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London: • 

Spottishoodss and Shaw, 

Ni-w.ii r I c't- Square, 

M^ Digitized by VjOOQIC 







rniTOR Of THK " niCTioKAiir or crkk aho koman antiquities." 



VOL. I. 



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laiTuta. VAitBt. 

A. A. Ai.KXAin>Mt Ajllbm, Ph. D. 

C.T. A. Chables Tboxab Arnold, M.A. 

One of the Masters in Ragbjr SchooL 

J. EkB. John Esnzst Bodb, M. A. 

Student of Christ Chnrch, Oxford. 

Ch. A. B. Chustian A. Bbahdis, 

Professor in the University of Bonn. 

E. H. B. Edwabd HBBBKirr Bonburt, M. A. 

Late FeUo« of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

A J. C. Albakt JaAes Chbistix, M. A. 

Late Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. 

A H. C Arthur Hugh Clough, M. A. 

FeUow of Oriel College, Oxford. 

6.E.L.G. Groras Edward Ltkch Cotton, M.A. 

Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge ; one of the Masters in 
Rogby SchooL 

S. D. Saitoxi. DATn>soN, LL. D. 


Sarilian Professor of Astjcopjyiijr ih jfh&Ufiv.erBitjr.of Oxford. 
W.B.D. WibUAii BoDBAK Donne. ''■' ' ••••'••• 

tD. Thomas Dter. ^ •..•;!/!. '■( . 

EkK Edward Elder, M. A. • 'I'.']'/. •'; ;";'/ 

Head Master of Dnrham SchooL- '' • '-'"'; '. ", 

i. T. G. John Thokas Graves, M. A., F.R.a 

W. A G. William Alexander Greenhill, M.D. 
Trinity College, Oxford. 

AO. Algernon Grenfell, M. A. 

One of the Masters in Rugby School, 


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W. M. G. William Maxwell Gonn, 

One of the Masters in the High School, Edinburgh. 

W. I. WiLUAM Ihne, Ph. D. 

Of the Univenity of Bonn. 

B. J. Benjamin Jowxtt, H.A. 

Fellow and Tutor of Baliol Ck>llege, Oxford. 

H. G. L. Hehbt Gbobgb Liddell, M. A. 

Head Master of Westminster SchooL 

G. L. Geoegb Long, M. A. 

Late Fellow of Trinity Ck>llege, Cambridge. 

J. M. M. John Mobell Mackenzie, M. A. 

C. P. M. Chablkb Peteb Mason, B. A. 

Fellow of UniTersity College, London. 

J. C. M. Joseph Calbow Mbans. 

H. H. M. Henbt Habt Milman, M. A. 

Prebendary of St. Peter's, Westminster. 

A. de M AuQUBTua de Morgan. 

Profiessor of Mathematics in UniTersity CoQ^e, London. 

W. P. William Plate, LL, D. • 

C. R P. Constantinb Eotlin Pbichakd, B. A. 

Fellow of Baliol College, Oxford. 
W. B. William Ramsat, MA. 

Professor of Humani^ in the TTnirersity of Glasgow. 
L. S. Leonhabd Schmttz, Ph. D., F. R. S..E. 

Rector of the High School of Edinburgh. 

P. S. Philip Smith, B. A. 

Of University College, London. 

A.P. s. \aci^jaim'<^ENsi3n'^ei^T, M.A. 

•*••*• Pdlltfw aid TiffiJAf University College, Qxfiwd. 
A.S. ADOLPfee S-oiaift; :'*: 

. Jt^faesQs^ipji^e gymnasium of Oldenburg. 

L. U. LuftwJd ."CTftiadHs,' '"' 

Professor in the University of Bonn. 

B. W. Bobbbt Whiston, MA. 

Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

The Articles which have no initials attached to tbem are written by the Editor. 

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Tax presoit wotk has been conducted on the same principles, and is designed 
mainly for the use of the same persons, as the " Dictionary of Greek and Roman 
Antjqnities." It has been long felt by most persons engaged in the study of 
Antiquity, that something better is required than we yet possess in the English 
language for illustrating the Biography, Literature, and Mythology, of the 
Greek and Roman writers, and for enabling a diligent student to read them in 
the most profitable manner. The writings of modem continental philologists, as 
well as the works of some of our own scholars, have cleared up many of the 
difficulties connected with these subjects, and enabled us to attain to more correct 
knowledge and more comprehensive views than were formerly possessed. The 
articles in this Dictionary have been founded on a careful examination of the 
original sources ; the best modem authorities have been diligently consulted ; 
and no labour has been spared in order to bring up the subject to the present 
state of philological learning upon the continent as well as at home. 

A work, like the present, embracing the whole circle of ancient history and 
literature for upwards of two thousand years, would be the labour of at least 
one man's life, and could not in any case be written satisfactorily by a single 
individoa], as no one man possesses the requisite knowledge of all the sub- 
jects of which it treats. The lives, for instance, of the ancient mathema- 
ticians, jurists, and physicians, require in the person who writes them a 
competent knowledge of mathematics, law, and medicine ; and the same remark 
applies, to a greater or less extent, to the history of philosophy, the arts, and 
numerous other subjects. The Editor of the present work has been fortunate in 
obtaining the assutance of scholars, who had made certam departments of anti- 
quity their particular study, and he desired ^D-talce tSis b^lportuDtty of returning 
his best thanks to them for their valuable ai(f, by which he Ibis 'b^^n 'able to pro- 
duce a work which could not have been at'Com^^isKed 6y any single person. 
The initials of each writer's name are grivea at the lend of the articles he has 
written, and a list of the names of the contributori'-irprefo^*' tt^'the work. 

The biographical articles in this work include the names of all persons of 
any importance which occur in the Greek and Roman writers, from the earliest 
times down to the extinction of the Western Empire in the year 476 of our era, 
and to the extinction of the Eastern Empire by the capture of Constantinople by 
the Turks in the year 1453. The lives of historical personages occurring in tlie 
l>i*toiy of the Byzantine empire are treated with comparative brevity, but accom- 


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panied by sufficient references to ancient writers to enable the reader to obtain 
farther information if he wishes. It has not been thought advisable to omit the 
lives of such persons altogether, as has usually been done in classical dictiona- 
ries ; partly because there is no other period short of the one chosen at which a 
stop can conveniently be made ; and still more because the civil history of the 
Byzantine empire is more or less connected with the history of literature and 
science, and, down to the capture of Constantinople by the Turks, there was an 
interrupted series of Greek writers, the omission of whose lives and of an 
account of their works would be a serious deficiency in any work which aspired to 
give a complete view of Greek literature. 

The relative length of the articles containing the lives of historical persons 
cannot be fixed, in a work like the present, simply by the importance of a man's 
life. It would be impossible to give within any reasonable compass a full and 
elaborate account of the lives of the great actors in Greek and Roman history ; 
nor is it necessary : for the lives of such persons are conspicuous parts of history 
and, as such, are given at length in historical works. On the contrary, a Dic- 
tionary of Greek and Roman Biography is peculiarly useful for the lives of 
those persons who do not occupy so prominent a position in history, since a know- 
ledge of their actions and character is oftentimes of great importance to a proper 
understanding of the ancient writers, and information respecting such persons 
cannot be obtained in any other quarter. Accordingly, such articles have had a 
space assigned to them in the work which might have been deemed dispropor- 
tionate if it were not for this consideration. Woodcuts of ancient coins are 
given, wherever they could be referred to any individual or family. The draw- 
ings have been made from origrinals in the British Museum, except in a few 
cases, where the authority for the drawing is stated in the article. 

More space, relatively, has been given to the Greek and Roman Writers than 
to any other articles, partly because we have no complete history of Greek and 
Roman Literature in the English language, and partly because the writings of 
modem German scholars contain on this subject more than on any other a store 
of valuable matter which has not yet found its way into English books, and has, 
hitherto, ojtiyifir\f^y Anl ib A'ft^.'jnstances, exercised any influence on our 
course of cUkfeibil'iBBtriicticU.'*' b>Ute»e articles a full account of the Works, as 
well as of the Lifft^ o^ {(H^'li^'^ ^ given, and, likewise, a list of the best 
editions of the w<M^ tcnretker'with references to the principal modem works 
upon each subjedt; *.: •"• •.:'••:« : 

The lives of tfirCEristian XVrllers, though usually omitted in similar publi- 
cations, have likewise been inserted in the present Work, since they constitute an 
important part of the history of Greek and Roman literature, and an account of 
their biography and writings can be attained at present only by consulting a con- 
siderable number of voluminous works. These articles are written rather from a 
literary than a theological point of view ; and accordingly the discussion of strictly 


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theological topi«i^ sodi as tlie rabjeets Bught mSj have giren xiae t(s haa been 
eaiefallj avoided. 

Care haa been taken to separate the mydwlopcal artidea from those of an his- 
toncal natme, as a re fe rence to any part of the book will shew. As it is necessary 
to discriminate between the Greek and Italian Mythology, an account of the Greek 
dirinities is giren nndo' their Greek names, and of the Italian cUvinitiea under their 
Latin names, a practice which is uniTersally adopted by the continental writers, 
lAidi has receiTed the sanction of some of our own scholars, and is moreorer of 
ndi importance in gniu-ding against endlees oonAisions and mistakes as to require 
no Hwkjgy for its introduction into thu work. In the treatment of the artidea them- 
wdyta, the mystical school of interpreters haa been avoided, and thoae prindplea 
ibilowed which have been devdoped by Voss, Bnttmann, Welcker, K. O. MSller, 
Lobeck, and otherau Less space, rdativdy, has been given to these artidea than to 
any odier portion of the work, as it has not been considered necessary to repeat all 
the &D<aful speculations which abound in the later Greek writers and in modem 
books rtpoa thia anbject. 

The lives of Pmnters, Sculptors, and Architects, have been treated at considerable 
length, and aa account is given of all their works sUll extant, or of which there is 
any record in an<aent writers. Theae artidea, it is hoped, will be useM to the artist 
ss weD as to the aeholar. 

Some difficulty has been experienced respecting the a dwi sa ion or rqection of cer- 
tain names, but the following is the general prindple which has been adopted. Tlie 
Dimes of all persons are inserted, who are mentioned in more than one passage of an 
ancient writer : but where a name occurs in only a single passage, and nothing more 
is known of the person than that passsge contains, that name is in general omitted. 
On the other hand, the names of such persons are inserted when they are intimatdy 
connected with some great historical event, or there are other persons of the same 
name with whom they might be confounded. 

When there are several persons of the same name, the artides have been arranged 
ether in chronological or some alphabetical order. The latter plan has been usually 
adqited, where there are many persons of one name, aa in the case of AuoAiisHi, 
AxnocHus, and others, in which cases a chronological arrangement would stand in 
the way of ready reference to any particular individual whom the reader might be 
in leardi «f. In the case of Roman names, the chronological order has, for obvious 
reasons, been always adopted, and they have been given under the cognomens, and 
not under the gentile names. There is, however, a separate artide devoted to each 
gens, in whidi is inserted a Ust of all the cognomens of that gens. 

In a work written by several persons it is almost impossible to obtain exact uni- 
formity of reference to the ancient Writers, but this has been done as far as was 
possible. Wherever an author is referred to by page, the particular edition used 
by the writer is generally stated ; but of the writers enumerated bdow, the following 

VOL.1, , 


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editions are ahrays intended where no others are indicated: Flato, ed. H. Stephaans, 
1578 ; Athenaeiu, ed. Casaubon, Paris, 1597 ; the Moralia of Plutarch, ed. FrancoH 
1620 ; Strabo, ed. Casaabon, Paris, 1620 ; Demosthenes, ed. Beiske, Lips. 1770 ; the 
other Attic Orators, ed. H. Stephaons, Paris, 157fi ; the Latin Grammarians, ed. 
H. Futschliu, HanoT. 1605 ; Hippocrates, ed. Kiihn, Lips. 1825-7 ; Erotianus, ed. 
Franz, Lips. 1780; Dioscorides, ed. Sprengel, Lips. 1829-30 ; Aretaens, ed. KBIin, 
Lips. 1828; Bufus Ephesins, ed. Clinch, Lond. 1726; Soranna, ed. Dietz, Regim. 
Pross. 1838; Galen, ed. Kiihn, Lips. 1821-33; Oribasias, ACtins, Alexander. Xral- 
lianus, Faulus Aegineta, Celsus, ed. H. Stei^ianus, among the Medicae Artia Prin- 
dpes, Paris, 1567 ; Caelius Aorelianus, ed. AmnrntTi, AmsteL 4to. 1709. 

Names of Places and Nations are not indnded in the Work, as they will form the 
subject of the forthcoming " Dictionary of Greek and Boman Geogn^y." 

London, Ootobar, 1844. 


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In tke (oOowiiiff Hit AY indicate* that the coin ii of gold, At of rilTar,iB of copper, liB fint bronie 
Bona, 2S McOnd bnnuw Roman, ILS third bnnxe Rooan. The weight of all gold and lilrei coini 
ii cirm, with the ezeeption of the aoni and denarii, which an for the nuMt part of nearly the nme 
w<^t mpecliTdj, MThoi a oem haa been tedueed et enlarged in the drawing, the diameter of the 
on«aal coin ia giren in the laat colnmn, the nnmbert in which refer to the n^joined Kale : thow 
rtidi hare do nnmben affixed to them are of the nme nie in the drawing aa the originals 

i I 



81 1 

82 1 

83 2 

86' 1 

90 2 

93 1 

11 W 

94 1 

114 3 





118 2 

lis] I 



126 2 

138' 1 


1J3 1 

126 1 
180 2 
Its 2 
189 2 
192 1 



197 2 

199 I 


Agiippina I 

Agrippina II. ... 


Ahenofaorlwf .... 



Do. (Empenir.) 
*'*'^niliT Paht.lrmgitf 


Alexander L, king of 


Alexander IL, king of 


Alexander I., king of 

lIaoed(mia .... 
Alexander II., king of 

Uaeedonia .... 
Alexander III. (the 

Oreat), king of Mace- 

Alazandar (Boman em- 


Alexander Zebina, king 

of Syria 



Amyntaa, king of Kace- 




Antigonna, king of Ana 
An^gonna OoMta* . . 


Antiochna, king of Coot- 


Antiodioa Hieiax . . . 
Antiochna I., king of 


Antioehna II 

Antioehna III 

Antiodina IV 

Antioehna V. .... 
Antiociina VI 































456 2 

457 2 

458 1 

Antioehna VII. . . 
Antioehna VIII. . . 
Antioehna IX. . . . 
Antiochna X. . . . 
Antioehna XI. . . . 
Antiochna XII. . . 
Antiochns XIII. . 


Antoninna Pina . . 
M. Antonioa : . . . 
C. Antonioa .... 
L. Antoniui .... 
Julia Aquilia Seveta 




ArianthealV. . . . 
Ariarathea V. ... 
Aiiarathea VI. . . . 
Ariaiathei VII. . . 
Ariobananea I. . . 
Aiiobananea 111. . 


Amen III 

Anacei V 

Arucei VI 

Jiimce, VII 

Aruces XIV. . . . 
Anacea XXVIII. . 












Balbitt, Aeilina . . 
Balbna, Antonina . 
Balbna, Atiua . . . 
Balboa, Comelioi . 
Balboa, Naerina . . 
Balbna, Thoiina . . 









































































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26 Sj 






Coutantinni, the tjmat 
Conitautino* I. (die 


Conitantinua IL . . . . 

Conitantioa I 

Conitantiiu 11 

Conitantiu III 









Caenr, Sex. Juliiu . . 

Caenr, C. Jolioi . . . 

Do. ..»••.. 

C. and li. CMwr . . . 










Capito, Fonteiai .... 


Capito, Uaiini 

Capitolinns, Petilliai . 













Cam ■•• •• 






Demetriiu I., king of 


Demetriui II., king of 


Demetriiu I., king of 


Demetriu II., king of 


Demetriiu III., king of 


Diadumenianna .... 





















CUo or Chile 


Dionyrina, of HenuJeia 
Dionyuoi II., of Syia- 


Claia, Didia 


C]aiidiiu(«Dpanir). IM 


Do, Sndedn . 

Clandioi II 

Cleapatia, wift of An- 


Cleopatra, qoaen of 


aelvat^^wiftof Jnba 







Dnuna, Nero Clandini 




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ABAEUS CACaSn), a mnwDe of ApoOo de- 
Tmd from tke town of Abae in Phocia, vhm the 
god had a ridi temple. (Hesych. t. d'AOu ; Herod. 
TiiL 33 ; Pau. r. 35. § I, &c) [L. S.] 

ABAHMON MAOISTER. [Pokphtkius.] 
ABANTI'ADES CAAvr«<$>l>) rignifies in 
geno^d a descendant of Abaa, bat ii nwd eipeci- 
allT to dengnata Penens, the great-grandion of 
Afaaa (Or. MA n. 673, t. 138, 236^ and 
AeriaiB*, > un of Abas. (Ot. MeL n. 607.) A 
feaak deicendant of Aboa, as Danae and Atalante, 
ma called Afaantias. [L. 9.] 

ABATTTIDAS f A«an-iSa>), the son of Paseaa, 
became tyrant of Sieyon after mnrdeiing Cleiniaa, 
the bther of Aiatos, B. c. 264. Aiatua, who was 
then only seren rears old, muTowIjr escaped death. 
Abantidu was rand of Uteratnie, and was accns- 
tomed ts attend the philosophical discnssions of 
Deiniu sad Aristotle, the dialectidan, in the agora 
of Sicyon : on one of these occasions he was mur- 
dered by his enemies. He was snceeeded in the 
tyranny by his fiither, who was pnt to death by 
Nicodes. (Pint. AnAi. 3; Pans. iL8. § 2.) ' 

ABARBAOIEA fAfopCo^), a Naiad, who 
hen two sons, Aeaepos and Pedaans, to Bncolion, 
'die eldest bnt illegitimate son of the Trojan King 
LaomedoB. (Horn. IL fi. 22, Su.) Other writers 
do not mention this nymph, bnt Hesychius («. c) 
nentioiu 'ASaflapiat or ASofgaXalcu as the name 
of a class of nymphs. [ L. S.] 

A'BARIS C'ACivir), son of Sentbe^ was a 
Hyperborean priest of Apollo (Herod, ir. 36), and 
came from the country about the Cancasus (Or, 
MeL T. 86) to Oreeoe, while his own country was 
raited by a plagoe. He was endowed with the 
pft of prophecy, and by this as well as by his 
Scythian dress and simplicity and honesty he 
cmted gnat sensation in Oreece, and was held in 
Ingli esteem. (Stiab.Tii. p. 301.) He trarelled about 
ia Gieeee, carrying with him an arrow as the 
■pihol of Apolle, and gare oracles, Tohind, in 
u History c^ the Dmiib, cansiders him to hare 
km B Oniid of the Hebrides, because the arrow 
{mcd a part of the costume of a Draid. Mis 
Uitory, which is entirely mythical, is related in 
ndiNii w^i, and waked np with eztraordinaiy 


paiticiilan : he is said to hare taken no earthly 
food (Herod. W. 36), and to hare ridden on his 
arrow, the gift of Apollo, through the air. (Lobeck, 
Afflaopiamut, p. 314.) He cured diseases by in- 
cantations (PUt. CkarnM, p.158, B.), delivered the 
world from a plague (Snidas, t. e. 'ASofiir), and 
built at Sparta a temple of Kifpi) treirnpa. (Pans, 
iii. 13. § 2.) Suidas and Eudoda ascribe to him 
seTeral works, such as incantations, Scythian 
oracles, a poem on the marriage of the river 
Hebrus, expiatory formnlos, the arrival of Apollo 
among the Hyperboreans, and a prose work on the 
origin of the gods. But such works, if they were 
really current in ancient times, were no mora 
genuine than his reputed correspondence with 
Phalaris the tyrant, 'llie time of his appearance 
in Oreece is stated differently, some fixing it in 
01. 3, others in 01. 21, and others again make 
him a contemporary of &oesns. (Bentley, On the 
JEpi$L tfPhaiaru, p. 34,) liobeck places it about 
the year ac, S70, i. e. about OL 52. Respecting 
the perplexing tniditions about Ahoris see Klopfcr, 
ifytiologiMdks Worteriuch, I p. 2 ; Zapf, Dupaia- 
tkt Utlmea de Abaride, Lips. 1707 ; Larcher, on 
Herod, vol. iiL p, 446. [L. S.] 

ABAS CAfat). 1. A son of Metaneira, was 
changed by Demeter into a lizard, became he 
moeked the goddess when she had come on her 
wanderings into the house of her mother, and 
drank eageriy to quench her thirst. (Nicander, 
Tteriaea; NataL Com. t. 14; Or. Met. t. 
450.) Other tradi^ons rehte the same story 
of a boy, Ascalabus, and call his mother Misme. 
(Antonin, Lib, 23,) 

2, The twelfth King of Argos. He was the 
son of Lyncens and Hypermnestra, and grand- 
son of Danaus. He married Ocalcia, who bore 
him twin sons, Acrisins and Proetus, (ApoUod. 
ii. 2. §1 ; Hygin.i^ai.170.) When he informed 
his father of the death of Danaus, he was re- 
warded with the shield of his grandfather, 
which waa sacred to Hera, He is described as 
a snccessM conqnenr and as the founder of 
the town ct AW in Phocis (Pans, x, 35, § 1), 
and of the Pebugic Aigo* in Thessaly. (Strab, 
ix. pi 431.) The lame of his wariike spirit was 
10 great, that even after hii death, when people 

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nrolted, wbom he had nibdaed, they were pat 
to flight fay the timple act of showing them his 
shield (Viig. ^ea. iii. 286 ; Senr. ad loe.) It was 
from this Abes that the kings of Aigos wen called 
by the fatroDymic Abantiads. [Abantiadis.] 


ABAS CACa>). I. A Greek soviet and 
ihetorician about whose life nothing ii known. 
Soidas (i. 0. 'ASai : compare Eudoda, p. fil) 
ascribes to him Itrro/Mml iioiariitm and a work 
on rhetoric (Wx*^ ^vopifi)- What Photins 
(Cod. 190. pi 150, b. ed. Bekker) quotes bom him, 
bdong* probably to the former work. (Compaie 
Wall, liietor. Graee. vii. 1. p. 203.) 

2. A writer of a work called TVoin, from which 
Serrius (ad Aen. ix. 264) has preserved a frag- 
ment. [L. S.] 

ABASCANTUS ('AAbncavTor), a physician of, 
Lngdunnm (Lyons), who probably lived in the 
second century after Christ. He is several times 
mentioned by Oalen (D» Campoi. Medmm, ttamd. 
Loeot, iz. 4. vol. xiii. p. 278), who has also preserved 
an antidote invented by him against the bite of 
serpents. (De Aniid. ii. 12. voL ziv. p. 177.) The 
name is to be met with in nmnerous Latin in- 
scriptions in Oruter's collection, five of which refer 
to a iieodman of Angnstns, who is supposed by 
Kubn (Additam. ad Elau*. Medic. Vet. a J. A. 
Fabrido n " BiU. Grr ExUb.) to be the same 
person that is mentioned by Oalen. This however 
IS quite uncertain, as also whether na^wcAifrisj 
'AtiirKBr9ot in Oalen (De Compot. Medicam. 
leemd. Loea. viL 3. ToL ziii p. 71) refers to the 
rabject of this article. [W.A.O.] 

gardener, but of royal descent, was made king of 
Sidon by Alexander the Great. (Curt. iv. I ; Just 
zi. 10.) He is called Ballonymus by Diodonu. 
(xvii. 46.) 

ABDI/RUS CAMiipat), a son of Heimes, or 
according to others of Thnmiins the Locrian. (Apol- 
lod. il £. § 8 ; Strab. viL p. 33 1.) He was a bvonrito 
of HerBclea, and was torn to pieces by the mares 
of Diomedes, which Heracles had given him to 
pni«ue the Bistones. Heracles is said to have 
built the town of Abdera to honour him. Accord- 
ing to Hygiuus, {Fah. .10,) Abdems wa* a servant 
of Diomedes, the king of the Thracian Bistones, 
and was killed by Heracles together with his 
master and his four men-devouring horses. (Com- 
pare Philostrat. Heroie. 3. § 1 ; 19. § 2.) [L S.] 

ABDIAS ('ACSlas), the pretended author of an 
Apocryphal book, entitled The Hittory </Uie Apo- 
Mtolicttl eoKteiL This work claims to have been written 
in Hebrew, to have been translated into Greek by 
Kutropius, and thence into Latin by Julius Afri- 
canus. It vat however originally written in latin, 
about A. ti. 910. It is printed in Fabricius, 
(Jodac Afoerypkut Noti Tal. p. 402. 8vo. Hamb. 
1703. Abdiaa was called too the first Bishop of 
Ilttbylon. [A.J.C.] 

ABE'LLIO, is the name of a divinity found in 
inscriptions which were discovered at Comminges 
in France. (Gruter, Inxr. p. 37, 4 ; J. Scaliger, 
LedioaaAfuomamae^ i.9.) Buttma&n(7M'ji<itoi(>;iM, 
i. p. 167, &c.) considers Abellio to be the same 
name as ApoUa, who in Crete and elsewhere was 
called *AfftAio5, and by the Italians and some Do- 
rians Apello (Fest. f. V. ApeUimm ; Eustath. ad 
II. ii. 99), and that the deity is the some as the 
.Gallic Apollo mentioned by Caesar {Hell, Gall, vi. 


17), and also the same as Belis or Bdenns mesi- 
tioned by Tertnllian (ApclogeL 23) and Hentdian 
(viii. 3; eomp. CapitoL Maxmia. 22). As the 
root of the word he recognises the Spartan B^Ao, 
Le. the sun (Hesych. «, e,), which appears in the 
Syiiac and Chaldaie Belus or BaaL [L. 8.] 

ABE'RCIUS, ST. ('AS^pnoi), the soppoaed 
successor of St, Papias in the see of Hierapolis, 
flourished a. d. I£0. There are ascribed to him, 
1. An Epulh (0 tke Eiig)eror Mama AnreltMe, of 
which Baronins speaks as extant, but he does 
not produce it ; and, 2. A Book of Dieeiplim 
(piSA.ot tiSairmXtta) addressed to his Clergy ; this 
too is lost See JUuetr. Eoolee. OriemL &inpt. 
rUae, a P. Hallou. Duac. 1 636. [A. J. a] 

( 'ASye^f, "AKlafot, ASyofos), a name eoomoo 
to many rulers of Edessa, the capital of the district 
of Osrhoene in Mesopotamia. It seems to have 
been a title and not a proper name. (Procop. 
BeU. Fen. ii. 12.) For the history cf these kings 
see Bayer, "Historia Osrhoena et Edeaaena ex 
nummis illustreta," Petrop. 1734. Of these the 
most important are-: 

1. The ally of the Romans under Pompey, wh« 
treacherously drew Ciassus into an onnkTocabls 

r'tion befera his defeat. He is called Angarui 
, Dion Cassius (xL 20), Acbarus the phylazch 
of the Arabians in the Parthian history ascribed 
to Appian (p. 34. Schw.), and Ariamnes by Pli- 
tarch. ( 

2. The contemporary of Christ. See the follow- 
ing article. 

&, The ijiie^ who resisted Meherdatet, whom 
Claudius wished to place on the Parthian throne : 
he is called a king of the Arabians by Tadcus 
(Ann. ziL 12. 14), but was probably an Oufaoenioa. 

4. The contemporary of Trajan, who sent pre- 
sents to that emperor when he invaded the east, 
and subsequently waited upon him and became hit 
aUy. (Dion Cass. Uviii. 18. 21.) 

£. The Gontemponiy of Caracalh^ who acted 
cruelly towards his nation, and was deposed by 
Cancalla. (Dion Cass. Ixxvii. 12.) 

A'BGARUS, Topaich of Ednsa, sapposed by 
Eusebius to have been the author of a letter 
written to our Saviour, which he found in a church 
at Edessa and translated from the S^iac The 
letter is believed to be spurionn It u given by 
Eusebius. IHiet Heel. I 13.) [A. J. a] 

A'BIA ( Affa), the nurse of HyUus, a son of 
Heracles. She built a temple of Heracles at Ira 
in Messenia, fer which the Heradid Cresphontes 
aitorwards honoured her in various other ways, 
and also by changing the name of the town of Ira 
into Abia. (Pans. iv. 30. g 1.) Ih. S.] 

a noble Spaniard, originally a friend of Carthage, 
betrayed the Spuiiah hostages at Sagontum, who 
were in the power of the Carthaginians, to the 
Roman generals, the two Scipios, after deceiving 
Bostar, the Carthaginian commander. (Liv. xxii. 
22 ; Polyb. UL 98, &c) 

called Embisaras CE^iirapaj) fay Diodorus (xvii 
90), an Indian king beyond the river Hydaspcs, 
whose territory lay in the mountains, sent embas- 
sies to Alexander the Great both befbra and after 
the conquest of Pons, although inclined to espouse 
the side of the latter. Alexander not only allowed 
him to retain hia kingdom, but increased it, aal 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


IB Ui dMih ■Bpoiated liia Hn M lui 

(JUma, AmAj. a. W,i» } CnttTiiL U 19. 14. 


ABI'STAMENES -wai ^ipomted goTennr of 
&n«docii b7 Alexander the Onst (Curt. iii. 4.) 
He ■ olkd Sabictu by Aniu. {Amai. ii. 4.) 
O iu m n i i a eonjeetum tint iutead oS AbUawum 
Qffaiaaat pmfum l o, w* ong^t to lead AHeta 

ABITU'NUS {'AMrriuai,), the aathor of a 
Cnek ticatae D* Urim* inieHiid in the aeemd 
nlms of Idderli Pl^^ tl Aftdid Oratci Mi- 
mm. Bard. Sto. 1842, with the title n«p> Otpcir 

'IMa ' IMai titm row Son 4to< 'AAAq uU> ro» 
2M,«^l<lTnAeM*A<ir{'iarai. HeiatheiaiiM 
fenoo ai the eelebiBted AiaUe phyudan ^nonna, 
vkaoe nd mna ma AbA 'AU Jim Sfai, a. h. 
STO or 375—128 (a. n. 980 or 985—1037), and 
frta wbooe great work Kel6b al-Ki*in Ji '^TeU, 
JUcr (IwwV MtHemae, this traatiaa ii probably 
t»««J.«T.f [W. A. O.] 

ABLA'BinS CACSUttiot). 1. A jihyudan on 
wkooe death there is an epigram by Theooebia in 
the Gietk Antholo^ (nL 66S), in which he i* 
oaadend aa infenor only to Hippocntei and 
GdoL With reqieet to hie date, it it only 
haowo that be moat have lived after Oalen, 
thatio,Maie lime later than the Mcond oentory 
tftsOiiM. [W.A.G.] 

2. The JBiutrioiit ^YXXabvrfHK), the aathor of an 
«igBB in the Gredc Anthology (ix. 762^ * on 
taeqaoitof AKkpaadea." Mothing more i« known 
•f Un, aoleos he be the aune penon ai AblaUu, 
the NoTBtiaa biahop of Nicaea, who waa a diadpla 
<f the rfaetoridan Troilna, and himtelf eminent 
il the male profreainn, and who fired nnder Ho- 
■ooBt tndTheodoaina IL, at the end of the ionrth 
nd the beginning of the fifth eentariea after Cfariat. 
(Sociatt*, HUL Eee. TiL 12.) [P. &] 

ABl^'VIUS. 1. Prefect of the dty, the mi- 
aiitrr aad &Toaiite of Cooatantine the Great, wai 
■mdered after the death of the latter. (Zoiimiu, 
n. 40.) He waa conaol a. d. SSI. There ia an 
opgnm extant attiibnted to him, in which the 
reigu af Nero and Conatantine are compared. 
(iath.I«t. n. 2«1, ed. Meyer.) 

2. A Boan hiatnrian, whoae age ia unknown, 
wnte a hiitery of the Gotha, which ia aome- 
tiaaa qooted by Jomandes aa hia anthdiity. 
(AAA. Otti&iT. 14.29.) 

ABBADATAS ('ACfN^as), a king of Snaa 
wi. aa aDy of the Aaayriaoa againat CyniL Hia 
wife Paathcia waa taken on the conqueat of the 
Aayoaa camp, while he waa abaent on a miiaion 
to iha Boctniuib In conaeqoance <i the honora- 
ble treatment which hia wills receiTed from Cyma, 
k joined the latter with hia ibrcea. He fell in 
lotde, while fighting apiinat the Egyptiana. In- 
— " l ah le at 1^ loaa, Paotheia pot an end to her 
own life, and her example waa fcUowed by her 
tarac enancha. Cyna had a high moond raiaed in 
their hoaoor : on a pillar on the top ware inacribed 
the laaea of Abndataa and Pantheia in the Syriac 
*kneten ; aad three eolnmna bebw bore tM in- 
•nfCion aapmix-', in hononr of the eunncha. 
(Xea. Qp. T. I. § 3, Ti I. i 31, &e. 4. S 2, &e. Tii. 

a^ 1 2, Oc.; Lacian. Imag, 20.) 
ABRETTEVUS (VU^wmi.^), a anmame of 

aw ia Unia. (Stiab. zii. p. 574.) [L. S.1 
ABB(yCOMAS CA«i»«V> one of the nrtaps 

AB8TRTU8. > 

of Artazentet Mnemen, waa aant with an army of 
800,000 men to omnae Cynu on hia march into 
i^per Aaia. On the aniTal of Cynia at Tarau, 
Abnicomaa waa aaid to be on the Enphiatea ; and at 
liana fam hnndted heaTy-armed Oreeka, who had 
deoertad Abracomaa, joined Cyraa, Abroieomaa did 
not defend the Syrian paini, aa was expected, bat 
marched to join the king. He bnmt acme boata to 
{HCTent Cyrna from croaaing the Euphratea, but did 
not aniTe in time for the battle of Cnnaza. (Xen. 
^aoi. i. 3. S 20, 4. 1 Si 5, 18, 7. S 12; Harpocnt. 
and Snidaa, a, e.) 

ABRO'COMES {'htpotoiiv) and hia brother 
Hyperanthea (Ta-^pdyfiif), the aona of Darioa by 
Fhntagnne, the danohtar rf Altanea, wen alain at 
Thermopylae while ^^ting orer the body of Leo- 
nidas. (Herod, rii 2i24.) 

ABRON or HABRON ("At^ or'AC^). L 
Son of the Attic orator Lyeoigua. (Plut. ViL dee. 

2. The un of Calliaa, of the dome of Bate in 
Attica, wrote on the featirala and aacrificet of the 
Oieeka. (Steph. Byt. a. v. Banf.) He alao wrote a 
work nfi wofttyi/iir, which ia fieqnently referred 
to by St^hanoa Qys. (a.e. 'A-y<tfi|,''Afi7oi,&c)and 
other wiiten. 

S. A giammarian, a Phrygian or Rhodian, a pupil 
of Tryphon, and otiginaily a alare, taught at Home 
under the first Caeaan. (Suidaa, i, v. 'Agptir.) 

4. A rich penon at Araoa, ftom whom the pn>< 
verb 'A t fmt ^s, which waa applied to eztiaTa- 
gant peraona, ia laid to hare been deiiTed. (Sni- 
daa, a. e.) 

ABIUXNIUS SILO, a Latin Poet, who Ured 
in the latter part of the Anguatan age, waa a pupil 
of Pordua Latro. Hia aon waa also a poet, but 
degraded himaelf by writing playa for pantomimea. 
(Senec Stxu. ii. p. 21. Bip.) 

ABRO'NYCUUS ('/^(ipihmx"), the aon of 
Lyaidea, an Athenian, waa atationed at Thermopy- 
lae with a TOiael to communiate between Leonidaa 
and the fleet at Artemiainm. Ho waa aubae- 
qoently tent aa ambaaaador to Sparta with Th»- 
miatodea and Ariateidea reapecting the fortificationa 
of Athena after the Peraian war. (Heiod. Tiii. 21 ; 
Thuc L 91.) 

ABRO^TA ('ACfM^), the danghter ofOn- 
cheatna, the Boeotian, and the wife of Niaua, king 
of tteg^m. On her death Niaua commanded all 
the Megarian women to wear a garment of the 
aame kind aa Abnta had worn, which waa called 
ofiabroma (i^agpmitay, and waa atill in uaa in the 
time of Plutarch. \(^mat. Urate, p. 295,a.) 

ABRCTONUM ('Al^oiw), a Thiadan 
harlot, who according to aome aooounta waa tbo 
mother of Themittoclet. Then it an epigram pre- 
aerred recording thia fed (PluL Than. 1 ; Athen. 
ziii p. 576, c; Aelian, Y. H. xiL 43.) Plutaich 
alto refers to her in hia 'XpurriiAt (p. 753, d.); and 
Lucian apeaka of a hariot of the aame name (Dial. 
Ahnir. 1). 

ABRU'POLIS, an aUy of the Romana, who 
attacked the dominiona of Peraeua, and laid them 
woate aa br aa Amphipolia, but was afterwards 
driTen out of hia kingdom by PeraeuiL (Lit. 
zlii. 13. SO. 41.) 



ABSYRTU8 or APSYRTUS f^iH^ot), a 
vm of Aeetes, king of Colchis, and brothar of 
Meddik Bis motha is stated diSenntly : Hygi- 


Digitized by VjOOyit^ 


mu {PiA. 18) esUi her Ipsio, ApoHodora* (L 9. 
S'2S) Idyia, ApoUoniiu (iii. 241) Asterodeia, and 
otfaen Hecate, Neaera, or Eurylyte. (SchoL ad 
Apollon. I. c) When Medeia fled with Jason, 
she took her brother Abtyrtiu with her, and when 
she was nearly orertaken by her &ther, she mur- 
dered her brother, cut his body in pieces and 
strewed them on the road, that her father might 
thua be detained by gathering the limbs of his 
child. Tomi, the place where this horror was 
committed, was believed to have derived its name 
from 7(iim, " cut." (ApoUod. i. 9. |24 ; Or. Trot. 
iiL 9 ; compota ApoUon. it. S38, jcc, 460, &c.) 
According to another tradition Absyrtns was not 
taken by Medeia, but was sent out by his bther 
in pursuit of her. He overtook her in Corcyia, 
where she had been kindly received by king 
Alcinoas, who refused to surrender her to Absyrtns. 
When he overtxwk her a second time in the island 
of Minerva, be was slain by Jason. (Hygin. Fab. 
23. ) A tradition followed by Pacuvins (Cic. tie nai. 
dear. iii. 19), Justin (xlii. S), and Diodoms (ir, 
45), called the son of Aeetes, who was murdered 
by Medeia, Aegialeas, [L. S.] 

ABULI'TES {'AfimOiSryit), the aatrap of Susi- 
ana, snrrendered Sosa to Alexander, when the 
latter approached the dty. The satiapy was re- 
stored to him by Alexander, but he and hit son 
Ozyathres were afterwards executed by Alexander 
for the crimes they had committed in the govern- 
ment of the satiapy. (Curt. v. 2 ; Arrian, Amtb. 
iii. 16. viL 4 ; Diod. xvil 65.) 

ABU'RIA OENS, plebeian. On the coins of 
this gens we find the cognomen Okm., which is 
peihaps an abbreviation of Oeminus. The coins 
have no heads of persons on them. 

1. C. Afii7iui;8 was one of the ambasaadoti sent 
to Masinissa and the Carthaginians, B. c 171. 
(Liv. xliL 35.) 

2. M. Aburids, tribone of the pleba, B.C. 187, 
opposed M. Fulvius the proconsul in his petition 
for a triumph, but withdrew his opposition chiefly 
through the influence of his colleague TL Oiaocfaus. 
(Liv, zxxix. 4. 5.) He was praetor peregrinns, 
& c 176. (Liv. xU. la 19.) 

ABYDIi/NUS {'Afivt^s), a Greek historian, 
who wrote a history of Assyria {'AamptoKd). 
The time at which he lived is uncertain, but we 
know that he made use of the works of Megas- 
thenes and Berosus ; and Cyrillus (adv. Jalian. pp. 
8, 9) states, that be wrote in the Ionic dialect. 
Several fragments of his work are preserved by 
EusebiuB, Cyrillus (od Syncellns: it was particu- 
larly valuable for chronology. An important frag" 
ment, which clean up some difficoltiet in Assyrian 
history, has been discovered in the Armenian 
translation of the Chronioon of Eusebius. The 
fisgments of his history have been published by 
Scaliger, ** De Emendations Temporum," and 
Richter, " Berosi Chaldaeorum Historiue," &C., 
Lips. 1825. 

ACACALLIS (^AKOKoMis), daughter of Minos, 
by whom, according to a Cretan tradition, Hermes 
begot Cydon ; while according to a tradition of the 
Trgeatans, Cydon was a son of Tegeates, and im- 
migrated to Crete from Tegea. (Paus. viii. 53. §2.) 
Apollo begot by her a son Miletus, whom, for fear 
oi her bther, Acacallis exposed io a forest, where 
wolves watched and suckled the child, until he 
Wu found by shepherds who brought him up. 


(Antonin. Lib. SO.) Other sons of her sad 
Apollo are Amphithemis and Oaiamas. (ApoUon. 
iv. 1490. &C.) ApoUodorua (iii. 1. § 2) calls thii 
daughter of Minos Acalle ('Ax^XAq), but does sot 
mention Miletus as her son. Acacallis was b 
Crete a common name for a nareisaiis. (AthcD. 
XV. p. 681 ; Hesych. •.«.)- [I^ S.] 

AC A'CI US ('AixlKiat), a rhetorician, of Caenna 
in Palestine, lived under the emperor Julian, aod 
was a friend of Libanius. (Suidas, t. r. 'Axiiun, 
lutianos : Eunapiua, AeacU Yit.) Many of the 
Istten of Libanus are addressed to him. [B. J.] 

2. A Syrian by birth, lived in a monastery 
near Antioch, and, for his active defence of the 
Church against Arianism, was made Bishop of 
Berrhoea, a. d. 378, by St. Eusebius of Samoiata. 
While a priest, he (with Paul, another priest) wrote 
to St. Epiphanius a letter, in consequence of whidi 
the latter composed his Pamarium (a. d. 374-6). 
This letter is prefixed to the woric. In A. D. 377- 
8, he was sent to Rome to confute Apdlinaris be> 
fore Pope Sl Damasus. He was present at the 
Oecumenical Council of Constantinople a. n. 381, 
and on the death of St. Meletius took part is 
Flavian's ordination to the See of Antioch, by 
whom he was afterwards sent to the Pope in order 
to heal the schism between the churches of the West 
and Antioch. Afterwards, he took part in the 
persecution against St. Chrysostom (Socntei, 
Hal. EecL vi. 18), and again compromised 
himself by oidainiug as successor to FUvian, 
Poiphytius, a man unworthy of the epiacopate. 
He defended the heretic Nestorius against St 
Cyril, though not himself present at the Coun- 
cil of Ephesus. At a great age, he laboiired to re- 
concile St. Cyril and the Eastern Bishops at t 
Synod held at Berrhoea, A. D. 432. He died A. B. 
497, at the age of 1 16 years. Three of hia letteis 
remain in the original Oieek, one to SL Cyril, 
(extant in the Collection of Councils by Mansi, 
voL iv. p. 1056,) and two to Alexander, Bishop 
of HierapoUs. llbU. pp.819, 830, c.41. 55. §129, 

3. The One-eyed {6 Mor^oA/iof), the pnpO 
and successor in the See of Caesarea of Easebiui 
A. O. 340, whose life he wrote. (So«ntes, HkU 
Bed, ii. 4.) He was able, learned, and onaeni- 
pulous. At first a Semi-Arian like his master, 
he founded afterwards the Homoean party and 
was condemned by the Semi-Arians at Seleocia, 
A. D. 359. (Socrates, Hit. Bed. u. 39. 40; 
Soiomen, Hid. Eed. iv. 22. 23.) He subse- 
quently became the associate of Aetins [Aiirius], 
the author of the Anomoeon, then deserted him 
at the command of Conilantins, and, under the 
Catholic Jovian, subscribed the Homoousion or 
Creed of Nicaea. He died a. d. 366. He wrote 
seventeen Books on Ecdaiada and six of Mitcet- 
lama. (St. Jerome, Vir. lU. 98.) St. Epipha- 
nius has preserved a fragment of his work agatrnd 
MandUa (c. Haer. 72), and nothing else of his 
is extant, though Soiomen speaks of many valu- 
able works written by him. (Hid. Ecd. iii. 2.) 

4. Bishop of Constantinople, succeeded Gen- 
nadius A. D. 471, after being at the head of 
the Orphan Asylum of that dty. He distinguish- 
ed himself by defending the Council of Chakedon 
against the emperor Basiliscus, who bvoured the 
Monophysite heresy. Through his exertions Zeno,. 
from whom Banliscus had usuiped the empire, was' 
leitored (a. D. 477), bnt the Monophyaites mvaa- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

vidle Ind guned w nmeh atrengtb thit it mu 
deencd idTinbie to une a ibmiuU, condliatoiy 
{mm it! iadefinitnica*, called the Henotkon, A. D. 
4)13. Acadni mi led into other eooeewions, 
whtdi draw npoa him, on the acciuation of John 
Talaii, •gainit whom he supported the chums of 
Peter Mongol to the See of Alexandria, the 
•attlKBa of Pope Feli& IL A. a 484. Peter 
VtBgu had gained Aeaehn'a •npport by proiew- 
ing uaent to die canona of Chaleedon, thongh at 
ioit a Honophjaite. AcMins refused to gire np 
Peter Mongol, tnt retained hia we till hii death, 
it. b 488. Then icmain two lettera of his, one 
to Pope SSmpiiciiis, in latin (see Omdlionun Nem 
OiOgriis i Mami, toI. vn. p. 993), the other to 
Peter Fnllo, Archtrisbop of Antioch, in the original 
Greek, (/itf. p. 1121.) 

5. Reider at {a. d. 390), then the Bishop of 
MditOK (a. n. 431). He wrote a. d. 431, 
apmnt Nestoiini. His xeal led him to me 
eipfeasiogi, apparently saTouring of the contrary 
bensy, which, for a time, prejudiced the em- 
penr Theododna II. ngunst St. Cyril. He was 
pirsent at the Oecumenical Council of Ephesus 
i. n. 431, and eonstandy maintained its autnority. 
Then! remain of hia productions a Homily (in 
Gnek) delirercd at the Council, (see QmaUorum 
IfmaColUcSoi Monti, ToL r. p. 181,) and a letter 
written after it to St. Cyril, which we hare in a 
Latin tianihuion. {Ibid. pp. 860, 998.) [A. J. C] 

ACACE'SIUS CAnunfffuii), a surname of 
Henies (Callim. Hym. n /Km. 143), for which 
Homer (IL xn. 185; Od. xxir. 10) uses the 
bra ^zanrra (dicamfrifr). Some writer* dciire it 
fnm the Aicadian town of Acacesinm, in which 
he was helicTed to hare been brought up by king 
Aaons; others from miidi, and ssiign to it the 
OManing : Ae god who cannot be hurt, or who doea 
sot hurt. The same attribute is also giren to 
Prametheus (Hea. Tkeog. 614), whence it may be 
inferred that its meaaing ia that of bene&ctor or 
ddiTerer from eril. (Compare Sjanh. ad Oallim. 
L e.; Spitner, ad IL xn. 185.) [L. S.] 

' A'CACUS CAnwar), a son of Lycaon and king 
of Aeacesinm in Arcadia, of which he was beliered 
to be the feonder. (Pans. Tlii. 3. S 1 ; Steph. Byi. 
I. v. 'Aminfvtar.) , [L. S.] 

ACADE'MXJS CA«tQli)^t),an Attic hero, who, 
*h» Castor and Polydences innded Attica to 
liberate their sister Helen, betrayed to them that 
•he was kept concealed at Aphidnae. For this 
Rsaon the Tyndarids always showed him much 
gratitude, and whenever the Lacedaemonians in- 
vaded Attica, they always spared the hmd belongs 
lag to Aeademns which lay on the Cephissna, six 
Madia bom Athens. (Plut. Thes. 32 ; Diog. Laert. 
iii. 1. f 9.) This piece of land was subsequently 
sdoned with plane and olire plantations (Plut. 
Om. 13), and was called Academia from its 
•r^pnal owner. [L. S.] 


A'CAHAS CAxd/iai). I. A son of Theseus 
sod Phaedra, and brother of Demophoon. (Died, 
i*. 62.) Previous to the expedition of the Greeks 
ogainst Tny, he and Diomedes wen sent to de- 
uoiid the surrender of Helen (this meisage Homer 
ascnbes to Menelons and Oayuens, IL xi. 139, 
k.\ but during his stay at Troy he won the 
sfitction of Laodice, danghter of Priam (Parthen. 
Mick &oL 16), and begot by her a son, Monitos, 


who waa brought up by Aethra, the grandmother of 
Acamas. (SchoL ad Lyeopkr. 499, &c) Vir;:!! 
(Aen. u. 262) mentions him among the Oncks 
concealed in the wooden hone at the taking of 
Tny. On hia return home he was detained in 
Thiiue by his love for Phyllis ; but after leaving 
Thrace and anivins in the ishind of Cyprus, he 
was killed by a &11 from his hone upon his own 
sword. (SchoL ad Lfeapkr. Le.) The promontory 
of Acamas in Cyprus, the town of Acamentium in 
Phrygia, and the Attic tribe Acamantis, derived 
their names from him. (Steph. Byi. i. e. 'Amifuft^ 
Tiov ; Pans. i. £. § 2.) He waa painted in the 
Leache at Delphi by Polygnotns, and then was also 
a statue of him at Delphi. (Pans. x. 26. § 1, x. 
10. i 1.) 

2. A son of Antenor and Theano, was ona 
of the bravest Trojans, (Horn. IL ii. 823, xil 
100.) He avenged the death of his brother, who 
had been killed by Ajax, by slaying Promachua 
the Boeotian. (IL xiv. 476.) He himself was 
slain by Meriones. (IL xvi. 342.) 

3. A son of Enssomi, was one of the leaden 
of the Thradans in the Trojan war (Horn. //. iL 
844, V. 462), and was slain by the Tclamoniau 
Ajax. (n. vi. 8.) [U S.1 

ACANTHUS CA«av«ot\ the Lacedaemonian, 
was victor in the tfovAas and the Uaixoi in the 
Olympic games in OL 15, (b. c 720,) and accord- 
ing to some accounts vras the fint who ran naked 
in these games. (Paus. v. 8. § 3 ; Dionys. vii. 72 ; 
African, ajmd Eamb. p. 143.) Other accounts 
ascribe this to Onippus the Megarian. [Oiuui>- 
PU8.] Thncydides says that the Locedaemonians 
wen the first who contended naked in gymnastic 
games. (L 6.) 

ACARNAN ('Ainyrtfy), one of the Epigones, 
was a son of Alcmaeon and Calirrhoe, and brother 
of Amphoterus. Their &ther was murdered hy 
Phegeus, when they wen yet very young, and 
Calirrhoe prayed to Zeus to make her sons grow 
quickly, that they might be able to avenge the 
death of their fitUier. The prayer was granted, 
and Acaman with his brother slew Phegeus, hia 
wife, and his two sons. The inhabitants of 
Psophis, when the sons had been slain, punned 
the mnrdenn as fiur as Tcgea, where however they 
were received and rescued. At the request of 
Achelons they carried the necklace and peplus of 
Harmonia to Delphi, and from thence they went 
to Epirns, when Acaman founded the state called 
after him Acamania. (ApoUod. iii. 7. 1 5 — 7 ; Or. 
Met ix. 413, Ac; Tbucyd. ii. 102; Strab. x. 
p. 462.) [L.S.] 

ACASTU8 CAmin-M), a son of Pelias, king of 
lolcns, and of Aiuixibia, or as othera call her, Phi- 
lomache. He was one of the Argonauts (ApoUod. 
19. % 10; Apollon. Rfaod.!. 224, &c), and also took 
port in theCslydonian hirat(Ov. Met. viii. .S05, Sec) 
After the return of the Argonauts his listen wen 
•educed by Medeia to cut their bther in pieces 
and boil them ; and Acostus, when he heard this, 
buried his &tber, drove laion and Medeia, and 
according to Pauianias (vii. 11) his listen also, 
from lolcus, and instituted funeral games in honour 
of hia bther. (Hygin. Fab. 24 and 273 ; ApoUod. 
i. 9. § 27, &c.i Paul. iiL 18. § 9, vL 20. § 9, v. 17. 
§4 ; Ov. Met. xi. 409, &c) During these games it 
happened that Astydamia, the wife of Acastua, 
who ia also caUed Hippolyte, feU in love with 
Peleus, whom Acastos had purified £rom the nun* 




der of Enrytion. When Velent refiued to lixten 
to her addieuM, (he accsaed him to her hiuband 
of having attempted to duhonoar her. (Apollod, 
ill 13. § 2, &c. ; Find. Nem. It. 90, &c) AcRrtu, 
howoTer, did not take immediato nrenge for the 
alleged crime, but afkei he and Pelena had been 
chaang on mount Palion, and the latter had fidlen 
aileep, Acactiu took hi* iword from him, and left 
him alone and exposed, ao that Pelena waa neariy 
destroyed by the Centanra, But he vaa aared by 
Cheiron or Hermes, returned to Acaatna, and killed 
him together with hia wife. (Apollod. Le.; Schol. 
ad ApoOm. Rkod. i. 224.) The death of Acaatna 
ia not mentioned by ApoUodoma, but aecording to 
him Pelena in conjunction with laaon and the 
Dioacnri merely conquer and deatroy lolcaa, 
(ApoUod. iiL 13. § 7.) [L.S.] 

ACBARUS. [AsoARira.] 

mythical woman who occora in the atories in eoily 
Roman hiatory. Macrobina (JSai. i. 10), with 
whom Plutarch (Qwiett. Bom. 35; RomML 5) 
agreea in the main pointa, relates the following 
tradition about her. In the reign of Ancua Martiua 
a aerrant {atdiiitta) of the temple of Hercnlea in- 
vited during the holidays the god to a game of 
dice, promising that if he ahould loae the game, he 
would treat the god with a repaat and a beautiful 
woman. When ^e god had conquered the acrvant, 
the latter shut up Acca Lonrentia, then the most 
beaatiful and most notorious woman, together vrith 
a well stored table in the temple of Hercnlea, who, 
when ahe left the aanctuary, advised her to try to 
gain the afiisction of the fint wealthy man ahe 
should meet. She aucoeeded in making Carutiua, 
an Etruscan, or aa Plutarch calls him, Tartntina, 
love and marry her. After hia death ahe inherited 
his large property, which, when ahe herself died, 
she left to the Rcnnan people. Ancns, in gratitude 
for this, allowed her to be buried in the Velabnun, 
and instituted an annual featival, the Larentaiia, 
at which aacrificea were offered to the Lares. 
(Comp. Varr. Uip. Lot. v. p. 85, ed. Bin.) Ac- 
cording to others (Hacer, apnd Afaercb. I. e> ; Or. 
FaM. lit 55, ftc. ; Plin. H. N. jcviii. 2), Aeea 
Laurentia was the wife of the shepherd Faustulua 
and the nnrae of Romulua and Remua after they 
had been taken from the ahe-wol£ Plutarch in- 
deed states, that this Laurentia was altogether a 
different being from the one occurring in the reign 
of Ancus ; but other writers, such as Hacer, relate 
their stories as belonging to the same being. 
(Comp. OelL vi 7.) Aocordmg to Maaaurina Sabinua 
in O^ua ({, e.) ahe was Uie mother of twelve 
sons, and when one of them died, Ronmlus atept 
into hia phue, and adopted in conjunction with 
the remaming eleven the name of fratiea arvalea. 
(Comp. Plin. /■ e.) According to other acconnta 
again ahe waa not the wife of Fanatulna, but a 

{iroatitnte who from her mode of life waa called 
upa by the ahepherda, and who left the property 
ahe gained in that way to the Roman people. 
(Valer. Ant ap. GtU. L e.; Livy, I 4.) What- 
ever may be thought of the contradictory atote- 
menta respecting Acca Laurentia, thus much seems 
clear, that she waa of Etruacan origin, and con- 
nected with the worahip of the Larea, from which 
her name Uuentia itaelf aeema to be derived. 
This I4ipear8 fiirther from tlie number of her aona, 
which anaweti to that of the twelve country Larea, 
and {ram the eircumataaoe that the day aacred to 


her was foUdwad by one aacred to the Lira.' 
(Macrob. Sat, L e.; compare MttUer, Bnata; n. 
p. 103, Ac. ; Hartong, Die Seliffiom tier Aoamvii. 
p. 144, Ac) [L.8.] 

L. A'CCIUS or ATTIUS, an eariy Bo- 
man tragic poet and the aon ol a fieedman, waa 
bom according to Jerome B. c. 170, and waa fifty 
yean younger than Pacnvius. He lived to a gnat 
age ; Cioera, when a yonng man, frequently cod- 
veraed with him. (BnU. 28.) Hia tagediaswcn 
chiefly imitoted from the OredLs, espeeiaUy fron 
Aeachylna, but he also wrote aome on Romas aab- 
jeete (PraeteabOa) ; one of which, entitled Bmtua, 
waa probably in honour of hia patron D. Bmtns. 
(Cicde Leg.n.2l,pro Ardull.j We poaseaa only 
fiagmento of hia tragedies, of which the moat im- 
portant have been preserved by Cicero, but suffi- 
cient remains to juariiy the terma of admiration in 
which he ia apoken of by the ancient writers. 
He ia particulariy ptaiaed for the atrength and 
vigour of hia language and the sublimity of hia 
thoug^ta. (Cic pro Plama. 24, pro Sal. 56, Icc; 
Hor. JSp. ii. 1. 56 ; QnintiL x. 1. § 97 ; Gell. ziii. 
2.) Beridea these tragedies, he also wrote An- 
nata m veiae, containing the hiatory of Rome, like 
thoae of Ennina ; and three prose worics, ** Libri 
Didaacalion," which seems to have been a hiatoiy 
of poetry, " Libri Pragmaticon " and " Pareiga'': 
of the two hitter no fragments are preaerved. The 
fragmenta of hia tragediea have been collected by 
Stephanna in " Frag. veL Poet. LaU" Paris, 
1564 ; Maittaire, " Open et Frag. vet. Poet. 
Lat" Loud. 1713; and Bothe, " Poet. Soenici 
Latin.," voL v. Ijps. 18S4: and the fragmenta ol 
the Didaacalia by Madvig, " De L. Attii Didaa- 
caliia Comment" Hafhiae, 1831. 

T. A'CCIUS, a native of Piaaurum in Umtos 
and a Roman knight, was the accuser of A. Clneo- 
tiua, whom Cicero defended B. c. 66, He was a 
pupil of Hennagoraa, and ia piaiaod by Cicero fer 
accuracy and fluency. (JSnt. 23, pro CXtumL H, 
31, 57.) 

ACCO, a chief of the Senones in Oanl, who in- 
duced his countrymen to revolt against Caesar, a.& 
53. On the cimcluaion of the war Aoco was pot to 
death by Caesar. {BtU. GaU. vi. 4, 44.) 

ACCOLEIA OENS ia known to us only by 
coins and inscriptions. On a denarius we have this 
name P. Aoooleius Lariscolus, and in two inscrip- 
tions a P. Aocoleius Enhemems, and a L. Accoleina 

ACE'RATUSCAjnffNn-ot ypattfiaruds^^OttA 
gnunmarian, and the author of an epigram on 
Hector in the Oreek Anthology, (vii. 138.) No- 
thing is known of his life. [P. S.] 

ACERBAS, a Tynan priest of Hercules, who 
married Elisso, the daughter of king Mutgo, and 
sister of Pygmalion. He waa posansed of conai- 
denble wraith, which, knowing the avarice of 
Pygmalion, who had aacceeded his father, he con- 
coded in the earth. But Pygmalion, who heard 
of these hidden ttcaaoRs, had Acerbas mnidered, 
in hopes that through his aiater he might obtain 
poaa ea s i on of them. But the prudence of Eliaaa 
aaved the treaaorea, and ahe emigrated from Phoe 
nicia. (Justin, xviii. 4.) In this account Aeeibas 
is the same person aa Sichaeoa, and Eliaaa the saine 
as Dido in ViigiL {Am. i. 343, 348, too.) The 
namea in Juatin are undoubtedly more correct than 
in \it^& ; for Servius {ad Aen. L 343) maaiki, 
that Vugil hare, as in other cases, changed a b- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


■s mta one man ctwrcalcBt to Vm, aad 
th* tkc nal bum of Kchaea* ma Siduifau, 
which iinnn to be McntimI with Aoaibn. [Dioo ; 
PrsJUiJON.] [!<■&] 

ACERRO'NLA, a fiiond of Agrippina, the 
■wther of Nero, waa drowned in B, c. 59, when an 
■BMcieiiAil attenpt waa made at the auae time to 
drawn A^ppina. (Tab ^aa;. m, i ; Dion Caih 

M. Bl 37, the year in which Tiberiu died (Tec 
^■a. tL 46 ; Soet. 7Bl 73), waa periiqio a de- 
■nendant of the Cn. Aeerranina, whom Cicen 
mwitinni m hk ontion for Tnllioa, a. b 71, a* a 
CTT irti I (16,<kc) 

ACERSrCOMES CAic^wwe^MW). a ninamo 
of Ayotta (Kpnanre of hit beaotifid hair which 
waa aevor cat ac ihom. (HoauIL xz. 39; Pind. 
jyk. B. 26.) [L. S.] 

ACBSANDER QAtinrSpot) wrote a hiatory 
of Cjnoie. (SchsL ai ApolL ir. 1561, 1750 ; ad 
Pimd. PfH. ir. mU. 57.) PkUrch (Sgmp, T. 2. 
1 8) ifwaka of a work of hia letpecting Ubja (irtpt 
AMwty, whidi nay pmliably be the ainie wcnk as 
tka Jntaiy of Cyime. The time at which he lired 

A^CEaAS CAmvoiX • native of Salanrie in 
Cyfraa, iiaed fcr his sldU in wearing ckth with 
xaiiqgstad patterns (polfmHariiu). He and hia son 
fieficiia, who diitiaguiifaed himself in the nme 
ait are mentioDed 1^ Athenaeos. (ii. p. 48, b.) 
Zeiabiaa spfslrs of both artists, but says that 
fliisss (or, as he calls him Aceseoa, 'Axeffns) was 
a aalm af Pataia, and Helioon of Carystos. He 
ttOa aa aba tkat th^ wen the first who made a 
pepha Sat Athena Pofias. When they lired, we 
an not iafonned ; bot it most baTe been befbte 
the tina of Emnades sod Plato, who mention this 
pqilv. (Ear.i7ee.468;Plat.£SstijI]ib-. §6.) A 
qpedmen of the woAmanship of these two artists 
waa pRacrrcd in the tennle at Delphi, bearing an 
inaenption to the efieet, that Pallas had im]iuted 
BurdlaDa skill to their hands. [C. P. M.] 

ACB'SIAS (^Antias), an ancient Greek physi- 
dan, whoae age and eoantry are both onknown. 
It is aacertained howerer that he lired at least 
fm handled years befiire Christ, as the proTerb 
Vknvaas Meaio, ^oaoos emnd Um, is quoted on 
the aathori^ of AtistDphaaes. This saying (by 
which only Aceaias is known to ns,) was used 
arhen amy person's disease became worse instead of 
better nrider medical treatment, and is mentioned 
by Siddaa (s. e. 'Ajcwioi), Zenoblns {^Proverb. 
Cent. L { 52), Diogenianas {Prmai. ii. 3X Mi- 
dtael Apoatolios (ProBtii. ii. 23), and Phitarch 
{Pmxwii. qidlm* Altmmdr. mi mat, S SH). See 
aho frmxii. « Cod. BodL f 82, in Oaisford's 
Paratwuognqiki Gratd, Sto. Oxon. 1836. It is 
poasihte that an anthor bearing this name, and 
mentioned by Atbenaeoa (xiL p.5I6, e.) as haTing 
writtaa a treatise on the Art at Cooking {Hfcifrv- 
tmi), may be one and the same person, but of this 
we lune no certain iafonnatiion. (J. J. Baler, 
Adoff. Media. OmUUk Lips. 1718.) [W.A.O.] 

ACE'SIUS CAWrm), a somame of Apollo, 
ander which he was wnnbipped in Elis, where he 
had a spltndid temple in tha agonu This snr- 
naate, wUeh has ths same meaning as iiUimip 
and iln^mmict, chancteiised the god as the 
aTertersfera (Pans. ri. 24. | 5.) [US.] 
- ACESriES Q/uUrTv)f a son o^ the Sicilian 


Hveivfod Ciimisus and of a Trojan wcoan of tha 
name of Egesta or SegesU (Viig. ^ea. i. 195, 550, 
T. 36, 711, &c.)i who scoording to Serrius was 
sent by her &ther Hippotes or Ipsostnitns to Sicily, 
that soe might not be devoored by the monsters, 
which infested the territory of Troy, and which 
had been lent into the land, because the Trojans 
had tefosed to reward Poseidon and ApoUo for 
having built the walls of their city. When Egesta 
arrived in Sicily, the river-god Crimisus in the 
form ofabear oradogbegot by her ason Acestes, 
who was afterwards rmnled as the hero who had 
founded the town of BMesta. (Comp. ScboL ad 
LfcofAr. 951,963.) The tradition of Acestes in 
Dionysius (i. 52), who calls him Aegestui (Af/ti- 
To>)^ is ditbrent, foe according to him the giand- 
&ther of AcgestBS qoarrelled with Uumedon, who 
slew him and gave his daughteis to some mer- 
chants to convey them to a distant land. A noble 
Trojan however embarked with them, and married 
me of them in Sicily, where she subsequently gave 
birth to a son, Aegcatns. During the war against 
Troy Aegestns obtained permission from Priam to 
return a:^ take part in the contest, and afterwards 
retamed to Sicily, where Aeneas on his arrival 
was hospitably received by him and Elymns, and 
bnUt for them the towns of Aegesta and Elyme. 
The account of Dionysius leems to be nothing but 
a rationalistic interpretation of the genuine legend. 
As to the inconsistencies in Viigil's sccount of 
Aoestes, aee Heyne, £rc«r«. I, oa ^ea. v. [L. S.] 
ACESTODO'^RUS ('Aicc<rri!8<»f»i), a Greek 
historical writer, who is cited by Plutarch {Tiem, 
ISX and whose work contained, as it sppean, an 
account of the batth: of Salamis among other things 
The time at which he lived is unknown. Ste- 
phanos (f. n. MryaUi) rikis) speaks of an Acesto- 
doius of Mwalopolis, who wrote a work on cities 
(vcpl ToAim), but whether this is the same at the 
above-mentioned writer is not clear. 

ACESTOR ('AKtimtf). A surname of Apollo 
which characterises him as the god of the healing 
art, or in general as the averter of evil, like dxiiriot, 
(Eurip. Androm. 901.) [L. S.] 

ACESTOR (,'A*4aTtip), somamed Sacks (ii- 
Kw), on account of his foreign origin, was a tragic 
poet at Athens, and a contemporary of Aristo- 
phanes. He seems to have been either of Thiscian 
or Mysian origin. (Aristoph. ^oai, 31 ; Schol. 
ad loo.; Vapat, 1216 ; SchoL ad loe. ; Phot, and 
Suid. $. V. 2dmu : Welcker, Dit Grieck. IVagod. 
p. 1032.) [R. W.] 

ACESTOR f AWvTwp), a sculptor mentioned 
by Pausanias (vi. 17. § 2) at having executed a 
statue of Alexibiua, a native of Hemea in Arcadia, 
who had gained a victory in the pentathlon at the 
Olympic games. He waa bom at Gnossus, or at 
any rate exercised his profession there for some 
time. (Pan& x. 15. § 4.) He had a son named 
Amphion, who vnM also a sculptor, and hod 
staged under Ptolicbns of Coreyra (Pans, vi 3. 
I 2); so that Acestor must have been a contempo- 
rary of the hitter, who flourished about OL 82. 
(b. c. 452L) [C. P. M.] 

ACESTO'RIDES ('Ax«rrop(ST|>), a Corinthian, 
was made supreme commander by the Sytacotans 
in B.C 3 17, Hid banished Agathodes from the city. 
(Died. xix. 5.) 

ACESTO'RIDES wrote four books of mythical 
stories 'relating to every city (riiir nrrd Tt\u> 
laAiKiy,). In these he gave many real historical 

Digitized by 




acconntt, a* well u tbote which wen meiely 
mythical, bat he entitled them fivBucd to aroid 
calumny and to indicate the pleoaaut nature of the 
work. It wa« compiled fitom Canon, Apollodonu, 
Protagorai and othen. (Phot. BiU. cod. 189 ; 
Taetx. CkO. m. 144.) 

ACHAEA ('Axofa), a surname of Demeter hy 
which she was worshipped at Atheni by the Oe- 
phyraeana who bad emigrated thither from Boeotia. 
(Herod, v. 61 ; Plut. /». tt Orir. p. 378, D.) 

2. A niraame of Minerva wonhipped at Ln- 
ceria in Apnlia where the donaria and the anni of 
Diomedea were preaenred in her temple. (Ariatot. 
Mirab.NttrTat.\\1.) [L.S.] ' 

ACHAEUS ('Axu^t), according to nearly all 
tnditiona a ion of Xnthna and Creuaa, and conie- 
qnently a brother of Ion and grandion of Hellen. 
The Acbaeani regarded him ai the anther of their 
race, and derived iiom him their own name as well 
as that of Achaio, which was formerly called 
Aegialus. When his nnde Aeolna in Thestaly, 
whence he himself bad come to Peloponnesus, di^ 
he went thither and made himself master of 
Phthiotis, which now also received from him the 
name of Achaia. (Pans. viL 1. § 2; Strab. viiL 
p. 383 ; ApoUod. i. 7. i 3.) Servins {oiAau 1 242) 
alone calls Achaeos a son of Jupiter and Pithia, 
which is probably miswritten for Phthia. [L. &] 

ACHAEUS ('Axoiifr), son of Andromachus, 
whose sister Laodice monied Seleucus Callinicus, 
the firther of Antiochns the Great. Achaeus 
himself married Laodice, the daughter of Mithri- 
dates, king of Pontns. (Polyb. iv, 51. § 4, viii. 
22. § 1 1.) He accompanied Seleucus Ceiaunns, the 
son of Callinicus, in his expedition across mount 
Taurus against Attains, and after the assassination 
of Sclencns revenged his death; and though he 
might easily have assumed the royal power, be re- 
mained &ith{hl to the &mily of Seleucus. Anti- 
ochus the Great, the successor of Seleucus, ap- 
pointed him to the command of all Asia on this 
side of mount Tanms, b. a 223. Achaeus re- 
covered for the Syrian empire all the districts 
which Attains had gained ; but having been fidscly 
accused by Hermeiaa, the minister of Antiochus, 
of intending to revolt, he did so in self-defence, 
assumed the title of king, and ruled over the whole 
of Asia on this side of the Taurus. As long as 
Antiochus was engaged in the war with Ptolemy, 
he could not march against Achaeus ; but after a 
peace had been concluded with Ptolemy, he crossed 
the Taurus, united bis faroes with Attains, de- 
prived Achaeua in one campaign of all his do- 
minions and took Sardis with the exception of 
the citadel. Achaeus after sustaining a siege of 
two years in the citadel at last fell into the Imids 
of Antiochns & C 214, through the treachery of 
Bolis, who had been employ«l by Sosibins, the 
minister of Ptolemy, to deliver hun iiom his 
danger, but betrayed him to Antiochus, who 
ordered him to be put to death immediately. ( Polyb. 
jv. 2. 8 6, iv. 48, T. 40. § 7, 42, 67, vii. 15—18, 
viii. 17— 2a) 

ACHAEUS CAx«^>) of Eretria in Enboea, a 
tragic poet, was bom B. c. 484, the year in which 
Aeschylus gained his first victory, and four yean 
hebm the birth of Euripides. In & c. 477, he 
contended with Sophocles and Euripides and 
though he subsequently brought out many dramas, 
according to some as many as thirty or finty, he 
neverthdcM only gained the piiae once. The 


fragments of Acfaaens contain miK]i atn m ga n y l h o* 
logy, and his expressions were ofien forced and 
obscure. (Athen. X. p. 451, c) Still in the sa^rical 
drama he most have possessed considerable merit, 
for in this department some andant critics thought 
him inferior only to Aeschylus. (Diog. Laer.ii. 
133.) The titles of seven of his satyrical drsmas 
and of ten of his tragedies are still known. The 
extant fiagments of his pieces have been collected, 
and edited by Utlicbs, Bonn, 1834. (Suidaa, j. e.) 
This Achaeus should not be confounded with a 
later tragic writer of the same name, who was a 
native A Syracuse. According to Soidaa and 
Phavorinus he wrote ten, according to Eudoda 
fourteen tragedies. (Urlichs, Ibid.) [R. W.] 

ACHAE^MENES ('Ax"M^'qt)- 1- The an- 
cestor of the Persian kings, who founded the 
fiunily of the Achaemenidas ('AxoifMvtScu), which 
was the noblest £>mily of the Paaaigadae, th« 
noblest of the Persian trihea, Achoemenea is said 
to have been brought up by an eagle. According 
to a genealogy given by Xerxes, the fiillowing was 
the order of the descent: Achaemenes, Teispes, 
Cambyses, Cyrus, Teispes, Ariaiamnea, Anames, 
Hystaapes, Uuius, Xerxes. (Herod, i 125, viLU; 
Aelian, Hid. Anim. xil 21.) The original aeat <f 
this fiunily was Achaemenia in Persis. (Steph. && 
'Axuitma-) The Roman poets use the adjective 
^cHoemeatw in the sense of Persian. (Hor. Osras. 
iii. 1. 44, xiii. 8 i Ov. Ar. Awt. I 226, Met it. 

2. The son of Daiius I. was j^ipointed by his 
brother Xerxes governor of Egypt, B. c. 484. He 
commanded the Egyptian fleet in the expedition of 
Xerxea againat Greece, and strongly ojqpoaed the 
prudent advice of Demaratus. When Egypt revolted 
under Inarus the Libyan in b. a 460, Achaemenea 
was sent to subdue it, but was defeated and killed 
in battle by Inarua. (Hetod. iii. 12, vii. 7, 9J, 
236 ; Died, xi 74.) 

son of Adamastus of Ithaca, and a companion of 
Ulysses who left him behind in Sicily, when he 
fled from the Cyclops. Here he was ibnnd by 
Aeneas who took him with him. (Yirg. ^ea. iii. 
613, &c ; Ov. £> PaO. u. 2. 25.) [L. &] 

ACHA'I CU S, asumame of UHvMiuva. 

ACHA'ICUS ('AxoZntt), a philosopher, who 
wrote a work on EtUcs. His tmie is unknown. 
(Diog. Laert vi 99; Theodor. Graie. etffeeL air. 
viii. p. 919, ed. Schulze; Clem. Alex. Srom. iv. 
p. 496, d.) 

ACHELO'IS. 1. A surname of tba SSieat, 
the daughters of Achdous and a muse. (Or. 
Met ▼. 552, xiv. 87 i ApoUod. L 7. § 10.) 

2. A general name foi water-nympha, aa io 
Columelk (x. 26S), where the companions of the 
Pegasids are called Acheloidea. [L. S.] 

ACHELO'US ('AxiXyot), the god of the nvet 
Achelous which was the greatest, and according to 
tradition, the moat ancient among the rivera of 
Greece. He with 3000 brother-rivers ia described 
as a son of Oceanns and Thetys (Hes. Tie^. HO), 
or of Oceanns and Oaea, or lastly of Hdios and 
Gaea. (NataL Com. vii. 2.) The origin of the 
river Achelous is thus described by Servius (wi 
Vtrp. Georg. I 9 ; Aai. viii. 300) : When Ache- 
loos on one occasion had lost his daoghtera, tha 
Sirens, and in his grief invoked his mother Gaea, 
she received him to her boeom, and on the qiot 
where she lepiived him, she caiued thn river hetr- 

Digitized by VjOOQlt^ 

at); his name to guh brth. Other aeoomiU abont 
the arigin of the liTer aod it* same an giran by 
Stephanni of Byantiiim, Stiabo (z. p. 450), and 
l^tardi. {Ds Jtmm. 2i.) Achelons the god waa 
a eonijietitor with Hoadea in the niit for 
Detanoia, and iboght with him for the bride. 
Aebeloai was conqaered in the contest, bat aa he 
poaiccKd the power of aianming Taiiona forma, he 
netamorrphoaed hinnelf first into a Kipent and 
then into a bolL But in thia form too ha waa con- 
qaered by Heraclo, and depived of one of bia 
honm, which however he leoorered by giving np 
the horn of Amalthea. (Or. Afe<.ix.8,&c.i Apdlod. 
L 8. § 1, iL 7. § 5.) Sophodea (TVoeiiB. 9, Ice.) 
makes DeTandn lehtte theee oocntRncei in a some- 
what diSinent manner. According to Ovid {Mtt 
ir. 87), the Naiada changed the hom which 
Heradea took from Achekina into the hom of 
plenty. When Theteoi retnmed home from the 
Calydtmian chaie he wa> invited aod hospitably 
ig uiii e tl by Acfaekms, who related to him in what 
manner be had created the iabnds called Echinadea, 
(Ov. Mel. viii. 547, &e.) The nnmerons wivea 
and descendants of Achelons are spoken of in 
separate articles. Stiabo (z. p^ 458) proposes a 
very ii^enions interpretation of the legends abont 
Acheloeu, all of which according to him arose from 
die nstnre of the river itsel£ It resembled a bull's 
voice ia tiie noise of the water ; its windings and 
its reaches gave rise to the story abont his forming 
himself into a serpent and abont his horns ; the 
fommtion of islands at the month of the river re- 
ijoiiea no explanation. His conquest by Heracles 
lastly refers to the embankments by which Heracles 
confined the river to its bed and thus gained large 
tracts of land for cultivation, which are expressed 
by the bom of plenty. (Compare Voss, Mytiolog. 
Srif^ Izzii.) Others derive the legends abont 
Aehdoaa from Egypt, and describe him as a second 
Nihu. But however this may be, he was from 
the earliest times considered to be a great divinity 
throngfaont Greece (Horn. II. xxL 194), and was 
invoVed in prayers, sacrifices, on taking oaths, Ac 
(Epboms op. Maerob. v, 18), and the Dodonean 
Zena usually added to each oracle he gave, the 
command to ofler sacrifices to Achelons. (Ephorus, 
i c) This wide extent of the worship of Achelons 
also accounts for his being regarded as the repre- 
•entative of sweet water in general, that is, as the 
umrce of all nonrishment ( Virg. Gearg. i. 9, with 
the note of Voss.) The contest of Achelons with 
Ileraeles vras represented on the throne of Amyclae 
(Pans. iiL 18. § 9), and in the treasury of the 
Megarians at Olympia there was a statue of him 
made by Dontas of cedar-wood and gold. (Paua, 
Ti. 19. § 9.) On several coins of Acamania the 
gnd is represented as a bull with the head of an 
old man. (Comp. Philostr. Imag. n. 4.) [L. S.] 
ACHERON (^Kxtpwf). In ancient geography 
there occur several rivers of this name, all of which 
were, at least at one time, believed to be connected 
with the lower world. The river first looked upon 
in this light was the Acheron in Thesprotia, in 
Epirus, a country which appeared to the earliest 
Greeks as the end of the world in the west, and 
the locality of the river led them to the belief that 
it was the entrance into the lower world. When 
subsequently Epims and the conntrics beyond the 
Ka became better known, the Acheron or the en- 
tcmee to the lower worid waa tianafened to other 


' more distant parts, and at last the Acheron waa 
placed in th« lower worid itaelil Thus we find in 
the Homeric poeais {Od. z. 513 ; comp. Pans. i. 17. 
§ 5) the Achoon described as a river of Hades, into 
which the Pyripblegeton and Cocytns are said to 
flow. Viigil (Atm. vi. 297, with the note of Ser- 
vins)de«eribes it as the ptindpal river of Tartarus, 
from which the Styx and Cocytns sprang. Ac- 
cording to later traditions, Acheron had been a son 
of Hdios and Oaea or Demeter, and was changed 
into the river bearing his name in the bwer world, 
because he had refreshed the Titans with drink 
daring their contest wiUi Zena. They farther 
state that AscaUphoa waa a son <rf Acheron and 
Orphne or Gorgyia. (NataL Com. iii 1.) Id lata 
writers the name Acheron is aaed in a general 
sense to designate the whole of the lower worid. 
(Virg. Aen. vil 312; Cic f)oUndit.iit Saui. 10; 
C. Nepos, Dion, 10.) The Etraaeana too were 
acquainted with the worahip of Acheron ( Acheruns) 
from very early times, as we miiit infier from their 
Achemntid libri, which among vaiions other thing* 
treated im the deification of the sonla, and on the 
lacrifieea {Adunmtia taera) by which this was to 
be efiected. (Mttller, EtntAer, ii. 27, Ac.) The 
description of the Acheron and the lower world in 
general in Plato's Phaedo (p. 112) is very pecu- 
fiu, and not very easy to nnderstand. [L. S.] 

ACHERU'SIA ('Axspovo-k Mfuni, or 'Axtfxw- 
«-(>), a name given by the ancients to several lakes 
or swamps, which, like the various riveia of the 
name of Acheron, vrere at some time believed to 
be connected with the lower worid, until at hut the 
Athemsia came to be considered to be sa the lower 
worid itsel£ The lake to which this belief seems to 
have been first attached was the Acherasia in Thes- 
protia, through which the river Acheron flowed. 
(Thnc. i. 46 ; Stnb. vii. p. 324.) Other Ukes or 
swamps of the same name, and believed to be in con- 
nexion irith the lower world, wen near Hermione 
in Argolis (Pans. ii. 35. § 7), near Heradea in Bi- 
thynia (Xen. Amb. vi. 2. § 2; Diod. xir. 31X be- 
tween Cumae and cape Misenam in Campania 
(Plin. H. iV. iii. 5 ; Strab. T. p. 243), and lastly 
in Egypt, near Memphis. (Diod. i. 96.) [L. Si.] 

ACHILLAS ('AxiAAar), one of the guardian* 
of the Egyptian king Ptolemy Dionysus, and 
commander of the troops, when Pompey fled 
to Egypt, B. a 48. He is called by Caesar a man 
of extraordinary daring, and it was he and L. 
Septimius who killed Pompey. (Caes, B. C. iii. 
104 ; Liv. Epit. 104 ; Dion Cass. xiiL 4.) He 
subsequently joined the eunuch Pothinas in re 
sisting Caesar, and having had the command of the 
whole army entrusted to him by Pothinus, he 
matched against Alexandria with 20,000 foot and 
2000 hone. Caesar, who was at Alexandria, hod 
not sufficient forces to oppose him, and sent am- 
bossadora to treat with him, but these AchiUas 
murdered to remove all hopes of reconciliation. 
He then marched into Alexandria and obtained 
possession of the greatest port of the city. Mean- 
while, however, Arsinoe, the younger sister of 
Ptolemy, escaped from Caesar and joined AchiUas ; 
but dissensions breaking out between them, she 
hod Achillas put to death by Oanymedes a eunuch, 
a. c. 47, to whom she then entrusted the command 
of the forces. (Caes. B. a iii. 108—112 ; B. Alex. 
4; Dion Cass. zlii. 36 — (0; Lncan. x. 619 — 

ACHILLES ('AxiAXstft). In the legends abont 

Digitized by VjOOQ It! 



Achilln, aa about all the heroes of the Tnjan mr, 
the Homeric tiaditioiu should be eanfiilly kept 
^Mirt from the ranons additions and embellish- 
raents with which the gaps of the ancient stoiy 
hare been filled up by later poets and mythogia- 
phers, not indeed by fabrications of their own, bat 
by adapting those supplementary details, by which 
oiil tiaditian in the coone of centuries had rar 
rioasly altered and developed the original kernel 
of the stoiy, or those aeeonnta which were peculiar 
only to certain localities^ 

ifomerie itory. Achilles was the son of Felens, 
king of the Myrmidonea in Phthiotis, in Thesskly, 
and of the Nereid Thetis. (Horn. IL xz. 206, &c) 
Fnm his &ther*s name he is often called thiKttSfis, 
n^Xifiitils, or Otktlm (Horn. IL xviii. 316 ; i. 
1 ; i. 197 ; Viig. Atn. ii. 263), and from that of 
his giand&ther Aeacus, he deriTed his name Aea- 
cides (A<uc({q>, IL ii. 860 ; Virg. Aem. l 99). 
He was educated from his tender childhood by 
Phoenix, who taught him eloquence and the arts 
of war, and aooompanied him to the Trojan war, 
and to whom the hen always shewed gnat ct- 
tachmenL (iz. 485, Ac; 438, &c) In the heal- 
ing art he was instructed by Cheiron, the centaur, 
(zi. 832.) His mother Thetis foretold hbn that 
his &ta was either ta gain glory and die early, or 
to lire a long but inglorious life. (iz. 410, &e.} 
The hero choee the latter, and took port in the 
Tiojan war, from which he knew that he was not 
to return. In fifty ships, ^or according to Uter 
traditionB, in sixty (Hysin. FaL 97), he led his 
hosts of Hynnidones, Hellenes, and Achaeans 
against Tray, (ii 681, dEC, zvi. 168.1 Hen the 
awiitrfooted Achilles was the great bulwark of the 
Greeka, and the worthy &Tourita of Athena and 
Hen. (i. 195, 208.) Previous to his dispute with 
Agamemnon, he ravaged the country around Troy, 
and destroyed twelve towns on the coast and ele- 
ven in the interior of the eomitty. (ix. 328, &c.) 
When Agamemnon was obliged to give up Chry- 
aets to her bther, he thre^ened to take away 
Briseis from Achillea, who surrendered her on the 
persuasion of Athena, but at the same time refused 
to take any fiirther part in the war, and shut him- 
self up in his tent. Zeus, on the entreaty of The- 
tis, promised that victory should be on the side of 
the Trojans, until the Achaeans should have ho- 
noured her son. (l 26, to the end.) The affiur* of 
the Greeks declined in consequence, and they wen 
at last pressed so hard, that Agamemnon advised 
them to take to flight, (ix. 17, &e.) But other 
chie& opposed this counsel, and an embaasy was 
sent to Achilles, offering him rich presents and the 
lestoiation of Biiseis (ix. 119, &c) ; but in vain. 
At hist, however, he waa persuaded by Patroehis, 
his dearest fiiend, to allow him to moke nae of his 
men, his horses, and his armour, (xvi. 49, &c.) 
Patnelus waa slain, and when this news reached 
Achillea, he waa seized with unspeakable grieC 
Thetb consoled him, and promised new arms, 
which were to be made by Hephaestus, and Iris 
appeared to rouse him &om his lamentations, and 
exhorted him to rescue the body of Patrodus. 
(zviil 166, Ac) Achilles now rose, and his 
thundering voice alone put the Trojans to flight. 
When hu new armour was brought to him, 
he reconciled himself to Agamemnon, and hu> 
ried to the field of battle, disdaining to take 
any drink or food until the death of his friend 
riuNild be avet^ed. (xiz. 156, &c) He wognd- 


ed md daw numbers of Trojans (xz. zxi.), and 
at length met Hector, whsm he chased thrice 
around the walls of the city. He then slew him, 
tied his body to his chariot, and dragged hna 
to the ships of the Greeks, (zzii.) After this, be 
burnt the body of Patniclns, together with twelve 
young captive Trojans, who wen sacrificed to ap- 
pease the spirit of his friend ; and subsequently 
gave up the body of Hector to Priam, who came 
in pvBon to b^ for iL (xziiL xziv.) Achilles 
himself fell in the battle at the Scaean gate, bcibn 
Troy waa taken. His death itself does not oceor 
in tiie Iliad, but it is alluded to in a few paaage*. 
(xxii. 358, Jec, xxi. 278, ftc.) It is ezpteisly 
mentioDed in the Odyssey (xziv. 36, Ac), when 
it is said that his fell — his conqueror is not mat- 
tioned — was himented by gods and men, that his 
remains together with those of Patrodus weia ba- 
tied in a golden um which Dionysus had given ss 
a present to Thetis, and were deposited in a place 
on the coast of the Hellespont, when a mound 
was raised over them. Achilles is the piinci}al 
hen of the Iliad, and the poet dwalls upon the 
delineation of his character with love and admiia- 
tion, feelings in which his reoden cannot but sym- 
pathise with him. Achilles is the hsndsnmert 
and bravest of all the Greeks ; he is a&ctioiiats 
towards his mother and his friends, formidable in 
battles, which are his delight; open-hearted and 
without fear, and at the same time susceptible to 
the gentle and quiet joys of home. His greatest 
passion is ambition, and when his sense of honour is 
hurt, he is unrelenting in his nvenge and anger, bat 
withal submits obediently to the will of the gods. 
Later tradituau, Tlieae chiefly conssst in ac- 
counts which fill up the history of his yonth and 
death. His mother wishing to make her son im- 
mortal, is said to have concealed him by night is 
fire, in Older to destroy the mortal parts he had 
inherited from his fetfaer, and by day she anointed 
him with ambrosia But Peleus one night disco- 
vered his child in the fire, and cried out in terror. 
Thetis left her son and fled, and Peleus entmated 
him to Cheiron, who educated and instructed him 
in the arts of riding, hunting, and playing the 
phonninx, and also changed his original name, 
Ligyron, i. e. the "whining," into Achillea (Pind. 
Ntm, iii. 51, &c; Orph. Atyom. 395 ; ApoUon. 
Rhod. iv. 813 ; Stat AciiL I 269, &e. ; ApoUod. 
iiL 13. § 6, &c.) Cheiron fed his pupil with the 
hearts of lions and the marrow of bears. Accord- 
ing to other accounts, Thetis endeavoured to make 
Achilles immortal by dipping him in the rive: 
Styx, and succeeded with the ezception of the an- 
kles, by which she held him (Falient. MytioL iiL 
7 ; Stat JciilL i. 269), while others again state 
that she put him in boiling water to test his hn- 
mortality, and that he was found immortal except 
at the ankles. From his sixth year he fought with 
lions and bears, and caught stags withont dogs or 
nets. The muse Calliope gave him the power of 
singing to cheer his friends at banquets. (Philostr. 
Her. xiz. 2.) When he had reached the age of 
nine, Calchas deckred that Troy could not be 
taken withont his aid, and Thetis knowing that 
this war would be fetal to him, disguised him as a 
maiden, and introduced him among the daughters 
of Lyeomedes of Scyros, when he waa called by 
the name of Pyirha on account of his golden locku 
But his real character did not remain concealed 
long, for one of his compnoions, Deidameia, became 

Digitized by VjOOQ It! 


notker of ■ mi, Pyirhu or Neeptolemu, by him. 
Tie Qteeki at kut dnooTend hi* place of canecal- 
mcBt, waA an eaAamj vu aent to Lycoraedei, 
vha, tlMagh lie denied the praence of AciiiUMi 
vet allinred tke neeKngen to Nneh his pobet 
O JjM e i i i diaooTcnd the young hero by a itrata- 
gem, and Achillea immediately proraiKd hit BMiit- 
anee to the Oieeka. (ApoUod. /L a ,- Hygin. /ii& 
96 ; StaL AtUL a. 200.) A diflnent aoeomit of 
hit itay in Scyma la giTsn by Piutarch {Titi. 35) 
and PUbabsnu. [Her. xiz. S.) 

Baapectiag hk oonduet toward* Iphigeneia at 
Aaiia, ne AoAmKHOH, IPBieanuA. 

Doing the mi against Tray, Aehillei slew 
PenthaOna, an Amuon, bat was deeply mored 
wheB he diMoreved her beaaty ; and when Ther* 
Btca lidienkd him ior hi* tende nw of heart, 
AckiUea haDed the *cofer by a Uow with the fist. 
(Q. SmjriB. i. 669, &c ; Paii& t. 1 1. i 2 ; eomp. 
BofiL PkHoiL 446; Lyeopb. Chi. 999 ; Tntiea, 
PaAom. 199.) He also fonght with Menmon and 
trtOaM. (42.Smyni.iL480,te.;Hygin.Ai. 112; 
Vng. .^eaw i 474, ftc.) The aceonnU of hi* death 
&fa twrj much, tbougfa all agree in stating that 
be did not fidl by hnman hud*, or at leairt not 
without the interference of the god ApoDo. Ae- 
owtiitg to some tradition*, he was killed by Apollo 
himarif (SopK PkOoeL 334 ; Q. Smym. iii 92 ; 
Hv. Oana. ir. 6. 3, Sue.\ as he had been {ore- 
told. (Horn. IL zxi. 278.) Aoeoidiiig to Hyginns 
(/Ul 107), ApoUo aanimed the appcaance of 
Paris in kilUng him, while others say that ApoUo 
DMiely diiectea the weapon of Paris against Achil- 
lea, and thus caused his death, a* had been tiw- 
ge^ed by the dying Hector. (Virg. Atm. Ti. £7; 
Or. MeL xii. 601, ftc. ; Horn. IL xsiL 358, &c.) 
Ketya Cretenas (iiL 29) lelatea hi* death thus : 
Adiffle* loTed Polyzena, a dangfater of Prism, and 
tewptwl by the pcomise that he sboold teeeiTe her 
as fajs wife, if he would join the Trojans, he went 
without aims into the temple of ApoUo at Thym- 
bta. and was assassinated there by Paris, (Comp. 
Fhilostr. Ber. ziz. U ; Hygin. Fab. 107 and 110 ; 
Daiea Phryg. 34 ; Q. Smym. iii. 50 ; Tsetx. ad 
l*fetfkr. 307.) Hk body was lescned by Odys- 
aeos and Ajaz the Tdamonian ; his armoor was 
pmaised by Thetis to the bcaTest among the 
Oneks, whiieh gave rise to a contest between the 
two heroes who had lescned his body. [Ajax.] 

After his death, Achilles became one of the 
jodges in the bwer world, and dwelled in the is- 
lands of the Ueated, where he was mited with 
MedeiB or Iphigeneia. The febnlont island of Lence 
in the Euzine was especially sacred to him, and 
was oiled Achillea, becante, according to some re- 
potts, it contained his body. (Mela, ii. 7; SchoL 
ad Pimd. Nem. ir. 49; Pans. iii. 19. § 1 1.) Achilles 
was worshipped as one of the national heroes of 
Greecei The Thessalians, at the command of the 
oracle of Dodooa, ofiered annual sacrifices to him 
in Troaa. (Philoetr. Her. ziz. 14.) In the ancient 
gymnasiam at Olympia there was a cenott^ih, at 
which certain solemnities were performed before 
the Olympic games commenced. (Pans. vi. 23. 
I 2.) Sanetoariea of Achilles ezisted on the 
nad fiom Arcadia to Sparta (Pans. iii. 20. §B), on 
cape Sigeum in Troas (Strab. zi. p. 494), and other 
pbtcob The erents of his life were frequently le- 
presented in ancient works of art. (Bottiger, Vor 
temgemaldA, iiL p. 144, &c.; Mosenm Clement L 52, 
T.17:ViUaBa^l9;Mai.Nap.ii.59.) [U&J 



ACHILLES ('AxiXArft), a ion of Lyson of 
Athens, who was beHered to hare 6ist introdaeed 
in his natire city the mode of sending persons 
into exile by ostraeiam. (Ptolem. Heph. tl p. 333.) 
Serenl other and raoie credible aoconnta, how- 
ever, ascribe this institntion with mora probability 
to other penons. [L. 8.] 

ACHILLES TATIUS f^KxAXtis Tirwt), or 
as Soidaa and Eododa call him Achilles Statins, 
an Alexandrine rhetorician, who was fonnerly be- 
liered to hare liTed in the second or third oentory 
of onr aera. .Bat as it is a well-known bet, 
which is also acknowledged by Photins, that he 
imitated Heliodoms of Emesa, he mnst hare lirad 
after this writer, and theRfoie belongs either to 
the Utter half of the fifth or the beginning of the 
sixth oentn^ of oor aeia. Soidas states that he 
was oiginally a Pagan, and that sobsequently he 
was conrerted to Christianity. The tinth of this 
assertion, as &r as Achilles Tatins, the author of 
the romance, is concerned, is not supported by tho 
work of Achillea, which bears no marics of Chris- 
tisa thooghts, while it would not be difficult to 
prore bom it that he was a heathen. This 
romance is a history of the adTentnres of 
two loTen,Cleitaphon end Lencippe. It bears the 
title Td aord AtMr(«in)r cal KAfire^vro, and 
conusts of eight books. Notwithstanding all its 
defects, it is one of the best lore-stories of the 
Greeks. Cleitophon is represented in it relating to 
a friend the whole ooune of the events from be- 
ginning to end, a plan whidi renders the story 
rather tedious, and makes the narrator appear 
aifected and insipid. Achilles, like his predecessor 
Heliodoms, disdained having reco n rae to what ia 
marvellous and nnprofaable in itself^ bat the lecu- 
mnUtion of adventures and of physical a* well as 
moral difficulties, which the lovers have to over- 
come, before they are happily united, is too great 
and renders the story improbable, though their ar- 
rangement and succession are skilfully managed by 
the author. Numerous parts of the work however 
are written without taste and judgment, and do 
not appear connected with the story by any inter- 
nal necessity. Besides these, the work has a 
great many digressions, which, although interest- 
ing in themselves and containing curious infor- 
mation, interrupt and impede the progress of the 
narrative. The work is full of imitations of other 
writers fiom the time of Plato to that of Achilles 
himieli^ and while he thus trusts to his books and 
his learning, he appears ignorant of human nature 
and the aSurs of real life. The laws of decency 
and morality are not alsrays paid due regard to, a 
defect which is even noticed by Photiut. The 
style of the work, on which the author seems to 
have bestowed his principal core, it thoroughly 
rhetorical: there is a perpetual striving after ele- 
gance and beaaty, af^ images, puns, and onti- 
theaes. These things, however, were just what 
the age of Achilles required, and that his novel 
was much read, is attested by the number of 
MSS. still extant. 

A part of it was fint printed in a Latin trans- 
lation by Annihol delta Croce (Cracejos), Ley- 
den, 1544 ; a complete translation appeared at 
Basel in 1554. The first edition of the Greek 
original appeared at Heidelbeig, 1601, 8ro., print- 
ed together with sinnlar works of Longus and 
Parthenius. An edition, with a voluminous though 
rather carelesi commentary, was published by Sal- 

Digitized by VjOOQlt^ 



mauni, Leaden, 1 640, 8ro, The best and mwt re- 
cent edition is by Fr. Jacobs, Leipzig, 1821, in 
2 Toll. 8to. The first volume contains the prole- 
gomena, the text and the Liatin translation by 
Cnioejos, and the second the commentary. There 
is an English translation of the wodc, by A. H. 
(Anthony Hodges), Oxford, 1638, Sro. 

Soidas ascribes to this same Achilles Tatins, a 
work on the sphere (rspl a^pas), a fragment of 
which professing to be- an introduction to the 
Phaenomena of Aiatus (Eignysryj tit rd 'Afxtrov 
^amiiuna) is still eztanL Bat as this work is 
referred to by Firmicns {Maiia. ir, 10), who 
lived earlier than the time we hare assigned to 
Achilles, the author of the work on the Sphere 
must hare lived before the time of the writer of 
the romance. The work itself is of no particular 
value. It is printed in Petavius, Unuulogia, 
Paris, 1630, and Amstetdam, 1703, fol. Soidas 
also mentions a work of Achilles Tatios on Ety- 
mology, and another entitled Miscellaneous His- 
tories ; as both are lost, it is impossible to deter- 
mine which Achilles was then: author. [L. S.] 

ACHILLEUS assumed the title of emperor 
nnder Diocletian and reigned over Egypt for some 
time. He was at length taken by Diocletian after 
B siege of eight months in Alexandria, and put 
to death, a. d. 296. (Eutrop. iz. 14, 15 ; AoreL 
Vict <fe Cbei. 39.) 

ACHI'LLIDES, s patronymic, formed from 
Achilles, and given to his son Pyirhus. (Ov. 
fferM. viii. 3.) [L. &] 

ACHI'ROE CAxipiv), or according to ApoUo- 
dorus (iL 1. § 4) Anchinoe, which is perhaps a mis- 
take for Anchiroe, was a daughter of Nilos, and 
the wife of Belus, by whom she became the mother 
of Aegyptns and Danaus. According to the scho- 
liast on Lycophron (583 and 1161), Ares bqpt 
by her a son, Sithon, and according to Hegesippns 
(op. iStqnt. J^pc. s. r. IlaXAijn)), lUso two daugh- 
ters, Pallenaea and Rhoetca, from whom two 
towns derived their names. [L. S.] 

ACHLYS ('Ax^vi), according to some ancient 
cosmogonies, the eternal night, and the first 
created being which existed even before Chaos. 
According to Heaiod, she was the personification 
of misery and sadness, and as such she was repre- 
sented on the shield of Heracles (SaU. Here 264, 
&c.) : pale, emaciated, and weeping, with chatter- 
ing teeth, swollen knees, long nails on her fingers, 
bloody cheeks, and her ihomders thickly covered 
with dust [L- S.1 

ACHMET, son of Seirim CAxm't vlis ittptlfi), 
the author of a work on the Interpretation of 
Dreams, 'OrtipoKpniKi, u probably the same per- 
son OS Ab(i Bekr Mohammed Ben Sirin, whose 
work on the same subject is still extant in Arabic 
in the Royal Library at Paris, {OataL Cod. Ma- 
muer, BiUialk. Beg. Paris, vol. L p. 230, cod. 
Mocx.,) and who was born A. H. 33, (a. d. 653-4,) 
and died A. u. 1 10. (a. d. 728-9.) (See Nicoll and 
Pusey, CUaL Cod. Mantiter. Anb. BiilioO. Bodl. 
p. 516.) This conjectura will seem the more pro- 
bable when it is recollected that the two names 
Ahmed or Aekmel and Mokammed, however unlike 
each other they may appear in English, consist in 
Arabic of four letters each, and differ only in the 
first. There must, however, be some difference 
between Achmet's work, in the form in which we 
liave it, and that of Ibn Sirin, as the writer of the 
former (or the transhitor) appears from internal evi- 


dence to have been certainly a Chrittiail. ((. 2. 
150, &c) It exists only in Greek, or tather (if 
the above conjecture as to its author be correct) 
it has only been published in that langnage. It 
consists of three hundred and four chaptero, and 
professes to be derived from what has been written 
on the same subject by the Indiana, Penians, and 
Egyptians. It was translated out of Oteek iolo 
Latin about the year 1160, by Leo Tuacni, of 
which work two specimens are to be {bond in 
Gasp. Barthii -/Ideersario. (xzxL 14, ed. FrancoC 
1624, foU.) It was first published at Frankfort, 
1577, 8vo., in a latin translation, made by Lenn- 
elavius, from a very imperfect Oreek mannscript, 
with die title " Apomasaris Apoteleaniata, un 
de Significatis et Eventis Insonmionun, ex Indo- 
rum, Peraarum, Aegyptiorumqne Disciplina.'" The 
word Apomanra is a oonaptian of the name of 
the fiunous .Albumasar, or Abik Ma'shar, and Leim- 
davius afterwards acknowledged his mistake in 
attributing the work to him. It was published in 
Greek and Latin by Rigaltius, and appended to 
his edition of the O»nrocn(ioa of Artemidoms, 
Lntet. Paris. 1603, 4to., and some Greek variona 
readings an inserted by Jac De Rhoer in his 
Otium DaveKtriam, p. 338, ftc Daventr. 1762, 
Sto. It has also been translated into Italian, 
French, and German. [W. .A. O.] 

ACHC/LIUS held the office of Magitter Ad- 
mMomim in the reign of Valerian. (& c. 253— 
260.) One of his works was entitled Acta, and 
contained an account of the history of Anielian. 
It was in nine books at least. (Vopisc. AmnL 12.) 
He also wrote the lift of -Alexander Sevenit. 
(Lamprid. Aloe. Sn. 14. 48. 6a) 

ACHOLOE. [Harptiai] 

ACICHO'RIUS ('Ainxaipu») was one of the 
Itaden of the Gauls, who invaded Thrace and 
Macedonia in a. c. 280, He and Brennns com- 
manded the division that marched into Paeonioi 
In the following year, B. c 279, he accompanied 
Brennus in his invasion of Greece. (Paoa. z. 19. 
1 4, 5, 22. g 5, 23. i 1, &C.) Some writera suppose 
that Brennns and Acichorius are the same persons, 
the former being only a title and the Utter the 
leal name. (Schmidt, " De fontibas vetenun auc- 
torum in enanandis expeditionibus a Oallis in 
Maoedonialn auioeptis,'' BeroU 1834.) 

ACIDA'LI-A, a surname of Venus (Viig. Am. 
i. 720), which according to Servina was derived 
firom the well Addalins near Orchomenos, in which 
Venus used to bathe with the Graces ; otliers con- 
nect the name with the Greek txitt, i. a. cares oi 
troubles. [L. S.] 

ACIDI'NUS, a fiimily-name of the Manila 
gens, Cicero speaks of the Acidini «• among the 
first men of a former age. (De hg. agr. ii 24.) 

1. L. Manlius AciniNus, praetor urbanos in 
a. c. 210, was sent by the senate into Sicily to 
bring back the consul Valerius to Rome to hold 
the elections. (Liv. xzvi 23, xxvii. 4.) Ina.c. 
207 he was with the troops stationed at Namia to 
oppose Hasdrubal, and was the fint to send to 
Rome intelligence of the defeat of the btter. (Liv. 
xxvii. 50.) In B. a 206 he and L. CorneUns 
Lentulus hod the province of Spain entrusted to 
them with proconsular power. In the following 
year he couquered the Ausetani and Ilergetes, 
who had rebelled against the Romans in conae- 
qnence of the absence of Scipio. He did not re- 
turn to Rome till n. c. 199, but wu pterented bf 


zed by Google 


tk tribrae P. Potcias Lues Cram entering the 
dtj in m oration, which the senate had granted 
iio. (Lit. xzriii 38, xxix. 1 — S, 13, zzzii 7.) 
% L. Uanuos Aodinos FvLVumw, origin- 
■0; Wagged to the Folna geni, bat was adopted 
into the Mmlia gena, probably br the abore-men- 
tined Aodiniu. (VeU. Pat. li. 8.) He waa 
ynetoc & c 188, and had the proiince of Hiipania 
Gterior allotted to him, whoe he remained till 
xc 186. In the latter year he defeated the 
CdtSnri, and had it not beoi for the arrival of hia 
wr tw oc woold hare redneed the whole people to 
-abjection. Re applied for a trinmph in conae- 
■<iaeaee,batobtun«l only an ovation. (LiT.zzxriiL 
35, zxsz. 21, 29.) In B. a 183 he was one of 
"the amhuaidriri lent into Gallia Tranialpina, and 
wa ilm ^ipoioted one of the trimnrira for foond- 
irg the L^is odony of Aqoileia, which was how- 
-cmsot finmded tin B. c. 181. (Lir. zzxix. 54, 
55, zl 34.) He was conml B. c. 179, (LiT. :d. 
ii.) with hi* own brother, Q. Fnlvius Fheeni, 
niKh ii the only instance of two brothers hold- 
ii^ the eonsolship at the same time. (Foif. 
C^M.; VelL Pat. ii. 8.) At the election of 
Aodinos, H. Scipio dedand him to be etnun 
iaam, tgngmmtjue civem. (Cic de Or, ii. 64.) 

3, L. Hanuds (Acidindb), who was qnaestor 
is a, a 168 (Ut. zIt. 13), is probably one of the 
t«o Uaafii Acidini, who are mentioned two years 
Mnc IS illratrians youths, and of whom one was 
tkp sn of M. M«tii;n«j the other of L. Manlins. 
(Lir. dii. 49.) The latter is probably the same 
ai the qnaestor, and the son of No. 2. 

4. AciniNVS, a yomig man who was going to 
pame his stodies at Auiens at the same time as 
ywi^ Cicens B. c 45. (Cic ad^tt. zii 32.) He 
u pohaps the same Acidinns who sent intelligence 
to Cicers respecting the death of Marcelliu, (Cic 
«i*F«si.iT. 12.) 

ACI'LIA GENS. The fimiily-mime* of this 
gnu are AnoLA, BALans, and Olabbio, of which 
the last two were nndonbtedly plebeian, as mem- 
ben of these fiuniliea were £reqnently tribnnes of 

ACILIA'NUS, MINU'CIUS, a fiiend of Pliny 
the jonnger, was bom at Brizia (Brescia), and 
«as the SOD of Hinncins Hacrinus, who was en- 
rolled by Vespasian among those of praetorian 
nnk. Adlianas was snccessively qnaestor, tri- 
hnie, and praetor, and at his death left PUny nart 
sf Us property. (Plin. ^ L 14, iL 16.) 
_ ACINDY'NUS, GREGCRIUS (r^nryrfpio. 
'AeMnMt), a Greek Monk, A. D. 1341, distin- 
giiiAed in the eontroTersy with the Hesychast or 
Ijaietttt Monks of Honnt Athos. He supported 
sad saeoeeded T>»»<»»m in his opposition to their 
aotian that the light which appeiued on the Monnt 
of the Trandgnration waa WKreated. The em- 
ponr, John Cantacosenns, took part ^A. D. 1347) 
vith Pshunas, the leader of the Qoietists, and ob- 
tained the csodemnation of Adndynus by several 
coancils at Constantinople, at one especially in 
A. n. 1361. Remains of Adndynus are, De 
fmalii el Optntkmi Dn advenui imperitiam 
Cnpwn PalmM, ^ in " Variorum Pontificnm 
>d Petmra Gnaphenm Eutyduannm EpistoL" p. 77, 
Grelier. 4to. Ingoht 1616, and Oarmat Iambi- 
esB it HatmaUms Palama*, " Oraeeiae Ortho- 
*aae Scriptores," by Leo. Alhitius, p. 755, vol i. 
4h>. Rom. 1652. [A. J. C] 

ACIS CAcu), .leondiDg to Ovid {Mel. ziii. 



750, &c) a son of Faunas and Syraaethii. He 
was beloved by the nymph Galatea, and Polypho- 
mns the Cydop, jealous of him, crushed him under 
a huge lock. His blood gushing forth from under 
the rock was changed by the nymph into the 
river Ads or Acinias at the foot of mount Aetna. 
This story does not occur any where else, and is 
perhaps no more than a happy fiction suggested by 
the manner in which the little river springs forth 
&om nnder a nek. [ll S.] 

ACME'NES ('Anyt^m), a lumame of rertaiu 
nymphs worshipped at Elis, where a sacred enclo- 
sure contained their altar, together with those a{ 
other gods. (Pans. v. 15. § 4.) [L. S.] 

ACMO'NIDES, one of the three Cyclopes (Or. 
Fast. iv. 288), is the same as Pymcmon in Virgil 
{Aen, viiL 425), and as Aiget in most other ac- 
counts of the Cyclopes. [L. S.] 

ACOETES ("AjtaiTiit), according to Ovid (AM. 
iiL 582, &c,) the son of a poor fisherman in 
Maeonia, who served as pilot in a ship. After 
hmding at the island of Naxos, some of the sailora 
brought with them on board a beautiinl sleeping 
boy, whom they had found in the island and whom 
they wished to take with them ; but Acoetes, who 
recognised in the boy the god Bacchus, dissuaded 
them firom it, but in vain. When the ship had 
reached the open sea, the boy awoke, and desired 
to be carried back to Nazos. The sailors promised 
to do so, but did not keep their word. Hereupon 
the god showed himself to them in his own majesty : 
vines began to twine round the vessel, tigen ap- 
peared, and the sailors, seized with madness, jump- 
ed into the sea and perished. Acoetes alone waa 
saved and conveyed back to Nazos, where he was 
initiated in the Bacchic mysteries and became a 
priest of the god. Hyginus {^Fai. 134), whose 
story ou the whole agrees with that of Ovid, and 
all the other writers who mention this adventure 
of Bacchus, call the crew of the ship Tyrrhenian 
pirates, and derive the name of tho Tyrrhenian aes 
from them. (pomp. Hom. Hymn. i» Bacek ■• Apol- 
lod. iil 5. § 3 ; Seneca, OaL 449.) 

ACOMINATUS. [Nicbtab.] 

ACONTES or ACONTIUS C^6vrrit or 
'AmiiTioi), a son of Lycaon, from whom the town 
of Acontium in Arcadia derived its name. (Apol- 
lod. iil 8. § 1 ; fiteph. Byz. t. e. 'Ajnirriay.) [L. S.] 

ACO'NTIUS CAxifKrioj), a beautiful youth of 
the island of Ceos. On one occasion he came to 
Ddos to celebrate the annual festival of Diana, 
and fell in love with Cydippe, the daughter of a 
noble Athenian. When he saw her sitting in the 
temple attending to the sacrifice she was offering, 
he threw before her an apple upon which he had 
written the words "I swear by the sanctuary of 
Diana to many Acontins." The none took up 
the apple and handed it to Cydippe, who read 
aloud what was written upon it, and then threw 
the apple away. But the goddess had heard her 
vow, as Acontins had wished. After the festival 
waa over, he went home, distracted by his love, 
but he waited for the result of what had happened 
and took no further steps. After some time, when 
Cydippe's &ther was about to give her in marriage 
to another man, she was taken ill just befbra the 
nuptial solemnities were to begin, and this accident 
was repeated three time^ Acontius, informed of 
the occurrence, hastened to Athens, and the Del- 
phic oracle, which was consulted by the maiden's 
father, dedated that Diana by. the repeated iUnesa 

Digitized by VjOOQ It! 



meant to ponidi Cydippe for her peijury. TIi« 
maiden then czplained the whole affiur to her mo- 
ther, and the &ther wai at laet induced to gire hii 
daughter to Acontin*. Thit >tuy i« related by 
Ovid (Hmid. 20, 21 ; camp. 2>>><. iii. 10. 73) 
•nd Ariitaeneto* {E^puL z. 10), and ie alio alluded 
to in MTeial ftagment* of ancient poeU, eepedally 
of Callimachui, who wrote a poem with the tit)* 
Cydippe. The uune etoiy with lome nudificationi 
ia related by Antoniniu Liberali* (Metam. 1 ) of an 
Athenian Heimociatei and CteeyUa. (Comp. Ctx- 
SYLLA and Bnttmann, Mytholog. ii. p. 1 15.) [L.S.] 

A'CORIS rAjtopu), lung of Kgypt, ontand in- 
to alliance witk Engoma, king of Cypnii, againit 
their conmion enemy Artazeizet, king of Persia, 
about B. c 385, and aaiiUcd ETagoia* with ihipe 
and money. On the condniian of the war with 
Eragonu, b. c. 376, the Penian* directed their 
fotvet against Egypt. Acoris colleeted a laige 
army to oppose them, and engaged many Qreek 
mercenaries, of whom he appointed Chabriaa gen»- 
laL Chabrias, hQwerer, was recalled by the Athe- 
nians on the complaint of Phamabazua, who was 
appcnnted by Anaxerzes to conduct the war. 
When the Penian army entered Egypt, which 
was not till B. c. 373, Acoiis was already dead. 
(Died. zv. 2—4, 8, 9, 29, 41, 42; Theopom.op. 
J'koL cod. 176.) Syncellus (p. 76, a. p. 257, a.) 
assigns thirteen years to his leign. 

ACRAEA ('Aivaia). 1. A dan^ter of the 
TiTer-god Asterion near Mycenae, who together 
with her sisters Euboea and Prosymna acted aa 
nurses to UenL A biU Acnea opposite the temple 
of Hea near Myoenaa derived ita aaoe iram mi; 
(Pans. ii. 17. § 2.) 

2. Aenaa and Aeraeos are also attributes giren 
to Tirions goddesses and gods whose temples were 
situated upon hills, such as Zeus, Hera, Aphrodite, 
Pallas, Artemis uid others. (Pans. i. 1. g 3, ii. 24. 
S 1; Apollod. i. 9. §28; VitiUT. i. 7 : Spanheim, 
ad aUlim. Hfmm m Joe. 82.) [L. &] 

ACRA^HEUS ('Aufxufffc), a son of ApoUo, 
to whom the foundation of the Boeotian town of 
Acraephia was ascribed. Apollo, who was wo> 
shipped in that place, derived from it the surname 
of Anaephius or Acmephiaeua. (Steph. Bys. j. v. 
•Aupmipla ; Paul. iz. 23. g 3, 40. § 2.) [L. S.] 

ACRAGAS ('/ucpiyas), a son af Zeus and the 
Ooeonid Asterope, to whom the foundation of 
the town of Acragas (Agrigentum) in Sicily was 
ascribed. (Steph. Bys. i, v. AxpJiryiuirts.) [L. 8.] 

ACRAGAS, an engraver, or chaser in silver, 
spoken of by Pliny, (zzziiL 13. { 55.) It is not 
luiown either when or where he was bom. Pliny 
says that Acngaa, Boethus and Mys were con- 
aadered but litue inferior to Mentor, an artiat of 
gnat note in the same profession ; and that works 
of all three were in existence in his day, preserved 
ill diflerent temples in the island of Rhodes^ 
Those of Acragas, who was especially &med for 
his representations of hunting scenes on cups, 
were in the temple of Bacchus at Rhodes, and con- 
sisted of cups with figures of Baccbae and Centaurs 
giaved on them. If the language of Pliny justifies 
OS in iufening that the three artists vmom he 
classes together lived at the same time, that would 
fix the age of Acngas in the Utter put of the fifth 
century B. c, aa Mys was a contemporary of 
Phidias. [C.P.M.] 

ACRATCyPHORUS ('AayNrve^fut), a su^ 
ume of Dionysus, by which he was designated as 


the g^^T of nnmiTBd wine, and wonhipned at 
Phi^eia in Arcadia. (Pans, viii 39. § 4.) [L. S.] 

ACRATCyPOTES ('A«fiitnnn<vi|t), the driakct 
of unmixed wine^ was a ben worshipped in Mo- 
nychia in Attica. (Polemo, op. Atim. ii. n. 39.) 
According to Paosanias (L 2. g 4), who calla hia 
simply Acmtos, he was one of the divine compa- 
nions of Dionysus, who was worshij^wd in Attics 
Pausanias saw his imsge at Athens in the koose 
of Polytion^ where it was fized in the walL [L. S.] 

A'CRATUS, a fivadman of Neio, who was sent 
by Nen a. d. 64, into Asia and Aehaia to plunder 
the temples and take away tho statues of the godk 
(Tac. Ann. zv. 45, xvi 28 ; oomp. Dim c£iys. 
Mod. p. 644, ed. Reiske.) 

ACRION, a Locrian, vras a Pythagonan pbik- 
sopher. (Cie. d» Fm, v. 29.) He is mentioned by 
Valerius Maximus (viii. 7, ext. 3, from this pas- 
sage of Cicero) under the name of .^riois, whidi is 
a &lse leading, instead of .^erioii. 

ACRISI0MEI8, a patronymic of Danaa, daogb- 
ter of Acrisins, (Virg. Aem, vii. 410.) HoDsr 
(//. ziv. 319) uses the form 'AKfiaUhr^ [L. S.] 

ACRISIONIADES, a patronymic of Perseu, 
giandson of Acriaiiis. (Ov. MtL r. 70.) [L. S.] 

ACRI'SIUS ('AKfUrun), ason of Abaa, king gf 
Aigos and of Ootleia. He was gmndson of Lyn- 
ceus and great-grandson of Daaaos. His twig- 
brother was Proetus, with whom he is said to have 
qoanelled even in the womb of his mother. When 
Abas died and Acrisius had grown up, he expelled 
Proetus fnm his inheritance ; but, supported by 
his fiither-in-kw lobataa, the Lydan, Proetus i»- 
tunied, and Acrisius was compelled to share Ui 
kingdom with his brother by giving up to him 
Tiryns, while he retained A>^ for hiinsel£ An 
oracle had declared that Danaa, the daughter of 
Acrisius, would give birth to a son, who wouU 
kill his grandfather. For this reason ha kept 
Danaii shut up in a sabtemneous apartment, cr in 
a brsaen tower. But here she became mother of 
Perseus, notwithstanding the precautions of her 
fsther, according to some accounts by her unds 
Proetus, and according to others by Zeus, who 
visited her in the form of a shower of gold. Acri- 
sius ordered mother and child, to be exposed 
on the wide sea in a chest ; but the chest floated 
towards the island of Seriphus, where both wcra 
rescued by Dictys, the brother of king Pdydeetcs. 
(Apollod. ii. 2. g 1, 4. g 1 ; Pans, il 16. g 2, 25. g 6, 
iii. 13. g 6; Hygin. FaL 63.) As to the manner ia 
which the oiade was subsequently fulfilled in the 
case of Acrisius, see PxRSXua. According to the 
Scholiast on Enripides (Oml. 1087), Acrisius 
was the founder of the Delphic amphictyony. 
Strsbo (ix. p. 420) believes that this amphictyony 
existed before the time of Acrisius, and th^ he 
was only the fint who regulated the aibirs of the 
amphictyons, fixed the towns which wen to take 
port in the council, gave to each its vote, and set- 
tled the jurisdiction of the amphictyons. (Comp. 
Libanius, Orat. voL iii 472, ei Reiske.) [!•. S.] 

ACRON, a king of the Caenineuiea, whom 
Romulus himself slew in battle. He dedicated 
the arms of Acron to Jupiter Feretiius as ^Mtt> 
Opima. {SeeJOicLo/Ant f.H9i.) Livy men- 
tions the circumstance without giving the name of 
the king. (PluL Horn. 16} Serv. ad. Vira. Ata.n. 
860; Liv.l 10.) 

ACRON CAKpar), an ' eminent physician of 
Agrigcntom, the son of Xenon. Hit exact date 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


ii Mt Icnoim ; txrt, m he » mentioned ai bemg 
ceBtemnmiy irith Empedocle*, who died abont 
tk Iwgnmuig of the Pdoponneeiu wv, he moct 
kiTC IiTed in the fifth emtniy Mote Chiict. Fnm 
Sicily be went to Athens, end then opened a 
pkflMophical idiool (im^ieTtutr). It i* •■ 
that he vaa in that eity doting the gnat plagne 
(a. c. 430X and that luge fins for the parpote of 
nnifying the air woe kindled in the itneti bj 
hii direction, \rhidi piwred of gnat •errice to 
■eTCTil at the ndk. (Phit. Del: el Oeir. 80; 
OribwL Sgrnape. ri. 24, pw 97; AiitiDs tetnb. 
n. win. i. 94, p. 223 ; Fanl Aegin. ii 85, 
pi 406.) It ihoold homnr be beme in mind 
that tbete ia n» mentian of thii in Thncf- 
dides (S. 49, ftb), and, if it i» tine that £m- 
pedede a or Smenides (who died & c 467) vrote 
the epitaph on Aeron, it may be donbted 
vbethei be vaa in Athena at the time of the 
plajifae. Upon hii ntam to Agiigentom he waa 
anxiooa to erect a family lomb^ and i^iplied to 
the aenate for a q>ot of grannd for that porpoae on 
aemont of his eminenee as a phyiieiBn. Empe- 
dsdes howerer resisted this application as being 
ceatn>7 to the principle of eqnality, and proposed 
to inscribe on his'tsob the fitUowing larcastic 
epita^ ( mto ri' u^ t), which it ia qoite impossible 
to tnaakte so aa to p w s e ire the paitmooiaaia of 
the original : 
'Ajrper bfrpir 'AKfmf 'AsparyovriMr «nydt Ixfmi 

Kffwra KftHirit iitfet warpUot duerdnit. 
The second line was sometfanes read tllBS : 
'AMf a i i t i p KOfn^t riftlos (bspot aaWx"- 
Some penons attrifaoted the whole epignm to 
Simonides. (Said. s. v. 'Sicpm) ; Eadoc. Violar^ 
ap. ViUoiaoB, Jmeed. Or. L 49 ; Diog. Liieit 
TiiL 65.) The sect of the Empiric!, in order to 
boost of a greater antiqnity than the Dogmatici 
(finnded by Thessalus, the son, and Polybns, the 
soD-in-iBW of Hippooates, abont a. c. 400), claimed 
Acran as dieir ibnnder (Psendo-Oal. JnlroiL 4. 
^ zir. p. 683X thoogfa Uiey did not really exist 
before the third centiuy B. c. [PaiLiNUS ; SuA- 
nox.'] Pliny &lls into this anachnnism. (H. N. 
zziz. 4.) None of Aenn's woriis an now oxtant, 
though he wrote leTenl in the Doric dialect on 
M edKal and Physical subjects, of which ths titles 
sre preserred by Smdas and Endoda. [W. A. 0.] 
ACRON, HELE'NIUS, a Soman grunmarian, 
pmhably of the fifth century A. n,, but whose pre- 
cise date is not known. He wrote notes on Ho- 
mee, and also, aeeording to some critics, the scholia 
which we hare on Penios. The frisments which 
leniBin of the wodL on Horace, thongh mnch mnti- 
Isted, are nfauUe, as containing the remariu of 
dte ^der eammentatan, Q. Terentiui Seaoms and 
others. They wen pnUbhed first by A. Zaiotti, 
lUaa, 1474, and ^ain in 1486, and hare oAen 
been pnblisbed since in different editiaiu ; periiaps 
the best is that by Oeo. Fabrichu, in his ed. UF 
Hocaee, BanI, 1555, Leipzig, lfi71. A writer of 
the same name, probably the nme man, wrote a 
cs aiai e u taiy on Terence, which is lest, but which 
it reCened to by the grammarian Charisius. [A. A] 
'h*fn/Snfi), the son of the great logotheta Con- 
•tsn^ns Acrapolita the elder, belonged to a noble 
ByiaDtiiie &nuly which stood in relationship to 
tlie imperial fionuy of the Dncas. (Aenpolita, 97.) 
He was bom at Constantinople in 1220 {lb. 39), 
Wt — «— T*"*^ ^ fcther in his Bzteeoth year to | 



Nieaea,'the.iesidanee of the Oreek emperor John 
Vatatses Dncas. There he continued and finished 
his stodies under Theodoins Ezapterigus and Ni- 
cephonis Blemmida. {lb. 32.) The emperor enh 
ployed him afterwaids in dipIonutiG affiun, and 
Aciopolita shewed himself a rery discreet and 
skilfiil negociator. In 1355 ha commanded the 
Nieaean anny in the war between Vi-l«»»l^ des- 
pot of Epiros, and the emperor Theodore II. iba 
son and successor of John. But he was made pri- 
soner, and was only deliTeied in 1260 by the me- 
diation of Michael Pabeologus. Preriously to 
this he had been appointed gnat logotheta, either 
by John or by Theodore, whom he had instructed 
in kpc. Meanwhile, Michael Pabwologus was 

Srodaimed emperor of Nicaea in 1260, and in 1261 
e ezpulsed the latins &xim Constantinople, and 
became emperor of tbe whole East ; and from this 
moment Geoigius Aenpolita becoines known in 
the histoiy of the eastern empire as one of the 
greatest dudomatists. After baring diichaiged the 
tunetion oi^ambassador at tbe court of Constantine, 
king of the Bulgarians, he retired for some yeois 
from public B&urs, fud mads the instructioD of 
youth his sole occupation. But he was soon em- 
ployed in a ray important negociation. Michael, 
s&aid of a sew Latin inrasion, proposed to pope 
Clemens IV. to reunite the Onek and the Latin 
Churches ; and negoeiations ensued which were car- 
ried on during die rewn of five popes, Clemens IV. 
Oiegory X. John XXI. Micohua III. and Martin 
IV. and the h^ipy result of which was ahnott en- 
tirely owing to the skill of Acropolita. As early as 
1273 Acropolita was sent to pope Gregory X. and 
in 1274, at the Council of Lyons, he confirmed by 
an oath in the emperor's name that that confession 
of fiuth which had been preriously sent to Con- 
stantinople by the pope had been adopted by the 
Greeks. The reunion of the two churches was 
afterwaids broken oS^ but not through the {suit of 
Acropolita. In 1282 Acropolita was onoe more 
sent to Bolgaria, and shortly after his retTun he 
died, in the month of December of the tame year, 
in his 62nd yesr. 

Acropolita is the author of sereial works : tho 
most importsnt of which is a history of the Bysao- 
tine empire, under the title Xpomieiy ih iy ow^si 
Twv i¥ iaripoa, that is, bam the taking of Con- 
stantinople by die Latins in 1204, down to the 
year 1261, when Michael Palseologns delivered the 
city from the foreign yoke. The MS. of this work 
was knmA in the library of Oeoisins Cantacoxenna 
at Constantinople, and afterwaids brought to Eu- 
rope. (Fahricius,£iU.Giraee.voLTiLp.76&) The 
fint edition of this work, with a Latin translation 
and notes, was published by Theodorns Douxa, 
Lugd. BataT. 1614, 8to.; butamon critical one by 
Leo Allatiua, who used a Vatican MS. and divided 
the text into chapten. It has the title rsMfryfow 
Tov 'AiqnnnAiTov rov iAryi\ov hjrfMnm xporneJ) 
mrffpi^ri, Oeargii Aeropoltiae, magm Logolielae, 
Jiatona, Ac. Paris, 1651. foL This edition ia re- 
printed in the " Corpus Byzantinorum Scriptoram," 
Venice, 1729, vol. ziL This chronicle contains 
one of the most remarkable periods of Byzantine 
histoiy, but it is so short that it seems to be cnly 
an abridgment of another work of the lame authoi^ 
which is lost. Acropolita perhaps composed it with 
the view of giving it as a compendium to those young 
men whose scientific education he superintended, 
after his return from his fint embaasy to Bulgariik 

Digitized by VjOOQ It! 



The history of Michael Palaeologos by PachymeiM 
may be considered as a continnation of the work of 
Acnipolita. Besides this vrorlL, Acropolita vnte 
■evcral oiationt, which he delivered in his capacity 
as great logotheta, and as director of the n^ociations 
with the pope ; but these oration* have not been 
published. Fabricins (toL Tii p. 47 1 ) speaks of a 
its. which has the title n<pl riv M Krbrtttt 
K6<rnov iriir xal rtpl tUv PamXtvmimty fUxP* 
dXiiirms Kmv(rramyour6Kttis. Oeoif[ins, or Gre- 
gorins Cyprius, who has written a short encominm of 
Acropolita, caUa him the Plato and the Aristotle of 
liis time. This "encomium" is printed with a La- 
tin translation at the head of the edition of Acro- 
polita by Th. Donza : it contains nseful information 
concerning Acropolita, althoagh it is iiill of adula- 
tion. Further information is contained in Acropo- 
lita's history, especially in the latter part of it, and 
in Pachymeres, W. 28, vi. 26, 34, seq. [W. P.] 
ACROREITES CAKptipttnit), a mmame of 
Dionysus, under which he was worshipped at 
Sicyon, and which is synonymous with Eriphius, 
tinder which name he was worshipped at Heta- 
pontum in southern Italy, (Stepo. Byx, «. «. 
^AKpaptta.) [h. S.] 

ACRO'TATUS ^AKpiraros). 1. The son of 
Cleomenes 11. king of Sparta, incurred the displea- 
sure of a large party at Sparta by opposing the de- 
cree, which was to release from infiuny all who had 
fled from the battle, in which Antipater defeated 
Agis, B.C 331. He was thus glad to acc^t the 
offer of the Agrigentines, when they sent to Sparta 
for assistance in B. a 314 against Agathodes of 
Syracuse. He first sailed to Italy, and obtained 
assistance from Tarentum ; but on his arrival at 
Agrigvntum he acted with such cruelty and tyranny 
that the inhabitants ruse against him, and com- 
pelled him to leave the city. He returned to 
Sparta, and died before the death of his &ther, 
which was in B, c, 309. He left a son, Areus, who 
succeeded Cleomenes. (Diod. zv. 70, 71 ; Paus. i. 
13. § 3, iii. 6. § 1, 2 ; Pint. Agis, 3.) 

2. The grandson of the preceding, and the son 
of Areus I. king of Sparta. He had unhkwful in- 
tcrcoune with Chelidonis, the young wife of Cleo- 
nymns, who was the uncle of his fiither Arena ; 
and it was this, together with the disamointment 
of not obtaining the throne, which led Cleonymus 
to invite Pyrrhus to Sparta, B. c. 272. Areus was 
then absent in Crete, and the safety of Sparta was 
mainly owing to the valour of Acrotatns. He suc- 
ceeded his fother in B. c 265, but was killed in 
the same year in battle against Aristodemus, the 
tyrant of Megalopolis. Pansanias, in speaking of 
his death, calls him the son of Cleonymns, but he 
has mistaken him for hi* grandlather, spoken of 
above. (Plut /'yrrA. 26-28i.<<j/u,SiPaus.iii.6.§3, 
viii. 27. § 8, 30. § 3.) Anus and Acrotatus are ac- 
cused by Phylarchus (op. AUat, iv. p. 142, b.) of 
having corrupted the simplicity of Spartan man- 

ACTAEA {'AimSa), a danghter of Nereus and 
Doris. (Horn. II. xviii. 41 ; ApoUod. i. 2. § 7 ; 
Hygin. Fab. p. 7, ed. Stayeren.) [L. S.] 

ACTAEON ('AKToSmyy I. Son of Aristaeua 
and Autonoe, a daughter of Cadmus. He was 
trained in the art of hunting by the centaur Chei- 
ron, and was afterwards torn to pieces by his own 
50 bounds on mount Cithaeron. The names of 
these hounds are given by Ovid (Met. iii. 206, Ac.) 
ondllyginiu. (Fak. 181; comp. Stat. I'M. ii. 203.) 

The eanie of this misfbrtone is differently stated : 
according to some aeconnts it was because he hsd 
seen Artemis while she was bathing in the vale of 
Gargaphia, on the discovery of which the god- 
dess dumged him into a stag, in which form he 
was torn to piece* by his own dogs. (Or. JUeL 
iiu 165, &c. ; Hygin. Fab. 181 ; CaUim. k. m 
Pailad. 1 10.) Others rehite that he provoked the 
anger of the goddess by his boasting that he a- 
ceUed her in hunting, or by his using for a feoit 
the game which was destin^ as a sacrifice to her. 
(Eurip. Saeeh. 320; Diod. iv. 81.) A third ac- 
count stated that he was killed by his dogs at the 
command of Zeus, because he sued for the hand of 
Semele. (Acusilaus, ap. ApoUod. iii. 4. § 4.) Pan- 
sanias (iz. 2. § 3) saw near Orchomenoa the rock oo 
which Actaeon used to rest when he was fatigued ! 
by hunting, and from which he had seen Artemii 
in the batn ; bat he i* of opinion that the whole 
story arose from the circumstance that Actaeon 
was destroyed by his dogs in a natural fit of mid- 
neas. Palaephatoa (i. e. Aelaeoii) ^ves an abuud 
and trivial explanation of it According to the 
Orchomenian tradition the rock of Actaeon was 
haunted by his spectre, and the oracle of Delphi 
commanded the Orchomenians to bury the remains 
of the hero, which they might happen to find, and 
fix an iron image of him upon tJie rock. This 
image still existed in the time of Pausanias (ix. 
38. § 4), and the Orchomenian* ofiered annual sa- 
crifices to Actaeon in that place. The manner in 
which Actaeon and hi* mother were painted by 
Polygnotu* in the Leacfae of Delphi, is deacribol 
by Pausaniaa, (z. 30. § 2 ; comp. MUller, Ordom. 
p. 348, &c) 

2. A son of Melisau*, and grandson of Abron, 
who had fled from Aigos to Corinth for fear of the 
tyrant Pheidon. Archias, a Corinthian, enamour- 
ed with the beauty of Actaeon, endeavoured to 
cany him off; but in the struggle which ensaed 
between Melissusand Archias, Actaeon was killed. 
Melissus brought his complaints forward at the 
Isthmian games, and praying to the gods for re- 
venge, he threw himself from a rock. Hereupon 
Corinth was visited by a plague and draught, 
and the oracle ordered the Corinthians to propi- 
tiate Poseidon, and avenge the death of Actaeon. 
Upon this hint Archiaa emigrated to Sicily, when 
he founded the town of Syracuse. (Plut. Amiat. 
JVorr. p. 772 j comp. Pan*, v. 7. $ 2 ; Thucvd. vi. 
3 ; StnOi. viiL p. 380.) [L.'S.] 

ACTAEUS CAjcrowi). A aon of Eriachthon, 
and according to Pauaania* (i. 2. % 5), the 
earliest king of Attica, He had three daughten, 
Agraulos, Herse, and Pandnsus, and wa* succeed- 
ed by Cecrops, who married Agraulos. Accord- 
ing to ApoUodoru* (iii 14. 1.) on the other hand, 
Cecrop* waa the first king of Attica. [L. S.] 

ACTE, the concubine of Nero, was a &«ed- 
woman, and originally a slave purchased from 
Asia Minor. Nero loved her fiir more than his 
wife Octavia, and at one time thought of marr}'ing 
her ; whence he pretended that she was descended 
from king Attains. She survived Nero. (Tac 
Am. xiit 12, 46, ziv. 2 ; Suet. Ner. 28, 50 ; Dion 
Cas*. Ixl 7.) 

ACTIACUS, a surname of Apollo, derived 
from Actium, one of the principal place* of his 
worship. (Ov. Afet. xiii. 715; Strab. z. p. 451; 
compare Burmann, ad Pnperl. p. 434.) [L. S.] 

ACTI'SAMES ('AxTMnfaTis)) a king of Ethiopia, 

Digitized by 



Ho eonqaend Egjpt and gorcrsed it with jutioek 
He fimnded the dty of Rhinocelim on the con- 
nan of Egypt *'>d Sfiia, and wai meceeded by 
Uodo, aa EgyptiuL Diodonn aayi that Acti- 
■nei coaqnend Egypt in the reign of Amana, fi>r 
irhick are ought peihapa to read Ammoai*. At all 
erania, ^■~'"-. the contemporary of Cyma, cannot 
fenant. (Diad.L60;Strah.xTi.p.759.) 
ACTIUS. [ArncK] 

ACTOR CAcny). 1. A nn of Daon and 
SioiDede, the dangfater of Xathna. He wa* thu 
a bmdier of Aatoopeia, Aenetns, Phylaciu, and 
Cephalna, and huhand of Aegina, &ther of Me- 
noetina, and grand&ther of Patiaclai. (ApoUod. 
i. 9. S ^ 16) iii- 10- S 8 ; Pind. Ot is. 76 ; Horn. 
IL xi. 785, xri 14.) 

2l a aon of Phorbaa and Hyimine, and hoafaand 
oC Moliane. He was thui a brother of Angeea, 
mnd bthec of Etuytoa and Cteatu. (ApoUod. ii. 
7. § 2 : Paaa. t. I. § 8, viii. U. § 6.) 

S. A companion of Aeneaa (Viig. Aen. iz. 500), 
irho ia probably the lame who in another poMage 
(zii. 94) ia called an Aninncan, and of whose con- 
qnoed lance Tnmni made a boaat Thia story 
aecnu to hare given rise to the prorerbial saying 
" Actoiia apoUam** (Jbt. ii. 100), for any poor 
*fiA in g«icmL [L. S,] 

ACTO'RIDES or ACTO'RION (^tumpS^nt or 
'AicToflttry, are patronymic fiirm* of Actor, and are 
emaeqiiently given to deseendanta of an Actor, 
sacli aa Patractes (Or. MtL ziii 373 ; TritU i. 9. 
39), ErithoB (Or. MtU t. 79 ; compare Tiii. 308, 
371), Eorytoa, and Cteatoa. (Horn. IL ii. 621, 
su. 185, zL 750, zziiL 638.) [L. S.} 

M. ACTOOIIUS NASO, seenia to have writ- 
ten a 1^ of Jnliiia Caesar, or a history of his 
tnnea, which ia quoted by Suetonins, (JtiL 9, 52.) 
He time at whidi he lived is uncertain, bnt from 
tba way in which he ia reiierred to by Suetonins, 
k would afanoat seem to have been a oontempomry 

ACTUA'RTUS Q Auraaifiat), the surname by 
vhich an ancient Greek pbyaiciaa, whose real 
aune waa Joannes, ia commonly known. His 
fiither's name waa Zarharias ; he himself practised 
at Conatantinople, and, as it i^peers, with some 
degree of credit, aa he was honoured with the title 
of Aduarku, a dignity frequently conferred at that 
eonrt upon physicians. (/)K<.q^.iii<.p.61I,b.) Very 
little ia known of the events of his life, and 
hia date ia rather uncertain, as some persons reckon 
him to have lived in the eleventh century, and 
othera bring him down aa low aa the beginning of 
the fourteenth. He probably lived towards the 
end of the thirteenth century, as one of his works 
ia dedicated to Us tutor, Joseph Racendytea, who 
lived in the reign of Andronicns II. PiUaeologns, 
X. D. 1281—1328. One of his school-fellows is 
supposed to have been Apocanchus, whom he de- 
scrOies (though withoat naming him) as going 
ufoi an embaaay to the north. {Da MtA, Mtd. 
Pact in L iL pp. IS9, 169.) 

One of hia woriu ia entitled, Iltpl 'Eitpr/tiSr ml 
n s M i' Toii Vnxutsw nrs^^urros, sol t^i aar' ahi 
Amino — " De Actionibus et Affectibua Spiritns 
■inimalia. ejnsqne Nntritione.'' This ia a psycho- 
loeical and physiological woric in two books, in 
Mich all hia reasoning, says Freind, seems to be 
banded upon the princdplea laid down by Aristo- 
tle, Oalen, and othen, with relation to the same 
subject. The style rf this tract is by no 



iopiiie, and has a great miztore of the dd Attic 
in It, which is very rarely to be met with in the 
later Greek writen. A toleiahly full abstract of 
it ia given by fiarchusen, Hiil. Medic DiaL 14. p. 
338, Ac It was first published, Venet 1 647, 8vo. 
in a Latin tnmslation by JuL Alezandiinus de 
Neustain. The first edition of the original «raa 
published. Par., 1657, 8va edited, without notes 
or prefiue, by Jsc. GoupyL A second Greek edi- 
tion appeared in 1774, 8vo. Lipa., under the care 
of J. F. Fischer. Ideler has alw inserted it in the 
first vdume of his Pk fnci et Mediai Grata Mi- 
uartM, BeroL 8vo. 1841 ; and the first part of J. 3. 
Bemardi Relifjinat Mtdieo-Criticae, ed. Omner, 
Jenae, 1796, 8vo. contains some Greek Scholia 
on the work. 

Another of his extant works is entitled, Sspa- 
wmrual M4aolot, " De Methodo Medendi," in six 
books, which have hitherto iq)peared complete only 
in a liBtin transition, though Oietx had, before his 
death, collected matoials for a Greek edition of 
this and hia other works. (See hia pre&ce to Oalen 
De Diuect. Mute.) In these books, says Freind, 
though he chiefly foUowa Galen, and very often 
Aiitins and Paulna Awineta without naming him, 
yet he makes use of whatever he finds to hu pur- 
pose both in the old and modem writers, as well 
barbarians as Greeks ; and indeed we find in him 
several things that are not to be met with else- 
where. The work was written extempore, and 
designed for the use of Apocauchus during his 
embassy to the north. (FraeC I p. 139.) A Latin 
translation of this work by Com. H. Mathisius, 
was first published Venet. 1654, 4to. The first 
four books appear sometimes to have been con- 
sidered to form a complete work, of which the 
first and second have been inserted by Ideier in 
the second volume of his Pkgt. et Med. Or. Mm, 
BeroL 1842, under the title ITspl Aiaynifftar 
naf>iy,''DeMorborumDignotione,''and from which 
the Greek extracts in H. Stephens's Dictiortarium 
Mediaan, Par. 1664, 8vo. are probably taken. 
The fifth and sixth books have also been taken for 
a separate work, and were published by them- 
selves. Par. 1539, 8vo. and Basil. 1540, 8vo. in 
a Latin translation by J. Ruellius, with the title 
" De Medicamentomm Compositione." An pxtract 
from this work is inserted in Femel's coUectiou of 
writen De Febribut, Venet 1576, foL 

His other extant wortc is Ilepl Oipay, " De 
Urinis,''in seven books. He has treated of this sub- 
ject very fully and distinctly, and, though he goes 
upon the plan whichTheophilasProtospathBriui) had 
marked out, yet he has added a great deal of origi- 
nal matter. It is the most complete and systematic 
work on the subject that remains from antiquity, 
so much so that, till the chemical improvements of 
the but hundred years, he had left haidly anythuig 
new to he said by the modems, many of whom, 
says Freind, transcribed it almost word for word. 
This work was first published in a Latin transla- 
tion by Ambrose Leo, which appeared ia 1619, 
Venet. 4to., and has been several times reprinted ; 
the Greek original has been published for the first 
time in the second volume of Ideler's work quoted 
above. Two Latin editions of his coUected 
works are siud by Choulant (Handbueh der Bu- 
dttrhmde fiir die Aeltere Medicm, Leipzig, 1841), 
to have been published in the same year, 1566, 
one at Paris, and the other at Lyons, both in 8vo. 
His thiee works in also inserted in the Madioat 


zed by Google 



AtHt PrmegM of H. Stephena, Pit. 1567, ioL 
(Fieind'* Hiit. </ P^gtie; Spnngel, Hid. d» la 
Mid. ; Haller, BiUiotk. Medic PraeL ; Barchnaeo, 
Hill. Medk.) [W. A. G.] 

ACU'LEO oecnn u a nraame of C. Forini 
who wu qaantar of L. Sdpio, end wa* con- 
demned of peeulatns. (Lir. xxxriiL 55.) Aco- 
leo, however, seenu not to have been a legnhir &■ 
mily-name of ike Fnria gens, but onlj a ninmme 
given to this penon, of which a annUar exampie 
occurs in the fbUowing article. 

C. ACULEO, a Roman knight, who named 
the sister of Helvia, the mother of Cicero. He 
was sarpasied by no one in his day in his know- 
ledge of the Roman law, and possessed great 
acuteness of mind, but was not distingnished for 
other attainments. He was a friend of L. Lidnius 
Crassus, and was defended by him upon one oc- 
casion. The son of Acaleo was C. ViseUiiu Varro ; 
whence it would appear that Acnleo was only a 
snniame given to the bther from his aenteoesa, and 
that his nill name was C. Visellins Varro Acnko. 
(Cic deOr.HS, ii. 1, 66 ; Brut. 76.) 

ACU'MENUS fAxov/Mvtft), a physician of 
Athens, who lived in the fifth century hefm Christ, 
and is mentioned aa die friend and eompaoion 
of Socrates. (Plat. Phaedr. init. ; Xen. Manor. 
iii. 13. i 2.) He was the &ther of Eryzimachua, 
who was also a physician, and who is introduced 
as one of the speaken in Plato's Symposium. (Plat 
Prolog, p. 315, c. ; Symp. p. 176, c.) He is also 
mentioned in the collection of letters first published 
by Leo Allatios, Paris, 1637, 4to. -nth the title 
^M. Socmtii et Socralieonm, and again by Orel- 
Uus, Lipa. 1815. 8vo. ep. 14. pi SI. [W. A. O.] 

ACUSILAUS ('AmmraaarX of AigiM, one of 
the earlier Greek logt)graphers(.0iiti i^Aitt. f.h'lh, 
a.), who probably lived in the latter half of the 
sixth century %.c He is called the son of Cabras 
orScabras, and is reckoned by some among .the 
Seven Wise Men. Suidas (i. e.) says, that ha 
wrote Genealogies from bronae tablets, which his 
father was said to have dug up in his own house. 
Three books of his Genealogies are quoted, which 
were for the most part only a translation of Hesiod 
into prose. (Clem. Strang vi. p. 629, a.) Like most 
of the ether logogiapbers, ha wrote m the Ionic 
dialect Plato is the earliest writer by whom he 
is mentioned. {Sgmp. p. 178, b.) The works which 
bore the name fA Acnailails in a later age, were 
spurious. (>. e. 'tjuirmot MiAifnor, 'laropfjvai, 
3,<rfypi^\ The iragmenla of Acusilaiis have 
been published by Sturta, Oerae, 1787 ; 2nd ed. 
Lips. 1824 ; and in the " Museum Criticum," i 
p. 216, tK. Camb. 1826. 

M. ACUTIUS, tribune of the plebs & c. 44)1, 
was elected by the ether tribunes (by co-(^>latian) 
in violation of the Trebonia lex. (Liv. T. 10 ; 
Diet, of Ant. p. 566, a.) 

ADA C^"")' ^B daughter of Heealemnns, king 
of Caiia, and sister of Mansolos, Artemisia, 
Idrieus, ud Pizodarus. She was narried to her 
broUier Idrieos, who succeeded Artemisia in B. c. 
351 and died B. c 344. On the death of her 
husband she succeeded to the thnne of Caria, but 
was expelled by her brother Pixodams in &a 340; 
and on the death of the latter in B. c. 335 his son- 
in-law Orontobates received the satrapy of Caria 
from the Persian kii^. When Alexander entered 
Caria in B. c. 334, Ada, who was in possesaon of 
the fortress of Alioda, suiendered tnis place to 


him and begged leave to adopt him as her son. 
After takingHalicamassus, Alexander committed 
the government of Caria to her. (Arrian, Awak. 
i.23;Diod.xvL4%74; Stmbwziv.ppi 656, 657; 
Pint Ala. 10.) 

a Onek epigrammatic poet, a native most pn- 
bably of Macedonia. The epithet MwraUset ii 
appended to his name before the third epigms 
in the Vat M3. {Anik. Or. vi. 228) ; and tbs 
subjects of the second, eighth, nintii, and testh 
epigrams agree with ^lis aeconat of his or^iiL 
He lived in the time of Alexander tha Gnat, ts 
whose death he alludes. {Autk. Gr.-ra. 240.) 
The fifth epignun (Anik. Gr. vii. 805) is inscribed 
'AStolov HiTuXt)ralov, and there was a Mitylesaeaa 
of this name, who wrote two prose wroks nt^ 
'KyaKiuirorQim and Tlfk AiaBictia. (Athea. 
ziii. p. 606. A, XL p. 471, P.) The time when h« ' 
lived cannot be fixed with certainty. Beiske, 
though on insufficient grounds, believes these t*D 
to bs the same person. {AiUk. Oraec vL 328, 
258, vii. 51, 238, 240, 306, x. 20 ; Brunck, .^so^ 
ii. p. 224 ; Jacobs, xiii. p. 831.) [C. P. H.] 


ADAMA'NTIUS ('Attviai^wt), aa aadsnt 
physician, bearing the title otIatrotojMiUi (Jmtfumi 
li&yw ffo^urrit, Socrates, JHi$L Bodm. viL 13), 
for the msaning of which see Did. tf Aft. 
p. 507. Little is known of his personal hislaij, 
except that he was by larth a Jew, and that 
he Wds one of those who fled from Alexandra, 
at tlie time of the expulsion of the Jews from that 
dtr by the Patriarch St Cyril, A. D. 415. He went 
to Constantinople, was persuaded to embiace Chris- 
tianity, ^parently by Atticus the Patriarch of that 
city, and dien returned to Alexandria. (Sociatci, 
/. e.) He ia the author of a Greek treatise on 
yhyuognomy, ^twuryrat/iwucd, in two books, whidi 
IS still extant, and which is borrowed in a great 
Beasore (as he himself confesses, i. ProeenL f. 
314, ed. Franx.) from Polemo's woik on the lanie 
subject It is dedicated to Constantina, who li 
supposed by Fabridus {BOIiolk. Oraeea, toL ii. p. 
171, xiil 34, ed. vet) to be the person who msi^ 
ried Pladdia, the daughter of Theodoains the 
Great, and who reigned for seven months in cod- 
jonetion with the ^peror Honorius. It was fini 
published in Greek at Paris, 1540, 8vo,, then in 
Greek and Latin at Basle, 1544, 8voi, and after 
wards in Greek, together with Aelian, Polemo aad 
some other writers, at Rome, 1545, 4to. ; the M 
and best edition is that by J. G. Fnuixins, who kai 
inserted it in hia collection of the Sergilore* PifK- 
ogmmiM Ytttra, Or. et I«t, Altenb. 1780, 8va 
Another of his works, Ilip) 'Arifmr, De Vtmtit, is { 
quoted by Ae Scholiast to Hesiod, and an extract 
from it IS given by Aelins (tetiab. i. aerm. 3, c 
163) ; it ia aaid to be a^ in eziatenoe in anna- 
aeript in the Royal Library at Paris. Several of | 
his medical pieaciiptions are preserved by Oriha- 
aiua and Aetiui^ [W. A. G.] ' 

AUEIMANTUS CABstfianw). 1. Tbeaunof 
Ocytus, the Corinthian commander in the invasion 
of Greece by Xerxes. Before the battle of Arte- 
mieium he threatened to aail away, but was bribed 
by Themistodes to remain. He opposed Themis- 
todes with great insolence in the council whick 
the commanders held before the battle of SahunsL 
According to the Athenians he took to flight at 
the very commeneemeat of the battte, bnt this 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


w denied hij tie CarintUaBs md the other 
GnduL (Herod. viiL i, £6, 61, 94 ; Plut Tiem. 

2. Tlw HO of LenoolopludM, on AUwman, wu 
«■» of the eeratmuideit with AlciUadea in the ez- 
pe£tioo againit Andioi, B. CL 407. (Xen. HdL i. 
4.|21.) He wu again appointed one of the Athe- 
■iu geaetab after the bMtle of Aiginiuaev B. c. 
4M, and eoatmaed in offios till the tattle of Aegoa- 
polaim, & c. 4U6, where he wa* one of the com- 
■anden, and «a« taken priaoner. He was the 
aalf oe of the Athenian priioneim who waa not 
pot la death, becaoie ha ^d oppoaed the decne 
lor cutting off die right hand* of the Locedaemo- 
■iana who n^t be taken in the battle. Ha was 
acoued hj many of tieacheijr in this battle, and 
vuafterwaidi inpeached bj Cooon. (Xen. JItU. i. 
7.Sl,u.l.f 30-S-2; Pana.iT. 17.§-2,x.9.§o:Dem. 
tU fills, kg. f. 401. ; hyt. cAle. pp. 143, 21.) 
Aririophaan ipeoks of Adeimantna in tiie "Fngi " 
(lili), wUeh waa acted in the year of the battle, 
as ooe whose death waa wiahed for ; and he also 
csUi him, apparently oot of jest, the son of Laaco- 
kphos, that ie, "White Ctest.~ In the "Prota- 
geias" of Plato, Adeimantas is also i^oken of aa 
jfcsent on that oaawion (pt SIS, e.). 

i. The brother of Plato, who is faeqaently men- 
tioied by the latter. (ApoL fiber, pi 34, l, lis 
A^ ii pk 3S7, c p. £48, d. e.) 

ADQANDE'STRIUS, a chief of the Catti, 
aSocd to kffl Anunina if the Romans would send 
Vm poison fiir the pnrpoae ; but Tiberiu declined 
the slier. (Tac .<liasi. ii. 88.) 

ADHBRBAL ('ArdfiCat). 1. A Carthaginian 
ciwaiiiiili I in the firat Panic warj who was placed 
•rcrDrepana, and ampletdy defeated tha Roman 
esnnl P. Clandina in a sea-fight off Drepaaa, B. a 
34S. (Polyh. L 49 — 52; Diod. SeL zzIt.} 

2. A Carthaginian conuna&der under hCaggo in 
the second Pnnic war, wha was deCeated in a sea- 
fght off Carteia, in Spain, by C. LaeUiu in B.C 
aw. (liT. xxriii 30.) 

1. The son of Uidpaa, asid giandscn of Maai- 
nsss, had the kingdom of Nnmidia left to him by 
Ids father in coaimctioa with his brather Hiempsal 
and Jogmtha, b. c. 1 18. After the murder of his 
Imther by Jngortha, Adherbel Bed to Rome and 
vas restored to his share of tha kingdom by the 
Bnanni m B.C. 117. Bat Adherbal was again 
str^iped of his dominions by Jugurtha and be- 
wpd in Gnu, wheia he was trcaeberonsly killed 
h]t Jognrtha in B. c. 112, although he had pbced 
Uaself Oder the protection of the Romans. 
(SaQ. Jmg. 5, IS, 14, 24, 36, 26; Lir. JSp. 68 ; 
Disd. £ie. zzzir. p. 605. ed. Weaa.) 

ASIATORIX ('JOmrifuO, son of a tetianh 
in Qaktia, belonged to Antony's party, and killed 
aU the Ranana in Heradeis ahortly before the 
hMtle of Actium. After this battle he was led aa 
pissAsr io the triumph of Augustus, and pnt to 
death with his younger son. Bit eldar son, 
l)fteatna, was sabseqnentiy made priest of the 
•dsfantedgeddasainCamana. (Stiab. zii. pp. 548, 
at, 549 ; Cic <K< Pam. ii. 12.) 

AOMETE ('AS/cifn))L 1. AdasgterofOceanns 
aadTketys(Ucaiod. Tluag.H9), whomHyginus 
>a the pcefKe to his &bles calls Admeto and a 
dsaghler sf Pontaa and Tbalassa. 

2. A daughter of Enryathena and Antimache or 
Adnetc: Heiadea waa obliged by her &ther to 
fash far hsi the godle of Ans, which waa winn 



by Hippdvta, qoeen of the Amacons. (ApoUod. ii 
5. §9.) AcewdiogtaTzetaes(a(<i««qpir. 1327), 
she accompanied Heracles on this expedition. 
There was a tradition ( Athen. zt. p. 447), according 
to which Admete was originally a priestess of Hem 
at Aigos, bat fled with the image of the goddesa 
to Samos. Piiatea were engaged by the Aif[iTes 
to fetch die image back, but the enterprise did not 
succeed, for the sh^ when laden with the image 
ooold not be made to more. The men then took 
the image back to the coast of Samos and sailed 
away. When the Samians found it, they tied it 
to a tree, but Admete purified it and restoied it to 
the temple of Samos. In commemoratian of this 
erent the j^ians celebrated an annual festival 
called Tonea. This stoty aeems to be an invention 
of the Ajgina, by which they intended to prore 
that the worship of Han in toeir place was older 
than in Samos. [L. S.] 

ADHE'TUS ('AS/urot), a son of Pheies, the 
founder and king of Phaiae in Thessaly, and of 
Peridymene or C^rmene. ( ApoUod. i. 8. § 2, 9. § 1 4.) 
He took part id the Calydonian chase and the ex-y 
pedition of the Argonauts. (ApoUod. i. 9. § 16; Hy- 
gin. Fab. 14. 173.) When he had soeoeeded his 
btbar aa king of Pheiae, he sued for the hand of 
Alcestia, the daughter of Pelias, who promised her 
to him on condition that he should come to her in 
a chariot drawn by lions and boars. This task 
Admeto* perfbnned by the assistance of Apollo, 
who serred him according to some accounts out of 
attachment to him (SchoL ad £hr^. AlcaL 2 ; 
Callim, k. m ApoU. 46, &c), or according to othen 
because be was obliged to serve a mortal for one 
year for having slain the Cyclops. (ApoUod. iiL 10. 
i 4.) Ob the day of his maniage with .Mcestia, 
Admetus neglected to offer a ssmiice to Artemis, 
and when io the evening he entered the bridid 
chamber, he found there a number of snakes rolled 
up in a lump. ApoUo, however, reconciled 
Artemis to him, and <^ the lame time induced the 
MoixBB to grant V». Admetus deliverance from 
death, if at the hour of. his death his bther, mother, 
or wife would die.fftr him. Akestis did so, but 
Kora, or according to others Herades, brought her 
back to the upper woild. (ApoUod. i. 9. g 15 ; com- 
pare ALCB8TI8.) [U S.] 

ADHE'TUS ("AS^vror), king of the Moloi- 
sians in the time of Themistocles, who, when su- 
preme at Athen/^ had opposed him, perhaps not 
without inault, in some suit to the people. But when 
flying from the officers who were ordered to seise 
him aa a party to the treason of Pansanias, and 
driven from Corcyia to Epirus, he found himself 
upon some emergency, with no hope of refuge but 
the house of Admetus. Admetus was absent ; but 
Phthia hia qoeesi welcomed the stranger, and bade 
him, as the most solemn form of suppUcation 
among the Mdossians, take her son, the young 

Srince, and sit with him in his bands upon the 
earth. Admetus on his return home assured him 
of protection; according to another account in 
Plutaidi, he hims^ and not Pthia enjoined the 
form as affiirding him a pretext for refusal : he, at 
any rate, shut his ears to aU that the Athenian 
and Lacedaemonian commissioners, who soon after- 
words arrived, could say ; and sent Themistodes 
safely to Pydna on bis vray to the Persian court. 
(Thucyd. I 1 36, 137 ; Pint. Tktm. 24.) [A. H. C] 
ADMETUS CAJ(iijTo»), a Greek epigram- 
matist, who lived in this early part of the second 

c 2 


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centuiy after Chriit. One line of hii ii pnaerred 
by Ludan. (Demauu, 44 ; Bninck, AtiaL uL p. 
21.) [C.P.M.] 

ADO'NEUS CASvwitt). 1. A taniame of 
Bacchiu, (igni&t the Ruler. (Anion. £pigr. zxiz. 

2. Adoneos m •ometimea nwd by lAtui poet* 
for Adonii. (Plant. Mamck. i. 2. 3S ; CatolL 
xiix. 9.) [L. S.] 

ADO^NIS CASmvit), aooording to ApoUodonu 
(iii. 14. 8 3) a aon of Cinyrai and Medanne, accord- 
ing to Uetiod (ap. ApoUod. ill 14. § 4) a son of 
Phoenix and Alphenboea, and according to the 
cyclic poet Panyaais {ap. ApoUod. Ue.) i aon of 
Theias, king of Auyria, who begot him by hit 
own daughter Smyrna. (Mynha.) The ancient 
story ran thoa : &nyma had neglected the wor- 
■hip of Aphrodite, and wai puniined by the god- 
deaa with an unnatural love for her &ther. With 
the aatittanee of tixc nurae she contrired to share 
her &ther's bed without being known to him. 
When he discoTered the crime he wished to kill 
her; but she fled, and on being nearly orertaken, 
prayed to the gods to moke her invisible. They 
were moved to pity and changed her into a tree 
called afiipva. Ailxt the lapse of nine months 
the tree burst, and Adonis was bom. Aphrodite 
was so much charmed with the beauty of the infant, 
that she concealed it in a chest whidi she entrust- 
ed to Persephone ; but when the latter discovered 
the treasure she had in her keeping, she refiised to 
give it up. The case was brought before Zeus, 
who decided the dispute by declaring that during 
four months of eveiy year Adonis should be left to 
himself during four months he should belong to 
Pcnephone, and during the remaining four to 
Aphrodite. Adonis however preferring to live 
with Aphrodite, also spent with her the four 
months over which he had controuL Aftei^ 
wards Adonis died of a wound which he received 
from a boar during the chase. Thus &r the story 
of Adonis was related by Panyasis. Later writers 
inmish various alterations and additions to it. 
According to Hyginus (Fab. 68, 164, 281, 271), 
Smyrna was punished with the love for hei bdier, 
because her mother Cenchreis had provoked the 
anger of Aphrodite by extolling the beauty of her 
daughter above that of the goddess. Smyrna after 
the discovery of her crime fled into a forest, where 
she was changed into a tree from which Adonis 
came forth, when her father split it with his 
sword. The dispute between Aphrodite and Per^ 
■ephone was according to some accounts settled by 
Calliope, whom Zeus appointed as mediator be- 
tween them. (Hygin. Poet. Attron. ii. 7.) Ovid 
(Ma z. SOO, &C.1 adds the following features: 
Uynha's love of her &ther was excited by the 
furies ; Lncina assisted her when she gave birth to 
Adonis, and the Naiads anointed hun with the 
tears of his mother, t. e. with the fluid which 
trickled from the tree. Adonis grew up a most 
beautiful youth, and Venus loved him and shared 
with him the pleasures of the chase, though she 
always cnitioned him against the wild beastsi 
At last he wounded a boar which killed him in 
ita fory. According to some traditions Ares 
(Mars), or, according to others, Apollo assumed 
the fonn of a boor and thus killed Adonis. (Serv. 
ad Virg. Ed. z. IB ; Ptolem. Hephaest. i. p. 306, 
ed. Gale.) A third story related that Dionysus 
allied <iS Adonis. (Pbanodes of. PbU. Sjfmpo$. 


IT. 5.) When Aphrodite was informed of hsr 
beloved being wounded, she hastened to the spot 
and sprinkled nectar into his blood, from which 
immediately flowers sprang up. Various other 
modificatioiis of the story may be read in Uyginui 
{Poet Attmu ii. 7), Theocritus (/i/yU. xv.X 
Bion (IdgU. L), and in Uie scholiast on Lyco- 
phnn. (t)39, &c) From the double marriage d 
Aphrodite irith Ares and Adonis sprang Priapus. 
(Schol. ad ApoUam. Bhod. L 9, 32.) Besides 
him Oelgos and Beroe are likewise called childiea 
of Adonis and Aphrodite. (SchoL ad TkeoariL xv. 
100; Nonni Dimy. zlL 15fi.) On his desth 
Adonis was obliged to descend into the lower 
world, but he was allowed to spend aiz months 
out of every year with his beloved Aphrodite in 
the upper world. (Orph, hymn. S5, 10.) 

The worship of Adonis, which in kter times 
was spread over nearly all the countries round the 
Mediterranean, was, as the story itself sufficientljr 
indicates, of Asiatic, or more especially of Phoem- 
cian origin. (Lucion, dt dea Sj/r. c. 6.) Thence it 
was transferred to Assyria, Egypt, Greece, and 
even to Italy, though of conne with various mo- 
difications. In the Homeric poems no trace of it 
occurs, and the later Greek poets changed the 
original symbolic account of Adonis into a poetical 
story. In the Asiatic religions Aphrodite was thi | 
fructifying principle of nature, and Adonis appean 
to have reference to the death of nature in wintei 
and its revival in spring — Whence he spends ii> 
months in the lower and six in the upper worid 
His death and his return to life were celebratei 
in annual festivals {'Mtmla) at Byblos, Alexandii 
in Egypt, Athens, and other places. [L. 8,] 

ADRANUS ( ASparis), a Sicilian divinity wk 
was worshipped in all the island, but especially s 
AdranuB, a town near Mount Aetna. (Plut. lirnL 
12; Diodor. xiv. 37.) Hesychius (t, v. IlaAunl) 
represents the god as the father of the Fslid. 
According to Aelion (/fiit Anim. zi. 20), about 
1000 sacred dogs were kept near his teu^le. 
Some modem critics consider this divinity to be o( 
eastern origin, and connect the name Adiaani 
with the Persian Adar (fire), and regard him si 
the same as the Phoenician Adramelech, and ■• 
a personification of the sun or of fire in geneisL 
(Bochart, Gmgmph. Sacra, p. 530.) [k S.] 

TUS, a contemporary of Athenaeus, who wrote a 
commentary in five books upon the work of Theo- 
phrastus, entitled wspl 'HMf, to which he added s 
sixth book upon the Nicomochian Ethics of Aris- 
totle. (Athen. zv. p. 673, e. with Schweighauiet^ 

ADRASTEIA {'MpioTtm). 1. A Cielai 
nymph, daughter of Melisseus, to whom RheS 
entrusted the in&nt Zeus to be reared in the Di^ 
taean grotto. In this office Adiasteia was assisied 
by her sister Ida and the Curates (ApoUod. i. 1. 
§ 6 ; Callimach, hj/mn. m Joe. 47), whom tke 
scholiast on Callimachus calls her brothers. Apo)- 
lonius Rhodins (iii. 132, &c.^ relates that she gait 
to the infiult Zeus a beautiful gbbe {a^atfo) Is 
pby with, and on some Cretan coins Zeni >• 
represented sitting upon a globe. (Spanh. ni 
Callim. I. e.) 

2. A (umame of Nemesis, which is derived by 
some writers from Adiastns, who is aoid to ban 
built the first sanctuary of Nemesis on the river 
Asopus (Stiah, ziiL p. 588), and by othen itm 


zed by Google 

tbe Tcrii Sttpimir, aeootdiiij to which it voold 
aipiify the goddeas whom nans qm etcape. (Volo- 
kcB. ad Herod. iiL 40.) [L. S.] 

ADRASTI'NE. rAoRAsrcs.] 

ADRASTUS CAapoirroi), a aon of Talani, 
long of Argoa, sod of Lytimaehe. (Apollod. i. 9. 
i 13.) Pamuiiai (ii. 6. § 3) calli hit mother 
Lyriitmwi, and Hjginiu (Fa&. 69) Enrynome. 
(Comp. SchoL ad fiiWp. Piom. 423.) During a 
fcod between the most powethl honaet in Aigcn, 
Taloiu WW aUin hj Amphiarans, and Adiaitna 
being expelled from his dominiona fled to Folybni, 
then kii^ of Sicjon. When Polybni died with- 
ont beirt, Adtastna mcceeded him on the throne 
of SieyoD, and dniing hii reign he is aaid to hare 
institated the Neaeau games. (Horn. 72. ii. £72 ; 
Pind. JVoa. ix. 30, &c. ; Herod, t. 67 ; Pans. ii. 
6. 3 3l^ Afterwards, howerer, Adnistns became 
leconated to Amphiamns, gBTe him his sister Eri- 
phjk in marriage, and returned to his kingdom of 
Ai^oa, Dniing the time he reigned there it hap- 
pened that Tjdens of Caljdon and Polynices of 
Thdiea, both fuptives from their native coontries, 
met at Argos near the palace of Adrastns, and 
cane to words and ftom words to blows. On 
hearing the noise, Adrastns hastened to them and 
separated the combatants, in whom he immediately 
recognised the two men tbRl had been promised to 
him by an orade as the fatnre husbands of two 
af his danghteis ; for one bore on his shield 
the fignie ct a boar, and the other that of a 
Bon, and the oituie was, that one of his daughters 
was to many a boor and the other a lion. Adraa- 
tns the r e for e gave his daaghter Deipyle to Tydens, 
aod Aignu to Polynices, and at the same time 
promiaed to lead each of these princes back to his 
own oonntry. Adrastns now {Hcpared for war 
agsinat Thebes, althongh Amphiarans foretold that 
on wiio ahonld engage in it should perish, with 
the ezaeption of Adrastns. (Apollod. iii. 6. § 1, 
&c ; Hygin. Fob. 69, 70.) 

Tlina arose the celebrated war of the " Seven 
apunst Thebes," in which Adrastns was joined by 
six other heroes, viz. Polynices, Tydens, Amphio- 
lana, Capaaens, Hippomedon, and Parthenopeens. 
Instead of Tydens and Polynices other legends 
mention Eteoclos and Medstens. This war ended 
aa nnfintnnately as Amphiarans had predicted, 
and Adrastns alone was eared by the swiftness of 
his horae Areion, the gift of HeradesL (Ham. R 
vttSI 346, &c. ; Pans. viiL 25. § 5 ; ApoUod. iii 
6.) Creon of Thebes refusing to allow the bodies 
of the stz heroes to be buried, Adrastns went to 
Athena and implored the assistance of the Athe- 
niana. Tbeaens was persuaded to undertake an 
expedition against Thebes ; he took the city and 
ddiTerad op the bodiea of the &Uen heroes to 
thrir firieods for banal. (Apollod. iii 7. § 1 ; 
Faoa. ix. 9. § 1.) 

Ten years afker this Adiastot pennaded the 
oeTcn sons of the heroes, who had fiUlen in the 
war against Thebes, to make a new attack npon 
that dty, and Amphiarans now declared that the 
goda mmroTed of the undertaking, and loomised 
soecess. (Pana. ix. 9. § 2 ; ApoUod. iu. 7. § 2.) 
Thia war is celebrated in ancient story as the war 
of the ^%oni ('EWroim). Thebes was taken and 
BUted to &e gmnnd, after the greater part of its 
inhatntaats had leii the dty on the advice of 
roedaa. (ApoUod. iiL 7. i^2— 4; Hetod. r. 61 ; 
Stnlk m p. 326.) The only Aigire hero that 



foil in this war, was Aegialens, the ton of Adns- 
tus. . After having built a temple of Nemeus in 
the neighbourhood of Thebes [ADB.igTnx], he tet 
out on his return home. But weighed down by 
old fge and grief at the death of his son he died at 
Megara and was buried there. (Pans, i 43. § 1.) 
After his death he was worshipped in several parti 
of Greece, as at Megara (Pans. L c), at Sicyoa 
where his memory was cdebrated in tragic dio- 
ruses (Herod, t. 67), and in Attica. (Pans. i. 30. 
§ 4.) The legends about Adrastns and the two 
wars against Thebes have furnished most ample 
materials for the epic as weU as tragic poets of 
Greece (Pans. ix. 9. § 3), and some works of art 
relating to the stories ^ut Adrastus are mentioned 
in Pausanias. (iii. ISi § 7, x. 10. § 2.) 

From Adrastns the female patronymic Adrastine 
was formed. (Horn. IL t. 412.) [L. S.] 

ADRASTUS f AJpooTor), a aon of the Phry 
gian king Gordins, who had nnintentionilly kUled 
his brother, and was in consequence expcUed by 
his father aud deprived of everything. He took 
refuge as a snppliant at the court of king Croesus, 
who purified Mm and received him kindly. After 
some time he was sent out as guardian of Atys, 
the aon of Croesus, who was to ddiver the coon- 
try from a wild boiar which had made great havoe 
all around. Adrastus had the misfortune to kiU 
prince Atys, while he was aiming at the wild 
beast. Croesus pardoned the unfortunate man, aa 
he taw in thit acddent the will of the godt and 
the fnlfilment of a prophecy ; but Adrastus could 
not endure to live longer and kiUed himself on the 
tomb of Atys. (Herod, i 35—45.) [L. S.] 

ADRASTUS CASfxurroi), of Aphrodisias, a 
Peripatetic philosopher, who lived in the second 
centary after Christ, ^e author of a treatise on 
the arrangement of Aristotle's wri&gt and Iiis 
tyttem of philosophy, quoted by Simpliciui (Pro*- 
/at in nn. 13). Plgp.}, and by Achilles Tatin* 
(p- 82). Some commentaries of his on the Timaena 
of Plato are also quoted by Porphyry (p. 270, ui 
Harmama Ptolmum), and a treatise on the Cate- 
gories of Aristotle by Galen. None of these have 
come down to ut ; but a work on Harmonics, Tspl 
'Apiiomciy, a preserved, in MS., iu the Vatican 
Library. [B. J.] 

ADRIA'NUS. [Hadrunus.] 

ADRIA'NUS rASpiw><(>), a Greek rhetorician 
bom at Tyre in Phoenida, who flourished under 
the emperors M. Antoninus and Commodus. He 
was the pupil of the celebrated Herodes Attieus, 
and obtained the chair of philosophy at Athens 
during the lifetime of his master. His advance- 
ment does not teem to have impaired their mutual 
regard ; Herodes declared that the unfinished 
speeches of his scholar were " the fragments of a 
colossus," and Adrianus showed his gratitude by a 
fnneral oration which he pronounced over the ashes 
of his master. Among a people who rivoUed one 
another in their seal to do bun honour, Adrianus 
did not shew much of the disccetiim of a phUoso- 
pher. His fint lecture commenced with the modest 
encomium on himself *^u> Ik toirliait Tpdfifutro, 
while in the magnificence of his dress and equipage 
he afiected the style of the hierophant of philoio- 
phy. A story may be seen in Philostratus of hia 
trial and acquittal far the mnrder of a begging 
sophist who had insulted him : Adrianus had re- 
torted by styling such insults Si^y/wTa Kiptttn, but 
his pnpils were not coDtent with wo^nas ct 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



lidicnle. The visit of H. Antoninut to Atbeni 
made him xcquainted with Adrianus, vrhom he 
invited to Rome and hononred with his friendship : 
the emperor eren condescended to set the thesis of 
B declamation for him. After the death of Auto- 
ninas he became the private secretary of Commodns. 
His death took place at Rome in the eightieth year 
of his age, not later than a. d. 192, if it be trae 
that Commodns (who was assassinated at the end 
of this year) sent him a letter on his death-bed, 
which he is represented as kissing with devout 
earnestness in his hist moments. (Philostr. VU. 
Adrian. ; Snidas, s. v. 'ASptarSs.) Of the works 
attributed to hnn by Suidaa three declamations 
only are extant These hare been edited by Leo 
Allatins in the Entrpta Varia Onuoonm So- 
phuianun ae RMoncorum, Romae, 1641, and by 
Walz in the fint volume of the Skelan$ Gnuxi, 
183-2. (B.J.] 

ADRIA'NUS ('ASpuvji), a Greek poet, who 
wrote an epic poem on tbe history of Alexander 
the Oreat, which was called 'AAi{ai4fHii>. Of this 
poem the seventh book is mentioned (S^ph. Byz. 
(. V. 2iir«a), bat we possess only a fragment con- 
sisting of one line. (Steph. Byz. i. r. Aarpaia.) 
Suidas («. e. 'A^iwf6t) mentions among other 
poems ot Arrianos one called 'AAtfaytpidr, and 
there can be no doubt that this is the work of 
Adrianus, which he by mistake attributes to his 
Arrianns. (Meineke, in the AUandl. da- Bertia. 
Ahidemie, 1832, p. 124.) [U 8.] 

ADRIA'NUS ['Atpicwit) fl<nirlshed, according 
to Archbishop Usher, A. D. 43S. There is extant 
of his, in Oreek, Itagoge Sttcramm LUrmnm, re- 
commended by Photini (No.1^) to beginnen, edited 
by Dav. Hoeschel, 4to. Aug. Vindel. 1602, and 
among the Ottn&(Ti.fbl.,L«od. 1660. [AJ.C] 

ADU'SIUS ('ASoAnor), according to the account 
of Xenophon in the Cyropaodeia, was sent by 
Cyrus with an anny into Caria, to put an end to 
the fends which existed in the country. He after- 
wards assisted Hystaspes in subduing Phrygia, 
and was made satrap of Caria, as the inhabitants 
had requested, (vii. 4. § I, &c, viii. 6. § 7.) 

AEA. [Oa«a.] 

AEA, B huntress who was metamorphosed by 
the gods into the fabulous island bearing the same 
name, in order to rescue her from the pursuit 
of Phasis, the river-god. (VaU Flacc i. 742, v. 
426.) [L. &] 

AE'ACES(AUicDf). 1. The ftther of Syloaon 
and Polycrates. (Herod, iii. 39, 139, vi. 13.) 

2. The son of -Syloaon, and the grandson of the 
preceding, was tyrant of Samoa, but was deprived 
of his tyranny by Aristagoras, when the losians 
revolted from the Persians, B. c. SOO. He then 
fled to the Persians, and induced the Samians to 
abandon die other lonians in the sea-fight between 
the Persians and lonians. After this battle, in 
which the hitter were defeated, he was restored to 
the tyranny of Samoa by the Persians, B. c 494. 
(Herod, iv. 138, vi. 13, 14, 25.) 

AEA'CIDES (AiojctSijr), a patronymic from 
Acacns, and gjven to various of his descendants, 
as Peleus (Or. Met. xi. 227, &c., xii. 365; Horn. 
//. xvi. 16), Telamon (Or.' Met viii. 4 ; ApoUon. 
i. 1330), Phocus (Ov. Met. vij. 668, 798), the 
sons of Aeacns ; Achilles, the grandson of Aeacns 
(Horn. //. xi. 805 ; Virg. Aen. i. 99) ; and 
Pyrrfaaa, tbe greot-grandsmi of Aeacus. (Vitg. 
Aem. liL 296.) [L. S.] 


AEACIDES (Atwc(S>|i), the son of Aiymbas, 
king of Epirus, succeeded to the throne on the 
death of his cousin Alexander, who was slain in 
Italy. (Liv. viii. 24.) Aeacides married Phthia, 
the daughter of Menon of Pharmlus, by whom he 
had the celebrated Pyrrhos and two daughters, 
Dei'dameia and Troios. In B. c. 317 he assisted 
Polysperchon in restoring Olympias and the young 
Alexander, who was then only five years old, to 
Macedonia. In the following year he marched to 
the assistance of Olympias, who vni hard pmsed 
by Casaonder ; bot tfie Epirots disliked the service, 
rost against Aeacides, and drove him £rom the 
kingdom. Pyrrhas, who was then only two 
years old, was with difBcolty saved from destruc- 
tion by some faithfiil servants. ' But becoming tired 
of the Macedonian rule, the Epirots recalled Aea- 
cides in B. c. 313 ; Casaander immediately aent aa 
army agsSnst him tmder Philip, who conquered 
him the same year in two battles, in the last of 
which he was killed. (Pass, i, 11 ; Oiod. xix. II, 
86, 74 J Pint. Pyrrk i 2.) 

AE'ACUS (AfoKor), a eon of Zeus and Aegina, 
a daughter of the river-god Ascpns. He was bom 
in the ishmd of Oenone or Oenopia, whither 
Aegina had been carried by Zeus to secure her 
from the anger of her parents, and whence this 
island was afterwards called Aegina. (ApoUod, 
iii. 12. § 6 J Hygin. Fab. 52 ; Paus. ii. 29. § 
2; comp. Nonn. Dionys. vi. 212; Ov. Afet. vi. 
113, vii. 472, &c) According to «ome ac- 
counts Aeacns was a son of Zeus and Eunpa, 
Some traditions related that at tbe time when 
Aeacus was bom, Aegina waa not yet inhabited, 
and that Zeus changed the ants [nip/iiiKts) 
of the island into men (Myrmidones) over whom 
Aeacus ruled, or that he made men grow up out 
of the earth. (Hes. Proffm. 67, ed.Gottling ; Apol- 
lod. iii. 12. § 6; Pans. L e.) Ovid {Met. vii. 520; 
comp. Hygin. Fob. 62 ; Stnb. viii. p. 375), on the 
other hand, supposes that the ishind was not unin- 
habited at the timeof the birth of Aeacus, and statco 
that, in the reign of Aeacus, Hera, jealous of 
Aegina, ravaged the ishind bearing the name of tho 
bitter by sending a plague or a foirful dragon into 
it, by which nearly lill its inhabitants were carried 
off, and that Zens restored the popubitlon by 
changing the ants into men. These legends, as 
MCUer justly remarks (Aegitietica), are nothing 
bot a mythical account of the colonisation of 
Ae^na, which seems to have been originally in- 
habited by Pelasgiana, and afterwards received 
colonists from Phthiofis, the seat of the Mjnni- 
dones, and from Phiins on the Asopus. Aeacus 
while he reigned in Aegina was renowned in all 
Oreece for his justice and piety, and was &e- 
qnently called upon to settle disputes not only 
among men, but even among the gods themselves. 
(Pind. IM. viii. 48, &c. ; Pass. L 39. § 6.) He 
was such a fiivourite with the hitter, that, when 
Greece was visited by a drought in consequence of 
a murder which had been committed (Diod. iv. 
60, 61 ; ApoUod. iii. 12. g 6), the oracle of Delphi 
declared tluit the calamity would not cease unless 
Aeacus prayed to the gods that it might ; which 
he accordingly did, and it ceased in consequence. 
Aeacus himself shewed his gratitude by ereetmg a 
temple to Zeus Panhcllenius on mount Panhel- 
lenion (Fans. ii. 30. § 4), and the Aeginetans 
afterwards built a sanctuary in their ishmd called 
Aeacenm, wlueh was a tqiiore phiee endoied by 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


waDi of white msriile, Acscm wu bdievvd in 
later timn to be buiied under the altar in thia 
aati endotnre. (Pant. iL 29. § 6.) A legend pre- 
Krred in Pindar (Of. niL 39, ie.) rebte* that 
Apeib and Poaeidan took Aeaens as their aaaiatant 
in haiKUng the wans of Troy. When the Work 
was completed, three dragons mihed against the 
mH, and while the two of them which attacked 
thoae porta of the wall built \rf the gods fell down 
dead, the thirl finoed its way into the city through 
the part bnilt by Aeacs*. Heicopon Apollo pro- 
phesied that Troy wouM iail through the hands of 
the Aeaads. Aeactis was also belieTod by the 
Aeginetans to have sumnnded their ishuid with 
highdiSsto protect it against pinrtes. (PMu.ii.29. 
§ 5.) Sereral other incidents contieeted with the 
story of Aeaess are mentioned by Orid. {MeLrii. 
fi06, Ac, ix. 435, &c) By Endei's Aeaciu had 
two sons, Tdaaion and Pelens, and by Psamathe 
« son, Phocos, whom be prefisred to the two 
others, who contrived to kiH Phocus during a 
osnleet, and then fled firom their ns^Te island, 
[Pblius ; TsLAHON.] After his death Aeacus 
became ooe of the three judge* in Hades (Or. 
Met. xiiL 25; Hor. Carm. u. 13. 22), and accord- 
ing to Plato [Oorg. p. 523 ; compare Apakg. p. 
41 ; laocral. .^119. 5) especially (or the shades of 
KonpeansL In works of art be was represented 
bearing a sceptic and the keys of Hades. (ApoUod. 
in. 12. § 6 ; Pind. ItOun. tm. 47, tu.) Aeacus 
had sauctoaries both at Athens and in Aegina 
(Pkoa. ii. 29. § 6 ; Hesych. s. v.; SchoL ad Pmd. 
nem. xiii. 155), and the Aeginetans regarded 
him as the tat&iy deity of their island. (Pind. 
AVai. Tiii. 22.) [L. S.] 

AEAEA (A/a(a). 1. A sonume oi Medeis, 
derived from Aea, the oomitry where her fiither 
AeStce mled. (ApoUon. Rhod. iii. II 35.) 

2. A cnmame of Circe, the sister of Aeetea. 
(Hora. Oi. ix. 32 ; ApoUon. Rhed. ir. 569 ; Virg. 
Aat. vi. 886.) Her son Telegonus is likewise 
ramtianed with this lumame. (Aeaau, Propeit. 

ij. 28. S *i) 

3. A lonieme of Calypso, who was beliered to 
hare inhabited a small island of the nameof Aeaea 
in the straits between Italy and Sicily. (Pomp. 
Mate, ii. 7; Propert iii 10. 31.) [U S.] 

AEA'NTIDES (A»o»WJ.|»), 1, The tyrant of 
Ijunpascns, to whom Hippias gsre his ^nghter 
Archedice in marriage. (Thuc. ri. 59.) 

2. A tn^ie poet of Alexandria, mentioned as 
not of the seven poets who formed the Tmgic 
Pleiad. He lived in the time of the second Ptolemy. 
(SchoL ad HepkaoL p. 32, 93, ed. Paw., 

AEBU'TIA OENS, contained two fiunilies, the 
names of wliick BR Cards and Elta. The for- 
mer waa plebeian, the latter patrician; but the 
gens was originally patriciaiL Cantieen does not 
seem to have been a fiunily-name, but only a sur- 
name given to Posturaus Aebntins Elra, who was 
consul in B. a 442, This gens was distinguished 
in the eariy ages, but from the time of the abore- 
Bcntieiied Aebotins Elva, no patrician member of 
it held any conde ofBce till the praetonbip of M. 
Aebotias Elva in B. c. 1 76. 

It ia doabtfid to which of the family P. Aebntjns 
beloapd, who diadoaed to the consul the existence 
of the Warchanalia at Rome, and was rewarded by 
the oenate in conseqaenee, a. c 186. (Liv. xxxix. 
«, 11, 19.) 

A£DS«I A(A0«aia),a fanale phOoaopber of the 

AEDON. 9t 

new Platonic adiool, lived in the fifth century after 
Christ at Alexandria. She waa a relation of Syria- 
nus and the wife of Hermeias, and was equally 
celebrated for her beauty and her virtaes. Aitef 
the death of her husband, she devoted heraelf to 
relieving the wants of the distieesed and the edu- 
cation of her children. She accompanied the bitter 
to .Athens, where they went to study philosophy, 
and was received wiUi great distinction by all the 
phileso|4ieis there, and espeoially by Pndns, to 
whom she had been betntlied by Syriaaus, when 
she was quite young. She lived to a considerable 
age, and her fnneial oration was pronounced by 
Damaacius, who waa then a young man, in hexa- 
meter veise*. The names of her sons were Am- 
monias and Hdiodorus. (Soidas, i . e. ; Daaiascias, 
ap. Phal. cod. 242, p. 341, bi ed. Bekker.) 

AEDE'SICS (ABfoioi), a Cappodocian, called 
a Platonic or perlu^ moie ooncotly on Eclectic 
philoaopber, who lived ia the fourth century, the 
friend and most distingiiiahed diaciple of lamblichus. 
ASux the death of his master the schoal of Syria 
was dispersed, and Aedeains {oaring the real or 
fiuicied hostility of the Christian emperor Constaa- 
tine to philost^hy, took refuge in divination. Aa 
orade in hexameter verse lemeeented a pastoral 
life as his only retreat, but his disciples, perhaps 
calming his fears \f a metaphorical interpretation, 
compeUed him to resume his inttroctiona. He 
settled at Peigamus. where he numbered among 
his pupils the emperor Julian. After the accession 
of &e latter to the imperial purple he invited 
Aedesios to centinne his instiactions, but the de- 
clining stiength of the aage being unequal to the 
task, two of kia moat learnsd diaciples, Chryaanthes 
and Euaebina, were by hia own deaiie appointed to 
anpply hia place. (Eunap. VU. Aeda.) [B. J.] 

AEDON ('AqS<<i'). 1. A daughter of Panda- 
icus of Ephesus. According to Homer {Od. xix. 
517, &c.) she was the wins of Zethna, king of 
Thebes, and the mother of itylna. Envious of 
Niobe, the wife of her brother Amphion, who had 
six sons and six daughters, she formed the plan of 
killing the eldeat of Niche's sons, but by mistake 
slew her own son Itylns. Zens relieved her grief 
by changing her into a nightingale, whose meliin- 
choly tunes are represented by the poet as AMon's 
hunentationa about her child. (Conmare Phere- 
cydes, Pragm. p. 138, ed, Sturz ; Apollod, liL 
5. § 6.) According to a later tradition preserved 
in Antoninus Liberalis (c. 11), Aedon was the 
wife et Polyteehnus, an ottist of Colophon, and 
bomted that riie lived mote happily with him than 
Hera with Zeus. Hem to revenge herself ordered 
Eris to induce Aedon to enter upon a contest with 
her husband. Polyteehnus was then making a 
chair, and Aedon a piece of embroidery, and they 
agreed that whoever should finish the work iirst 
should receive from the other a female slave as the 
prize. When Aedon had conquered her husband, 
he went to her &ther, and pretending that his 
wife wished to see her sister Chelidonis, he took 
her with him. On his way home he ravished her, 
dressed her in shive's attire, enjoined her to observe 
the strictest sSence, and gave her to bis wife as 
the premised prise. After some time Chelidonis, 
beliering herself unobserved, lamented her own 
&te, bat she was overheard by Aedon, and the 
two sisters consjnred against Polyteehnus and 
killed his son Itys, whom they pUuied before him 
in a di^ Aedoa fled with Chelidooia to he( 

Digitized by VjOOQlt^ 



£ither, vho, when Polytechniu caiAe id pnnait of 
hit wife, had him bound, imeared with honey, 
and thu> expowd him to ths iniects. Aisdon now 
took pity npon the ntfleringa of her hiuband, and 
when her relationi were on the point of killing her 
for thia weaknew, Zen* changed Polytechnut into 
• pelican, the brother of Ardon into a whoop, her 
fiither into a lea-eagle, Chelidonia into a m^ow, 
and Aedon henelf into a nightingale. Thii mythiu 
aeems to hare originated in. mere etymologies, and 
ia of the aame chua as that about Philomele and 
Procne. [L. S.] 

AEETES or AEE'TA (Aiifmi), a aon of 
Helios and Perseis. (ApoUod. i. 9. § 1 ; Hes. Tieog. 
957.) According to others his mother's name was 
Peisa (Hygin. Pra^. p. 14, ed. Staveren), or 
Antiope. (Schol. ad PM. OL ziii £2.) He was 
a brother of Circe, Pasiphae, and Perses. (Hygin. 
I. e. ; Apollod. L e. ; Horn. Od. x. 136, &c ; Cic. 
da Nat. Dear, iii. 19.) He was married to Idyia, 
a daughter of Oceanus, by whom he had two 
daughters, Medeia and Cbaldope, and one son, 
Abayrtus (Hesiod. Tieog. 960.,- ApoUod. 1 9, 23.). 
He was king of Colchis at the time when Phrizus 
brought thither the golden fleece. At one time he 
was expelled from his kingdom by his brother 
Perses, but was restored by his daughter Medeia. 
(Apollod. i. 9. § 28.) Compare Absyrtus, Ar- 
OONAUTAE, Jason, and Mxoiu. [L. S.] 

patronymic forms from Aeetes, and are used by 
Roman poets to designate his daughter Uedeia. 
(Ov. Met. vu. 9, 296, Haroid. yl 103 ; Val. FUcc. 
Tiii. 233.) [L. S.] 

AEQA (Afyi)), according to Hyginua (foe(. 
Atlr. ii. 13) a daughter of Olenua, wlio n-aa a de- 
scendant of Hephaeatub Aega and her sister 
Helice nursed the in&nt Zeua in Crete, and the 
former waa afterwards changed by the god into 
the conatellation called Capella. According to 
other traditions mentioned by Hyginus, Aega was 
> daughter of Melisseus, king of Crete, and was 
chosen to suckle the iubnt Zeus ; but as she was 
found unable to do it, the senrice was peiformed 
by the goat Amalthea. According to others, again, 
Aega was a daughter of Helios and of such dazzling 
brightness, that the Titans in their attack upon 
Olympus became frightened and requested their 
mother Goea to contail her in the eaitb. She was 
accordingly con&ned in a cave in Crete, where she 
became the nurse of Zeu& In the fight with the 
Titans Zeus was commanded by an oracle to cover 
himself with her skin [atgii). He obeyed the 
command and raised Aega among the stars. 
Similar, though somewhat different accounts, were 
given by Euemcrus and others. (Emtosth. CaieuL 
13 ; Antonin. Lib. 36 ; Lactant. liotit. i. 22. § 19.) 
It ia clear that in some of these stories Aegia 
is regarded as a nymph, and in others as a goat, 
though the two ideas are not kept deariy distinct 
from each other. Her name is either connected 
with ol^ which signifies a goat, or with £{, a gale of 
wind ; and this circumstance has led aome critics to 
consider the myth about her aa mode up of two 
distinct ones, one being sf an aatronomical nature 
and derived from the coasteUation Capella, the rise 
of which brings storms and teni{>ests ( Arot Phaat. 
150), and the other referring to the goat which 
was believed to have suckled the in&nt Zeus in 
Crete. (Compare Buttmann in Jdder'i Urtpnmg 
tad Bedeutmg der Startmamen, p. S09 ; Bjittiger, 


Awaltita, L p. 16, &e. ; Crenxer, SfmboL iv. p^ 
458 &c) [US.] 

AEOAEON (KtrfoUn), a son of Unmas by 
Oaea. Aegaeon and his brothers Oyges and 
Cottus are known under the name of the Uranids 
(Hes. Titog. 502, &c.), and are described as huge 
monsters with a hundred arms (^mtn^TX")'") *nd 
fifty heads. (ApoUod. i 1. S 1 > Hes. Tieog. US, 
&c.) Most writers mention the third Ucanid 
under the name of Briareus instead of Aegaeon, 
which is explained in a passage of Homer {II. i. 
403, &c), who aays that men caUed him Aegaeon, 
but the gods Briarens. On one occasion when tl» 
Olympian gods were about to put Zeus in cbaira, 
Thetis caUed in the assistance of Aegaeon, who 
compelled the gods to desist from their intention. 
(Horn. //. i. 398, Sec) According to Hesiod 
(Tieog. 154, &c 617, &c), Aegaeon and hii 
brothers were hated by Uranus from the tone of 
their birth, in consequence of which they were 
concealed in the depth of the earth, whoe they 
remained until the Titans began their war Bgaiox 
Zeus. On the advice of Oaea Zeus deUvered tl» 
Uranids from their prison, tliat Uiey might aasisl 
him. The hundred-armed giants conquered the 
Titans by hurUng at them three hnndrtKl rocki at 
onoe, and secured the victory to Zeus, who thnut 
the Titans into Tartams and placed the Hecaton- 
cheires at its gates, or, according to others, in the 
depth of the ocean to guard them. (Hee. Tka). 
617, &C. 815, &c.) According to a legend in 
Pausaniaa(ii. 1. §6, iL4. § 7), ^iareuswaschom 
as arbitrator in the dispute between Poseidon and 
Helios, and adjudged the Isthmus to the iormer 
and the Acrocorinthus to the hitter. The ScholistI 
on ApoUonius Rhodius (i. 1165) represents Ae- 
gaeon as a son of Oaea and Poutus and as living 
as a marine god in the Aegean sea. Ovid {Ud. 
iL 10) and Philosttatus ( VU. ApolUm. iv. 6) like- 
wise regard liim as a marine god, while Viigil 
{AeH. X. 565) reckons him among the gisnis 
who stormed Olympus, and CaUimachas (^jm*. 
n Dtl. 141, &c), regarding him in the same light, 
places him under mount Aetna. The Scholiaet on 
Theocritus (IdglL L 65) calls Briareus one of the 
Cyclops. The opinion which regards Aqaeon sad 
bis brothers as only personifications of the extra- 
ordinary powers of natnre, such as are maniibted 
in the violent commotions of the earth, as earth- 
quakes, volcanic eruptions and the like, seems ts 
explain beat the vnriousacoonnts about them. [US.] 

AEGAEUS {Alyiuot), a surname of Poso- 
don, derived from the town of Aegae in Enboes, 
near which he had a magnificent temple upon > 
biU. (Strab. ix. p. 405 ; Virg. Aen. iii. 74, when 
Servius enoneonsly derives the name from tkt 
Aegean sea.) [L. S.] 

AEGEIDES (AlytOrisy, a patronymic frm 
Aegeus, and especially used to designate Theseoi. 
(Hom. IL i. 265; Ov. Henid. iv. 59, ii.67i 
compare Axoxua.) [L. S.] 

AEOE'RIA or EGE'RIA, one of the Camenae 
in Roman mythology, {ram whom, according to 
the legends of early Roman story, Numa received 
his instructions respecting the forms of worship 
which he introduced. (Liv. i. 19; VaL Max. i i. 
§ 1.) The grove in which the king had his in- 
terviews with the goddess, and in which a well 
gushed forth from a dark recess, waa dedicated by 
him to the Cnmenae. (Liv. i 21.) The Ronma 
li^ends, however, point oat two distinct pbwes 

Digitized by VjOOyH; 


■acd to Aegait, one near Aiida (Viig. Atm. Tii, 
761, jtc; Ohrid, Faii. iiL 263, &c; Stiih. T. 
f. 239 ; PIhL A^Mb 4; liKtant. i. 22. § 1), and 
tie other near the city of Rome at the Porta 
bpena, in the Taliej now called Ci4)arella, where 
tke muaed ehidd had &Uen from beaTcn, and 
*hcR Noma waa likewiee beliered to hsTO had 
atsriewi with hit belored CameniL (Phit. iVim. 
13 ; Jot. iiL 12.) Orid {Met XT. 431, &c. ; 
taa^an Smb. /. e.) relates that, after the death 
of Nmna, Aegeria fled into the thady grore in the 
nie of Aiida, and theic disturbed hj her lamen- 
latinu the worship of Diana which had been 
braaght thither ban Tanris by Onntet, or, ae- 
TWiiiig to others, by Hippolytns. Vii]^ {Aem. 
▼ii. 761) makes Hippolytns and Aegeiia the 
(■tenia of Virbins, who was ondoabtedly a natire 
IteSau hetOk This is one of the most remarkable 
faistancfn of tha manner in which the worship of a 
Greek dhrinity or hero was eitgiafted npon and 
eoastaned with a purely Italian worsfaipi Aegeria 
was regarded as a pnphetic dirinity, and also as 
the girer of life, whence she was ioYoked by 
pRgaant women. (Festus, $.n. Egeriae; conpare 
Wagner, Commateaio de Bgoriat fimU tt tpttm 
Of^rn stta, Maibnrg, 1824 ; Haitung, Die lUiig. 
4^itSner,H. pw203,&c.and213,&c) [L.S.] 
AEGEtJS (AJT(tfi)L 1. According to some 
auuuiits a aoD of Pandion II. king of Athens, and 
af Fyiia, while others call him a son of Scyrint or 
Pheaias, and state that he was only an adopted 
son of Fkndion. (Pans. i. 5. § 3, &c ; SchoL ad 
Ifofkr. 494 ; Apollod. iiL Ifi. § £.) Pandion 
had been expelled from his kingdom by the 
Jfetianida, bat Aegeus in conjunction with his 
kntkeiB. Pallas, Nysns, and Lycua restored him, 
ud Aegeus being the eldest of the brothers suo- 
eteded Pandion. Aegeus first mairied Meta, a 
iiaghtcr of Hoples, and then Chalciope, the 
fainter of Rhezenor, neither of whom bore him 
uy ehildrcD. (ApoUod. iiL 15. §6,&c.) He ascrib- 
ed this miiAntune to the anger of Aphrodite, and 
ia order to conciliate her introduced her worship 
U Athena. (Paoa. L 14. § 6.) Afterwards he begot 
Tliewus by Aethn at Tnezen. (Pint Tie: 3; 
ApoUod. iiL IS. ! 7 ; Hygin. Fab. 37.) When 
Theaens had grown op to manhood, and was in- 
fanned of his descent, he went tu Athens and de- 
tested the fifty sons of his uncle Pallas, who 
-'"""■'g the longly dignity of Athens, had made 
war npoo Aegeus and deposed him, and also 
wialied to ezcbde Theseus from the snccesnon. 
(Plot. rto. 13.) Aegeus was restored, but died 
aeoD after. His death is rebtted in the following 
-■— 1~— : When Theseus went to Crete to deliter 
Athens fjram the tribute it had to pay to Minos, 
he pnonaed his &ther that on his return he would 
hoist white sails as a signal of his safety. On his 
approach to the coast of Attica he forgot ]ua 
pnoiise, and lus &ther, who was watching on a 
rock on the sescoast, on peioeinng the black sail, 
thooght that his son had perished and threw him- 
self into the sea, which according to some tradi- 
tsDns recsTed &om this STent Ue name of the 
Aegean ae^. (Phit. Tka. 22; Died. iv. 61; 
has. i. 22. $ 5 i Hygin. Fab. 43 ; Serr. arf ^ol iiL 
74.) Medeia, who waa bdiered to have spent 
•aae time at Athens on her return &om Corinth 
1* Coiehia, is said to baTe become mother of a son, 
)Mh^ hj jliigiiM (Apollod. i. 9. § 28 ; Hygin. 



Fob. 26.) Aegeos was one of the eponymie 
heroes of Attica ; and one of the Attic tribes 
(Aeseis) derived its name from him, (Paus. L 5, 
S 2. ) Hit grare, called the heronm of Aegeus, was 
beliered to be at Athens (Pans. L 22. § 5), and 
Paasanias mentions two statues of him, one at 
Athens and the other at Delphi, the latter of which 
had been made of the tithes of the booty taken 
by the Atheniana at MaiaUion. (Pans. L 5. J 2, 

2. ^e eponymie heio of the phyle called the 
Aegeidaa at Sparta, was a son of Oeolycus, and 
grandson of Theras, the founder of the colony in 
Then. (Herod, ir. 149.) All the Aege'ids were 
believed to be Cadmeans, who formed a settlement 
at Sparta previous to the Dorian conquest. Then 
is only tUs diSarence in the accounts, that, ac- 
cording to scHue, Aegeus was the leader of the 
Cadmean oolausts at Sparta, while, according to 
Herodotus, they received their name of Aegeidt 
from the biter Aegeus, the son of Oeolycus. (Pind. 
Pytk. T. 101 ; Ilk. viL 18, &C., with the SchoL) 
There was at Sparta a hetoum of Aegeus. (Pans. 
iiL 15. S 6 ; compare iv. 7. § 3.) [L. S.] 

A^)'ldA•la), a daughter of Adrastns and Am- 
pbithea, or of Aegialeus the son of Adrastns, 
whence she bears the surname of Adrastine. (Hom. 
/;.T. 412; Apollod. LB. §6, 9. §13.) She waa 
married to Diomedes, who, on his return from 
Troy, found her living in adultery with Cometes, 
(Euttath, ad IL j. p. 566.) The hero attributed 
this misfortune to the anger of Aphrodite, whom 
he had wounded in the war against Troy, but 
when Aegiale went so fiir as to threaten his life, 
he fled to Italy. (SchoL ad Lfnpkr. 610; Ov. 
Mat. ziv. 476, &c.) According to IKctys Cretensis 
(vL 2), Aegiale, like Clytenmestra, had been 
seduced to ner criminal conduct by a treacherous 
report, that Diomedes was returning with a Trojan 
woman who lived with him as his wife, and on his 
arrival at Aisoa Aegiale expelled him. In Ovid 
(/in, 349) ue is described a> the type of a bod 
wife. [L .S.] 

AEQIALEUS (AlyioAnis). 1. A son of 
Adrastns and Amphithea or Demoanassa. (Apollod. 
i. 9. § 13; Hygin. Fab. 71.) He was the only 
one among the Epigones that fell in the war 
against Thebes. (Apollod. iiL 7. § 3; Paus. iz. 5.§ 7; 
compare Adrastus.) He was worshipped as a 
hero at Pegae in Megaris, and it was beUeved 
that his body had been conveyed thither from 
Thebes and been buried there. (Paus. L 44. § 7.) 

2. A son of Inachus and the Oceanid Melia, 
from whom the part of Peloponnesus after- 
wards called Achaia derived its name of Aegialcia. 
(Apollod. ii. 1. $ I.) According to a Sicyonian 
tradition he was an autochthon, brother of Phoro- 
neus and first king of Sicyon, to whom the 
foundation of the town of Aegialeia was ascribed. 
(Paus. ii. 5. § 5, viL I. 8 1.) 

3. A son of Aeetes. [Absyrtus.] [U S.] 
AEOl'DIUS, a Roman commander in Qaul 

under Mtyorianua. (▲. d. 457—461.) After the 
death of the latter, he maintained an indepezuient 
sovereignty in Gaul, and was elected by the Fianka 
as their lung, after they had banished Childeric. 
Four year* afterwards, Childeric was restored ; but 
Aegidius did not oppose his return, and he retaiued 
his influence in Oaol till his death. (Qrqor. Tu- 
ron. iL 12.) 


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X<» or Aiyfoxo')* ' *<>niame of Zeus, as the bearer 
of the Aegis with which he strikes terror into the 
impioiu and his enemies. (Horn. II, i. 202, ii. 1A7, 
379, &c. ; Find. JiO. ir. 99 ; Hygin. Pott. Attr. ii. 
13.) Otfaen derive the sonuune ftom «I{ and ^X^fi 
and take it as an allusion to Zen* being fisd by a 
goat. (Spanh. ad Caliim. kjfmn. in Joe, 49.) [L.a.] 
AKGIMUS, or AEGl'MIUS (Afrvutt, or 
Ai7l^iat), one of the most ancient of the Greek 
phTsicians, who is said by Galen (D» Dijir. Puit, 
i. 2, ir. 2. 11. toL riii. pp.498, 716,752) to 
have been the first person wBo wrote a treatise on 
the pulse. He was a native of V^ in Lucania, 
and is supposed to have lived before the time of 
Hippocrates, that is, in the fifth century before 
Christ. His work was entitled n«pi Hak/ii^, De 
PalpUcahHilnu, (a name which alone sufficiently 
indwates its antiquity,) and is not now in exist- 
ence. Callimachus (ap. Atiat. ziv. p. 643, e.) men- 
tions an author named Aegimius, who wrote a 
work on the art of making cheesecakes (irAoiniw- 
rnrouKitv tr^yyuMi^t/ui), and Pliny mentions a per- 
son of the same name {H. iV. vii. 49), who was 
said to have lived two hundred years ; but whether 
these are the same or difierent individnals is quite 
uncertain [W. A. G.] 

AEGl'MIUS {Alytfuos), the mythical ancestor 
of the Doric noe, who it described as their king 
and bwgiver at the time when they were yet in- 
habiting the northern parts of Thessaly. '(Find. 
PfA. i. 124, V. 96.) When involved in a war 
with the Lapithae, he called Heracles to his 
assistance, and promised him the third part of hi* 
territory, if he delivered him of his enemiei. The 
Lapithae were conquered, but Heracles did not 
take far nimself the territory promised to him by 
Aegimius, and left it in trust to the king who was 
to preserve it for the sons of Heracles. (ApoUod. 
it 7. § 7; Died. iv. 37.) Aegimius had two sons, 
Dymaa and Pamphylns, who migrated to Pelopon- 
nesus and were re^rded as the ancestors of two 
branches of the Doric nu» (Dymanes and Pam- 
phylians), while the third branch derived its name 
firom Hyllns (Hylleans), the son of Heracles, who 
had been adopted by Aegimius. (ApoUod, iL 8. 
§ 3 ; SchoL ad Piad. P^. i. 121.) Respecting 
the connexion between Aegimiu* and Heiadet, 
see MiiUer, Dor. i. 35, &c 

There existed in antiquity en epic poem called 
" Aegimius," of which a few fragments are still 
extant, and which is sometimes ascribed to Hesiod 
and sometimes to Cercops of Miletos, (Athen. xi. 
p. 503; Steph. Bys. :v. 'Atarrls.) The main 
subject of this poem appears to have been the war 
of Aegimius and Heracles against the Lapithae. 
(Oroddeck, BMMk. der alt. LU. tmd KtaUl, it 84, 
&c.; M'liller, Ztor. L 33, &c.; Welcker,Z)iir£)iMi!ik 
Ogdm, p. 266, &c The fragments are collected 
in Diintxer, Dm Fragm. d, epudu Pan. da- 
Gried^ bit xur ZtU Alemad. p. 56, Ik.) [L. S.] 


AEOINAEA (Afywofa), a mmame of Artemis, 
under which she was worshipped at Sparta. (Pans. 
iiL 14. 1 8.) It means either the huntress c^ cha- 
mois, or the wielder Mfthe javelin(a{'Yw<a). [L.S.] 

AEGINE^TA, a modeller [fielor) mentioned 
by Pliny. (H. ff. zxxt. U. t. 40.) Scholars are 
now pretty well agreed, that Winckelmann was 
mistaken in supposing that the word Aeffiulat in 
the paaage of Pliny denoted merely the coontry 

of some artist, whose real name, for some reason or 
other, was not ^ven. His brother Paiias, a 
painter of some distinction, was a pupil of Erigo- 
nus, who had been colour-grinder to the artist 
Nealces. We learn from Plutarch (Aral. 13), 
that Nealces was a friend of Aiatns of Sicyon, 
who was elected praetor of the Achaean leagne 
B. c 24S. We shall not be far wrong therefore in 
assnmiag, that Aegineta and his brother flourish- 
ed about OL CXL. & c. 320. (K. 0. Miiller, Arek, 
der KwuL p. 151.) [C. P. M.] 




AE|OIPAN (Airfnv), that is,Oaa^Pan, was 
according to some statements a being distinct (nm 
Pan, wMle othen regard him aa identical with 
Pan. His story appears to be altogether of late 
origin. According to Hyginns {FA 155) be was 
the son of Zens and a goat, or of Zens and Aega, 
the wife of Pan, and was tiansfened to the 
stars. (Hygin. i>ae<;.ils(r. iL 1S.§28.) Others 
again make Aegipan the £sther of Pan, and state 
that he as well as his son was represented aa hal 
goat and half fish. (Eratosth. CakulL 27.) When 
Zeus in his contest with the Titans was dejaiived 
of the sinews of his hands and feet, Hennea and 
Aegipan secretly restored them to him and fitted 
them in their proper places. (ApoUod. L 6. § 3 ; 
Hygin. Poet. Attr. {. e.) Acoordmg to a Raman 
tradition mentioned by Plutarch {PoratUL 22), 
Aegipan had sprung fitun the incestuous inter- 
course of Valeria of Tusculnm and her &tiier 
Valerius, and was considered only a di&tent name 
for Silvanns. (Comp. Pan, and Voss, MyliaL 
Brieft, I p. 80, &c.) [U &J 

AEGISTHUS (AfyxTfof), a son of Thyestea, 
who unwittingly begot him by his own danghter 
Pelopia. Immediatdy after his birth he was ex- 
posed by his mother, but was found and saved by 
shepherds and suckled by a goat, whence his name 
Aegisthns (from af{ ; Hygin. Fab. 87, 88 ; Aelian, 
V. H. xii, 42). Subsequently he was searched after 
and found by Atreus, the brother of Thyestea, who 
had him educated aa his own child, so that every 
body believed Aegisthus to be his son. In the night 
in which Pelopia had shared the bed of her fiaber, 
she had taken from him his sword which she 
afterwards gave to Aegisthus. This sword became 
the means by which the incestuous intemrarse be- 
tween her and her fiither was discovered, where- 
npon she put an end to her ovm life. Atiena in his 
enmity towards his brother sent Aegisthns to kill 
him ; but the sword which Aegisthns carried was 
the cause of the recognition between Thyestea and 
his son, and the latter returned and slew his nnde 
Atrens, while he was oSering a sacrifice on the 
sea-ooesL Aegisthns and his fiither now took 
possession of their lawful inheritance frvm which 
they had been expelled by Atreus. (Hygin. /. a 
and 252.) Homer appears to know nothing of all 
these tragic occurrences, and we learn fiom him 
only that, afier the death of Thyettes, Aegisthos 
ruled as king at Mycenae and took no part in the 
Trojan expeditioa (Od. ir. 518, &c) While 
Agamemnon, the son of Atreus, was abaent on 
his expedition against Troy, Aegisthus seduced 
Clytemneatra, the wife of Agamemnon, and waa so 
wicked as to offer up thanks to the gods for the 
success with which his criminal exertions were 
crowned. (Horn. Od. iii. 263, te.) In onlsr not 

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>> be tarpriied by the retnm of Agamemnon, be 
■oit out ipiea, acd when Agamemnon came, 
\«pathm inrited him to a repaat at which he had 
^ tmchetmuly mardend. (Uom. Od, ir. 524, 
b.; Pan*, ii. 16. § 5.) After this erent A^isthna 
mgati seven yean longer orer Hf cenae, until in 
ih oghth Orestea, tlie son of Agamemnon, re- 
tamed home and aTenged the deaUi of his father 
\f putting the adnkerei to death. (Horn. Od. i. 
21, Ac; eoasfara Agamsioion, CLTTSMNKSTR.i, 
OtMsrrms.) [L. a] 

AEGLE (AfyXt). 1. The most beantifolof the 
Xaiads, dmni^tir of Zens and Neae» (Viig. Edog. 
ri. 20), hf whom HeKos kgot the Charites. 
(Ftaa. iz. S5. 1 1.) 

2. A aster of Phaeton, and daughter of Helios 
Bd Cljnene. (Hygin. Fab. 154, 166.) In her 
gtkf at the death of her hnrther she and her oaten 
were Ranged into pophm 

X One of the Heapeiidei. (ApoOod. ii. 5. § 11; 
SecT. otf Atu. IT. 484 ; comp. Hnniusia.) 

4. A nyn^ donghter of Panopens, who was 
bdoTcd by Theseus, and ibr whom he ibrsook Ari- 
dnre. (Pint. ries. 20; Athen. xiii. p. 557.) [L. a] 

AEGLK (AfyAq), one of ihe dan^ters of 
Aeaail^nu (Plin. H. M zxzt. 40. 8 81) hy 
Laa j ie tia , the daogfater of the Son, according to 
Hennppoa (ap. Sciol. as Aridopk. Pint. 701 X or 
by EfBone, according to Snidas. (s. r. 'Hirioi^.) 
^s is said to haTv derived her name Aeg^ 
" Biq^taesa," or " Splendour," either from the 
hcaaty of the hnman body when in good health, 
or fam tlie honoor paid to the medical profession. 
(J. H. Heibom. CbmswMtL m H^ppoer. "Jtujar," 
L^ BM. 1645, 4to. e. 6. § 7, p. 56.) [W.AO.] 

AEOLEIS (AiyAq/t), a daughter of Hyacinthus 
who had endgnted froas Locedaemon to Athens. 
Oving the siege of Athens by Minos, in the leign 
rf Aegena, she together with her sisters Anthe'is, 
Ljtaea, and Ortlmea, were sacrificed on die tomb 
of GetMstos the Cyclop, for the purpose of arert- 
kf a pestilence then raging at Auens. (Apollod. 
iii. 15. I (.) [L. a] 

AEOLES (AfyXqi), a Smnian athlete, who was 
diunb, rw jT e red his Toiee when he made an effort 
on one oeeaswn to express his indignation at an 
ittempt to impose npon him in a puUie contest. 
(QeO. T. 9; VaL Max. L 8, est. 4.) 

AEOLE^BS (AfyXifnit), that i^ the n^Uant 
(od, a samarae of ApoUo. (Apolhm. Rhod. ir. 
1790 : ApoDod. i. 9. 1 26 i Hesyeh. $. v.) [L. &] 

AHjC/BOLUS (Alyoei*M), the goat-kiUer, a 
nmaine of Dionysas, at Poti^ in Boeotia. 
(PBns.iz.8.1 1.) [Ua] 

AEOO'CERUS (tlyiiMfmi), a mmame of Pan, 
deaeiiptite at his figure with the horns of a goat, 
bat is mora eommonlythe name given to one rathe 
ligns of the Zodiac. (Lncan, iz. 636 ; Lnoet. r. 
614; aCaes.Gcrm.Milrtrf.218.) [L. a] 

AEGO'PHAOUS (Afyo^rfYoi), the goat^ter, 
a ■muaic of Hens, under which she was worship- 

Sd by the Lacedaemonians. (Pans. iiL 16. S 7 ; 
eiydi. and Etym. M. «. e.) [L. a] 

AEGUS and ROSCILLUa two chiefs of the 
ABstaragea, who had aenred Caesar with great 
fidelity ia the OalUe war, and wen treated by 
him with great distinction. They accompanied 
Unin his campaigns against Pompey, but hariDg 
^ rqaxmd by Caesar on account of depriring 
^csvaby of its pay and appropriating the booty 
'*ll)eBMlTCi> they deserted to Pompey in Greece. 



(Cees; Bell. Ok>. iii 69, 60.) Aegns was after- 
wards killed in an engagement between the caraliy 
of Caesar and Pompey. (iii. 84.) 

AEGYPTUS (Af)inrrot), a son of Belns and 
Ancfainoe or Achiroe, and twin-brother of Danaus. 
(ApoUod. ii. 1. § 4; Tsetz. ad Jyoophr. 383, 
1155.) Eoripides represented Cepheoi and Phi- 
neus likewise as brothers of Aegyptus. Belus 
assigned to Danana the sorereignty of Libya, and 
to Aegyptns he gave Arabia. The latter aJso sub- 
dued the country of the Melampodes, which ho 
called Aegypt afier his own name. Aqiyptus by 
his several wives had fifty aon^ and it so hap- 
pened that his brother Danaus had just as many 
danghtera. (Apollod. ii. 1. § 5 ; Hygin. Pat. 170.) 
Dauans had reason to fear the sons of his brother, 
and fied with his daughters to Aigoa in Pelopon- 
nesoa. Thither he was followed by the sons of 
Aegyptns, who demanded his danghters for their 
wives and promised faithful alliance. Danaus 
complied with their request, and distribnted his 
danghters smong them, but to each of them he 
gave a darner, with which they were to kill their 
husbands in the bridal night. AU the sons of 
Aegyptus were thus murdered with the exception 
of Lyncens, who was saved by Hypennnestra. 
The Danaids buried the heads of their murdered 
husbands in Lena, and their bodies outside the 
town, and were afterwards purified of their^rime 
by Athena and Hermes at the command of Zeus. 
Pansanias (ii. 34. § 3), who saw the monument under 
which the heads of the sons of Aegyptus were believ- 
ed to be buried, says that it stood on the way to 
Larissa, the citadel of Argos, and that their bodies 
were buried at Lema. In Hyginus (Fab. 168) 
the story is somewhat different. According to 
him, Aegyptus formed the pUn of murdering 
Danaus and his daughters in order to gain poucs- 
sion of his dominions. When Danaus wns in- 
formed of this he fled with his daughters to Ai^gos. 
Aegyptns then sent out his sons in porsiiit of the 
fugitives, and enjoined them not to return unless 
they lud slain Danaus, The sons of Aegyptus 
laid siege to Argos, and when Danaus saw that 
further resistance was useless, he put an end to the 
hostilities by giving to each of the besiegers one of 
his danghten. The murder of the sons of Aegyp- 
tns then took place in the bridal night. There 
was a tradition at Patrae in Achaia, according to 
which Aegyptns himself came to Greece, and died 
at Aloe with grief for the &te of his sons. The 
temple of Serapis at Patrae contained a monument 
of Aegyptns. (Pans, vil 21. § 6.) [L. S.] 

AEIMNESTCS ('At(/ivT|0Ta>), a Spartan, who 
killed Maidonius in the battle of Platara, B. c 479, 
and afterwards ftU himself in the Messenian war. 
(Herod, iz. 64.) The Spartan who killed Ma> 
donins, Plutarch {AtM. 19) calls Arimnestus 

AE'LIA QENa plebeian, of which the &mily- 
names and surnames are CATt;ii, Gallcs, Gra- 
ciLia, Lamia, Liuur,, Pastuh, Staiknus, 
Stiui, Tubxro. On coins this gens is also 
written AiUa, but AUia seems to be a distinct 
gens. The oidy £miily-names and surnames of the 
Aelia gens npon coins are Bala, Landa, Paettu, 
and Sgiauu. Of Bala nothinp; is known. Sga- 
RU is the imme of the invonte of Tiberins, who 
was adopted by one of the Aelii. [Sxjanuh.] 
The first member of this gens, who obtained the 
consulship, was P. Aelius Paetns, in B, c. 3S7. 

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Under the empire the Aelian name became atill 
more celebrated. It mu the name of the emperor 
iladiian, and coniequently of the Antoninei, whom 
he adopted. 

It u doubtful to which &mily P. Aelini be- 
longed who wa> one of the first plebeian qnaeaton, 
& c. 409. (LiT. IT. S4.) 

AELIA'NUS wa> together with Amandui the 
leader of an inrarrection of Gallic peannta, called 
Bagaudae, in the reign of Diocletian. It was put 
down by the Caesar Maximianui Hercnlius. (La- 
trap, iz. 1 3 ; AureL Vict, da Can. 39.} 

AELIA'NUS, CASPE'RIUS, prefect of the 
Praetorian guards imder Dumitian and Nerva. 
He excited an inrarrection of the guards against 
Nerva, in order to obtain the punishment of some 
obnoxious penons, but was kUled by Tiajan with 
his accomplices. (Dion Cass. IxtUL 3, 5.) 

1/61), was bom according to Soidat (t. v. KiKuaiis) 
at Piaeneste in Italy, and lived at Roma. He 
calls himself a Roman ( K. ^. xii. 25), aa pos- 
sessing the rights of Roman dtizenahip. He was 
particularly fond of the Greeks and of Greek lite- 
rature and oratory. {V. U. ix. 32, ziL 25.) 
He studied under Pauianias the rhetorician, and 
imitated the eloquence of Nicostiatus and the style 
of Dion Chrytoetom ; but especially admired 
Herodes Atticus more than all. He tanght rheto- 
ric at Rome in the time of Hadrian, and hence was 
called 6 ao^urris. So complete was the command 
be acquired orer the Gniek language that he could 
speak as well as a native Athenian, and hence was 
called i luXiyKtnrot or iuXi^6ayyos. (PhilosU ViL 
Soph. iL 31.) That rhetoric, however, was not hia 
forte may easily be believed Irom the style of his 
works ; and he appears to have given up teaching 
for writing. Suidas calls him 'Apxi'pfi' (Pontiiex). 
He lived to above sixty yean of age, and had no 
children. He did not many, beoiuse he would 
not have any. There are two considerable works 
of his remaining : one a collection of miscellaneous 
history (noixlAi) 'loropla) in fourteen books, com- 
monly called his " Varia Uistoria," and the other 
a work on the peculiarities of animals (ni^ Ziimr 
UtiniTot) in seventeen books, commonly called his 
"De Animalium Natnia." The former work con- 
tains short narrations and anecdotes, historical, 
biographical, antiquarian, &C., selected from vaiioua 
authors, generally without their names being given, 
and on a great variety of subjects. Its chief value 
arises from its containing many passage* from 
works of older authors which are now lost. It is 
to be regretted that in selecting from Thucydides, 
Herodotus, and other writers, he has sometimes 
given himself the trouble of altering their language. 
But he tells us he liked to have his own way and 
to follow his own taste, and so he would seem to 
have altered for the mere sake of putting some- 
thing different. The latter work is of the same 
kind, scrappy and gossiping. It is partly collected 
from older writers, and partly the result of his own 
observations both in Italy and abroad. According 
to Philostratns (n Fit.) he was scarcely ever out 
of Italy ; but he tells us himself tliat he travelled 
a* far as Aegypt ; and that he saw at Alexandria 
an ox with five feet. {De Anim, xi. 40 ; comp. xi. 
11.] This book would appear to have become a 
popular and standard work on aoology, since in the 
fourteenth century Manuel Philes, a Byiontine 
poet, founded upon it a poem on animala. At the 

end of the work is a concluding chapter (JwIXoTer))' 
where he states the general pnnciplea on wkidi Im 
has composed his work : — that be ha* spent great 
Ubour, care, and thought in writing it ; — that b* 
has preferred the pursuit of knowledge to the pur* 
snit of wealth ; and that, fi>r his part, he found 
much more pleasure in observing the habit* of tht 
lion, the panther, and the fox, in listening to the 
song of the nightingale, and in studying the mi- 
grations of cranes, than in mere heaping up richea 
and being numbered among the great : — that, 
throughout his work he has sought to adhere to 
the truth. Nothing can be imagined more dedcient 
in arrangement than this work : he goe* from one 
subject to another without the least Unk of 

ation; a* (e. g.) from elephants (xi. 16) to dragoni 
(xi. 16), bom the liver ol mice (ii. 56) to the use* 
of oxen (ii. 57). But this absence of anangemcst, 
treating things irouclAa iroiKiAitt, he says, ii ia- 
tentiomd ; he adopted this plan to give variety to 
the work, and to avoid tedium to the reader. Hir 
style, which he commends to the indulgmce of 
critics, though free from any great &ult, ha* n» 
particular merit. The similarity of plan in the twot 
works, with other internal evidences, aeenu to. 
shew that they were both written by the some 
Aelian, and not, a* Voas and Valckenaer ooinjec'* 
ture, by two different persons. 

In both works he seems desirous to incnkatcf 
moral and religious principles (see KM. vii. 44} 
De Anim. vi. 2, vii. 10, 11, ix. 7, and Epilcg.)f 
and he wrote some treatises expressly on phiioso- 
phicol and religious subject*, especuUy one oa 
Providence (Ilfol Upayolia) in three books (Sisidas, 
$. V. 'MaaayioTois), and one on the Divine Mani- 
festations (Ilffil Btm 'Eftpytiir), directed against 
the Epicureans, whom he allude* to elaewhcte. 
(J9e Anim. vii. 44.) There are also attributed to 
Aelian twenty letter* on btubandiy and eucb-like 
matters ('ATpoucutol 'Ea-MToAol), which are by 
feigned characten, are written in a rhetoriial un- 
real style, and are of no value. The first edition 
of all his works was by Conrad Gesner, 1556, fi>l., 
containing also the works of Heraclidea, Polemoy 
Adomantius and Melampus,' The " Varia Uiatoria" 
was first edited by CamiUus Pemscus, Rome, 
1545, 4to.; the principal editions since are by 
Peritoniui, Leyden, 1701, 8va, by Oronoviu*, 
Leyden, 1731, 2 vol*. 4to., and by Kiiiin, Leip- 
sig, 1780, 2 vol*. 8vo. The De Animalium 
Natuia waa edited by Qronoviu*, Lond. 1744, 
2 vol*. 4to., and by J. G. Schneider, Leipzig, 
1784,2 vol*. Svo. The la*t edition i* that by 
Fr. Jacob*, Jena, 1832, 2 vol*. Svo. This eontaios 
the valuable material* which Schneider had col- 
lected and left for a new edition. The Letters 
were published apart from the other wi^k* by 
Aldu* Manutio* in hi* " CoUectiu Epistolanim 
Graecarum," Venice, 1499, 4to. 

The Varia Hiatoria haa been tranalated into 
Latin by C. Geaner, and into Engliih by A. Fle- 
ming, Lend. 1576, and by Stanley, 1665 ; this 
but ha* been reprinted more than once. The De 
Animalium Natura ha* been translated into Latin 
by Peter Oillius (a Frenchman) and by Cotuad 
Gemer. It doe* not appear to have been tranalated 
into English. ' 

There ha* al*o been attributed to Aelian a work 
called Konryopls roii rimiiSos, an attack on an 
effeminate man, probably meant for Elagabalub 
(Suida*, 1. 1. 'A^».) [A. A. J 


zed by Google 


AELIA'NUS, LtrCIUS, one of the thirty ty- 
imti (a. d. 259-268) under the Roman empiic 
He uamned the par|je in OanI ifter the deaUi of 
PMtnmm, and «aa killed by lui own toldien, bo- 
caoe he would not allov them to jdnnder Mogun- 
tiaeam. TrabeOin* Pollio and othen call him 
LoUianna ; Ei^hel {Dodr. ffmm. m. f. US) think*, 
that hk tme name ma I^elianua ; but then Menu 
moat anthnity in &toqt of I^ Aelianna. (Eutrop. 
iz. 7; TicbelL PoQ. THg. Tgr. 4 ; Aord. VicL da 
Can. 33, EpU. 32.) 

AELIA'NUS ME'CCIUSfAaj(i.JiM<««iof), 
■p andent phyncian, who rout hare lired in the 
Kcond centnxy aftei Chriit, aa he ia mentioned by 
Galen (Da neriaea ad PampUI. init toL zit. 
p. 399) aa the oUeat of hia tatora. Hia fiOher ia 
enppoaed to biTe alao been a phyucian, a* Aelianna 
i> aud by Qalen (De DineeL AfmcuL c. 1. p. 2. 
ed. Dietx) to have made an epitome of hi* &ther'i 
anatomical writing*. Oalen >peak* of that part of 
hi* vurk wbich tieated of the Diaaection of the 
liaxlet aa being hdd in aome lepnte in hi* time 
(•Ul), and he alway* mention* hi* tutor with re- 
>pecL {aid. c 7, 22, pp. 11, 57.) Dniing the 
pieralence of an epidemic in Italy, Aelianu* i* 
laid by Galen (Zh Tkeriaea ad fampUL ibid.) to 
hare Died the Tberiam {Did. </ Ant art Tia- 
riaea) with gnat «nrae*s, both aa a mean* of care 
and ^ao ma a preaertatire againat the diaeaae. Me 
nnit hare been a penon of aome celebrity, a* thi* 
mme anecdote ia mentioned by the Arabic Hiato- 
nan Abb t-Fanj (Hittor. Oampatd. DymuL f. 
77X with exactly ue aame circumstance* except 
that he make* tiie epidemic to hare broken out at 
Antiach iiutead of in Italy. None of hi* work* 
(aa &r as the writer ia aware) are now extant. 

[W. A. G.] 

AELIA'NUS, PLAUTIUS, ofered up the 
pnyer aa pontifex, when the firat atone of the 
new Cuntol wu laid in a. d. 71. (Tac HuL ir. 
53.) W e learn from an inacription (Omter, pi 4S3; 
Oielh, n. 750), that hi* full name wa* Tl Plantin* 
SilTamu Aeliuin*, that he held many important 
military command*, and that he waa twice conaoL 
Hia fint oonanUhip waa in .*. D. 47 ; the date of 
hi* *econd i* nnknown. 

AELIA'NUS TA'CTICUS (AUionli TajtrinSt) 
wa* mo«t prohaUy a Greek, but not the *ame a* 
Clandin* Aelianna. He lived in Roma and wrote 
a work in fifty-three chapten on the Military Tao- 
tics of the Greeks (II<pl SrpnnryunSt' Td^far 
'EAXiininr), which he dedicated to the emperor 
Hadrian. He aI*o gire* a brief account of the 
eonstitation of a Roman army at that time. The 
work aioae, he *aya {Dedie.), from a convenation 
be bad with the emperor Nerra at Frontinui'i 
konae at Fotmiae. He promiie* a work on 
Naeal Tactics alio ; but thi*, if it waa written, 
ia bat. The first edition of the Tactic* (a very 
had one) wa* pnbliahed in 1S32 ; the next, much 
better, wa* by Franciecn* Robortellna, Venice, 
1552, 4to., which contain* a new Latin reraion by 
the editor, and i* illn*trated with many cut*. The 
beat edition i* that printed by Elzerir at Leyden, 
1613. It i* n*aally found bound up with Leo** 
Tactica [Lao]. 

It waa transbrted into I«tin first by Theodom* 
of Thessalonica. Thi* translation waa publiahed 
at Rome, 1487, together with Vegetiu*, Frontinu*, 
and Modestus, It i* printed also in Robortellus's 
edition, which therefore contain* two Latin Tei^ 



aioos. It has been translated into Eng]i*h by 
Capt. John Bingham, Lend. 1616, ioL, and by 
Laid Dillon, 1814, 4to. [A. A.] 

AE'LIUS OIONY'SIUS. [Dionvuiir.] 
AE'LIUS D0NATU8. [Donatdb.] 
AE'LIUS PROMGO-US (Afiuor npoitUrn), 
an andent physician of Alexandria, of whose per- 
sonal history no particnlais are known, and whose 
date ia uncertain. He ia aappoaed by Villoison 
(Aneed. Oraee. toL ii. p. 179. note I) to have 
UTed after the time of Pompey the Great, that is, 
in the first century before Christ ; by others he is 
considered to be much more ancient ; and by 
Chouhmt {HamOtuA d*r £alol«itwM<s /iir die 
AtUere Mtdicin, Ed. 2. Leipiig, 1840, Sto.), on 
the other hand, he i* phoed a* hte aa the second 
half of the firat century after Chriat. He i* most 
probably the aame person who is quoted by Oaien 
{De Compct, Mediatm. mamd. Loeot, ir. 7, ToL 
xiL p. 730) shnply by the name of AtUmi. Ha 
wrote aererid Greek nwdical work*, which an *tiU 
to be found in manuscript in different libiarie* 
in Europe, but of which none (a* fitr a* the writer 
is awan) haTe ever been published, though Kuhn 
intended his woriu to have been indndwl in hi* 
collection of Greek medical writen. Some extncta 
from one of hi* vrork* entitled Avra^Mp^y,* Afedi- 
drnilmm fbrmalamm OoUeetio, an inaerted by C. 
0. Kiihn in hia Addilam. ad Etemi. Mad. Yd. a 
J. A. Fabhdo m " A'U. Gr." Edulr., and by Bona 
in his IVadaha da Smrbuto, Verona, 1781, 4to. 
Two other of hi* work* are quoted or mentioned 
by Uieron. Mercurialis in his Variae Ledioma, iit 
4, and hia work Da Vnam d Morbit Venaum, 
i. 1 6, ii. 2 ; and alio by Schneider in his Preface* 
to Nicander'* T'^rueo, p. zi., and AhaiplmTmaca, 
p. xU. tW. A. 0.] 

AELLO. [Harptiai.] 
AELLOPUS ('AtAAfoovf), a nimame (tf Iri*, 
the messenger of the gods, by which she is de- 
scribed aa awift-footed &e a storm-wind. Homer 
use* the form dsfcA^nt. (II. viii. 409.) [L. S.] 
AELURUS. [TmoTHxas AxLURua ] 
AEMI'LIA. 1. A reatal riigin, who, when 
the aaered fin was extinguished on one occasion, 
prayed to the goddess for her assistance, and mira- 
culously rekindled it by throwing a piece of her 
garment upon the extinct embers. (Diony*. ii. 
68; VaLMax.i. l.§7.) 

2. The third daughter of L. Aemilius Paullus, 
who fell in the battle of Cannae, waa the wife of 
Sdpio Africanus I. and the mother of the celebrated 
Cornelia, the mother of the Gracchi. She was ot 
a mild disposition, and long snnrired her husband. 
Her property, which was large, waa inherited by 
her grandson by adoption, Sdpio Africanus 1I.» 
who gave it to his own mother Papiria, who had 
been divDieed by hi* own fiither L. Aemilius. 

* ^vyofxtfir is a word used by the later Greek 
writers, and is explained by Du Cange {Glom. Med. 
d Infim. GtokU.) to mean eu, tnWw. It ia how- 
ever frequently used in the aenae given to it in the 
text See Leo, Conaped, Medic ir. 1, 11. ap. 
Ermerin. Aneed. Med. Oraee. pp. 158, 167. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



(Polyb. zxxii. 12 ; Diod. Eze. xxxL ; VaJ. Max. 
Ti 7. § 1 J Plut. Aem. 2 ; Lir, xxxriii. 67.) 

3. The third daughter of Ij. Aemilini PouUiu 
Macedoniciu wai a little girl when her father was 
appointed coniul a lecond time to conduct the war 
against Perwnt. Upon returning home after hia 
election he found her in tears, and upon inquiring 
the reaaon (he told him that Peneui had died, 
which waa the name of her dog ; whereupon he 
exclaimed ** I accept the omen," and i^aided it 
as a pledge of hii locceM in the war. (Cic de 
Die. i. 46, il 40 ; Plut. Aem. 10.) 

4. Aemilia Lepida. [LanoA.] 

5. A vestal viigin, who was put to death & c. 
114 for having committed incest upon sereial oc- 
casions. She induced two of the other vestal 
virgins, Harcia and Licinia, to commit the same 
crime, but these two were acquitted by the ponti- 
fices, when Aemilia was condemned, but were 
subsequently condemned by the praetor L. Caasius. 
(PluL QmattL Bom. p. 284 ; Liv. EfnL 63 ; 
Orosiua, v. 16 ; Ascon. m Ok. MiL p. 46, ed. 

AEMI'LIA GENS, originally written AIMI- 
LIA, one of the most ancient patrician houses at 
Borne. Its origin is referred to the time of Numa, 
and it is said to have been descended from Ma- 
mercua, who received the name of Aemiliua on ac- 
count of the persuasiveness of his language (Si' 
nijuvAiay Klrfou). This Mamercns is represented 
by some as the son of Pythagoraa, and by others 
as the son of Numa, while a third account traces 
his origin to Ascaniua, who bad two sons, Julius 
and Aemylos. (PluL AmiL 2, A'tuii. 8, 21 ; Festus, 
(. e. AeaaL) Amulins is also mentioned as one 
of the ancestors of the Aemilii (SiL ItaL viii. 297.) 
It seems pretty clear that the Aemilii were of 
Sabine origin ; and Festus derives the name Ma- 
mercua fiom the Oscan, Mamen in that language 
being the same as Mars. The Sabinea qmke 
Oscan. Sine* then the Aemilii were supposed to 
have come to Rome in the time of Numa, and 
Numa was said to have been intimate with Pytha- 
goras, we can see the origin of the legend which 
makes the ancestor of the house the son of Pytha- 
goras. The first member of the house who ob- 
tained the consulship was L. Aemilias Mamercua, 
in a c. 484. 

The &mily-names of this gens are : Bajibula, 
Bi'c>, LBPioua, Mamxbcub or Mahbrcinub, 
Papus, Paullus, RxoiLLCs, ScAURUs. Of these 
names Buca, Lepidus, Paullus, and Scaums are the 
only ones that occur on coins. 

AEMILIA'NUS. 1. The soa of L. Aemilina 
Panllns Macedonicus, was adopted by P. Cornelius 
Scipio, the son of P. Cornelias Sdpio A&icanus, 
and was thus called P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus 
Africanus. [Scipio.] 

2. The governor of Pannonia and Moesia in the 
reign of Oallus. He is also called Aemilius ; and 
on coins we find as his praenomen both Marcus 
and Caius. On one coin he is called C. Julius 
Aemilianus ; but there is some ijoubt about the 
genuineness of the word Julius.(Eckhel,vii.p.372.) 
He was bom in Mauritania about A. D. 206. He 
defeated the barbarians who had invaded bis pro- 
vince, and chased them as &r as the Danube, a.d. 
253. He distributed among his soldiers the booty 
he had gained, and was saluted emperor by them. 
He then marched into Italy, but Oallus, who had 
advanced to meet him, was slain at luteramna to- 


gether with his son Volosianus by his own soUierL 
Aemilianus was acknowledged by the senate, hot 
was slain after a reign of three or four months bv bis 
soldiers near Spoletum, on the approach of Valeri- 
anus. According to other accounts he died s 
natural death. (2osimus, i. 28, 29 ; Zonaias, ziL 
21, 22 ; Eutrop. ix. 6 ; AureL Vict. d» Caa. SI, 
BfU. 31.) 

3. One of the thirty tyianU (a. d. 269— SCS) 
was compelled by the troops in Egypt to assume 
the purple. He took the surname of Alexander oc 
Alexandrinna. Oallienus sent Theodotus agsisst 
him, by whom be was taken and sent prisoner U 
Oallienus. Aemilianus was strangled in prisoa 
(TrebelL Poll. Trig. Tyr. 22, ChUim. 4, 6.) 

AEMILIA'NUS (who is also called Aok^) 
lived in the fifth centuir after Christ, and b 
known as a physician, confessor, and martyr. Is 
the reign of the Vandal King Hnnnerk (a. ft 
477-484), daring the Arian persecution in Aftiia, 
he was moat cruelly put to death. The Reaiik 
church celebrates hu memory on the sixth of De- 
cember, the Greek church on the seventh. (Ma- 
tpoU Bom. ed. Baron. ; Victor Vitensis, Ik Pa- 
taU. Vandal, v. 1, with Ruinart's notes, Psiia 
8vo. 1694 ; Baovius, Nommdator SandonmPn- 
fatioM Mtiioorum.) [W. A. 0.] 

AEMILIA'NUS (A^iuXlawi), a native of ibe 
town of Nicaea, and an epigrammatic poet. Nothing 
further is known about nim. Thne of his epi- 
grams have been preserved. (AnthoL Giaec m 
623, ix. 218, 766.) [C. P. M.] 







AEMI'LIUS PROBUS. [Nspoa, Coun- 


AENE'AUES (AinufSei), a patronymic fm 
Aeneas, and applied as a surname to those «bo 
were believed to be descended from him, axk 
as Ascanius, Augustus, and the Roraaas ia 
general ( Virg. ^m. ix. 663 ; Ov. £r Pad. i. Ui 
Met XV. 682, 695.) [L. S.1 

AENE'AS (AWat). Homtrio Story. Aam 
wos the son of Anchises and Aphrodite, and bon 
on mount Ida. On his lather's aide he vu > 
great-grandson of Tros, and thus nearly related Is 
the royal house of Troy, as Priam himself vsi > 
grandson of Tros. (Horn. JL xx. 215, Sac'^ 
820, V. 247, &C.; Hes. Tluoff. 1007, Ac) He"* 
educated from his in&ncy at Dardanus, ia tbi 
house of Alcathous, the husband of his sister. (/^ 


zed by Google 

«5l 463. at) At tbe begnmiag rf the ^w of 
the Qreek* agoinit Tnj he did not take anj pvt 
U it, and the poet intimate* that there eziated an 
ill iceGng between him and Priam, who did not 
fay anfficient honour to Aeneaa. (IL xiiL 460, Ac, 
tx. 181.) Thia ptobahhf aroae ihna a decree of 
jntiny, according to TUch Aeneaa and hi* de- 
BeadanU vera to rule otct Troy, once the honte 
of Priam had dnwn npon itielf the hatred of 
Onkm. (/J. xr. 307.) One day when Aeneas 
wai ^r"'^■"8 hia flodu on mount Ida, he waa 
attadied by Achillea, who took hia cattle and pat 
hnn to flight. Bnt he waa reicned by the goda. 
Thia erenl, howcTcr, and the admonition of ApoUo, 
nnrd hia B|Hrit, and he led hia Dardaniant againrt 
tbeOre*^*. (/txx.89,4c.,190,&e.,ii.819,4e.) 
Hencefottk be and Hector are the great bnlwarki 
of the TrojOM againat the Oneki, and Aeneas ap- 
peals bdored and bonoand by gods and men. (//. 
zi. 58, zri. 619, T. 180, 467, ti. 77, *e.) He is 
aaoea^ the Trojana what Achillea is among the 
Onekc Both an sons of immortal mothers, both 
are at fend with the kings, and both possess horses 
afdiriae origin. (/!. t. 265, Ac) Achilles him- 
ael^ to wbosn Hector owns his inferiority, thinks 
Aam a worthy competitor, (/i. xx. 175.) The 
alice whidi Aeneaa occnpie* among the Trojans is 
wd ezpicaaed in Philostiatns [Her. 13), who says 
that the Greeks c^ed Hector the hand, and Aeneas 
the aool of the Trojans. Respecting the brere and 
BoUe nannar in which he protects the body of his 
fiknd Paadania, aee IL t. 299. On one occasion 
he was eaigaged in a contest with Diomedes, who 
hnU a mighty stone at him and broke his hip. 
Aen^ fell to the gnnnd, and Aphrodite hastened 
la his asuatanee (/<. t. 305), and when she too 
was waanded, Apollo carried hhn 6om the field of 
battle to hia temple, where he was cnred by LeCo 
nd Artemis. ( //. t. 345. ftc) In the attack of 
Ike Tra^na npon the wall of the Greeks, Aeneas 
ammaaded the fourth host of the Trojans. {Tl. 
jii. 98.) He avenged the death of Alcathons by 
daying Oenomana and Aphanus, and hastened to 
the aaaiitanee of Hector, who was thrown on the 
groDjid by A>a. The last feat Homer mentions 
is his %ht with Achillea. On this as on all ether 
Tr f T-^T'i a god interposed and sared him, and this 
time it waa by Poseidon, who althongh in general 
haatile towarda the Trojans, yet rescued Aeneas, 
that the decrees of destiny might be fulfilled, and 
Aenea* and hi* o&pring might one day mle orer 
Trey. (//. XX. 178, *c 80S, ftc.) Thus fiff only 
is the stmy of Aeneaa to be gathered from the 
Homeric poems, and &r from alluding to Aeneas 
baring emigiated after the capture of Troy, and 
baring founded a new kingdom in a foreign land, 
the poet distinctly intimates that he coneeiTes 
Aeneaa and his descendants as reigning at Troy 
after the extinction of the honse of Priam. (Comp. 
Stnb. xiu. p. 808.) . 

Later Sbnia. Aecoiding to the Homene hymn 

an A[dindite (257, Ac.), Aeneas was bronght np 

by the nymphs of mount Ida, and was not taken 

to Ua fether Anehise*, nntil he had reached his 

fiftk jcsv, and then he waa, according to the wish 

«t tbe goddess, mren oat as the son of a nymph. 

IcBophon (Ot Vtaat. \. 9 15) says, that he waa 

iastmcted by Cheiron, the nsaal teacher of the 

knciL At«ofdiDgtotbe''Cypria,"heeTentook 

|«t in carrying off Helen. His brsreiy in the 

»v against the Greeks ia mentioned in the hiter. 



tiadi&os a* wdl ■• in tba eulvar ones. (Hjgia. 
FiA. 115; Philostr. L «.) Atto"il»8 ^ *o°>* *>" 
counts Aeneas was not present when Troy was 
taken, a* he had been sent by Priam on an expe- 
dition to Pbiygia, while according to others he 
waa reqneated by Aphrodite, jut bdon the fall of 
the city, to leaT* it, and accoidingly went to mount 
Ida, carrying his £^her on hi* shoulders. ^Dion. 
UaL i. 48.) A third account makes him hold oat 
at Troy to the last, and when all hopes disappeaied, 
Aeneas with his Dardaniaas and the warriors of 
Ophiyniam withdrew to the citadel of Pergamns, 
where IJM moat eactly treasures of the Trojan* 
were kept. Hen he repelled the enemy and re- 
ceived the fugitire Trojans, until be could hold out 
no longer. He then sent the people ahead to 
mount Ida, and followed them with his warriors, 
the inages of th* gods, bis fether, hi* wife, and 
hia children, hoping that ha would be aUe to 
maintain himsdf on the heights of mount Ida. But 
being threatened with an attack by the Greeks, he 
entered into negotiations with them, in consequence 
of which he surrendered bis position and was 
allowed to depart in safety with his friends and 
treasure*. (Dionys. L 46, Ac. ; Aelian, V. H. 
m. 22 ; Hygin. Faik. 254.) Othen again rehOed 
that he was fed by hi* hatred of Pari* to betray 
Ilion to the Greeks, and wai aUowed to depart 
free and aafe in oonaeqaenoe. (Dioays. Le.) Liry 
(i. 1) states, that Ameas and Antenor were the 
only Trojans against whom tba Greek* did not 
make use of dieir right of conquest, on account of 
an ancient connexion of hospitality existing be- 
tween them, or because Aeneaa had always advised 
hi* coantiyman to restore Helen to Menelaus. 
(Camp. Stmb. I. &) 

The ferther part of the story of Aeoeas, after 
leaving mount Ida with hi* friends and the images 
of the gods, especially that of Pallas [PaUadiim, 
Pans. li. 23. 8 6) presents a* many variations as 
that relating to the taking of Troy. All accounts, 
however, agree in stating that he left the coast* of 
Asia and crossed over into Europe. According to 
some he went acne* the Hellespont to the penin- 
sula of Pallane and died there ; according to othen 
be proceeded fivm Thnee to the Arcadian Oreho- 
menos and settled diere. (Stnb. I.e.; Pans. viii. 
12. § 5 i Dionys. HaL L 49.) By fa the greater 
number of later writers, however, anxious to put 
him in connexion with the history of Latinm and 
to make him tbe anoestorial hero of tbe Ramans, 
state that be went to Italy, though some assert 
that the Aeneaa who came to Italy was not the 
son of Anchises and Aphrodite, and others that 
after his arrival in Italy he returned to Troy, 
leaving his son Aacanias behind him. (Lycophr. 
1226, Ac. ; Dionys. L 53 ; Liv. i. 1.) A de- 
scription of the wanderings of Aeneas before he 
reached the coast of I«tium, and of the various 
towns and temples he was believed to have found- 
ed daring his wanderings, is given by Dionysius 
(L 50, Ac), whose account is on the whole the 
same as that followed by Virgil in his Acneid, 
although the latter makes various embellishment* 
and additions, some of wliieb, as his landing at 
Carthage and meeting with Dido, an itrecondUble 
with chronology. From Pallene (Thrace), where 
Aeneas stayed the winter after the taking of Troy, 
and founded the town of Aeneia on the Thermaic 
gulf (Liv. xl. 4), he sailed with hi* companions to 
Delos, Cytheia (where he founded a t«n^ of 

Digitized by 




Aphrodite), Boiae in Laeonia (wkeie he bnilt Etia 
and Aphrodiaiaa, Paui. iii. 22. § 9), Zacynthoa 
(temple of Aphiodite), Lencaa, Actiun, Ambraeia, 
and to Dodona, when he met the Trojan 
HeleniUL From Epinu he tailed acroM the 
Ionian Ma to Italy, when he landed at the 
lapy^an pramontoiy. Hence he craned over to 
Sicily, where he met the Trojani, Elymoi and 
Aegeatn* (Acestet), and bnilt the town* of Elyme 
and Acgeita. From Sicily he tailed back to Italy, 
htnded in the port of Palinnnu, came to the 
itiand of Lencaaia, and at lait to the coaat of 
Latium. Varioua ngnt pinnted out thia place aa 
the end of hi* wanderinga, and he and hia Trojant 
accordingly aettled in latiiim. The place where 
they had landed waa called Troy. I«tinaa, king 
of the Aboriginea, when infonned of the arriral A 
the Btrangen, prepared for war, hnt afterwarda 
concladed an alliance with them, gaxe up to them 
a part of hia dominiona, and with their aaaiatance 
conquered the Rutnliana, with whom he waa then 
at war. Aeneas founded the town of Lanniom, 
called afier Lannia, the daughter of Latinna, 
whom he married. A new war then fallowed be- 
tween latinna and Tomna, in which both ehieb 
fell, wherenpon Aeneaa became ade mler of the 
Aboriginea and Trojana, and both nationa nnited 
into one. Soon after this howeTei, Aeneaa fell in 
a battle with the Rutnliana, who were aiaieted by 
Meientioa, king of the Etmacana. Aa hia body 
waa not fennd after the battle, it waa beliered that 
it had been earned op to heaTen, or that he had 
periahed in the rirer Nnmieint. The Latina 
erected a monument to him, with the inacription 
To He faHur and native god, {Jon Imdigeti, 
IdT. i. 2 i Dionya. i. 64 ; Stiab. t. p. 229, ziii. 
p. 595 ; Ot. Met. ziii. 623, &c., zIt. 75, &c., zt. 
438, Acs Conon, Narrat. 46; Pint. Bom. 3.) 
Tiro other account* aomewhat diffarent from thoae 
mentioned above are preaerred in Serriua {ad Aen, 
iz. 264, from the work of Abaa on Tray), and in 
Tietxei (ad LyojAr. 1252). Dionyaina pfawea the 
landing of Aeneaa in Italy and the building of 
Lavinium about the end of the aecond year after 
the tiddng of Tny, and the death of Aeneaa in the 
aerenth year. Virgil on the other hand npreaenta 
Aeneaa landing m Italy aeven yean after the fell 
of Tny, and compriae* all the erenta in Italy 
fiom the landing to the death of Tumoa within 
the apace of twenty daya. 

The atory about the deacent of the Romani 
from the Trojana through Aeneaa was generally 
meiTed and beliered at Rome at an early period, 
and probably aroae from the feet, that the inhabit- 
anta of Latium and all the plaoee which Aeneaa 
waa (aid to have (bunded, lay in conntriea inhabit- 
ed by people who were all of the aame atock — 
Pelaagiana : hence alao the worthip of the Idaean 
Aphrodite in all placea the foundation of which ia 
aacribed to Aeneaa. Aeneaa himael^ therefore, 
Mch a* he appean in hia wanderinga and final 
aettlenent in Latium, ia nothing elae but the per- 
aonilied idea of one common origin. In thia 
character be waa wonhipped in the varioua phuea 
which traced their origin to him. (Uv. zl. 4.) 
Aeneaa waa frequently repiciented in statuea and 
paintingt by ancient artiata. (Pana. ii. 31. § 2, v. 
'22. 1 2 ; Plin. H. N. zzzv. 10. § 36.) On genu 
and coina he ia uaoaily repreaented aa carrying hia 
father en hia ahonldeE, and lT«^!"g hi* aon Aaea- 
nin* by the hand. 


Reapecting the inconaiatenciea in the iegtoda 
about Aeneaa and the mode of tolving them, aee 
Niebuhr, Hitt. qfHoTiu, I p. 179, &c Respect- 
ing the coloniea he ia aaid to hare faunded, 
Fiedler, DeErroribtuAeneae adPioextaim coUmiat 
pertuiemtilHU, Weael, 1827, 4toi. Abont the vor- 
ahip and religioua character of Aenea*, aee Uachoid, 
OetcUdite da Tnganitdien Kriegee, Stattgaid, 
1836, p. 302, &c; Hartung, GfdudUe dtr Uelig. 
d*r Somer, I p. 83, &c ; and above all R. H. 
Klaoaen, .^enetu taid die Pematen, especially bcmk i. 
p. 34, &c. [L. S.] 

AENE'AS {tdrtlas) OAZAEUS, *o called 
from hi* birth-place, nouriahed a. d. 487. He 
waa at firat a Platoniat and a Sophiat, being a 
diKiple of the philoaoper Hierode* (oa appean 
from hia Theqikratlue, Galloud. p. 629) and a 
friend of Procopiua (aa we know from his Epiatlea). 
Hia date thua aacertained ia confirmed by fau 
atating, that he had heard apeak aome of the Con- 
feaaon whoae tonguea Hunneric had cut out, a. o. 
484. (Ibid. p. 663, c) When a Cliriatian, be 
composed a dialogue, C^ the Imxmrialitjf ef tie 
Soul atid the RemmctioH of the Body, called Tleo- 
phrastus from one of the interlocutor*. Thia ap- 
peared fint in a Latin venion by Ambrodua 
Camaldulenaia, Svo., Ven. 1513, and 4to, Basil 
1516. The original Greek, with the Latin TersJta 
of Wol^ fol. Tigur. 1559 ; with the Latin -rersioa 
and notes of C. fiarthiua, 4to. Lips. 1655 (aee 
Fabriciua, de VeritaL Relig. ChritL Syllabue, p. 107, 
Homb. 1725) ; also in Qallandi't BiUiolheea Pa- 
trum, vol. z. p. 629, Ven. 1766 ; and with the 
notea of Boiasonade, Svo. Par. 1836. In Kbert^ 
Dictionary ia the following reference: Wemmliirf 
Pr. de Aenea Gaz., Numb. 1817, 4to. In the 
Aldiue CoUection cf Efietlee by Urtek A utiora there 
are 25 by Aeneaa, Or. 4to., Ven. 1499. See Fa- 
bridua, BiUioth. Cfraec voL L pp. 676-690. Some 
of the letten of Aeneaa may be found in the A'aiy- 
elopaedia Pkiloiogiea of Joanna Paluia, Gr. Svo., 
Ven. 1710, voLi. [A. J. C] 

AENE'AS SI'LVIUS, aon of Silvius, and 
grandaon of Aacaniua. He is the third io the list 
of the mythical kinga of Alba in Latium, and the 
Silvii regarded him aa the founder of their house. 
(Liv. i. 3.) Dionyaiiu (L 71) aaeribea to him a 
reign of 31 yeara. (Comp. Viig. Aen. ri. 769.) 
Ovid {Met. ziv. 6 1 0, &c.) does not mention hia 
among the Alban kings. [L. S-] 

AENE'AS (Aivalat), aumamed TACl'ICUS 
(d TMrruMt), a Oreek writer, whoae predae date ia 
not known. Xenopbon (HelL viLS. § IJmentiaua 
an Aeneaa of Stymphalut, who about tne tinK at 
the battle of Mantlneia (362, B. a) distinguished 
himself by hia bnveiy and akill aa general of the 
Arcadiana, Caaaubon aupposes thia Aeneaa to be 
the aame, and the aupposition ia confirmed by a 
passage (Comment. Potion. 27) where he speaks 
fiuniliariy of an Arcadian provincialism. But, 
however thia may be, the general character of this 
work, the namea he mentiona, and the historical 
noticea which occur, with other internal evideooe, 
all point to about thia period. He wrote a laijt* 
work on the whole art of war, irrpaniyuci /SiCxio, 
or irtpl T«r frrfKniiyutuy^ iwo/ur^fuera (Polyb. z. 
40; Suidaa, a. v. Aicalot), consisting of several parts. 
Of theae only one ia preeerved, culed toktuc^ r< 
«al woMofKTiTutiii vn6iunuut irapl Toi! wan xf4 
woXiOfimiiitror irrixtir, commonly called Ccib- 
mentariu* Poliorceticu*. The object of the book 


zed by Google 


ii to Aew koT a aiege ■honld be misled, the Ta- 
tioiu kinds of fautnunenta to be ned, muKCDTres 
to be practised, tnys of sending letters withont 
being ^tected, and vithont even ue beaten know- 
ing aboBt it (e, 31, a Toy carioos one), &c. It 
eoBlains a good deal of infennation on nuuiy points 
in ardiedogf , and is especially nhiable as con- 
tnning a lai:ge stock of words and technical terms 
annected with tni&ie, denoting instruments, &c., 
which an not to be found in anj other woik. 
Fram the same dramtstance, many passages are 

The book waa first diseoreied by Simler in the 
TatitBn Gfamy. It was edited first by Isaac 
Cksanbon with a latin Tenion and notes, and I4>- 
pended to his edition of Polybios. (Paris, 1609.) 
It was lepobliahed by OronoTins in his Polybins, 
Tot ui. Amsterdam, 1670, and by Emesti, Leiprig, 
1763. The kst edition is that of J. a Orelli, 
I^ipii|g, 1818, with Casanbon's rersion and notes 
and an original commentaiy, published as a snpple- 
BMDt to Schweighaeaser's Polybina. Besides the 
Vaticaii IfS. there are three at Paris, on which 
CsMabon ibimded his ediUon, and one in the laa- 
rcntian library at Florence. This last is, according 
toOirili(Praei:p.6), tbeoldeatofalL The work 
antains many Teiy cormpt and mntihted passages. 

An eptome of the whde book, not of the frng- 
ncBt now remaining, was made by Cineas, a Thes- 
safisn, who was sent to Rome by Pjirhns, 279, 
».c (Adian, Tael. 1.) This abridgment is r>- 
fcned to by Cioero [ad Fam. ix. 25). [A. A.] 

AKNEIUS or AENE'SIUS (Afrijiot or Aln<- 
nss), a saniame of Zens, under which he was 
wscsUpped in the island of Cepfaalenia, where he 
had a tem{de on mount Aenoa. (Hes. up. SAoL 
od AfMm. mod. u. 2»7.) [U S.] 

A£NESIDE'MU3 (AWOryui), the son of 
PataKns, and one of the body-guards of Hippo- 
cntef, tyrant of Oela, was the son of Theron, the 
raler of Agrigentmn, in the time of thePersian war. 
(Uend. yii. 154, 165.) [TBaxoN.] 

AENESIDE'MUS (Aim|ir»7);u>i), a celebiated 
sceptic, bom at Cnossns, in Crete, according to 
Diogenes Laertins (ix, 1 16), but at Aegae, aeooid- 
ing to Phothis (Cod.t212)^ probably bred a little 
later than (^eero. He was a popil of Heiaeleides 
and recernd bom him the chair of philosophy, 
which had been handed down for abore three hun- 
dred jears from Pyrrhon, the finmder of the sect. 
For a fiin account of tiie sceptical system see 
PraRHo^t. As Aenetidemns di&red on many 
points from the oidinaiy sceptic, it will be conre- 
nient be&re proceeding to ius particnlar opinions, 
to gire a short account of the system itsel£ 

The sceptic began and ended in murersal 
donbL He was equally removed bom the aca- 
demic who denied, as from the dogmatic philoso- 
pher who sffirmed ; indeed, he attempted to con- 
bund both in one, and refute them by the same 
aiguments. (Sezt. Emp^ i. 1.) Truth, he said, 
was not to be desired for its own sake, but ior the 
sske of a certain repose of mind (drapolla) which 
fi^wed on it, an end which the sceptic best at- 
tsbxd in another way, by suspending his judg- 
ment (iwoxt\ and allowing himself liteially to 
nd in dimbt. (i 4.) With this view he must 
ttsTd orer the whohs nnge of moral, metaphysi- 
til, and physical science. His method is the 
emparison of oppontes, aiid bis sole aim to prove 
tliat nodiing can be p^vred, or what he termed. 



the taaoMwm of things. In common life ha may 
act upon ^aaiiinm with the rest of men: nature, 
law, and custom are allowed to hare their influ- 
ence ; only when impdled to any ^rehement eflbrt 
we an to remember that, hen too, then is much 
to be said on both sides, and are not to lose our 
peace of mind by grasping at a shadow. 

The fiunoos Mm rpjvw of the seeptici were a 
number of heads of aigoment intended to over- 
throw truth in whatever (ana it might appear. 
[Ptkrbon.] The iqtpoaite ^pean m ces of the 
monl and natural world (Sext. Emp. i. 14), the 
&llibility of intellect and sense, and the iUnsions 
produced upon them by intervals of time and space 
and by evety chanie of position, were the first 
arguments by whicb they assailed the reality of 
things. We cannot explain what man is, we can- 
not exphun what the senses an: still less do we 
know the way in which they an acted upon by 
the mind (ii. 4 — 7) : beginning with odUr ipifm, 
we must end with odUr tiiKKar, We are not 
certain whether material objects an anything but 
ideas in the mind: at any rate the different qua. 
lities which we peieeive in them may he wholly 
dependent on the percipient being ; or, supposing 
them to contain quality as well as substance, it 
may be one quality varying with the perceptive 
power of the difiierent senses. (iL 14.) Having 
thus confounded the world without and the worid 
within, it was a natursl tranrition for the sceptic 
to confound physical and metaphytieal ai-guments. 
The reasonings of natural philosophy were over- 
thrown by metaphysical subtieties, and metaphy- 
sics made to look absord by illnstntions only ap- 
pliable to material things. The acknowledged 
imperfection of language was also pressed into the 
service ; words, they said, were ever varying in 
their signification, so that the ideas ol which they 
were the signs must be alike variable. The lead- 
ing idea of the whole system was, that all truth 
involved either a vicious circle or a petitio prin- 
cipii, for, even in the simplest truths, sometiiing 
must be assumed to make the reasoning applicable. 
The truth of the senses was known to us from the 
intellect, but the intellect opented through the 
senses, so that our knowledge of the nature of 
either depends upon the other. There was, how- 
ever, a deeper side to this philosophy. Every- 
thing we know, confessedly, runs up into some- 
thing we do not know : of tlie true nature of cante 
and efl«ct we are ignorant, and hence to the 
fiivourite method, <hrj roS tit Snifmi iii0i\?i»ii>, at 
arguing backward &om causa to canse, the vary 
imperfection of human Acuities preventa our 
giving an answer. We must know what we 
believe ; and how can we be sun of secondary 
causes, if the first cause be wholly beyond us? 
To judge, however, from the sketch of Seztns 
Empiricus (Pyrrh. Hyp.), it was not this side 
of their system which the sceptics chiefly urged: 
for the most part, it must be confessed, that they 
contented themselves with dialectic subtleties, 
which were at once too absurd for refutation, and 
impossible to refate. 

The causes of scepticism are more fully given 
under the article Ptbrhon. One of the most re- 
markable of its features was its omnexion with the 
later philosophy of the Ionian schooL From the fiul- 
ure 1^ their attempts to exphun the phenomena of 
the visiUa woild, the Ionian philosophen were in- 
sensibly led on to deny the order and hannooy of 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



craation: they nw nothing bnt a perpetual and 
eTei^hanging chaoa, acted upon, or rather wlf- 
aeting, by an inherent power of motion, of which 
the natnie was only known by it* effect!. Thit 
was the doctrine of Heracleitni, that "the world 
wa« a fire erer kindling and going oat, whidi made 
all thing! and «a« all thinga." It was this link of 
connexion between the sceptical and Ionian sohoola 
which Aenesidemos attempted to restore. The 
doctrine of Uetaclmtus, although it spoke of a sub- 
tle fire, really meant nothing more than a principle 
of change ; and althongh it might seem absnrd to 
a strict sceptic like Sextns Empiricus to q^Srnt even 
a principle of change, it inTolred no real inconsis- 
tency with the sceptical system. We are left to 
conjecture as to the way in which Aenesidemns 
arrived at his conclusions : the following account of 
them seems probable. It will be seen, &om what 
has been said, that the sceptical system had de- 
stroyed CTerydiing but sensation. Bnt sensation is 
the effect of change, the {Hinciple of motion work- 
ing internally. It was rery natural then that the 
sceptic, proceeding from the only dpx4 which re- 
mained to him, i^ould suggest an exphuwtian of 
the outward world, derived fiom that of which 
alone he vras certain, his own internal sensations. 
The mere suggestion of a probable cause might 
seem inconsistent with the distinction which the 
sceptics drew between their own absolute uncer- 
tunty and the probability spoken of by the 
Academics : indeed, it was inconsistent with their 
metaphysical paradoxes to draw conclusions at all : 
if so, we must be content to allow that Aeneside- 
mns (as Sextos Empiricus implies) got a little be- 
yond the dark region of scepticism into the light 
of probability. 

Other scattered opinions of Aenesidemns have 
been preserved to ns, some of which seem to lead 
to the same condosion. Time, he said, was ri ty 
and ri nfirrm <n»fia (Pyr. Hyp. ilL 17), probably 
in allusion to the doctrine of the Stoics, that aU 
really existing substances were ai^teta, : in other 
words, he meant to say that time was a really ex- 
isting thing, and not merely a condition of thought. 
This was connected with the principle of change, 
which was inseparable from a notion of time : if 
the one had a real existence (and upon its exist- 
ence the whole system depended), the other must 
likewise have a real existence. In apnth^r place, 
adapting his language to that of Heradeitus, he 
said that "time was air" (Sext Emp. adv. Log^oai, 
IT. 233.), probably meaning to illustrate it by the 
imperceptible nature of air, in the same way that 
the motion of the world was said to work by a 
subtle and invisible fire. All things, according to 
his doctrine, were but ^eupiftma which wen 
brought out and adi4)ted to our perceptions by 
their mutoal opposition : metaphorically they might 
he said to ahine forth in the light of Heradeitus'B 
file. He did not, indeed, explain how this onion 
of oppodtes made them aennble to the iiunlties of 
nan : probably he would rather have supported 
his view by the impassibility of the mind concav- 
ing of anydiing otherwise than in a state of motion, 
or, as he would have expressed it, in a state of mu- 
tual oppodtion. But faaiiiiMwa are of two kinds, 
Itia and mai (Sext Emp^ adv. Log. ii. 8), the 
peieeptians of individuals, and these common to 
inankind. Hoe again Aeneddonus seems to lose 
sight of the soepticd system, which (in qxiculation 
at least) admitted no degrees of truth, doubt, or 


probability. The same remark applies to liis &■ 
tinction of xlvqcru into luraSairaci and /teraCX^ 
Tunf, simple motion and change. lie seems also to 
have opposed the perplexity which the sceptics cb- 
deavoiued to bring about between matter and 
mind ; for he asserted that dionght was indepai- 
dent of the body, and "that the. sentient power 
looked ont through the crannies of the senses." 
(Adv. Log. i. 349.) Lastly, his vigorous mind 
was above the paltry confiuion of physicd and 
metaphydcol distinctions; for he dedared, afia 
Heiodeitus, "that a part was the same with the 
whole and yet different bam it" The grsod pe- 
culiarity of Us system was the attempt to unite 
scepticism with the earlier philosophy, to taiae a 
podtive foundation for it by accounting from the 
nature of things for the never«easing changes both 
in the materiu and spiritud world. 

Sextos Empiricus has preserved his aiguiueut 
against our knowledge of causes, as well aa a table 
of eight methods by which all a priori reaaooingi 
may be confuted, as all arguments whatever may 
be by the Sixa rpivoi. I. Either the canae givn 
is unseen, and not proven by things seen, a* if s 
person were to explain the motions of the planets 
by the mudc of the spheres. II. Or if the oaase 
be seen, it cannot be shewn to exdnde other 
hypotheses : we must not only prove the caue, 
but dispose of every other cause. III. A regnlar 
effect may be attributed to an irregular cansc; 
as if one were to explain the motions of the 
heavenly bodies by a sndden impulse. IV. Men 
oigue from things seen to things nnseen, asino-> 
ing that they ore governed by the same hwi. 
V. Canses only mean qtinions of causes, which an 
inoonnstent with phenomena and with other opi- 
nions. VI. Equdly probable causes are aeccpied 
or rejected a* they agree with this or that pncoo- 
ceived notion. VII. These causes are at vanaace 
with phenomena as well aa with abstract prindplei. 
VIII. Principles must be uncertain, beoinse the 
facts fiom which they proceed an uncertain. (Pyr^ 
Hyp. i. 17, ed. Fabr.) 

It is to be regretted that nothing is known gf 
the persond history of Aeneddemns. A list of his 
works and a sketch of their contents have been 
preserved by Photius. (Cod. 212.) He was the 
audior of three books of TIvffAtiai Trortnrdra^ 
and is mentioned as a recent teacher of philoso^y 
by Aristodea. (Apad Euteb. PnupantL JStamf. 
xiv. 18.) It is to Aenesidemns that Sextns Em- 
piricus was indebted for a considerable part of his 
work. [Bl J.] 

AENETE (AMnO, a dangfater of Ensorn^ 
and wife of Aeneas, by whom she had a sou, 
Cydcns, the founder of the town of this name. 
(Apollon. Rhod. L 950 ; Orph. Argon. fi02, when 
she is cdled Aempne.) [li. S.] 

AE'NICUS {Abucot), a Greek poet of the dd 
comedy, whose play 'Arrsia is referred to by Sd- 
das. («. tj. AlyucoT.) He seems to be the same at 
Eunicus mentbned by Pollux, (x. 100.) 

AENI'DES, a patronymic &om Aeneaa, which 
is ^lied by Vderius FJaccus (iii. 4) to the in- 
habitants of Cydcus, whose town was believed 
to have been bonded by Cyncos, the son of 
Aeneas. [L. S.] 

AEO'LIDES (AloXOiis}, a patronymic given tt 
the sons of Aedns, as Athamaa (Or. MeL iv. 
Sll), Mognes (Paus. vi. 31. § 7), Macaieus (Or. 
Met. ix. fi06), Misenos (Viig. Am. n. 1S4), 


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Smhu (Or. MA. zai 26 ; Ham. /JL vi. 154), 
ORtfaeiH (Horn. Od. zL 237), locartD* (TieU. oti 
Zfopkr. 732): ind to hii gnndnna, aa Cephalm 
(Or. MH. -n. 631), OdyiKiu (Vira. Ami. n. 529% 
oi niTzm. (TaL Place, i. 286.) Aeolis u the 
la townmi e of the female dncendant* of Aeolni, 
aad is orren to bh danghten Caniue and Alcyone. 
(Or. MtL xi. 573 ; Htmid. zi. 5.) [U S.] 

AE'OLUS {UeKn). In the mythical history 
of Gieeoe there are thne personages of this name, 
wha am qwken of by ancient writers aa connected 
witk one another, bnt this connezioQ is so eon- 
fcaed, that it is imposnUe to gain a dear riew of 
them. (Mailer, Orahm. p. 138, fte.) We shaU 
fellow Diodema, who ^tingui^ies between the 
thiee, althoiigh in other pnumgri he conibonds 



1. A SOD of HeDen and the nymph OiaeTs, and 
m ImtlieT of Doras and Xnthns. He is described 
as the ruler of Thessaly, and Kgsrded as the 
feonder of the Aeolie branch of the Greek nation. 
He aiaRied Enarete, the daughter of Deimachns, 
by wham he had aeren sons and fire daughters, 
■ad aoeording to some writers st31 more. (Apollod. 
L 7. § 3; SdoL aJ Pind. lyO. jr. 190.) Ac- 
cocding to HiiUer's snpposition, the most ancient 
and genuine story knew only of fimr aona of 
Aeolus, riz. Ssyphus, Athassss, Crethena, and 
Sabnraiens, as the representatiTes of the four main 
branches of the Aeolie race. The great extent of 
country which this race oecopied, and the desire of 
ftch part of it to trace its origin to some descend- 
at of Aeotna, probably gare rise to the raiying 
ascDsnts about the number of bis children. Ao- 
eording to Hyginus (Fab. 238, 242) Aeolus had 
one son of the name of Hacarena, who, after bar- 
faig eoamritied ineeat with his sister Canace, put 
an end to his own life. According to Grid (Henid. 
U) Aeohis threw the fruit of this lore to the 
dogs, and aent his daughter a sword by which she 
was to kin hersel£ (Camp. Pint Panttd. p. 312.) 

2. Diodoms (ir. 67) saya, that the second 
Aeotos was the gieafrgiandson of the first Aeolus, 
being the son rf Hippotea and Melanippe, and 
the giandaim of Mimas the aon of Aeolus. Ame, 
the dao^ter of this second Aeolns, afterwards be- 
came mother of a third Aeolua. (Camp. Paus. iz. 
40. { i) In another passage (t. 7) Diodorua re- 
{naenta the third Aeolua aa a aon of Hippotea. 

3. Aeoording to aome accounta a aon of Hip- 
potea, or, accwding to others, of Poaeidon and 
Ame, the daughter of the aecond Aeolua. Hia 
atoiy, which probably refers to the emigtatbn of a 
tnaehaf the Aeoliana to the weat, is thus lebted : 
Arae dedaied to her fiuher that ahe waa with c)iild 
bj Poaeidan, but her &ther diabeUering her atate- 
iDent, gare her to a stranger of Metapontum in 
Italy, who took her to hia natire town. Here ahe 
became mother of two aons, Boeotus and Aeo- 
lus (iii-), who were adopted by the man of Heta- 

Com in accordance with an oiade. When they 
grown np to manhood, they took poswsnon of 
the (oreidjgnty of Metapontum by fbrc& But 
when • dispute afterwards arose between their 
•ether Ame and their foster-mother Antolyte, the 
two brathess slew the latter and fled with their 
UtAa fixnn Metapontmn. Aeolns went to some 
iahmds in the Tyrrhenian sea, which leeeired from 
him the name of the Aeolian islands, and accord- 
ing to some accounts bnSt the town uf Lipara. 
(Kod. ir. 67, t. 7.) Here he reigned as a just 

aid {rions king, befaared kindly to the natires, 
and taught them the use of lails in narigation, and 
foretold them from signs which he observed in the 
fire the nature of the winds that were U> rise. 
Hence, aaya Diodorua, Aeolns is described in 
mythology as the ruler orer the winds, and it was 
thia Aeolua to whom Odysseus came during his 
wanderings. A difierent account of the matter is 
giren by Hjrginns. (foi. 186.) 

In these accounts Aeolns, the bther of the 
Aeolian race, is plaoed in relationship with Aeolus 
the ruler and god of the winda. The groundwork 
on which this connexion has been formed by hiter 
poets and mythographers, is found in Homer. {Od, 
X. 2, &c) In Homer, however, Aeolua, the son 
of Hippotea, ia neither the god nor the &ther of 
the winda, but merely the happy ruler of the 
Aeolian idand, whom Cronion had made the 
To/ibit of the winds, which he might aootha or ex- 
cite according to hia pleaaure. {Od. z. 21, &c.) 
Thia atatement of Homer and the etymology of 
the name of Aeolua &om UMm were the cauae, 
that in later times Aeolus was regarded aa the god 
and king of the winds, which he kept enclosed in 
a mountiun. , It ia therefore to him that Juno ap- 
pliea when ahe wishes to destroy the fleet of the 
Trojans. (Viig. Aen. i. 78.) The Aeolian island 
of Homer was in the time of Pansanias believed to 
be Lipara (Paus. x. II. § 8), and thia orStrongyle 
waa accordingly regarded in later timea aa the place 
in which the god of the winds dwelled. (Viig. 
Am. viii. 416, i. £2; Strab. vi. p. 276.) Other 
accounts place the residence of Aeolus in Thiaee 
(Apollon. Rhod. i. 954, ir. 765 ; Callim. Hymn. 
» Dd. 26), or in the neighbourhood of Rhegium 
in Italf. (Tzets. ad Lgcoplu: 732 ; comp. Diod. 
V. 8.) The following passages of later poets also 
shew how universally Aeolus had giadniklly come 
to be regarded as a god : Ov. MeL i. 264, xi. 748, 
xiv. 228; VaL Flacc. i. 575 j Quint. Smym. xir. 
475. Whether he was represented by the an- 
cients in works of art ia not certain, but we now 
poBseaa no representation of him. [L. S.] 

AE'PYTUS (AfiniTot). 1. One of the mythi- 
cal kings of Arcadia. He was the aon of Eilatus 
(Pind. OL vi. 54), and originally ruled over Phae- 
aana on the Alpheius in Arcadia. When Cleitor, 
the son of Ann, died without leaving any issue, 
Aepytus succeeded him and became king of the 
Arcadians, a part of whoae eonntry was called 
after him Aepytis. (Pans. viii. 4. g 4, 84. g 3.) 
He ia aaid to have been killed during the chase on 
mount Sepia by the bite of a venomous snake. 
(Paus. viiL 4. § 4, 16. § 2.) His tomb there was 
still shewn in the time of Panaaniaa, and he waa . 
anxioua to aee it, because it was mentioned in 
Homer. {IL iL 604.) 

2. The youngest aon of Creaphontea the He- 
raclid, king of Meaaenia, and of Merope,- the 
daughter of the Arcadian king Cypaelus. Cre»- 
phontes and his other sons were murdered during 
an insurrection, and Aepytus alone, who waa 
educated in the house of his gnndfiither Cypaelus, 
escaped the danger. The throne of Creaphontes 
was in the meantime occupied by the Hemclid 
Polyphontes, who also forced Merope to become hia 
wife. (ApoUod. iL 8. | 5.) When Aepytus had 
grown to manhood, he was enabled by the aid of 
Holcas, his &^er-in-law, to return to his kingdom, 
punish the murderers of his fother, and put Polyo 
phontes to death. He left a son, QUucos, and it 


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vu £ram him thatt (ubaeqaently the kings of Mea- 
■ania were called Aepytidi instead of the more 
general name HeracUdi. (Paoi. It. S. § 3, &c., 
Tiii. S. § 6 ; Hygin. FaL 137, 184.) 

3. A Bon of Hippothona, and king of Arcadia. 
He was a great-grandson of the Aepytns mentioned 
fint He was reigning at the time when Orestes, 
in consequence of an orade, left Mycenae and 
settled in Arcadia. There was at Mantiaeia a 
sanctoary, which down to the latest time no mortal 
was ever allowed to enter. Aepytns disregarding 
the sacred custom crossed the threshold, bnt was 
immediately stmck with blindness, and died soon 
after. He was succeeded by his son Cypseloa. 
(Pans. toL 6. § 3.) [L. &] 

AE'RIUS ('SifUtt), Heretie, the intimate friend 
of Eustathius of Sebaste in Aimenia, A. D. 360, 
was liring when St. Epiphanios wrote his Book 
against Heresies, A. D. 374-6. After living toge- 
ther an ascetic life, Eustathius was raised to the 
episcopate, and' by him Aerius was ordained priest 
and set over the Hospital (irroixoTpa^uii') of Pon- 
tus. (St. Epiph. adv. Haer. 7fi. § 1.) But nothing 
could allay the envy of Aerius at die eleTation of 
his companion. Caresses and threats were in rain, 
and at last he left Eustathius, and publicly accused 
him of coTetousness. He assembled a troop of 
men and women, who with him professed the 
renunciation of all woiidly goods {inrra^la). De- 
nied entrance into the towns, they roamed about 
the fields, and lodged in the open air or in cares, 
exposed to the inclemency of the seasons. Aerius 
superadded to the ineligion of Arius the following 
ertois : 1. The denial of a difference of order be- 
tween a Inshop and a priest 2. The rejection of 
prayer and alms for the dead. 3. The refusal to 
obserre Easter and stated &sta, on the ground of 
such obserrances being Jewish. St, Epiphanius 
refutes these errors. (L c.) There were remains 
of his followers in the time of St. Augustine. (Ada. 
Haer, § 53, toL viiL p. 18, which was written 
A. D. 428.) [A. J. C] 

AE'ROPE CA«))fai|), a daughter of Cratens, 
king of Crete, and granddaughter of Minos. Her 
&ther, who had received an oracle that he should 
lose his life by one of his children, gave her and 
her sister, Clymene, to Nauplius, who was to sell 
them in a foreign land. Another sister, Apemone, 
and her brother, Aethemenes, who had heard of the 
oracle, had left Crete and gone to Rhodes. Aerope 
afterwards married Pleisthenes, the son of Atreas, 
and became by him the mother of Agamemnon 
and Menelaus. (Apollod. iii. 2. § 1, &c; Serv. ad 
At». I 458 ; Dictys Cret. L 1.) Aiter the death 
of Pleisthenes Aerope married Atrens, and her two 
sons, who were educated by Atreus, were generally 
believed to be his sons. Aerope, however, became 
fiutbless to Atreus, being seduced by Thyestes. 
(Eurip, Oretl. 6, &C., Helm. 397 ; Hygin. Fab. 
87 ; ScboL ad Ham. IL u. 249 ; Serr. ad Aau zi. 
262.) [U S.] 

AE'ROPUS CA'pomT). 1. The brother of 
Perdiecas, who waa the first king of Macedonia of 
the family of Temenns. (Herod, viii 1 370 

2. I. King of Macedonia, the son of Philip I„ 
the great-grandson of Perdiecas, the first king, and 
the father of Aloctas. (Herod, viii. 139.) 
. 3. II. King of Macedonia, guardian of Orestes, 
the son of Archclaus, reigned nearly six years 
bom B. c 399. The fint four years of this time 
he reigned jmntly with Onstes, and the remainder 

alonCb He was succeeded by his son P nn a mit a fc 
(Siod. xir. 37, 84; Dezippus, <^ SgrnxIL ■p. 263, a.; 
coup. Polyaen. iL 1. § 1 7.) 

AE'SACUS (Maams), a son of Priam ana 
Arisbe, the daughter of Merops, from whom Aesar 
ens learned the art of interpreting dreams. Wbrn 
Hecuba during her pregnancy with Paris dreamt 
that she was giving birth to a burning piece of 
wood which spread conflagration through the 
whole, city, Aesacns explaineid this to mean, that 
she would give birth to a son who would be the 
ruin of the city, and accordingly recommended the 
exposure of the child after its birth. [Pari&] 
Aesacus himself was nuirried to Asterope, the 
daughter of the river-god Cebren, who died eariy, 
and while he was lamenting her death be was 
changed into a bird. (AfoUod. iii. 12. § 5.) Ovid 
(Met. zi. 750) reUtea his story differently. _ Ae- 
cording to him, Aesacns was the son of AleziilMe, 
the daughter of the river Oranicus. He lired fisr 
firom his father's court in the solitude of monntaiD- 
forestL Hesperia, however, the daughter of 
Cebren, kindled love in his heart, and on one oc- 
casion while he was pursuing her, she waa stong 
by a viper and died. Aesacus in his grief threw 
himself into the sea and was dianged by Thetis 
into an aquatic bird. [L. &] 

AE'SARA (Kltrifa\ of Lucania, a female 
Pythagorean pEiloaopher, said to be a danghter of 
Pythagoras, wrote a work "about Hnman Nature," 
of which a fragment is preserved by Stofaaens. 
{Ed. i. p. 847, ed. Heeren.) Some editors attri- 
bute this fragment to Aresas, one of the auooesaots 
of Pythagoras, but Bentley prefers reading Aesara, 
She is dao mentbned in the life of Pythagoos 
(ap. Phot. Cod. 249, p. 438, b. ed. Bekker), where 
Bentley reads tdaipa instead of iipa. (Dinerlaliou 
upon Phalaru, p. 277.) 

AE'SCHINES (Aioxfmt), the orator, waa bon 
in Attica in the demus of CoUioddae, in n. c. 389, 
as is clear frvm his speech against Timarchiis (p. 
78), which was delivered in B. c 345, and in 
which he himielf says that ha was then in his forty- 
fifth year. He was the son of Tromes and Glan- 
cothea, and if we listen to the account of Demos- 
thenes, his political antagonist, his father was not 
a free citixen of Athens, but had been a slave in 
the house of Elpias, a schoolmaster. After the r^ 
turn of the AUienian exiles under Thrasybnlni, 
Tromes himself kept a small school, and Aeachises 
in his youth assisted his father and performed 
such serrices as were unworthy of a free Athenian 
youth. Demosthenes further states, that Acs- 
chines, in order to conceal the low condition of his 
father, changed his name Tromes into Atrometus, 
and that he afterwards usurped the rights of an 
Athenian dtixan. (Dem. JOe CoroH. pp. 31 S, 320, 
270.) The mother of Aeschines is described ss 
originally a dancer and a prostitute, who even afW 
her marriage with Tromes continued to carry oa 
unlawful practices in her house, and made money 
by initiating low and superstitions persona into a 
sort of private mysteries. She is said to have 
been generally known at Athens under the nick- 
name Empusa. According to Aeschines >iim««jf ^ 
on the oUier hand, his father Atrometoa was de- 
scended from an honourable family, and was ia 
some way even connected with the noble priestly 
family of the Eteobutadae. He was originally an 
athlete, bnt lost his property during the time of 
the Peloponnesian war, and was afierwarda driven 


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bom hu eu iu i tlj under the tjxumj of tho Thirty, 
He Uien •erred in the Athenian aimiei in Aua 
ud ^ent the renuinder of hia life at Athens, at 
Cnt is lednoed aimnutancea. (Aeach. De fait. 
U^ pp. 38, 470 H" niother, too, was a five 
Atheman dtixen, and the daagfater of Olnudas of 
Aduune. Which of these accounts is tnie, can- 
ant be decided, bnt there seems to be no dpubt 
tkit Dcmosthenea is guilty of exaggention in his 
accoant of the parents of Aeschines and his early 

Aeschines had two brothers, one of whom, Ph>- 
kcinres, was older than himself and the other, 
Aptubetiis, was the youngest of the three. Phi- 
bchsRs was at one time one of the ten Athenian 
gcocfsls, sn office which was conferred upon him 
bi thiee nccesciTe years ; Aphobetus followed 
the esBiig of a scribe, bnt had once been sent on 
an anlassy to the king of Perua and was Bfte> 
radt aaneted with the administration of the 
pahlk nrenne of Athens, (Aesch. De faU. Leg, 
p. 48.) All thiese things seem to contain strong 
erideoce that the bmily of Aeschines, althon^ 
pooc, mnst hare been of some respectability. Re- 
jecting his early yoath nothing can be said with 
tntsiaty, except that he assisted his &ther in his 
school, and that afterwards, being of,a strong and 
sthktie eonsdtntion, he was employed in the 
gjainssia for money, to contend with other young 
am in their ezerciiea. (Dem. DsCbron. p. 313; 
Fht. F2. z ant. Atack. p. 840.) It is a foroorite 
outom of late writers to place great orators, philo- 
Mpbers, poets, &c, in the relation of teacher and 
tciulw to one another, and accordingly Aeschines 
is represented as a disciple of Socrates, Phito, and 
laxrates. If these statements, which are even 
entadicted by the ancients themselves, were 
tnie, Aeschines would not hare omitted to men- 
tion it in the man^ opportunities he had. The 
ditdngmshed orator and statesman Aiistophon en- 
g>^ Aeschines a> a scribe, and in the same 
csfadty he afterwards serred Enbnlus, a man of 
peat mSoence with, the democratical party, with 
whom he formed aji intimate friendship, and to 
whoM priitical principles he remained fiuthfiil to 
the end of his life. That he serred two years as 
a^n^st, from his eighteenth to his twentieth 
year, as all yonng men at Athens did, Aeschines 
(Oe /ob. Ltg. p. &0) expressly states, and this 
period of his military training most probably be 
pisced befae the time that he acted aa a scribe to 
Arisfaqihon; for we find that, after leaying the 
•etrioe of Eubolns, he tried his fortune as an actor, 
for which he was pro-rided by nature with a strong 
and sonorous Toioe, He acted the parts of rprro- 
Tanmic, but was unsuocessfol, and on one occa- 
•ioo, when he was performing in the character 
of Oenomana, was hueed off the stage. (Dem. 
Dt Omm. p, 288.) After this he left the stage 
and engaged in military serrices, in which, accord- 
ing to his own account (/>e fait. Leg. p, 50), he 
jpBoed great distinction. (Comp. Dem. Defaii. 
Lig. f, 375.) After srreral less important engage- 
Bents in other parts of Greece, he distinguished 
hinadf in B. a 362 in the battle of Mantineia ; 
sad afterwards in & c 358, he also took part in 
the expedition of the Athenians against Euboea, 
and fooght in the battle of Tamynae, and on this 
•ccsnonhe gained anchlaniela, that he waa praised 
by the ^enecala on the spot, and, after the victory 
wu gamed, waa aent to cany tin saws of it to 



Athens. Tcmenides, who was sent with him, 
bore witness to his courage and bravery, and the 
Athenians honoured him with a crown. (Aesch, 

Two years before this campaign, the last in 
which he took part, he had come forwurd at Athens 
as a public speaker (Aesch. EpiaL 12), and the 
military fiune which he had now acquired estab- 
lished his reputation. His former occupation as a 
scribe to Anatophon and Enbulns had made him 
acquainted with the laws and constitution of 
Athens, while his acting on the stage had been a 
uaefiil preparation for public speiJung. During 
the first period of his public career, be was, like 
all other Athenians, aealously engaged in directing 
the attention of his fellow-dtixens to the growing 
power of Philip, and exhorted them to check it in 
Its growth. After the fiill of Olynthus in B. c. 
348, Enbttlus prevailed on the Athenians to send 
an embassy to Peloponnesus with the object of 
uniting the Greeks against the common enemy, 
and Aeschines vras sent to Arcadia. Here Ae^ 
chines spoke at Megalopolis against Hieronymus. 
an emissary of Philip, but without success ; and 
from this moment Aeschines, as well as aU his 
fellow-dtizens, gave up the hope of effecting any- 
thing by the united forces of Greece. (Dem. De 
fab. Leg. pp. 344, 438 ; Aeach. DefaU. Leg. p. 38.) 
When therefne PhiUp, in B. a 347, gave the 
Athenians to understand that he was inclined to 
make peace with them, Philocrates nidged the ne- 
cessity of aending an embassy to Philip to treat on 
the subject. Ten men, and among them Aeacfainea 
and Demosthenes, were accordingly sent to Pliilip, 
who received them with the utmost politeness, and 
Aeschines, when it was his turn to speak, re- 
minded the king of the rights which Athens had 
to his friendship and alliance. The king promised 
to send forthwith ambassadors to Athena to nego- 
tiate the terma of peace. After the return of the 
Athenian ambassadors they were each rewarded 
with a wreath of olive, on the proposal of Demos- 
thenes, for the manner in which they had dis- 
charged their duties. Aeschines irom this moment 
forward was inflexible in his opinion, that nothing 
but peace with Philip could avert utter ruin from ' 
his country. That this was perfectly in accordance 
with what Philip wished is dear, but there is no 
reason for supposing, that Aeschines had been 
bribed into this opinion, or that he nigod tho 
necessity of peace with a view to ruin his country. 
(Aesch. tn CtetipL p. 62.) Antipater and two 
other Macedonian ambassadors arrived at Athens 
soon after the return of the Athenian ones, and 
after varioua debates Demosthenes urgently advised 
the people to conclude the peace, and speedily to 
send other ambassadora to Philip to receive his 
oath to it. The only difference between Aeschines 
and Demosthenes was, that the former would have 
concluded the peace even without providing for 
the Athenian allies, which was happily prevented 
by Demosthenes. Fire Athenian ambassadors, 
and among them Aeschines but not Demosthenes 
{De Ckmm. p. 235), set out for Macedonia tho 
more speedily, as Philip was making war upon 
Cenobleptes, a Thtacian prince and ally of Athens. 
They went to PeUa to watt for tho arrival of 
Philip from Thrace, and were kept there for a con- 
siderable time, for Philip did not come until he 
had completely subdued Ceraobleptea. At laat, 
however, he awoie to the peace, from which the 

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Phociana wen ezpiMsly excluded. Philip hononr- 
ed the Athenian ambasiadan vith rich pieaenU, 
promiKd to rettoie all Athenian priaonen without 
lanaom, and wrote a polite letter to the people of 
Athens apologizing for baring detained uieir am- 
baaaadon ao long. (Dem. De /all. Leg. pp. 394, 
405.) Hyperidet and Timarehus, the fonner of 
whom waa a friend of Demoathenei, brought for- 
ward an aecuaation aAaiuat the ambauadon, 
charging them with bign treaaon againat the re- 
pubUc, becaaie they wen bribed by tha king. 
Timarchoi accuaed Aeachinei, and Hyperide* Phi- 
locratei. But Aeachine* evaded the danger by 
Kringing forward a cosnter-aocuaation againat 
ilmarchua (a. c. 345), and by shewing that the 
moial conduct of his accuser waa such that he had 
no right to apeak befon the people. The speech 
In which Aeschinea attacked Timarchos is still ex- 
tant, and its eSect was, that Timarehus was obliged 
to drop his accusation, and Aeschinea gained a bril- 
liant triumph. The operationa of Philip after this 
peace, and his march towards Thermopylae, made 
the Athenians very uneasy, and Aeachines, though 
he assured the people that the king had no hostile 
intentions towards Athens and only intended to 
chastise Thebes, was again nquested to go as am- 
bassador to Philip and insun his abiding by the 
terms of his peace. But he deferred going on the 
pretext that he was ill (Dem. DefatM. leg. p. 
337.) On his return he pretended that the king 
had secretly confided to him that he would under- 
take nothing against either Phocis or Athens. 
Demosthenes saw through the king's plans as well 
as the treachery of Aesehines, and how just his 
apprehenaiona wen became evident aoon afier the 
return of Aeachines, when Philip announced to the 
Athenians that he had laken possession of Phoda. 
The people of Athena, however, were silenced and 
lulled into security by the repeated assurances of 
the king and the venal orators who advocated his 
cause at Athens. In B; c. 346, Aesehines was 
sent as tvKtfJiifoa to the assembly of the amphio- 
tyons at PyUe which was convoked by Philip, 
uid at which he received greater honours than he 
tould ever have expected. 

At this time Aesehines and Demosthenes were 
at the head of the two parties, into which not 
only Athens, but all Greece was divided, and 
their political enmity created and nourished per- 
sonal hatred. This enmity came to a head in the 
year & c, 343, when Demosthenes charged Aes- 
ehines with having been bribed and having be- 
trayed the interests of his country during the 
second embassy to Philip. Thia chu;ge of Demos- 
thenes (npl npoirpcirfstu) was not spoken, but 
published as a memorial, and Aeachines answered 
it in a similar memorial on the embassy ('ffil 
mpcarpKt*ias\ which was Ukewise published 
(Dem. De faU. Leg. p. 337), and in the composi- 
tion of which he is said to have been assisted by 
bis fneai Eubahis, The result of these mutuid 
attacks is unknown, but then is no doubt that it 
gave a severe shock to the popularity of Aesehines. 
At the time he wrote his memorial we gain a 
glimpse into hia private life. Some years before 
that occuiTvnce he had married a daughter of Phi- 
lodemns, a man of high respectability in bis tribe 
of Paeania, and in 343 he was father of three 
Uttle chadrsn. (Aesch. DefalM. leg. p. 52.) 

It was probably in B.C. 342, that Antiphon, 
who had been exiled and lived in Macedonia, 


secretly returned to the Peiiaeens with the into- 
tion of setting fire to the Athenian ships of war. 
Demosthenes discovered him, and had him a^ 
rested. Aesehines denounced the conduct of D». 
mosthenes as a viohktion of the dcmoctatical tmtaA- 
tntion. Antiphon was sentenced to death ; and 
although no disdosun of any kind could be ex- 
torted from him, still it seems to have been be- 
lieved in many quartan that Aesehines had been 
hia accomplice. Hence the hononrabte office tf 
oMamt to the aanctuaiy in Delos, which had jast 
been given him, was taken from him and bestoved 
upon Uyperides. (Demosth. De Canm. p. 271.) 
In & c. 340 Aesehines was again present at Ddpiii 
OS Athenian nXoT^fiar, and caused the seooid 
sacred war against Amphisaa in Locris for having 
taken into cultivation some sacred lands. Phihp 
entrusted with the supreme command by the aa> 
phictyons, marehed into Loois with an amy of 
30,000 men, ravaged the country, and estaUished 
himself in it When in 338 he advanced south- 
ward as fiir as EUtea, all Greece was in consten» 
tion. Demosthenes alone persevered, and roaied 
his eonnttymen to a last and desperate stn^gle. 
The battle of Chaeroneia in this same year decided 
the &te of Greece. The misfortune of that dsy 
gave a handle to the enemies of Demosthenn for 
attacking him; but notwithstanding the bribes 
which Aeachines received from Antipater for this 
purpose, the pun and unstained patriotism of IV 
mosthenes was so generslly recognised, that ha 
received the honourable charge of delivering the 
fimetal oration over those who had &llen at Chae- 
roneia. Ctesiphon proposed that Demostheoea 
should be nwwded for tha services he had dou 
to his country, with a golden crown in the thestte 
at the great IKonysia. Aesehines availed hiiaidf 
of the illegal form in which this reward was pro- 
posed to be given, to bring a charge against Ctesi- 
phon on that ground. But he did not prosecate 
the matter till eight yean later, that is, in ILC 339, 
when after the death of Philip, and the victories 
of Alexander, political a&in had assumed a difi- 
rent aspect in Greece. After having commenced 
the prosecution of Ctesiphon, he is said to hsve 
gone for some time to Macedonia. What mdoeed 
him to drop the prosecntion of Ctesiphon, snd to 
take it up again eight yean afterwards, an qnei- 
tions which can only be answered by eonjectima. 
The apeeeh in which he accused Ctesiphon in &C. 
330, and whidi is still extant, is so akiliiilly ns- 
naged, that if he had succeeded he would hsve 
totally destroyed all the political influence anil 
authority of Demosthenes. The hitter answered 
Aesehines in his celebrated oration on the cnwn 
(rspi irrs^ou). Even befiln Demosthenes bad 
finished his speech, Aesehines acknowledged him- 
self conquered, and withdnw from the court sod 
his country. When the matter was put to the votei, 
not even a fiilh of them was in favour of Aesehines. 
Aeachines went to Aua Minor. The statemeat 
of Plutarch, that Demosthenes provided him wili 
the means dL accomplishing his jouniey, is surely s 
fable. He ^ent serenl yean in Ionia and Cans, 
occupying hunself with «««^t''"g rhetoric, aad 
anxiously waiting for the return of Alexander to 
Enrope. When in a c. 324 the report of tha 
death of Alexander reached him, he left Asia and 
went to Rhodes, when he established a school c( 
eloquence, which subsequently became very cele- 
brated, and occupies a middle position betweea tks 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


I of the Attic anton, and tlis e6b- 
niat« iBzoiiaiua of the nvcalled Aiiatie aehool of 
<a)arf. On one wrmrinn ha raid to hii andienee 
B Bkodeo hi* «paech (gaiiHt Ctoiphon, and when 
■one of hk heuen czpcoKd their attonishment 
li Ui hanng baen defeated notwithitanding hii 
briOiaiit ocatiook lie lepliod, " Yon wonld eeaie to 
be artaniabcd, if 70a bad beaid Demoetlienei.'' 
(Oc Ar Orat iiL 56; Plio. /T. iV. Tii. SO ; Plin. 
4ia(. a. 3 ; QoinctiL zL Sl § 6.) From Rhode* ha 
went to Samo^ vhen he died in a c. Sli. 

The eoodnct of Aeadiinea ha* been ceniuzed by 
the writer* of aU age* ; and for thi* manj reaaotu 
■ajr be mentioned. In the 6nt place, and above 
all, it waa hia miafbrtnna to be eonatantly placed 
ia jnztapoaitiaa or oppo*ition to the qiotlei* glory 
of Donoathcoea, and thia moat hare made him ap- 
pear mote guilty in the eye* of thoee who eaw 
throng hie action*, while in later timea the oon- 
tnat between the grotest oiaton of the time waa 
ficqaaotly made tlM theme of riietorical declama- 
tion, in which one of the two waa pmiaed or 
Uaoed at the oo*t id the other, and lee* with re- 
gaid to trath than to eSeet, Reapecting the hut 
period of hia liie we acanely poieeu any other 
eeain af infconation than the aeoonnt* of hue 
•opbiat* and dwlamationa. Another point to 
be eonaidered in fonning a jnat eetimate of the 
darads of Aeadiine* ia, that he had no advan- 
t^e* af edocation, and that he owed hi* gieatnea* 
to Booe but fc™**!^ Hi* occnpation* daring the 
eady part of hi* life were inch a* neeeaaarily en- 
gendered in him the low deoie of gain and wealth ; 
and had he OTensome theae pajaiona, he would 
hate been eqnal to DenuMthenei. There i*, how- 
ercr, not the alighteat ground for belieTing, that 
A««i-l>;i»» lesommended peace with Macedonia at 
fint from any other motive than the deaire of pn- 
■atiag the good of hia ooontry. Demoathene* 
Unaalf acted in the earns apint at that time, for 
Ike cnftioea* of Philip deceived both of them, 
fiat while Demoathenea altend hi* policy on dia- 
nvering the aecrat intention* of the king, Aeechine* 
omtiim^ to advocate the principle* of peace. But 
there i* nothing to ja*tify the bdief that Aeachine* 
intended to min hi* country, and it i* mnch more 
probable that the orafty king made *uch an im- 
jnceoion npon him, that he firmly believed he 
WH doing right, and vre* thu* nneomcioualy led 
OD to becona a toitor to hi* ooontry. But no on- 
dent writer except Demoethene* charge* him with 
haviif Rceived bribe* from the Macedonian* for 
the pocpoae of betraying hia country. He appear* 
to lave been canied away by the frvonr of the 
king and the people, who delighted in healing 
iiom him whiU they themaelve* wi*hed, and, 
alio^ by the opposidon of Demoathene* 



Aeadiinea ^ke on varion* oocaaian*, but he 
paUi*hed only three of hi* orationa, namely, uain*t 
Tnaaichna, on the Embaaay, and againat Cteaiphon. 
A* an ontor, he «a* inflEnor to none but Demoa- 
tfaeneki He waa endowed by nature with eztm- 
aidinacy watorical powns, of which hi* oration* 
i^bii abaadaat fnA, The fiuiUty and ielidty 
of hi* dietion, toe boldne** and the vigour of hu 
lioaa, carry away the reader now, aa they 
are canied away hi* audience. The on- 
j a* Photin* (Cod. 61) mnark*, dengnated 
Ikcm three ontioDa a* the Graeet, and the nine 
Intoi which wan extant in the time o! Photiu*, 

a* the ilftiae*. Beride* the three oration*, we now 
poeaee* twelve letter* which are aacribed to Aea- 
chine*, which however are in all probability not 
more genuine than the to-called epiatle* of Pbahra, 
and are undoubtedly the work of bte eophiet*. 

The prindpal aouroe* of infbinurtion concerning 
Aeechine* are : 1. The oration* of DeniMthene* on 
the Embaaay, and on the Crown, and the oration* 
of Aeachine* on the Embauy and againat Cteai- 
phon. Theee four oration* wen truulated into 
latin by Cicero ; but the tranalation i* lo«t, and 
we now poaaea* only an eaaay which Cicero wrote 
•a an introduction to them : "Do optimo genen 
Oratornm." 2. The life in Plutareh'e Vilae deetm 
Oraiotitm. 3. The life of Aeachine* by Philoatistm. 
4. The life of Aeechine* by Lifaanio*. 5. ApoIIo> 
niu*' Exiigen*. The la*t two work* ate printed 
in Reiake'* edition, p. 10, folL The beet modem 
eeeay on Aeechine* i* that by Paeeow in Erach and 
Gruber'a Ik^yelopiidie, iL p. 73, &c There ia 
ahw a wad( by E. Stechow, De Aaeiuai Oratark 
Vila, Berlin, I84I, 4to., which ia an attempt to 
dear the ebaiactar of Aeechine* from otf the re- 
praochea that have been attached to it ; but the 
eeeay ie written in exceedingly bed Latin, and the 
attempt i* a mo*t complete bilure. 

The fint editbn of the oration* of Aeechinea ia 
that of Aldu* Manntiu* in hi* OoUkHo Wutonm 
Graaonm, Venice, 1513, foL An edition with a 
Latin tranifattion, which alio containi the letten 
aacribed to Aeechinea, i* that of H. Wolf, BaaeL 
157'2, foL The next important edition ie that by 
Taylor, which contain* the note* of Wol^ Taylor, 
and Maridand, and appeared at Cambridge in 
1748-56 in hi* collection of the Attic omton. In 
Reiake'e edition of the Attic oraton Aeechine* 
oecupiea the third volume, Lipe. 1771, 8vo. The 
beet edition* on thoee of I. Bekker, voL iii. of hi* 
Oraiora Attid, Oxford, 1822, 8vo., for which 
thirteen new MSS. wen collated, and of F. H. 
Bremi, Zarich, 1823, 2 vols. 8vo. The oration 
againat Demoathene* ha* been tranilated into 
En^iih by Portal and Leknd. [L. 3.] 

AE'SCHINES [Alaxiinit), on Athenian phUo- 
eopher and riietoriaan, eon of a eaoeage-eeller, or, 
according to other accoonta, of Lyeaniaa (Diog. 
Laert. ii. 60 ; Soidaa, •. e, 'Ai^(»i|t), and a dieciple, 
although by wime of hia contemporarie* held an 
nnworuiy one, of Socrate*. From the account of 
Laertiua, he appean to have been the fiuniligr friend 
of hi* great maater, who toid that " the aaneage- 
leller^ eon only knew how to honour him." The 
mme writer ha* preaerved a tradition that it ira* 
Ae*chine*, and not Crito, who o&red to a**t*t 
Socrate* in hi* eecape from prieon. 

The greater part of hi* life waa spent in abject 
poverty, which gave rise to the advice of Socretea 
to him, "to borrow money of himself by diminiih- 
ing hi* daily wanta." After the death of hie maa- 
ter, according to the chaige of Lyaiaa opudAHai, 
xiii. pi 611, e. f,), he kept a perfumer's shop with 
borrowed money, and preaenUy becoming bank- 
mpt, was obliged to leave Athens. Whether from 
neGe**ity or inclination, he followed the fiishion of 
the day, and ntired to the Syracuaan court, where 
the friendship of Ariatippu* might can*ole him for 
the contempt of Plato, He nmoined there until 
the expulsion of the younger Oionysius, and on 
his ntnm, finding it useless to attempt a rivalry 
with hi* great contemporarie*, he save private k^ 
tore*. (^ of the ouige* whicn hia apponents 


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ddightod to repeat, lod whidi bj uiodation of 
ideie conitituted him ■ lophist in the eyes of Plato 
and hii foUowen, ms tbat of receiTing money for 
bis instructions. Another stoiy yfot invented that 
these dialognes were really the work of Socrates ; 
and Aristippus, either from joke or malice, publicly 
chaiged Aeachines with the theft while ne was 
leading them at Megara. Plato is related by 
Hegeanndci (apiut AHai. id. p. 507, c.) to hare 
stolen £tom hun his solitary pupil Xenocmtes. 

The three dialogues, Utpl ifrriit, d tittucrir, 
'Eputfai 4 np) tAd^ov, 'A^fexot 4 wtpl Stmiimi, 
which have come down to ns under the name of 
AeschiuM are not genuine remains: it is even 
doubted whether they are the same works which 
the ancients acknowledged aa spurious. They 
have been edited by Fischer, the third edition of 
which (Std. Lips. 1786) contains the criticisms of 
Vi'oK, and forms part of a Tolmne of spurious Pla- 
tonic dialognes (Simonii Socrttttd «( videtmr dialcgi 
qmUHor) by Biickh, Heidel. 1810. 

The genuine dialogues, £n>m the slight mention 
made of them by I>emetrins Phaleieus, seem to 
hare been full of Socntic irony. Hermogenes, 
n«pt 'Itmr, connders Aeachines as superior to 
Xenophon in elegance and purity of style. A long 
and amusing pauage is quoted by Cicero from him. 
(De ImenL i. 31 ; Diogenes Loertius, ii 60-64, and 
the authorities collected by Fischer.) [& J.] 

AE'SCHINES {Kurximp), of HiLirua, a con- 
temporary of Cicero, and a distinguished orator in 
the Asiatic style of eloquence. He is said by Dio- 
genes Laertins to have written on Politics. He 
died in exile on aocount of having spoken too fieely 
to Pompey. (Cic BruL 95 ; Diog. Laeit. iL 64 ; 
Stnb. xiv. p. 635 ; Sen. CMrov. L 8.) 

AE'SCH IN ES (Al<rx'>^0. of Neapolib, a Peri- 
patetic philosopher, vrfao was at the head of the 
Academy at AUiens, together with Charmades and 
Clitomadius about & a 109. (Cit de Orat i. 11.) 
Biogenes Laertins (ii. 64) says, that ha was a 
pupu of Melanthns the Rhodian. 

AE'SCHINES {Alaxfmt), an ancient physi- 
cian, who lived in the latter half of the fourth 
century alter Christ He was bom in the island 
of Chios, and settled at Athens, where Se appears 
to have practised with very little success, but ac- 
quired gnat fiune by a happy cure of Ennapius 
Sardianus, who on his voyage to Athens (aa he tells 
ns himseli^ m rtia Proaera. p. 76, ed. Boisson) 
had been seiaed with a fever of a very violent 
kind, which yielded only to treatment of a peculiar 
nature. An Athenian physician of this name is 
quoted by Pliny {H. N. zxviii. 10), of whom it is 
only known, that he must have lived some time 
before the middle of the first century after 
Christ [W. A. G.] 

AE'SCHRIOX, of Syiaense, whose wife Pippa 
was one of the mistresses of Verres, is frequently 
mentioned by Cicero in the Verrine Onitiona. (iL 
14, T. 12, 31.) He assisted Verres in robbing the 
Syiacnsans (li. 21), and obtained the &naing of 
the tithes of the Hetbitenaes for the purpose of 
plundering them, (iil 33.) 

AE'SCHRION (Alapcptvr), an iambic poet, a 
native of Samoa. He i* mentioned by Athenaens 
(viL p. 296, £ viiL p. 335, c), who haa preaerred some 
choUambic verses of his, in which he defends the 
Samian Philaenis against Polyciates, the Athenian 
rhetorician and sophist Soma of his veiaea are 
alio quoted by Tsetxee {ad Zjwoptr. 638). There 


waa an epic poet of the same name, who waa a 
native of Mitylene and a pnpil of Ariatolle, and 
who is said to have accompanied Alexander og 
some of his expeditions. He is mentioned by 
Suidas (s. v.) and Tsetses (CUL vili 406). As 
he waa also a writer of iambics and choliamhies, 
many schokun have supposed him to be identical 
with the Samian Aeschrion, and to have been 
called a Mitylenaean in consequence of having re- 
sided for some time in that city. (Schoeidewin, 
DeUchtt Poebtrmm imMe. et ndieomm Grate; 
Jacobs, Ami. Graee. ziii 834.) [C. P. H.] 

AE'SCHRION, a Greek writer on agrienltmc, 
of whom nothing more is known, f Varr. dt A 
BnM. I 1.) 

AE'SCHRION CAMrxpIor), a native of Pcr> 
gamui, and a physician in the second century after 
Christ He was one of Galen's tutors, who ays 
that he belonged to the sect of the Empirid, and 
that he had a gnat knowledge of Pharmacy sod 
Materia Medica. Aeschrion waa the inventor of s 
cdebisted superstitions remedy for the bite of a 
mad dog, whuh is mentioned with approbation by 
Galen and Oribasius (iSynqps. iiL p. 66), and k 
which the most important ingredient was powdered 
crawfish. These he directs to be caught at a time 
when the sun and moon were in a particnlar rdative 
position, and to be baked alive. (Gti.D»SmitL 
Medic. FaeaU. zL 34, vol xii. p. S56 ; C. 0. KKla, 
Additam. ad Eknck. Med. Kat a J. A. FaUa 
m "BOL Gr.'" adiiUI.) [ W. A. G.] 

AESCHY'LIDES (Alexu\lSi)i), wrote a work 
on agriculture, entitled rmpyuci, which was st 
least in three books. (Athen. xiv. p. 650, i; 
Aelian, de Anim. xvi. 32.) 

AE'SCHYLUS (A>'irx>IXor) was bom at Qeau 
in Attica in B. c 525, so that he was thirty-fin 
yeats of age at the time of the battle of Marathon, 
and contemporary with Simonides and Piodsr. 
His Esther Euphorion was probably connected vilk 
the wonhip of Demeter, bom which Aeadyliu 
may naturally be supposed to have received bit 
first religious impressions. He was himself at 
cording to some authorities, initiated in the mys- 
teries, with reference to which, and to his hoiib- 
pkice Eleusis, Aristophanes (Aw. 884) makes Un 
pray to the Elensinian goddess. Pansanias (L 21. 
§2) relates an anecdote of him, which, if trw, ( 
diewa that he waa struck in very early youth witk 
the exhibitions of the drama. Accoidmg to tliii 
story, ** When he waa a boy be was set to wstch 
grapes in the country, and then fell asleep. Is 
his slumbers Dionysus appeand to him, sod 
ordered' him to apply himself to tragedy. At dsy- 
break he made the attempt, and succeeded ray 
easily." Such a dream as this could hardly bsis 
nsulted from anything but the impreidoa {in- 
duced by tragic exhibitions upon a warm imagiw 
tion. At the age of 25 (& a 499), he made hi> 
fint appearance aa a competitor for the prise if 
tragedy, against Choerilns and Pratinas, witkoat 
however being successful. Sixteen pais siter 
vnud (a c. 484), Aeschylus guned his first victory. 
The titles of the pieces whidi he then brought out 
an not known, bat his competitors were not 
probably Pratinas and Pbiynichus or Choerilu 
Eight yean afterwards he gained the prin wi^^ 
the trilogy of which the Pertae, the eariiest cf Us 
extant dramas, was one piece. The whols nnote 
of victories attributed to Aeschylus amouolMl M 
thirteen, moat of which wen gauicd by him iBll> 


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iateml of ostecn jtUM, betmaa s.a 484, the 
jcar of a* fint tn^ fiaetj, and the don of the 
Peniia tnf by Cimm'k daaUe vktoiy at the 
EBrrmedom, B. c. 470. (Bode, dttdk. dtr HOm. 
Didiawal, m. p. 212.) The yeu B. c. 468 wu 
the date of a trmarimhte emit in the poet'e Hie. 
Ib that year he ma defeated in a tn^ contest by 
hia younger liial Sophodea, and if we may b»- 
lieTe Fhitaich (dm. 8), hia mottifiaition at thii 
indignity, aa he coneeiTed it, waa ao gnat, that he 
qaitted Athena in diagnat the veiy aame year, and 
vent to the oooit of Uiem (Pani. i 2. § S), king 
ef SyiBciue, where he fmind Simonidea the lyric 
[net, vho as veil aa hinuelf was by that prince 
aaoat hoa{ntaUy recdnd. Of the &ct of hia har- 
ing Tiaited ^cUy at the time anndad to, there can 
be no dsobt ; bat vhether the motiTe alleged by 
Plutarch be hia dinng ao waa the only one, or a 
real aoe, ia a queatian of oontidenble difficnlty, 
thoogfa at Ettle pnctical mcment It may be, aa 
baa been ]dnuibiy maintained by Mone aathon, 
that Aeechylna, vhoae ftinily and penonal honours 
woe eonnected with the ^oiies of Marathon, and 
the haoea of the Persian war, did not sympathiae 
with the spirit of aggnmdiaement by which the 
emmeib of his country were then actuated, nor 
appniTC of ita pidicy in the struggle for the 
si^mmacy orer Greece. The contemporaries of 
hoi eariier years, Miltiadtwi, Aristeides, sod Tbe- 
mistodes, whose schieTements in the serrioe of 
their eoontry were identified with those of himself 
and his £snuly, had been socceeded by Cimon : sod 
the ariatoctatical prindplea which Aeachylns sup- 
potted were giadnally being supplanted and orer- 
bome by the adTance of demociBcy. From all 
this, Aeadylns might have felt that he was 
ontlinng his prind^es, and hare felt it the more 
keenly, from Cimon, the hero of the day, baring 
'been one of the judges who awarded the tragic 
viae to Sophocles in preference to hiniaelf, (Plot 
Le.) On this snppoaition, Athens coold not hare 
been an agreeable residence to a penon like 
Aeadiylus, and therefore he might hare been dis- 
posed to leave it; but still it ia mote than probable 
that his deieat by Sophocles materially influenced 
his determinations, and was at any late the proxi- 
mate cause of his remoTing to Sicily. It has been 
fiuther cAnjeetnred that the charge of daiStia or 
impety whidi waa brought against Aeachylns for 
an alleged publication of the mysteries of Ceres 
(AristoL £U. iii l)i but possibly from political 
motiTes, was in some measure connected with his 
retirement from his native country. If this were 
really the case, it follows, that the pky or plays 
which gave the supposed offence to the Athenians, 
must hare been published befora B. c. 468, and 
therefore that the trilogy of the Oresteia could 
have had no connexion with it Shortly before 
the arrival of Aeschylus at the court of Hiero, that 
prince had built the town of Aetna, at the bottom 
of the mountain of that name, and on the site of 
the andant Catana : in connexion with this event, 
Aeschylos is said to have composed his play of the 
Women of Aetna (a c. 471, or472), in which he 
predicted and prayed for the prosperity of the 
new dty. At die request of Hiero, he also ropro- 
dneed the play of the Peiwe, with the trilogy of 
which be liad been victorious in the diamatie con- 
testa at Athena. (& c. 472.) Now we know that 
the trilogy of the Seven against Thebes was re- 
pieaentad soon after the " Persians :" it follows 



therefine' that the former trilogy mnst have been 
first represented not later than ii.c 470. (Wdcker, 
TVilogie, f. 520 ; SchoL ad Aritbipk. Ban. 1053.) 
Aristeides, who died in B. a 468, was living at 
the time. (Plut. Arid. S.) Besides " The Women 
of Aetna," Aeschylus also composed other pieces in 
Sicily, in which an said to have occuned Sicilian 
words and expressions not intelligible to the Athe- 
nians. (Athen. ix. p. 402, b.) From the number of 
such wi^ds and expressians, whidi have been 
noticed in the later extant plays of Aeschylus, it 
has been infiened that he spent a considerable time 
in Sidly, on this his first visit. We must not 
however omit to mention, that, aeoording to some 
aceoonts, Aeschylus also visited Sidly wont B. c. 
488, pKvions to what we have oonsideied his first 
visit (Bode, Id. m. p. 215.) The occasion of this 
retirement is said to have been the victory gained 
over him by Simmides, to whom the Athenians 
adjndged the prise for the best elegy on those who 
foU at Marathon. This tradition, nowever, is not. 
supported by strong independent testimony, and 
accordingly its truth has been much questioned. 
Snidas indeed states that Aeschylus had visited 
Sicily even befon this, when he was only twenty- 
fire years of age (b, c: 499), immediately after his 
first contest with Pntinas, on which occasion the 
crowd of qMctators was ao great as to cause the 
&I1 of the wooden planks (bpu) or tempomry 
scafiolding, on which they wei« accommodated 
with seats. 

In B. c. 467, his fiiend and patron king Hiero 
died ; and in a c: 458, it appears that Aeschylus 
was again at Athens iiom the fiut thM the trilogy 
of thie Oresteia was produced in that year. The 
conjectun of Bockh, that this might have been a 
second representation in the absence of the poet, 
is not supported by any probable reasons, for we 
have no intimation that the Oresteia ever had been 
acted bdbre. (Hermann, Ciyniscii. p. 137.) In the 
same or the following year (a c. 457), Aeschylus 
again visited Sidly for the last time, and the 
reason assigned for this his second or as others 
concrive his fourth visit to this ishind, is both pro- 
bable and suffident The bet is, that in his play 
of the Eumenides, the third and last of the three 
pkys which made up the Orestean trilogy, Aes- 
chylus proved himsdf a dedded supporter of tho 
andent dignities and power of that " watchful 
guardian " of Athens, the aiistociatical court of the 
Areiopagus, in opposition to Pericles and his de- 
moetatical coadjutors. With this trilogy Aeschylus 
was indeed successful aa a poet, but not as a poli- 
tician : it did not produce the effects he had wished 
and intended, ana he found that he had striven 
in vain againat the opiniona and riewa of a gene- 
ration to which he did not bdong. Accordingly it 
has been conjectured that either &am duappoint- 
ment or fear of the consequences, or perhapa from 
both these causes, he agsm quitted Athens, and 
ntired once more to Sioly. But another reason, 
which if founded on truth, perhaps operated in 
conjunction with the fonuer, has been assigned for 
his last sojourn in Sidly. This rests on a state- 
ment made more or less distinctly by various 
authors, to the efiect that Aeachylns was accused 
of impiety before the court of the Aniopagus, and 
that he would hare been condemned but for the 
interpoutioB of his brother Ameinias, who had 
distinguished himaelf at the battle of Sahuuis. 
( Aeliui, y. iL T. 19.) According to some anthoia 

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tUi aeenastivii \ru pnfiond apainit Um, for 
hsTing in aom« of hii pUjrt eiuer divulged or 
pro&nely ■poken of the mysteriei of Cerei. A» 
cording to othen, the charge originated fiom hii 
haTing introduced on the >tage the dread god- 
deeaea, the Enmenidea, which he had done in mch 
a way aa not only to do Tiolenee to popular pre- 
judice, but also to excite the greateat ahum among 
the apeetatora. Now, the Enmenidea eontaina no- 
thing which can be conaidered as a publication of 
the mjateriea of Ceres, and therefore we an in- 
clined to think that hi* political enemies aTailed 
themaelrea of the nnpopnlaiitjr he had inenrnd by 
bis " Cborua of Furies," to get np against him a 
charge of impiety, which they supported not only 
by what was objectionable in the Enmenidea, bat 
alao in other playa not now extant. At any rate, 
film the number of authoritiea all ooniirming thif 
eonclnaion, there can be no donbt that towards the 
end of his life Aeschylus incurred the serious dis- 
pleasure of a strong party at Athens, and that 
after the exhibition of the Orestean trilogy he 
retired to Gela in Sicily, where he died B. c. 466, 
in the 69th year of his age, and three years after 
the representation of the Eumenidea. On the 
manner of hia death the ancient writera are nnani- 
mons. (Suidas, «. e. XfAttrq^uH'.) An eagle, say 
they, mirijlring the poet's bald head for a atone, 
let a tortoise iajl upon it to break the shell, and 
so fulfilled an oracle, according to which Aeschylus 
was fated to die by a blow from heaven. The 
inhabitants of Oela shewed their regard fi)r 
his character, by public solemnities in his honour, 
by erecting a noble monument to him, and inscrib- 
ing it with an epitaph written by hinisel£ (Paos. 
L 14. $ 4 ; Athen. xiv. 627. d. Fit ^noii.) In it 
Oela is mentioned as the place of his buna], and 
the field of Marathon as the place of his moat 
glorions achioTements ; but no mention is made of 
his poetry, the only subject of commemoration in 
the later epigrams written in his honour. At 
Athens also hu name and memory were holden in 
especial reverence, and the prophecy in which he 
(Athen. viii. 347, e. t) is said to have predicted his 
own poathumons fiune, when he was first defeated 
by Sophocles, was amply fnlfilled. His pieces 
were frequently reprodaced on the atage ; and by 
a apecial decree of the people, a choma was pro- 
vided at the expense of the state &r any one who 
might wish to exhibit his tngedies a second time. 
(Aristoph. Ackir. 102; Aescl;yL vita.) Hence 
Aristophanes (Aon. 892) makes Aeschylus say of 
himseli^ that his poetry did not die with him ; and 
even aifier his death, he may be said to have 
gained many victories over hit successors in Attic 
tragedy. (Hermaim, Optuc ii. p. 158.) The plays 
thus exhibited for the first time may either have 
been those which Aeschylus had not produced 
himself, or such as had been represented in Sicily, 
and not at Athens, during hia liietime. The in- 
dividuals who exhibited his dramatic remains on 
the Attic stage were his sons Euphorion and Bion : 
the former of whom was, in & c. 431, victorious 
with a tetralogy over Sophocles and Euripides 
(Argum. Eurip. Med.), and in addition to this is 
said to have gained four victories with dramatic 
pieces of hia &ther'i never before repreaented. 
(Blomfield, od Argttm. Agam. p. 20.) Philoclea 
alao, the aon of a sister of Aeechylua, waa victo- 
rioua over the King Oedipuaof Sophocles, probably 
withatngedyof hisynus's. (A^^om. E^h. Oed. 


Tyr.) From and by meana of these persons BiMe 
what waa called the Tragic School of Aeschj^m, 
which continued for the space of 125 yean. 

We have hitherto spoken of Aeaehylua as a past 
only ; but it must not be forgotten that he wsa abo 
highly renowned as a warrior. His first achieve- 
ments aa a soldier were in the battle of Marathon) 
in which his brother Cynaegeima and himself lo 
highly distinguished- themselves, that their exploiti 
were commemorated with a descriptiva paintmg in 
the theatre of Athens, which was thought to be 
much older than the statue there erected in hoooar 
of Aescbylus. (Pans. L 21. $ 2.) The eptajili 
which he wrote on himself proves that he coo- 
sidered his share in that battle aa the most glo- 
rious achievement of his life, though he «h 
also engaged at Artemirium, Salamis, and Pla- 
taea. (Pans. L 14. $ 4.) All his fiunily, indeed, 
wera distinguished for bravery. Bis younger 
brother Ameinias (Herod, viii. 84 ; Diod. xi. 35) 
was noted as havmg commenced the attack oo 
the Petaian ships at Salamis, and at Marathon ic 
one was so peraereringly bmve aa Cynaegeiraa 
(Herx>d. vL 114.) Hence we may not unreataD- 
ably suppose, that the gratitude of the Athenisn 
for such services contributed somewhat to a das 
appreciation of the poet's merits, and to the tragic 
victory which he gained soon after the battle of 
Mansion (b. c. 484) and before that of Salsmia 
Nor can we wander at the peculiar vividness sad 
spirit with which he portrays the " pomp and cir- 
cumstance" of war, as in the Penae, and tke 
" Seven against Thebea," deacribing its inddcati 
and actions as one who had raally been an actor 
in scenes anch as he painta. 

The atyle of Aeschylua ia bold, energetic, and 
aublime, full of gorgeoua imagery, and magnificeat 
expressions such as became the elevated chaaetcn 
of his dramas, and the idfeas he wished to expreoa. 
(Aristoph. Am. 934.) This sublimity of dictioa 
was however sometimea carried to an extmse, 
which made his langnage tnrgid and inflated, ai 
that as Quintilian (x. 1) says of him, " he ii 
grandiloquent to a fenlt." In the turn of his ex- 
pressions, the poetical predominates over the oyn- 
tactical. He was peculiarly fond of metaphorical 
phrases and strange compounds, and obsolete Isb- 
guage, so that he was much more epic in hii 
umguage than either Sophocles or Euripides, ssd 
excelled in displaying strong feelings and impolseii 
and describing the awful and the terrible, nther 
than in exhibiting the workings of the hnmas 
mind under the influence of complicated and variooi 
motives. But notwithstanding the general elevs- 
tion of his style, the subordinate characters in bis 
plays, as the watchman in the Agamemnon, and 
the nurse of Orcetes in the Choephoroe, are made 
to use langnage fitting their station, and lets re- 
moved firam that of common life. 

The characters of Aeschylus, like his diction, 
are sublime and majestic, — they were gods ssd 
heroes of colossal magnitude, whose imposing aspect 
could be endured by the heroes of Marathon snd 
Salamis, but was too awfiil for the contemplatioD 
of the next generation, who complained thst 
Aeschylus' language was not human. (Aristoph. 
Ran. 1056.) Hence the general impressions pnh 
duced by the poetry of Aeschylus were rather cf a 
religious than of a moral nature: hia penonagei 
being both in action and auliiering, sop 
and therefore not always fitted to 

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luinni He pndnoe* indeed > Mirt af icIiRiaiu 
■«e, and drnid of the iimidSiIe powsr a tke 
pda, to vhkfa man b rmwented h baiag entjiely 
nbJKt; but on the otaer hand hmnanity often 
ffOB* tM the Mfart of u inerocable dotinj, or 
tb Tictim of > otnigrlo between mperior beings. 
Still Aeechjhia •oraetunea Hiwloiw a pnridential 
ain of cnn|ien*atioB and retribatioo, while he 
•hr^ teaches the dnty of Rngnation and «b- 
miiaioa to the wiD of tbe ROde, and the futility 
ad iUal eoaeeqnenees of all <^poution to it. See 
QMitaly Reriew, No. 11% p. 315. 

With leqMct to the canitnictian of his pbyi, 
it Ina been often remarked, that thej hare 
little or no plot, and are tbeiefere wanting in 
dnnatic interest: thia defioencf howcTer may 
itiike ga moie than it otherwise woaM in oegae- 
qmnceof moatof hia extant {days being only parts, 
or acts of a more cnmplicMted drama. Still we 
anaot help being impreised with the belief that 
be ms Bore capable of sketching a Tast oatline, 
(hsB of filUng up ita parte, however bold and 
T^onos are UM sketches by which he portrays 
lad gmips his cfaaraeten. His object, indeed, ac- 
caning to Aiistt^hanes, in snch plays ss the 
Penae, snd the SeTen against Thebes, which are 
■aaic epical than diamatioil, was rather to animate 
his coantrymen to deeds of glory and warlike 
■chieTeDient, and to in^ore them with geneioos 
sod eicntad aentimenta, by a Tirid ezhiUtion of 
DoUe deeds and characters, than to charm or 
•tanle by the inddenta of an elaborate plot. (Am. 
lOM.) The rdigiaaa news and tenets of Aea- 
chjlis, so fiir as tbey appear in his writings, were 
Hoeuiic. Like Homer, he lepiesents Zens as 
the npieme Holer of the Unirene, the soorce snd 
ODtre of all thinga. To him all ike other dinni- 
tin sre snbjeet, and from Urn all their power* and 
stthority are derived. Etcu Fate itself is some- 
tiaies i^tical' with his will, and the resah of his 
dtaeesL He only of all the beings in heaven and 
caith ii fiee to act as he pleases. {Pnm. 40.) 

In Philoaophical sentiments, there was a tndi- 
tien that Aeaehyloa was a IMhagorean (Cie. 7W. 
Dvp. ii 10) ; bat of this his writings do not 
famish soy concfauiTe proof, thoo^ there certainly 
wu some similarity between him and Pythagoras 
ia the purity and dcTaUon of their lenthnents. 

The most correct and lively description of the 
chscscter and dramatic merits of Aeachylns, and of 
the estiaiation in whidi he was held by his eon- 
temponnies and immediata aocoeesors, is giren by 
Aiistophanea in hia "Frogi" He ia tnere de- 
picted as prend and impatient, and hia style and 
geniss each aa we have deacribed it. Aristophanes 
nt eridently a very great admirer of him, and 
•ympathiwd m no common degree with his politi- 
cal sad monl aentimenta. He conaideied Aes- 
chylos ss withont a rival and ntteriy anapproachable 
as a titgie poet; and r e pt e e e n ta even Sophocles 
hinseU as readily yielding to and admitting his 
mperior daima to the tragic throne. Bat few if 
•■7 of the ancient critics seem to have altogether 
muditA with Aristophanes in his estimation of 
Aeiehyhis, thoogh they give him credit for his 
exoeOenoea. Thua Dbnysina (De Poet Vet. ii. 9) 
piuies the originality of his ideaa and of hia ez- 
(nMions, and Ute h«nty of his imagery, and the 
pnpriety and dignity of his characters. Longinus 
(15) ipeaka of lus devated ciaatiims and imagery, 
hatandeams aaoe of hia expreaaiona aa harsh and 



oventrnned; and Qnintilian (z. I) ezpnaaea 
himaelf moch to the asms effect. The expreaaion 
attribatad to Sophocles, that Aasdiylas did what 
was right irithoat knowing it (Athen. z. p^ t28,t), 
in other ircnls, that he was an imeonseions genius, 
working withont any knowledge of or regard to 
the artistical laws of his pninaion, is worthy of 
note. So also is the ohaervation of Schlegel (Leo- 
tore iv.), that " Qenenlly eoiaidered, the tragediea 
of Aasdiylna are an example amongst many, that 
in art, aa in natme, gigantic prodnctionB preeeds 
tboae of regulated symmetry, which then dwindle 
away into delicacy and insignificaaee ; and that 
poetry in her 6rst maaifeatatian always ^>proaches 
nearest to the awfiilneaa of raUgion, whatever ahape 
the latter may aasume among the varions races of 
men." Aeschylos himself nsed to ay of bis 
dramas, that they were fiagmenta of tlie great 
banquet of Homer's taUe. (Athen, viii. p. 347, e.) 
The alterations made by Aesehylos in Uw compo- 
sition and dramatic representation of Tragedy 
were so great, that ha was oonsideied by the 
Athenians as the father of it, just as Homer was 
of Epic poetry snd Herodotus of History. (Philostr. 
ViL ApalL vi 11.) As the ancients themselves 
remarked, it was a greater advance from the 
eleitaentuy productions of Thespis, Choerilns, and 
Phrynichtus to the stately tiagisdy of Aeschylus, 
than from the latter to the perfect and refined 
fbnns of Sophocles, It was the advance from 
infiiney if not to maturity, at least to a youthful 
and vigorous manhood. Even the improvements 
and alteratians introduced \>y his successors were 
the natural results and suggestions of those of 
Aeschylus. The first and principal altenttion 
which he made was the introduction of a second 
actor (8«vTfpa7«riaTift, Aristot. PcA 4. f 16), 
and the oonaequent fmnation of the dialogue pro- 
perly so called, and the limitation of the choml 
parts. So great vras the effect of this change that 
Aristotle denotes it by laying, that he made the 
dialogue, the principal part of the play (rdf 
fiiyar wpvTWf wu n i» nywniWe*'), instead of 
the choral part, which vras now become subsidiary 
and secondary. This innovation was of course 
adopted by his contemporaries, just as Aeschylus 
himaelf (c. g. in the Choepiotm 665 — 716) fol- 
lowed the example of Sophodea, in subsequently 
introducing a third actor. The charactora in hia 
phiya were aomctimea repreaented by Aeachylua 
himael£ (Athen. i. p. 39.) In the esriy part of 
hia career h« waa aupported by an actor named 
Cleandma, and afterwards by Myniacna of Chol- 
chia. (Vita apod Robert, p. 161.) The dialogue 
between the two principal charactera in tbe playa 
of Aeschylus was generally kept up in a strictly 
symmetrical form, each thought or sentiment of 
the two speakers being expressed in one or two 
unbroken lines : e. g. as the dialogue betwoei. 
Kiatos and Hephaestus at the beginning of the 
Prometheua In the same way, in the Seven 
against Thebes, Eteoclea always expresses himself 
in three lines between the refiectians of the chorus. 
This arrangement, difiering as it does from the 
forms of ordinary conversation, gives to the dialogue 
of Aeschylus an elevated and stately cbanuter, 
which bespeaks the convenation of gods and he- 
roes. But the improvements of Aeschylus were 
not limited to the compositioD of tragedy : he added 
the reaouroes of art in its czhibiiian. Thua, he ia 
said to bsvs availed himaelf of the skill of Aga- 

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tbucu, who punted for him the fint Kenes vhich 
had erer h««n diawn Bccording to the principle* of 
linen penpeetire. (VitniT. Pmtf. lib. Tli.) He 
alio fiirniihed his acton with more luitable and 
magnificent dreuet, with aignificant and varioui 
maaki, and with the thick-soled cothurnus, to raise 
their statue to the height of heroes. He moreoTer 
bestowed so much attention on the choral dances, 
that ha is said to hare inrented mious figures 
himself^ and to hare instructed the choristers in 
them without the aid of the regnlar ballet-masters. 
(Athen. L p. 21 .) So great was Aeschylus' skill as 
a teacher in this respect, that Telestes, one of his 
choristers, was able to express by dance alone the 
Tarious incident* of the play of the Seren against 
Thebes. (Athen. L e:) The removal of all deeds 
of bloodshed and mnrier from the public view, in 
conformity with the rule of Horace i^A.P. 185), 
is also said to hare been a practice introduced by 
Aeschylus. (Philos. ViL ApoL -n. 11.) With him 
also arose the usage of representing at the same 
time a trUogi/ of plays connected in subject, so that 
each formed one act, as it were, of a great whole, 
which might be compared with aoras of Shake- 
speare's historical plays. Eren before the time of 
Aeschylus, it had been customary to oontead for 
the prize of tragedy with three plays exhibited at 
the same time, but it was reserred for him to shew 
bow each of three tragedies might be complete in 
itself, and independent of the rest, and neTerthe- 
lesa form a part of a harmonious and connected 
whole. The only examfJe still extant of such a 
trilogy is the Oresteia, as it waa called. A Saty- 
rical play commonly followed each tra^c trilogy, 
and it is recorded that Aeschylus was no less a 
master of the ludicrous than of the serious drama, 
(Pans. iL 13. § b.) 

Aeschylus is said to have written seventy trage- 
dies. Of these only seven an extant, namely, the 
"Persians," the "Seven against Thebes," the 
"Suppliants," the "Prometheus," the "Agamem- 
non," the "Choephoroe," and "Enmenides;" the 
last three forming, as already remarked, the trilogy 
of the "Oresteia." The " Persians" was acted in 
B. c 472, and the " Seven against Thebes" a year 
afterwards. The "Oreateia" was represented in 
B.C. 458 ; the "Suppliants" and the "Prometheus" 
were brought out ,some time between the "Seven 
against Thebes" and the " Oresteia." It has been 
supposed from some allusions in the "Suppliants," 
that this play was acted in B. a 461, when Athens 
was allied with Aigos. 

The first edition of Aeschylus was printed at 
Venice, 1518, Svo.; but parts of the Agamemnon 
and the Choephoroe are not printed in tUs edition, 
and those wtuch are given, are made up into one 
pby. Of the subsequent editions the best waa by 
Stanley, Lend. 1663, fa. with the SchoUa and a 
commentary, reedited by Butler. The best recent 
editions are by Wellaoer, Lips. 1823, W.Dindorf,- 
Lips. 1827, and ScholefieM, Camb. 1830. There 
are nnmerons editions of various plays, of which 
those most worthy of mention are by Blomfield, 
MUller, Klansen, and Peile. The principal Eng- 
lish translations are by Potter, Harford, and Med- 
win. (Petenen, Da AetckjiU Vita tt Fabalu, 
Havniae, 1814; Welcker, Die Aetdtgi. Trikgit 
PromtOau, Darmstadt, 1824, Naditrag zur Tri- 
hfie, Fnmk£. 1826, and JDia Oritok. "DragSdiai, 
Bonn, 1840 1 Klanaeu, Thiologwmema AacHgU 
nvsid, BenL 1829.) ' [K W.] 


AE'SCHYLUS (AlirxifXot), of Albxahdxu, 
an epic poet, who must have lived previous to the 
end of the second century of our aera, and wbooi 
Athenaeus calls a well-irdTormed man. One of Us 
poems bore the title " Amphitryon," and another 
" Messeniaea." A fragment of the former is jie- 
served in Athenaeus. (xiii. p. 599.) Acconiing 
to Zenobins (v. 85), he had also written a woA oa 
proverb*. (Htpi Ilapei^i' ; compare Schneidewia, 
Prae/aL Paroemiogr. p. xL) [L. S.] 

AE'SCHYLUS of Cnidus, a oontei^nniy of 
Cicero, and one of the most celebrated rhetoridsu 
in Asia Minor. (Cic. Brut 91, 95.) 

AE'SCHYLUS (AiiixiS\oi), of Rbodu, «as 
appointed by Alexander the Qnat one of the ia- 
spectors of ike governors of that country after its 
conquest in B.C. 832. (Airian, Amib. iiL 5 ; cos]!. 
Curt iv. 8.) He u not spoken of again till i. c. 
819, when he i* mentioned as conveying is bur 
ships six hundred talents of silver fiom Cilicia to 
Macedonia, which were detained at Ephesas bf 
Antigonus, in order to pay his foreign mercenaiict. 
(Died. xviiL 52.) 

AESCULA'PIUS CAtntXipriii), the god of tht 
medical art. In the Homeric poems Aescshpiu 
does not appear to be considered aa a divinity, but 
merely as a human being, which is indicated bj 
the adjective d^^/uw, which is never given to a 
god. No allusion b made to hi* descent, and be 
is merely mentioned a* the bfrip ifaiiunr, and dw 
fotfaer (^ Machaon and Podaleiriu*. (/LiL73l> 
iv. 194, zL 518.) From the bet that Homer (Oi 
iv. 232) call* all those who practise the hesliig 
art descendants of Paeeon, and that PodaloriiK 
and Machaon an called tlie son* of Aesculapiui, 
it ha* been inferred, that Aesculapius and Paeeon 
are the same being, and consequently a dinniqr. 
But wherever Homer mentions the healing god, it 
is always Paeeon, and never Aesculapius ; and s> 
in the poet's opinion all physicians were desceodnl 
fivm Paeeon, oe probably eonaidend Aescnhpiia 
in the *ame light Thi* Mipposition is carrobonteii 
by the &ct, that in later tune* Paeeon was identi- 
fied with Apollo, and that Aeaculapiu* is uni- 
versally described as a descendant of Apollo. Tbe 
two sons of Aesculapius in the Iliad, were tbe 
physicians in the Oreek army, and an describni 
as ruling over Tricca, Ithome, and Oechalia. (K 
ii. 729.) According to Eoatathios {ad Horn. ^ 
830), Lapithes was a son of Apollo and Stilbe, aoi 
Aesculapius waa a descendant of Lapithes. Tbii 
tradition seems to be based on the same ground- 
work a* the more common one, that Aescnlspiui 
was a son of Apollo and Coronis, the daughter of 
Phlegyas, who is a descendant of I^ithn. 
(ApoUod. iiL 10. § 3; Pind. PjiiA. iii. 14, with 
the SchoL) 

The common story then goes on as fuUowi. 
When Coroni* waa with child by ApoUo, ibe 
became enamoured with Ischys, an Arcadian, 
and Apollo informed of this by a raven, wbidi 
he had set to watch her, or, according to Pindar, 
by his own prophetic powers, sent hi* sister 
Artemis to kill Coroni*. Artemis accordingly de- 
stroyed Coronis in her own house at Lacereia is 
Thessaly, on the shore of lake Baebia. (Compi 
Horn. Hynn. 27. 8.) According to Ovid (MA a. 
605, &c) and Hyginu* {PoeL AOr. it 40), it was 
Apollo himself who killed Coronis and Iscbjs. 
When the body of Coronis waa to be bunt, ApoUo, 
or, ifronting to other* (PWu. ii. 26. g 5), Uenaes 

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Bred tlie dbSd (Anenhpiiu) from the Huoea, and 
dined it to Cheirai, who iiutnieted the boy in 
the ut of henliag and in himting. (Find. Fylk 
in. I, Ac; ApoUod. iiL 10. | S ; Puuk L e.) Ac- 
cording to other tnditioni Aetenlapins vai bom 
ntTricca in TheMdj (Stnb. jvr. p. 647), and 
•tbera again related that Coronis gare birth to him 
liming an expedition of her bther Phlegyai into 
Pdoponnesiu, in the temtory of Epidaunu, and 
that the ezpoaed him on moimt Tittheion, which 
wae before ailed M jrtion. Here he was fed by a 
gloat and watched by a dog, until at laat he waa 
foond by Aiesthanas, a thepherd, who nw the boy 
sarmnnded by a lustre Eke that of lightning. 
(See a different icooont in Pana. rai 25. § 6.) 
From this durling aplendonr, or from hif hsTing 
been nacoed from the Bamea, he waa called by the 
Duians tiyXa^p. The truth of the tiadition that 
AHcubpiaa waa bom in the teiritoiy of Epi- 
daunia, and wai not the aon of Aninoe, daughter 
of Leodppn* and bom in MeMenia, waa attert- 
ed by an <sacle which waa conmlted to decide the 
qnotion. (Pans. u. 26. § 6, ir. 3. § 2 ; Cic. De 
Nat. DtoT. iiL 22, where three different Aescnla- 
pinaes are made ont of the difierent local traditions 
abost him.) Afker Aeacnlapios had grown up, 
lepofta spread orer all conntnei, that he not only 
cmed an the sick, bnt called the dead to life again. 
About the manner in which he acquired this latter 
power, there were two traditions in ancient time*. 
According to the one (ApoUod. L e:), he had re- 
criTed finm Athena the blood which had flowed 
from the Teins of Gotgo, and the Uood which had 
Sowed from the Teins of the right side of her body 
posseaaed the power of restoring the dead to life. 
According to ue other tradition, Aesculapius on 
one occanon waa diut up in the boose of Ohmcns, 
whom he was to cure, and while he was standing 
absorbed in thongfat, there came a serpent which 
twined rannd the staff, and which he killed. 
Another serpent then came carrying in its mouth 
a herb with which it recalled to life the one that 
had been killed, and Aesculapius henceforth made 
nse of the same herb with (he same effect upon 
men. (Uygin. PtxL Attr, ii. 14.) Serersl per- 
sona, whom Aescnkpius was believed to hare re- 
stored to life, are mentioned by the Scholiast on 
Pindar (/yJL iiL 96) and by ApoUodorus. (t c) 
When he was exercising this art upon Olaucus, 
Zeos kUled Aescolapina with a flash of lightning, 
as he feared lest men might giadnally contrire to 
escape death altogether (Apollod. iii. 10. § 4), or, 
according to others, because Plato had complained 
of Aesculapius diminishing the number of the dead 
tao mneh. (Died. ir. 71 ; comp. SchoL ad Piad, 
PfA. iii. 102.) But, on the request of ApoUo, 
Zens placed Aescniapns among the stars, (Hygin. 
PoeL Attr. a. 14.) Aescukpius is also said to 
hare taken part in the expedition of the Argonauts 
and in the Calydonian hnnt He was married to 
Epiooe, and besides the two sons spoken of by 
Homer, we also find mention of the following chil- 
dien of his : Joniscns, Alexenor, Aratus, Hygieia, 
Aegle, laso, and Panaceia (SchoL ad Find. Pyti. 
iiL 14 ; Pans. iL 10. | 3, L 34. § 2), most of whom 
are only penonifications of the powers ascribed to 
their &ther. 

These are die I^eads about one of the most in- 
teresting and important diTinitiea of antiquity, 
Tariont hypotheses hare been btoaght forward to 
ajiua the origin of hit worship in Greece; and, 



while tODM eonaider Aasenlapina to bars been 
originally a real personage, whom tiadition had 
connected with Tarions marrelloua stories, others 
have explained all the legends about him os.mero 
personifications of certain ideas. The serpent, the 
perpetual symbol of Aesculapius, has giren rise to 
the (pinion, that the worship waa deiind from 
Egypt, and that Aesenkpna waa identical with 
the serpent Cnuph worshipped in Egypt, or with 
the Phoenician EsmuiL (Enseb. Praqt. Enrng. 
L 10 ; comp. Pans. viL 23. § 6.) But it does not 
seem necessary to haTe recourse to foreign countries 
in order to expfaun the worship of this god. Hif 
story is undoubtedly a combination of nal eventa 
with the results of thoughts or ideas, which, as in 
to many jnstanres in Greek mythology, are, like 
the former, consideied as facts. The kernel, out 
of which the whole myth has grown, is perhaps 
the Booonnt we read in Homer ; but gradually the 
s|dieie in which Aetcnlaphit acted waa to extend- 
M, that he became the lepietentative or the per- 
sonification of the healing powers of nature, which 
are naturally enough described as the son (the 
e%cts) of Helios, — Apollo, or the Sun. 

Arsnilapiut waa worshipped all orer Greece, 
and many towns, at we hare teen, cUimed the 
honour of his birth. His temples were usually 
built in healthy places, on hills outside the town, 
and near wells which were beUered to hare 
healing powert. Thete templet wen not only 
placet of wotthip, but were frequented by great 
numbers of sick persons, and may therefore be 
compered to modem hospitals (Plot. Quaat, Rom, 
p. 286, D.) The principal teat of his worship in 
Greece was Epidaurus, where he had a temple sur- 
rounded with an extensire groTe, within which no 
one was allowed to die, and no woman to give birth 
to a child. His sanctuary contained a magnificent 
statue of irory and gold, the workofThrssymedes, 
in which he was represented as a handsome and 
manly figure, resembling that of Zens. (Pant. iL 
26 and 27.) He was seated on a throne, holding 
in one hand a staff, and with the other resting 
upon the head of a dragon (serpent), and by his 
side Uy a dog. (Faus. ii. 27. | 2.) SerpenU 
were eTerywhere connected with the worship of 
Aesculapius, probably because they were a symbol 
of prudence and renoTation, and were believed to 
have the power of discovering herbs of wondrous 
powers, as it indicated in the story about Aeacola- 
pius and the serpents in the house of Glaocus. 
serpents were further believed to be goordians of 
wells with salutary powers. For these reasons a 
peculiar kind of tame serpents, in which Epidaurus 
abounded, were not only kept in his temple (Pans. 
iL 28. § 1), but the god himself frequently ap- 
peared in the form of a serpent. (Pans. iiL 23. 
S 4; VaL Max, L 8. §2; Lir. JE^ 11 ; oompare 
the account of Alexander Pseudomantis in Lucian.) 
Besides the temple of Epidaurus, whence the woi^ 
ship of the god was transplanted to various other 
pons of the ancient world, we may mention those 
of Tricca (Strab. ix. p. 437), Cehianae (ziiL p. 603), 
between Dyme and Patrae (viiL p. 386), near 
Cyllene (viiL p, 837), in the ishmd of Cos (xiiL 
p, 667 ; Pans. iiL 23, § 4), at Gerenia ^tiab. viiL 
p. 360), near Caus in Arcadia (Steph. Byz. m. vX 
at Sicyon (Pans, u, 10. § 2), at Athens (L 21. g 7), 
near Patrae (vii. 21. § 6), at Titane in the terri- 
tory of Sicyon (viL 23. § 6), at Thelpusa (viiL 25. 
§ 3), in Messene (ir. 31. g 8), at Phlius (iL IS. 


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S 3), AigM (ii. 2S. § 4), Aeg^nin (n. 23. § S\ 
PeUene (viL 27. § B), Aw)pM (uL 22. | 7), 
Peigmnnin (iU. 26. § 7), Lebene in Crete, 
Smynia, Balagne (u. 26. § 7), Ambada (Lit. 
xzxriii. &\, at Rome and other placea. At Rome 
the wonhip of Aeteolapina mu introdnced from 
Epidannu at the comnumd of the Delphic oracle 
OT of the Sibylline booka, in b. c. 293, for the 
pnrpow of averting a peatilence. Respecting the 
miiacoknu manner in which thi* \ra* efiected tee 
Valeria* Maximal (L 8. $ 2), and Ovid. {Met. 
XT. 620, &C.; comp. Niebnhr, HiiL cf Rome, 
iii. p. 408, Ac.; Lit. x. 47, xziz. 11; SueL 
C/amL 25.) 

The tick, who Tinted the temple* of Asicnla- 
tnoi, had oanally to qiend one or more night* in 
hi* aanctuary (KotrSSw, madart. Pan*. iL 27 
§ 2), during which they ohierTed certain rule* 
preaciibed by the prieita. The god then umally 
leTealed the remedie* for the diaeaae in a dream. 
(Ariatoph. PlvL 662, &c ; Cic Z>« Dh. iL 59 ; 
Philoetr. Vita ApolUm. L 7 ; JambL JM MytL iii. 
2.) It waa in allasion to thi* inaiiaHo that many 
temple* of Aeaculapin* contained atatoe* repie- 
aenting Sleep and Dream. (Pau*. ii. 10. § 2.) 
Thoae whom the god coied of their diieaae o&red 
a aacrifice to him, generally a cock (Plat Piaed. 
^ 1 18) or a goat (Paoa. x. 32. $ 8 ; Serr. ad Virg. 
Gtorg. iL 880), and hung op in hi* temple a 
tablet recording the name of the aick, the diaeaae, 
and the manner in which the core had been 
eflkcted. The templea of Epidaunu, Tricca, and 
Coe, were full of euch Totire tablet*, and leTeial of 
them are itill extant. (Pana. ii. 27. § 3 ; StraK 
viiL p. 374 ; comp. DidU </ AM. p. 673.) Re- 
apocting the featiTals celebrated in honour of Ae«- 
cnlapina aee Did. if AnL p. 103, Ik. The Tarion* 
Bumamea giren to the god partly deacribe him a* 
the healing or aaring god, and are portly deriTed 
from the place* in which he wa* wonhipped. 
Some of bia atatuea are deacribed by Paoaonia*. 
(iL 10. § 3, X. 32. S 8.) Beaidea the attributea 
mentioned in the deacription of hia statue at Epi- 
danma, he ia aometimea represented holding in one 
hand a phial, and in the other a ataff ; aometimea 
also a boy i* represented atonding by hia aide, who 
ia the geniua of recovety, and ia called Telespboma, 
Euamerion, or Aceaiu*. (Pau*. ii. 11. 1 7.) We 
Btill poaaea* a eonaiderable number of marble 
statue* and bu*t* of AescaUpiu*, a* well a* many 
lepieaentation* on coin* and gem*. (Bottiger, 
JmaMea, L p. 282 ; iL p. 361 ; Hirt. Afj^ 
BOdtrh. L p. 84 ; HiiUer, HainBt. der ArcbaoL 
p. .597, Ac. 710.) 

There were in astiqnity two works which went 
under the name of Aeaeukpina, which, howeTer, 
were no more genuine than the work* ascribed to 
Orpfaeu*. (Fabriciua, BiU. Grate L p. 55, &c.) 

The descendant* of Aeacnlapiua were called by 
the patronymic name Aid^xadae. C^iriAiiwiiSat,) 
Those writers, who conaider Aeaculapiu* a* a real 
penonage, ma*t regard the Atclepiadae a* hi* real 
deacendanta, to whom he tranamitted hia medical 
knowledge, and whoae principal aeat* were Co* 
and Cnidu*. (Plat, de Rt PM. iiL p. 405, &c) 
But the Aaclepiadae were also regarded a* an 
Older or caata of priests, and for a long period 
the practice of medicine was intimately connected 
with religion. The knowledge of medicine wa* 
regarded a* a sacred secret, which was transmitted 
from firther to son in the {omiliet of the Asd^ia- 


dae, and we still posses* the oath which ereiy on* 
waa obliged to take when he wa* pat in poaaeBun 
of the medical secrets. (Oalen, Anal. iL p> 128; 
Aiiatid. Orat. L ^' 80 ; comp. K. Spcngel, Qtti. 
dar Median. ToL L) [L. &] 


AE'SION (/klabtr), an Athenkn ontoc, nii 
contemporary of Demosthenes, with whom he ma 
educated. (Suidas, >. «. A<)/u»8^i.) To what 
party he belonged daring the Macedonian time ii 
uncertain. When he was asked what he thought 
of the onton of hia time, he aud, that when l» 
heard the other orators, he admired their fceaatiibl 
and aablime converaations with the people, hot 
that the apeeches of Demoathsnes, when nad, a- 
celled all others by their skilful oonstniction tad 
their power. (Hermippus, ap. Pbd, Dent, 10.) 
Aristotle (Rkel. iiL 10) moitiani a beantifid ei- 
preaaion of Aeaion. [L. SL] 

AESON (Alrai'), a son of Cretheut, the fonidet 
of lolcus, and of Tyro, the daughter of Sahnaom. 
He was excluded by his step-brother Pelias frcai 
his share in the kingdom m Thessaly. He «ii 
father of Jason and Promachua, but the uaie 
of his wife is differently stated, as Polymede, 
Alcimede, Amphinome, Polypheme, Poljmele, 
Ame, and Scarphe. (ApoBod. L 9. S 1 1 sad S 16; 
Hom. CU. xL 258 ; Tzcts. ad Lf/oopla: 872 ; DioL 
ir. 50 ; Scbol. ad ApoUm. L 45 ; SchoL ad Ham. 
Od. xii. 70.) Pelias endeaTouiied to secure tbt 
throne to himself by sending Jason away with tbe 
Argonauts, bnt when one day he was miprited 
and frightened by the news of the return of the 
Argonants, he attempted to get rid of AeaoD l^ 
force, but the latter put an end to his own life. 
(Apollod. L 9. § 27.) According to an accomt b 
Diodoras (it. 50), Pelias compelled Aeaon U) Idll 
himself by drinbng ox's blood, for be hod recditd 
intdligence that Jason and his companioni lad 
periahed in their expedition. According to Ond 
(Met. TiL 168, 250, &C.), Aeaon aorrired the 
return of the Argonauts, and wa* made jvsn 
again by Medeia. Jason as tbe son of Aooo ii 
called Aesonidea. (Orph. .^jy. 55.) [L&] 

AESCNIDES. [Aeson.] 

AESO'PUS (Altrannu), a writer of Fsbln, i 
species of composition which has been de&ied 
" analogical narratiTcs, intended to conny um 
moral lesson, in which irrational animals or objscli 
are introduced as speaking." {PUlolog. Mmem, i. 
p. 280.) Of his works none are extant, sad of 
Lis life scarcely anything is known. He appesn 
to have lived about &c 570, for Herodotas (iL IM) 
mentions a woman named Rhodopis as a feUoT- 
shve of Aesop's, and says that sne lived in the 
time of Amaais king of Egypt, who began to ngi 
R c. 569. Plutarch makes him contamponry irith 
Solon (&p<. S(^ Com. f. 152, c.), and loeilin 
(L 72) says, that he flourished about the S2lh 
Olympiad. The only apparent authority agtiiut 
thit date is that of Saidaa (n c Aboni); biil 
the paiaage is pUinly corrnpt, and if we adopt the 
conection of Clinton, it gives about b. a 620 br 
the date of his birth ; his death is placed & c Hii 
but may have occurred a little kiter. (See OiaMBi 
Fait. HeU. voU L pp. 213, 237, 239.) 

Suidas tells us that Samoa, Sudis, Meienbrii 
in Thrace, and Coticeum in Phxygia dispute tht 
honour of having given him birth. We sie told 
that he was originally « slave, and the reaion of 
hi* first writing bble* ia ^T«n by Phaedrat. (iiL 


zed by Google 


Pndog. 33, &e.) Among hii mwten mm two 
8«nii«in, XoBths* and ladmon, from the lattrr of 
wbom be r ecri re d his ficedaoL Upon this ha 
wited Cnena (when we an toU that he n- 
pnrred Solon for diwonitay to the king), and 
afkerwarda Peiutratu at Athene. Platuch (Jt 
mra Aink Fmi. p. 556) tell* n*, that he wu tent 
to Delphi bj Cnena, to distrilnite aanog the 
uUieiia four niiiiae a pieee. Bnt in coaaeqnence 
of mna di^nte aiisng on the mbjeet, he leiiued 



to gire any moaej at ail, npon which the enn^ed 
JMphiuif threw him from a precipicck Ph^uee 
were aent iqxn them from the god* for the ofiimee, 
and they pndaimed their wulingnea to give a 
canpenaatiga for hia death to any one who could 
daim it. At length ladmon, the giandjon of hit 
oU master, neeiTed the ccmpeniation, nnce no 
nearer oooaeziDn emild be found. (Herod, ii. 1 34.) 

There item* no teaion to donbt this itory about 
the compenimtion, and we hare now itated all the 
anamatanoe* of Aewp'a life which reit on any ao- 
thoriiy. But there are a nit Tariety of anecdotes 
and adTentnres in which he bears the principal part, 
in a fife of him preBxed to a book of Fables purport- 
ing to be his, and collected by Blazimns PUaade*, 
a moo^ of the 14th century. This lifo refve- 
aesits Anop as a perfect monster of nglineM and 
defocnuty ; a notion for which there is no authority 
whatercr. For he is mentioned in paisegrs of 
fhssical authors, where an allusion to such pei^ 
sotKil oeculiaritics weald hare been most natural, 
withoat the slightest trace of any soch allusion. 
He appears for mstance in Plutarch's ConviTium, 
where thoogh there are many jokes on his former 
coodition as a dare, there are none on his ap- 
peaisnee, and we need not imagine that the an- 
denta wonld be restained from such jokes by any 
feelings of delicacy, since the nose of Socrates 
fomishea ample matter for raiUeiy in the Sympo- 
nun of Pbto. Besides, the Athenians caused 
Lyaippoa to erect a statue in his hononr, which 
had it been sculptured in aecordance with the 
aboTe deseiiption, would hare been the RTCtae of 

The Botioes howerer which we possess of Aesop 
are ao scattered and of such daubtfnl authority, 
that there have not been wanting persons to deny 
his exiatenee altogether. ** In poetical philosophy," 
says Vico in hia Soimxa Aitom, " Aesop will be 
fimnd not to be any particular and actually exists 
ing man, bnt the abstraction of a class of men, or 
a poetical character repreaentatiTe of the companions 
and attendants of ^e heroes, such as certainly 
existed in the time of the ssren Sages of Greece." 
This how e v er is an excess of seeptidan into which 
it woold be most nnieasonaUe to plunge : whether 
Aesop left any written works at all, is a question 
which affords consideiable room for doubt, and to 
which Bentley indines to gire a negatire. Thus 
Atiatoplianes ( Feqn, 1259) represents Philoeleon as 
learning his Fabla ■• emesrsoCioB and not out of a 
bod(, and Socrates who turned them into poetry 
Tetsi6ed those that "ha knew, and eould most 
readily lemember." (Pbt Piaed. p. 61, b; Bent> 
ley, DiMteriatiom am Ot Fabla ofAetop, p. 136.) 

Howerer this may be, it is certain that foUes, 
hearing Aesop's name, were popular at Athens in 
its most intellectual agb We find them frequently 
notioed by Aristophanes, One of the pleasures of 
a dicast ( F«f>. 566) waa, that among the candi- 
dalesior his protection and rote some endeaToured 

to win hia fimor by repeating to Um fiUiIas, and 
some Aimiwau rl yi^aior. Two qwdmens of 
these yiKttK or drvKsrsn may be read in the 
TaqMM, 1401, dec, and in the Avm, 651, &c. The 
lattar howerer is said by the Scholiast to be the 
compoailion of Aichilochus, and it is probable that 
many anecdotea and jesti weia attributed to 
Aesop, as the most popular of all authors of the 
kind, which really were not his. This is foTour- 
able to Bentley's theory, that his fobla* wen not 
collected in a written form, which also deriTea 
additional probability from the foot that then is a 
Tariation in the manner in which ancient anthon 
qnote Aesop, eren though they are manifestly 
nfeiring to the nma Uile. Thus Aristotle {Dt 
Part. Anim. ilL 2) dtes from him a complaint of 
Moona, " that the bull's bom* wen not pboed 
about hi* thonUeta, when he might make the 
strongest push, bnt in the tenderett part, hia 
head," whilst Imcian {N^. 33) mokes the fonlt 
to be ** that his horns wen not placed straight 
befon hia eyes." A written coUectun wonld hara 
pnvented such a direnity. 

Bendes the drolleries abore mentioned, then 
wen probably foUes of a gnrer description, lince^ 
as we bars seen, Sociate* condescended to tarn 
them into rene, of which a specimen baa beat 
preserred by Piogenes Loertins, Again, Plato, 
though he exduded Homer's poems fiom his 
im ag in a r y Republic, prsise* the writing* of Aesop, 
By him they an called /Mot (PIkui. pp. 60, 61), 
though an luie writer in the PhiloIogiGal Miuenm 
(L PL 281) thinks that the mon ancient name for 
such fictions was olror, a word explained by 
Buttmann (LaHogiu, f. 60, Eng. transL), " a 
qieech full of meaning, or cunningly imagined" 
(Horn. Od. xiT. 508), whence Ulytsea U called 
wo^iaunt in Kferenoe to the particular tort of 
speeches which mark his character. In Hesiod 
(_Op. tt JXa, 200), it ha* passed into the sense of 
a moral fiible. The aZim or iiSioi of Aesop wen 
certainly in prose: — they an called by Aristo- 
phanes Kiyot, and their author (Herod, ii 134) i* 
Abwasr i Kcr/imoiot, Klrft being the peenbar 
word for Proae, a* fvq wa* for Terse, and indnd- 
ing both fiibl* and history, though afterwaids 
nstricted to oratory, when that became a sepante 
branch of composition. 

Following the example of Svetatea, Demetriaa 
Phalereus (b. c. 320) turned Aesop's foble* into 
poetry, and collected them into a book \ and after 
him an author, whose nam* is unknown, pub- 
lished them in Elegiacas of which aome fragment* 
are preaerred by Suid**, Bnt the only Greek 
venifier ef Aeeop, of whose writings any whole 
foUes are preserred is Babrina, an author of no 
mean powers, and who may wdl lake hi* ^tea 
«mong«t Faboliat* with Phaedra* and La Fon- 
taine, Hi* Ternon i* in Choliambie*, i. a. bime^ 
kdtmg iamtnea {xj»\n, Xaiitn), Terse* which fol- 
low in all nspect* the law* of the Iambic Tri- 
meter till the nxth foot, which i* dther a spondee 
or trochee, the fifth being properly an iambus. 
This Tenion wa* made a Uttle befon the age of 
Auguatn*, and oon*i*ted of ten Booka, of which a 
few acatteted fiblea only an pieaerred. Of the 
Latin writen of Aeaopean foblei^ Phaedra* i* the 
moat oelebmted. 

The fable* now extant in prose, bearing the name 
of Aesop, an nnqueationably *pnriouB. Of these 
then an three prindpol coUaction*, the one ooil> 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



taining 186 &Ue«, pablished firat A. D. 1610, fivm 
MSS. at Heidelberg. This U to elnmij a forgery, 
that it mentioni the orator Demadei, who lived 200 
yean ailer Actop, and contoint a vhole Mntence 
finm the book ol Job {yviwiH -/if ^Xiofim ol 
intvTtt, yvimX «Ir <br<A<uin(/Mda). Soma of tlie 
piumge* Bentley baa ihewn to be fragmenta of 
ChoUambie renea, and baa made it tolmably cer- 
tain that they were ctolen from Babrioi. The 
other collection was mode by the above mentioned 
monk of Constantinople, Haximni Planndea. 
These contain at least one Hebraism {fioir ir rf 
KOftl^i compare ».g. Eccles. xi. 1, <Inr br rp 
KopStf MO"), and among them are words entirely 
modrm, as PoiraXa a bird, fiairtvpm a beast, and 
also traces of the Choliambics of Babrios. The 
third collection was {bund in a MS. at Floimoe, 
and pablidied in 1809. lu date is about a cen- 
tury before the time of Planndes, and it contains 
the life which was prefixed to his collectioii, and 
commonly supposed to be his owru 

Bentley's dissertation on Aasop is appended to 
those on Phalaris. The genuineness of the existing 
fofgcriea was stoutly maintained by his Oxford 
antagonists (Preface to Aetofpiearwn FabuUtntm 
Ddtctat, Oxford 1628); but there is no one in our 
day who disputes his decision. 

It remains to notice briefly the theory which 
assigns to Aesop^ ftblas an oriental origin. Among 
the wrileit of Aralna, one of the moat fiunons is 
Lukman, whom soma traditions make oontempo- 
rary with David, others the son of a sister or 
aunt of Job, while again be has been represented 
as an ^indent king or chief of the tribe of Ad. 
« Lukman's wisdom" is proverbial among the 
Aiaba, and joined with Joseph's beauty and 
David's melody. [See the Thonaaod and One 
Nights (Lane's transUtion), Story of Prince 
Kamer-ex-Zonan and Princess Bodoor, and Note 
59 to chapter x.] The Persian aocoonta of this 
Lukman represent him as an ugly black sUye, and 
it seems probable that the author of the Life en- 
grafted this and other drcumstancea in the Oriental 
traditions of Lukman upon the classical tales re- 
specting Aesop. The &bles ascribed to Aesop have 
in many reapeeta an eastern character, alluding to 
Asiatic cnstoms, and introducing ponthera, pear 
cocks, and monkeys among their dramatis persona. 
All this makes it likely that the fables attri- 
buted both to Lukman and Aesop are derived from 
the same Indo-Persian source. 

The principal editions of Aesop's Fables are, 
1. The coUection iomed by Planndea with a 
Latin tiaaslation, pablished at Milan by Buono 
Accono at the end of the 15th century. 2, An- 
other edition of the same collection, with some 
additional fiibles bom a MS. in the Bibliothtqna 
du Roi at Paris, by Robert Stephanns, 1546. 
3. The edition of Nevelet, 1610, which added to 
these the Heidelberg collection, published at Frank- 
fort on the Main. These have been followed by 
editions of all or some of the Fables, by Hudson at 
Oxford (I71B), Hauptmann at Leipzig (1741), 
Hensinger at Leipsig (1756), Emeati at the 
same place (1781), and Q. H. Schaefer again at 
Leipxig (1810, 1818, 1820). Franceaco de Furia 
added to the above the new bbles from the Flo- 
rentine MS., and his edition was reprinted by 
Coray at Paris (1810). All the bbles have been 
pot together and published, 231 in number, by J. 
O. Schneider, at Brealao, in 1810. [0. K L. &] 


AESOTUS, a QnA. hiitorian, who wnle a 
life of Alexander the Great. The original is lost, 
but there is a Latin translation of it by Julias 
Valerius [VALUUOa], of which Froscitcus Jnretas 
had, he aays (ad Sgm m ac k. Ep. x. 64), a aaai- 
script. It was first published, however, by A. Mai 
&om a MS. in the Ambrosian library, Milan, 1817, 
4to., reprinted Frankfort, 1818, 8vo. The title is 
" Itinerarinm ad Conatantinum Angnstum, etc : 
accedunt Julii Valerii Res gestae Alexandri Usee- 
donis," etc The time when Aeaopns lived is on- 
certain, and even his existence baa been doubted. 
(Bartb, Advertar. iL 10.) Mai, in the preface ts 
his edition, contended that tbe work was writtn 
before 389, A. n., because the temple of Serapisst 
Alexandria, which was destroyed by order of 
Theodoaina, is ^ken of in the tnaalatiem (JaL 
Valer. L SlVas still standing. But serious objee- 
tioDS to this mfetence have been raised by Letratno 
{J<mn. da Saemt, 1818, p. 617), who refers it 
to the seventh or eighth century, which ue weight 
of internal evidence would rather point to. The 
book is full of the most extravagant ' stories sad 
glaring mistakea, and is a work of no crediL (A A] 

moat celebrated tragic actor at Rome in the Cice- 
ronian period, probably a freedman of the CUis 
gens. Horace (E^ ii. 1. 82) and other aathon 
put him on a level with Rosdus. (Frouto, p. 
44, ed. Niebuhr.) Each was preeminent in hii 
own department ; Boadns in comedy, being, witk 
respect to action and delivery { p nmim ti a m ^mm 
rapid (oitatior, QointiL ItuU Or. xL 3. 1 11 1) ; Ae- 
sopus in tragedy, being more weighty (gnmr, 
Quintil. Lc). Aesopua took great pains to perfat 
himself in his art by various methods. He dili- 
gently studied the exhibition of character in ml 
life ; and when any important trial waa going en, 
especially, for example, when Hortensius wai to 
plead, he was constantly in attendance, that it 
might watch and be able to represent the ran 
truthfully the feelings which were actually diK 

?Uyed on such occasions. (VaL Max. viiL 10. { 2.) 
le never, it it said, put on the mask far the cha- 
racter he had to permm in, irithont fint looking 
at it attentively from a distance for acme tiBc. 
that BO in performing he might preaerve his vnoe 
and action in perfect keeping with the appearsote 
he would have. (Fronto, d* Eloq. 5. 1, f-}^-) 
Perhaps this anecdote may confirm the opiniin 
{Diet e/Amt. «. o. Persona), that nuuks had osl; 
lately been introduced in the regular drains at 
Rome, and were not always used even for k>^ 
characters ; for, according to Cicero (de Dit. i Siji 
Aeaopus excelled in power of face and fire of <r- 
p n m m (Jmdum ardanm oa&mm alqni mtbfmy^ 
which of oouiae would not have been viiible if 
be bad performed only with a maak. Fran '^ 
whole poaaaga in Cicero and from the anec- 
dotea iworded of him, hia acting would seem w 
have been characteriaed chiefly by strong empli«» 
and vehemence. On the whole, Cicero calla li»» 
nanmta arti/ae, and aaya he waa fitted to act a 
leading part no leaa in real life than on the atap. 
{Pro Satt. 56.) It does not appear that he ei« 
performed in comedy. Valerius Maximii (*■>■■ 
10. § 2) calls Aesopus and Roadna boUi "lodiew 
ortis peritissimos viros," but this may merelyw- 
note the theatrical art in general, indudiag f'S'V 
as well as comedy. (Comp. {iKfilEnH (iWoei P^f ■ 
A^xviSe.) Fronto calla him (^87)JWsi»«> 

Digitized by 


mfm. Ttam Cieem^ lemuk, howeier, {de Of. 
L 114), it wmiU won tliat the dancter of Ajax 
vnatkrtootiHk&Tliim. (Compw 7We.Qm(. 
ai7.iT.2i) ^^ 

Like Soadn, Aeaopu enjoyed the intimocjr of 
6>t gnat aet<ir, who ealli him tuder A—opmi (ad 
AiL Tii. IX noila- /StaaNarii (ad Qu. Prat. i. 2, 
4) ; md thej Kem to hne loi^t, bam one an- 
ether^ wciety, improTCinent, eadi in his re- 
Vtire ut. Dniing hi* e:dle, Cicero nedred 
may nliabfe narin of Aetopoi'a ftiendihip. On 
at ORuion, in partiailiir, haring to peiferm the 
fwt af Tekmon, famiehed from hu eonntty, in one 
•f Acdot^ P^^T*! t^ txagedien, by hii maimer and 
ddHal enjJiaBi, and an oocauonal change of a 
Tnd, added to the endent nality of his feclinga, 
aad •aceeeded in leading tiie audience to apply &e 
whde ta the caae of Geaa, and so did him more 
aantial aerrioe than any direct defence of himself 
cnsM hare done. The vhole honae applauded. 
{Pn SatL 56.) On another oecaaion, instead of 
'Brtha qui Ebertatem cnimn atabiliTeiat," he 
■bttitnted TWIiu, and the andience gare utter- 
SBoe to their enthuaiaam br encoring 2ie paaaage 
"a Oooand times'* (au2&t nnxntem aaC, Pn 
Sat iB). The time &l his death or hia age can- 
not he fixed with certainty ; but at the dedication 
rfthe theatn of Pompey (a c. 55), he would seem 
to hare been elderly, for he waa underatood preri- 
oady to hare retired from the atage, and we do 
>at hear of hia being paiticniariy delicate : yet, 
InB the paaaage, iU-heuth or age would appear to 
hare beta the reason of hia retiring. On that oo- 
caaian, howerer, in honour of the featiTa], he ttp- 
pesied affaa ; but jnat as he waa coming to one 
«f the moat emphatic parts, the beginning of an 
nth, A' idemtJaUo, etc., hia voice fiuled hnn, and 
he enld not go through with the apeech. He was 
eridently unable to proceed, so that any one 
weald nadily haTC ezcuacd him : a thing which, 
SI the paaaage in Cicero implia (ad Pom. riL 1), 
a Ranaa aodiew« wooM not do for ordinary per- 
bnaen, Aeaopoa, though bt from frugal (Plin. 
K. ff. X. 72), teafized, 13» Roadua, an immenaa 
fcrtaac by Ua profeaaion. He left about 200,000 
■slereea to hia aoii Clodins, who ptored a fboliah 
■pcadthrift. (TaL Max.iz. I.g2.) It u laid, for 
uulaaee, that he diaaolred in vinegar and drank a 
peari worth about £8000, which he took from the 
•v-ring of Oaedlia MeteDa (Hor. JU. iL S, 239 ; 
VaLMaz. ix. 1. | 2; HacraK Sat iL 10.; Plin. 
H. K ix. 59), a laTourite feat of the extra- 
ngtBt monoaiania in Rome. (Compare Suet. 
Oiiig. S7 ; Hacnb. Sat. ii. 1!L) The connexion 
af Cieeto's son-in-law Dolabelh with the aame 
hdj Bo doabt increaaed the diatreaa which Cicero 
fcit It the diaaolute proceedings of the aon of his 
dd&ieod. (.^<l.d«. zL 13.) [A. A.] 

AtSYMSTPrVS (Mavia^rtt), a surname of 
KoBjiBs, srhich signifies the Lord, or Ruler, and 
■sder which he was worshipped at AroS in Achaia. 
The Btofy about the introduction of hia worahip 
then is sa ibllaws : Then was at Troy an ancient 
nage of Dionysus, the work of Hephaestus, which 
Zos had once giren aa a preaent to Dardanus. 
It wsa kept in a chest, and Caaaandra, or, aocord- 
isg to others, Aeneaa, lefi thia cheat behind when 
•he quitted the d^, becasae ahe knew that it 
vndd do injury to him who poaaeaaed iL When 
the Oreeks dinded the spoils of Troy among them- 
■Iw^ this Aest HI to the stme of theThasssKiin 


Euiypylna, who on mening it suddenly fall into • 
state of madnea*. The ocade of Delphi, when 
oonsnlted about his recoTery, answered, " Whera 
thou shalt see men peribimins a stniwe aacrifica, 
there ahalt thou dedicate the i£eat, andthaie ahalt 
then aettle." When Eurypylus came to Ane in 
Achaia, it was juat the season at which its in- 
habitants ofiieied erety year to Artemis Triclaria a 
human sacrifice, consisting of the Csiraat youth and 
the fiuieat maiden of the place. This aacrifice was 
oflfered as an atonement for a crime which had 
once been committed in the temple of the goddess. 
But an oiade had declared to them, tlut they 
should be released from the neceasity of making 
this acrifice, if a foreign dirinity should be 
brought to them by a foreign king. This oracle 
was now liilfilled. Eurypylus on seeing the tIo- 
tims led to the altar was cured of his madnea* and 
perceiTed that this was the place pointed out to 
him by the oracle ; and the Aroeans also, on see- 
ing the god in the chest, remembered the old 
prophecy, stopped the aacriiice, and instituted a. 
festival of Dionysus Aesymnetes, for this was the 
name of the god in the chest Nine men and nine 
women were appointed to attend to his worship. 
During one night of this festival a priest car- 
ried to* chest outside the town, and all the 
chUdreB of the place, adorned, aa formerly tho 
victims used to be, with garlands of com-ean, 
went down to the banks <x the river Heilichius, 
which had befon been called Ameilichins, hung 
up their garUnds, purified themselves, and then 
pat on other gariands of ivy, after which they r»- 
tumed to the aanetuary of Dionyaua Aesymnetea. 
(Pana. viL 19 and 20.) Thia tradition, though 
otherwiae very obacuie, evidently pointa to a time 
when human aacrificea were aboliahed at Ane by 
the introduction of a new worship. At Patne in 
Achaia then was likewise a temple dedicated to 
Dionyaua Aeaymnete*. (Paua. vii. 21. g 12.) [US.] 

AETHAOiIDES (AieoAlho), a aon of Hermc* 
and Enpolemeia, a daughter of Mynnidon. Hs 
waa the herald of the A^nauta, and had recdved 
from hia &ther the fiieulty of nmembering every- 
thing, even in Hadea. Ha waa further allowed to 
naide alternately in the upper and in the lower 
world. Aa hia aoul could not fbivet anything even 
after death, it remembered that from the body of 
AethaUdea it had aueceaaively migrated into thoae 
of Euphorbua, Henuotimua, Pyrriina, and at laat 
into that of Pythagotaa, in whom it atiU retained 
the recollection of ita former migrations. ( ApoUon. 
Rhod. L 54, 640, &c; Orph. Argon. 181 ; Hvgin. 
Pab. 14 i Diog. Laert viiL 1. S4,ftci VaL Flaee. 
i.4S7.) [U &] 

AETHER (AMip), a peraonified idea of the 
mythical cosmogonies. Aocnrding to that of Hy- 
ginns (^oi. Pr^. p. 1, ed. Staveien), he was, to- 
gether with Night, Day, and Erebus, b«gotten by 
Chaoa and Caligo (Daikiiea*). According to that 
of Hesiod (Ting. 124), Aether was the aon of- 
Enbna and hia aiater Night, and a brother of 
Day. (Comp.PhomnL/)sAra/. 2)ear. 16.) The 
childnn of Aether and Day were Land, Heaven, 
and Sea, and from hia connexion with the Earth 
then aprang all the vices which destroy the human 
race, and also the Oianis and Titau (HyEin. 
Pab. Pnf. f. 2, &c.) lliese accounts shew that, 
in the Onek oosmogonies. Aether was considered 
as one of the elementary substances out of which 
the Universe waa formed. In the Orphic hymns 


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(4) Aether appears aa the eoul of the world, from 
which all life emanatei, an idea which was alto 
adopted by aome of the eariy philoaophera of 
Oiccoe. In later time* Aether wa« regarded a* 
the wide apaoe of Heaven, the reaidence of the 
goda, and Zen* a* the Lord of the Aether, or Aether 
itaelf penonified. (PacoT. op. Oa. de Xal. Dtur. 
it 86, 40; Lncret. T. 499 j Virg. Aem. m. 140, 
amy. u. 825.) [L. &] 

AETHE'RIE. [Hamknaa.] 
writer of the feiuth century, a natire of Ittria ac- 
cording to hi* Buruame, or, according to Rabanua 
Maviraa, of Scythia, the anthor of a geographical 
work, called Aethici Coamogiaphia. We leam 
Aom the prefece that a meamrement of the whole 
Roman world waa ordered by Jaliu* Caeaar to be 
mado by the most able men, that this measurement 
was began in the consolihip of Julius Caesar and 
M. Antoniua, i <• B. c. 44; that three Greeks were 
appointed for tin purpose, Zenodoxns, Theodotus, 
and Polyclitus ; that Zenodoxns measured all the 
eastern part, which occnpied him twenty-one years, 
fire months, and nine days, on to the third consul- 
ship of Augustus and Crassus ; that Theodotus 
measured the northern part, which occupied him 
twenty-nine years, eight months, and ten days, on 
to the tenth consolsnip of Augustus; and that 
Polyclitus measured the southern part, which oc- 
cupied him thirty-two years, one month, and ten 
days; that thus the whole (Roman) world waa 
gone over by the measurers within thirty-two (?) 
years ; and that a report of all it contained was 
laid before the senate. So it stands in the edd.; 
but the numbers an eTidently much corrupted : 
the contradicloriness of Polyclitus's share taking 
more than 3*2 years, and the whole measurement 
being made ki less than (intra) 32 years is obrious. 
It is to be observed that, in this introductory 
statement, no mention is made of the western part 
(which in the work itself comes next to the east- 
ern), except in the Vatican MB., where the eastern 
part is given to Nioodomus, and the western to 

A census of all the peopk in the Roman subjeo- 
tion was held under Augustas, (Suidaa, a. «, 
Atyouarot.) By two late writers (Cassiodoras, 
Var, m. 52, by an emendation of Hnschka, p. 6, 
Ster dot xarZeit dtr CMmti Jttu Chriiti gehaUenen 
Chww, Breslau, 1840 ; and IsidoraSiOn^.v. 36. § 
4), this niunbering of the people is spoken of as 
connected with the measurement of the land. This 
work in tut consists of two separate pieces. The 
first begins with a short introduction, the substance 
of which has been given, and then proceeds with 
■n account of the meamrement of the Roman world 
under four heads, Orientalis, Ocddentalis, Septen- 
trionalis, Metidiiina para. Then come series of 
lists of names, arranged under heads, Maria, Insu- 
lae, Montei, Provinciae, Oppida, Flumina, and 
Oente*. These are bars lists, excepting that the 
rivers have an account of their rise, course, and 
length annexed. This is the end of the first part, 
tike Expositio. The second part is called Alia to- 
tius orns Descriptio, and consists of four divisions: 
( i.) Aaiae Provinciae situs cum limitibus et populis 
■ois ; (3.) Europae situs, &c ; (3.) Africae situs, 
&e.; (4.^ Intulae Nostri Maria. This part, the 
Deacriptio, occurs with alight variations in Orosiua, 
L 8. In Aethictts what looks like the original 
conmenoement, Mnjores nostri, ftc, is tacked on 


to the preceding part, the Exposition by 1^ wrais 
Hanc quadripartUam iotiut Itmu e c m l i nm li am U 
qui dimaui tutd. From this it would appear that 
Aethicua borrowed it from Orosins. 

The work abounds in errors. Sometimes the 
same name occurs in diSerent lists ; as, for uam- 
pie, Cyprus and Rhodes both in the north and i> 
the east; Corsica both in the west and in the 
south; or a country is put as a town, as Aiabis; 
Noricom is pnt among the islanda. Mistakes of 
this kind would easily be made in copying liati, 
especially if in double rolnmns. But from other 
reasons and from quotations given by Dicnil, s 
miter of the 9th century, &om the Coamogiaphii, 
differing from the text as we have it, the whole 
appears to be very corrapL The whole is a very 
meagre production, but presents a few valuable 
points. Many succeaafiil emendationa have bees 
made by Solmasius in his Excrcitationes Pbikib' 
gicae, and there is a very valuable essay on the 
whole subject by Bitachl in the /Uetiran/kiif M*tm» 
(1842), i. 4. 

The aourcea of the Cosmogtaphia appear to have 
been the measurements above described, other offi- 
cial lists and documents, and also, in all probability, 
Agrippa's Commentarii, which are constantly le- 
fenred to by Pliny C^>><- ^ot- ii'. iv. v, vi.) as sa 
authority, and bis Chart of the World, which ma 
founded on his Commentarii. (Plin. Hiil, Nat, in. 


Cassiodoms (d* tailU. dvom. 25) describes a 
coamographical work by Julius Honorius CotM 
in terms which suit exactly the work of Aethicas ; 
and Salmasius regards Julius Ilonarius as the real 
author of this work, to which opinion Ritschl aeenu 
to lean, reading Etbnicua instead of Aethicua, sad 
considering it as a mere appellative. In some 
MSS. the appellatives Sophista and Fhilosophiu 
are found. 

One of the oldest MSS., if not the oldest, ii the 
Vatican one. This is the only one which apeolu 
of the west in the introduction. But it is can- 
lessly written : ooniWiiiu (e. g.) is several time* 
put for omiii^sn. Stat is found as a cental 
tion (?) for tupratcriptii. The introdoetioii is veiy 
difierent in this and in the other MSS. 

The first edition of the Cosmographia was by 
Simler, Basel, 1575, together with the Itinetarimn 
AntoninL There i* an edition by Henry Stephens 
1577, with Simler's notes, which also contains 
Dionysius, Pomponius Mela, and Solinus. The 
hut edition is by Oronovius, in his edition of Pom- 
ponius Mela, Leyden, 172^ [A A] 

AETHILLA (AtSiAAa or AffivXAa), a daughter 
of Laomedon and sister of Priam, Astyoche, sud 
Medesicaate, After the &11 of Troy gihe became 
the prisoner of Protesilans, who took her, together 
with other captives, with him on his voyage name. 
He landed at Scione in Thrace in order to take in 
fresh water. While Protesilaus had gone inland, 
Aethilla persuaded her fellow-prisonen to set fire 
to the ships. This was done and all remained oo 
the spot and founded the town of Sdone. (Tseti. 
ad I^apkr. 921, 1075 ; Conon, ffarrtML 13 ; com- 
pare P. Mela, ii. 2. g 150 ; Stenh. Byx. t. % 
^uiim.) [Ls.] 

AE'THIOPS(Ai8(oi|<), tfaeGlowing or theBladi. 

1. A surname of Zeus, under which he was wnr- 

shipped in the ishind of Chios. (Lyoophroo, Out. 

537, with the note of Taetxes.) 

2. A ion of Hephaestm, &im whom Aethiopii 


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'■•■ h tiit tn l to biTe derived ita 
H. .y.'ri.aS; Nsi. Com. H. 6.) 



na. (Pli 

. . [1-&] 

AETHIJUS CAMAwf), the fint king of Eiu. 
^SDB. T. ]. 1 2.) He mt a un of Zens and 
PMoaeneia, the daughter of Dencafion (Apollod. 
1. 7. 8 2 ; Hygin. Fah. 155), and waa mamed to 
CUjce, ^ whom he b^ot EDd;mion. Aooording 
to aoae aeeeonta Endynuon waa hinudf a nn of 
Z««8 and fint ktng of EliiL (Apollod. L 7. S 5.) 
Other tiaditinna again made ASlhtim a aon of 
Aedni, who waa called by the name of Zeni. 
(Paoa. T. 8. I 1.) [L. 8.] 

AE^-HLIUS CA^niios), the anthor of a woric 
entided ''Semian Annals" ('11^ 34"*}. the fifth 
book of which ia qooted by Athenaena, althongh 
he expnaaea a doubt aboat the gennineneaa of tne 
work. (xir. p. 650, d. 65S, £) Aethfina ia alio 
ii d eiTe d to \ij ClesMna Alezandiinna {Pntr. p. 
30, a), Enatathina {ad Od. riL 120, p. 1573), and 
in tha Etjmologiaun Magnum («. v. Wiwrai), 
wfaers the name n written AtUiui. 

AETHRA (AlV). I- A daughter of king 
Ktth e ua of Tneien. Bellerophon ned for her 
hand, bat waa baniahed from Corinth beCMe the 
Bupt^ took pbee. (Pana. a 31. | 12.) She 
w«a smpriaed on one occaakm by Poaeidon in the 
idond of Sphaeria, whither ahe had gone, in eoD- 
aeqaence of a dieam, {or the porpoae of offering a 
aacrifice on the tomb of Sphaemi. Aethm there- 
fan dedicated in the island a temple to Athena 
Apatnria (the DeoeitinlX and called the island 
Hiem instead of Sphaeria, and also introduced 
among the maidena of Tmeaen the custom of dedi- 
cating their girdles to Athena Afotnria on the day 
of their mairiagei (Pans. iL SS. § 11.) At a later 
time ahe became the mother of Theseus by A^ens. 
(Pint. ries. S ; Hygin. PiJ>. 14.) In the night 
in which this took place, Poseidon also was be- 
liered to hare been with her. ^Apollod. iiL 15. 
f 7 ; Hygin. FtA. 37.) According to Plutarch 
(Tit*. 6) her &ther spread this report merely that 
Theaeoa might be regarded as the ion of Poseidon, 
wIm was much reTered at Troeaen. This opinion, 
howerer, is nothing else but an attempt to strip 
the genuine stoiy a its mairela. After this erent 
ahe appears liring in Attica, fron whence she was 
canied off to Lacedaemon by Castor and Poly- 
dencea, and became a sbne rf Hden, with whom 
ahe waa taken to Troy. (Pint. Tku. .14 ; Hom. 
IL iii. 144.) At the taking of Troy ahe came to 
the camp of the Greeks, where she was recognised 
by her grandsons, and Demophon, one of them, 
asked Agamemnon to proeuie her libention. 
Agamemnon accordingly sent a messenger to Helen 
to request her to give up Aethia. This was 
granted, and Aethra became free again. (Fans. x. 
-2& { 3 ; Diet. Ciet. T. IS.) According to Hy- 
ginna (/a&. 243) she aikerwaida pat an end to her 
own IHfe from gnef at the death of her tons. The 
hiatoiy of her bondage to Helen waa represented 
on the oelebrated cheat of Cypselns (Pans. It. 1 9. 
1 1 ; Dion Chrysoat. Oni. 11), and in a painting 
by Polygnotnain theLeadieof Delphi. (Pana.x. 
25. §2.) 

2. A daughter of Oceanua, by whom Atlas be- 
got the twelve Hyades, and a aon, Hyas. (Or. 
Foil t. 171 ; Hygin. Feit. 192.) [L. a] 

AETHU'SA ^AlAwov), a daughter of Poseidon 
and Alcyone, who was beloTcd by Apollo, and 
ben to him Elenther. (Apdlod. iii. 10. { 1 ; 
Pana. iz. 20. 1 2.) [U&] 

AETHTIA (AAm), a snname of Athena, 
mider which she was wgnhipped in Megaiin. 
(Pans. i. 5. § 3; 41. § 6; Lycophr. Cam. 359.) 
The wotd aDvia signifies a diTor, and figuratiTdy 
s alup, ao that the name must hare leierenca to 
the goddess teaching the art of ship-building or 
nangatun. (Tseta. ad Lyupkr. L e.) [L. 8.] 
AETION ('Aerbiv). 1. A Greek sculptor of 
Amphipolis, mentioned by Callimachns {AiiUt. Or. 
iz. 336) and Theocritns {Bpigr. Tii.), fitan whom 
we learn that at the request of Nidaa, a fiunons 
I^iysician of Miletus, he executed a statue of Ae»- 
culapiua in cedar wood. He floniished about the 
middle of the third century a. c. There waa an 
engraTer of the same name ; but when he lived is not 
known. (K. O. MUller, Ank. dor Kmul, p. 151.) 
2, A eelebiated painter, spoken of by Lncian 
{De Mentd. Qmd. 43, Herod, or Aitim, 4, 
&c Imag. 7), who gives a description of one of 
his jHctmcs, representing the maniage of Alexan- 
der and Boxana. This painting excited such 
admiration when exhibited at the Olympic gamea, 
that Proxenidas, one of the judges, guTO the artist 
his daughter in maniage. Action seems to haTe 
excelled partienlarly in the art of mixing and lay- 
ing on his colonia. It has commonly been sop- 
piMcd that he lived in the time of Afexander the 
Great ; but the words of Ludan (Herod, 4) shew 
clearly that he must hare lived about the time of 
Hadrian and the Antonine^ (K. O. MUller, 
Arth. dtr KiauL p. 240 ; Kurier, KuiulgetelikAU, 
P.S20.) tCP.M.] 

AE'TIUS, a Roman general, who with his rival 
Boni&ce, has justly been called by Prooopius the 
hut of the Romans. He waa bom at Dorostana 
in Moesia (Jomandea, dt n6. Get. 34), and his 
bther Oaudentins, a Scythian in the employ of 
the empire, having been killed in a mutiny, be 
waa early given as a hostage to Alaric, and under 
him learnt the arte of barbarian war. ( Philostorgins, 
xil 12.) After an ineffectual support of the usniper 
John with an anny of 60,000 men (a. d. 424), he 
became the genenl of the Roman forces under 
Placidia, at that time guardian of her ion, the 
emperor Valentinian 111. In order to snppkint in 
her fiivoor his rival Bonifiiwi, by treacherous accu- 
■tiona of each to the other, Aetiua occasioned bis 
revolt and the loss of Africa (Procop^ Bell. Vaml. i. 
S, 4); the empress, however, discovered the fnud, 
and Aetiua, after having met Boni&ce at Ravenna, 
and killed him in single combat tBoNiFAcius], was 
himaelf compelled to retire in disgrace to the 
Hnnnish aimy which in 424 be had settled in 
Pannonia. (Prober, and Maroellinua, in anno 

Restored with their help to Italy, he became 
patrician and sole director of the armies of the 
western empire. (Jomandea, de rth. Get. 34.) In 
thia capacity, through his long acquaintance with 
the barbarian settlen, and chiefly with the Huns 
and Attila himaelf, in whose court his son Carpilio 
waa brought up, he checked the tide of barbarian 
invasion, and maintained the Roman power in 
peace for seventeen years (483-450) in Italy, Spain, 
Britain, and Oaul, in which laat country especially 
he established his influence by means of lus Hun 
and Alan allies and by his treaty with Theo 
done the Viugoth. (Sidon. Apoll. Paxeg. AriU 
300.) And when in 450 this peace was broken by 
die invasion of Attila, Aetiua in concert witk 



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Theodorie umtod it fint by the timely relief of 
(Meant and then by the victory <i Chalons 
(Oreg. Tnron. it 7 ; Jomandee, de rtb. OeL 
36), and waa only prevented from following up hii 
■ucoeuea in Italy by want of nipport both from 
Valentinian and hia barbarian alliea. (Idatini 
and Iiidomt, io anno 460.) [Attila.] The 
greatneu of his position as the sole stay of 
&e empire, and as the sole link between Chris- 
tendom and the pagan barbarians, may well have 
given rise to the belief whether fininded or not, 
that he designed the imperial throne for himself 
and a barbarian throne for his son Carpilio (Sid. 
Apott. Paneg. AmL 204), and aecordingly in 
454, he was mnrdered by Valentinian himself in 
an access of jealousy and sospidon (Pioeop. BM. 
Vand. L 4), and with him (to use the words of the 
contemporary chronicler Marcellinus, in anno 454), 
"oecidit Hesperinm Imperinm, nee potuit lelevari." 

His physical and moral activity well fitted him 
for the life of a soldier (Oregor. Tnron. ii. 8), and 
tiiOQgh destitute of any high princi;de, he belongs 
to the class of men like Augustus and CromweU, 
whose early crimes are obscured by the usefulness 
and glory of later life, and in whom a great and 
trying position really calls out new and unknown 

(Renatus Frigeridos, in Oregor. Turon. ii. 8.; 
Procop. BdL Vamd. I 3, 4 ; Jomandea, de Beb, 
Get 34, 36 ; Gibbon, Dtelim and FaU. e. 88, 35 ; 
Herbert's i^ttih^ p. 322.) [A. P. &] 

AETIUS ('A^iot), sumamed the Alluiil, from 
his denial of the Ood of Revelation (St. Athanas. 
i» Sgnod. § S, p. 83, of the tianahtioa. Ozf. 1B42 ; 
Soer. HimL Eat. iL 35 ; Soioni. HU. EoeL iv. 29), 
was bom in Coele Syria (Pbiloatorg. HiiL EocL 
iiL 15 ; St Baail, adv. Mmom. i. p. 10) at Antioch 
(Soe. ii. 35 ;* ^idat, s. e. 'AtrioiS, and became 
the founder of the Anomoean {iirtiiator) form of 
the Arian heresy. He was left &tlieriess and in 
poverty when a child, and became the sUve of a 
vine-dresser's wUe (St. Gregory Naziani. e. Etmom. 
p. 292, c n ; bat see Not. VaUm ad PhilotL ill 
15), then a travelling tinker (Sl Or. ibid.) or a 
goldsmith. (PhiL HM.) Conviction in a fraud or 
ambition led him to abandon this life, and he ap- 
plied himself to medicine nnder a quack, and soon 
set up for himself at Antioch. (Soo. iiL 15.) 
From the schools of medicine being Arian, he ac- 
quired a leaning towards heresy. He frequented 
tile disputatious meetings of the physicians (S. Gr. 
p. 293, d) and made such progress in Eristicism, 
that he became a paid advocate for such as wished 
their own theories exhibited most advantageonsly. 
On his mother's death he studied under Paulinns 
II., Arian Bishop of Antioch, A. D. 331 ; but his 
powers of disputation having exasperated some in- 
flnential persons about Euklius, the successor of 
Paulinus he was obliged to quit Antioch for 
Anazirbus, where he resumed the trade of a gold- 
smith. A.D. 331. (PhiL iiL 15.) Here a pMlea- 
sor of grammar noticed him, employed him a* a 

* After the first reference, the references in this 
article an thus abbreviated : — St. Athanaaius, 
de Synodis [S. Ath.] ; St. Basil, adv. Eunomianos 
[S. Bas.]; St. Gregory Naiianxen adv. Eunomian. 
[S. Or.] The Histories of Socratea, Soiomen, 
Theodoret, and Philostorgins, the Arian panegyrist 
of Aetius [Sot, Soi., Thlt, PhiL] ; S. Epipbaoint, 
adv. Haeieaea [& Ep.]. ri- -. 


servant, and instructed him ; but he w 
in dii^ace on publicly disputing against bis 
master's interpretation of the Soipture. The 
Arian Bishop of the city, named Athanaaas, re- 
ceived him and read with him the Gotpdi. iAa- 
wards he read the Bpi1le$ with Antoniua, a print 
of Tarsus till the promotian of the latter to the 
Episcopate, when he retained to Antioch sad 
studied the Pnpialt with the priest Leontiiu, 
His obtrusive irreligion obliged him again to quit 
Antioch, and he took refiige in Cilicia (before a. d. 
3481 where he was defe^ed in aigmnent by some 
of tne grossest (Borborian) Gnostics. He return- 
ed to Antioch, but soon left it for Alexandria, 
being led thither by the fame of the Manichec 
Aphthonius, against whom he recovered the Sum 
for disputation which he had lately lost. He nov 
resumed the study of medicine under Sopolis and 
practised gratuitously, earning money by following 
nis former trade by night (PhiL iiL 15) or Uving 
upon others. (Theodorelt Hid. Ead. ii. 23.) Hia 
chief employment, however, waa an irreverent ap- 
plication of logical figures and geometrical diit- 
Eto the Nature of the Word of God. (S. 
an. adv. Haeret. § 2, and comp. § 6, p. 920.) 
^turned to Antioch on the elevation of his 
former master Leontius to that See, A. D. 348, sad 
was by him ordained Deacon (3. Ath. § 38, tnaiL 
p. 136), though he declined the ordiiuiry duties sf 
the Diaoonate and accepted that of trwinyi A. o. 
350. (PhiL iii. 17.) The Catholic laymea, 
Diodorus and Flavian, protested against this o^ 
dination, and Leontius was obliged to depose him. 
(Thdt. a 19.) His dispute with BasU of A»- 
cyn, A. D. 35 1 (fin.), is the first indication of the 
future schism in the Arian heresy. (PhiL iiL 15.) 
Basil incensed Qallus (who became Caesar, Mardi, 
A. D. 351) against Aetius, and Leontius' interces- 
sion only saved the Utter from death. Sooa 
Theophilus Blemmys introdnced him to Oallua (& 
Gr. p. 284), who made him his friend, and oftes 
sent him to his brother Julian when in danger of 
apostacy. (PhiL iiL 17.) There is a letter fion 
Oallus extant, oongratnlatinK Julian on hia ad- 
hesion to Christianity, as ne had heard from 
Aetius. (Post. Epist ja/tmn, p. 158, ed.Beiiimi. 
Mogunt 1828.) Aetius was implicated in the 
murder of Domitian and Montius (see Gibbon, 
c. 19), A. D. 354 (S. Gr. p. 294, b), but hii 
insignificance saved him from the vengeance cf 
Constantiua. However, he quitted Antioch for 
Alexandria, where St. Athanaaius waa maintsin- 
ing Christianity against Arianism, and in A.D.35i 
acted as Deacon under George of Cappadods, the 
violent interioper into the See of St. Athanasios. 
(St. Ep. 76. § 1 : Thdt. ii. 24.) Here Eunomiia 
became his pupil (PhiL iiL 20) and amanueniii. 
(Soc iL 35.) He is said by Pbilostoigius (iiL 19) 
to have refused ordination to the Episcopate, be- 
cause Senas and Secundus, who made the cSa, 
bad mixed with the Catholics ; in A. o. 358, wha 
Eudoxius became bishop of Antioch (Thdt iL 23), 
he returned to that city, but popular feeling pre- 
vented Eudoxius from allowing him to act as Desoou 
The Aetian (Eunomian, see Aaics) schism sov 
begins to develop itself. The bold irreligion <i 
Aetius leads a section of Ariana (whom we may cal 
here Anti-Aetians) to accuse him to Constantiui 
(Soz. iv. IS) ; they allege also his connexion with . 
Qallus, and press the emperor to summon a genenl 
Council for the settlement of the Theologicsl 


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The Aetiin intemt witli Emebhu 

(Sot. i. 16), the powerful EnoDch, diTides the in- 

teaiti enmcil, bat Dotwjtlistaiidiiig, the Aetiaiu 

iR defeated at Srlwirie, a. d. S69, and, diieolTiiig 

the eemdl, haaten to Canatantiiia, at Conitanti- 

aeple, to leaue hia pntectim againat their op- 

paaeatL (S. Ath. tanaL yp. IS, 77, 88, 163, 

IM.) The Anti-Aetiaiia (who are in fiKt the 

■lie lofcelable Semi-Anaiia, aee Aaios) fellow, 

■d cha^ their opponenta with "»"»*-'"'"«; a 

Difiimet m Sattlam€eliT*foa6ou)r) in dieTrini^, 

foiaaag a paper to that effict. A new tchiam 

canei amang the Aetiana, and Artina ia abon- 

iatti bj hia frienda (called Enaebiana or Aca- 

daia, aee Abius) and baniahed (S. Baa. i, 4), 

after pnteatiDg againat hia companiona, who, 

koUing the Hne primeifle with himaelf (via. that 

(he Soil waa a uoitaia , rrleyia), refnaed to ao- 

kaewkdge the neeeaaaiy infeience (ns. that He 

ii q^eaMb whlimm to the JFMer, Mfmor). 

(Tbdt. iL 23; Boa. ir. 23; 8. Oreg. p. 801, D. ; 

Pka IT. 12.) Hie l>te ftienda would not let him 

naarn at HopaaeataB, when he waa kindly »■ 

csTcd by Anzentina, the Biahop there : Acadua 

afDouca hia baniahment to Amblada in Piaidia 

(PUL T. 1), where he oanpaeed hia 300 Uaa- 

ph w ai ta , capciooa infeieneea fmn the ajmbol of 

lii inciigioii, ria. that lagemtraltrnm {drymntria) 

iitheoaenee (aMa) of Deitj; which are refnted 

(theae at leaat which St. Epiphanina had nen) in 

& if. ado. Haer. 76. He there calla hia op- 

faaota Chranitca, i. e. Temporala, with an apparent 

a lh ai uB to their ooartlj ofaaeqniooaneaik (Piae&t. 

^ & Ef.; am. e. 4.) 

On Conatantma'a death, Julian recalled the 
nriom exiled (uhopa, aa well aa Ae'tiaa, whan 
he hiTited to hia eoort (Ep. Jmliam, 31, p. £2, 
<d. Boiaaon.), giring hnn, too, a fiirm in Lea- 
ba- (PhiL ix. 4.) Enaaina, heretical Biahop of 
Aalioch, took off the eccleaiiutical oondemnatian 
fraB Aetina (PhiL til 5), and he waa made 
BidMp at ConatantiBaplew (S. Ep. 76. p. 992, c.) 
He iprcada hia heicay by &zing a biahop of hia 
emi incKgion at Conatantinople (PhiL TiiL 2) and 
kf ainDBariea, till the death of JoTian, A.D. 364. 
Valcna, bowcrer, ioak part with Eudoziua, the 
Aadan Biahop of Conatantinople, and Aetina re- 
tiicd to Leaboe, where be narrowly eacaped death 
at the handa of the gOTemor, pfaued then by 
Piacomna in hia reTolt againat Valena, A. D. 365, 
S6C. (See Gibbon. cL 19.) Again he took refnge 
a Cenatantinople, bnt waa diiTen thence by hia 
faner frienda. In rain be applied for protection 
to Eadazina, now at Maroanople with Valena; 
md in A. n. 367 (PhiL iz. 7) be died, it aeema, at 
Coutantimq^ nnpitied by any bat the eqnally 
indigioia Eaaomina, who buried him. (Phil. iz. 
6.) The doetroial cnoia of Aiitina an atated 
Uatoiiedly in the article on Audk From the 
MmiHiMi he aeenia to hare leaned hia licentiona 
■nab, which appeared in the meet ahocking Soli- 
Miaimni. and which he gnonded on a Qnoatie 
Btciftetation of St. John, xtIL 3. He denied, 
fike meat odier heretka, tlia neceaaity of bating 
and aeltnMitification. (S. ^ adv. Hour. 76. § 4.) 
At tome time or other he waa a diadple of Euae- 
Uua ef Sebaate. (S. Baa. BfoL 223 [79] and 
244 [82].) Soeatea (ii. 35) apeaka of aeTeral 
letlen firon him to Coaatantine and othen. Hia 
Tn^m ia to be finnd ap. S. Epiphan. vdn. Hat. 
:6,p.924,cd.PetaT. ColoD.1682. [A.J.C.] 


AETIUS CAiriea, Aetiat), a Onak medical 
writer, whoae name ia commonly bnt incorrectly 
Bpelt Attiui. Hiatoiiana are not agned ahont 
hia exact date. He ia placed by aome writen aa 
early aa the foorth oentory after Chiiat; bnt it ia 
plain from hia own work that he did not write till 
the Teiy end of the fiiih or the beginning of the 
•izth, aa he refera (lebnA. iiL wrm. L 24, p. 464) 
not (nily to St Cyiil, Patriarch of Alezandna, who 
died A. D. 444, but alao (tefraft. ii aana. iiL 110, 
p. 857) to Petrua Archiater, who waa physician 
to Theodoric, king of the Oatrogotha, and there- 
fore moat hare lived atill later; he ia himaelf 
quoted by Alexander Tnlliaana (ziL 8, p. 346), 
who liTed probably in the middle of the aizth 
cantniy. He waa a natire of Amida, a dty of 
Meaopotamia (Fhotina, cod. 221) and atndied at 
Alexandria, which waa the moat famona medical 
■chool of the age. He waa probably a Chriatiao, 
which may acconnt perhapa for hia being con- 
fbnnded with another peiaon of the aune name, a 
bmona Arian of Antioch, who lired in the time of 
the Emperor Jnlian. In aome mannacripta he haa 
the title of «W/nif J^i'ov, ooam abteqmi, which 
meana the chief officer in attendance on the em- 
peror (aee Dn Cange, Gbm. Med. M Inf. Latin.); 
thia title, according to Photioa {k e.), he attained 
at Conatantinople, when he waa practiaing medi- 
cine. Aetina leema to be the &rat Oreek medical 
writer among the Chriatiana who girea any apeci- 
men of the apella and chaima so much in Togne 
with the Egyptiana, mich aa that Ot St Bluae 
{Utnb. iL anra. ir. 50, n. 404) in nmoring a 
bone which sticks in the throat, and another in i»- 
btion to a Fiatola. (Utrab. it. term. iiL 14, p. 762.) 
The diviaion of hia work BiCAfa 'lorpucd 'Emnt- 
tcm, " Sixteen Hooka on Hedidne,'' into four 
tetnbibli (rrrpiMiC^ei) waa not made by himaelf, 
bnt (as Fabridns obaerres) waa the invention of 
aome modem tnnalator, aa hia way of quoting 
hia own work ia according to the nnmerical aeriea 
of the books. Although hia work doea not con- 
tain much original matter, it ia noTeitheleaa one of 
the most Taluable medical remains of antiquity, aa 
being a Teiy judidoos compilation from the writ- 
ings of many authora whoae works baTe been long 
since lost. The whole of it haa ncTer appeared 
in the original Greek ; one half waa publish- 
ed at Vemce, 1534, fiiL "in aed. Aldi," with 
the title " Aetii Amideni Librorum Hedicinalium 
tomua piimua; piimi scilicet Libii Octo nunc 
primum in looem editi, Graeci : " the second 
volume never appeared. Some chapters of the 
ninth book were published in Greek and Latin, by 
J. E. Hebenstreit, Lips. 4to. 1767, under the title 
" Tentamen Philologicnm Hedicum euper AStii 
Amideni Synopaia Medieomm Veternm," &e.; and 
again in the aame year, "Aetii Amideni AniMnm 

Specimen alterum." Another chapter of the 

aame book waa edited in Greek and Latin by J, 
Magnus a TengstrSm, Aboae, 1817, 4to., with the 
title " Commentationum in Aetii Amideni Medid 
'Aysictera ^edmen Primum," etc. Another ez- 
tnct, also nom the ninth book, is inserted by 
Mustozydea and Schinaa in their "SvAAot^ 
'E^\i|i'ucM' 'Ai>s«a<T«n'," Venet. 1816, 8vo. The 
twenty-fiiih chapter of the ninth book waa edited 
in Oreek and Latin by J. C. Honi, Lipa. 1654, 
4to. ; and the chapter (Utrab. L tanii. iii. 164) 
" De Sgnificationibua Stellamm," ia inaertad in 
Oieek and Latin by Petaviua, in hia ** UraHobf 

Digitized by 




ffiom," p. 421, ed. Pari*. Six booka (namely, 
{ram th« eightii to the thirtaenth, indiuire), wen 
publiihed at Baael, 1533, foL, tnuuUted into Latin 
by Janaa Cornariua, with the title ** Aetii An- 
tiocheni Medici de cognoacendia et comndia Morbia 
Sennonea Sex jam primnm in lucem editi," etc In 
1535, the remaining ten booka weie tnutalated and 
publiahed at Bsael, by J. B. Montanna, in two 
Tolmnea, ao that the three Tolumea fonn together a 
complete and uniform edition of the work. In 
1534, 4to^ a complete Latin tranalation wai pub- 
lished at Venice by the Juntaa. In 1542, Comar 
riua completed and publiahed a tranalation of the 
whole work (BaaiL foL); which waa reprinted at 
BaaeU 1549, 8m; Venice, 1543, 1544, Sto.; 
Lyona, 1549, fol. ; and in H. Stephena'a " Me- 
dicae Artia Principoa," Paria. 1567, foL Two 
uaefol woriu on AStioa deaerre to be mentioned ; 
one by C. Oroadoa (Horoioo), entitled ** Anno- 
tationea in Interpretra Aetii," BaaiL 1540, 4ta.; 
the other an academical diaaertion by C. Weigel, 
entitled " Aetiananun Exercitationom Specimen," 
Lipa. 1791, 4to. (See Freind'a Hill, of Pl^m, 
frinn whole work many of the preceding remarka 
have been taken ; Cagnati Variae OttmoL it. 
18 ; Haller, BiblioO. Medk. PraeU ToL i. p. 200 ; 
Sprengel, HuL <U la Mideeme; Choolant, ifaml- 
back dar BuduHmmiU f%r 4i» AtUan Mtiieiu.) 

[W. A. G.] 

AE'TIUS, SICAIJIUS (*««^o* i •Airm), 
aometimes called Actiui Sicamut or Siailmt, the 
author of a treatiae llifi Mt^ar/x»^iit, D» Mtlait- 
dkolia, which it commonly printed among the 
worka of Oalen. (VoL xix. p. 699, &c.} Hia date 
ia uncertain, but, if he be not the lame perion aa 
Aetina of Amida, he muit hBTe lived after him, aa 
his treatiae corresponds exactly with part of the 
latter's great medical work (Mmi. iL senii. iL 9 
— 11, p. 250, &C.): it is compiled from Oalen, 
Rufus, Potidonins, and Maieellua. [W.A.O.] 

AETNA (Afrni), a Sicilian nymph, and accord- 
ing to Aleimna (ap. SAol. neoeriL i. 65), a daugh- 
ter of Unuius and Oaea, or of Briareua. Simo- 
nides said that she had acted aa arbitrator between 
Hephaestus and Demeter respecting the possession 
of Sicily. By Zens or Hephaestus she became the 
mother of the Palici. (Sierr. ad Aen. ix. 584.) 
Mount Aetna in Sicily waa believed to have de- 
rived its name from her, and under it Zeus buried 
Typhon, Encelodua, or Brianus. The mountain 
itself waa believed to be the place in which He- 
phaestus and the Cydopa made the thunderbolta 
for Zeus. (Enrip. CyeL 296 ; Propert iii. 15. 21 ; 
Cic. JM DbmnL u. 19.) [L. &] 

AETNAEUS (Ahvoiot), an epithet given to 
several gods and mythical beinga connected with 
Mount Aetna, ouch aa Zens, of whom there waa a 
statue on mount Aetna, and to whom a festival 
waa celebrated there, called Aetnaea (SchoL ad 
Pind. OL vi. 162), Hephaeatua, who had hia work- 
shop in the mountain, and a temple near it (Aelian. 
Hilt. An. XL S; Spanheim, ad CaUim. kgmn. m 
Dian. 56), and the Cyclops. (Virg. An. viiL 440, 
xi.263, iiL768j Ov. £.i'0ii<.ii.2.116.) [Ua] 

AETC^LE (A{TM\7f), a surname of Artemia, by 
which ahe waa worshipped at Nanpactus. In her 
temple in that town there waa a atatna of white 
marble representing her in the attitude of thiowiqg 
a javelm. (Paoa. x. 88. | 6.) [U S.] 

AETCLUS {kttmM,). 1. A an of Endymion 
■ad the nymph Neb, or IpUaoaMa. (ApoUad.i.7. 


§ 6.) According to Panaaniaa (v. i. 1 3), hia Bo- 
ther waa called Aatetodia, Chnoiia, or Hyperip^ 
He waa married to Pronoe, by whom he had twa 
sons, Pleuron and Calydon. Hia farothen weia 
Paeon, Epeiua, and othera, (Steph. Bys. a. v. Nrf(st; 
Conon.A'<irra<.14| SchoL od /■nd. OL L 28.) His 
bther compelled him and hia two brothers Paecn 
and Epeiua to decide by a contest at Olympia as to 
which of them was to succeed him in hia kingdom cf 
Elii, Epeiua gained the victory, and oeenped the 
throne tAa hia father, and on hia demiae ha was 
Buoceedad by Aetolua. During the iiineral gaacs 
which were celebrated in honour of Aaan, he na 
with his chariot over Apia, the aon of Jaaon or 
Solmoneua, and killed him, w h a r e u iw n he was ex- 
pelled by tin aona of Apia. ( ApoUod. L e.; Paoa. r. 
1. § 6 ; Stiub. viiL p. 857.) After tearing Pekpn- 
neaua, he went to the oountry of the Cnretea, be- 
tween the Acbeloua and the Corinthian gcii, whera 
he slew Dome, Laodocui, and Polypoetca, the soat 
of Helios and Phthia, and gave to the country the 
name of Aetdia, (ApoUod. Pana. tt. tc) This 
story ia only a mytmeal account of the colonisation 
ofAetolia. (Strab. z. p. 463.) 

2. A aon of Oxylua and Pieria, and brother cf 
LaTaa, He died at s tender age, and hia psrenti 
wen enjoined by an omde to bury him neilhcr 
within nor without the town of Elia. They aoeonl- 
ingly buried him under the gate at which the rad 
to Olympia commenced. The gymnaaiarch of Elis 
used to ofier an anniul sacrifice on hia tonb as hM 
aa the time of Pansaniaa. (v. 4. § 2.) [L. S.] 

AFER, DOMI'TIUS, of Nemanana (Nisam) 
in Oaul, was praetor A. D. 25, and gained the far 
vour of Tiberiua by accusing Chmdia Pulchn, the 
consobrina of Agrippina, in A. D. 26. (Tac Ata. 
iv. 52.) Fram this time he became one of the 
moat celebrated orators in Rome, but aacri6oed hit 
character by conducting ooeuiationa for the gonm- 
ment. In the following year, a. d. 27, he is agaia 
mentioned by Tacitus aa the aecnaer of Vanu 
Quintiliua, the son of CUudia Pulchn. Mas. i(. 
66.) In consequence of the aoensation of dandia 
Pulchn, and of aome effimce which he had gim 
to Caligula, he waa accused by the empenr in ths 
senate, but by concealing his own skill in speak- 
ing, and pretending to be overpowered by tfct 
eloquence of Caligula, he not cmly eecaped the 
danger, but waa made consul anffiBctna in A. o. Sil 
(Dion Cosa. lix. 19, 20.) In his old age Afisr M 
much of his reputation by continuing to speak ia 
public, when his powers wen exhausted. (QnistiL 
xiL 11. § 3; Tac. Atm. iv. 52.) He died in ths 
reign of Nero, a. d. 60 (Tac. Aim. xiv. 19), ia 
consequence of a surfeit, according to Hienmynai 
in the Chronicon of Eoaebiua. 

Quintilian, when a young man, heard Domitiu 
Aier (comp. Plin. Ep. iL 14), and frequently qieaki 
of him aa the moat distinguished orator of his sga 
He aaya that Domitius Aler and Julius Afiicaau 
wen the beat ontors he had heard, and that hs 
prefers the formw to the latter, (x. 1. 1 lit.) 
Quintilian refers to a work of his "On Testimoo;* 
(▼■ 7. f 7), to one ena'tlad "Dicta" (vi. 3. 8 43), 
and to some of hia orations, of which those ou be- 
half of DomitiUa, or Cloontilla, and Vohiseaai 
Catnlus seem to have been the most celebntcd. 
(viii 6. ( 16, iz. 2. § 20, 3. S 66, 4. | 31, z. I. 
$ 24, Ac.) Respecting the will of Damitius /Jett 
see Plin. Ep. viii. 18. 

AFRA'NIA, CAIA or QAIA. the wile tfthi 


zed by Google 


I Tecj litigioas w»- 
oaB, ^o alwi^* plfiiii ker own esiaea befim 
Ae poKtar, and tlii» gne oeauon to tba pabliibr 
■g of tha edict, wUdk Iwbad* all womm to potto- 
late. She ma periimt the nater of L. Afaaiiu, 
CBHal in au c. 60l She died B. c. 48. (VaL Mas. 
nL 3. § 1 : Dig. 3. tit. I. a. 1. § &) 

AFRA'NIA OENS, fbliaiaii, ia fiiat mentioiied 
in tka amend eentarf & c. The only cognomen 
•f Ifcia gena, whidi aeema under the lepablie, ia 
Snixio : thoae aamea which baTo no oognenen 
tme ginai nnder Armjkttms, Some peiaon* of thii 
naeeridUBtlydidDot belcag to the Afiania Oenn 
On csina we find oidy Sl A&aaini and If. Aior 
to—, of wimn nothing ia known. (Eckhel, t. p. 
133, te.) 

AFBA'NIUS. 1. L. AnuHiua, a Roman 
cmie poet, a^o Ursd at the hginning of the fint 
iintiiiji flL c. Hia fw diea dncribed Roman 
eeeaea and mannwa (Cbawarftoa tagakm), and the 
Mtijecta wem moatly taken from the lib of the 
hi » ai daeaea. {Oamoediat iabmariae.) They wen 
fiefacotly poUaled with diagmnfiil amoim, which, 
acecadiafgteQi iin t iliwi , wereonly at uiniau itaticaof 
the condiKt of Ainnio*. (x. 1. 8 100.) He depicted, 
hewcTCE. Knwian life with andi accniacy, that be 
ia ihaiiiil with Mrnandw, from wlnni indeed be 
b«nwed Jmigdtj, (Her. JS^ iL 1. <7 ; Macrob. 
8aL Ti. 1 ; Ck^ <h /bu L &) He imilated the 
atyle af C. ^tioi, and hia langiiaga ia piaiaed by 
CScent, (BrmL 4&) Hia comniiea an apoken of 
ia Aa '■■g'*—* tenna by the ancient writeia, and 
■ndcr tke caipin they not only continned to be 
md, bat wace ercn acted, of which an piamplf 
eeian in the tiaeof Nem (Vdl Pat. i. 17, ii. 19; 
GcB. xiiL 8; Soal. JWr. U.) They teem to hare 
faces wcD known CTcn at the latter end of the 
fanth oentaiy. (Anaon. Bpigr. 71.) Afianiu 
MMt hare written a great many oomediei, aa the 
■Biaii and fiagiwiita of b e t wee n twenty and thirty 
■e atiH pnemed. These fiegmenta hare been 
paUUrad by Botha, PoiU LtL Sctme. FngmmOa, 
mihf lttm!^tA,IM/aiiila lofola Somam. 

3. Ik AraamiM, fptn to hare been of ob- 
■ne o^in, aa he it called by Cicen in contempt 
"the ten of Aahn,** aa a perMm of whom nobody 
had heard. (Cic oiAtLl 16, 20.) He was iint 
hnaght rata notice by Pompey, ud was always 
hia warm ficiend and partiaan In B. a 77 he was 
<aa of Pon^ey^ legatee in the war against Seito- 
naa ia Spain, and iJao aervad Pompey in the same 
edacity in the Hithiidatic war. (Pint. Strt. 19. 
Pi^r- 34, 36, 39 : Dion Oaat. zxzrii 5.) On 
Poa^ey'a letara to Berne, he was aazions to ob- 
laa the rewaalship ibr A&aaias, that he might the 
von eaafly cany hia own phma into edeet; and, not- 
nthataading the oppoaitioa of a poweifol jnrty, 
ha iiinaiiiid the electicn at Abanias by inflosnce 
and bribaey. Dnring hia conanlship, however, 
(a a 60), Ainmna did not do mocfa for Pompey 
(DioB Oasai zrsriL 49), but probably man from 
«aat of eiserieaee in pditiol afiin than from 
By want of indinatioB. In & a &9 Aihniias bad 
the p i mim a of Ciaa^rine Qaal (comp, Cic. ad AU. 
L 19), and it may have been owmg to aome adTOn- 
tagas be had guned over the Oanls, that ho ob- 
taasd Aa tnmph, of which Cicero speaks in hi* 
aaiisn i^ainst Piao. (e. 24.) 

When Pompey obtained the prarinoea of the 
two Spnna in Ua aecond cansahhip (b. c S£), 
hi mt Afiaiiaa aad Petieiaa to gpTen Spain 



in hia name, while he himself remained in Rcmeu 
(Veil Pat il 4&) On the breaking out of 
the ciTii war, n. c. 49, Afranina was still in 
^ain with three legions, and after nnitiag his 
fneea with those of Petreius, be hod to oppose 
Caesar in the same year, who had crossed OTer 
into Spain aa toon as he had obtained posses- 
sion of Italy. After a short campaign, in which 
Afiottius and Petnius gained some sdTantagea at 
first, they wen rednoed to snch straits, that tbqr 
wen obliged to sue for the mercy of Caesar. This 
waa gianted, on condition that their tioopa should 
be disbanded, and that they should not serre 
against him again. (Caea, B.(X\. 38-86 ; Appian, 
B. C. ii. 42. 43; Dion Cass. xlL 20-23; Pint. 
Pomp. 66, Can. 86.) Afiranioa, howoTcr, did not 
keep his word ; he immediately joined Pompey at 
Dynhaciam, when he was aonued by tome of the 
anstoeracy, thon^ certainly without justice, of 
treachery in Spain. After the battle of Dynho^ 
cinm, Afiouioa reccmmended an immediate ntunt 
to Italy, especially as Pompey was master of the 
aea ; bnt this adnce was oveinled, and the battle 
of Phatalia Mkwed, a. c; 48, in which Ainnina 
had the cfaaige of the camp. (Appian, A Ci ii 66, 
76 ; PlnL Pomp. 66 ; Dion Cass. xli. 62 ) VelL 
Pat. iL 62.) As Afianins was one of those who 
could not h(qie for pardon, he fled to Africa,, and 
joined the Pompeian oimy under Cato and Scipiu 
(Dion Cass. zbi. 10.) After the defeat of the 
Pompeiana at the battle of Thopaua, b. c. 46, at 
which he waa pneent, be attempted to fly into 
Hauiilania with Faostns Sulla and about 1500 
hoiaemen, bnt araa taken piiaoner by P. Sittins, 
and killed a few days afterwards, accoiding to 
some accounts, in a sedition of the soldiers, and 
according to othera, by the command of Caesar. 
(Hirt BM. Jfiie. 96 ; Soet Caa. 76 ; Dion Cass, 
xliii. 12; Flams, if. 2. 8 90} Ui. £^ 114; 
Anr. Vict <U Vir. 10. 78.) 

Aftanins seems to haTs had some talent for war, 
bnt little for dnl affiurs. Dion Caaaina says " that 
he was a better dancer than a statetman" (xxxvii 
49), and Cicera ^peaks of him with the grsatest 
contempt dnring his consulship (ad. AU. L 18, 20), 
though at a Uter time, when Aftanins was opposed 
to Caesar, he call* him taaimiia dwe. (PiU. xiii. 14.) 

3. L. Afianiua, aon of the pnceding, negotiated 
with Caesar in Spain through Sulpicins for his own 
and his bther's presemtion. He afterword* went 
sa a hcatage to Caaaar. (Caea. B. C. i. 74. 84.) 

4. ArBANina Porrrvs. [Poriroi.] 

6. AvBANIUa QufHCTUNVa. [Qdimctumvs.] 

7. ArBANiuB Dbztsr. [Dbxtbb.] 

8. T. APBANiua or T. Apbxnids, not a Roman, 
waa one of the leaden of the Italian conledentes 
in the Marsio war, B. c. 90. In conjunction with 
Judadliaa uid P. Ventidius he defeated the legate 
Pompon* Stiabo, and ponned him into Finnum, 
befon which, howarer, he waa defeated in hia 
tarn, and waa killed in the battle. {AfpMU, B. C. 
I 40, 47 : Fknu, iii. 18.) 

AFRICA'NU& [SciPio.1 

AFRICA'NUS ('A^putwtfiX • *>>.«" "» »*te- 
rinary smgery, whose date is not owtainly known, 
bat who may Teiy probably be the same person aa 
Sex. Julias Afticonna, whose work entitled Ksorot 
irnitajntd inionnation upon meriiml sabjects. 
[AnucAifin^ Bbjl Jduus.] Hia remaina wen 
pnbUaiwd in the Collection of wiitera on Veteiiiiary 


zed by Google 



If edicine, fint in s Latin tnndation by J. Rnel- 
Gni, Par. 1630, fol., and afterwardi in Oieek, Baa. 
1537, 4to. edited by Giynaeufc [W. A. O.] 

aical Roman juriioonnilt, who Ured nnder Anto- 
ninus Pioi. He was probably a papil of Salviui 
Jolianut, the celebnted refonner of the Edict 
under Hadrian. [Juuanus, Salvios.] He con- 
sulted Julian on legal nibjectt (Die. 2S. tit. 3. i. 3. 
S 4), and there it a controTerted paaaage in the 
Digest [Afriauau libn ruenmo Eputotarwrn apud 
Jaliamum qumrit, &c Dig. 30. tit. i. t. 89), which 
has been explained in various ways; either that 
he published a legal conespondenee which posted 
between him and Jnliannt, ot that he commented 
upon the epiitolary opinions giren by Julianns in 
answer to the letters of clients, or that he wrote a 
commentary upon Jnliannt in the form of letten> 
On the other hand, Jolianns 'ez Sexto" is qnoted 
by Gains (iL 218), which shews that Julianns an- 
notated Sextns, the fbimnla "ez Sezto" being 
synonymous with "ad Seztum." (Nenber, die 
juritL Klaitiker, 8. 9.) Who wa* Sextos but 
Afncanns ? Africanus was the author of " Libri 
IX Qoaestionnm," from which many pore eztnets 
ate irade in the Digest, at may Iw teen in Hom- 
mePs " Palingenetia Putdectarum," where the ez- 
tnets from each jurist are brought together, and 
those that are taken from Afiicanus occupy 26 
ont of about 1800 pages. 

From his remains, thus preterred in the Digest, 
it is evident that he was intimately acquainted 
with the opinions of Julianns, who is the person 
uUuded to when, without any ezpretsed uomimttm, 
he uses the woidt ott, mMmauit, titgamt, jmtant, 
inqvit, rapamdiX, float, uobU. This is proved by 
Cujas from a comparison of some Greek soholia on 
the Basilica with parallel eztacts from Afiicanns 
in the Digeat Panllns and Ulpian have done 
Africanos the honour of citing his auAority. He 
was fond of antiquarian lore (Dig. 7. tit. 7. •. 1 , pr. 
where the true reading is & Oaecihia, not & Adnu), 
and his "Libri IX Qnaestionnm," from the con- 
ciseness of the style, the great subtlety of the rea- 
soning, and the knottiness of the pointa discussed, 
so puisled the old glossators, that when they came 
to an extract from Africanns, they were wont to 
ezdaim A/rioani ler, id at d^Seilit, (Heinecc Hitt. 
J*r. Rom, % occtL n.) Maaoovins (d» jMii Jur, 
4. § 3) supposes that Africanns belonged to the 
legal sect of the Sabiniani [CAriro], and as our 
author was a steady follower of Salrins Julianns, 
who was a Sabinian (Gains, ii. 217, 218), this 
supposition may be regarded as established. In 
the time of Antoninus Pint, the distinction of 
schools or sects had not yet worn out. 

Among the writers of the lives of ancient law- 
yen (Pajicirollns, Jo. Bertrandua, Orotius, &c.) 
much dispnte baa arisen as to the time when A£ri- 
canus wrote, in consequence of a corrupt or ecio- 
neons passage in Lampiidint (Lamp. Alit. Sm. 68), 
which would make him a friend of Severaa Alex- 
ander and a diidple of Pepinian. Cajas ingeniously 
and satisftctorily dispoaea of this anaehnnitm by 
lefeiring to the internal evidence of an extract 
from AnieaDna (IKg. 30. tit. 1. a. 109), which a*- 
mmes the validity of a legal maxim that was no 
longer in force when P^inian wrote. 

For reasons which it would be tedious to detail, 
we hold, contiBiy to the opinion of Menage {Amoem. 
Jar. c. 23), that our Sextos Caedlios Africanos is 


identicsl with the jurist sometiniei mmtioBad in 
the Digest by the name Caedlios or S. CaeciliBs, 
and also whh that S. Caedlius whose dispute with 
Favorinus foima an amniring and interesting diapier 
in the Noctes Attieae. (OeU. xz. 1.) Gdlios per- 
haps dnws to some extent upon his own infentjon, 
but, at all events, the hwyer*s defence of the XII 
Tables against the attacks of the philosopher is 
"ben trovato.** Then it something komomsly 
eniel in the oondnding stroke of the oonveiatioa, 
in the pedantic way in which our juriaooaaolt vin- 
dicates the decemvinl law against debtors fjar ii t 
ssotnrio, Ac- — by the example of Metiue Fofetia^ 
and the harsh aentiment of Viigil : 

"At to dictis, Albane, manena." 

The remains of Afiicanns have been adminUy 
expounded by Ciqas {ad 4/M<>>>n<<n Imttatat IX. 
in Cujac. 0pp. voL I), and have also been aonoiated 
by Scipio Oentili (Sdp. Gentilia, Om. l-IXmi 
A/ricxamw, 4to. Altdrat I60S-7.) 

(Stnnchius, VHae alijmat i s tefawt jurimxmmi- 
tonm, 8vo. Jen. 1723 ; I. Zinunem, I&m. ibeilt- 
gadadde, § 94.) [J. T. G.] 

AFRICA'NUS, JU'LIUB, a celeboted ontar 
in the reign of Nero, seems to have been the sen 
of Jolios Afiicanns, of the Gallic state of the San- 
toni, who was condemned by Tiberiusi a. D. S3. 
(Tac. Arm. vi 7.) Quintilian, vriut had heard 
Jvlios Africanns, speaks of hiia and Domitias 
Afer as the best onton of their time. The do- 
qnenoe of Afiicanns vras chiefly diaraeterised by 
vehemence and energy. (QnintiL z. 1. S 118, 
ziL 10. § 11, coop, viii, & 8 16 i DUL d* Ont. 
16.) Pliny mentions a grandson of this Jolini 
Afiicanns, who was also an advocate and was 
oppoaed ta him upon one occasion. {Ep, vii. S.) 
He was consul snflectns in a. d. 108. 

AFRICA'NUS, SEX. JU'LIUS, a Christian 
writer at the beginning of the third eentoiy, is 
called by Snidas a Lilian (i. cl 'A^pumWt), hot 
passed ue greater part of his life at Kmmant in 
Palettine, where, according to seme, he was bon, 
(Jerome, da Fir. lU. 63.) When 1^""— "« wai 
destroyed by iire, Afiicanns was sent to Ehuahalns 
to solicit its Rstontion, in which miiaion ha too- 
oeeded: the new town was called Nicopolis, (a. o, 
221, Ensebins, CS^nm, snb anno ; SynceUns, pi. 
369, b.) Afiiesnus subsequently went to Alexan- 
dria to hear the philosopher Hendaa, who was 
afterwards bishop of Alexandria, The later gynsa 
writeiB state, that he was snbse^ientlr aafc 
bishop. He vras one of the most learned of the 
eariy Christian vnitets. Socntes (Ant EeA a. 
36) classes him with Origen and Clement ; and it 
uipean ftom his letter on the History of Snauua, 
that he was acquainted with Helnew. 

The chief work of Africanns waa a Chronicoi 
in five books (TfrnMiCXiao xP<"'o'^eTurA'), fins 
the creation of the world, which be placed in 
6499 B. c to A. r>. 221, the fimrth year of the 
reign of Elagabalus. This work is lost, bat a eon- 
siderable part of it is extracted by Ensebins in tit 
" Chnnieon,** and many fiaomenu of it an alts 
preserved by Georgina SynceUna, Cedranna, and ia 
the Paschale Chronioon. (See Ideler, HiaM** 
d. OtronoL voL ii. p. 466, &c.) The fragments <t 
this work an given by Gallandi {BUI, />M,), aid 
Routh {Stligaiaa Saene), 

Africanut wrote a letter to Origen impugaing 
the authority of the book vt Suauuia, to which 


zed by Google 

Origen KplM. Thi* letter b cKtaat, and ba* 
beai pafainhed, together with Ortgea'i uinrer, hj 
WtMtioD, BmIb, 1674, 4to. It a aim contained 
in Ite la Roali edition of Origen. Africann* alio 
wrote a letter to Arieteidea on the geseaiogiei of 
Cknatt in Matthew and Lake (Phot. BiU. 84; 
Eaieb. UiiL JEeeL n. 23), of which loma extiacU 
are gJTcn by Euelmia. (i. 7.) 

ThoK ia another woik attribnted to Afiiamiu, 
(■titled KmmL, that ia, cmbnrideRd ginllee, m 
cafled fiom the oelelaated cerr^ of Aphndite. 
Some modem writen nppoee thi* woik to have 
been written by eome one etae^ bot it can icarcelT 
be doubted that it waa written by the mxae Afri- 
anna, dnee it ia ez^analy mentioned among hi* 
odier writing* by Photin* (2. c), Snidas {L e.), 
Sjncdha {L c), and EnaeUoa. (ri. 23.) The 
number of book* of which it oonaiited, is ttated 
Tarioualy. Soidaa mention* twenty-fenz, Photio* 
fanBteoL, and Synodin* nine. It treated of a Ta«t 
Tsriety of anbjecta — medicine, agricnltme, natunl 
hiatory, the militaiy art, Ac, and leem* to haTe 
been a kind of coomon-^ace book, in which the 
aathor entered the mnlti of hi* reading. Some 
ef the booki are aaid to exiit atill in mannacript. 
(FUnnu, BM. Graee. toL ir. pp. 240, Ac.) 
Bene ea title fiom them are paUiuied by There- 
Bot in the *■ Mathematid Vetere*," Pari*, 1693, 
fe., and abo in the Qeoponica of Caiaiann* Baaan*. 
(Needhnm, Ptoleymt, ad Otapom.) The part re- 
lating to the mOitary ait waa tnnalated into 
French by Onicbard in the third Tohnne of " M^ 
aeins exit, et hiit mr phiuenn Point* d'Anti- 
qmt^ nuCtaiie*," Beii 1 774. Compare Dnreau 
de fai Iblle, " Polknc^qne dea Anden*," Pari*, 
1819, 8T0. 

AFRICA'NUS, T. SE^TIUS, a Roman of 
noUe mnk, waa dstencd by Agrippina from mai^ 
lyii^ Silana, In M.. n. 62, he took the eeneo* in 
the prorinee* of Oaol, together with Q. Vohuio* 
and TrebeDin* Mazimna. (Taa Ann. ziii 19, 
sir. 46.) Hb name occur* in a fragment of the 
Ftatrea Arralea. (Oruter, p^ 119.) There wa* a 
T. Sextiua Afiicanu* eonml with Tnjan in A. D. 
112, who wa* probatdy a deecendant of the one 
mentioned aboTe. 

AOA'CLYTUS CKyoAvri,), the author of a 
woifc about Olympia (wtpl 'OAi^wbu), which i* 
referred to by Snida* and Photiu*. (i. «. KvificAi- 
AOALLIS ('AToAAij) of Coicyta, a female 
grammarian, who wirrte upon Homer. (Athen. L 
p. 14, d.) Some hare mppoeed from two paueges 
m SnidM («. e. 'Am(}«XAu and 'Opxw), ^at 
we ought to read Anagalli* in thi* pa**age of 
Athenaeu*. The (choliut upon Homer and En- 
ilathina (ad IL zriiL 491) mention a grammarian 
of the name of AgaIHa*, a pnpil of Aristophanes 
the gnmmarian, auo a Conrgriaean and a commen- 
tator upon Homer, who may be the aame a* Agal- 
fi* or periiUM her frither. 

AQAMETDE fATtMnfOi)). 1. A daughter of 
Angela* and wife of Mnlius, who, according to 
Homer (/{. xi 739), wa* acquainted with the Deal- 
ing powen of all die plant* that now upon the 
ewth. Hyginua (FtA. 157) makes her the mother 
of Belns, Actor, and Dictyi, by Poseidon. 

2. A daughter of Macaria, from whom Agamede, 
a place in Lesbos, was beliered to hare derired it* 
name. (Steph. Bja. *. v. 'Ayaidfiti.) [L. S.] 



AO AMEDES fATavt^tip), a eon of Stymphalns 
and great-gmadson of Aicaa, (Pans. riii. 4. § 5, 5. 
i 3.) He waa bther of Cercyon by Epieasta, who 
also brought to hira a step-son, TiDphonins, who 
wa* by soma belioTed to be a son of Apollo. Ae- 
eoiding to others, Agamedes was a son of Apdlo 
and Epicaate, or at Zeus and locaste, and father of 
Traphoniua, The most common stoiy howerer is, 
that he was a aon of Eiginus, king of Orehomenu*, 
and brother of Trophoniu*. Theae two bnthen are 
said to hare distinguished themsehes as architects^ 
enwdally in bniUing temples and palaces. Among 
otters, they built a temple of Apollo at Del^ii, and 
a treasury of Hyriens, king of Hyria in Boeotia. 
(Pans. iz. 37-93; Strsb.iz.p.42].) The scholiast 
on Aristophanes ( Aai. 608) grns a somewhat ditfo- 
rent account bnnCihaiaz, and makes them build the 
tnaamy for king Angeiaa. The story about this 
treasury in Panaania* bean a gnat re*emblance to 
that which Herodotn*(ii 121) relate* of the treasury 
of the Egyptian king Rhampainitu*. In the oon- 
*tiuction of the treasury of Hyriens, Agamedes and 
Trophonius oontriTsd to place one stone in such a 
manner, that it could be taken away outside, and 
thus finmed an entnnce to the treasn^, without 
any body pereeiring it. Agamede* and Traphoniua 
now eonatanthr robbed the treaaury ; and the king, 
seeing that lodca and aeali were uninjured while hi* 
treasures were constantly decreasing, set traps to 
catch the thieC Asamedes was thus ensnared, sad 
Trophonius cut off hi* bead to arert the diacorery. 
After thi*, Ttt^onin* was immediatdy swallowed 
up by the earth. On this spot there was afterwards, 
in the grore of Lefaadeia, the so-caDed caTe of Asa- 
medes with a column by the side of iL Here also 
was the oiade of Trophonius, and thos* who con- 
sulted it first offered a ram to Agamede* and in- 
voked him. (Pau*. iz. 89. | 4 ; compan Diet, of 
Ant p. 673.) A tradition mentioned by Cicero 
(Tuac. <2wiea(. i. 47 ; comp. Pint. Da eaaoL ad 
ApoUon. 14), states that Agamedes and Tropho- 
nius, after liaTing built the temple of Apollo at 
Delphi, prayed to the god to grant them in reward 
for their labour what was best for men. The god 
promised to do ao on a certain day, and when the 
day came, the two brothers died. The question aa 
to whether the story about the Egyptian treasury 
is derired from Greece, or whether the Greek story 
was an importation from Egypt, baa been anawered 
by modem scholars in both ways; but Miillcr 
(Orchm. p. 94, Ac) haa rendered it rery pnbaUe 
that the tradition took ita rise among the Minyana, 
waa transferred from them to Augeiaa, and waa 
known in Greece long before the reign (^ Psammi- 
tjchua, during which the intercourse between the 
two countries waa opened. [L. S.] 

AGAMEMNON CATgiiUiirm). 1. A son of 
Pleisthenes and grandson of Atreus, king of My- 
cenae, in whose house Agamemnon and Menelaus 
were educated after the death of their fother. 
(ApoUod. iii. 2. § 2 ; Schol. ad Surip. Or. 5 ; SchoL 
ad Iliad. iLU9,) Homer and aeTeral other writers 
call him a aon of Atreus, grandson of Pelops, and 
neat-grandson of Tantalus. (Horn. IL A 131 ; 
Eurip. Heitn. 396 ; Tsetx. ad Lyaophr. 147 ; Hygiu. 
Fuf). 97.) His mother was, according to most ac- 
counts, Aerope; but some call Eriphyle the wife 
of Pleisthenes and the mother of Agamemnoik 
Besides his brother Menelaus, he hod a sister, who 
is called Anazibia, Cyndiagora, or Aatyocheia. 
(SchoL Eiar^ Or. 5; Hygin. Fob. 17.) Aga- 


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monnsn and Menelani mra braog^t op together 
with Aegiithui, the son of Thjraitei, in the hoiue 
of Atietu. When they had giown to nunhood, 
Atren* lent Agamemnon and Menelani to leek 
Thyeitet. They found him at Delphi, and canied 
him to Atreiu, who threw him into a dungeon. 
Aegiithui wai afterwardi commanded to kill him, 
but, tecqgniiing hii father in him, he abatained 
fiom the cruel deed, ilew Atreui, and after having 
expelled Agamemnon and Manehiui, he and hii 
&ther occupied the kingdom of Mycenae. [Aaoia- 
THUS.] The two brother! wandered about for a 
time, and at lait came to Sparta, when Agamem- 
non married Qytamneatns the danghter of Tynd*- 
reoi, by whom he became the iather of Iphimuuaa 
(Iphigeneia), Chryiothemii, Ijaodice (Electra), and 
OrMteii (Horn. JL ix. 145, with the note of £u»- 
tath. ; Lucret. i. 86.) The manner in which Aga- 
memnon came to the kingdom of Mycenae, i« dif- 
ferently related. From Homer (IL ii. 108 ; comp. 
Paul. ix. 40. § 6), it appear* oa if he had peaceably 
■UGceeded Thyestei, while, according to other* 
(AeachyL Agam. 1605), he expelled Thyeate*, and 
uaurped hii throne. After he had become king of 
Mycenae, he rendered Sicyon and it* king lubject 
to himielf (Pana. ii. 6. 9 4), and became the moat 
powerful prince in Oreece. A catalogue of hii 
dominion* ii given in the Iliad, (ii. 569, &c.; 
comp. Stiab. viiL p. 377 ; Thucyd. i. 9.) When 
Homer {JL iL 108) attribute* to Agamemnon the 
aorereignty over aU Argo*, the name Aigo* here 
■ignifie* Pelopounraani, or the greater port of it, 
for the city of Argo* waa governed by Diomedeib 
(//. ii. 559, &c) Stiabo (Uc.) haa alio ihewn 
that the name Argoi ii lometimei uied by the tra- 
gic poeti 0* lynonymoui with Mycenae. 

When Helen, the wife of Meuelaui, wa* earned 
off by Pari*, the ion of Priam, Agamemnon and 
Menelau* c^led upon all the Greek chiefs for ai- 
liitonce againit Troy. (tMjm. xxiv. 1 15.) The 
chieii met at Aigo* in the palace of Diomedei, 
where Agamemnon wai choien their chief com- 
mander, either in coniequcnce of hii luperior power 
(Euitath, ad IL ii. 108 ; Thucyd. L 9), or became 
he had gained the iavour of the auembled chiefs 
by giving them rich preienti. (Dictyi, Ciet. i. 15, 
16.) After two year* of prepoiatioo, the Greek 
army and fleet aiiembled m the port of Anli* in 
Boeotia. Agamemnon had pceviouily consulted 
the Oracle about the iiiue of the enterpriie, and 
the auiwer given wai, that Troy ihould &U at the 
time when the moit diitingniihed among the Oreeki 
riiould quaneL (Od. viii. 80.) A limihir prophecy 
waa derived from a marvellou* occurrence which 
happened while the Oreeki were aeaemUed at 
Aulii. Once when a aacrifice wa* offered under 
the bough* of a tree, a dngon crawled forth finnn 
under it, and devoured atieat on the tree containing 
eight young bird* and their mother. Calchai in- 
terpreted 3m lign to indicate that the Greek* 
would have to hght againit Troy for nine yean, 
but that in the tenth the city would bU. {IL ii. 
303, lee.) An account of a different miracle por- 
tending the aame thing i* given by Aeachylui. 
{Agam. 110, &c) Another inteniting incident 
happened while the Oreeki were auembled at 
Auli*. Agamemnon, it ii *aid, killed a *tag which 
wa* aacred to Artemi*, and in addition provoked 
the anger of the goddea* by irreverent word*. 
She in retom Tinted the Oraek anny with a pei- 
iilence, and produced a perfect calm, ao that the 


Onek* were onaUe to kave the port When ibm 
leera dedared that the anger of the goddeaa could 
not be Boothed mdea* Iphigeneia, the danghter or 
Agamemnon, were offered to her aa an atoning 
aacrifice, Diomedea and Ody**ena wen *ent to 
fetch her to the camp under the pretext that aba 
wa* to be married to Achillea. She came ; bat at 
the moment when aha waa to be aaoificed, aiie 
waa carried off by Artemia henelf (according to 
othei* by AehiUe*) to Tauri*, and another victim 
wa* mbitiuited in her [daea. (Hygin. folk 98 ; 
Enrip. IpUt. AaL 90, JpUg. Tamr. 15 ; SopbocL 
EImL 565; Find. iyL xi. 35; Ov. MtU xii.31; 
Diet. Cnt. 1.19; SchoL od Zyaopir. 183; Antwiin. 
Lib. 37.) After thii the cahn oeaaed, and tlsa 
anny aaUed to the coaat of Troy. AgamrmiMm 
akme had one hundred ihip*, independent of aixty 
which he had lent to the Aieadiana. (/i. ii. 57^ 

In the tenth year of the uege of Troy — fat it ii 
in thii year tlut the Iliad openi — we find A^*- 
memnon invdved m a quarrel with Achillea ic- 
apecting the poaaeaaion of Bciaeii, whom Acfaille* 
wai obliged to give up to Agamemnon. AdiiUca 
withdrew from the field of battle, and the Graeka 
wen viaited by aucoeaiive diaaater*. [Acuuxss.] 
Zeua aent a dream to Agamemnon to penuade him 
to lead the Oreeka to battle againat the Trajani. 
(IL il 8, &C.) The king, in order to try the 
Oreeka, commanded them to return homo, with 
which they readily complied, until their courage 
waa revived by Odyaaeua, who peranaded them to 
prepare for battle. (IL iL 55, &c) After a aingla 
combat between Paria and Menelaui, a battle 
followed, in which Agamemnon killed eevezal of 
the Trojan*. When Hector challenged the bravcet 
of the Greek*, Agamemnon offered to fight with 
him, but in hi* *tead Ajax wa* choien by lot 
Soon after thii another battle took place, in which 
the Greek* were wonted (IL viu.), and Agamem- 
non in deepondence adviaed tlia Graeka to take to 
flight and return home. (JL ix. 10.) But ha 
waa oppoaed by the other heroe*. An attempt to 
conciliate Achille* failed, and Agamemnon aaaem- 
blcd the chie& in the night to deliberate about the 
meaenre* to be adopted. (IL x. 1, &c) Odyueu 
and Diomade* were then aent out a* qtie*, and oa 
the day following the conteat with the Trojana wa* 
renewed. Agamemnon himielf waa, a^iu one of 
the braveet, and alew many enemie* wiLh hi* own 
hand. At hut, however, he wa* wounded by Coon 
and obliged to withdraw to hi* tenL (IL xL 250, 
&C.) Hector now advanced victorioualy, and Aga- 
memnon again adviaed the Oreeka to aave them- 
lelvea by flight. (IL ziv. 75, &c) But Odyaaena 
and Diomedea again reaiated him, and the latter 
prevailed upon him to retotn to the battle which waa 
going on near the ahip*. Foaeidon alao appeared 
to Agamemnon in the figure of an aged man, and 
inapired him with new courage. (IL xiv. 125, &C.) 
The preaaing danger of the Greek* at laat induced 
Patrodui, tne friend of Achille*, to take an 
enei^tie part in the battle, and bii Call rouacd 
Achille* to new activity, and led to hi* reconcilia- 
tion with Agamemnon. In the gome* at tho 
fiuieial pyre of Patrodn*, Agamemnon gained the 
fint priie in throwing the epear. (IL zxiii. 890, 


Agamemnon, although the chief commander of 
the Greek*, i* not the hero of the Iliad, and ia 
chivilioa* *pirit, bravery, and chanctat^ ajitogethet 


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imferiar to AcIiiUaL But ha nnotlielai Am 
tlum all the Ondu hj his dignity, power, and 
najeaty (//. iii. 166, &&), and his eyes sad head 
an likened to those of Zeus, his giidle to that of 
Ana, and his hnast to that of Poaddon. {IL a. 
477, &e.) AgsmmuKHi b aDung the Omk 
hfToea vhat Zaos is among the gods of Oljmpas. 
This idea appeals to haTe gnidad the Oieek artists, 
ibr in amial rspresentations of Agamemnoa still 
extant then is a ramaikaUe nsemblanoe to the 
iipujui tations of ZentL The emUem of his power 
aad majesty in Homer is a sceptn, the woric of 
Hephaeatas, vhidi Zens had onee giren to Henaea, 
aad Hemes to Pehipa, ban whom it desce n ded 
to Agamaanoo. (/t ii 100, tx.; compu Pans. is. 
40l S 6.) His aimoDr is dncrihed in the Iliad. 
(xi 19, &e.) 

The remaining part of the itoiy of Agameouion 
is iciatad in the Odjssej, and by Bereial later 
vritcn. At the taking of Tny he leeeiTed Caa- 
■ndia, the daqg^ter of Priam, as his priae (Od. 
xL 431 ; Diet Cict. T. 13), by whooH scnording 
to a tiaditian in Ptauaaiaa(u. 16. |6), he had two 
Sana, Teledamna and Pelopa. On his retom home 
be waa twice driTen ont of his course by stonns, 
bat at but laadad in Aigoiis, in the dominion of 
Aegiathaa, who had sediued Qytemnesta daring 
the ahacnea cf her hasband. Ue invited Agamem- 
Boo on his aninl to a repast, and had him aad his 
« s mia i iions tnaehenosly mnrdsied during the 
fcaat {Od. m. 963) [AxoiarHin], and Clytenrnes- 
ta SB the same occasion murdered Casaandia. 
(OdL zi. 400, Ac 422, xzir. 96, dbc) Odymens 
met the shade of Agamemum in the lower world. 
(Od. xi. 387, xxiT. 20.) UeBelau erected a 
BMonmeBt in honour of his bnthcc on the river 
Aegyptoa. (Od. ir. 684.) Pansanias (iL 16. i 
i) statea, that in his time a monument of A^uiem- 
non waa atill extant at Hyoenas. The tragic 
poeta have variously modified the stoy of ue 
murder of Agamemnon. Aeaehylos (Agam. 1492, 
Ac) ankea Clytemncstia alone murder Agamem- 
noa: she threw a net over him while he was in 
the bath, and slew him with three strokes. Her 
motire is partly her jealoasy of Caanndn, snd 
partly her adulterous li& with Aegisthusi Ac- 
cording to Tietaes (ad Lgcafkr. 1099), Aegisthus 
cammitted the murder with the siaistance of Cly- 
temneatia. Euripides (Or. 26) mentions a gar- 
ment which Clytemnestra threw over him instead 
of a net, and both Sophocles (BaeL 530) and Eu- 
ripides represent the lagrifite of Iphigeneia as the 
cause fer which she mnrdeied him. After the 
death of Agamemnoa and CaHandra, their two 
wns were murdered upon their tomb by Aegisthus. 
(Paaa. ii. 16. { 6.) According to Pindar (Pjfit. 
a. 48) the murder of Agamemnon to<A place at 
Amyclae, in I«M'onifa, and Pansanias (<. c) states 
that the inhabitants of this place disputed with 
those of Mycenae the possession of the tomb of 
OmubtkIiii (Comp. Pans. iii. 19. g 5.) In later 
times statues of Agamemnon were erected in Hveial 
parte of Greece, and he was worshipped aa a hero 
at Amydae and Olynqiia. (Pans. iii. 19, g 3, t. 
2S. f 5.) He was represented on the pedestal of 
the celebrated Rhanmusiaa Nemesis (i. 33. $ TX 
and his fig^t with Coon on the cheet of Cypaelus. 
(t. 19. f 1.) He was painted in the Lesche of 
jMphi, 1^ Polygnotos. (x. 26. } 2; corn- 
pan PHn. H. N. xxxT. 86. I 5 ; QuiotiL iL 13. 
i IS i YaLMHUTiii. 11.8 6-} It ihonld be re- 



mariced that seTanl Latin poeta mention a bastard 
son of Agamemnon, of the name of Ualesua, to 
whom the foundation of the town of Falisd or 
Aleainm is aaczibed. (Or. Fa*, ir. 78; Avior. 
iii. 13. 31 ; comp. Serr. ad Am, viL 695 ; SiL 
ItaL riii. 476.) 

2. A snmame of Zeus, under which he waa 
wotshipped at ^arta. (Lycophr. 335, with the 
SchoL ; Eastath. ad /i ii. 25.) Eusuthius thinks 
that tlis god deriTed this nams 6om the reaem- 
bknes between him and Agamemnon ; while 
others belioTe that it is a mere epithet signifying 
the Eternal, from dTdir and /Umw. [l^S^ 

AGAMEMNO'NIDES ('AyaftMiiyaratit), a 
patnmymic form from Agamemnon, which is used 
to deagnata his eon Orsstea. (Horn. Od. i. 30 s 
Jut. Tin. 315.) [L. &] 

'A-yAaeriaii), danghter of Jlegetor, a Thesialian, 
who by her knowledge of Astronomy conU foretell 
whan the mooo would disappear, and imposed 
upon credulous women, by layiiig that she could 
draw down the moon. (Plut. dt (^. Oufpu. p. 145, 
d* D^td. One p. 417.) VL. S.] 

AGANIPPE CAtotJ**!)). 1. A nymph of 
the well of the same name at the foot of Mount 
Helicon, in Boeotia, which waa considered lacred 
to the Muses, and beliered to have the power of 
ia^nring those who diank of it. The nymph is 
caUed a daughter of the rirer-god Pennessua. 
(Paaa. ix. 29. § 8; Viij;. £U<y. x. 12.) The 
Muses are aometimes called Aganippides. 

2. The wife of Acnsius, aad according to lome 
accounts the mother of Uanae, although the latter 
is more commouly called a daughter of Kurydice. 
(Hygin. Fab. 63; ScbaL ad ApoUon. I<had. it. 
1091.) [U S.] 

AOANIPPIS, is used by Ovid (.FomL v. 7) as 
an epithet of Ilippocrene ; its meauiiig however is 
not quite dear. It is derived from Agnippe, the 
well or nymph, and as Aganippides is used to de- 
aignato the Muses, Aguiiippis Hippocreoe may 
mean nothing but " Ilippocrene, sacred to the 
Muses." [L. S.] 

AOAPE^OR CAyanirHp), a son of Ancoeos, 
and grandson of Lycurgus. He was king of the 
Arcadians, and received sixty ships from Agu- 
memuoD, in which he led bis Arcadians to Troy. 
(Horn. IL ii. 609, && ; Hygin. Fab. 97.) Ho 
also occurs among the suitors of Helen. (Hygin. 
Fab. 81 ; ApoUod. iii. 10. g 8.) On his return 
from Troy he was east by a storm on the coast of 
Cyprus, where he founded the town of Paphus, 
and in it the fiunous temple of Aphrodite. (Paiuk 
viii. 5. § 2, Ac.) He also occurs in the story of 
Haehonu. (Apollod. iii. 7. g 5, Ac [L. S.j 

AGAPE'TUS (^K-ianrrii). 1. Metropolitan 
Bishop of Rhodes, x. o. 467. When the Em- 
peror Leo wrote to him for the opinion of his 
suffngans and himself on the council of Cholccdoa, 
he defended it against Timothcua Aelurus, in a 
letter itill extant in a Latin translation, Conei- 
lioram AW> OoUtctio i Aland, voL viL p. 58U. 

2. Sl, bom at Rome, was Archdeacon and 
laised to the Holy See a. d. 535. Ho waa no 
sooner conaeciated than he took off the anathemas 
pronounced by Pope Boniface II. against his de< 
ceased rival Diotcorus on a lolse ctuuge of Simony. 
Ue received an appeal from the Cathulics of Con- 
stantinople when Anthimus, the Monophyaite, 
was made their Bishop by Theodora. [Antui- 


zed by Google 



MC8.] The fiear of an inTuion of Italy by 
Jiutinian led the Ooth Theodatu to oblige St. 
Agapetof to go bhnwlf to Conitantinople, in hope 
that Juttmian might be diverted from hii purpoK. 
(See Brmimiam S. L&arati, ap. Mansi, Oonicilia, 
Td. ix. p. 695.) Aa to thi> last object he conld 
make no impreesion on the emperor, bat he mio- 
eeeded in pertnading him to depoae Anthimui, 
and when Mennae was choaen to racoeed him, 
Agapetoi hid his own hands upon him. The 
Cooneil and the Synodal (interpreted into Qreek) 
sent by Agapetos relating to these affiiin may be 
{onnd ap. Mansi, toL Tiii. pp. 869, 921. Com- 
plaints were sent him from varions qnarters against 
the Honophyiite Acephali ; bnt he died suddenly 
A. D. 536, April 22, and they were read in a 
Council held on 2nd May, by Mennas. (Mansi, 
iM. p. 874.) There are two letters from St. 
Agapetns to Justinian in reply to a letter fiom the 
emperor, in the latter of which he refuses to ac- 
knowledge the Orders of the Aiians ; and there 
an two others : 1. To the Bishops of Africa, on 
the lame subject ; 2. To Beparatus, Bishop of 
Carthage, in answer to a letter of oongiatnlation 
on fail elevation to the Pontificate. (Mansi, Cb*- 
eiSii, viiL ppi 846 — 850.) 

3. Deacon of the Church of St. Sophia, a. d. 
627. There are two other AgopeH mentioned in 
a Council held by Mennas at Uiis time at Con- 
stantinople, who were Archimandrites, or Abbots. 
Agapetus was tutor to Justinian, and, on the ac- 
cession of the latter to the empire, aldieaaed to 
bfan AdnuMUioitt cm Ha Duff tf a Prmee, in 
72 Sections, the initial letters of which form the 
dedication [txttnt Kt^aAalitr wopoirerucMr <rx*- 
9uur9t!cra). The repute in which this work was 
held appeals from its common title, vis. the Koyd 
Seetioitt (irxiiv PanXutd). It was pnbliihed, 
with a Latin vernon, by 2bei. Oattierg. 8vo., Ven. 
1509, afterwards by J. Bnuum, 8vo., Lips, 1669, 
Gnik, 8vo., Lips. 1733, and in Oallandi's Biblio- 
litta, ToL zi. p. 255, ftc, Ven. 1766, after the 
edition of Bandnrius (Benedictine). It was tians- 
bted into French by Louis XIII., 6vo. Par. 1612, 
and by Th. Payneu into English, 12mo., Loud. 
1550. [A. J. C] 

AOAPE'TUS ^Kytanrrit), an ancient Greek 
physician, whose remedy for the gout is mentioned 
with approbation by Alexander Trallianus (xi. 

f. 303) and Paulus Aesineta. (iii. 78, p. 497, vii. 
1, p. 661.) He probably lived between the third 
and sixth centuries after Christ, or certainly not 
later, aa Alexander Trallianns, by whom he is 
quoted, is supposed to have flourished about the 
beginning of the sixth century. [W. A. 0.] 

AOA^IUS ('A-ytdriof ), an ancient physician of 
Alexandria, who taught and practised medicine at 
Bysantinm with gmt saoceas and reputation, and 
acquired immenae riches. Of his data it can only 
be determined, that he most have lived before the 
end of the fifth century after Christ, as Damascins 
(from whom Photins, BiUiolk. cod. 242, and Snidaa 
have taken their account of him) Hved about 
that time. [W.A.O.] 

AOARISTA QAyapiimi). 1. The daughter of 
Cleisthenes, tyrant of Sicyon, whom her fiither 
promised to give in marriave to the best of the 
Oreeks. Suitors came to Sicyon from all parts of 
Greece, and among others Megades, the son of 
Alcnneon, from Athens. After they had been 
detained at Sicyon for a whole year, daring which I 


time Cleisthenea made trial of them in 
ways, he gave Agariste to Megades. From thia 
marriage came the Cleisthenea who divided th* 
Athenians into ten tribes, and Hippocratea. (UenML 
vi. 126 — ISO; eomp. Athen. vL p. 27S, b. c, 
xii. 541, b. c) 

2. The daughter of the aboro-mentioned H^ 
pocratea, and the grand-daughter of the abow- 
mentioned Agariste, married Xanthippna and 
became the mother of Peridea. (Herod, ri. 130; 
Pint Periel. 3.) 

AQA'SIAS ('AyaaUs), a StymphaUan of Ar- 
cadia (Xen. Amab. iv. 1. f 27), is freqnentlj 
mentioned by Xencmhon as a brave and active 
officer in the army of the Ten Thousand. (^Aiiai, 
>▼. 7. 111. T. 2. § 15, &c) He was womuied 
while fighting against Asidates. (Aaak. viiL 8. 

AOA'SIAS CArxr^), son of Doaitheaa, a 
distinguished snllptor of Kphesua. One of the 
productions of his chisel, the statue knoirn by the 
name of the Boigbeae ghuliator, is still pr ea e i i eJ 
in the gallery of the Loavie. This statue, aa well 
aa the Apollo Belvidere, was discovered amoi^ 
the ruins of a palace of the Roman emperors oo the 
site of the andent Antium {Oapo d'Anito). From 
the attitude of the figure it is dear, that the atatae 
represents not a gladiator, bat a wairior coDtend- 
ing with a moantnl combatant Thiersch ooDJee- 
tures that it was intended to represent AchiileB 
fighting with Penthesilea. The only record that 
we have of this artist is the inscriptini on the 
pedestal of the statue ; nor are there any data te 
ascertaining the age in which he lived, except the 
style of art displayed in the work itself which 
competent judges tiunk cannot have been jnodoeed 
earlier than the fourth century, & c. 

It is not quite dear wfaother the Agasiaa, who is 
mentioned aa the &ther of Heraelides, was the 
same aa the author of the JSorghese statne, or a 
diflisrent person. 

There was another sculptor of the same name, 
also an Ephesian, the son of Menophilna. He is 
mentioned in a Greek inscription, from which it 
appean that he exercised his art in Delos while 
that island was under the Roman away ; probably 
aomewhere about 100, B. c. (Thiersch, Spodiem d. 
bild. KmH, p. 130 ; MilUer, An*, d. Kmmd, 
^ 155.) fC. P. M.] 

('A'yae'ucAtit, 'AyvraeKiit, 'H7i)<ncAqt), a king of 
Sparta, the thirteenth of the line of Pndes. Ha 
was contemporary with the Agid Leon, and *a> 
ceeded his fiither Archidamna I., probaUy abeol 
& c. 590 or 600. During his reign the Lacedae- 
monians carried on an unanecessfnl war against 
Tegea, but prospered in their other wars. (Herod. 
i.65; Paus.iiL7. §6, S.I.5.) [C P. H.] 

AOA'STHENES ^kymiiti»v), a sod of A» 
geiaa, whom he snceeeded in the kingdom of Elia. 
He had a son, Polyzenns, who occurs among the 
suitors of Helen. (Horn. lU ii. 624 ; Pans. v. 3. 
I 4 J Apollod. iii. 10. 1 8.) (L. 8.] 

AOATHA'NGELUS, die son of CalHstntos 
wrote the life of Ormry of Armenia in Greek, 
which is printed in the Aela Semctonan, vol. viil 

fi. 320. There an mannaeripta of it in the public 
ibraries both of Paris and Florence. The time at 
which Agathangelus lived is unknown. (Fahrib 
BM. Graee. vol. x. p. 232, xL p. 554.) 
AOATHAGETUS CA7a«tfyi|ros), a Rhodaa^ 


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«fa> raeonunaided hia itate to eqxniM the tida of 
Ik Ronaiis at the bcgisnmg of the war between 
Bone and Peneus, a. c. 171. (Polyb. xxviL 6. 
{ 3, zxnii. 2. i 3.) 

AGATHATICHIDES (^AyaBapxttilf), or 
AOATHARCHUS ('Ayiean"), > Oreek gnm- 
naiiin. boni at CnidaiL He wa« bnmght up by 
• nan tf the name of Cinnaeiu ; waa, as Strabo 
(zri. f, 779) infenni na, attached to the Perips- 
tetie school of philoaophj, and wrote aeveial 
historical and geographical worica. In hia yonth 
he held the dtnatian of aecRtaTy and reader to 
Hendidea Lembna, who (according to Suidas) 
firad in the leign ot Ptolemy Philometor. This 
king died a. c. 146. He hinuelf infbnu ns (in 
kit vock on tlie Eiythraean Sea), that he was aal>' 
•rqnently guardian to one of the kings of ^ypt 
daring his minority. This was no donbt one of 
the two Bona of Ptolemy Physcon. Dodwell en- 
dsaroBra to shew that it was the yoonger son, 
Alexander, and objects to Soter, that he reigned 
caaiointly with his mother. This, howerer, was 
^ caae with Alexander likewise. Wetseling 
sad Clintam think the elder brother to be the one 
neaat. a> Soter II. was more likely to have been a 
nnnor on his aooeasion in B. c. 117, than Alexan- 
der in B. a 107, ten yean after their lather's 
ikath. Moreover Dodwd's date wonld leaTo too 
•hart an intenvl be t ween the publication of Ag»- 
tharcUdet'a work on the Eryttiraean Sea (abont 
B. a 113), and the work of ATtanidoms. 

An exnunention of the woAs of Agatharchides 
is gimi by Photios (Cod. 213). He wrote a 
wnk on Asia, in 10 books, and one on Eorape, 
in 49 Iwoks ; a geogiaphical worit on the Ery- 
thraean Sea, in 5 books, of the first and fifth 
hooks of which Photina giTcs an abstnct; an 
cyttonae of the laat mentioned work ; a treatise on 
the Troglodytae, in 5 books ; an epitome of the 
AA« of Antimachna ; an epitome of the works of 
those who had written rsp) rq> minryiryqt $av- 
fmtUtr Mitir; an historical work, £ram the 
12th aad 30th books of which Athenaeos qnotes 
(xiL p. 627, b. tL p. 251, £) ; and a treatise on 
the intercoorae of £riends. The firrt three of 
ftese only had been read by Photina. Agathar- 
lUdea Gompoaed his work on the Eiythraean Sea, 
as kc telle na hiniaeli^ in his old age (p. 14, ed. 
Hads.), in the reign probably of Ptolony Soter II. 
It ap pe a rs to haTe contained a great deal of valn- 
ahle matter. In the first book was a dJscnssion 
le^teeting the origin of the name. In the fifth 
he dfsrribed the mode of life amongst the Sabaeans 
ia Arabia, and the Ichthyophagi, or fish-eatert, 
the way in which elephants were caught by the 
dephaaVeatera, and the mode of working the gold 
nines in the monntains of Egypt, near the Red 
Sea. Hia aeeoont of the Ichthyophagi and of the 
node of working the gold mines, has been copied 
by Diodorusk. (iii. 12 — 18.) Amongst other ex- 
trandinary animals he mentions the camelopard, 
which was found in the conntiy of the Troglo- 
dytae, aad the rhinoceros. 

Agatharcfaidee wrote in the Attic dialect. His 
style, according to Photina, was dignified and per- 
ipieaaoa, and abounded in sententious passages, 
which inspiied a fiiTonrable opinion of his judg- 
■CBt In the oompoaitiou of Us neeebes he was 
an imitator of Thocydidea, whom he equalled in 
dignity and excelled in deameaa. His rhetorical 
irienis also are highly psiaed 1^ Photinn He 



was acquainted with the language of the Aethio- 
pians {de Hubr. M. p. 46), and appears to hare 
been the first who discorered the true caiise of the 
yeariy inundations of the Nile. (Died. L 41.) 

An Agatharchides, of Somas, is mentioned by 
Plutarch, as the author of a work im Persia, and 
one vspi AftdT. Fabridus, howerer, conjectnrBs 
that the true reading is Agathyiaides, not Aga- 
tharchides. (Dodwell in Hudson's G»ogr, Serf>L Or, 
Mmont ; Clinton, Ftuti HM. iii. p. 535.) [C.P.H.] 

Then is a carious obsemtioD by Agathaichidea 
preaerred by Plutarch (^faipot. Tiii. 9. } 3), of 
the species of worm called filaria MedmmtiM, ot 
Oamea ITona, which is the earliest account of 
it that is to be met with. See Justus Weihe, 
De FUar. Medm. Commad., BeroL 1832, 8to., 
and especially the Tery learned work by O. H. 
Welschius, D» Vtma Medmmi, &e^ August. 
Vindel. 1674, 4to. [W. A. O.] 

AOATHARCHUS CKyiBafxn), a Syiacusan, 
who was placed by the Syiacnsans orer a fleet of 
twelTe ships in & c 413, to riait their allies aad 
harass the Athenians. He was afterwards, in the 
same year, one of the Symcusan commanders in 
the decisiTe battle fought in the harbour of Syra- 
ense. (Thuc. to. 25, 70 ; Diod. xiii. 13.) 

AOATHARCHUS ('KyiBanof), an Athenian 
artist, mid by Vitrnnus (Prarf. ad lib. Tii.) to 
have invented scene-painting, and to have painted 
a scene (aeeiHMt ficU) for a tngedy which Acachy Ins 
exhibited. As this appears to contradict Aristotle's 
assertion (PocL 4. § 16), that scene-painting was 
introduoed by Sophocles, some scholars understand 
Vitmrins to mean merely, that Agatharchns con- 
structed a stage. (Compara Hor. j^. ad Pi$. 279 : 
«f morftM taifmett jndpUa HgmiM.) But the context 
shews clearly that perspectire painting must be 
meant, for VitruTins goes on to say, that Democritna 
and Anaxagoras, carrying out the principles laid 
down in the treatise of Agatharchus, wrote on the 
same subject, shewing how, in drawing, the lines 
ought to be made to correspond, according to a ni>- 
tnnl proportion, to the figure which wonld be traced 
out on an imaginary intarrening plane by a pencil 
of fays proceeding from the eye, as a fixed point 
of sight, to the seTetal points of the object viewed. 

It was probably not till towards the end of 
Aesdiylns's career that scene-painting was intro- 
dnced, and not till the time of Sophocles that it 
was generally made use of; which may account 
for what Aristotle says. 

Then was another Greek painter of the name 
of Agathardius, who was a native of the island of 
Samos, and the son of Eudenras. He wns a con- 
temporary of Alcibiades aad Zeuxis. We have no 
definite accounts respecting his peifonnanoes, but 
he does not appear to have been an artist of much 
merit : he pnded himself chiefly on the ease and 
rapidity with which he finished his works. (Pint 
Perid. 1 3.) Plutarch {,Alak.\6) and Andoddes at 
gnater lei^th (m Alab. p. 31 . 1 5) tell an anecdote 
of Alcibiades having inveigled Agatharchns to his 
house and kept him then for mon than three 
months in strict dumnce, compelling him to adorn 
it with his pencil. The speech of Andocides above 
referred to seems to have been delivered after the 
destruction of Melos (b. c 416) and befbn the 
expedition to Sicily (n. c. 415); so that from the 
above data the age of Agatharchus may be acen- 
ntely fixed. Some Bcholan(as Bentley, Bottiger, 
and Meyer) have snppoaed him to be the same as 


zed by Google 



the ooniemporaiT of AeKhylns, who, howerer, 
must hare preceded him by a good hiif oentuiy. 
(MUUer, Ani. d. Ktaut, p. 88.) [C. P. M.] 

AUATHETMERUS ('A-yoSiffupei), the Kn of 
Orthon, and the author of a imaU geographical 
work in two booki, entitled rfit Tfarypo^los i)r»- 
rvnfatu ip Arrro^p (" A Sketch of Qeogmphy 
in epitome"), addrened to hii pnpii Philon. Hia 
age cannot be fixed with much certain^, hot he 
is Mippoaed to have Utred abont the beginning of 
the third eentniy after Chriit. He lired ariFter 
Ptolemy, whom he often quote*, and before the 
foundation of Constantinople on the site of Byxan- 
tiura in a. d. S'28, as he mentions only the old 
city Byzantium, (ii, 14.) Wendelin has attempt- 
ed to shew that he wrote in the beginning of the 
third century, from the statement he gives of the 
distance of the tropic from the equator ; but Dod- 
well, who thinks he lived nearer the time of 
Ptolemy, contends that the calculation cannot be 
depended on. From his speaking of Albion ir f 
trrparirtSa ttpvrat, it has been thought that be 
wrote not very long after the enction of the wall 
of Severus. This is probably true, but the language 
is scarcely definite enongh to establish the poinL 

Hi* work consist* chiefly of. extracts from 
Ptolemy and other eniiier writers. From a com- 
parison with Pliny, it appears that Aitemidorus, 
of whose work a sort of compendium is contained 
in the first book, was one of his main authorities 
He gives a short account of the vaiion* forms 
assigned to the earth by earlier writers, treat* of 
the division* of the earth, oaos, and islands, the 
winds, and the length and shortness of the days, 
and then lays down the most important distance* 
on the inhabited part of the earth, reckoned in 
stadia. The surname Agathemems fivquently 
occurs in inscriptions, (Dodwell in Hudson's Geo- 
gnq>i. Scr^filonM Gr. Mimora; Ukert, Gtogr. der 
Oniciat u. Romer, pL i. div, 1, pt 236.) [C. P. M.] 

'KyaBiiiufos), an ancient Oreek physician, who 
lived in the fir«t century after Christ. He was 
bora at Lacedaemon, and was a pupil of the philo- 
•apher Comntus, in whose house he became ac- 
quainted with the poet Persius about A. d. £0, 
(Pseudo-Sneton. vila PertU.) In the old editions 
of Suetonius he is called Agaltnuit, a mistake 
which «a* first eoneded by Reinesiu* (Syilagma 
Jnteript. Anli/. p. 610), fimn the epitaph upon 
him and his wife, Myrtale, which u preserved 
in the Marmora Ojxmiauia and the Grtelc Ait- 
IkaUigg, voL iii. p. 381. § 224, ed, Tauchn. 
The ^moreut anomaly of a Roman proenomen 
being given to a Greek, may be accounted for 
by the fiKt which we learn from Suetonios 
{Tiber. 6), that the Spartans were the hereditary 
elienU of the Claudia Oens. (C. O. KUhn, Ai- 
dilam, ad EUndk Medic VeL a J. A. Fabrieio, m 
'^BiUioih. Oratea" exUbU.) [W. A. O,] 

AOA'THIAS ('A7a«las), the son of Mamno- 
nin*, a rhetorician, was born, as it seems, in 636 
or £37 A. D. (Hid. ii 16, and Vita AgatUae in ed. 
Bonn. p. xiv.), at Myiina, a town at the month of 
the river Pytueus in Aeolia (AgalUae Prcoemtum, 
p. 9, ed. Bonn. ; p. fi. Par.; p, 7, Voil), and re- 
ceived hi* education in Alexandria, where he 
studied litaiatnre. In ££4 he went to Constonti- 
nople (HiMl. ii. 16), where his father then most 
probably resided, and studied for several years the 
Roman law. {Bjpigr. 4.) He afterward exercised 

with great mece** the profeiuon of an advocate, 
though only for the sake of a livelihoed, hi* fi^ 
Tonrite occupation being the (tudy of ancient 
poetry (UU. m. 1) ; and he piid partimlgr atten- 
tion to hiatory. Hi* prafiission of a lawyer waa 
the canse of Us surname SxoAAaTunir (Saidas,s; 9. 
'AyaSias), which word signified on advocate in the 
time ef Agathioa. Niebohr ( Vila Aga&. in ed. 
Bonn. p. XV.) believes, that he died dorii^ the 
reign of Tiberio* Thraz, a ahcrt time before the 
death of thi* emperor and the aooeeaion of Maati- 
tin* in 582, at the age of only 44 or 45 years. 
Agathia*, who wa* a Christian {Epigr. 3, 5, and 
especially 4), enjoyed dnring his lifo the eoteem of 
several great and distinguished men of hia time, 
such as Theodoras the decurio, Paulo* SQentiariaa, 
Entychianoa the younger, and Macedonia* the ez- 
consuL He shewed them his gratitude by dedicat- 
ing to them several of his literary prodnetioDa, and 
he paid particoUr homage to Paulus Sileotiorina, 
the son of Cyrus Floras, who was descended fioia 
an old and iliustriou fimily. (/fiit r. 9.) 
Agathia* is the author <^ the following wodu : 

1. A <i ^i w «« « <, a collection of small love poea^ 
divided into nine books ; the poems are vnitten in 
hexametre*. Nothing i* exttmt of Uii* ooDectioo, 
which the author call* a juvenile esoay. (Agoth. 
Prooemuim, p. 6, ed. Bonn. ; p, 4, Par.; f. 6, Von.) 

2. KiJkXw, an anthology containing poems M 
early writers and of several of his oontempMariea, 
chiefly of such a* were his protectors, among vriiani 
were Paulas Silentiarius and MooediHuas, This 
collection was divided into seven books, but nothing 
of it is extant except the introduction, which was 
written by Agathios hinisel£ However, 108 en- 
grams, which were in circulation either before us 
collected hi* K^xAot, or which he composed at a 
later period, have come down to no. The lost 
seven and several others of these epigrams aie (^ 
neially attributed to other writers, soch as Panbs 
Silentiarius, &e. The epigrams are contained in 
the Antlmlogia Oram (iv. p. 3, ed. Jacob*), and 
in the editions of the historical woric of Agathiai^ 
Joseph Scaliger, Janus Douia, and Bonavemtaia 
Vulemius, have translated the greater part sf 
them into L«tin. The epigrams wen written and 
published after the Aa^umi, 

3. 'Kiaiiait Sx<>^'>'^''"i' Mu|pvalav lorepbii' E. 
"Agathiae Scbolastid Myrinensi* Hittorianm 
Libn v." This is hi* principal work. It con- 
tains the history from ££3— £58 A. n, a shcrt 
period, but remarkable for the impoitant events 
with which it is filled npw The first book contains 
the conquest of Italy by Nurses over the Oeths, 
and the first contests between the Greeks and the 
Franks ; the second book contain* the continoa- 
tion of these conteot*, the description of the great 
earthquake of 554, and the beginning of the war 
between the Greek* and the Persian* ; the third 
and the fourth book* contain the continuation of 
thi* war until the first peace in £36; the fifth 
book relates the second great earthquake of 5£7, 
the rebuilding of SL Sophia by Justinian, the 
plague, the exploit* of Belisariu* over the Huns 
and other barbarian* in 5£8, and it finishes 
abruptly with the 25th chapter. 

AgaUiias, after having related that he had 
abandoned his poetical occnpatkm for more MiieM 
studies (Prooemiiau, ed, Bonn. pp. 6, 7; Par. p. 4; 
Ven. p. 6), tells us that soveral distinguished mta 
hod suggested to him the idea of writing the history 


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af Us time, and he adds, that he had ondertakeB 
the tnk trnpedaHj on the adviee ef Entyehiaiiiu^ 
[Ik.) Uowerer, he ealla EntjchJanu the ona- 
Bent of the brnHj of the Fieri, a family to which 
Eatjehianus did not hdongat alL It if therefore 
inbafale that, intead of rattfchiimn^ we moat 
nad Paaloa Silentiaiiu : Niebohr i« of thi* opi- 
nion, (/i. not. 19.) Agathias i* not a great hiato- 
rian ; he vanta hiiterical and geographioal knov- 
Mge, prinditallj with ngard to Italy, though he 
koowt the Eaat better. He nidom penetratea into 
the real caoaea of thoee great eranta which form 
the aabjects of hie book : hi* hktory it the woric 
of a man of boaineia, who adomi hia ityle with 
poetieal reminiaeeneai. Bat he ii honeat and im- 
partial, and in all thoee things which ha ii aUe to 
onder^and he ahewa hinuelf a man of good lente. 
Hi* ityle is cAen bombastic ; he praises himself ; 
in his Gxedc the lonie dialect preraili, bat it is the 
Ionic of his time, degenerated from its chissical 
pority into a sort of mixture of all the other Qieek 
dislecta. Noth withstanding these deficiences the 
work of Agathias is of high rsloe, becanse it eon- 
tains a great nnmbCT of important bets concerning 
one of me meet erentfiil periods of Roman history. 
Editions: 'Ayatlmi Sxs^svrvni wspi ^V Boo-h 
AcuB lovurrmom, riftoi E., ed. BonaTCntara 
Vnkaaias, with a Latin tnuisbtion, liocduii, 1594, 
The Paiisiaa edition, which is oontamed in the 
■^ Coipos Script. Bywrt." wss published in 1660 ; 
ft eOBtaina many earn and csnjectnnl innova- 
tiona, which have been reprinted and angmented 
by the editors of the Venetian edition. Another 
edition was pnUished at Basel (in 1576?). A 
Ijitin translation by Christophoms Persona was 
separately published at Rome, 1516, foL, and 
afterwards at Augsbmg, 1519, 4to.; at Basel, 1531, 
ibL, and at Leyden, 1594, 8n. The best edition 
is tliat of Niebohr, Bonn. 1898, Sre,, which forms 
the third Tolnme of Ae " Cerpos Scriptomm 
Hiatoriae Byaantinae." It contains the Latin 
tnmslation and the notes of BonaTontora Vnlconius. 
The Gp^rams form an appendix of this edition of 
Niebohr, who has carefully corrected the emm, 
and lonoTed the innorations of the Psrision 
edition. [W. P.] 

AOATHI'NUS ('KyJBiPot), an emment an- 
cient Greek physician, the fimnder of a new 
— >■— ' sect, to which he gsre the name of Epi- 
ijeffc'lai (Diel. <}f Aid. t. v. Epirvkthitici.) 
He sras bom at Sparta and most hare liTed in the 
first eentniy alter Christ, as he was the pupil of 
Athenaaoa, and the tutor of Aichigenea. (Ghilen. 
Dtfimt. M»d. c. 14. vol zix. p. 85S ; Saidas, «. e. 
'tixrflanit ; Eudoc VioUtr. ap. Viiloison, Atited. 
Or. ToL L p. 65.) He is said to hare been once 
Miiad srith an attack of deliiinm, brought on by 
Wast of sleep, from which he was delireied by hia 
pupil Archigenes, who ordered his head to be 
fasiented with a great quantity of warm oiL 
(A^tina, tetr. i. serm. iii. 172, p. 166.) Ha is 
6eqnently quoted by Galea, who mentions him 
among the Pneomatid. (Dt Digaoie, Pal*, i. 3, 
Tol. Tiii. p. 787.) None of his writings are now 
extant, but a few fiagments are omtained in 
Matthaei's Collection, entitled JCXI PMrnoa el 
Clanrwrn AMteomm Oramwvm Varia Optuada, 
Mosqnae, 1808, 4to. See also PaUadius, Cbm- 
aisBt. m Htppoer. ** D* Moth. PvfmL lib. tl" ap. 
Diets, Sdiotia m Hippocr. H Ghfaa. toL ii. p. 56. 
The particular opinians of his sect are not exactly 



known, bat they were probably naaily the mdm 
ss those of the EelectieL (DieL of Ami. : «, 
EcLKTici.) (SseJ.COsterhausen,/fM(or. JMo* 
PnmmaUo. Mti. AltorC 1791, 8to.; aO. KUhn, 
AddHam. ad Ebmek. MttUe. Vet. a J. A. Fabrido 
M "iNUM*. GroMa" eaUW) [W.A.O.] 

AOATHOCLE'A ('A7««feX«ia), a mistress of 
the profligate Ptolemy Philopator, King of Egypt, 
and lister of his no lew profligate minister 
Agathocles. She snd her brother, who both exer- 
cised the most mibonnded influence orer the king, 
were introduced to him by their ambitious and 
aiaricions mother, Oenonthe. Afker Ptolemy had 
put to death his wife and sister Enrydioe, Aga- 
thoclea became his &Toarite. On the death e( 
Ptolemy (a. c. 205), Agatheelea ud her Mends 
kept the erent secret, that they might hare an 
opportunity of plundering the royal treasury. 
They also formed a conspiracy for setting Aga- 
thocles on the th»n& He managed for >ome 
time, in conjunction with Scsibius, to act as 
guardian to the young king Ptolemy Epiphanes, 
At last the Egyptians and the Macedonians of 
Alexandria, exaapersted at his outrages, rose 
against him, and Tlepolemns placed himself at 
their head. They surrounded the palace in the 
night, and forced their way in. Agathocles and 
his sister implored in the most abject manner that 
their lires might be tpsied, but in Tain. The 
former was killed by his friends, that he might not 
be exposed to a more cruel late. Agathodea with 
her suters, and Oenanthe, who had taken refuge 
in a t«nple, were dragged forth, and in a state of 
nakedneis exposed to the fury of the multitude, 
who liteially tore them limb from limk All their 
relations and those who bad had any share in the 
murder of Eniydice ware likewise put to death. 
(Polyb. T. 68, xir. 11, xT. 25 — 34 ; Justin, xxx. 
I, 3 ; Athen. ri, p. 251, xiii. p. 676 ; Plut. Cltom. 
S3.) There was another Agathoclea, the daughter 
of a man named Aristomenes, who was by birth 
an Aeamanian, and rose to gnat power in Egypt. 
(Polyb. L «.) [C. P. M.] 

AOA'THOCLES ('ATatsaX^t), a Sicilian of 
such remarkable ability and energy, that he raised 
himself from the station of a potter to that of tynmt 
of Syracuse and king of Sicily. He flourished in 
the latter part of the fourth and the beginning of 
the third century, a. c, so that the period of his 
dominion is contemporary with that of the second 
and third Samnite wan, during which time his 
power must hare been to Rome a cause of painful 
mterest ; yet so entire is the loss of all Homan 
history of that epoch, that be is not once mentioned 
in the 9th and 10th books of Liry, though we 
know that he had Sanmites and Etruscans in his 
•errice, that assistance was asked from him by the 
Tarentines (Strab. yt p. 280), and that he actnally 
landed in Italy. (See Arnold's Rome, c xxxr.) 
The crents of his lifo are detailed by Diodoms and 
Justin. Of these the fint has taken his acconnt 
from Timaeus of Tauromenium, a historian whom 
Agathocles banished from Sicily, and whose Iots 
for censuring others was lo great, that he was nick- 
named i^pi<rai<ie«>(&nlt-6nder). (Athen. Tip. 272.) 
His natural propensity was not likely to be soft- 
ened when ne was describing the author of his 
exile; and Diodorus himself does not hesitate to 
accuse him of baring calumniated Agathocles rery 
grossly. {Fragm, lib. xxi.) Polybius too chaigea 
him with wilfully perrertiog the truth (xi. 15), so 


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ibat the acoouut which he hu left most be leoeiTed 
with much suspicion. Manrelloiu stories are re- 
lated of the early years of Agathocles. Bora at 
Thermae, a town of Sicily snbject to Cartha^te, he 
u said to hare been exposed when an infiut, by 
his fiither, Caicinus of Rbegiom, in consequence rf 
a (nocession of ttonblesome dreams, portending 
that he would be a source of ranch evil to Sicily. 
His mother, howeTer, secretly pieserred his life, 
and at seven years old he was restored to his fit- 
ther, who had long repented of his conduct to the 
ehild. By him M was taken to Syracuse and 
bronght np as a potter. In his yoolh he led a 
life of eztmTBgance and debancheiy, bat was re- 
marluUe for strength and personal beanty, qnalities 
which recommended him to Damaa, a noble Syrir 
ciisan, under whose auspices he was made first a 
soldier, then a chiliaich, and afterwards a military 
tribune. On the death of Damas, he married hu 
rich widow, and so became one of the wealthiest 
citizens in Syracuse. His ambitious schemes then 
developed themselTes, and ho was driven into 
exile. After several changes of fortune, he col- 
lected an army which overawed both the Syraensans 
and Carthaginian*, and was restored under an oath 
that he would not interfere with the democracy, 
which oath he kept by murdering 4000 and banish- 
ing 6000 citixcns. Ho was immediately declared 
sovereign of Syracuse, under the title of Autoaator. 
Bat Hamikar, the Carthaginian general in Sicily, 
kept the field successfiilly against him, after the 
whole of Sicily, which was not under the dominion 
of Carthage, had submitted to him. In the battle 
of Himera, the army of Agathocles was defeated 
with great slaughter, and immediately after, Syra- 
cuse itself was closely besieged. At this juncture, 
he formed the bold design of averting the ruin 
which threatened him, by carrying the war into 
Africa. To obtain money for this purpose, he at- 
fered to let those who dreaded the miseries of a 
protracted siege depart from Syracuse, and then 
sent a body of armed men to plunder and murder 
those who accepted his ofler. He kept his design 
a profound secret, eluded the Carthaginian fleet, 
which was blockading the harbonr, and though 
closely pursued by them for six days and nights, 
landed his men in safety on the shores of A&ica. 
Advancing then into the midst of his army, arrayed 
in a splendid robe, and with a crown on his head, 
be announced that he had vowed, as a thank-afier- 
ing for his esoqn, to sacrifice his ships to Demeter 
and the Kora, goddesses of Sicily. Thereupon, he 
burnt them all, and so left his soldiers no hope of 
safety except in conquest 

His successes were roost brilliant and rqiid. Of 
the two Suffetes of Cartluige, the one, Bomikar, 
aimed at the tyranny, and opposed the invaders 
with little vigour ; while the Bther, Honno, fell in 
battle. He constantly defeated the troops of Car- 
thage, and had almost encamped under its wall% 
when the detection and crucifixion of Bomilcar in- 
fused new life into the war. Agathocles too was 
summoned firom Africa by the affiurs of Sicily, 
where the Agrigentines had suddenly invited their 
iellow-coantrymen to shake oif his yoke, and left 
his army under his son Archagnthus, who was nn- 
abhs to prevent a mutiny. Agathocles returned, 
but was defeated ; and, fearing a new outbreak on 
the port of his troops, fled from his camp with 
Archagathus who, however, lost his way and was 
taken. Agathodea escaped; but in revenge for 


this deserUon, the soldiers murdered his sons, sod 
then made peace with Carthage. New treobla 
awaited him in Sicily, where Deiiiociates, a Sjn- 
eusan exile, was at the head of a laige amy s^mit 
him. But he made a treaty with the Carthsginiwii, 
defeated the exiles, received Deinoerates mto fa- 
vour, and then had no difficulty in rednaog tlw 
revolted cities of Sicily, of which island hs hsd 
some time before assumed the title of king, H« 
afterwards crossed the Ionian sea, and defendtd 
Corcyra against Casaonder. (Diod. xxL /^W^)it) 
He plundered the Lipori isles, and also earned kit 
arms into Italy, in order to attack the Binttil 

But his designs wen interrupted by seven ill- 
nass accompanied by great anxiety of mind, is 
consequence of fiunily distresses His gnadnB 
Anhagathus murdered his son Agathocles, for tlie 
sake of succeeding to the crown, and the old king 
feared that the rest of his fiunily would ahsic hu 
fete. Accordingly, he resolved to send his wifc 
Texena and her two children to Egypt, her nstin 
country ; they wept at the thoughts i^ his djin| 
thus nnoued for and alone, and he at seeing then 
depart as exiles finm the dominion which he had 
won for them. They left him, and his death fal- 
lowed ahnost immediately. For this touching nv- 
rative, Timaeus and Diodorus after him sabstitsted 
a monstrons and incredible story of his bemg poi- 
soned by Maeno, an nssociate of Archagstimi 
The poison, we an told, was conceahd in the qmll 
with which he cleaned his teeth, and reduced bin 
to so frightful a condition, that he was placed <n 
the funeral pile and burnt while yet living, beiif 
unable to give any signs that he was not dead. 

There is no doubt that Agathocles wu s msa 
who did not hesitate to plunge into any exaoa 
of cruelty and treachery to fiirther his own piN 
poees. He persuaded Ophelias, king of Cymie, 
to enter into an alliance with him against Csniupi, 
and then murdered him at a banquet, and seind 
the command of his army. He invited the princi- 
pal Syraeuaans to a festival, plied them with wine, 
mixed freely with them, discovered their lecnl 
feelings, and killed 500 who seemed opposed to lii 
views. So that while we reject the fictioni li 
Timaeus, we can as little understand the ttateoest 
of PoIybittS, that though he used bloody mesm t« 
acquire his power, he afterwards became most nild 
and gentle. To hi* neat abilities we have the 
testimony of Sdpio Africanua, who when ashed 
what men wen in his opinion at onoe the bolder 
warriors and wisest statesmen, replied, Agathodee 
and Dionysias. (Polyb. zv. Sj.) He appean siio 
to have possessed remarkable powers of wit sad 
repartee, to have been a most agreeable oorapsaioB, 
and to have lived in Syracuse in a security gene- 
rally unknown to the Oreek tyrants, unattended 
in public by guards, and trusting entirely either to 
the pt^ulority or terror of his name. 

As to the chronology of his life, his landing in 
Africa was in the archonship of Hieromnemos st 
Athens, and accompanied by an eclipse of the nn, 
i.e. Aug. lo, B. c. 310. (Clinton, Fad. Bd.) 
He quitted it at the end of B. c. 307, died a. c. 2S9, 
after a reign of 28 years, aged 72 according to 
Diodorus, though Lucian {Ataarolt. 10), gives hii 
age 95, Wesseling and Clinton prefier the state- 
ment of Diodorus. The Italian mercenaries wha 
Agathocles left, were the Mamertini who sfier hii 
death seized Mesiana, and occasioned the M 
Punic war, [0. E. L. C.] 


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AOATHOCLES C^Vfo"^)- 1. Tha fit- 
thw of LyiiBachni, ww a TlifMliin Penest, bnt 
otilamed tbe &T011T of Philip thm^ flattery, and 
vaa niaed hy hira to kigh nmk. (Theopmnpna, 
op. ^dca. tL p. 2fi9, 1, Ac. ; Anum, Amab, tL 
28. /■£ 18.) 

2. Tha aon of Lyaiaiadnit br an Odiyiiaa 
vomaa, whom PolyaaDoa (tI 12) call* Uicrit. 
AgadioclM vaa acat bj Ua Atku against tha 
G«lae, about B. a 293, bat waa defeated and taken 
piiaoner. He vaa kindly treated by Dramiehaetia, 
tlie king of the Getae, and wnt back to his bther 
with piesenta; bat Lysimachns, notwithstanding^ 
M o irlird against the G«tae,and was taken priaener 
him o fff . He too was alao leleaaed by Dnmuehae- 
tia, who nceiTed in eonseqnenee the daog^ter of 
Lysjmariin* in maniagew Accocdhig to some an- 
thors it waa only A^ithode*, and according to 
otbera only Lyiimneha*, who waa taken prisoner. 
(Diod. See. XD. p. 559, ed. Wesa. ; Pans. L 9. 
S7 : StiaK. Tii. pp.302,S05;Plnt.2)lnM<r.c.89, 
(b •or. moK. nmd. p. 555, d.) In B. c 387, Aga- 
thoclea waa sent by his &ther agsinst Danetrins 
Polioreetea, who had maiched into Asia to de- 
prive Lysmachns of Lydia and Caria. In this 
expedition he waa sneoessfal ; he defeated Lysi- 
Bachn* and dnre him oot of his father's pn>- 
Tincea. (Pint. Dewielr. c. 46.) Agathodes was 
destined to be the snceessoi of Lysimachns, and 
waa popnlai among his subjeets; but his step- 
mother, Arsinoe, pnjadiced the mind of his bther 
againat him ; and after an nnsaocessfnl attempt to 
poisaD him, Lyniachns cast him into prison, 
where he waa mnidered (a. c. 284) by Ptolonaens 
Ceiannns, who was a fugitire at the coort of Lysi- 
machai His widow Lysandia fled with his diil- 
dien, and Alexander, his brother, to Seleoens in 
Asia, who made war npon Ljrsimachns in conse- 
qneacc. (Memnon, c^ Phd. Cod. 124, pp. 225, 
226, ed. Bekker; Paoa. L 10; Jnstin, xrii. I.) 

AOATHOCLES ('AyoflaiAqr), a Oteek histo- 
riaa. who wrote tha histoiy of Cjaicns (vtpl 
Raiiaao). He is called by Athenaeus both a 
Babyloniaa (L p. 30, a. ix. p. 375, a) and a Cysi- 
can. (xiT. p. 649, t) He may onginally hare 
come from Babylon, and hare settled at (^cns. 
The first and third books are referred to by Athe- 
naeoa. (ix. jp. 375, £, xii. p. 515, a.) The time at 
which Agataodc* lired is miknown, and his work 
ia now lost ; bat it seems to hare been extensively 
read in antiquity, as it is leiened to by Cicero (i^ 
Dbf. i. 24), Pliny (HuL JVaL Elenchns of books 
IT. T. Ti), and odier ancient writers. Agathocles 
also spoke of the origin of Risne. (Festos, $. e. 
Homtam; Solinns, Poifk. 1.) The scholiast on 
ApoUonina (ir. 761) dtes Mcraoin (ihro/uii^urrB) 
by an Agathodes, who is nsually snppoaed to be 
die same as the aboTC-mentioned one. (Compare 
BchoLadHti. neoff.i8S; Steph.Bya.«.RB^iF<imf; 
Elfmcl. M. a. e. Airr*.) 

There are seTcral other writers of the same 
name. I. Agathodes of Atrax, who wrote a work 
on fishing (dAMvrurd, Saidas, «. n. KiiciAiat). 2. Of 
Chios, wbo wrote a worit on agiicnlture. (Vano 
andCoIam.<iiJbAii<. LI; Plin. H. AT. zxii. 44.) 
3. Of Miletos, who wrote a work on rivers. (Plut. 
<U Fbu. p. 1 153, e.) 4. Of Samoa, who wrote a 
work on the coDstitation of Pessinns. (Plut Ibid, 
p. 1159, a.) 
AGA'THOCLES, brother of Agathoelea. [Aoa- 




&*is), the " Good God," a divinity in honour of 
whom the Greeks drank a cap of unmixed wine at 
the end of eveiy repast. A temple dedicated to 
him was sitoated on the nod from Megalopolis to 
Maenalos in Arcadia. Paosanias (viii. 3G. § 3) 
eonjeetares that the name is a men epithet of Zeus, 
(Camp. Lobeck, ad I'kryniek. p. 603.) [L. &] 

AGATHODAEMON ('AyafloSal/iM'), a native 
of Alexandria. All that is known of him ia, that 
he was the designer of some maps to aoconipony 
Pttdemy's Oeog^iphy. Copies 01 these maps are 
found appended to leveral MSS. of Ptolemy. One 
of these is at Vienna, another at Venice. At the 
end of each of these MSS. is the following notice : 
tit TMT KAovtiou VjoKtualm TtHn/pafuair fit- 
€\Umi imtt n)r oiKoviAvniir wwratf *AyaBo6aifiwf 
'A^tiarSptis iwmiwmat (Agath. of Alexandria 
delineated the whole inhabited world according to 
the eight books on Oeogiapby of CI. Ptolemeaua). 
The Vienna 1I& of Ptolemy is one of the most 
beautifol extant. The maps attached to it, 27 in 
number, comprising 1 general map, 10 maps of 
Europe, 4 of Africa, and 12 of Asia, are coloured, 
the water being green, the mountains red or dark 
yellow, and the land white. The climates, poral. 
lels, and the hours of the longest day, an marked 
on the East margin of the maps, and the meridians 
on the North and South. We have no evidence 
as to when Agathodaemon lived, aa the only notice 
preserved Te^>ecting him is that quoted above. 
Then was a grammarian of the same name, to 
whom some extant letters of Isidore of Pelusium 
ate addressed. Some have thought him to be the 
Agathodaemon in question. Heeren, however, 
oonsideis the delineator of the mu>s to have been 
a contempoFBiy of Ptolemy, who (viiL 1, 2) men- 
tions certain maps or tobies (wlnucsf ), which agree 
in number and arrangement with those of Aga- 
thodaemon in the MSS. 

Various errors having in the course of time crept 
into the copies of the maps of Agathodaemon, 
Nieolaas Donis, a Benedictine monk, who flou- 
rished about A. D. 1470, restored and corrected 
them, subsUtoting Latin for Greek namea. His 
maps are appended to the Ebnerian MS. of 
Ptolemy. They an tha same in number and 
neariy the same in order with those of Agatho- 
daemon. (Heenn, CommaUatio da Pontibtu Oeo- 
graph. Ptobmaei Tabutarumqiie m amuxarum ; 
Raidel, Comm»iUatio eritica-IHtraria de CL Piolemaei 
GeograpUa ^puqut eodkibuM, p. 7.) [C. P. M.] 

A'GATHON ('A7i<«w'), the son of the Mace- 
donian Philotaa, and the brother of Parmeniou 
and Aaander, was given as a hoatege to Antigonua 
in B. c. 313, by his brother Aaander, who was 
■atrap rf Caxia, but was taken back again by 
Asander in a few days. (Diod. xix. 75.) Agathon 
had a son, named Asander, who ia mentioned in a 
Greek inacription. (Bockh, Carp. Inter. 105.) 

A'GATHON ('Aydew), an Athenian tragic 
poet, was bom about B. c 447, and sprung from a 
rich and leqiectoble femily. He was consequently 
contemporary with Socrates and Alcibiadea nnd 
the other diatingniahed chaiacten of their agi^ 
with many of whom he waa on terma of intimate 
acquaintance. Amongst these was his friend 
Euripides. He was remarkable for the handsome- 
ness of his person and his various accorapliahments, 
(Plat. Prolag. p. 156, b,) He gained his first 
victory at the Lenaean festival in B. c, 416, when 


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be wu a little nbove thirty jean of age : in liaiMmr 
of which Plato lepreaents Cbe Symposiam, or ban- 
qnet, to have been given, which he ha* made the 
occaaion of hia dialogue u called. The Kene ia 
laid at Agathon't houie, and amongtt the interlo- 
cutors aie, Apollodonu, Socntei, Ariatophanea, 
Diotima, and Alcibiadea, Plato wa* then fenrteen 
yean of age, and a spectator at the tragic contest, 
in which Agathon was victoiiont. (Athen. v. p. 
217, a.) When Agathon was about forty years of 
age (b. c. 407), be visited the court of Archelaus, 
the king of Macedonia (Aelian, F. H. ziii. K), 
where his old friend Euripides was also a guest at 
the same time. From the expression in the Amoe 
(83), that he was gone it nnnAfnn) tiirj(\m, nothing 
certain can be determined as to the time of his 
death. The phrase admits of two meanings, either 
that he was then residing at the court of Archelaus, 
or that he was dead. The fonner, however, is the 
mote probable interpretation. (Clinton, FalL HdL 
vol. ii. p. xxxiL) He is generally supposed to 
hare died about & c. 400, at the age of forty- 
seven. (Bode, OexUckle der dram. DtckOaaat, L 
p. 553.) The poetic merit* of Agathon were con- 
siderable, but his compositions were more remark- 
a>)le for elegance and flowery ornaments than force, 
vigour, or sublimity. They abounded in anti- 
thesis and metaphor, " with cheerful thoughts and 
kindly images," (Aelian, V. H. xiv. 13,) and he 
is said to have imitated in verse the prose of Oor- 
gias the philosopher. The language which Plato 
puts into his month in the Symposium, is ef the 
same character, full of harmonious words and softly 
flowing periods : an tXofov ^lii^ia (ii|io^irrl ^atnt. 
The style of his verses, and especially of his lyrical 
compositions, is represented by Aristophanes in his 
Tbesmophoriazusae (191) as affected and e8emi- 
nate, corresponding with hii personal appearance 
and manner. In that pUy (acted & c. 409), where 
he appears as the friend of Euripides, he is ridicnled 
for his effeminacy, both in manners and actions, 
being brought on the stage in female dress. In 
the Ranae, acted five years afterwards, Aristophanes 
■peaks highly of him as a poet and a man, calling 
hmi an irifiiis Tonrr^t koL roStirit Tsit ^/Xoir, 
In the Thesmophoriazusae (29) also, he calls him 
'A-ydBttn 6 icAtiWf. In some respects, Agathon 
was instrumental in causing the decline of trsgedy 
at Athens. He was the first tragic poet, according 
to Aristotle (Poet 18. § 22), who commenced the 
practice of inserting choruses between the acts, the 
■ubject-mattw of which was unconnected with the 
story of the drama, and which were therefore 
called iiigiKiiuL, or intercalary, as being merely 
lyrical or musical interludes. The same critic 
(Pari, 18. § 17) also bUmes him for selecting too 
extensive subjects for hi* tragedies. Agathon also 
wrote pieces, the story and characters of which 
were the creations of pure fiction. One of these 
was called the "Flower" fA»«oi, Arist Poet 9. 
§ 7) ; its subject-matter was neither mythical nor 
historical, and therefore probably "neither serionsly 
affecting, nor terrible." (Schlegel, Dram. Lit. i. 
p. 189.) We cannot bnt regret the loss of this 
work, which must have been amusing and original. 
The titles of four only of his tragedies are known 
with certainty : they are, the Thyestes, the Tele- 
phns, the A^npe, and the Alcmaeon. A fifth, 
which is ascribed to him, is of doubtfiil authority. 
It is probable that Aristophanes ha* given us 
extracts from some of Agathon'* plays in the 

Thesmophoriaxniaa, t. 1 00- 1 SO. The opnion Att 
Agathon also wrote oomedies, or that th»e was a 
comic writer of this name, ha* been nfated by 
Bentley, in his Dissertation upon the Epistles of 
Enripidea, p. jll?. (Ritsehl, Otmmtailaiio tk Aja- 
tioiuM Vila, Arte el JV^ioedianut nlijiait, HsLe, 
1829, 8vo.) [R. W.J 

A'GATHON OATiiflvr), of Sunoa, who wn«s 
a woric upon Scythia and another upon Rims. 
(Plut. d* fbic p. 1156, e. 1169, a; Stobaea^ 
Serm. tit 100. 10, ed. Oaisbrd.) 

AQ'ATHON CAyiBc), at fiiat Reader, aite^ 
wards Librarian, at Constantinople. In A. n. £80, 
during his Readership, he was Notary or Re- 
porter at the 6th General Council, which cm- 
demned the Monothelite heresy. He sent eopiss 
of the acta, written by himself^ to the five Patri- 
arohates. He wrote, ▲. D. 712, a short treatiie, 
still extant in Greek, on the attempu of Philip. 
picus Baxdanes (71 1 — 713) to reTive the Itoio- 
thelite mor, Oomailiorum Naea OaUtetio i Mmi, 
vol. xii. p. 189. [A. J. C] 

AOATHO'STHENES CA7ii«aireen|f X * GtiA 
historian or philoso{Aer of uncertain date, who ii 
referred to by Tnsties {ad Lyoojpkr. 704, 1021. 
OaL vii. 645) as his authority in natters comuct- 
ed with geogK^hy. There ia mention of a wnk 
of Agathoethene* called ** Aaiatica Csnuas' 

SGeimanicus, ia AroL Piamt. 24), when Osb 
Nolae <■ ParOm. p. 135, &&) wished to nsd 
the name Aglaosthenes ; for Aglaocthenea or Aglw 
thenes, who is by some consdered to be the ■*!• 
a* Agathosthenes, wrote a woric on the UsMj 
of Naxos, of which nothing is extant, bvt «hi^ 
wa* much used by ancient writoa. (Hygin. PiiL 
Attr. ii. 16 ; Entosth. OUaiL ii. 27 ; FoUax. ix. 
83 ; Athen. iii. p. 78 ; Plin. H. N. iv. 22.) [U &] 
veterinary surgeon, whose date and history aic m>- 
known, bat who probably lived in the fi«nh n 
fifth century after Christ. Some fiagmenti ef hii 
vrritings are to be found in the coUection of wati 
on this subject first publidied in ■ Latin tnndstioa 
by Jo. Roellius, VtUriaariae Mtdidma* Liiridm, 
Pari*. 1530, foL, and afterwards in Oieek bj 
Grynaeus, Basil. 1 637, 4to. [ W. A 0.] 

AOATHYLLUS (;AyiBuMja), of Anslis, 
a Greek el^iac poet, who i* ijuoted bf Sioa^u 
in reference to the hutory of Aeneaa and the fboa- 
dation of Rome. Some of his venea are piesemd 
by Dionysins. (L 49, 72.) 

AQATHYRNU3 fA-niSiipm), a son <( 
Aeolus, regarded as the ibondei of AgathyniiB 
in Sicily. (Died. t. 8.) [L. S.] 

AGA' V£ ('Atoot!). 1 . A daughter of Osdmi^ 
and wifis of the Spartan Echion, by whom ilw 
became the mother of Penthens, wbo saeceededha 
gtsndfiither Cadmua as king of Thebes. Agai* 
wa* the tiater of Autonos, Ino, and Saoele (Api 
lod. iii. 4. § 2), and when Semele, dniiBg ber 
pregnancy with Dionysus, wa* destroyed by the 
sight of the splendour of Zeus, her sisters ^ns4 
the report that she had only endeavoured Is om- 
ceol her guilt, by pretending that Zeus wss t)* 
fiither of her child, and that her destractian «si s 
just punishment for her Usehood. This csImuT 
wa* afterwards most severriy avenged upon Agsn 
For, after Dionysus, the son of Semele, hsd tn- 
versed the world, he came to Thebes and compelied 
the women to celebrate his Dionysiac iestivsl) m 
mount Cithaeron. Pentheu* wishing te ptenat 


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tt ttap thoe liotDiu iniiiiiiliimi, want luninlf to 
■oont Cithaarao, bnt «u torn to pieeea then by 
Us own mollier Aj^re, who in ber ftaaj faelioTed 
Ub to be a wiM beul (ApoUod. iiL 6. g 2 ; Ot. 
MeL iii 725 ; comfL Pbhthxdi.) Hyginos {Pab. 
840, 254) makm Agtm, after this (Ued, m to 
Blyiia amd many knig Lyeodienei, whom how- 
ercr At afierwardt killed in order to gain hia 
Hagdaai tat ber £aher Cadmua. Thii account is 
iMTiiftwtly taa^hced by Hyginnt, and mut have 
belonged to an eafiier part of the story of Agav& 
2. [NsmuDAB.] [L. S.} 

AOmSTIS fATMrro), a mythical being con- 
nected with the Pfarygian wonhip of Attes or 
Atys. Paaaaniaa (ra. 17. § 5) relates the follow- 
ing story aboat Agdistia. On one ocrasinn Zens 
■Bwittiiu^y begot by tha Earth a saperiinnan 
banig vbiek was at once man and woman, and 
was called Agdistis. The gods dreaded it and 
unmanned it, and firam its severed u'loui there 
grew ap an abnond-tiVe. Once when the daughter 
of tbe river-god Saogarios was gathering the fruit 
af tbia tiee, ahe put some almonds into her bosom ; 
bat here the almonds disappeared, and she became 
the mother of Attea, who was of snch extraordinary 
beanty, that when he bad grown up Agdistis Cpll 
in lore with him. His relatives, however, destined 
Um to become the husband of the daughter of the 
king at Peasinua, whither he went accordinsly. 
But at the moment when the hymeneal song bad 
mmmmred, Agdistis appeared, and Attes was 
by a fit of madnesa, in which he unmanned 
tbe king who had given him his daugh- 
ter did the same. Agdistis now repented her 
deed, and obtained from Zeus the promise that the 
body of Attes should not become decomposed or 
d i s i^p e a r. This is, says Panmnias, the most po- 
pular aoeount of an Mberwiae mysterious affiiir, 
vrttich is probably part of a symbolical worship of 
the creative powers of nature. A hill of the name 
ef Asdiatia in Phrygia, at the foot of which Attes 
was beUeved to be buried, is mentioned by Panaa- 
niaa. (L 4. § 5.) According to Hesychius (a. o.) 
and Stnbo (xii. p. £67; oomp. x. p. 469), Agdistis 
is tbe same aa Cybele, who was wonhipped at Pes- 
ainus under that name. A atsry aomewhat di£fer- 
ent is given by Amobhis. (Adv. Gext. ix. 5. § 4 ; 
anp. Minoe. Felix, 21.) [L. &] 

AOSfLADAS ('AytXiSas), a native of Aigos 
(PmuBi. vi. 8. S *; vii. 24. 1 2, z. 10. g 3), pie- 
enriftently distinguished as a statuary. His &me 
ia enhanced by bis having been the instructor of 
the three great masters, Phidias (Snidas, a. o, ; 
Bcfad. ad Arutapk. Btau £04 ) Tsetses, Ctiliad. 
yO. 164, viii 191 — ibr the names 'EAiSov and 
rcMttoD are unquestionably merely corruptions of 
'ArytA^Sov, aa waa first observed by Menrsius, with 
whom Winckelmann, Thierach, and Muller agree), 
Mynni,azid Polydetos. (Plin. H. N. zxxiv. 8, s. 
19.) Tbe determination of the period when 
Agebdaa flourished, has given rise to a great deal 
of diacuaaien, owing to the apparently contradictory 
atatanenta in the writers woo mention tbe name. 
Panaaniaa(vi. 10. § 2) tcUs us that Agebulas cast a 
statue of Cleosthenes (who gained a victory in the 
dariot-tace in the 66th Olympiad) with the 
chariot, boraea, and charioteer, which was set up at 
(Xympia, There were also at Olympia statues by 
him of Timasidiena of Delphi and AJtochna of Tar 
nntnm. Now Timasithens was put to death by the 
Atheniana, fiv his participation in the attempt of 



laagont in OL IxviiL 2 ^& & 507); and Anodiua 
(as we leam from Eusebins) waa a victor in the 
games of the 65th OL So &r everything is clear; 
and if we suppose Ageladas to have hwn bom 
about B, c. 540, be may very well have been tiie 
instructor of Phidias. On the other hand Pliny 
{L e.) says that Agekdas, with Polydetus, Phrad- 
mon, and Hyron, flourished in the 87th OL This 
sgrees with the statement of the scholiast on 
Aristophanes, that at Melite there was a slatne of 
'HpcwAqf oXa^limicot, the voA of Ageladas the 
Argive, which was set up during the great pesti- 
lence. (OL IxxzviL 8. 4.) To these authorities 
must be added a passage of Pausanias (iv. 33. § 3), 
where he speaks of a statue of Zeus made by 
Ageladas for the Messcnians of Nanpactus. This 
must have been after the year B. a 455, when the 
Messenians were allowed by the Athenians to 
settle at Naupactus. In order to reconcile these 
conflicting statements, aome suppose that Pliny's 
date is wrong, and that the statue of Hercules 
had been made by Agehdas long before it was set 
up at Melite : others (as Meyer and Siebelis) that 
Pliny's date is correct, but that Agehdas did not 
make the statues of the Olympic victors mentioned 
by Pausanias till many years after their victories ; 
which in the case of three persons, the dates ol 
whose rictories are so nearly the same, would be 
a very extraordinary coincidence. The most pro- 
bable solution of tha difficulty is that of Thiersch, 
who thinks that there were two artists of this 
name ; one an Ar^ve, the instructor of Phidias, bom 
about B. c. 540, the other a native of Sicyon, who 
flourished at the date assigned tnr Pliny, and was 
confounded by the scholiast on Aristophanes with 
his more illiutriaus namesake of Argos. Thiersch 
supports this hypothesis by an able criticism on a 
passage of Pausanias. (v. 24. § 1.) Sillig assumes 
that were were two artisU of the name of Ageladas, 
but both Argives, Ageladas the Argive executed 
one of a group of three Muses, representing re. 
spectively the presiding geniuses of the diatonici 
chromatic and enharmonic styles of Greek muaie. 
Canachus and Aristodes of Sicyon made the other 
twa (Antipater, Anik. PaL Plan. 220; Thiench, 
Spoeh. d, bUd. Xaaat. pp. 158-164.) [C. P. M.] 

AOELA'US ('AT^Aoot). 1. A son of Hersr 
des and Omphale, and the founder of the house of 
Croesus. (Aiiollad. ii 7. 8 8.) Herodotus (i. 7) 
derives the fimily of Croesus from one Alowus, 
and Diodorus (iv. 31) from one Cleolaua, while he 
calls tbe son of Herades and Omphale Lamua, and 
others Laomedea. (Antoiu Lib. 2 ; Palaephat. di 
Inend. 45.) 

2. A son of Daraastor, and one of the suitors of 
Penelope. (Hom. Od. xx. 321.) In the struggle of 
Odysseus with the suitors, and after many of them 
had &llen, Agelaus encoumged and headed those 
who survived (xxiL 131, 241), until at last he too 
was strack dead by Odysseus with a javelin. 
(zxiL 293.) 

S, A shivs of Priam, who exposed the in&nt 
Paris on mount Ida, in consequence of a dream of 
his mother. When, after the Upae of five daya, 
the shive found the in&nt still auve and suckled 
by a bear, he took him to bis own house and 
brought him up. (Apollod. iiL 12. 8 4 ; compare 

There are several other mythical personages of 
the name of Agelans, concerning whom no particu- 
lars are known. (ApoUod. ii. 8. 8 5 ; Antonin. 



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ISb. 2 ; Horn. /Z. tiu. 257, xi. 802 ; Pans. Tiii 
86. § 7.) [L. S.] 

AOELA'US CAy/Aoai), of Naapectna, wai a 
leading man in the Aetolian atats at tha time of 
the Achaean league. He is first mentioned in 
B. c. 221, when he negodated the allianoe between 
the Illyrian chief Scerdilaidaa and the Aetolians. 
It was through his persnasire speech that Philip 
of Macedonia and his allies were induced to make 
peace with the Aetolians (b. c. 218), and he waa 
elected general of the latter in the following year, 
though his condnet in recommending peace was 
soon afterwards blamed by his fickle countrymen. 
(PolyK iv. 16, T. 108—107.) 

AOELEIA or AOELE'IS (^AyXtta or "At*. 
Xi)tt), a surname of Athena, by which she is desig- 
nated as the leader or protectress of the people. 
(Horn. /{. It. 128, T. 765, tL 269, xv. 218, 
Od. iiL 378, &e.) [U S.] 

AOE'LLIUa. [A. QKLLica.] 

AOE'NOR CArt»>f>). 1. A un of Poseidon 
and Libya, king of Phoenicia, and twin-brother of 
Belas. (Apollod. ii. I. § 4.) He married Tele- 
phassa, by whom he became the &ther of Cadmus, 
Phoenix, Cylix, Thasos, Phineus, and according 
to some of Enropa also. (SchoL ad Smrm. Photn. 
& ; Hygin. FiA. 178 ; Pans. t. 25. § 7 ; Schol. 
ad ApoUon, Bind. ii. 178, iiL 1185.) After his 
daughter Enropa had been carried off by Zens, 
Agenor sent out his sons in search of her, and en- 
joined them not to return without their sister. As 
Eunpa was not to be found, none of them re- 
tum»d, and all settled in foreign countries. (Apol- 
lod. iii. 1. § 1 ; Hygin. Fab. 178.) Viigil (Aen. 
i. SS8) calls Carthage the dty of Agenor, by which 
he alludes to the descent of Dido from Agenor. 
Buttmann {Mftiolog. L p. 232, &c.) pointa out 
that the genuine Phoenician name of Agenor was 
Chnas, which is the same as Canaan, and upon 
these &cts he builds the hypothesis that Agenor 
or Chnas is the same as the Canaan in the books 
of Hoses. 

2. A s<m of Jasos, and &ther of Ai^gus Panoptea, 
king of AigOB. (Apollod. iL 1. S 2.) Hellanicus 
(Pmffm. p. 47, ed. Stars.) states that Agenor was 
a son of Phoronens, and brother of Jasus and Pe- 
laagoa, and that after their fiither's death, tl>e two 
elder brothers dinded his dominions between 
tbemselTes in such a manner, that Pelasgus re- 
ceired the eoontiy about the met Eiasinns, and 
built Larissa, and Jasus the country about Elis, 
After the death of these two, Agenor, the young- 
est, inTaded their dominions, and thus became king 
of Argos. 

3. The son and successor of Triopas, in the 
kingdom of Argos. He belonged to the house of 
Phoroneus, and was fitther of Cratopus. (Pans, 
ii. 16. S I ; Hygin. Fab. 146.) 

4. A son of Pleunn and Xanthippe, and grand- 
son of Aetolns. Epicaats, the daugoter of Coly- 
don, became by him the mother of Porthaon and 
Demoniee. (Apollod. i. 7. § 7.) According to 
Panaaniaa (iii IS. § 5), Thestius, the bther of 
I.ieda, is likewise a son of this Agenor. 

5. A son of Phegeus, king of Psophis, in Arca- 
dia. He waa brother of Pionons and Arsinoe, 
who waa married to Alcmaeon, but was abandoned 
by him. When Alcmaeon wanted to giro the 
celebrated n e ckl ace and peplns of Hormonia to his 
second wife Calirrfaoe, the daughter of Achelous, 
lie was slain by Agenor and Pronooa at the inati- 


gation of Phegeus. But when the two bnthos 
came to Delphi, where they intended to dediols 
tha '"^H»~ and peplus, they wen killed by Ab- 
photems and Acunan, the sons of Alcmaeon sad 
Coliitfaoe, (Apollod. iiL 7. § 5.) Paiisanias (riiL 
24. § 4), who idates the same stoiy, calls the chil- 
dren of Phegeus, Temenus, Axion, and AlplM- 

6. A son of the Tnjan Antenor and Thesag^ 
the priestess of Athena. (Horn. A xL 59, n. 
297.) He appear* in the Uiad as one of tka 
bravest among the Trojans, and is one of their 
leaders iu the attack upon tlie fortifications of tht 
Greeks, (ir. 467, xii. 93, zIt. 425.) He erea 
Tentures to fight with Achilles, who is wonsdid 
by him. (zxL 570, &e.) Apollo rescued Urn ia 
a cloud fiinn the anger of Achilles, and thea as- 
sumed himself the appearance of Agenor, by which 
means he drew Achilles away ijrmn the wab of 
Troy, and aSbrded to the {hgitiTe Trojans a ui 
estreat to the dty. fxzi. in fine.) According to 
Pausanias (x. 27. § 1) Agenor waa slain by Neo- 
ptolemus, and waa represented by Polygaotoa ia 
the gnat painting iu the Lesche of Delphi 

Some other mythical personagea of this aat 
occur in the following passages : Apollod. iL 1. { S, 
iiL 6. § 6 ; Hygin. Fab. 146. [U S.] 

AOENO'RIDES ('Ayi|i>ap<Sm), a potnoTnie 
of Agenor, designating a descendant of an Ageoor, 
SDch as Otdmns (Or. Attt. iiL 8, 81, 80; ir. 
563), Phineus (Vol. Flacc. ir. 582X and Pennu. 
(Or. ^et ir. 771.) [US.] 

AOE'POLIS ('AY^oMt), of Rhodes, was Kst 
by his countrymen as ambassador to the coofsl Q. 
Mordua PhiUppus, & c. 169, in the war wiA 
Perseus, and had an interriew with him oesr 
Heracelenm in Macedonia. In the following yiar, 
& c. 168, he went as ambassador to Rwis to 
deprecate the anger of the Bomanrk {f<ij^ 
xzviii. 14, 15, xxix. 4, 7; Lir. xlv. 3.) 

AQESANDER or AOESILA'US ('Ayiftfarfpot 
or'AywIXoot), from iyia> and iri^p or >iait,»tm- 
name of Pluto or Hades, describing him as the god 
who carries away all men. (Callim. Hyam. m Pat- 
lad. 130, with Spanheim's note; Hesydu ae.; 
AeschyL <q>. Atitm. iiL p. 99.) Micander (sp. 
AOm. XT. p. 684) uses the <bim 'HytalXm. [US.] 

AOESANDER, a sculptor, a notin of tha 
island of Rhodes. His name occurs in no aithot 
except Pliny (H. JV. xxxri. 5. s. 4), and m 
know but of one work which he executed ; it ia s 
work howCTer which bears the most decisire tea- 
timony to his sui|iaaaing genius. In amjunctiw 
with Polydorua and Athenodorus he scnlptnnd 
the group of laocoon, a woric which is lanked ij 
all competent judges among the most pei&ct apco- 
mens <^ art, espeoally on account of the admirahln 
manner in which amidst the intense saAriD) 
portrayed in OTeiy feature, limb, and mnade, 
there is still pnaerred that air of sublime Rpoie> 
which characterised the best productions of Onciaii 
genius. This celebrated group was discorerail is 
the year 1506, near the baths of Titus on the 
Esqmline hill : it ia now preserved in the mnsesB 
of the Vatican. Pliny does not hesitate to pro- 
nounce it superior to all other worica both of 
statuary and painting A gnaat deal has beai 
written respecting the age when Agesaada 
fionriahed, and various opinions have been held os 
the subject. Winckelmonn and M3ller, fiinmag 
their jodgment from the atyle of art dii^ysd in 


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Ihc wotk had^ ■lagn it to tha ige of Lysip- 
^ft. HiiUer thiidca the inteiudty of iiifkring de- 
littcd, and Uta Kraewhat theatrical air which 
Btmdea the gronpi, ihews that it belong! to a 
Wr an than that of Phidiaa. Leuing and 
JUata on the other hand, after mbjecting the 
I of Pliny to an accniate examination, hare 
to the conrlniion, that Ageaander and the 
atfccr two attiata liTod in the idgn of Titu, and 
•calptoed the groop ezprealy for that emperor ; 
aol thia apinion ia pntty generally acqnieacM in. 
la additiaa to many other reaions that might be 
■oitiaiicd, if apace prnnitted, if the L«ocoon had 
been a work of anUqnity, we can hardly under- 
Hand how Pliny ihoiild hare ranked it abore 
aD the wocka of Phidiaa, Polydetui, Pnuitelei, 
and Lyaippna. Bat we can acconnt for his exag- 
gerated pcaiie, if the gn»p wu modem and the 
admiiatiaa excited by ita execution in Rome itill 
fraah. Thieneh haa written a great deal to thew 
that the piaatie art did not decline ao early ai i« 
gcoenliy mppoaed, bat eontinaed to floariah in 
&II yigaax from the time of Phidiaa onintermpt- 
adly doim to the leign of Titua. Pliny waa de- 
cared ia aaymg that the groap waa Knlptared out 
of aae faledt, aa the l^ae of tone baa diicoTeied a 
join ia it. It aiqieara from an inieription on the 
|— *— ^' of a atatne fbond at Nettuno (the ancient 
Aatiaa) that Athanodoraa waa the eon of Age- 
■nder. This nakea it not mdikely that Polydonu 
afao was hia aoo, and that the &ther executed the 
tgare of f-«»iw» hhnaflf, his two sons the remain- 
ing two figures. (Leasing, Laotoim; Winckehnann, 
GmA d. Kwmd, x^ I, 10 ; Thiersch, Efodm d. 
hiU. XwuL p. 318, &&; MuUer, Arduiolcgit d. 
Kw^ p. 152.) [C. P. M.J 

AaESA14DRIDAS {^Krvnatp&a), the son 
of Ageasnder (camp. Thnc. i 139), the commander 
of tiM I^cedaiswmian fleet sent to protect the 
icreit of Enboea in & c 41 1, was attaued by the 
Atk—Um. near Eretiia, and obtained a netoiy 
oter then. (Thoc. liiL 91, 94, 9i.) 

AOESI'ANAX CAtWm^). a Greek poet, of 
vfaoB a faeantifol fiagment deaaiptiTe of the moon 
is fc a mud in Phtuch. (De/adt in orb. Itmae, 
PL tSO.) It is uncertain whether the poem to 
wUeh thia fragment belonged was of an epic or 
didadie duneter. [L. S.) 

AOE'SIAS QAytiaUtt), one of the lambidae, 
and an hereditary priest of Zeus at Olympia, 
pained the Tietory ueie in the mule race, and 
IS ceiefanted on that account 1^ Pindar in the 
■xth Otfrnfie ode. BSckh placea his rictoiy in 
the 78th Oiympiad. 

AOESIDA'HUS CAymfOa^m), son of Ar^ 
chestratna, an Epiaephyrian Locnn, who con- 
^oered, when a boy, in boxing in the Olympic 
t^nttM. Hia victory is eelebis^ted by Pindar in 
the lOlh and Ilth Olympic odes. The scholiast 
piseea his Tictocy in the 74th Olympiad. Ha 
shooU not be cmifbnnded with Agesidamus, the 
fcther of Chnrains, who ia mentioned in the Ne- 
■ean odea. (i. 42, iz. 99.) 


AOBSII>A'US I. ('ATiHrlXaet), son of Doryssus, 
■xth king of the Agid line at Sparta, excluding 
A i i stoh oms, aecsrding to Apoliodonu, reigned 
fctty-fimr years, and died in 886 B. c. Paosanias 
Bakea hia reign a shnt one, but contempnary 
with the legishition of Lycnigna, (Ptas. iii 2. | 3 ; 
CSatoo, /Ws L PL 335.) [A. H. &] 



AOESILAIIS IL, son by hu second wife, En- 
polia, of Arehidamua II., succeeded his half-bro- 
ther, Agia II. as nineteenth king of the Eurypontid 
line; ezduding, on the ground of spurious birth, 
and by the interest of Lyiander, his nephew, 
Leotychides. [LaorrcBioxs.] His re^ extends 
from S98 to 861 B. c, both induslre ; during most 
of which time he was, in Plutarch's words, "aa 
good as thonght commander and king of all Greece," 
and was for the whole of it greatly identified with 
his coontry's deeds and fortunes. The position of 
that country, though internally weak, was exter- 
nally, in Greece, down to S94, one of supremacy 
acknowledged : the only field of ita ambition was 
Persia ; from 394 to 387, the Corinthian or first 
Theban war, one of supremacy assaulted : in 387 
that supremacy waa restored orer Greece, in the 
peace of Antalcidaa, by the sacrifice of Asiatic pro- 
spects : and thus more confi?ied and more secure, it 
became also more wanton. After 378, when Thebea 
regained her freedom, we find it again assailed, 
and again for one moment restored, thongh on a 
lower lerel, in 371 ; then OTerthrown for erer at 
Leuctra, the next nine years being a stni^le for 
existence amid dangers within and withouL 

Of the yooth of Agesilans we haTe no detail, be- 
yond the mention of hia intimacy with Lysander. 
On the throne, which he ascended about the ageof 
forty, we first hear of him in the sa|q)ressian of 
Cinadon's conspiracy. [CiNAnoN.] In his third 
year (396) he crossed into Asia, and after a short 
campaign, and a winter of preparation, he in the 
next oreipowered the two satraps, Tiasaphemes and 
Phamabozus ; and, in the spring of 394, was en- 
camped in the pUin of Theb^ preparing to advance 
into the heart of the empire, when a menage ar- 
rived to summon him to the war at home. Ho 
calmly end promptly obeyed ; expresung however 
to the Asiatic Greeks, and donbtleas hinuedf in- 
dulging, hopes of a speedy return. Marching rapid- 
ly by Xerxes' route, he met and defeated at Corimcia 
in Boeotia the allied fotceh In 393 he was engaged 
in a ravaging invasion of Aigolis, in 392 in one of 
the Corinthian territory, in 391 he rednoed tho 
Acamaniana to submission ; but, in the remaining 
yeaiB of the war, he is not mentioned. In the inter- 
val of peace, we find him declining the command in 
Sparta's aggression on Montineia ; but beading, from 
motives, it is said, of private friendship, that on 
Phlius ; and openly justifying Phoebidas' seizure of 
tho Cadmeia. Of the next war, the fint two years 
he commanded in Boeotia, more however to the 
enemy's gain in point of experience, than loss in 
any other ; from the five remaining he was with- 
drawn by seven illness. In the congress of 371 
an altercation is recorded between him and Epami- 
nondas ; and by his advice Thebes was perempto- 
rily exduded fiom the peace, and orders given for 
the fatal campaign of Leuctra. In 370 we find 
him engaged in an embassy to Mantincio, and 
reassuring the Spartans by an invasion of Arcadia; 
and in 369 to hu skill, counise, and presence of 
mind, is to be ascribed the nuuntenance of the iin- 
walled Sparta, amidst the attacks al four armies, 
and revolts and conspiracies of Helots, Pcrioeci, 
and even Spartans. Finally, in 362, he led his 
countrymen into Arcadia ; by fortunate information 
was enabled to return in time to prevent the sur- 
prise of Sparta, and was, it seems, joint if not sole 
commander at the battle of Montineia. To tha 
ensuing winter muit ptobaUy be referred his em- 


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huiy to the eotut of Aaia and negodationi for 
money with the icToIted utnpa, alladed to in an 
obKiue poiugi) of Xenophon (^^en/ow, it 36,27): 
snd, in perfonnance perhapi of some atipalation 
then made, he croned, in the spring of 361, with 
B body of Lacedaemonian meteenarie* into Egypt. 
Here, after diipbying much of hii ancient Bkill, he 
died, while preparing for hii voyage home, in the 
winter of 861-60, after a life of above eighty yean 
and a reign of thirty-eight. His body wa* em- 
balmed in wax, and eplendidly buried at Sparta. 

Baferting to our sketch of Spartan hiatoiy, we 
find Ageauani shining most in its first and last 
period, a* commencing and surrendering a glorious 
career in Ajaia, and as, in extreme age, maintaining 
his prostrate ooontry. From Coroneia to Leuctra 
we see him partly unemployed, at times yielding 
to weak mottves, at times joining in wanton acts 
of public injustice. No one of Sparta's great de- 
feats, but some of her bed policy belongs to him. 
In what others do, we miss him ; in what he does, 
we mist the greatness and connstency belonging to 
unity of purpoee and sole command. No doubt he 
was hampered at home ; perhaps, too, from a man 
withdrawn, when now near fifty, from his chosen 
career, great action in a new one of any kind could 
not he looked for. Plutarch gives among nnmenus 
apophthegmata his letter to the ephora on his recall : 
"Wo have reduced most of Asia, driven back the 
barbarians, made arms abundant in Ionia. But 
since you bid me, according to the decree, come 
home, I shall follow my letter, may periiaps be even 
before it. For my command is not mine, bat my 
country's and her allies'. And a commander then 
commanda truly according to right when he sees 
his own commander in the laws and ephora, or 
others holding office in the state." Also, on ex- 
clamation on hearing of the battle of Corinth : 
"Alat for Greece I uie has killed enough of her 
sons to have eonijaered all the barbarians." Of 
his courage, temperance, and hardiness, many in- 
stances are given : to these he added, even in ex- 
cess, the leas Spartan qualities of kindliness and 
tenderness as a father and a friend. Thus we 
have the story of his riding across a stick with his 
children ; and to gratify his son's affection for Cleo- 
nymut, son of the culprit, he saved Sphodriaa from 
the punishment due, in right and policy, for his 
incursion into Attica in S78. So too the appoint- 
ment of Peiaander. [Pcisandkiu] A letter of his 
mns, **If Niciaa is innocent, acquit him for that ; 
if guilty, fer my sake; any how acquit hnn." 
From Spartan cupidity and dishonesty, and mostly, 
even in public life, from ill &ith, his character is 
clear. In person he was amall, mean-looking, and 
lame, on which last ground objection had been 
made to his accession, an oracle, curiously fulfilled, 
having warned Sparta of evils awaiting her under 
• "lame sovereignty." In his reign, indeed, her 
fell took place, but not through him. Agesihius 
himself was Sparta's most perfect dtixen and most 
consummate general; in many ways perhaps her 
greatest man. (Xen. HtU. iii. S, to the end, Ag»- 
lUaut; Died. ziv. xr ; Pans. iiL9, lU; Phit. and C. 
Nepos,mtMla; Plvit ApapMmm.) [A. H. C] 

AOESILA'US('AYqot\ao>), aOreek historian, 
who wrote a work on the eiuly history of Italy 
(^ToAMii), fragments of which are preserved in 
Plataieh (PamUtla, p. 312), and Stoboeua. {Flo- 
riUg. ix. 27, liv. 49, Ixv. ID, ed.Oais£) [C. P.M.] 



^AytvtXoxos, 'AY>ia{\oxos, 'H')nirir{\axos},wu tht 
chief magistrate {Prytam) of the Rhodians, on 
the breaking out of the war between Rome sad 
Perseus in & c 171, and recommended his com- 
trymen to espouse the side of the Romana. He 
was sent as ambassador to Rome in B, c. 169, aid 
to the consul Aemilius Paullos in Macedonh^ a. a 
168. (Polyb. xzvii. S, xxviiL 2, 14, xxix. 4.) 

AOBSI'MBROTUS, cnmnonder of the Rhs- 
dian fleet in the war between the Romans snd 
Philip, king of Macedonia, B. c. 200 — 197. (Uv. 
xxxi. 46, xxxii. 16, 32.) 

AOESI'POLIS I. ['AyTiairoXis), king of Sputa, 
the twenty-first of the Agida beginning with Eo- 
rysthenea, succeeded his fether Pamaniaa, wiiils 
yet a minor, in & c. 394, and leigned fbuiteen 
years. He waa placed under the gnardianahip rf 
Ariatodemna, hia nearest of kin. He came |g 
the crown juat about the time that the eonie- 
deiacy (partly brought about by the intrigoea 
of the Persian satnqi Tithnustaa), whidi wu 
formed by Thebes, Athena, Corinth, and Argoa, 
against Sparta, rendered it necessary to recall hia 
colleague, Ageailaus II., fimn Asia ; and the bit 
military operation of hia leign waa the expeditim 
to Corinu, where the forces of the confederates 
were then assembled. The Spartan army na U 
by Aristodemua, and gained a aisnal victory orer 
the allies. (XeaTSiU. iv. 2. | 9.) In the year 
B. c. 390 Ageaipolia, who haid now reached hia 
majority, waa entrusted with the command oS aa 
army for the invasion of Argolia. Havmg pn>- 
cnred the aanction of the Olympic and Delpliic 
gods for disregarding any attempt which the Argins 
might make to stop hi* march, on the pretext of a 
religious truce, he carried his ravages still fiuther 
than Ageailau* had done in B. c: S93 ; but aa he 
suffisred the aspect of the victims to deter him fim 
occupying a pomanent post, the expedition yielded 
no fmit but the plunder. (Xen. Hell. iv. 7. i M; 
Pans. iiL 5. § 8.) In & c. 385 the Sportana, sat- 
ing upon some frivolous pretexts, aent an experji- 
tion against Mautineia, in which AgieeipoHs ande^ 
took the command, after it had been declined by 
Agesilana. In this expedition the Spartans wen 
assisted by Thebes, and in a battle with the Man- 
tineana, Epaminondaa and Pelopidaa, who wen 
fighting side by side, narrowly escaped death. He 
took the town by diverting the river Ophia, so as to 
Uy the low grounds at the foot of the walla under 
water. The basements, being made of unbaked 
bricks, wen unable to resist the action of the water. 
The walla soon began to totter, and the Hantiueaiia 
were forced to aurrender. They were admitted to 
terma on condition that the papulation should be 
diaperaed among the firar hamlets, out of which it 
had been collected to form the capital. The demo- 
ciatical leadera wen permitted to go into ezilft 
(Xen. Heli. v. 2. § 1-7 ; Paus. viii. 8. f 5 ; Dioi 
XV. fi, &c; Pint. Petop. 4| Isoer. J'tmeg. f. S7,a, 
Zte I'aaiyf. 179, c.) 

Early in a c. 382, on embassy came to 9|aiti 
from the cities of Acanthus and ApoUonia, teqoeal- 
ing assistance against the Olynthiana, who wen 
endeavouring to compel them to join their coniede- 
racy. The Sportana granted it, but wen not at 
first very auccessful. After the defeat and destk 
of Teleutiaa in the second campaign (b. a 381) 
Ageaipolia took the command. He set out m 381, 
but did not begin operations till the apring of 380. 
He then acted with great vigour, and took Tonu 


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Imt in th* midit of hi* l e w m i he wai 
1 vith ■ tBTV, which oBiied him off in WTen 
daj*. He died at Apbjrtit, in the prainmla of 
I^iUene. His body wu inunened in boner and 
eoBTcyed hame ta Sparta far baiiaL Thoogfa 
Agee^oKa did not ihaie the ambituiiu Tiem of 
fa i c^n oonqaest cheriihed bjr Ajjeolao*, hii Iom 
wiB deeply regretted by tiiat prioce, who aeenu to 
haTC had a sincere re^rd for hia. (Xen. HelL 
▼. 3. S 8-9, IB-lB; Died. zr. 33; Thiriwall, HuL 
tf Graaa>, voL iv. pp. 405, 4*28, &b, T. ppi fi, Ac 
SO.) [a P. M.] 

AOBSI'POLIS II., eon of (neombntoi, waa 
the 23rd king of the Agid line. He aacended the 
throne ■. c. 371, and rrigned one year- (Paniw 
iiL 6. S 1 ; Diod. zt. 60.) [C. P. H.] 

AOESI'POLIS III., the Slit of the Agid line, 
«a* the aoo of AgeaipoHa, and giandaon rf Cleom- 
bratna II. After the death of Cleomenea he waa 
dectad king while Mill a anncr, and placed nnder 
the gaardianihip of hii nnde Cleomenea. (Polyb. 
IT. 35w) He waa hawerer aacn depoaed by hia col- 
leagae Lycnigua, after the death of Cleomenea. 
We hoar of hoa next in B. c. I9&, when he waa at 
Ae head of the Lacedaamonian exika, who joined 
Flamjitimia ia hi* attack npon Nabia, the tyrant 
af lAcedaemon. (IdT. zzzIt. 26.) He farmed 
one of an embaaay lent about B. c. 188 to Rcme 
by the Laoedaemsniaa enlea, and, with his com- 
panioaB, waa intercepted bf piates and killed. 
(Poiybu zsT. 11.) [C. P. M.] 


AOBTAS ^Kykna\ oommander-in-chief of the 
AetoUana in Bi c. 317, made an incunion into 
Aeanania and Epiins, and langed both coon- 
triea. (Polyb. r. 91. 96.) 

AGkTOE fAinfnip), a arnname giren to aere- 
nl goda, ibr instance, to Zena at Lacedaemon 
(StolL Strm. 42) : the name seems to describe 
Zena as the leader and niler of men ; bat others 
Aink, that it ia synonymoos with Agamemnon 
[AoaauMMON, 2] : — to Apallo (Enrip. Med. 426) 
where however Ebnsley and others pieSar irft[Tmf: 
— to Hetmea, who omdnet* the souls of men to 
the lower warid. Under this name Hermea had a 
■tntoe at Uegalopalis. (Pans. viiL 81. § 4.) [L. S.] 

AOOE'NUS U'RBICUS, a writer on the 
s cienc e of the Agriraensores. (DiiiL of Ant. p. 30.) 
It is nncertain when he lired ; bat he appears to 
have been a Chiiatian, and it ia not improbable 
baa aome exptesaions which he naes, that he fired 
at the latter part of the fonith century of our en. 
The extant works ascribed to him ore : — "^ Aggeni 
UiUci in Jalinm Frantinom Commentarins," a com- 
mentary npon the work " De Agrorum Qualitate," 
which is ascribed to FTontiniis ; " In Julium Fran- 
tinom Conunentariomm Liber secuodus qoi Diaxo- 
graphuB dicitnr ;" and " Commentarionim de Con- 
troreniiB Agrorum Pars prior et altera." The 
last-named work Niebuhr supposes to hare been 
written by Frondnns, and in the time of Domitian, 
since the author speaks of " piaestantissimus 
Domitianos," an cxpreaaion, whidi would never 
hare been ^iplied to this tyrant after his death. 
iUut. t^Rmm, toL ii. p. 621.) 

%fifat%) by Diodoms, the mler of the Qangaridae 
iaA. Piaaii in India, was said to be the ion of a 
barber, whom the queen had married. Alexander 
was preparing to nuirch against him, when he was 
oompeUed by his soldiers, iriio had become tired of 



the war, to give op flnther oonqoests in India. 
(Cult. T. 2 s Diod. xriL 93, 94 ; Anian, Andli. 
T. 2fi, &c ; Pint Aha. 60.) 

A'OIAS ('AYlotX son of Agdeehns and gnnd- 
son of Titamenna, a Spartan seer who predicted 
the victory of Lysander at Aegos-potami. (Pans, 
iii 11. 8 5.) [TuAMBNUs.] 

A'OIAS CAt(«). 1. A Oredt poet, whose 
name was formerly written Angias, through a 
mistake of the first editor of the Excerpta of 
Pndus. It has been corrected by Thiersch in the 
Aala PkOoL Momae. ii. p. 584, irom the Codex 
Monaeensis, which in one paasage haa Agiaa, 
and in aiMther Hagias. The name itself does not 
occur in early Oredc writers, unless it be supposed 
that Egias or Hegias {'Hylta) in Clemens Alexan- 
drinus {Slrom. vi. p. 6212), and Pan sanies ( i. 2. 
8 1 ), are only different fonns of the same name. 
He was a native of Troesen, and the time at which 
he wrote appears to have been about the year 
B. c. 740. His poem was celebrated ia antiquity, 
nnder the name of Ntforoi, t, •. the history of the 
retora of the Achaean heroes from Troy, and con- 
sisted of five books. The poem began with the 
cause of the misfortunes which betel the Achaeans 
on their vray hoaie and after their arrival, that is, 
with the oatrage committed npon Cassandra and 
the Palladium ; and the whole poem filled up the 
^loce which was left between the work of the 
poet Arctinos and the Odyssey. The ancients 
themselves q)pear to have been nncertain about the 
author of this poem, for they refer to it simply by 
the name of Kivrm, and when they mention the 
author, they snly call him i rpii Morovf ■ypdifiat, 
(Athen. vn. p^ 281 ; Pans. x. 28. % 4, 29. 8 2, SO. 
8 2; ApoBod. ii. 1. 8 5; Schol. ad Odm. iv. 12; 
SchoL ad Arutopk. Bjuit. 1332; Lncian, Dt 
Satiai. 46.) Hence some writers attributed the 
N^ffTOi to Homer ( Said. t. e. r^rroi ; AnthoL 
Planod, iv. 30), while others call its author a Co- 
lophonian. (Enstath. adOrfya. xvi. 118.) Simi- 
Ur poems, and with the same title, were written 
by other poeta also, such at Eninelus of Corinth 
(SchoL ad Pmd. Oi. xiii 31), Antieleides of 
Athens (Athen. iv. p. 157, ix. p. 466), Cleidemus 
(Athen. xiii. p. 609), and Lyaimachus. (Athen, 
ir. p. 158; SchoL a<f ApdlUm. Rhod. i. 658.) 
Where the N^orei is mentioned without a name, 
we have generally to understand the work of 

2. A comic writer. (Pollux, iiL 36 ; Meineke, 
HM. Omuc Grate, pp. 404, 416.) [L. 8.] 

A'OIAS (*A7<at), the author of a work on 
Argoli*. ('Apyokuai, Athen. iii. p. 86, f.) He is 
called i lauautis in another passage of Athenaeus 
(xiv. p. '626, f.), bat the musician may be another 

AOIATI8. [Aois IV.] 

AOIS I. ('A7<t), king of Sparta, son of Eu- 
rysthenes, began to reign, it is said, about B. u 
1032. (M'llUer, Dor. voL ii. p. 511, tmnsl.) Ac- 
cording to Eusebius {Cknm. L p. 166) he reigned 
only <me year; according to Apollcdoms, as it 
appean, about 31 years. During the reign of 
Eurysthenes, the conquered people were admitted 
to an equality of pditical rights with the Dorians. 
Agis deprived them of these, and reduced them to 
the condition of subjects to the Spartans. The 
inhabitanta of the town of Heloa attempted to 
shake off the yoke, but they were snbdned, and 
gave rise and name to the chus called Helots. 


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(Ephor. <9>. SXrab. viiL p. S64.) To Ul teSgn 
was lefened the colony which went to Crete 
under PoUii and Delphus. (Conon. Niarr. 86.) 
From him the kings of that line were called 
'AyiXai. Hit colleague wai Sous. (Paua. iiL 3. 
§ 1.) [C. P. M.] 

AOIS lie, the 17th of the Enrjrpontid line 
(beginning with Proclet), tuoceeded nia &ther 
Archidamiu, a. c. 427f and reigned a little more 
than 28 yean. In the ■ummcr of B. c 426, he 
led an anny of Peloponnetiani and their allies aa 
lar aa the iathmos, with the intention of invading 
Attica i but they were deterred from advancing 
fiuther by a succeuion of earthquakes which hap- 
pened when they had got so &r. (Thuc. iii. 
89.) In the spring of the following year he led 
an army into Attica, but quitted it fifteen days 
after he had entered it. (Thuc It. 2, 6.) In 
B, c. 419, the AigiTes, at the instigation of Aki- 
biades, attacked Epidaums ; and Agis with the 
whole fbrce of Laoedaemon set out at the same 
time and marched to the frontier dty, Leuctra. 
Mo one, Thucydides tells us, knew the purpose of 
this expedition. It was probably to make a diret^ 
sion in &Tour of Epidaums. (Thirlwall, toL iii. 
p. 942.) At Leuctra the aspect of the sacrifices 
deterred him bom proceeding. He therefore led 
his troops back, and sent round notice to the allies 
to be ready for an expedition at the end of the 
aaeied month of the Camean festival; and when 
the Aigives repeated their attack en Epidaums, 
the Spartans again marched to the frontier town, 
Catyae, and again turned back, professedly on 
account of the aspect of the victims. In the mid- 
dle of the following summer (b. c. 418) the Epi- 
danrians being stil hard pressed by the Argives, 
the Lacedaemonians with their whole force and 
some allies, under the command of Agis, invaded 
Argolis. By a skilful manoeuvre he succeeded in 
intercepting the Atgives, and posted his army ad- 
vantageously between them and the city. But 
hist as the battle was about to begin, Thrasyllns, 
•ne of the Argive generals, and Alciphron came to 
Agis and prevailed on him to conclude • truce for 
four months. Agis, without disclosing his motives, 
drew off his army. On his return he was severely 
censured for having thus thrown away the oppor- 
tunity of reducing Argoa, especially as the Aigives 
hod seized the opportimity afforded by his return 
and taken Oichomenos. It was proposed to pull 
down his house, and inflict on him a fine of 100,000 
dmchmae. But on his earnest entreaty they con- 
tented themselves with appointing a council of 
war, consisting of 10 Spartans, without whom he 
was not to lead an army out of the city, (Thuc 
V. 54, 67, &c.) Shortly afterwards they received 
intelligence from Tegea, that, if not promptly suc- 
M>uied, the party fitvoorable to ^arta in that city 
would be compelled to give way. The Spartans 
immediately sent their whole force under the com- 
mand of Agio. He restored tranquillity at Tegea, 
and then marched to Mantineio. By turning the 
waters so a* to flood the lands of Montineia, he 
succeeded in drawing the army of the Mantineans 
and Athenians down to the level ground. A bat- 
tle ensued, in which the Spartans were victorious. 
This was one of the most important battles ever 
fought between Grecian states. (Thuc. v. 
71—73.) In B. c. 417, when news reached Sparta 
of the connte>revaIntion at Argos, in which the 
oligarchical and Spartan faction was overthrown, { 


an anny whs sent there under Agis. He wit m- 
able to restore the defeated party, but he destroyed 
the long walls which the Argives had begun to 
carry down to the sea, and took Hysiae. (Thob 
V. 83.) In the spring of & c. 413, Agis enteed 
Attica with a Peloponnesian army, and fortified 
Deceleia, a steep eminence about 15 miks nortb- 
east of Athens (Thuc. viL 19, 27); and in the 
winter of the same year, after the news of the 
disastrous &te of the Sicilian expedition ksd 
reached Gteeoe, he marched northvrards to levy 
contributions on the allies of Sparta, fin the pur- 
pose of constructing a fleet. While at Deceleia it 
acted in a great measure independently of the Sfsr- 
tan government, and received embosnes as veil 
from the disaffected allies of the Athenians, s> 
from the Boeotians and other allies of Spsits. 
(Thuc. viii. 3, 5.) He seems to have renuised 
at Deceleia till the end of the Peloponnesian «sr. 
In 411, during the administration of the Four 
Hundred, he made an unsuccessful attempt on 
Athens itself (Thuc. viiL 71.) In B. c. 401, 
the command of the war against Elis was estrait- 
ed to Agis, who in the third year compelled the 
Eleans to sue for peace. As he was retumiiig 
fhim Delphi, whither he had gone to consecrate a 
tenth of the spoil, he fell sick at Heraea in Arca- 
dia, and died in the course of a few days after he 
reached Sparta. (Xen. Hell. iiL 2. S 21, &c 
3. § 1 — 4.) He left a son, Leotychides, whe 
however was excluded from the throne, as then 
was some suspicion with regard to his kgitiaiacy. 
While Akibiades was at Sparta he made Agis Ui 
impbcable enemy. Later writers (Justin, v. 2; 
Plut. Aldi. 23) assign as a reason, that the latter 
suqtected him of having dishonoured his queei 
Timaea. It was probably at the suggestion of 
Agis, that orders were sent out to Astyochus to 
put him to death. Alcibiodes however received 
timely notice, (according to some accounts frtan 
Timaea herself) and kept out of the reach of the 
Spartans. (Thuc. viii. 12, 45 ; Pint. l^mafL 
2-2. AgaiL 3.) [C P. U.] 

AGIS III., the elder sod of Archidamus III., ma 
the 20th king of the Eurypontid line. His leign 
was short, but eventfiiL He succeeded his father 
in B. c. 338. In B- c 333, wo find him going 
with a single trireme to the Persian commisden 
in the Aegean, Phamabazns and Antopho- 
dates, to request money and an armament for ca> 
rying on hostile operations against Alexander ia 
Greece. They gave him SO talents and 10 tri- 
remes. The news of the battle of Issns, howenr, 
put a check upon their plana. He sent the gal- 
leys to his brother Ageailaus, with instractiona to 
atul n-ith them to Crete, that he might aecare 
that ialand for the Spartan interest. In thia he 
aeema in a great meosun to have suooeedrd. 
Two years afterwards (b. c 331), the Onck 
states which were leagued together against Alex- 
ander, seized the opportunity of the disaster of 
Zopyrion and the revolt of the Thradans, to de- 
dare war against Macedonia. Agis was invested 
with the command, and with the Laoedaomooisn 
troops, and a body of 8000 Greek mercenaries, 
who had been present at the battle of laaiu, 
gained a deciaive victory over a Macedonian amy 
under Corragus. Having been joined by the 
other forces of the league he hiid si^ to 
Megalopolis. The dty held out till Antifoter 
came to its iduf, when a battle ensued, in which 


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Agis waa de&aled and killed. It happened abant 
the time of the battle of Aibeia. (Anian, ii. IS ; 
Diod. zri. 63, 68, zrii 62; Acach. a, Ohapik. 
^77; Ciut.*il; Julin,xiLU [C P. M.] 

AOIS IV., the elder Mm of Endamidai IL, ma 
the 34tli king of the Enrfpontid line. He tne- 
cceded hia &tber in B. c, 344, and leigned four 
jcan. In B, c. 243, afier the liberation of Corinth 
bf Aiatna, the general of the Achaean league, Agii 
Ira am army against him, bat ma debated. 
(Pana. ii. 8. § 4.) The intenat of his reign, how- 
ercr, ia derired from ercnta of a different kind. 
Thrangii the inflox of wealth and Inxmy, with 
their ooneonitant Tieaa, tha Spartans had greatly 
dejeneimtcd from the ancient simplicity and 
sererity of maonen. Not abore 700 fcmiliea of 
the gennine Spartan stock remained, and in conse- 
quence of the innoTation introduced by Epitadeus, 
who pncored a repeal'of the law which secured 
to erery Spartan head of a fiunily an equal portion 
ef land, the landed property had passed into the 
hands of a few indinduala, of whom a great num- 
ber were females, so that not abore 100 Spartan 
fiimiliea poaaessed estates, while the poor were 
burdened with debt. Agis, who fiom his earliest 
ymtfa had shewn his attachment to the ancient 
diseiplme, undertook to reform these abuses, and 
la I itaMisTi the institotions of Lycnigus. For thia 
end he determined to lay before the Spartan senate 
a propoaitian for the abolition of ail debu and a new 
partition of the landSk Another pert of hia plan was 
to gire i-~t»^ estates to the FerioecL His schemes 
were warmly seconded by the poorer classes and the 
youDs men, and as strenuously opposed by the 
wealthy. He sooeeeded, however, in gaining over 
three Tery influential persons, — his uncle Ageii- 
laas (a man of laige property, but who, being 
deeply inrolred in debt, hoped to profit by the 
ianoTations of Agis), Lyaander, and HandrodeidetL 
Havinff procnred Lysander to be elected one of 
the e^iora, he laid his plans before the senate. 
He proposed that the Spartan territory should be 
divided into two portions, one to consist of 4500 
equal lots, to be divided amongst the Spartans, 
whose ranka were to be filled up by the admis- 
sion of the most req)ectaUe of the Perioeci and 
strangers ; the other to contain 15,000 equal lots, 
to be divided- amongst the Perioeci. The senate 
could not at first coma to a decision on the matter. 
Lysander, therefore, convoked the assembly of the 
people, to whom A^s submitted his measure, and 
oSued to make the first sacrifice, by giving up his 
lands and money, telling them that his mother and 
grandmother, who were possessed of great wealth, 
with all his rcbttions and friends, would follow his 
example. His generodty drew down the ap- 
planses of the multitude. The opposite party, 
however, headed by Leonidas, the other king, who 
had formed his habits at the luxurious court of 
Selencns, king of Syria, got the senate to reject 
tin measure, uum^ only by one vote. Agis now 
determined to rid himsrlf of Leonidas. Lysander 
sccordin^y accused him of baring violated the laws 
by marrying a stranger and living in a foreign land. 
Leonidaa was deposed, and was succeeded by his 
soD-in-law, Cleombntas, who co-operated with 
Agia. Soon afterwards, however, Lyaander's term 
of oflSce expired, and the ephors of the followmg 
year were opposed to Agis, and designed to restore 
Leonidaa. They brou^t an accusation against 
Lysander and Mandrocleides, of attempting to vio- f 



late the hwi. Alarmed at the tnm events were 
taking, the two latter prevailed on the kings to 
depose the ephors by force and appoint others in 
their room. Leonidas, who had returned to 
the dty, fled to Tegea, and in his flight waa 
protected by Agis from the violence meditated 
against him by Agesihms. The selfish avarice of 
the latter frustrated the plans of Agis, when there 
now seemed nothing to oppose the executioB of 
them. He persnaded his nephew and Lyaander 
that the most e%ctoal way to secure the oonaent 
of the wealthy to the distribution of their lands, 
wonld be, to begin by cancelling the debts. Ac- 
cordingly all bonds, registers, and securitiea were 
piled up in the market place and burnt. Agesi- 
laus, having secured his own ends, contrived vari- 
ous pretexts for delaying the division of the lands. 
Meanwhile the Achaeans Kiplied to Sparta for 
assistance against the Aetoiians. Agis was ac- 
cordingly sent at the head of an army. The cau- 
tious movements of Aratus gave Agis no opportu- 
nity of distinguishing himself in action, but ho 
gained great credit by the excellent discipline be 
preserr^ among his troops. During his absence 
Agesilaas so incensed the poorer classes by his 
insolent conduct and the continued postponement 
of the division of the bmds, that they made no 
opposition when the enemies of Agis openly 
brought back Leonidas and set him on the throne. 
Agis and Cleombntus fled for sanctuary, the 
former to the temple of Athene Cfaalcioecus, the 
Utter to the temple ef Poseidon. .Cleombntus 
was suffered to go into exile. Agis was entrapped 
by some treacherous friends and thrown into 
prison. Leonidas immediately came with a band 
of mercenaries and secured the prison without, 
while the ephors entered it, and went through the 
mockery of a trial. When asked if he did not 
repent of what he had attempted, Agis replied, 
that he should never repent of so glorious a design, 
even in the fooe of death. He was condemned, 
and precipitately executed, the ephors fearing a 
rescue, as a great concourse of people had assem- 
bled round the prison gates. Agis, observing that 
one of his executioners waa moved to tears, said, 
** Weep not for me : suffering, as I do, unjustly, I 
am in a happier case than my murderers." His 
mother Ageaiitrate and hia grandmother were 
strangled on his body. Agia was the first king of 
Sparta who had been put to death by the ephors. 
Paimanias, who, however, is undoubtedly wrong, 
■ays (riii. 10. § 4, 27. 1 9), that he fell in battle. 
His widow Agiatis was foreibly married by Leo- 
nidas to his aon Cleomenes, but nevertheless they 
entertained for each other a mutual affection 
and esteem. (Plnlatch, Jgit, OMmeaa, Aratiu; 
Paus. vii 7. ! 2.) [C. P. M.] 

AOIS CA^ir), a Greek poet, a native of Argos, 
and a contempoiary of Alexander the Great, whom 
he accompanied on his Asiatic expedition. Cur- 
tins (riii. 5) as well as Arrian (Anai. iv. 9) and 
Plutareh (Oo adulat. ei amic ducrim. p. 60) do- 
scribe him as one of the basest flatterers of the 
king. Curtius calls him ** pesBimomm corminum 
post Choerilnm conditor," which probobly refere 
rather to their flattering character than to their 
worth as poetry. The Greek Anthology (vi. 
152) contains an epigram, which is probably the 
work of this flatterer. (Jacobs, AtiikU. iii. p. 
836; Zimmermann, Zaitduift }Ur dit Alterli. 
1841, p. 164.) 


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Athenuos (zii. p. 516) mentions one Agii u 
the author (rf a woric on the art of cooking 
(Jfi^rvTunQ. [L. 8.] 

AOLA'IA QAyMta). 1. [Chawtm.] 

2. The wife of Charopni and mother of Ninua, 
who led a imall band from the island of S}rme 
against Troy. (Horn. //. iL 671; Diod. r. 53.) 
Mother Agiaia is mentioned in Apollodoms. (ii 
7. § 8.) [L. S.] 


AOUAOPHE'MS. [Sihknix.] 

AOLA'OPHON CAyXaoipiy), a painter, bom 
in the island of Tbasos, the father and instmctor 
of Polygnotus. (Snidas and Photins, «. e. n«\<rn>- 
re> ; Anth. Or. ix. 700.) He had another ton 
named Aristophon. (Plat. Oory. p. 448. B.) A* 
Polygnotus flourished befbra the 90th OL (Plin. 
IT. N. xzzT. 9. s. 35), Aglaophon probably lired 
aboat 01. 70. Quintilian (zii 10. S 3) praises hia 
paintings, which were distingoiahed by the sim- 
plicity of their colonring, as worthy of admiration 
on other grounds besides their antiquity. Thei« 
was an Aglaophon who flooiished in the 90th OL 
according to Pliny {H. ff. zzxr. 9. s. S6), and his 
statement is coniuined by a passage of Athenaeus 
(zii. p. 543, D.), &om which we learn that he 
painted two pictares, in one of which 01ym]nas 
and Pythias, as the presiding geniuses of the 
Olymtnc and Pythian games, were represented 
crowning Akibiades ; in the other Nemea, the pre- 
siding deity of the Nemean games, held Aldbiades 
on her knee*. Alcibiades could not have gained 
any rictories much before 01. 91. (& c. 416.) It 
is therefore exceedingly likely that this artist was 
the son of Aristophon, and gnmdson of the older 
Aglaophon, as among tiie Oneka the son generally 
bene the name not (rf hia father but of his grand- 
Either. Plutarch (Aleib. 16) aays, that Aristo- 
phon was the author of the picture rf Nemas and 
Akibiades, He may perhaps have aniated hia 
son. This Aglaophon was, according to some, the 
first who represented Victory with wings. (SchoL 
ad Ariatoph. Ava, 573.) [C. P. M.] 

AQLAOSTHENES. [Aoaosthsnu.] 


AQLA'US ('Ayhait), a poor citizen of Paophis 
in Arcadia, whom the Delphic otacle pronounced 
to bo happier than Oyges, king of Lydio, on ac- 
count of his contentcdness, when the king asked 
the Oracle, if any man was happier than he. ( Val. 
Max. Tii. 1. § 2 ; Plin. H. ff. viL 47.) Pauaa- 
nias (viii. 24. § 7) places Aglaus in the time of 

AQNAFTUS, an architect mentioned by Pau- 
sanias (t. 15, § 4, Ti. 20. § 7^ as the builder of a 
porch in the Altis at Olympia, which was called 
by the Eleons the " porch of Agnaptua." When 
he lived is uncertain. [C. P. M.] 

A'ONIUS CA7"«»), the fether of Tijihys who 
was the pilot of the ship Argo (ApoUod, L 9. § 16; 
Oiph. Argon. 540), whence Tiphys is called 
Agniadea. [L. S.) 

AGNO'DICE {'AyroSlKTi), the name of the 
earliest midwife mentioned among the Greeks. 
She was a native of Athena, where it was 
fbrbidden by hkw for a woman or a slave to 
study medicme. According, however, to Hygintis 
(Fab, 27'<), on whoso authority alone the whole 
story rests, it would appear that Agnodice dis- 
guised herself in mon^s clothes, and so contrived to 
attend the lectures of a physician nomedUiciv- 

philns, — devoting herself chiefly to the itady of 
midwifisry and the disease* of women, iiut- 
wards, when she began practice, being very ■ao' 
eeasinl in these biuche* of the pnms*ii>B, aha 
excited the jealonsy of •sveial of the other pac- 
titionera, by whom she was Munmoned beiiR tiis 
Aniopagus, and aocoMd of cormpting the mosla 
of her patients. Upon her lefiiting this charge bf 
making known her aez, she was immediately ao' 
cuaed of having violated the nristing law, wUck 
second danger she escaped by the wive* •( tk* 
chief persons in Athens, whom she had alteoded, 
coming forward in her behalf^ and sneceeding st 
last in getting the obnozions law abolished. Mo 
date whatever is attaelied to this story, bat lennl 
persons have, by calling the tutor of Agnodies hf 
the name of HeropUUt iii«t»«il of Himflihi, 
placed it in the third or faurth oentuiy Mbn 
Christ But this emendation, though at first ngkt 
very easy and phmsible, does not appear ahsgellia 
free from objections. For, in the first place, if tha 
story is to be bdieved at all upon the anthnitj of 
Hyginus, it would seem to bdong rather ts the 
fifth or sixth century before Christ than the thici 
or fourth ; aeoondly, we have no reason for tUak- 
ing that Agnodice was ever at Alezandris, a 
Herophilus at Athens ; and thirdly, it aeein 
hardly probable that Hyginua iroald have called 
ao celebrated a physician "a etrtam HanpUkC 
{HmplUbu gmdam.) [ W. A O.j 

AGNON, a Greek rhetorician, who wrote i 
woric agaiaat rhetoric, which Quintilian (il 17. 
§ 15) calls ** Rhetorioes aocusatio,'' Rhaska 
{Hut Oit OraL Oraec p. zc.) and after him 
most modem scholan have consiasred this Agnai 
to be the same man as Agnonides, the conttmpo- 
rary of Phodon, as the latter is in aoo* HSSl of 
Com. Nepo* (Pikoe. S) called A^on. Bit Ae 
manner in which Agnon is mentioned by Qais- 
tilian, shews that he is a rhetoridan, vrho lived at 
a much later period. Whether however he ia tlia 
aame as the academic philosopher mentianedbj 
Athenaeus (ziii. p. 602), cannot be decided. [US.] 
AGNO'NIDES {•AyrtriSnt), an Atheniaa 
demagogue and sycophant, a contemporary of 
Theophnstua and Phocion. The former waa ac- 
cused by Agnonides of impiety, but was acqnilted 
by the Areiopogus, and Theophrastns might have 
ruined his accuser, had he been less generous. (Dio^ 
Laert. v. 37.) Agnonides was opposed to the Us- 
cedonian party at Athens, and called Phocion s tiai- 
tor, for which he was exiled, as soon as Akisnla', 
son of Polysperchon, got possession of Athem. 
Afterwards, however, he obtained from Antipstef 
permission to return to hia country throagh tl» 
mediation of Phodon. (Plut. Flue. 29.) Birt 
the sycophant soon forgot what he owed to liii 
benefactor, and not only continued to oppose tie 
Macedonian party in the most vehement nianaer, 
but even induced the Athenians to sentence Pbo- 
cion to death as a traitor, who had delivered tbe 
Peiraeeus into the hands of Nicanor. (Plot. Pt«- 
33, 85 ; Com. Ncp. Phoc 3.) But the Atheniani 
soon repented of their conduct towards Phocioiii 
and put Agnonides to death to imieaae hia nsnei' 
(Plut. /'Aoo. 38.) [L. S.] 

AGON {'Aytir), a personification of aotenii 
contests (iycivtt). He was represented in a itstae 
at Olynipia with dXr^fws in his hands. Thii ■>>- 
tue was a work of Dionysius, and dedicated w 
SmicytiHM gf Bhegiun, (Pans. t. 25. § J.) l^^i 


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AQCrsXVS CAy^nM), s tmname or epithet of 
Kvenlgoda. AeadiTloa (^^m.513) and Sopho- 
dem ^Track. 26) Dse it of Apollo and Zeas, and 
■{i f j ait l y in the miik of helper* in stnigglea and 
cnntesta. (Compi Enatath. ad 11. p. 1335.) Bat 
Agoniu ia more eapeeially med ai a nimame of 
Hemea, who pceiidea orer all kinds of solemn 
omtMta. fATwnx, Pans. t. 14. § 7 ; Find. Ofymp. 
Ti 133, with the SchoL) [L. &] 

AGORA'CRITUS (^KycfiKpnot), a fiunous 
itatoaiy and acniptor, bom in the island of Pans, 
who taaoAei. fiom about OL 85 to 01. 88. (Plin. 
H, N. zzxtL 5. a. 4.) He was the &Toiirite 
pupil of Phidias (Pans. is. 34. § 1), who is even 
mai. bj Plin; to have inscribed some of his 
own woilcs with the name of his disciple. Only 
foot of hia productions are mentioned, viz. a statne 
of Zeaa and one of the Itonian Athene in the 
temple of that goddess at Athens (Pans. 2. e.) ; a 
statne, prohaUy of Cybele, in the temple of the 
Gnat Ooddeaa at Athens (Plin. I, e.) ; and the 
RhancmuiBn Nemesis. Respectii^ this last work 
then has been a great deal of discussion. Tde 
aeeonnt which Plinj gives of it is, that Agoracritns 
CBotended with Alounenea (another distmgnished 
disciple of Phidias) in making a statne of Venn* ; 
and that the Athenians, through an midne par- 
tiality towards their eonnttyman, awarded the 
victory to Aicamenes. Agoracritns, indignant at 
his defeat, made some sli^t alterations so as to 
change his Venns into a Nemesis, and sold it to 
the pe<^>le of Rhanmus, on condition that it should 
not be set np in Athena. Pansanias (i. 33. § 3), 
without saying a word about Agoiacritus, says 
that the Rhanmnaian Nemesis was the work of 
nddiaa, and was made out of the block of Parian 
laaitle whidi the Persians under Datis and 
Artspheraes brooght with them ibr the purpose of 
setting up a trophy. (See Thesetetus and Parme- 
mo, AuAia. Or. Plmmi. iv. 12, 221 , 222.) This 
asooont honev e i ha* been rejected as inTolring 
a eoofiision of the ideas connected by the Greeks 
with the goddess Nemesis. The statue moreover 
was not of Parian, but of Pentelic marble. ( U»- 
tHUd AnHtptitia of Attka, p. 43.) Strabo (ix. 
p. 396), Tzetzes {Chiliad. viL 154), Soidas and 
Fhotiu* give other variations in speaking of this 
■latae. It seems generally agreed that Ph'ny's 
aooont of the matter is right in the main ; and 
there have been various dissertations on the way 
in which a statne of Venus could have been 
diattged into one of Nemesis. (Winckelmann, 
Samwitliie Wait von J. Eiselein, vol v. p. 364 ; 
Zoega, Abkatulbaigen, pp. 56—62 ; K. O. Muller, 
ArdL 4. Kwut, Tf. 102.) [C. P. M.J 

AOORAEA and AOORAEUS ('AYopala and 
Aytfcuasy, are epithets given to teveial divinities 
who wen considered as the protector* of the as- 
semblies of the people in the dyopi, such as Zens 
(Pan*, iii. 11. § 8, v. IS. § 3), Athena (iil 11. 
S 8), Artemis (v. 15. § 3), and Hermes. (L 15. 
§ I, ii. 9. § 7, IX. 17. § 1.) As Hermes was the 
god of commerce, this surname seems to have re- 
fersxie to the ir/ofd as the market-place. [L. S.] 

AGRAEUS (^Aypeuoi), the hunter, a surname 
of Apollo. After he had killed the lion of Cithoe- 
lon, a temple was erected to him by Alcathous at 
Megaia under the name of Apollo Agraeus. (Paus. 
i 41. § 4 : Eustath. ad It. p. 361.) [L. S.] 

'lirifuutji). 1, A daughter of Actaeus, the first 



king of Athens. By her husband, Cecrops, she 
becune the mother of Erysichthon, Agnnlos, 
Herae, and Pandroso*. (ApoUod. iii. 14. § 2; 
Pans. L 2. § 5.) 

2. A daughter of Cecrops and Agranlos, and 
mother of Aicippe by Ares, This Agraolos is 
an unportant personage in the stories of Attica, 
and there wen three difierent Inends about her. 
1. According to Pausanias (i. 18. §2) and Hyginus 
(F\A. 166), Athena gave to her and her sister* 
Eriehthonins in a chest, with the ezpnss command 
not to open it. But Agranlos and Herse could 
not control their curiosity, and opened it ; whero- 
upon they were seised with madness at the sight 
of Erichthonius, and threw themselves from the 
steep rock of the Acropolis, or according to Hyginns 
into the sea. 2. According to Ovid (Met. ii. 710, 
&c), Agranlos and her sister survived their open- 
ing the chest, and the former, who had instigated 
her sister to open it, was punished in this manner, 
Hermes came to Athens during the celebration of 
the Panathenaea, and fell in love with Hene. 
Athena made Agraidos so jeelous of her sister, that 
she even attempted to prevent the god entering 
the house of Herse. But, indignant at sndi pi«- 
(umption, he changed Agranlos into a stone. 
3. The third legend represents Agraulos in a 
totally different light. Athens was at one time 
involved in a long-pratiacted war, and an oracle 
declared that it wonld cease, if some one would 
sacrifice himself for the good of hi* country. 
Agnnlos came forward and threw herself down 
the Acropolis. The Athenians, in gratitude for 
this, built her a temple on the Acropolis, in which 
it subsequently became cnstomary for the young 
Athenians, on receiving their first suit of nrraonr, 
to take an oath that they would always defend 
their country to the last. (Snid. and Hesych. •. v. 
*Arfpav\os\ Ulpian, ad Deiruuth. de/aU. leg.; He- 
rod, viii. 53 ; Plut. Aleib. 15 ; Philochoms, i<ViiMiii. 
p. 18, ed. Siebelia.) One of the Attic Sij/um 
(Agranle) derived its name from diis herome, and 
a festival and mysteries were celebrated at Athena 
in honour of her, (Steph. Byz. t. v. 'AypauK'^ ; 
Lobeck, Aglaoph. p. 89 ; Diet, of Ant p. 30, a.) 
According to Porphyry {DeAbtHn. ab anitnal. i. 2), 
she was also worshipped in Cyprus, where human 
sacrifices were ofiered to her down to a very htte 
tune. [L. S.] 

AGRESPHON (^kyfia<pui>\ a Greek gram- 
marian mentioned by Suidas. (>. o. ' hwoMMyms.) 
He wrote a work Tltpi 'Ofiuri/jwv (concerning per- 
sons of the same name). He cannot have lived 
earlier than the reign of Hadrian, as in his work 
he spoke of an ApoUonius who lived in the time of 
that emperor, [C, P, M,] 

AGREUS QAyptit), a hunter, occur* ns a sur- 
name of Pan and Aristaens. (Find. PylA. ix. 1 15 ; 
Apollon. Rhod. iiL 507; Diod. iv. 81 ; Hesych. s.v.; 
Solmas. ad Solia. p. 81.) [L. S.] 

the most remarkable men whom we meet with in 
the times of the first twelve emperors of Rome, for 
his extraordinary ability as a general, his great 
powers, shewn in his government of Britain, 
and borne witness to by the deep and universal 
feeling excited in Rome by his death (Tac Agrie. 
43), his singular integrity, and the esteem and 
love which he commanded in all the private rela- 
tions of life. 

His life of 55 years (from June 13th, a. d. 37, 

Digitized by 




to the 23rd Angiut, jl. d. 93) extend* thrangli tlie 
reigiu of the nine empeion from Caligula to Domi- 
tian. He was bom at the Roman colony of Fomin 
Jolii, the modem Fr^jui in ProTenee. Hia &ther 
tnu Jnliiu Oraednus of lenatorian tank ; liie mo- 
ther Julia Prodlhi, who thnughont hia education 
aeema to have watched with great care and to 
hare exerted great influence over him. He itudied 
philoeophy (the usual edneation of a Roman of 
higher rank) fiwn hi* earliest youth at Marseilles. 
His first nulitary service was under Suetonius 
Paolinns in Britain (a. D. 60), in the rehition of 
Contnbemali*. (See Z>k<. o/.<lii<: p. 284, a.) Hence 
he returned to Rome, waa married to Domitia 
Deddiana, and went the round of the magiatiaeie* ; 
the quaestorship in Asia (a. d. 63), under the pro- 
con*ul Salvia* Titianus, where hia integrity was 
shewn by his refusal to join the proconsul in the 
ordinary system of extortion in tue Roman pro- 
vinces; the tribunate and the praetoiship, — in 
Nero's time mere nominal offices, filled vrith dan- 
ger to the man who held them, in which a prudent 
inactivity was the only safe course. By Galba 
(a. d. 69) he was appointed to examine thie sacred 
property of the temples, that Nero's system of 
robbery (Sueton. Ner. 32^ might be stopped. In 
the same year he lost his mother; it was in re- 
turning from her funeral in Liguria, that he heard 
of Vespasian's accession, and unmediately joined 
his party. Under Vesporian his first service was 
the command of the 20th legion in Britain, (a. d. 
70.) On his return, he vra* raised by the emperor 
to uie rank of patrician, and set over the province 
of Aquitanis, which he held for three years, (a. n. 
74-76.) He was recalled to Rome to be elected 
consul (a. o. 77), and Britun, the great scene of 
his power, was given to him, by general consent, 
as hi* province. 

In this year he betrothed his donghter to the 
historian Tacitns ; in the following he gave her to 
him in marriage, and was made governor of Britain, 
and one of the college of pontics, 

Agrioola was the twelfth Roman general who 
had been in Britain ; ha was the only one who 
completely effected the work of subjugation to the 
Romans, not more by hi* consummate military 
skill, than by his masterly policy in recondling the 
Britons to that yoke wUch hitherto they h^ so 
ill borne. He taught them the arts and luxuries of 
dviliaed life, to settle in towns, to build comfort- 
able dwelling-houses and temples. He^ eataUiahad 
a system of education for the sons of the British 
chicls, amongst whom at last the Roman language 
was spoken, and the Roman toga worn as a 
fiuhionable dress. 

He was fall seven years in Britain, fiom the 
year a. D. 78 to A. D. 84. The last conquest of bis 
predecessor Julius Frontinus had been that of the 
Silure* (South Wales) ; and the last action of 
Agricola's command was the action at the foot of 
the Oiampion hills, which put him in posaessian of 
the whole of Britain as far north as the northern 
boundary of Perth and Argyle. His first campaign 

!A. D. 78) was occupied in the reconquest of Mona 
Anglesea), and the Ordovices (North Wales), the 
strongholds of the Druids ; and the remainder of 
this year, with the next, was given to making the 
before-mentioned arrangements for the security of 
the Roman dominion in the already conquered 
porta of Britain. The third campaign (a. d. 80) 


carried him northvrarda to the TBaa," praboUy 
the Solway Frith ; and the fourth (a. d. 81) wa* 
taken up in fortifying and taking pnssrasion at 
this tract, and advancing o* fiu north a* the Fiitha 
of Clyde and Forth. In the fifth campaign (a. s. 
82), he was engaged in subduing the tiibea on 
the promontory opposite Ireland. In the sixth 
(a. d. 83), he explored with his fleet and land 
forces the coast of Fi£B and For&r, caning now 
for the first time into oontaet with the tme Caledo- 
nians. They made a nigfat attack on his camp 
(believed to be at Loch Ore, where ditchea and 
other tiBcea of a Roman camp ore still to be seen), 
and succeeded in nearly destroying the ninth legiosi; 
but in the general battle, which followed, they 
were repulsed. The seventh and last campaign (a. n. 
84) gave Agrioola complete and entire po s se sa i op 
of the country, up to the northemmoat point 
which he had reached, by a moat decided victwy 
over the assembled Caledonians under their general 
Oalgacus (as it is believed, faom the Roman and 
British remains found there, and from the two 
tumuli or aepukhial coins) on the moor of Murdoch 
at the foot of the Onmpian hills. In this campaign 
his fleet sailed northwarda from the coaat of Fife 
round Britain to the Tmtnlensian horbonr (sup- 
posed to be Sandwich), thus for the first time da- 
covering Britain to be an isbnd. He withdrew 
his army into winter quarters, and soon after (a-d. 
84) was recalled by the jealous Domitian. 

On his return to Rome, he lived in retinmenl, 
and when the government either of Asia or Africa 
would have fijlen to him, he considered it mora 
prudent to decline the honour. He died a. d. 93 ; 
hi* death was, as his biogr^er phiinly hints, 
either immediately caused at certainly hastened 
by the emissaries of the emperor, who could not 
hear the presence of a man pointed out by univer- 
sal feeliiig as alone fit to meet the exigency of 
times in which the Roman aims had su&red re- 
peated reverses in Germany and the countiie* 
north of the Danube. Dion Cossiaa (Ixvi 20) says 
expressly, that he waa killed by Domitian. 

In this Bcoonnt we can do no more than refer te 
the beautiful and interesting description given by 
Tacitus (Agrio. 39 — 46) of nis life during his re- 
tirement finm office, his death, bis person, and )iit 
character, which thoudi it had no field of action at 
home in that dreary time, shewed itself during the 
seven years in which it was unfettered in Britom, 
as great and wise and good. (Taeitna, Agrioola.) 

There is an epigram of Antiphilus in the Oieck 
Antholo^ (Antk. Bnmdt. iL 180) upon an Agri- 
cola, which is commonly supposed to refer to the 
celebrated one of this name. [C, T. A.] 

AQRIO'NIUS ('A7puinot), a surname of 
Dionysus, under which he was worshipped at 
Orchomenus in Boeotia, and from which nii festi- 
val Agrionia in that place derived its name. {DicL 
(jfAnL p. 30 ; M'uller, Ordmrn. p. 166, &e.) [L.S.] 

AORI'OPAS, a writer spoken of by Pliny. (//. 
N. viil 22, where some of the MSS. nave Acopas 
or Copas.) He wa* the author of an account of the 
Olympic victors. (C. P. M.] 

AORIPPA, an ancient name among the Ro- 
mans, was first used a* a praenomen, and after- 
ward* a* a cognomen. It frequently occurs a* a 

* A* to whether the Taos was the Solway Frith 
or the Frith of Tay, see Chalmers' CaMoma. 


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L in tlie Mrij time* of the eminn, Int net 
under the lepablic. One of the niTthicsl kiitgt of 
Albk is caDed hj thii name. (IdT. L S.) Ac- 
oerdjng to Anliu Gelliai (xri. 16), Plinj (H. f/. 
TO . 6. s. 8), and Salinu (1), tlM word sipUfiea a 
birth, at which the diild ia preieiited with iU feet 
fenmoat; bat their deriTationof it from atgnpar- 
tear jam iasfaanid enough. (Camp. Sen. (ML 813.) 

AGRIPPA CAyplma), a leeptical philoaopher, 
only known to uaTe Hred later than Aenemdemiu, 
the contempocaiy of Cicero, fimn whom he i« add 
to have l)een the fifth in deacent He i> qooted 
by Diogene* I^ertina, who probably wrote abont 
the time of H. AntoninnB, The "five gronnd* of 
doabt" (oj Wrre rpiru), which are gijen by 
Sextna Empiricn* aa a nunmaiy of the later icepti- 
dmn, are ascribed by Diogenei I^Mrtini (iz. 88) to 

L The fiiat of then argnet fiom the imeertainty 
of the mle* of common life, and of the opinions of 
phikMophera. II. The tecond from the " rejectio 
ad infinitum : " all proof leqnim tome farther 
proo^ and ao on to infinity. III. AH things are 
changed aa their relationa become changed, or, aa 
we look npon them in different point* of riew. 

IV. The truth aaaerted ii merely an hypothens or, 

V. involTeB m vidous drde. (Seztiu Empuicns, 

With Terence to these wtrrt rpiwoi it need 
only be mnaiked, that the fint and third an a 
abort nmunary of the ten original gronndi of donbt 
which were the basis of the earlier sceptidam. 
[Ptrkhon.] The three additional ones shew a 
p togieaa in the scepticd system, and a transition 
from the common objections derived from the falli- 
bility of sense and opinion, to more nbstiact and 
metaphyrical gronnds of doubt. They seem to 
mark a new attempt to systematize the sceptical 
philosophy and ad^ it to the spirit of a later age. 
(lUtter, OeadkUt der PUUmiphu, ziL4.) [a J.] 

AGRIPPA, M. ASI'NIUS, consnl a. d. 25, 
died A. D. 26, was descended from a family more 
iUostrioos tham ancient, and did not disnaee it by 
his mode of life. (Tac. Ann. n. S4, 610 

AGRIPPA CASTOR QAyphms Kdaritp), 
about A. D. 1 35, piaised as a historian by Ense- 
bins, and for his learning by St Jerome (d« Viris j 
Ilhutr. c. 21), lived in the reign of Hadrian. He 
wrote against the twenty-fonr books of the Alex- 
andrian Gnostic Basilides, on the GospeL Quota- 
tions are made from hi* woik by Ensebios. \Hiil. 
Seda. rr. 7 : see Gallandi's BiblioOeea Patrum, 
ToL L p. 330.) [A. J. C] 

AGRIPPA, FONTEIUS. 1. One of the so- 
ensers of Libo, A. D. 16, is sgun mentioned in 
A. D. 19, as offering hi* dsoghter for a vestal vir- 
gin. (Tac. Am. ii 30, 86.) 

2. Probably the son of the preceding, command- 
ed the province of Asia with pro-consular power, 
A. D. 69, and was recalled ttam thence by Vespa- 
sian, and placed over Moesia in A. D. 70. He 
was shortly afterwards killed in battle by the Sar- 
matians. (Ta& HU. iiL 46 ; Joseph. B. Jud. 
viL 4. S 3.) 

AGRIPPA, D. HATEHIUS, called by Taci- 
tus (Aim. iL 51) the propinqnns of Gennanicna, 
was tribune of the pleb* A. D. 15, praetor A. D. 17, 
and consul A. D. 22. His moiBl charncter was 
veiy low, and he is spoken of in A. d. 32, as plo^ 
ting the destmction of many illustrious men. 
(Tac. Aim. L 77, il 51, iiL 49^ 52, vi 4.) 



AGRIPPA, HERO'DES l.i'HfMns 'Ayphnm), 
called by Josephus (Aut Jad. zviL 2. \ 2), 
"Agrippa the Great," was the son of Aristobulua 
and Ba«Dice, and gnmdson of Herod the Omt, 
Shortly before the death of his grandfather, he 
came to Rome, where he was educated with the 
future emperor Claudius, and Srusns the son of 
TiberiosL He squandered his property in giving 
sumptuous entertainments to gratify his princely 
friends, and in bestowing hugesses on the freed- 
men of the emperor, and became so deeply involved 
in debt, that he was compdled to fly fivm Rome, 
and betook himself to a fortress at Malstha in 
Idnmaeo, Through the mediation of his wife 
Cypros, with his sister Herodias, the wife of He- 
rodes Antipas, be was allowed to take up his 
abode at Tiberias, and received the nnk of aedile 
in that city, with a small yeariy income. But hav- 
ing quarrelled with his brother-in-law, he fled to 
Fhuxni, the proconsul of Syria, Soon afterwords 
he was convicted, through the information of his 
brother Aristobnins, of bavins received a bribe 
from the Damascenes, who wished to purchase his 
influence with the proconsul, and was again com- 
pelled to fly. He was annted a* he was about to 
sail for Italy, for a sum of money which he owed 
to the treasury of Caeaar, but made his escape, and 
reached Alexandria, where his wife succeeded in 
procuring a snpply of money from Alexander the 
Alaborch. He then set sail, and landed at Puteoli. 
He was favourably received by Tiberius, who en- 
trusted him with the education of his grandson 
Tiberina. He also formed an intimacy with Caius 
Calignk. Having one day incautiously expressed 
a wish that the latter might soon sncceed to the 
throne, his words were reported by his fieedman 
Eutychns to Tiberius, who forthwith threw him 
into prison. Caligula, on his accession (a. d. 37). 
set hmi at liberty, and gave him the tetrarchies of 
Lyaanias (Abilene) and Philippus (Batanaea, 
Trachonitis, and Aumnitis). He also preaented 
him with a golden chain of equal weight with the 
iron one which he had worn in priaon. In the 
following year Agrippa took possession of his king- 
dom, and after the banishment of Herodea Antipas, 
the tetnuchy of the latter was added to his domi- 

On the death of Caligula, Agrippa, who was at 
the time in Rome, materially assisted Claudius in 
gaining posseanon of the empire. As a reward for 
his services, Judaea and Samaria were annexed to 
his dominions, which were now even more exten- 
sive than those of Herod the Great He was also 
invested with the consular dignity, and a league 
was publicly made with him b^ Claudius in the 
foram. At hi* request, the kingdom of Chalcis 
was given to his brother Hendes. (a. n. 41.) Ho 
then went to Jeniaalem, where he offered aacriiicca, 
and Buapended in the treasury of the temple the 
golden chain which Caligula had given him. His 
govenmeut was mild and gentle, and he was ex- 
ceedingly popubr amongst the Jews. In the city 
of Beiytus he built a tlieatre and amphitheatre, 
baths, and porticoes. The suspicions of Claudius 
prevented him from finishing the impregnable foi^ 
tifications with which he had begun to aurronnd 
Jemaalem. His friendship was courted by many 
of the neighbouring kings and rulers. It was 
probably to increase his popularity with the Jews 
that he caused the apostle James, the brother of 
John, to bo beheaded, and Petei to be cast into 


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priKn. (a. D. 44. Ael$, xii) It wu not boweTcr 
merely by nich act* that be •trove to win tbeir 
faToor, u we Me from the way in wbich, at the 
riik of his own life, or at leut of hii liberty, he 
interceded with Caligula on behalf of the Jewi, 
when that emperor wa* attempting to aet up bii 
atatne in the temple at Jemaalem. The manner 
of his death, which took place at Caeaarea in the 
same year, as he was exhibiting games in honour 
of the emperor, is related in AcU xii., and is con- 
firmed in all essential points by Jocephus, who 
repeats Agrippa's words, in which he acknowledged 
the justice of the punishment thns inflicted on him. 
After lingering fire days, be expired, in the fifty- 
fourth year of his age. 

By his wife Cypros he had a son named Agrippa, 
and three daughters, Berenice, who first married 
her uncle Herodes, king of Chalcia, afterwards 
lived with her brother Agrippa, and subsequently 
married Polamo, king of Cilicia ; she is alluded to 
by Juvenal (&i<. vi 166); Mariamne, and Drusilla, 
who married Felix, the procurator of Judaea. (Jo- 
seph. AnL Jad, xviL 1. § 2, zviU. 5-8, xiz. 4-8; 
SeU. Jad. i 28. § 1, ii. 9. 11; Dion Cass. Ix. 8 ; 
Euseb. Hill. Eoda. il 10.) [a P. M.] 

AORIPPA.HERO'DESn., the son of Agrippa 
I^ was educated at the court of the emperor Clau- 
dius, and at the time of his fiither's death was only 
seventeen years old. Claudius therefore kept him 
at Rome, and sent Cnspius Fodns as procurator of 
the kin^om, which thus again became a Roman 
province. On the death of Herodes, king of 
Chalcis (a. d. 48), his little principality, with the 
right of snperintending the temple and appointing 
the high priest, was given to Agrippa, who four 
year* afterwards received in its stead the tetrar- 
chies formerly held by Philip and Lysanias, with 
the title of king. In A. Ik 56, Nero added the 
cities of Tiberias and Taricheae in Galilee, and 
Julias, with fourteen villages near it, in Peraea. 
Agrippa expended large aoms in beautifying Jeru- 
salem and other cities, especially Berytus. His 
partiality for the latter rendered him unpopular 
amongst his own subjects, and the capricious man- 
ner in which he appointed and deposed the high 
priests, with some otner acts which were distasteful, 
made him an object of dislike to the Jews. Be- 
fore the outbreak of the war with the Bomans, 
Agrippa attempted in vain to dissuade the people 
from rebelling. When the war was begun, he 
sided with the Romans, and was wounded at the 
siege of Oamala. After the capture of Jerusalem, 
he went with his sister Berenice to Rome, where 
he was invested with the dignity of praetor. He 
died in the seventieth year of Ms age, in the third 
}-ear of the reign of Trajan. He was the last 
prince of the house of the Herods. It was before 
this Agrippa that the apostle Paul made his de- 
fence, (a. d. 60. Aeti. XXV. xxvi.) He lived on 
terms <n intimacy with the historian Josephns, 
who has preserved two of the letters he received 
from him. (Joseph. Ant Jud. zvii. 5. § 4, xiz. 9. 
§ 2, XX. 1. § 3. 5. 8 2, 7. § 1> 8. 8 4 &n, 9. § 4; 
llfU.Jud. iL II. 8 6. 12. 8 1, 16, 17. 8 I. IT- 1- 8 3; 
Vit. s. 54 ; Phot cod. 83.) [C. P. M.] 

AGRIPPA, MAUCIUS, a man of the lowest 
origin, was ^pointed by Macrinus in B. c. 217, 
first to the government of Pannonia and afte> 
wards to that of Dacia. (Dion. Cass. IxxviiL IS.) 
He seenu to be the same person as the Morcius 
Agrippa, admiral of the flcc^ who is mentioned by 


Spartianns aa privy to the destli of Antauon 
Cancallns. (Anton. Car. 6.) 


AGRIPPA PCfSTUMUS, a posthumous sos 
of M.Vipsanius Agrippa, by Julio, the daughter of 
Augustus, was bom in B. c 12. He waa adopted 
by Augustus together with Tiberius in a. a 4, 
and he assumed the toga virilis in the fbUowiog 
year, a. d. 5. (Suet Octait. 64, 65 ; Dion Csn. 
liv. 29, Iv. 22.) Notwithstanding his adoption he 
was afterwards banished by Augustns to the iilaiid 
of Planasia, on the coast of Corsica, a disgrace 
which he incurred on account of hi* savage sod 
intractable character ; but be waa not gmlty of 
any crime. There he was under the surveilluue 
of ioldien, and Augustus obtained a lenatiuran- 
sultum by which the banishment was legally con- 
firmed for the time of his life. The propotj of 
Agrippa was assigned by Augustoa to the treaany 
of the army. It is said that during his capttvity 
he received the visit of Augoatoa, who secretly 
went to Planasia, accompanied by Fabias Uaxi- 
mus. Augustas and Agrippa, both deeply afTectail, 
shed tears when they met, and it was beUev- 
ed that Agrippa wouhl be reatored to liberty. 
But the news of this visit leached livia, tag 
mother of Tiberius, and Agrippa remained a cap- 
tive. After the accession of Tiberius, in a. o. H, 
Agrippa was murdered by a centurion, who en- 
tered his prison and killed him after a Img 
struggle, for Agrippa was a man of great bodily 
strength. When the centurion afterwards went to 
Tiberius to give him an account of the executioo, 
the emperor denied having given any order br it, 
and it is very probable that Livia was the lecRt 
author of the crime. There was a rumour tlist 
Augosbu had left an order for the execution of 
Agrippa, but this is positively contradicted bj 
Tacitus. (Tac. Ann. i. 3 — 6 ; Dion Cass. Iv. 32, 
IviL 3 J Suet. /. c, Tib. 22 ; Vellei. iL 104, 111) 

After the death of Agrippa, a slave of the name 
of Clemens, who was not informed of the muider, 
landed on Planasia with the intention of restoring 
Agrippa to liberty and carrying him off to the 
army in Germany. When he heard of what had 
taken place, he tried to profit by his great reiaii- 
blance to the murdered captive, and he gave him- 
self out aa Agrippa. He landed at Ostia, sod 
found many who believed him, or affected t« 
believe him, but he was seized and put to d^ath 
by order of Tiberiua. (Tac. Ann. ii. 39, 40.) 

The name of Agrippa Caeaar ia found on a medal 
of Corinth. [W. P.] 

AGRIPPA, VIBULE'NUS, a Roman knigkt, 
who took poiaon in the aenate houae at the tine of 
his trial, A. D. 36; he had brought the poison with 
him in a ring. (Tac. Ann. n. 40 ; Dioo. Oaa. 
Iviu. 21.) 

AGRIPPA, M. VIPSA'NIUS, waa bom in 
B. c 63. He was the son of Lucius, and was de 
•cended from a very obacnre fiunily. At the ags 
of twenty he atndied at Apollonia m Illyiia, toige- 
ther with young Octaviua, afterwaida Octavianui 
and Augustus. After the murder of J. Caeaar in 
a. c. 44, Agrippa waa one of thoae intimate friends 
of Octaviua, who adviaed him to proceed immedi- 
ately to Rome. Octaviua took Agrimn with hin, 
and charged him to receive the oath of fidelity from 
several legions which had declared in his Bvoar. 
Having been chosen consul in B. c 43, Octaviua 
gave to his &iend Agrippa the delicate comnuiwa 


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ef praaecBting C Cuaiiu, one of the mnrdenn of 
J. Cifwr. At the outbreak of the Peniimian war 
between Oclsnns, now Oetananiu, and L. Ai>ti>- 
aina, in b. a 41, Agnpfn, who wa* then piaetor, 
aaananded pait d tlu fbnea of Octanaona, and 
after distingaiahniff hfp mwl f hj akilfiil BMDoeQTiieay 
ben^ged L. Antoniiu in Penuia. He todc the 
town in B. c 40, and towaixb the end of the nma 
jrear retook Sipontmn, which had fidlen into the 
hands of M. Antmini. In B. c, 38, Agripps ob- 
tained freah iDcccH in Ganl, when he quelled a 
lenlt of the native efaie& ; he alio penetnted into 
O eLi uau y aa fiu aa the eountiy of the Catti, and 
tnuia]dentcd the Ubii to the lefk bank of the 
Rhine ; wherenpon be turned hia anni against the 
RTolted Aquitiini, whom he soon brought to obe- 
dience. Ha Tictories, espeaaUy those in Aqoitania, 
contnbnted much to secniing the power of Octan- 
anna, and he was recalled bjr him to n]}deitake the 
connnand of the war against Sex. Fompeius, 
whidi waa on the point of beaking out, B. c. 37. 
OctsriBnns ofo«d him a triumph, which Agiippi 
dedined, bat accepted the consulship, to which he 
was prooMed by OctsTianns in B. c. 37. Dion 
Caadua (xlviii. 49) seems to say tiiat ha waa con- 
snl when he went to Oaol, but the words i)rdT<vt 
t« ftrrd Xnmlm TiMMt seem to be snqacioas, 
snleas they are to be inserted a little higher, after 
the passage, ry I* Kyflir*^ Ti)r raii iwrucOH 
nftunm^ iyx*ifl'»^ whiiji refer to an erent 
which took plaee daring the consulship Ol Agrippk, 
For, immediately after his promotion to this dig- 
nity, he was cfaaiged by Octavianas with the con- 
struction of a fleet, which was the more neoaaaory, 
as Sextos Pompey was master of the aeo, 

Agrippa, in whom thoughts and deeds were 
neTer separated (VelleL iL 79), executed this 
order with prompt energy. The Lucrine lake 
near Baiae was transformed by him into a saie 
harbour, which he called the JiUian pert in honour 
of Octavianus, and where he exercised his sailors 
and mariners till they were able to encounter the 
experienced aailoi* of Pompey. In B.C 86, Agrip- 
pa defeated Sex. Pompey first at Hylas, and Kliay 
wards at Naulochos on the coast of Sicily, and the 
latter of these victories broke the naval supremacy 
of Pompey. He received in coniequenee the ho- 
noor ef • naval crown, which was first eonfencd 
upon him ; though, according to other authorities, 
H. VariD was the first who obtained it &«n Pom- 
pey the Oreat. (Vellei. il 81 ; Liv. EpiL 129 ; 
Dion Cass. xlix. 14 ; Plin.H.A^. xvL .'L s. 4; Virg. 
Jem. rm. 684.) 

In B. c 36, Agrippa had the command of the 
war in lUyria, and afterwards served under Octa- 
vianus, when the latter had proceeded to that conn- 
try. On his return, he voluntarily accepted the 
aedikship in a, c. 33, although he hod been consul, 
and expfmded immenie sums of money upon great 
public woriu. He restored the Appian, Maman, 
and Anienian aqueducts, constructed a new one, 
fifteen miles in length, from the Tepuhi to Rome, 
to which he gave the name of the Julian, in honour 
of Octavianus, and had an immenae number of 
mailer watsr-woika made, to distribute the water 
within the town. He also had the large cloaca of 
Taiqninins Friscus entirely cleansed. His various 
works wen adorned with statues by the first ar- 
tists of Rome. These splendid buildings he aug- 
mented in B. c 27, during his third consulship, by 
•eretal other% and among theae was the Pantheon, 



on which we atin read the inscription: "K, Agripps 
U F. Cos. Tertinm fedL" (Dion Case. xKx. 43, 
liii. 27 ; Plin. U. N. xxxvi 15, a. 34 | 3; Stab. 
V. p.23£i Fnmtin./)e^9iiaei<.9.) 

When the war brake oat between Octavianm 
and hL Antonius, Agrippa was appointed com- 
mander-in-chief of the fleet, b. c, 32. He took 
Methone in the Peloponnesus, Leueas, Patrae, and 
Corinth ; and in the battle of Actium (& a 31 ) 
where he commanded, the victory was mainly 
owing to his skilL On his return to Rome in 
BL c 30, Octavianus, now Augustus, rewarded 
him with a ** vexillnm cacnileam," or seagrewn 
In B. a 28, Agrippa became conaol for the second 
time with Augustus, and about this time married 
Mareella, the nieee of Augustus, and the daughter 
of his sister Octavia. His farmer wile, Pomponio, 
the daughter of T. Pomponius Atticos, was either 
dead or divorced. In tne fidlowing year, a. c 27, 
he was again conaol the third time with Angastus. 
In B. c. Stfi, Agrippa accompanied Augustus to 
the war against the Cantohriana. About this time 
jeoloasy arose between him and his brother-in-law 
ManeUus, the nephew of Augustus, and who 
seemed to be destined as his successor. Augustus, 
anxious to prevent differences that might have had 
serious conaequencds for him, aent Agrippa aa pro- 
oonaol to Syria. Agrippa of coune left Rome, but 
he sto{qied at Mitylene in the island of Lesbos, 
leaving the government of Syria to his legate. 
The apprehensions of Augustus were removed by 
the de^ of Morcellua in B. c. 23, and Agrippa 
immediately returned to Rome, where he was the 
mora anxioualy expected, as troubles had broken 
out during the election of the consuls in b. c. 21. 
Augustus resolved to receive his &ithful friend 
into hia own family, and accordingly induced him 
to divorce his wife Mareella, and many Julio, the 
widow of Moicdlus and the daughter of Augustus 
by his third wife, Scribonio. (& a. 21.) 

In B. c. 19, Agrippa went into Oaul. He paci- 
fied the turbulent natives, and constructed four 
great public roods ond a splendid aqueduct at 
Nemousua (Nimes). From thence he proceeded 
to Spain ond subdued the Cantabrians oftiBrs short 
but bloody and obatinote struggle ; bat, in accord- 
ance with hia usual prudence, he neither announced 
his victories in pompous letters to the senate, nor 
did he accept o triumph which Augustus offered 
him. In B. c 18, he woa inveated with the tribn- 
nician power for five years together with Augustus ; 
and in the fallowing year (b. c 17), his two sons, 
CaiuB ond Lucius, were odopted by Anguatua. 
At the close of the year, he accepted on invita- 
tion of Herad the Great, and went to Jeniaa- 
lem. He founded the militory colony of Berytos 
(Beyrnt), thence he proceeded in B. c. 16 to the 
Pontus Enxinus, and compelled the Bosporani to 
accept Polemo for their kmg and to restore tha 
Roman eagles which hod been token by Slithrir, 
dotes. On his return he stayed some time in 
Ionia, where he granted privileges to the Jews 
whose cauae iras pleaded b; Herod (Joseph. Antij. 
Jud. xvL 2), and then proceeded to Rome, where 
he arrived in B. c. IS. After his tribunidan power 
hod been prolonged for five years, he went to Pon- 
nonia to restore tranquillity to that province. He 
returned in B. c. 12, after having been successful 
as usual, and retired to Companio. There he died 
unexpectedly, in the mondi of March, & c. 12, m 


zed by Google 



Ut <Ut year. His body vaa carried to Rome, 
knd waa buried in the nmnioleiim of Angustiu, 
who himaelf piononnoed s fonenl ontioii orer it. 

Dion CoMiiu tella ns (UL !,&&), that in the year 
B. c. 29 Augiutni aaaembled hit friends and conn- 
aellors, Agrippn and Maecenai, demanding their 
opinion a» to whether it would be adriiable for 
him to utorp monarchical power, or to rettore to 
the nation iti former republican gOTerament. 
Thia ia corrobonted by Snetonina {Oetav. 28), 
who aaya that Anguatua twice deliberated upon 
that aabject The apeeche* which Agrippa and 
Maecenai delirered on thia oocaiion are giren by 
Dion Caaaiua ; bat the artificial chaiaeter of them 
makea them auapiciooa. Howerer it doea not aeem 
likely from the general character of Dion Caaaiua 
aa a hiatorian that theae apeeche* are invented by 
him ; and it ia not improbable, and each a inppo- 
aition anil* entirely the character of Angoatui, 
that thoae apeeehea were really pronounced, though 
preconcerted between Augnatua and hia counaellora 
to make the Roman nation believe that the &te of 
the republic waa atiU a matter of diacnaaion, and 
that Anguatua would not aamme monarchical power 
till he had been convinced that it wa* necetaary 
fhr the wel&re of the nation. Beeidea, Agrippa, 
who according to Dion Caaaina, adviaed Angnstua 
to restore the tepublie, waa a man whose political 
opiniona had evidently a monan;h><!al tendency. 

Agrippa waa one of the moat diatingniahed and 
important men of the a^ of Angnatu. He 
must be conaideied aa a chief aupport of the liaing 
monarchical oonstitation, and without Agrippa 
Angnstoa could scarcely have ancceeded in making 
himaelf the absolute master of the Roman empire. 
Dion Caaaiua (liv. 29, Ac), Vellcina Patorcnlna 
(ii. 79), Seneca (£Ja. 94), and Horace (Od. L 6), 
■peak with eqoal admiration of hia merito. 

Pliny constantly refers to the " Commentarii" of 
Agrippa aa an anthority (Elenehiis, iii. iv. "v. vi, 
eorap. iii. 2), which may indicate certain official 
lists drawn np by him in the measurement of the 
Roman world under Augnstu [ASTHICDSJ, in 
which he may have taken part. 

Agrippa left several children. By his first wife 
Pomponia, he had Vipsania, who was mairied to 
Tiberius Caesar, the sncceaaor of Angnstua. By 
hia aecond wife, Maicella, he had aeveral children 
who are not mentioned; and by hia third wife, 
Julia, he had two daughters, Julia, married to 
la. Aemiliua Paulina, and Agrippina married to 
Oermanicua, and three aona, Cains [Cassab, C], 
Lncina fCABSAK, L.], and Aoufpa Postohdr. 
(Dion Caas. Ub. 45-54; Liv. SpiL 117-186; 
Appian, BelL Gv. lib. 5 ; Suet Oeiav.; Frandaen, 
M, Vip$aiuiu Agrippa, eim kutorimit Untertudumg 
fiber dmm Lebat umd Wirim, Altona, 1836.) 

There are aeveral medala of Agrippa : in the one 
figured below, he ia repreaented with a naval 
cnwn ; on the reverie is Neptnne indicating hia 
I by aea. [\V. P.] 


AORIPPI'NA I., the yonngeat daughter of U. 
Vipaanina Agrippa and of Julia, the danghta of 
Angnatns, wa* bom some time before b.c: IJL 
She mairied Caeaar Oennanicus, the son of Drusu 
Nero Oennanicua, by whom she had nine diii- 
dran. Agrippina waa gifted with gnat powm 
of mind, a noble chaiaeter, and all the moil 
and phyaical qualities that constituted the model 
of a Roman matron : her love for her bnshand asi 
sincere and lasting, her chastity was spotless, hct 
fertility waa a virtue in the eyea of the Rooaoa, 
and her attachment to her children waa an oni- 
nent feature of her character. She yielded to mm 
dangeroua poaaion, ambition. Angnstua ilievtd 
her particular attention and attachment (Soetos. 
Calig. 8.) 

At the death of Angnstua in A. D. Ii, >he na 
on the Lower Rhine with Oermanicni, who com- 
manded the legiona there. Her husband waa the 
idol of the army, and the legions on the Rjune, 
dissatisfied with the accession of Tiberius, mani- 
feated their intention of proclaiming Oermaaiaii 
maater of the atate. Tiberiua hated and dnaM 
Oermanicaa, and he ahewed as mnch antintky la 
Agrippina, aa he had love to her elder aialer, hii 
firat wife. In thia perilona aituation, Oennanicm 
and Agrippina saved themselves by their prompl 
energy ; he quelled the outbreak and punned lis 
war against the Germans. In the ensuing year 
his lieutenant Caecina, after having made as inm- 
sion into Germany, returned to uie Rhine. Tl» 
campaign was not in^orioni (or the Romani, Int 
they were worn out by hardships, and perhsfi 
harassed on their march by soma bonda of Oo*- 
man*. Thus the nimonr was spread that the naiii 
body of the Germans waa approaching to infsde 
Gaiil. Germanicua waa abaent, and it was pm- 
posed to destroy the bridge orer the RhiiK. 
(Comp. Strab. iv. p. 194.) If this had beadoiie, 
the retreat of Caecina'a amy would have been at 
oS, bat it waa aaved by ike firm oppoaitioii cf 
Agrippina to such a cowardly measme. When 
the troops approached, she went to the bridge, 
acting as a general, and receiving the soldien u 
they crossed it ; the wonnded among them wen 
presented by her with clothes, and Uiey nedni 
bom her own hands everything necessary for lb 
cure of their wounds. (Tae. Ann. i. 69.) Oe^ 
manicus having been recalled by Tiberius, she a^ 
componied her husband to Asia (a. d. 17), and 
after his death, or rather murder [Gxrhankdi], 
she returned to Italy. She atoyed aome dsjri •! 
the iaiand of Corcyra to recover from her pM 
and then landed at Bmndusium, aoonupaniod br 
two of her children, and holding in her ormi <li' 
urn with the ashes of her husband. At the nc* 
of her arrival, the port, the walls, and eren the 
roofs of the houaea were occupied by crawdi </ 
people who were anxious to see and nlute ber. 
She was solemnly received by the officers of tws 
Praetorian ' cohorts, which Tiberius had aent W 
Bmndusium for the purpose of accompanying ber 
to Rome ; the um containing the ashes of Oeni» 
nicna was borne by tribunes and centnrioiu, uxi 
the funeral procession was received on its ns>^ 
by the magistrate* of Calabria, Apulia, and Cao- 
pania ; by Drusus, the son of Tiberius ; dssdisii 
the brother of Germanicna ; by the other chiUrn 
of Oennanicua ; and at last, in the enrirom > 
Rome, by the consuls, the senate, and crowdi b 
the Romao people. (Tac Ann. iii. 1, Ac.) 

Digitized by 



Daring lOBie yean Tiberiui diagniaed his hativd 
of Agrippina ; bat she soon be^me exposed to 
secret aocasatkms and intrigue*. She asked the 
emperor's permiisiaii to choose another hosbond, 
but Tiberius neither refused nor consented to the 
proporution. Sejanos, vho exercised an nnbound- 
ed inflnence orer Tiberias, then a prey to mental 
disorders, persuaded Agrippina that the emperor 
intended to poison her. Alarmed at such ( report, 
she refased to eat on apple which the emperor 
o&red her Emm his taUe, and Tiberias in his 
torn complained of Agiippina regarding him 
as a poisoner. According to Saetonins, all this 
ms an intrigue preconcerted between the emperor 
and Sejanus, who, as it seems, bad formed the 
plan of ^r»A{ng Agrippina into fiUse steps. Tibe- 
rius was extremely sospicioas of Agrippina, and 
shewed his hostile feelings by allusive words or 
negieetfiil silence. There were no eridences of 
ambitions plans formed by Agrippina, bnt the 
nunoor baring been spread that she would fly to 
the army, he banished her to the island of Pan- 
dataria (a. d. 30) where her mother Julia had 
died in exile. Her sons Nera and Dmsua were 
likewise banished and both died an nnnatural 
death. She lived three yean on that barren 
island ; at last she refiised to take any food, 
and died most probably by Toluntary starvation. 
Her death took pbce precisely two yean after and 
on the same date as the murder of Sejanus, that is 
in A. D. 33. Tacitus and Suetonius tell as, that 
Tiberius boasted that be had not stranded her. 
(Soetoo. TV). 53 ; Tac; Amu vi. 2£.) The ashes 
of Agrippina and those of her son Nero were 
afterwards brought to Rome by order of her son, 
the emperor Caligula, who struck various medals in 
honour of his mother. In the one figured below, 
the head of Caligula is on one side and that of his 
mother on the other. The words on each side are 
RspectiTely, c. csuar. avo. gu. t.k. tb. put., 




(Tac Am. i — ^ri. ; Sneton. Oelm. 64, 7%. L c, 
OJig. Lc; Dion. Cass. IviL 6, 6, Iviii. 22.) [W. P ] 

AGRIPPI'NA II., the daughter of Oermani- 
cns and Agrippina the elder, daughter of M. 
Vipaanina Agrippa. She was bom between A. o. 
13 and 17, at the Oppidum Ubiorum, afterwards 
called in honour of her Colonia Agrippina, now 
Cologne, and then the heod-quarters of the legions 
CDnimanded by her &ther. In a. d. 28, she mai^ 
ried Cn. Domitias Ahenobarbns, a man not un- 
like her, and whom she lost in A. D. 40. After 
his death she married Crispus Passienus, who died 
nme years afterwords ; and she was accused of hav- 
ing poisoned him, either for the purpose of obtain- 
ing his great fortune, or for tome secret motive of 
much higher importance. She was already known 
fer her scandalons conduct, for her most peifidi- 
oos intrigues, and for an unbounded ambition. 
She was accused of having committed incest with 
her own brother, the emperor Cains Caligula, 
who under the pretext of having discovered 
that she had lind in m idalttiaai iutercooiM 

with M. Aemilius Lepidns, the husband of 
her sister Drusilla, bani^ed her to the island of 
Pontia, which was situated opposite the bay of 
Caieta, off the coast of Italy. Her sister Drusilla 
was likewise banished to Pontia, and it seema 
that their exile was connected with the punish- 
ment of Lepidus, who was put to death for having 
conspired against the emperor. Previously to her 
exile, Agrippina was compelled by her brother 
to carry to Rome the ashes of ijepidus. This 
happened in a. d. 39. Agrippina and her sister 
were released in A. D. 41, by th«ir ancle, Clau- 
dius, immediately after hit accession, although 
his wife, Messalina, was the mortal enemy 
of Agrippina. Messalina was put to death by 
order of Chiudius in A. D. 48 ; and in the follow- 
ing year, a. d. 49, Agrippina succeeded in ma> 
rying the emperor. Claudius was her uncle, bnt 
her marriage was legalized by a aenatutconsul- 
tum, by which the marriage of a man with his 
brother's daughter was declared valid ; this aenatus- 
consultum was afterwards abrogated by the emper- 
ors Conttantine and Conttons. In this intrigue 
Agrippina displayed the qualities of an accomplished 
courtezan, and such was the influence of her charms 
and superior talents over the old emperor, that, in 
prejudice of hia own son, Britannicus, he adopt- 
ed Domitius, the son of Agrippina by her fint 
husband, Cn. Domitius Ahenoborbus. (a. d. 51.) 
Agrippina was assisted in her secret plans by 
PailivB, the perfidious confidant of Claudius. By 
her intrigues, L. Junius Sihinus, the husband of 
Octavia, the daughte^ of Claudius, was put to 
death, and in A. o. S3, Octavia was married to 
young Nero. LoUia Paullina, once the rival of 
Agrippina for the hand of the emperor, was accused 
of high treason and condemned to death ; but sho 
put an end to her own life. Domitia Lepida, the 
sitter of Cn. Domitiua Ahenobarbus, met with a 
similar &te. After having thns removed thoso 
whose rivalship she dreaded, or whose virtues she 
enried, Agrippina reiolved to get rid 'of her hus- 
band, and to govern the empire through her atccn- 
dency over her son Nero, hla successor. A vague 
rumour of this reached the emperor ; in a state of 
drunkenness, he forgot prudence, and talked about 
punishing his ambitious wife. Having no time to 
lose, Agrippina, assisted by Locosta and Xenophon, 
a Greek pnytician, poisoned the ojd emperor, in 
A. D. 54, at Sinuessa, a watering-phice to which 
he had retired for the take of hit health. Nero 
was proclaimed emperor, and presented to ths 
troops by Burrus, whom Agrippina had appointed 
praefectus praetorio. Narcissus, the rich frecdman 
of Claudius, M. Junius Silanus, proconsul of Asia, 
the brother of L. Junius Silanus, and a great- 
grandson of Augustus, lost their lives at the insti- 
gation of Agrippina, who would have augmented 
the number of her victims, but for the opposition 
of Burrus and Seneca, recalled by Agrippino from 
his exile to conduct the education of Nero. Mean- 
while, the young emperor took tome ttcps to shako 
off the intupportable atcendency of hit mother. 
The jealouty of Agrippina rote from her ton't pas- 
tion for Acte, and, after her, for Poppaea Sabina, 
the wife of M. Salviut Otho. To reconquer hit 
affection, Agrippina employed, but in vain, most 
daring and most revolting means. She threatened 
to oppose Britannicus as a rival to the emperor ; 
bnt Britannicus wot poitoncd by Nero; and she 
cTcn Bolicited her ton to an incestuous iute> 



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la AORippiNua 

Goane. At latt, her death wai molTcd upon 
by Neio, who withed to repudiate Octaria and 
marry Poppaea, but whoee plan was thwarted 
by lua moUier. Thn> petty feminine intrignee 
became the cauae of Agtippina'i ruin. Nen 
tnnted her under the pretext of a reconciliation 
to vieit him at Baiae, on the ooaat of Campania. 
She went thither by tea. In their conrenation 
hypocrisy was displayed on both sides. She 
Idit Baiae by the same way ; but the vessel was 
10 contrived, that it was to break to pieces 
when out at sea. It only partly broke, and Agrip- 
pina saved herself by swimming to the shore ; 
Ler attendant Acerronia was kiUed. Agrippina 
fled to her villa near the Lncrine lake, and inform- 
ed her son of her happy escape. Now, Nero 
cbaiged Buinis to murder his mother ; but Bnrrus 
declining it, Anicetns, the commander of the fleet, 
who had invented the stratagem of the ship, was 
compelled by Nero and Burms to undertake the 
task. Anicetns went to her villa with a chosen 
band, and his men surprised her in her bedroom. 
** Ventrem feri " she cried out, after she was but 
(lightly wounded, and immediately afterwards ex- 
pired under the blows of a centurion, (a. d. 60.) 
(Tae. Ann. ziv. 8.) It was toM, that Nero went 
to the villa, and that he admired the beauty of the 
dead body of his mother : this was believed by 
some, doubted by others, (xiv. 9.) Agrippina left 
commentaries concerning her history and that of 
her fiunily, which Tacitus consulted, according to 
his own statement (/&. iv. £4 ; comp. Plin. HiiL 
Nal. vii. 6. a. 8, Elenchus, vii. tat.) 

There are several medals of Agrippina, which 
are distinguishable from those of her mother by 
the title of Augusta, which those of her mother 
never have. On some of her medals she is repre- 
sented with her husband Claudius, in others with 
hei son Nero. The farmer is the case in the one 
annexed. The words on each side are respectively, 
AORirPINAI AVOVSTAX, and tl clavd. caisab. 
AVO. OBBM. tM. TUB. Wt. F.P. 

(Tac Amt. TSbxL ziu. sit.; Dion Caaa. lib. lix. — 
Ixi.; Sueton. Ctaad. 4S, 44, Nero, S, 6.) [W.P.] 

AGRIPPI'NUS, Bishop of Carthage, of 
venerable memory, but known for beingthe first 
to maintain the neoesuty of rs-baptizing all 
heretics. (Vincent. Liiinens. OmmomiL L 9.) St. 
Cyprian r^arded this opinion as the correction of 
an error (S. Augustin. Da Bi^atwiui, ii. 7, vol ix. 
p. 1 02, ed. Bened.), and St. Au^tine seems to 
imply he defended his error in writing. {l^tuL 93, 
c. 10.) He held the Council of 70 Bidiops at 
Carthage about A. D. 200 (Vnlg. a. d. 215, Mans. 
A. o. 217) on the sobject of Baptism. Though he 
erred in a matter yet undefined by the Church, St. 
Angustine notices that neither he nor St. Cyprian 
thought of separating from the Church. (De 
Bajytumo, iil 2, p. 1 09.) [ A J. C] 

AGRIPPI'NUS, PACO'NIUS, whose fiither 
was put to death by Tiberius on a charge of trea- 
son. (Suet 7T&. 61.) Agrippinns was accused at 


the same time as Thnuea, A. o. 67, and wis he. 
nished from Italy. (Tac Ann. xvi 28, 29, 31) 
He was a Stoic philosopher, and is spoken of nitib 
praise by Epictetas {<^.Stob.Stm. 7), and Anisa, 


A'ORIUS CA-nHot), a son of Porthaon aaj 
Enryte, and brother of Oenens, king of Calydoo m 
Aetolia, Alcathons, Melas, Leucopeus, and Steni|ic; 
He was father of six sons, of whom Thenita ¥si 
one. These sons of Agrins deprived Oeneu of 
his kingdom, and gave it to their fiMher ; bat all of 
them, with the exception of Tfaersites, were lUi 
by Diomedes, the grandson of Oenens. (ApoUed. 
L 7. § 10, 8. § 5, &c) Apollodoms places dme 
events before the expedition of the Greeks agsiaat 
Troy, while Hyginus (Fab, 175, comp. 242 snd 
Antraiin. Lib. 87) states, that Diomedn, wliesl» 
heard, after the &11 of Troy, of the misfortane d 
his giandbther Oenens, hastened back and expelled 
Agriua, who then put an end to his own life ; ac- 
cording to others, Agnus and his sons were dais 
by Diomedes. (Comp. Pans. iL 25. § 2 ; Or. df 
Toid. ix. 163.) 

There are soma other mythical personages of tie 
name of Agrins, concerning whom nothing of inte- 
rest is known. (Hesiod. Thng. 1013, &c; ApoUod. 
i.6. §2,u.5. §4.) [L.S.J 

grammarian, the author of an extant work " De 
OrthographiB et Differentia Sermonis," intended ii 
a supplement to a work on the same subject, by 
Flavins Caper, and dedicated to a bishop, EodK- 
rius. He u supposed to have lived in the middle 
of the fith eentuy of our era, Hia work is printed 
in Putschius' " Giammaticae latinae Anctom 
Antiqui," pp. 2266— 227S. [C. P. M.] 

AGROETAS ('AtpoItoj), a Greek historiia, 
who wrote a work on Scytbia (SicuAmi), baa tlie 
thirteenth book of which the scholiast on Apoilo- 
nins (ii. 1248) qnotes, and one on Libya (Aitia^), 
the fourth book of which is quoted by the nine 
schoUast (iv. 1396.) He is also mentioned bf 
StephanusByx. (:v.'htm\os.) [a P. M.) 

AGRON CA7p«»). 1. The son of Nines the 
first of the Lydian dynasty of the Ueiadeidie. 
The tradition was, that this dynas^ so^piaoteda 
native race of kings, having been origiiaUj en- 
trusted with the government a* deputies. Tie 
names Ninus and Beius in their genealogy render 
it probable that they "were either Aesyrian gnw- 
non, or princes of Assyrian origin, and thst tiieir 
accession marks the period of an Assyrisn on- 
quest (Herod, i. 7.) 

2. The son of Pleuratus, a king of Ilyria. b 
the strength of his land and navid forces he n^ 
passed w. the preceding kings of that omntiy. 
VVlien the Aetolians attempted to compel the ii^ 
dionians to join their confederacy, Agion naiit- 
took to protect them, having be«i induced to d» 
so by a large bribe which he received from Deme- 
trius, the fiither of Philip. He accordingly »» " 
their assistance a force of 5000 Hlynaia, wto 
gained a decisive victory over the Aetolia" 
Agron, oveijoyed at the news of this auccen, p™ 
himself up to feasting, and, in consequence of bae^ 
cess, contracted a pleurisy, of which he died. (*^ 
231.) He was succeeded in the government SJ 
his wife Teuta. Just after his death, an "»^ 
arrived from the Romans, who had sent to media" 
in behalf of the inhabitants of the ialand of W | 
who had revolted from Agron and place* """■ 


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fdm nader tlia protection of tke Ronuni. By 
]i> fint wife, Triteata, whom be divoiced, lie had 
a ton named Piuiwa, or Pinoeiu, who •omTed 
him, and waa placed under the goaidianihip of 
Demetiiiu Phaiiua, who married his mother after 
the itub.ef Teata. (Dion Caaa. zxxir. 46, 151 ; 
Poljik. ii 3—4 i Appan, JU. 7 s Flor. ii. 6 ; Plin. 
AA^zxxiT. 6.) [a P.M.] 

AOROO'ERA rAypmipa), the hontrcM, a rar- 
name of Artemii. (Horn. 11. xzi. 471.) At Agrae 
oo the Iliuas, where the waa beliered to hare first 
himtad after her aniTal from Delos, Artemis Agrotera 
had a temple with a statne carrying a bow. (Pans, 
i 19. § 7.) Under thia name she waa also wor- 
shipped at Aegeira. (vii. 26. § 2.) The name 
Agroteia is synonymoua with Agraea [Aoraxuh], 
birt Eostathios (ad II. p. 361) derives it from the 
town of Agne. G)ncen>ing the worship of Artemis 
Asioten at Athena, see JMcL of Avi. $.v. 'Aypo- 
rfyas dwio, p. 31. [L. S.j 

A07IEUS C^yvtt6s), a surname of Apollo de- 
aciibing him as the protector of the streets and 
paUic plaeea. Aa such be was worshipped at 
Acharsae (Pans. i. 31. § 3), Mjcenae (ii. 19. § 7), 
and at Tegea. (viil 53. g I.) The origin of the 
wonhip of Apollo Agyieas in the bat of these 
piaeca ia related by Pansoniaa. (Compare Hor. 
Cbrm, IT. 6. 28 ; Macrob. Sat I 9.) [h. S.] 

AGY'RBHIUS {'Ayi^iot), a native of CoUt- 
tns in Attics, whom Andocides ironically calls Tai> 
stoA^r mdyoBir {de MytL p. 65, ed. Reiske), after 
being in prison many yean for embezzlement of 
pnfalic money, obtained abont B. c 395 the restor- 
ation of the Theoricon, and also tripled the pay for 
atlfnding the aaaembly, though he reduced the 
aDewance prenouily given to the comic writers. 
(Uaipocrat. $. e. Swpuoi, 'Kyi^^iot ; Suidas, i. e. 
AucAvriArrucJc; Schoi. ad AriOopk. End. 102; 
Dem. e. Tnaocr. p. 742.) By thia expenditure of 
the pablic revenue Agyrrhius became so popular, 
that he was appointed general in & c. 389. (Xen. 
HOU IT. 8. S 31 : Diod. ziT. 99 ; Bockh, PM. 
Beam, tf Aiiau, pp. 223, 224, 316, &c 2nd ed. 
EngL tianaL; Schbmann, dt CcmitiU, p. 65, &c) 

AUA'LA, the name of a patrician &mily of the 
Servilia Gena. There were also several persons of 
this gena with the name of Stntciut Akala, who 
may have formed a diiferest iamily from the Aho- 
lae ; but as the Ahalae and Stnicti Ahalae are 
fieqoently confounded, all the person* of these 
namea an given here. 

1. C SuiviLius Stbuctub Ahaxa, consul b.c 
47B, died in his year of office, aa appears from the 
FastL (Lit. ii. 49.) 

2. C. SsBviLiDS Stbvctos Ahala, magister 
eqaitnm B. c. 439, when L. Cindnnatu* was ap- 
pointed dictator on the pretence that Sp. Moelius 
was platting against the state. In the night, in 
which the dictator was appointed, the capitol and 
all the strong posts were garrisoned by the partir 
lans of the patricians. In the morning, when the 
people assembled in the fomm, and Sp. Maelins 
among them, Ahala summoned the latter to appear 
before the dictator ; and upon Maelius disobeying 
and taking refuge in the crowd, AhoU rushed into 
the throng and lulled him. (Lir. iv. 13, 14 ; Zo- 
naras, vil 20 ; Dionys. Bxe. Mai, i p. 3.) This 
act is mentioned by Uter writen a* an example of 
ancient heroism, and is frequently referred to by 
Ciccio in terms of the highest adraiiation (ta CaliL 
L 1, pro MiL 3, Oaa, 16) ; but it was in reality 



a case of morder, and waa so regarded at the time. 
Ahala was brought to trial, and only escaped coo- 
demnati&n by a voluntaiy exile. (Val. Max. v. 8. 
§ 2 ; Cic dt Rep. i. 3, pro Dom. 32.) livy passes 
over this, and only mentions (iv. 21), that a bill 
waa brought in three years afterwards, B. c 436, 
by another Sp. Maelius, a tribune, for confiscating 
the property of Ahala, but that it fiuled. 

A representation of Ahahk is given on a coin of 
M. Brutus, the murderer of Caesar, but we cannot 
suppose it to be anything more than an imaginary 
likeness. M. Brutus pretended that he was des- 
cended from L. Brutus, the first consul, on his 
fiither's side, and from C Ahala on his mother's, 
and thus was sprung from two tyrannicides. 
(Comp. Cic. ad AU. xiu. 40.) The head of Brutus 
on the annexed coin i* theienira int^ided to repre- 
sent the first conauL 


3. C SiBTiLiua Q. F. C. N. Stboctus Ahaia, 
consul & c 427. (Liv. iv. 30.) 

4. C. Servilivs p. f. Q. n. Stbuctvs Ahala, 
consular tribune B.C 408, and magister eqnitnm in 
the same year ; which latter dignity he obtained 
in consequence of snpporting the senate against hia 
colleagues, who did not wish a dictator to be ap- 
pointed. For the some reason he was elected 
consular tribune a second time in the following 
year, 407. He waa consular tribune a third time 
in 402, when ha assisted the senate in compelling 
his colleagues to resign who hod been defeated by 
the enemy. (Liv. iv. 56, 57, v. 8, 9.) 

5. C. SiKviLius AuALA, magister eqnitam 
a a 389, when Camillus mis appointed dictatn a 
third time. (Lir. vi. 2.) Ahala is spoken of as 
magister equitum in 385, on occasion of the trial 
of Manlius. Monlius summoned him to bear wit- 
ness in hia favour, a* one of those whoa* lives he 
hod saved in battle; but Ahok did not appear, 
(iv. 20.) Pliny, who mentions this cireumstaoce, 
calls Ahala P. Servilius. (//. N. viL 39.) 

6. Q. Sbbvilius Q. f. Q. n. Ahala, consul 
b. c 365, and again B. c. 362, in the latter of 
which years he appointed Ap. Claudius dictator, 
after hi* plebeian collei^ua L. Oenucius bad been 
sbiin in battle. In 360 he was himself appomted 
dictator in consequence of a Gallic tinmi/tes, and 
defeated the Gaul* near the CoUine pate. He held 
the comitia as iutenex in 355. (Lit. vii. 1, 4, 6, 

7. Q. Sbbviuus Q. f. Q. n. Abala, mogister 
equitum B. c 351, when M. Fabius was appointed 
dictator to frustrate the Licinian law, and consul 
B. c 342, at the beginning of the fint Semnite 
war. He remained in the city ; his colleague hod 
the charge of the war. (Liv. vii. 22, 38.) 

AHENOBARBUS, the name of a plebeian 
family of the DoHrriA Gens, so called from the 
red ^r which many of this fiunily hod. To ex- 
plain this name, which signifies " Red- Beard," and 
to assign a high antiquity to their family, it waa 
said that the Dioscuri announced to one of their 



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anoeston the Tictory of the RomanB orer the Latmi 
at lake Recillu* (& a 496), and, to coi^fiim the 
truth of wliat thej Mid, that they stroked hit 


bUudc hair and beaid, which immediately hecane 
red. (Suet. Ner. 1 ; Pint. AemO. 25, Ooni. >j 
Dionyi. ti. 13 ; Tertoll. ApoL 22.) 

Strmma Ahsnobaiiboiivic. 

1. Cn. Domitin* Ahenobarbui, Col b. c, 192, 

2, Cn. Domitins Ahenobaibus, Col Snff. b. c. 162. 

8. Cn. Domitim Ahenobarbui, Coi, a, c, 122: 

4. Co. Domitina Ahenobarbui, Coa, & c. 96. 

6. L. Domitiui Ahenobaitai, Coa. & 6 M. 

6. Cn. Domitim Ahenobarbni. Probably son of 
No. 4. DiedB.c.81. Married Cornelia, daugh- 
ter of L, ComeliDs Cinna, Cos. B. c. 87. 

7. L. Domitim Ahenobaibm, Coa 
B. c 51. Married Porda, nils 
of M. Cato. 

8. Cn. Domitim Ahenoharboi^ Coa. & & 32. 


L. Domitim Ahenobaibui, Coa. a. c: 16. Ifiniti 
Antonia, daughter of M. Antonim and Octam. 

10. Cn. Domitim Ahenolarbni, Coa. 
A. D. 32. Married Agrippina, 
dangfater of Germamcui. 

11. Domitia. Mar- 
ried Criipoi Paa- 

12. Domitia '. 
Married H. Vale- 
liui Menala. 

IS. L. Domitim Ahenoharbm, the emperor Nbbo. 

1. Cn. Doxmns L. r , L. N. Ahinobarbus, 
plebeian aedile B. c. 196, proeecnted, in canjnnction 
with hit colleague C. Curio, many ptcaarii, and 
with the finea railed therefrom built a temple of 
Faunm in the iahind of the Tiber, which he dedi- 
cated in hii piaetonhip, B, c. 1 94. (Lir. xxxiii. 
42, szziT. 42, 43, 63.) He waa conaul in 192, 
and wai lent against the Boii, who submitted to 
him; but he remained in their country till the 
following year, when he wai succeeded by tho 
consul Scipio Naaica. (xxzr. 10, 20, 22, 40, xxxri. 
37.) In 190, he waa legate of the consul L. Scipio 
in the war against Antiochm the Qreat. (xzxTii. 
39; Plut. ApaplUk. Bam. Cn. DomU.) In his 
couulshi^ one of his oxen ii said to hare uttered 
the warning "Roma, cave tiln." (Lit. xzxt. 21 ; 
VaL Max. L 6. $ 3> who Uaely ays, Bdlo Pmieo 

2. Cn. Doitmus Cn. p. L. n. Ahznobabbus, 
son of the preceding, was chosen pontifex in B. a 
172, when a young man (Lit. zlii. 28), and in 169 
was tent with two others as commissioner into 
Macedonia, (zlir. 18.) In 167 he wai one of the 
ten commissioners for arranging the affairs of Ma- 
cedonia in conjunction with Aemilius Paollns (zIt, 
17) ; and when the consuls of 162 abdicated on 
account of some fiwlt in the auspices in their elec- 
tion, be and Comelim Lentolm wen chosen con- 
sols in thdr stead. (Gc deNoLDaor. Hi, de Dn. 
ii. 35; Val. Afo*. i. 1. 8 8.) 

8. Cn. DomriDS Cn. p. Cn. n. Ahinobakbvs, 
son of the preceding, was sent in his consulship, 
B. c. 122, against the Allobroges in Oanl, became 
they had receired Teutomalius, the king of the 
SallaTii and the enemy of the Romans, and had 
laid waste the territory of the Aedni, the friends 
of the Romans. In 121 he conquered the Allo- 
broges and their ally Vitoitns, king of the Anremi, 
near Yindalinm, at the confluence of the Saiga and 

the Rhodanm ; and he gained the battle mmily 
through the terror caused by his elephants. Be 
commemorated his victory, by the erection of tn> 
phies, and went in procession through the pioTiaoa 
carried by an elephant. He triumphed in 1211. 
(Lit. .^nt. 61 ; Florm,iii. 2; Strab. ir. p. 191 ; 
Cic. pro Fait. 12, BnU. 26 ; Vellei. iL 10, 39 ; 
Oroa. T. 13; Suet, ^fer, 2, who oonfiiundi bia 
with his son.) He was censor in 115 with Caea- 
lius Metellus, and expelled twenty-two posoos 
from the senate. (Lir. Spit, 62 ; Cic pro Ctuai. 
42.) He wu also Pontifez. (Suet. 2. c) The 
Via Domitia in Gaul was made by him. (Qcfn 
FonL 8.) 

4. Cn. DoxiTiug Cn. f. Cn. n. Ahinobaxbvs, 
son of the preceding, was tribune of the pkhs B. c 
104, in the second consulship of Marios. (Amsb. 
M Cornd. p. 81, ed. Orelli.) When the coDegt of 
pontifis did not elect him in place of his &tlier, h« 
brought forward the law (£u Domitia), by which 
the right of election was transferred from tin 
priestly colleges to the people. {Dili. cfAuL jf. 
773, b. 774, a.) The people afterwards elected 
him Pontifex Mazimns out of gratitude. (LIt. 
Epit.61; Cic pro DeioLll; Val. Max. Ti S. § S.) 
He prosecuted in his tribunate and aiterwanii 
seTeral of his priTate enemies, u Aemiiim Scsiuut 
and Junim SUanns. (VaL Max. I. &; Dion Csm. 
Fr. 100; Cic Div. M CbecO. 20, Yerr. a 47, 
CameL 2, pro Sautr. 1.) He was consul n. c M 
with C. Cassias, and censor B. c 92, with Lioniiii 
Craum, the orator. In his censorship he and bit 
colleague shut up the schools of the Latin ihetdn- 
cians (Cic <ii! Orat. iii. 24 ; OelL zt. ll),bsttliii 
wu the only thing in whidi they acted in concert 
Their censorship was long celebrated for their w 
putes. Domitim wu of a yiolcnt temper, asd wK 
moreoTer in &Toar of the ancient simplicity of tir- 
ing, while Ctassm loved lozuiy and encooisgsa 

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■t. Anooft the numy njingi maaiti of lioili, 
-•c an told ifaat Cnums obaciTed, "tiiat it wu no 
vooder that a man had a beard of braat, who bod 
a moDth of nan and a heart of lead." (Plin. If. ff. 
zriil 1 ; Suet. L e,- VaL Max. iz. 1. § 4 ; Haciob. 
SaL a. 11.) Cieero nya, that Dsmitiiu was not 
to be reckoned among the oiaton, bat that he 
■poke wdl enoDgfa and had mffideDt talent to 
■niintain hit fai^ lank. (Cie. BnU. 44.) 

5. L. Uoif ITIUS CH. r. Cn. N. AHINOBAkBOS, 

•on of Na 3 and brother of No. 4, was praetor in 
Sicily, jmbMy in B. c 96, shortly after the Sei^ 
tS» mr, when slaTe* had been forbidden to cany 
traa. He ordered a ilaTe to be cmeified for kili- 
isg a wild boar with a hunting spear. (Cib Vetr, 
T. 3 ; VaL Max. vi 3. g 5.) He was consnl in 
94. In the dril war between Marins and Sulla, 
he esponsed the side of the latter, and was mor- 
dcred at Rome, by nder of the younger Marios, 
by the ptaetor Dsmasippas. (Appian, S.Gi.8S; 
VeOei.n.36; One. t. 20.) 

6. Cn. DoinriDa Cn. w. Cn. f. AaBNOBAXBrs, 
i|iparantly a son of No. 4, married Conieiia, daugh- 
ter of L. Cornelias Cinna, consol in B. c: 87, and 
in the dril war between Uatias and Salla espoused 
the side of the fanner. When Snlla obtained the 
"■f""* power in 82, Ahenobarbns was proscribed, 
and fled to A&iea, where be was joined by many 
who w«ra in the same condition as himself. With 
the aasistsnew of the Nnmidian king, Hiubas, he 
oolleeted an army, bat was defieated near Utica by 
Cn. Pcmpeina, whom Snlla had tent against him, 
aad waa afterwards kiUsd in the storming of his 
camp, BL c. 81. According to tome accounts, he 
was killed after tha battle by conmiand of Pompey. 
(Lir. £lpiL 89 ; Plat. PowqK 10, 12 ; Zooatw, z. 2; 
Oiaa. T. 21 ; VaL Max. vi 2. g &) 

7. L. DoMrriuB Cn. p. Cn. v. Abbnobarbdr, 
■on of No. 4, is first mentioned in B. c. 70 by 
Ooero, aa a witness against Veties. In 61 be 
waa eande aedile, when be exhibited a hundred 
Nnmidian lions, and continued the games so long, 
that the people were obliged to leare the drcus 
before the exhibition was orer, in order to take 
food, which waa the first time they bad done so. 
(Dion Caas. xxzriL 46 ; Plin. H. N. Till 6i ; this 
pause in the gprnes was called diimimm^ Hot. Ep. 
i. 19. 47.) He married Porcia, the sister of M. 
Cato, and in his aedHeship supported the latter in 
his proposals against bribery at elections, which 
wen directed against Pompey, who was pnnhaaing 
votes for AfianiuaL The political opinions of Ahe- 
noborbos coincided with those of Cato; he was 
thraaghoat his life one of the stmngest supporters 
of the aristocntical party. He took an active part 
in opposing the measoies of Caesar and Pompey 
after their coalition, and in S9 was accused by 
Vettina, at the instigation of Caesar, of being on 
aooomidiee to the pretended conspiracy against the 
life of Pompey. 

Ahenobotfans was pnetor in B. a 58, and pn- 
posed on inTestigation into the 'validity of the 
Julian laws of the preceding year ; but the senate 
iaxti not entertain his propositians. He was can- 
didate for the oonsalship of 55, and threatened 
that he would in his consulship carry into execo- 
tion the measnres he had proposed in his praetor- 
stdp, and depriTe Caesar of his province. He was 
debated, however, by Pompey and Ciassus, who 
also became candidates, and was driven bam the 
Caoipoa Maitini oo the day of electioD by force of 



amoi He became a candidate again in tha follow- 
ing year, and Caeiai and Pompey, whose power 
was firmly established, did not oppose him. He 
was aecordin^y elected consul for 54 with Ap, 
Claudius Pnlcher, a relation of Pompey, but was 
not able to effect anything against Caesar and 
Pompey. He did not go to a province at the ex- 
piration of his consulship ; and as the friendship 
Detween Caesar and Pompey cooled, he became 
closely allied with the latter. In B. c. 52, he was 
chosen by Pompey to preside, as qnaesitor, in the 
court for the trial of Clodius. For the next two 
or three years during Cicero's absence in Cili- 
da, our uifoimation about Afaenobarbus is princi- 
pally derived from the letters of his enemy Coelius 
to Cicero. In b. c. 50 he was a candidate for tha 
place in the college of augurs, vacant by the death 
of Hortensius, but waa defeated by Antony through 
the influence of Caesar. 

The senate appointed him to succeed Caesar in 
the |»ovince of further Oanl, and on the march of 
the hitter into Italy (49), he was the only one of 
the aristocnttical party who shewed any energy or 
courage. He threw himself into Corfinium with 
about twenty cohorts, expecting to be sappoited by 
Pompey; bnt aa the latter did not^g to assist 
him, he was compelled by his own troops to sur- 
render to Caesar. His own soldiers were incorpo- 
rated into Caesar's army, but Ahenobarbus was 
dismissed by Caesar munjured — an act of clemency 
which he did not expect, and which he would cer- 
tainly not have shewed, if he had been the con- 
queror. Despairing of life, he had ordered his 
physician to administer to h^ poison, bnt the lat- 
ter gave him only a sleeping dianght. Ahenobarbus' 
feeUngs against Caesar remained unaltered, but he 
was too deeply offended by the conduct of Pompey 
to join him immediately. He retired for a short 
time to Cosa in Etruria, and afterwards sailed to 
Massilia, of which the inhabitants appointed him 
governor. He prosecuted the war vigorously 
■gainst Caesar ; but the town was eventnally token, 
and Ahenobarbus escaped in a vessel, which was 
the only one that got oiBT. 

Ahenobarbus now went to Pompey in Thessaly, 
and pixrposed that after the war all senators should 
be brought to trial who had remained neutral 
in it. Cicero, whom he branded as a coward, was 
not a little afraid of him. He fell in the battle of 
Pharsalia (48), where he commanded the left wing, 
and, according to Cicero's assertion in the second 
Philippic, by the hand of Antony. Ahenobarbus 
was a man of great energy of character; he re- 
mained firm to his political prindples, but was 
little scrupulous in the means he employed to 
maintain them. (The passages of Cicero in which 
Ahenobarbus is mentioned are given in Orelli's 
Oaamatliam miianmn; Suet Ner. 2; Dion Cass. 
Ub. xxxiz. xli. ; Caes. BdL Oh.) 

8. Cn. Domriua L. r. Cn. n. Ahbnobarbi;*, 
son of the nreeeding, was taken with his fiither at 
Corfinium (b. c 49), and was present at the battle 
of Pharsalia (48), but did not take any further 
part in the war. He did not however return to 
Italy till 46, when he was pardoned by Cae- 
sar. He probably had no share in the murder 
of Caesar (44), though some writers expressly 
assart that he was one of the conspirators ; but ha 
followed Brutus into Macedonia after Caesar's 
death, and was condeomed by the Lex Pedia in 
43 at one of the mnideren of Caesar. In 42 he 


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cammanded a Beet of fifty ihipi in the Ionian ata, 
and completely defeated Domitina CalTinui on the 
day of the fint battle of Philippi, a* the latter 
attempted to aeil oat of BrondiuionL He was 
•alnted Imperator in coniequence, and a l«cord of 
this victory is preserved in the annexed coin, wliich 
represent* a trophy placed npon the prow of a 
vesaeL Tlie head on the other side of the coin 
lias a beaid, in lefereno* to the reputed oiigin of 
the &mily. 

After ihe tatttle of Philip^ (421 Ahenobarbos 
conducted the war independently of Ser. Pompeins, 
and with a fleet of seventy ships and two legions 
plundered the coasts of the Ionian sea. 

In 40 Ahenobaibos became reconciled to Antoay, 
which gave gnat ofienoe to Octav i auua, and was 
plaeed mtr BiUijmia by Antony. In the peaoe 
concluded wim Sex. Pompeius in 39, Antony pro- 
vided for the safety of Ahenobarbna, and obtained 
for him the promise of the consulship for 32. 
Ahenobarbn* remained a eonaideiBble time in 
Asia, and aooompanied Antony is hia aaibctanata 
campaign against the Parthians in 3& He became 
consul, according to agreement, in 32, in which 
year the open rupture took place between Antony 
and Augustus. Abenoborbas fled from Rome to 
Antony at Ephesus, where he fbund Cleopatra 
with him, and endeavoured, in vain, to obtain her 
removal fiom the amy. Many of the soUiets, 
disgnstad with the condnct of Antony, offered the 
command to him ; but ha preferred deserting the 
party altogether, and accordingly went over to 
Angustns shortly before the battle of Aetium. He 
was not, however, present at the battle, as he died 
a few days after joining Augustus. Snetoniaa says 
that he was the beat of his &mily. (Cie. PUL li 
11, z. 6, Bnt. 26, ad Fam. vi. 22 ; Appian, B. G 
V. 55, 63, 65; Pint Amttm. 70, 71 ; Dion Cass, 
lib. xlvii.— 1; VelleL it 76, 84; Suet Aer. 3; 
Tac. Atm. iv. 44.) 

9. L. DomriDB Cn. r. L. N. Ahknobaiibui, 
son of the preceding, was betrothed in B. a 36, at 
the meeting of Octavianus and Antony at Taien- 
tum, to AnUHiia, the daughter of the latter by 
Octavia. He was aedile in a a 32, and consul in 
IL c 1 6. After his consulship, and probably as the 
successor of Tiberius, he commanded the Roman 
army in Germany, crossed the Elbe, and penetrat- 
ed further into the country than any of his prede- 
cessors had done. He received in consequence the 
insignia of a triumph. He died a. d. 25. Sueto- 
nius describes hnn aa han^ity, prodigal, and cruel, 
and nlates that in his aedileship he eonmanded 
the censor L. Plancus to make way for him ; and 
that in his praetorship and consulship he brought 
Roman knights and matrons on the stage. He 
exhibited shows of wild beasts in every quarter of 
the city, and his gladiatorial combats were con- 
ducted with so much bloodshed, that Augustus 
was obliged to pot sama restraint upon them. 
(Soet. ATsr. 4 ; Taa Am. iv.44; Dion Caas. liv. 
59; Velfci.ii72.) 


10. Cn. Domnrs L. p. Cn. h. AaBroiAmBur 
son of the preceding, and fitther of the empsnr 
Mero. Ho married Agr^apina, the daughter ef 
OermanicuL He was consul a. d. 33, and sfkec^ 
wards proconsul in Sicily. He died at Pyrgi in 
Etniria of dropsy. Hi* life was stained with 
crimes of every kind. He was accused as the se- 
complice of Aibucilla of the crimes of adultery sad 
murder, and also of incest with his rister Doraitia 
Lepida, and only escaped execntioa by the diatli 
efTiberin*. Waen congrstalated on the birth cf 
his son, afterwards Nero, he replied that whatevtr 
was sprang from him and Agrippiaa could ealy 
bring ruin to dM state. (Suet. A/irr. 5, 6 ; Tac 
Aim. ir. 75, vi 1, 47, zii. 64 ; Vellei. iL 73 ;' 
Dion Cass. hriU. 17.) 

1 1 . Doicrru, daughter of No. 9. [Doiotu.] 
13. DoMiTu LsnoA, daughter of Not 9. 

[DoHrriA LipiDA.] 

13. L. Domnos AHKtosAiuics, son of No. 
10, afterwards the emperor Nero. [Nana.} 

14. Cn. DoMiTius AaxnoBAUBtrs, praetor in 
B. c. 54, presided at the second trial of M . Coeliai, 
(Cie. adQ)t.Fr.a. 19.) He may hove been the 
son of No. 5. 

15. L. DoHmvs Ahxnobakbur, praetor i. c. 
80, commanded the prorince of nearer Spain, with 
the title of prooonsuL In 79, he wa» summoned 
into fiirther Spain by Q. Hetellus Pins, who was 
in want of H»-i«tnnr»i against Serloriaa, but be 
was defeated and killed by Uirtuleius, qaaestar of 
Sertorius, near the Anna. (PluL Snt 12; Lir. 
EpU. 90 ; Eutropi. vi 1 ; Fhims, iiL 22 ; Oni. 
v. 21) 

AJAX ( AW). I. a son of Telamoa, kug of 
Salamis, by Periboee or Eriboea (ApoUod. iiL 12. 
§ 7 ; Paos. i. 42. | 4 ; Pind. /■<». vL C5 ; Diod. 
iv. 73), and a grandson of Aeaeus. Homer calls 
him Ajax the Telamonian, Ajax the Onat, or 
simply Ajax {IL ii. 768, ix. 169, ziv. 410; cobi|i. 
Pind. Itlk. vi. 38), whoeas the other Ajax, ihs 
son of Oilens, is alwaya distingnished fzan tk< 
former by some epithet. According to Homer 
Ajax joined the expedition of the Oneks sgaiasi 
Troy, with his Soliuninians, in twdve shipi {li 
iL 567 ; comp. Strab. ix. p. 394), and wa* next to 
Achilles the most distingnished and the bmTOt 
among the Greeks. (iL 768, xriL 279, &c) Ha 
is described as tall of stature, and his head and 
broad shoulders as rising above those of sll the 
Greeks (iiL 226, &c) ; in beauty he was iafcrior 
to none but Adilles. {Od. xL 560, xxiv. 17; 
comp. PauB. L 35. § 3.) When Hector duOeDged 
the bravest of the Greeks to single combat, Ajax 
came fbrwarl among aeveial others. The pe^ 
prayed that he might fight, and when th* lot 
feU to Ajax {II vii. 179, ice.), and h* ap- 
proached. Hector himself began to tremble, (215.) 
He wounded Hector and dashed him to the gnnad 
by a huge stone. The combatants were acpanUed, 
and upon parting they exehanged arms with sse 
another as a token of mutual esteem. (395, te) 
Ajax was also one of the ambassadors when A^ 
memnon sont to eondliate Achillea, (ix. 169.) Hs 
fought several time* beside* with Hector, u i> the 
battle near the ships of the Greeks (xir. 409, is. XT. 
416, ZVL I14),and in protecting the body of Fstte- 
clns. (xviL128, 7 32.) InthegameaattksftDonl 
pile of Patrodus, Ajax finight with Odyassas, iai 
without gaining any decided advantage over Ua 
(zxiii 720, &c!), and in liko nmner witli'Pi*' 

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In the emtsct aboot th« uinaiir of AehiOaa, 
he WM CDUqnend by CMyneiu, and thia, nya 
Homer, beome the cause of his death. {Od. zi. 
541, tx.) OdTMeoa aftenrards met his spirit in 
Hades, and endeaYonred to appease H, but in nin. 
Thna far the storj of Ajax, the Telamonian, is 
lehited in the Homeric poems. Later writers fiir- 
nisfa na with Taiiona other traditions abont his 
jonth, bat more eapectally about his death, which 
■ so Tagnely alloded to bj Humer. According to 
ApoUodoras (iiL 1-2. § 7) and Pindar (Itti. tL 
51, tic.), Ajax became inmlnerable in conse- 
qoenee <k a ifajtx which Heracles oSiered to Zens, 
while he was on a Ti»it in Sabunis. The child 
was called Aliiii from itris, an eagle, which ap- 
pealed immediately after the prayer as a &Toar- 
ahle omen. According to Lycophron (455 with the 
SehoL), Ajax was bom before Herules came to 
Telamon, and the hero made the child inTtilne> 
able by wrapping him np in his lion's skin. 
(Camp. Sdul. ad lU xxiii. 841.) Ajax is also 
mentioned among the soitors of Helen. (ApoUod. 
iii. 10. § 8; Hy^n. Pai. 81.) During the war 
against Troy, Ajax, like Achilles, made ezcunions 
into neigfabooring coontries. The first of them was 
to the Thzadan Chersonesns, where he took Poly- 
doraa, the son of Priam, who had been entrusted 
to the core of king Polymnestor, together with 
rich booty. Thence, he went into PhrVgia, slew 
king Teuthiaa, or Teleutas, in single combat, and 
earned off neat spoils, and Tecmeiaa, the king's 
daughter, who became his mistresa (Diet, Cret 
ii 18; Soph. Aj. 310, 480, Su. ; Hor. Carm. iL 
4. 5.) Inrthe contest idxmt the armour of Achilles, 
Agamemnon, on the advice of Athena, awarded 
the prise to Odysseus. This discomfiture threw 
Ajax into an awfiil state of madness. In the 
night he rushed from his tent, attacked the sheep 
of the Oieek army, made great haToc among them, 
and dragged dead and living animals into his tent, 
fimeying that they were his enemies. When, in 
the morning, he racovered his senses and beheld 
what he had done, shame and despair led him to 
destroy himself with the sword which Hector had 
once given him as a present (Pind. Niem. vii. 
36; Soph. 4;. 42, 277, 853; Ov. Met. xm. 1, 
&C.; Lycophr. I. e.) Less poetical tra'iitions 
make Ajax die by the hands of others. (Diet. 
Cret. ▼. 15; Dar. Phryg. 35, and the Greek argu- 
ment to Soph. Ajax.) His step-brother Tencrus 
was charged by Telamon with the murder of Ajax, 
bat soeoeeded in clearing himself from the aecusa- 
tion. (Pans. L 28. § 12.) A tradition mentioned 
by Pauaonias (L 35. § 3 ; comp. Ov. Met xiii. 
397, &c.) statM, that from his blood there sprang 
up a purple flower which bore the letters w on its 
leaves, which were at once the initials of his name 
and expressive of a sigh. According to Dictys, 
Neoptolcmus, the son of Achilles, depouted the 
ashea of the hero is a golden um on mount Rhoe- 
teion ; and according to Sophocles, he was buried 
by hu brother Teucms against the will of the 
Atrcidae. (Comp. Q. Smym. v. 500 ; Phiiostr. Her. 
XL 3.) Pansanias (iii. 19. § 11) represents Ajax, 
like many other heroet, as living after his death iu 
the island of Leuoe. It is said that when, in the 
time of the emperor Hadrian, the sea had washed 
open the grave of Ajax, bones of superhuman size 
were £>und in it, which the emperor, however, 
ordered to be buried again. (Phuostr. Her. i. 2 ; 
Pans. iii. 39. | 11.) Respecting the state and 



wandering of his son] after his death, les Pbto, 
Dt Re PM. z. in fin. ; PIuL Sfmpot. ix. 5. 

Ajax was worshipped in Saliunis as the tntehuy 
hero of the ishnd, and had a temple with a statue 
there, and was hononred with a festival, Alarrm, 
(DicL rfAtU. a e.) At Athens too he was wor- 
shipped, and was one of the eponynie heroes, one 
of the Attic tribes {AtaHHi) being called after him. 
(Pans. L 35. § 2 ; Plat Sympoe. i. 10.) Not fitf 
from the town Rhoeteion, on the promontory of the 
same name, there was likewise a sanctuary of 
Ajax, with a beautiful statue, which Antonins 
sent to Egypt, but which, was restored to its ori- 
ginal place by Augustus. (Strab. xiiL p. 595.) 
According to Dictys Cretensis (v. 16) the wife, of 
Ajax was Olauca, by whom she had a son, Aean- 
tides; by his beloved Tecmesaa, he had a son, 
EnrysBces. (Soph. Jj. 333.) Several illustrious 
Athenians of the historical times, such as Miltiades, 
Cimon, and Alcibiades, traced their pedigree to the 
Telamonian Ajax. (Paus. iL 29. § 4 ; Pht Alcib. 
I.) The traditions about this hero fiimished 
plentiful materials, not only for poets, but also for 
Bcnlpton and painters. His sinsle combat with 
Hector was represented on the chest of Cypselus 
(Paus. V. 19. § 1) ; his statue formed a part of a 
huge group at Olympia, the work of Lydus. (Paus, 
V. 22. § 2 ; comp. Plin. H. ff. Xxxv. 10. § 36 ; 
Aelian, V. H. ix. 11.) A beantiful sculptured 
head, which is generally believed to be a head of 
Ajax, is still extant in the Egremont collection at 
Petworth. (Bottiger, Amalthea, iiL p. 258.) 

2. The son of O'lleus, king of the Locrians, who 
is also called the Lesser Ajax. (Hom. //. iL 527.) 
His mother's name was Eriopii. According to 
Strabo (ix. p. 425) his iftrit^lace was Naryx in 
Locris, whence Ovid {Met. ziv. 468) calls him 
Naryeiui lieroa. According to the Iliad (ii. 527, 
&c.) he led his Locrians in forty ships (Hygin. 
Fed. 97, says twenty) against Troy. He is de- 
scribed as one of the great heroes among the 
Greeks, and acts frequently in conjunction with 
the Tehunonion Ajax. He is small of stature and 
wears a linen cuirass (Ku/oMfniO, but is brave 
and intrrpid, especially skilled in throwing the 
spear, and, next to Achilles, the most swift-footed 
among all the Greeks. (II. ziv. 520, &c., zxiiL 
'89, &C.) His principal exploits during the sicga 
of Troy are mentioned in the following passages : 
ziiL 700, &«., ziv. 520, &c, xvL 350, zviL 256, 
732, &c In the funeral garnet at the pyre of 
Patroclos he contended wiu Odysseus and Anti- 
lochus for the prize in the footrace ; but Athena, 
who was hostile towards him and fitvoured Odys- 
seus, made him stumble and fall, so that ha 
gained only the second prise. (xziiL 754, &c.) 
On his return from Troy bis vessel was wrecked 
on the Whirling Rocks {Tvpal wirptu), but he him- 
self escaped upon a rock through the assistance of 
Poseidon, and would have been saved in spite of 
Athena, bat he used presumptuous words, and 
said that he would escape the dangers of the sea 
in defiance of the immortals. Hereupon Poseidon 
split the rock with his trident, and Ajax wa< 
swallowed up by the sea. (OJ. iv. 499, &c.) 

In later tradiUons this Ajax is called a son of 
Oileus and the nymph Rhone, and is also men- 
tioned among the suiton of Helen. (Hygin, Fab. 
81, 97 ; ApoUod. iiL 10. g 8.) According to a 
tradition in Philostmtus (Her. viiL 1), Ajax had 
a tame dragon, five cubits m length, which fbllow- 

Digitized by VjOOQ H; 



ed him eTerjrwhere like a dos. After the talung 
of Troy, it u aaid, he nuhed into the temple of 
Athena, where Caiundia had taken reliige, and 
was embracing the statue of the goddeis as a sup- 
pliant. Ajaz dragged her awar with riolence and 
led her to the other captirea. (Viig. Atn. iL 403 ; 
Kurip. TVoad. 70, jcc.; Diet. Cret. T. 12 ; Hygin. 
.fla&, 116.) According to lome statements he 
•Ten TioUted Cassandra in the temple of the god- 
dess (Tryphiod. 635; Q. Smym. xiiL 42-2; 
Lycophr. 360, with the SdoL); Odysaens at least 
accused him of this crime, aiid Ajax was to be 
stoned to death, but saved himself by establishing 
his innocence by an oath. (Pans. z. 26. g 1> SI- 
S 1.) The whole charge, is on the other hand, 
said to hare been an ioTention of Agamemnon, 
who wanted to bare Caisandia for hiinsel£ But 
whether true or not, Athena had sufficient reason 
for being indignant, as Ajox had dragged a sup- 
pliant from her temple. When on his voyage 
nomeward he came to the Capharaan rocks on the 
coast of Euboea, his ship was wrecked in a storm, 
he himself was killed by Athena with a flash of 
Ughtning, and his body was washed upon the rocks, 
which henceforth were called the rocks of Ajaz. 
(Hygin. Fob. 116 ; comp. Vag. Am. I 40, See., 
xL 260.) For a diffsrent account of his death see 
Philostr. ffer. riil 3, and SchoL ad Lyoopkr. L e. 
After his death his spirit dwelled in the island of 
Leuoe. (Paus. ill 19. § II.) The Opuntian 
Locrians worshipped Ajax as their nation^ hero, 
and so great was their fiuth in him, that when 
they drew up their army in battle amy, they al- 
ways left one place open for him, believing that, 
although invisible to them, he was fighting for and 
among them. (Paus. I. c. ; Conon. NarraL 18.) 
The story of Ajax was frequently mode use of by 
ancient poets and artists, and the hero who ap- 
pears on some Locrian coins with the hehnet, 
shield, and sword, is probably Ajax the son of 
Oileos. (Mionnet, No. 570, Jtc.) [L. S.1 

A'IDKS, "AlSiJi. [Hades.] 

AIDO'NEUS CAIiwit). 1. A lengthened 
form of 'AtSqi. (Hom. II, v. 190, xi. 61.) 

2. A mythical king of the Molossions, in 
Epcinu, who is represented as the husband of 
Pcnephone, and father of Core. After Theseus, 
with the assistance of Peirithous, had carried off 
Helen, and concealed her at Aphidnae [Acads- 
Mits], he went with Peirithous to Epeirus to pro- 
cure for him as a reward Core, the daughter of 
Aidonens. This king thinking the two stnngen 
were well-meaninK suitori, offered the hand of his 
daughter to Peirithous, on condition that he should 
fight and conquer his dog, which bore the name of 
Cerberus. But when AVdoneus discovered that 
they had come with the intention of carrying off 
his daughter, he had Peirithous killed by Cerberus, 
and kept Theseus in captivity, who was after- 
wards released at the request of Heracles. (Plat. 
Wm. 31, 35.) Eusebius (CStrom. p. 27) calls the 
wife of Aldonena, a daughter of queen Demeter 
with whom he had eloped. It is clear that the 
story about Aldoneus is nothing bat the sacred 
legend of the rape of Persephone, dressed up in 
the fonn of a hUtory, and U undonbtwUy the work 
of a late mtarpreter, or rather destroyer of genuine 
aoaent myths. fll S.1 

di,^^^ LOCUTIUS or L0QUKN8, a luSan 
ditimty. In the ywtt a c. 389, a short time bo- 


fore the invasion of the Goals, • rooe waa Imid 
at Rome in the Via nova, during the sileDce t£ 
night, announcing that the Oanla were approaching. 
(Liv. V. 82.) No attention was at the time paU 
to the warning, but after the Oanls had withdrawn 
from the city, the Romans remembered the pro- 
phetic voice, and atoned for their nralect by erect- 
ug on the spot in the Via nova, where the voice 
h^ been heard, a templum, that is, an altar with 
a sacred enclosure around it, to Ains Locutias, or 
the "Announcing Speaker." (Liv. v. 50 ; Varn, 
on. GeU, zvi. 17; Cic d* DivmaL L 45, il 
;»2.) [L. &] 

ALABANDUS CAAi<«a>8ot), a Carian hem, 
son of Euippus and Calirrhoe, whom the inhabit- 
ants of Alabanda worshipped as the founder ol 
their town. (Steph. Byi. s. r. 'AXaSaySa ; Cic 
do NaL Dear. lii. 15, 19.) [L. S.] 

ALAGCNIA ('AAo7or(o), a daughter of 
Zeus and Europa, from whom Alagonia, a town in 
Laconia, derived its name. (Pans. iii. 21. §6, 
26. § 8 ; Nat. Com. >-iii. 23.) [L. S.] 

ALALCOMENE'IS ("AAaXico/iernti), a sur- 
name of Athena, derived from tiie hero Alalco- 
menes, or from the Boeotian village of Alalco- 
menae, where she was believed to have been bom. 
Others derive the name from the verb i\A\K*a, 
so that it would Hgnify the " poweifnl defender." 
(Hom. IL It. 8 ; Steph. Byx. n «. 'AAstXura^rior; 
MiiUer, Onham. p. 213.) [L. &] 

ALALCO'MENES (tJMlutoiihnit), a Boeotian 
autochthon, who was believed to have given the 
name to the Boeotian Alolcomenae, to bave 
brought np Athena, who was bora there, and to 
have been the first who introduced her worship. 
(Paus. ix. 33. g 4.1 Accordbg to Plntaitfa {D» 
DatdaL Fragm, 5), he advis^ Zeus to hare a 
figure of o^-wood dressed in bridal attire, and 
carried about amidst hymeneal songs, in order to 
change the anger of Hen into jealousy. The 
name of the wife of Alalcomenes was Athe- 
nais, and that of his son, Olaucopns, both of 
which refer to the goddess Athena. (Steph. Byi. 
>. v. 'tiXaXKOfilnoii; Paus. ix. 3. § 3; comp. 
Did. of AfiL I. V. AalSoAa; Milller, Oroiom. p. 
213.) [L. S.] 

ALALCOME'NIA QAXa\icoiiMrla), one of the 
daughters of Ogyges, who as well aa her two 
sisters, Thelzionoea and Aulis, were regarded ss 
supernatural beings, who watched over oaths and 
saw that they were not taken rashly or thought- 
I<a*l7- Their name was IlpajiSlinu, and they had 
a temple in common at the fbot of the Telphusiaa 
mount in Boeotia. The representations of these 
divinities consisted of mere heads, and no parU of 
animals were sacrifioed to them, except heads. 
(Paus. ix. 33. 8 2, 4 ; Panyasia, <m. SkpL B/i. 
$. ». T«)«f<(\q, Suid. t. V. UpaiaiKtii MSUer, Or- 
dm. p. 128, &C.) fL. &] 

ALARI'CUS, in Oennan AUrie, i. e. - Afl 
ndi," king of the Visigoths, remaikaUe ss 
bemg the first of the barbarian chiefs who en- 
tered and sacked the city of Rome, and the fiist 
raemy who had appeared before iU walls nnce the 
tune of HannibaL He was of the fiunily of Bslths, 
or Bold, the second noblest 6mily of the Visigotha 
(Jc™andes,<fcilACW.29.) HU firat appeSincs 
11 ^n!i?"? "^ "" -k- o- 394. when he was invested 
uy rbeodosras with the command of the Gothic 
auxJianes in his war with Engenimt (Zosimss. 
».6.) In 396, partly from KigS « beji irfasd 


zed by Google 


tke oammuid of the anniei of the outem eiii]Mre, 
fitiy at the initigacion of Rnfimu (Socrates, 
BiiL Bed. TiL 10), he iiiTtded and derastBted 
Onece, tm, by the amTal of Stilieho in 397, he 
'■as oHapelled to escape to Kpinu. Whilst then 
be was, hj the weakness of Aicadios, appointed 
pnfeet of eastern Ulyiicam (Zosimos, t. S, 6), and 
putij owii^ to this office, and the use he made of 
It in pitnidjng anna &t his own puiposes, partly to 
his burth and Eune, was by his comitiymen elected 
king in 398. (dandian, Eainp. ii. 212, BeU. OtL 
533— ,543.) 

The met of his lift waa spent in the two ima- 
akms of Italy. The fiiat (400-403), apparently 
nnproToked, fanmght him only to Barenna, and, 
after a bloody defeat at PoDenda, in which his wife 
and trcasmes were taken, and a masterly retreat 
to Verona (Ores. -rii. 37), was ended by the treaty 
with Stilidio, which transfened his aerrices from 
Arcadioa to Honorins, and made him prefect of the 
western instead of the eastern Illyricum. In this 
capacity he fixed his camp at Aemona, in expecta- 
twQ of the fulfilment of nis demands for pay, and 
br a western pronnce, as the future home of his 
nation. The second inraaion (408-410) was occa- 
siooed by the delay of this fulfilment, and by the 
msasacre of the Oothic {unities in Italy on Stilicho's 
death. It is marked by the three sieges of Rome. 
The fiimt (408), as being a protracted blockade, 
was the moat serere, but waa raised by a ransom. 
The second (409), was occasioned by a refiisal to 
ocmply with Alaric's demands, and, upon the occn- 
pation of Ostia, ended in the unconditional surren- 
der of the city, and in the disposal of the empire 
by Alaric to Attains, till on discovery of his inca- 
pacity, he restored it to Honorins. (ZiMimns, v. ti.) 
The third (410), was occaaioned by an assault upon 
his troops onder the imperial sanction, and was 
ended by the trescherous opening of the Salarian 
gate on August 24, and the lick of the dty for six 
days. It was immediately followed by ue occu- 
pation of the sonth of Italy, and the design of in- 
Tsding Sicily and A&ica. This intention, how- 
ever, was interrupted by his death, after a short 
illnesa at Consentia, where be was buried in the 
bed of the adjacent river Busentinns, and the 
place of his interment concealed by the maaaacte of 
all the workmen employed on the occasion. (Ores. 
Til 39 ; Jomandea, 30.) 

The few personal tiaits that an recorded of him 
— his answer to the Roman embauy with a hoarse 
laugh in answer to their threat of desperate resist- 
ance, "The thicker the hay, the easier mown," 
and, in reply to their question of what he would 
leave them, "Your lives" — are in the tme savage 
hnmonr of a barbarian conqueror. (Zosimua, r. 40.) 
Bat the impression left upon us by his general 
chaiacter is of a higher order. The real inilitary 
akin ahewn in his escape from Greece, and in his 
retreat to Verona ; the wish at Athens to shew 
that be adopted the use of the hath and the other 
external forms of dviliied life ; the moderation and 
justice which he obsarred towards the Romans in 
the times of peace; the hmnanity which distin- 
guished him during the sack of Rome — indicate 
something snperior to the mere craft and lawless 
smbitioD which he leenu to have possessed in 
common with other harharian chiefs. So also his 
■cmples agiunst fighting on Easter-day when at- 
tacked at PoUentia, and his reverence for die churches 
during the sack of the city (Oros. vii. 37, 39), 



imply that the Christian fiuth, in which he had 
been instructed by Arian teachers, had laid some 
hold at least on his imagination, and had not 
been tinged with that fierce hostility agains*>the 
orthodox party which marked the Arians of the 
Vandal tribes. Accordingly, we find that the 
Christian port of his contemporaries regarded him, 
in comparison with the other invaders of the empire 
as the representative of civilisation and Christianity, 
and as tne fit instrument of divine vengeance on 
the still half pagan dty (Oros. vii. 37), and the 
very slight injury which the great buildings of 
Oreece and Rune sustained from bis two invasioni 
confirm the same view. And amongst the Pagans 
the same sense of the pretematiual character of 
his invasion prevailed, though expressed in a dif- 
ferent form. The dialogue which Claudian (BeU. 
Gel, 485-540) represents him to have held with 
the aged counsellors of his own tribe lieems to be 
the heathen version of the ecclesiastical story, that 
he stopped the monk who begged him to spare Rome 
with the answer, that he was driven on by a voioe 
which he could not resist, (Socrates, HiMt. EcaL 
vii. 10.) So also his vision of Achilles and Mi- 
nerva appearing to defend the city of Athens, as 
recorded by Zosimos (v. 6), if it does not imply 
a lingering respect and fear in the mind of Alaric 
himself towards the ancient worship, — at least 
expresses the belief of the pagan historian, that his 
invasion waa of so momentous a character as to 
call for divine interference. 

The permanent effects of his career are to bo 
fotyid only in the establishment of the Visigothic 
kingdom of Spain by the warriors whom he waa 
the first to lead into the west. 

The authorities for the invasion of Greece and 
the first two sieges of Rome are Zosimus (v. vi): 
for the first invasion of Italy, Jonumdes d» BA. Get. 
30; Claudian, B. Get.: for the third siege and 
sack of Rome, Jomandes, i& ; Orosius, vii. 39 ; 
Aug. Civ. Dei, i, 1-10 ; Hieronym. EpiiL adPrm- 
dp. ; Procop. Bell. VaHd, i. 2 ; Sozomen, Hitl. 
Bed. ix. 9, 10; Isid. Hispalensis, Ckramicon Got- 
tonm.) The invasions of Italy are involved in 
great confusion by these writers, espedally by 
Jomandes, who blends the battle of Pollcntia in 
403 with the massacre of the Guths in 408. By 
conjecture and inlerence they are reduced in Gibbon 
(c. 30, 31 ) to the order which has been here follow- 
ed, SeealsoOodefroy,ad/'Ubf<or.xiL3. [A.P.S,] 

ALASTOR CAAaoTBp). 1, According to He- 
sychius and the Etymologicnm M., a surname of 
Zeus, describing him as the avenger of evil deeds. 
But the name is also used, especi^y by the tragic 
writers, to designate any deity or demon who 
avenges wrongs committed by men. (Pans, viii. 
24. § 4 ; Plut. De Def. One. 18, &c. ; AeschyL 
Affam. 1479, 1508, Pen. 343 ; Soph. TmdL 1092 ; 
Eurip. Phoen. 1550, &c) 

2. Asonof NeleiuandChloris. WhenHeraelea 
took Pyloa, Alaator and his brothers, except 
Nestor, were slain by him, (Apollod. L 9, § 9 ; 
SchoL ad ApoUon. Mod. I 156.) According to 
Parthenius (c, 1 3) he was to be married to Bar- 
pelyce, who, however, was token from him by her 
fiither ClymenuiL 

3. A Lycian, who was a companion of Sarp»> 
don, and slain by Odyueus. (Hom. IL v. 677 ; 
Ov. Met, xiii. 257.) Another Alastor is mention- 
ed in Hom. IL viii. 333, xiiL 422. [L. &] 

ALASTO'RIDES ('AJMnoplSris), a fatio- 

Digitized by Vj 




nymic &am Alastor, and given by Homer (77. xz. 
463) to Troi, vho wiu probably a wn of the 
LTcian Akitor mentioned abore, [L. S.] 

dian, t^ecame with Saphrax, in A. D. 376, on the 
death of Vithimir, the gnardian of Vitherictu, the 
young king of the Oreuthongi, the chief tribe of 
the Oatrogothi. Alatheu* and Saphnz led their 
people aerou the Danube in thia year, and uniting 
their forcea with thoae of the Viiigothi nnder 
Fritigem, took part againat the Romani in the 
battle of Hadrlanople, A. D. 378, in which the em- 
peror Valens was defeated and killed. After 
plundering the •nironnding country, Alathena and 
Saphrax erentoally reeroued the Danube, but 
appeared again on itt banki in 386, with die in- 
tantion of uirading the Roman picvincea again. 
They were, however, repnlaed, and Alathen* waa 
■Iain. (Amm. Marc. xxxL 3, &e. ; Jotnand. de 
lUb. C!efc 26, 27 i Claudian, <b IV Con, Honor. 
626 ; Zoumnt, iv. 39.) 

' ALBA SI'LVIUS, One of the mythical kings 
of Alba, Htid to have been the aon of Latinos, and 
the &ther of Atys, according to Livy, and of Ca^ 
petns, according to Dionytius. He reigned thirty^ 
nine years. (Lir. i. 3 ; Dionys. L 71.) 

A'LBIA 0EN9. No persona of this gens ob- 
tained any offices in the state till the first century 
B, c They all bore the cognomen Cakrinas. 

L. ALBI'NIUS. 1. One of the tribunes of 
the plebs, at the first institnUon of the office, B. c. 
494. (IJt. ii. 33.) Asconius calls him L. Albi- 
nins C t. Patercolui. (/» die. OonuL p. 76, ed. 

2. A plebeian, who wu conveying his wife and 
children in a cart out of the dty, after the defeat 
on the Alia, a. c 390, and overtook on the Jani- 
cnlns, the priests and vestals carrying the sacied 
things: he made his fiunily alight and took as 
many as he was abl« to Caere. (Lir. v. 40 ; VaL 
Max, i. 1. § 10.) The eonanlar trifinne in & c. 
S79, whom Llvy (vL 30) calls M. Albimns, is 
prohibly the same person ai the above. (Comp. 
Niebnhr, Hut. of Ram*, ii. n. I20I.) 

ALBINOVA'NOS, C. PEDO, a friend and 
eontempotanr of Ovid, to whom the latter addres- 
ses one of hu Epistles inm Pontns. (iv. 10.) He 
ii ehused by Quintilian (x. 1) among the epic 
poets ; Ovid also speaks of his poem on the ex- 
ploits of Theseus, and calls him lidema Ptdo, on 
account of the sublimity of his style. (Ex. Pout. 
iv. 16. 6.) He is supposed to have written an 
epic poem on the exploits of Oetmanicus, the son 
in Dnisns, of which twenty-three Ifaiea are pre- 
served in the Smuoria of Seneca. (Hb. i.) This 
ftagment is naoally entitled " De Navigatione 
Gennanid per Ocemmn Septentrionalera," and 
deseribei ike voyage of Germanicus through the 
Amisia (Ems) into the northern ocean, a. d. 16. 
(Comp. Tae. Ann. ii 23.) It would seem bam 
Martial (v. 5), that Albinovanns was also a writer 
of epigrams. L. Seneca was acquainted with him, 
and calls himjhlmlaior ekgaiUMnua. {JBp. 122.) 

Three Uitm elegiea are attributed to Albfaio- 
vaini% bat without any snfflcient outhori^: 
namely, — 1. " Ad Liviam Aug. de Morte Drnsi,'' 
which is aieribed to Ovid by many, lad baa been 
published tep oiot ely by Bi«mer, Hebnst. 1775. 
2. " In Obitum Maecenatis." 3. "De Veriris Mae- 
cenotia moiibandi." (Wemsdor^ i>oc(a« Latmi 
MiKtm, iiL pp. 121, flte., 153, Jtc.) 


The firagment of Alblnovanua on the voyage of 
Oermanicus, haa been published by H. Slepheni, 
Pragm. Poet., p. 416, Pitboeus, Epigram, et pdim. 
vtt., p. 239, Bnrmann, AniX. Lot. iL ep. 121, 
Wemsdorf, PoeU Lot Mw. iv. L p. 229, Ac. 
All that haa been ascribed to Albinovanus was 
published at Amsterdam, 170S, with the notes of 
J. Scaliger and others. The last edition is by 
Meinecke, which contains the text, and a Geimaa 
translation in verse, Quedlinbnrg, 1819. 

to the party of Maiius in the first civil war, and 
was one of the twelve who were declared enemies 
of the state in B. c 87. He thereupon fied to 
Hiempsal in Numidia. Aiier the defeat of Csiho 
and Norbanus in B. c 81, he obtained the panlon 
of SnUa by treacheronaly putting to death many 
of the principal offlcen of Norbanua, whom he had 
invitea to a banquet. Ariminium in consequence 
revolted to Snlla, whence the Pseudo- Asconius (is 
CSe. r«rr. p. 168, ed. Orelli) speaks of AiUno- 
vanns betraying it (Appian, B. C. L 60, 62, 91 ; 
Fiona, iii. 21. § 7.) 

ALBI'NUS or ALBUS, the name of the pria- 
eipal fiunily of the patrician Postumia gens. The 
original name was Albus, aa appears from the 
Fasti, which was afterwards lengthened into Albi- 
nns. We find in proper names in Latin, derivaUres 
in tana, emu, and mtu, used without any additional 
meaning, in the same sense as the simple fonns. 
(Comp. Kiebuhr, HiH. cf Rome, i. n. 219.) 

1. A. PosTUHioa P. r. Albdb Rsoiuxina, 
was, according to Liry, dictator & c. 498, when 
he oonquried the Latins in the great battle sear 
lake ResiUns. Roman story related that Cattor 
and Pollux were seen fighting in this battle on the 
side of the Romans, whence ue dictator aftersudi 
dedicated a temple to Castor and PoUnx in ths 
fbmm. He was consul B. c 496, in which year 
some of the annals, according to Livy, placed the 
battle of the lake Regillus ; and it ia to this year 
that Dionysius assigns it. (Lir. ii 19,20,21; 
Dionys. vL 2, &e. ; VaL Max. i. 8. § I ; Cic it 
Nat, Dear. n. 2, iiL 6.) The surname Regilleniis 
is nsoally supposed to have been derived bom this 
battle ; bat Niebnhr thinks that it was taken fion 
a phtoe of residence, just as the Clandii bon the 
same name, and that the later annalists only ipoke 
of Postumius as commander in consequence of the 
name. Livy (xxz. 46) statea expteasly, that Sdpia 
A&icanns was the fflrst Roman who obtained a 
surname from his conquests. (Niebnfar, UM.if' 
Rome, L p. 556.) 

Many of the coins of the Albini commemoisia 
this victory of their ancestor, as in the one annexed. 
On one side the head of Diana is represented with 
the letters RouA underneath, which are psitl; 
eSiced, and on the reverse are three honeiaea 
tampUng on a foot-soldier. 

2. 8r. Posmnm A. r. P. n. Alkvs Rmo 
LBNais, apparentlv, according to the Faati, the iob 
of the preceding, (though it must be observed, thrt 
in these early times no dependance can be plaiad 

Digitized by VjOOyit^ 


noa thcae gmcalogie*,) wm hmuoI b. c. 466. 
(ur. in. 3 ; Dionf i. iz. 60.) He «a« one of th« 
tinea commiuianen Knt into Gncee to collect in- 
Csaatkin aboot the hws of that coantiy, and wai 
a mr inh eT of the fint decemTirate in 451. (Lir. 
Si. 31, 93 ; Dionyt. z. 52, 56.) He commanded, 
a* legatus, the centre of the Roman inny in the 
battle in which the Aeqniaot and Volaciani wen 
delcBted in 446. (Lir. iiL 70.) 

3. A. PosTOMioa A. f. P. n. Albdi Riou^ 
LBNSDi, apparently eon rf No. 1, wa* censol bl c. 
464, and eanied en war againat the Aeqniana. 
He waa tent aa ambaandor to the Aeqniani in 
458, oa wiiieh oocaaion he wu innihed bj their 
commander. (Lit. iiL 4, 5, 25 ; Dionyi. iz. 62, 65.) 

4. Sr. Poaruiinni Sp. r. A. m. Albos Rbgil- 
Lxnsua, qiparently aon of No 2, wa* eonsniar tri- 
bune iL c 433, and aerred aa legatni in the war in 
the foBowing year. (Lir. fr. 35, 27.) 

5i. P. PoaruMiua A. r. A. N. Albihus RxgU/- 
LKtan, whom Liry calla Haieni, waa conaular 
tribune B.C. 414, and waa killed in an inaonection 
of the aol^n, whom he had depriTed of the plun- 
der of the Aeqoian town of Bolae, which he had 
pnmiaed them. (Lit. ir. 49, 60.) ■ 

6. M. PoamniKm A. r. A. n. AiBinm Rsen^ 
iscsn, ia mentioned by Ijiry (t. 1 ) aa conanhu 
tribone in & c. 408, bat waa in reality cenaor in 
that year with H. Purina Camillna. (FaM Capitol.) 
In their eenaorahip a fine waa impoaed npon all 
men who ramained ain|^ np to oM age, (V^Maz. 
ii.9.Sl; PhitOiia.2; Dki,i/Ant.:v. Umrium.) 

7. A. Poarrojuus Aibinot RaoaLZHBig, con- 
mlar tribtine B. c. 397, orflected with hia colleague 
L. Jafiaa an aimy of Tolonteera, aince the tribune* 
pccTeoted them iraa making a regular leTy, and 
cot off a body of Taiqniaienaea, who were return- 
iag heme after plundering the Roman territory. 
(Lit. t. 16.) 

8. Sr. Pomomns Albinus Rboillbnsu^ con- 
aolar tribune & a 394, carried on the war againat 
the Aeqniana ; he at firat auflered a defeat, but 
aiterwarla conqueied them eon^tely. (LIt. t. 
86, 2&) 

9. Sp. PorrintiBi ALSiinm, waa eonaal a c. 
334, and ioTaded, with hia colleague T. Vetnrina 
CalTinna, the country of the Sidicini ; but, on ac- 
cnont of the great foicea which the enemy had col- 
lected, and the report that the Sanmite* were com- 
ing to their aaaiatanee, a dictator waa appointed. 
(Ut. Tiii. 16, 17.) He waa cenaor in 332 and 
magiater eqnitam in 337, when M. Clandiua Mbi^ 
eettna waa appointed dictator to hold the eomitia. 
(Tiii. 17, 23l) In 321, he waa conaul a aecond 
time with T. Veturiu* CalTinua, and marched 
againat the Samnitea, but waa defeated near Cau- 
diom, and obliged to aurrender with hia whole 
anny, who were aent under the yoke. Aa the 
price of hia ddiTeiance and that of the army, he 
and hia colleague and the other conunandera awore, 
in the name dt the repujblic, to a humiliating peace. 
The oonaola, on their return to Rome, hud down 
their office after appointing a dictator ; and the 
aenate, on the adTice of Poatumiua, reeoWed that 
all perMma who had awom to the peace ahonld be 
giren up to the Somnitc*. Poatumiua, with the 
other priaonera, aocordin^y went to the Samnitea, 
bat they refnaed to accept them. (LIt. iz. 1 — 10 ; 
Appian, da JUb. Stmn. 3—6 ; Ck. dt Qf. m. 30, 

10. A. Pomnttat A. r. L. tr. Ai-BiNua^ wu 



conaul BL c 242 with Lntatioa Catuhu, who de- 
feated the Carthaginiana off the Aegatea, and thus 
brought the firat Punic war to an end. Albinua 
waa kept in the dty, againat hia will, by the Poit- 
tifex Mazimua, beauae he waa Flamen Hartialia. 
(Lir. £lpiL 19, xziii. 13 1 Entrap, ii. 27 ; VaL 
Maz. I 1. g 2.) He waa cemur in 234. (Faiii 

11. L. Poarmaini, A.' r. A. n. ALsniDti, ap- 
parently a aon of the preceding, waa conaul a. c. 
234, and again in 229. In hia aecond oonaolahip 
he made war upon the Illytiana. (Eutropi iii 4 ; 
Oroau IT. IS I Dion Caaa. Fng. 161 ; Polyb. ii. 11, 
Ac, who erroneooaly caOa Um A»Uu faiatead of 
taenia.) In 216, tile third year of the aecond 
Puaic war, ha waa made praetor, and aent into 
Ciaalpine Oaul, and while abaent waa elected eon- 
aal the third time for the following year, 215. Bat 
he did not lire to enter upon hia conanlahip ; for 
he and hia aimy were deatnyed by the Boii in the 
wood Litana in Ciaalpine OauL Hia head waa cut 
ofi^ and after being lined with gold waa dedicated 
to the goda by the Boii, and need aa a aocred 
drinking-TeaaeL (LIt. zzil 36, zziiL 34 ; Polybt 
iil 106, US ; Cie. Tun. i. 37.) ' 

12. Sp. PosTUMiua L. r. A. N. Albinos, waa 
praetor peregrinua in B. a 189 (LIt. zzzriL 47, 
50), and conaul in 186. In hia conaulahip the 
aenatoaconaultnm waa poaaed, which ia atill eztant, 
aoppreaaing the worahip of Baechua in Rome, in 
consequence of the abominable crimes which wen 
committed in connezion with it. (zzziz. 6, 11, 
&c.; VaL Maz. Ti. S. § 7 ; Plin. H. N. zzziii. 
10; Diet. ^ Ant. p. 344.) He waa alao augur, 
and died in 179 at an adToneed age. (Lit zl. 
42 ; Cic. Caio, Z.) 

13. A. PoHTVKiDs A. r. A. H. AiBiMva, 
waa cnmle aedile B. c. 187, when he ezhibited 
the Great Oamea, praetor 185, and conaul 180. 
(LiT. zxzix. 7, 23, xl 35.) In hia conaulahip 
he conducted the war againat the Lignriana. 
(zL 41.) He waa cenaor 174 with Q. fnlvina. 
Their eenaorahip waa a aerere one ; they expelled 
nine membera from the aenate, and degraded many 
of equestrian rank. Tbey ezecnted, howcTer, many 
public worka, (zli. 32, zlii, 10 ; comp. Cic Kerr, 
i. 41.) He waa elected in hia eenaorahip one of 
the decemriri aacnrum in the place of L. Comeliua 
Lentnlna. (Lir. zlil 10.) Albinua waa engaged 
in many 'public miaaiona. In 175 he waa aent 
into northern Greece to inquin into the tinth of 
the repreaentationa of the Dutdaniona and Thea- 
aaliana about the Baatamae and Peraeua. (Polyb. 
zzvi 9.) In 171 he was aent aa one of the am- 
baaaadon to Crete (Ut. xlil 35); and after the 
conqueat of Macedonia in 168 he was one of the 
ten commiaaionen appointed to settle the afiiiin 
of the country with Aemilius Paulina. (zIt. 17.) 
Livy not ui^&equently cnlla him Lnacua, bma 
which it would aeem that he waa blind of one eye. 

14. Sp. PosTUMiua A. r. A. N. Albinus 
Paullulub, probably a brother of No. 13 and 15, 
perhapa obtained the aumame of Paullulua, oa 
being amall of stature, to distinguish him more 
accurately from his two brothera. He waa praetor 
in Sicily, B. c. 183, and conaul, 174. (LiT. ttt^t. 
45, zli. 26, zliii. 2.) 

15. L. PusTUMius A. p. A. N. Albinos, pro- 
bably a brother of No. 13 and 14, waa praetor 
a c 180, and obtained the province of further 
Spain. Hia command waa ptoloiiged in the fi>llow> 

Digitized by VjOOyH; 

•3 ALBINU3. 

log jtu. After oonquering the Vaceaei and Ln- 
ritani, he returned to Rome in I7fli and obtained 
■ tiimnph on acconnt of hi> rictorieag (Lir. zL 
S5, 44, 47, 48, 50, xU. 3, II.) He waa cooaul in 
173, with M. PopilUni Laenai; and tlie irar in 
Ligoria «raa aaaigned to both connila. Albinut, 
boweTer, waa tint sent into Campania to ieparate 
the land of the state bom that of private persons ; 
and this bnaineu occupied him all the sommer, so 
that he waa nnable to go into hi* prorince. He 
was the first Roman magistrate who pat the allies 
to any expense in travelling through their territo- 
ries, (xll 33, xlii. 1, 9.) The festival of the 
Floralia, which had been discontinued, waa re- 
stored in his consulship. (Ov. Fad. v. 329.) In 
171, he waa one of the ambassadors sent to Masi- 
nissa and the Carthaginians in order to "raise troops 
for the war against Perseus. (Liv. xlii. 35.) In 
169 he was an unsuccessful candidate for the cen- 
mrship. (xliii. 16.) He served under Aemilius 
PauUns in Macedonia in 168, and commanded the 
second legion in the battle with Perseus, (xliv. 
41.) The last time he is mentioned is in this 
war, when he was sent to plunder the town of the 
AeniL (xlv. 27.) 

16. A. PosTUMiDS Albindd, one of the officers 
in the aiaj of Aemilius Panllus in Macedonia, 
B. c 168. He waa sent bjr Paullus to treat with 
Perseus ; and afterwards Perseus and his son Philip 
were committed to hi* care by Paullni, (Lit. 
xlv. 4, 28.) 

17. L. PoarrtniiVR Sr. r. L. N. Albimds, 
apparently son of No. 12, was cnrule aedile B. C. 
161, and exhibited the Ludi Megalenses, at which 
the Eunuch of Terence was acted. He was consul 
in 154, and died seven days after he liad set out 
from Rome in order to go to his province. It waa 
aiippoaed that he waa poisoned by hi* wife. 
(Obseq. 76 j VaL Max. vi. 3. § 8.) 

18. A. PosTUMiuR A. P. A. N. ALBiNtrg, appa- 
rently son of No. 13, was praetor 8. c. 155 (Cic. 
JcaJ. iL 45 ; Polyb. xxxiiL 1), and consul in 151 
with L. Licinius LncuUus. He and his colleague 
were thrown into prison by the tribunes for con- 
ducting the levies with too much severity. (Liv. 
Spit. 48 ; Polyb. xxxv. 3 ; Orofc iv. 21.) He 
Wiu one of the ambassadors sent in 153 to make 
peace between Attains and Prusias (Polyb. xxziii, 
1 1 ), and accompanied L. Mnmmins Achoicus into 
Greece in 146 as one of his legates. There was a 
statue erected to his honour on the Isthmus. 
(Cic ad Att. xiiL 30, 32.) Albinns was well ac- 
quainted with Oieek litentnre, and wrote in that 
language a poem and a Roman history, the latter 
of whi^ is mentioned by several ancient writers. 
Polybius (xL 6) speaks of him as a vain and light- 
headed man, who disparaged his own people, and 
waa sillily devoted to the study of Greek literature. 
He relates a tale of him and the elder Cato, who 
reproved Albinus sharply, because in the preface 
to his history he begged the pardon of his readers, 
if he should make any mistakes in writing in a 
foreign language ; Cato reminded him that he was 
not compelM to write at all, but that if he chose to 
write, he had no business to aak for the indulgence 
of bis readers. This tale is also related by Gellius 
(xL 8), Macrobiu* (Prebee to Saturn.), Plutarch 
{Otto, 12), and Suidas (s. v. AlXoi neor^fuat). 
PolyUns also says that Albinns imitated the worst 
parts of the Greek character, that ha was entirely 
devoted to pleasure, and ahiriied all Uboor and 


danger. He relates that he letiied to ThthM^ 
when the battle was fought at Phocis, on the plea 
of indispontion, but afterwards wrote an aocooat 
of it to the senate as if he had been presenL 
Cicero speaks with rather more respect of his lite- 
rary merits ; he calls him daeim iomo and littrra- 
bu et ditertn. (Cic. Aead. iL 45, Brut. 21.) Ma- 
cnbius (iL 16) quotes a passage from the tint book 
of the Annals d Albinus respecting Bmtns, and 
as he uses the words of Albinus, it has been taf- 
posed that the Greek history may have been tzans- 
iated into Latin. A work of Albinus, on the 
arrival of Aeneas in Italy, is referred tobySer 
Tins (ad Virg. Aen. ix. 710), and the anthor of the 
work " De Otigine Gentis Romanae," c 15. 
(Kranse, Fi^oe el Fragm. Veterum Hatoritanat 
Aonumomm, p, 127, &c.) 

19. Sp. PosTDKiua Albinds MAONini, «ts 
consul B. c 148, in which year a great fire hsp- 
pened at Rome. (Obseq. 78.) It i* this ^ 
Albinus, of whom Cicen speaks in the Brutut (c 
25 ), and says that therd>were many orations of his, 

20. Sr. PoBTUMiuB Sp. p. Sp. n. Albinvs, 
probably son of No. 19, waa consul & a 110, sad 
obtained the province of Nunudia to cany on the 
war against Jngurtha. He made vigorous prepa- 
rations for war, but when he reached the province, 
he did not adopt any active measnrea, but allosrwl 
himself to be deceived by the artifices of Jugnrtha, 
who constantly promised to inrrender. Many pe^ 
sons supposed diat his inactivity waa inteatunal, 
and that Jugnrtha had bought nim over. When 
Albinus departed fiom Africa, ha left his hnther 
Aulas in command. [See No. 21.] After th* 
defeat of the latter he returned to Nomidia, h(i 
in consequence of the disorganized state of his 
army, he did not prosecute toe war, and handed 
over the army in this conditbn, in the fbllowiq; 
year, to the consul Metellus. (Soil. Jug. 35, M, 
39,44; Ores. iv. 15; Eutrop. iv. 26.) Hems 
condemned by the Mamilia Lex, which was paiitd 
to punish all those who had been guilty of treason- 
able practices with Jugnrtha. (Cic BnA 34; 
camp. SoU. Jug. 40.) 

21. A.Po8TVMiusALBiNuisbrotherofKo.20, 
and probably son of No. 19, was left by hishi> 
ther 08 pro-praetor, in command of the army in 
Africa in b. c. 1 10. [See No. 20.] He manhed 
to benege Suthal, where the treasures of Jagurtha 
were deposited ; but Jugurtha, under the promiis 
of giving him a huge sum of money, indoced bin 
to lead his army into a retired place, where he 
was suddenly attacked by the Numidian king, sad 
only saved his troops from total destrnctian bf 
allowing them to pass under the yoke, and undo^ 
taking to leave Numidia in ten days. (SsiL Jf- 

22. A.Po8TDiiimA.P. Sp.H.AtBnnn,gI«ai■ 
son of No. 19, and probably son of No. 21, «•• 
consul B. c. 99, with M. Antonius. (Plin. H. S. 
viiL 7 ; Obseq. 106.) Gellius (iv. 6) quotes ths 
words of a senatusconsultum passed in their wo- 
sulship in consequence of the spears of Mars )araf 
moved. Cicero says that he was a good speaks. 
(Bnii. 35, pott Red. ad Qfor. 5.) • 

The foUowing coin is supposed by Eckhd (nl 
T. p. 288) and others to refer to this Albinos. Oa 
one side is the head of a female with the lettos 
HisPAN., which may perhaps have reference to tbs 
victory which his ancestor L. Aibinns obtained in 
Spain. [See No. 15.] On the other aide aou 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



B npmented atretching oat hii band to an eagle, 
t miiituy standard, and behind him are the &Mei 
irith the axe. On it are the letten A. n»T. a. r. 
%. ■. ABiN (m on the coin, initead of alsin.). On 
tke coins of the Postnmia gens the fraenomen 
Spmiiis is alw>7 written & ami not St. 

23. A. Paaromus AiMonn, a penon of pne- 
tariao nmk, oommanded the fleet, B. c 89, iu the 
■Msnic var, and waa kiBed by his own soldien 
mdet the plea that he meditated treachery, but in 
Rslity on account of his emdty. Solla, who was 
then a legate of the consnl Poidns Cato, inooipo- 
aled his troops with his own, bnt did not pnnuh 
tke ofienden. (Liv. Epit 75 ; Phit. SiUla, 6.) 

34. A. Poaruuiirs Albinvs was placed by 
Caesar orer Sicily, b. c 48. (Appian, fi. C ii. 48.) 

25. D. Junius Bbutds Albinok, adopted by 
No. 22, and comrnemotated in the annexed coin, 
whne Bmtns is caDed albint(s) bbvtl r. 

ALBI'NXJS, procnntor of Judaea, in the leign 
of Noo, abont A. D. 63 and 64, snoceeded Festus, 
snd was gnilty of almost erery kind of crime in 
Iris gDTenunent. He pardoned the rilest criminals 
far money, and shamelessly plondeied the pro- 
vincials. He was succeeded by Floras. (Joseph. 
A->t.J>id.rx.i.%l; BtIL Jud. iL 14. § 1.) The 
LccnoB AtBiNOS mentioned below may possibly 
hsTe been the same person. 

ALBrauS ('AACim), a Platonic philosopher, 
«)io lived at Smyrna and was a contemporary of 
Galen. (Oalen, toL It. p. 372, ed. Basil) A 
■dsit tract by him, entided 'EuruTWYii dt roOf 
TUiirwrn ^laKirfovs, has come down to as, and is 
paUiahed in the second Tolnme (p. 44) of the first 
efititm of Falnicias; bnt omitted in the reprint 
bj Harlea, becaase it is to be found prefixed to 
Elwall's edition of three dialogues of Plato, Oxon. 
1771 ; and to Fischer's four dialogues of Plato, 
I<>ps. 1783. It contains hardly anything of im- 
portance. Aftat explaining the natnre of the 
DUogae, which he compares to a Drama, the 
^t«r goes on to diride the Dialogues of Plato 
into iimr classes, Kayucads, Ar/iiTucwt, ^mrucovr, 
^Bwoit, and mentions another dirision of them 
into Tetralogies, according to their subjects. He 
sdriKs that the Alcibiadn, Pbaedo, Republic, and 
Tniaegi, ihoold be read in a series. 

The snthorities respecting Albinos have been 
nUccled by Fabrieins. {BiU. Grate, iii. p. 658.) 
nt U laid to have written a work on the aminge- 
Bimt of the writings of Pbto. Another Albinus 
> mmUoncd by Boethius and Cassiodoms, who 


wrote in Latin soma works on mnuc and geo- 
metry, [a J.J 

ALBI'NUS, CLOT)IUS, whose full name 
was Dedmns Clodios Ceionias Septimius Al- 
binos, the son of Ceionins Postumios and 
Amelia Messalina, was bom at Adrumetum in 
A&ica ; bnt the year of his birth is not known. 
According to lus &ther's statement (CopitoL 
Clod. AlUm. 4), he rcceired the name of Albi- 
nos on account of the extraordinary whiteness of 
his body.- Shewing great disposition for a military 
life, he entered the army at an ««riy a^ and 
served with great distinction, especially dunng the 
rebellion of Avidius Cassins a^inst the onperor 
Marcos Aurelius, in a. d. 175. His meriu were 
acknowledged by the emperor in two letters (ib. 
10) in which he calls Albinos an African, who re- 
sembled his eonntiymen but little, and who was 
praiseworthy (at his military experience, and the 
gravity of his character. The emperor likewise 
declared, that without Albinus the legions (in 
Bithynia) would have gone over to Avidius Cas^ 
sitts, and that he intended to have him cfaoseil 
consuL The emperor Commodus gave Albinus a 
conmiand in Oam and afterwards in Britain. A 
fidse rnmour having been spread that Commodus 
had died, Albinus harangued the army in Britain 
on the occasian, attacking Commodus as a tyrant, 
and TF"!i''*»'"'"g that it would be nseful to the 
Roman empire to restore to the senate its ancient 
dignity and power. The senate was very pleased 
with these sentiments, but not so the empercr, 
who sent Junius Severus to supersede Albinus in 
his command. At this time Albinus must hnvo 
been a very distinguished man, which wo majr 
conclude from the bet, that some time before 
Commodus had offered him the title of Caesar, 
which he wisely declined. Notwithstanding tho 
appointment of Junins Severus as his snccestor, 
Albinns kept his command till after the murder of 
Commodus and that of his successor Pertinax in 
A. D. 193. It is doubtful if Albinos was the 
secret author of the murder of Pertinax, to which 
Capitolinus makes an allusion. (7&. 14.) 

After the death of Pertinax, Didius Jnlianus 
purchased the throne by bribing the praetorians ; 
but immediately afterwards, C. Pescennius Niger 
was proclaimed emperor by the legions in Syria ; 
L. Septimius Severus by the troops in Illyricum 
and Pannonia ; and Albmns by the armies m Bri- 
tain and QaoL Jalianus having been put to death 
by order of the senate, who dreaded the power 
of Septimius Severus, the latter turned his arms 
a^nst Pescennius Niger. With regard to Al- 
binus, we must believe that Severus made a pro- 
visional arrangement with him, conferring opon 
him the title of Caesar, and holding with hira 
the consolship in a. d. 194. Bot after the defeat 
and death of Niger in A. n. 194, and the complete 
discomfitore of his adherenU, especially after tho 
&11 of Byuntiom in a. D. 196, Severus resolved 
to make himself the absolute master of the Romm 
empire. Albinus seeing the danger of his position, 
which he had increased by his indolence, prepared 
for resistance. He narrowly escaped being 
assassinated by a messenger of Severus («&. 7, 8), 
whereupon he put himself at the bead of nis army, 
which is said to have consisted of 150,000 men. 
He met the equal forces of Severus at Lugdunum 
(Lyons), in Oool, and there fought with him op 
the 19tfa of Febmiiiy, 197 (Spartion. &t»r. 11) 

Digitized by V^ OOQ IC 



bloody battle, in which he vai at 6nt Tietoriont, 
but at last wa< entirely defeated, and lost hia life 
either by suicide, or by order of ScTems, after 
having been made a prisoner. His body was ill 
treated by Sererus, who sent his head to Borne, 
and accompanied it with an insolent letter, in 
which he mocked the senate for their adherence to 
Albinns. The town of Lugdnnum was plundered 
and destroyed, and the adherents of Albinu* were 
cruelly prosecuted by Severas. 

Albinus was a man of great bodily beauty and 
strength ; he was an experienced general ; a skil- 
ful gladiator ; a serere, and often cruel commander ; 
and he ha* been called the Catiline of his time. 
He had one son, or perhaps two, who were put to 
death with their mother, by order of Severus, It 
is said that ha wrote a treatise on agriculture, 
and a collection of stories, called Mileuan. (Capi- 
tolinus, Cloduu Albiiau: Dion Casa. Ixx, ^ — 7; 
Herodian, ii. 15, iii. 5 — 7.) 

There are several medal* of Albinus. In the 
one unim^fJ he is called d. cxod. szpt. albin. 

[W. P.] 

ALBI'NUS, LUCE1CS, wa* made by Nero 
procurator of Mauretania Caesariensis, to which 
Oalba added the province of Tingitana. After the 
death of Oalba, a. o. 69, he espoused the side of 
Otho, and prepared to invade Spain. Cluvius 
Ruftts, who commanded in Spain, being alarmed at 
this, sent centurions into Mauretania to induce the 
Mauri to revolt against Albinus. They accom- 
plished this without much difficulty ; and Albinus 
was murdered with his wife. (Tnc. Hiii. ii. 58, 59.) 

A'LBION or ALE'BION ('AXtlay or 'AXtSim), 
a son of Poseidon and brother of Dercynus or 
Beigion, together with whom he attacked Heracles, 
when he passed through their country (Liguria) 
with the oxen of Oeiyon. But thev paid for their 
pn»umption with their lives. (Apollod. ii. 5. § 10; 
Pomp. Mela, ii. 5. § 39.) The Scholiast on Lyeo- 
phron (648) calls the brother of Alebioo, Ligys. 
The story is also alluded to in Hyginns {PoeLAstr. 
ii. 6) and Dionysius. (I il.) [h. S.] 

ALDUCILLA, the wife of Sntrius Seeundus, 
and infiunou* for her many amours, was accused in 
the Ust year of the reign of Tiberius (a. d. 37) of 
treason, or impiety, against the emperor {impietatu 
in principem), and, with her, Cn. Domitins Aheno- 
borbus, Vibius Marsua, and L. Armntius, a* ac- 
complices. She waa cast into prison by command 
of the senate, after making an ineffectual attempt 
to destroy herselC (Tac. .i^iin. vl 47, 48.) 

ALBU'NEA, a prophetic nymph or Sibyl, to 
whom in the neighbourhood of Tibur a grove wa* 
consecrated, with a well and a temple. Near it 
was the oracle of Faunus Fatidicus. (Virg, Aen, 
vii. 81, &c. J Hor. Cam. i. 7. 12 ; TibnIL il 6. 
69.) Lnctantius {De Sibyll. L 6) states, that the 
tenth Sibyl, called Albunea, was worshipped at 
Tibur, and that her image, holding a book io one 


hand, wa* found in the bed of the 
Her $orta, or oracle*, which belonged 
/atala, were, at the command of the i 
sited and kept in the Capitol The 
temple of this Sibyl is still extant at -i 
specting the locality, aee Kepkalidei, lUimm dmni 
/<a/i«>, i. p. 125, &e. [L- S.] 

ALBU'CIUS or ALBUTIUS, a phy*ici«i at 
Rome, who lived probably about the beginning or 
middle of the first century after Christ, uid who is 
mentioned by Pliny (H. N. zxix. 5) as having 
gained by his practice the annual income of two 
hundred and finy thousand sestenes (about 1 953^ 
2i. Sd.). This is considered by Pliny to be a very 
large sum, and may therefore give us some notion of 
the fortunes made by physician* at Rome abont the 
beginning of the empire. [W. A. O.] 

T. ALBU'CIUS or ALBUTIUS, fioiahed his 
ttndie* at Athens at the latter end of the aeoosid 
century B. c., and belonged to the Eirieoican aect. 
He wa* well acquainted with Oreek litermtuic, or 
rather, say* Cicero, wa* almost a Greek. (Jirmt. 
35.) On account of his affecting on every orr—itw 
the Oreek Unguage and philosophy, he wa* sati- 
rized by Lucilius, whose lines npon him are pre- 
•erved by Cicero (ib Fiit, i: 3); and Cicero hinisalf 
speaks of him a* a light-minded man. He accased, 
but unsuccessfully, Q. Mucin* ScaevoU, the aagur; 
of maladministration (repetuiuUu) in hi* province. 
(BnU. 26, De OnU. ii. 70.) In B. c 105 Albncia* 
was praetor in Sardinia, and in consequence of 
some insignificant success which he had gained 
over some robbers, he celebrated a triumph in the 
province. On his return to Rome, he applied t* 
the senate for the honour of a supplicatio, but this 
was refused, and he wa* accused in ILC. 103 of 
repetundae by C. Julius Caesar, and condemned. 
Cn. Pompeius Strabo had offered himself as the 
accuser, but he wa* not allowed to oonduct the 
prosecution, because he had been the quaestor of 
Albudus. {D« Prot. Con. 7, n Pmm. 38, Dia. m 
CaacU. 19, lU Of. ii. 14.) After his condemnatioa, 
he retired to Athens and pursued the study of phi- 
losophy. (7W.V. 37.) He left behind him some 
orations, which had been read by Cioera {BruL 35.) 

Varro {d» R$ Rail, iii 2. $ 17) speaks of son* 
satires by L. Albucius written in the style of Loci- 
lius ; he appears to be the same person aa TitaL 

C. ALBU'CIUS SI LAa [Su.a».] 



ALCAEUS CAAKowf). 1. A aon of Peneos 
and Andromeda, and married to Hipponoma, the 
daughter of Menoeoen* of Thebes, by whom he 
becune the &ther of Amphytrion and Aaaio, 
(ApoUod. il 4. § 6 ; SchoLoifar^ &>«■&. 8S6.) 
According to Pansanias (viii. 14. § 3) his wib^ 
name wa* Laonome, a daughter of the Arcadian 
Ouneus, or Lysidioe, a daughter of Pelops. 

3. According to Diodorus (L 14) the original 
name of Heracles, given him on account of hi* 
descent from Alcaeul, the son of Peneo*. [U>- 


S. A son of Heracles by a female slave of Ju- 
danna, from whom the dynasty of the Hendids 
in Lydia were believed to be descended. (Hend. 
L 7.) Diodorus (iv. SI ) calls this son of Hera- 
cles, Cleolaus. (Comp. Hellanicus, (^. Sitpi. Bp, 
$. r. 'AWai) ; Wcaaeling, ad Diod. L e.) 

4. According to Diodoras (v. 79) a general <( 
Rhadamanthya, who presented him with the idanJ 


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■f Puds. Apollodonu (ii. 5. { 9) rsUte* thmt lia 
ma a iod of Androgens (the aon of Minos) and 
bntiier of Stfaenelas, and that when Hencles, oo 
his expedition to fetch the girdle of Ares, which 
was ia the possession of the queen of the Amaxons, 
airifed at Paroa, some of his companions were 
•Jain bj the sons of Miuos, residing there. He- 
ncles, in bis anger, slew the descenduits of Minos, 
except Alcaeas and Sthenelus, whom he took with 
him, and to whom he afterwards assigned the 
island of Thasns as their habitation. [L. S.] 

ALCAEUS ('AXnuH), of Usssbnx, the author 
of a number of epigrams in the Greek anthology^ 
from some of which his date may be easily fixed. 
He was contemporary with Philip III., king rf 
Macedonia, and son of Demetrius, against whom 
■eTeral of his epigrams are pointed, apparently 
from patriotic feelinga. One of thne epigrams, 
howerer, gare eveu more offence to the Roman 
general, Flamininua, than to Philip, on account of 
the aathor's ascribing the Tictory of Cynosoepha- 
lae to the Aetolians as much as to the Romans. 
Philip contented himself with writing an epigram 
in reply to that of Alcaens, in which be gave the 
Messenian m very broad hint of the iu» he might 
expect if he £ell into his hands. (Plut Flamm. 
9.) This reply has singularly enough led Salmasius 
{D» Cnae, p. 449, ap. Fabric. Bitlioth. Grate ii. p. 
88) to suppose that Alcaens was actually crucified. 
In another epigram, in prsuse of Flanuninus, the 
mention of the Roman genexal*s name, Titus, led 
Tietx» {Pnieg. n If)oopkron) into the error of 
imagiuing the existence of an epigrammatist named 
Alcaens under the emperor Titus. Those epigrams 
of Akaeus which bear internal evidence of their 
date, were written between the years 319 and 

Of the twenty-two epigrams in the Oreek An- 
tkdogy which b«r the name of "Alcaeua," two have 
the word "Mytilenaens" added to it; but Jacobs 
seems t« be perfectly right in taking this to be the 
addition., of some ignorant copyist. Others bear 
the name of "Alaieus Messeniaa," and some of 
Alcaens alone. But in the last class there are 
aereial which must, bam internal evidence, have 
been written by Akaeus of Measene, and, in &ct, 
there seems no reason to doubt his being the author 
of the whole twenty-two. 

There are mentioned as eoatemporories of Al- 
eaeus, two other persons of the same name, one of 
them an Epicnrcan philosopher, who was expelled 
bam Rome by a decree of the senate about 173 or 
154ac (Pcrizon. ai< .^eUoa. r.//'.iz.22; Athen. 
zii. p. 547, A.; Snidas, s. r. t,tlKoafoi): the other 
is incidentally spoken of by Polybius as being 
aoeustomed to ridicule the granunarian Iiocrates. 
(Pdyb. zxxii. 6; B.a 160.) It is just possible 
that these two person^ of whom nothing iiirther ia 
known, may have been identical vrith each other, 
and with the epigrammatist 

(Jacobs, Atithol. Orate xiii. pp. 836-838 ; there 
is a reference to Alcaens of Messene in Ensebius, 
Pmpar. Evaag. x. 2.) [P. S.] 

ALCAEUS CAAinuotV of Mytilxnb, in the 
idand of Lesbos, the earnest of the Aeolutn lyrio 
poets, began to flonriah in the 42nd Olympiad 
when a oontest had commenced between the nobles 
and the people in hii native state, Alcaeus be- 
longed by birth to the former party, and warmly 
espoused their cause. In the second year of the 
42nd Olympiad (& c, 611), we find tho' brothers of 

Alcaens, namely, Cicis and Antimemidaa, fitting 
under Pittacus agairut Melanchrus, who i* da- 
scribed as the tyrant of Lesbos, and who fell in th* 
conflict. (Diog. Laert i. 74, 79 ; Stiab. ziiL p. 
617 i Snidas, j; v. Uica and lUrraicn; EtymoL 
M. p. £13, s. e. KiBofn, instead of K/wr; Clin- 
ton, Faali, L p. 216.) Alcaeus does not appear 
to have taken part with his brothers on this occa- 
sion: on the contrary, he speaks of Melancfams ia 
terms of high praise. (Fr. 7, p^ 426, Blomfield.) 
Alcaens is mentioned in connexion with the war 
in Troos, between the Athenians and Mytilenaeaas 
for the possession of Sigeum. (a. c 606.) Thon^ 
Pittacus, who commanded the army of Mytilem, 
slew with his own hand the leader of the Athe- 
nians, Phiynon, an Olympic victor, the Uytile- 
naeans wen defeated, and Akaeus incurred the 
disgrace of leaving his arms behind on the field of 
battle; these arms were hung up as a trophy by 
the Athenians in the temple of Pallas at Sigeum. 
(Herod, v. 95; Plut. de Herod. Matig. i. 15, p. 
858; Strab. xiii. pp. 599, 600; Euseb. CImM. 
Olym. xliii. 8 ; Clinton, Fatti, I f. 219.) His 
sending home ^e news of this disaster in a poem, 
addressed to his friend Melonippus (Fr. 56, p, 
438, Bloml), seems to shew that he hod a repttt». 
tion for courage, such aa a single disaster could not 
endanger ; and accordingly we find hini spoken of 
by ancient writers as a brave and skilful warrior. 
(AnthoL PalaL ix. 184 ; Cic. Ttttc Ditp. iv. 33; 
Hor. Cam. i. 32. 6; Athen. zv. p. 687.) He 
thought that his lyre was best em|4<>T*<' i" *■>'* 
mating his Mends to warlike deeds, and his hoosa 
is described by himself as furmshed with the we»- 
pons of war rather than with the instruments of 
his art. (Athen. xiv. p^ 627; Fr. 24, p. 430, 
Blomf.) Ihuing the period whkh followed the 
war about Sigeum, the contest between the nobles 
and the people of Mytilene was brought to a crisis ; 
and the people, headed by • sncceaoion of leaders, 
who are colled tytaott, and among whom are men- 
tioned tho names of Myrsilus, Megalagyrus, and 
the Cleanactids, succeeded in driving Uie noUea 
into exile. During this civil war Alcaens engaged 
actively on the side of the nobles, whose spirits he 
endeavoured to cheer by a number of most ani- 
mated odes full of invectives against the tyrants ; 
and after the defeat of his party, he, with his bro- 
ther Antimenidas, ted them again in an attempt to 
regain their country. To oppose this attempt Pit- 
tacus was unanimously chosen by the people as 
ai)tvitir^Trtt (dictator) or tyiant. He held his 
oiSce for ten years (b. c. 589 — 579), and during 
that time he defeated all the efforts of the exiled 
nobles, and established the constitution on a popu- 
lar basis ; and then he resigned his power. 
(Stnb. xiiL p. 617; Akaeus, Fr. 23, p. 230, 
BlomC ; Arist, Rip. iiL 9. § fi, or iii 14 ; Plut. 
Amai. § 18, p. 763 ; Diog. Laert. L 79; Dionys. 
V. p. 336, Sylb.) [Pittacuh.] 

Notwithstsnding the invectives of Alcaeus 
against him, Pittacus is said to have set him at 
liberty when he had been taken prisoner, saying 
that " fcigiTeness is better than rerenge." (Diog, 
Laert. 176; Valer. Max. iv. I. § 6.) Alcaeua 
has not escaped the suspicion of being moved by 
personal ambition in his opposition to Pittacus, 
(Strab. xiii. p. 617.) When Akaeus and Anti- 
menidas perceived that all hope of their restoration 
to Mytilene was gone, they tnvelled over different 
countries. Akaeus visited %ypt (Strab. L Jk 87X 

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and he appean to hare written poems in which hia 
adTentorea by tea were detcribed. (Hor. Cbrm. ii. 
13. 28.) Antimenidaa entered the lerrice of the 
king of Babylon, and perfonned an exploit which 
waa celebrated by Alcaeoa. (Strab. ziii. p. 617, 
Fr. 33, p. 433, Blomt) Nothing is known of tho 
life of Alcaeni after thii period ; bnt from the 
political Btate of Mytilene it ia most probable that 
Be died in exile. 

Among the nine principal lyric poets of Greece 
some ancient writers assign the first place, others the 
second, to Alcaeiu. His writings present to as the 
Aeolian lyric at its highest poinL But their drcnla- 
tion in Greece seems to hare been limited by the 
strangeness of the Aeolic dialect, and perhaps their 
loss to OS may be partly attributed to the same canse. 
Two recensions of the works of Alcaeus were made 
by the grammarians Aristarchus and Aristophanes. 
Some fragments of bis poems which remain, and 
the excellent imitations of Horace, enable ns to 
understand something of their character. 

His poems, which consisted of at least ten books 
(Athen. zi. p. 481), were called in general Odea, 
Hymns, or Songs (^ir/wra). Those which have 
nceived the highest praise are his warlike or p»- 
triotic odes referring to the Actions of his state 
oTcurMiTiicd or StxooTturuurrucdj the **Alcaei mi- 
naces Camoenae" of Horace. (Cbrm. ii. 13. 27 ; 
QnintiL x. 1. § 6S ; Dionys. de Vtt. Ser^ Beat, ii 
8, p. 73, Sylb.) Among the fragments of these 
are the commencement of a song of exultation oTer 
the death of Myrsilus (Fr. 4, Bloml), and part of 
a comparison of his mined party to a disabled ship 
(Fr. 2, Blomt), both of which are finely imitated 
by Horace. (Cbrm. i. S7, i. 14.) Many fingments 
are preserved, especially by Athenaeus (x. pp. 429, 
430), in which the poet sings the praises of wine. 
(Fr. 1, 3, 16, 18, 20, Blomf.; comp. Hor. Oarm. L 9. 
IS.) Miiller remarks, that "it may be doubted 
whether Alcaeas composed a separate class of 
drinking songs (ffufororwd) ; ... it is more proba- 
ble that he connected every exhortation to drink 
with some reflection, either upon the particular 
circumstances of the time, or upon man^s destiny 
in general." Of his erotic poems we have but few 
remains. Among them were some addressed to 
Sappho; one of which, with Sappho's reply, is 
preaemd by Aristotle {Met. 19; Fr. 38, Blomf.; 
Sappho, fr. 30), and othcn to beautiful youths. 
(Hor. Cbrm. I. 32. 10 ; Cic. de Nat. Dear. i. 28, 
TVoc QuaesL W. 33.) Most of his remaining poems 
are religious hymns and epigrams. Many of his 
poems an addressed to his friends individually. 

The poetry of Alcaeus is always impassioned. 
Not only with him, but with the Aeolic school in 
general, poetry was not a mere art, but the plain 
and wann outpouring of the writer's inmost feelings. 
The metres of Alcaens were generally lively, 
and his poems seem to have been constructed in 
short single strophes, in all of which the corres- 
ponding lines were of the same metre, as in the 
odes of Horace. He is said to have invented the 
well-known Alcaic strophe. 

liis likeness is preserved, together with that of 
Pittaeus, on a brass coin of Mytilene in the Royal 
Museum at Paris, which ia engraved by Visconti 
(/am. PI. iii. No. 3.0 

The fngments of Alcaeus were first collected 
by Mich. Neander in his "Aristologia Pindarica," 
Basil 1556, Bvo., then by Henry Stephens in his 
collection of the bagmenU of the nine chief lyric 


poeta of Greece (1557), of which there an seveni 
editions, and by Fulvius Ursinna, 1568, 8vo. The 
more modem collections are those by Jani, Halse 
San. 1780—1782, 4to.; by Strange, Halle, 1810, 
8vo.; by Blomfield, in the "Hnsenm Criticnm," 
ToL L p. 421, &C., Camb. 1826, reprinted in Gais- 
ford's "Poetae Qnea Minorea;" and the most 
complete edition is that of Matthiae, "Alcaei 
Mytilenaei reliquiae," Lips. 1827. Additionil 
fragments have been printed in the Rhenish lis- 
seum for 1B29, 1833, and 1835 ; in Jahn's "Jahr- 
biich. fiir Philolog." for 1830 ; and in Cramsli 
"Anecdota Giaeca," vol L Oxt 1835. 

(Bode, GetdueUe der Lyriidum DidUlamd ier 
Hdlenai, ii. p. 378, &c.) [P. S.] 

ALCAEUS (AAKubf), the son of Miccus, wss 
a native of Mttilbne, according to Soidas, wke 
may, however, have confounded nim in this point 
vriUi the lyric poet He is found exhilnti^ at 
Athens as a poet of the old comedy, or rather of 
that mixed comedy, which formed the transitioo 
between the old and the middle. In B. c 388, be 
brought forward a play entitled Ttan^in, in the 
same contest in which Aristophanes exhibited hit 
second Plutna, but, if the meaning of Suidai ii 
rightly understood, he obtained only the 6fili 
place. He left ten plays, of which some fiag- 
ments remain, and the ibllowing titles are knows, 
'A<«A^ imxnniJutm, Faitiyaitiit, VjAvitim', '\fit 
fines, KcAXwTW, Ki^ifterftet^ta, Ila^sulrriK 

Alcaeus, a tragic poet, mentioned by Fabridui 
(SiUioe*. Graee. ii. p. 282), does not appear to be 
a different yerson from Akaena the comedian. 
The mistake of calling him a tragic poet amee 
simply from an erroneous reading of the title of bit 
** Comoedo-tiagoedia." 

(The Greek Argument to the PIntns; Smia, 
: V. ; Pollux, x. 1 ; Coaaubon on Athen. iii. P> 
206 ; Meineka, Fn^. Comic Orate. L p. 244, 
ii. p. 824; Bode, Oetekictle der DnmaMa 
Dtdtthaut der HdUaun, u. p. 386.) [P. S.] 

ALCA'MENES ('AAiro^mir), king of Spsrts, 
1 0th of the Agids, son of Teleclua, commanded, s^ 
cording to Pausaniaa, in the night-expeditMO 
against Ampheia, which commenced the fint Me*- 
senian war, but died before its 4th year. Tbii 
would fix the 38 years assigned him by ApoUodoni, 
about 779 to 742 b. c In his reign Helos wu 
taken, a place near the mouth of the EnroHi* 
the last independent hold most likely of the old 
Achaean population, and the supposed origin of tie 
term Helot (Pans. iii. 2. § 7, iv. 4. § 3, J. S *! 
Herod, vii. 204 ; Plut .ilpt^Uk. Lac) [A H- C] 

ALCA'MENES (-AAKt^vqi), the son of Sth^ 
nelaides, whom Agis appointed aa haimott of tbe 
Lesbians, when they wished to revolt from w 
Athenians in R c. 412. When Alcamenes pot to 
sea with twenty-one ships to sail to Chios, he was 
pursued by the Athenian fleet off the Isthmm «f 
Corinth, and driven on shore. The Athenisas si- 
tacked the ships when on shore, and Alcamenri 
waa killed in the engagement f Thnc. viii. i, W 

ALCA'MENES {'AXKaiUvtis), a distingnJ** 
statuary and sculptor, a native of Athens. (1™- 
H. W. xxxvi. 6. s. 4.) Snidaa (,. «.) calls bim » 
Lemnian (if by Alcamenes he means the siti't> 
This K. 0. MaUer {Ardk. der KioaL p. 96) ""to- 
prets to mean that he was a cleruchus, or b"!"" 7 
one of the Khripoi in Lenmos. Voss, who » W" 
lowed by Thiersch (Epoclten der HU. ifsa* f 
130), conjectured that the trae reading ii iU*"^ 




and accotdliiglj that Akamenss wai born in the 
diitiict called Uie Al^tnu, which u in aome degree 
nnfinned by hie baring made a statae of Dionyiiu 
ia gold and iTorT- to adorn a temple of that god in 
the Lenaenm, m part of the Limnae. (Pana^ i. 20. 
i 2.) He waa the nuxt bmou of tiie pnpils of 
PkUiaa, bat waa not u doee an imitator of hi< 
Baxter as Agtxacritiu. Like hia fellow-papil, he 
excRJied hia talent chiefly in making statue* of 
Ae deities. By andent writer* he is ranked 
smo^gst the most distinguished artists, and is eon- 
lidered by Pansanias second only to . Phidias. 
(QnintiL xiL 10. § 8 ; Dionys. De Demotfk. aemm. 
ToL Ti. p. 1108, ed. Reiske; Pans. t. 10. §2.) 
He flonrished bum aboat OL 84 (Plin. H. \. xxxir. 
L s. 19) to OL as (b. c. 444-400X Pliny's date is 
confirmed by Pansanias, who says (viiL 9. § 1 ), that 
PcBziteies flomiahed in the thud generation after 
Alamenea ; and Prazitelea, as Pliny tells us, flonr- 
ished aboat OL 104 (b. c 364). The last works 
of his which we hear ei, were the colossal statues 
of Athene and Hercules, which Thmsybulos erected 
in the temple of Hercules at Thebes after the ez- 
pnlwm of the tyrants from Athens, (b. c. 403.) 
The most beautiful and renowned of the woiks tk 
Alcamenes waa a statne of Venus, called itom the 
place where it was set np, 'H ir n^ott 'A^po- 
ttm. (Ludan, Imagbm, 4, 6 ; Paua, L 19. § 2.) 
It ia aaid that Phidias himaelf put the finishing 
touches to thia work. (Plin. H. N. xzxri. 5. a. 4.) 
The breaata, cheeks, and handk were especially 
admired. It has been supposed by some that this 
was the Vemu for which he gained the prize over 
Aj^iacritna. There is no direct eridenoe of this, 
and it is scarcely consistent with what Pliny aaya, 
that Alcamenes owed his soceeas more to the b- 
Toutitiam of his fellow-dtiscns than to the excel- 
lence of his statue. Another celebrated specimen 
•f his genins was the western pediment of the 
temple at Olympia, ornamented with a representa- 
tion of the battle between the Centaurs and the 
Lapithae. (Pans. t. 10. § 2.) Other works of his 
were : a statne of Mars in the temple of that god 
at Athena (Pans. L 8. § 5); a statue of Hephae- 
stus, in which the lameness of the god was ao in- 
geniously represented as not to giro die appearance 
of deformity (Cic Dt NaL Dmr. i. 30 ; VaL Max. 
riii. 1 1. exL 3) ; an Aescnlapitts at Mantineia 
(P^u& TiiL 9. § 1 ) i a three-formed Hecate (the 
first of the kind), and a Procne in the Acropolis at 
Athens (Pans. iL 30. S % i 24. g 8) ; and a hronie 
•tatue of a rictor in the Pentathlon. (Plin. zxxir. 
8. s. 19.) A story of Tery doubtfiil credibility is 
told by Tzetaes (CSUL viii. 193), that Alcamenes 
and Phidias contended in making a statue of 
Athene, and that before the atatues were erected 
in their destined elevated position, that of Alca- 
menes waa the most admired on account of its de- 
bcste finish ; but that, when aet np, the effect of 
the more strongly defined features in that of Phi- 
dias canaed the Athenians to change their opinion. 
On a Roman anaglyph in the tUU Alboni there 
is the following inscription : 

Q. LoLLios Alcambmh 
Dae. BT Duuif vuu 
If {hi* contains the name of the artist, he would 
seem to hare been a dracendant of an Alcamenes, 
who had been the slare and afterwards the &eed- 
man of one of the Lollian family, and to hare at- 
tuned to the dignity of decnrio and dunmnr in 
aome rnnnidpiom. He perhaps exerdaed the art 



of earring as an amateur. (Winckebnann, viiL 4, 
S.) [C. P. M.] 

ALCANDEB CAAnwipot). There are thive 
mythical personages of this name, who are men- 
tioned respectiTely in Horn. li. y. 678 ; Vi^. Ant. 
ix. 766 ; Antonin. Lib. 14. A female Alcandia 
occnn in Uie Od. it. 125. [L. S.J 

ALCANDER ('AXnvSfxu), a young Spartan, 
who attacked Lycurgus and thrust out one of his 
eyes, when his fellow-dtisens wen discontented 
with the laws he proposed. His mangled &cc, 
however, prodseed shame and repentance in his 
enemies, and they deliTered up Alcander to him to 
be punished as he thought fit. But Lycurgus par- 
doned his ontiage, and thus converted turn into 
one of his warmest friends. (Plut. Lge. 1 1 ; Adiaa, 
r. H. xnu 23 ; VaL Max. v. 3. § ext 2.) 

'AAkiMii), a daughter of Minyas, and sister of 
Lendppe aad Arsippa. Instead of Arsippe, Ae- 
lian ( Y. H. iii. 42) calls the latter Aristippa, and 
Plutarch (Qaa«s<. Gr. 38) Arsinoe. At the time 
when the wonhip of Dionysus was introduced into 
Boeotia, and while the other women and maidens 
were revelling and ranging over the mountains in 
Bacchic joy, these two aisten alone remained at 
home, devoting themselves to their usual occupa- 
tions, and thus profiining the days sacred to the 
god. Dionysus punished them by changing them 
into bats, utd their worii into vine*. (Ov. Mel. 
iv. 1—40, 390 — 416.) Plutarch, Aelian, and 
Antoninos Liberalis, though with some differences 
in the detail, relate that Dionyaus appeared to the 
siaters in the form of a maiden, and invited them 
to partake in the Dionysiac mysteries. When 
this request was not complied with, the god meta- 
morphosed himaelf aucceasively into a bull, a lion, 
and a panther, and the aiatera were aeised with 
madness. In this state they were eager to honour 
the god, and Leudppe, woo was chosen by lot 
to offer a sacrifice to Dionysus, gave up her own 
son Hipposus to be torn to pieces. In extreme 
Bacchic fitenzy the sisten now roamed over the 
mountains, until at last Hermes changed them into 
birds. Plutarch adds that down to hia time the 
men of Orehomenoa descended from that ionuly 
were called i/aKiut, that is, moumen, and the wo- 
men dAciai or oiaAsicu, that is, the dtetroycra. In 
what manner the neglect of the Dionysiac warship 
on the part of Alcathoe and her sister was atoned 
for every year at the featival of the Agrionia, see 
Dui, If Ant. s. V. 'Aypitiyia ; comp. Uuttmatin, 
Mytimlog. u. p. 201, &c. [L. S.J 

ALCA'THOUS ('AAmfeoot). I. A son of 
Pelopa and Hippodomeia, brother of Atreua and 
Thyestes, firet married Pyrgo and aftcrwarda 
Eunechme, and was the father of Echepolis, Cal- 
lipolia, Iphinoe, Periboea, and Automeduaa. (Pans, 
i. 42. § 1, 4, 43. g 4 i ApoUod. ii. 4. § II, iii. 12. 
§7.) Pausauiaa (i. 41. § 4) relatea that, after 
Euippus, the son of king Megareus, waa destroyed 
by the Cythaeronian lioi^ Megareus, whose elder 
aon Timalcns bod likewise fiUlcn by the bonds of 
Theseus, offered his daughter Euaechme and hia 
kingdom to him who should alny that lion. Al- 
cathons undertook the task, conquered the lion, 
and thus obtained Euaechme for hia wife, and 
ofierwarda became the auccesaor of Megareus. In 
gratitude for this aucceaa, he built at Megara a 
temple of Artemis Agrotera and Apollo Agraeus. 
He also restored the walls of Megaia, which had 


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been deitRiTed hj the Cietana. (Pani. L 41. § &) 
In thia wonc he waa aoid to hare been amiited by 
Apollo, and th« atone, npon which the god nied to 

Elace hia lyre while he ma >t work, wu eren in 
ite timea believed, when atnick, to give forth a 
aoond aimilar to that of a Ijt*. (Pona. i. 42, S 1 1 
Ot. Mel. Tiii. IS, &C. ; Viig. dr. lOB ; Theogn. 
751.) Echepolia, one of the tona af Alcathoua, 
waa killed daring the CalTdoniaa hunt in Aetolia, 
and when hia brother Callipolia haatened to cany 
the aad tiding* to hia fcther, he Inmd him en- 
paged in oSering a toerifioe to ApoUo, and think- 
ing it nnfit to ofier nerifioe* at aneh a moment, 
he anaiehed away the wood from the altar. Al(»- 
thoaa imagining thia to be on act of aaciilegioua 
wantonneaa, killed hia aon on the apot with a 
piece of wood. (Pana. i, 42. § 7.) The acropolia 
of Megara waa called by a none derired &om that 
ofAlcatboua. ({. 42. § 7.) 

3. A aon of Porthoon and Enryte, who wu 
alain by Tydena. (ApoUod. i. 7. § 10, 8. § 5; 
Diod. ir. 65.) 

3. A aon of Aeayetea and hoaband of Hippo- 
dameia, the daughter of Anchiaea and aiater of 
Aeneaa, who waa educated in hia hooae. (Ham. 
JL xiiL 466.) In the war of Troy he waa one of 
the Tnjan leaden, and waa one of the handaomeot 
and brareat among them. (11. xii. 93, xiii 427.) 
Ho waa alain by Idomenena with the aaaiatance of 
Poaeidon, who atmck Alcathoua with bUndneu 
and paralysed hia limba ao that he could not 6ee. 
(fl. ziii. 433, &e.) — Another peraonage of thia 
name ia mentioned by Viigil, Am. x. 747. [L.S.] 
ALCEIDES (*AA«<0i|A, according to aome ao- 
connta the name which Heraclea originally bore 
(ApoUod. ii. 4. f 12), while, according to Diodo- 
Tua, hia original name waa Alcaids. [L. S.] 

WirrT)), a daughter of Peliaa and Anaxibia, and 
mother of Eumelna and Admetna. (ApoUod. i, 9. 
§ 10, 15.) Homer (IL iL 715) calla her the bir- 
eat among the danghtera of Peliaa. When Adme- 
tna, king of Pherae, aned ibr her hand, Peliaa, in 
order to get rid of the numerana anitora, declared 
that he would give hia daughter to him only who 
ahonld come to hia eonrt in a chaiiot drawn by 
liona and boora. Thia waa acoompliahed by Ad- 
metna, with the aid of Apollo. For the farther 
atoiy, aee Admctos. The aacrifiee of henelf for 
Admetus waa highly celebrated in antiquity. 
(Aelion, V. H. ziv. 45, Animai. i. 15 ; Philoatr. 
Her. iL 4 ; Ov. An Am. iii. 19 ; Eurip. AloaHt.) 
Towarda her bther, too, ahe ahewed her filial af- 
fection, for, at leaat, according to Diodoma (iv. 52 ; 
comp. however, Pabeph. De meniib. 41), ahe did 
not ahore in the crime of her siatera, who mat- 
dered their fitther. 

Ancient aa well u modem eritica have attempted 
to ezphiin the return of Aleeatia to life in a ration- 
aliatic manner, by anppoeing that during a aevere 
illneaa ahe waa rcstoreil to life by a pliyaician of 
the name of Heracleo. (PahKph. {. e. ; Pint. Atmh 
tor. p. 761.) Aleeatia waa repteaented on the 
cheat of Cypaelua, in a group ahewing the funeral 
■olemnitiea of Peliaa. fPaiia. v. 17. § 4.) In the 
ir.naenm of Florence there ia an alto leKevo, the 
%iiA of Cleomenea, which ia believed to repreaent 
Aleeatia devoting henelf to death. (Meyer, Chiok, 
dtTbOdaid. A^iiufa, L p. 162, ii. 169.) [L. S.] 

A'LCETAS ('A\it<Tat), whoae age ia unknown, 
«a* the author of a work on the oflferinga (di>a9i|- 


>iara) in Delphi, of which Athanaena qnotea the 
aeeoad book. (xiiL p. 591, c) 

A'LCETAS I. CAAjc<T<u),king of Erotus, waa 
the aon of Thaiypua. For aome reaaon or atbei, 
which we an not informed of, he waa expelled 
from hia kingdom, and took lefiige with the elder 
Dionyaioa, tyrant of Sytacuae, by whom he waa 
reinatated. After hia leatoration we find him the 
ally of the Atheniano, and of Jaaon, the Tagna of 
Theaoaly. In B. a 373, he appeared at Athena 
with Joaon, &r the pnrpooe <rf defending Timo- 
thena, who, through their influence, waa acquitted. 
On hia death the kingdom, which till then had 
been governed by one king, waa divided between 
hia two Bona, Neoptolemaa and Aiybboa at Aipa- 
boa. Diodoma (xix. 88) calla him Arybilub 
(Poua.!. 11. §3; Dem. IXiiuth. pp. 1187, 1190; 
Diod. XV. 13. 36.) [a P. M.] 

A'LCETAS linking of Efisos, waa the ood of 
Arymbao, and gnindaan of Alcetaa I. On acoouat 
of hia ungovernable temper, he waa baniahed by 
hia fiither, who appointed hia younger aon, Aeocidc^ 
to aooceed him. On the death of Aeacidea, who 
waa killed in a battle fought with Caaaander bl c. 
31 3, the Epirota recalled Alcetaa. Caaaander aent 
an army againat him under the command of Lycia- 
cua, bat aoon after entered into an alliance with hia 
(b. cl 312). The Epirota, incenaed at the ontiage* 
of Alcetaa, roae againat him and pat him to death, 
together with hia two aona ; on which Pyrrfani, 
the aon of Aeacidea, waa placed upon the thmie 
by hia protector Olaaciaa, king of the Illytiana, 
B. c 307. (Pona. i. 11. § 6 ; Diod. xix. 80, 89; 
Pint Pyrrh. 3.) [C P. M.] 

A'LCETAS CAAWtosX the eighth king i^ 
Macioonu, counting from Caranna, and the fifth, 
counting firam Perducaa, reigned, aooordiag to 
Euaebiua, twenty-nine yean. He waa the Euher 
of Amyotaa I., who reigned in the latter part of 
the aixth century & c. (Herod, viii. 139.) 

A'LCETAS ('AAicfnu), the brother of Psroic- 
CAS and aon of Orontea, ia fint mentioned a* one 
of Alexander'a geneiala in hia Indian ozpeditioa. 
(Arrian, iv. 27.) On the death of Alexander, he 
eapouaed hi* brother'a party, and, at hia wden, 
murdered in B. c. 323 Cyane, the hoKwater of 
Alexander the Great, when ahe wiriied to many 
her daughter Eurydice to Philip Ajrhidaeiik 
(Diod. xix, 52 ; Polyaen. viii. 60 ; Aniaa, a/t. 
PkoL p. 70, ed. Bekker.) At the time of Pca>- 
diccaa* murder in Egypt in 321, Alcetaa waa with 
Eumenea in Aaia Minor engi^ad againat Ciateru*; 
and the army of Perdioeaa, whicb hod revolted 
from him and joined Ptolemy, condemned Alcetaa 
and all the portixana of hia brother to death. The 
war againat Alcetaa, who had now lefi Eumenea 
and united hia force* with thoae of Attalna, waa 
entruated to Antigonua. Aketaa and Attalna wen 
defeated in Piaidia in 320, and Aloetoa retreated 
to Termeaana. He waa aunvndered by the elder 
inhabttanta to Antigonua, and, to avoid blling into 
hi* hand* alive, alew himaelL (Diod. xviil 29, 37, 
44 — 46 ; Jnatin, xiiL 6, 8 ; Anion, op. PhaU L e.) 
ALCIBI'ADES (*AXmCK(5i|i), the bod of 
Cleiniao, waa bom at Athena about B. c. 450, or • 
little earlier. Hia &tber M at Conmeia M. c 447, 
leaving Aldbiadea and a younger aon. (PUt./Vo<^ 
p. 820, a.) The hut campaign of the war witii 
Potidaiea waa in B> c. 429. Now aa Alcibiadea 
aerved in thia war, and the young Atheniana wr«* 
not aent out on foreign militaiy aerrio* befive thej 


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lad attained their 30tli rear, he endd not hare 
been ben hter than Blc. 449. If he Ktred in the 
fint campaign (& c 432), he mnet hare been at 
halt fire yean oU at the tine of hi* biher'a death. 
Nepoa (AIA. 10} tKft he wae aboat finty yean 
oU at the time of hii death (a. c 404), and hi* 
Buatake ha* been copied bj Hitfbrd. 

Akifaiade* waa connected ^ birth with the 
aoUeat fcmiBr* of Athen*. Thnngfa hi* bther 
be tiaoed hi* deaoent ficm Emyaaee*, the eon 
of Ajax (Pbt A/en. L f. 12I]i, and thnngh 
him from Aeacoa and Zam. Hi* mother, Deino- 
aache, was the daughter of Megadec, the head of 
the houae of the Alemaeenid*.* Thn* on bodi 
odea he had hereditary cbims on the attachment 
of the people ; for hi* paternal gnnd&ther, Aki- 
loadca, took a prominent part in the expnlrion of 
the Peiaiatiatid* (bocrat. Dt Biff. 10), and hi* 
mother waa deaeended fiom CIei*thene*, the friend 
af the cxRniaonahy. His father Clonia* did good 
aerrice in the Permm war. He fitted oat and 
m a nn e d a trireme at his own ezpenee, and greatly 
distingtnahed himself in the battle of Arteminam. 
(HeradL TiiL 17.) One of hi* anceetor* of the 
name of Cleinia* earned a lea* enriaUe notoriety 
br taking fiandolant adTantage of the Beiiaefatheia 
w Solon. The name Alcibiade* wa* of Laeonian 
origin (Tlni& riii. 6), and was deiiTed from the 
Sputxn family to which the ephor Endin* belongs 
ed, with which that of Alcibiade* had been an- 
dently ooiuiected by the tie* of hoepitality. The 
fint who bora the name was the giandnther of 
the great Aldbiodes. 

On the death of his bther (bl c. 447), Alcilriades 
was left to the gnantianship of his rehrtion* Peride* 
and Ari]^iTOn.t Zopyroa, the Thncian, i* men- 
tiooed a* one of hi* initmctor*. (PlaL Ak. L 
fL 122.) Tnia his rery boyhood he exhibited 
signs of that inflexible detemunation which merit- 
ed him throngbont life. 

He wa* at every period of hi* fife remarkable for 
the extraordinary beauty of hi* penon, of which he 
*eem* to have been ezceedhigly rain. Eren when 
on military eerrice he carried a shield inlaid with 
gold and iroiy, and bearing the dence of Zeo* 
hnrling the tiiunderbolt. When he grew up, he 
earned a disgraceful notoriety by hi* amonn and 
debancheries. At the age of 18 he entered upon 
the possession of his foitnne, which had doubties* 
been carefully hnibanded during hi* long minority 
by hi* gnardianjL Connected as he was with the 
moat inifluential iamilie* in the city, the inheritor 
of one of the largest fortunes in Athens (to which 
he afterwards leoeiTed a large acoeasion through 
his marriage with Hipparete, the daughter of 
Hipponicosi), gifted with a mind of singular ter- 

* Demosthenes {Mid. p. 561) aajn, that the 
mother of Alcibiade* was the daughter of Hippo- 
nicus, and that his father was connected with the 
Alcmaeonidae. The latter statement may posubly 
be tme. Bnt it i* difficult to ezphin the fanner, 
nnleea we nippooe Demosthenes to naTO confounded 
the great Aldbiodes with his son. 

■f Agariate, the mother of Peride* and Ariphon, 
waa the daughter of Hippocntes, whose brother 
Cldsthene* wa* the grandfather of Deinomaehe. 
(Herod. tL ISl; Iiocr. D» Big. 10; Boeekh, 
Eiplie. ad Pind. Pftk. rii. p. 302.) 

X He receiTcd a portion of 10 talent* with hia 
wife, which was to be doubled on the birth of a 


satility and sneigy, pnmBsafd of gnat powen of 
eloqnsDcc, and urged on by an ambition which no 
obstada conld dumt, and which was not OTer • 
scn^aloos as to the means by which its ends wen 
to be gained, — in a dty like Athens, amongst a 
people like the Athenians, («f tko leading fa^area 
of whose chaiaetar he may not unaptly bs ragarded 
as an impenonatioa,) and in times like those 
of the Pdoponneaiaa war, Aldbiades ibnnd a field 
amgnlarty weD adapted for the exaniaa and diapfaiy 
of ki* Iffilliant powers. Aacnstomsd, howerer, 
from his boyhood to the ilattary of admiring com- 
panions and needy pansite*, ho early imUbd that 
inordinate vanity and lota of diatinetion, wUeh 
marked hi* whole career ; and he wa* thns led to 
plaee the most perfact eonfidanoe in his own powen 
long faefon he had obtained strength of mind 
saffident to withetand the sednctiTe influence of 
the temptati<ms which sonoanded him. Socrates 
■aw his vast amiabilities, and attempted to win 
him to the paths of Tirtne. Their intimacy 
was strengthened by matoal sarvicesL In one of 
the engagements bsfon Pottdaea, Aldbiades waa 
daagenoaly woanded, bnt was nscnad by So- 
crates. At the battle of Dcliam (a. c. 424), Al- 
dbiades, who was mounted, had an opportunity of 
protecting Socnte* from the puraaan. (Pfat, 
Omtm. pp. 220, 221 1 Isoer. Dt Big. 12.) The 
lessons of the philosopher wen not alto^ther 
withont inflaenoe upon his pupil, bnt the enl ten- 
dencies of his ehanstar had taken too deep root to 
render a thoroagh nfoimation poadble, and he 
listened mon readily to those who adriaed him to 
aeenn by the nadsast means the gratification of 
hia desire*. 

Akibiade* was ezoeasively fond of notoriety and 
diq)lay. At the Olympic games (probably in 01. 
89, a c. 424) he eontend«l with aeTon chariots 
in the same race, and gained the first, second, and 
fourth prisea. Hi* liberality in diacharging the 
office of trienrch, and in proriding for the pnblio 
amnaement*, rendend him rery popular with the 
multitude, who were ever ready to ezenae, on the 
acore of yonthfol impetoodty and thongfatleasneas, 
hia most violent and eztrsTsgant acts, into which 
he wa* pnbaUy as often led tnr his love of noto- 
riety as by any other motive. Accounts of varions 
instances of this kind, aa hk fordUe detention of 
Agatharchns, his violence to hia wife Hippants, 
hia aasanlt upon Taureas, and the andadou* man- 
ner in which he aaved Hegemon from a fawsuit, 
by openly obHterating the record, an given by 
Plutareh, Andoddes, ud Athenaena. (iz. p. 407.) 
Even the mon prudent dtisens thought it aa&r to 
connive at hia delinqnendea, than to ezaspente 
him by punishment As Aeaehylus is made to 
aay by Aristophanes {Fngt, 1427), "A lion's 
wholp ought not to be rewed in a dty ; but if a 
person nan one, he most kt him hove his way." 
Of the early political life of Aldbiades we hear 
but little. While Ckon was alive he probably 
appeared but addom in the a**embly. From allu- 
nons whidi were contaiDod in the Awrra^ta of 
Aristtmhane* (acted a c 427) it Wipean that he 
had already nmken there. (For the *tory con- 
nected iria hu fir*t appeanuioe in the aaaembly, 
aee Plutarch, Alak. 10.) At aome period or other 

aon. Hia marriage took pboe before the battle of 
Delium (& c. 424), in whkh Hipponicot wa* 
akin. (Andoc; Aldb. p. 80.) 


Digitized by C6d^l€^' 



before B. c. 420, ho had cmried a decree for is- 
creasing the tribute paid by the subject allies of 
' Athens, and by his management it was nised to 
double the amount fixed by Aristeides. After the 
death of Cleon there was no rival able at all to 
cope with Aldbiades except Niciaa. To the politi- 
cal Tiews of the latter, who was anxious for peace 
and repose and averse to all plans of foreign con- 
quests, Alcibiades was completely opposed, and his 
jealousy of the influence and high character of his 
rival, led him to entertain a very cordial dislike 
towaids him. On one occasion only do we find 
them onited in purpose and feeling, and that was 
when Hyperbolas threatened one of them with 
banishment. On this they united their influence, 
and Hyperbolas himself was ostracised. The date 
of this occurrence is uncertain. 

Alcibiades had been desirous of renewing those 
ties of hospitality by which his family had been 
connected with Sparta, but which had been broken 
off by his gtand&ther. With this view he vied 
with Nicias in his good ofiices towards the Spartan 
prisoners taken in Sphactexia ; but in the negotia- 
tions which ended in the peace of 421, the Spartans 
prrfeired employing the intervention of Nicias 
and Laches. Incensed at this slight, Alcibiades 
threw all his influenoe into the opposite scale, and 
in B. c. 420, after tricking the Spartan ambasaikdors 
who had come far the purpose of thwarting his 
plans, brought about an alliance with Algos, Elis, 
and Mantineia. In 419 he wa* chosen Stiategos, 
and at the head of a small Athenian force marked 
into Peloponnesus, and in various way* fiirthered 
the interests of the new confederacy. During the 
next three years he took a prominent part in the 
complicated negotiations and militaty operations 
which were carried on. Whether or not he was 
the instigator of the unjust expedition i^^nst the 
Melians is not clear ; but he was at any rate the 
author of the decree for their barbarous punish- 
ment, and himself purchased a Melian woman, by 
whom he had a son. 

In B. c. 4lfi Alcibiades appears as the foremost 
among the advocates of the Sicilian expedition 
(Thuc. vL), which his ambition led him to believe 
would be a step towards the conquest of Italy, 
Carthage, and the Peloponnesus. (Thuc. vi 90.) 
While the preparations for the expediUon were 
going on, there oceaned the mysterious mutilation 
of the Hennes-bnsts. A nuat named Pythonicas 
charged Alcibiades with having divulged and pro- 
faned the Eleusinian mysteries ; and another man, 
Androcles, endeavoured to connect this and similar 
offences with the mutiUtion of the Hermae. In 
spite of his demands for an investigation, Alci- 
biades was sent out with Nicias and Lamachus in 
command of the fleet, but was recalled before he 
could cany out the plan of operations which at his 
suggestion bad been adopted, namely, to endeavour 
to win over the Greek towns in Sicily, except 
Syracuse and Selinus, and excite the native Sicels 
to revolt, and then attack Syracuse. He was 
allowed to accompany the Salaminia in his own 
galley, but managed to escape at Thurii, from 
which place he crmaed over to Cyllene, and thence 
proceeded to Sparta at the invitation of the 
Spartan government. He now appeared as the 
avowed enemy of his country; disclosed to the 
Spartans the plans of the Athenians, and recom- 
mended them to send Oylippus to Syracuse, and 
to fortify Deceleia. (Thuc vi. 88, &C., viL 18, 


27,28.) Before he left Sioly he had managed to 
defeat a plan which had been laid for the acquis- 
tion of Messana. At Athens sentence of death 
was passed upon him, his property confiscated, aed 
a corse pronounced upon him by the minister! of 
religion. At Sparta ho tendered himself popnlsi 
by the fitdlity with which he adopted the Spartan 
manners. Through his instrumentality many of 
the Asiatic allies of Athens wers induced to levolt, 
and an alliance was bronght about with Tiisa- 
phemes ( Thuc viii, 6, tee.) ; but the mschinstioai of 
his enemy Agis [Acts II.] induced him to abandon 
the Spartans and take refuge with Tisaapheinn 
{b. c 412), whose fiivour he soon gained by hit 
unrivalled talenta for social intercourse. TIk 
estrangement of Tisiaphemes from his Spartan 
allies ensoed. Alcibiades, the enemy of Sparta, 
wished to return to Athens. He according- 
ly entered into correspondence with the nuct 
influential persons in the Athenian fleet at Ssnus, 
offering to bring orver Tissaphemes to an alliance 
with Athens, but making it a condition, that oli- 
parehy should be established there. This coincid- 
ing with the wishes of those with whom he mi 
negotiating, tliose political movements were let on 
foot by Peisander, which ended (b. c. 411) in the 
establishmeunt of the Four Hundred. The oli- 
garehs, however, finding he could not peifbnn 
bis promises with respect to Tissaphernea, and 
conscious that he had at heart no real liking for an 
oligarehy, would not recall him. But the aolilien 
in the armament at Samoa, headed by Thraa;t>da> 
and Thrasyllus, declared their resolution to rcttoR 
democracy, and passed a vote, by which Aidbiada 
was pardoned and recalled, and appointed one of 
their generals. He conferred an important benefit 
on his country, by restraining the soldiers baa 
returning at once to Athens and so commencing s 
civil war ; and in the coarse of the same year Ibe 
oligarchy was overthrown without their sasiatance. 
Alcibiades nnd the other exiles were recalled, bit 
for the next four years he remained abroad, and 
under bis command the Athenians gained the n^ 
tories of Cynossema, Abydos,* and Cysicoa, and 
got possession of Chalcedon and Byiantium. la 
B. c 407, he returned to Athena, where he n> 
received with great enthusiasm. The records of 
the proceedings against him were sunk in the les, 
his property was restored, the priests were ordered 
to recant their curses, and he was appointed ooo- 
mandet^in-chief of all the knd and aea fbraa. 
(Died. ziii. 69; Pint Ale. 33; Xen. HelLil 
§ 13 — ^20.) He signalised his retom by condoct- 
ing the mystic procession to Eleusis, which lu^ 
been interrupted since the occupation of Deceleia. 
But his nnsuccessfal expedition against Andro 
and the defeat at Notium, occasioned during hit 
absence by the imprudence of his lieuteoant, An- 
tiochua, who brought on an engagement against hia 
orders, furnished his enemies with a handle againrt 
him, and he was superseded in his command, 
(a c. 406.) 

Thinking that Athens would scarcely be s afe 
place for hun, Alcibiades went into voluntary eslle 

• Shortly after the victory at Abydoa, Ald- 
biades paid a visit to Tissaphemes, who had a^ 
rived in the neighbourhood of the Hellespont, but 
was arrested by, him and sent to Sardis. Afier* 
month's imprisonment, however, he succeeded n 
making his escape. (Xen. Hellem. L I. § 9.) 


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ts hu fiMttified dooain at Bimilhe i> the ThnciaD 
Chenoneana. He eoUeeted a bsDcl of meicenariBi, 
and oada war on the neighboaTiiig Thndan 
tribe*, hj which meeaa he cauideiably enriched 
liimaelf, and aStrded protection to the neighbonr- 
iog Greek dtiea. Befbte the btal battle of Aegoe- 
PoKmi (b. c 405), he gare oa ineffcctoal waimng to 
the Athenian geneiah. After the eitaliliihment 
of the tfianny of the Thiity (b. c. 404), he wu 
caBdemned to faanidunent. Upon thie he took 
xefoge with Pharnabasai, and was abont to pro- 
ceed to the cooTt of Artiucenei, when one night 
hia hooae waa mrnoDded by a bond of anned men, 
and aet on fire. He mihed oat iword in hand, 
hut fell, jaened with antnn. (b. a 404.) Ao- 
enrding to Diedonu and Ephorna (Diod. zir. 11) 
the inawrine were emiuaries of Phamahaxni, who 
had been led to this ttep either by hie own jeajouy 
of Alcibaadea, or by the instigation of the Spartan*. 
It ii more probable that they were either employed 
by the Spartans, or (according to one account in 
Pfaitarcfa) by the brothers of a lady whom Aha- 
biadea had sednced. His corpse was taken np 
and buried by his mistress Timandra. Athenaens 
(ziii. p. 574) mentiona a monmnent erected to his 
■lemory at Mriiiwa, the place of his death, and a 
statne ot him erected thereon by the emperor 
Hadrian, who also institnted certain yearly sacri- 
ficea in hia hononr. He left a son by lus wife 
Hipparele, named Aldbiades, who nerer distin- 
gnnned hiinsei£ It was for him that Isocratei 
wrote the ^eech n«pl noS Zc^rewt. Two of 
Lysias'a ^weehes (sir. and zv.) an directed 
^punst him. The fortune which ha left behind 
iuxn turned out to be smaller than his patrimony. 
(Pint. Aldb. and iVuau; Thiieyd. lib. t.— riii.; 
Xenophon, HtUtn. lib. i. ii. ; Andoc. m Aleit. and 
dtMfOn:; Uaa. DtBtgU; Nepos, .ijcii.; Diod. 
ziL 78—84, ziii. 2— 5, 37— 41. 45, 46, 49— 51, 
64 — 73 ; Athen. i. p. 3, ir. p. 184, t. ^ 215, 216, 
iz. p. 407, zi f. 606, zii. ppw 525, 534, 535, ziu. 
pp. 574, 575.) [C. P. M.] 

ALCIBI'ADES ('AAaHCMOqt), a Spartan ezile, 
was restored to his conntry aboat B. c. 1 84, by the 
Achoeano, but was ungrateful enough to go la am- 
bassador from Sparta to Home, in order to accuse 
Phikipoemen and the Achaeans. (Polyb. zziii. 4, 
11, 12, xxir. 4 ; Lir. zzziz. 35.) 

ALCI'DAMAS ('AAicdiviai), a Greek rheto- 
rician, waa a natire of Elaea in Aeolis, in Asia 
Minor. (QointiL iii. l.§ 10, with Spolding's tote.) 
He was a pupil of Ourgias, and resided at Athens 
between the yean B. c. 432 and 411. Here he 
gave inatmctiona in eloquence, according to Eudo- 
eia (p. 100), aa the sncceasor of his master, and 
was the last of that sophistical sdiool, with which 
the only object of eloquence was to please the 
beoien by the pomp and brilliancy of words. That 
the woriu of Akidamas bore the strongest marks 
of this character of his school is stated by Aris- 
totle (BheL iiL S. § 8), who censures his pompous 
diction and eztiBTagant use af poetical epithets and 
phrases, and by iMooyaina (JM Imua, 19), who 
calls his style Tulgsr and inflated. He is said to 
hare been an opponoit of Isoeretes (Tseti, CUL 
zi 672), but whether this statement refers to real 
personal eiunity, or whether it is merely an in&> 
cnce £com the fisct, that Akidamas condemned the 
practice of writing orations for the purpose of deli- 
Toing them, isuocertain. 

The ancients montioB leresal work* of Alcidar 



mas, such as an Eulogy on Death, in which he 
ennmented the evils of human life, and of which 
Cicen seems to speak with great praise (Tiuc. i. 
48) ; a shew-speech, called A^toi Mtaaiivtaitit 
(Ariatot. Ak<. i. 13. § 5) ; a work on music (Sui- 
das, f. e. 'MJtMitta) ; and some scientific works, 
Til, one on rhetoric {rix"! ^<rrep><nf, Plut. Dtmalk. 
5), and another called A^> puauc6t (Diog. Laert. 
niL 56) ; but all of them an now lost. Tsetses 
(CML zi. 752) had still before him sereral orations 
of Akidamas, but we now possess only two decla- 
mations which go under his name. 1. 'Gtvaatit, 
i) KOTil IIaAa^4t«vi rpoSoirfat, in which Odysseus 
is made to accnse Palamede* of treachery to the 
cause of the Greeks daring the siege of Troy. 2. 
w*fl iro^urrSr, in which toe author sets forth the 
adTantages of delivering eztempore speeches over 
those which have previously been written out. 
These two orations, the second of which is the bet- 
ter one, both in form and thought, bear scarcely 
any traces of the faults which Aristotle and Dio- 
nysins censure in the works of Alcidamas ; their 
fiuilt is rather. being frigid and insipid. It haa 
therefore been maintained by several critics, that 
these orations are not the works of Alcidamas; 
and with regard to the fint of them, the suppo- 
sition is supported by strong probability ; the se- 
cond may have been written by Alcidnnas with a 
view to eountemet die influence of Isoeretes. The 
fint edition of them is that in the collection of 
Greek oraton published by Aldus, Venice, 1613, 
foL The best modem editions an those in Reiske'a 
OnUoret Orata, voL viiL p. 64, tie. ; and in 
Bekker's Oratora Attid, voL vii. (Ozford.) [L.S.] 

A'LCIDAS ('AAxISor), was i^inted, & c. 
428, commander of the Pdoponnesian fleet, which 
was sent to Lesbos for tha nlief of Mytilene, then 
besieged by the Athenians. But Mytilene sur- 
rendered to the Athenians seven days befon tha 
Peloponnesion fleet arrived on the coast of Asia ; 
and Alcidas, who, like most of the Spartan com- 
manders, had littk enterprise, resolved to return 
home, although he was recommended either to at- 
tempt the recovery of Mytilene or to make a de- 
scent upon the Ionian coasL While sailing along 
the coast, he captured many vessels, and put to death 
all the Athenian allies whom he took. From Ephesus 
he sailed home with the utmost speed, being chased 
by the Athenian fleet, under Paches, as far as Patmos. 
(Thuc. iiL 16, 26 — 33.) After receiving reinforce- 
ments, Alcidas sailed to Coreyra, B. c 427 ; and 
when the Athenians and Corcyiaeaiu sailed out to 
meet him, be defeated them and drove them back 
to the island. With his habitual caution, how- 
ever, he would not follow up the advantage he hod 
gained ; and being informed that a largo Athenian 
fleet was approaching, he sailed bock to Pelopon- 
nesus, (iii. 69—81.) In B. c. 426, he was one 
of the leaden of the colony founded by the Lace- 
daemonians at Heradeia, near Thermopylae, (iii 

ALCI'DICE ('AAxiSfin)), the daughter of Aleus, 
and wife of Salmonens, by whom she had a daugh- 
ter. Tyro. Alcidice died early, and Snlmoneus 
afterwards married Sidero. (Diod. iv. 68 ; Apol- 
lod. i 9. § 8.) [L. S.] 

ALCI'MACHUS, a painter mentioned by 
Pliny. (H. N. zzzv. 11. s. 40.) He is not 
spoken of by any other writer, and all that is 
known about him is, that he painted a picture of 
Dioxippns, a victor in the pancratium at Olyrapis, 


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Dioxippas lived in the time of Alezander tbe 
Great ^Aelian, V. H. x. 22; Diod. xvii. 100; 
Athen. n. p. 251, a.) Alcimaehiu therefore pro- 
bably lived abont the iame time. [C. P. M.] 

ALCI'MEDE ('AAm^ti)}, a daoghter of Phy- 
lacuaandClymene, thedsnghterofMinyaa (Apol- 
lon. Rhod. i. 45 ; Sehol. ad loe. kbA. ad i. 8300 
She married Aeaon, by whom she became the 
mother of Jaaon (Or. Heroid. iv. 105 ; Hygin. 
Fab. 13 and 14), «ho,howeTer, ii called by othen 
a ton of Polymede, Aine, gr Srarphet (Apollod. i. 
9. S B ; comp. Abson, Jason.) [U S.] 

ALCI'MEDON ('hKnu^arX 1. An Ana- 
dian hero, from iriiom the Arcadian plain Alcime- 
don derived ita name. He waa the &ther of 
Phillo, by whom Heracle* begot a aon, Aechma- 
gonu, whom Aleimeden exposed, hot Henolee 
saved. (Pana. viii. 12. g 2.) [Akrmaookas.] 

2. One of the Tyrrhenian aailon, who wanted 
to cany off the infant Dionyaua from Naxsa, bat 
was metamorphosed, with hia companions, into a 
dolphin. (Ov. MO. iii. 618 ; Hygia. Fak. 134 ; 
comp. AcoiTBS.) 

3, A son of Laefceos, uid one of the comman- 
ders of the Myrmidons nnder Patrochs. (Hon. IL 
xvL 197, xvii. 475, *o.) [L. S.] 

ALCI'MEDON, an embosser or chaser, spoken 
of by Virgil (Bdog. iii. 87, 44), who mentions 
some goblets of his workmanship. [C. P. M.] 

ALCI'MENES ('AXm^ntt). 1. A (on of 
Glauctts, who was unintentionally killed by his 
brother Bellerophon. Aeoordiag to some tradi- 
tions, this brother of Bellerophon waa called Deli- 
ades, or Peiren. (Apollod. ii. 3. § 1.) 

2. One of the sons of Jason and Medeia. When 
Jason subsequently wanted to marry Ohuice, his 
sons Alcimenes and Tiaander wen murdered by 
Medeia, and were afterwards buried by Jason ia 
the sanctuary of Hem at Corinth. (IMed. iv, 54, 
65.) (U S.] 

ALCI'MENES ('AAjn^mt), «a AtkeniM comie 
poet, apparently a contemporaiy of Aeschylus. 
One oF his piece* is snj^iosed to have been the 
KoAififva'ai (the Female Swimmen), His works 
were greatly admired by Tynnichus, a younger 
contemporary of Aeschylus. 

There was a tragic writer of the lame name, a 
ontive of M^rara, mentioned by Suidaa, (Meineka, 
//ut Crit. Onmberwn Oraeo. p. 481 1 Suid. t. xk 
'A\KtiJn)t and 'AXi^uli' ) [a P. M.] 

A'LCIMUS ('AAKi^t), abo called Jacimus, or 
Jonchim ('Mn^uiT), one of tbe Jewish priest*, who 
espoused the Syrian cause. He waa made high 
pnest by Demetrius, about &c 161, and was in- 
stalled in his office by the help of a Syrian army. 
In conaequence of his cruelties he was expelled by 
the Jews, and obliged to fly to AntioiA, but wai 
restored by the help of another Syrian army. He 
continued in his oiBce, nnder the protection of the 
Syrians, till his death, which happened anddenly 
(b, c. 159) while he waa pulling down the wall of 
the temple ihat divided the court of fke Oentiles 
from that of the laraelitea. (Joseph. Ant. Jmi, zii. 
9. g 7 ; 1 Maeeab. viL iz.) 

A'LCIMUS ('AX<cHu»), a Greek ilietorician 
whom Diogenes Laertius (il 114) calls the most 
distinguished of all Greek rhetoricians, flourished 
about B. c. 300. It is not certain whether he is 
the same a* the Alcimu* to whom Diogenes in 
another passage (iii. 9) ascribes a work irpoi 'A/tit^ 
ray, Athcnaeus in several pkices speaks of a Si- 


cilian Alcimna, who appears to have been Am 
author of a great historical work, part* of whidi 
are lefarred to under the names of 'IraAjot and 
SiksXimL But whether he was the same as the 
rhetoriciaDAleimns,camiot be determined. (AtiMO. 
z. p. 441, xii. p. 518, vii. f. 822.) [L. &] 

writer of seven short poems in the Latin anthology, 
whom Wemsdorf has shewn {Poet. LaL Mia. toL 
vL p. 36, Sue.) to be the same person a* AJdmna, 
the rhetorician in Aquitania, in Gaul, who i* spoken 
of in terms of high praise by Sidonius ApoUmmria, 
{Bi>i$L viii II, t. 10,) and Anaonina. (iVg^iw. 
Birdigal. iL^ Hit date is determmed by Hieio- 
nymns in hi* Chronieon, who says that Alamns 
and Delphidina taught in Aquitania in A.D. 360. 
Hia poems an auperior to moat of hi* time. 
They an printed by Meier, in hia ** Anthologia 
Latina," ep. 254—260, and by Wemsdorf vtil. n. 
p. 194, Ac 

ALGI'NOUS CAAitlnot). 1. A wni of NaiH 
aithoo*, and graadaon of Posndon. Hia ibbm is 
celebrated in the story of the Argonauta, and (till 
mon in that of the wandering* ^ Odyaaens. Ia 
the former Aldnou* ia rapre*ented as living with 
hia queen Arete in the laland of Dicpana. The 
Argonauts, on their return from Colelut, cama to 
his island, and were most hospitably ieoei*ied. 
When the Colchians, in their pursuit of the Argo- 
nauts, Ukevrise arrived in Drepane, and demanded 
that Medeia should be delivered up to them, Alci- 
nou* declared that if *he wa* still a maiden she 
shoald be restored to them, but if ahe wa* already 
the vrife of Jason, he would protect her and her 
husband against the Colchiana. The Colchiana were 
oUiged, by the contrivance of Arete, to depart with- 
out their princes*, and the Ai^gonants eontinoed 
their voyage homewards, after they had received 
mnnifioent presents from Alcinou*. (Apollon. Rhod. 
iv. 990-1225 ; Orph. Aiyat. 1288, ftc ; Apollod. 
i. A. § 25, 26.) AeoMding to Homer, Aldnoo* i* 
the happy ruler of the Phaeacians in the iafautd of 
Scheria, who ha* by Aret* five son* and on* daagii- 
ter, Nansicaa. (Oi. vi. IS, Ac, 62, ftc.) T%* 
deeciiption of hi* palace and hi* dominion*, tk* 
mad* in which Odrsseu* is received, the enter- 
taiaiMiits giv«n to him, and the slorie* ha rehted 
to the king about his own wandering*, occupy a 
conaideraUe portion of the Odysaey (from book vl 
to xiii.), and inm on* of it* most channiog paita. 
(Comp. Hygin. Fab. 135 and 136.) 

2. A son of Hippotboon, who, in cun ju ue li un 
with hi* Auher and elereo brother*, expelied Ica- 
rion and Tyndareoa ftom Lasedaemon, but wa* 
afterward* killed, with hi* Esther and brother*, fay 
HeiBcle*. (Apollod. iii. 10. g 5.) [L. 8.] 

A'LCINOUS ('AAjrfxwr), a Pktonic philoso- 
pher, who probably Uved under the CaMai*. No- 
thing ia known of hia personal hiatary, but a waric 
entitled 'Ewiro^ rif HKiTmm ttrf/tirur, con- 
taining an analyai* of the Pkitonic |diilo*ophy, a* 
it wa* set forth by bl* writens ha* been preasrved. 
The tnatiae is written rather in the Banner of 
Ariatotle than of Plato, and the author haa not ' 
henlatad to introduce any of the views of otlvr 
phiioeophen which seemed to add to the complete- 
ness of the systeai. Thus the part* of the lytta. 
giam (c. 6), the doctrine of the mean and af tiw 
tt«i and htfytuu (e. 2. 8), an attributed t« 
Pinto ; as well as the division of pliilosophy which 
wa* oommoB to the Peripatetic* and Sttac*. Il 


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! finm ike vritmgi of Plato to get a 
Bjmuu caoflele in its paiti, mad hatce the temp- 
iMtitm tS hia wiiten, ^rho wwg^ £» ■jritem, to 
jam Phto and Aziatotle, wHIwnt peneinog the 
tar naiiiati iii j at tha miioii, while ercijrthing which 
Mitod their parpoae wae fcarieeely aeeribed to the 
ft wi l i r ef thar own eect. In the tieatiae of 
Aldnaua, Itawatar, there ue itill tiacee ef tlia epi- 
nt of Plato^ howerer low an idea he giree of hit 
owB lUkM^kical taleat. He held the wedd and 
ilB animating aeal to be eternal. Thii wml of the 
■■'***■• (4 4rx4 Tov mivftm) wa« net created by 
Qad, bat, te nee the inaige of Akinoni, it wii 
awakened by him a* from a profound ileep, and 
taned towarda hmut^ '*ibM it might hxak out 
npoo jnteHertaal thinge (e. 14) and receire fonu 
and ideaa ftnu the ditine mind." It wee the firat 
of a i nrrre e i i i p of intennediate beings between Ood 
and sam. The Him pneesded immediately {ma 
t]te mind of God. and ware the highest object of 
oar inleUeet ; the '■km" of matter, the types of 
imsibto thio^, haTiog a leal being in themselres. 
(e. 9.) He diSoed finm the earlier PlatonisU in 
rewimiiig the Mot to general laws : it seemed an 
■awecthy notion that Ood osnld eanceire an iSia 
of thiaga arti6cial or '""*'"~'. or of individuals 
•r wntirnlars, or of any thing relatiTC. He seems 
to nsTe aimed at haimonixing the views of Plato 
and Axiatatle on the Mm i, m he distingwahed 
Ihiia &naa the rftih ibmis of things, iriiieh he al- 
lowed were JnewparsHe : a view wUch seems ne- 
eeemily mnorrVni with the doctiine of the eteniity 
and aetfexiatcnoe ef matfac God, the fiist fbon- 
taia of the SUat, ooaid net be known aa he is : it 
is bat a fiuot notiea of him we obtain from nega- 
tiona and anakgics : hia natme a ojually beyood 
ear power otczpiesaian or omeqition. Below him 
ate a seriea of beings {Saiiions) who snperiatend 
the pmdnrtioa of all linng things, and hold intei^ 
maiiii widi BOB. The homan urid passes throagh 
TsrioDs tmnsmigmtjons, thos ceoDScting the series 
with the lower claeaes of being, nntil it is finally 
piiiifisil and nadaad aceeptaUa to God. It will 
be eesB tkot Us system was a eompound of Plato 
ad Ariatotk, witii some parts boDowed from the 
east, and pwhaps derimd fism a study of the 
Pyths^oceaa systaoL (RittoE, OmdAMi dxr PhiU»- 

AIciaoBs Snt appeared in the Latin Teisisn of 
Pietia Baibi, which was pobliihed at Borne with 
Apaleiaa, 14«9,foL The Oredt text was printed 
is the Aldme editisn of Apoleiaa, IS21, Bto. 
Aaother edition is that of Fell, Ozfsid, 1«67. 
Tk beat is by J. F. Fischer, Leipsag, 1783, 8to. 
It waa translated into Frenii by J. J. Co m bea 
Daanoaa, Paris, 1800, 8nv, sod iato En^iah by 
Stnley in Ue History of Phflssophy. (B. J. J 

AIXaPHRON ('AAaf^par}, a Greek H^hist, 
and the most eenaeat aaneaig the Greek epistolo- 
giaph sr a . Beapseting bis life or the sge in which 
he iiied are f titaasu no diseot inibnnation what-, 
a««r. Semeof the earlier critics, as La &ose and 
J. C. WaU; phMed him, without any plansible 
lam no, ia the fifth centaiy ef oar aen. Bcq^r, 
and etheaa who fbllowad him, placed Alaphnm 
in the period between Locian and Aristaenetos, 
that is, between aj>. 170 and S£B, while others 
aoain aaaiga to hia a date eren caiiier than the 
tme «f Lodan. The only cimmutance that 
aii|)gi sCs aoythiog respecting his age is the &ct, 
that anoog the letters of Aristaenetos there ate 



two (i. 6 and 2*2) between Lncian and Alciphion ; 
now as Aristaenetos is nowhere guilty of any great 
historical inaccuracy, we may ufuy infer that 
Aldpbron was a oontemponuy of Lncian — an infe- 
rence which is not incompatible with the opinion, 
whether tme or fidse, that Alciphion imitated 

We possess under the name of Alciphno 116 
fictitiaiu letters, in 3 books, the object of which 
is to deliaeato the characters of certain classes of 
men, by iDtrododng them as expressing their p^ 
enliar sentiments and opinions upon subjects with 
which they were fiuniliar. The dasses of persons 
which Aldphton chow for this puipoM are fisher* 
men, conntry pe<9le, parasites, and hetaerae or 
Athenian courtemas. All ace made to express 
their sentiments in the most giacefnl and ewgnnt 
lai^age, eTea where the subjects are of a low 
or obscene kind. The characters are thus some- 
what raised above their common standard, without 
any great violation of the truth of lealitpr. The 
fonn of theee letten is exquisitely beautiful, and 
the language is the pure Attic dialect, such as it 
was spoken in the best times in iamiliar but re- 
fined eonveraation at Athens. The scene from 
which the letters an daied is, with a few excep- 
tioaa, Athens and its vicinity ; and the tiote, wher- 
ever it is discernible, is the period after the reign 
of Alexander the Great. The new Attic comedy 
was the prindpal soaica from which the author de- 
rived his information respecting the characters and 
manners which he describes, and for this reason 
these letters contain much valuable information 
about the private life of the Athenians of that time. 
It has been sud, that Alciphron is an imitator of 
Lncian i but besides the style, and, in a few in- 
stances, the subject matter, there is no resemblance 
between the two writers : (he spirit in which the 
two treat their subjects is totally different. Both 
derived their materials from the tame sources, and 
in style both aimed at the greatest perfection of the 
genuine Attic Greek. Be^er has truly remarked, 
that AldphroD stands in the same relation to Me- 
nander m Lodan to Aristophanes. The first edi- 
tion of Alciphron's Icttois is that of Aldus, in his 
collection of the Creek Epistologmphers, Venice, 
1499, 4to. This edition, however, ooutains only 
those letters which, in mora modem editions, form 
the first two books. Seventy-two sew letters were 
added irom a Vienna and a Vaticaa MS. by Bergler, 
in his edition (Leipsig, 1716, 8to.) with notes and 
a Latin ttandation. These seventy-two epistles 
fona the third book in Beii^ler't edition. J. A. 
Wsgner, in his edition (Leipug. 1798. 2 vol% Svo., 
with the notes of Heii^r), added two new letters 
entile, and fiagments of five othen. One long 
letter, which has not yet been published entire, 
exists ia serersl Psris USS. [L. S.] 

ALCIPPE CMjdmii). 1. A daughter of 
Ares and Agnuuos, the daughter of Cecrops. Ha- 
lirrhothins, the ton ef Poseidon, intended to liokito 
hec, but was surprised by Aies, and killed, for 
which Poseidon bore a grudge against Ana. (Paua. 
L 21. S 7 ; Apollod. iii. 14. § 2.) 

2. A maiden, who was dishonoured by her own 
brother, Aatiaeua, unwittin^y. When Asuaeas 
became awan of his deed, he threw himself into a 
river, wUdi lecdved from him the naaie of Astrae- 
nt, but was afterwards called Caicus. (PluL D» 
Fhtv. 21.) 

Other pertooaget of this UDe lie BentitDed in 


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ApoUod. iii. ] 5. § 8 ; Dbd. it. 16 ; Eustath. ad Him. 
p. 776 ; Horn. Od. ir. 124. [Ai^jroxiDKS.] [L.S.J 

ALCIS ('A\Ku), that ii, the Strong. 1. A 
tumame of Athena, under which ahe wai worthip- 
ped in Macedonia. (Lir. xlii. 51.) 

2. A deity among the Naburali, an ancient 
Gennan tribe. (Tacit, derm. 43.) Grimm (Deat- 
tcke Mj/thol. p. 39) coiuiden Alci* in the pasaage 
of Tacitus to be the genitire of Alz, which, ac- 
cording to him, lignifiet a lacred grove, and i> 
connected with the Oreek iK<ros. Another Aids 
occurs in Apollodonu, ii. 1. f S. [!■■ S.] 

ALCrSTHENE, a female painter spoken of b; 
Pliny (H. N. zxxt. U. •. 40), who mention! one 
of her pictures representing a dancer. [C. P. M .] 

ALCITHOE. [Alcathoi] 

A'LCITHUS CA\xi«o>), sent as ambaisador by 
the Achaean* to Ptolemy Philometor, B-c. 169, 
when they heard that the Anadtteria (see Diet, tf 
Ant. t. «.) were to be celebrated in his hononr. 
(Polyb. xxviiL 10, 16.) 

ALCMAEON ('AXk^wO, a son of Amphia- 
raus and Eriphyle, and brother of Amphilochus, 
Eurydicc, and Demonosaa. (ApoUod. iiL 7. § 2.) 
His mother was induced by the necklace of Har- 
monia, which she received from Polyneices, to per. 
suade her husband Amphianuis to take part in the 
expedition against Thebes. (Horn. Od. zr. 247, 
&c) But before Amphiaraus set out, he enjoined 
his sons to kill their mother as soon as they shonld 
be grown up. (ApoUod. iiL 6. § 2 ; Hygin. Fat. 
73.) When the Epigoni prepared for a second 
expedition against Thebes, to avenge the death of 
their fathers, the oracle promised them success and 
victory, if they chose Alcmaeoa their leader. He 
was at fint disinclined to undertake the command, 
as he had not yet taken vengeance on his mother, 
according to the desire of his fither. But she, 
who had now received from Thersander, the son 
of Polyneices, the peplns of Haimonia also, in- 
duced him to join me expedition. Alcmoeon dis- 
tinguished himself greatly in it, and slew Laoda- 
mus, the son of Eteoeles. (ApoUod. iii. 7. S 2, &c. ; 
comp. Diod. iv. 66.) When, after the fiiU of 
Thebes, he learnt the reason for which his mother 
had urged him on to take part in the expedition, 
he slew her on the advice of an oracle of ApoUo, 
and, according to some traditions, in conjunction 
with his brother Amphilochus. For this deed he 
became mad, and was haunted by the Erinnyes. He 
first came to Oicleus in Arcadia, and thence went 
to Phegeus in Psophis, and being purified by the 
latter, he married his daughter Aninoe or Alphe- 
siboea (Paus. viiL 24. § 4), to whom he gave the 
necklace and peplus of Harmonia. But the coun- 
try in which he now resided was visited by seaT' 
city, in eonsequenoe of his being the murderer of 
his mother, and the oracle advised him to go to 
Acbelous. According to Puusanias, he left Psophis 
because his madness did not yet cease, Pausanias 
and Thucydides (u. 102 ; comp. Plut D» ExU. p. 
602) further state, that the oracle eoninuuided 
him to go to a country which had been formed 
subsequent to the murder of his mother, and wa* 
therefore under no curse. The country thus point- 
ed out was a tract of Und which had been recently 
formed at the mouth of the river Acbelous. Apof- 
lodoms agrees with this account, but gives a de- 
tailed history of Alcmaeon's wanderings untU he 
reached the mouth of Achelous, who gave him his 
daughter Calirrfao« in naniige. CaUrrhoa had a 


desire to possess the necklace and peplns of Hoi^ 
monia, and Alcmaeon, to gratify her wish, went to 
Psophis to get them from Phegeus, under the pre- 
text that he intended to dedicate them at Delphi 
in order to be freed from his madness. Phegens 
complied with his request, but when he heard that 
the treasures were fetched for Calirrhoe, he sent 
his sons Pronous and Agenor (ApoUod. iiL 7. |6) 
or, according to Pausanias (viiL 24. § 4), Temenos 
and Axion, after him, with the command to kill 
him. This was done, but the sons of Alcmason by 
Calirrhoe took bloody vengeance at the instigatien 
of their mother. (ApoUod. Pons. tt. oe, ; Ov. Afst, 
iz. 407, &c) 

The story about Alcmaeon furnished rich mate- 
rials for the epic and tragic poets of Oreeoe, and 
their Roman imitators. But none of these poems 
is now extant, and we only know from Apollo- 
dorus (iiL 7. § 7), that Euripides, in his tragedy 
"Alcmaeon," stated that after the fiiU of Thebes 
he married Manto, the daughter of Teiresias, and 
that he had two children by her, Amphilochiu and 
Tisiphone, whom he gave to Creon, king of Co- 
rinth, to educate. The wife of Creon, jealous of 
the extraordinary beauty of Tisiphone, afterwards 
sold her as a slave, and Alcmaeon himself bought 
her, without knowing that she was his daoghter. 
(Diod. iv. 66 ; Pans. viL 8. S 1> iz. 83l ( 1.) 
Alcmaeon after his death was worshipped as a 
hero, and at Thebes he seems to have had an altar, 
near the house of Pindar (Pjlli- viiL 80, Ac), who 
calls him his nughbour and the guardian of his 
property, and also seems to suggest that pn^etic 
powen were ascribed to him, as to his Eallier Am- 
phiaraus. At Psophis his tomb was shevm, sur- 
rounded with lofty and aocred cypieeses. (Paui. 
viiL 24. § 4.) At Oropus, in Attica^ where Ab>- 
phiaraus and Amphilochus were worshipped, Alc- 
maeon enjoyed no such bononta, because he was a 
matricide. (Pans. L 34. § 2.) He was represented 
in a statue at Delphi, and on the chest of Cypse- 
Ins. (x. 10. § 2, T. 17. § 4.) [L. &] 

ALCMAEON (AAs/iolan'), son of the Hegades 
who was guilty of sacrilege with respect to the fol- 
lowers of Cimon, was invited by Croesus to Saldia 
in consequence of the services he hod rendered to 
an embassy sent by Croesus to consult the Delphic 
oracle. On his arrival at Sardis, Croesus msds 
him a present of as much gdd as he could carry 
out of the treasury. Alcmaeon took the king at 
his word, by putting on a most cifiacions dress, 
the folds of which (as weU as the vacant apace of 
a pilir of very wide boots, also provided for the 
occasion) he stu£Fed with gold, and than filled his 
mouth and hair with gold dust. Croesus laughed 
at ths trick, and presented him with as much again 
(about 590 B. c). The wealth thus acquired is said 
to have cmtribnted greatly to the subsequent pros- 
perity of the Alcmaeonidae. (Herod. vL 125.) 

Alcmaeon was a breeder of horses for chariot- 
races, and on one occasion gained the piiie in a 
chariot-race at Olympia. (Herod, ta; leocalas, 
d* Biffit, c 10. p. S51.) We axe informed by 
Plutaids {Soloit,e. 11), that he oommanded the 
Athenians in the Cirrhoean war, which hegaa 
a c. 600. [P. 8.) 

ALCMAEON (^AAsfialstr), one of the most 
eminent natural phUoaophen of antiquity, was a 
native of Crotona in Magna Oraedo. His father'a 
name waa Pirithua, and he is said to have been a 
pupil of Pythagoras, and must therefore have lived 


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m the latter kalf of the uxth century before Cluist. 
(Du)^ Laert. riiL 83.) Nothing more i* known of the 
ennt* of hi* life. Uii moat celebrated anatomical 
ditcorecy has been noticed in the Diet, ofAttt. p. 
756, a ; but whether his knowledge in this branch 
of idenee was derired from the dissection of ani- 
uak or of human bodies, is a disputed question, 
which it ii difficult to decide. Chalddius, on 
whose authority the bet rests, merely lays {Com- 
mmL a PlaL "■Tim.^ p. 368, ed. Fabr.), "qui 
primus ezsectianem aggredi est ansus," and ibe 
wxicd aatctio would apply equally well to either 
cue. He is laid alao (Diog. Idert. Lc; Cle- 
ams Alezandr. ^raai. i. p. 308) to hare been the 
first penon who wrote on oatond philosophy 
(fMui4i' tjyar), and to have invented &bles (far 
Was, Isid. On^ i. 39). He also wrote serenl 
ither medical and philosophical woriis, of which 
nothing but the titles and a few fragments haTe 
been preserred by Stobsens {Edog. Plu/t.), Plu- 
tsRh {De PI^ PkOfu. Dear.\ and Oalen. (Hulor. 
PUimpi.) A farther account of his philosophical 
tfinions may be iband in Menage's Notes to Dio- 
gma LaertiuB, riiL 83, p. 387 ; Le Clerc, HtMt. de 
Is Mid.; Al&na. Ciacconius of). FiArie. BiUiolk. 
Gratt. ToL ziii. p. 48, ed. vet. ; Sprengel, HitL de 
la Med. toL L p. 239; CO. Kiihn, De PkHoKpi. 
oA Hgipoer. Medkvm Odior. Lips. 1781, 4to., 
nprint^ ia Aekennann's Optae. ad HiMtor. Medic 
Ptriimatia, Norimb. 1797, 8to., and in Kiihn'i 
Opmic. Aead. Med. el PUloL Lips. 1827-8, 2 vols. 
Bra,; Ismee, GooL 4er Medkm. [W. A. O.] 



Although Akmaeon is termed a pupil of Pytba- 
goias, there is great reason to doubt whether he 
was a Pythagorean at all ; his name seems to hare 
crept into the lists of supposititious Pythagoreans 
given US by later writers. (Biandis, Geedtidite 
der Pkiloaopkie, vol. i. p. 507.) Aristotle {Mela- 
pkyt. A. 5) mentions him as nearly contemporary 
with Pythagoras, but distinguishes between the 
<rTMx*M of oppoutes, under which the Pythago- 
reans included all things, and the double principle 
of AlcmaeoD, according to Aristotle, leas extended, 
although he does not exphiin the precise differ- 
ence. Other doctrines of Akmaeon have been pre- 
serred to us. He said that the human soul was 
immortal and partook of the divine i»tare, because 
like the heavenly bodies it contained in itself a 
principle of motion. (Arist. de Anima^ i. 2, p* 
405; Cia d» Nat. Deor.i. 11.) The eclipse of 
the moon, which was also eternal, he supposed to 
arise from its shape, which he said was like a boat. 
All his doctrines which have come down to as, 
reUte to physics or medicine ; and seem to have 
arisen partly out of the speculations of the Ionian 
school, with which rather than the Pythagorean, 
Aristotle appears to coimect Alcmaeon, partly from 
the traditionary lore of the earliest mfdirnl science. 
(Brandu, vol. L p. 508.) * [B. J.] 

ALCMAEO'NIDAE (AAx/uuwriSai), a noUe 
bmily at Athens, members of which fill a space in 
Grecian history from 1100 to 400 & c. The fol- 
lowing is a genealogical table of the &mily. 

1. Akmaeon, fonnder of the fiunily, 1 100 a. c. 

2. (Hesacles), 6th perpetual aichon. 

5. (Alcmaeon), last perpetual archon. (b. c 766—783.) 
4. Megacles, archon in b. c. 612. 

6. Alcmaeon, about 690 B. c. (See ALcitiBON.) 

6. Mqacles, the opponeni 
of Peisistratns. 


Agariste, daughter of Cleisthenei^ 
tyrant of Sicyon. 


16.A]c3nadea. His par 
rentage is unknown, 
but he was said tabs 
as Akmaeonid on 
the lather's side. (I>e- 
Bosth. iajriii. pu 56 1 .) 

lenea, (the le- 
ibcmer. SmClsis- 


8, Hippocrates. (Herod, vi. 131; 
SchoL Piad. Pyth. rii. 17.) 

9. Coesyra, mar. 
to Peisistiatns. 


Megacles, victor 
in the Pythian 
games. (Find. 
Pfih. ya. 16.) 

12. Megacles. 
(Herod, vi. 


13. Agariste.^Xanthippus. 
( Herod, vi 
131; Plut. 

I4.Axiodiaa. l&CleiDaas^l6.Deinomache=pHipponicus,17.Eniyptolemiu. 18,Peiciclei, 19.AripK 

Piat.£it- eammanded 
ilfd. p. a trireme at 
26&) Artemiaium 

Bu:. 480; fell 
at Coroneia 
BL c. 442. 
(Herad. viii. 
17 i Plut. 
Ale. I.) 

(Pint. Ale. 


at Tanagm 
B. c. 246. 


He is thought 
by tome to 
hare been 
himself an 

Alcmaeon id. 



(the great 
man. P>- 


(Pint. Ale. 
1; PUt. 


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blades, (Xenoph. 

(Xenoph. Coaviv, 

HdUnX IT. 12.) 
2. §13.) 

(the great 







20.AIci-21.Celiniaf. 22.Alcibiiides, 23.CIeinia«. 24.Ca}Iiai. 25.I*odicesCiiiioiL 26.PsraIiu. 

^ S2U.) 

(The rich 


28. Alcibiadet. 

The Alcmaeonidae were a branch of the fitmfly 
of the Nblsidab. The Neleidae wen driTcn out 
of Pylui in Meuenis by the Doriani, abont 1100 
B. c, and went to Athens, where Melanthns, the 
representatire of the elder branch of the fiunily be- 
came king, and Alcmaeon, the representatire rf the 
second branch, became a noble and the ancestor of the 
Alcmaeonidae. Alcmaeon was the great-grandson 
of Nestor. (Pans. ii. IB. § 7.) Among the archons 
for life, the sixth is named Megades, and the last 
Alcmaeon. Bnt, as the archons for life appear 
to have been always taken from the fionily of Me- 
don, it is probable that these were only Alcmaeo- 
nids on the vother's side. The first remarkable 
man among the Alcmaeonids was the arehon Me- 
gnclcs, who bronght npen the fiunily the gnilt of 
sacrilege by his treatment of the insurgents under 
Cylon. (b. c. 612.) [CiMOic Hxoaclss.] The ex- 
pulsion of the Alcmaeonids was now loudly de- 
manded, and Solon, who probably saw in such an 
event an important step towards his intended re- 
forms, advised them to submit tbor cause to a 
tribunal of three hundred nobles. The result was 
that they were banished iirani Athens and retired 
to Phocis, probably about 596 or 595 b. c. Their 
wealth having been augmented by the lihenlity of 
Croesus to Alcmaeon, the son of Megacles [Alo- 
habon], and their influence increased by the mar- 
riage of Megacles, the son of Alcmaeon, to Agariste, 
the daughter of Cleiathenea, tyrant of Sicyon, they 
took advantage of the divided state of Athens, and 
hr joining the party of Lycnrgns, they aiiected 
their return ; and shortly afterwards, by a similar 
imion, they expelled Peisistratns soon afier he had 
seized thegoverament(B.c. 559.) [PsiaiaTiiATUfl.] 
This state of things did not last loi^ ; for, at the end 
of five years, Mepiules gave his daughter Coesyra in 
marriage to Peisutratus, and assisted in his restora- 
tion to Athens. But a new quarrel immediately 
arose out of the conduct of Peisistratus towards his 
wife, and the Alcmaeonids once more expelled him. 
During the following ten years, Peisistratus col- 
lected an army, with which he invaded Attica, 
and defeated the Alcmaeonids, who were now once 
more driven into exile. They were, however, still 
formidable enemies. After the death of Hippai^ 
chus, they took possessian of Lipsydicum, a fort- 
ress on die ftontser of Attica, and made an at- 
tempt to restore themselves, bnt were de£eated 1^ 
Ilippias. They had, however, a more important 
source of influence. In the year 548 b. c. the 
temple of ApoUo at Delphi was burnt, and the 
Alcmaeonids having contracted with the Amphic- 
tyonic councU to rebuild it, executed the work in 
a style of magnificence which much exceeded their 
engagraient. They thus gained great popularity 
throughout Greece, while they contrived to bring 
the Peisistrahds into odium by charging them with 
having caused the fire. The oracle, besides, fc 

nom, 94; 
Per. 87.) 


vonred them thenceforth; and whenever it waa 
eonsnlted by a Spartan, on whatever matter, tha 
answer always contained an exhortation to giva 
Athens &eedom ; and the result was that ml length 
the Spartans expelled Hipiaaa, and restored tha 
Alcmaeonids. (b. c. 510.) The restored bmSly 
found themselves in an isolated poaitHHi, b et ween 
the nobles, who appear to have been eppoaed to 
them, and the popular party which had been hi- 
therto attached to the Peisislntids. Cleiathencs^ 
now the head of the Alcmaeonidae, joined the lat- 
ter party, and gave a new eonstitutum to Atben^k 
Further particnlan respecting the baaily ara 
given under the names of its members. (Herad. 
Yi. 121-lSl ; Pindar, iy*. vn., and Bockh'a notca s 
Clinton^ Fatti, ii. p. 4, 299.) [P. 8.] 

ALCMAN CAAit^^, called bgrthe Attic and 
later Greek writen Aleoiaeen ( AXx f i i t imv ), the 
c^ief lyric poet of Sparta, was by birth a Lydiaa 
of Sarus. His father^ name was Damaa or Tita- 
ms. He was bron)^t into Laconia as a alBve,'evi- 
dently when very young. His master, who** 
name waa Agesidas, discovered his genina, and 
emancipated him ; and he then began to diatingniah 
himself as a lyric poet. (Suidaa, s. «. ; HeracUd. 
Pont. PcliL p. 206 ; Veil Pat L 18 ; Alcman, b. 
II, Welcker; Epigrams by Alexander Aetolna, 
Leonidaa, and Antipator Theas., in Jacob'a AuUut. 
Grate. L p. 207, No. 8, p. 175, No. 80, ii. p. 110, 
No. 56 ; in the Anthol. Palat vii. 709, 19, IB.) 
In the epigram hut cited it is said, that the two 
continents strove for the honour of his birth ; and 
Suidas {I. c) calls bim a I^oonian of Heaaoa, 
which may mean, however, that he waa ennlled 
as a ciliien of Measoa after his emancipation. The 
above statements seem to be more in accordance 
with the authorities than the opinion of Bode, that 
Alcman's father was bnught fnm Sardis to Spaita 
as a slave, and that Alcman himself waa born at 
Messoe. It is not known to what extent be ob- 
tained the lights of eitixenship. 

The time at which Alcman lived is rendered 
somewhat doubtful by the difiierent atatements of 
the Greek and Armenian copies of Euaebioa, aad 
of the chronographers who followed him. On the 
whole, however, the Greek copy of Ensebins ap- 
pears to be right in pbcing him at the aeeond year 
of the twenty-serenth Olympiad, (n. a 671.) He 
was contompoRuy with Ardys, king of Lydis, 
who reigned from 678 to 629, & c., with Leaehei, 
the author of tha "Little Iliad," and with Itf 

rder, during the later yean of these two poets ; 
was older than Steaichoma, and he ia said to 
have been the teacher of Arion. From these cir- 
cumstances, and from the fiict which we lean 
from himself (^.29), that ha lived to a great tfc, 
we may conclude, with Clinton, that he flourished 
from about 671 to about 631 B. c. (Clinton, Arf. 
i. pp. 1U9, 191, 365; Hennann,..dirti2. Laam.jf. 


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76, 77.) Ha k lud to hare died, like SulU, of 
do mtaiim pmHaJariM. (Aiiatst. ISaL Amt. t. 
31 or 25; Plat. Atfo, S6 ; Plin. H. N. zi. 33. 

Ths period daring vhieh mat of Aleman^ 
poeniB -wen composed, «■■ that whkk foUoved 
the eoDclBtimi of the noond Mmmiiwti war. Dur- 
ii^ thia period of qoiet, tha Spaitaaa began to 
choiah tbit taale tat the apiritiml anjoymenU of 
poetry-, whidi, tlua^ fUt by them long befoR, 
had never attained to a high alata of oJtiTatioii, 
vhita their attention iraa aheoibed in war. In 
thia proceaa of improTement Akmaa waa jauna- 
diately preceded by Tetpaadcr, an Aeolian poet, 
wha, befai* the Tear 676 B. a, bad remoTed from 
licaboa to the mainland of Oieace, and had intnv 
dneed the Aeotiaa lyiie into the Peloponnenu. 
Thia tiew atyle of poetry wai ipeedily adapted to 
the ekoial ibiin in which the Doric poetiy had hither- 
to been caat, and gndoally sopplimtad that Mulier 
ityie which waa nearer to the epic In the 33nl 
•r S4th Olympiad, Topander made hia gnat im- 
praTenwnta in mnsic [TaaPAMosB.] Hence 
aroae the pecolior chanM^ of the poetry of his 
yoongo' eontempoiary, Akmoa, whkh prMeatad 
the eharal lyric in tile higbeat exeellenea which 
the muic of Terpoader enabled it to reach. But 
Akaan hod alas an intimate aoqnaintaoce with 
the PhrygiaB and Ljdian styles of music, and he 
waa hiai si' lf the inrenter of new fstms of rhythm, 
aons of which bore his nams. 

A large portion of Akasan'k poetry waa entic. 
In bet, he ia mid by some aneiant arriters to hare 
hern die inventor of erotic pootry. (Athen. xiii. 
p. 600; Saidaa, i^ «.) From hia pimns of ttds 
data, whidi ore narked by a freedom bordering on 
lieeDtioaaneea, he obtained the epithets of " aweet" 
and " pli^aant" (yKntdt, xapwr). Among these 
poems wen many hymeneal pieces. Bnt the Par- 
finsi'ii, which form a branch of Akman's poems, 
mnet not be confonnded with tha erotic They 
were so called because they ware oompoeed ibr the 
porpase of being sang by chorussa of rirgina, and 
not on aeeoont of their aabjecta, which were Tery 
lariona, aometimea indeed erotic, bot oitea reli- 
giooc AlcBiaa^ other poems ambiaoe hymna to 
the goda, PMans, Prooodia, aonga adapted for diiie- 
lent refigioas brtiTala, and short ewical or pbilo- 
ao|Aical piecec It is diapatad whether he wrote 
any ti thoae Anapaeatic wap-aengs, or marches, 
which vers called iittair^fu ; bat it asema Tery 
milikely that he ahoold have neglected a kind of 
co mp osition whidi had been rendered so popalar 
by Tyrtaeoc 

His metres are very Tarioos. Ho ia aaid by 
Saidaa to hava been the first poet who composed 
any verses bat dactylic hezaiaeten. This stata- 
mcat is inuaiu-t ; but Saidaa seems to reCsr to the 
shorter dactylic lines into which Akaan broke ap 
the Hemerie hexameter. In this practice, how- 
ever, he had been p r ec e de d by Ardiilochas, from 
wham he borrowed several others of hia pecoliar 
metres: etinra he invented hinuelf. Among his 
metres we find vsrieas ibms of the dactylic, ana- 
paeatic, trochaic, and iambic, as wdl as lines com- 
posed of diSnent metma, for example, iambic and 
anapaestic The Ctetic hexameter was named 
Akonraic, from his being its inventor. The poems 
of Alcman were ehiefly in stnphea, composed of 
fines sometimes of the same metre throoghont the 
strophe, sometimes of difieient metres, ^rom dieir 



choral chaiaelar we might coaclode that they aome- 
timea had an antistrophic fata, and this seems to 
be confirmed by tha statement of Hephaestion 
(pu 134, Oaisf ), that he composed odes of fourteen 
strophes, in which there was a change of metrs 
after the seventh strophe There is no trace of an 
cpode following the strophe and antistrophe, iu his 

The dialect of Alcman was the Spartan Doric, 
with an intermixtnm of the Aeolic The popular 
idioms of laoonia ^pcar most Ireqaently in his 
more fcmilisr poems. 

The Alexandrian grammarians placed Alcman 
at the head of their canon of the nine lyric poet& 
Among the proofs of his popularity may be men- 
tioned the tradition, that his songs areie song, 
with those of Terpaader, at the first perfotmanea 
of the gymnopaedia at Sparta (e. c, 665, Aelian, 
V. H. xii Wy, and the ascertained bet, that they 
were frequently afterwards used at that fisstivaL 
(Athen. zv. p. 678.) The lew iragmenU which 
remain scarcely allow us to judge how fiv he da- 
served his reputation ; but some of them disphiy a 
tms poetical spirit 

Alcman's poems comprised six bodes, the ex- 
tant fragments of which are included in the col- 
lectioas of Neander, H. Stephens, and Falvius 
Ursinas. The latest and best edition is that of 
Welcker, Oiessen, 1815. [P. 3.] 

ALCME'NB ('AAiqi^ni), a daughter of Eleo- 
tiyon, king of Hessene, by Anaxo, the daughter 
of Alcaeos. (ApoUod. iL 4. § 5.) According to 
other accounts her mother was called Lysidice 
(ScfaoL ad Pimd. Ot. viL 4>: PloL TIta. 7), or 
Euiydica. (Oiod. iv. 9.) The poet Anus repre- 
sentod Alcmene as a daughter of Amphiaraus and 
Eriphylc (Pans. v. 17. § 4.) Apollodoma men- 
tions ten brothers of Akmene, who, with tlw ex- 
ception of one, liicynmiuB, fell in a contest with 
the sons of Pterelaus, who had carried off the cattle 
of Electryon. Electryon, on setting out to avenge 
the death of his sons, left his kingdom and his 
daughter Alcmena to Amphitryon, who, nniit- 
tentionally, killed Electryon. Sthenelus there- 
npon expdied Amphitryxin, who, together with 
Alcmens and Licymnias, want to Thebes. Alc- 
mene declared thist she woidd many him who 
should avenge the death of her brothers. Amph^ 
tiyoa nndertook the task, and iarited Creon of 
Thebes to assist him. Daring his absence, Zeas, 
in the disgnise of Amphitryon, visited Alcmene, 
and, pmteoding to ba her husband, rebtad to her 
in what way he had avenged the death of her 
brothen. (Apolkod. iL 4. $ 6 — 8 ; Ov. Amor. i. 
13. 45; Died. iv. 9; Hygin. Fai.29; Ludan, 
Dialof. Dmt. 10.) When Amphitryon himself 
letoTDsd on the next day and wanted to give aa 
account of his achievements, she was surpnaed at 
the repetition, but Teiresias solved the mystery. 
Alcmene becane the mother of Heracles by Zeus, 
and of Iphidea by Amphitryon. Hera, jealous 
of Akmene, dehyed the birth of Ueiades for 
seven days, that Eurysthens might ba bom first, 
and thtu be entitled to greater rights, aeoording to 
a vow of Zeas himseli (Hom. IL six. 95, Ac ; 
Ov. Mat. ix. 273, Ac ; Died. L e.) After the 
death of Amphitryon, Alcmene married Rhadaman- 
thys,aseB0fZens,atOcaieiainBoeotia. (ApoUod. 
ii. 4. S 11.) After Hersdes waa raised to the 
rank of a god, Alcmene and his sons, in drsad of 
Burystheiu, fled to Tiadiia, and thenoe to Athaui, 


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>nd when Hylliu had ent off the head of Enijw- 
theui, Alcmene ntufied her revenge bjr picking 
the eyes oat of the head. (Apoll^. ii. 8. § I.) 
The accoanti of her death are reiy diicrepanC 
Aecording to Panaaniai (i. 41. § 1), the died in 
Memris, on her way from Argo* to Thebet, and 
aa ike aoni of Hetades diiagreed as to whether 
■he waa to be carried to Argoa or to Thebet, the 
waa buried in the place where abe had died, at the 
command of an oracle. According to Plutarch, 
(DtGm. Soer. p. 578,) her tomb and that of Rlioda- 
manthyt were at Haliartus in Boeotia, and hen 
waa opened by Ageailaoa, ftat the porpoee of carry- 
ing her remains to Spaiia. According to Phere- 
cydes (Cap. Aaio*. lib. 33), she lived with her 
sons, after the death of Eiuysthens, ataThebes, 
and died there at an advanced age. When the 
■ons of Heracles wished to bory her, Zens sent 
Hermes to take her body away, and to carry it to 
the islands of the blessed, and give her in marriage 
there to Rhadamanthys. Hermes accordingly took 
her out of her coffin, and put into it a stone so 
heavy that the Heradids could not move it from 
the spot When, on opening the coffin, they found 
the stone, they erected it in a grove near Thebes, 
which in later times contained the sanctuary of 
Akmene. (Pans. ix. 16. § 4.) At Athens, too, 
ahe was wonhipped as a heroine, and an altar was 
erected to her in the temple of Heracles. (Cyn<mirge$, 
Pans. i. 19. § 3.) She was represented on the chest 
of Cypselos (Pans. v. 18. § 1 ;, and epic as well as 
tragic poets mode frequent nse of her stoiy, though 
no poem of the kind is no w extant. ( Hes, SaU, Here 
init; Paus.v. 17. §4, 18. § 1.) [L. S.] 

ALCON or ALCO CAAnw). 1. A son of Hip- 
pocoon, and one of the Calydonian hunters, was 
killed, together with his bther and brothers, by 
Heracles, and had a heronm at Sparta. (Apollod. 
iii. 10. g fi; Hygin. Fat. 173; Pans, iii 14. g 7, 
15. g 3.) 

2.' A son of Erechthens, king of Athens, and 
bther of Phalerus the ArgonanL (ApoUon. Rhod. 
i. 97 i Hygin. Fab. 14.) Valerina Flaecus (i. 399, 
&c) repmenta him as snch a skilful archer, that 
once, when a serpent had entwined his son, he 
shot the serpent without hurting his child. Viigil 
{Eelog. V. 11) mentions an Alcon, whom Servius 
calls a Cretan, and of whom he relates almost the 
same story aa that which Valerius Flaecus ascribes 
to Alcon, the son of Erechtheus. 

Two other personages of the same name occur in 
Cicero (de NaL Dear. iii. 21), and in Hyginus. 
(«j4. 173.) [L. &] 

ALCON, a surgeon (tmltienm mediau) at Rome 
in the reign of Claudius, A. D. 41-54, who is said 
by Pliny (H. N. xxix. 8) to hare been banished 
to Oanl, and to have been fined ten million of 
sesterces : H. & eemtiee omt. mill, (about 78,125/.). 
After his return from banishment, he is said to 
have gained by his practice an equal sum within a 
few yean, which, however, seems so enormous 
(compare Albccius and Abruntii's), that there 
mnst probably be some mistake in the text. A 
anigeon of the same name, who is mentioned by 
Martial (.^pvr. zi. 84) as a contemporary, may 
posMblr be the same penon. [W. A. O.] 

ALCON, a statuary mentioned by Pliny. (H.N. 
zxxiv. 14. s. 40.) He waa the author of a statue 
•f Hercnlea at Thebes, made of iron, at symbolical 
of the god's endurance of labour. [C. P. M.j 



1. A Pleiad, a danghter of Atlas and Pleione, by 
whom Poseidon begot Aethnia, Hyrieus and Hy- 
perenor. (Apollod. iii. 10. g 1 ; Hygin. Pratf. 
Fab. p. 11, ed. Staveren ; Ov. Henid. xix. 133.) 
To these children Pansaniaa (ii 30. g 7) adds two 
others, Hyperes and Anthas. 

2. A daughter of Aeolnt and Enarete or Aegiale. 
She was married to Cejfx, and lived to happy with 
him, that they were preanmptuout enough to call 
each other Zens and Hen, for which Zens melBp 
morphosed them into birds, ifMuar and it^uj. 
(Apollod. I 7. g 3, &c ; Hygin. Fab. 65.) Hyginus 
relates that Ceyx periabed in a shipwreck, that 
Alcyone for grief threw herself into the sea, and 
that the gods, out of compassion, changed the two 
into birds. It was bbled, that during the seven 
days before, and as many after, the shortest day of 
the year, while the bird dAiituitr was breeding, 
then always prevailed calms at sea. An onbd- 
lished fonn of the same ttoiy is given by Ovid. 
(Met. zL 410, &c ; oomp. Viig. Georg. i. 399.) 

3. A tumame of Qeopatn, the wife of Mdea- 
ger, who died with grief at her husband beiiy 
kiUed by ApoUo. (Hom. IL ix. 562 ; Eottallu 
ad Hom. p. 776 ; Hygin. Fab. 174.) [L. &] 

ALCY'ONEUS CAXnortit). 1. A giant, wke 
kept possession of ue Isthmus of Corinth at the 
time when Herades drove away the oxen of 
Oeiyon. The giant attacked him, crashed twdve 
waggons and twenty-four of the men of Hersdet 
with a hnge block of stone. Hendet hinudf 
warded off the stone with his dub and slew Alcy- 
oneos. The block, with which the giant had at- 
tempted the life of Hersdes, waa shewn on the 
Isthmus down to a very late period. (Pind. Nm, 
iv. 44, with the Schol.) In another passage (/id. 
vL 45, &C.) Pindar calls Alcyonens a Thcadas 
shepherd, and places the struggle with him in ths 
Phlegraean phuna. 

2. One of the gianta. [OiOANTia.] [L. S.] 

ALCYO'NIDES ('AXicvoWtn), the daoghlcn 
of the giant Alcyoneua (2). After their &ther'i 
death, they threw themselves into the sea, and 
wen changed into ice-birds. Their names an 
Phthonia, Anthe, Methone, Alcippe, PallcM, 
Drimo, and Aateria. (Eustath. od ^asi. p. 776; 
Suidas, a; v. 'MxaaMet.) [L. &} 

A'LEA ('AA^a), a surname of Athena, under 
which she was worshipped at Alea, Maatineis, 
and Tegea. (Pans. viii. 23. § 1, 9. g 3, ii 17. f 7.) 
The temple of Athena Alea at Tegea, which nt 
the oldest, was said to have been built by AJeu, 
the son of Apheidas, from whom the goddess p(o- 
bably derived this surname. (Paus. viii 4. | i.) 
This temple was burnt down in b. c 894, snd 
a new one built by Scopas, which in tiae and 
splendour surpassed all other temple* in Pelopoo- 
nesus, and was sunxmnded by a triple tuw of 
columns of different orders. The statae of the 
goddess, which was made by Endoens all of imyi 
was subsequently carried to Rome by Augnttoa to 
odom the Forum Augusti. (Paus. viii. 45. 1 4, 4S 
g 1 and 2, 47. g 1.) The temple of Athens Alt* 
at Tegea waa an ancient and revered aijhini, sad 
the names of many persons are recorded who Bred 
themselves by seeking refuge in it. (Paah iii- ^ 
g 6, ii 17. g 7, iii 7. § 80 The priesteat of 
Athena Alea at Tegea was always a majden, wIm 
hdd her office only until she reached the age °f 
puberty. (Pans, viii 47. § 2.) Respecting ths 
architecture and the sculptures of this temple, M 


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Heyar, GoA. ier UUatd. KSmdt, ii. jl 99, Ac. 
On the nad from Sputa to Tbetapne tbeic ww 
KkewiM • atatoe of AtlMoa Alea. (Pana. iil 19. 
§ 7.) [U S.] 

ALEBION. [Albion.1 


ALECTOR CM^icrmf). 1. The fiuher of 
Lcitiu, the Aigoaant (Apollod. L 9. § 16.) Ho- 
wa {IL xrii. 60'i) calls lum Alectr^on. 

^ A loa of AnazagorM and &thei of Iphia, 
king of Aigoa. He wai conaolted bjr Polyneicet 
as to the vaaaet in which Amphiaiaiu might be 
onapelled to take part in the expedition against 
Thebea. (ApoUod. iii. 6. § 2 ; Paiu. ii. 18. § 4.) 
Two otheiB of the niae name are mentioned in 
Homer. (Od. ir. 10 ; Eostath. ad Horn. pp. 303 
and 1598.) [L. S.] 


ALEVES ('Alufnit), a son of Hippotes and a 
descendant of Merades in the fifth degrre. He is 
said to haTe taken possession of Corinth, and to 
lane expelled the Sisjphids, thirty yean after the 
first invasion of Peloponnesus by the Ileraclids. 
His fiunily, sometimes called the Aletidae, main- 
tained themselTes at Corinth down to the time of 
Bocebis. (Pans. iL 4. § 3, r. 18. § 2; Strab. riii. 
p. 389; Callim. Fraffm. 103; Pind. 01. xili. 17.) 
VeUeiua Patercnlus (t 3) calls him a descendant 
of Heiaclea in the sixth degree. He leoeired an 
oncle, promising him the aorereignty of Athena, if 
during the war, which was then going on, its king 
should remain uninjured. This omde became 
known at Athens, and Codrus tecrificed himself 
for bis country. (Conon, Narrat, 26.) [CoDRua] 

Other persona of this name aia mentumed in 
Apollod. iii. 10. g 6; Hygin. fat. 122, and in 
Viig. Atn. i. 121, ix. 462. [L. S] 

ALEUAS and ALEU'ADAE QA\tiai and 
AXsudSoi). Aleoas is the ancestorial hero of the 
Thessolian, or, more particularly, of the Tiarissawin 
&mily of the Aleuadae. (Pind. Pjti. x. 8, with 
the SchoL) The Aleuadae were the noblest and 
most powerful among all the families of Tbessaly, 
whence Hendotus (tIL 6) calls its members 0ain- 
Af». (Comp. Diod. zr. 61, xri. 14.) The first 
Alenaa, who bore the surname of IIv^s, that is, 
the red-haired, is called king (here synonymous 
with Tagns, see Die*. </ AnL p. 932) of Thessaly, 
and a descendant of Heracles through Thessalns, 
one of the many sons of Heracles. (Suidas, •. e. 
'AAnsiSai ; Ulpian, ad Van. Olgntk. i. ; Scfaol 
ad ApaUoH. Siod. iil 1090 ; Vellei. i. 3.) Plutarch 
(deAm, FrxU, in fin.) states, that be was hated by 
his fiither on account of his haughty and savage 
character ; but his ancle nerertheless oontrived to 
get him elected king and sanctioned by the god of 
Udphi. His reign was more glorious than that of 
any of his ancestora, and the nation rose in power 
and importance. This Alenaa, who belongs to the 
mythical period of Greek history, is in all proba- 
bility the same as the one who, according to Hege- 
mon (op.AeL Amim. riii. 11), was beloved by a 
diagnn. According to Aristotle (^>. UarpoeraL 
M. t. Trrpofx^) the division of Thessaly into four 
parts, of which traeea remained down to the latest 
times, took place in the reign of the first Aleuas. 
Batimann pfaues this hero in the period between 
the so-called letnm of the Hemclidi and the age of 
PeisistmtiiSb But even earlier than the time of 
Pcisistmtns the fiunily of the Aleuadae appears to 
have become divided, into two bianehea, the Aleu- 



adae and the Scopadae, called aiier Seopaa, proba- 
bly a ton of Aleuas. (Ov. Ibu, fil2.) The Sco- 
padae inhabited Craimon and perhaps Pharaalus 
also, while the main branch, the Aleuadae, remain- 
ed at Tarissii The influence of the fiunilies, how- 
ever, vras not confined to these towns, but extended 
more or leas over the greater part of Thessaly, 
They formed in reality a powerful aristocratic 
party (/Jao'iAui) in opposition to the great body of 
the Thessalians. (Herod. viL 172.) 

The earliest historical person, who probably be- 
longs to the Aleuadae, is Eurylochus, who termi- 
nated the war of Cirrfaa about B.C. 590. (Strab. iz. 
p. 418.) [Eurylochus.] In the time of the poet 
Simonides we find a second Aleuas, who was a 
friend of the poet. He is called a son of Echecm- 
tides and Syris (Schol. ad Theocrii. xvi. 34); bat 
besides the suggestion of Ovid (Ibit, 225), thiit ha 
had a tragic end, nothing is known about him. 
At the time when Xerxes invaded Greece, three 
sons of this Aleuas, Thorax, Eurypyhia, and Tbm- 
sydaeas, came to him as ambassadors, to request 
him to go on with the war, and to promise him 
their assistance. (Herod, vii. S.) [Thorax.] 
When, after the Persian war, Leotychides was 
sent to Thessaly to chastise those who had acted 
as traitors to their country, be allowed himself to 
be bribed by the Aleuadae, although he might 
have subdued all Thessaly. (Herod, vi. 72 ; Paus. 
iii. 7. § 8.) This &ct shews that the power of the 
Aleuadae was then still as great as before. About 
the year B. c. 460, we find an Aleoad Orestes, son 
of Echecmttdes, who came to Athens as a fugitive, 
and persuaded the Athenians to exert themselves 
for his restoration. (Thna i. 111.) He had 
been expelled either by the Thessalians or more 
probably by a faction of his own bmily, who 
vrished to exclude him from the dignity of $airi\tis 
(k «. probably Tagus), for such feuds among the 
Aleutulae themselves ore frequently mentioned. 
(XeD.Afiab.l l.g 10.) 

After the end of the Peloponncsian war, another 
Thessolian fiunily, the dynasts of Pherae, gradually 
rose to power and influence, and gave a great shock 
to the power of the Aleuadae. As early as & c. 
375, Jaaon of Pherae, after various straggles, suc- 
ceeded in raising himself to the dignity of Tagns. 
(Xen. Hdlen. ii. 3. § 4 ; Diod. ziv. 82, xv. GO.) 
When the dynasts of Pherae became tyraimical, 
some of the Larissaean Aleuadae conspired to put 
an end to their rule, and for this purpose they invited 
Alexander, king of Macedonia, the son of Amyntas. 
(Diod. XT. 61.) Alexander took liarissa and 
Crannon, but kept them to himself. AfUrwards, 
Pelopidas restorwl the original state of things in 
Thessaly; but the dynasU of Pherae soon reco- 
vered their power, and the Aleuadae again solicited 
the assistance of Macedonia against them. Philip 
willingly complied with the request, broke the 
power of the tyrants of Pherae, restored the towns 
to an appearance of freedom, and made the Aleua- 
dae his bithful friends and allies. (Diod. xvi 14.) 
In what manner Philip used them for his purposes, 
and how little he spared them when it was his 
interest to do so, is sufficiently attested. (Dem. 
<fe Cor.y. 241 ; Polyaen. iv. 2. § 11; Ulpian, /.c.) 
Among the tetnuchs whom he entrusted with the 
administration of Thessaly, there is one Thrasy- 
daens (Theopomp. op. Alien, vi. p. 249), who un- 
doubtedly belonged to the Aleuadae, just as the 
Thesaaliao Medius, who is mentioned as one of 


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th* companion* of Alexander the OreaL (Plat. D» 
TrmqyiL 13; camp. Stnb. xi. p. 530.) The b- 
znily BOW nnk into insignificance, and the last 
certain trace of an Alenad it Thorax, a friend of 
Antigonui. (Plat. Demtlr. 29.) Whether the 
■cnlptora Aleuaa, mentioned by PUnjr {H, N. xxzir. 
8), and Scopaa of Parol, were in any way con- 1 

nected with the Aleoadas, cannot he aMerteincd. 
See Boeckh't OanmaUarf on Find. Pj/A. - ■ 
Schneider, on ArvtOL. PaliL ». 6, 9; but more r- 
cuUrly Bottmann, Vm dem GttcUedt derAUm 
in hit M^ioLu. p. 246, ftc, who ha» made oat the 
following genealogical table of the Aknada^ 

Albdas n^^s^ 
EiNQ, OB Taovr, of Th«ssai.t. 

Mother Arehedice. 

01. iO. Echccratidct. 
„ 45. 
» SO. 





wife Dyieria. 

Alenaa II. 

Scopat I. 

/ . > 

Cieon. Diactoridei. 


Antiochns, Tagui. 

Thorax, Enrypylni, Thratydaena. 







Scopai III., Tagni. 

I Hellanocratet. 

Eurylochu*. Eudicu*. Simua. Thratydaeoa. 


ALEUAS, an artitt who wat fiunona for hit 
itatnea of philoaophera. (Plin. H, !f. xxxir. 8. t. 
19, 26.) [C P. M.] 

A'LEUS CAXtis), • aon of Apheidaa, and 
gnmdton of Arcaa. He wat king of Tegea in 
Arcadia, and married to Neaeia, and it laid to 
have founded the town of Alea and the firtt tem- 
ple of Athena Alea at Tegea. (Patu. liii. 23. g I, 
4. § S, «[&; Apcdlod. iii. 9. g 1.) [Alsa.] [L. S.] 
ALEXA'MENUS ('AA<{aM«n!>), wat general 
of die Aetoliana, a c. 196 (Polyb. xriii. 26), and 
wat tent by the Aetoliant, in a. c. 192, to obtain 
poMettion of Lacedoemon. He tacoeeded in hit 
object, and lulled Nabit, the tyrant of Lacedae- 
mon ; but the lacedaemoniant riling againtt him 
thardy after, he and mott of hit troopi wera killed. 
(Ut. xxxt. 34—36.) 

ALEXA'MENUS CAXtiatuois), of Teoa, 
waa, according to Aiittotle, in hit work upon 
poeU (wtpl woarrm), the firtt penon who wrote 
dialognet in the Soctatic ityle befon the time of 
Plato. (Athen. li. p. 604, b. c.; Diog. Laert. iii. 48.) 
ALEXANDER. [Parm.] ' 

ALEXANDER (*AA^{a»tpoi), the defender of 
men, a tumame of H«ia under which the wat 
worshipped at Sicyon. A temple had been built 
there to Hera Alexandra* by Adiattot after hit 
flight from Aigo*. (SchoL ad Find. Nem. ix. 30 i 
comp. Apollod. iii. 12. § S.) [L. 8.1 

ALEXANDER CAA^toi^poi), a man whom 
Mitbridatet it charged by Solla with having tent 
VLV^"»*« Nicomedet. {h^ipm, Dt Bell Mitkr. 
57.) He leema to be the tame penon at Alexan- 
der the Paphlagonian, who it ofterwardt (76, &c.) 
ranitumed a* one of the general* of Withridate*, 
and wa* made pritoner by Lucullut, who kept him 
to adorn hu triumph at Rome. [L 8.] 

ALEXA'NDER CAA^eiwJpoi), a aaint toA 
martyr, whote memory it celebrated by the Romiafc 
church, together with the other martyra of Lyoni 
and VisDne, on the lecond of June. He wat a 
oatire of Phrygia, and a phyiieian by protettie", 
and wat put to death, x. D. 177, during the perte- 
cation that raged against the churchea of Lyont 
and Vienna under the emperor Marcoa Aurriia** 
[EpUL Ece/a. Lmgdun. et Viam. apud Eiueb. H^ 
Eai.y.l.f.\6i.) He waa condemned, together with 
another Cfarittian, to be doToured by wild bMtt 
in the amphitheatre, and died (aa the hictonaB 
exprettet it) "neither uttering a groan nor awv 
lable, but conrening in hit heart with Ooo." 
(BzoTiut, Nomtmdator Sametanm Pnfiamam Hf 
diconan ; MartgroL Raauat. ed. Baron.; Aita ffaaii 
fcirwn, June 2.) [W. A. a] 

ALEXANDER, an Acaknanun, who hid 
once been a friend of Philip III. of Macedonia, 
but forsook him, and iaunnated himself to mtA 
into the fiiTonr of Antiochns the Qreat, that i» 
waa admitted to bia most secret deliberationa. Ha 
adnsed the king to invade Oreeoe, holding out «• 
him the most brilliant prospects of Tictory oyer ^ 
Romans, ■. c. 192. (LaT. xzzr. 18.) Antkxte 
followed his adrice. In the battle of Cynoaoephalte, 
in which Antiochns was defeated by the Bomsai) 
Alexander was coTeted with wonnda, and in this 
state he carried the news of the deCaat to his kiag, 
who waa staying at Thnninm, on the Maliac nK 
When the king, on his retreat from Greece, tad 
reached Cenaemn in Enboea, Alexander died and 
was buried there, B. c. 191. (zxxvi. 20.) [L. 8.1 
ALEXANDER of AEOAE ('AAitastfief M- 
yuoi), a peripatetic phUoaopher, who flonrithcd tt 
Rome in ths firtt century, and a diseipla of tkt 
celebnttd mathematician Soaigenea, whoae cakolf 


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taona wm aaed bjr Jnlin C i mm for hii correction 
of the ymr. He wu totor to the emperor Nero. 
(Smdu, & n. 'AA<(w<(Wi A^ycun ; Suet. Tit. £7.) 
Two t wtiiei on tbe writingi of AriitoUe are sttri- 
bated to iiim hj ■one, but an trigned bf otfaen 
to Alexander Aphmdinenaa, I, On the Meteoro- 
logy of Arietotle, edited in Oreek by F. Aanlanne, 
Yen. 1527, in latin by Alex. Piccolomini, 1640, 
bi. II. A mmmwitary on the Meti^yiie*. The 
Oredc haa never been pnUiehed, but then i* a 
latin Tenion by Sepoireda, Rom. 1637. [B.J.] 

KiMo or Mackdohu.] 

ALEXANDER CAXif/nlpos), a eon of Aui>- 
Tca, waa one of the oonnnandcn of the Macedo- 
nian x***^"^" >» the army cf Antigoau* Doion 
daring the battle of geUau igainat Cleomenea III. 
of SfairtB. in B. c. 82-2. (Polyb. ii. 66.) [U S.] 


AXTO, No. 3.] 

ALEXANDER (;A\i(m4fot), am ef Ano- 
pm, a natiTe of the Macedonian diitrict called 
Lynmtii, whence he i* nnally called Alexander 
Lyneeataa, Jutin (xi 1) make* the lingnlar 
miitake of calling him a brother of LyneeeUe, 
while in other pniiigtii (xi. 7, xii. 14) he um* the 
eeraect c x|M f iuii . Ue wa« a oontempoiary of 
Philip of Macedonia and Alexander the Great. 
He had two brother*, Heromene* and Anfaabaem ; 
all three were known to haTO been accomplice* in 
the murder of Philip, in B. c: S36. Alexander 
the Orcst on his accoeion pnt to death all thoae 
who had taken part in the murder, and Alexander 
the Lynoeatian waa the only one that wa* par- 
doned, becanae he wai the firat who did homage to 
Alesuder the Great a* hit king. (Arriin, AmA. 
i. 25 ; Cortiin, til 1 ; Joatin, xi. 2.) Bnt king 
Alexander not only pardoned him, but eren made 
him hia fiiend and raiand him to high honour*. 
He waa firat entnated with the command of an 
army in Thiaee, and afterward* receiTcd the com- 
mand of the Theaaolian hone. In thia capacity 
he arrnmpanied Alexander on hi* eaatem ex- 
peditioa. In bl c. 834, when Alexander waa 
atayiog at Phaaelia, he waa informed, that the 
Ly aee a ti a m waa carrying on a aecret ooneapandence 
with king Uarnu, and that a huge anm of money 
waa promiaed, for which he waa to murder hu 
aoTefcign. The bearer of the lettera from Dariua 
waa taken by Pamenion and brought before Alex- 
ander, and the traaehery waa manifoat. Yet 
Alexuder, dreading to create any hoetile foeiing 
ia Antipater, the regent of Macedonia, whoae 
daagfater waa married to the Lyneeatian, tboogfat 
it adnaable not to pnt him to death, and had him 
metriy depoaed finm hia office and kept in en*- 
tody. In thia meaner he waa dragged abont for 
three yeara with the. army in Aaia, until in b. c. 
330, when, Phibtaa baring been put to death for 
s ioailar crime, the Maeedcoiana demanded that 
Alemadcr the Lynoeatian ahonld likewiae be tried 
and pnniaked according to hia deaert. King Alex- 
ander g^Te way, and a* the traitor waa unable to 
exculpate himarif, he waa put to death at Projph- 
thaaaa, in the country of the Drangae. (Curtiui, 
L CL, and riii. 1 ; Juatin. zii. 14 ; Diod. xnL 32, 80.) 
The object of thia tmitor waa pnhably, with the 
aid of Pciaia, to gain poaaearioa of the throne of 
Macedonia, which pmioa* to the reign of Amyn- 
taa IL had for a time belonged to hi* family. [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER QA/U^u/tpos), an AnoUAN, 



who, in eonjanction with Dorymachn*, pot hinuelf 
in poeeeee i op of the town of Aegeiia in Achaia, 
dnring the Social war, in a c; 220. Bat toe con- 
duct of Alexander and hi* naiofiatf* waa ao inso- 
lent and n^aaou*, that the inhabitant* of the 
town roae to expel the small band of the Aetolian*. 
In tha enantng oonteet Alexander waa killed while 
Bghting. (Polyb. It. 67, 58.) [L. S.] 

Ains^), a Gredt poet and grammarian, who lired 
in the leign of Ptolemaeu* Pkiladdphna. Ue waa 
the aon of Satyma and Stiatodeia, and a natiTe of 
nenjtm in Aetolia, bat spent the greater part of 
hia life at Alexandria, where he waa reckoned one 
of tha aeren tragic poeta who constituted the tiagio 
pleiad. (Snid. *.«.; Endoc p. 62 ; Paua. iL 22. § 7; 
SchoL ad Horn. IL xvi. 233.) He had an office 
in the library at Akxandiia, and waa commis- 
sioned by the king to mak* a ooUeetion of all the 
tngediea and aatyiie dtamaa that were extant. 
He apent aome time, together with Antagoraa and 
Aiatua, at the court of Antigonua Oonatas. (Ara- 
tua, Phamamftma tt Dumm. iL pp. 431, 443, &c 
446, ed. Buhle.) Notwithstanding the dialinction 
he enjoyed as a tragic poet, ha appear* to haTe had 
greater merit aa a writer of epic poems, elegies, 
epigmns, and cynaedi. Among his epic poems, 
we poaseia the titles and soma fragments of three 
pieeea : the Fiaherman (dAi«)>, Athcn. Tii. p, 296), 
Kirka or Krika (Athen. Tii. p. 283), which, how- 
erer, ia designated by Athenaeaa aa doubtfiil, and 
Helena. (Bekker, A—od. p. 96.) Of hia elegies, 
some beautiful fragutenta are atill extant (Athen. 
ir. p,170,xip. 496, ZT.p.899; Strtb. xii p. 666, 
xiT. p. 681 ; Parthen. End, 4 ; Tietx. ad. lioophr. 
266 ; Schol. and Eastath. ad IL iiL 314.) Hia 
Cynaedi, or 'Iwriwl wei^/wro, are mentioned by 
Sltabo (xiT. pi 648) and Athenaeua. (xir. p. 620.) 
Some anapaeatic Tetaes in praise of Euripides are 
pnserTed in Oellin*. (xt. 20.) 

All the fragment* of Alexander Aetolu* are col- 
lected in *'AIexaadri Aetoli fragmenta colL et UL 
A. Capellmann," Bonn, 1829, 8to. s comp. Welo- 
ker. Die Oritdt. Tragodiem, p. 1263, &c.; Dilntxer, 
Die Pragm. der Bpitdi. Potm der Orieciat, vat 
Alaand. dtm Gnmen, t[B. p. 7, &C. [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER ('AXtf/Mpmi), (ST.,) of Alix- 
ANDKIA, succeeded a* patriarch ii that dty St 
Achillaa, (as hia predecessor, St Peter, had pre- 
dicted, Martfr. S. Ptiri, ap. Surinm,ToL tL p. 677,) 
A. D. 312. He, " the noble Champion of Apostolie 
Doctrine," (Theodt HUL Sod. I 2,) first laid bore 
the irreligion of Ariu*, and condemned him in hia 
dispute with Alexander Baucali*. St Alexander 
waa at the Oecumenical Council of Nicaea, A. n. 
326, with hia deacon, St Athanaiin*, and, scarcely 
fire months after, died, April 17tli, A. d. 326. 
St Epiphanius {ado. Haent. 69. § 4) eays he wrote 
some serenty circnhir epistles against Ariu*, and 
Socrate* {H. B. L 6), and Soaomen (H. B.i. 1 ), 
that he collected them into one Tolume. Two 
epiitle* remain ; 1. to Alexander, bishop of Con- 
stantino|de, written after the Council at Alexan- 
dria which condemned Arius, and before the other 
circular letter* to tbe Tarious bishop*. (See Theodt 
H.E.i.ii Galland. BiU. Pair. toL iv. p. 441.) 
2. The Encyclic letter announcing Arius^ depo- 
sition (Socr. H.B.\.6, and Oalland. Le. p. 461X 
with the sabacriptions from Gelasins Cysicen. 
(Hist. Con. Niaun. ii. 3, ap. Mans. Cfaactfrn. ToL ii. 
p. 801.) There lemaina, too, nt D^oatkm </ 


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Jrnu and Au, i. e. an Addren to the Priettt and 
UtiieoBf, deuiing their coDcurrence tbeiein (ap. 
S. Athanai. toL L Pt. 1. p. 396, Paru, 1698 ; lee. 
Galland. 2. e. p. ASS). Two fmgmenSa more, apad- 
Qalland. (l. e. p. 456.) St. Athananut alio give* 
the ucond epiatle. (/. e. p. 397.) [A. J. C] 

ALEXANDER CAA}{<u«fiot), commander of 
the horte in the army of Antioonus DoaoN dur- 
ing the war ogainat Cleomenet III. of Sparta. 
(Polyb. ii. 66.) He fought againat Philopoemen, 
then a young man, whose prudence and valour 
forced him to a diaadTantageoos engagement at 
SeUaaia. (ii. 68.) Thia Alexander ii probably the 
aame person ai the one whom Antigonua, aa the 
guardian of Philip, had appointed commander of 
Philip'* body<-gnard, and who wai Calumniated by 
Apelles. (ir. 87.) Subaequently he waa aent by 
Philip ai ambiuaador to Thebei, to penecnte Me- 
soleaa. (t. 28.) Polybius atatea, that at all timei 
he manifeated a moat extraordinary attachment to 
hii king. (rii. 12.) [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER fAA^ttwSpor), of Antiocbia, 
a friend of M. Antonina, who being acquainted 
with the Syriac kngnage, acted twice aa interpreter 
between Antonius and one Hithridatea, who be- 
trayed to him the plana of the Parthian*, to aave 
the Romana. Thia happened in B. c, 36. (Paeudo- 
Appian, Parlk. pp. 93, 96, ed. Sehweigh.) [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER CAA^io»«(»i), aon of Anto- 
nius, the triumvir, and Cleopatra, queen of Egj-pt. 
He and hia twin-»iater Cleopatra were bom a c. 
40. Antoniu* beatowed on him the title* of "He- 
lios," and ** King of Kings," and called hi* ii*ter 
" Selene." He al*o destined for him, a* an inde- 
pendent kingdom, Armenia, and such countries a* 
might yet be conquered between the Euphrates 
and Indn*, and wrote to the senate to have hi* 
grant* confirmed ; but hi* letter was not auffeied 
to be read in public, (a. c. 34.) After the con- 
quest of Armenia Antoniu* betrothed Jotape, the 
daughter of the Median king Artavaadea, to hia 
aon Alexander. When Octavianua made himaelf 
master of Alexandria, he spared Alexander, but 
took him and hi* si*ter to Rome, to adorn his 
triumph. They were generoasly received by Oo- 
tavia, the wife of Antonius, who educated them 
with her own children. (Dion Cassins, xlix. 32, 
40, 41, 44, 1. 25, IL 21 ; Plut. .Antom. 86, 54, 87; 
Liv. Mi>a. 131, 132.) [a P. M.] 

ALEXANDER QAXiioptfos), bishop of Apa- 
MKA, sent with his namesake of Hierapolia by 
John of Antioch to the Council of Epheau*. A 
letter by him ia extant in Latin in the Nom Ool- 
leetio ConcUiorum i Stepian, Baluxio, p. 834. c 
132. fol. Paris 1683. [A. J. C] 

arSpot 'Appalurtfit), a native of Aphrodiaia* in 
Caria, who lived at the end of the aecond and the 
beginning of tlie third century alter Chriat, the most 
celebrated of the commentators on Aristotle. He 
was the disciple of Herminus and Ariatoclea the 
Mesaenian, and like them endeavoured to free the 
Peripatetic philosophy from the syncretism of Am- 
monius and others, and to restore the genuine in- 
terpretation of the writings of Aristotle. The title 
i {{irXT")! was the testimony to the extent or the 
excellence of his commentaries. About half hia 
voluminous work* were edited and translated into 
Ijatin at the revival of literature ; there are a few 
more extant in the original Greek, which have 
never been printed, and an Arabic version is pre- 


served of aeveral other*, whoae title* may he <een 
in the Bibtiotheca of Casiri. (VoL i. p. 243.) 

If we view him a* a philoaopher, hi* merit cso- 
not be rated highly. His excellencies and defcos 
are all on the model of his great master ; there is 
the aame perspicuity and power of analysis, united 
vrith almost more than Aristotelian plainneu of 
style ; everywhere "a flat sur&ce," with Dothiii| 
to intermpt or strike the attention. In a mind n 
thoroughly imbued with Aristotle, it cannot be ex- 
pected there should be much place &r original 
thought. His only endeavour i* to adiqit tic 
work* of hi* maater to the *pirit and language cl 
hi* own age ; but in doing *o he i* constantly re- 
called to the earlier philosophy, and attacks by- 
gone opinions, a* though they had the same Uriig 
power as when the writings of Aristotle were di- 
rected against them. (Ritter, GftckieUe dir Flak- 
sqpite, voL iv. p. 255.) 

The Platonuts and earlier Stoics are his dad 
opponents, for he regarded the Epicnreana as tw 
sensual and nnphilosophical to be worth a aetinii 
answer. AgmM the notion of the fint, that titt 
worid, although created, might yet by ^e will of 
Ood be made imperishable, he nidged that God coold 
not alter the nature of things, and quoted the 
Platoniat doctrine of the necessary coexistence of 
evil in all corruptible things. (Ritter, p. 262.) 
God himself, be said, was the very fdnn U 
things. Yet, however difficult it may be ts 
enter into this abstract notion of God, it wraU 
be unjust, as some have done, to charge him willi 
atheism, as in many pa**ages he attributes mind 
and intelligence to the divine Being. This ii 
one of the points in which ha has bronght ost 
the views of Aristotle more cleariy, from hu liiisg 
in the light of a hter age. God, he says (■ Aftte- 
f^lt, ix. p. 320), is "properly and aimply one, ike 
self-existent substance, die author of motion hin- 
self unmoved, the great and good Dei^, withral 
beginning and without end:" and again (mMtiiipk 
xii. p. 381) he asserts, that to deprive God of (n- 
vidence is the same thing as depriving honey of 
sweetness, fire of warmth, snow of wmttncss anl 
cooloe**, or the *oul of motion. The pravideoce of 
Ood, however, i* not directed in the sam* way t* 
the sublunary world and the rest of the univme : 
the latter is committed not indeed to Site, hot to 
general laws, while the concerns of men *ro tko 
immediate care of God, although be find not is 
the government of them the full periiectian of kii 
being. (Qiiaest. Aa<. i. 25, ii21.) He *aw no incaa- 
sistency, as perhaps there was none, between these 
high notions of God and the materialism wilk 
which they were connected. As Ood was the 
form of all things, so the human aool wa* likewiai 
a form of matter, which it was impossible to ceo- 
oeive a* existing in an independent state. Be 
seems however jto have made a distinction betvea 
the powen of reflection and sensation, for be an 
(deAnima, i. p. 138), that the soul needed not tli* 
body as an instrument to take in objects of tbooght, 
but was sufficient of itself; unless the latter is to 
bo looked upon as an inconsistency into which he 
ha* been led by the desire to harmonise the early 
Peripateticism with the purer principle of a later 
philosophy. (Bmcker, vol. iL p. 481.) 

The most important treatise of his which hai 
come down to us, is the "De Fato," aa inqsiiy 
into the opinions of Aristotle on the subject it 
Fate and FreewilL It i* probably one of his latetf 


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vmks, and mtut hare been written between the 
;ean 199-211, became dedicated to the joint em- 
perm Serenu and Oiramlla Hen the earlier 
Stoics are hia opponents, who BMerted that all 
thing! anae from an eternal and indiaaolubk chain 
of fnnaw and etbcti. The labject i> treated 
pneticaBy rather than tpecnlatiTcJy. Univenal 
opuiion, the canunon nae oif langnaget, and internal 
eonieioaaneH, are hi* main argnmenti. That bie 
ha* a veal exiiteace, it piOTed by the diitinetion 
we dzaw between &te, chance, and poeubility, and 
between bee and nnrriniy actioni. It i* another 
word fer nature, and ita woddngi are Men in the 
ten d m rie* ol men and thingi (c 6), for it i> an aU- 
penading canie of real, bat not afaaolnte, power. 
The fc*-'t-— of the Stoica doe* away with fiee- 
will, and as destroy* reipontibility : it is at vaii- 
anee with eray thought, word, and deed, of our 
IiTeaL The Stoics, indeed, attempt to leeoncile 
necoEity and freewill; bat, properly ^Making, 
they nae freewill in a new seme for the necntaty 
co-opemtion of oar will in the decrees of natnie : 
noreorer, they cannot expect men to carry into 
piBctlee the subtle distinction of a will necessarily 
yet ficely acting; and hence, by destroying the 
aeeomitafalenns of man, they destroy the founda* 
tioo of mondity, religion, and ciril gOTcmment 
(e. 12 — ^20.) Sapposing their doctrine tma in 
theory, it is impossible in action. And even spe- 
adatiTely their argument from the anirersal chain 
is a eonfaaion of an order of aeqnenes with a aerie* 
of canae* and effecta. If it be said again, that the 
gods have certain foreknowledge of nitare events, 
sad what is certainly known must necessarily be, 
it is answered by denying that in the nature of 
things there can be any such foreknowledge, ss fore- 
knowledge is proportioned to dime power, and is a 
knowled^ of whst divine power can perform. The 
Stoical Tiew ineritably leads to the conclusion, that 
all the fsisting ordinances of religion are bhuphe- 
mons and absurd. 

Thi* treatise, which ha* been edited by Orelli, 
gin* a good idea of his style and method. Upon 
the whole, it must be allowed that, althou^ with 
Ritter we cannot place him high as an independent 
thinker, he did much to enooursge the accurate 
Btndy of Aristotle, and exerted an influence which, 
according to JuUu* Scaliger, was still felt in bis 
day. (Bmcker, toL ii. p. 480.) 

The following list of his worics is abridged Irom 
Hsrles's Fabriciua. (VoLt. p. 650.) I. Xltft 
tSfiofiUnit Kot ToS i^f il/uy, />■ Palo, dega* to 
<fitod M iiOB<ni foMaU ett: the short treatise 
mentioned above, dedicated to the emperor* Se- 
Tens* and Caninilla ; first printed by the mo- 
oesaon of Aldus Manntiu*, 1534, folio, at the end 
of the work* of Themistins : translated into Latin 
by Orotins in the ooUection entitled "Vetemm 
Philoa. Sententiae de Fato," Paris, 1648, 4to., 
Lond. 1688, 12mo., and edited by (^elli, Zurich, 
1 8'24, Sto., with a fragment of Alexander Aphndis. 
/)le /^orima, and treatise* of Anunonins, Plotinos, &C. 
on the aame subject. II. Com>»eiitanu${'Tw6iurr)im) 
M primmm Bbrmn Analgtieonm Prionm Aridoldu, 
Venet. Aidi, 1520, fd.; Floren. 1521, 4to., with a 
Latin tzansfartion \ij J. Bap. Felicianna III. Com- 
mmlariau m VIU Ubm Tcpieonm, Ven. Aldi, 
1613 ; with a Latin renion by O. Doratbens, Ven. 
1536 and 1541 , and Paris, 1542, foUo ; and another 
by Baarins, Ven. 1569, 1673, fofio. IV. Cbm- 
swat as EUmdUH SofkUtioM; Oiaecc, Ven. Aldi, 



lS-30, foL; Flor. 1520, (A. : translated into Latin by 
J. B. Rasaiius. V. Cammait. ta Melapijiticontm 
XII tibm; ex reisione J. O. Sepulredse, Rom. 
1527, Paris, 1636, Ven. 1544 and 1561. The 
Oteek text has never been printed, although it 
exists in the Paris library and several others. 
VI. In Itbmm deStmiH ei m gaat mi tnmm eathal; 
the Oreek text is printed at the end of the com- 
mentary of Simplicdus on the De AnimH, Ven. Aldi, 
1527, folio ; there is also a Latin version by Luei- 
lius Philothaens, Ven. 1544, 1549, 1554, 1559, 
1573. VIL In AriMbMu Metenlogica; Ven. 
Aldi, 1527; supposed by some not to be the 
work of Alexander Aphrod. VIII. /)a Afiitiaas; 
bound up in the tame edition as the preceding. 
IX. De AmaUi libri dao (two distinct works), 
printed in Greek at the end of Themittius : there 
IS a l«tin version by Hieronymus Donatus, Ven. 
1602, 1514, foUo. X. Pkgmea SiMia, dibitatkma 
el tohuionei; in Oreek, Ven. Trincavelli, 1536, 
folio ; in Latin, by Hieronymus Bagolinus, Ven. 
1541, 1549, 1556, 1659, 1563. XI. 'larpucd 
'AwofnfMora ml *iwutd n^Aif/wra, Qmuttionet 
Medieae et PnUemata P^tiea. XI L Tltfl Tlvft- 
Twr, Ubttbu dt Ftbribtu. The last two treatises 
are attributed by Theodore Qaza and many other 
writers to Alexander Tiallianuib They are spoken 
of below. 

His oommentariea on the Categories, on the hit- 
ter Analytics (of the hut there was a translation 
by St Jerome), on the De Animi and Rhetorical 
works, and also on those wspl ymimtts xal ^topit, 
together with a work entitled Liber I de Theok^git, 
probably distinct from the Cononentaries on the 
Metaphysics, are still extant in Arabic A Com- 
mentary on the prior Analytics, on the De Inter- 
pretatione, a treatise on the Virtoes, a work enti- 
tled wtfA Stuidinw Kiyot, a treatise againtt Zeno- 
bius the Epicurean, and another on the nature and 
qualities of Stones, also a book of Allegories from 
mythological foblea, are all either quoted by others 
or referred to by himself. [B. J.] 

Besides the works universally attributed to 
Alexander Aphrodisiensis, there are extant two 
others, of which the author i* not certainly known, 
but which are by *ome persons supposed to belong 
to him, and which commonly go under his name. 
The first of these is entitled 'lorputd 'Aropidwn-a 
aat •iwinl XlpoSKiiuern, Quaettiona Madixu et 
Problemata Pkgeiea, which there are strong reasons 
for believing to be the work of some other writer. 
In the first place, it is not mentioned in the list of 
his works given by the Arabic author quoted by 
Casiri {BMioA, AnMxr-Hup. EtamaL voL i. 
p. 243) ; secondly, it appears to hare been written 
by a person who belongsd to the medical profession 
(ii. prae£ at § 11), which was not the case with 
Alexander Ajdutodisieneis ; thirdly, the writer re- 
fers (I 87) to a work by himself; entitled 'AMif- 
•fOfiM r£r sit Ssodr 'AmirXarra/i^nn' Tbtatmr 
'laropuH', AUegoriae Hutoriarum Ondittliiun de 
Dm Fatriaatanan, which we do not find mention- 
ed among Alexander's works ; fourthly, he more 
than once speaks of the soul as immortal (ii. piaeC 
et § 63, 67), which doctrine Alexander Aphrodi- 
siensis denied ; and fifthly, the style and language 
of the work teem to belong to a later age. Sereml 
eminent critics suppose it to belong to Alexander 
TiaUianna, but it doe* not seem likely that a 
Chiiatiaa writer would hare compoaed the mytho- 
logical work mentioDed above. It conii*t* of two 


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bocks, and contaiiu aeTenl inteuMting medical ob- 
•errations along with much that ia friToloua and 
thfliiig. It WB« first published in a Latin tmnsl^ 
tion by Oeoige Valla, Venet. 14R8, fid. The 
Greek text is to he {bond in the Aldine ediUon of 
Aristotle's works, Venet foL 14^95, and in that by 
Sylbuigios, FrancoC 1585, 8ra. ; it was pnblished 
with a Latin translation by J. Darion, Palis. 1540, 
1541, 16nio.; and it is inserted in the first Tolnme 
of Ideler's Phynd et Media Graed Minoret, BeroL 
1841, Bto. 

The other work is a short tiestise, n^ nvprrii', 
D* Febribut, which is addressed to a medical pnpil 
whom the author oflen to instruct in any other 
branch <rf medicine ; it is also omitted in the 
Arabic list of Alexander's wodcs mentioned aboye. 
For these reasons it does not seem likely to be the 
work of Alexander Aphrodisiensia, while the whole 
of the twelfth book of the steat medical woik of 
Alexander Tiallianus (to whom it has also been 
attributed) is taken up with the subject of Fever, 
and he would hardly hare written two tieatises on 
the some disease without making in either the 
slightest allusion to the other. It may possibly 
belong to one of the other numerous physicians of 
the name of Alexander. It was first published in 
a Latin translation by Oeorge VaUa, Venet 1498, 
fol., which was seTcral times reprinted. The Greek 
text first appeared in the Cambridge Mutmrn 
Oriliam, toL iL pp. 359 — 389, transcribed by IV 
metrius Sehinas from a manuscript at Floienoe; it 
was published, together with Valla's translation, by 
Franx Paasow, VratisUv. 1822, 4to., and also in 
Paasow's Ojnaeula Aeadaniea, Lips, 1835, 8vo.; 
p. 521. I'm Greek text alone is contained in the 
first Tolmne of Ideler's Phyria et Medici Oraed 
Mimrt*, BeioU 1841, 8ro. [W. A. G.] 

ALEXANDER ('AA^&irfpoi), the eldest son of 
Abistobulds II., king of Judaea, was taken pri- 
soner, with his fiither and brother, by Poinpey, on 
the capture of Jerusalem (b. a 63), bat made his 
escape as they were being conreyed to Rome. In 
& c. 57, he appeared in Judaea, raised an army of 
10,000 foot and 1500 horse, and fortified Alexan- 
dreion and other strong posts. Hyrcanus applied 
for aid to Oabinina, who brought a large army 
against Alexander, and sent H. Antonius with a 
body of troops in advance. In a battle fought 
near Jemialcm, Alexander was defeated with great 
loss, and took refuge in the fortress of Alexan- 
dreion, which was forthwith invested. Through 
the mediation of his mother he was permitted to 
depart, on condition of surrendering all the for- 
tresses still in his power. In the foUowing year, 
during the .expedition of Gabinius into Egypt, 
Aleximder again excited the Jews to revolt, and 
collected on army. He massacred all the R<nnans 
who fen in his way, and besi^ed the rest, who had 
taken refuge on Mount Oerizim. After rejecting 
the terms of peace which were oSined to Urn by 
Gabinius, he was deCeated near Mount Tabor with 
the loss of 10,000 men. The spirit of his ad- 
herents, however, was not entirely crushed, for in 
& a 521, on the death of Crsssus, he again collected 
some forces, but was compelled to come to terms by 
Caaaino. (b. c. 52.) In b. c. 49, on the brsaking 
oat of the dvil war, Caesar set Aristobnlus at 
liberty, and sent him to Judaea, to further his in- 
terests in that quarter. He was poisoned on the 
journey, and Alexander, who was preparing to 
support him, was seized at the onmmand of Pompey, 


and beheaded at Antioch. (Joeeph. Aii. Jti, 
xiv. 5—7 ; BeU. Jud. i. 8, 9.) [C P. M.] 

ALEXANDER, of Athxnb, a oobic poet, tb 
son of Aristion, whose name ocean in an inicrip- 
tion given in Biickh {Corp, Inter. L p. 765), who 
refers it to the 145th Olympiad, (b. c. 200.) Then 
seems also to have been a poet of the aame asn 
who was a writer of the middle oomedy, qaatni 
by the SchoL on Homer {IL ix. 216), and Aiistii]ilL 
{Rom. 864), and Athen. (iv. p. 170, b x. p. 466, c; 
Meineke, Fragm. Com. vd. i. p. 487.) [0. P. IL] 

ALEXANDER {'AXiffiripat), an ambaMdar 
of king Attalus, sent to Rome in B.a ISS, ts 
negotiate peace with the Roman senate. (Psl^k 
xvii. 10.) [L. S.] 

a person of low origin, usurped the tfaroK a( 
the Greek kingdom of Syria, in the year lit, 
B. c, pretending Uiat he was the son of Antiodiai 
Epiphanea, Hts claim was set up by Heradodo, 
who had been the treaanrer of the late king Antio- 
chus Epipbones, but had been banished to Wain 
by the reigning king, Demetrins Soter; aadke 
was supported by Pudemy PhSometor, king of 
Egypt, Ariarthes Philopotor, king of Cappadods, 
and Attains Phikddpkus, Idi^ of Pergsmsi. 
Heradeides also, having taken Alexander ts Rsoe, 
succeeded in obtaining a decree of the scBstt in 
his fsvour, F^imidied with forces by these allies, 
Alexander entered Syria in 152, a. c, took pos- 
session of Ptolemaia, and fong^t a hattls with 
Demetrius Soter, in which, however, he wa> de- 
feated. In the year 150 B. c Alexander sgiin 
met Demetrius in battle with better sacceik The 
army of Demetrius waa completely routed, and be 
himself perished in the fiight No sooner bd 
Alexander thus ohtoined uu kingdom thss In 
gave up the adminiatration of a&irs to his minB- 
ter Ammonius, aad himadf to a life of pleaane. 
Ammonias put to death all the membeis of the Iste 
royal bmily who were in his power ; hat two lou 
of Demetrius were safe in Crete. The elder of 
them, who was named Demetrins, took the fidd in 
Cilida against the usarper. Alexander spplied 
for help to his fether-iit-hiw, Ptolemy Phikoietai, 
who marched into Syria, and then dedsnd hin- 
self in &vonr of Demetrins. Alexander sow » 
turned fiom Cilido, whither he had gone ts oset 
Demetrins, and engaged in battle with Ptokoy st 
the river Oenopaioa. In this battl^ thafb 
Ptolemy fell, Alexander was coB]detely deAslad, 
and he was afterwards murdored by an AmUss 
emir with whom he had taken reioge. (B.alM-) 
The meaning of his surname (Btdos) is doabiU. 
It ia moat probably a title signifying "hod" or 

** kiitg." On some of his coins he is calM 
" Epiphanes" and " Nicephonis'* after bis jn- 
tended fiithsn On others *■ Eneigetei " mi 
" Theopator." (Polyb. xxxiii. 14, 16 j U». ^ 
L liii.; Jnstin, xzv.; Appiao, .i^sa«a, e. 67; 1 


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.11; Jaeph. AmL zni 2.%4; l^ueb. 
Ointoi, Artt, iii. {k 324.) [P. S.] 

ALEXANDER, of BraoBA ; h* and Tbyni* 
■rfbcrted Dcanetiiiu, dM Km of Philip IH. of 
UncdoDi^atHeiadei^in &cl79. (Lir.xl.S't; 
c■B^l. Dnamiia, ion of Pbiup.) [US.] 

ALEXANDER (^AU^ntpot), at bat Uibep 
ia CAiTjiDacu, flmtuhcd ^ d. 212. On the 
d«atk of Several, A. D. 211, ha Tiated JeraMlem, 
nd «■> mada eoadjotor itf the aged Naaanu, 
habip of tfast city, iriioni he aitcrwanb aacaeeded. 
He famdad an Mdadaatical lihmy at Janiialem, 
•f wbiA EnaeUai made gnat nie in wiitiag hi* 
Bittary. After nfliBiDg nado' SeTenu and Cam- 
alia, he «ma at laat tfanwa into priMa at CaMana, 
nd, aAsr witnenng a good oonfeuioB, died A. D. 
250. Eaaebiiu hai pmaRrad fiagmenla of a letter 
wtittai itf him to the AntinoRei; of another to 
the Antiadiene* (UiaL Bud. Ti. 11); of a third 
to Origen (ti. 14); and of anotlier, written in con- 
janetion with Theoctiatni of Caeiana, to Deme- 
triu of Alexandria, (ri. 1 9.) [A. J. &] 

arfpat i 'AK^pocfvt), floaiiihed in the third 
centoiy. To aroid the dangen of a hand- 
Mae penon, ha dkgniaed hisuelf and lived as 
a coaUwKver at Cumae, in Ana Minor. The aee 
of thia city heing vacant, the people aiked St. 
Gregory Thanmatoigni to come and ordain them a 
biskop. He rejected many who were oSered for 
oaoMcxmtion, and when he bade the people prefer 
rirtae to rank, one in mockery cried out, " Well. 
thea I make Alexander, the ceal-hevrer, biahop!" 
St. Grcjpny had him KumnoDed, dieeorend hi* 
diigoiaer uid hamng aimyed him in moerdotal 
t taiui e ii ta, peeamted him to the people, who, with 
•arpriae and joy, aeeepled the appointment. . He 
addiaaaed them in homely bat dignified phiaee, 
ind raied the church till the Dedan penecution, 
when he waa bnnt, a. d. 251, (S. Greg. Nyaeen. 
rk & Ong. TkMMmalmrg. g§ 19, 20, ap. Galland. 
aUutk. I-atr. ToL iiL pp^ 467—460.) [A. J. a] 

ALEXANDER CA^'&o<f>«r), third aon of 
Camahdbb, king of Maoedonia, by Theamlonica, 
later of Alexander the Great In Mi quaird 
with hi* elder bnther Antipater inr the govem- 
nent [AmrrATm], he called in the aid of 
PTrrhna of Epim* and Dtmetliu* Polioioetes. 
To the farmer he wa* eompellcd to natender, a* 
the pciee of his alliaaoe, the land on the aearcaait 
of Macedonia, togelber with the prorincea of Am- 
faacia, Araraania, and Amphilochia. (Pint. 
J'frri. p. 386, b.) Demetrin^ acootding to PIo- 
tmh (./^rnL 386, d., Dnaefr. 906, a.), airiTed 
after Pj^ns had ictired, and when matter*, 
throng^ hi* medialion, had been arranged between 
the fantheia. Dnaetiini, theiefbn, wa* now an 
imwekom* neitor, and Alexander,^ while be re- 
ceived him with, all oatwaid civility^ is' mid by 
Plntaidi ta bare laid a plan for murdering him at 
abaaqnet, which wa* baffled, however, by the 
neeaatioa of Demetrioi. (Demeir. 900, a. b.) 
The next day Demetrin* took hi* departoiC) and 
Alexaader attended him a* &r as Theaaaly. Here, 
at T.— '— ; be went to dine with Demetrius, and 
(taking do gnuds with him by a fimcied reAne- 
meat of pali^] wi* aaaauinated, together with his 
iHeid* who attolded him, one of whom is mid to 
have ezdaimed, that Demetrius wa* only one day 
beinriiaDd widi them. (Plot Damii\ p. 906, 
cd.;JBal.zTil{Diod.ui.Ezs.7.) [£.£.] 



ALEXANDER rAX<{ap«por), emperor of Con- 
STANTiNorLB, wa* the third aon of the emperor 
Baailins and Eudocia. He waa bom about A. D. 
870, aad, after hit &ther's death, he and bis bro- 
ther Leo, the philoaepher, bore the title of impetator 
in cemraoD. Leo died on the 11th of Hay, 911, 
and Alexander leedveA the imperial eiown, toge- 
ther vrith the guardianship of his brother'a son, 
Conatantinii* Porphymgeaitni, whom he would 
have m u til a te d ao a* to render him mifit to oovem, 
had he not been prevented. The reign of Alex- 
ander, which hated only for atw year and aeme 
day*, wa* one nnintemipted aeriee of acta of 
cruelty, debaochery, aad licentiasmeea ; for the 
restiamt* which he had been obliged to pot on 
himself daring the lifetime of hia brother, were 
thrown off immediately after hia aeceaaion, and 
the wfntfaiest penons were removed from the court 
whik the ministers to hia Inats and paaaiona were 
raiaed to the higheat honoura. He involved hia 
empire in a war with Simeon, king of the Bulga- 
liana, bat he did not live to aee its outbreak. He 
died on the 7th of June, 912, in consequence of a 
debouch, after which he took violent exercise on 
horaeback. (Constant, m Bant 26 ; Seyliti. pp. 
£69, 608 ; Zonaias, xvi. IS, Ac.) [L. 3.] 

ALEXANDER (ST.), patriareh of Constanti- 
nople. [Akiuk] 

KsprifXior), aamamed Polvhistor (noAiwraip), 
a Greek writer and contemporary of SuUa. Accord- 
ing to Suida* he was a native of Ephein* and a 
pupil of Crate*, and during the war of Sulla in 
Greece was made piiaoner and sold aa a abve to 
Coroelins Lentoloa, who took him to Rome and 
made him the paedagogna of hi* children. After- 
ward* Lentnlua reatored him to fieeaom. From 
Suida* it would aeem as if he had received the 
gentile name Cornelius from Lentulna, while Sei^ 
viu* {ad AeH, x. 388) mya, that he received the 
Roman ftanchiae fiom L. Cornelius Sulla. Ue 
died at Laurentum in a fire which eonamned hia 
houae, and aa aoon aa Ma wife heard of the cala- 
mity, ahe hung herael£ The atatement of Snidaa 
that he was a native of Ephesu* is contmdicted by 
Stephaau* Byaantiu* (<; e. Ktrridtm), who aaya 
that he wa* a native of Cotiaenm in LcMer Phrygia, 
and a *an of Aadepiadea, and who is borne out by 
the Etymologicam Magnum (t. m. tftoim and 
Tepifi^i)l7Ji), where Alexander ia called Konaetfr. 
The Bomame of Polyhiator waa given to him on 
occoont of his pndigioiis learning. He is said to 
have written innnmenble works, but the greatest 
and most important among them was one consisting 
of 42 books, which Stephanus Byzantiua calls 
TIeumiS<iwit''t\iti Aiym, This work appears to 
have contained historical and geographical accounts 
of nearly all oonntries of the ancient world. Each 
of the forty booka treated of a aepaiate country, 
and bene a correaponding title, auch aa Phrygiaca, 
Carica, Lyciaca, &c But auch titles are not al- 
ways sura indications of a book forming only a 
part of the great work ; and in some caiea it ia 
manifest that particular countries were treated of 
in aqiarate worka. Thua we find moition of the 
first book of a aepaiate work on Crete (Sebol. ad 
ApcUm. Rkod. iv. 1493), and of another on the 
" Traetna lUyricua." ( VaL Max. viiL 1 3, ext. 7.) 
These gaographico-historical work* are icfelred to 
in ionnmerable paaaagea of Stephanna Byxantius 
and Pliny. A aepomte work on the Phrygian 

I 2 


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muucians a mentioned by Plutarch (De Mut. 5), 
and there is every probability that Alexander Poly- 
hittor i< also tbe author of the work AuSoxa' 
*iXo<r6pay, which nema to be the groondworic of 
Diogene* Laerttaa. [Albxandbr Lychnd8.] A 
work on the lymbola of the Pythaooreani is men- 
tioned by Clemens AIexandrinns(^>rDiii.i. n.131) 
and Cyiilln* (oJe. JtUiait. ix. p. 133). He also 
wrote a history of Judaea, of which a considerable 
fragment is preserved in Ensebius. (^Praep, Evang. 
ix. 17 > comp. Clem. Alexand. Strom. L p. 143 ; 
Steph. Byz. i. v. 'ImSoia.) A history of Rome in fire 
books is mentioned by Suidaa, and a few fragments 
of it are pieseired in Senrins. {Ad Aen, viiL 330, 
z. 388.) A complete list of all the known titles 
of the works of Alexander Polyhistor is given in 
Vosaius, JM Hiit. Graee. p. 187, &c., ed. Wester- 
mann. [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER I. XL. kings of Egypt [Pto- 


ALEXANDER ('AA^fu^pos) J., king of Efi- 
Rus, was the son of Neoptolemns and brother of 
Olympias, the mother of Alexander the Great 
He came at an early age to the court of Philip of 
Macedonia, and after the Grecian &8hion became 
the object of his attachment. Philip in requital 
made him king of Epims, after dethroning bis cou- 
sin Aeacidea. When Olympias was repudiated 
by her husband, she went to her brother, and en- 
deavoured to induce him to moke war on Philip. 
Philip, however, declined the contest, and formed 
a second alliance with him by giving him his 
daughter Cleopatra in marriage, (a c. 336.) At 
the wedding Philip was aaaassinated by Panaanias. 
In B. C. 332, Alexander, at the request of the 
Tarentines, crossed over into Italy, to aid them 
against the Lncanians and Bruttii. After a victory 
over the Samnites and Lucanians near Paestum 
he made a treaty with the Romans. Success still 
followed his arms. He took Heiaclea and Consen- 
tia£«m the Lucanians, and Terina and Sipontmn 
from the BruttiL But in B.C. 326, through the 
treachery of some Locanian exile*, he was com- 
pelled to engage under unfavourable circumstances 
near Pandosia, on the banks of the Acheron, and 
fell by tbe hand of one of the exiles, as he was 
crossing the river ; thus accomplishing the prophecy 
of the omcle of Dodona, which had bidden him be- 
ware of Pandosia and the Acheron. He Idt a son, 
Neoptolemns, and a daughter, Cadmea. (Justin, 
viii. 6, ix. 6, 7, xii. 2, xvii. 3, xviii. 1, xxiii. 1 ; 
Liv. viii. 3, 17, 24 ; Diod. zvi. 72.) The head on 
the annexed coin of Alexander I. represents that 
of Jupiter. [C. P. H.] 

ALEXANDER IT., kii« of EriROR, was the 
■on of Pyrrfaa* and Ijanosaa, tbe daughter of the 
Sicilian tyrant Agathocles. He succeeded his fa- 
ther in & a 272, and continued the war which his 
father had begnn with Antigonns Gonalas, whom 
h» sncceeded in driving from the kingdom of 
MsMdon. He was, however, dispossessed of both 


Maeedon and Epims by Demetxios, the son of 
Antigonus; upon which he look refiige arnon^ 
the Acamanians. By their assistance and tlist of 
his own subjects, who entertained a great attaiti- 
ment for hun, he recovered Ernnis. It sppean 
that he was in alliance with the Aetolisiii^ He 
married his sister Olympias, by whom he had tiro 
sons, Pyrrhus and Ptolemaena, and a daughkx, 
Phthia. On the death of Alexander, Olyuqasi 
assumed the regency on bdialf of. her sou, sad 
married Phthia to Demetrius. There sn eitsiit 
silver and copper coins of this king. Tbe former 
bear a youthiul head covered with the skis of m 
elephant's head, as appears in the one figured be- 
low. The reverse represents Pallas bcMing a ipeir 
in one hand and a shield in the other, and befm 
her stands an eagle on a thunderbolt. (Justin, xiii. 
I, zzvi. 2, 8, xzviii. I ; Polyb. iL 45, iz. 34; 
Pint PfiTh. 9.) [C. P. M.] 

ALEXANDER ('AA^{ay<fx»), a Greek Gaiic- 
HARIAN, who is mentioned among the initracUn 
of the emperor M. Antoninna. (Caj^toL M.Aid.i; 
M. Antonin. L § 10.) We still poeseis a A>)w 
^iT^^T pronounced npon him by the ihetorioan 
Aristddes. (Vol. i. Orai. xiL p. 142, te.) [L.S.] 

ALEXANDER, son of Herod. [HxaoDst.] 

ALEXANDER ('AXliartfm). 1. Bishop of 
HiBRAFOLU in Pbiygia, fiomished A. d. 253. H< 
was the author of a book entitled, 0» litmaedrngt 
introduced bg Ckriit nfo Oie vxyrid rl xaaif v*i- 
nyKt Xpurris tls rir xiiriwii, ac^. If ; net eztanL 

2. Bishop of Hierapolis, A. ik. 431. H« wu 
sent by John, bishop of Antioeh, to odvtcste the 
cause of Nestorius at the ConncU of Epbesus. Hii 
hostility to St Cyril was such, that he opcalT 
charged him with Apollinaranixm, and lejected 
the communion of John, Tbeodoret, and the olln 
Eastern bishops, on their reconciliation with him. 
He appealed to the pope, bnt was rejected, snd 
was at hiat banished by die emperor to FsaotUi 
in Egypt Twenty-thiea lettOB of his an extsol in 
Latin in the SgnodixM advemu Trago$diam Irtma 
ap. Nonam OoUeelitMem QmcUiormm i. Balwao, f. 
670, &C. Paris, 1683. [A J. C] 

SOLYMITANUS, a disciple, first, of Paataemis 
then of St Clement, at Alexandria, where he be- 
came acquainted with Origen, (EuseK Uiit. Eti. n. 
14,) was bishop of Flaviopolis, (Tillemoot Hi*. 
Eed. iii. 415,) in Cq>padocia. (S. Hier. Far. lU. 
§ 62.) In the persecution undor Seveics he «as 
thrown into prison, (drc. A. D. 204, Euseb. vl 11,) 
where he remained till Asdepiatdes sucoeeded 
Serapion at Antioeh, A. n. 21 1, the heginniiig of 
Catacalla^ reign. (See [a] the EpisUe St Alex- 
ander sent to the Antiochenes by St Ciaiicnt of 
Alexandria. Enieb. H.E.yx. 11.) EnaebiDs b- 


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lii» ({. c), tlut by IHrine rerehtion he be- 
eme aadjntor bishop to Niraans, bishop of 
Adia, i. e. Jonnslcni, x. D. 212. (See EnwK 
/f.£. Ti. 8; Onmic ad A. D. 228, and AJexan- 
deA [fi] fipialle to the Antinoites ap. EiueK H. E. 
«i II.) Doling his epiacopate of nearly forty 
yean (for he continned Uahi^ od the death it 
St. Nanaana), he coUected s vahiabie library of 
Ee dnit tt tic n l Ep U h t , whiefa eziaSed in the time of 
Eoe eb im. {H.E.yi.7n.) He reeeiTed Origen when 
the tnmbln at Akxandm drove him thence, x. d. 
21 S, and mads him, thoogfa a layman, explain the 
Scciptnres paUidy, a proceeding which he jnitified 
in [7] an epiatle to Bidiop Demetrini, of Akzandiia, 
(ap. Enaeb. H.B.tL 19,) who, however, lent 
Hoe deacnni to faring Oiigen homei A< Origen 
vaa paaang thnmgfa Paleatine, on 10010 necenaiy 
hnainieaa, St. Alexander ordained him prieat, 
(S. Hier. il c §§ 54, 62,) which canaed great di»- 
tarfaanee in the dboidi. [OaiGBH.] A&Sfpnentofa 
[<] letter £nira Sl Alexander to Oiigen en the <nb- 
iectexiita,apLiBb«6Lir.£'n.l4. St Alexander 
died in the Dedan peneention, A. D. 251, in priaon 
(a INco. Alex. 1^ E—A. H. B. ■n. 46) after great 
aufl e iiu gi {BatA. vi. 39), and ii commemorated in 
the Eaatem chnrch on 12^ December, in the Weat- 
em on I6th March. Hacabanea aneceeded him. 
St. Clement of Alexandria dedicated to him hia Da 
Camtmt Ene/niaitm about the obaemnce of Eaater. 
{/f. £. n. 13.) Hia bagmenta have been men- 
tioned in chnnological ocder, and an collected 
in GaDandi, BiU. Pair. a. f. 201, and in Ronth's 
Hdigmiaa Saente, ii. p.-39. [A. J. C] 

'lavMuin), waa the aon of Johannea Hyicanna, and 
brstiier of Ariatobohu I., whom he aneceeded, as 
King of the Jews, in a a 104, after patting to 
icm^ one of his brothera, who laid claim to the 
crown. He took adiaatage of the unquiet state of 
Syria to attack the dtica of Ptoleman (Acre), 
Don, and Oaza, which, with aereral others, had 
made tfaemselTes independent. The people of 
PtolemsTa applied for aid to Ptolemy Lathyras, 
then king of Cypraa, who came with an army of 
thkty thoaaand men. Alexander waa defeated on 
the banks of the Jordan, and Ptolemy ravaged the 
eoontry in the most harbaioas manner. In b. c. 
102, Cleopatra came to the assistance of Alexan- 
der with a fleet and army, and Ptolemy was com- 
pelled to retnmto Cyprus, (b. c. 101.) Soon af- 
terwards Alexander invaded Code Syria, and re- 
newed his attacks npon the independent dties. In 
a. a 96 he took Uaxa, destroyed the dty, and 
maaaacred all the inhabitants. The reanlt of theae 
undertaking*, and hia having attached himself to 
the party of the Saddaceea, drew apon him the 
h^red of the Pharisee*, who wen by br the more 
nameraoa party. He was attacked by the people 
in ■. c. 94, while officiating a* high-jmest at the 
ieast of Tabemades ; bat tte insurrection was pat 
down, and ax thoaaand of the ivoigeats slain. In 
the next year (b. c. 9S) he made an expedition 
i^ainst AiaUa, and made the Anba of Gilead and 
the Moabites ti9bntaiT. But in a. c 92, in a 
i»mp«,gii againat Obedas, the emir of the Anba of 
Oanlonitia, he fell into an ambush in the moun- 
tains of Oadan : bis umy was entirdy destroyed, 
and be himself escaped vrith diiGcnlty. The Pha- 
liaees seiied the o p por tu nity thus afforded, and 
broke ont into open revolt. At first they wen 
soGcessfbd, and Alexander waa compelled to fly to 



the mountains (b. c 88) t bat two yean atier- 
wards he gained two dednve victories. After the 
second of theae, he caused eight hundred of the 
chief men amongst the nbels to be cniciiied, and 
their vrives and children to be bntchend befora 
their eyes, while he and his concubines banqueted 
in sight <k the victims. This act of atrodty pro- 
cnnd for him the name of ** the Thracian." It 
prodneed its eflfect, however, and the nbeOion was 
shortly afterwards suppressed, after the war had 
lasted six yean. During the next three yean 
Alexander made some soocessfhl campaigns, reco- 
vered sererd dties and fortresses, and pushed bis 
conquests beyond the Jordan. On his return to 
Jenualem, in n. c 81, his excessive drinking 
brought on a quartan ague, of which he died three 
yean afterwards, while engaged in the nege of 
Ragaba in Oenaena, after a reign of twenty-seven 
year*. He left his kingdom to his wife Alexandra. 
Coins of this king are extant, from which it ap- 
pean that his proper name was Jonathan, and that 
Alexander was a name which he assumed accord- 
ing to the prevalent custom. (Joaephns, Ant. Jud. 
xiu. 12-16.) [C. P. M.] 

ALEXANDER fAX^asfl^i), samamed Uivn, 
the chief commander of tiie Aetolians, was a man 
of considerable ability and eloquence for an Aeto- 
lian. (Liv. xxxii. 33 ; Polyb. xvii. 8, &c) In 
B. c. 198 he was present at a coUoqny held at 
Nicaea on the Mdiac gnlf^ and spoke against Phi- 
lip III. of Macedonia, saying that the king ought 
to be compelled to quit Greece, and to restore to 
the Aetolians the towns which had formeriy been 
subject to them. Philip, indignant at such a de- 
mand bdng made by an Aetolian, answered him 
in a speech fixrm his ship. (Liv. xxxii. 34.) Soon 
after this meeting, he was sent as ambsmador of 
the Aetolians to Rome, where, together with other 
envoys, he was to treat with the senate about 
peace, bat at the same time to bring accnaationa 
againat Philip. (Polyb. xriL 10.) In &c. 197, 
Alexander again took part in a meeting, at which 
T. Quinctina Flamininua with his allies and king 
Philip were present, and at which peace with Phi- 
lip was discussed. Alexander dissuaded his friends 
finm any peocefiil anangement with Philip. (Po- 
lyb. xviii. 19, &e. ; Appian, Maad. vii. 1.) In 
B. c, 195, when a congress cf dl the Greek states 
that were allied irith Rome was convoked by T. 
Qninctias Flamininus at Coring, for the purpose 
of considering the war that was to be undertaken 
against Nabis, Alexander spoke against the Athe- 
nians, and also insinuated that the Romans were 
acting fraudulently towards Greece. •(Liv. xxxiv, 
23.) When in a a 189 M. Fulvins Nobilior, 
after his victoiy over Antiochns, was expected to 
march into Aetolia, the AetoUans sent envoys to 
Athens and Rhodes ; and Alexander Isins, toge- 
ther with Phaneas and Lyoopua, were sent to 
Rome to sue for peace. .Uexander, now an old 
man, was at the head of the embassy ; but he and 
his colleagues wen made prisonen in Cephdenia 
by the Epeirots, for the purpose of extorting a heavy 
ransom. Alexander, tiowever, dthongh he was 
very wedthy, refused to pay it, and was aceord- 
in^y kept in captivity for some days, after which 
he was libemted, at the command of the Romans, 
irithoat any rsnsouL (Polyb. xxii. 9.) [L.S.] 

ALEXANDER (^M^iiarifct), samamed LvcR- 
Ntrs {\ix*o'), a Greek rhetorician and poet He 
was a native of Ephesus, whence he is sometimes 


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mlled Alexander Epheniu, and matt bare lirod 
•hortly before the time of Stiabo (nr. pu 64*2), 
who mentions him among the more noent Epheuan 
aathon, and alio itate*, that he took a part in the 
poUtieal aifoiiB of hit natire city. Str^ aacribet 
to him a hiitoiy, and poemi of a didactic kind, 
■wiz. one on astronomy and another on geognphy, 
in which he describes the great continents of the 
world, treaiting of each in a separate work or book, 
which, as we leam £n>m other source*, bcie the 
name of the continent of which it contained an 
acconnt What kind of history it was that Strafao 
alludes to, is nncertain. The so-called Anreliut 
Victor {d» Orig. Gttii. Rem. 9) quotes, it is tme, 
the first book of a history of the Maisie war by 
Alexander the Epheaian ; bat this aathority is 
more than donbtfoL Soma writen Jiare aappasad 
that this Alexander is the anthor of the history of 
the sucoeasion of Greek philosophers {al rmv ^lAo- 
ai^tmi iiotaxo/), which is so oftea refiwred to by 
Diogenes Inertias (i. UC, iL 19, 106, iiL i, fi, 
iT. 62, Tii. 179, niL 34, iz. 61) ; bat tins woric 
bebnged prohaUy to Alexander Polj^iistcr. His 
geogiaphiial poem, of which sereial fragments art 
Btilfextant, is freqnently referred to by Stephanas 
Byzantius and othen. (Staph. Byx. s,«r. A*n|<lar, 
Tar^oAini, ASpot, Tpicmnl, MfAn-oio, &e.; oomp. 
Enstath. ad Dioiy. Ptri^. 888, 591.) Of his 
astronomieal poem a fragment is still extant, which 
has been erroneously attributed by Gale {AdiUnd. 
ad Purtlum. p. 49) and SchncUer (ad Yitne. ii. 
p. 23, Ac) to Alexander Aetolns. f See Naeke, 
SeMm OnHeat, p. 7, &c) It is highly pnbdale 
that Cioera (ad Alt. ii. 30, 22) is speakiag of 
Alexander Lyehnoa when he says, that Alexander 
ia not a good poet, a careless writer, bat yet poa- 
taises some information. [L. S>] 

AuctwMrtit), was so called from Lyoopolia, in 
Egypt, whether as bora thera, or becaoae ha was 
buhop there, is oncertain. At first a pagan, he 
was next instzueted in Hanicheeism by persons 
acquainted with Hanes hiauelC Conreitod to the 
fiuth, he wrote a confatation of the heresy (TVoo- 
laitu de Pladtit Mamckuoram) in Greek, which 
was first published by Cemb^s, with a laUin 
Tcrsion, in the daelaraim Nommimmn BiU. a. 
Pair. Ps. iL pag. S, Ac It is published aho by 
GaUandi, BibL Pair. ToL ir. p. 73. He was bishop 
of Lyoopolis, (Phot .^stoaie d* MamidL <^ 
Mantfaiuoit. Bid. Oaidm. ■^ S54,) aiia probably 
immediately preceded HeletiuB. (La Quicn, Orinu 
Xmu. ToL iL p. SS7.) [A. J. C] 

ALEXANDER ('AX<{aiV>)< the ion of Lva- 
KACBUS br ■>> Odryaian woman, whom Polyaeoos 
(ri. 12) calls Macris. On the murder of his 
brother A^thodas [see p. 65, a] by ccmmand of 
his father in b. c. 284, he fled into Ana with the 
widow of his brother, and solicited aid of Selencnai 
A war ensued in conseqaeoce between Seleucus 
and Lysinachns, which tenniaated in the defeat 
•od death of the latter, who was shun in battle in 
a. Q. 381, in the plain of Come in Fhrygia. His 
body was ocoTeyed by his son Alexander to the 
Chersenesus, and there biuiad between Ctidia and 
Fketya, wbm hit tomb wit noaining in the time 
of Panttniat. (L 10. i 4, fi; Appiai^ Sgr. 64.) 

ALEXANDER L ('AAi{a>«pet), the tenth king 
of MAcaDONiA,wasthe sonof Amyntot I. When 
Mflgafaaans sent Is Ifaoedonia, about a. c. fi07, to 
demand earth and water, la a token of submission 


to Dariaa, Amyntas was still reigning. At a laa> 
qnet given to the Persian eDT03rB, the latter de- 
manded the presence sf the ladiea aS the eouit, sad 
Amyntas, throu^ fear of his gneeta, ordered dm 
to attend, But when the Persiaiia pnceeded to 
ofler indignitiet to them, Alezaader caused them 
to retire, under pretence of am^ing tham nac 
beantifally, and introduced ia ihtir atead aoaae 
Macedonian youths, dressed in female attae, «ts 
slew the Persiana. As the Peraiona did not n- 
turn, Megabaans sent Bobaiea witb toaaa troopa 
into Uacedonia ; but Alezaader sacked the dtn- 
ger by giving his sister Gygaea in marriage to the 
Persian genersL According to Jnstin, Alezaris 
snooeeded his fetfaer in the kingdom toon sfler 
these events. (Herod, t. 17 — 21, viiL IK; 
Justin, viL 3—4.) In B. a 4J)3, Ifneedeais 
was obliged to snfamit to the Pernan genend Uv- 
donins (Herod. vL 44) ; and in Xeixes' imasioo 
of Gmece (a. c 4180), Alexander aceompanied the 
Persian army. He gaiasd the conMenoe af ibt- 
donina, and was tent by him to Athens after the 
battle af Solamia, to prapcaa peace to the Athe- 
nians, adiich he ttmngly leoommended, under the 
conviction that it was impossible to oonteod with 
the PertianB. He was unsaooeesM in his mis- 
sion; but though he eontinoed in the Penam 
army, he waa always aeua tly inclined te tk caaa 
of the Greeks, and infiamed tham the ni^t heim 
the battle of Plataeaeef the intention of Maidouat 
to fight on the fellowing day. (viiL 136, 140— 
143, iz. 44, 45.) He was aUve in a a 46S, 
when Oman recovered Thasos. (Pint. Oim, 14.) 
He waa succeeded I7 Perdiccas II. 

Alexander waa tlie first member of the njsl 
femily of Uacedonia, who presented himself sa s 
competitor at the Olympic games, and was sdnit- 
ted to them after proving his Oreefc dneeat 
(Herod, v. 22; Justin, vii. 3.) In his ingii 
Macedonia reeerred a considerable aoecsaioa of to^ 
ritoiy. (Thuc iL 90.) 

ALEXANDER IL CAM{u«ph), the «• 
teenth king of Macbdonia, the eldest em of 
Amyntas II., succeeded his father in & c SC^ 
and appears to hav« feigned neaily two yon, 
tfaoogh Diodcnu airignt only one to his rags- 
While engaged in Thessaly in a war with Aloai- 
der of Pherae, a nsorper rose up in Macsdcois d 
the name of Ptolemy Alorites, whom Diodasi, 
qipaiently without good aathority, caUs a bn^ 
(rf the king. Pelopidae, being ca&ed in to Bsdista 
between them, left Alexander in poeaessioa sf ths 
kingdom, hot took with him to Thebes moal 
hoetaget; among whom, according to saae k- 
conntt, was Phuip, the youngest brother cf Aln- 
aader, afiarwmda king of Macedonia, and Ertha d 
Alezuider the Great. But ha had sctrcely hft 
Blaoedonia, before Alexander waa uwiJ eitd bf 
Ptolemy AJorites, or aocording to Justin {ri-}')' 
through the intriguet of his mother, EsiydiK- 


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D mwthfg iei (d» fob. lag. f. 402) name* ApoHo- 
phanes aa one of the mwdcRn. (Diod. xt. 60, 
61, 67, 71, 77 ; Plat. Ptiop. 26, 87 ; Atben. xiT. 
p. 6291, d.; Anehin. A/Ul Z9. jn SI, L SS.) 



ALEXANDER IIL fAX^enAfwi), king of 
Mackdohu, -"~-"'«J die Oimt, wai bom mt 
Peila, in the antaum of a a SjS. Ha mu the 
HO of Philip II. and Olyminaa, and he inherited 
mnch of the natmal diipMitioii of both of hia {•- 
nBt>— the eool finvthooght and imctieal wiadom 
of hia Gather, and the ardent entinaiBam and an- 
goremable paaaiona of hia mother. Hia moAer 
befanged to the nyal honae of E^poma, and throngh 
her ha traeed hia deaccnt bm the great hen 
Achillea. Hia eailjr edntatian waa oonunitted to 
T*oi»idaa and Lyahnachu, the fgnaer of whom 
ma a rehdoa of hia mother^ end the faMer ta 
Acamaoian. Leonidaa eaily aeeustomed him to 
endure toil and luodihip, bat Lyairaachna feeon- 
mended himaelf to hia rDjal piqal b]r obaeqniona 
flattery. Bat AlexBider «b alao fbeed under 
the care of Ariatade, who aeqaired aa infloenee 
onr his nnnd and charaetei; which ia maaifeat to 
the lateat period of Ida lifc Ariatotle wmte for 
hia nae a Ireatiae on the art of government ; and 
the dear and eomprehenain riewi of the pditiol 
idationaof natiana and of the natme of gonemment, 
which Alexander ahewa in the midat of all hia coo- 
^aesta, nagr fiuriy be aaoibed to the leaiona he 
had igce i Tcd in hia yeath baa the greateat of phi- 
loaopheiOL It ia not ^ipoaaible tao that hia lore 
of iliaun e ry , which diatinguiahea him from the 
herd of Tolgar eanqncnn, may afao haTe been tan- 
flantad in him 1^ the leaeaichea of Aiiatotla. Ner 
waa his phyaical education neglected. He waa 
earij tcaiDed in all maaly and athletic aporta ; in 
l — — '""-Mp he ezsellcd all of hia age ; and in 
the art of war he had the adrantage of hia fiither^ 

At the eariy age of aixteen, Alexander waa en- 
treated with the goremment of Uacedonia by hia 
father, while he waa obliged to leare hia kingdom 
to march againat Byaaatimn. He fint diatingmahed 
hha^.lf howeret, at the battle of Chaenmeia 
(a. c. 338), where the Tictoiy waa maialy owing to 
hia impetooaity and eooiace. 

On the mnrder of Phil^ (a 8. 836), joat after 
he had made anaagementa to niaiefa into Aaia at 
the head of the confedemte Oteeka, Alexander 
aaoended the throne of Uacedon, and fonnd him- 
aelf aurronnded by enemiea on erery aide. Attalna, 
the ancle of Gcv^tra, who had been aant into 
Aaia by Panaenion with a eonaidfiable farce, aa- 
piied to the thime ; the Gre^i, moaed by De- 
aoasthenes, thiew off the Macedonian aapiemacy ; 
and the baifaoriana in the north threatened hia 
dominiona. Nothing but the prompCeat energy 
could aaTC him ; bat in this Alexander waa nerer 
deficient. Attalna waa Beiaed and pat to deadi. 
Hia ii^id nardl into the aosth of Oieece over- 
awed an <qppoaitioB; Thebea, which had been 
moat actiTO againat him, aabmitted when he ap- 
peared at its galea; and the aaacarided Gieeka at 

the Tathmna of Corinth, with the aole exception of 
the Lacedaemoniana, elected him to the command 
againat Penia, which had prerionaly been bestowed 
upon hia &ther. Being now at liberty to rednce 
the baibariaaa of the north to obedience, he 
marched (early in B. c. 885) acroaa meant Haemna, 
defeated the TrifaalU, and advanced aa &r aa the 
Dannbe, which he cnaaed, and received embamiea 
fivm the Scythiana and other natiotu. On hia 
retain, he marched weatward, and aubdned the 
lUyriana and Taalantii, who were oUiged to anb- 
mit to the Macedonian aapremaey. While en- 
gaged in theae diitant countriea, a report of hia 
death reached Greece, and the Thebana once more 
took np aima. Hot a terrible paniahment awaited 
them. He advanced into Boeotia by rapid marchea, 
and appeared before the gatea of the city afaaoat 
before the inhabitanta bad received intelligence of 
hia approach. The city waa taken by aannlt ; all the 
boildinga, with the exception of the honae of Pin- 
dar, wen levelled with the ground ; moat of the 
inhabitanta botebercd, and the reat aold aa lUvea. 
Athena feared a aimilar fate, sad aent an embaaay 
deprecating hia wrath ; but Alexander did not ad- 
vance iiirtner; the pmuahment of Thebea was a 
aofficient warning to Oreeee. 

Alexander now directed, all hia energy to prepare 
for the expedition againat Penia. In the apring 
of a. c. 884, he croaaed over the HeUeapont into 
Aaia with an army of aboat 35,000 men. Of 
theae 80,000 were foot and 5000 horse; and of 
the former only 12,000 wen Macedonians. Bnt 
experience had shewn that this waa a force which 
no Penian king could reaist Dorins, the reigning 
king of Penia, hod no military akin, and conld 
only hope to oppoae Alexander by engaging the 
eervioea of mercenary Oreeka, of whom he obtained 
huge Bopplies. 

Alexander's first engagement with the Peniana 
was on the bonks of the Oranicns, when they at- 
tempted to prevent hia paaaoge over it. Memnon, 
a Rhodian Greek, waa in the anny of the Peniana, 
and hod reconmiended them to withdraw aa Alexan- 
der's army advanced, and lay waste the country ; 
bat this advice waa not followed, and the Peniana 
were defeated, Memnon waa the ablest general 
that Darina bod, and his death in the foUoving 
year (b. c 338) relieved Alexander from a formid- 
able opponent After the capture of Halicamoaana, 
Memnon had collected a powerfal fleet, in which 
Alexander waa greatly deficient ; he had taken 
many of the islands in the Aegoeon, and threatened 

Before mardiing agmnst Darins, Alexander 
thoa^t it expedient to eabdoe the chief towna on 
the weatem cooat of Asia Minor. The last event 
of importance in the campaign waa the capttm of 
Halieamaaana, which waa not taken till late in the 
autumn, after a vigorona defence by Memnon. 
Alexander marched along the cooat of Lyda and 
Pamphylia, and then northward into Phrygio and 
to Oorainm, where he cut or untied the celebrated 
Oordian knot, which, it was aud, waa to be 
loosened only by the conqoeror of Asia. 

In B. c. 883, he was joined at Goidimn by re- 
inforcementa frtmi Macedonia, and commenced his 
second campaign. From Gordinm he mazthed 
thrODgh the centre of Asia Minor into Cilicia to 
the city of Tarsus, where he nearly lost his life by 
a fever, brought on by his great exertions, or 
thfoa^ throwing himself when heated, into the 


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cold waten of the Cydnna. Darioa meantime had 
collected an immenK army of 500,000, or 600,000 
men, with 30,000 Greek mercenaiiet ; hut initead 
of waiting for Alexander's approach in the wide 
plain of Sochi, where he had been ttationed for 
■ome time, and which waa faTonrable to his num- 
bers and the eralution of his cavalry, he advanced 
Into the narrow plain of Issns, where defeat waa 
almost certain. Alexander had passed through 
this plain into Syria before Darius reached it ; but 
aa soon as he received intelligence of the move- 
ments of Darioa, be retraced his steps, and in the 
batUe which followed the Persian army was de- 
feated with dreadful slaughter. Darius took to 
flight, as soon as he saw his left wing routed, and 
escaped across the Euphrates by the ford of Thap- 
sacus ; but his mother, wife, and children fell into 
the hands of Alexander, who treated them with 
the utmost delicacy and respect. The battle of 
Issos, which was fought towvds the close of B. c 
333, decided the &te of the Persian empire ; but 
Alexander judged it most prudent not to pursue 
Darius, but to subdue Phoenicia, which was espe- 
cially formidable by its navy, and constantly 
threatened thereby to attack the coasts of Greece 
and Macedonia. Most of the cities of Phoenicia 
submitted as be approached ; Tyre alone refused to 
surrender. This city wa* not taken till the mid- 
dle of B. c. 332, after an obstinate defence of seven 
months, and was fearfully punished by the slaugh- 
ter of 8000 Tyrians and the sale of 30,000 into 
slavery. Next followed the siege of Gaza, which 
again delayed Alexander two months, and after- 
wards, according to Josephus, he marched to Jeru- 
salem, intending to punish the people for refiuing 
to assist him, but he was diverted from his purpose 
by the appearance of the high priest, and pardoned 
the people. This story is not mentioned by Arrian, 
and rests on questionable evidence. 

Alexander next marched into Egypt, which 
gladly submitted to the conqueror, for the Egyp- 
tians had ever hated the Persians, who insulted 
their religion and violated their temples. In the 
beginning of the following year (b. c. 331), Alex- 
ander founded at the mouth of the western branch 
of the Nile, the city of Alexandria, which he in- 
tended should form the centre of commerce between 
the eastern and western worlds, and which soon 
more than realized the expectations of its founder. 
He now determined to visit the temple of Jupiter 
Ammon, and after proceeding from Alexandria 
along the coast to Paraetonium, he turned south- 
ward through the desert and thus reached the temple. 
He was saluted by the priesta aa the son of Ju- 
piter Ammon. 

In the spring of the same year (a. c. 331), 
Alexander set out to meet Darius, who had col- 
lected another army. He marched through Fho»- 
niciaand Syria to the Euphrates, which he cnaaed at 
the ford of Thapsacus ; from thence he proceeded 
through Mesopotamia, crossed the Tigris, and at 
length met with the immense hosts of Darius, said 
to nave amounted to more than a million of men, 
in the plains of Qaugamela. The battle was fought 
in the month of October, B, a 331, and ended in 
the complete defeat of the Persians, who suffered 
immense slanghter. Alexander pursued the fngi- 
tives to Arbe£i (Erbil), which place has given its 
name to the battle, and which was distant about 
6Hy miles from the spot where it was fought. Da- 
rius, who had left the field of battle eariy in the | 


day, fled to Ecbatana (Homadan), in HediL 
Alexander was how the conqneror of Asia; sad 
he began to assume all the pomp and splendanr of 
an Asiatic despot. His adoption of Peivan habits 
and customs tended doubuess to conciliate the 
affections of his new subjects ; but these out- 
ward signs of eastern royalty were also acniit- 
panied by many acts worthy only of an eosteia 
tyrant ; he exercised no controol over his pss- 
sions, and frequently gave way to the most viaicnt 
and ungovernable excesses. 

From Arbehi, Alexander marched to Babykn, 
Suso, and Perti^iolia, which aH Murendend witii- 
out striking a blow. He is said to have set fiie ts 
the palace of Persepolis, and, according to sons 
accounts, in the revelry of a banquet, at the insti- 
gation of Thais, an Athenian courtezan. 

At the beginning of b. c 330, Aleiaadtr 
marched &xmi Persepolis into Media, where Dkriss 
had collected a new fone. On his appnack, 
Darius fled through Rhagae and the passes of the 
Elbun mountains, called by the ancients the Csi- 
pian Gates, into the Bactrian provinces. After 
stoppiiig a short time at Ecbatana, Alexander par- 
sued him through the deserts of Parthia, and aail 
nearly reached him, when the unfbrtnnate king vat 
murdered by Bessus, satisp of Bsctria, and but as- 
sociates. Alexander sent his body to Persepolis, to 
be buried in the tombs of the Persian kings. Bcooi 
escaped to Bactiia, and assumed the title of king 
of Persia. Alexander advanced into Hynania, in 
order to gain over the remnant of the Greeks of 
Darius's army, who were assembled there. After 
some negotiation he succeeded ; they were all j>u<- 
doned, and a great many of them taken into bis 
pay. Alter spending f^teen days at Zadncarta, 
the capital of Parthia, he marehed to the bontien 
of Areia, which he entrusted to Satiboiones, the 
former satr^i of the country, and set out oa kii 
march towards Bactria to attack Bessn*, hot bad 
not proceeded fiur, when he was recalled by ther^ 
volt of SatibonaJuea. By incredible exertion be 
returned to Artacoana, the capital of tiie proviaee, 
in two days' march : the satrap took to fligbt, and 
a new governor was appointed. Instead of re- 
suming his march into Bactria, Alexander Kein 
to have thought it more prudent to subdue tbt 
south-eoatem parts of Areia, and accordisglj 
marched into the coimtry of the Drangae nd 

During the army's stay at Prophthasia, the aft- 
tal of the Drangae, an event occnmd, whicli 
shews the altered character of Alexander, Bad re- 
presents him in the light of a suspidoui orienisi 
de^t Philotos, the son of his fiiithfiil genenl, 
Parmenion, and who had been himself a perunsl 
friend of Alexander, was accused of a plot agaioX 
the king's life. He was accused by Alexiadet 
before the army, condemned, and put to deatb. 
Parmenion, who was at the head of an simj st 
Ecbatana, was also put to death by commssd of 
Alexander, who feared lest he should atlempt lo 
revenge his son. Several other trials for tnsKn 
followed, and many Macedonians were execated. 

Alexander now advanced through the coostiy 
of the Aiiaqn to the Arochoti, a people west of 
the Indus, whom he conquered. Their conquest 
and the complete subjugation of Axeia occupied 
the winter of this year. (b. a 330.) In the be- 
ginning of the fbUowing year (b. c. 329), bs 
ciDsaed the mountains of the Ponpamisui (ibe 


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Hindoo Coodi), and mardicd into Boctris agiinct 
Bemn. On tlie appnadi of Alexander, Beuna 
fled acroas the Ozoi into Sogdiaiia. Alexander 
ihaowcd him, and tzu^oited bia anny aooai the 
iiTer on the akina of the tmta atnfled with atnw. 
Shortly after the paaaage Beaua wai betrayed into 
his huida, and, after being cmelly mutilated bj 
order of AJexander, was put to deatli. From the 
Ozna Alexander adranced as &r as the Jsxartes 
(the Sir), which he crossed, and defeated •ereial 
Scjthian tribes north of that lirer. After 
fonsding a city Alexandiia m the Jaxartes, he 
jcUaved Iiis steps, lecroaaed the Oxns, and returned 
U> ZmtiaMpm or Bactia, where he spent the winter 
of 329. It was bete that Alexander killed his 
firiend Cleitos in a dninhen rereL [Clutd&] 

In the spring of B. c. 3'2B, Alexander i^ain 
eroased the Uxos to complete the snbjngation of 
Sogdiana, hat waa not able to effect it in the year, 
and aeeardingly went into winter qnaiters at Nao- 
taca, a jdace m the middle of the proTinee. At the 
bqjiiining of the following year, B. c. 327, he took 
a araontain fntreas, in whuh Oxyartea, a Baetrian 
prince, liad deposited his wife and daughters. 
The beanty of Roxana, one of the latter, captivated 
the eonqoefor, and be accordingly made her his 
wife. This marriage with c»e of his eastern sub- 
jects was in accordance with the whole of his 
policy. Having completed the conquest of Sogdi- 
ana, Alexander mardied southward into Bacbia, 
and made preparations for the invasian of India. 
While in Bactria, another conspinu^ was diacor- 
cied for the morder of the king. The plot was 
famed fay Heimohms with a number of the royal 
pages, and Callisthenes, a pupil of Aristotle, waa 
ioTolTed in it. All the conspiraton were put to 

Alexander did not leare Bactria till late in the 
fmg of B. c. 327, and crasied the Indus, pnba- 
My near the modem Attock. He now entered 
the eonntry of the Penjab, or the Five RiTers. 
Taxilaa, the king of the people immediately east 
of the Indus, si^nuitted to him, and thus he met 
with no reaistanee till he reached the Hydaspea, 
upon the opposite bank of which Porus, an Indian 
king, waa posted with a large anny and a consider- 
able nmnber of elephants. Alexander managed to 
CToas the river unperceiTed by the Indian king, 
and then an obstinate battle followed, in which 
Poms waa defeated after a gallant resistance, and 
taken prisoner. Alexander restored to him bis 
kingdom, and treated him with distingnished 

Alexuder remained thirty days on the Hydaspea, 
daring which time he foonded two towns, one on 
each bonk of the river: one waa called Bucephala, 
in honour of his hone Bucephalus, who died here, 
after carrying him through so many victories ; and 
the other Nicaea, to conmiemoiate his -victory. 
From thence he marched to the Acesines (the 
Chinab), which he crossed, and subeequently to the 
Hydiaotea (the Ravee), which he also crossed, 
to attack another Poras, who had prepared 
to reaiat him. But aa he approached nearer, 
this Porus fied, and his dominions wen given 
to the one whom he had conquered on the 
Hyda^es. The Cathaei, however, who also 
dwelt east of the Hydraotes, offered a vigorous 
renstanoe, hot wen defeated. Alexander still 
pressed forward till he reached the Uyphnsis 
(Otxa), which he was preparing to cross, when 



the Macedonians, worn out by long service, and 
tired of the war, nfnaed to proceed ; and Alexan- 
der, notwithstanding his entresties and pmyers, 
waa obliged to lead them back. He returned 
to the Hydaspea, when he had previously given 
orders for the building of a fleet, and then aoiled 
down the river with about 8000 men, while the 
remainder marched along the banks in two divi- 
sions. This waa late in the autumn of 827. The 
people on each aide of the river submitted with- 
out resistance, except the Malli, in the conquest 
of one of whose places Alexander was severely 
wounded. At the confluence of the Acesines 
and the Indus, Alexander founded a city, and 
left Philip as satrap, with a considerable body 
of Oreeks. Here he built some &esh ships, and 
shortly afterwards sent about a third of the 
army, under Cisterns, through the country of 
the Anchoti and Drangae into Caimania. He 
himself continued his voyage down the Indus, 
founded a city at Pattala, the apex of the delta 
of the Indus, and ailed into the Indian ocean. 
He seems to have reached the mouth of the 
Indus about the middle of 326. Neaichns was 
sent with the fleet to sail along the coast to 
the Persian gulf [Ncarcrvr], and Alexander 
set out from Pattala, about September, to return 
to Persia. In his manh through Gedrosis, his 
army sutferad greatly from wont of water and 
provisions, till they arrived at Pura, where they 
obtained supplies. From Pura he advanced to 
Carman (Kiimaa), the capital of Caimania, where 
he was joined by Cinterus, with his detachment 
of the anny, and also by Nearehna, who hod 
accoropUahed the voyage in safety. Alexander 
sent the great body of the army, under He- 
phaestion, along the Persian gnlf, while he him- 
self with a 110011 foree, marched to Pnaaigodae, 
and from thence to Peraepolis, where he ap- 
pointed Peuoestaa, a Macedonian, governor, m 
place of the former one, a Fenian, whom he 
put to death, for oppressing the province. 

From Peraepolis Alexander advanced to Susa, 
which he reached in the beginning of 325. Here 
he allowed himself and bis troops gome rest from 
their labours ; and foithfill to his plan of forming 
his European and Asiatic subjects into one people, 
he assigned to abont eighty of his generals Asiatic 
wives, and gave with them rich dowries. He him- 
self took a second wife, Banine, the eldest daugh- 
ter of Darius, and according to some accounts, a- 
thiid, Porysatis, the daughter of Ochus. About 
10,000 Macedonians also followed the example 
of their king and generals, and married Asiatic 
women ; all these received presents from the king. 
Alexander also enrolled laige numbers of Asiatics 
among his troops, and taught them the Macedonian 
tactics. He moreover directed his attention to the 
increase of commerce, and for this purpose had the 
Euphrates and Tigris made navigaUe, by removing 
the artificial obstructions which bad been made in 
the river for the purpose of irrigation. 

The Macedonians, who were discontented with 
several of the new arrangements of the king, and 
especially at his placing the Penians on an equality 
with themselves in many respects, rose in mutiny 
against him, which he quelled with some little 
difficulty, and he afterwards dismissed about 10,000 
Macedonian veterans, who returned to Europe un- 
der the command of Craterus. Towards the close 
of the some year (n. c. 325) he went to Ecbatano, 


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where he Int hit gnat frroniite Hephaestion ; mA 
hii grief for hit lou knew no bounds. From Ech«- 
tona he marched to Babylon, mbdniiw in his way 
the Coisaei, a momitain tribe ; and berora he leach- 
ed Babylon, he was met by ambasaadon from 
ahnoit eTeiy part of the known worid, who had 
come to do homage to the new oonqneror of Asia. 

Alexander reached Babylon in the spring of & c 
324, aboat a year before nis death, notwiSistand- 
ing the warnings of the Chaldeans, who predicted 
enl to bim if he eDtered the city at that time. He 
intended to make Babylon the capital of his empire, 
aa the best point of conmiDniaition between his 
•aitem and western dominions. His schemes wen 
nnmeraos and gigantic His first object was the 
oonqseit of Aralna, which was to be followed, it 
was said, by the snbjugatim of Italy, Carthage, 
and the west Bat Ua view* were not confined 
merely to oaaqaest He sent Hencleides to baitd 
a fleet on the Caspian, and to explore that sea, 
which was said to be connected with the northern 
ocean. He also intended to iraprora the distribn- 
tion of watcn in the Babylonian plain, and for 
that pnrpoie sailed down the Enphrates to inspect 
the canal called PaUaeopas. On his retnm to 
Babylon, he found the prepamtions for the Arabian 
expedition neariy complete ; bat almost immedi- 
ately afterwards he was attacked by a fenr, pro- 
bably brDBght on by his recent exertions in the 
marahy districts anand Babylon, uid aggm- 
rated by the qaantity of wine be had drank 
at a banqaet given to his principal cfficen. He 
died after aa illness of eleren days, in the month 
of May or Jane, B. c. 823. He died at the sge of 
thirty-two, after a reign of twelre yean and eight 
months. He upointed no one a* his successor, 
bat jnst before his death he gave his ring to Per- 
diecaa. Raxana was with chUd at the time of his 
death, and afterwards bore a son, who is known by 
the name of Alexander Aegns. 

The history of Alexander farms an important 
epoch in the history of mankind. Unlike other 
Asiatio conqoerors, his progress was naifccd by 
something more than devastation and rain ; at 
every step of his coarse the Oredc laagnage and 
civiUzatien took root and flourished ; and after his 
death Greek kingdoms were formed in all parts of 
Asia, which continoed to exist for eenturies. By 
his conquests the knowledge of mankind was in- 
creased ; the sciences of geography, natural history 
and othen, leoeived vast additions; and it was 
throng bim that a read was opened to India, and 
that Earopaana became acquainted with the pn>- 
dncts of the remote East 

No cantempoiaiy author of the campaign* of 
Alexander sorvivee. Oar best aocoont comes fma 
Arrian, who lived in the second century of the 
Christian aeca, but who drew up his history from 
the accounts of Ptolemy, the son rf I<agns, and 
Aristobolos of Cassandria. The history of Quintus 
CtutinB, Phttarch's life of Alexander, and the 

epitomes of Justin and Diodoros Senlna, were ifai 
compiled fnm earlier writen. The bat medon 
writers on the snbject an: St Croix, JSnius 
erUiitiedaamaau H ulorimtcrAleKaitJnbOrmd; 
Droysen, OaseWotfa AlamiJen dm Oramm; W3 
lianu, L^ of Almamigr; Thiilwall, BUtarf tf 
Ontet, vols. vi. and viL 

ALEXANDER IV. OAA^fovS^iw), king of 
MAoaooNiA, the son of Alexander the Great sad 
Roxaaa, was bom shortly after the death of Us 
fother, in a. a. 328. He wu acknowledged as the 
partner of Philip Aithidaens in the empire, and wis 
under the gnaiilianship of Peidiccaa, the Rgeat, 
till the death of the latter in B. c. 821. He wss 
then for a short time pboed nnder the goardianh^ 
of Pithon and the gaiecal Anhidaeoa, and sabss- 
qnently andw that of Antipater, who eontqe d 
him with his mother Roxana, and the king P^^ 
ArrfaidaeuB and his wife to Macedonia m Ht. 
(Diod. xviii. 86, 89.) On the death of Antipsis 
in 319, the government fell into the hands of 
Pdyspeiehon ; hut Eniydice, the wife ef Pbflip 
Arniidaeas, begin to fonn a powerful poity ia 
Macedonia in opposition to Pobrnerchon; sad 
Rcotaaa, dreading her inflnenee, nsd with her im 
Alexander into J^iru, where Olynpias had limi 
for a long time. At the instigation of Olynpis^ 
Aeaeidea, king ef Bpeiras, nude rommoB owe 
with Polysperchon, and restored the yoong Alex- 
ander to Macedonia in 817. [AKACion,] Eoiy. 
die* and her husband were put to death, and tbe 
supreme power fell into the hands of Olympiaa 
(xix. 1 1 ; Jastin, xiv. 5.) Bat is the felkwisi 
year Caasander obtained possession of Maoedooit, 
put Olympias to death, and impriaoned Alesaadet 
and his mother. They remained in prison till iht 
general peace made in 31 1, when Alexander^ tide 
to the cnwn was recognised. Many of his fs^ 
tiians demanded that he should be immediBtdy 
released from prison and pbced upon the thnoe. 
Cassander therefon resohred to get rid of so dsa- 
gerous a rival, and oansed him and his mctlier 
Roxana to be murdered secretly in prison, (elc 
811. Diod. xix. jl, 52, 61, lOfi; Jastin, xv. 3; 
Paua ix. 7. $ 2.) 

ALEXANDER QAK4iu*pot), a Kwbaimo- 
LIT AN. He was ori^noUy a Macedonian, bat bad 
received the fianehiae and was settled at Megslo- 
polis about & c. 190. He pretended to he a de- 
scendant of Alexander the Great, and accotdindj 
called his two sons Philip and Alexand«. nil 
daughter Apama woa married to Amyasada^ 
king of the Athamanians. Her eldest hnther, 
Philip, followed her to her court, and being of s 
vain chanMter, he allovred himself to be tenpted 
with the prospect ef gaining posaesaon of the 
throne of Macedonia. (Liv. zzxv. 47 ; Araiao, Sfr. 
IS; comp. Prilip, son of ALCXANDsa.) [L.&] 

On the accession of Antiochas III., aitennrli 
called the Great, m b. a 224, he entroMcd Aln- 
ander with the government ef the eatrapysf Pexiii 
and Molo received Media. Antaoehas was tin 
only fifteen years of age, and this circnmMaiits, 
together with the feet that Henuenu, a base bt- 
terer and enfty intriguer, whoni every am had tt 
fear, was all-powetihl at his court, induced the tn 
biothen to form the plan of causing the spf" 
atnpie* of the kingdom to revolt It was the 
aecret wish of Hetmeia* to see the king involTedni 
as many diffiealties aa possible, and it wai ea lii 


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adrice that the war against the rebeh was entnuii- 
ed to BKu Titfaont eounge and ability. In B. a 
220, hawerer, Anliodma hinwelf undertook the 
fwniBaiid., Itoie «raa daaerted by his troopi, and 
ta SToid fiJIing into the hands of the king, pnt on 
end to hia awn life. AD the leaden of the letnt- 
lian fallowed hia example, and one of them, wita 
mcMftd to Penis, killed Itde's mother and chii- 
dna, penaaded Alexander to pnt an end to his 
£fe,aad at last killed himsdf iqion the bodies «f 
his frienda. (Pslyb. t. 40. 41, 43, 54.) {h. &] 

ALEXANDER the Honk ('AAtfuV l->^ 
xf')t pprhapi a natrre of Cyprus. AH we know 
of his age is, that he lired faefoce Minhawl Olyeas, 
A. Ik li8Q, who quotes him. Two eistioBS by him 
arc extant. 1. A Panegyric on St, Bamahas, <fiL 
BoUamJi AeU Aautanaa, toL xzi p. 436. 2. Con- 
eeming the Inveation of tke Cross, qi. Gnbtr. ie 
Cnet OkrwH, 4te. Iiwdst. ISOO. [A. J. C] 

AUSXANDEB CAA^eovflpot) of MvNCUS in 
CaiiB, a Greek writer ki soelsgy of nnoertain date. 
Hit walks, whidi are new lost, must hare becsi 
eonaidieced my nduaUe by the ancients, smce 
they refer to th^ veiy beqaently. The titles of 
his works are : Krtimr 'bnffa, a long fiagment 
of wfaicii, behmging to the aeoond book, is quoted 
by Athrnams (t. p. 221, eomp, ii. p. 65 ; Aalian, 
MU. Am. iJL 23, ir. S3, t. 27, x. 34.^ This wo^ 
is ptofaably the same as that whidi in other pas- 
sages ia sim|dy called IIspl Zstw, and of which 
Athesuteu* (ix. p. S92) likewise quotes the second 
book. The work on birds {Utfl Ilnpw, Pint 
Mar. 17; Athea. ix. jf. 387, 388, 390, &c) was 
a sepaokte work, sad the seoiid book of it is quot- 
ed by Alhcnaens. Diogenes Laeitins (L 29) men- 
tiaos oae Alexon of Myadus as the anther of a 
work on myths, of which he quotes the ninth bo^ 
This author being otherwise unknown. Menage 
propneed to read 'AA^£iu4pot i MiMwi instead of 
AAc{tir. Bat everything is ancertain, and the 
conjectnie at least is net Tery pnhabls, [L. S.] 
Naifi4>"o*, or 6 N*iifa)vlev, as Saidas calls him), a 
Greek rbetorician, who lived in the reign of Ua- 
diian or that of the Antonines. About his life 
aothiog is kmiwn. We poseeas two works which 
are ascribed to him. The one which cutainly is 
his woric bean the title Iltpt tm' rit ^Mutita col 
ASs/ms 2xV^*>', i. c. "De Fignris Sententiamm 
et Eloentionia." J. Rnfiaiaaas in his work on the 
same subject (pk 195, ed. Bnhnkan) expressly states 
that Aqoila Romanna, in his tzeatiae " De Fignris 
SententianuB et ElocatiaBis," took his matwials 
&am Alexander Nomenias' wnk mentianed abora 
The second work bearingthe name of Alexander 
Nnmenins, entitled n<^ %rtStacTudi>, t. e. " On 
Show-speeches," is admitted on all hands not to be 
hia work, but of a later gnunmarian of the name of 
Alexander ; it is, to speak more oonectly, made vp 
rttj dmanly from two distinct ones, oae of which 
was written by one Alexander, and the other by 
Menaader. (Vales, ad BtaA, Hid. Eecla. p. 28.) 

The first edition of these two works is that of 
Aldus, ia his collection of the Mtiora Oram, 
Vimiee, 1508, foL, toI. L p. 574, &c. They are 
also caotained in Wals's Bketwra Oram, -nL Tiii 
The genuine work of Alexander Namenius haa 
also been edited, together with Miaucianus and 
Phoebammon, by L. Nonnann, with a Latin trans- 
lation and uaeAil notes, Upaala, 1690, Sto. (Sea 
Ruhnkea, ad AqmL Am. p. 139, Ac; Wealei- 



raann, Getdk. ier Oritci. BemlttamlKU, { 95, a. IS, 
i 104, «. 7.) [L. 8.] 

ALEXANDER, 'aa Athenian paintxb, one of 
whose produetioas is extant, painted an a marble 
tablet which bean hia name. (Winckelmaan, 
ToL ii. pi 47, T. p. 120, ed. Eiaelein.) There was 
a Sim of king Perseus of this name, who was a 
skilful toreotea. (Plat. AtrnO. PauL 37.) There 
was also a M. LoUina Alexander, an engnrer, 
whose name oecun in an iasoription in Doni, p. 
319, NoL 14. [C. P. M.] 

ALEXANDER ('A^^artpoi), the Papblaoo. 
MAN, a celefarated impostor, who flourished about 
the beginning of die second ceatury (Lucian. Ale*. 
6), a aatire of Abonoteichas on the Enxine, and 
the pofil of a biend of Apollmins Tyanaeus. His 
Uatory, wUch is told by Lucian with great eoitW^, 
is chiefly an account of the jarious contrrnnces by 
which he established and maintained the credit of 
an oracle. Being, according to Lacian's account, at 
his arit's end for the means of life, with mady 
natural adrantages of manner and person, he de- 
termiaed on the following imposture. After rais- 
ing the expeetatiana of the Paphlagomans with a 
reported Tisit of the god Aesculapius, and giving 
himaelf oat, under the aaaction oiF an oracle, as a 
descendant of Penens, he gratified the expectation 
which he had himself raised, by finding a serpent, 
which he juggled out of an egg, in the foundations 
of the new temple of Aesculapius. A larger ser- 
pent, which he brought with aim from Pella, was 
diiyiisrd with a humaa head, until the doll Faph- 
lagniians really believed that a new god Glycon 
had ^apeared among them, and gave oracles in the 
likeness of a serpent Dark and crowded noma, 
jaggtiag tricks, and the other arts of more vulgar 
magicians, were the chief means used to impose 
on a ciedulons populace, which Lndaa detects 
with as BBUch zest aa any modem sceptic in the 
marvels of animal magnetism. Every one who 
attempted to expose the impostor, was accnsed of 
being a Christian or Epicarean ; and even Lucian, 
who amused himself with hia contadictoty ora- 
cles, hardly escaped the effects of his malignity. 
He had his apiea at Rome, aad busied himself 
with the affiurs of the whole wcrld : at the time 
when a pestilence was raging, many were executed 
at his instigation, aa the anthota ef this calamity. 
He said, that the soul ^f Pythagoraa had mignted 
into his body, and prophesied that he should live 
a handled mid fifty years, and then die from the 
fell of a thunderbolt: unfiirtiuately, an uker in 
the leg pat an end to his imposture in the seven- 
tieth year of his age, just as he was in the height 
of his gloiy, and hod requested the emperor ta 
have a medal struck in honoar ef himself and the 
new god. The influence he attained over the 
populace seems incredible ; indeed, the aanative 
of Lucian would appear to be a mem romance, 
were it not oonfinned by some medab of Antoninus 
and M. AureUus. [B. J.] 

ALEXANDER (^Al^iaftpet) of Paphius, a 
Greek writer on mythology of uncertun date. 
Enstathius ^adHom. Od.x.yp. 1668, 1713) refers 
to him as his authority. [L. 8.j 

ALEXANDER ('AA^{cu«pet),«omamed PxLO- 
nuTON (ni|%»irAiT«r), a Greek rhetorician of A» 
age of the Antonines, was a son of Alexander of 
^leucia, in Cilicia, and of Selencis. (Philostr. 
Vit. Soph. iL 5. § 1, compared with SpiA ApoUom. 
TgaK. 13, when the fether of Alexander Peloplar 


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ton is called StratoD, which, however, mny he a 
mere aamame.) Hii fiither was distingni^ed as 
a pleader in the coorta of juatice, by which he ac- 
quired considerable property, but he died at an age 
when Mb um yet wanted the care of a hther, 
Hia place, howerer, wa* supplied by hia ihenda, 
especially by ApoUonina of Tyana, who is said to 
have been in love with Seleucis on account of her 
extraordinary beauty, in which she was equalled 
by her son. His educaUon waa entrusted at first 
to Phavorinua, and afterwards to Dionysiua. He 
spent the property which hia &ther had left him 
upon pleasures, but, says Philostratns, not con- 
temptible pleasures. When he had attained the 
age of manhood, the town of Seleucia, for some 
reason now unknown, sent Alexander as ambaaaar 
dor to the emperor Antoninns Pius, who is said to 
have ridiculed the young man for the eztcangant 
care he bestowed on his outward appearance. He 
spent the greater part of his life away from his 
native place, at Antiochia, Rome, Tarsus, and trar 
veiled through all Egypt, aa &r as the country of 
the Vifwot. (Ethiopians.) It aeema to have been 
during hia stay at Antiochia that he waa appointed 
Greek aecretary to the emperor M. Antoninua, 
who waa cairring on s war in Pannonia, about 
A. D. 174. On his journey to the emperor he 
made a short stay at Athens, where ha met the 
celebrated rhetorician Herodes Atticna. He had 
a rhetorical oonteat with him in which he not only 
conquered hia famous adversary, bat gained his 
esteem and admiration to audi a d^ree, that 
Herodes honoured him with a munificent present. 
One Corinthian, however, of the name of Sceptes, 
when asked what he thought of Alexander, ex- 
pressed his disappointment by saying that he had 
found " the clay (nqAor), but not Plato." This 
saying gave rise to the surname of Peloplaton. 
The pls^ and time of his death an not known. 
Philostratna gives the varioua atatementa which he 
found about these points. Alexander was one of 
the greatest rhetoridana of his age, and he is 
especially praised for the sublimity of his style and 
the boldness of his thoughts ; but he is not known 
to have written anything. An account of his life 
is given by Philosteatns lyiLSopi. ii. S), who has 
also preserved several of his sayings, and some of 
the aubjects on which he made apeeches. (Comp, 
Suidas, «. e. 'AA^{eu>I|wt AlytSos in fin. ; Endoc. 
p. &2.) [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER ('AA^tm^potX son of Pbrbbus, 
king of Macedonia, was a child at the conquest of 
his father by the Romans, and after the triumph 
of Aemilins Paulina in B. c 167, was kept in cus- 
tody at Alba, topther with his bther. He be- 
came skilful in the toreutic art, learned the Latin 
language, and became a public notary. (Liv. xlv. 
42 ; Pint. Aem. PaaL 37.) 

ALEXANDER ('AA^oKipit), tyrant of Phs- 
tLAX. The accounts of his usurpation vary some- 
what in minor points ; Diodorna (xv. 61) tells us 
that, on the assassination of Jaaon, & c 370, Po- 
lydorus hia brother ruled for a year, and was then 
poisoned by Alexander, another brother. Accord- 
ing to Xenophon {HkU vi. 4. § 34), Polydorua 
was murdered by his brother Polyphno, and Poly- 
phron, in hia turn, B. c. 369,* by Alexander — hu 
uepiea, according to Pbitareh, who relates also that 

* This date is at variance with Panaanias (vi 
5) ; but, see Wesseling on Died. (xv. 7S.) 


Alexander wonhipped as a god the spear with 
which he slew his uncle. (Plat. Pdop. p. 293,&cl; 
Wess. ad JJiod. L c.) Alexander governed tyraa- 
nically, and according to Diodorus (la), difiiEKntiy 
&am the former rulers, but Polyphran, at least, 
seoms to have set him the example. (Xen. L c) 
The Tbeasalian states, however, which had ac- 
knowledged the authority of Jason the Tagna 
(Xen. Ht& vi. 1. S 4, 5, &c; Diod. xt. 60), were 
not so willing to submit to the oppression of Alex- 
ander the tyrant, and they ^plinl therefore (and 
especially the old fiunily of the Alenadae of I«r 
risaa, who had most reason to fear him) to Alex- 
ander, king of Macedon, son of Amyntas II. 
The tyrant, with his characteristic energy, pre- 
pared to meet his enemy in Macedonia, bat the 
king anticipated him, and, reaching Larisaa, was 
admitted into the city, obliged the ThewiHan Alex- 
ander to flee to Pherae, and left a ganiaon in L>- 
risaa, aa well as in Cmnon, which had also eoane 
over to him. (Diod. xv. 61.) But the Macedonian 
having retired, hia friends in Thesaaly, dreading 
the vengeance of Alexander, aent for aid to Thebea, 
the policy of which state, of course, was to dieck a 
neighbour who might otherwise become so faimid- 
able, and Pelopidas was accordingly despatched to 
auccour them. On the arri\al of the latter at L»- 
riaaa, whence according to Diodorus fxr. 67) he 
dislodged the Macedonian garrison, Alexander pre- 
sented himself and oifered submission ; bat soon 
after escaped by fli^t, alarmed by the indignation 
which Pelopidas expressed at the tales he heard of 
hia cruelty and tyrannical profligacy. (Diod. JL e. ; 
Plut Ptiap. p. 291, d.) Theae events appear to 
be referable to the eariy part of the year 368. In 
the summer of that year Pelopidas was again sat 
into Thesaaly, in consequence of iiesh complaints 
against Alexander. Accompanied by Ismeniaa, he 
went merely as a negotiator, and without any mi- 
litary foree, and venturing incautioody within the 
power of the tyrant, was seized by him and 
thrown into prison. (Diod. xv. 71 ; Plat PeL p. 
292, d; Polvb. viu. 1.) The languace of De- 
mosthenes (a Arisloer. p. 660) wUl hardly 
support Mitford's inference, that Pelopidas iraa 
taken prisoner in battle. (See ,Mitford, Gr. Hot 
ch. 27. sec B.) The Thebans sent a large army 
into Thesaaly to rescue Pelopidas, but they could 
not keep the field against the superior cavalry of 
Alexander, who, aided by auxiliaries &om Athens, 
pursued them with great slaughter; and the de- 
struction of the whole Thefaan army is aaid to have 
been averted only by the ability at Epaminondaa, 
who was serving in the campaign, bat not aa ge- 

The next year, 367, was signalized by a tped- 
mm of Alexander^ treacherous cruelty, in the 
maasaere of the citizens of Scotussa (Pint. Pd, p. 
293; Diod. xv. 75; Pans. vL 5); and also by an- 
other expedition of the Thebans under Epamincai- 
daa into Thessaly, to effect the leleaae of Pelopidas. 
According to Plutarch, the tyrant did not dare to 
offer resistance, and was glad to porchaae even a 
thirty days* truce by the delivery of the pr is o n er s . 
(Pint Pd. ppi 293, 894 ; IMod. xv. 7S.) Daring 
the next three yean Alexander would seem to 
have renewed hia attempts against the states of 
Thesaaly, especially those of Magnesia and Phthio- 
tis (Plat. Ptl. PL 295, a), for at the end of that 
time, B. c. 364, we find them again apfdying ta 
Thebes f« protection against him. The army ap- 


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pamtcd to much under Pelopidai u aud to hare 
been dinmtyed hj u> edipie (Jane 13, 864), and 
Pelopidsa, lesTing it bdiind, entered Theiealjr at 
the head of three hnndred Tolnnteer honemen and 
•ome menenariea. A battle enined at CynoMs- 
]Aa]>e, wherein PelopkUs vaa hinuelf slmn, bat 
defeated Alexander (Pint. PeL pp. 295, 396 i 
Diod. XT. 80) ; and thia netorf wai eloKljr fol- 
lowed by another of the Thebans nnder Malcites 
and Diogiton, who obI%ed Alexander to mtore to 
the Theioliana the eonqnaed townt, to confine 
himKlf to Phene, and to be a dependent ally of 
Thebea. (Pint. PeL p. 297, Ac; INod. xt. 80; 
coinp. Xen. HetLru. 5. § 4.) 

The deaUi of Epaminondaa in 363, if it freed 
Athena Gram fear of Thebea, iqipean at the aame 
time to hare exposed her to annoyance £R>m Alex- 
ander, who, aa thoogh he felt that he had no fur- 
ther occaaian for keeping np hit Athenian alliance, 
made a piratical deeoent im Tenoi and othera of 
the CycUdes, pinndeiing them, and ""'^"'g slaTe* 
of the inhabitanta. Peporethni too he betieged, 
and "even landed troopa in Attica itiel^ and 
Mixed the port of Panormua, a little eaatward of 
Suniam." Leoithenes, the Athenian admiral, de- 
bated him, and rdieved Peporethns, bnt Alexan- 
der delivered hii men from blockade in Panormni, 
took Kveral Attic triremes, and plundered the 
Peiiaeeoa. (Diod. xv. 95; Polyaen. vi 2; Demoath. 
e. PtJyel. pp. 1207, 1208 ; Vfpl irr«f . rqt rpaip. 
PL 1330 ; Thirl wall, dr. HiA vol v. p. 209 : bnt 
for another account of the poaition of Panormna, 
aee Wea*. ad Diod. L e.) 

The murder of Alexander ii aaaigned by Diodo- 
nu to & c. 367. Plutarch girea a detailed ae- 
coont of it, omtaining a lively pictore of a aemi- 
harharian palace. Ouardi watched thronghoat it 
ail the n^pt, except at the tynnt'a beddiamber, 
which waa aituated at the top of a ladder, and at 
the door of which a ferodona dog waa chained. 
Thebe, the wife and eouain of Alexander, and 
danghter of Jaaon (Plut Pel. p. 293, a), concealed 
her three brothera in the houae during the day, 
canaed the dog to be removed when Alexander had 
letiied to leat, and having covered the atepa of the 
ladder with wool, bmnght np the young men to 
her hnafaand'a chamber. Though abe had taken 
away Alexander'a awoid, they feared to aet about 
the deed till ahe threatened to awake him and dia- 
oover all : they then entered and deqmtehed him. 
Hia body waa eaat forth into the atreeta, and 
expoaed to every indignity. Of Thebe'a motive 
ibr the muder diSerent acconnta are given. Plu- 
tarch atatca it to have been fear of her hoaband, 
together with hatred of hia cruel and brutal cha- 
racter, and aacribea these feelings principally to 
the repieaentationa of Pelopidaa, when ahe vi- 
aited him in hia prison. In Cicero the deed ia 
ascribed to jealoaay. (Plat. PW. pp. 293, b, 297, d; 
Diod. xvi. 14; Xen. Hett. vi. 4. $ 37; Cic. de Off'. 
ii. 7. See alao Cic de Inv. ii. 49, where Alex- 
ander'a murder illustrates a knotty point for tpe- 
eial pleading ; also Ariatot. ap, Ge. d* Die. i. 25 ; 
the dream of Eudemns.) (E. E.] 

tfof ^iXaJi^tfis), an ancient (heek phyaieian, who 
ia called by Oetariiia Horatianna (iv, p. 102, d. ed. 
Argent. 15S2), Alexander Amaior Veri, and who 
ia probably ibe same person who ia quoted by 
Caelina Aorelianas {De Mori. Aad. u. I, p. 74) 
nnder the name of Alemtder Laodieems. He 



lived probably towarda the end of the first century 
before Christ, aa Strabo apeaka of him (idi p. 580) 
as a contemporary ; he waa a papil of Asclepiades 
(Oetav. Herat L &), sneeeeded Zenxis aa head of 
a celebrated Herophileon achod of nedidne, eata- 
bHahed in Phrygia between Laodicea and Camra 
(Strab. I. e.), and waa tutor to Ariatoxenna and 
Demosthenes Philalethea. (Oaloi. De D^vr. Pale. 
iv. 4, 10, vol. viii. pp. 727, 746.) He is several 
times mentioned by Galen and alao by Soranas 
(De Arte ObMr. e. 93, p. 210), and appears to 
have written some medial worica, which are no 
longer extant. [W. A. O.] 

ALEXANDER {^kXlttatfn), waa appointed 
governor of Phocis by Philip III. of Maradonia. 
The Phocion town of Phanotens waa commanded 
by Jason, to whom he had entrusted thia post. In 
concert with him he invited the Aetolians to come 
and take possession of the town, promising that it 
should be opened and torrendered to them. The 
Aetoliana, under the command of Aegstaa, accord- 
ingly entered the town at night t and when their 
beat men were within the walls, they were made 
prisoners by Alexander and his oaaociate. Thia 
happened in B.C. 217. (Polyb. T. 96.) [L. S.] 

nn CoiiNSLiDS.} 

ALEXANDER (*AA^tai«po>), son of PoLvs- 
rancBON, the Macedonian. The regent Anti- 
pater, on his death (a. a 320), left the regeney to 
Polysperchon, to the exclusion and consequent dis- 
content of his own son, Caasander. (Diod. xviii. 
48; Plnti>Aae,p.755,£) The chief men, who had 
been placed in authority by Antipater in the gar- 
risoned towns of Gr ee ce, were favourable to Cas- 
aander, as their patron's aon, and Polysperchon'a 
policy, therefore, was to reverie the meaanrea of 
Antipater, and reatore democracy where it had been 
abolished by the latter. It waa then, in the pro- 
secution of thia design, that his son Alexander waa 
sent to Athena, B, c. 81 8, with the alleged object 
of delivering the dty from Nicanor, who by Ca»- 
sandert qipointment CMnmanded the garrison 
pbced by ^tipater in Munychia. (Pint. Phoe. 
755, £ 756, e. ; Diod. xviii. 65.) Before his arrival, 
Nicanor, besides strengthening himself with fresh 
troops in Mnnychia, had also treacherously seised the 
Pdraeeus. To occupy these two pons himself soon 
appeared to be no less the intention of Alexander, 
— an intention which he had probably formed 
before any communication with Phodon, though 
Diodorus (<. c.) seems to imply the contrary. The 
Athenians, however, looked on Phoeioa aa the au- 
thor of the design, and thdr anapidona and anger 
being exdted by the private conferences of Alex- 
ander with Nicanor, Phocion waa accuaed of trea- 
aon, and, fleeing with several of hia frienda to 
Alexander, was by him despatched to Polyaper- 
chon. (Diod. xviiL 66 ; Plut. Phoc. 756, f. 767, a.) 
Caasander, arriving at Athena aoon after and occu- 
pying the Peitaeeua, waa there besieged by Poly- 
sperdion with • huge force ; bnt the supplies of 
the latter being inadequate, he was obliged to with- 
draw a portion of his army, with which he went to 
attempt the lednetion of Megalopolis, while Alex- 
ander was left in command of the remainder at 
Athens. (Diod. xviii. 68.) Here he appears to 
have continued without e^cting anything, till the 
treaty and capitulation of Athens with Cassander 
(Pans. L 25 ; Diod. xviii. 74) gave the city to the 
power tX. the latter. 


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Vnien Polyspeidion, baffled at Megalopolu (Diod. 
ZTiii. 72), withdrew into Macedonia, hit son wema 
to have been left with oa amy in Peloponneana, 
where, as we read in Diodotos (xiz. SS), the Sdd 
waa left open to him, and the friends of oli^uchy 
wen gieaUy olanned by the departnie of Ci wander 
into Maeedon on the iiitelligence of the mnider of 
Anfaidaens and Eiuydice by Olympiaa, B. c 317. 
(Pans. L 11 ; Diod. xiz. 11.^ Dming hi* absence, 
Alexander succeeded in tenging OTer to himself 
serenl cities and important places in the Pelopon- 
nesns (Diod. xiz. 53) ; but, on Cassander^ retuni 
to the south, after ertuhing Olympias in Macsdon, 
he in vain attempted to chadc him by his fortifica- 
tion of the Isthmus, for Gaasander, passing to 
Epidanrus by sea, leguned Argos and Hermione, 
and afterwards also tlM Messenian towna, with the 
exception of Ithome^ (Diod. xiz. 54.) 

In the nezt year, 315, Antigonu* (whose am- 
bition and sneoesses in the east had nnited against 
him Cassander, Lyaimachus, Asander, and Ptolemy 
Soter), among other mesnue^ sent Aiistodemos 
into the Peloponnesus to form a league of amity 
with Polyspeichon and Alexander; and the latter 
waa peisoaded by Aiistodemns to pass over to Asia 
tm a personal conference with Antigonns. Finding 
him at Tyre, a treaty was made between them, and 
Alexander letamed to Onece with a present of 
500 talents from AnUgonus, and a multitnde of 
magnificent promises. (Diod. ziz. 60, 61.) Yet, 
in the very same year, we find him renounoing his 
alliance with Antigonus, and bribed by the tiue of 
governor of the Peloponnesus to reaoncile himself to 
Cassander. (Diod. ziz. 64.) 

In the ensuing year, 314, we read of him as en- 
raged for Cassander in the siege of Cyllene, which 
however was raised by Aristodemos and his 
Aetolian auxiliaries. After the return of Aristo- 
demua to Aetolia, the citizens of Dyme, in Achaio, 
having besieged the citadel, which was oocopied by 
one of Caaaander's garrisons, Alezander forced hu 
way into the city, and made himself master of it, 
punishing the adverae paxty with death, imprison- 
ment, or exile. (Diod. xiz. 66.) Very soon after 
this he was murdered at Sicyon by Alexion, a 
Sicyonian, leaving the oommand of hi* forces to 
one who proved herself fiilly adequate to the taak, 
—his wife Cratesipolia. (b. c. 3L4, Diod. ziz. 
67.) [E. E.] 

the war against Cassius his was at the head of the 
popular party, and waa raised to the office of pry- 
tanis, B. a 43. (Appian, da BeU. Cm. iv. 66.) But 
soon after, he and the Rhodian admiral, Mnaseas, 
were defeated by Cassius in a sea-fight off Cnidoa. 
(Appian, d»BdLCto.iy. 71.) [L. a] 

ALEXANDER (ST.), bishop of Rohz, a. d. 
109—119. (Euseb. i/nt £M. iv. 4.) There are 
three £i)uUe» fiilsely ascribed to him by Isidore 
Mervator, as well aa a decree, according to Qratian. 
(Mann, Omcitta. voL i. pp. 643— 647.) HeraelsoD 
i* said (in the book Praaitdmalui, ap. Siimand. 
0^ voL i. p^ 470) to have broached his heresy in 
Sicily in the time of St. Alezander, and to have 
been eoninted by him. But Heradeon was not, 
perhaps, yet bom. [A. J. C.] 

ALEXANDER, who assumed the title of Em- 
PBKOR or RoKX in A. D. 81 1, was, aooording to soma 
•oeouDta, a Phrygiao, and aoconling to' others a 
Pannonian. Ha was appointad by Mazentiaa 
governor of Africa, but discovering that Uaxeo- 


tins was plotting againat his liCs, he issimvil ths 
purple, though he was of an advanced i^ sod 
a timid natore. Mazentans sent some tnofs 
against him under Rufius Vohuianns, wiio pot 
dia«m the insnneotion without difficulty. Alez- 
aoder was taken and stcanglad. (Zoaimns, ii 12, 
14; Aur. Vict de Caa. 40, EpU. 40.) There sie 
a few msdal* of Alexander. In the one amwrrd 
we find the words Imp. AxBXANnuu P. F. Aug.; 
the reverse represents Victory, with this inscrip- 
tion, VicTOUA Albzanou Aug. N., and st 
the bottom, P. K. 



ALEXANDER, L II., king* of Sym. [Albx- 
ANOBB Bala< and Zbbina.] 

■wtpsi), was bom at Alexandria, of Jewish paienta 
His &dier held the office of Alabiudi in Alexaadris, 
and his uncle waa Philo, the well-known writer. 
Alexander, however, did not eoatinoe in the frith 
of his ancestors, and waa rewarded for his apeslacy 
by various public appointmentsu In the Riga ef 
Claudius he succeeded Fadius aa psocsralw c( 
Judaea, about A. D. 46, and was promoted to the 
equestrian order. He was subsequently appoinlad 
by Nero procurator of Egypt ; and by hia oiden 
60,000 Jews were shiin on one occasion at Alex- 
andria in a tumult in the city. It was appamtiy 
during his govemmeot in Egypt that be aeeoai- 
panied Corlnilo is hi* a:q)edition into Armems, 
A. D. 64 i and he was in this rampaign giraa as 
one of the hostages to secure the safety of Tiridate% 
when the latter visited the Roman camp, Alex- 
ander was the first Roman governor who dedsied 
in favour of Vespasian ; and the day on which hs 
administered the oath to the legion* in the name of 
Vespasian, the Kalends of July, A. D. 69, is re- 
garded as ths begiiming of that emperor's leigiL 
Alezander afterwards accompanied Titus in the nr 

Tinst Jndasa, and waa present at the taking 
Jerusalem. (Joseph. AnL JmL zz. 4. { 2; 
BelL Jud. u. 11. 1 6, 15. § 1, 18. § 7, 8, ir. 10. 
§ 6,. vl 4. § 3; Tac. Am. zv. 28, Hill. L II, ii. 
74, 79 ; Suet. Fejp. 6.) 

i T/nAXioii^f ), one of the most eminent of ths sfr 
dent physicians, was bom at Tralles, a dty of 
Lydia, from wbenoe he derives his name. Hia 
date may safialy be put in the uzth century after 
Christ, for he mentions Aiitin* (ziL 8, p. 346), 
who probably did not write till the end of ih* 
fifth or the begiiming of the aizth centa^, and 
he is himself quoted by Paolus Aegineta (iii. 28, 
78, viL 5, 11, 19, pp. 447, 495, 650, 660, S87), 
who is supposed to have lived in the seventh ; be- 
sides which, he is mentioned a* a contempoiaryby 
Agathia* {HM. v. p. 149), who set about writiog 
hi* Hi*tory in the beginning of the reign of Joalia 
the younger, about a. d. 565. He had the ad- 
vantage of being brought up under hia lather, 
Stephana*, who wa* himaelf a phyaidan (ir. U 


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f. 198), and alu nndor aootbar penon, whow 
mane Iw dou not mention, bat to wkoM aon 
ComM he dedkatcs hi* chief woric (jdi l p. 313), 
whicfc he wrote out of gntitade at hia nqoeit. 
Ha was a mu of an ezteuBTa pwctica, of a very 
kwg ezpenenoe, and of graat npotatiaii, not only 
at Kome, hot wherorar he HareUed in Spain, 
Gaol, and Italy (i. IB, pp. 15S, 1ST), whence he 
waa aOed by way of eminence ** Alennder the 
Phymaan." Agataiaa ipeaka alio with gnat piaiie 
of hia foor luothen, AnthemiDi, Dioacomi, Hetro- 
doma, aadCHyinpiai, who wen all oainent in their 
■ereial pcoinaiana. Alexander is not a men com- 
piler, lika Aaina, Orihaaiaa, aad othen, bnt ii an 
aothcir of qoile a difierent itamp, and ha* more the 
air of an criginal writer. He wrate hii great work 
(aaiie teOs sa himieU^ zii. 1, p, 313) in an extreme 
eld age, &om the ranlla of hi* own experience, 
whan be coold no longer bear the btigne of pmo- 
tioe. His style in the main, aays Fieind, it Tcry 
good, iboit, dear, and (to me hie own term, zii. 1, 
p. 313) omaisting of common ezpceewme; and 
thoogh (thnmgh a mixtnra of aoma foreign word* 
eceaaioned pertj^ by hi* tiaTel*) not alway* per- 
fectly elegant, yet very expreesire and intdligible. 
Fabnciii* conoiden Alexander to hare belonged to, 
the aect of the Methodici, but in the opinion of 
FreiBd thia ia not proved *ufficiently by tfae paa- 
laga adduced. The wcakeat and mo*t cnriou* 
part of hia practiee qppean to be hi* belief in 
channa and amuleta, aome of which may be quoted 
aa Bpeomeni. For a quotidian ague, " Gather 
an olire leaf before sun-riae, write on it with oom- 
nwa ink ua, ^i, a, and hang it round the neck'' 
(liL 7, p. 339) ; for the gnut, " Write on a thin 
^ate of gold, during the waning of the moon, /ui, 
dfm, n^, ^if, Ttrf{, ii, f A., H Kti, xpi, Trf. ii, 
w, and wear it rennd the ankle* ; pronouncing alao 
lit. ^*^ ii^, 9H<. *«'•'. X"**" («i. 1. p. 313), 
or dae thia Tone of Homer (/<. A 95), 

TrrfJtx'" ^ ^^yv^ *'' ' immjUm YaJo, 
while the moon i* in Libra; bnt it i* mach better 
if ahe ahoold be in Leo." {ItM.) In exorcieing 
the goat (tU. p. 314) he lay*, ** I adjon thee by 
the gmt name laii 2a8at(0," that ia, nVT 
rCtK^^tf uid a little farther on, ** I adjure thee 
by the holy name* 'Icu), XoSoiW, 'AScnvt; *EA»i,'< 

that ia. vn» ''a^N ni»ns rTirr ; ^m. 

T v: T -: T : t : 
which be would appear to haie been either a Jew 
or a Chtiatian, and, from hi* frequently prescribing 
•wine'* flesh, it i* mo*t probable that he waa a 
Cluiatian. Hi* chief work, entitled BiCAXa lanftmi 
Amwatinm, Ubri Duadedm d» B* AftJka, first 
appeared in an old, barbanoi, and imperfto Latin 
tianalatian, with the title Alamtdri Yaim Pno- 
Uta, S[e^ lAgd. IS04, 4ta, which wa* aereial times 
Rprinted, and co m e e ted and amended by Albanns 
Torino*, BanL 1«33, foL It wa* fir*t edited m 
Greek by Jac Otnpyla*, Par. 1548, foL, a beaati- 
fiil and scarce edition, containing alao Riazat dt 
PeMmUa lAtUm asr Sgran t m jAmgaa m Gnmam 
froaWotea. It wa* pabU*hed in Qreek with a new 
lAtin translation by Jo. Qaintems Andemacns, 
BsiiL 1S56, 8to., which is a rata and TalnaUe 
edition, (^linter's tamalatian ha* been aeTeral 
times reprinted, and i* inserted by H. Stephana in 
hi* Mediate Artk Princ^pet, Pari*, 1567, foL ; it 
alio form* part of Haller't Collection of Medical 
Writcia, Lkoaaan. 1772, Sm 2 toU The other 



woEk of Alexander's that is still extant is a (hort 
tieatiae, Hi^ 'ti^ii»9tm>, De LmatnoM, which was 
firat pobli*bed in Greek and Latin by Hienm. Mer- 
curiaii*, Vcnet, 1 570, 4tai It is olio inierted in his 
wiaricZ>s^orfai/>aeranna,Prane*£ 1584, 8ra., and 
in the twelfth Tolomeof the old edition of Fabricina, 
A'Wotisca Graeca ; the Latin tninalsrinn alone ia 
indoded in Haller's Collection manlioaed aboTO. 
An Aiahie tmnalation is mentioasd by Dc Sjaenger 
in hiaiVaiiiilalion Dt Origauimt Medieimae ArmU- 
eae sa6 KialtfaiiL, Lugd. Bat 1840, Sva; and 
alao by J. 0. Wenrich, De Amtarmm Qnmrwn 
Vtniaiutme ei CaauKmlanm Sgnam, AraUeu, 
ArmtHiacit, Penicujae, Lipa. 1842, 8Ta 

Alexander aeems alao to hare written seTnal 
other medical work* which are now loat. He ex- 
preites hi* intention of writing a book on Fractures, 
and alao on Wounda of the Head. A treatiae on 
Urine written by him ia alluded to by Joannes 
Actuarius {De Urm. Differ, c. 2. p. 43), and he 
hunaelf mentiona a woric of his on Diaeaae* of the 
Eyes, which was translated into Arabic. (Sprenger, 
Wenrich, ^e.) The other medical treatiae on Pleu- 
risy, which is said to have been alao tranalated into 
Arabic, was probably only the sixth book of his 
great work, which ia entirely deroted to the con- 
aideration of thia rtiafiaae, A Tery full account of 
the lifo and works of Alexander Trallianua waa 
pnbliahed at Lmdon, 1734, 8to., by Edward Mil- 
ward, M. D., entitled " Tndlianns ReTiviacena ; or, 
an Account of Alexander Trallian, one of the Greek 
Writeta that fiouriahed after Galen : ahewing that 
theae Anthore are &r from deaerring the imputa- 
tion of mere compilen," &c. Two other medical 
works whkh are aometimea attribnted to Alennder 
Trallianua (riz. a Collection of Medical and Phyai- 
cal Probletna, and a treatise on Ferert) ore noticed 
under;iNDm ArHBODiaiiNSia. (Freiud's 
Hal. (tf Phytic, whoae worda hare been aometimea 
boiTowed ; Fabridna, BiU. Grate, vol. xii. p. 593, 
aq. ed. Tct.; Haller, BiUicfllieca Medicina* ProM- 
cat, torn. i. ; ^nengd, Hiil. de la Mid. torn. ii. ; 
lacnaee, GaciiclUe der Medicin; Cbonlant, Hattdr- 
budt der BudteHamd* fir die AeUere Medieim.) 

[W. A. O.] 

ALEXANDER CMj(fu«pt), of Tmcbonioii 
in Aetolia, wa* commander of the Aetolian* in 
B. a 218 and 219. He attacked the tear of the 
army of Philip on "hi* return from Thermuj, bnt 
the attempt was unaacceasfol, and many Aetolian* 
felL (Polyb. T. 13.) [L. S.] 

f AA^fonSpor ZaCfrar), the son of a merchant 
named Protarchns, wassst up by Ptolemy Phyaeon, 
king of Egypt, a* a pretender to the crown of the 
Greek kingdom of Syria ahertiy after the death of 
Antiochn* Sidete* and the letom of Demetriu* 
Nicator from hi* uau t lrit y among the Parthian*. 
(b.c. 128.) Antioch, Apamea, and aereral other 
dtiea, diagoated with the tynnny of Demetrius, 
acknowledged the authority of Alexander, who 
pretended to hare been adopted by Antiochn* 
Sidetes ; bat he never ancoeeded in obtaining 
power over A» whole of Syria. In the earlier 
part of the year 126 he defeated Demetrius, who 
fled to Tyre and was then killed ; but in the mid- 
dle of the same year Alexander's patron, the king 
of Enpt, set up againat him Antiochn* Orypns, a 
*on of Demetriu*, by whom he was defeated in 
battle. Alexondisr fled to Antioch, where he 
attempted to plunder the templecfjvpiter, in order 


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to pay lii* troopt ; but the people roae against him 
and dioTe him out of the city. He »oon fell into 
the handa of robber*, who delivered him up to 
Antiochaa, by whom he wa» put to death, B. c 122. 
He was weak and efieminate, but sometimes gene- 
rous. His surname, Zebina, which means "a 
purchased slaTe," was applied to him as a term of 
leproocb, from a report that he had been bought 
by Ptolemy as a slare. Several of his coins are 
extant. In the one figured below Jupiter is re- 
presented on the reverse, holding in the right hand 
a small image of victory. 

(Justin, xxziz. 1, 2 ; Joseph. Antiq. xiii. 9, 10 ; 
Clinton, Fatli, m. p. 334.) [P. S.] 

ALEXANDRA. [Cassandra.] 
ALEXANDRIDES ('AAtJoi^filSiii) of Delphi, 
a Greek historian of uncertain date. If we may 
judge from the subjects on which his history is 
quoted as an authority, it would seem that his 
work was a history of Delphi. (PluL Lymnd. 18 ; 
SchoL ad Eurip. Alcat. 1, where undoubtedly the 
same person is meant, though the MS. reading is 
Anoxandrides ; SchoL ad Arvloph. PM. 926.) 

[L. S.] 
ALEXA'NOR fAAs^cintp), a son of Maehaon, 
and grandson of Aesculapius, who built to his sire 
a temple at Titane in the territory of Sicyon. He 
himself too was worshipped there, and sacrifices 
were ofieted to him after sunset only. (Pans. ii. 
23.§4, U. §6,&c) [L.S.] 

ALEXARCHUS ('AXilofX'"), a Greek his- 
torian, who wrote a work on the history of Italy 
('iToAiKil), of which Plutarch (PanlUL 7) quotes 
the third book. Servius (ad Am. iiL 33i) men- 
tions an opinion of his respecting the origin of the 
names Epeirus and Campania, which unquestion- 
ably belonged to his work oa Italy. The writer 
of this name, whom Plutarch mentions in another 
passage {De It. etOt,f. 365), is probably a different 
person. [L. S.] 

ALEXARCHUS ('AA^a«>xot). 1. A brother 
of Cassander of Macedonia, who is mentioned as 
the founder of a town called Uranopolis, the site 
of which is unknown. Here he is said to have 
introduced a number of words of his own coinage, 
which, though very expressive, appear to have 
been regarded as a lund of slang. (Athen. iiL p. 98.) 
2. A Corinthian, who, wMle the Lacedaemo- 
nians were fortifying Deceleia in Attica, B. c. 413, 
and were sending on expedition to Sicily, was 
entrusted with the command of 600 hoplites, with 
whom he joined the Sicilian expedition. (Thucyd. 
•viL 19.) [L. 8.J 

ALE'XIAS CAXsCbis), an ancient Greek physi- 
cian, who was a pupil of Thnsyas of Mantinea, 
and lived probably about the middle of the fourth 
century before Christ Theophrastns mentions 
him as having lived shortly before his time (Afnt 

Plant, ix. 16. § 8), and speaks highly of his abHi- 
ties and acquirements. [W. A. G.] 

ALEXrCACUS (■AAsJ.'«o«oi), the averter of 
eviL is a surname given by the Greeks to oeTeral 
deities, as— Zeua (Orph. De Lapid. Prooem. L), — 
to ApoUo, who was worshipped under this name 
by the Athenians, because he was believed to haTe 
stopped the plague which taged at Athena in the 
time of the Peloponnesian war (Pans. L 3. § 3, 
viii. 41. § fi),— and to Heracles. (Laetant. t. 3.) 

[L. S.] 
ALEXICLES CA*«?uc^«>), an Athenian gene- 
ral, who belonged to the oligarchial or Lacedaemo- 
nian party at Athens. After the revolution of >. & 
411, he and several of his friends quitted the dty 
and went to their friends at Deceleia. But he was 
afterwards made prisoner in Peiraeens, and sen- 
tenced to death for his porticipaUon in the guilt of 
Phrrnichus. (Thucyd. viiL 92 ; Lycurg. ni Lmer. 
p. 164.) [L. &] 

ALEXICRATESCA».«Jut(xtnii),a Pythagorean 
philosopher who lived at the time of Plutarch, and 
whose disciples continued to observe the ancient 
diet of the Pythagoreans, abstaining from fiah alto- 
gether. (Pint ^mpof. viii. p. 728.) Another 
person of this name occurs in Plutarch, Pyrrk. S.) 


ALE'XIDA (*AA€{3n), a daughter of Amphi- 

aiaus, from whom certain divinities called Elosii 

( 'EAtbrioi, ie. the averters of epileptic fiu) weto 

beUeved to be descended. (Plut QiuMett. Or. 23.) 

[L. S.) 
ALEXI'NUS ('AAspwii), a philosopher of the 
Dialectic or Megorian school and a disciple of Eo- 
bulides [EocLiDKs], from his eristic propensities 
facetiously named 'EArypi'of, who lived abont the 
beginning of the third century before Christ He 
was a native of Elis, and a contemporary of Zeno. 
From Elis he went to Olympia, in the vain hope, 
it is said, of founding a sect which might be called 
the Olympian ; but his disciples soon became dis- 
gusted with the unhealthiness of the place and 
their scanty means of subsistence, and left him 
with a single attendant None of his doctrines 
have been preserved to us, but from the brief men- 
tion made of him by Cicero (Aead. IL 24), he 
seems to have dealt in sophistical puzilea, like 
the rest of his sect Athenaeus (xv. p. 696, e.) 
mentions a paean which he wrote in honour of 
Ciaterns, the Macedonian, and which was snng at 
DelpM to the sound of the lyre. Alexinns also 
wrote against Zeno, whose professed antagonist he 
was, and against Ephorus the historian. Diogenn 
Laertius has preserved some lines on his death, 
which was occasioned by his being pdemd with 
a reed while swimming in the Alphens. (Diog. 
Laert. u. 109, 110.) [a J.] 

ALE'XION, an ancient physidan, who was pro- 
bably (judging from his name) a native of Greece ; 
he was a fnend of Cicero, who praises his medica) 
skill, and deeply laments his sudden death, B. c 
44. (.4<i^a.viL2,xiiL25, xT.l.d2.) [W.A.O.] 
ALEXI'PPUS ('AA<{iinrot), an ancient Greek 
physician, who is mentioned by Plntaich (Ala. 
c. 41) as having received a letter from Alexander 
himself^ to thank him for having cured Peucestas, 
one of his officers, of an illness, probably about B. c 
327. [W.A.O.] 

ALEXIS CAX«{is> 1. A comic poet, bom at 
Thurii, in Magna Oraecia (Suidas s. «. 'AA.), bat 
admitted subsequently to the privilegea ii an 


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AtfcfiMi ddKD, and enrolled in tlis deme OTor, 
liffc i Bgin g to the tribe Leontie. (Steph. Bjx. t. «.) 
He was the nnde and uutmctor of Menander. 
(Soidaa *. n'AA<{a; Pnleg. Aiutoph. p. xrz.) 
When he was boni we are not expiesily told, bnt 
he Kred to the age of 106 (Plat. Defeel. One. 
p. 420, e.), and was liTing at kaat as late as 
K. c 28B. Now the town of Tharii was de- 
strayed by the Lncanians about s. c. 390. It is 
thKcfbce not at all nnlikely that the parents of 
A l exi s, in order to escape from the threatened de- 
sbaction of their city, remored shortly before with 
their Kttle aoo to Athens. Perhaps therefoie we 
Biy aanon about B. c 394 as Uts date of ^e 
With of Alexis. He had a son Stephanns, who 
slsD wrote comedies. (Snidas L c) He appears 
ts hsTe been rather addicted to the pleasiues of 
the table. (Athen. riiL p. 344.) According to 
Platvreh (Z>e Sma Adminitt. HapM. p. 786, b.), 
he ezptied upon the stage while being crowned as 
Tictor. By the old giannnarians he is conubonly 
csUed a writer of the middle comedy, and fiag- 
aetxts and the titles of many of his plays confirm 
this statement. Still, for more than 30 yean he 
waa rasitempoBSTT with Philippides, Philemon, Me- 
n s n d er , and DiphOns, and sereral fiagments shew 
that he also wrote pieces which woiud he classed 
with those of the new comedy. He was a re- 
aaAafaly prolific writer. Sni^ says he wrote 
345 pbya, and the titles of 113 hare come down 
to BL The Mtpawlt, 'AymAiar, 'OAiiytn^SMpor, 
and ntfi/nrt, in which he ridiculed Plato, were 
probably exhibited as eariy as the 104th Olym- 
The*A7«mj^ in which he ridiculed His- 
■as no donbt wiHten while he was alive, 
and AasduDea (a TSmartk. pp. 6 —8) in B. c. 345, 
neaks of him as then liring. The 'A2e\^ and 
ir tmn A i m, in which he satirised Demosthenes, 
woe acted shortly after B. c. 343. The 'imt, 
IB wUA be alloded to the decree of Sophodes 
the phUoeophers, in B. c 316. The 
I B. c 312. The •^/loinnwXq and 
T s C s Ai ^ wT i w in BL c 306. As might have been 
expected in a penon who wrote so much, the same 
passage frequently occurred in icTeral plays ; nor 
did ha scn^U sometimes to borrow Bom other 
fMis, aa, file example, from Eubulua. (Athen. L 
fL 3S, t) CBiy>t» of Pergamns {op. AOm. Ti. 
IL 3S5, e.) saya he was the first who inrented the 
part of the parasite. This is not quite correct, aa 
it had baea intradnoed hefen him by Epichumns ; 
hat he mfpnn to hare been the fiist who gava it 
Oe fan in which it afterwards appeared upon the 
itige, nd to haTe been rery happy in his exhibi- 
lisa cf it. His wit and elegance are praised by 
(ii. {L 59, f.), whose testimony is con- 
by the extant fisgments. A considerable 
Est cf pw mK a r words and fi»ms used by him is 
grm if Mrinrke . Hia plays wen frequently 
tiudated by the Roman comic writers. (OeU. ii. 
33.) The frag men ts we poaseas of his phys haTe 
been pscsored chiefly by Athenaens and Stofaaens. 
(Ueinefca, JFhysL Om. toI. L ppi 374—403; 
Cliniaa, Faiii Mellauei, under the yean above 
pna ; Fabricios, BM. Or. rd. ii p. 406, Ac) 

2. A writer mentianed by Athenaeus (z. p. 418) 
as lit BOhot of a treatise ■nfi KlmifinlaM. 

8. A Soanan, the anthor of an historical woifc 
(aOed 74,uat'afoi or'OfMH Sofuoicol {Samian Atf 
•ab), which Athoiaent quotes, (xiii. p. 572, t, 
W.p.540,d.) [C. P. M.] 



ALEXIS CAAttu), a scnlptor and atatnary, 
mentioned by Pliny (xxxir. S. s. 19) as one of 
the pupils of Polycletns. Pansanias (vl 3. { 3) 
mentions an artist of the same name, a native of 
Sieyon, and father of the sculptor Canthsms. It 
cannot be latisfiustorily settled whether these are 
the same, or different persons. Pliny's account 
implies that he had the elder Polycletus in view, 
in which case Alexis could not have flourished 
later than OL 95 (a. a 400), whereas Eutychidea, 
under whom Canthsms studied, flourished about 
OU 120, B. c. 300. (Pliny, H. ff. zxxiv. 8. ii 
19.) If the two wen identical, as Thiersch 
(.^goeitea der bUd. KmtU p. 276) thuiks, we most 
suppose either that Pliny made a mistake, and that 
Alexis studied under the younger Polycletus, or 
else that the Eutychides, whose date is given by 
Pliny, was not the artist under whom Canthaius 
studied. [C. P. M.] 

CAAt{it , or 'A\^C' Sofuntr/s), emperor of Con- 
stantinople, was most probably boin m a. d. 1048, 
He was the son of John Comnenns, and the 
nephew of the emperor Isaac Comncnus, and re- 
ceived a careful education from his mother Anna. 
He accompanied the emperor Romonus Diogenes 
in the war against Alp-Anl&n, sultan of the Turks- 
Seljuks, and was present at the battle of Maloa- 
keid, where this emperor was mode a prisoner by 
the niltan. After the deposition of Romanns Dio- 
genes in 1071, Alexis Comnenus and his elder 
brother Isaac joined the party of the new emperor, 
Michael VII. Ducos, who employed Alexis against 
the rebels who had produced great disturbances in 
Asia Minor. In this war Alexis distinguished him- 
self as a successful general, and shewed that extra, 
ordinoiy shrewdness which ofierwards became the 
principal feature of bis character. He defended 
Michael VII. against the rebel Nicephorus Bota- 
niates, but the canse of Michael having become hope- 
lasB, he readily joined the victorious rebel, who be- 
came emperor under the title of Nicephorus III. in 
1077. TheanthorityofNicephomsIlLwasdisobey- 
ed by several rebels, among whom Nicephorus 
Biyennius in Epeirus was the most dangerous ; bat 
Alexis defeated them one after the other, and the 
grateful emperor conferred upon him the title of 
" Sebastos." Alexis was then considered as the fint 
general of the Byxantine empire, but his military re- 
nown made him suspected in the eyes of the emperor, 
who kept him at Constantinople and tried to ^ 
rid of him by base intrigues. But Alexis opposed in- 
trigues to intrigneSiand as he waa not only the most 
gallant, but also the most artful among his shrewd 
conntzymen, he outdid the emperor, who at last 
gave orders, that his eyes should be put out. 
Alexis now fled to the atmy on the Danube, and 
was proclaimed emperor by the troops. Assisted 
by his brather Isaac, who acti^ with great gene- 
ronty, Alexis marebed to Constantinople, obtained 
possession of the city by a stratagem, deposed the 
empeior, and ascended the throne in 1081, 

The Byxantine empire was then at the point of 
ruin. While Alexis carried on the war against 
the rebel Nicepboma Bryennius, and aiterwards 
during his forced sojourn at Constantinople, and 
the time of his diftrences with Nicephorus III., 
Helek-Shah, the son of Alp-Arslan, and the 
greataat prince of the Seljuks, had conquered the 
Byxantine part of Asia Minor, which he ceded to 
bis cousin Soliman. The Bulgarians threatened to 



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invade Thmoe, and Robert Oaitcaid, duke of 
Apulia, with a mighty host of Norman knighta, had 
oroaied the Adriatic and hiid tiege to Dnrazio, the 
ancient Dyrrachimn. In this critical poiition 
Alexi* evinced eztraordinary activity. He con- 
cluded peace vrith the Seljuke, ceding Asia to 
them ; he made an alliance with Venice and Henry 
IV., emperor of Germany ; and he sold the sacred 
vessek of the churches to pay hi* troops. His 
struggle with the Normans was long and bloody, 
but famine, diseases, civil troubles, and a powerful 
diversion of Henry IV., compelled the Normans to 
leave Epelrus iu 1084. During this time the Sel- 
juks had recommenced hostilities, and threatened 
to block up Constantinople with a fleet constmcted 
by Greek captives. In this extremity Alexis 
implored the assistance of the European princes. 

The conquest of Jerusalem by the Seljuks, the 
interruption of the pious pilgrimages to the holy 
grave, and the vexations which the Christians in 
the East had to endure from the infidels, had ]at>- 
duced an extraordinary excitement among the 
nations in Europe. The idea of rescuing the town 
of oar Saviour became popular ; the pope and the 
princes shewed themselves favourable to such an 
expedition, and they resolved upon it after the 
ambassadors of Alens had reUted to them at 
Piacenza in 1095 the hopeless state of the Chris- 
tians in Asia. The first Crusaders appeared in 
Constantinople in 1096. They were commanded 
by Peter the Hermit and Walter the Pennyless, 
and were rather s band of vagabonds than an 
army. Alexis hastened to send them over to 
Asia, where they were massacred by the Turks. 
Soon after them came a powerful army, command- 
ed by Godfrey of Bouillon, and their continued 
stay in the neiahbourhood of Constantinople gave 
occasion to senous diflerences between the Latins 
and the Greeks. However Alexis, by the alternate 
use of threats and persuasions, not only succeeded 
in getting rid of the dangerous foreigners by carry- 
ing them over to Asia, but also managed the pride 
of Godfrey of Bouillon and his turbulent borons 
with so much dexterity, that they consented to 
take the oath of vassalage for those provinces 
which they might conquer in Asia, and promised 
to restore to the emperor the Byzantine territories, 
which had been taken by the Seljuks. In his 
torn he promised to assist them in their enterprise 
with a strong army, but the dangerons state of the 
empire prevented him from keeping his word. 
However, in proportion as the Crusader*, in 1097, 
advanced into Asia, Alexis followed them with a 
chosen body, and thus nadnally reunited with his 
empire Nicaea, Chios, Rhodes, Smyrna, Ephesus, 
Sardea, and finally all Asia Minor. The descend- 
ants of Bohemond, prince of Antioch, did homage 
to Alexis, to whom they restored Tarsus and 
Malfflistn. DnriSg the Utter years of his reign, 
Alexis was occupied with consolidating the do- 
mestic peace of his empire, which was Uien often 
disturbed by religious troubles. He died in 1118, 
at the age of seventy, and his successor mm his 
son John, generally caUed Calo-Joannes. 

Alexis was the author of a work entitled 
*f7«pM, which was published in the 4th volume 
of the AmiUda Craerti, Par. 1688, and also from 
a iMer manuscript by Gronovius at the end of his 
work Di SeifertM, Lngd. Bat. 1691. Respecting 
the ecclesttstical edicU of Alexius, several of which 
are extant, see Fabric. BiU. Orvee. vii. p. 728. 


The Ufii of Alexia has been anMij, ihtm^ 
very partially, described by his daughter, Anna 
Comnena, in her Alaiat, which is die principal 
source concerning this emperor. (Comp. Glycas, p, 
4 i Albertus Aqnensis, ii. 9- 1 9 ; WUhelmas Ty remis, 
iL fi, 23 ; comp. S. F. Wilken, " Remm ab Alexio 
I., Joanne, Hanuele et Alexio II. Comneni* gesta- 
rum libri quatuor," Heidelberg, 181 1.) [W. P.] 

('A\«{u or 'AX^(ia> Ka/ivqnii), emperor of Con- 
stantinople, the son of ^e emperor Manoel C«i>- 
nenus, was bom in 1167, according to Nicaiaa 
In 1179, he married Agnes or Anna, the danghttr 
of king Louis VII. of France, and succeeded hi* 
bther in 1180, under the guardianship of his mo- 
ther Maria, the daughter of Raymond, prince at 
Antioch. They both became victims of ue ambi- 
tion of Andromcu* Comnena*, who firet compelled 
the young emperor to sign die doath of hi* mother, 
and then put Alexis to death in 1183; whereupon 
he stkcceeded him on the throne. (Nioetaa, Alem 
MamieL Cotm.fiL; comp. Ducanga, FamSiat Bg- 
zmthae, p. 188.) [\^. P.] 

CA\«(if or 'AX^(iot 'A-jrycAoi), the brother of the 
emperor Isaac II. Angelns, whom he deposed and 
blinded in 1195. Being a descendant of Alexis I. 
Comnenus by Theodora, the youngest daaghter of 
the latter, he assumed the family-name of his 
great ancestor, and is therefore commonly called 
Alexis Angelus-Comnenus. In 1197 and 1 198, he 
carried on war with Persia and the Se^nks af 
Koniah, but his armies were defeated. Being 
base, rapacious, and cruel, he incurred the hatnd 
and contempt of his subjects, and prepared his 
ruin. He lost the crown through hi* nephew, 
Alexis, the son of Isaac II. Angelns, who, Inving 
escaped from Constantinople, sucoKded in per- 
suading the Cmsaders assembled in Venice to 
make an expedition against the usurper. Amoont- 
ing to 20,000 men, and commanded by Saadolo, 
doge of Venice, they attacked Constantinopie in 
the month of July, 1203; but before they had 
taken this city, Alexis III. abandoned kn palace 
and fled to Italy, carrying with him 10,000 pounds 
of gold. After his flight, Constantinople wa* oc- 
cupied by the Crusader*, who recognised a* ea- 
peron the blinded Isaac and hi* *on Alexis. 
[Alixu IV.] He afterward* returned to Greece, 
and treacheronsly blinded the emperor Alexis 
V. MuRuphlua, who after his deposition in 
1204, had fled to Alexi* III., whoae daqghter 
he had married. Meanwhile, Theodore Lasiarii 
succeeded in making himself independent at Nicaea, 
but wa* involved in a war with Ohay&th-ed-din, 
saltan of Koniah. In 1210, Alexis III. fled to 
this saltan, and persuaded him to mppoit Us 
claims to the throne of Byiantinm, and to declare 
war against Theodore Laiicari*. The war proved 
fatal for the sultan, who vn* killed in the battle of 
Antioch, and Alexis III. was made prisoner. 
Theodore Lascari* had married Anna Angela-Coa>- 
nena, the second daaghter of Alexi* III., but this 
circumstance did not prevent him from confining 
his father-in-btw to a monastery at Nicaea. (1210.) 
There Alexi* III. died aome year* after at an 
advanced age ; the exact year of hi* birth i* 
not known. (Nioetaa, AUtit Angebu, Immam 
Angehu, iil 8, &c; Imiehu tl AUm. fi. cU 
Villehaidouin, Da la Omgualt tU OmtailwaUs, 
Pari^ 1838, c. 51, 56, &c.) [W. P.] 


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fAAcCn or 'AX^fot'AyyXot), WM the Km of the 
cn|ierar lose II. Angelna. It i« mentioned nnder 
AxKjus III. that, after the depodtion of ^i* em- 
pemr, he and his &ther wen plaeed on the throne 
bj the Cnnaden. Alexia IT. una oowned tog»- 
titer with laaac II. on the 29th of Joly, 1203, 
Bad, to accore himaelf on the throne, engaged the 
CrnaadciB to eontinne at Constantinaple. He had 
pramiaed them to pat an end to the Khiim of the 
Onak ChoTch, but did not do anything for that 
p ai p ua e, nor did he falfil hie other engagementa 
towsKia the Cinaaden. At the lame time, he did 
■ot «Bdentand how to maintain hit dignity amoi^ 
the tnrinlent and haughty hamu of Italy, Franca, 
and FhndaiB, who were auembled in ma capilaL 
Serioaa difiereneea coniequently aroee between him 
■nd hia deUreiera. Alexia DiKas, nrnamed Mop- 
anphloa, an ambitioo* and enterprising man, took 
advaBtage of theae tronblea, and niBdenly aeiied 
the crown. By Ida older Alexia IV. waa pot to 
death on the 28th of Jannaiy, 1204; lane II. 
died of giia£ (Nicetaa, Imuamt Afelm, iii. e. 8, 
Ac: /aMcm it Aleatjtt.; Vmehardonin, Ibid. e. 
fil, 56-, 60, ftc^ 102—107.) [W. P.] 

ar 'A\Mlfat AoMca), mmamed "Mubzophlus," on 
aceoont of the clou junction of hia •iiaggy eye- 
hnwa, waa crowned empenr of Conatantinople on 
Aa 8th of February, 1-204, after having been pre- 
acnt at the mnider of Alexia IV., who waa put to 
death by hia older. Hia earlier life ia almoat un- 
known. Nioetaa, howoTer, ttato, that he had 
always been lapadooa and roh^tuona ; on the 
other hand, he waa a man of gnat courage and 
enei^. Immediately after he had oanrped the 
throne, the Cmaaderi, who wen (till BaaemUed 
under the walla of Conatantinople, laid aiage to this 
city. Alexia V. disdained to conclude peace with 
thiiu on diihanoarable conditiona, and prepared 
iir iTaiitam>, in which he waa Tigoroualy asaiated 
by Theodore Laaeaiia. Howerer, courage mddenly 
abandonad him, and he fled to the deposed em- 
penr Alexia III., whoae daoghter Endozia Angela- 
Coaaiiaaa he had jnat nunried. Constantinople 
waa taken by storm by the Cmaaden (12th of 
April, IM4), who, after having committed those 
hecron, of which Nicetaa, an eye-witness, gires 
tatk an emphatiral deacription, choae Baldwin, 
coont of Fland«^^ empenr of Constantinople, but 
leaeing him only the fourth part of the empire. 
After being depri-red of nght by hia &ther-in-1aw, 
Alexia V. fled to the Morea, but waa arreatad and 
carried to Constantinople, when the Cruaaden put 
him to death by caating him from the top of the 
Thoodoaiaa column. (1204.) (Nicetaa,JIAirstipJUiw,- 
MimKiaB Amgtlm *l Ala. /U. c. 4, 5; OettaFnm- 
a n mm, c. 94 ; ViDdiardomn, liid. c. fil, &6, 60, 
*e. 98, 10«, 1 IS— I Ifi, 1 37, &c.J [ W. P.] 

ALE'XIUS ARISTE'NUS ('aa^{w> 'Afi^n^ 
rtt), Oeeoneasaa of the Onat Church at C<»staa- 
tSaople, floorished a. D. 1166, in which year he 
waa present at the CotmeO of Constantinople. He 
edited a Sfmcf i* CbaoMtni with scholia, which is 
given by Bidrap Bereridge in hia Pauiltiim Cbao- 
■n^ Oxon. 1673, hi. roL ii. poat pag. 188, ud 
▼oL L p. I, Ac Other worits by him an quoted. 
See Fabric. BM. Or. toI. xi. p. 280. [A. J. C] 

ALE'XIUS CAA^ioi), Patriarch of Cokstan- 
TniorLB, a member of the monaateir of Studius 
(femided a. o. 460), succeeded Eustathioa a* Pa- 



triafdi a. D. 1025. In a. n. 1034 he crowned 
Michael IV. the &vaarite of Zoe, who, to make 
way for him, procured the death of her husband, 
the Empenr Romanas. He thaarted the attempts 
of John (the emperor's brother) to gain the patri- 
anhal see (a. d. 1036), and died A. D. 1043. Da- 
area of hu an extant, ap. Jui Or. Horn. toL i. 
lib. It. p. 250, LeuncUr. FrancoC 1596. See 
Fabric. BOL Or. vol. xi. p. 558. [A. J. C] 

ALE'XIUS('AX^{ui>), Metropolitan of NiCAiA, 
composed a Ouum or ^yma oa SU Dmutriu$ Us 
Marij/r. It ia uncertain when he lired. The 
canon is in manuscript. See LamiteiMt, Biblioth. 
Vindobon. toL t. p. 599, ed. Kollar. [A. J. C] 

ALEXON ('aXsIm'), an Achaean who serred ia 
the Carthaginian garrison at Lilybaeum while it 
waa besieged by the Romans in B. c 250. During 
this siege some of the Gallic menenaries engaged 
in the serrice of the Carthaginians formed the pun 
of betraying the {brtress into the hands of the Ho. 
mans. But Alexon, who had on a former oecaaion 
savod the town of Agrigentum from a similar 
attempt of trsacherona mercenaries, now acted in 
the same fiuthfnl spirit, and gare information of tfaa 
plot to the Carthaginian commander Himilcci He 
also assisted him in inducing the meicenaiies to 
remain bithful and resist the temptations ofiered by 
their comrades. (Polyb. L 48, iL 7.) [L. a] 

ALEXON MYNDI US. [Aibzanou Mtn- 


A'LFIUS FLAVUS. [Flavos.) 
ALGOS fAATOf), is used by Hesiod {Tlfog. 
227) in the plural, as the personification of sorrows 
and griefs, which an then r ep rese n ted as the 
daughters of Kris. [L. S.] 

L. ALIE'NirS, plebeian aedile a. c 454, ao. 
cused Veturius, the consul of the former year, on 
account of selling the booty which had been gained 
in war, and pbuing the amount in the aeiarinm. 
(Lir. iii. 31.) 
ALIMENTUS, U CI'NCIUS, a oelebnted 
Roman annalist, antiquary, and jurist, who was 
praetor in Sicily, a. a 209, with the command 
of two legions. He wrote an acoonnt of his im- 
prisonment in the second Punic war, and a history 
of Ooigias Leontinus ; but these works probably 
formed part of his Amtalf, (Lir. xxi. 88.) He is 
frequently cited by Featus, and the fiigments which 
hare been thus preserred wen collected by Wasse, 
and may be found appended to Corta's Sallust. 

Niebuhr (i. p. 272) praises Alimentus aa a 
really critical inreatigator of antiquity, who threw 
light on the history of hia country by researehea 
among its ancient monnmenta. That he possessed 
eminent personal qualities, such aa strike a great 
man, is clear, inaamneh as Hannibal, who used to 
treat his Roman prisonen rery roughly, made a 
distinction in his behalf and gave him an aecounl 
of hia passage through (Hml and orer the Alps, 
which Alimentna afkerwarda incoiponted in his 
history. It is only in his 6a)rments that we find 
a distinct statement of the earlier rdation between 
Rome and I^tium, which in all the annals has 
been misnpresented by national pride. The point, 
however, upon which Niebuhr kys most stress, is 
the remarkable difference between Alimentus and 
all other chronologen in dating the building of the 
city about the fourth year of the 12th Olympiad. 

K 2 


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This diSennce i« the mora important in an lusto- 
tical riew, &om Alimentiu hsTing written on the 
old Ronuui mlenHar and haring carefiillj ex- 
amined the moat ancient Etmiean and Roman 
chronology. It it ingenioaily accoonted for by 
Niebtihr, by luppoaing our aathor to have re- 
daced the andent cyclical yean, coniieting of 
ten monthi, to an equivalent number of common 
yean of tTelre montha. Now, the pontift 
reckoned 132 cyclical yean before the reign of 
Tarquinini Priicni, from which time, according to 
Julia* Oracchanus, the uee of the old calendar waa 
diieontinued. The reduction make* a difierenee 

of 32 yean, for 132- ^112.= 22, and 22 yean, 

added to the era of Pdybiu* and Nepoa, rix, OL 
7. 2, bring oi to the very date of Alunentna, OL 

AlimentoB eompoeed a treatiae De Qffiao Jurit- 
temmlti, containing at leaat two booka ; one book 
D» Vtrtit fritcU, one Dt ConnUum PotaUiie, one 
J)e Cbmttw, one De Faitis, two, at leaat, Mjptago- 
fkom, and leTeiHl Jit B» MUilari. In the latter 
work he handle* the aabject* of military leTiea, of 
the oeremonie* of declaring war, and generally of 
the Jat FtdaU. (GelL xri. 4 ; Voaa. Hit. Gr. n. 
13, fiM^ HuL Led. L 4; F. Lachmami, tb ^'oatti. 
BUtar. m IMi Cam. L 17, 4ta. 1822 ; Zimmein, 
JtoM. Btektrgadt. L § 73.) [J. T. O.] 

ALIHENTUS, M. CI'NCIUS, tribune of the 
pleba B. a 204, propoaed in hia tribuneship the law 
known by the name of CWia La de Donii el 
MtourSna, or Mtateralu La. (Lir. zzzir. 4 ; 
Cicai<o,4, daOratiLll, adAa.\.20; Featna, 
«. «. Mimenlu.) Thia hw waa oonfirmel in the 
time of Anaaatat. {Diet. <f Aid. t. r. Cnaa La.) 
one of the tana of Lycaon, killed by Zeua with a 
Baah of lightning for their intolence. (ApoUod. iiL 
& 1 1.) The town of Aliphera or Alipfaein in 
Aratdia wat beliered to hare been founded by 
kim, and to hare derived ita name bom him, 
(Pan*. TiiL 3. § 1, 26. § 4; Steph, Byi. <.e. 'AA(- 
*•<*«•) [L. &] 

AUTTA or ALILATf AAfrraor'AAJuiT), the 
name by which, according to Herodotna(L 131, iii, 
8), the Arabs called Aphrodite Uiania. [L, S.] 
_ ALLECTUS, wat raiaed to the highest di^ 
tiet in Britain during the dominion of Ciiausint ; 
bnt the crimet which he committed, and the fear 
of pnnitbment on account of them, led him in A. D. 
293 to murder Caraoaiu* and aasume the impe- 
rial title in Britain for himself. He enjoyed hia 
honoun for three yean, at the end of which Con- 
sttntiut tent Aadepiodotnt with an army and fleet 
againtt him. Allectua wat defeated in a. D. 296, 
and Britain waa thua cleaied of otnrpen. (Auiel. 
Vict, dt Oiea. 39 ; Entrop. iz. 14.) On the an- 
nexed onn the inscription is Imp. C. Allictus. 
P. F. Aoo. [L. S.] 

A. ALLIE'NUS. 1. A friend of Cicero% who 
is spoken of by him in high terms. He was the 
legate of Q. Cicero in Asia, b. c. 6(1 (Cie. ad Qn. 


Fr. L 1. 1 3), and praetor in & a 49. {AdAtL z, 
I j.) In the following year, ha had the ptuiiitte 
of Sicily, and sent to Caesar, who waa then io 
Africa, a huge body of troops. He oootinned ia 
Sicily till B. c. 47, and received the title of pio- 
conanL Two of Cicero'a letten are addieoted t» 
him. (Hirt. BtIL Afr. 2, 34 ; Cic «< Fam. sin. 
78, 79.) Hit name occun on a cnn, which has 
on one aide C. Cabs. Imp. Coi. Inib, and om th* 
other A. Allisnvs Proooil 

2. Wot tent by Dolabdlo, & c 43, to bring U 
him the legions wliich were in EgypL On his r^ 
turn from Egypt with four legions, be waa tm^ 
priaed by Catains in Paleatine, who was at th* 
Bead of eight legions. As his forces weia so infe- 
rior, Allienus joined Cassias, (Appaan, B. C. in, 
78, iv. 59 ; Cie. PkU. zi 12, 13 ; Castina, f. Gc. 
ad Fam. zii. II, 12,) Thit Alliennt may perlia|ia 
be the tome person at No. I. 

ALLU'CIUS, a prince of theCeltiberi, botrolhed 
to a most beautifol virgin, who was taken priaooer 
by Scipio in Spain, B. a 209. Sdpio genenosly 
gave her to AUncius, and refused the presents bs 
parents ofiered him. The story is beootiAiOj told 
in Livy (zzvi. 50), and is also related bf ether 
writers, (Polyb, z. 19 ; VaL Max. iv. 3. f 1; SB. 
ItaL zv. 268, &e.) 

ALMO, the god of • river in the neighbouzkood 
of Rome, who, like Tiberinns and others, wen 
prayed to by the angun. In the water of Alaae 
the statue M the mother of the gods used to be 
washed. (Cic. d* Nat. Dear. iii. 20; eaatp. Vam, 
de Lmg. Lot. ▼. 71, ed. MdUer.) [L. &] 

ALMOPS fAA/ian)!), a giiuit, the son of PntriiVig 
and Helle, from whom the district of Ahaopia and 
its inhabitanta, the Almopea in Uacedonia, wen 
believed to have derived their name. (Steph. ByL 
t. ». 'AKiunUi.) [L. &] 

(*AAaM«3ai, AAsvmSoi or 'AAifai3a<), are patronymk 
forma fitmi Aloena, but ore naed to designate the 
two tons of his wife Iphimedeia by Poacsdon : vit 
Otns and Ephialtes. The Aloeidae are renowned 
in the eoriiest stories of Greece ibr their eztiMP- 
dinary strength and daring spirit. When they 
were nine yean old, coich of their bodies meatand 
nine cubits in breadth and twenty-seven in heighL 
At this early age, they thieatened the OlympiiB 
godt with war, and attempted to pile moont Oam 
upon Olympns, and Pelion upon Oaaa. They 
would have accomplished their (Aject, taya H«^ 
had they been allowed to grow up to the age tt 
manhood ; but Apollo destroyed them befan tWr 
beards b^an to appear. {Od. xi. 305, &e.) Ia 
the Iliad (V. 385, Ac; oompi Philostr. dm Fit. Sapl. 
iL 1. § 1) the poet lehtet another feat of their 
early a^ They pat the aod Area in chains, and 
kept him impriioned for thirteen months ; so tkst 
be would have perished, had not Hennea been io- 
fetmed of it by Eriboea, and secretly libemted the 
prisoner. The same stories are related by ApoQs- 
dorns (i. 7. § 4), who however does not make thim 
perish in the attempt upon Olympus. Aeoordiag 
to him, they actually piled the mountains apon 
one another, and threatened to change land into 
sea and sea into land. They are iiinher said tt 
bare ^wn every year one cubit in breadth tad 
three in height. Aa another proof of their daiii^ 
it is related, that Enhialtes sned fer the had af 
Hem, and Otns for Uiat of Artemis. Bat this Isd 
to thair destmetioB in the island of Noxca. (Cciqk 


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Tiai. fj/O. h. 156, te.) Hers Aitemk Kpfeuei 
to tboi in tlM iam of ■ tlig, and ran between 
the tws hcDtlien, who, both simiiig at the animal 
■t the Mtme tirar, iliot each other dead. Hyginu 
(Fak. 28) tebtee their death in a limilar manner, 
bat makca Apollo wnd the &tal itag, (Comp. 
Calfim. Hfam. at Diam. 264 ; ApoUon. Rhod. i. 
484, with the SchoL) Ai a pimiihment ior their 
{wmuuptioii, they were, in Hadea, tied to a pillar 
with wipenta, with thdr fiwea turned away from 
each other, and were peipetnaSy tormented by 
the itrifk^ of an owL (Honek, ad Ufgm. I. c; 
Tug. Atm. ri. 582.) Diodonu (r. 50, &&), who 
doea not mention the Homeric (toiiea, contnTca to 
giTe to hia account an appeaiaiiee of hietory. Ac- 
cording to him, the Aloeidae are Theiaalian heroe* 
who were aent oat by their bther Aloena to fstefa 
back thar mother Iphimedeia and her danghter 
Paaentia, who had been carried off by Thiaoani. 
After haTing orertaken and defeated the Thradani 
in the iahnd of Strangyle "(Naxoa), they lettled 
there aa mien orer the Thiaciana, Bat loon after, 
they killed each other in a diapnte which had 
ariaen between them, and the Nazian* wonhipped 
than aa hoeei. The foundation of the town of 
AlatDm in Thanaly wai aieribed to them. (Steph. 
Bya: m.v.) In all theae traditions the Aloeidae an 
icpreaented aa only remarkable for their gigantic 
phyiieal atren^ ; bat then ie another itory which 
phwea them m a different light. Panamia* (ix. 
29. { 1) relatea, that they wen believed to hare 
bees the fint of all men who worthipped the 
Muaea on moont Helicon, and to have eonnoated 
thia nuantain to them ; bnt they wonhipped only 
three Moaet — ^Melete, Hneme, and Ainde, and 
bonded the town of Aicn in Boeotia. Sepalchnl 
moomnenta of the Aloeidae wen leen in die time 
of PaaMuiiai (iz. 22. { 5) near the Boeotian town 
«f Anth e J o n . I^ter timea fiibled of their bona* 
being leen in Themaly. (Philottr. L S.) The in- 
ter p te ta tion of theie tnditiont by etymologiei fiom 
IMm and dXai^ which ha* been attempted by 
modem acholan, i* litde aatitbctoiy. [L S.] 

AI/VEUS CAAttwr). 1. A wm of Poaeidon 
and Canaee. He married Iphimedeia, the daugh- 
ter of Triopa, who waa in lore with Poieidon, and 
ned to walk by the tea-Mde, take her hand* fall 
of ita water, and iprinkle her bo*om with it. The 
two Kma whom ahe hod by Poaeidon wen called 
Aleeidv!. (Hom. IL t. 385, (M. zi 305 ; Apollod. 
L 7. S *•) [AumoAmJl 

2, A eon of Helio* 1^ Circe or Antiope, who 
teeeiTed tram hi* fother the aOTereignty over the 
diatrict of Aaooia. (Pans. ill. §6,3. 1 8.) [L.S.] 

A'LOPE fMJmii), a daughter of Cocyon, 
who wa* bdored by Poaeidon on account of her 
great beanty, and became by him the mother of 
a aon, wh<H& the ezpoaed immediately afker hia 
birth. But a man came and auekled the child 
until it was found by shepherd*, who fell into a 
dispute a* to who waa to hare the beautiful kingly 
attin of the boy. The case wa* faronght befon 
Cenyon, who, on recogniung by the dns* whoae 
child the boy was, ordoed Alope to be imprisoned 
in order to be put to death, and her child to be ez- 
poaed again. The latter wa* fed and found in the 
same manner a* before, and the shepherds called 
him Hippothoua. rHiPFOTHOOa.] The body of 
Alope wa* changed by Poaeidon into a weQ, which 
bote the aame name. (Hygin. RA. 187 ; Pans. i. 
5. f 2; Aiiftoph. Av. 633.) The town of Alope, 



in Theaaaly, waa balieTed to have derived its name 
fiom her. (Phereeyd, ap. jlept. Bjpi. t, v. 'AA^ni, 
where, however, Philonidee speaks of an Alope aa 
a daughter of Actor.) Then waa a monument of 
Alope on the read fiom Eleusis to Hegara, on the 
spot when she waa beUeved to hare been killed 
by her fether. (Pans. i. 89. § 3.) [L. &] 


ALORCUS, a Spaniard in Hannilal'k army, 
who waa a fiiend and hospes of the Saguntinea, 
went into Sagnntum, when the city was reduced 
to the last eztremity, to endeavoDr to persuade the 
inhabitants to accept Hannibal'k terms. (Lir. xzi. 

('AA^oSi, 'AXftala, or 'AA^ovva), a sumame rf 
Artemis, which she derived fiom the rirer god 
Alpheins, who loved her, and under which she 
was wotahipped at Letrini in EUs (Pans. vi. 22. § 
5 ; Stiab. viii p. 343), and in Ortygia. (SchoL 
ad PiaiLJ^a. a. 12, N* [L. a] 

ALPHEIAS, a name by which Ovid (Mtt r. 
487) designates the nymph of the Sicilian well 
Arethusa, because it was believed to have a nb- 
terraneons communication with the river Alpheina, 
in Peloponnesus. [L. 8.] 

'AAfe^r), the god of the river Alpheius in Pelo- 
ponnesus, a son of Ooeanus and Thetys. (Pind. 
\em. L 1; Hes. Tkng. 338.) According to 
Panaaniaa (v. 7. S 2) Alqiheius was a passionate 
hunter and fell in love with the nymph Arethusa, 
bnt she fled from him to the isfand of Ortygia 
near Syracuse, and metamorphosed harsalf into a 
well, whereupon Alpheius became a river, which 
flawing fiom Pelopoimeto* under the sea to Or- 
tygia, then united it* waten with tho*e of the 
well Aiethnia. (Comp. Schol. ad Pmd, Nem. L 
3.) This story is nl^ed somewhat diflenntly by 
Ovid. (AM. T. 572, &C.) Antbosa, a fiurnymph, 
once wmle bathing in the river Al|^eius in Ana- 
dia, was surprised and pursued by the god ; but 
Artemis took pity upon ner and changed her into 
a well, which sowed under the earth to the island 
of Ortygia. (Comp. Serv. ad Fay. Eat. z. 4; 
Virg. .401. iiL 694; Stat. Sibi. L 2, 203; TUb. 
i. 27 1, iv. 239 ; Ludan, DioL Marm. 3.) Artemis, 
who is here only mentioned incidentally, was, ac- 
cording to other traditions, the object of die love of 
Alpheius. Once, it is said, when pursued by him 
she fled to Letrini in Elis, and hen she covered 
her fece and those of her companion* (nymphs) with 
mud, so that Alpheius could not dinover or 
distinguish her, and was obliged to return. (Pans, 
vi. 22. § 5.) This occasioned the building of a 
temple of Artemis Alphaea at Letrini According 
to another version, the goddess fled to Ortygia, 
where she had likewise a temple under the name 
of Alphaea. {SAo\. ad Pmd. Pglh. ii. 12.) An 
■llnsion to Alpbein*' love of Artemi* i* alio con- 
tained in the act, that at Olympia the two divjni- 
tie* had one altar in common. (Pau*. v. 14. § 5 ; 
SchoL ad Pind. OL v. 10.) In these accounU 
two or more distinct stories aeem to be mized up 
together, but they probably originated in the 
papular belief that there was a natural subterra- 
neous commnnieation between the river Alpheius 
and the well Arethusa, For, among several other 
things it was believed, that a cup thrown into the 
Alpheias would make ita nrapeoranoe in the well 
Anthnsa in Ortygia. (Stnu). vL p. 270, viii p. 

Digitized by 




848 ; Senec Qaaa<. !fat. iii. 26; Fnlgent. Afytk. 
iii. 12.) Plutarch (ila/iYiie. 19) giTM an account 
which ii altogether oneonnected with tboM men- 
tioned above. Aeoording to him, Alpheint vaa a 
•on of Heliot, and killed hia brotlier Cercaphni in 
a contest Haunted by demaii and the Erinnjea 
he le(q)t into the river Nyetmioa which hence le- 
oeired the nam* Alpheiua. [L. S.] 

ALPHE81B0EA ('AAf«n«iM>). 1. The mo- 
ther of Adonia. [Aooms.] 

2. A daaghter of Phegens, who married Ale- 
maeon. [Alcmaxon.] 

3. According to Theoeritm (i£. 45) a daughter 
of Bia^ and tho wife of Peliaa. The hitter, how- 
CTer, is nsnally called Anazibi^ 

4. An Indian nymph, who was poanonately 
loved by Dionym*, bat conld not be indneed to 
^leld to his wishes, nntil the god changed himself 
into a tiger, and thns compelled her by fear to 
allow him to carry her acnw the river SoIIaz, 
which from thia drcnnistance received the name of 
Tigris. (PlxA de Fbm. 24.) [L. S.] 

ti^iimum), the author of about twelve epigranu 
in the Greek Anthology, some of which seem to 
point out the time when he wrote. In the seventh 
epigram (Jacobs) he lefen to the state of the Ro- 
man empire, as embracing almost all the known 
world ; m the ninth he spnks of the restored and 
flourishing dty of Troy ; and in the tenth he al- 
ludes to an epigram by Antipater Sidonius. Now 
Antipater lived under Augustus, and Troy had re- 
ceived great &vonn (ram Ju&us Caesar and Au- 
gustus. (Stiab. ziii. p. 889.) Hence it is not 
nDprobable that Alpheus wrote under Augustus. 
It IS true that in the fourth epigram he addresses 
a certain Mncrinna, but there is no reason to sup- 
pose that this was the emperor Maciinns. Ano- 
ther difficulty ha* been started, on the ground that 
the eleventh epigram was inscribed, as we leam 
from Pauaanias (viiL 52. § 8), on the statue of 
Philopoemen in Tegea, and that it is very impro- 
bable that such a statue should have stood without 
an inscription till the time of Alpheus. But the 
simple fiut is, that no reaaon can be discovered for 
attributing this epigram to Alphena. (Jacobs, Am- 
OoL Grate, mi. p. 889.) [P. S.] 


ALPI'NUS, a name which Horace {Sat. i. 10. 
8$) gives in ridicule to a bombastic poet. He pn>- 
bably means M. Furius Bifaaculua. [BiBACULca] 
. ALPI'NUSMONTA'NUS,onoofth*Treviri, 
the most powerful of the Belgic people, and the 
coonnander of a cohort in the army of Vitellius, 
was sent into Oeimany aficr the batde of Cremona, 
A. n. 70. Together with his brother, D. Alpinna, 
he joined Civilis in the next year. (Tac Hitt, iii. 
85, iv. 31, V. 59.) [CiviuaJ 

ALTHAEA ('UMa\ a daughter of the Aeto- 
lian king Thestins and Eurythemis, and sister of 
Lcda, Hypennnestra, Iphiclus, Euippus, &c She 
was marned to Oeneui, king of Colydon, by whom 
she became the mother of Tiozens, Thyrcus, Cly- 
menus, and Meleager, and of two daughters, Qoige 
and Delaneira. (Apollod. i. 7. § 10, 8. § 1.) 
Apollodorus states, that according to some, Mele- 
oger was regarded as the fruit of her inteiconrse 
with Ares, and that she was mother of Dei- 
ancira by Dionysus. (Comp. Hygin. Fab. 129, 


171, 174.) Althaea is especially celebnted itt 
ancient story on account of the tragic fiite of be* 
son Mdeager, who also became the canoe of her 
death. Some say that she hung kerseU^ otbera 
that she killed herself with a dagger. (Apollod. L 
8. S 3 ; Ov. Mtt. viii. 446, Ac) [L. &] 

fqM^yqi or *AXtaifiivi|i), a son of Cattma, kiag of 
Crete. In consequence of an oiade, that Oatzena 
would lose his life by one of his children, AItiie> 
menes quitted Crete together with his siater Aae- 
mosyne, in order to avoid becoming the inatnaacsit 
of his Cither's death. He landed in Rhodes at • 
place which he called Cretenia, and in Tememhaaca 
of the god of his own native island, he elected oa 
mount Atabyms an altar to Zens Atabyrios^ Hia 
sister was seduced in Rhodes by Hensea, list 
Althemenes, disbelieving her account, killed her 
by kicking her with his foot. When Catieus had 
become advanced in years, he had an invioabis 
desire to see his only son once mere, and to place 
his crown in his hands. He accordingly sailed t* 
Rhodes. On his landing there, he ud his cons- 
ponions were attacked by shepherds, who miatoak 
them for pirates. Daring tne ensoii^ slnggle, 
Althemenes came to the protection of hu snbjectst 
and shot his own fiuher dead. When he becaaoa 
aware of what he had done, he pmyed to the gaia, 
and was swallowed op by the eaith. This ia tha 
account of Apollodorus (iiL 2. § 1, dt&), with 
which Diodoras (v. 69) agivea in the main peinta^ 
except that he represents Althemenea as wander- 
ing about after the murder, and at last dying with 
gnef. He adds, that the Rhodians sabaeaiiieBt^ 
woisbipped him as a hero. [L. St] 

ALTHE'PUS CAASimu), a son of Foasidai 
and Lois, a daughter of Orus, king of TroeaeB. 
The territory of Troezen was called after him 
Althepia. In his reign Pallas and Poaeidcsi di»' 
pnted the possession of the country with each 
other. (Paus. ii. 30. § 6.) [L. S.] 

ALYATTES (*AAM(rn|t), king of Lydia, aa»- 
ceeded his father Sadyattea, B. c 618. Sadyattes 
during the hut six years of his leign had been en- 
gaged in a war with Miletus, whii£ was continaed 
by his son five years longer. In the last of these 
yean Alyattes burnt a temple of Athena, and bit- 
ing sick shortly afterwards, be sent to Delphi for 
advice ; but the oracle refiued to give him an an- 
swer till he had rebuilt the temple. This he did, 
and recovered in consequence, and made peace 
with Miletus. He subsequently carried on war with 
Cyaxares, king of Media, drove the Cinuaorians 
out of Asia, took Smyrna, and attacked ChBonwaae. 
The war with Cyaxarea, which lasted for five yean, 
from Bi c, 690 to 585, arose in consequence of 
Alyattes receiving under his protection sone Scy> 
thians who had fled to him after injuring Cyazaresi 
An eclipse of the sun, which h^^ned while the 
armies of the two kings were fighting, led to a 
peace between them, and this waa cemented by 
the maniase of Astyages, the son of Cyazaica, with 
Aryenis, the daaghter of Alyattes. Alyattes died 
& c: 561 or 560, after a reign of fifty-seven years, 
and was succeeded by his son Croesus, who oppean 
to have been previously associated with his bUier ia 
the government. (Herod. L 16-22, 25, 73, 74.) 

The tomb (crq/ia) of Alyattes is mentioned hf 
Herodotus (L 93) as one of the wonders of Lydih 
It was norui of Saidis, near the lake Oygaea, and 
coiuisted of a large mound of earth, raised npoa a 


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twnd iliii y of gnat itonm. It wa* greeted by the 
ttadeapeopla, raechanio, ud eonitemit, and on 
tiw top d it then vera firs pDan, which Hero- 
dotna —M, and ob which w«ce mcntiinied the dif- 
iexmt portiaaa nind by each; fiom thi* it ^>- 
III a n d that the cmntesai did the gieater pait. 
It mr e mwd eiz plathis and two stadia in ciicom- 
fmoee, and thiiteen plethn in bieadth. Aocmd- 
mg to MBM wiiten, it wa* called the "tomb of the 
couitemi," and wae eneted by a mietnee of Oygea. 
(CSearch. ap. AOeu. ziii. p. 57S, a.) Thii monnd 
Biilleziata. Mr. H a milton tay» {Se t e ar tim mAtia 
Mimor, toL L f. 145), that it took him about ten 
■dilute* to ride nond it* faan^ which would gin 
it a rimnntwepee of neariy a mile ; and he alio 
ctete*, that toward* the north it canii*ts of the ns- 
txnl rock — a white, hoiixontally •tratiSed earthy 
Bmwm a ir , est away ao a* to ifpear part of the 
Mractore. The npper portion, be add*, i* and 
and g^TcI, impanntly bnmght bnm the bed of the 
Hemnn. He faaoA <m the top the remain* of a 
fDondatioii nearly ei^tean feet iquara, an the 
north of which wa* a huge circular ttone ten 6et 
in dianteter, with a flat bottom and a raiaed edge 
er lip, eridently placed there ■* an ornament on 
the OCX of the *^ii'ii 

ALY'PIUS CA^^^not), the aathor of a OiaA 
nsaical treatise entitled tmjtrfit |u»>vuc^. There 
are no toterahly nie ground* for identifying him 
with any one of the Tarion* per*on* who bore the 
naaie in the time* of the later emperora, and of 
whoae history anything is known. Aecoxding to 
the most phiuible oonjectnre, he wa* that Alypin* 
whom £uiiapiu^ in hi* Lifo of lamUichn^ ode- 
fatates fer hi* aeate intelleet (i tiaXurruc^arof 
'AA^aws) and diminntiTe stature, and who, being 
• &iend of lambliehu*, probably floaii*bed under 
Julian and hi* ininif<tiat« successors. Thi* Aly- 
pios was a native of Alexandria, and died then at 
an adTaaced age, and therefore can hardly hare 
been the penoa called by Ammianns Marcellinus 
Atjfiiu AuU tnium ta, who was first prefect ct Bri- 
tain, and afterward* employed by Julian in hi* 
Mtempt to rebuild the Jewieh temple. Julian 
addressea two epistle* (29 and 30) to Ah/piut 
{^aaXiaris 'AXmti^ dSsAJ^ Hautofiov), in one of 
which he thank* hun for a geoenphical treatise or 
chart ; it would seem mora Ukely that this wos the 
Antinrhian than that he wa* the Alexandrian 
Alypin* a* Menrsin* supposes, if indeed he was 
either one or the other. lamblichos wrote a life, 
not now extant, of the Alexandrian. 

(Meuiin*, NaL ad Alyp. p. 186, &c c; Jn- 
liaa, ^pitt. xxix. xxx. and not p. 297, ed. Heyler ; 
Eniapins, Vit. lamUidk. and noL toL ii. p. 63, ed, 
Wrttenbach; Amm. MarceU. xxiii. 1. g 2; De 
la Borde, jSinot <ar la Manjme, toL iii p. 133.) 

The work of Alypius consiet* wholly, with the 
exoeptian of a short introduction, of liat* of the 
symbol* need (both for Toice and instrument) to 
denote all the sounds in the finty-five scales pro- 
doeed by taking each of the fifteen modes in the 
thiee genera. (Distonie, Chromatic, Enharmonic.) 
It treat*, theretboe, in &ct, of only one (the fifth, 
namely) of the seren branches into which the (ab- 
ject i*, a* usual, divided in the introduction ; and 
nay possibly be merely a fragment of a larger 
wcrk. It would have been most valuable if any 
considerable number of examples had been left us 
•f the actual use of the system of notation de- 
scribed in it; uDfortunately very iirw remain (see 



Barney, HmLof^Mwie, voL L p. 83), and they seem 
to belong to an earlier stage of the science. How- 
ever, the work serves to throw some light on the 
obscure history of the modes. (See BSekh, ds 
Afetr. PintL c 8. p. 233, c. 9. 12.) The text, 
which seemed hopelessly corrupt to Msursnis, it* 
first editor, was restored, apparently with soc- 
csss, by the labours of the leairiied and indwfitiga. 
ble Meibomius. (Antiquae Husicae Auctore* 
Septem, ed. Hare Meibomius, AmsteL 16S2| 
Anstoxenus, Nioomaehns, Alypias, ed. Job. Meo^ 
sins, Logd. Bat 1616.) [W. F. D.] 

ALYYIUS ('AXinriei), priest of the great 
church at Constantinople, flourished A. D. 430. 
Then is extant an epistle from him to St. Cyril 
(in Greek), exhorting him to a vigorous resistance 
againxt the heresy of Nestoiius. (See Coneilioram 
AToRi GJleelio, i Afann, vol v. p. 1463.) [A. J. C] 

ALYPUS CAAinrai), a statuary, a native of 
Sieyon. He studied under Naoeydes, the Aigive. 
Hi* *ge may be fixed £rom hi* having executed 
bronae statues of some Lacedaemonians who shared 
in the victory of Lyiander at AegospotamL (b c 
405.) Pausaniaa also mentions some statue* of 
Olympic victors made by him. (vi. I. f 2, x. 9. § 4, 
vi. 1. § 2, B. g 3.) [C. P. M.] 

ALYZEUS ('AXufcJt), a son of Icarius sod 
brother of Penelope and LeucadiuL After his 
father's death, he reigned in conjunction with hi* 
brother over Acamania, and is said to have founded 
the town of Alyseia there. (Stiab. x. p. 452 ; 
Stmh. Bys. s. v. ^AA^sui.) [L. S.] 

(MifSocoi), a common name among the Thradann 
It was also, according to Ptolemy, the name of a 
people and mountains in Thiace. Paosanias (L 4. 
§ 4) nieaks of an Amodocus who came from the 

1. King of the Odrysae in Thrace, was a friend 
of Aldbiades, and is mentioned at the time of the 
battle of AMOspotami, & c. 405. (Died. xiii. 1 05.) 
He ud SenUies were the most powerful princes in 
Tbiaoe when Xenophon visited the country in B. c. 
400. They were, however, fiequently at variance^ 
but were reconciled to one another by Thrasybulus, 
the Athenian commander, in b. a 390, and induced 
by him to become the allies of Athens. (Xen. 
Anab. viL 2. g 32, 3. S 16, 7. g 3, &&, BelL iv. 
8. g 26; Diod. xiv. 94.) This Amadoeos may 
perhaps be the same a* tbis one mentioned by Aris- 
totle, who, he says, was attacked by his general 
Seuthes, a Thracian. (Poj: V. 8, p. 1 82, ed. OSttling.) 

2. A Ruler in Thrace, who inherited in con- 
junction with Berisades and Cersobleptes the do- 
minions of Co^s, on the death of tne latter in 
B. c. 358. Amadocns was probably a son of 
Cotys and a brother of the other two princes, 
Uiough thi* is not stated by Demosthenes. (Dem. 
iB^riUiier. pu623, &c) [CBRsoBLxrTxs.] Ama- 
docns seems to have had a son of the some name. 
(Isocr. Plul^. p. 83, d. compared with Horpo- 
crat >. e. 'A^uUloinif.) 

3. One of the prince* of Thrace, who was de- 
feated and taken prisoner by Philip, king of 
Macedonia, a. c 184. (Liv xxxix. 35.) 

AMAE'SIA SE'NTIA U mentioned by Vale-" 
rius Maximns (viii, 3. g I) as an instance of a 
female who pleaded her own cause before the prae- 
tor. (About a c. 77.) She was called Andnt- 
gyne, from having a man's spirit with a female 
form. Compare Afbania and Hobtbnsia. 


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of the earlieit Bonum writen in finroni of the Epico- 
zcan philoaophy. He wrote leTenl woiki, which 
ue cemnied b; Cicero u deficient in arrangement 
and ityle. He ia mentioned by no other writer 
but Cicero. (Acad. i. 2, Ttae. ir. 3.) 

AMALTHEIA ('A^«<ia]. 1. The norse of 
the in&nt Zena after Ui birth in Crete. The an- 
cient* themseWei appear to hare been as uncertain 
about the etymology of the name a* about the 
real nature of Amaltheia. Heaychiui derires it 
from the verb iiuiXBfita', to nouriah or to enrich ; 
others from iiiiXBeutros, L e. firm or hard ; and 
others again from t^ioA^ and 6fta, according to 
which it would signify the divine goat, or the 
tender goddess. The common deriratioD is from 
i/UXynr, to milk or suck. According to some 
traditions Amiiltheia is the goat who suckled the 
infant Jove (Hygin. PoeL Astr. ii. 13; Aiat. 
Phaen. 163; Callun, Hymn, in Jov. 49), and who 
was afterwards rewarded for this service by being 
placed among the stoiSL (Comp. ApoUod. i. 1. § 
6.) [Abqa.] According to another set of tra- 
ditions Amaltheia was a njrmph, and daughter of 
OceanuB, Helios, Haemonius, or of the Cretan 
king Melisseus (Schol. ad Horn. IL zxi 194; 
&atosth. CaUul. 13; ApoUod. il 7. § 5; Lao- 
tant. ImtU. L 22; Hynn. 2. c, and Fak. 139, 
where he calls the njrmph Adamanteia),and is said 
to hare fed Zens with the milk of agoat When this 
goat once broke off one of her horns, the nymph 
Amaltheia filled it with fresh herbs and fruit and 
gave it to Zens, who trensplaced it together with 
the goat among the stars. (Ovid, FatU t. 115, 
&C.) According to other accounts Zeus himself 
broke off one of the homi of the goat Amaltheia, 
gave it to the daughters of Melisseus, and en- 
dowed it with such powers that wheneTer the pos- 
sessor wished, it would instantaneously become filled 
with whatever might be desired. (Apollod. Lc; 
6choL ad Callim, I. e.) This is the story about 
the origin of the celebrated horn of Amaltheia, 
commonly called the horn of plenty or cornucopia, 
which plays such a prominent part in the stories 
of Greece, and which was used in later times as 
the symbol of plenty in generaL (Stnb. z. p. 458, 
iii. p. 161 ; Died. n. 35.) [Acbslous.] Dio- 
dorua (iii. 68) give* an aocoont of Aiaaltheia, 
which differs from all the other traditions. Ac- 
cordinff to him the Libyan king Ammon married 
Amaltheia, a maiden of eztiaordinary beauty, and 
gave her a very fertile tract of land which had the 
form of a bull's horn, and received from its queen 
the name of the horn of Amaltheia. This account, 
however, is only one of the many specimens of a 
rationalistic interpretation of the ancient mythns. 
The horn appears to be one of the most ancient 
and simplest vessels for drinking, and thus we find 
the ftory of Amaltheia giving Zens to drink finm 
• horn represented in an ancient work of art still 
extant. (O'aleria Oiustiniani, ii. p. 61.) The 
ham of plenty was frequently given as an attribute 
to the representations of Tyche or Fortuna. (Faus. 
iv. 80. I 4, vii. 26. § 3j comp. BSttiger, Amat- 
tkaa, Oder der CVetouiMle Zeai ab SaOgUng; 
Wekker, Uiier ehe Ontiuie OoIom m Tieben, 

2. One of the Sibyls (Tibnll, ii 6. 67), whom 
Ladantius (L 6) identifies with the Cumaean 
Sibyl, who IS said to have sold to king Tanoinins 
the celebrated SiltyUine books. The same is stated 

by Serrini (ad Aen. vi. 72) and by Lydns (A 
Afetu. IT. 84) ; compi Klausen, Aeatas mmd dm 
PatatoL, p. 299, *e. W" S.] 

AMANDUS. [ABLlAI^o^ p. 28, a.) 

AMARANTUS ('htiAfunos), of Alexradjn. 
wrote a commentary npon one of Th«ient«iB 
Idyls (ESgnui. M. p. 273. 40, ed. Sylh.), and > 
work entitled niA o-«ijiH}i. Reqiectmg hia tana, 
we only know that he lived aubaeqnently to Jnba, 
king of Mauretania. (Athen. viiL p. 34S, c, x. 
p. 414, t) 

AM ARYNCEUS rA(i<v«n'««^X » <*«* "^ "• 
Eleena, and son of Onesimachus or of Aeetor. 
(Hygin. P<d>. 97 ; Enstath. ad Horn. p. SOS.) Ao- 
cording to Hyginus, Amarynoeus himsdf joined tin 
expedition against Troy wiUi nineteen ship*. H<nner, 
on the other hand, only mentions his son Diorea 
(Amarynceides) as partaking in the Tro>n vrar. 
(//. ii. 622. iv. 517.) When Amaryncena died. 
his sons celebrated funeral games in Ma honour, in 
which Neator, as he himself relate* (IL xxiii. 629, 
At), took part. According to Pansaniaa (t. i. ( 
8) Amaiynceus had been of great service to Angeaa 
against Heracles, in return for which Angeas ahared 
his throne with him. [L>. S.] 

AMARYNTHUS ('AM"**"). » hunter of 
Artemis, fi^ra whom the town of Amarynlhua in 
Euboea (Steph. Bji. says Euboea itaelf) wm be- 
lieved to have derived its name. (Strob. x. f^ 
448.) From this hero, or rather from the town of 
Amsiiynthus, Artemis derived the Bnmaine Ana- 
rynthia or Amarysia, under which she waa wor- 
shipped there and also in Attica. (Paua. i. SI. § 
3 , comp. Diet, cf Art. t. e. 'Kiiuftftiti.) [L. S.] 

AMA'SIS CAMoffii). 1. King of Bgyp* «» 
early times, according to Diodorui (L 60^ in 
whose reign Egypt was conquered by Actiaanea, 
king of Ethiopia. [AcnsAKsa.] 

2. King of Egypt, succeeded Apnea, the last 
king of the line of Psammetiehns, in B. c. 569. 
Ho was of comparatively low origin .(Heiodota^ 
iL 172, calls him Sijfufriit), and was bora at 
Siupb, a town in the Saitic nome. When die 
Egyptians revolted against Apries, Amasu waa 
sent to qucQ the insurrection, but went ovar 
to the side of the rebd*, and was proclaimed 
king by them. He defeated Apries in a battk 
near Momemphis, and took him prisoner. M« 
seemed disposed to treat his captive with great 
mildness, but was induced to deliver him np into 
the hands of the Egyptians, who put him to death. 
It was probably to strengthen himself against a 
powerfiil party formed against him amongst the 
warrior-caste, that he cultivated the friendship of 
the Greeks. He not only gave up to them the dty 
of Naucratis, which had hitherto been their only 
mart, but opened all the months of the Nile to 
them, and allowed them to build temple* to their 
own deities. He contracted an 'alliance with the 
Greeks of Gyrene, and himself married Ladioe, a 
Cyrenaic lady. (Herod, it 181.) He removed the 
lonians and Corinns, who were settled on the 
Pelusiac mouth of the Nile, to Memphii^ and 
formed them into a body-gnard for himselt 
(iL 154.) He also entered into alliance with 
Croesus (L 77) and with Polycrate*, the tytmt 
of Same* (iii. 39, 40), who i* said to have in- 
troduced Pythagoras to him by letter. (W* 
Laert viii. 3.) Amasis also sent presenU W 
several of the Greek cities. (Herod, a 182.) 
Sdon in the eoone of his travela visited hii>- 


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(i. 30; Pht. Sulam, 36; Pht TImamm, p. 21.) 
It mwld appear frian Xenophgn {Cjfrop, riii. 6. 
9 20) that, afUr the OTOthraw of Croenu by 
Cyma, Aaaab «a« ounpelled to pay tribnte. 
He atnrre u via the &Tonr of the print-caate by 
fanildiiig them templee. Dnring the teign of 
Aaaane agricnltaie, eonuneice, and the art> 
flaarubnl gnatly. The exteiuion of Egyptian 
omunene was much &Toiired by the conqaeat of 
Cypnu, which he made tribntary. Hi* leign was 
one of afanoat nnintempted peace and proaperity, 
wUdi gave him leisoie for adorning Egypt with 
wereal magniScent bnildinga and worki of art. (iL 
ITS, 176.) The plan* of conqneat which Cyni* 
had been unable to carry into effect, were feUowed 
oot by Cambyaea, who in B. c. 525 led an army 
againat Egypt. According to the *toi7 told by 
Herodotn* (iiL I ), Cambyae* had been inoenaed 
hf a, deception practiaed upon him by Amaaia, 
who, pretending to comply with a demand of the 
Persian king, that he ahould aend him hia daughter 
to adncn hu harem, anbatitated the danghter of 
Apnea for hia own. Amaai* howerer did not 
live to *ee the &11 of hi* country. He died be- 
fcce Cambyae* reached the borders, after a reign of 
44 yeafB, and waa boried at Sat* iu the tomb 
which be had conatmeted in the temple of Athena, 
(iii. IO,ii 169.) Hi* oorpae wa* afterward* taken 
oat of the tomb and ahunefully inanlted by the 
order of Cambyae*. (iii. 16.) A* a governor he 
exhibited great abilitiea, and wa* the anther of 
aeranl naeibl ragnlation* (iL 177), but he appear* 
to bare indolged in more fiuniliarity toward* thoae 
aboat him tou wa* altogether eon*i*tant with hi* 
kingly dignity. (Hood. li. 161—182, iii 1—16 ; 
Diod. i. 68, 95.) 

S. A Penian of the tribe of the Maraphii, 
who wa* *ent by Aryande*, the governor of 
Egypt nnder Cambyae*, at the head 3[ ao army, 
to aaai*t Pheretime, the mother of Arcenkua 
in., king of Cyiene. He took Barca by atnta- 
gon and treachery, and made an nnaocceaafnl 
attempt upon Gyrene. He waa then recalled by 
Aryandea. On it* march back the Persian army 
n^red aeverely bam the Libyan*. (Herod, iv. 
167, 201, 203.) [0. P. M.1 

AMASTRIS or AMESTRIS {'Afuunpa or 
'Afoimrpis). 1. The wife of Xenes, and mother 
of Artazerze* I. According to Herodotu*, *he 
wa* the daughter of Otane*, according to Cteeiai, 
who call* her Amiitria, of Onopha*. She wa* 
cmel and vindictive. On one occaaion the nai- 
ficed fonrleen yontlu of the noblest Penian bmilie* 
to the god aaid to dwell beneath the earth. The 
tale of her horrible mutilation of the wife of Ma- 
•iste*, recorded by Herodotua, give* n* a lively 
picture of the intrigue* and ciueltie* of a Persian 
harem. She aorvived Xerxet. (Herod, vii. 61, 
114, ix. 108—113; Cteaia^ iVnia e. 20. 30. ed. 
Lion ; Pint. Jldb. p. 123, e.) 

2. A danghter of Artaxerzea II., whom her fa- 
ther promiaol in marriage to Teriboin*. Instead 
of fiilfilling hi* promi*e, he married her hinuelC 
(Plot. Artajt. c. 27.) 

3. Also called Amastrine (^Aitairrpanf), the 
danghter of Ozyorte*, the brother of liaritts, waa 
given by Alexander in mairiage to Ciaterua, 
(Arrion. Anab. viL 4.) Ciateru* having fiUlen in 
love with Phila, the daughter of Antipater, Amas- 
tri* married Dionyaiu*, tyrant of Heiadeia, in Bi- 
thynia, B. c. 322. After the death of Dionysiua, 



in B. c 306, who left her guardian of their chO- 
dien, Clearchua, Oxyathrea, and Amastria, aha 
married Lyaimachu*, b. c 302. Ly*imachu*, 
however, abandoned her *hortly afterward*, and 
married Arainoi', the daughter of Ptolemy Pbilap 
delphn* ; whereupon Anuutri* retired to Heradeia, 
which *he governed in her own right. She also 
founded a city, called after her own name, on the 
•eo-coaat of Paphlagonia. She wa* drowned by 
her two aon* about B. c. 288. ( Memnon, e. 4, 5 ; 
Diod. XX. 109.) The head figured below pnbaUy 
repreaentft Amaatzi*: the woman on the rever*e 
hold* a small figure of victory in her hand. (Eck> 
he], iL p. 421.) 

AMATA, the wife of king Latinu* and mother 
of Lavinia, who, when Aenea* sued for the hand 
of the latter, opposed him, becan*e *he had already 
pnmiaed Lavinia to Tumu*. At the *Bme time 
*he wa* in*tigated by Alecto, who acted according 
to the lequeat of Juno, to *tir up the war with 
Turan*. Thi* *tory fill* the greater part of the 
seventh book of Virgil's Aeneid. When Amata 
wa* informed that Tumu* had fiUlen in battle, aha 
hmig henel£ (Viig. Am. xiL 600; Dionyi. L 
64.) [U 6.] 

A'MATHES QAniensla *on of Heraela*, from 
whom the town of Amathu* in Cypru* wa* be- 
lieved to have derived its name. According to 
some traditions, however, its name wa* derived 
from Amathuaa, the mother of Cinyia*. (Steph. 
Byi. «, V. 'AitattSt.) [L. S.] 

fowrta or 'Aitatmrrla), a surname of Aphrodite, 
which i* derived from the town of Amathus in 
Cypnu, one of the mo*t ancient *eat« of her war- 
*hip. (Tac. Anmil, iii. 62 ; Ot. Amor, iii 15. 16 ; 
Virg. dr. 242 ; Catua IzviiL 51.) [L. S.] 

AMA'TIUS, aunuuned Pmudomariut, a pe> 
son of low origin, who pretended to be either the 
son or grandson of the great Marius. On the 
death of Julius Caesar b. c. 44, be came forward 
0* a popular leader, and erected an altar to Caesar 
on the spot where hi* body had been burat He 
was, however, shortly afterward* seixed by the 
consul Antony and put to death without a trial 
Thi* illegal act waa approved of by the senate in 
consequence of the advantage* they derived from 
it. Valerius Maximu* (ix. 15. § 2) says, that hi* 
name wa* Herophilua. (Appian, S. C. iiL 2, 3 ; 
Liv. EpU. 116 ; Cie. ad Att. xiL 49, xiv. 6—8, 
PUUfp. L 2; Nicolan* Damaacenn*, ViU Aug. 
c 14. p. 258, ed. Coraea ) 

AMA'ZONES ('A^fXysr), a warlike race of 
females, who act a prominent part in several of the 
adventures of Oreek mythology. All accounts of 
them agree in the statement, that they came from 
the country about the Caucasus, and that their 
principal seats were on the river Thermodon, in 
the neighbourhood of the modem Trebiiond. From 
thence they are said to have at different times in- 
vaded Thnoe, Asia Minor, the island* of the A*- 


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gean, Greece, Sjnia, Anbia, Kgypt, and lAym. 
The eountiy aboat the Thermodon with iti capital 
Themiaeyni wa* inhaUted only W the Amanna, 
who were goretned iiy a qoeen. Tha Oai^gareui, 
a race of men, were eepanited from them by a 
moantain, bnt once ereiy year the Amaxoni met 
the Gaigareana in the moontaini for the pnrpoae of 
propagating their race, and then letnmnl to their 
own conntry. Their children, when of the female 
■ex, were brooght up by the Aniaxon mothers, and 
trained in their customary pursuits of war, riding, 
hunting, and cultivating the land; but each girl 
lad her right breast cut off : their male children, 
on the other hand, were sent to the Gnrgazeans, or 
put to death. (Strab. zi. p. 503, Ac; Diod. ii. 45, 
&e^ iiL 52, ttc; Justin, ii 4.) The principal gods 
they worshipped were Ares and Artemis Tanro- 
poloa. The foundation of aereral towns in Asia 
Minor and in the islands of the Aegean is ascribed 
to them, * Ephesus, Smyrna, Cyme, Myrina, 
and Paphoa, Strabo doubts the existence of such 
a race of females, while Diodoms attempts to give 
an account of them, which assumes all thr appear- 
ance of history. That the Amazons were re^uded 
as a real historical race down to a late period, is 
evident from the tradition, that, when Alexander 
the Oreat approached the conntry of the Amaxons, 
their queen Tholestris hastened to him, in order to 
become mother by the oonqnerar of Asia. (Pint. 
AUx. 46.) 

But wa confine omielTas here to noticing some 
of the mythical adrentnies with which the Amo- 
lons ore connected. They ore said to haTO in- 
vaded Lycia in tha reign of lohates, bnt were de- 
stroyed by Bellerophontes. who happened to be 
staying at the king's oonrt. (Horn. //. tl 186, &c; 
SchoL ddZ^eopJL 17.) [Bbllbrofhontss, Lao- 
MBDON.] At the time when Priam was yet a 
young man, they invaded Phrygia, and fought 
with the Phrygians and Trojans. (Hom. II. iii. 
189, &c ) The ninth among the labours imposed 
upon Heracles by Enrystheoa, was to take from 
Hippolyte, the queen of the Amaxons, her girdle, 
the ensign of her kingly power, which she hod re- 
ceived as a present from Ares. (ApoUod. ii 5. $ 9; 
INod. iv. 16 ; Hygin. Fab. SO ; Quint Smyin. zi. 
244.) [Hbraclib.] In the reign of Thesens they 
invaded Attica. (Pans. i. 2 ; PluL Tka. 31, 33.) 
[Thxskos.] Towards the end of the Trojan war, 
the Amazons, under their queen PenthesUeia, 
came to the assistance of Priam ; but the queen 
was killed by Achillea. (Quint Smym. i. 669 ; 
Paus.T. 11. §'2; PhUostr. tfcr. ziz. 19.) [Pbn- 


Tha question as to what the Amaxons really 
were, or rather, what gave rise to the belief that 
tbeia was such a race of women, has been much 
discossed by andent aa well aa modem writers. 
Herodotus (iv. 110) says, that in the Scythian 
language their name was Oiorpata, which he trans- 
lates by irtfoKrini, The Greek name Amazones 
is usually derived from /lo^^r, the breast, and is sup- 
posed to mean "bieastless," or "not brought up by 
the breast," "beings with strong breasts," or "with 
one breast." (Philostr. Ue.; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 
402.) Others derive it from tha Circassian word 
maza, said to signify the moon, or from Brnm^tk, 
which, aocoiding to a Caucasian tradition, is said 
to have been their original name. (Spnngel, Apo- 
logm dm J/lppocrate$, ii. p. 597; Klaproth, lUue 
aoci dtm Caaoonw, i. p. 655.) .^ong the vaiious 


ways in which it has been attempted to 
for the origin of the atoiy about die i' 
deserve to be mentioned. One opnion ia, that tta 
peculiar iray in which the wamen of sense tt the 
Caucasian districts lived, and perfonned tka dnties 
which in other oonntoes devolve upon men, t«g»- 
thar with the many instancea of female hs a re sy 
and courage which an noticed as icmaikabia 
by modem travellers, were ooDveyed to the i 
bitants of western Asia and tha Qneks in vagne and 
obscun reports, and thus gave rise to tha belief in 
the existence of such a wuUke race of women, and 
that these nunonn and reports were sabaaqnenily 
worked out and embellished by popolar tiaditica 
and poetry. Othen think tha* the A »!■■■■ 
were originally priestesses of Artemis (the moan), 
whose worship vras widely qnead in Asia, and 
which they are said to have established in vatiooa 
parts. It is fiirther inferred, from the name Anaa- 
■onea, that these priestesses matilatad their badiaa by 
cutting off their breasts in a manner similar to that 
in which the Oalli and other priests mutilated their 
bodies, and that thus the Amazons rrpreaentad the 
mala ideal in the female sex, just as the OalU repn- 
sented the female ideal in the male sex. Bntitwonld 
be difficult, in tha first place, to prove the fftistfiKsi 
of snch prieateaaes, and in the second, to shew how 
they coidd have oeeasiooad tha belief in • whale 
fenude race of this kind. Neither the poetical aar 
historical traditions aboat the Amaaons caotain 
anything to render this opinion very piamsble; 
and, in the absence of all positive evidienoa, the 
first opinion has mneh mon to roeommend iC 
(Comp. HUller, OrahMi. pi 356, Ac) 

The representation of these warlike women ee- 
enpied the Oreek artists very extensively, and wa 
still possess a large series of the most baaotiful 
works of art, snch as paintings on vases and walls, 
bronzes, reliefs, and gems, in which the Amaaons 
and their battles with man are r epr esen ted. The 
most edebmted works of this kind in antiqaity 
ware the battle of the Amaaons with the Athenians 
in the Poedle at Athens, by Nicon (Pans. L 15, 
$ 2), on the shield of Athenn, and on the foot- 
stool of the Olympian Zeua, by Phidias, (i. 17. $ 2.) 
Amazons wen also represented by Alcamenes in 
the pediment of the temple of Zens at OlympiiL 
(v. 10. $ 2.) Respecting the extant re pu s u itat i ens 
of Amozona and their ooatumea, aee Mailer, HaaA, 
d. Ankdol. $« 865, 417. [U &] 

AMAZO'NIUS {'Afialirus), a samame of 
Apollo, nnder which he was wonhipped, and had 
a temple at Pyrrhichus in Laconia. The name 
was derived either from the belief that the Ama- 
zons had penetrated into Peloponnesus as for as 
Pyrrhichns, or that they had founded tha temple 
then. (Pans, iii 25. § 2.) [Lu &] 

AMBIOATUS, king of the Celta in Gaol ia 
the nign of Tarquinius Priscoa. He belonged to 
the Biturigea, the moat powerfiti of the Celtic peo- 
ple. When Ambigatua was advanced in yean, he 
sent out Belloveaua and Sigovasut, the sons cf bis 
sister, with huge svrarms of bis people to seek new 
settlements, in consequence of the great number of 
the popnktion. BeUovesus and Sigovasos draw 
lots a* to the coarse they should take ; the latter 
in conseqncnca went to the Hercynian forest and 
the former into Italy. (Liv. v, 34.) 

AMBI'ORIX, a chief of the Eburones, a OaDic 
people between the Mouse and the Rhjne, who 
were formerly tribntary to tha Adnatici, bat wtn 


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<cii« iwt by Cnar from the iBynrnt tl this tri- 
kat*. In B. c. Si, Cmt plaeed a legion and ire 
okorti, aader the rmnnend ef Q. Tituiiu Sabiniu 
and L^ Anrmeiilnn Cotta, m the lenite ri e* of 
the E baiMU B* br tlie paipoae of paniiig tbe winter 
the*. Bat fifteen daje after tkey had been ita- 
tiaaed in tiiair tecritacie a , the Ebonne* reroited at 
the iiligatina of AmhioMandCktirolciM, another 
ehie( bi i eg ed the Benan cemp, and deetnyed 
afaaeat an the Roman troopa, after they had been 
'-J-'^' fay Anbiorix to leave their camp nnder 
ywariee at a aafe-eondoct. After their deetnctian 
Amfaioriz hastened to the Adnatici and Nerrii, 
and induced tb«n, in oonjonctiaD with the Ebo- 
lon ee, ta attack the camp of Q. Cicero, who wa* 
ftatiooed for the winter among the Nerrii, The 
fimnraa of Cicero, and the defeat of tbe Oanli on 
the aniral of Caaar, compelled Ambiorix to raiie 
the liegek In the following yean Ambiorix eon- 
tinaad is p ra eeente the war againet Caeaar, bat 
theogh all his pfama wen thwarted, and the dif- 
fitent tnaga he niied were deieated by Caeiar, he 
mhnj% nrafti Uling into the hand* at the con- 
^aeror. (Caes. B. O. t. 24, 26-^1, tl fi, 29— 
43, Tiii. 24, &c; Dion Can. zL 6—10, 31, Ac ; 
liT. .Qiif. 106.) According to Flomi (iii. 10. 
9 8) he escaped the Tengeince of the Bonuui* by 
fleoag beyond the Rhine. 

h. AMBI'VIUS TlTRPia [TrapiOw] 

AMBOLOOE'RA CA/itolurr^ipa), tnm dm- 
tdXAo and yiipca ** ddaying old age," aa a aor- 
BBBW of Aphzodite, who had a statue at ^larla 
HMler this name. (Paaa. iii. 18. g 1; Pint. 
Sgmpoi. iii. 6.) [L. 8.] 

AMBRA'CIA QAii^paicia}, a dangfater of An- 
geaa, baa whom the town of Ambiicia deriTed it* 
namcL (Steph. Byx. «. v.; Eustath. ad Diomf. P»- 
ritg. 492.) Other traditions repreaent her as a 
gnnd-daagfater of ApoUo, and a dangbter of Hela- 
nene, king of the Dtyopes. (Anton. Lib. 4.) A 
tidid aoeoont derired the name of the town thnn 
Ambtax, a loa of Thespratii* and gnadson of 
Lycaon. (Steph. Bys. /. e.) [L. S.] 

NUS, a nobleman and conrtieT (S. Epiph. adv. 
Ilaer. 64. [44] g 3) flonriahed a. d. 230. At fint 
a Valentinian (Eoaeb. H. £. vii. 18) and Maicionist, 
he was won to the &ith by Orieea, whose con- 
stant fellow-stndent he beoune (Origen, Bp. ad 
AfrieoM. ToL i p. 29X and was orduned deacon. 
(S. Hits. Vir. lUuttr. 56.) He pUed Origen with 
^oestianB, and niged him to write his Com- 
mentaries ( JpToSiaMcrqi ), supplying him with 
transeriben in abundance. He shone as a Con- 
fsssor daring the persecution of Julius Maziminns 
(Ensebk ri. 18) a. d. 236, and died between a. d. 
247 and 253. His kttei* to Origen (praised by 
8t. Jerome) are lost ; part of one exists ap. Origen, 
lib. de Orot. c. & p. 208, a. a (See Ronth's 
SMqmiae Soar. ii. pi 367.) Origen dedicated to 
him his Eihartatim to Mariyrdom ; Boola agaiiul 
debt : CbmmaUarf s* St. JoUt Gotprl ; and Oh 
Pn^trr. [A. J. C] 

AMBRO'SIUS, ST., bithop of Milan, was 
bom pnfaaUy at Augusta Trevinnun (TVnu), 
which waa the sent of goTemmcnt for the province 
of Gaul, of which his fotfaer was prefect. His 
biqgraphers differ as to whether the date of his 
birth was 333 or 340 A. o., but the latter is pra- 
tably the true date. Circumstances occurred in 
Us iafoacy which were onderatoed to portend his 



iutare gnatnusa His father baring died, Aas- 
farase, then a boy, nooampanied hi* mother to 
Roaae, where he reeeived tisa adncation of an adt^ 
cata under Anions Prabns and Symmachn^ He 
bapm pieadrng causes at Milan, then the imperial 
reodenee, and soon gained a high reputation -for 
bransie eloquence. This soeoesa^ together with 
the infloene* of his fiunily, led to his appointment 
(ahoot 370 A. n., or a little faOer) as consular pre- 
fect of the prerinces of Liguria and Aemilia, whcae 
•eat of gOTemment wa* Milan. 

The atmggle between the Catholic* and Arian* 
waa asw at ita height in the Weatem Church, 
and upon the death of Auzentin^ bishop of Milan, 
in 374, the qoeation at the appointment of his 
snec e« sor led to an open conflict between the two 
parties, Ambrose exerted his influence to restna 
peace, and addreased the people in a concilktoiy 
apeedi, at the conduaion of which a child in the 
farther part of the crowd cried ont '^Amhrrmu 
epuetfut." The worda wen received as an orscle 
£nom heaven, and Ambroee was elected bishop by 
the aochunation of tbe whde multitude, the bishop* 
of both parties uniting in his election. It was in 
vain that he adopted the strangest devices to alter 
the determination of the people; nothing conld 
make them change their mind (Paiilin. VitAmbm. 
pp. 2, 3) : in vain did he flee from Milan in the 
night ; lie raiatook hia way, and found himaelf the 
next morning befon the gate at the dty. At 
length he yielded to the express command of the 
emperor (Valentinian I.), and was oonseciated on 
the eighui day after his baptism, for at the time of 
hi* election he was only a catechumen. 

Immediately after his election he gave all his 
property to the ehnith and the poor, and adopted 
an ascetic mode of lifie, while the public adminis- 
tration of his office wa* most firm and skiliuL He 
was a great patron of monasticism : about two 
years aher his conieciation he wrote his three 
books " De Virginibus," and dedicated them to his 
sister Marcellina. In the Arian controversy he 
espoused the orthodox side at bis very entrance on 
hu bishopric by demanding that his baptism should 
be performed by an orthodox bishop. He applied 
himself most diligently to the study of theology 
under Simplicinn, a presbyter of Rome, who after- 
wards became his successor in the bishopric His 
influence soon became very great, both vrith the 
people and with the emperor Valentinian and bis 
son Oiatian, for whose instmction he composed his 
treatises "De Fide," and **De Spiritu Snncto." 
In the year 377, in consequence of an invasion of 
Italy by the northern barbarians, Ambrose fled to 
Illyricnm, and afterwards (in Care's opinion) visited 
Rome. After his rettim to Mikin, be was employed 
by the court on important political afliurs. When 
Maximo^ after the death of Giatian (383), threat- 
ened Italy, Justina, the mother of the young em- 
peror Valentinian II., sent Ambrose on an em- 
bassy to the usurper, whose advance tbe bishop 
succeeded in delaying. At a later period (387), 
Ambrose went again-to Treves on a like mission ; 
but his conduct on this occasion gnve such oifence 
to Maximus, that he was compelled to return to 
Italy in baste. 

While rendering these political serriees to Ju»- 
tina and Valentinian, Ambrose was at open va- 
riance with them on the great religious question of 
the age. Justina was herself an .\rian, and had 
brou^t np the young emperor in the same tenetsi 


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Her contett with AmbroH begun in tlia jear S80, 
when die a|ipomted an Aruui biihop to the Tacant 
Me of Sirmiam ; apon which Arnhnwe went to 
Sinnium, and, a miiacnloiu judgment on an Arian 
who inanlted him luTing straek terror into hii op- 
ponent!, he conieerated Anemmiiu, who wu of 
the orthodox party, ai bishop of Siimium, and 
then returned to Milan, where Jnatina let on foot 
^wTeral intrignee against him, but without effect, 
'in the year 382, Palladiui and Secnndianui, two 
Arian bishops, petitioned Omtian for a general 
council to decide the Arian controTersy ; but, 
through the influence of Ambrose, instead of a 
general council, a synod of Italian, lUyrian and 
Gallic bishops was assembled at AqnUeia, OTor 
which Ambrois presided, and by whidi PaUadins 
and Secundianns were deposed. 

At length, in the years 885 aod SSS, Ambrose 
and Justina came to open conflieL Jnstina, in the 
name of the emperor, demanded of Ambrose the 
use of at least one of the chnnhes in Milan, fw 
the performance of divine worship by Arian eccle- 
siaatica. Ambrose refused, and the people roee up 
to take his part. At Easter (386) an attempt was 
made by Justina to take forcibk po s s e s si on of the 
basilica, but the show of resistance was so great, 
that the attempt was abandoned, and the court 
was even obliged to apply to Ambrose to quell the 
tumult. He answered, that he had not stirred 
Dp the pe<^le, and that God alone could still them. 
The people now kept guard about the bishop's re- 
sidence and the basilica, which the imperial forces 
hesitated to attack. In bet, the people were al- 
most wholly on the side of Ambraee, the Arian 
party consisting of fsw beyond the court and the 
Gothic troops. Aozentius, an Arian bishop, who 
was Justina's chief adviser in these proceedings, 
now challenged Ambrose to a public disputation in 
the emperor's palace ; but Ambrose refused, saying 
that a council of the church was the only proper 
place for such a discussion. He was next com- 
manded to leave the city, which he at once refused 
to do, and m this refusal the people still supported 
him. In order to keep up the spirits of tne peo- 
ple, he introduced into the church where they kept 
watch the regular performance of antiphonal hymns, 
which had been long practised in the Eastern 
Church, but not hitherto introduced into the West. 
At length, the contest was decided about a year 
after its commencement by the miracles which are 
reported to have attended the discovery of the 
reliques of two hitherto unknown martyrs, Oerva- 
sins and Protasius. A blind man was said to 
have been restored to sight, and several demoniacs 
dispossessed. These events are recorded by Am- 
brose himself^ by his secretary Paulinus, and by 
his disciple Angustine, who wu in Milan at the 
time; but a particular discussion of the truth of 
these miracles would be out of place here. They 
were denied by the Arians and discredited by the 
oonrt, but the impression made by them upon the 
people in genenl was such, that Justina thought it 
prudent to desist from her attempt. ( Ambras. EpitL 
xii. XX, xxi. xxu, g 2, liii. liv. ; Paulin. VU. Ambrot. 
8 14-17, p. 4, Ben.; Augustin. Cmfia. ix. 7. § 14- 
16, Dt Civ. Dei, xxil 8. § 2, Serm. 318, 286.) 

An imperial rescript was however issued in the 
tame year for the toleration of all sects of Chris- 
tians, any offence against which was made high 
treason (Cod. Theodos. IV. D» Fid, Catlulioa) ; 
but we have no evidence that its execution was 


attempted ; and the state of the partiea was qmt* 
altered by the death of Jnstina in the next year 
(387), when Valentinian became a Catholic, and 
still more completely by the victory of Theodosius 
over Maximns (388). This event pat th* whole 
power of the empire into the hands of a prinea 
who was a firm Catholic, and over whom Ambmas 
speedily acquired such Influence, that, after the 
massacre at Thessalonica in 390, he r efus ed Theo- 
dosius admisHon into the church of Milan for a 
period of eight months, and only restored him aiier 
he had petibrmed a public penanea, and bad con- 
fessed that he had learnt die difilBrenoa between 
an emperor and a priest. 

Ambrose iras an active opponent not only of the 
Arians, but also of the Macedonians, ApoUinarians, 
and Novatians, and of Jovinian. It waa probably 
about the year 384 that he successfiilly reaisted 
the petition of Symmachns and the heatheo sena- 
tors of Rome for the restoration of the altar of 
Victory. He was the principal instructor of An- 
gustine in the Christian &ith. [ADoosriNDa] 

The latter years of his life, with the exoeptiea 
of a short absence from Milan during the nsarpi^ 
tion of Engenius (392), were devoted to the ears 
of his bishopric He died on the 4tl> of April, 
A.O. 397. 

As a writer, Ambrose cannot be ranked high, 
notwithstanding his great eloquence. His theo- 
logical knowledge scueely extended beyond a &ir 
acquaintance with the woiks of the Greek liUhss, 
from whom he borrowed much. His works besr 
also the marks of haste. He was talher a mas 
of action than of lettera. 

His works are very ntmierona, though sevenl of 
them have been lost. They consist of Letter^ 
Sermoos, and Oiationa, Commentariea on Scrip- 
ture, Treatises in commendation of odibacy and 
monasticism, and other treatises, of which the most 
important are : " Haxaemeron," an aoconint of the 
creation; "De Officiis Ministromm,'" which isg»' 
nerally considered his best work ; " De Mysteris;' 
"Do Sacramentis;'' "De Poenitentia ;" and Iks 
above-mentioned works, "Do Fide," and 'DeSp- 
ritu Sancto," which are both upon the Trinity. 
The well-known hymn, **Te Doom landamna," has 
been ascribed to him, but its date is at leaat a cen- 
tury hter. There are other hymns asctibcd Is 
him, but upon doubtful authority. He is believed 
to have settled the order of public worship in the 
churches of Milan in the form which it had till the 
eighth centnry nnder the namee of "Offidma Ab- 
brosianum" and "Missa Ambrosiana." 

The best edition of his works is that of the 
Benedictines, 2 vols. foL, Paris, 1686 and 1690, 
with an Appendix eontaiiung a life of Ambrose by 
his secretaiy Panlinns, another in Greek, which is 
anonymous, and is chiefly copied £rum Tlnodoret^ 
Ecclesiastical History, and a third by the Beaedie- 
tine editors. Two worics of Ambrose, Bi flmtHt 
^/mboli ad Mt^tmtios, and Epidola its FUt, ba^ 
been discovered by Angaki Mail, and an pubiiabst 
by him in the seventh volume of his A t ytow s 
Keterass \ova Cotteclio. [P. S.] 

AMBRCSIUS, a hearer of Oidymna, at Alex- 
andria, lived M. o. 392, and was the author (f 
CommaUaria on Job, and a book in vase i^siait 
ApoUinaris of Laodicea. Neither is extauL (& 
Hieron. J* Fir. lUtul. g 126.) [A. J. C.] 

A'MBRYON ['Aiiifittr) wrote a work « 
Theooitoa the Chan, ban which DioKcnes Ua- 


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tin(T. 1 1) qoMa* aa epgiam of llaocritiu agmut 

AMBRTSSUS fA^pMwvt), the mythiod 
ibandcr of the town of AmbtTWDi or Amphiyuiu 
in Phocia. (Pnii. x. 36. g 2.) [L. &] 

CA/aCaiiAb, 'A^iXorfAnn, and 'AfitaikiM), rarname* 
imdcr which the Spattant worshipped Athena, the 
Oiorari, and Zeni. (Pans. iii. 13. g 4.) The 
Meaning of the name is nncertain, bat it has been 
sn p p o ee d to be derired from drmtdKXm, and to de- 
■gnata thoae divinities as the delajers of death. 


AMBUSTUS, the name of a bmily of the 
mtridan Fabu Okn& The fint member of the 
rahia gma, who acqnitrd this cognomen, was Q. 
Fsfaiss Vilnlanas, eonnl in B. c 4 1*2, who if pears 
to have been a son of N. Fabios Vibnlanns, consul 
in B. c 421. FroD this time the name Vibnlanns 
was drapt, and that of Ambnstns took its place. 
The latter was in its tarn supplanted bj that of 
WaTJnms, which was first acqnued bjr Q. Fabios, 
son of No. 7 [see below], sad was handed down 
ij him to his descendants. 

1. Q. Fabius M. r. Q. K. Vudlanus Aubds- 
Toa, consul in & c. 412. (Lir. iT. £2.) 

2. M. Fabivs Ambustus, Pontifex Maximns 
in the year that Borne was taken bj the Oaols, 
B. c 390. His three sons [see Nos. 3, i, and 
£] were sent as smhasaadors to the Ganls, when 
the latter were besieging Clnsinni, and took part 
in a sally of ib» besieged against die Oanls. The 
Quia demanded that the Fabii should be sop- 
nodered to diem for violating the hw of nations ; 
and npon the senate refusing to give up the guilty 
parties, they marched against RomCi The three 
sons woe in the same year elected consular tri- 
bonea. (Lir. t. 36, 36, 41 ; Pint. Cam. 17.) 

3b K. Fabtos M. v. Q. n. Ahbdstus, son of 
Mo, 2 and btother to Nos. 4 and 6, was quaestor 
in B. c. 409, with three plebeians as his colleagues, 
which was the first time that quaestors were 
chosen fiorn the plebs. (Lir. ir. 54.) He was 
consular tribnne for the first time in 404 (ir, 61), 
again in 401 (t. 10), a third time in 395 (t. 24), 
and a fiaorth tune in 390. [See No. 2.) 

4. N. FABiva M. r. Q. v. Ambostits, son of 
Nok 2 and brother to Nos. 3 and 5, consular tri- 
bona in & a 406 (Ur. ir. 58), and again in 390. 
[See Nob 2:] 

5. Q. Fabhw If. r. Q. N. Ambustus, son of 
No. 2 and brother to Nos. 3 and 4, oonsuhir tii- 
bone in b. a 390. [See No. 2.] 

6. M. FABioa K. r. M. n. Ambcbtus, son, as 
H appears, of No, 3, was consular tribune in & a 
381. (Lir. Ti. 22.) He had two dBnghter^ of 
wham the eider was married to Ser. Sulpicins, and 
the younger to C. Licinins Stolo, the author of the 
IddnJaa Rcigationa, According to the story re- 
corded by Liry, the younger Fabia induced her 
fiuher to assist her husband in obtaining the con- 
anlship fi» the plebeian order, into which she had 
married, (n. 34.) Ambustus was consular tribnne 
a second time in 369, and took an active part in 
aapport of the Lidnian Rogations, (vi. 36.) He 
was censor in 363L (FaiL CapUol.) 

7. H, Fabids N, f. M. n, Ambuetcb, son, as 
it appears, of No, 4, was consul in b, c 360, and 
earned on the war against the Hemici, whom he 
conquered, and obtained an ovation in consequence. 
(Liv, vii. 11 1 Fait. Trnm^) He was consul a 



second time !n 356, and earned on the war ^gainst 
the Falisci and Tarquinienses, whom he also con- 
quered. As he was absent fiom Rome when the 
time came for holding the comitia, the senate, which 
did not like to entrust them to his coUeague, 
who had appointed a plebeian dictator, and still 
less to the lUctator himself, nominated interreges 
for the purpose. The abject of the patricians was 
to secure both places in the consulship for their 
own order sgain, which was ejected by Ambustus, 
who seems to have returned to Rome meantime. 
He was appointed the eleventh intenez, and de- 
clared two patricians consuls in violation of the 
Licinian law, (Liv, vii. 17.) He was consul a 
third time in 354, when he conquered the Tibortes 
and obtained a triumph in consequence, (vii. 18, 
19; Fad. Driumpk.) In 351 he was appointed 
dictator merely to fhutiate the Licinian law again 
at the comitia, but did not succeed in his object, 
(Liv, vii, 22,) He was alive in 325, when his 
son, Q, FaUttS Maximns Rullianns, was master of 
the horse to Papirius, and fled to Ilome to implore 
protection from the vengeance of the dictator. He 
interceded on his son's behalf both with the senate 
and the people, (viii. 33.) 

8. C. Fabiub (C. f. M. n.) Ambustus, consul 
in b. c. 358, in which year a dictator was ap- 
pointed through foar of the Oauls. (Liv. vii. 12.) 

9. M, Fabids M, f. N. n. Ambustus, son ap- 
parently of No. 7, and brother to the great Q. 
Fabius Maximus Rullianus, was master of the 
horse in & c. 322. (Liv. viiL 38.) 

10. Q. Fabiiw (Q. F. Q. N.) Ambustos, dic- 
tator in & c. 321, but immediately resigned 
through some fiuilt in the election. (Liv. iz. 7.) 

11. C. Fabiub M, f, N, n. Ambustus, son ap- 
parently of No. 7, and brother to No. 9, was 
appointed master of the bone in b, c 315 in place 
of Q. Anlios, who fell in bottle, (Liv. ix, 23.) 


AMEI'NIAS {'AiuwUu), a younger brother of 
Aeschylus, of the Attic demos of Pallene accord- 
ing to Herodotus (viii 84, 93^ or of that of 
Decelea according to Plutarch ( Tian. 1 4), distin* 
guished himself at the battle of Swlsmis (b. c. 480) 
by making the first attack npon the Persian ships, 
and alto by his pursuit of Artemisia. He and 
Eumenes were judged to have been the bravest on 
this occasion among all the Athenians, (Herod. 
Plut. U. CO.; Diod. xL 27.) Aelian mentions 
(F. H. V, 19), that Ameinias prevented the con- 
oemnation of his brother Aeschylus by the Arsio- 
pagus, [AxocHVLUS, p. 41, a.] 

AMEINOCLES ('AfuiniKAqs), a Corinthian 
shipbuilder, who visited Samos about B. c. 704, 
and built four ships for the Samians. (Thuc, i. 13.) 
Pliny (H. N. vii 56) says, that lliucydides men- 
tioned Ameinocles as the inventor of the trireme ; 
but this is a mistake, for Thucydides merely states 
that triremes were first built at Corinth in Qreece, 
without ascribing their invention to Ameinocles, 
According to Syncellus fp. 212, c), triremes were 
first built at Athens by Ameinocles. 

AMEI'PSIAS CAM'^Iu), a comic poet of 
Athens, contemporary with Aristophanes, whom he 
twice conquered in the dramatic contests, gaining 
the second prize with bis K^vrai when Arisfa>> 
phanes was third with the " Clouds" (423 B. c), 
and the first with his Ku/uurral, when Aristo- 
phanes gained the second with the " Birds," (414 
B. c; Aigum. in Aristoph. iVai, et .^e.) Tl>« 


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Kinos appenn to hnTe hod the nunc nibjtict and 
aim u the " Cloodi." It is at leost certain that 
Socrates appeared in the play, and that the Chora* 
coniitted of tfMvTivTiU. (Diog. Laert iL 28; 
Athen. t. p. 218.) Aristophanes alladei to 
Ameipaias in the ** Frogs" (t. 13 — 14), and we 
are told in the anonymous life of Aristophanes, 
that when Aristophanes first exhibited his plays, 
in the names of other poeta, Ameipaias applied to 
him the prarerb Ttr/Mi ytyortis, which means 
" a person who labours for others," in allusion to 
Heracles, who was bom on the fonrth of the 

Ameipsias wrote many comedies, out of which 
there remain only a few fingments of the follow- 
ing: — 'AraKffrraSff'arTM, YLaTtcBlur (doubtful), 
Korrot, Koixot, Zar^, X^mSini, and of some 
the name* of which are unknown. Most of his 
phiys were of the old comedy, but some, in all 
probability, were of the middle. (Meineke, Prag. 
Cam. i. p. 199, it p. 701.) [P. S.] 

AMELESA'OORAS ('A/»tX»jira7<((Wf) or ME- 
LESA'G0RAS(Mc\i)<ra7t(/xu), a* he is called by 
others, of Chalcedon, one of the early Greek histo- 
rians, from whom Gorgiaa and Eudemu* of Naxos 
borrowed. (Clem. Alex. Strom, tl p. 629, a; 
Schol. ad Eur^. Alcal. 2 ; ApoUod. iii. 10. $ 3, 
where Heyne ha* substituted VltXriircrfipas for 
Mriiate/ipas.) Maximns Tyrius {Serm. 38. § 3) 
speaks of a Melesagoras, a native of Eleusis, and 
Antigonns of Corystus {Hiri. Mirab. c. 12) of on 
Amelesagora* of Athens, the hitter of whom wrote 
an account of Attica ; these persons are probably 
the same, and perhaps also the same as Amelesa- 
gora* of Chalcedon. (Vouius, de Hilt, Graec p. 
22, ed. Westermann.) 

AME'LIOS (^AfUKuaX, a natiTe of Apamea 
according to Suida* («. e. AiU\m), but a Tuscan 
according to Porphyry {viL Plotm.), belonged to 
the new Platonic school, and was the pupil of 
Plotinus and master of Porphyry, He quoted the 
opinion of St John about the <V^yo> without men- 
tioning the name of the Apostle : this extract ha* 
been pmerred by Eusebins. {Praep. Evamg. xi 
19.) See Snid. Porphyr. U. ec.; Syrian, zii 
Mtlapkst. p. 47, a. 61, b. 69, a. 88, a.; Bentley, 
Jiemarb oa fyee-TkMi»g, p. 182, ftc. Lend. 
174S ; Fabric. AU. Onue. iii. p. 160. 

AMENTES ('AMtbTiit), an ancient Greek snr^ 
geon, mentioned by Oalen as the inventor of some 
bgenious bandages. {De Faicm, e. S8, 61, 89, 
▼oL xii. ppi 486, 487, 493, ed. Chart.) Some 
fiagments of the works of a surgeon named 
AmynUa (of which name Anmila is very possibly 
a corruption) sttU exist in the manuscript Collec- 
tion of Sni;gical Writers by Nieetaa (Fabricius, 
BM. Or. ToL ziL pi 778, ed. vet.), and one ex- 
tract is pteserred by Oribaaius (Colt. Mtdie. xlviiL 
80) in the fourth volume of Cardinal Mai's CoUeo- 
tioa of CJosfKi Analora ■ ValiaunM Codiabiu, p. 
09, Rom. 18S1, 8vo. His date is unknown, ex- 
cept that he mnat have lived in or before the second 
centniy after Christ. He may perhaps be the same 
person who is said by the Scholiast on Theocritus 
(Idftt. zvil 128) to have been put to death by 
Ptolemy Phihdelphns, about B. c. 264, for plotting 
againat his liie. [W. A. O.] 

AME'RIAS (^liiufUi), of Macedonia, a gram- 
marian, who wrote a work entitled TKiaaat, 
which gave an account of the meaning of worda, 
and another called "V^vrmunit. (Auen. iv. f. 

176, e, e, XT. p. 681, t, &e.; Se\uA.adApolLRia^. 
ii 384, 1284 ; Knster, ad Hemdt. s. e. 'Mtutirit.) 

AMERISTOS ^AMWrof), the brother of the 
poet Stesiehoma, la mentioned by Proclna (ad 
EueHd. ii. p. 19) as one of the euly Oieek gt»- 
meters. He lived in the latter end of the seventh 
century b. c 

AMESTRIS. [AMiksnua.] 

AMIA'NUS, whom Cicero mentions in a letter 
to Attieus (vL 1. § 13), written B. c. SO, was pn- 
bably a debtor of Attieus in Cilicia. 

AMISO'DARUS ('A^umift^Mf ),• king of Lyda, 
who vras said to have brought up the monster Chi- 
maern. (Horn. IL zvi. 328 ; Eustath. ad Hem. p. 
1062; Apollod. iL 8. § 1; Aelian, II. A. is. 23.) 
His sons Atymnius and Maris were slain at Troy 
by the sons of Nestor. (//. xvi 317, &c) [L. S.] 

A'MITON ('A/iItm'), of Eleutherse in Crete, 
is said to have been the first person who song to 
the lyre amatory poems. Hi* descendant* were 
called^mtfc>rM('AfiiTop<t). ( Athen. ziv. p. 638, b.) 
There seems some corruption in the text of Athe- 
naeua, as the two names Amiton and Canton* do 
not coneapond. Instead of the former we ought 
perhaps to read Ametor. (Comn. Etym. M. f. 8S. 
15, ed. Sylburg. ; Hesych. *. t^ AfLTtroplXai.) 

AMMIA'NUS ('AfifuoK^t), a Greek epigram- 
matist, but probably a Roman by birth. The 
Greek Anthology contains 27 epigrams by him 
(Jacobs, iii. pp. 93 — 98), to which must be added 
another contained in the Vatican MS. (Jacobs, 
xiii. p. 693), and another, which is placed among 
the anonymous epigrams, but which some MS& 
assign to Ammionus. (Jacobs, iv. pi 127, No. zlii.) 
They are all of a fticetious character. In the 
Planudeon MS. he is called Abbianua, which 
Wemsdorf suppose* to be a Greek form of Avianoa 
or Avienu*. \Foel. Lot. Min, v. p. ii. p. 675.) 

The time at which he lived may be gathered, 
with tolerable certainty, from hi* epigram*. That 
he was a contemporary of the epigrnrnmatiat Locil- 
lin*, who lived under Nero, has been inferred fiom 
the dicmnstance that both attack an ontor named 
Flaoens. (Ammian. Ep. 2; Lucil. Bp. 86, vf. 
Jacobs.) One of his epigrams (13) ia identical 
with the last two lines of one of Martial's (ix. 30)^ 
who is supposed by soma to have translated these 
lines from Ammianus, and therefore to have lived 
after him, Bnt the fiict is equally well explained 
on the supposition that the poets wen contempo- 
rary. From two other epignuns of Ammiann* 
(Jacoba, vid, iv. p, 127, No. 42, and voL xiiL 
p. 125), we find that ho was contemporary with 
the sophist Antonius Polemo, who fionriahed under 
Trajan and Hadrian. (Jacobs, AnOuil. Graee. xi. 
pp. 312,313, xiii. p. 840.) [P. S.] 

subject of Rome who composed a proCsne hiatory 
in the Latin language,'* waa by biith a Greek, as 
he himself frequently dedares (xxxi. sub fin., 
xxiL 8. S 88, xxiiL 6. § 20, &c), and a native of 
Syrian AntioiBb, a* we infer from a letter addressed 
to him by Libonins. (See Vales, prarf. mAmmim. 
Mareelim.) At an eariy age he embraced the pro- 
fession of arm*, and wa* admitted among the 
;>ra<ec<om domatid, which proves tliat he belonged 
to a distinguished fiunily, since none wen enrolled 
in that corps except young men ot noble Mood, or 
offlcen whose valour and fidelity had been proved 
in long service. Of his subsequent promotion no- 
thing IS known. He was attached to the staff af 


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Cnieinu, one of the mott aUe amoiig the genenli 
■f Comtmtiiia, and aceorapaiiied him to the East 
ia SS6. He returned with hk canunander to Italy 
fan jeui afterwarda, &om thence paned orer into 
Old, nd luisted in the enteipriie againtt Sylra- 
ma, again followed Unieinaa when deipatehed for 
a leraBd time to the Eait, and appeara to have 
aenr qaitted him nntil the period of hia final dia- 
foa in 360. Ammisnua cubaequently attended 
Ike aapenr Jnlian in hi* campaign againat the 
Psiiina, waa present at Antioeh in 371, when the 
riot of Theodoras was detected in the leign of 
Vileoa, and-witacaaed the toitnrea inflicted upon 
tk coupimtaca. (xxiz. i. § 24.) Erentiially 
k fitahliihed himself at Rome, when he con>- 
paaed hia history, and doling the progress of the 
tadk read aereral portiona poblicljr, which were 
neand with great i^pbiiie. (Liban. Epitl. 
lonxLZxzm. p. 60, ed. Wolf) The preciae date 
ef Ui death ia not recorded, bnt it nraat hatre hap- 
pestd later than 390, aince a reference ocean to 
llu cauolahip of Neotezioa, which bdonga to that 

TV work of Ammiajma extended from the ae- 
aaaoB ef Nerra, a. d. 96, the point at which the 
Urtoiei of Tadtns and the bit^raphie* of Sueto- 
nia tanmated, to the death of Valena, A. n. 378, 
oaipriiisg a period of 282 jreaiti It waa dirided 
ials tUityHioe hooka, of which the first thirteen 
■R loiL The remaining eighteen embiaee the acta 
<f Cautsntias from a. i>. 353, the aerenteenth year 
4 \a» reign, together with the whole career of 
GaDas, Joliamis, Jovianus, Valentinianns, and 
Valena, The portion pieaerred inclndes the trana- 
•rtiom of twenty-five years only, which ptOTes 
tktt the earlier books mast have presented a Tory 
oniaati abridgment of the erents contained in 
tka long apace oTer which they atretched ; and 
t »e may feel satiafied, that what has been 
more Tahiable than what has pe- 



Citioo (ap. zzH.) pays a 
^ te the accoracy, fiddity, a 

well'deaerTed tri- 
and impartiality of 
We are indebted to him for a know- 
Up tf many important {acts not elsewhere re- 
(■M, and for mneh Tsloable insight into the 
^>ia of thought and the general tone of pnblic 
fc«l»g ptewlent in his day. Hia hiatory moat not, 
^**<ni^betegaideda*aeoiiiplete chronicle of that 
*»; thoK pnceedinga only are broaght forward 
praaineiitly in whidi he himaelf was engaged, and 
Mulj an the statements admitted appear to be 
famjed upon his own obaerretions, or npon the in- 
■•■aiioB deiiTed from tmstworthy eye-witneaaea. 
A eanadetshie manlier of diaaeitations and digre»- 
waa an intradoced, many of them highly inteieat- 
iV aad TsfaiableL Sudi are hia notices of die 
iarfnnino a and mannera af the Saiaeen* (zir. 4), 
^>ha Scythians and Satmatian* (zTii. 12), of the 
Has and Alaai (zzzi. 2), of the Egyptians and 
*w camtiy (zzu. 6, 14 — 16), and his geogra- 
l>al diacaadons span Ganl (zr. 9), the Pontns 
(no. ■), and Thrace (zxviL 4), althongh the 
aemcj rf many of hia details has been caillod in 
^tioB by D'Anville. Leaa legitimate and less 
^uioaa are hit geological apecnlationa npon earth- 
jy* (zriL 7\ hia a stiuuuuii eal inqniries into 
J^ajzz. S), eomcU (zxr. 10), and the regu- 
""^ at d» calendar (zxri. I), hia medical re- 
•eo^into tb» origin of epdmnica (ziz. 4), hia 
"""I"*' theoiy on the destraction of liona by 

mosquitoes (zriiL 7), and his hottSoaltaial eaaay 
on the impregnation of paima (zziv. SV Bnt ia 
addition to indnstry in leaeareh and honesty of 
poipose, he was gifted with a large measnie of 
strong common sense which enabled him in many 
pointa to riae luperior to the prejudice of hia day, 
and with a clear-aighted independence of apiiit 
which preTonted him frxmi being dazzled or over- 
awed by the brilliancy and the terrora which en- 
veloped the imperial throne. The wretched 
vanity, weakness, and debauchery of Constautius, 
rendering him an aasy prey to the designs of the 
profligate miniona by whom he was aummnded, 
the female intriguea which ruled the court of 
Oallua, and the conflicting elements of vice and 
virtne which were so strongly combined in the cha- 
racter of Valentinian, are aU sketched with bold- 
ness, vigour, and truth, But although sufficiently 
acute in detecting and ezpoeing the follies of othera, 
and especially in ridicnlmg the absurdities of po- 
pufau anperstition, Ammianua did not entirely 
eacape the contagion. The general and deep- 
seated belief in magic apella, omens, prodigies, and 
oracles, which appeara te have gainied additional 
atrength upon the firat introduction of Chriatianity, 
evidently ezereiaed no amall influence over his 
mind. The old legends and doctrines of the Pagan 
creed and the aubUe myaticiam which philoaophers 
pretended to diicover lurking below, when mized 
up with the pare and simple bnt startling tenets of 
the new &ith, formed a confiiaed moas which fiew 
intellecta, ezcept thoae of the very hi^eat class, 
eoold reduce to order and harmony. 

A keen contraveray haa been maintained with 
regard to the nligioua creed of our author. (See 
Bayle.) Then ia nothing in hia writinga which 
can entitle OS todsoide the question positively. In 
several paaaagea ha speaka with mariced respect of 
Christianity imd its professors (zzi. sub fin., zxii. 
11, zzvii. 3 ; compare zzii. 12, zzv. 4); but even 
his strongest ezpressions, which are all attributed 
by Gibbon ** to the ineo(npaiabIe pliancy of a 
polytheist," afbrd no eonclnsive evidence that he 
was himself a disciple of the cnaa. On the other 
hand he does not scrapie to stigmatise with the 
atmost severity the savage fnry mT the contending 
aecta (zziL S), nor fiiil to reprobate the bloody vio- 
lence of Damaao* and Urainas in the conteat for 
the aee of Rome (zzvii. 3) : the ahaence cf all 
cenaore on the apostacy of Julian, and the terma 
which he employs with regard to Nemesis fziv. 
II, zziL 3), the Oenins (zd. 14), Mercurins(zvL 
5, zzv. 4), and other deities, an by many con- 
sidered as decinve proob that he was a pagan. 
Indeed, as Heyne justly remarks, many of the 
writen of diia epoch seem pnipoaely to avoid 
emnmitting themaelvea. Being prohaMy devoid of 
strong lehgioas princi|des, they felt unwilling to 
hazard any dedaration which might one day ex- 
pose them to persecution and prevent them from 
adopting the various forms which the &ith of the 
coort might from time to time assume. 

Little con be said in praiae of the atyle of Am- 
mianos. The melodious flow and simple dignity 
of the purer models of composition had long 
ceaaed to be relished, and we too often detect the 
harah diction and involved perioda of an imperfectly 
educated foreign aoldier, relieved occasionally by the 
pompoua inflation and flaahy glitter of the rhetori- 
cal achoola. His phraaeolM|y as it regards the sig- 
nificatioo, gtammalical inMzioD*, aiui agmtactaeol 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



eooUiiatioiM of wordi, probaUy lepicienti die enr- 
nnt language of tlie i^^ but mutt be pronounced 
foil of barfaaiiam* and •olecimu when judged ac- 
coiding to the atandaid of Cicero and Livy, 

The Editio Princepe of Ammianni Marcelliniu, 
edited by Angelas Sabinui, waa printed at Rome, 
in folio, by Oeoige Sachiel and Barth. Oolich in 
the year 1474. It is yery incorrect, and contains 
13 books only, from the Uth to the 26th, both 
indusire. The remaining fire were first pablished 
by Aoooni, who, in hi* edition printed in folio at 
Angsbaig in 1532, boasta that be had corrected 
iiTc thousand eirors. 

The most useful modem editions are those of 
Otonovins, 4to., Lngd. Bat. 1693 ; of Emesti, 8to. 
Lipa., 1 77S ; but abore all, that which was com- 
menced by Wagner, completed after hia death by 
Eifoidt, and published at Leipoe, in 3 Tola. Sto. 
1808. (W. R.] 

AMMON CA^i/iMr), originally an Aethiopian 
w Libyan dirinity, whose wonhip subsequently 
spread all over Egypt, a part of die northern coast 
of Africa, and many parts of Oreece. The real 
i^yptian name was Amun or Ammnn (Herad. ii. 
42: Plot de A «( Os. 9) ; the Oraeks called him 
Zens Amman, the Romans Jupiter Ammon, and 
the Hebrews Amon. (Jerem. zlri. 25.) That in the 
countries where his worship was fint establishod 
he was reTored in certain respects as the supreme 
dirinitj, is dear from the fact, that the Greeks 
tecogniaed in him their own Zeus, although the 
identity of the two gods in later times rests upon 
phQoai^jucal specuUtions, made at a period when 
the original chamcter of Ammon was almost lost 
sight o( and a more spiritual riew of Urn aobsti- 
tuted in its phue. 

The most ancient seat of his worship appear* to 
hare been Meroe, where he had a much rerered 
oracle (Herod, ii. 29); thence it was introduced 
into Egypt, where the worship took the firmest 
mot at Thebes in Upper Egypt, which was there- 
fore frequently called by the Greeks Diospolis, or 
the city of Zeus. (Herod, ii. 42; Diod. L 16.) 
Another fomous seat of the god, with a celebrated 
oracl^ was in the oasis of Ammonium (Siwah) in 
the Idbyan desert ; the worship was also established 
in Cyrenaica. (Pans. i. 13. § 3.) The god was 
tepicsented either in the form of a lam, or as a 
human bang with the head of a lam (Herod. L c; 
Straik. i»ii. n. 812) j but there are some represen- 
tetions in which he ^ipcars altogether as a human 
bong wiUi only the horns of a nun. Tertnllian 
V ^ ^ 3) c alls him dna oviwa. If we take all 
these circnmstances into oonsidention, it seems 
clear that the original idea of Anmon was that of 
a protector ana leader of the flocks. The Aelhio- 
pians were a nomadic people, flocks of sheep con- 
stituted their principal wealth, and it is perfectly 
in accordance with the nations of the Aethiopians 
a* well a* Egyptians to worship the animal which 
I* the leader and protector of the flock. This riew 
IS supported by Tarions stories about Ammon. 
Hyginus (Poet. Attr. i. 20) whose account is only 
arauonalistic inteipretation of the origin of the 
god s wonhip, reUtes that some African of the 
name of Ammon brought to Liber, who was then 

nw inebn, and m commemoration of the henefita 
fw^^^™* VP^ "» god. he w" represented a. 
ftbunan being with homa. What Pausania«(iT 23w 


§ 6) and Enstathins (od Diomy. Perieg. 212) i*- 
mark, as well as one of the many etynudogiea of tha 
name of Ammon from the Egyptian word Amumi, 
which signifies a shepherd, or to feed, likewiae 
accord with the opinion that Ammon was originally 
the leader and protector of flocks. Herodotos sa- 
lates a stoiy to account for the ram's head (ii. 42): 
Heracles wanted to see Zens, but the latter wished 
to avoid the interview ; when, bowerer, Herides 
at but had recourse to entreaties, Zena contrired 
the following expedient : he cut off the head of a 
lam, and holding this before his own head, and 
having covered the remaining part of bia body 
with uie skin of the lam, he appeared before llsaa 
cles. Hence, Herodotos adds, the ThiiliaiW never 
sacrifice rams except once a yeair Bid on this one 
occasion they kill and flay rnun, and with its skin 
they dress die staaoe of Zeus "(Ammon) ; by the 
side of this statue they then pUce that of Heracles 
A similar account mentuwed by Servina {ad Aem, 
iv. 196)may serve asacommentary upon Herodotus. 
When Bacchus, or according to othera, Heracles, 
went to Iiufis and led his army through the deserts 
of Libya, he waa at last quite exAooated wilh 
thirst, and invoked his &ther, Jupiter. Haeapoa 
a ram appeared, which led Heiaclea to a pJaee 
where it opened a spring in the sand by scraping 
with its foot. For this reason, says Servins, 
Jupiter Ammon, whose name is derived from 
dijiua (sand), is represented with the boms of a 
ram. (Comp. Hygin. Foi. 1 33, Poa<. .<is<r. l 20 ; 
Lucan, PiartaL ix. 5 1 1 .) There are aereral other 
traditions, with various modifications ariaing freia 
the time and place of their origin ; bat all agree in 
representing the ram aa the guide and deliverer of 
the wandering herds or herdsmen in the desert^ 
either in a direct way, or by giving oradea. Aia- 
mon, therefore, who is identkal with the nm, is 
the guide and protector of man and of all his poe- 
sessions ; he stands in the same relation to man- 
kind as the common ram to his flock. 

The introduction of the worship of Ammon from 
Aethiopia into Egypt was symboUcally represented 
in a ceremony which waa peiformed at Thebes 
once in every year. On a certain day, the iiniga 
of the god was carried across the river Kile inw 
Libya, and after some days it was broiu^t back, u 
if the god had arrived from Aethiopia. (Diod. i. 97.) 
The same account is given by Eustathius (aJIft^ 
ILr. f. 128), though in a somewhat different fens; 
for he relates, that according to some, the Aethio- 
pians used to fetch the images of Zens and other 
gods from the great temple of Zeus at Thebeh 
With these images they went about, at a certain 
period, in Libya, celebiated a splendid festirsl for 
twelve days — for this, he adds, is the number of 
the gods they worship. This number twelve con- 
tains an allusion to the number of signs in the 
zodiac, of which the ram (o^ier) is one. Thus we 
arrive at the second pliasis in the character of 
Ammon, who is here conceived aa the sun in ths 
sign of Caper. (Zeus disguised in the skin of a ws- 
See Hygin. Fab. 133, Po$l. Adr. i. 20 j MsctoK 
&<. i. 21. 18 i Aelian, T. H. x. 18.) Thii sstre- 
nomical character of AJnmon ia of later origin, snl 
perhaps not older than the aizth century bebn 
Christ. The specukting Greeks of still later tiaxi 
assigned to Ammon a more spiritual nature. Tisi 
Diodorus; though in a passage (iii. 68, 4c.) k« 
makes Ammon a king of Libya, deacribei him (i- 
11, &c) as the spirit pervading the univene, nii 


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a* the aatlMr ofaD life in natsra. (Camp. Pint ile 
A. << Oi. 9, 21.) The nev PJatonisU pereeired 
in AmnKm their deminigoi, that it, the creator and 
pccaerrer of the world. A* this nibjcct belongs 
Bate csfteciBlij to the mythology of Egypt, we 
caaoot heie enter into a detailed diacniaion about 
the aatore and character which the later Greeks 
asBgned to him, or his connexion with Dionysns 
and Heiack*. Respecting Uiese points and the 
larioaa opinions of raoden cntics, as well as the 
diflerent lepreaeatatiooa of Amnion still extant, 
the reader aaay consult Jablonsky, 2'mtltffm Aeggpt.; 
BaUo, XIm aUt Jmiiam, mit immdtrtr Riiebieit 
<mf£i^pimt,u.e.i.i9; J. & Prichard, JJpjjXuii 
J#jtte/ajy,- J. F. Champdlion, Pamikiam iE^sjiXiah 
«■ CWInriim 4m Ptnomaga de Camdaim Ejffjpte, jfc 

The worahip of Ammon was introduced into 
Greeoe at an early period, protjably through the 
fidiirBB of the Greek colony in Cyrene, which 
aaoat have fiirmed a connexion with the great om- 
dU of Asunon in the Oasis soon after its estabiish- 
asent. Aaunon had a temple and a statue, the 
gift of Pindar, at Thebes (Paaa. ix. 16. g 1 ), and 
another at Sparta, the inhabitants of which, as 
Paasaniaa (iiL 18. | 2) nys, consolted the oracle 
of A»»m«i in Libya from early tiaies mors than 
the other Oiceka. At Aphytis, Ammon was wor- 
aiupped, from tbe time of Lysander, as seabusly as 
in Amntoninm. Pindar the poet honoured the god 
with a hymn. At Megalopolis the god was repre- 
aented with the head M a ram (Pans. riii. S'2. § 1), 
and the Oneks of Cyrenaica dedicated at Delphi a 
chariot with a statue of Ammon. (x. 13. § 3.) The 
hnmi^ which Alexaadar paid to the god in the 
Oaaia ia well known. [L. S.] 

AMMON ('A^t^uir), a geometriciao, who made 
a Hiiasuwiutut of the wdUs of Borne, ahout the 
time of the first invasion of the Goths, and found 
them to be 21 milea in drcnit. (Olympiodoms, 
mp. PkoL Cod. 80, pi 63s ed. Bekker.) [P. S.] 

AMMON CA|i/iw). 1. Bishop of Hadrianople, 
A. D. 400, wrote (in Greek) (M tit Ruamctim 
againat Or^eoism (not extant). A fiagawnt of 
Ammon, bom this worii possibly, may be found ap. 
&.CjTiLAiBX.Ijib.d»lieelaFiiU.(\<A.T. pt2,ad 
fin. Pl 60, ed. Paris. 1638.) He was present at 
the Cooneil of Constantinople A. D. 394, held on 
occasion of the dedication of Rufinus's church, 
near Chakedon. (Sox. Hid, EeoL nii. 8. 3 ; Mansi, 
Onmcilin. ToL iii. pt Sol.) 

2. Bishop of Eleaichia, in the Thebuide, in 
the 4th and 6th centuries. To him is addressed 
the Canonical Epistle of Tbeophilns of Alexandria, 
apL Sgno die o H BeTeregii, toL L pt. 1, p. 170. Pape- 
fancfaius has pnbli^ed in a Latin rertion his 
Epistle to Theophilas De Vila tt Cbaeersottme 
£& PadnrnH et Tluodori (ap. Holland. Ada Saim- 
lormm, vol. sir. p. 347, &C,). It contuns an 
Epistle of St. Antony. [A. J. C] 

AMMO'NAS('A^>^»*)or AMOUN ('A^i'), 
bonder of one of the most celebrated monastic 
eamnnmitiee in ^ypt. Obliged by his relations 
to marry, he pcrsoaded his bride to perpetual con- 
tinenea (Soiom. HuL Eed. L 14) by the authority 
of St. Panl'a Epistle to the Corinthians. (Socr. 
HM. JSed. it. 23.) They lived together thus for 
] 8 years, whso at her wiM, for greater perfection, 
they parted, and he retired to Scetis and ML 
Nitria, to the south of Lake Mareotia, where he 
Uved 'i2 gtut, visiting hia sister-wifo twice in the 



year. (Ibid, and Pallad. HU. Lcaa. c. 7 ; Ruffin. 
rit.Patr. c. 29.) He died before SL Antony (from 
whom there is an epistle to him, S. Athan. Opp. toI. 
i. pt 2, p. 959, ed. Bened.), i. s. before A. D. 365, 
for the latter asserted that he beheld the soul of 
Amoun borne by angels to heaven ( VU. & Antomi k 
S. Athanaa. f 60), and as St Athanoaius's history 
of St Antony ]»cserves the order of time, he died 
perhaps about A. D. 320. There are seventeen or 
nineteen RmU* ofAtoetiaum (ne^dAaia) ascribed to 
him ; the Greek original exists in MS. (Lambecius, 
Bibtialk. VimdoL lib. iv. cod. 156, No. 6) ; they are 
published in the Latin version of Gerhard Vossius 
in the BiUiati. PP. AtoOka, voL iL p. 484, Paris. 
1661. rueafy-tiro ^jix<M /futaMmu of the lanie 
Amoun, or one bearing the same name, exist also 
in MS. (Lambec. <.c. Cod. 155, No. 2.) [A.J.C.} 

AMMO'NIA ('Afifuwla), a surname of Hens 
under which she was vrorthippcd in Elis. The 
inhabitants of Elis had irom the earliest times 
been in the habit of consulting the oracle of Zeus 
Ammon in Libya. (Pans. v. 15. | 7.) [L. S.] 

AMMONIA'NUS ('AMMwau^'), • Greek 
grammarian, who lived in the fifth century aiicr 
Christ He was a relation and a friend of the phi- 
losopher SyrianuB, and devoted his attention to 
the study of the Greek poets. It is recorded of 
him that he had an ais, which became so fend of 
poetry from listening to its master, that it neglect- 
ed its food. (Damascius, op. PioL p. 339, a., ed. 
Bekker ; Suid. «. «. 'kfifimnavit and 'Orst A^por.) 

AMMO'NIUS, a fiivourita of Alkxandxk 
BahM, king of Syria, to whom Alexander entrust- 
ed the entile management of pnbUc ai&irs. Asa- 
monius was avaricious and cruel ; he put to death 
numenos friends of the king, the queen Laodice, 
and Antigonus, the son of Demetrius. Being de- 
tected in plotting against the life of Ptolemy Phi- 
lometor, ^ut & c 147, the latter required 
Alexander to surrender Ammonius to him; but 
though Alexander refused to do this, Anmiooius 
was put to death by the inhabitants of Antioch, 
whom Ptolemy had induced to eqwusa bis cause. 
(Liv. EpiL 50 ; Joseph. Aul. ziii. 4. $ 5 ; Diod. 
Bm. 29, p. 628, ed. Wom.) 

AMMO'NIUS ('AwMfriot) of Ai.xxandhm, 
the son of Ammonius, was a popil of Alexander, 
and one of the chief teachers in the grammatical 
school founded by Aristarchus. (Suid. s. ei 'A^ 
/ufnor.) He wrote eonunentaries upon Homer, 
Pindar, and Aristophanes, none of which an ex- 
tant (Fabric liibL Oraee. v. p. 712; Matter, 
Euait Mitongaa tur Fieole d'Ataaadn, i. pp. , 

AMMO'NIUS ('A^vuinof), of Albxandria, 
Presbyter and OeonUMDUS of the Church in that 
city, and an Egyptian by birth, A. o. 468. He 
subscribed the Epistle sent by the clergy of Egypt 
to the emperor Leo, in behalf of the Council of 
Chalcedon. {OomeUia, ed. Labbei, vol. iv. p. 897, 
h.) He wrote (in Greek) Om tts Dtfinaet 
behcten Abten md Penat, against the Mono* 
pbysite heresy of Eutyches and Dioaeorus (not 
extant) ; an Etpontitm of lit Book cf Actt (ap. 
autma Grate. Pair, ta Act SS. Apotlolonm, 8vo., 
Ozon. 1838, ed. Cramer) ; a Cbmmmtety on 
lit PtcUmu (used by Nicolas in his Catena ; se. 
Cod. 189, Biblioth. Coislin., ed. Mont&na p. 
244) ; Oa lie Ueiacnuron (no remains) ; 0» iSt. 
Join't Gapd, which exists in the Qiltmi Orat- 
eorum Patnat as S. Joan. ei. Corderii, foL, 



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Antw. 16S0. He ii quoted in the OiUmai on the 
Hittory of Sutaitnalt and on DimuL (Nom Cot- 
Ittt. Scrifl, Vet, ab Angelo Maio, p. 166, AcroL L 
A. D. 1825.) [A. J. C] 

profetnr of grunmor at Alexandria, with Helladiui, 
at the eloee of the 4th centnry. He wm alio prieit 
of the Egyptian Ape. On the ngoroui oreithrow of 
idolatry in Egypt by the bishop Theophilui A, D. 
389-361, Anunoniui and Helladiue ned to Con- 
•tantinople and there ranmed their profeuion. 
(Socr. NaL Bed. r. 16.) Ammoniiu wrote, in 
Greek, On He D^emmi if Wordt ofUht Sigmfiea- 
tiom (**)■) ttuUf leal tia^ipmi X^ewr), which ii 
appended to many leziconi, a. ^. to that of Scapala. 
It was edited by Valckneaer, 4ta., Lngd. Bat. 1739, 
and with further notet by C3ir. Frid. Ammon, 
Svo., Eriang. 1787. There ie another work by 
this Ammoniut, wt/A impa^ayias, which haa not 
yet been printed. (Fabric. BibL Grate, toL t. 
p. 716.) The hiitonan Soctatei wi* a pupil of 
Ammonins. {Hitl. Bed. t. 16.) [A. J. C] 

AMMONIUS CAu^iot), ion of HaRMaAK, 
studied with his brother Heliodorus at Athens 
under Proelus (who died A. D. 484), and was the 
master of Simplicius, Asclepius Trallianns, John 
Pbiloponna, and Damascina. His Oomvanlariet (in 
Greek) on Plato and Ptolemy are lost, as well as 
many on Aristotle. His extant works are Cam- 
maUantt on tit Itagogt cf Porf^fff, or tit ^ee 
Predmtlm, first published at Venice in 1500, and 
0» lit Oaltjforia of JruloUt, and Dt Imltrprt- 
taticmt, first published at Venice in 150S. See too 
ap. Akxand. Aphrodia. Dt Fata, p. 180, Sra 
Lend. 1658. The aboT»-named Commentaiiea on 
Aristotle are also published in the SdnUa m 
Ariitot ed. Brandis. In M& are his Commentaries 
on Aristotle's Topics and Heti^yrics, and his 
MeHetbu eomtmaidi AitrUabium, (Fabric BM. 
Grate. toL r. p. 707.) [A. J. C] 

AMMONIUS, of hAUPKAt, a village of 
Attica, a Peripatetic philosopher, who lired in 
the fint century of the Christia