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LOffDOff: PttllCTXlX BT - - 















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A. A. Alkxaicdeb Allen, Fh. D. 

C. T. A. Chablbs Thoxas Ajbnqld, M. A. 

One of the Masters in Bugbj School 

J. E.B. JoHV Esnar Boixb, M. A. 

Student of Christ C^nrch, Oxford. 

Clu A B. Christian A. Brandis, 

Professor in the Uniyersitj of Bonn. 

K H. B. Edwabd Herbert Bunburt, M. A. 

Late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, 

A J. C. Albany James Christie, M. A. 

Late Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. 

A H. C Arthur Hugh Clouoh, M. A. 

FeUow of Oriel College, Oxford. 

G.E.L. C. George Edward Ltngh Cotton, M. A. 

Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge ; one of the Masters in 
Rugby SchooL 

S. D. Samuel Davidson, LL.D. 

W. F. D. William Fishburn Donkin, M. A. 

Savilian F^fessor of Astronomy in the UniYersity of Oxford. 
W. B. D. William Bodham Donne. 
T. D. Thomas Dter. 

K K Edward Eldeb, M. A. 

Head Master of Durham SchooL 

J- T. G. John Thomas Grates, M.A., F.B.& 

W. A G. William Alexander Grx£nhill» M.D« 
Trinity College, Oxford. 

A. 0. Algernon Grenfell, M. A. 

Ooe of the Masters in Rugby SchooL 



W. M. G. William I^Iaxwell Gunn, 

One of the Masters in the High School, Edinbargh. 

W. L William Ihne, Ph. D. 

Of the University of Bonn. 

B. J. Benjamin Joitett, M. A« 

Fellow and Tutor of Baliol College, Oxford. 

H. G. L. Henry George Lu>dell, M. A. 

Head Master of Westminster SchooL 

G. L. George Long, M. A. 

Late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

J. M. M. John Morell Mackenzie, M. A4 

C. P. M. Charles Peter Mason, B. A. 

Fellow of University College, London. 

J. C. M. Joseph Calrow Means. 
H. H. M. Henry Hart Milmak, M. A. 

Prebendary of St. Peter's, Westminster. 
A. de M. Augustus de Morgan. 

Profiessor of Mathematics in University College, London* 
W. P. WiLLLiM Plate, LL. D. 

C. K P. Constantinb Estlin Prichard, B. A* 

Fellow of Baliol College, Oxford. 
W.R. William Ramsay, M. A. 

Professor of Humanity in the University of Glasgow. 
L. S. Leonhard Schmitz, Ph. D., F.R. S.E. 

Bector of the High School of Edinburgh. 

P. S. Philip Smith, B. A. 

Of University College, London. 

A- P. S. Arthur Penryhn Stanley, M. A- 

Fellow and Tutor of University College, Oxford. 

A. S. Adolph Stahr, 

Professor in the Gymnasium of Oldenburg. 
L. U. LuDwiG Urlichs, 

Professor in the University of Bonn. 

B. W. Robert Whiston, M. A. 

Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

The Articles which have no initials attached to them are written by the Editor. 


Tub present work has been conducted on the same principles, and is designed 
mainly for the nse of the same petsons, as the << Dictionary of Greek and Roman 
Antiquities." It has been long felt by most persons engaged in the study of 
Antiquity, that something better is required than we yet possess in the English 
language for illustrating the Biography, Literature, and Mythology, of the 
Greek and Roman writers, and for enabling a diligent student to read them in 
the most profitable manner. The writings of modem continental philologists, as 
well as the works of some of our own scholars, have cleared up many of the 
difficulties connected with these subjects, and enabled us to attain to more correct 
knowledge and more comprehensive views than were formerly possessed. The 
articles in this Dictionary have been founded on a careful examination of the 
original sources ; the best modem authorities have been diligently consulted ; 
and no labour has been spared in order to bring up the subject to the present 
state of philological learning upon the continent as well as at home. 
* A work, like the present, embracing the whole circle of ancient history and 
literature for upwards of two thousand years, would be the labour of at least 
one man's life, and could not in any case be written satisfactorily by a single 
individual, as no one man possesses the requisite knowledge of all the sub- 
jects of which it treats. The lives, for instance, of the ancient mathema- 
ticians, jurists, and physicians, require in the person who writes them a 
competent knowledge of mathematics, law, and medicine ; and the same remark 
applies, to a greater or less extent, to the history of philosophy, the arts, and 
numerous other subjects. The Editor of the present work has been fortunate in 
obtaining the assistance of scholars, who had made certain departments of anti- 
quity their particular study, and he desires to take this opportiwity of returning 
his best thanks to them for their valuable aid, by which he has been able to pro- 
duce a work which could not have been accomplished by any single, person* 
The initials of each writer s name are griven at the end of the articles he has 
written^ and a list of the names of the contributors is prefixed to the work. 

The biographical articles in this work include the names of all persons of 
any importance which occur in the Greek and Roman writers, from the earliest 
times down to ^e extinction of the Western Empire in the year 476 of our era, 
and to the extinction of-the Eastern Empire by the capture of Constantinople by 
the Turks in the year 145^. The lives of historical personages occurring in the 
history of the Byzantine empire are treated with comparative brevity, but accom- 


panied by sufficient references to ancient writers to enable the reader to obtain 
furtber information if he wbbes. It has not been thought advisable to omit the 
lives of such persons altogether, as has usually been done in classical dictiona- 
ries ; partly because there is no other period thoit of the one chosen at which a 
stop can conveniently be made ; and still more because the civil history of the 
Byzantine empire is more or less connected with the history of literature and 
science, and, down to the capture of Constantinople by the Turks, there was an 
interrupted series of Greek writers, the omission of whose lives and of an 
account of their works would be a serious deficiency in any work which aspired to 
give a complete view of Greek literature. 

The relative length of the articles containing the lives of historical persons 
cannot be fixed, in a work like the present, simply by the importance of a man's 
life. It would be impossible to give within any reasonable compass a full and 
elaborate account of the lives of the great actors in Greek and Roman histor j ; 
nor is it necessary : for the lives of such persons are conspicuous parts of history 
and, as such, are given at length in historical works. On the contrary, a Dic- 
tionary of Greek and Roman Biography is peculiarly useful for the lives of 
those persons who do not occupy so prominent a position in history, jsince a know* 
ledge of their actions and character is oftentimes of great importance to a proper 
understanding of the ancient writers, and information respecting such persons 
cannot be obtained in any other quarter. Accordingly, such articles have had a 
space assigned to them in the work which might have been deemed dispropor- 
tionate if it were not for this consideration. Woodcuts of ancient coins are 
given, wherever they could be referred to any mdividual or family. The draw-» 
ings have been made from originals in the British Museum, except in a few- 
cases, where the authority for the drawing is stated in the article. 

More space, relatively, has been given to the Greek and Roman Writers than 
to any other articles, partly because we have no complete history of Greek and 
Roman Literature in the English language, and partly because the writings of 
modem German scholars contain on this subject more than on any other a store 
of valuable matter which has not yet found its way into English books, and has, 
hitherto, only partially and in a few instances, exercised any influence on our 
course of classical instruction. In these articles a full account of the Works, as 
well as of the Lives, of the Writers is given, and, likewise, a list of the best 
editions of the works, together with references to the principal modem works 
upon each subject. 

The lives of all Christian Writers, though usually omitted in similar publi- 
cations, have likewise been inserted in the present Work, since they constitute an 
important part of the history of Greek and Roman literature, and an account of 
their biography and writings can be attained at present only by consulting a con- 
siderable number of voluminous works. These articles are written rather from a 
literary than a theological point of view; and accordingly the ducussion of strictly 


Uieological topics, sach as the subjects might casilj have given rise to, has been 
cartafhilj aToided. 

Care has been token to separate the mythological articles from those of an his- 
torical nature, as a reference to any part of the book will shew. As it is necessary 
to discriminate between the Greek and Italian Mythology, an account of the Greek 
divinities is given under their Greek names, and of the Italian divinities under their 
Latin names, a practice which is universally adopted by the continental writers, 
'vrhich has received the sanction of some of our own scholars, and is moreover of 
sach importance in guarding against endless confusions and mistakes as to require 
no apology for its introduction into this work. In the treatment of the articles them- 
selves, the mystical school of interpreters has been avoided, and those principles 
followed which have been developed by Yoss, Buttmann, Welcker, E. O. Miiller, 
Lfobeck, and others. Less space, relatively, has been given to these articles than to 
any other portion of the work, as it has not been considered necessary to repeat all 
the fanciful speculations which abound in the later Greek writers and in modern 
books upon this subject. 

The lives of Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, have been treated at considerable 
length, and an account is given of all their works still extant, or of which there is 
any record in ancient writers. These articles, it is hoped, will be useful to the ai-tist 
as well as to the scholar. 

Some difficulty has been experienced respecting the admission or rejection of cer- 
taiA names, but the following is the general principle which has been adopted. The 
names of all persons are inserted, who are mentioned in more than one passage of an 
ancient writer : but where a name occurs in only a single passage, and nothing more 
18 known of the person than that passage contains, that name is in general omitted. 
On the other hand, the names of such persons are inserted when they are intimately 
connected with some great historical event, or there are other persons of the same 
name with whom they might be confounded. 

When there are several persons of the same name, the articles have been arranged 
either in chronological or some alphabetical order. The latter plan has been usually 
adopted, where there are many persons of one name, as in the case of Alexander, 
AimocHUS, and others, in which cases a chronological arrangement would stand in 
Uie way of ready reference to any particular individual whom the reader might be 
in search of. In the case of Roman names, the chronological order has, for obvious 
reasons, been always adopted, and they have been given under the cognomens, and 
not under the gentile names. There is, however, a separate article devoted to each 
gens, in which is inserted a list of all the cognomens of that gens. 

In a work written by several persons it is almost impossible to obtain exact uni- 
formity of reference to the ancient Writers, but this has been done as far as was 
possible. Wherever an author is referred to by page, the particular edition used 
by the writer is generally stated ; but of the writers enumerated below, the following 













Coin. * 














































































CouBtantinus, the tyrant 
Constaiitinus I. (the 


ConstantinuB II. ... . 


Constantius II 

Constantius III 










Caesar, Sex. Julius . . 
Caesar, C. Julias . . . 


C. and L. Caesar . . . 








CalidiuB . 


Capito, Fonteius .... 


Capito, Marius 

Capitolinus, Petillius • 








CrasBus • 



Crispus .■.•..«. 










DeiotaruB ....... 


Demetrius I., king of 


Demetrius II., king of 


Demetrius I., king of 


DemetriuB II., king of 


Demetrius III., king of 


Diadumenianus .... 
Didius . 









Celsos • 















Cilo or Chilo 



Dionysius, of Heracleia 
DionysiuB II., of Syra- 




Clara, Didia 


Claudius (emperor). 1st 
coin •..>.•••■ 






Domna Julia 



Dnisus, Nero Claudius 
Durmius • 






Do. 2nd coin . 

Claudius 11 

Cleopatra, wife of An- 


Cleopatra, queen of 


Cleopatra, wife of Julm 







ABAEUS f ACoSbs), a numame of Apollo de- 
riTed from the town of Abae in Phocia, where the 
god had a rich temple. (Hesjcfa. s. v, "A^cu ; Herod. 
viiL 33 ; Pkn«. x. 85. § 1, &c.) [L. S.] 

ABAMMON MAGISTER. [Porphyriub.] 
ABANTrABES (*A«arru(9qf ) tigniiies in 
general a descendant of Abaa, bnt is used esped- 
Ally to designate Persens, the great-grandson of 
Abas (Or. AfeL ir. 673, t. 138, 236), and 
Acrtdaa, a son of Abas. (Or. MeL iv. 607.) A 
female descendant of Abaa, aa Danae and Ataunte, 
was called Abentiaa. [L. S.] 

ABA'NTIDAS CAtfowttoj), the son of Paseaa, 
became tjiant of Sicyon after mnxdering Cleinias, 
the father of Aiatna, b. c. 264. Aratus, who was 
then only aeren jeaia old, narrowly escaped death. 
AbantidLa waa fimd of literatore, and waa accua- 
tomed to attend the pbiloaophiod diacnssions of 
Ueiniaa and Ariatotle, the dialectician, in the agora 
af Sicyon : on one of theae occasions he waa mur- 
dered by hia enemiea. He waa succeeded in the 
tyranny by hia fitther, ndio waa put to death by 
Nicocles. (Plut AraL 2. 8; Paua. ii 8. § 2.) ' 

ABARBAHEA C^Sap€apht), a Naiad, who 
bore two sons, Aeeepoa and Pedasua, to Bucolion, 
the eldest bnt iUegitimate aon of the Trojan King 
Laomedon. (Horn. IL rl 22, &c) Other writers 
do not mention thia nymph, bnt Heaychiua («. «.) 
mentiona *Maf€aftiai or Afty g gXaSa t aa the name 
of a daas of nympha. [L. S.] 

A'BARIS C^Ateptf), son of Seuthea, waa a 
Hyperborean priest of Apollo (Herod, ir. 36), and 
cone from the country about the Caucasus (Ot. 
'Vet r. 86) to Greece, while hia own country waa 
mted by a plague. He woa endowed with the 
gift rf prophecy, and by this aa well aa by his 
^>cythian dreas and simplicity and honeaty he 
«««ed great sensation in Greece, and was held in 
!>igh esteem. (Stmb. rii p. 301.) He traTelled about 
in Greece, carrying with him an arrow aa the 
•ymbivl of Apollo, and gave ondea. Tohmd, in 
bis History of the Druids, considers hhn to have 
m a Droid of the Hebridea, because the arrow 
^^pB«d a ^ut of the costume of a Druid. His 
history, which ia entirely mythical, is related in 
▼arioui ways, and worked up with extraordinary 


particulars : he is said to have taken no earthly 
food (Herod, ir. 36), and to have ridden on his 
arrow, the gift of Apollo, through the air. (Lobeck, 
Affhopkamus^ p. 314.) He cured diseaaea by in- 
cantations (Plat. Charmid. p. 158, B.), delivered the 
world from a plague (Suidaa, «. o. ^ASapis)^ and 
built at Sparta a temple of K<$pi) anirtipa, (Paua. 
iii. 13. § 2.) Suidaa and Eudocia ascribe to him 
several works, such aa incantations, Scythian 
oracles, a poem on the marriage of the river 
Hebrus, expiatory formulas, the arrival of Apollo 
among the Hyperboreans, and a prose work on the 
origin of the gods. But such works, if they wero 
really current in ancient times, were no more 
genuine than his reputed correspondence with 
Phakris the tyrant. The time of his appearance 
in Greece is stated differently, some fixing it in 
01. 3, others in 01. 21, and others again make 
him a contemporary of Croesus. (Bentley, On the 
EpisL o/PJudarUy p. 34.) Lobeck pbtces it about 
the year ac 670, t.e. about OL 52. Respecting 
the perplexing traditions about Abaria see Klopfer, 
Mydtologischea Woritrbueb^ L p. 2 ; Zap^ Disputa- 
Ho hutoriea de Abaride^ Lipa. 1707 ; Larcher, on 
Herod, vol. iiL p. 446. [L. S.] 

ABAS (^A€as), 1. A son of Metaneira, waa 
changed by Demeter into a lizard, because he 
mocked the goddess when die had come on her 
wanderings into the house of her mother, and 
drank eagerly to quench her thirst (Nicander, 
Theriaoa; Natal Com. t. 14; Ov. Met, v. 
450.) Other traditions rekte the same story 
of a boy, Ascalabus, and call hia mother Misme. 
(Antonin. Lib. 23.) 

2. The twelfth King of Argos. He waa the 
son of Lynceus and Hypermnestra, and grand- 
son of Danans. He married Ocaleia, who bore 
him twin sons, Acridus and Proetua. (Apollod. 
iL 2. § 1 ; Hygin.Fa6.170.) When he informed 
his &ther of the death of Danaua, he waa re- 
warded with the ahield of his grandfiither, 
which waa sacred to Hera. He ia described aa 
a successful conqueror and as the founder of 
the town of Abae in Phocis (Paus. z. 35. § 1 ), 
and of the Pelasgic Argos in Thessaly. (Strab. 
ix. p. 431.) The fiime of his warlike spirit waa 
so greaty that even after his death, when people 



nirolted, wbom he had subdued, they were put 
to flight by the simple act of showing them his 
shield. (Virg. Am, iii. 286 ; Serv. ad Im.) It was 
from this Al»s that the kings of Argos were called 
by the patronymic Abantiads. [Abantiadbs.] 


ABAS CAfos). 1. A Greek sophist aid 
ihetorician about whose life nothing is known. 
Sttidas («. «. "hBai : compare Eudocia, p. 51) 
ascribes to him Itrropiicti diro/bin^/uara and a work 
on rhetoric (Wx»^ ^opuc^). What Photius 
(<*od. 190. p. 160, b. ed. Bekker) quotes from him, 
bdongt probably to the former work. (Compare 
Walz, lUetor, Oruec vii. 1. p. 203.) 

. 2. A writer of a work called TVoico, from which 
Serriua (ad Am. ix. 264) has preserved a frag- 
ment [L. S.] 

ABASCANTUS (*Ag<£(ncoKroy), a physician of 
Lngdunum (Lyons), who probably lived in the 
second century after Christ. He is several times 
mentioned by Galen (De CompoB, Medioam. secund, 
Looosy ix. 4. vol. ifiiL p. 278), who has also preserved 
an antidote invented by nim against the bite of 
serpents. (De Aniid, iL 12. voL xiv. p. 177.) The 
name is to be met with in numerous Latin in- 
scriptions in Gruter*s collection, five of which refer 
to a freedman of Augustus, who is supposed by 
KUhn (Additam. ad EUndu Medic. Vet. a J. A. 
FaMeio m ** Biid. Gr."^ ExMb.) to be t)ie same 
person that is mentioned by Galen. This however 
u quite uncertain, as also whether UapoKki^tos 
*MAffKayBos in Galen {De Chmpoi. Medicam. 
teamd. Loeoe. viL S. vol. xiiL p. 71) refers to the 
subject of this article. [ W. A G.] 

gardener, but of royal descent, was made king of 
Sadon by Alexander the Great (Curt. iv. 1 ; Just 
xi. 10.) He is called Ballonymus by Diodorus. 
(xvii. 46.) 

ABDE'RUS CA^^por), a son of Heimes, or 
according to others of Thromius the Locrian. (Apol- 
lod. iL 5. § 8 ; Stnb. vii. p. 831.) He was a fevourite 
of Heracles, and was torn to pieces by the mares 
of Diomedes, which Heracles had given him to 
pursue the Bistones. Heracles is said to have 
built the town of Abdera to honour him. Accord- 
ing to Hyguius, {Fah. 30,) Abderus was a servant 
of Diomedes, the king of the Thracian Bistones, 
and was killed by Heracles together with his 
master and his four men-devouring horses. (Com- 
pare Philostrat. Heroic 3. § 1 ; 19. § 2.) [L. S.] 

ABDIAS ('AffSks), the pretended author of an 
Apocryphal book, entitled The History of tJie Apo- 
stolical coHteeL This work claims to have been written 
in Hebrew, to have been translated into Greek by 
EutropinS) and thenoe into Latin by Julius Afri- 
canus. It was however originally written in Latin, 
about A. D. 910. It is printed in Fabricius, 
Codex Apocrypkue Non Te$t. p. 402. 8vo. Hamb. 
1703. Abdias was called too the first Bishop of 
Babylon. [A.J.C.] 

ABE'LLIO, is the name of a divinity found in 
inscriptions which were discovered at Conmiinges 
in Fnmoe. (Grater, Inter, pu 37, 4 ; J. Scaliger, 
Leelume9AtuomanaAt\.9.) liuttiaaBn(MytkolcjfU8j 
i. p. 167) &c) considers Abellio to be the same 
name as Apollo, who in Crete and elsewhere was 
called *A84Kios^ and by the Italians and some Do- 
rians Apello (Fest t. v. ApdHnem ; Eustath. ad 
IL ii. 99), and that the deity is the same as the 
jGallic Apollo mentioned by Caesar (BelL Gall. vi. 

17), and also the same as Belis or Belenas men- 
tioned by Tertullian {ApologeL 23) and Herodian 
(viii. 3; comp. CapitoL Maximin. 22). Aa the 
root of the word he recognises the Spartan B^Ao, 
Le. the sun (Hes^ch. $. v.), which appears in the 
Syriac and Chaldaic Bel us or BaaL C^^- &J 

ABE'RCll^S, ST. ('A«^pjfioj), the Buppo«ed 
successor of St Papias in the see of Hierapoiis, 
flourished a. d. 150. There are ascribed to him, 
\, An Epistle to the Emperor Maratt Aur^eiitis^ of 
which Baronius speaks as extant, but he does 
not produce it ; and, 2. A Book t/ Oiweipie»e 
{fii€\os ZJioffKoXias) addressed to his Clergy ; this 
too is lost See Jiltatr. Eedes. Orient Script, 
Vitae, a P. HaUoix. Duac. 1 636. [A. J. C.J 

( "Myofosy *'Ajr§apos, Airxapos), a name cxmunac 
to many rulers of Edessa, the capital of the district 
of Osrhoene in Mesopotamia. It seems to have 
been a title and not a proper name. (Procop. 
Bell. Pers. iL 12.) For the history of these kings 
see Bayer, ^'Historia Osrhoena et Edessena ex 
nummis illustrata,"^ Petrop. 1734. Of these tb« 
most important are : 

1. The ally of the Romans under Pompey, who 
treacherously drew Crassus into an un&vorable 
position before his defeat He is called Augami 
by Dion Cassius (xL 20), Acbarus the phy larch 
of the Arabians m the Parthian history ascribed 
to Appian (p. 34. Schw.), and Ariamnes by Plu- 
tarch. (CVaw.21.) 

2. The contemporary of Christ See the follow- 
ing article. 

3. The chie^ who resbted Meherdates, wboo 
Claudius wished to place on the Parthian throne : 
he is called a king of the Arabians by Tacitus 
{Ann. xii. 12. 1 4), but was probably an OsrhoenioD. 

4. The contemporary of Tiajan, who sent pre- 
sents to that emperor when he invaded the east 
and subsequently waited upon him and became hi> 
ally. (Dion Cass. Ixviii. 18. 21.) 

5. The contemporary of Caracalla, who acted 
cruelly towards his nation, and was deposed by 
Caracalla. (Dion Cass. IxxviL 12.) 

A'BGARUS, Topareh of Edessa, supposed by 
Eusebius to have been the author of a letter 
written to our Saviour, which he found in a church 
at Edessa and translated from the Syriac The 
letter is believed to be spurious. It is given by 
Eusebius. IHiet. Ecd. L 13.) [A. J. C] 

A'BIA ( A§ia), the nurse of Hyllus, a son of 
Heracles. She built a temple of Heracles at Ira 
in Messenia, for which the Heraclid Cresphontet 
afterwards honoured her in various other ways, 
and also by changing the name of the town of Ira 
into Abia.'(Pau8. iv. 30. § 1.) LL. S.] 

a noble Spaniard, originally a friend of Carthagn, 
betrayed the Spanish hostages at Saguntum, who 
were in the power of the Carthaginians, to tlie 
Roman generals, the two Scipios, after deceiving 
Bostar, the Carthaginian commander. (Liv. zxii. 
22 ; Polyb. iiL .98, &c) 

ABl'SARES or ABI'SSARES f AtfuR^j), 
called Embisarus {^Efificapos) by Diodorus (xvii. 
90), an Indian king beyond the river Hydaspes, 
whose territory lay in the mountains, sent embas- 
sies to Alexander the Great both before and after 
the conquest of Poras, althouj^ inclined to espouse 
the side of the latter. Alexander not only allowed 
him to retain his kingdom, but increased it, and 


oo bk deaftii appomted his son as his 

( Arriaa, ^1jm£l Y. 8. 20. 29 ; CuxtTiiL 12. 13. 14. 

ix. 1. r. 1.) 

ABI'STAMENES tras appointed goTenor of 
Cappadoda by Alexander the Great (Curt iiL 4.) 
He is called Sabictas by Arrian. (Anab. iL 4.) 
Gnmonos coDJecturea that instead o{ Abktamene 
Cafpadoeiae p roepomlo^ we ought to lead Abicta 

AfilTIA'NUS ('A^cri-ioWs), the anthor of a 
Greek treatise IM Urim» inierted in the second 
Toliime of Ideler^s I'kytici el Medici Graad Mi- 
iMf«S BeroL 8ro. 1842, with the title Ilcpi Odpwy 
npcry^Mn-ffla *Apum| rov Xo^^rdrov vapc) /ucy 
*\9ioi$ "AAAii ^ifonn ran XaA ifroc "AAAtf vlaS rov 
2u«, «i^ 54 *lTaAor9 'A^iT^luvov. Ha is the same 
penoD as the celebrated Aiabic physician Avioennci, 
whose real name was Ah^ *AU Ibn Sind, A. H. 
370 or 375—428 (a. o. 980 or 985— 1037X '^^ 
from whose great work Ketdb oirKdniM fi ^-T*jbh, 
Liber CamtmU MetHdaae^ this treatise is probably 
^^ap^ht^^j■ [W. A. O.] 

ABLA'BIUS (*A«Ad€ior). 1. A physician on 
whose death there is an epigram by Theosebia in 
the GredL Anthology (vii. 559), in which he is 
considered as inferior only to Hippocrates and 
Galen. With respect to his date, it is only 
known that he must have lived after Oalen, 
that is, some time later than the second century 
sfterChrist. [W.A.G.] 

2. The ilinstrioos (^lAAo^ffTpies), the anthor of an 
epigram in the Greek Anthology (ijc 762) **■ on 
the quoit of Asdepiades." NotUng more is known 
of 1^ nnlaas he be the same person as Ablabins, 
the Noratian bishop of Nicaea, who was a disciple 
of the fhetoddan Troilns, and himself eminent 
in the same profession, and who lived under Ho- 
ooiiBB and Theodosins 11^ at the end of the fourth 
and the beginning of the fifth centuries after Christ. 
(Socrates, HuL Eec tIL 12.) [P. 8.J 

ABLA'VIUS. 1. Prefect of the city, the mi- 
nister sad fevouzite of Constantine the Great, was 
murdered after the death of the latter. (Zosimus, 
il 40.) He waa consul ▲. o. 331. There is an 
epigram extant attributed to him, in which the 
Rigns of Nod and G>n8tantine are compared. 
(AotLLaL n. 261, ed. Meyer.) 

2. A Roman historian, whose age is unknown, 
wrote a histoiy of the Goths, which is some- 
tanes quoted by Jomandes as his authority. 
(Ite BA. Getie. It. 14. 23.) 

ABRADA'TAS {'ASpMras), a king of Sasa 
sod an ally of the Assyrians against Cyrus. His 
vife Pantheia was taken on the conquest of the 
Assyrian camp, while he was absent on a mission 
to the RactnanSi In consequence of the honora- 
Ue treatment which his wife received from Cyrus, 
^ joUMd the hater with his forces. He fell in 
battle, while fighting against the Egyptians. In- 
oiuolable at her loss, Pantheia pot an end to her 
own life, and her ejounple was followed by her 
Uireeennuchs. Cyrus had a high mound raised in 
^eir honour : on a pilfair on the top were inscribed 
tile names of Afatadatas and Pantheia in the Syriac 
^^^^^^nctets; and three columns below bore the in- 
wiptioo omirro^oir, in honour of the eunuchs. 
(Xen.Qfr.T.l.§ 3^^. 1. §31, &c 4. § 2, &c vii 
^ § 2* &c; Loeian. Imoff. 20.) 

ABRETTE'NUS {*A€p€miM6s)^ a surname of 
ZewmMyua. (Strab. xii p. 574.) [L. S ] 
ABRO'COMAS {'AepoKSfuu)^ one of tlie satraps 


of Artaxerxes Mnemon, was sent virith an army of 
300,000 men to oppose Cyrus on his march into 
upper Asia. On the arrival of Cyrus at Tanui, 
Abrocomas was said to be on the Euphrates ; and at 
Issus four hundred heavy-armed Greeks, who had 
deserted Abrocomas, joined Cyrus. Abrocomas did 
not defend the Syrian passes, as was expected, bui 
marehed to join the king. He burnt some boats to 
prevent Cyrus firom crossing the Euphrates, but did 
not arrive in time fer the battle of Cunaxa. (Xen. 
Anab. i. 3. § 20, 4. § 3, 5, 18, 7. § 12; Harpocrat. 
and Suidas, s. «.) 

ABRO'COMES (^AepoKOfan*) «nd his brother 
Hypenmthes (*T]re/idi^f), the sons of Darius by 
Phratagune, the daughter of Artanes, were slain at 
Thermopyhie while fighting over the body of Leo- 
nidas. (Herod, vii 224.) 

ABRON or HABRON fA^fiwr or'A«^). I 
Son of the Attic orator Lycutgus. (Plut. ViL dec 
OraL p. 843.) 

2. The son of Callias, of the deme of Bate in 
Attica, wrote on the festivals and sacrifices of the 
Greeks. (Steph. Byz. «. v. Bonf.) He also wrote a 
woric wcpl intponr6fjuu¥y which is frequently referred 
to by Stephanus Bys. («.«. 'A7d9i},*'A/ryor,&G.)aud 
other writen. 

3. A grammarian, a Phrygian or Rhodian, a pupil 
of Tryphon. and originally a slave, taught at Home 
under the first Caesars. (Suidas, «. «. "^Atp^v,) 

4. A rich person at Argos, from whom the pro- 
verb "AtfptfKos fiios^ which was applied to extrava- 
gant persons, is said to have been derived. (Sui- 
das, s. V.) 

ABRO'NIUS SILO, a Latin Poe^ who lived 
in the hitter part of the Augustan age, was a pupil 
of PorciuB Latro. His son was also a poet, but 
degraded himself by writing plays for pantomimes. 
(Senec Sua$. ii p. 21. Bip.) 

ABRO'NYCHUS ( 'A/ifHrfvi/xof ), the son of 
Lysicles, an Athenian, was stationed at Thermopy- 
lae with a vessel to communicate between Leonidas 
and the fleet at Artemisium. He was subse- 
quently sent as ambassador to Sparta with The- 
nustodos and Aristeides respecting the fortifications 
of Athens after the Persian war. (Herod, viii 21 ; 
Thuc. i 91.) 

ABROTA i^A€p<imi\ the daughter of On- 
chestus, the Boeotian, and the wife of Nisns, king 
of Mecaris. On her death Nisus commanded all 
the Megarian women to wear a garment of the 
same kind as Abnta had worn, which was called 
aphabroma (d^dtffw/ua), and was still in use in the 
time of Plutarch. {QuaesL Graee, p.295,a.) 

ABRaTONUM ('Aayn^oiw), a Threcian 
harlot, who according to some accounts was the 
mother of Themistodies. There is an epigram pre- 
served recording this fiict (Plut Them, 1 ; Athen. 
xiii. p. 57 6,- c.; Aelian, V, H, xii 43.) Plutareh 
also refen to her in his^EfMrroc^x (p. 753, d.); and 
Lucian qwaks of a harlot of the same name (Dial, 
Meretr. 1). 

ABRUTOLIS, an ally of the Romans, who 
attacked the dommions of Perseus, and kid them 
waste as fer as Amphipolis, but was afterwards 
driven out of his kingdom by Perseus. (Liv. 
xlii. 13. 80. 41.) 


ABSIMARUS. [Tiberius Absimarus.] 

son of Aeetes, king of Colchis, and brother of 
Medeta. His mother is stated differently: Ilygt- 

B 2 


nns (Fab, 13) calls her Ipsia, Apollodonis (i. 9. 
§23) Idyia, ApoUoniuB (iii. 241) ABterodeia, and 
others Hecate, Neaeni, or Eurylyte. (Schol. ad 
Apoilon, i. c.) When Medeia fled with Jason, 
she took her brother Absyrtus with her, and when 
she was nearly overtaken by her father, she mur- 
dered her brother, cut his body in pieces and 
strewed them on the road, that her father might 
thus be detained by gathering the limbs of his 
child. Tomi, the place where this horror was 
committed, was believed to have derived its name 
from rifiuu, ** cut** ( Apollod. i. 9. §24 ; Ov. TWrf. 
iii. 9 ; compare Apollou. iv. 3:^8, &c. 460, &c.) 
According to another tradition Absyrtus was not 
taken by Medeia, but was sent out by his father 
in pursuit of her. He overtook her in Corey ra, 
where she had been kindly received by king 
Alcinoua, who refused to surrender her to Absyrtus. 
When he overtook her a second time in the island 
of Minerva, he was slain by Jason. (Hygin. Fab, 
23. ) A tradition followed by Pacuvius (Cic. de not, 
deor, iii. 19), Justin (xliL 3), and Diodorus (iv. 
45), called the son of Aeetes, who was murdered 
by Medeia, Aegialeus. [L. S.] 

ABULrT£S (*Ai8ovXfTDs), the satrap of Susi- 
ana, surrendered Susa to Alexander, when the 
latter approached the city. The satrapy was re- 
stored to him by Alexander, but he and his son 
Oxyathres were afterwards executed by Alexander 
for the crimes they bad committed in the govern- 
ment of the satrapy. (Curt. v. 2 ; Arrian, Anab. 
iii. 16. vii. 4; Diod. zvii. 65.) 

ABU'RIA GENS, plebeian. On the coins of 
this gens we find the cognomen Obm., which is 
perhaps an abbreviation of Geminiu. The coins 
have no heads of persons on them. 

1. C. Aburius was one of the ambassadors sent 
to Masinissa and the Carthaginiana, B. c 171. 
(Liv. zliL 35.) 

2. M. Aburius, tribune of the pleba, B.C. 187, 
opposed M. Fulvius the proconsul in his petition 
for a triumph, but withdrew his opposition chiefly 
through the influence of his coUeagoe TL Gracchus. 
(Liv. zxxix. 4. 5.) He was praetor peregrinus, 
B.C. 176. (Liv. xU. 18. 19.) 

ABYDE'NUS i^hfiv^Us), a Greek historian, 
who wrote a history of Assyria (*A(r<rvf»cair<£). 
The time at which he lived is uncertain, but we 
know that he made use of the works of Megas- 
thenes and Berosus ; and Cyrillus (adm. Julian, pp. 
8, 9) states, that he wrote in the Ionic dialect. 
Several fhigments of his work are preserved by 
Eusebius, Cyrillus and Syncellus: it was particu- 
larly valuable for chronology. An important frag^ 
ment, which clears up some difficulties in Assyrian 
history, has been discovered in the Armenian 
translation of the Chronicon of Eusebius. The 
fragments of his history have been published by 
Scaliger, ** De Emendatione Temporum,** and 
Richter, ** Berosi Chaldaeorum Historiae,** &.&, 
Lips. 1825. 

ACACALLIS ('Aiccuco^Alt). daughter of Minos, 
by whom, according to a Cretan tradition, Hermes 
begot Cydon ; while according to a tradition of the 
Tegeatans, Cydon was a son of Tegeates, and im- 
migrated to Crete from Tegea. (Pans. viii. 53. §2.) 
Apollo begot by her a son Miletus, whom, for fear 
ol her father, Acacallis exposed in a forest, where 
wolves watched and suckled the child, until he 
was found by shepherds who brought him up. 


(Antonin. Lib. 30.) Other sons of her Koi 
Apollo are Amphithemis and Garamas. (Apollou. 
iv. 1490, &c) Apollodonis (iii 1. § 2} caUa this 
daughter of Minos Acalle ('AiciiAAi)), but does Dot 
mention Miletus as her son. AcacallxB ymtM in 
Crete a common name for a narcissus. ( Athco. 
XV. p. 681 ; Hesych. ».«.) IL.. S-j 

ACA'Cl US ('Aicc^Ktos), a rhetorician, of Caesarea 
in Palestine, lived under the emperor Jalian, and 
was a friend of Libanius. (Suidas, «. «. 'AjtcLcjos;, 
AaS^iosi Eunapius, AcacU VU.) Manj- of the 
letten of Libanus are addressed to him. £B. J.] 

2. A Syrian by birth, lived in a moDastery 
near Antioch, and, for his active defence of the 
Church against Arianism, was made Bishop of 
Berrhoea, a. o. 378, by St. Eusebius of Samosata. 
While a priest, he (with Paul, another priest^ -vrrote 
to St. Epiphanius a letter, in consequence of ivhidi 
the latter composed his Fanarium (a. D. 374-6). 
This letter is prefixed to the work. In a. d. 377- 
8, he was sent to Rome to confute Apolliiiaris be- 
fore Pope St Damasus. He was present at the 
Oecumenical Council of Constantinople a.d. 381, 
and on the death of St Meletius took part in 
Flavian^s ordination to the See of Antioch, bj 
whom he was afterwards sent to the Pope in order 
to heal the schism between the churches of the West 
and Antioch. Afterwards, he took part in the 
persecution against St Chrysostom (Sociatea, 
Hid. EccL vi. 18), and again compromised 
himself by oidaining as successor to Flavian, 
Porphyrius, a man unworthy of the episcopate. 
He defended the heretic Nestorius against St. 
Cyril, though not himself present at the Coun- 
cil of Ephesus. At a great age, he laboured to re- 
concile St. Cyril and the ^tem Bishops at a 
Synod held at Berrhoea, a. d. 432. He died a. d. 
487, at the age of 1 IQ years. Three of his letteis 
remain in the original Greek, one to St Cyril, 
(extant in the Collection of Councils by Mansi, 
voL iv. p. 1056,) and two to Alexander, Bishop 
of Hieiapolis. ilbid. pp.819, 880, c.41. 55. § 129, 

3. The One-eyed (d Movif^aAftot), the pupQ 
and successor in the See of Caesarea of Euaebios 
A. D. 340, whose life he wrote. (Socrates, HisL 
Eed. ii. 4.) He was able, learned, and unscm- 
pulous. At first a Semi-Arian like his master, 
he founded afterwards the Homoean party and 
was condemned by the Semi-Arians at Selenda, 
A. D. 359, (Socrates, HigL EccL ii. 39. 40; 
Socomen, Hia, Eod. iv. 22. 23w) He subw- 
quently became the associate of Aetius [Aktius], 
the author of the Anomoeon, then deserted him 
at the command of Constantius, and, under the 
Catholic Jovian, subscribed the Homoousion or 
Creed of Nicaea. He died a. d. 366. He wrote 
seventeen Books on Ecdesiagtet and six of Mitcei- 
lanies, (St. Jerome, Vir. IlL 98.) St. Epipha- 
nius has preserved a fragment of his work Offovut 
MaroeUua (c. Haer. 72), and nothing else of his 
is extant, though Sosomen speaks of many valu- 
able works written by him. (Hist. EocL iiL 2.) 

4. Bishop of Constantinople, succeeded Gen- 
nndins a. d. 471, after being at the head of 
the Orphan Asylum of that city. He distinguish- 
ed himself by defending the Council of Chakedon 
against the emperor ^iliscus, who fieivoured the 
Monophysite heresy. Through his exertions Zeno, 
from whom Basiliscus had usurped the empire, was 
restored (a. d. 477), but the Monophy sites mean- 


^rbile had gained so much strength that it was 
deemed adrifible to issue a formula, conciliatory 
from its indefiniteaess, caUed the Henoticon, A. D. 
492. Acacius was led into other concessions, 
which drew upon him, on the accusation of John 
Talaia, against whom he supported the claims of 
Peter Mongns to the See of Alexandria, the 
anath?naa of Pope Felix II. a. d. 484. Peter 
Mongns had gained Acacius^s support by profess- 
ing assent to the canons of Chaloedon, Uiough at 
heart a Monophysite. Acacius refused to give up 
Peter Mongns, but retained his see till his death, 
A. D. 48& There remain two letters of his, one 
to Pope Sixoplidos, in Latin (see Qmcifiarum Nova 
CoOeetio d Mand^ yol. viL pu 982), the other to 
Peter Folio, Archbishop of Antioch, in the original 
GR«k. {^Jhid. p. 1121.) 

5. Reader at (a. d. 390), then the Bishop of 
Mefitene (a. d. 431). He wrote a. d. 431, 
against Nestoriu& His seal led him to use 
expressions, apparently sarouring of the contrary 
beresj, which, for a time, prejudiced the em- 
peror Theodosias II. agamst St CyriL He was 
prpsent at the Oecumenical Counal of Ephesus 
A. D. 431, and constantly maintained its authority. 
There lemain of his productions a Homily (in 
Greek) delivered at the Council, (see Oondliorum 
Xava CoUeetio h Mann, voL t. p. 181,) and a letter 
written after it to St Cyril, which we haTe in a 
Latin translation. {Ibid, ppu 860, 998.) [A J. C] 
ACACE'SIUS CAjRunto'ios), a surname of 
Hermes (Callim. Hym. m Dion. 143), for which 
Homer f//L xvi 185 ; OoL xxir, 10) uses the 
form dawnrra (iUnjn$n|f). Some writers derire it 
from the Arcadian town of Acacesinm, in which 
he was helieTed to hare been brought up by king 
Aeacos ; others firom hcok^s, snd assign to it the 
meaning : the god who cannot be hurt, or who does 
not hurt. The same attribute is also given to 
Prometheus (Hes. Tkeoff. 614), whence it may be 
ioferred that its meaning is that of benefactor or 
deliTeier from eviL (Compare Spanh. ad Callim. 
L e. ; Spitzoer, odllTrLl 85.) [L. S.] 

A'CACUS CAjcoicos), a son of Lycaon and king 
of Acacesinm in Arcadia, of which he was believed 
to be the founder. (Pans. viii. 3. § 1 ; Steph. Bys. 
f. r. 'Amunitrfor.) {h. S.] 

ACADE'MUS CAjni8i}^f),an Attic hero, who, 
when Castor and Polydeuces invaded Attica to 
Ubexate their sister Helen, betrayed to them that 
fcfae was kept concealed at Aphidnae. For this 
reason the Tyndarids alwajrs showed him much 
giatitade, and whenever the Lacedaemonians in- 
vaded Attica, they always spared the land belong- 
ing to Academns which lay on the Cephissus, sLz 
stadia from Athens. (Plut. Thea, 32 ; Diog. Laert 
ilL 1. § 9.) This piece of land was subsequently 
adorned with plane and olive plantations (Plut 
Gm. \Zy, and was called Academia from its 
<«iginal owner. [L. S.] 

ACALLE. [Acacallul] 
A'CAMAS f Ajr(0«aY)u 1. A son of Theseus 
and Phaedra, and brother of Demophoon. (Diod. 
iv. 62.) Previous to the expedition of the Greeks 
;^ainst Tro/, he and Diomedes were sent to de- 
immd the suiender of Helen (this message Homer 
ascribes to Menelans and Odysseus, IL xi. 139, 
&£.), bat during his stay at Troy he won the 
a.^tion of Laodioe, daughter of Priam (Parthen. 
Nic. Erol. 16), and begot by her a son, Munitus, \ 


who was brought up by Aethra, the grandmother of 
Acamas. (Schol ad Lyeophr. 499, &c) Virgil 
(Aen, iL 262) mentions him among the Greeks 
concealed in the wooden horse at the taking of 
Troy. On his return home he was detained in 
Thrace by his love for Phyllis ; but after leaving 
Thrace and arriving in the island of C3rpnis, he 
was killed by a £ei11 from his horse upon his own 
sword. (SchoL ad Lycophr. L e.) The promontory 
of Acamas in Cyprus, the town of Acamentium in 
Phrygia, and the Attic tribe Acamantis, derived 
their names from him. (Steph. Bys. a. «. 'A«afui>^ 
riw ; Pans, l 5. § 2.) He w«is painted in the 
Lesche at D.Iphi by Polygnotus, and there was also 
a statue of aim at Delphi (Pausw z. 26. § 1, z. 
10. § I.) 

2. A son of Antenor and Theano, was one 
of the bravest Trojans. (Horn IL ii. 823, xii. 
100.) He avenged the death of his brother, who 
had lieen killed by Ajax, by slaying Promachns 
the Boeotian. {IL xiv. 476.) 'lie himself was 
slain by Meriones. {IL xvL 342.) 

3. A son of Eussorus, was one of the leaders 
of the Thracians in the Trojan war (Horn. //. ii. 
844, V. 462), and was sbiin by the Tekunonian 
Ajax. (//.vi. 8.) [L.S.1 

ACANTHUS CAicoi^orV the Lacedaemonian, 
was victor in the tiaa»\os and the ^Kixot in the 
Olympic games in OL 15, (b. c. 720,) and accord- 
ing to some accounts was the first who nm naked 
in these games. (Pans. v. 8. § 3 ; Dionys. vii. 72 ; 
African, apud Etiseb. p. 143.) Other accounts 
ascribe this to Orsippus the Megarian. [OaaxF- 
pus.] Thucydidea sajrs that the Lacedaemonians 
were the first who contended naked in gymnastic 
games. (L 6.) 

ACARNAN ('Ax«y>y(£y), one of the Epigones, 
was a son of Alcmaeon and Calirrfaoe, and brother 
of Amphoterua. Their &ther was nrardered by 
Phegeua, when they were yet very young, and 
Calirrhoe prayed to Zeus to make her sons grow 
quickly, that they might be able to avmge the 
death of their fiither. The pmyer was gnmted, 
and Acaman with his brother slew Phegens, his 
wife, and his two sons. The inhabitants of 
Psophis, where the sons had been slain, pursued 
the murderers as iar as Tegea, where however they 
were received and rescued. At the request of 
Achelous they carried the neeklsoe and peplus of 
Harmonia to Delphi, and from thence they went 
to Epims, where Acaman founded the state called 
after him Acamania. ( ApoUod. iiL 7. § 5 — 7 ; Ot. 
Met, ix. 413, &C.; Thncyd. ii 102; Stnb. z. 
p. 462.) [L.S.] 

ACASTUS CAiBurrof), a son of Pdias, king of 
lolcus, and of Anaxibia, or as others call her, Phi- 
lomacbe. He was one of the Argonauts (Apollod. 
L 9. § 10; Apollon.Rhod.i.224,&c.), and also took 
part in the Calydonian hunt (Ov. Met. viii. 305, &&) 
After the return of the Argonauts his sisters were 
sedueedby Medeia to cut their &ther in pieces 
and boil them ; and Acastns, when he heard this, 
buried his fikther, drove lason and Medeia, and 
according to Pausanias (viL 11) his sisters also, 
from lolcus, and instituted fhnoal games in honour 
of his father. (Hygin. Fab. 24 and 273 ; Apollod. 
i 9. § 27, Ac; Pans. iiL 18. § 9, vl 20. § 9, v. 17. 
§ 4 ; Ov. MeL xL 409, &c.) During these games it 
happened that Astydamia, the wife of Acastns, 
who is also called Hippolyte, fell in bve with 
Peleas, whom Acastus had purified from the mnr- 


der of Eurytion. When Peleus refused to listen 
to her addresaea, she accused him to her husband 
of having attempted to dishonour her. (Apollod. 
iii. 13. § 2, &C. ; Pind. Nem, iv. 90, &c) Acostus, 
however, did not take immediate revenge for the 
alleged crime, but after he and Peleus had been 
chasing on mount Pelion, and the latter had &llen 
asleep, Acastus took his sword from him, and left 
liim alone and exposed, so that Peleus was nearly 
destroyed by the Centaurs. But he was saved by 
Cheiron or Hermes, returned to Acastus, and killed 
him together with his wife. (Apollod. L c; Schol. 
ad ApoUon. Bhod. I 224.) The death of Acastus 
is not mentioned by Apollodorus, but according to 
him Peleus in conjunction with lason and the 
Dioscuri merely conquer and destroy lolcus. 
(ApoUod. iii. 13. §7.) [L.S.] 

ACBARUS. [Abgarus.] . 

mythical woman who occurs in the stories in earlv 
Roman history. Macrobius {Sat. L 10), with 
whom Plutarch (QuassL Rom. 35; Romid. 5) 
agrees in the main points, relates the following 
tradition about her. In the reign of Ancus Martins 
a servant (aediiuus) of the temple of Hercules in- 
vited during the nolidays the god to a game of 
dice, promi&ing that if he should lose the game, he 
would treat the cod with a repast and a beautiful 
woman. When the god had conquered the servant, 
the latter shut up Acca Laurentia, then the most 
beautiful and most notorious woman, together with 
a well stored table in the temple of Hercules, who, 
when she left the sanctuary, advised her to try to 
gnin the affection of the first wealthy man she 
should meet She succeeded in making Carutius, 
an Etruscan, or as Plutarch calls him, Tarrutius, 
love and marry her. After Ids death she inherited 
his large property, which, when she herself died, 
she left to the Roman people. Ancus, in gratitude 
for this, allowed her to be buried in the Velabrum, 
and instituted an annual festival, the Lorcntolio, 
at which sacrifices were offered to the Lares. 
(Corap. Varr. Ling, LcU. v. p. 85, ed. Bip.) Ac- 
cording to others ( Macer, ajmd MacroL L c ; Ov. 
Fast. iii. 55, &c ; Plin. //. N, zviii. 2), Acca 
Laurentia was the wife of the shepherd Faustulus 
and the nurse of Romulus and Remus after they 
had been taken from the she-wolf. Plutarch in- 
deed states, that this Laurentia was altogether a 
different being from the one occurring in the reign 
of Ancus ; but other writers, such as Macer, relate 
their stories as belonging to the same being. 
(Comp. Oell. vi. 7.) According to Massurius Sabinus 
in Qellius (L c.) she was the mother of twelve 
sons, and when one of them died, Romulus stept 
into his place, and adopted in conjunction with 
the remaining eleven the name of fratres arvales. 
(Comp. Plin. /. c) According to other accounts 
again she was not the wife of Faustulus, but a 
prostitute who from her mode of life was called 
lupa by the shepherds, and who left the property 
she gained in that vtray to the Roman people. 
(Valer. Ant ap. GelL L c; Livy, i. 4.) What- 
ever may be thought of the contradictory state- 
ments respecting Acca Laurentia, thus much seems 
clear, that she was of Etruscan origin, and con- 
nected with the worship of the Lares, from which 
her name Lurcntia itself seems to be derived. 
This appears fiirther from the number of her sons, 
which answers to* that of the twelve country Lares, 
and from tlie circumstance that the day sacred to 


her was followed by one ncred to the 
(Macrob. Sat. Le.; compare Mailer, EtrumkBr^ il 
p. 103, &c. ; Hartung, DiB Hdiffum iUr Romter^ iL 
p. 144, &C.) [L. S.J 

U A'CCIUS or A'TTIUS, an eariy Ro- 
man tragic poet and the son of a freedmauL, wb« 
bom according to Jerome B. c. 170, and wwm fifty 
years younger than Pacuvius. He lived to ct grmx 
age ; Cicero, when a young man, frequently con- 
versed with him. {BruL 28.) His tragedies -were 
chiefly imitated from the Greeks, espraalljr from 
Aeschylus, but he also wrote some on Roman sub- 
jects {Praetexlata) ; one of which, entitled Bmtiu, 
was probably in honour of his patron D. Brutno. 
f Cic. de Leg. ii.21, pro Arch. 1 1 .\ We possess onlj 
migments of his tragedies, of wnich the most im> 
portant have been preserved by Cicero, but suffi- 
cient remains to justify the terms of admiration in 
which he is spoken of by the ancient writeis. 
He is particularly praised for the strength and 
vigour of his hnguage and the sublimity of his 
thoughts. (Cic. pro Plane. 24, pro Sest, 56, &c. ; 
Hor. Ep. ii. 1. 56 ; QuintiL x. 1. § 97 ; Cell. ziiL 
2.) Besides these tragedies, he also wrote ^«- 
nalea in verse, containing the history of Rome, Hke 
those of Ennius ; and three prose works, ^ Libri 
Didascalion,** which seems to have been a history 
of poetry, ** Libri Pragmaticon ** and ** Pareiga"; 
of the two latter no fragments are preserved. The 
fragments of his tragedies have been collected by 
Stephanus in ** Frag, yet Poet Lat^' Paris, 
1564 ; Maittaire, ^ Opera et Frag, vet Poet 
Lat** Lend. 1713; and Bothe, ** Poet Scenid 
Latin.,** voL t. Lips. 1 834 : and the fragments of 
tlie Didascalia by Madvig, ** De L. Attii Didas- 
caliis Comment** Hafhiae, 1831. 

T. A'CCIUS, a native of Pisaurum in Umbria 
and a Roman knight, was the accuser of A. Cluen- 
tius, whom Cicero defended b. c. 66. He was a 
pupil of Hennogoras, and is praised by Cicero for 
accuracy and fluency. {Brut, 23) pro CtuenL 23, 
81, 57.) 

ACCO, a chief of the Senones in Gaul, wbo in- 
duced his countrymen to revolt against Caesar, b. c. 
53. On the conclusion of the war Aoco was put to 
death by Caesar. (BelL CfaU. vi 4, 44.) 

ACCOLEIA GENS is known to us only by 
coins and inscriptions. On a denarius we have the 
name P. Acooleius Loriscolus, and in two inscrip- 
tions a P. Accoleius Euhemerus, and a L. Accoleins 

ACE'RATUSfAmf/wTOJ Ypofc/ioTuerf'jXaGreck 
grammarian, and the author of an epigram on 
Hector in the Greek Anthology. (viL 138.) No- 
thing is known of his life. [P. S.] 

ACERBAS, a Tyrian priest of Hercules, who 
married Elissa, the daughter of king Mutgo, and 
sister of Pygmalion. He was possMsed of consi- 
derable wealth, which, knowing the avarice of 
Pygmalion, who had succeeded his father, he con- 
cealed in the earth. But Pygmalion, who heard 
of these hidden treasures, had Acerbas murdered, 
in hopes that through his sister he might obtain 
possession of them. But the prudence of Elissa 
saved the treasures, and she emigrated fit>m Phoe- 
nicia. (JustiiL xviii. 4.) In this account Acerbas 
is the same person as Sichaeus, and Elissa the same 
as Dido in Virgil. {Aen. i. 343, 348, &c) The 
names in Justin are undoubtedly more correct than 
in Virgil ; for Servius {ad Aen. L 343) remarks, 
that Virgil here, as in other cases, changed a fo- 


re^ name into one more oonvudent to him, and 
that the leel naiiie of Sichaeas was Sicharbas, 
whieh aeenu to be identical with Aoerfaaa. [Dido ; 
PV6]rAJ.10K.l [!>•&] 

ACERRCXNIA, a fifiend of Agrippina, the 
mother of Nero, was drowned in B. c. 69, when an 
untocoeaafiil attempt was made at the same time to 
drown Agrippina. (Tac. Aim, xiv. 4 ; Dion Caw. 
IxL 13.) 

A. D. 37, the year in which Tiberins died (Tac. 
Aim. tL 45 ; Suet. Tib. 73), was perhiq» a de- 
scendant off the Cn. Aeerronins, whom Cicero 
mentions in hia oiation for Tnilius^ B. c. 71, as a 
viropiimms. (16, Ac) 

ACERSE'COMES fAxcpirsm^^i^f), a soiname 
of ApoUo expreative of his beautiful hair which 
was nerer cnt or shorn. (Horn. JL xx. 39 ; Find. 
PytJL iii. 26.) [L. S.] 

ACESANDER CAjv^cravSpof) wrote a history 
of CTrene. (Schol. ad ApolL vr. 1561, 1750 ; ad 
PimL PydL ir. miL 57.) Plutarch (S^p. t. 2. 
§ 8) speaJca of a worii of his respecting Libya (xtpl 
AiSAifi), whieh may probably be the same work as 
the hirtoty of Cyiene. The time at which he lired 
is unknown. 

A'CESAS CAit«ra$), a native of Salamis m 
Cypma, £uoed for his skill in weaving doth with 
variegated pcOtems (/M>£|nRtibzr»M). He and his son 
Helicon, who distinguished himself in the same 
art are mentioned by Athenaeus. (ii. p. 48, b.) 
Zenohius speaks of both artists, bni says that 
Aeesas (or, as he calls him Acesena, 'Aicco'cvs) was 
a natiTe of Pataxa, and Helicon of Carystua. He 
tells OS abo that they were the first who made a 
peplua for Athena Poliaa. When they lived, we 
ue not informed ; bat it must have been before 
the time of Euripides and Pkto, who mention this 
pephu. (Ear.^ee.468;Pkt.i;blft|!p4r.§6.) A 
specimen of the workmanship of these two artists 
was pieaerred in the temple at Delphi, bearing an 
inscription to the effect, that Pallas had impitfted 
manrelloos skill to their hands. [0. P. M.] 

ACE^SI AS (*Aicc<r(as), an ancient Greek physi- 
cian, whose age and country are both unknown. 
It is ascertained however that he lived at least 
foor hundred years before Christ, aa the proverb 
hxwas idicaroj Aoeaiaa cured &»m, is quoted on 
the authority of Aristophanes. This saying (by 
which only Aeesias is known to us,) was used 
when any perBon*s disease became wone instead of 
better under medical treatment, and is mentioned 
by Svidas (s. v. 'Aiccoiof ), Zenobins (Proverb, 
Cent. L S 52), Diogenianus (Proverb, ii. 3), Mi- 
chael Apostolius (Proverb, ii. 23X and Plutarch 
{Promi. qmbus Alexamlr. uri swU, § 98). See 
«itw Proverb, e Cod. BodL § 82, in Gaisford's 
i*Qroemuiffrapk% Grweiy 8vo. Oxon. 1836. It is 
IMttible that an author bearing this name, and 
mentioned by Atheneeus (xiL p. 516, c) as having 
vntten a tnatiae on the Art of Cooking (in^afrth 
ructf), nay be one and the came person, but of this 
^ have no certain information. (J. J. Baier, 
Aiag. Medic QmL 4to. Lips. 1718.) [W. A. G.] 
ACE'SIUS (^AK4irtos), a surname of Apollo, 
under which he was worshipped in Elis, where he 
^ a splendid temple in the agora. This sur- 
i*->nie, ndiieh has the same meaning as dK4arwp 
>n<i ^c^Caoirof, characterised the god as the 
Rvwterofcvil. (Paos. vi. 24. § 5.) [L. S.] 
ACfiSTES CAWoTifs), a son of the Sicilian 


river-god Crimisus and of a Trojan woman of the 
name of Egesta or Segesta (Virg. Aen. L 195, 550, 
V. 36, 711, &C.), who according to Servius was 
sent by her fother Hippotes or Ipsostratus to Sicil}', 
that iSie might not be devoured by the monsters, 
which infested the territory of Troy, and which 
had been sent into the land, because the Trojans 
had refused to reward Poseidon and Apollo for 
having built the walls of their city. When Egesta 
arrived in Sicily, the river-god Crimisus in the 
form of a bear or a dog begot by her a son Acestes, 
who was afterwards r^arded as the Iftero who had 
founded the town of Segesta. (Comp. SchoL ad 
Lycopkr. 951, 963.) The tradition of Acestes in 
DionysiuB (i. 52), who calls him Aegestus (Afyts- 
ros), is difierent, for according to him the grand- 
fiither of Aegestus quarrelled with Laomedon, who 
slew him and gave his daughters to some mer- 
chants to convey them to a distant land. A noble 
Trojan however embarked with them, and married 
one of them in Sicily, where she subsequentiy gave 
birth to a son, Aegestus. During the war against 
Troy Aegestus obtained permission from Priam to 
return and take part in the contest, and afterwards 
returned to Sicily, where Aeneas on his arrival 
was hospitably received by him and Elymua, and 
built for them the towns of A^gesta and Elyme. 
The account of Dionysina seems to be nothing but 
a istionalistic interpretation of the genuine legend. 
As to the inconsistencies in Vii^^s account of 
Acestes, see Heyne, Eaeeurs. 1, oa Aen. t. [L. S.] 

ACESTOIXrRUS ( 'A««<rr(^»pos ), a Greek 
historical writer, who is dted by Plutarch (Tkem. 
13), and whose work contained, as it anpeaas, an 
aeoonnt of the battle of Salamis among other things. 
The time at which he lived is unknown. Ste- 
phanus 1$. «. MeydKii w6\is) speaks of an Aoesto* 
dorus of Megalopolis, who wrote a work on cities 
(wtfH ToAiMr), but whether this is the same as the 
above-mentioned writer ia not clear. 

ACESTOR ('AK4<rr«p). A surname of ApoUo 
which characterises him aa the god of the healing 
art, or in general as the averterof evil, like dirio-ios; 
(Eurip. Androm. 901.) [L. S.] 

ACESTOR ('AWoTflpp), samamed Sacas (Id- 
ffof ), on account of hia foreign origin, was a tiagie 
poet at Athens, and a contemporary of Aristo- 
phanes. He seems to have been either of Thracian 
or Mysian origin. (AristopL Avesy 31 ; Schol. 
ad loc ; Feirpae, 1216 ; SchoL ad loe. ; Phot, and 
Said. $. 9. Xducas : Welcker, Die Grmk Tragod. 
p. 1032.) [R. W.] 

ACESTOR (*AK4oTatp\ a sculptor mentioned 
by Pauaanias (vi 17. § 2) aa havmg ezeeated a 
statue of Alexibina, a native of Heraea in Arcadia, 
who had gained a victory in the pentathlon at the 
Olympic games. He was bom at Cnossaa, or at 
any rate exercised his profession there for somo 
tune. (Pans. X. 15. §4.^ He had a son named 
Amphion, who was also a sculptor, and had 
studied under Ptolichus of Corcyxa (Pans, vi 3. 
S 2) ; so that Acestor must have been a coutempo- 
nry of the latter, who flourished about OL 82. 
(ac.452.) [C.P.M.] 

ACESTO'RIDES ('Ajre<rTop(3i|t), a Corintiiian, 
was made supreme commander by the Syracuaans 
in B. c. 317, and banished Agathodes from the city. 
(Died. xix. 5.) 

ACESTO^RIDES wrote four books of mythical 
stories relating to every city (rwy icard vdAur 
ItudiKwy). In these he gave many real historical 



accounu, as well as those which were merely 
mythical, but he entitled them fivBucd to ayoid 
calumny and to indicate the pleasant nature of the 
work. It was compiled firam Conon, ApoUodorua, 
Protagoras and others. (Phot BibL cod. 189 ; 
Tzets. ChiL vii. 144.) 

ACH AEA ('Axo^a), a somame of Demeter by 
which she was worshipped at Athens by the Ge- 
phynieans who had emigrated thither from Boeotia. 
(Herod, r. 61 ; Plut Is. et Otir. p. 378, D.) 

2. A surname of Minerra worshipped at Lu- 
ceria in Apulia where the donaria and the aims of 
Diomedes were preserved in her temple. (Aristot 
MiraJb, Narrat. 1 1 7.) [L. S.] 

ACHAEUS CAxeu^*), according to neariy all 
traditions a son of Xuthus and Creusa, and conse- 
quently a brother of Ion and grandson of Hellen. 
The Achaeans regarded him as the author of their 
race, and derived from him tlieir own name as well 
as that of Achaia, which was formerly called 
Aegialus. When his uncle Aeolus in Thessaly, 
whence he himself had come to Peloponnesus, died, 
ho went thither and made himself master of 
Phthiotis, which now also received from him the 
name of Achaia. (Pau^ vii. 1. § 2 ; Strab. viii. 
p. 383 ; ApoUod. I 7. § 3.) Servius (adAen.l 242) 
alone calls Achaeus a son of Jupiter and Pithia, 
which is probably miswritten for Phthia. [L. S.] 

ACHAEUS {'Axtuis)^ son of Andromachus, 
whose sister Laodice married Seleucus Callinicus, 
the &ther of Antiochus the Great. Achaeus 
himself married Laodice, the daughter of Mithri- 
dates, king of Pontus. (Polyb. iv. 51. § 4, viii. 
22. § 1 1 .) He accompanied Seleucus Ceraunus, the 
son of Callinicus, in his expedition across mount 
Taurus against Attains, and after the assassination 
of Seleucus revenged his death; and though he 
might easily have assumed the royal power, he re- 
mained fiiithful to the iiunily of Seleucus. Anti- 
ochus the Gi'eat, the successor of Seleucus, ap- 
pointed him to the command of all Asia on this 
f>ide of mount Taurus, b. c. 223. Achaeus re- 
covered for the Syrian empire all the districts 
which Attalus had gained ; but having been &lsely 
accused by Hermeias, the minister of Antiochus, 
of intending to revolt, he did so in self-defence, 
assumed the title of king, and ruled over the whole 
of Asia on this side of the Taurus. As long as 
Antiochus was engaged in the war with Ptolemy, 
he could not march against Achaeus ; but after a 
peace had been concluded with Ptolemy, he crossed 
the Taurus, united his forces with Attalus, de- 
prived Achaeus in one campaign of all his do- 
minions and took Sardis with the exception of 
the citadel. Achaeus after sustaining a siege of 
two years in the citadel at hist fell into the hands 
of Antiochus B. c. 214, through the treachery of 
Bolb, who had been employed by Sosibius, the 
minister of Ptolemy, to deliver him from his 
danger, but betrayed him to Antiochus, who 
ordered him to be put to death immediately. (Polyb. 
iv. 2. § 6, iv. 48, V. 40. § 7, 42, 67, vii. 15—18, 
viii. 17—23.) 

ACHAEUS CAxauJs) of Eretria in Euboea, a 
tragic poet, was bom a c. 484, the year in which 
Aeschylus gfuned his first victory, and four years 
before the birth of Euripides. In B. & 477, he 
contended with Sophocles and Euripides, and 
though he subsequently brought out many dramas, 
accordinff to some as many as thirty or forty, he 
nevertheless only gained the prisce once. The 


fragments of Achaeus contain much strange mytho- 
logy, and his expressions were often forced and 
obscure. (Athen. x. p. 451, c.) Still in the satyxical 
drama he must have possessed considerable merit, 
for in this department some ancient critics thought 
him inferior only to Aeschylus. (IHog. Laer. ii. 
133.) The titles of seven of his satyrical dzamas 
and of ten of his tragedies are still known. Xhe 
extant fragments of his pieces have been collected, 
and edited by Urlichs, Bonn, 1834. (Suidas, #. tr.) 
This Achaeus should not be confounded with a 
later tragic writer of the same name, who was a 
native of Syracuse. According to Suidas and 
Phavorinus he wrote ten, according to £udc»cia 
fourteen tragedies. (Urlichs, Ibid,) [R. W.J 

ACHAE^MENES {*AxcufjJtniis). 1. The an- 
cestor of the Penian kings, who founded the 
family of the Achaemenidae (*Ax<ufi«y^5cu), which 
was the noblest fiimily of the Pasargadae, the 
noblest of the Persian tribes. Achaemenes is said 
to have been brought up by an eagle. According 
to a genealogy given by Xerxes, the following was 
the order of the descent : Achaemenes, Telspea, 
Cambyses, Cyrus, Teispes, Ariaramnes, Arsames, 
Hystaspes, Darius, Xerxes. (Herod. L 125, vii. 11; 
Aelian, HisL Jnim. xii. 21.) The original seat of 
this fomily was Achaemenia in Persis. (Steph. «. r. 
^Axamtyla.) The Roman poets use the adjective 
Achaemeniu9 in the sense of Persian. (Hor. Ckumt. 
iii. 1. 44, xiii. 8 ; Ov. Ar, Am. i. 226, MeL iT. 

2. The son of Darius I. was appointed by his 
brother Xerxes governor of ^gypt, a. c. 484. He 
commanded the Egyptian fleet in the expedition of 
Xerxes against Greece, and strongly opposed the 
prudent advice of Demaratus. When Egypt revolted 
under Inarus the Libyan in b. c. 460, Achaemenes 
was sent to subdue it, but was defeated and killed 
in battle by Inarus. (Herod. iiL 12, vii. 7, 97, 
236 ; Died. xL 74.) 

son of Adamastus of Ithaca, and a companion of 
Ulysses who left him behind in Sicily, when he 
fled from the Cyclops. Here he was found by 
Aeneas who took him with him. (Viig. Aetu iiL 
613, &c. ; Ov. Est Pont ii. 2. 25.) [L. S.] 


ACHA'ICUS CAxoTicrfs), a philosopher, who 
wrote a work on Ethics. His time is unknown. 
(Diog. Laert vi. 99; Theodor. Graec. affecL atr. 
viii. p. 919, ed. Schulze; Clem. Alex. Slrom. iv. 
p. 496, d.) 

ACHELO'IS. 1. A surname of the Sirens, 
the daughtera of Achelous and a muse. (Ov. 
Met. V. 552, xiv. 87 ; Apollod. L 7. § 10.) 

2. A general name for water-nymphs, as in 
Columelhi (x. 263), where the companions of the 
Pegasids are calldf Acheloides. [L. S.] 

ACHELO'US ('AxcX^s), the god of the river 
Achelous which was the greatest, and according to 
tradition, the most ancient among the rivers of 
Greece. He with 3000 brother-riven is described 
OS a son of Oceanus and Thetys (Hes. Theaff.biO)^ 
or of Oceanus and Gaea, or lastly of Helios and 
Gaea. (Natal Com. vii. 2.) The origin of the 
river Achelous is thus described by Servius {ad 
Virg, Georg. i. 9 ; Aen. viii. 300) : When Ache- 
lous on one occasion had lost his danghters, the 
Sirens, and in his grief invoked his mother Gaes, 
she received him to her bosom, and on the spot 
where she received him, she cauised the river beitf* 


mg his name to gush forth. Other accoimts about 
the origin of the riyer and its name are given bjr 
Stephanoa of Bjzantiiim, Strabo (z. p. 460^ and 
Plotareh. (De Flmm, 22.) AchelouB the god was 
a oompetxtor with Hendes in the luit for 
Deuuieira, and fought with him for the bride. 
Acheloua was amqaered in the contest, but as he 
possessed the power of assuming Tarions forms, he 
metamorphoeed himself first into a serpent and 
then into a ball. Bat in this fonn too he was con- 
quered bj Heiades, and depnTod of one of his 
horns, which however he recovered by giving up 
the bom of Amalthea. (Ov. ilfer.iz.8,&c. ; Apollod. 
i. 8. § I, iL 7. § 5.) Sophodes {Trackin, 9, &c.) 
makes Desaneira rdate these occurrences in a 8ome> 
what diflerent manner. According to Ovid (Mfi, 
iz. 87), the Naiads changed the horn which 
Ilenfedea took from Achelous into the horn of 
plenty. When Theseus returned home from the 
Caljdonian chase he was invited and hospitably 
received by Achelous, who rehited to him in what 
manner he had created the iabmds called Echinades. 
(Ov. JIfeC Tiii. 647, &c) The numerous wives 
and descendants of Achelous are spoken of in 
separate artides. Strabo (z. p. 458) proposes a 
very ingenious interpretation of the legends about 
Acheloua, all of which according to him arose from 
the nature of the river itself It resembled abulias 
▼oioe in the noise of the water ; its windings and 
iu reaches gave rise to the story about his forming 
himself into a serpent and about his horns ; the 
formation of islands at the mouth of the river re- 
quires no explanation. His conquest by Heracles 
lastly refers to the embankments by which Heracles 
eon&ied the river to its bed and thus gained laige 
tiacts of land for cultivation, which are expressed 
by the horn of plenty. (Compare Voss, Mylhotog, 
^^rigfkt Ixzii.) Others derive the legends about 
Acheloos from Egjpt, and describe him as a second 
Nflos. But however this may be, he was from 
the eariiest times considered to be a great divinity 
throughout Greece (Horn. //. xxL 194), and was 
invoked in prayers, sacrifices, on taking oaths, &c. 
(Ephorus ap, Maeixh. v. 18), and the Dodonean 
Zeus usually added to each orade he gave, the 
command to oSer sacrifices to Achelous. (Ephorus, 
L e.) This wide extent of the worship of Achelous 
also aooounts for his being regarded as the repre- 
lentative of sweet water in general, that is, as the 
source of all nourishment (Viig. Georg. L 9, with 
the note of Voss.) The contest of Achelous with 
Heracles was represented on the throne of Amyclae 
(PauB. iii. 18. § 9), and in the treasury of the 
Megaitans at Olympia there was a statue of him 
made by Dontas of cedai^wood and gold. (Paus. 
vi. 19. 1 9.) On several coins of Acamania the 
god vk r e p r e sented as a bull with the head of an 
old man. (Comp. Philostr. Imag, n. 4,) [L. S.] 
ACHEME'NIDES. [Achabmenidbs.] 
ACHERON CAx^/xw). In ancient geography 
there occur several rivers of this name, all of which 
vere, at least at one time, believed to be connected 
vith the lower worid. The river first looked upon 
in this light was the Acheron in Thesprotia, in 
Epinis, a country which appeared to the earliest 
Greeks as the end of the world in the west, and 
the locality of the river led them to the belief that 
it was the entrance into the lower world. Wlien 
subsequently Epirua and the countries beyond the 
lea became better known, the Acheron or the en- 
trance to the lower world was transferred to other 



more distant parts, and at last the Acheron was 
placed in the lower world itsell Thus we find in 
the Homeric poems {Od, x. 513 ; comp. Pans. L 17. 
§ 5) the Acheron described as a river of Hades, into 
which the Pyriphlegeton and Cocytus are said to 
flow. Viigil {Aen. vi. 297, with the note of Ser- 
vius) describes it as the principal river of Tartarus, 
from which the Styx and Cocytus sprang. Ac- 
cording to Uter traditions, Acheron had been a son 
of Hdios and Gaea or Demeter, and was changed 
into the rivar bearing his name in the lower world, 
because he had refreshed the Titans with drink 
during their contest with Zeus. They further 
state that Ascalaphus was a son of Acheron and 
Orphne or Goigyra. (Natal. Com. iii. 1.) In kte 
writers the name Acheron is used in a genemi 
sense to designate the whole of the lower world. 
(Yiig. Aen, vn. 312 ; Cic Tpod ndiL m SenaL 10 ; 
C. Nepos, Diony 10.) The Etruscans too were 
acquainted with the worship of Acheron ( Acheruns) 
firmn very early times, as we must iniSsr from their 
Acheruntici libri, which among various other things 
treated on the deification of &e souls, and on the 
sacrifices (AtAervnHa sacra) by which this vras to 
be effected. (MUUer, Etrusk&r^ ii. 27, &c.) The 
description of the Acheron and the lower world in 
general in Plato's Phaedo (p. 1 12) is very pecu- 
liar, and not very easy to understand. [L. S.] 

ACHERU'SIA ('Ax^povtria \lfuniiy or 'Axc^v- 
ois)j a name given by ^e ancients to several lakes 
or swamps, which, like the various rivers of the 
name of Acheron, were at some time believed to 
be connected trti^ the lower world, until at last the 
Atherusia came to be considered to be nt the lower 
world itself The hdte to which this belief seems to 
have been first attached was the Acherusia in Thes- 
protia, through which the river Acheron flowed. 
(Thuc L 46 ; Strab. viL p. 324.) Other hikes or 
swamps of the same name, and believed to be in con- 
nexion with the lower world, were near Hermione 
in Argolis (Pans. ii. 86. § 7), near Heradea in Bi- 
thynia (Xen. Anab, vi. 2. § 2; Died. xiv. 31^ be- 
tween Cumae and cape Misenum in Campania 
(Plin. H, N. iii. 5; Strab. v. p. 243), and kstly 
m Egypt, near Memphis. (Died. i. 96.) [L. S.] 

ACHILLAS (*Ax(A.\c{f), one of the guardians 
of the Egyptian king Ptolemy Dionysus, and 
commander of the troops, when Pompey fled 
to Egypt, B. c 48. He is called by Caeaar a man 
of extraordinary daring, and it was he and L. 
Septimius who killed Pompey. (Caes. B, C. iii. 
104; Liv. Bpit 104; Dion Cass. xlii. 4.) He 
subsequently joined the eunuch Pothinus in re- 
sisting Caesar, and having had the command of the 
whole army entrusted to him by Pothinus, he 
marched against Alexandria with 20,000 foot and 
2000 horse. Caesar, who was at Alexandria, had 
not sufficient forces to oppose him, and sent am- 
bassadors to treat with him, but these Achilhis 
murdered to remove all hopes of reconciliation. 
He then marched into Alexandria and obtained 
possession of the greatest part of the city. Mean- 
while, however, Arsinoc, the younger sister of 
Ptolemy, escaped from Caesar and joined Achillas ; 
but dissensions breaking out between them, she 
had Achillas put to death by Ganymede5 a eunuch, 
B. c 47, to whom she then entnisted the command 
of the forces. (Caes. B. C. iii. 108—112 ; B. Alex. 
4; Dion Cass. xlii. 36—40; Lucan x. 519 — 

ACHILLES CAxiAActJs). In the legends about 



Achilles, as about all the heroes of the Trojan war, 
the Homeric traditions should be GBiefnUy kept 
apart from the ranoas additions and embellish- 
menu with which the gaps of the ancient story 
have been fiUed up by later poets and mythogra- 
phers, not indeed by ^brications of their own, bat 
by adopting those supplementary details, by which 
oral tradition in the course of centuries had va- 
riously altered and developed the original kernel 
of the story, or those accounts which were peculiar 
only to certain localities. 

Homeric story. Achilles was the son of Peleus, 
king of the Myrmidones in Phthiotis, in Thessaly, 
and of the Nereid Thetis. (Horn. JL xx, 206, &c.) 
From his &tlier*s name he is often called ni}At/8i}9, 
TlriXiiUJiris^ or ni|Ac(»y (Horn. //. xviiL 316; i. 
1 ; i. 197 ; Virg. Aen. ii. 263), and from that of 
his grandfather Aeacus, he derived his name Aea- 
cides (Ataici8i}f, IL il 860 ; Viig. Aen. I 99). 
He was educated from his tender childhood by 
Phoenix, who taught him eloquence and the arts 
of war, and accompanied him to the Trojan war, 
and to whom the hero always shewed great atr 
tachment (ix. 485, Slc; 438, &c) In the heal- 
ing art he was instructed by Cheiron, the centaur, 
(xi. 832.) His mother Thetis foretold him that 
his fate was either to gain glory and die early, or 
to live a long but inglorious life. (ix. 410,^) 
The hero chose the latter, and took nart in the 
Trojan war, fiom which he knew that he was not 
to return. In fifty ships, or according to later 
traditions, in sixty (Hygin. Fab. 97), he led bis 
hosts of Myrmidones, Hellenes, and Achaeans 
against Troy. fii. 681, ftc, zvi. 168.) Here the 
swift-footed Achilles was the great bnlwark of the 
Greeks, and the worthy &vottrite of Athena and 
Hera. (i. 195, 208.) Previous to his dispute with 
Agamemnon, he ravaged the country around Troy, 
and destroyed twelve towns on the coast and ele- 
ven in the interior of the country, (ix. 328, &c.) 
When Agamemnon was obliged to give up Chry- 
sets to her father, he thr^tened to take away 
Briseis from Achilles, who surrendered her on the 
persussion of Athena, but at the same time refused 
to take any further part in the war, and shut him- 
self up in Lis tenL Zeus, on the entreaty of The- 
tis, promised that victory should be on the side of 
the Trojans, uKtil the Achaeans should have ho- 
noured her son. (i. 26, to the end.) The afiairs of 
tlie Greeks declined in consequence, and they were 
at last pressed so hard, that Agamemnon advised 
them to take to flight, (ix, 17, &c.) But other 
chiefs opposed this counsel, and an embassy was 
sent to Achilles, offering him rich presents and the 
restoration of Briseis (ix. 119, &c) ; but in vain. 
At last, however, he was persuaded by Patroclus, 
his dearest friend, to allow him to make use of his 
men, his horses, and his armour, (xvi. 49, &c.) 
Patroclus was slain, and when this news reached 
Achilles, he was seised with unspeakable grie£ 
Thetis consoled him, and promised new arms, 
which were to be made by Hephaestus, and Iris 
appeared to rouse him frt>m his lamentations, and 
exhorted him to rescue the body of Patroclus. 
(xviii. 166, &C.) Achilles now rose, and his 
thundering voice alone pat tlie Trojans to flight 
When his new armour was brought to him, 
he reconciled himself to Agamemnon, and hur- 
ried to the field of battle, disdaining to take 
any drink or food until the death of his friend 
should be avenged, (xix. 155, &c) He wound- 


ed and slew numbers of Trojans (zz. zzi), and 
at length met Hector, whom he chased thrica 
around the walls of the city. He then alew liiniy 
tied his body to his chariot, and dragged faun 
to the ships of the Greeks, (xxii.) After this, he 
burnt the body of Patroclus, together with twelve 
young captive Trojans, who were sacrificed to ap- 
pease the spirit of his friend ; and subsequently 
gave up the body of Hector to Priam, who came 
in person to beg for it. (xxiiL xxiv.) Achilles 
himself fell in the battle at the Scaean gate, before 
Troy was taken. His death itself does not occur 
in the Iliad, but it is alluded to in a few passages. 
(xxii. 358, &c, xxi 278, &c) It is expieasly 
mentioned in the Odyssey (xxiv. 36, &c), where 
it is said that his fiill — his conqueror is not men- 
tioned — was hunented by gods and men, that his 
remains together with those of Patroclus were bu- 
ried in a golden um which Dionysus had given as 
a present to Thetis, and were deposited in a place 
on the coast of the Hellespont, where a monnd 
was raised over them. Achilles is the principal 
hero of the Iliad, and the poet dwells upon the 
delineation of his character with love and admiia- 
tion, feelings in which his readen cannot but sym- 
pathise with him. Achilles is the handsomest 
and bravest of all the Greeks ; he is affectionate 
towards his mother and his friends, formidable in 
battles, which are his deUght; open-hearted and 
without fear, and at the same time susceptible to 
the gentle and quiet joys of home. His greatest 

Cion is ambition, and when his sense of honour is 
, he is unrelenting in his revenge and anger, but 
withal submits obediently to the will of the goda. 
Later tradUions. These chiefly consist in ac- 
counts which fill up the history of his youth and 
death. His mother wishing to make her son im- 
mortal, is said to have concealed him by night in 
fire, in order to destroy the mortal parts he bad 
inherited from his fiitther, and by day she anointed 
him with ambrosia. But Peleus one night disco- 
vered his child in the fire, and cried out in terrH-. 
Thetis left her son and fled, and Peleus entrusted 
him to Cheiron, who educated and instructed him 
in the arts of riding, hunting, and playing the 
phorminx, and alio changed his original name, 
Ligyron, t. e. the ** whining,** into Achillea. (Pind. 
Nem. iiL 51, &c; Orph. Argon. 395 ; ApoUon. 
Rhod. iv. 813 ; Stat. AchiL i. 269, &c ; ApoUod. 
iii 13. § 6, &C.) Cheiron fed his pupil with the 
hearts of lions and the marrow of bears. Accord- 
ing to other aoDounts, Thetis endeavoured to make 
Achilles immortal by dipping him in the river 
Styx, and succeeded with Uie exception of the an- 
kles, by which she held him (Fulgent MythoL iiL 
7 ; Stat AehUL L 269), while others again state 
that she put him in boiling water to test his im- 
mortality, and that he was found immortal except 
at the ankles. From his sixth year he fought with 
lions and bears, and caught stags without dogs or 
nets. The muse Calliope gave him the power of 
singing to cheer his friends at banquets. (Philostr. 
Her. xix. 2.) When he had reached dlie age of 
nine, Calchas declared that Troy could not bo 
taken without his aid, and Thetis knowing that 
this war would be fatal to him, disguised him as a 
maiden, and introduced him among the danghters 
of Lycomedes of Scyros, where he was called by 
the name of Pyrrha on account of his golden locks. 
But his real character did not remain concealed 
long, for one of his companions, DeVdameia, became 


mother of a son, Pyrriins or Neoptolemiu, bj nim. 
Tlie Greeks at last ditcorered hit place of conceal- 
ment, and all embassy was sent to Lyeomedes, 
-irho, thon^k he denied the presence of Achilles, 
yefc aUovttl the messengers to touch his palace. 
Od jaaeos discorered the yoong hero by a strata- 
g«iiLa and AchiUes immediately promised his assist- 
anee to the Greeks. (ApoUod. Lo.; Hygin. Fab. 
96 ; Stat. ^oiUL iL 200.) A different aooount of 
hia stay in Scyros is given by Plutarch (T^lea 35) 
axbd Phjlostzatas. (Her. six. 3.) 

Raipecting his conduct towards Iphigeneia at 
Aniia, lee Agambmnon, Iphigbnua. 

I>Dring the war against Troy, Achilles slew 
Penthesileia, an Amazon, bat was deeply moyed 
iirfaen he disooTered her beauty ; and when Theiv 
attea ridicnled him for his tenderness of heart, 
Achilles kilfed the scofier by a blow with the fist. 
(Q. Smym. i. 669, &c. ; Pans. t. U. §2 ; comp. 
Soph. PiUoeL 445 ; Lycoph. Cos. 999 ; Tzetsces, 
I^oelkom. 199.) He aUo fought with Memnon and 
Troiloa. (Q. Smym. iL 480, &c:; Hygin. Fab. 112; 
Vifg. Aetu i. 474, &c) The accomits of pis death 
differ Tery much, though all agree in stating that 
be did not £sdl by human hands, or at leest not 
withont the interference of the god ApoQa Ae- 
oording to some tiaditions, he was killed by ApoUo 
hhnself (Soph. Pkiloct, 334 ; Q. Smym. iii. 62 ; 
Hot. Carm, ir. 6. 3, &&), as he had been fore- 
told. (Horn. II, xzi. 278.) According to Hyginus 
{FaA. 107), ApoUo assumed the appearance of 
Paria in killing him, while others say that ApoUo 
merely directed the weapon of Paris against Achil- 
lea, and thus caused his death, as had been sug- 
giested by the dying Hector. (Viig. Jm. yi. 57; 
Ot. MeL xiL 601, &c. ; Horn. IL zzii 358, Slc) 
Dietys Cretemsis (iii 29) relates his death thus : 
Achillea loved Polyzena, a daughter of Priam, and 
tempted by the promise that he should leceire her 
aa his wife, if he would join the Trojans, he went 
without arms into the temple of Apollo at Thym* 
bnu and was assassinated tiioe by Paris. (Comp. 
Philostr. ^«r.xiz. 11 ; Hygin. FoA. 107 and 110; 
Dares Phryg, 34 ; Q. Smym. iii . 50 ; Tsetz. ad 
Ljfeopkr. 307.) His body was leacued by Odys- 
seus and Ajaz the Telamonian; his annonrwas 
promised by Thetis to the biayest among the 
Greeks, which gare rise t| a contest between the 
two hetoes who had rescued his body. [Ajax.] 

After his death, Achilles became one of the 
judgea in the lower world, and dwelled in the is- 
lands of the blessed, where he was united with 
Hedeia or Iphigeneia The febulous island of Leuce 
in the Eurine was especially sacred to him, and 
was called Achillea, because, according to some re- 
ports, it contained his body. (Mela, ii. 7; SchoL 
ad Pmd, Nem. ir. 49; Pans. iii. 19. § 1 1.) AchiUes 
was worshipped as one of the national heroes of 
Greece. The Thessalians, at the coaunand of the 
orade of Dodona, ofiered annual sacrifices to him 
in Troas. (Philostn Her, six. 14.) In the ancient 
gymnasium at Olympia there was a cenotaph, at 
which certain solemnities were performed before 
the Olympic games commenced. (Pans. vi. 23. 
§ 2.) Sanctuaries of Achilles existed on the 
road fivm Arcadia to Sparta (Paus. iii. 20. § 8), on 
cape Sqgeum in Troas (Strab. xL p.494), and other 
places, llie erents of his life were frequently re- 
presented in ancient works of art (Bottiger, Va- 
ttM0femiUde^m. p. 144, &c.; Museum Clement, i. 52, 
v.i7;ViUaBoig.i.9;Mus.Nap.u.59.) [L.S.] 



ACHILLES ('AxiAXc^t), a son of Lyson of 
Athens, who was believed to haye first introduced 
in his natiye city the mode of sending persons 
into exile by ostracism. (Ptolem. Heph. yL p. 333.) 
SeyenU other and more credible accounts, how- 
eyer, ascribe this institution writh more probability 
to other persons. [L. S.] 

ACHILLES TATIUS (*AxiAA<i)f T6rim\ or 
as Siudas and Eodocia call him Achillea Statins, 
an Alexandrine rhetorician, who was formerly be- 
lieyed to haye liyed m the seeond or third century 
of our aera. But as it it a well-known feet, 
which is also acknowledged by Photius, that he 
imitated Heliodorus of Emefla, he must haye lived 
after this writer, and therefore belongs either to 
the latter half of the fifth or the beginning of tiie 
sixth century of our aera. Suidas states that he 
was originally a Pagan, and that subsequently he 
was converted to Christianity. The troth of this 
aseertion, as fer as Achilles Tatius, the author of 
the romance, is concerned, is not supported hj the 
work of Achilles, which bears no marks of Chris- 
tian thoughts, while it would not be difficult to 
prove £rooi it that he was a heathen. This 
romance is a history of the adventures of 
two lovers, Cleitophon and Leudppe. It bears the 
title Td fcord \wKi'winnv iral KAcrro^rra, and 
consiste of eight books. Notwithstanding all ite 
defects, it is one of the best love-stories of the 
Greeks Cleitophon is represented in it rehiting to 
a fiiend the whole course of the evente from be- 
ginning to end, a plan which renders the story 
rather tedious, and makes the narrator appear 
affected and insipid. Achilles, like his predecessor 
Heliodorus, disdained having recourse to what is 
marvellous and improbable in itself^ but the accu- 
mulation of adventures and of physical as well as 
moral difficulties, which the lovers have to over- 
come, before they are happily united, is too great 
and renden the story improbable, though their ar- 
rangement and succession are skiUuUy managed by 
the author. Numerous parte of the work however 
are written without taste and judgment, and do 
not appear connected with the story by any inter- 
nal necessity. Besides these, the work has a 
peat many digressions, which, although interest 
mg in themselves and containing curious infor- 
mation, intermpt and impede the progress of the 
narrative. The work is full of imitetions of other 
writen firom the time of Plato to that of Achilles 
himself^ and while he thus troste to his books and 
his learning, he appears ignorant of human nature 
and the af&irs of real life. The laws of decency 
and morality are not alwajrs paid due regard to, a 
defect which is even noticed by Photius. The 
style of the work, on which the author seems to 
have bestowed his principal care, is thoroughly 
rhetorical: there is a perpetual striring after ele* 
gance and beauty, after images, puns, and anti- 
theses. These things, however, were just what 
the age of Achilles required, and that his novel 
was much read, ii attested by the number of 
MSS. still extant 

A part of it was first printed in a Latin tnma- 
lation by Annibal della Croce (Crucejus), Ley- 
den, 1544; a complete translation appeared at 
Basel in 1554. The lint edition of the Greek 
original appeared at Heidelberg, 1601, 8vo., print- 
ed tc^ther with similar works of Longus and 
Parthenius. An edition, with a voluminous though 
mther careless commentary, was published by Sal- 



maaiiu, Leyden, 1 640, Bvo. The bett and mott re- 
cent edition is by Fr. Jacobs, Leipzig, 1821, in 
2 vols. 8to. The first rolume contains the prole- 
gomena, the text and the Latin translation by 
Crucejos, and the second the conunentaiy. There 
is an English transhition of the work, by A. H. 
(Anthony Hodges), Oxford, 1638, 8to. 

Suidae ascribes to this same Achilles Tatins, a 
work on the sphere (rcpl <r^pas)^ a firagment of 
which professing to be an introduction to the 
Phaenomena of Aratus (tUrayuyii cif rd 'Apdh-ov 
^iM^/Acva) is still extant But as this work is 
referred to by Firmicos (McUhea, iv. 10), who 
lived earlier than the time we hare assigned to 
Achilles, the author of the work on the Sphere 
must bare lired before the time of the writer of 
the romance. The work itself is of no particular 
▼alne. It is printed in Petavius, Uranologioj 
Paris, 1630, and Amsterdam, 1703, foL Suidas 
also mentions a work of Achilles Tatius on Ety- 
mology, and another entitled Miscellaneous Ilia- 
tories ; as both are lost, it is impossible to deter- 
mine which Achilles was their author. [L. S.] 

ACHILLEUS assumed the title of emperor 
under Diocletian and reigned over Egypt for some 
time. He was at length taken by Diodetian afier 
a siege of eight months in Alexandria, and put 
to death, a. d. 296. (Eutrop. ix. 14, 15 ; Aurel. 
Vict d» Caea, 39.) 

ACHI'LLIDES, a patronymic, formed from 
Achilles, and given to his son Pyirhus. (Ov. 
Neroid. viil 3.) [L. S.] 

ACHI'ROE ('Axtph), or according to Apollo- 
dorus (iL 1. § 4) Anchinoe, which is perhaps a mis- 
take for Anchiroe, was a daughter of Nilus, and 
the wife of Belus, by whom she became the mother 
of Aeg3rptus and Danans. According to' the scho- 
liast on Lycophron (583 and 1161), Ares begot 
by her a son, Sithon, and according to Hegesippus 
(<9>. Stepk, Byx, «. «. IlaAAijn}), Hao two daugh- 
ters, Pallenaea and Rhoetea, from whom two 
towns derived their names. [L. S.] 

ACHLYS ('AxAi^t), according to some ancient 
cosmogonies, the eternal night, and the first 
created being which existed even before Chaos. 
According to Hesiod, she was the personification 
of misery and sadness, and as such she was repre- 
sented on the shield of Heracles {ScuL Here. 264, 
&c.): pale, emaciated, and weeping, with chatter- 
ing teeth, swollen knees, long nails on her fingers, 
bloody cheeks, and her shoulders thickly covered 
with dust [L. S.] 

ACHMET, son of Seirim fAx/^r vUs %€tptlfi\ 
the author of a work on the Interpretation of 
Dreams, 'Orcifwicpcrue^ is probably the same per- 
son as Ab(i Bekr Mohammed Ben Sirin, whose 
work on the same subject is still extant in Arabic 
in the Royal Library at Paris, (OcUaL Cod. Ma- 
niMcr, BiblioA. Reg. Parte, vol. L p. 230, cod. 
Mocx.,) and who was bom A. h. 33, (a. d. 653-4,) 
and died a. h. 1 10. (a. d. 728-9.) (See Nicoll and 
Pusey, OataL Cbd. MoMUcr. Arab. Bihiiath. Bodl. 
p. 516.) This conjecture will seem the more pro- 
bable when it is recollected that the two names 
Aimed or Ackmet and Mohammed^ however unlike 
each other they may appear in English, consist in 
Arabic of four letters each, and differ only in the 
fint There must, however, be some difference 
between Achmet^s work, in the form in which we 
have it, and that of Ibn Sirin, as the writer of the 
fvrmer (or the translator) appears from internal evi- 


denoe to have been certainly a Christian, (e. 2. 
150, &&) It exists only in Greek, or rather Cif 
the above conjecture as to its author be correct) 
it has only been published in that language. Xt 
consists of three hundred and four chapters, and 
professes to be derived from what has been written 
on the same subject by the Indians, Persians, and 
Egyptians. It was trandated out of Greek into 
Latin about the year 1160, by Leo Tuscus, of 
which work two specimens are to be found in 
Casp. Barthii Adversaria, (xxxi. 14, ed. Francof. 
1624, foU.) It was first published at Frankfort, 
1577, 8vo., in a Latin translation, made by Lenn- 
clavius, from a very imperfect Greek manuscript* 
with the title ^ Apomasaris Apotelesmata, n-re 
de Significatis et Eventis Insomniorum, ex Indo- 
rum, Persamm, Aegyptiorumque Disciplina.^ The 
word Apomaearea is a corruption of the name of 
the fimious Albumaaar, or Abd Ma^shar, and Lean- 
clavius afterwards acknowledged his mistake in 
attributing the work to him. It was published in 
Greek and Latin by Rigaltius, and appended to 
his edition of the Oneiroeriiioa of Artemidorua, 
Lutet Paris. 1603, 4to., and some Greek variona 
readings are inserted by Jac De Rhoer in his 
Otmm Daventrierue, p. 338, &c. Daventr. 1762, 
8vo. It has also been tnmskted into Italian, 
French, and German. [W. A. G.] 

ACH(yLIUS held the office of Magieter Adn 
mieeuMum in the reign of Valerian, (b. a 253 — 
260.) One of his works was entitled Acta, and 
contained an account of the history of Aurelian. 
It was in nine books at least (Vopisc. Aurd. 12.) 
He also wrote the life of Alexander Serenu. 
(Lamprid. Alex. Sev. 14. 48. 68.) 

ACHOLOE. [Harpyiae.] 

ACICHC/RIUS ('AKtx^ios) was one of the 
leaden of the Gauls, who invaded Thraoe and 
Macedonia in B. c. 280. He and Brennus oonir 
manded the division that marched into Paeonia. 
In the following year, b. c. 279, he accompanied 
Brennus in his invasion of Greece. (Pans. x. 19. 
§ 4, 5, 22. § 5, 23. § 1, &c.) Some writers suppose 
that Brennus and Acichorius are the same persons, 
the former being only a title and the latter the 
real name. (Sdunidt, ** De fontibus veterum auc- 
torum in enammdis expeditionibus a Gallis in 
Maoedoniam susceptis,*^ Berol. 1834.) 

ACIDA'LIA, a surname of Venus (Virg. Aem. 
i. 720), which according to Servius was derived 
fin>m the well Addalius near Orchomenos, in which 
Venus used to bathe with the Graces ; others con- 
nect the name with the Greek ^i3cs, L «. cares or 
troubles. [L. &] 

ACIDI'NUS, a fomily-name of the Manlia 
gens. Cicero speaks of the Acidini as among the 
first men of a former age. (De leg. agr. u. 24.) 

1. L. MANitius AciDiNUS, praetor urbanus in 
B. c. 210, was sent by the senate into Sicily to 
bring back the consul Valerius to Rome to hold 
the elections. (Liv. xxvi. 23, xxvii. 4.) In B.C. 
207 he was with the troops stationed at Namia to 
oppose Hasdrubal, and was the first to send to 
Rome intelligenoe of the defeat of the latter. (Liv. 
xxvii. 50.) In B. a 206 he and L. Cornelius 
Lentulus had the province of Spain entrusted to 
them with proconsular power. In the following 
year he conquered the Ausetani and Uergetes, 
who had rebelled against the Romans in conse- 
quence of the absence of Scipio. He did not re- 
turn to Rome till a. c. 199, but was prevented by 


the tribune P. Potciut Laeca from entering the 
dlj in an OTation, which the senate had granted 
him. (lir. zrrui. 38, xxix. 1 — 3« 13, xzjdL 7.) 
2. £. Mavuvs AciDiNus FuLviANus, origin- 
ally bdoDged to the Fnlvia gena, bat was adopted 
into the Manlia gena, probably b^ the aboYe-men- 
tioned Acidinus. (VelL Pat. iL 8.) He was 
praetor B. a 188, and had the province of Hispania 
Citerior allotted to him, where he remained till 
B. a 186. In the latter year he defeated the 
Cdtiberi, and had it not been for the arriyal of his 
snoceMoir woold haye reduced the whole people to 
sabjection. He applied for a trimnph in conse- 
qnenoe, but obtained only an ovation. (LiT.xzxviiL 
35, xzxiz. 21, 29.) In B. a 183 he was one of 
the ambassadors sent into Oallia Transalpina, and 
was also appointed one of the triomvin for foond- 
mg the Ladn colony of Aqnileia, which was how- 
ever not finmded tiU B. a 181. (Lit. zxziz. 54, 
55, xl. 34.) He was consul b. a 179, (Liv. zL 
43,) with his own brother, Q. Folvius Flaccns, 
which is the only instance of two brothers hold> 
ing the consolship at the same time. (Fcut. 
CupUol,; YeU. PaL iL a) At the election of 
Acidinus, M. Scipb declared him to be vinun 
£ofiiuK, egregmmqae cwem. (Cic. de Or, ii. 64.) 

3. Li. Manlius (Adonf us), who was quaestor 
in B. & 168 (lav. zIt. 13), is probably one of the 
two Manlii Addini, who are mentioned two years 
before as illnstrioos youths, and of whom one was 
the son of M. Manlins, the other of L. Manlins. 
(Lir. xliL 49.) The latter is probably the same 
as the quaestor, and the son of No. 2. 

4. Acidinus, a young man who was going to 
porsoe his studies at Athens at the same time as 
young Cicero, B. c. 45. (Cic. ad AiL zii 32.) He 
is periiapa the same Acidinus who sent intelligenoe 
to Cicero respecting the death of MaroelluSk (Cic. 
9d Fion. 17. 12.) 

ACI^LIA GENS. The femily-names of this 
gens an AvioLA, Balbuh, and GlabIuo, of which 
the last two were undoubtedly plebeian, as mem- 
bers of these &miliea were frequently tribunes of 
the pleba. 

ACILI A'NUS, MINU'CIUS, a friend of Pliny 
the younger, was bom at Biizia (Bresda), and 
was the son of Minndus Macrinus, who was en- 
rolled by Vespasian among those of praetorian 
nnk. Acilianus was snoceasiTely quaestor, tri- 
bune, and praetor, and at his death left Pliny part 
of his property. (Plin. Ep. L 14, ii. 16.) 

'Ait{p8vro9), a Greek Monk, a. n. 1341, disdn- 
gniihed in the controversy with the Hesychast or 
Qaietist Honks of Hount Athos. He supported 
and sDooeeded Bariaam in his opposition to their 
notion that the light which appeaoed on the Mount 
of the Transfiguration was unermted. The em- 
peror, John C^tacuzenus, took part (a. d. 1347) 
with Palamaa, the leader of the Quiedsts, and ob- 
tamed the condemnation of Acindynus by several 
oxmcils at Constantinople, at one especially in 
A. n. 1351. Remains of Acindynus are, De 
Emmtia et Optratione Dbi adfoermu imperitiam 
Grtjforu Palamaej jic. in ** Yariornm Pontiiicum 
ad Petrum Gnapheum Eutychianum EpistoL** p. 77, 
Otetsec: 4to. Ingolst. 1616, and Carmen latnli- 
ous de HaeretUma Falamae^ ** Graeciae Ortho* 
doxae Scriptores,*' by Leo. AJlatius, p. 755, vol i. 
4to. Rom. 1652. [A. J. C] 

ACIS (^A«5), according to Ovid {Aiei. ziu. 



750, &c) a son of Fannus and Symaethis. He 
was beloved by the nymph GaUtea, and Polyphe- 
mus the Cyclop^ jealous of him, crushed him under 
a huge rock. His blood gushing forth from under 
the rock was changed bv the nymph into the 
river Ads or Acinius at the foot of mount Aetna. 
This story does not occur any where else, and is 
perhi^ no more than a happy fiction suggested by 
the manner in which the Uttle river springs forth 
firom under a rock. [L S.] 

ACME'NES fAirfi^ifcs), a surname of certain 
nymphs worshipped at Elis, where a sacred enclo- 
sure contained their altar, together with those ot 
other gods. (Pans. v. 15. § 4.) [L. S.] 

ACMO'NIDES, one of the three Cyclopes (Ov. 
FatL iv. 288), is the same as Pyracmon in Virgil 
(Am. viiL 425), and as Arges in most other ac- 
counts of the Cyclopes. [L. S.J 

ACOETES (*Aicoin|T), according to Ovid {^fet, 
iii. 582, &c) the son of a poor fisherman in 
Maeonia, who served as pilot in a ship. After 
binding at the island of Nazos, some of die sailors 
brought with them on board a beautiful sleeping 
boy, whom they had found in the ishuid and whom 
they wished to take with them ; but Acoetes, who 
recognised in the boy the god Bacchus, dissuaded 
them from it, but in vain. When the ship had 
reached the open sea, the boy awoke, and desired 
to be carried back to Naxos. The sailors promised 
to do so, but did not keep their word. Hereapon 
the god showed himself to them in his own majesty : 
vines began to twine round the vessel, tigers ap- 
peared, and the sailors, seized with madness, jump- 
ed into the sea and perished. Acoetes alone was 
saved and conveyed back to Nazos, where he was 
initiated in the Bacchic mysteries and became a 
priest of the god. Hyginus (Fab. 134), whose 
story on the whole agrees with that of Ovid, and 
all the other writers who mention this adventure 
of Bacchus, call the crew of the ship Tyrrhenian 
pirates, and derive the name of the Tyrrhenian sea 
from them. (Comp. Hom. Hymn, m Baooh .* Apol- 
lod. iiu 5. § 3 ; Seneca, Oed. 449.) 

ACOMINATUS, [Nicbtas.] 

'Aicoyrios), a son of Lycaon, from whom the town 
of Acontium in Arcadia derived its name. (Apol- 
lod. iii. 8. § 1 ; Steph. Byz. t. v. 'Ax^in-iov.) [L. S.] 

ACCNTIUS ('Aiud^io;), a beautiful youth of 
the island of Ceos. On one occasion he ci|me to 
Delos to celebrate the annual festival of Diana, 
and fell in love with Cydippe, the daughter of a 
noble Athenian. When he saw her sitting in the 
temple attending to the sacrifice she was offering, 
he Uirew before her an apple upon which he had 
written the words **! swear by the sanctiuuy of 
Diana to marry Acontius.** The nurse took up 
the apple and handed it to Cydippe, who read 
aloud what was written upon it, and then threw 
the apple away. But the goddess had heard her 
vow, as Acontius had wished. After the festival 
was over, he went home, distracted by his love, 
but he waited for the result of what had happened 
and took no further steps. After some time, when 
Cydippe*s fiither was about to give her in marriage 
to another man, she was taken iU just before the 
nuptial solemnities were to begin, and this accident 
was repeated three times. Acontius, informed of 
the occurrence, hastened to Athens, and the Del- 
phic orade, which was consulted by the maiden ^s 
fiither, declared that Diana by the repeated iUnesa 



meant to pnnith Cydippe for her perjury. The 
maiden then explained the whole a&ir to her mo- 
ther, and the &ther was at last induced to give his 
daughter to Acontius. This story is related hy 
Ovid {Heroid, 20, 21 ; comp. Trui. iil 10. 73) 
and Aristaenetus (^fitL z. 10), and is also alluded 
to in seveial fragments of ancient poets, especially 
of Callimachus, who wrote a poem wiUi the title 
Cydippe. The same story with some modifications 
is related by Antoninus Liberalis (Metanu 1) of an 
Athenian Hermocrates and Ctesylla. (Comp. Ctk- 
8YLLA and Buttmann, MytkoLoy, iL p. 1 1 5.) [L. S.J 

A'CORIS rAffOfMf), lung of i%}'pt, entered in- 
to alliance with Evagoras, lung of Cyprus, against 
their common enemy Artaxerxes, king of Persia, 
about B. c. 385, and assisted ETOgoms with ships 
and money. On the conclusion o( the war with 
Evagoras, b. c. 376, the Persians directed their 
forces against Ei(ypt. Acoris collected a large 
army to oppose them, and engaged many Greek 
mercenaries, of whom he appointed Chabrias gene- 
ral Chabrias, however, was recalled by the Athe- 
nians on the comphiint of Phamabazus, who was 
appointed by Artaxerxes to conduct the war. 
When the Persian army entered Egypt, which 
was not till b. c. 373, Acoris was alrrady dead. 
(Diod. xy. 2-4, 8, 9, 29, 41, 42; Theopom.a/>. 
PhaL cod. 176.) SynoeUus (p. 76, a. p. 257, a.) 
assigns thirteen years to his reign. 

ACRAEA (*AjKpala). 1. A daughter of the 
HTer-god Asterion near Mycenae, who together 
with her sisters Euboea and Prosymna acted as 
nurses to Hera. A hill Acraea opposite the temple 
of Hera near Mycenae derived its name from her. 
(Pans. ii. 17. § 2) 

2. Acraea and Acraeus are also attributes given 
to various goddesses and gods whose temples were 
situated upon hiUs, such as Zeus, Hers, Aphrodite, 
PaUas, Artemis, and others. (Pans, i 1. § 3, ii. 24. 
i 1; Apollod. L 9. §'28 ; Vitruv. i 7 ; Spanheim, 
ad CaUim. Hymn m Jov, 82.) [L. S.] 

ACRAEPHEUS (*AKpaup€6s\ a son of Apollo, 
to whom the foundation of the Boeotian town of 
Acraephia i^-as ascribed. Apollo, who was wor^ 
shippMi in that place, derived from it the surname 
of Acraephius or Acraephiaeus. (Steph. Byr. «. v. 
*AKp(U(t>ia ; Pans. ix. 23. § 3, 40. § 2.) [L. S.] 

ACRAOAS (*AKp6ryas)^ a son of Zeus and the 
Oceanid Asterope, to whom the foundation of 
the town of Acragas (Agriffentum) in Sicily was 
ascribed. (Steph. By*. s.v, AKpdyam-ts.) [L. S.] 

ACRAOAS, an engraver, or chaser in silver, 
spoken of by Pliny. (xxxiiL 12. § 55.) It is not 
known either when or where he was bom. Pliny 
says that Acrsgas, Boethns and Mys were con- 
sidered but litUe inferior to Mentor, an artist of 
great note in the Ba<ne profession ; and that works 
of all three were in existence in his day, preserved 
in difierent temples in the island of Rhodes^ 
Those of Acrsgas, who was especially fiuned lor 
his representations of hunting scenes on cups, 
were in the temple of Bacchus at Rhodes, and con- 
sisted of cups with figures of Baochae and Centaurs 
graved on them. If the language of Pliny justifies 
us in inferring that the three artists whom he 
dasses together lived at the same time, that would 
fix the age of Acragas in the latter part of the fifth 
century b. c, as Mys was a contemporary of 
Phidias. [C. P. M.] 

ACRATO'PHORUS (*Ajcywro^po$), a sur- 
name of Dionysus, by which he was designated as i 


the giver of unmixed wine, and worshipped at 
Phijpileia in Arcadia. (Paus. viiL 39. § 4.) [L.. S.j 

ACRATO'POTES ('Air^rov^f), the drink ei 
of unmixed wine, was a hero worshipped in Mu- 
nychia in Attica. (Polemo, ap, Atkau ii. p. S9.) 
According to Pausanias (i. 2. § 4), who calls him 
simply Acratusi he was one of the divine compa- 
nions of Dionysus, who was worshipped in Attica. 
Pausanias saw his image at Athens in the house 
of Polytion, where it was fixed in the wall. [L*. S. ] 

A'CRATUS, a freedman of Nero, who was sent 
by Nero a. d. 64, into Asia and Achaia to plunder 

the temples and take away the statues of the gods. 
(Tac Ann, xv. 45, xvi. 23 ; comp. Dion Chxys. 
AAo</. p. 644, ed. Reiske.) 

ACRION, a Locrian, was a Pythagorean pfaflo- 
sopher. (Cic. de Fin. v. 29.) He is mentioned by 
Valerius Maximus (viiL 7, ext. 3, firom this pas- 
sage of Cicero) under the name of ArioMj which is 
a fiUse reading, instead of Action, 

ACRISIONEIS, a patronymic of Danaa, daugh- 
ter of Acriaius. (Viig. Aen. viL 410.) Honu^r 
(//. xiv. 319) uses the form *AicpiaM^n|. [L. &J 

ACRISIONIADES, a patronymk of Perw:u.s 
grandson of Acrisius. (Ov. M«L v. 70.) [L. S.J 

ACRI'SIUS {*AKplaios\ a son of Abaa, king of 
Aigos and of OoJeiiu He was grandson of Lyn- 
ceus and great-grandsoiy of Danaus. His twin- 
brother was Proetus, with whom he is said to have 
quarrelled even in the womb of his mother. When 
Abas died and Acrisius had grown up^ he expelled 
Proetus fimm his inheritance ; but, supported by 
his fiither^in-law lobates, the Lycian, Proetua re> 
turned, and Acrisius was compelled to share his 
kingdom with his brother by giving up to kim 
Tiryns, while he retained Aigos for hiniself. An 
oracle had declared that Danae, the daughter of 
Acrisius, would give birth to a son, who wnnlrl 
kill his grandfather. For this reason he kept 
Danae shut up in a subterraneous apartment, ir in 
a brazen tower. But here she became mother of 
Perseus, notwithstanding the precautions of her 
fiither, according to some accounts by her uncle 
Proetus, and according to others by Zeus, who 
visited her in the form of a shower of gold. Acri- 
sius ordered mother and child to be exposed 
on the wide sea in a chest; but the chest floated 
towards the ishmd of Seriphus, where both were 
rescued by Dictys, the brother of king Polydectei. 
(ApoUod.iL2.§ 1,4.§ 1 ; Pans. iL 16. § 2, 25. §6, 
iii. 13. § 6; Hygin. Fab. 63.) As to the manner iu 
which the oracle was subsequently fulfilled in the 
case of Acrisius, see PuiSBua. According to the 
Scholiast on Euripides (Orest 1087X Acrisius 
was the founder of the Delphic amphictyony. 
Strabo (ix. p. 420) believes that this amphictyony 
existed before the time of Acrisius, and that he 
was only the first who regulated the affiiirs of the 
amphictyons, fixed the towns whkh were to take 
part in Uie council, gave to each ito vote, and set- 
tled the jurisdiction of the amphictyons. (Comp. 
Libanius, OraL voL iii. 472, ed. Reiske.) IL. S.J 

ACRON, a king of the Caenineuses, whom 
Romulus himself slew in battle. He dedicated 
the aims of Acron to Jupiter Feretrius as Spoiia 
Cfpima, (SeeDieLqfAnL ]^89$.) Livy men- 
tions the circumstance without giving the name of 
the king. (Pint. Horn. 16; Serv. ad, Virg, ^en. vL 
860; Liv. L 10.) 

ACRON CAjrp»y), an eminent physician of 
Agrigentum, tiie son of Xenon. His exact date 


is not known ; but, m be ib mentioned as being 
contemporaiy with Empedocles, who died about 
the b^mmng of the Peloponnesian war, be nrast 
have lived in the fifth century before Christ* From 
Sicily he went to Athens, and there opened a 
philoBophical aehool (^co^iertvty). It is ndd 
that he was in that city during the great phigue 
(b. & 430), and that huge fires for the purpose of 
purifying the air were kindled in the streets by 
his direction, which proved of great serrioe to 
several of the sick. (Phit. De Is. et Odr, 80 ; 
Oribaa. S^^nope, vi. 24, p. 97; Aetius, tetrab. 
ii. aenn. i. 94, p. 223 ; Paul Aegin. ii. 35, 
p. 406.) It should however be borne in mind 
that there is no mention of this in Thucy- 
didea (iL 49, &c.), and, if it is true that £m- 
pedodes or Simonides (who died B. c. 467) wrote 
the epitaph on Acnm, it may be doubted 
whether he was in Athens at the time of the 
plague. Upon his return to Agrigentum he was 
anxiona to erect a fiimily tomb, and applied to 
the senate for a spot of ground for that purpose on 
acoonnt of his eminence as a physician. £mpe- 
dodea however resisted this application as being 
Gontiary to the principle of equality, and proposed 
to inscribe on his tomb the following sarcastic 
epitaph {rttBoffrucSify, which it is quite impossible 
to translate so as to preserve the paronomasia of 
the original : 
'Axpov hp-pdp ^Axptn^ *AKpayarTtvw Torpds dxpou 

Kp6wT9i Kpiiftpis dxpos varpfSos AKpordrtis, 
The second line was sometimes read thus : 
*Axpon rfri is KOffv^s r6ft$os ixpos leaWx^ 
Some persons attributed the whole epigram to 
Simonides. (Suid. t. v. "A/cpm^ ; Endoc. Violar.^ 
ap. ViOoison, Aneed. Or. i. 49; Diog. Laert. 
viiL 65.) The sect of the Empirici, in order to 
boast of a greater antiquity than the Dogmatici 
(founded by Thessalus, the son, and Polybua, the 
son-in-law of Hippocrates, about B.c. 400), ckiimed 
Acron as their founder TPseudo-Oal. Introd, 4. 
vol. adv. p. 683), though they did not really exist 
before ^e third century b. c. [Philinus ; Ssra- 
PioN.] Pliny fiUls into this anachronism. (If. N. 
zxix. 4.) None of Acron^s works are now extant, 
though he wrote several in the Doric dialect on 
Medical and Physical subjects, of which the titles 
are preserved by Suidas and Eudoda. [W. A. 0.] 
ACRON, HELE'NIUS, a Roman grammarian, 
lonbably of the fifth centoiy a. d., but whose pre- 
dse date is not known. He wrote notes on Ho- 
race, and also, aocoiding to some critics, the scholia 
which we have on Persius. The fingments which 
remain of the work on Horace, thooffh much muti- 
lated, are valuable, as containing the remarks of 
the older commentators, Q. Terenthu Scaurus and 
others. They were published first by A. Zarotti, 
Milan, 1474, and again in 1486, and have often 
been published since in different editions ; perhaps 
the best is that by Geo. Fabridns, in his ed. of 
Horace, Basel, 1555, Leipzig, 1571. A writer of 
the same name, probably the same man, wrote a 
commentary on Terence, which is lost, but which 
is referred to by the grammarian Charisius. [A. A.] 
'AsproA^ifi), the son of the great logotheta Con- 
Rsntinus Acropolita the elder, belongoi to a noble 
Byzantine fimdl^ which stood in relationship to 
the imperial fiunily of the Ducas. (Acropolita, 97.) 
He was barn at Constantinople in 1220 (Ib. 39), 
bol aooompanied Jus fiither in his sixteentn year to 



Nicaea, the residence of the Orsek emperor John 
Vatatses Ducas. There he continued and finished 
his studies under Theodorus Exapterigus and Ni- 
cephorus Blemmida. (Ib. 32.) The emperor em- 
ployed him afterwards m diplomatic affiurs, and 
Acropolita shewed himself a very discreet and 
skilful negociator. In 1255 he commanded the 
Nicaean army in the war between Michael, des- 
pot of Epirus, and the emperor Theodore II. the 
son and successor of John. But he was made pri- 
soner, and was only delivered in 1260 by the me- 
diation of Michael Palaeologus. Previously to 
this he had been appointed great logotheta, either 
by John or by Theodore, whom he had instructed 
in logic. Meanwhile, Michael Palaeologus was 
proclaimed emperor of Nicaea in 1260, and in 1261 
he expulsed ue Latins firom Constantinople, and 
became emperor of the whole East ; and from this 
moment Georgius Acropolita becomes known in 
the history of the eastern empire as one of the 
greatest diplomatists. After having discharged the 
function of ambassador at the court of Constantine, 
king of the Bulgarians, he retired for some years 
from public affiiirs, and made the instruction of 
youth his sole occupation. But he was soon em- 
ployed in a very important negociation. Michael, 
afraid of a new Latin invasion, proposed to pope 
Clemens IV. to reunite the Greek and the Latin 
Churches ; and negociations ensued which were car- 
ried on during the reign of five popes, Clemens IV. 
Gregory X. John XXI. Nicolaus III. and Martin 
IV. and the happy result of which was almost en- 
tirely owing to the skill of Acropolita. As early as 
1273 Acropolita was sent to pope Gregory X. and 
in 1274, at the Council of Lyons, he confirmed by 
an oath in the emperor^s name that that confession 
of fiuth which had been previously sent to Con- 
stantinople by the pope had been adopted by the 
Greeks. The reunion of the two churches was 
afterwards broken oS, but not through the fitult of 
Acropolita. In 1282 Acropotita was onoe more 
sent to Bujgaria, and shorUy after his return he 
died, in the month of December of the same year, 
in his 62nd year. 

Acropolita is the author of several works : the 
most important of which is a history of the Bysan- 
tine empire, under the titie Xpopucdv lis 4» <rw6t^u 
rmv if iaripots^ that is, from the taking of Con- 
stantinople by the Latins in 1204, down to the 
year 1261, when Michael Palaeologus delivered the 
city from the foreign yoke. The MS. of this work 
was found in the library of Georgius Cantacuzenus 
at Constantinople, and afterwards brought to Eu- 
rope. (Fabricius,BftUL(7raec.voLvii.p.768.) The 
first edition of this work, with a Latin transhition 
and notes, was published by Theodorus Douza, 
Lugd. Batav. 1614,8vo.; but a more critical one by 
Leo Allatius, who used a Vatican MS. and divided 
the text into chapters. It has the title T^vpylov 
Tov *AMpoiroX<Tov rw lUTfoKov XoyfAirov xpoyue^ 
avyypdipfij Choryii Acropoliiae^ magni Ijogafhetas^ 
Hiftont^ &C. Paris, 1651. foL This edition is re- 
printed m the ** Corpus Byiantinorum Scriptorum,** 
Venice, 1729, vol. zii. This chronicle contains 
one of the most remarkable periods of Byzantine 
history, but it is so short that it seems to be only 
an abridgment of another work of the same author, 
which is lost. Acropolita perhaps composed it with 
theview of giving it as a compendium to those young 
men whose scientific education he superintended, 
after his return firom his first embassy to Bulgaria. 



The histoiy of Micliael Palaeologut by Piichyineres 
maj be considered as a continaation of the work of 
Acropolita. Beeides this work, Acropolita wrote 
aeyeml orations, which he deliTered in his capacity 
as great logothete, and as director of the negociations 
with the pope ; but these orations have not been 
published. Fabricius (toL rii. p. 47 1 ) sneaks of a 
MS. which has the title Ilcpt rwy durd ttrlaHts 
K6<rfiov irmif iced vtpi twv fiaaiXtwrdtn-wp fUxpt 
d\iS(rtMS KuyaramufOvw6K9^s. Georgius, or Ore- 
goriusCyprius, who has written a short encomium of 
AcropoUta, calls him the Plato and the Aristotle of 
his time. This ** encomium^ is printed with a La- 
tin tnuislation at the head of the edition of Acro- 
polita by Th. Douza: it contains useful information 
concerning Acropolita, although it is full of adula- 
tion. Further information is contained in Acropo- 
lita^s history, especially in the hitter part of it, and 
in Pachymeres, iv. 28, vi. 26, 34, seq. [W. P.] 

ACROREITES CAjcp^p^lnis)^ a surname of 
Dionysus, under which he was worshipped at 
Sicyon, and which is synonymous with Eriphius, 
under which name he was worshipped at Meta- 
pontum in southern Italy. (Steph. Byz. «. v. 
*AKp»p€ia.) [L. S.] 

ACRO'TATUS (^Axp^aros). 1. The son of 
Cleomenes II. king of Sparta, incurred the displea- 
sure of a large party at Sparta by opposing the de- 
cree, which was to release from infamy all who had 
fled from the battle, in which Antipater defeated 
Agis, B.a 331. He was thus ffhid to accept the 
oflfer of the Agrigentines, when they sent to Sparta 
for assistance in B. c. 314 against Agathocles of 
Syracuse. He first sailed to Italy, and obtained 
assistance from Tarentum ; but on his arrival at 
Agrigentum be acted with such cruelty and tyranny 
that the inhabitants rose against him, and com- 
pelled him to leave the city. He returned to 
Sparta, and died before the death of his fiither, 
which was in b. c 309. He left a son, Areus, who 
succeeded Cleomenes. (Diod. xv. 70, 71 ; Paua. L 
13. § 3, iii. 6. § 1, 2 ; Plut Agiiy 3.) 

2. The grandson of the preceding, and the son 
of Areus I. king of Sparta. He had unlawful in- 
tercourse with Cbelidonis, the young wife of Cleo- 
nymus, who was the uncle of his father Areus ; 
and it was this, together with the disappointment 
of not obtaining the throne, which led Cleonymns 
to invite Pyrrhns to Sparta, b. c 272. Areus was 
then absent in Crete, and the safety of Sparta was 
mainly owing to the valour of Acrotatus. He suc- 
ceeded his &ther in b. c 265, but was killed in 
the same year in battle against Aristodemus, the 
tyrant of Megalopolis. Pausanias, in speaking of 
his death, calls him the son of Cleonymus. but he 
has mistaken him for his gnmdtether, spoken of 
above. (Plut. />tA. 26-28; ^j/»,3; Pans. iii. 6. §3, 
viii. 27. § 8, 80. § 3.) Areus and Acrotatus are ac- 
cused by Phylarchus {ap. Atketu iv. p. 142, b.) of 
having corrupted the simplicity of Spartan man* 

ACT AEA ('Arnica), a daoghter of Nereus and 
Doris. (Hom. IL zviii. 41 ; Apollod. L 2. § 7 ; 
Hygin. Fab, p. 7, ed. Staveren.) [L. S.] 

ACTAEON {'AKTciiw), ]. Son of Aristoeus 
and Autonoe, a daughter of Cadmus. He was 
trained in the art of hunting by the centaur Chei- 
ron, and was afterwards torn to pieces by his own 
50 hounds on mount Cithaeron. The names of 
these hounds are given by Ovid {MeL iii. 206, &c.) 
and Hyginiu. {Fab. 181 ; comp. Stat. Tkeb. ii 203.) | 

The cause of this misfortune is differently tt&ted : 
according to some accounts it was because he liad 
seen Artismis while she was bathing in the rale of 
Gaigaphia, on the discovery of which the god- 
dess changed him into a stag, in which form he 
was torn to pieces by his own dogs. (Or. Jl/<r/. 
iii 155, &c.; Hygin. Fab. 181; Callim. A. us 
Pallad. 110.) Others relate that he provoked the 
anger of the goddess by his boasting that he ex- 
celled her in hunting, or by his using for a lesAt 
the game which was destined as a sacrifice to her. 
(Eurip. Baech. 320 ; Diod. iv. 81.) A third ac- 
count stated that he was killed by his dogs at thi* 
command of Zeus, because he sued for the hand of 
Semele. (Acusibus, ap. JjnMod, iii. 4. § 4.) Pan- 
sanias (ix. 2. § 3) saw near Orchomenos the rock on 
which Actaeon used to rest when he was fiitigruefl 
by hunting, and from which he Jiad seen Artemii* 
in the bath ; but he is of opinion that the whole 
story arose from the circumstance that Actaeon 
was destroyed by his d^gs in a natural fit of mad- 
ness. Palaephatus (s. v. Actaeon) gives an obsuitl 
and trivial explanation of it. According to the 
Orchomenian tradition the rock of Actaeon ^-as 
haunted by his spectre, and the oracle of Delphi 
commanded the Orchomenians to bury the remains 
of the hero, which they might happen to find, and 
fix an iron image of him upon the rock. This 
image still existed in the time of Pausaniaa (ix. 
38. § 4), and the Orchomenians oflfered annual sa- 
crifices to Actaeon in that phice. The manner in 
which Actaeon and his mother were painted by 
Polygnotus in the Lesche of Delphi, is described 
by Pausanias. (x. 30. § 2 ; comp. M'uller, Ordkam. 
p. 348, &c) 

2. A son of Melissus, and grandson of Abron, 
who had fled from Aiigos to Corinth for fear of the 
tyrant Pheidon. Archias, a Corinthian, enamour- 
ed with the beauty of Actaeon, endeavoured to 
carry him off; but in the struggle which ensued 
between Melissus and Archias Actaeon was killed. 
MeUssus brought his complaints forward at the 
Isthmian games, and praying to the gods for re- 
venge, he threw himself from a rock. Hereupon 
Corinth was visited by a pla^e and drought, 
and the oracle ordered the Cormthians to propi- 
tiate Poseidon, and avenge the death of Actaeon. 
Upon this hint Archiaa emigrated to Sicily, where 
he founded the town of Syracuse. (Plut AmaL 
Narr. p. 772 ; comp. Paua. v. 7. § 2 ; Thucyd. vi. 
3 i Strab. viil p. 380.) [L. S.] i 

ACTAEUS ('Ajcra&f). A son of Eriachthon, 
and according to Pausanias (L 2. § 5), the I 
earliest king of Attica. He had three daughters, < 
Agraulos, Herse, and Pandrosus, and was sneoeed- I 
ed by Cecrops, who married Agraulos. Aoooid- | 
ing to Apollcxlonu (iii 14. 1.) on the other hand, 
Cecrops was the first king of Attica. [L. S.] 

ACTE, the concubine of Nero, was a fieed- 
woman, and originally a skve purchased from 
Asia Minor, Nero loved her fiir more than his 
wife Octavia, and at one time thought of marrying 
her; whence he pretended that she was descended 
from king Attains. She survived Nero. (Tac. 
Ann. xiiu 12, 46, xiv. 2 ; Suet. Ner. 28, 50 ; Dion 
Cass, bd 7.) 

ACTIACUS, a surname of Apollo, derived 
from Actium, one of the principal places of hit 
worship. (Ov. Met. xiii. 715 ; Strab. z. p. 451 ; 
compare Burmann, ad Propert. p. 434.) [L. S.] 

ACTI'SANES CAxTuri^ir), a king of Ethiopia, 


vbo conquered Kgjpt snd governed it with justice. 
He founded the city of Riiinoooluia on the con- 
fines of Egypt and Syria, and was sncceeded by 
Mendesy an £g3rptian. Diodoras says that Acti- 
sanes conqnered Egypt in the reign of Amasis, for 
which we on^t perbAps to read Ammous. At all 
erenta, Amasia., die contemporary of Cyms, cannot 
be meant. (IMod. L60;Stiab. rri. p. 759.) 
ACTlUa [Attius.] 

ACTOR CAterwpy 1. A son of Deion and 
Diomede, the daughter of Xuthns. He was thus 
a bcTKher of Aateropeia, Aenetns, Phylacus, and 
Cephalna, and husband of Aegina, &ther of M&- 
noetiua, and grandfather of Patroclus. (Apollod. 
i. 9. § 4« 16y iiL 10. § 8 ; Find. CM. iz. 75 ; Horn. 
IL xi. 785, xri. 14.) 

2. A son of Phorbas and Hynnine, and husband 
of MoUone. He was thus a brother of Augeas, 
and &theT of E.arytas and Cteatus. (Apollod. ii. 
7. 1 2 ; Pana. ▼. 1. § 8, viii. 14. § 6.) 

3l a eompaaiion of Aeneas (Viig. ^ea. ix. 500), 
who is probably the same who in another passage 
(xiL 94) ia called an Anruncan, and of whose con- 
quered Wnce Tumns made a boast This story 
seems to haye given rise to the proTerbial saying 
** Actoxia ^Mlinm** (Jut. iL 100), fior any poor 
spoil in gencfal. [L. S.J 

ACTCmiDES or ACTO'RION fAirTOfrfSuj or 
*Aicrop£Btr), are patronymic forms of Actor, and are 
consequently given to descendants of an Actor, 
soch as Patiodos (Or. MeL xiii 373 ; IVitL i. 9. 
29), Erithua (Or. AfeL t. 79 ; compare viii. 308, 
371), Eurytna, and Cteatas. (Uom. IL ii. 621, 
xiii 185, xL 750, xsii 638.) [L. S.] 

H. ACTCyRIUS NASO, seems to have writr 
ten a life of Julias Caesar, or a history of his 
t'mies, which is quoted by Suetonins. {Jul. 9, 52.) 
The time at which he lived is uncertain, but from 
lbs way in which he is referred to by Suetonius, 
he wtmld almost seem to have been a contemporary 

ACTUA'RTUS fAjcToipdpioj), the somame by 
which an ancient Oreek physician, whose real 
name was Joannes, is commonly known. His 
&ither*s name was Zacharias ; he himself practised 
at Constantinople, and, as it appears, with some 
degree of credit, as he was honoured with the title 
of Actwarua, a dignity frequently conferred at that 
court opon physiciaaft. (/>ict q/*^ii^. p. 6 11, b.) Very 
Httle is known of the events of his life, and 
his date is rather uncertain, as some persons reckon 
hun to bare lived in the eleventh century, and 
othos bring htm down as low as the beginning of 
the fenrteenth. He probably lired towards the 
end of the thirteenth century, as one of his works 
is dedicated to his tutor, Joseph Kacendytes, who 
lived in the reign of Andronicus II. Palaeologns, 
A.D. 1281 — 1328. One of his school-fellows is 
■apposed to have been Apocanchus, whom he de- 
acribes (though without naming him) as going 
upon an embassy to the north. (Z>8 Afeih, Med. 
Poet in L iL pp. 139, 169.) 

One of his worics is entitled, IIcpl 'Ei^epyctwr icol 
Ilatfwr Tov TuxMOv Ilrff^furros, Koi r^s K€n^ adrd 
Anfnff — ^ I>e Aetionibus et Aflectibns Spiritas 
Animalis, ejusqne Nntritione." This is a psycho- 
logical and physiological work in two books, in 
which all his reasoning, says Freind, seems to be 
foonded upon the principles laid down by Aristo- 
tle, Galen, and othera, with rehtion to the same 
subject. The style of this tract is by no means 



impure, and has a great mixture of the old Attie 
in it, which is very rarely to be met with in the 
kter Greek writers. A tolerably full abstract of 
it is given by Barchusen, HisL Medic Dial. 1 4. p. 
338, &c It was first published, Venet. 1547, 8vo. 
in a Latin translation by JuL Alexandrinus de 
Neustain. The first edition of the original was 
published. Par. 1557, 8vo. edited, without notes 
or pre&ce, by Jac GoupyL A second Oreek edi- 
tion appeared in 1774, 8vo. Lips., under the care 
of J. F. Fischer. Ideler has also inserted it in the 
first volume of his Phytid si Medici Graed Mi- 
norety BeroL 8vo. 1841 ; and the first part of J. S. 
Beraardi Reliquiae Medieo-Onticaey ed. Qrunery 
Jenae, 1795, 8vo. contains some Greek Scholia 
on the work. 

Another of his extant works is entitled, Ot^o* 
wevrun) M^0o3os, **■ De Methodo Medendi,** in six 
books, which have hitherto appeared complete only 
in a Latin translation, though Diets had, before hiis 
death, collected materials for a Oreek edition of 
this and his other works. (See his prefoce to Oalen 
JOe DiteecL Mtue.) In these books, says Freind, 
though he chiefly follows Galen, and very often 
Aetins and Paulus Aegineta without naming him, 
yet he makes use of whatever he finds to hu pur- 
pose both in the old and modem writers, as well 
barbarians as Greeks ; and indeed we find in him 
several things that are not to be met with else- 
where. The work was written extempore, and 
designed for the use of Apocanchus during his 
embassy to the nortL (Prae£ L p. 139.) A Latin 
transbtion of this work by Com. H. Mathisius, 
was first published Venet 1554, 4to. The first 
four books appear sometimes to have been con- 
sidered to form a complete work, of which the 
first and second have been inserted by Ideler in 
the second volume of his P^. et Med, Or, Muu 
BeroL 1842, under the title Hspl ^tarfViivemt 
Iladtfy, ** De Morborum Dignotione,** and from which 
the Oreek extracts in H. Stephens^s DietUmarium, 
Medicwtty Par. 1564, 8vo. are probably taken. 
The fifth and sixth books have also been taken for 
a separate work, and were published by them- 
selves. Par. 1539, 8vo. and BasiL 1540, 8vo. in 
a Latin translation by J. Ruellius, with the title 
** De Medicamentorum Compositione.** An extract 
firom this work is inserted in Feroel^s collection of 
writers De FeMbvs^ Venet 1576, fol. 

His other extant work is n«pl O^i^, ** De 
Urinis,^''in seven books. He has treated of this sub- 
ject very fully and distinctly, and, though he goes 
upon the plan which TheophilusProtospatharius had 
mariced out, yet he has added a great deal of origi- 
nal matter. It is the most complete and systematic 
work on the subject that remains from antiquity, 
so much so that, till the chemical improvements of 
the last hundred years, he had left hfmily anything 
new to be said by the modems, many of whom, 
says Freind, transcribed it almost word for word. 
This work was first published in a Latin transla- 
tion by Ambrose Leo» which appeared in 1519, 
Venet 4 to., and has been several times reprinted; 
the Greek original has been published for the first 
time in the second volume of Ideler^s work quoted 
above. Two Latin editions of his coUeeted 
works are said by Choulant (Handbuck d&r BU- 
eherhmde/ur die Aekere Median^ Leipsig, 1841 ), 
to have been published in the same year, 1556, 
one at Paris, and the other at Lyons, both in 8vo. 
His thiee works are also inserted ia the Medieua 



Artia PrtHdpet of H. Stephens, Par. 1567, fol 
(Freind's Hitt, of Phftie; Sprengel, Hitt, de la 
Med. ; Haller, Biblioih. Medic. PracL ; Baichusen, 
Hid. Medic.) [W. A. G.] 

ACU'LEO ocean as a samame of C. Furios 
who was quaestor of L. Sdpio, and was con- 
demned of peculatos. (Lit. xzindii 55.) Acu- 
leo, however, seems not to have been a regular &r 
mOy-name of the Furia gens, but only a surname 
given to this person, of which a similar example 
occurs in the following article. 

C. ACULEO, a Roman knight, who married 
the sister of Helvia, the mother of Cicero. He 
was surpassed by no one in his day in his know- 
ledge of the Roman law, and possessed great 
acuteness of mind, but was not distinguished for 
other attainments. He was a friend of L. Licinius 
Crassus, and was defended by him upon one oo- 
casion. The son of Acoleo was C. Visellius Varro ; 
whence it would appear that Aculeo was only a 
surname ffiven to the &ther firom his acuteness, and 
that his rail name was C. Visellius Varro Aculeo. 
(Cic de Or. I 43, ii. 1, 65 ; Brui. 76.) 

ACU'MENUS (*AKovfiev6s), a physician of 
Athens, who lived in the fifth century before Christ, 
and is mentioned as the friend and companion 
of Socrates. (Plat Phaedr, init.; Xen. Memor. 
iii. 1 3. § 2.) He was the &ther of Eryximachus, 
who was also a physician, and who is introduced 
as one of the speakers in Plato's Symposium. (Plat. 
Protag. p. 315, c. ; Sjfmp. p. 176, c.) He is also 
mentioned in the collection of letters first published 
by Leo Allatius, Paris, 1637, 4to. with the title 
Epiit. Socratie et Socratioorum^ and again by Orel- 
liua, Lips. 1815. 8vo. ep. 14. p. 31. [W. A. O.] 

ACUSILA'US ('AxovalKaos), of Argos, one of 
the earlier Greek logographer8(jD£t^ of Ant. p. 575, 
a.X who probably lived in the latter half of the 
sixth century bl c He is called the son of Cabras 
or Scabras, and is reckoned by some among the 
Seven Wise Men. Suidas (s, v.) says, that he 
wrote Genealogies from bronze tablets, which his 
fiither was said to have dug up in his own house. 
Three books of hb Genealogies are quoted, which 
were for the most part only a translation of Hesiod 
into prose. (Clem. Strom, vi. p. 629, a.) Like most 
of the other logographen, he wrote in the Ionic 
dialect Plato is the earliest writer by whom he 
is mentioned. {Sjymp. p. 178, b.) The works which 
bore the name of Acnsilaus in a later age, were 
spurious, (s. V. *LKardios MiAiktios, 'loropqo-at, 
^vyypd^.) The fragments of Acusilaiis have 
been published by Sturtz, Geroe, 1787 ; 2nd ed. 
Lips. 1824 ; and in the ** Museum Criticum,*' L 
p.216, &C. Camb.1826. 

M. ACU'TIUS, tribune of the plebs a c 401, 
was elected by the other tribunes (by co-optation) 
in violation of the Trebonia lex. (Liv. v. 10 ; 
Did. ofAnL p. 566, a.) 

ADA ("ASa), the daughter of Hecatomnns, king 
of Caria, and sister of Mausolus, Artemisia, 
Idrieusy and Pixodarus. She was married to her 
brother Idrieus, who succeeded Artemisia in B. c. 
351 and died b. c 344. On the death of her 
husband she succeeded to the throne of Caria, but 
was expelled by her brother Pixodarus in n. c. 340 ; 
and on the death of the latter in b. c. 335 his son- 
in-law Orontobates received the satrapy of Caria 
from the Persian king. When Alexander entered 
Caria in b. c. 334, Ada, who was in possession of 
the fortress of Alinda, surrendeied this pbce to 

him and begged leave to adopt him as Her ago. 
After taking Halicamassus, Alexander oommitted 
the government of Caria to her. (Arrian, Amik 
i. 23 ; Died, xvi 42, 74 ; Strab. xiv. pp. 656, 657 ; 
Plut Akx. 10.) 

a Greek epigrammatic poet, a native nao»t piv- 
bably of Macedonia. The epithet MojccS^i^s » 
appended to his name before the third epignua 
in the Vat MS. {AnOu Gr. vi. 228); and iJbt 
subjects of the second, eighth, ninth, and tenth 
epigrams agree with this account of hia origin. 
He lived in the time of Alexander the Great, u 
whose death he alludes. {Anih. Gr. viL 240.) 
The fifth epigram (AniL Gr. vii. 305) is inscribed 
'A58a/ov MiTvAiivaiou, and there was a Mitylenaeac 
of this name, who wrote two prose wroka li*f* 
'AyaAfMTonomjf and IIcpl AuxBiafios. (Atbes. 
xiiL p. 606. A, xi. p. 471, p.) The time when Le 
lived cannot be fixed with certainty. Reiake, 
though on insufficient grounds, believes these tvo 
to be the same person. {Antk. Graea. vi. 2*23, 
258, vii. 51, 238, 240, 305, x. 20 ; Brunck, AnaL 
ii, p. 224 ; Jacobs, xiii p. 831.) [C. P. ALJ 

ADAMANTEIA. TAmalthwa.] 

ADAMA'NTIUS fASofuirrtos), an ancient 
physician, bearing the title of lairoeof^iisia (Jar puds' 
kfym¥ awfMtrriis, Socrates, Hiat JEcdes. vii. 13), 
for the meaning of which see DicL 4^ AnL 
p. 507. Little is known of his personal histoiy, 
except that he was by birth a Jew, and that 
he was one of those who fled from Alexandria, 
at the time of the expulsion of the Jews from that 
city by the Patriarch St Cyril, a. d. 415. He went 
tc Constantinople, was persuaded to embrace Chris- 
tianity, apparently by Atticus the Patriarch of that 
city, and then returned to Alexandria. (Sociates, 
l. c) He is the author of a Greek treatise on 
physiognomy, ^vffuiyyufAoviK^ in two books, which 
is still extant, and which is borrowed in a great 
measure (as he himself confesses, L Piooem. p. 
31 4, ed« Frans.) firom Polemo^s work on the same 
subject. It is dedicated to Constantius, who is 
supposed by Fabricius (BiUiath. Graeca^ voL ii. p. 
171, xiii. 34, ed. vet) to be the person who mar- 
ried Phicidia, the daughter of Theodosiua the 
Great, and who reigned for seven months in con- 
junction with the Emperor Honorius. It was fint 
published in Greek at Paris, 1540, 8vo., then in 
Greek and Latin at Basle, 1544, 8vo., and aftei^ 
wards in Greek, together with Aelian, Polemo and 
some other writers, at Rome, 1545, 4to. ; the last 
and best edition is that by J. G. Franzius, who has 
inserted it in his collection of the Scr^^toree PApsi- 
ognomiae Veleret^ Gr. et Lat, Altenb. 1780, ttvo. 
Another of his works, IIcpl *Ayitmv^ De VeiUvt, is 
quoted by the Scholiast to Hesiod, and an extract 
from it is given by Aetius (tetrab. L serm. 3, c 
163) ; it is said to be still in existence in manu- 
script in the Royal Library at Paris. Several of 
his medical prescriptions are preserved by Oriba- 
sius and Aetius. , [W. A. G.] 

AD£IMANTUS ('A8c//iarros). 1. The son of 
Ocytus, the Corinthian commander in the invasion 
of Greece by Xerxes. Before the battle of Arte- 
misium he threatened to sail away, but was bribed 
by Themistocles to remain. He opposed Themis* 
todes with great insolence in the council which 
the commanders held before the battle of Salamis. 
According to the Athenians he took to flight at 
the very commencement of the battle, but this 


iM denied by tlM Corinthiaiift ttid the other 
Ircekt. (Hand. YiiL &» 56, 61, 94 ; Plut Tk«m. 


2. The ton of LewnolephMee, an Athenkn, wu 
oe of the oonmuiden with Aldbiadee in the ex- 
edition against Androa, b. a 407. (Xen. HelL i, 
^ § 21 .) He warn again appointed one of the Athe- 
lian genenJa after the faattk of Aiginiuae, n. c. 
i06, and contmoed in offioe tiU the battle of Aegoa- 
lotaml, BL a 406, where he waa one of the com- 
oandeia, and was taken prisoner. He waa the 
inly one of the Athenian priaoners who was not 
Hit to death, becaoae he had opposed the decree 
for catting off the right hands oi the Lacedaemo- 
nians who nugbt be teken in the battle. He was 
Kcowd b J many of treachery in this battle, and 
was afterwards impeached by Conon. (Xen, HelL i. 
7.§l,iLl.§30-3-2; PaaiLiT. 17.§'2,x.9.§5;Dein. 
de/aU lep. p. 401.; Ly^ e. Ale, ppu 143, 21.) 
Arittophanea speaks of Adetmantos in the ** Frogs ** 
(1513), which was acted in the yesr of the battle, 
as one whoee death was wished for ; and he also 
calls hint, apparently out of jest, the ion of Leaoo- 
lophai, that ia, ** White Creat"^ In the **Prot»- 
gt^raa** of Plato, Adeimantos is ako apoken of as 
preient on that oeeaaion (p. 31&, e.). 

3. The brother of Plato, who is frequently men- 
tioned by the hitter. {ApoL Soer, p. 34, a., <2r 
Rep. H pi 367, e. p. 548, d. e.) 

ADGANDE'STRIUS, a chief of the Catti, 
ofkzed to kill Armimus if the Romans woold tend 
him poison for the pnrpoae ; bat Tiberiua declined 
the oiStr. (Tac Amt, ii. 88.) 

ADHERBAL ('Ardp«as). 1. A Carthaginian 
commander in the first Panic war, who was placed 
over Drepana, and completely defeated the Roman 
conniJ P. Claudins in a aea-figfat off Drepana, B. a 
249. (Polyb. L 49—52; Died. EbL zxiv.) 

*1 A Carthaginian commander uider Mj^ in 
the lecond Ponie war, who was defeated in a aea- 
nght off Caiteia, in Spain, by C Laelius in B.C. 
206. (Liv. xxniL 30.) 

3. The Mm of Midpaa, and giandaon of Masi- 
m«a, had the kingdom of Nmnidia left to him by 
his fioher in eonjnnction with his brother Hiempaal 
and Jogortha, b. c. 118. After the murder of his 
brother bj Jogortha, Adherfaal fled to Rome and 
>»u natored to hia ahare of the kingdom by the 
Ramans in 117. Bat Adherbai waa again 
stripped of hia dominions by Jogortha and be- 
acfedia Cirta, where he waa treacheroosly killed 
bj Jngnrtba in a. c. 112, althoo^ he had placed 
himaetf nnder the protection of the Romana. 
(San. Jvg, 6, 13, 14, 24, 25, 26; Liv. £^, 63; 
iMod. En, xxxiv. p. 605. ed. Wesa.) 

ADIATORIX ('ASior^il), son of a tetiarch 
lAOalatia, beloDgad to Antony's party, and killed 
"11 the Renaoa in Heiadeia shortly before the 
htttle of Actiom. After this battle he waa led aa 
FuoMT in the tiinmph of Angostos, and put to 
<ieath with his yoimger son. His elder son, 
^tentw, waa sobaeqoently made priest of the 
cekhnted goddess in Comana. (Stnb. xiL pp. 543» 
^8, &59; Cie. atf Foai. ii. 12.) 

ADMBTBfA^fciH). l.AdsogterofOeeanas 
^ ThetjB (Hesiod. Tiaoff. 349), whom Hyginos 
f the pre&oe to his fiibles calls Admeto and a 
lighter efPontos and Thakua. 

2. A daq^ter of Enrystheos and Antimache or 
Adnete. Hendea waa obliged by her &tha to 
"^ far her the girdle of Area, which waa worn 



by Hippohte, qaeen of the Amaaona. ( ApoUod. iL 
5. § 9.) According to Tsetses (ad I^eopkr, 1 327), 
she accompanied Heracles on this expedition. 
There was a tradition ( Athen. xr. p. 447), according 
to which Admete waa originally a priestess of Hem 
at Aigos, bat fled with toe imsge of the goddess 
to Samos. Pirates were engagni by the Aigivea 
to fetch the image back, bat the enterprise did not 
sneceed, for the ship when hiden with the image 
coald not be made to move. The men then took 
the image back to the coast of Samos and sailed 
away. When the Samians fonnd it, they tied it 
to a tree, but Admete purified it and restored it to 
the temple of Samoa. In commemontion of this 
event the Samians celebrated an annual festival 
called Tonea. This story seems to be an invention 
of the Atgives, by which ther intended to prove 
that the worship of Hem in their phhoe was older 
than in Samoa. [L. &J 

ADME'TUS ("Aififrot)^ a son of Pheres, the 
founder and king of Pheme in Thessaly, and of 
Periclymene or Clymene. (ApoUod. L 8. § 2, 9. § 14.) 
He took part in die Calydonian chase and the ex- 
pedition of the Aigonauts. (ApoUod. L 9. § 16 ; Hy- 
gin. Fab, 14. 173.) When he had succeeded his 
fether as king of PheEae, he sued fer the hand of 
Alcestis, the daughter of Pelios, who promised her 
to him on condition that he should come to her in 
a chariot drawn by lions and boors. This task 
Admetus performed by the assistance of Apollo, 
who served him according to some accounts out of 
attachment to him (SchoL ad Eurip. AlcmL 2; 
(Tallin), k. m ApoU. 46, &&), or according to others 
because he was obliged to ser\'e a mortal for one 
year for having shiin the Cyclops. (ApoUod. iiL 10. 
§ 4.) On the day of his marriage with Alcestis^ 
Admetus neglected to offer a sacrifice to Artemis, 
and when in the evening he entered the bridal 
chamber, he found there a number of snakes rolled 
up in a lump. ApoUo, however, reconciled 
Artemis to him, and at the same time induced the 
Moirae to ffrant to Admetus delivennce from 
death, if at the hour of his death his father, mother, 
or wife would die for him. Alcestis did so, but 
Kora, or according to others Heracles, brought her 
back to the upper world. (ApoUod. i. 9. § 15 ; com- 
pare Alcbstul) [L. S.] 

ADME'TUS CASfivros), king of the Molos- 
sians in the time of Themistodes, who, when su- 
preme at Athens, had opposed him, perhaps not 
without insult, in some suit to the people. But when 
flying from the officen who were oidered to seize 
bun as a party to the treason of Paosaniaa, and 
driven from Corcyra to Epirus, he found himself 
upon some emergency, with no hope of refuge but 
the house of Admetus. Admetus was absent ; but 
Phthia his queen welcomed the stranger, and bade 
him, as the most solemn form of supplication 
among the Molossians, take her son, the young 
mince, and sit with him in his hands upon the 
hearth. Admetus on his return home aasurod him 
of protection; according to another account in 
Plutareh, he himself and not Pthia enjoined the 
form aa afibrdiitf him a pretext for refnsal : he, at 
any rate, shot his ears to aU that the Athenian 
and Lacedaemonian commissioners, who soon after- 
warda arrived, could say ; and sent Themistoclea 
safely to Pydna on his way to the Persian court. 
(Thucyd. i 136, 137; Plut Them. 24.) [A. H. C] 
ADMETUS CAinnrof), a Ghreek epigram- 
matist, who lived in the early port of the second 

c 2 



century after Christ. One line of hia it preteired 
by Ludan. {Demonax, 44 ; Bmnck, Anal, iii. p. 
21.^ fc. P. M.l 

ADO'NEUS QASonftis). 1. A Bomame of 
Bacchus, ugnifies the Ruler. ( Auson. Epigr, xxlx. 

2. AdoneuB is sometimes used by Latin poets 
for Adonis. (Plant Memtech. i. 2. 35 ; CatnIL 
XJOJL 9.) [L. S.] 

ADO'NIS CAS«m), according to ApoUodoms 
(iiL 14. § 3) a son of Cinyras and Medarme, accord- 
ing to Hesiod (op. ApoUod, iiL 14. § 4) a son of 
Phoenix and Alphesiboea, and according to the 
cyclic poet Panyasis (<9>. ApoUod. L &) & son of 
Tbeias, lung of Assyria, who begot him by his 
own daughter Smyrna. (Myrrha.) The ancient 
story ran thus; Smyrna had neglected the wor- 
ship of Aphrodite, and was punished by the god- 
dess with an unnatural love for her father. With 
the assistance of her nurse she contrived to share 
her £Etthei^s bed without being known to him. 
When he dtsoorered the crime he wished to kill 
her; but she fled, and on being neariy overtaken, 
prayed to the gods to make her invisible. They 
were moved to pity and changed her into a tree 
called ir/dppa. After the lapse of nine months 
the tree burst, and Adonis was bom. Aphrodite 
was so modi charmed with the beauty of the infimt, 
that she concealed it in a chest which she entrust- 
ed to Persephone ; but when the latter discovered 
the treasure iftie had in her keeping, she refused to 
give it np. The case was brought before Zens, 
who decided the dispute by declaring that during 
four months «f every year Adonis sh(mld be left to 
himself^ during four months he should belong to 
Persephone, and during the remaining four to 
Aphrodite. Adonis however preferring to live 
with Aphrodite, also spent with her the four 
months over which he had controuL After- 
wards Adonis died of a woand which he received 
from a boar during the chase. Thus far the story 
of Adonis was related by Panyasis. Later writers 
furnish various alterations and additions to it. 
According to Hyginus {Fab. 58, 164, 251, 271), 
Smyrna was punished with the love for her father, 
because her mother Cenchreis had provoked the 
anger of Aphrodite by extolling the beauty of her 
daughter above that of the goddess. Smyrna after 
the discovery of her crime fled into « forest, where 
she was changed into a tree from which Adonis 
came forth, when her fisther split it with his 
sword. The dispute between Aphrodite and Pei^ 
sephone was according to some accounts setded by 
Calliope, whom Zeus appointed as mediator be- 
tween thenL (Hygin. Pod. Antron, ii. 7.) Ovid 
(Met X. dOOy &c) adds the following features: 
Myrrha^s love of her &ther was excited by the 
furies ; Ludna assisted her when she gave birth to 
Adonis, and the Naiads anointed mm with the 
tears of his mother, i «. with the fluid which 
trickled from the tree. Adonis grew up a most 
beautiful youUi, and Venus loved him and shared 
with him the pleasures of the chase, though she 
always cautioned him agwnst the wild beasts. 
At last he wounded a boar which killed him in 
its fury. According to some traditions Ares 
(Mars), or, according to others, Apollo assumed 
the form of a boar and thus killed Adonis. (Serv. 
ad Vny, EcLx,\B; Ptolem. Hephaest L p. 306, 
ed. Gale.) A third stoty related that Dionysus 
eairied off Adonis. (PhoDodes qpi PUU. Sympoi. 

iv. 5.) When Aphrodite was infonned of hrr 
bdoved being wounded, she hastened to tlM spot 
and sprinkled nectar into his blood, front which 
immediately flowers sprang up. Varioua oth?r 
modifications of the story may be read in H jgisui 
{Poet, Aetnm, ii. 7), Theocritus {IdylL xv.), 
Bion {Idyll. '\,\ and in the scholiast on Lj^ 
phion. (839, &c.) From the double marriage of 
Aphrodite with Ares and Adonis sprang Priapiis. 
(Schol. ad ApoUon, Bhod. i. 9, 32.) Beaidtf 
him Oolgos and Beroe are likewise called chiidreii 
of Adonis and Aphrodite. (SchoL ad TheoenL xr. 
100; Nonni Dionye. xli. 155.) On hia death 
Adonis was obliged to descend into the lower 
world, but he was allowed to spend aix months 
out of every year with his beloved Aphrodite is 
the upper world. {Orpk. hymn, 55. 10.) 

The worship of Adonis, which in later times 
was spread over nearly all the countrlea round the 
Mediterranean, was, as the story itself aufficientiy 
indicates, of Asiatic, or more especially of Pboeni- 
cian origin. (Lucian, de dea Syr, c. 6.) Tbence it 
was transferred to Assyria, E;gypt, Greece, and 
even to Italy, though of course with Tarioua mo- 
difications. In the Homeric poems no tiaoe of it 
occurs, and the later Greek poets changed the 
original symbolic account of Adonis into a poedcd 
story. In the Asiatic religions Aphrodite was the 
fructifying principle of nature, and Adonis appears 
to have reference to the death of nature in wintrr 
and its revival in spring — Whence he apends six 
months in the lower and six in the upper worid. 
His death and his return to life were celebnted 
in annual festivals ('A8«Wa) at Byblos, Alexandria 
in Egypt, Athens, and other places. [L. S.J 

ADRANUS ( A8pav4$s), a Sicilian divinity who 
was worshipped in all the island, but especially at 
Adranus, a town near Mount Aetna. (Pint. Tiano^ 
12 ; Diodor. xiv. 37.) Hesychius (s. o. UaXuc^) 
represents the god as the fiither of the PalicL 
According to Aelian {Hi$L Anitn, xi. 20), about 
1000 sacred dogs were kept near his temple. 
Some modem critics consider this divinity to be of 
eastern origin, and connect the name Adianus 
with the Persian Adar (fire), and regard him as 
the same as the Phoenician Adramelech, and as 
a personification of the sun or of fire in general. 
(Bochart, Geograpk. Sacra^ p. 530) [L. &] 

TUS, a contemporary of Athenaeus, who wrote a 
commentary in five books upon the work of Theo- 
phrastus, entitled vtpi *H0fivy, to which he added a 
nxth book npon the Nicomachian Ethics of Aris- 
totle. (Athen. xv. p. 673, e. with Schweighauaer^s 

ADRASTEIA {'M^m). 1. A Cretan 
nymph, daughter of Melisseus, to whom Rhea 
entrusted the infant Zeus to be reared in the Dic- 
taean grotto. In this office Adrasteia was assisted 
by her sister Ida and the Curetes (Apollod. i. 1. 
§ 6 ; Caliimach. hymn, tn Jon. 47), whom the 
scholiast on Callimachus calls her brothers. Apol- 
lonius Rhodius (iii. 132, &c.) relates that she gave 
to the infant Zeus a beautiful globe {ir^eSpa) to 
play with, and on some Cretan coins Zeus is 
represented sitting upon a globe. (Spanh. ad 
CalUm. L e.) 

2. A surname of Nemesis, which is derived by 
some writers from Adrastus, who is said to have 
built the first sanctuary of Nemesis on the river 
Asopus (Strab. xiii. p. 588), and by others from 


iht -vwA SiSpditfmar, acooidbg to wliich it would 
signify tlie goddeis trbom none can eicspe. (Valo- 
keo. «H< JKfodL in. 40^ [L. S.] 

AURASTI'NE. [Aorastus.] 
AURASTUS fASpflurrorX a aon of Talani, 
kln^ of Axgos, and of Ljiimache. ( Apollod. i. 9. 
§ 13.) Ftamias (u. 6. § 3) caUa his mother 
Lijvauiaaia, and HTginua (Fd^ 69) Enrynome. 
(CocnpL Sehd. ad Eur^. Phom^ 423.) Daring a 
fead bctveen tlie most powerfnl houaes in Aigoa, 
Talana waa akin bj Amphianiia, and Adraatna 
bein^ cxpdkd frnn hia dominionB fled to Polybna, 
thea king of Scyon. When Polybua died with- 
out hein, Adraatna aaceeeded him on the throne 
of Sicyon, and dviing hia reign he ia aaid to have 
institoted the Nemeau gamea. (Horn. IL ii. 572 ; 
Pind. Nem. ix. 30, &c. ; Herod, t. 67 ; Pans, ii 
6. § 3L) AfterwBida, howerer, Adraatna became 
TBooacuBd to Amphiarana, gsre him his aister Eri- 
phyle in marriage, and retonied to hia kingdom of 
Ai^oa. Daring the time he reigned there it hap- 
pened that Tjdeoa of Calydon and Polynicea of 
Thebes, both Ibgitivea from their native countries, 
Diet at Aigoa near the palace of Adraatos, and 
came to words and from words to blows. On 
hearing the noiae, Adraatna haatened to them and 
aeparated the combatants, in whom he immediately 
recognised the two men that had been promised to 
him by an oracle as the fbtore hnsbands of two 
of his daughters ; for one bore on his shield 
the fignrc of a boar, and the other that of a 
Ikm, and the onide was, that one of his daughters 
was to marry a boar and the other a lion. Adraa- 
tna tberefine gare hia daughter Deipyle to Tydeoa, 
and Aigeia to Polynicea, and at the aame time 
promiaed to lead each of these princes back to hia 
own coontry. Adzaatua now prepared for war 
against Thebea, althoogh Amphiamoa foretold that 
aU who ahonld engage in it should perish, with 
the exfoption- of Adrastos. (Apollod. iii. 6. § I, 
&c ; Hygin. FoA. 69, 70.) 

Thna aroae the odebrated war of the *^ Seven 
againat Thebeo»** in which Adraatna waa joined hj 
six other heroea» via. Polynibea, T^dena, Amphio- 
tana, CSaipaneaa, Hippomedon, and Parthenopaeuai 
Inateod of Tjrdeua and Polynicea other legends 
mention Eteodos and Medatena. Thia war ended 
as milbrtanately aa Amphiamoa had predicted, 
and Adraatua alone waa saved by the swiftness of 
his hocae Areion, the gift of Heracles. (Horn. IL 
xziiL 346, && ; Paoa. viiL 25. § 5 ; Apollod. iiL 
6.) Creon of Thebea lefnaing to allow the bodxea 
of the aix heroes to be buried, Adnwtua went to 
Athena and impbred the assistance of the Athe- 
niana. Tbeaena waa persoaded to undertake an 
expedition against Thebes ; he took the city and 
deHvered vp the bodiea of the fiiUen heroes to 
their friends for banal. (Apollod. iii 7. § 1 ; 
Pana. ix. 9. § 1.) 

Ten yean after thia Adrastns persuaded the 
seven aona of the heroea, who had fallen in the 
«v against Thebea, to make a new attack upon 
that dty, and Araphiaraua now dedaxed that the 
gods i^ipivved of the undertaking, and promised 
feoctcas. (Pana. ix. 9. § 2; Apollod. iii. 7. § 2.) 
This war ia celebrated in ancient stoiy aa the war 
of the Epigoni (^Eimiyww), Thebea waa taken and 
razed to the ground, after the greater part of its 
hhabitanta had left the dty on the advice of 
Tiredaa. (Apollod. iiL 7. §2—4; Herod, t. 61 ; 
8trab. vii p. 325.) The only Aigive hero that 



fon in thia war, waa Aegialeoa, the ion of Adraa- 
tua. Afier having baUt a temple of Nemeaia in 
the neighbooihood of Thebea [AoRAsniA], he aet 
ont on hia retom home. But wdghed down by 
old age and grief at the death of his son he died at 
Megara and waa buried then. (Pana. i. 43. § 1.) 
After his death he was worshipped in several parta 
of Greece, as at Megara (PanSb ^ a), at Sicyon 
when his memory waa odebrated in tragic cho- 
ruses (Herod, v. 67), and in Attica. (Pans. i. SO. 
§ 4.) The legends aboat Adrastus and the two 
wan against Thebes have furnished most ample 
materials for the epic aa wdl as tragic poeta of 
Oreece (Pana. ix. 9. § 3), and aome worka of art 
relating to the stories about Adrastus are mentioned 
in Pansanias. (iu. 18. § 7, x. 10. g 2.) 

From Adrastns the female patronymic Adrastine 
waa formed. (Hom. IL t. 412.) [L. S.] 

ADRASTUS CAa^mrrofX a aon of the Phry- 
gian king Gordiua, who had unintentionally killed 
his brother, and waa in consequence expelled by 
his fiither and deprived of everything. He took 
refrige as a suppliant at the court of king Croeanai 
who purified him and leodved him kindly. After 
some time he waa sont out aa guardian of Atya, 
the son of Croesus, who was to deliver the coun- 
try from a wild boar which had made great havoc 
all aroand. Adrastus had the misfortune to kiD 
prince Atys, while he was aiming at the wild 
beast. Croesus pardoned the unfortonate man, aa 
he aaw in thia accident the will of the goda and 
the fhlfihnent of a prophecy ; but Adraatua could 
not endure to live lonser and kiHed himadf on the 
tomb of Atya. (Herod, i 35—45.) [L. S.] 

ADRASTUS CAapmrrorX of Ai^irediaiaa, a 
Peripatetic philosopher, who lived in the second 
century after Chmt, the author of a treatise on 
the arrangement of Ariatotle^ writinga and hia 
system of philosophy, quoted by Simplidua (Phw- 
fia. mvnLUb. Pi^.% and by Achillea Tatiua 
(p. 82). Some commentariea of hia on the Timaeua 
of Plato an also quoted hr Porphyry (pi 270, m 
Hdrmomea Ptolemam), and a treatise on tiie Cal^ 
gories of Aristotle by Qalen. None of these have 
come down to us ; but a work on Harmonics, w9fA 
'ApfutnKMff is preserved, m MS., in the Vatican 
library. [B^J.j 

ADRIA'NUS. [Hamuanvs.] 

ADRIA'NUS CA3^«^)* a Oreek iheforidaa 
bom at Tyn in Phoenicia, who flouriahed under 
the emperon M. Antonmua and Coannodna. He 
waa the popil of the celebrated Hendies Atticu% 
and obtained the chair of philoaophy at Athens 
during the- lifetime of hia master. Hia advance- 
ment doea not seem to have impaind their mutual 
regard; Herodea dedared that the unfiniahed 
speeches of his acholar were *^ the fragmenta of a 
coloasus,** and Adrianua showed his gratitude by a 
fuceral oration which he pronounced over the ashes 
of his master. Among a people who rivalled one 
another m their zeal to do him honour, Adrianua 
did not shew much of the discretion of a philoso- 
pher. Hia fint lecture c o mme n ced with the modest 
encomium on himself mUir fo ^oadicfit ypdfjLfjutra^ 
while in the magnificence of hia dress and equipage 
he afiected the style of the hierophant of philoso- 
phy. A story may be seen In Philostratus of his 
trial and acquittal for the murder of a begging 
sophist who had insulted him : Adrianua had re* 
torted by styling such insults Sify/uora nc^ptMr, but 
his pupils were not content with weapons of 



ridicule. TIm Tiait of M. AntoninaB to Athens 
made him acquainted with Adrianoa, whom he 
mvited to lUmie and honoiumd with hia fnendahip : 
the emperor eren condescended to set the thesis of 
a dechunation for him. After the death of Anto- 
ninus he became the private secretary of Commodus. 
His death took pbu» at Rome in the eightieth year 
•f his a^ not later than a. d. 19*2, if it be tme 
that Commodus (who was assassinated at the end 
pf this year) sent him a letter on hu death-bed, 
which he is lepiesented as kissmg with deTout 
earnestness in Ids last moments. (Philostr. VU, 
Adrian, ; Soidas, «. v, *Allipuaf6s.) Of the works 
attributed to him by Suidas three declamations 
only are extant. These have been edited by Leo 
Alkititts in the Emerpia Varia Cfraeoorum So- 
phistarum ao Bketorieorum^ Romae, 1641, and by 
Walx in the first volume of the Kketoru Oratdf 
1832. [a J.] 

ADRIA'NUS ('ASptoi^s), a Greek poet, who 
wrote an epic poem on the histoty of Alexander 
the Groat, which was called *A\c|ay8ptdis. Of thi) 
poem the seventh book is mentioned (Steph. Byx. 
f. V, 2c(rcia), but we possess only a fragment con- 
sisting of one line. (Steph. Byi. «. «. *A<rrpa/<k) 
Suidas («. V. *h^w6s) mentions among other 
poems of Ariianus one called *AAf(ay8piiu, and 
there can be no doubt that this is the work of 
Adrianus, which he by mistake attributes to his 
Arrianus. (Meineke, in the AbhandL der Berlin, 
Akademie, 1832, p. 124.) [L. S.] 

ADRIA'NUS l*ASput»6s) flourished, according 
to Archbishop Usher, a. d. 433. There is extant 
of his, in Greek, Ina^oge Sacranan LUsrarum, re- 
commended by Photius (No. 2) to beginners, edited 
by Dav. Hoeschel, 4to. Aug. Vindel. 1602, and 
among the OiMc»<Sbcn.fol. Lend. 1660. [A.J.C.J 

ADU'SIUS ('ASoilo-iof), according to the account 
of Xenophon in the Cyropaedeia, was sent by 
Cyrus with an army into Caria, to put an end to 
the feuds which existed in the country. He after- 
wards assisted Hystaspes in subduing Phrygia, 
and was made satrap of Caria, as the inhabitanto 
had requested, (vii. 4. § 1, &C., viii. 6. g 7.) 

AEA. [Gaxa.] 

A£A, a huntress who was metamorphosed by 
the gods into the fiibulous island bearing the same 
name, in order to rescue her from the punuit 
of Phasis, the river-god. (VaL Fhwc i. 742, v. 
426.) [L. S.] 

AE'ACES(A2ajn}s). 1. The &ther of Syloson 
and Polycrates. (Herod. iiL 3d, 139, vi 13.) 

2. The son of Syloson, and the grandson of the 
preceding, vras tyrant of Samoa, but was deprived 
of his tyranny by Aristagoras, when the lonians 
revolted firom the Persians, B. c. 500. He then 
fled to the Persians, and induced the Samians to 
abandon the other lonians in the sea-fight between 
the Persians and lonians. After this battle, in 
which the latter were defeated, he was restored to 
the tyranny of Samoa by the Persians, b. c. 494. 
(Herod, iv. 138, vi. 13, 14, 25.) 

AEA'CIDES (AlfluaSip), a patronymic from 
Aeacus, and given to various of his descendants, 
as Peleus (Ov. Met. zi. 227, &c xii. 365; Hom. 
/^ xvL 15), Tehunon (Ov. Met viii. 4 ; Apollon. 
L 1330), Phocus (Ov. MeL viL 668, 798), the 
sons of Aeacus ; Achilles, the grandson of Aeacus 
(Hom. //. xi. 805; Virg. Aen. i. 99); and 
Pyrrhus, the great-grandson of Aeacus. (Virg. 
Aen, ill 296.) [L. S.] 


AEACIDES (JJoMfhis), the aon of Aryaba^ 
king of E^ims, snooeeded to the throne od thi 
death of his cousin Alexander, who vras alain t& 
Italy. (Liv. viii. 24.) Aeacides manied i^tbia, 
the daughter of Menon of Pharsalna, hj vrhom he 
had the celebrated Pyirhua and two daiigbts% 
Deidameia and Troiaa. In b. c. 317 be asaisted 
Polysperchon in restoring Olympias and the joon^ 
Alexander, who was then only five jeara old, to 
Macedonia. In the following year ho marched to 
the assistance of Olympias, who was hard praaed 
by Caasander ; but Uie Epirots dialikfid the aerviae, 
rose against Aeacides, and drove him finm the 
kingdom. Pyrrhus, who was then onlj two 
yean old, was with difficulty saved from dastnc- 
tion by some fiiithful servants. But Vf**iniiig tixed 
of the Macedonian rule, the Epirots recalled Aea- 
cides in B. c. 313 ; Cassander immedisUely sent an 
army against him under Philip, who coaqneRd 
hira the same year in two battlea, in the last of 
which he was killed. (Pans. L 11 ; Diod. xix. 11, 
36,74; Pint PyrrA. i 2.) 

AE'ACUS (Aritoof), a son of Zeus and Acgim, 
a daughter of the river-god Asopus. He waa botn 
in the ishuid of Oenone or Oenopia, whither 
Angina had been carried by Zeus to aecnre her 
from the anger of her parents, and whence this 
isUnd was afterwards called Af^iina. (ApoUod. 
iii. 12. §6; Hygin. Fab. 52; Pana. iL 29. § 
2 ; comp. Nonn. Dionys. vi. 212 ; Ot. MeL vi. 
113, vii. 472, &c.) According to some ac^ 
counts Aeacus was a son of Zeus and Eoropo. 
Some traditions related that at the time wbea 
Aeacus was bom, Aegina was not yet inhabited, 
and that Zeus changed the ante (/t<lyyonwy) 
of the island into men (Mynnidones) over whom 
Aeacus ruled, or that he made men grow vp oat 
of the earth. (Hea. Pragm. 67, edGottling ; Apol- 
lod. iii. 12. § 6; Pans. I c) Ovid (MeL viL 520; 
comp. Hygin. Fab. 52 ; Stiab. viii p. 375), on the 
other hand, supposes that the island was not onin- 
habited at the time of the birth of Aeacus, and atatest 
that, in the reign of Aeacus, Hera, jealous of 
Aegina, ravaged the iaiand bearing the name of the 
latter by sending a plague or a iinrfal dragon into 
it, by which nearly all its inhabitants were carried 
oij^ and that Zeus restored the population by 
changing the ants into men. These legenda, as 
Muller justly remarks {Aegimetiaa^ are nothing 
but a mythical account of the colonisation of 
Aegina, which seems to have been originally in- 
habited by Pehugian^ and afterwards received 
colonists from Phthiotis, the seat of the Myrmi- 
dones, and firom Phlius on the Asopus. Aeaeua 
while he reimied in Angina was renowned in all 
Greece for his justice and piety, and waa fre- 
quently called upon to settle dn^tea not only 
among men, but even amonf the gods themaelvea. 
(Pind. letk, viiL 48, &c. ; Pans. L 39. g 5.) He 
was such a fitvourite with the latter, that, when 
Greece was visited by a drought in consequence of 
a murder which had been committed (Diod. iv. 
60, 61 i ApoUod. iiL 12. § 6), the orade of Delphi 
dcdared that the calamity would not cease unless 
Aeacus prayed to the gods that it might ; which 
he accordingly did, and it ceased m consequence. 
Aeacus himsdf shewed hia gratitude by erecting a 
temple to Zeus Panhellenius on mount Panhel- 
lenion (Paus. iL 30. § 4), and the Aeginetans 
afterwards built a sanctuary in their island called 
Aeaceum, which was a square place enclosed by 


wallft of white marMa Aeacni was beUeved in 
later timfls to be buried under the altar in this 
■acx«d endonie. (Paaa. iL 29. § 6.) Alegend pre- 
sef^red in Pindar {OL viiL 39, ftc.) rehtea that 
Apollo and Poaeidon took Aeacus as dieir aaaiitant 
in building the -walls of Troy. When the work 
was completod, three dragona roahed against the 
wall, auod whQe the two of them which attacked 
those porta of the wall bdlt by the gods fell down 
dead, the tfaaid fnced its way into the city through 
the part built by Aeacua. Hereupon ApoUo pro- 
phesied that Troy would fiiU through the hands of 
the Aeocid& Aeacus was also belieyed by the 
Aeginetans to hare surrounded their island with 
high difis to protect it against piratea. (Pans. ii. 29. 
§ 5.) Several other inddento connected with the 
Btocy of Aeaena are mentioned by Ovid. {Met liL 
506, ftc, ijc 435, &&) By Endeis Aeacus had 
two aooa, Tdamon and Peleua, and by Piamathe 
a aon, Fhoeus, whom he preferred to the two 
othem^ who contriTed to kill Phocus during a 
contest, and then fled from their native iatuid. 
[^Pklbus ; Tblamon.] After his death Aeacus 
became one of the three judges in Hades (Or. 
Afetf. xiiL 25 ; Hor. Cbrm. iL 13. 22), and accord- 
ing to Pkto {GcTff. pw 523 ; compue ApoLog. p. 
41 ; laocrat Evag, 5) especially for the shades of 
Boropeana In works <^ art he waa represented 
bearing a sceptre and the keys of Hadea (ApoUod. 
iiL 12. § 6 ; Pmd. IwUim. Tiii 47, &c) Aeacus 
had sanctoaiies both at Athens and in Aegina 
(Paos^ ii. 29. § 6 ; Hetych. a p.; SchoL ad Find. 
Nem, ziiL 155% and the Aeginetana regarded 
him as the tntdary deity of their island. (Pmd. 
Aem, Tiii 22.) [L. &] 

AEAEA (Aleda), 1. A furname of Medeia, 
derired firom Aea, the oountry where her &ther 
Aeetea raled. (ApoUon. Rhod. iii 1135.) 

2. A surname of Circe, the sister of Aeetea 
(Horn. Odl ix. 32 ; ApoUon. Rhod. iv. 559 ; Vixg. 
Aem. iiL 386.) Her son Telegonus is likewise 
mentioned with ihia auniBmek (Aemgusj Propert. 
a 2a § 42.) 

3. A suraame of CUypso, who waa belieTed to 
have inhabited a smaQ island of the name of Aeaea 
in the straito between Italy and Sicily. (Pomp. 
Mela, iL 7; Propert iii 10. 81.) [U S.] 

AEA'NTIDES (AMurrdiis), 1. The tyrant of 
Lampaacus, to whom Hippiaa pLTe his daughter 
Arehediee in marriage. (Thuc. yL 59.) 

2. A tngie poet of Aleicandria, mentioned as 
one of the seven poets who formed the Tragic 
Pkiad. He fired in the time of the second Ptolemy. 
(ScfaoL ad HephaetL p. 32, 93, ed. Paw.^ 

AEBUTIA QENS, contained two femilies, the 
namea of which are Carus and Elva. The jfor- 
mer waa plebeian, the latter patrician; but the 
geits waa originaDy patrician. Cormcen does not 
seem to hare been a fianily-name, but only a sur- 
name given to Postnmus Aebutius Elva, who was 
c<nunl in B. & 442. This gens was distinguished 
in the eariy ages, but from the tune of the above- 
mentioned Aebutius Sva, no patrician member of 
it hdd any carule office till the praeUnahip of M. 
Aebutiua Elva in B. c. 1 76. 

It is doabtfnl to which of the fiunily P. Aebutius 
belonged, who dis c losed to the consul the existence 
of the Bacchanalia at Rome, and was rewarded by 
the senate in eonseqnence, & a 186. (Liv. xxziz. 
9, IK 19.) 

AEDE'SIA(Al3eoia)»a female phih»opherof the 



new Platonic school, lived in the fifth eenbiiy after 
Christ at Alexandria. She was a relation of Syria- 
nus and the wife of Hermeiaa, and was equally 
celebrated for her beauty and her virtues. After 
the death of her husband, she devoted herself to 
relieving the wants of the distressed and the edu- 
cation of her children. She aecompanied the latter 
to Athens, where they went to study philosophy, 
and waa received with great distinction by all the 
philosophers there, and especially by Produs, to 
whom she had beeoi betrothed by Syrianus, when 
she was quite young. She lived to a considerable 
age, and her funeial oration was pronounced by 
Damasdns, who waa then a young man, in hexa- 
meter venes. The names of her aons were Am- 
monius and HeUodorua (Suidas, s. v. ; Damasdus, 
ofKPkoL cod. 242, p. 341, b. ed. Bekker.) 

AEDE'SIUS {AJlS4aios\ a Cappododan, called 
a Platonic or periiaps more correctly an Edectic 
philosopher, who lived in the fourth century, the 
firiend and most distinguished disdple of lamblichua 
After the death of his master the school of Syria 
was dispersed, and Aedesina fearing the real or 
fencied hostility of the Christian emperor Constan- 
tino to philosophy, took refuge in divination. An 
oracle in hexameter verse represented a pastoral 
life as his only retreat, but his disdples, perhaps 
calming his finsn by a metaphorical interpretatbn, 
omipelled him to resume his instructions. He 
settled at Pergamus. where he numbered among 
his pupils the emperor Julian. After the accession 
of tile hitter to the imperial purple he invited 
Acdesius to continue his instructions, but the de- 
clining strength of the sage being unequal to the 
task, two of his meet learned disdples, Chrysanthes 
and Eusebius, were by his own desire appointed to 
supply his place. (Eonap. Vit, Aedes.) [B. J.] 

AEDON ('AifSod^). 1. A daughter of Panda- 
reus of Ephesua According to Homer {Od. xix. 
517) &c.) she was the wife of Zethus, king of 
Thebes, and the mother of Ityiua Envious of 
Niobe, ihe wife of her brother Amphion, who had 
six sons and six daughters, she formed the plan of 
killing the eldest of Niobe's sons, but by mistake 
slew her own son Itylua Zeus relieved her grief 
by changing her into a nightingale, whose mehui- 
choly tunes are represented by the poet as Aedon*s 
lamentations about her child. (Compare Phero- 
cydea, F^vffm, p. 138, ed. Stun ; Apollod. ilL 
5. § 5.) Accoiding to a later tradition preserved 
in Antoninus Libendis (c. 11), Aedon was the 
wife of Pdytechnus, an artist of Colophon, and 
boasted that she lived more happily with him than 
Hera with Zeus. Hen to revenge herself ordered 
Eris to induce Aedon to enter upon a contest with 
her husband. Polyteehnus was then making a 
chair, and Aedon a piece of embroidery, and they 
agreed that whoever should finish the work first 
should receive firom the other a female slave as the 
prize. When Aedon had conquered her husband, 
he went to her fether, and pretending that his 
wife wished to see her dstet Chelidonis, he took 
her with him. On his way home he ravished her, 
dressed her in slaveys attire, enjoined hef to observe 
the strictest silence, imd gave her to his wife as 
the promised priae. After some time Chelidonis, 
believing hersdf unobserved, lamented her own 
fete, but she was overheard by Aedon, and the 
two sisten conspired against Polyteehnus and 
killed his son Itys, whom they placed before him 
in a dish. Aedon fled with Chelidonis to her 



I pamul 

his ivife, had him bound, nMaied with honey, 
and thai ezpoted him to the insects. ASdon now 
took pity upon the snffBrings of her husband, and 
when her rdations were on the point of kiUii^ her 
for this weakness, Zeus changed Polytechnos into 
ft pelican, the brother of Aedon into a whoop, her 
fiither into a sea-eagle, Chelidonis into a sinjlow, 
and Aedon herself into a nightingale. This mythus 
seems to hare originated in mere etymologies, and 
IB of the same dsM aa that about Philomele and 
Procne. [It, S.] 

AEETES or AEETA (AliHO* * '^^ o^ 
HeHoB and Fends. ( ApoUod. I 9. § 1 ; Hea. Tkeog. 
957.) According to others his mother*s name was 
Persa (Hygin. Pra^, p. 14, ed. Stayeren), or 
Antiope. (Schol. ad Find, OL ziiL 52.) He was 
a brother of Circe, Pasiphae, and Parses. (Hygin. 
L e, : Apollod. I e. ; Hom. Od. z. 136, ftc. ; Cie. 
dB NaL Dear, iiL 19.) He waa married to Idyia, 
a daughter of Ooeanus, by whom he had two 
danghters, Medeia and Chaldope, and one son, 
Absyrtus (Hesiod. Theog, 960.; Apollod. i 9, 23.). 
He was king of Colchis at the time when Phrixus 
brought thitber the solden fleece. At one time he 
was expelled from his kingdom by his brother 
Perses, but was restored by his daughter Medeia. 
(Apollod. i. 9. § 28.) Compare Abstrtus, Ar- 
uoNAUTAB, Jason, and Mkdsia. [L. &] 

patronymic forms from Aeetes, and are used by 
Roman poets to designate his daughter Medeia. 
(Ov. MeL Tu. 9, 296, Heroid, vl 103 ; Val. Fhioc. 
Tiii. 238.) [L. S.] 

AEGA (AfTY}), according to Hyginus {^Poet. 
Atir, ii. 13) a daughter of Olenus, who was a de- 
scendant of HephMstus. Aega and her sbter 
Helice nursed the infiuit Zeus in Crete, and the 
former was afterwards changed by the god into 
the constellation called Capella. According to 
other tnuiitions mentioned by Hyginus, Aega was 
a daughter of Melisseus, king of Crete, and waa 
chosen to suckle the infiuit 2Seus ; but as she was 
found unable to do it, the service waa performed 
by the goat Amalthea. According to others, again, 
Aega was a daughter of Helios and of such danling 
brightness, that the Titans in their attack upon 
Olympus became frightened and requested their 
mother Gaea to oonoeal her in the eaith. She was 
accordingly confined in a care in Crete, where she 
become the nurse of Zeus. In the fight with the 
Titans Zeus was commanded by an onde to oorer 
himielf with her skin {aegfit). He obeyed the 
command and raised Aega among the stars. 
Simihir, though somewhat different accounts, were 
given by Euemems and others. (Eratosth. CkdauL 
1 3 ; Antonin. Lib. 36 ; latent. Insta, i. 22. § 19.) 
It is clear that in some of these stories Aegia* 
18 regarded as a nymph, and in others as a goat, 
though the two ideas are not kept cleariy distinct 
from each other. Her name is either connected 
with aX]^, which signifies a goat, or with dtZ|, a gale of 
wind ; and this drcumstanoe has led some critics to 
consider the myth about her as made up of two 
distinct ones, one being of an astronomical nature 
and derived firom the oonsteUation Capella, the rise 
of which brings storms and tempests ( Arat Phaen, 
150), and the other referring to the goat which 
was belieyed to have suckled the infiuit Zens in 
Ci^tp. (Compare Buttmann in Ideler*s Ur^trung 
und B^.feuiunff der Sternttamem^ p. V)9 ; Bottiger, 

Amakkea^ I p. 16, Ac ; Cienaer, Sj^mbol. it. p, 
AoH &c.) [Ia. S.] 

AEGAEON {Aiyalmp), b son of Unuiiu by 
Gaea. Aegaeon and his brothers G jges mad 
Cottus are known under the name of the Uxanids 
(Hes. Tiaoff. 502, &c), and are described as huge 
monsters with a hundred aims (^Jcerr^TX'V**') "^ 
fifty heads. (ApoUod. L 1. 1 1 ; Hes. TAac^. 149. 
&C.) Most writers mention the third Umnid 
under the name of Briareus instead of Aegaeon, 
which is explained in a passage of Homer (//. i 
403, &C.), who says that men called him Aegaeon, 
but the gods Briareus. On one occasion when the 
Olympian gods were about to put Zeiu in chains, 
Thetis called in the asdstance of Aegaeon, who 
compelled the gods to desist firom their intention. 
(Hom. JL I 398, &c) According to Ueaiod 
(Tkeog, 154, &c 617, &c.), Aegaeon and his 
brothers were hated by Unmus from the time oi 
their birth, in consequence of which they were 
ooncealed in the depth of the earth, whese they 
remained until the Titans began thdr war against 
Zeus. On the advice of Gaea Zeus delivered the 
Uranids from their prison, that they mig^t assist 
him. The hundred-armed giants conquered the 
Titans by hurling at them t^ree hundred rocks at 
once, and secured the victory to 2^us, who thrast 
the Titans into Tartarus and placed the Hecaton- 
cheires at its gates, or, according to others, in the 
depth of the ocean to guard them. (Hes. Tieoff» 
617, &c 815, &c) According to a legend in 
Pausanias (ii. 1. § 6, ii. 4. § 7), Briareus vras chosen 
as arbitrator in the dispute between Poseidon and 
Helios, and adjudged the Isthmus to the foimer 
and the Acrocorinthus to the latter. The Scholiast 
on Apollonius Rhodius (i. 1165) repreaenta Ae- 
gaeon as a son of Gaea and Pontus and as living 
as a marine god in the Aegean sea, Ovid {MeL 
ii. 10) and Philostratus ( ViL ApoUom. iv. 6) like- 
wise regard him as a marine god, while Viigil 
(Aem, X. 565) reckons him among the giants 
who stormed Olympus, and CalUmachaa [Hjn"^ 
in DtL 141, ftc.), regarding him in the same l^t, 
places him under mount Aetna. The Scholiast <m 
Theocritus {JdylL L 65) calls Briareus one of the 
Cydops. Tlie opinion which regards Aegaeon and 
his brothers as only persomfiGations of the eztia- 
ordinary powers of nature, such as are maai£esied 
in the vident commotions of the earth, as eaith- 
quakesi volcanic eniptions and the like, aeents to 
explain best the various accounts about them. [Lw &] 

AEGAEU8 (Afyoibt), a surname of Posei- 
don, derived firom the town of A^ae in Euboea, 
near which ho had a magnificent temple upon a 
hia (Strab. ix. p. 405 ; Viig. Am. iiL 74, where 
Servius erroneously derives the name from the 
Aegean sea.) [L. S.] 

AEGEIDES (Aiys^f), a patronymic from 
Aegeus, and especially used to designate Theseus. 
(Hom. IL L 265; Ov. Heroid, iv. 69, iL 67 ; 
compare Avoius.) [L. S.] 

AEGE'RIA or EGE'RIA, one of the Camenae 
in Roman mythology, from whom, according to 
the l^nds of eariy Roman stoiy, Numa received 
his instructions respecting the forms of wonhip 
which he introduced. (Liv. i 19; YaL Max. i 2. 
§ 1.) The grove in which the king had his in- 
terviews with the goddess, and in which a well 
gushed forth from a dark, recess, was dedicated by 
him to the Camenae. (Uv- i. 21.) The Roman 
legends, however, point out two distinct plactfs 


acred to Amria» one near Aiieia (Viig. Am, tL 
761, &e.; Ond, FiuL iiL 26a, &&; Stnb. t. 
pw 239; Flat. Nnm, 4; Lactant. i. 22. § 1), and 
tbe other near the city of Rome at the Porta 
Cspena, in tlie Talky now called CapareDa, where 
tbe aaoed ihield had frUen frnn heaven, and 
whete Nnma was likewiae beBeved to hare had 
interfiews with his belored Camena. (Pint. Ami. 
13 ; Jut. iiL 12.) Orid {MtL xr. 431, Ac. ; 
compoze Stab. /. c) relates that, after the death 
of Nmna, Aegeria fled into the shady gioTO in the 
vale of Arida, and there distorbed by her hunen- 
tadont the wonhip of Diana which had been 
bxvught thither from Tanris by Orettea, or, ac- 
corduig to others, by Hippolytoa. Virg^ {Aen, 
rii. 761) makes Uippolytos and Aegeria the 
parents of Virbins, who was nndoubtedly a natire 
Italian heroL This is one of tbe most remarkable 
instances of the manner in which the worship of a 
Greek divinity or hero was engrafted upon and 
combined with a purely Italian worship. A^eria 
was regarded as a prophetic dirinity, and also as 
the giver of life, whence she was invoked by 
pregnant women. (Festns, «. v. EgerioA; compare 
Wagner, CammiaitaHo ds Eperiae /omie et wpecu 
tiumjm sata, Maibarg, 1824 ; Hartung, Die Rdig. 
ier J2MMv,ii p.203, dec. and 213, &c.) [L. S.] 
AEGKCJS (Afyc^$). 1. According to some 
accoonts a son of Pandion II. king of Athens, and 
of Pylia, while others call him a son of Scyrins or 
Pbemius, and state that he was only an adopted 
son of Pandion. (Pans. L 5. § 3, &c ; SchoL ad 
Lyeopkr, 494 ; ApoUod. iiL 15. § 5.) Pandion 
bad been ezpdled from his kingdom by the 
Metionids, bat Aegens in conjunction with his 
brothers, Paflss, Nysos, and Lycos restored him, 
snd Aegens being the eldest of the brothers sao- 
eceded Pandion. Aegens first msnied Meta, a 
dsogfater of Hoplea, and then Chakiope, the 
dsogfater of Rheunor, neither of whook bore him 
any ehildren. (ApoUod. iiL 15. §6,&c.) He ascrib- 
ed tUa misfbrtnne to the anger of Aphrodite, and 
in order to condliato her intrDdneed her worship 
at Athena (Pans. L 14. § 6.) Afterwards he begot 
Tbeaeos by Aethra at T^roexen. (Pint Thee, 3; 
ApoUod. uL 15.§7; Hygin. Fab, 37.) When 
TheKiis had grown up to manhood, and was in- 
formed of his descent, he went to Athens and de- 
feated the fifty aons of his nnde PaUa^ who 
daiouDg the kingly dignity of Athens, had made 
w upon Aegens and deposed hhn, and also 
wished to exdndo Thesens firom the succession.' 
(Pint The$, 13.) Aegens was restored, bat died 
mm after. His death is related in the following 
nanoer: When Theseus went to Crete to deliver 
Athens from the tribute it had to pay to Minos, 
he promised his fiither that on his retom he would 
boist white sails as a ngnal of his safety. On his 
approsch to the coast of Attica he foigot his 
promise, and his &ther, who was watching on a 
rock on tbe seacoast, on perceiving the black sail, 
tboaght that his son had perished and threw hhn- 
•df into the sea, which according to some tradi- 
tions received firom this event Uie name of the 
Aegaean sea. (PhL Tkee. 22 ; Died. iv. 61 ; 
Pans. I 22. §5; Hygm. Fab. 43; ^err.adAen. iiL 
74.) Hedeia, who was belieyed to have spent 
Mine time at Athens on her retom firom Corinth 
to Coicbis, is said to have become mother of a son, 
McdM, by Aegens. (ApoUod. i. &. § 28 ; Hygin. 



/bft. 26.'} Aegens was one of the ejponrmie 
heroes of Attica ; and one of the Attic tribes 

SAegeis) derived ite name from him. (Pans. L 5. 
2.) His grave, called the heronm of Aegens, vras 
believed to be at Athens (Paos. L 22. § 5), and 
Pausanias mentions two stotnes of him, one at 
Athens and the other at Delphi, the bitter of which 
had been made of the tithes of the booty taken 
by the Athenians at Marathon. (Pansi L 5. § 2, 

2. The eponymic hero of the phyle caUed the 
A^geidae at Sparta, was a son of Oeolycus, and 
grandson of Theras, the founder of the colony in 
Thera. (Herod, iv. 149.) AU the Aeg^i'ds were 
believed to be Cad means, who formed a settlement 
at Spaita previous to the Dorian conquest. There 
is only this difference in the accounts, that, ac- 
cording to some, Aegeus was the leader of the 
Cadmean colonisto at Sparta, while, according to 
Herodotus, they received their name of Aegei'ds 
from the htter Aegens, the son of Oeolycus. (Pind. 
JPyth, T. 101 ; letk, viL 18, Ac, with the SchoL) 
There was at Sparto a heroum of Aegeus. (Paus. 
iiL 15. § 6 ; compare iv. 7. § 3.) [L. S.] 

Aiytd\tuL)y a daughter of Adraatus and Am* 
phithea, or of Aegialeus the son of Adrastus, 
whence she bears the surname of Adrastine. (Hom. 
//. T. 412 ; ApoUod. L 8. § 6, 9. § 13.) She was 
married to Diomedes, who, on his return from 
Troy, found her living in adultery with Cometes. 
(Eostath, adILY.n, 566.) The hero attributed 
this misfortune to the anger of Aphrodite, whom 
he had wounded in the war against Troy, but 
when Aegiale went so fiir as to threaten Ms Ufe, 
he fled to Italy. (SchoL ad Lyoopkr. 610; Ov. 
Met. ziv. 476, &c) According to Dictys Cretensis 
(vL 2), Aegiale, like dyteaonestra, had been 
seducMt to her criminal conduct by a treacherous 
report, that Diomedes was returning with a Trojan 
woman who lived with him as his wife^ and on his 
arrival at Atros Aegiale ezpeUed him. In Ovid 
(/Ms, 349) she is described as tbe type of a bad 
wife. [L .S.] 

AEOI'ALEUS {AhyuxXe^). I, A son of 
Adrastus and Amphithea or Demoanasaa (ApoUod. 
i. 9. § 13 ; Hygin. Fab, 71.) He was the only 
one among the Epigones that feU in the war 
against Thebea. (ApoUod. iiL 7. §3; Pans. is. 5.§ 7; 
compare AoitsaTua.) He was worshipped as a 
hero at P^gae in Megaiia, and it was heaved 
that his body had been conveyed thither from 
Thebes and been buried there. (Paus. L 44. § 7.) 

2. A son of Inachus and the Oceanid Melia, 
firom whom the part of Peloponnesus after- 
wards called Achaia derived ito name of Aegialeia. 
(ApoUod. iL 1. $ 1.) According to a Sicyonian 
tradition he was an antochthon, brother of Phoro- 
neus and first king of Sicyon, to whom the 
foundation of the town of Aegialeia was ascribed. 
(Paus. iL 5. § 5, TiL I. § 1.) 

3. A son of Aeetes. [Abbyrtus.] [L. S.] 
AEGl'DiUS, a Roman commander in Oaul 

under MajorianuB. (a. d. 457 — 461.) After the 
death of the latter, he maintained an independent 
sovereignty in Gaol, and was elected by the Franks 
as their lung, after they had banished Childeric 
Four years lUfter wards, Childeric was restored ; but 
Aegidius did not oppose his return, and he retained 
his influence in Gaul tiU his death. (Gregor. To- 
ron. iL 12.) 



Xos or Alyivx^)i^ samame of Zeoi, u tne bearer 
of the Aegis with which he strikes terror into the 
impious and his enemies. (Horn. JL L 202, iL 157) 
375, &c. ; Find. Isik ir. 99 ; Hygm. PotLAdr, ii. 
1 3.) Others derive the samame from aX^ and 6x^^ 
nnd take it as an allnsion to Zeus being fed by a 
goat. (Spanh. ad CaUim. hymn, in Jon, 49.) [L.S.] 

Kiyifuos)^ one of the most ancient of tiie Greek 
physicians, who is said by Galen {Db Diffist. Puis. 
i. 2, iv. 2. 11. ToL viii. pp.498, 716,752) to 
have been the first person who wrote a treatise on 
the pulse. He was a native of Velia in Lucania, 
and is supposed to have lived before the time of 
Hippocrates, that is, in the fifth century before 
Christ. His work was entitled IIcpl UaKfioitff D$ 
PalpUaikmibm^ (a name which alone sufficiently 
indicates its antiquity,) and is not now in exist- 
ence. Callimachus (op. Alhen. ziv. p. 643, e.) men- 
tions an author named Aegimius, who wrote a 
work on the art of making cheesecakes (rAoicour- 
rinrouK^¥ ff6yypafifia\ and Pliny mentions a per- 
son of the same name (/f. N. viL 49), who was 
said to have lived two hundred years ; but whether 
these are the same or different individuals is quite 
uncertain [W. A. G.] 

AEGI'MIUS (AJIytfuos)^ the mythical ancestor 
of the Doric race, who is described as their king 
nnd lawgiver at the time when they were yet in- 
habiting the northern parts of Thessoly. (Pind. 
Pyth. i. 124, v. 96.) When involved in a war 
with the lApithae, he called Heracles to his 
assistance, and promised him the third part of his 
territory, if he delirered him of his enemies. The 
Lapithae were conquered, but Heracles did not 
take for himself the territory promised to him by 
Aegimius, and left it in trust to the king who was 
to preserve it for the sons of Heracles. (ApoUod. 
ii. 7. § 7; Died. iv. 37.) Aegimius had two sons, 
Dymas and Pamphylus, who migrated to Pelopon- 
nesus and were regarded as the ancestors of two 
branches of the Doric race (Dymanes and Pam- 
phylians), while the third branch derived its name 
from Hyllus (Hylleans), the son of Heracles, who 
had been adopted by Aegimius. (ApoUod. iL 8. 
§ 3 ; SchoL ad Pind, PySk, i. 121.) Respecting 
the connexion between Aegimius and Herades, 
see MUller, Dor, i 35, &c 

There existed in antiquity an epic poem called 
** Aegimius,^ of which a few fragments are still 
extant, and which is sometimes ascribed to Hesiod 
and sometimes to Cercops of Miletus. (Athen. xi. 
p. 503; Steph. Byz. «.o. *A9arris,) The main 
subject of this poem appears to hare been the war 
of Aegimius and Heracles against the Lapithae. 
(Groddeck, BiUioth. der alL Lit, und Kungt^ il 84, 
&c.; Muller, Dor, I 33, &c; Welcker, Der Epiache 
Cydta, p. 266, &c. The fragmento are collected 
in Diintser, Die Fragm, d, epMu Poet, dtr 
Griech. U$ xur Zeil Alexand. p. 56, &c) [L. S.] 

AEGI'NA. [Abacur.] 

AEGINAEA (Afyiyofa), a surname t)f Artemis, 
under which she was worshipped at Sparta. (Paus. 
iii. 14. § 3.) It means either the huntress of char 
raois, or the wielder of the javelin (olToWa). [L.S.] 

AEGINE'TA, a modeller {fidor) mentioned 
by Pliny. (H. N, xxxv. 1 1. s. 40.) Schobirs are 
now pretty well agreed, that Winckelmann was 
raistiJcen in supposing that the word Aegineiae in 
the passage of Pliny denoted merely the country 


of soma artist, whose real mune, for i 
other, was not given. His brother 
painter of some distinction, was a pupil of Krigo- 
nus, who had been colour-grinder to the artist 
Nealces. We learn firom Plutarch {Aral. 13), 
that Nealces was a firiend of Aratoa of Sicjon, 
who was elected praetor of the Achaean leag*ie 
B. a 243. We shall not be for wrong thersfore in 
assuming, that Aegineta and his brother floariab> 
ed about OL czl. b. a 220. (K. O. M'dller, Arek. 
dm- KwuU p. 151.) [C. P. M.] 



AEGI'OCHUS. CAboid(Ichu&] 
AE'GIPAN (Alyfw), that is, Goat-Pan, waa 

according to some statements a being distinct from 
Faxkf while others regard him as identical -with 
Pan. His story appears to be altogether of lale 
origin. AoconUng to Hyginus (Fcdf. 165) he was 
the son of Zeus and a goat, or of Zeus and Aega, 
the wife of Pan, and was transferred to the 
stars. (Hygin. PoeL Aatr, ii. 13. § 28.) Otben 
again make Aegipan the fiither of Pan, and state 
that he as well as his son was represented aa half 
goat and half fish. (Eratosth. OtiasL 27.) When 
Zeus in his contest with the Titans was deprired 
of the sinews of his hands and feet, Hermea and 
Aegipan secretly restored them to him and fitted 
them in their proper places. (ApoUod. i. 6. § 3 ; 
Hygin. PoeL Astr.L c.) Aooording to a Roman 
tradition mentioned by Plutarch \ParaUeL 22), 
Aegipan had sprung from the incestuous intei^ 
course of Valeria of Tusculum and her fiither 
Valerius, and was considered only a different name 
for Silvanus. (Comp. Pan, and Voss, MytkoL 
i. p. 80, &C.) [U S.J 

AEGISTHUS {AfyurBos^ a son of Thyeates, 
who unwittingly begot him by his own daoghter 
Pelopia. Immediately after his birth he waa ex- 
posed by his mother, but was found and aaved by 
shepherds and suckled by a goat, whence his name 
Aegisthus (from dOi ; Hygin. Fab, 87, 88 ; Aelian, 
V, H, xiL 42). Subsequently he was searched after 
and found by Atreus, the brother of Tfayestea, who 
had him educated as his own child, so that every 
body believed Aegisthus to be his son. In the night 
in which Pelopia had shared the bed of her fether, 
she had taken from him his swoid which ahe 
afterwards gave to Aegisthus. This sword beeaune 
the means by which the incestuous interoonrse be- 
tween her and her fether was discovered, where- 
upon she put an end to her own life. Atrena in his 
enmity towards his brother sent Aegisthus to kill 
him ; but the sword which Aegisthus carried was 
the cause of the recognition between Thyestes and 
Ms son, and the latter returned and slew his undo 
Atreus, while he was offering a sacrifice on the 
sea-coast Aegisthus and his fiither now took 
possession of their lawftd inheritance from which 
they had been expelled by Atreus. (Hygin. /. c. 
and 252.) Homer appears to know nothing of all 
these tragic occurrences, and we learn from him 
only that, after the death of Thyestes, Aegisthus 
ruled as king at Mycenae and took no part in the 
Trojan expedition. (Od. ir. 618, &c) While 
Agamemnon, the son of Atreus, was absent on 
his expedition against Troy, Aegisthus seduced 
Clytemnestra, the wife of Agamemnon, and was so 
wicked as to ofier up thanks to the gods for the 
success with which his criminal exertions were 
crowned. (Horn. Od, iii. 263» &c) In order not 


to be niipriied by the letum of Agamemnon, he 
tent out ^lies, and when Agamemnon came, 
A^liidiiis invited him to a lepaat at which he had 
him tieacherooalj mordered. (Horn. Od. ir. 524, 
&C.; PsUk ii 16. § 5.) After this event AegisthuB 
reigned teven yean longer over Mycenae, until in 
the Offtth Oieatea, the son of Agamemnon, re- 
tained home and avenged the deau of hia &ther 
by putting the adulterer to death. (Hom. 0<L i 
^ &e. ; compare Agajuicnon, Clytxmnsst&a, 
Omstkb.) [L. S.] 

AEGLE (AfyXiv). 1. The most beantifol of the 
Naiads, daoghter of Zens and Neaesa ( Viig. Eek^, 
vi 20)^ by whom Helioa begot the Charitea. 
(P^u. iz. 35. § 1.) 

2. A diter ^ Phaeton, and daughter of Helioa 
andClymene. (Hygin. Fa6. 154, 156.) In her 
grief at die death of her brother she and her aiateci 
were changed into poplarib 

3. One of the Hesperidea. (Apollod. ii 5. § 11; 
Serv. ad Aem. iv. 484 ; compw HBSPSiUDBa.) 

4. A nymph, daughter of Panopeua, who waa 
hdoved by Tbeaeua, and for whom he forsook Ari* 
adne. (Pfait. Thes, 20; Athen. ziiL pw557.) [L. &] 

AEGLE (AiyKti)^ one of the daughters of 
Aescolapius (Plin. I£, N. xzxv. 40. § 31) by 
Lan^etia, the danghtier of the Sun, aeooiding to 
Hennippaa (jap, ScAoL ta Arittapk JPiuL 701 ^ or 
by Epione, according to Suidas. («. v. *Hirion|.) 
She is said to have derived her name Aegle, 
**■ Brightnesa,'** or ** Splendour,** either from the 
heanty of the human body when in good health, 
or from the honour paid to the medical profession. 
(J. H. Itfeihom. Comment in Hippocr. ^'Jufjurr 
Lugd. Bat 1643, 4to. c. 6. § 7, p. 55.) [W. A. G.] 

AEOLB'IS (Al^Aiifr), a daughter of Hyadnthua 
who had emigrated from Lacedaemon to Athena. 
During the siege of Athena by Minos, in the reign 
of Aegena, she together with her sisten Antheia, 
Lytaea, «id Orthaea, were sacrificed on the tomb 
of GcEBeatus the Cydop, for the purpose of avert- 
iog a peatilenee then raging at Athena. (Apollod. 
iii. 15. § 8.) [L. S.] 

AEGLES (AfyXilsX a Samian athlete, who waa 
dumb, recovered his voice when he made an effort 
on one occasion to express his indigoation at an 
attempt to impose upon him in a public contest 
(GelL T. 9; VaL Max. i 8, ezt 4) 

AEGLETES (Ah^ifrn'X ^* "« ^^ radiant 
god, a annumie of Apollo. (Apollon. Rhod. iv. 
1730 ; Apollod. i. 9. § 26 ; Hesych. s. o.) [L. 8,] 

AEGO'BOLUS (Afyo«dAof ), the goat-killer, a 
■amame of Dionysus, at Potniae in Boeotia. 
(PansLix.a§l.) [L.S.] 

AKGO'CERUS (Aryifoepw;), a surname of Pan, 
deecriptive of his figure with the horns of a goat, 
bat ia more commonly the name given to one oitht 
signs of the Zodiac. (Lucan, ix. 536 ; Lncret v. 
614 ; a Caes. Genu. mAraL 213.) [L. &] 

AEGCPHAGUS (Ahwpdryos), the goetrcater, 
a somame of Hera, unider which she was worship- 
ped by the f^tfpdaemmiians. (Pans. iii. 15. § 7 ; 
Hesyeh. and Etym. M. s. v.) [L. S.] 

AEGUS and ROSCILLUS, two chiefs of the 
Allobroges, who had served Caesar with great 
fidelity in the Gallic war, and were treated by 
him with great distinction. They accompanied 
him in his campaigns against Pompey, but having 
been reproved by Caesar on account of depriving 
the cavaliy of its paj and appropriating the booty 
to themseivei^ they deserted to Pompey in Greece. 



(CaesL BdL do, iii 59, 60.) Aegus was aftei^ 
wards killed in an engagement between the cavalry 
of Caesar and Pompey. (iiL 84.) 

AEGYPTUS (Afyvrrof), a son of Belos and 
Anchinoe or Achiioe, and twinrbrother of Duwua. 
(Apollod. iL 1. § 4; Tiets. ad I^^eofkr. 382, 
1155.) Euripides represented Cepheus and Phi- 
neus likewise as brothen of Aegyptus. Behis 
assigned to Danaus the sovereignty of Libya, and 
to Aegyptus he gave Arabia. The latter also sub- 
dued the country of the Melampodes, which ho 
called Aegypt after his own name. Aegyptus by 
his sever^ wives had fiffcy sons, and it so hap- 
pened that his brother Danaus had just as many 
daughtersL (ApoUod. ii. 1. § 5 ; Hygin. FoIk 170.) 
Danaus had reason to fear the sons of his brother, 
and fled with his danghten to Aigos in Pelopon- 
nesus. Thither he was followed by the sons of 
Aegyptus, who demanded his daughten for their 
wives and promised faithful alliance. Danaus 
complied with their request, and distributed his 
danghten among them, but to each of them he 
gave a dagger, with which they were to kill their 
husbands in the bridal night. All the sons of 
Aegyptus were thus murdered with the exception 
of LynoeoB, who was saved by Hyperronestra. 
The Danaids buried the heads of their murdered 
husbands in Lema, and their bodies outside the 
town, and were afterwards purified of their crime 
by Athena and Hermes at the command of Zeus. 
Pausanias (iL 24. § 3), who saw the monument under 
which the heads of the sons of Aegyptus were belie v- 
ed to be buried, says that it stood on the way to 
TiBrissa, the citadel of Argos, and that their bodies 
were buried at Lema. In Hyginus {Fab, 168) 
the story is somewhat different According to 
him, Aegyptus fiumed the plan of murdering 
Danaus and his daughten in order to gain posses- 
sion of his dominions^ When Danaus was in- 
formed of this he fled with his daughten to Argos. 
Aegyptus then sent out his sons in punuit of the 
fugitives, and enjoined them not to return unless 
they had slain Danana. The sons of Aegyptus 
hiid siege to Aigos, and when Danaus saw that 
further resistance was useless, he put an end to the 
hostilities by giving to each of the besiegen one of 
his danghten. The murder of the sons of Aegyp- 
tus then took place in the bridal night There 
was a tradition at Patrae in Achaia, according to 
which Aegyptus himself came to Greece, and died 
at Aroe with grief for the fate of his sons. The 
temple of Serapis at Patrae contained a monument 
of Aegyptus. (Pans, vii 21. § 6.) [L. S.] 

AEIMNESTUS fAcf/iyiHrroi), a Spartan, who 
killed Mardonius in the battle of Pktaea, n. c. 479, 
and afterwards fell himself in the Messenian war. 
(Herod, ix. 64.) The Spartan who killed Mar- 
donius, Plutareh {AriiL 19) calla Arimnestua 

AE'Ll A GENS, plebeian, of which the fiunily 
names and surnames are Catus, Gallus, Gra< 
ciLia, Lamia, Liour, Pastus, Staunuk, 
Stilo, Tubkro. On coins this gens is also 
written AiUii^ but AUia seems to be a distinct 
gens. The only fimiUy-names and surnames of the 
Aelia gens upon coins are Balay Lamioy Paetus^ 
and S^anua, Of Bala nothing is known. 6!^ 
mu is the name of the favorite of Tiberius, who 
was adopted by one of the AeliL [Skjanuh.] 
The fint member of this gens, who obtained the 
consulship, was P. Aelius Paetus in b c. 337. 


Under the empire the Aelian name became ttiil 
more oelebmtea. It was the name of the emperor 
Hadrian, and oonieqnently of the Antonineti whom 
he adopted. 

It is docbtfui to which fiunily P. Aelini be- 
longed who was one of the first plebeian qnaetton, 
B. c. 409. (Jay, iy. 64.) 

AELIA'NUS waa together with Amandos the 
leader of an inaonection of Gallic peasants, called 
Bagaudae, in the reign of Diocletian. It was pat 
do¥m by the Caesar Maximianns Hercnlins. (£a- 
trop. ix. 1 3 ; AoreL Vict dB CasK 99.) 

AELIA'NUS, CASPE'RIUS, piefect of the 
Pmetorian guards under Domitian and Nerra. 
He excited an insurrection of the guards against 
Nerva, in order to obtain the punishment of some 
obnoxious persons, but was killed by Trajan with 
his accomplices. (Dion Cass. IxyiiL 3, 5.) 

y6s), was bom according to Suidas (t. v. AlKuafSs) 
at Praeneste in Italy, and lived at Rome. He 
calls himself a Roman ( F. ^. xiL 26), as pos- 
•essmg the rights of Roman citizenship. He was 
particularly fond of the Greeks and of Greek lite- 
rature and oratoiy. ( F. //. ix. 82, ziL 26.) 
He studied under Pausanias the rhetorician, and 
imitated the eloquence of Nicostiatus and the style 
of Dion Chrysostom ; but especially admired 
Herodes Atticus more than all. He taught rheto- 
ric at Rome in the time of Hadrian, and hence was 
called 6 ao^m^s. So complete was the command 
he acquired over the Greek language that he could 
speak as well as a native Athenian, and hence was 
called 6 fitXlyKttrros or fi/tXi^Boyyos, (Philost ViL 
Soph. ii. 31.) That rhetoric, however, waa not his 
forte may easily be believed from the style of his 
works ; and he appears to have given up teaching 
for writing. Suidas calls him *Apx*<P<^f (Pontifex). 
He lived to above sixty years of age, and had no 
children. He did not marry, beoiuse he would 
not have any. There are two considerable works 
of his remaining : one a collection of miscellaneous 
history {UoudXii 'loropla) in fourteen books, com- 
monly called his "Yaria Historia,** and the other 
a work on the peculiarities of animals (IIcp) Zihg¥ 
BUnrros) in seventeen books, commonly called his 
'^De Animalium Natura.** The former work ^n- 
tains short narrations and anecdotes, historical, 
bionaphical, antiquarian, &&, selected from various 
authors, generally without their names being given, 
and on a great variety of subjects. Its chief value 
arises from its oontaininff many passages from 
works of older authors which are now lost It is 
to be regretted that in selecting from Thucydides, 
Herodotus, and other writers, he has sometimes 
given himself the trouble of altering their Umguage. 
But he tells us he liked to have his own way and 
to follow his own taste, and so he would seem to 
have altered for the mere sake of putting some- 
thing different. The hitter work is of the same 
kind, scrappy and gossiping. It is partly collected 
from older writers, and partly the result of his own 
observations both in Italy and abroad. According 
to Philostiatus {in VU.) he was scarcely ever out 
of Italy ; but he tells us himself that he travelled 
' OS for as Aegypt ; and that he saw at Alexandria 
an ox with five feet. {De Anim, xL 40 ; comp. xL 
II.) This book would appear to have become a 
popular and standard work on soology, since in the 
fourteenth century Manuel Philes, a Byzantine 
poet, founded upon it a poem on animals. At the 

end of the work is a condndin^ chapter (lvCx«7vr), 
where he states the general prmc^les on wiiidi he 
has eompowed his work : — that he has spent great 
labour, cara, and thought in writing it ; — ^that he 
has preferr«»d the pursuit of knowledge to tbe pni^ 
suit of wealth ; and that, for his part, he fovuMi 
much more pleasure in observing the hi^ite of the 
lion, the panther, and the fox, in listenixig to the 
song of the nightingale, and in studying the mi- 
grations of cranes, than in men heaping np riches 
and being numbered among the great : — that 
throughout his work he has sought to adheze to 
the truth. Nothing can be imagined more deficient 
in arrangement tluin this work : he goes from one 
subject to another without the least link of aasod- 
ation ; as (e. g.) firom elephants (xi 16) to dngoi^s 
(xL 16), from the liver oi mice (iL 56} to the uses 
of oxen (ii. 67). But this absence of arrangement, 
treating things roixiKet wouclXMSy he say% is in- 
tentional ; he adopted this phm to give variety to 
the woric, and to avoid tedium to the reader. Hm 
style, which he commends to the indulgence of 
critics, though free firom any great fimlt, has im 
particular merit. The similarity of plan in the two 
works, with other internal evidenoea, seems to 
shew that they were both written by the same 
Aelian, and not, as Yoss and Valckenaer oonjec- 
ture, by two difierent persons. 

In both works he seems desirous to incukato 
moral and religious principles (see F. H. yii. 44 ; 
De Anim, vi. 2, vii. 10, 11, ix. 7, and Epilog,) ; 
and he wrote some treatises expressly on philoeD- 
phical and religious subjects, especally one on 
Providence (IleS Upwoias) in three books (Suidas, 
f. V. *A€affaMiorois)j and one on the Divine Mani- 
festations (nepl e«M»y *£i^p7CM»v), directed against 
the Epicureans, whom he alludes to elsewhere^ 
(Ih Amm. vil 44.) There are also attributed to 
Aelian twenty letten on husbandry and such-like 
matten {'Aypoueuctd *EirurroW), which are by 
feigned chaiacters, are written in a rfaetoricBl un- 
real style, and are of no value. The first edition 
of all his works was by Coniad Geaner, 1666, foL, 
containing also the works of Heradidea, Poleno, 
Adamantius and Mebmpus. The**VariaHistoiia*' 
was first edited b^ Camillus Peruscoa, Rome, 
1646, 4to.; the prmdpal editions since are by 
Periaonius, Leyden, 1701, 8va, by GranoTios, 
Leyden, 1731, 2 vols. 4to., and by Kuhn, Leip- 
sig, 1780, 2 vols. 8vo. The De Animalinm 
Natun was edited by Gronovius, Lend. 1744, 
2 vols. 4to., and by J. G. Schndder, Leipzig, 
1784, 2 vols. 8va The but edition is that by 
Fr. Jacobs, Jena, 1832, 2 vols. 8va This contains 
the valuable materials which Schneider had col- 
lected and left for a new edition. The Letters 
were published apart from the other woiks by 
Aldus Manutius in his **Collectio Epistolarum 
Graecarum,"* Venice, 1499, 4to. 

The Varia Historia has been translated into 
Latin by C. Gesner, and into English by A. Fle- 
ming, Loud. 1676, and by Stanley, 1666; this 
last has been reprinted more than once. The De 
Animalium Nature has been translated into Latin 
by Peter Gillius (a Frenchman) and by Conrad 
Gesner. It does not appear to have been translated 
into English. 

There has also been attributed to Aelian a woric 
called Karrryopia roG Ti^ynSof, an attack on an 
effeminate man, probably meant for Elagabalns. 
(Suidas, 9, V, ""A^w.) [A. A.] 


AELIA'NITS, LirCIUS, one of the thiitj ty- 
nntB (a. Dl 259-268) under the Roman empin. 
He Basmned the purple in Ganl after the deaUi of 
Postoimis, and tvas kiUed by hia own loldien, be- 
cause he 'Wtnild not allow them to phinder Mognn- 
tiafwm. TrebeDhia PoDio and others call him 
LoUiran ; Eckhel IDodr.Nwm. xiL p. 448) thinka, 
thai hm tme name waa Laelianua ; bat there leema 
most matbtaitj in &TOor of L. Adianoa. ( Eutiopw 
ix. 7; TiebdL PoU 7V^ 2>r. 4 ; Anrel VicU de 
Cbea. 3a. .Qid. 82.) 

an ancaent phjndan, who mnat haye lived in the 
accDod oentory after Chiiat» aa he ia mentioned by 
Galen (X>a TUriaca ad PampkSL init. yoL xiT. 
pw 299) aa the oldeat of hia tatora. Hii fitther ia 
snppoaed to haTealaobeen a phyaician, aa Aelianoa 
is said by Galen {De DmeeU Mmtad. e. 1. p. 2. 
ed. Dictz) to have made an epitome of hia &ther*B 
anatomieal writingBL Oalen spetika of that part of 
hia woik which treated of the Diiaection of the 
Mnadiea aa being held in aome repnte in hia time 
(iftKi.), and he alwaya mentiona hu tutor with re- 
aped. (iUL c7j 22^ jf lU ^7.) Daring the 
prevBleskoe of an epideniie in Italy, Aelianna ia 
aaid faj Galen {Dt Tkeriaca ad PamjJdL ibid.) to 
have naed the Theriaca (DieU 4/ AnL art Tk»- 
rieaeo) with great aooceaa, both aa a meana of core 
and ^ao aa a pteaerratiTe againat the diaeaae. He 
mnst have been a peraon of aome celebrity, aa this 
aame anecdote ia mentioned hr the Arabic Histo- 
rian Ab6 1-Faraj {Huior, Qmtptad, DynatL p. 
77), with exactly the aame drcumatanoea except 
that he makea the epidemic to haTO broken out at 
Antioeh inatead of in Italy. None of hia worka 
(aa ftr aa the writer ia aware) are now extant. 

[W. A. G.] 
AELIA'NUS, PLAUTIUS, oflEeied ap the 
prayer aa pontifi&x, when the iint atone of the 
new Capitol waa laid in a. o. 71. (Tac. HkL vr, 
5.1.) We learn from an inscription (Grater, p. 453; 
Orelli, n. 750X that hia fall name waa Ti. Pkntiaa 
SilTanna Aelianna, that he held many important 
military rnmmanda, and that he was twice conauL 
Hia first conaolahip waa in A. D. 47 ; the date of 
his second ia nnknown. 

AELIA'NUS TA'GTICUS(Al;uai^5Taicr<ja(r) 
waa most probably a Greek, bat not the same aa 
Claadioa Adianoa. He lived in Rome and wrote 
a work in fifty-three chaptera on the Sfilitary Tao- 
tica of the Greeks (IIcpl iSr/MmrytiNSy TtClcwv 
*EAAfiirucMf), whidi he dedicated to the emperor 
Hadrian. He also gires a brief account of the 
eottstitotion of a Romm army at that time. The 
work arose, he says (ZXedtc;), frcnn a eonyersation 
he had with the emperor Nerva at Frontinna^'a 
honae at Formiae. He promisea a work on 
Naxxd Tactaca also ; bat thia, if it was written, 
ia loat. The first edition of the Tactics (a Terr 
bad one) was poblished in 1532 ; the next, mach 
better, waa by Frandscoa Robortellaa, Venice, 
1552, 4to., which containa a new Ijatin version by 
the editor, and is iUnatrated with many catsi The 
best edition is that printed by Eketir at Leyden, 
1613. It ia oaoaDy fiiand boond np with Leo'^ 
Tactica [Lao]. 

It waa tranabted into Ladn first by Theodoras 
of Theasalonica. Thia tnmakdon waa publiahed 
at Rome, 1487, together with Vegetiaa, Frontinns, 
and Mbdestaa^ It ia printed also in Robortellaa^ 
editioo, which theiefiiie containa two Latin Yer- 



sions. It haa been translated into English by 
Capt. John Bingham, Lend. 1616, foL, and by 
Lord Dillon, 1814, 4to. [A. A] 

AE'LIUS ARISTI'DES. [Arxstiobs.] 
AE'LIUS ASCLEPrADES. [Asclbpiadis.] 
AE'LIUS DIONY'SIUS. [Dionysius.] 
AE'LIUS DGNA'TUS. [Donatus.] 
AE'LIUS MARCLA.'NUS. [Marcianus.] 
AE'LIUS PROMCTUS (AJfXior flpo^iwror), 
an ancient physician of Alexandria, of whose per- 
sonal history no particalars are known, and whose 
date ia uncertain. He ia supposed by Yilloison 
(Aneed. Graee. toI. ii p. 179. note 1) to have 
lived after the time of Pompey the Great, that is, 
in the first century before Chnst; by others he is 
considered to be much more andent; and by 
Choulant {Haadbaek der BiiekerhuuU fur die 
AtUen Medicm, Ed. 2. Leipsig, 1840, 8vo.), on 
the other hand, he ia placed aa late aa the second 
half of the first century after Christ. He ia most 
probably the same person who ii quoted by Galen 
{Db Compot, Medioam, $eamd. LoeoB^ iv. 7, toL 
ziL p. 780) simply by the name ofAdiut, He 
wrote several Greek medical worka, which are still 
to be finmd in manoscript in different librariea 
in Europe, but of which none (aa fiir aa the writer 
ia aware) have ever been published, though Ktihn 
intended hia worka to have been indudMl in hia 
collection of Greek medical writers. Some extracta 
firam one of hia worka entitled Aiwoficptfr,* Medi- 
cmalmm Fornutlanm CkMecUo^ are inserted by C. 
G. Kiihn m hia AddHam. ad EteneL Med. Vet. a 
J.A.FaMdo m *'BM. Or,"* EakA^ and by Bona 
in hia Thutaiua de SeorimtOf Verona, 1781, 4to. 
Two other of hia worka are quoted or mentioned 
by Hieron. Mercorialis in his Variae LecHones^ iii, 
4, and hia work De Venems et Morhia Venmtotia^ 
i. 16, iL 2 ; and alao by Schneider in his Prefiioea 
to Nicander^a Theriaoa^ p. xi., and Alempkarmaea^ 
p. xix. [W. A. G.J 

AELLO. [Harptui.] 
AELLOPUS ('AcAA^rovsl a aonuune of Iris, 
the messenger of the |ods, oy which she b de- 
scribed as swift-fix>ted like a storm- wind. Homer 
uses the form deKK6m. (II, viii. 409.) ^L. S.] 
AELURUS. [TiMOTHXUs Axlurus.] 
AEMI'LIA. 1. A vestal virgui, who, when 
the aacred fire waa extinguished on one occasion, 
prayed to the goddess for her aaaistance, and mirar 
culously rekindled it by throwing a piece of her 
garment upon the extinct emben. (Dionys. il. 
68; yaLMax.i. L§7.) 

% The third daughter of L. Aemilius Paullua, 
who fell in the battle of Cannae, waa the wife*of 
Scipio Afticanua I. and the mother of the celebrated 
Cornelia, the mother of the (JracchL She was of 
a mild disposition, and long survived her husband. 
Her property, which was huge, waa inherited by 
her grandaon by adoption, Scipio Africanus II., 
who gave it to his own mother Piqiiria, who had 
been divorced by hia own &ther L. Aemilius. 

* Avyc^Mp^v ia a word used by the htter Greek 
writers, and is exphuned by Du Congo (Ghm, Med. 
et Ififi$k, QraadL) to mean ots, virhu. It is how« 
ever frequently used in the sense given to it in the 
text. See Leo, CkmapecU Medic iv. 1, 11. ap^ 
Ermerin. Anted, Med, Grueo. pp. 153, 157. 



(Polyb. xxxii. 12 ; Diod. Exc xxxi ; Val. Max. 
vi. 7. § 1 ; Plut. Aem, 2 ; Lir. xxxviii. 57.) 

3. the third daughter of L. Aemiliiu Paulliii 
MacedonicoB waa a little girl when her fother was 
appointed consul a second time to conduct the war 
against Perseus. Upon returning home after his 
election he found her in tears, and upon inquiring 
the reason she told him that Perseus had died, 
which was Uie name of her dog ; nHiereupon he 
exclaimed ** I atxept the omen," and regarded it 
as a pledge of his success in the war. (Cic. de 
Div. I 46, ii. 40 ; Plut. Aem. 10.) 

4. Aemilia Lepida. [Lxpida.] 

5. A vestal virgin, who was put to death B. c. 
114 for having committed incest upon several oc- 
casions. She induced two of the other yestal 
virgins, Marda and Licinia, to commit the same 
crime, but these two were acquitted by the ponti- 
fices, when Aemilia was condemned, but were 
subsequently condemned by the praetor L. Caseins. 
(Plut Qttoest Rom. p. 284 ; Lir. EpiL 63 ; 
Orosius, T. 15 ; Ascon. in Cie, MiL p. 46, ed. 

AEMI'LIA GENS, originally written AIMI- 
LIA, one of the most ancient patrician houses at 
Rome. Its origin is referred to the time of Numa, 
and it is said to have been descended from Ma- 
mercus, who received the name of Aemilius on ao* 
count of the persuasiveness of his language (Si* 
aluvKlap K&yov), This Mameicus is represented 
by some as the son of Pythagoras, and by others 
as the son of Numa, while a third account traces 
his origin to Ascanius, who had two sons, Julius 
and Aemylos. (Plut AmnU, 2, Num. ft, 21 ; Festus, 
s. V, Aemil.) Amulius is also mentioned as one 
of the ancestors of the Aemilii (SiL Ital. viii. 297.) 
It seems pretty clear that the Aemilii were of 
Sabine origin ; and Festus derives the name Ma- 
mercus from the Oscan, Mamers in that language 
being the same as Mars. The Sabinea spoke 
Oscan. Since then the Aemilii were supposed to 
have come to Rome in the time of Numa, and 
Numa was said to have been intimate with Pytha- 
goras, we can see the origin of the legend which 
makes the ancestor of the house the son of Pytha- 
goras. The first member of the house who ob- 
tained the consulship was L. Aemilius Mamercus, 
in a c. 484. 

The family-names of this gens are : Barbula, 
BucA, Lipid 178, Mamkrcus or Mamkrcinu8, 
Papus, Paullus, Rbgillus, Scaurus. Of these 
names Buca, Lepidus, PauUus, and Scaurus are the 
only ones that occur on coins. 

AEMILIA'NUS. 1. The son of L. Aemilius 
PauUus Macedonicus, was adopted by P. Cornelius 
Scipio, the son of P. Cornelius Sdpio Africanus, 
and was thus called P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianns 
Africanus. [Sapio.] 

2. The governor of Pannonia and Moesia in the 
reign of Gallns. He is also called Aemilius ; and 
on coins we find as his praenoroen both Marcus 
and Caius. On one coin be is called C. Julius 
Aemilianns ; but there is some doubt about the 
genuineness of the word Julius. (Eckhel,viL p. 372.) 
He was bom in Mauritania about a. d. 206. He 
defeated the barbarians who had invaded his pro- 
vince, and chased them as fiir as the Danube, a«d. 
253. He distributed among his soldiers the booty 
he had gained, and viras saluted emperor by them. 
He then marched into Italy, but Gallus, who had 
advanced to meet him, was slain at Interamna to- 


gether with his son Volusianus by his own aoldien. 
AemiliiuHis was acknowledged by the senate, but 
was slain alter a reign of throe or fourmonUis by his 
soldiers near Spoletum, on the approach of Valed- 
anus. Aocon&ig to other accounts he died a 
natural death. (Zoiimus, L 28, 29; Zonaraa, xii. 
21, 22 ; Eutrop. iz. 5 ; AureL Vict, dt Oaet. SI, 

3. One of the thirty tyrants (a. d. 259 — ^268) 
was compelled by the troops in Egypt to uaome 
the purple. He took the surname of Alexander or 
Alexandrinus. Gallienus sent Theodotos against 
him, by whom he was taken and sent prisoner to 
Oallienus. Aemilianua was strangled in prison. 
(TrebeH Poll. THg, 7yr. 22, GaUien, 4, 5.) 

AEMILIA'NUS (who U also called Aemiikt$) 
lived in the fifth century after Christ, and is 
known as a physician, confessor, and martyr. In 
the reign of the Vandal King Hunnerie (▲. n. 
477-484), during the Arian persecution in Africa, 
he was most cruelly put to death. The Romish 
church celebrates his memory on the sixth of De- 
cember, the Greek church on the seventh. {Mar- 
tyroL Rom, ed. Baron. ; Victor Vitensis, De Per- 
uceut. Vandal, v. 1, with Ruinart*s notes, Paris. 
8vo. 1694 ; Bsovius, NomemdUUor Sanetontm Pro- 
Jesnone Medioarum,) fW. A. O.] 

AEMILIA'NUS {hXtuKitans), a native of the 
town of Nicaea, and an epignumnatic poet Nothing 
further is known about him. Three of hi« epi- 
grams have been preserved. (AnthoL Giaec. vii 
623, ix. 218, 756.) [a P. M.] 







AEMI'LIUS PROBUS. [Nxpoa, Cornr- 



AENE'ADES (AircufiSc;), a patronymic from 
Aeneas, and applied as a surname to those who 
were believed to be descended from him, such 
as Ascanius, Augustus, and the Romans in 
general (Viig. Ae$u ix. 653; Or. ExPcmL L 35; 
MtL XT. 682, 695.) [L. S.] 

AENE'AS (AlFcfas). Homerie Stay, Aeneas 
was the son of Anchises and Aphrodite, and bom 
on mount Ida. On his fiither^s ride he was a 
great-grandson of Tros, and thus nearly related to 
the royal house of Troy, as Priam himself was a 
grandson of Tros. (Hom. IL xx. 215, &&, il 
820, V. 247, &c; Hes. Theoff, 1007, &c) He was 
educated from his infruicy at Dardanus, in the 
house of Alcathous, the husband of his sister. {IL 


*SL 463, ftie.) At the bqj[nmii« of the war of 
the Greeks againtt Troy he did not take any part 
in it, U&4 th« poet intimates that there existed an 
id ieeling between him and Priam, who did not 
par eafficieiit honour to Aeneas. (IL ziiL 460, &c^ 
xjL. 181.) This profaaUj arose from a decree of 
destiny, aoeofding to which Aeneaa and his do* 
seendaoita wroe to rule over Tioy, since the hooae 
of Priam had drawn npon itself the hatred of 
Cronion. {IL xr. S07.) One day when Aeneas 
•wwkM tending his fiodu on meant Ida, he was 
attacked by Achilles, who took his cattle and pat 
him to flight. But he was lescoed hy the gods. 
This event, howerer, and the admonition of Apollo, 
Toaaed bis spirit, and he led his Dardanians against 
the Greeks. (/£.xx.89,&e., 190,ftc.,iL8]9,&e.) 
Heneefbrth he and Hector are the great bolwarks 
of tbe Trojans against the Oieeks, and Aeneas ap* 
pears bdored and honooied by gods and men. (IL 
xi. 58, xri. 619, t. 180, 467, vi. 77, ftc.) He is 
among the Trojans what Achillea is among the 
Greeks. Both are sons of immortal motheiv, both 
are at fiend with the kings, and both possess horses 
of diwine origin. {IL t. 265, &c) Achilles him- 
self, to whom Hector owns his inferiority, thinks 
Aeneaa a worthy competitor. (IL zx. 175.) The 
place which Aeneas oocnpiee among the Trojans is 
well exp nmed in Philostiatas (Her. 13), who says 
that the Greeks called Hector the hand, and Aeneas 
the Bool of the Trojans. Respecting the bmye and 
noble manner in which he protects the body of his 
friend Pandaras, see //. t. 299. On one occasion 
he wras enmed in a oontest with Diomedes, who 
hurled a nu^ty stone at him and broke his hip. 
Aeneas fell to the ground, and Aphrodite hastened 
to his assistance (IL ▼. 305), and when she too 
was woonded, ApoUo carried mm fiom the field of 
battle to his tem^, where he was cnied by Leto 
and Aitemia. (IL t. 345, Ac.) In the attack of 
the Trojans upon the wall of the Greeks, Aeneas 
commanded the foarth host of the Trojans. (//. 
zii. 98.) He arenged tbe death of Alcathoas by 
shiyii^ Oenomans and Aphareos, and hastened to 
the assistanoe of Hector, who was thrown on the 
groond by Aj^ The last feat Homer mentions 
is hii fight with Adiilles. On this as on all other 
occasions, a god interposed and saved him, and this 
time it was by Poseidon, who althoogh in general 
hostile towards the TTOjans, yet rescued Aeneas, 
that the decrees of destiny might be folfiOed, and 
Aeneas and his oflbpnng might one day rule orer 
Troy. {IL ix. 178, Ac, 805, Ac.) Hiub £w only 
is the story of Aeneas to be gathered firam the 
Homeric poems, and tu from alluding to Aeneas 
haring emigrated after the capture of Troy, and 
hsring foonded a new kingdom in a foreign hmd, 
the poet distinctly xntiraatee that he conceives 
Aeneas and his descendants as reigning at Troy 
after the extinction of the house of Piiam. (Comp. 
Strah. jdiL p. 608.) 

Laier Slerie$. According to the Homeric hymn 
on Aphrodite (257, &c), Aeneas was brought up 
by the nymphs of meant Ida, and was not taken 
to fais fitther Anchises, until he had reached bis 
fifth year, and then he was, according to the wish 
of the goddess, giTon out as the son of a nymph. 
Xenophon (De VmaL 1. § 15) says, that he was 
inttnctcd by Cheiron, the usual teacher of the 
heroes According to the ** Cypiia,** he even took 
part in carrying off Helen. His bnTory in the 
war against the Greeks is mentioned m the hiter 



traditions as well as in the eariier ones. (Hygin. 
Fab. 116 ; Philostr. L e.) According to some ac* 
counts Aeneas was not present when Troy was 
taken, as he had been sent by Priam on an expe- 
dition to Phiygia, while according to others he 
was requested by Aphrodite, just before the iall of 
the city, to leaTO it, and accordingly went to mount 
Ida, carrying his &ther on his shoulders. TDion. 
HaL L 48.) A third account makes him hold oat 
at Troy to the hwt, and when all hopes disappeared, 
Aeneas with his Dardanians and the warriors of 
Ophrynium withdrew to the citadel of Pergamas, 
where the most costly treasures of the Troians 
were kept. Here he repelled the enemy and le- 
ceived the fugitive Trojans, until he coald hold oat 
no longer. He then sent the people ahead to 
mount Ida, and followed them with his warriors, 
the images of the gods, his fiither, his wife, and 
hia children, hoping that he would be able to 
main ta in hiinself on the heights of mount Ida. But 
being threatened with an attack by the Greeks, he 
entered into negotiations with them, in consequence 
of which he soirendered his position and was 
allowed to depart in safety with his friends and 
treasures. (Dionya. L 46, &c ; Aelian, V. H, 
iii. 22 ; Hygin. Fab, 254.) Others again reUted 
that he was led by his hatred of Pans to betray 
Ilion to the Greeks, and was allowed to depart 
free and safe in consequence. (Dionys. Lc) LiTy 
(LI) states, that Aeneas and Antenor were the 
only Trojans against whom the Greeks did not 
make use of their right of conquest, on account of 
an ancient connexion of hospitality existing be- 
tween them, or because Aeneas had always advised 
his countrymen to restore Helen to HeneUus. 
(Comp. Strab. L e.) 

The fiirtber part of the story of Aeneas, after 
leaving mount Ida with his friends and the images 
of the gods, especially that of Pallas (Palladium, 
Pans. iL 23. § 5) presents as many variations as 
that relating to the taking of Troy. All accounts, 
however, agree in stating that he left the coasU of 
Asia and crossed over into Europe. According to 
some he went across tiie Hellespont to the peniit- 
suhi of Palleoe and died there ; according to othen 
he proceeded from Thrace to the Arcadian Orcho- 
menos and settled there. (Stmb. /. c; Pans, viii 
12. § 5 ; Dionys. HaL L 49.) By fiir tiie greater 
number of later writers, however, anxious to put 
him in connexion with the history of Latium and 
to make him the anoestorial hero of the Romans, 
state that he went to Italy, though some assert 
that the Aeneas who came to Italy was not the 
son of Anchises and Aphrodite, and others that 
after his arrival in Italy he retomed to Troy, 
leaving his son Ascanius behind him. (Lycophr. 
1226, dec. J Dionys. L 53; Liv. L 1.) A do- 
scription of the wanderings of Aeneas before he 
reached the coast of Latium, and of the various 
towns and temples ho was believed to have found- 
ed daring his wanderings, is given by Dionysius 
(L 50, Slc\ whose account is on the whole the 
same as that followed by Viigil in his Aeneid, 
although the latter makes various embellishments 
and additions, some of which, as his lauding at 
Carthage and meeting with Dido, are irreconci&ble 
with chronology. From Pallene (Thrace), where 
Aeneas stayed the winter after the taking of Troy, 
and founded the town of Aeneia on the Thermaic 
gulf (Liv. xl. 4), he sailed with his companions to 
Delos, Cythera (where he founded a temple of 



Aphrodite), Boiae in Laconia (where he built Etia 
and Aphrodisiaa, Pans. iii. 22. § 9), Zacynthas 
(temple of Aphrodite), Leacaa, Actiam, Ambracia, 
and to Dodona, wnere he met the Trojan 
Helenna. From Epinu he niled acron the 
Ionian sea to Italy, when he landed at the 
lapjgian promontory. Hence he croaaed over to 
Sicily, where he met the Trojans, Elymns and 
Aegestus (Aceatea), and built the towns of Elyme 
and Aegeata. From Sicily he Bailed bock to Italy, 
landed in the port of Palinuma, came to the 
iaiand of Leucaaia, and at Uat to the coast of 
Latium. Varioua signs pointed out this place aa 
the end of hia wanderings, and he and hia Trojans 
accordingly aettled in Latium. The place where 
they had landed waa called Troy. Latinua, king 
of the Aboriginea, when informed of the arrival of 
the atrangera, prepared for war, but afterwarda 
concluded an alliance with them, gave up to them 
a port of hia dominions, and with their assistance 
conquered the Rutulians, with whom he was then 
at war. Aeneas founded the town of Lavinium, 
called after Lavinia, the daughter of Latinua, 
whom he married. A new war then followed be- 
tween Latinus and Tumus, in which both chie& 
fell, whereupon Aeneas became sole ruler of the 
Aborigines and Trojans, and both nations united 
into one. Soon after this, however, Aeneas fell in 
a battle with the Rutulians, who were assisted by 
Mezentius, king of the Etruscans. As his body 
was not found i^r the battle, it was believed that 
it had been carried up to heaven, or that he had 
perished in the river Numicius. The Latins 
erected a monument to him, with the inscription 
To the father and noHve god, {Jovi Indigetiy 
Liv. i. 2 ; Dionya. L 64 ; Strab. v. p. 229, ziil 
p. 595; Ov. Met, xiii. 62S, &c., xiv. 75, &c, zv. 
438, &c; Conon, NarraL 46; Plut. Rom, 3.) 
Two other accounts somewhat different from those 
mentioned above are preserved in Servius (a/ ^ an. 
iz. 264, from the work of Abas on Troy), and in 
Tsetses {ad LyxipKr. 1252). Dionysius places the 
Umding of Aeneas in Italy and the building of 
Lavinium about the end of the second year after 
the taking of Troy, and the death of Aeneas in the 
seventh year. Virgil on the other hand represents 
Aeneas landing in Italy seven yean after the fell 
of Trov, and comprises all the events in Italy 
from the binding to the death of Tumus within 
the space of twenty days. 

The story about the descent of the Romans 
from the Trojans through Aeneas was 'generally 
received and believed at Rome at an eariy period, 
and probably arose from the feet, that the inhabit- 
ants of Latium and all the places which Aeneas 
was aaid to have founded, lay in countries inhabit- 
ed by people who were all of the same stock — 
Pelaagians : hence also the worship of the Idaean 
Aphrodite in all places the foundation of which is 
ascribed to Aeneas. Aeneas himself^ therefore, 
such as he appean in his wanderings and final 
settlement in Latium, is nothing else but the per- 
sonified idea of one common origin. In this 
character he was worshipped in the various places 
which traced their origin to him. (Liv. 3d. 4.) 
Aeneas was frequently represented in statues ana 
paintings by ancient artists. (Pans, ii 21. § 2, v. 
22. § 2 ; Plin. H, N, zzzv. 10. § 36.) On gems 
and coins he b usually represented as carrying his 
father on his shoulder, and leading his son Asca- 
nius by the hand* 


Respecting the inconsistencies in the Iffeoda 
about Aeneas and the mode of solving them, we 
Niebuhr, HtML </ Rome^ L p. 179, &c. Respit- 
ing the colonies he is said to haTe fiDundcd, 
Fiedler, DeErrctriinuAeiieae adPhoematm eolnmiuM 
pertmeniUma^ Wesel, 1827. Ato, About the wor- 
ship and religions character of Aeneas, tee UsdboJd, 
GeMckidiie dee Trqiamaekem Kriegn^ Stattgard. 
1836, p. 302, &&; Hartung, OeadaehU der Heluj, 
der Romer^ L p. 83, &c. ; and above all R. 11. 
Khuisen, Aenecu umddie Fenaien^ espedallj book L 
p. 34, &e. [L. &] 

AENE'AS (A/y«(at) GAZAEUS, ao oJled 
from his birth-place, fiourished a. d. 487. He 
was at first a Platouist and a Sophist* being a 
disciple of the philosoper Uierodes (aa appears 
from his Theopkradue^ Galland. p. 629) and s 
friend of Procopius (as we know from his Epistles). 
His date thus ascertained u confirmed by hi» 
stating, diat he had heard speak some of the Con- 
feasora whose tongues Hunncric had cut out* a. n. 
484. (Ibid, p. 663, c.) When a Christian, he 
composed a dialogue, 0» ihe ImmortaUiy </ ikt 
Soml amd the Renarreetkm of the Body^ called Tieo- 
pkraetme from one of the interiocutora. This xp- 
peared first in a Latin venion by Ambroaius 
Camaldulensis, Svo., Yen. 1513, and 4to, BaoL 
1516. The original Greek, with the Latin version 
of Wol^ foL Tignr. 1559 ; with the Latin veraioD 
and notes of C. Barthius, 4to. Lips. 1656 (see 
Fabridua, de VerUaL Rdig. ChrieL Syilalme, p. 107, 
Hamb. 1725); alao in Gallandi'k BUtiuOkeea Pa- 
trutUt vol z. p. 629, Yen. 1766 ; and with the 
notes of Boiasonade, 8vo. Par. 1836. In Ebert'k 
INctionaiy is the following reference : Wenadarf 
Pr. de Aenea Gax,^ Numb. 1817, 4to. In the 
Aldine CkUeetkm <fEpiatie$ by Greek AvOon there 
are 25 by Aeneas, Gr. 4to., Yen. 1499. See Fa- 
bridus, BibUaOu Graee, vol. L pp. 676-690. Some 
of the letten of Aeneas may be found in the JSmy- 
dopaedia PkUologica of Joaimee Patuea, Gr. 8vo^ 
Yen. 1710, vol L [A. J. CJ 

AENE'AS SI'LYIUS, son of Silviua, and 
grandson of Ascanius. He is the third in the list 
of the mythical kings of Alba in Latium, and the 
Silvii regarded him as the founder of their house. 
(Liv. L 3.) Dionysius (L 71) ascribes to him a 
reign of 31 years. (Comp. Yirg. Aen, vi. 769.) 
Ovid {Met, ziv. 610, &c.) does not mention him 
among the Alban kings. [L. S.] 

AENE'AS (Aiycios), sumamed TACTICUS 
{6 ToirriiCDt), a Greek writer, whose predse date ia 
not known. Xenophon {HeU, viL 3. § H mentions 
an Aeneas of Stymphalus, who about tne time of 
the battle of Mantineia (362, B. c) distinguished 
himself by hia bravery and aldU aa general of the 
Areadiana. Casaubon supposes this Aeneas to be 
the same, and the supposition u confirmed by a 
passage {CommenL PoUorc 27) where he speaks 
femilmriy of an Arcadian provincialism. But, 
however this may be, the general character of this 
worky the names he mentions, and the historical 
notices which occur, with other internal evidence, 
all point to about this period. He wrote a large 
work on the whole art Ji war, orponiTuccl fit&Joy 
or wept vmv arpemrftiti&r ^oiar/ifjLarra (Polyb. z. 
40; Suidaa, $. «. Alreias% consisting of several parts. 
Of these only one is preserved, ctdled toktuc^ re 
teal mKtopicvrucbv mt6funyui fttpl raS wwt x^ 
wo\topKo6fAePov dpT4x*afi commonly called C<mi* 
mentarius Poliorceticus. The object of the book 


is to shew k>w a ai^e ■hoald be rauited, the ta- 
rioos kinds of instmnieiits to be nied, manasaYna 
to ^ be pnetind, waj» of aending letters without 
beizig detected, and without OTen ue bearers know- 
11^ about it (e. 31, a Terj curious one), &c It 
contxini a good deal of ininnnation on many points 
in arduBologjy and is espedallj valuable as con- 
taiwing a large stock of words and technical tenna 
connected with wacfiue, denoting inatruments, &&, 
whick an not to be fionnd in any other work. 
From the aame dicumstance, many pasaages are 

T^ book was first discoTered by Simler in the 
Vautkan library. It was edited first by Isaac 
CaaaaboD with a Latin version and notes, and ap- 
pexided to his edition of Polybins. (Paris, 1609.) 
It was republished by Oronorius in his Polybins, 
ToL iii Amsterdam, 1670, and by Emesti, Leipzig, 
1763^ The bat edition is that of J. C Oielli, 
Lespz^, 181 8y with Caaaubon^a version and notes 
and an original commentary, published as a supple- 
naent to Schweigfaaeuser^ Polybins. Beaides the 
Vatican M& there are three at Paris, on which 
CasBubon founded hia edition, and one in the Lau- 
rentian tibcary at Florence. Thia last ia,«ccording 
toOreDi(Ptae£p.6),tfaeoldestofa]L The work 
contains many very corrupt and mutilated paaaagea. 

An epitome of the whole book, not of the frag- 
ment now remaining, waa made by Cineaa, a Thes- 
saliaa, who was sent to Rome by Pyrrhus, 279, 
B. a (Aelian, Tad, 1.) This abridgment is re- 
fisrred to by Cicero (ad Fam. ix. 25). [A. A.] 

0'wsX * surname of Zeus, under which he was 
wocshipped in the island of Cephalenia, where he 
had a temple on mount Aenos. (Hes. op. SchoL 
ad ApoUoH. Rhod, iL 297.) [L. &] 

AENESIDEMUS (aW<^iVu>s), the aon of 
P^talcas, and one of the body-guank of Hippo- 
crates, tyrant of Geb^ waa the aon of Theron, the 
nder of Agrigentonu in the time of the Persian war. 
(Herod. Til 154, 165.) [Thbbon.] 

AENESIDE'MUS (AiyiKrOivios), a celebrated 
Boeptic, bom at Cnoaaua, in Crete, according to 
Diogenes I^Mrtius (iz. 1 16), but at Aegae, aa»rd- 
ing to Photins (Cod. 212), probably lived a little 
Uter than Cieeio. He was a pcqpil of Heracleides 
and received firom him the duur of philosophy, 
which had been handed down for above three huur 
died years from Pyrriion, the founder of the aecL 
For a full account of the aoeptical ayatem aee 
Pyrrhok. As Aeneaidemus differed on many 
pointa from the ordinary aceptic, it will be conve- 
nient before proceeding to his particular opinions, 
to f^TB a short account of the system itael£ 

The sceptic b^an and ended in nniveml 
donbc He waa equally removed from the aca- 
demic who denied, oa from the dogmatic philoao- 
pher who affirmed ; indeed, he attempted to con- 
fovnd both in one, and refiite them by the aame 
aignmenta. (Sext. Emp. L 1.) Truth, he aaid, 
waa not to be desired for its own aake, but for the 
lake of a certain repoae of mind {irapa^ia) which 
followed on it, an end which the aceptic beat at- 
tained in another way, by suspending his judg- 
sient (^ox^), and aillowing himself literally to 
red in doubt, (i. 4.) Wiu this view he must 
travel over the whole range of moral, metaphyai- 
cal, and physical science. Hu method is the 
oompariion of opposites, and hia sole aim to prove 
that nothing can be proved, or what he termed, | 



the ItroMpwM of thingaL In common lifo he may 
act upon ^aof6fuya with the rest of men : nature, 
law, and custom are allowed to have their influ- 
ence ; only when impelled to any vehement efibrt 
we are to remember that, here too, there u much 
to be aaid on both aidea, and are not to loae our 
peace of mind by grasping at a ahadow. 

The fomona Mica r/mroi of the aceptica were a 
number of heada of argument intended to over- 
throw truth in whatever form it might appear. 
[Pyrbhon.] The oppoaite appearaucea of the 
moral and natural world (Sext. Emp. i. 14), the 
fiillibility of intellect and aenae, and the illuaiona 
produced upon them by intervals of time and apace 
and by every change of poaition, were the firat 
ar^^;umenta by whi<£ they aaaailed the reality of 
thmga. We cannot explain what man ia, we can- 
not explain what the aenaea are: atill leaa do we 
know the way in which they are acted upon by 
the mind (ii. 4 — ^7): beginning with oMw ipiftf^ 
we muat end with o^w /laAAor. We are not 
certain whether material objecta are anything but 
ideaa in the mind: at any rate the diffisrent qua- 
litiea which we perceive in them may be wholly 
dependent on the percipient being ; or, auppoaing 
them to contain quality aa well aa subatanoe, it 
may be one quality varying with the perceptive 
power of the different aenaea. (ii 14) Having 
thus confounded the world without and the world 
witliin, it waa a natural tranaition for the aceptic 
to confound phyeical and metaphyaical argumentau 
The reaaonings of natural philosophy were over- 
thrown by metaphysical aubtletiea, and metaphy- 
aica made to look abaurd by illuatnitiona only ap- 
plicable to material things. The acknowleidged 
imperfection of language was alao pressed into the 
aervice ; words, they said, were ever varying in 
their signification, so that the ideaa of which they 
were the aigna must be alike variable. The lead- 
ing idea of the whole ayatem waa, that all truth 
involved either a vidoua circle or a petitio prin- 
dpii, for, even in the simpleat trutha, aomeUiing 
muat be aaanmed to make the reasoning applicable. 
The truth of the aenaea waa known to us m>m the 
intellect, but the intellect operated through the 
senses, ao that our knowledge of the nature of 
either dependa upon the other. There waa, how- 
ever, a deeper aide to thia philoaophy. Every- 
thing we know, oonfeaaedlv, runs up into aome- 
thing we do not know : of the true nature of cause 
and effect we are ignorant, and hence to the 
fovonrite method, ds-3 tov ds ddrtipoy iicfidWtitr, or 
arguing backward finm cause to cause, the very 
imperfection of human focultiea preventa our 
giving an anawer. We must know what we 
believe ; and how can we be auie of aecondary 
cauaea, if the first cause be wholly beyond us? 
To judge, however, from the sketch of Sextus 
Empiricns (Pyrrh. Hyp.), it was not this aide 
of their system which the aceptica chiefly urged : 
for the most part, it must be confeaaed, &aX they 
contented themselvea with dialectic subtletiea, 
which were at once too abaurd for refiitation, and 
impossible to refute. 

The causes of aceptidam are more fully given 
under the artide Pyrrhon. One of Uie moat re- 
markable of ita featurea waa its connexion with the 
later philoaophy of the Ionian achooL From the &iW 
uie of their attempta to explain the phenomena of 
the viaible world, the Ionian philoaopnera were in- 
aenaibly led on to deny the order and harmony ^ 



creation: they nw nothing but a perpetual and 
ever'changing chaoB, acted upon, or rather aelf- 
acting, by an inherent power of motion, of which 
the nature was only known by its efiecta. This 
was the doctrine of Heracleitus, that **the woiid 
was a fire ever kindling and going out, which made 
aU things and was all things.** It was this link of 
connexion between the sceptical and Ionian schools 
which Aenesidemus attempted to restore. The 
doctrine of Heracleitus, although it spoke of a sub- 
tle fire, really meant nothing more than a principle 
of change ; and although it might seem absurd to 
a strict sceptic like Sextus Empiricus to affirm, even 
a principle of change, it involTed no real inconsis^ 
tency with the sceptical system. We are left to 
conjecture as to the way in which Aenesidemus 
arrived at his conclasions : die following account of 
them seems probable. It will be seen, from what 
has been said, that the sceptical system had de- 
stroyed everything but sensation. But sensation is 
the effect of change, the principle of motion work- 
ing internally. It was very natural then that the 
sceptic, prooeedinff from the only cl^>x^ which re- 
mained to him, should suggest an explanation of 
the outward world, derived finom that of which 
alone he was certain, his own internal sensations. 
The mere suggestion of a probable cause might 
seem inconsistent with the distinction which the 
sceptics drew between their own absolute uncer- 
tainty and the probability spoken of by the 
Academics : indeed, it was inconsistent with their 
metaphysical paradoxes to draw conclusions at all : 
if so, we must be content to allow that Aeneside- 
mus (as Sextus Empiricus implies) got a little be- 
yond the dark region of scepticism into the light 
of probability. 

Other scattered opinions of Aenesidemus have 
been preserved to us, some of which seem to lead 
to the same conclusion. Time, he said, was t3 tv 
and t6 vporroy trmyjoL (Pyr. Hyp. iii. 17), probably 
in allusion to the doctrine of the Stoics, that idl 
really existing substances were o-flfftaro : in other 
words, he meant to say that time was a really ex- 
isting thing, and not merely a condition of thought 
This was connected with the principle of change, 
which was inseparaMe from a notion of time : if 
the one had a real existence (and upon its exist- 
ence the whole system depended), the other must 
likewise have a real existence. In another phice, 
adapting his hinguage to that of Heracleitus, he 
said that ''time was air** (Sext. Emp. adv, LogicoB^ 
iv. 233.), probably meaning to illustrate it by the 
imperceptible nature of air, in the same way that 
the motion of the world was said to work by a 
subtle and invisible fire. All things, according to 
his doctrine, were but ^tup6fjMm which were 
brought out and ad^ited to our perceptions by 
their mutual opposition : metaphorically they might 
be said to shine forth in the light of HeracleituB*B 
fire. He did not, indeed, explain how this union 
of opposites made them sensible to the faculties of 
man : probably he would rather have supported 
his view by the impossibility of the mind conceiv- 
ing of anything otherwise than in a state of motion, 
or, as he would have expressed it, in a state of mu- 
tual opposition. But ^v6fiwa are of two kinds, 
TSia and arocitl (Sext Emp. adv. Log. iL 8), the 
perceptions of individuals, and those common to 
mankind. Here again Aenesidemus seems to lose 
sight of the scepticiQ system, which (in specuktion 
at least) admitted no degrees of truth, doubt^ or 


probability. The same remark applies to his <£«- 
tinction of Kltrno'is into fwraCariJci) and /i«raCX9> 
riKi^, simple motion and change. He aeema ako to 
have opposed the perplexity which the aceptics en- 
deavoured to bring about between matter aad 
mind ; for he asserted that thought was iadepcs- 
dent of the body, and *^that the sentient pover 
looked out through the crannies of the senses.** 
{Adv. Log. i. 349.) Lastly, his vigorons miod 
was abore the paltry confiision of physical and 
metaphysical distinctions; for he dedwed, after 
Heracleitus, ''that a part was the same with the 
whole and yet different from it** The grand pe- 
culiarity of his system was the attempt to unite 
scepticism with the eariier philosophy, to raiie a 
positive foundation for it by aoeouniing from the 
nature of things for the never-ceasing changes both 
in the material and spiritual worid. 

Sextus Empiricus has preserved his argument 
against our knowledge of causes, as well as a table 
of eight methods by which all a priori reasoainp 
may be confuted, as all arguments whatever msr 
be by the S^ira rpAwou I. Either the cause gives 
is unseen, and not proven by things seen, as if a 
person were to explain the motions of the planets 
by the music of the spheres. II. Or if the caase 
be seen, it cannot be shewn to exclude other 
hypotheses : we must not only prove the came, 
but dispose of every other cause. III. A i^shr 
efiect may be attributed to an iiregnlar cause; 
as if one were to explain the motions of tiie 
heavenly bodies by a sudden impulse. I V. Meo 
argue from things seen to things unseen, assum- 
ing that they are governed by the same laws, 
y. Causes only mean opinions of causes, which are 
inconsistent with phenomena and with other opi- 
nions. VI. Equally probable causes are accepted 
or rejected as they agree with this or that precon- 
ceived notion. VII. These causes are at variaoce 
with phenomena as well as with abstract principles. 
VIII. Principles must be uncertain, because the 
fiacts from which they proceed are uncertain. (P^iih. 
Hyp. i. 17, ed. Fabr.) 

It is to be regretted that nothing is known of 
the personal history of Aenesidemus. A list of bit 
works and a sketch of their contents have been 
preserved by Photius. (Cod. 212.) He was the 
author of three books of Tlu^Pwytuu *Tworvmic€it, 
and is mentioned as a recent teacher of philosophy 
by Aristodes. (Apud EuaA. PraeparaL Stxtrng. 
xiv. 18.) It is to Aenesidemus that Sextus Em- 
piricus was indebted for a considerable pert of his 
work. [a J.] 

AENE^TE (AMti}), a daughter of Eusoms, 
and wife of Aeneas, by whom she had a sod, 
Cysicus, the founder of the town of thu name. 
( Apollon. Rhod. L 950 ; Orph. Argon. 502, where 
she is called Aenippe.) [L. S.] 

AK'NICUS (A&Mcos), a Greek poet of the old 
comedy, whose pky "Arrcia is referred to by Sui- 
das. («. V. Ktvucos.) He seems to be the same as 
Eunicus mentioned by Pollux, (x. 100.) 

AENl'DES. a patronymic from Aeneas, which 
is applied by Valerius Flaccus (iii. 4) to the in- 
habitants of Cysicus, whose town was believed 
to have been founded by Cyzicus, the son of 
Aeneas. [L. S.] 

AEC/LIDES (AioXi8i}t), a patronymic given to 
the sons of Aeolus, as Athamas (Ov. MtL iv. 
511), Magnes (Paus. vi. 21. § 7X Macareus (Ov. 
M€t, ix. 506), Misenus (Vijg. Aat. vi. 164), 

Sisyphus (Or. MeL zin. 26 ; Horn. IL ri, 154), 
Crethens (Horn. Od, xL 237), locutoi (Tseti. ad 
l^pcopftr. 732); and to hia gnndwiia, as CephaluB 
(Ot. M€L tL 621), Odyneiu (Viig. Jen. Ti 529^ 
and Phryxna. (VaL Flacc. i 286.) Aeolu ia the 
patronymic of the female deacendanta of Aefdna, 
and ia given to his daughtera Caoace and Alcyone. 
(Or. .Vet zi. 573 ; Heroid, jL 5.) [L. S.] 

AE'OLUS (AlbAos). In the mythical hiatoiy 
of Greece there are three penonagea of thia name, 
who are ^eken of by ancient writen aa connected 
with one another, bat thia connexion is so con- 
fiuedy that it is impoaaible to gain a dear view of 
them. (MttUer, Onkam. p. 138, &c) We shaU 
£>lk>w Diodoras, who dialingniahea between the 
thfce, althongfa in other paaaagea he oon&unda 

1. A aon of HeDen and the nymph Oneia, and 
a brother of Doraa and Xnthoa. He ia described 
BA the raler of Theaaaly, and regarded aa the 
ibunda of the AeoUe bnmch of the Greek nation. 
He mairied Enaiete, the danghter of Deunachna, 
by whom he had aeven aona and five daughtera, 
and according to aome writeia atill more. (ApoUod. 
i 7. § 3; Sdiol. ad Find. lyUu it. 160.) Ao- 
cording to MuUer^ aaiipoBtioa, the raoat andent 
and gemiine atory knew only of fiiar aeos ef 
Aeolna, tis. Sisy^ns, Athamas, Crethena, and 
S almo fifoa , aa the repreaenlatiYea of the four main 
branchea of the AeeUc raoe. The great extent of 
coontEy which thia lace occupied* aikl the deaiie of 
each fact of it to tnce ita origin to acme deioend- 
aut of Aeolus, probably gare liae to the Taiying 
accounts aboat the number of his childxen. Ao- 
cuiding to Hygimu (Fob, 238, 242) Aeolus had 
one aon of the name of Macareoa, who, after hav- 
ing comniitted ineeat with hia abter Canaoe, put 
an end to hia own life. Accordiiig to Ovid (/fefioid. 
II)Aeohu threw the fruit of thia loTe to the 
do9^ and eent his danghter a aword by which she 
was to kiU heraelf: (Comp. PluL FaraUeL p. 312.) 

2. Diodoina (it. 67) laya, that the second 
Aeolus waa the great-giandson of the first Aeolus, 
being the Mm of Hippotea and Mdanippe, and 
the giandaon of Mimaa the aon of Aeolus. Anie, 
the daughter of thia second Aeolus, aAerwards be- 
came mother of a third Aeolna. (Comp. Pftu& ix. 
40. 1 3.) In another paaaage (t. 7) Diodorua ze- 
pretenta the third Aedna as a aon of Hippotea. 

3. Aceonling to aome aoconnta a aon of Hip- 
potea, OE, aecording to othera, of Poeeidon and 
Arne, the daughter of the aecond Aeoloa. Hia 
fttory, which probably refera to the emigiation of a 
bcBDchof the Aeolians to the west, ia thua related : 
Aine declared to her fiither that ahe waa with child 
by Powidon, but her father diabeliering her atate- 
meat, gsTe her to a atranger of Metapontum in 
Italy, who took her to his native town. Here ahe 
became mother of two eons, Boeotus and Aeo- 
lus (ill), who were adopted by the umui of Meta- 
psntom in aoeordance with an oracle. When they 
bad gTDwn up to manhood, they took poaaeaaioa of 
the urereigaty of Metapontum by forte. But 
vhea a diipote afterwards aroae between their 
n»tber Ame and their foatermother Antolyte, the 
two bratheia dew the latter and fled with their 
loother feom Metapontnm. Aeoloa went to aome 
»™i in the Tyrrhenian aea, which leceiTed from 
hun the name of the Aeolian ialandm and accordr 
|«g to Mme aceonnta built the town of Lipara. 
(l>iot IT. 67, ▼. 7.) Here he reigned a« a juet 



and pioua king, behaved kindly to the natiTea, 
and taught them the nae of aaila in navigation, and 
foretold them from aigna which he obaerved in the 
fire the nature of the winds that were to rise. 
Hence, nya IModorua, Aeolua ia described in 
mythology aa the ruler over the winda, and it waa 
thia Aeolua to whom Odyaaeua came during hia 
wandexinga. A different account of the matter ia 
given bv Hyginna. {^Fab. 186.) 

In theae accounta Aeolua, the £ither of the 
AeoUan race, ia placed in relationahip with Aeolua 
the ruler and god of the winda. The groundwork 
on which thia connexion baa been formed by Uter 
poeta and mythographera, ia found in Homer. (Od, 
X. 2, &c) In Homer, however, Ae<4ua, the eon 
of Hippotea, it neither the god nor the fiither of 
the winds, bnt merely tiie happy ruler of the 
Aeolian idand, whom Cronion had made the 
ra^tis of the winds, which be might soothe or ex- 
cite according to bis pleasure. {Od x. 21, &c.) 
This statement of Homer and the etymology of 
the name of Aeolus from diAAv were the cause, 
that in Uter times Aeolus was r^arded as the god 
and king of the winda, which he kept enclosed in 
a mountain. It ia therefore to him that Juno ap- 
pliea when ahe withea to deatroy the fleet of the 
Trojana. (Vixg. Aen, i 78.) The Aeolian island 
of Homer waa ia the time of Pauaaniaa believed to 
be Lipara (Pana. x. 11. § 3X and this or Strongyle 
waa accordingly rqjarded in later tiraea aa the place 
in which the god of the winds dwelled. (Viig. 
A€n. viii. 416, i. 52; Strabu vL p. 276.) Other 
accounta place the reaidence of Aeolus in Thrace 
(ApoUon. Rhod. L 954, iv. 765 ; Callim. Hymn, 
m DeL 26^ or in the neighbourhood of Rhegium 
in Italy. (Tsets. ad Lyoop&r, 732 ; comp. Died. 
V. 8.) The following pasaagea of later poets also 
shew how universally Aeolus had gradually come 
to be regarded as a god: Ov. MeL I 264, xL 748. 
xiv. 223; VaL Flaoc L 575; Quint. Smym. xir, 
475. Whether he was lepxesented by the an- 
cients in works of art is not certain, bnt we now 
poaaeaa no repreaentation of him. [L. S.] 

AE'PYTUS (AXwvros). 1. One of the mythi- 
cal kii^ of Arcadia. He waa the son of Eilatus 
(Pind. Ol. vi 54), and originally ruled over Phae- 
sana cm. the Alpheius in Arcadia. When Cleitor, 
the son of Aimn, died without leaving any issue, 
Aepytus succeeded him and became king of the 
Arcadiana, a part of whose country was called 
after him Aepytis. (Paus. viii. 4. g 4, 34. § 3.) 
He is said to have been killed during the chase on 
mount Sepia by the bite of a venomous snake. 
(Paua. viii 4. § 4, 16. § 2.) His tomb there was 
still shewn in the time of Pauaanias, and he was 
anxious to see it, because it was mentioned in 
Homer. (R iL 604.) 

2. The youngeat aon of Cresphontes the He- 
radid, king of Messenia, and of Merope, the 
daughter of the Arcadian king Cypselus. Cres- 
phontes and his other sons were murdered during 
an insurrection, and Aepytus alone, who was 
educated in the house of his grandfiuher Cypselus, 
escaped the danger. The throne of Cresphontes 
waa in the meantime occupied by the Heraclid 
Polyphontea, who also forced Merope to become his 
wife. (ApoUod. il 8. § 5.) When Aepytus had 
grown to manhood, he waa enabled by the aid of 
Holcaa, his fiithex^iu-law, to return to hia kingdom, 
punish the murderers of his fiither, and put Poly- 
phontes to death. He left a son, Glaucus, and it 



was from liun tbat subsequently the kings of Mes- 
senia were called Aepytids instead of the more 
general name HeraclldB. (Pans. iy. 3. § 3, &c., 
▼liL 6. § 5 ; Hygin. Fab, 137, 184.) 

8. A son of HippothouB, and king of Arcadia. 
He was a great-grandson of the Aepytus mentioned 
first He was reigning at the time when Orestes, 
in consequence ox an oracle, left Mycenae and 
settled in Arcadia. There was at Mantineia a 
sanctuary, which down to the latest time no mortal 
was erer allowed to enter. Aepytus disregarding 
the sacred custom crossed the threshold, but was 
immediately struck with blindness, and died soon 
after. He was succeeded by his son Cypselus. 
(Pans. Tiii. 5. § 3.) f L. S.] 

AE'RIUS (*Affpios), Heretic, the intimate friend 
of Eustathius of Se/baste in Armenia, a. d. 360, 
was living when St. Epiphanius wrote his Book 
against Heresies, a. d. 374-6. Ailer living toge- 
ther an ascetic life, Eustathius was raised to the 
episcopate, and by him Aerius was ordained priest 
and set over the Hospital (inwx^po^*^*') of Pon- 
tus. (St Epiph. adv, Haer, 75. § 1.) But nothing 
could allay the envy of Aerius at the elevation of 
his companion. Caresses and threats were in vain, 
and at last he left Eustathius, and publicly accused 
him of covetousness. He assemUed a troop of 
men and women, who with him professed the 
renunciation of all worldly goods {iarora^lo). De- 
nied entrance into the towns, tiiey roamed about 
the fields, and lodged in the open air or in caves, 
exposed to the inclemency of the seasons. Aerius 
superadded to the irreligion of Arius the following 
errors : 1. The denial of a difference of order be- 
tween a bifltiop and a priest 2. The rejection of 
prayer and alms for the dead. 8. The refusal to 
observe Easter and stated &st8, on the ground of 
such observances being Jewish. St Epiphanius 
refutes these errors. (?. e.) There were remains 
of his followen in the time of St Augustine. (Adv. 
Haer. § 53, vol viiL p. 18, which was written 
A. D. 428.) [A. J. C] 

AE'ROPE. (*Acf>^), a daughter of Crateus, 
king of Crete, and granddaughter of Minos. Her 
father, who had received an oracle that he should 
lose his life by one of his children, gave her and 
her sister, Clymene, to Nanpliua, who was to sell 
them in a foreign land. Another sister, Apemone, 
and her brother, Aethemenes, who had heard of the 
oracle, had left Crete and gone to Rhodes. Aerope 
afterwards married Pleisthenes, the son of Atreus, 
and became by him the mother of Agamemnon 
and Menelaus. (Apollod. iii. 2. § 1, &c. ; Serv. ad 
Aen, I 458 ; Dictys Cret i 1.) After the death 
of Pleisthenes Aerope married Atreus, and her two 
sons, who were educated by Atreus, were generally 
believed to be his sons. Aerope, however, became 
fiuthless to Atreus, being seduced by Thyestes. 
(Eurip. Orul. 5, &c., Helen. 397 ; Hygin. i^ 
87 ; SchoL ad Horn, JL u. 249 ; Serv. ad Aen. zi. 
262.) [L. S.] 

AE'ROPUS (^A4pmtos). 1. The brother of 
Perdiccas, who was the first king of Macedonia of 
the fiunily of Temenus. (Herod. viiL 137^ 

2. I. King of Macedonia, the son of Philip I., 
the ffreat-grandson. of Perdiccas, the first king, and 
the fitther of Alcetas. (Herod. viiL 139.) 

8. 11. King of Macedonia, guardian of Orestes, 
the son of Aichelaas, reigned nearly six yean 
baax B. c 399. The first four years of this time 
ho leigned jointly with Orestes, and the remainder 


alone. He was succeeded by his son PavaamaiL 
(Diod. xiv. 37, 84; Dexippus, ap. S^ncelL pu 263,8.; 
comp. Polyaen. ii 1. § 17.) 

AE'SACUS (AXaaKos)y a son of Piiam and 
Arisbe, the daughter of Merops, from whom Aesa- 
cus learned the art of interpreting dreama. When 
Hecuba during her pregnancy with Paris dreamt 
that she was giving biith to a burning piece cf 
wood which spread conflagration throng the 
whole city, Aesacns explained this to mean, that 
she would give birth to a son who would be the 
ruin of the dty, and accordingly recommended the 
exposure of the child after its birth. [Paris.] 
Aesacus himself was married to Asterope, the 
daughter of the river-god Cebren, who died eorij, 
and while he was lamenting her death he was 
changed into a bird. (Apollod. iiL 12. § 5.) Ovid 
(Met. xi. 750) relates his story difierentlj. Ac- 
cording to him, Aesacus was the son of Alexiihoe, 
the daughter of the river Granicus. He lived hr 
from his father's court in the solitude of mountain- 
forests. Hesperia, however, the daughter of 
Cebren, kindled love in his heart, and on one oc- 
casion while he was pursuing her, she wsa stnsg 
by a viper and died. Aesacus in his grief threw 
himself into the sea and was changed hj Thetis 
into an aquatic bird. [L. S.J 

AE'SARA (AUr^% of Lucania, a £eiiale 
Pythagorean philosopher, said to be a daughter of 
Pythagoras, wrote a work ^ about Human Nature," 
of which a fragment is preserved by Stobaens. 
(Ed. L p. 847, ed. Ueeren.) Some editon attri- 
bute this fragment to Aresas, one of the sncceason 
of Pythagoras, but Bentley prefen reading Aeaaia. 
She is also mentioned in &e life of Pythagoras 
(€q>. Phot. Cod. 249, p. 438, b. ed. Bekker), wheie 
Bentley reads idtripa instead of 14^ (DiMmrtaAom 
upon PkaloTu, p. 277.) 

AE'SCHINES (Mffxiyns\ the orator, was bom 
in Attica in the demus of Cothoddae, in b. c. 389, 
as is dear from his speech against Tioaaichns (p. 
78), which was delivered in b. c. 345, and in 
whidi he himself says that he was then in his forty- 
fifth year. He was the son of Tromes and Gka- 
cothea, and if we listen to the account of ]>emos- 
theues, his political antagonist, his fiither was not 
a free dtiaen of Athena, but had been a slaTe in 
the house of Elpias, a schoolmaster. After the re- 
turn of the Athenian exiles under Thrasybnlus, 
Tromes himself kept a small school, and Aeschines 
in his youth assisted his &ther and perfocmed 
such services as were unworthy of a free Athenian 
youth. Demosthenes further states, that Aes- 
chines, in order to conceal the low condition of his 
fether, changed his name Tromes into Atrometna, 
and that he afterwards usurped the rights of an 
Athenian dtizen. (Dem. De Chron. pp. 31 3, S20, 
270.) The mother of Aeschines is described as 
originally a dancer and a prostitute, who even after 
her marriage with Tromes continued to carry on 
unlawful practices in her house, and made money 
by initiating low and supentitioiis persona into a 
sort of private mysteries. She is said to have 
been generally known at Athens under the nick- 
name Empusa. According to Aeschines himself, 
on the other hand, his fether Atrometns was de- 
scended from an honourable fiunily, and was in 
some way even connected with the noble priestly 
femilyof the Eteobutadae. He was originally an 
athlete, but lost his property during the time of 
the Peloponneaian war, and was afterwds driven 

tnm bu cmatry under the tynumy of ^e Thirty. 
He thea wrred in the Athenian annies in Asia 
and qient the vemainder of his life at Athena, at 
fint in redneed dxcamstancee^ (Aeach. De faU. 
hep. pp. S8t 47*) Hia mother, too, waa a free 
Athenian dtiien, and the daughter of Ohraciaa of 
Achaine. Which of these aceonnts is true, can- 
not be decided, hat there aeems to he no donbt 
that Demoethenea ia guilty of exaggeration in his 
accoont of the parenta of Aeschines and his early 


Aeschines had two brothers, one of whom. Phi- 
lochuea, waa oUler than himself and the other, 
Apbobetus, waa the yomigest of the three. Phi- 
lochares waa at one time one of the ten Athenian 
generals, an office which waa conferred npon him 
for three sooceaaiTe years ; Aphobetos followed 
the calling of a scribe, hat had once been sent on 
an embassy to the hing of Persia and was after- 
wards connected with the administration of the 
pablk leTenne of Athenn (Aesch. De faU. Leg, 
p. 48.) All these things seem to contain strong 
evidence that the £unily of Aeschines, althongh 
poor, mnst have been of some respectability. Re- 
specting his early youth nothing can be said with 
ci^rtainty, except that he asust^ his fiither in his 
school, and that afterwards, being of a strong and 
athletic eonstitntion, he waa employed in the 
grmnaaia for money, to contend with other yonng 
men in their exercisea. (Dem. De Coron. p. 313 ; 
Plat. VU, X onL Aeeck. p. 840.) It is a &Toarite 
riLHtom of late writera to phice great ontois, philo- 
w>9heTa, poets, &e., in the relation of teacher and 
Fcholar to one another, and accordingly Aeschines 
K represented as a diadple of Socrates, Plato, and 
Itoccates. If these statements, which are CTen 
contradicted by the ancients themselTes, were 
true, Aeschines would not have omitted to men- 
tion it in the many opportnnities he had. The 
distingnished orator and statesman Aiistophon en- 
gaged Aeschines as a scribe, and in the same 
cafocit J he afterwards served Eubolns, a man of 
great influence with the democratical party, with 
vhom he formed an intimate ftimdship, and to 
whose political principles he remained fiuthfn] to 
the end of his life. That he served two years as 
vc^voXos, &om his eighteenth to his twentieth 
year, as all yoong men at Athens did, Aeschines 
{De/aU. Leg, p. 50) expressly states, and this 
period of his military training mnst probably be 
piaced before the time that he acted as a scribe to 
Aristophon; for we find that, after leaving the 
ferrice of Eubolns, he tried his fortune as an actor, 
for which he was provided by nature with a strong 
and sonofous voice. He acted the parts of t^ito- 
7<"WTi|f, bat was unsuccessful, and on one occa- 
sion, when he was performing in the character 
of Oenomaaa, waa hissed off the stajp;e. (Dem. 
Ik Oaron. p. 288.) After this he left the stage 
and ensaged in military services, in which, aoconl- 
ing to his own account {De fak. Leg. p. 50), he 
pined great distinction. (Comp. Dem. DefaU, 
^' ]t 375.) After several less important engage- 
^U in other parts of Greece, he distinguished 
^^unaelf in b. a 362 m the battle of Mantineia ; 
and afterwards in B. c. 358, he also took part in 
^he expedition of the Athenians against Euboea, 
aod fooght in the battle of Tamynae, and on this 
octasion he gained such laurels, that he was praised 
^T the genmls on the spot, and, after the victory 
^^ gained, was sent to carry the news of it to 



Athens. Temenides, who was sent with him, 
bore witness to his courage and bravery, and the 
Athenians honoured him with a crown. (Aesch. 

Two years before this campaign, the last in 
which he took part, he had come forward at Athens 
as a public sjiwaker (Aesch. EpiaL 12), and the 
military fame which he had now acquired estab- 
lished his reputation. His former occupation as a 
scribe to Aristophon and Eubolus had made him 
acquainted with the laws and constitution of 
Athens, while his acting on the stage had been a 
usefiil preparation for public spes^g. During 
the first period of his pubUc career, m was, like 
all other Athenians, aealously engaged in directing 
the attention of his fellow-citizens to the growing 
power of Philip, and exhorted them to check it in 
its growth. After the fidl of Olvnthus in B. c. 
348, Eubulus prevailed on the Athenians to send 
an embassy to Peloponnesus with the object of 
uniting the Greeks against the common enemy, 
and Aeschines was sent to Arcadia. Here Aes- 
chines spoke at Megalopolis against Hieron3rmus. 
an emissary of Philip, but without success ; and 
from this moment Aeschines, as well as aU his 
fellow-citisens, gave up the hope of effecting any- 
thing by the united forces of Greece. (Dem. De 
fale. Leg. pp. 344, 438 ; Aesch. DefaU. Leg. p. 38.) 
When therefore Philip, in b. c. 347, gave the 
Athenians to understand that he was inclined to 
make peace with them, Philocntes urged the ne- 
cessity of sending an embassy to Philip to treat on 
the subject Ten men, and among them Aeschines 
and Donosthenes, were accordin^y sent to Philip, 
who received them with the utmost politeness, and 
Aeschines, when it was his turn to neak, re- 
minded the king of the rights which Auiens had 
to his friendship and alliance. The king promised 
to send forthwith ambassadors to Athens to nego- 
tiate the terms of peace. After the return of Uie 
Athenian ambassadors they were each rewarded 
with a wreath of olive, on the proposal of Demos- 
thenes, for the manner in which they had dis- 
chaiged their duties. Aeschines from this moment 
forward was inflexible in his opinion, that nothing 
but peace with Philip could avert utter nnn finom 
his country. That this was peifiectly in accordance 
with what Philip wished is dear, but there is no 
reason for supposing, that Aeschines had been 
bribed into this opinion, or that he urged the 
necessity of peace with a view to ruin his country. 
(Aesch. m Ctesiph. p. 62.) Antipater and two 
other Macedonian ambassadors arrived at Athens 
soon after the return of the Athenian ones, and 
after various debates Demosthenes urgently adrised 
the people to conclude the peace, and speedily to 
send other ambassadors to Philip to receive his 
oath to it The only difference between Aeschines 
and Demosthenes was, that the former would have 
concluded the peace even without providing for 
the Athenian allies, which was happily prevented 
by Demosthenes. Five Athenian ambassadors, 
and among them Aeschines but not Demosthenes 
{De Coron, p. 235), set out for Macedonia the 
more speedily, as Philip was making war upon 
Cersobieptes, a Thracian prince and ally of Athens. 
They went to Pella to irait for the arrival of 
PhiUp from Thrace, and were kept there for a con- 
siderable time, for Philip did not come until he 
had completely subdued Cersobieptes. At last, 
however, he swore to the peace, from which the 



Phocians were expressly excluded. Philip honour- 
ed the Athenian ambassadors with rich presents, 
promised to restore all Athenian prisoners without 
ransom, and wrote a polite letter to the people of 
Athens apologizing for having detained their am- 
baasadors so long. (Dem. De faU. Leg. pp. 894, 
405.) Hyperides and Timarchus, the former of 
whom was a fnend of Demosthenes, brought fbr^ 
ward an accusation against the ambassadors, 
charging them with high treason against the re- 
pubhc, because they were bribed by the kin^. 
Timarchus accused Aeschines, and Hyperides Phi- 
locrates. But Aeschines evaded the danger by 
bringing forward a counter-accusation against 
Timarchus (b. c. 345), and by shewing that the 
moral conduct of his accuser was such that he had 
no right to speak before the people. The speech 
m which Aeschines attacked Timarchus is still ex- 
Unt, and its eifect was, that Timarchus was obliged 
to drop his accusation, and Aeschines gained a bril- 
liant triumph. The operations of Philip after this 
peace, and his march towards Thermopyhie, made 
the Athenians very uneasy, and Aeschines, though 
he assured the people that the king had no hostile 
intentions towards Athens and only intended to 
chastise Thebes, was again requested to go as am- 
bassador to Philip and insure his abidmg by the 
terms of his peace. But he deferred going on the 
pretext that he was ilL (Dem. De/als. Leg. p. 
3;)7.) On his return he pretended that the king 
had secretly confided to lum that he would under- 
take nothing against either Phocis or Athens. 
Demosthenes saw through the king's plans as well 
as the treachery of Aeschines, and now just his 
apprehensions were became evident soon after the 
return of Aeschines, when Philip announced to the 
Athenians that he had taken possession of Phocis. 
The people of Athens, however, were silenced and 
lulled into security by the repeated assurances of 
the king and the venal orators who advocated his 
cause at Athens. In B. c. 346, Aeschines was 
sent as wAoy^pof to the assembly of the amphic- 
tyons at Pybe which was convoked by Philip, 
and at which he received greater honours than he 
could ever have expected. 

At this time Aeschines and Demosthenes were 
at the head of the two parties, into which not 
only Athena, but all Greece was divided, and 
their political enmity created and nourished per- 
sonal hatred. This enmity came to a head in the 
year b. c. 343, when Demosthenes charged Aes- 
chines with having been bribed and having be- 
trayed the interests of his country during the 
second embassy to Philip. This chaiige of Demos- 
thenes (ircpl «x^Mnrp«^c/(tif ) was not spoken, but 
published as a memorial, and Aeschines answered 
it in a similar memorial on the embassy (ircpl 
iro^Tpeo^ciaT), which was likewise published 
(Dem. Dt fah. Leg, p. 837), and in the composi- 
tion of which he is said to nave been assisted by 
his friend Eubulus. The result of these mutual 
attacks is unknown, but there is no doubt that it 
gave a severe shock to the popuhirity of Aeschines. 
At the time he wrote his memorial we gain a 
glimpse into his private life. Some veors before 
that occurrence he had married a daughter of Phi- 
lodemus, a man of high respectability in his tribe 
of Paeania, and in 348 he was father of three 
little children. (Aesch. DefaU. Ug. p. 52.) 

It waa probably in &c. 342, that Antiphon, 
who had been exiled and lived in Macedonia, 

secretly returned to the Peiiaeeus with Ae intea- 
tion of setting fire to the Athenian ohip* of vbe. 
Demosthenes discovered him, and had him ar- 
rested. Aeschines denounced the oondneC of De- 
mosthenes as a viohuion of the democistitel consti- 
tution. Antiphon was sentenced to death ; aod 
although no disclosuie of any kind could be ex- 
torted from him, still it seems to hare been be- 
lieved in many quarters that Aeschines had been 
his accomplice. Hence the honouiiibi« office of 
(Tvvdiicot to the sanctuary in Delos, which had jost 
been given him, was taken fin>m him and bestowed 
upon Hyperides. (Demosth. De Ckmm. p. 271.) 
In B.C. 340 Aeschines was again present at Delphi 
as Athenian «'vAa7^pa;, and caused the aeeond 
sacred war against Amphissa in Locris for harii^ 
taken into cultivation some sacred lands. Philip 
entrusted with the supreme command by the aii> 
phictyons, inarched into Locris with an annj of 
30,000 men, ravaged the country, and established 
himself in it. When in 338 he advanced south- 
ward as &r as Elatea, all Greece was in consterna- 
tion. Demosthenes alone persevered, and roused 
his countrymen to a hist and desperate stmggJe. 
The battle of Chaeroneia in this same year decided 
the fote of Greece. The misfortune of that day 
gave a handle to the enemies of DemostheDes for 
attacking him; but notwithstanding the briber 
which Aeschines received from Antipater for this 
purpose, the pure and unstained patriotism of De- 
mosthenes was so generally recognised, that he 
received the honourable charge of delivering the 
frtneral oration over those who had fidlen at Chae> 
roneia. Ctesiphon proposed that Demosthenes 
should be rewarded ror the services he had done 
to his country, with a golden crown in the theatre 
at the great Dionysia. Aeschines availed himself 
of the illegal form in which this reward was pro- 
posed to be given, to bring a charge against Ctesi- 
phon on that ground. But he did not prosecute 
the matter till eight years hiter, that is,in b.c 330, 
when after the death of Philip, and the victories 
of Alexander, political affiiirs had assumed a di^ 
rent aspect in Greece. After having commenced 
the prosecution of Ctesiphon, he is said to have 
ffone for some time to Macedonia. What induced 
him to drop the prosecution of Ctesiphon, and to 
take it up again eight yean afterwards, are ques- 
tions which can only be answered by conjectniea. 
The speech in which he accused Ctesiphon in b. & 
830, and which is still extant, is so skilfolly mar 
naged, that if he hud succeeded he would have 
totally destroyed all the political influence and 
authority of Demosthenes. The hitter answered 
Aeschines in his celebrated oration on the crown 
(s-cpl (rrc^ov). Even before Demosthenes had 
finished his speech, Aeschines acknowledged him- 
self conquered, and withdrew fit)m the court and 
his country. When the matter was put to the votes, 
not even a fifth of them was in fovour of Aeschines. 
Aeschines went to Asia Minor. The statement 
of Plutarch, that Demosthenes provided him with 
the means of accomplishing his journey, is sorely a 
fiible. He spent several years in Ionia and Caria, 
occupying himself with teaching rhetoric, and 
anxiously waiting for the return of Alexander to 
Europe. When in b. c. 324 the report of the 
death of Alexander reached him, he Idft Asia and 
went to Rhodes, where he established a school of 
eloquence, which subsequently became very cele- 
brated, and occupies a middle position between the 


gran immliniMM of the Atde oratofra, ind the efie- 
minate luxazianoe of the ao-caUed Aiiatic school of 
ocatorj. On one occaaion he read to his audience 
in Rhodea his speech against Ctedphon, and when 
tome of his hearers expressed their astonishment 
at his having heen defeated notwithsUnding his 
briiliant ontaon, he replied, *^ Yon wovld cease to 
be aitonished, if yoa had heard Demosthenes.** 
[Cx. De OraL iiL 56 ; Plin. H. N. vii SO; Plin. 
EpU, ii. 3 ; QuinctiU zL 3. § 6.) From Rhodes he 
vent to Samos, where he died in & c. 314. 

The conduct of Aeschioes has been censured by 
the writers of aU agee ; and for this many reasons 
may be mentioned. In the first place, and above 
all, it was hia misfortune to he constantly placed 
in jnxt^NMitBon or oppoeition to the spotless j^oiy 
of Demosthenes, and this must have made him ap- 
pear more guilty in the eyes of those who saw 
through hia actions^ while in later times the conr 
tr^t between the greatest orators of the time was 
f nequently made & theme of rhetorical declama- 
tion, in udiich one of the two was praised or 
blamed at the eost of the other, and leas with re- 
gaid to tmih than to efiect Respecting the last 
period of his lifis we scarcely possess any other 
sooice of infiumation than the accounts of late 
Bophisla and dedamationa. Another point to 
be considered in forming a just estimate of the 
character of Aeaehines is, that he had no advan- 
tages of edocatioD, and that he owed his greatness 
to none but hims^. His occupations during the 
eariy part of his life were such as necessarily en- 
gcndoed in him the low desire of gain and wodth; 
and bad he overcome these passions, he would 
have been equal to Demosthenes. There ia, how- 
ever, not the ali^teet ground for believing, that 
Aeacbines reeoDmended peace with Macedonia at 
first bcm aaj other motive than tiie desire of pio- 
motiBg the good of Ins country. Demosthenea 
binuelf acted in the same spirit at that time, for 
the craftiness of Philip deceived both of them. 
But wbile Demosthenea altered his policy on dis- 
corering the secret intentions of the king, Aeochines 
contioaed to advocate the principles of peace. But 
thefe is nothing to jaatify the belief that Aeechinea 
intended to rain his coontry, and it is much more 
pfobable tbat the cnfty king made such an in>- 
pceaaion upon him, that he firmly believed he 
was doing ri^t, and waa thus unconsebusly led 
on to become a tnitor to his country. But no an- 
cient writer except Demosthenea chaiges him with 
having received brihes from the Macedonians for 
the pupoae of betnying hu country. He sqppears 
to have been earned away by the fiivonr of the 
king and the people^ who delighted in hearing 
firam him what they themselvea wished, and, 
pschaps slao» by the opposition of Demosthenes 

Aeachines spoke on various occasions, but he 
pabliabed only three of his orations, namely, against 
Timaidioa, on the Embassy, and against Ctesiphon. 
Art an oator, he was inferior to none but Demos- 
thenoL He was endowed by nature with extra- 
ordiDaiy oratorical powers, of which hia orations 
afford abundant proofik The facility and felicity 
of his dktion, the boLdneaa and the vigour of his 
^eacnptions, cany away the reader now, as they 
Boat have carried away his audience. The an- 
cienu, aa Photius (Cod. 61) remariu, designated 
|heie three ontbns as the Crmoea, and the nine 
letten which were extant in the time of Phoritis, 



as the Mtue$. Besides the three omtioni, we now 
possess twelve letten which are ascribed to Aes- 
chines, which however are in all probability not 
more genuine than the s»«dled episdes of Phalaris, 
and are undoubtedy the work of late sophists. 

The principal sources of information concerning 
Aeachixftea are : 1. The orations of Demosthenes on 
the Embasqr, and on the Orown, and the orations 
of Aeschines on the Embassy and against Ctesi- 
phon. These four orations were translated into 
Latin by Cicero ; but the translation is lost, and 
we now possess only an essay which Cicero wrote 
as an introduction to them: **De optimo genere 
Oratorum.*' 2. The life in IMatareh'k Vitae deeem 
OnUorunu 3w The life of Aeschines by Philostretus. 
4. The life of Aeschines by Libanius. 5. Apollo- 
nius* Exegesis. The hst two works are printed 
in Reiske^s edition, p. 10,. foil. The best modem 
essay on Aeschines is that by Ptasow in Ench and 
Gruber's Encjfdop'ddie^ il p. 73, &«. There is 
also a work by E. Stechow, De Aeaddina Oratoria 
Vtloy Berlin, 1841, 4to., which is an attempt to 
clear the character of Aeschines firom ttU the re- 
proacheo that have been attached to it; but the 
essay is written in excee^ngly bad Latin, and tLe 
attempt is a most complete foihxre. 

The first edition of the ovations of Aeschines is 
that of Aldus Manntius in his CkJUetio Bketontm 
Graeeomsn, Venice, 1513, fol. An edition with a 
Latin transktion, which also contains the letters 
ascribed to Aeschines, is that of H. Wolf, BaseL 
1572, foL The next important edition is that by 
Taylor, which contains the notes of Wolf, Taylor, 
and Markland, and appeared at Cambridge in 
1748-56 in his collection of the Attic ontors. In 
Reiske's edition of the Attic orators Aeschines 
occupies the third volume. Lips. 1771, 8vo. The 
best editbns are those of L Bekker, vol. iii. of his 
Oraiores AUid, Oxford, 1822, 8vo., for which 
thirteen new MSS. were coUated, and of F. H. 
Bremi, Zurich, 1823, 2 vols. 8vo. The oration 
against Demosthenes has been tianshited into 
English by Portal and Leiand. [L. S.] 

AE'SCHINES (AUrxipUt}, an Athenian phUo- 
sopher and rhetorician, aon of a saasage-seller, or, 
according to other accounts, of Lyaanias (Diog. 
Laert. iL 60 ; Suidaa, a. o..*Ai^i^s), and a disciple, 
although by some of his contemporaries held an 
unworthy one, of Socntes. Frem the account of 
Laertiufl, he appears to have been the fiimiliar firiend 
of his great master, who said that ** the aausage- 
seller*s son only knew how to honour him.** The 
aame writer has preeerved a tradition that it waa 
Aeachinea, and not Crito, who ofiered to aasist 
Socrates in his escape firom prison. 

The greater part of his life was ^»ent in abject 
poyerty, which gave rise to the advice of Socrates 
to him^ ''to borrow money of himself by diminish* 
ing his daily wants.** After the dei^ of his maa- 
ter, according to the charge of Lysias aptid Aiken, 
ziii. p. 611, e.f.X he kept a perfumer*s shop with 
borrowed money, and presently becoming bank- 
rupt, was obliged to leave Athens. Whether firom 
necessity or inclination, he followed the fashion of 
the day, and retired to the Syracusan court, where 
the friendship of Arist^pus might console him for 
the contempt of Plato. He remained there until 
the expulsion of the younger Dionysius, and on 
his return, finding it useless to attempt a rivalry 
with his great contemporaries, he gave private lec- 
tures. One of the charges which his opponents 



delighted td repeat, and which by asiodation of 
ideas constituted him a sophist in Uie eyes of Plato 
and his followen, was that of leceiiing money for 
his instroctions. Another story was invented that 
these dialogues were really the work of Socrates ; 
and Aristippus, either from joke or malice, publicly 
charged Aeschines with the theft while he was 
reading them at Megara. Plato is related by 
Hegeaander {apud Athen. zl p. 507, c.) to have 
stolen from him his solitary pupil Xenocrates. 

The three dialogues, Utpi apvriisy d dOoKTSv, 
*Epv(fos 4 W€pX vAo^ov, 'A{/oxot ^ fttpX Sca^derov, 
which have come down to us under the name of 
Aeschines are not genuine remains: it is even 
doubted whether they are the same works which 
the ancients acknowledged as spurious. They 
have been edited by Fischer, the third edition of 
which (8vo. Lips. 1786) contains the criticisms of 
Wolf, and forms part of a volume of spurious Pla- 
tonic dialogues {Simonit SoeixUid ui videtur dkdogi 
quatuor) by Bockh, Heidel 1810. 

The genuine dialogues, from the slight mention 
made of them by Demetrius Phalereus, seem to 
have been full of Socratic irony. Hermogenes, 
Ilfpt 'I8c«ry considers Aeschines as superior to 
Xenophon in elegance and purity of style. A long 
and amusing passage is quoted by Cicero from him. 
(De InoenL i. 31 ; Diogenes Laertius, il 60-64, and 
the authorities collected by Fischer.) [B. J.] 

AE'SCUINES (Ai<rxfvQs), of Milstus, a con- 
temporary of Cicero, axid a distinguished orator in 
the Asiatic style of eloquence. He b said by Dio- 
genes Laertius to have written on Politics. He 
died in exile on account of having spoken too freely 
to Pompey. (Cic. BruL 95 ; Diog. Laert il 64; 
Strab. xiv. p. 635 ; Sen. Cemirov. L 8.) 

AE'SCHINES {Ahx^yfis)^ of Nbapolis, a Peri- 
patetic philosopher, who was at the head of the 
Academy at Athens, together with Charmades and 
Clitomachus about b. a 109. (Cic. de OraL i. 11.) 
Diogenes Laertius TiL 64) says, that he was a 
pupil of Melanthns the Rhodian. 

AE'SCHINES {Mtrxlvy^s)^ an ancient physi- 
cian, who lived in the latter half of the roarth 
century after Christ He was bom in the island 
of Chios, and settled at Athens, where he appears 
to have practised with very little success, but ac- 
quired great fiime by a happy cure of Eunapius 
Sardianus, who on his voyage to Athens (as he tells 
us himself^ ta mta Proaert$. p^ 76, ed. Boisson) 
had been seized with a fever of a very violent 
kind, which yielded only to treatment of a peculiar 
nature. An Athenian physician of this name is 
quoted by Pliny {H. N. zxviii. 10), of whom it is 
only known, that he must have lived some time 
before the middle of the first century after 
Christ [W. A. O.] 

AE'SCHRION, of Syiwnisc, whose wife Pippa 
was one of the mistresses of Veries, is irequenUy 
mentioned by Cicero in the Verrine Orations. (iL 
14, V. 12, SI.) He assisted Verres in robbing the 
Syracusani (ii. 21 ), and obtained the fiirming of 
the tithes of the Herbitenses for the purpose of 
plundering them. (iiL 33.) 

AE'SCHRION (MffjcpiMf)^ an iambic poet, a 
native of Samoa. He is mentioned by Athenaeus 
(vii. p. 296, £ viil p. 335, c.), who has preserved some 
choliambic verses of his, in which he defends the 
Samian Philaenis against Polycrates, the Athenian 
rhetorician and sophist Some of his verses are 
also quoted by Tzetzes {ad Lyeophr, 638). There 


was an epic poet of the same nama, irho was a 
native of Mitylene and a pupil of Aristode, and 
who is said to have accompanied Alezaoder tm 
some of his expeditions. He is mcntioiied bv 
Suidas (s. o.) and Tsetses {CkO. viiL ^406). As 
he was also a writer of iambics and choliainfaks, 
many scholars have supposed him to be identieal 
with the Samian Aeschrion, and to ]imT« heen 
called a Mitylenaean in consequence of having re- 
sided for some time in that dty. (Sc^meidewin, 
Delectus Poetarum iasnUe, et neUeonam Cfruec^; 
Jacobs, Anih. Gnee. xiii. 834.) [CL P. Bi.] 

AE'SCHRION, a Greek writer on a^ricoltaie, 
of whom nothing more is known. ( Vaxr. de Re 
Rust. L 1.) 

AE'SCHRION (^AurxpUn^)i a natiwe of Per- 
gamns, and a physician in the second centnrjr sfter 
Christ He was one of Galenas tutorm^ irlio a^^ 
that he belonged to the sect of the Empizici, aad 
that he had a great knowledge of PhaLrmacj and 
Materia Medica. Aeschrion was the inrentor of a 
celebrated superstitious remedy for the bite of a 
mad dog, which is mentioned with approbatioii hj 
Galen and Oribasius {Syitops. iiL p,SS% and «f 
which the most important ingredient waa powdoed 
crawfish. These he directs to be caught at a time 
when the sun and moon were in a particular frfafhr 
position, and to be baked alive. (GaL Die SbmpL 
Medic. FaeulL xl 34, vol. xii. p. 856 ; C. G. Kukn. 
AddUam. ad ElendL Med. VeL a J. A. FisArk, 
m *^BibL Gr.^ aOibit.) [ W. A. GJ 

AESCHY'LIDES (A&jxuX0ivt), wrote a woric 
on agriculture, entitled T^ttpyueJL, which waa at 
least in three books. (Athen. zi?. p, S50^ d; 
Aelian, de Ankru xvi. 82^ 

AE'SCHYLUS {AUrjc^Kos) mmhara at Etenaf 
in Attica in & c. 525, ao that he was thirtf-fire 
years of age at the time of the battle of Manatlioo, 
and contemporary with Simonides and Pindac 
His &ther Euphorion was probably connected with 
the worship of Demeter, from which Aeadiyfaa 
may naturally be supposed to have received his 
first religious impressions. He was himaelf, ac- 
cording to some authorities, initiated in tlie my*> 
teries, with referenop to which, and to hia birtli- 
place Eleusis, Aristophanes (Am. 884) makes him 
pray to the Elensinian goddess. Pansaniaa (L 2L 
§2) relates an anecdote of him, which, if tme, 
shews that he was struck in very eariy youth with 
the exhibitions of the drama. According to this 
story, *^ When he was a boy he was set to watch 
grapes in the country, and there fell askepw In 
his slumbers Dionysus appeared to him, and 
ordered him to apply himself to tragedy. At day- 
break he made the attempt and succeeded very 
easily.** Such a dream as this could hardly have 
resulted from an3rthing but the impression pro- 
duced by tragic exhibitions upon a warm imaginar 
tion. At the age of 25 (b. & 499), he made his 
first appearance as a competitor for the priae of 
tragedy, against Choerilus and Pratinaa, without 
however being successful. Sixteen years after- 
ward (& c. 484), Aeschylus gained his first victory. 
The titles of the pieces which he then brought out 
are not known, but his competitors were most 
probably Pratinas and Phrynichus or ChoerilnSi 
Eight years afterwards he gained the prize with 
the trilogy of which the Persae, the eariiest of hit 
extant dramas, was one piece. The whole number 
of victories attributed to Aeschylus amounted to 
thirteen, most of which were gained by him in the 


mtttnl of ozteen yeaxB, between 484^ the 
year of bk fint tngie Tictorf, and the doee (rfthe 
Pefsioi war by Cimon^ donUe victoiy at the 
EozTBiedon, b. & 470. (Bode, GemA. der HeOau 
DiddkmtLy in. p. 212.) The year a. c. 468 waa 
the date of a remariukble erent in the poet*8 lifift. 
In dttt year he waa defeated in a tiagic contest by 
kis joimger liTal Sophodea, and if we may be- 
Iseve Platazch (dm. 8), his mortificatiafn at this 
indignity, as he coneeiTed it, was so great, that he 
qaitted Athens in disgust the Tery same year, and 
went to the conrt of Uiero (Pans. L 2. § 3), king 
ef SyrscDse^ where he found Simonides the lyric 
poet, who aa well aa himself was by that prince 
most hoqntaUy reoeiTed. Of the fiut of his hav* 
ing visited Scily at the time alhided to, there can 
be BO doubt ; but whether the motire alleged by 
Plataich lor his doing so waa the only one, or a 
real one, is a question of oonsideiaUe difficulty, 
though cl little practical moment. It may be, as 
has been plauably maintained by some anthers, 
that Aeschylus, whose fiunily and personal honours 
wexe counncted with the glories of Marathon, and 
the heroes of the Persian war, did not sympathise 
with the spirit of aggrandisoment by which the 
coondla oC his eountry were then actuated, nor 
approve of its pdicy in the struggle for the 
sapraoaey over Greece. The contemporaries of 
his earlier years, Miltiades, Aristeides, and The- 
i nwtndes, whose achievements in the service of 
their country were identified vrith those of himself 
and his &mily, had been succeeded by Cimon : and 
the aristocratical piinciplea which Aeschylus sup- 
ported were gradually being supplanted and over- 
bone by the advance of democracy. From all 
this, Aesdiylus mig^t have felt that he vras 
oatliving hia principlea, and have &It it the more 
keenly, from Cimon, the hero of the day, having 
been one of the judges who awarded Uie tragic 
prize to Sophocles in preference to himsell (Plut 
L c) On this supposition, Athens could not have 
Imcb an agreeable residence to a person like 
Aesehyhis, and therefore he might have been dis- 
posed to leave it ; but still it is more than probable 
that his defeat ^ Sophocles materially influenced 
hU determinations, and was at any rate the proxi- 
mate cause of his removing to Sicily. It has been 
farther ooujectnred that the charge of MStta or 
impiety which was brought against Aeschylus for 
ui alleged pablicatiotn of the mystoies of Ceres 
(Ariitot. £&. iii. 1), but possibly from political 
motives, was in some measure connected with his 
fetirenMat fimm his native country. If this vrere 
nally the ease, it follows, that the pkty or phiys 
which gave the supposed offienoe to the Athemans, 
most have been pablished before b. a 468, and 
tHerefoce that the trilogy of the Oresteia could 
liaTc had no connexion with it Shortly before 
the arrivil of Aeschylus at the court of Hiero, that 
prace had built the tovni of Aetna, at the bottom 
of the momtain of that name, and on the site of 
the andfl&t Catana : in connexion with this event, 
^eMhjlu is nid to have composed his phy of the 
Women of Aetna (s. c. 471, or 472), in which he 
predicted and prayed for the prosperity of the 
"*' «ly. At the request of Hiero, he also repro- 
aottd the phiy of the Persae, with the trilogy of 
which he had been Tietorioua in the dramatic con- 
t«u It Athena. (B.C. 472.) Now we know that 
the trilogy of the Seven against Thebes was re- 
pK^Qled soon after the *• Persians i"" it follows 



therefore that the former trilogy must have been 
first represented not htter than B.C. 470. (Welcker, 
7Vi&s^ p. 520 ; Schd. ad Aridcph. Ban. 1058.) 
Aristeides, who died in s. c. 468, was living at 
the time. (Plut. AruL 8.) Besides ** The Women 
of Aetna,** Aeschylus also composed other pieces in 
Sicily, in which are said to have occurred Sicilian 
words and expressions not intelligible to the Athe- 
nians. ( Athen. ix. p 402, b.) From the number of 
such words and expressions, which have been 
noticed in the later extant plays of Aeschylus, it 
has been inferred that he spent a considerable time 
in Sicily, on thia his fint visit. We must not 
however omit to mention, that, according to some 
accounts, Aeschylus also visited Sicily about b. c. 
488, previous to what we have considered his first 
visit. (Bode, Id. iii. p. 215.) The occaaion of this 
retirement is said to have been the victory gained 
over him by Sunonides, to whom the Athenians 
adjudged the priae for the best elegy on those who 
fell at Marathon. This tradition, howerer, is not 
supported by strong independent testimony, and 
accordingly its truth has been much questioned. 
Snidas indeed states that Aeschylus hiad visited 
Sicily even before this, when he vras only twenty- 
fire yean of a^ (b. c. 499), immediately after his 
fint contest with Pratinas, on which occasion the 
crowd of spectaton was so great as to cause the 
M of the wooden planks ijbtpia) or temporary 
scaflblding, on whidi they were accommodated 
with seats. 

In B. c. 467, his fiiend and patron king Hiero 
died ; and in b. a 458, it appean that Aeschylus 
was again at Athens fixan the fiict that the trilogy 
of the Oresteia was produced in that year. The 
conjecture of B8ckh, that this might have been a 
second representation in the absence of the poet, 
is not supported by any probable reasons, for we 
have no intimation that the Oresteia ever had been 
acted before. (Hermann, G^ase. iL p 137.) In the 
same or the following year (b. c. 457), Aeschylus 
again visited Sdly for the last time, and the 
reason assigned for this his second or aa othen 
conceive his fourth visit to this ishind, is both pro- 
bable and sufficient The fiurt is, that in his play 
of the Eumenides, the third and last of the three 
phiys which made up the Orestean trilogy, Aes- 
chylus prored himself a decided supporter of the 
ancient dignities and power of that ** watchful 
guardian ^ of Athens, the aristocratical court of the 
Areiopagus, in opposition to Pericles and his de- 
mocnttiod coadjutors. With this trilogy Aeschylus 
was indeed successful as a poet, but not as a poli- 
tician : it did not produce the e^ts he had vrished 
and intended, and he found that he had striven 
in vain against the opinions and views of a gene- 
ration to which he did not belong; Accordingly it 
has been conjectured that either from disappoint- 
ment or fear of the consequences, or perhaps from 
both these causes, he again quitted Athens, and 
retired once more to Sioly. But another reason, 
which if founded on truth, perhaps operated in 
conjunction with the former, has beien assigned for 
his last sojourn in Sicily. This rests on a state- 
ment made more or less distinctly by various 
authors, to the effect that Aeschylus waa accused 
of impiety before the court of the Areiopagus, and 
that he would have been condemned but for the 
interposition of his brother Ameinias, who had 
distinguished himself at the battle of Solamis. 
(Aeliui, V, H» y. 19.) According to some authors 



this acciuation vrtM prefbived agftiiut him, for 
haying in some of hu plajs either divulged or 
profimely tpoken of the myBteries of Ceres. Ac- 
cording to others, the charge oiiginated from his 
having introduced on' the stage the dread god- 
desses, the Eumenides, which he had done in snch 
a way as not only to do violence to popular pre- 
judice, hat also to excite the greatest alarm among 
the spectators. Now, the Eumenides contains no* 
thing which can he considered as a publication of 
the mysteries of Ceres, and therefore we are in- 
clined to think that his political enemies availed 
themselves of the unpopularity he had incurred by 
his ** Chorus of Furies,** to get up against him a 
charge of impiety, which they supported not only 
by what was objectionable in the Eumenides, but 
also in other plays not now extant. At any rate, 
from die number of authorities all confirming this 
conclusion, there can be no doubt that towards the 
end of his lifis Aeschylus incurred the serious di»> 
pleasure of a strong party at Athens, and that 
after the exhibition of the Orestean trilogy he 
retired to Oela in Sicily, where he died B. c. 456, 
in the 69th year of his age, and three years after 
the representation of the Eumenides. On the 
manner of his death the ancient writen are unani- 
mous. (Suidas, «. V. XtKonryifivAv.) An eagle, say 
they, mistaking the poet*s bald head for a stone, 
let a tortoise fUl upon it to break the shell, and 
so fulfilled an oracle, according to whkh Aeschylus 
was foted to die by a blow from heaTen. The 
inhabitants of Gela shewed their regard for 
his character, by public solemnities in his honour, 
by erecting a noble monument to him, and inscrib- 
ing it with an epitaph written by himsel£ (Paus. 
i. 14. $ 4 ; Athen. xiv. 627. d. VU. Anon,) In it 
Oela is mentioned as the place of his burial, and 
the field of Marathon as the place of his most 
glorious achievements ; but no mention is made of 
his poetry, the only subject of commemoration in 
the later epigrams written in his honour. At 
Athens also his name and memory were holden in 
especial reverence, and the prophecy in which he 
(Athen. viii. 347, e. f.) is said to have predicted his 
own posthumous fome, when he was fint defeated 
by Sophocles, was amply fulfilled. His pieces 
were frequently reproduced on the stage ; and by 
a special decree of the people, a chorus was pro- 
vided at the expense of the state for any one who 
might wish to exhibit his tragedies a lecond time. 
(Aristoph. Jekar. 102; Aeschyl. vita.) Hence 
Aristophanes {Ban, 892) makes Aeschylus say of 
himself, that his poetry did not die with him ; and 
even after his death, he may be said to have 
gained many victories over his successors in Attic 
tragedy. (Hermann, Opuac ii. p. 158.) The plays 
thus exhibited for the first time may either have 
been those which Aeschylus had not produced 
himself, or such as had been represented in Sicily, 
and not at Athens, during his lifetime. The in- 
dividuals who exhibited his dramatic remains on 
the Attic stage were his sons Euphorion and Bion: 
the former a( whom was, in b. c. 431, victorious 
with a tetralogy over Sophocles and Euripides 
(Argum. Eurip. Med.), and in addition to this is 
said to have gained fbur victories with dramatic 
pieces of his &thcr*s never 'before represented. 
(Dlomfield, ad Argum. Agam, p. 20.) Philodes 
also, the son of a sister of Aeschylus, was victo- 
rious over the King Oedipus of Sophocles, probably 
with a tragedy of his uncle*s. (Argum. Soph. Oed. 

Tyr.) From and by means of these penons arose 
what was called the Tragic School o€ AeachylB^ 
which continued for the space of 125 yeara^ 

We have hitherto spoken of Aeachylus as a poet 
only ; but it must not be forgotten that be was aiss 
highly renowned as a warrior. His firat achiev^e- 
ments as a soldier were in the battle of Maathoa, 
in which his brother Cynaegeims and himself bo 
highly distmguished themselves, thai their cxplsitt 
were commemorated with a descriptive painting ix 
the theatre of Athens, which was thovght to be 
much older than the statue there erected in hooour 
of Aeschylus. (Paus. i. 21. $ 2.) The epttspk 
which he wrote on himself^ proves that he cbo- 
sidered his share in that battle as the most glo- 
rious achievement of his life, though he wsi 
also engaged at Artemisium, Salamia, and PW 
taea. (Paus. i 14 $ 4.) All his iamilj, indeed, 
were distinguished for bravery. Hia 3rous|;er 
brother Ameinias (Herod. viiL 84 ; I>iod. xL 2j) 
was noted as having commenced the attack cm 
the Persian ships at Salamis, and at Marathon as 
one was so perseveringly brave as Cjnacgeinis. 
(Herod, vi. 114.) Hence we may not nnreasoo- 
ably suppose, that the gratitude of the Atheniaiis 
for such services contributed somewhat to a due 
appreciation of the poet*S merita, and to the tr^ 
victory which he gained soon after the battle of 
Marathon (b. c. 484) and before that of Salamis. 
Nor can we wonder at the peculiar vividness and 
spirit vrith which he portrays the ** pomp and d^ 
cumstance** of vrar, as in the Persae, and the 
** Seven against Thebes,** describing its incident! 
and actions as one who had really been an actor 
in scenes such as he paints. 

The style of Aeschylus is bold, eneigetic, and 
sublime, full of gorgeous imagery, and magnifioeat 
expressions such as became the elevated cbaracten 
of his dramas, and the ideas he wished to exprm. 
(Aristoph. Ran, 934.) This sublimity of dictioD 
vras however sometimes carried to an extreme, 
which made his language tuigid and inflated, to 
that as Quintilian (x. 1) says of him, ** he it 
grandiloquent to a foult** In the turn of his ex- 
pressions, the poetical predominates over the syii- 
tactical. He was peculiarly fond of metaphoxicsl 
phrases and strange compounds, and obsolete Im- 
guage, BO that he was much more epic in his 
language than either Sophocles or Euripides, sod 
excelled in displaying strong feelings and xm]Hiliea, 
and describing the avrful and the terrible, rather 
than in exhibiting the workings of the human 
mind wider the influence of complicated and Taiiosi 
motivesL But notwithstanding the general eleTs- 
tion of his style, the subordinate characten in bis 
plays, as the watchman in the Agamemnon, and 
the nurse of Orestes in the Choephoroe, are made 
to use language fitting their station, and lesa re- 
moved from that of common life. 

The characten of Aeschylus, like his diction, 
are sublime and majestic, — they were gods sod 
heroes of colossal magnitude, whose imposing aspect 
could be endured by the heroes of Marathon and 
Salamis, but was too awful for the contemplatioD 
of the next generation, who complained that 
Aeechylus* language was not human. (Aristoph. 
Ran. 1056.) Hence the general impreasions pro- 
duced by the poetry of Aeschylus were rather of a 
religious than of a moral nature : his personage* 
being both in action and suffering, superhumsn. 
and therefore not always fitted to teach practical 


He pflodoees indeed a tort of religioiu 
ave, and dread of the imnBtible power of the 
gods, to wlnehimm is represented as behig entirely 
sabjeet; bat on the ouer hand bimanitj often 
a^tpean ae the ^ort of an irreroeable destiny, or 
the Tictim of a ttiqggle between raperior beings. 
Still Aesehybn sometiines discloses a proTidential 
order of eompensatioD and retribution, while he 
^vsTs teases the dntj of resignation and sab- 
mi««ion to the will of the gods, and the futility 
and fiital conseqnences of all opposition to it. See 
Qositeriy RsTiew, No. 112, p. 315. 

With reqtect to the constniction of his plays, 
H has been often remarked, that they have 
liitle or no plot, and are therefore wanting in 
dranutic interest: this deficiency howoTer may 
itrike as more than it otherwise would in conse- 
quence of most of his extant plays being only parts, 
or acts of a more complicated drama. Still we 
eannot belp being impressed with the belief that 
le was more capable of sketching a Tast outline, 
than of filling ap its parts, however bold and 
Tigoroua are the sketches by which he portrays 
and groups bis characters. His object, indeed, ao- 
curding to Aristaphanes, in such plays as the 
Persae, sad the Seren agmnst Thebes, which are 
more epical ihan dnonatical, was rather to animate 
bis coiintr3fBen to deeds of gloiy and warlike 
achievement, and to inspire them with generous 
and elevated tentimenta, by a vivid exhibition of 
Boble deeds and characters, than to charm or 
startle by the incidents of an elaborate plot {Ban. 
1000.) The religions views and tenets of Aes- 
chylus, so fiir as they appear in his writings, were 
liomeric. Like Homer, he represents Zeus as 
the ropreme Ruler of the Univene, the sonree and 
centre of all things. To him all the other divini- 
ties are subject, aind from him all their powen and 
authority are derired. Even Fate itself is some- 
times identical with hia will, and the result of his 
decrees. He only of all the beings in heaven and 
earth is free to act as he pleases. [Prom, 40.) 

In PMlosQphical sentiments, there was a tradi- 
tion that Aeschylus was a Pttiiagoreon (Cic Ths, 
^^ il 10) ; but of this his writings do not 
Airaish any oonduave proo^ though there certainly 
vas some similarity between him and Pythagoras 
in the purity and elevation of their sentiments. 

The most correct and lively description of the 
cbancter and dramatic merits of Aesdiylus, and of 
the estinatiim m which he was held hj his con- 
temponries and immediate amoeBson, is given by 
Aristophaass m his •'Frogs." He u there de- 
puted as proud and impatient, and his style and 
genius SQch as we have described it. Aristophanes 
»as erid€iit^ a veiy great admirer of him, and 
syvpatbiaed m no oonunon degree with his politi- 
ck and Bwial sentiments. He considered Aes- 
•hylos as without a rival and utterty unapproachable 
*^ ft tragic poet; and represents even Sophodss 
himnlf as readily yidding to and admitting his 
wperiot dahns to the tragic throne. But few if 
^1 ^ the asdent critics seem to have altogether 
^[n«ided with Aristophanes in his estimation of 
Aeiehyhis, though they give him credit for his 
ewellttces. Thus Dionysios (2>s Post Vet u. 9) 
Pniies the originality of his ideas and of his ex- 
P'^^*»<»>>> aod the beanty of his imagery, and the 
Pn^Vnety and dignity of his characters. Longinus 
J. ' "^^ ^ ^ elevated creations and imagery, 
tHitcoodemm some of his expressions as harsh and 



overrtrained; and Quintilian (x. 1) expresses 
himself much to the same efieet The expression 
attributed to Sophodes, that Aeschylus did what 
was right without knowing it(Athen. x. p.428,f.), 
in other words, that he was an nnconscioos genius, 
working without any knowledge of or re^ird to 
the artistical laws of his pnfinsion, is worthy of 
note. So ahio is the observation of Schlegel (Leo- 
ture iv.), that ** Generally considered, the trendies 
of Aeschylus are an example amongst many, that 
in art, as in nature, gigantic productions precede 
those of regulated symmetry, which then dwindle 
away into delicacy and insignificance; and that 
poetry in her first manifestation always approaches 
nearest to the awfulness of religion, whatever shape 
the latter may assume among the various races of 
roen.^ Aeschylus himself used to say of his 
dramas, that tiiey were fragments of the great 
banquet of Homer^s table. (Athen. viii. p. 347, e.) 
The alterations made by Aeschylus in the oompo-' 
sition and dramatic representation of Tragedy 
were so great, that he was considered by the 
Athenians as the father of it, just as Homer was 
of Epic poetry and Herodotus of History. (Philostr. 
Vii, ApolL vi 11.) As the ancients themselves 
remarked, it was a greater advance from the 
elementary productions of Thespis, Choeriius, and 
PhrynichuB, to the stately tragedy of Aesdiylna, 
than firom the latter to the perfect and refined 
forms of SophocIesL It was the advance from 
infimcy if not to maturity, at least to a youthful 
and vigorous manhood. Even the improvements 
and alterations introduced by his successors were 
the natural results and suggestions of those of 
Aeschylus. The first and principal alteration 
which he made v«as the introduction of a second 
actor (8fVTcpa7e»yumfs, Aristot. Poet, 4. § 16), 
and the consequent formation of the dialogue pro- 
perty so called, and the limitation of the choral 
parts. So great was the efiRect of this change that 
Aristotle denotes it by saying, that he made the 
dialogue, the principal part of the play (row 
kSjcv ftptaraymntrriw s-fl^co-jrciWcr), instead ot 
the choral part, which was now become subsidiary 
and secondary. This innovation was of course 
adopted by his contemporaries, just as Aeschylus 
himself (s. p. in the Choepkoroe 665—716) fol- 
lowed the example of Sophodes, in subsequentiy 
introdncing a third actor. The characters in his 
plays were sometimes represented by Aeschylus 
hiiasel£ (Athen. i. p. 39.) In the early part of 
his career he was supported by an actor named 
Cleandrus, and afterwards by Mvniscus of Chal- 
chis. (Vita apud Robert p. 161.) The dialogue 
between the two principal characters in the plays 
of Aeschylus was generally kept up in a strictiy 
qrmmetrical fbrm, each tiiought or sentiment of 
the two speakers being expressed in one or two 
unbroken lines : e. g. as the dialogue betweei. 
Kretos and Hephaestus at the beginning of the 
Prometheus. In the same way, in the Seven 
against Thebes, Eteocles always expresses himself 
in three lines between the reflections of the chorus. 
This arrangement, differing as it does from tiie 
forms of ordinary conversation, gives to the dialogue 
of Aeschylus an elevated and stately character, 
which bespeaks the conversation of gods and he- 
roes. But the improvements of Aeschylus vrere 
not limited to the composition of tragedy : he added 
tiie resources of art in its exhibition. Thus, he is 
said to have availed himself of the skill of Aga- 



thareni, wbo punted for him the fint leeiies which 
had ever heen dnwn the principles of 
linear perspective. (VitniT. Praef. lib. vii.) He 
also fiirnished his actors with more soitahle and 
magnificent dresses, with significant and various 
masks, and with the thick-soled oothnmns, to ndse 
their statue to the height of heroes. He moreover 
bestowed so much attention on the choral dances, 
that he is said to have invented various figures 
himself and to have instructed the choristers in 
them without the aid of the regular halletrmasters. 
(Athen. l p. 21 .) So great was Aeschylus* skill as 
a teacher in this respect, that Telestes, one of his 
choristers, was able to express by dance alone the 
various incidents of the play of the Seven against 
Thebes. (Athen. L c) The removal of all deeds 
of bloodshed and munler from the public view, in 
conformity with the rule of Horace {A,P, 185), 
is also said to have heen a practice introduced by 
Aeschylus. (Philos. ViLApU. vl 11.) With him 
also arose the usage of representing at the same 
time a trilogy of plays connected in subject, so that 
each formed one act, as it were, of a great whole, 
which might be compared with some of Shak&- 
speare*s historical plays. Even before the time of 
Aeschylus, it had been customary to contend for 
the prize of tragedy with three plays exhibited at 
the same time, but it was reserved for him to shew 
how each of three tragedies might be complete in 
itself, and independent of the rest, and neverthe- 
less foim a part of a harmonious and connected 
whole. The only example still extant of such a 
trilogy is the Oresteia, as it was called. A Saty- 
rical ph&y tommonly followed each tragic trilogy, 
and it is recorded that Aeschylus was no less a 
master of the ludicrous than of the serious drama. 
(Paus. ii 13. § 5.) 

Aeschylus is said to have written seventy trage- 
dies. Of these only seven are extant, namely, Sie 
''Fenians,** the ''Seven against Thebes,** the 
"Suppliants,** the "Prometheus,** the "Agamem- 
non,** the "Choephoroe,** and "Eumenides;** the 
last three forming, as already remarked, the trilogy 
of the "Oresteia.** The "Persians** was acted in 
B. c. 472, and the " Seven against Thebes** a year 
afterwards. The "Oresteia** was represented in 
B.a 458 ; the "SupplianU** and the "Prometheus** 
were brought out some time between the "Seven 
against Thebes** and the " Oresteia.** It has been 
supposed from some allusions in the "Suppliants,** 
tliat this play was acted in & c. 461, when Athens 
was allied with Argos. 

The first edition of Aeschylus was printed at 
Venice, 1518, 8vo.; but parts of the Agamemnon 
and the Choephoroe are not printed in this edition, 
and those which are given, are made up into one 
pkiy. Of the subsequent editions the best was by 
Stanley, Lend. 1663, fo. with the Scholia and a 
commentary, reedited by Butler. The best recent 
editions are by WeOauer, LipsL 1823, W.Dindoxf, 
Lips. 1827, and Scholefield, Camb. 1830. There 
are numerous editions of various plays, of which 
those most worthy of mention are by Blomfield, 
Mailer, Khmsen, and Peile. The principal Eng- 
lish translations are by Potter, Harford, and Med- 
win. (Petersen, De Ae$d^i Vita et Fabulit^ 
Havniae, 1814; Welcker, Z>w Aemsk^ TrilogiB 
PramdkeuMy Darmstadt, 1824, Naddrag zur 7W- 
Ingie^ Frankf. 1826, and Die Griedi Tngodim^ 
Bonn, 1840; KhHlsel^ Tktologumena Aeach^ 
Trxigid, Berol 1829.) [R. W.J 


AE'SCHYLUS (Al<rxi^Xof), of ALXiLiinyRU, 
an epic poet, who must have Hved preTioas to tiit 
end of tne second century of our aera, smd whoa 
Atibenaeus calls a weU-infbnned man. One of hii 
poems bore the title "Amphitryon,** and anodff 
" Messeniaca.** A fragment of the fanner is ^ 
served in Athenaeus. (xiii p. 599.) Aocordiog 
to Zenobius (v. 85), he had also written a woric m 
proverbs, (flcpl llaipMiumv \ eampem SchneidewiD, j 
Prae/at Paroemiogr, p. xi) [I^ &] 

AE'SCHYLUS of Cnious, a oontempocary d 
Cicero, and one of the most celebrated rfaeforirism 
in Asia Minor. (Cic. BrtO. 91, 95.) 

AE'SCHYLUS {Altrx^Kos), of Rhodes, was 
appointed by Alexander the Greet one of the m- 
specton of the govemon of that country after ia 
conquest in B.C. 332. (Anian, AnaL iiL 5 ; comp^ 
Curt iv. 8.) He is not spoken of again till & c 
319, when he is mentioned as conveying in four 
ships six hundred talents of silver from Cilida ts 
Macedonia, which were detained at Ephesos by 
Antigonus, in order to pay his foreign mercenaries. 
(Diod. xviiL 52.) 

AESCULA'PIUS CAtrkktprt&s\ the god of tbe 
medical art In the Homeric poems Aescolapias 
does not appear to be considered as a divinity, bat 
merely as a human being, which is indicated bv 
the adjective dfvd/mv^ which is never given to a j 
god. No allusion is made to his descent, and he 
is merely mentioned as the hfrhp ^fuf/iotr, and the 
fiither of Maduum and Podaleirius. (IL iL 731, 
iv. 194, XL 518.) From the fact that Homer {Od. 
iv. 232) calls all those who practise the healing 
art descendants of Paeeon, and that Podaleinia 
and Machaon are called the sons of Aeecubpios, 
it has been inferred, that Aesculapius and Paeeon 
are the same being, and consequently a dlrinitj. 
But wherever Homer mentions the healing god, it 
is always Paeeon, and never Aescukpiua ; and as 
in the poet*s opinion all physicians were deaoended 
from Paeeon, be probably considered Aeaculapifls 
in the same light This supposition is conrobui a ted 
by the fiict, that in later times Paeeon waa identi- 
fied with Apollo, and that Aesculapina is uni- 
versally described as a descendant of ApoUa Tbe 
two sons of Aesculapius in the Iliad, wen the 
physicians in the Greek anny, and are described 
as ruling over Trioca, Ithome, and Oecfaalia. (IL 
ii. 729.) According to Eustathius (ad Hem, f- 
330), Lapithes was a son of Apollo and Stilbe, and 
Aesculapius was a descendant of Lapithea. This 
tradition seems to be based oa the same groond- 
work as the more common one, that Aeacolapiiu 
was a son of Apollo and Coronis, the daughter of 
Phlegyas, who is a descendant of Lapithes. 
(ApoUod. iii 10. § 3; Find^PyO. iii. 14, with 
the SchoL) 

The common stoiy then goes on aa feDowiL 
When Coronis was with child by ApoDo^ she 
became enamoured with Ischya, an Arcadiaii, 
and ApoUo informed of this by a raven, which 
he had set to watch her, or, aoooiding to Pindai^ 
by his own prophetic powers, sent his sister 
Artemis to kill Coronis. Artemis accordingly de- 
stroyed Coronis in her own house at ^^^^^^ in 
Thesaaly, on the shore of lake Baebia. (Compi 
Horn. Hymn, 27. 3.) According to Ovid (MeLil 
605, &C.) and Hyginus (PoeL Atir. ii 40), it wss 
Apollo lumself who killed Coronis and Ischj& 
\\ hen the body of Coronis was to be burnt, ApoUo, 
or, according to othen (Pans. ii. 26. § 5), Hermeii 


vrcd the dild ( Aeacnlspntt) from the flamei, and 
ianied h to Cheinm, who instniicted the boy in 
ihe art of heaUng and in honting. (Pind. Pjfih, 
n. I, &c; Apdlod. iii 10. § 3 ; Paok L e.) Ao- 
»rdhig to other tmditione Aeocokpiiu was bom 
U Tnoea in TlieaBaiy (Stiab. sir. pu 647), and 
jtben again rdatod that (Ononis gaTO birth to him 
ifauing an expedition of her fiither PUegyas into 
Pekpooaesaa, in the tenitory of Epidaunu, and 
diat aha expoaed bim on moont Tittheion, which 
vaa bebie called Myrtion. Hen he waa fed by a 
pat and watched by a dog, nntQ at hut he waa 
foond by Aieathaoaa, a ahepheid, who saw the boy 
nmotrnded by a loatre Eke that of lightning. 
(See a different accoont in Paok fiii. 25. § 6.) 
Fram thia danaling ^lendoor, or from hia having 
been feaeoed from the flamea, he waa caUed by the 
Doriana ofyAoifp. The troth of the tradition that 
Aescokpioa waa bom in the territory of Epir 
damoa, and waa not tbe aon of Arainoc^ danghter 
of Leodppaa and bom in Meaaenia, waa atteatp 
ed by an ocade which waa oonsnlted to decide the 
question. (Paaa. iL 26. § 6, iv. 3. § 2 ; Cic. i>s 
A at Dnr. m. 22» where three difierent Aeacda- 
pimea are made oat of the different local traditiona 
about him.) After Aeecnkpiua had grown up, 
reports apiead over all coontriea, that he not only 
cured all the aick, bat called the dead to life again. 
About the manner in which he acquired thia latter 
powo, there were two traditiona in ancient timea. 
According to the one (ApoUod. L c), he had re- 
ceived firam Athena the blood which had flowed 
from the veina of Oorgo, and the Uood which had 
floved Cram the veina of the right aide of her body 
pooeated the power of reatoring the dead to life. 
Aecoiding to the other tradition, Aeacnlapioa on 
one occaaion waa ahut np in the hooae of Olaucua, 
vkom he waa to core, and while he waa atandins 
•bmbed in thooght, there came a aerpent which 
twined round the ataff, and which he killed. 
Another serpent then came carrying in Ita month 
• beib with which it recalled to life the one that 
bad been killed, and Aeacidapina henceforth made 
«se of the nme herb with the lame effect npon 
ffien. (Hygin. Poet Attr. ii. 14.) Several per- 
toot, whom Aeacnlapina was believed to have re- 
stored to life, are mentioned by the Scholiast on 
Pindar (iy&, iiL 96) and by ApoUodoroa. (L c) 
^Vlien he waa exerdatng tnia art npon Ohnicna, 
Zeui killed Aeecuhipiaa with a flaah of lightning, 
M be feared kst men mig^t gradually contrive to 
««»pe death altogether (ApoUod. iii. 10. § 4), or, 
according to others, becauae Pluto had compkined 
of Aeicula^iB drniin ii^liing tho numbef of the dead 
too much. (Kod. iv. 71 ; comp. SchoL ad Pind, 
^fA. vL 102.) But, on the reqneet of Apollo, 
^ placed Aetculapius among the stars. (Hygin. 
PoeLAdr, iL 14.) Aeacukpiua ia also aaid to 
WTe taken part in the expedition of the Argonauts 
nd m the Calydonian hunt. He waa married to 
£piODe,aad hesidea the two sons spoken of by 
Homer, we alio find mention of the following chil- 
**» rf Ms; Jaaiscoa, Alexenor, Aratus, Hygieia, 
^«i^Iaao,aodPanaeeia (SchoL ad PituL Pyth. 
^ U;Pana. il 10. § 3, L 34. §2), most of whom 
««,oidy penonifiotions of the powen ascribed to 

^J^aie the legends about one of the most in- 
^^^^ and important divinities of antiquity. 
l^ipoiUafeM have been brought forward to 
^nxamtheorigm of hb worship in Greece ; and. 



whOe some consider Aesculapius to have been 
originally a real personage, whom tradition had 
connected with various marvellous stories, othen 
have expbuned all the legends about him as mere 
personifications of certain ideas. The serpent, the 
perpetual symbol of Aescolfmins, has given riae to 
the opinion, that the worship was derived from 
Egypt, and that Aesculapius was identical with 
the aerpent Cnnph worshipped in Egypt, or with 
the Phoenician Esmun. (Eoaeb. Priep. Evang. 
L 10 ; comp. Pans. viL 23. § 6.) But it does not 
seem necessary to have recourse to foreign countries 
in order to explain the worship of this god. His 
story is undoubtedly a combination of real events 
with the results of thoughts or ideas, which, as hi 
80 many instances in Greek mythology, are, like 
the former, considered as fects. The kernel, out 
of which the whole myth has grown, is perhaps 
the aooonnt we read in Homer ; but gradually the 
sphere in which Aesculapius acted was so extend- 
ed, that he became the representative or the per- 
aonification'of the healing powen of nature, which 
are naturally enough described as the son (the 
e£Eects) of Helios, — Apollo, or the Sun. 

Aesculapius was wonhipped all over Greece, 
and many towns, as we hietve aeen, claimed the 
honour of his birth. Hb temples were usually 
built in healthy pkoes, on hills outside the town, 
and near wells which were believed to have 
healing powers. These temples were not only 
places of worsliipy but were frequented by great 
numben of sick persons, and may therefore be 
compared to modem hospitals. (Plut. Qaoest Rom, 
p. 286, D.) The principal seat of hb wonhip in 
Greece was Epidaurus, where he had a temple sur* 
rounded with an extensive grove, within which no 
one was allowed to die, and no woman to give birth 
to a child. Hb sanctuary contained a magnificent 
statue of ivory and gold, the workofThrasymedes, 
in which he was represented aa a handsome and 
manly figure, resembling that of Zeus. (Pans, ii 
26 and 27.) He was seated on a throne, holding 
in one hand a staff, and with the other resting 
upon the head of a dragon (serpent), and by hb 
side ky a dog; (Paus. ii. 27. § 2.) Seipento 
were everywhere connected with the worship of 
Aesculapius, probably because they were a symbol 
of prudence and renovation, and were beUeved to 
have the power of discovering herbs of wondrous 
powers, as is indicated in the story about Aescula- 
pius and the serpents in the house of Glaucus. 
Serpents were further believed to be guardians of 
wells with salutary powers. For these reasons a 
peculiar kind of tame serpents, in which Epidaurus 
abounded, were not only kept in his temple (Paus. 
ii. 28. § 1), but the god himself frequently ap- 
peared in the fonn of a serpent. (Paus. iiL 23. 
§ 4; VaL Max. i. 8. § 2 ; Liv. EpiL 11 ; compare 
the account of Alexander Pseudomantb in Lucian.) 
Besides the temple of Epidaurus, whence the wor- 
ship of the god was transplanted to various other 
parts of the ancient world, we may mention those 
of Tricca (Strab. ix. p. 437), Cebenae (xiii p. 603), 
between D^me and Patrae (viiL p. 886), near 
Cyllene (vuL p. 337), in the isbnd of Cos (xiii. 
p. 657 ; Paus. iii. 23. § 4), at Gerema (Strab. viii. 
p. 360), near Cans in Arcadia (Steph. Byz. «. e.'), 
at Sicyon (Pans, ii 10. § 2), at Athens (i 21. § 7), 
near Patrae (vii 21. § 6^ at Titane in the terri- 
tory of Sicyon (vii 23. § 6), at Thelpusa (viu. 26. 
§ 3), in Messene (iv. 31. | 8), at PhUus (ii 13. 



$ 3), Aigos (iL 23. § 4), Aegnim (ii 28. § 6), 
Pellene (viL 27. § 5), Asopns (iii 22. § 7X 
Pergamom (iiL 26. § 7), Lebene in Crete, 
Smyrna, Balagrae (il 26. § 7), Ambncia (Lit. 
zxxviiL 5), at Rome and other placet. At Rome 
the worship of Aeaculapius was introdiiced from 
Epidnurus at the command of the Delphic oiade 
or of the Sibylline books, in & c. 293, for the 
purpose of averting a pestilence. Respecting the 
miracalous manner in which this was effected see 
Valerius Mazhnus (L 8. j 2), and Ovid. (MeL 
XT. 620, &C. ; comp. Niebuhr, ffitt, cf Rom*^ 
iii. p. 408, &c.; Liv. x. 47, xxix. 11; Suet. 
Claud, 25.) 

The sick, who risited the temples of Aescnla- 
pins, had usually to spend one or more nights in 
nis sanctuary (icatfci^etr, mettAare, Pons. iL 27 
§ 2), during which they obserred certain mles 
prescribed by the priests. The god then nsoally 
revealed the remedies for the disease in a dream. 
( Aristoph. PluL 662, &c ; Cic 2>« Dm, iL 59 ; 
PhOostr. VUa ApolUm, i. 7 ; JambL De MytL iii. 
2.) It was in allusion to this Mrv6a/io that many 
temples of Aesculapius ooutained statues repre- 
senting Sleep and Dream. (Paua. ii. 10. § 2.) 
Those whom the god cured of their disease offered 
a sacrifice to him, generally a cock (Plat. Pkaed. 
p. 1 18) or a goat (Pans. x. 32. $ 8 ; Senr. ad Virg. 
Giiorg. iL 880), and hung np in his temple a 
tablet recording the name of the sick, the disease, 
and the manner in which the cure had been 
effected. The temples of Epidaunis, Tricca, and 
Cos, were full of such yotive tablets, and seTeral of 
them are still extant. (Pans. ii. 27. § 3 ; Stmb. 
viii. p. 374 ; comp. Diet, cf Atd. p. 673.) Re- 
specting the festivals celebrated in honour of Aes- 
culapius see Diet. cfAnL p. 103, &c. The various 
surnames given to the god partly describe him as 
the healing or saving ffod, and are partly derived 
from the places in which he was worshipped. 
Some of his statues are described by Pausanias. 
(iL 10. § 3, x. 32. § 8.) Besides the attributes 
mentioned in the description of his statue at Epi- 
daunis, he is sometimes represented holding in one 
hand a phial, and in the other a staff ; sometimes 
also a boy is represented standing by his side, who 
is the genius of recovery, and is railed Telesphorua, 
Euamerion, or Acesius. (Paus. ii. 1 1. § 7.) We 
still possess a considerable number of marble 
statues and busts of Aescdapius, as well as many 
representations on coins and gems. (Bottiger, 
Amalihea, L p. 282 ; iL p. 361 ; Hirt MyOiol, 
Bilderb. L p. 84 ; MUller, Handb. der ArchSoL 
p. 697, &C. 710.) 

There were in antiquity two works which went 
under the name of Aesculapius, which, however, 
were no more genuine than the works ascribed to 
Orpheus. (Fabridus, BibL Cfraee. i. p. 55, &c) 

The descendants of Aesculi^ins were called by 
the patronymic name Aadepiadae. (*A<rKXrpndiiau) 
Those writers, who consider Aesculapius as a real 
personage, must regard the Asclepiadae as his real 
descendants, to whom he transnutted his medical 
knowledge, and whose principal seats were Cos 
and Cnidtts. (Plat, de Re PnbL iiL p. 405, &c.) 
But the Asclepiadae were ahio regarded as an 
order or caste of priests, and for a long period 
the practice of medicine was intimately connected 
with religion. The knowledge of medicine was 
regarded as a socred secret, which was transmitted 
from fiither to son in the fiunilies of the Asclepia^ 


dae, and we still possess the Mth whidi crerf cm 
was obliged to take when be was pat in po wMssin a 
of the medical secrets. (Galen, AmaL ii. pu 129 : 
Aristid. OraL L p. 80 ; oompu K. Spto^gel, Gemk 
der Mediein. voL L) [I^ &] 

AESERNI'NUS. [MarcblluSwI 
AE'SION (AlcrW), an Atlieniaa omtacv wm a 
contemporary of Demosthenes, with wIkub he vai 
educated. (Suidaa, s. v. AiifM^^^s.) To wl«i 
party he belonged during the Maeedonuui time i« 
uncertain. When he was asked what hie tfaoqglt 
of the orators of his time, he said, that wken he 
heard the other erston, he admired their beantJiLl 
and sublime conversations with the people, bat 
that the speeches of Demosthenes, when sead, ex- 
celled all ethers by their skilfiil conatmction and 
their power. (Hermippas, op. PUd. I>Bmu Iv.) 
Aristotle (RheL iiL lO) mentions a benatifiil ex- 
pression of Aesion. [Lb S.] 

AESON (Aiffmy)^ a son of Cretheos, the founder 
of lolcns, and of Tyro, the daughter of Sahnoneus. 
He was excluded by his step-brother Pelias fit>n 
his share in the kingdom A Thessaly. He wu 
father of Jason and Promachus, but the name 
of his wife is differently stated, as Polyraede, 
Alcimede, Amphinome, Polypheme, PolymeX 
Ame, and Scarphe. (Apollod. L 9. § 11 and § I<>; 
Hom. Od xL 258; Twtz, ad Ifoophr. 872 ; Diod. 
iv. 50 ; SchoL ad Apolltm, L 45 ; SchoL ad Hom 
Od, xii. 70.) Pelias endeavoured to aecore xht 
throne to himself by sending Jason awar with tbe 
Argonauts, but when one day he was 8nr|»ised 
and frightened by the news of the return of the 
Argonauts, he attempted to get rid of Aeeon bj 
force, but the latter put an end to his own liie. 
(Apollod. L fl. § 27.) According to an account to 
Diodorus (iv. 50), Pelias compelled Aeaon to kill 
himself by drinking ox*s blood, for he had recein-d 
intelligence that Jason and his companions haJ 
perished in their expedition. According to Ovid 
{MeL viL 163, 250, Ac.), Aeson survived tiie 
return of the Aigonants, and was made young 
again by Medeia. Jason as the son of Aeson is 
called Aesonides. (Orph. Arg. 55.) [L. &1 
AESO'PUS (AftrwofX a writer of Fables, a 
species of composition which has been defined 
** analogical narratives, intended to convey some 
moral lesson, in which irrational animals or objecu 
are introduced as speaking.** (PkUolog. Mmaeum, I 
n. 280.) Of his works none are extant, and of 
his life scarcely anything is known. He appears 
to have lived about & c. 570, for Herodotus (iL 134) 
mentions a woman named Rhodonis as a fellow- 
skive of Aesop*s, and says that sne lived in the 
time of Amasis king of Egypt, who b^gan to xeigQ 
B. a 569. Plutarch makes him contemporary with 
Solon {Sept, Sap, Come. p. 152, c.), and Laertini 
(L 72) says, that he flourished about the 52t]i 
Olympiad. The only iq>pai«nt authority against 
thu date is that of Soidas (a «. Atmres); but 
the passage is phunly corrupt, and if we adopt the 
correction of Clinton, it gives about & c 620 for 
the date of his birth ; his death is pkued & c. 564, 
but may have occurred a little kter. (See Clinton, 
FatL He!L voL L pp. 213, 237, 239.) 

Suidas tells ns that Samos, Sardis, Mesembris 
in Thrace, and Cotioemn in Phrygia dispute the 
honour of having given him biru. We are told 
that he was originally a slave, and the reason of 
his first writing lables is given by Phaedma. (iu> 


Pra!og; 33, &&) Among his maiten were two 
kmacnis Xanthns and ladmon, fimn the ktter of 
rbom he receiTed his freedom. Upon this he 
rttited Croesos (where we are told that he re- 
prored Sobm fcr discomtesy to the king)^ and 
ifterwaids Peiaistiatns at A&iens. Plutarch {de 
Kn .Vast. Vmd, p. 556) tells as, that he was tent 
to Delphi by Cneras, to distribute among the 
citizens fbar minae a piece. Bat in consequence 
of tome dispute ariaiiig on the subject, he refused 
to give any money at all, upon which the ennged 
De^hians threw him from a precipice. Plagues 
were sent upon them from the gods for the ofience, 
azkd they proehdmed their willingness to give a 
compensation for his death to any one who could 
claim it At length ladmon, the gnrndson of his 
old master, reoeived the compeniwtion, since no 
Dearer connezion could be found. (Herod, ii. 134.) 
Then seems no reason to doubt this stoiy about 
the compensadon, and we haye now stated all the 
ciiromstsnces of Aesop^ lifo which rest on any au- 
thority. But there are a vast Tariety of anecdotes 
and adTentures in wldch he bean the principal part, 
in a life oC him prefixed to abook of Fables purport^ 
ing to be his, and aoUected by Mazimus Pknudes, 
a monk of the 14th century. This lifo repre- 
lents Aesop aa a perfect monster of uglmess and 
defonnity ; a notion for which there is no authority 
'«.\)ateTeT. For he ia mentioned in passages ii 
daasica] authors, where an allusion to such per- 
■opal peculiarities would haTe been moat natural, 
vithoat the slightest tnce of any such allusion. 
He appean for instance in Platareh^b Conviviumy 
where though there are many jokes on his former 
condition as a daye, there are none on his ap- 
pearance, and we need not imagine that the an- 
cienta would be restrained from such jokes by any 
feebngs of delicacy, amce the nooe of Socrates 
fiinuahes ample matter for raillery in the Sympo- 
«m of Pkto. Beaadea, the Atheniana caused 
Lyuppu to erect a statue in his honour, which 
ind it been amlptnied in accordance with the 
^^ deieription, would have been the rerene of 

The notices howerer which we possess of Aesop 
*R w Mattered and of aueh doubtfol authority, 
tiiat there hare not been wanting persons to deny 
his existence altogether. '^ In poetical phUosophy,'' 
^ Vico m his Soienxa Nuoca^ •* Aesop will be 
found not to be any particnkr and actually exist- 
ing mao, \kX the abatmction of a class of men, or 
• poetical chsncter lepresentatiYe of the companions 
and attendanu of the heroes, such aa certainly 
*?«»4 inthetimeoftheBeren&igesofGieece.*' 
f hu however ii an ezoesa of sceptioBm into which 
It vonld be most unreasonable to phmge : whether 
wV^ «y written worits at all, is a question 
*jjich ^rd> conaidenble room for doubt, and to 
*n«h Bentley inclines to give a negative. Thus 
™?Pt«M»(F«p, 1259) represento PhQodeon as 
^Mghis Fsbles m eomrerwation and not out of a 
*^ad Socnttes who turned them into poetry 
rZS*^ ^<« that "he knew, and could most 



J^Wywaember." (PlatPAoed p. 61, b; Bentr 
^y^l>iuerta&m on ike Fables (fAeeop, p. 136.) 

nowe^er this may be, it is certain that fobles, 
wng Jitttoft nsme, were popular at Athens in 
lMS!?v?^"*'*»*la8«- We find them frequenUy 
» d^ / Ariftophanes. One of the pleasurea of 
^^p {yap, 566) was, that among the candi- 
"'*•»» ha protection and vote some endeavoured 

to win his fiivonr by repeatuig to him fobles, and 
some Aioionrov rl fihMW, Two specimens of 
these T^AoM or droUeria may be read in the 
FiNpae, 1401, &C., and in the Avea^ 651, &c The 
latter however is mid by the Scholiast to be the 
eompoaition of Aichilochus, and it is probable that 
many anecdotes and jeste were attributed to 
Aesop, aa the most popuUr of all authon of the 
kind, which really were not his. This it favour- 
able to Beniley's theory, that his fobles were not 
collected in a written form, which also derivea 
additional probability firom the fiict that there is a 
variation in the manner in which ancient authors 
quote Aesop, even though they are manifestly 
referring to the lame fob&. Thus Aristotle (IM 
Part Anim. iiL 2) dtes horn him a complaint of 
Momus, ** that thie builds horns were not placed 
about his shoulders, where he might make the 
strongest posh, but in the tendoest part, his 
head,"* whilst Lucian (Niffr. 82) makes the foult 
to be ^^ that his horns were not pUwed straight 
before his eyes.** A written collection would have 
prevented siich a diversity. 

Besides the drollnies above mentioned, there 
were probably fobles of a graver description, since, 
aa we have seen, Socrates condeeoended to turn 
them into votm, of which a specimen has been 
preserved by Dioffenes Laertius. Again, Plato, 
though he exduded Homer'b poema fimn his 
imaginary Republic, praises the writings of Aesop. 
By him they ire called fi»«oi {Pkaed. pp. 60, 61), 
though an able writer in the Philological Museum 
(L p. 281) thinks that the more ancient imme fiw 
such fictions was alwr, a word explained by 
Buttmann (Lacilogm^ p. 60, £ng. tranal.)* ''a 
speech full of meaning, or cunningly imagined** 
(Horn. Od, ziv. 508), whence Ulysses is called 
voA^Wor in reference to the particular sort of 
speeches which mark his character. In Hesiod 
(Op, et Dieiy 200), it baa paaaed into the lenae of 
a moral foble. The o&oc or ftSBoi of Aesop were 
certainly in prose : — ^they are called by Aristo- 
phanes X&yot^ and their author (Herod, ii 134^ ia 
Attrttms 6 kefy6wotos^ x6yos being the pecuuar 
word for Prose, aa (irn waa for votm, and includ- 
ing both foble and history, though afterwarda 
restricted to oratory, when that becune a aepaiato 
branch of eompoaition. 

Following the example of Socratea, Demetrioa 
Phalereas (b. c. 320) turned Aesop's fobles into 
poetry, and collected them into a book \ and after 
him an author, whose name ia unknown, pub- 
Eshed them in Elegiacs, of which some fiagmenta 
are preserved by Suidas. But the only Greek 
versifier of Aesop, of whose writings any whole 
fobles are preserved is Babrius, an author of no 
mean powers, and who may well take his dace 
amongst Fabnlisto with Phaedrus and La Fon- 
taine. His version is in Cholimnbics, i. «. /omr, 
haiUng iambics (x^^^'t fofi^or), verses which fol- 
low in all respecto the laws of the Iambic Tri- 
meter till the sixth foot, which is either a spondee 
or trochee, the fifth being properly an iambus, 
lliis version was made a Uttle before the age of 
Augustus, and consisted of ten Books, of which a 
few scattered fobles only are preserved. Of the 
Latin writers of Aesopean fiibles, Phaedrua is the 
most celebrated. 

The fobles now extant in pros^, bearing the name 
of Aesop, are unquestionably spurious. Of these 
there are three principal collections, the one con- 



tuning 136 &blei, pablished first ▲. D. 1610, from 
MSS. at Heidelberg. This is so dumsj a forgery, 
that it mentions the orator Demadet^ who lived 200 
years after Aesop, and contains a whole sentence 
from the book dF Job (tu^oI yitp ifXBoiAW 61 
v<£vr«f, yvfJtMol oZw drtXtvaifuOa), Some af the 
passages Bentley has shewn to be fragments of 
Choliambic rerses, and has made it tolerably cer- 
tain that they were stolen from Babrina. The 
other collection was made by the above mentioned 
monk of Constantinople, Maximns Planudes. 
These contain at least one Hebraism (fiotiy iv rfi 
KOfM^i compare €,g, Ecdes. xL 1, cTiror l» np 
KopStf fwv), and among them are words entirely 
modem, as fioiraXu a bird, fia^wpoy a beast, and 
also traces of the Choliambics of Babrins. The 
third collection was found in a MS. at Florence, 
and published in 1809. Its date is about a cen- 
tury before the time of Planudes, and it contains 
the life which was prefixed to his collection, and 
commonly supposed to be his own. 

Bentley*s dissertation on Aesop is appended to 
those on Phalaris. The genuineness of the existing 
forgeries was stoutly maintained by his Oxford 
antagonists ^Preface to Aeaopioarum Fabularum 
J)electu$y Oziord 1628); but there is no one in our 
day who disputes his decision. 

It remains to notice briefly the theory which 
assigns to Aesop^s fiibles an oriental origin. Among 
the writers of Arabia, one of the most famous is 
Luknum, whom some traditions make oontempo- 
nuy with David, others the son of a sister or 
want of Job, while again he has been represented 
as an ancient kmg or chief of the tribe of Ad. 
** Lukman^s wisdom** is proverbial among the 
Arabs, and joined with Joseph*s beauty and 
David*b melody. [See the Thousand and One 
Nights (Lane*s translation), Story of Prince 
Kamer«»-Zeman and Princess Budoor, and Note 
59 to chapter x.] The Persian accounts of this 
Lukman represent him a« an ugly black slave, and 
it seems probable that the autnor of the Life en- 
grafted this and other circumstances in the Oriental 
traditions of Lukman upon the classical tales re- 
specting Aesop. The fiibles ascribed to Aesop have 
in many respects an eastern character, alludbg to 
Asiatie customs, and introducing panthers, pea- 
cocks, and monkeys among their dramatis persona. 
All this makes it likely that the fiibles attri- 
buted both to Lukman and Aesop are derived from 
the same Indo-Persian source. 

The principal editions of Aesop*s Fables are, 
I. The collection formed by Planudes with a 
Latin tnmsUtion, published at Milan by Buono 
Accorso at the end of the 15th century. 2. An- 
other edition of the same collection, with some 
additional fiibles from a MS. in the Bibliotheque 
du Roi at Paris, by Robert Stephanus, 1646. 
S. The edition of Nevelet, 1610, which added to 
these the Heidelbeig collection, published at Frank- 
fort on the Main. These have been followed by 
editions of all or some of the Fables, by Hudson at 
Oxford (1718), Hauptmann at Leiprig (1741), 
Heusinger at Leipsig (1756), Emesti at the 
same place (1781), and Q. H. Schaefer again at 
Leipzig (1810, 1818, 1820). Francesco de Furia 
added to the above the new fiibles from the Flo- 
rentine MS., and his edition was reprinted by 
Coray at Paris (1810). All the fiibles have been 
put together and published, 231 in number, by J. 
O. Schneider, at Breslau, in 1810. [G. E. L. C] 


AESO'PUS, a Greek hiatorian, wrlio wrotr a 
life of Alexander the Great. The original is k«i. 
but there is a Latin trandation of it by Julius 
Valerius [Valkrius], of which Franciaciia Junm 
had, he says {ad Symmaeh. Ep, x. 54), a rnasi;- 
script. It was first published, howerer, by A. Md 
from a MS. in the Ambrosian library, MiIml, 1817, 
4to., reprinted Frankfort, 1818, 8vo. The title "a 
** Itinerarium ad Constantinum Angaatmn, etc : 
acoednnt Julii Valerii Res gestae Alexandii Mace- 
donis,** etc The time when Aesopus lived is on- 
certain, and even his existence has been doabtei 
(Berth, Advenar, ii. 10.) Mai, in the prefoee u 
his edition, contended that the work was written 
before 389, a. d., because the temple of Setapis st 
Alexandria, which was destroyed by order cf 
Theodosius, is spoken of in the trandation (Jul 
Valer. I 81) as still standing. But aerioiu obj(«- 
taons to this inference have been rsised b j Letronm 
(Jomnu de» Scmau^ 1818, p. 617X wbo refers i: 
to the seventh or eighth century, which the weigVt 
of intonal evidence would rather point to. Tb'' 
book is full of the most extravagant atories sixl 
daring mistakes, and is a work of no credit. fA A J 

most celebrated tragic actor at Rome in the Cice- 
ronian period, probably a freedman of the CMii 
gens. Horace (J^. iL 1. 82) and other anlbon 
put him on a level with Rosdus. (Fronto, p. 
44, ed. Niebuhr.) Each was preeminent in hh 
own department ; Roscius in comedy, being, vitk 
respect to action and delivery {protumtiatio}, m<^ 
npid {eUatiorj QumtiL InsL Or. xL S. § 1 Ii) ; A^^ 
sopus in tragedy, being more weighty {grtniar, 
QnintiL Le.). Aesopus took great paina to perfect 
himself in his art by various methods. He dili- 
gently studied the exhibition of character in nral 
life ; and when any important trial waa going om 
especiaUy, for example, when Hortensina was to 
plead, he was constantly in attendance, that he 
might watch and be able to represent the oxn 
truthfully the feelings which were actually dia- 
pUiyed on such occasions. ( VaL Max. viiL 10. § 2.) 
He never, it is said, put on the mask for the dia- 
racter he had to perfonn in, without first looking 
at it attentively from a distance for aome timet 
that so in performing he might preserve his voice 
and action in perfect keeping witn the ^ipearance 
he would have. (Fronto, de Eloq, 5. 1, p. 37.) 
Perhaps this anecdote mav confirm the opinion 
{DicL o/AnL s. v. Peraona% that masks had oniy 
lately been introduced in the regular drama at 
Rome, and were not always used even for leading 
characters ; for, according to Cicero (ds Die, L 37)* 
Aesopus excelled in power of fiioe and fire of «f 
pressioH (tanlum ardorem tmUmun atqme motoas*)* 
which of course would not have been risible if 
he had performed only with a mask. From the 
whole passage in Cicero and from the anec- 
dotes recorded of him, his acting would aeem to 
have been characterised chiefly by strong emphssis 
and vehemence. On the whole, Cicero calls him 
$umnnu arti/eae^ and says he waa fitted to act a 
leading part no less in real life than on the stage. 
(Pro Seai, 56.) It does not appear that he em 
performed in comedy. Valerius Maximns (viii. 
10. § 2) calls Aesopus and Roscius both *" ludicne 
artis peritissimos viros,*' but this may merely de- 
note tlie theatrical art in general, including tiagedf 
as well as comedy. (Comp.7iM/»0ra0 UlmM, Plin./^* 
N. xvi 36.) Fronto calls him (p. 87) Tragfiau A*" 


Pram Cieeio'^ remaik, howerer, (de Off, 
i lU), it wold •eem that the chancter of Ajax 
nv nther too tngje lor him. (Comp. TWie: QmomI. 
2. 17, iT. 25.) 

Like RoKnu, AeMpu enjoyed the intimacy of 
tb« gimft actor, who calk him nodat Aetoptu {ad 
Fam, TiL 1), mmiBr /bmUiariB (ad Qu. FruL I 2, 
4) ; and Aey aeem to have sought, from one an- 
other\ eocietj, improTement, each in his re- 
tpectiTe art: Daring his exile, Cicero reoei?ed 
many ^ahiaUe marks of Aesopos^s friendship. On 
floe occadon, in pardcniar, having to perform the 
port of Tdamon, banished from his ooontiy, m one 
of Acdns\ piays, the t^^;edian, by his manner and 
•kiUnl emplaais, and an occasbnal change of a 
word, added to th« evident reality of his feelings, 
snd focoeeded in leading the andienoe to apply ue 
vhole to the case of Cioero, and so di^ hun more 
enmtial service than any direct defence of himself 
t^d have done. The whole house applauded. 
{Pro Sext 56.) On another occasion, instead of 
*^BnUtu qui Hbertatem dvimn stabOivent,^ he 
sab»titated TUZms, and the audience gave utter^ 
ance to their enthnaiaam by encoiing Uie passage 
*" a thooaand timea** (ndUim rewoah m e$L, Pro 
SeH. 58). The time cf his death or his age can- 
not be fixed with certain^ ; but at the dedication 
of the theatre of Pompey (a a 55), he would seem 
to have been elderiy, for he was understood previ- 
mslv to have retired from the stage, and we do 
not hear of his being particnhrly delicate : yet, 
fmm the passage, ill-health or age would appear to 
have been the reason of his retiring. On that oe- 
caaion, howevei; in honour of the festival, he i^ 
P'^sred ^gain ; bat joat as he was coming to one 
of the most emphatic parts, the beginning of an 
mtth. Si Ktent/aUof etc!, his voice fiuled hmi, and 
he could not go throngh with the speech. He was 
evidently unable to proceed, so that any one 
would readily have excused him : a thing which, 
as the passage in Cicero implies (ad Fam. viL 1), 
a Roman audience would not do for ordinary per- 
formers. AesopoB, though &r from frugal (Plin. 
H, N. X. 72), reaUsed, J^e Roscius, an immense 
(artune by his profeasion. He left about 200,000 
sesterces to his son Clodiua, who proved a foolish 
ipendthrift. (VaL Max. ix. 1. § 2.) It is said, for 
instance, that he diflsdved in vinegar and drank a 
pearl worth about £8000, which he took from the 
«w^ring of Caedlia Meteik (Hor. Sat il 3, 239 ; 
Val.Max. ix. 1. § 2; Macrob. SaL ii. 10; Plin. 
ff. AT. ix. 59), a fevonrite feat of the extra- 
*ignt mooomania in Rome. (Compare Suet 
Oai*9' 37; liacrob. Sat ii 13.) The connexion 
of Ckero'k son-in-law Dohibella with the same 
huiy no doubt increased the distress which Cicero 
wit St the dissdnte proceedings of the son of his 
old friend. (Ad Alt xL 13.) [A. A.] 

AKSYMNETES (Altrvpuf^s)^ a surname of 
I>u>n7ais, whidi ugnifies the Lord, or Ruler, and 
niiider which he was worshipped at Aroo in Achaia. 
The gtoiy about the introduction of his worship 
«»Me is ss follows : There was at Troy an ancient 
jBge of Dionysus, the woric of Hephaestus, which 
pw bad once given as a present to Dardanus. 
It was kept in a chest, and Cassandra, or, accord- 
ing to othen, Aeneas, left this chest behind when 
»« qaitted the city, because she knew that it 
would do injorjr to him who possessed it When 
tbe Greeks divided the spoils of Trov among them- 
■elres, this chest fell to the share of theThessahan 



Emypyhis, who on opening it suddenly fell into a 
state of madness. The orade of Delphi, when 
consulted about Ids recovery, answered, ^ Where 
thou shalt see men performing a strange sacrifice, 
there shalt then dedicate the cEest, and there shalt 
thou settle." When Enrypylus came to Aroe in 
Achaia, it was just the season at which its in- 
habitanta oflered every year to Artemis Tiiclaria a 
human sacrifice, consisting of the fiuiest youth and 
the fiurest maiden of the phioe. This sacrifice was 
offered as an atonement for a crime which had 
once been committed in the temple of the goddess. 
But an orKle had declared to them, that they 
should .be released from the necessity of making 
this sacrifice, if a foreign divinity should be 
brought to them by a foreign kiqg. This orecio 
was now fiilfilled. Euiypylus on seeing the vic- 
tims led to the altar was cured of his madness and 
perceived that this waa the phice pointed out to 
him by the orade ; and the Aroesns also, on see- 
ing the god in the chest, remembered the old 
prophecy, stopped the sacrifice, and instituted a 
festival of Dionysus Aesymnetes, for this was the 
name of the god in the chest Nine men and nine 
women were appointed to attend to his worship. 
During one night of this festival a priest car- 
ried tiie cheat outside the town, and all the 
children of the phoe, adorned, aa formerly the 
victims used to be, with garlands of corn-ears, 
went down to the banks of the river MeHichius, 
which had before been called Ameilichius, hung 
up their garlands, purified themselves, and then 
put on other garlimas of ivy, after which they re- 
turned to the sanctuary of Dionysus Aesymnetes. 
(Pans. viL 19 and 20.) This tradition, though 
otherwise very obscure, evidenUy points to a time 
when human sacrifices were abousned at Aroe by 
the introduction of a new worship. At Patrae in 
Achaia there waa likewise a temple dedicated to 
Dionysus Aesymnetes. (Pans. viL 21. § 12.) [L.S.] 

AETH A'LIDES (MeaKfZiis), a son of Hermes 
and Enpolemeia, a daughter of Myimidon. He 
was the herald of the Argonauts, and had received 
from his frtther the fiiculty of remembering every- 
thing, even in Hades. He was further allowed to 
reside alternately in the upper and in the lower 
worid. As his soul could not forget anything even 
after death, it remembered that from the.J^y of 
Aethalides it had successively migrated iffto tnoso 
of Enphorbns, Hermotimus, Pyrrhus, and at kst 
into that of Pythagoras, in whom it still retained 
the recollection of its former migrations. (ApoUon. 
Rhod. L 54, 640, &&; Orph. Ar^fon. 131 ; Hygin. 
Fab. 14; Diog. Laert viil 1. §4,&c.; Val Fhicc. 
1437.) [Ii. &J 

AETHER (A/0ifp), a personified idea of the 
mythical cosmogonies. According to that of Hy- 
ginus (Fab. Pnf. p. 1, ed. Staveren), he was, to- 
gether with Night, Day, and Erebus, begotten by 
Chaos and Caligo (Darkness). According to that 
of Hesiod {ThMg. 124), Aether was the son of 
Erebus and his sister Night, and a brother of 
Day. (Comp. Phomut De Nat Dear. 16.) The 
children of Aether and Day were Land, Heaven, 
and Sea, and finnn his connexion with the Earth 
there sprang all the vices which destroy the human 
race, and also the Giants and Titans. (Hygin. 
Fab. Prrf. p. 2, &c.) These aooounU shew that, 
in the Greek cosmogonies, Aether was considered 
aa one of the elementary substances out of which 
the Universe was formed. In the Orphic hymns 



(4) Aether appears as the soul of the world, fimn 
Mrmch all life emanatea, an idea which was also 
adopted by some of the early philosophers of 
Greece. In later times Aether was re^urded as 
the wide space of Heaven, the residence of the 
gods, and Zeus as the Lord of the Aether, or Aether 
itself personified. (PacuT. ap. Go, de NaL Dear, 
iL 36, 40; Lucret y. 499; Virg. Am, zii 140, 
Qwrg, u. 325.) [L. S.] 

AETHE'RIE. [Huiadbs.] 
writer of the fbnrth century, a native of Istria ac- 
cording to his surname, or, according to Rabanns 
Maoms, of Scythil^ the author of a geogrnphical 
work, called Aethki Gosmogiaphia. We leam 
from the pre&oe that a measurement of the ii^ole 
Roman world was ordered by Julius Oaesar to be 
made by the most able men, that this measurement 
was begun in the consulship of Julius Caesar and 
M. Antonius, i «. B. c. 44; that three Greeks were 
appointed for the purpose, Zenodoxus, Theodotus, 
and Polyclitus ; that Zenodozus measured all the 
eastern port, which occupied him twenty-one years, 
five months, and nine days, on to the third consul- 
skip of Augustus and Crassus ; that Theodotus 
measured the northern part, which occupied him 
twenty-nine years, eiffht months, and ten days, on 
to the tenth consul^ip of Augustus; and that 
Polyclitus measured the southern part, which oo- 
CD^ied him thirty-two years, one month, and ten 
days; that thus the whole TRoman) world was 
gone over by the measurers within thirty-two (?) 
years ; and that a report of all it contained was 
laid before the senate. So it stands in the edd.; 
but the numbers an evidently mudi corrupted : 
the contradictoriness of PoIyclitus*s share taking 
man than 32 years, and the whole measurement 
being made in less than (cn^ra) 32 years is obvious. 
It is to be observed tiiat, in this introductoiy 
statement, no mention is made of the western part 
(which in the work itself comes next to the east- 
em), except in the Vatican MS., where the eastern 
part is given to Nioodomus, and the western to 

^ A census of all the jMopZe m the Roman subje&> 
tion was held under Augustus. (Snidas, «. «l 
Afyouirrof.) By two late writers (Casaiodorus, 
Vixr, if' 52, by an emendation of Huschke, p. 6, 
^ihtr denzurZeU der Cfeburi Jetu CkrigH gMUenen 
CmnctjEreslaUy 1840 ; and Isidorus, Orig,^, 36. § 
4), this numbering of the people is spoken of as 
connected with the measurement of the knd. This 
work in feet conusts of two separate pieces. The 
first begins with a short introduction, die substance 
of which has been' given, and then proceeds with 
an account of the measurement of the Roman world 
under four heads, Orientalis, Occidentalis, Septen- 
trionalis, Meridiana pars. Then come series of 
lists of names, arranged under heads, Maria, Insn- 
lae. Monies, Provinciae, Oppida, Flumina, and 
Gentes. These are bare lists, excepting that the 
rivers have an account of their rise, course, and 
length annexed. This is the end of the first part, 
the Expositio. The second {Mirt is called Alia to- 
tius orbis Descriptio, and consists of four divisions: 
(1.) Asiae Provinciae situs cum limitibus et populis 
suis ; (2.) Enropae situs, &c ; (3.) Africae situs, 
^kc.; (4.^ Insuke Nostri Maris. This part, the 
Descriptio, occurs with slight variations in Oresius, 
L 2. In Aethicus what looks like the original 
nt, Majores nostri, &&, is tacked on 


to the preceding part, the Expositu^ bj tbe wndi 
Hanc quadripcartUam ioUm Urra$ oontiuenimm U 
qui diaunti sunt. From this it wovild i^^pear t^ 
Aethicus borrowed it firom Orosius. 

The work abounds in erron. Sometimes tbe 
same name occurs in difierent lists ; aa, for exao- 
ple, Cyprus and Rhodes both in the north and ia 
the east; Corsica both in the west and in the 
south ; or a country is put as a town, as Anhia; 
Noricum is put among the islands^ Mistakes of 
this kind would easily be made in eopjing hm, 
especially if in double columns. Bat from otbex 
reasons and fixnn quotations given by Dkoil, i 
writer of the 9th century, from the Cosmogcsphia, 
diffiering from the text as we have it, the whojB 
appears to be very corrupt. The whole b a vey 
meagre production, but presents a few valoabfe 
points. Many successful emendationa have bea 
made by Salmasius in his Exercitationes Philob- 
gicae, and there is a very valuable eaaay on jha 
whole subject by Ritschl in the B Aeini ac i es Afneaa 
(1842), L 4. 

The sources of the Cosmographia appear to bare 
been the measurements above described, other offi- 
cial lists and documents, and also, in all jNtobobibtr, 
Agrippa^s Commentariiy which are constantly re- 
ferred to by Pliny (^u^ Aa(. iii. iv. t. vL) asm 
authority, and his Chart of the World, which was 
founded on his CommentaiiL (Plin. HuL NaL izL 


Cassiodoms {de vuUL dhm. 25) describes s 
coemogn^hical work by Julius Honorius Cotor 
in terms which suit exactly the work of Aethicus; 
and Salmasius regards Julius Honorius as the leai 
author of this work, to which opinion Ritschl seems 
to lean, reading Ethnicus instead of Aethtcns, and 
considering it as a mere appellative. In some 
MSS. the appeUatives Sophista and Philoeophia 
are found. 

One of the oldest MSS., if not the oldest, is the 
Vatican one. This is the only one which speski 
of the west in the introduction. But it is care- 
lessly written : conttdilms (e. g.) is several times 
put for oontulaium. Suit is found aa a coatiac- 
tion (?) for wpraaeriptis. The introdnctiQn is veiy 
different in this and in the other MSB. 

The first edition of the Cosmographia was bf 
Simler, Basel, 1575, together with the Itinerarism 
Antonini There is an edition by Henry Stephens^ 
1577, with Simler^s notes, which alao contains 
Dionysius, Pomponius Mela, and Solinus. The 
last edition ia by Gronovius^ in his edition of Pois- 
ponius Mela, Leyden, 1722. [A. A] 

AETHILLA (A&iAAa or AK9vXAa), a daughter 
of Laomedon and sister of Priam, Astyoche, sod 
Medesicaste. After the fell of Troy she became 
the prisoner of Protesihuis, who took her, together 
with other captives, with him on his voyage home. 
He landed at Scione in Thrace in order to take in 
finesh water. While Protesihuis had gone inland, 
Aethilla persuaded her fellow-prisonen to set fire 
to the ships. This was done and all remained on 
the spot and founded the town of Sdonew (Txetx. 
ad l^oopkr, 921, 1075 ; Conon, NarraL 13 ; com- 
pare P. Mela, ii. 2. § 150 ; StepL Bya. s. «h 
^Exuiw ^ ri S.1 

AE'THIOPS(Ai*e£oi^), theOkwing or theBhck. 

1. A surname of Zeus, under which he was wiv- 

shipped in the island of Chios. (Lyoophron, CbA 

537, with the note of Tietaes.) 

2. A son of Hephaeitaa, from whom Aethic^ 


to haxe derived its nanie. (Plia. 
£.iSr.YL35; Nat. Com. ii. 6.) [L. &] 

A^THJUIUS CA^Aios), the first kW of Elis. 
PSiu. T. 1. § 2.) He was a son of Zeus and 
^togenein, the dan^ttf of Deucalion (Apollod. 
. 7. § 2 ; Hyi^n. Fab. 155), and was mazned to 
>i JOS, bj whom he hegot Endymion. According 
D tone aoeovBts EndymicRn was himself a son of 
Zaisaod fint kii^ of Elia. (Apollod. L 7. § 5.) 
>tJier traditio ns iq^ain made Aethlins a son oif 
\eoliia, who was called by the name of ZenSb 
[Pans. T. S. I 1.) [L. S.] 

AETHLIUS (*A/ttXjof), the anthor of a woik 
sntttJed *^Samiaa Annals** CClpoi Idttwi)^ the fiah 
book of whidli ia qnoted by Athenseos, slthoiufa 
he expresses a donbi aboot the gemuneness of the 
work. (xir. p. 650, d. 653, £) Aethlins is ahw 
lefcned to "ij densens Alexandrinns (Prdr, p. 
30, a), Eostathina {ad OtL vil 120, p. 1573), and 
in the Etymokgiciini Magnnm {$, ci pmrnu), 
where ihe name ia written Athlxos. 

AETHRA (Att^). 1. A daughter of king 
Pittheos of Troesen. BeUerophon sued for her 
hand, baft was banished firam Corinth before the 
naptiais took pbce. (Pans. li. 31. § 12.) She 
was surprised on one occasion by Poseidon in the 
iibnd ^ Sphaeria, whither she had gone, in con- 
tequeooe of a dieam, lor the pnrpose of oflering a 
laciifice on the tomb of Sphaona. Aethia there- 
fore dedicated in the island a temide to Athena 
.\pBtiiria (the Deoeitfiil), and called the idand 
Hieta instead of Sphaena, and also introduced 
amang the maidens of Troeaen the custom of dedi- 
cstiog their girdles to Athena Apatnria on the day 
of thdr mscris^e. (Pans, ii 33. § 11.) At a hiter 
time the bccsme themother of Theseas by Aegens. 
(Plot Tha. 3; Hygin. Fa6. 14) In the night 
in which this took phMe, Poseidon also was be- 
lieved to haw been with her. (Apollod. iiL 15. 
§7; Hysin. jPa& 87.) According to Plutarch 
( Tha, 6) her fiuher q»iead this report merely that 
ThcKos might be se^zded ss the son of Poseidon, 
who was mnch rererad at Troesen. This opinion, 
however, ii nothing else but an attempt to strip 
the gensine story of ito mazrels. After this event 
>he appean firing in Attica, from whenoe ahe was 
canied off to Laeedsemon by Castor and Poly- 
dnces, and became a abve of Helen, with whom 
Ae was taken to Troy. (Pint TAsfc 34; Hom. 
/^- in. 144.) At the taking of Troy she came to 
ue camp of the Qreeka, where she was recogniaed 
or ber giandaons, and Demophon, one of them, 
asked AgfuneBuum to procure her libeiation. 
A^BMonum soeoidmgly sent a meaaenger to Helen 
to requeat her to gire up Aethra. This was 
^oted, and Aethia became free again. (Pans.x. 
2?.83; Dirt. Cret ▼. 13.) According to Hy- 
8inia(fh&. 243) ahe afterwards put an end to her 
own fife from gnef at the death of her sons. The 
^^^ of her bondage to Helen was represented 
«B the celebiated chest of Cypselns (Pana. iy. 19. 
S 1 ; Dion Chrysost. OraL 11), and in a painting 
^Po]ygiiota8intheLeecheQfI)elphi. (Ptaus.z. 

2. Adsa^tterof Oceanns, by whom Atlas be- 
^ the twelTe Hyades, and a son, Hyss. (Or. 

K^.)!^ ; Hygm. Fab. 192.) [L. S.] 

J^™5'SA hXhuca\ a daughter of Poseidon 
"M Alcywie, who was beloved by Apolk^ and 
Jw* to lam laenther. (Apdlod. iiL 10. § 1 ; 


AETIUa 51 

AETHTIA {klBwa\ a surname of Athens, 
under which she was worshipped in Megaria. 
(Pana. L 5. § 3; 41. § 6; Lyoophr. Ccm, 359.) 
The word tMwn signifiea a direr, and figuratiyely 
a ship, so that the name must have refereuce to 
the ^dess teaching the art of ship-building or 
narigation. (Tu6\aL ad Lyoopkr, U c) [L. S.] 
AE^ION CAeriMr). i. A Greek aculptor of 
Amphipolia, mentioned by Callimachus {Antk, Gr. 
ix. 336) and Theocritus {Bpigr. vii.), from whom 
we learn that at the request of Nidas, a fiunoas 
physician of Miletus, he executed a statue of Aee- 
cukpins in cedar wood* He flourished about the 
middle of the third century b. c. There was an 
engrayer of the aame name ; but when he lived is not 
known. (K. O. MOller, Arek, der Kmuty p. 151.) 
2. A oelefaiated painter, spoken of by Ludan 
(2>» MeroML Gmd, 42, Herod, or ^eYaoa, 4, 
&&• Imaff. 7), who gives a description of one of 
hia pictures, representing the mamago of Alexan- 
der and Roxana. Thu painting excited such 
admiration whm exhibited at the Olympic games, 
that Proxenidaa, one of the judges, gave the artist 
his daughter in maniage. Acstion seems to hare 
excelled particuhirly in the art of mixing and lay- 
ing on hiia colours. It has commonly been sup- 
pMed that he liyed in the time of Alexander the 
Great ; but the words of Ludan (Herod. 4) ahew 
clearly that he must hare liyed about the time of 
Hadrum and the Antoninea. (K. O. Miiller, 
ArdL der KmuL n, 240 j Kugler, Kmu^feeehtchie, 
p. 320.) [C. P. M.] 

AE'TIUS, a Roman general, who with his riyal 
Boni&ce, has justly been called by Procopins the 
hut of the Romana. He was bom at Dorostana 
in Moesia (Jomandes, d^ reb. Get, 34), and his 
fiather Gandentius, a Scythian in the employ of 
the empire,^ baring been killed in a mutiny, he 
was early giren aa a hostage to Alaric, and under 
him learnt the arts of barbanan war. (Philostoigins, 
xii. 12.) After an ineffectual support of the usurper 
John with an anny of 60,000 men (a. d. 424), he 
became the general of die Roman foroes under 
Pladdia, at tl^t time guardian of her son, the 
emperor Yalentinian III. In order to suppUmt in 
her fiiyour hia rival Bonxfiice, b^ treacherous accu- 
sations of each to the other, Aetius occasioned his 
reyolt and the loss of Africa (Procop^ BeU. Vand. i. 
3, 4); the empress, howeyer, disooyered the fraud, 
and Aetius, after baring met Boni&oe at Rayenna, 
and killed him in single oombat [Bonifagius], was 
himself compelled to retire in diigiace to the 
Hunniah army which in 424 he YaA. aottled in 
Pannonia. (Prosper, and Maicellinus, in anno 

Restored with their help to Italy, he became 
patridan and sole director of the armies of the 
western empire. (Jomandes, de reb. OeL 34.) In 
this capadty, through his lon^ acquaintance with 
the barbarian aettlen, and chiefly with the Huns 
and AttUa himself, in whose court his son Carpilio 
was brought up, he checked the tide of barbuian 
inyasion, and maintained the Roman power in 
Mce for aeyenteen ^ean (433-450) in Italy, Spain, 
Britain, and Gaul, in which last country espemlly 
he established his influence by means of his Hun 
and Alan allies and by his treaty with Theo- 
doric the Visigoth. (Sidon. ApolL Faneg. AimL 
300.) And when in 450 this peace was broken by 
the inyauon of Attila, Aetius in ooncerl widh 




Thoodflric wreftted it first by the timely relief of 
OrleAUft and ihun by the victory of Chalons 
fUreg, Taron. ii- 7; Joroandes, de reb. Get, 
3()), and ww only prevented firom following up his 
tncccfiscii in Itnly by want of support both from 
Vidian tinisn nnd his barbarian fdlies. (Idatius 
and leidonj^ in anno 450.) [Attila.] The 
gi^Hitnefla of his position as the sole stay of 
the empire, and as the sole link between Chris- 
t^dom mi{! the prtgan barbarians, may well have 
giv^n rise to the belief whether founded or not, 
that he dGsLgncd the imperial throne for himself 
and a ImrWimi throne for his son Carpilio (Sid. 
A poll. Pan^y. ArU, 204), and acconiingly in 
454, he was mur^lered by Valentinian himself in 
( r>f jefiloiiHy and suspicion (Procop. BM. 

Valid. \. 4), and with him (to use the words of the 
cnntemporniy chronicler Marcellinus, in anno 454), 
'^cccidit ] [eflporitmi Imperium, nee potuit relevari.** 

J lis phyntcal and moral activity well fitted him 
far the lifo of a soldier (Oregor. Turon. ii. 8), and 
ihongli df^dtute dF any high principle, he belongs 
to the eliiAa of men like Augustus and Cromwell, 
whose early crimc4 are obscured by the usefulness 
and glory of later life, and in whom a great and 
trying p<?Eitian rodly calis out new and unknown 

(Renatua Frigejidus, in Oregor. Turon. ii. 8.; 
Procop. BelL Vattd, i 3, 4 ; Jomandes, de Reb, 
fjei. 34, 3(1 \ Gibbon, DecUna and Fall, c 33, 35 ; 
llerliert's Attila, p. 322.) [A. P. S.] 

Al'^'TIUS ('Al-rioj), sumamed the Aikwi^ from 
his denial of the Ood of Revelation (St Asanas. 
<fe S^otL % 6, p. 213, of the translation, Oxf. 1842 ; 
Socr, HifL Ecd, ii. 35 ; Sozom. Hist, Eod, iv. 29), 
WHfi bom in Cock Sjrria (Philostorg. Hid, Eod, 
iiU 15 ; St. nasLl, lidv, Eunom, i, p. 10) at Antioch 
(Soc ii. 35 * Suidas, a, v, 'Actios- V and became 
the founder of the Anomoean (dMOfwiov) form of 
the Arinn hore&y. He was left fiitheriess and in 
poverty when a child, and became the slave of a 
vinc-dresier'fe wife (St. Gregory Nazianz. c, Eunom, 
p. 292, G, D ; but «ee Not. Valem ad Philost, iiL 
15), til en a tmTi!lling tinker (S. Or. ibid.) or a 
polthmitb. (FhiL ibid.) Conviction in a fraud or 
nmbition led him to abandon this life, and he ap- 
pjiijd hiniKlf to medicine under a quack, and soon 
set up for him»lf at Antioch. (So& iiL 15.) 
From the achook of medicine being Arion, he ac- 
ijiured a Ii^aning towards heresy. He frequented 
th<! dinputatioua meetings of the physicians (S. Or. 
p. 293, n) and made such progress in Eristicism, 
that he bec^une a paid advocate for such as wished 
ihoif own theories exhibited most advantageously. 
On his mothef^a death he studied under Paulinus 
I [.^ Arian Bisbop nf Antioch, a. d. 331 ; but his 
pawi^t% of disputation having exasperated some in- 
lluentiaL pc-rBona about £ulaliu8, the successor of 
PnnlinuA, he wm obliged to quit Antioch for 
Annsu-bui, wht'rc he resumed the trade of a gold- 
«n)ith, A. D. 331 . (PhiL iii. 15.) Here a profes- 
sor of ^rummaf noticed him, employed him as a 

* After the Bni reference, the references in this 
article aie tbua abbreviated : — St Athanasius, 
dc Synadis [S. Ath.] ; St Basil, adv. Eunomianos 
[S, BnM.]i St Ore^ry Nasianzen adv. Eunomian. 
[S. Or.} The Histories of Socrates, Sozomen, 
Theodotet, and Philostorgiua, the Arian panegyrist 
of A otitis [Soc^ Soz., Thdt, PhiL]; S. Epiphanius, 
adv. Haoiaos £S^ Ep.]. 


servant, and instructed him ; but he wi 
in disgrace on publicly disputing wgwinst Mi 
master's interpretation of the Smptoze. Tke 
Arian Bishop of the city, named Atfuuuuaos, re- 
ceived him and read wilii him the Goepeia, After- 
wards he read the Epistles with Antoniiu, a pcki& 
of Tarsus till the promotion of the latt^ to thf 
Episcopate, when he returned to Antioch aad 
studied the Prophets with the priest Leantis^ 
His obtrusive irreligion obliged him again to quiz 
Antioch, and he took refuge in Cilida (before a. d. 
348), where he was defeated in argument bj sock 
of the grossest (Borborian) Onostica. He retnrB- 
ed to Antioch, but soon left it for Alexandria. 
being led thither by the fame of the Maidcher 
Aphthonius, against whom he leooTered the &ae 
for disputation which he had lately lost. He now 
resumed the study of medicine under SopoUs ashi 
practised gratuitously, earning money by fcdloving 
his former trade by night (PhiL iiL 15) or liriB^ 
upon others. (Theodoret, Hist, EccL u. 23w) If n 
chief employment, however, was an i rr e veren t ap- 
plication of logical figures and geometrical dia- 
grams to the Nature of the Word of Ood. (S. 
Epiphan. adv, Haeres, § 2, and comp. § 6, pw Sr2ii.) 
He returned to Antioch on the elevation oi his 
former master Leontius to that See, a. d. 348, an4 
was by him ordained Deacon (S. Ath. § 38, transL 
p. 136), though he declined the ordinary data» cC 
the Diaoonate and accepted that of frwctey, ▲. d. 
350. (PhiL iii. 17.) The Catholic laynus}, 
DiodoruB and Flavian, protested against this or- 
dination, and Leontius was obliged to depose hiss. 
(Thdt iL 19.) His dispute with Basil of Ad- 
cyra, A. D. 351 (fin.), is the first indication of the 
future schism in the Arian heresy. (PhiL iii 1<>.) 
Basil incensed Oallua (who became Caeear, March, 
A. D. 351) against Aetius, and Leontius* interces- 
sion only saved the latter from death. Soon 
Theophilus Blemmys introduced him to OaHus (S. 
Or. p. 294), who made him his friend, and oftec 
sent him to his brother Julian when in danger of 
apostacy. (PhiL iiL 1 7.) There is a letter £ma 
Oallus extant, congratulating Julian on his ad- 
hesion to Christianity, as he had heard from 
Aetius. (Post Epist Jtdiani, p. 158, ed. Boisson. 
Mogunt 1828.) Aetius was implicated in the 
murder of Domitian and Montius (see Gibbon, 
c. 19), A. D. 354 (S. Or. p. 294, bX bat hi^^ 
insignificance saved him from the vengeance of 
Constantius. However, he quitted Antioch for 
Alexandria, where St. Athanasius was maintain- 
ing Christianity against Arianism, and in A.D.S53 
acted as Deacon under George of Cappadoda, the 
violent interloper into the See of St Athanasius. 
(St Ep. 76. § 1 ; Thdt ii. 24.) Here Eunomius 
became his pupil (PhiL iiL 20) and amanuend^ 
(Soc. iL 35.) He is said by Philostorgiua (iiL 19) 
to have refused ordination to the Episcopate, be- 
cause Senas and Secundus, who made the offer, 
had mixed with the Catholics ; in a. d. 358, when 
Eudoxius became bishop of Antioch (Thdt iL 23), 
he returned to that city, but popular feeling pre^ 
vented Eudoxius from allowing him to act as Deacon. 
The Aetian (Eunomian, see Arius) schism nor 
begins to develop itself. The bold irreligion of 
AediiB leads a section of Arians (whom we may call 
here Anti-A^tians) to accuse him to Constantini 
(Soz. iv. 13) ; they allege also his connexion with 
Gallus, and press the emperor to summon a general 
Council for the settlement of the Thedogxal 


nestion. Tbe Aetian interest with Eusebim 
Sos. i. 16), the powafol Emmch, divides the in- 
ntded council, bat notwithstandrng, the Aetians 
re defeated at Selenda, a. d. 359, and, dissolying 
be council, hasten to CoDstantius, at Constant!- 
ople, to secore his protection against their op- 
osents. (& Ath. tmnsL pp. 73, 77, 88, 163, 
64.) The Antt-Aetians (who are in fiict the 
lore lespectaUe Semi-Aiiana, see Ajuos) follow, 
od charge their opponents with maintaining a 
')iferaKe m Subtiance(iTtpoa6ffury) in the Trinity, 
rodncing a pi^er to that efiect A new schism 
Dsoes among the Aetians, and Aetins is aban- 
ioned by h» friends (called Ensebians or Aca- 
iana, see Akius) and banished (S. Bas. i. 4), 
fter protesting i^ainst bis companions, who, 
toldir^ the nme priadfU with himself (tiz. that 
he Son was a ereotere, rrfirfia), refused to ao- 
nowledge the necessary infierence (viz. that He 
i K^ aakb oAtiatim to the FaQytr^ dySnotoif). 
Thdt. S. 23; Sos. it, 23; S. Oreg. p. 301, d. ; 
?hIL iv. 12.) His late friends wodd not let him 
cmain at Mopsoestia, where he was kindly re- 
esved by Aozentius, the Bishop there : Acadns 
Kocnres his banishment to Ambhida in Pisidia 
PhiL T. 1), where he composed hii 300 blas- 
khemies, captions inferences from the symbol of 
ds iirel^'oo, tiz. that IngenertOaaen (dy^tnmiaia) 
s the essence (oMa) of Deity; which are refuted 
[those at least which St. Epiplmnins had seen) in 
^ Ep. adiK Hatr, 76. He there calls his op- 
ponents Chronites, i,e. Temporals, with an apparent 
aDasion to their oouztly obseqiiioasnesa. (Ptae&t. 
ap. & ^; camp. e. 4.) 

Ob Constantiva^s death, Julian recalled the 
vaiioos exiled biahops, as well as Aetina> whom 
he mvited to his court (£p. t/Waom, 31, p. 52, 
ed. Boisson.), giTing him, too, a fitrm in Les- 
bos. rPhiL ix. 4.) EnzoTus, heretical Bishop of 
Antiodi, took off the ecdeeaastical condemnation 
from Aetins (PhiL yii. 5), and he was made 
BUhop at Constantinople. (& Epi 76. p. 992, c.) 
He ipreada Idb heresy by fixing a bishop of his 
own ixreljgion at Coostantmople (PhiL liiL 2) and 
hj wi««ift^>f»m; till the death of Jovian, A.D. 364. 
Valens, however, took part with Eudoxius, the 
Acadan Bishop of Constantinople, and Actios re- 
tired to LesbM, where he narrowly escaped death 
St the hands of the governor, placed there by 
I'rocopms in his reyolt against Valens, a, d. 365, 
366. (See Gibbon, ch. 19.) Again he took refuge 
in Constantinople, but was driven thence by Us 
former friends, bi vain he applied for protection 
to EodoziiiB, now at Ifardanople with Valens; 
and in a, d. 367 (PhiL iz. 7) he died, it seems, at 
Constantinople, nnpitied by any but the equally 
indigioas Eanomins, who buried him. (Phil. ix. 
6.) The doctrinal errofs of Aetius are stated 
historically m the article on Aaiua From the 
Maaichees he seems to haye learned his licentioas 
n^^vals, which appeared in the most eAiocking Soli- 
F.diaiusin, and which he grounded on a Onostic 
uterpretation of St. John, xvii 3. He denied, 
like moit other heretics, the necessity of fitting 
and seif-moitification. (S. Ep. adv. Haer. 76. § 4.) 
At Ksne time or other he was a disciple of Euse- 
bios of Sehnrte. (S. Bas. EpisL 223 [79] and 
^4 [82].) Socrates (iL 35) speaks of seyeral 
letters firam hhn to Constantino and others. His 
Tneii$t is to be found v^ S. Epiphan. adv. Hatr. 
76, y. 924, ed. Pctar. Colon. 1682. lA J. C] 



AETIUS (*A^ior, Actius\ a Greek medical 
writer, whose name is commonly but incorrectly 
spelt Aetuu. Historians are not agreed about 
his exact date. He is placed by some writers as 
early as the fourth century after Christ ; bat it is 
ph&in from his own work that he did not write till 
the very end of the fifth or the beginning of the 
sixth, as he refers (tetrab. iiL term. L 24, p. 464) 
not only to St Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria, who 
died A. D. 444, but also (tetrab. iL mrm. iiL 110, 
p. 357) to PetruB Archiater, who was physician 
to Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, and there- 
fore must haye lived still Utter; he is himself 
quoted by Alexander Trallianus (ziL 8, p. 346), 
who liyed probably in the middle of the sixth 
centory. He was a native of Amida, a city of 
Mesopotamia (Photius, cod. 221) and studied at 
Alexandria, which vras the most fiimous medical 
school of the age. He was probably a Christian, 
which may account perhaps for his being con- 
fimnded with another person of the same name, a 
fefflous Arian of Antiodi, who lived in the time of 
the Emperor Julian. In some manuscripts he has 
the title of ledfais dtfruciou, eome$ obte^^ which 
means the chief officer in attendance on the em- 
p^r (see Du Cange, Glou. Med. et Inf. Laim.)i 
this title, according to Photius (2. c), he attaint 
at Constantinople, where he was practising medi- 
cine. Aetins seems to be the first Greek medical 
writer among the Christians who giyes any speci' 
men of the spells and charms so much in yogue 
with the Egyptians, such as that of St. BIfuse 
{ieirab. iL term. iv. 50, p. 404) in remoying a 
bone which sticks in the throat, and another in re- 
lation to a FistuhL (tetrab. iy. serm. iiL 14, p. 762.) 
The division of his work Bi€\ia 'Utrpucd 'EkkoI- 
ScKo, ** Sixteen Books on Medicine,** into four 
tetiabibli {Terp6/8i€Kin) was not made by himself 
but (aa Fabridus observes) was the inyention of 
8ome modem transbttor, as his way of quoting 
his own work is according to the numerical series 
of the books. Although his work does not con< 
tain much original matter, it is nevertheless one of 
the most valuable medical remains of antiquity, as 
being a yeiy judicious compilation from the writ- 
ings of many authors whose works haye been long 
since lost. The whole of it has never appeared 
in the original Greek ; one half was publish- 
ed at Venice, 1534, foL ''in aed. Aldi,** with 
the title ** Aetii Amideni Librorum Medicinalium 
temus primus; primi scilicet Libri Octo nune 
primum in Incem editi. Graced:" the second 
yolume neyer appeared. Some chapters of the 
ninth book were published in Greek and Latin, by 
J. E. Hebenstreit, Lip& 4to. 1757, under the title 
** Tentamen Philologicum Medicnm super Aetii 
Amideni Synopsis Medicorum Vetemm,** &c.; and 
again in the same year, *< Aetu Amideni A)f€KB6Twy 

Specimen alterum.** Another chapter of the 

same book was edited in Greek and Latin by J. 
Magnas a Tengstrom, Aboae, 1817, 4to., with the 
title ** Commentationum in Aetii Amideni Medici 
'Ayt«c8oTa Specimen Primum,** etc. Another tx- 
tnct, also from the ninth book, is inserted by 
Mustozydes and Schinas in their ** SuAAoti) 
'EK\nyucA¥ ^P^tKUrw;" Vcnet. 1816, 8vo. The 
twenty-fifth chapter of the ninth book was edited 
in Greek and Latin by J. C. Horn, Lips. 1654, 
4to. ; and the chapter {ieirab, i. term. iiL 164) 
*' De Significationibus Stellamm,** is inserted in 
Greek and Latin by Petavius, in his ** UramilUy 



yiott^ p. 421, ed. Parii. Six books (namely, 
from the eighth to the thirteenth, indoaive), were 
publiahed at Baael, 1533, foL, tranalated into Latin 
by Janui Comarias, with the title ** Aetii An- 
tiocheni Medici de cognoeoendis et canmdis Moibis 
Sennones Sex jam primum in Incem editi," etc. In 
1.535, tibe remaining ten booki were tranilated and 
published at BaaeU by J. B. Montanns, in two 
Tolumes, so that the three volmnes form together a 
complete and uniform edition of the work. In 
1534, 4to., a complete Latin transktion was pub- 
lished at Venice by the Juntas. In 1542, Coma- 
rius completed and published a translation of the 
whole work (Basil. foL); which was reprinted at 
BaseU 1549, 8vo.; Venice, 1543, 1544, 8ro.; 
Lyons, 1549, fol.; and in H. Stephens^s ** Me- 
dicae Artis Principes," Paris. 1567, foL Two 
useful works on Aetius deserve to be mentioned ; 
one by C. Oroscius (Horozco), entitled ** Anno- 
tationes in InterpreU>s Aetii,** Basil. 1540, 4to.; 
the oUier an academical dissertion by C. Weigel, 
entitled ^ Aetianarum Exercitationum Specimen,** 
Lips. 1791, 4to. (See Freind's HiaL of Physio, 
from whose work many of the preceding remariu 
have been taken; Cagnati Variaa ObaervaL iv. 
18 ; Haller, BMioth. Medic Prod, voL i. p. 200 ; 
Sprengel, Hid. de la Medtdne; Chouhint, Hastd- 
buch der BUcherhi$ide fUr dio AeUere Median.) 

[W. A G.] 

AE'TIUS, SICA'MIUS (luidfuos 6 'A4run), 
sometimes called AtHut Sieamut or Siculue^ the 
author of a treatise IIcpl MtKajxoXids^ De Melon- 
ckoliti, which is commonly printed among the 
works of Oalen. (VoL xix. p. 699, &c.) His date 
is uncertain, but, if he be not the same person as 
Aetius of Amida, he must have lived alter him, as 
his treatise corresponds exactly with part of the 
hitter*s great medical work (tetrab. ii. sertiu u. 9 
— II, p. 250, &c): it is compiled from Oalen, 
Rufus, Posidonius, and Marcellus. [W. A. O.] 

AETNA (Afmy), a Sicilian nymph, and accord- 
ing to AlcimuB (ap. SchoL TheocriL i. 65), a daugh- 
ter of Uranus and Oaea, or of Briareus. Simo- 
nides said that she had acted as arbitrator between 
Hephaestus and Demeter respecting the possession 
of Sicily. By Zeus or Hephaestus she became the 
mother of the PalicU (Serv. ad Aeru ix. 584.) 
Mount Aetna in Sicily was believed to have de- 
rived its name from her, and under it Zeus buried 
Typhon, Encekdus, or Briareus. The mountain 
itsdf was believed to be the phioe in which He- 
phaestus and the Cyclops made the thunderbolts 
for Zeus. (Eurip. CyeL 296 ; Propert iii 15. 21 ; 
Cic De DivifuL ii. 1 9.) [L. S.} 

AETNAEUS (Alriwf), an epithet given to 
several gods and mythical beings connected with 
Mount Aetna, such as Zeus, of whom there was a 
statue on mount Aetna, and to whom a featival 
was celebrated there, called Aetnaea (SchoL ad 
Find, OL vi. 162), Hephaestoa, who had his woric- 
shop in the mountain, and a temple near it ( Aeliao, 
Hid. ^«. xi 3 ; Spanheim, ad Oallim. I^fnm. in 
Dtan* SG), mid th? tyrhp^ ('^'^Jrg. -^«»- "riii 440, 
xi.263, iiL7a; Ov. Ex 2. U5.) [L.S.] 

AETOM>K (AItwAij), a siintnine of Artemis, by 
wbich sh^ wm worfthipppd at Ncittpactus. In her 
tvtiiple in that town there wan a statue of white 
innrbic ruppca^ntiiig her to ihc nttitude of throwing 
a jaT^Kn, (Vmx x. 38. 4 6.) fL. S.] 

AETOLUS {*drmU^\ 1. Asan of Endymion 
■ntl tbe njm^ K*^^ or IphkimiiBa. (Apollod. L 7. 


§ 6.) According to Pauaanias (v. L § 2), bis 
ther was called Asterodia, Chromia, or H jpet^ 
He was married to Pronoe, by whom he had oi 
aona, Pleuron and Calydon. Hia brothera wifl 
Paeon, Epeius, and others. (Steph. Bjx. a. v. NdljM 
Conon. NarraL 14 ; SchoL ad Find, OL L 28.) HI 
&ther compelled him and hia two hrothen Paafl 
and Epeiua to decide by a oonteat at Ol3rmpBa as 1 
which of them waa to aucoeed him in hia kingdeo i 
Elis. Epeius gained the victory, and oocapied tk 
throne after his £Either, and on hia dffmiit be v« 
succeeded by Aetolus. During the foneral gaae^ 
which were celebrated in honour of Axsn, he na 
with hia chariot over Apia, the aon of Jaaos m 
Salmonena, and killed him, whereupon he was ex- 
pelled by the sons of Apis. (ApoUod. L c; Pans. ^ 
1. § 6 ; Strab. viii p. 357.) After kaTing Pek>poe' 
nesus, he went to the country of the Cnretes, E» 
tween the Achelous and the Corinthian gul^ where 
he slew Dorus, Laodocui>, and Polypoetea, the scm 
of Helios and Phthia, and gave to the oonntiy ti* 
name of Aetolia. (Apollod. Pans. O. et.) Tlui 
story M only a mythiod account of the coloniatina 
of Aetolia. (Strab. x. p. 463.) 

2. A son of Oxylus and Pieria, and brother cf 
Laias. He died at a tender age, and hia pamts 
were enjoined by an otade to bury him neftber 
within nor without the town of Elia. They accord- 
ingly buried him under thesate at which the road 
to Olympia commenced. Toe gynwaaiaicb ofEBa 
uaed to oflfer an annual aaciifice on his tomb as hie 
aa the time of Pauaaniaa. (v. 4. § 2.) [L. S.] 

AFER, DOMI'TIUS, of Nemansna (Nimo) 
in Gaul, waa praetor a. d. 25, and gained the fa- 
vour of Tiberiua by aocuaing Claudia Pnlchra, tbe 
conaobrina of Agrippina, in a. D. 26. (Tac. ^«- 
iv. 52.) From thia time he became one of tke 
moat celebrated orators in Rome, bat sacrificed hii 
character by conducting accusations for the gortnt* 
ment In the following year, a. d. 27* he is again 
mentioned by Tacitus as the accuser of Vara 
Quintilius, the son of Claudia Pnlchra. (Am. n. 
66.) In consequence of the accusation of Claadia 
Pulchra, and of some ofience which he had given 
to Caliguhk, he waa accnaed by the emperor in the 
aenate, but by concealing hia own akill in speak- 
ing, and pretending to be overpowered by the 
eloquence of CaHgula, he not only escaped the 
danger, but waa made conaul auffectua in a. n. 3d. 
(Dion Cass. lix. 19, 20.) In his old age Afer k»t 
much of his reputation by continuing to apeak in 
public, when hia powera were exhausted. (QnintiL 
xiL 11. § 3; Tac Ann. iv. 52.) He died in the 
reign of Nero, a. d. 60 (Tac. Ann. zir. 19), in 
conaequence of a surfeit, according to Hieronyioiu 
in the Chronicon of Euaebiua. 

Quintilian, when a young man, heard Domitini 
Afer (camp. Plin. £^ ii 14^ and frequently vpeaki 
of him aa the moat diatingniahed orator of his age. 
He aaya that Domitiua Afer and Johna Africanni 
were the beat orators he had heard, and that be 
prefen the former to the latter, (x. 1. § 118.) 
Quintflian refen to a work of his ** On Testimonj* 
(v. 7. § 7), to one entitled •'Dicta'* (vL 8. S 42), 
and to some of his orations, of which those on be- 
half of DomitiUa, or CloantiUa, and Volnsenoi 
Catulna aeem to have been the moat celebnttxi. 
(viii 5. § 16, ix. 2. § 20, S. § 66, 4. § 31, x. 1. 
§ 24, &c) Respecting the will of Domitiua Afer, 
aee Plin. Ep. viii. 18. 

AFRA'NIA, CAIA or OAIA. the wife of the 


BnGcks a yoj litigknu wo- 
BSD, who always pleaded her own canaee befon 
tke pnelor, and tiiu gave occasion to the poUiahr 
ing of the edict, wfaidi fin-bade all women to posta> 
late. Sia was pwriMiiw the nster of L. Afinnhu, 
cansid in B. a 60. She died a c. 48. (YaL Max. 
viil 3. § 1 ; Dig. 3. tit. I. b. 1. § 5.) 

AFRA'NIA OENS, plebeian, is first mentioned 
in the aeeond centnry B. c. The only cognomen 
of this gens, which oocms ander the republic, is 
Stbluo : those names ^Hiich haTS no cognomen 
an given under A^RANiua. Some persons of this 
nsme endently did not belong to the Afinnia Oens. 
On coins we find oiily & Abanius and M. Afin- 
nhis, of whom nothing is known. (Eckhel, t. p. 
132, &e.) 

AFRA'NIU& 1. L. ArRjufivs, a Roman 

came poet, who Hved at the beginning of the first 

century a c. His comedies described Ronum 

ioenes and nwnneis (Cbsioedwe fty^oftis), and the 

subjects were mostly taken from the life of the 

lover dnswes. (CbMoediae iabermxna$.) They were 

faeqnently pollnted with diigracefnl amooia, which, 

according toQnintilian, were only a representation of 

the conduct of Afranins. (x. 1. § 100.) He depicted, 

however, Roman lifiB with sudi accoiacy, that he 

b dassed with Menander, from whom indeed he 

boRowed laigely. (Hor. JS^, ii 1. 57 ; Hacrob. 

Sot tL I ; Gd, de Fbu i 3.) He imitated the 

style of C. Titiaa, and his hmguage is piaised by 

Cieem. (BruL 4S.) Hia comedies an spoken of 

in the highest teimB by the aadent writen, and 

under the empire tiiey not only continued to be 

read, bat were even acted, of wluch an example 

ooGors in the time of Nero. (Yell. Pat»i 17, ii 19; 

GdL aiL 8; Snet. Net, 11.) They seem to have 

been weO known even at the hotter cmd of the 

fiwrth oentaij; (Anson. JE^, 71.) Afranius 

anislhttfe written a great many comedies, aa the 

namei and fii^pnenta c^ between twenty and thirty 

are itai preserred. These fiagmento have been 

pobliihed by Botha, Poet. LaL Soeme. Fngmmta, 

and by Neokirch, JDis/iMa Kyoto Amhom. 

2. L. AFKAinua, appears to have been of ob- 
Kue origin, aa he la caDed by Cicero in contempt 
"the am of Aalas,** aa a person of whom nobody 
bad bflsid. (Oa 0(1^0.116,20.) Hewasfirst 
Inoii^t into notice by Pompey, uid was aJways 
his wann fiiend and partiaan. In B. & 77 he waa 
one of Pompey'b legatee in the war against Serto- 
lins ui gpaiii, and also served Pompey in the same 
apadty in the Mithridatie war. (Plat. SerL 19. 
^<wp- 84,86,39; Dion Casfc xxxvii 5.) On 
Pompey'k retum to Rome, he vraa anxious to ob- 
tain the coosolship lor Afranins, that he might the 
imeasay cany his own phois into effect; and,not- 
T nthrtOTding the opposition of a poweifiil party, 
he obtained the election of Afranins by infloence 
«nd fadbeiy. Duing his consnlship, however, 
\^ ^\% Afiamns did not do much for Pompey 
(Dim Cms. xxxviL 49), bat probably more from 
want of experience in political a&irs than from 
*^7_^nt of nidiiiatkm. In & & 59 Afnmhu had 
Mo?^*^ of Cisalpine Oanl Tcomp. Cic ad AU. 
L '9), and it may have been owing to aome advan- 
^^he had guned over the Gwils, that he oh- 
Bined the triumph, of which Cicero neaksinhis 
"^JjMpunstPiso. (c.24.) 

Whea Pompey obtained the provinces of the 
^ Spaina in his second consulship (a. a 65), 
'^ K&t Afiamns and Petreins to govern Spain 



hi hia name, while he himself xcmabed in Room. 
(YelL Pat. ii. 48.) On tiie breaking out of 
the dvil war, & a 49, Afianiaa was still in 
Spain vrith three legions, and after uniting his 
fincea with those of Petreias, he had to oppoee 
Caesar in the same year, who had crossed over 
into Spain aa soon aa he had obtained posses- 
sion of Italy. After a diort campaign, in which 
Afranins and Petreins gained some advantages at 
fint, they were reduced to snch straits, that they 
were obiiged to sue for the mercy of Caesar. Thia 
waa granted, on condition that their troops should 
be disbanded, and that they should not serve 
against him agam. (Caes. B. CI i 38-86 ; Appian, 
B, a iL 42. 4S; Dkm Caas. xlL 20-23; Plot. 
Pomp, 65, Cbet. 36.) Afraniua, however, did not 
keep his word ; he immediately joined Pompey at 
Dynfaadom, where he vraa accused by some of the 
aristocracy, though certainly without justice, of 
treachery hi Spain. After the battie A Dyrriia> 
dum, Afranius recommended an immediate return 
to Italy, especially as Pompey was master of the 
sea ; but this advice waa oveiruled, and the battle 
of Pharaalia fi>llowed, a. c. 48, m which Afraniua 
had the charge of the campw (Appian, A C ii. 65, 
76; FlvLLPomp, 66; Dion Casa. xli. 62; YeU. 
Pat ii 62.) As Afranras was one of those who 
could not hope fiir pardon, he fled to Africa,^ and 
joined the Pompeian army under Cato and Scipio. 
(I>ion Casa. xliL 10.) After the defeat of the 
Pompdana at the battle of Thapsns, a. a 46, at 
whicii he waa present, he attempted to fly into 
Mauritania with Fanstna Sulk and about 1600 
horsemen, but was taken prisoner by P. Sittius, 
and killed a few days afterwarda, according to 
some accounts, in a sedition of the soldiers, and 
according to others, by the command of Caesar. 
(HirL BeU.J/rie, 95; Suet Cbea; 76; DionCaaa. 
xliii. 12; Florua, iv. 2. § 90; lav. J^ 114; 
Aur. Vict de Ftr. la. 7a) 

Afiranius seems to have had some talent fer war, 
but little for dvil affiiirs. Dion Cassius says ** that 
he was a better dancer than a statesman** (xxxvii. 
49), and Cicero qieaks of him with the greatest 
contempt during his consulship (ad, AU. L 18, 20), 
though at a Utter time, when Afranius was opposed 
to Caesar, he calls him ntmnnu dum. (PMU xiiL 14.) 

3. L. Afianius, son of tiie preceding, negotiated 
with Caesar in Spain through Sulpidus for his ovm 
and his fitther^b preservation. He afterwards went 
as a hostage to Caesar. (Caes. B. a i. 74. 84.) 

4. Afbanids Potitus. [Porrrua,] 

5. Afranius Buaaua. [Buraus.] 

6. Afranius Quinctianu& [Quinctiamvs.] 

7. Afranius DxxTBR. [Dsztxr.] 

8. T. Afranius or T. AfrAnius, not a Roman, 
vras one of the leaden of the Italian confederatea 
m the Marsie war, & a 90. In conjunction with 
Judadlius and P. Yentidius he defeated the legate 
Pompdus Stralxs and pursued him into Firmum, 
bdbre which, however, he was defeated in hia 
tarn, and was killed in die battie. (Appian, jD. a 
L 40, 47 ; Ftorns, iii. 1&) 


AFRICA^US (*A4iy>Mai^r), a writer on veta- 
rinaiy surgery, whose date is not certainly known, 
but who may very probably be the same person as 
Sex. Jnlins Africanus, whose work entitied Kcorof 
contained information upon medical subjects. 
[Africanus, Sbx. Julius.] His remains were 
published in the Collection of writers on Veterinary ^ 



Medicines first in a Latin translation by J. Rnel- 
lius, Par. 1530, fol., and afterwards in Greek, Das. 
1637, 4to. edited by Grynaeus. [W. A. G.] 

sicol Ucinimi juiisronBult, who lived under Anto- 
nuitu Pius. He wns probably a pupil of Salrins 
JulionuE^ tbo cclcbmii^i leformer of the Edict 
miilpf Hadmn. [Juuanus, Salvius.] He con- 
sulted J uUhu oil legal luhjects (Diff. 25. tit. 3. s. 3. 
S 4)« and thfiDQ ii a. cDatroverted passage in the 
Digest {A/fVanus Hbro vicesimo Epuiolarum apud 
JMitaitmm ^HOfri/, &c Dig. 30. tit. L s. 39), which 
has bc«n cEplaitioEl in various ways; either that 
he pubUBbed a legoj rnrrespondenoe which passed 
between him and Jolir^nus, or that he commented 
upon the cpivU^nn' upinions giren by Julianus in 
antwer ia the t^ttiM-a of clients, or that he wrote a 
coTnm^ntnry upon Julixmui in the form of letters. 
On the oihft blind, Jyliiiniis "ex Sexto" is quoted 
by (Tains {lu "HI)* which ihews that Julianus an- 
nDtatcd S^'ttll3^ tlie formula "ex Sexto" being 
EiynonjmouA with "nd ScxtunL** (Neuber, di6 
jHrwt. KtastU^r^ 8. 9.) Who was Sextus but 
AfriauiUB? Afrimniia was the author of "Libri 
JX tjiincstionuit]," from which many pure extracts 
are nmdc* in the Digfj^t, as may be seen in Hom- 
rtirra "* J^alingtnefiia randectarum," where the ex- 
imi^ts fmm each jiirifrt An brought together, and 
thoAc thnt nrr tiikcn ittym Africanus occupy 26 
otil of aboiit 1000 piit'(?s. 

From his remainii, thnt preserved in the Digest, 
it in i!Tidfint that Iw ww intimately acquainted 
wUli the o^tinionA of Juiianus, who is the person 
nllitdt'd ta when, without any expressed nominatiTe, 
he itsea thf? woi^v ait^ cjtistimavUj negavUy fmUwU^ 
ioffuit^ re^pondity /^m>i, rtotaL This is proved by 
CtijtiB £roru a oourpnrtijou of some Greek scholia on 
the BoAiLim with panillel »tracts from Africanus 
in the llignist. PnuUiia ivnd Ulpian have done 
Afriauifis the banour of citing his authority. He 
was fond of antiquanan lore (Dig. 7« tit. 7. s. 1, pr. 
where the true nodinj^ la & CaeciUui^ not &Adius)^ 
tmd his "Libn IX Quaestionum," from the con- 
mtoRcti of the slyle^ the great subtlety of the rea- 
soniniG^, njid the knotlin'^ss of the points discussed, 
so pusxIcMl the old glci^AiktoTS, that when they came 
to an i^Klmtrl from Africanus, they were wont to 
exeUum A/rii'^iii It^r, id i^st diffialia, (Heinecc Hist, 
Jmt. R&m, § ccctL n.) Mascovius ((is SecUa Jur, 
4. § ^) BuppibcA th;it Africanus belonged to the 
leg^ $&:t ai thi^ Sjibinjxiai [Capito], and as our 
author wnii a fto^Jy foliuwer of Salvias Julianus, 
who vm a Srvbiiiiun (Gains, iL 217, 218), this 
ftuppoflition nmy be rn'g^u-ded as established. In 
the tima of Antoiiums Pius, the distinction of 
schiioLi or »ect» had not yet worn out. 

A^ong the writen of the lives of ancient law- 
yers (Piincirollus Jo. Ikrtrandns, Grotius, &c) 
much dispute hoa ari^n as to the time when Afri- 
canos wrote, in een influence of a corrupt or erro- 
tieoiiB po^ifin^ in IjfunpridiuB (Lamp^ Aloe, Sen, 68), 
which would ninkf? him a friend of Severus Alex- 
ander nnd a d}!>ciplc of Pnpinian. Cujas ingeniously 
and sntiMnu^torily diiqMses of this anachronism by 
referrJnfT ^o iho internal evidence of an extract 
ftDui Afncimua (Dig. 30. tit. 1. s. 109), which as- 
sumes the raUiiity of a legal maxim that was no 
lunger In force when Pnpinian wrote. 

Kor leasoiit which H would be tedious to detail, 
we hold^cv'Utniry to the opimon of M^age {Amoeri, 
4tw, c* 23}i thai ouf ^xius Caecilius Africanus is 


identical with the jurist sometimea meotionfd is 
the Digest by the name Caecilius or S. Caedlisis 
and also whh that S. Caedlins wfaoae dispute with 
Favorinns forms an amusing and interesdng chapter 
in the Noctes Atdcae. (GdL zx. 1.) Gellios per- 
haps draws to some extent upon his own in rentier^ 
but, at all events, the lawyer'b defence of the Xll 
Tables against the attacks of the philosopher u 
**ben trovato.^ There is something hnmoroo^lT 
cruel in the concluding stroke of the conversatifnv, 
in the pedantic way in which our jariaconsult vic- 
dicates the decemviral law against debtors — poftk 
uoaudo^ See — ^by the example of Medui Fnfetms, 
and the harsh sentiment of Virgil : 

** At tn dictis, Albane, nianeres.** 

The remains of Africanus have been admirably 
expounded by Cujas (ad A/rioanum traetatn IX. 
in Cujac. 0pp. vol. 1 ), and have also been annotated 
by Scipio GentiU. (Scip. Gentilis, Z>nsu I-IX ui 
A/rioanum, 4to. Altdorf. 1602-7.) 

(Strauchius, Vitae aliquot tagterum jarueomtai- 
tarum, 8vo. Jen. 1723 ; L Zimmem, /Kmk. Rediy 
ge$Aichle, § 94.) [J. T. G.] 

AFRICA'NUS, JU'LIUS, a celebnOed orator 
in the reign of Nero, seems to have been the ttsi 
of Julius Africanus. of the Gallic state of the Sin- 
toni, who was condemned by Tiberius, a. n. 32. 
(Tac. Ann. vi. 7.) Quintilian, who had beard 
Julius Africanus, speaks of him and Domitisj 
Afer as the best orators of their time. The tk>- 
quence of Africanus was chiefly characterised by 
vehemence and energy. (QuintiL x. 1. § 118. 
xii. 10. § 11, comp. viii. 5. § 15 ; DiaL da One, 
15.) Pliny mentions a grandson of this Joliui 
Africanus, who was also an advocate and «» 
opposed to him upon one occasion. (£^ TiL 6.) 
He was consul suffectus in a, d. 108. 

writer at the beginning of the third century, i« 
called by Suidas a Libyan (s. «. 'A^puuu^s), bat 
passed the greater part of his life at Rnwnsn* m 
Palestine, where, according to some, he was bom. 
(Jerome, de Vir. lU. 63.) When Emmans wu 
destroyed by fire, Africanus was sent to Elagabslui 
to solicit its restoration, in which mission he nc- 
ceeded: the new town was colled Nicopolis. (a. d. 
221, Eusebiua, Ckrom, sub anno ; Syncellus, p. 
359, b.) Africanus subse ^uently went to Aiexso- 
dria to hear the philosc^her Heradas, who wbi 
afterwards bishop of Alexandria. The later Syrian 
writers state, that he was subsequently msde 
bishop. He was one of the most learned of the 
early Christian writers. Socrates (HisL Ecd. ii. 
35) classes him with Origen and Clement ; and it 
appears fit>m his letter on the History of Suaania, 
that he was acquainted with Hebrew. 

The chief work of Africanus was a Chronicon 
in five books {vtvrdSitXiaif xP^n^^ayiKivy, from 
the creation of the world, which he placed in 
5499 B. c. to A. D. 221, the fourth year of tb« 
reign of Elagabalus. This work is lost, but a coo- 
siderable part of it is extracted by Eusebius in his 
'* Chronicon," and many Augments of it are sko 
preserved by Georgius SynceUus, Cedrenus, and in 
the Pascbale Chronicon. (See Ideler, Hamihtd 
d. Chronol. voL ii. p. 456, &c) The fragmenU of 
this work are given by GaUandi (BiU, Fat,)^ an«^ 
Routh (Reliquiae Sacrae). 

Africanus wrote a letter to Origen impugniTie 
the authority of the book of Susanna, to wbicb 


vpzrn rpplM. This letter it extant, and has 
"en published, together with Origen^s answer, by 
V'etstein, Bade, 1674, 4to. It is also contained 
1 De hi Rne^ edition of Origen. Afiricanns also 
rrote a letter to Axisteides on the genealogies of 
hrist in Matthew and Luke (Phot. BibL 34; 
'.QsebL HiaL EeeL Ti. 23), of which some extracts 
je given by Enaelnns. (i. 7.) 

There is another woxk attribated to Africanns, 
n titled Ec07o(, that is, embroidered girdles, so 
all«d from the celebrated kwt6s of Aphrodite. 
■H^zoe modem writexB suppose this woriL to have 
-et'D written by aome one else, but it can scarody 
"x doubted that it was written by the same Afri- 
mnuB, since it ia expressly mentioned among his 
'ther writings by Photius (/. e,\ Suidas (I c), 
^yncellis (L &), and Eusebins. (vi 23.) The 
number of booka of which it consisted, is stated 
\-»rioasIy. Suidas mentions twenty-four, Photius 
frnrteen, and Syncellus nine. It treated of a rast 
variety of sabjecta — ^medicine, agriculture, natural 
history, the nulitary art, &&, and seems to have 
Icen a kind of common-place book, in which the 
author entered the results of his reading. Some 
of the books are said to exist still in manuscript. 
(Fabricius, BiU, Graee, voL it. pp. 240, &c.) 
Some extracts from them are published by Theye- 
iK't in the ** Mathematici Veteres,** Paris, 1693, 
h.y and also in the Qeoponica of Cassianus Baasus. 
(Xeedham, Proiegoau ad Geopon.) The part re- 
lating to the military art was translated into 
French by Guichard in the third Tolnme of *' M^ 
moires criL et hist, sor plusienrs Points d* Anti- 
quit^ militaires,** BerL 1774. Compere Dureau 
de la Malle, ** Poliorc^tique des Andens,** Paris, 
1819, 8tow 

AFRICA'NUS, T. SE'XTIUS, a Roman of 
noble rank, was deterred by Agrippina from mar> 
Tying Sikna. In a. d. 62, he took the census in 
the prorinces of Osnl, together with Q. Volusius 
and Trehelliua Maxinms. (Tac Aim. xiii 19, 
xiT. 46.) Hia name occurs in a fragment of the 
Fntres Arrales^ (Oruter, p. 119.) There was a 
T. Seztina Africanus consul with Trajan in a. d. 
112, who waa probably a descendant of the one 
mentioned abore. 

AGA'CLYTUS f AtojcXwtJj), the author of a 
woik about Olympia (wc^ *OXv/tT(as), which is 
r^fetred to by Suidas and Photius. (s. «. Kv^Air 
AGA'LLIAS. [Agallw.] 
AGALLIS CAToAAir) of Corcyra, a female 
grammarian, who wrote upon Homer. (Athen. i. 
p. 14, d.) Some hare supposed from two passages 
in Snidas («. v. 'Ax'cfryaXAir and "OpxiK^is), that 
we onght to read Anagallis in this passage of 
Atheoaens. The scholiast upon Homer and Eu- 
■tathins {ad JL xriiL 491) mention a grammarian 
of the name of Agallias, a pui»l of Aristophanes 
the gnmmarian, also a Corcyraean and a common- 
er upon Homer, who may be the same as Agal- 
G* or perhaps her frither. 

AGAMBDE (^Ayofu^). 1. A daughter of 
Aogeias and wife of Mulius, who, acco^ng to 
Homer {IL xL 739), was acquainted with the heal- 
ing powers of all the planU that grow upon the 
*^^ Hrginus {Fab, 157) makes her the mother 
of Beht, Actor, and Dictys, by Poseidon. 

2. A danghter of Macaria, from whom Agamede, 
a place in Lesbos, was believed to have derived its 
^MS. (Steph Byx. i. v, 'Ayafiiiii,) [L. &] 



AG AMESES (^Ayofxiiirp), a son of Stymphalua 
and great-grandson of Areas. (Pans. riii. 4. § 5, 5. 
§ 3.) He waa &ther of Cercyon by Epicaste, who 
also brought to him a step-son, Trophonius, who 
was by some beliered to be a son of Apollo. Ac- 
cording to others, Agamedes was a son of Apollo 
and Epicaste, or of Zeus and locaste, and fiither of 
Trophonius. The most common story however is, 
that he was a son of Erginus, king of Orchomenua, 
and brother of Trophonius. These two brothers are 
said to have distinguished themselves as architects, 
especially in building temples and palaces. Among 
others, they built a temple of Apollo at Delphi, and 
a treasury of Hyrieus, king of Hyria in Boeotia. 
(Pans. ix. 37. § 3 ; Strab. ix. p. 421.) The scholiast 
on Aristophanes {NuL 508) gives a somewhat difle- 
rent account from Charax, and makes them build the 
treasury for king Augeias. The story about this 
treasury in Pausanias bears a great resemblance to 
that which Herodotus (ii. 121 ) relates of the treasury 
of the Egyptian king Rhampsinitus. In the con- 
struction of the treasury of Hyrieus, Agamedes and 
Trophonius contrived to phice one stone in such a 
manner, that it could be taken away outside, and 
thus formed an enbrance to the treasury, without 
any body perceiving it. Agamedes and Trophonius 
now constantly robbed the treasury ; and the king, 
seeing that lodes and seals were uninjured while his 
treasures were constantly decreasing, set traps to 
catch the thief. Agamedes was thus ensnared, and 
Trophonius cut off his head to avert the discovery. 
After this, Trophonius was immediately swallowed 
up by the earth. On this spot there was afterwards, 
in the grove of Lebadeia, the so-called cave of Aga- 
medes with a column by the side of it Here also 
was the oracle of Trophonius, and those who con- 
sulted it first offered a ram to Agamedes and In- 
voked him. (Pans. ix. 39. § 4 ; compare Diet, of 
Ant, p. 673.) A tradition mentioned by Cicero 
{Tutc Quaed. I 47 ; comp. Pint. De eonaoL ad 
ApoUon, 14), states that Agamedes and Tropho- 
nius, after having built the temple of Apollo at 
Delphi, prayed to the god to grant them in reward 
for their labour what was best for men. The god 
promised to do so on a certain day, and when tl.«s 
day came, the two brothers died. The question as 
to whether the story about the Egyptian treamiry 
is derived from Greece, or whether the Greek story 
was an importation from Egypt, has been answered 
by modem scholars in both ways; but Miiller 
{prdtom, p. 94, &c) has rendered it very probable 
that the tradition took its rise among the Minyans, 
waa transferred fitnn them to Angelas, and was 
known in Greece long before the reign ojf Psammi- 
tichus, during which the incerconrae between the 
two countries was opened. [L. S.] 

AGAMEMNON CAratU/iPw). I. A son of 
Pleisthenes and grandson of Atrens, king of My- 
cenae, in whose hou.'«e Agamemnon and Menelaus 
were educated af er the death of their father. 
( Apollod. iii. 2. § 2 ; Schol. ad Eurip, Or, 5 ; SchoL 
ad Hiad, iL 249.) Homer and several other writers 
call him a son of Atreus, grandson of Pelops, and 
greatrgrandsoE of Tantalus. (Horn. JL xi. 131 ; 
Eurip. Hden, 396 ; Tzetz. adLyoophr. 147 ; Hygin. 
Fab. 97.) His mother was, according to most ac- 
counts, Ae'rope ; but some call Eriphyle the wife 
of Pleisthenes and the mother of Agamemnon. 
Besides his brother Menelaus, he had a sister, who 
is called Anaxibia, Cyndragora, oi Astyocheia. 
(^hoL Eur^, Or. 5 f Hygin. Fab. 17.) Ago- 


memnon Had Mc^nclaas were brouglit ap t<^Uier 
with Ai^tbu% ihe tou of Thyestet, in the houae 
of Alr«iu» WhoD they had grown to manhood, 
Atreui tent A gam ^nn an and Menelsiu to aeek 
ThyeeteA, Tliey foiuiJ hiai at Delphi, and carried 
him to Atroushi who ihrcvr him into a dungeon* 
Auglithai was afkrw^nlt commanded to kill him, 
bait ivcognking hU fiLther in him, he abatained 
fnim the criu^l 4e«d, slew Atrens, and after having 
cipcUed A^ziamemnon And Menelaoa, he and his 
fiither occupied the kitigdcim of Mycenae. [Asoia- 
THU&] Thtf two broihers wandered about for a 
iimo, and at bat caEnc to Sparta, where Agamem- 
noQ manicK] Clyiecniiettrai, the daughter of Tynda- 
tt'XL^j by whom be became the fitther of Iphianasaa 
( tphig^ntia)^ Chiyaothcmli, Laodice (Electra), and 
Uicaico. (Horn. //. U. 145, with the note of £u»- 
tAth. ; Lucrct, I M.) The manner in which Aga- 
inecutiifm came to the kiogdom of Mycenae, ia d^- 
ftpently relaU^d* From Homer (//. ii. 108; comp. 
PauL ix. HI § 3)i it ap|!«ani as if he had peaceably 
RdCicecded Thyoslea, vKile, according to others 
( AdchyL Affam. 1605), he expelled Thyestes, and 
iiauipcd kk tbroue. After he had become king of 
Mycetme, b«! rtiadcrcd 8icyon and its king subject 
tij'bimfieir (PauH. ii. G. i 4), and became the most 
powerful prince m Greece. A catalogue of his 
doQaiiiioiii w given m the Iliad. (iL 569, &c.; 
coTOp. Stiab. viiL p, 377 j Thucyd. L 9.) When 
Homer (IL iL lOB) attributes to Agamemnon the 
wterdgaty over aU Argot, the name Axgos here 
■signifies Peloponne^Aus, or the greater part of it, 
for the city of Argot v,iM governed by Diomedes. 
(//. li. 559, &c) StTiibo (iL c) has also shewn 
that the notne Argoi a eiometimes used by the tra- 
gic poets a^ ■ynonymnua with Mycenae. 

When Hden, the wif^ of Menelaus, was carried 
o!F by Pom, the fion of Priam, Agamemnon and 
MenelauB catkd upon all the Greek chie£i for as- 
■iitaiice again*t Troy. (Odyst. xxir. 115.) The 
chiefs met at Argm m the palace of Diomedea, 
whct« AgamemnoD wTi& chosen their chief com- 
lu^ndt^ff dither in consequence of his superior power 
(Eiutflth, <id JLii^imi Thucvd. L 9), or because 
ha hod gairicd the fiLvour of we assembled chie£i 
by giving them rich presents. (Dictys, Cret L 15, 
16\) After two yearn of preparation, the Qreek 
ftnoy and fleet a&sembked ui the port of Aulis in 
IkMMJtiat Agauiemiinn had previously consulted 
the DRucLe about ih^ iiaue of the enterprise, and 
the anawcr given wiu^ that Troy should &11 at the 
time whc-n the moftt di^tiDguished among the Greeks 
should quarrel. {Od. yllL 80.) A similar prophecy 
wtu derived titom a marvellous occurrence which 
Imppened while the Greeks were assembled at 
Aulii. Once when a sacrifice was offered under 
tbc bought of a true, a dragon crawled forth from 
ituder ii, and devoured a nest on the tree containing 
eight young birds and their mother. Calchas in- 
terpreted Jha fligu to indicate that the Greeks 
would have to hght ogoiust Troy for nine years, 
but that in the ten lb the city would &IL (//. ii. 
30 S, J&c) Au occoaol of a different miracle por- 
tending the snme thing is given by Aeschylus. 
{J^m. 1 1 0^ &C.) Another interesting incident 
happened while the fJ reeks were assembled at 
Aulis. Agazcii?miM>n, it is said, killed a stag which 
vfwi sacred to ArtemLJi, and in addition provoked 
tjifl ojager uf the f^'oUdeaa by irreverent words. 
<She ID return vj^iti^d the Qreek army with a pes* 
tileuce, aud produced a perfect calm, so that the 


Greeks were unable to leave the port. Wlienths, 
seen dedared that the an^ of the goddess cenU. 
not be soothed unless Iphigeneia, the daughter of 
Agamemnon, were offered to her as an atooiaf 
sacrifice, Diomedes and Odysseus were sent te 
fetch her to the camp under the pretext that she 
was to be married to Achilles. She caune ; but at 
the moment when she was to be sacrificed, sbe 
was carried off by Artemis herself (sM90ording to 
othen by Achilles) to Tanria, and anodier victia 
was substituted in her place. (Hygin. J^aL 98 ; 
Eurip. IpUg. AmL 90, Ipkig. Tamr, 15; SophocL 
Elect. 565; Find. PytL xi 35; Ov. A£eL xii.31; 
Diet. Cret L 19; SchoL ad Lyocjpkr, 183; AntooiiL 
Lib. 27.) After this the cahn ceased, and tbe 
army sailed to the coast of Troy. Agamemnm 
alone had one hundred ships, independent of sixty 
which he had lent to the Arcadians. ( /iL ii 57^ 

In the tenth year of the siege of Troy — for it is 
in this year that the Iliad opens — ^we find Ags- 
memnon involved in a quarrel vrith Achilles re- 
spectinff the possession of Briseis, whom AchiOes 
was oUiged to g^ve up to Agamenmon. Achilles 
withdrew from the field of battle, and the Gre^ 
were visited by successive disasters, f Achillss.1 
Zeus sent a dream to Agamenmon to persuade him 
to lead the Greeks to battle against the Trojana 
(IL il 8, Slc) The king, m order to try the 
Greeks, commanded them to return home, with 
which they readily complied, until their counge 
was revived by Odysseus, who persuaded them to 
prepare for battle. (IL iL 55, Ac) After a single 
combat between Paris and Mienelana, a battle 
followed, in which Agamemnon killed several of 
the Trojans. When Hector challenged the bravert 
of the Greeks, Agamemnon offsred to fight with 
him, but in his stead Ajaz was chosen by lot. 
Soon after this another battle took place, in which 
the Greeks were wonted (IL viiL), and Agamem- 
non in despondence advised the Greeks to take to 
flight and return home. (/^ iz. 10.) But he 
was opposed by the other heroes. An attempt to 
conciliate Achilles fiuled, and Agamenmon asaexo- 
bled the chiefii in the night to deliberate about the 
measures to be adopted. (IL z. 1, &c.) Odyasens 
and Diomedes were then sent out as quea, and oa 
the day following the contest with the Trojans was 
renewed. Agamemnon himself was again one of 
the bravest, uid slew many enemies with his own 
hand. At hst, however, he was wounded by Coon 
and obliged to withdraw to his tent (IL xL 250, 
&c) Hector now advanced victoriously, and Aga- 
menmon again advised the Greeks to save them- 
selves by flight (IL xiv. 75, &c) But Odysseus 
and Diomedes again resisted him, and die latter 
prevailed upon him to return to the battle which was 
going on near the ships. Poseidon also appeared 
to Agamemnon in the figure of an aged man, and 
inspired him with new courage. {IL xiv. 125, &c) 
The pressinff danger of the Greeks at last induced 
Patrodus, Sie friend of Achilles, to take sn 
enei|^tic part in the battle, and his &11 roused 
Achilles to new activity, and led to his reconcilia- 
tion with Agamemnon. In the games at the 
funeral pyre of Patrodus, Agamenmon gained the 
fint prise in throwing the spear. (IL xxiii. 890, 


Agamenmon, although the chief commander of 
the Greeks, is not the hero of the Iliad, and in 
chivalrous qpirit, bravery, and character, altcgether 

iofeiior to AdiiDea. Bat hb wiwetOndtm nan 
above all the OpBek* by his dignity, power, and 
majesty (IL ioL 166, &&), and his eyes and head 
are likicDed to thoee of Zens, bis girdle to that of 
Ares, and hia bmst to that of Poseidon. (IL ii 
477, &C.) Agamfmnon is among the Qietk 
heroes vhal Zens ia among the gods of Olympns. 
This idea appeaza to have gnided the Giedc artists, 
for in sernal r e pic sen t atioos of Agamenmon still 
extant thoe ia a remarkable resembhace to the 
repreaentationa of Zens. The emblem of his power 
aad majesty in Homer is a aceptre, the woric of 
Hephaestos, which Zens had ones given to Hermes, 
and Heimea to Pekips, from whom it descended 
to Agamannon. {IL iL 100, &&; oomp. Pans. ix. 
40. § 6.) Hia amMwr is described in the Iliad. 
{VL 19, &c) 

The remaimng part of the story of Agamenmon 
is related in the Odyssey, and by aeyezal later 
viiten. At the taking of Troy he received Cas- 
sattd^^ the daughter of Priam, as his prise {Od. 
zi 421 ; Diet. CreL v. 13), by whom, according 
to a tiaditian in Fansanias (iL 16. §5), he had two 
sons, Tdedsmna and Peh^is. On his retom home 
be was twice driven out of his oooise by storms, 
bat at bat haded in Argolis, in the dominion of 
Acgisthas, who had sedoced Qytemnestra during 
the absence of her hnsband. He invited Agamem- 
non on his arrival to a repast, and had him and his 
rompaniems treacheroosly murdered daring the 
feait (Od. iiL 263) [AaoiflTHua], and Clytenmes- 
ta on the same oecasioa murdered Cassandra. 
{CML zL 400, Ac 422, sdv. 96, Ac) Odysseus 
net the shade of Agamenmon in the lower worid. 
{Od, XL 387, xziv. 20.) Mendans erected a 
moBsment in honour of hia brother on the river 
Acgyptoa. (Od. ir. 584.) Pansanias (iL 16. § 
5) states, that in hia time a monument of Agamem- 
non was still extant at Mycenae. The trasic 
poeto have variouaiy modified the story of Uie 
murder of Agamemnon. Aeschylus (Jffom. 1492, 
&c) n»kes Qytemnesdm alone morder Agamem- 
non: she threw a net over him while he was in 
the bath, and slew bnn with three strokes. Her 
motive is partly her jealousy of Cassandra, and 
partly her aduHenMis hie with Aegisthus. Ao- 
cOTdag to Tsetses {ad Lyeophr, 1099), Aegisthus 
cmmmtted the maider with the assistance of Cly- 
temocstm. Euripides (Or, 26) mentions a gar- 
mot which Clytemnestra threw over him instead 
of auel, and both Sophocles (EUeL 530) and Ea- 
ri^des rBprewnt the sacrifice of Iphigeneia aa the 
cause inr whidi ahe murdered him. Afler the 
death of Agsmcmnon and Cassandra, thenr two 
MIS were arardsred upon their tomb by Aegisthus. 
(Ptas. it 16. S 5.) Accordii^ to Pindar (Pytk. 
n. 48) the murder of Agamemnon took place at 
Amycfae^ in Laoonica, and Pkusanias (L c) states 
that the mhsfaitants of this (dace disputed with 
uMe of Mycenae the possession of the tomb of 
0»»nAM, (Oomp. PansL iii. 19. § 5.) Inhter 
^nnes Mataes of Agamemnon were erected in sevenl 
|uta of Qieeee, and he was wonhiroed as a hero 
»t Amydse sad Olyn^uu (Pans. m. 19. § 5, v. 
^- 1 M He was represented on the padMtal of 
U^e edebnad Rhamnnsian NemesU (L 33. | 7), 
•od his fiffht with Coon on the chest ofCypsetus. 
M9- S 1.) He waa painted in the Lesche of 
^^^^ by Polygnotus. (x. 25. § 2; com- 
PW" Win. ^. M XXXV. 86. { 5 ; QuintiL ii 13. 
813;VaLMaz.viiL 11.96.) It ihould be re- 



marked thai sevvnl Latin poets mention a bastard 
son of Agsaenmon, of the name of Halesus, to 
whom the feondation of the town of Falisd or 

Alesium ia ascribed. (Ov. Fa$L iv. 78; .^aior. 
iii 18. 31 ; eoanp. 8erv. ad Am, vii 695 ; Sil. 
ItaL viii 476.) 

2. A anmama of Zeus, under which he was 
worshipped at Sparta. (Lyoophr. 335, with the 
SchoL ; ^istatL ad ILu,26,) Eostathius thinks 
that the god derived this name from the resem- 
Uanoe between him and Agamemnon ; while 
others believe that it is a mere epithet signifying 
the Eternal, firom drydtf and fuyw, [L. S.J 

AQAMEMNO'NIDES ('Ayafu/Mwwthit), a 
patronymic form from Agamemnon, which is nsed 
to dwBg n ate his son Orestes. (Horn. Od. i 30; 
Juv. viii 215.) [L. &] 

*A7Aa0vaciy), daoghter of H^tor, a Thessalian, 
who by her knowledge of Astronomy could foretell 
when the moon would disappear, and imposed 
upon credulous women, by saying that she could 
draw down the moon. (Pint. <is C^, Otmma. p. 145, 
de D^teL Orac p. 417.) [L. S.] 

AGANIPPE i^Arfwiinrn). 1. A nymph of 
the well of the same name at the foot of Mount 
Helicon, in Boeotia, which was considered sacred 
to the Muses, and believed to have the power of 
inspiring those who drank of it The nymph is 
called a daughter of the river-god Permessua. 
(Pans. ix. 29. § 3; Yirg. EeUtg. x. 12.) The 
Muses are sometimes called Aganippides. 

2. The wife of Acrisius, and according to some 
accounts the mother of Danae, although the latter 
is more commonly called a daughter of Enrydioe. 
(Hygin. FfJk 63; SchoL ad ApoOon, Bhod. iv. 
1091.) [L. S.3 

AGANIPPIS, is nsed by Ovid (FomL v. 7) as 
an epithet of Hippocrene ; its meaning however is 
not quite dear. It is divived from Agnippe, the 
well or nvmph, and as Aganippides is used to de- 
signate the Muses, Annippis Hippocrene may 
mean nothing but ** Hippocrene, sacred to the 
Muses." [L. S.] 

AGAPE'NOR (*A7avijy«f>), a son of Ancaens, 
and grandson of Lycurgns. He was king of the 
Arcadians, and received sixty ships from Aga- 
memnon, in which he led his Arcadians to Troy. 
(Honu IL ii 609, Ac; Hygin. Fab. 97.) He 
also occurs among the suitors of Helen. (Hygin. 
FfA. 81 ; Apollod. iii 10. § 8.) On his return 
firom Troy he was cast by a storm on the coast of 
Cyprus, where he founded the town of Paphos, 
and in it the fiunous temple of Aphrodite. (Pans, 
viii 5. § 2, Ac) He aJso oocun in the story of 
Hahmonia. (Apollod. iii 7. § 5, Ac [L. S.] 

AGAPETUS CATwnrraf). 1. MetropoUtan 
Bishop of Rhodes, A. d. 457. When the Em- 
peror Leo wrote to him for the opinion of his 
soffiagans and himself on the council of Chaloedon, 
he d&nded it against Timothens Aelums, in a 
letter still extant in a Latin transbttion, Coitd' 
liorwa Naoa CoUeetio d Matui^ voL vii p. 580. 
' 2. St, bom at Rome, was Archdeacon and 
raised to the Holy See ju d. 535. He was no 
sooner consecrated than he took off the anathemaa 
pronounced by Pope Bonifoce II. against his de> 
ceased rival Diosooros on a false chane of Simony. 
He received an appeal from the Catholics of Con* 
stantinople when Anthimus, the Monophysite, 
was made theii Bishop by Theodora. [Antiu- 


Mus.] Th*; JfTir of an inTasion of Italy by 
JiiEitLnian led the Gflih Theodatui to oblige St. 
A]fap«rtus to ^o him&elf to Conitantinople, in hope 
that Juatinian might hp. diverted from his purpose. 
(See BrenarittTH S^ fJbfruri, ap. Mansi, Omcilia^ 
r^\. ix p. €95.) Afi ta tliit Uit object he could 
make no impression on the emperor, but he sue- 
eeeded in per^xioding hiin to depose Anthimua, 
«Tid when Mt*nna» wan choaen to succeed him, 
Agapetui laid hifl avm hands upon him. The 
Cnancil and tbs Synodal (interpreted into Greek) 
sent by AEmptuB rebtintr to these affairs may be 
(bund flp. Mjinsi, toI. viii. pp. 869, 921. Com- 
plaints Wfirc B^nt hem fnom various quarters against 
the Monophye^itc Acephali i but he died suddenly 
A. D. S36f April 22^ and they were read in a 
Council brld on 2nd May, by Mennas. (Mansi, 
iitid, p. 874 ) Therp are two letters from St 
Agapetus to Justinian in reply to a letter from the 
Cinpfror> in the bttcr of which he refuses to ac- 
knowledge the Orders rif the Arians; and there 
lire two others: 1. To tfit.' Bishops of Africa, on 
the maie subject ] 2. 'J a Reparatus, Bishop of 
Cartilage, in answer to a letter of congratulation 
ftn hia elevation lo the Pontificate. (Mansi, Con- 
d/irt, vili. pp. 016— fi.^n.) 

3. Deacon of the Church of St. Sophia, A. d. 
527. Thefie are two mhcr Apapeti mentioned in 
a Council held by Mcnian* at this time at Con- 
ttuitinople^ who were Archimandrites, or Abbots. 
Agapetus wa« tutor to Justinian, and, on the ac- 
Oftflsion of the btter to the empire, addressed to 
hJm Admfmiiiom on th-r Dvity of a Prmce^ in 
11 Sections, the %m\m\ h'tt^rs of which form the 
dedicatickn {Mnm^ tffipaXcdM^ vapcuveruMV o^«- 
Jtt€UT@t7a-a), The nt^pnto in which this work was 
held apppnrs fmm its cammon title, viz. the Royal 
Sectimti (trxi^v ^tunhiKa). It was published, 
with A Latin Tcnion, by jftu-h, CaUierg, 8vo.,Ven. 
1509, af^erwiirds bv J. Brmtm^ 8vo., Lips. 1669, 
GroUl^ 8vo., Lips. '1733, and in Gallandi's Bibtio- 
Owo, to!. li. p. 255, &c., Ven. 1766, after the 
edition of Bandurius (Bcneidlctine). It was trans- 
lated into French by Louis XIII., 8vo. Par. 1612, 
and by Th. Pavndl into English, 12mo., Lond. 
1550. ' [A. J. C] 

AG APE'TUS f AyawWr), an ancient Greek 
phyalciiin, whose remedy for the gout is mentioned 
with appruliation by Alexander Trallianus (xi. 
p. aOS) and Pawlija 'Aegini*ta_ (iii. 78, p. 497, viL 
1 1, p. 6CL) He prtjtsiihly Hred between the third 
and sijcth centuries after Christ, or certainly not 
later, at Alexander Tndlionus, by whom he is 
quoted, is suppoftcd to hi;i?e flourished about the 
beginning of the sixth ceniary. [ W. A. O.] 

AG A PIUS ("A^diTiOf), an ancient physician of 
Alexjindiia, who taught and practised medicine at 
nyz&ntium with great Burc«s and reputation, and 
acquired immense riches^ Of his date it can only 
be determined, that bo must have lived before the 
end of the fifth century after Christ, as Damascius 
f from whr>m rimtius, BiUiotk^ cod. 242, and Suidas 
have token their nccount of him) lived about 
that tinj#, [W. A. G.] 

AGARTSTA f*A-)«p?(m,). 1. The daughter of 
Cleisthones, tyrant of Sir^yon, whom her &ther 
promided to give in niajTia|re to the best of the 
fi necks. Sniton came to Sicyon from all parts of 
(In^ree, nnd anions others Megncles, the son of 
Akinneun, from Athens, After they had been 
detained at Sicyon for a whole year, during which 


time Cleisthenes made trial of them in varioot 
ways, he gave Agariste to Megaclea. From this 
marriage came the Cleisthenes who divided the 
Athenians into ten tribes, and Hippocrates. (Herod, 
vi. 126 — 130; comp. Athen. vl p. 273, b. c, 
xii. 541, b. c.) 

2. The daughter of the above-mentioned Hip- 
pocrates, and the grand-daughter of the above- 
mentioned Agariste, married Xanthippus and 
became the mother of Pericles. (Herod, vi 130; 
Plut Perid. 3.) 

AGA'SIAS (*Ayiurleu% a Stymphalian of Ar- 
cadia (Xen. Jnab, iv. 1. § 2/), ia frequently 
mentioned by Xenophon as a brave and active 
officer in the army of the Ten Thousand. (JnaL 
iv. 7. § 11. V. 2. § 15, &C.) He was wounded 
while lighting against Asidates. (Anak, vixL & 


AGA'SIAS QAyofflas), son of Dodtheus, a 
distinguished sculptor of Ephesus. One of the 
productions of his chisel, the statue knowu by the 
name of the Boighese ghidiator, is still preserved 
in the gallery of the Louvre. This statue, as well 
as the Apollo Belvidere, was discovered amon^ 
the ruins of a palace of the Roman emperors on the 
site of the ancient Antium {Capo tTAnxo). From 
the attitude of the figure it is dear, that the statue 
represents not a gladiator, but a warrior contend- 
ing with a mounted combatant. Thiersch conjec- 
tures that it was intended to represent Achilles 
fighting with Penthesilea. The only record that 
we have of this artist is the inscription on the 
pedestal of the statue ; nor are there any data for 
ascertaining the age in which he lived, except the 
style of art displayed in the work itself^ which 
competent judges think cannot have been produced 
earlier than the fourth century, b. & 

It is not quite clear whether the Agaaias, who b 
mentioned as the fiither of Heradidea, was the 
same as the author of the Boigheae statue, or a 
different person. 

There was another sculptor of the same name, 
also an Ephesian, the son of Menophilos. He is 
mentioned in a Greek inscription, from which it 
appears that he exerdsed his art in Ddoa while 
that ishind was under the Roman sway ; probably 
somewhere about 100, b. c. (Thiersch, Epockem d. 
bOd, Kwut, p. 130 ; Miiller, Arch. <L Kmmd, 
p. 155.) fC. P. M.1 

(*A7ao-ifcA^f, *AyriaiK\iis^ 'HyrtatKXrjs)^ a king of 
Sparta, the thirteenth of the line of Prodes. He 
waa contemporary with the Agid Leon, and suc- 
ceeded his &ther Arehidamus I., probably about 
B. c. 590 or 600. During his reign the Lacedae- 
monians carried on an unsuccessful war against 
Tegea, but prospered in their other wars. (Herod. 
L 65 ; Paus. iii. 7. § 6, 3. §. 5.) [C. P. M.] 

AGASTHENES {*Aya<re4piii), a son of An- 
gelas, whom he succeeded in the kingdom of Elis. 
He had a son, Polyxenus, who occurs among the 
suitors of Helen. (Hom. //• ii 624 ; Paus. v. 3. 
§ 4 ; Apollod. iii. 10. § 8.) [L. S.] 

AGATHANGELUS, the son of Callistiatas 
wrote the life of Gregory of Armenia in Greek, 
which is printed in the Acta Sanetomm^ voL viiL 
p. 320. There are manuscripts of it in the public 
libraries both of Paris and Florence. The time at 
which Agathangelus lived is unknown. (Fabric 
BM, Graec vol. x. p. 232, xi. p. 554.) 

AGATHAGE'TUS {'AyoBttYnros)^ a Rhodian, 


vbo reeammeDded his state to eapoose the nde of 
the Romans at the beginxung of the war between 
Rome and Peneus, & c. X71. (Polyb. xzrii. 6. 
§ 3, zxTiii 2. § 3.) 

AGATHARCHUS ('AydBapxos), a Greek gnun- 
manon, horn at Cnidos. He was brought up by 
a man of the name of Cinnaeas ; was, as Strabo 
(zTL p. 779) mforms ns, attached to the Peripa- 
tetic school of philosophy, and wrote several 
historical and geographical works. In his youth 
he held the sitoation of secretary and reader to 
Heraclides Lembos, who (according to Suidas) 
lived in the reign of Ptol^y Philometor. This 
king died B. c. 146. He himself informs us (in 
his work on the Eiythraean Seal that he was sub- 
sequently guardian to one of tne kings of Egypt 
daring his minority. This was no doubt one of 
the two sons of Ptolemy Physcon. Dodwell en- 
deaToms to shew that it was the younger son, 
Alexander, and objects to Soter, that he reigned 
conjomtly with his mother. This, however, was 
the case with Alexander likewise. Wesseling 
and Clinton think the elder brother to be the one 
meant, as Soter IL waa more likely to have been a 
minor on his aooeasion in & & 117f than Alexan- 
der in b. c. 107y ten years after their fiither*s 
deatL Moreover Dodwell^s date would leave too 
short an interral between the publication of Aga- 
thaithidea's work on the Eiythraean Sea (about 
a. a 113), and the work of Artemidorus. 

An enmneiation of the works of Aj 
is given by Photiua (Cod. 213). He wrote a 
wodc on Ana, in 10 books, and one on Europe, 
in 49 books; a geographical work on the Ery- 
thraean Sea, in 5 books, of the first and fifth 
books of which Photius gives an abstract ; an 
epitome of the last mentioned work ; a treatise on 
the Trofi^odytae, in 5 books ; an epitome of the 
Ai»5il of Antimachus ; an epitome of the works of 
thne who had written T€pl r^s trworptrpis Bav- 
iuurim Mfutvi an historical work, from the 
12th and 30th books of which Athenaeus quotes 
(xii. pi 527, b. vL p. 251, £) ; and a treatise on 
the intercourse of finends. The first three of 
these only had been read by Photius. AgaUuu^ 
chides composed his woric on the Erythraean Sea, 
as he tells us himself in his old age (p. 14, ed. 
Hods.), in the reign probably of Ptolemy Soter II. 
It appears to have contained a great deal of valu- 
able nuitter. In the fint book was a discussion 
Kspeeting the origin of the name. In the fifth 
he described the mode of life amongst the Sabaeans 
in Arabia, and the Ichthyophag:i, or fidi-eaters, 
the way in which elephants were caught by the 
ekphant^aters, and the mode of working the gold 
mines in the mountains of Egypt, near the Red 
Sea. His aeoount of the Ichthyophagi and of the 
mode of working the gold mines, has been copied 
by Diodorus. (iiL 12 — 18.) Amongst other ex- 
taordinaiy animals he mentions the camelopard, 
which was found in the country of the Ttoj^o- 
dytae, snd the rhinoceros. 

Agatharehides wrote in the Attic dialect His 
^yle, according to Photiua, was dignified and per- 
■{ncQons, and abounded in sententious passages, 
which inspired a fiivourable opinion of his judg- 
*°«nt. In the oompoaitiou of his speeches he was 
«n imitator of Thucydides, whom he equalled in 
^gnity and excelled in clearness. His rhetorical 
Wento also are highly praised by Photius. He 



was acquainted with the Umguage of the Aethio- 
pians (ds Ruhr, M. p. 46), and appean to have 
been the first who discovered the true cause of the 
yearly inundations of the Nile. (Diod. 141.) 

An Agatharchides, of Samos, is mentioned by 
Plutarch, as the author of a work on Persia, and 
one 9§pl kl9wf. Fabriciua, however, conjectures 
that the true reading is Agathyrsides, not Aga- 
tharchides. ^Dodwell in Hudson^s Gtogr, Script, Or, 
Mmaret; Clinton, Fasti HdL iii. p. 535.) [C J».M.] 

There is a curious observation by Agatharchides 
preserved by Plutarch {i^mpo$, viii. 9. § 3), of 
the species of worm called Filaria Medinensiay or 
Guinea Wormy which is the earliest account of 
it that is to be met with. See Justus Weihe, 
/>8 FUar, Mtd&n, CammmLy Berol. 1832, 8vo., 
and especially the very learned work by G. U. 
Welschius, Dt Van Medinensi, ^c^ August. 
Vindel. 1 674, 4to. [ W. A. G.] 

AGATHARCHUS f A7«i«apxoj), a Syracusan, 
who was placed by the Syracusans over a fleet of 
twelve ships in a. c. 413, to visit their allies and 
harass the Athenians. He was afterwards, in the 
same year, one of the Syracusan oommanden in 
the decisive battle fought in the harbour of Syra- 
cuse. (Thuc vii. 25, 70 ; Diod. xiii. 13.) 

AGATHARCHUS ('Ayd0af>xos), an Athenian 
artist, said by Vitruvins (Pra^, ad lib. vii.) to 
have invented scene-painting, and to have painted 
a scene (toenatn fecit) for a tragedy which Aeschylus 
exhibited. As this appean to contradict Aristotle*B 
assertion (PoeL 4. § 1 6), that scene-painting waa 
introduced by Sophodes, some schoUin understand 
Vitruvius to mean merely, that Agatharchus con- 
structed a stage. (Compare Hor. JEJo. ad Pit, 279 : 
et modids i$uirami ptdpita tiffnit,) But the context 
shews clearly that penpective painting must be 
meant, for Vitruvius goes on to say, that Democritna 
and Anaxagoras, carrying out Uie principles laid 
down in the treatise of Agatharchus, wrote on the 
same subject, shewing how, in drawing, the lines 
ought to be made to correspond, according to a na- 
tural proportion, to the figure which would be traced 
out on an imaginary intervening plane by a pencil 
of rays proceeding from the eye, as a fixed point 
of sight, to the several points of the object viewed. 

It was probably not till towards the end of 
Aeschylus*s career that scene-painting was intro- 
duced, and not till the time of Sophocles that it 
waa senerally made use of ; which may account 
for what Aristotle says. 

There was another Greek painter of the name 
of Agatharchus, who was a native of the ishmd of 
Samos, and the son of Eudemus. He was a con- 
temporary of Alcibiades and Zeuxis. We have no 
definite accounts respecting- his performances, but 
he does not appear to have been an artist of much 
merit : he prided himself chiefly on the ease and 
rapidity with which he finished his works. (Pint. 
PericLld.) Plutarch (il2ct& 16) and Andoddes at 
greater length {in Aleib. p. 31 . 1 5) tell an anecdote 
of Alcibiades having inveigled Agatharehua to his 
house and kept him there for more than three 
months in strict durance, compelling him to adorn 
it with his pendL The speech of A^doddes above 
referred to seems to have been delivered after the 
destruction of Melos (b. c. 416) and before the 
expedition to Sicily (b. c. 415); so that from the 
above data the age of Agatharchus may be accu- 
rately fixed. Some scholars (as Bentley, Bottiger, 
and Meyer) have supposed him to be the same as 



the eontempoiaij of Aeacliyliis, who, however, 
must have preceded him by a good h^ oentniy. 
(MiiUer, Arek. d. Kumst, p. 88.) [C P. M.] 

AGATHE'MERUS (^AyaB^fupos), the son of 
Orthon, and the author of a small geographical 
work in two books, entitled rijs yttrypa^tas ihro- 
rtnnicrtis iif hrirofi^ (•• A Sketch of Geography 
in epitome**), addressed to his papil PhUon. His 
age cannot be fixed with mnch certainty, but he 
is supposed to have lived about the beginning of 
the third oentuiy after Christ He lived siter 
Ptolemy, whom he often quotes, and before the 
foundation of Constantinople on Uie site of Bysan> 
tium in a. d. 328, as he mentions only the old 
dty Byzantium. (iL 14.) Wendelin has attempt- 
ed to shew that he wrote in the beginning of the 
third century, from the statement he gives of the 
distance of the tropic from the equator ; but Dod- 
well, who thinks he lived nearer the time of 
Ptolemy, contends that the calculation cannot be 
depended on. From his speaking of Albion ^ f 
<rrpardircSa fSpi/roi, it has been thought that he 
wrote not veiy long after the erection of the wall 
of Severus. This is probably true, but the hingnage 
is scarcely definite enough to establish the point. 

His work consists chiefly of extracts from 
Ptolemy and other earlier writers. From a com- 
parison with Pliny, it appears that Artemidorus, 
of whose work a sort of compendium is contained 
in the first book, was one of his main authorities. 
He gives a short account of the various forms 
assigned to the earth by earlier writers, treats of 
the divisions of the earth, seas, and isUmds, the 
winds, and the length and shortness of the days, 
and then lays down the most important distances 
on the inhabited part of the earth, reckoned in 
stadia. The surname Agathemerus frequently 
occurs in inscriptions. (Dodwell in Hudson^s Oeo- 
graph. Scriptore$ Gr. Mmorts; Ukert, Qeogr, der 
GriaAen u, Romer^ pt i. div. 1. p. 236.) [C. P. M.] 

*Aya^fAMpos)f an ancient Oreek physician, who 
lived in the first century after Cnrist He was 
bom at Lacedaemon, and was a pupil of the philo- 
sopher ComutuB, in whose house he became ac- 
quainted with tile poet Persius about A. i>. 50. 
(Pseudo-Sueton. vita Perm,) In the old editions 
of Suetonius he is called Agalemusy a mistake 
which was first corrected by Reinesius {l^nUtgma 
InmsripL Jniiq, p. 610), from the epitaph upon 
him and his wiie, Myrtale, which is preserved 
in the Marmora Ommtsmta and the Greek An- 
thoiogy, voL iiu p. 881. § 224, ed. Tauchn. 
The apparent anomaly of a Roman praenomen 
being given to a Greek, may be accounted for 
by the fiwt which we learn firom Suetonius 
{Tiber. 6), tiiat the Spartans were the hereditary 
clients of the Clau<Ua Gens. (C. G. K'lihn, Ad- 
ditam. ad Elenek. Medio. Vet. a J. A. Fabricio, m 
**BibUoik. Graeoa" exkUnL) [W. A. G.] 

AGA'THIAS ('AyaBlas), die son of Mamno- 
nius, a rhetorician, was bom, as it seems, in 536 
or 537 A. D. (HisL ii. 16, and VUa Agatkiae in ed. 
Bonn. p. xiv.\ at Myrina, a tovm at the mouth of 
tiie river Pytnicus in Aeolia (AgaOuae Prooemium, 
p. 9, ed. £k>nn. ; p. 5, Par.; p. 7, Ven.), and re- 
ceived his education in Alexandria, where he 
studied literature. In 554 he went to Constanti- 
nople (Hiei. ii. 16), where his father then most 
probably resided, and studied for several years the 
Homan law. (E^pigr* 4.) He aftefwaid exercised 


with great aaooeas the profession of an advocate, 
though only for the sake of a livelihood, his &- 
voorite occupation being the study of ancient 
poetry (Hid, iii. 1) ; and he paid particaUir atten- 
tion to nistory. His profession of a lawjer was 
the cause of Ms surname 2xeAa<m«^s (SaidBs,f. e^ 
*AyaBiaa\ which word signified an advocate in the 
time of Agathias. Niebuhr {VUa AgaOu in ed. 
Bonn. p. zv.) believes, that he died dui^g the 
reign ot Tiberius Thraz, a short time before the 
death of this emperor and the accession of Sfonri- 
tius in 582, at the age of only 44 or 45 yean. 
Agathias, who was a Christian {Bpiar, S, 5, and 
eq»ecially 4), enjoyed during his life &e esteem of 
several great and distinguished men of hb time, 
such as Theodorus the decnrio, Panlns Silentiarins, 
Eutychianus the younger, and Sfocedomna the ex- 
consuL He shewed them his gratitude by dedicat- 
ing to tiiem seversl of his literary nrodnctiona, and 
he paid particular homage to Paulus Silentiarins, 
the son o^ Cvms Florus,cwho was descended from 
an old and illustrious femily. {Hiat v. 9.) 
Agathias is the author of the following works : 

1. Ao^yicuci, a collection of small love poems, 
divided into nine books ; the poems are written in 
hexametres. Nothing is extant of this coQection, 
which the author calls a juvenile essay. (Agath. 
ProoenUumy p. 6, ed. Bonn. ; p. 4, Par.; p. 6, Ven.) 

2. KtJicAos, an anthology containing poems of 
eariy writers and of several of his oontempoiaries 
chiefly of such as were his protectors, among whom 
were Paulus Silentiarins and Maoedoniua. This 
collection was divided into seven books, but notiiing 
of it is extant except the introduction, which was 
written by Agatiiias himsell However, 108 epi- 
grams, which were in circulation either before he 
collected his KrficAos, or which he compoeed at a 
later period, have come down to ua. The last 
seven and seversl others of these epigiama are ge- 
nerally attributed to other writers, such aa Paulus 
Silentiarins, Ssc The epigrsms are contained in 
the Anikologia Graeoa (iv. p. 3, ed. JaooboX and 
in the editions of the historical woik of Agathias. 
Joseph Scaliger, Janus Douza, and Bonaventoia 
Vulcanius, have translated the greater psot of 
them into Latin. The epigrams were written and 
published after the ^a/^nnaicd, 

8. *AyaBlov 2x<»^«(^(«ov VLvpofaioo *l<rropt^r E. 
^'AgatfaJae SchoUwtici Mvrinensis Historiaram 
Libri V.** This is his principal work. It con- 
tains the history from 553 — 558 A. !»., a short 
period, but remarkable for the important events 
with which it is filled up. The first book contains 
the conquest of Italy by Narses over the Goths, 
and the first contests between the Greeks and the 
Franks ; the second book contains the continua- 
tion of these contests, the description of the great 
earthquake of 554, and the beginning of the war 
between the Greeks and the Persians ; the third 
and the fourth books contain the continuation of 
this war until the first peace in 536; the fifth 
book reUtes the second gteat earthquake of 557, 
the rebuilding of St Sophia by Justinian, the 
plague, the exploits of Beb'sarius over the Huns 
and other barbarians in 558, and it finishes 
abroptiy with the 25th chapter. 

Agathias, after having related that he had 
abandoned his poetical occupation for more serions 
studies {Prooemium^ ed. Bonn. pp. 6, 7; Par. p. 4; 
Ven. p. 6), tells us that ssveral distinguished men 
had suggested to him the idea of writing the biitocy 

of his tne, and he addi, that he had undertaken 
the talk eipeeiaUy on the adyice of EntjchiauiUk 
(/&.) HoveTor, he calk Entychianas the omar 
iKnt of the &Bu2 J of the Flori, a funily to which 
EBtydiiaoiia did not hekmg at alL It is therefore 
probohle that, instead of Eatyehianne, we most 
read Rnloa SOentiarios : Niebohr is of this opi- 
nion, (lb. not 19.) Agathiaa is not a great histo- 
rian; he wants histoiical and geogmphical know- 
ledge, prindpally with legazd to Italy, though he 
knom the bat better. He seldom penetrates into 
the real eanaes of those great events whidi form 
the nbjecta of his book : his history is the woric 
of a man of bosineaB, who adorns hu style with 
poetical RmimaoeneesL Bnt he is honest and im- 
partial, and in aU those thinga which he ia able to 
nadentand he ahewa himself a man of good aenae. 
His style is often bombastic ; he praises himself ; 
in his Greek the lonie dialect prevails, bnt it is the 
Ionic of his time, degenentod from its daaaical 
purity into a sort of miztmre of all the other Greek 
diakcta. Nothwithstanding these deficienoes the 
voric of Agathks is of liigh valoe, because it eon- 
tains a great nnmber of important &cts concerning 
one of the most efentln] poiods of Roman history. 
Editions: ^AyMmo SxoAacrrtirov mpl rqf Bcmti- 
Ador ItfWTi w aaiDC, t^/mc E., ed. Bonaventnia 
Vttkanhia, with a Latin transition, Lngdnni, 1594. 
The Pariaian edition, which ia contained in the 
** Capua Script Byamt** waa pnbliahed in 1660 ; 
it cootaina many emm and oonjectnxal innoTa- 
tiotts, which have been reprinted and augmented 
hr the editors of the Venetian edition. Another 
edition waa jmbliahed at Basel (in 1576?). A 
Latin tnmalation by Christophoms Persona was 
Bqwately pnbliahed at Rome, 1516, foL, and 
■fteniatdsat Angabing, 1519,4to.; atBaael, 1531, 
ioL, and at Leyden, 1594, 8to. The best edition 
is that of Niebnhr, Bonn. 1828, 8vo., which forma 
the third Tolame of tke ** Corpus Scriptomm 
Historise Byaantinae.** It contains the Latin 
tiaashtkn and the notes of BonaTentura Vnlcanins. 
The Epigrams form an appendix of this edition of 
Niebohr, who has carefolly conected the errors, 
and removed the innovations of the Parisian 
edition. [W. P.] 

AOATHI'NUS CATitoiWf ), an eminent an- 
cient Qieek physidan, the founder of a new 
BHdical sect, to iHiich he gave the name of Epi- 
9*^W«. (Did. of AnL a. v. Epistnthxtici.) 
He VBs bom at Sparta and must have lived in the 
fint oentmy after Christ, as he was the pnpil of 
Atkenaeos, and the tatcnr of Archigenes. (Galen. 
J>^mL Med, e. 14. voL ziz. p. 358 ; Suidas, a. e. 
VxoW ; Eudoc. Violar. ap. Villoiaon, Anecd. 
Gr. ToL L pi6&.) He is said to have been once 
Kind with an aClM^ of dalirinm, brought on by 
want of sleep, from which he was delivoed by his 
pBial Arehigenes, who ordered hia head to be 
feoKsted with a great quantity of vrann oil 
(Aetna, tetr. i aerm. iiL 172, p. 156.) He ia 
"«<tKntly quoted by Qalen, who mentions him 
"Bang the PnemnatuL (De Denote Ptdg. I 3, 
vol viiL p, 787.) None of his writings are now 
extant, but a few fragments are contained in 
Matthaei'fe Collection, entitled XXI Veknm et 
^■'WKai Medkomm Chxueontm Varia Opuaeula, 
l<o«IBae, 1808, 4to. See alao Palladius, Com- 
^mHippoer. «* 23te jlforfi. Pc^isrf. lib. vL" ap. 
]^ &Mmi m Hippcer, ei Oalen. voL iL p. 56. 
•fhe partieabr opinions of his sect are not exactly 



known, bnt they were probably neariy the i 
as those of the EclecticL (Diet, of Ant 8, v. 
Eclbcticl) (See J. C. Osterhausen, Hittor. SecUte 
Pneumaiie. Med. Altor£ 1791, 8vo.; C.G. KUhn, 
Add&am. ad EUnek. Medic Vet. a J. A. Fabrido 
im'^BiNMoli.Graeea^exhilnL) [W.A.G.] 

AGATHOCLE'A (*A7ciMcX«a), a mistress of 
the profligate Ptolemy Philopator, King of Egypt, 
and sister of his no less profligate minister 
Agathodes. She and her brother, who both ezer- 
ciMd the most unbounded influence over the king, 
were introduced to him by their ambitious and 
avaricious mother, Oenanthe. After Ptolemy had 
put to death his wife and slater Euijdioe, Agar 
thodea became hia fitvourite. On the death of 
Ptolemy (a. c. 205), Agathoclea and her frienda 
kept the event aecret, that they might have an 
opportunity of plundering the royal treaaury. 
They alao formed a oonspiracy for aetting Aga- 
thoclea on the throne. He managed for aome 
time, in conjunction with Soaibiua, to act aa 
guardian to &e young king Ptolemy Epiphanea. 
At last the Eg3rptiana and the Macedomana of 
Alexandria, exasperated at hia outragea, rose 
agunat him, and Tlepolemua phiced himself at 
their head. They surrounded the palace in the 
night, and forced their way in. Agathoclea and 
hia aister implored in the moat abject manner that 
their lives might be spared, but in vain. The 
former was killed by hu friends, that he might not 
be exposed to a more cruel fote. Agathoclea with 
her sisters, and Oenanthe, who had taken refrige 
in a temple, were dragged forth, and in a atate of 
nakedneaa expoaed to the fdry of the multitude, 
who litenUy tore them limb from limb. All their 
rebitiona and thoae who had had any ahaie in the 
murder of Eurydice were likewiae put to death* 
(Polybu V. 63, xiv. 11, xv. 25—84 ; Juatin, xxx. 
I, 2 ; Athen. vi. p. 251, xiiL p. 576 ; Pint. C^eom. 
33.) There waa another Agathoclea, the daughter 
of a man named Ariatomenes, who waa by birth 
an Acamanian, and roae to great power in Egypt 
(Polyb. L e.) [C. P. M.] 

AGA'THOCLES QAynBoKkiit), a Sicilian of 
snch remarkable ability and energy, that he raiaed 
himaelf from the station of a potter to that of tyran t 
of Syracuae and king of Sicily. He flouriahed in 
the Utter part of the fourth and the beginning of 
the third century, b. a, ao that the period of hia 
dominion ia contemporary with that of the aecond 
and third Samnite wars, during which time hia 
power must have been to Rome a cause of painful 
intereat ; yet so entire is the loaa of all Roman 
hiatory of that epoch, that he ia not once mentioned 
in the 9th and 10th booka of Livy, though we 
know that he had Samnitea and Etruacana in hia 
aervioe, that assistance was asked fit>m him by the 
Tarentines (Strab.Ti p. 280), and that he actually 
landed in Italy. (See Amold'a Rome, c xxxv.) 
The eventa of hia life are detailed by Diodoma and 
Juatin. Of theae the first has taken hia account 
from Timaeui of Tauromeninm, a historian whom 
Agathocles banished frt>m Sicily, and whose love 
for censuring others waa ao great, that he was nick- 
named E^Htnaeut (foultr finder). (Athen. vl p. 272. ) 
His natural propensity was not likely to be soft* 
ened whea ne was deacribinff the author of his 
exile ; and Diodorus himaelf doea not hesitate to 
accuse him of having calumniated Agathoclea very 
urouly. (Fragm. lib. xxl) Polybius too charges 
him with wilfully perverting the truth (xi. 15), ao 



that the aoconut which he has left mast be receiTed 
with much suspicion. Manrelloas stories ore re- 
Uited of the early yean of Agathocles. Bom at 
Thermae, a town of Sicily snbject to Carthage, he 
is said to have been exposed when an infiuit, by 
his fitther, Carcinos of Roeginm, in consequence of 
a succession of troublesome dreams, portending 
that he would be a source of much evil to Sicily. 
His mother, however, secretly preserved his life, 
and at seven years old he was restored to his £»• 
ther, who had long repented of his conduct to the 
child. By him he was taken to Syracuse and 
brought up as a potter. In his youth he led a 
life of extravagance and debauchery, but was re- 
markable for strength and personal beauty, qualities 
which recommended him to Damaa, a noble Syra- 
cnsan, under whose auspices he was made fint a 
soldier, then a chiiiarch, and afterwards a military 
tribune. On the death of Damas, he married his 
rich widow, and so became one of the wealthiest 
citizens in Syracuse. His ambitious schemes then 
developed themselves, and he was driven into 
exile. After several changes of fortune, he col- 
lected an anny which overawed both the Syracusans 
and Carthaginians, and was restored under an oath 
that he would not interfere with the democnu^, 
which oath he kept by murdering 4000 and banisn- 
ing 6000 citizens. He was immediately dechired 
sovereign of Syracuse, under the title of Autocrator. 
But Hamilcar, the Carthaginian general in Sicily, 
kept the field successfully against him, after the 
whole of Sicily, which was not under the dominion 
of Carthage, had submitted to him. In the battle 
of Himera, the army of Agathocles was defeated 
with great sbiughter, and immediately after, Syra- 
cuse itself was closely besieged. At this juncture, 
he formed the bold design of averting the ruin 
which threatened him, by carrying the war into 
Africa. To obtain money for this purpose, he of- 
fered to let those who dreaded the miseries of a 
protracted siege depart from Syracuse, and then 
sent a body of armed men to plunder and murder 
those who accepted his offer. He kept his design 
a profound secret, eluded the Carthaginian fleet, 
which was blockading the harbour, and though 
closely pursued by them for six days and nights, 
landed his men in safety on the shores of Afirica. 
Advancing then into the midst of his army, arrayed 
in a splendid robe, and with a crown on his h^, 
he announced that he had vowed, as a thank-ofier- 
ing for his escape, to sacrifice his ships to Demeter 
and the Kora, goddesses of Sicily. Thereupon, he 
burnt them all, and so left his soldiers no hope of 
safety except in conquest 

His successes were most brilliant and rapid. Of 
the two Suffetes of Cartilage, the one, Bomilcar, 
aimed at the tyranny, and opposed the invaders 
with little vigour ; while the other, Hanno, fell in 
battle. He constantly defeated the troops of Car- 
thage, and had almost encamped under its walls, 
when the detection and crucifixion of Bomilcar in- 
fused new life into the war. Agathocles too was 
summoned from Africa by the afiairs of Sicily, 
where the Agrigentines had suddenly invited their 
fellow-countrymen to shake off his yoke, and left 
his army under his son Arehagathus, who was un- 
able to prevent a mutiny. Agathocles returned, 
but was defeated ; and, fearing a new outbreak on 
the port of his troops, fled from his camp with 
Arehagathus, who, however, lost his way and was 
taken. Agatliodes escaped ; but in revenge for 


this desertion, the soldiers murdered hia aoim, and 
then made peace with Carthage. New tnabies 
awaited him in Sicily, where I>einociate% a Syia- 
cusan exile, was at the head of a huge anny against 
him. But he made a treaty with the Carthaynians, 
defeated the exiles, received Deinocmtea mto h- 
vour, and then had no difficulty in leducing the 
revolted cities of Sicily, of which iahuid he had 
some time before assumed the title of king. Be 
afterwards crossed the Ionian sea, and dekaAeA 
Corcyra against Cassander. (Diod. xzL Froffm.) 
He plund^ed the Ldpari isles, and alao carried his 
arms into Italy, in order to attack the BmttiL 

But his designs were interrupted by severe ill- 
ness accompanied by great anxiety of mind, in 
consequence of fiunily diitresaesL Hia gnoidMi 
Arohi^P'^thus murdered his son Agathodea, for the 
sake of succeeding to the crown, and the old kiofi 
feared that the rest of his femily would ahare his 
fete. Accordingly, he resolved to send lus wife 
Texena and her two children to Egypt, her native 
country ; they wept at the thou^ts of his dyinf 
thus uncared for and alone, and be at aeeing theat 
depart as exiles from the dominion wbidi be hA 
won for them. They left him, and hia death fcl- 
lowed almost immediately. For this tondiing na^ 
rative, Timaeus and Diodorus after him anbstitstrd 
a monstrous and incredible stoiy of hia being poi- 
soned by Maeno, an associate of Aidiagathm. 
The poison, we are told, was concealed in the quill 
with which he deaned his teeth, and redooed hha 
to so frjghtftd a condition, that he was pboed <n 
the Amend pile and burnt while yet Uving, beii^ 
unable to give any signs that he was not dead. 

There is no doubt that Agathocles was a mso 
who did not hesitate to plunge into any excesars 
of cruelty and treachery to further hia own por- 
poses. He penuaded Ophelias, king of Cyrene, 
to enter into an alliance with him against Caiths^ 
and then murdered him at a banquet, and seized 
the command of his army. He invited the princi- 
pal Syracusans to a festival, plied them with wiiw, 
mixed freely with them, discovered their secut 
feelings, and killed 500 who seemed opposed to bis 
views. So that while we reject the fictions of 
Timaeus, we can as little undentand the statement 
of Polybius, that though he used bloody means v^ 
acquire his power, he afterwards became most mM 
and gentle. To his great abilities we have the 
testimony of Sdpio Africanus, who when asked 
what men were in his opinion at once the boldei4 
warriors and wisest statesmen, replied, Agatkodcs 
and Dionysius. (Polyb. xv. 35.) He appears also 
to have possessed remarkable powen of wit and 
repartee, to have been a most agreeable companion, 
and to have lived in Syracuse in a security geoe- 
rally unknown to the Greek tyrants, nnattendrd 
in public by guards, and trusting entirely either ti> 
the popularity or terror of his name. 

As to the chronoloffy of his life, his landing to 
Africa was in the ardionship of Hieromnemon st 
Athens, and accompanied by an eclipse of the son, 
i.e. Aug. 15, B. a 310. (Clinton, FaM. Heli.) 
He quitted it at the end of B, c. 307, died & a 28.^ 
after a reign of 28 years, aged 72 acoordii^ u> 
Diodorus, though Lucian (Macrob. 10), gives his 
age 95. Wesseling and Clinton prefer the stau^ 
ment of Diodorus. The Italian mercenaries whom 
Agathocles left, were the Mamertini ^o after hi« 
death seized Messana, and oosasioned the fint 
Punic war. [G. B. L. CI 


AQATHOCLBS C^yt^^okKHs). 1. The fa- 
ther of Lysimaclnia, wm a Theanlian Peneat, but 
obtaioed the &Toiir of Philip through flatteij, and 
was laiied by him to high rank. (Theopompua, 
(9>. Atkau tL f^ 259, L^ &c ; Azmn, Anab, n. 
28. Jmd. 18.) 

2. The son of Lysimachns by an Odiysian 
woman, whom Poljaenus (ri 12) calls Maois. 
Agathodcs waa aent by his fiiiher against the 
Oetae, aboat & c. 292, bat was defeated and taken 
prisoner. He vaa kindly treated by Dromichaetis, 
the king of the Getae, and sent back to his fitther 
with presents ; bat Lysimacbus, notwithstanding, 
marched against the Getae, and was taken prisoner 
himsell He too was also released by Dromichae- 
tii, who leeeiTed in conseqnenoe the daughter of 
Ljaimaehaa in marriage. According to some an- 
tkors it was only A^Uhocles, and according to 
others only Lysimachoa, who was taken prisoner. 
(Diod. E^ xzi pi 559, ed. Wesa. ; Pans. I 9. 
§ 7 ; Sttab. Tii. pp. 302, 305 ; Pint. Demetr, c 39, 
(U WT. mum, «MdL p. 555, d.) In & c. 287, Aga- 
thocks was sent by his fiither against Demetrius 
Poliorcetes, who had marched into Asia to de- 
prive Lysimachns of Lydia and Caria. In this 
expedition he was socceasful; he defeated Lysi- 
madms and drore him ont of his father^a pro- 
rincesi (Pint Demetr. c. 46.) Agathoclea was 
destined to be the sucoeuor of Lysimachns, and 
was popular among his subjects; but his step- 
mother, Arsinoe, prejudiced l^e mind of his fiither 
against him ; and after an unsuccessful attempt to 
poison him, Lyumachus cast him into prison, 
where he was murdered (b. a 284) by Ptolemaeus 
Ceraonus, who was a fugitiTe at the court of Lyai- 
madius. His widow Lysandra fled with his chil- 
dren, and Aleaander, hia brother, to Seleucua in 
Asia, who made war upon Lysimacfaus in conse- 
quence. (Memnon, ap. Phot. Cod. 124, pp. 225, 
226, ed. Bekker; Pans, i 10; Justin, xviL 1.) 
AGA'THOCLES ('ATodoicX^j), a Greek histo- 
rian, who wrote the history of Cysicus (wcpl 
Kdjucov). He is called by Athenaeus both a 
Bahrlonian (i. p. 30, a. ix. p. 375, a) and a Cyci- 
can. (xiv. p. 649, t) He may originally have 
come £nnB Babylon, and have settled at Cyaicua. 
The first and third hooka are referred to by Athe- 
naeos. (ix. p. 375, £, ziL p. 515, a.) The time at 
which Agathoclea lived ia unknown, and hia work 
i» now lost ; but it seems to have been extensively 
read m antiqmty, as it ia referred to by Cicero {de 
^. i 24), Pliny {Hia, NaL Elenchua of hooka 
iv. V, y\\ and other ancient writers. Agathocles 
■Iso ^KJ(e of the origin of Rome. (Festus, «. e. 
Awww; Solinns, Poltfh. 1.) The scholiast on 
Apollonias (iv. 761) cites Memoirs {Anoiiy^iutra) 
hv an Agathoclea, who is usually snpposed to be 
the same aa the above-mentioned one. (Compare 
8cbolarf/r«.7»«y.485; Steph.Bys.«.«.B^<r§<icot; 

Tliere are several other writers of the same 
oame. 1. Agathoclea of Atrax, who wrote a work 
oa fiihmg (dAicirriica, Suidas, «.«. KixUiof). 2. Of 
Chios, who wrote a worit on agriculture. (Varro 
Md Cohnn. deReHud. 1 1 ; Plin. H. N. xxii. 44.) 
a. Of Miletos, who wrote a work on rivers. (Plut 
« Fb^. ^ 1163, c) 4. Of SamoB, who wrote a 
work on the eonstitntiim of Pessinua. (Plut Ibid. 
^ 1169, a.) 
AGA'THOCLES,brotherof Agathoclea. [AeA- 



AGATHODAEMON C^yaMaifun'ov AyMs 
5«ds), the **• Good God,^ a divinity in honour of 
whom the Greeka drank a cup of unmixed wine at 
the end of every repast. A temple dedicated to 
him was situated on the road firom Megalopolis to 
Maenalus in Arcadia. Pansaniaa (viii. 36. § 3) 
oonjecturea that the name is a mere epithet of ZensL 
(Comp. Lobeck, ad Pkrynit^ p. 603.) [L. &] 

AGATHODAEMON (*A7aao8ar;M»'), a native 
of Alexandria. All that ia known of him ia, that 
he waa the deaigncr of aome mapa to accompany 
Ptolemy *8 Geography. Copiea of these maps are 
found appended to several MS3. of Ptolemy. One 
of these is at Vieima, another at Venice. At the 
end of each of these MSS. is the foUowing notice : 
*Eir rw KAouSun; TlroXtfudov Twryfrnpucmv /3i- 
€>iim¥ 6ier^ tj^p oUovfiiyfi¥ «o<ray 'AyaBofkdfutP 
*AAc{ay3p«i)s iJrcn^flMi'c (Agath. of Alexandria 
delineated the whole inhabited world according to 
the eight books on Geography of CI. Ptolemeaos). 
The Vierma MS. of Ptolemy is one of the most 
beantiful extant The mi^s attached to it, 27 in 
number, comprising 1 general map, 10 maps of 
Europe, 4 of Africa, and 12 of Asia, are coloured, 
the water being green, the mountains red or dark 
yellow, and the land white. The climates, paral- 
lels, and the hours of the longest day, are marked 
on the East margin of the maps, and the meridians 
on the North and South. We have no evidence 
aa to when Agathodaemon lived, as the only notice 
preserved respecting him is that quoted above. 
There was a grammarian of the same name, to 
whom some extant letters of Isidore of Pelnsium 
are addressed. Some have thought him to be the 
Agathodaemon in question. Heeren, however, 
considers the delineator of the maps to have been 
a contemporary of Ptolemy, who (viiL 1, 2) meiH 
tions certain maps or tables (wb^oiccs), which agree 
in number and arrangement with those of Agar 
thodaemon in the MSS. 

Various errors having in the courae of time crept 
into the copies of the mapa of Agathodaemon, 
Nicolaus Donis, a Benedictine moiuL, who flou- 
rished about A. D. 1470» restored and corrected 
them, substituting Latin for Greek names. His 
maps are appended to the Ebnerian MS. of 
Ptolemy. They are the same in number and 
nearly the same in order with those of Agatho- 
daemon. (Heeren, CommenUUio de FantUnu Gto- 
graph, Ptolemaei Tabularwnque tit aunexafwn ; 
Raidel, Commentaiio erHia>-litmria de CL Ptolemaei 
Geoffrajdua ^laque eodidbue^ p. 7.) [C. P. M.] 

AGATHON i^Aydew), the son of the Mace- 
donian Philotaa, and the brother of Parmenion 
and Aaander, was given as a hostage to Antigonus 
in B. c. 313, by his brother Asander, who was 
satrap of Csjia, but was taken back again bf 
Asander in a few days. (Diod. xix. 75.) Agathon 
had a son, named Asander, who is mentioned in a 
Greek inscription. (Bockh, Corp. Inecr, 105.) 

A'GATHON (*AydBmif\ an Athenian tragic 
poet, was bom about & c. 447, and sprung from a 
rich and respectable £Eunily. He was consequently 
contemporary with Socrates and Aldbiades and 
the other distinguished characters of their age, 
with many of whom he was on terms of intimate 
acquaintance. Amongst these was his friend 
Euripides. He was remarkable for the handsome- 
ness of his person and his various accomplishments. 
(Phfct. Proiaff. p. 156, b.) He gained his fliat 
victory at .the Lenaean festival in b. c. 416, .when 


K^ woi a Kttle nbave thirty years of age : in honour 
of which FUta FfprFfleutA the Symposium, or ban- 
quL't, to have h&^n giveiL, which he has made the 
nccaaioa of hi« dialngua so called. The scene is 
laid at Agathon'^ hous€, and amongst the interlo- 
ewtor* are, Apolloilnruii, Socrates, Aristophanes, 
DIotitna, and Alcibiadcis. Plato was then fourteen 
years of ag(^, and a spectator at the tragic contest, 
in which Agathon was rictorious. (Athen. v. p. 
217, a,) T\^hen AgatKon was about forty years of 
age (h, a 407), he visited the court of Archelaus, 
the king of MEw^donia (Aelian, V. H, xiii. 4), 
where his aid frir^nd Euripides was also a guest at 
the saiiK time. Froni the expression in the Ratiae 
(83), that he woa gan? ItpoKoptfy tvctx^, nothing 
ci^rbiin can be dettfmuiied as to the time of his 
death, Thp phra-se ndniitft of two meanings, either 
that he n'aa thf-n ree-idjng at the court of Archelaus, 
or that he was dead* The former, however, is the 
fnore probable iiiti!!rpri"tn.tion. (Clinton, Fast, /leil. 
vbU ii. p. Kxxii.) He ia generally supposed to 
bare died about fi. c. 400, at the age of forty- 
seTen. (Hodi.^ O^tdiuhte der dram, Dicktkunst, L 
p- 553,) T}ie poetic nmrits of Agathon were con- 
■idpmble, but hm com pnsi lions were more remark- 
able for elfgjinci! and Howery ornaments than force, 
vigour, or sublimity- Tbey abounded in anti- 
theaifl and mutiphur, " Wth cheerful thoughts and 
kindly imngcR,"" (Adbn, F". //. xiv. 13,) and he 
is sAid to havi; imitatc'd in verse the prose of Oor- 
gias the philosopher^ The language which Plato 
putfl into hi» mouth in the Symposium, is of the 
^rne cbamct^r, fuli of luirmonious words and softly 
flowing period* t an if^aiov ^tvfui difro^rl ^ayros. 
The style of his vefscis, and especially of his lyrical 
composition a, is represented by Aristophanes in his 
Theimophori^usae {191} as affected and eflemi- 
nat^, corresponding with his personal appearance 
and mnnner. in that play (acted B. c 409), where 
hi? appean as tht.' friend uf Euripides, he is ridiculed 
for his elTiMniuacy, both in manners and actions, 
bf^ing brought on tfie Htage in female dress. In 
the Ranac, acted li t e ye-ars afterwards, Aristophanes 
■penka highly of him om a poet and a man, calling 
hiTH qn dya&As wonj-nj^ koI T0$€tp6s rois ^(Xjois, 
In the Thcsmophoriazu^ae (29) also, he calls him 
"Ky^^w A Kktiv6s, In some respects, Agathon 
was initrunienta! in cRu^ing the decline of tragedy 
at Athens, lie wn» the first tragic poet, according 
to Ariitotle {PoB. 18. g 22), who commenced the 
prnctlce of iuKertitig choruses between the acta, the 
subji^ct-mattcr of whiih was unconnected with the 
stcfry of th*; dmma, iind which were therefore 
erdled 4^6Xi^&, or iE]i4>ricalary, aa being merely 
JyricaJ or musitsiL ini^Tludes. The same critic 
( F<MtU 1 8. § 17) ako blames him for selecting too 
extensive subjects f'>r his tragedies. Agathon also 
wrote pieces, the story iind characters of which 
were the creations of pure fiction. One of these 
was called the "Flower" (''AyOos, Arist PdcL 9. 
I 7) I ita subject-matter was neither mythical nor 
bistorical, and th«;refori? probably ^neither seriously 
aflecting, jioi- terrible/' (Schlegel, Dram, LiL i. 
p. 189.) VVi; cannot but regret the loss of this 
W0rk, which mu4t have hotn amusing and original 
The titles of four only of his tragedies are known 
with certainty : they ar(^, the Thycstes, the Tele- 
phus, the Aerope^ and the Alcmaeon. A fifth, 
which is ascribed to him, is of doubtful authority. 
It 11 probable that Aristophanes has given us 
extracts from some of Agathon^a phiys in the 


Thesmophoriaxnsae, v. 1 00- 1 80. The optDum that 
Agathon also wrote eomediea, or that then was a 
comic writer of this name, haa been velnted by 
Bentley, in his Dissertation upon the Epistles of 
Euripides, p. 417. (Ritachl, Commemtaiio de A^ 
tkonit vUot Arts et Tragoediarum nUqmuA, Hake, 
1829, 8vo.) £R. W.J 

A'GATHON {^hyd0w\ of Samos, who wrote 
a work upon Scythia and another upon Riven. 
(Plut. de fUv, p. 1156, e. 1159, a; Stofawiu, 
Serm, tit 100. 10, ed. Oaisford.) 

AG'ATHOxN CA7<id»r), at first Reader, aftir- 
wards Librarian, at Constantinople. In ▲. n. 680, 
during hia Readership, he was Notary or Re- 
porter at the 6 th General Coundl, which con- 
demned the Monothelite heresy. He aent cofMes 
of the acts, written by himself^ to the five Patri- 
archates. He wrote, a. o. 71*2, a short treatiie, 
still extant in Greek, on the attempts of Philip- 
picus Bardanes (711 — 713) to revive the Mona- 
thelite error, ConcUiorum Nova OMcdio a Mamd, 
vol. xii. p. 189. [A. J. C.J 

AGATHO'STHENES {*Ayaeo<re4»^y, a Greek 
historian or philosopher of uncertain date, who is 
referred to by Tzetzes (ad Lyecpkr, 704, 1021. 
Oul. viL 645) as his authority in mattexa conneci- 
ed with geography. There is mention of a vodc 
of Agathosthenes called ^ Asiatica Carmina" 
(Germanicus, m Arai. Phaen. 24), where Gak 
\NatM in Parthen. p. 125, &&) wished to resd 
the name Aglaosthenes ; for AglaostheDes or Aglos- 
thenes, who is by some considered to be the same 
as Agathosthenes, wrote a work on the history 
of Naxos, of which nothing is extant, but which 
was much used by ancient writers. (Hygin. Poet 
Adr, ii. 16 ; Eratosth. CaiaaL ii. 27 ; PoUux. ix. 
83 ; Athen. iii. p. 78 ; PUn. H. N, iv. 22.) [L. S.J 

veterinary suigeon, whose date and history are lUh 
known, but who probably lived in the fourth or 
fifth century after Christ. Some feagmente of bii 
writings are to be found in the collection of works 
on this subject first published in a Latin tnuisbuioa 
by Jo. Ruellius, VeUrinariae Medidnaa Libri dma^ 
Paris. 1530, foL, and afterwards in Greek hj 
Grynaeus, Basil. 1537, 4to. [W. A. G.] 

AGATHYLLUS (*Ayd0v\Xos), of Arcdiia. 
a Greek elegiac poet, who is quoted by Dion3'ciB$ 
in reference to the history of Aeneas and the fiMia- 
dation of Rome. Some of his verses are preserred 
by Dionysius. (I 49, 72.) 

AGATHYRNUS {' Ayd$upi^s), a son of 
Aeolus, regarded as the founder of Agathyraoa 
in Sicily. (Diod. v. 8.) [L. S.] 

AGA'VE ('Ayaui}). 1. A daughter of Cadmus, 
and wife of the Spartan Echion, by whom ahe 
became the mother of Pentheus, who succeeded hb 
grandfiither Cadmus as king of Thebes. Agave 
was the sister of Autonoe, Ino, and Semele (Apoi- 
lod. iii. 4. § 2), and when Semele, daring her 
pregnancy with Dionysus, was destroyed by the 
sight of the splendour of Zeus, her sistera spread 
the report that she had only endeavoured to con- 
ceal her guilt, by pretending that Zeus was the 
fiither of her child, and that her destruction was s 
just punishment for her fiilsehood. This calumny 
was afterwards most severely avenged upon Agave. 
For, after Dionysus, the son of Semele, had tra- 
versed the world, he came to Thebes and compelled 
the women to celebrate his Dionysiac festivals on 
mount Cithaeron. Pentheus wishing to preveat 


or Mop (heat riotoaa proceedings, went himself to 
novnt Giliiaerai, bat was tom to pi«oes there by 
his own nyther Aguve, who in her trenzj beUeved 
kim to be a wfld beast (Apoltod. iii. 5. § 2 ; Ov. 
Met iil 725 ; eomp. Psnthkub.) Hyginns (Fab. 
240, 254) makes Agave, after this deed, go to 
lUyiia anid many king Lycothenes, whom how- 
frer ihe afterwaids killed in DX&et to gain his 
kingdom finr her frther Cadmus. This aecount is 
mau&siEy transphieed by Hyginns, and most haye 
beioqged to an earlier port of the story of Agave. 
2. [NnHDAB.] {I^S.] 

AGDISTIS QAyiitrTis), a mythical beiqg con- 
nected with the Phxyi^an worship of Attes or 
Atyfl. Bsusanias (viL 17. § 5) relates the IbUow- 
ing fltocy about Agdistis. On one occasion Zeus 
onwitting^y begot by the Earth a soperiioman 
being which was nt once man and woman, and 
wu csUed Agdistik The gods dreaded it and 
min s mi ed it, mid from its severed oiSoSs there 
grew np an afanond-tree. Onoe when the daoghter 
of the river-god Sang ar ios was gathering the frmt 
of this tne, she pat some ahnonds into her besom ; 
bat here the ahnonds disappeared, and she became 
tbe mother of Attes, who was of sach extmordinary 
beauty, that when he had grown up Agdistis M 
in love with him. His relatives, however, destined 
huB to become the hnrtwnd of the daughter of the 
king of Peasinas, whither he went accordingly. 
But at the moment when the hymeneal song had 
c om oi m ced, Agdistis appeared, and Attes was 
seiaed by a fit of madness, in which he nnmaBiied 
kifflsdf ; the king who had given him his daugh- 
ter did the same. Agdistis now repented her 
deed, and obtained from Zens the promise thai the 
body of Attes should not become decomposed or 
dia^ipesr. This is, says Pausaniaa, the moat |x>- 
ptdar acoiant of an otherwise mysterious af&ir, 
vkteh is paobably part of a symbolical worship of 
the creative powers of nature. A hill of the name 
of Agdistis in Pbrygia, at the foot of which Attea 
viis bebeved to be buried, is mentioned by Paussr 
nis^ (i- 4. S 5.) According to Hesychius (s: cl) 
and Stabo (xii p. 567; comp. x. p. 469% Agdistis 
is the asme as Cybele, who was worshipped at Pes- 
fiiauB under that name. A story somewhat differ- 
mt it given by AmofahuL {Adv, OenL iz. 5. § 4 ; 
camp. Minnc Felix, 21.) [L. S.J 

AGE'LADAS (*A7sA<i8as), a native of Aiges 
(Paamn. vi a § 4, viL 24. § 2, x. 10. § 3), pre- 
eminently dasti^uished as a statuary. His fimie 
is enhanced by his having been the instructor of 
the thiee great masters Phidiaa (Sui&is, s. «. ; 
SehoL ad ArktapL Am. 504 ; Tsetses, Chiiiad, 
ril 154, viil 191--far the names *EJJiiw and 
Ff AiSov are unqneationably merely OMTuptions of 
'AycAiSou, as was firrt observed by Meursiua, with 
vhoB WnKkefanaan, Thiersch, and Miifler agree), 
Mjnin,sad PdljdetM. (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 8, s. 
19.) The determinatian of the period when 
Ag^adas flsuridtod, has given rise to a gzeait deal 
of diiCQiaan, owing to the apparently eontnidictocy 
^tcsuots in the writen who mention the name. 
PaoMaiBs(vi. 10. 1 2) tells us that Ageiladas oast a 
^^ of Cleosthenes (who gained a victory in the 
^notriKe in the $6th Olympiad) with the 
^1*^ bones, and charioteer, which was set up at 
OljiBpia. There were also at Olympia statues by 
hua of TiBHuitheas of Delphi and Anochus of Ta- 
notuBL MowTunaaithettswasputtodeathbythe 
Athcaisoiy for bis participation in the attempt of 



Iiagoras in OL Ixviii. 2 (& c ^07); and Anochus 
(as we learn from Eusebius) was a victor in the 
games of the 65th OL So ^ everything is dear; 
and if we suppose Agelodas to have been bom 
about B. c. 540, he may very well have been the 
instructor of Phidias. On the ether hand Pliny 
{L c.) says that Ageladas, with Polydetus, Phrad- 
mon, and Myron, flourished in the 87 th 01. This 
agrees with the statement of the scholiast on 
Aristophanes, that at Melite there was a statue of 
'HpoKk^t dXc^kaicot, the work of Agekdas the 
Argive, which was set up during the great pesti- 
lence. (OL IxxxviL S. 4.) To these authorities 
must be added a passage of Poosanias (iv. 33. § 3), 
where he epeaks of a statue ef Zeus made by 
Agekdas for the Messenians of NaupoctusL This 
must have been after the year a. a 455, when the 
Messenians were allowed by the Athenians to 
settle at Naupectus. In order to reconcile these 
conflicting statenaents, some Suppose that Pliny *s 
date is wrong, and that the statue of Hercules 
had been made by Agehidas loag before it was set 
up at Melite : othen (as Meyer and Siebelis) that 
Piiny^s date is correct, but that Agehidas did not 
make the atatues of the Olympic victon mentioned 
by Pausaniaa tall many years after their victories ; 
which in the case of three persons, the dates ot 
whose victories are so nearly the same, would be 
a very extraordinary coincidence. The most pro- 
bable s<^ution of the difficulty is that of Thiersch, 
who thinks that there were two artists of this 
name ; one an Aigive, the instructor of Phidias, bom 
about B. c. 540, the other a native of Sicyon, who 
flourished at the date assigned by Pliny, and was 
confounded by the scholiast on Aristophanes with 
his more iUustrious namesake of Arges. ThierKh 
supports this hypothesis by an able criticism on a 
passage of Pausaniaa. (v. 24. § 1.) Sillig assumes 
that there were two artiste of the name of Ageladas 
but both Aigivea. Agehidas the Argive executed 
one of a group of three Muses, representing re- 
spectively the presiding geniuses of the diatonic, 
chromatic and enhamionic styles of Greek music 
Canachus and Aristodes of Sicyon made the other 
two. (Amtipater, Anih, Pal. PUm. 220; Thiersch, 
^>odu d. hOd. KwuL pp. 158—164.) [C. P. M.J 

AOELA'US fAy^Aoos). 1. A son of Hera- 
cles and Omphale, and the founder of the house of 
Croesus. (ApoUod. ii 7. § 8.) Herodotus (L 7) 
derives the fionily of Croesus from one Alcaeus, 
and Diodorus (iv. 31 ) ffom one Cleohius, while he 
calls the son of Heracles and Omphale Lamus, and 
othen Laomedes. (Anton. lib. 2 ; Pahiephat. do 
Iftcrtd, 45.) 

2. A son of Damaator, and one of the suiton of 
Penelope. (Horn. Od. xx. 321.) In the struggle of 
Odysseus vrith the suitors, and after many of them 
hafd fidlen, Agelaus encouraged and headed those 
who survived (xxii 131, 241), until at kst he too 
was struck deod hy Odysseus with a javelin. 
(xxiL 293.) 

8. A sfahve ef Priam, who exposed the infimt 
Paris OB mount Ida, in consequence of a dream of 
his mother. When, after the hpse of five days, 
the slave found the infant still alive and suckled 
by a bear, he todc him to his own house and 
brought him np. (Apollod. iiL 12. § 4 ; compare 

There are several other mythical penonages of 
the name of Agelaus, concerning whom no portacu- 
hin are known. (Apollod. iL 8. § 5 ; Antonin. 



LiK 2; Horn. IL TiiL 257, xi 302 ; Pant. tuL 
85. § 7.) [L. S.] 

AOELA'US fAyJAoot), of Nanpactna, waa a 
l««ding man in the Aetolian state at the time of 
the Achaean leagoe. He is first mentioned in 
B. c. 221, when he negotiated the alliance between 
the Illyrian chief Scerdilaidas and the Aetolians. 
It was through his persuasire speech that Philip 
of Macedonia and his allies were indaced to make 
peace with the Aetolians (b. a 218), and he was 
elected general of the latter in the following year, 
though his conduct in recommending peace was 
soon afterwards blamed by his fickle countrymen. 
(Polyb.iT. 16,T. 103— 107.) 

AOELEIA or AGELE'IS (^AytXtla or 'At*^ 
Xf^f ), a surname of Athena, by which she is desig- 
nated as the leader or protectress of the people. 
(Horn. II. iv. 128, ▼. 765, tl 269, xv. 213, 
Orf.iiL878,&c) [L.S.] 

AGE'LLIUS. [A, Gbllitjs.] 

AGE'NOR (^Ay^iwp), 1. A son of Poseidon 
nnd Libya, king of Phoenicia, and twin-brother of 
Belus. (ApoUod. ii. 1. § 4.) He married Tele- 
phassa, by whom he became the &ther of Cadmus, 
Phoenix, Cylix, Thasus, Phineus, and according 
to some of Europa also. (SchoL ad Eurip, Phoen, 
5; Hygin. Fab. 178; Pans. t. 25. §7; Schol. 
ad ApoOon, RAod, ii. 178, iiL 1185.) After his 
daughter Europa had been carried off by Zeus, 
Agenor sent out his sons in search of her, and en- 
joined them not to return without their sister. As 
Europa was not to be found, none of them re- 
tum(Kl, and all settled in foreign countriefi. ( Apol- 
lod. in. 1. § 1 : Hygin. Fab. 178.) Viign {Atm. 
i. 388) calk Carthage the city of Agenor, by which 
he allades to the descent of Dido firom Agenor. 
Buttmann {MytkoiUM. i. p. 232, &c.) points out 
that the genuine Phoenician name of Agenor was 
Chnas, which is the same as Canaan, and upon 
these fiicts he builds the hypothesis that Agenor 
or Chnas is the same as the Canaan in the books 
of Moses. 

2. A son of Jastts, and fnther of Argus Panoptes, 
king of Argos. (Apollod. ii. 1. g 2.) Hellanicus 
{Fragm. p. 47, ed. Stan.) etates that Agenor was 
a son of Phoroneus, and brother of Jasus and Pe- 
insgas, and that after their iather^s death, the two 
elder brothers dirided his dominions between 
themselTes in «uch a manner, that Pelasgus re- 
ceived the coutiy about the river Erasinus, and 
built Larissa, and Jasus the country about Elis. 
After the •death of these two, Agenoc, the young- 
est, invaded their dominions, and thus became king 
of Aigos. 

8. The ton and lucoetsor of Triopaa, in the 
kingdom of Aigos. He belonged to the house of 
Phoronens, and was fiither «f Crott^s. (Pans, 
u. 16. S 1; Hygin. F(A. 145.) 

4. A son of Pleuron and Xanthippe, and grand- 
son of Aetoks. Epieaste, the dai^ter of Caly- 
don, became by him the mother of Porthaon and 
Demontce. (Apollod. i 7. § 7.) According to 
Pausaaiaa (iiL 13. § 5), Theetiiu, the fiUher of 
Jjoda, is likewise a son of this Agenor. 

5. A son eC Phegeus, king of Psophis, in Afta- 
dta. He was brother of Pronous and Arnnoe, 
who was married to Alcmaeon, but was abandoned 
by him. When Alcmaeon wanted to give the 
celebnited neddace and peplus of Harmonia to his 
weond wife Calirrfaoe, the daughter of Achelous, 
lie was slain by Agenor and Pronons at the insti* 


gation of Phegeus. But when the two hrvlhcn 
came to Delphi, where they intended to dedicaie 
the nedclaoe and peplus, they were killed by An- 
photerus and Acaman, the sons of Akmaeon ac4 
Calirrhoe. (Apollod. iiL 7. § 5.) Pansaaiaa (riiL 
24. § 4), who relates the same story, calls the chil- 
dren of Phegeus, Temenus, Axion, and Alphe- 

6. A son of the Trojan Antenor and Thena. 
the priestess of Athena. (Horn. /L xL 59, ri. 
297.) He appears in the Iliad as one of ^ 
bravest among the Trojans, and is one of their 
leaders in the attack upon the fortificationi of the 
Greeks, (iv. 467, xii. 93, xiv. 425.) He ef«a 
ventures to fight with Achillea, who is woonded 
by him. (zxL 570, &c.) Apollo rescued him ia 
a cloud firom the anger of Achillea, and then as- 
sumed himself the appearance of Agenor, by whidk 
means he drew Achilles away firom tbe walk d 
Troy, and afibrded to the fugitive Trojans a safe 
retreat to the city. (xzL in fine.) Aocotding ts 
Pausanias (x. 27. § 1) Agenor was shun by Neo- 
ptolemus, and was represented by Poljgnotns ia 
the great painting in the Lesche of Delphi. 

Some other mythical personages of this osb^ 
occur in the following passages : ApoUod. iL I. $ 3i, 
iiL 5. § 6 ; Hygin. Fab. 145. [L. S.] 

AGENO'RIDES CATiiwpUiif), a patnmjinie 
of Agenor, designating a descendant of an Ageoar, 
such as Cadmus (Qv. Met. m. 8, 81, 90; ir. 
563), Phineus (VaL Flaoc; iv. 582), and Peneas. 
(Ov. MeL iv. 771.) [I- S.J 

AGE'POLIS (^KyhtoKn\ of Rhodes, vas seat 
by his countrymen as ambassador to the oonsol Q. 
Marcius Philippns, & c. 169, in the war with 
Perseus, and had an interview with him scar 
Heracelenm in Macedonia. In the following year, 
B. c 168, he went as ambassador to B4HDe t» 
deprecate the anger of the Roman& (Poljh. 
xxviiL 14, 15, xxix. 4, 7; Liv. xlv. 8.) 

or *KywtKaos\ fi-om iytv and dv^p or Kmit^ a sur- 
name of Pluto or Hades, describing him as the god 
who carries away all men. (Callim. Hymn, w /W- 
lad. 130, with Spanheim^ note; Hesych. a. r.; 
AeschyL ap, A them. iiL p. 99.^ Nicander {*^ 
Aihen. xv. p. 684) uses the form ^HytcOiaou [US.] 

AGESANDER, a sculptor, a native of the 
island of Rhodes. His name oocors in no anther 
except Pliny {H. N. xxxvi. 5. s. 4), and we 
know but of one woric which he executed ; it is a 
work however which bears the most dedaivo tes- 
timony to his surpassing geniusL In oonjanetioa 
with Polydorus and Athenodorus he scnlptaied 
the group of Laocoon, a work which is ranked by 
all competent judges among the most peiftct speci- 
mens of art, espeoally on account of ue admiiabie 
manner in which amidst the intense anflferii^ 
portrayed in every feature, limb^ and mnsde, 
there is still preserved that air of anblime repose, 
which characterised the best productions of Qxedaa 
genius. This celebrated group was discorered in 
the year 1506, near the baths of Titos on the 
Eaquiline hill : it is now preserved in the nmeeon 
of the Vatican. Pliny does not heaitate to pro- 
nounce it superior to all other worica both of 
statuary and painting. A great deal 
written respecting 9ie age when 
flourished, and various opinions have been held oa 
the subject Winckelmann and MQller, Ibnaing 
their judgment from the style of art displayed in 

tbe wock itadi^ auign it to the age of Ljsip- 
pai^ MttUer thinki Uie intendt j of sufferbg de- 
picted, and the Mmewhat theatrical air which 
penradea the gionm ahewa that it belongs to a 
later age than tint of Phiitiaa. Leasing and 
Thiench on the other hand, afVer aabjecting the 
paaoge of Pliny to an accorate examination, have 
come b> the eondnaion, that Ageaander and the 
ether two artists Hved in the reign of Titus, and 
flcolpCared the group ezpreaaly for that emperor ; 
and this opinion is pretty generally acquieaoed in. 
Id addition to many other reasona that might be 
mentioned, if apace permitted, if the Laocoon had 
been a work c^ antiquity, we can hardly nnder^ 
itand how Pliny ahonld have ranked it above 
all the wodta of Phidiaa, Polydetua, Pnudteles, 
and I^ppoa. Bat we can account for hia exag- 
getated praiae, if the group waa modem and the 
admiation excited by ita execution in Rome atill 
fre&h. Thieraeh haa written a great deal to ahew 
that the plastie art did not dedine ao early as ia 
generally auj^oaed, but continued to flourish in 
M vigour firara the time of Phidias miinterrupt- 
edly down to the reign of Titus. Pliny waa de- 
crived in aaying that the group was aculptnred out 
of one block, as the lapse of time haa discovered a 
job in it It appears from an inscription on the 
pedestal of a statue found at Nettuno (the ancient 
Astiiim) that Athenodorua was the son of Age- 
cander. This makes it not unlikely that Polydorua 
also waa hia aon, and that the fiither executed the 
figure of Laocoon himself^ his two sons the remain- 
ing two figmesw (Leaung, Laokoon ; Winckebnann, 
Cioci d, Kwutj X. 1, 10 ; Thieraeh, Epoden d. 
m. KtPuL p. 318, &&; MuUer, ArMoiogie d, 
iCwrf, p. 152.) [C. P. M.J 

AGESA'NDRIDAS QKyn^roj^p^i)^ the son 
of Agesander (oomp. Thnc i 139), the commander 
of the Lacedaemonian fleet sent to protect the 
i^ult of Buboea in bl c. 41 1, was attacked by the 
Athe&iana near Eretria, and obtained a victory 
ever them. (Thuc. viiL 91, 94, 95.) 

AGESI'ANAX {^hynffv&ni), a Gredc poe^ of 
whom a beantifol fragment deacriptive of the moon 
is preaerved in Plutarch. {De/acm i» orh. Iwnae^ 
p. 9*20.) It ia uncertain whether the poem to 
which thia fia^pnent belonged was of an epic or 
didactic character. [L. &] 

AGB'SIAS CAyifofa;), one of the lambidae, 
sQd an hereditary prieat of Zeoa at Olympia, 
gained the victory there in the mule race, and 
it celebrated on that account by Pindar in the 
sixth Olympic ode. Bockh pki^ his victory in 
the 78th Olympiad. 

AGESIPA'MUS (*A7q(rflM>0) ^^ ^^ ^' 
chettzatos, an Epiiephyrian Locnan, who con- 
quered, when a boy, in boxing in the Olympic 
want. His victory is celebrated by Pindar in 
t^ie 10th and llth Olympic odes. The scholiast 
peaces hia victory in the 74th Olympiad. He 
should not be confounded with Agesidamus, the 
fitther of Chromiua, who is mentioned in the Ne- 
nean odea. (L 42, ix. 99.) 


AGESILA'US L QAyfurihaos), mm of Doryaaus, 
Bxth king of the Agid line at Sparta, excluding 
Ariitodemna, according to ApoUodorua, reigned 
iorty>foar yeora, and d^ b 886 & c. Panaaniaa 
^ea bis reign a short one, but contemporary 
«ith the legiabtion of Lycurgus. (Paua. iiL 2. § 3 ; 
t'iinton, FoMli, I p. 835.) [A. U. C] 



AGESILA'US II., aon by his second wife. En- 
polia, of Archidamus II., succeeded his half-bro- 
ther, Agjs II. as nineteenth king of the Eurypontid 
line; excluding, on the ground of spurious birth, 
and by the interest of Lyaander, his nephew, 
Leotycbides. [Lbotyghiois.] Hia reign extends 
from 398 to 361 a. (x, both inclusive; during most 
of which time he was, in Plutarch*s words, **as 
good as thought commander and king of all Greece,^ 
and was for the whole of it greatly identified with 
his country*s deeds and fortunes. The position of 
that country, though internally weak, was exter- 
nally, in Greece, down to 394, one of supremacy 
acknowledged : the only field of its ambition was 
Persia ; from 394 to 387, the Corinthian or first 
Theban war, one of supremacy assaulted : in 387 
that supremacy was restored over Greece, in the 
peace of Antalcidas, by the sacrifice of Asiatic pro- 
spects : and thus moro confined and more secure, it 
became also more wanton. After 378, when Thebes 
regained her freedom, we find it again assailed, 
and again for one moment restored, though on a 
lower level, in 371 ; then overthroini for ever at 
Lenctra, the next nine years being a struggle for 
existence amid dangers within and withouu 

Of the youth of Agesilaus we have no detail, be- 
yond the mention of his intimacy with Lyiander. 
On the throne, which he ascended about the age of 
forty, we first hear of him in the suppression of 
Cinadon^s conspiracy. [Cinaoon.] In hb third 
year (396) he crossed into Asia, and after a short 
campaign, and a winter of preparation, he in tlio 
next overpowered the two aatrapa, Tiasaphemea and 
Pharnabazua ; and, in the apring of 394, waa en- 
camped in the phdn of Thebe, preparing to advance 
into the heart of the empire, when a roeaaage ar- 
rived to aommon him to the war at home. He 
calmly and promptly obeyed ; expieaabig however 
to the Aaiatic Greeka, and doubtleas himaelf in- 
dulging, hopea of a apeedy return. Marching rapid- 
ly by Xerxea* route, he met and defeated at&roneia 
in Boeoda the allied forcea. In 393 he was engaged 
in a ravaging invasion of Aigolis, in 392 in one of 
the Corinthian territory, ia 391 he reduced the 
Acamanians to submission ; bat, in the remaining 
years of the war, he is not mentioned. In the inter- 
val of peace, we find him declining the command in 
Spartans aggressk>n on Mantineia ; but heading, firom 
motives, it is said, of private friendship, that on 
Phlius ; and openly justifying Phoebidaa* seizure of 
the Cadmeia. Of tlie next war, the first two years 
he commanded in Boeotia, more however to the 
enemy *ft gain in point of exp<»ienee, than loss in 
any other ; firom the five remaining he vras with- 
drawn by severe illness. In the congress of 37 1 
an altercation is recorded between htm and Epami- 
nondas ; and by hie advice Thebes viras perempto- 
rily exduded firam the peace, and orders given for 
the fotal campaign of Leuctra. In 370 we find 
him engaged in an embassy to Mantineia, and 
reassuring the Spartans by an invasion of Arcadia; 
and in 369 to his skill, courage, and presence of 
mind, is to be ascribed the maintenance of the un* 
walled Sparta, amidst the attacks of four armies, 
and revolts and conspiracies of Helots, Perioeci, 
and even Spartans. Finally, in 36^2, he led his 
cowitrymen into Arcadia ; by fortunate information 
was enabled to |et«m in time to prevent the sur- 
prise of Sparta, and was, it seems, joint if not sole 
commander at the battle of Mantineia. To the 
ensuing winter must probably be referred his eu« 



baaftj to the eoaet of Atia and ne^tiatioas for 
money with the reyolted •atrapa, alluded to in an 
ohflcun patatige of Xenophon {AgetiiaMt, iL 26^ 27 ) : 
mid, in [h^annanoe perhape o£ some stipalation 
ibf^n madiK. h^ croeaed, in the ^>ring of 86 U with 
ft body of Lucedaemonian mereenariet into Egypt 
llft[^ ikfkr displaying much of his ancient akill, he 
di^il^ whlk preparing for his Toynge home, in the 
Winter of S(j 1 -60, after a lifs of aboTe eighty years 
tind a ruign of thirty-eight. His body was em- 
bulmed in vmx, and splendidly buried at Sparta. 

Ileferring to our sketch of Spartan history, we 
fiod Aj^esilaos shining most in its first and last 
p[?riiKl, us crommencing and surrendering a glorious 
<mreer m Ania, and as, in extreme age, maintaining 
hifl prottriite country. From Coconeia to Leoctra 
W8 «(w him partly unemployed, at times yielding 
Xa weak motiTes, at times joining in wanton acts 
of public injustice. No one of Spartans great de- 
ft^ttU, but sanie of her bad policy belongs to him. 
In what others do, we miss him ; in what he does, 
we miss thu greatness and consistency belonging to 
unity of purpose and sole conmiand. No doubt he 
wAa hftinpbred at home ; perhaps, too, £com a man 
withdmwii, when now near fifty, from hb chosen 
career, great Action in a new one of any kind could 
not be Jooked for. Plutarch gi?es among numerous 
apaphthegnuita his letter to the ephors on his recall : 
*^ Wi» \mvv reduced most of Asm, driven back the 
barbarians, made anns abundant in Ionia. But 
pine? you bid me, according to the decree, come 
home, I fthnU follow my letter, may perhaps be even 
before it, For my command is not mine, bof my 
countiy^s and her allies*. And a commander then 
comta^di tnily according to right when he sees 
his owa commander in the laws and ephors, or 
othen bdding office in the state.'* Also, an ex- 
clamation on hearing of the battle of Corinth : 
^Abs Ibr Greece! &e has kiUed enough of her 
Boni to have conquered all the barbarians.** Of 
his courage, temperance, and hardiness, many in- 
■tatuss are gi/en : to these he added, even in ex- 
^iMf the l«bs Spartan qualities of kindliness and 
ttiiidenii^aii HJi a &ther and a friend. Thus we 
havtf the btory of his riding across a stick with his 
children ; and to gratify his son*s aflfection for Cleo> 
nycuuii, mm of the culprit, he saved Sphodrias from 
tht puublimcQt due, in right and policy, for his 
incormiaii into Attica in 378. So too the appoint- 
ment of PetHonder. [Pxisandbr.] A letter of his 
runs, *^If Nicias is innocent, acquit him for that; 
if giiiUy, for my sake; any how acquit him.** 
Fmui Spiutan cupidity and dishonesty, and mostly, 
efen ui public life, from ill fiiith, his ehanuster is 
de«r. In person he was small, mean-looking, and 
ktUE^ on which last ground objection had been 
nia*i& la hia accession, an oracle, curiously fulfilled, 
Jmving warned Sparta of evils awaiting her under 
a "^biiie Kvereigiity.** In his reign, indeed, her 
fiiU tuuk pbict?, but not through him. Agesilaus 
bimM^lf wiu i:ftparta*8 most perfect citiaen and most 
ccuiiummate general ; in many ways perhaps her 
gn.^t«3t niaiL (Xen. HeU. iii. 3, to the end, Ag»- 
rilaoM; Diod. xiv. XV ; Pans. iiL9, 10; Plut. and C. 
Nv\iim, in nita; Plut Apopktkeam.) [A. H. C.] 

AOKStLA'US('A7i|<rtAao9), aOreek historian, 
who wrote a work on the early history of Italy 
(*lTaAiKd\ Augments of which are preserved in 
Plutaidi {Paratlela^ p. 312), and Stobaeus. (Flo- 
ritef/. ix. -27, liv. 49,lxv. 10, ed.Oaisfl) [a P.M.] 



(*A7«<r(Aoxos» *AyiiaiKoxos^ 'Hyntri^X'^^ ^n* tbs 
chief magistrate (i^^^tonsi) of the fihodUana, sb 
the breaking oat of the war between Boose aad 
Perseus in & c. 171, and reoDmmended hia con- 
trymen to espouse the side of the Rirmaw He 
was sent as ambassador to Rome in b. c 16d, aad 
to the consul Aemilins Panllus in Macedonia, b. c 
168. (Polyb. xxviL 3, xxviiL 2, 14, zjdx. 4.) 

AGESI'MBROTUS, commander of the Rhe- 
dian fleet in the war between the Ronuuis aoi 
Philip, king of Maoedenia, 3L a 200 — 197. (Liv. 
zxxi 46, xxxii. 16, 32.) 

AGESPPOLIS I. CATiKrkoXis), UngofSparts, 
the twentf-first of the Agids >i*gmwing nith En- 
rysthenes, succeeded his fiuher Paasaoiaa, while 
yet a minor, in b. c. 394, and reigned Csartees 
years. He was placed under the gaardlai^ip d 
Aristodemus, his nearest of kin. He came ts 
the crown just about the time that tlie ooafe- 
deracy (partly brought about by the intrigiia 
of the Persian satrap Tithranstes), which wu 
formed by Thebes, Athens, Corinth, aad Aspm^ 
against Sparta, rendered it necessary to recall his 
colleague, Agesihuis lU from Asia ; and the tat 
military operation of his reign was the ezpeditiaa 
to Corinth, where the forces of the confrdeiate« 
were then assembled. The Spartan azmj was kd 
by Aristodemus, and gained a signal victory over 
the allies. (Xen. iltlL iv. 2. § 9.) In the jtu 
& a 390 Agesipolis, who had now readied hii 
majority, was entrusted with the command of as 
army for the invasion of Argolis. Having pro- 
cured the sanction of the Olympic and Mphic 
gods for disregarding any attempt which the Aigivea 
might make to stop his march, on the pretext of a 
religious truce, he carried his ravages still frrther 
than Agesilaus had done in b. a 393 ; but as be 
suffered the aspect of die victims to deter him from 
occupying a permanent post, the expedition yielded 
no fruit but the plunder. (Xen. Hdl. iv. 7. § *2-i>; 
Pans. iiL 5. § 8.) In b. c. 335 the Spartena, sett- 
ing upon some frivolous pretexts, sent an expedi- 
tion against Mantineia, in which Agesipolis under- 
took the command, afier it had been declined by 
Agesihtus. In this expedition the Spartans were 
assisted by Thebes, and in a battle with the Mao- 
tineuis, Epaminondas and Pelopidaa, who w«e 
fighting side by side, narrowly escaped death. Ue 
took the town by diverting the river Ophis, so as to 
lay the low grounds at the foot of the walls nndisr 
water. The basements, being made of unbaked 
bricks, were unable to resist the action of the water. 
The walls soon began to totter, and the Mantineeat 
were forced to surrender. They were admitted ts 
terms on condition that the population should be 
dispersed among the four hamlets, out of which it 
had been collected to form the capitaL The deoio- 
cmtical leaders were permitted to go into exile. I 
(Xen. HelL v. 2. § 1-7; Pau^ viil 8. § 5; Diod. 
XV. 5, &c; Plut. Felop. 4 1 Isocr. Poa^ p. 67, s, 
De I'oMy p. 179, c.) 

£arly in b. c. 382, an embassy came to SparU 
from the cities of Acanthus and Apollonia, request- I 
ing assistance against the Olynthians, who we.-e ' 
endeavouring to compel them to join their confode- I 
racy. The Spartans granted it, but were not st J 
first very successluL After the defeat and death 
of Teleutias in the second campaign (b, c. 381) 
Agesipolis took the command. He set out in 381, 
but did not begin operations till the spring of 380. 
He then acted with great vigour, and took Tonue 


hj" stonn ; but in tbe midst of his saoeetses lie was 
seised with a fefer, which carried him off in seven 
daiTB. He died at Aphjtisy in the peninsula of 
F^ene. His body was immersed in honey and 
eoQTeyed home to Sparta for huriaL Thon^ 
Ageaqiotis did not share the ambitions views of 
foreign conquest cherished by Agesihras, his loss 
was deeply icgietted by that prince, who seems to 
hare had a sincere repud for him. (Xen. HelL 
T. 3. 1 a-9, 18-19 ; Died. zv. 22 ; Thirlwall, HisL 
€/ Gf9€oey voL ir. pp. 405, 428, &c^ t. pp. 5, &c. 
20.) [C. P. M.] 

AOESI'POLIS II., son of Oeombrotos, was 
the 23id king of the Agid line. He ascended the 
throoo B. a 371, and reigned one year. (Pans, 
ill 6. § 1 ; Diod. XT. 60.) [C. P. M.] 

AOESITOLIS III., the 31st of the Agid line, 
waa the son of Agesipotis, and grandson of Cleom- 
bfotna IL After the death of Geomenes he was 
elected king while still a minor, and |daced nnder 
the gnaxdianship of his nnde Gleomenes. (Polyb. 
IT. S5.) He waa howeTcr soon deposed by his col- 
league Lycunis, after the death of Gleomenes. 
We hear of hun next in a. c. 195, when he was at 
the head of the Iiacedaemonian exilM, who joined 
FUunininus in his attack upon Nabis, the tyrant 
of LAeedaemon. (liT. xxxIt. 26.) He formed 
one of an embassy sent about b. a 183 to Rome 
by the Lacedaemonian exiles, and, with his oom- 
pairiona, waa intercepted by pirates and killed. 
(Polyb. xxiT. 11.) [a P. M.] 


AOETAS CATifro^X commander-in-chief of the 
Aetoliana in a. a 217, made an incursion into 
Aeamania and Epims, and ravaged both eoun- 
tiiea. (Pdyb. t. 91. 96.) 

AGaTOB fAyifrtfp), a surname giTen to soTe- 
xal gods, for instance, to Zeus at Laoedaemon 
(Siob. Searm. 42) : the name seems to describe 
Zeoa aa the leader and ruler of men ; but others 
think, that it is synonymous with Agamemnon 
[AoAMncHON, 2]:— to Apollo (Euripw Med. 426) 
vhese however Elmsley and others prefer ^^ifrt^.- 
— to Hecmea, idio conducts the souls of men to 
the lower worid. Under this name Hermes had a 
■tatne at Megalopolis. (Pans. TiiL 31. 1 4.) [L. S.] 

AGOE'NUS U'RBICUS, a writer on the 
science of the Agrimensores. {Diet, ofAfd, p. 30.) 
It is unoextain when he liTed; but he appears to 



have been a Christian, and it is not improbable 
from some expressions which he uaes, that he lived 
St the latter part of the fourth century of our era. 
The extant works aaoibed to him are : — *^ Aggeni 
Urbid in Julium Frontinum Commentarius,^ a com- 
mentary upon the work ** De Agrorum Qiulitate,** 
which is ascribed to Frontinus ; '^ In Julium Fron- 
tinum Commentariomm Liber secnndus qui Diaio- 
graphna didtnr ;** and *^ Commentariorum de Con- 
troversiia Agrorum Pars prior et altera.** The 
kwt-named work Niebuhr supposes to have been 
written by Frontinus, and in the time of Domitian, 
the Mithor speaks of ** praestantifsimus 
m expression, whicA would neTer 
haTO been applied to this tyrant after his death. 
iHitt, ofIUnn»^ toL ii. p. 621.) 

Zpifois) by Diodoms, the mler of the Oangsxidae 
aiMl PAsil in India, was said to be the son of a 
barbery whom the queen had married. Alexander 
was frffgnng to maith against him, when he was 
eompcQed by his soUien, who had become tired of 

the war, to giTe up forther oonqoests in India. 
(Curt. T. 2 ; Died. XTii 93, 94 ; Arrian, Anak 
T.25,&c.; Pint. J/m. 60.) 

A'GIAS CA7far), son of Agelochns and gtand- 
son of Tiaamenus, a Spartan seer who predicted 
the victory of Lymnder at Aegos-potamL (Pans, 
iii 1 1. S 5.) [TuAMSNUBw] 

A'OIAS CA7<»> 1- A Greek poet, whose 
name was fsrmerly written Augias, through a 
mistake of the first editor of the Excerpta of 

Produs. It has been oonected by ThierKh in the 
Acta FUloL Afoaoc ii. p. 584, from the Codex 
Monaeensis, which in one passage has Agias, 
and in another HagMS. The name itself does not 
occur in early Gredc writers, unless it be supposed 
that i^ias or Hegias ('H7Uit) in Clemens Alexan- 
drinus {Strom, vi. p. 622), and Pauianias ( i. 2. 
§ 1), are only difierent forms of the same name. 
He was a native of Troesen, and the time at which 
he wrote appears to have been about the year 
B. c. 740. His poem was oelebnted in antiquity, 
under the name of Nijotoi, i «. the history of the 
return of the Achaean heroes from Troy, and con- 
sisted of five books. The poem began with the 
cause of the misfortunes whidi befel Uie Achaeans 
on their way home and after their arrival, that is, 
with the outrage committed upon Cassandra and 
the Palladium ; and the whole poem filled up the 
space which was left between the work of the 
poet Arctinus and the Odyssey. The ancients 
themselves appear to haTo been uncertain about the 
author of this poem, for they refer to it simply by 
the name of Waroi^ and when they mention the 
author, they only call him 6 ro^s 'N6<rrovs ypS^, 
(Athen. vii. p. 281 ; Pans. x. 28. § 4, 29. § 2, 30. 
§ 2; ApoUod. ii 1. § 5; Schol. ad Ody$i. iv. 12; 
SchoL ad AristopL EguU. 1332; Lucian, De 
SaltaL 46.) Hence some writen attributed the 
N^oToi to Homer ( Suid. t. e. wSoroi ; AnthoL 
Phmnd. iv. 30), while othen call its auUior a Co- 
lophonian. (Eustath. adOdyta. xvi. 118.) Simi- 
lar poems, and with the same title, were written 
by other poets alao, such as Eumelus of Corinth 
(SchoL ad Find, OL xiii. 31), Antideides of 
Athens (Athen. iv. p. 157, ix. p. 466), Cleidemus 
(Athen. xiii. p. 609), and Lysimachus. (Athen. 
IT. p. 158; SchoL ad ApoUon. Rhod. L 558.) 
Where the N^oroi is mentioned without aname^ 
we have generally to nndeistand the work of 

2. A comic writer. (Pollux, liL 36 ; Meineke, 
HitU Owtte. Graec pp. 404, 416.) [L. S.] 

A'GIAS (*A7(ar), the author of a work on 
Argolis. ('ApToAucd, Athen. iii. pu 86, f.) He is 
called i fJMvaucds in another passage of Athenaeua 
(xiv. p. 626, f.), but the musician may be another 

AGIATIS. [Aois IV.l 

AGIS I. (''A71S), king of Sparta, son of En- 
lystheaes, h^gaa to reign, it is said, about B. a 
1032. (M'dller, Dor, toL ii. p. 511, transL) Ao- 
oording to Eusebius {Ckron, 1. p. 166) he rdgned 
only one year; according to ApoUodoms, as it 
appears, about 81 years. During the reign of 
EnrystheuM, the conquered people were admitted 
to an eqnality of political rights with the Dorians. 
Agis deprived thm of these, and reduced them to 
the condition of sabjeets to the Spartans. The 
inhabitants ef the town of Helos attempted to 
shake off the yoke, but they were subdiud, and 
gave rise and name to the dass called Helots* 



(Fphar. op. Strak viii. p. 364.) To hit reign 
woi rufem^ the colony which went to Crete 
under I'oltin and DflphiiB^ (Conon. Narr. 36.) 
From him th« kinj^H of that line were called 
^'Ayj^Iai. Hin colleamie was Sou. (Pans. iiL 2. 
fij.) [C.P.M.] 

AG IS n^ the 17th of the Eorypontid line 
(beginning with Proclet), rocceeded his &ther 
Arcliidanvut, B. c. 4'27f and reigned a little more 
thnn 2B yt^an. In th^ mmmer of B. & 426, he 
led an aiTiiy of Pelo^^nnesians and their allies as 
fai m ihe iithmu&r with the intention of invading 
Attica ; hut they were deterred firom advancing 
fiirthf?]- by a mccK^^^hTi of earthquakes which hap- 
|H^nl^d wii^ti they hftd got so fitf. (Thuc iii. 
UD.) In the spring of the following year he led 
nil army into Attica, bat quitted it fifteen days 
after ho had entered it, (Thuc iv. 2, 6.) In 
n, c. 419, the Argiveij at the instigation of Alci- 
biiidoft, attacked Kpidoams; and Agis with the 
whole foive of Lncedi^mon set out at the same 
time and marched to the frontier dty, Leuctra. 
No one, Thuc_i did^i telJs us, knew the purpose of 
thi» «rpcdition. It wm probably to make a divert 
■ion in iapour of Kpidaumi. (Thirlwall, vol. iiL 
p. 34*2.) At Leuctra the aspect of the sacrifices 
detcrivd him ti^ni proceeding. He therefore led 
h h troops back, and sent round notice to the allies 
to be ready for an expedition at the end of the 
Bucred month tit the Qunean festival; and when 
the Argives rt^peaU^d their attack on Epidanrus, 
the SporUmt Again inarched to the frontier town, 
I'^'aev and again titmed back, professedly on 
account of the aspect of the victims. In the mid- 
dle flf the following summer (b. c. 418) the Epi- 
diiuriiinB bt^ing still haid pressed by the Aigives, 
the Lacedaemoitinne with their whole force and 
tottifj allteo, under iUa command of Agis, invaded 
Argolis. liy a tkii^ai manoeuvre he succeeded in 
intercepling the Ai^re^, and posted his army ad- 
Tsmageoualy between them and the city. But 
Jvit aa the battle waji about to begin, Thrasyllus, 
one of ihe Argive gen^nds, and Aiciphron came to 
Agis and pre vd led on bim to conclude a truce for 
fanT months, Agi«, without disclosing his motives, 
drew off hia nmiy. On his return he was severely 
eonitLnsd tbr having thna thrown away the oppor- 
tunity of reducing Argoa, especially as the Argives 
had seiicd the ^pportLmity afforded by his return 
and taken Orcbomenos. It was proposed to pull 
down hiBhon*e,and intictonhim a fine of 100,000 
drachmae. Btit on bj^ earnest entreaty they con- 
tented thetTLH-hea with appointing a council of 
war, conHiEting of 10 Bpartans, without whom he 
waa not to lead an iirmy out of the city. (Thuc 
▼. 54, 57, &c.) SboriJy afterwards they received 
intelligence from Tegea, that, if not promptly suc- 
coured, the party favo amble to Sparta in that city 
would be compelled to give way. The Spartans 
immediately sent their whole force under the com- 
nuind of A ^9. He restored tranquillity at Tegca, 
a^d then niiirched to Mantineia. By turning the 
waters so ob to tlood the lands of Mantineia, he 
laooeediil in drawing Ihe army of the Mantineans 
and Athi'iiians down to the level ground. A bat- 
tle ennuetli in wliieh the Spartans were victorious. 
Thifl wua one of the most important battles ever 
fought lietween Grocbn states. (Thuc v. 
7 1^73.) In B, c 4 1 7, when news reached Sparta 
of the Goiiiite[^re¥oluli<»n at Aigos, in which the 
fsjigtudhicid and Spartan fiiction was overthrown. 


an army was sent there under Agis. He was im- 
able to restore the defeated party, but he deatroynl 
the long walls which the Aigives had begun ts 
carry down to the sea, and took Hyviae. (Thuc 
V. 83.) In the spring of & c. 413, Agis entered 
Attica with a Peloponnesian army, and fortified 
Deceleia, a steep eminence about 15 miles north- 
east of Athens (Thuc viL 19, 27); and in the 
winter of the same year, after the news of the 
disastrous fote of the Sicilian expedition had 
reached Greece, he marehed northwards to lerv 
contributions on the allies of Sparta, for the pur^ 
pose of constructing a fleet. While at Decdeia be 
acted in a great measure independently of the Spar- 
tan government, and received embassies as well 
from the dieaffected allies of the Athenians, as 
from the Boeotians and other allies of Sparta. 
(Thuc. viii. 3, 5.) He seems to have remained 
at Deceleia till the end of the Peloponnesian war. 
In 411, during the administration of the Four 
Hundred, he made an unsnocessfnl attempt on 
Athens itsel£ fThuc viiL 71.) In b. c. 401, 
the command of the war against Elis was entratt- 
ed to Agis, who in the third year compelled the 
Eleans to sue for peace. As he waa returning 
from Delphi, whither he had gone to consecrate a 
tenth of the spoil, he feU sick at Hemea in Arca- 
dia, and died in the course of a few days after be 
reached Sparta. (Xen. Neil. iii. 2. § 21, &c 
3. § 1—4) He left a son, Leoty chides, who 
however was excluded from the throne, as thoe 
was some suspicion with regard to his legitimacy. 
While Alcibiades was at Sparta he made Agis lus 
implacable enemy. Liater writers (Justin, v. 2; 
Plut. Aldb. 23) assign as a reason, that the latter 
suspected him of having dishonoured his queen 
Timaea. It was probably at the suggestion of 
Agis, that orders were sent out to Astyochus to 
put him to death. Alcibiades however xecdved 
timely notice, (according to some accounts from 
Timaea herself) and kept out of the reach of the 
Spartans. (Thuc viii. 12, 45 ; PIuL LvfomL 
22. AsfesiL 3.) [C. P. M.] 

AG I S 1 1 1., the elder son of Arohidamus 1 11.^ was 
the 20th king of the Eurypontid line. His reipi 
was short, but eventful. He succeeded his fiitbrr 
in B. a 338. In b. c. 333, we find him going 
with a single trireme to the Persian commanden 
in the Aegean, Phamabazus and Autophra- 
dates, to request, money and an armament for car 
rying on hostile operations against Alexander in 
Greece. They gave him 30 talents and 10 tri- 
remes. The news of the battle of Issus, however, 
put a check upon their plans. He sent the gal- 
leys to his brother Agesilaus, with instructions to 
sail with them to Crete, that he might secure 
that island for the Spartan interest In this he 
seems in a great measure to have succeeded. 
Two years afterwards (b. c. 331 X the Greek 
states which were leagued together against Alex- 
ander, seized the opportunity of the disaster of 
Zopyrion and the revolt of the Thracians, to de- 
clare war against Macedonia. Agis was invested 
with the command, and with the Lacedaemonian 
troops, and a body of 8000 Greek meioenariea, 
who had been present at the battle of Issun, 
gained a dedsive victory over a Macedonian army 
under Corragus. Having been joined bj the 
other forces of the league he hiid liei^ to 
Megalopolis. I1ie city held out till Antipater 
came to its relief, when a battle ensued, in which 


Aga WM defeated and killed. It happened aboat 
the time of tlie battle of Arbela. (Airian, ii. IS ; 
Died. iwL 63, 68, zviL 62; Aeech. c QenpL 
p. 77; Curt, fi 1; Jnrtin^zil. 1.) [a P. M.] 

AOIS IV., the dder eon of Badamidas II., was 
the 24th king of the Eoiypontid line. He ano- 
ceeded his fiuber in B. a 244, and reigned fbor 
rean. In B. c. 243^ after the libeiation of Corinth 
by Aratoa, the genenl of the Achaean league, Agis 
loi an anoy against him, but was defeated. 
(Pans. u. 8. 1 4.) The interest of his reign, how- 
ever, is derired from events of a different kind. 
Through the infioz of wealth and Inxurj, with 
their eooeomitant Tieea, the Spartans had great! j 
degeneiated from the ancient simplicity and 
severity of maaDers. Not above 700 fiumlies of 
the genuine Spartan stock remained, and in conse- 
quence of the innovation introduced by Epitadeus, 
who procured a repeal of the law which secured 
to every Spartan bead of a fiimily an equal portion 
of knd, the tended property had passed into the 
hsads of alew individuaJs, of whom a great num- 
ber were females, to that not above 100 Spartan 
&milies possessed estates, while the poor were 
burdened with debt. Agis, who from his earliest 
Tonth had shewn his attachment to the ancient 
discipline, undertook to reform these abuses, and 
le-estaUish the institatioDS of Lycuigus. For this 
end he determined to lay before the Spartan senate 
a proposition for the aboUtion of all debts and a new 
partition of the lands. Another part of his phm was 
to give landed estates to the Perioeci His schemes 
were warmly seconded by the poorer daases and the 
young men. and as strenuously opposed by the 
weslthy. He sneeeeded, however, in gaining over 
three very influential persons^ — his undo Agesi- 
Iras (a man of large property, but who, being 
deeply involved in debt, hoped to profit by the 
innovations of Agis), Lyaander, and Mandrocleides. 
Haring procured Lysander to be elected one of 
the ephors, he laid hb plans before the senate. 
He proposed that the Spartan territory should be 
divided into two portions, one to consbt of 4500 
eqnsl bta, to be divided amongst the Spartans, 
whose nmks were to be filled up by the admis- 
non of the most respectable of the Perioeci and 
itnmgen ; the other to contain 15,000 equal lots, 
to be divided- amongst the Perioeci. The senate 
could not St first eoma to a decision on the matter. 
Lynnder, therefore, convoked the. assembly of the 
people, to whom Agis submitted his measure, and 
o&red to make the first sacrifice, by giving up his 
lands and money, telling them that his moUier and 
gnndmother, who were possessed of great wealth, 
with aH his relations and friends, woiUd follow his 
eiample. His generosity drew down the ap- 
piuaes of the multitude. The opposite party, 
however, headed by Leonidas, the other king, who 
bad ibnaed his habits at the luxurious court of 
Seleneos, king of Syria, got the senate to reject 
the mmue, tiiough only by one vote. Agis now 
detennined to rid himself of Leonidas. Lysander 
^^^^cording^y accused him of having violated the laws 
by oaiiyiBg a stranger and living in a foreign Uuid. 
Leonidas was depoMd, and was succeeded by his 
•oiirin-law, Cleombrotna, who co-operated with 
Agia. 8oonafterwards,however, Lysander's term 
n office expired, and the ephors of the following 
y wr were opposed to Agis, and designed to restore 
l^nidaa. They brought an accusation against 
I'faaadtf and Mandrocleides, of attempting to vio- 



late the lawSb Alarmed at the tun events were 
taking, the two latter prevailed on the kings to 
depose the ephors by force and appoint others in 
their room. Leonidas, who had retnmed to 
the city, fled to Tegea, and in his flight was 
protected by Agis from the violenoe meditated 
against him by Agenlaus. The selfish avarice of 
the latter frustrated the plans of Agis, when there 
now seemed nothing to oppose the execution of 
them. He persuaded his nephew and Lysander 
that the most effactual way to secure the oonsent 
of the wealthy to the diatribution of their lands, 
would be, to begin by cancelling the debts. Ac- 
cordingly all bonds, registers, and securities were 
piled up in the market place and burnt Agesi- 
Iaus, having secured his own ends, contrived vari- 
ous pretexts for debying the division of the hmds. 
Meanwhile the Achaeans applied to Sparta for 
assistance against the Aetolmns. Agis was ac- 
cordingly sent at the head of an army. The cau- 
tious movements of Aratas gave Agis no opportu- 
nity of disdnguiahing himself in action, but he 
gained great credit by the excellent diadpline he 
preserved among his troops. During his absence 
Agesilaus so incensed the poorer clasaes by his 
insolent conduct and the continued postponement 
of the division of the lands, that they made no 
opposition when the enemies of Agis openly 
brought back Leonidas and set him on the throne. 
Agis and Oeombrotus fled for sanctuary, the 
former to the temple of Athene Chalcioecus, the 
latter to the temple of Poseidon. .Cleombrotus 
was suffered to go into exile. Agis was entrapped 
by some treacherous friends and thrown into 
prison. Leonidas inunediately came with a band 
of mercenaries and secured the prison without, 
while the ephors entered it, and went through the 
mockery of a triaL When asked if he diid not 
repent of what he had attempted, Agis replied, 
that he should never repent of ao glorious a design, 
even in the fooe of death. He was condemned, 
and precipitately executed, the ephon fearing a 
rescue, as a great concourse of people had assem- 
bled round the prison gates. Agis, observing that 
one of his executioners was moved to tears, said, 
** Weep not for me: suffering, as I do, unjustly, 1 
am in a hi^pier case than my murderers.** His 
mother Agesistiate and his grandmother were 
strangled on his body. Agis was the fint king of 
Sparta who had be^ put to death by the ephors. 
Pausanias, who» however,' is undoubtedly wrong, 
says (viii. 10. § 4, 27. § 9), that he fell in batUe. 
His widow Agiatis was forcibly married by Ijco- 
nidos to his son Cleomenes, but nevertheless they 
entertained for each other a mutual affection 
and esteem. ( Plutarch, -^^f Cleomenes^ Aratus; 
Pans, vil 7. § 2.) [C. P. M.J 

AOIS f'A7(f), a Greek poet, a native of Argos, 
and a contempoiary of Alexander the Great, whom 
he accompanied on his Asiatic expedition. Cur- 
tius (viii. 5) as well as Arrian (Anab, iv. 9) and 
Plutarch (De adulat, et amie. diaerim. p. 60) de- 
scribe him as one of the basest flatteren of the 
king. Curtius calls him ** pessimorum carminum 
post Choeiilum conditor,** which probably refera 
rather to their flattering character than to their 
worth as poetry. The Greek Anthology (vu 
152) contains an epigram, which is probably the 
work of this flatterer. (Jacobs, AnthoL iii. p. 
836; Zimmermanu, ZeUachrift fur die AltertA, 
1841, p. 164.) 



Athenaens (xiL p. 616) mentioxiB one Agit as 
the aathor of a woj^ on the art of cooking 
(i^aprvrutd). [L. &] 

AGLA'IA dAyXdd). 1. [Gharitu.] 

2. The wife of Charapu and mother of Niiem, 
who led a nnall band from the island of Syme 
against Troy. (Horn. JL ii 671; Died. t. 63.) 
Mother Agiua u mentbned in ApoUodoroa. (iL 
7.8 8.) [L.S.] 


AOLAOPHE'ME. [SiaaNxa.] 

AOLA'OPHON ('AyAoo^v), a painter, bom 
In the iahmd of Thaaoe, the father and instmctor 
of Pdygnotoa. (Soidas and Photiiu,«.«. Uo\:&yim- 
TOf ; ^th. Gr. ix. 700.) He haid another ion 
named Aristophon. (Plat Oorg, p. 448. b.) As 
Polygnotus flourished before the 90th OL (Plin. 
H. N, xzzT. 9. 8. 86), Agbophon probably lived 
about 01. 70. Quintilian (zii 10. § 3) pxaises lus 
paintings, which were distingnished by the sim- 
plicity of their colouring, as worthy of admiration 
on oUier grounds besidra their antiquity. There 
was an Aglaophon who flourished in the 90th OL 
according to Pliny {H, N. zxxy. 9. s. 86), and his 
statement is confirmed by a passage of Athenaens 
(xii. p. 643, D.), firom whidi we learn that he 
painted two pictures, in one of which Olympias 
and Pythias, as the presiding geniuses of the 
Olympic and Pythian games, were represented 
crowning Alcibiades ; in the other Nemea, the pre- 
siding deity of the Nemean games, held Alcibiades 
on her knees. Alcibiades could not have gained 
any victories much before 01. 91. (b. c. 416.) It 
is therefore exceedingly likely that this artist was 
the son of Aristophon, and grandson of the older 
Aglaophon, as among the Greeks the son generally 
bore the name not of his fether but of his grand- 
fether. Plutarch (Aleib, 16) says, that Aristo- 
phon was the author of the picture of Nemea and 
Alcibiades. He may perhaps have assisted lus 
son. This Aglaophon was, according to some, the 
first who represented Victory with wings. (SchoL 
ad Aristoph. Ave$, 673.) [C. P. M.] 

AGLAOSTHENES. [Aoaosthenbs.] 


AGLA'US (*Ay?<a6s), a poor citizen of Psophis 
in Arcadia, whom the Delpnic orade pronounced 
to be happier than Gyges, king of Lydia, on ac- 
count of his contentedness, when the king asked 
the oracle, if any man was h^pier than he. ( VaL 
Max. viL 1. § 2; Plin. H. N. viL 47.) PaDs»- 
nias (viii 24. § 7) places Aglaus in the time of 

AGNAPTUS, an architect mentioned by Pau- 
sanias ([r. 16, § 4, vi 20. § 7) as the builder of a 
porch in the Altis at Olympia, which was called 
by the Eleans the ** porch of Agnaptns.^ When 
he lived is uncertain. [C. P. M.] 

A'GNIUS CATFiof), the firther of Tiphys, who 
was the pilot of the ship Ai^ (ApoOod. L 9. § 16; 
Oq>h. Aryom, 640), whence Tiphys is cslled 
Agniades. [L. S.] 

AGNODICE ('AtfoJ/ictj), the name of the 
earliest midwife mentioned among the Greeks. 
She was a native of Athens, where it was 
fi>rbidden b^ Uw for a woman or a slave to 
study medicme. According, however, to Hyginns 
(FiA, 274), on whose authority alone the whole 
story rests, it would appear that Agnodice dis- 
guised herself in man*s clothes, and so contrived to 
attend the lectures of a physician named Hicro- 

philus,— devotmg herself chiefly to the HoAy af 
midw^Biy and the diseases of women. Aiter> 
wuds, when she began practice^ 1 
eeasftd in these branches of the 
exdted the jealousy of seveial of the otba- ptac- 
titioners, by whom she was summoned hffnwi the 
Areiopagus, and accused of oonrupting the mocsls 
of her patients. Upon her lefiiting tms cliaige by 
making known her sex, she waa immediately ac- 
cused of having viohited the existing law, which 
second danger she escaped by the wivea «f the 
chief persons in Athens, whom she had attended, 
coming forward in her behalf^ and aooeeeding at 
last in getting the obnoxious law aboUshed* No 
date wluttever is attached to this story, hvt aewal 
persons have, by calling the tutor of Agnodice by 
the name of HercpUima instead of Hi nnfkiluM, 
pUced it in the third or fiourth centurr before 
Christ But this emendation, though at mpt aigkt 
very easy and plausible, does not appear altogcchcff 
free from objections. For, in the first place, if the 
stoxy it to be believed at all upon the aathocity of 
Hyginus, it would seem to belong rather to the 
fifth or sixth century before Christ than the third 
or fourth ; secondly, we have no reaaon for think- 
ing that Agnodice was ever at Alexandria, or 
Herophilus at Athens; and thirdly, it seons 
hardly probable that Hyginus would hare caUed 
so celebrated a physician **a etrtam HeropUba.'^ 
{H^npkOm qmdam.) [ W. A. G.] 

AGNON, a Greek rhetoriciao, who wrote a 
woik against rhetoric, which Quintilian (iL 17. 
§ 16) calls ** Rhetorices aocusatio.** lUrankea 
\HiaL OriL OraL Chraae, p. xc.) and after him 
most modem scholars have considered thia Agnon 
to be the same man as Agnonides, the contempo- 
rary of Phodon, as the latter is in some MSSl of 
Com. Nepos (Phoe, 8) called A^non. Bet the 
manner in which Agnon is mentioned by Quin- 
tilian, shews that he b a rhetorician, 'who fived at 
a much later period. Whether however he is the 
same as the academic philosopher mentiooed by 
Athenaens (xiii. p. 602), cannot be decided. [L. &] 

AGNO'NIDES {'Aypm^s)y an Atheniaa 
demagogue and sycophant, a contempoiarf of 
Theophnstus and Phodon. The former waa ac- 
cused by Agnonides of impiety, but waa aapiitted 
by the Areiopagus, and Theophrastus mj^t have 
ruined his accuser, had he been less generous. (IN^ 
Laert v. 37.) Agnonides was onpoaed to the Jlib- 
cedonian party at Athens, and called Phodon a tmi- 
tor, for which he was exiled, as soon as Alexander, 
son of Polysperchon, got possession of Athens. 
Afterwards, however, he obtained from Antipater 
permission to return to his country through the 
mediation of Phodon. (Plut Pkoe, 29.) But 
the sycophant soon foigot what he owed to his 
benefisctor, and not only continued to oppose the 
Macedonian party in the most vehement manner, 
but even induced the Athenians to sentence Pho- 
don to death as a traitor, who had delivoed the 
Peiraeeus into the hands of Nicanor. (Plut Pkoc 
38, 86 ; Cora. Nep. Phoc 3.) But the Athenians 
soon repented of their conduct towards Phodon, 
and put Agnonides to death to appease his manes. 
(Plut. Pkoe, 88.) [U S.J 

AGON C^T^ir), a personification of solemn 
contests (d'j^f t). He waa represented in a statue 
at Olympia with cUr^pcs in his hands. This sta- 
tue was a work of Dlonysius, and dedicated by 
Smicythus of Rhegium. (Pans. v. 26. § 3.) [L. &] 




tne or epitlist of 
Aaadiyhu (Agam. 513} a»l Sopho- 

•evenl gods. Aeachyhu (A$ 
ck» (Thwk 26) use it of Apollo and Zeiia,~ajid 
■ppai«i% ia ike Knae of helpcn in ■trogg^ and 
contesta. (Camp. EnatatlL ad Up. 1335.) Bat 
Agonina la mois eapedaUy and aa a flaname of 
Uennes, who pnaidea OTer all kinda of lolenin 

lull Cft|"'"JJi^'" « 1^ 07, VmLOfyn^, 

Ti 133, vith the S^oL) [L. &] 

AOORA'CRITUS i*KypAKpnos)y a fiunout 
•tatoaiy and acnlptor, bom in the ialand of Pttoa, 
who floaiiahed fen about 01 85 to 01. 8& (Plin. 
H, N. xxxtL 5. a. 4.) He waa the fiiToorite 
pspfl of Phidias (Piwa. iz. 34. § 1), who is oTen 
nid by Pliny to have inacribed aome of his 
own yini£k% whh the name oi his diadple. Only 
four of his prodnctions an mentioned, vis. a statae 
of Zens and one of the Itonian Athene in the 
tem^ of that goddess at Athens (Pans. '>«•);& 
itatae, ptobaUy of Cybele, in the temple of the 
Great Goddess at Athens (Plin. 2. e.) ; and the 
RhanaosiBn Nemesia. Respecting this last work 
then has been a great deal of discussion. The 
accooDt which Pliny giTes of it is, that Agoracritus 
contended with Alounenes (anotlier distingoished 
diacqile of Phidias) in making a statae of Venos ; 
and that the Athenians, through an undue par- 
tiality townds their oonntryman, awarded the 
▼ictoiy to Akamenea. Agoneritus, indignant at 
his defeat, made aome slight altentiona so as to 
chsnge his Vemia uito a Nemesis, and sold it to 
the people of Rhanmns, on condition that it should 
not be set np in Athens^ Pausanias (i 83. § 2), 
without saying a word about Agoracritus, says 
that the Rhamnuwan Nemesis was the woik of 
Phidias, and was made out of the Uock of Pftrian 
marUe which the Persians under Datis and 
Artaphetnes brought with them for the purpose of 
setting up a trophy. (See Theeetetua and Panne- 
ttio, AmUuL Gr. Pkmud. ir. 12, 221, 222.) This 
sceoaat howoTer has been rejected aa inTolTing 
s cmfasion of the ideas connected by the Greeks 
with the goddess Nemesis. The statue moreover 
was not of Parian, but of Pentelie marUew (Un- 
edited Antiqukie* of Attiea, p. 43.) Strabo (ix. 
P- 396), Tsetzes {CkUiad. viL 154), Suidas and 
Phothis give other nmations in speaking of this 
BtetiHi It seems generally speed that Pliny*s 
Mcoant of the matter is right in the main ; and 
there hare been Tarious dissertations on the way 
in whidi a statue of Venus could have been 
changed into one of NemestSL (Winckehnann, 
^osmlfie&e Werke von J. Eiselein, voL v. p. 364 ; 
Zo^ Aikndlmffm, pp. 5tf--62 ; K. O. MiiOer, 
^nk rf. KwiO, p. 102.) [C. P. M.J 

AGORAEA and AGORAEUS (*Ayapaia and 
ATppoSw), are epitheta given to several divinities 
*rho were considered aa the protectors of the aa- 
Mmblies of the people in the dyopd, such as Zeus 
(Phas. iiL 11. § 8, V. 15. § 3), Athena (iiL 11. 
§ 8), Artemis (v. 15. § 3), and Hermes, (i 15. 
SUii9.§7,ix.l7.§l.) As Hennes was the 
god of coBnneree, tiiis surname seems to have re- 
fcRMe to ths dyopd as the market-phice. [L. S.] 
AGKAEUS (*A7pa2M), the hunter, a surname 
<>fApQnQ. After he had killed the Hon of Cithae- 
^ a temple was erected to him by Alcathous at 
MegBia under the nftme of Apollo Agneus. (Pttus. 
"• 41- 1 4 ; Ettstath. ad It, ^ 861.) [L. S.] 
hfw^i), 1. A daughter of Actaeus, the Brst 

king of Athena. By her husband, Cecropa, she 
becmne the mother of Eryaichthon, Agmnlos, 
Heiae, and Puidrosoa. (ApoUod. iiL 14. § 2 ; 
Pana. L 2. § 5.) 

2. A daughter of Cecropa and Agnudoo, and 
mother of ^dppe by Area. This Aj^anlos is 
an important personaga in the stoiiea of Attica, 
and there were .three difoent k»ends about her. 
1. According to Pausanias (i 18. §2) and Hyginus 
(Fa5. 166), Athena gave to her and her sisters 
Erichthonius in a chest, with the express eoaunand 
not to open it. But Agxanlos and Herae could 
not control their cariosity, and opened it ; where- 
upon they wen aeiaed with madneaa at the aight 
of EriehUionius, and threw themselves from the 
steep rock of the Acropolis, or aoeoiding to Hyginus 
into the sea. 2. Accoxdiog to Ovid {Mti, iL 710, 
&C.X Agrauloa and her sister survived their open- 
ing the chest, and the former, who had instigated 
her sister to open it, was punished in this manner. 
Hermes came to Athens daring the ceJebration of 
the Panathenaea, and fell in love with Herse. 
Athena made Agrauloa so jealous of her sister, that 
she even attempted to prevent the god entering 
the house of Herse. But, indignant at such pre- 
sumption, he changed Agraolos into a stone. 
3. The third legend represents AgrauloB in a 
totally diiieient Ii^t. Athens waa at one time 
involved in a long-protracted war, and an orade 
dedared that it would cease, if some one would 
sacrifice himself for the good of his country. 
Agiaulos came forward and threw herself down 
the Acropolis. The Athenians, in gmtitude for 
this, built her a temple on the Acropolis, in which 
it subsequently became customaiy for the young 
Athenians, on receiving their first suit of aimour, 
to take an oath that they would always defend 
their country to the last (Suid. and Heaych. «. v. 
"AypavXos ; Ulpian, ad Demodk, defals, Uff,; He- 
rod, viii. 53 ; Plut. Aletk 15 ; Philochorus, FVmm, 
p. 18, ed. Siebelia.) One of the Attic hifiot 
(Agraule) derived ita name finom this heroine^ and 
a festival and myateriea were oelebiated at Athens 
in honour of her. (Staph. Bys. «. v. 'AypavXij ; 
Lobeck, Aglaoph. p. 8.9; DioL cf Afd. p. 30, a.) 
Aocordiiig to Porphyry {DeAbetin^abamkiud, i 2), 
she waa also worshipped in Cyprus, where human 
sacrifices were offered to her down to a very late 
time. [L. S.] 

AGRESPHON (^KypltnpwX a Greek pun- 

urian mentioned by Suidais. («. ei. *A«oAA«iirio5.) 
He wrote a work n^ 'OfwrtJ/iM^ (conceming per- 
sons of the same name). He cannot have lived 
earlier than the reign of Hadrian, as in his work 
he spoke of an ApoUonius who lived in the time of 
that emperor. [C. P. M.] 

AGREUS CATpc^X ^ kunter, occurs as a sur- 
name of P&n and Aristaeus. (Pind. Pytk. ix. 115 ; 
Apollon. Rhod. iiL 507 ; DkxL iv. 81 ; Hesych. t.o.; 
Salmas. ad Solm. p. 81.) [L. &] 

the most remarkable men whom we meet with in 
the times o{ the first twelve emperors of Rome, for 
his extraordinary ability as a general, his great 
powera, ahewn in his government of Britain, 
and bonie witness to by the deep and universal 
feeling excited in Rome by his death (Tac. Affrie. 
43), his singular integrity, and the esteem and 
love which he commanded in all the private reh»- 
tions of life. 

His life of 55 years (from June 13th, ▲. d. 37, 



10 tlie 23rd Angiift, a. d. 93) ext<mdi throngh the 
reigni of th« nine emperon firom Caligula to Domi- 
iian. He waa bom at the Roman colony of Forum 
Julii, the modem Fr^jni in ProTence. His &ther 
was Julius Qiaecinus of Benatorian nmk ; his mo- 
ther Julia Prodlla, who throughout his education 
seems to hare watched with great care and to 
have exerted great influence orer him. He studied 
philosophy (ue usual education of a Roman of 
higher rank) from his earliest youth at Marseilles. 
His first military sendee was under Suetonius 
Panlinus in Britain (▲. d. 60), in the relation of 
Contubemalis. (See /Met o/.4»<. p. 284, a.) Hence 
he returned to Rome, was married to Domitia 
Deddiana, and went the round of the magistracies ; 
the qoaestonhip in Asia (a. d. 63), under the pro- 
consul Salrius Titianua, where lus integrity was 
shewn by his refusal to j(nn the proconsul in the 
ordinary system of extortion in Uie Roman pro- 
vinces; the tribunate and the praetorship, — in 
Nero*s time mere nominal offices, filled with dan- 
ger to the man who held them, in which a pmdent 
inactirity was the only safe course. By Galba 
(a. d. 69) he was appointed to examine the sacred 
property of the temples, that Nero^s system of 
robbery (Soeton. Ner, 32) might be stopped. In 
the same year he lost his mother; it was in re- 
turning from her funeral in Liguria, that he heard 
of Vespasian*s accession, and immediately joined 
his party. Under Vespasian his first serrice was 
the command of the 20th legion in Britain, (a. d. 
70.) On his return, he was raised by the emperor 
to the nmk of patrician, and set over the province 
of Aquitania, which he held for three years, (a. d. 
74-76.) He was recalled to Rome to be elected 
consu) (a. d. 77), and Britain, the great scene of 
his power, was given to him, by general consent, 
as his province. 

In this year he betrothed his daughter to the 
historian Tacitus ; in the following he gave her to 
him in marriage, and was made governor of Britain, 
and one of the college of pontifis. 

Agricola was the twelfth Roman general who 
had been in Britain ; h* was the only one who 
completely effected the work of subjugation to the 
Romans, not more by his consummate military 
skill, than by his masterly policy in reconciling the 
Britons to that yoke which hitherto they had so 
ill home. He taught them the arts and luxuries of 
civilised life, to settle in towns, to build comfortr 
able dwelling-houses and temples. He; established 
a system of education for the sons of the British 
chiefs, amongst whom at last the Roman language 
was ^ken, and the Roman toga worn as a 
fiishionable dress. 

He was full seven years in Britain, from the 
year a. D. 78 to a. d. 84. The hut conquest of his 
predecessor Julius Frontinus had been that of the 
Silures (South Wales); and the last action of 
AgricoU*s command was the action at the foot of 
the Grampian hills, which put him in possession of 
the whole of Britain as far north as the northern 
boundary of Perth and Argyle. His first campaign 

!A. D. 78) was occupied in the reconquest of Mona 
Anglesea), and the Ordorices TNorth Wales), the 
strongholds of the Druids ; and the remainder of 
this year, with the next, was given to making the 
before-mentioned arrangements for the security of 
the Roman dominion in the already conquered 
poru of Britain. The third campaign (a. d. 80) 


carried him northwards to the Tans,* pnbahlr 
the Solway Frith; and the fourth (a* d. 81) was 
taken up in fortifying and taking poaaeanon si 
this tract, and advancing aa fiur north mm the Fiiihs 
of Clyde and Forth. In the fifth '^T'^g- (a. n. 
82), he was engaged in subduing the tribes on 
the promontory opposite Ireland. In the sixth 
(a. d. 88), he explored with his fleet and land 
forces the coast of Fifo and Forfiur, eosning nov 
for the first time into contact with the tme Caledo- 
nians. They made a night attadc on hia canp 
(believed to be at Loch Ore, where ditches and 
other traces of a Roman camp are still to be seen), 
and succeeded in neariy destroying the ninth Ic^gion; 
but in the general battle, whidi fbOowed* they 
were repulsed. The seventh and last campa^n (a. n. 
84) gave Agricola complete and entire poaaemoB 
of the country, up to the northexnnMMt point 
which he had reached, by a most decided victory 
over the assembled Caledoniana under their genenl 
Galgacus (as it is believed, from the Roman and 
British remains found there, and frnm the two 
tumuli or sepulchnd cairns) on the moor of Mudodi 
at the foot of the Grampian hills. In this campaiga 
his fleet sailed northwards from the eoeat of Fiie 
round Britain to the Tratulensian haxbonr (enp- 
posed to be Sandwich), thus for the first tiaie du- 
covering Britain to be an ishmd. He withdrew 
his army into vdnter quarters, and soon after (A.n. 
84) was recalled by the jealous Domitian. 

On his rotum to Rome, he lived in retirement, 
and when the government either of Asin or Afrka 
woTild have fiiUen to him, he considered it more 
prudent to decline the honour. He died a. d. 93 ; 
his death was, as his biographer pkunly hints, 
either immediately caused or certainly hastened 
by the emissaries of the emperor, who eouM not 
bear the presence of a man pointed out by imivcr- 
sal feeling as alone fit to meet the exigencj d 
times in which the Roman arms had anfiered re- 
peated reverses in Germany and the countries 
north of the Danube. Dion Cassias (Ixvi. 20) aaya 
expressly, that he was killed by Domitian. 

In this account we can do no more than refer to 
the beautiful and interesting description given by 
Tacitus (Affric, 89—46) of his life during his re- 
tirement firom office, his death, his person, and his 
character, which though it had no field of action at 
home in that dreary time, shewed itsdf daring the 
seven yean in which it was unfettered in Britain, 
as great and wise and good. (Tacitus, A^pioolaJ) 

There is an epigram of Antiphilus in the Greek 
Anthology (AfUh. BnauL ii. 180) upon an Agri- 
cola, which is commonly supposed to refer to the 
celebrated one of this name. [C T. A.1 

AGRIO'NIUS (*A7pM^ios), a aarmone of 
Dionysus, under which he was worshipped at 
Orchomenus in Boeotia, and from which his festi- 
val Agrionia in that phice derived its name. (DkL 
ofAnU p. 30 ; M'uller, Orchom, p. 166, &c.) [I..&] 

AGRI'OPAS, a writer spoken of by Pliny. {U, 
N. viii 22, where some of the MSS. have Acopas 
or Copas.) He was the anther of an account of the 
Olympic victors. [C. P. M.) 

AGRIPPA, an ancient name among the Ro- 
mans, was first used as a praenomen, and after- 
wards as a cognomen. It frequently occun as a 

* As to whether the Taus was the Solway Frith 
or the Frith of Tay, see Chahners' CaUdomu 


'ca^nomm in the early times of the empire, but not 
under the repnhhc. One of the mythical kings of 
Alha is caDed bj this name. (Lir. L 3.) Ac- 
cording to Anlus Gcllins (xtL 16), Pliny (H. N. 
Til . 6. a, 8), and Solinos (1), the word signifies a 
birth, at which the chDd is presented with its feet 
foremost ; but their derivation of it from aegre par- 
tat or pet h absnid enough. (Comp. Sen. Oid. 813.) 

AGRIPPA QAyphnntt)y a sceptical philosopher, 
only known to hare fired htter than Aenesidemus, 
the contemporary of Cicero, from whom he is said 
to hare been the fifth in descent. He is quoted 
hj Diogenes Laertius, who probably wrote abont 
the time of M. Antoninus. The ^'five grounds of 
doubt'' (oi triwrm rp6iwoi\ which are given by 
Sextus Empiricna as a summary of the later scepti- 
cism, axe ascribed by Diogenes Laertius (iz. 88) to 

I. The first of these aignes from the uncertainty 
of the rules of common life, and of the opinions of 
philosophers. II. The second from the ^ rejectio 
ad infinitum i'" all proof requires some fiuther 
prooi^ and so on to infinity. III. All things are 
changed as their relations become changed, or, as 
we look upon them in difierent points of view. 

IV. The truth asserted is merely an hypothesis or, 

V. inrohes a vidona circle. (Sextos Empiricus, 

With reference to these w^rrc rpAvoi it need 
only be remarked, that the first and third are a 
ihort summary of the ten original grounds of doubt 
which were the basis of the earlier scepticism. 
[PvaRHON.] The three additional ones shew a 
progress in the sceptical system, and a transition 
fnnn the coomion objections derived from the fidli- 
bilttj of sense and opinion, to more abstract and 
metaphysical grounds of doubt. They seem to 
marie a new attempt to systematize the sceptical 
philosophy and adapt it to the i^pirit of a later age. 
(Ritter,G;esciidUe<£er/>Mo«flp;U«,xii.4.) [R J.] 
AGRIPPA, M. ASl'NIUS, consul a. d. 25, 
died ▲. n. 28, was descended from a &mily more 
illustrious than ancicmt, and did not disgrace it by 
hii mode of life. (Tac Ann. iv. 34, 6 1 .) 

AGRIPPA CASTOR {^Kyphnras Kdarup% 
about A. D. 135, praised as a historian by Euse- 
bhiB, and for his learning by St Jerome {ds Viris 
lUtutr, c 21), lived in the reign of Hadrian. He 
wrote sgainst the twenty-four books of the Alex- 
andrian Gnostic Basilides, on the Gospel. Quota- 
tioos are made from his work by Eusebius. {hkl. 
^^eda, iv. 7 ; see Oallandi's BtUioOeea Palrum^ 
voL L p. 330.) [A. J. C] 

AGRIPPA, FONTEIUS. 1. One of the ao- 
cusen of Libo, a. d. 16, is again mentioned in 
A* z>. 19, as offering his daughter for a vestal vir- 
gin. (Tac Attn, iL 30, 86.) 

2. Probably the son of the preceding, command- 
ed the province of Asia with pro-consular power, 
\- D. 69, and was recalled frxmi thence by Vespa- 
Kian, and placed over Moesia in a. d. 70. He 
vaa shortly afterwards killed in battle by the Sar- 
Jnatiaas. (Tac. Hist. iiL 46; Joseph. B. JiuL 

AGRIPPA, D. HATE'RIUS, called by Taci- 
tna (Jm. ii. 51) the propinquus of Oermanicus, 
wu tribune of the plebs a. d. 15, praetor a. d. 17, 
and consul a. d. 22. His moral character was 
^ low, and he is spoken of in a. d. 32, as plot- 
ting the destruction of many illustrious men. 
(Tac Aim. i 77, il 51, iiL 49, 52, vl 4.) 



AGRIPPA, HERO'DES LCHpticus *Kypiintas\ 
called by Josephus {AtO. JtuL xviL 2. § 2), 
'^Agrippa the Great,** was the son of Aristobulus 
and Berenice, and grandson of Herod the Great. 
Shortly before the death of his grandfiither, he 
came to Rome, where he was educated with the 
future emperor Claudius, and Drusns the son of 
Tiberius. He squandered his property in giving 
sumptuous entertainments to gratify his princely 
friends, and in bestowing largesses on the freed- 
men of the emperor, and became so deeply involved 
in debt, that he was compelled to fiy from Rome, 
and betook himself to a fortress at Malatha in 
Idnmaea. Through the mediation of his wife 
Cypros, with his sister Herodias, the wife of He- 
rodes Antipas, he was allowed to take up his 
abode at Tiberias, and received the rank of aedile 
in that city, vrith a small yearly income. But hav- 
ing quarrelled with his brother-in-law, he fled to 
Flaccus, the proconsul of Syria. Soon afterwards 
he was convicted, through the information of his 
brother Aristobulus, of havmg received a bribe 
from the Damascenes, who wished to purchase his 
influence with the proconsul, and was again com- 
pelled to fly. He was arrested as be was about to 
sail for Italy, for a sum of money which he owed 
to the treasury of Caesar, but made his escape, and 
reached Alexandria, where his wife succeeded in 
procuring a supply of money from Alexander the 
Alabarch. He then set sail, and landed at PuteolL 
He vras fiivoumbly received by Tiberius, who en- 
trusted him with the education of his grandson 
Tiberius. He also formed an intimacy with Caius 
Caligula. Having one day incautiously expressed 
a wish that the latter might soon succeed to the 
throne, his words were reported by his fireedman 
Eutychus to Tiberius, who forthwith threw him 
into prison. Caligula, on his accession (a. d. 37), 
set him at liberty, and gave him the tetrarchies of 
Lysanias (Abilene) and Philippus (Batanaea, 
Trachonitis, and Auianitis). He also presented 
him with a golden chain of equal weight with the 
iron one which he had worn in prison. In the 
following year Agrippa took possession of his king^ 
dom, and after the banishment of Herodes Antipas, 
the tetraichy of the latter was added to his domi- 

On the death of Caligula, Agrippa, who was at 
the time in Rome, materially assisted Claudius in 
gaining possession of the empire. As a reward for 
bis services, Judaea and Samaria were annexed to 
bis dominions, which were now even more exten- 
sive than those of Herod the Great. He was also 
invested with the consuUr dignity, and a league 
was publicly made with him by Claudius in the 
forum. At his request, the kingdom of Chalcis 
was given to his brother Herodes. (a. d. 41.) He 
then went to Jerusalem, where he oiBfered sacrifices, 
and suspended in the treasury of the temple the 
golden chain which Caligula had given him. His 
government was mild and gentle, and he was ex- 
ceedingly popuhir amongst the Jews. In the city 
of Berytus he built a theatre and amphitheatre, 
baths, and porticoes. The suspicions of Claudius 
prevented him from finishing the impregnable foi^ 
tifications with which he had begun to snmmnd 
Jerusalem. His friendship was courted by many 
of the neighbouring kings and rulers. It was 
probably to increase his popularity with the Jews 
that he caused the apostle James, the brother of 
John, to be beheaded, and Peter to be cast into 



prison. (▲. d. 44. Ael$, ziL) It wai not howeyer 
merely bj such acts that he strove to win their 
&Toiir, as we see firom the way in which, at the 
risk of his own life, or at least of his liberty, he 
interceded with Csligula on behalf of the Jews, 
when that emperor was attempting to set up his 
statue in the temple at Jemnlem. The manner 
of his death, which took place at Caesarea in the 
same year, as he was exhibiting games in honour 
of the emperor, is related in AcIm ziL, and is con- 
finned in all essential points by Josephus, who 
repeats Agrippa^s words, in which he acknowledged 
the justice of the punishment thus inflicted on him. 
After lingering five days, he expired, in the fifty- 
fourth year of his age. 

By his wife Cypros he had a son named Agrippi, 
and three daughters, Berenice, who first married 
her undo Herodes, king of Chalcis, afterwards 
lived with her brother Agrippa, and subsequently 
married Pohimo, king of Cilicia ; she is alluded to 
by Juvenal {Sal, vL 156); Mariamne, and Drusilla, 
who married Felix, the procurator of Judaea. (Jo- 
seph. AnL Jud. xviL 1. § 2, xviii. 5-8, xix. 4-8; 
BeU. Jud, I 28. § 1, ii. 9. 11; Dion Cass. Ix. 8 ; 
Euseb. HuL Eodet. ii. 10.) [C. P. M.] 

AGRIPPA, HERO'DES II., the son of Agrippa 
I^ was educated at the court of the emperor Clau- 
dius, and at the time of his father^s death was only 
seventeen yean old. Claudius therefore kept him 
at Rome, and sent Cuspius Fadus as procurator of 
the kingdom, which thus again became a Romiin 
province. On the death of Herodes, king of 
Chalcis (a. d. 48), his little principality, witli the 
right of superintending the temple and appointing 
the high priest, was given to Agrippa, who four 
yeari afterwards received in iu stead the tetrar- 
chies formerly held by Philip and Lysanias, with 
the title of king. In a. d. 55, Nero added the 
cities of Tiberias and Taricheae in Galilee, and 
Julias, with fourteen villages near it, in Peraea. 
Agrippa expended large sums in beautifying Jeru- 
salem and other cities, especially Berytus. His 
partiality for the latter rendered him unpopular 
amongst his own subjects, and the capricious man- 
ner in which he appointed and deposed the high 
priests, with some other acts which were distasteful, 
made him an object of dislike to the Jews. Be- 
fore the outbreak of the war with the Romans, 
Agrippa attempted in vain to dissuade the people 
from rebelling. When the war was begun, he 
sided with the Romans, and was wounded at the 
siege of Gamala. After the capture of Jerusalem, 
he went with his sister Berenice to Rome, where 
he was invested with the dignity of praetor. He 
died in the seventieth year of his age, in the third 
year of the reign of Trajan. He was the kst 
prince of the house of the Herods. It was before 
thii Agrippa that the apostle Paul made his de- 
fimce. {a. d. 60. AcU, xxv. xxvi) He lived on 
terms of intimacy with the historian Josepbns, 
who has preserved two of the letteri he received 
from him. (Joseph. Ant, Jud. xviL 5. § 4, xix. 9. 
§ 2, XX. 1. § 3, 5. § 2, 7. 1 1, 8. § 4 & 1 1, 9. § 4 ; 
Bdl,Jmd. ii. 11. § 6, 12. § 1, 16, 17. § 1, !▼. 1. § 3; 
VU. s. 54 ; Phot cod. 33.) [C. P. M.] 

AGRIPPA, MARCIU3, a man of the lowest 
origin, was appointed by Macrinus in & a 21 7» 
first to the government of Pannonia and afier^ 
wards to that of Dacia. (Dion. Cass. Ixxviii. 13.) 
He seems to be the same person as the Marrius 
Agrippa, admiral of the fleet, who is mentioned by 


Spartianus as privy to the death of 
Caracallus. (AnUm, Car, 6.) 


AGRIPPA P<ySTUMUS, a poathioiioas son 
of M.yipBanius Agrippa, by Julia, the da^gliter of 
Augustus, was bom in B. c. 12. He was adopted 
by Augustus together with Tiberias ia a. o. 4, 
and he assumed the toga viriUs in tbe IbUowij^ 
year, a. d. 5. (Suet. Odav. 64, 65 ; Dion Cass. 
liv. 29, Iv. 22.) Notwithstanding his adoptioo be 
was afterwards banished by Aqgnstna to the isbad 
of Planasia, on the coast of Cornea, a *^?^gyftp* 
which he incurred on account of his savage and 
intractable character ; but he was not gnilty of 
any crime. There he was under the sarrallaDce 
of soldiers, and Augustus obtained a sensUnscon- 
sultum by which the banishment waa legall j oon- 
firmed for the time of his life. The ]Hoperty of 
Agrippa was assigned by Augustus to the tRasorr 
of the army. It is said that during his captivity 
he received the vint of Augustus, who aecretly 
went to Phmasia, accompanied by Fabiua Maxi- 
mus. Augustus and Agrippa, both deeply aflfected, 
shed tears when they met, and it was believ- 
ed that Agrippa would be restored to libefty. 
But the news of this viut reached liviay the 
mother of Tiberius, and Agrippa remained a cap- 
tive. After the aooesuon of Tiberius, in ▲. Dl Ii, 
Agrippa was murdered by a centurion, who en- 
tered his prison and kUled him after a long 
struggle, for Agrippa was a man of great bodily 
strength. When the centurion afterwards went to 
Tiberius to give him an account of the execatioo, 
the emperor denied having given any order for it, 
and it is very probable that Livia was the aecret 
author of the crime. There was a rumour that 
Augustus had left an order for the execation of 
Agrippa, but this is positively contradicted hv 
Tacitus. (Tac Ann, L 3—6 ; Dion Cass. Iv. 3:1, 
lviL3; Suet/.c, 7t&22: VeneL iL 104, 112.) 

After the death of Agrippa, a slave of the name 
of Clemens who was not informed of the nanider, 
landed on Planasia with the intention of reatoring 
Agrippa to liberty and carrying him off to the 
army in Oeimany. When he heard of what had 
taken place, he tried to profit by his great xeeem- 
bhinoe to the murdered captive, and he gave him- 
self out as Agrippa. He landed at Ostia, and 
found many who believed him, or affected to 
believe him, but he was seized and put to death 
by order of Tiberius. (Tac Ann, ii. 39, 40.) 

The name of Agrippa Caesar is found on a medal 
of Corinth. [W. P.] 

AGRIPPA, VIBULE'NUS, a Roman knight, 
who took poison in the senate house at the time of 
his trial, A. d. 36; he had brought the paisoa with 
him in a liog. (Tac. Ann, vL 40 ; Dion. Gasa. 
IviiL 21.) 

AGRIPPA, M. VIPSA'NIUS* waa bom in 
a c 63. He was the son of Lucius, and waa de- 
scended from a very obscure fiunil^. At the age 
of twenty he studied at Apollonia m lUyria, toge- 
ther with young Octavius, afterwards Octavianus 
and Augustus. After the murder of J. Caeaar ia 
& c. 44, Agrippa was one of those intimate fiiends 
of Octavius, who advised him to proceed immedi- 
ately to Rome. Octavius took Agrippa with him, 
and charged him to receive the oath of fidelity from 
several lemons which had declared in his Bvoar. 
Having lM«n chosen consul in & & 43, Octavios 
gave to his firiend Agrippa the deticate commiasioB 


of proteentiiig C. GBMinii one of the mmdenits of 
J. CiMtt. At the entfamk of tlie Penuinian WW 
between OdaThn^ new Octaviamu, and L. Anto- 
niva, in & c. 4I9 Agrippa, who was then piaetor, 
coomanded part of the lineee of Octavianiu, and 
after dislingfniahi]^ ]|fTHyiif by dulfnl manoenTieei 
boieged L. Antonina in Penuia. He took the 
tovn in B. c. 40, and towaida the end of the same 
Tear retook S^ontimi, which had fidkn into the 
handt of M. AnUnino^ In & c. 38, Agrippa ob- 
tuned fieoh neeeaa in Ganl, when he quelled a 
RTolt of the native chiefr ; he also penetrated mto 
Oenneny ai fiff aa the oountrjr of the Oatti, and 
tfusplaDted the Ubii to the left bank of the 
Rhine; whereupon he tamed hie arms against the 
xendted Aquitaniy whom he soon hrongnt to obe- 
dience. His nctoziBa,eqwcia]ly those in Aqoitania, 
eoDtiibated mndi to secniing the power of OctaTi- 
SDiis, and he was recalled by him to undertake the 
ODBunand of the war against Sex. Pompeins, 
which was on the point of breaking ont, b. c. 37. 
Odananos offered him a trinmph, which A^ppa 
dedined, bnt aeeepted the consaIship» to which he 
was pcQOMted by Oetavianns in b. c. 37» Dion 
Cattiu (zhiiL 49) seems to my that he was oon- 
Bol when he went to Oan), bat the words iMrcvo 
2^ fwrd AsMcbv TdMjw seem to be saqndoos, 
tmkss they are to be inserted a little higher, after 
the pasMB^ T^ V Ayfhn^ rijp rov vavrucov 
vapotfimnt kfxap^^^nuty which refer to an erent 
which took place during the consulship of Agrippa. 
For, iaanedtttely after his promotion to this dig- 
nity, he was chuged by Octarianos with the con- 
fitraction of a fleet, which was the more necessary, 
as Sextaa Pompey was master of the sea. 

Agrippa, in whom tfaooghts and deeds were 
never lepaimted (VeOeL iL 79), executed this 
order wi& prompt energy. The Lucrine lake 
near Baiae was transformed by him into a safe 
harbonr, which he called the Jidian port in hononr 
of Octatianos, and where he exercised his sailors 
and Darinen till they were able to encounter the 
experienced sailore of Pompey. In n. c. 36, Agrip- 
pa defeated Sex. Pompey fint at Mylae, and after- 
vaidt at Naalochas on the coast of Sicily, and the 
hrtter 9i these Tictoriea broke the naTal suprenoacy 
of Pompey. He recaiTed in consequence the ho- 
nour of a naTal crown, which was first conferred 
npon him; though, according to other authorities, 
M. Vaire was the first who obtained it finom Pom- 
pey the Great (VeUel iL 81 ; Liy. EpiL 129 ; 
DioaCaaaLxfix.14; Plin./r.JV: XTi3. b.4; Viig. 
^es. Till 684.) 

In B. c 35, Agrippa had the command of the 
w in IDjria, and afterwards served under Octa- 
Tianufi, when the latter had proceeded to that coun- 
try. On his return, he voluntarily accepted the 
aedileihip in ac. 33, although he had been consul, 
and expcadedinmiwisa sums of money upon great 
pnhiie woriu. He restored the Appian, Mareian, 
and Anienian aqueducts^ constructed a new one, 
fifteen oOes m length, from the Tepok to Rome, 
to which he gave & name of the Julian, in honour 
of Octavianus, •nd had an tmnM>Tn< ^ number of 
■nailer water-works made, to distribute the water 
;j[itkiB the town. He also had the laige cloaca of 
Tanpamus Priacos entirely deansed. His various 
wofki vere adorned with statues by the first ar- 
tisu of Rome. These splendid buildings he aug- 
^^^ in B. a 27, daring his third consulship, by 
M^ml othcn» and among these was the Pantneon, 


on which we still read the inscription: ** M/Agrippa 
L. F. Cos. Tertium fedt." (Dion Cass. xlix. 43, 
liii. 27 ; Plin. H, N. xxxvL 15, s. 24 § 3; Stab. 
T. p. 235 ; Frontin. Do Aqaatd, 9.) 

When the war broke oat between Octavianos 
and M. Antonius, Agrippa was appointed oom- 
mandei^in^^ief of the fleet, b. a 32. He took 
Methone in the Peloponnesus, Leucas, Patcae, and 
Corinth ; and in the battle of Actium (b. c. 31) 
where he commanded, the victory was mainly 
owing to his skilL On his retum to Rome in 
B. c. 30, Octavianos, now Augustus, rewarded 
him with a ^ vexillum oaeruleum,** or se»green 

In B. a 28, Agrippa became consul for the second 
time with Augustus, and about this time married 
Marcella, the niece of Augustus, and the daughter 
of his sister Octavia. His former wife, Pomponia, 
the daughter of T. Pomponius Atticns, was either 
dead or divorced. In the following year, b. c. 27, 
he was again consul the third time with Augustus. 

In B. c. 25, Agrippa accompanied Augustus to 
the war against the Cantabrians. About this time 
jealonsv arose between him and his brother-in-law 
MarceUus, the nephew of Augustus, and who 
seemed to be destined as his successor. Augustus, 
anxions to prevent differences that might have had 
serious consequences for him, sent Agrippa as pro- 
ccmsul to Syria. Agrippa of coune left Rome, but 
he stopped at Hitylene in the isknd of Lesbos, 
leaving the goremment of Syria to his legate. 
The apprehensions of Augustus were removed by 
the death of Marcellas in B. c. 23, and Agrippa 
immediately returned to Rome, where he was the 
more anxiously expected, as troubles had broken 
out during the election of the consuls in B. a 21. 
Augustus resolved to receive his faithful friend 
into his own fiunily, and accordingly induced him 
to divorce his wife Marcella, and many Julia, the 
widow of Morcelltts and the dai^hter of Augustus 
by his third wife, Scribonia. (& c. 21.) 

In B. a 1 9, Agrippa went into GauL He paci* 
fied the turi>ulent natives, and constructed four 
great public roads and a splendid aqueduct at 
Nemausus (Ntmes). From thence he proceeded 
to Spain and subdued the Cantabrians after a short 
bnt bloody and obstinate struggle ; but, in accord- 
ance with his usual prudence, he neither announced 
his victories in pompous letten to the senate, nor 
did he accept a triumph which Augustus offered 
him. In B. a 18, he was invested with the tribu- 
nician power for five years together with Augustus ; 
and in the following year (& c 17), his two sons, 
Cains and Lucius, were adopted by Augustus^ 
At the dose of the year, he accepted an invita- 
tion of Herod the Great, and went to Jerua»* 
lenL He founded the military colony of Beiytns 
(Beyrut), thence he proceeded in B. c. 16 to the 
Pontns Euxinus, and compelled the Bosporani to 
accept Polemo for their king and to restore the 
Roman eagles which had been taken by Mithiv 
dates. On his return he stayed some time in 
Ionia, where he granted privileges to the Jews 
whose cause was pleaded by Herod (Joseph. AnHq, 
Jud, xvL 2), and then proceeded to Rome, where 
he arrived in B. & 13. After his tribunidan power 
had been prolonged for five years, he went to Pan- 
nonia to restore tranquillity to that province. He 
returned in b. c. 12, after having b«en suooessfal 
as usoal, and retired to Campania. There he died 
unexpectedly, in the month of Maroh, b. c. 12| in 



his 5Iit jtax. His body was carried to Rome, 
and was buried in the maasoleum of Augustus, 
who himself pronounced a funeral oration over it 

Dion Cassius tells us (liL 1, &c.), that in the year 
B. c. 29 Augustus assembled his friends and coun- 
sellors, Agrippa and Maecenas, demanding their 
opinion as to whether it would be advisable for 
him to usurp monarchical power, or to restore to 
the nation its former republican government. 
This is corroborated by Suetonius (Otstov. 28), 
who says that Augustus twice deliberated upon 
that subject The speeches which Agrippa and 
Maecenas delivered on this occasion are given by 
Dion Cassius ; but the artificial character of them 
makes them suspicious. However it does not seem 
likely from the general character of Dion Cassius 
as a historian that these speeches are invented by 
him ; and it is not improbable, and such a suppo- 
sition suits entirely the character of Augustus, 
that those speeches were really pronounced, though 
preconcerted between Augustus and his counsellors 
to make the Roman nation believe that the fate of 
the republic was still a matter of discussion, and 
that Augustus would not assume monarchical power 
till he had been convinced that it was necessary 
for the welfare of the nation. Besides, Agrippa, 
who according to Dion Cassius, advised Augustus 
to restore the republic, was a man whose political 
opinions had evidently a monarchical tendency. 

Agrippa was one of the most distinguished and 
important men of the age of Augustus. He 
roust be considered as a chief support of the rising 
monarchical constitution, and without Agrippa 
Augustus could scarcely have succeeded in making 
himself the absolute master of the Roman empire. 
Dion Cassius (liv. 29, &c.), Vellcius Patercnlns 
(ii. 79), Seneca {Ep. 94), and Horace (CW. L 6), 
speak with equal admiration of his merits. 

Pliny constantly refers to the " Commentarii** of 
Agrippa as an authority (Elenchus, iii. iv, -v. yi, 
corap. iii. 2), which may indicate certain ofBcial 
lists drawn up by him in the measurement of the 
Roman world under Augustus [Axthicus], in 
which he may have taken part 

Agrippa left several children. By his first wife 
Pomponia, he had Vipsania, who was married to 
Tiberius Caesar, the successor of Augustus. By 
his second wife, MarceUa, he had several children 
who are not mentioned; and by his third wife, 
Julia, he had two daughters, Julia, married to 
L. Aemilius Paullus, and Agrippina married to 
Oermanicus, and three sons, Caius [Cabsar, C], 
Lucius [Caesar, L.], and Agrippa Postumus. 
(Dion Cass. lib. 45-54; Liv. EpU. 117-136; 
Appian, BdL Civ, lib. 5; Suet Ootav,; Frandsen, 
Af. V^Monius Ai/rippa, euM kittoritcke Untenudumg 
aber deum Leben und Wirken^ Altona, 1836.) 

There are several medals of Agrippa : in the one 
figured below, he is represented with a naval 
crown ; on the reverse is Neptune indicating his 
success by sea. [W. P.] 


AGRIPPra A I., the youngest dAOghter of M. 
Vipsanius Agrippa and of Julia, the dangfater sC 
Augustus, was bom some time before b. c 1*2. 
She married CaesirGermanicns, the w>n of Dratos 
Nero Germanicns, by whom she had nine chB* 
dren. Agrippina was gifted with great powen 
of mind, a noble character, and all the mora! 
and physical qualities that constituted the modd 
of a Roman matron : her love for her hoBfaand wsa 
sincere and lasting, her chastity was spodess, her 
fertility was a virtue in the eyes of the Romaza, 
and her attachment to her duldrea was an emi- 
nent feature of her character. She yielded to m» 
dangerous passion, ambition. Augustas shewed 
her particular attention and attachment. (Soetoo. 
Calig. 8.) 

At the death of Augustus in a. d. 14, she was 
on the Lower Rhine with Oermanicus who com- 
manded the legions there. Her husband was the 
idol of the army, and the legions on the Rhinr, 
dissatisfied with the accession of T^herina, mani- 
fested their intention of prodaiming Oennanicin 
master of the state. Tiberius hated and dreaded 
Oermanicus, and he shewed as much antipathy to 
Agrippina, as he had love to her elder sister, his 
first wife. In this perilous situadcniy OennaaicDs 
and Agrippina saved themselves by their pnofA 
energy ; he quelled the outbreak and parsoed the 
war against the Germans. In the ensuing year 
his lieutenant Caecina, after having made an inva- 
sion into Germany, returned to the Rhine^ The 
campaign was not inglorious for the Romans, but 
they were worn out by hardships, and perhaps 
harassed on their march by some bands of Ger- 
mans. Thus the rumoor was spread that the asaiB 
body of the Germans was approaching to invade 
Gaul. Oermanicus was absent, and it was pn>- 
posed to destroy the bridge over the Rhme. 
(Comp. Strab. iv. p. 194.) If this had been doae, 
the retreat of Caecina^s army would have been cot 
off, but it was saved by die firm opposition of 
Agrippina to such a cowardly measure. When 
the troops approached, she went to the britlge, 
acting as a general, and receiving the soldiers as 
they crossed it ; the wounded among them were 
presented by her with clothes, and Uiey received 
firom her own hands everything necessary for the 
cure of their wounds. (Tac. Ana. i. 69.) Oer- 
manicus having been recalled by Tiberius, she ac- 
companied her husband to Asia (a. d. I 7X end 
after his death, or rather murder [Gkrmakicus), 
she returned to Italy. She stayed some days at 
the ishmd of Corcyra to recover from her gri^ 
and then landed at Brundnsium, accompanied by 
two of her children, and holding in her aima thie 
urn with the ashes of her husband. At the news 
of her arrival, the port, the walls, and even the 
roofs of the houses were occupied by crowds of 
people who were anxiotfs to see and salute her. 
She was solemnly received by the officers of two 
Praetorian cohorts, which Tiberius had sent to 
Brundusium for the purpose of sooompanying her 
to Rome ; the urn containing the ashes of Oenna- 
nicus was borne by tribunes and centurions, and 
the funeral procession was received on its maith 
by the magistrates of Cahibria, Apulia, and Cam- 
pania ; by Drusus, the son of Tiberius ; Clandios* 
the brother of Oermanicus ; by the other chiMren 
of Oermanicus; and at last, in the environs of 
Rome, by the consuls, the senate, and crowds of 
the Roman people. (Tac. Atm, iii. I, &c) 


Daring lome jeats Tiberius disgaised his hatred 
of Agrippiiia; bat she toon became exposed to 
iecrei accoaadons and intrigues. She asked the 
aoperor^s pennission to choose another husband, 
bai Tiberius neither xefnsed nor consented to the 
propocition. Sejanns, vho exercised an unbound- 
ed influence over Tiberius, then a prey to mental 
ditiOTders, persuaded Agrippina that the emperor 
intended to poison her. Alarmed at such a report, 
she refused to eat an apple which the emperor 
o&red her from his table, and Tiberius in his 
turn complained of Agrippina regarding him 
as a poisoner. According to Suetonius, all this 
was an intrigue preconcerted between the emperor 
and Sejanus, who, as it seems, had formed the 
plan of leading Agrippina into fidse steps. Tibe- 
riuB was extremely suspicious of Agrippina, and 
shewed hia hostile feelings by allusiTe words or 
neglectful silence. There were no evidences of 
ambitious plana formed by Agrippina, but the 
rumour baring been spread that she would fly to 
the army, he banished her to the island of Pan- 
dataria (a. d. 30) where her mother Julia had 
died in exile. Her sons Nero and Drusus were 
likewise banished and both died an unnatural 
death. She lired three years on that barren 
island; at last she refused to take any food, 
and died most probably by voluntary starvation. 
Uer death took place precisely two years after and 
on the same date as the murder of Sejanus, that is 
in A. D. 33. Tadtns and Suetonius tell us, that 
Tiberius boasted that he had not strangled her. 
(SoetoD. 716. 53 ; Tac. Amu tu 25.) The ashes 
of Agrippina and those of her son Nero were 
afterwards brought to Rome by order of her son, 
the emperor Caligula, who struck various medals in 
honour of his mother. In the one figured below, 
the head of Caligula is on one side and that of his 
Baother on the oth^. The words on each side are 
respectively, & cab8AR. avo. gbr. p.m. tr. pot., 




(Tac Am. L — y\. ; Sueton. Odav. 64, 7V& /. c., 
Cdig. Le.; Dion. Cass. Iviu 5, 6, Iviii. 22.) [ W. P ] 

AGRIPPI'NA II., the daughter of Germani- 
cns and Agrippina the elder, daughter of M. 
Vipsanius Agrijma. She was bom between a. d. 
13 and 17, at the Oppidum Ubiorum, afterwards 
called m honour of her Colonia Agrippina, now 
Cologne, and then the head-quarters of the legions 
commanded by her &ther. In a. d. 28, she mar- 
ried Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, a man not un- 
like her, and whom she lost in A. d. 40. After 
his death she married Crispus Passienus, who died 
Mme years afterwards ; and she was accused of hav- 
ing poisoned him, either for the purpose of obtain- 
ing his great fortune, or for some secret motive of 
ouich hi^r importance. She was already known 
for her scandalous conduct, for her most perfidi- 
ous intrigues, and for an unbounded ambition. 
She was accused of having conmutted incest with 
her own brother, the emperor Caius Caligula, 
who under the pretext of having discovered 
that she had lived in an adulterous intercourse 

with M. Aemilins Lepidus, the husband of 
her sister DrusiUa, banished her to the island of 
Pontia, which was situated opposite the bay of 
Caieta, off the coast of Italy. Her sister Drusilla 
was likewise banished to Pontia, and it seems 
that their exile was connected with the punish- 
ment of Lepidus, who was put to death for having 
conspired against the emperor. Previously to her 
exile, Agrippina was compelled by her brother 
to carry to Rome the ashes of Lepidus. This 
h«4ppened in a. d. 39. Agrippina and her sister 
were released in A. d. 41, by their uncle, Clau- 
dius, immediately after his accession, although 
his wife, Mesaalina, was the mortal enemy 
of Agrippina. Messalina was put to death by 
order of Claudius in a. d. 48 ; and in the follow- 
ing year, a. d. 49, Agrippina succeeded in mar- 
rying the emperor. Claudius was her uncle, but 
her marriage was legalized by a senatusconsul- 
tum, by which the marriage of a man with his 
brother^s daughter was decUtfed valid ; this senatus- 
consultum was afterwards abrogated by the emper- 
ors Constantine and Constans. In this intrigue 
Agrippina displayed the qualities of an accomplished 
courtezan, and such was Uie influence of her charms 
and superior talents over the old emperor, that, in 
prejudice of his own son, Britannicus, he adopt- 
ed Domitius, the son of Agrippina by her first 
husband, Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus. (a. d. 51.) 
Agrippina was assisted in her secret plans by 
Pallas, the perfidious confidant of Claudius. By 
her intrigues, L. Junius Silanus, the husband of 
Octavia, the daughter of Claudius, was put to 
death, and in a. d. 53, Octavia was married to 
young Nero. Lollia Paullina, once the rival of 
Agrippina for the hand of the emperor, was accused 
of high treason and condemned to death ; but she 
put an end to her own life. Domitia Lepida, the 
sister of Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, met with a 
simihir fiite. After having thus removed those 
whose rivalship she dreaded, or whose virtues she 
envied, Agrippina resolved to get rid of her hua- 
band, and to govern the empire through her ascen- 
dency over her son Nero, his successor. A vague 
rumour of this reached the emperor ; in a state of 
drunkenness, he forgot prudence, and talked about 
punishing his ambitious wife. Having no time to 
lose, Agnppina, assisted by Locusta and Xenophon, 
a Greek physician, poisoned the old emperor, in 
a. d. 54, at Sinuessa, a watering-place to which 
he had retired for the sake of his health. Nero 
was proclaumed emperor, and presented to the 
troops by Burrus, whom Agrippina had appointed 
praefectus praetorio. Narcissus, the rich fireedman 
of Claudius, M. Junius Silanus, proconsul of Asia, 
the brother of L. Junius SiUmus, and a great- 
grandson of Augustus, lost their lives at the insti- 
gation of Agrippina, who would have augmented 
the number of her victims, but for the opposition 
of Burrus and Seneca, recalled by Agrippma firom 
his exile to conduct the education of Nero. Mean- 
while, the young emperor took some steps to shake 
off the insupportable ascendency of his mother. 
The jealousy of Agrippina rose from her son*s pas- 
sion for Acte, and, after her, for Poppaea Sabina, 
the wife of M. Salvius Otho. To reconquer his 
affection, Agrippina employed, but in vain, most 
daring and most revolting means. She threatened 
to oppose Britaimicus as a rival to the emperor ; 
but Britannicus was poisoned by Nero ; and she 
even solicited her son to an incestuous iutei(- 




fonne. At last, her death was resolved upon 
by Nero, who wished to repudiate Octavia and 
marry Poppaea, but whose plan was thwarted 
by his moUier. Thus petty feminine intrigues 
became the cause of Agrippina^s ruin. Nero 
invited her under the pretext of a reconciliation 
to visit him at Baiae, on the coast of Campania. 
She went thither by sea. In their conversation 
hypocrisy was displayed on both sides. She 
left Baiae by the same way ; but the vessel was 
to contrived, that it was to break to pieces 
when out at sea. It only portly broke, and Agrip- 
pina saved herself by swimming to the shore ; 
her attendant Acerronia was kiBed. Agrippina 
fled to her viUa near the Lucrine lake, and inform- 
ed her son of her happy escape. Now, Nero 
charged Burrus to murder his mother ; but Burrus 
declining it, Anicetus, the commander of the fleet, 
who had invented the stratagem of the ship, was 
compelled by Nero and Burrus to undertake tho 
task. Anioetus went to her villa with a chosen 
band, and his men surprised her in her bedroom. 
**Ventrem feri^ she cried out, after she was but 
slightly wounded, and immediately afterwards ex- 
pired under the blows of a centurion, (a. o. 60.) 
(Tac. Atm, xiv. 8.) It was told, that Nero went 
to the villa, and that he admired the beauty of the 
dead body of his mother : this was believed by 
tome, doubted by others, (xiv. 9.) Agrippina left 
commentaries concerning ner history and that of 
her family, which Tacitus consulted, according to 
his own statement {lb, iv. 54 ; comp. Plin. HisL 
Nat. vii. 6. s. 8, Elenchus, viL &c.) 

There are several medab of Agrippina, which 
are distinguishable from those of her mother by 
the title of Augusta, which those of her mother 
never have. On some of her medals she is repre- 
sented with her husband Chiudius, in othera with 
her son Nero. The former is the case in the one 
annexed. The words on each side are respectively, 


(Tac. Ann, lib.xiL ziii. xiv.; Dion Cass. lib. lix. — 
Ixi.; Sueton.C/aad43,44, iVm),5,6.) [W.P.] 

AGRIPPrNUS, Bishop of Carthage, of 
venereble memory, but known for being the first 
to maintain the necessity of re-baptizing all 
heretics. (Vincent. Lirinens. GmmoniL I 9.) St. 
Cyprian regarded this opinion as the correction of 
an error (S. Augustin. De BapHtmo^ ii. 7, voL ix. 
p. 102, ed. Bened.), and St. Augustine seems to 
imply he defended his error in writing. {Episl, 93, 
c 10.) He held the Council of 70 Bishops at 
Carthage about a. d. 200 (Vulg. a. d. 215, Mans. 
A. D. 217) on the subject of Bf4)ti8m. Though he 
erred in a matter yet undefined by the Chureh, St. 
Augustine notices that neither he nor St. Cyprian 
thought of separating firom the Church. {De 
Baptitmo^ iii. 2, p. 109.) [A. J. C] 

AORIPPI'NUS, PACO'NIUS, whose father 
was put to death by Tiberius on a charge of trea- 
loii, (Suet 7t&.61.) Agrippinus was accused at 


the same time at Thrasea, a. d. 67, and was ba- 
nished firom Italy. (Tac Ann, xvi 2S, 29, XX) 
He was a Stoic philosopher, and is spoken c^ with 
praise by Epictetus {ap, SuA, Serm, 7), and Arriaiu 

A'GRIUS fA7pioj), a son of Portbaon and 
Euryte, and brother of Oeneus, king of Calydon m 
Aetolia, Alcathous, Mebis, LeucopeuK, and Stempe. 
He was father of six sons, of whom Therntes was 
one. These sons of Agrint deprived Oeueos of 
his kingdom, and gave it to their fiither ; bfat all of 
them, with the exception of Thersites, were slain 
by Diomedes, the grandson of Oeneoa. ( ApoUod. 
i. 7. § 10, 8. § 5, &c.) ApoUodorua phu;es these 
events before the expedition of the Greeks against 
Troy, while Hyginus {Fab^ 175, compu 24*2 and 
An ton in. Lib. 37) states, that Diomedea, when be 
heard, afler the fall of Troy, of the midbrtune uf 
his grandfather Oeneus, hastened back and expeUfd 
Agrius, who then put an end to hit own life ; ac- 
cording to others, Agrius and his sons were sbin 
by Diomedes. (Comp. Pans. iL 25. § 2 ; Or. He- 
roid. ix. 153.) 

There are some other mythical personages of the 
name of Agrius, concerning whom nothing of inte- 
rest is known. (Hesiod. Theog, 1013, &c.; Apoikd. 
i. 6. §2, ii. 5. §4.) [L.S.J 

gmmmarian, the author of an extant work " De 
Orthographia et Differentia Sermonis,^^ intended ss 
a supplement to a work on the same sabject, by 
Flavius Caper, and dedicated to a bishop, Eache- 
rius. He is supposed to have lived in the middle 
of the 5th century of our era. His work is printed 
in Putschius* *^ Grammaticae Tiatinae Anctores 
Antiqui,** pp. 2266—2275. [C. P. M.J 

AGROETAS (•A7po(Taj), a Greek historian, 
who wrote a work on Scythia (SmiOuraC), from the 
thirteenth book of which the scholiast on Apollo- 
nius (ii. 1248) quotes, and one on Libya (Aa^mb^), 
the fourth book of which is quoted by the same 
scholiast (iv. 1396.) He is also mentioned by 
Stcphanus Bvz. (». v, "AfiirtXos,) [C P. M.] 

AGRON 'rAyfwv). 1. The son of Ninus, the 
first of the Lydian dynasty of the Heredeidae. 
Tiic tradition was, that this dynasty supplanted a 
native race of kings, having been originally en- 
trusted with the government at depntiea. The 
names Ninus and Belus in their genealogy render 
it probable that they were either Assyrian goTe^ 
nors, or princes of Assyrian origin, and that their 
accession marks the "period of an Assyrian con- 
quest (Herod, i. 7.) 

2. The son of Pleuratus, a king of lUyria. In 
the strength of his land and naval forces he sui^ 
passed all the preceding kings of that country. 
When the Aetolians attempted to compel the M«^ 
dioniant to join their confederacy, Agron under- 
took to protect them, having been induced to do 
so by a hirge bribe which he received from Deme- 
trius, the father of Philip. He accordingly sent to 
their assistance a force of 5000 lUyrians, who 
gained a decisive victory over the Aetolians. 
Agron, overjoyed at the news of this success, gave 
himself up to feasting, and, in consequence of his ex- 
cess, contracted a pleurisy, of which he died. (b.c 
231.) He was succeeded in the government by 
his wife Teuta. Just after his death, an embassy 
arrived firom the Romans, who had sent to mediate 
in behalf of the inhabitants of the island of Issa, 
who had revolted from Agron and placed them- 


Belres coder the protection of the Romans. By 
his hni wife, Triteata, vhom he diTorced, he had 
a son named Pimies, or Pinneua, who surviyed 
him, and was placed nnder the guardianship of 
Uemetrias Pbarius, who married his mother after 
the death of Teata. (Dion Cass, xxxvr, 46, 151 ; 
Polvh. iL 2 — i ; Appian, lU. 7 ; Flor. ii. 5 ; Plin. 
i/.V. raiv. 6.) [C. P. M.] 

AGROTERA CAyporipa)^ the huntress, a sn> 
name of Artemis. (Horn. //. xxi 471.) At Agrae 
00 the Ilissus, where she was belieyed to hare first 
huoted after her arrival from Delos, Artemis Agrotera 
had a temple with a statue carrying a bow. (Paus. 
L 19. § 7.) Under this name she was also woi^ 
shipped at Aegeira. (rii. 26. § 2.) The name 
Agrotera is synonymous with Agraea [AoraeusJ, 
bat Eostathina {ad //. p. 361) derives it from the 
town of Agrae^ Concerning the worship of Artemis 
AffTotera at Athens, see DicL of Ant. 8.v, * Ay po- 
rtpas bwrla, p. 31. {L. S.J 

AGYIEUS {•Ayw€6sy, a surname of Apollo de- 
scribing him as thie protector of the streets and 
public places. As such he was worshipped at 
Acharnae (Pans. i. 31. § 3), Mycenae (ii. 19. § 7), 
and at Tegea. (riil 53. § 1.) The origin of the 
vorahip of Apollo Agyieus in the hist of these 
pLices is rifkted by Pausanias. (Compare Hor. 
Curm, ir. 6. 28 ; Macrob. SaL I 9.) [L. S.] 

AGY'RRHIUS {'Ay6^ios)y a native of Colly- 
tM in Attica, whom Andocides ironically calls rov 
KoXiv KorfuBhv {de Myd. p. 65, ed. Reiske), after 
being in prison many years for embezalemoit of 
public money, obtained about B. a 395 the restor- 
atioo of the Theoricon, and also tripled the pay for 
attending the assembly, thotigh he reduced the 
allowance previously given to the comic writers. 
( Harpccnit i. o. ec«pixc2, 'Ay^^ios ; Suidas, «. o. 
iKKKnauuTTucdtf', Schol. €ui Ariidopk, EccL 102; 
Dem. e. "HBtocr, p. 742.) By this expenditure of 
the public revenue Agyrrhius became so popular, 
that he «-as appointed general in b. c. 389. (Xen. 
JleU. iv. 8. § 31 ; Diod. xiv. 99 ; Bockh, Pubt, 
FxTM. of AOau, pp. 223, 224, 316, &c, 2nd ed. 
Ha^. transL; Schbmann, de Comitns^ p. 65, &c) 

AHA'LA, the name of a patrician family of the 
Scrrilia Gens. There were also several persons of 
thi< gens with the name of Strudui Ahala^ who 
may have formed a different family from the Aha- 
lae; bat as the Ahalae and Struct! Ahalae are 
frvqaently confounded, all the persons of these 
Dames are given here. 

1. C. SxariLius Structus Ahala, consul B.C. 
478, died in his year of office, as appears from the 
Fasti (Liv. iL 49.) 

2. C. SzRTiLius Stbuctus Ahala, magister 
eqoitam a. c. 439, when L. Cincinnatus was ap- 
pomted dictator on the pretence that Sp. Maelius 
vas plotting against the state. In the night, in 
which the dictator was appointed, the capitol and 
all the strong posts were garrisoned by the parti- 
ans of the patricians. In the morning, when the 
people assembled in the forum, and Sp. Maelius 
azoong them, Ahala summoned the latter to appear 
before the dictator ; and upon Maelius disobeying 
and taking refuge in the crowd, Ahala rushed into 
the throng and killed him. (Liv. iv. 13, 14 ; Zo- 
Mra», viL 20 ; Dionys. JEitc Mai, L p. 3.) This 
act is mentioned by later writers as an example of 
ancient heroism, and is frequently referred to by 
Cicero in terms of the highest admiration (in CcUtL 
i 1, pro MiL 3, Ojto, 16) ; but it was in reality 



a case of murder, and was to regarded at the tim«. 
Ahala was brought to trial, and only escaped con- 
demnation by a voluntary exile. (VaL Max. ▼. 3. 
§ 2 ; Cic. de Rep. i. 3, pro Dom. 32.) Livy passea 
over this, and only mentions (iv. 21), that a bill 
was brought in three years afterwards, B. c. 436, 
by another Sp. Maelius, a tribune, for confiscating 
the property of Ahala, but that it £Euled. 

A representation of Ahakt is given on a coin of 
M. Brutus, the murderer of Caesar, but we cannot 
suppose it to be anything more than an imaginary 
likeness. M. Brutus pretended that he was des- 
cended from L. Brutus, the first consul, on his 
fether^s side, and from C. Ahala on his mother% 
and thus was sprung from two tyrannicides. 
(Comp. Cic. adAtt xiiL 40.) The head of Brutua 
on the annexed coin is therdbre intended to repre- 
sent the first consul. 

3. C. SxRviLius Q. F. C. N. Structus Ahala, 
consul B. c. 427. (Liv. iv. 30.) 

4. C. Sbrvilius p. p. Q. n. Structus Ahala, 
consular tribune B.C. 408, and magister equitum in 
the same year ; which latter dignity he obtained 
in consequence of supporting the senate against hit 
colleagues, who did not wish a dictator to be ap- 
pointed. For the same reason he was elected 
considar tribune a second time in the following 
year, 407* He was consular tribune a third time 
in 402, when he assisted the senate in compelling 
his colleagues to resign who had been defeated by 
the enemy. (Liv. iv. 56, 57, v. 8, 9.) 

5. C. Sbrvjlius Ahala, magister equitum 
B. c. 389, when Camillus was appointed dictator a 
third time. (Liv. vi 2.) Ahala is spoken of as 
magister equitum in 385, on occasion of the trial 
of Manlius. Manlius summoned him to bear wit- 
ness in his flavour, as one of those whose lives he 
had saved in battle; but Ahala did not appear, 
(iv. 20.) Pliny, who mentions this circumstance, 
calls Ahala P. Servilius. (H. N. vil 39.) 

6. Q. Sbrvilius Q. f. Q. n. Ahala, consul 
B. c. 365, and again B. c. 362, in the latter of 
which years he appointed Ap. Claudius dictator, 
after his plebeian colleague L. Genucius had been 
slain in battle. In 360 he was himself appointed 
dictator in consequence of a Gallic tumultus, and 
defeated the Gauls near the Colline gate. He held 
the comitia as interrex in 355. (Liv. viu 1, 4, 6, 

7. Q. Sbr\^lius Q. f. Q. n. Ahala, magister 
equitum b. c. 351, when M. Fabius was appointed 
dictator to frustrate the Licinian law, and consul 
B, c. 342, at the beginning of the first Samnite 
war. He remained in the city ; his colleague had 
the charge of the war. (Liv. vii. 22, 38.) 

AHENOBARBUS, the name of a plebeian 
fiunily of the Domitia Gbns, so called from the 
red hair which many of this fiunily had. To ex- 
plain this name, which signifies ^ Iled-Beard,^^ and 
to assign a high antiquity to their family, it was 
said that the Dioscuri announced to one of their 



ancestor! the yictoiy of the Romans over the Latins 
at lake Reffilliu (b. c. 496), and, to oonfiim the 
truth of what they said, that ihej stroked his 


bbick hair and beard, which inmiediately 1 

red. (Suet. Ner. 1 ; Plut AemiL 2£» OinoL Ij 

Dionys. vi. 18 ; TertulL ApoL 22.) 


1. Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, Cos. b. c. 192. 

2. Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, Cos. Suff. & a 162. 

3. Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, Cos. b. c. 122. 


4. Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, Cos. b. c 96. 

6. L. Domitius Ahenobaibna, Cos. a. a 94. 

6. Cn. Domitius Ahenobaibaa. Probably son of 
No. 4. Died b. g. 81. Manied Cornelia, daugh* 
ter of L. Comelins Cinna, Cot. b. c. 87. 

7. L. Domitins Ahenobazboa, Cos. 
b. c. 54 Married Poicia, sister 

8. Cn. DondtiuB Ahenobaibaa^ Coo. b. & 32L 

L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, Cos. B. a 16. Manied 
Antonia, daughter of M. Antonins and Octavia. 

10. Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, Cos. 
A. D. 82. Married Agrippina, 
daughter of Oermanicus. 

11. Domitia. Mar- 
ried Crispus Paa- 

12. Domitia Lepida. 
Married M. V«.e- 

13. L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, the emperor Nbro. 

1. Cn. Domitiob L. p. L. n. Ahenobarbus, 
plebeian aedile b. c. 196, prosecuted, in conjunction 
with his colleague C Curio, many peeuarii, and 
with the fines raised therefrom built a temple of 
Faunus in the island of the Tiber, which he dedi- 
cated in his praetorship, b. c. 194. (LiT, xzziii. 
42, xxxiy. 42, 43^ 53.) He was consul in 192, 
and was sent against the Boii, who submitted to 
him; but he remained in their country till the 
following year, when he was succeeded by the 
consul Scipio Nasica. (xxxr. 10, 20, 22, 40, xzxtL 
37.) In 190, he was legate of the consul L. Scipio 
Sn the war against Antiochus the Great. (zxxviL 
39; Plut ApophiA. Bom, On, Domit.) In his 
consulship one of his oxen is said to have uttered 
the wammg ^'Roma, cave tibi." (LiT. xxxv. 21 ; 
VaL Max. L 6. § 5, who fiUsely says, Bello Pwuoo 

2. Cn. Domitius Cn. f. L. n. Ahenobarbus, 
son of the preceding, w«s chosen pontifex in b. a 
172, when a young man (Liv. xlii. 28), and in 169 
was sent with two others as commissioner into 
Macedonia (xliv. 18.) In 167 he was one of the 
ten commissioners for arranging the afiairs of Ma- 
cedonia in conjunction with Aemilius Panllus (xIt. 
17) ; and when the consuls of 162 abdicated on 
account of some &ult in the auspices in their elec- 
tion, he and Cornelius Lentulus were chosen con- 
suls in their stead. (Cic. de NaL Deor, u.4fde JMv. 
ii. 35; Val. ilfar. i l.§a) 

3. Cn. Domitius Cn. p. Cn. n. Ahenobarbus, 
son of the preceding, was sent in his consulship, 
B. c. 122, against the Allobroges in Gaul, because 
they had received Teutomalius, the king of the 
Sallnyii and the enemy of the Romans, and had 
laid waste the territory of the Aedui, the friends 
of the Romans. In 121 he conquered the Allo- 
broges and their ally Vituitus, king of the Arvemi, 
near Vindalium, at the confluence of the Sulga and 

the Rhodanus ; and he gained the battle maisly 
through the terror caused by hia elephanta. He 
commemorated his victory by the erection of tro- 
phies, and went in procession through the profinoe 
carried by an elephant. He triumphed in 120. 
(LiT. EpU, 61 ; Floras, iii. 2 ; Strab. ir. p. 191 ; 
Cic. pro Font, 12, BniL 26; VeUei. iL 10, 39; 
Oros. y. 13; Suet. Ner, 2, who confounds hin 
with his son.) He was censor in 1 15 with Cscei- 
lius Metellus, and expelled twenty-two perMos 
frt>m the senate. (Liv. EpU, 62 ; Cic. pro dmaU, 
42.) He was also Pontifex. (Suet. Le.) The 
Via Domitia in Gaul was made by him. (Cic.^f« 

4. Cn. Domitius Cn. p. Cn. n. Ahbnobarbos, 
son of the preceding, was tribune of the plebs a. c. 
104, in the second consulship of Marina. (Ascoa. 
m Cbme^: p. 81, ed. OrellL) When the ccJkge of 
pontifis did not elect him in pboe of hia firther, be 
brought forward the law {Lex Domitiay, by whick 
the right of election was transfeired firam the 
priestly colleges to the people. (DieL ofAmt ppi 
773, b. 774, a.) The people afterwards, elected 
him Pontifex Maximus out of gratitude. (LiT. 
EpU,67; Cic pro DeioL III Val. Max. tL 6. | a.) 
He prosecuted in his tribunate and afterwvds 
sevenl of his private enemies, as Aemilius Scaums 
and Junius Siknus. (VaL Max. L c; Dion Cask 
i^. 100; Cic. Dh, in CaedL 20, Verr. iL 47, 
OomeL 2, pro Soaur. I,) He was consul n. c 96 
with C Cassius, and censor B. c 92, with Lidnias 
Crassus, the orator. In his censorship he and ha 
colleague shut up the schools of the Latin rhetori- 
cians (ac. de OraL iii. 24 ; GelL xr. 11), but this 
was the only thing in which they acted in concert 
Their censorship was long celebrated for their dis- 
putes. Domitius was of a yiolent temper, and was 
moreover in fiivour of the ancient simplicity of lir* 
ing, while Crassus loved luxury' xmd encouraged 


art. Among the many BayingB recorded of both, 
we are tdd that Cnmis obBezred, ^that it was no 
vonder that a man had a beard of braaa, who had 
a month of iran and a heart of lead.** (Plin. H. N. 
xriiL 1; Saet. Le^ YaLMaz. iz. 1. § 4; Macrob. 
Sat iL 11.) Cicero aaya, that Domitiaa waa not 
to be red^oned among the oraton, but that he 
^M>ke weH enoo^ and had anffident talent to 
maintain hia high rank. (Cic. Brut. 44.) 

5. L. DoMiTius Cn. p. Cn. n. Ahknobarbup, 
»Qn of No. 3 and brother of No. 4, waa praetor in 
SicOy, probably in & c. 96, shortly alter the Ser- 
vile war, when alayes had been forbidden to carry 
anna. He ordered a alare to be cmcified for kill^ 
ing a wild boar with a hnnting apear. (Cic Verr, 
T. 3 ; Val. Max. tL 3. § 5.) He waa conanl in 
94. In the dril war between Marina and Sulla, 
he eapooaed the side of the latter, and waa mux^ 
dered at Rome, by order of the younger Marina, 
by the praetor Damasippua. (Appian, B.CLtSS', 
VeaeLu.26; Oioa. ▼. 20.) 

6. On. DoaimuB Cn. p. Cn. p. Ahenobarbus, 
apparently a aon of No. 4, mairied Cornelia, daugh- 
ter of L. Conielliis Cinna, consul in b. c. 87« and 
in the dvil war between Marina and Sulla espoused 
the side of the former. When Sulla obtained the 
supreme power in 82, Ahenobarbns was proscribed, 
sikI fled to Afiica, where he waa joined by many 
who were in the aame condition aa himaelt With 
the assistanoe of the Numidian king, Hiarbas, he 
collected an anay, bat was defeated near Utioa by 
Cn. Pompeins, whom SuDa had sent against him, 
and waa afterwarda killed in the atoiming of hia 
amp, B. c. 81. According to aome acconnta, he 
TO killed after the battle by command of Pompey. 
(Lir. EjpiL 89 ; Plut. Pomp. 10, 12 ; Zonaiaa, jc. 2; 
Ores. ▼. 21 ; VaL Max. vL 2, § 8.) 

7. L. Donmua Cn. p. Cn. n. Ahxnobarbus, 
■on of No. 4, is firat mentioned in B. a 70 by 
Cioero, aa a witneaa againat Verres. In 61 he 
was curale aedile, when he exhibited a hundred 
Nomidian liona, and continued the gamea so long, 
that the people were obliged to leaTe the circua 
bdne the exhibition waa over, in order to take 
food, which was the first time they had done so. 
(Dion CasiL xxxTiL 46 ; Plin. H. N. Tiii. 54 ; this 
pSBse m the gsmes was called dUudmm^ Hor. Ep, 
i- 19. 47.) He married Poida, the sister of M. 
Goo, and in hia aedileahip supported the latter in 
Ikis proposals against bribeiy at elections, which 
were directed against Pompey, who was purchasing 
Totes £n> Aicanins^ The poUtioal opinions of Ahfr- 
noharbua coincided with thoae of Cato; he waa 
throoghoBt hia life one of the atrongeat supporters 
of the ariatocntical party. He took an actire part 
IB opposing the measnres of Caesar and Pompey 
after thdr coalitian, and in 59 was accused by 
Vettiai, at the instigation of Caesar, of being an 
seeomphce to the pretended conspiracy against the 
He of Pompey. 

Ahenobarbns was praetor in & a 58, and pro- 
posed an inTestigation into the Talidity of the 
Juhan laws of the preceding year ; but d^e senate 
dazed not entertain his propositions. He was can- 
(tidste for the oonsuhdiip of 55, and threatened 
that he would in his consulship carry into execu- 
tion the measnres he had proposed in his praetor^ 
>^P) and deprive Caesar of his provmce. He was 
defeated, however, by Pompey and Crassus, who 
alio became candidatea, and was driven from the 
Campos Martina on the day of election by force of 



amsL He becune a candidate again in the follow- 
ing year, and Caeaar and Pempey, whoae power 
was firmly established, did not oppose him. He 
was accordingly elected consul for 54 with Ap. 
Claudius Pulcher, a relation of Pompey, but was 
not able to effect anything against Caesar and 
Pompey. He did not go to a province at the ex- 
piration of his consulship; and as the friendship 
between Caesar and Pompey cooled, he became 
closely allied with the ktter. In b. a 52, he was 
chosen by Pompey to preside, as qnaesitor, in the 
court for the ^ial of Clodius. For the next two 
or three years during Cicero*s absence in Cili- 
cia, our information about Ahenobarbns is princi- 
pally derived from the letters of his enemy Coelius 
to Cicero. In B. c. 50 he was a candidate for the 
phice in the college of augurs, vacant by the death 
of Hortensius, but was dcdfeated by Antony through 
the influence of Caesar. 

The senate appointed him to succeed Caesar in 
the province of further Gaul, and on the march of 
the latter into Italy (49), he was the only one of 
the aristocratica] party who shewed any energy or 
courage. He threw himself into Corfinium with 
about twenty cohorts, expecting to be supported by 
Pompey; but as the hitter did nothing to assist 
him, he was compelled by his own troops to sur- 
render to Caesar. His own soldiers were incorpo- 
rated into Caesar^s army, but Ahenobarbns was 
dismissed by Caesar uninjured — an act of clemency 
which he did not expect, and which he would cer- 
tainly not have shewed, if he had been the con- 
qneror. Despairing of life, he had ordered his 
physician to administer to him poison, but the lat- 
ter gave him only a sleepmg draught. Ahenobarbns* 
feelings agamst Caesar remained unaltered, but he 
was too deeply offended by the conduct of Pompey 
to join him immediately. He retired for a short 
time to Cosa in Etmria, and afterwards aailed to 
Maaaifia, of which the inhabitanta appointed him 
governor. He proaecnted the war vigoroualy 
againat Caeaar ; but the town waa eventually taken, 
and Ahenobarbns escaped in a vessel, which was 
the only one that got off. 

Ahenobarbns now went to Pompey in Thessaly, 
and proposed that after the war all senaton should 
be brought to trial who had remained neutral 
in it Cicero, whom he branded as a coward, was 
not a little afraid of him. He fell in the battle of 
PharsaHa (48), where he commanded the left wing, 
and, according to Cicero's assertion in the second 
Philippic, by the hand of Antony. Ahenobarbns 
was a man of great energy of character; he re- 
mained firm to his political prindplos, but was 
little scrupulous in the means he employed to 
maintain them. (The passages of Cioero in which 
Ahenobarbns is mentioned are given in Orelli's 
OnomasHoiM TuUiamm; Suet Ntr. 2; Dion Cass, 
lib. xxxix. xli. ; Caes. BdL CVd.) 

^ Cn. DoMrrius L. p. Cn. n. Abbnobabbus, 
son of the preoedinff, was taken with his fether at 
Corfinium (b. c 49), and was present at the batUe 
of Pharsalia (48), but did not take any further 
part ui the war. He did not however return to 
Italy till 46, when he was pardoned by Cae- 
sar. He probably had no share in the murder 
of Caesar (44), though some writers exprenly 
assert that he waa one of the conapiratora ; but he 
followed Brutua into Macedonia after Caesar's 
death, and was condemned by the Lex Pedia in 
43 as one of the murderers of Caesai. In 42 he 



commanded a fleet of fifty ihips in the Ionian sea, 
and completely defertted Domitius Calvin us on the 
day of the first battle of Philippi, aa the latter 
attempted to sail out of Brundusium. He was 
saluted Imperator in consequence, and a record of 
this victory is preserved in the annexed coin, which 
represenU a trophy placed upon the prow of a 
vessel The head on the other side of the coin 
has a beard, in referenoe to the reputed origin of 
the £unily* 

After the battle of Philippi (42), Ahenobarbus 
conducted the war independently of Sex. Pompeius, 
and with a fleet of seventy ships and two legions 
plundered the coasts of the Ionian sea. 

In 40 Ahenobarbus became reconciled to Antony, 
which gave great oflence to Octavianus, and was 
placed over Bithynia by Antony. In the peace 
concluded with Sex. Pompeius in 39, Antony pro- 
rided for the safety of Ahenobarbus, and obtained 
for him the promise of the consulship for 32. 
Ahenobarbus remained a considerable time in 
Asia, and accompanied Antony in his unfortunate 
campaign against the Parthians in 36. He became 
consul, according to agreement, in 32, in which 
year the open rupture took phice between Antony 
and Augustus. Ahenobarbus fled from Rome to 
Antony at Ephesua, where he found Cleopatra 
with him, and endeavoured, in vain, to obtain her 
removal from the army. Many of the soldiers, 
disgusted with the conduct of Antony, offered the 
conunand to him ; but he preferred deserting the 
party altogether, and accordingly went over to 
Augustus shortly before the battle of Actium. He 
was not, however, present at the battle, as he died 
a few days after joining Augustus. Suetonius says 
that he was the best of his family. (Cic. PhiL ii 
1 1, X. 6, BruL 25, ad Fam. vi. 22 ; Appian, B, C, 
▼. 55, 63, 65; Plut. Anton, 70, 71 ; Dion Cass, 
lib. xlvii.— 1( VelleL ii 76, 84; Suet. Ner.3; 
Tac Amu iv. 44.) 

9. L. DoMFTius Cn. f. L. n. Ahknobarbus, 
son of the preceding, was betrothed in b. c. 36, at 
the meeting of Octavianus and Antony at Taren- 
tum, to Antonia, the daughter of the latter by 
Octavia. He was aedile in b. a 22, and consul in 
B. c. 1 6. After his consulship, and probably as the 
successor of Tiberius, he commanded the Roman 
army in Germany, crossed the Elbe, and penetrat- 
ed further into the country than any of his prede- 
cessors had done. He received in consequence the 
insignia of a triumph. He died a. o. 25. Sueto- 
nius describes him as haughty, prodigal, and cruel, 
and relates that in his aedileship he commanded 
the cejisor L. Plancus to make way for him ; and 
that in his praetorship and consulship he brought 
Roman knights and matrons on the stage. He 
exhibited shows of wild beasts in every quarter of 
the city, and his gladiatorial combats were con- 
ducted with so much bloodshed, that Augustus 
was obliged to put some restraint upon them. 
(Suet. ATer. 4 ; Tac Ann, iv.44; Dion Cass. liv. 
59 J VcUeLiL72.) 


10. Cn. Domitius L. p. Cn. n. Ahkxo&akbut 

son of the preceding, and fiither of the cmperar 
Nero. He married Agrippina, the daughter of 
Germanicus. He was consul a. d. 32, and afber- 
wards proconsul in Sicily. He died at Pjngi in 
Etruria of dropsy. His life was stained with 
crimes of every kind. He was accused as the ac- 
complice of Albncilla of the crimes of adaltexy and 
murder, and also of incest with his sister Domida 
Lepida, and only escaped execution by the death 
of Tiberius. When congratulated on the birth ci 
his son, afterwards Nero, he replied that whatever 
was sprung frt>m him and Agrippina ooold only 
bring ruin to the state. (Suet. AT^r. 5, 6 ; Tac 
Ann. iv. 75, vi. 1, 47, xii. 64 ; VelleL u. 72 ; 
Dion Cass. IviiL 17.) 

1 1. DoMiTiA, daughter of No. 9. [Domttia.] 

12. DoMFTiA Lbpida, daughter of No. 9. 
[DoMrriA Lbpioa.] 

13. L. Donmus Ahbnobarbus, son of No. 
10, afterwards the emperor Nero. [Nkro.] 

14. Cn. Domitius Ahbnobarbus, praetor in 
& c. 54, presided at the second trial of M. Coelioa. 
(Cic. adQiLFr.u. 13.) He may have heen the 
son of No. 5. 

15. L. DoMmus Abbnobarrus, praetor a. c 
80, commanded the province of nearer Spaiiv, wiih 
the title of proconsul In 79, he was sammoned 
into further Spain by Q. Metellus Piiia, who was 
in want of assistance against Sertoriua, but he 
was defeated and killed by Hirtuleiua, quaestor of 
Sertoriua, near the Anaa. (Plut. SerL 12; Liv. 
EpU. 90 ; Eutrop. vi. 1 ; Florus, iiL 22 ; Oroa. 

AJAX ( Alas), 1. A son of Telamon, king of 
Salamis, by Periboea or Eriboea (Apollod. iii. 12. 
§ 7 ; Pans. i. 42. § 4 ; Pind. Istk. vL 65 ; Diod. 
iv. 72), and a grandson of Aeacna. Hom^- calls 
him Ajax the Telamoiiian, Ajax the Great, or 
simply Ajax (IL ii. 768, ix. 169, xiv. 410 ; comp. 
Pind. Isth. vi. 38), whereas the other Ajax, th« 
son of O ileus, is always distinguished from the 
former by some epithet. According to Homer 
Ajax joined the expedition of the Greeks against 
Troy, with his Salaminians, in twelve ships {IL 
ii. 557 ; comp. Strab. ix. p. 394), and was next to 
Achilles the most distinguished and the bravest 
among the Greeks. (iL 768, x\ii. 279, &c.) He 
is described as tall of stature, and his head and 
broad shoulders as rising above those of ail the 
Greeks (iiL 226, &c) ; in beauty he was infcriikr 
to none but Achilles. (Od, xi. 550, xxir. 17; 
comp. Pans. L 35. § 3.) When Hector challenged 
the bravest of the Greeks to single combat, Ajax 
came forward among sevenl others. The pe<^ 
prayed that he might fight, and when the lot 
fell to Ajax (IL vii. 179, &c), and he ap- 
proached. Hector himself began to tremble. (21 o.) 
He wounded Hector and dashed him to the ground 
by a huge stone. The combatants were separated, 
and upon parting they exchanged arms with one 
another as a token of mutual esteem. (305, &c.) 
Ajax was also one of the ambassadors whom Aga- 
memnon sent to conciliate Achillea, (ix. 169.) lie 
fought severol times besides with Hector, as in the 
battle near the ships of the Greeks (xiv. 409, &c. xv. 
415, xvi 114), and in protecting the body of Patio- 
cluB. (xviL 128, 7 32.) In the games at the funeral 
pile of Patrodus, Ajax fought with Odysseus, but 
without gaining any decided advantage over him 
(xziii. 720, &c.), and in like manner with Dio- 


Biedes. In the contest about the armour of AchiUat, 
he waa conquered by Odysseus, and this, says 
Homer, became the cause of his death. {Od, xi. 
541, &C.) Odyaaetis afterwards met his spirit in 
Uadea, and endeaTourcd to appoase it, but in vain. 
Thus ftr the atory of Ajar, the Tehimonian, is 
Klated in the Homeric poems. Later writers fur* 
niah us with TBiious other traditions about his 
youth, but m<»ne espedally about his death, which 
is so Tigudy ailnd^ to by Homer. According to 
ApoUodonu (iiL 12. § 7) and Pindar {Itth. tl 
S\f &C.), Ajaz became iuTuInerable in conse- 
quence of a prayer which Heracles offered to Zeus, 
while he waa on a Ti&it in Salamis. The child 
was called Alas fitnn der Js, an eagle, which ap- 
peared immediately after the prayer as a iarour- 
able omen. Aoooiding to Lycophron (455 with the 
iNJioLX Ajax waa bom before Heracles came to 
TeJamon, and the hero made the child invulner^ 
able by wrapping him up in his lion*s skin. 
(Comp. SchoL ad IL zxiii. 841.) Ajax is also 
mentioQed among the suitors of Helen. (Apollod. 
iii. 10. § 8; Hygin. Fab, 81.) During the war 
against Troy, Ajax, like Achilles, made excursions 
into neighbouiii^ eountriea. The fint of them was 
to the Thradan CheraonesuB, where he took Poly- 
dorus, the son of Priam, who had been entrusted 
to the care of king Polymnestor, together with 
rich booty. Thence, he went into Phrj-gia, slew 
king Tenthras, or Teleutas, in single combat, and 
earned off great spoila, and Tecmesaa, the king's 
daiij(hter, who be^me his mistress. (Diet Cret 
ii. 18; Soph. Aj. 210, 480, &c. ; Hor. Carm, ii. 
4- <)•) In the conteat about the armour of Achilles, 
Agamemnon, on the adrice of Athena, awarded 
the prize to OdyssenSi This discomfiture threw 
Ajax into an awful state of madness. In the 
night he rushed from his tent, attacked the sheep 
of the Greek army, made great haroc among them, 
and dragged dead and living aninuUs into his tent, 
keying that they were his enemies. When, in 
the morning, he recoTered his senses and beheld 
what he had done, shame and despair led him to 
destroy himself with the sword which Hector had 
onoe given him as a present. (Pind. Nem. yiL 
36; Soph. AJ, 42, 277, 852; Oy. Met. xiii. 1, 
&e.; Lycophr. L c) Less poetical tra'litions 
make Ajax die by the hands of others. (Diet. 
Crpt V. 15; Dar. Phryg. 35, and the Greek aigu- 
nent to Soph. Ajax.) His step-brother Teucnu 
vas charged by Telamon with the murder of Ajax, 
hot SDcoeeded in clearing himself from the accusa- 
tion. (Puis. i. 2a § 12.) A tradition mentioned 
by Pamanias (L 35. § 3 ; comp. O. Met xiiL 
397, &c) statM, that from his blood there sprang 
Tip a puzple flower which bore the letters oi on its 
learea, which were at once the initials of his name 
and expressive of a sigh. Aocording to Dictys, 
Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles, deposited ihe 
ashes of the hero in a golden um on mount Rhoe- 
frion ; and aocording to Sophocles, he was buried 
by his brother Tencrus against the will of the 
Atreidae. (Comp. Q. Smym. v. 500; Philostr. Her, 
^ 3.) Pausanias (iii 19. § 11) represents Ajax, 
hke many other heroes, as living after his death ui 
the island of Leuoe. It is said that when, in the 
tinie of the emperor Hadrian, the sea had washed 
open the grave of Ajax, bones of superhimuin size 
*cre found in it, which the emperor, however, 
ordered to be buried again. (Philostr. Her. I 2 ; 
Pau. iii. 39. § 11.) Respecting the state and 



wandering of his soul after his death, see Plato, 
De He PuU. x. in fin. ; Plut. Sympoe. ix. 5. 

Ajax was worshipped in Sahunis as the tutelary 
hero of the island, and had a temple with a statue 
there, and was honoured with a festival, Aioi^eSa. 
(Did. ofAmL $. v.) At Athens too he waa wor- 
shipped, and was one of the eponynic heroes, one 
of the Attic tribes (Aeantie) being called after hinL 
(Paus. L 35. § 2 ; Plut Synqtoe, i. 10.) Not fiir 
from the town Rhoeteion, on the promontory of the 
same name, there was likewise a sanctuary of 
Ajax, with a beautiful statue, which Antoniua 
sent to Egypt, but which was restored to its ori- 
ginal place by Augustus. (Strab. xiiL p. 595.) 
Aocording to Dictys Cretensis (▼. 16) the wife of 
Ajax was Glauca, by whom she had a son, Aean- 
tides; by his beloved Tecmessa, he had a son, 
Eurysaoes. (Soph. Aj. 333.) Several illustrious 
Athenians of the historical times, such as Miltiadea, 
Cimon, and Alcibiades, traced their pedigree to the 
Telamonian Ajax. (Paus. iL 29. § 4 ; Plut Aldb. 
1.) The tniditions about this hero furnished 
plentiful materials, not only for poets, but also for 
scnlpton and painters. His single combat with 
Hector was represented on the chest of Cypselua 
(Pans. T. 19. § 1); his statue formed a part of a 
birge group at Olympia, the work of Lycius. (Paus« 
V. 22. § 2; comp. Plin. H. N. xxxr. 10. § 36; 
Aelian, Fl ^. ix. II.) A beautiful sculptured 
head, which is generally believed to be a head of 
Ajax, is still extant in the Egremont collection at 
Petworth. (Bbttiger, AmaUhea, iiL p. 258.) 

2. The son of O'deus, king of the Locrians, who 
is also called the Lesser Ajax. (Horn. //. ii. 527.) 
His mother*s name was Eriopis. Aeoording to 
Strabo (ix. p. 425) his birthplace was Naryx in 
Locris, whence Orid {Mei. xiv. 468) calls him 
Naryeku heroe. According to the Iliad (ii. 527, 
&c) he led his Locrians in forty ships (Hygin. 
Fab. 97, lays twenty) against Troy. He is de- 
scribed as one of the great heroes among the 
Greeks, and acts frequently in conjunction with 
the Tebunonian Ajax. He is small of stature and 
wean a linen cuirass (Xiyo^p>;(), but is brave 
and intrepid, especially skilled in throwing the 
spear, and, next to Achillea, the most swift-footed 
among all the Greeks. (//. xiv. 520, &c., xxiiL 
789, &c) His principal exploits during the siege 
of Troy are mentioned in the following passages : 
xiiL 700, &&, xiv. 520, &&, xvi. 350, xvii. 256, 
732, Ac In the funeral games at the pyre of 
Patrodus he contended with Odysseus and Anti- 
lochns for the prize in the footrace ; but Athena, 
who was hostile towards him and fovoured Odya- 
seus, made him stumble and fall, so that he 
gained only the second priae. (xxiiL 754, &c) 
On his return from Troy his vessel was wrecked 
on the Whirling Rocks (Fvpol ir^rpoi), but he him- 
self escaped upon a rock through the assistance of 
Poseidon, and would have been saved in spite of 
Athena, but he used presumptuous words, and 
said that he would escape the dangen of the sea 
in defiance of the immortals. Hereupon Poseidon 
split the rock with his trident, and Ajax wai 
swallowed up by the sea. {Od. iv. 499, &c) 

In later traditions this Ajax is called a son of 
Oileus and the nymph Rhone, and is also men- 
tioned among the suiton of Helen. (Hygin. Fab. 
81, 97 ; Apollod. iii. 10. § 8.) According to a 
tradition in Philostratus (Her. viiL 1), Ajax had 
a tame dragon, 6ve cubits in length, which follow- 


ad him erery where like a doff. After the taking 
of Troy, it ia aaid, he roahed into the temple of 
Athena, where Caaiandra had taken refuge, and 
was embracing the statue of the goddess as a sap- 
pliant Ajax dragged her awav with yiolence and 
led her to the other captives. (Viig. Am, ii. 403 ; 
Eurip. Troad. 70, &c.; Diet. Cret r. 12; Hygin. 
Fab. 116.) According to some statements he 
oven violated Cassandra in the temple of the god- 
dess (Tryphiod. 635 ; Q. Smym. ziii. 4*2*2 ; 
Lycophr. 360, with the St^oL); Odysseos at least 
aocused him of this crime, and Ajax was to be 
stoned to death, bat saved himself by establishing 
his innocence by an oath. (Pans. x. 26. § 1, 31. 
§ I.) The whole charge, is on the other hand, 
■aid to have been an mvention of Agamemnon, 
who wanted to have Cassandra for himsel£ Bat 
whether trae or not, Athena had sufficient reason 
for being indignant, as Ajax had dragged a sup- 
pliant from her temple. When on his voyage 
nomeward he came to the Capharesa rocks on the 
coast of Euboea, his ship was wrecked in a stonn, 
he himself was killed by Athena with a flash of 
lightning, and his body was washed upon the rocks, 
which henceforth were called the locks of Ajax. 
(Hygin. Fab. 116; comp. Viig. Am. L 40, &c, 
XL 260.) For a different account of his death see 
Philostr. Her. viil 8, and SchoL ad Lyoophr. L o. 
After his death his spirit dwelled in ^e island of 
Leuoe. (Fans, iii 19. § 11.) The Opuntian 
Locrians wonhipped Ajax as their national hero, 
and so great was their fiuth in him, that when 
thej drew up their army in battle anray, they al- 
ways left one place open for him, believing that, 
although invisible to them, he was fighting for and 
among them. (Pans. /. c ; Conon. NarraL 18.) 
The Btoiy of Ajax was frequently made use of by 
ancient poets and artists, and the hero who ap- 
pears on some. Locrian coins with the hebnet, 
shield, and sword, is probably Ajax the son of 
Oi'leus. (Mionnet, No. 570, &c.) [L. &] 

A'IDES, 'AtJiis. [Hadbh.] 

AIDO'NEUS ('Ai8My«b'}). 1. A lengthened 
fonn of *At8i}r. (Horn. IL v. 190, xx. 61.) 


2. A mythical ' king of the Molossinna, in 
Epeirus, who is represented as the husband of 
Persephone, and &ther of Core. After Theseus, 
with the assistance of Peirithous, had carried off 
Helen, and concealed her at Aphidnae [Acadb- 
MU8], he went with Peirithous to Epeirus to pro- 
cure for him as a reward Core, the daughter of 
Ai'doneus. This king thinking the two strangen 
were well-meaning suitors, offered the hand of his 
daughter to Peirithous, on condition that he should 
fight and conquer his dog, which bore the name of 
Cerberus. But when Ai'doneus discovered that 
they had come with the intention of carrying off 
his daughter, he had Peirithous killed by Cerberus, 
and kept Theseus in captivity, who was after- 
wards released at the request of Heracles. (Plut. 
TkM. 31, 35.) Eusebius {Clmm. p. 27) calls the 
wifiB of Ai'doneus, a daaghter of queen Demeter, 
with whom he had eloped. It is clear that the 
stoiy about A'ldoneus is nothing but the sacred 
legend of the rape of Persephone, dressed up in 
the form of a history, and is undoubtedly the work 
of a late interpreter, or rather destroyer of genuine 
ancient myths. [ll S,] 

diTini^. In the year b. c 389, a short time be- 


fore the invasion of the Oanls, a voice ^ 
at Rome in the Via nova, during the ailence of 
night, announcing that the Gauls were appmarhiiy. 
(Uv. V. 32.) No attention was at the time paU 
to the warning, but after the Oauls had withdrawn 
from the city, the Romans remembered the pco- 
phetic voice, and atoned for their nt^lect by erect- 
ing on the spot in the Via nova, where the voice 
had been heard, a templum, that is, an altar with 
a sacred enclosure around it, to Aiua Locutius, or 
the ** Announcing Speaker.** (Liv. t. 50 ; Varro, 
ap. GdL xvi. 17; Qic ds DimmaU L 45, u. 
32.) CI-S.] 

ALABANDUS CAAi^oi^s), a Carian beio, 
son of Euippus and Caliirhoe, whom the inhabits 
ants of Alabanda worshipped as the founder o£ 
their town. (Steph. Byz. «. e. *iJidSaM>9a, ; Ck. 
de Nat. Deor. m. 15, 19.) [Lw &J 

ALAOC/NIA ('AXoyoKla), a dan^hter d 
Zeus and Europe, fix>m whom Alagonia, a town in 
Laconia, derived ita name. (Pans. iii. 21. § 6, 
26. § 8 ; Nat Com. viii. 23.) [L^ S.] 

ALALCOMENE'IS ('APUxXko/mi^s), a sui^ 
name of Athena, derived from Uie hero Alako- 
menes, or from the Boeotian village of Alako- 
menae, where she was believed to have been bora. 
Othen derive the name from the verb dAdAMir^ 
so that it would signify the *^ powerful defcndei.** 
(Hom. IL iv. 8 ; Steph. Byz. «. v. *AAaXKo§Unam; 
Muller, Orchom. p. 213.) [L. &] 

ALALCO'MENES QAXaJucofUnis), a Boeotian 
autochthon, who was believed to have given the 
name to the Boeotian Alaloomenae, to have 
brought up Athena, who was bom there, and to 
have been the fint who introduced her worship. 
(Pans. ix. 33. § 4.) According to Plutaxcfa {IM 
DaedaL Fragm. 5), he advised Zeua to have a 
figure of oak-wood dressed in bridal attix«, and 
carried about amidst hymeneal songs, in order to 
change the anger of Hera into jealouay. The 
name of the wife of ALdoomenes waa Athe- 
nai's, and that of his son, Ghuicopus, both of 
which refer to the goddess Athene (Steph. Bjx. 
s. o. *AXa\icotUyu>y ; Pans. ix. 3. § 3; comp. 
BicL o/AnL s. «. AolSoAa; Mikller, Orchomu pu 
213.) [L. &] 

ALALCOME'NIA CAAaXKo/Acyta), one of the 
daughtera of Ogyges, who aa well aa her two 
sisters, Thelxionoea and Aulis, were re^garded as 
supetnatural beings, who watched over oatha and 
saw that they were not taken rashly or thought- 
lessly. Their name was npa^iSfmu, and they had 
a temple in common at the foot of the Telphusian 
mount in Boeotia. The representationa of these 
divinities consisted of mere heads, and no parts of 
animals were sacrificed to them, except heada 
(Pans. ix. 33. § 2, 4 ; Panyasis, ap. Siepk. Byz, 
8. V. TfMfjdXri ; Suid. s. v. Upa^iiUcti ; MtiUer, Ot' 
okom. p. 128, &c) [L. S.] 

ALARI'CUS, in German Alrrie, i. e. *• All 
rich,"* king of the Visigoths, remarkable as 
being the first of the barbarian duels who en- 
tered and sacked the city of Rome, and the first 
enemy who had appeared before its walls since the 
time of Hannibal. He was of the fiamily of Baltha, 
or Bold, the second noblest fiunily of the Vii^thi^ 
( Jomandes, de Bab. GeL 29.) His firet appeanuoce 
in history is in a. d. 394, when he was invested 
by Theodosius with the coounand of the Gothic 
auxiliaries in his war with Engeniua. (Zosimus, 
V. 5.) In 396, partly firom anger at beiqg reluaod 


the oonanand of tbe armies of the eastern empire, 
partly at the instigation of Rnfinos (Socrates, 
Hi^ EeeL riL 10), he invaded and devastated 
Greece, till, bj the arriTal of Stilicho in 397, he 
v-as compelled to escape to Epiros. Whilst there 
lie was, by the weakness of Arcadins, appointed 
prefect of eastern lUyricum (Zosimns, ▼. 5, 6), and 
partly owing to this office, and the use he made of 
it m providing arms for his own purposes, partly to 
hk birth and fiune, was by his countrymen elected 
king in 398. (Clandian, Euirop. iL 212, BelL Get 

The rest of his life was spent in the two inva- 
sions of Italy. The first (400-403), apparently 
unprovoked, brought him only to Bavenna, and, 
after a bloody def^t at Po]lentia,<in which his wife 
and tzeasores were taken, and a masterly retreat 
to Verona (Oros. viL 37), was ended by the treaty 
vith Stilicho, which transferred his services from 
Arcadias to Honoriua, and made him prefect of the 
vestem instead of the eastern lllyricnm. In this 
edacity he fixed his camp at Aemona, in expecta- 
tion of the fiilfilment of his demands for pay, and 
for a western province, as the future home of his 
nation. The second invasion (408-410) was oocar 
sioncd by the deky of this fulfilment, and by the 
massacre of the Gothic fiunilies in Italy on SUlicho's 
death. It is marked by the three sieges of Rome. 
The first (408), as being a protracted blockade, 
was the most severe^ but was raised by a mnsom. 
The aecond (409), was occasioned by a refusal to 
comply with Alaric^s demands, and, upon the occu- 
pation of Ostia, ended in the unconditional surren- 
der of the city, and in the disposal of the empire 
by Akuic to Attains, till on discovery of his inca- 
pacity, he restored it to Honorius. (Zosimus, v. vi.) 
The third (410), waa occasioned by an assault upon 
his troops under the imperial sanction, and waa 
ended by the treacherous opening of the SftlftriaTi 
gate on August 24, and the sack of the city for six 
dayi. It was immediately followed by the occu- 
pation of the south of Italy, and the design of in- 
king Sidly and Africa. This intention, how- 
ever, was interrupted by his death, after a short 
illneas at Consentia, where he was buried in the 
bed of the adjacent river Busentinus, and the 
place of his interment concealed by the massacre of 
a& the workmen employed on the occasion. (Oros. 
TIL 39 ; Jomandes, 30.) 

The few personal traits that are recorded of him 
^his answer to the Roman embassy with a hoarse 
laugh m answer to their threat of desperate resist- 
ance, "The thicker the hay, the easier mown," 
and, in reply to their question of what he would 
leave them, "Your lives" — are in the true savage 
hnmonr of a barbarian conqueror. (Zosimus, v. 40.) 
But the impression left upon us by his general 
cliancter is of a higher order. The real military 
^ill shewn m his escape from Greece, and in his 
wtwat to Verona ; the wish at Athens to shew 
that he adopted the use of the bath and the other 
extmial foims of civilised life ; the moderation and 
jnstice which he observed towards the Romans in 
the tines of peace ; the humanity which distuir 
gtusbed hun during the sack of Rome — ^indicate 
•*™»rthing superior to the mere craft and lawless 
^bit ion which he seems to have possessed in 
fxKmmk with other barbaxian chiefs. So also his 
temples against fighting on Easter^day when at- 
^ckedatPoIlentia,and lus reverence for the churches 
dniing the sack of the city (Oroa. vii 37, 39), 



imply that the Christian fiiith, in which he hnd 
been instructed by Arian teachers, had laid some 
hold at least on his imagination, and had not 
been tinged with that fierce hostility against the 
orthodox party which marked the Arians of the 
Vandal tribes. Accordingly, we find that the 
Christian part of his contemporaries regarded him« 
in comparison with the other invaders of the empire 
as the representative of civilization and Christianity, 
and as the fit instrument of divine vengeance on 
the still half pagan city (Oros. viL 37), and the 
very slight injury which the great buildings of 
Greece and Rome sustained from his two invasions 
confirm the same view. And amongst the Pagans 
the same sense of the preternatural character of 
his invasion prevailed, tnough expressed in a dif- 
ferent form. The dialogue which Claudian {BeiL 
CfeL 485-540) represents him to have held with 
the aged counsellors of his own tribe seems to be 
the heathen version of the ecclesiastical story, that 
he stopped the monk who begged him to spare Rome 
with the answer, that he was driven on by a voice 
which he could not resist. (Socrates, Hi$i. Et-cL 
viL 10.) So also his vision of Achilles and Mi- 
nerva appearing to defend the city of Athens, as 
recorded by Zosimus (v. 6), if it does not imply 
a lingering respect and fear in the mind of Alaric 
himself towards the ancient worship, — at least 
expresses the belief of the pagan historian, that his 
invasion was of so momentous a character as to 
call for divine interference. 

The permanent efiects of his career are to be 
found only in the establishment of the Visigothic 
kingdom of Spain by the warriors whom he was 
the first to lead into the west 

The authorities for the invasion of Greece and 
the first two sieges of Rome are Zosimus (v. vi): 
for the first invasion of Italy, Jomandes de Asb, Get, 
30; Claudian, B, Get.: for the third siege and 
sack of Rome, Jomandes, ib. ; Orosins, vii. 39 ; 
Aug. Ch. Deit L I-IO ; Hieronym. Epitl, ad Priff 
dp. ; Procop. Bell, Vand. i. 2 ; Sozomen, Hint, 
Eod. ix. 9, 10; Isid. Hispalensis, Chroniam Got- 
torum.) The invasions of Italy are involved in 
great confusion by these writers, especially by 
Jomandes, who btends the battle of PoUentia in 
403 with the massacre of the Goths in 408. By 
conjecture and inference they are reduced in Gibbon 
(c. 30, 31) to the order which has been here foUow- 
ed. SeealsoGodefroy,ai^/'Ho6/or.xiLa [A.P.S.] 

ALASTOR.CAAcuTTftip). 1. According to He- 
sychins and the Etymologicnm H., a surname of 
Zeus, describing him as the avenger of evil deeds^ 
But the name is also used, especiidly by the tragic 
writers, to designate any deity or demon who 
avenges wrongs committed by men. (Pans. viii« 
24. § 4 ; Plut De Def. Orac 13, &c ; AeschyL 
Agam. 1479, 1508, Pen, 343 ; Soph. 7Vac&. 1092 ; 
Eurip. Phoen. 1550, &c) 

2. Asonof NelensandChloris. When Heracles 
took Pylos, Alastor and his brothers, except 
Nestor, were slain by him. (Apollod. i. 9. § 9 ; 
SchoL ad ApoUon. I&od. L 156.) According to 
Parthenius (c. 13) he was to be married to Har- 
palyce, who, however, was taken firom him by her 
fether Clymenus. 

3. A Lycian, who was a companion of Sarpo- 
don, and slain by Odysseus. THom. IL v. 677 ; 
Ov. MeL xiii. 257.) Another Akstor is mention- 
ed in Horn. IL viii. 333, xiii 422. [L. S.] 

ALASTO'RIDES ('AAa<rro^8i|s), a patro- 



njrmic from Alastor, and given by Homer (77. xx.' 
403) to Tros, who was probably a son of the 
Lycian Alastor mentioned above. [L. S.] 

ALATHE'US, called ODOTHAEUS by Clan- 
dian, became with Saphrax, in a. o. 376, on the 
death of Vithimir, the guardian of Vithericua, the 
young king of the Greuthungi, the chief tribe of 
the Ostrogoths. Alatheus and Saphrax led their 
people across the Danube in this year, and uniting 
their forces with those of the Visigoths under 
Fritigem, took part against the Romans in the 
battle of Hadrianoplc, a. d. 378, in which the em- 
peror Valens was defeated and killed. After 
plundering the surrounding country, Alatheus and 
Saphrax eventually recrossed the Danube, but 
appeared again on its banks in 386, with the in- 
tention of mvading the Roman provinces again. 
They were, however, repulsed, and Alatheus was 
slain. (Amm. Marc. xxxL 3, &c ; Jornand. de 
JUb. Get, 26, 27 ; Claudian, <U IV Cons. Honor, 
626 ; Zosimus, iv. 39.) 

ALBA SI'LVIUS, one of the mythical kings 
of Alba, said to have been the son of Latinus, and 
the father of Atys, according to Livy, and of Ca- 
petus, according to Dionysius. He reigned thirty- 
nine years. (Liv. I 3; Dionys. i. 71.) 

A'LBIA GENS. No persons of this gens ob- 
tained any offices in the state till the first century 
B. c. They all bore the cognomen Carrinas. 

L. ALBI'NIUS. 1. One of the tribunes of 
the plebs, at the first institution of the office, b. c. 
494. (Liv. ii. 33.) Asconius calls him L. Albi- 
iiiuB C. P. Patercdui. (In Cic Cornel, p. 76, ed. 

2. A plebeian, who was conveying his wife and 
children in a cart out of the city, after the defeat 
on the Alia, b. c. 390, and overtook on the Jani- 
culus, the priests and vestals carrying the sacred 
things: he made his fiunily alight and took as 
many as he was able to Caere. (Liv. v. 40 ; Val. 
Max. i. 1. § 10.) The consular tribune in & c. 
379, whom Livy (vi. 30) calls M. Albinius, is 
probably the same person as the above. (Comp. 
Niebuhr, Hist, of Rome, ii. n. 1201.) 

ALBTNOVA'NUS, C. PEDO, a friend and 
contemporary of Ovid, to whom the latter addres- 
ses one of his Epistles from Pontus. (iv. 10.) He 
is classed by Quintilixm (x. 1) among the epic 
poets ; Ovid also speaks of his poem on the ex- 
ploits of Theseus, and calls him sidereus Pedo, on 
account of the sublimity of his style. (Ex. Pont. 
iv. 16. 6.) He is supposed to have written an 
epic poem on the exploits of Ocrraanicus, the son 
of Drusus, of which twenty-three lines are pre- 
served in the Suasoria of Seneca, (lib. i.) This 
fragment is usually entitled " De Navigatione 
Germanici per Oceanum Septentrionalem,'' and 
describes the voyage of Gerraanicus through the 
Amisia (Ems) into the northern ocean, a. d. 16. 
(Corap. Tac Ann. ii. 23.) It would seem from 
Martial (v. 5), that Albinovanus was also a writer 
of epigrams. L. Seneca was acquainted with him, 
and calls \\\mftdndator eleganiissimm. {Ep. 122.) 

Three Latin elegies are attributed to Albino- 
vanus, but without any sufficient authority : 
namely, — 1. ** Ad Liviam Aug. de Morte Drusi,** 
which is ascribed to Ovid by many, and has been 
published separately by Bremer, Helmst. 1775. 
2. " In Obitum Maecenatis.'' 3. " De Verbis Mae* 
cenatis moribundi." ( Wemsdorf, Poctoe Laiini 
Mutorcsy iii. pp. 121, &c., 155, &c.) 


The fragment of Albinovanus on the rojage of 
Germanicus, has been published by H. Stephana, 
Frcu/m, Pott., p. 416, Pithoeus, Epiffrawt. et poem, 
vet., p. 239, Burmann, A nth. LaL u. ep. 121, 
Wemsdorf; P(Kt. LaL Min. iv. L p. 229, Ac 
All that has been ascribed to AlbinoTanns waa 
published at Amsterdam, 1703, with the notes d 
J. Scaliger and others. The last ediUon k by 
Meinecke, which contains the text, and a Gennan 
translation in verse, Quedlinbnrg, 1819. 

to the party of Marius in the first civil war, and 
was one of the twelve who were declared enemies 
of the state in b. c. 87. He thereupon fled to 
Hiempsal in Numidia. After the defeat of Coibo 
and Norbanus in b. c. 81, he obtained the pardon 
of Sulla by treacherously putting to death many 
of the principal officers of Norbanus, whom he had 
invited to a banquet. Ariminium in oonseqoenoe 
revolted to Sulla, whence the Pseudo-Asconias (s 
Cic Verr. p. 168, ed. Orelli) speaks of Albino- 
vanus betraying it (Appian, B. C. L 60, 62, 91 ; 
Florus, iii. 21. § 7.) 

ALBrNUS or ALBUS, the name of the prin- 
cipal family of the patrician Postumia gena. The 
original name was Albus, as appears from the 
Fasti, which was afterwards lengthened into Alhi- 
nus. We find in proper names in Latin, derivatives 
in anus, enus, and inus, used without any additional 
meaning, in the same sense as the simple fonoiL 
(Comp. Niebuhr, Hist, of Borne, i. n. 219.) 

1. A. PosTUMius P. p. Albus Rsoirxassia, 
was, according to Livy, dictator b. c. 498, when 
he conquered the Latins in the great battle near 
lake Regillus. Roman story related that Castor 
and Pollux were seen fighting in this battle on the 
side of the Romans, whence the dictator afterwards 
dedicated a temple to Castor and Pollax in the 
forum. He was consul b. c. 496, in which year 
some of the annals, according to Livy, placed the 
battle of the lake Regillus ; and it is to this year 
that Dionysius assigns it. (Liv. iu 19, 20,21; 
Dionys. vi. 2, &c. ; VaL Max. i. 8. § 1 ; Cic. de 
NaL Dcor. ii. 2, iii. 5.) The surname RegiUcnsts 
is usually supposed to have been derived &x>m this 
battle ; but Niebuhr thinks that it was taken fh»n 
a place of residence, just as the Claadii boro the 
same name, and that the later annalists only spoke 
of Postumius as commander in consequence of the 
name. Livy (xxx. 45) states expressly, that Sdpio 
Africanus was the first Roman who obtained a 
surname from his conquests. (Niebuhr, HisL </ 
Rome, i. p. 556.) 

Many of the coins of the Albini commemorate 
this victory of their ancestor, as in the one annexed. 
On one side the head of Diana is represented with 
the letters Roma underneath, which are paniy 
efbccd, and on the reverse are three horsemen 
trampling on a foot-soldier. 

2. Sp. Postumius A. p. P. n. Albus RaeiL- 
LBN818, apparently, according to the Fasti, the f«n 
of the preceding, (though it must be observed, that 
in these early times no dependanoe can be placed 


upon these genealogies,) wm consul B. c. 466. 
(Lir. iii 2 ; Dionja. ix. 60.) He was one of the 
three commisaionav sent into Greece to collect ro- 
fbnnation abont the laws of that country, and was 
a member of the first decemvirate in 451. (Liv. 
SL 31, 33 ; Dionys. x. 52, 56.) He commanded, 
as iegatos, the centre of the Roman army in the 
bottle in which the Aequians and Volsdans were 
defeated in 446. (Liy. iiL 70.) 

3. A. PorroMius A. p. P. n. Albus Rbqil- 
LBNSis, ai^arentlj son of Na 1, was consul B. c. 
464, and carried on war against the Aequians. 
He was sent as ambassador to the Aequians in 
458, on which occasion he was insulted by their 
cominander. (Lir. iii. 4, 5, 25 ; Dionys. ix. 62, 65.) 

4. Sp. PosTtrMiu.s Sp. f. A N. Albus Rbgil- 
LBNtoa, appaiently son of No 2, was consular tri- 
bune & c. 432, and served as l^atus in the war in 
the following year. (Liv. iv. 25, 27.) 

5. P. Po^uMivs A. F. A. N. Albinus Rbgil- 
LXSSI8, whom Liyy calls Marcus, was consular 
tribune B.a 414, and was killed in an insurrection 
of the soldiers, whom he had deprived of the plun- 
der of the Aequian town of Bolae, which he had 
promised them. (Lir. It. 49, 50.) 

6. M. PosTUMius A. F. A. N. Albinus Rsqil- 
LSNsis, is mentioned by lArj (▼. 1) as consular 
tribune in & c. 403, but was in reality censor in 
that year with M. Forius Camillus. (Fasti CapUoL) 
In their censorship a fine was imposed upon all 
men who remained single up to old age. (Vid.Max. 
iL 9. § I ; Plut Our. 2 ; Did. of Ant s.v. Uxorium.) 

7. A. PosTUMius Albinus Rxoillensis, con- 
lolar tribune B. c. 397, collected with his colleague 
L. Julius an anny of volunteers, since ths tribunes 
prerenled them from making a regular levy, and 
cut off a body of Tarquinienses, who were return- 
ing hinne affcer plundering the Roman territory. 
(Uv. V. 16.) 

8. Sp. Postuhil's Albinus Rxgillsnsis, con- 
ralar tribune b. c. 394, carried on the war against 
the Aequians; he at first suffered a defeat, but 
afterwaids conquered them completely. (Liv. v. 

9. Sp. PosTUMius Albinus, was consul b. c. 
334, and invaded, with his collea^e T. Veturius 
Calvinns, the country of the Sidicmi ; but, on ac- 
count of the great forces which the enemy had col- 
lected, and the report that the Samnites were com- 
ing to their assistance, a dictator was appointed. 
(Liv. viiL 16, 17.) He was censor in 332 and 
mafrister eqnitam in 327, when M. Claudius Map- 
eeDus was appointed dictator to hold the comitia. 
(jiii. 17, 23w) In 321, he was consul a second 
time with T. Yetorius Calvinus, and marched 
ai^ainst the Sanudtea, but was defeated near Cau- 
diam, and obliged to surrender with his whole 
Mny, who were sent under the yoke. As the 
price of his deliverance and that of the army, he 
and his colleague and the other conmianders swore, 
in the name oif the republic, to a humiliating peace. 
The eonsnk, on their return to Rome, laid down 
their office after appointing a dictator ; and the 
donate, on the advice of Postumius, resolved that 
all penons who had sworn to the peace should be 
giren up to the Samnitea. Poatumiua, with the 
other prisoners, accordingly went to the Samnites, 
Imt they refused to accept them. (Liv. ix. 1—10 ; 
Appian, de MbL Sumn. 2—6 ; Cic ds Of. iiL 30, 

10. A PonuHius A. p. L. n. Albinus, was 



consul a c. 242 with Lutatius Catulus, who de- 
feated the Carthaginians off the Aegatea, and thus 
brouffht the first Punic war to an end. Albinus 
was kept in the city, against his will, by the Pon- 
tifex Maximus, bearase he vras Flamen Martialia^ 
(Liv. BpiL 19, xxiii. 13; Eutrop. ii 27 ; VaL 
Max. L 1. § 2.) He waa censor in 234. {Fadi 

11. L. Postumius, A. f. A. n. Albinus, ap- 
parently a son of the preceding^ was consul b. c. 
234, and again in 229. In his second consulship 
he made war upon the lUyrians. (Eutrop. ill 4 ; 
Oros. iv. 13 ; Dion Case. Png, 151 ; Polyb. iL 11, 
&&, who enoneously calls him Aubi» instead of 
LudHs,) In 216, the third year of the second 
Punic vrar, he was made praetor, and sent into 
Cisalpine Gaul, and while absent was elected con- 
sul the third time for the following year, 215. But 
he did not live to enter upon his consulship ; for 
he and his army were destroyed by the Boii in the 
wood Litana in Cisalpine GauL His head vras cut 
ofl^ and after being lined with gold was dedicated 
to the gods by the Boii, and used as a sacred 
drinking^vesseL (Liv. xxii. 35, xxiii. 24 ; PolyU 
iiL 106, 118 ; Cic. Tuac L 37.) 

12. Sp. Postumius L. f. A. n. Albinus, was 
praetor peregrinus in B. c. 189 (liv. xxxviL 47, 
50). and consul in 186. In his consulship the 
senatusoonsultnm was passed, which is still extant, 
suppressing the worship of Bacchus in Rome, in 
consequence of the abominable crimes which were 
committed in connexion with it. (xxxix. 6, 11, 
&c.; VaL Max. vi. 3. § 7 ; Plin. H. N, xxxiiL 
10; Did. ^ Ant. p. 344.) He waa also augur, 
and died in 179 at an advanced age. (Liv. xL 
42 ; Cic. Caioy 3.) 

13. A. Postumius A. f. A. n. Albinus, 
was curule aedile B. c. 187, when he exhibited 
the Great Games, praetor 185, and consul 180. 
(Liv. xxxix. 7, 23, xl 35.) In his consulship 
he conducted the vrar against the Liguiians. 
(xL 41.) He was censor 174 with Q. Fulviua. 
Their censorship was a severe one ; they expelled 
nine members firom the senate, and degnided many 
of equestrian rank. They executed, however, many 
public works, (xli. 32, xlii. 10 ; comp. Cic Verr. 
L 41.) He was elected in his censorship one of 
the decemviri sacrorum in the pUice of L. Cornelius 
Lentulus. (Liv. xliL 10.) Albinus was engaged 
in many public missions. In 175 he was sent 
into northern Greece to inquire into the truth of 
the representations of the Dardauians and The»- 
salians about the Bastamae and Perseus. (Polyb. 
xxvL 9.) In 171 he was sent as one of the am- 
bassadon to Crete (Liv. xlii. 35); and after the 
conquest of Macedonia in 168 he was one of the 
ten conunissioneiB appointed to settle the affiiirs 
of the country with Aemilius Paullus. (xlv. 17.) 
Livy not unfrequently calls him Luscus, from 
which it would seem that he was blind of one eye. 

14. Sp. Po^r^UMIU8 A. f. A. n. Albinus 
Paullulus, probably a broUier of No. 13 and 15, 
perhaps obtained the surname of Paullulus, as 
being small of stature, to distinguish him more 
accurately from his two brothers. He was praetor 
in Sicily, b. c. 183, and consul, 174. (Liv. xxxix. 
45, xlL 26, xliiL 2.) 

15. L. Postumius A. p. A. n. Albinus, pro- 
bably a brother of No. 13 and 14, was praetor 
B. a 180, and obtained the province of further 
Spain. His command was prolonged in the follow- 



ing year. After conquering the Vaccaci and TiU- 
sitanl, he returned to llonie in 1 7H, and obtained 
a triumph on account of his victories. (Li v. xl. 
35, 44, 47, 48, 50, xlL 3, 11.) He was consul in 
173, with M. Popillius Laenas; and the war in 
Lipfuria was assigned to both consuls. Albinus, 
however, was first sent into Campania to separate 
the land of the state from that of private persons ; 
and this business occupied him all the summer, so 
that he was unable to go into his province. He 
was the first Roman magistrate who put the allies 
to any expense in travelling through their territo- 
ries. (xlL 33, xlii. 1, 9.) The festival of the 
Floralia, which had been discontinued, waa re- 
stored in his consulship. (Ov. Fatt, v. 329.) In 
171, he was one of the ambassadors sent to Masi- 
nissa and the Carthaginians in order to raise troops 
for the war against Perseus. (Lir. xlii 35.) In 
169 he was an unsuccessful candidate for the cen- 
sorsliip. (xliii. 16.) He served under Aemilius 
Paullus in Macedonia in 168, and commanded the 
second legion in the battle with Perseus, (xliv. 
41.) The last time he is mentioned is in this 
war, when he was sent to plunder the town of the 
AeniL (xlv. 27.) 

16. A. PosTUMiuB Albinus, one of the officers 
in the army of Aemilius Paullus in Macedonia^ 
B. c. 1 68. He was sent by Paullus to treat with 
Perseus ; and afterwards Perseus and his son Philip 
were committed to his care by Paullus. (Liv. 
xlv. 4, 28.) 

17. L. PoRTUMius Sp. f. L. n. Albinus, 
apparently son of No. 12, was curule aedile b. c. 
161, and exhibited the Ludi Megalenses, at which 
the Eunuch of Terence was acted. He was consul 
in 1 54, and died seven days after he had set out 
from Rome in order to go to his province. It was 
supposed that he was poisoned by his wife. 
(Obseq. 76 ; Val. Max. vi. 3. § 8.) 

18. A. PosTUMius A. P. A. N. Albinus, appa- 
rently son of No. 13, was praetor b. c. 155 (Cic. 
Aoad. ii. 45 ; Polyb. xxxiiL 1), and consul in 151 
with L. Licinius Lucullus. He and his colleague 
were thrown into prison by the tribunes for con- 
ducting the levies with too much severity. (Liv. 
EpiL 48; Polyb. xxxv. 3; Oros. iv. 21.) He 
was one of the ambassadors sent in 153 to make 
peace between Attains and Prusias (Polyb. xxxiii. 
11), and accompanied L. Mummius Acbaicus into 
Greece in 146 as one of his legates. There was a 
statue erected to his honour on the Isthmus. 
(Cic ad Att, xiii. 30, 32.) Albinus was well ac- 
quainted with Greek literature, and wrote in that 
language a poem and a Roman history, the latter 
of which is mentioned by several ancient writers. 
Poly bins (xL 6) speaks of him as a vain and lightr 
headed man, who disparaged his own people, and 
was sillily devoted to the study of Greek literature. 
He relates a tale of him and the elder Cato, who 
reproved Albinus sharply, because in the preface 
to his history he begged Uie pardon of his readers, 
if he should make any mistakes in writing in a 
foreign language ; Cato reminded him that he was 
not compelled to write at all, but that if he chose to 
write, he had no business to ask for the indulgence 
of his readers. This tale is also related by Gellius 
Txi. 8), Macrobius (Preface to Satum,\ Plutarch 
(Cbto, 12), and Suidas (». r. AJAor llo<rr6tuos). 
Polybius idso says that Albinus imitated the worst 
parts of the Greek character, that he was entirely 
devoted to pleasure, and shirked all hibour and 


danger. He relates that he retired to Thebes, 
whon the battle was fought at Phocis, on the plea 
of indisposition, but afterwards wrote an account 
of it to the senate as if he had been pirseoL 
Cicero speaks with rather more respect of his lite- 
rary merits ; he calls him dochts homo and tUtrnt- 
ius et digertut. (Cic Acad, iL 45, Bnt. 21.) Ma- 
crobius (ii. 16) quotes a passage from the first bonk 
of the Annals of Albinus respecting Brutus, and 
as he uses the words of Albinus, it has been sop- 
posed that the Greek history may have been trans- 
lated into Latin. A work of Albinos, on the 
arrival of Aeneas in Italy, is referred to by Ser- 
vius {ad Virg, Aen, ix. 710), and the author of the 
work ^ De Origine Gentis Romanae,^ c 15. 
(Krause, VUae et Fragm, Vderum Hittorieontm 
Romanorum^ p. 127, &c.) 

19. Sp. PosTUiiius Albinus Magnor, was 
consul B. c. 148, in which year a great fire hap- 
pened at Rome. (Obseq. 78.) It is this SfL 
Albinus, of whom Cicero speaks in the Bnitm$ (c 
25), and says that there were many orations of bis. 

20. Sp. Postumius Sp. p. Sp. n. Alblvus, 
probably son of No. 19, was consul & a 1 10, and 
obtained the province of Numidia to carry on the 
war against Jugurtha. He made vigorous prepa- 
rations for war, but when he reached the province, 
he did not adopt any active measures, but allowei 
himself to be deceived by the artifices of Jngnrtha, 
who constantly promised to surrender. Many pei^ 
sons supposed that his inactivity was intentioiBl, 
and that Jugurtha had bought him over. When 
Albinus departed from Africa, he left his brother 
Aulus in command. [See No. 21.] After the 
defeat of the latter he returned to Numidia, but 
in consequence of the disorganized state of his 
army, he did not prosecute the war, and handed 
over the army in this condition, in the followiug 
year, to the consul Metellus. (Sail Jmp, 35, 36, 
39,44; Oros. ir. 15; Eutrop. iv. 26.) He was 
condemned by the Mamilia Lex, which was passed 
to punish all those who had been guilty of treasan- 
able practices with Jugurtha. (Cic BmL 34; 
comp. Sail. Jug. 40.) 

2 1 . A. Post u m i us A lbin us, brother of No. 20, 
and probably son of No. 1 9, was left by his bro- 
ther as pro-praetor, in command of the army in 
Africa in B. c. 1 10. [See No. 20.] He marched 
to besiege Suthal, where the treasures of Jugurtha 
were deposited ; but Jugurtha, under the promise 
of giving him a large sum of money, indooed hia 
to lead his army mto a retired place, where he 
was suddenly attacked by the Numidian king, and 
only saved his troops from total destruction by 
allowing them to pass under the yoke, and under- 
taking to leave Numidia in ten days. (SalL J^ 
36— 3a) 

22. A. Postumius A. f. Sp. n. Albinus, grand- 
son of No. 19, and probably son of No. 21, was 
consul a c. 99, with M. Antonius. (Plin. H. S. 
viiL 7 ; Obseq. 106.) Gellius (iv. 6) quotes the 
words of a senatusconsultum passed in their con- 
sulship in consequence of the spears of Mars having 
moved. Cicero says that he was a good speaker. 
(Brut, 35, part Red, ad Quir. 5.) 

The following coin is supposed by Eckhel (vol 
V. p. 288) and others to refer to this Albinus. On 
one side is the hcnd of a female with the letters 
HisPAN., which may perhaps have reference to the 
victory which his ancestor L. Albinus obtained in 
Spain. [See No. 15.] On the other side a mau 


is repR«ented stretching oat his hand to an eagle, 
a militarj ttandard, and behind him are the fiuces 
with the axe. On it are the letters a. post. a. f. 
N. s. ABiN (so on the coin, instead of albin.). On 
the coins of the Postumia gens the praenomen 
Spoitus is alway written a. and not 8P. 



2a. A. PoiTUMiOB Albinus, a person of prae- 
torian »M»^t commanded the fleet, b. c. 89, in the 
Manic war, and was killed by his own soldiers 
QDder the ]iea that he meditated treachery, but in 
nality on accoont of his cruelty. Solla, who was 
then a legate of the consul Porcius Cato, incorpo- 
rated his troops with his own, but did not punish 
the o&nders. (Ut. EpiL 75 ; Plut Sulla, 6.) 

24. A. PoflTUUira Albinus was pbced by 
Caesar over Sdly, b. c. 48. (Appian, B,Cu. 48.) 

25. D. Junius Brutus Albinus, adopted by 
No. 22, and commiemorated in the annexed coin, 
vhere Bnitaa b called albinv(s) bbvti. p. 

ALBI'NUS, procurator of Judaea, in the reign 
of Nero, about a. o. 63 and 64, succeeded Festus, 
and was guilty of almost every kind of crime in 
hit goTemment He pardoned the vilest criminals 
for money, and shamelessly plundered the pro- 
vincials. He was succeeded by Florus. (Joseph. 
AnLJiui, XX. S.%li BelL Jttd. u. 14. § 1.) The 
Lucuus Albinus mentioned below may possibly 
hare been the same person. 

ALBrNUS (*AAftyo5), a Platonic philosopher, 
who Hred at Smyrna and was a contemporary of 
Galen. (Galen, toL It. p. 372, ed. Basil.) A 
short tract by him, entitled *£urory»7ii tis rods 
OA^Mvot AioA^yovf , has come down to us, and is 
poblished in the second Yolume (p. 44) of the first 
edition of Fafaricius ; but omitud in the reprint 
by Harles, because it is to be found prefixed to 
£twall*s edition of three dialogues of Plato, Oxon. 
1771 ; and to Fischer*s four dialogues of Plato, 
Lips. 1783b It contains hardly anything of im- 
ponanoe. After explaining ihe nature of the 
Dialogue, which he compares to a Drama, the 
writer goes on to divide the Dialogues of Pkto 
mto four dassea, Koyucads, ikeyKTuco^Sf (pvcucous, 
iBucoitt and mentions another division of them 
into Tetralogies, according to their subjects. He 
adrises that the Alcibiades, Phaedo, Republic, and 
Timaeos, should be read in a series. 

The authorities respecting Albinus have been 
eoUected by Fabricius. (BUU. Graee, iii. p. 668.) 
He is nid to have written a work on the arrange- 
Bi«t of the writnigs of Pkito. Another Albinus 
it mentioned by Boethius and Cassiodorus, who 

wrote in Latin some works on music and geo- 
metry. [B. J.J 

ALBI'NUS, CLO'DIUS, whoae fuU name 
was Decimus Clodius Ceionius Septimius Al- 
binus, the son of Ceionius Postumius and 
Aurelia Messalina, was bom at Adrumetum. in 
Africa ; but the year of his birth is not known. 
According to his father's statement (Capitol. 
Clod, AUmu 4), he received the name of Albi- 
nus on account of the extraordinary whiteness of 
his body. Shewing great disposition for a military 
life, he entered the army at an eariy age and 
served with great distinction, especially during the 
rebellion of Avidius Casaius against the emperor 
Marcus Aurelius, in a. d. 175. His meriU were 
acknowledged by the emperor in two letters {ib, 
10) in which he calls Albinus an African, who re- 
sembled his countrymen but little, and who was 
praiseworthy for his military experience, and the 
grarity of his character. The emperor likewise 
dedared, that without Albinus the legions (in 
Bithynia) would have gone over to Avidius Cas- 
sias, and that he intended to have him chosen 
consuL The emperor Commodus ^ve Albinus a 
command in Gaul and afterwards m Britain. A 
fedse rumour having been spread that Commodus 
had died, Albinus harangued the army in Britain 
on the occasion, attacking Commodus as a tyrant, 
and maintaining that it would be useful to the 
Roman empire to restore to the senate its ancient 
dignity and power. The senate was very pleased 
with these sentiments, but not so the emperor, 
who sent Junius Severus to supersede Albinus in 
his command. At this time Albinus must have 
been a very distinguished man, which we may 
conclude from the fact, that some time before 
Commodus had offered him the title of Caesar, 
which he wisely declined. Notwithstanding the 
appointment of Junius Severus as his successor, 
Albinus kept his command till after the murder of 
Commodus and that of his successor Pertinax in 
A. D. 193. It is doubtful if Albinus was the 
secret author of the murder of Pertinax, to which 
Capitolinus makes an allusion. (76.14.) 

After the death of Pertinax, Didius Julianus 
purchased the throne by bribing the praetorians ; 
but immediately afterwards, C. Peacennius Niger 
was proclaimed emperor by the legions in Syria ; 
L. Septimius Severus by the troops in lllyricum 
and Pannonia ; and Albinus by the armies in Bri- 
tain and GauL Julianus having been put to death 
by order of the senate, who dreaded the power 
of Septimius Severus, the latter turned his arms 
against Pescennius Niger. With regard to Al- 
binus, we must believe that Severus made a pro- 
visional arrangement with him, conferring upon 
him the title of Caesar, and holding with him 
the consulship in a. d. 194. But after the defeat 
and death of Niger in a. D. 194, and the complete 
discomfiture of his adherents, especially after the 
fidl of Byzantium in a. d. 196, Severus resolved 
to make himself the absolute master of the Roman 
empire. Albinus seeing the danger of his position, 
which he had increased by his indolence, prepared 
for resistance. He narrowly escaped being 
assassinated by a messenger of Severus (ib, 7, 8), 
whereupon he put himself at the head of his army, 
which is said to have consisted of 150,000 men. 
He met the equal forces of Severus at Lugdunum 
(Lyons), in Gaul, and there fought with him on 
the 19th of February, 197 (Spartian. Sever. 11), a 


b1oo(!y IfflUle, in which he yrm ax first vicloriaaB, 
hut at last was Dntlruly defeated, and lost bi^ liTe 
either by Buicide, of by ordL^ of Severn^, after 
hnvin)^ been triads n prisoner. Hi a body wjn ill 
treated by St?vefua, who bciit his bead to Rome, 
Olid acL'onipaDied it with im inftolent letter, in 
which he uio^ki'd the senate for their adherenci? to 
Albinus. The town of Lugduuiuo watt pluudt^'ied 
ftiid dc»t^oyc^d, ^nd the adherenta of AlbinuB were 
cruelly prosuc cited by Sevcrus, 

A I bin an voa a maji of great bodlJy beauty and 
iti^ngth ; he waa aci eicp4?rii[!iiced general ; a skil- 
ful gladiator i a&evere^ and often cruel commander; 
Etnd ho has been called the Catiline of hi& time. 
He bad one son, or perhnpi two, who were put to 
death with tht-ir niutfier, by order of Sevvrua. It 
ii said that he wrote a treatise on. agriciitture, 
and a collection of storiea, called Milesian. (L'api- 
toIiouiH Cltnliiis Athuiiii: Dion CUukS. lix. 4 — 7; 
Herodian, ii. lo, tii* 5 — 7») 

There are ievenJ medfUa of Albjuua, In the 
one annexed he it ooiled IK 1X00* Be£'1^ al^in. 
CAKS. tW. P.] 

ALBT'NUS, LUCE'IUS, was made by Nero 
prwamtar of Maun-tnoia CaeBoriensis, to wliich 
Oftllia added the province of TingJtana, Afk^r the 
dentb of Gatbfi, a. n. (19, ho espouiKiid the pid<3 of 
Otho, and prepared to invade Spain. Cluviui 
Rqfus, who tonitnaudcd in Spain, being aianned at 
thib, sent centarioni mxa Mauretmiia to induce the 
Mann to revolt againat Alhinujw They iicom- 
plifthcd thia i^itbrswt rtiudi di/Rculty ^ and Albinua 
whb tnurdered with his t^ ifr. {Tac. V/ui. ii. 58, hU.) 

A'L Bl O N or A L E' n I (J N (' kx^imv or ' AXf^t wt-), 
i. icm of Poseidon aud brother nf Dercynu* or 
Bpz^em^ together with whL>ni he attacked Jliiraclea, 
when he passed throagh their country (Liguria) 
with the oxen of Geryon. But they paid for their 
prefiijmption with thejr \\xe9^ (ApolloiL ii, 5* § 10; 
Pomp. Mela, ii. 5. § 39.) The SchoHjist on Lyco- 
pbron (C4R) callii the brother of Alebion, Ligya. 
Th« (tory 11 alftfi dluded t^ in Hygiuus (rotLAsCr, 
iL G) and DionyMui. (i, 4h) [L. S,] 

ALBUCILLA, tbo wife of SntrJuSi Secundum, 
and infamoiu for her many amouni} was occu*ed in 
the lait yinir of the ruign, of Tiberio* (a* d. 37) of 
treason, or impiety, ngninut the emperor (inyui iatii 
itt pnrt€iftein% Mid, with her, Cn. Domitiu* Aheno- 
borbtis, Vibius Marsui, and L. Arruntius, as ac- 
coiupHcet* She waa cast inte prison by conuTjaiid 
of the ienate^ iiftcr niHiking an ineffectiial ntli mpt 
to de*troy her&olf. (Tac, Ann, -vi. 47, iU.) 

ALBU'NtiA, a pnnplictic nymph or Sibyl, to 
whom in the neighbourhood of Tibur a gro^e waa 
ccriicctBted, with a well and a temple. Near it 
WM the Oracle of Faunus Fatidicnsi, (V'irg. Acn, 
Til. eij&c. ; Hor. Oii^jL i. 7. }^ -, TibulL ii, 5. 
69,) Lactantias (De -S%/i i. 6) states, that the 
tenth Sibyl, called Albunea, wns wori^hipped at 
Tiliur, and that b<*r image, holding a botik in one 


hand, was found in the bed of the nvn Aiik>. 
Her toriesy or oraclea, which belonged to the ^' 
/cUales, were, at the cominand of the senate, depo- 
sited and kept in the CapitoL The small iquan 
temple of this Sibyl is still extant at TivolL R«- 
specting the locality, see Kephalidea^ Reiaen dard 
ItaUm^ i. p. 125, && [L. S.] 

ALBU'CIUS or ALBU'TIUS, a physidan a 
Rome, who lived probably about the beginmng or 
middle of the first century alter Christ, and who is 
mentioned by Pliny (H, N. xxix. 5) as having 
gained by his practice tlie annual income of tvo 
hundred and fifty thousand sesterces (about ld5.U 
2$. 6d.). This is considered by Pliny to be a Terr 
large sum, and may therefore give ua some notiun o{ 
the fortunes made by physicians at Rome about the 
begitming of the empire. [W. A. G.] 

T. ALBU'CIUS or ALBU'TIUS, finished hii 
studies at Athens at the latter end of the seooiid 
century b. c, and belonged to the Epicurean lect. 
He was well acquainted with Greek literalure, or 
rather, says Cicero, was almost a Greek. {linU. 
35.) On account of his affecting on ereiy oocskion 
the Greek language and philosophy, he was san- 
rized by Lucilius, whose lines upon him are pre- 
served by Cicero {de Fm. i. 3); and Cicero hiiitteif 
speaks of him as a light-minded man. He accased, 
but unsuccessfully, Q. Mucius Scaevola, the aagni; 
of maladministration {repelundae) in his proTiace. 
(Bnd, 26, De Oral. iL 70.) In B. a 105 Albodui 
was praetor in Sardinia, and in consequence of 
some insignificant success which he had gainrd 
over some robbers, he celebrated a triumph in tite 
province. On his return to Rome, he applied to 
the senate for the honour of a supplicatio, but ths 
was refused, and he was accused in b. c 1U3 of 
repetundae by C. Julius Caesar, and condemned. 
Cn. Pompeius Strabo had offered himself as the 
accuser, but he was not allowed to conduct tbe 
prosecution, because he had been the quaestor d 
Albucius. (De Prov, Cons, 7, mi Pison. 38, X>re. «" 
CaecU, 19, £fe Qjf. ii. 14.) After his condemnaddn, 
he retured to Athens and pursued the study ot phi- 
losophy. (Tu3C. V. 37.) ife left behind him mmm 
orations, which had been read by Cicero. (BnL 3a.) 

Varro (de Re RusL iiL 2. § 'l7) speaks of sosie 
satires by L. Albucius written in the style of Luci- 
lius ; he appears to be the same person as Titus. 

C. ALBU'CIUS SILA& [Silas.] 



ALCAEUS QAKkcuos). 1. A son of Perseus 
and Andromeda, and married to Hipponome, the 
daughter of Menoeceus of Thebea, by whom he 
became the fiither of Amphytrion and Anaxo, 
(Apollod. iL 4. § 5 ; Schol ad Eunp. HeaA. m) 
According to Paiisanias (viii. 14. § 2) his wife** 
name was Laonome, a daughter of the Arcadiao 
G uncus, or Lysidicc, a daughter of Pelops. 

2. According to Diodorus (L 14) the originsi 
name of Heracles, given him on account of hi» 
descent from Alcaeus, the son of Perseus. [Ub- 


3. A son of Heracles by a female slave of Ja^ 
danus, from whom the dynasty of the Herachdt 
in Lydia were believed to be descended. (Henxi. 
i. 7.) Diodorus (iv. 31) calls this son of Hera- 
cles, Clcolaus. (Comp. Hcllanicus, ap» Stepk. Bp- 
8. V. *AK4\fi ; Wesseling, ad DuxL L c) 

4. According to Di^orus (v. 79) a genend of 
Rhadamanthys, who presented him with the iibad 


rf Paro& Ap<d]odoras (ii 5. § 9) relates that he 
van a 6on of Andiog^a (the son of Minos) and 
Ifother of Sthenelna, and that when Heracles, on 
Lii expedition to £etch the girdle of Ares, which 
vas IB the possession of the queen of the Amazons, 
arrired at Pftros, some of his companions were 
skin by the sons of Minos, residing there. He- 
racles, in his anger, slew the descendemts of Minos, 
except Alcaeus and Sthenelus, whom he took with 
bim, and to whom he afterwards assigned the 
island of Thasus as their habitation. [L. S.] 

ALCAEUS QAXmSos\ of Mxhsenb, the author 
of a number of epigrams in the Greek anthology, 
from some of whuh his date may be easily fixed. 
He was oontempoiary with Philip HI., king of 
Mscedonta, and son of Demetrius, against whom 
seTend of his epignuns are pointed, apparently 
from patriotic feelings. One of these epigrams, 
howerer, gare even more offence to the Roman 
gfneial, Flamininns, than to Philip, on account of 
the aathor*s ascribing the victory of Cynoscepha- 
Ise to theAetolians as much as to the Romans. 
Philip contented himself with writing an epigram 
in reply to that of Alcaeus, in which he gave the 
Messenian a very broad hint of the fate he might 
expect if he fell into his hands. (Plut ffamm. 
9.) This reply has singularly enough led Salmasius 
{IM Crmx, p^ 449, apu Fabric. DiUioth. Graec. ii. p. 
^) to suppose that Alcaeus was actoally crucified. 
In another epigram, in praise of Flamininus, the 
mention of thie Roman general^s name, Titus, led 
Tieties (Prolog, in Lyixpkrtm) into the error of 
imagining the existence of an epigrammatist named 
Akaeus under the emperor Titus. Those epigrams 
of Akaeus which bew internal evidence of their 
date, were written between the yean 219 and 


Of the tventy-two epigrams in the Greek An- 
thology which bear the name of "Alcaeus," two have 
the word **Mytilenaeus" added to it ; but Jacobs 
■tinns to be perfectly nght in taking this to be the 
addition of some ignorant copyist. Others be«ir 
the liame of *^ Alcaeus Messenius,** and some of 
Alcaeus abne. But in the last class there are 
wverai which must, fitmi internal evidence, have 
been written by Akaeus of Messene, and, in feet, 
there seems no reason to doubt his being the author 
of the whole twenty-two. 

There are mentioned as contemporaries of Al- 
caeus, two other persons of the same name, one of 
them an Epicurean philosopher, who was expelled 
from Rome by a decree of the senate about 173 or 
154 a. c. {Perixon. ad Aelkau V, H, ix. 22 ; Athen. 
Ml. p. 547, jl; Suidaa, «.«. •EwfKowpoj) : the other 
» inddentally spoken of by Polybius as being 
"<:<nutomed to ridicule the grammarian Tsocrates. 
(Polyb. xxxii 6; ac 160.) It is just possible 
jhai these two persons, of whom nothing fiuther is 
known, may have been klentical with each other, 
and with the epigrammatist 
. (Jacobs, ApikaL Graec xiiL pp. 836-838 ; there 
^a refisence to Alcaeus of Messene in Eusebius, 
Proepar, Bvang, x. 2.) [P. S.] 

ALCAEUS ('AAKoibs), of Mytilenb, in the 
island of Lesbos, the earliest of the Aeolian lyric 
P«ti, began to flourish in the 42nd Olympiad 
when a contest had commenced between the nobles 
and the people in his native state. Alcaeus be- 
longed by birth to the fonner party, and warmly 
esponsed their cause. In the second year of the 
42nd Olympiad (a a 611), we find the brothers of 



Alcaens, namely, Cicis and Antimenidas, fighting 
under Pittacus against Melanchrus, who is de- 
scribed as the tyrant of Lesbos, and who fell in the 
conflict. (Diog. Laert. i. 74, 79 ; Strab. xiii p. 
617 ; Suidas, s. v. KUa and n^rroicof ; EtymoL 
M. p. 513, s. «. KiOapor, instead of K/km; Clin- 
ton, Fagii, L p. 216.) Alcaeus does not appear 
to have taken part with his brothers on this ou»- 
sion : on the contrary, he speaks of Melanchrus in 
tenns of high praise. (Fr. 7, p. 426, Blomfield.) 
Alcaeus is mentioned in connexion with the war 
in Troas, between the Athenians and My tilenaeans 
for the possession of Sigeum. (& c. 606.) Though 
Pittacus, who commanded the army of^Mytilene, 
slew with his own hand the leader of the Athe- 
nians, Phrynon, an Olympic victor, the Mytile- 
naeans were defeated, and Alcaeus incurred the 
disgrace of leaving his arms behind on the field of 
battle ; these arms were hung up as a trophy by 
the Athenians in the temple of PaUas at Sigeum. 
(Herod, v. 95; Plut. de Herod. Malig. s. 15, p. 
858; Strab. xiii. pp. 599, 600; Euseb. Ckron. 
Oiym. xliii. 3; Clinton, Faatiy l p. 219.) His 
sending home the news of this disaster in a poem, 
addressed to his friend Melanippus (Fr. 56, p. 
438, Blomf.), seems to shew that he had a reputar 
tion for courage, such as a single disaster could not 
endanger ; and accordingly we find him spoken of 
by ancient writers as a brave and skilful warrior. 
(Anthol. Pahit. ix. 184 ; Cic. Tusc Dup. iv. 33; 
Hor. Cbm. i 32. 6; Athen. xv. p. 687.) He 
thought that his lyre was best employed in ani- 
mating his friends to warlike deeds, and his house 
is described by himself as furnished with the wea- 
pons of war rather than with the instruments of 
his art (Athen. xiv. p. 6^; Fr. 24, p. 430, 
Blomf.) During the period which followed the 
war about Sigeum, the contest between the nobles 
and the people of Mytileue was brought to a crisis ; 
and the people, headed by a succession of leaders, 
who are called tyrants, and among whom are men- 
tioned the names of Myrsilus, Megalagyms, and 
the Cleanactids, succeeded in driving the nobles 
into exile. During this civil war Alcaeus engaged 
actively on *he side of the nobles, whose spirits he 
endeavoured to cheer by a number of most ani- 
mated odes full of invectives against the tyrants ; 
and after the defeat of his party, he, with his bro- 
ther Antimenidas, led them again in an attempt to 
regain their country. To oppose this attempt Pit- 
tacus was unanimously chosen by the people as 
cdovfur^ris (dictator) or tyrant. He held his 
office for ten years (b. c. 589 — 579), and during 
that time he defeated all the efforts of the exiled 
nobles, and established the constitution on a popu- 
Lir basis ; and then he resigned his power. 
(Strab. xiii p. 617; Alcaeus, Fr. 23, p. 230, 
Blomf.; Arist. Rep, iii. 9. § 5, or iiL 14 ; Plut. 
AmaL § 18, p. 763 ; Diog. Laert. i 79; Dionys. 
V. p. 336, Sylb.) [Pittacus.] 

Notwithstanding the invectives of Alcaeus 
against him, Pittacus is said to have set him at 
liberty when he had been taken prisoner, saying 
that " foigiveness is better than revenge." (Diog. 
Laert. i. 76 ; Valer. Max. iv. 1. § 6.) Alcaeus 
has not escaped the suspicion of being moved by 
personal ambition in his opposition to Pittacus. 
(Strab. xiii. p. 617.) When Alcaeus and Anti- 
menidas perceived that all hope of their restoration 
to Mytilene vras gone, they travelled over different 
countries. Alcaeus visited Egypt (Strab. i. p. S7}y 



And he appears to have written poems in which his 
Adventures by sea were described. (Hor. Carm. ii. 
13. 28.) Antimenidas entered the service of the 
king of Babylon, and performed an exploit which 
was celebrated by Alcaeus. (Strab. xiiu p. 617, 
Fr. 33, p. 433, Blom£) Nothing is known of the 
life of Alcaeus after this period ; but from the 
political state of Mytilene it is most probable that 
he died m exile. 

Among the nine principal lyric poets of Greece 
some ancient writers assign the first place, others the 
second, to Alcaeus. His writings present to us the 
Aeolian lyric at its highest point. But their circula- 
tion in Greece seems to have been limited by the 
strangeness of the Aeolic dialect, and perhaps their 
loss to ns may be partly attributed to the same cause. 
Two recensions of the works of Alcaeus were made 
by the grammarians Aristarchus and Aristophanes. 
Some fragments of his poems which remain, and 
the excellent imitations of Horace, enable us to 
understand something of their character. 

His poems, which consisted of at least ten books 
(Athen. xi. p. 481), were called in general Odes, 
Hymns, or Songs {ftrftarra). Those which have 
received the hi^est praise are his warlike or pa- 
triotic odes referring to the Actions of his state 
trrcurtMTucd or fitxoorcurtcurnica, the '^Alcaei mi- 
naces Camoenae** of Horace. (Carm, ii. 13. 27; 
QnintiL z. 1. § 63 ; Dionys. de Vet, Scr^. Eau. ii. 
8, p. 73, Sylb.) Among the fragments of these 
are the commencement of a song of exultation over 
the death of Myrsilus (Fr. 4, Blomf.), and part of 
a comparison of his ruined party to a disabled ship 
(Fr. 2, BlomC), both of which are finely imitated 
by Horace. {Oarm, i. 37, i. 14.) Many fragments 
are preserved, especi^ly by Athenaeus (z. pp. 429, 
430), in which the poet sings the praises of wine. 
(Fr. I, 3, 16, 18,20, Blomf.; comp. Hor. Oann, i 9. 
18.) Miiller remarks, that ^it may he doubted 
whether Alcaeus composed a separate class of 
drinking songs {trvfiiroTiKd) ; . . . it is more proba- 
ble that he connected every exhortation to drink 
with some reflection, either upon the particular 
circumstances of the time, or upon man^s destiny 
in general.** Of his erotic poems we have but few 
remains. Among them were some addressed to 
Sappho; one of which, with Sappho*s reply, is 
preserved by Aristotle (Rhet, L 9; Fr. 38, Blom£; 
Sappho, fr. 30), and others to beautiful youths. 
(Hor. Carm, i. 32. 10; Cic. de Nat. Deor. I 28, 
Tusc Quaesi. iv. 33.) Most of his remaining poems 
are religious hymns and epigrams. Many of his 
poems are addressed to his friends individiudly. 

The poetry of Alcaeus is always impassioned. 
Not only with him, but with the Aeolic school in 
general, poetry was not a mere art, but the plain 
and warm outpouring of the writer's inmost feelings. 

The metres of Alcaeus were generally lively, 
and ids poems seem to have been constructed in 
short single strophes, in all of which the corres- 
ponding lines were of the same metre, as in the 
odes of Horace. He is said to have invented the 
well-known Alcaic strophe. 

His likeness is preserved, together with that of 
Pittacus, on a brass coin of Mytilene in the Royal 
Museum at Paris, which is engraved by ViscontL 
{Icon. PL iii. No. 3.) 

The fragments of Alcaeus were first collected 
by Mich. Neander in his **Aristologia Pindarica,*^ 
Basil 1556, 8vo., then by Henry Stephens in his 
collection of the fragments of the nine chief lyric 


poets of Greece (1557), of which there are lerfni 
editions, and by Fulvius Ursinna, 1568, Sva Tbe 
more modem collections are those by Jani, Haiu 
San. 1780^1782, 4to. ; by Strange, Halle, 1814, 
8vo. ; by Blomfield, in the **Mttseiim CritiooiD,'" 
vol L p. 421, &C., Camb. 1826, reprinted in Gsis- 
ford's ''Poetae Graeci Minores;^ and the mA 
complete edition is that of Matthiae, '^Akaa 
Mytilenaei reliquiae,** Lips. 1827. Additiooal 
fragments have been printed in the Rhenish Mu- 
seum for 1829, 1833, and 1835 ; in Jahs*s *'Jah^ 
bUch. f ur Philolog.** for 1830; and in Cnmer'i 
^'Aneodota Graeca,** vol L Ox£ 1835. 

(Bode, GescHdUe der Lyritchem, DuiOamd dir 
Hellenen, ii. p. 378, &c.) [P. S-l 

ALCAEUS (AXkoZos), the son of Miccos, va 
a native of Mytilbnb, according to Suidas, wbt 
may, however, have confounded him in this poifit 
with the lyric poet. He is fonnd exhibitii^ st 
Aliens as a poet of the old comedy, or rstber of 
that mixed comedy, which formed the tianatisi 
between the old and the middle^ In b. & S8H, k< 
brought fi^rward a play entitled TUuni^^ m tl» 
same contest in which Aristophanes exhibited ha 
second Plutus, but, if the meaning of Ssidsi u 
rightly understood, he obtained only the fifth 
place. Ho left ten plays, of which some fiag- 
ments remain, and the foUowing titles are knov1^ 
*ASt\<pai fAoiXfvofjJvaij ra>vfu}5i}f, ErBi^iW, 'It^i 
ydfMSj KaWtarm, Ki»fx^>liorpay^ia^ HaXoMrrj^ 

Alcaeus, a tng^c poet, mentioned by FabiidEi 
{Bblioth. Graec ii. p. 282), does not ^ypear to le 
a different person from Alcaeus the comeduo. 
The mistake of calling him a tragic poet spm 
simply from an erroneous reading of the title of his 

(The Greek Argument to the Flatus; Suidis, 
s. V. ; Pollux, X. 1 ; Casaubon on Athen. iii. ^ 
206 ; Meineke, Fraffm. Comic Graec L p. 244, 
ii. p. 824; Bode, Geackkkie der Bntmataiit* 
Dichthmst der Hellenen, ii. p. 386.) [ P. S.] 

ALCA'MENES ('AAicaM^i^j). king of Speila, 
] 0th of the Agids, son of Teledus, oonimanded, w- 
cording to Pausanias, in the night-expeditua 
against Ampheia, which commenced the fint M«>- 
senian war, but died before its 4th year. Tbu 
would fix the 38 yean assigned him by Apollodoras. 
about 779 to 742 b. c. In his reign Helos vis 
taken, a place near the mouth of the Euotas. 
the bst independent hold most likely of the old 
Achaean population, and the supposed origin of the 
term Helot (Pans. iiL 2. § 7, iv. 4. § 3, 5. § 3; 
Herod, vii 204 ; Pint. Apopktk Lac) [A H. C] 

ALCA'MENES ('AXiccyi^ynf ), the son of Sihe^ 
nelaides, whom Agis appointed as harmost of ^ 
Lesbians, when they wished to revdt from the 
Athenians in & a 412. When Alcamenes pot to 
sea with twenty-one ships to sail to Chios, he V3^ 
pursued by the Athenian fleet off the Isthmiu of 
Corinth, and driven on shore. The Athenianf at- 
tacked the ships when on shore, and Akaio^n^ 
was killed in the engagement. (Thuc. viii 5, 1^ ) 

ALCA'MENES ('AAxofi^viit), a distinguish 
statuary and sculptor, a native of Athens. (P'^ 
H. N. xxxvi. 6. s. 4.) Suidas (». v.) calls him » 
Lemnian (if by Alcamenes he means the &rti>t> 
This K. O. MuUcr {Arch, der KtauL p. 96) into- 
prets to mean that he was a clenichos, or holder d 
one of the K\iipoi in Lemnoa. Voss, who ii fol- 
lowed by Thiersch {Epochen der bild. K^n^ ? 
130), conjectured that the true reading is Ai/tfi«t 


and acoordiiigly that Alcamenes was born in the 
district called the Alfufoi^ which is in some degree 
confimied bj his haTing made a statue of Dionysus 
ki gold and rwuaj to adorn a temple of that god in 
the Lenaeom, a part of the Tiimnap, (Paus. i. 20. 
§ 2.) He was the most fiunons of the pnpik of 
Phidias, but was not so dose an imitator of his 
master as Agocacritns. Like his fellow-pupil, he 
exercised his talent chiefly in making statues of 
the deities. By ancient writers he is ranked 
amongst the moet distinguished artists, and is con- 
fidered by Pansanias second only to Phidias. 
(Qaintn. xiL 10. § 8 ; Dionys. De Demottk, acum, 
voLvi. pw 1108, ed. Reiske; Paus. y. 10. §2.) 
He flourished from about OL 84 (Plin. H, N. xzziT. 
8. s. 19) to OL 95 (a c. 444-400). PIiny*s date is 
eonfiimed W Pauaanias, who flays(TiiL 9. § 1), that 
Praxiteles wmriahed in the third generation after 
Alcamenes ; and Praxiteles, as Pliny teUs us, flour- 
ished about OL 104 (b. a 364). The hut works 
of his which we hear of^ were the colossal statues 
of Athene and Hercules, which Thiasybulus erected 
in the temple of Hercules at Thebes after the ex- 
poLnon of the tyrants from Athens, (b. c. 403.) 
The most beaataM and renowned of the works of 
Alcamenes was a statue of Venus, called from the 
place where it was set up, 'H ip mfroit *A^po- 
^irn. (Lucian, Jmagma^ 4, 6 ; Pau& L 19. § %) 
It is laid that Phidias himself put the finishing 
touches to this work. (Plin. H, N. xxzyL 3. s. 4.) 
The breasts, cheeks, and hands were especially 
sdmiied. It has becai supposed by some that this 
was the Venus for which he gained the prise orer 
Agoracritus. There is no dnect evidence of this, 
snd it is scarcely consistent with what Pliny says, 
that Alcamenes owed his success more to the fo- 
Touritism of his fellow-citizens than to the excel- 
lence of his statue. Another celebrated specimen 
of his genius was the western pediment of the 
temple at Olympia, ornamented with a representa- 
tion of the battle between the Centaurs and the 
Upithae. (Pau& r. 10. § 2.) Other works of his 
were : a statue of Mars in the temple of that god 
St Athens (Pans. L a § 5) ; a statue of Hephae- 
ttus, in which the lameness of the god was so in- 
geniously represented as not to gire the appearance 
of defonnity (Cic De NaL Deor, I 30 ; VaL Max. 
riii. 11. ext 3) ; an Aescuhipins at Mantineia 
(Psns. riiL 9. § 1) ; a three-formed Hecate (the 
first of the kind), and a Procne in the Acropolis at 
Athens (Pans. iL 30. § 2, L 24. § 3) ; and a bronze 
itaioe of a rictor in the Pentathlon. (Plin. xxxiv. 
8. 1. 19.) A story of very doubtful credibility is 
told by Tzetxes (C5WL viiL 193), that Alcamenes 
snd Phidias contended in making a statue of 
Athene, and that before the statues were erected 
in their destined elevated position, that of Alca- 
menes was the most admired on account of its de- 
licate finish; but that, when set up, the effect of 
the more strongly defined features in that of Phi- 
dias caused the Athenians to change their opinion. 
On a Roman anaglyph in the yilki Albani there 
It the fi>]k>wing inscription : 

Q^ LoLuus Alcamenes 
Db& XT Duumvir. 
If this contains the name of the artist, he would 
•wm to have been a descendant of an Alcamenes, 
who hsd been the slave and afterwards the freed- 
nan of one of the LoUian fiunUy, and to have at- 
tuned to the dignity of decurio and duumvir in 
■wne munidpium. He perhaps exercised the art 



of carvmg as an amateur. (Winckelmann, viiL 4, 
6.) [C. P. M.] 

ALCANDER CAAmD^pof). There are throe 
mythical personages of this name, who are men- 
tioned respectively in Hom. //. v. 678 ; Viig. Aen» 
ix. 766 ; Antonin. Lib. 14. A fiemale Alcandra 
occurs in the Oi. iv. 125. [L. S.] 

ALCANDER ("AXmiyS^f), a young Spartan, 
who attacked Lycuigus and thrust out one of his 
eyes, when his fellow-citizens were discontented 
with the kws he proposed. His mangled fisoe, 
however, produced shame and repentance in his 
enemiesi and they delivered up Alcander to him to 
be punished as he thought fit But Lycuigus par- 
doned his outrage, and thus converted him into 
one of his warmest friends. (Pint Ljfc 1 1 ; Aelian, 
V. H. xiii. 23; VaL Max. v. 3. § ext 2.) 

'AAiH0^), a daughter of Minyas, and sister of 
Lencippe and Arsippe. Instead of Arsippe, Ae- 
lian ( r. ^. iiL 42) calls the hitter Aristippa, and 
Plutarch {QuaesL Gr. 38) Arsinoe. At the time 
when the worship of Dionysus was introduced into 
Boeotia, and while the other women and maidens 
were revelling and ranging over Uie mountains in 
Bacchic joy, these two sisters alone remained at 
home, devoting themselves to their usual occupa- 
tions, and dius profiming the days sacred to the 
god. Dionysus punished them by changing them 
into bats, and their work into vines. (Ov. Met. 
iv. 1—40, 390—415.) Plutarch, Aelian, and 
Antoninus Liberalis, though with some differences 
in the detail, relate that i^nysus appeared to the 
sisters in the form of a maiden, and invited them 
to partake in the Dionysiac mysteries. When 
this request was not complied with, the god metar 
morphosed himself successively into a bull, a lion, 
and a panther, and the sisters were seized with 
madness. In this state ther were eager to honoor 
the god, and Leucippe, who was chosen by lot 
to oflfer a sacrifice to Dionysus, gave up her own 
ion Hippasus to be torn to pieces. In extreme 
Bacchic frenzy the sisters now roamed over the 
mountains, until at last Hermes changed them into 
birds. Plutarch adds that down to his time the 
men of Orchomenos descended from that fiEunily 
were call^ ^X6us^ that is, mourners, and the wo- 
men dAc«ai or otoAcioi, that is, the destroyers. In 
what manner the neglect of the Dionysiac worship 
on the part of Alcathoe and her sister was atoned 
for every year at the festival of the Agrionia, see 
DieL €f AnL ». t>. *Ayf>uiyta ; comp. Buttmann, 
Mytholog. u. p. 201, &c [L. S.] 

ALCA'THOUS CAAiccitfoos). 1. A son of 
Pelops and Hippodameia, brother of Atreus and 
Thyestes, first married Pyrgo and afterwards 
Euaechme, and was the fiither of Echepolis, Cal- 
lipolis, Iphinoe, Periboea, and Automedusa. (Paus. 
i. 42. § 1, 4, 43. § 4 ; ApoUod. iL 4. § 11, iiu 12. 
§ 7.) Pansanias fu 41. § 4) reUtes that, after 
Euippus, the son of king Megareus, was destroyed 
by the Cythaeronian lion, Megareus, whose elder 
son Timalcus had likewise fallen by the hands of 
Theseus, offered his daughter Euaechme and his 
kingdom to him who should slay that lion. Al- 
cathous undertook the task, conquered the lion, 
and thus obtained Euaechme for his wife, and 
afterwards became the successor of Megareus. In 
gratitude for this success, he built at Megara a 
temple of Artemis Agrotera and Apollo Agraeu^ 
He also restored the walls of Megara, which had 




been destroyed by the Crctftnt. (Paiu. L 41. § 5.) 
In this woric he was said to have been assisted by 
Apollo, and the stone, upon which the god used to 
place his lyre while he was at woik, was even in 
late times believed, when struck, to give forth a 
sound similar to that of a lyre. (Pans, i 42. § 1 ; 
Ov. Met, viii. 15, &c. ; Virg. Cir, 105 ; Theogn. 
751.) Echepolis, one of the sons of Alcathous, 
was killed during the Calydonian hunt in Aetolia, 
and when his brother Cailipolis hastened to carry 
the sad tidings to his fether, he found him en- 
gaged in offering a sacrifioe to Apollo, and think- 
ing it unfit to offer sacrifices at such a moment, 
he snatched away the wood from the altar. Alca- 
thous imagining this to be an act of sacrilegious 
wantonness, killed his son on the spot with a 
piece of wood. (Paus. L 42. § 7.) The acropolis 
of Megara was called by a name derived from that 
of Alcathous. (i. 42. § 7.) 

2. A son of Porthaon and Eoryte, who was 
slain by Tydeus. (Apollod. i 7. § 10, 8. § 5; 
Diod. iv. 65.) 

3. A son of Aesyetes and husband of Hippo- 
dameia, the daughter of Anchises and sister of 
Aeneas, who was educated in his house. (H< 
JL ziii. 466.) In the war of Troy he was one of 
the Trojan leaders, and was one of the handsomest 
and bravest among them. (//. zii. 93, xiii. 427.) 
He was slain by Idomeneus with the assistance of 
Poseidon, who struck Alcathous with blindness 
and paralyzed his limbs so that he could not fiee. 
{IL xiiL 433, &c) — Another personage of this 
name is mentioned by Virgil, Aen, x. 747. [L.S.] 

ALCEIDES (*AAic€f8ifs), according to some ao* 
counts the name which Heracles originally bore 
(Apollod. ii. 4. § 12), while, according to Diodo- 
rus, his original name was Alcabus. [L. S.] 

W<mf), a daughter of Pelias and Anaxibia, and 
mother of Euraelus and Adraetus. (Apollod. i. 9. 
§ 10, 15.) Homer (//. iL 715) calU her the iair- 
est among the daughters of Pelias. When Adme- 
tus, king of Pherae, sued for her hand, Pelias, in 
order to get rid of the numerous suitors, dedajred 
that he would give his daughter to him only who 
■hould come to his court in a chariot drawn by 
lions and boars. This was accomplished by Ad- 
metus, with the aid of Apollo. For the further 
story, see Admbtus. The sacrifice of herself for 
Admetus was highly celebrated in antiquity. 
(Aelian, V. H, xiv. 45, Animal, i 15 ; Philostr. 
Her. ii. 4 ; Ov. An Am. iii. 19 ; Eurip. AUxstii.) 
Towards her father, too, she shewed her filial af- 
fection, for, at least, according to Diodorus (iv. 52 ; 
comp. however, Palaeph. De wcredib. 41), she did 
not share in the crime of her sisters, who mur- 
dered their fother. 

Ancient as well as modem critics have attempted 
to explain the return of Alccstis to life in a ration- 
alistic manner, by supposing that during a severe 
illness she was restored to life by a physician of 
the name of Herades. (Palaeph. /. c ; Pint. Amt^ 
lor. p. 761.) Alcestis waa represented on the 
chest of Cypselns, in a group she wine the funeral 
folemnities of Pelias. (Paus. v. 17. § 4.) In the 
museum of Florence there is an alto rcKcvo, the 
\iork of Cleomenes, which is believed to represent 
Alccstis devoting herself to death. (Meyer, Ge$cL 
dtrbUdend. KiingtCy i. p. 162, ii. 169.) [L. S.] 

A'LCETAS ('AAireTor), whose age is unknown, 
was the author of a work on the offerings (dyadi^ 

fiara) in Delphi, of which Athenaeus quotes tht 
second book. (xiiL p. 591, c) 

A'LCETAS I. ('AAic^rar), king of Epirus, vu 
the son of Tharypus. For some reason or otiter, 
which we are nut informed of, he was expelled 
frt>m his kingdom, and took refrige with Uie dan 
Dionysius, tyrant of Syracuse, by whom he vu 
reinstated. After his restoration we find him tk 
ally of the Athenians, and of Jason, the Tagus of 
Thessaly. In b. c. 373, he appeared at Athaa 
with Jason, for the purpose of defending Timo- 
theus, who, through their influence, was acqaitted. 
On his death the kingdom, which till then had 
been governed by one king, was divided betvwa 
hifl two sons, Neoptolemus and Arybbas w Arpo- 
bas. Diodorus (xix. 88) calb him Azybilut. 
(Pans. L 11. § 3; Dem. TimoUL pp. 1187, 1190; 
Diod. XV. 13. 36.) [C P. M.] 

A'LCETAS II., king of Epirus, was the soq of 
Arymbas, and grandson of Alcetaa I. On sccoiifii 
of his ungoveraable temper, he was banished bj 
his &ther, who appointed his younger son, Aeaddet, 
to succeed him. On the death of Aeaddes, vho 
was killed in a battle fought with Casaander b. c. 
31 3, the EpiroU recaUed Alcetaa. Cassander seut 
an army against him under the command of Ljdsr 
cus, but soon after entered into an alliance with him 
(a c. 312). The Epirots, incensed at the ootnges 
of Alcetas, rose against him and pat him to deaib, 
together with his two sons ; on which Pyidios, 
the son of Aeaddes, was placed upon the throoe 
by his protector Glaucias, king of the Illyrans, 
B. c. 307. (Paus. L 11. § 5 ; Diod. xix. 88, 8S; 
Plut. Pyrrh, 3.) [C. P. M.] 

A'LCETAS (*AAk^(u), the eighth king of 
Macbdonia, counting frxun Caranus, and the fifthf 
counting frtxm Perdiccas, reigned, according to 
Eusebius, twenty-nine years. He was the &tber 
of Amyntas I., who reigned in the latter part <^ 
the sixth century b. c. (Herod, viii. 139.) 

A'LCETAS (*AAk^tos), the brother of Pbbdk> 
CA8 and son of Orontes, is first mentioned as oue 
of Alexander's senerals in his Indian expedicioa. 
(Arrian, iv. 27.) On the death of Alexander, he 
espoused his brother's party, and, at his orders, 
murdered in a c. 322 Cyane, the half-sister of 
Alexander the Great, when she wished to many 
her daughter Eurydice to Philip Arrhidaeui 
(Diod. xix. 52 ; Polyaen. viiL 60 ; Arrian, ap. 
PhoL p. 70, ed. Bekker.) At the time of Pe^ 
diccas* murder in Egypt in 321, Alcetas was wiih 
Eumenes in Asia Minor engaged againat Ciatenu; 
and the army of Perdiccas, which had revolted 
from him and joined Ptolemy, condemned Alcetas 
and all the partisans of his brother to death. The 
war against Alcetas, who had now left Eumeoei 
and united his forces with those of Attalua, vtf 
entrusted to Antigonus. Alcetas and Attains were 
defeated m Pisidia in 320, and Alcetaa retreated 
to Termessus. He was surrendered by the elder 
inhabitants to Antigonus, and, to avoid frdling \oxo 
his hands alive, slew himself. (Diod. xviiL 29, 37, 
44—46 ; Justin, xiiL 6, 8 ; Arrian, op. Phot. I ^-) 
ALCIBI'ADES ('hXKiSi^vs), the son of 
Cleinias, was bom at Athens about b. c. 450, or^a 
little earlier. His father fell at Coroneia il c. 447, 
learing Alcibiades and a younger son. (Plat. Prvta^ 
p. 320, a.) The last campaign of the war with 
Potidaea was in a c. 429. Now as Alcibiades 
served in this war, and the young Athenians ve^ 
not sent out on foreign military service before the/ 


had attained their SOth year, he could not have 
been bom later than B.C. 449. If he serred in the 
first compaiga (& c. 432), he mast have been at 
kast five years old at the time of his fiither^s death. 
Nepos (Aldk 10) says he was abont forty yean 
old at the time of his death (& c. 404), and his 
mistake has been copied by Mitford. 

Aldbiades waa connected by birth with the 
BoUest femiliea ci Athens. Throngh his fiither 
he traced his deacent from Eoiysaoes, the son 
of Ajax (Plat. Aluib. i. p. 121), and through 
him from Aeacna and ZeusL His mother, Deino- 
mscfae, was the daughter of Megades, tha head of 
the house of the Alcmaeonida.* Thufc on both 
tides he had hereditary daims on the attachment 
of the people ; for his paternal giand&ther, Alci- 
biades, took a prominent part in the expulsion of 
the Peisistmtids (Isociat. De Biff. 10), and his 
mother was doMended from Cleisthenea, the friend 
of the commonalty. His father Cleinias did good 
aenrice in the Persian war. He fitted out and 
manned a trireme at his own expense, and greatly 
distinguished himself in the battle of Artemisium. 
(Herod, viii. 17.) One of his ancestors of the 
name of Cleinias earned a less enviable notoriety 
by taking frsuduknt advantage of the Seisachtheia 
of Solon. The name Alcibiades was of T^wwii^n 
origin (Thoc. viiL 6), and was derived fix>m the 
Spartan family to which the ephor Endius belong- 
ed, with which that of Alcibdades had been an- 
ciently connected by the ties of hospitality. The 
first who boxe the name was the giandfiUher of 
the great Alcibiadea. 

On the death of his fiither (a c. 447), Alcibiades 
was left to the guardianship of his relations Pericles 
aj]d Ariphron.t Zopyrus, the Thracian, is men- 
tioned as one of his instructors. (PhU. Aic L 
p. 122.) From hia very boyhood he exhibited 
•igns of that inflexible determination which mark- 
ed him throughout life. 

He was at every period of his life remarkable for 
the extraordinary beauty of his person, of which he 
ieems to have bran exceedingly vain. Even when 
on military service he carried a shield inkid with 
gold and ivory, and bearing the device of Zeus 
hurling the thunderbolt When he grew up, he 
earned a diBgiaoeffal notorieW by his amours and 
debaocheries. At the age of 18 he entered upon 
the possession of hia fortune, which had doubtless 
been carefully husbanded during his long minority 
by his guardians. Connected as he waa with the 
most infioential fiimiliea in the city, the inheritor 
of one of the largest fortunes in Athens (to which 
be afterwards received a huge accession through 
bis marriage with Hipparete, the daughter of 
HipponicnstX P^^^ ^^ <^ msod of singuhir ver- 



* Demosthenes {Mid. p. 561) says, that the 
mother of Alcibiades was the daughter of Hippo- 
niciu, and that his father was connected with the 
Akmaconidae. The hitter statement may possibly 
be true. But it is difficult to explain the former, 
^u>le« we suppose Demosthenes to have confounded 
the great Alcibiadea with his son. 

t Agariste, the mother of Pericles and Ariphon, 
^ the daughter of Hippocrates, whose brother 
Cleistbenes was the grandfather of Deinomache. 
(Herod, ri. 131; Isocr. De Big. 10; Boeckh, 
*JTrftc ad Pind. Pytk. vii. p. 302.) 

t He received a portion of 10 talents with his 
VI&, which was to be doubled on the birth of a 

satility and energy, possessed of great powers of 
eloquence, and urged on by an ambition which no 
obatade could daunt, and which was not over 
scrupiUoua as to the means by which its ends were 
to be gained, — ^in a dty like Athens, amongst a 
people like the Athenians, (of the leading features 
of whose chaxBCter he may not unaptly be regarded 
as an impersonataon,) and in times like those 
of the Peloponnesian war, Alcibiades found a field 
nngulariy well adapted for the exercise and disphiy 
of his brilliant powers. Accustomed, however, 
from his boyhood to the Battery of admiring com- 
panions and needy parasites, he early imbibed that 
inordinate vanity and love of distinction, which 
marked bis whole career ; and he was thus led to 
place the moat perfect confidence in his own powers 
long before he had obtained strength of mind 
sufficient to withstand the seductive influence of 
the temptations which sunounded him. Socrates 
saw his vaat capabilities, and attempted to win 
him to the paths of virtue. Their intimacy 
waa strengthened by mutual services. In one of 
the engagements before Potidaea, Akibiades waa 
dangerously wounded, but was rescued by So- 
crates. At the battle of Delium (b. c. 424), Al- 
cibiades, who was mounted, had an opportunity of 
protecting Socrates from the pursuers. (Phit. 
<Cbm»0. pp. 220, 221 ; laocr. De Biff. 12.) The 
lessons of the philosopher were not altogether 
without influence upon his pupil, but the enl ten- 
dencies of his character had taken too deep root to 
lender a thorough reformation possible, and he 
listened more rewiily to those who advised him to 
secure by the readiest means the gratification of 
his desires. 

Alcibiades was excessively fond of notoriety and 
dispky. At the Olympic games (probably in OL 
89, B. c. 424) he contended with seven chariots 
in the same race, and gained the first, second, and 
fourth prizes. His liberality in discharging the 
office of trierarch, and in providing for the public 
amusements, rendered him very popukr with the 
multitude, who were ever ready to excuse, on the 
score of youthful impetuosity and thoughtlessness, 
his most violent and extravagant acts, into which 
he was probably as often led by his love of noto- 
riety as by any other motive. Accounts of various 
instances of this kind, as his forcible detention of 
Agatharchus, his violence to his wife Hipparete, 
his assault upon Tanreaa, and the audacious man- 
ner in which he saved Hegemon from a hiwsuit, 
by openly obliterating the record, are given by 
Plntareh, Andocides, and Athenaeus. (ix. p. 407.) 
Even the more prudent citizens thought it safer to 
connive at his delmquencies, than to exasperate 
him by punishment As Aeschylus is nuule to 
say by Aristophanes {Froffs^ 1427), **A lion^s 
whelp ought not to be reared ii^ a city ; but if a 
person reara one, he must let him have his way.** 
Of the early political life of Alcibiades we hear 
but little. While Cleon was alive he probably 
appeared but seldom in the aaeembly. From allu- 
sions which were contained in the AcuroXcts of 
Aristophanes (acted a a 427) it appean that he 
had already spoken there. (For the story con> 
nected wiu his first appearance in the assembly, 
see Plutaroh, Aldk 10.) At aome period or other 

son. His marriage took place before the battle of 
Delium (a c. 424), in which Hipponicua was 
slain. (Andoc. Alab, p. 30.) 




before B. c. 4*20, he had carried a decree for in- 
creasing the tribute paid by the subject allies of 
Athens, and by his management it was raised to 
double the amount fixed by Aristeides. After the 
death of Cleon there was no rival able at all to 
cope with Alcibiades except Nioias. To the politi- 
cal views of the latter, who was anxious for peace 
and repose and averse to all plans of foreign con- 
quests, Alcibiades was completely opposed, and his 
jealousy of the influence and high character of his 
rival, led him to entertain a very cordial dislike 
towards him. On one occasion only do we find 
them united in purpose and feeling, and that was 
when HyperboluB threatened one of them with 
banishment. On this they united their influence, 
and Hyperbolus himself was ostracised. The date 
of this occurrence is uncertain. 

Alcibiades had been desirous of renewing those 
ties of hospitality by which his fomily had been 
connected with Sparta, but which had been broken 
oif by his ^randfother. With this view he vied 
with Nicias m his good offices towards the Spartan 
prisoners taken in Sphacteria ; but in the nc^otiar 
tions which ended in the peace of 421, the Spartans 
preferred employing the iutervention of Nicias 
and Laches. Incensed at this slight, Alcibiades 
threw all his influence into the opposite scale, and 
in B. c. 420, after tricking the Spartan ambassadors* 
who had come for the purpose of thwarting his 
plans, brought about an alliance with Argos, Ells, 
and Mantineia. In 419 he was chosen Strategos, 
and at the head of a small Athenian force marched 
into Peloponnesus, and in various ways furthered 
the interests of the new confederacy. During the 
next three years be took a prominent part in the 
complicated negotiations and military operations 
which were carried on. Whether or not he was 
the instigator of the unjust expedition against the 
Melians is not clear ; but he was at any rate the 
author of the decree for their barbarous punish- 
ment, and himself purchased a Melian woman, by 
whom he had a son. 

In B. c. 415 Alcibiades appears as the foremost 
among the advocates of the Sicilian expedition 
(Thuc vi.), which his ambition led him to believe 
would be a step towards the conquest of Italy, 
Carthage, and the Peloponnesus. (Thuc vi. 90.) 
While the preparations for the expedition were 
going on, there occurred the mysterious mutilation 
of the Hermes-busts A man named Pythonicus 
charged Alcibiades with having divulged and pro- 
faned the Eleusinian mysteries ; and another man, 
Androclcs, endeavoured to connect this and similar 
oiTences with the mutilation of the Hermae. In 
spite of his demands for an investigation, Alci- 
biades was sent out with Nicias and Lamachus in 
command of the fleet, but was recalled before he 
could carry out the plan of operations which at his 
suggestion had been adopted, namely, to endeavour 
to win over the Oreek towns in Sicily, except 
Syracuse and Selinus, and excite the native SiceLs 
to revolt, and then attack Syracuse. He was 
allowed to accompany the Salaminia in his own 
galley, but managed to escape at Thurii, from 
which place he crossed over to Cyllene, and thence 
proceeded to Sparta at the invitation of the 
Spartan government He now appeared as the 
avowed enemy of his country; disclosed to the 
Spartans the plans of the Athenians, and recom- 
mended them to send Gylippus to Syracuse, and 
to fortify Deceleia. (Thuc vl. 88, &c., vii. 18, 


27, 28.) Before he left Sicily he bad managed f 
defeat a plan which had been laid for the acquisi- 
tion of Messana. At Athens sentence o€ deaih 
was passed upon him, his property confiscated, aod 
a curse pronounced upon him by the ministen of 
religion. At Sparta he rendered himaelf popular 
by the fiunlity with which he adopted the Sporcaa 
manners. Through his instnimentalitj many of 
the Asiatic allies of Athens were induced to revolt, 
and an alliance was brought about with Tissa- 
phemes (Thuc viii. 6,&c); but the macbinatioiis of 
his enemy Agis [Aois II.] induced bim to abandon 
the Spartans and take refuge with Tissaphcmes 
(& c. 412), whose fovour he soon g^ned by his 
unrivalled talents for social intercoone. The 
estrangement of Tissaphemes from his ^lartan 
allies ensued. Alcibiades, the enemy of Sparta, 
wished to return to Athens. He according- 
ly entered into correspondence with the most 
influential persons in the Athenian fleet at Samos, 
offering to bring over Tissaphemes to an aUiance 
with Athens, but making it a condition, that oli- 
garchy should be established there. This coincid- 
ing with the wishes of those with whom he was 
negotiating, those political movements were set oa 
foot by Pcisander, which ended (B.c.411)intitt 
establishmennt of the Four Hundred. The oli- 
garchs, however, finding he could not perfocm 
his promises with respect to Tissaphemea, and 
conscious that he had at heart no real liking for an 
oligarchy, would not recall him. But the soldiera 
in the armament at Samos, headed by Thiasybdus 
and Thrasyllus, declared their resolution to restore 
democracy, and passed a vote, by which Alcibiades 
was pardoned and recalled, and appointed one of 
their generals. He conferred an important benefit 
on his country, by restraining the soldiers from 
returning at once to Athens and so commencing a 
civil war ; and in the course of the same year the 
oligarchy was overthrown without their aa&istanoe. 
Alcibiades and the other exiles were recalled, but 
for the next four years he remained abroad, and 
under his command the Athenians gained the vic- 
tories of Cynossema, Abydos,* and Cyucus, and 
got possession of Chalcedon and Byxantiiin]. In 
B. c. 407, he returned to Athens, where he was 
received with great enthusiasm. The reooxds of 
the proceedings against him were sunk in the sea, 
his property was restored, the priests were ordered 
to recant their curses, and he was appointed coow 
mandei^in-chief of all the land and sea forces 
(Diod. xiii. 69; PlaU Ale 33; Xen. HelL L 4. 
§ 13 — 20.) He signalised his return by conduct- 
ing the mystic procession to Eleusis, which had 
been interrupted since Uie occupation of DecdeiiL 
But his unsuccessful expedition against Andros 
and the defeat at Notium, occasioned during his 
absence by the imprudence of his heutenant. An- 
tiochus, who brought on an engagement against his 
orders, furnished his enemies with a handle against 
him, and he was superseded in his command, 
(a c. 406.) 

Thinking that Athens would scarcely be a safe 
place for him, Alcibiades went into voluntary exile 

♦ Shortly after the victory at Abydos, Alci- 
biades paid a viait to Tissaphemes who had ar- 
rived in the neighbourhood of the Hellespont, but 
was arrested by him and sent to Sardis. After a 
month^s imprisonment, however, he succeeded b 
making his escape. (Xen. Hellen, i. 1. § 9.) 


to his fortified d(mi:un at Bisantlie in the Thracian 
Cheraonesaa. He coDected a band of mercenaries, 
and made war on the neighbouring Thiadan 
tribes, by which meaiis he considerably enriched 
iumsell^ and afforded protection to the neighbour- 
ing Greek dtiec Before the &tal battle of Aegos- 
Potaou(B. a 405), he gave an ineffectual warning to 
the Aih«uan generals. After the estabUshment 
of the tyranny of the Thirty (b. c 404), he was 
condemned to banishment Upon this he took 
refuge with Pharoabazos, and was about to pro- 
ceed to the court of Artaxerxes, when one night 
bis house was soiioanded by a band of armed men, 
and set on fire. He rushed out sword in hand, 
but fell, piened with arrows, (b. a 404.) Ac- 
cording to Diodoras and Ephoms (Diod. zir. 11) 
the asaaadns were emissaries of Phamabazns, who 
had been led to this step either by his own jeidousy 
of Akibiades, or by the instigation of the Spartans. 
It b more probable that they were either employed 
by the Spartans, or (according to one account in 
Pivtarch) by the brothen of a lady whom Ald- 
bisdes had ledooed. His coxpse was taken up 
and bozied by his mistress Timandra. Athenaeus 
(ziiL p. 574) mentions a monument erected to his 
memory at Metissa, the place of his death, and a 
statue of him erected thereon by the emperor 
Hadrian, who also instituted certain yeariy sacri- 
fices in his honour. He left a son by his wife 
Ilipparete, named Aldbiades, who never distia- 
gauhed himsel£ It was for him that Isocrates 
wrote the speech Ilcpt roS Ze6ycvs, Two of 
Ljiias^s speeches (xiv. and zv.) are directed 
sgainst him. The fortune which he left behind 
him turned out to be smaller than his patrimony. 
(PIdU AteiL and Nidas; Thucyd. lib. v.— viii.; 
XenophoDy HeUau lib. i. ii. ; Andoc. m Aldb, and 
deMyOtr,; luxx, De Bigis ; Ne^^Aldb.; Diod. 
xii 78-^, xiiL 2—5, 37—41, 46, 46, 49—51, 
64—73 ; Athen. i p. 3, iv. p. 184, ▼. pp. 215, 216, 
iz. p. 407, zL p. 506, ziL ppu 525, 534, 535, ziii. 
pp. 574, 675.) [C. P. M.] 

ALCierADES QAXxuSidiris), a Spartan ezile, 
was restored to his country about a c 184» by the 
Achseans, but was ungrateful enough to go as an>- 
haoador from Sparta to Rome, in order to accuse 
Philopoemen and the Achaeans. (Polyb. zziii. 4, 
11, 12, zziv. 4; lir. zzziz. 35.) 

ALCI'DAMAS fAAicia^^ias), a Greek iheto- 
rician, was a naUve of Elaea in Aeolis, in Asia 
Minor. (QnintiL iiL l.§ 10, with Spalding's note.) 
He was a pupil of Ooigias, and readed at Athens 
between the yean B. c. 432 and 411. Here he 
gare instructions in eloquence, according to Eudo- 
cia (p. 100), as the successor of his master, and 
was the last of that sophistical school, with which 
the only object of eloquence was te please the 
heaieiB by the pomp and brilliancy of words. That 
the woifcs of Alridamas bore the strongest marks 
of this character of his school is stated by Aris- 
totle (Rkd. iiL 3. § 8), who censures his pompous 
diction and eztravagiBnt use of poetical epithete and 
phrases, and by Dionysins (De Itaea, 19), who 
cbUb his style vulgar and inflated. He is said to 
hare been an opponent of Isocrates (Txets. CldL 
zi- 672), but whether this statement refen to real 
penonal enmity, or whether it is merely an infer- 
CQce from the &et, that Alcidamas condemned the 
practice of writing orations for the purpose of deli> 
Bering them, is uncertain. 
The ancients mention aeveml works of Aldda: 



mas, such as an Eulogy on Death, in which he 
enumerated the evils of human life, and of which 
Cicero aeems to speak with great praise (TWc i, 
48) ; a shew-speech, called A^f Mco-<n|y(air^t 
(Aristot. KkeL L 13. § 5) ; a work on music (Sui- 
das, «. «. *AAxi34f>ar) ; and some scientific works, 
viz. one on rhetoric (t^X'^ Pvopuci^, FluUDemostk, 
5), and another called \6yos ^m<rut6s (Diog. Laert. 
viii. 56) ; but all of them are now lost Tsetses 
(CM. zi 752) had still before him several orations 
of Alddamas, but we now possess only two deda- 
mations which go under his name. 1. *03Mro'«i)s, 
Ij Kord noXofn^ouf wpodofftos, in which Odysseus 
is made to accose Palamedes of treachery to the 
cause of the Greeks during the siege of Troy. 2. 
w€p2 ffo^urrStf^ in which the author sets forth the 
advantages of delivering eztempore speeches over 
those which have previously been written out. 
These two orations, the second of which is the bet- 
ter one, both in form and thought, bear scarcely 
any traces of the fiiulte which Aristotie and Dio- 
nysins censure in the works of Alcidamas ; their 
fiuilt is rather being frigid and insipid. It has 
therefore been mainteined by several critics, that 
these orations are not the woiks of Alcidamas ; 
and with regard to the fint of them, the suppo- 
sition is supported by strong probability ; the se- 
cond may have been written by Alcidamas with a 
view to counteract the influence of Isocrates^ The 
first edition of them is that in the collection of 
Greek oraton published by Aldus, Venice, 1513, 
foL The best modem editions are those in Reiske^s 
Oraiorea Oraedy voL viii. p. 64, &&; and in 
Bekker*s Oraiorea AUiciy voL vii. (Ozfoxd.) [L.S.] 

A'LCIDAS (*AXic(3as), was appointed, b. c. 
428, commander of the Peloponnenan fleet, which 
was sent to Lesbos for the relief of Mytilene, then 
besieged by the Athenians. But Mytilene sur- 
rendered to the Athenians seven days before the 
Peloponnesian fleet arrived on the coast of Asia ; 
and Aicidas, who, like most of the Spartan com- 
manden, had little enterprise, resolved to return 
home, although he was recommended either to at> 
tempt the recovery of Mytilene or to make a de- 
scent upon the Ionian coast. While sailing along 
the coast, he captured many vessels, and put to death 
all the Athenian allies whom he took. From Ephesus 
he sailed home with the utmost speed, being chased 
by the Athenian fleet, under Paches, as£;ff as Patmoa. 
(Thuc iiL 16, 26—33.) After receiving reinforce, 
ments, Aicidas sailed to Corcyra, b. c. 427 ; and 
when the Athenians and Corcyraeans sailed out to 
meet him, he defeated them and drove them bock 
to the island. With his habitual caution, how- 
ever, he would not follow up the advantage he had 
gained ; and being informed that a hirge Atheniaa 
fleet was approaching, he sailed back to Pelopon- 
nesus, (iii. 69 — 81.) In B. a 426, he was one 
of the leaden of the colony founded by the Lace- 
daononians at Heradeia, near Thermopyhie. (ii|, 

ALCI'DICE (*AXict3(«nf), the daughter of Aleua, 
and wife of Salmonens, by whom she had a daugh- 
ter. Tyro. Alcidice died early, and Sahnoneus 
afterwards married Sidero. (DiQd. iv, 68 ; Apol- 
lod. I 9. § 8.) [L. S.] 

ALCI'MACHUS, a painter mentioned by 
Pliny. (H, N. zzzv. 11. a. 40.) He is not 
spoken of by any other writer, and all that is 
known about him is, that he painted a picture of 
Diozippus, a victor in the pancratium at Olympia. 



Dioxippus lived in the time of Alexander the 
(Jreat (Aelian, V. H, x. 22; Diod. xvii. 100; 
Athen. vi. p. 251, a.) Alcimachus therefore pro- 
bably lived about the same time. [C P. M.] 

ALCl'MEDE ('AXjctfUifi), a daughter of Phy- 
lacuB and Clymene, the daughter of Minyas. (Apol- 
Ion. Rhod. i. 45 ; Schol. ad ioe. and ad I 230.3 
She married Aeson, by whom she became the 
mother of Jason (Ov. Heroid, iv. 105 ; Hygin. 
Fah. 13 and 14), who, however, is called by others 
a son of Polymede, Arne, or Scarphe. (Apollod. i. 
9. § 8 ; comp. Akson, Jason.) [L. S.] 

ALCI'MEDON (*AXKifi^8«y). 1. An Arca- 
dian hero, from whom the Arcadian plain Alcime- 
don derived its name. He was the father of 
Phillo, by whom Heracles begot a son, Aechma- 
goras, whom Alcimedon exposed, but Heracles 
saved. (Paus. viii. 12. § 2.) [Abchmagoras.] 

2. One of the Tyrrhenian sailors, who wanted 
to carry off the in&nt Dionysus from Naxos, but 
was metamorphosed, with his companions, into a 
dolphin. (Ov. Met, iii. 618 ; Hygin. Fab, 134 ; 
comp. AcoBTXS.) 

3. A son of Laerceus, and one of the comman- 
ders of the Myrmidons under Patroclus. (Hom. //• 
xvi. 197, xvii. 475, &c.) [L. S.] 

ALOrMEDON, an embosser or chaser, spoken 
of by Virgil {Edog, iii. 37, 44), who mentions 
some gobleta of his workmanship. [C. P. M.] 

ALCI'MENES CAXjciaUj^s). 1. A son of 
Olaucus, who was unintentionally killed by his 
brother Bellerophon. According to some tradi- 
tions, this brother of Bellerophon was called Deli- 
ades, or Peiren. (Apollod. iL 3. § 1.) 

2. One of the sons of Jason and Medeia. When 
Jason subsequently wanted to marry Glance, his 
sons Alcimenes and Tisander were murdered by 
Medeia, and were afterwards buried by Jason in 
the sanctuary of Hera at Corinth. (Diod. vr, 54, 
55.) [L. S.] 

ALCI'MENES CAAKifi^vqs), an Athenian comic 
poet, apparently a contemporary of Aeschylus. 
One of his pieces is supposed to have been the 
KoAi;/i§»(rcu (the Female Swimmers). His works 
were greatly admired by Tynnichus, a younger 
contemporary of Aeschylus. 

There was a tragic writer of the same name, a 
native of Mcgara, mentioned by Suidas. (Meineke, 
HisL Crit. Comicorum Graec p. 481 ; Suid. s. «. 
'AA/ci/icnis and *AXic/iiy.) [C* P. M.] 

A'LCIMUS {"AXKifws), also called Jadmns, or 
Joachim (*I(£jcf t/AOs), one of the Jewish priests, who 
espoused the Syrian cause. He was made high 
priest by Demetrius, about b. c. 161, and was in- 
stalled in his office by the help of a Syrian army. 
In consequence of his cruelties he was expelled by 
the Jews, and obliged to il v to Antioch, but was 
restored by He help of another Syrian aimy. He 
continued in his office, under the protection of the 
Syrians, till bis death, which happened suddenly 
(b. c. 159) while he was pulling down the wall of 
the temple that divided the court of the Gentiles 
from that of the Israelites. (Joseph. Ant. Jud, xii 
9. § 7 ; 1 Afaeoab. vii. ix.) 

A'LCIMUS (*AXKmos\ a Greek rhetorician 
whom Diogenes Laertius (ii. 114) calls the most 
distinguished of all Greek rhetoricians, flourished 
about B. c. 300. It is not certain whether he is same as the Alcimus to whom Dioffenes in 
another passage (iii. 9) ascribes a work rpSs •A/*iJv- 
ray. Atheiiacus in several places speaks of a Si- 


cilian Alcimus, who appears to hare been tlie 
author of a great historical work, ports of which 
are referred to under the names of 'Ira\<aB and 
XiKt\uc6, But whether he was the same as the 
rhetorician Alcimus, cannot be determined. ( A the^ 
X. p. 441, xii. p. 518, iii. pw 822.) [L. &] 

writer of seven short poems in the Latin anthokgy, 
whom Wemsdorf has shewn (PoSL Lot Mm. voL 
tI p. 26, &c.) to be the same person aa AJciraus, 
the rhetorician in Aquitania, in Ganl, who is ^okea 
of in terms of high praise by Sidonins Apcdlmatis, 
(EpisL viii. 11, v. 10,) and Ausonius. {Fn/m. 
Burdigal. iL) His date is determined by Hienn 
nymus in his Chronicon, who says that AkinnB 
and Delphidius taught in Aquitania in aj^ 360. 
His poems are superior to most of hia time. 
They are printed by Meier, in his ''Antbologia 
lAtina,** ep. 254 — ^260, and by Wemsdorf toL vi 
p. 194, &C. 

ALCl'NOUS CAAJcfwoj). 1. A ion of Nao- 
sithous, and grandson of Poseidon. His name is 
celebrated in the story of the Aigonanta, and still 
more in that of the wanderings of Odyssraa. Is 
the former Aldnous is represented as living with 
his queen Arete in the island of Drepane. The 
Ai^gonauts, on their return finom Colchis, came ts 
his ishind, and were most hospitably recdved. 
When the Colchians, in their pursuit of the Aigo- 
nauts, likewise arrived in Drepane, and demanded 
that Medeia should be delivered up to them, Ald- 
nous declared that if she was still a maiden she 
should be restored to them, but if she was already 
the wife of Jason, he would protect her and ho^ 
husband against Uie Colchians. The Cokfaians were 
obliged, by the contrivance of Arete, to depart with- 
out their princess, and the Axgonants continued 
their voyage homewards, after they had zeoeired 
munificent presents from Aldnous. (Apollon. Rhod. 
iv. 990-1225 ; Orph. Argon. 1288, &c. ; Apolkd. 
L 9. § 25, 26.) Aocotding to Homer, Aldnoos is 
the happy ruler of the Phaeacians in the island of 
Scheria, who has by Arete five sons and one daugh- 
ter, Nausicaa. {Od. vi. 12, &&, 62, &;c.) The 
description of his palace and his dominions, ^ 
mode in which Odysseus is received, the enter- 
tainments ^ven to him, and the stories he related 
to the king about his own wanderings, oocnpy s 
considerable portion of the Odyssey (from book vl 
to xiii.), and form one of its most channing parts. 
(Comp. Hygin. Fab. 125 and 126.) 

2. A son of Hippothoon, who, in conjunctioa 
with his father and eleven brothers, expelled Ic»- 
rion and Tyndareus from Laoedaemon, but was 
afterwards killed, with his fiither and brothen, by 
Heracles. (ApoUod. iii. 10. § 5.) [L. &] 

A'LCINOUS CAAjcfrow), a Fhtonic philoso- 
pher, who probably lived under the Caesars^ No- 
thing is known of his personal history, but a woik 
entitled *Etito/ui) rw XlXArttwos hajfiArm^^ con- 
taining an analysis of the Phitonic philosophy, as 
it was set forth by kte writers, has been presemd. 
The treatise is written rather in the manner of 
Aristotle than of Plato, and the author has not 
hesitated to introduce any of the views of other 
philosophers which seemed to add to the complete- 
ness of the system. Thus the parts of the ajUo- 
gism (c. 6), the doctrine of the mean and of the 
f|«r and k^tpyuat (c 2. 8), are attributed to 
Plato ; as well as the division of philosophy which 
was common to the Peripatetics and Stoks. It 


was impofisible from the writings of Plato to get a 
•ystem complete in its parts, and hence the temp- 
tation of later writers, who Bought for system, to 
join Plato and Arktotle, without perceiving the 
inconsisteiicj of the union, while everything whidi 
suited their poipoae was fearlesslj ascribed to the 
£>ander of their own sect. In the treatise of 
Akanoes, however, there are still traces of the sin- 
rit of Plato, however low an idea he gives of his 
own phiJosi^ihkai talent. He held the worid and 
iti animating sonl to he eternal This aonl of the 
univene (i( ifpvx4 ^ov K^frpuni) was not created by 
God, bat, to use the image of Alcinous, it was 
awakened by him as from a profound sleep, and 
tuned towards himself '*that it might look out 
upon intellectaal things (c 14) and receive forms 
and ideas from the divine nund.'" It was the first 
of a sueoeanon of intermediate beings between God 
and msn. The i8^«u proceeded immediately from 
the mind of God, and were the highest object of 
our mtellect; the **'lbrm*' of matter, the types of 
Knsible things, having a real being in themselves, 
(c 9.) He d^red from the earlier Platonists in 
confining the VUa», to general laws : it seemed an 
anwoithy notion that God could conceive an 18^ 
of thinip artificial or unnatural, or of individuals 
or pazticokn, or of any thing relative. He aeems 
to hare aimed at harmonising the views of Plato 
and Aristotle on the tS^, as he distinguished 
them from the ^(Si|, fivrms of things, which he al- 
lowed were inseparable : a view which seems ne- 
oeeeaiily connected with the doctrine of the eternity 
and Be^xistenee of matter. God, the first foun- 
tain of the (S^ could not be known as he is : it 
is bnt a fidnt notion of him we obtun from negar 
tioDB and analogies : his nature is equally beyond 
«ir power of expression or conception. Below him 
are a series of beings (8a/fiorcf ) who superintend 
the production of all living things, and hold inter- 
cxnrse with men. The human soul passes through 
vBrioas ttansmigrations, thus connecting the series 
with the lower dasses of being, until it is finally 
purified and rendered acoeptaUe to God. It will 
he sem that his system was a compound of Plato 
and Aristotle, with some parts borrowed from the 
cast, and perhaps derived firom a study of the 
Pythagorean system. (Bitter, Ge$ckichU der PkHo- 

Alcinous first appeared in the Latin vernon of 
Pietro Balln, which waa published at Rome with 
ApoleiuB, 1469, fijl. The Greek text viras printed 
in the Aldine edition of Apuleius, 1621, 8vo. 
Another edition is that of Fell, Oxford, 1667. 
The best is by J. F. Fischer, Leipzig, 1783, Bvo. 
It was tiansUited into French by J. J. Combes- 
Dounona, Paris, 1800, 8vo^ and into English by 
Stanley in his History of Philosophy. [B. J.] 

ALCIPHRON {'AXhUPp^), a Greek sophist, 
and the most eminent among the Greek epistolo- 
S^aphcTB. Respecting his life or the age in which 
he iired we possess no direct information what- 
ever. Some of the earlier critics, as La Crose and 
J. C. Woli^ placed him, without any plausible 
J'awn, in the fifth century of our aera. Beigler, 
and others who followed him, placed Alciphron 
u the period between I^ucian and Aristaenetus, 
that is, between a.i>. 170 and 350, while others 
apin assign to him a date even earlier than the 
time of Lacian. The only circumstance that 
»"2ge8U anything respecting hia age is the feet, 
««» anoug the letters cf Ari&t|ie9etus there ai« 



two (i. 5 and 22) between Lucian and Alciphron ; 
now as Aristaenetus u nowhere guilUr of any great 
historical inaccuracy, we may safely infer that 
Alciphron was a contemporary of Ludan — an infi»- 
rence which is not incompatible with the opinion, 
whether true or fiJse, that AJdphnm imitated 

We possesa under the name of Aldphron 116 
fictitioua letters, in 3 books, the object of which 
is to ddineate the characters of certain daases of 
men, by introducing them as expressing their pe- 
culiar sentiments and opinions upon subjects with 
which they were femiliar. The classes of persons 
which Aldphron chose for this purpose are fisher- 
men, country people, parasites, and hetaerae or 
Athenian courtesans.' All are made to express 
their sentiments in the most graceful and elegant 
language, even where the subjects are of a low 
or obscene kind. The characters are thus some- 
what raised above their common standard, without 
any great violation of the truth of reality. The 
form of these letters is exquisitely beautiful, and 
the hmguage is the pure Attic dialect, such as it 
was spoken in the best times in femiliar but re- 
fined conversation at Athens. The scene from 
which the letters are dated is, with a few excep- 
tions, Athens and its vidnity ; and the time, wher- 
ever it is discernible, is the period after the reign 
of Alexander the Great The new Attic comedy 
was the principal source firom which the author de- 
rived his information respecting the characters and 
manners which he describes, and for this reason 
these letters contain much valuable information 
about the private life of the Athenians of that time. 
It has been said, that Alciphron is an imitator of 
Lucian ; but besides the style, and, in a few in- 
stances, the subject matter, there is no resembhuice 
between the two writers: the spirit in which the 
two treat their subjects is totally difierent Both 
derived their materials from the same sources, and 
in style both aimed at the greatest perfection of the 
genuine Attic Greek. Bergler has truly remarked, 
that Aldphron stands in the same lektion to Me- 
nander as Lucian to Aristophanes. The first edi- 
tion of Alciphron^s letters is that of Aldus, in his 
collection of the Greek Epistolographers, Venice, 
1499, 4to. This edition, however, contains only 
those letters which, in more modem editions, form 
the first two books. Seventy-two new letters were 
added from a Vienna and a Vatican MS. by Beigler, 
in his edition (Leipiig, 1715, 8vo.) with notes and 
a Latin translation. These seventy-two epistles 
form the third book in Bergler*s edition. J. A. 
Wagner, in his edition (Ldpsig, 1798, 2 vols, 8vo., 
with the notes of Beigler), added two new letters 
entire, and fragments of five others. One long, 
letter, which has not yet been puUished entire, 
exists in several Paris MSS. [L. S.] 

ALCIPPE ('AAicrwwi,). 1. A daughter of 
Ares and Agraulos, the daughter of Cecrops. Ha- 
lirrhothius, tiie son of Poseidon, intended to viohtte 
her, but was surprised by Ares, and killed, for 
which Posddon bore a grudge against Area. (Piius. 
i. 21. § 7 ; ApoUod. ui. 14. § 2.) 

2. A maiden, who was dishonoured by her own 
brother, Astraeus, unwittingly. When Astraeus 
became aware of his deed, he threw himself into a 
river, which received from him the name of Astrae- 
us, but was afterwards called Caicua. (Plut. IM 
Flw, 21.) 

Other peifoiia^ of thia Qam« are mentioned in 



ApoUod. iii. 1 5. § 8; Diod. ir. 16 ; Eostatli. ad Horn, 
p. 776 ; Horn. Od. It. 124. [Alcyonidbh.] [L.S.] 

ALCIS ('AXjcis), that ia, the Strong. 1. A 
surname of Athena, under which she wu worship- 
ped in Macedonia. (LiT. xlii 51.) 

2. A deity among the Nahamli, an ancient 
German trihe. (Tacit Chrm, 43.) Orimm {Deut- 
ache Mylhol, p. 39) coufliders Alcis in the passage 
of Tacitus to be the genitive of Alx, which, ac- 
cording to him, signifies a sacred grove, aod is 
connected with the Greek 4X.irQi, Another Aids 
occurs in ApoUodorus, ii 1. § 5. [L. S.] 

ALCI'STHENE, a female painter spoken of by 
Pliny (//*. N, zxxv. 11. s. 40), who mentions one 
cf her pictures representing a dancer. [C. P. M.j 

ALCL'THOE. [Alcathqb.1 

A'LCITHUS CAAict0ot), sent as ambassador by 
the Achaeans to Ptolemy Philometor, «.& 169, 
when they heard that the Anadeteria (see IHct, cf 
Ant. «.v.) were to be celebrated in his honour. 
(Polyb. xxriii 10, 16.) 

ALCMAEON (*AXic/ia(wy), a son of Amphia- 
xaus and Eriphyle, and brother of Amphilochus, 
Eurydice, and Demonassa. (Apollod. iiL 7. § 2.) 
His mother was induced by the necklace of Har* 
monia, which she received from Polyneices, to per- 
suade her husband Amphiacaus to take part in the 
expedition against Thebes. (Hom. Od, zv. 247, 
&C.) But before Amphiacaus set out, he enjoined 
his sons to kill their mother as soon as they should 
be grown up. (Apollod. iii. 6. § 2 ; Hygin. Fab, 
73.) When the Epigoni prepared for a second 
expedition against Thebes, to avenge the death of 
their fiitbers, the oracle promised them success and 
yictoiy, if they chose Alcmaeon their leader. He 
was at first disinclined to undertake the command, 
as he had not yet taken vengeance on his mother, 
according to the desire of his fiither. But she, 
who had now received from Thersander, the son 
pf Polyneices, the peplus of Harmonia also, in- 
duced him to join ma expedition. Alcmaeon dis- 
tinguished himself greatly in it, and slew Laoda- 
mus, the son of Eteodes. (Apollod. iii 7. § 2, && ; 
comp. Diod. iv. 66.). When, after the &11 of 
Thebes, he learnt the reason for which his mother 
had uxged him on to take part in the expedition, 
he slew her on the advice of an orade of Apollo, 
and, according to some traditions, in conjunction 
with his brother Amphilochus. For this deed he 
became mad, and was hauated by the Erinnyes. He 
first came to OTdeus in Arcadia, and thence went 
to Pheffeus in Psophis, and being purified by the 
latter, he married his daughter Arsinoe or Alphe- 
siboea (PausL viii. 24. § 4), to whom he gave the 
oeckhice and peplus of Harmonja. But the coun- 
try in which he now resided was visited by scar- 
dty, in consequence of his being the murderer of 
his mother, and the oracle advised him to go to 
Achelous. According to jPaosanias, he left Psophis 
because his madness did not yet cease. Pausanias 
and Thucydides (iL 102 ; comp. £lut De ExU, p. 
602) further state, that the omcle commanded 
him to go to a country which had been formed 
subsequent to the murder of his mother, and was 
therefore under no curse. The country thus point- 
ed out was a tract of land whi<;h had been recently 
formed at the mouth of the river Achelous. Apol- 
lodorus agrees with this account, but gives a de- 
tailed history of Alcmaeon^s wanderings until he 
reached the mouth of Achelous, who gave hira his 
daughter Calirrhoe in marriage. O^lirrhoe had a 


desire to possess the neckbioe and peplus of Bar* 
monia, and Alcmaeon, to gratify her wiah, went ta 
Psophis to get them from Phegeua, under the pce- 
text that he intended to dedicate them aft Delphi 
in order to be freed from his madness. Pke^sos 
complied with his request, but when he heard that 
the treasures were fetched for Oalirrhoe, he sent 
his sons Pronous and Agenor (ApoUod. iiL 7. §6) 
or, according to Pausanias (viiL 24. § 4), Temenat 
and Axion, after him, with the oommaad to kiS 
him. This was done, but the aons of Alcmaeon by 
Calirrhoe took bloody vengeance at the iniOigatifln 
of their mother. (Apollod. Paos. U, oc ; Ov. AM. 
Ix. 407, &C.) 

The story about Alcmaeon furnished ridi mate- 
rials for the epic and tragic poets of Greece, and 
their Roman imitators. But none of theae poems 
is now extant, and we only know from ApoUo- 
dorus (iiL 7. § 7), that Euripides, in hia tragedy 
•( Alcmaeon," stated that after the &11 of Thebes 
he married Manto, the daughter of Teireaias, and 
that he had two children by her, Amphilochns and 
Tisiphoue, whom he gave to Croon, kii^ of Co- 
rinth, to educate. The wife of Creon, jealous of 
the extraordinary beauty of Tisiphone, afterwards 
sold her as a shive, and Alcmaeon himaelf boo^t 
her, without knowing that she was his daughter. 
(Diod. iv. 66 ; Pans. viL 3. § 1, ix. 33. § 1.) 
Alcmaeon after his death was worshi|^ed as a 
hero, and at Thebes he seems to have had an altai; 
near the house of Pindar {Pylk, viiL 80, &c), who 
calls him his neighbour and the guardian of his 
property, and also seems to suggest that prophetic 
powers were ascribed to him, as to his fiUner Am- 
phiaraus. At Psophis his tomb was shewn, sor- 
rounded with lofty and sacred cypreaaeo^ (Pank 
viii. 24. § 4.) At Oropus, in Attica, where Am- 
phiaraus and Amphilochus were worshipped, Alc- 
maeon enjoyed no such honours, because he was a 
matricide. (Pans. L 34. § 2.) He was lepreaented 
in a statue at Delphi, and on the chest of Cypse- 
lus. (x. 10. § 2, V. 17. § 4.) [L. &] 

ALCMAEON (AAx^meW), son of the Megades 
who was guilty of sacrilege with respect to the fol- 
lowers of Cimon, was invited by Croesus to Sardis 
in consequence of the services he had rendered to 
an embassy sent by Croesus to consult the De^hk 
orade. On his arrival at Sardis, Croesus nude 
him a present of as much gold as he could carry 
out of the treasury. Alcmaeon took the king at 
his word, by putting on a most capadoua dins, 
the folds of which (as well as the vacant space of 
a pair of very wide boota, also provided for the 
occasion) he stufied with gold, and then filled bit 
mouth and hair with gold dust Croesus laughed 
at the trick, and presented him with as much again 
(about 590 b. c). The wealth thus acquired is nid 
to have contributed greatly to the subsequent pros- 
perity of the Alcmaeonidae. (Herod. vL 125.) 

Alcmaeon was a breeder of horses for chariot- 
races, and on one occasion gained the prise in a 
chariot-race at Olympia. (Herod. He:; Isocntesi 
d» Biffia, c 10. p. 351.) We are infonned by 
Plutarch (JSolon^c 11), that he conmianded the 
Athenians in the Cirrhaean war, which htgui 
a, c. 600. [P. a] 

ALCMAEON QAXK/Jualw)^ one of the most 
eminent natural philosophers of antiquity, was a 
native of Crotona in Magna Oraeda. His fotber'i 
name was Pirithus, and he is said to have been a 
pupil of Pythagoras, and must therefore have lired 


in the latter half of the sixth century before Christ 
(Diog. Laert. yiu. 83.) Nothing more is known of the 
eroita of his life. His most celebrated anatomical 
dlscoTcxj has been noticed in the DieL of Ant, p. 
756, a; hot whether his knowledge in this branch 
of science was derived from the dissection of ani- 
loals or of hmnan bodies, is a disputed question, 
which it is difficult to decide. Chalcidius, on 
«>ho9e authority the feet rests, merely says {Comr 
mad, u FkMt *^Tunr p. 368, ed. Fabr.), «*qui 
primos ezaeetionem aggredi est ansus,** and the 
word enedio would apply equally well to either 
case. He is said also (Diog. Laert /. c; Cle- 
mens Alezandr. Sbwn, L pu 308) to have been the 
fint person who wrote on natural philosophy 
(^wnxdv kiywy, and to have invented &bles (ju- 
lala$j Isid. Oriff. L 3d). He also wrote several 
other medical and philosophical works, of which 
nothing but the titles and a few fragments have 
been preserved by Stobaeus {Edoy. P^), Plu- 
tarch (De Pky$. Piilos, Decr.\ and Galen. (Hislor, 
Phdotopk.) A further account of his philosophical 
opinions may be found in Menage^s Notes to Dio- 
genes Laertius, viii. 83, p. 387 ; Le Qerc, HisL de 
la Mid.; Alfons. Ciaixonius ap. Fabric BiUioth. 
O'raee, voL ziii. p. 48, ed. vet. ; Sprengel, JlisL de 
la Med, vol I p. 239 ; C. O. KUhn, De Pkilonph, 
aaie Hippocr. Mtdicmae Culior. Lips. 1781, 4to., 
reprinted in Ackermann*s Opitse. ad Histor, Medic 
Pertmtatia^ Norimb. 1797, 8vo., and in Kiihn's 
O/wie. Aead. Med, et PkUol. Lips. 18*27-8, 2 vols. 
Zrii.iham^Ge»duderMedkm. [W.A.G.] 



Although Alcmaeon is termed a pupil pf Pytba- 
goras, there is great reason to doubt wheuier he 
was a Pythagorean at all ; his name seems to have 
crept into the lists of supposititious Pythagoreans 
given us by later writers. (Brandis, GeechklUe 
dtr PhUoacphie, yol i. p. 507.) Aristotle (A/eto- 
phyi, A. 5) mentions him as nearly contemporary 
with Pythagoras, but distingmshes between the 
irrotxfid of opposites, under which the Pythago- 
reans included all things, and the double principle 
of Alcmaeon, according to Aristotle, less extended, 
although he does not explain the precise differ- 
ence. Other doctrines of Alcn^aeon have been pre- 
served to us. He said that the human soul was 
inunortal and partook of the divine nature, because 
like the heavenly bodies it contained in itself a 
principle of motion. (Arist de Anima, I 2, p. 
405; Cic. de Nat, Deor.l 11.) The eclipse of 
the moon, which was also eternal, he supposed to 
arise from its shape, which he said was like a boat. 
All his doctrines which have come down to us, 
rehite to physics or medicine ; and seem to have 
arisen partly out of the specuhitions of the Ionian 
school, with which rather than the Pythagorean, 
Aristotle appears to connect Alcmaeon, partly from 
the traditionary lore of the earliest medical science. 
(Brandis, vol. i. p. 508.) [B. J.] 

ALCMAEO'NIDAE (AkKfuutwtiai), a noble 
fiunily at Athens, members of which fill a space in 
Grecian history from 1100 to 400 B. a The fol- 
lowing is a genealogical table of the fiunily. 

1. Alcmaeon, founder of the fiunily, 1 100 a c. 

2. (Megades), 6th perpetual archon. 

3. (Alcmaeon), last perpetual archon. (b. c 755— 753w) 

4. Megades, archon in b. c. 612. 

5. Alcmaeon, about 590 b. a (See Alcmaxon.) 

6. Megades, the opponent^Agariste, daughter of Cleistheneti 

of Peisistratua. | tyrant of Sicyon. 

]0..\ldbiades. His pa- 
rentage is unknown, 
bat he was said to be 
an Akmaeonid on 

, Cleisthenes, (the re- 
former. SeeCLXia- 


11. M^^les, victor 
in the Pythian 
games. (Pind. 
Pyth, viL 15.) 


8. Hippocrates. (Herod, vi. 131 ; 
SchoL Pmd, Pyth, vii. 17.) 

9. Coesyra, mar. 
to Peisistratus. 

12. Megaclea. 
(Herod, vi. 

13. Agarist6.^Xanthipptts« 
(Herod. vL 


U. Axiochnsk l5.CIeinia8=^16.Deinomache^Hipponicus,17.Euryptolemu8. 18.PericleB, 19.Ariphron. 

Plat Etf commanded 
ii^ pb a trireme at 
26&) Artemisium 
at Coroneia 
BL c. 442. 
(Herod. viiL 
17 ; Plut 

mux. Ale 


at Tanagni 
B. & 246. 
He is thought 
by some to 
have been 
himself an 

(Plut. am. 4.) 

(the great 

1; Phit. 


a b 



20.Alci-21.Celiniat. 22. Alcibiades, 23. 

2. §13.) 

iv. 12,) 

(the great 





p. 320.) 

(The rich 

lias. 25. Itodioe^Cimon. 26. 



28. Alcibiadea. 

The Alcmaeonidae were a branch of the fiunily 
of the Nblbidas. The Neleidae were driven out 
of Pylus in Messenia by the Dorians, about 1 100 
B. c, and went to Athens, where Melanthus, the 
representatiye of the elder branch of the £unily be- 
came king, and Alcmaeon, the representative of the 
second branch, became a noble and the ancestor of the 
Alcmaeonidae. Alcmaeon was the great-grandson 
of Nestor. (Pans. ii. 18. § 7.) Among the archons 
for life, the sixth is named Megacles, and the last 
Alcmaeon. But, as the archons for life appear 
to have been always taken from the £EuniIy of Me- 
don, it is probable that these were only Alcmaeo- 
nids on the mother*s side. The first remarkable 
man among the Alcmaeonids was the archon Me- 
gacles, who brought upon the fiunily the guilt of 
sacrilege by bis treatment of the insurgents under 
Cylon. (b.c612.) [CimonMbgaclbs.] The ex- 
pulsion of the Alcmaeonids was now loudly de- 
manded, and Solon, who probably saw in such an 
event an important step towards his intended re- 
forms, advised them to submit their cause to a 
tribunal of three hundred nobles. The result was 
that they were banished from Athens and retired 
to Phocis, probably about 696 or 595 b. c. Their 
wealth having been augmented by the liberality of 
Croesus to Alcmaeon, the son of Megacles [Alc- 
mabon], and their influence increased by the mar- 
riage of Megacles, the son of Alcmaeon, to Agariste, 
the daughter of Cleisthenes, tyrant of Sicyon, they 
took advantage of the divided state of Athens, and 
by joining the party of Lycurgus, they effected 
their return ; and shortly afterwards, by a similar 
union, they expelled Pebistratus soon afrer he had 
seized the government, (b. c. 559.) [Pbisistratus.] 
This state of things did not last long ; for, at the end 
of five years, Megacles gave his daughter Coesyra in 
marriage to Pei&istratus, and assisted in his restora- 
tion to Athens. But a new quarrel immediately 
arose out of the conduct of Peisistratus towards his 
wife, and the Alcmaeonids once more expelled him. 
During the following ten years, Peisistratus col- 
lected an army, with which he invaded Attica, 
and defeated the Alcmaeonids, who were now once 
more driven into exile. They were, however, still 
formidable enemies. After the death of Hippar- 
chus, they took possession of Lipsydicum, a fortr 
ress on the frontier of Attica, and made an at- 
tempt to restore themselves, but were defeated by 
Hippias. They had, however, a more important 
source of influence. In the year 548 b. c. the 
temple of Apollo at Delphi was burnt, and the 
Alcmaeonids having contracted with the Amphic- 
tyonic council to rebuild it, executed the work in 
a style of magnificence which much exceeded their 
engagement. They thus gained great popularity 
throughout Grc^ece, while they contrived to bring 
the Peiiiistratids into odium by charging them with 
having caused the fire. The oracle, besides, br 

mm^ 94; 
315; Pht 
Per, 37.) 



▼oured them thenceforth ; and whencTer it « 
consulted by a Spartan, on whatever msttof, the 
answer always contained an exhorta^on to gm 
Athens freedom ; and the result was that at lei^ 
the Spartans expelled Hippias, and restored Hbt 
Alcmaeonids. (b. c. 510.) The restored fiuni]? 
found themselves in an isolated position, belwwn 
the nobles, who appear to have been oppoied u 
them, and the popular party which had been ki- 
therto attached to the Peisistratids. Cleisthaiw, 
now the head of the Alcmaeonidae, joined tbe la^ 
tcr party, and gave a new constitution to Athea 
Further particulars respecting the fiunily « 
given under the names of its monben. (Henxi 
\-i. 121-131 ; Pindar, Pyth, vii, and Bockh'i notes; 
Clinton's FastL, ii. p. 4, 299.) [P- S.) 

ALCMAN {*A\Kfidp), called by the Attic ana 
later Greek writers Alcmaeon ('AXKftaiafr), t^« 
chief lyric poet of Sparta, was by birth a LvdBn 
of Sardis. His lather's name was Damas or Tio- 
rus. He was brought into Laconia as a slave, f«- 
dently when very young. His master, whasj 
name was Agesidas, discovered his genius, a&i 
emancipated him ; and he then began to disiingui»i 
himself as a lyric poet (Suidas,s.v.; Hcraciw. 
Pont. PoUL p. 206 ; Veil. Pat. i 18; Aknun,fc 
1 1, Welcker ; Epigrams by Alexander AeU'ius, 
Leonidas, and Antipater Thesa., in Jacob'» ^»^*- 
Graec, i. p. 207, No. 3, p. 175, No. 80, ii. ^ \^^ 
No. 56 ; in the Anthol. PaUt. vii. 709, 19, J8.) 
In the epigram last cited it is said, that the twj 
continenU strove for the honour of his birth ; aal 
Suidas (/. e.) calls him a Laconian of 3I»«J 
which may mean, however, that he was ^^'^ 
as a citixen of Meaaoa after his emancipation. Tk 
above statements seem to be more in •"""^ 
with the authorities than the opinion of Bode, that 
Alcman's fiither was brought from Sardis to SpartJ 
as a shive, and that Alcman himself was boniJB 
Messoa. It is not known to what extent he ob- 
tained the rights of citizenship. . 

The time at which Alcman lived is reoA^ 
somewhat doubtful by the different statements (A 
the Greek and Armenian copies of Euiebina, ana 
of the chronographers who followed hiou On tw 
whole, however, the Greek copy of Eusebras ap- 
pears to be right in phicing him at the «^°^J^ 
of the twenty-seventh Olympiad, i^^^^^'jj 
was contemporary with Ardys, king of Lj^ 
who reigned from 678 to 629, a. c, with U^ 
the author of the **Uttle Iliad," and with Te^ 
pander, during the Uiter years of these t^ P*"' 
he was older than Stcsichorus, and he ii s"^ . 
have been the teacher of Arion. From ^^.^ 
aimstances, and from the fiact which we i<«^ 
from himself (/V.29), that he lived to a gr»i ^ 
we may conclude, with Clinton, that he iiourisj^ 
from about 671 to about 631 b. c. (CUnton, /•^••• 
i. pp. 189, 191, 365; Hermann, Antiq.L'i^^ 


76, 77.) He is said to have died, like Snlla, of 
the mmr^ms pediatiaris. (Ariatot. HisL Anim. ▼. 
31 or 25; Plat. SitUoj 36 ; Plin. H. N, zL 33. 

The period daring vHcli most of Alcman> 
poeoLs were composed, was tbst which followed 
the conclusion of the second Messenian war. Dur- 
ing this period of qoiet, the Spartans hegan to 
cherish that taste for the spiritual enjoyments of 
poetry, which, thoogh felt by them long before, 
had never attained to a high state of cmtiTation, 
while their attention was absorbed in war. In 
this process of improrement Alcman was imme- 
diately preceded by Terpander, an Aeolian poet, 
who, be&re the year 676 B. c., had removed fiom 
Lesbos to the mainland of Greece, and had intro- 
doced the Aetdxan lyric into the Peloponnesos. 
This new style of poetry was speedily adapted to 
the choral fonn in which i3ie Doric poetry had hither- 
to been cast, and giadnally supplanted that earlier 
style which was nearer to the epic In the 33rd 
or 34th Olympiad, Terpander made his great im- 
pfxjvements in music. [Tbrpandbiu] Hence 
anse the peculiar character of the poetry of his 
younger contemporary, Alcman, which presented 
the choral lyric in the highest excellence which 
the munc of Terpander enabled it to reach. But 
Alcman had ako an intimate acquaintance with 
the Phrygian and Lydian styles of music, and he 
was himself the inventor of new forms of rhythm, 
Bome of which bore his name. 

A laige portion of Alcman^ poetry was erotic. 
In fact, he is said by some ancient writers to have 
been the inventor of erotic poetry. (Athen. xiii. 
p. 6(H) ; Snidaa, s. v.) From his poems of this 
cbss, which are marked by a freedom bordering on 
licentionsness, he obtained the epithets of ** sweet** 
and " pleaasttt** (ykvtcis^ X<(p<<'')* Among these 
poems were many hymeneal pieces. But the Par- 
timia, which form a branch of Aleman^s poems, 
most not be confounded with the erotic. They 
were lo called because they were composed for the 
pQTpote of being sung by choruses of virgins, and 
not on account of tiveir subjects, which were very 
various, sometimes indeed erotic, but often reli- 
gious. AlcBian^ other poems embrace hymns to 
the gods, Paeana, Prosodia, songs adapted for diffe- 
rent religions feativala, and short ewical or philo- 
sophical mecea. It is disputed whether he wrote 
any of those Anapaestic war-songs, or marches, 
vhich were called ^ftBar^pta ; but it seems very 
unlikely that he should have neglected a kind oif 
compositioii which had been rendered so popular 
by Tyrtaens. 

His metres are very various. He is said by 
Saidas to have been the first poet who composed 
any verses but dactylic hexameters. This state- 
mest is incorrect ; but Suidas seems to refer to the 
cborter dactylic lines into which Alcman broke up 
the Homeric hexameter. In this practice, how- 
ever, he had been preceded by Arehilochua, from 
whom he borrowed several others of his peculiar 
iB«tres: othen he invented himself Among his 
nctres we find various forms of the dactylic, ana- 
paestic, trochaic, and iambic, as well as tines com- 
P^>«d of different metres, for example, iambic and 
aoapaeatic. The Cretic hexameter waa named 
Alcmanie, from his being its inventor. The poems 
^ Akiaaa were chiefly in strophes, composed of 
Une« sometimes of the same metre throughout the 
sin^he, sometimes of difibrent metres. From their 



choral character we might conclude that they some- 
times had an antistrophic form, and this seems to 
be confirmed by the statement of Hephaestioa 
(p. 134, Gaisf), that he composed odes of fourteen 
strophes, in which there was a change of metre 
after the seventh strophe. There is no trace of au 
epode following the strophe and antirtrophe, in his 

The dialect of Alcman was the Spartan Doric, 
with an intermixture of the AeoUe. The popukr 
idioms of Laconia appear most firequentiy in his 
more fomiliar poems. 

The Alexandrian grammarians placed Akanaa 
at the head of their canon of the nine lyric poetai 
Among the proofs of his popularity may be men- 
tioned the tradition, that his songs were sung, 
with those of Terpander, at the first performance 
of the gymnopaedia at Sparta (b. c. 665, Aelian, 
F. ff, xii 50), and the ascertained fact, that they 
were frequently afterwards used at that festival. 
(Athen. xv. p. 678.) The few fragmenU which 
remain scarcely allow us to judge how fitf he de- 
served his reputation ; but some of them display a 
true poetical spirit 

Alcman^s poems comprised six books, the ex- 
tant fragments of which are included in the col- 
lections of Neander, H. Stephens, and Fulviua 
Ursinus, The hitest and best edition is that of 
Welcker, Qiessen, 1815. [P. S.] 

ALCME'NE (*AXicfiiH)« a daughter of Elec- 
tryon, king of Messene, by Anaxo, the daughter 
of Alcaeua. (Apollod. ii 4. § 5.) According to 
other accounts her mother was called Lysidice 
(Schol. ad Find. <X vii. 49 ; Pint Tkes, 7), or 
Eurydice. (Diod. iv. 9.) The poet Asius repre- 
sented Alcmene as a daughter of Amphiaraus and 
Eriphyle. (Paus. ▼. 17. § 4.) ApoUodorus men- 
tions ten brothers of Alcmene, who, with the ex- 
ception of one, Licynmius, fell in a contest with 
the sons of Pterekus, who had carried off the cattle 
of Electryon. Electryon, on setting out to avenge 
the death of his sons, left his kingdom and his 
daughter Alcmene to Amphitryon, who, unixh 
tentionally, killed Electryon. Sthenelus there- 
upon expelled Amphitryon, who» together with 
Alcmene and Licymnius, went to Thebes. Alc- 
mene dedared that she would marry him who 
should avenge the death of her brothers. Amphi* 
tryon undertook the task, and invited Creon of 
Thebes to assist him. During his absence, Zeus, 
in the disguise of Amphitryon, visited Alcmene, 
and, pretending to be her husband, related to her 
in what wav he had avenged the death of her 
brothers. (ApoUod. ii 4. § 6 — 8 ; Ov. Amor, L 
13. 45; Dk)d. iv. 9; Hygin. Fa6. 29; Lucian, 
Dialog. Dwr, 10.) When Amphitryon himself 
returned on the next day and wanted to give an 
account of his achievements, she was surprised at 
the repetition, but Teiresias solved the mystery. 
Alcmene became the mother of Heracles by Zens, 
and of Iphides by Amphitryon. Hera, jealous 
of Alcmene, dekyed the birth of Heracles for 
seven days, tiiat Eurystheus might be bom first, 
and thus be entitied to greater rights, according to 
a vow of Zeus him8el£ (Horn. IL xix. 95, &c ; 
Ov. MtL ix. 273, &c ; Diod. /. c.) After the 
death of Amphitryon, Alcmene married Rhadaman- 
thys, a son of Zeus, at Ocaleia in Boeotia. (Apollod. 
ii 4. § 11.) After Heracles was raised to the 
rank of a god, Alcmene and his sons, in dread of 
Eurystheus, ficd to Trachis, and thence to Athens, 



and when Hyllus had cut off the head of Emyt- 
theuA, Alcmene aatiafied her revenge by pickinff 
the eyes out of the head. (Apollod. ii. 8. § 1.} 
The accoonts of her death are rery discrepant. 
According to Pausaniaa (i. 41. § 1), she died in 
Megaris, on her way from Aigos to Thebes, and 
as the sons of Heracles disagreed as to whether 
she was to be carried to Argos or to Thebes, she 
was buried in the place where she had died, at the 
command of an oracle. According to Plutarch, 
{De Gen. Soar, p. 578,) her tomb and that of Rhadar 
manthys were at Haiiartus in Boeotia, and hers 
was opened by Agotilaus, for the purpose of carry- 
ing her remains to Sparta. According to Phere- 
cydes (Cap. Anton. Lib. 33), she lived with her 
sons, after the death of Eurystheus, at Thebes, 
and died there at an advanced age. When the 
sons of Heracles wished to bury her, Zeus sent 
Hermes to take her body away, and to carry it to 
the islands of the blessed, and give her in marriage 
there to Rhadamanthys. Hermes accordingly took 
her out of her coffin, and put into it a stone so 
heavy that the Heradids could not move it from 
the spot. When, on opening the coffin, they found 
the stone, they erected it in a grove near Thebes, 
which in later times contained the sanctuary of 
Alcmene. (Pans. ix. 16. § 4.) At Athens, too, 
she was worshipped as a heroine, and an altar was 
erected to her in the temple of Heracles. (C^Rosarpes, 
Pauflb i. 19. § 3.) She was represented on the chest 
of Cypselus (Pans. v. 18. § 1), and epic as well as 
tragic poets made frequent use of her story, though 
no poem of the kind is now extant (Hes. Sad. Here 
init ; Pans. v. 17. § 4, 18. § 1.) [L. S.] 

ALCON or ALCO (^AXtcwy). 1. A son of Hip- 
pocoon, and one of the Calydonian hunters, was 
killed, together with his &ther and brothers, by 
Heracles, and had a heroum at Sparta. (Apollod. 
iii. 10. § 5 ; Hygin. Fab. 173 ; Pans. iiL 14. § 7, 
15. § 3.) 

2. A son of Erechthens, king of Athens, and 
fiither of Phalerus the Aigonaut. (ApoUon. Rhod. 
i. 97 ; Hygin. Fab. 14.) Valerius Fiaccus (i. 399, 
&c.) represents him as such a skilful archer, that 
once, when a serpent had entwined his son, he 
shot the serpent without hurting his child. Viigil 
{Edog, v. 1 1 ) mentions an Alcon, whom Servius 
calls a Cretan, and of whom he relates almost the 
same story as that which Valerius Fiaccus ascribes 
to Alcon, the son of Erechthens. 

Two other personages of the same name occur in 
Cicero (de Nat. Dear. iii. 21), and in Hyginus. 
(Fab.\n.) [L. S.] 

ALCON, a surgeon (wdnerum medicm) at Rome 
in the reign of Claudius, a. d. 41-^54, who is said 
by Pliny (//. N. xxix. 8) to have been banished 
to Oaul, and to have been fined ten million of 
sesterces : U.S. §entie$ cent. mili. (about 78,125/.). 
After his return from banishment, he is said to 
have gained by his practice an equal sum within a 
few yean, which, however, seems so enormous 
(compare Ai.bucius and Arruntius), that there 
must probably be some mistake in the text. A 
surgeon of the same name, who is mentioned by 
Martial (Epigr. xi 84) as a contemporary, may 
possibly be the same person. [W. A. G.] 

ALCON, a statuary mentioned by Plinv. (H.N. 
xxxiv. 14. s. 40.) He was the autiior of a statue 
of Hercules at Thebes, made of iron, as symbolical 
of the god*s endurance of labour. [C. P. M.] 

ALCY'ONE or HALCY'ONB {;fiXKv6yn)' 


I. A Pleiad, a daughter of Atlas and Plemv; Vf 
whom Poseidon begot Aethnsa, Hyrieos sad Ht- 
perenor. (Apollod. iiL 10. § 1 ; Hygin. Prtkf. 
Fab. p. 11, ed. Staveren ; Ov. Heroid. xix. IZi.} 
To these children Pauaanias (iL 30. § 7) addi twj 
others, Hyperes and Anthas. 

2, A daughter of Aeolus and Enarete or Aegiu. 
She was married to Ceyx, and lived so happj vith 
him, that they were presumptuous enough to ol! 
each other Zeus and Hera, for which Zeu loets- 
morphosed them into birds, ciAjmSr snd ci'{. 
(Apollod. i 7. § 3, &c ; Hygin. Fab. 65.) HTgiou 
relates that Ceyx peiidied in a shipwreck, that 
Alcyone for gi^ef threw herself into the les, ud 
that the gods, out of compassion, changed tbe vn 
into birds. It "vbb fobled, that during the ktcb 
days before, and as many after, the shortest dsjof 
the year, while the bud cUicuoSr was breeding, 
there always prevailed calma at sea. An embel- 
lished form of the same story is given bv Orii 
(Met xi 410, &C. ; comp. Viig. Geor^. I 399.) 

3. A surname of Cleopatra, the wiie of Mela- 
ger, who died with grief at her husbsnd beiuf 
killed byApoUo. (Horn. IL ix. 562; Eostati 
ad Horn. p. 776 ; Hygin. Fab. 174.) [L. S.J 

ALC Y'ONEUS CAAifworcjJt). 1. A gian^ vh» 
kept possession of the Isthmus of Coiinth at tlse 
time when Heracles drove away ths oxen of 
Geryon. The giant attacked him, crofihed t«eite 
waggons and twenty-four of the men cf Htficl^ 
with a huge block of stone. Hersdes himalT 
warded off the stone with his dub and slev Akr- 
oneus. The block, with which the giant bad at- 
tempted the life of Herades, was shewn on tae 
Isthmus down to a very late period. (Pind. iVen. 
iv. 44, with the SchoL) In another psafia0e (A^ 
vi. 45, &c.) Pindar calls Alcyoneus a Thiacaa 
shepherd, and places the struggle with him in the 
Phlegiaean phiins. 

2. One of the giants. [Qioantbs.] [L ^1 

ALCYO'NIDES ('AAmioy/Bej), the daugbw 
of the giant Alcyoneus (2). After their frtheri 
death, they threw themselvea into the tea, afid 
were changed into ice-bird^ Their names an 
Phthonia, Anthe, Methone, Aldppe, Paljf^t 
Drimo, and Astoria. (EvmlMh. ad Hom.^h^'* 
Suidas, f. V. 'A\Kvov(i€u) [L ^1 

A'LEA ('AA^a), a surname of Athena, ^^ 
which she was worshipped at Alea, Mantmej"* 
and Tegea. (Pans. viii. 23. § 1, 9. § 3, iL I7.f ••) 
The temple of Athena Alea at Tegea, which »» 
the oldest, was said to have been built by Akt^ 
the son of Apheidas, from whom the g^^^ ^. 
bably derived this surname. (Pans. viii. 4. § M 
This temple was burnt down in b. c 394, a^ 
a new one built by Scopas, which in «»» «» 
splendour surpassed all other temples in Pelopoa^ 
nesus, and was surrounded by a triple nw t* 
columns of different orders. The statne of the 
goddess, which was made by Endoeos all of i^* 
was subsequently carried to Rome by Angoato) (^ 
adorn the Forum Augusti. (Paua. viii. 45. 1 4, 4^ 
§ 1 and 2, 47. § 1.) The temple of Athena Aka 
at Tegea was an andent and revered aajlnni, acd 
the names of many penons are recorded who »J^ 
themselves by seeking refuge in it. (Paua. iii. 5. 
§ 6, iL 17. § 7, ui. 7. § 80 The pneatesa rf 
Athena Alea at Tegea was always a maideo, ^oi 
held her office only until she reached the age a 
puberty. (Pans. viiL 47. g 2.) Respecting w 
architecture and the sculptures of this teoplei «< 


Merer, GeaA. dtr liUewd, Kuntie^ ii p. -99, Ac. 
On the road from Sparta to Therapne there was 
bkeviae a atatne of Athena Alea. (Paas. iiL 19. 
§ 7.) [L. S.] 

ALEBION. [AuiioN.] 

ALECTOR CAAirrwp). 1. The fiither of 
Lei'tns, the Azgonaat. (Apollod. i. 9. § 16.) Ho- 
rner (//. xriL 60*2) caUs him Alectryon. 

2. A ion of Anaxagorat and fiither of Iphis, 
king of Aigoa. He was consulted by Polyneices 
as to the manner in which Amphiaraas might be 
compelled to take part in the expedition against 
Theb»L (ApoUod. iii. 6. § 2 ; Pans. ii. 18. § 4.) 
Tvo otheiB <^ the same name are mentioned in 
Homer. (Od. it. 10; Enstath. ad Horn. pp. 303 
aod 1.598.) [L. S.] 

ALE'MON, ALEMO'NIDES. [Myscelub.] 
ALETES ("AXi^), a son of Hippotes and a 
(ksoendant of Heiadet in the fifth degree. He is 
aaid to have taken possession of Corinth, and to 
bsTe expelled the Sisjphids, thirty years after the 
first invasion of Peloponnesus by the Heradids. 
His fiumly, sometimes called the Aletidae, main- 
tained themselTes at Corinth down to the time of 
Bacchis. (Ptos. iL 4. § 3, ▼. 18. § 2 ; Strab. TiiL 
p. 389; CalHm. Pra^ 103; Pind. OL xiii. 17.) 
VeUeios Patezcnlus (i. 3) calls him a descendant 
of Heracles in the sixth degree. He received an 
oracle, prondaing him the sovereignty of Athens, if 
during the war, which was then going on, its king 
should remain uninjured. This oracle became 
known at Athena, and Codms sacrificed himself 
for his coimtrf. (Conon, NarraL 26.) [Codrus.] 
Other persons of this name are mentioned in 
ApoUod. iiL 10. § 6 ; Hygin. Fah, 122, and in 
Viijr. Am. L 121, ix. 462. [L. S.] 

AAfvoSctt). Alenas is the anoestorial hero of the 
Tbescdian, or, more particularly, of the liariasaean 
isnaHj of the Alenadae. (Pind. Pyth. x. 8, with 
the SchoL) The Alenadae were the noblest and 
most powerful among all the fiunilies of Thessaly, 
whence Herodotos (viL 6) calls ito members fitun- 
A««J. (Comp. Diod. XV. 6],xvL 14.) The first 
Aleoss, who bore the surname of m^^of, that is, 
the red-haired, is called king (here synonymous 
with Tagns, see DieL cf AtiL p. 932) of Thessaly, 
and a descendant of Heracles through Tfaessalus, 
oiie of the many sons of Heiacles. (Suidas, & o. 
'AAffvdlScu; Ulpian, ad Dem, Olynih, L; Schol. 
ad Afn&om, Rkod. iil 1090 ; Vellei. i. 3.) Plutarch 
{'ieAm. PraL in fin.) states, that he was hated by 
his fiither on account of his haughty and savage 
character; but his uncle nevertheless contrived to 
K^ bim elected king and sanctioned by the sod of 
^Ipbi. His reign was more glorious than uiat of 
^j of his ancestors, and the nation rose in power 
and irapoftance. This Aieuas, who belongs to the 
Mythical period of Greek history, is in ail proba- 
oilitv the same as the one who, according to Hege- 
fflon (op'AeL Jmm. viiL 11), was beloved by a 
"agon. According to Aristotle {ap. Harpocrat, 
tc. Trrpofxia) the division of Thessaly into four 
parts, of which traces remained down to the ktest 
^es, took place in the reign of the first Aieuas. 
Bnttmann places this hero in the period between 
tbe to-called return of the Heraclids and the age of 
Peinstratns. But even cariier than the time of 
Peisistiatus the fiunfly of the Aleuadae appears to 
hare become divided into two branches, the Aleu- 



adae and the Scopadae, called afler Scopas, proba- 
bly a son of Aieuas. (Ov. /&w, 512.) The Sco- 
padae inhabited Crannon and perhaps Pharsnlus 
also, while the main branch, the Aleuadae, remain- 
ed at Larissa. The influence of the families, how- 
ever, was not confined to these towns, but extended 
more or less over the greater part of Thessaly. 
They formed in reality a powerful aristocratic 
party (fieuriXtis) in opposition to the great body of 
the ThessalL-ms. (Herod, vii. 172.) 

The earliest historical person, who probably be- 
Iraigs to the Aleuadae, is Eurylochos, who termi- 
nated the- war of Cirrfaa about B.& 590. (Strab. ix. 
p. 418.) [EuRYLOCHUs.] In the time of the poet 
Simonides we find a second Aieuas, who was a 
friend of the poet He is called a son of Echecra- 
tides and Syris (SchoL ad TheocriL xvi 34); but 
besides the suggestion of Ovid {Ibis^ 225), that he 
had a tragic end, nothing is known about him. 
At the time when Xerxes invaded Greece, three 
sons of this Aieuas, Thorax, Eurypylus, and Thra* 
sydaeus, came to him as ambassadors, to request 
him to go on with the war, and to promise him 
their assistance. (Herod, vii. 6.) [Thorax.] 
When, after the Persian war, Leotychides was 
sent to Thessaly to chastise those who had acted 
as tndtora to their country, he allowed himself to 
be bribed by the Alemidae, although he might 
have subdued all Thessaly. (Herod, vi. 72 ; Pans, 
iii. 7. § 8.) This fiurt shews that the power of the 
Aleuadae was then still as great as before. About 
the year b. c. 460, we find an Aleuad Orestes, son 
of Echecratides, who came to Athens as a fugitive, 
and persuaded the Athenians to exert themselves 
for his restoration. (Thuc i. 111.) He had 
been expelled either by the Thessalians or more 
probably by a fiEu:tion of his own &mily, who 
wished to exclude him from the dignity of ^wriKtis 
(t. «. probably Tagiis), for such feudls among tha 
Aleuadae themselves are frequently mentioned. 
(Xen.^»a6.L 1. § 10.) 

After the end of the Peloponnesian war, another 
Thessalian -fiunily, the dynasts of Pheroe, gradually 
rose to power and influence, and gave a great shock 
to the power of the Aleuadae. As early a« b.c. 
375, Jason of Pherae, after various struggles, suc- 
ceeded in raising himself to the dignity of Tagns. 
(Xen. Hdlen, il 3. § 4 ; Diod. xiv. 82, xv. 60.) 
When the dynasts of Pherae became tyrannical, 
some of the Larissaean Aleuadae conspired to put 
an end to their rule, and for this purpose they invited 
Alexander, king of Macedonia, the son of Amyntas. 
(Diod. XV. 61.) Alexander took I^arissa and 
Crannon, but kept them to himself. Afterwards, 
Pelopidas restored the original state of things in 
Thessaly; but the dynasts of Pherae soon reco- 
vered their power, and the Aleuadae again solicited 
the assistance of Macedonia against them. Philip 
willingly complied with the request, broke the 
power of the tyrants of Pherae, restored the towns 
to an appearance of freedom, and made the Aleua- 
dae his fiuthful firiends and allies. (Diod. xvi. 14.) 
In what manner Philip used them for his purposes, 
and how little he spared them when it was his 
interest to do so, is su/ficiently attested. (Dem. 
de Cor. p. 241 ; Polyaen. iv. 2. § 11 ; Ulpiiui, /.c) 
Among the tetrarohs whom he entrusted with the 
administration of Thessaly, there is one Thrasy- 
daeus (Theopomp. ap, Aiken, vi. p. 249), who un- 
doubtedly belonged to the Aleuadae, just as the 
Thessalian Medius, wh9 is mentioned as one of 


tlie companions of Alexander the Great. (Plut De 
Tranquil. 13 ; comp. Strab. xi. p. 530.) The &- 
mily now sank into insignificance, and the last 
certain trace of an Aleuad is Thorax, a friend of 
Antigonus. (Plat. Demetr, 29.) Whether the 
sculptors Aleuas, mentioned by PHny {H, N. xxxiv. 
8), and Scopas of Paros, wen in any way con- 


nected with the Alenadae, cannot be BMoeftimL 
See Boeckh*s Qmmentary on PmL PytL x.; 
Schneider, on AruUtt, PoUL v. fi, 9; bat more parti- 
cularly Buttmann, Von dem GexUedU der Almda^ 
in his iVytAo£.ii.p. 246,&&, who has made oat tk 
following genealogical table of the AIhwIm. 

Alsuas U^fi^s^ 
King, or Taour, of Thsssalt. 

Mother Archedice. 

OL 40. Echeciatides. 
„ 45. 
« 60. 



Scopas I. 



I wifeDyseris. 

Antiochus, Tagus^ 

Aleuas II. 

Creon. Diactoridefc 
Scopas II. 



Thorax, Enrypylus, Thiasydaens. 






Scopas III., TagoB, 

Eurylochns. Eudicus. Simus. Thiasydaeos. 

ALEUAS, an artist who was famous for his 
statnes of philosophers. (Plin. H, N. xxxvr. 8. s. 
19, 26.) [C. P. M.] 

A'LEUS ('AXWs), a son of Apheidas, and 
grandson of Areas. He was king of Tetgea in 
Arcadia, and married to Neaera, and is said to 
have founded the town of Alea and the first tem- 
ple of Athena Alea at Tegea. (Pans. viiL 23. § 1, 
4. § 3, &c.; ApoUod. iii. 9. § 1.) [Alba.] [L. S.] 

ALEXA'MENUS (*AAc(a^ei^$), was genenU 
of the Aetolians, b. c. 196 (Polyb. xviiL 26), and 
was sent by the Aetolians, in b. c. 192, to obtain 
possession of Lacedaemon. He succeeded in his 
object, and killed Nabis, the tyrant of Lacedae- 
mon ; but the Lacedaemonians rising against him 
shortly after, he and most of his troops were killed. 
(Liv. XXXV. 34—36.) 

ALEXA'MENUS (•AAe^o/Mi'^j), of Teos, 
was, according to Aristotle, in his work upon 
poets (iTfpl iroii|T»v), the first person who wrote 
dialogues in the Socnitic style before the time of 
Pkto. (Athen. xi. p. 505, b. c; Diog. Laert. iiL 48.) 

ALEXANDER. [Paris.] 

ALEXANDER (*A\4lw9pos), the defender of 
men, a surname of Hera under which she was 
worshipped at Sicyon. A temple had been built 
there to Hera Alexandros by Adrastus after his 
flight from Aigos. (Schol. ad Find, Nem. ix. 30 ; 
comp. ApoUod. iii. 12. § 5.) [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER (*AA^|ai^f>os), a man whom 
Mithridates is charged by Sulk with having sent 
to assassinate Nicomedes. (Appian, De BdL Miihr, 
57.) He seems to be the same person as Alexan- 
der the Paphlagonian, who is afterwards (76, &c) 
mentioned as one of the generals of Mithridates, 
and was made prisoner by Lucullus, who kept him 
to adorn his triumph at Rome. [L. S.] 

ALEXA'NDER ('AA^eo««/»j), a »nt ^ 
martyr, whose memory is celebrated by the R«JJ« 
churdi, t<>gether with the other martyrs of Ly«» 
and Vienne, on the second of June. He «« > 
native of Phrygia, and a physician by pn)feB«a 
and was put to death, a. d. 177, during the pefff- 
cation that raged against the churches of ^"^^ 
and Vienne under the emperor Marcoi AwwjJ 
{Epi^, Eodes. Lugdttn. et Vienn. apud Eweb. ti^ 
Eod. V. I. p. 1 63.) He was condemned, togethff^ 
another Christian, to be devoured by wiW be*" 
in the amphitheatre, and died (as the htfton» 
expresses it) "neither uttering a g"*° ""^ J5'' 
lable, but conversing in his heart with "** 
(Bzovius, Nomendator Sanctorum -'W^^fV^ 
dioonm ; MartyroL Jioman, ed. Baiou.; -^f^rT 
ton»m,June2.) ^^'\^'L 

ALEXANDER, an Acarnanun, »'^ 
once been a friend of PhiUp IIL of M««d<»* 

but forsook him, and insinuated himself »^ ^ 
into the &vour of Antiochns the Great, tJ* ■ 
was admitted to his most secret delibeiBJKW* 
advised the king to invade Greece, hoMiug «i^ 
him the most brilliant prospecU of ▼i<^''lf >^ 
Romans, b. c 192. (Liv. xxxv. 18.) ^^^ 
followed his advice. In the battle of QP^"^^, 
in which Antiochus was defeated by ^*p"^ 
Alexander was covered with woimds, '"^J.^^, 
state he carried the news of the defeat to hii ^ 
who was staying at Thronium, on the M«^^ 
When the king, on his retreat from Gre««» , 
reached Cenaeum in Euboee, Alexaiwitf *^ , 
buried there, a. c. 191. (xxxvL 20.) l^ ' 

cvome m me nrsx century, ana a uu^t- ^t^ 
celebrated mathematician Sosigenes, whoce f»^ 


tioas were uied by Julio* Caesar for his correction 
of the year. He was tutor to the emperor Nero. 
(Sajdos, s. V, *AXc^u^f Mytuos ; Saet Tib, 57.) 
Tvo treatises on the writings of Aristotle are attri- 
Ittted to him by some, but are assigned by others 
V> Alexander Aphrodisiensis. I. On the Meteoro- 
logy of Aristotle, edited in Greek by F. Asulanus, 
Veo. 15*27, in Latin by Alex. Piccolomini, 1540, 
kl. II. A commentaiy on the Metaphysics. The 
Greek has never been published, but there is a 
Latin version by Sepulveda, Rom. 1527. [B. J.] 

King op Macboonia.] 

ALEXANDER {'A\4^<uf9(>os\ a son of Abms- 
Tcs, was one of the commanders of the Macedo- 
nian xaAicatmScf in the army of Antigonus Doson 
during the battle of Sellasia against Cleomenes III. 
of Sparta, in & c. 2*22. (Polyb. ii. 66.) [L. S.] 

Asca, No. 3.] 

ALEXANDER ('AA^<vV)i «>n of A'bro- 
PUH, a natiTO of the Macedonian district called 
Ljmcestis, whence he is usually called Alexander 
LyncesteSk Justin (zi. 1) makes the singuhir 
mistake of calling him a brother of Lynoestas, 
vhile in other passages (xi. 7, xii. 14) he uses the 
coiTCct ezpreadoD. He was a contemporary of 
Philip of Macedonia and Alexander the Great 
He bad two bfothers, Heromenes and Arrhabaeus ; 
all three were known to have been accomplices in 
the murder of Philip, in B. a 336. Alexander 
the Greet on his accession put to death all those 
who had taken part in the murder, and Alexander 
the Lyncestian was the only one that was par* 
doned, because he was the first who did homage to 
Alexander the Great as hb king. (Arrian, Anab. 
l 25 ; Curtius, Tii. 1 ; Justin, xi. 2.) But king 
Alexander not only pardoned him, but even made 
him his friend and raised him to high honours. 
He was first entrusted with the command of an 
snny in Thrace, and afterwards received the com- 
laaod of the Thessalian horse. In this capacity 
he socomponied Alexander on his eastern ex- 
pedition. In b. c. 334, when Alexander was 
»taying at Phaselis, he was informed, that the 
Lvnccstian was carrying on a secret correspondence 
with king Darius, and that a large sum of money 
wa« promised, for which he was to murder his 
sovereign. The bearer of the letters from Darius 
«as taken by Parmenion and brought before Alex- 
ander, and the treachery was manifest. Yet 
Alexander, dreading to create any hostile feeling 
in Antipater, the r^ent of Macedonia, whoee 
daughter was married to the Lyncestian, thought 
it advisable not to pot him to death, and had him 
men;]y deposed from his office and kept in cus- 
t>^y. In this manner he was dragged about for 
three yean with the army in Asia, until in b. c. 
«>^, when, Phllotas having been put to death for 
a similar crime, the Macedonians demanded that 
.Alexander the Lyncestian should likewise be tried 
and punished according to his desert King Alex- 
ander gave way, and as the traitor was unable to 
exeolpate himseU; he was put to death at Proph- 
thasia, in the country of the Dnuigae. (Curtius, 
/. e^ and viil 1 ; Justin. xiL 14 ; Diod. xvii. 32, 80.) 
The object of this traitor was probably, with the 
aid of Persia, to gain possession of the throne of 
>Iacedonia, which previous to the reign of Amyn- 
tas II. had for a time belonged to his family. [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER (*A\4iwZpos\ an Ahtolian, 



who, in conjunction with Dorymachus, put himself 
in possession of the town of Aegeira in Achaia, 
during the Social war, in & c. 220. But the con- 
duct of Alexander and his associates was so inso- 
lent and rapacious, that the inhabitants of the 
town rose to expel the small band of the Aetoliana. 
In the ensuing contest Alexander was killed while 
fighting. (Polyb. iv. 57, 58.) [L. S.] 

AitmAos), a Greek poet and grammarian, who lived 
in the reign of Ptolemaeus Philadelphus. He was 
the son of Satyms and Stratocleia, and a native of 
Pleuron in Aetolia, but spent the greater part of 
his life at Alexandria, where he was reckoned one 
of the seven tragic poets who constituted the tragic 
pleiad. (Suid. <. v.; Eudoc. p. 62 ; Pans. ii. 22. § 7 ; 
SchoL ad Horn. II, xvL 233.) He had an office 
in the library at Alexandria, and was commis- 
sioned by the king to make a collection of all the 
tragedies and satyric dramas that were extant. 
He spent Bome time, together with Antagoras and 
Aratus, at the court of Antigonus Gonatas. (Ara- 
tus, Pkaenomena et Dio$em. ii. pp. 431, 443, &c. 
446, ed. Buhle.) Notwithstanding the distinction 
he enjoyed as a tragic poet, he appears to have had 
greater merit as a writer of epic poems, elegies, 
epigrams, and cynaedL Among his epic poems, 
we possess the titles and some fragments of three 
pieces : the Fisherman (dAici)i, Athen. vii. p. 296), 
Kirka or Krika (Athen. yii. p. 283), which, how- 
ever, is designated by Athenaeus as doubtfril, and 
Helena. (Bekker, Aneod. p. 96.) Of his elegies, 
some beautifrd friigments are still extant. (Athen. 
17. p. 1 70, xi p. 496, XV. p. 899 ; Strab. xii. p. 556, 
xiY. p. 681 ; Parthen. EroL 4 ; Tzetz. ad, L^oophr, 
266 ; Schol. and Eustath. ad IL iii. 314.) His 
Cynaedi, or *luvucd rron/ifjutra^ are mentioned by 
Strabo (xiT. p. 648) and Athenaeus. (xiv. p. 620.) 
Some anapaestic verses in praise of Euripides are 
preserved in Gellius."(xv. 20.) 

All the fragments of Alexander Aetolus are col- 
lected in ^ Alexandri Aetoli fri^;menta coU. et ilL 
A. Capellmann,'* Bonn, 1829, 8vo. ; comp. Welo- 
ker, Vie Griech. Troffodien^ p. 1263, &c.; DUntzer, 
Die Fragm, der Epiach, Poem der Griechen^ von 
Alexand. dem GroseetL, ^c p. 7, &c [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER ('AXi^ayZpos), (STJ of Alex- 
andria, succeeded as patriarch of that city St 
Achillas, (as his predecessor, St. Peter, had pre- 
dicted. Martyr, S, Petri, ap. Surium, vol. vi. p. 577,) 
A. D. 312. He, ^ the noble Champion of Apostolic 
Doctrine,"" (Theodt HiiL Eod. i. 2,) first htid bare 
the irreligion of Arius, and condemned him in his 
dispute with Alexander Baucalis. St. Alexander 
was at the Oecumenical Council of Nicaea, a. n. 
325, with his deacon, St Athanasius, and, scarcely 
five months after, died, April 17th, a. d. 326. 
St Epiphanius (adv. Haeres, 69. § 4) says he wrote 
some seventy circular epistles against Arius, and 
Socrates (H, E. L 6). and Sozomen {H. E, i. 1), 
that he collected them into one volume. Two 
epistles remain ; 1. to Alexander, bishop of Con- 
stantinople, written after the Council at Alexan- 
dria which condemned Arius, and before the other 
circular letters to tlie various bishops. (See Theodt 
H.E. 14; Galland. BiU, Pair. voL iy. p. 441.) 
2. The Encyclic letter announcing Arius^s depo- 
sition (Socr. H. E, i. 6, and Galland. l.c p. 451), 
with the subscriptions from Gclosius Cyzicen. 
{Hist. Con. Nicaen. ii. 3, ap. Mans. Concilia, vol. ii. 
p. 801.) There remains, too, Tlte Depositiun qf 



Arms and Au, i. e. an Address to the Priests and 
Deacons, desiring their concurrence therehi (ap. 
S. Athanas. vol L Ps. 1. p. 396, Paris, 1698 ; see 
Galland. /. c p. 455). Two fragments more, apud 
Oalland. (I. c p. 456.) St. Athanasiui also gives 
the second epistle. (/. c p. 397.) [A. J. C] 

ALEXANDER {^AXi^avBpos}, commander of 
the horse in the army of Antioonus Do80N dnt- 
ing the war against Cleomenes III. of Sparta. 
(Polyb. ii. 66.) He fought against Philopoemen, 
then a young man, whose prudence and valour 
forced him to a disadvantageous engagement at 
Sellasia. (ii. 68.) This Alexander is probably the 
same person as the one whom Antigonui, as the 
guardian of Philip, had appointed commander of 
Philip's body-guard, and who was calumniated by 
Apclles. (iv. 87.) Subsequently he was sent by 
Philip as ambassador to Thebes, to persecute Me- 
saleas. (y. 28.) Polybius states, that at all times 
he manifested a most extraordinary attachment to 
his king. (vii. 12.) [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER CAA^|or8poj), of Antiochia, 
a friend of M. Antonius, who being acquainted 
with the Syriac hmguage, acted twice as interpreter 
between Antonius and one Mithridatcs, who be- 
trayed to him the plans of the Parthlans, to save 
the Romans. This happened in b. c. 36. (Pseudo- 
Appian, Parth, pp. 93, 96, ed. Schweigh.) [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER fAA^^ovdpoj), son of Anto- 
nius, the triumvir, and Cleopatra, queen of Egypt. 
He and his twin-sister Cleopatra were bom n. c. 
40. Antonius bestowed on him the titles of **■ Ue- 
lios,** and ** King of Kings,'' and called his sister 
** Selene." He also destined for him, as an inde- 
pendent kingdom, Armenia, and such countries as 
might yet be conquered between the Euphrates 
and Indus, and wrote to the senate to have his 
grants confirmed ; but his letter was not suffered 
to be read in public (a. c. 34.) After the con- 
quest of Armenia Antonius betrothed Jotape, the 
daughter of the Median king Artavasdcs, to his 
son Alexander. When Octavianus made himself 
master of Alexandria, he spared Alexander, but 
took him and his sister to Rome, to adorn his 
triumph. They were generously received by Oo- 
tavia, the wife of Antonius, who educated them 
with her own children. (Dion Cassius, xlix. 32, 
40, 41, 44, L 25, Ii. 21 ; Plut. Anton. 86, 54, 87; 
Liv. BpU. 1 31, 1 32.) [C. P. M.] 

ALEXANDER (•AX^Joi/Jpos), bishop of Apa- 
II BA, sent with his namesake of Hierapolis by 
John of Antiocb to the Council of Ephesus. A 
letter by him is extant in Latin in the Nova Ccl- 
lectio Conciliorum ii Stephan. Baluxio^ p. 834. c 
132. fol. Paris, 1683. [A. J. C] 

w^pos *Appa9urit6t)^ a native of Aphrodisias in 
Caria, who lived at the end of the second and the 
beginning of the third century after Christ, the roost 
celebrated of the commentators on Aristotle. He 
was the disciple of Herminus and Aristocles the 
Messenian, and like them endeavoured to free the 
Peripatetic philosophy from the syncretism of Am- 
roonius and others, and to restore the genuine in- 
terpretation of the writings of Aristotle. The title 
6 i^rrrrrfi' was the testimony to the extent or the 
excellence of his commentaries. About half his 
yoluminous works were edited and translated into 
Latin at the revival of literature ; there are a few 
more extant in the original Greek, which have 
never been printed, and an Arabic version is pre- 


ieired of seyenl others, whose titles may lie skb 
in the Bibliotheca of Casiri. ( VoL L p. 243L) 

H we view him aa a philosopher, his merit cn- 
not be rated highly. His excellencies and de^cis 
are all on the model of bis great master ; ihtrt '.« 
the same perspicuity and power of analjsia, imiisd 
with almost more than Aristotelian ^fiaatatia t4 
style ; everywhere ""a fiat surfiue,** with noLbint 
to intermpt or strike the attention. In a mind m 
thoroughly imbued with Aristotle, it cannot be ex- 
pected there should be much place for origin^ 
thought. His only endeavour is to adapt the 
works of his master to the spirit and language i4 
his own age ; but in doing so he is constantiy re- 
called to the earlier philosophy, and attacks bv* 
gone opinions, as though they had the same living 
power as when the writings of Aristotle were di- 
rected against them. (Ritter, GrtckidUe der Phk- 
topkie^ voL iv. p. 255.) 

The Platonista and earlier Stoics are fab chief 
opponents, for he regarded the Epicnreans as too 
sensual and unphilosophical to be worth a aKioss 
answer. Against the notion of the first, that the 
world, although created, might yet by the wiQ of 
Ood be mode imperishable, he ui^ged that QpA con^d 
not alter the nature of things, and quoted the 
Platonist doctrine of the necessary coexistence of 
evil in all corruptible things. (Ritter, p. 26^) 
Ood himself, he said, was the very fonn of 
things. Yet, however difficult it maj be to 
enter into this abstract notion of Ood, it wodd 
be unjust, as some have done, to charse him wi± 
atheism, as in many passages he attnbatcs miad 
and intelligence to the divine Being. This ii 
one of the points in which he has brought oLt 
the views of Aristotle more clearly, &am his livix^ 
in the light of a Uter age. Qod, he says (m A/<^ 
phys. ix. p. 320), is "property and simfdy one^ the 
seUf-existent substance, the author of motion him- 
self unmoved, the great and good Dei^, withoct 
beginning and without end:** and again (mMeiapL 
xii. p. 381) he asserts, that to deprive God of pn^ 
vidence is the same thing as depriving hooey o( 
sweetness, fire of warmth, snow of whiteness and 
coolness, or the soul of motion. The proyidcnce uf 
God, however, is not directed in the same way t9 
the sublunary world and the rest of the nnivene : 
the latter is committed not indeed to £ite, hut to 
general laws, while the concerns of men axe the 
unmediate care of God, although he find not in 
the government of them the full perfection of h» 
being. {Quatst. Nat. i. 25, ii. 21 .) He saw no mcca- 
sistency, as perhaps there was none, between these 
high notions of God and the materialism widi 
which they were connected. As God was the 
form of all things, so the human soul was likewise 
a form of matter, which it was unpossible to ci»- 
oeive as existing in an independent state. He 
seems however to have made a distinction between 
the powen of reflection and sensation, for he says 
{deAnima^ i. p. 138), that the soul needed not the 
body as an instrument to take in objects of thought, 
but was sufficient of itself; unless the latter is to 
be looked upon as an inconsistency into which he 
has been led by the desire to harmonise the coiIt 
Peripateticism with the purer principle of a hiet 
philosophy. (Brucker, voL ii. p. 481.) 

The most important treatise of his which hsa 
come down to us, is the **De Fato,*" an inquiry 
into the opinions of Aristotle on the subject cf 
Fate and Freewill. It is probaU}' one of his latest 


WBK8| snd uniit luive D6eD wixtten LuiUMii tne 
ytm 199-211, beeaoM dedkatad to tha joint ein- 
peran Sereni and OnKBlh. Here ttaie earlier 
StoicB are bis oppoDcnta» who aaaerted that all 
things aroae fiom an eternal and indiaaolnUe chain 
of caoiea and efiectiu The tubjeet ia treated 
piactically xafther than fpecalatiTely. UniTeml 
opinion, the eonunon nee oi laogaage, and internal 
conicioasDeM, are his main aignmentiw That &te 
has a real ezistence, is proYed by the distinction 
we dnv between fiite, chance, and possibility 'and 
between free and n ece ssa r y actions. It is another 
vord fiir nature, and its workings are seen in the 
tendendes of men and thii^ (& 6), ibr it is an all- 
pamduig canae of real, bat not absointe, power. 
The fataham of the Stdca doea away with free- 
vill, and 80 destroys responsibility : it is at ytoA- 
utoe with every thought, word, and deed, of onr 
IiTe& The Stoio, indeed, attempt to reconcile 
neceasty and freewill; bnt, properly spccddng, 
tiiey use freewill in a new sense for ue i iaoea ag rjr 
eH»pention of onr wiB in the decrees of nature : 
noreoTer, they cannot expect men to carry into 
practice the snblle diatinetion of a will n eces s a rily 
yet freely actii^f; and hence, by destroymg the 
ueovntahleDess of man, they destroy the founda- 
tion of nunalSty, religion, and civfl gOTemment. 
(e:i2— 20.) Supposmg their doctrine true in 
tkeory, it is impossible in action. And OTcn spe- 
oktiTely their argument from the uniTeraal chain 
iiaconfoaionofanorderof sequence with a series 
ofcuaeaandeffiectaL If it be said again, that the 
8«i> have certain fordmowdedge of fiiture erents, 
aad vhat is certainly known must necessarily be, 
it is answered by denying that in the nature of 
tluDgR there can be any such foreknowledge, as fore- 
^wledge is proportumed to divine power, and is a 
knovledge of what divine power can perform. The 
Stoical view inevitably leads to the condnsion, that 
all the ejdsting ordinanoes of religion are bhuphe- 

Tiui treatise, whidi has been edited by OreUi, 
gi^agDod idn of his style and method. Upon 
the Thole, it must be aUowed that, although with 
ftitter ve cannot place him high as an independent 
thinker, he did much to encourage the accurate 
■todj of Aristotle, and exerted an influence which, 
tccordmg to Julius Scaiiger, was still felt in his 
%. (Brncker, toL ii p. 480.) 

The following list of his works is abridged from 
Haries^ Fabridns. (Vol t. p. 650.) I. TltfA 
^^a^ltenp col tov s^' if/i&, J)e Paio^ deque eo 
^ m flKMtfrs patekaie eet: the short treatise 
mentioned above, dedicated to the emperon Se- 
veru and CaacaOa ; first printed by the suo- 
^9m of Aldns Manntius, 1534, folio, at the end 
^f the TQrks of Themistius : translated into Latin 
br Giotiiis in the collection entitled *^Veterum 
^ Sententiae de Fato,** Paris, 1648, 4to., 
Y^ 1688, 12mo., and edited by Orelli, Zurich, 
1 8*24, 8tq^ with a frajgment of Alexander Aphrodis. 
^^'ort«Ki,and treatises of Ammonius, Pk>tinus,&c 
OQtiieaioenbject 11, ChmmeKtarius(yr6fanyjM) 
^prmm Sbntm AnafyUeorum Priorum Aristotdit^ 
JwetAldi, 1520, foL; Florcn. 1621, 4to., with a 
Utin translation by J. Bap. Felicianus. llLCom- 
•«tori«, « viu a,rve Topiearum, Ven. Aldi, 
^13; with a Latin version by O. Dorotheus, Ven. 
>^26 and 1541 , and Paris, 1 542, foUo ; and another 
by Haiariu, Ven. 1568, 1573, foUo. IV. Cam- 
'^ n Elemdum Sophikieoe; Greece, Yen. Aldi, 



1520, foL; Flor. 1520, fol. : translated into Latin by 
J. B. Raasrius. V. CktmmenL an Jlf^ft^MlynoDrum 
Xfl Ubrot; ex versione J. O. Sepulvedae, Rom. 
1527, Paris, 1536, Yen. 1544 and 1561. The 
Greek text has never been printed, although it 
exists in the Paris library and several others. 
YI. Iniibnm^deSeiuHeimquaembtenemneadimi; 
the Greek text is printed at the end of the com- 
mentary of Simplidus on the De Animi, Yen. Aldi, 
1527, nilio ; there is also a Latin Terrion by Luci- 
lius Philothaeua, Yen. 1544, 1549, 1554, 1559, 
157S. YIL In AriiloieUi Meierologiea; Yen. 
Aldi, 1527; supposed by some not to be the 
work of Alexander Aphrod. VIII. De Mvtiom; 
bound up in the same edition as the preceding. 
in, De Animd Ubri duo (two distinct works), 
printed in Greek at the end of Themistius : there 
is a Latin Tenion by Hienmymus Donatus, Yen. 
1502, 1514, folio. li,PkpUnSekolia^dMtalione9 
el mdutionee; in Greek, Yen. Trincavelli, 1536, 
folie ; in Latin, by Hieronymus Bagolinus, Yen. 
1541, 1549, 1555, 1559,^563. XL Imrpacd 
'Aroffj^fun-a ital #v^4icd IVot\i{fiara, Q^taeetUmee 
Medieae el Problemata Phytiea. XIL Utfl livpt- 
rS¥^ LSbeUm de PeMbue. The last two treatises 
are attributed by Theodore Chuta and many other 
writen to Alexander Tnllianua. They are ^oken 
of below. 

His commentaries tm the Categories, on the lat- 
ter Analytics (of the last there viras a transition 
by St. Jerome), on the De Animi and Rhetorical 
works, and also on those wspl yeAfftma ical ^Bopas^ 
together with a work entitled Liber I de Theologilk, 
probably distinct from the Conmientaries on the 
Metaphysics, are still extant in Arabic. A Com- 
mentary on the prior Analytics, on the De Intep» 
pretatione, a treatise on the Virtues, a work enti- 
tled wcpi Zaift6ven> KAyos^ a treatise against Zeno- 
bins the Epicurean, and another on the nature and 
qualitiea of Stones, also a book of Allegories fiom 
mythological fobles, are all either quoted by othen 
or referred to by himsel£ [B. J.] 

Berides the works univenally attributed to 
Alexander Aphrodisiensis, there are extant two 
others, of which the author is not certainly known, 
but which are by some persons supposed to belong 
to him, and which commonly go under his name. 
The first of these is entitled 'larpucd 'Anp^i/iara 
Ktd ^vtrucd n/M^i^/ioTO, Qnaeeliomt Medieae ei 
Problemata Phyeieoy which there are strong reasons 
for believing to be the work of some other writer. 
In Uie fint phice, it is not mentioned in the list of 
his works given by the Arebii author quoted by 
Casiri (B&ioth, Arabieo-Hitp. EsewiaL voL i. 
p. 243) ; secondly, it appean to have been written 
by a person who belonged to the medical profession 
(ii. prae£ et § 11), which was not the case with 
Alexander Aphrodisiensis ; thirdly, the writer re- 
fen (i. 87) to a work by himself, entitled *AAAt|- 
yopwli rmy eir Ofodf 'AwnrXoTTOftivMi' TliBoveiw 
'lOTopuhfy AUegonae HitUniantm CredibUuun de 
Due PabriecUarum^ which we do not find mention 
ed among Alexander's works ; fourthly, he more 
than once speaks of the soul as immortal (il pniet 
et § 63, 67), which doctrine Alexander Aphrodi- 
siensis denied ; and fifthly, the style and hmguage 
of the work seem to belong to a kter age. Several 
eminent critics suppose it to belong to Alexander 
Tnllianus, but it does not seem likely that a 
Christian writer would have composed the mytho- 
logical work mentioned above. It consists of two 



bocka, and contains leyeial interasting medical ob- 
senrationB along with much that is nivobus and 
trifling. It was fiist published in a Latin transla- 
tion by Oeoige YaUa, Venet 1488, foL The 
Greek text is to be fbond in the Aldine edition of 
Aristotle's works, Venet fol. 1495, and in that by 
Sylboigios, Franco! 1585, Syo. ; it was published 
with a Latin translation by J. Davion, Paris. 1540, 
1541, 16mo.; and it is inserted in the first volume 
of Ideler's Pkjfsiei et Media Graeoi Afmoresj BeroL 
1841, 8yo. 

The other woik is a short treatise, Utpl UvperSv^ 
De Febnbui, which is addressed to a medical pupil 
whom the author offers to instruct in any other 
brandi of medicine; it is also omitted in the 
Arabic list of Alexander's works mentioned above. 
For these reasons it does not seem likely to be the 
work of Alexander Aphrodisiensis, while the whole 
of the twelfth book of the great medical work of 
Alexander Trallianns (to whom it has also been 
attributed) is taken un with the subject of Fever, 
and he would hardly Ave written two treatises on 
the same disease without making in either the 
slightest allusion to the other. It may posubly 
belong to one of the other numerous physicians of 
the name of Alexander. It was first published in 
a Latin translation by George Valla, Venet. 1498, 
fol., which was several times reprinted. The Greek 
text first appeared in the Cambridge Afusmtm 
CWfapttm, voL ii. pp. 859 — 889, transcribed by De- 
metrius Schinas nom a manuscript at Florence ; it 
was published, together with Valk's transhition, by 
Franz Passow, Vratislav. 1822, 4to., and also in 
Passow'S Opusetda AoademioOf Lips. 1835, 8vo., 
p. 521. The Greek text alone is contained in the 
first volume of Ideler's Fhytid et Medici Oraed 
Minores, Berol 1841, 8vo. [W. A. G.] 

ALEXANDER ([AX^|ay8pos), the eldest son of 
AiusTOBULUS II., king of Judaea, was taken pri- 
soner, with his &iher and brother, by Pompey, on 
the capture of Jerusalem (& a 63), but made his 
escape as they were being conveyed to Rome. In 
B. c. 57, he appeared in Judaea, raised an army of 
10,000 foot and 1500 horse^ and fortified Alexan- 
dreion and other strong posts. Hyrcanus applied 
for aid to Gabinius, who brought a large army 
against Alexander, and sent M. Antonius with a 
body of troops in advance. In a battle fought 
near Jerusalem, Alexander was defeated with great 
los^ and took refuge in the fortress of Alexan- 
dreion, which was forthwith invested. Through 
the mediation of his mother he was permitted to 
depart, on condition of surrendering all the for^ 
tresses still in his power. In the following year, 
during the expedition of Gabinius into Egypt, 
Alexander again excited the Jews to revolt, and 
collected an army. He massacred all the Romans 
who fell in his way, and besieged the rest, who had 
taken refuge on Mount Gericim. After rejecting 
the terms of peace which were offered to him by 
Gabinius, he was defeated near Mount Tabor with 
the loss of 10,000 men. The spirit of his ad- 
herents, however, was not entirely crushed, for in 
B. G 53; on the death of Crassus, he again collected 
some forces, but was compelled to come to terms by 
Cassias, (b. g 52.) In b. c. 49, on the breaking 
tmt of the civil war, Caesar set Aristobulus at 
liberty, and sent him to Judaea, to further his in- 
terests in that quarter. He was poisoned on ^e 
journey, and Alexander, who was preparing to 
support him, was seised at the command of Pompey, 

and bcbesdt^d at Andock (Joseph. AmL JmL 
xiv. 5—7 ■ mu. JuiL L 8, 9.) tCL P. M.J 

ALEXANDER, of Athx?™, a comk poti. ihs 

son of Arifiiion, whoie name occuib ia mn isaEn^ 
tion giTtn in Bockh (Ootjj, /jvct. L p. 765), *W 
refcrsittotbe 14ath01ympiad*(H. C.200.) V^frm 
seems alio to have been n poet of the ^u»e Tm::^^ 
who was B writer of the middle eomtdy, ^*««d' 
by the SchoL on Homer ( //, ii. 216), and Arisk:^ * 
(Ran. 864), and AthcjL (it. p. 170, e. x. pv49^. t i, 
Meinekc^ I'Vagm. Com. vol i p- 487.) [C P. K] 

ALEXANDER ('AAt|arfipoi)^ an amldatadcff 
of king Attaius, sent to Rome in iLCu I^ t« 
negotiate peaca with the Romaa seitate. [Pc^vL 
xnL lO;) [L.^] 

ALEXANDER BALAS C^f^^^pos BiL/m2\ 
a person of low origin, iieorpcd the tlmme of 
the Greek kingdom of Syria, in the year li*\ 
B. CL, pretending that he was the son of AntisditBS 
Epiphanes, His claim was ie£ up by Hexaciodieid 
who had been the tti^astiwr of the Utc kinjr Amw- 
chuA EpiphjuitAT but had be^n bonii^bnl %a Khtidu 
by the rvigning king, Demetriui Soter; and h 
was supported by Ptokmy Phi]aniet49rr, tii^ if 
Eg}'pt, Ariartbes Phibpatori, king of Capfj&kc^ 
and AtUilus Philadclphua, king of PejsacA. 
Hetaclcidea also, harinj; taken Akx&nder P? Hjsf^^ 
succei^cd in flbtiining A decite of the 
his £avDur« FumiBhed with forces by 1 ' 
Aleiandf^i entered Syria in 152, & c, tMk pn^ 
sesaion of Ptolcmds, and fought a battk viti 
Demetrius Soter, in which, howeTer^ be i>tu d<> 
featcd. In the year 150 B. c Alcxoudef «pi 
met Demeiiiaa in battle with better success Ti • 
army t^f i)en>etriuB wna completely routed, sad ^ 
himiclf perished in the flight* No sooner imt 
Alcjcandef thus obtained the kingdom thaa bi 
gaTd up the admini^Ltmdon of Di&Irs to hii maiK 
ter Ammoninn^ and himself to a life of ptcvoR^ 
AmmouiuJB put to death all thf< memben of the Ism 
royal family who were in hit power; but iiro ^mt 
of Demetrius weru safe in Cietc The ddef i* 
thenL, who was named Demetriufv took the l^eld i^ 
Cilicia againat the usurper, Alexandef sppJin^ 
for help to hi§ Citht^r-in-law, Ptolemy Phllcinrt r^ 
who marched into SvTia, aiid then decbnfd hi'^ 
self in favour of Demetrius, Alexander now ^ 
turned &oin Giliciai whither he had gone to m^n 
Demetrius, and eiigoged in battle ^-ith Ptolfimj ij 
the river Oenopanu. In thia hattJe, ijicii^'f) 
PtolE^my fell, Akxiindcr was completely de!rdtJ-4 
and he was ofterwardii murdered by sA Anta 
emfr with whom he had taken refuge, (su c, 11^ ,i 
The meaning of his Humpme (B«Uas) is doobth^ 
It IB moit probably a title siguifyu^ *' kcd ** er 

•* king.** On some of hie coins be is ofi^i 
** Epiphanf**' and " Nicepboms" after his pr*^ 
tended fiiihcr. On others ** EttefgetM "^ sni I 
" Theopator/' (Polyb, lixju. 14, iS"; Lk, EpiL 
I liii. ; Jnstm, xxr. ; Appian, S^friacoj c 67 ; 1 


MaccaK z. 11 ; Joteph. Aid. ziiL 2. § 4 ; Enseb. 
tkrwiecm; CliiitoD, Fadi^ iil pu 324.) [P. &] 

ALEXANDER, of Bno&& ; he and ThyziU 
raffwnted Demetriiu, the son of Philip III. of 
Maodonia, at Hendda, in b. c. 179. (liY. zl. 24 ; 
Ltimp. Dbmstbius, wm of Philip.) [I^ £1] 

ALEXANDER CAA^»«po«), at fint biahop 
in CApPADOOii, flonriahed A. n. 212. On the 
tksth of Se?enU| a. ik 211, he Tiaited Jenualam, 
and via made eoadjntar oif the aged Naiciaraa, 
l>i«hopof that dty, whom he afterwaxda anooeeded. 
lie foanded an eedeaiastical lifaiazy at Jeniaalem, 
tif which Eoaebhis made great nae in writing hia 
Histonr. After snffBring under SeTeroa and Can- 
calk, he waa at last thrown into priaon at Caenrea, 
vdA^ sita vitneaaing a good oonftaaion, died a. o. 
230. &iaehiia has piewrred fragmenta of a letter 
K rittes by him to the Antino'itea ; of another to 
the Antiocfaenea (HitL BeeL tL 11); of a third 
to Ongen (ri. Ijh; and of another, written in con- 
janctioQ with Theoctistua of Caeaazea, to Deme- 
trijs of Aknmdria. (ri. 19.) [A. J. C] 

B»6pef i 'Ayfjpcucfds), fiooiished in the third 
centniy. To aroid the dangen of a hand- 
lome penon, he diigidaed himaelf and lived aa 
a coal-heavvr at Camae, in Aaia Minor. The aee 
of this city being neant, the people aaked St. 
CiregaryThanaatnigna to come and ordain them a 
biahop. He icjected manj who were offered for 
c-inseciatloD, and when he bade the people prefer 
Tiitae to xaak, one in mockery cried out, ** Well, 
then \ make Alexander^ the coal-heayer, budiopi" 
S^i. GRgoiy had him sommoned, diaooTered hia 
diiigniie, and having arrayed him in aacerdotal 
Nntmenta, preaeated him to the people, who, with 
sdrpdae and joy, accepted the appointment He 
addressed than in homely but dignified phraae, 
and rded the church till the Decian peraecntion, 
when he waa burnt, ▲. d. 251. (& Or^. Nyaaen. 
Vtt S. Grtg. Tkaumaimrg. §§ 19, 20, ap. Galhtnd. 
BAiujOL Pair, toL iii. pp. 467—460.) [A. J. aj 

ALEXANDER ('AAf|fa«8poi), third aon of 
CASSANDma, king of Macedimia, by Theaaalosica, 
•ister of Alexander the Great In hia quarrel 
with hii elder brother Antipater for the govem- 
i»«i>t [Antipatxk], he oUed in the aid of 
PjTrhas of Ejnnia and Demetriua Poliorcetea. 
To the idnoer he waa ennpeUed to suiiender, aa 
the price of hia anifMifo, the land on the aea-coaat 
of ^lacedonia, together with the provinoea of Am- 
brada, Acarnania, and Amphilochia. (Plut 
i*yrrk p. 386, b.) Demetrius acoordine to Plu- 
taith (Pynk 386, d., DemOr, 906, a.), arrived 
■fter Pj^na had retired, and when mattera, 
through hia mediation, bad been arranged between 
the brothen. Demetriua, therefore, waa now an 
oowebome risitor, and Alexander, while he re- 
crired him with aU outward civility, ia eaid by 
Flntaich to have laid a plan fi>r murdering him at 
a baaqaet, which waa baffled, however, by the 
Pjcantion of Demetriua. {Demetr. 906, a. b.) 
The next day Demetriua took hia departure, and 
loader attended him aa fiar aa Theaaaly. Here, 
at Uriaa, be went to dine with Demetriua, and 
(taking no gnarda with him by a fianded refine- 
n«ot of po%) waa aaaaaainated, together with hia 
mends who attended him, one of whom ia aaid to 
jaje exekimed, that Demetriua waa only one day 
beforehand with them. (Plut Jismeir. p. 906, 
«• d- J Joat xvi. 1 ; Died. xxL Exc. 7.) [E. E.] 



ALEXANDER ('AXi^ayfyos), emperor of Con- 

' I emperor 

STANTiNOPLS, waa the third aon of^the < 
BaailiuB and Eudoda. He waa bom about ▲. n. 
670, and, after hia &ther*B death, he and hia bro- 
ther Leo, the philoaopher, bora the title of imperator 
in common. Leo died on the Uth of May, 911, 
and Alexander received the imperial crown, toge- 
ther with the guardianahip of hia brother^a aon, 
Conatantinua Porphyrogenitna, whom he would 
have mutilated ao aa to render him unfit to govern, 
had he not been prevented. The reign of Alex- 
ander, which laated only for one year and aoroe 
daya, waa one onintennpted leriea of acta of 
cruelty, debauchery, and lioentiouaneaa ; for the 
restminta which he had been obliged to put on 
himaelf during the lifetime of hia brother, were 
thrown off immediately after hia acceaaion, and 
the wortfaieat peraona were removed from the court 
while the miniitere to hia Inata and paationa were 
raiaed to the higheat honours. He involved hia 
empire in a war with Simeon, king of the Bulgar 
rmna, but he did not live to aee ita outbreak. He 
died on the 7th of June, 912, in conaequenoe of a 
debauch, after which he took violent exeiciae on 
horseback. (Conatant m BaaU. 26 ; Scylitx. pp. 
569, 608 ; Zonaraa, xvi. 15, &c) [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER (ST.), patriarch of Conatanti- 
nople. [Ariu&] 

Kopnf\ios), aumamed Polyhistor (JIoAi^wyil, 
a Greek writer and contemporary of Sulla. Accord- 
ing to Suidaa he waa a native of Ephesna and a 
pupil of Cratea, and during the war of Sulla in 
Greece waa made priaoner and aold aa a ahtve to 
Comeliua Lentulua, who took him to Rome and 
made him the paedagogua of hia children. Aiter- 
warda Lentulua reatored him to fireedom. From 
Suidaa it would aeem as if he had received the 
gentile name Comeliua from Lentulua, while Ser- 
viua {ad Aen, x. 388) aaya, that he received the 
Roman fifunchiae from L. Corneliua Sulla. He 
died at Laurentum in a fire which conaumed hia 
houae, and aa aoon aa hia wife heard of the calar 
mity, ahe hung herael£ The statement of Suidaa 
that he waa a native of Epheaus ia contradicted by 
Stephanua Byamtiua (a, e. Kotm^cof), who aaya 
that he waa a native of Cotiaeum in Leaaer Phrygia, 
and a aon of Aadepiadea, and who ia borne out by 
the Etymologicum Magnum («. eo. Motita and 
wfpi^Sifs), where Alexander ia called Koriaci;5. 
The surname of Polyhiator waa given to him on 
account of hia prodigioua learning. He ia aaid to 
have written innun^erable works, but the greatest 
and most important among them was one consisting 
of 42 books, which Stephanus Byzantius calls 
TbxyTai<nrijs''T\'ns ASyot, This work appean to 
have contained historical and geographical accounts 
of nearly all countries of the ancient world. Each 
of the forty books treated of a separate country, 
and bore a corresponding title, such as Phrygiaca, 
Corica, Lydaca, &c. But such titles are not al- 
ways sure indications of a book forming only a 
part of the great work ; and in some cases it is 
manifest that particular countries were treated of 
in aepaiate works. Thus we find mention of the 
first book of a separate work on Crete (Schol. ad 
Apcttm. Khod. iv. 1492), and of another on the 
" Tractus lUyricus." (VaL Max. viiL 1 3, ext 7.) 
These geographico-historical works are referred to 
in innumerable passages of Stephanus Byzantius 
and Pliny. A separate work on the Phr}'gian 

I 2 



muridanB ii mentioned by Plutarch (2>0 Mm, 6), 
and there is OTery probability that Alexander Poly- 
histor is also the author of the work AiaSoxo/ 
^iKoaA^cty, which seems to be the groundwork of 
Diogenes Laertius. [Albxandsr Lychnus.] A 
work on the symbols of the Pythagoreans is men- 
tioned by Clemens Alexandrinus (^IfnMn. i. p. 131) 
and Cynllus {adv, JuUan, ix. p. 133). He also 
wrote a history of Judaea, of which a considerable 
fragment is preserved in Eusebius. (Fraep, Evang, 
iz. 17; comp. ClenL Alexand. Stiwn. L p. 143; 
Steph. Byx. f.o. *Iou8afa.) A history of Rome in five 
books is mentioned by Suidas, and a few fragments 
of it are preserred in Seryxns. (Ad Am. im. 330, 
X. 388.) A complete list of all the known tities 
of the works of Alexander Polyhistor is given in 
Vossius, De HisL Graeo, p. 187, &c^ ed. Wester^ 
mann. [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER L II., kings irf Egypt [Pro- 


ALEXANDER CAX^CoySpof) I., king of En- 
Evs, was the son of Neoptolemus and brother of 
Olympias, the mother of Alexander the Great 
He came at an early age to the court of Philip of 
Macedonia, and after the Grecian fiishion became 
the object of his attachment Philip in requital 
made him king of Epirus, after dethroning his cou- 
sin Aeacides. When Olympias was repudiated 
by her husband, she went to ner brothei^ and en- 
deavoured te induce him to make war on Philip. 
Philip, however, declined the contest, and formed 
a second alliance with him by giving him his 
daughter Cleopatra in marria^ (& c. 336.) At 
the wedding Philip was assassinated by Pausanias. 
In B. c. 332, Alexander, at the request of the 
Tarentines, crossed over into Italy, to aid them 
against the Lucanians and BruttiL After a victory 
over the Samnites and Lucanians near Paestum 
he made a treaty with the Romans. Success still 
followed his arms. He 'toi^ Heraclea and Consen- 
tia from the Lucanians, and Terina and Sipontum 
from the Bnittii. But in & a 326, through the 
treachery of some Lucanian exiles, he was com- 
pelled to engage wider unfevourable circumstances 
near Pandosia, on the banks of the Acheron, and 
fell by the hand of one of the exiles, as he was 
crossing the river; thus aooomplishing the prophecy 
of the oFsde of Dodona, which had bidden him be- 
ware of Pandosia and tiie Acheron. He left a son, 
Neoptolemus, and a daughter, Cadmea. (Justin, 
viii. 6, ix. 6, 7, xii. 2, xvii 3, xviii. 1, xxiiL 1 ; 
Liv. viii. 3, 17, 24 ; Diod. xvi. 72.) The head on 
the annexed coin of Alexander I. represents that 
of Jupiter. .{C. P. M.J 

ALEXANDER II., king of Epirus, was the 
•on of Pyirhns and Tianwiw, the daughter of the 
Sicilian tyrant Agathocles. He succeeded his fiir 
tiier in B. c. 272, and continued the war which his 
fisther had b^gun with Antigonus Gonatas, whom 
he succeeded in driving from the kingdom of 
Maoedon. He was, however, di^KMseased of both 


Macedon and Epims by Demetrina, die sen ti 
Antigonus; upon which he took refiqge aaMogst 
the Acamanians. By their assialaaKe and that sf 
his own subjects, who entertained a great attad>- 
ment for him, he recovered Epima. It appean 
that he was in alliance with the AetoKaaa^ ii^ 
married his sister Olympias, by whom he had two 
sons, Pyrrhus and Ftolemaens, and a dau^hlr'. 
Phthia. On the death of Alexander, Ohm^ 
assumed the regency on behalf of her aoas, ssc 
married Phthia to Demetrius. Thexe are exac; 
silver and copper coins of this king: The fenarr 
bear a youthful head covered with the akin of z=. 
elephant*s head, as appears in the one figored be- 
low. The reverse represents Pallaa holding a spear 
in one hand and a wield in the other, and htian 
her stands an eagle on a thunderbolt. ( JnatiB, ttv. 
1, xxvi. 2, 3, xxviii I ; Polyb. iL 43, ix. 34 ; 
Plut. Pyrrk. 9.) [a P. M-] 

ALEXANDER QhXi^fo^posi), a Greek Grav- 
MARIAN, who is mentioned among the instract-^ 
of the emperor M. Antoninus. (CapitoL M. AmLl\ 
M. Antonin. L § lO.) We still poaaeea a Ary«s 
hrird^s pronounced upon him by the rfaetoridsr. 
Aristeides. (Vol. i. OraL xil p. 142, &cl) f L. S] 
ALEXANDER, son of Hered. [HsaoDBS.] 
ALEXANDER ('AA^ew^fos). 1. Bbhop d 
HixRAPOLis in Phrygia, flourished a. d. 252. Ut 
was the author of a book entitled, Omtke mmt tkm» 
imtroimoed by Christ nUo the vnHd W jnu»^ 00^ 
yrym Xptrris ds t^p idfffUH^, are^ tT ; nat extiz^ 

2. Bishop ef HierapoBs, A. d. 431. He wu 
lent by John, bishop of Antiodi, to advocate the 
cause of Nestorius at the Council of Epheaaa. His 
hostility to St. Cyril was siidi, that he c^es r 
charged him with ApolKnaraniam, and refectrd 
the commumon of Jcmn, Theodoret, and the other 
Eastern bishops, on thar recondliataon with his:. 
He appealed to the pope, but was rejected, sod 
was at last banished by the empertw- to FaiDothii 
in Egypt Twenty-three letters of hie are extant b 
Latin in the Synodioon adnerwu TrogomUam Iman 
ap. Nooam OoUeetkmem Qmoiliomm d Baimzia, p. 
670, Ac Paris, 1683. [A. J. C] 

SOLYMITANUS, a disciple, first, of Paataeniis 
then of St. Clement, at Alexandria, where be b^ 
came acquainted with Origen, ( Eusefau liiaL EoeL ri. 
14,) was bishop of Flaviopolis, (TilleiBont, UiiL 
EooL ilL 415,) in Cappadocia. (& Hier. 1^. IC 
§ 62.) In the persecution under SeveiCB he was 
tiirown into prison, (circ. A.D. 204, Euaeh. vi. IK) 
where he remained till Asdepiadea suoceede^i 
Serapion at Antioch, a. d. 211, the beginning d 
CaracaUa'a reign. (See [a] the Epistle St. Alex- 
ander sent to the Antiochenea by St Qement «f 
Alexandria. Eoseb. H,B,yi, 11.) Enaebiiis re- 


btes [I &), that by DiTine lerelntioii he be- 
(ame ooadjatar bishop to Neztiafliu, bishop of 
Aelia, ie. Jerualem, a, d. 212. (See Enaeh. 
a&iltii (Anmie, ad A. d. 228, and Alexan- 
der^ i$] E^piatfe to the Antbioitea ap. Emeb. H. E. 
yi \l.) During hit epiaoopate of neariy forty 
y«an (lor he eontiniied biahop on the death of 
St. Naraian), he collected a yalnaUe libnury of 
EcfimuiM BpiAty which exiated in the time of 
Enaebias. {H, B. tL 20.) fle lecdred Origen when 
the troohka at Alexaadiia drove him thence, a. d. 
216, and made him, though a layman, explain the 
SoiptoRa pnUidy, a proceeding which he jnatified 
in[7]aa^atlete BiuiopDemetriua, of Alexandria, 
(ip. Eaaeb. H.E. tl 19,) who, however, aent 
\ to bring Origen home. Aa Origen 
Palestine, on some neoeaaary 
Alexander ordained him priest, 
(&Hiec.2Lfr §§64,62,) which canaed great dia- 
tiirbBnoemthechiireL[Oiii6KN.] Afra^entofa 
[8J ktter from St Alexander to Origen on the Bub- 
jed exista, ap. JSba0&. JSl £L vL 14. SL Alexander 
died in the Dedon perMcntion, A. D. 261, in priaon 
(& Dion. Alex. <9ii. j^mai ^. £L vL 46) after great 
snfferi]^ (Emt. vi 39^ and is oommemonted in 
the Eastern dmrdi on 12th Deeember, m the West- 
ern on l$lh March. Maaabanes succeeded him. 
St. dement of Alexandria dedicated to him his De 
CiMOM .fidMoitieo aboat the obaervance of Easter. 
(£r.£vi 1&) Hia fiagmenta have been men- 
tioned 10 dunnological order, and axe collected 
ia GaUandi, BSU, Pair, xL p. 201, and in Ronth^s 
BdipaaB Saene, iL p. 89. [A. J. C] 

*lanaus), was the son of Johannes Hyicanna, and 
hnrther of Aristobolns I., whom he succeeded, as 
Kiqff of the Jews, in n. a 104, after putting to 
Hesth one of his brothers, who laid claim to the 
:rown. He to^ advantage of the unquiet atate of 
Sjiia to attack the cities of Ptolemais (Acre), 
Don, and Gaaa, which, with aeveral others, had 
iBsde themaelvea independents The people of 
PtolemaSs i^lied for aid to Ptolemy Lathyms, 
then king of Cypma, who came vrith an aimy of 
thirty thousand men. Alexander was defeated on 
the fasaks of the Jordan, and Ptolemy ravaged the 
taanirj in the moat berbanma manner. In a. c. 
102, Ckopatm came to the aasistance of Alexaur 
der witha fleet and army, and Ptolemy was com- 
pelled to return to Cyprus. (& a 101.) Soon af- 
terwaids Alexander invaded Coele Syria, and re- 
newed his attaeka upon the independent dtiea. In 
B. a 96 he took Gaaa, destroyed the dty, and 
Bianacnd aU the inhabitants. The result of these 
vndertakingi, and hia having attached himself to 
the party of the Saddueees, drew upon him the 
Ii*tred of the Phariaeea, who were by fiff the more 
noBMEODs party. He waa attacked by the people 
in B. a 94, while officiating aa hig^-priest at the 
feast of Tabonadea ; bat the insurrection was put 
down, aod six thousand of the insurgents slain. In 
the next year (n. a 93) he made an expedition 
>g>mBt Aabia, and made the Araba of Oilead and 
(He MoaUtes tributary. But in b. a 92, in a 
ampa%n against Obedas, the emir of the Arabs of 
^^^i^tis, he feU into an ambush in the moun- 
taint of Qadara ; his aimy was entirely destroyed, 
sod be himidf escaped with difficulty. The Pha- 
riiees seised the opportunity thus aflEbrded, and 
hr^ceoat into otMm revolt. At first they were 
racceidii], and Alexander was compelled to fly to 



the mountains (& c. 88) ; but two years after- 
wards he gained two decisive victories. After the 
aeoond of these, he caused eight hundred of the 
chief men amongst the rebels to be crucified, and 
their wivea and children to be butchered befon 
their eyea, while he and hia concubines banqueted 
in sigfat d the victims. This act of atrodtjr pro- 
cured for him the name of **the Thradan.* It 
produced its effiM^ however, and the rebellion waa 
ahortly afterwarda suppressed, after the war had 
hwted aix years. During the next three years 
Alexander made aome su c cessfu l csmpaigns, reco- 
vered several dties and fortresses, and pushed his 
conquests beyond the Jordan. On his return to 
Jerusalem, in & a 81, his excesnve drinking 
brought <m a quartan ague, of which he died three 
years afterwards, while engaged in the uege of 
Ragaba in Oerasena, after a reign of twenty-seven 
years. He left his kingdom to his wife Alexandra. 
Coina of thia king an extant, from which it ap- 
peara that hia proper name was Jonathan, and that 
Alexander was a name which he assumed accord- 
ing to the prevalent custom. (Josephus, AnL Jvd. 
xiii. 12-16.) [C. P. M.] 

ALEXANDER fAA^oi^pos), snrnamed Isiun, 
the chief commander of the Aetolians, was a man 
of considerable ability and eloquence for an Aeto- 
lian. (Liv. xxxii. 33 ; Polyb. xviL 8, &c) In 
B. a 198 he was present at a colloquy held at 
Nicaea on the Maliac gul^ and spoke against Phi- 
lip III. of Blacedonia, saying that the king ought 
to be compelled to quit Greece, and to restore to 
the Aetoluns the towns which had formerly been 
subject to them. PhiHp, indignant at such a de- 
mand bong made by an Aetolian, answered him 
in a speech fimn his ship. (Liv. xxxii. 34.) Soon 
after this meeting, he was aent as ambassador of 
the Aetolians to Rome, where, together with other 
envoys, he was to treat with the senate about 
peace, but at the same time to bring aocuaations 
against Philip. (Polyb. xvii. 10.) In B.C. 197, 
Alexander again t<A>k part in a meeting, at which 
T. Qoinctius Flamininus with his allies and king 
Philip were present, and at which peace with Phi- 
lip was discueaed. Alexander dissuaded his friends 
firam any peacefrd arrangement vrith Philip. (Po- 
lyb. xviii. 19, Ac. ; Appian, Maeed, viL 1.) In 
B. c 196, when a congreaa of all the Oiedc states 
that were allied with Rome was convoked by T. 
Quinctins Flamininus at Corinth, for the purpose 
of considering the war that was to be undertaken 
against Nabis, Alexander spoke againat the Athe- 
nians, and also insinuated that the Romans were 
acting fraudulently towards Greece. (Liv. xxxiv. 
23.) When in b. & 189 M. Fulvius Nebilior, 
after lus victory over Antiochas, was expected to 
march into Aetolia, the Aetolians sent envoys to 
Athens and Rhodes; and Alexander Idua, toge- 
ther with Phaneas and Lycopus, were sent to 
Rome to sue for peace. Alesmder, now an old 
man, was at the head of the embassy ; bat he and 
lus colleaguea were made prisoners in Cephalenia 
by the Epeirots; for the purpose of extorting a heavy 
ransom. Alexando^, however, although he waa 
very wealthy, refused to pay it, and was accord- 
ingly kept in captivity for some days, after which 
he was liberated, at the command of the Romans, 
without any ransom. (Polyb. xxii. 9.) [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER {*AX4(flp9pos\ sumamed Lych- 
Nus (A^voff), a Greek rhetorician and poet He 
was a native of Ephcsus, whence be is sometimes 



called Alexander Ephetiiu, and must have lived 
shortly before the time of Stnbo (xiv. p. 642), 
who mentionB him among the mote recent Epheaian 
authors, and also states, that he took a part in the 
political affisirs of his native city. Stralw ascribes 
to him a history, and poems of a didactic kind, 
viz. one on astronomy and another on geography, 
in which he describes the great continents of the 
world, treating of each in a separate work or book, 
which, as we learn from other sources, bore the 
name of the continent of which it contained an 
account What kind of history it was that Strabo 
alludes to, is uncertain. The so-called Aurelius 
Victor (da Orig. Gent. Rom. 9) quotes, it is true, 
the first book of a history of the Marsic war by 
Alexander the Ephesian ; but this authority is 
more tiuin doubtful Some writers have supposed 
that this Alexander is the author of the history of 
the succession of Greek philosophers (al rwv ^lAo- 
ffi^v Zia6oxoi\ which is so often referred to by 
Diogenes Laertius (i. 116, iL 19, 106, iii. 4, 5, 
iv. 62, viL 179, viii. 24, ix. 61); but this work 
belonged probably to Alexander Polyhistor. His 
geographioU poem, of which several fragments are 
still extant, is frequently referred to by Stephanus 
Byaantius and others, (Stcph. Bye. •. w. Adwijdoj, 
TcarpoSdir^ LmpoSy *TpKaifol^ McXiroio, &c.; oomp. 
Eustath. ad Dionyt. Perieg. 388, 591.) Of his 
astronomical poem a fragment is still extant, which 
has been erroneoudy attributed by Gale (Addend, 
ad Purthen. p. 49) and Schneider (ad VHrw). ii. 
p. 23, &c) to Alexander Aetolus. f See Naeke, 
Schedae Critioae, p. 7, Ac.) It is hignly probable 
that Cicero (ad AtL ii. 20, 22) is speaking of 
Alexander Lychnus when he says, that Alexander 
is not a good poet, a careless writer, but yet pos- 
sesses some information. [L. S.] 

AwcmroKirris), was so called from Lycopolia, in 
Egypt, whether as bom there, or because he was 
bishop there, is uncertain. At firat a pagan, he 
was next instructed in Manicheeism by persons 
acquomted with Manes himself Converted to the 
faith, he wrote a confutation of the heresy (TVoo- 
taiut de Pladiu ManitAaeorum) in Greek, which 
was first published by Combefis, with a Latin 
version, in the Audarinm Novi$rimm» BiU. n. 
Pair. Pa. ii. pag. 3, &c. It is published also by 
GaUandi, BiU. Pair, vol iv. p. 73. He was bishop 
of Lycopolis, (PhoL Ej^iome d$ Ma$iick. ap. 
Montfaueon. BiU. CkmUn. p. 354,) and probably 
immediately preceded MehstiuB. (Le Quien, Orient 
Xnu*. vol. iL p. 597.) [A. J. C] 

ALEXANDER f AA^Iwdpos), the son of Lva- 
MACHUS by an Odrysian woman, whom Polyaenns 
(vL 12) calls Macris. On the murder of his 
brother Agathodes [see p. 65, a] by command of 
his father in B. c. 284, he fled into Asia with the 
widoiir of his brother, and solicited aid of Selencus. 
A war ensued in consequence between Selencus 
and Lysimachus, which terminated in the defeat 
and death of the latter, who was slain in battle in 
B. c. 281, in the plain of Coros in Phrygia. His 
body was conveyed by his son Alexander to the 
Chersonesus, and there buried between Cardia and 
Pactya, where his tomb was remaining in the time 
of Pausanias. (i. 10. § 4, 5 ; Appian, <5yr. 64.) 

ALEXANDER I. ('A\^{ay9/N>f), the tenth king 
of Macedonia, was the son of Amyntas I. When 
Megabazns sent to Macedonia, about b. c. 507* to 
demand earth and water, as a token of submission 



to Darius, Amyntas was still reigniiii^ At a \m- 
quet given to the Persian envoym» Uie latter de 
manded the presence of the ladies of Uie cowt, and 
Amyntas, thiou^ fear of his giwafs, oidend tkss 
to attend. But when the Pefsiaiis piooeeded to 
offer indignities to them, Alexander caused then 
to retire, under pretence of aisaying tbem nan 
beantifiiilly, and introduced in their stead wme 
Macedonian youths, dressed in female atdn, v1k> 
slew the Persians. As the Peisinns did not r- 
turn, Megabaxus sent Bnbases with soaoe troop* 
into Macedonia; but Alexander escaped thedas- 
ger by giving his sister Oygaea in i 
Persian general According to Justin, j 
succeeded his fether in the kingd<mi soon 
these events. (Herod, v. 17*^21, viiL 
Justin, vii 2—4.) In & c. 492, Mseedods^ 
was obliged to submit to the Persian general Mar 
donius (Herod. vL 44) ; and in Xerxes* inviu^ 
of Greece (b. c. 480), Alexander aeoompanied t^ 
Persian army. He gained the confidence of Uzi- 
donius, and was sent by him to Athens sficr ths 
battle of Sabunis, to propose peace to the Athe- 
nians, which he strongly recommended, onder the 
conviction that it was imposnble to contend vidi 
the Persians. He was unsuooessfnl in his mis- 
sion; but though he continued in the Pferssa 
army, he was always secretly inclined to the csok 
of the Greeks, and informed tbem the night bdnn 
the battle of Plataeae of the intention of Maidonrss 
to fight on the following day. (viiL 136, 140— 
148, ix. 44, 45.) He was alive in & a 4(1 
when Cimon recovered Thasos. (Pfait. Gm. 14) 
He was succeeded by Perdiccas II. 

Alexander was the first member of Ae rvpi 
femily of Macedonia, who presented himself as a 
competitor at the Oljrmpic games, and vras admit- 
ted to them after proving his Greek deseesL 
(Herod, v. 22; Justin, vii. 2.) In his rnrn 
Macedonia received a considerable aooeasion of ter 
ritory. (Thuc. iL 99.) 

ALEXANDER IL (;hx4^v^pot\ the « 
teenth king of Macxdonia, the ehiest son 
Amyntas II., succeeded his fether in & a S6S^i 
and i^pears to have reigned nesriy two yean, 
thoc^h Diodorus assigns only one to ku ivign. 
While engaged in Thessaly in a war with Alexaxt- 
der of Pherae, a usurper rose up in Macedonia of 
the name of Ptolemy Alorites, whom Diodoraif 
apparently without good authority, calls a hrothisr 
of the kinff. Pelopidas, being called in to mediase 
between uem, left Alexander in possession of tb« 
kingdom, but took with him to Thebes se'veral 
hostages; among whom, according to some ac- 
counts, was PhiUp, the youngest brother of Akz- 
ander, afterwards king of Macedonia, and fether cf 
Alexander the Great. But he had scarcely kft 
Macedonia, before Alexander was murdered bj 
Ptolemy Alorites, or according to Justin (viL h\, 
through the intrigues of his mother, Eurydicrw 


I (de/ab. Ug, p. 402) names Apolfe- 
pbanM » ooe of Uw mnideien* (Diod. xr. 60, 
61,67,71,77; PhiLPd^ 26,27; AtheiLziT. 
p. 629, d.; AM^m. 4»fii». Ug, p. 31, L 33.) 



ALEXANDER IIL f AA^|(v3pof), long of 
Macedonia, nniamed the Great, was bom at 
Pella, m the autumn of & c. 356. He was the 
■m of Philip IL and Olyminas, and he inherited 
mncfa of the natual di^osttion of both of his po- 
reiii»-4he cool forethoajj^t and practical wisdom 
of his father, and the a^ent enthusiasm and nn- 
goTensUe pasaoos of his mother. His mother 
belonged to the royal house of Epeims, and throogfa 
her he tneed his descent bom the great hero 
Achilles. His early education was committed to 
Leonidss and Lyiunaahns, the former of whom 
vas a xektion of his mother^ and the latter an 
Aeanianiaa. Irfwuidss early accustomed him to 
eodme toil and haxdchxp, bat Lysimadnu 

maided hinuelf to his royal pupil by obsequious 
Hatteiy. Bat Alexander was also placed under 
the care of Aristotle, who acquired an influence 
OTer hu mind and chaiacter, which is manifiest to 
the hUest period of his li£e. Aristotle wrote for 
hii Tue a txeatiae on the art of goyeniment ; and 
tbe dear and compiehensiTQ views of the political 
fdatioiisof Bations and of the nature of floyemment, 
arhkh Alenader shews in tiie midst of all his con- 
tantSi inay-&iriy be ascribed to the lessons he 
tad reoeiTed in his youth firam the greatest of phi- 
*Mopherk It is not impossible too that his love 
•f diieoreiy, which distinguishes him from the 
Jeid of TulgEor conqueiorB, may ahw haTe been im- 
pianted in him by the leseaiches of Aristotle. Nor 
was his physical education niq;lected. He was 
early trained in all manly and athletic sports ; in 
linaeoBsuBhip he excelled all of his age ; and in 
the art of war he had the advantage of his &ther*a 

At the eariy age of sixteen, Alexander was en- 
trusted with ue gOTomment of Macedonia by his 
&ther, while he was obliged to leave his kingdom 
to Diaxdi apunat Bymntium. He first distingiuBhed 
hioiielf, howeror, at the battle of Chaeroneia 
(b. c. S38), where the victory was mainly owing to 

his iiopetDoaity and 
On the moid 

) moider of Phibp (n. c. 336), just after 
he had made arm^ementa to march into Aaia at 
the head of the confederate Oxeeka, Alexander 
ascended die throne of Macedon, and found him- 
8e)f ranmmded by enemies on every side. Attains, 
the uncle of Cleopatra, who had been sent into 
Alia by Ptomenion with a considerable force, aa- 
pired to the throne ; the Greeks, roused by De- 
niotthenes, threw off the Macedonian supremacy ; 
aad the bubarians in the north threatened his 
doohuoDs. Nothing but the promptest eneigy 
coold fiSTs him ; but in this Alexander was never 
^eficient Attslns was seised and put to death. 
Hii apid much into the south of Greece ovei^ 
«v«d sll opposition; Thebes, which had been 
mint active against him, submitted when he ap- 
P«ued at its gates; and the assembled Greeks at 

the Isthmus of Corinth, with the sole exception of 
the TfiAft^a^mnmWiia^ eloctod him to the command 
against Persia, which had previously been bestowed 
upon his iath«r. Being now at hberty to reduce 
the barhafians of the north to obedience, he 
marched (eariy in B.C. 335) across mount Haemus, 
defeated the Triballi, and advanced as for as the 
Danube, which he crossed, and received embassies 
from the Scythians and other nations. On his 
return, he marched westward, and subdued the 
IHyrians and Taulantii, who were obliged to sub- 
mit to the Macedonian supremacy. While en- 
gaged in these dutant oountriea, a report of hia 
doith reached Greece, and the Thebans once more 
took up arma. But a terrible puniahment awaited 
them. He advanced into Boeotia by rapid marchea, 
and appeared before the gates of the city almost 
before the inhabitants had received intelligence of 
hisapproach. The city was taken by assault ; all the 
buildings, with the exception of the house of Pin- 
dar, were levelled with the ground ; most of the 
inhabitants butchered, and the rest sold as slaves. 
Athens feared a similar fote, and sent an embassy 
deprecatinff his wrath ; but Alexander did not ad- 
vance farther ; the punishment of Thebes was a 
sufficient warning to Greece. 

Alexander now directed all hia eneigy to prepare 
for the expedition againat Persia In the apring 
of JB. c. 334, he crossed over the Hellespont into 
Asia with an army of about 35,000 men. Of 
these 30,000 were foot and 5000 horM; and of 
the former only 12,000 were Macedonians. But 
experience had shewn that this was a force which 
no Persian king could resist Darius, the reigning 
king of Persia, had no military skill, and could 
only hope to oppose Alexander by engaging the 
services of mercenary Greeks, of whom 1m obtained 
huge supplies^ 

Alexander's first engagement with the Persian, 
was on the banks of the Granicus, where they atr 
tempted to prevent his passage over it. Memnon, 
a Rhodian Greek, was in the armv of the Persians, 
and had recommended them to wiudiaw as Alexan- 
der's army advanced, and lay waste the country ; 
but this advice was not followed, and the Persians 
were defeated. Memnon was tiie ablest general 
that Darius had, and his death in the following 
year (& a 333) relieved Alexander from a formid- 
able opponent After the capture of Halicamassus, 
Memnon had collected a powerful fleet, in which 
Alexander was greatly deficient; he had taken 
many of the islands in the Acgaean, and threatened 

Before marching against Darius, Alexander 
thought it expedient to subdue the chief towns on 
the western coast of Asia Minor. The last event 
of importance in the campaign was the capture of 
Halicamassus, which was not taken till liUe in the 
autumn, after a vigorous defence bv Memnon. 
Alexander marched along the coast of Lycia and 
Pamphylia, and then northward into Phrygia and 
to Gordium, where he cut or untied the celebrated 
Gordian knot, which, it waa aaid, was to be 
loosened only by the conqueror of Asia. 

In JB. a 333, he was joined at Gordium by re- 
inforcements fimn Macedonia, and commenced his 
second campaign. From Gordium he marched 
through the centre of Asia Minor into Cilicia to 
the city of Tarsus, where he nearly lost his life by 
a fever, brought on by his great exertions, or 
through throwing himseli^ when heated* into the 



cold waters of the Cydnas. Darias neantiine had 
collected an inunenM army of 500,000, or 600,000 
men, with 80,000 Greek meroenaries ; bat instead 
of waiting for Alexander's approach in the wide 
plain of Sochi, where he had been stationed for 
some time, and which was fiiTOorable to his nnm- 
bers and the erolntion of his cayalry, he advanced 
into the narrow pbun of Issus, where defeat was 
almost certain. Alexander had passed throngh 
this plain into Bym before Darias reached it ; but 
as soon as he received intelligence of the move- 
ments of Darins, he retraced Us steps, and in the 
battle which followed the Persian army was de- 
feated with dreadful daughter. Darius took to 
flight, as soon as he saw his left wing routed, and 
escaped across the Euphrates by the ford of Thap- 
sacos ; but his mother, wife, and children fell into 
the hands of Alexander, who treated them with 
the utmost delicacy and respect The battle of 
Issus, which was fought towuds the close of b. c. 
833, decided the fate of the Persian empire ; but 
Alexander judged it most prudent not to pursue 
Darius, but to subdue Phoenicia, which was espe- 
cially formidable by ito navy, and constantly 
threatened thereby to attack the coasts of Greece 
and Macedonia. Most of the cities of Phoenicia 
submitted as he approached ; Tyre alone refused to 
surrender. This city was not taken till the mid- 
dle of B. c. 832, after an obstinate defence of seven 
months, and was fearfully punished by the slaugh- 
ter of 8000 Tyrians and the sale of 30,000 into 
slavery. Next followed the siege of Gasa, which 
again dehiyed Alexander two months, and after- 
wards, according to Josephus, he marched to Jera- 
solem, intending to punish the people for refusing 
to assist him, but he was diverted from his purpose 
by the appearance of the high priest, and pardoned 
the people. This stoiy is not mentioned by Arrian, 
and rests on questionable evidence. 

Alexander next marched into Egypt, which 
gladly submitted to the conqueror, for the Egyp- 
tians had ever hated the Persians, who insulted 
their religion and violated their temples. In the 
beginning of the following year (b. c. 381), Alex- 
ander founded at the mouth of the western branch 
of the Nile, the city of Alexandria, whioh he in- 
tended should form the centre of commerce between 
the eastern and western worlds, and which soon 
more than realized the expectations of its founder. 
He now determined to visit the temple of Jupiter 
Ammon, and afier proceeding from Alexandria 
along the coast to Paraetonium, he turned south- 
ward through the desert and thus reached the temple. 
He was saluted by the priests as the son of Ju- 
piter AmmoD. 

In the spring of the same year (b. a 381), 
Alexander set out to meet Darius, who had col- 
lected another army. He marched through Phoe- 
nicia and Syria to the Euphrates, which he crossed at 
the ford of Thapaacus ; from thence he proceeded 
through Mesopotamia, crossed the Tigris, and at 
length met with the immense hosts of Darius, said 
to have amounted to more than a miUion of men, 
in the plains of Gaugamela. The battle was fought 
in the month of October, b. c. 831, and ended in 
the complete defeat of the Persians, who suffered 
immense shiughter. Alexander pursued the fugi- 
tives to Arbela (Erbil), which pbce has given its 
name to the battle, and which was distant about 
fifty miles from the spot where it was fought Da- 
rias, who had left the field of battle early in the 


day, fled to Ecbatana (HanAdan), in Ife&L 
Alexander was now the oonqiiemr of Asia ; and 
he began to assume all the pomp and spkndoar ef 
an Asiatic despot His adoption of Pensan hsUti 
and customs tended doubtless to eondliale ^ 
afiections of his new subjects; but tboe e^ 
ward signs of eastern royidty were also aonss- 
paaied by many acts worthy only of an castera 
tynmt; he exercised no oontronl over hb pas- 
sions, and frequently gave wi^ to the most violat 
and ungovernable excesses. 

From Arbela, Alexander mardied to Babjloa, 
Susa, and Persepolis, which all smreodered wit^ 
out striking a blow. He is said to have set fire to 
the palace of Persepolis, and, aoeording to suae 
accounts, in the revelry of a baoquety at the insti- 
gation of Thais, an AUienian coorteaan. 

At the beginning of b. c. 330« Alexsnda 
marched fix>m Persepolis into Media, where Dsriai 
had collected a new force. On his mppnacb, 
Darius fled through Bhagaa and the passes of tk 
Elbuix mountains, called by the ancients the Cb»- 
pian Gates, into the Bactrian prorrinoes. After 
stopping a short time at Ecbatana, Alexander pe^ 
sumI him through the deserts of Parthia, and bid 
neariy reached him, when the unibrtanate king «» 
murdered by Bessus, satrap of Bactria, and Ins a»- 
sociates. Alexander sent his body to PerBepolis, t» 
be buried in the tombs of the Persian kinga. Dubsj 
escaped to Bactria, and assumed the title c^kioe 
of Persia. Alexander advanced into H jicanis, a 
order to gain over the remnant of the Greeks cf 
Darius*s army, who were assembled there. Ahct 
some negotiation he succeeded ; they were a& ps^ 
doned, and a great many of them taken into kis 
pay. After spending fifteen days at Zadxacsita, 
the capital of PartMa, he marched to the frootkn 
of Areia, which he entrosted to Satibamcle^ tbe 
former satrap of the country, and set out on ki^ 
march towards Bactria to attack Bcssna, but \ai 
not proceeded fiir, when he was recalled by the re- 
Yolt of Satibarsanes. By incredible exeitiaDe ke 
returned to Artacoana, the capital a( the pnmaet, 
in two days* march : the satrap took to flight, ad 
a new governor was appointed. Tna<ead of ve- 
suming his march into Bactria, Alexander seoes 
to have thought it more prudent to aubdoe the 
south-eastern parts of Areia, and aecerdingi? 
marched into the country of the Dxanfae ssi 

During the army^s stay at Prophthasia, the caps- 
tal of the Drangae, an event oocniied, whsh 
shews the altered character of Alexander^ and re- 
presents him in the light of a saspidona orientai 
despot Philotas, the son of his fiiithfid genecsl, 
Parmenion, and who had been himself a penoosl 
friend of Alexander, vras aocosed of a plot muasi 
the king^s life. He was accused by Alesoadcr 
before the army, condemned, and pat to deatL 
Parmenion, who was at the head of aa amy st 
Ecbatana, was also put to death by conunaBd cf 
Alexander, who feared lest he should attempt ta 
revenge his son. Several other triala for tiessosi 
followed, and many Macedonians were execated. 

Alexander now advanced through tiie coaatrr 
of the Ariaspi to the Arachoti, a pec^ west ^ 
the Indus, whom he conquered. Their eonqueit 
and the complete subjugation of Areia oocaiHi^i 
the winter of this year. (& c. 830.) In the be- 
ginning of the following year (a. c. 329), be 
crossed the mountains of the Paiopamisos (thi 


HindiM Coodi), tnd inarched into Bactria against 
BeiBoa. Onliie appraadi of Alexander, Beasua 
fled menm the Oxna into Sqgdiana. Alexander 
fbflowed him, and tranaported his army acroos the 
river oo the ikins of the tents stuffed with straw. 
Shortly after the passage Bessns was hetxajed into 
his hud^ snd, after bdng cnielly mutilated by 
order of iUezander, was pat to death. From the 
Oxns Alexander advanced as &r as the Jaxartes 
(the Sir), which he crossed, and defisated several 
ScjthisB tribes north of that river. Alter 
founding a dty Alexandria on the Jaxartes, he 
retxaoed his steps, zecrossed the Oxus, and returned 
to Zariaipa or Bactra, where he spent the winter 
of 32d. It was here that Alexander killed his 
friend Cleitns in a drunken reveL [CLxrrua.] 

In the spring of b. & 328, Alexander again 
crossed the Oxus to complete the subjugation of 
Sogdiana, but was not able to efiect it in the year, 
and accordingly went into winter quarters at Nao- 
taca, a pbce m the middle of the province. At the 
beginniDg of the following year, b. c. 327, he took 
a mountain fortieaa, in which Oxyartes, a Bactrian 
prince, had deposited his wife and daughters. 
The bcanty of Roxana, one of the latter, captivated 
the conqueror, and he accordingly made her his 
wife. This Biarriage with one of his eastern sub- 
jects was in aoeordance with the whole of his 
policy. Having completed the conquest of Sogdi- 
sna, Alexander marched southward into Bac&a, 
and made preparations for the invasion of India. 
While in Bactria, another conspiracy was discov- 
ered for the murder of the king. The plot was 
fonned by Uermolms with a number of tne royal 
pages, and Oallisthenee, a pupil of Aristotle, was 
involved in it All the conspirators were put to 

Alexander did not leave Bactria till kite in the 
spring of B. c. 327, and crossed the Indus, proba- 
bly near the modem Attock. He now entered 
the comxtry of the Penjab, or the Five Rivers. 
Taxilas, the king of the people immediately east 
of the Indus, submitted to him, and thus he met 
with no r es istane e till he reached the Hydaspes, 
tipon the opposite bank of which Porus, an Indian 
king, was posted with a large army and a consider- 
aUe number of dephants. Alexander managed to 
cross the river unperceived by the Indian king, 
and then an obstmate battle followed, in which 
PvDs was defeated after a gaUant resistance, and 
taken prisooer. Alexander restored to him his 
kingdom, and treated him with distinguished 

Akzanderreraained thirty days on the Hydaspes, 
dming vfaich time he founded two towns, one on 
each bank of the river: one was called Buoephala, 
in hooonr of his horse Bucephalus, who died here, 
after ouryi^g him through so many victories ; and 
the other Nicaea, to commemorate his victory. 
From thence he marched to the Aoeaines (the 
^^^hinab), which he crossed, and subsequently to the 
Hrdnotcs (the Ravee), which he also crossed, 
to sttBck snother Poms, who had prepared 
to Rnit him. But as he approached nearer, 
this Porus fled, and his dominions were given 
to the one whom he had conquered on the 
Hydaspes The Cathaei, however, who also 
dwidt east of the Hydmotes, offered a vigorous 
i^Bcistanoe, but were defeated. Alexander still 
P'^^'aed forward till he reached the Hyphasis 
(Oaoa), which he was preparing to cross, when 



the Macedonians, worn out by long service, and 
tired of the vrar, refused to proceed ; and Alexan- 
der, notwithstanding his entreaties and prayers, 
was obliged to lead them back. He returned 
to the Hydaspes, where he had previously given 
orders for the building of a fleet, and then sailed 
down the river with about 8000 men, while the 
remainder marched along the banks in two divi- 
sionSk This was kite in the autumn of 327. The 
people on each side of the river submitted with- 
out resistance, except the Malli, in the conquest 
of one of whose places Alexander was severely 
vrounded. At the confluence of the Acesines 
and the Indus, Alexander founded a dty, and 
left Philip as satrap, with a oonsidemble body 
of Greeks. Here he built some fresh ships, and 
shortly afterwards seqt about a third of the 
army, under Craterus, through the country of 
the Arachoti and Drangae into Carmania. He 
himself continued hia voyage down the Indus, 
founded a city at Pattala, the apex of the delta 
of the Indus, and aiuled into the Indian ocean. 
He seems to have reached the mouth of the 
Indus about the middle of 326. Nearchus was 
sent with the fleet to sail along the coast to 
the Persian gulf [Nearchus], and Alexander 
set out from Pattala, about September, to return 
to Persia. In his march through Gedrosia, his 
army suflered greatly from want of water and 
provisions, till diey arrived at Pura, where they 
obtained supplies. From Pura he advanced to 
Cannan (Kirman), the capital of Carmania, where 
he was joined by Craterus, with his detachment 
of the army, and also by Nearchus, who had 
nccomplished the voyage in safety. Alexander 
sent the great body of the army, under He- 
phaestion, along the Persian gulf, whUe he him- 
self with a small force, marched to Paaaigadae, 
and from thence to Persepolis, where he ap- 
pointed Peucestas, a Macedonian, governor, in 
place of the former one, a Persian, whom he 
put to death, for oppressing the province. 

From Persepolis Alexander advanced to Susa, 
which he reached in the beginning of 325. Here 
he allowed himself and his troops some rest frx>m 
their labours ; and feithful to his phin of forming 
his European and Asiatic subjects into one people, 
he asttgned to about eighty of his generals Asiatic 
wives, and gave vrith them rich dowries. He him- 
self took a second wife, Barsine, the eldest daugh- 
ter of Darius, and according to some accounts, a 
third, Parysatis, the daughter of Ochus. About 
10,000 Macedonians also followed the example 
of their king and generals, and married Asiatic 
women ; all these received presents from the king. 
Alexander also enrolled large numbers of Asiatics 
among his troops, and taught them the Macedonian 
tactics. He moreover directed his attention to the 
increase of commerce, and for this purpose had the 
Euphrates and Tigris made navigable, by removing 
the artificial obstmctions whkh had been nuuie in 
the river for the purpose of irrigation. 

The Macedonians, who were discontented with 
several of the new arrangements of the king, and 
espedally at his phidng ^e Persians on an equality 
with themselves in many respects, rose in mutiny 
against him, which he quelled with some little 
dlflSculty, and he afterwards dismissed about 1 0,000 
Macedonian veterans, who returned to Europe un- 
der the command of Cratems. Towards the close 
of the same year (b. c. 325} he went to Ecbatana, 



where he lost his great fevourite Hephaestion ; and 
his grief for hb loss knew no bbunda. From Ecba- 
tana he marched to Babylon, subduing in his way 
the Cossaei, a mountain tribe ; and before he reach- 
ed Babylon, he was met by ambassadors from 
almost every part of the known world, who had 
come to do homage to the new conqueror of Asia. 

Alexander reached Babylon in the spring of & c. 
324, about a year before ms death, notwidistand- 
ing the warnings of the Chaldeans, who predicted 
evil to him if he entered the city at that time. He 
intended to make Babylon the capital of his empire, 
as the best point of communication between his 
eastern and western dominions. His schemes were 
numerous and gigantic. His first object was the 
conquest of Arabia, which was to be foUowed, it 
was said, by the subjugation of Italy, Carthage, 
and the west But his fiews were not confined 
merely to conquest He sent Heiacleides to build 
a fleet on the Caspian, and to explore that sea, 
which was said to be connected with the northern 
ocean. He also intended to improve the distribu- 
tion of waters in the Babylonian plain, and for 
that purpose sailed down the Euphrates to inspect 
the canal called Pallacopas. On his return to 
Babylon, he found the preparations for the Arabian 
expedition nearly complete; but almost immedi- 
ately afterwards he was attacked by a fever, pro- 
bably brought on by his recent exertions in the 
marshy districts around Babylon, and aggrar 
vated by the quantity of wine he had drunk 
at a banquet given to his principal officers. He 
died after an illness of eleven days, in the month 
of May or June, b. c. 323. He died at the age of 
thirty-two, after a reign of twelve years and eight 
months. He appointed no one as his successor, 
but just before his death he gave his ring to Per- 
diccas. Roxana was with chUd at the time of his 
death, and afterwards bore a son, who is known by 
the name of Alexander Aegus. 

The history of Alexander forms an important 
epoch in the history of mankind. Unlike other 
Asiatic conquerors, his progress was marked by 
something more than devastation and ruin ; at 
every step of his course the Greek language and 
civilization took root and flourished ; and after his 
death Greek kingdoms were formed in all parts of 
Asia, which continued to exist for centuries. By 
his conquests the knowledge of mankind was in- 
creased ; the sciences of geography, natural history 
and others, received vast additions; and it was 
through him that a road was opened to India, and 
that Europeans became acquainted with the pro- 
ducts of the remote East 

No contemporary author of the campaigns of 
Alexander survives. Our best account comes from 
Arrian, who lived in the second century of the 
Christian aera, but who drew up his history frt)m 
the accounts of Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, and 
Aristobulus of Cassandria. The history of Quintus 
Curtius, Plutarch*s life of Alexander, and the 


epitomes of Jnstin and DiodoruB SSmhi% wtn site 
compiled from earlier writers. The bat nodos 
writers on the subject an: St. Crotz, Eaamm 
critique du cmeiaiB JiktorimtiP A h* m m ftw is Cm B rf, 
Droyson, QetdddiU AUxaaden dm Cframem; Wil- 
liams, Life (/Jleaeander; ThidwaU, JUaioff ^ 
Greece^ vols, vi and viL 

ALEXANDER IV. (*AKilK09pas% king cf 
Macboonia, the son of Alexander the Great ocd 
Roxana, was bom shortly after the death of his 
&ther, in B. c. 323. He was acknowledged as tbe 
partner of Philip Arrhidaeus in the empire, and wai 
under the gnandianship of Perdiocaa, Uie regent, 
till the death of the latter in b. c. 32L He wu 
then for a short time placed under the gnazdiaiuikip 
of Pithon and the general Arrhidaeoa, and snfase- 
quently under that of Antipater, who coav^red 
him with his mother Roxana, and the kisff Plulip 
Arrhidaeus and his wife to Maoedoom m 320. 
(Diod. xviiL 36, 39.) On the death oiAioipata 
in 319, the government fell Into the hands of 
Polysperchon ; but Eurydice, the wife of PhiHp 
Arrnidaeus, began to fonn a powerfbl party ia 
Macedonia in opposition to PotysperchoD; aod 
Roxana, dreading her influence, fled with ber «■ 
Alexander into Epeims, where Olympiaa had lired 
for a long time. At ihe instigation of OlympM, 
Aeacides, king of Epeirus, made common cuse 
with Polysperohon, and restored the joang Akx- 
ander to Macedonia in 317. [Akacii>s&] Eut- 
dice and her husband were put to deeih, and tbt 
supreme power fell into the hands of Olympbik 
(xix. 1 1 ; Justin, xiv. 5.) But in the iollowiBg 
year Cassander obtained possession of Maceiasua, 
put Olympias to death, and imprisoned Akxaodcr 
and his mother. They remained in prison till the 
general peace made in 31 1, when Alexander^ tide 
to the crown was recognized. Manj of his par- 
tizans demanded that he should be immediately 
released from prison and placed upon the throoe. 
Cassander therefore resolved to get lid of so (k&- 
gerous a rival, and caused him and hia mother 
Roxana to be murdered secretly in piiaon. (b.c 
311. Diod. xix. 51, 52, 61, 105 ; Joatin, xr. 2; 
Pans. ix. 7. $ 2.) 

ALEXANDER ('AA^^oi^pos), a Mbgalofo- 
LiTAN. He was originally a Macedonian, bat hsd 
received the franchise and was settled at Megalo- 
polis about JB. a 190. He pretended to be a de- 
scendant of Alexander the Great, and aococdi^gij 
caUed his two sons Philip and Alexander. His 
daughter Apama was married to Amynandec, 
king of the Athamaniana. Her eldest hrothef, 
Phuip, followed her to her court, and bong of a 
vain character, he allowed himse^ to be tempted 
with the prospect of gaining possession of the 
throne of Macedonia. (Liv. xxxv. 47; Anpian, ^. 
13 ; comp. Philip, son of Al£xandbr.) [L. Sw] 

ALEXANDER ('AA^(ay8po$), brother of Moia 
On the accession of Antiochus III., afterwards 
called the Great, in jb. c. 224, he entrusted Alex- 
ander with the government of the satrapy of Persii, 
and Molo received Media. Antiochus was then 
only fifteen years of age, and this circumstance, 
together with the fiu:t that Hermeias, a base flat- 
terer and crafty intriguer, whom every one had to 
fear, was all-powerful at his court, induced the two 
brothers to form the plan of causing the upper 
satrapies of the kingdom to revolt. It wsu the 
secret wish of Hermeias to see the king involved iu 
as many difficulties as possible, and it was on his 


adviee tint the wir agBiDBt tlie rebda was entnict- 
ed to men withoat ooonge and abiHtj. In b. a 
220, however, Antiochu himadf undertook the 
'—'T*^ Mob m» deosted hj bis troope, and 
to avoid frUmg into the hands of the king, pat an 
end to his owa lifie. AH the leaden of the lebel- 
lioQ Moved kit fiainplfi, and one of them, who 
eNiped to PeniSi killed M(^o*s mother and chil- 
dren, pennaded Alexander to pat an end to his 
life, and at IsBt killed himself upon the bodies of 
his friends. (Poljh. t. 40, 41, 43, 54.) [L. &] 

ALEXANDER tbe Monk ('AkifyvUpos fuu^ 
X^s), perhsps a natrve of Cypnis. All we know 
df his ^e is, that he lived before Michael Olycas, 
A. D. 1130, who quotes him. Two orations by him 
ace extant 1. A Panegyric on St. Ba r nabas, ap. 
BoUrndi Ada Smdonm, yoL xxL p. 436. 2. Con- 
cerning the Invention of the Crosa, op. Grei»er. de 
CnoB ohm; 4to. Ingolst. 1600. [A. J. C] 

ALEXANDER ('AAi^arSpos) of Mynous in 
Caria, a Oiesk writer on sooiqgy of uncertain date. 
His voiks, which are now lost, most haYe been 
comidend very vahtabie by the ancients, since 
they refer to them very freqaently. The titles of 
hii works sie : KrqFwr 'laroptoj a bog fiagment 
of which, belonsing to the second book, is quoted 
by AthenaeuL (v. p. 221, comp. iL pw 65 ; Aelian, 
Hist. An. m. 23, iv. 33, y. 27, z. 34.) This work 
is probsbly the isme as that which in other pas* 
ttgoB is nmply called IIcpl Za^, and of which 
Athenseos (ix. p. 392) likewise quotes the second 
book. The work on birds {Tl^iA llrrpmif. Pint 
Mar. 17; Athen. ix. pp. 387, 368, 390, &c.) was 
a separate work, and the aeoond book of it is quot- 
ed by Athenaeni^ Diogenes Laertius (L 29) men* 
ti«u one Alexon of Myndas aa the author of a 
vock oa myths, of which he qaotes the ninth book. 
This snthor heug otherwise unknown. Menage 
propoaed to icad *AA^|fiv3p0f 6 MMios instead of 
AAigwr. But CYerything is uncertain, and the 
eoojeetnie at least is not Yery probable. [L. S.] 

Nmiyii^s, or d NovyiifWov, as Suidas calb him), a 
Greek ihetoridan, who lived in the reign of Ha- 
diian or that of the Antonines. About his lift 
MtUng is known. We possess two works which 
are aiaibed to him. The one which certainly ia 
hit woric bears the title Ilfpl rwf rj|f Atayokt aol 
AilmtJxiH^^f u€.^l>e Figuris Sententiarum 
et Ebeotmus.** J. Rofinianus in his work on the 
BOM aabjeet (p. 195^ ed. Rnhnken) expressly states 
that Aqmla Romanns, in his treatise ** De Figuris 
Sententisram et Elocntionis,** took his materials 
from Alexander Numenins* work mentioned above. 
The second woik bearingthe name of Alexander 
Nomenioa, entitled n^ TwcSsucriaewy, i e. ** On 
SKow-ipeechea,** ia admitted on all handa not to be 
bis wo^ but of a latev gtammazian of the name of 
Aleander ; it ia, to speeJc more correctly, made up 
very doaufly from two distinct ones, one of which 
VM written by one Alexander, and the other by 
Meoander. (Vales.'af' EvteL HuL Ecda. p. 28.) 

The fint edition of these two works is that of 
AUoB, in his collection of the Bietom Cfraeci, 
Venice, 1508, foL, voL L p. 574, &a They are 
idflo eontaiiied in Walz's Rhetam Oraed^ yoL Yiii 
The genoiae work of Alexander NumeniuB has 
^>obeen edited, together with Minudanus and 
P'^hananon, by L. Normann, with a Latin trana- 
btioo and oaefnl notea, Upsala, 1690, 8yo. (See 
Uahnkeojorf J^iia, Rom. p. 139, &c; Weste^ 



mann, Oeteh. derCfrieek BenditamkeH, § 95, a. 13, 
§104,11.7.) [L.S.] 

ALEXANDER, 'an Athenian paintxr, one of 
whose productions is extant, painted on a nuuble 
tablet which bean his name. (Winckehnann, 
YoL ii. pu 47, Y. p. 120, ed. Eiaelein.) There waa 
a son of king Perseus of thia name, who was a 
skilful tonmtes. (Pint Aemil. PauL 37.) There 
was also a M. I^Ilius Alexander, an engiaYer, 
whose name occurs in an inacription in Doni, p. 
319, No. 14. [C. P. M.] 

ALEXANDER ('AX^Cay3^f ), the Paphlago- 
NiAN, a celebrated impostor, who flouriahed about 
the beginning of the aecond centurY {Lvxatai^Alex. 
6), a natiYO of Abonoteichos on the Euxine, and 
the pupil of a friend of Apollonius Tyanaeus. His 
history, which is told by Lucian with great naiveiJi, 
is chiefly an account of the Yarious contriYances by 
which he established and maintained the credit of 
an orade. Being, according to Ludan^a account, at 
his wit*s end for the means of life, with many 
natural adYantages of manner and person, he de- 
termined on the following imposture. After rais- 
ing the expectations of the IHiphlagonians with a 
reported Yisit of the god Aesculapius, and giving 
himaelf out, under the aanction of an oracle, aa a 
descendant of Perseus, he gratified the expectation 
which he had himaelf raised, by finding a serpent, 
which he juggled out of an egg, in the foundations 
of the new temple of Aesculapius. A hirger ser- 
pent, which he brought with him from Pella, was 
disguised with a human head, until the dull Paph- 
higonians reaUy believed that a new god Glycon 
had appeared among them, and gave oracles in the 
likeness of a aerpent Dark and crowded rooms, 
juggling tricks, and the other arta of more Yulgar 
magicians, were the chief means used to impose 
on a credulous populace, which Lucian detects 
with as much sest as any modem aceptic in the 
manrela of animal magnetisnu EYery one who 
attempted to expose the impostor, was accused of 
being a Christian or Epicurean ; and even Lucian, 
who amused himaelf with his contradictory era* 
des, hardly escaped the efiects of his malignity. 
He had his spies at Rome, and busied himself 
with the afiairs of the whole world : at the time 
when a pestilence was raging, many were executed 
at his instigation, aa the auUiors of this calamity. 
He aaid, timt the soul of Pythagoras had minrated 
into his body, and prophesied that he should live 
a hundred and fifty years, and then die from the 
fidl of a thunderbolt: unfortunately, an ulcer in 
the leg put an end to his imposture in the soYen- 
tieth year of his age, just as he was in the hdght 
of hia glory, and had requested the emperor to 
have a medal struck in honour of himself and the 
new god. The influence he attained OYer the 
populace aeems incredible; indeed, the narrative 
of Lucian would appear to be a mere romance, 
were it not confirmed by some medals of Antoninus 
and M. Aurehus. [B. J.] 

ALEXANDER CAAl(oi«pof) of Paphius, a 
Greek writer on mythology of uncertain date. 
Enstadiius {ad Ham. Od. x. pp. 1668, 1713) refen 
to him as hia authority. [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER ('AAi(ai^pos),sumamed Pblo- 
PLATON (nifXoTAiTMy), a (}reek rhetorician of the 
age of the Antonines, was a son of Alexander of 
Seleucia, in Cilida, and of Seleucis. (Philostr. 
VU. Soph, ii 5. § 1, compared with BipiaL ApoUon. 
Tyanu 13, where the fiither of Alexander Pelopla- 



ton b called Stiaton, which, howeTer, may be a 
mere sumame.) His &ther was distingoished as 
a pleader in the coorts of justice, by wMch he ac- 
quired considerable property, but he died at an age 
when his son yet wanted the care of a fiither. 
His place, however, was supplied by his Mends, 
espeoally by ApoUonius of Tyana, who is said to 
have been in love with Seleuds on account of her 
extraordinary beauty, in which she was equalled 
by her son. His education was entrusted at first 
to Phavorinus, and afterwards to Dionyaius. He 
spent the property which his lather had left him 
upon pleasures, but, says Philostratus, not con- 
temptible pleasures. When he had attained the 
age of manhood, the town of Seleuda, lor some 
reason now unknown, sent Alexander as nmbnasa- 
dor to the emperor Antoninus Pius, who is said to 
have ridiculed the young man for the extravagant 
care he bestowed on his outward i^peaiance. He 
spent the greater part of his life away from his 
native place, at Antiochia, Rome, Tarsus, and tra- 
velled through all Egypt, as far as the country of 
the T^ftvou (Ethiopians.) It seems to have been 
during his stay at Aiitiodua that he was appointed 
Greek secretary to the emperor M. Antoninus, 
who was canmng on a war in Pannonia, about 
A. D. 174. On his journey to the emperor he 
made a short stay at Athens, where he met the 
celebrated rhetorician Herodes Atticus. He had 
a rhetorical contest with him in which he not only 
conquered his fiimous adversary, but gained his 
esteem and admiration to such a degree, that 
Herodes honoured him with a munificent present 
One Corinthian, however, of the name of Soeptes, 
when asked what he thought of Alexander, ex- 
pressed his disappointment by saying that he had 
found *^ the clay (n^\os), but not Plato.^* This 
saying gave rise to the sumame of Peloplaton. 
The place and time of his death are not known. 
Philostratus gives the various statements which he 
found about these points. Alexander was one of 
the greatest rhetorioans of his age, and he is 
especially praised for the sublimity of his style and 
the boldness of his thoughts ; but he is not known 
to have written anything. An account of his life 
is given by Philostratus (Vit, Soph, iL 6), who has 
also preserved several of nis sayings, and some of 
the subjects on which he made speeches. 6Comp. 
Suidas, «. «. 'AA^foi^pof Ahymos in fin. ; Eudoc. 
p. 62.) [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER ('AX^oySpos), son of Pbrsxus, 
king of Macedonia, was a child at the conquest of 
his fiither by the Romans, and after the triumph 
of Aemilius Paullus in b. c. 167, was kept in cus- 
tody at Alba, together with his fiither. He be- 
came skilful in the toreutic art, learned the Latin 
language, and became a public notary. (Liv. xlv. 
42; Flnt. Aem. PauL d7,) 

ALEXANDER QAXi^ea^pos)^ tyrant of Ph». 
RAB. The accounts of his usurpation vary some- 
what in minor points ; Diodorus (xv. 61 ) tells us 
that, on the assassination of Jason, & c. 370, Po- 
lydoms his brother ruled for a year, and was then 
poisoned by Alexander, another brother. Accord- 
ing to Xenophon (HelL vL 4. § 34), Polydorus 
was murdered by his brother Pol3rphron, and Poly- 
phron, in his turn, b. c. 369,* by Alexander — ^his 
nephew, according to Plutarch, who relates also that 

* This date is at variance with Pausanias (vi. 
5) ; but, see Wesseling on Diod. (xv. 75.) 


Alexander worshipped as a fgod tbe ipear wak 
which he slew his uncle. (Pkit. F'eicpi, pu 29S,&c; 
Wesa. ad Diod. L c) Alexander gorecned tvaa- 
nically, and according to Diodoma {L c), diflsRoily 
firom the former rulers, but Ptdyphran, al kast, 
seems to have set him the exam^e. (Xen. L c) 
The Thessalian states, however^ wfaich had ac^ 
knowledged the authority of Jaaon tike Tagu 
(Xen. IfelL vL 1. § 4, 5,&c.; Died. xr. 60), were 
not so willing to submit to the oppireMiaBi of Alex- 
ander the tyrant, and they appHcMl therefore (sad 
especially the old fiunily of the Alenadae of I^ 
rissa, who had most reason to fear him) to Alex- 
ander, king of Maoedon, son of Amjntas IL 
The tyrant, with his chaiactertatic enogy, pn- 
pared to meet his enemy in Macedonia, bat the 
king anticipated him, and, reaching Ldariasa, vas 
admitted into the city, obliged the Theeaafiaa Alex- 
ander to flee to Pherae, and left a ganiaoQ in I^ 
rissa, as well as in Crsnon, which had also cone 
over to him. (Diod. xv. 6 1.) But the MaoedoniaB 
having retired, his firiends in Theaaal j, dnading 
the vengeance of Alexander, sent fat aid taTbebei, 
the policy of which state, of course, waa to cheeks 
neighbour who might otherwise become ao fomiid- 
able, and Pelopidas was accordingly despatched ts 
succour them. On the arri\al of the latter at I^ 
rissa, whence according to Diodoms (xr. €7) he 
dislodged the Macedonian garrisoii, Alexander pre- 
sented himself and oflfered submusioa ; bat saoo 
after esciqied by flight, alarmed by the indignaciaD 
which Pelopidas exprt^sed at the talea he Iraard of 
his cruelty and tyrannical profligacy. (Diod. Lc; 
Plut Peiop, p. 291, d.) These evento appear to 
be referable to the eariy part of the year 968. In 
the summer of that year Pelopidas waa agaia sent 
into Thessaly, in consequence of fresh compbrnts 
against Alexander. Accompanied by Issnenias, he 
went merely as a negotiator, and wiUtont any mi- 
litary force, and venturing incautiously within the 
power of the tyrant, was seised hy him sad 
thrown into prison. (Diod. xv. 71; Vhat. Pd. p. 
292, d; Polvb. viii. 1.) The language of De- 
mosthenes (& AriaUxr, p. 660) will baldly 
support Mitford^s inference, that Peh^idas was 
taken prisoner in battle. (See ^Mitfbid, Or. BttU 
ch. 27. sec 5.) The Thebans sent a large amy 
into Thessaly to rescue Pelopidas, but they could 
not keep the field against the superior cavaliy of 
Alexander, who, aided by auxiliaries &om Athens, 
punned them with great shiugfater; and the de- 
struction of the whole Theban army is said to bate 
been averted only by the ability of EpaminondsS) 
who was serving in the campaign, but not as ge- 

The next year, 367, was signalised by a ipeci- 
men of Alexander's treacherous cruelty, in the 
massacre of the citicens of Seotussa (Plat PeL pw 
293; Diod. xv. 76; Pans. vL 5); and alao by an- 
other expedition of the Thebans under Epaminon- 
das into Thessaly, to eflfect the release of Pelopidas. 
According to Plutarch, the tyrant did not dare to 
offer resistance, and was glad to purchase even a 
thirty days* truce by the delivery of the prisonen. 
(Plut. Pel, pp. 293, 294 ; Diod. xv. 75.) During 
the next three years Alexander would seem to 
have renewed his attempts against the states of 
Thessaly, especially those of Magnesia and Phthio- 
tis (Pint PeL p 295, aX for at the end of that 
time, B. c. 864, we find them again implying to 
Thebes for protection against him. The army ap- 


potnted f oflfcli under PelofadM u aaid to hftve 
been difluyed bj an edipae (June 13, 364), and 
Pdopidfli^ letTmg it behind, entered Tbeaealy at 
the bead of thne hundred Yolnnteer honenien and 
some m/tnauaoM, A battle ensned at Cynoaoe- 
phake, vherein Pek^idaa waa himaelf ahun, bat 
defeated Afeaamder (Pfaxt. PeU pp. 295, 296 ; 
DmmL XT. 80) ; and thia Tictoiy waa doaelj fol- 
lowed by another of the Thebana under Malcitea 
and DiogitoB, who obliged Alexander to restore to 
the TheaaUana the eonqoered towna, to confine 
himaelf to Phene, and to be a dependent ally of 
Thebea. (Phit PA p. 297, &e.; Diod. xy. 80; 
compw Xen. HdUyii. 6. § 4.) 

The death of Epaminondaa in 362, if it fined 
Athena firam fear of Thebea, appeara at the Bame 
time to have expoaed her to annoyance from Alex- 
ander, who, aa though he felt that he had no fur- 
ther occaakm for keeping up hia Athenian allianoe, 
made a piiatical deaoent on Tenoa and oUtera of 
the Cychdea, phmdering them, and making alaTea 
of the inhaUtanta* Peparethna too he besieged, 
and *even landed troopa in Attica itael^ and 
seised the port of Panormua, a little eaatward of 
Snninm.^ Laoathenea, the Athenian admiral, de- 
feated him, and relieved Peparethna, bat Alexan- 
der ddiTered his men firom blockade in Ptoonnna, 
took sevenl Attic triremes, and plundered the 
Peixaeeoa. (Diod. xt.95; Pdyaen. ri. 2; Demoath. 
c. Pdyd, pp. 1207, 1208 ; vtpi ort^. rijs Tptnp. 
pc 1330 ; Thiriwall, Cfr, Hid, toL t. p. 209 : but 
(or another aecoont of the poaition of Panonnua, 
aee Weaii ad DM, L c) 

The murder of Alexander is aaaigned by Diodo- 
na to & a 367. Phitarch givea a detailed ao- 
coont of ity containing a livdy nictore of a aemi- 
haibarian palaoe. Ouzda watdied throoghout it 
an the night, except at the tyxant^a bedcmamber, 
which waa sitnated ai the top of a kdder, and at 
the door of which a ferocious dog waa chained. 
Thebe, the wife and ooasin of Alexander, and 
daughter of Jaaon (Plut. Pel, p. 293, a), concealed 
her three brothen in the hoaae daring the day, 
cansed the dog to be remoTed when Alexander had 
retired to rest, and having covered the atepa of the 
ladder with wool, brought up the young men to 
her hiiaband*a cfamnber. Though ahe had taken 
away Akxander^a aword, they feored to set about 
the deed till ahe threatened to awake him and dia- 
oover aE : they then entered and despatched him. 
Hia body waa caat forth into the atreeta, and 
exposed to every indignity. Of Thebe*a motive 
for the murder different aooounta are given. Plu- 
tarch statea it to have been fear of her husband, 
together with hatred qf hia cruel and brutal cha- 
ncier, and aacribea theae feelings principally to 
the representationa of Pelopidaa, when ahe vi- 
sited him in iua priaon. In Cicero the deed ia 
mxibed to jealooay. (Plat PeL pp. 293, b, 297, d; 
Diod.xTil4; Xen.i7efl:vL4. $ 37; Cic. deQf. 
ii. 7. See alao Cic. <fe Ino, iL 49, where Alex- 
ander*8 murder illaatmtea a knotty point for spe- 
cial pleading ; also Aiiatot ap. Oie. da Dw. I 25 ; 
. the dream of Eudemua.) [K E.] 

8^ ♦tAoXi^f), an andent Greek phyaidan, who 
is called by Oetavioa Horatianna (iv. p. 102, d. ed. 
Aigent 1532), AltmrntUtr Amator Veri^ and who 
is probably tiie aame penon who is quoted by 
Caetios Aureliaaaa {De Morb. AouL iL I, p. 74) 
under the name of Almmdtr Laodkemis, He 



lived probably towards the end of the first oentnnr 
before Christ, as Strebo speaks of him (xiL p^ 580) 
as a contemporary ; he waa a papil of Aaclepiadea 
(Octav. Horat L c), auooeeded Zeuxia aa head of 
a oetefarated Herophilean school of medicine, esta- 
blished in Phrygia between Laodicea and Carura 
(Strab. I e,)y and waa tutor to Ariatoxenua and 
Demoathenea Philalethea. (Galen. Z)toZ)i^.Pa&. 
iv. 4, 10, voL viii. pp. 727, 746.) He ia several 
times mentioned by Galen and alao by Sonnua 
(Z3a Arte ObeUtr. c 93, p. 210), and appean to 
have written aome medical woika, which are no 
fonger extant [W. A. G.] 

ALEXANDER CAA^w^s), waa appointed 
governor of Phocis by Philip III. of Macedonia. 
The Phocian town of Phanoteiia waa commanded 
by Jaaon, to whom he had entmated this post In 
concert with him he invited the Aetolians to come 
and take posaeeaion of the town, promiaing that it 
should be opened and surrendered to them. The 
Aetolians, under the command of Aegetaa, accord- 
ingly entered the town at night ; and when their 
beat men were within the wiSb, they were made 
pxiaoneis by Alexander and hia aaaodate. This 
happened in b. a 217. (Polyb. v. 96.) [L. 8.] 

om C0BNBLIU&] 

ALEXANDER CAA^^wdpos), son of Polts- 
pxBCBON, the Macedonian. The regent Anti- 
pater, on his death (b. a 320), left the regenqr to 
Polysperchon, to the exdosion and consequent dis- 
content of his own son, Ckssander. (Diod. xviii. 
48 ; Plat Phoe, p. 755,£) The chief men, who had 
been placed in authority by Antipater in the gar- 
risoned towns of Greece, were fovourable to Caa- 
sander, aa their patron^ aon, and Polysperehon*s 
policy, therefore, was to reverse the measures of 
Antipater, and reatore democracy where it had been 
aboUahed by tiie latter. It waa then, in the pro- 
secation of diis design, that his son Alexander was 
sent to Athens, & c. 318, with the alleged o^ect 
of delivering the dty finmi Nicanor, who by Caa- 
sander^ appointment commanded the garrison 

?bced by ^tipater in Munychia. (Plut Phor, 
55, £ 756, e. ; Diod. xviiL 65.) Before his arrival, 
Nicanor, beaides strengthening himself with firesh 
troopa in Munychia, had alao treacheroualy seized the 
Peiraeeua. To occupy theae two porta himself soon 
fl^ypeered to be no less the intention of Alexander, 
— an intention which he had probably formed 
before any communication with Phodon, though 
Diodorua \L c) aeems to imply the contnuy. The 
Atheniana, however, looked on Phodon aa the au- 
thor cf the deaign, and their suspicions and anger 
being excited by the private conferences of Alex- 
and^ with Nicanor, Phodon waa accused of trea- 
son, and, fleeing with several of his friends to 
Alexander, was by him despatched to Polyspen- 
chon. (Diod. xviiL 66 ; Pint. Pkoc, 756, 1 757, a.) 
Cassander, arriving at Athens soon after and occu- 
pying the Peizaeeus, was there besieged by Poly- 
aperdion with a huge force ; but the supplies of 
the latter being inadequate, he waa obliged to with- 
draw a portion of hia army, with which he went to 
attempt the reduction of Megalopolia, while Alex- 
ander waa left in command of the remainder at 
Athena. (Diod. xviii. 68.) Here he appean to 
have continued without effecting anything, till the 
treaty and capitulation of Athens with Casaander 
(Pans, i 25 ; Diod. xviii. 74) gave tho dty to tiie 
power of the hitter. 


Wben Polysperchombaffledat Megalopolis (Diod. 
XTiii. 72), withdrew into Macedonia, his son seems 
to hare been left with an anny in Peloponnesus, 
where, as we read in Diodoms (xLc 35), the field 
was left open to him, and the friends of oligarchy 
were greaUy alarmed by the departure of Cassander 
into Macedon on the intelligence of the murder of 
Arrhidaens and Eurydice by Olympias, B. a 317. 
(Pans. i. 11 ; Diod. xiz. 11.) During his absence, 
Alexander succeeded in bringing oyer to himself 
several cities and important places in the Pelopon- 
nesus (Diod. xix. 53) ; but, on Cassander*s return 
to the south, after crushing Olympias in Macedon, 
he in vain attempted to check him by his fortifica- 
tion of the Isthmus, for Cassander, passing to 
Epidaurus by sea, regained Argos and Hermione, 
and afterwards also the Messenian towns, with the 
exception of Ithome. (Diod. xix. 54.) 

In the next year, 315, AntigonuB (whose am- 
bition and successes in the east had united against 
him Cassander, Lysimachus, Asander, and Ptolemy 
Soter), among oUier measures, sent Aristodemus 
into the Peloponnesus to form a league of amity 
with Polysperchon and Alexander; and the latter 
was persuaded by Aristodemus to pass over to Asia 
for a personal conference with Antigonus. Finding 
him at Tyre, a treaty was made between them, and 
Alexander returned to Greece with a present of 
500 talents fit>m Antigonus, and a multitude of 
magnificent promises. (Diod. xix. 60, 61.) Yet, 
in the very same year, we find him renouncing his 
alliance with Antigonus, and bribed by the title of 
governor of the Peloponnesus to reconcile himself to 
Cassander. (Diod. xix. 64.) 

In the ensuing year, 814, we read of him as en- 
gaged for Cassander in the siege of Cyllene, which 
however was raised by Aristodemus and his 
Aetolian auxiliaries. Af^r the return of Aristo- 
demus to Aetolia, the citizens of Dyme, in Achaia, 
having besieged the citadel, which was occupied by 
one of Cassander^s garrisons, Alexander forced his 
way into the city, and made himself master of it, 
punishing the advene party with death, imprison- 
ment, or exile. (Diod. xix. 66.) Very soon after 
this he was murdered at Sicyon by Alexion, a 
Sicyonian, leaving the command of his forces to 
one who proved herself fully adequate to the task, 
— his wife Cratesipolis. (B.a 314, Diod. xix. 
67.) [E. E.] 

ALEXANDER (^AXiiaw^pos), a Rhooian. In 
the war against Cassias he was at the head of the 
popular party, and was raised to the office of piy- 
tanis, B. c. 43. (Appian, de BelL Cw, iv. 66.) But 
soon after, he and the Rhodian admiral, Mnaseas, 
were defeated by Cassias in a sea-fight off Cnidus. 
(Appian, de BelL Civ. iv. 71.) [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER (ST.), bishop of Romx, a. o. 
109—119. {EuMh,Hi8LEceLiy,4.) There are 
three Epi$UM falsely ascribed to him by Isidore 
Mercator, as well as a deonej aocordinff to Oratian. 
(Mansi, Gmeilieu vol. i. pp. 643 — 647 .J Heracleon 
b said (in the book PraedegHnatta^ ap. Sirmond. 
Ofp, vol i. p. 470) to have broached hu heresy in 
Sicily in the time of St Alexander, and to have 
been confuted by him. But Hersdeon was not, 
perhaps, yet bom. [A. J. C] 

ALEXANDER, who assumed the title of Em- 
PBROR OP RoMB in A. D. 31 1, was, according to some 
accounts, a Phrygian, and according to others a 
Pannonian. Ho was appointed by Maxentius 
govenioi of Africa, but discovering that Maxen- 


tins was plotting against Us lifei, be ■ win mi i1 iht 
purple, though he was of an advsneed age and 
a timid nature. Maxentina lent ioaie tnopk 
against him under Rnfius YohiwuHia, vko pat 
down the insnrreetian without difficulty:. Alex- 
ander was taken and strangled. (Zoainwia, n. 12, 
14; Aur. Vict <U Cues. 40, £!piL 40.) TImm ar? 
a fSew medals of Alexander. In the one nnnrTwi 
we find the words Imp. ALBXANnsx. P. F. Are.; 
the reverse represents Victory, with this inacri^ 
tion, VicTOfOA Albxamobx Aug. N., and at 
the botto^^ P. K. 



ALEXANDER, T. II., kings of Syria. [Albx- 
ANDXR Balas and Zbbina.] 

ovSpof ), was bom at Alexandria, of Jewibh peioics. 
His fiither held the office of AJabareh in Alexaodiia, 
and his uncle was Philo, the wdl-known writtr. 
Alexander, however, did not continue in the fritik 
of his ancestors, and was rewarded for his apostacy 
by various public appointments. In the reign cf 
Claudius he succeeded Fadius as p p oc mmtu r of 
Judaea, about A. d. 46, and was promoted to the 
equestrian order. He was subsequently appointed 
by Nero procurator of Egypt ; and bj hn ofden 
50,000 Jews were slain on one occasion at Alex- 
andria in a tumult in the dty. It was appuvntJv 
during his government in EJgypt that he aocmo- 
panied Corbulo in his expedition into Annenia, 
A. D. 64 ; and he was in this campaign givm as 
one of the hostages to secure the safety of Tiridates, 
when the latter visited the Roman campu Alex- 
ander was the first Roman governor who decfaued 
in favour of Vespasian ; and the day on which be 
administered the oath to the legions in the name of 
Vespasian, the Kalends of July, a. Dl 69, fe re- 
garded as the beginning of that emperori leigi^ 
Alexander afterwards accompanied Titoa in the war 
against Judaea, and was present at the takii^ 
of Jerusalem. (Joseph. Ant JutL xx. 4* § 2 ; 
BelLJwLiL 11. § 6, 15. § 1, 18. § 7, 8, ir. la 
§ 6, vl 4. § 8; Tac Amn. xv. 28, HwL L 11, iL 
74,79; Suet. r«p. 6.) 

6 TpoXXiay^f ), one of the most eminent of the an- 
cient physicians, was bom at Trallea, a city of 
Lydia, fh>m whence he derives his name. His 
date may safely be put in the sixth century after 
Christ, for he mentions Aetias (xiL 8, p. 346), 
who probably did not write till the end of the 
fifth or the beginning of the sixth century, and 
he is himself quoted by Panlus Aegineta (iiL 28, 
78, vii. 5, 11, 19, pp. 447, 495, 650, 660, 687), 
who is supposed to have lived in the seventh ; be- 
sides which, he is mentioned as a conteoiponrTby 
Agathias {HuL v. p. 149), who set aboot wxitiBg 
his History in the beginning of the reign of Jnstia 
the younger, about a. d. 565. He had the ad- 
vantage oi being brought up vnder hb &ther, 
Stephannsy who waa himself a physidan (iv. 1, 




p. 198), md aln vndflr anotlier penon, whow 
nan hs does not mention, bat to whoie ton 
CooBM he iMiciitwi lus dnef work (zii L p. 813), 
vfaicfa he ivxDte oat of gistitado st ids reqnect 
Ha WM B man of an eztensYe practice, of a Terj 
hog experience, and of great xvpatation, not only 
Bt Rome, bat whererer he tiBTelled in Spain, 
Gaol, and Italy (L 15, pp. 156, 157), whence he 
^ns called by way of emnienoe ** Alexander the 
Phyndan." Agathiaa ^eaka alao with gxeat pmiee 
of his Sana broueim, Anthemiua, IHoaconu, Metro- 
dona, andOlymphu, who were aD eminent in their 
fieveal prafesnona. Alexander ia not a mere coat- 
piler, like Aetina, Oiibanu, and othera, bat is an 
aathor of qoite a diffinent stamp, and haa more the 
air of an original writer. He wrote hia great work 
(aa he tefla na himael^ xii. 1, pi 31 8) in an extreme 
old age, from the leaolta ti hia own experience, 
when he ooold no longer bear the fietti^ of prac- 
tice. Hia style in the main, eaya Fremd, is yery 
good, ihort, clear, and (to nae his own teim, xiL 1, 
p. 313) c op siatin g of common expreaaiona; and 
thoo^ (throogh a mixtoce of some foreign woida 
occasioned periiapa by his trnyela) not always per- 
fectly elq^t, yet rery expreaaiTe and intiAigible. 
Fabncias considen Alexander to have bekoged tQ. 
the sect of the Methodid, but in the opinion of 
Freind this ia notpioved sniBcienily by the pw- 
Mges addoeed. Tlie weakest and moat conooa 
part of hia pnctioe appears to be his belief in 
chanas and amolets^ aome of which may be qaoted 
as spedmens. For a quotidian agne, ** Gather 
an olive kaf before aim-rise, write on it with com- 
in<m ink ao, poi, a, and hang it roond the neck** 
(xii. 7, p. 339) ; for the goat, <* Write on a thin 
plate ^ gold, daring the waning of the moon, fcaf . 

!>f^^^r^fi,{:^,S^t,Xai,xi<yf, ft 
•V, and wear it roand the ankka ; pronouncing also 
i^Vdfrf^ f«W, SHe. fl«^, X-i^'" (xL 1, p. 313), 
or dw this vem of Homer (/^ /3. 95), 

while tlie moon is in Libra ; bat it ia much better 
if the shodd be in Leow** (IbkL) In exorcising 
tke goat (ftUd pw 814) he says, ** I adjure thee by 
the great name 1flu» lioMatiB^ that is, rriiT 
rilt^^^, and a little farther on, ** I adjure thee 
by ^ idy names 1<u), S/aSoAe^ *Mw<A, *EXei;» 

^ iB, vhn >3ir^> J^1^>ls rrirvi from 

T v: T -: T : t : 
whidi he would appear to hare been either a Jew 
or a Christian, and, from his frequently prescribing 
swine's flesh, it is most probable that he was a 
Christian. His chief work, entitled Bi^X/alarpucd 
AmKol^fica, lOri Daodeeim de Rb Mediea, first 
appesred in an old, boibaxoua, and imperfect Latin 
tnndation, with the title Alsaaandri Yairo9 Prao- 
<»>, {:&, Logd. 1504, 4to., which was several times 
Rptinted, and corrected and amended by Albenus 
Torinos, BaaiL 1538, foL It was first edited in 
<>nek by Jac. Goopylns, Par. 1548, foL, a beauti- 
^ sod scans edition, containing eJso Khaxae de 
PaHUtiia LSbeUmt ex S^fwrum Lingua in Ora&cam 
Iwbtaa It was publiahed m Greek with a new 
Latin tiandatioa 1^ Jo. Gointems Andemacus, 
fittil 1556, Sto., which is a rare and yaloable 
edition. Qmnterls translation haa been soTeral 
tinus reprinted, and ia inserted by H. Stephens in 
hU MtdkaeArUt /Vmc^m, Pane, 1567, foL; it 
alio ferns port of Haller^a Collection of Medical 
Writers, Lauaanib 1772, Sm 2 toIs. The other 

work of Alexander^ that is still extant Is a short 
treatise, IIspl *EKfdtf9mf, De LmmMeii, which was 
first publiihed in Greek and Latin by Hieron. Mer- 
cnriaiia, Venet. 1 570, 4to. It is alao inserted in hia 
work £i» MoHm Pfurormn^ Franco! 1 584, 8vo., and 
in the twelfth Tolume of the old edition of Fabricius, 
BihUaOifKa Oraeca; the Latin translation alone is 
indnded in Haller's Collection mentioned above. 
An Arabic translation is mentioned by Dr. Sprenger 
in his dissertation De Origmibm Mediemae AraU- 
CM 9mb KkaUJbiUy Lugd. Bat. 1840, 8vo. ; and 
also by J. G. Wenrich, De Amdorvm Chueoorum 
VOniuubtu et Oommadairik Ss/riacu, AfxAici$f 
Armemaeis, Perneuque^ Lips. 1842, 8vo. 

Alexander seems alao to hare written seyend 
other medical works which are now loat He ex- 
presses his intention of writing a book on Fractures, 
and also on Wounds of the Head. A treatise on 
Urine written by him ia alluded to by Joannea 
Actuarius (D» Utin. D^g^, c. 2. p. 43), and he 
himself mentions a work of his on bisecMes of the 
^ei^ which was translated into Arabic. (Sprenger, 
Wenrich, 2. 6;) The other medical treatise on Pleur 
risy, which is said to have been alao translated into 
Arabic, was probably only the sixth book of his 
great work, ^iniich is entirely devoted to the con- 
rideiation of this disease. A very full account of 
the life and works of. Alexander Trallianus waa 
publiahed at London, 1734, 8vo., by Edward llil- 
ward, M.D., entitied **' Trallianaa Reviviscens ; or, 
an Aeeoant of Alexander Trallian, one of the Greek 
Writers that ilouriahed after Galen : ihewing that 
these Authon are fiir from deserving the imputa- 
tion of mere compilers,** &e. Two other medical 
worics which are aometimes attributed to Alexander 
Trallianua (viz. a Collection of Medical and Physi- 
cal Problems, and a treatise on Fevers) are noticed 
under Alxzandbr Apbrodibibnsxs. (Freind*s 
HwL cf Pkgnc^ whose words have been sometimes 
borrowed ; Fabridus, BikL Oraee, vol. xii p. 593, 
sq. ed. vet.; Haller, BibH&Uieoa Medidnae PracH' 
eae, tom. i.; Sprengel, Hi»U de la Mid, torn, il ; 
Isenaee, Geeduckte der Mediem ; Choulant, Hand" 
huek der BwAerkimde fUr die AeHere Medicin.) 

[W. A. G.] 

ALEXANDER f AA.{{ay9po5), of Trichonium 
in Aetolia, waa commander of the Aetolians in 
B. c. 218 and 219. He attacked the rear of the 
anny of Philip on his return from Thermus, but 
ihe attempt was unsuccessful, and many Aetolians 
fen. (Polyb. V. 13.) [L. S.] 

CAA^^cu^pof ZotfiMu), the son of a merchant 
named Protarchus, was eet up by Ptolemy Physcon, 
king of Egypt, as a pretender to the crown of the 
Greek kingdom of Syria shortiy after the death of 
Antiochns Sidetes and the return of Demetriua 
Nicator firom his captirity among the Partbians. 
(jB.c. 128.) Antioch, Apomea, and several other 
cities, disgusted with the tyranny of Demetrius, 
acknowledged the authority of Alexander, who 
pretended to Imve been adopted by Antiochus 
Sidetes ; but he never succeeded in obtaining 
power over the whole of Syria. In the earlier 
part of the year 125 he defeated Demetrius, who 
fled to Tyre and was there killed ; but in the mid- 
dle of the same year Alexander*s patron, the king 
of %ypt, set up against him Antiochus Grypus, a 
son of Demetrius, by whom he was defeated in 
battle. Alexander fled to Antioch, where he 
attempted to plunder the temple of Jupiter, in order 



to pay liis troops ; bat the people roae againit him 
and drove him out of the city. He soon fell into 
ihe handi of robhen, who delirered him up to 
AntiochoB, by whom he was pat to death, B. c. 122. 
He was weak and effinninate, but sometimes gene- 
rous. His surname, Zebina, which means ^a 
purchased sUre," was applied to him as a term of 
reproach, from a report that he had been bought 
by Ptolemy as a slare. Several of his coins are 
extant In the one figured below Jupiter is re- 
presented on the reverse, holding in the right hand 
a small image of victory. 

(Justin, xxjdx. 1, 2 ; Joseph. Aniiq. ziii. 9, 10 ; 
Clinton, Fa»ti, liL p. 834.) [P. S.] 

ALEXANDRA. [Cassandra.] 

ALEXANDRIDES CAAc|av8pl8i}5) of Delphi, 
a Greek historian of uncertain date. If we may 
judge from the subjects on which his history is 
quoted as an authority, it would seem that his 
work was a history of Delphi. (Plut Ly$attd. 18 ; 
Schol. ad Eurip, AloesL 1, where undoubtedly the 
same person is meant, though the MS. reading is 
Anaxandrides ; SchoL ad Jridaph, PltO. 926.) 

[L. S.] 

ALEX A'NOR CAAc^<£y«p), a son of Machaon, 
and grandson of Aesculapius, who built to his sire 
a temple at Titane in the territory of Sicyon. He 
himself too was worshipped there, and sacrifices 
were offered to him after sunset only. (Pans. iL 
23. §4, 11. §6,&c) [L.S.] 

ALEXARCHUS ('AX4lapxos), a Greek his- 
torian, who wrote a work on the history of Italy 
{*lra\ucdy, of which Plutareh (Pandit 7) quotes 
the third book. Servius {ad Jen. uL 334) men- 
tions an opinion of his respecting the origin of the 
names Epeirus and Campania, which unquestion- 
ably belonged to his work on Italy. The writer 
of this name, whom Plutarch mentions in another 
passage (£h /«. e< Qi. p. 365), is probably a different 
person. [L. S.] 

ALEXARCHUS (^AXilapxos), 1. A brother 
of Cassander of Macedonia, who is mentioned as 
the founder of a town called Uranopolis, the site 
of which is unknown. Here he is said to have 
introduced a number of words of his own coinage, 
which, though very expressive, appear to have 
been regarded as a kind of shing. ( Athen. iiL p. 98.) 

2. A Corinthian, who, while the Lacedaemo- 
nians were fortifying Deoeleia in Attica, B. c. 413, 
and were sending an expedition to Sicily, was 
entrusted with the command of 600 hoplites, with 
whom he joined the Sicilian expeditbn. (Thucyd. 
viL 19.) [L. S.J 

ALE'XIAS fAAc^ras), an ancient Greek physi- 
cian, who was a pupil of Thnisyas of Mantinea, 
and lived probably about the middle of the fourth 
century before Christ Theophrastus mentions 
him as having lived shortly before his time (HisL 

Pkmt ix. 1 6. § 8), and ^eaki bigUy of bn abS- 
ties and acquirements. [W. A. GL] 

ALEXrCACUS QAXMlUamy the wester of 
evU, is a surname given by the Greeks to aevcnl 
deities, as— Zens (Orph. Be Lapid, Pt o otm L),— 
to Apollo, who was worshipped under this onse 
by the Athenians, because he was belieTed to kax* 
stopped the pbgue which laged at Athens in the 
time of the Peloponnesian war (Pauo. L X S 2, 
viii. 41. § 5),— and to Heradea. (Lftctnt. ▼. 3.) 


ALEXICLES CAAclucXnf), an Atfaenini gew^ 
ral, who belonged to the oligsucchial or LaeedaeBo- 
nian party at Athens. After the revolntson of b. c 
411, he and several of his firienda quitted the cstj 
and went to their firiends at Deoeleia. Bat he was 
afterwards made prisoner in Peiraeeua, and weo- 
tenced to death for his participation in the g;«ilt of 
Phrynichus. (Thucyd. viii. 92 ; Lycuxg. m Ltoer. 
p. 164.) [L. Sw] 

ALEXICRATESCAAs|iiV<fcrv).* Pythagowm 
philosopher who lived at the time of Plutarch, aad 
whose disciples continued to observe the aacaetit 
diet of the Pythagoreans, abstaining from fiah ah»- 
gether. (Plut S^mpoi, viii. p. 728.) Another 
person of this name occnri in Plntazcfa, J^inrL 5.) 


ALE'XIDA CAX4^), a daughter of Anphi- 
araus, from whom certain divinitiea called Elasa 
( 'EXdto-ioi, i, 0. the averters of epileptic fits) were 
believed to be descended. (Pint QiiamL Gr. 23.) 


ALEXl'NUS CAA^iyof ), a philoM^er erf the 
Dialectic or Megarian school and a discqile of En- 
bulides [Euclioks], from his eristic propestshin 
£Eu:etiously named *EXc7^s, who lived «hoat the 
beginning of the third century before Christ. He 
was a native of Elis, and a contemporary of Zee& 
From Elis he went to Olympia, in the Tain hope, 
it is said, of founding a sect which might he called 
the Olympian ; but his disciples soon beirame dis- 
gusted with tiie unhealthiness of the plaoe asd 
their scanty means of subsistence, and left hia 
with a single attendant None of his doctzxnes 
have been preserved to us, but fit>m the brief men- 
tion made of him by Cicero {Aead. iL 24). he 
seems to have dealt in sophistical poaslea, l&e 
the rest of his sect Athenaeus (xv. p. 69(5, e.) 
mentions a paean which he wrote in hocMor af 
Craterus, the Macedonian, and which waa siiqg at 
Delphi to the sound of iJie lyre. Aleximis alss 
wrote against Zeno, whose professed antagonist he 
was, and against Ephorus the historian. Diogenes 
Laertius has preserved some lines on hia death, 
which was occasioned by his being pierced with 
a reed while swimming in the iUpheoa. (Diog. 
Laert.ii. 109,110.) [R J.] 

ALE'XION, an ancient physician, who was pro- 
bably (judging from his name) a native of Greece ; 
he was a friend of Cicero, who praises his medical 
skill, and deeply laments his sudden death, a. c. 
44. (J(iu4«.vii.2,xiiL25,xv.l.d2.) [W.A.G.] 

ALEXrPPUS CAA^cirros), an ancient Greek 
physician, who is mentioned by Plutarch {Akx, 
c 41) as havinff received a letter from Alexsnder 
himself^ to thaiiSc him for having cured Peuoestaa, 
one of his officers, of an illness, probably about a. c 
327. [W.A.G.J 

ALEXIS C'AAclis). ]. A comic poet, bora at 
Thurii, in Magna Graecia (Suidas s. e. ''AX.), bat 
admitted subsequently to the privileges of aa 

AthrnTam dtuen, and enrolled in the deme Olbr, 
bdimgiii^ to the tribe Leontis. (Steph. Byz. t. v.) 
He was iIm mde and uutractor of Menaader. 
(Suidas & a'AAf(fts; Froleg. Aristoph. p. xxx.) 
When be was bom we an not ezpreaaly told, but 
he lTw>ed to the age of 106 (Plut. D^ed. Orae, 
pw 420, e.), and was living at least as late as 
B. c 288. Now- the town of Thnrii was de- 
stroyed by the Lncanians ahoat & c. 390. It is 
th^refors not at all unlikely that the parenti of 
AW xia» in oider to eseape firom the threatened de- 
Btmction of their dty, remoTed shortly before with 
their fittle son to Athens. Perhaps therefore we 
ntaj assign about n. a 394 as the date of the 
btrth of Aleiis. He had a son Stephanns, who 
also wrote eomedies. (Suidas L e,^ He appears 
to have been rather addicted to the pleasures of 
the taUeu (Athen. TiiL p. 344.) According to 
Phitaidi (De Sam AdmuAi. RapM, p. 785, b.), 
be expired upon the stage while being crowned as 
'victor. By the old grsmmarians he is commonly 
called a writer of the middle comedy, and frag^ 
menta and the titles of many of his plays oonfiim 
this otatement SdD, for more than 30 years he 
was conteopoiaiT with Philippides, Philemon, Me- 
oander, and Diphihu, and several firaffmenta shew 
that he also wrote pieces which would be dossed 
with those of the new comedy. He was a re- 
maikaUy pnlifie writer. Suidas lays he wrote 
245 plaja, and the titles of 113 have eome down 
to oa The M^orb, 'A7iniAc«r, 'OAuyon^Saipos^ 
and Uapdffmn^ in which he ridiculed Pbto, were 
probably exhibited as earir as the 104th Olym- 
piad. The 'ATaris, in which he ridiculed Mis- 
golaa, iras no doubt written while he was alive, 
and Aeoehtnes (c 'Hmank. pp. 6—8) in B. c. 845, 
Npeaks of him aa then living. The 'AScA^ and 
Srnorai^f, in which he eatirized Demosthenes, 
were acted shortly after b. c. 343. The'Iwof, 
in which he alluded to the decree of Sophocles 
against the philosophers, in & a 316. The 
nipauw in B. c 312. The ^apiMKvrmK'n and 
ToSoXi^Mubs in B. a 306. As might have been 
expected in a person who wrote so much, the iame 
pasnge frequently occurred in several plays ; nor 
did he scruple sometimes to borrow from other 
poets, OS, for example, from Eubnlus. (Athen. i. 
p. 25, f.) Carystius of Peraamus {ap. AUten, vi 
p. 235, e.) lays he was the first who invented the 
part of the parasite. This is not quite correct, aa 
it had been introduced before him by Epicharmus ; 
Vmi he appears to have been the first who gave it 
the form in which it afterwards appeared upon the 
stage, and to have been very happy in his exhibi- 
tion of it His wit and elegance are praised by 
Athenaeoa (ii. p. 59, f.), whose testimony is con- 
finned by the extant fragments. A considerable 
lut of peculiar words and forms used by him is 
gi»en by Meineke. His plays were frequently 
tnnslated by the Roman comic writers. (Oell. ii. 
23.) The fragments we possess of his plays have 
^o preoCTved chiefly by Athenaens and Stobaeus. 
(Meineke, Fragm. Cam. yoI. i. pp. 874—403; 
Clinton, Patti UeUemeL, under the years above 
gives; Pabricius, BibL Gt, voL ii p. 406, &c) 

2. A writer mentioned by Athenaeus (x. p. 41 8) 
as the author of a treatise irsfi) Ai^rofNCf^sr. 

3. A Somian, the author of an historical work 
caBed TAfua^Cipm, or^Clpoi XofuatoA (Samian An- 
*ol*)i which Athenaeuf quotes, (xiii p. 572, f., { 
«>-Fi540,d.) [C. P. M.) I 



ALEXIS CAAf^tf), a sculptor and statuary, 
mentioned by Pliny (xxxiv. 8. s. 19) os one of 
the pupils of Polycletus. PMisanias (vi 3. § 3) 
mentions an artist of the same name, a native of 
Sieyon, and fiither of the sculptor Conthams. It 
cannot be satisfactorily settled whether these an 
the some, or diflerent persons. Pliny*s account 
implies that he hod the elder Polycletus in view, 
in which cose Alexis could not have flourished 
later than OL 95 (b. a 400), whereas Eutychides, 
under whom Canthams studied, flourished about 
OL 120, b. c. 300. (Pliny, H. N. xxxiv. 8. s. 
19.) If the two were identical, as Thiersch 
(jE^pocAm der bild, KuntL p^ 276) thinks, we mast 
suppose either that Pliny made a mistake, and that 
Akois studied under &e younger Polycletus, or 
else that the Eutychides, whose date is given by 
Pliny, was not the artist under wh<Mn Canthams 
studied. [C. P. M.] 

('AAcliff , or 'AA^Cio9 Koiur^f\ emperor of Con- 
stantinople, was most probably bom in a. D. 1048. 
He was the son of John Comnenus, and the 
nephew of the emperor Isaac Comnenus, and re- 
eeived a careful education from his mother Anna. 
He accompanied the emperor Romonus Diogenes 
in the war against Alp-ArsUn, sultan of the Turks- 
Seljuks, and was present at the battle of Mah»- 
kerd, where this emperor was made a prisoner by 
the sultan. After the deposition of Romanus Dio- 
genes in 1071, Alexis Comnenus and his elder 
brother Isaac joined the party of the new emperor, 
Michael YIL Duces, who employed Alexis against 
the rebels who had produced great disturbances in 
Asia Minor. In this war Alexis distinguished him- 
self aa a successfrd general, and shewed that extnr 
ordinary shrewdness which afterwards became the 
principal faature of his character. He defended 
Michael VII. against the rebel Nicephoms Bota- 
niates, but the cause of Bfichael having become hope- 
less, he readily joined the victorious rebel, who be- 
came emperor under the title of Nicephoms III. in 
1 077. The authority of Nicephoms I IL was disobey- 
ed by several rebels, among whom Nioephoras 
Bryennius in Epeiros was the most dangerous ; but 
Alexis defeated them one after the other, and the 
gxatefrd emperor conferred upon him the title of 
^ Sebostos.** Alexis was then considered m the first 
general of the Byzantine empire, but his military re- 
nown made him suspected in the eyes of the emperor, 
who kept him at Constantinople and tried to get 
rid of him by base intrigues. But Alexis opposed in- 
trigues to intrigues, and as he was not only the most 
gaUant, but also the most artful among his shrewd 
countrymen, he outdid the emperor, who at last 
gave orders, that his eyes should be put out. 
Alexis now fled to the army on the Danube, and 
was procUiimed emperor by the troops. Assisted 
by his brother Isaac, who acted with great gene- 
rosity, Alexis marched to Constantinople, obtained 
possession of the dty by a stratagem, deposed the 
emperor, and ascended the throne in 1081. 

The Byzantine empire was then at the point of 
roin. While Alexis carried on the war against 
the rebel Nicephoms Bryennius, and afterwards 
during his forced sojourn at Constantinople, and 
the time of his difierenoes with Nicephoms 111., 
Melek-Shah, the son of Alp-Arsl&n, and • the 
greatest prince of the Seljuks, had conquered the 
Byzantine part of Asia Minor, which he ceded to 
his cousin Solimin. The Bulgacions tlireatened u> 




mvade Thnee, and Robert Oniteard, duke of 
ApuHa, with a mighty host of Nomum kjiights, liad 
crossed the Adriatic and laid siege to Dunzzo, the 
ancient Dyrrachinm. In this critical position 
Alexis evinced extraordinary activity. He oon- 
claded peace with the Seljuks, oe^g Asia to 
them ; he made an alliance with Venice and Henry 
IV., emperor of Germany ; and he sold the sacred 
▼easels of the churches to pay his troops. His 
struggle with the Normans was long and bloody, 
but famine, diseases, dvil troubles, and a powec^ 
diversion of Henry IV., compelled the Normans to 
leave Epeims in 1084 During this time the Sel- 
juks had recommenced hostilities, and threatened 
to block up Constantinople with a fleet constructed 
by Greek captives. In this extremity Alexis 
UDoplored the assistance of the European princes. 

The conquest of Jousalem by the Seljuks, the 
interruption of the pious pilgrimages to the holy 
grave, and the vexations which the Christians in 
the East had to endure from the infidels, had pro- 
duced an extraordinary excitement among the 
nations in Europe. The idea of rescuing the town 
of our Saviour became popular ; the pope and the 
;irince8 shewed themselves &vourable to such an 
expedition, and they resolved upon it after the 
ambassadors of Alexis had related to them at 
Piacenza in 1095 the hopeless state of the Chris- 
tians in Asia. The first Crusaders appeared in 
Constantinople in 1096. They were commanded 
by Peter the Hermit and Walter the Pennyless, 
and were rather a band of vagabonds than an 
army. Alexis hastened to send them over to 
Asia, where they were massacred by the Turks. 
Soon after them came a powerful army, command- 
ed by Godfrey of Bouillon, and their continued 
stay in the neighbourhood of Constantinople gave 
occasion to senous diflferences between the Latins 
and the GFreeks. However Alexis, by the alternate 
use of threats and persuasions, not only succeeded 
in getting rid of the dangerous foreigners by carry- 
ing them over to Asia, but also managed the pride 
of Godfrey of Bouillon and his turbulent barons 
with so much dexterity, that they consented to 
take the oath of vassalage for those provinces 
which they might conquer in Asia, and promised 
to restore to the emperor the Byzantine territories, 
which had been taken by the Seljuks. In his 
turn he promised to assist them in Ineir enterprise 
with a strong army, but the dangerous state of the 
empire prevented him from keeping his word. 
However, in proportion as the Crusaders, in 1097, 
advanced into Asia, Alexis followed them with a 
chosen body, and thus gradually reunited with his 
empire Nicaea, Chios, Rhodes, Smyrna, Ephesus, 
Sa^es, and finally all Asia Minor. The descend- 
ants of Bohemond, prince of Antioch, did homage 
to Alexis, to whom they restored Tarsus and 
Malmistra. During the latter years of his reign, 
Alexis was occupied with consolidating the do- 
mestic peace of his empire, which was uien often 
disturbed by religious troubles. He died in 1 1 1 8, 
at the age of seventy, and ius successor was his 
son John, generally called Calo-Joannes. 

Alexis was the author of a work entitled 
AoTopfin), which was published in the 4th volume 
of the Analeda Grcuca, Par. 1688, and also from 
a later manuscript by Gronovius at the end of his 
work De Se$tertiis^ Lugd. Bat 1691. Respecting 
the ecclesiastical edicts of Alexius, several of which 
are extant, see Fabric. BibL Grate vii p. 729. 


The life of Alexis has been cazefuDy, tboq^ 
very partially, described by hia daughter. Ansa 
Comnena, in her AleaaaSf which is Uie princi^ 
source concerning this emperor. (Compu Gljcas, p^ 
4; AlbertusAquensis,ii. 9-19; Wilhelmiu TyrcBsas, 
iL 5, 23 ; comp. S. F. Wilken, *« Reram ab Akxio 
I., Joanne, Mimuele et Alexio II. Camnenia gestae 
rum libri quatuor,"* Heidelberg, 181 1.) £ W. P.] 

(*AAc|tf or *AA^£iof Ko/un:fif6s\ emperor of Coct- 
Btantinople, the son of Uie emperor Marniel Com- 
nenus, was bom in 1167, according to Niceta^ 
In 1179, he married Agnes or Anna, the danghtcr 
of king Louis VII. of France, and succeeded his 
fiither in 1180, under the guardianahip of his lao- 
ther Maria, the daughter of Raymond, nriiioe ^ 
Antioch. They both became victims of toe ambi- 
tion of Andronicus Comnenus, who first oompelled 
the young emperor to sign the death of his mother, 
and then put Alexis to death in 1183 ; wfaereupoa 
he succeeded him on the throne. (Nicetaa» Aiak 
ManueL Oomn,JiL; compi Docange^ Fitmaiiae fy 
gaiUtnae^ p. 188.) IW. P.] 

(^AXc^is or *AA^{ios "AyytXoi^ the brother of th« 
emperor Isaac II. Angelus, whom he depoeed azid 
blinded in 1195. Bemg a descendant of Alexis I. 
Comnenus by Theodora, the youxigeat dai^ter of 
the hater, he assumed the fiunily-naine of kk 
great ancestor, and is therefore commoxil j caCed 
Alexis Angelus-Comnenus. In 1197 and 1 198, he 
carried on war with Persia and the Seljuks of 
Koniah, but his armies were defeated. Being 
base, rapacious, and cruel, he incurred the hatred 
and contempt of his subjects, and jprepaied his 
ruin. He lost the crown through hia nephew, 
Alexis, the son of Isaac II. Angelus, who, havici 
escaped from Constantinople, succeeded in per- 
suading the Crnsaden assembled in Venioe to 
make an expedition against the usurper. Amount- 
ing to 20,000 men, and commanded by Dandelo, 
doge of Venice, they attacked Conatantiiiflfife in 
the month of July, 1203; but before they had 
taken this city, Alexis III. abandoned his palace 
and fled to Italy, carrying with him 1 0,000 pounds 
of gold. After his flight, Constantinople was oc^ 
cupied by the Crusaders, who xecqgniaed as en- 
perors the blinded Isaac and his son Alexia. 
[Alszis IV.] He afterwards returned to Greece, 
and treacherously blinded the emperor Alexis 
V. Murzuphlus, who after his deposition in 
1204, had fled to Alexis III., whose daoghter 
he had married. Meanwhile, Theodore Lascaris 
succeeded in making himself independent at Nican, 
but was involved in a war with Ohay4th-ed-diD, 
sultan of KoniaL In 1210, Alexis III. fled to 
this sultan, and persuaded him to support his 
claims to the throne of Byiantium, and to dechre 
war against Theodore Laiscaris. The war proved 
&tal for the sultan, who was killed in the battle of 
Antioch, and Alexis III. was made prisoner. 
Theodore Lascaris had married Anna Angda-Cooi- 
nena, the second daughter of Alexis III., but this 
circumstance did not prevent him firom coofimnc 
his &ther-in-kw to a monastery at Nicaea. (1210.) 
There Alexis III. died some years after at an 
advanced age ; the exact year of his birth is 
not known. (Nicetas, Alexis Angdua^ /sooruis 
Anpdus^ iii. 8, &&; Isaacim ei Alex, ySL c 1; 
Villehaidouin, De la Conquede de CkmuUmtmoUm^ 
Paris, 1838, c 51, 56, &c.) [W. P.J 


f'AXclis or 'AA^ios 'ATyt Am ), vnM the ion of die 
emperor Imsc II. AngeliiB. It is mentioned under 
Albxis III. thttt, a&r the depodtion of this em- 
peror, he and hi> fiither were placed on the throne 
br the Crosaden. Alexis IV. waa crowned toge- 
ther Miik laaae II. on the 29th of July, 1203, 
and, to aecnre hiaoielf on the throne, engaged the 
Cmaadera to oondnae at Constantinoi^e. He had 
promiaed them to pnt an end to the achiam of the 
Greek Church, but did not do anything for that 
porpoae, nor did he fiilfil his other engagements 
towvds the Cmaaders. At the same time, he did 
not ondentand how to maintain his dignity among 
the tarbnknt and hanghty baiona of Italy, Fraoee, 
and Flanden» who wera asaemUed in his capitaL 
Seiioita difierencea consequently arose between him 
and his detiTeiers. Alexis Docas, snmamed Mnr- 
zaphlns, an ambitions and eDtetprieing man, took 
adTantage of these troaUea, and soddenly seiaed 
the crown. By his oider Alexis IV. was pot to 
death on the 28th of Janoaiy, 1204; Isaac II. 
died of giieC (Nicetas, laaaeuu Aw^ebu^ iii c. 8, 
&c.; Isoamaa M AlttmfiL; Villehardonin, Ibid, c 
61, 56, 60, Ac, 102—107.) [W. P.] 

or *AA^iot Aooaa), somamed ^MuazupHLua,"* on 
aeooont of the dose junction of his shaggy eye- 
brows, was crowned emperor of Constantinople on 
the 8th of Pefamary, 1204, alter having been pro* 
sent at the murder of Alexis IV., who was put to 
death by his order. His eariier life is almost un- 
known. Nicetaa, however, states, that he had 
always been rapacious and Tohiptaous; on the 
odier hand, he was a man of gnat couiage and 
energy. Immediately after he had usurped the 
throne, the Crusaders, who wero still assembled 
ander the waUs of Constantinople, laid siege to this 
dty. Alexis V. disdained to condade peace with 
then OB dishonoorable conditiona, and prepared 
for redstanoe, in which he was Tigoronsly assisted 
byTheodoK Lascaris. However, courage suddenly 
ahaadoned him, and he fled tof the deposed em- 
peror Alexis III., whose daughter Eudoxia Angeb- 
CoDinena he had just married. Constantinople 
was taken by storm by the Crusaders (12th of 
April, 1204), who, after having committed those 
horrors, of which Nicetas, an eye-witness, gives 
sodi an emphatical descriptioii, chose Baldwin, 
count of Flanders, emperor of Constantinople, but 
leaving hhu only the fourth part of the empire. 
After being deprived of sight by his fiitfaer-in-hw, 
Alexis V. fled to the Morea, but was arrested and 
earned to Constantinople, where the Crusaders put 
him to death by casting him from the top of the 
Theodosian column. (1204.) (Nicetas, Jlf«nr«pA/itf; 
Inaam Jitgeius et Akat. >K. c. 4, 5 ; Gtita Frtm- 
emm, c. 94 ; ViHehardouin, Ibid. c. 51, 56, 60, 
4c. 98, 106, 113—116, 127, Ac.J [W. P.] 

ALE'XIUS ARISTE'NUS (^AAi^w* ^hpumf 
^\ Oeoottomns of the Oreat Church at Constan- 
tinopie, flourished a. D. 1166, in which year he 
vw present at the Council of ConstantinoiJe. He 
edited a SynapmM Cammtm with scholia, which is 
given by Bishop Beveridge in his Pandeolae Cano- 
M>«i Ozon. 1672, fol. vol. iL post peg. 188, and 
wl i. p. 1, &C. Other works by him are quoted. 
See Fabric BAl. Gr. vol. xi p. 280. [A. J. C] 
ALE'XIUS ('AX^^ior), Patriardi of Constan- 
TmopLx, a member of the monaatery of Studius 
(fimnded a. d. 460), succeeded Eustathius as Pa- 



triarch a. d. 1025. In a* d. 1034 ho crowned 
Michael IV. the fevourite of Zoe, who, to make 
way for him, procured the death of her husband, 
the Emperor Romanna^ He thwarted the attempto 
of John (the emperor's brother) to gain the patri- 
archal see (a. o. 1036), and died a. d. 1043. D&- 
cree$ of his aro extant, ap> «/w Or. Rom. vol i. 
lib. iv. p. 250, Leundar. Franco^ 1596. See 
Fabric. BibL Gr. voL xi. p. 558. [A. J. C] 

AL£'XIUS(*AA^Siof X Metropolitan of NiCAKA, 
composed a Oanom or Ifymm oa SL IMmetruu tha 
Marfyr. It is uncertain when he lived. The 
canon is in manuscript. See JUt m beeius, Biblioth. 
Vindobon. vol v. p^ 599, ed. KoUar. [A. J. C] 

ALEXON CAA^^), an Achaean who served in 
the Carthaginian garrison at LUybaeum while it 
was besieged by the Romans in b. c. 250. Daring 
this siege some of the Gallic mercenaries engaged 
in the service of the Carthaginians formed the phin 
of betzaying the fortress into the hands of the Ro- 
mans. But Alexon, who had on a former occasion 
savod the town of Agrigentum from a similar 
attempt of treacherous mercenaries, now acted in 
the same fiuthfnl spirit, and gave information of the 
plot to the Carthaginian commander Himiloo. He 
also assisted him in inducing the mercenaries to 
remain fiuthful and resist the temptations offered by 
their comrades. (Polyb. l 43, iL 7.) [L. S.] 

ALEXON MYNDIUS. [Aluandui Myn- 

ALFE'NUS varus. [Varus.] 

A'LFIUS FLAVUS. [Flavus.] 

ALOOS CAAyof), is used by Hesiod (Thsog. 
227) in the pluial, as the personification of sorrows 
and griefs, which are there represented as the 
daughten of Kris. [L. S.] 

ALIACMON. [Palaxstxnus.] 

L. ALIE'NUS, plebeian aedile & a 454, ac- 
cused Veturius, the consul of the former year, on 
account of selling the booty which had been gained 
in war, and placiiig the amount in the aentrium. 
(Uv. iiL 31.) 

ALIE'NUS CAECraA. [Cabcina.] 

ALIMENTUS, L. CI'NCIUS, a celebrated 
Roman annalist, antiquary, and jurist, who was 
piaetor in Sicily, b. c 209, with the command 
of two legions. He wrote an account of his im- 
prisonment in the second Punic war, and a history 
of Oorgias Leontinus ; but these works probably 
formed part of his Annalet. (Liv. xxi. 38.) He is 
frequenUy cited by Festus, and the fragments which 
have been thus preserved were collected by Wasse, 
and may be found appended to Cortege Sallust 

Niebuhr (L p. 272) praises Alimentus as a 
really critical investigator of antiquity, who threw 
light on the history of his country by researches 
among ito ancient monuments. That he possessed 
eminent personal qualities, such as strike a great 
man, is clear, inasmuch as Hannibal, who used to 
treat his Roman prisonen very roughly, made a 
distinction in his behalf and gave hun an account 
of his passage through Gaul and over the Alps, 
which Alimentus af^rwards incorporated in his 
history. It is only in his fira^ento that we find 
a distinct statement of the earher relation between 
Rome and Latium, which in all the annals has 
been misrepresented by national pride. The point, 
however, upon which Niebuhr lays most stress, is 
the remarkable difference between Alimentus and 
all other chronologers in dating the building of the 
dty about the fourth year of the 12th Olympiad. 

K 2 



This diflerence is the more important m an histo- 
rical view, from Alimentus hanng written on the 
old Roman calendar and having carefnlly ex- 
amined the most ancient Etruscan and Roman 
chronology. It is ingenioasly accounted for by 
Niebahr, by supposing our author to have re- 
duced the ancient cyclical years, consisting of 
ten months, to an equivalent number of common 
years of twelve months. Now, the pontiffs 
reckoned 182 cyclical years before the reign of 
Tarqninius Priscus, from which time, according to 
Julius Oracchanus, the use of the old calendar was 
discontinued. The reduction makes a difference 

of 22 years, for 132- 1^^1=22, and 22 years, 

added to the eta of Polybius and Nepos, viz. OL 

7. 2, bring us to the very date of Alimentus, OL 

Alimentus composed a treatise De Officio Juru- 
eomuiUy containing at least two books ; one book 
I>e Verbis pritdSj one De QmsMlum Poiesiate^ one 
Jk ComiiUs, one De Fcutit^ two, at least, Mydoffo- 
gfooHy and several De Re MiUiaru In the latter 
work be handles the subjects of military levies, of 
the ceremonies of declaring war, and generally of 
the Jut Fedale, (GeU. xvi. 4 ; Voss. Hist. Gr. iv. 
13, Jin^ Hitt. Lot, i. 4; F. Lachmann, de FoiUih, 
Ifistor, TU, LivH Com. I 17, 4to. 1822 ; Zimmem, 
Rom. Reda^-gesdL I § 73.) [J. T. G.] 

ALIMENTUS, M. CI'NCIUS, tribune of the 
plebs B. a 204, proposed in his tribuneship the law 
known by the name of CSneia Lex de Donit et 
Mtmeribus, or MnneraltB Lex. (Liv. xzziv. 4; 
Cic. Cbto, 4, ds OraL it 71, odAtL L 20; Festus, 
s. o. Muneraia) This law was confirmed in the 
time of Augustus. (Diet. ofAnL «. o. dncia Lex.) 
one of the sons of Lycaon, killed by Zeus with a 
flash of lic^tning for their insolence. (ApoHod. iii. 

8. § 1.) The town of Aliphera or Alipheira in 
Arcadia was believed to have been founded by 
him, and to have derived its name from him. 
(Pans. viii. S. § I, 26. 1 4 ; Steph. Bys. «. v. *AX(- 
4*V«.) [L. a] 

ALITTA or ALILATCAA/tto or 'AXiAifcrV, the 
name by which, according to Herodotus (L 181, iii 
8), the Arabs called Aphrodite Urania. [L. S.] 

ALLECTUS, was raised to the highest digni- 
ties in Britun during the dominion of Garansius ; 
but the crimes which he committed, and the foar 
of punishment on account of them, led him in ▲. d. 
298 to murder Caraunus and assume the impe- 
rial title in Britain for himself. He enjoyed his 
honours for three years, at the end of which Con- 
stantius sent Asclepiodotus with an army and fleet 
against him. AHectus was defeated in a. d. 296, 
and Britain was thus cleared of usurpers. ( Aurel. 
Vict de Oaet. 89 ; Eutrop. iz. 14.) On the an- 
nexed coin the inscription is Imp. C. Allbctus. 
P. F. Aug. [L. S.] 

A. ALLIE'NUS. 1. A friend of Cicero\ who 
is spoken of by him in high terms. He was the 
legate of Q. Cicero in Asia, b. c. 60 (Cic. ad Qw. 

A-.Ll. §3), and praetor inn. c. 49. {AdJiLx. 
15.) In the following year, he had tae ptmwee 
of Sicily, and sent to Caesar, who waa then ta 
Africa, a large body of troops^ He contiBiisd ia 
Sicily till B. c. 47, and received the title of prv 
consuL Two of Cicen>*s letters are ■d dmac d to 
him. (Hirt. Bett. 4^. 2, 84 ; Die. ad Fam. rm. 
78, 79.) His name occurs on a eoin, which has 
on one side C. Cabs. Imp. Cos. Itbiu» and on the 
other A. Allibnvs Pbocos. 

2. Was sent by Dolabella, & c 43; to haag te 
him the legions which were in Egypt On his re- 
turn from Egypt with four legions, he was ico^ 
prised by Casams in Palestine, who waa at the 
head of eight legiona. As his forces wcia so ia^;- 
rior, Allienas joined Cassiua. (Appian, B. C iii. 
78,iv.59; Cic. PiUZ. zL 12,18; Casoioa, a]i. Ck: 
ad Fam. zii. 1 1, 12.) This Alliemts may peibips 
be the same person as No. 1. 

ALLU'CIUS, a prince of theCeltxbeii, betrothed 
to a most beantifol virgin, who waa taken priaooer 
by Scipio in Spain, b. a 209. Scipio geoeniBsIy 
gave her to AUudnSy and refbaed the pivswits ha 
parents oflfered him. The story ia beantifiiny toU 
in Livy (zxvL 50), and is also related by other 
writers. (Polyb. x. 19; VaL Max. ir. 3. f I; Si. 
ItaL XV. 268, &c) 

ALMO, the god of a river in the i 
of Rome, who, like Tiberinua and 
prayed to by the augurs. In the water of AIbm 
the statue of the mother of the goda naed to be 
waahed. (Cic. de Nat. Deor. iiL 20 ; camp, Vam^ 
de Ling. Lot v. 71, ed. MUller.) [L. &] 

ALMOPS f AA/iMff), a giant, the son of Poeeidoa 
and Helle, from whom the district of Almopia aad 
its inhabitants, the Almopes in Macedonia, wov 
believed to have derived their name. (Strah. Byi. 

9.V.*AKIU0WU3L.) tL.SL] 

r AXflM«8ai, hXmitai or *AXiUku\ are patratymk 
terms from Aloeus, but are used to designate the 
two sons of his wife Iphimedcta by Poaesdon : vis. 
Otus and Ephialtcs. The Aloeidae are renowaed 
in the earliest stories of Greece for their cxtnor- 
dinaiy strength and daring spirit. When they 
were nine years old, each of their bodiea ■niniiiml 
nine cubits in breadth and twenty-seven in height. 
At this eariy age, they threatened the Olympsaa 
gods with war, and attempted to pile mouit 0«a 
upon Olympus, and Pelion upon Oasiu They 
would have accomplished their object, aaya Hesnei^ 
had they been allowed to grow np to the ^e of 
manhood ; but Apollo destroyed them befeve tbeir 
beards began to appear. {Od. xL 305, te.) Ia 
the Iliad (v. 385, &c; comp. Phflostr. de ViL SapL 
ii. 1. § 1) the poet relates another feat of their 
eariy age. They put the sod Area in cfaainsy and 
kept him imprisoned for tnirteen montba; ao that 
he would have perished, had not Hennca been in- 
formed of it by Eriboea, and secietly liberated the 
prisoner. The same stories are related by Apollo- 
dorus (L 7. § 4), who however does not niake them 
perish in the attempt upon Olympoa. According 
to him, they actually piled the moontaina npoa 
one another, and threatened to change land into 
sea and sea into land. They are fnrthw said to 
have ^wn every year one cubit in breadth and 
three m height As anotiier proof of their daring, 
it is reUted, that Ephialtes sued for the hand of 
Hera, and Otus for that of Artemis. Bat this led 
to their destruction in the island of Nazoa. (Coasp. 


Piod. I^fA, IT. 156, Ac) Here Artemis appeared 
to them in the form of a stag, and nn between 
the two farothera, who, both aiming at the animal 
■t the aame time, shot eadi other £ad. Hyginos 
(/U. 28} r^tee their death in a similar manner, 
bat makes Apollo send the fiital stag. (Camp. 
CaSim. Hyauu m Dmm. 264; Apollon. Rhod. L 
484, with the SdioL) As a ponishment for their 
presmaptioD, they were, in Hades, tied to a pillar 
with serpents, with thor fines turned away finom 
each other, tad were perpetoally tormented by 
the shrieks of an oii^ (Monck, ad Hygim, /.e.; 
Viig. Aem. tL 582.) Diodoros (y. 50, &c), who 
does not mention the Homeric stories, contriyes to 
gire to his account an appeaianoe of history. Ao- 
cording to him, the Aloddae are Thessalian heroes 
who were sent oat by their £sther Aloeos to fetch 
back their mother Iphimedeia and her daughter 
Ptanoatis, who had been carried off by Thraoani. 
After having overtaken and defeated the Thradans 
in the iahnd of Strongyle (Naxoe), they settled 
tlien as nden ora the Thiacians. Bat soon after, 
they killed each other in a dispute which had 
arisen between them, and the Naziana worshipped 
them as heroesi The fimndation of the town of 
Aloimn m Thessaly was ascribed to them. (Steph. 
Bys. I. a.) In all these traditions the Aloeidae are 
RpTMented as only remaikable for their gigantic 
physical strength ; bat there is another story which 
places them in a different light. Paasanias (iz. 
29. § 1) rehrtes, that they were believed to have 
been the first of all men who worshipped the 
Mases on niovnt HeHoon, and to have conseciated 
this moontain to them ; but they worshipped only 
three Mo ses M elete, Mneme, and Aoide, and 
fonnded the town of Ascra in Boeotia. Sepolchnd 
momunents of the Aloeidae were seen in the time 
of Paotaoias (iz. 22. § 5) near the Boeotian town 
of Anthedon. later times fiibled of their bones 
bebg seen in Theasaly. (Philostr. L %.) The in- 
terpretation of these traditions by etymologies firom 
iMm and iUmC, which has been attempted by 
modern schohns, is little satisfiurtory. [L. S.] 

ALCEUS CAAwcvf). I. A son of Poseidon 
and Canaee. He mamed Iphimedeia, the daagh- 
ter of Triops, who was in love with Poseidon, and 
BMd to aralk by the sea-side, take her hands fall 
of its water, and ^irinkle her bosom with it The 
twa sons whom she had by Poseidon were called 
Aloeidae. (Horn. II t. 385, Od zi 305 ; ApoUod. 
i.7.|4.) [Alouoax.] 

2. A nn of Helioa by Circe or Antiope, who 
received firom his fiuher the sovereignty over the 
JtttrictofAwpia. (Pans. ill. §6, 3. §8.) [L.S.] 
ALOPB (^^A^), a daughter of Cercyon, 
who was beloved by Poseidon on account of her 
givat besnty, and became by him the mother of 
"l^wn, whom she ezposed immediately after his 
hinh. Bat a mare came and suckled the child 
uia it was fiofond by shepherds, who fell into a 
<u^te ai to who was to have the beautilol kingly 
JJtire of the boy. The case was brought before 
*^wcyon, who, on recognising by the dress whose 
child the boy was, ordered Alope to be hnprisened 
u) Older to be put to death, and her child to be ez- 
P<^ a^m. The latter was fed and found in the 
Kune manner as before, and the shepherds called 
h>Jo Hippothoas. rHiPFOTBOua.] The body of 
Alope was changed by Poseidon into a well, which 
TO the tame name. (Hygin. Fab, 187 ; Pans. L 
^- § 2 ; Ariitoph. Av, 533.) The town of Alope, 



in Theaealy, was believed to have derived its name 
from her. (Pherecyd. op. Sli^pik, B^ s. e. *AA^wi|, 
where, however, Philonides speaks of an Alope aa 
a daughter of Actor.) There was a monument of 
Al(^ on the road from Eleusis to Mogaia, on the 
spot where she was believed to have been killed 
byherfether. (Pans. I 39. § 3.) [L. S.] 


ALORCUS, a Spaniard in Hanmbal*s army, 
who was a friend and hospes of the Saguntines, 
went into Saguntom, when the dty was reduced 
to the hist eztremity, to endeavour to persuade the 
inhabitants to accept Hannibal^ teims. (Liv. jui. 
12, &c) 

('AX^oSx, 'AX^icaia, or 'AA^iouo'a), a surname of 
Artonis, which she derived from the river god 
Alpheius, who loved her, and under which she 
was worriiipped at Letrini in Elis (Pans. vi. 22. § 
5 ; Stnb. viiL r 34$), and in Ortygia. (Schol 
ad PmL Pya.lL 12, Nmm. I 3.) [L. &] 

ALPHEIAS, a name by which Ovid (MeL v. 
487) designates the nymph of the Sicilian well 
Arethusa, because it was believed to have a sob- 
terraneous communication with the river Alpheius, 
in PeloponnesusL [L. S.] 

*AA^f), the god of the rirer Alpheius in Pelo<- 
ponnesus, a son of Oceanus and Thetys. (Pind. 
JVem. i. 1; Hes. Tkeoff. 33&) According to 
Pausanias (v. 7. § 2) Alpheius waa a passionate 
hunter and fell in love with the nymph Arethusa, 
but she fled from him to the ishmd of Ortygia 
near Syracuse, and metamorphosed herself into a 
well, whereupon Alpheius became a river, which 
flowing from Peloponnesus under the sea to Or- 
tygia, there united its waten with those of the 
wdl Arethusa. (Comp. Schol. oJ Pind, Nem, i. 
3.) This story is related somewhat diflerently by 
Ovid. {MeL v. 572, &c) Arethusa, a feir nymph, 
once while bathing in the river Alpheius in Arca- 
dia, was surprised and pursued by the god; but 
Artemis took pity upon her and changed her into 
a well, which flowed under the earth to the island 
of Ortygia. (Comp. Serv. ad Virg, Ed, z. 4; 
Virg. ^«n. iil 694; Stat SUv, L 2,203; Thd>. 
i. 27 1, iv. 239 ; Lndan, Dial Marin, 3.) Artemis, 
who is here only mentioned incidentally, was, ac- 
cording to other traditions, the object of the love of 
Alpheius. Once, it is said, when pursued by him 
she fled to Letrini in Elis, and here she covered 
her fece and those of her companions (nymphs) with 
mud, so that Alpheius could not discover or 
distinguish her, and was obliged to return. (Pans, 
vi 22. § 5.) This occasioned the buildkig of a 
temple of Artemis Alphaea at Letrini. According 
to another version, toe goddess fled to Ortygia, 
where she- had likewise a temple under the name 
of Alphaea (SchoL ad Find, Pyth, u. 12.) An 
allusion to Alpheius* love of Artemis is also con- 
tained in the feet, that at Olympia the two divini- 
ties had one altar in common. (Pass. v. 14. § 5 ; 
Schol ad Find, OL v. 10.) In these accounts 
two or more distinct stories seem to be mized up 
together, but they probably originated in the 
popuhir belief, that there was a natural sabterra- 
neous communication between the river Alpheius 
and the well Arethusa. For, among several other 
things it was believed, that a cup thrown into the 
Alpheius would make its reappearance in the well 
Arethusa in Ortygia. (Slrab. vL p. 270, viii. p. 



843; Senec Qmae$t. Nat iii. 26; Fulgent, il/j^. 
iii. 12.) Platarch {de Flmo. 19) gives an aooount 
which is altogether vnconnected with thote men- 
tioned aboTe. Aoeofding to him, Alpheiiu was a 
son of Helios, and kflled hu broUier Ceicaphus in 
a contest. Haunted by despair and the Eiinnyes 
he leapt into the rirer NyctimuB which hence re- 
ceived the name Alpheius. [L. S.] 
ALPHESIBOEA (*AX4>«<ri«oM). L The mo- 
ther of Adonis. [Adonis.] 

2. A daughter of Phegeus, who married Alc- 
maeon. [Alcmabon.] 

3. According to Theocritus (iii 45) a daughter 
of Bias, and the wife of Peliaa. The latter, how- 
ever, is usually called Anazibia. 

4. An Indian nymph, who was passionately 
loyed by Dionysus, but could not be induced to 
yield to his wishes, until the god changed himself 
into a tiger, and thus compelled her by fear to 
allow him to carry her across the river SoUaz, 
which from this circumstance received the name of 
Tigris* (Plut. de FUtv, 24,) [L. S.] 

TiAfrKaios), the author of about twelve epignuns 
in the Greek Anthology, some of which seem to 
point out the time when he wrote. In the seventh 
epigram (Jacobs) he refers to the state of the Ro- 
man empire, as embracing almost all the known 
world ; in the ninth he speedu of the restored and 
flourishing dty of Troy ; and in the tenth he al- 
ludes to an epigram by Antipater Sidonius. Now 
Antipater lived under Augustus, and Troy had re- 
ceived great &vours from Julius Caesar and Aur 
giistus. (Strab. xiii p. 889.) Hence it is not 
improbable that Alpheus wrote under Augustus. 
It is true that in the fourth epigram he addresses 
a certain Macrinus, but there is no reason to sup- 
pose that this was the emperor Macrinus. Ano- 
ther difficulty has been started, on the ground that 
the eleventh epiffram was inscribed, as we learn 
from Pausanias (viii. 52. § 3), on the statue of 
Philopoemen in Tegea, and that it is very impro- 
bable that such a statue should have stood without 
an inscription till the time of Alpheus. But the 
simple fact is, that no reason can be discovered for 
attributing this epigram to Alpheus. (Jacobs, An- 
ihoL Graeo. ziii. p. 839.) [P. S.] 

ALPHIUS AVl'TUS. [Avrrua] 

ALPrNUS, a name which Horace (SaL I 10. 
36) gives in ridicule to a bombastic poet. He pro- 
bably means M. Furius Bibaculus. [Bibaculus.] 

ALPI'NUS MONTA'NUS,oneof theTreviri, 
the most powerful of the Belgic people, and the 
commander of a cohort in the army of Vitellius, 
was sent into Germany after the batUe of Cremona, 
A. D. 70. Together with his brother, D. Alpinus, 
he joined Civilis in the next year. (Tac HisL iii. 
35, iv. 31, V. 59.) [Civilis.] 

ALTHAEA {*A\9aia\ a daughter of the Aeto- 
lian king Thestius and Eurythemis, and sister of 
Lcda, Hypermnestia, Iphiclus, Euippus, &c She 
was married to Oeneus, king of Calydon, by whom 
she became the mother of Troxeus, Thyreus, Cly- 
uienus, and Meleoger, and of two daughters, Goi^ge 
and Deianeira. (Apollod. i. 7. § 10, 8. § 1.) 
Apollodorus states, that according to some, Mele- 
ager was regarded as the fruit of her intercourse 
with Ares, and that she was mother of Dei- 
aneira by Dionysus. (Comp. Hygm. Fab, 129, 


171, 174.) Althaea U e^edally 
ancient stoxy on account of the tragic fete of her 
son Meleager, who also became the caase of her 
death. Some say that she hnng haneU^ others 
that she killed herself with a dasser. (Apollod. L 
8. § 3 ; Ov. MeL viii. 445, &c.) [L. S.] 

0rifUpii9 or * A^tfoiftinir), a son of Catieii% king cf 
Crete. In consequence of an onde, that Gst^ss 
would lose his life by one of his chiUxen, Althe- 
menes quitted Crete together with his aister Ane 
mosyne, in order to avoid becoming the instzvaest 
of his fether'fe death. He hmded in Rhodes at a 
{Jace which he called Cretenia, and in i 
of the god of his own native island, he < 
mount Atabyrus an altar to Zens Atabyrina. His 
sister was seduced in Rhodes bj Heimea, but 
Althemenes, disbelieving her acoonnt, killed her 
by kicking her with his foot. When Catvens had 
become advanced in yean, he had an inviBcihk 
desire to see his only son onoe more, and to pface 
his crown in his hands. He aocordiq^j sailed t» 
Rhodes. On his hmding there, he and hm com- 
panions were attacked by shepherdsy who nsstook 
them for pirates. During the ensuing atruggk, 
Althemenes came to the protection of hia subjects, 
and shot his own fiither dead. When hm beessM 
aware of what he had done, he pnjed to the gods, 
and was swallowed up by the eazth. This is ^ 
account of Apollodorus (iiL 2. § 1, &c), with 
which Diodorus (v. 59) agrees in the main poiati^ 
except that he represents Althemenea aa wander' 
ing about after the murder, and at last dyx^g with 
grief. He adds, that the Rhodiaoa anhaeqaeBtiy 
worshipped him as a hero. [L. S. j 

ALTHFPUS CAX^iTvorX a son of Poaeuka 
and Le'i's, a daughter of Orus, king of Trse«a. 
The tetritory of Troeien was called alter hia 
Althepia. In his reign Pallas and PoseadoB dis- 
puted the possession of the country with eadi 
other. (Pans. iL 30. § 6.) [L. S.] 

ALY ATTES (*AXurifrrn|s), king of Lydia, suc- 
ceeded his fether Sadyattes, a. a 618. Sadyattes 
during the lost six yean of his reign had been cd- 
gnged in a war with Miletus, whidh waa oontiaaed 
by his son five yean longer. In the last of these 
yean Alyattes burnt a temple of Athoaa, and hJl 
ing sick shortly afterwards, he sent to Delphi for 
advice ; but the oracle refused to give him an an- 
swer till he had rebuilt the temple. This he did, 
and recovered in consequence, and made peace 
with Miletus. He subsequently carried on war with 
Cyaxares, king of Media, drove the CinunerisBi 
out of Asia, took Smyrna, and attacked Claaosacnae. 
The war with Cyaxares, which lasted for five yean, 
from B. c. 590 to 585, arose in conaequeooe of 
Alyattes receiving under his protection some Sc]f^ 
thjans who had fled to him after injuring Cyaxarrs. 
An eclipse of the sun, which happened while the 
armies of the two kings were fighting, led to a 
peace between them, and this was cemented by 
the marriage of Astyages,the son of Cyazaree, with 
Aryenis, the daughter of Alyattes* Alyattes died 
B. c 561 or 560, after a reign of fifty-seven yean, 
and was succeeded by his son Croesus, who appean 
to have been previously associated with his fisther ia 
the government (Herod. L 16-22, 25, 73, 74.) 

The tomb (crn/ia) of Alyattes is mentioned hy 
Herodotus (I 93) as one of the wonden of Lydia. 
It was north of Sardis, near the hike Gygaea, and 
consisted of a laige mound of earth, raised upon a 


fBundatidii of gratt itonea. It wu erected by the 
tiadeapeopfe, mfffhanira, and conrtewia, and on 
tiie top of it there were fire piUan, which Hero- 
dotos aav, and oa which were mentioned the dif- 
(pTcnt iMvtioBa laiaed by each; fnaa thia it ap- 
peared that the ooorteBiDa did the girater part. 
It meftsued tix plethia and two stadia in drcum- 
f «T«oce, and thirteen plethra in breadth. Accord- 
ing to aome writers, it was called the **tomb of the 
ODiutesaii,** and was erected by a mirtren of Gygea. 
(Cleaxch. cp. Atkm. ziii. p. 573, a.) Thia mound 
still exiata. Mr. Hamilton says (/ZMeorckM at Asia 
Mmor^ ToL L p^ 145), that it took him about ten 
TOtnnira to lide loimd its base, which would giTe 
it a dveamfiaeDee of nearly a mile ; and he also 
states, that towards the north it consists of the nar 
tnial rock—a white, horiaontally stratified earthy 
limestone, cot away so as to appear part of the 
stmctoie. The npper portion, he adds, is sand 
and gravd, ai^arenUy broog^t from the bed of the 
HeRona.. He Ibond on the top the remains of a 
foimdatioii nearly e||^teen feet square, on the 
nordi of which was a hnge dreolar stone ten feet 
in diameter, with a flat bottom and a raised edge 
or lip, evidently phced then aa aa ornament on 
the max of the timraliiSk 

AL Y'PIUS fAX^nos), the anther of a Greek 
mosiea] treatise entitled siooywTi) itovffue^. There 
an no tokrably sore gnnmds for identifying him 
with any one of the Tarioos penons who bore the 
nsme in the times of the later empwors, and of 
whose history flmything is known. According to 
the most pknuiUe oonjectore, he was that Aiypius 
whom Eonapios, in has Life of lambUchns, oele- 
brstes for Ms acute intellect (d StoXcieruci^rarot 
*kxJkwws) and diminntive statore, and who, being 
a friend of lambiiehns, pcobaUy flooxished under 
JaHan and his immediate soooeasoim. This Aiy- 
pius was a native of Alexandria, and died there at 
an advanced age, and therefore can hardly have 
been the person csBed by Amndanns Mazcellinns 
Algfim Aatibelsssw, who was firrt preliMt of Bri- 
tain, snd afterwards employed by Julian in his 
attempt to reibnild the Jewish temple. Jnlian 
sddiesBea two epktles (29 and 30) to Ahfphu 
ClMAjflB>ir 'AXJUwi^ di€?ki^ Kaunpiou), in one of 
which he thanks him lor a geographiosl treatise or 
cfaart ; it would seem more Ukely that this was the 
Antiodiian than that he was the Alexandrian 
Alypins as Mcnrnos supposes, if indeed he was 
other one or tks other. lamUichus wrote a life, 
not BOW extant, of the Alexandrian. 

(Mennmis, Not ad Al^fp. pu 186, &c. c ; Ju- 
hao, J^^ p. 297, ed. Heyler ; 
Eosapnis, VU, lombUcL and not voL iL p. 63, ed. 
Wyttenbadi; Amm. MaicelL zxiii 1. § 2; De 
la Bocde, Eiui mr la MirnqtUy voL iii pu 133.) 

The woric of Alypins oonsisto wholly, with the 
^tteption of a short intxodnction, of listo of the 
•ynbob used (both for voice and instrument) to 
denote an the sounds in the forty-five scales pro- 
duced by takbff each of the fifteen modes in the 
three geoBEs. miBtonic, Chromatic, Enharmonic.) 
It treats, theiefore, in fiict, of only one (the fifth, 
puaely) of the seven branches into which the sub- 
ject is, as usual, divided in the introduction ; and 
<Day posiibly be merely a fragment of a larger 
voii. It woold have been most valuable if any 
coRsidaaUe number of examples had been left us 
of the aetoal use of the system of notation de- 
■cobed in it ; nnfortunately very few remain (see 



Boraey, HisLofMuno, vol I p. 83). and they seem 
to belong to an earlier stage <^ the science. How- 
ever, the work serves to throw some light on the 
obscure history of the modes. (See Bockh, da 
Metr. PuuL & 8. p. 235. c. 9. 12.) The text, 
which seemed hopelessly eormpt to Meursius, ite 
first editor, was restored, apparently with suc- 
cess, by the Uboors of the leaned and inde&tiga* 
ble Meibomius. (Antiqoae Musicae Aactores 
Septem, ed. Marc. Meibomius, Amstel. 1652; 
Anstoxenus, Nicomachus, Aiypius, ed. Job. Meor- 
siuB, Lugd. Bat. 1616.) [W. F. D.] 

ALYTIUS ('AAjirios), priest of the great 
church at Constantinople, flourished a. o. 430. 
There is extant an epistle from him to St. Cyril 
(in Greek), exhorting him to a vigorous resistance 
against the heresy of Nestorins. (See CkmcUionan 
Nova OMeeHo^^Mami,yoiT,T^ 146^) [AJ.C] 

ALYPUS CAXinrof), a statuary, a native of 
Sicyon. He studied under Naucydes, the Aigive. 
His age may be fixed from his having executed 
bronze statues of some Lacedaemonians who shared 
in the victory of Lysander at AegospotamL (b c. 
405.) Pansanias also mentions some stetues of 
Olympic victors made by him. (vi. 1. § 2, x. 9. § 4, 
vi. 1. § 2, 8. § 3.) [C. P. M.] 

ALYZEUS (*AAv{'c^f), a son of Icarius and 
brother of Penelope and Lencadius. After his 
father^s death, he reigned in conjunction with his 
brother over Acamania, and is said to have founded 
the town of Alyseia there. (Strab. x. p. 452 ; 
StepL Byz. «. e. '^AX^tuu) [L. S.] 

(Mi^Soitos), a common name among the Tluacians. 
It was also, according to Ptolemy, the name of a 
people and mountains in Thrace. Pansanias (i. 4. 
§ 4) speaks of an Amadoeus who came from the 

1. King of the Odrysae in Thrace, was a friend 
of Aldbiades, and is mentioned at the time of the 
battle of Aegospotami, & c. 405. (Diod. xiii. 105.) 
He and SeuUies were the most powerful princes in 
Thrace when Xenophon visited the country in b. c. 
400. They were, however, frequently at variance, 
but were reconciled to one another by Thrasybulus, 
the Athenian commander, in b. c. 390, and induced 
by him to become the allies of Athens. (Xen. 
Anab. viL 2. § 32, 3. § 16, 7. § 3, Ac, IfdL iv. 
8. § 26; Diod. xiv. 94.) This Amadoeus may 
perhaps be the same as the one mentioned by Aris- 
totle, who, he lays, was attacked by his general 
Seuthes,aThiacian.(/>o/Lv.8,p. 182,ed.Oottling.) 

2. A Ruler in Thrace, who inherited in con- 
junction with Berisades and Cersobleptes the do- 
minions of Cotys, on the death of the hitter in 
B. a 358. .^jnadocus was probably a son of 
Cotys and a brother of the other two princes, 
though this is not stated hv Demosthenes. (Dem. 
at Arutoer, p. 623, Sec) [Cxrsoblbptbs.] Ama- 
doeus seems to have had a son of the same name. 
(Isocr. Pkmpp. p. 83, d. compared with Harpo- 
cmt «. V. 'A^oKOf .^ 

3. One of the prmces of Thrace^ who was de- 
feated and taken prisoner by Philip, king of 
Macedonia, b. c. 184. (Liv. xxxix. 35.) 

AMAE'SIA SE'NTIA is mentioned by Vale- 
rius Maximus (viii. 3. § 1) as an instance of a 
female who pleaded her own cause before the prae- 
tor. (About B. c. 77.) She was called Andro' 
ffjfWy from having a man^s spirit with a female 
form. Compare Afranu and Hortbnsia. 



of the earlieflt Boman writen in fiiyoor of the Epicu- 
rean philosophy, lie wrote ieveral works, which 
are ceDsnred by Cicero as deficient in arrangement 
and style. He is mentioned by no other writer 
bat Cicero. (Aead. i ^ TWe. it. 3.) 

AMALTHEIA CApdKBwi), 1. The jume of 
the infiint Zeus after his birth in Crete. The an- 
cients thcmseiyes appear to have been aa uncertain 
about the etymology of the name as about the 
real nature df Amaltheia. Hesychius derives it 
from the verb dfiaA9ci^(y, to nourish or to enrich ; 
others from dtidKBoKTos^ u e. firm or hard ; and 
others again from dftoAi) and 9c{a, according to 
which it would signify the divine goat, or the 
tender goddess. The common derivation is finom 
ifjiiKyfiv^ to milk or suck. According to some 
tivditions Amaltheia ia the goat who suckled the 
in&nt Jove (Hygin. Foet, J sir. ii. IS; Arat 
Piaen. 163; Callim. Hymn, m Jov. 49), and who 
was afterwards rewarded for this service by beinff 
placed among the stars. (Comp. ApoUod. i 1. § 
6.) [A BOA.] According to another set of tra- 
ditions Amaltheia was a nymph, and daughter of 
Oceanus, Helios, Haemonius, or of the Cretan 
king Melisseus (Schol. oJ Horn, II, zxi 194; 
Eratosth. Catad, 13 ; Apollod. ii 7. § 5 ; Lao- 
tant IfutiL i. 22; Hygm. lo,^ and FaL 139, 
where he calls the nymph Adanumteia),and is said 
to have fed Zeus with the milk of a goat. When this 
goat once broke off one of her horns, the nymph 
Amaltheia fiUed it with fresh herbs and finit and 
gave it to Zeus, who transplaced it together with 
the goat among the stars. (Ovid, Fad, v. 115, 
&c.^ According to other accounts Zeus himself 
broke off one of the horns of the goat Amaltheia, 
gave it to the daughters of Melisseus, and en- 
dowed it with such powers that whenever the pos- 
sessor wished, it would instantaneously become filled 
with whatever might be desired. (Apollod. /. e. ; 
Schol ad Caliim, I, c.) This is the story about 
the origin of the celebrated horn of Aiualtheia, 
commomy called the horn of plenty or cornucopia, 
which plays such a prominent part in the stories 
of Greece, and which was used in later times as 
the symbol of plenty in general (Strab. z. p. 458, 
iil p. 151 ; Died. iv. 35.) [Achslous.] Dio- 
dorus (iii. 68) gives an account of Amaltheia, 
which differs from all the other traditions. Ac- 
cording to him the Libyan king Ammon married 
Amaltheia, a maiden of extraordinary beauty, and 
gave her a very fertile tract of land which had the 
form of a builds horn, and received from ita queen 
the name of the horn of Amaltheia. This account, 
however, is only one of the many specimens of a 
rationalistic interpretation of the ancient mythus. 
The horn appears to be one of the moat ancient 
and simplest vessels for drinking, and thus we find 
the story of Amaltheia giving Zeus to drink from 
a horn represented in an ancient work cS art still 
extant (Oaleria Giustiniani, iL p. 61.) The 
horn of plenty was frequently given as an attribute 
to ^e representations of Tyche or Fortuna. (Paus. 
iv. ;»0. § 4, vil 26. § 3 ; comp. Bottiger, Amal- 
tketa, Oder dfr Cretentitcke Zeus ali Sa^gling; 
Welcker, UAer ewe OretiwdM CoUmie at TkAm^ 
p. 6.) 

2. One of the Sibyls (Tibull il 5. 67), whom 
Lactantius (l 6) identifies with the Cumaean 
Sibyl, who is said to have sold to king Tarquinius 
tiie celebrated Sibylline books. The same is stated 


by Servius {ad Aen, vi. 72) and by Lyto (( 
Meme, iv. ii) ; compw KlanaeSy Ammt mi M 
FeuaUm^ p. 299, &c. [L &] 

AMANDUS. [AsLiANua, p. 28, a.] 
AMARANTUS {'AfiApainws% of Aleimdri^ 
wrote a commentary upon one of Theocritur 
Idyls (ElpiioL JIf. pu 273. 40, ed. Sfh.), aad 
work entitled vcpl ^mfyj^ Reapectoc kistia 
we only know that he lived aabseqaentiy to JnW 
king of Mauretania. (Athen. viil p^ 343) c^ i: 

AMARYNCEUS {^A/uipvyiu6t\ a chief of t*# 
Eleans, and son of Onesimachns or of Aaeut. 
(Hygin. Fab, 97 ; Eustath. ad Horn, pi 303.) A^ 
cording to Hyginus, Amarynoeua himself joo»d the 
expedition againstTVoywithmneteen ships. Bam, 
on the other hand, <mly mentions his son Dibri 

iAmarynoeides) as partaking in the Trojsa ra. 
IL iL 622. iv. 517.) Wfara Amazynoeas died. 
his sons celebrated funeral games in Us koasiz. is 
which Nestor, aa he himself relates (IL zxixi. ^^. 
&C.), took part According to Pansaoiu (v. i | 
8) Amarynceus had been of great service to Asjoi 
against Heracles, in return for which Aagets ibnd 
his throne with him. [U &] 

AMARYNTHUS fAfuJpwftw), a boater (4 
Artemis, firom whom the town of Amaryntboi la 
Euboea (Steph. Byi. says Enboea itHO *** ^ 
lieved to have derived its name. (StnK z. ^ 
448.) From this hero, or rather from the ton d 
Amarynthus, Artemis derived the sanpae Asar 
rynthia or Amarysia, under which she was nr 
shipped there and also in Attica. (Pans. L 31. § 
3 , comp. Did. of Ant, «. v, 'A#4a^NMia.) [L S.] 
AMA'SIS (fAfuuru). 1. King of E^ p 
early times, according to Diodoras (L 60), ii 
whose reign Egypt was conqnered by ActiBoa> 
king of EUiiopia. [AcTUANxa.] 

2. King of Egypt, snooeeded Apiiei^ the hA 
king of ue line of Psammetickna, in b. c 5^^ 
He was of comparatively low origin (Hendouni 
ii 172, calls him huiiinis\ and was ban a: 
Siuph, a town in the Saitic nome. Wbcn the 
Egyptians revolted against Apriea, Amsais was 
sent to quell the msairection, but went w 
to the side of the rebels, and was pncbiaed 
king by them. He defiaated Apnea in a bonk 
near Momemphis, and took him prisoner. He 
seemed disposed to treat his captive with grot 
mildness, but was induced to deuver him up io^^ 
the hands of the Egyptians, who nut him to desih. 
It was probably to strengthen himaelf sgsiast a 
powerful party fonnod against him taaoaffii^ 
warrior-caste, that he cultivated the fiiendihipof 
the Greeks. He not only gave up to them the cttj 
of Naucratis, which had hitherto been their oolr 
mart, but opened all the mouths of the Nik to 
them, and allowed them to biuld temples to tbcir 
own deities. He contracted an allianoe with tke 
Greeks of Cyrene, and himself married Ledk^ < 
Cyxenaic hidy. (Herod, ii 181.) He removed the 
lonians and Carians, who were settled oa the 
Pelusiac mouth of the Nile, to Memphil^ ssA 
formed them into a body-guard for hiat^ 
(ii 154.) He also entered into aUiaace «itk 
Croesus (i 77) and with Pdycratea, the tjiwt 
of Samoa (iii. 39, 40), who is said to have ia- 
troduced Pythagoras to him by letter. (!>«¥• 
Laert. viii. 3.) Amasis also sent presenU u 
several of the Greek citiea. (Herod, ii 18- ) 
Solon in the course of his travels visited bin* 

ri. 30; P!nt5Woih26; Plat TImkmm, p. 21.) 
1 1. woald appear from Xenophon (C^pvp. m. 6. 
§ 20) that, after the oTerthrow of Croenu by 
Cyna, Amasb was compelled to pay tribate. 
lie stiore to win the fiiTOor of the prieatreaste by 
Ixoilding them temples. Daring the reign of 
AvaamM agricnltiue, commerce, and the arte 
fiosriahed greatly. The extension of Egyptian 
conmiene was moch fisvoored by the conquest of 
Cyprus, which he made tribataxy. His reign was 
oi>c of afanost uninterrapted peace and prosperity, 
vhidi gave him leisure for adorning Sgypt with 
seTcral m^inificent buildings and works of art. (iL 
175, 176.) The plans of conquest which CyniR 
had been unable to carry into effect, were followed 
oat by Cambyaes, who in a. c. 525 led an army 
ai^ainst Egypt. According to the story told by 
Uerodotos (iiL 1), Cambyaes had been incensed 
b J a deception practised upon him by Amasis, 
-who, pcetending to comply with a donand of the 
Persian king, t£it he should send him his daughter 
to adorn his harem, substituted the daughter of 
A pries for his own. Amasis however did not 
lire to see the fiill of his country. He died be- 
fore Cambyaes reached the borders, after a reign of 
44 years, and was buried at Sais in the tomb 
which he had constructed in the temple of Athena, 
(iii. 10,iL 169.) Hiscorpse was afterwards taken 
oat of the tomb and ahameftilly insulted by the 
order of Cambyses. (iii. 16.) As a governor he 
exhibited great abilities, and was the author of 
several uselol regulations (iL 177), but he appears 
tn have indulged in more fiuniliari^ towards those 
about him than was altogether consiBtent with his 
kingly dignity. (Herod, ii. 161—182, iiL 1—16 ; 
Diod. i. 68, 95.) 

3. A Penian of the tribe of the Maraphii, 
who was sent by Aryandes, the governor of 
Egypt under Cambyses, at the head of an army, 
to assist Pheretime, the mother of Arcesilaus 
IIL, king of Cyrene. He took Barca by strata- 
gem and treadiery, and made an unsucoessftd 
attempt upon Cyrme. He was then recalled by 
Aryandes. On its march back the Persian army 
Boifered severely ftom the Libyans. (Herod, iv. 
IbT, 201, 203.) [C. P. M.] 

AMASTRIS or AMESTRIS ('Afuiarpis or 
"A^tatKTTpts), 1. The wife of Xerxes, and mother 
of Artaxefxes 1. According to Herodotus, she 
was the daughter of Otanes, according to Ctesias, 
who calls her Amistris, of Onophas. She was 
cruel and vindictive. On one occasion she sacri- 
ficed fourteen youths of the noblest Persian fiunilies 
to the god said to dwell beneath the earth. The 
tale of her horrible mutilation of the wife of Ma- 
sUtea, recorded by Herodotus, gives us a lively 
picture of the intrigues and cruelties of a Persian 
harem. She survived Xerxes. (Herod, vii. 61, 
114, ix. 108—113; Ctesias, Pernc. c. 20. 30. ed. 
Lion ; Plot. Aldb. p. 123, c) 

2. A daughter of Artaxerxes II., whom her fa- 
ther promised in marriage to Teribozus. Instead 
of fulfillixig his promise, he married her himself. 
(Pint. Afituf. c. 27.) 

3. Also called Amastrine QAfAwnpunj)^ the 
daughter of Oxyartes, the brother of Darius, was 

?iveii. by Alexander in marriage to Craterus. 
Arrian. Amab. viL 4.) Craterus having fellen in 
k>ve with PhiU, the daughter of Antipater, Amas- 
tris married Dionysius, tyrant of Heracleia, in Bi- 
thynia, B. c. 322. After the death of Dionysius, 



in B. c. 306, who left her guardian of their chil- 
dren, Clearchus, Oxyathres, and Amastris, she 
married Lyshnachus, b. c. 302. Lysimachus, 
however, abandoned her shortiy afterwards, and 
married Arsinoe, the daughter of Ptolemy Phila- 
delphus ; whereupon Amastris retired to Heradeia, 
which she governed in her own right She also 
founded a dty, allied after her own name, on the 
sea-coast of Paphhigonia. She was drowned by 
her two sons about b. c 288. (Memnon, c 4, 6 ; 
Diod. XX. 109.) The head figured below probably 
represents Amastris: the woman on the reverse 
holds a small figure of victory in her hand. (Eck« 
hel, iL p. 421.) 

AMA'TA, the wife of king Latinus and mother 
of Lavinia, who, when Aeneas sued for the hand 
of the latter, opposed him, because she had already 
promised Lavinia to Tumus. At the same time 
she was instigated by Alecto, who acted according 
to the request of Juno, to stir up the war with 
Tumus. TfaiiT story fiUs the greater part of the 
seventh book of Virgil*s Aeneid. When Amata 
was informed that Tumus had fellen in battie, she 
hung herself. (Virg. Aen. xiL 600; Dionys. L 
64.) [L. S.] 

A'MATHES (*AAul(9nr), a son of Herades, from 
whom the town of Amathus in Cyprus was be- 
lieved to have derived iu name. According to 
some traditions, however, its name was derived 
from Amathusa, the mother of Cinyras. (Steph. 
Byx. t, V. *Attaeovs.) [L. S.] 

Bovoia or *AfM0ovmia)y a surname of Aphrodite, 
which is derived from the town of Amathus in 
Cyprus, one of the most undent seats of her wor- 
ship. (Tac AnnaL iii. 62 ; Ov. Amor. iiL 15. 16 ; 
Virg. dr. 242 ; Catull kviiL 51.) [U S.] 

AMA'TIUS, sumamed Pseudomanus^ a per- 
son of low origin, who pretended to be either the 
son or grandson of the great Marius. On the 
death of Julius Caesar b. c. 44, he came forward 
as a popukr leader, and erected an altar to Caesar 
on the spot where his body had been bumt He 
was, however, shortly afterwards seised by the 
consul Antony and put to death without a triaL 
This illegal act was approved of by the senate in 
consequence of the advantages they derived frx>m 
it Valerius Maximus ^ix. 15. § 2) says, that his 
name was Herophilus. ( Appian, B. C, iiL 2, 3 ; 
Liv. EpU, 116 J Cic ad Att, xiL 49, xiv. 6—8, 
Pkmpp, L 2; Nicolaus Damasoenus, ViL Aug. 
c. 14. p. 258, ed. Coraea) 

AMA'ZONES (^A^ftfi^cs), a wariike race of 
females, who act a prominent part in several of the 
adventures of Greek mythology. All accounts of 
them agree in the statement, that they came from 
the country about the Caucasus, and that their 
prindpal seats were on the river Thermodon, in 
the neighbourhood of the modem Trebiasond. From 
thence they are said to have at different times in- 
vaded Thrace, Asia Minor, the islands of the Ao- 



gean, Orpece, S]rria, Ambia, Eg3rpt, and Libya. 
The country about the Thennodon with ita c^tal 
Themiacym was inhabited only by the Amasona, 
who were governed by a queen. The Oaigaieana, 
a race of men, were separated firom them by a 
mountain, but once erery year the Amazons met 
the Gargareans in the mountains for the purpose of 
propagating their race, and then returned to their 
own country. Their children, when of the female 
sex, were brought up by the Amason mothers* and 
trained in their customary pursuits of war, riding, 
hunting, and cultivating the land ; but each girl 
had her right breast cut off: their male children, 
on the other hand, were sent to the Gargareans, or 
put to death. (Strab. xi. ]^ 503, &c.; Diod. ii. 45, 
&&, iiL 62, &c; Justin, ii. 4.) The principal gods 
they worshipped were Ares and Artemis Tauro- 
polos. The foundation of seveFal tOMms in Asia 
Minor and in the islands of the Aegean is ascribed 
to them, e. g, of Ephesus, Smyrna, Cyme, Myrina, 
and Paphos. Strabo doubts the existence of such 
a race of females, while Diodoms attempts to give 
an account of them, which assumes all the appear- 
ance of history. That the Amaxons were leguded 
as a real historical race down to a late period, is 
evident ficom the tradition, that, when Alexander 
the Great approached the country of the Amasons, 
their queen Thalestris hastened to him, in order to 
become mother by the conqueror of Asia. (Pint 
Jle». 46,) 

But we confine onrselvea here to noticing some 
of the mythical adventures with which the Ama- 
zons are connected. They are said to have in- 
vaded Lycia in the reign of lobates, but were de- 
stroyed by Bellerophontes, who happened to be 
staying at the king's court. (Hom. U. vL 186, &c; 
Schol. ad Lyoopk 17.) [Bbllxhophontbi, Lao- 
MsooN.] At the time when Priam was yet a 
young man, they invaded Phrygia, and fought 
with the Phrygians and Trojans. (Hom. //. iiL 
189, &c.) The ninth among the labours imposed 
upon Heracles by Eurystheus, was to take from 
Hippolyte, the queen of the Amazons, her girdle, 
the ensign of her kingly power, which she had re- 
ceived as a present from Ares. (Apollod. iL 5. $ 9; 
Diod. iv. 16 ; Hygin. FoIk 80 ; Quint Smym. xi. 
244.) [Hbraclbs.] In the reign of Theseus they 
invaded Attica. (Paua. i. 2; Plut Tket, 31, 33.) 
[Thbsbus.] Towards the end of the Trojan war, 
the Amazons, under their queen Penthesileia, 
came to the assistance of Priam ; but the queen 
was killed by Achilles. (Quint Smym. L 669 ; 
Pans. V. 11. § 2 ; PhUostr. Her. xix. 19.) [Pen- 


The question as to what the Amazons really 
were, or rather, what gave rise to the belief that 
there was such a race of women, has been much 
discussed by ancient as well as modem writers. 
Herodotus (iv. 110) says, that in the Scythian 
language their name was Oiorpata, which he trans- 
Utes by M^ttr6¥ou The Greek name Amazones 
is usually derived from iut6s^ the brmst, and is sup- 
posed to mean **breastless,*' or ''not brought up by 
the breast,*" ** beings with strong breasts,** or "with 
one breast** (Philostr. Lc; Eustath. ad Horn, p. 
402.) Othen derive it from the Circassian word 
fiuuo, said to signify the moon, or from Emmeick, 
which, according to a Caucasian tradition, is said 
to have been their original name. (Spreiigel, Apo- 
logie dei Ilippocrutn^ ii. p. 597; Klaproth, Reite 
»a«4 dem Caucagusy L p. 655.) Among the various 


ways in which it haa been attaapted to aeniet 
for the origin of the story abont the Abuodi, tvi 
deserve to be mentioned. One opaian is, tiat tk 
peculiar way in which the women of sane of tke 
Caucasian districts lived, and p e ifon aed the ditia 
which in other conntriea devolve upon nen, tog^ 
ther with the many instances of fienals Inmr 
and courage which are noticed as lemaikibk tm 
by modem traveUera, were conveyed to tke inb- 
bitanU of western Asia and the Greeks in ngae lai 
obscure reports, and thua gave rise to the bebrf in 
the existence of such a warlike nee of w«neD,8sd 
that these rumoun and reports were nhieqaeailf 
worked out and embeUished bj popahr tadina 
and poetry. Othen think that the Aaum 
were originally priesteaaea of Aitemis (the bood), 
whose worship was widely spread in An, nd 
which they are said to have established in wiodi 
parte. It is further inferred, from the mat .Anf 
zones, that these prieateasea mutilated their bodiei bf 
cutting off their breasts in a manner nnilsr to tbtf 
in which the Galli and other priesU mntihted their 
bodies, and that thus the Amazons repraeoiedtk 
male ideal in the female sex, just as the OslHiepR- 
sentedthefemaleidealinthemalesex. But it mid 
be difficult, in the first place, to prove the erirteste 
of such prieetesaea, and in the se«0Dd, to iboT hw 
they could have ooeaaioned the belief in s «i^ 
fiemale nee of this kind. Neither the poettsi v 
historical tnditiona abont the ADaanu csotsa 
anything to render this opinion very plsaiib^; 
and, in the absence of all positive erideso^ tk 
fint opinion haa much more to reo ^ "* 
(Comp. M'uUer, Orekom. p. 356, &c) 

The representation of these warlike i 
cupied the Greek artisU very ext«iii^yi ■».** 
still possess a large series of the most besetiM 
works of art, such as paintings on vases sad wt, 
bronzes, reliefr, and gems, in which the ^^^'^ 
and their battles with men are represented. i» 
most celebrated works of this kind ia 8Sti<2u7 
were the battle of the Amaaona with the Atbcstf 
in the Poecile at Athens, by Nmou (PMu.l U. 
$ 2), on the shield of Athena, and on tbe «>^ 
stool of the Olympian Zeus, by Phidias, (i. H « -i 
Amazons were also represented by AkazMWi u 
the pediment of the temnle of Zeus at CH;^ 
(v. 10. $2.) Respecting the extant Rpni»^ 
of Amazons and their costumes, see MOU^ « "^ 
d, AreUud, $$ 365, 41 7. i^ ^^ , 

AMAZO'NIUS CA/iof^wez), a """[J'J 
Apollo, under which he was wonhipped, >w ^ 
a temple at Pyirhichus in liiconia. The Btf» 
was derived either from the belief **»* **^^ 
sons had penetrated into Peloponneiiu ■* v » 
Pyrrhichus, or that they had founded the ttfiF 
there. (Pans. iii. 25. § 2.) [I**J. 

AMBIGA'TUS, king of the Celts jn^° 
the reign of Tarquinius Priacns. He bel«n|P 
the Bituriges, the most powerful of the Cdticp^ 
pie. When Ambigatus was advanced in J'^J^ 
sent out Bellovesus and Sigovesus, the eoM « ^^ 
sister, with krge swarms of his people to "^^Jf / 
settlements, in consequence of the gnat nmaDtf « 
the population. Bellovesus and Sigoveflis^^ 
loU as to the course they should take ; the 1^ 
in consequence went to the Hercynisa fi«** ^ 
the former into Italy. (Liv. v. 34.) «. 

AMBI'ORIX, a chief of the Eburone^ »Can» 
people between the Meuse and the R^^ J^ 
were formerly tributary to the Adiuuid, ^^^ 


Miv««i hj Caeoar from the payment of thiB tri- 
ute. Ib B. a 54, Gaetar placed a legion and fire 
nuiioitt, under the command of Q. Titorius Sabinoa 
ind Lb Aanmcoleina Cotta, in the territories of 
the Eborones fat the pufpose of passing the winter 
there. But fifteen days after thej had been sta- 
lioned in their territories, the Eborones revolted at 
i\^^ iostigatioB of Amliioriz and Catirokos, another 
rhwt besieged the Roman camp, and destroyed 
Alrnost all the Roomn troops, after they had been 
intiaoed by Ambtorix to leare their camp onder 
proinin of a saie-condaet. After their destmction 
Ambiorijc hnrttfrnrrH to the Aduatici and Nerrii, 
juid induced them, in oonjnnction with the Ebu- 
rones, to attack the camp of Q. Cicero, who was 
ftatioaed far the winter among the KerriL The 
nmmess of Cieeio, and the defeat of the Ganls on 
th« ardial of Gaoar, compdled Ambioriz to raise 
the siegcw In the fiBllowing years Ambioriz oon- 
tinsed to prooeeaie the war against Caesar, bat 
though all his plana were thwarted, and the dif- 
ferent troops he niaed were defeated by Caesar, he 
always esoped falling into the hands of the con- 
qoemr. (Cass. B. O. r. 24, 26—51, ri. 5, 2&~ 
43, riil 24, ftc; Dion Cass. zL 5—10, 31, &e. ; 
Lit. SpiL 106.) According to Floras (iiL 10. 
I 8) he escaped the Tengeance of the Romans by 
fleeing bejrond the Rhine. 
AMBOLOGE'RA (^Aftgokoyipa), from dm- 
fiiAAtf and y^pas ** delaying old age,** as a sor- 
nsne of Aphndite, who had a statne at Sparta 
aQder this name. (Pans. iiL 18. § 1 ; Pint 
^jn^poaL iii. 6.) [L. &] 

AMBRA'CIA QAftepaida^ a danghter of An- 
g«as,from whom the town of Ambrada derived its 
name. (Steph. Bym. a. «.; Eostath. ad Dimy. Pe- 
rieg. 492.) Other traditions represent her as a 
giand-dai^ter of ApoDo, and a danghter of Meh^ 
imii, king ef the Dryopea. (Ant<«. Lib. 4.) A 
third aocoBnt derived the name of the town from 
AmboDc, a son of Thesprotns and grandson of 
Lyeaoa. (Sleph. Bya. L c) [L. S.] 

NtJS, a noMeman and courtier (S. Epiph. adv. 
Haer. 64. [44] f 3) fioorished A. D. 230. At first 
s Vakntinian (Ensebu H, B. riL 18) and Maicionist, 
be was won to the fiuth by Origen, whose oon- 
stut feBow-stodent he became (Origen, Ep. ad 
A/nean, toL I p. 29), and was ordained deacon. 
(S.Uier. Fw>./aM^.56.) He plied Origen with 
qoeetioQs, and nraed hjm to write hu Com- 
mentaries (ipyo^Aenis)^ supplying hun with 
tnucribers in abundance. He shone as a Con- 
fetaor during the persecution of Julius Maziminns 
(Eottb. ri. 18) A. D. 236, and died between a. d. 
'^47 sad 253. His letten to Oiigen (praised by 
St. Jennie) are lost ; part of one ezists ap. Origen, 
^. de OraU c 6. p. 208, a. B. (See Routh's 
adtqmte Saer. ii pu 867.) Origen dedicated to 
^^^ RikartaHm to MaHyrdom ; Boots againtt 
^'«^; O mmen tary <m Si. JohCs Gotpel; and On 
^"«P^. [A. J. C] 

AMBRCSIUS, ST., bishop of Milan, was 
^ pnbsUy at Augusta Tievirorum (TVwoet), 
^^ iv«s the seat of goremment for the province 
« Ciaal, of which his bther was prefect. His 
^|<>{^hen <KBer as to whether the date of his 
•wrtl^ WW 333 or 340 A. d., but the hitter is pn>- 
^Wy the true date. Circumstances occurred in 
v» m£mey which were understood to portend his 



future greatness. His fisther having died, Am- 
brose, then a boy, accompanied his mother to 
Rome, where he reoeived the education of an advo- 
cate under Anicius Probus and Symmachus. He 
began pleading causes at Milan, then the imperial 
residence, and soon gained a high reputation for 
forensic eloquence. This success, together with 
the influence of his fiunily, led to his appointment 
(about 370 a. d., or a little later) as consular pre- 
fect of the provinces of Liguria and Aemilia, whose 
seat of government was Milan. 

The struggle between the Catholics and Ariana 
was now at its height in the Western Church, 
and upon the death of Auzentius, bishop of Milan, 
in 874, the question of the appointment of his 
successor led to an open conflict between the two 
partieii Ambrose ezerted his influence to restoie 
peace, and addressed the people in a conciliatory 
speech, at the conclusion of which a child in the 
further part of the crowd cried out **AmbnmM» 
epi$eapu9.^ The words were received as an oracle 
from heaven, and Ambrose was elected bishop by 
the acclamation of the whole multitude, the biahops 
of both parties uniting in his election. It was in 
vain that he adopted the strangest devices to alter 
the determination of the people; nothing coaU 
make them change their mind (Panlin. VU.Ambro9, 
p|x 2, 3): in vain did he flee from Mibn in the 
night ; he mistook, his way, and found himself the 
nezt morning before the gate of the dty. At 
length he yielded to the exiness command of the 
emperor (Valentinian I.), and was consecmted on 
the eighth day after his baptism, for at the time of 
his election he was only a catechumen. 

Immediately after Us election he gave aU his 
property to the diuich and the poor, and adopted 
an ascetic mode of life, while the public adminia- 
tmtion of his office was most firm and skilful. He 
was a great patron of monasticism : about two 
years after his oonsecntion he wrote his three 
books **]>e Yiiginibus,** and dedicated them to his 
sister Marcellina. In the Arian controversy he 
espoused the cnthodoz side at his very entrance on 
his bishopric by demanding that his bi4»tiBm should 
be performed by an orthodoz bishop. He applied 
himself most diligently to the study of theoh^ 
under Simplician, a presbyter of Rome, who aftei>- 
wards became his successor in the bishopric His 
influence soon became very great, both with the 
people and with the emperor Valentinian and his 
son Oratian, for whose instraction he composed his 
treatises **De Fide,** and ** De Spiritu Sancto.'* 
In the year 377, in consequence of an invasion of 
Italy by the northern barbarians, Ambrose fled to 
Illyricum, and i^rwards(in Cave*s opinion) visited 
Rome. After his rotum to Milan, he was employed 
by the court on important political affiiirsi When 
Mazimus, after the death of Giatian (383), threat- 
ened Italy, Jusdna, the mother of the young em- 
peror ViUentinian II., sent Ambrose on an em- 
bassy to the usurper, whose advance the bishop 
succeeded in debjring. At a later period (387), 
Ambrose went again to Troves on a like mission ; 
but his conduct on this occasion gave such offence 
to Mazimus, that he was compelled to return to 
Italy in haste. 

While renderin^f these political services to Jut> 
tina and Valentinian, Ambrose was at open va^ 
riance with them on the great religious question of 
the age. Justina was herself an Arian, and had 
brought up the young emperor in the same tenets. 



Her contest with AmbroM began in the year 380, 
when the appointed an Arian bishop to Uie vacant 
•ee of Sirmiom ; upon which Ambroee went to 
Sirmiimi, and, a minculooB judgment on an Arian 
who insulted him baring struck tetror into his op- 
ponents, he consecrated Anemmius, who was of 
the orthodox party, as bishop of Sirmium, and 
then returned to Milan, where Justina set on foot 
scTeral intrigues against him, but without effsct. 
In the year 382, Palladius and Secundianus, two 
Arian bishops, petitioned Gratian for a general 
council to decide the Arian controTersy; but, 
through the influence of Ambrose, instead of a 
general council, a synod of Italian, Illyrian and 
Gallic bishops was assembled at Aquileia, over 
which Ambrose presided, and by which PaUadius 
and Secundianus were deposed. 

At length, in the years 885 and 386, Ambroae 
and Justina came to open conflict. Justina, in the 
name of the emperor, demanded of Ambrose the 
use of at least one of the churches in Milan, for 
the performance of divine worship by Arian eccle- 
siastics. Ambrose refused, and the people rose up 
to take his part. At Easter ^385) an attempt was 
made by Justina to take forcible possesuon of the 
basilica, but the show of resistance was so great, 
that the attempt was abandoned, and the court 
was even obliged to ^>ply to Ambrose to quell the 
tumult He answered, that he had not stirred 
up the people, and that God alone could still them. 
The people now kept guard about the bishop^ re- 
sidence and the basilica, which the imperial forces 
hesitated to attack. In foct, the people were al- 
most wholly on the side of Ambrose, the Arian 
party consisting of few beyond the court and the 
Gothic troops. Anzentius, an Arian bishop, who 
was Justina^s chief adviser in these proceedings, 
now challenged Ambrose to a public disputation in 
the emperor's palace ; but Ambrose refused, saying 
that a council of the church was the only proper 
place for such a discussioiL He was next com- 
manded to leave the city, which he at once refused 
to do, and in this refusal the people still supported 
him. In order to keep up the spirits of the peo- 
ple, he introduced into the church where they kept 
watch the regular performance of antiphonal hymns, 
which had been long practised in the Eastern 
Church, but not hitherto introduced into the West 
At length, the contest was decided about a year 
after its commencement by the mirsdes which are 
reported to have attended the discovery of the 
reliques of two hitherto unknown martyrs, Gerva- 
sius and Protasius. A blind man was said to 
have been restored to sight, and several demoniacs 
dispossessed. These events are recorded by Am- 
brose himself by his secretary Paulinus, and by 
his disciple Augustine, who was in Milan at the 
time; but a particular diicussion of the truth of 
these miradea would be out of pboe here. They 
were denied by the Arians and discredited by the 
court, but the impression made by them upon the' 
people in genenl was such, that Justina thought it 
prudent to desist from her attempt ( Ambros. EpitL 
xii. XX. xxL xxiL § 2, liii liv.; Paulin. ViLAti^ros. 
§ 14-17, p. 4, Ben.; Augustin. Confea* ix. 7. § 14- 
16, JM av, Dei, xxil 8. § 2, Serm. 318, 286.) 

An imperial rescript was however issued in the 
same year for the toleration of all sects of Chria- 
tians, any ofience against which was made high 
treaion (Cod. Theodos. IV. De Fide Catkoliea) ; 
but we have no evidence that its execution was 


attempted ; and the state of the psities vii^^ 
altered by the death of Justitta in tbe neit tv 
(387), when Valentinian became a CstkCc, asi 
still m<we completely by the vietaiy of Tbeodosa 
over Maximus (388). This event pot the vkk 
power of the empire into the haads of s prioa 
who was a firm Catholic, and over whom Aaibw 
speedily acquired such influence, thsl, sfts tix 
massacre at Thessalonica in 390, herefMTW 
dosius admission into the chnrdi of Miln 6r i 
period of eight montha, and onlyreetoRdlumtfis 
he had performed a paUie pmanne, snd bad cea- 
fossed that he had leamt the difiBseiHS betvea 
an emperor and a priest 

Ambrose was an active opponent not only of tk 
Arians, but also of the Macedonisns, Apoliiaamai 
and Novatians, and of Jovinian. It wu ptobKr 
about the year 384 that he soooeasfidly nansi 
the petition of Symmachns and the hestko mqi- 
tors of Rome for the natOEBtioQ of tbe ihir of 
Victory. He was the principal mitnidflr d A-.* 
gustine in the Christian fiuth. [Augost»c&] 

The bUter years of his life, with tlie extepb^ 
of a short absence from Mihm duiqg tk wrpa- 
tion of Eugenius (392), were devoted to the or 
of his bishopric. He died on the 4th of Afril 
A. D. 397. 

As a writer, Ambroae cannot he nAd lift, 
notwithstanding his great eloqaenee. Hit ^ 
logical knowledge scaroely extaidedbe7«dite 
acquaintance with the wodca of the Ore^ f«^ 
from whom he borrowed modi. His wctkt beir 
also the marks of haste. He was irther i mu 
of action than of letters. 

His works are very numerous, thoqgli «««] x 
them have been lost They consist of I^ 
Sermons, and Omtions, Commentaries on Scnr; 
ture. Treatises in commendatioa of eefiba? ff' 
monasticism, and other treatises, of whidi the cp>t 
important are : " Hexaemeron,** an awwjt cf » 
creation ; **De Officiis Ministromm," ^^ *?\, 
nerally considered his best work ; •*De Myrta»: 
"De Sacramentis;- •^De Poenitentia;" ^}'^ 
above-mentioned works, •'De Fide," tad •De ^T 
ritu Sancto,** which are both upon tb« Trinin 
The well-known hymn, *»Te Deum Isodsmss," t» 
been ascribed to him, but iU date is at kssU c«3- 
tury later. There are other hymns sseriH ti 
him, but upon doubtful authority. He it bebe^^ 
to have settled the order of public wonhip n ^ 
churches of Mihm in the form whkh it k^l tiii t^ 
eighth century under the names of 'OffiaaB x^ 
brosianum** and '^Missa Ambiosiana." 

The best edition of his woriu is thst of oe 
Benedictines, 2 vols. foL, Paris, 1686 and H^'** 
with an Appendix containing a life of Ambrof ^^ 
his secretary Paulinus, another in Grerlc, ^v^f 
anonymous, and is chiefly copied foam Tbeodtft:* 
Ecclesiastical History, and a third by the Boi^ 
tine editors. Two works of Ambrose, ^f^f^ 
SymboUadimUamdat^ and ^tif^oia d$ f^ }^ 
been discovered by Angelo Mali, and arepnb«»" 
by him in the seventh volume of his ^v?)*^' 
VeUrum Nova CoiUeHo. [P- ^ 

AMBRCSIUS, a hearer of Didynui,** Ak'^. 
andria, lived a. d. 392, and was the wthor « 
Commeniarieg <m Job, and a book in veiv ^^, 
ApoUinaris of Laodicea. Neither is e^^^^. ;^ 
Hicron. de Vir, IlUut. § 126.) [A J. f.) 

A'MBRYON CAM^^r) wrote s ««* •* 
Theocritus the Chian, from which Di(«eiicf 1^ 


tsni (r. 1 1) qootei an epigram of TheocritOB against 

AMBRTSSUS fA^pudVot), the mythical 
rounder of the town of AmbrTStu or AmphiyBSOs 
in Phoda. (Pku. z. 3^. § 2.) [L. &] 

{^AfignXia, 'AfMxuu, and 'AftSodXjof ), aornames 
under vbieh the Spartana wocahipped Athena, the 
DioMui, and Zena. (Pana. liL 13. § 4.) The 
DMuung cf the name is uncertain, but it haa been 
lappoeed to be derived from dratfdUxM, and to de- 
smate thoae dhinities aa tha delayen of death. 


AMBUSrUS, the name of a fionily of the 
patiidsn Faka Oxn& The first member of the 
Falaa geni, who aeqaired this cognomen, was Q. 
Fahhtt Vilnihntts, consol in b. a 412, who appears 
to hsTe been a son of N. Fahins Vibukmns, consul 
in a. a 421. From this time the name VibnJanus 
vas diopt, and that of Amboatos took its place. 
The latter was in its tom sapphmted by that of 
Maximns, whidi waa first aoqnued by Q. Fabins, 
son of No. 7 [see bdow], and waa handed down 
\j him to his descendants. 

1. Q. Fabios M. F. Q. N. ViBULANUS Ambus- 
Tus, cmsol m &C. 412. (Lir. iv. 52.) 

2. M. Fabhjs AMBUfiTua, Pontifex Maximns 
in tite year that Rome waa taken by the Gada, 
BL c 390. His three sons [see Nos. 3, 4, and 
5] T«e lent as ambassadors to the Ganis, when 
the htter were besieging Chisinm, and took part 
m s isDy of the besieged against the Oauls. The 
Gads demanded that the Fabii should be snr- 
raidered to them for Tiolating the hiw of nations; 
and upon the senate refiising to give np the gnilty 
parties they marched against FUmie. The three 
M»s were in the same year elected consnlar tri- 
buies. (Lit. t. 35, 36, 41 ; Pint. Cbm. 17.) 

3. K. FijinrB M. p. Q. n. Ambustus, son of 
No. 2 and brother to Nos^ 4 and 5, was quaestor 
in B. G 409, with three plebeians as his colleagues, 
▼hich was the first time that quaestors were 
choKn from the plebe. (Lir. !▼. 54.) He was 
cowolsr tribune fiv the first time in 404 (ir. 61), 
again in 401 (▼. 10), a third time in 395 (▼. 24), 
sadsibatthtimeinS90. [See No. 2.) 

4. N. Fabhts M. f. Q. n. Ambustus, son of 
Ko. 2 sod brother to Noa. 3 and 5, consnlar tri- 
bone in a. a 406 (Ut. It. 58), and again In 390. 

&• Q. Fabiub M. f. Q. n. Ambustus, son of 
No. 2 and brother to Nos. 3 and 4, oonsdar tri- 
lione in a. & 390. [See No. 2.] 
, 6. M. Pabioh K. f. M. n. Ambustus, son, as 
It appeals, of No. 3, was consular tribune in b. c. 
281. (Lit. tl 22.) He had two daughters, of 
whom the elder waa married to Ser. Sulpidus, and 
u« yoonger to C. lidnins Stole, the author of the 
^'i'iBiaa Ro^oos. Aoeording to the story re- 
wded by Liry, the younger Fabia induced her 
Bther to asBtt her husband in obtaining the eon- 
"1^ far the plebeian order, into which she had 
"'^'ned. (tI 34.) Ambustus was consular tribune 
4 lecmd tune m 369, and took an active part in 
•■ippoit of the Laemian Rogations. (vL 36.) He 
*a«cenfcrin363. {Pad, CapitoL) 

7. M. Fabios N. p. M. h. Ambustus, son, as 
rtappjan, of No, 4, was consul in a c 360, and 
^''^Md on the war against the Hemici, whom he 
*^iM{Qered,aad obtained an ovation in consequence. 
(l^T. m 11 . iiiH|> TriumpL) He was consul a 



second time in 356, and carried on the war against 
the Falisci and Tarquinienses, whom he also con- 
quered. As he was absent fiiom Rome when the 
time came fi>r holding the comitia, the senate, which 
did not like to entrust them to his coUeague, 
who had appointed a plebeian dictator, and still 
less to the (Uctator himself, nominated interreges 
fi>r the purpose. The object of the patricians was 
to secure both phices in the consulship for their 
own order again, which waa efEKted by Ambustus, 
who seems to hisve returned to Rome meantime. 
He waa appointed the eleventh interrex, and do- 
dared two patricians consuls in violation of the 
Lidnian hiw. {JAy. vii 17.) He was consul a 
third time in 354, when he conquered the Tiburtes 
and obtamed a triumph in consequence, (vii. 18, 
19 ; FomL TrmmpL) In 351 he was appointed 
dictator merely to frustrate the Lidnian law again 
at the oomitia, but did not succeed in his object, 
(liv. vii 22.) He was alive in 325, when his 
son, Q. Fabius Mazimus Rullianus, was master of 
the horse to Papiriua, and fled to Rome to implore 
protection from the vengeance of the dictator. He 
interoeded on his son*s behalf both with the senate 
and the people. (viiL 83.) 

8. C. Fabius (C. f. M. n.) Ambttstus, consul 
in B. c 358, in which year a dictator was ap- 
pointed through fear of the Gauls. (Liv. vii, 12.) 

9. M. Fabius M. f. N. n. Ambustus, son ap- 
parently of No. 7, and brother to the great Q. 
Fabius Mazimus RnUianus, was master of the 
horse in & a 322. (Liv. viiL 38.) 

10. Q. Fabius (Q. f. Q. n.) Ambustus, dic- 
tator in B. c. 321, but immediately resigned 
through some fiwlt in the dection. (Liv. ix. 7.) 

11. C. Fabius M. f. N. n. Ambustus, son ap- 
parently of No. 7, and brother to Na 9, waa 
appointed master of the horse in b. c. 815 in phco 
of Q. Aulius, who fell in battle. (Liv« iz. 23.) 

AMEINIAS. [Nabcissus.] 

AMEI'NIAS ('A/iciWaf), a younger brother of 
Aeschylus, of the Attic demos of Pallene accord- 
ing to Herodotus (viiL 84, 93^ or of that of 
Docdea according to Plutaidi (Tkun, 14), distin- 
guished himself at the battle of Sahunis (b. c. 480) 
by making the first attack upon the Persian ships, 
and also by his pursuit of Artemisia. He and 
Eumenes were judged to have been the bravest on 
this oocadon among all the Athenians. (Herod. 
Pint. IL ee.; Diod. zL 27.) Aelian mentions 
(r. H. V. 19), that Amdnias prevented the con- 
demnation of his brother Aeschylus by the Areio- 
pagus. [Axschylus, p. 41, a.] 

AMEINOCLES (*AM«iyoK\^s), a Corinthian 
shipbuilder, who vidted Samoa about b. a 704, 
and built four ships for the Samians. (Thuc. L 1 3.) 
Pliny (//. N, vii. 56) says, that Thucydides men- 
tioned Ameinodes as the inventor of the trireme ; 
but this is a mistake, for Thucydides merdy states 
that triremes were first built at Corinth in Greece, 
without ascribing their invention to Ameinodes. 
According to Svncellus (p. 212, c), triremes were 
first built at Atnens by Ameinodes. 

AMEI'PSIAS fA^ci^^laf), a comic poet of 
Athens, contemporary with Aristophanes, whom he 
twice conquered in the dramatic contests, gaining 
the second prize with his lUvws when Aristo- 
phanes was third with the ** Clouds'" (423 b. c), 
and the first with his Kw/uoorol, when Aristo- 
phanes gained the second with the <' Birds.'' (414 
b. c; Aiguxn. in Aristoph. iVif6. et Av,) The 



Kiytfas appears to have had the aame subject and 
aim as the '^ Clouds.** It is at least ceftain that 
Socrates appeared in the play, and that the Chorus 
consisted of ^povrurred, (Diog. Laert. iL 28 ; 
Athen. ▼. p. 218.) Aristophanes alludes to 
Ameipsias in the ** Frogs" (v. 12—14), and we 
are told in the anonymous life of Aristophanes, 
that when Aristophanes first exhibited his plays, 
in the names of other poets, Ameipsias applied to 
him the proverb T«rpd5< yeyomis^ which means 
** a person who labours for others,** in allusion to 
Heracles, who was bom on the fourth of the 

Ameipsias wrote many comedies, out of which 
there remain only a few fragments of the follow- 
ing: — *AiroKcrrraSlfoprts^ KarMaOUaf (doubtful), 
KdMvf, Mmxo(^ Sair^, S^yS^jo}, and of some 
the names of which are unknown. Most of his 
plays were of the old comedy, but some, in all 
probability, were of the middle. (Meineke, Frag. 
Com. L p. 199, iL p. 701.) f P. S.] 

AMELESA'GORAS (^Atu\fiaary6fMs) or ME- 
LESA'GORAS(MeAiHr(ry«(pc»), as he » called by 
othen, of Chalcedon, one of the early Greek histo- 
rians, from whom Gorgias and Eudemus of Naxos 
borrowed. (Clem. Alex. Strom, yl p. 629, a; 
Schol. ad Eur^. Aleett. 2 ; ApoUod. iii. 10. § 3, 
where Heyne has substituted MtKuffoydpas for 
Mpnaary6pas,) Maximus Tyrius {Scrm, 88. § 3) 
neaks of a Melesagoras, a Dative of Eleiisis, and 
Antigonus of Carystus {Hitt, Mirab. c 12) of an 
AmelesagoRLs of Athens, the latter of whom wrote 
an account of Attica; these persons are probably 
the same, and perhaps also the same as Amelesar 
goma of Chalcedon. (Voaaius, de Ht$L Graee, p. 
22, ed. Westermann.) 

AME'LIUS (*AfiiX(05), a native of Apamea 
according to Suidaa (s. v. *KiUKuts\ but a Tuscan 
according to Porphyry {viL PloHn.), belonged to 
the new Platonic school, and was the pupil of 
Plotinus and nuster of Porphyry. He quoted the 
opinion of St John about the A^yos without men- 
tioning the name of the Apostle : this extract has 
been preserved by Eusebius. {Praqt, Evang, xi. 
19.) See Suid. Porphyr. IL ec,; Syrian, xii 
Metapkyt, p. 47, a. 61, b. 69, a. 88, a.; Bentley, 
Hemarki on Fre^-Tkathing^ p. 182, &c.. Loud. 
1743 ; Fabric. BibL Chraee, iii. p. 160. 

AMENTES ('A/i^iTtrt), an ancient Greek tox^ 
geon, mentioned by Galon as the inventor of some 
ingenious bandages. (Z>s /Vismi, c. 58, 61, 89, 
voL xiL pp. 486, 487, 493, ed. Chart.) Some 
fragments of the works fd a suxgeon named 
AmyntoM (of which name AmeiUet is very possibly 
a corruption) still exist in the manuscript Collec- 
tion of Surgical Writers by Nicetas (Fabridus, 
BiU, Gr. vol xii. p. 778, ed. vet.), and one ex- 
tract is preserved by Oribasius (CoU, Medic xlviii. 
30) in the fourth volume of Canlinal Mai*s CoUeo- 
tion of Clasnci Auetores e Vaiieanu Oodidbut^ p. 
99, Rom. 1831, 8vo. His date is unknown, ex- 
cept that he must have lived in or before the second 
century after Christ. He may perhaps be the same 
person who is said by the Scholiast on Theocritus 
(IdyU. xvil 128) to have been put to death by 
Ptolemy Philadelphus, about & c. 264, for plotting 
agiiinst his life. [W. A. G.] 

AME'RIAS fAjucpkf), of Macedonia, a gram- 
marian, who wrote a work entitled TAwo-^'ai, 
which gave an account of the meaning of words, 
and another called 'PiforofuiroT. (Athen. iv. p. 


176, c, e, XT. p. 681, U &c; Si^^adApdLBU 
iL 384, 1284 ; Kuster, ad HencLt.v,*ABmim.) 

AMERISTUS CAfUpurrw), thebradMrofti 
poet Stesicfaorus, is mentioned by Produ (^i 
Euclid. iL p. 19) as one of the eariyGndcgn- 
meters. He lived in the latter end of the rtoi: 
century b. c 

AMESTRI& [Amastbis.] 

AMIA'NUS, whom Cicero mentioniinaletM 
to Atticus (vi 1. 1 13), written b.c 50, nep^ 
bably a debtor of Atticua in GlSatu 

who was said to have brought up the monster Cti- 
maeta. (Horn. IL zvL 328 ; Enstatk ad //«. }■ 
1062; ApoUod. iL 3. § 1; Ai^a^H.A.u.lX\ 
His sons Atymnins and Maris wers slsiA at Tm 
by the sons of Neator. (IL xvL 317, &&) [L i-] 

A'MITON (*A4drm»)y of EleuthesM in &«£. 
is said to have been t]ie first perMn wbo nog v. 
the lyre amatory poema. His deiceodsnts iff 
€a\iedAmitore${*AtjUrop€s). (Athen. ziT.pL^Sa^M 
There seems some com^tion in the text of Aise 
naeos, as the two names AmUtm and Amikm » 
not correspond. Instead of the taaoB vc e^s; 
perhaps to read Ametor. (Camp. Stjn. M. p> 83. 
15, ed. Sylbuxg.; Hesych. fc «l A^nr*^) 

AMMIA'NUS CA/i^uw-rfj), a QsxA cfignfr 
matist, but probably a Bonun by Ivtb. T)k 
Greek Anthology contains 27 epignmB bf kjs 
(Jacobs, iiL pp. 93--98), to which mut be «^ 
another contained in the Vatican MS. (JacsU 
xiiL p. 693), and another, which is ph«l«j5 
the anonymous epignma, but which uBie Mi& 
assign to Ammianua. (Jacobs iv. p. 127, N&xl^) 
They are all of a fooetioas chancteL Is tv 
Phmudean Ma he is called AbbiaaBt. ^ 
Wemsdoif supposes to be a Greek fonn of Atwh^ 
orAvienns. (i^oet Zot Afta. v. pi iL p- 67M ^ 

The time at which he lived msy be pt^- 
with tolerable certainty, fitnn his epignoa- ^ 
he was a contemporary of the epigniiffl»*^*J^ 
lius, who lived under Nero, has been in^^J^ 
the drcmnstanoe that both attack an oistor w^ 
Flacciu. (Ammiaa. Ep. 2; LudL ^^,^ 
Jacobs.) One of his epigrams (18) is i^ 
with the last two lines of one o^^'^'^^^j^'^ 
who is supposed by some to have tnodattd tbfle 
lines firam Ammianua, and therefore to ba^J"^ 
afterhim. But the fiu^t is equaUy well eiplaa»' 
on the supposition that the poets wars coBt»p 
rary. From two other epigrams of Aa^f 
(Jacoba, vol iv. p. 127, No. 42, and wL »!^ 
p. 125), we find that he waa contenpoiy *]» 
the sophist Antomus Polemo, who floombw vac-^ 
Tmjan and Hadrian. (Jaeobh AwtUGro^^ 
pp. 312,313, xiiL p. 840.) I^t^L 

subject of Rome who composed a l"*^"J?^*^ 
in the Latin language,*" was by birth a ui««i 
he himself frequently declares (xxxi. siiti b^ 
xxiL 8. § 33, xxiiL 6. § 20, Ac), »da»»tt«« 
Syrian Antioch, as we infer from a letter addi^ 
to him by Libanius. (See Vales. i»rtt?^»/f^ 
ManeUm.) At an early age he embiaced tl» P 
fession of ams, and was admitted anwog ^ 
protedores domeatid, which proves that "•**'2^ 
to a- distinguished fiunily, since none ^•'•^T j^. 
in that corps except young men of noble Uo<* ^ 
officers whose valour and fidelity had been pW' 

• 1 • _ r\r 1-: i _^* nmiMbOn ^"^ 

in long service, 
thing is known. 

Of his subsequent proBioUflB. 
He was attached to the ittfi^ 


7racinaa, <me of the most able among the generals 
f ConstantiBa, and aeoomiNuiied him to the East 
n 350. He xetained with hia commander to Italy 
iBTjean aftenrarda, fiom thence passed over into 
laol, and assisted in the enterprise against Sjlv»- 
lUA, again foDowed Ursicinna when de^Mttched for 
, second time to the East, and appears to have 
lever quitted him until the period of his final dis- 
grace in 360. Ammianns snbeeqnently attended 
he emperor Julian in his campaign against tlie 
'enians, was present at Antioch in 371, when the 
>lot of TheodoruB waa detected in the reign of 
Salens, and witneaaed the tortores inflicted upon 
he conspirators. (zzix« L § 24.) Eventually 
le ettabhsbed himaielf at Rome, where he com- 
waed his history, and during the progress of the 
ask read sevenl portions pablidy, which were 
receiTcd with great appbnse. (Liban. Epist, 
DctccLXxxuL p. 60, ed. Well) The precise date 
9f his death is not recorded, bnt it mnst have hap- 
pened later than 390, since a reference occurs to 
the consulship of Neoteriua, which belongs to that 

The woik of AmmiannB extended from the ae- 
eessaon of Nerva, Ju D. 96, the point at which the 
hiitories of Tadtns and the biographies of Sneto- 
oins tenninated, to the death of Valens, a. d. 378, 
comprising a period of 282 years. It was divided 
into thirty-one books, of which the first thirteen 
are lost The remaining eighteen embrace the acts 
of Constantins from a.d. 353, the seventeenth year 
of his reign, together vrith the whole career of 
Gallus, Jnlianua, Jovianoa, Valentinianus, and 
Valem. The portion preserved includes the tiana- 
sctions of twenty-five years only, which proves 
that the earlier books mnsi have presented a very 
condensed abridgment of the events contained in 
the long space over which they stretched ; and 
hence we may feel satisfied, that what has been 
laved is much more valuaUe than what has pe- 

Gibbon (cap. xxvL) pays a well-deserved tri- 
bote to the aeeoncy, fidelity, and impartiality of 
Ammianns. We are indebted to him for a know- 
ledge of many important fects not elsewhere re- 
corded, and for much valuable insight into the 
BMdes of thought and the general tone of public 
feeling prevalent in hia day. His history must not, 
howcTer, be regarded as a complete chronicle of that 
«n; those proceedings only are brought forward 
prominently in which he himself was engaged, and 
nearly all the statcmenU admitted appear to be 
founded upon his own observations, or iqpon the in- 
toimaiion derived from trustworthy eye-witnesses. 
A considenble number of dissertations and digrea- 
sioDsare introduced, many of them highly interest- 
ing and valuable. Such are his notices of the 
ostinitiGns and mannen of the Saracens (xiv. 4), 
«t the Scythians and SormatiaBs (zvii. 12), of the 
Hm* and Ahmi (xxxL 2), of the Egyptians and 
their country (xxiL 6, 14—16), and his geograr 
P^JoI discussions upon Oanl (xv. 9), the Pontus 
Iwn. 8), and Thrace (xxvil 4), although the 
aecaracy of many of his details has been called in 
qumion by D'AnvilJc. Less legitimate and less 
jndiciow are tig geological speculations upon earth- 
^™» (xril 7), his astronomical inquiries into 
«iil«t fxx. 3), comets (xxv. 10), and the regu- 
'a^'w rf the calendar (xxvL 1), his medical re- 
•«««» mto the origin of epidemics (xix. 4), his 
«»»gjcil theory on the destruction of lions by 



mosquitoes (xviiL 7), and his horticultural essay 
on the impr^;nation of palms (xxiv. 3). But in 
addition to industry in research and honesty of 
purpose, he was giifted with a large measure of 
strong common sense which enabled him in many 
points to rise superior to the prejudice of his day, 
and with a clear-sighted independence of spirit 
which prevented him from being daszled or ove1^ 
awed by the briUian^ and the terron which en- 
veloped the imperial throne. The wretched 
vanity, weakness, and debaucherv of Constantins, 
rendering him an easy prey to the designs of the 
profligate minions by whom he was surrounded, 
the female intrigues which ruled the court of 
Oallus, and the conflicting elements of vice and 
virtue which were so strongly combined in the chn- 
racter of Valentinian, are all sketched with bold- 
neaa, vigour, and truth. But although sufficiently 
acute in detecting and exposing the follies of others, 
and especially in ridiculmg t£b absurditiea of po- 
pular superstition, Ammianns did not entirely 
escape the contagion. The general and deep- 
seated belief in magic spells, omens, prodigies, and 
oracles, which appean to have gained additionsd 
strength upon theiint introduction of Christianity, 
evidently exercised no small influence over his 
mind. The old legends and doctrines of the Pagan 
creed and the subtLe mysticism which philosophers 
pretended to discover lurking bebw, when mixed 
up with the pure and simple but startling tenets of 
the new faith, formed a confused mass which few 
intellects, except those of the very highest chus, 
could reduce to order and harmony. 

A keen controveny has been maintained with 
regard to the religious creed of our author, f See 
Bayle.) There is nothing in his writinjgs wiiich 
can entitle us to decide the question positively. In 
several passages he speaks with marked respect of 
Christianity and iU professon (xxi. sub fin., xxii. 
11, xxvii. 3 ; compare xxii. 12, xxv. 4); but even 
his strongest expressions, which are all attributed 
by Gibbon ** to the incomparable pliancy of a 
polytheist,** afibid no conclusive evidence that he 
was himsdf a disciple of the cross. On the other 
hand he does not scruple to stigmatise with the 
utmost severity the savage fury of the contending 
sects (xxii. 5), nor fiul to reprobate the bloody vio- 
lence of Damasus and Ursinus in the contest for 
the see of Rome (xxvil 3) : the absence of all 
censure on the apostacy of Julian, and the terms 
which he employs with regard to Nemesis Tziv. 
11, xxiL 3), the Genius (xxL 14), Mercurius (xvi. 
5, xxv. 4), and other deities, are by many con- 
sidered as decisive proofs that he was a pagan. 
Indeed, as Heyne justly remarks, many of the 
writen of this epoch seem purposely to avoid 
committing themselves. Being probably devoid of 
strong religious principles, they felt unwilling to 
haiard any dechoation which might one day ex- 
pose them to perMCtttion and prevent them from 
adopting the various forms which the feith of the 
court might from, time to time assume. 

Little can be said in praise of the style of Am- 
mianua. The melodious flow and simple dignity 
of the purer models of composition had long 
ceased to be relished, and we too often detect the 
hanh diction and involved periods of an imperfectly 
educated foreign soldier, relieved occasionally by the 
pompous inflation and flashy glitter of the rhetori- 
cal schools. His phraseology as it regards the sig- 
nification, grammatical inflexions, and syntactical 



combiiiations of words, probably representa the cur- 
rent language of the age, but mutt be pronounced 
full of Inrbarisma and solecismB when judged ac- 
cording to the standard of Cicero and Livy. 

The Editio Princeps of Ammianns Marcellinus, 
edited bj Angelus Sabinus, was printed at Rome, 
in folio, bj Oieorge Sachsel and Barth. Golsch in 
the year 1474. It is very incozrect, and contains 
13 books only, from the 14tb to the 26th, both 
inclusire. The remaining five wero first published 
by Aocorsi, who, in his edition printed in folio at 
Augsburg in 1532, boasts that he had corrected 
£▼0 thousand errors. 

The most useful modem editions are those of 
OronoYius, 4to., Lugd. Bat. 1693 ; of Emesti, 8to. 
Lips., 1773 ; but above all, that which was com- 
menced by Wagner, completed after his death by 
Erfurdt, and published at Leipsic, in 3 vob. 8vo. 
1808. [W. R.] 

AMMON CA/i/ictfy), originally an Aethiopian 
or Libyan divinity, whose worship subsequently 
spread all over Egypt, a part of the northern coast 
of Africa, and many parts of Greece. -The real 
Egyptian name was Amun or Ammun (Herod, ii. 
42 ; Plut. del9.et09.9)i the Greeks called him 
Zeus Ammon, the Romans Jupiter Ammon, and 
the Hebrews Amon. ( Jerem. zlvi 25. ) That in the 
countries whero his worship was fixvt established 
he was nvered in certain respects as the supreme 
divinity, is clear from the frtct, that the Greeks 
recognised in him their own Zeus, although the 
identity of the two gods in later times rests upon 
philosophical speculations, made at a period when 
the original character of Ammon was almost lost 
sight 0^ and a more spiritual view of him substi- 
tuted in its place. 

The most ancient seat of his worship appears to 
have been Meroe, where he had a much revered 
oracle (Herod, ii. 29); thence it was introduced 
into Eg^'pt, where the worship took the firmest 
root at Thebes in Upper Egypt, which was there- 
fore frequently called by the Greeks Diospolis, or 
the city of Zeus. (HennL ii. 42 ; Died. L 15.) 
Another fimious seat of the god, with a celebrated 
oracle, was in the oasis of Ammonium (Siwah) in 
the Libyan desert ; the worship was also established 
in Cyrenaica. (Paus. z. 13. § 3.) The god was 
represented either in the form of a ram, or as a 
human being with the head of a nun (Herod. /. o.; 
Stnib. xvi). n. 812) ; but there are some represen- 
tations in which he appears altogether as a human 
being with only the boms of a ram. TertuUian 
(de Pall. 3) calls him dives oviunu If we take all 
these circumstances into consideration, it seems 
clear that the original idea of Ammon was that of 
a protector and leader of the flocks. The Aethio- 
pions were a nomadic people, flocks of sheep con- 
stituted their principal wealth, and it is perfectly 
in accordance with Uie notions of the Aethiopians 
as well as Egyptians to worship the animal which 
is the leader and protector of the flock. This view 
is supported by various stories about Ammon. 
Hyginus (PoeL Astr. i. 20) whose account is only 
a rationalistic interpretation of the origin of the 
god^s worship, relates that some African of the 
name of Ammon brought to. Liber, who was then 
in possession of Egypt, a lai^ quantity of cattle 
In return for this, Liber gave him a piece of land 
near Thebes, and in commemoration of the benefits 
be had conferred upon the god, he was represented as 
a human being with homa. What Pausanias(iv.23. 


§ 5) and Eustathins {ad Dia^ Perieg.2\i] rh 
mariL, as wdl as one of the many etymologies of IM 
name of Ammon from the Cgyptiaa wocd Am»ai^ 
which signifies a shepherd, or to feed, likewii 
accord with the opiniao that Ammon mi onfasJij 
the leader and protector of flocks. Herodotu n- 
Utes a story to account for the lam^ besd(iL4'2;: 
Herades wanted to see Zeus, bat the Istterwiijtrj 
to avoid the interview ; when, however, Hai&« 
at last had recourse to entreaties, Zens casthrrj 
the following expedient : he cut off the head d i 
ram, and holding thia before his own hesd, taA 
havmg covered the remaining part of iiii bodj 
with die skin of the ram, he appesred bete Hosr 
cles. Hence, Herodotus adds, the Tbebsss nem 
sacrifice rams except onoe a year, snd on thi* «( 
occasion they kill and flay a ram, and with iti ^ 
they dress the statue of Zens (Anunon) ; br tk 
side of this statue they then pUce that of Hentet 
A simikr account mentioned by SerriBS {ad Atx 
iv. 1 96) may serve as a commentary inpoa Heiod«CB& 
When Bacchus, or according to othen, Heotfcs 
went to India and led his army throngh thedevfli 
of Libya, he was at last quite exhausted w^ 
thiret, and invoked his &ther, Jupiter. litsmf» 
a ram appeared, which led Hezades to i pbae 
where it opened a spring in the nnd by Kiiicig 
with its foot For thia reaaon, h^s Seniu, 
Jupiter Ammon, whoae name is derind tm 
dfifjLos (sand), is represented with the hom « > 
ram. (Comp. Hygin. PaA, 133, Pod. Att. L 21; 
Luca]i,PAarRii.ix.511.) There are seroal <<m 
traditions, with various modifications smiBg b» 
the time and place of their origin ; but all agne a 
representing the ram as the guide and ddiTcrera 
the wandering herds or herdsmen in the dc«it» 
either in a direct way, or by giving orades. As- 
mon, therefore, who is identical with the bb, » 
the guide and protector of man and of sll liis P*"* 
sessions; he stands in the same rehtkia to n&* 
kind as the conunon ram to his flock. 

The introduction of the worship of Aaxam fi« 
Aethiopia into Egypt waa symbolically reprwoj™ 
in a ceremony which was peifoimed at Xkw 
onoe in every year. On a certain day, the ina? 
of the god was carried across the river N^»" 
Libya, and after some days it was brought baft » 
if the god had arrived firom Aethiopia. (Wod. i-J^-/ 
The same account is given by EustathnuH*[* 
IL V. p. 128), though in a somewhat Mattum^ 
for he relates, that according to some, tho iew^ 
pians used to fetch the images of Zeos and «t^' 
gods firom the great temple of Zeus at Tkew^ 
With these imagea they went about, at a otftt^ 
period, in Libya, celebrated a aplendid ^^\ 
twelve days— for this, he adda, is the miBW^'* 
the gods they worship. This number iwelw ^ 
tains an allusion to the number of ■^g?" "^ "* 
zodiac, of which the ram (otqisr) is one. Tbiu** 
arrive at the second phasis in the chancttf •> 
Ammon, who is here conceived as the san m * 
sign of Ci^er. (Zeus diqguised in the skin of » ^sl 
See Hygin. Pab. 133, PoeL Adr. i 20 ; Maao«^ 
SaL 121. 19; AeUan, F. H. x. 18.) Tto «*^ 
nomical character of Ammon is of Uter ©"P^vf: 
perhaps not older than the sixth cenUuy bf^ 
Christ. The specukting Greeks of still bter&B^ 
assigned to Ammon a more spiritual nature. ^ . 
Diodorus, though in a passage (iii. 68i &w 
makes Ammon a king of Libya, describe* Ao" ( 
1 1, &c) as the spirit pervading the unite'** *^ 


u the antliQr of aD life in nature. (Comp. Pint. d» 
R etOs.9, 21.) The new Platonista perceived 
in Ammon their deminigos, that is, the creator and 
[a^esenrer of the world. As this rabject helongs 
nore especiallj to the mythology of 'Egfpt, we 
anxiot here enter into a detailed diacaaaion about 
the nature and diaiacter which the kter Greeka 
uiigned to him, or his connexion with Dionyana 
iDd Heracles. Respecting these points and the 
various opinions of modem critics, as well as the 
diferent representations of Ammon still extant, 
ihe reader may consult JaUonaky, PanikeonAegypt,; 
Bohlen, Das aUe Indien^ nut besonderer Ruckkckt 
mf Egyptai^ ii c 2. § 9 ; J. C. Prichard, Effyptian 
Mkiiology; J. F. Champollion, Panlkion Egyjptien, 
Paris, 1823. 

The worship of Ammon was introduced into 
Greece at an early period, probably through the 
medium of the Greek colony in Cyrene, which 
most have formed a connexion with the great ora- 
cle of Ammon in the Oasis soon alter ita establiah- 
meat. Ammon had a temple and a statue, the 
gift of Pindar, at Thebes (Pans. ix. 16. § 1), and 
smother at Sparta, the inhabitants of which, as 
Pausanias (iii. 18. § 2) says, consulted the oracle 
of Ammon in Libya from early times more than 
the other Greeks. At Aphytis, Ammon was wor- 
shipped, from the time of Lysander, as zealously as 
in .Ammonium. Pindar the poet honoured the god 
vith a hymn. At Megalopolis the god was repre- 
KDted with the head of a ram (Pans. yiii. 32. § 1), 
and the Greeks of Cyrenaica dedicated at Delphi a 
chariot with a atatue of Ammon. (x. 13. § 3.) The 
booage which Alexander paid to the god in the 
Oaus ii well known. [L. S.] 

AMMON ("A/i/uiK), a geometrician, who made 
a measurement of the wa&s of Rome, about the 
time of the first inrasion of the Goths, and found 
them to be 21 miles in circuit (Olympiodorus, 
op. PhoL Cod. 80, p. 68, ed. Bekker.) [P. S.] 

AMMON ^Kttfjmwy ]. Bishop of Hadrianople, 
A. D. 400, wrote (in Greek) On Ike Remmetion 
against Origenism (not extant). A fragment of 
Anmon, from this work possibly, may be found ap. 
S, Cyril. Alex. JW6.deifa«to/??cfc. (Vol T. pt2,ad 
tin. p. 50, ed. Paris. 1638.) He was present at 
the Coundl of Constantinople a. d. 394, held on 
occasion of the dedication of Rufinua*a church, 
near Chakedon. (Soe. Hist. EocL viii. 8. 3 ; Mansi, 
CUci^w. ToL ill pu 851.) 

2. Bishop of Elearchia, in the Thebaide^ in 
the 4 th and 5th centuries. To him ia addressed 
the Csnonical Epiatle of Theophilus of Alexandria, 
a?. SyRodiecm Beveregii, toL L pt. 1, p. 1 70. Pape- 
Irochios has published in a Latin version his 
£{»stle to Theophilus, J)e Vita ei Convenatione 
SS. PadomH et Theodon (ap. BoUand. Ada Sano- 
fe;«w, ToL xiT. p. 347, &c). It contains an 
Epwtk of St Antony. [A. J. C] 

AMMO'NASCAw«*^«w)or AMOUN f A/iot?!^), 
founder of one of the most celebrated monastic 
K«aannities m Egypt. Obliged by his relations 
to BBiry, he persuaded his bride to perpetual con- 
taience (Sonm. Hi$L Ecd, i 14) by the authority 
rf St. Paul's Epistle to the Corinthians. (Socr. 
™. &i IT. 23.) They lived together thus for 
18 resrs, when at her wish, for greater perfection, 
«ey parted, and he retired to Scetis and ML 
>itria,tothe louth of Lake Mareotis, where he 
uved 22 yean, risiibg hia slater^ wife twice in the 



year. (Ibid, and PaUad. HvA, Lam. c 7 ; Ruffin. 
VU,Patr. c. 29.) He died before St. Antony (from 
whom there is an epistle to him, S. Athan. 0pp. toU 
I pt 2, p. 959, ed. Bened.), i «. before a. d. 365, 
for the latter asserted that he beheld the soul of 
Amonn borne by angels to heaven ( VU. & Antonii a 
S. Athanas. § 60), and as St. Athanasius^s history 
of St Antony preserves the order of time, he died 
perhaps about a. d. 320. There are seventeen or 
nineteen Itulea of Asceticism (irc^^eua) asoribed to 
him ; the Greek original exists in MS. (Lambecius, 
BiUioth. Vindol. lib. iv. cod. 156, No. 6) ; they are 
published in the Latin version of Gerhard Vossius 
in the BiUioth. PP. Asoetioa, vol ii. p. 484, Paris. 
1 66 1 . Tuvnty-ttro Asodie Institutions of the same 
Amoun, or one bearing the same name, exist also 
inMS. (Lambec. Le. Cod. 165, No. 2.) [A.J.C.] 

AMMO'NIA (*Afifiwvta), a surname of Hera, 
under which she was worshipped in Elis. The 
inhabitants of Elis had frx>m the earliest times 
been in the habit of consulting the oracle of Zeus 
Ammon in Libya. (Pans. v. 15. § 7.) [L. S.] 

AMMONIA'NUS (*A/ifiwiay<J$), a Greek 
grammarian, who lived in the fifth century after 
Christ He was a relation and a friend of the phi- 
losopher Syrianus, and devoted his attention to 
the study of the Greek poets. It is recorded of 
him that he had an ass, which became so fond of 
poetry from listening to its master, that it neglect- 
ed its food. (Damaacius, ap. PhoL p. 339, a., ed. 
Bekker ; Suid. s. e. *Afifjmyuuf6s and ^Oros X6pas.) 

AMMO'NIUS, a fiivourite oT Albxandxr 
Balas, king of Syria, to whom Alexander entrust- 
ed the entire management of public affiiirs. Am- 
monius was avaricious and cruel ; he put to death 
numerous friends of the king, the queen Laodioe, 
and Antigonus, the son of Demetrius. Being de- 
tected in plotting against the life of Ptolemy Phi- 
lometor, about b. c. 147, the ktter required 
Alexander to surrender Anmionius to him; but 
though Alexander refused to do this, Ammonius 
was put to death by the inhabitants of Antiocb, 
whom Ptolemy had induced to espouse his cause. 
(Liv. Epitm 60 ; Joseph. Ant. xiiL 4. § 5 ; Died. 
Exc 29, p. 628, ed. Wees.) 

AMMONIUS (^AfifuAvios) of Alexandria, 
the son of Ammonius, was a pupil of Alexander, 
and one of the chief teachers in the grammatical 
school founded by Aristarchns. (Suid. s. v. *A^ 
fuivios.) He wrote commentaries upon Homer, 
Pindar, and Aristophanes, none of which are ex- 
tant (Fabric. BiU. Grose, v. p. 712; Matter, 
Essais Mstoriques star Vicolis d* Aleatandre^ i. pp. 
179 233.) 

AMMO'NIUS ('AwM^ms), of Albxandria, 
Presbyter and Oeconomus of the Church in that 
city, and an Egyptian by birth, a. d. 458. He 
subscribed the Epistle sent by the clergy of Egypt 
to the emperor Leo, in behalf of the Council of 
Chalcedon. {CwunUoy ed. Labbei, vol. iv. p. 897, 
b.) He wrote (in Greek) On the D^hrenos 
bettoeen Nature and Person^ against the Mono- 
physite heresy of Eutyches and Dioscorus (not 
extant) ; an Eaposition of the Book of Acts (ap. 
Catetta GraO;. Pair, w AcL S& Apostdorum^ 8vo., 
Oxon. 1838, ed. Cramer) ; a Commmtary on 
the Psalms (used by Nicetas in his Catena ; see 
Cod. 189, Biblioth. Coislin., ed. Montfauc p. 
244) ; On the Hexaemeron (no remains) ; On Sif 
JchCs Gospel, which exists in the Catena Orae- 
corvm Patrum in S. Joan, ed. Corderii, foL« 



Antw. 1630. He is quoted in the OoUeitae on the 
Hutory of Sutatmah and on DatneL (Nomt CoL- 
led. Script. Vet, ab Angelo Maio, p. 166, &c. vol. L 
A. D. 1825.) [A. J. C] 

profesflor of grammar at Alexandria, with Helladiaa, 
at the doae of the 4th century. He was alao priest 
of the Egyptian Ape. On the vigorous overthrow of 
idolatry in Egypt by the bishop Theophilus a. d. 
389-391, Ammonius and Helladios fled to Con- 
stantinople and there resumed their profession. 
(Socr. HisL EeoL ▼. 16.) Ammonius wrote, in 
Greek, On ike Difermtoee (f Word* of Woe Sign^ica- 
tUm (ircpl iiuAwr xal Zm^fMV A.4(c«y), which is 
appended to many lexicons, e. ^. to that of Scapula. 
It was edited by Valckneaer, 4to., Lngd. Bat. 1739, 
and with further notes by Chr. Frid. Ammon, 
Svo., ErUuQg. 1787. There is another work by 
this Ammonius, ircpi dirupoXirylas, which has not 
yet been printed. (Fabric BihU Cfraee, toL y. 
p. 715.) The historian Socrates was a pupil of 
Ammonius. (Hiet. EeoL t. 16.) [A. J. C] 

AMMONIUS TA^mO, son of Hbrmsas, 
studied with his brother Heliodorus at Athens 
under Proclus (who died a. d. 484), and was the 
master of Simplicius, Asclepius Trallianus, John 
Philoponus, and Damasdus. His CommetUariee (in 
Greek) on Plato and Ptolemy are lost, as well