksiimlimj^ abruptly to the river; this rock 
kas ito ««n IB ooe dire<iioo on the brink of the 
t^*«r, at that part where the dty is connected with 
>*: sad n the other direction, the wall runs up the 
^ ■ OKh ade to the heights; and the heights 

(KOpv^ot) are two, naturally connected with one 
another, very strongly fortified by towers ; and within 
this enclosure are the palace and the tombs of the 
kings; but the heights haye a veiy narrow neck, 
the ascent to which is an altitude of 5 or 6 stadia 
on each side as one goes up from the bank of the 
river and the subui^; and from the neck to the 
heights there remains another ascent of a stadium, 
steep and capable of resisting any attack; the rock 
also contidns (fx't? not iK%t) within it water-cis- 
terns {pipua) which an enemy cannot get possession 
of (dya^(/>eTa, the true reading, not &ya<^^/>crai), 
there being two galleries cut, one leading to the 
river, and the other to the neck-; there are bridges 
over the river, one from the city to the suburb, and 
another fiiom the suburb to the neighbouring country, 
for at the point where this bridge is the mountain 
terminates, which lies above the rock.*' This ex- 
tract presents several difficulties. Groekurd, in his 
German version, mistakes the sense of two passages 
(ii p. 499). 

Amasia has been often visited by Europeans, but 
the best description is by Hamilton (^Researches in 
Asia Minor J ^. vol. i. p. 366), who gives a view 
of the place. He expluns the remark of Strabo 
about the 5 or 6 stadia to mean ''the length of the 
road by which alone the summit can be reached,** for 
owing to the steepness of the Acropolis it is necessary 
to ascend by a circuitous route. And this is clearly 
the meaning of Stiabo, if we keep closely to his text. 
Hamilton erroneously follows Cramer {Asia Minor^ 
v(d. L p. 302) in giving the version, " the summit^) 
have on each side a veiy narrow neck of land;** for 
the words " on each side ** refer to the ascent to the 
*' neck,*' as Groekurd correctly understands it Ha- 
milton found two ** Hellenic towers of beautiful con- 
struction ** on the heights, which he considers to be 
the Kopv^ of Strabo. But the greater part of the 
walls now standing are Byzantine or Turkish. In- 
deed we learn irom Procopius (cfe Aedif. iii. 7), 
that Justinian repaired this place. Hamilton ob- 
serves : *' the Kopiv^ were not, as I at first ima- 
gined, two distinct points connected by a narrow 
intermediate ridge, but one only, from which two 
narrow ridges extend, one to the north, and the other 
to the east, which last terminates abruptly close to the 
river.** But Strabo clearly means two KOpwpaiy and 
he adds that they are naturally united (trv/i^vf is). 
It is true that he does not say that the neck xmites 
them. This neck is evidently a narrow ridge of 
steep ascent along which a man must pass to reach 
the KOffv^oi, 

The 68f>cia were cbtems to which there was ac- 
cess by galleries (<nJpry7««). Hamilton explored a 
passage, cut in the rock, down which he descended 
about 300 feet, and found a ** snmll pool of clear 
cold water.** The wall round this pool, which ap- 
peared to have been originally much deeper, was of 
Hellenic masonry, which he also observed in some 
parta of the descent. This appears to be one of the 
galleries mentioned by Strabo. The other gallery 
was cut to the neck, says Strabo, bnt he d<^ not 
wjfrom where. We may conclude, however, that 
it was cut from the Kopvpai to the ridge, and that 
the other was a continuation which led down to the 
welL Hamilton says : '* there seem to have been 
two of these covered passages or galleries at Amasia, 
one of which led from the Kopwpal or sununits in an 
easterly direction to the ridge, and the other from 
the ridge into the rocky hill in a northerly direction. 
The fonner, however, is not excavated in the rock, 

I 3 

■ -.;.. I'liii. Ti. S.) Tl™ 

{A|,].i.;n, .imri.l. Pii.) 

,1.-1.™ I..B1, ,l31^is -.u h..ll. M.-- ..( If,.. riv.T! 

Kil km..<-,. ;i1] l.,,'»l.; il |.;^.iu.v^ ..Ilk. 

. »;.,.j. J.-«r. v.,1. s, 1^ 442.) [.i.L.] 

.\ M Mill's CAuaflo.'' 

(.-.■.bi. ].. 41; Mi;.l.. [^ fiS3 j l>nus. il. 4l, 
S i; St.|.h. 11. <. r.i -rii,-. J»». iii. 62: OnIL 
iviii. .',1; ilv. .1™. iii. I.',. 15.) It i™. .«i6^i^^ 

Im-. ■■ ■ ; .1,., ■■( ..1 lh..'l'l',.-^,i,iuir.l-i]~ 

■ -I 1,1 ..-. lis ramir inrfl*'- 

..|..i,-. t.. li.iv.r..ii-i.t.^i.,ftwodi<:k.': 

■ ■ ■ Il ill.' >iH«i;.:<.f'.<war.- 
i: . .ll-..^,.n■ll th.. ti- 

■ ..■.■.. ,i[.'!i™ifr,ft^i'«-.p.Irt:h- 
■I i, ]■. nilJ. «■.!.: M..v,.r». lUt l"^' 
,.l.ii. If a2l.a4(.,«>|.) 
> ('A>iiiUut'i nrra'fiiaed), S(Irnn.'l> 
..,, Ill- r.i.t nf Ihr Jor.t.-iii. in l..." 
.,ii:iT, mil.'- tiilltll nf iVll.l ([.1.-I 
"...■. J.-.1V..U-.1 t.vAI«aiKlfr Jii;ti..i 


(Jav}Ji A»L lail 13. § 3), and after ib restoration 

•M *«r f«f tJir fiip« cities in which the Sanhedrim 
mt: the othms were Jerusalem, Jericho, Gadara 
«ri Sr^fJioris (lb. xir. 10). Barkhardt passed 
" th» rains of an ancient diy standing on the do« 
rGfitf of tbe mountain** called AnuUa, near the 
Jnnian, and a little to the north of the Zerka 
(Jal4«k). He waa told " that sereral colnmns 
irmmia »tandin|r, and ahw some large boildings.** 
(TrarrK ^ 346.) [G. W.] 

AMA-ZUNES CA/io^JmO* • mythical race of 
■vfike ftmaJes, of whom an acconnt is given in the 
Ifietiomary of Biographf and Mythology. 

AHfiAKHI, a Gallic people, whom Caesar {B. G, 
I II) calls claw allies and kinsmen of the Aedui. 
h t&c reading; '^ Aedoi Ambarri " in tlw passage re- 
tnrd to is cwrect, the Ambarri were Aedoi. They 
a* ad mmtifiaeft among the " clicntes " of the 
.WaL (A G. vii. 75.) They occupied a tract in 
*d* ralky c^* the Khone, probably in the angle be- 
tMtn the ixmtae and the Bhone; and their neigh- 
fti«n {JO the E. were the Allobroges. They are 
r-focioDni by Li^-y (v. 34) with the Aedoi among 
V^f* <UIli who were said to have crossed the Alps 
odfc Italy in the time of Tarqninius Priscus. [G.L.] 

'OIBIA'SI. a Bcljric people, nho were said to be 
*^ to miuter 10,000 armed men in b. c. 57, tiie 
?*v ti Caesar^s Belgic campaign. They submitted 
t » Caeaar. (^. <?. iL 4, 1 5.) Their country lay in 
tar raUry uf the Samara (^Somme); and their chief 
^^n ^a^larufaTira, aftennftrds called Ambiani and 
Hritas Ambiaoemiiam, is supposed to be represented 
*<* Awmma. They were among the people who took 
^ in the j^rcat insurrection against tl^ Romans, 
vIccJi is dewsibed in the seventh book of the Gallic 
w. (A G. vii. 75.) [G. L.] 

ti» trae readin;^ is said to be (Soeton. CaUg. 8), a 
}*»* tn the coantrr of the Treriri above Confluentes 
{'''Mtmtzy, where the emperor Caligula was bom. 
h* }»Tiiie portion cannot be ascertained. [G. L.] 

AMBIBAKI, one of the people or states of Ar- 
»*»- (Car*. B. G. vii. 75.) Their position does 
M apprar to be determined. [G. L.] 

AJMBILIATI, a people mentioned by Caesar 
( & is. m. 9) with the Nannetes, liorini, and others ; 
'c »<ittJi;; can be inferred from this passage as to 
•W pmdM* padtjoo. Some of the best MSS. have 
•s t^ pKHK^ thtf reading ^ Ambiauos ^ instead of 
• -\»ACi»j«." [G. L.] 

.UIWMrNTES or BISONTES, one of the many 
*W«ie imkiwwn tribes in the interior of Noricum, 
fcint the soorccs of the rivers Ivarus and Anisus, 
•1 ti« Detrhbonrbood of the modem city of Salz- 
"TTt. (PHn. iiL 24; Ptol. ii. 13. §3.) [L. S.] 

AUBIVATIETI, are mentioned by Caefar(A G. 

'i 7i> as " cKentes** of the Aedoi; and they are 

■^iwond a^^n (rii. 90). As dependents of the 

^Au, tbry uuFt have lived somewhere near them, 

* Ibnv is no evidence for their exact position. 

*■» Anilatareti mentioned by Caesar {B, G. iv. 9) 

•!• » yvf^ oeir the Moea {Maas). As the two 

-**n an evidently the eame, it is probable that 

'^n* i* Mine error in one of the names; for these 

"^ « the Mosa could hanlly be clientes of the 

WaL A> to the various readings in the passaji^ 

' A f;.rT.9),areSclinrider sedition of Caesar. [G.L.] 

AUBUJlA fAM^AaJa: £a. 'Am*Ao«€w»), m 
'•Trf Pi4<fia, which Strabo (p. 570) phicoa near 
Mm Waalarirs of Phrygia and Caria. It prodaced 
*» thst vas used for medidnal porpoftes. There 



are copper boins of Ambhtda of the pmiA of the 
Antoniui and their successors, with the epigraph 
Af(6Aa8«wv. The site is unknown. [G. L.] 

AMBRA'CIA ('AfiwpoKla, Thuc; 'AM^poicfa, 
Xen. and subsequent writers: 'AfAVpaKu&rrity Herod, 
viii. 45, Thuc. ii. 80; Ionic *A/iirf>aici^j, Herod, 
ix. 28; *AiJi€paKuoTri$, Xeu. Anab. i. 7. § 18, et 
alu; 'AfASpoKitis, ApolL Rhod. iv. 1228; 'AfiSpd- 
Kios, *ktikpcLKi¥os^ Steph. B. «. v. : Ambraciensis, 
Liv. xxxviii. 43; Ambraciota, Cic. Tusc, i. 34: 
Artd)y an important city to the north of the Am- 
braciot gulf, which derived its name from this place. 
It was situated on the eastern bank of the river 
Arachthus or Arethon, at the distance of 80 stadia 
from the gulf, according to ancient authorities, or 7 
English miles, according to a modem traveller. It 
stood on the western side of a ragged hill called 
Perranthes, and the acropolis occupied one of the 
summits of this hill towards the cast. It was rather 
more than three miles in circumference, and, in ad- 
dition to its strong walls, it was well protected by 
the river and the heights which surrounded it. It 
is generally described as a town of Epirus, of which 
it was the capital under Pyrrhus and the subsequent 
monarchs ; but in earlier times it was an independent 
state, with a considerable territory, which extended 
along the coast for 120 stadia. How far the terri- 
tory extended northward we are not informed; but 
that portion of it between the city itself and tha 
coast was an extremely fertile plain, traversed by 
the Arachthus, and producing excellent com in 
abundance. Ambnida is called by Dicaearchus and 
Scylax the first town in Hellas proper. (Strab. p. 
325; Dicacarch. 31, p. 460, ed. Fuhr; Scyl. p. 12; 
Polyb. xxii. 9 ; Liv. xxxviii. 4.) 

According to tradition, Ambracia was originally a 
Thesprotian town, founded by Ambrax, son of Thes- 
protus, or by Ambracia, daughter of Augeas; but it 
was made a Greek city by a colony of Corinthians, 
who settled here in the time of Cypeelus, lOxjut b. c. 
635. The colony is said to have been led by Uor- 
gus (also called Torgus or Tolgus), tl\e »?'* ^ 
brother of Cypeelus. Gorgus was succe<^ed m tne 
tyranny by his son Periander, who was depoMd ^T 
the people, probably after the death of the Cormthi«i 

Ambracia soon became a flourishing cj^y? *^^ ^_ 
most important of all the Corinthian coloni^^ tne 
Ambraciot gulf. It contributed seven ™P*J*\aQ 
Greek navy in the war against Xerxes, b. c. ^ 
and twenty-seven to the Corinthians in tnei^^ 

againat Corcyra, b. c.432. C^^^^ J^X ;iUea of 
i. 46.) The Ambraciots, as colomsts ^a ^^^ 

Corinth, espoused the L»^«^°;??f tim^t Ibey 
Pcloponnesian war. It was about this tiin« ^^ ^^ 
rciK^hed the maximum of their power. ^^^^\y^. 
extended their dominions over the v»rio»e«^^^ 

lochia, and had taken Y^^^^TJ^ l^Ach. lUcy ^^«^ 
town of Arpoe m this district, from wni ^ ^^^^d 

driven out the original in^^'^^^L-^^ana, app^*^ 
Amphilochiam,srapportedbytlieAcarn«™ ^^^^^ 

for ^d to Athen.."^ The A^benians a^^ "^^J^ ^^^ 
a force under Phormion, who tooK a b ^^^ ^ ^^i^ 
Ambraciota as slaves, and y^s^*^ ^g^. Aii^tiotia 
Amphilochians and Acaniamans, B^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

to recover the lost town, the Aip°«^ ^ ^^^ were 
afterwanlB (430), «»««*^*^ '^'"ST, wring vrai^tc U« 
nnable to tike it, and '^^^^ ^f/hbr^P^^.e, ibey 
territory. Not disheartened by this rep ^ 

rlA. AMIlliACIA. 

n«in; ymrOany "ill. ' Liihr M.V. .,■ .i.hi.-, Lioul. W.Jfr 1 

[111.. ,l..|l..i ILiK- .!„.«= lb.' »n. i.nt <i-all., wh.-:- 

lh.w Ui-i Au<W.fl:i rinitmuril ,1.'-<t1...1 nf),T iU 
l.i.t r » ,. 1.'-.. . ii,.i.-.l iiilIit lilt' Kvunliiic l::iiij4n-! 

']'li'>'-'l i ' ■' Aiiil.i„i.i :..i I |..> :,i..„-ht nrilrn.! 1. AiD- 

irt' tlirfi..:.' Ui^ A. :..Liii> 1l,.i, ll,. ^, [:„■ j.-,t iJ AiL.w-'i.i. 3, Cram-iv 
Fiilv[ii-. Mhiwiii-.u Aeii- I Aiiil.r.-i.iL- l-A^gpamj) i» ili'«riU'J Lv |'.,lvl,i,is 
111- l.~i-LiT5. ■! !»■ .MM-iil. . a. n |.l.,,',. k,-II llTtiti.-d \k r»iii|i.-irt» niut ,.iu--,>rk-, 

s vulimlili' vf«k> ..f -M. ' I u" Mim.iiiuliO I'V iiinr.-lK». ilr<Hi;:li nhi.-li ih.rr 

Mil.-. (I'cd. JLSii. a— 13; j mil .nili- ihh' iiarr.w laiiw'Way Uiuiiiis to Ibi' 
10 lliis tiiiK- Amt.™,i,i r.i- It «■:,- iiikn. l.v I'liLlEj. V., ki-y rf Jlac.Jui.U. it. b.c. 
iiu>i™m]il.>[fdbvAii-it<- aiW. Hi.uipn'lmiiiiiin'louii iiHii'l; ui"ii Aii.l-ri.i3. 
>ii.ii>liil.iK;ii'<,«lik'li I (l>.J.iv.fil,ti;i.) tlvvlai |ff..UiblT nlludn to ilib 
rntiim uf hv vk't.irv ul ' [.In.-.', wli.'n lip Kivg (p. IS) Dial Atiibnui:! hml ■ 
I'liiis. V. as. § 3.) ' I lumi'SM mar itr> luiri»ilr; fur linir Ibv wn-Ivni ^>.-,t 
y ikiubt tint ^Irto is tlit- 1 14' tlic '-IJ iiunilii .it' lliv rit'rr Aniclithut (.Irca} 

nilf, TluTciiuiiumif ill.' i hiim.iHin tuvMf nitli tbr diwrii-liun i4' IvMjili. 
la llie iit»tiiiiriil!i nf llir 'IJi.'i- ur>- MliviLiliin a m'ui.i]>y i'liiNj. iu a uln,^),. 
ihc sln-Hjrth of iti ("rtiti- lakr'iir-ar tlii> «'n. 'I'liCT im-liwiJ lui air» .^ at-.u; 
built ufiii.m,.ii.-t.|U.iJr;iii- a riuancr of a luiit in iilciit, miJ "ni-aix-d tu t» 


' V^^ »»«. »hi<* wu »U lh.t tb« TOunw 

■t) " ■ «4..»T*, Au.4-' , 

^J^***'; ""gilt >i ^nt ^th > dakL The 
r*"" ""* •»'« bam « »rtifici«l one; for the 
^r?J~«ii of ihe Art. i, „ oUlmclfd bj mnip. 
?r_r?^ ^J^"^ •" •« Kombk tr™ lo b(«t.. 

I llso «t«DMd 

r. 651) ipealu of " me 

>■ > ■oBw^ ^J"*!^* *** ' ™^ vilbg* Btoitel 
'■■■juMjja of Uv — ITM Duna, whkh Lnke top- 

'T'i;-' .■**•" "«• from the right bank of ths 
"Tf™- "'^**'**fl7 oppodte to the 

^ fcrtiaed l^ U«, Theh.™ ^th . douMo ■- 
■^ ^Samst Philip. i^ fbrtific-t»"^ 

J the KoTMBu, 3U1 the Macr^aaa wmr, »- * 
K'v,""!i'" '^-^ "^^^ "'• ofAinbry«»« S« 
J ! '^"?. ""■«« «f JihiMcmo, bj ->» »»»* 
-hich Chmdlsa: fonnd .t tho Ultar pl»c«- 
remauui of the mncient city arc few «nrf inco 
«ble. (Dodwell, Tottr tArough Grw™, ▼ol- >- 
letl-; Le«ko, Nortfurm Gt-^ta,, vol. ii. p. &3a 
AMENA'NUS C^^'-^-V. Stmb-: 'A/*- 
Staph. Bts. vhera the MSS. haTs ■AtAafi-"^"^' 
FBI, I'ind.: Amenaiui flmnina, Ovid- .^''" 
467), > BOiall river of Sicilj which flomro *: 
ity of Cataoia, now called the «7«»*« 

. . ' tl* tsrrhory rf Ambrad. ind Amphi- | It » noticed by Strabo (p. S40> 

,™^'?^J™r™» (■**) mention, a people c«ll«l able for the vicismtod« to which it t 

"*!._ jf"/™^' **"• *H"" to have heeu in- its -wateTB Botnetimes failing altof^ber for 
^J^'wntauM named Matrinoro, be- 1 and then flcnciiig a^aiii in abundance- Tin 

T of the Ambnuaot pjf. 1 peculiaritj ia Temarked by Ovid ( Jfrf. »v. 271 
I is still obaerved with irKard to the GiiftMmcni- 
\ ii probably connected with internal changes «n 
\ at the ft»t of wliich it rises. (Fawll. ill. X- ] 
IciUTer. £>cil. p. L30; D'Orville, Sicv/ca, p. 
1 Findai apeaka of the newly funnded cit^ of 
I (the name ipven by Hiemn to Catana^ bj» hI 
I by the watara of the Amenas, bat the cwi i oc:±: 

" ' ■ », preserred bj Strabo, Is ^ 

, which bear on Ibe otyv^tr 

AlOKA CnjS STNUS <* 'AttM^attattt titcnt, \ bad of tha rivor deity, under the nanal fok ^ 
l». L 35: » 'AfiMftutuAt KiKroi, PoL i» 63 \ yoathfnl ni»lo head with honw on the ror»b*!« 
>nA p. 325, et aL : * a<Ua<raa 4 'Aiiipajtorti, the name at fuU length AMENANOX. C^ 

"^•» L 13 : tuntia Ambrarina, Liv. xxxriu. SciL A'tmum- pi. 20, fi^- 8.) HE. M. 

•■'"■»■*: Cy/"»/"-4rto), an arm of the iMuanl AME'RIA, tCiBiKA.] 

•». IjiiB bctwaeu E|jinia and Acamania, ao calied \ AME'KIA (^Kfupia, Strab. Pl»L Plat. Jl^a 
i» the town of Ambracia. Polybina (I. e.) de- 1 'P^ifoni, Steph. Byt i Amerinus; An^iay^ 
"ita tha bay aa 300 atadia in length, and 100 I the most ancdeot and important cities trf XJT 
«"mhr™dth: Stntbo (t c.) Rives 300 ata.^ « \ rituated about 15 m. ^ "^ Tuder a™l y 
=* oreamfcTHice, which U abannily too amaU. Its \ Kamia, on a hill between the vuIIej of the Ti \^ 
!»i ka^ is 25 ntiln, «nd its bnmdth lO. The I that of the Nar, a few miles aboye theie- J,„ 
■■-•"" rf "» goif, one aide tg which was tonnod (Strab. p. 227 ; Flio. ui. 1 *. ^ 19 ; i*t<.l_ 
f th» inomWry of AcUnm. is d«cribod under 6 54 ; F«tuB, i. c) Accordinit to (.ato <;„^^ 
*^c«. In «™e.p«,oc« of the victory which U) it was foanded 96* yew. before th« ^^ 
*•;—. f!a»d over Antony at the entrance to Perteus, or 1135 n.c.i and allbon^hlW ^^^^ 
ttafrf. Stadna (JW.. iL 2. 8> pivea the name of not be regarded M hirtonnJ. it may be r^^^^_, 
l-ir m i K /rvmder to tb« ciwwns of laurel be«towed eyidence of a belief m lU remote airtM,,Uj^. , 
"t-lhe tiews in the Aclian (csmea. The Am- rtill «tu.t rem.™ of its annenl waUs , «»„_, 
■Wis iinoi is al» &«qon>Uy laentiamd in Greek I io the polygonal style, prove u 

<i^. (ta it w«* tbe towns erf Argoe Am^- I of strenRth intarly tmH:^but , 

■™™«. ■od Aaaetorinin, and the Bea^port of Aro- I its nsmt ■ - - • 

■■a- The rims Chwmdra and Arachthoa Oowed \ Bomewi 
n itba the N. It vraa oe-lebnated i 

W n tucOait fiafa, and p^rticnbuly fiiw a oi-u— i u.-^, 

<Ai,imf*t. (Atb. m. p. 03, d.. vii. pp.305,e.,iotAn)eria,repeate<l^ym 
»l.a,3K.d.) Tbe modem gDlf alill luaintwiu iU ^ pnxnU 
'taoclKia tU* rafnct. Tl»e i-ed and ; 
a> a^ ■'■■■■■*-■■ I and there a 

-l«k (Welfe, (Ma«-«™ei«« ™. ™> ■^— ^ "^ -.-,, . . 

«^— W«/ C.o,p^,,p*«T«/ «,«;««», VOL iH.> W"-'- *?-> i?J?L. , 

h— - I. 1-^- .^ai«i). »"<1 in a fertile Udeiabk p« 

-^-.pwlaraiK abondaiK* of win*, -nd the cocc, \ ii^"*"^ 
• tamWr, iBwd »" **T« •r«s-le«. It wa« 
ttQti' t; oib tC tlic Arapbitrt^ocuB, but v 

h tlie Umhiiaiu, n 

» ^.tiqmty p«riou. to ««!™" " -(J 
v a «Iie.ieBorat«,inhuidgfmceof !=«»:» 

ind grey mallet I iniudiiial town -. ill 

» plenty of sole* land was fertile in OBiCTS I 

_ -'...<. \ ^^ _ ir\\ ItftUndswer 

The Tabala let"-*- i.* 

|.Ai.loi.,.,.t it. <».in., nhUi liavBtii.'iuiJ-'ai.J, 
AMH2TPATlNflN. (I'liMdl. Sicil. IV(. .V".i 
1>I. 15; lifkliil, vol.i. 1..1S7.) [K.H.I;.] 

A'MID.A ('AjiuJa: £lli. 'A)utiir6i, .\\ii,ya-i-. 
Ulsnr-lP.t,-). Tiu- !n^»l.-m tuKii it .m lit rdt 
l>j.iik of ibf Tii:ri:<. Tbu M-nU;- un i^ lul >r.V 
^1»utbl. niid r.iiKlniMi'.l -J' lli« tviu* 4 Ka-^-.s 
«liiic'i->. Ah lhi> ]ihicc a wrll lulapTo) tur i nti- 
iiH-nijl cUv, ii is [.imUiIiIo iliut .ViniJa. itu'i 
."■.■ri| ii.l [li,. .-il,. ,if /);,fi,r-/lftr, was n t™. « 

sis. l.»i.) 

,:I.W il. li. 


^r. KP-n. 

t., rh^ UJ. 














.11 a n 

Ii' nn. 

n hnlf N 

ViW. li rk 

i)n il. 


III.' . 

1 1 

•n. ]t 

.,f » 

i.']i » 1.. 

r rtl>J «. 


|.i^r will.- 


...1 ibo 

.■iii.i«,l I 

nrhgur n ^' 

Ik. Ira. 

T7l fur .ilx.^ 


urds. bul 

t b .bd' 


il f>i» 

-ts nr 

Trn- lur^ 

14.-lis -f 

c. Ih 



liill «li.-re 



iiv iim 



s <f itik-if 




irilh fm;- 

13 nf 


11 lib'R 

aiul rntliTT. Oi 

Ihc -«"■!. 


.tf III 


m ..!■ llio bill 

«bivli or 

i^f..-k* iL.' 


iiilir IL 

* i.f II 

<■ r.'allldUi.k-.ii:- 





.L P.2S.II.1 

Tl» wi 

rf Ami* 

IB ai'i 

-HIS tD he 



.h. p. 

5.1> ' 

,,,pK.«l il 

to b.- Ik 









s lh^.l 

t vL 

firM f..«i 

m'm ik 

Klam; tba iMkd bjraCivliadt«iin king; and 
UiinDi, ij Athenoclee md -ma Athemuis, who 
diaivl in D*i» to Prineeoi. But ScTimiiii of 
i'taa(/'r.T. 101} «!!> it ■ colonj of Ffaocaea, la^ 
■ ■ B«nckd^ which wm prabMj 


Dl-KocbeOe I 

tin MtlHOoit bj PbDocB WW fottaiar to tiie Mi- 
Wax MOfenW. (AutOtfv da Calonia Grtcquet, 
>»i. a. p. SM.} HowCTW this m»7 be, Amiiu* 
hmc Ita BDit flaonshiDG Oreek Aclllcment oa Ibe 
■nh bM </ Uhi EuliH aitfr iibiope. The tinie 
iba At Athmiia atttlement wu msJe ii nncenain. 
diBH- eiBct^H that, bccanu Amiaot u not 
BBiwd bj HandolUB ir Xemphoi, the d*l* of 
ih AihoiBi KtllemcDt i* ponciiv to tho tinw of 
ik [iiifniii ,' * mDclnHja which u bj do mtuu 
Hi»T. PluUith (Z«eWJ, 19) »T» »'»*' '' "" 
kU I7 the Atbaiiui at the time uf Iheir gnmt- 
■( po»w, Bui when thej wtn mislen of the sea. 
Tb pk« tnt the nun* of Pdneeni, and benme 
I nh D^ng town onder the kings of Pontiu. 
ILiliniila EDfatcr made Amima hu rendeuce 
Uwiatdj niih Smpe, imd be added k put to the 
■Jn, ■hkti waa alkd Eapitaia (Apinao. Jf itlriJ. 
T^t bit il WW iriianited frcoi tba rat bf a wail, 
iM fnbMj ccotaiml a diSinnt popnlalion fhmi 
ikt rf lU Aflonu- This new qoarler amlained 
tk- i^fan of tlM king. The itrength of the 
lOH WM fmrd by the iwditante which it made to 

Mlkidilk war. iVial. iMoUL 15, &c) The 
^nsnin Tjiunio ma one of time obo fell into 
w v-nl. rf Laeolliu when the place was captured, 
f^^cs, the loi of HilhrUaln, sntoeqaentlj 
covd grer In Amiatu frooi Botponis, and Aminu 
n> vain lakeo and emell; dealt with. (Dion 
iK.ihL4e.) Tbfl (&t*tor Caoac defeated Phar- 
t«t ia a bailk Tur ZeMa (Appian. B. C. ii. 91), 
mA nund the place to fnedcou H. Anlsniiu, 
■71 Suibo. " gaie it to kings ;" bat it waa again 
r>nil Ihm a Ifraot Stnton, Uld made fn«, afti 



... _ rell ordered. Slrabo doet nut 

taa Ik mm el the king to whom Antcoias give 
laaat. It hai been (imnwd that it was I'o- 
ku L, who had Ibe kingdom of Pmlui at lout aa 
n1r'*ft.c36. It doca not appear who Straton 
•>. The bet at Aminu bring a fne dl; under 
i^ODpn appon from the epgraph on a orin of 
He niT, and fran a letter rf the jounger I'Unji to 
Tn^ (i. 93), in which he call) it " Ubera et 
'•iVnia,* and ipeaki i< it aa hating Ita own lawa 
*J iht {n<sr q( Trajan. 

laam. 1b Stnlw's time, poeeeised a good lerri- 
irr, wUcfa iachtdai TbemixTTa, the dweliing-vlace 
-'- • saodSideDe. [«■ L.j 


great antiiidtr. It wae ailaaled in thr ■ 

of the river Atentna, from whick. m 

Virro (L. L. t. 38), it derived itt nme. 

of Uh loftiest groop of the A}n 

m as the Gran Saita d Italia, b 

vibible at San ViUorino, a riUa^ ^ 

N. li Aguiia. Aeoirding to Calo and 

Monyt. i. U, ii. 49), Ibis elevaed 1 

:ain district was Ihc origiud d^tH 

the Sabines, from whettce Ibej 6iit be; 

urns A^ajOBl Ibe Aborigine* b tlr 

bood of Beate. Virgil al» meniu 

! tbe mob-t powerful dii» irf the S 
bslh Slisbo and Plinj emmiente it uaa 
ill inhabited bf that people. PuJe 
nlraiy, assigns it to tbe Veatini. whow 
must CTTlainlj have adjoined. (Viii. Ji 
SL Hal. viii. 416; Strab. t. p^ US: f 
IT; Ptol. iii. I. § 59.) lit? qcal 
unin aa («ptared bj the Beama ■ 
from the Sammtu (i. 39), bat it aaai 
that the Rabine cifr ran be Die one 
eilbei the name is conupt, or Ibefc tbm 
Kxne obecorv pUee of Ibe tanw name t 
Slrabo Bpeokg of it as having mSavi m 
the Social and Civil Wan, and banc 
moch decayed ; bnt it waa mbeeqnaiiii 
probably in the time of Align t» 1 
p. 228 i Znmpt, de Colotm. y. 85C. uu 
came a pbwe iS consideiable impwIHR 
Boman empire, aa is proved br tht toi 
among which thtwe of the amphiUKflai 1 
conspicuous. Thee are bitnaled il tvt 
level vallej of the Atemue, at lie I1A a 
ivhich itaiuJs the villafje of S. 1 in.-»i 

hill, which probably belong to an ea'Irr 

epKoptl lee as late a« tlie elr<«r.i nz; 
complete decline dates frwu uh ii^'.uu 
neighbonring city of Aqrtila t^ :u- nr.. 
ric II., who removed IhithH-ilx ii.u.r^ 

(Romanem, vi>l. iii. p. 330; ^lur.^^. 
voL i. p. 230; Craven. A^rmt ~. 
— 219.) Numerous ioMmnrB ik> 
covered then, of whiih Mr u«- ir^ 

meet valuable relics of lir i^u. -jc ^ 
eerred to lis. It ha> \rr^ "ra-r^ 
among others, by I'iujil m >• 
Romae, 1779), and W '1-1 .w 


(Ceti. lit 38). 1k^=--»- , 
mims and accu)>n. m^ i ■ ,^ 
which lay Id iW *m\ - t* ^..^ 
(Miydi) and ti> ttt^ ,^. ^ 
of Ibe diMrie: tm a^ ^. 
Their O0Diiir< *a ■ .» , 

of Gai (^* * j: . Z-'^ 



Davi.l (2 S((m. \iii. 12, x. xi. 1. xii. 26, ^c), Jo- 
hosh.iphat (2 C7/ro/*. xx.), Uz/iali (Ih. xxvi.8), and 
Jntliau (xxvii. ij), and subscqiuMitly hj Nebiu liad- 
ncz/.ar. (Jt'irm. xxvii. l,&c.) Thoy rf-nf.'wod tln'ir 
f>pjx>sitiun to the Jews after the captivity (.Vt//<//<. 
iv. 3, 7, 8), and wcrc a_c:aiii eoiKiiu-red by Judas 
3IaocaK'UMi«. (1 More. \. 6, Kc.) Justin Martyr 
s|x*aks of a irreat multitud"' of Auiniouites (■xi>tiuL; 
in liis day (Dial. p. 272): but Onmii sliortly after 
NjM'aks (if tl>'' name as bt-in*; nior^fd in tlie eoinnion 
apjxdlation of Arabs, under wiiiili llie Idumaeans 
and the Monbites wrvo eoinpreliended to;^'rthcr with 
tiic Ifthniaelites and Joctanites. (Ong. in Johuin, 
lib. i.) [C. \V.] 

AMMO'XIFM. [Oasis.] 

A'MNIAS CAfxvias, "A/xi'ttos), a river in Pontus. 
In llie bro;i:l j.hiiu on the banks of thi.> stream tlie 
p'neral>> of Mitlindates defeated Xii omedes, kinir of 
liitliynia, and the ally of the IJomaus, b. c. 8S. 
(Appiaii. Mithri'lat. c. 18; Stnib. p. biVl.) The 
jdaiu tiirou^h wliieh the rivrr Mowed is '.allid by 
Slrabo l)omanitis. Hamilton (^Rt\<earcht:.<, ^:e. vol. 
i. p. 362) identifies the Anmias with an atllue]it of 
the Halys, now called CoMoiuIkiI C/tai, niul S'.me- 
time.s Ciannr Irmnk. It ap^M-ars that the river is 
also ealb'd Kara ^Sii. [0. L.j 

AMM'SLS {'Anviaoi), a to>ni in the X. of 
Crete, and the harbour of Cnossus in the time of 
Minas, was .situated at the mouth of a river of the 
same name (the iiKKb-ni Ajio.'<rh:/ni). It p>sse-sed 
a siinetuarv of iCileithvia, and the n>nnph.s of the 
river, called 'A^ivi(rid.^€i and 'Afivi(rii(s, were sacred 
to this ji^ (Ilom. Od. xix. 188; Strab. j). 476; 
AjK)!!. KIumI. iii. 877; Callini. /ft/mn. in Dian. 15; 
.Ste])li. li. s. c.) 

AMOIKjOS ('Auop-yo's: Eth. 'A^iopy7i'os, also 
*Aix6pyioSy'AiJLoiy)lrr)^: Anioryn'), an island of the 
S|M)rades in the Aep-an sea, Sl>. of Xaxo.>. It is 
rarely mentioned in history, and is chietly celebrated 
as tlie birthplace of the iauddc jHK't .^imouides. 
(Strab. ]t. 487.) There was in AmorL'os a manu- 
factory of a jH'culiar kind of linen iranncnts, which 
bore th<' name of the i>land, and which were dyed 
red. (.Ste|)h. B. *•. r.; Ku>tath. ad J>i(>iii/s. 526; 
ToUux, vii. 16.) In dy<iiiir them u>e apj-ars to 
have been made of a kind of lichen, which is still 
f tund in the island, and of which Tourncfurt has 
L'iveii an account. The soil of Aniurijos is fertile. It 
jinnluces at present conr,oil, wine, ti;j:s, t<»bacco, and 
cotton, all ofpMxl tjuality. Ilente it was con^iden/il 
under the l{(»mau empire one of the most favourablf 
])laces for banishment. (Tac. Ann. iv. 30.) We learn 
from S-ylax (p. 22) that Amorgos contaiiit-d three 
towns, the names of which, accordin;^ to Ste]>hanus 
(.?. v.'A/xopyos), were Minoji (Mi»'u>o, Mtvvta, Pt»)l. 
V. 2. § 33), the birth jilace of Siujonides, .\iHc>inr 
{'ApKfaivri), and Ae-iale {Alyid\T), Beyia\is, Ttol.). 
Ivemains of all the-e cities have Ixn-n tliscovcivd. an<l 
a minute description of them is ^'iven by Koss, who 
sjH^-nt sevenil days Uj^m the i>Iand. They are all 
situated on the wotern side of the islaml oj)j«i>ite 
Xaxos. Aeniale at the N., and Arcrsine at the S.. 
while MiuKi li«^s more in tin- centre, at the lead of 
A lar^e and convenient harbour, now calli'd 7V< 
KatdjtoUi, lH'cau>e it is /card ry]V iroKiV. It apjK'ars, 
from the inscriptions found in the i>land, that it 
TMJSsessed other d«-mes besides the above nientione<l 
towns. It is )>robable that Mtluuid (MfAavja), 
w hich Ste}.hanus hi another j^as^sa-e (*. v. 'ApKorivr)) 
mentions as one of the thret- to\Mu> of Amori:o,> in 
jtUce of A<'iriale, nuiy have been one of these denies. 


We leani from several inscriptions that Milesians 
were settled in Minoa and Ae;:iale, and that tluy 
formed in the latter towu a sejiarate connniuiity. 
(15J)ckh, Corjf. Inscr. vol. ii. Xo. 2264; \\i*ss. htsrv. 
dr. Ined. vol. ii. Xo. 112, 12fV— 122.) Th.^ i>b!i.i 
c<jntains at present 3,500 inhabitants, (loum?- 
fort, ^oi/f';/f% &.('. vol. ii. p. 182, wq. ; Fieilk-r, 
A'c/v<c, &c. vol, ii. p. 32.'», scq.; and more espriaDv 
Ko>s, Ji'l.<rn nvfd^n (tritvh. lutein, vol. i. p. 173, 
seij., vol. ii. p. ;i9. se j.) 

AMOK IT KS. one of the seven Canaanitish tril-es 
(din. X. 16) who held })osse.v>ion of the Promi-^ 
Land, durin;:^ the timrs of the Patriarchs, tmtil th« 
comiii<: in of the Children of Isriel, It apiJi'ars to 
have been one of the most jiowerful tribes, as tiit* 
name is used as a general term for all the Can.iou- 
it»'s. (</■(//. XV. 16.) Their original .-icat was at 
the south-west of the Dead Sea, Ix'tween the Amau- 
KiTAK and the \'ale of Siddim, and their jtrincijcd 
city was Hazezon-Tamar, or Kngedi {\iifi-Jidi]. 
{(itn. xiv. 7, and 2 C'/tron. xx. 2.) At the time <il 
tlie exo«lus, however, they had seized ami «'cup:«^ 
the country on the east side of the Dead S*'a .irKi "f 
the Vallev of the Jordan, where thev h:itl e>tabli.-hed 
two i>owerful kingdoms, the capiitals of whicJi won* 
Ili:siiii()N and Uasan. Ileshln.n, the southern jart 
of this extensive country, had been taken fnwn IJw 
Moabites antl Ammonites bv Sihon, and ext«?uticd 
from the Anion {Mnjeh) to the Jal)l>i»k {Ztrbi) 
{Xuinh. xxi. 26), and this was the plea on which 
the Ammonites grounded their claim to that country 
ill the days of Jephthah. (Jj/zA/'X, xi.) Thia dis- 
trict ctMnprehended Mount Oib'a'i, and was settled 
by the 1 ribes of lleuben and (Jad. The northfm 
division of Basan, of which Og was the king, es- 
tendcd from the .Jabbok to the iiortheni extreniiiy (I 
the Promised Laiul to Mount H«'nnon. which iho 
Ammonites nameil Shaiiir. This country wai given 
to the half tribe of Maiias.^eh. {Xnmb. xxi.; /Vsi. 
ii. iii.: \Cliron. v. 23.) All this n>gion was conijiny 
heuded in Pkkaka. The Amorites arc alsj found 
on the western coa>t of Palestine, in the vicinity .vf 
the Tribe of Dan {Judijea, i. 34), and ill the b»:>nl»T& 
of the Tribe of Kj.liraim (v. 35). Still the s^aitli- 
eastern extremity v'i Caiuuui is recognised a.s their 
projKT .seat (v. 36; coiiip. \innh. xxxiv. 4, and 
Jo.-i/ma, XV. ,3), and the pr.ictice of usiii:: this nan* 
as a general designation of aJl the Can.i.initLdi 
tribes n-ndcrs it dilHcult to determine tli«ir ev:ut 
limits. [C.W.] 

AMtVIMCM CAnopiovt Eth. 'A^opt^rs), a city 
of Phrygia, .iccording to Strabo (p. 576). Its pn- 
bable jut.'^itiou can only be deduced from the iVu- 
tin.rer Tabli-, which }ilares it l)etween lVssin:i5 
(Jifda Jli^snr) ami LaiMli. ea. Hamilton ( KrsettTxhts, 
&c. vol. i. p. 451) identities it with lUvjan K(i!'i>. 
where tliiie are tin* ruins «.f a large city; but ihc 
prcM'Ut ivmains ap|)i'ar to belong to the fourth *^ 
tifth centuries of (.ur acra. This deteniiituitiou 
Would j.lace Am<n-ium in (Jalatia. [(J. L.] 

AMPK ("Aumj: Eth. 'Ajj-iraTos), a pl:u^ where 
Darius settled the Miloians who were ni;uie priM'O- 
ers at the caiiture <>{' Mil.-tus, b. r. 494. (HorcJ. ii 
20.) llero«iotiis de.scriln's the place .i.s on the Ery- .sia (Prr>ian Cmlf); he adils that the Tigris 
tlows p;i>t it. This descripti(»n does not enable us 
to lix the j)lace. It has been suppo>etl to b^ the 
lamba of Ptolemy, and the Am|Hdone of PUnv (ri. 
28), who calls it •' Colonia Milctiorunir Ti<>tJes 
has the name Amjie. (Ilanluiu's note on PUii. 
vi. 28.) [G. L.] 


AVPELOS fA^vfAtff), a promontory at the 
otnnity d the pemnrala Sitbcfua in Chidcidice iu 
IhoAwtt) calkd bj Ucrodotns the Toronaean pro- 
mwtarf. It ippean to conwpoiid to the modern 
C Km^tiB, m Derrfais, whidi is nearer to the 
nrr of Ttnttf to C. DMpano, (Herod, rii. 122 ; 
fe^B.«.v.: PtoLiiL IS. §12.) 

AMPELirSIA, or COTES PROM, (at fUrus, 
Anb. |il8S5; fUSnyt tfirpor, PtoL iv. 1. § 2 : ap- 
furatif ako the Cotta of PHn. zxziL 2. s. 6: 
CSpvidf or Etpartelf a cormptkm of the Arabic 
AeifrtS, or CUertU; also Ba*- or Tar/- esh- 
S>Mtr), the KVV. headhmd of Manietama Tmgi- 
tsa nd of the vhole continent of Africa ; abont 
10 aofln W. of Tmpe (Tmgi^), Cotee was its 
■trn nane, of which the Greek Ampelnda (rtfie> 
cU) VM a txMitlation (Stiah. L c ; Ptin. y. 1 ; 
Ml ay, It is a remarkable object ; a predpitons 
nk d ptf fntetant (with basaltic colupuis, ac- 
'*&K to Dmrnmood Haj, bat this is doobtfal), 
pond with msnj caves, among which one in par- 
frxkr was shown in andoit times as sacred to 
Bmida (Uek, I c) ; from these caTos mill-stones 
»» lad iliU are obtained. Its height is 1043 feet 
t^AT the tea. Strsbo describes it as an oflbet 
{tpinm) of M. Atfa» ; and it is, in fiut, the western 
?at. IB Abtla is the eastern, of the end of that 
rn«: NW. spar of the Atlas, which dindes the 
Aifastic from the Mediterranean. The two hills 
iim the c itmuiti ea of the S. shore of the Fretnm 
Oe&mm (Anises of Gibraltar), the length of the 
Hjvt fram the one to the other being 34 miles. 
Tk W. e iij e But/ of the Strait on tl^ European 
•brcappoate to Ampdnsia, at a distance of 22 miles, 
m irmmm Pr. (C. Trafalgar). Mela b Jtary 
fxpfiet io drawing the line of division between the 
Aifaatic sad the Stimits throogh these points (i. 5, 
i 6, ia. 10 ; hb last words are, Ampehuia in 
■ <'■■ /am frthtm vergeWy operi$ h^jui atque 
X^imtid Ktoru termmms ; so PHn. v. 1, Prfmoi^ 
kfw OcaoM extimmm AmpeUma), The erroneoos 
airtsa flf the sndents respecting the shape of this 
?A (f Afrka (ace Libya) led them to make this 
^nentBrytheW.extranttjoftheoontnient (Strab. 
i-t-) Sejittx (p. ^2, p.^123, Gronov.) mentions a 
jn* baj called Cotea, between the Gdnmns of 
Hatilts sad the pr u u i oot ury of Hermaenm; bat 
«V!h(T hii Hermaetim is oar Ampelosia, or a pmnt 
fwihtr & en the W. coast, is doobtfoL GoKelin 
1^. Braiow, iL 47, and Bitter (Erdkmde, toL i. 
h )96), rai^id Ampelosia as identical with the 
faa*« tf Hcrodotos (iL 32) and Hanno (Perf>l. 

h n [P. &] 

AXPHAXTTIS CA/«^a(rrif ), the maritime part 

'MridaBia in Macedonia, on the left bank of the 

^am, vhirh, acoording to Stiabo, separated Bot- 

*mit froei Anphaxitia. The name first oocors in 

^Mioi. Ko town of this name is mentioned by 

■■Mt vriten, though the Amphazii are fisond on 

^•m. (hi. T. 97; Sttah. p. 330; Ptol iiL 13. 

H 10, 14; Leake, Kortkem Greece^ toL iii. p. 449.) 

ilfPHEU CA#^«a: Etk. 'Atup*^), a town of 

)kmia« Btaated on the frmtierB of Laoonia, apon 

» kS «dl sQppfied with water. It was surprised 

tikiobj tlkB Spartans at the beginning of the 

', and was made their head-qnarters 

their operations against the Messe- 

Ita c^tare was the first act of open hos- 

*i^ bstwen tlM two people. It is pUced by 

I'^b itthc He&nie rain, now called the Castle of 

'I*^ ad by BoUaja on the moantain called, 



Kohala. (Pans. iv. 5. § 9; Leake, Morea, vol. L 
p. 461 ; Boblaje, Bechercha, p. 109.) 
AMPHI'ALE. [Aeoaleos.] 
Herod., Steph. B.; 'Afc^deAcio, Pans.: Eth. 'Am- 
^ucaif ^f , 'Afb^Acte^f ), a town in the N. of Phocis, 
distant 60 stadia from Lilaea, and 15 stadia from 
Tithroniam. It was destroyed by the army of 
Xerxes in his invasion of Greece. Althoagh Herodo- 
tus calls it Amphicaea, following the most ancient 
traditions, the Amphicty(As gave it the name of 
Amphicleia in their decree respecting rebuilding the 
town^ It also bore for some time the name of Ophi- 
TEIA (*0^tTcfa), in consequence of a legend, which 
Pausanias relates. The place was celebrated in the 
time of Pausanias for tl^ worship of Dionysus, to 
which an inscription refers, found at Dhadhi, the 
site of the ancient town. (Herod, viii. 33; Pans. 
X. 3. § 2, X. 33. § 9, seq.; Leake, Northern Greecff 
voL ii. pp. 75, 86.) 

AMPHPDOLI i'AfjupidoXoi), a town in Pisatis in 
Elis, which gave its name to the small district of 
Amphidolis or Amphidolia ('A/u^t8oXlf , *Afi^t8oXla). 
The town of Marganeae or Margalae was situated in 
this district. The site of Amphidoli is uncertain, 
but their territory probably lay to the west of Acro- 
reia. [Ackokkia.] (Xen. HelL iiL 2. § 30; Strab. 
pp.341, 349; Leake, Pelponnetiaca^ p. 219.) 

AMPHIGENEIA ('Afuf^iydyttai 'hfuptytptit), 
one of the towns belonging to Nestor (Horn. It ii« 
593), was placed by some ancient critics in Messenia, 
and by others in Madstia, a district in Triphylia. 
Strabo assigns it to Madstia near the river Hypeoeis, 
where in his time stood a temple of Leto. (Steph. 
B. #. v.; Strab. p. 349.) 

AMPHILOCHIA ( Aft^iXox^a: ^hit^lXoxo^), a 
small district at the eastern Mid of the Ambraciot 
gulf, bounded on the N. by Ambracia and on the S. 
by Uie territory of the AgraeL It did not extend 
fiir inland. It is a mountunous district, and the 
rocks along the coast rise iu s<»ne parts to 450 or 
500 feet high. The Amphilochi were a non-Hellenic 
tribe, although they were supposed to have derived 
their name from the Argive Ainphilochus, the son of 
Amphiaraus. Strabo (p. 326) describes them as an 
Epirot people, but their country is more usually de- 
scribed as a part of Acamania. (Steph. B. s.v.; 
ScyL p 12.) Their lineage, as Grote remarks, was 
probably something intermediate between the Acar- 
nanians and Epirots. At the time of the Pelopon- 
nesian war the Amphilochi were in dose alliance 
with the Acamanians. After the death of Alexander 
the Great the Amphilochi were conquered by the 
Aetolians;, and they were at a later time included in 
the Boman province of Epiras. The only town in 
their country was Argos, sumamed Amphilochicnm, 
under which the history of the people is more fully 
given. There were also a few viUages or fortresses, 
which owe their importance simply to their connection 
with the history of Argos, and which are therefore 
described in that articleu [Aboos Amphilo- 


AMPHIMALLA CAM^^MaXAa, Strab. p. 475; 
Plin. iv. 20; 'A/A^i/idAioi', Steph. B. #.».), a town 
in the N. of Crete, sitnated on the bay named after 
it ('A/«^iMoAi>f itJAwof, PtoL iu. 17. § 7), which 
corresixmds, according to some, to the b^ of ^r- 
miro, and, according to others, to the bay rf Sudtu 

AMPHI'POLIS ('Aju«r>t»aAii : Eth. 'Am^iwo- 
Kims, Amphipolites: Adj. AmphipoUtanus, Just, 
xiv. Bub fin.), a town in Macedonia, situated upon 


an oininonce on tlio h'ft or onstorn lank of tho Stry- 
riion. jiist Ih*1<*\v its o_'n'^s fVoin lln' Inkf Corciiiitis, 
at tlu* tlislaiuo of 25 stadiii, or ahout tlin'c uiil<'.> 
fi'MW the j^a. (Thuc. iv. 102.) The Stryinon 
fl'nvf'd alniast round the town, whence its name 
Anijthi-iM>lis. Its position is one of tlie niobt im- 
jx'itant in this \<\.rt of (Invee. It stands in a j«is.s, 
\\ hieli traverses tlie mountains l)orderin2: the Stry- 
iiionic pilf; and it ooininands tlie only easy coni- 
iMiuiifjition from the coast of that jrnlf into the jrreat 
Alaeedonian plains. In its vicinity wei-e the i^old 
and silver mim-s of Slonnt Tani^'aen^, and lar;:e 
ibf.>ts of shijf-tiniher. It was orii^inally ealled 
Knnea IIo<loi,or " Nine-Ways" (*Evv(a 6^oC), from 
the many n»ads wliich met at this ])lace; and it he- 
loDL^ed to the Kdonians. a 'riimeiiin jj«'oj)le. Aris- 
trj:oras of Miletus lirst attemjited to eolouize it, hut 
v.a> cut otrwith Ids followers hy the Kd>)ni:ins, ii. <'. 
VJ7. (Time, I.e.; II.t.«1. v. 120.) The next nt- 
tt'iiijit was Tu.'ide hy the Athenians, with a hr»dy of i 
1 0.01)0 colonists, eoii>i>tini: of Athenian citizens and 
allirs; but they met with tlu' s.ime fate as Aris- 
ta-oras, and were all destroyed hy the Thraeians at 
l)raU\, li. c. 4»)5. (Tiiuc. i. 100, iv. 102; 
Ih-nxl, ix. 7.>.) S) valualde. however, was the site, 
that tin- Athenians sent out another e<tlony in n. c. 
437 under A^non, tlie son of Nicia^s, who drove the 
Thraeians out of Nine-Wavs, and f-.unded the citv 
to which he j^ave the name of Amphipolis. On 
Xhrci' sides the citv was defended hv the Strvmon; 
on the other >ide Acrnon hnilt a wall aerohs, extend- 
ini: from one p-ut of the river to the other. South 
of the town was a bridixe, which fonned the great 
means of communitation hetwcvn Macedonia an<l 
'i'lirace. The foUowini: plan will illubtrate the 
pn-ceding account. (Thuc. iv. 102.) 




1. Site of AmphiiN^hs. 

2. Site of Eion. 

3. Kidi^'e comiectin^ Amphii»olis with Mt. 

4. Lonij Wall of Amphipolis: the XhveQ marks 
jy-ross indicate the jjates. 

5. Palis^ide {(TravpciJ^a) connecting the Long Wall 
with the l.rid;:e over the* Strymon. 

C. Lake Ccrcinitis. 
7. Mt. Cerdyiium. 
y. Mt. PaniJaeus. 


Annphijvdis swjn Wame an important city, xn^. 
was re^'anled hv the Athenians as the iewfl ot" tli'-ir 
emjiire. Inii. <•. 424 it surn-ndeivd to the Liicv- 
daemonian general Brasidas, without otTerini; any 
ix-sistancc. The historian Thucyilides, who corj- 
mandcd the Athenian ileet off the coast, arrive"! in 
time from the island of Th;i.s<K» to siive Eion, tlie pJrt 
of Amphijwlis, at the mouth of the Strymon. bat tt*) 
late to prevent AmphijHilis itstdf froni fnlling into 
the hands of Brasidits. (Thue. iv. 103 — 107.) 
The l')S.s of Amj)hi|K>lis caused Imth indiirnation arid 
alarm at Athens, and led to the liarii^linient of 
Thueyili<les. In B. c. 422 the AtheniaiLs sent & 
larire force, untler the command of Cleon, to att»nn{ii 
the recovery of the city. This exjK-dition completely 
failed; the Atheiii;ins wt-re deft-ati-^l with coii<i(tcr- 
ahle loss, hut linwdas :i.s well as CI«s>n fell in tli-e 
hattli'. The oiKTalions of the two cominandt-rs are 
detailed at length hy Thucydides, and his at.-<ount 
is illustrated by the masterly narrative of Tin^e. 
(Thue. V. C — 11; Grote, JJist. of Greece, voL vL 
p. (334, seij.) 

From this time Aniphijutlis continuoil indepoLKkrjt 
of Athens. According to the treaty n^iade Ix'twt-en 
the Athenians and Lacedaemonians in B. c. 421. it 
was to have bi^en restored to Athens; but its in- 
habitants refu>ed to surrender to their former ma^ 
ters, and the Lace«laemonians were unable to corojcl 
them to do so, even if they had bi^n so inclin«>L 
Am]thiiH)lis afterwards Wcime cl<»sely allied with 
Olyntlius, and with the assistance of the latter was 
able to defeat the attempts of the Athenians urv-ier 
Timotheus to reduce the place in n. c, 36U. Philip, 
U|K»n his accession (3')9) declared Aniphifioli«« a fnw 
city; but in the fallowing year (358) lie tc»r>k th*^ 
place by assault, and aiujc.xed it jjcnnanently to his 
dominions. It continued to belong to the Mace 
donians, till the conquest of their country hy thr 
Ixomans in it. c. 168. The Romans made it a frre 
city, and the capital of the first of the four dL§tricts, 
into which they divided Macedoni:i. (Dem. in 
Ari<:tocr. p. G6U; Diod. xvi. 3. 8; Lir. xlr. 29; 
Plin. iv. 10.) 

The deity chiefly worshi})!^^! at Amphipolis ap- 
]>ears to have l>een Artemis Taurojiolos or BraiirDuiA 
(I)i(xl. xviii. 4 ; Liv. xliv. 44), whose he:ul frjs- 
quently ap[)ears on the coins of the city, aini the 
ruins of whose temple in the first century of th< 
Christian era are mentioned in an epigram of An- 
tijater of The.ssalouica. (Anth. Pal. vol. L no. 705.) 
The most celebrated of the natives of Araphipoiis 
was the granujiarian Zoiliw. 

Aniphiivolii* was situatecl on the Vi.i Egnatia. It 
has been usually stated, on the authority of an 
anonymous Greek geograj.her, that it was caiUeil 
Chrysojxiiis under the Byziintine empire; but Tafd 
has clearly shown, in the works cited belovr, tK«» 
this is a mistake, and that Chrysojwlis and Am— 
phiiK)lis were two ditferent places. Tafel has aL«<» 
j)ointed out in the middle ages Amjihipolis was. 
called Popolla. Its site is now wcupied by a villai:«^ 
called Ntokhorio, in Turkish Jeni-Ktuu or *^ New - 
ToAMi." There are still a few remains of the anctect. 
town; and Wh Leake and Cousinery found anK»ac 
them a curiou.s Greek inscription, written in th<!» 
Ionic dialect, containhig a sentence of baniii.hrrK»5:t 
against two of their citizens, Philo and StratocI*^*. 
The latter is the name of one of the two covor* 
sent fnim Amjjhipolis to Athens to request tina 
as>i>tance of the latter against Philip, and he i-i. 
therefore probably the saiue^i)er3on as the i:itnitocIes 


tinat'd to maintain its iiiil<'ij«'n(lt'nce as an Arha^nn 
town loU'j atNr tin* cun'|ii''>t <•! I'clojwuiTii'^us hy tli<' 
l)"^. Acooniiii'j In tin* coiiunun tnulitiun, whii li 
rtj.A'si'nttMl tl)** r<)ni|U«*>t <«f I*eli»j)<inn«*Mis as t'tll'ctnl 
in ()iM» pMienitii»n by tlir* tlcs(«-n<iants <»f Hercules, 
Atiiyclac was L'iven by the Dorians to I'liilonunms, 
as a reward for his havinj; bi-trayed to tht-ni Ids 
jiativc city Sj»ai1a. rhii(tn(»nius is turtlier s.-iid to 
luive |»<'oj)h'd the town willi c<»li»nl.>t« from Imbros 
and Leiiuios; but iht-re can bo n(» d(»nbt that tlic 
aiuiciit A< h:i<'an jx«|»ulatii»n maintained thfinM'lvr.s 
in tiie {>la«x' indfju'iidi-nt of Sparta for many L'*'nera- 
ti'iMs. It was only >hortly bct'on* tlie first Mcssenian 
war that the town was con"[u<'ivd by tiie Sf»;irtan 
kin„' Jt'li'dus. (Strab. ]). 8G4 ; Cotmn, 36; I'aus. 
iii. 2. § 6.) The tale ran. tiiat tlif inliabitants of 
Amvclat' had been so often alarmed by false re|H)rts 
of the ait]tro;i«h of tlw enemy, that they }a.^.H'd a 
law that no one should mention the subject: and 
ar<ordin_'ly, when the Spartans at hu>t came, and no 
one dared to announce their approach, '* Amyt lae 
j-'ri>li<'d thrMUL'h silence:" hence arose the ]>r<'Verb 
Aiinirlls tacitiirn'utr. (Stv. ad ^ irr/. Ant. 
X. 5H4.) After its caj>tnre by the Lacedaemonians 
Amv( lae bei anio a vill:i'_'e, and w;i.s otdy memorable 
bv the festival of the llyac inthia celebrated at the 
j>laee annually, and by thf temj»le and colossal statue 
of A{»oll<\ who wxs hence called .Imyr/^/c//.*. The 
throne on which this statue was placed was a cele- 
brated work of art, and was constructed by llathycles 
of M i.rne>ia. It wa«i crowned by a ;.'ivat number of 
l»as-rcliets, of which an aecuut is jriven by Pau- 
sanias (iii. 18. § 9, se<[.; JJivt. of Biotjr. art. Ba- 
th >i<'lts). 

The site of Amyelae is usually plaidl at Sikln- 
vokhori, where the name of Amyelae has iMrn found 
on in.scrijttions in the walls. Uut this place is situ- 
ated nearly 6 miles fnun Sjtarta, or more than double 
the distance mentioned by Polybius. Moreover, 
there is every prt)bability that ^Lhirol/iori is a 
Selavonian town not more ancient than the 14th 
ceiiturv; and becoming: a place uf imjHirtance, some 
of its bnildiniTs \Nere erected with the ruins of Amy- 
elae. Aecordinudy Leake supjNtses Amyelae to hav^ 
liecn situated between Skhiroklniri and Sjiarta, on 
the hill of A(/liia Kifriiki, half a mile from the 
Kurotas. At this }>lace Leake discovered, on an hn- 
]MMfect inscription, the letters AMT t'<>ll(»\vin:: a 
])rop<'r name, and leavincj little doubt that the in- 
complete wonl w;ts AMTKAAIOT. (Leake, Mort<i, 
Vol. i. }•. l.'i.'), setp, I\loj)i»nht.ti(icti, p. \{\'2.) 

A.MVt'LAK, a city <>u tlu-Cdast of Campania. Ix-- 
tweeii Tarracina and Caieta, whi<h hail ceas.-d to 
exi>t in the time of IMiuy. but had left the name of 
Sinus Amyclanus to the ])art of the ciwvst on which 
it was situated. (I'lin. //. A', xiv. 8; Tac. Arn^. iv. 
59.) It.H foundation was ascriln'd to a Kand of La- 
coiiians whohad emii:rate<l iVom the city of the same 
name near Sj»arta; aiul a stranje .story is told by 
IMinv and S'rvius of the inhabitants haviui: bon 
comjielled to abandon it by the >wanns of .serj^'uts 
with which they were infested. (Tlin, //.A', iii. .'>. 
.s. 9, viii. 29. .s. 43; Sav. ad Arn.x. ')i\4.) Other 
writers refer to this city the legend commonly related 
of the destructit»n of the L.iconian Amyelae, in conse- 
queiico (»f the .sili-nce of its inhabitants; an«l the epi- 
thet aj>plied to it by Vir^'il of ^^<•^^I/J A>n*/rlat ap- 
yn-ars to favour this view. (Vir:,'. Am. x. 564; Sil. 
Ital. viii. 5.30.) The cxait site is unknown, but it 
nm^t iiave U-eu close to the marsln-s below Kniuli; 
whence Martial terms it '* Amy* l:ic Fuiidanac" (.\iii. 


115). In the immediate neishbonrhooJ, but on t 
nx^ky pronioutorv prujectinj: into the ^^a, a ^iili 
of iilH-rius. called Si'F.i.iNrAK, fnun the naluril 
caverns in the nnk. in one of which the rm}*-p-* 
nearly lost bis lite by the fallimr in of the n-if, \»l:il^ 
he was supjiinir there with a p;«rty of friemL*. (Tjw. 
.•I«//.iv. 59; Suet. Tih. .39: IMin. iii. 5. s. 9.) Tb? 
an( ient name of the IcK^ality is retaimil, with littlo 
variation, by the nnxlem villai'e of Sfn:rUtnfja, abmt 
S miles W. of Gn*ta, where the irn»tt<ws in the ruk 
are still vi.>ible. with some remains of their anri.'Ti: 
architectural decorations. (Craven's .l'»rftrr/, v..l. i. 
p. 7.3.) [KH.B] 

A'MVDOX ('Am''5c/'»'), .1 town in ^^K•.^^.•ni.ton 
the Axius, from wbieh I'yraechmes btl tlie l'at-»»nL-m* 
to the assistance of iroy. Tlie place b calbd Abr- 
don by Suidas an«] .Stephanus IL (Horn. IL ii. 84y; 
c<>mi>. Strab. p. 330; .luv. iii. 69.) 

AMVMO'NK. [Lehna.] 

A'MVHL'S CA.uupos: Kfh. 'A^ivpfvs), a to-ivn in 
Thessaly. situated on a river of the >ame n;inie 
fallinL' into the lake U'K-br-is. It is nientione.l by 
Hesi<Kl a-s tlie '* vine-U-arim^ Amyni-s." The sur- 
roundiii;r country is called the Amyric plain {rh 
'AuvpiKbv TTfBiov) by Polybius. Leake j^iipprr-i^^ \he 
niins at Kasfj'i to represent Amyrns. (1I«"S. ay 
Stnd). p. 442, and Steph. B. s. c. ; S hoi. aii ApoU. 
Wind. i. 596; Val. Fla(C. ii. 11 : Pol. v. 99; Leake, 
\ort/urn (rrfcc. vol. iv. p. 447.) 

.V.MVSTiS {"Afxvari^). :in Indian river, s triba- 
tar\' of the Ciamres, flowinir past :i city calUxl Cata- 
dujKie (Arrian. /m/. 4), whirh >Linnert suppi**», 
from its name, to have stool at the falls of the 
rpfK»r (iauL'es, (»n the .site of the moilcm Hurfin-ar, 
which would make the Amystis the Patterrn (Man- 
nert, vol. v. pt. 1. p. 70). [P. S.] 

AMY'ZON ('A^uO^i'), an inconsiderable tuvrn ni 
Caria. (Strab. p. 658.) The niins of the cilaiieJ 
.and walls exist on the oast side of Mount Latirius 
on the road from Itati to Tchisme. Tlje place is 
identified by an in.scription. (L«ike, Afia Miaor^ 
p. 238.) ' [G. L.j 

ANABriLV, a city of Phrvpa (Liv. xjtxviii 15) 
whicli lay on the route of the cc»nsul Cn. Manbos 
frv>m Synn.ida to the sources of the Alander [Alax- 
df.r] : probalilv Kirk Ifinn ( Haiiiilton). [G. L,^ 

AN AC ALA. [Attica.] 

ANACTO KIUM ('AvaKT6piov: 'Av<ucr6fHos\ a 
town in Ac.irnania, situated on the Auibrariot pilf, 
and on the promontory, which now bf-ars the njuni» 
of C. Miido'nui. On entering! the Anibniciot ^If 
from the Ionian se.i it wjts the first t<»wn in Acar- 
nania after Actimn, from which it was dLstant 
40 stadia, and whi< h was in the territory of Anac- 
torimn. This t<tw n w;is for some time one of ti>e 
most im)Mirtant ]»laces in this jKirt of Cireece. It wm* 
ciilouized jointly by the Corinthians and Corerracaniij 
but in the war iM-fwecn these |*eople>, in B. c. -iSli , 
the Corinthians obt.iined .sole i«>ssession of the pUt.-^ 
by fr.aud. It n'maiued in the hands of tlie Ojrin- 
thians till b. c. 425, when it was tnken hr tb« 
Acarnaniaus with the of the Athenians, 
and the Corinthian settlers were expelled. Aturnsfoa 
n'uioved it.s inhabitants to the town of Nicop<»li2», 
whirh he found«*d on tlie opposite cosist of E{iini^ 
and Stnil)<) des) riln's it as an emporium of the latter 
city. The site of Anactoriura has b»cen disputed^ 
and dejN-nds ujxm tlie p«»sition assijrned to Aclianu 
It has however U^Mi shown that Actiiun must J** 
]>la<'e«l at the entrance? of the Ainbniciot jj^tfoo Ij* 
/'uw/(t,andi\ji:icturiimion C. Madonna. [AcnuM.J 



centia was shortly after foundod; and probably ox- 
toiKlinl from tlu* rnliia to the Tarns. [E.II.B.] 

ANAO roKTUS. [Nicaka.] 

A'XAl*m> ('A»'a<^T7: Kth. ^<pa'io% : Annpht\ 
Nauijl or Xainjio), oup of the Sjx>rades. a siuall 
i.>lan(l in the soutli of the Grecian Arohijt«*lair(>, E. 
of Thera. It is said to have been originally called 
Menibliarus from the son of Catlmns of this name, 
>vho came to the island in search of Europa. It Avas 
o«lebrated for the temple of A}x»llo Aeuletes, the 
fonndatiun of uhiih was ascribed to the Arpnnauts, 
because Aj>oilo luid showed them the i>land as a 
place of refuu'e when they were overtaken by a 
storm. (Orphens, Art/on. 1363, ser|,; AjH'llod. i. 9. 
§ 26; Ap^'ll. IIIkxI. iv. 1706, seq.; Couon, 49; Strab. 
p. 484; Steph. B. s.v.; Plin. ii. 87, iv. 12; Ov.Mtt. 
^^i. 461.) Tht-re are still con.sidcrable remains of 
thi^ tfiujdo on the eastern sid*- of the inland, and also 
of the aiui'-nt city, which was situated nearly in the 
centre of Anaphe on the summit of a hill. Several 
iTn[>ort.ant inscriptions have been (.UscovenNl in this 
place, of whi( h an account is p;iven by Koss, in the 
work cited brlow. The i>land is mountainous, of 
little fi-rtility. and still worse cultivated- It contains 
ava-^t nunil»er of j)artridu'''s, with which it al*ound»'d 
in anti.juity also. Atlu-naeiLS relates (p. 400) that 
a native of Astypala«'a let loose a brace of thc>e birds 
npm Anaphe. where they nndtipliiNl so nipidiy that 
the inhabit.mts were almost oblii^ed to aband»»n the 
island in consequence. (Tf)urnetort, Voi/Ofjc, &c., 
Vol. i. p, 212, seq.; Ross, L\htr Auaphe iiml Arm- 
pltdisrlo' Ifi.frhr/f'tcn, in the Transactions of the 
Munich A< ademy for 18.38. p. 401, s^^q.; Ro>s,/iVw*;< 
auj tien (i riic/u'.<tc/iJ'n In.*' In, vol. i. p. 401, seq. ; 
Bixkh, C<'r/). Ifwicr. No. 2477, ^c<\) 

ANArilLVSTUS ('Ayd(p\v(TTos: Eth. 'Ara- 
<p\v(Trto%: An<ivti^o^^ a demiis (»f Attica, beloULMUi; 
to the triU' Anti'X'his. ou the W. coast of Attit a, 
o].pjsite the i>-land of Klen>sa. an«l a little N. of the 
promontory of Sunium. It was a place of some inj- 
ptrtance. Xenophon reconnnended the erection of a 
fortress here for the ]>rote< tion of the mines of 
Sunium. (IlenMl. iv. 99; S(ylax, p. 21; Xen. de 
Vectifj. 4. § 43; Strab. p. 398- Leake, Utmi, p. 59.) 

ANA'ITS ("Ai'ttTTos). 1, {Anapo), one of the 
mo>t celclnated and con>ider:ible rivers of Si< ily, 
which ri.>eN;ilMtut a mile from the nuHlem town oi Jiuj<- 
Ctmi, not tar from the site of Acrae; and tlows into 
the <;reat harlK»ur of Syracuse. About thn>e quarters 
of a mile from its mouth, .and ju^t at the fiM>t of the 
hill on which sto«xl the (Mynqucium, it receives the 
w-;»ters of the Cy.ane. Its banks for a considerable 
dist.-mcc from its njouth are lK)rdered by marshes, 
which rendered them at all times unhealthy; and 
the fevers and {«^•<tilence thus cener.ated were amouL: 
the chief causes of disiL'^ter to the Athenians, and 
still more to the Carthairinians, durinij the several 
sicL^es of Syracuse. But alnne these marches the 
valley throU'_'h which it flows is one of threat beauty, 
and the waters of the Anaj>us itself are extremely 
linijiid and clear, and of un-at depth. Like many 
rivj-rs in a limestone countr}' it ris^s all at <»nce with 
a considerable volume of water, whirh is, liowever, 
nearly doubled by the ;u<es>ion of the Cyane. The 
tutelary divinity of the was w<u>hipped by 
the Syra<nsans under the fonn of a youn;; man 
(Ael. V. 11. ii. 33), who was ref:arde<l as the hus- 
band of the nyitqh (Ovid. Mit. v. 416.) 
'1 ho river is now ctiiunionly knowu as the Al/'<i>, 
evidently from ;i nii>c<>nce|.ti.>M of the st"ry of Al- 
pheu> and Arethu.-a; but i^ al-o called and Uiarkcd 


on .all maps a.s the Anapo. (Thuc. vi. 96, rii. 78; 
Theocr. i. 68; Pint. Dion. 27, Tirnol 21; Liv. 
xxiv. 36; Ovid. Ex Punt. ii. 26; Vib. Se«}. p. 4; 
Uberlin, ad loc; Fazelh iv. 1, p. 196.) 

It is probable that the Pahs Ltsimelf.h (i 
hifimj ?; Av(rifi.4\fia KoXovfityr)) mentiotiiHJ hv Th-- 
cydivles (vii. 53), was a jart of the marsbe-» f«.nn'?«i 
by the Anapus near its mouth. A mar^lly or M.\e- 
nant ]>o«)l of some extent still exists the 
site of the XeajMilis of Syr.acuse ;uid the mouth of 
the river, to whi( h the name may with s<..iih* prc^ 
bubility be as^iirned. 

2. A river tailing into the AchelotLs, 80 ?ti.ui S. 
ofStr.atus. [AciiKix»is.] [K.H.H.] 

AXA'REI MUXTES (ra 'Am>€o Sprj), » ran:-* 
of mountains in '' S<Tthia intra Imanm," \» onr m! 
the western branches of the Altai, not far fnmi tb? 
sources of the (>6 or IrtUh. Ptolemy pb>i-> in 
their m-iubbuurlivxHl a jx^ople called AnareL (i'toL 
vi. 14. §§ 8, 12, 13.) 

AXAHI'ACAE ('A^apjcufai, Strab,; An.viiii 
Plin.; in Ptol. vi, 2. § 5, erroneously 'A^iopioxai), 
a {x'ople on the southern side of the Caspian S*^ 
neighbours of tlie Mardi or Amanli, Thoir ritj 
was calk^l An.ariaca ('A»'apja*f7j), and posse^.v^i m 
oracle, which commuiucatcd the divine will to yf:- 
sons who slept in the temjile. (Stnib. xi. pp. 5<»8, 
514; Plin. vi, 16. s. 18; S.lin.51 ; Steph. B.*.r.) 

AXARTES (C.aes. B. G. vi. 25). ANAKTl 
("ArapTOi, Ptol. iii. 8. § 5). a jk^ojjIc uf l>a4 It. f«n 
the X. side of <he Tibiscus (77v^i>.<). Cae>ar 1?- 
tines the extent of the Ilercynia Silva to the K. as 
ail Jhir;s Ddcoruni. et Annrtiunu [P. S.J 

AXAS (i'Avas: Guadiamty i.e. Wadi-Ann. 
ri'rer Anas, Arab.), .an inqxtrtant river of Hisponix 
dcMTibed by Stndxj (iii. pp. 139, foil.) as rijinz is 
the eastern part of the jH'ninsula, like tlie TacTU 
and the Baetis ((ruadidi/uirir), between which it 
tlows, all three havini^ the same general dinxii-m. 
from E. to W., inclininf: to the S.; the Anaji is ib^ 
smallest of the thn^e (conip. p. 162). It divid-^ 
the Country inh.ibiteil by the Celts and Lnsitanixus, 
who had Wen rcmoveii by the liomans to tbf S. 
side of the Tairns. and hiphcr np by tiie Carpetani, 
Oretani, and N'ettones, from the rich larKl* fl< 
Baetica or Turdetania. It fell into the AlUnti*!' 
by two mouths, na\'ii!able, bcrwern (t**!*^ 
{Cadi:), and the S;icre<l Promontory (C. <S<. ri»- 
ctnt). It was ordy navi;:able a short way up, and 
that for small vessels (p. 142). Strabo foribtT 
quotes Polybins .as placinc: the sources of the Asu 
and the Baetis in Celtiberia (p. 148). Pliny(iiLl. 
s. 2) ijives a more exact description of the orfia 
and jM' cliaracter of the Ailis. It rises in the 
territory of Laminium ; and, at one time difftyrd 
into marshes, at another retiring into a narrcw 
channel, or entindy hid in a subtermneous (varv, 
and exulting in IxMni: b<ini ajiain and a<rain, it Wb 
into the Atlantic Ocean, after forming, in its ln*« 
course, the lM)nndary between LnsiUinia and Baftia. 
(Cmp. iv. 21. .S..35: Mel.i, ii. I. § .3, iii, 1. §3). 
The Antfuine Itinerary (p. 446) places the source 
of the Anas (cajmt fluminis Anae) 7 M. P. frnm 
Laminium, on the nxul to C.aesaranirn-*tiL Tb* 
source is close to the villaire uf Osa la Montu-i, m 
/.a Manrha, at the foot of one of the northern .«ptr» 
of the Siciva Morena, in about 39° N. Ut- oi 
2'*' 45' W. loni". The river oriinn^ites in a nrar-iu 
fn'in a series of small lakes calb^i iMfptrmf df R^ 
d> rn. .At'ti r a course of alniut 7 nii!«»5, it disap- 
pears aii<i runs underi^round fur 12 milt*s, bur^lia; 

iilrd ilnrr al^.it 


was a Jpjjoait for treasnw. (Strah. 
liii. 62, xk. 56 ! Plul. £aiani. c. 13.) 
]>lari'S C^iiulu aloce AdcIiuiIp; but 
Tuetiliini Ana/arbiid, Ehla is no prvnl 
b^iile:! this, liw ppfi{:Ta[Jiy uf CiLLrui 
:t. ir 1>i>«>c1h''.i aiTuuDt of tbe l>y- 
•luy btiag eaUnl [Jiiindu i^ true, Ihin 
aiiuu uf ibc hiJl uf Ausurbiia liriii;; 
iiut prubiible eiiunL;!) that C^nda ii 
hiFbiui;:bt be apjilint lo tbr lull tori, 
c^iriruA bHutii? a city ii£ iwtrnc iinjAirt- 
Imv.'llor (Willtbranil v. UlJt'nbuT;:). 
i;.Tr. fuurxl, ut a place cnlleil .Van rn 
iiTUiitiun Ul Aimartiun) or AnnuHii!/, 
mains of an old (onn, at tliv dwtaace 
lilfS fouH Pis. [G. L.^ 

IS, a gicojili; in BriUin, iiibaliilinj; 
■ Veiilg, a liitalily wliith. probably, 
name, C'ae'ar alunt uienliwia them. 
1v rtvisonably anppo^ Ibat Ibpy wxn; 
Attm-lNiIes of PlulvoiT. TIh'}- win; 
ni Brt[i>na with vbii:h Cmntar csoie 
:a«s. B. ff.v. 21.) [I;.G.L.] 

ut), a luKn of Cilim, wliith Sle- 
\yx<^i|) placn on the rrtut, anil 
lialcnn. Oik ^toiy wliicti Ik rc[<irtv, 
1 pnrcly niythifsl. The utlifr stwiy 
, a'aigni ill! miian la ijanlanaialus, 
lian- liuilt Aiicbiale and Tarsua in 
abo also {Jacfs Ancliialo iitar ilie 
Aiinii!!.] Ari^Dbiilns. qiuilcil by 
I, stn tbnt tbe toinb of Sanlannpalus 
L-, anil on it a relief ' 

cbtliand. HpaJrK 
rijilioii in Axiiynan flutrni'teRi, which III lu '■I'ilt Ancliinlc and 
ilay, and eijjurtcil the n«ler to eat, 
irih, ai tveryiliinK pise u wit worth 
nianina of Whwli the atlitiiJe <i the 
In llR. IfM of StraUi, lb™ tAlm- 
Sr.'.'k VHMS, whiFh are rvidmlly on 
. tbi? ti'xL AticT tbpfe aix vcra4», 
Ix) pTot'ivIr'; ** Choenluti, abo, inen- 
Ilcn; aiid (be 6,Uiyvlug imet alw 
eirclUjiIed." 'Illc tua hiiaimUTB 
in, ait a |am[>liraw uf tlic eiliurta- 
Strabo lias ain-ady inven the »ub- 
■- AthflBein (lit p. 539) qnotM 

nvnta.1 as autliiwily Air tlio eiii.1- 
iid at Kinua IMncivh). whii'h n-aa 

ic <-1u>RH'tvis, an inarriiitiun to the 
tliat u'liieli Strabo mentiiiiif; and 
i that Chwriliia paraphnisnl it in 
itlKT iHsi-ase, AllH'naeus (p. 33G) 

I AniliiJe in one dar.-butnow Is dt-j.lf 
3UX.'[;est]& reiy iliflerenl rxifiecliolu fntn It.e 
uf All-xauilrr and other vcrijim. Arnan ( Jmi. ii, 5). IitmUiMv fj- 
luwiii;; I'tuldliiy. asys, that AkxanJor uiarvbrd in 
one liar froin Anehialc to Tai>ua. lie "Je^-riW 
the lieiirs on the [uiiimment an hxviBg the huaiit 
jidiicd, as clipiiin)' the bands; be aild-. ili^ tbe 
liinntT inajniilude of the rily was sb"K-n by ihi 
eircuit atid the fjniidali"n» of the "all-. Tha 
licKiiptinn dues ml apply to Uie time uf Arrlan, 
but to the a^o of Aleiandir, for Anian U ui.n-iy 
eojiyin^ Ilie bL^turiaus of Aleiiaiidvr. It S'i'Itu 
hardly doubirul that the Assyrians oQiv cilcDiini 
tliLV]jOwCT' its far, at li-ast, as Auehiale, and \hAl 
tbere Kas a niimuini.'iic nilh Aisrrian ebim-t.T> 
there in the tinie of Akiandcr; ami tbrn- njii-bi 
be one also lo the ssnie elTnt at Kineveh. (N« 
Cic TatcHUp. T. 35; Pdyb. viii. 12; and a& u 
Ibo pasamw of Strabo, Grosturd's Tran.>Uliuii aod 
Xote»,TuLJii,p.81.) Leake ( J«a -Wuiur, p. auj 
obienes, lliat a little west of Tarsus, and liet«i^ii 
the villa^s KaniU and Kanulaar, it a riTcr th^ 
ansTcra lo the Anchialens; and be fibserves tbat 
'*a lar^ mound, not tw frum tbe Aiiehialew> i"iEli 
some other simiLlT tumuli ntar the shore to [hr 
vestAanl, are the remuns. pi/Tlia|is, of the A^^Trian 
limiiders uf Anihiale, wliith jirubaMy d>'r>v..d iu 
teni[i"tary iiopiirtante fnini bchii; tlie ehii-f nu- 
rititiie itatiuu of the AssiTian luODanti; in th»c 
seas.- [G. L] 

AXCHrALECATK'iiAl: AL^l!).± ^mM u.wn 

A|>;lluuia. to wkicU its inhalnlanis Kcre snbUTt. 
(Slrali. vii. p. 319.) The Latui mters. wb<. znrB- 
tiiin the place, eall il Ani'hialns or AntliialanL 
iOv. TniL i. 9. 30: Pomp, Slel. ii. 2; Plin. N. .V. 
ir. 18; cnmp. Pt<il. iii. II. §4.) [1. ^-1 

luppini: tbe AKCUIASMU& [Osi:ul»mi-s.] 


A'N'CHOE {'Ayxtii), a on the bar^n, ^ 
Rumtia and of Lotris, near lipper Larrniiu. a. 
which the waters of tlie Ceplii^^ua brde forth fnoi 
ibi'ir suMerraiieoui ehnnrel. Theiv was aL« a lala 
of the £.ime narne al this place. (Sirab. ix. p^ 4o6, 
4117 ; I'h'li. ir. 7. s. 12 ; Leake, Xarthm Ortact, 
Tol. ii. p. aSP.) [IJuriisA.] 

AXCON ('A->wii>'). a headland and bay. as tlx 
naiue inijJies, on tlie I'oant vf Hnlus. eatt irfAnd^a.^ 
Il is iiuniioitcd by \'a]erius Fbecu.a (iv. 60ii> a 
bis Ari^mauiini, vSXfx the Iris, ai^ if it were r»i\ 
of tlic month of that river. A|K'l]i}niiu lclu>li-j> 
simjjy KpRika of it as a headland (ii. 369). The 
nntitnt authorities lin not a^zmi in the ilUtanceA 
ah-nj; this tiiitit (Stqih. i. v. Xatuila; Haini^ioa. 
ItrKarrhtt, riiL i. p. 2at>). The craiclu.-ii.'a ^ 
llanijlliin neenis lo be the most )inJial>lc, thai Iftr- 
kfifl /hariiiiH, east if AuilnUS. repre^nts Auriai. 
a^ il is the th^ lieadland east vf Ainbos, '' and ita- 
only pLire lefore psu-hins llie month of the Irii 
wliere a barl-iur can eiiat.' He adds, that " at Hh- 
extivniilyof i'drbenff AjurfioTfiB smajlslream ^alia 
ilaled into tlie sea betMwn two pronjiitous htsidiaiKis, 
imJuMy Ihe Chadisius of the andents." [G. Uj 

hittly poeiical; but, aci'oniin^ 
n on the Adiiitic »<.*a^ 


B U jntMt, ud iifatiat BDcJoM iu port, fnoi Mhicb 

in It 

It ti 

«k<*M (Stnh.T. p.24UHtU,u.4; Ptixup. 


£ C. ii 13. p, 197.) Flinj, indnd, qipnn to n- 


fvi it ■■ named frm its pontKn M Uw ugle err 

d« bnd br tha out li» U thii pout (■• ^ 


jtuMwoMHcaWto, uL13.Llg), but Uiia u 



Haul BiH* iniuig ■ bold bBidlud, tbaCoMZ- 
n.1 rf Plifljr, itill kncvn u Jfonta Comen. Ad- 
(aiwii thaodj Gn^ aduoy on tfaii put of the 
oK rf Itilf , hsTi^ b«n fixmded iboot 380 B. c. 
bf Sjnrma Euls, wbo fled hitbgr (a >njd tlia 
ipuDjrftbecUo'DicaTBiiu. (Stnb. JLc) Htnta 
h ■ oIW Aerica Amxm hj Janatl (ir. 40), lud 
ii mmtiiaed b7 S<7lu (§ 1 7, p. 6), wlio iiMki* 
bI; Cnck dtiia. Wa hare no accaont of iU ei- 
■Uaa ii 10 aarlis psiad, ftr thoogfa Flinj reftn 
aimiatiiBto tba Sicnli {Lc; an alao Solin. 2. 
{ [0), tha it probaUj a men misocDCvpAioo of the 
hn :kM it WM & GokoT from Sicilj. Wa ]«m 
Mkig if in early Iiiit(f7: but it ippean to luLie 
EkfidJj naoi inlD « ptaea of importance, owing to 
IkcQodlaica d its port (the onij natural haibonr 
linttfaialmeaf ooul)aiid the gnat fertilit j of tlw 
djoiDf cmntaT. (SOmb. L c; PhiL lir. 6.) It 
••• BiMd alao fac ha piupla dje, whidi, aecoding 
B SBb Haficaa (tiiL 438), wu Dot inferior to 
tee of Fbocaiaa cr Africa. The petiod at which 

traaUr Ubwed tl» &ls of (!» lert of Ficenom: 
a k ^ 178 w« find than ™»lfing oae <^ it ae a 
lafil Mitiaa againat the Dljiiaoa and latriazu, 
{U. lE. 1.) On the DDtlnak of the Cit!) War it 
■■ varied bj Cmb^ as a place of importance, 

•• W it in later timca aernng aa the priiidfsl 
p*t 6* ttmnnnieatHi witll the oppoaite coaet of 
r^bnii. (Cia.B.C. L II: Cic ad Alt nL 
il.idFam.xn. IS; Tmc Aim. SL 9.) Ai earif 
B tka tioB of C. GnEctam > part of ita territorj 


t<p°« <f niaraa vhich had asred nnder J. Caeaai. 

the la 

b pBbUiij fim »oqnired at thii thne the nnk of a 

ef u 

haae oiaj, whidi we find it agopng in the time 



Miamptoa. (Apf. B. C. x.33; LA. Colom. 

W- m. M7, SM: Gratei, pp. «1. 3, 465. 6; 


2b|1, <(> Cob>. p. 333.) It iwiiTtd greM bei». 



>~t^ rf a vrw nuh, wfaieli HlD nmaina in good 


F-naiB. On H WM eierted, in hoDonr <tf the 

■low, a triBnphal anh, boilt entindy of white 

urU., rt[i^ both frm ita perfect piaemtkin and 



B»l* itfirded ■■ « of Un OMt baaotifbl moiia- 


<-nrfBadMBnniHui«mIUl7. Gat» nmaini 


'■ iBllsthntcc maj ako be tnodi ud do- 


•-•■mrtkB MMM the OonnhiDg ooQditioD 


4*-*«BtarlbeBea>DEo>pin. The tampk 


''V,^ .Uottd Wh hr JnToal u>d CatnUn. 


(M. i,.40: C-»0.»jTri.lS), ha. allegrther di^ 

cf Ze 

•PT— 1; h> it i. .0 prefaahiElr oocnpiol the Bm. 


» ■ Iha ifan atbedral. on llw nnuiut of the 

if An 

bei U tte cmmHBh the whole dtr and (OMi. 







I,] I iFills nf tie ciLnitl wnu™ an imirmH nninlyT -/ 
iliT " |»>niiiiis nf bnhn-lipr<, iiucripli-iDt, fuiHml iif^i 
Willi pirlniiils, lUiil IIk cajut boiu, «ITIllJl1,,<l■ 
^l1li('IllllrT iiuiTi|i(»xis. iTHinklinE inJivil nrtaKli 
thiMtallJoran.liniii'i'uin." (Hunilt^B.) 

Anfim is Btill ■ coUHdenUe town, viTh a lir.t 
poi^ilitl™. [G. L] 

AXinilO'S POLIS ('A7ini^ w*ui. Pul n. 
S. § 57; Siriih. R. t. r.: £(4. 'ArnipntUnri). 
VSA a tnwu uf Miildk Ecypt. lOmiJea itnottmni rj 
tbi' Htptanamiii! ApbiwIitniaJb. It ilrncFd iu ip- 
ptUatiun Fmm tli« inunu&cliire of fioiw iciMi 
cut fnon tlif niTftlihouring ()iiiiTiM. [W. B, If,] 

ANDA'NIA ('Ai*i*la! til,. ArS^H*!. Arfi 
nei), an anrimt tunii of Mbsmuh. am) Ibe cmjiul 

■ of tiK kings of Ihe rare of the Lslpces. It i-u 
I rrMirated u thp blnliplace of Arir'toniviirt, kmt 

Ia the fnA of the aecimd Mns^nian vtt it vu 

I rliwrtol bv its iiiliabitanti. who lovk rriaft id iM 

; fiirlnwi cif ba. FraiD ttiU timi^ it oai <ali 

EP. Liw (s]in-i.31)de!i.tibr* it M apum™ 

urn. and l-ausinias (ir. 33. § 6) saw onli •" 

It KU rituatrd on rhe Tond 1i'3>liii; fno 

MpswwtnSIoiralnpili^ Itsndns.iu-ninlinciiljik*. 

™ calliii ^■/KiHfc.'iTOiPD.atuI aw situaird af^v 

lit ni«r tlif rilliise nf f»ti or /Vii Ita 

IbniH'rii: Ow-hnlia is iiimlLlisd br Slrabo «iib .U- 

ilaitia. biu t« I'aasinias wilb Caraasiiun. wlikt »» 

«ilv tt ttiulb from AnJania. (I'aos. it. I. § 1, it. 

S. g". iv. 14. g7, 26.S6. 33. § 6; StisKpp. 119, 

330!Nppb. B. ».r.;L«ikc, J/<«o, vol. i. p. »?-) 

AN[>KCA\'i, a Rallic tribe, wlio win nimd np 

k'riiis. A. i>. 31. (TacJna. iii. 40.) AiTvitu 
in tliU {n.ii^ii.'c caujilcs them with Ibe TnTouii " 
" mps. wc mar riiwindr tbil thev an ibt Iribf 
b Cmar cnlis AihIm (A 6'. ii. 3S). and xbicb 
[in«l a fart of tli» limcr valley of ibc Lom 
ifi-), on tho north bant, west of the Tnma* 
r pMtiwi i* stiil mnre aceonitclr di.IiiiKi If 

■laine et l^irt, oa the J/nycnnf, an aifliiml i^ 

■ ll»/>.,W. [d-L] 
AXDKIIIA ('Av3f.pi: £r^ ArliifHuxii}. •: i: ^ 

wrilicii HI i'linv (v. 32). a town of the TrauL IM 
Hip of which is nnivrinii). Thpie waa a tPtinilf li 
the Jloliii-r of the tlnd» hrrr, wiimie she had tbi 
iiaini' AnOrirPne. (S(pi>1i. R. i. r. 'Avieipa.) A> 
to thi: Btone fbund hpre (Strah. p. filo), whith. ■bm 
"liumt, liccomea iron," and u to th« retl if tlui 

kunls trimlatioii nf Slriibo ((«!. ii. p. 5!tO). (G. L.] 
ANIlKJIATrN'KUM.t1»'pbieriown of the Ijd- 
emi-t, l> not iiieiitiaiieil by Caesar. The narnr ef 
I'lir* ill t1»' Antiniine Itiiienlrv. and ui the I'enuniTr 
'I'uI.Ip; and m I'toliqiiaviu (ii. 9. g 19) nn.ler ll" 
fiinn 'ArtanaTavnl: AdHTdui)* to the Ant^niv 
Itiii. n mad led fnim thl.< pbiv to Tolliun (TcaO- 
In the jn<ha~v of Kulro|>liie (ix. 23) "cin Lin- 

UiiiMnutii:" ami if ihis h Aiiil''nialiinniua, thr iii> 
is tii.1t of iIk m-HliTn town uf Lunjrm. on a hill « 
thi' d"[ortiiH'nt of MaaK Mamr. and near the *mne 
of the JItnnr ( Lnmjrrt contain* ih* 
rpmaiiu nf iwo trinmiilini arcliw, one eivrtfd lo 
hiiinnir of tiie mi]pri.r I>nibaf, and the Mhei "i 
iKiuinr of Cinuamrtins Clilurna, The in^n|*in 
».icl ti> !>' found at Laniins. which would tJ.">- ic v 


AXDESETIOllBA i aootlxr nsaiDg of AN- 
DEEESIO, > ton of Briuun, nHatkmd b; tbc 
tmiiftw (t Bavcmi* ailj ; Di whoM lift it atan 
•an lg Cilkn Atitlatiuii, rr Siidtater. Mils, 
(iMMtqaillj mknaini, fbUcmj tnd iIkh ataa 

Sima. Ai br an Uw <a4v in wbioh tl» gngn- 
)bil UBm (f M wcrUilcM a miter it d tttj 
M^ a in. tbc Rlitka <f ADdcmia, n Ands- 
Wim^ ambintii Kith Uw &ct of tiu mcd being 
KikMlj "'|""-'i nggnta th* likelihiioil of tlie 
fr4 niUk bosa thM of tb* proMit tmni of Jaii. 
Mr. [R O. L] 

IXDESIDA, b mwitiaitd in Uw A'ntitu Imperii 
m iJh ititia of ■ (MaduDant of Abald (ddbidiu 
iWc*a>)) aod ■■ put of tlw Littaa Suad- 
e*. la tfai Angl^-Gaxoa pedod it bai lar 
patm I— -i-— -- Tlw ih'tfrirt Andorida con- 

it ncbd fiiaa Aim to Hftba, and trm Eut- 
bovB to tb Hath of UaidtfdiM — &nu»7 Uuib 

hai X. la &, an! 190 bvD E. to W. an tin dimm- 
■Ma jTv^ IB the An{l»-Saufi dutauds (ad AiuL 
IM), af thia i< aot far ftm the actoal diataoca. 
Tk ana ■ BritUi; aiatrad nnoisg laiaata W le J , 
■•< tb bm in hD b<u« Coai Amdnd, lit mm- 
■Mirrf HHf. UmnbalalHl it ma not; in the 
■ntnl ndgB, miainf iadnalij ini applied to the 
m en rf TilpUe Fvcat at a Tar; early period. 
Tb Mif d^ diMrict (tb eak-tne daj of the 
rthgtu) anoDd it, bmnrer, n^ have beoi tbe 
■Ht rf oBlla i ostf. BeiaRd, wboi ezpcUed 
ka Ibck, took nfnge in tbe AmdrtdtmaU, 
ha Ibe BKtfa-waatam frontiar; and tbe Briteoa 
rto, -■—■tiny to the Aiigli>-SaiaD Cbnaude of 
*. a. iTT, bd fam Aeila ami hia aoi, did tbe eaiM 
frvibeeBOtfa. Of .Inia-iAi, ai a dinrict, Ao- 
^■|[Biin (A^rab&a), and Andiedwicwitf (tbe 
r-iArf ABlred>, are tba Uer namn. 
(Xtb jBtieobr atoliin >e called in tbe IfctMa, 

Wi dan; fir tmiwim <tf Banao.mlla are etiU 
^aiia^ Tte neigbboDilaKid (f foriinanw, where 
>kn an Kamaa ranaina abo, Umigta bee ixnBdei- 
■tk b tb Hxl bat. Camdeo faTOond Ifewa^- 
*»; itbv nilent hanng pefcmd CkieJitHm: 
b m ^1 ta Hj that Andsida never wai a Saxon 
■nKalL In A. D. 491, Adla and hit eoa Cieea 
■drvall tbt dwib tfaenin, eo thU not ■ o^ 
fafea «M WL' (AJMlo-SanD Chnnicb, ad 

^) riL a L.] 

ASniEKITDlt, a Ion wiiieb Ptoknaene calla 
■-•/irii. aad the e^tal of tbe Oahali, vbom 
Ca^ KMIku (S. G. TiL TS) ae mbjecti of the 
Im^ la tteA<X.iVi>«.(;aa. it ■• called Crrilae 
''ihaiii, bri^ taken the name of the pai^le, 
■■ tbi ^ with mat of the oqatak of the Gallic 
Una ndv tlH Los EmpiR. IfAnville faifen, 

b er Jmnamm, wUdi tenniDalcn tboa, M. 
ku. T., tint ^ podtion vSJamoU maj lepn- 
dHfbaea. WakkoiHrCOAy.^iiB Gontu) 
a Andnt^ at .datorrMWE, Othn nppw 
lie tt be >1 Jfrnk Both /aaefa atid Mmdt 
I Oa CMMdM, arut of tha : 



ANDES. [AHDacAvi.] 

ANDES, a vilUge in the oeighbniriuiod 
tu, kDOvn ODij frran the cimmitaDce of i 
been the aetoal binliplace of Vii^ (Dc 
Virgil. 1 ; Hienm. CHitm. p. 396), who ii, 

belangedtotbeterritayof that cil;. Itiic 
■uppDaed lo be repreeented bj Iho modem 
Fittobi, on the Uoki of the Mbdui, abon 
bekw Uantoa, but appamitlj with no olheC . 

hot Utile w^t (See MJllin, Vofoge dm 
' mail, ToJ. it p. 301.) [E. 

ANDETBIUH CArhbpw, Strab. p. 3 
Ntpiar, PtoL ii. IT. g llj 'A>«4pur, Di 
'ri. 13), a foitiatd town in Dalmatia neat 
rhich ofieml a biaTe neietance lo Tiberini 

ANDIZE-TU CAjfcC^rioi), one of t 
tzilna in Panumia, occnpjing the conntTJ j 

ulhem part of the DnTe. (Stnh. viL 

in. iii. £8, who calk them Acdiieln.) 

ANDOSmi, a people in Bpein bWween t 
and the PTreneee, mentioned anly is a p 
pdjUiu (iiL 3S), where enne editon pn 

id Aoeatani. 

ANDRAPA (■Ai4|»n), ahw called N( 
polii, a town of PaiUagonia, near tbe rjr 
in the later peurince of Uehnu^ontue, and 
of aluehopric Than an coim of thii ton 
the dataa and dgiea of M. Anretina, I 
getems, and Caraoalla. (Pld. t. 4. g 6 ; 
p. TOl t Joatin. t/oreO. 33.) 

AMDKIACA CArSpjKn; Amdriti), th 

e town cf Hjia in Ljda. Appian (B. t 
iaja that Leoluliia broke through the cbi 
cr oeeed the cotnnca of tbe poit, and wn 
■-'— to UfTa. Beaafiirt (faraauHa, p. : 
aaie .daiMis to the rirer of Ujra. 
north aide of the entrance an the mnatn 
n faorrea, with a perfect ineciipttu 
■tata that the borrea were Hadiian'i : tti 
Hadiian'e third conndate, which ia a. u. i 

Aodriaca ia mentioDed bf PtahniT: ■ 

J " Andriaca dTJtu, Ujra- (r. £7). , 
tlxD, ia ckarlj the place at tbe Bnilli af i 
iner on which Hjn Mood, 30 etadja je 
(Strab. p B66.) It nrnet hare ban r j 
a> Cnuner obaaTee, that EC Pad air 
paniceu were pnt on beard tbe ah^ v' Aj 
(AeU, xirii. S, 6.) 

A'NDBIUS. [TsoiB.] 

ANDBOTOLISCAr^irwiio.yu,. - 
Hierod. p. TZ4 : Elk. 'A>^a>M.^i „ 
Ckctmr, wae the diief lows if tir ai-mm- 
in tbe Ddta. It wae anlad ■» U> .- m 
Nile,wi ■ ■ ■ 

p. 776.) Fran ita name, wtire »_^ 

ohBcoritf, it would eeui liia' ^ ,i j 

of the d^ idid ' flmii i ... . 

Manei or Shadea cf tth im ^_^ 

Eut^. Chnmicem.) irn] m ... 

20 pre hai ibr 

lU. 83 

he pn Inir in 

fill \k. IhU 

IT "V 

m Ic 'm ha 


viMsthcyjcBBedtlie Imgneof tbeCheniad. The 
Gnwam ven defeated on that occanoo in two great 
hittlei, at latannu, and at a point a little more to 
tl» notlL (TadL ^m. h. S, 82, 41.) About A. d. 
ItiO, vbn the Chemacan league was broken np, the 
Aofiirtru, in coojanetkn with the ChamaTi, at- 
tacked the nagfaboaring Bmcteri, and made them- 
■h«» naftoB of thieir eu unti y, so that the ooontry 
hmia^ m the middle ages the name of Angaria 
{Ea^n^f became part of their territoij. (Tacit. 
tffra^M; oomp. ¥rilhehn, (TermofMeii, p. 162, foil.; 
I/drbv, Lamdm. VoOtderBmeterer, ppi 121,240, 
iJL) [L.S.] 

AXGULUS (^AyyptOUt : Eth, Angnlanna), a city 

d (be Veitim, mentioiied both bj Plinj and Ptolemj, 

» vefl » ia the Itin. Ant (jp. 313), where the 

Mae bwrittao Amffdum, a conniption which appears 

ti ittte ewif oome into general use, and has given 

riip to s enrions metamorphosis, the modem town 

ntMnig its ancient name as that of its patron saint: 

k k aim called Cicila SaiU Angela. It is situated 

<■ a bBl, about 4 miles from the Adriatic, and S. of 

tW mv lUtrinos (fa Piomba) which separated the 

V«ttfli fixm the t er rito ry oi Adria and Pioenom. 

Tbe Itineiaiy erroneo u sly places it S. of the Atemns, 

ta vbiek case it would have belonged to the Fren- 

tau. (I1m.uil2.a. 17; PtoL iiL l.§59; Clnver. 

JtaL p. 751 ; BomaneUi, toL iiL p. 254.) [E.H.B.] 

AMGRAEA. [Abooil] 

ASTGEVS (^Asrypof : Matro-potamd, i. e. Black 

Biur\ a small rirer in the Triphylian £lis, called 

Ibsfeiai (MjyiH^os) by Homer {IL zi. 721), rises 

B Ml Loithas, and before reaching the Ionian sea 

bca itaelf near Samicum in pestiipntial marshes. 

lu vstcra had an offensiTe smdl, and its fish were 

at aslable. Tins was aaczibed to the Centaurs 

kn%( washed in the water after they had been 

vooidad by the poasnnpd arrows of Heracles. Near 

Se uatuui were caTems sacred to the nymphs Ani' 

Sndn (^AnypChs or AvrypidXct), where persons 

vith ca taa e u us «<i«wii were cured by the waters of 

tbrrina: Geoenl Qordon, who risited these caverns 

is 183S, fcuDi in one of them water distilling from 

tke rack, and bringing with it a pure yellow sulphur. 

The Addas, which aome persons regarded as the 

larisBM of Homer, ilowed into the Amgms. (Strab. 

1^ M4— 347; Pans. t. 6. §| 3, 7, seq. v. 6. § 3; 

iyt. Met XT. 281 ; Leake, Morta^ voL L pp. 54, 66, 

■^ Pdopommeriaea, pp. 106, 110; Boss,iZeweii tm 

AioyMtt, voL L p. 105.) 

AKINETUll (fArdniTsr), a town in Lydia of 
neertaiD site, the mat oi a bishopric, of whidi coins 
■• cztsat, bearing the epigraph 'Annia^. (Hie- 
ncL p. (59, with Weaaelmg's note ; Sestini, pi 105.) 
A'XIO or A'NIEN (the btter form is the more 
aoo^ wkeace in Uw oblique cases AKiKms, 
AfiDx, &c are naed by all the best writers: but 
hm !!»■■■■»<; ■ » Ajnn ie found only in Cato, ap, 
iSaciaa vL 3. pL 829, and some of the later poets. 
Scat. jar.L3L 20, 5.25. Of the Greeks Strabo has 
AffW. Dionyvins uses 'A^s^-iyrot). A celebrated 
nwr «f Latiam, and one of the most considerable of 
tli tributariaa of the Tiber, now called the Teverone, 
Is aas in the Apemnnea about 3 miles above the 
«>«« «f Traha (TreM*) and just bekiw the modem 
nikfe tf /akHaiao. (Plin. iiL 12. s. 17; Frontin. 
dtAfmadmeL §93; Strabo erroneously oonnects its 
with tha Ijske Fudnus, t. p. 235.) From 
il desoada rapidly to SMaeo (Sublaqueum), 
ibov« which it formed in ancient times 
4 nsn lake er laiber a series of lakes, which were 



probably of artificial construction, as all trace of 
them has now disappeared. [Sublaqueum.] It 
flows firom thence for about 10 miles in a MW. 
direction, through a deep and narrow valley between 
lofty mountains, until just below the village of 
BaiicmOj where it turns abruptly to the SW. and 
pursues its course in that directicn until it emerges 
firom the mountains at Tibur (TVpoIi), dose to whidi 
town it forms a odebrated cascade, fiUling at mice 
through a height of above 80 feet The present 
cascade is artificial, the watera of the river having 
been carried through a tunnd coostructed for the 
purpoee in 1834, and that which previously existed 
was in part also due to the labours of Pope Sixtus V.; 
but the Anio always formed a striking water-fiUl at 
this pomt, which we find repeatedly mentioned by 
andent writers. (Strab. v. p. 238; Dionys. v. 37; 
Hor. Carm. L 7. 13; Stat SUv. L 3. 73, 5. 25; 
Propert. iiL 16. 4.) After issuing from the deep 
glen beneath the town of Ticoli, the Anio loses 
much of the rapidi^ and violence which had marked 
the upper part of its current, and pursues a winding 
course through the plain of the Ccmpoffna till it 
joins the Tiber about 3 miles above Rome, close to 
the site of the andent Antemnae. Daring this latter 
part of its coarse it was commonly regarded as 
forming the boundary between Latinm and the Sabine 
territory (Dionys. Z. c), but on this subject there 
is great discrepancy among andent authors. From 
bdow Tibur to its confluence the Anio was readOy 
navigable, and was much used by the Romans for 
bringing down timber and other building materials 
from the moontains, as well as for tiansporting to 
the dty the building stooe from the various quarries 
on its banks, especially from those near Tibur, which 
produced the celebrated lapis TiburtimUy the Tro- 
vertmo of modem Italians. (Strab. y. p. 238; Plin. 
iiL 5. s. 9!) 

The Anio recdves scarody any tributaries of im- 
portance: the most considerable is the Dioektia of 
Horace (^Ep. L 18. 104) now called the Licenza 
which joins it near Bardella (Mandela) aboat 9 miles 
above TiwM, Six miles bdow that town it recdves 
the sulphureous watere of the Albula. Several 
other small streams fiUl into it during its course 
through the Caropagna, but of none of these have 
the andent names been ]»«served. The watera of the 
Anio in the upper part of its course are very limpid 
and pure, for which reason a part of them was in 
ancient times diverted by aqueducts for the supply 
of the d^ of Rome. The first of these, called for 
distinction sake Anio Vetus, was constructed in 
B.C. 271 by M*. Curias Dentatas and Fulrius 
Flaocus: it branched off about a mile above Tibur, 
and 20 mUes frxMn Rome, but on account of its ne- 
cessary windings was 43 miles in length. The 
second, constructed by the emperor Chmdius, and 
known as the Anio Novas, took op the stream at 
the distance of 42 miles from Rome, and 6 from 
Sublaqueum: its course was not less than 58, or 
according to another statement 62 miles in length, 
and it preserved the highest level of all the nnmerous 
aqueducts which supplied the dty. (Frontin. de 
AqmaeducL §§ 6, 13, 15; Nibby, IHtUorm, voL L 
pp. 156—160.) [E. H. B.] 

ANITORGIS, or ANISTORGIS,a town in Spain 
of uncertain dte, mentioned only by Livy (xxv. 32), 
supposed by some modem writers, but without suffi- 
cient reason, to be the same as Conistorsis. [Cuhk 

ANNAEA or ANAEA ("Amuo, 'Awifa: Eth. 

ea wu <>]i]Kisitt Samoa, 
wliiwli did not cxii-nd 
im the caprcsirins of 
75, viiL 19). it may 

V Samian Milos pujlfd 
ponncsian itar. The 
i) cMmHtuirnleitit 

enough to liaw a sla- 
I. [,-,. L.) 

Atvita Bpih I'liJ. ci. 
Lxiil. 6), •nie of Ibo 
Aiiio, ill Ibe eitn^io 
iR iuto SiTii'o; cor- 
lillleAllui or tbeJiE. 

.,..0 '-•'' 

>'I{||, tlutis, "mitors 
licniiaii Iribc dwelliiij; 
m, Anii. (J;..> 
afaiDsttlie ClteniSfi, 
le tjitiw un tfac coasl 
"led Ihc UmiHut), but 

tcwnlj clijtstisal tiir 
19, rbc AiisibiU'ii. ae- 
l 55. 55), wen «i- 



le llru. 

cd lijr IIh kttrr, thry 
nlrs. UniiR ti-Jiited 
lerin^s, snd ciiduriof; 

aitii[nicd iliul nrein- 

leof tbe Knurks; but 

> (li. aOl, 293) as 
lie xaiiK as tlie Anai- 
r, land B. ru(t Ar 

» tAk. P(o1. it. 5. 
».§S9, .18;PliH. </c 
i, "31; JitA.'fLTTiut- 
ie Antncupulite numo 
n the eit-trni bank vf 
! plaui lielov Aiitueo- 
of llw combat be- 
h llic fonncr svenjird 
gtlier-biubiuid (haiis. 
hiinian >iii|vrun of 
ntn of an cj^z^copal 
'iatbeieeof Tnjan 

aiv 9lil! txtasL The »te tT Aim 
omujiiiil by a strafrcliuB ^■i«^ <•■'*■ 
A few hWka utv Ihc rinri rip in 
>t rcmaiiis of llie lemiilc of Aiilanu. Uik li 
them B mscribiHl vith Ibe umtj if PidlnraKii 
l'hito]ator and bis ijuccn Arsboe. lu ha iHlid 
rulunui mu carried nway by an inuniUlini in 1^1. 
But Ike ruiiu bad been [wiioiulT mi|il>nd u lu- 
tcii^ds tor bnildin^; a fatmt fur Ibnhiiii I'lshi. 7k 
iniriJiiii of AnlaiTis km of Libyan mza. (Iv- 
tiimarg of Biot/raphp, t. r.) [W. B. 1).] 

AXTANDHUS ('A>Tavt^ii Elk. 'ArrM^oi: 
j] H/rf fliiru), a cily on Ibe C'tut of Trov, nvUi 
head of tho f nlf id' Adiaiiiyltiuiii, on Ik >'. ali. 
and W. of Adraniyttiuni. Accordiui: \o Aiuia^ 
(Slepli. B. *, p. 'ArrorJpoi). its oricinil mm ■» 
ICiliinia, and it was inbaiiili'd by a Tbnciu inbr li 
KJoni, and Ik adds " or Ciniiuvri*. fiinntlulra- 
nicrii idiabilins it 100 vcais.*" Pbny (i.M|if. 
peats tn hat-o ot\aal Arisl'ille also, U itenu. iba, 
that there was a liadition about the Cimmeriilijr.M 
H'iied the phtre in their incumoDinlij A.'U.oT'bjitL 
Irailitiioi Hurodutus sipeuka (i. 6). HitoiIliCm (tu. 
42) sivea to it th* naine rc]a.-ps. Atriin, Akwa 
(Strab. p.606)call3it acityof theLrlei^s. tfa 
tlii^vavue Blutcuienta ire Diny conelnJe ihUiiTS 
a rcty old tOKn; and ils adrsntii^^vui ihbiiulE 
tbc fuiit of Aspiuieus, a mountain bekuufiiij tu IJi. 
where linitieriras cut, initio it a dwirablc [moMsi<«- 
Yir»il makes Aeiicaa bulb! bii tket hm (iio. ii^ 
5). The tnulitioii as to its bdn^ settled frem lo- 
dr<is(Mrlii, i. 18) tfma merely founded on a nuui- 
luufi aitcmjit III explain the name. It vu fiiull< ui 
Aii.lian S'tlleinoiit (Tbuc. \-iii, lOS), a fed 'i^ 

I liistorieol. 

I- (Hc«. 

y tlia Prrsian 
SG) sliorlly after tiie Sntliian ei 
In llie ei^iith 1-ear of Ihe P<'tipunni?ian nar it » 
Ix'Irayrd by some Mytilmai,9Uis and mbcis, riiid 
I^hbtifi. heitit; at that lime uuder tiie soif^ 
mw^rof Allitii»i but Iho Allieiiiaua Hun rewirni 
it. _ CThue. iv. S2, 76.) TIb PmtiiH pK it a.™i 
duriiij; iIh' IVlu]ioniiesbn war; but llie (ij«iBi»wir. 
fearing lln Iniubety of An*¥s, wlio coniiMni^ 
' on there tit TissajdieniCT. diute tt« Vto 
cl llie aiTupiilis, u.<.'. 411, (Thue. "ii. 
IIW.) Thel'etsiaiu.huvreTer.didnotloteilitnl" 
CXen./W/.i.l.Sa5.) [G,L] 

AXTAHADUS ('AtrdpaJoi. pi„l. t. 15. J if; 
Ifi.wles, p.7 16 : TwIiiX a tovrn ..f Phnnidi sit 
nortbtrni extremity, and on Ibe muaLiDil 

Th1.1i>. ii 


Tba « 

n tk>bu< 

D Er,rJi al 

Kiieselniiildle (». ti.) placea Anlaradus on ilie fi»« 

" -out S mile-s to the N. of AroJub. aud idnuitia it 

tb L'nniB (Slepli. U. ». v.) or Caruo^, ibo poit :i 

■adus.aiHy-iiliiie toStnibo(xvi. p, 753 ^ cooip-PIni 

IS). It Baa n*ui]t by ikv emperor CimsiuuiO!. 

i>. 346, 1 

(Cwlnfl. nut. Comp. p. 24G.) It retained, 1 

In,, /.ibrala. i. G: Wilt 
p. JM. ii. p.200, \ii. 11340, rii 
and utlHTs tli« modem Tartiit bi 
with Arethuiut, but ineorrcttly. 


r, whra n i*rsan iu-fnl f...Uk (Hir.S.: 
S6 ; «)iii[^ Uv. ( JW. iv. a. 50; Pns, ;t. 
jLar.) ThchclWanpewmtraMiafr 



n'. Afconi- ; unil lluit <f tlif whitt iw an nn 
«™ K,lf»w Paiis. 1. SG. § 7,) Tlic» are . 
Cn-ai VAessa. iniiiiis at Atpm S/illia, but Lratr di^ivmi bn> 
ill vfairli lie nu iiisrri]i1iiiii coutninini; the imw o( Amirin. 
nOinHiH)- (Li-jkr, A'urliiirR (^rvriY. vul.ii.p.34l,Hq.) 
Kir Uif Ku- 2. AtuB-ninTbt'R<aIymlkdL>triclUilis9tili 
iii)(v.1M),ft moulh of the Sjimheim. (Hcmi tU, IW; Snl 
thcimw, ju it [•p.418, 434.) Accoriliiig i« Sto[JiMiii (j r. Ap. 
iiiiu cif C'iiRl- TiMupBi) tlK bejit b'lli'bimi nu gnmn al Ibis )!». 
[i;. I_] ami ono of its tiliitiLi Pihiliilwl ll" iwlKhif 
ira.Sti'jili.R ! HiTarlm, wiiru bbouring laubr imJnes in IM 
Stqib. IS.). » iHrlzlibourlKxid. 

b) llin Ai'd- i 3. A luwii in I-ocris, whioh iwtt mAia r-a- 
d ;iUii' »!ih iiUiilifv wiiii llic I'ImIoh Aiili-'n. 
' [SV 1.] Liv.v,h'c«n.™,tii*™lj»y!(uri-«) 

.: Ltake, 
Lisa, i't/«- 

ilitfaijin cuil't "" 


.ritli pirdlP 


an ^\»llivl 







! £■«. 'Arrt- 

lU llii: 
rJi<inti<i< I'lih hv Ml ai«l l;uul jnmi .Viu]gnii>: 
niK-ren.' Ilir- riw-'inn Ai.IiciTi wis iranr^a; 

:uiJ nas «i) iiiil'-s .ii-raiii fr"" SaiiiO'ius. Hnt- 
.pitr SiRilw i-i-rifc' <•{ llircr AnlifTrar, ■«« ItiRifli- 
n wnniil ™ III.' .Mi.liac ^u\i (p. 418). aoJ a Ibri 
in llif oniiilry of llii' «v.ii-m bcri. « Ijitri l>4» 
(p. 434), II';™™. Bkc»:^.^in■^»■l^kll.mll»<I 
(Afi Voit. 3IXJJ S|miks rit IhrM ABrKvnf.aJ 
n-prtiscnls llwiii ail as im«lui'iilS h.'IkVirr. (lul' 
/iirf. p. .'i43.) 

ANTIlJilXEIA (AwfJ*"", ■Amrwfo. -In"- 
piii^i, Liv,; A7A. 'AM-oiwfiJt. Aii(ii.ii™*i>) L 
A luMii iif Ktjrua in tbf dislriil Chsnnii, « * 
Aous :ind ni-nr n n.nmrtr pi's li'silin;: fiun lli.'^a 
iiil" ClLiuiiin. (Ti irap' ' ttrrrtmiar «o4.P>l-i 
3.6: ail Anlii.'.«K-ain fanciv. Lir. uiu. i.] »■ 
tovni wa.! inllii- liaiiil* of Hip itimiiia in tbnr « 
Willi rmru-v. (Lir. xliii.2.1.) Il is nimlionrf Wi 
1.7 I'liny (iT. 1) nwl I'mMnj (iii- »■ S I)- , . 

a. A tunn (if Mumlunin in thn ibirirt imnf » 
CliakiilLee. |Ja.«i bv l.iiy U-lwwn AflKia "^ 
I.-. (I.!v. jilir. lb.) It U Mil.- 

Noilhtm (Irteee. ml. iii. p. 46(1.) 

MnTObmia in I'neflii;!. ]Jii«linll' 

Tabiilw ilineniTJ bolwitii Sl.-iiaanja.*l. (^T"- 

1U». B31;l'lui. iv. 10 a. 1 7 ; lti>l«n. iiu IS. 5 '*■; 

4.Tii.^lutiTii,inieofMantiiKia. [JLurairU-j 

9. A litr in SjrU nn llic OwuIh. W'W 

.y Antisiiniis in B. <i 307, snd inUii.lf.! to l« U" 

1 : cufiital iif liU einijn-. Allrr the builf of Ipa 

. It. c. 301. ill wliii'li Aiilit!«nus ><>l. 1^ ■>- 

; ' feastul rival Seh-vru, Id ilm dij- of Anikch, 'bit* 
, (he iatliT fiAuidiii n iiiile Vtwrt i«n tk n"'- 
■ . (SlRib. ivi. i).7M»! liii>LxL47: Ulon- .l"'i" 
p. 34!l; Mabia, p. »5e.) l)iiid.>nu ar«ti-k 
■' ant$ wei* reinomi to Stk w'" 

si-ribed soine i 
ibifflj cele- 
w of Elw best J 
antiqaitj fur 
I at ADlicjrn 1 1 
(Strab. I. c.) 
and Naviffet , i 

rs lliat tllG in 
ml in (be 

■illl the Partbiana »fta Uw liK^ 
(Ukn Caw. xl. 29.) 
kirnamcof Ab'iandreisTnm. [M^- 
^;^*s,j=. 102, b.] . . -^ 


4 ttmiaaa vtddi enclose the TaDey of Ceek^Sra. 

P?p(r. (Strab. xtL p. 754; Ptoi t. 15. <: r 

Ra. r. 20.) The Hebrew name of LebezKc . A^ 

(wt,LXX.),which has been adopted in EQropt.azk^ 

^ru&s *• white,* from the white-grer ruirnrv c- 

u^ IcDestooe, rofnprehenda the two imn?^ or L- 

Wis lod Antnibaona. The pcnenU dirr^tc c^ 

Ar>lib«ras b from NE. by SW. Necir rrwcr- 

ri UuuKQs it Infiucates into diTerginc hdr^ ir r — 

fvt'tTBiMBt of the two, the Hernum of the uu. le- ».— 

ti-Dcct ( JeM edUSfteiib4), contxDoeB ite SW 

Ji-i is the prop^ pTolongmtion of AntLiihcmL 

rJn, in ita highest dovation, to the paim a. 

hitiiofvtfriin the aea. The other hdfre tmcr . 

. «v vt^rterlT coarse, is lon^ and bw, aod a: H^cti 

- ;•»* with the other blaffii and spore of LI'mr^L, 

I.<- lu bnnch was called hj the Sodccuais S:rx. 

.^ ui the Amodtes Shenir {DetiL m. S»» i*-^ 

r f» ficnifying a coat of mail (Bowmr.;,-^ 

' vrti toL iL jt 235.) In J)eut. (ir. 9) il if 

>:t \ai,'*an devationJ* In the later books ( 1 1 

^ 23: .So'. ^5>»i^, IT. 8) Shenir is disdnrTusirt 

'-ri HrtTiym, properly » called. The latter ttt=^ 

't.* Arah-io form, Siadr, was applied in tb* =^ . > 
I -* to AatiLTanuA, north of Hennon. (Abuii Tt 
•^ p. 164.) The geology of the district la- zx- 
''*': !itfmai:hlj investigated; the fonnatksi^ ecci i 
'• qe to the upper Jura fivmaticn, oolite, vol .*3=i. 

. ^-i>: tl» poplar is characteristic of its Te::ftaijx. 

ii • 

• I 'iitlrin; procnontones, in oonunon wnL tic»- r ■ _. _ 
' {i «iru, f>a]^ied the Phoenicians with ahnnga^r* • 

TTi^farship-baildin^. (Orote, ^»rt. o/ G^-r*— r . - 

i p 358; Ktter, Erdhmde, vol E p 4-i* .■■ 
-xw, /Wo*^ia, pp. 29 — 35; Borkhartk T*v- -. — 
-J M %r«i ; Bobin9on*8 Retearches, vol i. r, - •- ^ 
i44.M5.) [E-B-J/ .. : 


■-r Ptui IT. 5. § 61 ; Pans, riii 9; Diot '-» . 

-'^i. U; Amm. Marc tit. 12, xxiL 16: Anr \ >- 
' vw, 14; Spartian. Hadrian. 14; Chnm ^^. ^. - 
S^, Paris edit.; It. Anton. ^ 167; H—- 
rW; 'Amr^wtt, Steph. B. #. r. 'ABpiMvn^. 
• '- An-avf^X waa Imih by the empmr Ea *r^ 
L Ik. 122, in memory of his ftvourite Amu. . 
' <ti<mary of Bio^rt^fkyy «. v.) It rtoud uvc ;i 
-'ti-B faanJc of the NUe, lat. 26^ N., nean- »ni.-' 
> a«nnf>pjlia. It occupied the site of tn- n-j 
' ^w«« (B^ira), named after the godde» an . T • 
I*m, which waa consulted occariooalH «- - 

- » the age of Constantine. Antintrivj- « . 
- * the Muth of Besa, and at the foot r- t. - , 
.* ' vioch that village was seated. A proti ■. 
. oitfd br Christian anchorites, pr»tjo-r --j. 

-' «st of the shrine and oracle, and Gtvcut .-. . -- 

'^ aecTTpCions point to the ncc^r)poil^ r jv. — 

'•■fa. The new dty at first bcl'mir' . i 

' mvnk, bnt was afterwards annfa*' . ■ . 

1^. The (fistrict aroond becam*^ ti* -. 

* ^ Bone. The city itadf was govemet* »- . 
''M» lad Piytaneas or President. 7: •■_ 

-* ehaaa from the members of the wan. ^. . - 

' vfcidi we kara the name of one — A*», — = / 

''=k«riptians(OreDi,Na4705);aDc:: ^ ^s- P. 

-w^Mlhoaeof thePrytaneos,wen"i#-.- -^— jjf 

-^ ti> the rrrisiaa of the nomsTn. - - " ^^- 

' '^ pHtrt (^ i^ T^rnTo t ) of thr Ti^ In 

paid in the Antinorfr 



• & Ual fhsty, oood games and chan- ^ « ^ ~ ^* 

- wSj exhibited in oommemacatm - ~ ^^ 

■- «/ Hadrian'i sorrow. {DirU^-* - - =r- 

s. ». *Arrir^ta.) The dtj ^ _■_ ^ — 


2—232; OitUi, Jaicr. UG, .1940j 
aa, vul, i. !,[.. 117—1221 lluuWs 
-, \ijL i. p. aaa, &c.; Kramir, /»«■ 
. W.ixti-.) [K.I1.B.] 

;lADr.Ej\CAH-ulx"«; ft''ft."Aww. 
lot, Alllioi'lifilMS! AilJ. 'Arrinxuiit, 

ID tbn aii^'le vlmre Ihp soulfacrn iiiaal 


I calliruliun n( TiniM-iints. while thf M» 
■ snd iiiure iibru]4.' (Set llif Plan.) K 
woa a lii-epnvliK. duwu vbirli inusrbi 
ran in wintiT(rti)-nnin<B or Psrmcnios 
Toi hryniiinii ♦unjiiraw, Mil. p. M6 
X«-Miy^w, pp. 833, 339; cf. l-rw..] 

C nuTtlittanls, nn: broiicli 

nz. anil in lliF iijimini; fonni'd !>; llie 

between ihe «»).¥« iif llount Tannu 

iIIfI of hlitudc intmuclB llip 3GIh mc- 
itiulR, uid it ia ohnat 211 iniliv dislnnt 
, abuiit -10 W. o( Akppu. mid alKNit 
Hi/cnxw. [Sv Maji. p. 113] It is 
iliatf linm iu tlic jiu'lialib iif Alr]'po, 
II mime is still AHlaHtA. It wiu nn- 
!.ni>>lied lu Aiiliucli br Ihp Untitn 
mi), bniuue it th Mtiuti-d iin Ilie 
tli« Tim, nliCTp iu omirsn tiinm nb- 
ni'st, ntlCT rniuiiiiii nurthwiink liptw»n 
MKinuiBiii AmiL'iKiniin [IIihixtks]; 
oeb bv ]).ip1ttic CA, M Aifrj), Strab. 
;S1 ; Plul. Laiill.'i\ : hrpiii A^ngv, 

I; A.Epidikiiliiii-s. I'liii. V. IH. S.21). 
r cfli^iralPd eriire «( I)H|Jine whii-li 
nl b> ApJlo iu tho iinnmliiitu- iu'i<;li- 

nl chuntitmBtirs of (his titiintlini mar 
rrib^. To tlic wiulli, and mtIht trt 
KV. in the Jiwrnnf o/thr Ron. (hog. 
p.' 338) rim svLnnii-lriiiillY fnan the 
a1i>io of munr lliiin SOINI f.->'l. [('A- 
lie nurlli, the liviiilitB uf Muunt Ama- 
cftnl with the angv of Tnanu; nwl 
w [AifAMiiKn I'vi^e] ujKns ■ ovn- 
Ih Cilicu aifl the mt iiT A^^ia Alinnr. 
I i> Hif T.illi'T(aiA^, Miilala, p. 13t;). 
iJnin uf AntBuh (t* tw 'Itmaxinr 

I. r.), vhii-li JH A Icvi-l upacfl about 
n\idih U^wn-n (lie mouiilahis, and 
a in lcii;:th. Through tliis plain the 
snn'jH fniin a northcrlr tu a tiMerly 
inc. at the hi'iid, a Iriliulaiy from a 

V elill v<inj|iii.'uuiu. wliil> 

Ul. TVT, 


r. 111). 1 

w of Slum 

m the city Iu the mnulh) 
;of about 41 iiiIIk. Khilsl tiK juiinii'; 
rieimiUu." IClirswj.l.e. p. 2.10.) 
.'IT povn hr llir dtf. its breadth is 
uifller m-ilaht to he 125 fii'ti Imt 
liai-e Inkrn [lUu'r in its lied. An 
cient Anil ' 

r the channel n 

r iIr city was artificial, iir ihnnRcs 
lucnl bf cartbipukea iir [nurr pradml 
s nnw it) lALind iif nppm ubti' niociu- 
ihcni ap[iuir to liav« lieen aoy ui the 
Irusuies. TIte distan™ between the 
luntain on the simlli 


mil \an^J <• 

ipilmu' fiimiy, tuiranls Mmint CK-iii% 
rilh KSii:li "T »re omo'med are the 
if Mwnt Slll-ins (MaL ^'Uifn,' an.1 
), the Bfc.teniinijsl nf fell in a 
ikipetolbe pUiii.nvutuidautof the 

i. 10). 

masses of imienl nalla ai 
the modern luibiiations i 
riicr. Tlie igipeaniiu-D of the i^Dud hw duoi'ilqi 
been mitch aittTed by nirtlii|a»k(3, iihicb lutti^s 
iu all asn tlic scnur^ of Antioch. Yetinrriad 
notion maj' he nbtainnl, Irnni the ile»ri[tiiw rf 
inodem iRivellera, vC tho aspctt of the aiirlent cit<. 
The ailvanla^res uf its pOHIion are very enijcirt. Br 
Its harbjur of Nkueuci^a, it ms in omimnoi-^ii 
o'illialltlietradenftheJIedilcrrancani u.j.llinj.;ti 
the open coanlry behind Lekuiun. it nu •lam- 
iiii'nlly a|ipiiiarlii-d bv ilie caiavona from lin-fi- 
tainia and Arabia. ~Ta lluw advanuieiv <* n»« 
rmiliun he added the fnciBtiet oifoidni b' lo 
river, nhich bmnuht down liinlwT and n^iJIa 
produce ami fish from the lake (Lilmn. AiUiti. \f. 
360. 361). anl was nai-ipible betuw the <it< » 
the month, and is belicred to be eajoblc c( U'.it, 
nude mvij^ahlc a;;aiu. (ICeg. tievi/. Soc. luL iii 
p. 230: cf. Snih. L e.; Paua. viii. 29. % 3.) ^i/ 
fiTlility of the neii;hbgurhc»d i> evidt-nt no" id rj 

]«red td the Wyv. It dues nut. like many L>-T.n 
rivers, vary bi'lween a winter-torrent ail a Jn 
w.tten inirn'j ami its deep nnil raiad wat.'ni wv A- 
serili'd IU winding roonJ llic bajes of ]ii:h vi 
|>reci[Bt«i» elill's, or by riclilj- cultivitnl Ijiii. 
nbcri' the vinn and tlie lic-tive, the myrtle. A. Ij', 
the ili-x, anil tlie arbutiit are iniii<:lnl wilb il>irf 
oak .iiid syi-.-nnare. For dvurriptiniu u{ the tftwrr. 

(i. S. )», 77, ii. 28.}. We '.an well nndeiytiiu' liv 
cliamiiiiL! residence whii'h the Seleucid |4iii<»>Bl 
the ni>a!iliy Koinans found iu " besuliful Anixli ' 
("A.iiMA^, Athen. i.p.aO: Orii-ntis »je> pu]'in. 
Anim. Marr. xxii. 9), with ils ilimatetcDi)cinli^iU 
the west wiiul (I.ihan. p. 346; cf. Heruillui. li. 61 
and where tlie lalnlriiHiit waters were so abiuijui. 
thill, nut only Ibe public hubs, but, as in molai 
iJamawna, almii-t every house, had ils founiiin. 

Antiiah. liim-ever, with all these ■draiilv' if 
tiluatiun, is not, like I)nina.~cu.4. one uf Ibe lUi^ 
dtilil Iif the world. It is a mere ima^-inili'n » 
identify it (as is d«H by .lerome and suoe }vriA 
nmiinentatun) with the Kiblnh of the Uhl Tno- 
inent. Alitiuh, tike AlcuuultL-io. ia a mociiniral i/ 
the !t[ari'd„iii:in n|re, and was ikc mu&t CuDua] i' 
sixteen Aidiitjc cities bnilt bv Si-lcncos Xkalir. sal 


.-ell eh 

iix-hus. The; 

sen. for cmnmnniiatini* both wi 
sionson (he JleditemuxMnand tbi«e in 
with which Antinch wu connected by i 
to Zen;:ma on the Kaphiules. Thi> wai 


d by a Uaci'-li 



distiinix' further up the river, fiH' the parju!' '/ 
cumniBtidln;' both EizypC and Babvlnnia. ([>mL 
XI. p.758.) But after the baltfc of jpsu*. B.C. Jul. 
the city of Anli^^inus was left untini^bed, and Ab- 
tiivh was fuiiniled by bin sucees.^fnl rival TV 
Murtiun -if nueuriet »a» sought fur the eslrfli*!- 
niwit of the new melni|'Jis. Like RaninluJ m i6" 
raliitine. Seleucus it iaid to have KBtchnl Ib> ±^ 

^ birds frvn the mmmi^ ^ ^ -^-« ^ av^^^xu 

?<*«^*f«™«n£^«TS'lp^'**- AnI There U no ao^be «^«U; t:lie 

^ ■woth rf tbe Sin2^^•IL^^ ^o*J** laorthof poMttsno detiwJa. Some t« 
•*a^ Soon .fWrS^iri*^^!'*^*^^^^^^^^ *^^ «o^ A:nti. 

^AfitwnM. k-^^v**""_<* Seteucns w«a not tn I aoq. 356: -H^*^ §catXwnn9^^ Cl^aj 

__ __^ CaQmicus built; 

**», br ^^^i!S!^»^^S?'**^^ ^"^ not to 1 309, 356; t^*' 
iS^^tSW^ fl«h to tbe hiU Sa. on the irii«^, 

^•J^ ^ ™^ *^ city of LibMrins assir" 
m tlie sprm^ of the year 300 brought 8«t*le 

<« th« Seleucidae. This 1 the Boin»J» C»*x»«* 

?-S ^ 12th of the 

the xirer the city of \ Libimua asBi^xis i«; 
«e year 3 ^ 

'^ »iocii •otSS!!?!!!^'*?^ **^ Antioch by ^ I to Yvagtins, wlio 

190 ». o/ 


Bs^eoins (as tK^t 

., the 

»- (See Ec^jid, 
Viae, VWau^ 


tbe thi^ of a victim. I earthqiwke uniier 
-^yed below) we see a I account ^ **"■ '**— ^ "^ 
with a aftar, tbua indi- I idsnd (see below> ^wlu 
^ the sodiac, under which by five bridges. HCczml 
>q_re nii ndiiig na at the same I (v. 21. b. 18) riglitay s 
P>^openjntaee of tbe people of I ing «ikro«^* ^ Antiooli. 
->e^'i^#»o JVWmorsMss ^a<K>- l streets "wrss simple an<^ 
. 17S6 ; VaaUant, Se2e»ci> tersection ^•s * fbixrfol 
B%mU >ria, Jteffwm, Syrwey ad \ msgnifioent Pcs2fse0 ^w 

iM otT oi- 1C-.1 «w»oefertcu Paris, 16810 upcm the river, and — 

^tiWr^fitS^!''" T?*, **°^^ ^ ^^ V^*^ C^ suburbs end tiie open 
^^mU^I^^'^' ^*^- I^ ^^> betire«tt the Philopstor, of wboeci 
^ to i^^ ^ *^ •"^ distance from the we ccSTtothe eigh- 
J^^^to««d the danger to be stpprebcnded from 

^^Q^whiJf^^^T^ ***• •rebitect who raised 
2S^.2^ akirted tbe river on tbe north, and 

•etfc. This 
'Thm other 



en the north, and 

the bin on the 

pcurt of the city. 

~, added, each 

tbat Antioch be- 

of the 

.t>llc wa 
_ tJae J 

Epiphanes. He w^sas zaot^oz-ioo. 
and, by adding a foojrtlx oity 
pleted the Tetrapolls. ^Strab 
Einphanes was between tlie t 
Sflpus; and the 

wsall end 

many of the diffii. (JPr>ooop. cA 
monarch erected a ^^ra^wtei- han 
and a temple for the i^oanslxlp of 
which is dwcribed by JL«ivy as m 
(Lit. xU. 20); but YmIa ^xrmt wa 
with doable colonnades, ^^-Irich nu 
for four miles througb time whoie 

district were 

.^<«»w«As raised the , -w. ^ 

vritb the Gieeka. 1 and was perfiectly level, tliongh th 

Sy Xlins a second 1 was rugged and uneven- Other 

It. is ^obaWe at right angles, to tbe rlro on 

at Akx- I groves and gardens of thie tun on t 

18 tribes, 1 intersection of the principal Btreet ^ 

ibW of the 1 with a rtatue of Apollo ; «hJ ^ 

tomeet in 1 touched the river was tlie J\ymp^ 

and Titns, | Evag. Hut, Eccl. L c. ; ^'^f'^M^^ 

The position of the OmpbaJns is sk 

of two 

Tlie character 

ly de- 

e iSfliiiinate and 

opposite the ravine Parmenins, by 
Ihe reign of Tiberius. No gmtt ^^ 
have been made in the city dmi^J^ 
tween Epiphanes and Tigranes. 

was inbwd was oompdled to evacusto Syri^ 
...-^ ,«,^,aciany with 1 stored by Lucollns to Antiochus |>^ 
««t»olo^7to which cos), who was » ™!«. P°H*J of ^ 
n tliTcbristians of built, near Mount Silpius, a ifij^f 

Alexandrm; and to this period bej^ 
eonnenoe of Antioch, which is al^J^ 

Cki v o l o iiB amuse- 
of tbe Hippo- 
XDsuny others, 
tike people broke out into open 


in his speech for Archies. (Cic/Z^^c 

At the beginning of the Koii?^ 

bable that Antioch covered the^ ))^ 

which H occupied tin the tiia^,^ 

siiifiiolarly addksted to I ma«ritude it was not mnoh nrf^^ ;3 
aoaa the invention d\wSkt, AnUq. AnUocK,; ees^.^ 
liimaelf a snllbrer from ber snd s^^dow of ^e p,^^ 

I mora buf- 1 greet; for the Seleucid V^ .^** 
was treated 812) had vied with each «gL^^ 

provoked metropolis. But it Teocl^i^ ^m^ 

ridimt^ tbe Permans In ment fitom a Vmg eenn ^^J^ 

^ - - tbe origin of Pompey gave to Antieti^^J'^ 

.^.^^ ^— .jic into «dst- The same privilege ^^^ ^1^ ' 

i. ae-, X>eye,^.o/S«. inapnbUc^ictCiu^^^^^lJ^. 

- ' Antonmus Pius toad-» . J»**r 



I, V\UM. 

). SciuitP Hotue. 
10. MiiAcntn. 

la. AquHliio'. 

Aminch in h"iii>nr of I ' 


lial thmi public storw an.l nanu.'*- 


At Alilu.-ll l«o of ll» m«t nntw 

he i*nni Kcra Iho rart^iiatr n 

dunng B-liirh H* Bup-^nT. "h" ™ 

11 al An1i.r 

i™ It rrfuKf in ti* fir™..- i™l iLr 

[.ur. ,f th* 

utT bf tbc remans uiiilrr S>l»i in 

nll\ iM-npin 

111 Ibe Ilil-aln'. wli™ Ibi- tmtny mr- 

n-nl IIkiii f 

inii llii. nclu nbovf. (Aaun. U-m- 

biiwwii CoiiBlanliiip And Juniiwn 

uiv 1* w ml 

I m llic Ilyz.-uilii» period of iht hii- 

rvtf Anli.h 

Atur llie fouQiling of Cfflwu.ii- 

ll It r. w1 

o U tluf prim4|«il cilr of ih.- tilt. 

Tikmcas « I-iiirian-iial w --lili C-«- 

VI ^ 

1. Witb tb 

I tiitb blter,bf Ibecnutrnad thnvi-b 
i. ^•rr H&«rlini:. Aiil. Ilin. p. U;; Ida 
[h 5»l ) T.11 mauiU m-re hHd lU Asikrk 
I tlie mn ^52 and WO: and it bnuw Ji^ 

hn-liin n r-bip. One Mwivi ef[i.Ti«]!'. 
1 C. I staiitirip and fiiii>bod by hb mmi. il^ 
llwas ll ■ ■ ' ' 

rl'KTd to Cbri>-Iiui 

ll L'brywatoiD t**-'^'"^ 



dncriki it M richly omamentcd with Mosaic and 
•41(00. Hm roof was domical (<r^aipo«i8cs), and 
•iemt bri^rht; and in its octagonal plan it was 
mikr to the drarch of St. VitaHs at Bavenna. 
(!m Eoaeb. ViL C<m$L m. 50.) Fnxn the preva- 
in» i/etrij cboicbes of this form in the East, we 
vwt fappoM either that this edifice set the example, 
tf tkit thii mode of cfaurcb-bailding was already in 
OR. ioMBg other buildings, Antioch owed to 
Oitistins a hatiHca, a praetorium for the resi- 
6na of the Count of the East, boOt of the ma> 
tinah ei the ancient Moseam, and a xenon or 
yafta nmr the gnat church for the reception of 
tnNikn. Coostantiiu spent mnch time at An- 
txh, •» that the place reoeired the temporary name 
•f CimMamtia. Bm great works were at the bar- 
Uwof Si^lraeeia, and the traces of them still remain. 
JiLm took much jmns to ingratiate himself with 
ik peopfe of Antioch. His dttappointmeut is ex- 
fn»d in the Mjsopogoo. Valens undertodE great 
icfnvBiients at the time <d his peace with the Per- 
aiBs and opposite the rsTine Parmenias he built a 
mmftvm J brm n, which was paTod with marble, 
■rf (freonted with Uyrian odomns. Theodosins 
i« ranpeUed to adopt stringent measures against 
Ur dnzcns, in comeqnence of the sedition and the 
hnkiqg «f the sUtues (a. d. 387, 388), and An- 
tiidi WM deprived of the rank of a metropolis. We 
» now brought to the time of Libanius, from whom 
*• Ittfv so often quoted, and of Chrysostom, whose 
mnaa ooDtaxn so many incidental notices of his 
BCiTv dty. Chrysostom gives the population at 
iUOjOOO, oi which 100,000 were Christians. In 
tJmr a uuiU g s it is doubtful wh^er we are to in- 
rladi the childrHi aod the slaves. (See Gibbon, ch.zv. 
toi iEbn8B*s note, toL ii. pw 363.) For the detailed 
^Mwipy^ of the public and private buildings of 
tfe diT, we must refer the reader to libanius. The 
aowcf the suburb towards Daphne at this period 
•JBod Theodositts to build a new wall on this side. 
(iWihtPkn.) Passing over the reigns of Theo- 
WUB9 the Toongcr, who added new decorations to 
tlv dty, and of Leo the Great, in whose time it was 
enabled by an earthquake, we come to a period 
«*Bdi WIS made disastTons by quarrels in the Hippo- 
en 3», maaMcres of the Jews, internal fiMtions and 
*i7 {ran without. After an earthquake in the 
nn cf Justin, A. i>. 526, the city was restored by 
IjAnuL, who was Count of the East, and after- 
•v^ Pstriarch. The reign of Justinian is one of 
ca ant iBip m tan t eras in the history of Antioch. 
It w rkmj^ under him into fresh splendour, when 
€ was ^ain injured by an earthquake, and soon 
tfj B ssids (a. d. 538) utteriy desolated by the in- 
"^mm of the Penians under Chosroes. The ruin of 
L# dty was complete. The citizens could scarcely 
tU thr Bles of their own houses. Thus an entirely 
>n dty (which leceived the new name of 7%et»- 
»4f) roM under Juirtinian. In dimenaons it was 
'■srioably leas than the former, the wall retiring 
t:vi the river on the ecst, and touchmg it only at 
V pant, sod ako including a smaller porti(xi of 
'» cfiis of Mount Stlpius. This wall evidently 
•vxypcnk with the notices of the fortifications in 
k ticBis of the crusaders, if we make allowance for 
*te ioArtad ksfpxage of Procopius, who is our au- 
Canty far the public works of Justinian. 

TW bistoy of Antioch during the medieval period 
•at «t (jf Taxied Sortunes, but, on the whole, of 
toAmi iuaj. It was first lost to the Roman em- 
, A ia the tma of Hersdius (a. d. 635), and taken, 



with the whole oH Syria, by the Saracens in the first 
hurst of their military enthusiasm. It was recovered 
in the 10th century under Nicephoms Phocas, by a 
surprise similar to that by which the Persians be- 
came masters of it; and its strength, population, 
and magnificence are celebrated by a writer of the 
period (Leo Diac. p. 73), though its appearance had 
doubtless undergone considerable changes during 
four centuries ^ Mahomedan occupation. It re- 
mained subject to the emperor of Constantinople till 
the time of the first Comneni, when it was taken by 
the Seljuks (a. d. 1084). Fourteen years later 
(a. d. 1098) it was besieged by the Latins in the 
first Crusade. Godfrey pitched his camp by the 
ditch which had been dug under Justinian, uid 
Toncred erected a fort near the western wall. (See 
the Plan.) The dty was taken on the Sd of June, 
1098. Boemond I., the son of Robert Guiscard, 
became prince of Antioch ; and its history was again 
Christian for nearly two centuries, till the time of 
Boemond VL, when it fell under the power of the 
Sultan of Egypt and his Mamelukes (a. d. 1268). 
From this time its declension seems to have beoi 
rapid and ccntinuous: whereas, under the Franks, 
it appears to have been still a strong and splendid 
dty. So it is described by Phocas {Acta Sanct, 
Mai. vol. V. p. 299), and by William of Tyre, who is 
the great Latin authority for its history during this 
period. (See especially iv. 9 — 14, v. 23, vi. I, 15; 
and compare xvl 26, 27.) It is unnecessary for 
our purpose to describe the various fortunes of the 
fiunilies through which the Franldsh prindpality of 
Antioch was transmitted from the first to the seventh 
Boemond. A full account of them, and of the coins 
by which they are illustrated, will be found in De 
Saulcy, NumitnuUique des CroisadeSy pp. 1 — ^27. 

We may consider the modem history of Antioch 
as cdnddent with that of European travellers in the 
Levant Beginning with De la Brocqui^, in the 
15th centuiy, we find the dty already sunk into a 
state of insignificance. He says that it contained 
only 300 houses, inhabited by a few Turks and 
Arabs. The moidem Antakieh is a poor town, 
situated in the north-western quarter of the andent 
city, by the river, which is crossed by a substantial 
bridge. No accurate statement can be given of its 
population. One traveller states it at 4000, another 
at 10,000. In the census taken by Ibrahim Pasha 
in 1835, when he tliought of making it again the 
capital of Syria, it was said to he 5600. The 
Christians have no church. The town occupies only 
a small portion (some say ^, some |, some ^) of the 
andent endosure; and a wide space of unoccupied 
ground intervenes between it and the eastern or 
Aleppo gate (called, after St. Paul, Bab-Boulous), 
near which are the remains of andent pavement. 

The walls (doubtless those of Justinian) may be 
traced through a circuit of four miles. They are 
built partly of stone, and partly of Roman tiles, and 
were flanked by strong towers; and till the earth- 
quake of 1822 some of them presented a magni- 
ficent appearance on the cliffii of Mount Silpius. The 
height of the wall difiTers in different places, and tra- 
vellers are not agreed on the dimensions assigned to 
them. Among the recoit travellers who have de- 
scribed Antioch, we may make particular mention of 
Pococke, Kinneir, Niebuhr, Buckingham, Richter 
{WaUfahrten im Morgtnlande\ and Michaud et 
Poujoulat {Correspondance d'Chienty &c). Since 
the earthquake which has just been mentioned, the 
I most important events at Antioch have been ita 



i. -i:.:!), lli« 111.™ are .ilh 

\i-7,oxi'"' TOW rpt! T«i la,™., l.y 

■ ■!,.,■ b ]>r.*:.Uv llK-nill. Il...rj^b. 

1 .ill-, h «asuntlie Sanu. 

1 M CAvTi^x*" '»i tip<h^- r"-'i- 

. .. (r,. fifiyinirtitiimsa r.- k 1 >;.^-in 

i;,.l,«B-.™tlK riv<TS-li«ii- ..U 

,r..fninn.ilras. Anoa«(,U,rAr,./. 

!...'l. Cn,-^, ana A:.iicraK-u* m Ti- 

r.iij f..rl>: l>ut Iherv may !»■ ■-«* 

I'juU'irt (A'Mniniaitin. Ji. lit-tl i-un- 

hi- -ilt iiuivW l*tH.>fll.S««r, 111,1 

(.<'l..-iis.lriii:.rfStml.Oi hf >,l.~-n.J 

s ll..;n. ■■Bh«c sliiill! WW i-iDj^ 

ii'il ml j.tHliilc.'' A sijuan? i UlT. tL- 

.r..i,c1., into the s™. li.i« l«-.i f.-ni- 

i,UaflitM«fslflBiiil iulh^nj.t 

II- hiii.liii^' i.Lnit to Ilic (rates. 

AM,i:tM CA. Tpit Miui^J^Y > 

■ ",";'". ",.>' ^"l.ri.]^<- th-TT. 

■ ., ■ . ..■■^aCorit^fii:*- iL* 

-liiM.k,-. CMrah. (.. 63..I.J 

..r Ji"-niii.-, a. some «a.i ilic luu-w. 

«vm,t«iii,.anllii.t it i> in tt.c ai:;k 

T.i^.ii.-n "f Ihia ™.^.ll riirr .iih tia 

,„, (H,,..,r.h.>. .iv.. vol. i. p. 

. -■...„ ■■,:-....T,4.-iiL.15n,ii.~. SK.-J 

... [. vr.) 

li 1- «h.Te tl« lowra 

. .I-.- ii:im.' f..rib. !i> 

. '1...KH rylhoi-.!!.. 

- .1. nliT hi. ii.,.tl*r 
M.„.m. vm.»:„,«i ai 

y^^-p - 


.:■-. lliji Ihf n-z 

IWHvtr wUi^i. 


§mfi factveta the two parts of the town was used 
far imjEatida. Plmy adds that the soldien of Cres- 
MB, Thon Orodei took ptisaiMCS (Plot. Crass, c. 31), 
v«v settled here. The place appears to be Merv^ 
m the Mmrffh amtf the ancient Margns, where there 
m mam cf an old town. Merv ha nearij due 
lovdi flf Hent. 

AeLApctt xin. 14), was situated on the S. side of 
tW nwontain boondary between Phiygia and Pisidia. 
iSbiibo (pi 577) places Philameliam on the north 
■de of tids nnge and dose to it, and Antiodieia on 
tk Math. Aks^kr c or re spun da to Philomeliom 
nd Talebatek to Aatiodieia. ** The distance from 
TMaIek to AkakAr is six honra over the roonn- 
taiss AhAAr being ezactfy opposite." (Hamilton, 
JKncvvftec, ^e., ToL L pL 472 ; ArondeD, />M00Mr»sf^ 
fc^ vqL L pi 281.) StnOw describes PhOomeliam 
11 bdog in a plain, and Antiodida on a small enu> 
■«ee; snd this descriptaoii exactly snits Afcakthr 

AnndeU first desc ri bed the remains of Antiocheia, 
ve aanHToaa. He mentions a large building 
of pcodig^oiis stones, of which the gronnd- 
piM sod the circolBr end Car the bema were remain- 
iSK* He supposes this to have been a chnrch. 
Ihm are the nmosof a wall; and twentj perfect 
«cbei«f an aqueduct, the stones of which are with- 
«« eraMot, and of the same large dimensions as those 
a tke waQ. There sn also the remains of a temple 
if DioBjMs, and of a small theatre. Another con- 
MredaaB is cut in the rock in a semidroular form, 
■ the emtre of which a mass of rock has been left, 
vbitb is boDowed oat into a square chamber. 
MiMs «f higfalj finished marble oonuoes, with 
vvcnl broken fiitfad colnnms, are spread about the 
Ubv. This plaoa ma j haTe been the adytum of 
itoaple, as the mnains of a pordoo are seen in 
bmt ; snd it has been conjectured that if the edi- 
Aee vas a temple, it may be that of Men Arcaeos, 
«W WM wonfaipped at Antiodi. The temple had 
Hamtltinn copied sereral inscriptions, all 
I sxeepi «oe. The site of this ci^ is now clearly 
Mwmiaed by the -wificatkn of the deacriptim oS 
Staahis aod this fiset is a Taloable addition to our 
kaowiedge of the gvogn^ihy of Asia Minor. 

Aitiwtw is is said to have been founded hj a 
«<ia7 finsa Magnesia, on the Maeander. (Strabo.) 
lb Booana, says Strabo, "■ released it firom the 
ioag^ St the time when they gave the rest of Asia, 
vittaa Taaraa, to Enmenes.* The kings are the 
%nai kings. After Antaochns III. was defeated 
^ the Romans at Magnesia, b. c. 190, they en- 
Wi^ the doannkms of Euraenes II. king of Perga- 
■tt, sad Antioch was ipcluded in the grant. It 
iftvvards came into the possession of the Bomans, 
■id «ai made a cekoy, with the title of Caesarea 
(P&L ▼. Ay, a name wibcfa was given it apparently 
mAf n the imperial period. HamilUm found an 
with the wonis axtiochkak gaesakb, 
and there is the same en- 
Tbe name of the god hbn. or 
also appesn on coins of Antioch. 

The most meoiorsble evsnt in the histoiy of An- 
ft*rk » the Tkit of Paul and Bamahss. The phM» 
tba »««**i*H a large number of Jews. The 
pvdiiQg ef Psol pcodooed a great efiect upon the 
<«wch% bos the Jews raised a persecution against 
te Afortlai, aod expelled them firom the town. 
Ta^, however, paid it a second risit {AeU, xir. 21), 
nd nafimsd the disciples. 



Antioch was the capital of the Roman prorinos 
Pisidia, and had the Jus Itallcum. (Paolus, Dig. 
50. tit. 15. 8. 8.) 

8. Ad Taubum (^A «p^r Ta^), is enumerated 
by Stephanns (s. v. 'AmUxfut) among the cities of 
this name {M ry To^p^ ^ Ko/ificryiyrp). It is 
also mentioned by Ptolemy (v. 10. § 10). There 
seems no sufficient evidence for fixing its position. 
Some geographen place it at Amtab^ about 70 miles 
N. by E. from Aleppo. [G. L.] 

ANTIPATRIA or -EA, a town of Illyricum 
situated on the right bank of the Apsus, in a narrow 
pass. (Liv. xxxi 27; Leake, Northern Greece^ 
ToLi. p. 361.) 

ANTIPATRIS (JAPTimerpls : Eth, 'ArriwarpU 
r^f ), a city built by Herod the Great, and named after 
his father Antipater. It was situated in a weU^ 
watered and richly-wooded plain named Capbar- 
saba (Ka^apadSa^ al. XaSap^wifJimefh. A nt, xvL 5. . 
§2), so called firom a more ancient town, whoee site 
the newdty occupied. (lb. xiii. 15. §1.) A stream 
ran round the city. Alexander Jannaeus, when 
threatened with an invasion by Antiochus (Dionysus), 
drew a deep trench between this place, which was 
situated near the mountains, and the sea at Joppa, 
a distance of 120stadia. The ditdi was fortified with 
a wall and towers of wood, which were taken and 
burnt by Antiochus, and the trench was filled up. 
(^. J. i. 4. § 7 ; comp. Ant. xiiL 15. § 1.) It lay on 
the road between Caesareia and Jerusalem. {B. J. 
ii. 19. § 1.) Here it was that the escort of HopHtes, 
who had accompanied St. Paul on his nocturnal 
joumej fixnn Jerusalem, left him to proceed with 
the horsemen to Caesareiab i^^ctSi xxiii. 31.) Its 
ancient name and site is still preserved by a Muslim 
village of oonsidereble size, built entirely of mud, on 
a slight circular oninence near the western hills of 
the coast of Palestine, i^iout three hours north of 
Jafia. No ruins, nor indeed the least vestige of 
antiquity, is to be discovered. The water, too, has 
entirely disappeared. (Mr. Eli Smith, ts Biblio- 
theca Sacra, 1843, p. 493.) [G. W.] 

Xhris and 'Arri^eAAcinif : Antephdo or AndiJUo), 
a town of Ljda, oa the south coast, at the h«Ml of 
a baj. An inscription copied by Fellows at thia 
place, contains the ethnic name ANTI^EA/IEITOT 
{Diicoveriet in LtfciOy p. 186). The little theatre 
of Antiphellus is complete, with the exception of 
the proscenium. Fellows gives a page of drawings 
of specimens of ends of sarcophagi, pediments, and 
doors of tombs. Strabo (p. 666) incorrectiy pUces 
Antifdiellus among the inland towns. Beaufort 
{Karamamaf p. 13) gives the name of Vathjf to 
the bay at the heed of which Antiphellus stands, 
and he was the discoverer of this ancient site. 
There is a ground-plan of Antif^ellus in Sjnratt's 
Lycia. There are oinns of Antiphellus of the im- 
perial period, with the epigraph 'Arri^AXctrwy. 
Nothing is known cX the history of this place. 

Phellus (^AAof) is mentioned by Strabo with 
Antiphellus. Fdlows places the site of PheUos 
near a village called Saarei, WNW. of Antiphellus, 
and separated from it by mountains. He found on 
a summit the remains of a town, and inscriptions 
in Greek characters, but too much defiused to be 
legible. Spratt (Xycio, vol. i. p. 66) places the 
Pyrrha of Pliny (v. 27) at Saartt, and this position 
agrees better with Pliny's words : ** Antiphellos 
quae quondam Habessus; atque in recessu Phellus; 
deinde Pyrrha itemque Xanthus,*" &o. It is mors 

L 2 



cinisistont with lliis pa'^s-iiie to look for rhdlii.s 
riortli of Antiiilu'lliis, thni in uiiy otlit-r <liiT('ti<'ii; 
;iiul tli»' rniii> at 7'(7/ooA"cor/;'/», north of Aiiti|'ljrl- 
hi.s, on ihi' >jinr of a iiiount:iiii railed Fi lUr'/nf/Ii, 
sf<-ni to Im' tli".M- of rht llu>. Tlit'i'C' ruins, whieh 
ar.^ not thi-M- of a lar-c to\vn, arc (U'>.ciil>e»l in 
Sj>;'.'ttt"s Lucie. [t». L.] 

ANTn'ill.'Al-: ('ArTtVpot, Strab. xvii. p. 790; 
'AfTic^pa,, I'tol.; 'AuTKpfjw, Iliciotl. p. 734: 
L'th. ' AvT i(;>paios), a .small inlan.l town of tiu' Lilivao 
Noiiios, not (av from the M-a, and a little \\ . of 
Al'Xan.liia. ( flcLrat'd for its jx-or *' Lil'van wine." 
uhiih was .Irunlc \>y the lower (•la^>e.s of Alexandria 
mixed with ?^'•.l-\vater, and whieh .'^ceins to have 
het-n an interior dex-ription of the " Ma eotie wine " 
of \ irL'il and Iloraie {^(icorg. ii. 91, Cnrui. i.37. 14; 
tomp. Ath. i. y.'-V-\, lauan. x. IGd). [!*• ^^.] 

ANTI'I'OLIS ('A»'Ti7ro\«s; KOi. Antiin-htanus: 
Auif>'S), a t(»wn in (lallia X;irbonen>i.s. l)'Anville 
{SotUi, iS:e.) (jl»ervcs that he belii'ves that this 
town has pre-er\ed the name of Autihoid in the 
TntVeiK al idi"m. It f mndi-d hy the (ireeks uf 
Mas-^alia (Mursdlh) in the <Mnntry of the I)e(iate>: 
an'l it was one of tlie settlements whi«h Ma^^alia 
e.>taltli>hed with a view of ilieekinL: tin; Salves and 
the Li-urians of the Alpj. (Strah. p. 18U.) It 
w;Ls on ihe maritime Koman ro;iil which ran alon;^ 
this eoa>t. AntiU'S i;> on the m.i, on the* eas^t .•>ide 
of a small p4'irm>nla a few miles W . of the mmith of 
the Vaius ( \'(ir). It contains the remains of a 
tlieatn-. and of some Koman ci n.-trnctions. 

Str.dx* states (j». IS4), that though Antij-'lis was 
in (iallia Nail>"nen^is, it was n l>-.i.s«'d from tie* 
jnriMliiiion of Ma^salia, and rei koned amoni; the 
Italian towns, while Nieaea, which was cavt of the 
\'ar and in Italy, si ill remained a deju'ndeney of 
Mas-alia. Tantus (//{st, ii. ir») rails it a muni- 
ri|iiuni «'f Narl'"ii<'n>is (iallia. whieh ijivis ils no 
vx.ut ion. I'liny (iii. 4) calls it *•<•[>- 
j.idum Latiimm," by wlTn h he means tli;it it ha<l 
the Jus I.atinm (tr Latinitas ; but the ]a.>.--.'i'_:e in 
Strabo no pnci^i' nieanin;^. uidt^s we supfNiso 
that AntiiM.lis had tlie Jus ItaHcnm. Antipolis, 
howrver, is not nn-ntioned with the two (.lallie litii-s, 
Lnu'dunnnj and X' (Di'j. ;"><►. tit. l,">. s. ^). 
which wfro .luris Italici : .'Uid we may perhaps, 
thoiii-h w ith somi- he>itation. take the ."-tatement of 
I'linv in ])ref' r<nce to that ot .^tr.ibo. 

Tln-r'' aic coin.'> of Antip'li.-. It sei-ms to h ive 
ha<l some tunny ti-h<':'i'-s, .and to ha\e pnpar<-d a 
]Mi kle (muria) (nv ti.>h. (I'lin. x\\i. S; .Mailial, 
xiii. l(t.-b) [0. L.] 

AM H.UA'IMA (Ant. Itin. ]>. 412: Anh'/mnf). 
a nmuicij'ium if Ilispanla lia'tit'a. Its name oc- 
c;ii> in tlie tonn Anticaria in in^erij'tion-. and 
till!'- is a <i>in with the lej.iid AMiK..the ri |< n n< •• 
of whi'h to this pi. ice 1!< kli< 1 cn-iders \try d"ubt- 
tul. (.Muratori, ].. In-JT.. iins. M, 4; Kb n-/, J/« »/. 
tl' r!<j,. \ob ii. ji.<;;t:i; Kckh'-l, v<.l. i. p. 14: l.*a-che, 
*. V. ANTiK.) [r. S.j 

ANTri:!:ilIlM. [A( hma, ]k l.^.a. I 

ANTI.^."s.\ ("Ai'TKTfTa: /;///. 'AiTiatraKjs). a city 
of the Lesbos, near to C'.ijv SiL'riivm, the 
\\« M'-rn Joint of l.e^bos (.'^tejih. 1». •>'. r. "ArroTfTo. 
lollviwinu' Stndx>, p. Jjl8). 1 he' had ;i harbour. 
I bf rnii;> toiuid by I'ih' •< ki- at <'<ihis I/mtiuoiKts, 
a littb" Nl!. of (a|e SiqrL may !).• tlio>e of Ar.'i-^a. 
I . N j'loe w;»s tb<' birtb-plai e ot' 1 irpan<l>r. who 
i^ sail! to U- the invtiitor ot' tiie s,ven-strinji'l hiv. 
Anti-s.a joined the Mytili iiaeans in tbi ir r<\olt 
from Athens in the IVlo^ war u. «.'. -»2S, 


nnd .suecossfully defende*! itself against the M*'- 
tli\nmatans who attackol it; but .after Mytil-i.e 
had be«-n coinjx lied to .'>urrender to the Alh»!ii.ii.>, 
Anti-.-va was recovered by them also (Thuc. iii. 18, 
2S). Antis^a w.i.s destroyed by the iJiimarLS att'T 
the (("[((piot of I'erseus, kiri^: of Mac d' n;a (r.. <■. 
1<»S), berau.^e the Anti^saeans had receiviil in tl^r-ir 
}*<irt and jjiveii sujijdies to Antmor, the adn.iral <'f 
Terseus. The jK-opJe were renjoVi-<i to Mctliyii,ia. 
(Liv. xlv. .'U; riin. v. 31.) 

Myrsilns (qni'tt'd by Strabo, p. GO) says, tliat 
Anti.ssa was once an island, and ;it that time L -!*« 
was call''d l>sa; so ihat Antissa was i;aTn«ii live 
many oiIkt ]»laces, Antij-aros, Antij luliiL^. ar>i 
others, with retenrue to the name of .ai oppi-iri» 
jda' e. riiny (ii. 89) Anti>->a iim-'iii: tl"? 
lands rescue(l tVom tin- .-ea. .ami joined to the- i:..\,n- 
land; iiiul (Kid (J/t^ xv. 2S7), where ho is .-{fak- 
in;; of the ch:inL:es whicji tin* earth's >url\ux' lix< 
underL'oiie, tells the same story. In anotij.T jvi^s^tiT 
(v. ,'Jl). where he cmimerates the ancient nanr«-s ot 
L<-sbos, riiny mentions Lasia, but not l.v^a. L;i>:a, 
however, ni.ay be a corruj't word. Stephanus (.< r. 
"'Irraa) niak<s Issa a city of Lesbos. It i> j-^s^iiK*. 
then, that Antis>a, when it was an i'^land. i:iay 
have its name iVom a place (»n tliC mainland "f 
L<"sbos opj/osite to it, and c.illed l.>-sa. [Ci. L.] 
ANTITAUKIS. [Tai i:l.s.] 
A'NTUIM ("ArT/or, Strab. Dion. Ilal. c<^c.: later 
Gre<k writers have ' Ai'(hoi\ TriKop. rhilo>tr. : 
Ktli. Antias, -atis), on<- I'f th»- mo-vt an<-ient .imI 
pAverlnl (itie.s of Latium. situa!<d on :i ] r«<nii>nt"n' 
or j.rojci tiuL' anL:le of tin- sca-coa-t, at the dist.Ui<r 
of lifjO stadia from O.stia (>trab. v. p. 23-J), :\:*\ 
3S miles fnj.'u liome. It is .".till calbtl /Vrfo 
<l'A>iz<'. Tradition ascrilx'd h.-^ foundati-Mi. in eou/- 
mon with that of Ardea and Tusculuin, to a j^xi 
of riys>es and Cine (Xiuau'. aj». I)ion. ILil. i. 7i: 
.^t« ph. I>. .s". v.). while other.x ril.-rred it t<> A-^caniLLS 
(S'lin. 2. ^ If)). It stt-nis j.rob.ab].- that it wa« of>* 
of those Latin citi<'^ in whi(h the Tila^^'ian tb'n>-^t 
])r<'pond« rated, and that it owed its oriiria to tLil 
j»«-ople. (Niebuhr, vol. i. p, 44.) In e'iiL'-e-;'.ie!!.>» 
of it.>i aihanta^eous maritinjc pi'vitiun the iidialil- 
aiits .sieui early to have ile\oted tlieuixlves to 
commerce as well as jjiracy. and eontiiined down 
to a late ] eri-Kl to share in the j-intical jir.ictiit-* 
of tie ir kindred cities on the < <i.ast of Etniri.i. 
(Strait. /. r.) It >eems doubtl'id whetlior. in early 
tiiiK'-. it b. I'li-r 1 to the Latin laa^'ne; I)ionv»:'ii 
n present- it a,, tir-t j^ iiiini: that coiitedenicv uriii'T 
'lar.iMiiiiii> Superbu- (Dion. Hal. iv. 49). btil he 
is tert liidy mi-t.ikeu in n-pre-i-ntini: it a^ then 
aln ady a \'o1m ian city. (See Ni. buhr, voj. ii. ]>, 
lo"^.) And th 'U_'h we tind its n.inic in the tn-.-vty 
1 oii( bi.le.l by the ].'. .mans with (.'arlh.iiz*- ariinnj the 
Latin (ities w!i;eh were snl-jeet to or dt j^ :h'.ent 
u[-']\ K'oir.e (I'ol. iii. 22). it d'-^-s not a]4*;ir in 
tlie Jisi eiven by l>iony.>ins of the thirtv toviris 
w|:i. h. in n. c. 493. < on-titnted the L;itiu'L«^juc. 
(hioii. Hal. v. ()!.) That author, however, n-f-r?- 
.-ents it as -ending' a-si^t.inte to the l^itin.s b.'toiT 
the battl" of K.-uillus (vi. 3), and it Ava.s ])rob;ibly 
at tliat tim.' .-till a Latin city. Hut within a few 
\ear> attiTward.- it niu>t h.iv.- lallen into thf h.t!>'i* 
of the \'oNciaTrs, as we find it henceforth takir.:; 
.an acti\i' part in tle-ir wars .aijainst the I^itiiis and until in the year r.. c. 408 it w.a.s tak'-n 
by th'- Iiti'T. wh<i son_'|it to .<'i\niv it bv Ma.di::.; 

I til!!!!' :- a c I -1 y. (Liv. ii. 33, 63, tK). iii.' I ; I>i .ji. 

I 11, d \i. '.'2. ix. 08. J9; Ni bidir, vol. ii. j-p. 240— 


548.) A fijw years afterwards, however (b. C. 459), 
AfltiuiD ajrain rerohed; and though H U represented 
hy the aimaiitta as having been xeconqaered, this 
■Ifean to be a fiction, and we find it from hence- 
ftrwud eojojing complete independence for near 
liOjcan, doling wluch period it rose to great 
flvdoKw and power, and came to be regarded as the 
ciirf dty of the Volacians. (Uv. iii. 4, 5, 23; 
JDrttthr, voL n. pp. 254, 255.) During the former 
put of this period it contintied (m friendly terms 
vith Borot; bat in b. c. 406, we find it, for a short 
6at, joming with the other Volsdan cities in their 

ANTIUM. 1*5 

no enhsequent mcnUon of it; and during the middle 
ages it appears to have been wholly deserted, the 
few inhabitants having established themselv^at 
Nettuno, The attempts made by Innocent XII. 
and subsequent popes to restore the port, though 
attended with very imperfect success, have agiuai 
attracted a small popuktion to the spot, and the 
modern village of Porto d'Amo contains about 500 

Antium was celebrated for its temple of Fortune, 
aUuded to by Horace (0 Diva gratum quae r^ 
AnHum, Hot. Carm, I 35 ; Tac. Ann. lu. 71), 

bwdfitiw: and after the mvasion of the Gauls, the which was one of the wealthiest in Latium, on 

which account its treasures were laid under con- 
tribution by Octavian in the war against L. An- 
tonius in B. c. 41 (Appan. 5. C. v. 24), as weU as 
for one of Aesculapius, where the god was swd to 
have knded on his way from Epdaurns to Borne 
(Val. Max. i. 8. § 2; Ovid. Met xv. 718). 1^ 
neighbouring small town of Nettmo probably denvw 
its name from a temple of Neptune, such as would 
naturaUy belong to a city so much devoted to man^ 
time pursuits. The same place is /^"^'^y 7?" 
posed to occupy the site of the ancient C«^^^°\*^' 
^e learn f^m Livy and Dionysius, served as the 
naval station and arsenal of Antium (Li v. u.^, 
Dion.HaLix.56.) Besides this, several othertow^. 
as Longula, Polliica, and Satricum, were dependent 
upon Antium in the days of its gr^test P^^'^l^^ 
The only remains of the ancient Latm or Vol^ 
city are some trifling fragm^of^^-^^^^^ ^.^ 
pears to have occupied the nUl a "^""^^^ ^i^ ^g- 
thTmodem town, ^d a short distance ^J^^^ 
The extensive ruins which adjoin the an«ent^port, 
and extend along the sea-coast t^r a«^ ^^^^^ 
distance on each side of the I^**^7Vhe imperial 
of Roman date, and belong either to ^ ^ter 
villa, or to those of private individuals. ^^^^ ^^^ 
port of those immediately »^f"2°,Lir construction, 
may be referred, from the style of t?«^ ^ port d 
to the reign of Nero, and e^idwitiy ^ ^^^^ ^^^^e, 
his palace. Excavations which n»v ^^ Y)rougnt 
fixHD time to time, among these ^^^^ ftrst order, 
to light nnmerons works of art oX w g^tue of tbe 
of which the most celebrated are tne ^^^ ^ the 
Apollo Belvedere, and that comin^y ^ ^^ jjomo. 
Fighting Ghuiiator. (Nib^y, ^^ conBt^^ 
., Jv6LLp.l87.) The remains of the p«»^^ V^'^^il 
Nor by Nero, vrhich are extensive ana ^ formed WJ 
vea; 1 prwe that it was wholly artificial, ^^ fpom uxo 
♦!.« \ ♦«,« «n^i<» ♦»!«» nnA TimiM^tinff iminctti^ ^«Tioeit« ^ 

Aitntacs iuok the lead in declaring war against 

tbe fiomaoB, which they waged almost without 

iatemnwioo fee 13 years (b. c. 386 — 374), until 

nfeat«d ddeata at length compelled them to sue 
► ir |cae«. (Lit. it. 59, vi 6 — 33 ; Niebuhr, vol. ii. 

^ 465, 583 — 593.) Kotwithstandmg this lesson, 

d^ af^ provoked the hostility of l^e is b. c. 

S^, br seodiiig a colony to Satricum; and in the 

great Latm War (b. c 340 — 338) they once more 

took the lead of the Vokcians, in uniting their arms 

TSh thaat oi the Latins and their allies, and shared 

ia thiir defeats at Pedum and Astura. Their de- 

fertk* was ■everely punished; they were deprived 

</ aH tiieir khips of war (the beaks of which served 

toadoni the Ro«tm at Borne), and prohibited from 

sil ffiaritime oommeroe, while a Boman colony was 

•«! to larriMMi their town. (Liv. vii. 27, viii. 1, 

12—14; Kiebohr, voLiiL p.128, 140—144.) 
Frao tha time Antium figures only in histoij as 

■» <tf the maritiine cobniea of Bome (Liv. xxvii. 

3$.xzxri.3); bat Strvbo states, that the inhabit- 

■sti did not disoootinae their piratical habits even 

■ftir they had become subject to Borne, and that 

AkiaDder the Great, and Demetrius (Poliorcetes), 

RKaRrdy sent embassies to complain of their 

«*fjndati«i8. (Strab. v. p. 232.) It was taken by 

Mutoa during tiie dvfl wars (Appian. B, C. i. 69); 

ltd. KBrttd ftererelj from the ravages of his fol- 

ym (lir. Epit. Ixxx.), but appears to have 

1«ickJy rccoTcnd, and became, during the latter 

^m id the Brpublic, «a well as under the Boman 

Ibjbi, a &Totirito place of resort with wealthy 

ftaiuis, who adorned both the town and its neigh- 

^'■Aood with splendid villas. (Strab. L c) Among 

<^ia, Cicero had a Tilla here, to which he re- 

>a*Bdiy anodes. (Ad AtC iL 1, 7, 11, &c) 

*v it ksi in &vtNir with the emperors themselvea ^^^_ 

■ *» here that Angostas first received from the 1 two moles, the one projecting ^^^Her <>PP***^r[i 

|»ffctbftitleof"Pat«rPafariae*'(Suet.^tj^.58); Uxtrwnity of the promontory, the o^ ^^ ^ee» "la 

t •» aho the birtb-plaoe of Calignhi (Id. Ciil. 8), I it, endoaing between them a ba^nj^ ^^^ of ^^^ 

• *tD «• of Nero, who, in consequence, regarded I two miles in drcnmferuice. ^'^^t »«*y ^ vhjft 

*»ith orpedal &vvur; and not only enlarged and I now filled with sand, but its ^J^^gtrtxctAo^ ot ^^ 

'>«»«iW the imperial villa, bat established at \ readily traced. Previous to the cw ^^ ^^^^y^»x V\^ 

Aa«in» acokoy of veterans of the praetorian guard, \ great work, Antium could ^T^r^-^^ xiox^>> ^^ 

•i o*rtroct«d there a new and splendid port, the \ CStrabo expressly tolls us ^'*' JLtnes*, '^'^^^r^ch 

«»«i rf which an still visible. (Id. Ner. 6. 9 ; \ notwithstanding its manUme gr^ ^^ towT^tJ^^ 

T*. Am, xiv. 27, xt. 23.) It was at Antium, \ bahly content with the beach beiow.^^^^^^ liea*^ ^ 

•K tint be received the tidings of the great c<m- 

fcpaifcii of Rome. (IWd. xr. 39.) Later cna- 

^wi ccntinoed to re^^ard it with equal favour; it 

•!• iD&ked to Antoninus Phis for the aqueduct, of 



was'partiaUy sheltered by the pr^^ — I"^ ^oi.v 

on the W. The ruins stoU visible j^^^n^^^ ^^^ 

funy described by Nibby (^'^^'^pUox^^^^, 

p. {81-197); of the ^^^^^.^^^^ ^ -^ in^ 

^..^^M ien^,.aod Septimius \ ^-:;^^'^'^r<^^^ 

CL c). Among them is ^^^^^ rei>e^* ^ 
\^U calendar, which l^^pj (T^^i^f 
V«h«d.. for the first time by VolpiJ. ^V^ 

^'*w% added Ui^elj to the buUdin^^s of the im- 
Kn»l i^idewe. (CapitoL Ant. JHus^ 8 ; PhOostr. 

*^^iHLTfil2a) The population and import- . .. « f tinie bv v"»f* v- ,,= 

««^tl»townaiiear,hotJe^^ by Ore"* 

«- tfcoagh we iJuSuiat its port wa» «till ser- fma, 4to. Bomae, 1726), ana 
"«^ioA.D.537 (Procopi^. €7. i. 26>, we find | pp.394— 405.) 







ci'ii.vlstfnt witli tills }t.i-s;ip> t<> lf)ok for I'lir-Uus 
ri(»rlh of Aiiti|'litlliis, tliuii in ;iny otlior din'ftioii; 
and till' ruln>' at 7'(7/o'/Av>(;/7///», north of Antiplicl- 
lu.<, on tlif* >i'nr of a nionnlain (ailed Ft/lcnl'if/h, 
sc<-ni to Im- tlio-c of I'li'llns. Tlioe ruins, nliidi 
are not tlio-c of a lai^'o town, arc dcsoril»cd in 
»*^l»ratt"s L'iriii. [G. L.] 

ANTU'HK'AK {'Avri'^pai, Strab xvii. j.. 799: 
*Avri<Ppa, Strj.h.U.. I'tol,; *Ai't<<;»/.>c6, Iliciod. j., 7.S4 : 
11th. *\vTifp^<ulos). a small inland town of the I.iliyao 
N'liiios, nut far fron; tlu* sta, and a little \V, of 
Al'Xaiidria, ( fliluat<'<l for its Jx-w " hi!»yan wine," 
wlii( li was drnnk l»y the lower cIa~>M,'.s of ^VJexniuiria 
mixed with Ma-wali-r. and whieli ^eeins to iiavc 
Ix-.-n an inferior desr-rijitiou of the " Ma:eotic wine "' 
of \ iri'il and lloraco {(icoiy. ii. 91, Cariii. i.37.14; 
romp. Ath. i. ]>. 'M, Luean. x. lf»()). [1'. S.] 

ANTl'l'OLlS (' AvT iTToKis: lUli. Antii^^.litaniis: 
.-!/*///".>•), a town in (lallia Narhoneiisis. l)"Anvillc 
(Xutuc. &e.) observes that he believes that this 
town lias lircKiYcd tho name of Aiitiboul in the 
rrov<-n';al idiom. It w;ls foinided by the (Ireeks of 
Masv.alia (Mtn-st i/lr) in the country (»f tlie I)eeiates; 
and it was one uf the S'ttlenients whirh Ma>salia 
established with a view of clieekini: the Salyes and 
the Li-urians of the A\\'*. (Strab. ]». 180.) It 
was on ihe maritime Human mail whieh ran alon;: 
thl> e'».a>t, AntiU'x is on the >ta. on th(.' ea^t ^ide 
of a --mall }'<'nin>ula a few miles W. of the mouth ed" 
llie \'arus ( IV/r). It contains the remains of a 
tlieatre. and of >ome Iloman eonvtruelious. 

iSrr;d>» ^5tate^ (|>. 184). tliat ihouu'h Antij-olis was 
in (Jallia Narbonensi>, it \vas rele:is«(l from the 
iuri>dietit>n of Ma>salia, and reckoned amoni: the 
Italian towns, while Nii;ua, whit h was va^t of the 
\'ar and in Italy, siill remained a de|icndeney of 
Massdia. Tadtus (I/t\sf. ii. 15) calls it a Uiuni- 
< ij'inrn of Narboiien>i> (Jaliia. v.hieh i:ives us no 
ex;u't information. ITmy (iii. 4) tails it " oj>- 
j.iilnni Lalinnin," by whieh he ni«ans that it had 
the ,]n< I.atinm (»r Latinitas; but the j-a.-saLre in 
Strabo has no ])rieise meaning', unices we sni'ivi^e 
that Atitij'uli> iiad the ,Ius Italieum. Antii-<.Iis, 
hoWfver, i.s not meutii-ned \\ith the two (lallit i ilie>. 
Luu'dtnninj and \'ieina (l)i.:. ;">(). tit. 15. s. 8), 
whi( h were .Juris Itali' i ; and we may jterhajK-. 
thou.di with .some lieMtation. take the .stateiiiei.l of 
I'linv in |irefei»iiee to ot Slrabo. 

Tlieic arc eoiuN of Antij«>li.-. It .""eems to hive 
had .somo tunny li>herie>, an<l to ha\e prepared a 
pi< kle (miiria) for h>h. (l*lin. xxxi. S; Martial, 
xiii. Kin.) [t;. L.] 

AN1I<»1:A'1;IA (Ant. Itin. p. 412: AnL.jfMro), 
a iiiunieipium irf Ilivpania l»a< t.ea. Its n.ime oe- 
eiirs in the torm Antitaria in in>-cri]itions, and 
tiieri- is a coin with the lejnid aniik., the olerenee 
of \\iii(h to this jlaee l!i kh- 1 coiisidt rs very <iou!'t- 
fnl. (Mnratnri. ]i. lifjf.. iios. .'i, 4; Vhvv?., Mxl. 
iL Ilyi. \><\. ii. p. O.'J.'): l]ekiit 1, vol. i. }». 14: h'as, he, 
*. V. ANTIK.) [P. S.j 

ANTri:i:iiirM. [a< haia, p. 13, n.J 

ANTI>SA ("At'Ttrroa: Jj/i. 'AiTtfT.ra.os). a rity 
of the i.vland Lt-bos, near to Cajw.* Siirrinm, the 
w»-t<-rn jH int of |,e>bos (.*^teph, l\. s. i\''Ai'TnTaa, 
lollowin^ Strabo, p. ril8). The plaee had a harbour. 
The ruii^s fomid by |'«»e.»ke at Cahis LiniiiLOiuis, 
a little NK. of ca| e Sli/rl, ma\ be thov,. o\' Auti.vsa. 
I I. s j>la( e was the birtli-pla< e of 'I'erp.inder, who 
is said to be the inventor of the .'•even->t riiiu'r'd lyre. 
y\nli.s.s;i j..iii,Ai th.- .Mytil«naean.> in their iwolt 
from Athens in tlie relojMinnesian nar 15. c. -iiiS, 


and .^nece>sfnlly defended itself azainst the Me- 
thymnaeaiLs who attacked it; but after Myiilt-io 
ha<l been coinjM'lled to .sunTuder to tlie Ailieiii.uis 
Anti> was recovered by them also (Thuc. iii. IS, 
28). was de.stroyed by the Kiimans :ilti'r 
the of iVrsens, kini:^ of Mao«drrJa (n. c. 
IGv'^), beeau^c the Antis.saeans had n-ceive«l in tkeir 
})ort ami ;j:i\en supplies to Antenor. the :idi!'i.'-jl "f 
I'erseus. 'Ihe )»<>ple were reiiiove>i to M-'lLyiua. 
(Liv. xlv. .31; riin. v. 31.) 

Myr.silus (quoted by Stnibn, p. GO) say<. tkit 
Antiss.i \v.a.s om-e an island, and at that time L';---* 
was ealled I.sva; so that Anti.ssa was namui liU' 
many other j'l.ace.s, AntijMros, Anti|hvHa>. an-i 
others, with releriix e to the name of an oppi-i:*' 
plaee. riiny (ii. 89) places amoi!^' th? 
lands reseuid from the .sea, and joined to the 
land; and (.)\ id (JAY. xv. 287), where he is .sj.ak- 
in^ of the chanues whieh the earth's surtao' Lh 
underuone, tills the siime story. Inanothi-r jtu-Nii.''' 
(v. 31). where he cmnnerates the ancient n:ii!ies (■( 
Lesbos, riiny men t ions La.sia, but not ls>a. L.■^.<\^, 
however, niay be a corrujtt word. Stej'hanus (s r. 
"laaa) makes Issa a city of Lobos. It is ix^ssii le. 
then, that Antissa, when it w.-i.s .an island. n;ay 
h;ive had its name tVom a pl.iee on tl.o mainLmd <{ 
Lesbos opposite t.t it, and call<-d Is^a. [G. L.] 

ANTlTAUlll'.S. [TAirLs.] 

A'NTIU.M {•'AvTiou. Strab. Dion. Hal. .<;:c.: Lt.^ 
(Ireek writer^ have "Ai-Oioy. Tnxo}., l'hil"sir. : 
£th. Antias, -atis), one of the ancieiii ainl 
|jo\\ertul cities {>i Latnun. .situated on a pronu'Jit-nr 
or projecting' an;:le of the sea-coast, at the<-^ 
of 2r)0 stadia from (,)stia (Strab. v. p. 232). :ivi 
38 nulers from It is still calleil /'e-rfo 
(VAnzo. Tr.idition ascrilnul its foundation, in tern- 
nioii with that of AnKa and 'ruscuhnn, to a s>n 
of and Ciree (.Xena:;, ap. l)ion. ILil. i. 72; 
.•^teiih. U, .s'. v.), while others rcbrn-d it to AM-annw 
(.S.lin. 2. § Hi). It seems ]»robable that it was on»* 
of those Latin cities in which the IVlasjiaii ♦k-nnnl 
pre]K>nderated. .'lud that it i>ued its oriifin to tLit 
]""ple. (Nicbuhr, vol. i. p. 44.) In «onst<ij!:,-v;,,> 
of its ad\:inta.''-ous maritime [">sitl..n the inhilit- 
:ints seem e.irly to ha\e drvotvil th'-nisihis, \-i 
eouinnree as well as piracy, and c«intinne<l d'wn 
to a late peri-»d to share in the pir.itical pnieti^vJ 
of thiir kindred cities on the of Ktruria. 
(Strab. /. c.) It seems doubtful wlu-ther, in •-arly 
times, it ! to the Latin Lea_'Ue; I>ii.nvsi!i5 
n pres. iits it a-- lirst i.ininu' that coul".-.l. r.u'v niid-T 
'rar.|uinius (l)ion. Hal, iv. 49), but he 
is certainly nii-tak<n in lepresentim; it a> 
.already a Vols, iuu , it y, (See Nicbaiir. Vi-l. ii. p. 
10>.) And lli"nL:h we tind its nanie in the trx-vty 
cojK hided by till' K'oni.ins with Carliiaire amonj th** 
L.'itin < itii'.s wliieh were subji-ct to or depiiil-'l 
upon li'-'iie (I'ol. iii. 22). it d'H-s not a}'j»-ar iT\ 
the list LMven by l)ionysins of the thirtv towns 
whirh. in n. c. 493, constituted the Latin Lrac'-it-. 
(Dion. Hal. v. fil.) ;iuth.>r. how.ver, repre- 
Miits it ;is sen.iiu;,' assi>t.ini e to the Latins U-f'Tr 
tlie b.ittl" of L'e-illus (\i. 3), and it w:is i-r.-hubly 
at that time .still a L.itin city. But withic a few 
\ears aftiTwanfs it must have talleu into the har.iii 
of the Volseiaiis, .as w«. lind it henceforth taking 
an aeti\f p,irt in their wars .•iL'ainst the Litiii'- a'vl 
liom.ins. until in the year n. c. 4G8 it w;us tak-n 
by the l.itli-r. who sought to secure it bv mm. tin. ^ 
thitbrr a ("1 -ny. ( l.iv. ii. ,33, G3, G5, iii. I; Dim. \\. 'j2, ix. 58, 59; Ni.buhr, vol. ii. pp. 24G — 


248.) Ahm jcais aflenrmrds, bowerer (b.c.459), 

Aodmn Mgain revolted; and though it is represented 

Inr the umlistii as haTiDg been recooquered, this 

■ppemrs to be a fiction, and we find it fnm hence- 

fimrd eigojinj^ oooiplete independence for near 

ISOTearif daring which period it rose to great 

flcnlaop and power, and came to be regarded as the 

ontf dtj of the Vidscians. (Liv. iii. 4, 5, 23 ; 

Kfbohr, ToL n. i^ 354, 255.) Daring the former 

|iut of this period it cootinuMl on fnendlj terms 

intli Rome; bnt in b. c. 406, we find it, for a short 

timr, joioing with the other Vdsdan cities in their 

bntOhies: and aAcr the invasion of the Gaols, the 

AntiAtins took the lead in deckring war against 

tbi Bomuv, which th^ ^'•g^ almost without 

isknntaiioQ for 13 years (b. c. 386 — 374), until 

n^iestad defeats at length ocanpelled them to sue 

* lor peace. (Liv. iv. 59, vi 6 — 33; Kiebuhr, voL ii. 

^ 465, 583 — 593.) Notwithstanding this lesson, 

tbev again proroked the hoetilitj of Rome in b. c 

S48, br aeoding a colooy to Satricom; and in the 

pmi Latin War (b. c. 340 — 338) they once more 

tmk tbe lead of the Vobdans, in uniting their arms 

vitb those of the Latins and their allies, and shared 

ft tbor defeats at Pedum and Astura. Thdr de- 

fecti'ai was wrerelj punished; thej were deprived 

cf ail tbeir ships of war (tbe beaks of which served 

ta adcni the Rostra at Rome), and prohibited firom 

aS nmritime commerce, while a Roman colony was 

mt to garrison their town. (Liv. vii. 27, viii. 1, 

l»-14; Kiebuhr, voL iii p. 128, 140—144.) 

From this tinae Antium figures only in history as 
(Of «f the maritune coJonies of Rome (Liv. xxviL 
3S, xzxtL3); but Strabo states, that the inhabit- 
latB dxl not discontinue their piratical habits even 
aArr they had become subject to Rome, and that 
Akxandcr the Great, and Demetrius (Poliorcetes), 
neooBvely sent embassies to onnplaln of their 
ifndations. (Strab. r. p. 232.) It was taken by 
Marios during the civil wars (Appian. B. C. i. 69); 
nd soirnd aeverelj firom the ravages of his fol- 
Wvtn (Lit. Eptt. Ixrx.), but appears to have 
^aickJy rvcovered, and became, during the latter 
^ajt i the Republic, as well as under the Roman 
EaipiR, a &vourite place of resort with wealthy 
Boauas, who adorned both the town and its neigh- 
baifbood with splendid villas. (Strab. £,c.) Among 
rtbcTS, Cicero h*d a villa here, to which he re- 
pntidly aliode*. {Ad AW ii. 1, 7, 11, &c) Nor 
vw it baa in favour with tbe emperors themselves; 
I W1I hoe that Augustus first received from the 
pnfiv the title of *' Pater Patriae *" (Suet Avg. 58); 
it «w abo tbe birth>pUce of Caligula (Id. Cat 8), 
H vcD as of Nero, who, in consequence, regarded 
it viih especial fimmr; and not oidy enlarged and 
*'^«»^^ the imperial vilk, but establidied at 
AaliaBi a eokny of veterans of the paraetorian guard, 
■si eooitnicted there a new and splendid port, the 
muins of which ax« still vi^Ie. (Id. Ner. 6. 9; 
Tar, Am. xrr. 27, xv. 23.) It was at Antium, 
ain. tint be rcoexved the tadings of the great con- 
ftipatfiB of Bame. (Ibid. xv. 39.) Later em- 
{cm roitinoed to regard it with equal favour; it 
na iz^iebted to Antooinus Pius for the aqueduct, of 
"vbick sume portions still remain, and Septimias 
8r«ra added largely to the buildings of the im- 
ywial ivaidence. (CapttoL Ant. Pwt, 8; PhUostr. 
yk. JpotL viiL 20.) The population and import- 
aan cf the town apipear, however, to have declined ; 
ad though we learn that its port was still ser- 
rinafch b A. D. 537 (Procop. B. G. I 26), we find 



no subsequent mention di it; and during the middle 
ages it appears to have been wholly deserted, tbe 
few inhabitants having established themselves at 
Nettuno. The attempts made by Innocent XII. 
and subsequent popes to restore the port, though 
attended with very imperfect success, have again 
attracted a small population to the spot, and the 
modern village of Porto cTAnxo contains about 500 

Antium was celebrated for its temple of Fortune, 
alluded to by Horace (0 Diva gratum quae r^fit 
Antium^ Hor. Carm. i. 35 ; Tac. Attn. iii. 71), 
which was one of the wealthiest in Latium, on 
which account its treasures were laid under con- 
tribation by Octavian in the war against L. An- 
tonius in b. c. 41 (Appian. B. C. v. 24), as well as 
for one of Aesculapius, where the god was said to 
have landed on his way from Epidaums to Rome 
(VaL Max. L 8. § 2; Ovid. Met. xv. 718). The 
neighbouring small town of Nettuno probably derives 
its name firom a temple of Neptune, such as would 
naturally belong to a dty so much devoted to mari- 
time pursuits. The same place is generaUy sup- 
posed to occupy the site of the ancient Cemo, which, 
as we learn from Livy and Dionysius, served as the 
naval station and arsenal ts£ Antium (Liv. ii. 63; 
Dion. Hal. ix. 56.) Besides this, several other towns, 
as Longula, Pollusca, and Satricom, were dependent 
upon Antium in the days of its greatest power. 

The only remains of tbe ancient Latin or Volscian 
city are some trifiing fragments of its walls; it ap- 
pears to have occupied the hill a little to tbe N. of 
the modem town, and a bbort distance firom the sea. 
The extensive ruins which adjoin the ancient port, 
and extend along the sea-coast for a considerable 
distance cm each side of the promontoiy, are wholly 
of Roman date, and belong either to the imperial 
villa, or to those of private individuals. The greater 
part of those immediately adjoining the outer mole 
may be referred, from the style of their construction, 
to the reign of Nero, and evidently formed part of 
his palace. Excavations which have been made, 
fraok time to time, among these ruins, have brought 
to light numerous worlu of art of the first order, 
of which the most celebrated are the statue of the 
Apollo Belvedere, and that commonly known as the 
Fighting Gladiator. (Nibby, Bmiomi di Roma, 
voL i. p. 187.) The remains of the port constructed 
by Nero, which are extensive and well preserved, 
prove that it was wholly artificial, and formed by 
two moles, the one projecting immediately from the 
extremity of the promontory, the other opposite to 
it, enclosing between them a basin of not less than 
two miles in drcumferuice. Great part of this is 
now filled with sand, but its circuit may still be 
readily traced. Previous to the construction of this 
great work, Antium could have had no r^ular port 
(Strabo expressly tells us that it had none), and 
notwithstanding its maritime greatness, was pro- 
bably content with the beach below the town, which 
was partially sheltered by the projecting headland 
on the W. The ruins still vi&ible at Antium are 
fully described by Nibby (JHntomi di Roma^ vol. i. 
p. 181 — 197); of the numerous inscriptions which 
have been foimd there, the most important are given 
by Orelli (Nos. 2273, 2648, 3180), and by Nibby 
(/. c). Among them is a valuable firagment of an 
ancient calendar, which has been repeatedly pub- 
lished: for the first time by Volpi {Tabula Antia- 
tina, 4to. Romae, 1726), and by Orelli (vol ii. 
I pp. 394— 405.) 

L 3 



Q. VaU'riu>!, tlu- [{oiiiuii :tiiii.ili.>t, was a native of 
Antiuin, fruui wlieiue lie derived tlit' suriiaiiie nf 
Antias. l>vwlii«li ho is ooiiiuiDnly known. [] 

A N'T 1 \' KS T A I-; l^ M. [ li h lll ii i u m. ] 


AXTOXl'NI VALLUM. [Mot.vnma.] 

ANTONINO'PULIS. [Const.vmia, or Con- 


ANiH^>N ('AvTpJfi', Hum. Strah.; 'Avrpwi^fs, 
Dein.: AW/. ^Ainpuvios: fanu), a town of Tlie>saly 
in tlie district Plitlii<»tis, at tlic iMitratuv of the 
Maliac i:nlt". and npjn^ito Orens in KubtM-a. It is 
irieutioned in the Iliad (ii. (j'.>7) a-J one ot'tlie eities 
of I'rotesilaus, and also in tlu.> lloincric hymn to 
I)emetor (4b*J) as nnder the pn •lection of that i^ul- 
di'ss. It ^v"Jls jiurcliJised by riiilip of Macedon, and 
wa> taken hy the Komans in their war with I'orsens, 
(Dem. FhiL'w. p. 133, K<-iskc; Liv. xlii. 42, 67.) 
It probably owed its lone; exi>tt'nce to tho comixjsitiun 
of its r'X>ks, which fnrni^heil some of the be^t mill- 
stones in (Jrecce; hence the epithet of TTeTpi}(is eiven 
to it in the h\inn to Demeter (/. r.). (MY Antron 
was a snnkcn rock ("^M" v(f>a\op) called the''Ot'os 
^AvTpu'Vos, or mill-stone of Antron. (Strab. jj. 43.") ; 
Stcph. Ii. s. v.: lieKy«h. .t. v. MuAt;; Ku.-tath. in 11. 
I. <•. ; Li-ake. yorthtrn (intce, vol. iv. j). 349.) 

ANTL'NNAr'lM {An({*:rnnch).jL Koman pni^t on 
the left Ixmk of the Hhine, in the territory of the Ul»ii. 
[Tkkviim.] It is pl;u ed in the Itineraries, on the 
road that ran alon;:: the we>t bank of the river; and 
it is also placed by Anunianns Marcellinns (xviii. 2) 
between lionna (^Bonn) and lJin;,'inin {^Biiiyt a), in 
his li.>t of the >cven towns on the llhine, whi( h Jn- 
liamis repjiired durini; his ;;ovenimcnt of Gaul. 
Antunnacum had been damaged or nearly destroyed 
by the Gennans, with other t<twns on this bank of 
the lihine. Antuniuiciun is [jroved by inscriptions 
to have been, at one time, the «]narters of the Lei:io 
X. Gemina ; and the tran>ition to the iculcrn 
appt'llatioii apjx^irs from its name '' Anternacha." 
in the <ie">|^r,-ip|icr of liavenna. (Forbi^er, Jlandbuch 
tier alten (itoy. vol. iii. p. 155,248.) 

'1 he wo(j<kn brid^'e which Caesar constructed 
(b.C. 55) tor the puri><»se of convryiuL' his troojjs 
iMToss the lihine int>" Germany, w:ui pii'bably be- 
tween Au'ltr/uu'h and (!ohl>-HZ, and jwrhajis nearer 
AndiriKich. ihe pa>>a;:es of Caesar from which 
W(? must attempt to determine the j»osItion of hi;, 
bridge, for he t:ive» no names of places to puide ns, 
are : — B. G. iv. 15, c'tc, vi. 8, 35. [G. L.] 

ANXA.NUil or ANXA(''A7{ai'ov: AW(t.Anxanus, 
Plin. ; Anxiis, -atis, Anxiaims, Inscrr.) 1. A city of 
the Frentani, .>itn;ited on a hill about 5 miles from the 
Adriati*', and 8 from the m(»ulh of the river Sa^rus 
(»r Snutjro. It is not mentioneti in history, but is 
noticed l>oth bv I'linv and I'tolemv amou'^ the cities 
of the Frentani; and from numerous in^jcriptiou.^ 
which have U-en di><;.)vered on the >it<*, it aJ•^<«•ar^ to 
have been ;i nniniei}»;il town of ct.asiderable imj»ort- | 
.anee. Its territory jipju-ars to have been as>i;_'neii ' 
to milit.iry coloni.Nt>> by Julius {', but it did t 
not retain the nink of a colony. (Flin. iii. 12. 
.s. 17: Ptol. iii. 1. ^ 05; Lib. Colon, p. 259; /umj.t, 
(/f Ciihni. p. .307.) The name is n'tain***] by the | 
lUMlern city of A(/;<ciV//jo (the seo of an an hbi^hop. 
and one of the mo>t ]>«ipulous and llouri.shin;^ ]»la( es i 
in this jart of ltal\ ), but the (tri^inal site of the j 
anricut rity aj)|i<'ars to have been at a h|iot called 
// ('(i.tftUan. near the chun h of .Va, (#'//<.>7a, aU'Ut , 
a mile to the NK. of the UKMlern town, ^Nhere nume- I 
rous inscriptions, a, well a>^ f jmuLitioiis and ve-liues 


«if am ieiit buildini:;>, have Ix'en di^coverctl. (>t!i-r 
inseriptious, and remains of an a.jueduct, Tih.>>an- 
juivements, Ac., have al.vo be.-u found in the ptri <'f 
the present city still called /.<j;/c/(/«o I'tccAw. whiib 
thus ap];«-ars to have been peoj.led at least under the 
Uoman empire. From one of the>e inseriptious it 
wouKl ajiju-ar that Anxanmu had alreatly Utx>rne an 
important emjHtrium or centre of trade f(»r all the 
sun'ouudini; country, as it continued to bo diirin;: 
the middle aixe-.. and to which it still owes its pre>eiil 
imi^ort.ince. (lioiuanelli. vol, iii. j.p. 5.5 — 62; Gi:us- 
tiniani, />/:,. (if>t/r. vol. v. ]>p. 196 — 205.) Tin." 
Itiu<raries L'ive the di>tan' es from Anxanuni in Or- 
tona at xiii. miles (probably an error lor viii.). to 
I'allanum xvi.. and to llivtc.nium (// Vasto) xxv. 
(Itin. Ant. p. 313; Tab. IVut.) 

2. A town of Ajtulia situat«Hl on the coa>t of the 
Adriatic, between .Sij^ntum and the moutli uf the 
Autidus. The Tab. I'eut. pla< es it at 9 M. P. from 
the f«»rnier city, a distance which coincides with the 
Tom (It J\if(tli, where there are some an< lent n- 
mains. (lioman.-lli, vol. ii. jt. 204.) [E. 11. B.] 


A'ONLS ("Aorcv), the n.ime of some <-f the m*t 
ant ieut inhabitants of I'loeotia, \\ho deriveii their 
orii:in tVoni Aon, a son of Postidon. (>trab. p. 401. 
se.j,; Pans. ix. 5. § 1 ; 1209: Ant. Lib. 25; 
Stej/h. 15. s. vr. "Aoyes, tioiwria.) They apj-ear to 
have dwelt cliii-lly in the ri( h plains alwait TheU-s, 
a portion of \\lii<h ^\as called the Aonian pLain iii 
the time of .^trabo (p. 412). Poth by the Greek 
and i;»)!iiau writers lioeotia is freijueutly calliil Aonia, 
and the ;ldjecti^e Aouius is used :is synonvmoos 
with PiM'otian. (Callim. Jhl. 75; S-rv. ad Vtrg. 
A'H. vi. 65; (iell. xiv. 6.) Heme the Mu->es, who 
frequented Mt. Helicon in lioeotia, :irecalkni A<nid« 
and Aoniae S>rores. (()v. Mtt. v. 333; Juv. vii. 
58, et alibi; ct*. Miillcr, Orchomtnos, p. 124, seq. 
2nd ed.) 

AO'NTA. [AcNTs.] 

AOUNUS {ij'Aopvos TTfTpa, i. e. (fie HocL- inac- 
assiOlc f" />//•(/,>•). \. In India intra Ganireni. a lofty 
;ind preeipitous r.K k, ^^he^e the Indians of the 
country N. of the Iu<lu^. between it and the Cojtheii 
(Ctihid), and jtirtieula: ly the |»t^,»ple of Ua^ira, 
made a stand a;:ainst Alexander, u. r. 327. (.\r- 
rian. A/tnlt. iv. 28, foil., /W. 5. § 10; L»i.«.l. xviL 
^'); Cmt. viii, 11; Strab. xv. p. 088.) It is de- 
scribed as 200 stadia in cinnit, an<l fr<»Tn 11 to 16 
in hei-ht (nearly 7000 — l0,O00 fwl), |j<Tf«ii- 
dicnlar on all sides, and with a level ^uTlJlnit, 
al>»un<linf:; in spring's. wo«a1s, and cultivatoil f^nMirni. 
It seems to have been counuonly u.scii .as a rt'fn'jr 
in war, aiul was n-iranled :is impreLjnable. The 
tra<lition, that Hen ule> had thrice f;iilod to take it, 
inflamed still more Alexaiuler's constant unibiti<«i 
(it aehievini; soinini: imi»os>ibiiitics. Bv a t«ij- 
binalioii of str;ita<,'ems an<l \>*>h\ attack^, whiih are 
n-latcd at len;^'th by the historians, he dp)ve X\t« 
Indi.ins t<i desert the |K»st in a .xjrt of ]unic, ai*l, 
settiui; np>n them in their retn»at, dcstrov^i ii>.«.t 
of them. Havini: celebrateil his vietory with sacri- 
hees. and elected on the inount.iin> to Mint-r\a 
aiiil \ ietory, he est.iblishid then; a garrij>oQ uiMitrr 
the conniiaad of Sisicottus. 

It is inii-issiblc- to detennine,\\ithcertainty,tb«? pi>- 
sitii-n of Aoinos. It w;us elearly ^omewhea' nn lh« 
N. side of the linlns, in the aniile betwivn it and tin* 
('opli<ii(' (ihul). It Avas very near a city calletl Kn»- 
ln'Uiiia, on th«' Indus, the n.ime of wjiich |«»mts to a 
[xtsitioii at the mouth of some tributary river. Tim 


to b« the odI J frtouad on which Bitter pUcee 
St the cooftieDce of the Cophen and the 
B«t the irhole conne of the lurratiTe, in 
•eem clearlj to reqaire a poeitioa 
up the ladu, at the nKXithof the Bmrrindoo 
iar *TMnpfa That Aormu itself alao was dose to 
tfar ladm, ia stated hy DiodoniSf Cnrtiiis, and 
8Mvb»; and though the aame woald scarcely be 
■ifciiirt firon AirbBi, he sajs nothing positiTdy to 
t!feB f iMiUmj , The mistake of Strabo, that the 
of the rock is irashed bj the Indos near its 
ia not ao vecy great as might at first sight 
; Ibr, in commoo with tho other ancient 
jevnerapben^ he onderBtands hj the ^octree of the 
IwfaM, the place whtfe it breaks through the chain 
«f tha ffiwiifayii 

The aHae Aonraa is an esuunple of the signifi- 
■yffllatiiws which the Greeks were f<md of 
eitber aa cormptions cf, or snbstittites for, 
B. In like manner, Dionysins Pe- 
eaOa the HimakHfa'Aofnns (1151). [P. S.] 
9. A city in Bactriana. Arrian (iiL 29) speaks 
^ Aarnos and Bactra as the largest cities in the 
laaiilij of the Bactrii. Aonms had an acropolis 
<iHfa) in which Alexander left a garrison after 
tak^ the place. There b no indication of its site, 
«sc«pc that Akzander took it before he reached 
Oam, [G. L.] 

AOBSI CAopcroi: Strab., Ptol., Plm., Steph.B.), 

«- ADOESI (Tac. Atm. ziL 15), a nomeroos and 

pwaffnl people, both in Europe and in Ana. 

Psrfmy (nL 5. § 22) names the European Aorsi 

— e the peoples erf* iiarmatia, between the Venedic 

Odf (BmiHe) and the Bhipaean mountains (t. e. 

m the eoBteni part of Prussia), and places them 

S. «f the Agathym, and N. of the Pagyritae. 

lb* Asiatic Aoni he places in S<^rthia intra 

luaan, ou the NE. shore of the Caspian, between 

the Anotae, who dwelt £. of the month of the riyer 

tta {Volffo), and the Jaxartae, who extended to 

Ife liver Jaxaxtea (vi 14. § 10). The ktter is 

«|ipnad to hare been the origixial position of the 

piiflr, aa Strabo cxprcsaly states (xi. p. 506); 

te of eonne the same question arises as in the 

CMC «f the other great tnbes found both in Eoro- 

fmt SarmatiA and Asiatic Scythia; and so Eich- 

•ali aeeka the original abodes of the Aorsi in the 

faMini pcorince of VcloffdOf on the strength of 

ifae raembbiice of the name to that of the Finnish 

aratf the Erwe, now found there. (^Gtog. d, Oup, 

Mment^ ppi 558, ML) PUny mentions the Euro- 

f«c Aoni, with the Hamaxobii, as tribes of the 

IhiiaaUaua, in the general sense of that word, in- 

<W[^( the ** Scythian races " who dwelt akng the 

I. o«st «f the Enxine E. of the month of the 

fiiBB^; and mon spedfically, next to the Getae 

0». ll».25, xLs.18). 

Tbi chief seat of the Aorri, and where they ap- 
ym ia Urtflty, was in the country between the 
Taah^ tht Eu^ne, the Caifpian, and the Caucasus, 
k* Strtbo plactt (xL p. 492), S. of the nomade 
^?tloM», wbo dwril on waggons, the Sarroatians, 
*^ tn tho Scythians, namely the Aorsi and 
fciri, extending to the S. as £ir as the Caucasian 
*«taiBi; Moe of them being nomadea^and 
«hes ^vdfing in tents, and cultivating the land 
l»Mmial7*.p7W> Farther on (p. 506), he 
^ a« ptrticuhuJy ci tho Aorsi and Siraci; 
fc«tW Rvnif^ is obscnrvd by crpom in the text. 
TW »M wxm to b«s as given in GrD6kurd»s 
*ftfciii,thtt there wer« tiibea of the Aorsi and 



the Siraci on the E. side of the Pains Maeotis 
{Sea of Atov), the former dwelling on the TanaTs, 
and the latter ftirther to the S. on the Achardens, 
a river flowing from the Caucasus into the Maeotb. 
Both were powerftil, for when Phamaces (the 
son of Mithridates the Great) held the kingdom of 
Bosporus, he was famished with 20,000 horsemen 
by Abeacus, king of the Siraci, and with 200,000 
by Spadines, king of the Aorsi. But both these 
peoples are regarded by Strabo as only exiles of the 
great naticm of the Aord, who dwelt farther to the 
north (rSt¥ irarr^w, ol AtfttXAopaoi), and who as- 
sisted Phamaces with a still greater force. These 
more northern Aorsi, he adds, possessed the greater 
part of the coast of the Caspian, and carried on an 
extensive traffic in Indian and Babylonian merchan- 
diie, which they brought on camels from Media and 
Armenia. They were rich and wore ornaments of 

In A. D. 50, the Aorsi, or, as Tacitus calls them, 
Adorsi, aided Cotys, king of Boepoms, and the 
Romans with a body of cavalry, against the rebel 
Mithridates, who was assisted by the Siraci. (Tac. 
Aim. xii. 15.) 

Some modem writers attempt to identify the 
Aorsi with the Avars, so celebrated in Byzantine 
and medieval history. [P. S.] 

AOOJS, more rarely AEAS ("Awoj, *A«or. *A^r. 
Pol. Strab. Li v.: AToj, Hecat. ap. Strab. p. 316; 
Scylax, a. r. *IAAiJpioi; Steph. B. #. r. Adxfiuw; Val. 
Max. i. 5. ext. 2; erroneously called Aniub, "A viot 
by Pint Caes. 38, and Anas, 'Avar, by Dion Cass, 
xli. 45: Vi6»a, Vuiua, Fortiwa), the chief river 
of inyria, or Epirus Nova, rises in Mount Lacmon, 
the northern part of the range of Mount Pindus, 
flows in a north-westerly direction, then " suddenly 
turns a little to the southward of west; and having 
pursued this course for 12 miles, between two 
mountains of extreme steepness, then recovers it* 
north-western direction, which it pursues to the 
sea," into which it falls a little S. of Apolkmia. 
(Herod, ix. 93; Strab., Steph. B., ff. cc; Leake, 
Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 384.) The two roonn- 
tains mentioned above approach very near each 
other, and form the celebrated pass, now called th*' 
Stena of the Firfw, and known in antiquity hj the 
name of the Fauces ANTiooNESSEa, from it* m- 
cmity to the cHy of Antigoneia. (Faucea ad Al- 
tigoneam, Liv. xxxu. 5; vAwop' 'AKri7^«ar<fT»w, 
Pol. ii. 5.) Antigonda (JepeUm) was sHuater! 
near the northern entrance of the pass at th*> juuc 
tion of the Aous with a river, now called Vkrsfty, 
Drino, or I>runo. At the termination of \U- h** 
on tho south ia the modem village of KlUm-^ . 
name which it has obviously received from it ^ *••» 
aUon. It was in this pass that PhiUp V., k.ii * 

Macedonia, in vwn attempted Ut anreet tii. p.^ 

of the Roman consul, T. Qninctius Flaroinmu .... 
Epirus. Philip was encamped with \h> i*^- 
of his forces on Mount Aeropuf, au<l i. v- 
Athenagoras, with the light truup.v oi .\. . 
naua. (Liv. /. c.) If Philip *»> *^i«**.^* 
right bank of the river, as t))en- m^u. -• ' 
for believing, Aeropus corresponu^ i /♦. - 
#^, and Asnaus to if own/ AVwi+fUw. 

well described by Plutarch (AVu/.m 
which he probably borrwHei J.u 
compar«i it to the defile of ti* . 
adding " that it is deficit! • . 
the verdant foresti*, th' p^ >. .^ >. 
dows vrhich border th* !.»-. 


Q. V:il<'riu:<, tlu' K<»iiiuii ;junali>t, wa.s a ii.itivo of 
Antiuin, fn»m wlicix t- he dfrivrd tho snniaiiic ot' 
Antias, bv wiiiili lie is coiiiinonly knuwu. [E.H.13.] 



ANTONl'NI VALLUM. [Uotannia.] 

ANTONINO'POLLS. [Constaxtia, or Con- 


ANTlfOxN (^kvrpuiv, Honi. Strab.; 'A^rpwi/cy, 
Deni.: Kth. 'ktnpwvios: Fa/io), a town of Thcssaly 
ill tlio district Plitliiotis, at the entrance of the 
Maliac LT'ilf. and oi.iKi-ito Ori'ns in KnlnM-a, It is 
incntioiK'il in the Iliad (ii. G'J") a-s one of the cities 
of Trote^ilans, and als.i in tho lliimeric hymn to 
I)einotcr (4iS'J) a» lunler the }ir..tecli<>n of that pxl- 
desii. It wiis |>nr( hased by riiiiijt <if Mace.lun, and 
wa-s taken by tho llonians in their war with I'ersens. 
(Dem. r/ul'iv. ]K l.'i.i, Keiske; Liv. xlii. 42, 67.) 
It probably owed its Ion;; exi>tence to the conij>o>iti<>n 
of its rocks, \vhich fnriiihhed .some of the best iiiill- 
stones in (ir«vce; iience the ejjithet of irtrp-nfis ii'wvu 
to it in the hymn to Demeter (/. r.), OtVAntrun 
■was a snnkeii ro« k (^V/^a u^aAo*') called the*^Ofos 
'AvTpa'ft)?, or mill-stone of Antron. (Mrab. p. 4.3j; 
Stej.h. U. *. r. ; Ih'sych. s. v. MJAtj; Ln.>tath. in II. 
I. c. ; Leake. Northern Orttce, rol. iv. p. 349.) 

AN'iL'NNACUM {An(lerntu'h),:i IJoman p'l.^t on 
the left bank of the Hhine, in the territory of the L'l>ii. 
[Ti:i:viia.] it is placed in the ItimTaries, on the 
ffxid that ran alon;: the west bank of the rivi-r ; and 
it is also phue.1 by Ammianus Mariellinn.s (xvlli. 2) 
b<'tw.en lionna (Z^o/i/<) and Bin;,'inni (JJint/tn), in 
his li.>t of the seven towns on the lihine, which Ju- 
lianus repaired dnrin;; his poveniment of Ganl. 
Antnnnacnm had been daniai^ed or nearly destioud 
bv the (jerinans, with other towas on tlii.s bank of 
tlie llhine. Antnnnacum is proved by inscriptions 
to have been, at fine time, the quarters of tho LeL'io 
X. Gemina ; and the transition to the inoilern 
appellation apj-ars from its name " Anteinacha," 
in the (;e(»;:ra[tlier of ILivenna. (Torbii^er, llundbuch 
(kr (ih<n (Jtnf/. vul, iii. y. ir)5,248.) 

The wimkIcii brii];;e which Cru'^ar constructed 
(b.c. 55) for the pm-^>.>.>4^ of conveyiiii; his troops 
a«ross the Khine into (lennany, w.-is juobably be- 
tween Andtrndch and CvbU-nz, and jwrhaps normr 
Arnhrmtch. 1 he passiu'es of Cae>ar from whivli 
we nm>t attenqit to di'tfrmine the jK)>ition of his 
bridge, for he ^'ives no names of places to ^nide us, 
aie : — Ji. (i. iv. 15, iS:c., vi. 8, 35. [(J. L.] 

ANXANLM or .ANXACAyiat'oi': /:///. Anxanus, 
Plin,; .Vnxa'^, -iitis, Anxianns, Inscrr.) 1. A city of 
the Frentani, .situated on a hill aln)nt 5 miles from the 
Adriatic, and 8 from the moutii of the river Sai^rus 
<tr Sinvjro. It is not mentioned in liistviry, but is 
notice«l l>oth bv Plinv and I'toK-mv amoni; the«ities 
of the I'Ventani; and from numerous in>cri]»tii'ns 
which have been «lisr.>v«'red on the .site, it ;ij>jMars to 
have U'eii a munitijal town of ciL'^iderable inijx-rt- 
anee. Its t<*rritory apfiears to have been assi-ncd 
to military colunisls by Julius ('ae>;ir, but it ditj 
not retain the rank of a cnluiiy. (I'lin. iii. 12. 
.s. 17: Hoi. iii. 1. § 05; Lib. Colon, p. 259; Zuiujit, 
(/f; Ct'Utn. p. 307.) The n.ame is retaiinnl by the 
nnxbrn < ity of Laurimw (tiie, siv of an an hbi^hi)j». 
and <>ne of the most j»ipulous and liourishin.; }il:»( e>. 
in this jtirt of Italy), but the original .site of the 
anri.'ut city apjH-ars to have been at .a sixit calle«l 
// (iiati lliirv, near the ihuieh of .S/</. (iiu.<hi, about 
a niib* to the NK. of the UKHltrn town, *\ here nuuu'- 
rou-> inscriptions, jls \M'\\ as i«)'.mdati"iLs and vestiges 


of atn ienl buildiuL's, have Im'cu discovered. (Kh<r 
inscriptions, and remains of an a^jueduct, nl<c^;ul 
{•avements, ivc., have also been tound in the part of 
the present city still calb-d Lnncinno rtccAjo. whi' h 
thus appears to jiavc \nx\\ peoj^led at least luulertlii' empire. From one of these in^i riptioiw it 
Would apj>ear that Anxanum had already Uwme an 
imjxtrtant emjiorium or centre of tnule for all the 
surromiflin!^ country, as it continued to f>o durini: 
the middle aires, and to whieli it still owe^ its prexul 
im|M)rtaiui'. (Koinanelli, Vol. iii. pp. 5.') — ♦32; (jias- 
tiniani, Jt'iz. d'tinf/r. vid. v. j»)'. I'JC — 205.) Uk' 
Itineraries -rive the distances from Anx.uiuni tn i.h-- 
tona at xiii. miles (prob.ibly an error for y\'n.). to 
Fallanum xvi., and to Ilistoniuni (// \'asto) \3.\. 
(Itin. Ant. p. 313; Tab. iVut.) 

2. A town of Apulia .situatnl on tlie ctiast of th? 
Adriatic, Ix'tween Si]»«intum and the mouth of the 
AuHdus. The Tab. Pent. pla( es it at 9 M. P. fruni 
the loruicr city, a distance whieh coincides with the 
Torre di RlcoU, where there are ^onle ancient rc- 
maiii.s, (ietmaurlli, vol, ii. j.. 204.) [F. H. iJ.] 

ANXrii. [TAKU.VriN'A.J 

A'ONFS ("Aot'es), tho name of some of the m-ist 
aiieient iiiiiabltants of I'oe«'tia. who <itTive«i tb^-ir 
orii:in fr<»m Aon, a s««n of posiidon, (striib. p. 401, 
.setp; Pans. ix. 5. § I ; Lyi cpiir. 120',); Ant. Lib. 25; 
.Steph, 15. s. cv. "Aoves, Boia'Tio.) They apjK-ar to 
ha\t' dwelt chiefly in the rii h jdains al)out lliobo-s. 
.a porti'>n of which w;is called the Aoniaii plain in 
tho time of Strabo (p. 412). Both by the Greek 
and lionian writers Bo<'oti.i i> freqnontly calletl Aoni.v 
and the adi'-ctive Aouius is usod .as sviionmioos 
with B«M'otian. (Callim. Del. 75; Serv. ad Viry. 
Ant. vi. r»5; Gcll. xiv, G.) Henc** the Mus<«>, wh-i 
fretjuented Mt. Ilchcon in Bcj^-oiia, are calbxl Aonides 
and Aoniae S.ptres. (Uv. JJtt. v. 333; Juv. vii. 
5j<. ct alibi; ct". Miillcr, Orchorw tws, p. 124, seq. 
2nd .-d.) 

AONIA. [Aom;s.] 

AOUNl'S {^ri'^opvus irtrpa, i. e, tfif Ji<>ci: tnac- 
0\<si/dr 111 birds). 1. In Iiidi.i intra Ganp'ni. a b-fty 
and precipitous riKk, vlicre the lndiaii.> of the 
country N. of the Indu.<, between it .ind the Cophen 
(C(tbfd), and jKirticukirly the jx'ople of Bozira, 
made a stand a; Alexninler. 15. c. 327. (Ar- 
rian, Andb. iv, 28, tV-ll., Jnd. 5. § 10; I>L<xi. xvii. 
H.'); Curt. viii. 11; Stral). xv. p. 088.) It is df- 
scribrd .xs 200 stadia in cin nit, .and from 11 to 16 
in hci^dit (nearly 7000 — lO.ooO fe.-t), j^t}*-!)- 
dicular on all siijos, and with a Icvtd summit, 
alxiuudin;; in sprinirs, W(wh.1s, ami cultivated ground. 
It .seems to have been commonly useil :is a refu::e 
in war, and was n'L'.irded as imprejiiable. The 
tradition, that Hercules had thrice faileil to take it, 
intlamed .still more Alo.\audi-r's cousitunt ainbiti«iii 
ot aehieviuL' .so-min<; imjo'ssibiliti'"*. By a c-on«- 
binatioii ot >tra!aL,'ems and bold atta» k<, whit h .ire 
related at Icni'th by the histt»ri.ins, he drove tl»»^ 
Indians to desert the in a .s<»rt of j»anie, an«i, 
.sitting upm them in tlioir retreat, destro_\e<i m«ol 
of them, llavini: celebrated his victory with sacri- 
ti< I's, an<l ercrted on the in<»untain altars to Miner\a 
autl \ icfory, he established there a garri:>on uttdrr 
the comn;and of Sisicottus. 

It L> iini>ossiiile to detennine. with certainty, tbt» j»^ 
siti' n of Aoriios. It \>a.s clearly sonu-where on the 
.\. side of tin' Indus, iu the aMi:lo l>»-tw«-on it ixiu] tlw* 
i\i\>\u\\( f abul). It was very near a city cal Nil tin- 
b'ijiiiia, on the Indus, the name of which piiuLs to a 
jK(>ition at the niouth of some tributary river. Ihii 


weoi to be the aelj grcnad on which l^er places 
luDbottm ai the eoofloence of the Cof^en and the 
hdm. Bat the whde coarse of the narrattre, in 
t)» bttffinus, Menu cktaiy to require a position 
)i$!bttT ap the Infaa, at the month of the Bvrrmdoo 
kr enmple. That Aomos itself also was dose to 
the ladoi, if stated hj Diodoms, Cnrtins, and 
Stoabs; aad tiwagh the same would scarcely be 
ymd from Anko, he says nothing positivel j to 
bi aatrary. The mistake of Strabo, that the 
but <tf the rock is washed bj the Indns near its 
MTtt, is not so very great as might at first sight 
ippor; fr, b coamion with the other ancient 
fte^^nfhtny he understands by the sovrce of the 
biM, the place where it breaks through the chain 



IV naiDS Aonros is an example of the signifi- 
ent sppeilatioiis which th« Greeks were fond of 
Sliif, citkr ss corTTi|itions of, or substitutes for, 
tki aatire Banes. In like manner, Dionysius Pe- 
npettscalk the J7imaZ(i9a''Aoyira (1151). [P. S.] 

S. A dty in Bactriana. Arrian (iiL 29) speaks 
tf Jiaraniand Bactra as the largest cities in the 
eototrj of the BactnL Aonras had an acropolis 
(4ipa) m which Alexander left a garrison after 
tikaif the place. There is no indication of its site, 
«XBF(<t tbat Alerander took it b^bre he reached 
Obwl [G. L.] 

AOKI CAopcroi: Strab., Ptd., Plin., Steph.B.), 
er ADUBSI (Tac Awn. xii. 15), a numotyus and 
pMwfnl people, both in Europe and in Asia, 
hahnr (iii« 5. § 22) names the European Aorsi 
■M^ the peo]^ of isannatia, between the Venedic 
6«tf {BalAe) and the Rhipaean mountains (i. e. 
n tkc eastern part of Prussia), and places them 
& «f the Agathyrsi, and N. of the Pagyritae. 
Th» Aaatic Aorsi he jdaces in S<^rthia intra 
httom, en the KE. shorv of the Caspian, between 
t^ Aiiotae, who dwelt E. of the month of the rirer 
tti {y^igay, and the Jaxartae, who extended to 
tW Hirer Jaxartes (tL 14. § 10). The hitter is 
■(fiaed to hare been the original position of the 
jMpk, ti Strabo expressly states (xi. p. 506); 
nt of eoone the same question arises as in the 
OK flf tfat other great tribes found both in Euro- 
pa Samatia and Asiatic Scythia; and so Eich- 
«aU Meks the original abodes of the Aorsi in the 
Ktaia pnmnoe of VologdOy <» tin strength of 
tk naemblaocc of the name to that of the Finnish 
n(«if the Er$e^ bow foond then. (^Gtog, d. Catp, 
Mmru, pp. 358, folL) PHny mentions the Euro- 
|aa Aani, with the Hamaxobii, as tribes of tbe 
l^nitiaBs, in the general sense of that woid, in- 
^^^^ the ** Scythian races * who dwelt along the 
^ oMit of the Eoxine E. of the mouth of the 
^^■be; aad more specifically, next to the Getae 
(^ 11 11,25, xLs.18). 

Tk daef seat of the Aorsi, and where they ap- 
?«w ia bisfeDry, was in the country between the 
T^A, the Eaxine, the Ca-^pian, and the Caucasus. 
Bs9 Strabo places (xi p. 492), S. of the nomade 
^T^am^ vho dwell on waggons, the Sarmatians, 
^ an Ao Scythiai», namely the Aorsi and 
^■ad, extmdmg to the S. as lar as the Caucasian 
**"*aiai; seme of them bemg nomades,*and 
^^ 4*^ag in tents, and cultivating the land 
(•»ru» cal Tfw^yoQ. Further on (p. 506), he 
'9^ men paiticulariy of the Aorsi and Sirad; 
^ d» mrtoj^ is obscured by errors in the text. 
^ »*• ieema to be, as giren in Groskurd's 
^' — ^ bs that there were tribes of the Aorsi and 

the Sirad on the £. side of the Pains Maeotis 
(Sea o/Aeov), the former dwelling on the TanaTs, 
and the latter further to the S. on the Achardeus, 
a river flowing fiixmi the Caucasus into the Maeotis. 
Both were powerful, for when Phamaces (the 
son of Mithridates the Great) held the kingdom of 
Bosporus, he was furnished with 20,000 horsemen 
by Abeactis, king of the Siraci, and with 200,000 
by Spadines, king of the Aorsi. But both ^ese 
peojdes are regarded by Strabo as only exiles of the 
great nation of the Aorsi, who dwelt further to the 
north (rctfK iamripoi^ ol AtKaXAopaoi), and who as- 
sisted Phamaces with a still greater force. These 
m<»re northern Aorsi, he adds, possessed the greater 
part of the coast of the Caspian, and carried on an 
^ctensive traffic in Indian and Babylonian merchan- 
dise, which they brought on camels from Media and 
Armenia. Th^ were rich and wore ornaments of 

In A. D. 50, the Aorsi, or, as Tadtus calls them, 
Adorsi, aided Cotys, king of Bosporus, and the 
Romans with a body of cavalry, agwnst the rebel 
Mithridates, who was assisted by the Siraci. (Tac. 
Arm, xii. 15.) 

Some modem writers attempt to identify the 
Aorsi with the Avars, so celebrated in Byzantine 
and medieval history. [P. S.] 

AOUS, more rarely AEAS ("Aawf , *Awof . 'A^wj, 
Pol. Strab. Liv.: Afas, Hecat. ap. Strab. p. 316; 
Scylax, 8. V, 'lAAvpioi; Steph. B. s. v. AdKfuaw; Val. 
Max. i. 5. ext. 2; erroneously called Anids, ''Avios 
by Pint. Caes. 38, and Anas, "Afoy, by Dion Cass, 
xii. 45 : VtSsOf Vuitsa, Fowissa), the chief river 
of lUyria, or Epirus Nova, rises in Mount Lacmon, 
the northern part of the range of Mount Pindus, 
flows in a north-westerly direction, then " suddenly 
turns a little to the southward of west ; and having 
pursued this course for 12 miles, between two 
motmtains of extreme steepness, then recovers its 
north-western direction, which it pnrsues to the 
sea," into which it falls a little S. of Apollonia. 
(Herod, ix. 93; Strab., Steph. B., U. cc; Leake, 
Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 384.) The two moun- 
tains mentioned above approach very near each 
other, and fcam the celebrated pass, now called the 
Stena of the Vidsa, and known in antiquity by the 
name of the Fauces AirnooNENSES, from its vi- 
cinity to the city of Antigoneia. (Fauces ad An- 
tigoneam, Liv. xxxii. 5; riiirap* *Airriy6vua¥ irrti'df 
Pol. ii. 5.) Antigoneia (Tepelh^ was situated 
near the northern entrance of the pass at the junc- 
tion of the Aous with a river, now called Dhryno, 
DrinOf or Drtmo. At the termination of the pass 
on the south is the modem vilhge of Klisura, a 
name which it has obviously recdved from its sitn- 
ation. It was in this pass that Philip V., king of 
Macedonia, in vain attempted to arrest the progress 
of the Roman consul, T. Quinctius Flamininus, into 
Epims. Philip was encamped with the main body 
of his forces on Mount Aeropns, and his general, 
Athenagoras, with the light troops on Mount As- 
naus. (Liv. L c.) If Philip was encamped on the 
right biuik of the river, as there seems every reason 
for believing, Aeropns corresponds to Mount Trebu' 
tin, and Asnaus to Mount Nemirieika. The pass is 
well described by Plutarch {Fktmin. 3) in a passage 
which he probably borrowed from Polybins. He 
compares it to the defile of the Pendus at Tempe, 
adding " that it is deficient in the beautiful groves, 
the verdant forests, the pleasant retreats and mea- 
dows which border the Pendus; but in the k»f^y 

L 4 



and proripitons mountains, in tho profundity of tlio 
narrow fissure iH-twirn tliein, in tho nipidity :ind 
niaLTiiituilt' of tlie river, in t!n' niiL'K' Tiarrow jvitli 
aloiii: tli«' hank, tlx* two plarvs ;(ro oxai tly alike. 
Hrnre it i.s dilHouIt for an army to jkins under any 
tin imiNtani ('>, and inii>i»ssil)l»' when tlie j-laee is 
(h'frndt'd hy an enemy." ((Quoted hy Leak?, vol. i. 
p. •^81♦.) It is true that Plutareli in this j>jissa2:e 
calls the river A}»-ns. hut the Aous i.s evidently 
meant. (I.eake, Xort/urm Greece, vol. i. }»p. 31, 
W'|., 383, se(|. vol. iv, p. 116.) 

AlWMKIA. -KA. or -lA (ATrawcia: Kfk. 'Aira- 
)U€i''s,A])ameensis, Ajwini-iisis, Ajanienus, Apameus), 
1. (Ki'tlnf fl-Mtidik), a larL'e eity of Syria, situ.ated 
in the valley of the Oronte.s.and < aj»ilal (^f the province 
of AjKimene. (Steph. B. s. v. ; Strab. xvi. p. 7r)2; 
Ptnl. v. I.'). § 19; Fotiis AvieniLs. v. 1083: An- 
ton. Itin.; Ilierorles.) It fnrtiticd and enlaiire<l 
by Sleueus Ni(at ir, wlio {jave it its name after his 
wife Aitui'.a (not his mother, as Stejtli. li. as.s^'rt>; 
romp. Strah, p. r)78). In pursuance of his jx'liiy 
of " llclleni'.in::^ " Syria, it l^ore the Ma-edonian 
name of IV-jJa. The fortre^s (see GrovkurdV note 
on Straho, p.7.')2)w;u< pl.a<.d u|M.n a hill; the \\ind- 
incrsi>f the ()ronte<,with the l.ike .and marslu's, l^inc 
it a })eninsular form, whence its other name of 
XffJ/Wj'Tja-os. S'leucus h;ul his commi.^sariat there, 
r>()0 dciiliants, with 3(),n0{) mares, and 300 staHloiis. 
The pretender, Try|ih<'n Di'Klotn.s, made Apaiiiea 
the hasisof his opHatii'tis. (Strab. /. r.) .Josephus 
(^Ant. xiv. 3. § 2) relate.% that PonijM'ius m.irchinix 
south from l»is ^^•^nter <juarter.s, jirohahly at or near 
Antioeh, r.i/ed the fortress of Apamea. In the 
revolt of Syria under i}. Caeeiiius Hassus, it held 
out for three yeans till the arrival of Cassias, u. c. 
4<>. (Dion. Ckss. xlvii. 20—28; Josej.h. B. J. i, 
10. § 10.) 

In the Cnisai-les it was still a flourishing and 
imjiortaut ])lare under the Arabic name of /'.im/V//, 
and was occupied by Tanered. (Wilken, (itsrit. 
tier Ks. vol. ii. p. 474; Abulfeda, Tab. %r. pp. 1 14, 
157.) This name and site have been loni: firL'otten 
in the country. Niehuhr heard that Fauiieh was 
now callrd Ki'ilot f'l-Mudik. {litise, vol. iii. p. 
97.) And Burekhardt(7>rtrt7.>r, p. 138) found the 
ca^tk* of this nanie not far from the lake A7 Tnhili; 
and fixes U]>on it as the site of Ajamea. 

IJuins of a Idi^hly ornamental character, and of 
an enonnon.s extent, are still standin;:. tlie re- 
mains, proba])ly, of the temples of -whieh S)7.umen 
speak.s (vii. 15); Ji'irt of the town is enclosed in an 
ancient c;i*tle situated on a hill; the remainder is 
to be found in the plain. In the .-yljacent lake 
are the celebntted blaek tish, the .source of much 
wealth. [E. B. J.] 

2. A city in Mesopotamia. Stephaims (.?. v. 
^fiiitifxna) describes Aimmeia as in the territory 
of th(? Me>eni, "and surrounded by the Tiprris, at 
winch jjlace, that is Apameia, or it may mean, in 
which couiitr}', Mes*Mie, the Tigris is divided : on 
thf rii'ht jvirt there flows round a river Sdlas. and 
on the left the Tiiiris, lia\-inp; the .s;ime name with 
the lame one." It divs not appear wluit ^vriter he 
is copyin<: ; but it nuiy l.x? Arrian. IMiny (vi. 27) 
gavs of the Ti;:ris, " tliat around A^Kimeia, a town 
of Mesene, on this side of the Babylonian S-leuceia, 
125 mile.<, the Tiicris beinp divide*! into two channels, 
by one t hannel it flows to the .south and to Seleuceia, 
wa>hiutj all alon;^ Mi^ene ; by the other channel, 
turniui: to tlie north at the liack of the s;ime nation 
(Mesene), it divides the jdains called Cauchae : when 


the waters have united aLfain, the river is e?i'l»-i 
P.t>iti_'ris." Then- was .a platr near S'leuce cail"i 
CtMhe (Amm. Marc. xxiv. 5, .and the notes of W 
I le>iu> and l.iii"b broir) ; and the site of S'k"Ui>a 
is belnw Bn'jthuJ. The>e are the only jji.»int> in ibe 
description that are certain. It seems dillKult to 
explain the |».issac:e of Pliny, or to detemiine ti» 
probable site of Ap.imei.a. It cannot be at A'onki, 
as some suj)iH»se, where the Tigris and Enikhratt* 
meet, for l>oth Ste|»hamis arid Pliny i>lace Apimt-U 
at the jMiint where the Tip-is is divided. Plinv 
places I)i(;ba at Kormi, '' in rija Tiirris circa e«i>- 
fluentes," — at the junction of the Tigris and \h.t 
Ell J ill rates. 

But Pliny has an(»ther Apameia (vL 31), which 
was sum.tunded by the Tiirris; an<l he pLiccs it in 
Sittacene, It receivtsl the name of Aj^fimeia fp^m 
the mother of Anti-« bus Soter, the first of the 8^ 
leiicidae. Pliny adds: " haec dividitur Arch'*!," m 
if a stream flowed tliroui:h the town. D'AuvilW 
{Ij F.iipliratc ft It TIt/re) .su[)p<"'ses that this Aparrifia 
was at the {M)int where the Dljf'il, now dr}'. hr.incJi^ 
off from the TIlmts. l)'An\ ille plaws the bifurcati'« 
near .Sdniarnili, and there he puti> Apameia. Bat 
Lynch {Lmitlon (i<<>;/. Juio'turl. vol. ix. p. 473) 
shows that the l>ij(il brancluHl oil' near Jil^xinih.% 
little north of 34*^ X. lat. He supjjoses that the hijfil 
"uce swept the end of the Median ^^all and li-weJ 
between it and ./ibborn/i. Stmewbere, th»>n, alont 
this jdace AiMineia may have Ikcu, for this j»oint cf 
the liifurcatiou of the Ti:rris is one dtirreeof latitoik 
X, of S leuceia. and if tin* course of the river ij 
meo-sured. it will be not far fn>m the dis- 
tance which Pliny <:ivcs (cxxv. M. P.). The Miv 
5crie then Ixtween the Tiirris and the IhjtU;(r 
a tnut calU'd Me>ene is to be jlaced there. Tin 
name SelJa.s in Stephanu.s is probably corrujit, and 
the last editor of Stei>hanus may have done mtti'D*: 
in preteiriiiL' it to the n-atlin;; l)eLis, which is m-onT 
the name Jfijtil. Pliny may mean the same pU«^ 
Apimeia in both the extracti* that have been dvea; 
thoiii^di some su}'}x>iie that he is sj«.-aking of r«ro 
diderent plat es, 

3, In Osrh«H"iie, a towni on the left b.ankoflhf 
Eu})h nates o])posite to Zeu;:ma, founded by Seleiit.u* 
Xi<ator. (I'lin, v, 21.) A brid<;e of Iw^ats kept np 
a conununication between Zeut^ma and Ajam^ix 
The j>lace is now lium-kaUi. 

4. {Mtdiuiia, Mudniid^, in Bithnua, w;i5 nrid- 
iially calhtl McpAeta (Stej>h. B. s. r. 'Awdfuta), 
and was a coluuy from C.'lojihon. (Plin. v. 32.) 
Philip of Macedonia, the father of lVr>.'us, took tb^ 
town, as it apjnars, duriiic: the war which he carried 
on a^jaiiLst the kiim of Perijamus, and he <jave tb« 
j-lace to Pnisias, his ally, kini: of Bith^mLi. Pra- 
.sias LTai-e to Myrloa, whi( h thus Ix'caine a Bithy- 
nian town, the name of his wife Aftameia. The 
]*lace was on the S. c<xist of the Gulf of Cius, and X^V. 

I of Prusa. The Pumans made Af»;irneia a ct:»l«fflT, 
a])j«irently not earlier than the time of Auciustitf, 
or j»*'rhaps Julius Caesar; the epiirrajdi on the cuins 
of the perio<l contains the title Julia. The 
coins of the jxriod In-fun^ the Koman doiTiinivm bavr 
the epigraph Airojuewv MvpMayuy. Pliny (/./). 
X. 5f)), when covcmor of Bithniia, askixi fa- the 
directions of Trajan, as to a claim made by thi» co- 
lonia, not to luive their accounts of retvipts and ex- 
yK-nditure examined by the Poman povemur. Fnva 
a,sjiLM:> of Ulpian (/>/>/. 5(>. tit. 15. s. II) ire 
learn the fonn Ajamena: " est in Bitlmiia i-okitiii* 


i. fH Kitmrtt), » town of Pbijf^ baSt mar 
Cih0B> bf AntiDchu* >iter, uid nuwl ifter hii 
Mki Afww. Smbo <pl 977) MTi. tlul " tlie 
Mre Jm M tti* ■ooroa (tirCeAui) of the Muvju, 
ad Or linr &m thron/^h tba middl« of t}M «tj, 
kniag iu oripn in tba citj, and btdi^ carried down 
K inbiirba wilh a Twloit and predpitooa cmrent 
■ ~ Tlii* [uaaga inaj not ba 
jot it it not improved b; 
;C«ru> rrauJ. o/5<niio, 
nLiL|L&31). Slntba atwrrta that tba Maeandir 
mina, b^dre Ha joiHliim with tba Haiajaa, a 
ssB called Orgaf, irlucb Oawi gmll; tbnugh a 
IrrrioBaXzy THakaxiieb]. Tbiir^ad (tnatn it 
oM CatKTiiactc* bj Herodotna (ni. 36> Tbt 
■M if AfmairU ia luw fixed at Dtmair, hIhtc tbeia 
a 1 linT egmapiaidiag to Stnbo'a dcaoiptioii (Ua- 
■lu, Ktmm^ktt, ^ rot. ii. p. 499). Lake 
(iH Jfiiwr. p. ISG, &c.)liaicdl(ict«ltbeancieDt 
'i-n—— ■!» ■■ to Afaiaaia. Aninddl (iJueoiMnu, 
4(. n4. i. p. SOI) OM ttw &at who dearlj uir 
Itit Apanwia nmal ba at .Oaiiu-; and bi> concln- 
r a Latin inscii|Mioi) wbich lie 
it of a whila marbK which r«- 

tf 1^ TayiitiafrfiTTT R9td«it then. Haiuilton otpied 
atwal Giaek iuatriptMU at Denair (Appmdijif 
•v^ i.). Tbe nunc Cibotna appeara en iwnw cnu 
"rf Afaokaa, aad it haa been cocyectand that it waa 
u aUiA than tbe mallb tbat waa colkded in ' 

a place of grtal 
tnate «i tiw Bnman puriiKe of Aaia, tiext in ij 
yt^taa to Ep ln e ua . Ita nmiucTce waB oviof; 
Ell p-MiTiffTi OB tbe great road to Cappadoda, and 
■aa ako the traXn of olfaer roada. When Cic< 
ma pacmaol <if Cilicia. B. c. SI, Apamela n 
wiibai bia johtdiftioo (ad Fimi- liii- 67), bnt t 
4"— naiii, ar HBiifeotiis, of Apazoeia «aa afLenrarda 
n t^^h i-l to t^ pfvvilK* of AaiL Plinj ennia 
■I toilit ahicb belsBgad to the cmrcDlni of A|b- 
aiH. and ba ub a ei TCT tbat Ibse iren nine o ' 

Ttv oovntTj about Apameia haa been iliaki 
'' * B ti vbich ia recorded aa having 

e time of Claudia* (Tadt. ' 
I tbia occaaioD the pajmenC of 
laa remitted Ict fite jtara. Kiec^ 
la (Athen. p. 383) reoorda a noloit 
\|TaTnrit at a paeviooa date, during 

. var: Ukea appeared wbere nooe 

«vabrf>v,aad riven and apingi; and manj which 
eaadd bifcn disfipaBred. Stiabo (p. 5T9) ipslu 
rf ikia fraai cataaUoiiie, and tf Mber oonvnlnoni 
■ o tarliB period. Aumda eontianed to be a 
}»tmM Inn uida' tbt Bonu empire, and i> 
naiaiiliil bj HioKlea amoig the epiacopd dtia 
ri rmt'm. to iriiieh diviaioD it had beeo trantftned. 
IW leiliin« ef Apatncia lat in the coondU of Ki- 
mm. ArosU] eoDtend* that A[wneia, at an earlj 
peiid ia Ifa* hialoiT of Chriitianitj, had a chorcb, 
mi bt **"'^""** Ihia opaiuofi bj the &ct of then 
b^ tte nln ef a Chriiliao cboirh there. It ia 
iniatle maa^ that Chriatiauilj vraa ea.-i; eata- 


Uidied hen, and even that St. Pinl viailed tlie 
place, for he vtent tbnmgboul PhtTgia. Bat the 
mere circamitance of the rcmaini of a cborch at 
Apameia proves notbinit as to the time vben Chria- 
tlaoit; wia eatahUshed there. 

6. A dlj of Fartbia, Dcsr Rbagae (Aiy). 
Rhagae km 500 atadia fiixo the Caiplaa l^lie. 
(Slnb. p. 513.) Apameia oaa ooe of the loivni 
built in these paila b; the Greek] after the Mace- 
donian conqneala in Alia. It stems t« be (be same 
Apameia which ia mentioned b]r AcnmiaDiu Uia- 
callinuB (uiii. 6). [G.L.] 

APANESTAE, or APENESTAE (Atref/avai), 
a town on the coaat of Apulia, placed bj Plolem; 
among the Daonian Apoliina, near Sipontnm. 
Plin;, (D the coatiaij, ennmoales the Apakkis- 
Tiin, probablj the lame people, among the ^' Cala- 
hn^nm Mediterrand." Hut it has been plaUBiblj 
conjectured that '^ Ameato,'' a nante otbcrwiae un- 
known, which appeal* in the llin. Ant. (p, 313), 
between Barium and Egnalia, is a comiption of Ilie 
same name. If Ibis be correct, the distancti there 
given would lad Hi to place it at S. filo, 2 luilee 
W. of PatiffaoHo, where there are some remain* of 
an andent town. (Plin. iii. U, 16i Ptol. iU. 1. 
§16; Romanelli, voLiLp.l6S.) rE-U.D.] 

ATARSI. [Parki.] 

APATU'RUM, or APATU'BUS {-ATimiftt, 
Strab.; 'Awitroupot, Slepb. B., Ptol.), a town of 
the Sindae, on tho Poalui Euiinna, near tin Boe- 
pome Cimmeriui, which wu almoet uninhatnted in 
Piinj'a time. It poseetaed a celebrated temple of 
Aphrodite Apatuni* (the Decrivor}; and there was 
aim a temple to tbia goddeu in the ndghbooring 
town of Phanagotia. (Slrab. xL p.*95| Plin. 
vi. 6; PtoL V. 9. g 5; Steph. B. .. P.) 

APAVAKCTICE'NE ('Airai«fwr.inir4, Lrid. 
Char. pp.S, 7, ed. HndwQ^ 'ApriimrA, or Ho^oiiii- 
TuntHi, Ptol. VL S. § 1 ; APAVORTtMI, Piin. yi. 
16. a.lS; Zafaoktenk. JuaCin. xU. 5), adiitrict 
of Partbia, in the Bonlh-eutera part of lite couDtiy, 
with a ■tnuKlj fortified atj, called Dardom, or 
Dara, boilt bj Ajsacea I., situated on the mountaio 
of the ZapaortenL (Juatin. Lc] 

AFENM'NUS UONS (i 'Aw^nuot, rh 'Awir. 
runtif opDt. The singular kna i* generally used, in 
Greek aa well as Latin, bnt both Polybtus and 

Latin the eingular only is used hj the beat writers). 
Tbe^ptfnqinet.a chain of mooulain* which traverses 
almost the wholii length of Ilalj, and nia<r he con- 
adered as coiiatituliiig the backbone of that coun- 
trj, and detenniuiog ita configuration and physical 
chanuteis. The name ii probably of Celtic ongin, 
and coctaiu the mot Pen, a bead or hdght, which 
ia lonnd in all Ibe Cdtic dialects. Whether it maj 
originally have been applied to some [wticiilar maaa 
or group of mountain*, from which it wa* subse- 
qoBitl; extended to tiie whole chain, as the Bngnlar 



jilaius to tlifi U]il;iiitl v.'illlrs of iho iKMLrlil'onrin^ 
AiiiMiniiK's. (\'arr. </e 7»*. A*, ii. 1. § 16.) 1 In- 
.viuii- di^trirts tuniislu-d. iik<' ini>i>iila'm ]'a>- 
turnu'i's, ex< I'lU'iit chirsis. (I'lin. xi. 42. s. 97.) 
\\v, find v«>rv few jiotix-s of any invuliar natural 
])rtHluctions of the AjM-iiniiics. Varro tdls us tliat 
uild glials (l>v \vlii( h lie jtroltahly inoaiis tlx- B<'U- 
(juetiii. or Ihox, an animal no loni-^tT found in Italy) 
were still uumeroiLS .-dMnit the Moutos Fi>>(C'llu^ and 
IVtrioa (de K. R. ii. 1. § 5.), two of tin.- loftiest 
siunuiits <tf tlu' ranc". 

Very few di.stiuctivL' aj)iH'llati<«n.s (»f ]taiti<ular 
mountains or ^unnnits anion'j tin- AjK-nnincs lia\o 
been tran>niitti"tl to us, thonudi it is j)rol>aM<' tliat 
in aufient, as woll as ni.wl< ni, tiuMS, alni«).st overy 
ronspieuous mountain had its jx'cMdiar lixal nani>-. 
Th<; MuNS FiS(.KLi.fs of Varro and I'liny, whi.h, 
acoordiui; to the lattoi", contained the sonrees of the 
Nar, is idfutitied hv that einuinstanee \vith th»' 
Monti (hUa Sihilla, on the frontiers of Piniiuin. 
The M(»NS Ti/ifucv {Tifrirac horvnitis rt/jxs, 
Virc. .If/.', vii. 7l.'J) must have Imcu in the >anie 
nri:diliourhood. ]H>rha)is a ]>art of the same c'l'o'ip, 
but cannot be (H.^tiiu lly identihed. .any more than 
the M'>Ns Skvkims of VirLril. which he also a>>iuiis 
to the Sal'ines. 'I'lif Mon> (_'rN.\i;rs. kno^\n oidy 
from S-rvius (<id Am. x. l^Ti), who cail^ it " a 
mountain in l'i«onum," has been ^u])|io>('d by ('lu'/er 
to be the one now called // (iron >i(i.«f) d Jfa/id ; 
but tills i-. 1 mere coni<-<ture. 1 he " riii:<;j I'.i.s. 
alti niontes " of VaiTo (</(' R. H. ii. I. i^ !fi_) a}^- 
\n\\Y to iiave been iu the neiLrhboiu'ho'xl ..f Ileate. 
All the>e ajijjan-ntly UdoU'^ to the lofty central 
(bain of the AjM-miines: a few other mountains of 
inferior maLi;nitude are noticed from their jiroxinuty 
to iJonie, or other aecidental caus.-s. Such are the 
detached and consj'icuous heijlil of ]\biunt Soraete 
(SoitAi'Tt;), the MoNS Lr< i:ktili.s (now Monte 
(Jcnnuro), one of the highest j»oints (»f the ran::e of 
AjMMUiines innnediately frontiniz: Kojiie and the 
plains of Latium ; tjie MnNs TiKATA, adjoinin-j; the 
])lains of Cani|>ania, and .Mo\s Cali.ici l.A, <■!! the 
frontiers of that comitry and Sauniiuin. both of tlem 
celebrated in the cainicu'jus of Hannibal ; and the 
M<»N.s T.Mii;iiNr.s, in th.e territ(»ry of the C'.iudiiie 
,Si;anites, Beneveutmn, still called Monte Tu- 
hurno. In the more southern rcLMous of the Aic-n- 
nines we liiid mention by name t.f the M«»xs Al- 
itritNis, on the bank^ of the Silarus, and. the Sila 
in Bruttiuiu, whieh .^^till retain.-s its aneient apjud- 
latiou. 'I'he M'>ns Vultur and GarL'^auus, as already 
mentioned, ilo not j>roi'<-rly l»elon;L' to the .\j/i'nnin<'s, 
any moix' than Ve.->u\ius, or the hills. 

From the account above piven of the AjM^iniines 
it is evident that the passes over the chain do not 
;i.csnnie the de^^rce «jf iin|Mirtance whi* h they do in 
the Alps. In the northern part of the raTii.'e from 
Lii^uria to the Adriatic, the roads wITkIi cros.-ed 
them were carried, a.s they still are, rather over the 
bare ridges, than alouL' the vallies;md courses oi the 
streams. The only daiiL'ers of the><> jKusse.s aiise 
from theviolcnt storms whiili rairetbeiv in the winter, 
and whi<h even, on one <k casioji, drove back Hanni- 
bal when be attempted to cross thcin. Li\y's 
strikim; de>crijttion t.f this temjtc>,t is, accordim; to 
the testimony of modern little, if at all, 
exa'_':jerated. (Liv. xxi. 58; Nicbuhr, Vortri'ifjn 
idter Alte f.dndti', y. IVMj.) The jxisses tbrontjh 
the more lofty central Ajuamines are more .strou'^ly 
marked by nature, and home of them must have 
been frequented from a very early |)eriod as the 


natural lines of rommunieation fr^iin opr- fVi-tn-r:.. 
another. Such are «'.-N[K'cially the ya^-^-s fn>in liy.f 
by Interocrea, to the valley of the Atenius, ir.a 
thejK e to Tcate and the co.i->t of the AdrL'jtic ; i:>,. 
aL'ain, tin' line (*f the Via Valeri;i. fnjin tho u^t-tr 
vallev of the Anio to the Lake Fncimis, .aud tb^r.rr the j)assap> of the Forca Cartiso (^tlit^ M t- 
Imeus of the Itinerarie^) to Cortinimn. Tb-* 'it- 
tails of these and the- other juisi.t-s of thf Ap*i r!i>> 
will be be.^t i^nven under the head> of the n.^>-\lj>c 
reL'ions or pnAinces to which they l>e].>n:;. 

'Jhe rani:e of the Aj^-nnines i.s, a^ n rnarkfi \ij 
ancient authors, the source of alni'i^t aJI tiit: rivc"? 
of lt:dy. with the exception oidy of the Taii'i^s xui 
its northern tributaries, and the stn^un^^^ \\hi(.h -V- 
scen<l from the Alps intt» the up] at jart ><i rk 
Adriatic. The nun)erous rivi.-rs wlji.-h v;ir»-r tlr 
northern declivity of tlie AjK'nnine cb.ain. Ir*-;!! ;h» 
f«H»t of the Maritime Aljis to the nciL:}i}'"Urh-:«i «< 
Arimiu'im, all unite their waters with i L !.->•■■</ tij^ 
I'adus; but from the time it takes tiu- LTt-at :z-i 
to liio s tuthward, it seiwls oi\' its stn'a!;\s i_»n >••'! 
siilcs direct to the two se;vs, fonnin^r thn'tj-jh-.tit li* 
rest of its cour>e the watershcil of Italy, }> vr .-; 
these riv(>rs ha\e any irreat lcnL:tb c>f curx^, aij 
n.>t I'^iii','' \'vi\, like the Alpine .stn'am.<;. fr-'u p-7- 
j'Otual ,>-nows. they mo>tly ]uirtake miuh uf th<' Lj- 
ture e>f torr<.Tits, Ixani: swollen and ^ iolrin in w -jirir 
and sprinL'. and nearlv drv ()r rciiiicMl t«> but jH-arn 
strcnuv in the simmier. 1 here arr\ h'*we\<-r. **•'-' 
e\(epti )ns: the Arnus and the 'liber n-tain, a: il! 
seasons, a coiividerable IvmIv of watt-r, whijr- iL • 
Liri-- ami \'uUunms both derive their r»rirJn I'r??. 
sublen-aiiean sources, su< h as ;ire coniTM'fi in jL 
I limestone comitnes. and i:ush firth at oin »- in c«.j.; .Ui 
I streams of rlear and limjiid water. [K. IL B. ] 
I AJ'KIIA'XTIA ('A7rfpa»'Ti'o: E(h. •Ax«p<i>t^v1. 
the name of a di>-trict in the NK. of ActolLi, jm- 
I I>ably forminc: }'irt of tlie terntt^ry of the Ajt; *!. 
Stephaims, on the authority '>f I'olyt-ius. iiien:i .;- a 
town of the saine name (^'Atrfpatrfia). whi- h ji^ 
I«'ars to have been sitn.i'e.l luar tin- < uiiriu«*iir» .J" 
the r<'titaru> with th" A« h* 1 .n^, at the m.-i.-rrj ^;i- 
l.ije i>f J*i\r< ntz'i, whi'h ni.ay Im- a co)Tiij>ti»ni t^f t^i»r 
aiKient name, and win-re Lc.ike di>n.v»-T<.Ti S"':x 
H<'l!«'nic ruins, i'hilij> \'.. kiiej of .M:ictNJ..nL-%. ,>^ 
taineil ]H>vv,-svinn of Aperaiilia : but it \v;i5 lak-i 
from him, to;_ether with Amphil-^hia, by thr A^i>- 
li.ans in n. c. 181». Ai^-rantia is mcntiomM a_-*ii. 
in II. <■. 1611, iu the cxj'<'diti«-n of l*cr>cus .a.r:uLi^i 
Stratus. (IVil. xxii. 8 ; Liv, xxxviii. 3, xliii. :ii - 
Le;ike, Xnrthrrn (Sre^ce, vol. iii, p. 14 L) 

Ari:i:LAl-: CAntpAai-, Kth, 'A»fpA€<nyy). A 
place iu Lycia. fixed by the Stadiasmns 60 si.uiLk 
we>t of Someiia. and 64 stadia west of Amiriai =:• 
Le.ake (^As'm Minor, p. 188) suj'j^»ses .Sornena to b*- 
the Siniena of I'liny (v. 27). Aj^-rlae, which i.- 
wiitten in the text of Ptolemy " .Vj^Trao," and c. 
IMiny " Apyrae,"" is to In? a ;.:enuinc nam** )»"• 
au insiriptioii found by ('ock»ndl, at the lica4 t-i bay, with the Kthiii<- name 'AxcjjAftrw^ 
on it. lint there are also coins of ii<inlian with th; 
Kthnie iiame 'AircppaiTuv. The conf)i>i-»n Ix'twi-* r- 
the I and the ;• in the name of an iiisigniticant j-Lt* .; 
is nothing' remarkalile. [tj. lil 

Al'Kb'U'lTA CATTfpoiria), a small i>land, wh:- .V 
Pausania.s de>cribes as lyiuu' ctT the pronn.ijtc-f«' 
I'ujx.irthmus in Hermionis, and near the i^lai.d c»J' 
Hydrea. Leake identities I>uj;orthmu.s with C. }/.-*- 
Zi'ihi and A}»<'rojiia with Dhoko. (Pans. ii. 34. § ::♦ : 
Plin. iv. 12. s. 19; Leake, 7W^7H//<n<\<mcrt, p. 2^4 J 


AFEBSAE. [Apkblab.] 

ATESAS CA»«r«: FvJta), a moantlun in Pe- 
!«pacoaoi abo^ Nenm in the territory of Cleonae, 
«b(n Pment is acid to hare been the first person, 
viki ■cn&«d to Zeoft Apesantios. (Leake, A/brea, 
nl E pi 3S5; Boob, Pe/opomwff, p. 40.) 

ATHACA CA4mKa: Afka), a town of Syria, 
B^wij between HeHopoiBs and Bybhis. (Zosim. i. 
Mi.) lo the nrighboorfaood was a roanrellous lake. 
(Canp. Snwc. Qmeif. Nai. iii. 25.) Here was a 
tnrplt <^ Apbrodite, c^brated for its impure and 
ii«tvBabJe rit<«, and destroyed by Constantino. 
(F» r»fcx, HL 55; Sozocn. iL 5.) Aphek in 
t» Und mi^ned to the tribe of Asber ( Joshna, ziz. 
10), but whtrb they did not occupy (Judges, L 31), 
^^ Ikd identified with it. (Winer, Real Wort, 
■-*. Afktk:) Borckhardt (Trore/r, p. 25) speaks 
' a Uke Zimottt, 3 hours' distance frmn Afka^ 

• 1 owU bear of no remains there. (Comp. paper 
7 Bpt. W. Thomson, in Jm. Bihliotheca SaerOj 

•- r. pc 5.) [E. B. J.] 

.\PHEK. [ApttiCA.] 

ATSETAE CA^ToL or 'A^^roi: Eth. *A^c- 
rtivf X 1 port of Uagnesia in Thessaly, said to hare 
' ^r^ ita name from the departore of the Argonauts 
^v it The Persian fleet occu|Hed the bay of 
A{.Srt>e. fxtrioos to the battle of Artemisium, from 
1^ b Apbctae was distant 80 stadia, acocntling to 
hmA/tw, Leake identifies Aphetae with the 
••4«n haibciar of Triheriy or with that between 
tkiKkodofAOni 7Va«rt and the main. (Herod. 
^ 193, 196. TiiL 4; Strab. p. 436: ApoIL Rhod. i. 
}/l: Steph. B. «. p.; Leake, Northern Grtece^ vol. 
n {V 397. Dtmi of Attica, p. 243, seq.) 

APHIDXA, or APHIDNA£('A^ra, 'A^(8rai : 
liL 'AfiSmatX one of the twelve ancient towns of 
.Uia (Stnb. tx. p. 397), is celebrated in the myth- 
:%: (mod fts the place where Theseus deposited 
Hnr«, cotrastiDg her to the care of his fneid 
■VMbdu. Whni the Dioscuri invaded Attica in 
n^ «f their sister, the inhabitants of Deceleia in- 
■«Mi the Laoedaesnonians where Helen was cm- 
-v*< and showed them the way to Aphidna. The 
^>mnd thmapoQ took the town, and carried off 
Jailer. (Hood. ix. 73; Diod. iv. 63; Plut Thet. 
t!: PiDi. L 17. §5, 41. § 3.) We learn, tcom a 
-i*w ^wted by Demosthenes (de Coron, p. 238), 
^ Afbidna was, in his time, a fortified town, and 
s i fRsifT distanoe than 120 stadia firom Athens. 
'-* n Attic demits, it bdonged in succession to the 
'Hk^ Aootii (Phit. Qaoe^t Symp. I 10; Har- 
'-riL t. V. eorr^mUij, Leontis (Steph. B. ; Har- 
"nt.LcJ% Ptoiemais (Hesych.), aiid HadrianiH 
'fr-4ii,CVp./iMcr. 275> 

L«ske, fclbwin^ Fu^T* placet Aphidna between 
r*Tiiuft tad Bhamnus, in the upper valley of the 
" T M a nt h a i, and supposes it to have stood on a 
'"ac sad oonspidioQs height named Kotroni, upcm 
*^k m considerable remains iiulicating the site of 

* '"tM dcnnis. Its distance from Athens is about 
' 1^ half as much from Marathon, and some- 
-3« lea fnm Deceleia. (Leake, Iktni o/AtticOj 

APHLE, or APLE, a town of Snsiana, 60 M. P. 
*4« Sn^ on a Uke which Pliny (vL 27. s. 31) 
*«ki tht lacm ChaldmatM^ apparently a lake 
'"wi by the Paaitipu. He speaks elsewhere 
'-..13.1.2$) i/ a lake farmed by the Eulacns 
eJ Tixm, near Charax, that b at the head of the 
^■TOBi (rtlf ; bat thLi cannot be the locus Choi- 
*d the tlher passage, unle»s there is some 



frreat confusion, no unusual thing with Pliny. 
The site of Aphle u supposed to have been at 
Akwaz (Ru.). It is supposed to be the Aginis of 
Nearchus (p. 73, Hudson), and the Agorra of 
Ptolemy. [P. S.] 


APHRODI'SIAS CAippohtrids : Eth, 'AipPo- 
5io-ic^, Aphrodbiensis). 1. {Ghera) an ancient 
town of Caria, situated at Ghera or GeyrOj south 
of Antiocheia on the Maeander, as is proved by in- 
scriptions which have been copied by several tra- 
vellers. Drawings of ihe remains of Aphrodisias 
have been made by the order of Uie Dilettanti So- 
ciety. There are the remains of an Ionic temple of 
Aphrodite, the goddess from whom the place took 
the name of Aphrodisias ; fifteen of the white marble 
columns are still standing. A Greek inscription on 
a tablet records the douation of one of the columns 
to Aphrodite and the demus. Fellows (/<ycta, p. 
32) has described the remains of Aphrodisias, and 
given a view of the temple. The route of Fellows 
was from Antiocheia on the Maeander up the valley 
of the Mosynus, which appears to be the ancient 
name of the stremn that joins the Maeander at An- 
tiocheia; and Aphrodisias lies to the east of the head 
of the valley in which the Mosynus rises, and at a 
considerable elevation. 

Stephanus (s. v. McyaX^oXis), says that it was 
first a city of the Lelef^es, and, on account of ita 
magnitude, was called Megalopolis; and it was also 
called Ninoe, firom Ninus (see also s. v. Niy^), — a 
confused bit of history, and useful for nothing except 
to show that it was probably a city of old foundation. 
Strabo (p. 576) assigns it to the division of Phrygia; 
but in Pliny (v. 29) it is a Carian city, and a free 
city (Aphrodisienses liberi) in the Boman sense of 
that period. In the time of Tiberius, when there 
wan an inquiry about the right of asyla, which was 
claimed and exercised by many Greek cities, the 
Aphrodisienses relied on a decree of the dictator 
Caesar for then* services to his party, and on a recent 
decree of Augustus. (Tac. -inn. iil 62.) Sherard, 
in 1705 or 1716, copied an inscription at Aphro- 
disias, which he communicated to Chishnll, who puh- 
Ushed it in his Antiquitates Asiaticae. This Greek 
inscription is a Consultum of the Roman senate, 
which confirms the privil^jes granted by the Dic- 
tator and the Triumviri to the Aphrodisienses. The 
Consultum is also printed in Oberlin's 7\icitt», and 
elsewhere. This Consultum gives freedom to the 
demus of the Plaraseis and the Aphrodisieis. It 
also declares the temenos of the goddess Aphrodito 
ill the city of the Plaraseis and the Aphrodisieis lo 
have the same rights as the temple of the Ephesia at 
Ephesus; and the temenos was declared to be an 
asylum. Plarasa then, also a city <if Caria, and 
Aphrodisias were in some kind of alliance and inti- 
mate relation. There are coins of Plarasa; and 
" coins with a legend of both names are also not 
very uncommon." (Leake.) 



2. A city of Cilicia. Stc|-li:inus (/». r. 'Arppo- 
Ztaids) (jiKttos Ai«'xan<lcr rt)lyhistor, wln> .[U'ttfs 
Zopvnis a> an autliurity tor tlii.> I'laco. boiii;:; so called 
tniiii Aj»linxlit«?, a tact \\hi<li we initrlit assume. 
Tlie Stailia'«nius states that Aj>hn><li>ia> is in-arest to 
Cvjiriis, aii<l ;")()0 stadia ri<»rtli of Aulion, the XK. 
extremity of Cyi'nis. It is iiientioned by Dicxlorus 
(xix. 61); ami l»y Livy (xxxiii. 20) with Cora- 
cesium, S)Ii, and otlier places on tliis Civi.-.t. It 
seems frnni IMiny (v. 27, who calls it '* Oppidum 
Wneri?.") and other authoritie> (it is not inenlinne*! 
by Strabo) to liave been situated iK'twcm Cclentien-.s 
and SariK-don. It was on or ne.%r a promontory aNo 
calli-.l Ap!inHhsi;us. The site is not cert^iin. Leako 
supT*^>s«'s that tlie caj>e near the I'ajnulula rocks wa.s 
th»* promontory Aplirodi^ias, and that some vesti;;»'H 
of the town may l)e found nenr tlie harfxmr Whind 
tile caj)0. (Sf<' also 15e;iufnrt's K<iramania, p. 211.) 

li. A promontory on the SW. cwist of Caria (Mela, 
i. IG; IMiii. V. 28), between the j;ulfs of S<li<'«'nus 
and riiyiniiia.s. The nvnlem name is not mentioned 
by Hamilton, who ptasscd round it {Jiescarr/ie.^, 
Vol. ii. )). 72). It has sometimes Ix^en contounded 
uith the Cynos S-ma of iSlnbo, which is (\ijh3 
\'oijK(. [G. L.] 

APlIKOnrSlAS ('A«/)po5.<T.c£s), an island ad- 
jacint to the N. ca-Lst of Africa, markin;^ tlie 
e.\t«Mit westward of the jx'tiple called (iili^ammae 
(llfrfxl. iv. I()9). Ptolemy mentions it as one of 
the islands off tlie of Cyrenaica, calhni: it 
also Laoa (Aaia I) 'A(;>po^irrjs vriaos, iv. 4 § 14; 
Stcpli. H. jr. r.) Scylax (p. 4.5, lluilson. p. 1()9. 
(iroiiDV.) j.l.ires it betwei-n the Cher>Mnesiis M.iLrna 
(the K. liradlan<l of Cyrenana) and Nau.>tathmns 
(near its X. jxant), and mmtions it as a slatiun j 
for shijw. Tlie anonymnus Periphis t:i\es its ]