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I'KKSK-SXKK I 
Till-: ITIil-IWII] 



DICTIONARY OF 
HARD WORDS 



Dictionary 



of 



Hard Words 



By 
Robert Morris Pierce 

Editor of International French-English and 
English-French Dictionary; Ideofonic Texts 
for Acquiring Languages ; author of Problems 
of Number and Mesure; Dictionary of Aviation 




LANGUAGES iBl^L^tyNG COMPAN 

NEMORK 



, 






Cepyright, 19 lo 
by Rebert Merris Pierce 



! Publisht October, 19 10 

I 
I 



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5>- 



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7 ^■ 



« <'y 



PREFACE 



Scope. This book contains an alfabetic list of about 
nineteen thousand words which present special difficulties or 
variations of pronunciation or spelling. Many of the words 
in the list are difficult or variable in both pronunciation and 
spelling. 

The statement is eften made that many English words, 
especially monosyllables, are alredy spelt fonetically and 
therefore present no difficulties of either spelling or pro- 
nunciation; but this statement is really net true, unless the 
^ fonetic alfabet in mind be one which in its structure is 
•U. especially confermd to the existing erthegrafy of the En- 
glish language only, and unless those who use it are supposed 
to be alredy familiar with the English language. From a 
cosmopolitan point of view there is hardly a word in the 
language, excepting a few weak or unstrest forms, which is 
spelt fonetically. Every present-day English dictionary 
may thus be said to be a dictionary of hard words, and it 
becomes evident that the book before us, being limited in 
Its scope, and made for the use of the general public, must 
necessarily be restricted to a comparativly small vocabulary. 

Among the words treated are many irregular plurals and 
other derivativs; but no attempt has been made to make the 
inclusion of such forms a special feature of the book. Proper 
nouns have been excluded. I am preparing a separate list of 
these, with definitions, which I hope to publish before long 
under the title of Dictionary of Proper Names. 

The present volume combines in one vocabulary practically 
all the words treated in similar lists hitherto publisht in die- 

32G69« ) 



2 PREFACE 

tionaries and manuals, and contains, besides, many words 
never before treated in such lists. Especial reliance has been 
placed upon data containd m the English-French part of my 
International French-English and English-French Dictionary, 
in Murray's New English Dictionary en Historical Princi- 
ples so far as available {A to sauce), and in Whitney's Cen- 
tury Dictionary (1889-1891). 

I have been fortunate in securing certain very valuable 
suggestions, and also certain specific criticisms, especially 
in the letter A, and in this Preface, from George Hempl, 
professor of Germanic filelogy in Stanford University, 
California, whom I consider one of the most accurate of 
foneticians. 

Spellings. The word-ferms or spellings given in title- 
place are in the main those which are most likely to be lookt 
for by the general reader. Under each title-word are given 
in brackets the other current spellings of the word. In some 
cases mention is also made of spellings no longer in current 
use. These are confined mainly to obsolescent forms and 
forms valuable because more nearly fonetic than those in 
current use. 

Cognate forms having the same meaning as the title- 
word but differing from it in pronunciation, are classified 
as 'synonymous cognates.' Among the variant spellings no 
attempt has been made to give all the apestrofized or 
specially accented forms. A few of the more common ones 
have, however, been included : as, *bus, tho', zoology, beloved. 
Dialectic spellings are only occasionally given. 

When a title-word is of two or more parts of speech, er 
when two or more title-words are spelt just alike but are of 
different part of speech, er of different origin, or are for 
any other reason treated separately, the oldest part of speech, 
or the oldest title-word, is placed first, the others following 
somewhat in the order of their first known appearance in the 
English language. 

Definitions. To enable the reader easily to identify the 
word whose spelling or pronunciation he is seeking, short def- 



PREFACE 3 

znitit)ns have been inserted immediately after most of the 
title-words. In many cases the definitions have been reduced 
to a mere synonym or classificatory word. When several 
definitions are given, their order is in the main historical, 
the oldest sense being placed first, with the more recent 
senses following in the sequence of their temporal develop- 
ment. Fortunately this sequence is often closely identical 
with the sequence of their logical development. 

Prommciation. The pronunciation is in every case in- 
dicated by a foil re-spelling. Under each title-word are 
given, in somewhat normalized or universalized form, its 
most acceptable or proper natural pronunciation or pronuncia- 
tions current to-day in the English-speaking world at large. 

Where several pronunciations are given without classifi- 
cation, the forms following the first form are usually to be 
considerd as individual or local variants in good usage. Little 
heed is taken of the modifications which words undergo 
when used in types of discourse different from the normal 
type. On the other hand, much attention has been given to 
functional variants concomitant with changes of meaning or 
stress, variants which each individual uses according as he 
uses a word with this or that meaning, in this or that manner 
or position, or with this or that degree or position of stress. 

An important class of variants is that of words such as 
abstract which, when used posteriorly (that is, after a 
word or syllable having chief stress), are normally strest on 
the last syllable, as in the sentence : the science of logic is 
^b'stjaekt, but when used anteriorly (that is, before a 
word or syllable having chief stress, are normally strest on 
the first syllable, as in the sentence : logic is an 'aeb^stgaekt 
science. By no means all variants of this class have been 
included. Those oftenest given are adjectivs, whose pred- 
zcativ forms differ in this way from their assumptiv (or, 
as they are often cald, attributiv) forms. Compound words, 
such as well-bred, which are characterized by this same mode 
of variation, are given here and there merely as examples of 
groups of cases of like kind, many of which are omitted. 



4 PREFACE 

The cases of words with the prefix un- are so very numerous 
that It has seemd worth while to include a considerable num- 
ber of the more cemmon or more interesting ef them. The 
purpose of including these and other derivativs and com- 
pounds has usually been to call attention to this special 
variation or to some other special feature. In treating the 
derivativs, therefore, I have avoided repeating minor varia- 
tions which are alredy given under the original words else- 
where in the vocabulary. 

The recognition and careful treatment of these fenemena 
I believe to be, as I said m my French-English and English- 
French Dictionary (Preface, page 5), an important innova- 
tion in lexicografy. Speech, as actually utterd, is far richer 
in such variants than the conventionalities and limitations of 
the current erthegrafy would lead most people to believe. 
This fact I hope to make still clearer in a book which I in- 
tend soon to publish; namely, a Fonetic Dictionary of the' 
English Language. 

There is certainly abundant opportunity for antagonizing 
the intolerable practises of the old-school lexicografers in 
this field. The word-books in common use are weighted 
down with antiquated fonetic notations, and fild with ©rtho- 
grafic, fictitious, and systematically erroneous pronuncia- 
tions. These books are in large mesure the creatures of a 
commercialism whose policy is to conserv and perpetuate 
fonetic error and iniquity. This policy has been adhered to 
for so long a period, and is still being applied en so vast a 
scale, that the peculiar species of pseudofonetic word-forms 
characterizing these books have taken on a sacredness com- 
parable with that of the current spelling itself. The anti- 
quated notation used, the fanciful qualities and quantities as- 
signed the sounds represented, and the avowedly false syllabi- 
cation and stress depicted are preservd with such an ignorant, 
obstinate, and sanctimonious spirit, as to appear truly ridic- 
ulous to modern foneticians. 

No attempt has been made to ring all the changes en 
normal vowel quality and length, stress, and syllabication 



PREFACE 5 

which consistency would require; much less to fellow up ab- 
normal forms of speech, such as those found in oratory, dic- 
tation, singing, dialect, or child-speech, or in the blunders 
of foreigners learning English, or to consider in detail the 
assimilation and elision of sounds in contiguous words. 

The pronunciation given of semi-fereign words is their 
pronunciation in the sound-system of the English language, 
net their pronunciation in the sound-system of the language 
whence they were adopted into English. For example, menu 
IS given as ^me'njou, or 'mee^nju, and net as m9'ny (as it is 
pronounced in French). Probably no case is known of a 
new elementary (foreign) sound being directly adopted into 
a language. Sounds such as [y], represented by the (u) of 
the French word menu, or as [x], represented by the (ch) of 
the Scotch word loch and the German word ach, or as [0] 
represented by the (oe) of the German word Goethe and by 
the (eu) of the French word peu, which are often said to oc- 
cur in these words as adopted and used in the English lan- 
guage, do net, in reality, so occur. These sounds do net form 
a part of the sound-system of the English language. Simi- 
larly, but to a less degree, is this true of certain combinations 
of sounds, as initial [ks], [ts], [ps]. Tho it is perhaps pos- 
sible for most English-speaking persons, without training, to 
utter these sequences of sounds initially, and tho these se- 
quences are sometimes actually so used, as in certain rare or 
bookish words, their adoption is in most cases resisted. 
Note the rebellion against the use of initial [ts] in tsar, czar 
(za:^, tsa:^) in spite of the fact that [ts] often occurs in En- 
glish both medial and final. 

Among the many classes of words in the pronunciation of 
which there is a distinct difference in usage, there are some 
classes of vast extent. Of some of these extensiv classes 
many examples are given in this dictionary; but of others 
only an occasional example is given. Of still other of these 
classes no mention at all is made. Words ending in [tjd?] or 
[tQsr], for example, as nature, culture, and words like bass, 
launch, etc., are often noted as having two or more distinct 



6 PREFACE 

pronunciations. So with words having [iou, jou, 90U], etc., 
or [ou], etc., as evolution, endure, news, Tuesday. But in 
other cases, as of words ending in [Ssn] or [Sn], like nation, 
association, or in [izsm, xz9m], etc., or [izm, xzm], etc., like 
prism, ostracism, spasm, etc., or having [9k, ag] or [ik, ig], 
as character, obstacle, Alexandrine, little or no prominence is 
given to the matter. 

In classifying the pronunciations of a word as British, 
Irish, Scotch, American, less proper, improper, vulgar, etc., 
it IS net ment that the reader should interpret these terms 
zn too narrow or exact a manner. As a general rule, Ameri- 
can usage IS given the preference and is placed first, without 
being markt. Usage markt as British may be common or 
normal also in New England or in other parts of the English- 
speaking world. Usage markt as dialectal, vulgar, or im- 
proper may sometimes be heard in the speech of a cultured 
person. Many secondary forms which are left unclassified or 
which are classified as 'less proper,' etc., might upon further 
investigation as to the propriety and extent of their past and 
present usage prove to be either (i) equally proper, but less 
frequent, (2) more proper, tho less frequent, (3) both more 
proper and more frequent, (4) dialectal variants, or (5) func- 
tional variants. Of trisyllables like beautiful, duplicate, 
equally, proteus, purity, etc., it may be said to be probable 
that the second pronunciation given (namely, that with a 
short vowel insted of a difthong in the first syllable) repre- 
sents a more frequent and a better usage than the first pro- 
nunciation (which IS the only form met with in existing 
dictionaries). 

Among the sounds and shades of sound which in this dic- 
tionary are either not markt at all, or but rarely markt, may 
be mentiond the following : 

1. The glottal stop [?] is quite common in English. It 
often occurs initial before strest vowels, and sometimes oc- 
curs final in certain forms, of the word yes. It is rarely 
markt in this book. 

2. The central step [g], as in the word ^t^ (gig) is a some- 
what differ^ot sound from the back step [g], as in go (goo). 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 



». declamation [plural acroamata\ aekso'ee-ma. 
acroamata n. (plural of acroamd) sekso'sema-ta. 
acroamatic adj. (abstruse) skso-a'msetik. 
acroasis,n. [plural acr oases'^ skso'ee-sis. 
acrobatism n. 'skss-baet-izdm, "aeksa-bse-tizam. 
acronyolial a(i;. (occurring at sunset) a'kseni-kal. 
acropolis n. (citadel) s'ksepa-hs. 
across prep, [synonymous cognate cross \ vulgar synonymous 

cognates acrossed, acrosf^ a'ksois; (dialectally) a'kscis. 
aeroter n. [also spelt acrotere} a'ksoo-ta^, 'aeksa-ta^. 
actinlform ad;, (radiate) aek'tini-feizm, 'aektini-feirm. 
active ad/, characterized by action [also spelt activ} 'aektiv. 
actor n. (one who acts) 'aektaz; {rarely, in law) aek'te:^. 
actual adj, 'aekt$u-9l, {rapidly) 'aektSal; (also) 'aektgu-al. 
actualise v, [also spelt actualise} 'sektju-d-laiz. 
actually adv. 'aektSu-3-h, (rapidly) 'aektSo-h. 
acumen, n. (acuteness) d'k^uu-man; {illiterately) 'sek^u-msn. 
acyclic adj. (not cyclic) s'sik^ik. 
adage n. (pithy saying; brief proverb) 'aedids. 
adagial adj. s'dee-dsi-dl. 
adagio adv,,adj. (slow) 9'da:-d30, a'dai-dsi-o; {less properly) 

3'dee-3D. 
adamant n. (hard mineral) 'seds-maent, "sedd-msnt. 
adamantean. adj. aedd-msen'tii-sn. 
adamantine n. [also spelt adatnantini sedo'msentin ; {less 

often) aeda'maen-tain, {rarely) aeda'maen-tin. 
Adamic adj. (of Adam) s'dsemik. 

adaptative adj. adaptiv [also spelt adaptativ} d'dsepts-tiv. 
Adar n. (Hebrew month) 'ee-daz. 
addable adj, [also spelt addible} 'sedd-bsh 
additament n. (something added) a'dita-msnt, 'sedita-msnt. 
address n. s'dres, 'ae-dres. 
address v. s'dres. 

addressed adj. [also spelt addrest} d'drest. 
addnoe v, (bring forward) a'djous; {improperly) a'dsous. 
addnoeable adj. [also spelt adducible} a'djuu-sa-bsl. 
adelopod n. [synonymous cognate adelopode} s'dels-pod, 

a'dii-la-pod. 
adeniform adj. s'deni-foizm, 'sedini-feizm. 
adenitis n. xdi'nai-tis; {less properly) sedi'nii-tis. 
adenose adj. (full of glands) sedi'noos, {assutnptivly) 'aedi- 

nos. 
adeps n. (animal fat; lard) 'ae-deps. 

c: latf, b: f «r, x cat, o hot, oi hoy ; a: far, go now, a: ask, ai kt'.e ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
itress-mork (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



8 PREFACE 

9. The several varieties of mid-central vowel sounds, as in 
the words govern ('gAvarn), lengthen (leqOan), tackle ('taekal), 
Anna ('aena), obey (a'bee), are net definitly differentiated in 
English, and perhaps never will be. They are, therefore, all 
represented with sufficient accuracy for the purposes of this 
book by the single letter (a). 

10. Half-leng vowels. The vowel [a] before \.z'\ fellowd by 
a voiceless step, as [k], and a weak syllable, as in the word 
market ('ma^kit, 'mai^-kit), may be said to be normally half- 
leng. Similarly with the vowel [b] before [r] fellowd by a 
voiceless step, or by [n], [I], or [ds], and a weak syllable, as 
in the words curtain Cke^tn), learned ('le^nid), early ('Bzh), 
clergy ('kLB^dsi), respectivly. As no symbol is used in this 
book for half-length, the vowels [a] and [b], when really half- 
leng, are often markt as short only, or as either short or leng, 
two re-spellings being given in the latter case. 

11. Weak voiceless consonants have for convenience been 
clast as voiced or voiceless according as the preceding sound 
IS veiced or voiceless, as in his (hiz, rather than his), edged 
(edsd, rather than edjt), but scratched (sk^aetSt). Such sounds 
are susceptible of a more accurate treatment. 

Fonetzc Notation. The sounds of speech are noted in 
this dictionary by means of a system of letters which, for con- 
venience, are arranged in the order g, k, etc. This system 
of letters, so arranged, I have named gammakap (from gam- 
ma and kappa), by analogy to the word alfahet, which 
denotes a system of letters arranged in the order a, b (or 
alfa, beta), etc. The system is essentially identical with 
the international alfabet assembled about the year .iSSS by 
Paul Passy of Pans (partly from elements containd in the 
previous fonetic alfabets of Henry Sujeet and others), and 
festerd since that time by the International Fonetic As- 
sociation (20 rue de la Madeleine, Bour-la-Reine, Seine, 
France). In this dictionary and in previous publications I 
have further amplified and modified this system of fonetic 
notation, molding it into a still more delicate and useful in- 
strument of precision. 

Below are two tables. The first table shows the more im- 
portant letters of the universal gammakap, arranged so as to 
give some idea of the place and manner of articulation of the 
sound or group of sounds which each symbol represents. Be- 



PREFACE 9 

sides the symbols (letters) for indicating the basic sound' 
qualities, which ceostitute Ibe gammakap proper, tbis udI' 
versal system includes, of course, other symbols (madifiers), 
for indicating veicelesaness, nasality, and whisper, and tbe 
various degrees of length, stress, and pitch. The second table 
■bows the letters of tte Englisb gammakap, with examples of 
words conlaining the sounds which the letters represent. In 
a few cases, examples from foreign languages have been 
added, to show the occurrence of practically the same sounds 
in those tongues. 

TTKIVZBSAI. QAMMAKAP 





n..»i 


-iS- -a^ ._, 


T-. 


:^^ 


,;« ^i^"j 




















Rnndcd 


I- • 






...'.'..^'... 




R™»1si' 


































R"™r^" 






j "s;,-;.-;,"' 






":.!.'... . 




K^^H 






on .t i.r 


!,"' 










^^ 


,B 


;: 




_;: — 1 i_ 






"-"'"' 


1 "• 


a™ 


~ 


•"■ • 






£^ 


^ 


a™ 




---i* 






r™.J'h 


Op™ 










£S£i£ 



10 PREFACE 



ENGLISH OAMMAKAP 

Stridents 

Shut 

^ood (god), linger (liqga?), wri^^lc ('ngal), gig (gig), 
k cook (kok), kick (kik), bun^ (bAgk), tickle Ctik^l), j^eep 
(klip). 

d dted (diid), winrf (wind), wirfen ('wai-dn), meddle 

Cmcdl), hold (boold). 
t tsiught (tc:t), hin^ (hint), whiten Cwai-tn), beU (belt), 

v/hittle Cu)it!). 

b bib (bib), thimWe ('Oiinbd!). 
P P^^P (piip)» li^P (limp). 

Fricativ 
h who (hou), ^ouse (haos), hit (hit). 

j ye (jii), 3'ou (jou), dew (djou); German ;ung (J013). 

Q cure (kgo:?), pure (pQoie); German ic/i (ig). 

r dry (drai), laundry (1c:n-dri). 
t try (tjai), pastry ('pee-stji). 

d this (5is), hea/^en ('hii-dan), wi^/i (wi5) ; Spanish toc/os 

Ctodos). 
thin (8in), my^/i (miO), wid^^ (widG); Spanish grarias 

CgraGias). 

3 a^ure ('aesa?), judge (dsAds) ; French /e (33); Italian 

gia (dsa). 
J . shoe (Sou), chew (tjou); French chic (Jik); German 

5c^uh (Su:) ; Italian cinque ('tjiqi-kwe) ; Spanish mu- 

cho ('mutjo). 

z cereal (ziil), roje (rooz), hij (hiz). 
s jijter ('sistd?). 

V vivid ('vivid), 0/ (ev). 
f fife (faif). 

w win (win), dwindle ('dwindl). 

w when (wen), quick (kwik), twine (twain). 



PREFACE II 



Sonoranti 

Nasal 

q long (le^q), longer ('leiq-gaz), bank (baegk). 

n nun (nAn), gardener ('gaie-dn-ae), cardinal ('ka:?-dn-l), 

hint (hint). 
N snare (sNe:^). 

m maim (meem), triumph ('tjai-amf), limp (limp), 
ic humph (lim), smear (smi:^). 

Oral 

1 lull (IaI). cardina/ Ckais-dn-l), tatt/e ('taetl). 

z. p/ay (pLee), s/ow (sloo). 

r red (ecd), car (i:e), earth (b:?9), very ('veei). 
s free (fsii), throw (Gsoo). 

Reionants 

High-close 

u whoever (,hu'ev3r), shoe (Sou), unit ('Jou-nit), cower 
('kau-3r) ; French tout (tu), tour (tuia) ; German Zu- 
fall ('tsu:,fal). 

i react (d'aekt), eat (lit), scortae ('sko:-ri,i:), buoyant ('bei- 
»nt); French m (ni), p»re (pi:a); German hied (li:t). 

High-open 

fwll (fol), poor (po:?), shoe (Sou), unite (jo'nait) ; Ger- 

man M«ff (mof). 

1 pity Cpiti), hated ('hee-tid), axts ('aeksis), foreign 

('ferin), carnage ('kaends), senate ('senit). 
I ft (it), ear (i:?), eat (lit), high (hai), why (ujqi), boy 

(bei); German bin (bin). 

Mid-close 

o poetic (po'etik), note (noot) ; French pot (po), cote 
(ko:t) ; German Sohn ('zo:n), Italian leone (le'o:-ne). 

3 over ('do-v3?), sofa ('soo-fa), again (a'gen), truism ('tjou- 
,iz9m), taken ('tee-kan), chocolate ('tSeka-lat), chest- 
nut ('tSesNat), tackle ('taekal). 

c aercal (c'i:-?i-3l), gate (geet); French ^te (e'te); Ger- 
man Reh (rc:); Italian pere ('pe:-re). 



12 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

msnt, d'grxndxz-mdnt, 'aegzdn-daiz-mdnt ; {improperly) 
d'gzxn-daiz-mdnt. 

assrandize v. [also spelt apprantftj^] 'xgrsn-daiz; (/^55 
properly) s'gzaen-daiz. 

asg^eve v. grieve, distress, afflict, oppress [past participle 
and preterit aggrieved} a'g^iiv. 

asHait adj. [also spelt agast} 9'ga:st. 

ag^le adj. [also, sometimes, spelt agil} 'xdsil, 'x-dsail. 

ag^ely adv. 'aedsi-h, 'aedsil-h, 'ae-dsail-li. 

Agtag n. [also spelt ageing"] 'ee-dsiQ. 

agio n, (rate of exchange, etc.) 'aedso, 'aedsi-o, 'ee-dsi-o, {some- 
times) 'ai-dsi-o. 

ag^otase n. (speculation; stock- jobbing) 'aedsi-a-tids, 'ee- 
dsi-a-tids. 

agister n. [also spelt agistor"] d'dsistdr. 

aglet n. metal tag of a lace [synonymous cognates aigulet, 
aiglet] 'aeglat, 'ee-glat. 

agnixe v. (acknowledge; own) aeg'naiz. 

Agnoetae n,pl. [also spelt Agnoetae] aegno'ii-ti. 

agnoetei n. pi, 'xgno-its. same meaning as agnoites. 

agnoitei n,pl. [synonymous cognate agnoetes] 'segno-aits. 

agnomen n. additional name [ploral agnomina] xg'noo-msn. 

agnomina p. (plural of agnomen) xg'nemi-ns. 

agnoiticiim n. aeg'nosti-sizsm ; (erroneously) seg'nosti-ki- 
Z3m. 

Agnni Dei n. (Lamb of God; Christ) xgnds'dii-ai. 

agonize v, [also spelt agonise] 'segd-naiz. 

agonta n. (insectivorous mammal, Solenodon paradoxus) 
9'gou-t3. 

agonti n. rodent [also spelt aguti, agouty] s'gou-ti. 

agrarianize v. [also spelt agrarianise] 3'g7e:-7i-9-naiz. 

ag^cnltnraliit n. xgri'kAltSdzs-hst. same meaning as agri- 
culturist. ■ 

ag^cnltnriit n. segzri'kAltSd-srist. 

ague n. 'ee-gjo; (vulgarly) 'ee-gja. 

aH inter j, a: . 

aHa interj, o'ha: , (less deliberately^ 9'ha: • 

aHead adv. [also spelt ahed] d'hed. 

aHyn n. (the one-year fish, of Japan) 'a:-ju. 

ai n. (three-toed sloth) 'a:-i. 

ai n. (ahyu) ax. 

aiaia n. the roseate spoonbill [also spelt ayaya, ajaia, ajaja', 
synonymous cognate aiaiai] ai'ai-3. 

j ye, gcure; d the, f Ain ; 3 axrure, ds/oy; ^ shoe, tJcAew; 
w when; 13 sin^; u whoever, i r^act, o full, ou iool, i it, li see; 
o poetic; sov^r, e aerial, Abut, o: door, 00 no, ebed, eegote; 



PREFACE 13 

CdifLiu-ans), feverfew ('f li-vas^fiu) ; io, as in emolument 
(z'meHo-mdnt) ; io:, as in lure (ho:z); is, as in behavior 
(bi'hce-viae). . 

Besides these sixteen normal difthengs, there is the one 
normal tr if thong, iou, after [I], [v], and [f], as in lieu (Hou), 
yiew (viou), and iew (fiou). 

Besides the sixteen normal difthongs and the normal trif- 
thong mentiond above, there also occur, either in wide-spred 
usage or in well-known local usage, the difthongs ci, as in boy 
(bci); es, as in care (kes); od, as in mom (mosn); os, as in 
door (dod); id, as in here (his); o9, as in poor (pod), etc.; 
and the trifthongs lid, as in queerest ('kwiid-nst) ; au9, as 
in flour CfLQUd?); aid, as in inquiring (in'kwaid-zrii]), and 
aid, as in desiring (di'zaid-^ii]). 

Duration. Extra length, or duration, of elementary 
sounds, especially in the case of vowel sounds, is indicated 
by the length-mark (:) placed just after the letter represent- 
ing the sound in question, as in palm (pa:m), laud (lc:d), air 
(e:?), zygospore ('zigd^spo:^), and in the interjection sh (SO- 

Syllabioation and Streii. The various elementary 
sounds of speech, when utterd in any series or sequence, 
without increase or diminution in the strength of the breth- 
impulse, possess various degrees of (inherent) relativ so- 
nority. The voiced sounds are more sonorous than the voice- 
less sounds; the sonorants are more sonorous than the stri- 
dents; the resonants are more sonorous than the sonorants. 
And just as this is true among the larger classes of sounds, 
so also IS it true among the smaller groups of sounds and 
among the individual sounds. (See the Universal Gamma- 
kap, page 9, above.) 

A syllable is a prominence of sonorousness or loudness : 
a wave, as it were, of sonority, rising above the general level 
of speech. 

Any elementary speech-sound utterd by itself, in a single 
breth-impulse of uniform or only gradually changing strength, 
constitutes a single syllable. A group consisting of two or 



14 PREFACE 

more elementary sounds utterd in sequence constitutes either 
one syllable, or more than one syllable, according as it con- 
tains one wave of sonority, or more than one wave of 
sonority, rising above the general level of sonority. 

If a syllable or soneric wave contains more than one sound, 
Its crest or point of maximum sonority lies, of course, within 
Its most sonorous sound. For example, in the monosyllable 
bet (bet), which contains the three sounds [b], [e], and [t], 
the syllabic crest lies within the sound [e], the most sonorous 
sound in the syllable. If one syllable or soneric wave fellows 
another, in the same breth-impulse, the intersyllabic trough, 
or point of minimum sonority, lies within the least sonorous 
sound between the two wave-crests. For example, in the di- 
syllable better ('betsz) the two syllables are utterd in a single 
breth-impulse, and the trough lies within the sound [t], the 
least sonorous sound between the two crests [e] and [9]. 

A sound forms the crest of a soneric wave (that is, is syl- 
labic) if separated from adjacent sonorous sounds by sounds 
less sonorous than it or the adjacent sonorous sounds. Net 
resonants only, but also consonants (stridents and sonorants) 
may be syllabic. In English we have an example of a syllabic 
strident in the [t] of practically, as sometimes pronounced; 
of syllabic sonorants in the [1] of kettle ('ketl), the [n] of 
sudden ('sAdn), the [J:] of psht (pjit). The sonenc undula- 
tions due to the presence of the [s] in star (staiz) or cats 
(kaets), the [$] in catch (kaetj), or the [0] in wealth (when 
pronounced weltG), and the like, are comparable to mere 
ripples, rather than waves of sonority, and to most ears are 
net perceptible as syllables. (Compare paragraf 4, page 7.) 

Syllables are the result of the independent or conjoint ac- 
tion of two factors: (i) the above-mentiond relativ inherent 
sonenties of the elementary sounds, and (2) the changes 
wrought among the relationships of these inherent sonori- 
ties by sudden changes in the force of breth-impulse or stress. 
If a new breth-impulse is introduced into any utterance, a 
new sonenc wave or syllable begins just where this new 
breth-impulse begins. 



PREFACE 15 

A syllable may be cald static when at its inception the 
force of the breth-impulse remains the same as xt was just be- 
fore, or changes only at the same rate at which it was before 
changing. Static syllables exist solely (or primarily) in vir- 
tue of the relativ inherent sonorities of the elementary 
sounds. 

A syllable may be cald dynamic when at its inception the 
force of the breth-impulse is suddenly increast. The first or 
initial syllable of any utterance is of course a dyanmic syl- 
lable. 

Between a dynamic syllable and a static syllable, as in the 
word better Cbetar), mentiond above, or between two con- 
tiguous static syllables, as in the word logically (ledsiks-h), 
there is no point of division lying between two sotmds of 
different quality. In so far as there exists any definit point 
of syllabic division in such cases, it must always be located 
within the* limits of a sound of minimum sonority. In the 
word better, this sound is the [t]; in logically, the [d] or the 
[k]. These sounds belong to neither syllable more than to the 
other, but each one of them constitutes a nexus in which the 
two syllables meet. 

These nexuses joining static syllables with preceding sylla- 
bles ore, in English, normally consonants (stridents or so- 
norants), but in abnormal utterances, and in certain types of 
normal utteraces, in English and in other languages, they 
may be resonants. Furthermore, in certain Swiss dialects, a 
long strest syllable may be followd by a static syllable, the 
two syllables joining in an intervening voiced resonant 
(vowel), or voiceless resonant, common to both syllables. 

Every dynamic syllable, on the other hand, must always 
have a definit starting-peint, located either (i) at the begin- 
ning of the word or utterance, as, in the word better ('betas), 
at the beginning of the [b]; (2) between two medial sounds 
of different quality, as, in the word baker ('bee-kas), at the 
beginning of the [k], and, in the word coolie Ckou-h), at the 
beginning of the [1] ; or (3) within the limits of some medial 
sound which, were there no new breth-impulse, would be a 



16 PREFACE 

single sound, as, in the word rat-trap ('rxt^tsxp), at the be- 
ginning of the second [t], and, zn the word coolly CkouMi), 
at the beginning of the second [}]• When a (second) new dy- 
namic syllable or breth-impulse thus begins within a sound, 
the sound is cald double or geminated, and is, thruout this* 
dictionary, represented (as here) by two separate letters. 

When, as is always the case at the inception of a static 
syllable, the intersyllabic trough lies within the limits of a 
single sound (of minimum sonenty), as, in the word better 
Chet9z), within the [t], the letter representing this sound of 
minimum sonority sufficiently indicates the position of the 
intersyllabic trough. It is neither necessary nor beneficial 
further to indicate its position, for unless in uttering the 
word a new breth-impulse is gratuitously introduced, or 
some error made in the sounds themselvs, the correct pro- 
nunciation will necessarily result. 

When, en the other hand, as is always the case at the in- 
ception of a dynamic syllable, the intersyllabic trough lies just 
before a certain sound, as before the [b] in better or before 
the [b] or the [k] in baker, it is often most necessary and 
beneficial to indicate its position. 

Stress, or dynamic accent, is the relativ emfasis with 
which a sound, syllable, or sequence of syllables is utterd. It 
IS the intensity or degree of energy characterizing a breth- 
impulse used in speech. It is the force or vigor imparted to 
any given utterance by the brcth. 

In the body of this dictionary, accordingly, the starting- 
point of every syllable having chief stress (that is, having the 
primary degree of force of a new or reinforced breth-impulse) 
IS always indicated by means of a special s3rmbol, the chief 
stress-mark ('), placed just before the strest syllable; and the 
starting-peint of every syllable having subordinate stress (that 
IS, having the secondary, tertiary, or quarternary degree of 
force of a new or reinforced breth-impulse) is always (except 
initially, where it is left unmarkt) indicated by means of a 
general symbol, the hyfen (-), placed just before the strest 
syllable. 



PREFACE 17 

In this Preface, however, a special symbol for secondary 
stress, the secondary stress-mark (,), has also been tised (me- 
dially instcd of the hyfen, and also initially), whenever the 
syllable actu^ly has secondary stress. This secondary stress- 
mark (,) will probably be used thruout the dictionary if a 
second edition is publisht. It is alredy empleyd thruout my 
Dictionary of Aviation which is about to appear. 

In normal English any syllable immediately following a 
syllable containing a long strest vowel, a rising diftheng or 
triftheng, or a syllabic consonant or a vowel, is a dynamic 
syllable; and any weakly strest syllable immediately fellow- 
zng a syllable containing a short strest vowel plus one or 
more consonants is only a static syllable. Dynamic syllables 
are often found, however, in compounds, adopted words, as 
bivouac Cbiv^waek), etc., even after syllables containing short 
strest vowels. A given disyllabic word or combination, as 
ego ('ego, 'e^go, etc.) may consist either (i) of a dynamic 
plus a static syllable, or (2) of two dynamic syllables. 
Whether or net a new breth-impulse occurs in a given com- 
bination of sounds depends on various factors: (i) the char- 
acter of the consonants intervening between the syllabic 
crests; (2) their number; (3) the independence of the word; 
(4) Its freedom from the influence of related more familiar 
words; and (5) the commonness of the word itself. 

Until recent years, the nature of syllabication was net clear- 
ly understood. Some division of a word was, however, often 
necessary in writing and printing and some oral division was 
desirable in dictating. So the thing took shape in spelling- 
books and dictionaries. But the distinction between grafic 
word-division and fonetic syllabication only gradually became 
clear in the minds of men. Up to the present hour, altho the 
distinction between dynamic and static syllables has now for 
some years been quite well understood, and altho it is of the 
greatest importance in correctly indicating pronunciation, no 
dictionary has ever introduced it into its vocabulary. One 
reason for this may lie in the customary but fonetically 
vicious practzs of placing the stress-mark at the end (or sup- 



18 PREFACE 

posed end), rather than at the beginning, of syllables. This 
practis has nothing but custom to recommend it. The stress- 
mark IS commonly used thus by dictionary-makers and others, 
and this usage is often defended by misguided or unthinking 
persons, in apparent disregard or ignorance of the good to be 
derived from the use of a more scientific method. In reading, 
it is more convenient to have the stress-mark placed before, 
rather than after, the strest syllable, for, altho the reader 
doutless sees words and syllables for the most part as wholes, 
his eye nevertheless usually approaches them from the left, 
rather than from the right, and it is better that he should be 
apprised of the facts as to where a syllable begins, and how 
It IS strest, during the incipient, rather than during the 
final stage of his visual or vocal action upon it. One prefers 
to see a guidepost before he gets to his destination or has 
past It. 

Furthermore, in myriads of cases, it is impossible correctly 
to place a stress-mark after a strest syllable; for, whenever a 
a dynamic syllable is fellowd by a static syllable, the dynamic 
syllable, ending as it does within the limits of some (rela- 
tivly unsonorous) sound within which also the static syllable 
begins, cannot accurately be represented as ending after that 
sound. For example, the word sister is pronounced neither 
'si-star, nor 'sis-t3?, nor 'sist-a?, but 'sista?. The boundary 
between its two syllables lies neither before nor after the [s], 
nor after the [t], but within the [t]. The first (dynamic) 
syllable merges into the second (static) syllable thru the sound 
of minimum sonority [t], which is common to both syllables. 

The use of stress-marks in posterior position, just alluded 
to, confounds the whole subject of grafic word^i visions of 
curreat or fonetic erthegrafy (to be used at the ends of lines 
by writers and printers) with the quite different subject 
of real fonetic syllabication. This, together with the com- 
mon practis of trying to show current spelling and etymology 
as well as pronunciation, all in one respelling of a word, re- 
sults in the multitudinous fonetic errors with which the 
ordinary dictionaries and text-books are padct from cover to 



PREFACE 19 

cover. The merest tyro zn fonetxcs, every child, indeed, who 
uses these books, is apt to be clearly or dimly conscious of 
many of these errors and systematic perversions of pronun- 
ciation. The troubles caused by the practis of using the 
stress-mark after the strest syllable cannot be overcome by 
placing the stress-mark above or below the vowel or con- 
sonant of maximum sonority which forms the crest of the 
strest syllable; for such a procedure net only multiplies enor- 
mously the ntimber and complication of the symbols and types 
required, but fails to indicate either the beginning or end of 
the strest syllable. 

In this dictionary, the stress indicated is, in general, the 
stress which the word has when isolated. Certain systematic 
shiftzngs of stress are indicated, notably in the case of words 
"whose stress shifts according as these words are used poste- 
riorly or anteriorly in a sentence, the posterior form being 
given first. (See page 3 of this Preface, under Pronuncia- 
tion.) 

'Word-dzTzsion. In dividing words at the ends of lines, 
we have (i) the case of current spellings, and (2) the case of 
fonetzc spellings. In this dictionary the current spellings 
have been divided in an ordinary conventional manner which 
requires no special description. The fonetic spellings have 
been divided, wherever practicable, at the beginning of a 
dynamic syllable, that is, where there would alredy be a hyfen 
or a stress-mark in any event. Where it has been necessary 
or convenient to divide a fonetic spelling arbitrarily, where 
no new breth-impulse really begins, it is divided in a man- 
ner similar to the manner in which it would be divided were 
there really a new breth-impulse introduced (that is, were 
a new dynamic syllable begun there). For example, if the fo- 
netic spelling ['pae^dnt] of the word parent is divided at the 
end of a line, it is divided ['pae-rdnt] in the same manner as 
the fonetic spelling ['pe:-3ant], a variant of the same word, 
would be divided : that is, just before the letter (r), the hyfen 
being used as the mark of division at the end of the line. 
Thzs use of the hyfen, now for real syllabic division, now 



20 



PREFACE 



for mere arbitrary word-division, and again for joining the 
elements of compound words, renders it often an ambiguous 
symbol. (See page 29 of this Preface, under Clarified Spell- 
ing.) 

AbbreTiations and Sigms. Abbreviations are used only 
for the names of the parts of speech. 

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 



adj. 


adjectiv 


Pl- 


ploral 


adj.-pron. 


adjectiv-pronoun 


pron. 


pronoun 


adv. 


adverb 


n. 


noun 


conj. 


conjunction 


noun^ron. 


noun-pronotm 


interj. 


interjection 


V. 


verb 



In lUustrativ frases, as under the title-word aged, the title- 
word, where it occurs in the sense illustrated, is markt by 
means of a star or asterisk (*) just preceding the word, in 
order to aid the reader in seeing it or in identifying it. 

SpellziLS Refenii. The reformation of spelling presents 
Itself under three modes : simplified spelling, clarified spell- 
ing, and fonetic spelling. Simplified spelling and clarified 
spelling are alike in being but amendments of the current 
erthegrafy, while fonetic spelling is a relativly independent 
system of erthegrafy based upon pronunciation. All three of 
these modes of refermd spelling are used to a certain extent 
in this dictionary. 

Sxmplzfied Spellziig. The current spelling may be 
simplified to some extent by omission of silent letters, by the 
amendment of certain glaring irregularities, and so en. This 
IS the method used by the Simplified Spelling Board (i Mad- 
ison Avenue, New York) and the Simplified Spelling Society 
(44 Great Russell Street, London, W. C, England). 

These organizations have, up to the present time, devoted 
their energies net to fonetic spelling but only to minor simpli- 
fications of certain words and classes of words. While using 
arguments based mainly upon the advantages of fonetic spell- 
ing, they have practically ignored the work, as they certainly 



PREFACE 21 

are neglecting to employ the methods, of those who have al- 
redy successfully constructed and introduced the most perfect 
fonetzc alfabets and forms of fonetzc spelling as yet devised. 

While simplified spelling has a certain value, directly in 
rectifying certain minor defects in the current erthografy, and 
indirectly in calling attention to the advantages of fonetic 
spelling. It IS entirely inadequate to the task of bringing into 
existence (in no matter how long a time) the fonetic spelling 
upon whose virtues ore based the common run of arguments 
for simplified spelling. 

Regarding the indirect value of simplified spelling, it may, 
however, be argued that it is perhaps more than offset by the 
implied misdirection of energy and the diverting of public 
attention from the main issue. Herbert Spencer, for example, 
held the opinion that simplified spelling retards the progress 
of fonetic spelling, insted of accelerating its progress as it 
purports to do. 

To try to simplify, clarify, or fonetize any radically bad 
system of spelling, such as the English, in any interesting or 
useful degree, and in any reasonable period of time, without 
using some thorogoing, popular fonetic alfabet, is vain. It 
IS like trying to cifer without figures, print without types, 
or typewrite without keys. 

While real international fonetic spelling of English, French, 
German, and other languages is thus alredy an accomplisht 
fact, and hundreds of thousands of copies of text-books and 
dictionaries containing it are in actual use in the leading 
schools and universities thruout the world (including the 
United States), the Simplified Spelling Board labors under 
the impression that the public, tho now being operated upon 
by the Board, is as yet mentally too weak, fonetically speak- 
ing, to bear any official mention of fonetic spelling being 
made by the surgeon. To many persons it would seem to be 
the operator, rather than the patient, who is in need of treat- 
ment for fonofobia. 

The fallacy of the simplified spellers lies in their assump- 
tion that the only method, or at least the best method, for 



22 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

anecdotiit n. 'xndk-dotist, s'nekdd-tist. 

anelytroni adj. (without elytra) 3'neh-t£9s. 

aneinia n. lack of blood [also spelt anaemia'} 3'nii-mi-9. 

anemic adj. [also spelt anaemic} a'nemik, d'nii-mik. 

anemometer n. (wind-gage) seni'memi-td?. 

anemone n. plant [also, sometimes, spelt anemony} d'nems- 

ni, (when used as a genus-name and spelt anemone) aeni- 

'moo-ni. 
aneitHeiia n. [also spelt anaesthesia} aenis'8ii-33, aenis'Gii- 

si-9. 
aneitHetic adj., n. [also spelt anaesthetic} senis'Oetik, senis- 

^eri-tik. 
aneitlietixe v, [also spelt anesthetise, anaesthetise, anaes- 
thetise} d'nesGi-taiz, s'niis-Gi-taiz. 
anet n. (the herb dill) 'senit. 

anenrism n. dilatation [also spelt aneurysm} 'xnjo-ziz^m, 
angel n. (spiritual being) 'een-dsdL 
anseloloffy n. (doctrin as to angels) een-dssreld-dsi. 
anselni n. (devotion; bell) 'xndsi-lds. 
ang^a n. (quinsy, etc.) aen'dsai-ns, 'aendsi-ns. 
ang^ology n. (science of blood-vessels, etc.) aendsi'els-dsi. 
ang^oiperm n. (plant having a seed-vessel : correlativ of 

gymnosperm) 'andsi-a-spei^m. 
angle n. (corner, etc.) 'aerjgal. 
anglicize v, make English [also spelt Anglicize, anglicise, 

Anglicise} 'aeqgh-saiz. 
angora adj,, n. sen'g3:-?d, xri'go:-^?. 
anHydride n. [also, sometimes, spelt anhydrid} xn'hai-drid, 

aen'hai-draid. 
anil n. (indigo shrub or dye) 'senil. 
anile adj. old-womanish [also, sometimes, spelt anil} 'seni!, 

'ae-nail. 
aniline adj., n. [also, sometimes, spelt anilin} 'aeni-hn, 'aeni- 

lain, 'aeni-lin. 
animadversion n. (criticism; reproof) seni-msedVe^S^n. 
animadvert v. (criticize) aeni-mxd'vB:zt. 
animalcnla n. (plural of animalculum) aeni'maelkgo-ls. 
animalcnlae n,pl, [an incorrect substitute for animalcula, 

used on the supposition that animalcula is a singular noun 

having this form as its ploral] aeni'maelkgo-H. 
animalcule n. (little animal) aeni'msel-kgul. 
aninialcnlnni n. an animalcule [ploral animalcula} seni- 

'maelkgo-lam. 

j ye, Q cure; 5 the, th\n\^ 3 axrure, ds /oy ; S shoty tj chew; 
U) when', ip sin^r; u whoever, i react, o full, ou fool, i it, li see\ 
o poetic ; a over, e aerial, a bwt, 0: door, 00 no, e bed, ee gate ; 



PREFACE 23 

mesure independently, both of its applications or products, 
and of Its competitors. 

Handwriting was net in itself developt into print or into 
typewriting. The important thing was the conception and de- 
velopment of an entirely separate instrumentality, the print- 
ing-press or the typewriter, by which to create the printed 
page or the typewritten sheet. Printing-presses and type- 
writers were simply invented outright and placed en the mar- 
ket in open competition with pen and ink, instruments for 
producing similar products. Demonstrations were given of 
their relativ value for this specific purpose, and, with direct 
profit as prime mover, the new inventions and the new prod- 
ucts won their way. 

And so It IS apt to be, too, with systems of erthegrafy. 
A good useful erthegrafy may be considerd to be a product, 
for the making of which an invention was required. This re- 
quired invention was a good fonetic alfabet. Half a century 
ago Isaac Pitman invented a fonografic alfabet and a system 
of fonetic shorthand. The alfabet was demonstrated to be of 
greater value than the ordinary alfabet for certain specific 
purposes, and this invention (the fonografic alfabet) and its 
preduct (the system of shorthand writing) came into common 
use for reportorial purposes. 

A quarter of a century ago Paul Passy invented a universal 
fonetic alfabet and a universal system of fonetypy and fo- 
netic handwriting. This alfabet has been demonstrated to 
be of greater value than any of the alfabets of the world for 
general purposes, and this invention (the universal alfabet) 
and its products (the new systems of erthegrafy for all lan- 
guages) have been widely adopted. 

Simplified spellings are used in the definitions of this dic- 
tionary largely en their merits as media thru which to help 
the reader easily to grasp the pronunciation of the words. 
Where their use would, on account of the conciseness of the 
definitions, or on any other account, fail of this object and 
render the text more obscure, their use has often been 



24 PREFACE 

In the vocabulary of this book are given all the main words 
(except some in -ive) and many of the denvatxvs, of which 
more simple forms are advocated by the Simplified Spelling 
Board. The rules of the Board are also applied to some words 
which do not happen to be included in the list publzsht by the 
Board, as Alexandrin, carlin, carmin, deprivativ, desiccativ, 
partil, passerin, etc. 

I insert the simpler forms among the variant spellings m 
this dictionary net solely because they are advocated by the 
Board and others, but because many of them either have long 
existed er do now exist to a considerable extent in current 
use in literature; and also because almost all of them are 
either in accord with what I consider to be a scientifically 
practicable system of standardized fonetic erthegrafy, snch as 
IS used in the re-spellings given in this book to indicate pro- 
nunciations and IS, in my opinion, destind eventually to 
supersede the current English cacegrafy. 

The following are the rules governing the simplifications 
containd in the list of about 3300 words publisht by the Sim- 
plified Spelling Board on March 6, 1909 (Circular No. 23). 
Aside from a few slight changes in the wording, some minor 
adjustments necessitated by a more accurate marking of the 
pronunciations, etc., and one additional example under Rules 
17 and 18, the rules and examples are given exactly as pub- 
lisht by the Board. 

To facilitate acceptance it was deemd expedient by the 
Board in some cases to restrict the rule to a limited number 
of the words in a given class. In these cases the expression 
'Restricted Rule' has been used. Any one who chooses to ex- 
tend the rule at once to all the words of a given class is of 
course free to do so. After each rule is given a list, either of 
all the words affected (if they are not many), or of a few 
examples of the large number of words coverd by the rule. 
In the latter case 'Examples* is prefixt, and 'etc' is added. 
If the Board's official recommendation applies to all words 
containing the letter, sequence of letters, or suffix, affected, 
in the pronunciation indicated, the expression '(^n^ral Rttk' 



PREFACE 25 

IS used. For some small classes and for isolated amendments 
no rule xs given. 

RULES OF SIBIPLIFIED SPELLING 

X. ae, 86 or e, net final. General Rule : Choose e. Exam- 
ples : anesthetic, chimera, era, esthetic, ether, medieval, paleon- 
tology, etc. 

2. -bty with b silent. General Rule : Omit b. det, dettor, 
dout, indetted, redout, redouted, redoutahle. 

3. ea^ pronounced [e]. General Rule : Drop a. Exam- 
ples : hed, spred, sted, tred, thret, helth, welth, dremt, ment, 
plesani, etc. 

4. ea^ pronounced [a], before r. General Rule : Drop e^ 
karken, hart, harth. 

5. -ed or 'd, pronounced [d]. General Rule : Use simple d 
zn all cases (reducing a double consonant). Examples : aimd, 
artnd, bumd, deemd, dimd, feld, fild, hangd, raind, stird, 
veUd, etc. 

6. -ed or -t^ pronounced [t], the preceding single conso- 
nant being doubled before -ed (-pped, -ssed) and left single 
before -t (-pt, -st). General Rule : Choose -t in all cases. 
Examples: dipt, dript, dropt, stept, stopt, blest, prest, mist, 
blusht, washt, wisht, lockt, packt, etc. 

7. •enee or -ense (Latin -ensa). Restricted Rule : Choose 
•ense. defense, offense, pretense; also license (Latin -entia). 

8. ^ette or -et. General Rule : Choose -et. Examples : 
coquet, epaulet, etiquet, omelet, quartet, quintet, septet, sextet, 
etc. 

9. ch or fy pronounced [f]. Restricted Rule : Choose f« 
draft, net draught. 

10. -cby silent: (i) -onch or -opt, pronounced [ao, au]. 
Restricted Rule : Choose -ow. plow. (2) -ongh or -o, 
pronounced [oo, o, o]. Restricted Rule : Choose -o. alt ho, 
tho, thoro, boro, -boro (in place-names), furlo. (3) -ongli 
or -o, pronounced [ou, u, o]. through, thro*, thro. Restricted 
Rule : Choose tbro, but advance it now to tlim. 

11. -iee, unstrest, pronounced [is], (general Rule: Spell 
•ifl. Examples : artifis, coppis, cornis, crevis, edifis, justis, 
notis, servis, etc. 

12. -lie, unstrest, pronounced [il, 1]. General Rule : Omit 
•• Examples : agil, futil, servil, juvenil, etc. When other- 
wise pronounced, as [ail, il], retain -lie. 

13. -inoy unstrest, pronounced [in]. General Rule : Omit 
a* Examples: determin, doctrin, engin, examin, genuin. 



26 PREFACE 

imagin, pristin, etc. When otherwise pronounced, as [aio, 
in], retain -ine. 

14. -ise, unstrest, pronounced [is]. General Rule : Omit e. 
ants, mortis, practis, premis, promts, treatis. 

15. -iae or -ise (from Greek), pronounced [aiz], suffix of 
verbs. General Rule : Choose -ise. Examples : cwiUse, 
criticize, exorcize, legalize, organize, etc. 

16. -ite, unstrest, pronounced [it]. General Rule : Omit e« 
Examples: apposit, definit, infinit, preterit, reqwisit, etc. 
When other^yise pronounced, as [ait, it], retain -lie. 

17. -ive, unstrest er with only subordinate stress, pro- 
nounced [iv, iv]. General Rule : Omit e. Examples : acHv, 
adjectiv, detectiv, executiv, motiv, nativ, progressiv, adjec- 
tivly, etc. 

18. -11 or -1 (-ill or -11). General Rule: Choose -L 
distil, fulfil, instil; like until, compel, impel, etc. 

19. -11- or -1- (-ill- or -il-, -uU- or -iil-)» before 
-f nl or -ness. General Rule : Choose -L skilful, wilful, 
dulness, fulness. 

20. -mb, with b silent. Restricted Rule : Omit b. crum, 
dum, lam, lim, num, thum. 

21. -mn, with n silent. Restricted Rule : Omit lu Au- 
tum, colum, sol em. 

22. oe, ce, or e, net final. General Rule : Choose e. 
Examples : ecumenical, esophagus, phenix, subpena, etc. ; like 
economy, solecism, etc. 

23. -onr or -op. General Rule : Choose -op. Examples : 
ardor, candor, clamor, color, favor, flavor, honor, humor, 
labor, rumor, tumor, valor, vigor, etc.; also, arbor, harbor, 
neighbor, etc. 

24. ph or f, pronounced [f]. Restricted Rule : Choose f. 
fantasm, fantasy, fantom, sulfate, sulfur; like fancy, frantic, 
frenzy, coffer, coffin, etc., which originally had ph. 

25. pb, pronounced [f]. General Rule : Use f. camfor, 
cifer; alfabet, diafram, pamflet ; autograf, bibliografy, biog- 
rafy, fonograf, fotograf, paragraf, telegraf, telefone. 

26. -PP or -p. General Rule : Choose -p. bur, pur; like 
cur, fur, blur, slur, spur, car, far, fir, stir, etc. 

27. -Pe or -ep, pronounced [ar]. General Rule : Choose 
-ep. Examples : accouter, center, fiber, meter, miter, niter, 
saltpeter, scepter, sepulcher, somber, specter, theater, etc.; 
like diameter, number, etc. 

28. ■ or « (in the root). Restricted Rule : Choose i. ap- 
prize, assize, comprize, enterprize, rase, surprise, teasel. (See 
also Rule 15.) 



PREFACE 27 

29. s medial, silent. Restricted Rule : Drop s. aile. He, 
ilet. Hand. 

30. ue, silent, after -s« Restricted Rule : Omit ne. cata^ 
log, decalog, demagog, pedagog, prolog, colleag, leag, harang, 
tung. 

31. Te, after -1 or -r, pronounced [v]. General Rule : 
Omit e« Examples : delv, shelv, twelv, selvs, carv, curv, nerv, 
serv, deserv, reserv, starv, etc. 

Clarzfied Spellzns* The current spelling may be clari- 
fied or made considerably clearer by the substitution of cer- 
tain letters of definit fonetic value for the ordinary letters 
closely resembling them or associated with them in the 
popular mind, wherever these ordinary letters, in the partic- 
ular context in which they occur, have the exact value of the 
fonetic letters. This mode of spelling reform has been in 
vogue for thousands of years. It has recently been used in 
English in the works of Dr. Francis A. March and others, 
bat in a crude and inaccurate manlier and to a very limited 
extent. It has been used in Italian with considerable accu- 
racy thruout the dictionaries and grammars of P. Petrocchi. 

In English ♦(g) may thus be substituted for (g), (gh) for 
(gh); (S) for (s), (Jh) for (sh); (3) for (z); (z) for (s) ; *(u)) 
for (w), (u)h) for (wh); (q) for (n) ; (n) for (n) ; (m) for 
(m); (IV (t) for (1); (r), (s), {z\ (5) for (r) ; *(o) for (u) ; 
♦d), (i), for (i); (3), *(e) for (e); (o), (c), *(e) for (0); 
(au), (oo) for (ou), (aw) for (ow); (ae), *(a), *(a), (a) 
for (a), etc. 

In the present volume only the letters here markt with a 
star (*) have been used in this way. Further clarification 
or at least simplification, has been effected, thruout this 
book, by always using (ff) for (ff), (ffi) for (ffi), (fi) for (fi), 
(ffl) for (ffl), (fl) for (fl), (oe) for (oe), except in certain 
words adopted from French, and (ae) for (a). 

To this extent clarified spelling has also been used thru- 
out this Preface, except in the table of the English gammakap 
and in certain other places where the exact current spellings 
of certain words have to be given" for illustrativ purposes. 
Oarxfied spelling is thus used net only because of its intrin- 



28 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

apprentice n.,v, [also spelt apprentis; as verb, past parti- 
ciple and preterit apprenticed, apprentisti a'psentis. 

apprenticeship n. s'psentiS-Sip* 

apprise v, impart knowledge to; inform [also spelt apprize} 
d'psaiz. 

apprize v, appraise, value [also spelt apprise} d'psaiz. 

appirobative adj, [also spelt approbativ} 'aepsa-betiv ; (er- 
ftoneously) a'psoo-ba-tiv. 

anprobatory adj. (sanctioning) 'aepsd-betd-^i. 

i^ppui V. support [also spelt appuy] d'ptuii. 

appnlse n. (approach) d'pAls, 'ae-pAls. 

appnrtenanoe n. belonging; apparatus [also, formerly, spelt 
appertenance} a'peztn-ans, a'perti-nans. 

appnrtenant adj., n. [also, formerly, spelt appertinentj 
a'poztn-ant, a'perti-nant. 

apricot n. 'ee-psi-ket, 'ee-psi-kat; 'aepsi-ket, 'aep3i-kat. 

a priori adv, (from the former; from cause to effect; from 
law to fact : the epposit of a posteriori) ee-p3ai'D:-rai, ee- 
p3i'o:-^ai, a:-p3i'o:-ri. 

apron n,' 'ee-psan, 'ee-parn. 

apropos adv. (to the purpose; opportunely) aepsa'poo, (an- 
teriorly) 'aep30-po. 

aps n. (white-poplar wood) seps. 

apse n. recess [also spelt aps; ploral apses} seps. 

aqua n. (water) 'aekiua, 'ee-kiua. 

aqnafortis n. (nitric acid) aeku}9'fe:?-tis, ee-kiu3'fe:?-tis. 

aqnaniarine n. (sea-green beryl) sekwama'^iin, ee-kiuama- 
'ziin. 

aqnapnnctnre n. 'aeka'a-pAqktSa?, 'ee-kiua-pAqktSa^. 

aqua regia n. sektus'zii-dsa, ee-ktD3'?ii-d33. • 

aquarelle n. (water-color painting) xkw^'zel. 

aqnarinni n. [ploral aquariums, aquaria} a'kiuei-ri-am. 

aquatint n. 'aektua-tint, 'ee-ku)3-tint. 

aqueduct n. (water-condit) 'sekiui-dAkt ; (improperly) 'aekiui- 
dAk. 

aqueous adj. (watery) 'ee-ku)i-Ds. 

aqniform adj. 'aekiui-fei^m, 'ee-kiui-ferrm. 

aquiline adj. of an eagle; hookt [also, sometimes, spelt aqui- 
lin} 'aeku3i-hn, 'aektui-lain. 

Arab «. 'aerab; (less properly) 'e:-?aeb, 'ee-raeb. 

arabesque adj., n. ae^a'besk, (anteriorly) 'aeza-besk. 

Arabic adj., n. 'ae?3-bik ; (erroneously) a'^aebik. 

arabin n. [also spelt arabine} 'ae^9-bin. 

j ye, Qcure; b the, ^/lin; 3 a-sure, ds/oy; S 5/ioe, tjc/iew; 
wwhen; T)sing; u whoever, i r^act, o fwll, ou fool, i tt, lis^^; 
o poetic ; a ov^r, e aerial, a but, o: door, oo no, e bed, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 29 

araclinida n., pi. (spiders, etc.) s'zaekNi-dd. 

araeostyle adj. s'^ii-s-staiL see areostyle. 

arbalist n. crossbow [also spelt arbalest} 'a:zr-b9-hst. 

arbitrable adj. 'a:?-bit£9-baL 

arbitrament ». decision [synonymous cognate arbitrefnentl 

az'bitja-mant. 
arbitrarily adv, 'aiz-hi-tieziAi; (in America, less properly) 

azhi'tiezi'h. 
arbitrement n. ar'bit£i-m3nt. same meaning as arbitrament, 
arbor n. (support, beam; axle* tree) 'aiz-h^z. 
arbor n. bower [also spelt arbour"] 'a:z-h9z. 
arboretum n. [ploral arboretums, arboreta] azba'^ii-tam. 
arboriculture n. (tree-culture) 'ai^-bazi-kAltSar. 
arborize v, [also spelt arborise] 'a:e-b3-?aiz. 
arbor-vitae n, (tree; arborescent part of the cerebellum) 

aizr-baz'vai-ti, a:^-b3^'vai-ti. 
arbutus n, (plant) a3'bjou-t3s, 'arzr-bjo-tas. 
arcanum n, [ploral arcana] ae'kee-nam; {improperly) az- 

'kaenam. 
aro-bontant n. a:z-bu'ter). 
arcb n. (curvd structure, etc.) ar^tS. 
arob adj, (chief, prime ; clever, crafty) ar^tS. 
arobaio adj. (old-fashiond) a?'kee-ik. 
arcbaism n. 'azke-izdm, 'a:7-ke-izam. 
arcbangel n. 'c.^k-een-dsal, aizk'een-dsal ; {erroneously) 

'ai^tS-een-dsal. 
arcbangelio adj. a:?k-aen'd3ehk. 
arcbbisbop n. airtS'biSap, {anteriorly, especially as a title) 

'a:?tS-biS9p. 
arobdeaoon n. a:7tS'dii-k3n. 
arobdnoby n. a:7tS'dAt$i. 
arobdnke n. airtS'djouk, {anteriorly, especially as a title) 

'a:?tS-djouk. 
arobed adj. [also, sometimes, spelt archt] aiztSt, {also, in 

poetry) 'artjid, 'ar^-tjid. 
arobegoninm n. [ploral archegonia] azki'goo-ni-am. 
arobeology n. science of antiquities [also spelt archaeology] 

a?ki'el3-d3i. 
arobetypal adj. 'arki-tai-p9l, a^'keti-pal. 
arcbetype «. 'azki-taip; {erroneously) 'artji-taip. 
arcbens n. vital force [also spelt archaeus; ploral archei] az- 

'kii-3s. 
arobidiaconal n. a^ki-di'seka-nl, a?ki-dai'sek3-nl. 

c: law, b: f wr, ae cat. e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the f«llowine syllable 



30 PREFACE 

value. It IS capable of producing considerable results for 
everybody. Any given individual is apt to find it of great 
value, both direct and indirect, to himself and to others. 

Clarification, as here described, consists of a scientifically 
simple set of universal rtiles applicable net only to English 
but to a multitude of other languages and dialects. Simpli- 
fied spelling, on the other hand, as usually carried en, con- 
sists of a complicated congeries of special rules applicable to 
one language only. In so far as it operates merely by omit'- 
ting useless letters, or choosing the lesser of two or more 
cacografic evils, it is negativ in method. It often changes 
the general form of words. On this account, and because the 
simplified forms are but rarely encounterd, and then only zn 
conventional surroundings, they are apt to be conspicuous, and 
the reader is often subjected to hindrances, distractions, and 
shocks. It almost always leaves the few words which zt af- 
fects at all in an inexact, pseudo-erthografic condition. It 
therefore teaches little or nothing. This fact is clear to 
many filelogists. Something of the sort is also dimly felt to 
be true by the public. Simplified spelling seems relativly 
superficial, and hardly capable of producing great results for 
anybody. No given individual is apt to consider it of any 
immediate value, en the whole, to himself or to others. 

Plionetzo Spelling. The current spelling may, as im- 
plied in the above paragrafs, be replaced by one or more 
systems of fonetic spelling, each system being adapted to cer- 
tain specific purposes. As remarkt, fonetic shorthand or 
fonegrafy has alredy replaced or supplemented the current 
spelling for reportorial and other purposes. Various systems 
of roman-letter fonetic spelling have alredy supplemented the 
current spelling in the respellings given in dictionaries. 

The fonetic alfabets of the recent past have certainly been 
makeshift affairs. They are usually devised for temporary or 
special purposes, for use in one particular book, or in only 
one language. The men who devise alfabets often seem to 
take a smug satisfaction in doing nothing more than what 
zs absolutely necessary. Alfabets such as those of Webster, 



PREFACE 31 

Lepsius, Ellzs, Pitman, Bell, and March are manifestly de- 
fectiv, clumsy, and incapable of development, and thus in- 
adequate for general use. 

The amplified form of the roman alfabet used in the re- 
spellzngs of the title-words thruout this dictionary has been 
undergoing a most remarkable development during the last 
quarter of a century. It is by far the most diversely used 
and highly perfected means as yet developt for indicating, 
simply and accurately, the pronunciation of all languages in 
any popular world-wide system. It will doutless undergo 
further modification of detail as time goes en, but the prin- 
ciples which have guided the selection of its letters from the 
alfabets of the world, its flexibility, and the extent and man- 
ner of its present use, bespeak its capacity for development 
and foretell its universality. It has alredy been applied to 
several hundred languages and dialects and is now in activ 
competition with local and old-fashiond systems of fonetic 
spelling, net only in dictionaries and grammars, and text- 
books en fonetics, but also in general literature. 

Behind the scenes of every-day life, in the laboratories of 
fxlelogists, the vocabularies and literatures of the languages 
arc being costumed anew. Thus freshly appareld in true 
cesmofenic style, they are issuing forth upon the world arena. 
The triple curtain of conservatism, ignorance, and patriotism, 
which hides them, is lifting. "Thru the perspectiv of clear 
wits they are looming both great and near." Their unmatcht 
power to reecho articulate speech, and thus to facilitate the 
communication of emotions and ideas, is becoming more and 
more apparent to the multitudes who are alredy using them. 
In due time, I fancy, their votaries will include all the peoples 
en the globe. 

Robert Morris Pierce 
1 019 Flatiron Bilding 

New York, September 20, jgio 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 33 

artlixitis n. (inflammation of a joint) ae'Osai-tis; (less prop- 
erly) azr'Gsii-tis. 

artliropoda n. pi. a^'Oseps-ds. 

artiad n. 'a^ti-sed, 'azti-dd. 

artifice n. [also spelt artifisl 'arti-fis. 

artificer n. [also spelt artifiser} ar'tifi-sae, 'arti-fisa^. 

artisan n. [also spelt artizani 'azti-zan, 'azti-zaen, azti'zatn. 

artiste n. (esthetic or artistic performer or artizan) azr'tiist. 

arum n. (plant) 'z:-z^m. 

Aryan adj., n, Indo-european [also spelt Arian] 'a:?-J3n, 'e:- 
?i-3n, 'aezri-on. 

aryballns n. vase [plural aryhalli\ sezi'bselss. 

aryteiioid arf/. (funnel-shaped) a'nti-neid, aezi'tii-neid. 

As n. one of the gods inhabiting Asgard [ploral Aesir} xs. 
conj., adv., pron. aez, (when unstrest) az, z, s. 
n, Roman copper coin [also, formerly, spelt asse, aas ; plor- 
al assesl xs. 

asafetida n. [also spelt asafoetida, assafoetidal xsd'feti-ds; 
{vulgarly) aesi'feti. 

asarabaoca n. plant [also spelt asardbaca'i sesazrd'baeks. 

asbestos n. fibrous hornblend, etc.; amiant [synonymous 
cognate ashestus^ aes'bestas, aes'bes-tes. 

asbestns n. aes'bestds. same meaning as asbestos. 

ascendance n. [also spelt ascendencel a'senddns. 

ascendancy n. [also spelt ascendency} s'sendan-si. 

ascendant adj., n. [also spelt ascendent} d'sendant. 

ascertain v. make certain ; find out [past participle and pret- 
erit ascertained, ascertaindl aesar'teen. 

ascetery n. dwelling-place of ascetics [ploral asceteriesi 
3'set3-2i. 

ascetic adj. (abstinent; strict) a'setik. 

ascetic n. (one who practises self-disciplin by celibacy, fast- 
ing, or toil) a'setik. 

asci n. (ploral of ascus) 'ae-sai. 

ascian n. (shadowless person : that is, an inhabitant of the 
tropics) 'aejan. 

ascigerons adj. (bearing asci) s'sidss-^ds. 

ascitan adj, (heretic of the second century) a'sai-tan, 'aesi- 
tan. 

ascites n. (dropsy of the belly) a'sai-tiz. 

ascitic adj. (of ascites, dropsical) a'sitik. 

Asclepiad n. (verse) aes'ktii-pi-aed, aes'ktii-pi-ad. 

ascns n. spore-case [ploral ascil 'aeskas. 

» 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, e hot, ei boy; a: far, go now, a: osk, ai kite; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



34 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

aseity n, (self-existence) ae'sii-i-ti, e'sii-i-ti. 

asexual adj, (not sexual; neuter) 9'sek$u-3l, d'seksgu-di. 

ash n. residue of burning [ploral ashesl £$. 

asliamedly adv. d'See-mi-dh. 

ashamedness n. d'Seem-dnis, o'See-mi-dnis. 

asliler n. hewn stone [also spelt ashlarl 'x$l37. 

Asian adj, (of Asia) 'ce-Jan, 'ee-son ; (less properly) 'ce-Ji-an, 

'ee-3i-3n, 'ee-si-an. 
Asiatic adj., n. ee-Si'stik, ee-3i'aetik. 
asinine adj. (of an ass) 'aesi-nain, 'aesi-nin. 
ask V. a:sk, a:sk, aeisk. 
ask n. (newt) a:sk, a:sk, se:sk. 
askance adv, (sidewise) d'skams, 9'ska:ns, d'skaems;' (also) 

d'skaints, etc. 
asked v, [past participle and preterit of ask ; also spelt asktl 

a:skt, (popularly, rapidly) a:st. 
asp n. (serpent) a:sp, a:sp, se:sp. 
asparagus n. plant [vulgar synonymous cognate sparrow- 

grassi a'spaera-gas. 
aspect n. (look; appearance) 's-spekt. 
aspect V, (obsolete) s'spekt. 
aspen adj., n. 'xspan, 'a:-sp3n. 
asperges n. (antiphon) o'spB^-dsiz, s'spsiz-d^iz, 
asperse v. bespatter; slander [past participle and preterit 

aspersed, aspersti s'speizs. 
aspkalt n. 'i^s-faelt, aes'faeh, 'aes-fclt; (vulgarly) 'aeS-fdt. 
asphalt V. xs'faelt, 'xs-fxlt. 
asphaltnni n. xs'faeltdm. 
asphodel n. (plant) 'aesfs-del. 
asphyxia n. (absence of pulse, etc.) ses'fiksi-s. 
aspirant n. (one who aspires) s'spai-rsnt, 'ssps-zsnt; (also, 

often) d'spaid-zsnt. 
aspirate v, (give the h-sound to) 'xsp3-?et. 

pirate adj., n. 'aespa-rat, (rapidly) 'aesp33t. 
n. (quadruped; fool) a:s, a:s, ae:s. 
assagai n. spear [synonymous cognate assegai} 'ssd-gai, sss- 

'gai; (improperly) 'aesa-ge, a'see-gi. 
assai adv, (very) a'sai. 

assay n., v. attempt [as verb, past participle and preterit as- 
sayed, assayd"] a'see. 
assertion n. o'sBzS^n, a'sBiz-Ssn. 
assess v. fix the amount of; tax; fine [past participle and 

preterit assessed, assest"] a'ses. 

j ye, Q cure ; 5 the, G thin ; 3 a-srure, ds joy ; I shoe, tj chew ; 
wwhen; r]sing; u whoever, i react, o fwll, ou fool, i f t, lisee; 
o poetic ; 3 over, e aerial, a bttt, o: door, oo no, e bed, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 35 

asset n. (resource) 'ae-set, 'aesit; (erroneously) a'set. 

Assidean n. Chasidean [also spelt Assidaean, Asidaean, 
Assidian\ aesi'dii-an. 

assiduity n. diligence [plural assiduities} aesi'djou-i-ti. 

assidnons adj. (attentiv) s'sidsu-as. 

assign V, allot, appoint; point out; ascribe [past participle 
and preterit assigned, assigndl a'sain. 

assignable adj. s'sai-ns-bdl. 

assisnat n. (note) 'aesig-nset, asin'ja: . 

assisnation n. (apportionment, etc.) ssig'nee-Sdn. 

assignee n. (one to whom a right is assigned; assign) aesi- 
'mi; {improperly) a'sai-ni. 

assigner n. (one who assigns or apportions) d'sai-ns?. 

assignor n. (one who assigns, or formally transfers, to an- 
other, a right or property) aesi'neir; (improperly) a'sai-ne?. 

assiser n. juryman [also spelt assizor, assisor, assiserl s'sai- 

associate n., adj. a'soo-Ji-at ; (less properly) a'soo-si-at. 

associate v, a'soo-Si-et ; (less properly) a'soo-si-et. 

association n. s-soSi'ee-Ssn, 3-sosi'ee-$3n. 

assonant adj. (corresponding in vowel-sound) 'aess-nant. 

assnmption adj. d'sAmp^an, d'sAm^sn. 

asterisk n. (star) 'aesta-?isk; (improperly) 'aesta-rik. 

astlienia n. (debility) aes'Oii-ni-3, aes6i'nai-3. 

astluna n. (labored breathing, etc.) 'aezmd, 'ssMd, 'aestM3, 
'aesOMd. 

astlunatic adj. aez'maetik, aes'msetik, aest'maetik, aesO'maetik. 

astigmatism n. (defect of the eye) s'stigmd-tizsm. 

astrakhan n. (fur) 'sest^s-ksn, 'aest^a-kaen, aestss'kaen. 

astnte adj. (crafty) s'stgout; (dialectally) a'stout. 

asyluni n. [plural asylums; also, in the sense of a sanctuary 
or refuge, asylal a'sai-lam. 

asymptote n. (line which approaches a curve indefinitly) 
'aesim-tot. 

at prep, aet, (when unstrest) 3t. 

atavic adj. (of atavism) a'taevik. 

atavisni n. (reversion to ancestral form) 'aeta-vizam. 

ataxia n. (lack of coordination of bodily movements) d'txk- 
si-9. 

ataxy n. (ataxia) s'taeksi, 'aetdk-si. 

ate V. preterit of eat [dialectal synonymous cognate eatl 
cet, (when unstrest) et; (also, normally in Britain, except- 
ing Ireland, hut in America vulgarly or locally) ct, (in 

c: law, a: f wr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



36 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

Ireland) lit, {when unstrest) it; (formerly) art, e:t, e:t, 
i:t. 

Atlianasian adj, aeOd'nee-Ssn, aeOd'nee-ssn. 

athaiUMy n. (deathlessness, immortality) d'Oxns-si. 

Athenenin n. [also spelt Athenaeuni] aeOi'mi-sm; {errone- 
ously) 3'0ii-ni-3m. 

Athei^an adj. (of Athens) d'Oii-ni-sn. 

atUete n, 'aeG-lit; {improperly) 'aeO^-lit. 

atUetic adj.,n. aeO'letik; {improperly) aeOa'letik. 

Atlantean adj. of Atlas; of Atlantis [also, sometimes, spelt 
AtlantianJ xtlaenti-sn, aetz^aen'tii-sn. 

atoll n. (ring-shaped coral island) a'tel, '»-tel; {less prop- 
erly) 'ee-te!. 

atom n. (indivisible particle) 'aetsm. 

atomic adj, (of atoms; atom-like) a'temik. 

atrinm n. court; hall [plural atrial 'ee-t£i-9m. 

atropine n. [also, sometimes, spelt atropini 'aetja-pin, 'atja- 
pain. 

attach^ n. (one attacht) sts'See, aetae'^ee. 

attacked v. [also spelt attacktl s'taekt; {vulgarly) d'taektid. 

attar n. perfume [also spelt atar; synonymous cegnate ottar, 
ottol 'aet3?. 

attention n. d'ten^sn. 

attitndinixe v, pose [also spelt attitudinisel seti'tgou-dn-aiz. 

attorney n, o'terni; {dialectally or vulgarly) a'teizr-ni. 

attracter n. [also spelt attractorl d'tssektd?. 

attribute n. (characteristic) 'aet£i-bjut. 

attribute v. (assign; refer) a'tjibjot. 

anbergist n. innkeeper [also spelt aubergistel 'ci-bazr-dsist. 

anotion n. 'cik-San; {dialectally) 'ekjan. 

andacions adj, (bold) c'dee-Sas; {improperly) c'daeSas. 

audible adj, (capable of being heard) 'od^-hsl. 

audience n. 'c:-di-3ns; {vulgarly) 'ci-dsans. 

au fait adj. (up to the mark ; expert) o'f ee. 

Augean adj. (of Augeus) c'dsii-an; {erroneously) 'ci-dsi-an. 

auger n. (boring-tool) 'oga?. 

auglit ft. anything [also spelt oughtl c:t. 

aug^ment v, (increase) cg'ment. 

aug^ment n, (prefixt vowel) 'c:g-mdnt. 

aug:mentative adj,, n. [also spelt augmentativl cg'mentd-tiv. 

augur M. (interpreter of auspises or signs) 'cr-gar. 

augur v, divine, forbode, anticipate; betoken [past participle 
and preterit augured"] 'ci-gar. 

] ye, Qcure; hthe, 6 f/iin; ja^ure, dj?/oy; I shoe, tScfiew; 
U) wAen; rj singr; u whoever, i r^act, o full, ou ioo\, i »t, li see; 
poetic; 3 ov^r, e aerial, Abwt, o: door, oono, ebed, cegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 37 

ansnral adj, 'c:-g)o-z^l. 

ansnst adj. (majestic) c'gAst. 

Ansnst n. (month) 'c:-g3st. 

Ansnstan adj. (of Augustus; of Augsburg) c'gAstdn. 

Angustin n., adj. [also spelt Augustine^ c'gAstin, 'c:-g9-stin. 

anmbry n. 'c.m-hzi. same meaning as ambry. 

annt n. (sister of one's father or mother) a:nt, a:nt, aeint; 

(anteriorly, as a title) ant, ant, aent. 
aunty n. [also spelt auntiel 'a:n-ti, 'a:n-ti, 'ae:n-ti. 
aureola n. (celestial crown ; aureole) c'^ii-a-la ; (erroneously) 

C3i'00-l3. 

aureole n. (celestial crown ; aureola ; gold disk ; halo) V.-^i- 

ol. 
an revoir inter j. (until we meet again !) o^a'vwe:?, oea'vwc:?, 

ora'vwa:^. 
anrist n. (ear-specialist) 'c:-eist. 
anroolis n. (wild ox) 'c:-eeks, 'ao-eeks. 
anrora borealis n. (northern lights) c'zoi-z^-hozVeeAis, 

c^zoi-zs-hozVai-hs. 
anspioe n. omen [also spelt auspisl 'c:-spis. 
Anstralasian adj. ostss^ee-Ssn, c:-st£9'lee-33n. 
antlior n. [also, formerly, spelt authourli 'c:-633. 
anthoress n. [also, formerly, spelt authouressl 'c:-03-?is. 
anthorize v. [also spelt authorise} 'c-d^-zaiz. 
antobiograplier n. [also spelt autobiograferl c:-t9-bai'eg?3- 

i^z; (less properly) ci-t^hi'egz^-i^z. 
antobiog^aphy n. [also spelt autobiografyl c:-t3-bai'egr3-f i ; 

(less properly) ci-tabi'egza-fi. 
antoclitlion n. aboriginal [ploral autochthons, autochthones} 

c'tekGan, a'tek-9on. 
antoclitliones n. (ploral of autochthon) c'tekOd-niz. 
antooraoy n. self-rule [ploral autocracies! c'tek^a-si. 
anto-da-f^ n. act of faith : judicial act or sentence of the 

Inquisition [also spelt auto da fe, auto da fe, auto-de-fe, 

auto de fe; ploral autos-da-fe} ci-to-da'fee, ao-to-da'fee. 
antog^aph n. [also spelt autograf} 'c:-td-g?a:f. 
antomaton n. self-mover [ploral automata, automatons} 

c'tema-ten, c'tema-tan. 
antomobile n, c:-t3-mo'biil, cta'moo-bil, cta'moo-bil, 'c:-t3- 

mo-bil. 
antopsy n. (a seeing for one's self; post-mortem) 'c:-tepsi, 

c'tepsi. 
antnnin n. fall [also spelt autum} 'c:-t9m. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
strcss-mork (') indicates chief stress on the fellowinfij syllable 



38 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

auxiliary adj., n, (assistant) cg'ziH-s-zi, cg'ziU-e^i. 

avalanolie n. (descent or slide of snow; land-slide) 'aevd* 
la:ntS, 'av3-la:ntS, 'aeva-te:ntS, 'ava-laentj; (also, especially 
in Britain) 'aeva-lamS, 'av3-la:nS, 'aeva-temS, 'aeva-laenj; 
(rarely) avals: nS. 

avant-snarde n. (vangard) 9-ver)'ga:zd, s'veq-garzd. 

avarice n. cupidity [also spelt avarisj 'aevs-zis. 

avatar n. (descent of a deity to earth; manifestation as a 
power) ava'tare, 'ava-tae. 

avannt inter j. (move on ! be off !) a'vcint, a'vaint, a'vaint. 

avellan adj, of the filbert [synonymous cognate avellanel 
a'velan, 'aeva-lan. 

Ave Maria n. Hail Mary, a prayer [synonymous cognate 
Ave MaryJ ce-vi-ma'rii-a, ai-vi-ma'eii-a. 

aventail n. flap of a helmet [also spelt aventayle, aventaile} 
'aevan-tel. 

aventnrin n. glass; quartz [also spelt aventurine"] d'ven- 
tSa-7in. 

avenne «. (way) 'avi-njo; (vugarly) 'aevi-nja, 'aeva-no. 

aver n. obsolete (possession; beast of burden) 'ee-va?. 

aver v. justify a plea; assert as a fact [past participle and 
preterit averred, averdl a've:?. 

aversion n. (turning away; antipathy) a'vorSan, a'vor^-san. 

Aves n,pl, (birds) 'ee-viz. 

aviary n. bird-house [ploral aviariesi 'ee-vi-eei, 'ee-vi-a-zi. 

avicultnre n. (rearing of birds) 'aevi-kAltSa?, 'ee-vi-kAltgar. 

aviform adj. (bird-shaped) 'ce-vi-f©:em. 

aviso ft. advice [ploral avisos'! a'vai-za. 

avoirdnpois n. (system of weight) avarda'peiz; (improper- 
ly) aeva^da'pei. 

avoset n. bird [also spelt avocetl 'aeva-set. 

awakening; n. a'week-nig. 

awe V. inspire with dread; daunt [past participle and prete- 
rit awed, awdl c: . 

awfnl adj. [also, rarely, spelt aweful"] 'c:-fa!. 

aw^nl adv. 'c:-fal, (when less strest) 'cfDl. 

aw^nlly adv. 'c:-fa-li, (also, rapidly, in the sense of dread- 
fully, very much, very) 'cr-fti, (when less strest) 'cfLi. 
adv., adj. (askew) aVai. 
n. cutting-tool [also spelt axe; ploral axes} aks. 
n. (ploral of ax) 'aeksiz. 

axes n. (ploral of axis) 'xk-siz. 

axial adj. (forming an axis; of an axis) 'aeksi-a!. 

j ye. gcure; bthe, Qth'm; 3 a-?ure, ds/oy; ^ shoe, tJcAew; 
U) when; 13 sin^r; u whoever, 1 r^act, o full, ou fool, i it, li see; 
o poetic ; a ov^r, e aerial, a hut, 0: door, 00 no, e Wd, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 39 

:il n. (in botany, angle) 'aeksil. 

adj. of the axis [also, sometimes, spelt axill 'sksil, 

'sek-sail. 
axilla n. armpit [ploral axillael sek'sild. 
axillary adj, (of the axilla or armpit; of the axil) 'aeksi-le?i; 

{improperly) aek'sila-n. 
axiom n. (conceded proposition; maxim) 'seksi-dm; {less 

properly) 'aeksQam, 'aekjam. 
axiomatic adj, aeksi-d'maetik. 

n. straight line about which a body rotates; axle; cen- 
tral line; stem [ploral axes'\ 'aeksis. 

colotl n. (amphibian) 'aeksa-letl. 
ay adv. ever, always [also spelt ayel ee. 
ay inter j. ah ! O ! alas ! [also, formerly, spelt aye, eighl ee. 
aye adv., interj,, n. yes, yea [also spelt ayl ai. 
aye-aye n. (sloth) 'ai-ai. 
asalea n. [ploral asaleasl s'zee-H-d, d'zee-lia. 
azimuth n. (arc, etc.) 'aezi-msO. 
azimuthal adj. 'aezi-mjuOal ; {also, less properly) 'aezima-Gal, 

{anteriorly) 'aezi-maGal. 
axobenzol n. aezo'ben-zol. 

asote n. (nitrogen) a'zoot, 'ae-zot; {less properly) 'ee-zot. 
asotize v. [also spelt azotise'\ 'aez3-taiz. 

adj,, n. (sky-blue ; sky) 'aesa^, 'ee-33^. 
n. unleavend bread [synonymous cognate azymel 



'aezim. 



azyme n. 'sezim, 'ae-zaim. same meaning as asym. 



baa V. (cry or bleat as a sheep) ba: . 

Baalism n. (worship of Baal) 'bee-s-hzsm. 

babiroussa n. hornd hog [also spelt babirussa, babyroussa, 
babyrussd"] baebi'rou-sa, babi'^ou-sa. 

baccalaureate adj. (of a bachelor) hxk^'lci-zi-ot. 

baccara n. card-game [also spelt baccarat'l bsekd'^a: . 

baccarat n. bxkd'^a: ; {erroneously) 'baeka-^aet. same mean- 
ing as baccara. 

baccb aualian . adj. (of Bacchus ; riotous ; bacchanal) baeko- 
'nce-li-3n. 

baccbant adj., n. Isaeksnt. 

baccbante n. priestess of Bacchus ; female bacchant [plor- 
al bacchantesl ba'kaint, 'baekant, ba'kaenti. 



c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stresa-mork (0 indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



40 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

baoohantes n. (ploral of bacchante) balcxn-tiz, 'bsekants. 

baooiform adj. (berry-shaped) ^hxksi'feizm. 

bachelor n. ^xt^iA^z; (erroneously) 'hxtl^l-dsz, 

baoillary adj. (of bacilli; rodlike) ^hxsiAezi. 

bacilli n. (ploral of bacillus) bs'si-lai, bs'silai. 

bacillus n. [ploral bacillQ bs'silss; (erroneously) ^hxsiAss, 

backbone n. baek'boon, 'bxk-boon. 

backgammon n., v. 'bsek-gxmsn, bxk'gxmdn. 

backhouse n. (privy) 'baek-haos, 'bxk-aos. 

backsheesh n. see bakshish. 

backslide v. 'baek-sz.aid, bsek'sz^aid. 

backslider n. 'baek-sLai-dss:, baek'sz.ai-dd?. 

backstairs adj. (intriguing) 'baek-stei^z. 

backstairs n. hsek'steizz, 'bsek-ste:?z. 

bacteria n. (ploral of bacterium) bxk'tir-zi-d. 

bacterium n. [ploral bacterial bxk'ti:-?i-3m. 

bad adj., n. (evil) baed, (often, when more strest) bse:d. 

bad V. [preterit of bid; also spelt badel bsed. 

bade v. bad; (erroneously) beed. see bad. 

badinage n. (banter) 'baedn-ids, 'baedi-nids, bxdi'na:3. 

bagatelle n. (trifle) baega'tel; (less properly) 'baega-tel. 

baggage n. (bags, trunks, etc.; luggage) 'bsegids. 

bag^nio n. (bath, etc.) 'bainjo; (erroneously) 'baegni-o. 

baguet n. molding [also spelt baguette"} bae'get. 

bah inter j. (expressing contempt, etc.) ba: • 

baignoire n. box in a theater [also spelt baignoir'] bd'nwe:?, 
'bee-nwe:?. 

bail^ n. hoop, ring, basket-handle [sometimes improperly 
spelt balel beel. 

bail' n. outer fortification or wall [also spelt baylel beel. 

bail* V. remove (water) ; free (a boat) from water with a 
bucket or basin [also, less properly, spelt bale; past partici- 
ple and preterit bailed, baild"] beel. 

bailer^ n. one who delivers goods to another in bailment 
[also, sometimes, spelt bailor"] 'bee-lar. 

bailer' n. one who bails out water; vessel used for bailing 
[also spelt baler] 'bee-la?. 

bailiery n. bailie's jurisdiction [also spelt bailiary and, for- 
merly, bailliery, bailliary, baillerie] 'bee-li-esri, 'bee-li-a-jri, 
'bee-h-ei. 

bailiff n. (officer; overseer) 'bee-lif. 

bailixvick n. (precinct of a bailiff) 'bee-h-wik. 

bailor n. (law) heeVeiz, same meaning as bailer.^ 

j 3'e, Qcure; d */ie, Qthin; 3 a^rure, ds/oy; j ^/ioe, tSc/iew; 
ti3 when ; q sin^r ; u whoever, i react, o full, ou tool, i tt, li see ; 
poetic; dov^r, e aerial, Abut, o:door, oonoi eb^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 41 



Bairam. n. festival [also spelt Beiram'] bai'za:m, 'bai-?3m. 
baize n. (woolen fabric) beez. 

bajocoo n. coin [also spelt baiocco; ploral bajocchQ bd'jeko. 
bakshish n. tip, fee [also spelt bakhshish, baksheesh, back' 

sheesh, backshish^ 'baek-SiJ. 
balance-sheet n. 'baelanS-Siit. 
balas n. ruby [also spelt balass"] 'bxlss, bse'lses. 
balcony n. 'baelka-ni; (formerly) baerkoo-ni. 
baldachin n. canopy [also spelt baldaquini 'bxldd-kin. 
balderdash n. (senseless prate) 'bc:}-d3r-dx$. 
bald-headed adj. [also spelt bald-heded'\ bcild'hedid, (as- 

sumptivly) 'bc.ld-hedid. 
bale^ n. see bail} 
bale^ V. see bail^ 
balister n. {obsolete) crossbowman [synonymous cognate 

balesterl bae'hstaz:, 'bseh-staz:. 
balister n. (obsolete) arbalist, crossbow [also spelt ballisterl 

baelistar, 'baeh-sta^. 
balize n. beacon [also spelt balisel ba'hiz. 
balk n. ridge ; blunder ; beam [also spelt baulkl bc:k. 
balk V. hinder; stop short [also spelt baulk; past participle 

and preterit balked, balkt'l bc:k. 
ball n. (sphere, globe, etc.) bc:l. 
ballad n. (song; poem) 'bselsd. 
ballade n. (poem in stanzas, etc.) bx'}a:d. 
ballast n. (weight, etc. : road-metal) "baelsst. 
ballet n. (dance) nbae-le, 'baele, bae'lee, 'baeht. 
ballet n. obsolete (little ball) 'baeht. 
ballista n. military engin [also spelt balista ; ploral ballis- 

tae, ballistas"] bae'hsta. 
ballister n. obsolete [also spelt balisterl 'baeh-stae. same 

meaning as baluster. 
balloon n. (inflated ball, etc.) bs'loun. 
ballot n. (voting-ball; voting-paper) 'baelat. 
ballotade n. leap of a horse [also spelt ballottade, balotade'\ 

baela'teed, baeb'tard. 
balm n. (aromatic substance) ba:m; (dialectally, vulgarly) 

bse:m. 
Balmoral n. (cap; boot) bael'me^al; (less properly) bael'mo:- 

balsani n. (balm, etc. ; plant) nDcrl-sdm. 

balsamic adj., n, bcl'saemik, bacl'saemik ; (improperly) 'bc:l- 
s9-mik. 

c: low, b: f«r, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



42 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

baluster n. small column; bolster [also spelt balluster; for- 
mer synonymous cognates hallister, balister'\ 'bala-sta?. 

balustrade n. bxld'stseed. 

bambino n. baby; Child Jesus [ploral bambini'l bxm'bii-no. 

bamboo n. (grass; cane) baem'bou, (anteriorly, often) 'baem- 
bu. 

ban n. [ploral bans and, in the sense of a proclamation of 
an intended marriage in a church, often also bannsl baen. 

banal adj. of a ban ; commonplace [also, formerly, spelt 
bannall 'baenal, 'bee-nal. 

banality n. bs'nseli-ti. 

banana n. (tree; fruit) ba'naena, ba'nai-na; (rarely) ba'nee- 
ns. 

bandana n. handkerchief [also spelt bandanna"] bsen'dsen^. 

bandbox n. 'baend-boks, 'bsen-beks. 

banderillero n. (bull-fighter) hxnd^ziVjc:-zo. 

banderol n. 'baendi-??}. same meaning as banderole. 

banderole n. small flag; band [synonymous cognates bande- 
rol, bandrol, bannerol"] 'baendi-eol. 

bandit n. brigand [plural bandits, banditti] 'bxndit. 

banditti n. (ploral of bandit) baen'diti. 

bandoleer n. belt; powder-case [also spelt bandolier and, 
formerly, bandolier; former synonymous cognates bandileer, 
bandelier] baenda'h:^. 

bandoline n. substance [also spelt bandolin] 'bxndd-lin. 

bandrol n. 'bsendrdl. same meaning as banderole. 

bandy-legged adj. 'baendi-legid, 'baendi-legd. 

banian n. 'baenjsn. same meaning as banyan. 

banister n. small column; baluster [also spelt bannister] 
'baeni-sta?. 

bankruptcy n. 'baeq-k^Apsi, 'baeqk^ap-si. 

banned adj. curst; prohibited [also spelt band] baend. 

banneret n. little banner, banderole [also spelt bannerette] 
baena'^et. 

banneret n, (bannerd knight) 'baena-^at. 

bannerol n. banderole, especially in the sense of a sculp- 
tured band adapted to receive an inscription, and also in 
the sense of a small banner or flag used in England over 
tombs [sometimes erroneously spelt banner-roll, banneral] 
Hbaena-^ol, 'baena-ral. 

bannister n. see banister. 

banns n. pi. see under ban. 

banquet n. (feast) 'baerjkiuit;. (less properly) 'baen-kujit. 

] ye, Qcure; ^the, */iin; 3 a<j:ure, d.s/oy; \ shot, tjc/iew; 
wwhen', r)s\ng', u whoever, 1 r^act, o fwll, ou fool, i tt, i\see\ 
o poetic ; o ov^r, e oerial, a bwt, o: door, oo no, e b^d, ce gote ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 43 

banquette n. (raised way, bank, bench, sidewalk) baeg'ket, 

beq'ket. 
banshee n. (female fairy) baen'Jii, 'baen-Sii. 
banyan n. tree [also spelt banian} 'baenjsn; (less properly) 

'baeni-an, baen'jaen. 
baobab n. (tree) 'bee-a-baeb. 
baptism n. 'baep-tizam, 'baep-tizra. 

baptismal adj. baep'tizmal ; (less properly) 'baep-tizmal. 
baptistery n. 'bseptists-zi. same meaning as baptistry. 
baptistry n. [synonymous cognate baptistery"] 'baepti-stji. 
baptize n. [also spelt baptise} baep'taiz, 'baep-taiz. 
barbarization n. [also spelt barbarisation} bazbd^i^zee-^an, 

ba^ba-^ai'zee-San. 
barbarize v. [also spelt barbarise} ^haiz-h^-zaiz. 
barbarous adj. (foreign; rude) 'ha:z-b^-z3s, ^baiz-hz^s, 
Barbary adj. (barbarian, of the northern coast of Africa) 

'ha.z-hs-zit {often, assumptivly) %a:z-hzi. 
barbecue n. gridiron [synonymous cognate barbacue} 'ba:?- 

bi-kgu. 
barberry n. shrub; fruit [synonymous cognate berberry} 

lyaiz-hczi, ^haiz-h^-zi, 'ba:z:-b3?i, 'ba:z-hzi. 
barbery n. rare (the barber's art; shaving) ^a-.z-h^-zi. 
barcarole n. boatman; song [also spelt barcarolle} 'ba^ks- 

zol. 
barefacedness n. 'be:z-feest-nis. 
barege n. (gause-like fabric) baVees. 
baregin n. gelatinous substance [also spelt baregine} bd'ree- 

3in. 
bargain n., v. [as verb, past participle and preterit bargain- 

ed, bargaind} 'ba:?-gin ; (dialectally) 'baiz-gan. 
barghest n. goblin [also spelt barguest, bargest} 'ba:?-gest. 
baric adj. (of barium) 'baerik, 'be:-?ik. 
baric adj. (of weight; barometric) 'bae^ik. 
baring n. (action of laying bare; surface detritus) 'ber-eiq. 
barite n. (nativ barium sulfate; barytes) 'bei-zait. 
baritone n. see barytone, 
barium n. (metallic element) 'be:-?i-3m. 
bark n. vessel [also spelt barque} ba:rk. 
barkantine n. [also spelt barkentine, barquantine, barquen- 

tine} 'barkan-tin. 
barley n. (grain) ^a:z-h, 
baroco n. [also spelt barocco} ba'roo-ko. same meaning as 

baroque. 

c: lau', b: f Mr, ae cat, © hot, ©i hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



44 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

baroko n. mood of syllogism [also spelt barocol ba'^oo-ko. 

barometer n. (instrument for measuring atmospheric pres- 
sure) ba'eemi-tar. 

baron n. (nobleman) 'bse^sn. 

baroque adj. odd [synonymous cognate harocol ba'rook. 

barouclie n. (carriage) h^'zoul. 

barozyton n. (musical instrument) bae'^eksi-ten. * 

barrator n. fraudulent barterer, etc. [also spelt barrater 
and, in the sense of an encourager of litigation, barretor} 
iMera-ta?. 

barrel n. (cask, etc.) 'bsezs}. 

barrel v. [present participle barreling, barrelling; past par- 
ticiple and preterit barreled, barrelled, barreld"] 'bae^al. 

barren adj. (steril) 'hxz^n. 

barretor n. 'bae^i-tar. see under barrator. 

barricade n., v. baeri'keed. 

barring prep, (excepting) 'ba:-rir). 

barrow n. (stretcher; wheelbarrow) 'bae?D; (dialectally) 

barml6e adj. Ixerolee; (improperly) bae^jolee. same mean- 
ing as barruly. 

barmlet n. little bar [also spelt barrulettel iDaero-lat; (im- 
properly) 'baerjo-lat. 

barrnly adj. in heraldry, divided into little bars [synony- 
mous cognate barruleel 'bae^o-h, (improperly) 'bae?jo-h. 

bars-gemel n.pl. (in heraldry, two bars near together) 
'bar^z-dsemal. 

bartizan n. (turret) 'barti-zan, ba^ti'zaen. 

baryecoia n. (deafness) hxzi-i'kei-^. 

barsrta n. (barium oxide) ba'^ai-ta. 

barytes n. (barite ; heavy-spar) ba'^ai-tiz. 

barytone adj., n. [also spelt baritonel 'baez'i-ton. 

basal adj. (of the base ; fundamental) 'bee-sdh 

basale n. basal part [ploral basalia"] bd'see-h. 

basalt n. (volcanic rock) ba'scilt, 'bae-sclt; (improperly) ba- 
'zc:lt, 'bce-sc:U. 

basan n. sheepskin [also spelt basan ; synonymous cognate 
basane"] 'baezan. 

basane n. bs'zeen. same meaning as basan. 

bas-blen n. (bluestocking) ba'ble: . 

base n., adj. [also, in music, spelt bass"] bees, see under bass. 

bases n. (ploral of basis) 'bee-siz. 

bases n. (ploral of base) 'bee-siz. 

j ye, g cure ; 5 the, th\n\^ 3 a<&ure, d?? ;oy ; S shoe, tS chew ; 
wwhen; qsingr; u whoever, i r^act, o fwll, ou fool, i it, lis^^; 
o poetic ; 9 ov^r, e aerial, a but, o: door, oo no, e b^d, ee gote ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 45 

liasl&air n. (pasha ; grandee) bd'^c: . 

Iiashi-basouk n. (Turkish soldier) baeji-bd'zouk. 

Iiasial adj, (of a kiss) 'bee-zi-si. 

basic adj, (of a base; basal) 'bee-sik. 

basil n. (plant) 'baezil. 

basil n. sheepskin [also spelt bazilj 'bsezil. 

basilar adj. (of the base of the skull, etc.) ^hxsi-l^z, (as- 

sumptivly) 'baesilar ; {less properly) 'baezi-la?. 
basilary adj. (basilar) 'baesi-le^i; (less properly) 'baezi-le?i. 
basilica n. royal palace ; oblong church [ploral basilicas and, 

rarely, basilicae} ba'sih-ka; {less properly) ba'zih-ka. 
basilisk n. (fabulous reptil) 'baesi-hsk, 'baezi-hsk. 
basin n. [also, formerly, sometimes spelt basonl 'bee-ssn, 

liee-sn; {dialectally) 'bee-sin. 
basinet n. steel headpiece or cap [synonymous cognate bas- 

netl 'baesi-nit. 
basion n. (middle point of the anterior margin of the fora- 
men magnum of the cranium) 'bee-si-an. 
basipital adj. (directed toward the base) be'sipi-ti. 
basis n. base; foundation [ploral basesi 'bee-sis. 
bask V. bathe, etc. [past participle and preterit basked, baskt] 

ba:sk, ba:sk, bae:sk. 
basket n. 'ba:-skit, HDOskit, 'bx:-skit, 'bseskit. 
basnet n. HbaesNit. same meaning as basinet. 
Basque n. nativ of Biscay; language [also spelt Baskl ba:sk, 

ba:sk, bae:sk. 
basque n. (skirt; jacket) ba:sk, ba:sk, bx:sk. 
bas-relief n, low relief [synonymous cognate bass-relief^ 

ba:-?i'hif, ba:s-2i'hif ; {less properly) 'ba:-^i-hif. 
bass n. fish [also spelt basse'\ ba:s, ba:s, b^:s. 
bass n. (linden, lime-tree) ba:s, ba:s, b£:s. 
bass adj. in music, low, deep, grave [originally and quite as 

properly, but now rarely, spelt base'\ bees. 
bass n. low part; base voice; base clef [more rarely, but 

quite as properly, spelt base'i bees. 
basset n. (card-game) 'bsesit, bx'set. 
basset n., adj., v, (outcrop) 'bxsit. 
basset n. (dog) 'baesit. 
bassinet n. (plant) 'baesi-net. 
bassinet n. hooded basket used as a cradle [also spelt bassi- 

nettel baesi'net, 'bsesi-net. 
basso adj., n. (in music, base) 'ba:-so. 
bassoon n. (musical instrument) bae'soun, bd'soun. 

c: law, b: iur, a cot, o hot, oi hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



46 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

■ 

basso-relieTO n. ba^so-^ilii-vo. same meaning as bas-relief. 

basso-rilieTO n. bai-so-^iii'ee-vo. same meaning as bas- 
relief, 

bass-relief n, ba:s-?ilii£. same meaning as bas-relief. 

bass-Tiol n, beesVai-ah 

bassirood n. Isars-wod. 

bastard n., adj. 'baestdzd, ^bai-std^d. 

bastardise v. [also spelt bastardise^ 'bsesta^-daiz. 

baste V, in card-playing [also spelt bast; a variant of beasti 
beest. 

bastile n. fortress [also spelt bastille'] bx'stiil, baes'tiil; ba- 
'stiil, bas'tiil, ba'stiil, bas'tiil; (also) 'bae-stil, 'ba:-stil. 

bastinado n. (beating) baesti'nee-do. 

bastion n. (projecting earthwork) 'baestSan, 'basJtSan, 'baestgan. 

basyl n. electropositiv constituent [also spelt basyle] 'bee- 
sil, 'baesil. 

bat n. (pack-saddle) baet, be: , ba: , lKi:t. 

batata n. (sweet potato) ba'tai-ta, ba'tee-ta. 

batea n. (wooden vessel) 'baeti-s. 

bateau n, boat [also, less correctly, spelt batteau ; ploral 
bateaux, batteauxl bae'too, ba'too. 

bateaux n. (ploral of bateau) bae'tooz, ba'tooz. 

batb n, washing, etc. [plural baths} ba:6, ba:0, bae:0. 

bathe v. (wash, etc.) beed. 

batborse n. pack-horse [synonymous cognate bawhorsel 'baet- 
he:?s, Ixii-hei^s. 

bathos n. (depth; descent from the sublime to the ridiculous; 
anticlimax) Haee-Ges. 

baths n. (ploral of bath) ba:dz. 

batiste n. (cambric) bs'tiist. 

batman n. man in charge of a bathorse [ploral batmen] 
'baet-man, 'boi-man. 

baton n. (staff; wand; truncheon) bae'ten, 'baetan, ba'ter), 'bae- 
ten. 

baton V, strike with a baton ; cudgel [past participle and pret- 
erit batoned, batond] 'baetan, bae'ten, ba'teq, 'bae-ten. 

batraohia n. (frog-like animals) bd't^ee-ki-s. 

battalia n. (battle array; army) ba'tai-lia. 

battalion n. (division of an army) bo'taelidn. 

battel n. (usually in the plural) college account or allowance 
[ploral battel, also battles, battells] 'baetl. 

battle adj. of grass, pasture, soil, or land [also spelt battel] 
Ijaetl. 

j ye, Q cure ; 5 the, G thin ; ^ 3 arure, ds ;oy ; S shoe, tS chew ; 
w when ; i) sing ; u whoever, i r^act, o fwll, ou fool, i it, li see ; 
o poetic ; 3 ov^r, e aerial, a hut, o: door, oo no, e bed, ee gote ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 47 

battle n. fight [also, archaically, spelt battel} 'bsetl. 
battledore n. bat; racket; game [also spelt battledoorl 'bx- 

H-doiz, 
battue n. (beating of bushes, etc., to drive out game) bae- 

'tQOU. 

battnre n. (elevated river-bed, etc.) bae'tgo:?. 

bauble n. trinket, etc. [also spelt bawblel 'bci-bsi. 

baudekin n. fabric [also spelt baudekyn; synonymous cog- 
nates baudkin, bawdkini 'bc:-di-kin« 

baulk V, see balk. 

baurbee n. Scotch billon coin; cash [also spelt baubee"] bc- 
'bii. 

baurl v., n. cry [as verb, past participle and preterit bawled, 
bawldl bc:l. 

bay n. of various origin and sense : as, berry ; laurel ; re- 
cess in a shore; structural division of a building; bay-win- 
dow ; barking ; position of a hunted animal ; dam ; second 
branch of a stag's horn ; baize ; color [ploral bays'] bee. 

bayadere n. Hindu dancing-girl [also spelt bayadeer; syn- 
onymous cognate bayadere} bee-a'di:?, bee-ja'di:^. 

bayamo n. (wind in southern Cuba) ba'ja:-mo. 

bayonet n. (dagger) 'bee-9-n3t ; (vulgarly) 'bee-nat. 

bayou n. (outlet of a lake, etc.) 'bai-o, 'bai-u. 

bazaar n. market [also spelt bazar} ba'za:?. 

bazique n. ba'ziik. same meaning as besique. 

bdellium n. (gum-resin) 'deliam, 'deli-am. 

be V. bii, {when less strest) bi, bi. 

beaoh n. (shingle ; seashore ; strand) biitj. 

beadsman n. man employed in praying, etc. [also spelt 
bedesman ; former synonymous cognate bedeman ; ploral 
beadsmen} 'biidz-man. 

bear n. (dialectal) barley [also, formerly, spelt beare, beer, 
bere} hv.z. 

bear n. (quadruped; speculator for a fall) hz\z. 

bear v. carry, sustain ; push, press ; bring forth ; give birth to 
[past participle borne and, m the sense of give birth to, 
born; preterit bore} he:z. 

beard n. (hair on the chin, etc.) hv.zd. 

beat n. (stroke ; round, course) biit. 

beatific adj. (making blessed; blissful) bi-a'tifik. 

beatify v. bi'aeti-fai. 

beatitude n. (blessedness; felicity) bi'aeti-tQud. 

bean n. dandy; lover [ploral beans, beaux} boo. 

d law, b: fur, ae cot, e hot, ei hoy ; a: for, ao now, a: osk, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
Stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



48 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

beau-ideal n. (model of excellence) boo-ai'dii-al. 
beau monde n. (the fashionable world) boo'mend. 
beauteous adj, 'bjou-ti-9S, 'bjou-tgas; {improperly) 'bjou-tjas. 
beautiful adj. 'bjou-ti-fal, {often) 'bjuti-fal; {also, occasion- 
ally) 'bjou-ti-fol; {dialectally) 'bjou-ta-fal. 
beauty n. [plural beauties'] 'bjou-ti. 
beaux n. (ploral of beau) hooz. 

because conj, biTcoiz, {when less strest) b^Tcez, balcaz, kaz. 
beccafioo n. bird [also spelt becaficol beka'fii-ko. 
bedolotbes n. 'bed-k^oodz, 'bed-kz.Doz. 
bedel n. {archaic) beadle, in the sense of a subaltern official 

or servant in a university [synonymous cognate bedell} 

'bii-dl. 
bedell n. {archaic) bi'del. same meaning as bedel. 
bedisen v. deck out [also spelt bedizsen; past participle and 

preterit bedizened, bedizend] bi'dizan, bi'dizn, bi'dai-zan. 
Bedouin n. (Arab of the desert) 'bedu-in, 'bedu-in. 
bedstead n. [also spelt bedsted] Ised-sted, 'bedstid. 
beecb n. (tree) biitj. 

bee-line n. (direct or straight line) H^ii-lain. 
been v, (past participle of be) bin; {also) biin, {when un- 

strest) bin; {formerly) be:n; {dialectally) ben. 
beer n. (drink) buz. 
beet n, (plant) biit. 
befall V. [also spelt befall bi'fc:!, 
beg n. beg. same meaning as bey, 
beg V. ask alms, etc. [past participle and preterit begged, 

begdl beg; {dialectally) beeg. 
begonia n. (plant) bi'goo-ni-s. 
beg^rimed adj. bi'g^aimd; {improperly) bi'g^imd. 
beguile v. bi'gail; {dialectally) bi'gjail. 
begum n. (queen, Hindu lady of rank) nbii-gam. 
behalf n. bi'ha:f, bi'ha:f, bi'hae:f. 
bebavior n. [also spelt behaviour] bi'hee-via^. 
behead v. [also spelt behed] bi'hed. 
behemoth n. (large animal) bi'hii-maO, bi'hii-moG, laii-hi- 

mo9. 
behoove v. [also spelt behove] bi'houv, bi'hoov. 
behove v. bi'houv, bi'hoov. see behoove. 
belabor v. [also spelt belabour; past participle and preterit 

belabored, belabord] bilee-ba?. 
belch V. eject; eructate [past participle and preterit belched, 

belcht] behj, {also, and in Britain normally) belj. 

j .ve, gcure; 5 ^/le, 9 f /lin ; 3 axrure, ds/oy; ^ shot, tjc/iew; 
viwhen', rising; u whoever, i r^act, o full, ou fool, i tt, lis^^; 
o poetic ; 3 ov^r, e aerial, a but, o: door, oo no, e b^d, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 49 

beldam n. granny; hag [also spelt beldame} 'beldam. 

beleaguer v. (besiege) bi'hi-gd?. 

belemnite n. (dart-shaped fossil) 'belam-nait, bi'lem-nait. 

bel esprit n. [plural beaux espritsi bele'sp^ii. 

belief n. (reliance; faith, etc.) bi'liif. 

believe v» have faith, etc. [past participle and preterit be" 

lieved, believd} bi'liiv, (often) bhiv, bliv. 
belladonna n. (plant) beld'dens. 
bell-boy n. (boy who answers a bell) 'bel-bei. 
bell-buoy n, (buoy surmounted by a bell) 'bel-bou-i. 
belle n, (fair lady) bel. 

bellerio n. fruit [also spelt beleric} bi'le^ik. 
belles-lettres n. hcVlct^z, bel'lets. 
belletrist n. [also spelt bellelettrist, belles-lettreisti be'letjist, 

berietjist. 
bellicose adj. (warlike) beh'koos, (assumptivly) 'beh-kos. 
belligerent adj. (waging war) ba'hdsa-^ant, hz'hd$9-z^nt. 
bellours n. [plural bellows} 'beloz, 'bebs. 
belluine adj. of beasts; of the Belluae [also, sometimes, 

spelt belluin} 'beliu-in, 'beliu-ain. 
bell-wetlier n. (a leading wether or sheep on whose neck 

a bell is hung) 'bel-weda^. 
beloved adj., n. bi'lAvid. 

beloved v, [past participle of bclove} bilAvd. 
belvedere n. open upper story; summerhouse [also spelt 

belvidere} belvi'di:^, 'belvi-di:r. 
bema n. platform, etc. [plural bemata} 'bii-ma. 
bemata n. (plural of bema) 'bems-td. 

benob. n. (long seat, etc.) bentS, {also, and in Britain nor- 
mally) benS. 
beneath adv., prep. bi'niiO, bi'niid. 
benedick n. 'beni-dik. same meaning as benedict. 
benedict n. newly married man [synonymous cognate bene' 

dick} 'beni-dikt. 
Benedictine adj., n. beni'dik-tin, beni'diktin. 
benefice n. [also spelt benefis} 'beni-fis. 
beneficence n. bi'nefi-sdns. 
beneficial adj. (of benefit; helpful) beni'fi$9l. 
beneficiary n. beni'fiSi-eri. 

Bengali adj., n. [also spelt Bengalee} ben'gc:-li, ben'ga:-H. 
benign adj. (kind; gracious) bi'nain. 
benignant adj. (kind; beneficial) bi'nignant. 
benison n. (blessing) 'beni-zsn, 'beni-sdn. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cot, o hot, oi hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



50 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

benne n. plant [also spelt bene} nDeni. 

bent n, grass, etc.; grassy field [synenymous cegnate bennet} 
bent. 

benumb n. make numb [also spelt benum; past participle and 
preterit benumbed, benutndl bi'nAm. 

benzene n. [synenymous cognates benzine, benzin'] ben'ziin, 
'ben-zin. 

benzin n. 'benzin. same meaning as benzene. 

benzine n. [also, sometimes, spelt benzin"] ben'ziin, ^ben-zin, 
'benzin. same meaning as benzene. 

benzoin n. ben'zoo-in, 'benzo-in, 'ben-zein. 

benzol n, 'ben-zel. same meaning as benzole. 

benzole n. [synenymous cognate benzol] 'ben-zol ; {less prop- 
erly) ben'zool. 

bequeath v. give by will [past participle and preterit be- 
queathed, bequeathd] bi'kiuiid. 

berberry n. 'bei^-be^i, same meaning as barberry, 

berceuse «. (cradle-song) hez'sBiz. 

bereave v. deprive; rob [past participle and preterit be- 
reaved, bereavd] bi'ciiv. 

bergamot n. (tree; essence; mint; fabric) 'bei^-gd-met. 

berg^lt n. fish [also spelt berguylt] 'bo:z:-gilt. 

berime v. [also spelt berhyme] bi'zaim. 

Berkeleian adj. 'berkLi-sn, bez'kLii-dn. 

berlin adj. (as in *berlin wool) 'bezhn, 'beie-hn. 

berlin n. (carriage) berlin, 'bszlin. 

berretta n. bi'zets. see biretta, 

berry n, small pulpy fruit [ploral berries] 'beei. 

berserk n. 'boe-se^k. same meaning as berserker. 

berserker n, warrior [also spelt berserkar, berserkir; syn- 
enymous cegnate berserk] 'bersazr-ka^. 

bertk n. (sea-room; shelf-like sleeping-place) hw.zQ. 

beryl n. ^mineral) 'be^il. 

besague n. (weapon; tool) 'besa-gju. 

besiege v. bi'siids. 

besom n. (broom; plant) 'bii-zam. 

bestead v, help ; avail [also spelt bested] bi'sted. 

bestial adj. (of a beast; animal) 'bestSal, 'beStSal, 'bestgal, 
'besti-al; (improperly) 'biis-tSal. 

bestiality n. bes'tSaeh-ti, bes'tgaeh-ti, besti'aeh-ti. 

bestrew v. [synenymous cegnate bestrow] bi'stjou. 

bestrour v. bi'stjoo. same meaning as bestrew. 

beta n. (Greek letter) 'bii-ta, 'bee-ta. 

j ye, Q cure; 5 the, G thin;^ 3 azure, ds joy; S shoe, tj chew; 
wwhen; qsin^; u whoever, i r^act, o fi*ll, ou fool, lit, lis^^; 
o poetic ; a ov^r, e oerial, a bwt, 0: door, ao no, e b^d, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 51 

betaine n. [also, sometimes, spelt betain} 'bii-te-in, liii-te- 
ain. 

betel n. pepper-plant; piece of betel-nut [also spelt betle"] 
'bii-tl. 

bSte noire n. (bugaboo ; pet aversion) beet'nwe:?, 

betony n. (plant) 'beta-ni. 

betroth v. (affiance, etc.) bi'tje:9, bi'tjooG, bi'tjood. 

betrothal «. bi'tjei-Oal, bi'tjoo-Gal, bi'tjDo-dal. 

betrothed adj„n. bi'tjoiGt, bi'tjooGt, bi'tjoodcL 

betrothment n. bi'tjeiO-mant, bi'tjooG-mant, bi'tjood-mant. 

better adj. (comparativ of good) 'betoe. 

better n. one who makes bets [also spelt bettor'^ 'beta?. 

betulin n. alkaloid [also spelt betuline'} 'betgo-hn, 'betSa-lin. 

betnline adj, (of the birch or birch-rod) 'betgo-lain. 

bevel n. (obliquity, etc.) 'beval. 

beveled adj. [also spelt bevelled, beveld"] 'bevald. 

beveling n. [also spelt bevelling'] 'beva-hq, (rapidly) 'bevhij. 

bevy n. company [ploral bevies; former synonymous cognate 
beavy"] 'bevi. 

bey n, governor, etc. [synonymous cognate beg"] bee. 

beyond prep,, adv, bi'jend ; (dialectally) bi'ond 

bezant n. coin; roundel [also spelt besant and, sometimes, 
bysantl 'bezant, bi'zarnt, bi'za:nt, bi'zae:nt. 

bez-antler n, [also spelt bes-antler and, sometimes, bay- 
antler] bez'aentL32, beez'senttaz:, bee'aentta?. 

bezel n. sloping edge [synonymous cognates bezil, basil"] 
'bezal. 

bezique n. card-game [synonymous cognate basique] bi'ziik. 

bezoar n. calculus [synonymous cognate besoard] 'bii-zo:?, 
'bezo-a?. 

bezoutiant n. (quadratic function) bi'zou-ti-ant. 

bhang n. hemp [also spelt bang and, formerly, bangue; syn- 
onymous cognate bhung] baeq. 

bheesty n. water-carrier [also spelt bheestie, beestie, beesty, 
beastie, beasty] 'bii-sti. 

biaoid adj. bai'aesid. 

biannual adj. (occurring twice a year) bai'aenju-al. 

biarohy n. (government by two) 'bai-a^-ki. 

bias V. [present participle biasing, biassing; past participle 
biased, biassed, biast] 'bai-9s. 

biased adj. [also spelt biassed, biast] 'bai-ast. 

bibaoions adj. (given to drinking) bi'bee-Jas, bai'bee-Jas. 

bibelot n. (curio) laiblo, bi'blDo. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, o hot, oi boy ; a: far, ao now, a: aslc, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



52 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

bibUoal adj. (of the Bible) 'biUi-kst 

Biblioist n. 'bibli-sist. 

bibliognost n, (one verst in books) 'bib}i-9g-nest, 'bibti-sg" 

nost. 
bibliographer n. [also spelt bihliograferl hihXV eqz^-i^z. 
bibliographic adj. [also spelt bibliografici bibli-s'g^sefik. 
bibliography n. description of books [also spelt bihliografyl 

biMi'ogea-fi. 
bibliomamiaoal adj. bibli-d-ma'nai-d-kd}. 
bibliophile n. [also, sometimes, spelt bibliophill 'bibli-d-fail, 

'bibli-3-fil. 
bibliothecal n. (of a library) bibli-d'Oii-ksl; {less properly) 

biWi'eei-kal. 
bibulous adj. (spongy; bibacious) 'bibjo-lds. 
bicarbonate n. bai'ka:?-b3-net. 
biceps n. (two-headed muscle) 'bai-seps. 
bichloride n. [also, sometimes, spelt bichloridi bai'kLoi-zaid, 

{before of) bai'ktoi-eid. 
bicolored adj. [also spelt bicoloured, bicolordi 'bai-lcAld^d. 
bicycle n. 'bai-si-kal, {anteriorly) 'bai-sikal; {also, less prop- 
erly) 'bai-sai-kal. 
bidet n. (small . horse ; bathing-vessel) bi'det, bi'dee, 'bidet, 

nbidi. 
bidon n. (army-kettle ; canteen) 'bidan. 
bidri n. metal-work [also spelt bidry, bidreel 'bidri, 'bidri. 
biennial adj. (occurring once in two years) bai'eni-sl. 
bier n. (litter) hr.z, 

bifarious adj. (twofold; two-rowed) bai'fe:-?i-3S. 
bif erous adj. (bearing twice a year) 'bifa-^as. 
bifid adj. (two-cleft; forkt) liifid, 'bai-fid. 
bifurcate v. (divide into two forks) bai'feie-ket. 
bight n. (loop ; bay) bait. 
bigot n. (intolerant dogmatist) laigat. 
bijou n. jewel [ploral bijouxl bi'sou, 'bii-su. 
bijouterie n. [also, sometimes, spelt bijoutryl bi'sou-tji, bi- 

'3ou-t3-ri. 
bijugate adj. (bearing two overlapping profile heads; two- 

paird) bai'dsou-get, 'bai-dso-get. 
bijugous adj. (two-paird) bai'dsou-gas, 'bai-dsou-gas, 'bi- 

d30-g3S. 
bilabiate adj. bailee-bi-et ; {erroneously) bai'laebi-et. 
bilander n. vessel [also spelt bylanderl 'bibn-dae, 'bai- 

lan-da?. 

j ye, q cure; d the, thin; 3 axrure, d$joy; S shot, tj chev/; 
w when ; q siw^r; u whoever, i r^act, o fi*ll, ou iool, 1 it, li see; 
o poetic; 9 0v^r, e aerial, \hut, 0: door, 00 no, eb^d, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 53 

bilberry n. [also spelt billherryl 'bil-bezi. 

billet n. (note; order) 'biht. 

billet n. (stick; bar; molding) 'biht. 

billet-donx n. love-note [ploral billets-doux'] bile'duu, bih> 
'dou. 

biUets-donz n. (plural of billet-doux) bile'duuz, bih'douz. 

Bimana n,pl, (two-handed mammals) 'bima-ns, 'bai-ma-ns. 

bimanous adj. (two-handed) 'bimd-nss, 'bai-ms-nas. 

bimonthly adj. (occurring once in two months) bai'mAnOz.!, 
{by contrast, etc.) bai'mAn9-h; (assumptivly) 'bai-mAnOti. 

binary adj., n. (twofold ; double ; twin) 'bai-na-^i. 

bindery n. 'bain-da-ei, 'bain-dri. 

binnacle n. compass-box [also, formerly, spelt binaclel Isi- 
ns-kai. 

binocle n. (field-glass or opera-glass having tubes for both 
eyes) 'bma-kal. 

binocular adj. Wnekqo-l^z, bai'nekQo-ld?. , 

binomial adj, (two-named; two-termd) bai'noo-mi-al. 

binozide n. [also spelt binoxyde and, sometimes, binoxid] 
bai'nek-said, (before of) bai'neksid. 

biogenesis n. (genesis of life from life) bai-s'dseni-sis. 

biographer n. [also spelt biografer} bai'egza-far. 

biogpraphio adj. [also spelt biografic} bai-s'g^aefik. 

biography n. [also spelt biografy] bai'egea-fi. 

biologic adj. bai-a'ledsik. 

biology n. (science of life) bai'ela-dsi. 

biometry n. (measurement of life) bai'omi-t£i. 

bionomics n. bai-s'nemiks. 

biparous adj. (bringing forth two) 'bip3-?3s; {less properly) 
bai'pe:-23s, 'bai-pa-zas. 

bipartite adj. (in two parts) bai'pa?-tait ; (less properly) 
liipaz-tait, bai'partit. 

biped n., adj. 'bai-ped. 

bipedal adj. (of two feet) 'bai-pi-dl, 'bipi-dl; (less properly) 
Hjai-pedl, bai'pii-dl, 'bai-pri-dl. 

biplicate adj. (twice folded) 'bipti-ket, nbai-pi-i-ket ; (im- 
properly) bai'pLiket. 

bird n. hB.zd, (locally) beid; (dialectally) bBid. 

biretta n. cap [also spelt birretta, berrettal biVeta. 

birth n. (the fact of being born; nativity) berzG. 

birthday n. (anniversary of one's birth) 'bi:?0-de, (assump- 
tivly) 'bB?9-di. 

birthday n. (day on which one was born) 'bei^G-dee. 

c: low, b: f «r, ae cat, e hot, oi hoy ; a: for, ao now, a: osk, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates ch-'-f itress op th? f^Upwing syllable 



54 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

biscnit n. (cracker; cake) 'biskit. 

bisk n. odds at tennis [also spelt bisquel bisk. 

bismuth n. (metal) 'bizmaO, 'bisMaO. 

bismutlLin n. [also spelt bismuthinel 'bizma-Oin. 

bison n. (atirochs ; buffalo) 'bai-san, 'bai-zsn, 'bisan, 'bizsn. 

bisque n. soup [also spelt biski bisk. 

bisque n. (variety of porcelain) bisk. 

bissextile adj. containing the bissextus or intercallary day : 

said of leap-year [also spelt bissextill bi'sekstil. 
bister n. brown pigment [also spelt bistrel 'bistar. 
bisulpbide n. [also, sometimes, spelt bisulphid, bisulfidl 

bai'sAl-faid, (before of) bai'sAlfid. 
bit n. boring-piece; mouthpiece, etc. [also, in some senses, 

sometimes spelt bitti bit. 
bitt n. post on a ship's deck, for fastening cables [also, less 

often, spelt bif] bit. 
bitumiSn n. (asphaltum, etc.) bi'tQou-mdn, 'bitQo-mdn. 
bituminous adj. bi'tgou-mi-nss. 
bivalent adj. 'biva-lant, Hjai-vee-lant. 
bivalve n. [also spelt bivalvl 'bai-vaelv. 
bivious adj. (having two ways) 'bivi-as, 'bai-vi-as. 
bivouac n. [also spelt bivouack'\ 'bivu-aek, 'biv-waek; (less 

properly) 'bai-vu-aek, 'bii-vu-aek. 
bivouac v. encamp [also spelt bivouack; present participle 

bivouacking, past participle and preterit bivouacked, bivou- 

ackt'i 'bivu-aek, 'biv-waek, 
bivouacked v. 'bivu-aekt, 'biv-waekt. see bivouac, 
bizarre adj, (odd, fanciful) bi'za:?. 
blackamoor n, (negro) 'blaeka-mu:?, 'blaeka-mo:?. 
blackg^uard n. (rough; scoundrel) Ijlae-ga^d; {erroneously) 

'b}aek-ga:^d. 
blamable adj. [also spelt blameablel 'blee-ma-ba). 
blanc n, (silver coin) blaerjk. 
blanck v. [past participle and preterit blanched, blanchtl 

bla:ntS, blaintS, blaeintS; (also, and in Britain normally) 

bla:nS, b}a:nS, blaemS. 
blancmange n. (white food; white jelly) bla'mends, bla- 

'men3. 
blas6 adj. (tired of enjoyment) bla'zee, 'bla:-ze. 
blaspkeme v. blas'fiim, blaes'fiim; (less properly) 'blae-sfim. 
blaspkemer n. blas'f li-mo^ ; (less properly) 'blae-sfimar. 
blaspkemous adj. (uttering blasphemy, etc.) TDlai-sf i-mas ; 

(less properly) blas'f ii-m9s. 

j ye, gcure; 5 */te, f/iin ; 3 axrure, ds/oy; S shoe, t^chew; 
wwhen; qsin^r; u whoever, i r^act, o fwll, ou fool, i tt, lis^e; 
o poetic ; a ov^r, e aerial, a bwt, o: door, oo no, e b^d, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 55 

blasphemy n. (profanity) 'bla:-sf i-tni ; {dialectally) 'blae- 

sfi-mi. 
blast n.jV. (blow, puff, etc.) blaist, blaist, blae:st. 
blastema n. [plural blastetnata} blses'tii-ms. 
blastemata n. (plural of blastema) blxs'tema-ta, blaes'tii-ms- 

t9. 

blastide n. (the clear space on each segment of a fecundated 

ovum) 'blxstid, 'blae-staid. 
blastocoele n. (germ-cavity) 'blsests-siil. 
blastula n. [plural blastulae'\ 'blaestgu-ls, "blsest^u-la. 
blatant adj. noisy [also, formerly, spelt blattanti 'blee-tnt; 

formerly, probably) 'blaetnt. 
blay n. the bleak, a fish [also spelt bleyl blee. 
blazon v. depict; boast of [past participle and preterit bla- 
zoned, blasondl 'blee-zan, 'blee-zn. 
bleat V, (cry as a sheep, etc.) bliit. 
blend v, mix [past participle blended, blent; preterit blend' 

edi blend. 
blende n. (zink-ore) blend. 

blesbok n, antelope [also spelt blessbokl 'bles-bek. 
blessed adj, holy, adorable; happy; pleasurable; endowd with 

healing virtues; cursed [also, in poetry, sometimes spelt 

blest} 'blesid, {also, in poetry, as in * Blest Three in One 

and One in Three) blest. 
blessed v, past participle and preterit of bless [also spelt 

blesti blest. 
blew V. (preterit of blow) bluu. 
blissful adj. "bhsfsl. 
blitbe adj., adv. blaid, blaiO. 

blithefnl adj. (joyous) 'blaid-fol, 'blaid-fal, 'blaiG-fal. 
blitheness n. 'blaid-nis, 'blaiO-nis. 
blithesome n. 'blaid-ssm, 'blaiG-sam. 
bloke n. fellow [also spelt bloak"] blook. 
blond adj. [also, with reference to a woman, often spelt 

blondel blend, 
blond n. (man or boy with blond hair) blend. 
blond n. lace [also spelt blonde"! blend. 
blonde n. (a woman or girl with blond hair) blend. 
blotcb n, (skin-eruption ; spot) bletj. 
blonse n. garment [also spelt bloivse'\ blauz; (less properly) 

blaus, bluuz. 
blo'nrze n. (a ruddy, fat-faced wench) blauz. 
bloixrzy adj. fat and ruddy [also spelt blowsyl 'blau-zi. 

c: law, b: f wr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: for, au now, a: osk, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is leng; 
Stress-mark (0 indicates chief stress on the iQllowing syllable. 



56 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

bludgeon n. (heavy stick) 'blAds^n. 

blue n. (color, etc.) blou; (dialectally) bHuu. 

blunderbuss n. [also, formerly, spelt blunderbus^ 'blAndae- 

bAS. 

boa n. (serpent) 'boo-a. 

boar n. (wild hog) hoiz, 

boatswain n. [synonymous cognate boson'] 'boot-sween, 

(colloquially and nautically) 'boo-san, 'boo-sn. 
bobbin n. reel [also, formerly, spelt bobini 'bobin. 
bodice n. [also spelt boddice, bodisi 'bodis. 
Bodleian adj. (of T. Bodley) 'bodli-an, bodlii-an. 
Boeotian adj,, n. bi'3o-$an, bi'oo-Si-dn 

Boer n. [also, formerly, spelt Boor] ho:z; (less properly) ho:z, 
bogey n. [ploral bogeys] 'boo-gi. same meaning as bogy. 
bogie n. wagon; truck [also spelt bogy, bogey; ploral bogies] 

'boo-gi. 
bog^y n, devil, hobgoblin, bugbear [also spelt bogie, bogey ; 

ploral bogies] 'boo-gi. 
bobea n. (tea) bo'hii. 
boil n. furuncle [dialectal synonymous cognate bile] boil; 

(dialectally) bcil, bail. 
boil V. reach the boiling point; bubble, seethe [dialectal syn- 
onymous cognate bile; past participle and preterit boiled, 

boild] beil; (dialectally) bcil, bail, 
boisterous adj, [also, formerly, sometimes spelt boistrousi 

'boi-st£3s, 'boi-sta-^as. 
boisterously adv. 'boi-st£3s-h, 'boi-staras-h. 
bole n. opening in a wall [also spelt 6oal] boo!. 
bolero n. (Spanish dance) ho^e:-zo. 
bolide n. (meteor) 'boo-hd, 'bDO-laid, 'bo-laid. 
boll n. (rounded pod ; knob) bool. 
boll n. (capacity-measure) bool. 
boll-womi n. lyool-yfisizm, 
bolster n. ^ool-stsz; (dialectally) 'bolsta?. 
bomb n. (explosiv shell) bom, bAm, 
bombard v, bom'bar^d, bAm'barrd. 

bombard n. (cannon ; bomb-ketch) 'bom-ba^d, 'bAm-bard, 
bombardier n, (soldier, etc.) bomba^'dirr, bAmba^'di:?. 
bombardment n. bom'baird-mant, bAm'ba:^d-mant. 
bombast n. (big talk) 'bem-ba:st, 'bAm-ba:st. 
bombastic adj. bem'ba:-stik, bAm'ba:-stik, bom'baestik. 
bombazine n. fabric [also spelt bombasine, bombasin] bom- 

ba'ziin, bAmba'ziin ; (less properly) 'bemba-zin. 

j ye, q cure; 5 the, thin; 3 arure, ds ;oy ; S shoe, tS chew; 
w when ; 13 sin^ ; u whoever, i r^act, o f «11, ou fool, i it, li see ; 
o poetic; a ov^r, e aerial, Abut, o: door, oo no, e b^d, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 57 



bombsliell n. Isem-Sel, 'bAih-Set. 

bona-fide adj, boo-na'fai-di, (assumptivly) 'boo-na-f ai-di ; 
(erroneously) 'boo-na-faid. 

bonanxa n. (mine of wealth) bs'nxnzd. 

bonbon n. (sugar-plum, candy) Isen-ben. 

bonhomie n. [also spelt bonhommie} bend'mii. 

Boniface n. (landlord) 'beni-fees. 

bon mot n, witticism [plural tons motsl beij'moo. 

bonne n. (nursemaid) ben. 

bonnet n. 'benit; {dialectally) 'bAnit. 

bonnet-rouge n. (liberty-cap, etc.) be-nee'rous. 

bonny adj, (beautitul; gay) 'beni. 

bonnyclabber n. (clotted sour milk) 'beni-lcLxbd?. 

bon-ton n. (high tone ; good breeding ; polite society) beq- 
'teq. 

bon«vivant «. (good liver; jovial chap) beq-vi'veq. 

bony adj, (of bones) 'boo-ni, 

bonze n. (Buddhist monk) benz, (rarely) 'benzi. 

bookkeeper n. 'bok-kii-pa? ; (less properly) 'bo-kipsr. 

boor n, (countryman) ho:z. 

booth n. (tent, stall, etc.) bouG, boud. 

boose V, drink deeply [also spelt boose, house, house; synon- 
ymous cognate bowse; past participle and preterit boozed, 
boosd^ bouz. 

boosy adj. [also spelt boosyl 'bou-zi. 

boracic adj. (of borax) bo'^xsik. 

borage n. [also, formerly, spelt horrage, burrage, hurridgel 
TbA^ids; (less properly) 'bozids, 'bor-zids, 

borax n. 'bot-rsks, ^oi-zxks. 

bore n. (one who, or that which, causes ennui) ho:z, 

boreal adj. (of the north) 'boi-ri-al. 

boride n. 'boi-z^aid, (before of) 'bD:-rid. 

bom ad/, (possessing a given quality from birth ; innate) 
heizn. 

bom V, (past participle of hear in the sense of give birth to, 
as young) be:?n. 

borne v. (past participle of bear in all senses except give 
birth to, as young) hoizn, 

borough n. [also spelt borol hezo, (also, in England and 
eastern New England) liAzo; (dialectally) 'baza, 'bA?3. 

borrow v. take on pledge [past participle and preterit bor- 
rowed, borrowdl 'bozo; (dialectally) 'bera. 

bosoage n. woods [also spelt boskagel 'beskids. 

c: law, b: f Mr, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long*, 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the mlowing syllable* 



58 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

boslibok n. antelope [also spelt boschbok} 'beS-bek. c 

pare bushbok, bushbuck, 
bosket n. groove [also spelt bosquet; synonymous cegi 

busket'\ 'beskit. 
bosom n. (breast) nbozdm, 'buu-zsm. 

boson n. 'boo-ssn, 'boo-sn. same meaning as boatswain, 
bot n. worm, maggot [also spelt bott} bet. 
botanic adj. bs'taenik. 
botanize v. [also spelt botanise'] 'betn-aiz. 
botany n, (science of plants) 'betn-i, 'beta-ni. 
botcb n., V, bungle [as verb, past participle and pret 

botched, botchtl betS. 
botby n, hut [also spelt bothie"] 'beGi. 
boudoir n. (lady's private room) 'bou-dwe:r, bu'dwe;?; 

so) 'bou-dwc:?, 'bou-dwa:?, etc, 
bonff e n, (comic opera) bouf. 
bongb «. (branch of a tree) bao. 
bong^e n. (waxlight) 'bou-si, 'bou-31. 
bonilli n. (boild meat) 'bou-ji, 'boul-ji, bu'jii, bourjii. 
bouillon n. (clear soup) 'bou-jeq, 'boul-jeq; bu'jeq, bul'j 

(erroneously) 'bolian. 
boul n, bend, ring [also spelt bool} boul. 
boulder n, loose rock [also spelt bowlderl 'bool-da?. 
bonle n. (Greek legislativ council) 'bou-h. 
boule n. boul. same meaning as buhl, 
boulevard n. (broad street) 'bou-l9-va:^d ; (less often) 'b 

va^d, 'boul-va^. 
boulevardier n. (one who frequents a boulevard) bul- 

di'ee, 'buu-la-var-de:^. 
bouleversement n. (a turning upside down) huV\B:zs-n\ 

bula'vsr^s-mant, bul-ve^s'meq. 
boundary n. [ploral boundaries'] 'baoun-da-^i, 'baon-dri 
bounteous adj, 'baon-ti-as ; (erroneously) 'baon-tSas. 
bouquet n. (nosegay ; odor of wine) bo'kee ; (less prope 

'bou-ke, bo'kee. 
bouquetin n. (ibex) buka'taei], buk'taeq, 'bou-ka-tin. 
Bourbon n. 'bur^-bsn. 
bourdon n. organ-stop [also spelt burdoun] 'bo:^-den, 'I 

dan. 
bourgeois n. [also spelt burgeois"] bo^'dseis. 
bourgeois n. (citizen) 'bo:?-3wa, bo^'swe. 
bourgeoisie n. (middle class) bo^swa'zii, bo^swe'zii. 
bourn n. bound, goal [also spelt bourne"] borzrn, boxn. 

j ye, <j cure ; d //te, G thin',^ 5 axrure, ds ;oy ; S shot, tS c 
ujM'^en; ijsin^r; u whoever, i r^act, o fwll, ou fool, i it, li 
o poetic ; 9 over, e aerial, a but, 0: door, oo no, e b^d, ee \ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 59 

bourn n. stream, brook [also spelt bourne'\ hoizn, 

bonmous n. bu^'nuus. same meaning as burnoose, 

bourse n. (stock-exchange) boizs. 

bouse V, bauz, bouz. same meaning as booze. 

bouse V. haul with tackle [also spelt bowsel baos. 

bouse n. (ore mixt with veinstone) baos, bous. 

boustropbedon n. (a turning back and forth as of an ox 
in plowing : a mode of Greek writing) bustja'f li-dn. 

bovine adj, (ox-like) 'boo-vain, 'boo-vin ; 'bob-vin, 

bour n. (inclination of the head) bao. 

bour V, bend, as the body or neck; make a bow [past partici- 
ple and preterit bowed, bowd"! bao. 

hew n. (weapon) boo. 

boixr V. make into the form of a bow ; curve : as, *bow a rib- 
bon; perform by means of a bow upon a stringd instru- 
ment : as, *bow a passage well [past participle and prete- 
rit bowed, bowdl boo. 

bow n, (forward part of a ship) bao. 

bow n. (local) herd of cattle [also spelt few] bou. 

boDTie-knife n. 'boo-i-naif; (dialectally) 'bou-i-naif, 

boir-knot n. 'boo-net. 

bowl n. (large concave dish) booh 

bowl n. (ball used in playing bowls or skittles) bool; (dia- 
lectally) baol, boul. 

bowl V, play at bowls; move horizontally, as a ball [past par- 
ticiple and preterit bowled, bowldl bool. 

bowlder n. see boulder, 

bow-legged adj. 'boo-legid, 'boo-legd. 

bowline n. rope [also, sometimes, spelt bowlini 'boo-lin, 'boo- 
lain; (less properly) 'bao-hn, 'bao-lain. 

bowse n. baoz. same meaning as booze, 

bowsprit n. spar projecting from a ship's stem [synony- 
mous cognate boltsprW] 'boo-sp3it, 'bao-sp3it. 

bow-DTindow n. boo'windo. 

boy n, male child ; youth [ploral boysl bei ; (dialectally) bci. 

boyar n. title [synonymous cognate boyard^ bei'arr, 'bei-ae. 

boyard n. 'bei-a^d, 'bei-a^. same meaning as boyar. 

boycott n., v. 'bei-ket. 

bracciale n. (torch-bracket, etc.) braeksi'ee-li. 

bracb n, (hound ; bitch-hound) braetS, brak. 

bracbial adj. (of the arm) 'braeki-al, 'bzxkq^l, 'b^ee-ki-al. 

bracbiale n. brachial; reliquary in the shape of a hand or 
forearm [ploral brachialial braeki'ee-h, 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress^mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



60 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

bracliiate adj. 'bree-ki-et, 'b^ce-ki-at, 'brce-kgat; traki-et, 

'b^aeki-3t, ^bzaek^dt. 
Bracliiata n.,pL (order of crinoids) b^xki'ee-ts. 
bracliiopod n. [ploral hrachiopods, brachiopoda; synony- 
mous cognate brachiopodel lyeaki-a-pod. 
Bracliiopoda n. pi. brseki'opd-ds. 

bracMopode n. 'brxki-a-pod. same meaning as brachiopod, 
bracbiimi n., [ploral brachial 'b^ee-ki-sm, 0[)z£ki-9m. 
bracbynral adj. (short-taild) b^ski'jo:-??}. 
bracteiform adj, (bract-shaped) 'b2raekti-i-fo:?m. 
bracteolate adj. 'braekti-d-let, bzxk'tii-s-let. 
brasgadocio n. (braggart; boasting) b?«g3'd30-$3. 
braggart n. [former synonymous cognate braggardi ^bzagsTt. 
brabma n. (hen) %za'.-m^, 

Brabman n. [synonymous cognate Brahmini 'b;a:-m9n. 
Brabmanee n. [synonymous cognate Brahm%nee\ 'bza:-m9- 

ni. 
braJuniny adj. (devoted to Siva by the Brahmans) 1)70:- 

mi-ni. 
braize v. stew in gravy [also spelt braise; past participle and 

preterit braised, braizd} b^eez. 
brake n. (motion-arrester ; large fern) breek. 
Bramah adj, (in *Bramah lock, *Bramah press) 'brxms, 

lyeai-ma. 
brancb n. (bough, etc.) b^arntS, bra:ntS, brxintS; {also, and in 

Britain normally) brarnj, bra:nS, b?ae:nS. 
brancbia n. gill [rarely used in the singular; ploral bran- 

chiael 'braeqki-a. 
brancbiae n. (ploral of bronchia) 'b?xi}ki-i: . 
brand-neir adj. [also, sometimes, spelt bran-new] b?xn- 

'njou, (assHtnptivly) 'braen-njou; (also, less often) braend 

'njou, (assumptivly) 'braend-njou. 
brass n. (metal) bza:s, bra:s, hzxis. 
brass n. (European measure of length) braes. 
brassage n. (tax for coining) 'b?a:-sid3, 'hzxsid^. 
brassard n. arm-cover [synonymous cognate brassart] Tjra 

sard, bra'sai^d. 
brassart v, ^beraesd^t, hz^'sa.zt. same meaning as brassard. 
brasse n, (European bass, a fish) braes. 
brassic adj. (of Brassica) 'b^aesik. 
brassy adj. (of brass ; brazen) 'b^ai-si. 
brattice n. partition, etc. [also spelt brattis; synonyms 

cognates brettice, brettisi 'hzxXis. 

] ye, Q cure; d the, fWn; 5 axrure, ds /oy ; S j/toe, tS cht 
u) wjien; 13 sing; u whoever, 1 r^act, o full, ou fool, i tt, li s< 
o poetic ; s ov^r, e aerial, a but, o: door, 30 no, e b^d, ee gal 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 61 

bratticing n. openwork cresting, etc. [also spelt brattising; 

synonymous cognate brattishing^ 'bzaeti-siq. 
bravado n. (boastful menace) bed'vai-do, brd'vee-do. 
bravo n. bandit [plural bravos, bravoesi 'b?a:-vD, 'bzrce-VD. 
bravo inter j. (well done! good!) 'b?a:-vo; (rarely) 'bzee-vo. 
bravura n. (dash; florid or brilliant air) hzs\o:-z3. 
braze v, (cover or ornament with brass ; solder) bzeez. 
brazen adj. of brass; strong; impudent [also spelt brasen} 

'bzce-zan, 'bzee-zn. 
brazier n. pan [also spelt brasierl 'bzee-zi-ae, (older) 'beee- 

39?; (erroneously) 'bree-zae. 
brazilin n. red coloring-matter of Brazil-wood [also spelt 

brasiline, brasilin, brasiline; synonymous cognate bresiline'\ 

'brazi-hn. 
breach n. (break ; rupture) b?iitS. 
bread n. food [also spelt bred} hzed. 
breadth, n. width ; broadness [also spelt bredthi bztdQ ; (less 

properly) bzetQ, 
break v., n, (fracture) bzeek, (when unstrest) hzek. 
breakfast n. first meal [also spelt brekfast} l)zek-f9st, 

'beekfast. 
breast n. mamma, etc. [also spelt brest} brest. 
breath n. exhalation, etc. [also spelt breth'\ bzeQ. 
breathe v. respire [past participle and preterit breathed, 

breathdl hziid. 
breccia n. (conglomerate with angular fragments) laretSa. 
breech n. (hinder part) b^iitj. 
breech v. (put into breeches, etc.) bziitS, b^itj. 
breeches n.pl. (garment) 'b^itjiz, (rarely) 'b^ii-tjiz. 
breeching «. (m all senses) "hzitlit), 'b^ii-tSiq.^ 
breeks n.pl. (breeches, trousers) bziiks. 
brere n. bzv.z. same meaning as brier. 
bretesse n. (tower; projecting structure) b^e'tes. 
brethren n. (ploral of brother) 'bzedean; (improperly) 'bze- 

b9zn. 
bretzel n, 'b^etsal. same meaning as pretzel. 
breve n. (letter ; note ; short-mark) b^iiv. 
brevet n. (letter; license) b^iVet, 'b^evit. 
breviary n. (brief statement; church book) 'beii-vi-e^i, 'b?ii- 

vi-3-ri, 'b^ii-via-ri, 'b^evi-e^i. 
brevier n. (type) b^i'vi:?. 
breur v. prepare from malt; mix [past participle and preterit 

brewed, brewd} brou. 

c: \a7v, b: f Mr, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



62 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

brewer n. (one who brews) 'beou-ar. 

briar n. 'b^ai-ar. see brier, 

bric-a-brac n. [also spelt hric-d-brac'} 'bzrika-b^ak. 

bricole n. (catapult; side-stroke; harness) b^i'kool, 'bziksL 

bridal adj. (of a bride) 'brai-dl, 'hzai-dsl. 

bridle n. (head-gear of a harness) 'bsai-dl. 

bridoon n. snaffle, bit [synonymous cognate bradooni hzi- 

'doun. 
brief adj. (short, etc.) b^iif. 
brier n. bush [also spelt briar; synonymous cognate brerel 

'hzai-^z. 
brigadier n. (commander of a brigade) bnga'di:?. 
brigand n. (freebooter) 'brigand, 'b^i-gaend. 
brigandine n. coat of fence [synonymous cognate brigan- 

tineJi 'bzigan-din, 'beigan-din. 
brigantine n. 'b^igan-tin, 'b^igan-tin. same meaning as 

brigandine, 
brigantine n. (two-masted vessel) 'bzigan-tin, 'b?igdn-tin, 

^beigan-tain. 
brillante adv. (in music, brilliant, dashing) b?i1a:n-ti, hzil- 

^a:n-te. 
brilliant adj„ n. 'briHdnt. 
brilliantine n. (cosmetic) 'beriHsn-tin. 
brilliolette n. b^iHa'let. same meaning as brillolette. 
brillolette n. hziWlzt. same meaning as briolette. 
brimful adj. [also, sometimes, spelt brimfulll brim'fol, (as- 

sumptivly) 'brim-fol. 
brimmed adj. [also, sometimes, spelt brimdl brimd, {also, in 

poetry) 'bzimid. 
brinjal n. eggplant [also spelt brinjaul, brinjall, brinjaall 

lizm-dzcl. 
brinjarree n. pedler of grain and salt [also spelt brinjaree, 

brinjarry^ b^in'dsae^i, b^in'd3a:-?i. 
briolette n. diamond [also spelt briolet; synonymous cog- 
nates brilliolette, brilloletteJi b^i-Dlet. 
briquet n. (a steel for striking a light on flint) b^i'ket. 
briquet n. a small brick; a brick-like cake or ball of coal- 
dust, for fuel [also spelt briquettel bzri'ket, 'bzrikit. 
bristle n., v. 'bzrisgl, b^isl, 

britska n. carriage [also spelt brit^^skal 'b^itska. 
broacb n. awl; spindle; spire; ornamental pin or clasp [in 

the last sense spelt also brooch] b^DOtJ. 
brocade n. (fabric) b^o'keed. 

j ye, gcure; bthe, 9 f/iin; 3 a^ure, d^/oy; ^ shot, tScAew; 
tuwAen; r)s\ng\ u whoever, i react, o f«Il, ou fool, i tt, usee; 
o poetic ; ^ over, e aerial, a but, o: door, oo no, e bed, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 63 

brocatel n. imitation brocade; also, brocatello, a marble 
[also spelt brocatellel 'bzroo-ka-tel, 'beeko-tel, hzekd'ttl. 

broccoli n. cabbage [also spelt brocolili 'hzek^-li, 

brocliet n. (fish) b^o'See. 

brochure n. (pamphlet)' hzo'^oiz, 

brosan n, (shoe ; boat) 'b^DO-gan, b^o'gaen ; Qess properly) 
'hzeg^n, 

broken-hearted adj, b?30-kan'ha?tid, (assumptivly) ^hzoo- 
kdn-ha^tid. 

bromic adj. (of bromine) 'bzoo-mik; (less properly) nj^emik. 

bromide n. [also, sometimes, spelt bromid} 'bzoo-maid, (be- 
fore of) 'beoo-mid. 

bromine n, element [also, sometimes, spelt bromini 'hzoo- 
mm, 'broo-main, 'b^oo-min. 

bromize v. [also spelt bromise'} 'b?DO-maiz. 

bronchi n. (ploral of bronchus) 'beeq-kai. 

bronchia n.pL (the bronchial tubes) 'b^eij-ki-a. 

bronchitis n. bren'kai-tis, b?ei]'kai-tis, (also) b^en'kii-tis. 

bronchocele n. (goiter) 1b7er)ka-sil, bzei}k9'sii-h. 

bronchus n. [ploral bronchQ 'hzer)k9s. 

bronco n. [sometimes, incorrectly, spelt bronchoj 'beeqko, 

bronze n, (alloy) bzenz, (rarely) b^oonz. 

brooch n. pin, clasp [also, sometimes, spelt broachi beoot$, 
b^outS. 

brook n. (stream) b^ok. 

brook V. bear, endure, put up with [past participle and pret- 
erit brooked, brooktl hzok; (less properly) b^ouk. 

broom n, (shrub; sweeping-implement) b^oum ; (dialectally) 
hzom, 

broth n, (liquid) hzeiQ ; (dialectally) hzciQ. 

brothel n. (bawdy-house) 'b^ei-Gal, 'hze:-Ql, 'b^edal. 

brother n. [plural brothers, brethren^ 'hzAd^z. 

brough n, [also spelt brugh, brogh, broch ; synonymous cog- 
nates burg, burrowl hzek. 

brougham n. (carriage) 'bzroo-am, broum, 'bzrou-am ; (rarely) 
bsroom. 

brought V. [past participle and preterit of bringi hzct. 

broixrse n., v. feed [also spelt browjje'i b^aoz. 

brucine n. alkaloid [also, sometimes, spelt brucin^ 'hzovL- 
sin, 'bz:ou-sain. 

bruin n. (bear) 'b^ou-in. 

bruise n,, v, (hurt) b^ouz. 

bruit n., v. (noise, report, rumor) brout. 

c: laWf b: fwr, ae cat, e hot, oi hoy; a: far, ao nozv, a: ask, ai kite; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



64 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

brumal adj, (of winter) 'brou-msl. 

brunette n. woman with dark hair, etc. [also spelt hrun 

beo'nct. 
bmsk adj, (in heraldry, tawny) bzosk. 
bmsk adj, abrupt; rude [also spelt brusquel b^Ask, brosk. 
bmskness n. [also spelt brusquenessi 'bzAskNis, 'bzoskNn 
bmsque adj. see brusk, 
bmt n: (chronicle) bzout. 
bmt V. (browse) brAt. 
bmt n. obsolete (bret, a fish) hzAt, 
bmtaliate v, [also spelt brutalisel 'brou-tl-aiz. 
bryonin n. glucoside [also spelt bryonine, brionine, brion 

'brai-3-nin. 
bubal n. antelope [also spelt bubalel 'bjou-bsL 
bubaline adj. of the buffalo [also spelt bubalini 'bjou-ba-j 
bubo n. swelling [plural buboesl 'bjou-bD. 
buccal adj, (of the bucca or cheek) 'bAkal. 
bUccan n. meat-roasting frame [also spelt bucan; syne 

mous cognates boucan, bocan\ 'bAkan. 
buccaneer n. hunter; pirate [also spelt bucaneer, bucam 

buccanier"] bAka'ni:?. 
buccinator n. muscle [ploral buccinator, buccinatoresi 'h. 

si-netd?. 
buccinatores n. (ploral of buccinator) bAksi-ne't3:-7iz. 
bucentaur n. bull-like centaur ; barge [in the sense of bar 

spelt Bucentaur"] bjo'sen-tc:?, 'bjou-sen-tc:?. 
bucbu n. plant [also spelt bucku, bouchuel 'bjou-kgu, HbA 
bucolic n.,adj. (pastoral; rural) bjo'kehk. 
Buddhism n. [also spelt Budhism, Boudhism, Booddhii 

Boodhismi 'bo-dizam, 'bou-dizam, HjA-dizam. 
buffalo n. wild ox; bison [ploral buffaloes, buffalos] 'bAfa 
buffet n. (blow, cuff) iDAf it. 
buffet V. strike, cuff; beat back; struggle [present partici 

buffeting; past participle and preterit buffeted} 'bAfit. 
buffet n. dialectal (buffet-stool, footstool, hassock) 'bAf 
buffet n. sideboard; cupboard; refreshment-bar [former s 

enymous cognates beaufet, beauffet} bo'fee, 'bAfit. 
buffoon n. (clown ; jester) bA'fuun. 
bubl n. inlaid cabinet-work [synonymous cognate Bo 

boul, bjoul. 
build V. frame, construct [also spelt bild; past participh 

preterit built, bilt and, sometimes, builded, bildedl bi 
builder n. [also spelt bilder} 'bildazr. 

i ye, Q cure ; d the, thin ;^ 3 arure, ds ;oy ; j shoe, tj c, 
u) when ; 13 sin^r ; u whoever, i r^act, o full, ou tool, 1 it, 11 
o poetic ; a over, e aerial, a but, o: door, do no, e bed, ee / 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 67 

busy adj, (activ, etc.) 'bizi. 
but conj.f adv. bAt, (when unstrest) bat. 
but prep. bAt. 

butcber n., v. [as verb, past participle and preterit butch- 
ered, butcherdi 'botjaz; {dialectally) 'bou-tSa?. 
butt n., V. [also, in all senses, spelt but^ bAt. 
butte n. (hill) bjout, 
butterine n. [also, sometimes, spelt butterini 'bAta-ein, 'bAta- 

zin. 
button n., v. [as verb, past participle and preterit buttoned, 

buttond} 'bAtn. 
butyric adj. (of butter) bjo'ti?ik. 
butyrin n. [also spelt butyrinel 'bjou-ti-?in. 
buzine n, alkaloid [also, sometimes, spelt buxini 'bAk-sain, 

'bAksin. 
buy V. purchase [present participle buying; past participle 

and preterit boughtl bai. 
buz n,, V, hum [as verb, past participle and preterit bussed, 

busd} bAz. 
by prep, (as in *by the way, *by the by, *by rail, two *by two) 

bai, {when unstrest) ba. 
by adv, (as in near *by, *by and *by, he just went *by) bai. 
by n. as in by the *by, steal a *by [also spelt bye'\ bai. 
by-by interj. good-by [also spelt bye-byel bai'bai. 
by-by n. sleep, bed [also spelt bye-byel 'bai-bai. 
bygone adj., n. [also spelt by-gone} 'bai-gein. 
by-law n. [also spelt bye-law"} 'bai-lc: . 
bynni n. (fish) 'bini. 
bypath n. [also spelt by-path and, formerly, bye-pathi 'bai- 

pa:0. 
by-product n. [also spelt bye-product} 'bai-p^edakt. 
by-road n. [also, formerly, spelt bye-road} 'bai-z:ood. 
bystander n. [also, formerly, spelt bye-stander} 'bai-staen- 

da?. 
by-street n. [also spelt bye-street} 'bai-stjiit, 
byivay n. [also spelt by-way, bye-way} 'bai-wec. 
byivord n. [also, formerly, spelt by-word, bye-word} 'bai- 

WB:^d. 
byzant n. (gold coin) 'bizant, bi'zaent. same meaning as 

besant. 
Byzantian adj. bi'zaenSan. same meaning as Byzantine. 
Byzantine n. [also, sometimes, spelt Bysantin} bi'zaentin, 

'bizan-tin, bi'zaen-tain, 'bizan-tain, bai'zaen-tain. 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy, a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



68 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

cabaged adj, kd'beedsd. same meaning as c abashed, 

cabal n. (conjoint intrigue; junto) k9l)x>. 

cabal V. [present participle caballing; past participle and 

preterit caballed, cabaldl ks'bx}. 
cabala n. Hebrew tradition [also spelt cabbala, kabala, kab- 

balal Icaebd-ld. 
cabalism n. doctrin of the cabala [also spelt cabbalisml 

'kxbd-hzsm. 
cabalism n. (tendency to form cabals) kd'bae-hzam. 
cabalist n. one verst in the cabala [also spelt cabbalisti 

'kaeba-hst. 
caballer n. (one who cabals) ka'bseld?. 
caballine adj. (of a horse) 'kaeba-hn, 'ksebs-lain. 
cabaret n. (drinking-house) ^ash^-zet, 'ksebs-re, kxbs'^ee. 
cabob n. [also spelt kabob, cobob ; synonymous cognate ka- 

bab'\ kaHbob. 
cabosbed adj, [also spelt caboched, cabocht ; synonymous 

cognates cabossed, cabost, cabaged] ka'bejt. 
cabriolet n. (carriage) kaebei-a'let, kaeb^i-alee. 
cacao n. the seed of the chocolate-tree, from which cocoa is 

made; also, the tree itself [synonymous substitute cocoa'\ ka- 

'kee-D, ka'kai-D, 'kee-ko. 
cacao-nut n, (the fruit of the cacao or chocolate-tree) kd- 

'kee-D-UAt, ka'kai-D-nAt. 
cachalot n. sperm-whale [also spelt cachalot ; synonymous 

cognate cachelot'\ 'kaeja-lot, 'kaetja-lot, 'kaeja-lo. 
cacbe n. (hiding-place, etc.) ka:S, kaej. 
cachet n. (seal, stamp) kse'Jee. 
cachexy n. (morbid condition) kalceksi. 
cachinnation n. (loud laughter) kaeki'nee-^an. 
cachinnatory adj. kd^kind-tori, k^'kina-td^i, 'ksekina-td^i. 
cachou n. sweetmeat for the breath [also spelt cashew"] ka- 

'Sou. 
cacique n. prince [also, formerly, spelt cassique ; synony- 
mous cognate casiquel ka'siik. 
cacodemon n. evil spirit; nightmare [also spelt cacodae- 

monl kaeka'dii-man. 
cacodyle n. dimethyl arsine [also spelt kakodyle and, some- 
times, cacodyl, kakodyH 'kaeka-dil, 'kaka-dail. 
cacoepy n. mispronunciation [also spelt cacoepyl ka'koo-i- 

pi, 'kaeko-epi. 
cacoethes n. bad habit [also spelt cacoethesi kaeko'ii-Oiz, 

kaeko'ii-Gis. 

j .ve, gcure; bthe, G ^Mn; 3 a<sure, ds/oy; I shoe, tjc/iew; 
w when ; 13 sin^; u whoever, i r^act, o f«ll, ou iool, i it, li see; 
o poetic; 3 ov^r, e aerial, Abut, o: door, oo no, e bed, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 69 

oacolet n. (pannier) 'kaekd-te. 

cacophony n. (the epposit of euphony) kd'kefs-ni. 

cadaster n. register [also spelt cadastre} ka'daestQ?, ks'da:- 

cadaver n, (dead body) ka'dee-va?, kg'daeva^. 

caddie n. golf-player's lad [also spelt cadie, caddy"} 'kaedi. 

caddis n. ribbon [also spelt caddicel 'kaedis. 

caddy n. (tea-box; can) 'kaedi. 

cadenza n. (cadence) kg'dentsa, ks'denzs. 

cadet n. (younger son ; military student) kg'det. 

cadi n. judge [also spelt kadi, kadyl 'kee-di, 'ka:-di. 

Cadmean adj, of Cadmus [also spelt Cadmaeani kaed'mii-sn. 

oadncens n. wand [ploral caducei} ke'djou-si-9s, ka'djou-Jas. 

cadncons adj. (falling off) ka'djou-kas. 

caecnm n. blind-gut [also spelt cecum; ploral caeca} 'sii- 
kgm. 

Caenozoic adj. [also spelt Cenozoic} sins'zDO-ik. same mean- 
ing as Cainozoic. 

Caesarean adj. of Julius Caesar [also spelt Caesarian, Ce- 
sarean, Cesarian} si'ze:-ri-an. 

oaesinm n. (metal) 'sii-zi-9m. 

caesnra n. see cesjura. 

cafe n. (coffee-house; restaurant) kae'fee, (anteriorly) 'kaefe. 

caffeio adj. (of coffee) ka'fii-ik, 'kaefi-ik. 

caffeine n. [also, sometimes, spelt caffein} ka'fii-in, 'kaefi-in, 
'kaefi-ain. 

caffre n. see kafir. 

caftan n. garment [also spelt kaftan} 'kaeftan, kortorn. 

cahier n. (a section or gathering of book-leaves) kae'jee, ka- 
'jee, 'ka:-je, ka'hirr. 

Cainozoic adj. of recent life; Tertiary [also spelt Kainozoic; 
synonymous cognates Caenozoic, Cenozoic} kai-na'zoo-ik, 
kena'zoo-ik. 

caique n. boat [also spelt caique, kaic and, farmerly, caic} 
ka'iik ; (less properly) 'kee-ik. 

caiqne n. (parrot) 'kai-ke. 

cairn n. stone-heap [also spelt earn} ke:^n. 

caisson n. chest ; water-tight case [also, formerly, spelt cats- 
soon} 'kee-san, 'kee-sen, 'kee-seq, ke'soun. 

cajolery n. (act of cajoling) kg'dsoo-lg-^i. 

calabarin n. alkaloid [also spelt calaharine} kaela'bai-nn. 

calaber n. fur [also spelt calabar} 'kaela-ba^. 

calaboose n. (jail) kaelslsous, kaeld'buuz. 

c: \aWy b: f Mr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



70 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

' oalade n. (slope) kgleed, ka'laid, kg'laed. 

oalamine n. [also, sometimes, spelt calamin} 'kaela-min, 
'kaela-main. 

ealash n. (carriage) kalaeS. 

oaloar n. spur [ploral calcarial Icxl-koe. 

oalcar'^ons ae/;. of lime; chalky [also spelt calcariotisl kael- 
'ke:-ri-3s. 

caloaria n. (ploral of calcar) ka^'ke:-?i-3. 

caloimiiie n., z/. [synonymous cognate kalsominel Icaelsi- 
mam, 'kaelsi-min. 

oalcinable adj. kxl'sai-ng-bs}, 'kselsina-bg}. 

oaloinatory n. 'kxlsina-to^i, kse}'sin9-t37i. 
. calcine v. (reduce to calx) 'kael-sain, kaersain, 'kaelsin. 

oaloinm n. (metal) 'kaelsi-am; (less properly) 'kaelji-am, Tcael- 
Sam. 

caldron, n. big kettle [also spelt cauldron'] 'kcil-drsn. 

caledonite n. (mineral) 'ksehda-nait, kdleds-nait. 

calendar n. almanac ; table of days [also spelt kalendarl 
'kaelan-dar. 

calendar v. enter on a calendar or list; register [past par- 
ticiple and preterit calendared, calendard] 'kaelan-dae. 

calender n. (rolling-machine) 'kxlsn-dd?. 

calender v. pass thru a calender; press between rollers [past 
participle and preterit calendered, calenderdi 'kaelan-dae. 

Calender n. dervish [also spelt Kalenderl 'kaelan-da?. 

calends n. the first day of the month ; also, any one of the 
days preceding the first day of the month and following 
the ides of the preceding month [also spelt kalends'] 'kae- 
landz. 

calf n. [ploral calvesl ka:f, ka:f, kae:f. 

calf's-foot n. (a plant. Arum maculatum) 'ka:fs-fot. 

caliber n. diameter [also spelt calibre] 'kaeh-bar. 

calico n. cotton cloth [ploral calicoes, calicos] 'kaeh-ko. 

calif n. [also spelt caliph, kalif, kaliph, khalif] 'kee-hf. 

calif ate n. [also spelt caliphate, kalif ate, khalif ate; synony- 
mous cognate caliphat] 'kaeh-fet, 'kee-h-fet. 

calipash n. the part of a turtle next to the upper shield [also 
spelt callipash] 'kaeh-paeS, kaeh'paeS. 

calipee n. the part of a turtle next to the lower shield [also 
spelt callipee] 'kaeh-pi, kaeh'pii. 

caliper n. instrument for measuring diameter or caliber [al- 
so spelt calliper] 'kaeh-pa^. 

caliz n. [ploral calices] see calyx, 

j ve, g cure; 5 the, G th\n\ 3 a^rure, ds ;oy; S shot, tj c/tew; 
u) when ; r) sin^r; u whoever, i r^act, o f«ll, ou ioo\, 1 it, li s^^; 
o poetic ; a ov^r, e aerial, a bwt, o: door, 00 no, e b^d, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 71 



oalk V. drive oakum into the seams of [also spelt caulk; past 

participle and preterit calked, calkt} kc:k. 
calk V. cover with chalk [also spelt caique; past participle 

and preterit calked, calkt} kaelk, kc:k. 
oalk n. spur on a horseshoe [also spelt caulk, cauk; synony- 
mous cognate cork} kc:k. 
calkin n. (horseshoe-calk) 'kc:-kin, 'kaelkin. 
call V. cry; hail [past participle and preterit called, cald'\ 

kc:l, (when unstrest) kcl. 
calligraphy n. penmanship [also spelt caligraphy, kalligra- 

phy} ka'hg^a-fi. 
osklliope n. (humming-bird) ka'tai-a-pi. 
callisthenicfl n. pi, light gymnastics [also spelt calisthenics'] 

kaehs'Oeniks. 
oallose adj. (having callosities) kae'loos, (assumptivly) 'kae-los. 
oallor adj. (hard; unfeeling) 'kaelas. 
calloir adj. (without feathers; unfledged; inexperienced, 

raw) 'kaelo. 
callnfl n. callosity [ploral calli} 'kxlss. 
calm n., adj, (quiet) ka:m ; (dialectally, vulgarly) kae:m. 
calomel n. (mercurous chloride) 'ksds-msl. 
caloric adj. (of heat) ka'le^ik; (less properly) ka'lo:-eik. 
calorific adj, (producing heat) kaeb'^ifik. 
calory n. heat-unit [also spelt calorie] 'kaela-ri. 
caloyer n. (monk) 'kxlg-ja?, kyiei-sz. 

caltrop n. spiked ball [also, sometimes, spelt caltrap ; syn- 
onymous cognate calthrop] 'kaeltjap, 'kael-t£op. 
* calumet n. (pipe) 'kxHo-mst. 

calve V. bring forth a calf [past participle and preterit 

calved, calvd] ka:v, ka:v, kae:v. 
calver n. (a cow that calves) 'ka:-v3r. 
calver adj. (newly caught : said of fish) 'kaelvar. 
calves-foot adj, [synonymous cognate calf's-foot] 'ka:vz-fot. 
calx n. lime ; chalk [plural calxes, calces] kaelks. 
calyces n. (ploral of calyx) 'kaeh-siz, 'kee-h-siz. 
calyciform adj. (formd like a calyx) 'kaehsi-foi^m, ka'lisi- 

foizrm. 
calycine adj, of a calyx [also, sometimes, spelt calycin] 'kae- 

h-sin, 'kaeh-sain. 
csalyde n, little calyx; calice [also spelt calicle] 'kaeh-kal. 
calyx n, flower-cup; the outer envelop of the perianth; the 

sepals coUectivly [also, formerly, spelt calix; ploral co- 

lyxes, calyces] 'kee-hks, 'kaehks. 

c: \aw^ b: f wr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (0 indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



72 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

camas n. plant [also spelt camass, cammas, kamas'\ kd'mxs, 
kae'mxs. same meaning as quamash, 

camellia n. (flower) kd'meli-d, kd'mii-hs. 

oamelopard n. (giraffe) k9'me}9-pa:zd, 'kxmits-pa.'^d ; (rare- 
ly) kaemiJa'pai^d. 

camel's hair n. [synonymous cognate camel-hair} 'kaemsiz- 
he:z, 

Camembert adj. 'ksemsm-be:?. 

oamenes n. (mood of the fourth figure of syllogism) lex- 
mi-niz. 

camera n. vaulted roof; chamber; photographic apparatus 
[ploral cameras, camerael 'kaema-^a, (anteriorly) 'kaemasa; 
(rapidly) 'kaemra. 

camlet n. fabric [also spelt catnblet and, formerly, cameloi] 
'kaemlat. 

camomile n. plant [also spelt chamomilel 'kaema-mai}. 

campagna n. (obsolete) plain [also spelt cam/>a^nia] kam- 
'pa:-nJ3. compare champaign. 

campaign n. sustained military or other aggressiv opera- 
tions [also spelt campaini kaem'peen. 

campanile n. [plural campaniles, campanilil kxmpd'nii-li ; 
(less properly) 'kaempa-nil, 'kaempg-nail, kampa'niil. 

camphene n. terpene [also spelt camphine} 'kaem-fin, kaem- 
'fiin. 

camphine n. turpentine-oil [also, sometimes, spelt cam- 
phenel 'kaem-fain, 'kaem-fin, kaem'fiin. 

camphor n. aromatic substance [also spelt camfor; former 
synonymous cognate camphire'l 'kaemfa?. 

can V. [past participle and preterit canned, cand} kaen, (when 
unstrest) kan, kq. 

Canaanite n. 'kee-nd-nait. 

canaille n. (the vile populace; the rabble) ka'neel, ka'nai, 
ka'nail, ka'nar-ja. 

canaille n. feed; finisht middlings [also spelt canail; syn- 
onymous cognates canal, canell] ka'neel. 

canal v. [present participle canalling ; past participle and 
preterit canalled, canaldl ka'nael. 

canalize v. furnish with canals, etc. [also spelt canalise"} 
'kaenl-aiz, (rarely) kD'nael-aiz. 

canard n. (hoax) k3'na:?d, ka'na:?. 

canary «. (bird) ka'nei-^i. 

cancan n, (dance) 'kaen-kaen. 

cancel v. strike out, obliterate [present participle canceling, 

i .ve, Q cure; d f/ie, 9 thin; 3 axrure, ds /oy; S 5/ioe, tj chevr; 
vdwhen; r)s\ng\ u whoever, i r^act, o full, ou fool, i tt, lis^^; 
o poetic; a over, e oerial. Abut, o: door, 00 no, e bed, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 73 



cancelling; past participle and preterit canceled, cancelled, 

canceld] 'kaensgl, 'kaensl. 
cancelation, n. [also spelt cancellation} kaensalee-Jgn. 
cauceler n. one who or that which cancels [also spelt cancel- 
ler'} 'kansa-la^. 
cancer n. (tumor, carcinoma) 'kaenss?. 
cancrine adj. crab-like [also, sometimes, spelt cancrini 'kaeij- 

ksin, 'kaeq-ksain. 
candelabrum n. [plural candelabra} kaendslee-b^sm. 
candid adj. (honest, frank) 'kaendid. 
candied adj. (preservd with sugar) 'kaendid. 
candlestick n. 'kxndl-stik. 
candor n. whiteness; fairness; frankness [also spelt candour} 

'kaendazr. 
cane n. (woody stem ; walking-stick) keen. 
cangne n. (Chinese kia or portable pillory) kaeij. 
canine adj. (of a dog) 'kee-nain, ka'nain, {rarely) 'kae-nain, 

'kee-nin. 
canker n. (cancerous sore or disease; grief) 'kaeijks?. 
cannel-coal n. [also spelt canel-coal ; synonymous cognates 

kennel-coal, candle-coal} 'kaenl-kool. 
cannon n. big gun [plural cannons, cannon} 'kaenan. 
cannon v, in billiards [past participle and preterit cannoned, 

cannond} 'kaenan. 
cannoneer n. artilleryman [also spelt cannonier} kxna'ni:?. 
cannot v. (can not) 'kae-net, 'kaenet, (when less strest) 

'kaenat, {also, sometimes, finally) kae'net. 
cannula n. surgical tube; cruet [also spelt canula} 'kaenju-la. 
canny adj. knowing; artful [also spelt cannie} 'kaeni. 
canoe n. (light boat) kd'nuu. 
canoeist n, [also spelt canoist} kd'nou-ist. 
canon n. (rule, law) 'ksenan. 
canon n. 'kaenjsn. see canyon. 
canonization [also spelt canonisation} kaensni^zee-^gn, 

kaena-nai'zee-San. 
canonize v. [also spelt canonise} 'kaena-naiz. 
canorous adj. (singing, ringing) k9'n3:-?9s. 
cant n. (mode of speech ; jargon) kaent. 
can't V. (can not) ka:nt, ka:nt, kae:nt. 
cantabile adj. kan'ta:-bi-h ; {less properly) kaen'tee-bi-h, 

kaen'taebi-h. 
<Mintaliver n., adj. 'kaenta-hvar. same meaning as canti- 
lever, 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
Stress-mark (') indicates .chief stress on the following syllable. 



74 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

oantalonp n. melon [also, sometimes, spelt cantaloupe, 
cantalupe, cantaleup; synonymous cognates canteloup, can- 
teloupe, cantelupe, canteleup, cantelope"} 'kaenta-lup, 'kaents- 
lop; (also) Icaentl-up, 'kaentl-op. 

oantata n. (choral composition) kxn'ta:-t9, (rarely) kaen- 
'tee-t3. 

Cantate n. (ninety-eighth psalm) kxn'tee-ti. 

oantatrice n. 'kxnt9-t£is, kxnt3't£ii-tSi. 

canteen, n. subtler's shop; provision-box [also spelt cantine} 
kaen'tiin. 

cantharides n. pi. (dried Spanish flies) kxn'Oaeri-diz. 

oantharidin n. [also spelt cantharidine'\ kxn'Oaeri-diiu 

cantilever n., adj. [synonymous cognates cantaliver, can- 
tiliver, cantalever, canteliver'\ 'kaenti-lii-v3?, Icaenti-leva?. 

eantillate v. chant [also spelt cantilatel 'kaenti-tet. 

canto n. division of a poem; voice-part [ploral cantos} ncaen* 
to. 

cantonment n. military quarters [synonymous cognate can- 
ioonmenf] 'kaentan-mant, kaen'tonmant. 

cantrip n. spell, charm [synonymous cognates cantrap, can- 
trip el 'kaentjip. 

canvas n. heavy cloth [also spelt canvassi Icxnvss. 

canvas v. cover with canvas [also spelt canvass; past parti* 
ciple and preterit canvased, canvasti 'kaenvas. 

canvass v, examin ; solicit votes [also, formerly, spelt can- 
vas; past participle and preterit canvassed, canvast"} 'kaen- 

V3S. 

canyon n. deep gorge or ravine thru which a stream runs 
[also spelt canon, cannon, canon"] 'kaenjan. 

caonane n. turtle [also spelt caouanne] ka'wa:n. 

caontohin n. volatil oil [also spelt caoutchine; synonymous 
cognate caoutchoucin'] 'kou-tjin. 

caontchono n. 'kou-tjuk, 'kou-tjok, 'kao-tSok. 

eaontchoncin n. [also spelt caoutchouctnel 'kou-tjo-siu, 
'kao-tSo-sin. same meaning as caoutchin, 

cap-a-pie adv, [also spelt cap-d-piel kaepa'pii. 

capelin n. (the caplin, a Newfoundland bait-fish) Tcaepi-lin. 

capeline n. skull-cap [also spelt capelline, cappeline; syn- 
onymous cognate chapelinel 'kaepi-hn. 

capercailye n. wood-grouse [also spelt capercailzie, caper- 
caillie'] kaepa^'kee-Ha. 

oapibara n. rodent [also spelt capybaral kaepi'be:-?3, kaepi- 
'bar-z'a. 

j y€, g cure ; 5 the, G thin ; 3 a;?ure, ds ;oy ; $ shoe, tS chew ; 
wwhen; rjsing; u whoever, 1 r^act, o full, ou fool, 1 tt, lis^e; 
o poetic ; o ov^r, e aerial, a bi*t, o: door, 00 no, e b^d, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 75 



capillary adj, (of hair) 'kaepi-le^i, ka'pil9-ri. 

capital adj. (chief, principal; excellent) 'kaepi-tl, (anteriorly) 

'kaepitl. 
capital n. (the city or town in which is the seat of govern- 
ment of a country, state, or province ; also, a capital letter) 

'kaepi-tl. 
capital n. (wealth, productiv resources) 'kaepi-tl. 
capitalization, n. [also spelt capitalisationl kaepit}-i'zee- 

San, kaepitl-ai'zee-Jan. 
capitalize v. [also spelt capitalisel 'kaepitl-aiz. 
Capitol n. (citadel on the top of a hill, as in a Roman city; 

edifis occupied by Congress; state-house) 'kaepi-tl. 
Capitoline adj, (of a Roman Capitol) 'kxpitl-ain, ks'pit}- 

ain. 
capitulate v, (surrender) ka'pitgo-let, ka'pitja-let. 
capnomor n. oily liquid [also spelt kapnomorl 'kaepN3-mer. 
capon, n. (fowl) 'kee-pen, 'kee-pan, (rarely) 'kae-pen. 
caponize v. [also spelt caponise'\ 'kee-pa-naiz. 
caponch n. (obsolete) monk's hood or cowl [synonymous 

cognates capoch, capuche^ ka'pouj, ka'poutj. 
capriecio n. (whim; musical caprice) ka'p^itjo. 
capriooioso adv, (in music, in a free, fantastic style) kapsi- 

'tJoo-SD. 
caprioe n. (freak, whim) ks'psiis. 

capricions adj. (full of caprice; whimsical) kd'p^ijds. 
caprine n. substance in butter [also, sometimes, spelt cap- 

rin\ 'kaep3in, 'kae-p3ain, 'kee-psain. 
capriole n. (caper; leap) Tcaepsi-ol, (less often) kaepsi'ool, 

(rarely) 'kee-psi-ol. 
capsicin n. [also spelt capsicinel 'kxpsi-sin. 
capsize v, kaep'saiz, (sometimes, anteriorly) 'kaep-saiz. 
capstan n. (winding-device) 'kxpstn. 
capsnle n. (small case ; sac) 'kaep-sgt^. 
captain n. (head, chief) 'kaeptin; (popularly) 'kaepm. 
captive adj.,n.,v. [also spelt captiv; as verb, past participle 

and preterit captived, captivd} 'kaeptiv. 
Capuchin n. (Franciscan monk) kaep^o'Siin, 'kaepgo-tSin, 

'ksepQo-Sin, kaepgo'tSiin, 'kaep<;o-Sin. 
capnt n. head [plural capita and, rarely, caputs} Tcaepat, 

'kae-pAt. 
car n. ka:z:, ka: ; (dialectally) kga:r. 
carabin n. (obsolete) musketeer, carabineer [synonymous 

cognate carbine"] 'kae^a-bin. 

c: low, b: fur, ae cot, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



76 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

oaraeal n. (quadruped) 'kaezd-kx}. 

oaraoara n. hawk, carrancha [synonymous cognate carcaral 

kx79'kae33, kasd'kai-zd. 
oaraek n. ship [also spelt carrackl 'ksergk. 
caracole n. spiral staircase; half-turn [synonymous cognate 

caracoll 'kaera-kol. 
carafe n. water-bottle [also spelt caraffe} ka'^arf. 
caramel n. burnt sugar [also spelt caromell Icaerd-m^}, Icasz^- 

mel. 
carat n. a twenty-fourth part [also spelt karaO 'kaerat. 
caravan, n. (company of travelers on the desert; cart) Icae- 

zd-vxn, kaeea'vsn. 
oaravaiLsary n. inn for caravans [also spelt caravansary; 

synonymous cognates caravanserai, caravanserai kaeza'van- 

sa-zri. 
caravanserai n, kssz^'vaenss-rai. same meaning as cara- 
vansary. 
carbide n. 'ka:^-baid, (before of) 'ka:r-bid. 
carbine n. firearm [former synonymous cognates carabine, 

carrabine, carahin"] 'ka:e-bain ; {less properly) 'ka:r-bin, koz- 

'bain, 'ka:r-bin. 
carbon n. (element) 'ka:?-bon, 'ka:r-b9n. 
carbureted v. [also spelt carburettedl 'ka:^-bjo-^etid. 
carbnreter n. [also spelt carburetter, carburetor, carburet- 

tori 'ka:r-bjo-eet3r. 
carbnrization n. [also spelt carburisationi ka:?-bjo?i'zee- 

San, ka:?-bjo-^ai'zee-S3n. 
carbnrize v, [also spelt carburisel 'ka:r-bjo-?aiz. 
caroanet n. (necklace) 'karks-nat, 'ka^ka-net. 
carcass n. dead body; corpse [also spelt carcasel 'karkss. . 
card n. ka:ed, ka:d ; (dialectally) k^a:rd. 
cardamine n. (herb) ka^'dajmi-ni, 'kai^-da-main. 
oardamon n. (seed-capsules; spice) 'kair-dd-man. 
cardinal adj,, n. (chief) 'kar^-dn-l, 'kai^-di-nal. 
caret n. (insertion-mark) 'kae^at, 'ke:-?3t. 
cargo n. lading [ploral cargoes, cargosi 'ka:^-go. 
Caribbean adj, of the Caribs or Caribbees [also spelt Car- 

ribbeani kae^i'bii-an. 
Oaribbee n. Carib [also spelt Caribee, Carribbeel 'kae^i-bi, 

kae^i'bii. 
caribe n. (fish) 'kae^i-bi. 

caribon n. reindeer [also spelt cariboo, carribool 'kaen-bu, 
kaMTinbou. 

j 3>e, g cure; 5 tht, G thm\^ 3 ajsrure, ds /oy ; S j/toe, tS chcMv; 
wwhen; r)sing; u whoever, i r^act, o f«ll, ou fool, i tt, lisee; 
o poetic ; o over, e aerial, a but, 0: door, 00 no, e bed, ce gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 77 

oaricatnre n. (ridiculous representation) 'kae^ika-tSo?, 'kae- 
zikS'tqaz; {less properly) kae^ika'tSo:?, kaerika'tgo:?. 

caries n. (disease) 'ke:-?i-i:z. 

carillon n. (set of tuned bells; air) 'kx^i-lsn. 

carlin n. old woman [also spelt carline} 'ka:?-hn. 

carline n. carlino, a coin [also spelt carlin\ 'ka:7-hn. 

carline n. plant [also spelt carlin} 'ka:?-hn. 

carline n. timber [also spelt carlin ; synonymous cognate car- 
ling} 'ka:r-hn. 

carling n. (the peas eaten on Carling, Carlin Sunday, or Pas- 
sion Sunday) ^kaizAir). 

carmagnole n. (song and dance; soldier; style) ka?m3'nJ3o}. 

carminative adj. expelling [also spelt carminativ} ko^'mi- 
na-tiv; {less properly) 'ka:^-mi-netiv. 

carmine n. cochineal red [also, sometimes, spelt carmini 
'ka:r-min, 'ka:r-main ; (less properly) kor'main, 'ka:r-min. 

camelian n. red chalcedony [synonymous cognate corne- 
lian} ka^'nii-lign. 

camiTorous adj, (eating flesh) kaz'nivd-zds. 

carol V. sing [present participle caroling, carolling; past 
participle and preterit caroled, carolled, carold} 'kaeeal. 

<Miroler n. one who carols [also spelt caroller} 'kae^a-la?. 

carolin n. one of several gold coins; carline [also spelt Caro- 
line} 'kae^3-hn. 

Caroline adj. (of Carolus or Charles) 'kaeza-lain, 'kae^a-hn. 

Carolinian adj. (of Charles the Great; of North or South 
Carolina) kae^a'hni-an. 

carom n.. v. in billiards [also spelt carrom ; as verb, past par- 
ticiple and preterit caromed, caromd} 'kae^am. 

carotid n. (artery of the neck) ka'retid. 

caronsal n. (feast, noisy revel) ka'^ao-zal. 

carousel n. formerly, a tilting-match [also, in this sense, 
sometimes spelt carousal} ; merry-go-round [also spelt, in 
this sense, carrousel} kaezro'zel, 'kaero-zal. 

carrageen n. alga [also spelt carragheen} kaezd'giin, 'kaezs- 
gin. 

carrageenin n. [also spelt carrageenine} kae?ygii-nin. 

carriage n. (conveyance) 'kae^ids. 

,carriole n, single-seated open carriage; light coverd cart; 
kind of sledge [also spelt cariole} 'kaeri-ol, compare carry- 
all. 

carrot n. (vegetable) Tcae^at. 

carte blanche n. (blank paper; full power) ka?t'b}a:nS, ka^t- 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, e hot, oi hoy\ a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



78 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

'blenS, kaet'blae:nS ; {also) kart'WaintS, ka^t'blentS, kazt- 

'blaeintS. 
carte-de-visite n. small-sized photograph [ploral cartes- 

de-visitel koi^t-davi'ziit. 
cartel n. (written challenge or agreement; tablet) 'kar-tcl, 

kaz'ttl. 
Cartesian adj. (of Rene Descartes) ka^'tii-san, ka^'tii-zi-an. 
Carthusian n. (monk) ka^'Ogou-ssn, ka?'0Qou-zi-3n. 
cartilage n. (gristle) 'karti-hds, 'ka^tl-ids, 'ka^ttids. 
cartilaginons adj. (gristly) ka^tilxdsi-nas. 
cartonehe n. cartridge, etc. [also spelt cartouch} ka^'tou^ ; 

(less properly) kar'toutj. 
cartridge n. (explosiv case) 'kazrtjids; (vulgarly) 'kaetjids. 
camcage n. plowing-tax [also spelt carrucagel 'kae^o-kids; 

(less properly) 'kae^jo-kids. 
oameate n. land-measure ; a plow-land [also spelt carrucatel 

'kae^o-ket, (rarely) 'kae^jo-ket. 
caruncle n. fleshy excrescence [synonymous cognate ca- 

runcula, carunculel Icae-rAqksl, kae'^Aqkal, 'kai-^Ai^kal, ka- 

'zAt}kdi, 
oarre v. cut [also spelt carv; past participle and preterit 

carved, carvd'i ka:rv. 
caryatid n. female human figure used as a column [ploral 

caryatids, caryatides'} kae^i'aetid. 
caryatides n. (ploral of caryatid) kseri'xti-diz. 
oaryocinesis n. kaeri-o-si'nii-sis. same meaning as karyo- 

kinesis. 
casein n. milk albuminoid [also spelt caseine"] 'kee-si-in. 
casement n. (molding; window-sash) 'kees-mant, 'keez-mant. 
caseons adj. (of cheese) 'kee-si-as, 'kee-zi-as, 'kee-Jas. 
casheir n. nut ; tree ; also, cachu [also spelt cashoe'] ks'^ou. 
cashier n. (cash-keeper) kx'lr.z. 
cashier v. dismiss; discard [past participle and preterit 

cashiered, cashierdi kae'Si:^, ka'Siir. 
cashmere n. fine woolen fabric used for dress-goods [also 

spelt cashmeer, cachemire, cachemere, kashmir'\ 'kxl-mr.z, 

kxYmv.z. 
cashoo n. kd'^ou. same meaning as catechu, 
casino n. club-house ; card-game [also, in the sense of card- 
game, spelt cassinol ka'sii-no. 
cask n. (butt, barrel) ka:sk, ka:sk, kae:sk. 
casket n. chest, coffin, etc. [also, formerly, spelt casquetl 

'ka:-skit. 

j ^'e, Qcure; b the, G f/iin; 3 arure, d^.foy; ^ shoe, tjc/tew; 
wwhen; rising; u whoever, i r^act, o fMll, ou fool, i tt, lisee; 
o poetic; a ov^r, e oerial. Abut, o: door, 00 no, e b^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 79 

casqne n. (helmet; galea) ka:sk, ka:sk, kx:sk. 

oassareep n. sauce [also spelt cassaripe; synonymous cog- 
nate cassireepe'\ 'kaesa-rip. 

cassava n. plant; flour [also, formerly, spelt casava; synon- 
ymous cognate cassada^ ka'sa:-v3; (Jess properly) 'kaes9-v3, 
k9'see-v3, 'kaes3-ve. 

casserole n. (stew-pan) 'kaess-zol, kaess'sool. 

cassia n, (bark; tree; herb) 'kaeja, 'kaeji-a, 'kxsi-9, 'kx^js. 

cassimere n. twild woolen cloth used for trousers [also 
spelt casimire; synonymous cognate kerseymere} 'kaesi-mi:z:. 

cassoiB^ary n. (bird) 'ksesg-we^i, 'kaes9-w9?i. 

cast V, (throw, etc.) ka:st, {when unstrest) kast; (also) ka:st, 
kae:st. 

Castanet n. (shell used in music) 'ka:-st9-net, 'ka:-st9-nit, 
ka:-sta'net. 

caste n. division of society [also, formerly, spelt casti ka:st, 
ka:st, kse:st. 

castellan n. officer of a castle [synonymous cognate castel- 
laM 'kaest3-l9n, 'ka:-st3-l9n. 

caster n. cruet; small wheel [also spelt castor} 'ka:-st9?. 

Castile adj. (in *Castile soap) ka'stiil, ka'stiil, (sometimes, 
assumptivly) 'kae-stil. 

castle n. (fortress) 'ka:-s9l, 'ksesal. 

cast-off adj. ka:st'o:f, (assumptivly) 'ka:st-o:f. 

castor n. (beaver; castoreum; castorite) 'kai-sta?. 

castorin n. substance [also spelt castorine} 'kaests-zin. 

castorine n. cotton-velvet fabric [also spelt castorin} 'ka- 
st9-?in. 

castrate v, (geld; emasculate) 'kae-st£et. 

castrate n. singer [ploral castrati} kses'tjar-to, kas'tsa:-tD. 

casnal adj. (chance; fortuitous) 'kaesu-al, 'kaesju-al, 'kaezi-u-al. 

casualty n. (chance; accident) 'kaesu-al-ti, 'kaezi-u-al-ti. 

casnist n. (one verst in casuistry) 'kaesu-ist, 'kaesju-ist. 

casns belli n. (occasion of war; excuse for war) kee-s9s- 
nDeli. 

catabasis n. descent [plural catabases} ka'taebQ-sis. 

catabolio adj. [also spelt katabolic} kxtd'bohk. • 

catabolism n. disintegration : the opposit of anabolism [al- 
so spelt katabolism} kd'txbd-hzsm. 

cataebresis n. misuse of words [ploral catachreses} kxts- 
'k^ii-sis. 

cataebrestio adj, kaetd'k^cstik, ksetd'k^ii-stik. 

cataolasm n. (break, disruption) 'kxt3-kz.aezdm. 

c: lazf, b: f Mr, ae cat, o hot, oi hoy ; a: far, go now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



80 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

cataclysm n. (deluge, floo<^) 'kxtd-kLizgm. 
catacomb n. (subterranean burial-place) 'kaet9-k3om. 
catafalque n. coffin-stage [also spelt catafalc, catafalk'} 

'kaeta-faelk. 
catalepsy n. (seizure, trance) 'ksets-Upsi. 
catalog n., v. [also spelt ca^a/o^M^] 'kaets-leg, 'kxtl-eg. 
cataloged adj. [also spelt catalogued, catalogd} 'kxtg-legd. 
cataloger n. [also spelt cataloguer} 'kxtd-lega?. 
cataloging n. [also spelt cataloguing^ 'kaeta-legir). 
catalpa n. (tree) ks'txlpa. 

catalysis n. decomposition [plural cafa/3;^^j] kd'taeh-sis. 
catamaran, n. (raft; craft with twin hulls) kxt^m^'zxn, 

Icaetgms-raen, ka'taema-ran. 
catapan n. (Byzantin official) kxts'pxn, 'kxts-pxn. 
cataphora n. (lethargy) kd'taefa-??. 
cataract n. (waterfall; opacity of eye-lens) 'kaeta-raekt. 
catarrh n. (inflammation of mucous membrane) ka'ta:?. 
catarrhal adj. (of catarrh) k9'ta:-zdl. 
catarrhine adj. of the apes called Catarrhina [also spelt cA- 

tarhine"] 'kaeta-^ain, 'kaeta-ein. 
catastasis n. a setting forth ; narrativ [ploral catastasesl 

ks'taesta-sis. 
catastrophe n. (conclusion; disaster) ka'txst£9-fi. 
Catawba n. (grape) kd'tobg. 
catch z;., n. kaetS ; {vulgarly or dialectally) ketj. 
catohnp n. 'kxt^sp. same meaning as ketchup. 
cateehetio adj, (of catechism) kaeti'ketik. 
catechise n. dialectal (catechesis, catechism) 'kseti-kiz. 
catechism n. (religious textbook; book or course of questions 

and answers) 'kati-kizam. 
cateehization n. [also spelt catechisation] ksetiki'zee-S^n, 

kaeti-kai'zee-San. 
catechize v. instruct by questions [also spelt catechise"] 'kae- 

ti-kaiz. 
cateohn n. extract [synonymous cognate cashoo] 'kaeti-tju, 

'kaeti-Su. 
eaieohnmen n. (neophyte) kaeti'tSou-man, kaeti'kgou-man. 
oategorem n. (predicate, etc.) 'kaetiga-^em, ka'tega-^em. 
categorical adj. (of categories; precise) kaeti'ge^i-kal. 
categorization n. [also spelt categorisation^ kxti-g37i'zee- 

San, kaeti-go-^ai'zee-San. 
categorize v. (classify) 'kaeti-go-^aiz. 
category n. (notion, class) 'kaeti-gD^i. 

j .ve, Qcure; bthc, f/iin ; 3 a-srure, d$joy; ^ shoe, t^chew; 
wwhen; rjs'ing; u whoever, i r^act, u full, ou fool, i tt, lis^e; 
o poetic ; 3 ov^r, e aerial, a bwt, o: door, oo no, e b^d, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 81 

catena n. chain [plural catenael kd'tii-nd. 
catenary adj., n. 'kaetn-e^i, 'kaeti-ne^i, ka'tii-na-^i. 
oateran n. (Highland marauder; freebooter) 'kaeta-^sn. 
cater- cornered adj. diagonal [also spelt cater-cornerd'] 

'k&e-t32-ke:?-na^d, 'kaet9^-ke:z:-n3rd. 
caterpillar n. larva [also spelt caterpiller'] 'kxtdz-pildz. 
cateriranl v. (cry as a cat) 'kaet9?-wc:l. 
catharize v. (purify) 'kaeGa-raiz. 
cathartic adj., n. (purgativ) ka'Ga^tik, ka'Garr-tik. 
cathedra n. (bishop's chair; episcopal see) kd'Oii-drs, 'kse- 

9i-dc3; (less properly) ka'Gedra. 
cathedraled adj. [also spelt cathedralled, cathedrald'\ ks'Oii- 

dcdld. 
catheter n. (tube) IcaeGi-ta?. 
cathetus n. line [ploral catheti] 'kaeGi-tas. 
cathodal adj. of the cathode; lower [also spelt kathodall 

'kaeGa-dl. 
cathode n. negativ pole [also spelt kathode'] 'kx-God. 
cathodio adj. going down [also spelt kathodicl ks'Gedik. 
Catholicism n. kd'Geh-sizdm, 'kaeGdh-sizdm. 
Catholicize v. [also spelt Catholicise] ka'Geh-saiz, 'kxGsli- 

saiz. 
cation n. ion at the cathode ; electropositiv ingredient [also 

spelt kation] 'kaeti-an, 'kaet-ai-an. 
catoptric adj. (of a mirror; of optic reflection) ks'tep- 

txik. 
catsnp n. 'kaetsap. same meaning as ketchup. 
Caucasian adj. (of the Caucasus; Indo-european) kc'kxSsn, 

kc'kee-San, kc'kee-Si-3n, kc'kee-san, kc'kee-zi-9n. 
candad adj. (toward the tail) 'kc:-dsed. 
eandal adj. (of the tail) 'kc:-d}, 'kodal. 

candez n. stem, trunk [ploral caudices, caudexes] 'kc:-deks. 
candle n. (warm drink) 'kc:-dl. 
canght V. [past participle and preterit of catch] kc:t, (when 

unstrest) kct. 
cank n, (spur on a horseshoe) see calk.* 
canl n. net ; membrane [also spelt cawl] kc:l. % 

canldron n. see caldron. 
canlifloiB^er n. (vegetable) 'kcr-h-fLou-ar. 
canline adj. of a stem [also, sometimes, spelt caulin] 'kc:- 

hn, 'kci-lain. 
canlis n, stalk, stem [ploral caules] 'kc:-lis. 
canlk V. see calk.^ 

c: low, b: f«r, ae cat, e hot, ei boy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



82 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

canseway n. [synonymous cognate causeyl Icciz-wee. 
oansey n. 'kc:-zi, 'kc:-ze. same meaning as causeway, 
canterization. n. [also spelt cauterisation'] kotd^i'zee-Sdn, 

kc:-t3-z:ai'zee-S3n. 
oanterize v, [also spelt cauterise"] 'kc:-t9-zaiz. 
oauzee n. 'kc:-zi. same meaning as kasi, 
cavalcade n. (company on horseback) ksevdlHceed; {less 

properly) 'kaeval-kcd. 
oavalero n. cavalier [also spelt cavaliero] kxv9li:-eo. 
cavalier n. (horseman; beau) kaeva'h:?. 
cavally n. fish [also spelt cavalli; ploral cavallies, cavallis] 

ka'vaeh. 
cavass n. see kavass, 

cavatina n. (simple melody, air) kavd'tii-ns, kaevd'tii-na. 
cavea n. cage; auditorium [plural caveae] 'kee-vi-a. 
caveat n. (notice; warning) 'kec-vi-at; {less properly) Tob- 

vi-aet. 
oavel n. a lot that is cast ; an allotment [synonymous cognate 

cavil, kevel, kevil] 'kaeval. 
oavesson n. nose-band [also, formerly, spelt caveson; for- 
mer synonymous cognates cavason, cavezon, causson] Icae- 

visan. 
caviar n. fish-roe [also spelt caviare] kavi'a:?, kav'ja:e, kaevi- 

'ci:Zy 'kaevi-a^, kavi'e:?, kaev'je:r, ka'vi:?. 
cavil V. find fault; carp [present participle caviling, cavU- 

ling; past participle and preterit caviled, cavilled, cavild] 

'kaeviL 
caviler n. one who cavils [also spelt caviller] 'kaevi-lar. 
cavort V. (prance about) ka'voi^t. 
cavnni n. hollow; cavity [ploral cava] 'kee-vam. 
cay n. kee, kii. same meaning as key. 
Cayenne adj, ke'en, kai'en, (sometimes, assumptivly) 'kee-en, 

'kai-en. 
cayman n. alligator [also spelt caiman, kayman, kaiman 

ploral caymans] 'kee-man. 
caziqne n. ka'ziik. same meaning as cacique, 
cease v. stop, end [past participle and preterit ceased, ceo 

siis. 
cecils n. />/. (hasht meat) 'sesilz, 'sii-silz. 
cecity n. blindness [also spelt coecity] 'sii-si-ti, 'scsi-t 
cecnm n. see caecum. 
cedar n. (tree ; wood) 'sii-da?. 
cede V. (yield) siid. 

i ye, Qcure; 5 f/»e, 9 */iin ; 5 arure, d$Joy; ^shoCf tS 
lott'i^en; t}sing; u whoever, i r^act, o fMll, autoo\, lit, 
o poetic ; 3 ov^r, e aerial, a hut, 0: door, oo no, e b^d, e 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 83 

ceder n. (one who cedes) 'sii-da?. 

cedilla n. (little z : a mark placed under the letter c to in- 
dicate that the c has the sound of s) si'dila. 

oedrin. n. extract from cedron-seeds [also spelt cedrine} 'sii- 
drin. 

oedrine adj, of the cedar [also, sometimes, spelt cedrin\ 'sii- 
drin, 'sii-drain; {less properly) 'sedrin. 

ceil V. overlay, as with plaster or wood [also spelt del', past 
participle and preterit ceiled, ceild^ siil. 

ceiling: n. plastering at the top of a room, etc. [also spelt 
cieling'\ 'sii-lir). 

celandine n. plant [former synonymous cognates celendinc, 
celadine, salandine, saladine'\ 'selan-dain. 

celantes n. (mood of the first figure of syllogism) si'taen-tiz. 

celarent n. (mood of the first figure of syllogism) si'le:- 

celebrator n. [also spelt celebrater"] 'seh-brets?. 

eeleres n,pl. (patrician knights) ^seh-ziz. 

celery n. plant [also, formerly, spelt selleri} 'sela-ri, {rapidly) 

'sefei. 
celestial adj, (of the sky; heavenly) sitestSdl, si'leStSsl, 

silesti-al. 
Celestine n. follower of Caelestius [also, sometimes, spelt 

CelesiinJ 'sela-stin, 'sela-stain, si'lestin. 
celestite n. (mineral) 'seb-stait, si'le-stait. 
celiac adj. of the belly; also, coelian [also spelt coeliaci 'sii- 

}i-aek. 
celibacy n. (single life; unmarried state) 'sehba-si; {less 

properly) siliba-si. 
cell n. (small apartment; religious house; structural element 

of organisms; battery-jar) sel. 
cella n. central room of a temple; cell [ploral cellae} 'scla. 
cellar n. (room under a house) 'selar. 
cello n. violoncello [also spelt *cello'\ 'tjelo. 
cellular n. (of cells) "seliu-la?. 
cellnloid n. (imitation ivory, etc.) 'selio-leid. 
cellnlose n. (substance of cell- walls) "selio-tos, selioldos. 
Celt n. [synonymous cognate Keltl seh, {rarely) kclt. 
celt n. (implement) selL 

Celtic adj. [synonymous cognate Keltic'} 'seUik. 
cembalo n. (dulcimer) 'semb3-l3. 

cement n. (binding-substance; adhesiv) si'ment, 'semant. 
content v. (unite by cement ; cohere) si'mcnt. 

c: law, b: f «r, ae cat, o hot, oi hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mcu-k {') indicates chief stress on the tellowing syllable. 



84 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

cemetery n. [ploral cemeteries} 'semi-teri; (also) 'semita-zi, 
(anteriorly) 'semi-ta^i ; (rapidly) 'semi-tji, 'semitji. 

cenobite n. [also spelt coenobite} 'send-bait, 'sii-ns-bait. 

cenotapli n. (empty tomb) 'sen3-ta:f. 

CenoBoio adj, sind'zoo-ik. same meaning as Caenosoic. 

oense v. (perfume with incense) sents, (in Britain) sens. 

censer n. (vessel in which incense is burnt) 'sentS9?, 'stns^z, 

censor n. (magistrate) 'sentss?, 'sensdz. 

censnre n. (hostil criticism) 'sentjdz, 'sen^sz, 'sensgs?. 

cent n. (coin) sent. 

centanr n. (mythic monster, half man and half horse) 'sen- 
tc:z. 

centenary adj. (of a hundred) 'senti-nezi; (also) 'sentina- 
zi, (assumptivly) 'senti-nari; (also, in Britain) sen'tii-na.-ri, 
sen'tena-ei. 

centenier n. (police-officer) 'senti-ni:?. 

centennial adj. (of a hundred years) sen'teni-s}. 

center n.,v. [also spelt centre \ as verb, past participle and 
preterit centered, centred, centerdi 'senta?. 

centering n. [also spelt centreing and, sometimes, centring} 
'senta-ziq, 'sentEiq. 

centesimal adj., n. (hundredth) sen'tesi-ma}. 

centesimo n. (hundredth of a lira) sen'tesi-mo, tSen'tesi-mo. 

centig^rade adj, (graduated into a hundred equal parts) 'sen- 
ti-greed. 

centigram n, hundredth of a gram [also spelt centigramme} 
'senti-graem. 

centiliter n, [also spelt centilitre} 'senti-hi-t3?; (improper- 
ly) sen'tih-t3?. 

centime n. (hundredth part of a franc) 'sen-tim, sen'tiim. 

centimeter n. [also spelt centimetre} 'senti-raii-t3z ; (im- 
properly) sen'timi-tar. 

centipede n. many-legged arthropod [synonymous cognate. 
centiped} 'senti-pid. 

centrale n. bone [ploral centralia} sen't£ee-h. 

centralization n. [also spelt centralisation} sent£9h'zee- 
53n, sentja-lai'zee-San. 

centralize v. [also spelt centralise} 'sentj3-laiz. 

centrifugal adj. (fleeing from the center) sen'tEifgo-gal, 
(assumptivly) sen'tsifgogal. 

centripetal adj. (seeking the center) sen'tjipi-tl, (assump- 
tivly) sen'tEipitl. 

cents n. (ploral of cent) sents. 

j ye, gcure; bthe, ^Ain ; 3 a^rure, ds/oy; S shoe, tjc/iew; 
wwhen; T}sing; u whoever, i r^act, o full, ou fool, i tt, lis^e; 
o poetic; apv^r, e aerial; Ab«t, o: door, oo no, ebed, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 85 

centninvir n. one of a body of about a hundred Roman 

judges [ploral centutnvirs, centumviri] sen'tAmvae. 
centmnvirate n. sen'tArnvs-rst. 
centnple adj, (a hundred-fold) 'sentgo-psh 
centurion n. (commander of a century) sen'tQo:-?]-3n. 
century n. (a hundred soldiers; a hundred years) 'sentSa-eii 

{anteriorly) 'sentSa^i; {rapidly) 'sentjsi; {older) 'sentga-ri. 
ceorl n. (churl) kqz:z\, t\z:zl, 
ceplialic adj, (of the head) si'faehk, 'sefa-hk; {erroneously) 

ki'faehk. 
cephalopod n. (head-tentacled animal) 'sefsls-ped, si'fsels- 

ped. 
cephalous adj. (having a head) 'sefs-las. 
cerain n. (constituent of beeswax) 'si:-re-in, 'si:-?a-in. 
ceramic adj. [synonymous cognate keramici si'zxmik. 
ceras n. a horn, or the like [ploral ceratal 'sezas. 
cerate n. (ointment) 'si:-?et, 'si:-?at. 
cerate adj. (having a cere; cered) 'si:-eet. 
cerate n. horn-silver [synonymous cognate keratel 'seeet. 
ceratin n. horn-substance [also spelt ceratine; synonymous 

cognates keratin, keratinel 'sera-tin. 
ceratina n. (horn-plate) si'rseti-na. 

ceratode n, horn-like skeletal substance of sponges [synony- 
mous cognate keratode} 'sera-tod. 
ceratohyal adj,, n. seza-to'hai-al. 
ceratoid adj, horn-like [synonymous cognate keratoid'^ 'se?a- 

toid. 
ceratome n. cornea-cutter [synonymous cognate keratomel 

'sera-tom. 
ceratose adj, horny [synonymous cognate keratose'^ 'seea- 

tos. 
cercus n. rear feeler; bristle [ploral cerci"] 'sB^kas. 
cere n., v. (wax) sv.z, 
cereal adj, (of edible grain) 'si:-zi-a}. 
cerebellum n. the little brain; the hind-brain [ploral cere- 

bella} seei'belam. 
cerebral adj. (of the brain) 'se^i-beal; {less properly) si'eii- 

b^al. 
cerebrio adj, (cerebral) 'se?i-b^ik, si'^eb^ik, si'eii-b^ik. 
cerebrospinal adj. of the brain and spinal cord [also spelt 

cerebrospinal} se^i-b^o'spai-nl. 
cerebrum n. brain; prosencephalon [ploral cerebral 'seri- 

b^ara; {less properly) si'^ii-b^am. 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, e hot, oi boy ; a: for, go now,, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



86 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

cerement n. (waxt grave-cloth) 'si:?-m3nt. 

ceremonial adj., n. sezi'moo-m-dL 

ceremony n. [ploral ceremonies'} 'se?i-moni, 'sezima-ni. 

oereous adj. (waxen) 'si:-zi-98. 

oerens n. (cactus) 'sii-zi-^s. 

cerge n. sB:zd$. see under cierge, 

cerio adj. (of cerium) 'si:-eik. 

oerin n. waxy substance from cork ; impure cerotic acid from 

beeswax [also spelt cerine"] 'sii-zm. 
cerine n. ore of cerium [also spelt cerinl 'si:-ein. 
ceriph n. see serif. 
cerise adj., n, (cherry red) sa'riiz. 
ceroma n. (wax salve; cere) si'^oo-ms. 

cerosin n. wax-like substance [also spelt cerosinel 'si:-73-sin. 
certain adj: (fixt; sure) 'sertn, 'se^tin; (dialectally) 'se^t-n. 
certainly adv. 'so2tn-h, 'se^ti-nh; (dialectally) 'sart-nh. 
certiorari n. (writ) ssz^^'zei-zai. 

cerulean adj, sky-blue [also spelt caeruleani si'zou-}i-9n. 
cerulein n. blue substance [synonymous cognate cerulin} si- 

'?ou-}i-in. 
cemlin n. 'si:-7o-}in. same meaning as cerulein, 
cerumen n. (ear-wax) si'rou-msn. 
ceruse n. (white lead) 'si:-?us, si'^ous. 
cerusite n. [also spelt cerussitel 'sezd-sait. 
cervical adj. (of the cervix or neck) 'sBie-vi-kal, sd^'vai-kdt. 
cervine adj. (of the deer) 'sB:?-vin, 'sBie-vain. 
cervix n. neck, etc. [ploral cervices'} 'ser^-viks. 
ceryl «. (radical in beeswax) 'sir-^il. 

cesare n. (mood of the second figure of syllogism) 'sii-za-ri. 
Cesarean adj. see Caesarean. 
cespitose adj. turfy; matted [also spelt caespitosel sespi- 

'toos, (assumptivly) 'sespi-tos. 
cessation n. (a ceasing; stop) se'see-S^n. 
cessavit n. (writ) se'see-vit. 
cessible adj. obsolete (yielding) 'sess-bsl. 
cession n. (act of ceding) 'seSsn. 
cesspool n. (drain-cistern) 'ses-poul. 
cestus n. girdle [ploral cestil 'sestss. 
cestus n, boxing-glove [also spelt caestus; ploral cestusi 'se- 

St3S. 

cesura n. cut made by the ending of a word within a foot 
[also spelt caesura; ploral cesuras, caesurael si'sgo:-ra, si- 
'zjo:-^3, si'3o:-?9. 

j ye, gcure; bthe, *ftin ; 3 ajarure, ds/oy; I shoe, t$c|jew; 
wwhen', rising; u whoever, ir^act, o full, ou fool, itt, lise^; 
o poetic; a over, e aerial, Abut, o: door, oono, ebed, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 87 

Cetacea n. pi, (whales) si'tee-si-3, si'tee-Ji-a. 

cetacean adj. (of the Cete or whales) si'tee-S^n* 

oete n. (whale) siit. 

cete n. obsolete (a company of badgers) siit. 

Cete n. pi. (whales, dolphins, etc.) 'sii-ti. 

ceteraolL n, (scaly fern; miltwaste) 'set9-7sek. 

cetic adj. (of the whale) 'sii-tik. 

cetine n. [also, sometimes, spelt cetin\ 'sii-tin, 'sii-tain. 

cetrarate n. si't£ee-zet. 

oetrario adj. (of citraria or Iceland moss) si'tjae^ik. 

cetrarin n. [also spelt cetrarinel si'tje:-?in, 'setja-rin, 'sii- 

tja-^in. 
cetyl n. radical [also spelt cetylel 'sii-til. 
ceylonite n. [synonymous cognates ceylanite, zeylanitel si- 

^en-ait, sile-nait, 'sii-la-nait. 
cliabasite n. 'kaebs-zait, 'kaebs-sait. same meaning as chah- 

azite. 
cliabazite n. mineral [synonymous cognate chabasitel 'kx- 

'ba-zait. 
Cliablis «. (wine) Sa'Mii, Sae'bhi. 
cliaff n. (grain-husks) tSa:f, tSa:f, tSx:f. 
chaffinolL n. (bird) 'tJaef-fintS, 'tJaefintS, 'tSa:-finS. 
clLag^n n. (vexation ; mortification) S^'d^iiif S^'^^iii^* 
chair n. (seat) tje:?. 
chaise n. (vehicle) ^eez. 

chalaza n. tread of an egg, etc. [ploral chalazael kslee-zs. 
clialcedonio adj. of chalcedony [also spelt calcedonic} kse}- 

si'donik. 
cbaloedony n. [also spelt calcedonyl ksel'seds-ni, 'kselsidd-ni. 
ClLaldean adj. of Chaldea [also spelt Chaldaeani kael'dii-sn. 
Chaldee adj., n. (Chaldean) 'ksel-di, kael'dii. 
dLaldron n. (measure) 'tSc:l-dr9n, 'tSail-dran, 'tSaeldran. 
chalet n. (cottage) Sg'lee, Saelee, 'Saele. 
chalice n. cup [also spelt chalisl 't^sehs. 
chalil n. (ancient Hebrew musical instrument) hxliil. 
chalk n. (soft white limestone) tSc:k. 
challenge n,, v, 'tSaehnds. 
challifl n. fabric [also, sometimes, spelt challyl 'Saeh, 'tSsehs. 

compare shalli. 
Chalybean adj. (of the Chalybes) ks'libi-sn, kaeh'bii-gn. 
chalybeate adj, (impregnated with iron) kslibi-et. 
chambranle n. (top-piece of a doorway, etc.) Saem'braenl. 
chameleon n. reptil [also spelt chamaeleoni kg'mii-H-an. 

c: low, b: f wr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stre9s-mork (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



88 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

clLamf er n., v. bevel [as verb, past participle and preterit 
chamfered, chamferdi 'tSaemfa^. 

clLamois ». antelope; soft leather [also sometimes spelt, es- 
pecially in the sense of leather, shatnoy, shammy^ 'Jaemi, 
'Sae-mwe, 'Jae-mwa, 'Sae-mei, Jae'mei. 

dLamomile n. see camomile, 

ehamp v, bite, chew [synonymous cognate chomp; past par- 
ticiple and preterit champed, champti tjaemp. 

clLampag^ne n. wine [also, formerly, spelt champaigne, cham- 
paign] Saem'peen. 

dLampaigrn n., adj, (flat open country) Jaem'peen ; {formerly) 
tSaem'peen. 

olLampak n. tree [also spelt champaci 't^aem-psek, 'tSaempak, 
'tjAm-pAk. 

oliainpignon n. mushroom [also spelt champinioni Ixra'pi- 
njan, tSgm'pini-an. 

dLamplain adj. (part of the Paleozoic series) S^i^'pz^en. 

ohanoe n. (fortune, fortuity, etc.) trains, t^ams, t$ae:ns; (also) 
tjarnts, etc. 

clLanoel n. (sanctuary) 't^am-sdl, 'tSaenssl. 

clLanoellor n. (officer) 'tSa:n-s9-l9?. 

olLancery n. 'tSa:n-s3-7i. 

chancre n. (venereal ulcer) 'Saerjka?. 

chancroid adj. (like chancre) 'S^r)-k^eid. 

chandelier n. (pendant cluster of lights) Sxndali:?. 

chandler n. (candle-maker; retailer) 'tSa:n-dl3?, 'tjaendla?. 

changeable adj, (variable) 'tSeen-dss-bsl. 

channel v, [present participle channeling, channelling; past 
participle and preterit channeled, channelled, channeld"} 
'tSaenl, 'tSaenal. 

chanson n, (song) S^ri'ser), 'S^nssn. 

chant v., n. [synonymous cognate chaunti tSa:nt, tSa:nt, 
tjaeint. 

chantant adj. Sog'ter), 'tSa:n-t9nt. 

chanticleer n. (cock) 't^aenti-kz.i:?, 'tSa:n-ti-kLi:7. 

chaos n. (chasm, abyss; disorder) 'kee-es. 

chaotic adj. (like chaos) ke'etik. 

chap n. (a crack, as in the hand) tSxp. 

chap n. jaw [also spelt chopl t^op. 

chaparral n. (thicket) tSaepa'rael. 

chapean n, hat [ploral chapeauxl Sx'poo. 

chapel n. (subordinate place of worship, etc.) 'tjapal. 

chaperon n. (hood; protector) 'Saep3-?on, 'Jaepa-een. 

j ye, Qcure; hthe, 0*Mn; sa^ure, ds/oy; S .yftoe, t$cljew; 
wwh^n; rjsin^; u whoever, i react, o full, ou fool, i»t, lise^; 
o poetic ; 9 over, e aerial, a but, o: door, oo no, e bed, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 89 



oHapfallen adj. 't$ep-fc:-49n, 'tSaep-fobn. same meaning 

as chopfallen, 
diaplain n. (priest, etc.) 't^sepMn. 
cliaplet n. (head-dress, wreath) 't^sepz^st. 
cliappy n, chap, fellow [also spelt chappie"] 't^aepi. 
cliar n., v, t\a\z, same meaning as chare, 
char n. (fish) \.\<\\z. 
cliar V. reduce to charcoal by burning; scorch [as verb, past 

participle and preterit charred, chard] t^aiz. 
cliaracter n. (mark; trait; person) 'kaeeak-tar, (anteriorly) 

'kaKaktar; (also, often) 'kaezik-ta?; (vulgarly) ka'^aektar. 
diaracterization n. [also spelt characterisation] kaezdk- 

ta^i'zee-Jan, (rapidly) kaeraktji'zee-San ; (also) kxz^kt^-zai- 

'zee-San. 
cliaracterize v. [also spelt characterise] 'kae^skts-^aiz. 
cliarade n. (word-riddle, often acted) Ja'^eed, Ja'^aid, 
chare n., v. turn, etc. [synonymous cognate char and, as a 

noun, in the sense of job, chore] t^cz. 
cluuriness n. 't$e:-zi-nis. 
charioteer n. (chariot-driver) tjaeri-a'ti:?. 
charism n. (devine gift; talent) 'kae-zizam. 
charivari n. (mock serenade) Jaeri'vae^i, Sari'va:-?i. 
charlatan n. (qudck) 'laiz-l^-tn, 'Sa:r-l3-t3n, 'Soir-la-taen. 
charlotte msse n. (whipt cream and sponge-cake) laizA^t- 

'zous. 
charael n. (repository for dead bodies'^ 'tSoi^-nl. 
chart n„ v. (map ; draft) tlaizt. 
charta n. a paper, a parchment; a charter [ploral chartae] 

Tcarta, 'ka:r-t3. 
charter n. (written instrument) \lazt^z. 
chartog^apher n. map-maker [also spelt cartographer] kaz- 

'tegz5-i9z. 
chartrense n. (cordial) Ja^'tXBiz. 

chartnlary n. a set of charters ; register [also spelt cartula- 
ry] 'koetgo-lc^i. 
chary adj. (careful, cautious, wary) 'tSe:-zi. 
chasable adj. [also spelt chaseable] 'tSee-sa-bal. 
chase v., n. hunt [also spelt chace] tjees, (when unstrest) 

tSes. 
chase n. (frame in which type-forms are lockt) t^ees. 
chase n. (part of a gun ; groove) tjees. 
chasm n. (yawning gulf; cleft; gap) Tcaezam, Tcaezm. 
chas86 V. glide, etc. [also spelt chasses, chassey; vulgar syn- 

c: law, b: f «r, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, go now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



3 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

enymous cognates sashy, sashay, sasshay"} Ix'ste, {sat 

times, especially anteriorly) 'Jaese. 
cliassepot n. (rifle) 'Sxs-po, S^^'poo. 
clLasaia n. (frame) 'Ssesis, Sci'sii. 
chaste adj, (pure) tSeest. 
chasten v. disciplin; purify [past participle and prete 

chastened, chastendl 'tjee-san, 'tSee-sn; (improperly) 't$ 

stsn, 'tSsessn. 
clLastening adj. 'tSee-sa-nir), (rapidly) 'tSees-niij. 
chastise v, punish [also spelt chastijsel t^ses'taiz, tSs'stc 

'tSae-staiz. 
chastisement n, 'tSsestis-msnt, 't^xstiz-mdnt ; (less proper 

tSaes'taiz-mant. 
chasnble n. (vestment) 'tSaesJo-bal, 'tSaesgo-bal, 'tSaJjo-ba! 
oh&tean n. castle; country house [ploral chateaux] ^m't 

Sa'too. 
chatelaine n. (mistress of a chateau; appendage) 'tSseti- 

'Saeti-len; 'Jai-ta-len. 
chattel n. (movable possession) 'tjaetl, 'tSaetal. 
chauffer n. portable furnace [also spelt chauferl 'tSc:-f 

'Scr-far. 
chanffenr «. (automobile-driver) So'fo:r, '^oo-i^z. 
chanTinism n. (devotion) 'S^o-vi-nizdm.* 
chay n. chaise [also spelt shay"! See. 
cheap adj. (low in price ; mean) tSiip. 
check n., v. [also, as a noun, in the sense of a written c 

or draft, spelt cheque; as verb, past participle and pre 

checked, checktl tSek. 
checker n. one of the pieces or men used in the g; 

drafts or checkers [also spelt chequer! 'tjeka?. 
checkerberry n. [also spelt chequerberry ; synenymou 

nate chickaberry"] 'tSeks^-be^i. 
checkered adj. [also spelt chequered, checkerdi 't^eks; 
cheeky adj. checkt, checkerd [also spelt chequee, ( 

chequey, checquy, checqueyl 'tjeki. 
Cheddar adj. [also spelt Chedderl 'tSedds. 
cheep V, (peep, chirp, squeak) tSiip. 
cheerful adj, 't^r.z-i^l. 
cheesy adj. (of or like cheese) 'tSii-zi. 
chef n. (head; chief cook) S^f- 
chef-d'ceuvre n. [ploral chefs-d'ceuvrel Se'deivr. 
cheiropter n. see chiropter. 
chela n. claw [ploral chelae"] Icii-ld. 

jye, Qcure; d */ie, *Mn ; 3 axrure, 63 Joy; jshoe 
wwhen; rjsing; u whoever, i react, o f ull, ouiool, 
o poetic ; a ov^, e aerial, a hut, o: door, oo no, e if 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 91 

oliela n. pupil, novice [also spelt cheela] 'tjee-la, 'tjii-la. 

olieloid n. tumor [also spelt keloid] Hcii-leid. 

clielys n. (ancient Greek lyre; lute; viol) 'kehs. 

dieme n. (Roman weight) 'kii-mi. 

clLeinic adj. (of chemistry) 'kemik. 

elieiiiiBe n. (garment; wall) Ji'miiz; (Jess properly) Si'miis. 

clieiiiisette n. (garment) ^emi'zet. 

d&einiflt n. [former synonymous cognate chymist} 'kemist, 
(dialectally) 'kimist. 

elieiiiistry n, [former synonymous cognate chymistryl 'kc- 

mi-stji, (dialectally) 'kimi-stji. 
clienille n, (cord) ^d'niil. 
clienopod n. (plant) 'kii-ns-pod, 'kens-pod. 
olieqiie n. see check. 
elieroot n. cigar [synonymous cognate sharootl l^'zout, tSi- 

'?out. 
eliemb n. angel [ploral cherubs, cherubim} 'tSerab. 
cliembio adj. (of cherubs; angelic) t$i'?ou-bik. 
eliernbiln n. (ploral of cherub) 'tSe?a-bim; (less properly) 

'tSe2Jo-bim. 
cbervil n. (plant) 'tSo:r-vil. 
Cbesliire adj. 'tltl^z. 

cbestnnt n. nut; tree [also spelt chesnut"} 't^esNdt 'tSes-nxt. 
obetab n. leopard [also spelt cheeta, cheetah} 't^ii-td. 
obeval de frise n. war-appliance, spiked ornament [ploral 

chevaux de frise} Sa-vael-da'fsiiz. 
cbevalet n. (prop) 'Jeva-le. 
cbevalier n. (horseman, knight; bird) Jevali:?. 
cbevanz n. (ploral of cheval) l^\oo. 
cbevelnre n. (head of hair; coma of a comet) 'Sevs-lio?. 
cbeverel n. (obsolete) kid [also spelt cheveril} 'tSeva-rsl. 
cbevet n. (eastern end of an apse) Sa'vee. 
cbeviot n. (woolen cloth) 'tjevi-at, 'tjii-vi-at; 'tSivi-3t. 
cbeTTon n. beam; device; badge [synonymous cognate che- 

veron} 'Jevesn. 
cbe^7 V. masticate [past participle and preterit chewed, 

chev '] tjou, (when unstrest) tju. 
obe^vink n. bird [also spelt cheewink} t^iVigk. 
cbianti n. (wine) ki'senti, ki'a:n-ti. 

ebiaroscnro n. light and shade, clair-obscure ; a drawing 
in black and white [also spelt chiaro-oscuro} ki-a:-r3'sko:-ro. 
obiasm n. (two lines crost; decussation) 'kai-sezam. 
cbiasina n. chiasm [ploral chiastnata} kai'xzms. 

c: law, o: f «r, ae cat, o hot, oi hoy ; a: far, go now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is l»ng; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



92 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

chiasmns n. (word-order) kcd'ssMSS. 

oliiboiik n. long-stemd pipe [also spelt chibouque, chihukl 

tji'bouk, tSi'bok. 
oliio adj, (stylish ; cunning) $ik, $iik. 
ohicane n. (trickery) ^I'keen. 
cliicanery n, [ploral chicaneries'} Si'kce-na-ei ; (less properly) 

Si'kaena-ri. 
oliiok n. (chicken) t^ik. 
chicken n. 'tjikin; (dialectally) 'tjikr). 
ckicory n, plant [also spelt chiccory; synonymous cognate 

succoryl 'tSika-^i, (anteriorly) 'tSikazi; (rapidly) 'tjik^i. 
ckief adj, (principal) tjiif, (when less sir est) tjif. 
ckief n. head [ploral chiefs} tjiif. 
ckief ery n. office or domain of a chief; tribute [synenymous 

cognate chief ry} 't\n-i^-zi. 
ckief tain n. (leader) 'tSiif-tin. 
okiffon n. (bit of cloth or finery) 'Jifan, 'Jifen. 
ckiffonier n, case of drawers; rag-picker [also spelt chif- 

fonnier; synonymous cognates chiffonniere, chiffoniere, 

chiffoni^re, chiffonniere, cheffonier} Sifa'ni:?, S^'^^o-ni-e, 

Si'foni-e, 'Sifa-ni:^. 
ckiffonnidre n. (female ragpicker) Si'foo-ni-e:?, 
ckig^on n. (a woman's hair done up at the nape of the 

neck) 'Sii-njor). 
ckilblain n. (blain due to a cold ; erythema) 't^il-bleen. 
ckild n. [ploral children} 't^aild. 
ckilde n. (noble youth; squire; knight) tSaild. 
okildlike adj. (like a child) 'tSaild-laik, 'tSail-laik. 
okildren n. (ploral of child) 'tjildrsn. 

okiliasm n. (doctrin of final rule by Christ, etc.) 'kiH-aezam. 
ckilli n. the pod or fruit of the Guinea pepper [also spelt 

chili, chilly, chile; ploral chillies} 'tSih. 
okilly adj, (cold) 'tjih. 

okiloma n. lip [ploral chilomata} kailoo-mg. 
okime «. (set of bells; also, their harmonious sound) tjaim 
ckime n. rim of a cask [also spelt chimh} tSaim. 
okimer n. (one who chimes) 'tSai-ma?. 
ckimer n. [also spelt chimar, chimmar} 'tjima^. same mean 

ing as chimere. 
ckimera n. fantastic creature ; vain fancy [also spelt ch 

maera} kai'mi:-ra, ki'mi:-^3. 
ckimera n. [also spelt chimaera} Si'mi:-?3. same meaning 

chimere. 

] ye, q cure; d the, G thin;^ 3 arure, ds joy; $ shoe, tS d 
10 when ; r) sin^ ; u whoever, i r^act, o full, ou fool, i tt, li 
o poetic ; a ov^r, e oerial, a hut, o: door, oo no, e b^d, ee g 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 93 

ol&iiiiere n. bishop's robe [synenymous cognates chimer, chi- 

tnerdl Si'mi:^, tSi'mi:?. 
oliiiiierical adj, (fantastic; preposterous) kai'mezi-ks), ki- 

'raeei-kal, 
cHimerize v. obsolete [also spelt chimerisel kai'mi:-?aiz, 

ki'mi:-?aiz. 
cHimney n. smoke-vent [plural chimneysl 'tSimni; {dialec- 

tally, sometimes with variation of spelling) 'tjimh, 'tSim- 

bh. 
csl&iiiipaiizee n. (ape) tSim'psenzi, t$im'psenzi, t$imp9n'zii, 

tSimpaen'zii. 
cliinar-tree n. tSi'na:7-t£ii. 
cHinoliilla n. (rodent; fur; cloth) tSm't^ib. 
Chinese adj. (of China) tjai'miz, (assumptivly) 'tjai-niz; 

(also) tSai'niis, (assumptivly) 'tjai-nis. . 
cHinkapin n. dwarf chestnut [also spelt chincapin, chin- 

quapin} 'tjigka-pin, 'tSinka-pin. 
cHinoidine n. by-product obtaind in making quinine [also* 

sometimes, spelt chinoidin} ki'nei-din, ki'nei-dain. 
cliiiioline n. tertiary amin [also, sometimes, spelt chinolin; 

synenymous cognates quinoline, quinolin, quinolein, quino- 

leinel 'kins-lain, 'kina-lin. 
cHinook n. (wind) tji'nok, tji'nouk. 
chintz n. printed cotton cloth [also spelt chints"] tjints. 
chipmunk n. chipping-squirrel [synenymous cognate chip- 

muck, chipmukl 'tJip-mAqk. 
chirog^aphy n. (handwriting) kai'zegz^-ii. 
chiromancy n. (palmistry) 'kai-za-maensi, (rarely) 'ki?9- 

mxnsi. 
chiropod n. mammal with hands [also spelt cheiropodi 'kai- 

ea-ped. 
chiropodist n. (corn-doctor, etc.) kai'zepa-dist, kiVopa-dist; 

(improperly) tJiVepa-dist, Ji'^epa-dist. 
chiropter n, wing-handed animal; bat [also spelt cheiropterl 

kai'^epta?. 
chirmp v. chirp [synenymous cognate cherup; past partici- 
ple and preterit chirruped, chirrupti 'tjirap. 
chimrgeon n. (surgeon) kaiVardsan; (improperly) tSi'^a^- 

dsdn. 
chisel n. (tool) 'tSizsl. 

chisel V. [present participle chiseling, chiselling; past par- 
ticiple and preterit chiseled, chiselled, chiseldl 'tjizal. 
chitin n. entomolin [also spelt chitine} 'kai-tin. 

c: law, b: f«r, ae cat, e hot, ei boy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



94 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

diitinization n. [also spelt chitinisation'} kai-tini'zee-$9n, 

kai-ti-nai'zee-San. 
oliitinized adj. [also spelt chitinised'} 'kai-ti-naizd. 
cliiton n. (tunic) 'kai-ten. 

cMvalrio adj. (of chivalry) 'Jival-^ik, Ji'vaelrik, 'tSiv3l-rik. 
oliivalrous adj. (knightly; of the Age of Chivalry; gallant) 

'Sival-^3s, 'tjival-ras. 
cliivalry n. (mounted man-at-arms; knighthood; curtesy) 

'Sival-ri, (also, especially in Britain) 'tSival-ei. 
chive n. plant [synonymous cognate cive^ tSaiv. 
clilainys n. mantle [plural chlamydesi 'k^ee-mis, HcLaemis. 
chloral n. (liquid) 'kz^oi-zdl. 

chloralnm n. (antiseptic) 'kz-Di-ea-lam, kLo'zxldm. 
chloranil n. [also spelt chloranilel 'kLo:-73-nil, kz.o'7aenit, 
chloride ». [also, sometimes, spelt chloride 'kz.o:-?aid, (be- 
fore of) 'kz.o:-rid. 
chloridize v. convert into or cover with a chloride [errone- 
ous synonymous, cognates chlorodize, chlorodisel 'ki4>:-«i- 

daiz. 
chlorine n. [also, sometimes, spelt chlorini 'ki.oi-zam, Iclo:- 

zin, 'ktoi-^in. 
chloroform n. (formyl trichloride) 'kz.oi-ra-foiem. 
chlorophyl n. green matter of leaves, etc. [also spelt chloro- 

phylll 'kz.o:-E:a-fi}. 
choana n. funnel; infundibulum [ploral choanael 'koo-s-na. 
chock-full adj. [synonymous cognate choke-fulf] tSok'fd, 

(assumptivly) 'tSok-fol; (dialectally) tSAk'fol, (assumptivly) 

'tjAk-fol. 
chocolate n. (prepared cacao-kernels) 'tSeka-lat. 
choeniz n. Greek dry measure [ploral choenicesl Tcii-niks, 
choir n. company of singers [also spelt quire} kwaiz. 
choired adj, assembled in a choir; utterd in chorus [also, 

sometimes, spelt quired} kiuai^d, (also, in poetry) 'kiuai-^id. 
choirman n. man who sings in a choir [also spelt quireman; 

ploral choirmeni 'kujoir-mgn, 
choke V. (stop the breath, etc.) tjook, (when unstrest) tSok 
cholagogrno ^- medicin for controlling the bile [also spe^ 

cholagogl Tcola-gog. 
choler n. (bile; anger) 'kola?; (erroneously) 'koo-lsz. 
cholera n. (disease) 'k©la-?3. 

choleric adj. (of choler or bile; angry) 'kola-^ik. 
cholerine n. diarrhea preceding cholera [also, someti] 

spelt cholerini 'kola-^in, 'kola-^ain, 'kel9-dn. 

j ye, g cure ; d the, thin. ; 5 asure, ds joy ; J shoe, tS cl 
UJ when ; q sin^ ; u whoever, i r^act, o full, ou fool, i it, if 
o poetic ; 3 ov^r, e aerial, a but, o: door, oo no, e bed, ce 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 95 



cHolesterin n. [also spelt cholesterine ; erroneous synony- 
mous substitutes cholestearin, cholestearine} k3'lest3-2in. 

clioliainb n. (variety of iambic trimeter; scazon) 'koo-li- 
xmb. 

clioline n. bile-substance [also, sometimes, spelt cholin; syn- 
onymous cognate choleM 'kohn, 'ke-lain. 

oHone n. (cortical dome of a sponge) koon. 

olioose V. select [past participle chosen ; preterit chosel 
tSuuz, (when unstrest) tjuz. 

diopfallen adj. [synonymous cognate chapfallen] 'tSop-fc:- 
Idn. 

ohopin n. liquid measure [also, formerly, spelt choppin, chop- 
inel 'tjopin. 

clLopine n. clog, shoe [also, sometimes, spelt chopinl t^o'piin, 
'tjopin, 'tjo-pin. 

clLoragio adj, (of a choragus) ko'zsedsik, ko'^ee-dsik. 

oliorag^s n. chorus-leader [synonymous cognate choregus; 
ploral choragQ ko'?ee-gas. 

olioral adj. (of a chorus or choir) 'koi-z^l. 

clioral n. song; tune [also spelt chorale"] Hcoi-^d}, la'zail. 

cliord n. a string; the simultaneous sounding of three or 
more tones; a straight line intersecting a curve; a chorda 
[also spelt cordi ke:zd. 

cliorda n. tendon ; filament [ploral chordae] 'koir-da. 

ohore n. small job; char, chare [also spelt choar] tSoir. 

ohorea n. (Saint Vitus's dance) kaVii-a, ko'eii-a. 

choree n. (trochee) 'kD:-d, ko'^ii. 

ohoric adj. (of a chorus) 'ko^ik, 'ko:-rik. 

clLorion n, outer fetal envelop [ploral choria] 'ko:-?i-an. 

clLorisis n. (separation) 'k3:-?i-sis. 

cliorizt n. (singer in a choir) 'kenst, 'ko:-zist. 

elLorister n. (singer in a choir; choir-leader) 'koji-star; (im- 
properly) Tcoi-^i-sta?. 

choroid adj. (membranous) ^ko:-zeid, 

dioms n. band of singers ; song [ploral choruses] Tcoi-eas. 

chose V. (preterit of choose) tSooz, (when unstrest) tjoz. 

chose n. (piece of property; thing) Jdoz. 

chongh n. (bird) t^Af. 

chrestomathy «. (collection of literary extracts) k3es'to- 
m3-9i. 

chrism n. (sacred ointment; unction) 'k^izam, Icsizm. 

chrisom n. chrisom-cloth, chrisom-robe ; dead child [also 
spelt chrysom, chrysome] 'k^izam. 

c: \aWt b: f «r, ae cat, o hot, ©i boy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the Allowing syllable. 



% DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

oliriaten v. baptize, etc. [past participle and preterit christ- 
ened, christendl 'k^issn, 'ksisn. 

cliristening n. 'ksisd-nii), Imsn-ii], 'k3isNi]}. 

Clirifltianity n. k3is't$aeni-ti, ksiS'tSxni-ti ; ImstSi'sni-ti, 
ksiStSi'aeni-ti ; ksis'tgaeni-ti, Ireisti'aeni-ti. 

Christianize v. [also spelt Christianisel IcsistSd-naiz, 
'ksiStSa-naiz ; 'ksistga-naiz. 

Oliristinas n. 'ksisMSs. 

ohromatrope n. rotary color-disk [also spelt chromotropel 
'l«oo-m3-txop. 

cluromolitliog^rapliy n. k^oo-mo-h'Oegrs-fi. 

dLromo sphere n. (solar color-sphere; chromatosphere) 
'ksoo-ma-sfi:?. 

dLromotype n. [also spelt chrontatypel 1reD0-m3-taip. 

ohronio adj. (of time; long-continued) 'Iraenik. 

clironog^rapli n. (time-recording device) 'ksena-gzaif. 

chronologic adj, k^ensledsik. 

chronologize v. [also spelt chronologisel kss'nels-dsaiz. 

chronology n. (science of the time-order of events) ks9- 
'nela-d3i. 

chronometer n. (time-measuring device) ksd'nemi-tas. 

chrysalides n. (ploral of chrysalis) k^i'sseh-diz. 

chrysalis n. pupa [ploral chrysalides, chrysalises} 'Icsisa-lis. 

chrysanthemum n. (flower) k^i'saenOi-msm. 

chryselephantine adj. of gold and ivory [also spelt chryS' 
elephantinl ksis-eh'faentin. 

chrysoberyl n. (cymophane) 'ksisa-beeiJ. 

chrysolite n. (olivin) 'k^isa-lait. 

chrysoprase n. (variety of chalcedony) 'k^iso-psez. 

chnrch n. (house of worship ; ecclesiastic organization) 
tSar^tS. 

chute n. inclined slide; waterfall; rapid [also, sometimes, 
spelt shute, shoot"] Jout. 

chutney n. condiment [also spelt chutneel 'tjAtNi, 

chyle n. (liquid in the lacteals) kail. 

chylifactive adj, [also spelt chylifactiv, chilif active] kai- 
h'faktiv, kih'fajktiv. 

ohylification n. kai-hfi'kee-San, kihfi'kee-San. 

chyme n. (food in process of digestion) kaim. 

chymification n. kai-mifi'kee-San, kimifi'kee-San. 

cicada n. locust; cricket [ploral cicadas, cicadae] siTcee-da. 

cicatrice n. scar, cicatrix [also spelt cicafris; ploral cica- 
trices] 'sika-tris. 

j ye, g cure ; d the, thin ; 3 axrure, ds joy ; S shoe, tS cheyv ; 
w when ; q sing ; u whoever, i r^act, o f m11, ou fool, i tt, li see ; 
o poetic ; 3 ov^r, e aerial, a bMt, o: door, oo no, e bed, ee gate 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 97 

oieatrices n. (plural of cicatrice) 'sik9t£i-siz. 
oioatrioes n. (ploral of cicatrix) siks'tsai-siz. 
cicatriole n. (germinal vesicle; hilum) 'sik9t£i-k3}, si'kaet£i- 

kd}. 
<deatriz n. scar, hilum [ploral cicatrices} si'kce-t£iks, 'siks- 

tsiks. 
(doatrizant adj, that cicatrizes [also spelt cicatrisant'} 'sika- 

t£ai-z9nt. 
<deatrization n. [also spelt cicatrisation} sik9t£i'zee-S3n, 

sik3-t£ai'zee-San. 
eioatrize v. scar over [also spelt cicatrise} 'sik9-t£aiz. 
oioely n. (plant) 'sisi-h, 'sai-sz.i. 
cicerone n. guide [ploral ciceroni, cicerones} tSitSi'eoo-ni, 

sisiVoo-ni. 
<dciabeo n. one who dangles about women [ploral cicisbei, 

cicisbeos} si'sisbi-o, tSitSiz'bee-o. 
cidarite n. (fossil echinoid) 'sids-^ait. 
cider n. (drink) 'sai-da?. 
cierge n. wax candle or taper [former synonymous cognates 

cerge, serge} surds, si'e:?3. 
cigar n. roll of tobacco for smoking [also spelt segar} si'go:?. 
cigarette ». [also spelt cigar et} siga'^et; {improperly) 'siga- 

zzty siga'riit. 
ciliary ad;, (of cilia; hair-like) 'siH-e^i. 
ciHnm «. eyelash; hair-like organ [ploral cilia} 'siH-am. 
cixneter n. 'simi-t9?. same meaning as simitar, 
cinclLona n. (bark) sin'koo-nd. 

cincture n. (belt; barrier) 'siqktSar, (older) 'siqktga?. 
cinematog^apli n. (motion-picture machine) sini'mxta- 

gzaii, 
Cingalese adj, (of Ceylon) siijga'hiz, {assumptivly) 'siqga- 

liz; (also) siijga'his, (assumptivly) 'siqga-Hs. 
cingle n. obsolete (girth) 'siqgsL 

cinnabar n. (red sulfid of mercury; vermilion) 'sina-ba:?. 
cinnamon n. (bark; tree) 'sind-man. 
cinqnefoil n. plant; ornament [also spelt cinqfoil} 'sigk- 

fei}. 
cion n. obsolete (uvula, etc.) 'sai-sn. 
cion n. obsolete (shoot, twig, etc.) 'sai-an. see scion. 
cipber n. nought, zero; secret writing [also spelt cypher, ci- 

fer; past participle and preterit ciphered, ciferd} 'sai-fa?. 
Circean adj. of Circe [also spelt Circaean} soz'sii-an. 
circle n. (ring; coterie) 'sa^kal, 'soi^-kal. 

c: law, b: f Mr, x cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (*) indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



98 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

circuit n. (boundary-line; area; detour) 'ssrkit. 
circnitons adj. (circuit-like; roundabout) sBz'k^ou-i-tds. 
circnlarise v, [also spelt circularise} 'sBzk^old-zaiz. 
circnmcise v, cut off the foreskin [also spelt circumcUie'\ 

'sB^kam-saiz ; (less properly) seekam'saiz. 
cironniference n. ssz'kAmi^-z^ns, 
circnmferenter n. (land-compass; circumventor) 89?-kAm- 

fa'rentar, s^z'kAtnid-zent^z. 
cironinflection n. [also spelt circuntflexioni SBzksm'fLek- 

Ssn. 
circumscribe v. SB^ksm'slcsaib, (anteriorly) 'sBzkdm-sksaib. 
circnmspect adj. (cautious) 'sB^ksm-spekt. 
circnmspect v. (obsolete) SB^ksm'spekt. 
circumstance n. (surrounding; detail) 'sBzkdm-staens, 'sbZ' 

kam-stdns. 
circumstantial adj. SB^ksm'st^nSal, (assumptivly) 'sbz- 

kam-stainSal. 
circumvolve v. revolv [also spelt circuntvolv; past partici- 
ple and preterit circumvolved, circumvolvdl SB^ksm'r^v. 
cirrhosis n. (liver-disease) si'?30-sis. 

cirrose adj. having cirri [also spelt cirrhosel si'730S, {as- 
sumptivly) 'sizos. 
cisalpine adj. on this, the southern, side of the Alps [also, 

sometimes, spelt cisalpinl sis'selpin, sis'ael-pain. 
cist n. case, chest, mystic basket [also, erroneously, spelt 

cysfi sist. 
cist n. prehistoric place of interment ; sepulchral chest ; stone 

coffin [also, erroneously, spelt cyst; synonymous cognate 

kist'i sist. 
citadel n. (fortress) 'sits-dsl. 
cite V. (quote, name) sait. 

cithara n. (ancient Greek musical instrument) 'si09-?3. 
cithern n. musical instrument with wire strings, played with 

a plectrum [synonymous cognates cittern; cither, cithar, 

zitherl 'siOa^n. 
citrate n. (salt of citric acid) 'si-tjet; (erroneously) 'sai-tjet. 
citrine adj. of the citron or lemon [also spelt citrin} 'sitjin. 
cive n. saiv. same meaning as chive. 

civil adj. (of the state; curteous) 'sivil, (sometimes) 'sival. 
civilization n. [also spelt civilisationl sivih'zee-Jan, sivt 

lai'zee-San. 
civilize v. [also spelt civilisel 'sivi-laiz. 
civilizer n. [also spelt civiliser"] 'sivi-lai-za?. 

i ye, q cure; d the, G thin; 3 ai?ure, ds joy; S shoe, tS chey 
wwhen; rjsing; u whoever, i r^act, o f«ll, ou fool, 1 1 1, li sr 
o poetic ; 3 ov^r, e aerial, a b«t, 0: door, 00 no, e b^d, ee gc 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 99 



civilly adv, (in a civil manner) 'sivi-h, (anteriorly) 'sivih. 
olair-obionre n. chiaroscuro [also spelt clare-obscure'\ 

'ki-e:?-9b-skQo:?. 
olairvoyanoe n. (mesmeric insight) kz.ez'vei-3ns. 
clamant adj, (crying) 'kz.ee-m9nt, 'kz^mant. 
clamor n. outcry [also spelt clamour'^ 'kz.sem3?. 
clamor v, raise an outcry; shout [also spelt clamour*, past 

participle and preterit clamored, clamord} 'ktaemae. 
damoroni adj, [also, rarely, spelt clamourous} 'kLxmd* 

?9S. 

dandeitine adj, secret [also, sometimes, spelt clandestine 
kL^n'destin, ktaen'de-stain. 

clangor n. clang [also spelt clangour} 'kz.ser)37, 'kLxggdz. 

clanniili adj. (of a clan) 'kz^aeniS. 

clapboard n. (sheathing-board) 'ki^h^zd, 'kz.sep-b3:7d. 

claqne n. (paid applauders coUectivly) kLsek. 

Clarenceuz n. title of the second king-at-arms [also spelt 
Clarencieux} 'ktae^an-sgu. 

claret n. (wine) 'kLsezst. 

clarinet n. wind-instrument [synonymous cognate clarionet^ 
'ktaeei-net, ktaeri'net. 

clarion n. (trumpet) 'kz^zi-sn. 

claip n., V, catch, embrace [past participle and preterit clasp- 
ed, claspt} kLa:sp, kLa:sp, kLse:sp. 

claMi n. (division; rank) ktais, kLa:s, kz^'.s. 

daiiic adj. of the first class; standard; of old Greece or 
Rome) 'kz.sesik, 'ktai-sik. 

claiiiciflt n. 'ktsesi-sist, 'kLa:-si-sist. 

claMioize v. [also spelt classicise} 'kz.aesi-saiz, 'kz.a:-si-saiz. 

daiiify v. (arrange in classes) 'kz^si-fai, 'kLa:-si-fai. 

clavate adj. (club-shaped) 'kLae-vet, 'ktee-vet. 

clavioliord n. (piano-like instrument) 'kz^vi-keird. 

clavier n. (keyboard) 'klee-vi-a?, kla'vi:?; (clavichord, pia- 
no) kta'vi:?. 

clayey adj. (of clay) 'ktee-i. 

cleading n. clothing; casing [also spelt deeding} 'kz.ii-dii}. 

cleanly adj. clean, neat [also spelt clenly} 'kLenh. 

cleanly adv. (in a clean manner; exactly) 'ktii-nh. 

cleansable adj. [also spelt cleansible, clensahle} 'kz.enzs-bd}. 

deanie v. make clean [also spelt dense} kz.enz. 

clear v. clarify; become bright [past participle and preterit 
cleared, cleard} kti:?, {when unstresi) ktir. 

cleat n. strip of wood, etc. [also spelt deet} kz.iit. 

c: \aWt b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following sj^ls^ble. 



100 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

oleaver n. (^one who or that which cleaves) 'kLii-vs^. 
oleaveri n. climbing plant [synonymous cognate cliversj 

'ktii-vozz. 
olef n. (key-mark on a musical staff) ktef. 
cleft n. crevis, rift [synonymous cognate clift"] kz^eft. 
oleiitogamy adj. same meaning as clistogamy. 
olematis n. (plant) -k^ema-tis; {improperly) kLi'mee-tis. 
olemenoy n. (leniency) 'kz.em3n-si. 
Clementine adj. of Clement [also, sometimes, spelt Clemen- 

tin'\ 'kLeman-tin, 'ktemon-tain. 
olenoli V. fasten [synonymous cognate clinch; past participle 

and preterit clenched, clencht} ktentj, lalso, and in Britain 

normally) ktenj. 
olepiydra n. water-clock [plural clepsydras, clepsydraej 

'ktepsi-dra, ktep'sai-dra. 
oleptomania n. see kleptomania. 
clereitory n. upper story or part of the nave, etc. [also 

spelt clearstory'] 'kLi:z-sto:-^i. 
clergy n. (body of ecclesiastics) 'kteedsi, 'ktei^-dsi. 
clerical adj. (of the clergy; of clerks or writers) 'kz.e?i-k9}. 
clerk n. (clergyman ; scholar ; recorder ; salesman) kLBizk, 

(in Britain, oftener) kLa:^k, kLa:k. 
dexir n. ball or skein ; thread [also spelt clue] kz.otu 
clicli6 n. (printing-plate) kti'Jee. 
click n. (sound) ktik. 
clientele n. clients collectivly [also spelt clientelle, clien- 

tHe] ktai-an'tiil, ktai-an'tel, kti-oq'teel. 
climacteric n. (critical period in life) kLai'msekt9-?ik, kz.ai- 

maek'tezrik, kti'maekta-zik, ktimack'tenk. 
dimatal adj, (of climate) 'kz.ai-ni3-tl, 'kz^ai-md-tdt. 
climate n. (region; prevailing atmospheric condition) 'kz.ai- 

mit. 
climatic adj. (of climate) ktai'maetik; {less properly) kti- 

'niactik. 
dimatize v. [also spelt climatise] 'kLai-md-taiz. 
climatology n. (science of climate) ktai-ma'tola-dsi. 
climb n. (ascent) kz.aim. 

climber n. (one who or that which climbs) 'ktai-ma?. 
clime n. (region, realm) kz.aim. 
clinantliinm n. (receptacle of a composit flower; coena 

thium) kti'naenGi-am. 
clindi V. [past participle and preterit clinched, clinci 

ktintS, ktinj. same meaning as clench. 

j ye, Qcure; d */ie, Qthin; 3 arrure. ds/oy; ^ shoe, tj c/tf 
wwhen; 13 singr; u whoever, i react, o f ull, oufool, i »t, li f 
o nof^ic ; 3 over, e aerial, a but, o: door, oo no, e bed, ee f 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDSIOI 

clinometer n. (dip-measuring device) kz.i'neini-t9r, kLax- 

'nemi-ta?. 
clinqnant adj. (glittering) 'k^igkant. 
eliqne n. (party, set) kLiik. 
oliquiim n. [also spelt cliqueism^ 'kz.ii-kiz3m. 
cliqny adj. of cliques [also spelt cliquey} 'ktii-ki. 
cliitosamy n. [also spelt cleistogamy} kLais'tegs-mi. 
elitellnm n. saddle of an earthworm ; cingulum [ploral cli- 

tella] kti'telam, kLai'telom. 
elitliral adj. wholly rooft over [also spelt cleithrall 'kLai- 

8331. 

clitorii «. (female erectil organ) 'ktai-ta-jris. 
cloff n, weight-allowance [also spelt dough] ktef. 
cloiionn6 adj. (divided into compartments) kz.ei-S9'nee, 

ki-ira-za'nee. 
cloie V. (shut, etc.) kLOOz, {when unstrest) kz.oz. 
eloie n. (enclosed place; yard) ktoos. 
eloie adj., adv. kLoos. 

cloie n. (act of closing; end; cadence; union; grapple) kz.30z. 
elotli n. fabric [ploral cloths and, formerly, clothes} kteiO, 

kLoO; (dialectally) kLc:0. 
olotlie V. (dress, attire) kz.3od. 
olotliei n.pl. (garments, vestments; bedclothes) kz^oodz, 

kLOOZ. 

clothier n. (maker or seller of cloth or clothes) 'ktoo-di-ar, 

'ktood-jar. 
clothing n. (dress, apparel) 'kLOO-dii]. 
cloths n. (ploral of cloth) kLe:dz, kLe:6s, kz^eOs. 
dongh n. (valley, cleft, gorge ; earthenware vessel) kz^xf, 

kz.ao. 
dnbable adj. sociable [also spelt clubbable} 'kLAbd-bsl. 
cine n. guide, indication, or key [also spelt clew} kLou. 
olnmsy adj. (acting as if benumd; awkward) 'ktxmzi. 
olntoh v., n. clasp [as verb, past participle and preterit 

clutched, clutch t} ktAtJ. 
clyster n. (enema) 'kListajr. 
cnemial adj. (of the cnemis or tibia) 'nii-mi-a!, (rarely, 

pedantically) 'kNii-mi-al. 
cnemic n. crus; tibia [ploral cnemides} 'nii-mis. 
cnicin n, (bitter principle) 'nai-sin. 
cnicnode n. (node) 'nik-nod. 
cnida n. thread-cell [ploral cnidae} 'nai-da. 
Cnossian adj. (of Cnossus or Gnossus) 'nesi-sn. 

c: low, b: f «r, a cot, e hot, ei hoy : a: far, go now, a: osk, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



102 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

I 

ooadjntant adj.,n. (assistant) ko'sedso-tnt, ko'xdsjo-tnt; ko- 

a'dsou-tnt, ko-a'dsjou-tnt. 
coadjntor n. (assistant) ko-d'dsou-ts?, ko-s'dsjou-td?. 
ooadJnTanoy n. ko'sedsovsn-si, ko'xdsjovdn-si. 
ooadjnTant adj., n, (assistant) ko'sedso-vsnt, ko'aedsjo-vdnt. 
coagulate v. (curdle) ko'segju-iet. 
coalesce v. (grow together) ko-ales. 

coalized adj. joind, allied [also spelt coalisedH loo-d-taizd. 
coarse adj. (wanting in fineness; rude) koizs. 
coat n. (garment; thin outer layer) koot; (dialectally) kot. 
coati n. (quadruped) 'koo-ati, ko'a:-ti. 

coax V. pet; influence by caresses [past participle and pret- 
erit coaxed, coaxtl kooks. 
co-azal adj. (having a common axis; co-axial) ko'aeksa}. 
cob n. gull [also spelt cohbl keb. 
cobalt n. metal [also spelt kobalt} 'koo-bcilt, Tcoo-belt, Tco- 

balt. 
coble ft. boat [also, sometimes, spelt cobblel 'koo-bal, Icebot. 
coca n. (a shrub, Erythroxylon coca) 'koo-ka. 
cocaine n. (alkaloid) ko'kecn, 'koo-ke-in, 'koo-ke-ain. 
cocainize v, [also spelt cocainisel 'koo-ka-naiz, loo-ke-i- 

naiz. 
cocci n, (ploral of coccus) 'kek-sai. 
coccns n. insect; fruit-carpel; spheric bacterium [ploral 

coccil 'kekas. 
coccygeal adj. (of the coccyx) kek'sidsi-al. 
coccyges n. [ploral coccygcsl kek'sai-dsiz. 
coccyx ft. tail-bones collectivly [ploral coccyges'] 'keksiks. 
cocbineal n. (crimson dyestuff; insect) 'ket$i-nil, ketSi'niil, 

'koo-tSi-nil. 
cocUea n. snail-like part of the inner ear [ploral cochleael 

'kekti-a. 
cocblear adj. (of the cochlea) 'kekti-3r. 
cochlear n. spoon, labis [ploral cochlearial 'kekti-ar. 
cocblear adj. (spoon-shaped) 'kekLi-3?. 
cockatrice n. (fabulous monster) 'keka-tsis, 'kek9-tjais. 
cockney n. (townsman ; nativ Londoner) 'kekwi. 
cockscomb n. comb of a cock; plant; oyster; fop [also spel 

coxcoftibl 'keks-koom. compare coxcofnb. 
cock-snre adj. (certain) kek'So:r, {assuiriptivly) 'kek-Jo:?. 
cocksxirain n. helmsman [also spelt coxswain] 'kek-su)£ 

'keksan, 'keksn. 
cocksy adj. cocky, bumptious [also spelt coxy] 'keksi. 

j ye, Qcure; htht, Gf/iin; 3 a^ure, d^/oy; $ Wtoe, tS c/i' 
u) wAen; 13 singr; u whoever, i r<?act, o f«ll, ou fool, i »t, li 
o poetic ; 9 ov^r, e aerial, a but, o: door, 00 no, e b^d, ee f 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 103 

ooco n. coconut-tree, coco-palm [also spelt cocoa} 'koo-ko. 

oocoa^ n. 'koo-ko. same meaning as coco, 

oocoa' n. (the cacao or chocolate-tree ; also, the ground seeds 

of this tree, or the beverage made therefrom) 'koo-ko. see 

cacao, 
coconnt n. fruit of the coco-palm [also spelt coco-nut, cocoa- 
nut} 'koo-ka-nAt, 'koo-ka-nat. 
cocoon n, larva-envelop [also spelt coccoon} ka'koun. 
ooctile adj, made by baking, as a brick [also, sometimes, 

spelt coctil} 'kektil, 'kek-tail. 
coddle V. (boil gently; seethe) 'kedh 
coddle V. nurse overmuch; pamper [also, rarely, spelt codlel 

'kedl. 
codeine n. alkaloid [also, sometimes, spelt codein} ko'dii-in, 

'koo-di-ain. 
codez n. code, etc. [plural codices} 'koo-deks. 
codices n. (ploral of codex) 'kedi-siz, {vulgarly) 'koo-di-siz. 
codicil n. (supplement to a will) 'kedi-sil. 
codioillary adj, kedi'sil9-?i. 
codification n. kedifi'kee-San, kodifi'kee-Ssn. 
codify V. (reduce to a code; epitomize) 'kedi-fai, 'koo-di-fai. 
co-ed n. (female student in a coeducational college) 'koo-ed, 

ko'ed. 
coefficient n, (joint factor; constant multiplier) ko-s'fiSant. 
coelebs n. (bachelor) 'sii-lebz. 
coelelmintli n. (cavitary, etc.) 'sii-iel-minG. 
Coelentera n. pL animals with a body-cavity or enterocoele 

[synonymous cognate Coelenterata] si'lenta-^a. 
coeliac adj, 'sii-li-aek. see celiac. 
coelian adj. of the coelia or brain-cavity [also spelt cclian} 

'sii-li-3n.. 
coeloma n. body-cavity [synonymous cognates coelome, coe- 

lom, coelum ; plural coelomata} si'loo-ma. 
coelomate adj. (having a coeloma) si'loo-met. 
coelome n. 'sii-lom. same meaning as coeloma, 
coenanth i nm n. (clinanthium) si'na;n6i-am. 
coerce v. (constrain by force) ko'B:zs. 
coercible adj. ko'e^sa-bdl. 
coercion n, (compulsion) ko'o^San, ko'eiz-Jan. 
coeval adj. of the same age [also, formerly, spelt coaeval} 

ko'ii-val. 
coexist V. (exist at the same time) ko-eg'zist, ko-ig'zist. 
coffee n. (drink; tree) 'ke:-fi, 'kefi; (dialectally) 'kc:-fi. 

c: law, b: f«r, ae cat, © hot, ei hoy ; a: far, au now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



104 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

coffer n. (box) 'kei-faz, 'kefae. 

oof fin n. (burial-chest) 'kei-fin, Tcefin; (dialectally) 'kc:- 
fin, 

oogitate v. (ponder, meditate) Tcedsi-tet. 

oognao n. brandy [also spelt coniac, cogniac"] Tcoo-njaek, 
'kenjaek. 

oog^zable adj. [also spelt cognisable'} 'kegnizd-bsi, keg'nai- 
z3-bal, 'koniza-bal. 

cognizably adv. [also spelt cognisablyl 'kegnizs-bii, keg- 
'nai-za-bh, 'keg-nai-za-bh, 'keniza-bli. 

cog^zance n. knowledge; jurisdiction [also spelt cogni- 
sance} 'kegni-zans, 'keni-zans. 

cognizant adj, [also spelt cognisant} 'kegni-zsnt, 'keni-zsnt. 

cognize v, perceive ; know [also spelt cognise] 'keg-naiz, 
keg'naiz. 

oognizee n. the party in whose favor a fine of land was lev- 
ied [also spelt cognisee} kegni'zii, keni'zii. 

cognizer n. one who or that which cognizes [also spelt cog- 
niser} keg'nai-za^. 

cognizor n. the party who levies a fine of land [also spelt 
cognisor} 'kegni-zaz, 'keni-ze?. 

cognomen n. (surname; name) keg'noo-mdn; (erroneously) 
'keg-noman. 

cognomine adv. (by cognomen) keg'nemi-ni. 

oognoscible adj, (knowable) keg'nesd-bsl. « 

cobere v. (stick together) ko'hiijr. 

cobesion n. (act or state of cohering) ko'hii-ssn. 

cobesive adj, [also spelt cohesiv} ko'hii-siv, koliii-ziv. 

coiffenr n. (hairdresser) kwa'iB'.z, 

coiffnre n, (head-dress) kiua'fi:?, kwa'fgoijr. 

coign n. corner; coin, quoin [also spelt coigne} kein. 

coigne n, (obsolete) kein. same meaning as coynie, 

coin n. (corner-stone, quoin; wedge, angle; die, stamp; piece 
of money) kein. compare quoin. 

coincide v. (fall together ; agree in position ; concur) ko-in- 
'said. 

coke n. carbonized coal [also spelt coak} kook. 

colander n. strainer [also spelt cullender} 'kxlsn-da?; (er- 
roneously) 'kelan-dajT. 

colcbicnm n, (plant) 'kelki-kam, 'kehSi-kam. 

cold-blooded adj. koold'btAdid, (assumptivly) Tcoold-blAdid. 

cold-obisel n. (chisel for cutting cold metal, etc.) 'kool-tji- 
zal, 'koold-tSizal. 



] yt, gcure; 5 *Ae, Q thin\ 3 a^ure, ds/oy; S jAoe, tjc/tew; 
U) wfien ; q sin^ ; u whoever, i r^act, o full, ou ioo\ 1 it, li see ; 
o poetic ; a ov^r, e aerial, a bwt, o: door, 00 no, e b^d, ce gote ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 105 



eole n. cabbage [synenymous cognates cale, kale} kooi. 

eoleopter n. (sheath- wingd insect; beetle) koli'epts?, keh- 
'opta?. 

cole-slaw n. [also spelt cole-slaugh; erroneous substitute 
cold-slaw} Icool-SLc: . 

eolic n. pains in the belly; gripes [also spelt cholick, cholic} 
Icetik. 

<M>lic]£y adj. [also spelt cholicky} 'keh-ki, (anteriorly) 'kehki. 

collapsible adj. [also spelt collapsable} ka^lsepsa-bdl. 

<M>llar n. (neck-band) 'ketsz. 

collare n. collar; prothorax [ploral collaria} kd'le:-?!. 

collaret n. [also spelt collarette} kels'zet, 'kela-^et. 

collateral adj. (at the side; accompanying) kd'lsetd-^sl, (an- 
teriorly) kd'laetd^dl, (rapidly) ka'laetjal. 

(sollation .n. (comparison ; repast) ka'lee-Son. 

(solleagiie n. associate [also spelt colleag} 'ke-Hg. 

colleague v. cooperate ; combine [also spelt colleag} ks'liig. 

collect V, (gather, assemble) ks'lekt. 

<M>llect n. (prayer; collection) 'ke-lekt. 

collectable adj. [also spelt collectible} kalekts-bdh 

collegiate adj. (of a college) kd'hi-dsi-dt. 

collie n. sheep-dog [also spelt colly, colley} 'koh. 

collier n. (coal-miner) 'kelia?. 

colliery n. (coal-mine) 'kelia-zi, 'keH-e^i; (a/jo) 'keli-D-ei, 
(anteriorly) Tceli-azi. 

collimator n. (collimating-telescope) 'keh-met9?. 

collision n. (act of colliding) kd'hssn. 

collisive a(/y. of collision [also spelt collisiv} kslai-siv. 

colloontor n. (interlocutor) 'kela-kguta^, ka'lekgo-ta?. 

<M>lloctioiLize v. [also spelt collodionise} kdloo-di-s-naiz. 

<M>llogne z/. (gloze, flatter) kd'bog. 

colloid adj. (like glue) 'ke-leid. 

colloqnialise v. ka'bo-kiui-a-laiz, (often) kd'iokwi-d-laiz. 

colloqnise v. converse [also spelt colloquise} Tcela-kiraiz. 

colloqny n. conversation [ploral colloquies} 'kela-kiua. 

collum n. in biology, neck, collar [ploral colla} Tcelam. 

collnsive adj. [also spelt collusiv} ka'Hou-siv, kaliou-ziv. 

collnvies n. (filth) ka'liou-vi-i:z. 

colocyntb n. (bitter apple) 'keb-sin8. 

cologne n. (perfume) ka'loon. 

Colombian adj. (of Colombia, South America) kalxmbi-Dn, 
kalembi-an. 

oolon n. part of a sentence or rythmic period ; clause ; punc- 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hat, ei bay ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



106 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

tuation-mark [ploral cola but, in the sense of a punctuation- 
mark, colons} 'koo-lan. 
colon n. large intestin [ploral colons, cold] 'koo-lan. 
colonel n. (commander of a regiment) 'ke^nl, 'keznat; (for- 

nierly) kelo'nel, 'kelo-nel. 
colonelcy n. (office or rank of colonel) 'kernt-si. 
colonization n, [also spelt colonisation] keUni'zee-San, k^d- 

nai'zee-SDn. 
colonize v. form a colony [also spelt colonise] 'kels-naiz. 
colonnade n. series of columns [also, formerly, spelt colo- 

nade] kelD'nred. 
colony n. (body of migrators to a new region) 'keld-ni. 
colophon «. (final device or note) 'kelo-fen, 'kots-fdn. 
colophony n. resin [synonymous cognate colophone] ^ofd- 

foni, ka'lefo-ni, 'kela-foni. 
color n, hue, etc. [also, especially in Britain, spelt colourl 

'kAlajT. 
colorable adj. [also spelt colourable] 'kxlajra-ba!. 
colorant «. 'kAlo-^ant, 'kel^-rant. 
coloration n. [also spelt colouration] kAla'^ee-Jan, keld'eee- 

San. 
coloratnre n. 'kAlor;>-tS9z', 'kelara-tSor. 
colored adj. [also spelt coloured, colord] 'kAlazd. 
colorer n. [also sprit colour er] 'kAls-rar. 
colorific adj. (color-producing, etc.) kAlo'nfik, kola'rifik. 
colorimeter n. (color-measuring device) kAla'^imi-ta?, 'kela- 

'zimi-t^z. 
colorin n. extract of madder [also spelt colorine] 'kAtd-^iii, 

'kelo-jrin. 
coloring n. [also spelt colouring] 'kAla-^iq. 
colorist n. [also spelt colourist] 'kAla-^ist. 
colossal adj. (like a colossus; huge) ko'losol. 
Colossenm n. Flavian amphitheater, etc. [synonymous cog- 
nate Coliseum] kelo'sii-om. 
colossns n. gigantic statue [ploral colossi] ka'losas. 
colporter n. book-pedler [also spelt colporteur] 'ke\-\)o:z-t9z. 
colter n. cutter on a plow-beam [also spelt coulter] 'kool-tar. 
colnmbary n. (dove-cote) 'kolom-be^i. 
columbine adj. (of the dove; dove-color) 'kolam-bain, 'ke- 

lom-bin. 
columbine n. (plant) 'kolom-bnin. 
column n. cylindric shaft; pillar [also spelt colum] 'kelam; 

(vulgarly^ 'ko-Hum, 'kolioni. 

j ve, g cure; b the, thm\^ 3 a^ure, dj joy, 5 sho^, tS r/icw 
u)7C'/ien; q singr; u whoever, i react, o full, ou fool, i it, li s^^ 
o poetic ; d ov^r, e aerial, a but, o: door, oo no, e b^d, ee got 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 107 

oolun&ned adj, having columns [also spelt columd} "kelamd. 

colure n. (circle of declination) k^'liuiz, 'koo-lioz. 

oolsa n. cole-seed [also spelt colsa} 'keizs. 

ooma n. (heavy sleep ; stupor) 'koo-md. 

coma n. tuft of hairs or bracts; hazy fringe [plural comael 

'koo-ma. 
comatose adj, (having coma; of coma; drowsy) komd'toos, 

{assumptivly) 'koo-ma-tos; {also) kema'toos. 
comb n. (tootht device ; caruncle) koom. 
comb n. koum, kaom. see coomb, 
combat v. (fight) 'kem-baet, 'kembat; 'kAm-baet, 'kAmbat; 

kam'bset. 
combat n. (fight) 'kem-baet, 'kembat; 'kAm-baet, 'kAmbat. 
combatable adj, kam'baeta-bal, 'kembata-bal, 'kAmbata-ba!. 
combatant n. (fighter; contender) 'kemba-tnt, 'kAmba-tnt. 
combative adj. pugnacious [also spelt combativ} 'kemba-tiv, 

'kAmba-tiv; (less properly) kam'bactiv. 
oombativeness n. [also spelt combativness} 'kembativ-nis, 

'kAmbativ-nis ; (less properly) kam'baetiv-nis. 
comber n. (one who combs ; a long curling wave) 'koo-mar. 
comber n. (gaper; wrasse) "kemba?. 
combinative adj. [also spelt combinative kam'bai-na-tiv, 

'kembi-netiv. 
combinatorial adj, kam-bai-na'ta:-?i-al, kembina'ta:-2ri-al. 
combinatory adj. kam'bai-na-ta?i, kam'bai-na-ta?i, kam'bai- 

nata-ei. 
combine v, (unite) kam'bain. 
combine n. (combination) 'kem-bain, kam'bain. 
combinedly adv. (in a combined manner) kam'bai-ni-dh. 
oombnstible adj. (burnable; inflammable) kam'bAsta-bah 
combustion n. (burning) kam'bAStSan, kam^bA^t^an. 
come V. (approach, etc.) kAm, (when unstrest) kam. 
comeliness n. (quality of being comely) 'kAmh-nis. 
comer n. (one who comes) 'kAma?. 

conies n. companion ; epistolary ; in music, consequent, an- 
swer [ploral comites] 'kao-miz. 
comfit n. (bonbon) 'kAmfit. 
comfort n., v. (cheer, solace) 'kAmfazt. 
comfortable adj. (giving comfort; easy) 'kAmfazta-bal, 

(rapidly) 'kAmfta-bal; (vulgarly) kam'for^-ta-bal. 
comfrey n, plant [also spelt comfryl 'kAmf3i, 'kemf3r. 
comic adj. (of comedy; funny) 'kemik. 
comites n. (ploral of comes) 'kemi-tiz. 

c: law, b: f «r, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, go now, a: csk, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



108 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

comitial adj. (of comitia or assemblies) kd'miSd), ka'ini$i-a). 

comity n. (curtesy) 'kemi-ti. 

comma n. [ploral commas, but in the sense of a group of 

words or feet, or a cesura, commata'\ 'kerns. 
commaad v,, n, (order) ka'maind, kd'ma:nd, ks'maeind. 
commandant n. (commander) keman'daint, kemdn'daint. 
commandeer v. command; force into service; seize [also 

spelt commander; past participle and preterit comm^tn- 

deered, commandeerdi keman'diijr. 
commandery n. [synonymous cognate commandry} ka'main- 

da-^i. 
commandite n. (partnership) keman'diit, kemen'diit 
commandment n. (mandate) kd'mamd-msnt, kymaendmant. 
comme il fant adj, (as it should be; genteel) kAmil'foo, 

kemirfoo. 
commence v. (begin, enter upon; make a start; take a de- 
gree) ka'mens, ka'ments. 
commendable adj. (laudable) kd'mends-bd!. 
commendam n. (benefis or living commended or bestowd) 

k9'men-daem. 
commensurable adj, (having a common measure ; suitable) 

ka'menSa^a-bol, ko'mcnsgors-bal, ka'mentSo^a-bal. 
commensurate adj. (of equal size; adequate) kd'menSa-eat, 

ka'mensQo-rat, ka'mentS^-^at. 
comment n. (remark) 'ke-ment. 

comment v. (make remarks; annotate) 'ke-ment, ks'ment. 
commentary n. (memoire; treatise) 'keman-teei, 'keman- 

t^zi, 'kemanta-jri, (rapidly) 'keman-tji. 
commenter n. [also spelt commentorl 'kemdn-tar, ka'mentae. 
commerce n. (trade; intercourse) 'kem3?s. 
commerce v. (hold intercourse) ka'mar^s. 
commiserate v. (pity) kd'mizs-zet. 
commissariat n. commissary court; supply-department; 

food-supply [also, sometimes, spelt commissariotl kemi'se:- 

^i-3t, kemi'se:-ri-aet, kemi'saejri-3t. 
commissary n. (commissioner; Judge) Tcemi-se^i, 'kemi-sari, 

'kemisa-^i, (rapidly) 'kemi-ssi. 
commission n. (charge, etc.) kd'miSsn. 
commissural adj, (connectiv) kemi'Sor-^al, kemi'squi-zol, ka- 

'mija-ral, ka'mijjn-^al, ka'misQo-ral, Tcemi-Jor-^al. 
commissure n, (joint) 'kemi-Jo?, ^emj-sqoz, 
oommittable adj. [also spelt committiblel ka'mita-bsf. 
committal n. (commitment, etc.) ka'mitl, ka'mital. 

i ve, <cure; bthe. Qthin: 3 axrure, d^/oy; ^shot, t^ che" 
wwhen; rising; u whoever, i r^act, o f ull, ou fool, i tt, lis* 
o poetic ; 3 ov^r, e aerial, a hut, o: do^r, 00 no, e b^d, ce ga 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 109 

committee n. (a person charged with a trust or function; 
commissioner, commissary) kemi'tii; (a body of persons) 
kd'miti, (formerly) kemi'tii. 

committer n. (one who commits) k^'mit^z. 

committor n. (judge who commits a person to the custody 
of another) ks'mi-te^. 

commiztion ». (mixture) ka'mikstSan, kd'mikStJdn, ka- 
'miksti-an. 

commodioni adj. (useful; fit; convenient and spacious) kd- 
'moo-di-3s; (vulgarly) ka'mDO-dsas. 

commodity n. (useful thing, etc.) kd'medi-ti. 

commonalty n. [former synonymous cognate commonality^ 
'kemdudi-ti. 

commonplace adj. keman^pLces, (assumptivly) 'keman-pLces. 

commonplace n. 'kemsn-pLces. 

commonmreal n. kemdn'wiil. 

commonmrealtli n. body politic; republic [also spelt com- 
monwelth] 'keman-welG, keman'welO. 

commorant adj. (abiding, dwelling) 'kemd-^snt. 

conunnnal adj. (of a commune) 'kemjo-nl, kd'mjou-nl. 

commnne v, (hold intercourse) ka'mjuun, 'ke-mjun. 

commnne n. (communion; intercourse) 'ke-mjun. 

commnne n. (community, government) 'ke-mjun. 

commnner n. (one who communes or communicates) ks- 
'mjou-na?. « 

commnner n. (member of a commune) 'kemju-na?. 

commnnism n. 'kemjo-nizsm. 

oommnnist n. (adherent of communism) 'kemjo-nist. 

commntative n. of exchange ; mutual [also spelt commuta- 
tive ka'mjou-td-tiv, 'kemjo-tetiv. 

comoie adj. (hairy, comate) ko'moos, (assumptivly) 'koo-mos. 

compact adj. (dense) kam'paekt, (assumptivly) 'kem-paekt. 

compact n, (agreement) 'kom-paekt; (formerly) kam'paekt. 

compact V. ksm'pxkt. 

compactly adv. kdm'pxktLi. 

company n. (society) 'kAmpa-ni, (rapidly) 'kAmpNi. 

comparable adj, (capable of being compared) 'kemps^s-bsi ; 
(erroneously) kam'pei-^a-bal. 

comparative adj., n, [also spelt comparativl kdm'pxri-tiv. 

comparatbr n. (comparing-device) 'kemp3-?et9?. 

compasi v., n. [as verb, past participle and preterit com- 
passed, compasti 'kxmpas. 

compatible adj. (mutually tolerant) ksm'psetd-bd}. 

c: law, b: f wr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



110 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

oompatriot n. (fellow countryman) ksm'pee-tsi-at, kam- 
'paet£i-3t. 

compear v. appear in court [also, formerly, spelt compeerl 
kem'pi:?, kam'pi:?. 

compeer n. (the peer of another; equal) kem'pi:e, kam'pi:?, 
'kem-pi:?. 

compel V, constrain, force [past participle and preterit com- 
pelled, conipeld'] kam'pel. 

compellable adj. (capable of being compeld) kdm'peld-ba). 

compend n. (compendium, summary) 'kem-pend. 

compendions adj. kdm'pendi-ds. 

compensate v, (make up for; atone) 'kempsn-set, ksm'pen- 
set. 

campensative adj, compensatory [also spelt compensativl 
kam'penso-tiv. 

competible adj. (obsolete) appropriate; competent [also spelt 
competable} kom'pcto-bal. 

competitor n. (one who competes; rival) ksm'peti-td?. 

complacence n. (self-satisfaction) kom'pLee-ssns. 

complacent adj. (self-satisfied) kam'pLec-sant. 

complaisance n. (habit of pleasing; politeness) ksm'pz^ee- 
sons, 'kempLO-zons, 'kempi.e-zfl:ns, kempLc'zains. 

complaisant adj, (pleasing) kdm'pLee-sant, 'kempLS-zant, 
'kempte-zaint, kompLe'zamt. 

complanate adj. (flattend) 'kompta-net, kam'ptee-net. 

complect V. (interweave) kam'ptekt. 

complement n. (full amount ; whiit is lacking of complete- 
ness, as of an angle or arc) 'kempLi-mant. compare com- 
pliment. 

complement v. (add a complement to; complete) 'kempLi- 
mant, kempti'ment. compare compliment. 

complex adj. (not simple) kem'pLeks, (assnmptivly) 'kem- 
pz.eks. 

complex n. (a complicated whole) 'kem-pteks. 

complezed adj. complicated [also spelt complext"} kem- 
'ptekst, 'kem-pLekst. 

complexion n. nature; texture or color of the skin [also, 
formerly, spelt complectionl kam'pLekJan. 

compliment n. formal act of civility, respect, or regard 
[formerly spelt complement'^ 'kempti-mant. compare com- 
plement. 

compliment v. (pay a compliment to; felicitate) 'kempti- 
mant, kempi-i'ment. compare complement. 

i ye, Q cure ; d the, thin;^ 3 axrure, d3 ;oy ; S j/toe, tS cAew 
wwhen; t}sing; u whoever, i r<7act, o full, ou fool, i »t, lisef 
o poetic ; 3 ov^r, e aerial, a b«t, o: door, oo no, e b^d, ee got 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 111 

eomplin n. last canonical hour [also spelt compline} 'kern- 

pz«in. 
eomplot n. (joint plot) 'kem-pz.et. 
oomplot V, (plot together) kem'pz.et, ksm^pz^et. 
eomponent n. (constituent) kdm'poo^ndnt. 
oomport v» (agree; conduct) k^m'poizt, 
oompoiant n. "kempa-zsnt. same meaning as corposant. 
composant adj., n. (component, constituent) k9m'p30-z3nt. 
compoiite adj., n, compound [also, sometimes, spelt compos- 

»/] kam'pezit, 'kempo-zit, 'kempo-zait. 
eompoi mentis adj, (of sound mind) kem-pes'mentis. 
compost n. (a mixture, as a fertilizer; a compo) 'kem-post, 

'kempdst. 
compote n. stewed fruit; compotier [synonymous cognate 

compotl 'kem-pot. 
compotier n. (dish) kempoti'ee, kem-poti'ee. 
componnd v. (combine) kam'paund. 
componnd adj. (not simple) kem'paund, {assumptivly) 'kern- 

pQond. 
compound n. 'kem-paund. 

comprador n. (chief nativ servant) k©mp33'dD:z. 
compreliensible adj. kemp^i'hensd-bdl. 
compreliension n. (inclusion; understanding) kemp3i'hen- 

San, kempsi'hentSan. 
compress v. press together; condense [past participle and 

preterit compressed, compresf'\ kam'pses. 
compress n, (pressing-pad; pressing-device) 'kem-pses. 
compressedly adv. kdm'psesi-dh, kam'psesth. 
compressible adj, kdm'p^esa-bdl. 

compressor n. [also, rarely, spelt compresser'\ kam'psesa^. 
comprise v, include [also spelt comprize} ksm'psaiz. 
compromise n., v. [also, formerly, spelt compromise} 'kem- 

p33-maiz. 
compromit v, (endanger, compromise) kompsa'mit. 
compter n, (prison for debtors) 'kaon-ta^. see counter. 
comptoir n. (foreign agency or factory) koT)'twe:z, keq'tuja:?. 
comptroller n. kdn'tsoo-ls?. see controller. 
compunction n. (pricking of the conscience; regret) kdm- 

'pArjkjDn. 
compurgator n. (witness) 'komps^-getd?, k^m'pB'.z-get^z. 
computable adj. (calculable) kdm'pguu-td-bsl, 'kempgutd-bdl. 
compntative adj. given to computation [also spelt compu- 

tativ} kam'pgou-ta-tiv, kem'pgou-ta-tiv, 'kempgo-tetiv. 

c: low, b: fur, ae cat, © hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



112 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

comrade n. (companion) 'kem-raed, 'kemesd, 'kem-eed; HcAxn- 

raed, 'kxmzdd, 'kAm-?ed. 
Comtian adj, [also spelt Cotnteanl 'kegti-sn, Hcemti-dn, 

Tcenti-an. 
oon t/. direct (anyone) how to steer; direct the steering of 

(a ship) [also spelt conn, kun; past participle and preterit 

conned, cond} kxn, ken, 
oonative adj, exertiv [also spelt conativ'\ 'kena-tiv, ncoo-na- 

tiv. 
conoa n. 'kerjks. see concha. 
conoave adj, (incurvd, hollow) ken'keev, (assumptivly) Hcen- 

kev ; (also, less properly) 'keq-kev. 
oonoeal v. hide [past participle concealed, concealdj kdn- 

'siil. 
concede v, (grant; allow) kdn'siid. 
conceit n. (conception ; fancy ; vanity) ksn'siit. 
conceive v. (become pregnant ; imagin ; think) [past partici- 
ple conceived, conceivdl kan'siiv. 
concenter v, bring to a common center; focus [also spelt 

concentre; past participle concentered, concenterdi k»n- 

'senta?. 
concentrate v. (focus; rectify) 'kensan-tjet, ksn'sen-tset. 
concentrate adj,, n. kan'sen-tjet, kan'sentjat, 'kensan-tjet. 
concentrative adj. [also spelt concentratM kan'sentja-tiv. 
conceptible adj, obsolete (conceivable) kdn'septs-bsL 
concert n, (harmony ; musical performance ; consort) ^en- 

sajrt. 
concert v. (contrive mutually) kan'soirt. 
concerto n. (concert; composition) kan'tjetr-to, k9n'se:r-t3. 
conch n. (shell) keqk; (erroneously) kentS. 
conclia n. shell ; domed roof ; apse ; cove ; the outer ear [also, 

in the architectural senses, spelt conca; ploral conchae, 

coneasi 'keqka. 
concMolin n. organic residuum of a shell [also spelt con- 

chyolini ken'kai-a-hn, keq'kai-a-hn. 
conclioid n. (curve) Hcen-keid, 'keq-keid. 
conoliolog^y n. (science of shells) ken'kela-dsi, kegTcela-dsi. 
conchylinm n. shell of a mollusk; conch [ploral conchylia'] 

ken'kiH-am, keq^cili-am. 
concierge n. (warden; doorkeeper; janitor) keqsi'ei^s. 
concise adj, (brief) kan'sais. 

conclave n. (room; assembly) 'ken-ktev, 'keq-ktev. 
conclndable adj, [also spelt concludiblel kdnHcLou-da-bd!. 

j ye, Q cure ; d the, thin',^ 3 axrure, ds joy ; S shoe, tj chew 
to when ; 13 sin^r ; u whoever, i react, o full, ou fool, i »t, li set 
o poetic ; 9 over, e aerial, a hut, o: door, oo no, e bed, ee gate 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 113 

oon-dude v, (enclose; end; infer; settle) kdn^kz^uud. 

eondusible adj. {obsolete) kdn'kLuu-sd-bdl. 

oon-dniiTe adj. [also spelt conclusiv} ksn'kLuu-siv, kan'kLou- 
ziv. 

concord n. (accord; peace) 'ken-ke:^d, 'keq-kei^d. 

concord v, (agree ; concur ; harmonize) k9n'ke:?d. 

con<M>rdanoe n. (agreement) k9n'ke:7-dns ; (less properly) 
kei3'ke:z-dns. 

concordat n. (agreement; compact) ken'ke:7-dxt, kan'ke:?- 
d3t. 

conconrie n. (confluence; throng) 'ken-koizs^ 'kei:]-ko:zs. 

concreate adj. obsolete (created together) 'kenksi-et. 

concreate v. (create together) kenk3i'eet, ken-ksi'eet; 
'kenksi-et. 

concrete adj. (composit; solid; particular, actual) ken'k^iit, 
(assumplivly) 'ken-ksit; (less properly) 'keq-ksit. 

concrete n. (concretion : cemented mass) 'ken-k3it, ken'ksiit. 

(concrete v. (unite) ken'k^iit. 

concretely adi\ ken'k3ii-tK.i, 'ken-k^itLi. 

concreteness n. ken'k^iit-nis, 'ken-ksitNis. 

ooncnbinage n. (state of being a concubine) ksn'kQou-bi- 
nids; (improperly) 'keqkgo-bai-nids. 

concnbine n. (paramour, etc.) 'ker)kgo-bain. 

oononpiioenoe n. (eager desire; lust) kerjkgo'pissns, ksn- 
Tcgou-pi-sans. 

concupiioible adj. (concupiscent; lustful) kdn'kgou-pisd-bdl. 

ooncnr v. run together; agree [past participle and preterit 
concurred, concurd} kan'kei^. 

oononrrenoe n. ksn^kezdns, kdn'kAzsns. 

oononssion n. (shock; agitation) ksn'kASan. 

cond V. conduct; direct how to steer; balk [synonymous cog- 
nate cundl kxnd, kend. 

condemn v. (convict ; blame) kdn'dem. 

eondemner n. (one who condemns) kdn'demd?, kan'demnd?. 

condemning adj. ksnMemii]. 

condense v. make more dense; become liquid [past parti- 
ciple and preterit condensed, condensti kdn'dens, ksn'dents. 

condensedly adv, kdn'densi-dh, kdn'denstz.!. 

conder n. one who conds or cons a ship ; also, a man who 
signals to fishing-boats; balker [also, formerly, spelt con^ 
dor; synonymous cognate connerl 'kxnda?, 'kendar. 

condescend v. (deign) kendi'send. 

condescension n. (act of condescending) kendi'senSsn. 

c: low, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ©i boy; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai kite; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



114 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

oondig^n adj, (worthy; merited) ksn'dain, {sometimes, aS' 

sutnptivly) 'ken-dam. 

oondite v. (obsolete) pickle; embalm; season [also, some- 
times, spelt conditi kan'dait, 'kendit. 

condite adj. rare (put together) 'ken-dait, Hcendit. 

condolence n. (expression of sympathy) kdn'dao-tsns ; (less 
properly) 'kenda-lans. 

condor n. (bird) 'kends?. 

oondncive adj. promotiv [also spelt conduciv'\ kdnMjou-snr. 

conduct V. (lead, guide; manage) ksn'dAkt. 

conduct n. (leading; management; behavior) 'ken-dxlct, Icen- 
dakt. 

condnctive adj. (leading or conducting heat, electricity* 
etc.) kan'dAktiv. 

oondnit n. channel; passage [also spelt condit'\ 'kendit, IcAn- 
dit ; {less properly) 'kendwit. 

condyle «. process [also spelt condyll 'kendil; {less properly) 
'ken-dail. 

confectionary adj. (of a confection or sweetmeat) kdn'fek- 
Sa-ne^i, kan'fekSa-nan, kan'fekSana-jri, kan'fekSa-n^i. 

confectionary n. (confectioner; place where confections 
are kept or made ; sweetmeat ; confectioner's art) kan'fek- 
Sa-neri, etc. 

confectionery n. confections; confectioner's art; confec- 
tionery-shop [also spelt confectionary'] kan'fekSa-nc^i, etc. 

confederacy n. (league; alliance) k3n'fed3?3-si. 

confessedly adv. ksn'fesi-dh. 

confessor n. (one who confesses; one who hears confes- 
sions; a pri'st) kan'fess^, {rarely) 'ken-fesa^. 

confidant n. (confidential friend) 'kenfi-dnt, kenfi'damt, 
kenfi'daernt, 'kenfi-damt. 

confidante n. (female confidant) 'kenfi-dnt, kenfi'damt, 
kenfi'dajint. 

confident adj, (assured; bold) 'kenfi-dnt. 

confine v, (bound ; restrict) kan'f am. 

confine n. (limit; bound; frontier) 'ken-fain. 

confineless adj. kdn'fai-nlds, 'kenfni-nlds. 

confiscate v, (seize) 'kenfi-sket, kan'fi-sket. 

confiscator n. 'konfi-sketo?. 

conflagrate r. (burn up) 'kenfi-3-gret, kan'fi^ee-g^et. 

conflict V. (contend ; be in opposition) kan'ftikt. 
conflict n. (combat; discord) 'kenftikt. • 

confluence n. (a flowing together) 'kenftu-ans. 

3 ye, <j cure ; d the, thin ; ^ 3 arure, d$ joy ; S shoe, ^ tS chew; 
wwhen; rysing; u whoever, i r^act, o fMll, oufool, lit, lis^e; 
o poetic; a over, e aerial, Abut, 0: door, oono, ebed, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 115 

oonflnent n. 'kenfLu-snt. 

confrere n. colleag [also spelt confrere} ken'fse:?, 'ken-fseie. 

Confucian adj. (of Confucius) kan'fgou-Sdn. 

confusion n. (ruin; disorder; tumult) kan'fgou-san. 

Oong6 n. (leave ; apophyge) keq'see, 'kooq-se, kon'dsii, ken- 

'dsee. 
oongee n. leave to depart; leave-taking [synonymous cog- 
nate conge} 'kon-dsi, 'kAn-dsi. 
congener n. (member of the same genus or class) ksnMsii- 

n^z, 'kendsi-nar, (rarely) 'kon-dsena^. 
congenial adj. (kindred; agreeable) kan'dsii-njdl, kdn'dsii- 

ni-dL 
congeniality n. ksn-dsini'seh-ti, ksn-dsin'jaehti. 
conger-eel n. 'kondsar-iil, 'keqgar-iil. 
congeries n. collection ; aggregation [ploral congeries'] ksn- 

'd3i:-n-i:z. 
conglobate v. (collect or form into a globe or ball) 'kengla- 

bet, kan'gloo-bet. 
conglobate adj. (rounded; globular) 'kengla-bet, ksn'gloo- 

bet. 
conglntin n. albuminoid [also spelt conglutinel kan'glou-tin. 
congregate v. (assemble) 'kei]g?i-get. 
congress n. (a coming together; assembly) 'keqg^is, 'keq- 

gzes. 
congress v. (come together) ksn'g^es ; (meet in congress) 

Tceq-gres. 
congressional adj. k3n'g?c$9-nl. 
cong^nence n. (accordance) 'keqg^u-ans. 
congmency n. 'keqgsu-an-si ; {less properly) kan'g^ou-an-si. 
cong^nent adj. 'kegg^u-dnt. 
cong^nity n. (accord; fitness) kan'g^ou-i-ti. 
cong^monsly adv. 'kei]g?u-3S-lr. 
conic adj. (cone-shaped; of a cone) 'konik; (improperly) 

'koo-nik. 
conical adj. (cone-shaped; conic) 'koni-kal. 
conifer n. (cone-bearing plant) 'keni-fa^, 'kDO-ni-fa?. 
coniine n. 'koo-ni-ain. same meaning as canine. 
Conine n. conia, an alkaloid [also, sometimes, spelt conin; 

synonymous cognates coniine, coneinel 'koo-nin, 'koo-nain. 
coninm n. (hemlock) ko'nai-am; (less properly) 'koo-ni-am. 
conjee n. rice-water; gruel [also spelt congeel 'ken-dsi. 
conjugal adj. (of marriage; matrimonial) 'kondsa-gal. 
conjngial adj. (conjugal) kDn'dsou-dsi-al. 

c: \a7v, b: fur, ae cat, o hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



116 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

conjunctiva n. (outer eye-membrane) ken-dsAgk'tai-va, ken- 

dsAqk'tii-va, kan'dsAqkti-va. 
eonJnnctlTitis n. ksn-dsAijkti'vai-tis, ksn-dsAgkti'vii-tis. 
oonjnrator n. (fellow conspirator) Hcendsa-retd;. 
oonjnre v. (practis the arts of a conjurer; affect or effect 

by magic, etc.) 'kendsa?, TcAndsa?. 
conjure v. (swear together; conspire, plot; solemnly en- 
treat, abjure) kon'dso:?. 
conjurer n. enchanter, magician ; juggler [also spelt conju- 
ror'] 'kend33-?9?, 'kAnd^^-z^z. 
conjurer n. one bound by an oath ; conjurator, conspirator ; 

one who enjoins [also spelt conjuror! kan'dsor-ea?, 
connate adj. (inborn, congenital; cognate) 'ke-net, ke'neet. 
connecter «. [.also spelt connector! ka'nektar. 
connection n. a joining together; relation [also spelt con- 

nexionl ka'nekSan. 
connectional adj. [also spelt conncxional} kd'nek$3-id. 
connective adj, connecting [also spelt connective ks'nektiv. 
connellite n. (mineral) 'kena-lait, ke'ne-lait, ke'nel-ait. 
Conner n. (inspector) 'kenoz, TcAna?. 
Conner n. (one who cons; student) 'kensz. 
Conner n. (balker) 'ken^z, 'kAn^z. see under conder. 
Conner n. (fish) 'kAnziz. same meaning as cunner. 
connexive adj, conditional ; conjunctiv ; connectiv [also 

spelt connexM ko'neksiv. 
connexivum n. abdominal border in bugs [ploral connexiva] 

kenek'sai-vom. 
connivence n, act of conniving; winking at wrong [also 

spelt connivance] ka'nai-vons. 
connoisseur n. (one verst in a subject; critic) kens'sa:?, 

keni'sgo:^, 'keno-sgo?. 
connotative adj, [also spelt connotativ] kd'noo-ta-tiv, Hcena- 

tetiv. 
conquer v. acquire or overcome by force [past participle and 

preterit conquered, conquerd'] Hcaqka?. 
conquest n. (acquisition; victory, etc.) 'keq-kiucst, 'keqkwist 
consanguinity n. (blood-relationship) konsxn'gwini-ti, ker 

saer)'gwini-ti. 
conscience n. (knowledge, especially of right and wror 

TcenSans, 'kontjans. 
conscientious adj. (scrupulous) kenSi'enSss, kentSi'cF 

kensi'enSos, kensi'cntjas. 
conscionable adj, (conscientious) 'konSsna-bdl, IcentSdns 

j .ve, gcure; b the. /Ain; 3 arure, d^/oy; S j/ioe, tS c' 
wwhen; i)sing; u whoever, i react, o full, ou fool, itt, r 
o poetic; 9py^, e aerial, Abut, o:door, oono, ebed, ee 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 117 

fWcioM adj. (knowing; aware) 'kenSds, HcentS^s. 
eommemmmM n, (concord, sympathy; agreement in opinion) 
kan'sensds, kan'sentsss. 

n. (result) Icensi-kwans, Hcentsi-kiDsnts. 
Ltial adj, (resultant; self-important) kensilcwen- 
S^i, kensilcwentSdL 
eoBserratoire n. (conservatory) ksn-SB^vs'twe:;. 

ktor n. (preserver) laenssz-yet^z, k^n'sBiz-v^tsz, 
re V. keep safely; preserve [also spelt conserv; past 
participle and preterit conserved, conserv d^ ksn'sBizv. 
eoBserre n. preserve [also spelt conserv'\ k9n'sB:rv, Hcen-SBsv. 
eonsidezmble adj., n. kdn'sid9?9-bd}, (rapidly) ksn'sidrd-bdl ; 

{vulgarly) ksn'sidd-bdl. 
eoacis^ v. seal; hand over, deliver [past participle and pret- 
erit consigned, consignd} ksn'sain. 
eoBsisiUitioii n. kensig'nee-Sdn. 
eoacisse n. (watchword; countersign) 'ken-sain. 
eoAsiga^ n. (person commanded to keep within bounds) ken- 
sin' jee. 
eoacis^A^ m. (person to whom something is consigned) ken- 
sai'nii, 'kensi-ni. 

>r n. (one who consigns; consignor) kdn'sai-nszr. 
Lor n. (one who consigns : correlativ of consignee) 
k3n'sai-n97, ken'sai-ne?, ken-sai'ne:^, kensi'ne:;. 
eonsistency n. (constitution; coDgruity) ksn'sistsn-si. 
eonsistorj n. (council) ksn'sistd-zi, 'kensista-zi, Hcensi-stazi. 
eoBSol n. consolidated annuity [ploral consolsl 'ken-sel, ksn- 

eonsol n. (bracket, etc.) 'ken-sel. same meaning as console, 
eoBSolatorj adj. (consoling) k9n'se)9-t3zi ; (also) ksn'seldtd- 

zi, (assumptivly) kan'sels-td^i ; (rapidly) ksn'sela-tsi. 
eoBSole n. bracket; corbel; part of an organ [synonymous 

cognate consol'i 'ken-sol. 
eoBSole V. (comfort; cheer) kan'sool. 
eoBSonmi^ n. (clear soup; cheer) kensd'mee, 'kens9-me. 
eoBsonantal adj, (of a consonant) kenss'nxntl, Icensd-ndnt}. 
eoBSonantly adv, (harmoniously) 'kensdnsn-tz.!. 
€M>BSort n. (partner, mate; spouse) 'ken-se:zt. 
eoBSort n. (company; musical accord, etc.) 'ken-8e:zt« 
eoBSort V, (associate ; join) k9n'se:?t. 
conspiracy n. (plot) ksn'spizd-si. 
conspirator n. (joint plotter) kan'spizs-tdz. 
constable n. (officer) 'kAnstd-bsl, icenstd-bdl. 

c: law, b: fur, x cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



118 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

constat n. (certificate) 'ken-staet. 
constate v. (establish ; state) ksn'steet. 
constellate v. (unite as stars) kan'stelet, 'kensti-tet. 
constellation n. (group of fixt stars) kenstilee-San. 
constituency n. ksn'stitgu-dti-si, ksn'stitSu-sn-si. 
constituent adj. (component; electiv) ksn'stitS-u-ant, kan- 

'stitgu-ant. 
construct adj. (constructed; connected as governing notin 

to noun governd) kan'stjAkt, (assumptivly) 'ken-stCAkt. 
construct v, (put together; build) ksn'stSAkt 
construct n. (complex formd in the mind) Hcen-stiAkt. 
construe v. (combine; interpret) ksn'stsou, 'ken-stju, 
consuetude n. (custom; use; social intercourse) IcensiDi- 

tQud. 
consul n. (magistrate ; foreign agent) 'kensal. 
consult V. (ask advice of; confer) ksn'sAlt. 
consult n. (consultation; cabal; decree) ksn'sAlt, 'ken-Sidt. 
consultative adj, advisory [also spelt consultativ'] kan'sAl- 

t3-tiv. 
consume v. (make away with ; devour ; spend) kan'sQoum ; 

(dialectally) kan'soum. 
consummate 7*. (complete; perfect) 'kens3-met, kan'sAmet. 
consummate adj, (complete) kdn'sAmit, Icensd-mit. 
consummator n. 'kenss-metd?, 'kentsd-metsz ; (improperly) 

kan'sA-meta?. 
consumption n. (a wasting away) kan'sAmpJan. 
contag^ion n. (infectious contact, etc.) kan'tee-dsan. 
contag^ious adj. (infectious by contact; noxious) kan'tee- 

d33s. 
contagium n. material basis of infection [ploral contagid} 

kan'tee-dsi-am. 
contakion n. hymn [plural contakia'\ kan'tee-ki-an, kan'tae- 

ki-an. 
contaminate v. (defile; taint) kan'taemi-nct. ' 

contemn v. (treat as contemptible ; despise) kan'tem. 
contemned adj. (despised) kan'temd; (formerly) kan'tem- 

nid. 
contemner n. despiser [also spelt contemnorl kan'tcma?, 

kan'temnar. 
contemningly adv. (contemptuously) kan'temiq-h, kan'tem- 

niq-li. 
contemplate v. (meditate; intend) 'kentam-ptet, kan'tem- 

ptet. 

] ye, Qcure; 5 f/ie, G //tin; 3 arurc, d$joy; I shot, tjc/iew; 
W7vhen; T)s'ing; u whoever, 1 r^act, o full, ou fool, i it, lisee; 
o poetic ; a ov^r, e aerial, a b«t, o: door, oo no, e bed, ee gote ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 119 

contemplative adj., n. [also spelt contemplativ'] ksn'tem- 
pL^tiv, 'kentara-pi-etiv. 

contemplator n. 'kent3m-pz.et37, kan'tem-pz^etd?. 

oonteinporaiieity n. (contemporariness) kdn-tempd^d'nii- 
i-ti. 

oontempt n. (disdain) kdn'tempt. 

oonteniptible adj. (despicable, etc.) ksn'temptd-ba}. 

oontemptnons adj. (scornful) kan'temptSu-as, ksn'temp- 
tgu-as. 

content adj. (satisfied, contented) kdn'tent. 

content n. (one who votes 'content' : the epposit of non- 
content) kan'tent. 

content v. (satisfy) kdn'tent. 

content n. (contented state of mind; contentment) kan'tent. 

content n. (that which is containd : often used in the plur- 
al : as, table of *contents) 'ken-tent, kan'tent. 

contentious adj. (quarrelsome) ksn'ten^ds, kon'tentjas. 

contest n. (strife; dispute) 'ken-test. 

contest V, (strive for; oppose) kan'test. 

context n. (connected text) 'ken-tekst. 

context v., adj. (obsolete) kan'tekst. 

contiguity n. (contact; proximity) kenti'gjou-i-ti. 

contiguous adj. (touching) kan'tigju-3s. 

continent adj, (holding in; self-restraining; continuous) 
'kentn-3nt, 'kenti-nant. 

continent n. (containing-agent ; continuous land; main- 
land) 'kentn-ant, 'kenti-nant. 

continental adj. kentn'entl, kenti'nentl. 

continuity n. (continuousness) kenti'njou-i-ti. 

continuum n. continuous thing [plural continual ksn'tinju- 
dm. 

contour n. (outline) 'ken-tu:E:, kan'ti*:?. 

contour v. furnish with contours; adapt f'} a contour [past 
participle and preterit contoured, contourdl kan'tu:?. 

contract v. (draw together; agree) kan't^aekt. 

contract adj, (contracted; brief) kan'tjaekt. 

contract n. , (something contracted or shrunken ; a contrac- 
tion ; an abbreviation) kan'tjaekt. 

contract n. (agreement) 'kon-tjaekt. 

contractable adj. (liable to be contracted or acquired, as a 
disease or habit) kan't^aekta-bal. 

contractible adj. capable of contracting; contractu [also, 
fermerly, spelt contractable] kan'tjaekta-bal. 

c: law, a: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: for, ao now, a: osk, ai kite ; 

length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 

tress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



120 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

contractile adj. susceptible of contraction [also spelt con- 
tractil} kan'tjaektil, kdn'tpek-tail. 

contralto n. (part or voice next above the alto ; singer) kan- 
'tjaho, kan'tjail-to. 

contrariety n. (opposition) ksntss'^ai-i-ti. 

contrary adj, (opposit) Tcen-tje^i, {also) 'kents3-zi, (ante- 
riorly) 'kentjari, (rapidly) 'kentji; (occasionally or vulgar- 
ly) k3n't£e:-ri. 

contrary v. (oppose) 'ken-tjeri; (formerly) k3n'tse:-zi. 

contrast v. (set in opposition) ksn'tiaist, k9n'tia:8t, ksn- 
'tjaeist. 

contrast n. (opposition) 'ken-t£a:st, 'kent£9st. 

contretemps n. (untoward event; hitch) 'kentS9-teg. 

contribute v. (give with others) kan'tjibjot. 

contrite adj. (penitent) 'ken-tjait; (less properly) kon'ttait. 

control V, direct, govern [also spelt controul; present par- 
ticiple controlling; past participle and preterit controlled, 
controldl kan'tEool. 

controUe'^ n. financial officer; also, one who controls or 
restrains [also spelt, in the sense of an officer, comptrol- 
ler} kan'tjDO-lar. 

controlment n. (control) kon'tsool-mdnt. 

controversial adj. (of controversy) kentsd'vB^Sdi ; (less 
properly) kentja'vBrsi-al. 

controversy n. (disputation) 'k0nt£3-VB?si. 

controvert v. (dispute) kentja'vairt, 'kentj9-VB?t. 

controvertible adj. kentja'vorta-bal. 

contumacy n. (stubbornness) 'kentgoma-si ; (improperly) 
kan'tguu-ma-si. 

contumelius adj. (insolent) kentvo'mii-H-as. 

contumely n. (insolence; insult) 'kentQO-mih ; (improperly) 
'kentgo-meh, 'ken-tgumh, ken'tou-mi-h. 

conusant adj, obsolete (cognizant) 'kenjo-zant, Hceni-zdnt. 

convalescense n. (gradual recovery) kenvslesdns. 

convenable adj. (suitable, proper, meet) 'kenvina-bal. 

convenable adj, (capable of being convened) kan'vii-na-bal. 

convenience n. (fitness; comfort) kan'vii-njans, kan'vii-ni- 

3US. 

conventicle n, (assembly) ksn'venti-kd}. 
conventionalization n. kdn-ven^dnl-i'zee-Ssn, ksn-venSsn}- 

ai'zee-San. 
conventionalize v. (render conventional) ksn'ven^dnl-aiz. 
conventual adj, (of a convent) kan'ventSu-al, kan'vpntgu-al. 

j ye, Qcure; bthe, Qth'in; 3 airure, ds/oy; S^^oe, tScAew; 
u) when ; t) sing ; u whoever, i r^act, o full, ou fool, i it, li see ; 
o poetic ; 9 over, e aerial, a bMt, o: door, oo no, e b^d, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 121 

oonirersable adj. that may be converst with [also spelt con- 

versible} lonVB?S9-b9L 
conversant adj. (acquainted) 'kenvdz-ssnt ; (improperly) 

ksn'vBzsdnt. 
oonversasione n. (a meeting for conversation ; soiree) ken- 

v3r-sa:-tsi'oo-ni. 
converse n. (intercourse; communion) 'ken-ve^s. 
converse v. hold intercourse; talk [past participle and prete- 
rit conversed, conversti kan'vBirs. 
converse adj. (turnd round; opposit; contrary) 'ken-ve^s. 
conversely adv. (in the converse manner, etc.) kanVeersM, 

Tcon-vBrsti. 
eonversible adj, obsolete (capable of being converted) kan- 

'vB^sa-bal. 
conversion n. (transmutation, etc.) kdn'vBzrSon, kdnVBi^-ssn. 
convert n. (person converted, etc.) 'ken-vB?t. 
convert v. (turn, change) k3n'vB:7t. 

convertible adj. (capable of being converted) ksn'vB^ts-bd}. 
convex adj. (curved outward; bulging) ken'veks, {assump- 

tivly) 'ken-veks. 
convex n. (convex body or surface) 'ken-veks. 
convexly adv. kan'veksi-i, 'ken-veksM. 
convexo-concave adj. (bulging on one side and concave or 

hollow on the other) ken-vekso-ken'keev, {assumptivly) ken- 

vekso'keq-kev. 
convexo-convex adj, (double-convex) ken-vekso-ken'veks, 

(assumptivly) ken-vekso'ken-veks. 
convict adj. (adjudged guilty) ksn'vikt. 
convict n. (person adjudged guilty) 'kenvikt. 
convict V, (adjudge guilty) kan'vikt. 

convincible adj, (capable of being convinced) kdn'vinsd-bal. 
convive v, obsolete (feast) kan'vaiv. 
convive n. (boon companion) 'ken-viv, Tcen-vaiv. 
convivial adj. (festal; social; jovial) kan'vivi-al, kan- 

'vivial. 
convocant n. (convoker) 'kenvs-ksnt. 
convolve v. roll together [also spelt convolv; past participle 

and preterit convolved, convolvd} kan'velv. 
convoy n, (escort; protected train or fleet) Tcen-vei. 
convoy v. escort [past participle and preterit convoyed, con- 
voy dl kan'vei. 
cony n. rabbit [also spelt coney; ploral coniesi TcDO-ni, 

TcAni. 

c: law, b: f Mr, a: cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



122 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

coo V. murmur, as a dove [past participle and preterit cooed, 
coodi kou. 

cooky n. flat cake [also spelt cookey, cookie; ploral cook- 
ies} 'koki. 

coolie n. laborer [also spelt cooly'\ 'kou-li. 

coolly adv. (in a cool manner) 'kou}-ti. 

coomb. n. valley [also spelt comb, combe, coom"] koum, koom. 

coomb n. dry measure [also spelt comb} koum, koom. 

coop inter j. (a call for domestic animals; a call in the game 
of coop and seek) kop; {less properly) kuup. 

coop n. (cage, pen ; cask, barrel ; corn-measure ; cart) koup ; 
(dialectally) kop. 

coop V. put into a coop or cage; shut up [past participle and 
preterit cooped, coopQ koup; (when unstrest) kup; (dialect- 
ally) kop. 

cooper n. (one who makes barrels, etc. ; also, a beverage) 
'kou-p3?; (dialectally) 'kopa?. 

cooperate v. work together ; operate jointly [also spelt 
co-operate, cooperate} ko'opD-?et. 

copaiba n. balsam [synonymous cognate copaiva} ka'pce-ba, 
ko'pai-ba, ko'pii-ba. 

copal n. (resin) 'koo-pol, ko'pael. 

coparcener n. (coheir, parcener) ko'parsi-nar. 

copeck n. [also spelt kopeck, kopek ; synonymous cognate co- 
peek} 'koo-pek. 

copepod n. oar-footed crustacean; copepodan [ploral cope- 
pods, copepoda} 'koo-pi-ped. 

copepoda w. order of Crustacea ; ploral of copepod [synony- 
mous cognate copopoda} ko'pepa-da. 

copped adj, pointed, crested [also, sometimes, spelt copt} 
kept, 'kopid. 

copperas n. (ferrous sulfate) 'kepa-ras. 

coppice n. wood, thicket [also spelt coppis; synonymous cog- 
nate copse} 'kepis. 

cops n. clevis [also spelt copse} keps. 

copse n. kops. same meaning as coppice. 

copy n. transcript; specimen; set; original writing [ploral 
copies} 'kepi. 

coqnet v, flirt ; dally ; trifle [also spelt coquette} ko'ket. 

coquetry n. 'koo-ka-tji; (less properly) ko'ketji. 

coquette n. flirt [also spet coquet} ko'ket. 

coquim^bite n. (mineral) ko'kim-bait; (less properly) ko- 
'kiuim-bait. 

j ve, gcure; bthe, Qthin: 3 arrure, d^/oy; S ^^oe, tJcAew: 
wwhen; rysing; u whoever, i r^act. o fMll, ou fool, i tt, lise^; 
o poetic ; a ov^r, e aerial, a hut, o: door, oo no, e bed, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 123 

coqnina n. (soft white rock) ko'kii-ns. 

corah adj. plain; undyed : said of silk [also spelt coral 'ko:- 

coral n. (polyp-skeleton formation) ^kez^l. 

coraled adj. furnisht with coral [also spelt coralled, coraldl 
'kezdld. 

eorallin n. (dye; paeonin) 'ke?9-hn. 

coralline n. seaweed; polyzoan [also, sometimes, spelt eo- 
rallin} 'ke?9-hn, 'ke^a-lain. 

coralline adj, of coral [also, sometimes, spelt corallini 'ke^a- 
hn, 'ke^a-lain. 

corbeil n. gabion; basket-like ornament [also spelt cor- 
beille} 'ke:z-h^l, 'kei^-bil, ke^'bee-i. 

corbel n. supporting-piece projecting from a wall [also spelt 
corbeil} 'keiz-hol. 

corbel v. [present participle corbeling, corbelling; past par- 
ticiple and preterit corbeled, corbelled, corbeld} 'kei^-bal. 

corbeling n. [also spelt corbelling} 'ke:r-b3-hi]. 

corbie n. raven ; carrion crow [also spelt corby} 'ke:^-bi. 

cord n. string, rope [in certain senses commonly spelt chord : 
see chord} 'ke.zd, 

eordelle n. (tow-line) 'kerr-dal, ker'del. 

cordial adj. (of the heart, cheering) 'keir-dsal, 'kerr-di-aj 
'kerr-djal. 

cordial n. (stomachic ; liqueur) 'keir-dsal, 'keij-di-al. 

cordiality n. (heartiness) ke^dsi'aeh-ti, ke^di'aeh-ti. 

cordialixe v. make into a cordial; become cordial [also spelt 
cordialise} 'keizr-dsa-laiz, 'ke:r-di-3-laiz. 

Cordillera n. (mountain-range) 'kezrdil'jer-ra, ke?di'le:-23, 
ke?'dil9-?3. 

cordon n. (course of stones; line of troops) 'ke:?-d3n. 

cordnroy n. [also, sometimes, spelt corderoy} kerdaVei, {as- 
sumptivly) 'keiz-dd-zei; (also, sometimes) 'ke;r-djo-2ei. 

cordw^ain n. Spanish leather [synonymous cognate cordo- 
van} 'k©:?-dween. 

core n. (heart ; nucleus) ko:z, 

Corean adj., n. see Korean. 

co-respondent n. (joint respondent) kori'spenddnt. 

cornea n. (the transparent front part of the eyeball) 'ke:r- 
ni-9. 

cornelian n. ke^'nii-Usn. same meaning as carnelian. 

comet n. wind-instrument; coil [also spelt cornette} 'ko:?« 
nit, 'ke:r-nrt, ke^'net. 

c: low, b: iuv, ae cat, o hot, ox boy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



124 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

cometist n. [also spelt cornettist"] 'ke:2-ni-tist. 

cornice n. [also spelt cornis'\ 'keie-nis; (erroneously) Tce:?- 

nij. 
comn n. horn; horn-like part [ploral cornua'] 'ke:^-njo. 
cornncopia n. [synonymous cognate cornucopiae; ploral cor- 

nucopiasi koir-njo'koo-pi-a. 
cornucopiae n. [plural cornucopiaesi koie-njoTcoo-pi-i: . 

same meaning as cornucopia. 
corody n. aliment; pension [also spelt corrody} 'kezra-di. 
corolla n. inner envelop of the perianth; the petals collec- 

tivly [plural corollas'] ka'jola. 
corollarj n. inference [ploral corollaries} 'kez^-lezi, Tcora- 

l^zi, kaVela-^i. 
coroUiferons adj. (bearing a corolla) ke?9lif9-?9s. 
CoroUiflorae n.pl. (Gamopetalae) ka-^eh'fzoi-n. 
eorollifloral adj. ko-zeWii.o:-z3i. 
corolliflorons adj. ka-reh'ftoi-ras, ke?3lifi,3-?as. 
corolline adj. of a corolla [also spelt corollinl ks'sehn, ks- 

'^e-lain. 
corona n. crown [ploral coronas, coronael ka'^oo-na. 
coronacli n. dirge [also spelt coranach] 'kera-nsk. 
coronal adj. (of a crown) 'kera-nl, ka'^oo-nl. 
coronaled a(fy. [also spelt coronalled, coronaldl 'ke^d-ntd. 
coronet n. (coronal, circlet) 'ke^a-not. 
corporal adj. (bodily) 'ke:?-p3-^3l. 
corporal n. (corporal-cloth; corporale) 'ke:^-p3-^3l. 
corporal n. (officer) 'kei^-pa-^al. 
corporale n. corporal-cloth, corporal [plural corporalial kez- 

pa'ree-h. 
corporeal adj. (physical, bodily; material) ke^'poi-ri-al. 
corporeity n. (the being of the nature of body ; materiality) 

ke^psVii-i-ti. 
corposant n. St. Elmo's fire ; corpse-light [synonymous cog- 
nates cotnposant, cotnosantl 'kerj-pa-zant, 'keij-pa-zaent. 
corps n. body; society [ploral corps, see corps pi.] 'koiz. 
corps n. (ploral of corps) 'ko:?z. 

corpse n. (body ; dead body ; cadaver) ke:?ps, ko:?s. 
corpulence n. (bulk of body; obesity) 'ke:E:-pQo-l3ns. 
corpuscle n. (particle) 'ker^-pASDl, 'keir-pa-sal, ker'pAsal. 
oorpuscule n. (corpuscle) ker'pAS-kgul. 
corral n. (pen, enclosure) 'kerol, ka'rael, ko'rael, ko'rael. 
corral v. (drive into a corral; capture) 'kojal, ka'rael, ko- 

'rael, keVael. 

j ve, (jcure; bthe. Qthin; 3 axrure, ds/oy; ^ shoe, t^chew; 
w when ; r) sing; u whenever, i r^act, o f«ll, ou fool, i it, li see; 
o poetic ; a over, e aerial, a b«t, o: door, oo no, c bed, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 125 

correal adj. (under joint obligation) k^'zii-si, 'kezi-ol. 
correality n. (quality of being correal) kezri'xh-ti. 
correality n. (equal reality) kezi'aeh-ti. 
correct adj, ka'^ekt, {rapidly, sometimes) k^ekt. 
corregidor n. (Spanish magistrate) ke'zzd^i-dez. 
correspondent n. (one who corresponds, as by letter) ke^i- 

'spendant. 
corridor n. (gallery; passage) 'ke^i-der, 'kezi-doZf 'ke^i-dar, 

ke^i'do:^. 
corrie n. hollow [also spelt correi, corri, corry; synonymous 

cognate currie} 'kezi. 
corrigible adj. (capable of being corrected) 'keridsa-bal. 
corroborate v. (strengthen; confirm) k^'zehs-zet. 
corrody n. aliment; pension [also spelt corody} 'kezs-di. 
corrosible adj, (corrodible) ka'^oo-sa-bal, ka'^oo-za-bsl. 
corrosive adj., n, [also spelt corrosiv} ka'^oo-siv, ka'roo-ziv ; 

{formerly) 'ke^a-siv. 
oormgate v. (wrinkle) 'ke^o-get. 
corruptible adj. ka'^Apta-bal. 
corsage n. (bodice) 'ke:?-sid3, ke?'sa:3, ke?'sa:d3. 
corsair n. (privateer) 'ke:^-se:^. 
corse n. (dead body ; corpse) k©:rs, ko:zs. 
corslet n. body-armor ; garment ; thorax [also spelt corselet} 

'ker^-SLat. 
cortdge n. (train of attendants ; procession) ker'tees. 
Cortes n. pi. (the senate and chamber of deputies constitut- 
ing the legislature of Spain) 'ke:?-tis, 'ke:?-tes. 
cortex n. outer part ; shell ; husk [ploral cortices'! 'keizr-teks. 
cortices n. (ploral of cortex) 'ke:?-ti-siz. 
comscant adj, (glittering; flashing) ks^^Asksnt. 
coruscate v. (sparkle, glitter) 'kera-sket, ka'^A-sket. 
corvette n, (flush-deckt cruiser) kejr'vet. 
corvine adj. (of the crow) 'ke:jr-vin, 'kei^-vain. 
corymb n. (raceme) 'kerim, 'ke^imb. 
corymbose adj. (growing in corymbs) kerim'boos, {assump- 

tivly) ke'rim-bos. 
corjrphee n, (chief ballet-dancer) ke^i'fee. 
corjrpbeus n. leader [also spelt coryphaeus'] keri'fii-3S. 
eorysa n. (catarrh) ko'zai-z3. 
oosinage n, blood-relationship ; writ [also spelt cosenage'\ 

'kAZ3-nid3, 'kAzn-ids. 
cosmetic n. (preparation for the skin, etc. ; art of bodily 

adornment) koz'metik. 

c: law, b: f Mr, x cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is leng; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the lellowing syllable. 



126 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

cosmogony n. (world-creation) kez'megd-ni ; (erroneously) 

kez'med3i-ni. 
cosmopolitan adj. (of a cosmopolite; world-wide) Icezma- 

'peh-tn. 
cosmopolite n. (citizen of the world) kez'meps-lait. 
cosmorama n. (view of the world) kezmd'^ar-ms. 
cosmos n. world; iiniverse; order [also spelt kosmosl Icez- 

mes. 
Cossack n. (inhabitant of the lower Don, etc.) Hcesdk, 'ke- 

saek. 
cost V. (be of the price of, etc.) kerst, (when unstrest) kest; 

(dialectally) kc:st. 
costean v. sink pits, etc. [also spelt costeenl kes'tiin; (less 

properly) 'kesti-Dn. 
costmary n. (plant) 'kest-me^i, 'kest-me:-ri. 
costume n. (custom; style of dress; gown) 'kestgum, kes- 

'tgoum; (dialectally) 'kestum, kes'tuum. 
costnme v, (provide with a dress) kes'tgoum. 
costumer n. (dealer in costumes) kes'tgou-mae ; (less proper- 

ly) 'kes-tQumaz:. 
cote n. (hut ; sheepfold) koot. 
coterie n. (circle, set, meeting) 'koo-tD-^i; (less properly) 

ncetD-^i, kotaVii. 
cothnrn n. (boot, buskin, cothurnus) 'koo-Go:^n, ko'Gei^n. 
cotillion n, dance [also sprit cotillon'] ko'tilian, 
cotyle n. hollow thing, hip-joint socket [plural cotylae, coty- 

lesl 'keti-h. 
cotyledon n. (patch of villi; pennywort; seed-leaf) keti- 

'hi-dn. 
cotyledonons adj. koti1ii-dn-3s, koti'lrdn-Ds. 
conchant adj. (lying down) 'kao-tjant. 
congar n. puma, panther [also spelt couguar, cougouarl Tcou- 

congli V. (expel air thru the glottis, etc.) kc:f, (when un- 
strest) kef. 

conld V. (preterit of can) kod, (when unstrest) kad. 

coulomb n. (electric quantity-unit) kulem. 

council n. (assembly') 'kaon-sal. 

councilor n. member of a council [also spelt councillor'\ 
'kaon-s3-l3^. 

counsel n. (consultation; advice; plan; body of legal ad- 
visers) 'kaon-sal. 

counsel v. give or take counsel; advise; consult [present par- 

] yt, ccure; htht, ^/lin; 3 a^nirc, d.^/oy; S 5/ioe, tJcAew; 
u) when\ q sing; u whoever, i r^act. o ftill, ou fool, i tt, 11 see\ 
o poetic; dov^r, e aerial, Abut, o: door, oo no, eb^d, eegfate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 127 

ticiple counseling, counselling; past participle and preterit 
counseled, counselled, counseld} 'kaun-ssl. 
eoniiselor n. adviser; barrister [also spelt counsellor"} 'kaon- 

eoniitenance n. (demeanor; face; support) 'kaon-tn-dns, 

'kaon-ti-nans. 
eoniiter n. counting-device ; counterfeit coin ; table ; debtors* 

prison [also, in the sense of prison for debtors, spelt comp- 
ter} 'kaon-tar. 
oonnterf eit adj., n. imitation [also, sometimes, spelt coun- 

terfit} 'kaon-tar-fit, {also, in Britain) 'kaon-t9?-fit. 
eonntemiaTcli v, (march back) kaon-t9z'ma:ztS, 'kaon-ts?- 

mai^t^. 
connterniarcli n. 'kaun-td^-ma-.^tS. 

oonnterpane n. (bed-quilt) 'kaun-tsz-peen, 'kaon-taz-pin. 
oonp n. (prompt blow, sudden stroke) kou. 
conp n. cart, wagon [also spelt coop} kuup. 
coup V. exchange, barter [also spelt cowpl kaop. 
eonp V, upset [also, formerly, spelt cowp} kaop. 
coup de g^&oe n. (stroke of mercy; quietus) kou-d3'g?a:s. 
coup de main n. (stroke with the hand ; sudden attack) kuu< 

da'maeq. 
conp d*€tat n. (stroke of state; stroke of policy) kou-de- 

'ta: . 
conp d'oeil n. (glance of the eye; general view) kou'dB:-i. 
eonpe n. (cup, bowl; Swiss dry measure) kuup. 
conp6 n. (carriage) ku'pee. 
oonpee n. (dance-step ; bow) ku'pii. 
eonp6e adj. (in heraldry, coupt) ku'pee. 
conple n. (brace, leash; pair) 'kApah 
conpon n. (detachable certificate ; ticket) 'kou-pen ; (vuh 

garly) 'kgou-pen, 'kao-pen. 
conrageons adj. (full of courage; bold) ks'^ee-dsss. 
eonrant adj. (in heraldry, running) 'ko:-raent. 
conrant n. dance [also spelt courante'] k&za:nt, ko'raint, ko- 

'rae:nt. 
conrant n. gazette, news-letter [obsolete except as the name 

of some particular newspaper] 'ko:-^9nt, ko'2a:nt, ko'^aint, 

ko'raernt. 
conrier n. (running messenger; traveler's servant) 'kozi-ar, 

{less often) 'ka:-ziz. 
eonronne n. (crown) ku'^en. 
conrse n. (onward motion ; path) koizs, (when unstrest) kozrs. 

c: \aWt b: fur, s cat, o hot, ei hoy, a: far, au now, a: ask, ai ktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



128 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

eonrteons adj, graciously polite [also, sometimes, spelt cur- 

teous] 1cBrti-3s, 1cB:?-ti-3s; 'ksztq^s, 'keis-tgas; 'koiz-t^s. 
courtesy n. courtliness or elegance of manners; also, favor, 

indulgence : as, the ^courtesy of England [also spelt curte- 

syl 'ke^ti-si. 
eourtesy n. 'ksztsi, (rarely) 'kszti-si. same meaning as curt- 
sy. 
eonrtezan n. court-mistress; prostitute [also spelt courte- 

san'\ 'ko:r-ti-z3n, 'koi^-ti-zaen, 'kezti-zsn, 'kB?ti-zan, ksTti- 

'zan. 
courtier n. (one who frequents the court of a sovereign) 

koiz-tl^z, 'ko:Z't(;^z. 
court-martial n. court for the administration of martial 

law [plural courts-martiall koizt^mazl^l. 
courtmartial v. [past participle and preterit courtmar' 

tialcd, courtmartiald] ko-.zt'mazl^l. 
cousin n. (son or daughter of one's uncle or aunt) IcAZdn, 

TcAzn; {erroneously) 'kAzin. 
covenant n. (compact, contract) 'kAVi-nant. 
covenanter n. (one who covenants; adherent of the Scotch 

covenant of 1638 or that of 1643) 'kAvi-nantar. 
covenantor n. (one who enters into a legal covenant) Icavi- 

nantor, 'kAvinan-te:?. 
coverlet n. (bed-quilt; cover) 'kAvar-lat. 
covert adj. (covered, secret, disguised) 'kAV3?t; {erroneous^ 

ly) 'koo-VB^t. 
covetous adj. (eagerly desirous; grasping) 'kAVi-tas. 
covey n. (brood of partridges; set) 'Icavi. , 

coivage n. pod-hairs of Mucuna pruriens [also spelt cow- 

hage, couhage; synonymous cognate cowitch} 'kau-ids. 
coivardice n. want of courage [also spelt cowardisi Hcau-d?- 

dis ; (erroneously) 'kau-a^-dais. 
eoivcuniber n. (dialectal) 'kau-kAmbs?. same meaning as 

cucumber. 
coivberd n. (cattle-tender) Tcao-hBird. 
coivl n. (hood ; hooded garment) kaol. 
covTry n. shell [also spelt cowrie; ploral cowries} 'kao-ri. 
coxcomb n. a fool's cap; fop, vain silly fellow [also spelt 

cockscomb} 'koks-koom. 
eozopodite n. (crustacean) kok'sops-dait. 
coynye n. billeting of soldiers upon private persons; impost 

[also spelt coignye and, formerly, coigny, coyne, coynie; 

former synonymous cognate coigne} 'koi-nji, 'koi-ni. 

j ye, <j cure ; bthe, thin;^ 3 arure, ds /oy ; J shoe, tS cAew ; 
ID when ; q sing ; u whoever, i r^act, o f «11, ou fool, 1 »t, li see ; 
o poetic ; 3 over, e aerial, a but, o: door, oo no, e bf d, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 129 

eoyote n, prairie-wolf [synenyraous cegnate cajote, coyote, 

kiotel 'kei-ot, ko'joo-ti, ko'joot. 
cosen V. cheat; entice [past participle and preterit cozened, 

cozendl IcAzsn, 'kxzn. 
eomy adj. snug; social [also spelt cosy, cosey, cozey, code, co- 

sie'\ 'koo-zi. 
erabbed adj. (perverse, cross, churlish) 'k^xbid. 
eraft n. skill; cunning; boat [plural crafts and, in the sense 

of ships collectivly, craft} k^aift, ksa:ft, k^aeift. 
erampon n. grappling-iron [synonymous cegnate crampoon} 

'k^aempdn, 'Ireaera-pen. 
erampoon n. k^xm'poun. same meaning as crampon. 
cranberry n. 'k3xn-be?i, 'k^aen-bd^i, Ic^xmbzi. 
crancli v. k3a:nt$, ksa:nt$, k3c:nt$; {also, and in Britain nor- 
mally) k^ainS, IreainS, k3c:n$. same meaning as craunch, 
cranial adj. (of the cranium or skull) 'ksee-ni-sl. 
eraninm n. skull; brain-box [plural crania} 'k^ee-ni-sm. 
crape n. gauze-like fabric [also spelt crepe, crepe} Irecep. 
crass adj. (coarse; gross) k^xs; {less properly) ksais, ksa:s. 
cranncb v, crunch [synonymous cognates cranch, crunch} 

k3c:ntS, k3a:ntS, ksa:ntS; {also, and in Britain normally) 

k3c:n$, k3a:nS, k3a:n$. 
cra'orfisli n. crustacean; spiny lobster [synonymous cognate 

crayfish} Ireci-fiS. 
crasrfisli n. 'ksee-fij. same meaning as crawfish, 
creak v, make a sharp, harsh, or squeaking sound [past par- 
ticiple and preterit creaked, creakt} k^iik. 
creatine n. organic base [also spelt kreatine and, sometimes, 

creatin, kreatin} 'k'sii-a-tin, 'Icsii-a-tain. 
creatinine n. alkaline substance [also spelt kreatinine and, 

sometimes, creatinin, kreatinin} k^i'aeti-nin, k^i'seti-nain. 
creator n. (one who creates) k^i'ee-t^z. 
creatnre n. (created thing; animal; human being) Inii- 

il^z, Ireii-t^az; {dialectally) Iczn-t^z, Iczit^z. 
credence n. (belief, etc.) Treii-dns; {erroneously) 'Icsedns. 
credible adj. (believable) Icseds-bdl. 
creditor n. (one who gives credit; one to whom a debt is 

owing) Treedi-ta?. 
credo n. (creed) Ic^ii-do. 
credulity n. (over-readiness to believe) Irei'djou-li-ti; {less 

properly) Irei'dsou-h-ti. 
crednlons adj. (gullible) 'ksedso-las, Tc^edjo-las. 
creek n. (inlet, bay ; brook, rivulet) k^iik ; {dialectally) kzik. 

c: low, e: fur, x cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the tellowing syllable. 



130 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

eremate v, (burn up ; consume by heat) k^i'meet, 'ksii-met. 
erematorium n. (crematory) ksimd'tDi-sri-sm, ksem^^toi-zi- 

9m. 
erematory w., adj. 'ksii-ma-tozi, 'ksema-ta^i, Ireemata-^i. 
erenate adj. (notcht, indented) 'k^ii-net. 
crenatnre n. (tooth or notch of a leaf) 'k^ena-tS??, Hc^ens- 

tQS?, 'k3ii-n3-t^93. 
erenel n. (tooth of a crenaie leaf, crenature; also, crenelle) 

'k^enal. 
erenelate v, embattle [also spelt crenellate'] Iczen^Aet. 
crenelation n. condition of being crenelated; battlement 

[also spelt crenellation} k^ens'lee-Jan. 
crenelle n. (opening in a parapet; crenel) losi'ne}. 
Creole n. (nativ-born person of European or African des- 
cent) 'k^ii-ol. 
creosote n. oily liquid from wood-tar [also spelt creosote, 

kreasotel 'ksii-a-sot. 
crepon n. (crape-like fabric) 'ksepsn. 
crescendo n. (gradual increase; swelling) k^i'sendo, k^i'Sen- 

do. 
crescent n. (convexo-concave figure like the growing or 

waxing moon) 'k'sesant. 
cresol n. tar phenol [also, sometimes, spelt cressol'} 'ksii-seS, 

'k^e-sel. 
cretaceous adj. (chalky) k^i'tee-^ds. 
cretonne n. (cotton cloth) k^i'ten, 'kse-ten, 'k^ii-ten. 
crevasse n. (fissure) k^a'vars, ksa'vais, k^a'vaeis. 
crevice n, crack; fissure [also spelt crevis} 'ksevis. 
crcDvel n. (worsted thread) 'k^ou-sl. 
cricoid adj. (ring-shaped) 'k^ai-keid. 
crinoid adj. (lily-like) 'ksai-neid, 'k^i-neid. 
crinoline n. stiff fabric; petticoat; warship-netting [also, 

sometimes, spelt crinolini 'k^ina-hn, 'ksins-Hn, 'ksina-lain. 
crises n. (ploral of crisis) 'k^ai-siz. 
crisis n, turning-point [ploral crises and, rarely, crisisesi 

'k^ai-sis. 
criterion n. standard of criticism [ploral criteria^ ksai'ti:- 

jri-an. 
criticize v. judge accurately [also spelt criticise'] 'k^iti-saiz. 
critique n, (critical review) k^i'tiik; (obsolete spelling of 

critic) Tc^itik. 
crocliet V, (knit) kso'See, 'ksDo-Ji. 
crocodile n. (reptil; sophism) 'kseka-dail, 'k^eka-dil. 

] ye, Qcure; bthe, fliin ; 3 arure, ds/oy; ^ shoe, t^chew; 
w when ; r) sing; u whoever, i r^act, o fwll, ou fool, i it, li see; 
o poetic; 3 ov^r, e aerial, Abut, 0: door, oo no, e b^d, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 131 

eromleeli n. (ancient stone structure) 'k^emlak, "k^em-lek. 

erony n. [also spelt cronie, croney; ploral croniesi 'k^oo-ni. 

eroolLed adj. (bent; not straight) 'k^ukid. 

erooked v. past participle and preterit of crook [also spelt 
crook tl ksokt. 

eroquet n. (game) Ireo'kee, 'ksDO-ke, 'ksoo-ki. 

croquette n. (food) Ino'ket. 

eroquis n. (sketch ; study) k33'kii. 

eroBS V. make a cross; cancel; pass over, etc. [past partici- 
ple and preterit crossed, crost} k3e:s, (when unstrest) kses; 
(dialectally) k3c:s. 

eroBslet n. small cross [also spelt crosletl 'k3e:-sz.3t. 

erotcliet n. (hook; musical symbol; whim) 'kset^it. 

eroncli v. (stoop ; cringe) ksaotj ; (erroneously) ksoutj. 

eronp n. rump, buttocks [also spelt croupe, croop} k^oup. 

eronp n. (disease) k^oup. 

eroupier n. (money-raker at a gambling-table ; assistant 
host) 'k30U-pi-3?, k^u'pi:?. 

erozier n. cross-bearer; pastoral staff [also spelt crosierl 

crucial adj. (cross-shaped ; decisiv) 'k^ou-Sal. 
crucian n. fish [also spelt crusian} 'k^ou-Jdn. 
crucible ». (melting-pot) 'ksou-sa-bal ; (^less properly) 'k^ou- 

zd-bal. 
crucifix n. (image of Christ on the cross) 'k^ou-si-fiks. 
crucifixion n. k^usi^fik^sn. 

cruel adj. (disposed to inflict suffering) 'k^ou-al. 
cruelly adv, (in a cruel manner) 'k^ou-a-h, 'k^ou-al-h. 
cruise v., n. voyage [also spelt cruise} ksouz. 
crumb n. particle ; scrap [also spelt crum} ksAm. 
cruncb v. crush with the teeth, etc. [synonymous cognates 

craunch, cranch} ksAntS, (in Britain) ksAnJ. 
cruorin n. hemoglobin [also spelt cruorine} 'k3ou-3-?in. 
crupper n. (saddle-strap passing under a horse's tail; rump; 

croup) 'k^opar, 'k^Apar. 
crus n. the lower leg; pillar [ploral crura"] ksAs. 
crusado n. Portuguese coin [also, sometimes, spelt crusadol 

kso'see-do, k^o'zee-do. 
cruse n. jar, bottle [also spelt cruise] k^ous, k^ouz. 
crustaceous n. (of or like a crust; crustacean) ksAs'tee-Jas. 
crux M. cross; vexatious difficulty [ploral cruxes, cruces] 

ksAks; (erroneously) k^oks. 
cryptogam n, (flowerless plant) 'k^ipta-gaem. 

c: law, b: f wr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



132 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

cryptogram n. (secret writing) 'k3ipt3-gzsem. 

erystalline adj. of crystal [also, sometimes, spelt crystallinl 

'ksistl-in, 'k^istl-ain, 'k3ist3-hn, 'ksista-lain. 
crystallization n. [also spelt crystallisation^ k3istl>i'zee- 

San, k^istl-ai'zee-San. 
crystallize v. [also spelt crystalliseli Inistl-aiz, 'ksista-laiz. 
cubic adj. (cube-like ; solid ; of the third degree) 'kgou-bik. 
cuckoo n. (bird) 'ko-ku, (anteriorly) 'koku. 
cucumber n. [dialectal equivalent cowcumber, formerly in 

regular literary use] 'k^ou-kAmba?. 
cudgel n. (club) "kAdssl. 
cue n. concluding word ; hint ; proper course ; frame of mind 

[also, formerly, spelt kew, ku, quew, q, quue, que, qu, kuel 

k^ou. 
cue n. stick used in billiards [also spelt queue'[ kgou. 
cuirass n. (armor) ktuiVaes, ku)iVae:s; {less properly) ku}i'ra:8; 

'ktui:-?3s; k^oVa:s, kgoVaeis. 
cuirassier n. (mounted soldier armd with a cuirass) ku)iz9- 

'siizr, kgo^a'si:?. 
cuir-bouilli n. boild leather [also spelt cuir-bouillyl ku)i:ff- 

'bou-ji, ktui:r'boul-ji. 
cuish n. thigh-piece [synonymous cognate cuissel kwiS. 
cuisine n. (kitchen; style of cooking) kioi'ziin. 
cul-de-sac n. blind alley [ploral culs-de-saci kgoul-da'saek. 
culinary adj. (of the kitchen or cooking) 'kgou-h-neri ; (er- 

roneously) 'kAh-ne^i. 
culler n. (one who culls or selects) 'kAlsz. 
culture n. (cultivation) 'kAltJa?, (older) 'k\h<;9z. 
culverin n. gun; cannon [also spelt culverine'\ 'kAlva-zin. 
cumic adj. (of cumin) 'kAmik, 'kguu-mik. 
cumin n. plant [also spelt cummin\ 'kAmin. 
cumquat n. small orange [also spelt kumquat, cumquot'] 

'kAm-kiret. 
cumulative adj. increasing by addition [also spelt cumula- 

tiz'l 'kQou-mjo-letiv, 'k<;ou-mjol9-tiv. 
cuneal adj. (wedge-shaped) 'kgou-ni-al. 
cuneiform n. wedge-shaped [synonymous cognate cuniform'] 

kgo'nii-i-forzrm, 'kgou-ni-i-fotzm, 'kgou-ni-fo:?m. 
cuniculus n. small underground passage [ploral cunicult] 

kgo'nikgo-las. 
cunner n. fish [also spelt Conner, connor'\ 'kAnar. 
cunning n. (skill; craftiness) TcAniq; (dialectally, vulgarly, 

and familiarly) 'kAnin. 

j .ve, Qcure; hthe, Q thin', 3 axrure, dj/oy; ^ shot, tjc/iew; 
ujw/ten; qsin^; u whoever, i r^act, o fwll, ou fool, lit, lis^^; 
o poetic; a over, e aerial, Abut, o: door, 00 no, e b^d, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 133 

■■ ■ - - — - - 

cupboard n. (sideboard for cups; provision-closet) 'kxbd^d. 

cnpel n. (bone-earth vessel) 'kQou-pal, 'kApal. 

cupel v» present participle cupeling, cupelling ; past parti- 
ciple and preterit cupeled, cupelled and sometimes cupeldl 
'kQou-psl. 

cupful n. as much as fills a cup [plural cupfulsl 'kAp-fol. 

cupola n. dome-like roof, etc. [dialectal synonymous cog- 
nate cupolo} 'kgou-p9-l3. 

curable adj. (capable of being cured) 'kQoi-zra-bal. 

Curasao n. [also spelt curagod] kgo^a'soo. 

curari n. poison [also spelt curare \ synonymous cognate cu- 
rard\ k^o'eai-zi, ko'ra:-?i. 

curarine n. (alkaloid from curari) 'kgo^^a-rain, ko'za:-7in. 

curarize v, (treat with curari) 'kgo:-?3-raiz, ko'?a:-?aiz. 

curassofv n. (bird) kgo'raeso, 'kgo:-r3-so. 

curate n. (curer of souls ; pastor ; assistant of a rector or 
vicar) 'kgo:-?it. 

curator ». (guardian; manager) kgo'ree-tar, 'kgo:-?3-t3?. 

curb n. mouth-strap; check; swelling; frame; edging; curb- 
stone [also, formerly, spelt kerb, kirh'\ ksi^b. 

curculio n. (fruit-weevil) ks^'kgou-U-o. 

curcumin n, coloring-matter of tumeric [also spelt curcu- 
fnine} 'kerkgo-min. 

cur6 n. (parish priest) kgo'^ee. 

curfcDv n. (evening bell; fire-plate, blower) 'ks^fiu, 'keir-fiu. 

curio n. (curiosity; piece of bric-a-brac) 'kgo:-zi-o. 

curled adj. ksizld, (also, in poetry) 'ksi^-hd. 

curmudgeon n. (miser, niggard) ka^'mxdsdn. 

currant n. (fruit) 'korant, 'kA^ant. 

currency n. (flow ; course of time ; state of being current ; 
circulation; money in actual use; vogue) 'ke^an-si. 

current n. (flow, stream) 'ks^ant, 'kA?9nt. 

current adj. (passing, common, prevalent) 'ke^ant, 'kA^ant. 

curriculum n. course [plural curricula'] kazikgu-lam. 

currier n. (one who dresses leather) 'kszi-^z, 'kAzi-sz, 

cursed adj. (under a curse; damnable) 'ke^sid, 'ksie-sid. 

cursed v. (past participle and preterit of curse) kai^st. 

cuner n. (one who curses) 'kszrsa?, 'kerer-sa^. 

cursor n. (runner; slide) 'ko^sa?, 'kei^-sar. 

cursory adj. (running; hasty) 'ke^sa-n, 'kers^i. 

curtail v, cut short [past participle and preterit curtailed, 
curtaild"] ks^'teel. 

curtain n. (hanging; screen) 'kertn, 'ke^tin. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



134 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

curtsy n. obeisance [also spelt curtsey; synonymous cognates 

curtesy, courtesy} 'ksztsi. 
curtsy V. [present participle curtsying; past participle and 

preterit curtsied} Iceztsi. 
cumle adj, (of a chariot) IcQor-eul. 
curve n. curvd line [also spelt curvl Icbizv. 
curvet n,, v. leap [also spelt curvette} Icsre-vit, ka^'vct. 
cusliion n. (stuft bag) 'kujan. 
cuspidor n. spittoon [synonymous cognate cuspidorel IcAspi- 

dez. 
cuspidore n. 'kAspi-dosr. same meaning as cuspidor, 
cutlas n. cutting-sword; big knife [also spelt cutlass} ^AtL3S. 
cyanide n. (compound of cyanogen and a metal) 'sai-9-naid, 

'sai-3-nid. 
cyanine n. blue coloring-matter [also, sometimes, spelt cya- 

nin} 'sai-9-nain, 'sai-a-nin. 
cyanogen n. (radical) sai'sens-dsin, sai'aens-dsen. 
cyanurate n. (salt of cyanuric acid) sai-9'njo:-?et. 
cyanuret n. (cyanide) sai'aenjo-zat. 
cyanuric adj. sai-3'njo:-?ik. 
cycad n. (plant) 'sai-kaed, 'sai-ksd. 
cyclan^en n. (plant) 'sikz^d-msn. 

cyclamin n. (principle found in cyclamen-root) 'sikz.9-min. 
cycle n. (circle ; round of events) 'sai-kal. 
cyclic adj. (of a cycle) 'siktik. 
cyclide n. envelop of a sphere [also, sometimes, spelt eyelid} 

'sai-kz.id, 'si-kLaid. 
cycloid adj. (like a circle) 'sai-kz^eid, 'si-kteid. 
cycloidal adj. (of a cycloid) sai'kz.ei-d}, si'kz.ei-d!. 
cyclone n. (rotatory storm) 'sai-ktoon. 
cyclope adj. (having or using one eye) 'sai-ktop. 
Cyclopean adj. (of the Cyclopes) sai-kLa'pii-sn. 
cyclopedia n. encyclopedia [also spelt cyclopaedia} sai-kz^- 

'pii-di-3. 
cyclopedic adj. [also spelt cyclopaedic} sai-k^a'pii-dik, sai- 

kta'pedik. 
Cylopes n. (ploral of Cyclops) sai'kz.oo-piz. 
Cyclops n. one of a mythic race of one-eyed giants [ploral 

Cyclopes, Cyclops, Cyclopses} 'sai-kz.eps. 
cyclorama n. (circular panorama) sai-kz.3'ra:-m9. 
cyg^net n. young swan [also, formerly, spelt signet} 'signit. 
cylinder n. (solid figure; tube) 'sihn-da^. 
cylindric adj. (like a cylinder) silindrik. 

j ye, Q cure ; 5 f Ae, G thin ; 3 a^ure, ds joy ; S j/»oe, tS c/»ew ; 
iDw/jen; qsin^r; u whoever, i r^act, o full, ou fool, i it, lis^^; 
o poetic ; 9 ov^r, e aerial, a but, 0: door, 00 no, e b^d, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 135 

ft. robe [also spelt simarre, simar, symar} si'maiz. 

cymbal n. metal plate [also spelt sytnbal'\ "simbdl. 

eymbif orm adj, boat-shaped [also spelt cymbaeformi 'simbi- 
ieiztn. 

eyme n. (centrifugal inflorescence) saim. 

eymose adj. (bearing a cyme) sai'moos, (assumptivly) 'sai- 
mos; (also) 'sai-moz. 

Cymide adj. of the Cymry; Welsh [also, sometimes, spelt 
Kymric} 'simzik, 'kim^ik. 

Cymry n. pi, the Welsh [also spelt Cymri, Cwmry and, some- 
times, Kymry, Kimry, Kimri} 'sim^i, {less often) 'kimzi. 

cynanche n. (throat-disease) si'nserjki. 

Cyi&io n. (one of a sect of Greek philosophers) 'sinik. 

cynic n. (sneering faultfinder) 'sinik. 

cynical adj. (captious; sarcastic) 'sini-ksl. 

cynicism n. 'sini-sizam. 

cynosure n. (center of attraction) 'sai-n9-Su?, sina-Jor; 'sai- 
n9-sQ07, 'sina-sgo?; {less often) 'sai-na-so?, 'sina-so?; 'sai- 
n3-zjo^, 'sina-zjor. 

cypress n. (tree) 'sai-psis. 

cyprinoid adj. (carp-like) 'sipsi-neid, si'p3ai-neid. 

cyst n. sac, vesicle, cell [also spelt cist} sist. 

cytoplasm n. (cell protoplasm) 'sai-t9-pz.sez9m. 

cyvar n. (Welsh land-measure) 'kii-va?. 

czar n. emperor, king; especially, the emperor of Russia [also, 
spelt tsar, tsar} za:?, (rarely) tsaiz, 

csarcTitcli n. Russian prince [also, sometimes, spelt tsare- 
vitch, csarewitch, tsarewitch, csarowitch, csarowits; synon- 
ymous cognates cesarevitch, cesarewitch} 'za:?-3-vitS, 'tsa:?- 
3-vitS. 

csarina n. empress of Russia [also, sometimes, spelt tsarina ; 
synonymous cognates czaritsa, tsaritsa, tzaritsa} zaVii-na, 
tsa'ni-na. 

Czecli adj, [also spelt Csech, Tsech, Tschech} tjek. 



daoHsliund n. badger-dog [synonymous cognate dachshound} 

'da:ks-hunt; (less properly) 'daeks-hont. 
dactyl n. metrical foot [also spelt dactyle} 'daektil. 
daddy n. dad, father [also spelt daddie} 'daedi. 
dado n. die of a pedestal, etc. [plural dados} 'dee-do, (less 

often) 'da:-do. 

c: law, b: fur, x cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the lellowing syllable. 



136 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

daedal adj. see dedal. 

daffadouTiidilly n. daffodil [synonymous cognates daffy^ 
downdilly, daffedowndilly'} daefd^daon'dih. 

daffodil n. (narcissus; pale yellow) 'dsefs-di}. 

daft adj. (crazy; madly gay) da:ft, da:ft, dae:ft. 

daguerreotype n. (fotograf) dd'gesra-taip, ds'gen-d-taip. 

dahabeeyah n, boat used on the Nile [also spelt dahabeiah, 
dahabiyeh; synonymous cognates dihabiah, dahabeeah, da- 
habieh} do-hd'bii-ja, da-ha'bii-a. 

dahlia n. (plant) 'dor-Ha, 'dee-lia, 'daelia. 

dairy n. milk-room [ploral dairies'] 'de:-ei; {dialectally) 'dce- 
zi. 

dais n. (platform) 'dee-is, dees. 

daisy n. flower [ploral daisies'] 'dee-zi. 

dam n. (bank or wall to obstruct water) daem. 

damage n. (loss; harm) 'dsemids. 

Damascene adj, (of Damascus; of damask) daems'siin, (ai- 
sumptivly) 'daema-sin. 

damascene v, inlay, damask [synonymous cognate damas- 
keen'] daema'siin, 'daema-sin. 

dammar n. resin [also spelt damar, dammer] 'daemss;. 

damme intcrj. (damn me) 'daemi. 

dammed adj. obstructed by means of a dam [also spelt 
damd] daemd. 

damn v. (condemn to hell) daem, {often) dae:m. 

damned adj, (consigned to hell) daemd, (often) dae:md; 
{sometimes, in poetry) 'daemnid. 

damning adj, (that damns) Maemnir), 'daemir). 

damning n. (damnation) 'dsemir). 

damsel n. young unmarried lady; girl, lass [archaic synon- 
ymous cognates damosel, damozel, damosell] 'daemzal. 

damson n, (plum) Maemzsn. 

dance n,,v. da:nts, darnts, dae:nts; {also, and in Britain nor- 
mally) dams, da:ns, dae:ns. 

dandelion n. (plant) 'daendi-lai-9n, daendi1ai-9n ; {vulgarly) 
'daendi-lain, 'daendl-ain. 

dandi n. Saiva mendicant [ploral dandis] 'daendi. 

dandruff n. scurf [synonymous cognate dandriff] 'daendraf. 

dandy n. boatman on the Ganges [also spelt dandi, dandee; 
ploral dandies] 'daendi. 

dandy n, beau, fop; sloop; foul; jug; grate; cart [ploral 
dandies] 'daendi. 

dandy n. (dandy-fever, dengue) 'daendi. 

j ye, Qcure; bthe, */tin ; 3 amre, ds/oy; ^ shoe, tJcTiew; 
wwhen; qsin^; u whoever, i r^act, o full, ou fool, i it, lis^e; 
o poetic; a ov^r, e aerial. Abut, d: door, oono, e b^d, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 137 

Danegeld n. tax [synenymous cegnate Danegeltl 'deen-geW. 

Danisli adj, (of the Danes; of Denmark) 'dee-nij; (errone- 
ously) 'daenij. 

danseuse n. (female dancer; ballet-dancer) deg'seiz. 

daric n. (ancient Persian coin) 'dxzik. 

darky n. night ; dark lantern ; negro [also spelt darkey ; plu- 
ral darkies} 'da^ki, 'da:r-ki, 'da:-ki. 

data n. (ploral of datum) 'dee-ta, 'da:-ta. 

datnm n. [plural data} 'dee-tsm. 

danb v., n. smear, etc. [past participle and preterit daubed, 
daubdl dc:b; (dialectally) deb. 

daughter n. (female child) 'dc:-t3?. 

daunt V. (discourage; abash) dc:nt, da:nt, doint. 

dauntless adj. (bold) 'dc:n-tLos, 'da:n-tz.3s, 'da:n-tL3s. 

daunton n. daunt ; tame [also spelt danton] 'dc:n-t3n, 'dam- 
tan, 'da:n-t3n. 

daupliin n. eldest son of the king of France [former syn- 
enymous cegnate dolphin'} 'dc:-fin. 

daupliine n. (the wife of a dauphin) 'dc:-fin. 

davit n. crane [also spelt davitt} 'dee-vit, 'davit. 

day n. time of sunlight, etc. [plural days} dee, (when un- 
strest) de. 

dead adj, lifeless, etc. [also spelt dcd} ded. 

deaden v. make dead [also spelt deden; past participle and 
preterit deadened, dedcnd} 'dedn. 

deadhead n. [also spelt dedhcd} 'ded-hed. 

deadly adj. mortal, fatal, destructiv [also spelt dedly} 'dedh. 

deaf adj. defectiv in hearing [also spelt def} def ; (dialectal- 
ly or vulgarly) diif. 

deafen v. make def [also spelt def en; past participle and 
preterit deafened, defend} 'defan. 

deal V. divide, distribute; have to do; handle [past participle 
and preterit dealt, delt} diil. 

dean n. (head, chief, president) diin. 

Dean n. (title) diin, (anteriorly, as a title) din. 

dean n. vale [also spelt dene} diin. 

dear adj. (beloved, precious, costly) dr.z. 

deary n. little dear; darling [also spelt dearie} 'di:-zi. 

death n. cessation of life [also spelt dcth} deO. 

deathly adj,, adv. [also spelt dcthly} 'deGr-i. 

debatable adj, (admitting of debate) di^bee-ta-bal. 

debauch v. (bout of excess ; debauchery) di'bc:tS I (errone- 
ously) diljaotj. 

c: law, b: f Mr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is leng; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



138 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

debanohee n. (one addicted to debauch) debc'Sii. 
debenture n. (certificate of indebtedness) di'bentSdzr. 
debile adj, archaic (weak, feeble) 'dcbil. 
debonair adj. pleasant, affable [also spelt debonnaire, de- 

bonnairl deba'ne:?. 
deboncb v. (emerge) di'bouS. 
debris n. fragmental remains; rubbish [also spelt dSbris; 

ploral debris'] dilirii, 'dee-b?i, 'dehzi. 
debt n. that which is owed, etc. [also spelt det] det. 
debtor n. one who owes [also spelt dettorl 'deta?. 
debut n. (entry into society; first appearance) dz'bjou, de- 

'bjou, 'dee-bju. 
debutant n. (male performer making his first appearance 

in public) debjo'ter). 
debutante n. a female appearing for the first time in so- 
ciety or before the public) debjo'tarnt, 'dee-bjo-ta:nt. 
decad n, 'deksd. same meaning as decade, 
decade n. group of ten years, etc. [synonymous cognate 

decad] 'deked, 'dekad; {erroneously) di'keed. 
decadence n. (decline; deterioration) di'kee-dns, 'dekd-dns. 
decadent adj. di'kee-dnt, 'deka-dnt. 
decagram n. a weight of ten grams [also spelt decagramme, 

dekagram] 'deko-graem. 
decalcomania n. (picture-transfer process) di-kxlkd'mee- 

ni-o. 
decaliter n. a. capacity-measure of ten liters [also spelt de- 
calitre, dekaliter] 'dek?-hi-t3?. 
decalogne n. the ten commandments said to have been given 

to Moses [also spelt dccalog] 'deka-leg. 
decameter n. a measure of ten meters [also spelt decametre, 

dekameter] 'deka-mii-tar. 
decanal adj, (of a dean) 'deka-nl, di'kec-nl; {rarely) 'dii- 

ka-nl. 
decantation n. (a pouring off) dikaen'tee-Jan, {rarely) dc- 

kan'tee-San. 
decapod n. 'deka-ped. 
Decapoda n. pi. (ten-footed crustaceans ; ten-armd cephalo- 

pods) di'kaep9-do. 
decarbonize v, [also spelt decarbonise] di'kair-ba-naiz. 
decastich n. (poem of ten lines) 'deka-stik. 
decease n, (death) di'siis. 

deceased adj, dead [also sprit deceast] di'siist. 
deceit n. (deception ; fraud ; wile) di'siit. 

j ye, ?cure; 5 */ie, 0f/iin; 3 arure, dj/oy; S j/»oe, tjcliew; 
luw/ien; r)s\ng\ u whoever, i react, o full, oufool, lit, li see; 
o poetic; a over, e aerial, Abwt, o: door, oo no, e bed, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 139 

deceive v. mislead; take in [past participle and preterit de- 
ceived, deceivd} di'siiv. 

decemvir n. one of a body or council of ten men [plural 
decemvirs, decemviri} di'semva^. 

deoemTirate n. (body of decemvirs; office or rule of de- 
cemvirs) di'semv3-23t. 

deoemTiri n. (ploral of decemvir) di'semv3-?ai. 

decenary n. decena, tithing [also spelt decennary} di'sens-n. 

decency n. (propriety, etc.) 'dii-san-si. 

decennary adj. (of ten years; decennial) di'sens-zi. 

decent adj. (fit, proper, decorous) 'dii-ssnt. 

decern v, (in Scottish law, decide; decree) di'sBi^n. com- 
pare discern. 

decliristianize v. [also spelt dechristianise} di'k^istSa-naiz. 

deciare n. (a tenth of an are) 'desi-e:?. « 

decidence n. (a falling off) 'desi-dns. 

decidnons adj. (falling off; shedding the leaves every year) 
di'sid3U-3S, di'sidju-3s. 

decignram n. a tenth of a gram [also spelt decigramme} 
'desi-g?aem. 

deciliter n. a tenth of a liter [also spelt decilitre} 'desi-hi- 
tar; (improperly) di'sih-ta?. 

decimal n. (of tenth parts; of ten) 'desi-mal. 

decimalization n. [also spelt decimalisation} desi-msh'zee- 
San, desima-lai'zee-San. 

decimalize n. [also spelt decimalise} 'desima-laiz. 

decimator n, one who decimates or destroys [also spelt deci' 
mater} 'desi-meta?. 

decimeter n. a tenth of a meter [also spelt decimetre} 
'desi-mii-t3?. 

decipher v, interpret [also spelt decypher, decifer; past par- 
ticiple and preterit deciphered, deciferd} di'sai-far. 

decisive adj. conclusiv [also spelt decisiv} di'sai-siv, di'sai- 
ziv; {erroneously) di'sisiv. 

deeistdre n. (a tenth of a stere) 'desi-8te:z. 

decivilization n. [also spelt decivilisation} di-sivih'zee-San, 
di-sivi-lai'zee-San. 

decivilize v. [also spelt decivilise} di'sivi-laiz. 

deckle n. paper-pulp confining device ; raw edge made by 
this device [also spelt deckel^ dekle} 'dekal. 

declamatory adj. (of declamation) di'kuemd-tazi. 

declarative adj. characterized by declaration [also spelt de- 
clarativ} dI'kz.ae^^-tIV. 

c: lau', b: f Mr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai k»te ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the fellowing syllable. 



140 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

declension n. (a declining) di'kz.en$3n. 

declinatory adj. (of declination) di'kLai-nd-tszi, dina.zn9- 
taet. 

deoootible adj. (capable of being decocted) dilcekta-bal. 

decollate v. (behead) dilcelet, 'deks-let. 

decollation n. (act of beheadng) dikslee-Sdn, dekdlee-San. 

d6collet6 adj, (low-neckt: said of a dress) de-kela'tee, de* 
'kela-te. 

d6collet6e adj. (wearing a low-neckt dress: said of a wo- 
man) de-kela'tee, de'kela-te. 

decolor v, deprive of color [also spelt decolourl dilci^ar. 

decolorize v, [also spelt decolorise, decolourise, decolourisel 
di'kAlo-raiz. 

decolorization n. [also spelt decolorisation, decolourisa- 
tion^ dccolourisationi di-kAla^i'zee-Jan, di-k/A^'Zai'zee-l^n, 

decorative adj. ornamental [also spelt decorativl 'deka-retiv, 
'dek9?3-tiv ; (less properly) di'ke^s-tiv. 

decorous adj. (proper; decent) di'kor-zras, 'deks-ras. 

decomm n. (seemliness; propriety) diTcor-ram. 

decrease v, grow less; diminish [past participle and preterit 
decreased, decreasi] di'lreiis. 

decrease n. (diminution; abatement) dilc^iis, 'dii-k^is. 

decrement n. (decrease; waste; loss) 'delrai-mant. 

decrepid adj. di'k^epid. same meaning as decrepit, 

decrepit adj. worn out; old and feeble [synonymous cog- 
nate decrcpidi di'k^epit. 

decretal adj, (of a decree) di'k3ii-tl. 

decretory adj. (of a decree or final judgment) 'dek^i-tDJi,. 
di'k3ii-t9-?i. 

decnbation n. obsolete (act of lying down) dikQo'bee-$9n,. 
dekQo'bee-San. 

decussate adj. (crost) di'kAset, di'kAsat. 

decnssate v. (intersect, cross) di'kAset, 'dr.ka-set. 

decussation n. (crossing) dikA'see-Jan, dekA'see-Jan. 

dedal adj, skilful; maze-like [also spelt daedall 'dii-dal. 

dedalian adj. like Daedalus; skilful [also spelt daedalian^ 
daedaleanl di'dee-H-an. 

dedalons adj. of Daedalus, skilful [also spelt daedalousi 
'deda-las, 'dii-da-los. 

dedicatory n. (of dedication* 'dedika-tozri, 'dedi-keta-^i. 

deduce v. (derive; infer) di'djous; (dialectally) di'dous. 

dedncible adj, (that may be deduced) di'djou-sa-bah 

deepening adj.. n. 'dii-pa-nir), 'diip-niq, 'dii-pm-iq. 

j ye, g cure; 5 the, thin;^ 3 arrure, ds joy; J shoe, tj c/»ew; 
vowhen; q si n^r; u whoever, i r^act, o fwll, ou fool, i tt, lis^^; 
o poetic; a ov^r, e aerial, Ab«t, o: door, oo no, e b^d, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 141 



deer n. solid-hornd ruminant [ploral deerl di:z, 

defalcate v. (deduct; misappropriate property in one's 

charge) di'fael-ket; (less properly) di'fc:l-ket. 
defalcation n. (deduction; fraudulent deficiency) difxl'kee- 

S^n; (less properly) difcl'kee-Ssn, dzi^l'kze-l^n, 
defalcator n. 'defsi-ketaz, 'dii-faei-kets?. 
defamation n. (act of defaming, etc.) defs'mee-San, difs- 

'mee-San. 
defamatory adj, (calumnious) di^ixm^-tozu 
default n. (want; defect; failure to perform) di'fc:lt. 
defeasance n. (undoing; ruin) di'fii-zdns. 
defeasible adj, capable of being defeated or undone; sub- 

ject to forfeiture [also spelt defeasable'\ di'fii-zs-baL 
defendable adj, capable of being defended from assault or 

injury; also, defensible [also, formerly, spelt defendiblel 

di'fendd-bdl. 
defendant n. (the person sued) di'fendant. 
defense n. prohibition ; resistance against attack [also spelt 

defence^ di'fents, (also, and in Britain normally) di'fens. 
defensible adj. justifiable; also, defendable [also, formerly, 

spelt defencible} di'fensa-bal. 
deference n. (submission or curtesy to superiors) 'defa- 

73ns. 
defervescence n. (cooling down) difa^'vessns, defdzr've- 

sans. 
deficit n. (a falling short; deficiency) 'defi-sit, 'dii-fisit; 

(less properly) di'fisit. 
defier n. one who defies [also, formerly, spelt defyerl di'fai- 

9Z. 

defile n. (narrow pass) di'fai}, 'dii-fail. 

defile v, (render foul ; pollute) di'f ail. 

definite adj. clearly defined; exact [also spelt definit} 
'defi-nit, (anteriorly) 'definit. 

definitive adj. decisiv; determinate [also spelt definxtivl 
di'fini-tiv. 

deflagprable adj. (combustible) 'defLdgza-bdl, di'fLee-gzd^bdh 

deflagrate v. (cause to burn; burst into flame) 'defz^a-g^et. 

deflection n. a bending down; curve; turning [also spelt de- 
flexionZ di'ftekSan. 

defloration n. (act of deflowering) defLs'^ee-Ssn. 

deflour v. di'ftaor. same meaning as deflower. 

deflo'wer v. deprive of virginity; ravish [synonymous cog- 
nate deflour"] di'fz.au-3?, di'fLao?. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, oi boy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



142 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

d^Sagd adj. (easy; unconstraind) dega'see. 
deglutition n. (swallowing) deglo'tiSsn, diglo'tiSan. 
degpradation n. (deposition; lowering; debasement) degra- 

'dee-San. 
degradation n. (lowering of color; gradation of tint; toning 

down) dig^a'dee-San, degra'dee-Jan. 
deliisce v. (gape ; burst open) di'his. 
deicide n, (killing of a god) 'dii-i-sazd. 
deific adj, (deifying; godlike) di'ifik. 
deify v, (make a god of) 'dii-i-fai. 
deig^ V. think fit; condescend [past participle and preterit 

deigned, deigndl deen. 
deinosanr n. see dinosaur, 
deism n. (doctrin concerning God) 'dii-izdm. 
deist w. (believer in God, etc.) 'dii-ist. 
deistic adj. (of deists or deism) di'istik. 
deity n. (godhood; Godhead) 'dii-i-ti. 
dekadrachm n. silver coin [also spelt decadrachm] 'dekd- 

draem. 
delaine n. (light fabric) di^cen. 
delator n. informer; spy [also, formerly, spelt delaterl di- 

1ee-ta?. 
dele 7'. (in proofreading, take out; remove) 'dii-Ii, 
deleble adj. see delible. 

delectation n. (action of delighting; pleasure) ditek'tee-Sdn. 
delegate n, (deputy; representativ) 'dch-get. 
delete v. (destroy ; blot out) di'hit. 
deleterious adj. (hurtful; noxious) deh'ti:-ri-as. 
deletive adj. erasiv [also spelt deletiv"] dilri-tiv; (less of- 
ten) 'deh-tiv. 
delf n. ware [also spelt delph; synonymous cognate delffl 

drlf. 
delible adj, erasable [also spelt deleblel 'dcla-bal, (less of' 

ten) 'dii-la-bal. 
delicacy n. fineness: daintiness [ploral delicaciesl 'dehka-si. 
delicatessen n. pi. (food-delicacies ; in singular, shop where 

such articles are sold) dehka'tesan. 
deliquesce v. (melt away; liquefy) deh'kwes. 
delirious adj. (wandcrinj? in mind; crazed) di1i?i-as. 
delirium n. disorderd mental state [ploral deliriums, delirid} 

di'hri-om. 
delivery n. (a handing over; release; childbirth) dilrva-ri, 

(rapidly) di'hvrr. 

j .ve, Qcure: i)thc, i/jin; 3 axrure, d^/oy: S j/ioe, tSc/iew; 
wivhcn: T3si«<7; u whoever, i react, o ftdl, ou fool, i tt, lisee; 
o poetic; a over, c aerial, Abwt, o: door, oo no, 8 b^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 143 

delude v. (deceive; beguile; cheat) di'iiuud; {dialectally) di- 

loud. 
delusive adj, deceptiv. [also spelt delusiv'] di'Hou-siv. 
delusory adj. (deceptiv, delusiv) di'liuu-s9-7i. 
delve V. dig; search [also spelt delv; past participle and 

preterit delved, delvd'\ delv. 
demagnetize v. [also spelt demagnetise'^ di'msegni-taiz. 
demagogic adj. (of or like a demagog) demd'gegik, dems- 

'gedsik. 
demagog^sm n. [also spelt dentagoguistn] 'dema-ge-gizdm, 

'dem9-geg-iz3m. 
demagogue n. leader of the people; factious orator [also 

spelt demagog} 'dema-geg. 
demagoguery n. (demagogic practises; demagogism) 'de- 

ms-gega-^i, 'dema-gegn. 
demagog^y n. (action, quality, or rule of demagogs; body of 

demagogs) 'dems-gegi, 'dems-gedsi. 
domain n. di'meen. same meaning as demesne. 
demand n., v. (request) di'mamd, di'ma:nd, di'msemd. 
demarcation n. delimitation [also spelt demarkationi di- 

ma^'kee-Ssn. 
demean v. debase, lower, bemean [past participle and pret- 
erit demeaned, demeand} di'miin. 
demean v. behave, carry, conduct (oneself) di'miin. 
demean n. (mean, demeanor, behavior, conduct) di'miin. 
demeanor n. behavior [also spelt demeanour'} di'raii-ns?. 
dementia n. (insanity) di'menja, di'mentja. 
demesne n. landed estate [also, sometimes, spelt demaini 

di'meen, di'miin. 
demijohn n. (big bottle) 'demi-dsen; (vulgarly) 'dimi-dsen. 
demi-monde n. (class of women of doubtful repute) demi- 

'mend, 'demi-mend. 
demise n. (transfer by will ; death) di'maiz ; {erroneously) 

di'miiz. 
demit v. (send down ; lower) di'mit. 

demobilize v. disband [also spelt demobilise'} di'moo-bi-laiz. 
demoiselle n. (young lady; crane; dragon-fly) demwe'zel. 
demolition n. (a demolishing) demd'h^sn, dimd'h^sn. 
demon n. being between gods and men [also spelt daemon} 

'dii-man, 'dii-men. 
demonetize v. divest of monetary value [also spelt demone- 
tise} di'meni-taiz, di'mAni-taiz. 
demoniac adj, (possest by a demon ; devilish) di'moo-ni-aek. 

c: law, b: f Mr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indljcates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



144 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

demoniacal adj. (demon-like; fiendish) dinid'nai-d-kdl, {less 

often) demd'nai-d-kdL 
demonize v, [also spelt demonisel 'dii-ms-naiz. 
demonology n. (treatis on demons; study of demons) dims- 

'nela-dsi, {less often) dema'nela-dsi. 
demonstrable adj. di'menstsd-bdl, Memdnstss-bsl. 
demonstrate v, (point out; prove) 'demdn-stset, di'men- 

stjet. 
demonstrative Sidj. [also spelt demonstrativl di'menst£9- 

tiv. 
demonstrator n. 'demsn-stsctdr, {rarely) di'men-stjetd?. 
demoralization n. [also spelt demoralisationi di-mezdh'zee- 

San, di-me^D-lai'zec-San. 
demoralize v. corrupt the morals of; confuse [also spelt de- 

moralisc'[ di'mera-laiz. 
Demostlienio adj, (of Demosthenes) dimes'Ocnik, demes'Oe- 

nik. 
demy n. size of paper [plural demiesi di'mai. 
demy n. foundation scholar at Magdalin College, Oxford 

[also spelt dcmi; plural demies'\ di'mai. 
denal adj. (of ten; denary) 'denl. 
denarins n. silver coin ; weight ; penny [plural denarii} di- 

'ne:-zi-3S. 
denationalization n. [also spelt denationalisation'] di- 

naeSonl-i'zee-San, di-naeSanl-ai'zee-San. 
denationalize v, [also spelt denationalise! di^nae^dnl-aiz. 
denaturalize v. [also spelt denaturalise'} di'naetSazd-laiz, 

{rapidly) di'naetS^a-laiz. 
dengpae n. fever [synonymous cognate denga} 'deq-ge. 
denier n. (one who denies) di'nai-a^. 

denier n. (French coin) di'ni:^, 'deni-ar, 'deni-e, dBn'jce. 
denim n. (cloth) 'denim. 
denouement n. (unraveling; solution of a mystery; event) 

de'nuu-meq. 
dentifrice n. tooth-cleaning preparation [also spelt denti- 

fris} 'denti-fsis. 
dentilated adj, having teeth [also spelt dentillated, dente- 

latedl 'denti-letid. 
dentin n. hard tissue of teeth [also spelt dentine} 'dentin. 
dentize v, teethe [also spelt dentise} 'den-taiz. 
denndation n. (a laying bare; divesting) dinju'dee-Son, 

denju'dee-San. 
denndate adj. (denuded; bare) di'njuu-det, 'denju-det. 

j ye, gcure; d the, 0^/iin; 3 arrure, ds/oy; ^ shoe, tjc/iew; 
wwhen; T)sing; u whoever, i r^^act, u full, ou fool, lit, lis^^; 
o poetic ; a ov^r, e aerial, a bMt, o: door, 00 no, e bed, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 145 



denndate v. (strip naked or bare; denude) 'denju-det» di- 

'njou-det. 
denunoiate v. (denounce) di'nAnSi-et, di'nAnsi-ct. 
dennnoiation n. (proclamation ; act of denouncing) di-nAO- 

Si'ee-San, di-nAnsi'ee-San. 
deodorization n. [also spelt deodorisationi di-odszd'zee- 

San, di-oda-^ai'zee-San. 
deodorize v, [also spelt deodorisel di'oo-dd-^aiz. 
departmental adj. (of a department or district) dipazt- 

'mentl, {rarely) depazt'mentl. 
dependable adj. trustworthy [also spelt dependiblel di'pen- 

dd-bdl. 
dependence n. fact of depending; subordination [also spelt 

dependanceli di'pendans. 
dependency n. [also spelt dependancy'\ di'pendsn-si. 
dependent n. person who depends ; subordinate [also spelt 

dependanti di'pendant. 
dependent n. hanging; subordinate; subject [also spelt de- 
pendant'] di'pendant. 
depilate v. (remove the hair from) 'depi-let. 
depilatory adj. (that removes hair) di'pila-tozi. 
depilons adj. (without hair) 'depi-lds, di'pai-tds. 
deplanate adj, (flattend; explanate) 'depLs-net, 'dii-pLS- 

net, di'pi-ee-net. 
deplete v. (empty) di'ptiit. 
depletive adj. characterized by depletion [also spelt depletivl 

di'ptii-tiv. 
deplorable adj, (lamentable) di'pz,o:-79-b9}. 
deplnmation n. (loss of plumes or feathers) dipz.u'mee- 

San, depto'mee-San. 
depolarize v. [also spelt depolarise} di'poo-ld-zaiz. 
deponent n. (deponent verb; a person who deposes) di'poo- 

nsnt. 
deportation n. (forcible removal) dipoz'tce-Jan, (rarely) 

depar'tee-S^n. 
deposit n., v, [also, formerly, spelt deposited di'pezit. 
depositary adj. (of deposit) di'pezi-te^i, di'pezi-ta^i, di- 

'p©zit9-?i. 
depositary n. (trustee; also, depository) di'pezi-tezi, di'pezi- 

tazi, di'pezit3-3i. 
deposition n. (a putting down; degradation; deposit) dipa- 

'zijan, depa'ziSan. 
depository «. place in which things are deposited ; store- 

c: law, b: f «r, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark {') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



146 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

house, repository [also spdt depositaryl di'pezi-tori, di'pazi- 

t3?i, di'pezita-?!. 
depot n. storage-place; headquarters; railway-station [also 

spelt depot and, sometimes, depotl 'dii-po, 'depo, 'dce-po, 

di'poo. 
deprecatory adj. (disparaging) 'depsikd-to^i. 
depreciate v. lower the value of [also, formerly, spelt de- 

pretiatel di'p5ii-Si-et; (improperly) di'p3ii-si-et. 
deprivation n. (act of depriving; dispossession) depsi'vee- 

Sdn. 
deprivative adj. of deprivation [also spelt deprivativl 'dc- 

p3i-vetiv, dl'p3IV3-tlV. 
deptli n. (deepness, etc.) depO; (less properly) debO. 
deptlis n. (ploral of depth) depOs, (sometimes) deps. 
depnrant adj. (purifying) 'depgo-^ant, di'pgo'.-eant. 
depurate v. (purify; dense) 'depgo-?et, di'p9o:-?et. 
deputize v. [also spelt deputise'^ 'depgo-taiz. 
deputy n. (substitute) 'depQo-ti, (anteriorly) 'depQoti. 
Derby n. (horse-race) 'dei^-bi, 'da:?-bi. 
derby n. (stiff hat; mason's float) 'dei^-bi, 'da:?-bi. 
derelict adj. (forsaken; unfaithful) 'deei-hkt. 
derelict v. (abandon; fail to keep; fall short of) de^ilikt. 
derisive adj, scoffing; mocking [also spelt derisivl di'cai- 

siv, di'?ai-ziv. 
derivative adj, of derived nature, etc. [also spelt derivativ\ 

dl'?IV3-tlV. 

dernier adj. (last, final) 'dB?ni-3?, 'de^ni-e, dB?'njee. 

derogate v. (repeal; take .iway) 'de?a-get. 

derogative adj, belittling [also spelt derogativ} di'eega-tiv. 

derogator n. one who derogates [also, formerly, spelt dero' 
gatour, dcrogaier"] 'dezra-geta?. 

derrick n. hoisting-device [also, formerly, spelt derick, der- 
icl 'dez-ik. 

dervisli «. friar [former synonymous cognates dervis, der- 
vise, dirvishi 'dBi^-viJ. 

descant n. counterpoint, etc. ; comment [synonymous cog- 
nate discanti 'de-skaent, di'skaent. 

descant v. play or sing an air in harmony with a fixt theme 
[also spelt discant'} di'skaent. 

descendance n. descent, lineage [.ilso sprit descendencel di- 
'sendans. 

descendant n. one who is descended from an ancestor; off- 
spring [also, formerly, sprit dcsccndnitl di'srndnnt. 

j ye, g cure; 5 the, thin ; 5 axrure, d^ /oy ; S shoe, tj chew; 
VDwhen; qsin^; u whoever, i r^act. o fidl, cm fool, i tt, lis^^; 
o poetic; 3 ov^r, e oerial, AbMt, 0: door, 00 no, e b^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 147 

descendent adj. descending; coming down; also, origina- 
ting from an ancestor [also spelt descendanti di'sendant. 

descendible adj. that may descend to an heir; also, capa- 
ble of being descended, as a hill [also spelt descendable} di- 
'senda-bal. 

descension n. (descent, fall) di'sen^dn, di'sent^sn. 

descent n. (act of descending; fall; hereditary transmission) 
di'sent. 

descry v. (catch sight of; espy; perceive) dz'sksai. 

desert v. (abandon, forsake) di'zs'.zt, 

desert adj. (deserted; barren) 'dezart. 

desert n. (desert place, wilderness) Mez9?t. 

desert n. (that which is deservd) di'zBizt. 

desert n. (course of sweetmeats, etc.) di'zei^t. see dessert, 

deserve v. merit [also spelt deserv; past participle and pret- 
erit deserved, deservd} di'zer^v. 

desliabille n. deza'biil, desa'biii, 'deza-bil. same meaning 
as dishabille. 

desiccant adj, (serving to dry) di'sikdnt, 'desi-ksnt. 

desiccate v, (dry up) 'desi-ket, di'siket. 

desiccation n. (action of making dry; dried up condition) 
desi'kee-San. 

desiccative adj. [also spelt desiccativ} 'desi-ketiv, di'si- 
k3-tiv. 

desiccator n. 'desi-ketsz. 

desideratum n. something desired [plural desiderata} di- 
sida'^ce-tam. 

design n., v, (plan) di'zain, di'sain. 

designable adj, (that can be markt out, distinguishable) 
'dezigna-bal, 'designa-bal ; (capable of being designed) di- 
'zai-na-bal, di'sai-na-bal. 

designate v, (point out; name) Mezig-net, 'desig-net. 

designation n. dezig'nee-Jdn, desig'nse-Sdn. 

designative adj. [also spelt designativ} 'dezig-netiv, 'dc- 
sig-netiv. 

designator n. 'dezig-netd?, 'desig-netdsr. 

designatory n. 'dezig-neta-^i, 'desig-neta-ei, (rarely) di- 
'signa-tori. 

designed adj, pland; formd [also spelt designd} di'zaind. 

designedly adv. (on purpose) di'zai-ni-dh, di'sai-ni-dh. 

designer n. (one who designs ; schemer) di'zai-na?, di'sai- 
na?. 

desirable adj, (to be desired; delectable) di'zai-^a-bal. 

c: law, b: f Mr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



148 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

desist V, (cease, stop) di'zist, dz'sist. 

desistance n. cessation [also spelt desistencel di'zistns, di- 

'sistns. • 

desition n. (end, conclusion) di'siS^n. 
desmid n. (alga) 'desMid. 
desmodont n. (mollusk) 'desMd-dent. 
desmoid adj. (like a bundle; tendinous) 'des-meid. 
desolate adj, (left alone; deserted) 'dess-tat; (less properly) 

'dez3-l3t. 
desolator n. [also spelt desolaterl 'desd-letsz. 
desolation n. desa'lee-San ; (less properly) dezslee-Ssn. 
despatcli n. di'spaetj. sec dispatch. 
desperado n. desperate or reckless man [ploral desperados, 

dcspcradoesl despo'?ce-dD, despD'ra:-do, desp3'7a:-d3. 
despicable adj, (to be despised; base) 'despzks-bdt ; (vulgar^ 

ly) di'spiko-bol. 
despise v. (look down on ; scorn) di'spaiz. 
despite n, (scorn,- etc.) di'spait. 
despite prep, (in spite of) di'spait. 
despiteons adj. (archaic) full of despite [also spelt dispit^ 

cous'l di'spiti-9s. 
despondent adj., n. di'spendsnt. 
despnmate v. (skim) di'spgou-met, 'despgo-met. 
despnmation n. despQu'mee-Ssn. 

desqnamate v. (scale; peel) Mesku)9-met, di'skwee-met. 
desquamation n. deskwd'mce-San, (rarely) disktud'mee-Sdn. 
desquamative adj. [also spelt desquamativl di'skwaemd- 

tiv. 
dessert n. course of sweetmeats, etc. [also spelt desertl di- 

'zo:?t, di'sBi^t; (improperly) 'dezart. compare desert, 
destine v. appoint; predctermin [also spelt destin; past par- 
ticiple and preterit destined, destindl 'destin. 
destrnctible adj. (capable of being dcstroyd) di'stSAkta- 

bol. 
desnetnde n, (disuse) Meswi-tQud. 
desultory adj. (skipping about; unmethodical) 'desal-toei; 

(less properly) 'deznl-tori. 
detail n, (attention to particulars ; item) di'teel, 'dii-tel. 
detail v. deal minutely with; appoint to a particular duty 

[past participle and preterit detailed, detaild} di'teel. 
detant n. (detent in a gun-lock) di'tsent. 
detectable adj. [also spelt dctectiblel di'tekta-bal. 
detector n. [also spelt detecterl di'tektar. 

j ye, Q cure ; 5 the, G thin;^ 3 axrure, ds joy ; $ shoe, tj chew; 
lOTt'^en; qsin^r; u whoever, i r^act, o full, uuf<7ol, lit, lis^e; 
o poetic; o ovf?r, c aerial, Ahut, 0: door, oo no, ebed, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 149 

detent n. (stop, catch) di'tent; (less properly) 'dii-tent. 

deter v. discourage by fear [present participle deterring; 
past participle and preterit deterred, deterdi di'tsiz. 

determine v, [also spelt deiermin; past participle and prete^ 
rit determined, determind'l di'tB:?-nun. 

deterrent adj. (tending to deter) di'terant, di'te^ant. 

detestable adj. di'testd-bsl. 

detestation n. (hatred; loathing) dites'tee-Ssn, dets'stee-^sn. 

detinue n. (act of detaining) 'deti-nju, (rarely) di'tinjo. 

detonate v. (explode with a loud noise) 'deta-net, 'dii-ta-net. 

detonation n. dets^nee-^sn, dit9'nee-$3n. 

detonr n. a turning; roundabout way [synonymous cognate 
detour} di'to:?. 

detonr n. de'to:r, 'dee-to:^. same meaning as detour, 

detractor n. [also spelt detracter} di'tjaekta?. 

detriment n. (loss, damage, etc.) 'detji-mant. 

detritns n. (disintegrated material ; debris) di'tjai-t3s. 

detnr n. (prize of books) 'dii-tar. 

denoe n. two ; two-spot [also spelt due el djous ; (dialect ally) 
duus. 

dence n. bad luck; mischief [also spelt duce; dialectal syn- 
onymous cognate doose} djous ; (dialectally) duus. 

denced adj. [also spelt deused; dialectal synonymous cog- 
nates doosed, doosidi 'djou-sid, djoust; (dialectally) 'dou- 
sid. 

dencedly adj. plaguily; confoundedly [also spelt deusedly} 
'djou-si-dh. 

dentzia n. (shrub) 'dj out-si -a, 'djout-zi-a, 'doit-si-a, 'doit- 
zi-3. 

devastate v. (lay waste) 'deva-stet, (rarely) di'vae-stet. 

devastation n. (wide-spred destruction) devd'stce-Ssn. 

develop v. unfold; unroll [also spelt developed past partici- 
ple and preterit developed, developti di'velap. 

development n. [also spelt dev elopement} diVeldp-mant. 

devest v. (strip; alienate; annul; convey away) di'vest. com- 
pare divest. 

device n. (ingenuity; contrivance; plot) di'vais. 

devil n. fiend, demon ; wretch, etc. [also, in sense of the 
Devil of the Bible, etc., spelt Devil} 'deval, 'devil. 

devilisli adj. (diabolical) 'deva-hj, (rapidly) 'devhS. 

devisable adj. [also spelt deviseahle} di'vai-za-bsl. 

devise v. (give by will ; contrive) diVaiz. 

devise n. (the act of assigning by will) di'vaiz. 

c: law, b: iut, ae cat, o hot, oi hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



150 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

devisee n. (the person to whom property is devised by will) 

devi'zii, di-vai'zii. 
deviser n. (inventor, contriver) di'vai-z3?. 
devisor n. (one who gives by will) di'vai-za?, di'vai-ze:z. 
devoir n. (duty, business; dutiful act of civility or respect) 

da'vwe:?, de'vwe:?, 'de-vwe:?. 
devolve v, roll down ; fall as a duty [also spelt devolv ; past 

participle and preterit devolved, devolvdl di'velv. 
deiv n. (small drops of water formed, as on the grass, from 

the condensation of vapor) djou, (dialectally) dou. 
dextrin n. starch-gum [also spelt dextrinel 'dekstsin. 
dextrons adj. deft of hand [synonymous cognate dexterous! 

'dekstjas. 
dey n. (former title of the governor of Algiers) dee. 
dlioney n. sailing-vessel of southern India [also spelt doney'\ 

'doo-ni. 
diabetes n. (glucosuria ; also, polyuria) dai-d'bii-tis, dai-a- 

'bii-tiz. 
diablerie n. mischief; sorcery [also spelt diableryl di'a:- 

blo-^i. 
diabolic adj. (devilish) dai-a'behk. 
diabolism n. witchcraft; deviltry; doctrin of devils; nature 

of a devil) dai'seba-hzam. 
diabolize v. [also spelt diabolise} dai'xbd-laiz. 
diacetin n. dai'aesi-tin, dai-d'sii-tin. 
diaeresis n. see dieresis, 
diag^nose v. (ascertain from symptoms) dai-3g'n30s, dai-dg- 

'nooz. 
diagnosis n. identification of a disease from symptoms 

[ploral diagnoses'] dai-ag'noo-sis. 
dial v, measure with a dial [present participle dialing, dial- 
ling \ past participle and preterit dialed, dialled, diald\ 'dai- 

diallage n. (figure of speech) dai'aela-dsi. 

diallage n. (green pyroxene) 'dai-a-hds, dai'aela-dsi. 

dialogic adj. (of dialog) dai-gledsik. 

dialog:isni n. (discussion in dialog form) dai'aela-dsizam. 

dialog:ist n. dai'sels-dsist. 

dialogize v. discourse in dialog [also spelt dialogisel dai- 

'aela-dsaiz. 
dialogpae n. colloquy [also spelt dialog"] 'dai-a-leg. 
dialyze v. separate crystalloid from colloid thru a membrane 

[also spelt dialyse] 'dai-a-laiz. 

j ye, Qcure; b f/ic, Q th\n\ 3 a^rure, dj/oy; ^ shot, tjc/iew; 
luw/ien; qsin^; u whoever, i r^act, o fwll, ou fool, i it, lis^^; 
o poetic ; 3 ov^r, e oerial, a bMt, 0: door, 00 no, e b^d, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 151 

diameter n. (chord thru the center of a circle, etc.) dai- 

'aemi-taz:. 
diamiiie n. chemic compound [also, sometimes, spelt dia- 

min2 'dai-3-min, 'dai-a-main, dai'aemin. 
diamond n. (hard carbon crystal; lozenge) 'dai-a-mand, 

'dai-msnd. 
dianoetie adj. (of thought) dai-a-no'etik. 
diapason n. (concord; melody; tuning-fork) dai-a'pee-zsn, 

dai-a'pee-san. 
diaper n. (fabric; clout) Mai-d-pa?. 
diaphanons adj. (transparent, pellucid) dai'a:fa-nas. 
diaphoresis n. (perspiration) dai-afa'^ii-sis. 
ciiaplirag^m n. midrif; thin partition or septum [also spelt 

diaframi 'dai-a-fsaem. 
diapliragmatic adj, of the diafram [also spelt diafragmatici 

dai-a-fsaeg'maetik. 
diarrhea n. too frequent evacuation of the bowels [also 

spelt diarrhoea^ dai-a'^ii-a. 
diarrheic adj, diarrhetic [also spelt diarrhoeici dai-a'?ii-ik. 
diarrhetie adj. of diarrhea [also spelt diarrhoetici dai-a- 

'?etik, dai-aVii-tik. 
diary n. daily record, journal [ploral diaries'} 'dai-a-ei. 
diastase n. (ferment) 'dai-a-stes. 
diastema n. interval between teeth [ploral diastemataj dai- 

a'stii-ma. 
diastole n. (dilatation ; also, mark of separation) dai'aesta-h. 
diastyle adj. (of a colonnade) 'dai-a-stail. 
diathesis n. predisposition [plural diathesesl dai'aeOi-sis. 
diatom n. (alga) 'dai-a-tom, 'dai-a-tem. 
diatribe ». (discourse ; invectiv) 'dai-a-tjaib. 
dice n. (ploral of die ; also, a game with dice) dais. 
dichotomize v. [also spelt dichotomise} di'keta-maiz, dai- 

'keta-maiz. 
dichotomy n. (division into two) di'keta-mi, dai'keta-mi. 
dichroism n. (the property of showing two colors) 'dai-kso- 

izam. 
dickens n. deuce, devil [also, formerly, spelt dickins; synon- 
ymous cognates dickens, dickings"} 'dikinz. 
dicky n. he ass ; bird ; collar ; bib [also spelt dickey, dickie ; 

ploral dickies} 'diki. 
diclinous adj. (having the two sexes separated : said of 

plants with unisexual flowers) 'dai-kti-nas, 'dik^i-nas, di- 

'kLai-nas, dai'kLai-nas. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, o hot, ©i hoy ; a: far, go now, a: osk, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
Stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



152 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

dictate v. (put into words to be written down; give orders; 

lay down the law) 'dik-tet, dik'teet. 
dictate n. (authoritativ order) 'dik-tet. 
diotative adj. [also spelt dictativl dik'tec-tiv, 'dikts-tiv. 
dictator n. (a ruler who dictates; one who dictates letters. 

etc.) dik'tee-t9?, 'dik-teta?. 
dictatory adj. (dictatorial) 'dikta-tDzi, 'dikt3-t32i. 
dictionary n. (word-book; lexicon) 'dikja-neei, 'dikSd-naex, 

(rapidly) 'dik-jNe^i, 'dik-SN3?i, 'dik^Nsi. 
dictnin n. saying; pronouncement; maxim [ploral dicta, dic' 

tiims^ 'diktom. 
DidacMst n, (writer of the Didache) 'dids-kist. 
didactic adj, (instructiv) dai'dsektik, di'dxktik. 
didactyl adj. having two fingers [also spelt didactyle"] dai- 

'dajktil. 
didradun n. (silver coin worth two drachmae) 'dai-dtaem. 
didyminin n. (metal) di'dimi-om, dai'dimi-om. 
die n. [ploral, in the sense of a small cube markt with spots, 

used in gaming, dice, in all other senses dies'\ dai. 
die V, cease to live [present participle dying; past participle 

and preterit died"} dai. 
diecions adj. see dioecious. 

dier n. one who dies [also, formerly, spelt dyerl 'dai-s;. 
dieresis n. division into two separate syllables ; two-dot sign 

over a vowel [also spelt diaeresis; ploral dieresesi dai'ezi- 

sis, dai'i:-ri-sis; (improperly) dai-o'eii-sis. 
dies n. (day) 'dai-iz. 
diesis n. semitone, etc. ; double dagger [also spelt diesu ; 

ploral diesesi 'dai-i-sis. 
dietary n, (course of diet) 'dai-i-te^i. 
dietine n. (subordinate diet) 'dai-i-tin, 'dai-i-tin. 
dietist n, (one who diets, etc.) 'dai-i-tist. 
difference n. (diversity, etc.; quarrel) 'difa-^ans, (rapidly) 

'difsans. 
different adj. 'difa-zrant, (rapidly) Mifsant. 
differentiate v. (make different; specialize) difo'^enSi-et. 
difficil adj. difficult; unaccommodating [also spelt difficilel 

di'fisil, 'difi-sil. 
diffidence n. (mistrust; shyness) 'difi-dns. 
difflnence n. (a flowing apart; deliquescence) 'difLiu-9ns. 
diffnse adj. (spread out; wordy) di'fious. 
diffnse v. (pour forth ; intermingle) di'fiouz. 
diffusive adj. [also spelt diffusivl di'fiou-siv, di'fiou-ziv. 

j ye, Qcure; 5 ^Ae, 6//iin; 3 axrure, d^/oy; \ shoe, tSc/iew; 
viwhen; rising; u whoever, i r^act, o full, ou fool, i tt, lise^; 
o poetic ; 3 over, c aerial, a b«t, o: door, 00 no, e bed, ee gote ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 153 

digamy n. (second marriage) "digd-mi. 

digest n. (summary; abstract) 'dai-dsest. 

digest V. (classify; consider; also, of food, prepare in the 
stomach) di'dsest, dai'dsest. 

digestible adj. [also spelt digestable'\ di'dsests-bdl. 

digestion n. diMsest^sn, di'dse^t^dn; dai'dsestSsn, dai- 
'dseJtSan. 

dig^talin n. activ principle of foxglove; digitalia [also spelt 
digitalinel 'didsita-hn. 

digitalis n. (foxglove, etc. ; medicin) didsi'tee-hs ; (less prop- 
erly) did3i'ta:-hs. 

dig^tigrade adj. (walking on the toes, as the lion : opposed 
to plantigrade) 'didsiti-g^ed. 

diglot adj. bilingual [also spelt diglott'] 'dai-glet. 

dignitary n. (a person of high rank) 'digni-te?i. 

digonons adj, (having two angles) Miga-nds, 'dai-gs-nds, 
(rarely) dai'goo-nas. 

digression n. (swerving; going astray) di'g^eSsn, dai'g^eSan. 

dike n., v. ditch ; dam [also spelt dykel daik. 

dilapidate v. (bring to decay or ruin) di'lsepz-det, dailx- 
pi-det. 

dilatation n. (expansion) dai-la'tee-Jan, dila'tee-Jan. 

dilate v. (widen, expand) dai'leet, di'leet. 

dilation n. (dilatation) dai'lee-San, di'lee-Jan. 

dilatory adj, (causing delay; of delay) 'dila-to^i; (also) 
'dil3t9-?i, (assumptivly) 'dila-tan, (rapidly) 'dilotji. 

dilemma n. (choice between two equally unfavorable alter- 
nativs; fix) di'lema, dai'lema. 

dilettante n. lover of the fine arts [ploral dilettanti, rarely 
dilettantes'] dih'taenti, dih'ta:n-ti. 

dilettanti n. (ploral of dilettante) dih'taenti. 

diligence n. (industry; assiduity) 'dih-dsans. 

dilogy n. (ambiguity; repetition) 'dila-dsi, 'dai-la-dsi. 

dilnte v., adj. (thin, etc.) di'liout, dai'Hout, (sometimes, an- 
teriorly) 'dai-Hut; (dialectally) di'lout, etc. 

dilution n. di^iuu-$3n, dai'Hou-Ssn. 

dilnvial adj, (of a deluge or flood) di'liou-vi-al, dailiou- 
vi-al. 

dilnvian adj, (diluvial) di'Hou-vi-an, dailiou-vi-an. 

dimension n. (measurement) di'men^an, di'ment^sn. 

dimeter n. (a verse of two measures) 'dimi-ta?. 

dimissory adj, (dismissory) 'dimi-soei, di'mis3-?i. 

dimity «. (stout cotton fabric) 'dimi-ti. 

c: law, b: f «r, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



154 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

dinghy n. row-boat [also spelt dingey, dingy'\ 'diQgi. 
dingy adj. (tarnisht, dusky) 'dindsi. 

dinosaur n. extinct reptil [also spelt deinosaurj 'dai-n9-ac:z, 
diocesan adj. (of a diocese) dai'esi-sdn, 'dai-s-sisan, dai-9- 

'sii-san. 
diocese n. (district; bishop's sphere of jurisdiction) 'dai-a- 

sis, 'dai-3-sis. 
dioecious adj. having the unisexual flowers on separate 

plants; having the sexes distinct [also spelt diecious"] dai- 

'li-Sas. 
Dionysian adj. (of Dionysius, Bacchus, etc.) dai-d'nisi-on. 
dioptric adj. (assisting vision; of refraction) dai'eptxik. 
diorama n. ^scenic representation) dai-d'^ai-ms, dai-d'ree- 

ma; (improperly) dai-d'srsems. 
dioxide n. [also, sometimes, spelt dioxidi dai'ek-said, (Jbe^ 

fore of) dai'eksid. 
diphenyl n. (hydrocarbon) dai'fenil. 
diphenylamine n. (crystallin substance) difi'nitd-mzn. 
diphtheria n. (diphtheritis) dif'0i:-ri-9, dip'9i:-ri-3. 
diphtheritic adj. difOi'eitik, dipOi'^itik. 
diphthong n. (double sound; group of two consecutiv 

vowel sounds in one syllable) 'dif-Geiq, {older) 'dip-6a:i). 
diphthongal adj. dif'6e:r)-g9l, dip'6e:r)-g3l. 
diphthong:ize v. [also spelt diphthongisel 'difOeq-aiz, 'dif- 

Oeq-gaiz, 'dipOerj-aiz. 
diphycercal adj. (having a bipartite tail) difi'seekal. 
diploe n. spongy structure [also spelt diploe\ 'dipz.o-i. 
diploidion n. garment [also spelt diplotdion; ploral diplo^ 

idial dipLo'idi-3n. 
diploma n. state paper; certificate of a college degree 

[ploral diplomas, diplomatal di'ptoo-ma; (improperly) dai- 

'ptD0-m3. 

diplomacy n. di'ptoo-ma-si, (rarely) di'ptem9-si. 
diplomat n. diplomatist [synonymous cognate diplomatel 

'dipta-maet. 
diplomate n. (one who holds a diploma) 'dipz.3-met. 
diplomatic adj. (of diplomas or diplomacy) dipLd'msetik. 
diplomatist n. (one engaged in diplomacy; crafty person) 

di'ptoo-mD-tist. 
diplomatize v. [also spelt diplomatisel di'pLOO-md-taiz. 
diptych n. two-leaved tablet [also spelt diptycl 'diptik, 
dire adj. (dreadful) dmz. 
direct v. (address; aim; guide; order) di'rekt, dai'rekt. 

5 ye, Q cure ; b the, 6 thin;^ 3 axrure, d^ ;oy ; S shoe, ^ tS chew; 
wwhen; r)sing; u whoever, i r^act, o full, oufool, ift, lise^; 
o poetic; d ov^ r, e aerial. Abut, o: door, 00 no, eb^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 155 

direct adj, (straight, etc.) di'eekt, dai'eekt, {sometimes, by 
contrast, as in *direct as well as indirect) 'dai-eekt. 

direct n. (musical sign) diVekt. 

directable adj, capable of being directed [also spelt direc- 
tible} di'eekta-bal. 

direction n. di'^ek^dn, dai'^ekSsn. 

directive adj. [also spelt directiv} di'^ektiv, dai'zektiv. 

directly adv. di'zektLi, (occasionally) dai'?ekti.i. 

director n. one who or that which directs [also spelt direc- 
ter'\ di'^ekta?. 

directorial adj, dieek'toi-^i-al, dai-?ek'to:-?i-al. 

directory adj., n. di'eekta-^i, {rapidly) di'eektji. 

dirigible adj. capable of being directed ; steerable [also spelt 
dirigeablel 'di^idsa-bal ; {less properly) di'jidsa-bal. 

disable v, (render unable ; cripple) dis'ee-bal ; {less properly) 
di'zee-bal. 

disappoint v. (frustrate the expectation of; foil) dis^peint. 

disarm v, deprive of arms; divest of armor [past partici- 
ple and preterit disarmed, disarmd'\ dis'a:?m ; {less proper- 
ly) di'za:?ni. 

disaster n, (calamity) di'zaesta?, di'za:-std7; {less properly) 
dis'aesta?. 

disband v. (break the band or company of; disperse) dis- 
'baend ; {less properly) diz'baend. 

disburden v. remove a burden from; unload [synonymous 
cognate disburthen'\ dis'boi^-dn. 

disburse v, pay out [past participle and preterit disbursed, 
disburst"] dis'beies ; {less properly) diz'bei^s. 

disbnlrtben v, dis'bB:?-dn, dis'bB:2r-dan« dis'beizr-dn. same 
meaning as disburden. 

disc n, disk, see disk. 

discant n. 'di-skxnt. same meaning as descant. 

discard v, (throw out from the hand; reject; discharge) di- 
'ska:?d, dis'ka:^d. 

discern v. distinguish [past participle and preterit discerned, 
discernd} di'zBi^n ; {less properly) di'ssizn, 

discernible adj, (perceptible) di'zB^nd-bsl. 

discerptible adj. (capable of being pluckt asunder; divisi- 
ble) di'sB^pta-bal. 

discharge v., n, dis'tSa:?d3, diS't^airds. 

disci n. (ploral of discus) 'di-sai. 

disciple n. (follower; pupil) di'sai-p9l. 

discipline n.,v, drill, etc. [also spelt disciplin; as verb, past 

c: laWf b: fur, x cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 

length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 

tress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



156 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

participle and preterit disciplined, disciplindj 'disi-pLin. 

disclosure n. (discovery; exposure) disHcLOO-sdz. 

disoobolns n. discus-thrower [ploral discoboli"] di'skeba-lds. 

discolor v. [also spelt discolour; past participle and preterit 
discolored, discoloured, discolordU dis'kAlos. 

disoontinner n. (one who discontinues) diskdn'tinju-d?. 

disoontinnor n. (the tenant in tail whose alienation of an 
estate has caused a discontinuance) disksn'tinju-d?. 

discount n. (deduction) 'dis-kaont. 

discount v. (deduct; pay or cash beforehand with a deduc- 
tion) 'di-skaont, dis'kaont. 

discourse n. (talk; conversation) di'skoi^s; (less properly) 
'dis-ko:?s. . 

discourse v, talk; converse; harangue [past participle and 
preterit discoursed, discourst] di'skoi^s. 

discourteous adj, lacking in curtesy; rude [also spelt dis- 
curteousl dis'ke^ti-as, dis'koie-tgas, dis'ks^tQds. 

discourtesy n. [also spelt discurtesyl dislcBrti-si, dislco:;- 
ti-si. 

discous adj. (disk-shaped) Miskds. 

discovery n. (disclosure; making known) di'skAvs-si, (rap^ 
idly) di'skAV^i. 

discreet adj, (judicious; cautious) di'sk^iit. 

discrepance n. (discrepancy) di'sk^epsns, Misksi-psns. 

discrepancy n. (disagreement; inconsistency) di'skrepan- 
si, 'disk5ip3n-si. 

discrepant adj. (disagreeing) di'sk^epont, 'disk^i-pdnt. 

discrete adj. (separate ; individual ; not coalescent : opposed 
to continuous) di'sksiit, dis'k^iit. 

discretion n. (separation ; power of deciding ; prudence) 
di'sk^eSan. 

discursive adj. rambling; ratiocinativ [also spelt discursiv"] 
di'ske^siv, di'skB:?-siv. 

discus n. disk, used for throwing [ploral disci"] 'diskss. 

discuss V, debate [past participle and preterit discussed, dis- 
cust] di'skAs. 

disdain n., v. [as verb, past participle and preterit disdained, 
disdaind] dis'deen; (less properly) diz'deen. 

disease n. (ailment, malady, disorder) di'ziiz. 

disembonvel v, eviscerate, etc. [present participle disembow- 
eling, disembowelling; past participle and preterit disem- 
boweled, disembowelled, discmboweld] disarnHDau-al. 

disenamor v. [also spelt disenamour] disd'nxmd?. 

i ye, Q cure ; 5 the, G thin ;^ 3 arure, d^ joy; S shoe, tS chew; 
ID w^en ; q sin^; u whoever, i r^act, o fttll, ou fool, i it, li see; 
o poetic; 3 ovf r, e aerial, Abut, o: door, oono, eb^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 157 

disenfranoliise v. (disfranchise) dissn'f^am-tSaiz, disdn- 
f3a:n-tSiz; disan'fsaen-tSaiz, disan'fsaentSiz. 

disenfranohisement n. obsolete (disfranchisment) dissn- 
'fsain-tSis-mant, disan'fsarn-tSiz-mant. 

disenroll v. [also spelt disenrol] disdnVool. 

disentlirall v. set free from enthralment or bondage [also 
spelt disenthral; former synonymous cognates disinthrall, 
disinthrall disan'Osc:!. 

disfavor n., v. [also spelt disfavour; as verb, past participle 
and preterit disfavored, disfavordi dis'fee-v33. 

disfrancliise v, (deprive of citizen's rights; deprive of the 
franchise or voting-power) dis'fsam-tjaiz, dis'fsain-tjiz. 

disfrancliisiiient n. dis'f^am-tSis-msnt, dis'f^am-tSiz-msnt. 

disgorge v, (throw out from the gorge or throat ; vomit or 
empty forth) dis'gei^ds ; (less properly) diz'goi^ds. 

disg^race n. (disfavor ; ignominy) dis'g^ees ; (less properly) 
diz'g^ees. 

disguise n. (deceptiv garb) dis'gaiz ; (less properly) diz'gaiz ; 
(dialectally) dis'gjaiz. 

disgust n. (distaste ; aversion) dis'gASt ; (less properly) diz- 
'gAst. 

dishabille n. undress; negligee garment [synonymous cog- 
nate deshabille'^ disa'biil, disa'bil, 'disa-bil. 

disliearte v. [also spelt disharten; past participle and 
preterit disheartened, dishartend} dis'ha^tn, dis'ha:^-tn. 

dishevel v. loosen and throw about; disorder [present par- 
ticiple disheveling, dishevelling; past participle and pret- 
erit disheveled, dishevelled, dishevcldl di'Seval. 

dishonest adj. (lacking honesty; fraudulent) dis'enist; (less 
properly) di'zonist. 

dishonor n.,v, [also spelt dishonour; as verb, past participle 
and preterit dishonored, dishonord^ disVna?; (less proper- 
ly) di'zona^. 

disinfectant n. (disinfecting-agent) disin'fektont. 

disinfector n. he who or that which disinfects [also spelt 
disinfecter'] disin'fektar. 

disintegrate v, (separate into component parts) dis'inti- 
gret. 

disinterested adj. (unbiast by personal interest ; free from 
self-seeking) dis'inta-^estid, dis'int;ci-stid; di'zint3-?estid; 
(also, in America, less properly) dis-inta'^estid. 

disinvolve v. unroll ; disentangle [also spelt disinvoM disin- 
'velv. 

c: law, b: f«r, ae cat, e hat, ei bay ; a: far, ao naw, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



158 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

disjoin v. disunite [past participle and preterit disjoined, 
disjoindl dis'dsein; {less properly) diz'dsein. 

disk n. discus ; thin circular plate [also spelt disci disk. 

dislike v, (not to like) dislaik; {less properly) dizlaik. 

dislimb v. cut off the limbs of; dismember [also spelt dis- 
/im] dislim. 

dislimn v, obliterate the outlines of anjrthing limned; ef- 
face; blot out; vanish [also spelt dislim] dis'hm. 

dislodg^ment n. displacement [also spelt dislodgement] dis- 
'ledsmant. 

disloyal adj. (unfaithful) dislei-al; {less properly) diz'^ei-dl. 

dismantle v. (strip) dis'msntl; {less properly) diz'maentl. 

dismast v. (deprive of masts) dis'ma:st ; {less properly) diz- 
'ma: St. 

dismay v. appal ; daunt [past participle and preterit dis- 
mayed, dismaydl dis'mee ; {less properly) diz'mee. 

dismiss v. send away; discharge [past participle and pret- 
erit dismissed, dismisti dis'mis, {often) di'sMis; {improper- 
ly) diz'mis. 

disorder n. (confusion; misdemeanor; riot; ailment) dis'e:?- 
doz; {less properly) di'ze:z-doz. 

disorganize v. [also, rarely, spelt disorganise] dia'e:z-g9- 
nniz. 

disoDim V. renounce, etc. [past participle and preterit dis- 
ozvned, disownd] dis'oon ; {less properly) di'zoon. 

disparage v, (discredit; vilify) di'spairids. 

disparate adj. (separate in kind; unlike) 'dispd-;et, 'dispa- 
?3t ; {erroneously) dis'pa:-?3t. 

disparity n. (want of parity; unlikeness) dis'pae^i-ti, di- 
'spac^i-ti. 

dispatck n. a sending on an errand; killing; speed [also 
sprit despatch: past participle and preterit dispatched, dis- 
patcht] di'spaetS. 

dispel V. disperse ; dissipate [past participle and preterit dis- 
pelled, dispcld] di'spel. 

dispensable adj, (unessential; also, capable of being dis- 
penst) di'spensa-bal, di'spentsa-bal. 

dispensary n. (place where medicins are dispenst, etc.) di- 
'spens3-^i, di'spentsa-^i. 

disperse v. scatter [past participle and preterit dispersed, 
disperst] di'spsizs. 

dispersion n. (scattering) di'sperS^n, di'speir-sdn. 

displeasure n. dis'ptesgr; {dialcctally) dis'ptee-sar. 

J ye, Qcure; d the, ^Ain ; 3 axrure, d$joy; ^ shoe, tSc/iew: 
wwhen; T}sing; u whoever, i rract, o fMll, oufool, i it, lis^e; 
o poetic ; 3 ov^r, e aerial, a bMt, d: door, oo no, e b^d, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 159 

disposable adj. that may be got rid of ; at disposal [also, for- 
merly, spelt disposeable} di'spoo-zs-bdh 

dispoMeM V. oust; rid of evil spirits [past participle and 
preterit dispossessed, dispossest} disps'zes. 

dispoMeMion n. (ouster; exorcism) dispd'zeSon. 

dispread v» (archaic) spread abroad or out; expand; extend 
[also spelt disspread, dispred} di'spsed. 

disprovable adj. [also, formerly, spelt disproveahlel dis- 

'p30U-V3-b3l. 

disproval adj, (disproof) dis'p3uu-v9l. 

disprove v, (prove false; refute) dis'psouv. 

disputable adj. (that may be disputed; controvertible) di- 

'spgou-ta-bal, Mispguts-bdl. 
disputant n. (one who disputes; debater) 'dispgo-tnt. 
dispntatiTe adj. disputatious; controversial [also spelt dis- 

puiativl di'spgou-t9-tiv. 
disqualify v. (render or pronounce unqualified) dis'kwe- 

h-fai. 
disreputable adj. (discreditable; in bad repute) dis'^ep^ots- 

bd}. 
disruption n. (bursting asunder) dis'^Ap^sn; (less properly) 

disseise v, dispossess wrongfully [also spelt disseise; past 
participle and preterit disseised, disseisd} di'siiz, dis'siiz. 

disseisin n. privation of seisin [also spelt disseisin'\ di'sii- 
zin, dis'sii-zin. 

disseisor n. [also spelt disseisor"] di'sii-zs?, dis'sii-ze:?. 

dissemble v. (disguise; assume a false seeming) di'sembdl; 
(improperly) di'zembsl. 

disseminate v. (scatter abroad; spred about) di'semi-net. 

dissension n. discord; strife [also, formerly, spelt disscn- 
tion\ di'sen^dn, di'sentSsn. 

dissent v. (withhold approval) di'sent. 

dissent n. (disagreement) di'sent. 

disserve v, (serve badly, injure) di'sBirv, dis'sorrv. 

disserrioe n. [also spelt disservisi di'sB'.^-vis, dis'seis-vis. 

dissidenoe n. (disagreement; dissent) Misi-dns. 

dissipate v. (scatter; squander; engage in dissolute plea- 
sures) 'disi-pet. 

dissociable adj. (not companionable; unsociable) di'soo-^d- 
bd); (capable of being dissociated; separable) di'soo-Si-a-boL 

dissociate v. (disunite; withdraw from association) di'soo- 
Si-et. 

c: law, b: f Mr, ae cat, o hot, oi boy : a: far, go now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the tellowing syllable. 



160 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

dissoluble adj, (capable of being dissolvd or disunited) di* 

'seHo-bdl, 'dissHo-bdl. 
dissolute od;. (loose; licentious) 'diS94iut; {dialectallyi) 

'dis3-}ut. 

dissolvable adj, capable of being dissolvd [also spelt dis^ 
solviblel di'zelva-bal. 

dissolve v. diffuse in liquid ; cause to vanish [past participle 
and preterit dissolved, dissolvd'] di'zelv. 

dissonant adj. (discordant in sound) 'diss-nant. 

dissyllable n. di'sib-bsl, 'disitd-bsl, dis'sila-bd). same inean- 
ing as disyllable. 

dissymmetry n. (lack of symmetry; also, mirror-image sym- 
metry) di'simi-tji, dis'simi-tji. 

distensible adj. (capable of being distended) di'stensa-bsl. 

distioh n. couplet [also spelt distic; ploral distichs'] 'distik. 

distiobio adj. (of or like a distich; distichal) di'stikik. 

distiobons adj. (disposed in two opposit rows; two-rankt) 
'disti-kas. 

distil V. exude; pass gently; vaporize by heat and then con- 
dense [also spelt distill; past participle and preterit di- 
stilled, distildl di'stil. 

distingue adj, (distinguisht) dis-tsei]'gee, dis'taeq-ge. 

distingnisbed adj. possessing distinction; eminent [also 
spelt distinguishf] di'stirigwiSt. 

distrainor n. one who distrains or levies a distress [also, 
sometimes, spelt distrainer'] di'stjee-nar, {also, especially 
in law, as the correlativ of distrainee) di'stjee-ne:?. 

distrait adj. (abstracted; absent-minded) di'stjee. : 

distrangbt adj. (distracted; bewilderd) di'stjc:t. 

district n. (division, province, region) 'distjikt; (dialectal- 
ly or vulgarly) 'dii-stjikt. 

distyle n. (porch with two styles or columns) 'di-stail, 'dai- 
stail. 

disnse n. (discontinuance of use) dis'jous, diS'jous. 

disnse v. (cease to use) dis'juuz, diS'jouz. 

disyllabic adj. containing two syllables [synonymous cog- 
nate dissyllabic] disilaebik, dai-silaebik. 

disyllable n, word or foot of two syllables [synonymous cog- 
nate dissyllable] di'sila-bal, dai'sila-bal, 'disila-bDl. 

dital n. (thum-key on a guitar or lute) 'dital, 'dai-tal. 

ditbeism n. (doctrin of the existence of two supreme gods) 
'dai-Oi-izam. 

ditber v.. n. (tremble) 'dida?, 'diGa?. 

j ye, Qcure; b the, Q thin; 3 axrure, dsjoy; ^ shoe, tScAew; 
u) when ; 13 sin^r; u whoever, i r£»act, o full, ou ioo\, i tt, li see; 
o poetic ; 9 ov^r, e aerial, a b«t, o: door, oo no, c b^d, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 161 



ditliionio adj. (having two sulfur atoms) diBi'enik, daz- 

Oai'enik. 
dithyramb n. (choric song, etc.) 'diQi-zxm. 
dittany n. (plant) 'ditd-ni. 
ditto n. (aforesaid; same) 'dito. 
ditty n. song, lay [ploral dittiesi 'diti. 
diuresis n. (excessiv uresis; too much urination) dai-jo'rii- 

sis. 
div n. in Persian myth, an evil spirit; demon; devil [also 

spelt dive, deev, dev, dew\ diiv. 
diva n. (prima donna) 'dii-vs. 
divagation n. (a wandering about; digression) dai-v3-gee- 

Sdn. 
divalent adj. (bivalent) 'diva-lant, 'dai-vee-lant ; 'dai-va-lant. 
divan n. (council; council-chamber; long seat) di'vaen, dai- 

'vaen, 'dei-vaen. 
divaricate r. (stretch apart) di'vaKi-ket, dai'vacei-ket. 
dive V, (plunge ; sink deeply) daiv. 
diverge v. (branch off: the epposit of converge) di'vB:?d3, 

dai'vBirds. 
divergence n. di've^dssns, dai'vB^dssns. 
divers adj. (different, several, sundry) 'dai-varz. 
diverse adj. (different in kind; essentially different) di- 

'vBirs, dai'vBirs, 'dai-vars. 
diversely adv. di've^sLi, dai'varsti, 'dai-vaz-sLi. 
diversify v, (make diverse) di'varsi-fai, dai've^si-fai. 
diversion n. (a turning aside; pastime) di've^S^n, dai've?- 

Ssn; di'vB:r-53n, dai'vei^-s^n. 
diversity n. (difference; variety) di'varsi-ti, dai'vB3Si-ti. 
divert v. (turn aside ; amuse) di'vsirt, dai'vei^t. 
divertible n. di'verta-bal. 

divertisement n, (recreation) di'va^tis-mant, di'vertiz-mant. 
divertissement n. (divertisement; ballet) di-vertis'meg, di- 

vc^'tis-mei]. 
IHves n. rich man [ploral Diveses^ 'dai-viz. 
divest n. (unclothe ; strip ; deprive) di'vest, dai'vest. 
divinise v, make divine; deify [also spelt divinise'] 'divi- 

naiz. 
divisible adj, (capable of being divided) di'vizs-bdl. 
divisive adj. (dividing; analjrtic; causing discord) di'vm-srv. 
divisor n. (quantity by which another quantity is divided; 

factor) di'vai-zar. 
divorce n. (di^^^olution of marriage, etc.) di'vo'.zs. 

c: law, b: f wr, x cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the lellowing syllable. 



162 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS . 

divoroeable adj, capable of being divorced [also, formerly, 

spelt divorciblel di'vo:r-s3-bdJ. 
divoroee n. (divorced person) di-v3?'sii. 
divnlge v, (disclose; reveal) di'vAlds, dai'vAtds. 
disen v, dress, deck out, bedizen [also spelt dissen; pest 

participle and preterit dizened, disendl 'dizsn, 'dizn, 'dai- 

zdn, 'dai-zn. 
dizzy adj, (giddy) Mizi. 

do V, (impart to ; perform, etc) dou, {when less strest) du, do. 
do n. (in music) doo. 
dobby n. sprite; brownie; loom-attachment [also spelt dob- 

bie; ploral dobbiesi 'debi. 
dooent n. (teacher) 'doo-ssnt. 
dooible adj. (teachable; docil; tractable) 'desd-bdt. 
docile adj. teachable, tractable [also, sometimes, spelt docill 

'desil, 'doo-sil, 'doo-sail. 
dootoress n. female doctor [synonymous cognate doctressi 

'dekt3-ris, {rapidly) 'dektjis. 
doctrinaire n. (political theorist) dekt£i'ne:7. 
doctrinal adj, 'dekt^i-nl, {also, in Britain) dek'tsai-nl. 
doctrine n. teaching; dogma; theory [also spelt doctrini 

'dektjin. 
doe n. female deer [ploral doesi doo. 
does V. [indicativ present third person singular of dpi dAz; 

{dialectally) doz. 
doff V. take off, as the hat; strip [past participle and pret- 
erit doffed, do ft"] derf, def. 
dog n. (canine quadruped) de:g, deg; {dialectally) dc:g. 
dogal adj, (of a doge) 'doo-gdl. 

dogate n. dogeship [synonymous cognate dogeatel 'doo-gct. 
dog-cbeap adj. deig'tjiip, {asstimptivly) 'deig-tjiip. 
doge n. (chief magistrate of the old republics of Venice and 

Genoa) doods. 
dogeate n, 'doo-dset. same meaning as dogate. 
dogged V. past participle and preterit of dog [also spelt 

dogdl deigd, dogd. 
dogged adj. (obstinate, unsdelding) 'do:-gid, 'degid. 
dogged adv. (very) 'der-gid, 'degid. 
doggedly adv, 'der-gi-dh, 'dogi-dh. 
doggerel adj. of trivial, irregular or mean nature : said of 

verse [synonymous cognates doggrel, dogrelll 'dega-zal. 
dogg^y «. little dog [also spelt doggie; ploral doggies'] 'd©:-gi, 

'degi. 

j ve, Qcure; bthe, Q thin; sarure, ds/oy; S^Aoe, tJcAew; 
wwtien; t)sing; u whoever, i r^act, o f «11, ou fool, i tt, lis^e; 
poetic; 9 0v^r, e aerial, Abut, o: door, oono, eb^d, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 163 

adj, (dog-like; conversant with dogs) 'de:-gi, 'degi. 
dbs^ma n, belief; tenet, etc. [ploral dogmas, dogmata^ 'dog- 
ma; idialectally) 'dc:g-m9. 
dogmatise v. [also spelt dogmatise'] 'degmd-taiz. 
doloe adj. (sweet; soft-toned) 'dool-tji; (less properly) 'del- 

tSi. 

doldnmi n. dullard; in plural, dulness; becalmd state [ploz- 

al doldrums] 'deldrdm. 
dolman n. robe [ploral dolmans] 'delmsn. 
dolmen n. stone structure [synonymous cognate tolmen; 

ploral dolmens] "delman. 
dolor n. pain, sorrow [also spelt dolour] 'dooAsz, 'dels?. 
doloroso adj. (in music, soft, pathetic) dols'soo-so; {less 

properly) dela'roo-so. • 

dolorous adj, (painful; dismal; sad) Moo-ld-^ss, 'deld-rss 
dolt n. (blockhead, numskull) doolt; {dialectally) dolt. 
donudn n. (lordship; lands) do'meen; {improperly) 'doo-men. 
domestioise z/. [also spelt domesticise] ds'mesti-saiz. 
domical adj. (dome-like; vaulted) 'doo-mi-kdl, 'demi-kd!. 
domicile n. abode; house; home [also, sometimes, spelt 

domicil] 'demi-sil, 'demi-sail. 
Dominican adj. (of St. Dominic, etc.) do'mini-kdn. 
dominie n. schoolmaster, etc. [also spelt domine] 'demi-ni, 

'doo-mi-ni. 
domino n. cloak; oblong piece used in game [ploral domi- 
noes, dominos] 'demi-no. 
dona n. lady [synonymous cognate dona] 'doo-njs. 
donate v. (give) 'doo-net, (m Britain) do'neet. 
donative n. gift [also spelt donativ] 'dena-tiv, 'doo-na-tiv. 
donator n. (giver) "doo-netdz, do'nee-td?. 
done V. (past participle of do) dxn. 
donee n. (one to whom anything is given ; one to whom 

land is conveyed in fee tail; an appointee) do'nii. 
donjon n. 'dAndsdn, 'dendssn. see under dungeon. 
donkey n. ass [also spelt donky; ploral donkeys, donkiesj 

'deqki, 'dAijki. 
donor n. (giver) 'doo-ns;, 'doo-ne:?. 

don't V. (do not) doont, (when less strest) dont, dont, don. 
dook n. (wooden plug in a masonry wall, to hold a nail) 

douk. 
doomsday n, day of the last judgment [synonymous cognate 

domesday] 'doumz-dee. 
door n. do:z; (locally) dos. 

c: law, b: iur, x cat, e hot, oi b^^y ; a: far, go now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



164 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

dor-bng n. [also spelt dorr-bugl 'de:7-bAg; (erroneously or 

dialectully) 'dorz-bAg. • 

dorla n. striped Indian muslin [also spelt dorea"] 'do:-zi-9, 
Dorian adj. (of Doris or Doria, a district of ancient Greece ; 

Doric) 'dor-ri-an. 
Dorle adj. (Dorian; of dialects, rustic) 'dezik, 
Dorloize v. render Doric [also spelt Doricisel Me?i-saiz. 
Dorize v. imitate Doric manners etc.; render Doric [also 

spelt Doriscl 'do:-?aiz. 
dormer-xviiido'W n. (vertical window projecting from a 

slanting roof) deiz-moz^windo, 'dei^-ma^-windo. 
dormitory n. (sleeping-chamber; college building divided 

into sleeping-rooms) 'de:z-mi-tozi, 'derr-mi-tji. 
dormonse * n. rodent [plural dormicel 'de:?-maos ; {erronc' 

ously or dialectally) 'dorr-maos. 
dorsad adj. (toward the dorsum or back) 'de:e-saed. 
dory n. John-dor>', a fish [also spelt doree; ploral doriesl 

'do:-?i. 
dory n. boat [also spelt dorey; ploral doriesl 'doi-ei. 
dosage n. giving medicin in doses ; the dosing of wine [also 

spelt doscage} 'doo-sids. 
dossal n. chair-back cover; hanging at the back of an altar 

[also spelt dosscll 'desal. 
dossU n. spigot; roll of lint or cloth [also spelt dossel] 

'desil. 
dost V, (indicativ present second person singular of do) 

dASt. 

dotage n. (second childhood; senility) 'doo-tids; (improper- 
ly) 'detids- 

dotard n. (imbecil ; one who is in his dotage) 'doo-tard ; (im- 
properly) 'detard. 

dote V. be silly from age; bestow excessiv fondness [also 
spelt doati doot. 

doth 7'. [indicativ present third person singular of dol dAO, 
doo0. 

donane n. (custom-house) du'a:n. 

double-barreled adj. having two barrels, as a gun [also 
spelt double-barreldj dAbal'baj^ald, (assumptivly) 'dAbal- 
bae^ald. 

doubloon n. (Spanish gold coin) dA'bloun. 

doubt n. uncertainty [also spelt dout"] daot. 

doubtful adj, [also spelt doutfull 'daot-fal. 

doubtless ad7'.. adj. [also sprit doutlessl 'dao-tL3S. 

j .ve, Qcure; bihe. Q thin; 3 assure, d^/oy; ^ shoe^ tSc/tew; 
wu'hen; r}sing; u whoever, i r^act, o fwll, ou fool, i »t, lis^e; 
o poetic ; 9 ov^r, e aerial, a but, 0: door, 00 no, e b^d, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 165 



douce adj, quiet, sober [also spelt dousel duus. 

douceur n, (conciliatory gift; bribe) du'se:?. 

douche n. (jet of water applied to some part of the body) 

douS. 
doueh n. (paste of bread) doo. 
dougbty adj. (strong, valiant) 'doo-ti. 
doum. n. palm [synonymous cognates doom, dome, dom"] 

doom, doum. 
dour adj. (hard, stubborn) do:?. 
douse V, strike; lower [also spelt dowsel daos. 
douse n. blow, stroke [also spelt dowsel daos. 
douse V. extinguish [also spelt dowsel daos. 
dousepers n. pL the twelve peers or paladins of Charle- 
magne [also spelt douse peers; synonymous cognate douce- 

peres\ 'douz-pe:rz. 
dove n. (pigeon) dAv. 
dove V. (preterit of dive) doov. 
doTe«oot n. pigeon-bouse [synonymous cognate dove-cote'i 

'dxv-ket. 
doTe«cote n. 'dAV-koot, 'dAv-ket. same meaning as dove-cot, 
dovetail n. (tenon or joint resembling a dove's tail spread) 

'dAv-tcel. 
dowel n. headless pin, peg or bolt; dook [also spelt dowelll 

'dau-al. 
dowu«]&earted adj, dejected [also spelt down-hartedl daon- 

'hartid, (assumptivly) 'daon-ha^tid. 
do^^ry n. money or property the wife brings her husband in 

marriage; dower, tocher; dot [synonymous cognate dowery; 

ploral dowries} 'dao-zi. 
dojcologise v. address a doxology to [also spelt doxologise\ 

deks'eb-dsaiz. 
dozy n. beggar's trull or wench [also spelt doxie; ploral 

doxiesi 'deksi. 
doyeu n. (dean) dwo'jei}. 
drabler n. sail [also spelt drdbhler'\ Mraebls?. 
drachm n. draem. same meaning as drachma, dram, 
draohma n. coin; unit of weight [ploral drachmae, drach^ 

mas] 'drsekMd. 
draff n. (refuse, dregs, lees; swill; brewer's grains) dra:f. 
draft n. capacity of being drawn ; act of taking away a part ; 

levy; conscription; team of horses in a cart; the depth a 

ship sinks in water; written order; a current of air [also 

spelt draught} dra:ft, dra:ft, drse:ft. compare draught. 



c: latr, b: fur, x cat. o hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now^ a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
8tre«9-mark (0 mdicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



166 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

draft V, draw off; draw up [also, rarely, in the sense of 

draw up, spelt draughtl dca:ft, dra:ft, dxxift, 
draftsman n. [also spelt draughtsman; ploral draftsmen'} 

'dra:fts-m3n. 
drafty adj, exposed to drafts of air [also spelt draughty} 

'dra:f-ti. 
drafty adj, (like draff; rubbishy; vile) 'dra:f-ti. 
dragoman n. interpreter [ploral dragomans} 'dcsgd-msn. 
dragonade n. persecution [also spelt dragonnade, dragoO' 

node} draega'need. 
dragoon n. (cavalry soldier) dtd'goun. 
dram n. unit of weight [also spelt drachm} drxm. 
drama n. (a play ; dramatic art, etc) Mra:-m9, 'dra:-m9 ; {less 

properly) 'dree-ma, 'draems. 
dramatis personae n.pl. "drxms-tis-pd^'soo-ni. 
dramatist n. (writer of dramas; playwright) 'drsemd-txst; 

Xless properly) 'dree-ma-tist. 
dramatize v. convert into drama [also spelt dramatise} 

'draema-taiz. 
drapery n. (textil fabrics, etc.) 'dree-p3-?i, 'dree-psi. 
draught n. act of drawing ; haul ; load ; the act of drinking ; 

quantity drunk at one time ; bow-shot [also spelt draft} 

idca:ft, dra:ft, drsstft. 
draughts n. checkers [also spelt drafts} draifts. 
draxF V. pull, etc. [past participle drawn ; preterit drew} drc: , 

(when unstrest) drc. 
draxvers n. (undergarment) 'drc:-3?z, drc:7Z, 
dread v., n. fear [also spelt dred} dred. 
dreadfnl adj. [also spelt dredful} 'dredfal; (dialectally) 

'drefal. 
dream v. [past participle and preterit dreamed, dreamd; 

dreamt, dremt} driim. 
dreamt v. past participle and preterit of dream [also spelt 

dremt} dremt. 
dreary adj. 'dri:-?i; (dtalectally) 'dtii-?i, 
dreg n. sediment, residue, [used mostly in the ploral, dregs} 

dregz ; (dialectally) dreegz, 
drenoh v. make to drink; soak [past participle and preterit 

drenched, drencht} drentS, (m Britain) drenj. 
drengage n. (tenure or service of a dreng) 'dreqids, 'dreq- 

driblet n. small sum; petty portion [also spelt dribblet} 'dri- 
blat, 'dribht. 

j ye, g cure; b the, thin;^ 3 a^ure, dj /oy ; S shoe, ^ tS chevr; 
wwhen; qsin^r; u whoever, i r^act, o f ull, auiool, i tt, lis^e; 
o poetic ; d ov^r, e aerial, a but, o: door, oo no, e b^d, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 167 

drier n. one who or that which dries; dessicator [also spelt 

dryer'l 'drai-32. 
drivel v. slaver [present participle driveling, drivelling; past 

participle and preterit driveled, drivelled, driveld'\ 'drival. 
driveler n. [also spelt driveller'[ 'driva-b^. 
driveling adj. [also spelt drivelling'\ 'driva-hq, 'dtixhi}. 
droll adj, (comical, funny) dn>ol. 
drollery ». action of a droll; fun [plural drolleries'\ 'droo- 

19-71. 

dromedary n. light and fleet camel [plural dromedaries'\ 
'dromi-de^i, 'dremida-^i, 'dcAmida-^i. 

dromio adj, (of a dromos or race-course) Mcemik. 

dromond n. (ship) 'dremsnd, MrAmsnd. 

drosl&ky n. vehicle [synonymous cognate drosky"] 'droSki. 

drosky n. 'dreski. same meaning as droshky, 

dross n. (scum; recrement; dreg) dteis, (rarely) dros; (dia- 
lectally) drc:s. 

dronsht n. (dry weather; thirst) draut. 

dronth n. draoO. same meaning as drought. 

droivn v, suffocate by submersion in water [former synon- 
ymous cognate drownd; past participle and preterit drown- 
ed, drownd^ draon; (dialectally and vulgarly) dcaond. 

droimed adj. [also, sometimes, spelt drownd} draund; (dia- 
lect ally and vulgarly) 'draon-did. 

drowning n., adj. 'drao-niq ; (dialect ally and vulgarly) 
'draun-diq. 

dro^vse v. be drowsy or half asleep [also spelt drowce'] diaoz. 

dro^vsy adj. half asleep [also, formerly, spelt drousy, drou- 
sy, drowzyl 'drao-zi. 

dmdgery n. (occupation of a drudge; mean, dull work) 
'drAd33-ri, (rapidly) 'drAds^i. 

dryad n. wood-nymph [ploral dryads, dryadesi 'drai-aed, 'drui- 
3d. 

dryades n. (ploral of dryad) 'drai-9-diz. 

dryly adv, in a dry manner [also spelt drily"] 'drai-h. 

drsmess n. [also, rarely, spelt driness] 'drai-nis. 

dnal adj. (of two) 'djou-al; (dialectally) 'dou-al. 

dnbiety n. (dubiousness, doubtfulness) dju'bai-i-ti. 

dubious adj. (doubtful; hesitating) 'djou-bi-3s; (dialectally) 
'dou-bi-3S. 

dnoal adj. (of a duke or dukedom; of a doge) 'djuu-kal; (dia- 
lectally) 'duu-ksl. 

dnoat n. (gold coin) 'dAkdt. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, o hot, oi hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ax k«te ; 
length-mark (:) intijcates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



168 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

dnoliess n. wife of a duke, etc. [also, formerly, spelt dut- 

chess} 'd At Sis. 
dnohy n. dukedom [ploral duchies'! 'dxtSi. 
dnet n. (tube, ductus) dxkt. 
dnotible adj, (ductil) 'dAktd-bdl. 
ductile adj. pliable; that may be drawn; tractable [also, 

sometimes, spelt ductill 'dAktil, 'dAk-tail. 
dndseon n. (anger; ill humor) 'dAdssn. 
dne adj. (owed ; suitable ; to be expected) djou ; (dialectally) 

duu. 
dnel M. (single combat) 'djou-sl; (dialectally) Mou-sl. 
dnel V. fight a duel [present participle dueling, duelling; 

past participle and preterit dueled, duelled} 'djou-al. 
dneler n. duelist [also spelt dueller} 'djuu-9-!97. 
duelist n. [also spelt duellist} 'djuu-9-}ist. . 
dnello n. (dueling; duelists' code) dju'elo. 
dnenna n. (chief lady in waiting on the Queen of Spain ; el- 
derly chaperon, etc.) dju'ena. 
dnet n. musical composition for two performers [also spelt 

duett} dju'et; {dialectally) du'et. 
dnffel n. coarse woolen cloth; personal effects [also spelt 

duffle; synonymous cognate duffil} 'dAfal. 
dnke n. (prince ; ruler of a duchy) djouk ; {dialectally) douk. 
dnloamara n. (bittersweet) dAlkd'me:-??. 
dnloe adj. (sweet) dAls. 

dulcet adj. (sweet, pleasing, as a tone) 'dAlsit. 
dnlciana n. (organ-stop) dAlsi'xns, dAlsi'ai-ns. 
dnloimer n. (stringd instrument) 'dAlsi-mar, 'dAltsi-mae. 
dnloinea n. (mistress, sweetheart) dAl'sini-3, dAlsi'nii-3. 
dnlia n. servitude ; service ; inferior worship : the epposit 

of latria [also, sometimes, spelt douleia} djo'lai-3, duiai-a, 

'djou-H-3. 
dullard n. (dull person; dolt) 'dAlsrd. 
dnlly adj. (in poetry, dreary; faint; indistinct) 'dAli. 
dully adv, (in a dull manner) MaI-Ii. 
dnlly n. (dull or stupid person) 'dAh. 
dnlness n. [also spelt dullness} 'dAlnis. 
dulse n. (edible seaweed) dAls. 
dul'willy n. (ring-plover) dAl'wih, 'dAl-wih. 
duly adv. (in due manner; fitly) 'djuu-h. 
dumb adj., n. mute [also spelt dum} dAm. 
dumfouud v. strike dumb; nonplus [also spelt dumbfound} 
dAm'faond. 

j ye, g cure ; 5 the, thin;^ 3 ajsrure, dj joy; S shoe, tj chevr; 
wwhen; losing; u whoever, i r^act, o full, ouiool, itt, lisee; 
op(?etic; 9 ov^r, e aerial. Abut, o: door, oono, e b^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 169 

diunmj n, dumb person; imaginary player; man of straw; 
counterfeit [also, rarely, spelt dumbyl 'dAmi. 

diunose adj. (bushy) dju'mDOS, (assumptivly) 'djuu-mos. 

dnnseon n. great tower or keep of a castle; strong cell; 
deep dark vault [also, especially in the sense of the great or 
inner tower or keep of a castle, somewhat archaically spelt 
donjon} 'dxndsdn. 

duo n. (duet) 'djou-o, 'djou-o. 

dvodeoimo n. book-size [ploral duodecimosl dju-o'desi-mo. 

dvodeoyl n. (hydrocarbon radical) dju'edi-sil. 

duodenal adj. (of the duodenum) dju-o'dii-nl. 

duodenal adj, (composed of twelve numbers) dju-oMii-nl. 

duodenary adj. (of twelve) dju-o'dens-ri, dju-oMii-nd-zi. 

dnodennm n. first part of the small intestin [plural duode- 
na'] dju-o'dii-nam. 

dnolofi^ne n. dialog [also spelt duolog"] 'djuu-s-leg. 

duplex adj. (twofold) 'djuu-pLeks. 

duplicate adj. (double; twofold) 'djou-pLi-kst, (often) 
'djupLi-kdt; (less properly) 'djou-bh-kat; (dialectally) 'dou- 
pLi-kdt. 

dnplioity n. (doubleness) djo'pLisi-ti. 

dnroMi n. restraint, compulsion [also spelt duressel 'djo:-7is, 
djo'rcs. 

dnrst V. (preterit of dare) delist. 

dnst n. (mass of fine particles) dxst. 

dnteons adj. (dutiful) 'djuu-ti-ss, (dialectally) 'dou-ti-ss. 

dnty n. (conduct due to a superior moral obligation; tax) 
'djou-ti ; (dialectally) 'dou-ti. 

dnnniTir n. one of a pair of co-equal magistrates [ploral du- 
umvirs , duumviri] dju'Amvaz. 

d^rarf n. pygmy [ploral dwarf si dwc:7f. 

d^vell V. abide, live [past participle and preterit dwelled, 
dweld, dwelt] dwel. 

dyad n. (two ; couple ; substance whose atom has a combin- 
ing-power equal to two atoms of hydrogen) 'dai-xd, Mai-dd. 

Dyak n. nativ of Borneo [also spelt Dayak] 'dai-aek. 

]>yas n. (Permian) 'dai-as, 'dai-aes. 

dyaster n. double star in cell-division [also spelt diaster] 
dai'aestd?. 

dyee adv. (sea-term) thus [also spelt dice] dais. 

dye n. color ; coloring-matter [also spelt die ; ploral dyes] dei. 

dyeinc v. the process of impregnating with color [also spelt 
dying] 'dei-ii]. 

c: lawt b: fur, x cat, e h<7t, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai k«te ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the fellowing syllable. 



170 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

dyer n. (one whose occupation is to dye cloth, etc.) 'dai-dp. 

dying n. (death) 'dai-iq. 

dying adj. (approaching or pertaining to death) 'dai-iQ. 

dynamic adj. (of force) dai'nxmik, di'nxmik. 

dynamism n. (doctrin of force) 'dei-nd-mizdm, 'dina-mizoni. 

dynamitard n. (dynamiter) 'dax-n3mi-ta:7d. 

dynamite n. (explosiv) Mai-ns-mait, 'dins-mait. 

dynamize n. strengthen [also spelt dynamisel 'dai-no-maiz, 

'dina-maiz. 
dynamo n. electric generator [ploral dynamosi 'dai-na-mo. 
dynast n. (ruler) 'dai-naest, 'dai-nast, 'dinast. 
dynastic adj. (of a dynasty) dai'nxstik, di'naestik. 
dynasty n. (lordship; royal line) 'dai-na-sti, 'dina-sti. 
dyne n. (unit of force) dam. 

dysorasia n. (dyscrasy; distemper) di'sk^ee-sa, di'sksee-si-d. 
dysorasy n. (morbid diathesis; distemper) 'disk^s-si. 
dysentery n. (inflammation of the large intestin) 'dison- 

te^i, (rapidly) 'dison-tji; (also) 'di-senta-^i. 
dysodile n. greenish or yellowish coal which burns with a 

fetid odor [also spelt dysodylc"] 'diso-dil, Miss-dail. 
dyspepsia n. (indigestion) di'spepSa, di'spepsi-a, di'spepSi-3. 
dyspepsy n. di'spcpsi. same meaning as dyspepsia. 
dyspeptic adj., n. di'speptik. 

dysphagia n. (difficulty in swallowing) dis'fee-dsi-s. 
dyspnoea n, (difficulty in breathing) disp'nii-3. 
dysnry n. (dysuria) 'disgo-?i. 
dyvonr n. bankrupt [also, sometimes, spelt divor"] 'dai-var, 

'dai-vo3. 
dzeren n. antelope [also, sometimes, spelt dseron, dserinj 

'zi:-r3n, (pedantically) 'dzi:-^3n, 'dzi:-ren. 
dziggetai n. wild ass of Asia [synonymous cognate dshig* 

getail 'zigi-tai, (pedantically) 'dzigi-tai. 



each pron. (every, etc.) litj, (when unstrcst) itj. 

eager n. surging of the tide [also spelt eagre, eygrel li-gar. 

'ee-ga?. 
eager adj, (keen) 'li-ga?. 
earing n. (the process of coming into ear, as of wheat) 

'r.-ziT). 
earing n. rope on the cringle of a sail [also spelt earring} 

'i:-?ir). 

j ye, Qcure; b the, Q thin; 3 arrure, d^joy; ^ shoe, t^chew; 
wwhen; r)sing; u whoever, i r^act, o ftdl, ou fool, i it, lis^e; 
o poetic ; d ov^r, e aerial, a but, o: door, oo no, e b<?d, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 171 

earl n. (count) b:zI, 

earldom n. (rank of an earl) fBzld^m, 'Bizl-d^m. 

earn v. (gain by labor; obtain by service; acquire) ei^n. 

earning n. (action of gaining by labor or service ; amount 

acquired; income on capital) 'ezniq, 'b'.z-tiit}. 
earring n. ring for the ear ; also, fuchsia [also spelt ear-ring} 

'i:-rir). 
easterner n. (dweller in the eastern or New England states) 

'li-sta-na^. 
east^vard adj. (toward the east) 'list-ward, 'lis-tiuszd, 'li- 

stwdzd. 
easy-going adj, li-zi'goo-ii], (assumptivly) 'li-zi-goo-iij. 
eat V. (consume as food; devour) lit, (when unstrest) it. 
ean n. water [ploral eauxl oo. 
eanx n. (plural of eau) ooz. 
ea^es n.pl. (lower edge of a roof) livz, 
ebb n. (reflux or falling of the tide; decline) eb. 
Ifbionite n. (one of a sect of Judaizing Christians of about 

the fourth century) 'li-bi-a-nait. 
ebony n. (hard black wood) 'eba-ni, {rapidly) 'ebni. 
ebnllience n. (a boiling or bursting forth; overflow) 

iTaAlians. 
ebullition n. (boiling; bubbling; agitation) eba'hSan. 
ebnrln w. imitation ivory [also spelt eburinel 'ebjo-?in, 

'li-bjo-^in. 
ebnmation n. (a becoming like ivory) ebaz'nee-Jan, i-hsz- 

'nee-San. 
ebnmine n. of ivory [also, sometimes, spelt eburnin\ 'zh^z- 

nin, 'ebar-nain, I'Jje^-nain. 
6oart6 w. (card-game) eka^'tee. 

eobole n. (digression; also, raising of a tone) 'ekbd-Ji. 
ecee Homo inter j, (behold, the man!) eksi'hoo-mo, eki'hoo- 

mo. 
eooentrio adj. (not concentric; out of center; not circular) 

ek'sentjik. 
eooentrioity n. (eccentric quality; oddity) ek-sen't£isi-ti. 
eoebjmiosed adj. (affected with ecchymosis or blotches 

caused by extravasated blood) 'eki-most, eki'moost, eki- 

'moozd. 
eoelesiastio adj, (of the church) c-kLizi'aestik. 
eedysis n. (sloughing off; molt) 'ekdi-sis. 
eebelon n. step-like formation of troops [also spelt echellon"} 

'ejo-len. 

c: low, b: f «r, ae cat, e hot, oi hoy ; a: far, go now, a: ask, ei kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



172 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

echinoderm n. (spiny-skind animal, as a sea-urchin) ilcai- 

n9-dB:?m, 'ekina-dei^m. 
eehinite n. (fossil sea-urchin) I'kai-nait, 'eki-nait. 
echinns n. sea-urchin; ovolo molding [ploral echini] iHcai- 

nds, i'kai-nds. 
echo n. repetition of sounds, etc. [ploral echoes, rarely echos] 

'eko. 
Eclair n. (oblong cream-cake) eTcLe:?, (sometimes) 'cc-kte:?. 
eclair oissement n. (explanation) e-kLe?'siis-mer). 
eclaircize v. clear up [also spelt eclaircisel I'kLex-saxz. 
6clat w. (dazzling effect ; sensation) e'kLo: , (rarely) 'ee-kta. 
eclectic adj. (selecting; choosing, etc.) ek'lcktik. 
eclogue n. short poem; bucolic [also spelt eclogl 'ek-}eg. 
eclosion n. (an emerging, as of an insect from the pupa-case) 

i'kLoo-33n. 
eclysis n. (lowering of a tone) 'ekLi-sis. 
ecology n. science of animal and vegetable economy, life- 
history, etc. [also spelt oecologyl i'kela-dsi. 
economic adj. (of economy) li-ka'nemik, ikd'nemik, ekd- 

'nemik. 
economical adj. (saving, thrifty; of political economy) li- 

ka'nemi-kal, eka'nemi-kal. 
economize v. [also spelt economise^ I'kens-maiz. 
economy n. household management ; administration ; frugal- 
ity [also, but rarely now, spelt oeconomy] I'kena-mi. 
6cm adj, (unbleacht) e'k^ou, (sometimes) 'ee-ksu. 
ecstasy n. the state of being beside one's self; rapture [also 

spelt extasie, extacy; ploral ecstasies'! 'eksta-si. 
ectlilipsis n. (omission or suppression of a letter or sound) 

ek'OLipsis. 
ecthorenm n. the thread of a thread-cell; cnidocil [also 

spelt ecthoraeum; ploral ecthoreal ekOa'^ii-am. 
ectogenons adj, (produced outside the host) ek'tedsi-nas. 
ecu ft, (shield; coin) e'kgou, 'ee-kgu. 
ecumenical adj. of the whole Christian church; catholic; 

world-wide; general [also spelt oecumenical"] ekQo'meni-kal. 
eczema n, (skin-eruption) 'eksi-ma, 'ekzi-ma; (less properly) 

'egzi-ma; eg'zii-ma. 
eczematous adj. (of eczema) eg'zems-tss. 
Edam adj, (in *Edam cheese) 'li-daem, i'dotm. 
eddy n. small whirlpool; vortex [ploral eddies] 'edi. 
edelweiss n. (white flower of the Alps and Pyrenees) 'ec-<tt- 

vais, 'ee-dal-vais, 'edal-vais. 

j ve, g cure ; 5 the, thin ; 3 a^rure, ds joy ; S shoe, tj chevr ; 
wwhen; r)sing; u whoever, i r^act, o full, ou fool, i tt, lisee; 
o poetic ; 3 ov^r, e aerial, a but, o: door, oo no, c b^d, ce gote ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 173 

n. swelling [also spelt oedema; plural edemata] I'dxi- 
ms. 
edentatons adj. of edema [also spelt oedematous] I'dcma- 

t98. 

eds^d adj, (having an edge; sharp; borderd) edsd, {occa- 
sionally) 'edsid. 

edible adj. (eatable; esculent) 'edd-bsl. 

edict n. (decree; proclamation; ordinance) 'li-dikt. 

edifice n. building [also spelt edifis] 'cdi-fis. 

edile n. Roman magistrate [also spelt aedile} 'li-dail. 

educate v. (rear; bring up; instruct; train) 'ed33-kct, (older) 
'edjo-ket. 

edncation n. edsdlcee-Ssn, edjo'kee-Sdn. 

e'en adv, (even) lin. 

e'er adv. (ever) e:z, 

eerie adj. fearful, timid; weird [also spelt eery, eirie, eiry 
and, dialectally, airy] 'i:-zi. 

eeriness n. undefined fear; superstitious dread [also spelt 
eariness] 'v.-zi-ms. 

eery adj. fearful, timid; fear-inspiring; weird [also spelt 
eerie] 'v.-zi. 

effect n. (result, consequence; appearance; in plural, goods 
and chattels) e'fekt, {rapidly) I'fekt. 

effecter n. he who or that which brings about an effect or 
result [also spelt effector] e'fektor, (rapidly) I'fektar. 

effectible adj. (capable of being effected) e'fektd-bdl, (rap- 
idly) i'fekt3-b3l. 

effective adj. productiv of results [also spelt effectiv] e'fek- 
tiv, (rapidly) I'fektiv. 

efferent adj. (conveying outward; correlativ of afferent) 
'efd-^ant. 

ef ferresce v. (bubble) efsr'ves. 

efferrescence n. (bubbling; ebullition) efsr'vesdns. 

effete adj. (past bearing; worn out) e'fiit, (rapidly) I'fiit 

efficiency n. (fitness to accomplish; efficacy) e'fi$9n-8i, 
(rapidly) I'fiSan-si. 

effigies n. (an effigy) I'fidsi-irz. 

efflorescence n. (blossoming out) e{i^'zes9ns. 

,efflnTinni n. outflow, etc. [ploral effluvia and, fermerly, ef- 

I fluviums] e'fLou-vi-am. 

effort n. (voluntary exertion) 'ef^^t, 'e-fort. 

effrontery n. (shameless audacity; unblushing insolence) 
e'f3Ant3-?i, e'fsAntji. 

c: law, b: f «r, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, aa now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



174 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

effuse adj. (pourd out freely; spreding loosely) e'fious, 

(rapidly) I'fious. 
effuse V. (pour forth ; shed) e'fiouz, (rapidly) I'f iuuz. 
effusive adj. overflowing [also spelt effusiv} c'fiou-siv, 

(rapidly) I'fiou-siv; (also) e'fiou-ziv, I'fiou-ziv. 
egad interj. i'gaed. 

Egean adj. of the Archipelago [also spelt Aegean} I'dsii-dn. 
egg n. ovum [also spelt eg} eg ; (dialectally) eeg. 
egg V. incite ; provoke [also spelt eg ; past participle and pret- 
erit egged, egdl eg. 
egg-nog n. drink [also spelt egg-nogg, eg-nogi eg'neg. 
egilops n. goat-eye; grass; oak [also spelt aegilopsi 'edsi- 

leps, 'ii-d3i-leps. 
egis n. shield [also spelt aegisl 'li-dsis. 
eglantine n. (sweetbrier; hip-tree) 'eglan-tam, 'egtdn-tin, 

(rarely) 'eglan-tin. 
ego n. (I, self) 'li-go, 'li-go ; 'ego, 'e-go ; 'ego, 'e-go. 
egoism n. (doctrin of the self, or of self-interest : the cor- 

relativ of altruism) 'li-go-izam, 'ego-izam. 
egoist n. (adherent of egoism) 'li-go-ist, 'ego-ist. 
egotism n. (the practis of putting one's self forward; exces- 

siv self-esteem) 'li-ga-tizam, 'ego-tizam. 
egotize v. talk or write egotistically [also spelt egotisel 'li-gs- 

taiz. 
eg^reg^ious adj. (distinguisht : gross) I'g^ii-dsas; (less prop- 
erly) i'g?ii-d3i-3s. 
egress n. (going out ; exit) 'li-gres ; (formerly) I'gres. 
egress v, (go out; depart) I'g^es. 
egret n. (heron ; seed-poppus ; plumicorn ; monkey) 'ii-g?it. 

compare aigret, aigrette. 
eh interj. [also spelt eighl ee, (also, occasionally) e. 
eider-doxm n. (down of the eider-duck) 'ai-da^-doon. 
eighteen adj.,n, ee'tiin; (sometimes, emphatically) eet'tiin; 

(anteriorly; by contrast) 'ee-tin, 'eet-tin. 
eighth adj,, n. eet9. 

either adj.-pron., noun-pron., adv,, conj. 'li-da?, 'ai-da?. 
eject V. (throw out; expel) I'dsekt. 
eject n. (something ejected : a consciousness inferred to 

exist in the non-ego : correlativ of ohjecty etc.) 'li-dsekt, 

I'dsekt. 
elaborate adj. (produced by labor; workt out in detail; 

highly finisht; painstaking) I'l.xbn-rot, (rapidly) I'laeb^at. 
elaeodic adj. ricinoleic [also spelt elaiodicl eli'edik. 

j ye, g cure ; 5 the, 9 thin ; 3 arure, d3 ;oy ; S shoe, tS c/icw ; 
wwhen; qsin^r; u whoever, 1 rf?act, o f«ll, ou fool, i tt, lis^f?; 
o poetic; a ov^r, e aerial, AbMt, o: door, oo no, e b^d, cegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 175 

elaeodoel&on n. nimp-gland of a bird ; uropygial gland [plor- 
al elaeodocha'\ eli'eds-ken. 

elaidio adj, (of elain) eie'idik. 

elaidin n. chemic substance [also speH elaidine'i I'tee-i-din. 

elain n. olein [also spelt elainej I'lee-in; (improperly) I'leen. 

^laii n. (impetuous rush; ardor; dash) e'ler). 

eland n. (Cape elk) 'li-ldnd. 

elastic adj, (resuming the normal form after being distorted) 
ilaestik, i^a:-stik. 

elasticity n. ilaes'tisi-ti, els'stisi-ti. 

elate adj. (exalted, lofty) I'leet. 

elate v. (lift on high; inspirit) I'ket. 

elater n. (spring, elasticity; skip- jack, a beetle; spore-dis- 
persing filament) 'ela-ta?. 

elater n. one who or that which elates [also spelt elatorl 
ilee-taj. 

Elean adj. (Eliac) 'li-li-sn. 

elecampane n. (plant; sweetmeat) eh-kaem'peen. 

elector n, (one who elects) i^lektsz, 

electrician n. (one verst in electricity; one who makes or 
repairs electric apparatus) ilek'tEiJan, elek'tEiJan. 

electricity n. ilek'tjisi-ti, elek'tjisi-ti ; (vulgarly) ilek'tjisti, 
lek'tjisti, ilek'tjizi-ti. 

electrize v. electrify [also spelt electrise} I'lcK-tEaiz. 

electrolier n. (cluster of electric lamps) i-lckljo'li:?. 

electrolyse v. decompose by electricity [also spelt electro- 
lyse} I'lektja-laiz. 

electrotypy n. (the making of electrotypes) i'lektE9-tai-pi. 

eleemosynary adj. (of alms; charitable) eh'mesi-nen ; (al- 
so) eh'mesi-n9?i, eh'mesina-^i, eh'mesin-2i ; (also) eh- 
'mezi-ne^i, etc.; (also) eli-i'mesina-^i. 

elegant adj. (dainty; graceful; refined) 'eh-gant. 

elegiac n. (of an elegy) I'hi-dsi-aek, eh'dsai-aek, 

elegiacsal adj. (elegiac) eh'dsai-d-ksl. 

elegiambus n. a verse consisting of a dactylic penthemim 
and an iambic dimeter [ploral elegiambi} eh-dsai'aembas. 

elegiast n. (elegist) I'hi-dsi-aest, eh'dsai-aest. 

elegist n. (writer of an elegy) 'eh-dsist. 

elegise v. write an elegy; write an elegy on [also spelt ele- 
gise} 'eh-dsaiz, 

©l©By «• (song of lamentation, etc.) 'eh-dsi. 

elementary adj, (of elements; rudimentary) eh'ment3-7i, 
(rapidly) eh'mentji. 

c: late, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



176 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

elench n. (a refutation; sophism; elenchus) ilegk. 
elencliic adj. (elenctic) I'legkik. 
elenctic adj. (of refutation) ilegktik. 
elepbantiasis n. (skin-disease) eh-faen'tai-3-sis. 
elephantine adj. (of elephants; clumsy) eh'faen-tin, eti- 

'fantin, eh'faen-tain. 
elephantoid adj. (elephant-like) eh'fxn-teid, 'eli-fsn-teid. 
Eleusinian adj. (of Eleusis) elio'sini-sn. 
61dve n. (pupil) e^ev. 
eleven adj., n. I'levsn ; (^dialectally, colloquially, vulgarly) 

ilebm, levan, 'lebm. 
elf n. sprite ; fairy ; goblin [plural elvesl elf. 
Eliac adj. (of Elis; Elean) 'li-H-aek. 
elicit V. (draw out; gain) I'hsit. 
eligible adj. (fit to be chosen; suitable) 'ehdsd-bdt; {assump- 

Hvly) 'eh-dsabal, (rapidly) 'ehdsbal. 
elision n. (a cutting off; the suppression of a vowel sound 

or of a syllable) I'hsan. 
elisor n. (one of two persons who select a jury) 'eli-zas, 

ilai-zD?. 
elite n. (a choice or select body; best part) e'hit. 
elixir n. (preparation for changing metals into gold, or for 

prolonging life; sovereign remedy) I'hksD?. 
Elizabethan adj. (of Elizabeth) i-lizd'hii-Osn, i-hzd'beOaii, 

I'hza-beBan. 
ell n. (measure) el, 

ellipse n. regular oval [ploral ellipses'} ilips. 
ellipses n. (plural of ellipsis) I'hp-siz. 
ellipsis n. rarely, an ellipse; usually, an ommission; a sign 

of ommission, as a dash, or a series of stars or periods 

[plural ellipses'! I'hpsis. 
elm ft. (tree) elm; (dialectally) 'elam. 
elocution n. (art of speaking, etc.) ela'kgou-San. 
elocntive adj. of elocution [also spelt elocutivl ilekgo-trv, 

'ela-kgutiv. 
eloge n. (panegyric) eloos. 
elogium n, elogy; funeral oration; ^loge, [ploral elogial 

I'loo-dsi-am. 
elogy n. obsolete (explanatory inscription; characterization; 

elogium; eulogy) 'ela-dsi. 
Elohist n. (writer of the parts of the Pentateuch in which 

"Elohim" is used instead of "Yahveh") eloo-hist, 'cb-hist, 

'elo-ist. 

j ye, gcure; bthe, Qthin; 3 arure, d^/oy; ^ shoe, tjc/iew; 
wwhen; qsin^r; u whoever, i r^act, o f «11, ou fool, i tt, lisee; 
o poetic; 3 ov^r, e oerial, Abwt, d: door, oo no, e bed, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 177 

eloin V. abscond; convey out of the jurisdiction of the court 
or sheriff [also spelt eloign, eloine, eloigne'\ I'lein. 

elonsAte v. (prolong; lengthen) i'te:i]-get, 'li-leg-get. 

elonsAte adj. (long, slender) I'lerg-get. 

eloquence n. (fine speaking) 'els-kwans. 

else adj. els, elts. 

else'where adv, (somewhere else) 'els-tve:?, els'we:?. 

elude V. (escape or avoid by artifice; evade) i^iuud. 

eludible adj. (capable of being eluded) I'liuu-da-bsl. 

elusive adj, [also spelt elusiv'i I'liou-siv, I'liuu-ziv. 

elusory adj. (tending to elude; hard to get hold of) iliou- 
s»-ri, (rapidly) i'liou-S3i; {also) I'liou-za-^i. 

Elysian adj. (of Elysium; beatific; glorious) i^isdn, ilizi-sn, 
i1i3i-3n, {rarely) I'hsjan. 

elytron n. sheath; wing-cover, elytrum [ploral elytral 'eh- 
tjan, 'ch-tjen, I'lai-tjan, 

elytrum n. wing-cover; elytron [ploral elytral 'eh-tjam. 
n. type [also spelt Elsiverl 'elzi-va?, 'elzi-vi:?. 
n. (unit of type-measurement) em. 
pron, them [also spelt emi am. 

emaciate adj. (make lean; deprive of flesh) I'mee-Ji-et. 

emasculate v. (castrate; enfeeble) I'maesk^o-let. 

embaUn v. (preserve from decay by means of spices, etc.) 
em'barm. 

embarkation n. action of embarking [also spelt etnbarca- 
tionl em-ba^'kee-Jan. 

embarrass v. (hamper; disconcert; complicate [past parti- 
ciple and preterit embarrassed, embarrast} em'baeess. 

embassador n. em'bxsd-ds?. same meaning as ambassador. 

embassy n. (function of ambassador; residence of an am- 
bassador, etc.) 'embd-si. 

embed v. [synonymous cognate imbedl em'bed. 

embellisb v, beautify; ornament [past participle and prete- 
rit embellished, embellishtl em'behj. 

embezzle v. (divert fraudulently to one's own use) em'bezs}. 

embitter v. [synonymous cognate imbitter} em'bita?. 

emblazon v, (portray conspicuously) em'blee-zdn. 

emblema n. inlaid emblem ; mosaic ornament [ploral emble' 
matal em'blii-ma. 

emblematist n. (one who invents emblems; emblem-writer) 
'emWima-tist, em'blema-tist. 

emblematize v. represent by an emblem [also spelt emble- 
matise"] 'embhma-taiz, em'blema-taiz. 



c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark {:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the xellowing syllable. 



178 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

embonpoint n. (fleshiness)- eg-beg'ptDaei}. 

embosom v. [synonymous cognate imhosomi em'bozdni. 

emboss v. cause to bulge ; adorn with bosses [past participle 
and preterit embossed, embosf] em'bors, (rarely) emlbes. 

embonobure n. (mouth of a river; mouthpiece) ei}bu'So:7. 

embo'wel v, remove the viscera from; disembowel [present 
participle emboweling, embowelling \ past participle and 
preterit emboweled, embowelled, emboweldl em'bau-at. 

embrace v. (clasp in the arms; accept gladly) em'b?ees. 

embracer n. one who attempts to corrupt a jury [also spelt 
embraceor, embrasorl em'bree-sa?. 

embrasure n. bevel at the sides of an opening ; beveld open- 
ing [also, formerly, spelt embrasure'] em'b?ee-33r, cm'bree- 
zJ9^, {rarely) emb^a'zjo:?, embjg'so:?; {sometimes, in mili- 
tary use) 'embr3-33^. 

embroglio n. em'b?3ol-J3, em'b?30-li-o. same meaning as 
imbroglio. 

embryo n. (fetus; germ) 'emb?i-o. 

embryonal adj. (of an embryo) 'embd-a-nl. 

emend v. (remove errors from; correct) I'mend. 

emendate v. (remove errors from ; correct) 'li-mcn-det. 

emendation n. (correction) imen'dee-$3n, emdn'dee-Sdn. 

emendator n. (corrector) 'eman-deta?, 'li-man-deta?. 

emeritus adj. (honorably discharged from service) I'merz- 

tdS. 

emersion n. (coming out ; emergence) I'me^San ; {improperly) 

i'mB:r-33n. compare immersion. 
emery n. (impure corundum used for grinding and polishing) 

'ema-zri; {anteriorly) 'ema^i, {rapidly) 'zmzi. 
emeticize v. cause to vomit [also spelt emeticisel I'meti- 

saiz. 
emetine n. alkaloid [also, sometimes, spelt emetini 'emi-tin, 

'emi-tain. 
6mente n. (riot, outbreak) e'mait. 

emig^rant n. (one who quits one country to settle in an- 
other : distinguisht from immigrant) 'emi-grant. 
emigrate v. 'emi-gzret. 
eminent adj, (high in rank, conspicuous) 'cmi-nant; {as- 

sumptivly) 'eminant, {rapidly) 'emnant. 
emir n. [also spelt emeer ; synonymous cognates ameer, amtV] 

Tfmv.z, e'mi:^, 'li-ma?. 
emissary n. (person sent; also, outlet; duct) 'emi-seri. 
emission n. (an emitting or sending out; discharge) I'mijan. 

J ye, Q cure ; 5 tht. 9 */iin ; 3 arure, ds ;oy ; S j/toe, tS cAew; 
ID when ; f) sing ; u whoever, i r^act, o f m11, du fool, i tt, li see ; 
o poetic ; a ov^r, e aerial, a but, o: door. 00 no, c b^d, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 179 

emit v« (send forth; vent; discharge) I'mit. 
enuneiLagogne n. medicin [also spelt emmenagog} I'mena- 

geg, I'mii-na-geg. 
emoUiate v, (soften; render feminin) I'meli-et. 
emollient adj. softening [also spelt emolient} I'meHant. 
emolnment n. (profit from office; salary) I'meHu-mant. 
empanel n. em'psen}. same meaning as impanel. 
emperor n. (ruler of an empire) 'empa-zaz. 
emphasis n, vigor of statement; stress [plural emphasesi 

'emfa-sis. 
emphasise v. stress [also spelt emphasisel 'emfd-saiz. 
empiric n. (one who relies on experience; quack) em'pizik. 
empiricism n. (empiric method) em'pizi-sizam. 
employ^ n. ei}-pz.u)e'jee, em-pLei'ee. same meaning as em- 
ployee, 
employee n. one who is employed or works for wages or 

salary [also spelt employe; synonymous cognates emplnyS, 

employee^ em-ptei'ii. 
employee n. (a female employee) eq-ptiue'jee, em-ptei'ee, 
employer n. (one who employs or uses; one who employs 

servants or working-people) em'pt.ei-9z. 
empress n. (consort of an emperor; woman who rules an 

empire) 'empsis; (dialectally) 'emp-p3is. 
empressement n. (eagerness ; cordiality) oq'p^es-merj. 
emprise n. undertaking; enterprise; martial prowess [also 

spelt emprize'\ em'psaiz. 
empty adj, (void; vacant; meaningless) 'empti. 
empty-headed adj. [also spelt empty-heded} empti'hedid, 

(assumptivly) 'empti-hedid. 
empyema n. (pyothorax) empi'ii-m9; (less properly) em- 

pai'ii-ma. 
empyreal adj. (of the empyrean ; celestial ; sublime) em- 

'pm-al, empi'^ii-3l, em-pai'^ii-al. 
empyrean n. (the highest heaven; the firmament; cosmic 

space) empi'ni-an, em'piri-an, em-pai'^ii-an. 
empyreuma n. the burnt-smell of heated animal or vege- 
table matter [plural empyreumata} empi'^uu-ma. 
emn n, three-toed ratite bird [also spelt emeu, emew} 'li-mju. 
emnlsion n. (milky liquid) I'mAlJan. 
emulsive adj. [also spelt emulsizf} I'mxlsiv. 
enallage n. (substitution of one grammatical form for an 

other) i'naeb-d3i, e'naela-dsi. 
enamel v. [present participle enameling, enamelling ; past 

c: laWf a: iur, x cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, go now, a: ask, ai ktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



180 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

participle and preterit enameled, enamelled, enameldl 
I'naemd}. 

enameler n. [also spelt enamellerl I'naemd-ld?. 

enamor v, inspire with love [also spelt enamour; past par- 
ticiple and preterit enamored, enamordi e'naemd?. 

enartlirosis n. (ball-and-socket joint) en-oz'Osoo-sis. 

enoage v, confine in a cage [synonymous cognate incagel en- 
'keeds. 

encase v. en'kees. same meaning as incase. 

enceinte n. (enclosure) eg'seent, eg'saegt. 

enceinte adj. (pregnant) og'seent, eg'saegt. 

encenia n. dedication- festival [also spelt encaenia; ploral 
encenidl en'sii-ni-a. 

encephalic adj. (of the encephalon) ensi'faehk, en'sefa-lik. 

encephalon n. contents of the skull; brain [ploral encephor 
/a] en'sefo-lan. 

enchant v, (bewitch) en'tjamt, en'tjarnt, en'tSaemt. 

enchiridion n. handbook; manual [ploral enchiridions, en- 
chiridia'] enki'ndi-an, en-kai'^idi-an. 

enclasp v. [former synonymous cognate inclaspl en'ki.aisp. 

enclave n. (shut-in territory) en'kteev, oq'ktaiv. 

enclave v, have a dove-tail border : said of an ordinary 
[synonymous cognate inclavel en'kteev, eq'kLarv. 

enclisis n. (pronunciation as an enclitic; inclination) 'enkz.!- 
sis. 

enclose v. surround, envelop; insert in an envelop [synon- 
ymous cognate inclose'] enlctooz. 

enclosure n. [synonymous cognate inclosurel en'kz^o-s^r. 

encomium n. eulogy; panegyric [ploral encomiums, encomia"] 
en'koo-mi-am. 

encompass v. surround [past participle and preterit encom- 
passed, encompast] en'kxmpas. 

encore n. (call for a repetition; repeated performance) 'eq- 
ko:z, oq'ko:?. 

encourage v, (inspire; incite; countenance) en'ka^ids, en- 
'kA^ids. 

encrinite n. (fossil crinoid) 'enk^i-nait. 

encumber v. hamper; burden; block up [former synony- 
mous cognate incumber] en'kAmba?. 

encumbrance n. [synonymous cognate incumbrance] en- 
'kAmbzrans. 

encyclical adj, (intended for extensiv circulation) en'sikz.i- 
kal, en'sai-kz^i-kal. 

j ye, Qcure; b the, //tin; 3 arure, d^/oy; 5 j/roe, tjc/iew; 
wwhen; r)sing; u whoever, i r^act, o fMll, ou fool, i it, iis^«; 
o poetic ; 9 ov^r, e aerial^ A hut, 0: door, oo no, e b^d, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 181 

ei&eyolopedia n. circle of learning; book [also spelt ency- 
clopaedia^ cn-sai-kL^'pii-di-9, {anteriorly) en-sai-kL9'pii-dJ9. 

encyelopedie adj. [also spelt encyclopaedic'^ en-sai-kLs'pii- 
dik, en-sai-kLd'pedik. 

eneyolopedist n. [also spelt encyclopaedist^ en-sai-kz^'pii- 
dist. 

enoyst v. (enclose in a cyst, capsule, or bag) en'sist, 

endeavor n. effort; try [also spelt endeavour, endevor; past 
participle and preterit endeavored, endevordi en'deva?. 

endeiotio adj. (serving to show; probativ) en'daik-tik. 

endive n. (succory, etc.) 'en-daiv, 'endiv. 

endogen n. (inside-growing plant, as a palm) 'ends-dsin. 

endogenous adj, (growing from within; internal) en'dedsi- 
n9s. 

endopodite n, (inner division of a crustacean's limb) en- 
'dep9-dait. 

endorse v. write on the back of [synonymous cognate in- 
dorse', past participle and preterit endorsed, endorsti en- 
'deizs. 

endorsement n. [synonymous cognate indorsementi en- 
'dei^s-mant. 

endorser n, [synonymous cognate indorserl en'deiz-ssz, 

endosmose n. (transmission of a fluid inward thru a sep- 
tum; endosmosis) 'endas-mos, 'en-dez-mos. 

endne v. bring in; assume; clothe; invest [synonymous cog- 
nate induel en'djuu. 

enema n. clyster; injection [ploral enemas, enematal I'nii- 
m9, 'eni-ma. 

enemata n. (ploral of enema) I'nemg-ts. 

enemy n. hostil person; opponent [plural enemies'! 'eni-mi. 

energise v. [also spelt energise"! 'endz-dsaiz. 

energnmen n. (demoniac; one possest) end^'gjuu-man. 

enervate v, (weaken) 'ena^-vet, I'neir-vet. 

enfeoff v, invest with a fief; hand over as a fief; sur- 
render; enfief [former synonymous cognate infeoff} en'fef. 

enfief v. en'fiif. same meaning as enfeoff, 

enfilade n. (suite; raking fire) enfi'leed, 'enfi-leed. 

enfold V. en'foold. same meaning as infold, 

enforceable adj. capable of being enforced [also spelt enfor^ 
ciblel en'fo:^-s3-b3l. 

enf rancliise v. (free, release ; confer citizen's rights or vot- 
ing-power upon) en'f3a:n-tSaiz, cn'fsam-tjiz, en'fsxn-tSaiz, 
cn'fsaentSiz. 

c: law, b: f wr, x cat, o hot, oi boy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
8tre«8-mark (') indicates chief stress on the fellowing syllable. 



182 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

enfranohisement n. en'f3a:n-tSis-m9nt, en'fsa:n-tSiz-m9nt, 
en^f^xntSiz-mant. 

engine n. contrivance, machine [also spelt enginj 'endsin; 
(dialectally or vulgarly) 'in-dsain, 'indsin. 

engineer n. endsi'ni:?. 

enginery n. engins collectivly, etc. [also, sometimes, spelt en- 
ginry'i 'endsin-ri, 'endsina-ei. 

English adj.,n.,v. 'iqghsh; (in Ireland) 'egghj; (improper- 
ly, among German- Americans, etc.) 'iqlij. 

engraft v. en'g?a:ft. same meaning as ingraft, 

engrain v. en'grecn. same meaning as ingrain. 

engrave v. (carve on a surface; incise) en'gseev. 

engross v. write in large letters; absorb; monopolize [past 
participle and preterit engrossed, engrostl en'g^DOs. 

engnlf v, plunge into a gulf or abyss [synonymous cognate 
ingulf ; pust porticiple and preterit engulfed, engulf t"] cn- 

'gAlf. 

enhance r. (raise ; intensify ; increase) en'ha:ns. 

enigma n. riddle [also, formerly, spelt aenigma'\ I'nigma. 

enigmatic adj. (of an enigma) enig'ma^tik, inig'maetik. 

enisle v. [synonymous cognate inisle} e'nail. 

enlighten t. (throw light on ; instruct) en'lai-tn. 

en masse adv, in mass ; bodily ; all together [also spelt en 

massl oi]'mu:s, eq'mais, oi]'ma;:s. 
enneagon n. (nine-angled polygon) 'eni-a-gon. 
ennoble v. (give the rank of nobility to ; make noble) en'noo- 

bal, e'noo-bal. 
ennni n. (mental weariness ; boredness ; tedium) eq'nwii, 'eq- 

nwi. 
ennnye adj. (affected with ennui; bored) eqnwi'jee. 
enongh adj. (sufficient) I'uAf. 
enquire v. cn'kivciiz. same meaning as inquire, 
enquiry n. en'kiuai-z:i. same meaning as inquiry, 
en rapport adi'. (in relation or connection) eT)-zx'po:z. 
enrol v. write on a roll or list ; register ; enter among the 

rolls; form into a roll [also sprit enroll; past participle and 

preterit enroled, enrolled, cnroldl enVool. 
enrolment n. [also spelt enrollmcnti en'rnol-mDnt. 
en route adv. (on the way; upon the road) eq'^out. 
ensconce ?•. (establish in a place, as for concealment or com- 
fort) en'skents, (in Britain) en'skons. 
ensemble n. (all the parts taken together ; general effect) 

eq'sombol, oij'sombL. 

j ye, Qcurc; b the, 9 ^/lin; 3 arure, ds/oy; I shoe, tSr/iew; 
wwhcn; Y}s\ng; u whoever, i rract. o f idl, ou fool, i it, iis<?c; 
o poetic ; o over, e oerial, a b«t, o: door, oo no, e b<?d, ce gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 183 



n, (sign; emblem; badge; banner; flag; standard- 
bearer) 'en-sain. 

eiuAgMi V. (distinguish by a sign such as a cross, coronet, or 
miter) en'sain, 'en-sain. 

emsignoy n. (rank of an ensign) 'en-sain-si. 

emsilas® ♦*. (preserving of fodder in a silo or pit) 'ensi-hds. 

ensile v. (put into a silo) en'sail, 'en-saiL 

V, en'sNcie. same meaning as insnare. 
V* (be subsequent; follow; result) en'sgou. 

en snite adv» (in a set; forming a series) er)'su)iit. • 

ensure v. en'So:?. same meaning as insure. 

entasis n. (swelling of the shaft of a column) 'ents-sis. 

enteleohy n. (realization; soul) en'teh-ki. 

enter v, go or come in, etc. [past participle and preterit 
entered, enterdl 'enta^. 

enterie adj. (intestinal) en'te^ik. 

enteritis n. (inflammation of the intestins) enti'2ai-tis. 

enteron n. intestin [ploral enlera'] 'enti-^en. 

enterprise n. undertaking [also spelt enterprizel 'enta^-p^aiz. 

enterprising adj. [also spelt enterprising} 'entar-psai-ziq. 

entlirall v. make a thrall of ; hold in thrall ; enslave [also 
spelt enthral ; synonymous cognates inthrall, inthral ; past 
participle and preterit enthralled, enthrald} cn'Qzc:l. 

entlirallment n. [also spelt enthralment ; synonymous cog- 
nate inthralment} en'Gscil-mant. 

enthusiasm n. (possession by a god; rapture) en'6guu-zi- 
sezam. 

enthymeme n. (argument based on probability; syllogism in 
which one premis is supprest) 'enGi-mim. 

entirety n. completeness; whole [synonymous cognate en- 
tierty^ en'tai^-ti, (often) en'taia^-ti. 

entitative adj. of mere existence; real [also spelt entitativ"} 
'enti-tetiv, 'entito-tiv. 

entomology n. (science of insects) entd'mela-dsi. 

entourage n. (surroundings ; environment ; attendants of a 
superior) eqtu'?a:3. 

entosoon n. internal parasite ; entozoan [also spelt entozo- 
on; plural cntocoal enta'zoo-Dn. 

entr'acte n. (interval between two acts of a play) eg'tjaekt. 

entrail n. (internal organ; bowel; intestin; gut) 'en-tgel. 

entrance n. (a coming or going in; door, etc.) 'ent^ans. 

entrance v. (throw into a trance-like state) en'tjains, en- 
'tja:ns, en't^^aeins. 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, e hot, ei boy; a: for, ao now, a: ask, ax kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
■Stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the fallowing syllable. 



184 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

entrant »• (one who or that which enters; beginner) 'en- 

. tfiant. 

entree n. action of entering; admission; made dish servd be- 
tween courses [also spelt entrS'\ eq'tjee, 'en-tje. 

entremets n,pL (side-dishes, etc.) egtsd'mee. 

entrench v. en'tsentS, en'tsenS. same meaning as intrenchm 

entre nons adv, (between ourselves) egts^'nou. 

entrepdt n. (deposit of goods; storehouse; distributing-cen- 
ter) 'ei)t£3-po. 

entresol n. mezzanine story [synonymous cognate entersoh, 
intersolcl 'enta2-sel, 'eytja-sel. 

entrust v. en'tSASt. same meaning as intrust. 

entmrine v, [synonymous cognate intwinel en'tioazn. 

enunciate v, (express definitly ; proclaim ; pronounce) x'nAn- 
Si-et, I'nAnsi-et. 

enunciation n. i-nAnSi'ee-$3n, i-nAUsi'ee-Sdn. 

enurny adj. charged with beasts: said of a bordure [also 
spelt enurneyl en'sztii. 

envelop n. wrapper; covering [also spelt envelope} 'env9- 
lop, 'env3-lop, en'velap, 'eqva-lop; (rapidly) 'envUp, etc 

envelop v. wrap; cover [also spelt envelope; past participle 
and preterit enveloped, envelopt"} en'velap. 

envious adj. (full of envy) 'envi-as, 'envjas. 

environment n. (that which environs; surrounding condi- 
tions collectivly) en'vai-^an-mant. 

environs n.pl, (outskirts; surrounding districts) enVoi-eanz, 
'env9-29nz. 

envoy n. (messenger) 'en-voi; (less properly) 'on-voi. 

envoy n. (postscript, ending) 'en-vei, en'voi. 

enivall v. en'wc:!. same meaning as inwall. 

enivrap v. en'zraep. same meaning as inwrap. 

enzym n. ferment; levend bread [also spelt ensymel 'enzim. 

Eocene n, (division of the Tertiary) 'li-a-sin. 

Eolian adj. of Aeolis or Aeolia; eolic; also, of Aeolus, the 
wind-god [also spelt Aeolian} i'oo-li-an, i'oo-lian. 

Eolidae n. pi, i'eh-di. same meaning as Eolididae. 

Eolididae n. pi. family of mollusks [also spelt Aeolididaei 
synonymous cognates Eolidae, Aeolidae} i-9lidi-di. 

eolipile n. rotary steam toy [also spelt aeolipile, aeolipyU, 
eolipyle"] 'li-ah-pail, i'oh-pail. 

eon n. age, era, cycle; eternity [also spelt aeoni 'li-on, 'li-aiL 

eonian adj. everlasting [also spelt aeonian} i'oo-ni-dn. 

eonic adj. cyclic; eternal [also spelt aeonicl i'enik. 

j ye, Qcure: bthe, 9 //lin ; 3 axrure, ds/oy; S ^^oe, t^chew; 
u) when : q sin^; u whoever, i react, o f«ll, ou fool, i it, li see; 
o poetic ; 9 over, e aerial, a bMt, o: door, oo no, e bed, ce gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 185 

eosln n. red dye [also spelt eosine} 'ii-9-sin. 
Eosoie adj. (of early animal life) i-a'zoo-ik. 
epaot n. (intercalated day or days) 'li-paekt, 'e-paekt. 
epaulet n. shoulder-piece [also spelt epaulette'l 'epd-ldt, 'eps- 

let. 
epanlment n. earthwork [also spelt epaulementi e'pc:}-mant. 
epenceplialic adj. e-pensi'fsehk, epen'sefd-hk, ep-en'sefd-hk, 
epencephalon n. hind-brain; metencephalon [plural epen- 

cephalal epen'sefa-lan. 
epentbesis n. insertion of a letter or syllable; transference 

of a semi-vowel to the preceding syllable [plural epenthesesj 

I'penOi-sis, I'pentGi-sis. 
cperg^ne n. (center-dish for a table) i'pB:7n. 
epl&ah n. Hebrew dry measure [also, formerly, spelt ephal 

'li-fa. 
epl&ebe n. (young man ; ephebos) I'f lib, 'e-fib. 
epl&emera n. day-fly ; ephemerid ; something transitory [plur- 
al ephemerae, ephemerasl I'fema-ra. 
epl&emeral adj, I'fema-^al, {rapidly) I'fem^al. 
epl&emerio adj. (ephemeral) I'fema-nk, efi'me^ik. 
epl&emerifl n. astronomic almanac [ploral ephemeridesl 

I'fema-ris. 
epl&od n. (priestly vestment) 'e-fed, (rarely) 'e-fod. 
ephor n. (magistrate) 'zi^z, 

epibole n. figure of speech [also spelt epiholyl I'piba-h. 
epiboly n. gastrulation [also spelt epibole} I'piba-h. 
epiclesis n. invocation : a part of the prayer of consecratpn 

[also spelt epiklesis} epi'kLii-sis. 
epicure n. (one who is choice and dainty in regard to food) 

'cpi-kgo:?. 
epicurean adj., n. epi-kgo'^ii-dn. 
Epicurean n. (disciple of Epicurus) epi-kgo'^ii-an ; (less 

properly) epi'k<jo:-?i-3n. 
epicyemate adj. (having the embryo on a large yolk: said 

of certain fishes and batrachians) epi-sai'ii-met. 
epideictic adj. epi'daik-tik. same meaning as epidictic, 
epidemic adj, (temporarily prevalent among a people) epi- 

'demik. 
epidermis n. (outer skin; cuticle; scarf-skin) epi'derr-mis. 
epidictic adj, demenstrativ [synonymous cognate epideictic, 

epideikticl epi'diktik. 
episeal adj. epigeous ; living near the ground [also spelt epi- 

gaeall epi'dsii-al. 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, go now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
8tre8S-mark (') indicates chief stress on the fellowing syllable. 



186 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

epigeons adj, just above ground ; epigean [also spelt epigae- 
ousi epi'd3ii-3S. 

epiglottis n. leaf-like cartilage forming the lid of the glot- 
tis [ploral epiglottidesi epi'gletis, 

epig^ram n. (short poem; pithy saying) 'epi-gsaem. 

epig^rapliy n. (inscriptions collectivly; study of epigraphs) 
i'pigr9-fi. 

epigynouB adj, (on the top of the ovary) I'pidsi-nds. 

epilepsy n. (falling-sickness) 'epi-lepsi. 

epilogize v. (use epilogs) 'epils-dsaiz, I'pilo-dsaiz. 

epilogue n. concluding part of a literary work; appendix 
[also spelt epilogl 'epi-leg. 

epilog^ize v, {obsolete) deliver an epilog; put an epilog to 
[also spelt epiloguise'] 'epi-leg-aiz. 

Epiphany n. (festival commemorating the manifestation of 
Christ to the Gentiles in the persons of the Magi) I'pifa-ni. 

epiphany n. (manifestation or appearance of a divine or 
supernatural being) I'pifa-ni. 

epiphysis n. a portion of bone which has grown from a dis- 
tinct center : dislinyuisht from apophysis [ploral epiphyses'} 
I'pifi-sis. 

epiploce n. (interweaving of clauses; climax) i'pipL9-si. 

episode n. (incidental narrativ or part) 'epi-sod; {less prop' 
erly) 'epi-zod. 

episodic adj, (of episode; incidental) epi'sedik. 

epistle n. (letter) I'pisol, I'pisl; {erroneously) I'pistl. 

epistler n. letter-writer; one who reads the epistle in the 
communion service [synonymous cognates epistoler, epis- 
tollcrl I'pisz.^^, i'pistL3cr. 

epistolize v. [also spelt epistolisel I'pistd-laiz. 

epistolizer n. letter-writer [also spelt epistoliserl I'pists-lai- 
zor. 

epistoma n. a part on or in front of the mouth; epistome: 
epistom [ploral epistomata'] I'pista-ma. 

epistrophe n. (a figure of speech in which each clause ends 
with the same word; cyclic composition) i'pist£3-fi. 

epistrophy n. (reversion to a normal form) i'pistE3-fi. 

epitaph n. (inscription on a tombstone) 'epi-ta:f, 'epi-ta:f 
'epi-tae:f. 

epithalaminm n. nuptial song [ploral epithalamiums, epi- 
thalamia'] epiGa'lee-mi-am. 

epithelinm n. (superficial layer of cells of mucous mem- 
branes, etc.) epi'6ii-H-3m, {anteriorly) epi'Gii-Hom. 

j ye, gcure; bthe, */tin; 3 axrure, ds/oy; S shoe, tScAew; 
w when; q sin^;; u whoever, i react, o fwll, ou fool, i ft, li see; 
o poetic; o over, e aerial. Abut, o: door, 00 no, e bed, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 187 

epitome n. (abridgment; summary) I'pita-mi; {erroneously) 

'epi-tom. 
epitomise v, [also spelt epitomise'^ I'pitd-maiz. 
epizootic n. a disease temporarily prevalent among animals; 

plague among animals [also spelt epizootic'^ epi-zo'etik; 

{erroneously) epi'zou-tik. 
epizooty n. epizootic [also spelt epizootyl epi'zoo-9-ti. 
epocb n. (point of time; period) 'e-pek, 'epak, 'li-pek. 
epode n, (a kind of lyric poem; part of a lyric ode) 'e-pod, 
eponym n. (one who gives his name to a people, place, or 

institution; eponymus) 'epa-nim. 
eponymio adj. (of an eponym) epd'nimik. 
eponymous adj. .(that gives his name) I'peni-mds. 
epopee n. (epic poem; epic poetry) 'epo-pi, epo'pii. 
epos n. (an epic poem; an epopee) 'e-pes. 
epsilon n. (Greek letter) 'epsi-lan, ep'sai-len. 
epnral adj. on the tail [synonymous cognate epiural} I'pgo:- 

Epyomis n. gigantic fossil bird [also spelt Aepyornis, Epior- 

ntj] ipi'0:2-nis 
eqi&able adj, (uniform; tranquil; equally proportiond) 'ekiua- 

bal, 'li-kiua-bal. 
equal v. [present participle equaling, equalling; past parti- 
ciple and preterit equaled, equalled, equaldl 'li-kiual. 
equality n. (condition of being equal, etc.) i'kireh-ti. 
equalization n. [also spelt equalisation} ikwdh'zee-^dn. 
equalize v. [also spelt equalise"} 'li-kioa-laiz, (often) 'iku)3- 

laiz. 
equally adv, 'ii-ku)3-h, (often) 'ikuj9-h. 
equanimity n. (evenness of mind or temper; unruffledness) 

iku)3'nimi-ti. 
equate v, (make equal) I'kiueet. 
equate adj. (smooth) 'li-kiret. 
equation n. (action of making equal; statement or formula 

of equality) I'kujee-Jan, i'ku)ee-39n. 
equatorial adj. (of the equator) ikvo^'toi-zi-^l. 
equery n. [also spelt equerry; ploral equeriesl 'cku)9-?i, 

iTciueji. 
eques n. Roman knight [ploral equitesi 'li-kiuiz. 
equestrian n. (of horse-riding; mounted) I'kiuestji-an. 
equestrienne n. (horsewoman; female equestrian) i-kwcstci- 

'cn. 
equiangular adj. (having all its angles equal ; having its 

c: law, b: iur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 

length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 

tress-mcrk () indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



188 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

angles equal respectivly to the angles of another figure) 
ikiui'aeqgjo-lar. 

eqnifonn adj. (identical in form; shaped alike) 'li-kwi- 
fe:rm. 

equilibrant n. (system of forces which would equilibrate an- 
other system) I'kujih-brant, ikiuilai-be^nt. 

equilibrate v. (balance) ikivi'lai-bzet. 

equilibration n. ikwih^zze-l^n, ikiDi-lai^bree-Sdn. 

equilibrist n. (rope-walker; acrobat) I'kwih-brist, ikwi'lai- 
brist, (rarely) ikiDilib^ist. 

equilibrium n. (balance) ikwi'hb^i-dm. 

equilibrize v. [also spelt equilibrisel I'kivih-bzaiz. 

equine adj. (of a horse; horse-like) 'ii-ku)ain. 

equinoctial adj. (of the equinox) ikwi'nek^d}, ekwi'nekSal. 

equinox n. (the point or the time at which the sun's path 
crosses the equator) 'li-kiui-neks, 'iku)i-neks, 'ekwi-neks. 

equipage n. (equipment ; appurtenances ; horse and car- 
riage) 'ekiDi-pids; (erroneously) I'kujipids. 

equipoise n. (perfect balance; counterpoise) 'ekwi-peiz, 
'ii-ku)i-peiz, 'iku)i-peiz. 

equipollent adj. (equal in power; identical in effect) ektoi- 
'pelant, ikiui'pelant. 

equitable adj. (fair; just) 'ekujitd-bol ; (improperly) ilcwita- 
bal. 

equites n. (plural of eques) 'ckwi-tiz. 

equivalent adj. (equal in value; tantamount) I'kiuiva-lant. 

equivoke n. pun; word-play; ambiguity [also spelt equi- 
voquel 'ektui-vok, 'ii-ku;i-vok. 

era n. period, age ; date [also spelt aera ; ploral eras] 'v.-z9 ; 
(dialectally) 'li-z^. 

erasable adj. that can be erased [also spelt erasiblel I'zte- 
sd-bdl. 

erased adj. [also, sometimes, spelt erasedl I'^eest, I'^cezd. 

erasion n. (erasure) i'^ee-33n. 

ZSrasmian adj. (of Erasmus) I'^aezmi-dn, iVxsMi-dn. 

erasure n. (action of erasing) i'ree-33?, I'zce-zjdz, I'ree-Sa?. 

ere adv., prep., conj. (before) z:z, 

ereoter n. one who or that which erects [also spelt erector'^ 
I'zzkt^z. 

erectile adj. capable of being erected or set upright [also 
spelt erectill I'rektil, (rarely) I'rek-tail. 

erector n. a muscle which erects; erecting-glass [ploral erect- 
ors, erectoresl I'rekta?. 

j ve, Qcure; bthe, 9 //tin ; 3 a-srure, d^/oy; ^ shoe, tjc/iew; 
u) when; t) sing; u whoever, i r^act, o fMll. ou fool, i it, li aee; 
o poetic; o ov^r, e aerial, A.hut, o: door, oo no, e bed, ee gate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 189 



adv, (before long; soon) e:3'le:i], (when less strest) 
ezleit). 

eremacaiisis n. (slow combustion) ezims'kosis. 

eremite n. (recluse; hermit) 'ezi-mait. 

erethlgm n. excitement; over-activity [also spelt erythism'} 
'cei-6iz3m. 

ergo conj. (therefore) 'err-go, 'siz-go. 

ergot n. (stub; morbid growth) 's:z-get, 'B:z-g9t. 

n. the stroat or its fur [also spelt ermin} 'eir-min. 
n. eagle [also spelt earn'} Bizn, 
V. go astray [past participle and preterit erred, erd} b:z. 
n. (mission) 'ezsnd. 
n. error [ploral errata] e'zee-tara, e'eai-tam. 

errliine n. (nose-medicin) 'crin, 'e-rain. 

erroneons adj. (containing error; incorrect) e'^DO-ni-as. 

error n, (action of erring; mistake; wrong-doing) 'era?. 

emca n. (larva; caterpiller) I'zou-ks. 

erudite n. (learned; scholarly) 'ero-dait. 

ervdition n. (learning; scholarship) e?oMi$9n. 

ervginons aJ/. I'^ou-dsi-nss. same meaning as aeruginous. 

emption n. (a bursting forth; outbreak; breaking out) 
I'rApJan. 

erysipelas n. (febril disease; the rose) eei'sipi-las, (rapidly) 
e?i'sipz.3s; (less properly) lei'sipa-las. 

esealade n. (a scaling of walls) eska'leed. 

escallop n. [also spelt escalop; former synonymous cognate 
escollopi e'skaddp, e'skelap. same meaning as scallop. 

esoalloped adj. having the edge cut in scallops or segments 
of circles; also, of oysters, scallopt [also spelt escaloped, 
escalopti e'skaelapt, e'skelapt. 

eseapade n. (act of escaping; caper) eska'peed. 

escape v, (gain one's liberty by flight ; issue ; find egress) 
e'skeep, (rapidly) I'skeep. 

eschatolog^ n. (doctrin of final things : namely, death, judg- 
ment, heaven, hell) eska'tela-dsi. 

esclieat n. (lapsing of land to ruler or state) es'tjiit, (rapid- 
ly) is'tSiit. 

escliew V. avoid; shun [past participle and preterit es- 
chewed, eschewdl es'tjou, (rapidly) is'tjou. 

escort n. (armd accompaniment; gard) 'e-ske?t. 

escort V, (accompany, etc.) e'skeirt, (rapidly) j'skeizt. 

eseritoire n. writing-desk [also spelt escritoirl eslcsi'twe:?, 
esk^i'tiL'c:?, esk^i'tiuair ; 'esksi-tiue?. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 

Irngth-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 

tress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the lellowing syllable. 



190 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

escntclieoii n. (shield with armorial bearings) e'skAtSsn, 

(rapidly) I'skAtJan. 
eserine n. alkaloid [also, sometimes, spelt eserin] Vsa-pin, 

'esa-eain. 
esker n. post-glacial gravel-ridge [also spelt eskar, escar'] 

'eskar. 
Eskimo n. one of an arctic race [also spelt Esquimau; ploz- 

al Eskimos, Eskimo, Esquimaux! 'eski-mo. 
esnecy n. inheritance-right of first-bom daughter [also spelt 

aesnecy"} 'esNi-si. 
esopkageal adj. of the esophagus [also spelt oesophageafl 

iso'faedsi-al. 
esopkagras n. gullet [also spelt oesophagus'! I'sefd-gas. 
esoteric adj. (inner; for the select few; secret; profound) 

esa'te^ik. 
espalier n. (trelliswork; lattice) e'spseli^?. 
especial adj, (special; preeminent) c'speSsl, {rapidly) I'spe- 

Sal. 
espial n. (action of espying; fact of being espied) e'spai-at, 

{rapidly) I'spai-al. 
espionage n. spying; employing spies [also spelt espionnage\ 

'espi-a-nids, espi-a'nais, 'cspi-a-nais. 
esplanade n. (level space) espiL^'need. 
esprit n. (spirit, wit, aptitude) e'sp^ii. 

esquamate adj, (not squamate; without scales) i'sktuee-met. 
Esquimau n. [plural Esquimaux'] 'eski-mo. same meaning as 

Eskimo. 
Esquimaux n. (ploral of Esquimau) 'rski-mo. 
esquire n. (gentleman of rank) e'skiuair, {rapidly) I'sktuair, 

{anteriorly, especially as a title) skiuai?; {also, vulgarly) 

'e-skwQiz. 
ess n. letter [also spelt es, S; ploral esses^ rs. 
essay n. trial ; test ; attempt ; dissertation [ploral essaysl 

'e-se. 
essay v. (try; test; undertake) 'e-se, e'see. 
essayist n. (one who essays: essay- writer) 'e-se-ist. 
essence n, (entity; substance; extract) 'rsnns. 
Essene w. (one of a Jewish sect in Palestine in the second 

century before Christ) e'siin. 
essential adj. (that is such by essence; necessary; of the na- 
ture of an extract) e'senjal, p/scntSal. 
essoin n. excuse for non-appearance [also spelt essoignl 

p'sein. 

3 ve, g cure ; 5 the. 9 thin:^ 3 arure, d.^ ;oy ; S shoe, tj che-w; 
vozvhen; rjsing; u whoever, i r^act, o fwll, ou fool, i it, nsee% 
o poetic; a ov^r, e aerial, Abut, o: door, oo no, ebed, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 191 

estafet n. mounted courier [also spelt estafettel esta'fet. 
estate n. (state; condition; status; rank; interest; class; 

property) e'steet, (rapidly) I'steet; (vulgarly) 'e-stet. 
estliete n. one who appreciates beauty ; person of artistic 

sense [also spelt aesthetel 'es-6iit, 'iis-6iit. 
estlietio adj. of appreciation of beauty; tasteful [also spelt 

aesthetici es'Setik, (rapidly) I'sSetik; (also, in Britain) 

li'sOetik, (and, less, often) es'0ii-tik, ii's0ii-tik. 
evtival adj. of summer [also spelt aestivall "esti-vs}, e'stai- 

val, i'stai-val. 
estivate v, pass the summer [also spelt aestivatel 'esti-vet, 

'li-sti-vet. 
estivatioii n. [also spelt aestivation'\ esti'vee-Jsn, li-sti'vee- 

Sdn. 
estnary n. (tidal inlet, creek, or river-mouth) 'estju-eri, 

'est9u-3-ei. 
eta n. (Greek letter) 'li-ta, 'ee-ta. 
etaoism n. (the Erasmiah pronunciation of Greek eta as ee 

instead of li) 'ee-ta-sizam. 
6tagdre n. (piece of furniture with shelves) eta'se:?. 
et cetera phrase, n. and the rest ; and so forth ; and so on 

[also spelt et caetera, etcetera ; plural, when used as a noun, 

etceteras'^ ct'seta-ra, (rapidly) it'setja. 
etch V, engrave by corroding [past participle and preterit 

etched, etcht} etj. 
eternize v. make eternal ; perpetuate ; immortalize [also spelt 

eternise} I'to^-naiz, 'li-ta^-naiz. 
ethene n. (hydrocarbon) 'e-0in, 'li-Oin. 
ether n. sky ; air ; spatial medium ; volatil liquid [also spelt 

aether"} 'li-Q^z. 
ethereal adj. of ether; airy; celestial [also spelt etherial and, 

formerly, aethereal} i'Qi:-zi-^l, 
etherealize v. [also spelt etherialise and, formerly, aetherea- 

lize, aetherealise, aetherialise, aetherialise} i'0i:-ri-9-laiz. 
etherean adj. ethereal [also spelt etherian, aether ean, aethe^ 

rianl i'0i:-ri-3n. 
etherene n. ethylene [also spelt etherinel 'ii-03-2in, 
ethereous adj. [also spelt etheriousi i'0i:-d-3s. 
etherization n. [also spelt etherisation, aetherisationi li- 

03ri'zee-S3n, ii-03-rai'zee-S9n. 
ethide n. [also, sometimes, spelt ethid} 'e0id, 'e-0aid, 'ii-0aid. 
ethine n. [also, sometimes, spelt ethini 'e0in, 'e-0ain, 'ii-0in, 

'ii-0ain, 'e-0in, 'li-^in. 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai kite; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the lellowing syllable. 



192 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

Ethiopic adj. (of Ethiopia; Ethiopian) ii-6i'epik. 

etlinog^apl&y n. (description of the races of mankind) eO- 
'negea-fi. 

ethyl n. radical [also, formerly, spelt ethyle] 'eOih 

etiolate v. (render pale; blanch) 'ii-ti-3-let. 

etiology n. study of causes [also spelt aetiology] li-ti'etd-dsi, 
eti'ela-dsi. 

etiquette n. (polite behavior, etc.) 'eti-ket, eti'ket. 

Etnean adj. of Mount Etna [also spelt Aetnean\ et'nii-an. 

6tnde n. (study, lesson) e'tgoud. 

6tni n. small case [also spelt etwee] e'tuui. 

etsmiolog^ n. (word-study; word-history) eti'mela-dsi. 

eucalyptus n. (tree; shrub) jukaliptas. 

enoliarist n. (communion; thanksgiving) 'jou-ks-zist. 

enchre n. card-game [also, formerly, spelt eucre] 'jou-kdr. 

Enolldean. adj, of the Greek mathematician Euclid [also, 
sometimes, spelt Euclidian] jo'ki.idi-an, jukz.i'dii-3n. 

Enolidean adj. of Euclid or Eukleides, Archon Eponymos of 
Athens [synonymous cognate Eukleidean] jo'kz.idi-9n. 

eudemonism n. doctrin of happiness [also spelt eudaemth- 
nism] jo'dii-mo-nizam. 

enhemerism n. doctrin that the Greek gods were deified 
heroes [synonymous cognate euemerism] jo'hii-md-zizam. 

eulog^a n. (eucharist, etc.) jo'loo-dsi-a. 

enlog^um «. eulogy [ploral eulogiutns] joloo-dsi-am. 

enlog^ze v. extol, praise [also spelt eulogise] 'jou-ls-dsaiz. 

eulog^y n. (commendatory speech; praise) 'jou-la-dsi. 

eunuoli n. (castrated person of the male sex; harem-atten- 
dant; singer) 'jou-nak. 

enphemism n. (fair speech; pleasant expression) 'jou-fi- 
mizam. 

euphonic adj. (sounding well; of euphony) jo'fenik. 

enphony n. (pleasantness of sound ; ease of pronunciation) 
'jou-fa-ni. 

enphrasy n. (eyebright, a plant) 'jou-f^o-si. 

euphroe n. crowfoot dead eye [also spelt uphroe] 'jou-fso. 

euphuism n. (highflown language) 'juu-fiu-izsm. 

euphuistic adj, (like euphuism; highflown") jufiu'istik. 

eupione n. oily liquid [also, sometimes, spelt eupion] jo'pai- 
9n, 'jou-pi-3n, jo'pii-an, jo'pai-on, 'jou-pi-on. 

Eurasian adj. (of Eurasia, or Europe and Asia taken to- 
gether) jo'ree-San, jo'ree-s^n. 

eureka inter j. (I have found it!) jo'rii-ka. 

j ve, Qcure: bthe, G fAin; 3 arure, dj/oy; ^ shoe, tj r/iew; 
wwhen; rjs'mg; u whoever, i r^act, o fwll, ou fool, i it, lis^^; 
o poetic ; a ov^r, e aerial, a bMt, o: door, oo no, e b^, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 193 

euripiM n. strait or sea-channel in which the currents are 

violent [ploral euripil jo'zai-p9s. 
Enroolydon n. (levanter; northeaster) ju'^ekz^i-ddn. 
European adj, (of Europe) joza'pii-an; {improperly) jo'zoo- 

pi-3n. 
Enstaol&ian adj. (of the Italian anatomist Eustachio) jo- 

'stce-ki-an; {erroneously) jo'staetSi-9n. 
eutazy n. obsolete (good order) 'juu-txksi. 
eutliaiuuiia n. (gentle and easy death, etc.) juOd'nee-Ss, 

ju03'nee-33, juOa'nee-si-a, juOa'nee-zi-a, ju09'nee-Si-3, ju03- 

'nce-3i-3; {rarely) ju63'na:-si-9, juOa'naesi-s. 

ly n. (euthanasia) jo'Oaena-si, 'jou-03-nezi. 
Vm (fade away; disappear) eva'nes. 
evaiisel n. gospel [also spelt evangile'\ I'vsndsil. 
•▼aiiselio adj. (of the gospel) iv^en'dsehk, evan'dsehk. 
eTaiiselisatioii n. [also spelt evangelisation'^ i-vxndsih'zee- 

San, i-vandsi-lai'zee-Jan. 
evanselise v, [also spelt evangelise'^ I'vsendsi-laiz. 
evaporate v. (turn into vapor) I'vaepa-ret. 
evasion n. (escape; subterfuge) i\ee-33n. 
evaslTe adj. [also spelt evasiv"] I'vee-siv, I'vee-ziv. 
n. (evening; time just preceding an event) liv. 
adj, (flat, plain, smooth, uniform) 'li-van. 
evenins »*• (close of the day) 'liv-niq ; {improperly) 'ii-v3- 

niq. 
evenins »., adj. (making even) 'li-va-niq, 'liv-niq. 
evenness n. (quality of being even ; smoothness) 'ii-v9n-nis. 
eventnal adj. (like an event ; that will arise or take place in 

a particular contingency) iVentSu-al, I'ventQU-al. 
everlastins adj. (lasting forever; eternal; incessant) evsz- 

1a:-stii3, {assumptivly) 'evar-lar-stiq. 
evermore adv. (for all future time) eva^'mo:?, {sometimes, 

anteriorly) ^ey^z-mo:z. 
eversion n. (a turning outward, or inside out) I'varjan. 
every adj. (each, etc.) 'ev^i, {less often) 'eva-ri. 
everybody n. 'evri-bedi, {when less strest) 'evri-badi; {also, 

rarely) 'eva^i-bedi. 
every-day adj. ev^i'dee, {assumptivly) 'evsri-dce, {rarely) 

'cvan-dee, {when less strest) 'cvn-de. 
everyivl&ere adv. (in every place) 'evri-ujc:^, {rarely) 'cvan- 

we:z. 
evident adj. (obvious; clear; plain) 'evi-dnt, 'evi-dant* 
evil n. (bad, wicked, etc.) 'li-val, {less properly) 'li-vil. 

c: law, b: f Mr, x cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai k»te ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is leng; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



194 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

evilly adv. (in an evil manner) 'li-val-li. 
evil-minded adj. li-vsl'main-did, 'li-vat-main-did. 
evilness n. 'li-vsl-nis, 'ii-vi}-nis. 

evincible adj. that may be evinced ; demonstrable [also, for- 
merly, spelt evinceablel i'vins3-b»l. 
eviscerate v. (remove the viscera from; disembowel) I'vi- 

s3-ret. 
evolntion n. (unrolling; unfolding; development) evaliou- 

San; (dialectally) evalou-San. 
evolve V. unfold ; open out ; extract ; develop [also spelt 

evolv; past participle and preterit evolved, evolvd} I'velv. 
ewe n. (female sheep) jou. 
eiver n. (water-pitcher) 'jou-33. 
exacerbate v, (embitter; aggravate; provoke) cg'zaeaap-bet, 

ek'saes3?-bet. 
exact v„ adj. eg'zaekt ; (less properly) ek'saekt. 
exacter n. one who enforces or exacts pay ; extortioner [also 

spelt exactorl eg'zsekt^r. 
exactor n. (one who exacts, tax-collector, extortioner; exac* 

tor) Rfj'zjektar. 
exaggerate v. (magnify; stretch, ovcrcolor) eg'zaedsa-ret. 
exalt V. (raise high; elevate; extel) co'zcilt. 
exaltation n. egzcrtpe-$nn. 

examen n. (examination ; investigation) eg'zee-msn. 
examination n, cg-zxmi'nre-$;)n. 
examine v. test, investigate, question [also spelt examini 

past participle and preterit examined . e.ramindl eg'zaemxn. 
ekample n. (typical instance ; specimen ; warning) eg'za:m- 

pal, eg'zorm-pal, eg'zjempal. 
exantbema n. skin-affection; exanthem [plural exanthesna- 

tal ekson'Oii-mD. 
exarcb n. (ruler of a distant province; prelate, legate) 'eks- 

a:rk, 'ek-sa:rk. 
exarcbate n. (office or province of an exarch) 'eksoz-ket, 

Fg'zo:r-ket, ek'sorr-kct. 
exarillate adj, (having no aril) eks'jeri-let ; (less properly) 

eksoVilct. 
exasperate v, (embitter; intensify; enrage) eg'za:-sp3-?et, 

eg'ziespa-ret. 
exasperation n. eg-zni-spaVee-^pn. eg-z.TspnVre-^Dn. 
excamificate z'. (obsolete) eks'knrr-nifT-ket, pksknr'nifi-ket. 
exceed ?'. proceed beyond ; be greater than, surpass, outdo 

[also sprit excedel ek'siid. 

j ve. ccnre: bthc. f/nn: .■^ arrnre. d^ ;oy: ^ shoe, tScfcew; 
wwhen: r\sinp: uvfhocver, i rract. n fwll. ou fo^l. n't, lis^^; 
o poetic; ov(?r, e aerial, Ab«t, :y: door, oono, e bed, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 195 

excel V. surpass others; outdo [present participle excelling; 

past participle and preterit excelled, exceld} ek'sel. 
excellent adj, (that excels; extremely good) 'eksa-lant. 
excelsior adj, (higher, loftier) ek'selsi-er, ek'selsi-D^. 
excelsior n. (shredded-wood packing-material) ek'setsi-dz, 

ek'selsi-er, ek'selsi-or. 
except V. (leave out; exclude; object) ek'sept, (rapidly, 

often) ik'sept, ksep, sep. 
ezcepter n. (obsolete) one who excepts or takes exception 

to [also spelt exceptor} ek'septar. 
exceptor n. obsolete (an excepter; also, shorthand- writer ; 

Roman officer) ek'septar, ek'septoe. 
excerpt n. (extract; selection) ek'sei^pt, 'ek-SB?pt. 
excerpt v. (cull out; extract; quote) ek'sB'.zpt, 'ek-SB?pt. 
excess n. (outrage ; intemperance ; preponderance ; surplus) 

ek'ses, (sometimes, assumptivly) 'ek-ses. 
exchange n. (interchange; barter, etc.) eks'tjeends, ekj- 

'tSeends; (vulgarly) 'eks-tjends, 'ekS-tJends. 
excHangeable adj, eks'tjcen-dsd-bdl. 
excHequer n. (department and court of revenues; finances) 

eks'tSeka?. 
excisable adj. dutiable [also spelt exciseable} ek'sai-za-bal. 
excisable adj. (fit to be excised or expunged) ek'sai-zs-bd}. 
excise n. (toll, tax, duty) ek'saiz; (less properly) ek'sais, 'ek- 

saiz, 'ek-sais. 
excise v. (cut out, expunge) ek'saiz. 
exciseman n. [plural excisemen} ek'saiz-msn. 
excitant adj, (that excites; stimulating) ek'sai-tnt, 'eksi-tnt. 
excitation n. ek-sai'tee-Jan, eksi'tee-Jan. 
excitative adj. [also spelt excitativ"] ek'sai-t9-tiv. 
exclamation n. (act of exclaiming, etc.) eksk£.3'mee-$9n. 
exclamatory adj, (that exclaims; noisy, etc.) ek'ski^aema- 

tozj, ek'skL3em3t3-^i, ek'ski^aema-tji. 
exclusive adj, [also spelt exclusivl ek'ski.ou-siv, ek'sktou- 

ziv. 
excrement n. (excreted substance; feces) 'eksksi-mant. 
excrescence n. (outgrowth; superfluity) ek'sksesdns. 
excretal adj. (excremental) ek'sk^ii-tl, 'ek-sksitl. 
excrete v. (sift out; throw off; eliminate) ek'sksiit. 
excretin n. [also spelt excretine} ek'sk^ii-tin, 'eksk^i-tin, 

'ek-sk^itin. 
excretive adj. [also spelt excretivl ek'sk^ii-tiv, 'ekslcsi-tiv, 

(rarely) 'ek-sk^itiv. 

c: law, b: f wr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, go now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mnrk (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



196 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

excretory adj. 'eksk3i-t37i, ek'sk3ii-t9-zi. 
ezomciate v. (torture mentally) ek'skrsou-Si-et. 
ezonlpate v, (free from blame) ek'skxl-pet, 'ekskdl-pet. 
ezonrsion. n. (a running out; expedition; deviation) ek'sksz- 

$3n, ek'skeiz-Ssn, ek'skB:z-33n. 
ezonsable adj. ek'skgou-za-bd}. 

ezonse v. (apologize for; justify; pardon) ek'skgouz. 
ezeonte v. (carry out; perform; put to death) 'eksi-k^ut. 
ezecuter n. one who performs or carries into effect; a doer 

[also spelt executorl 'eksi-kgutd?. 
ezecntion n. eksi^kgou-Ssn. 
ezecntive adj. [also spelt execuHvl eg'zekQo-tiv, {anteriorly) 

eg'zekgutiv. 
executor n. rarely, an executer or doer; usually, a person 

appointed to execute a will) cg'zekgo-taz, ek'sekgo-ta?. 
executrix n. female executor [ploral executricesl eg^zek^o- 

tjiks. 
exedent adj, (eating out; consuming) 'eksi-dnt. 
exedra n, portico ; outdoor platform with steps [also spelt 

exhedra; ploral exedrael 'eksi-dra, ek'sii-dra. 
exegesis n. (explanation, interpretation, especially of Scrip- 
ture) eksi'd3ii-sis. 
exegete n, (expounder, interpreter) 'eksi-dsit. 
exegetic adj. (of exegesis) eksi'dsetik. 
exemplar n. (example, model, type) eg'zempi:.3?. 
exemplary adj, (typical; model) eg'zempL9-zi, (anteriorly) 

eg'zempi:.3?i ; (also) 'eksam-pteri, 'eg-zempta-n. » 
exemplify v. (serve as an example of) eg'zempz.i-fai. 
exempt adj. (free, clear, dispenst) eg'zempt. 
exemption n. (freeing; freedom) eg'zemp^dn. 
exequatur n. (recognition or authorization of an agent) 

eksi'kiuee-t9?. 
exequy n. in the ploral, funeral rights, obsequies; in the sin- 
gular, funeral hymn [ploral exequies'\ 'eksi-kioi. 
exercisable adj. [also spelt exercisedble and, formerly, eX" 

ercisible'\ 'eksa^-sai-za-bal. 
exercise v. (put in action; employ, etc.) 'eksae-saiz. 
exergue n. (small space or inscription outside the main work 

on a coin or medal) eg'zorrg, 'ek-so^g. 
exert v. (put forth, bring into action) eg'zei^t. 
exertion n. (action of exerting or exercising; effort) eg- 

'zB^San, eg'zorr-San. 
exeunt v. (they go out) 'eksi-xnt. 

j ye, gcure; bthe, Q thin; 3 a^rure, d3yoy; I shoe, tlchew; 
wwhen; qsin^; u whoever, i react, o full, ou fool, i tt, lisee; 
poetic ; a over, e aerial, a but, 0: door, 00 no, e bed, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 197 



ex facie adv. (from the face ; on the face ; so far as appears 

from the document itself) eks'fee-Si-i: . 
exHalation. n. (action of exhaling; effluvium) eks-hd'tee-S^nf 

eksa'lee-San, cgza'lee-S^n. 
exliale v, (give forth in vapor; breath out) eks'heel; (less 

properly) egz'heel, eg'zeel. 
ezHalent adj,, n. eks'hee-tdnt. 
ezbanst v. (draw out ; use up ; empty) eg'zc:st. 
exhaustible adj. eg'zc:-st9-b3}. 

exHaustion n. eg'zcis-tSsn, eg'zcil-tl^n, eg'zc:s-tQ9n. 
exhanstive adj. [also spelt exhausHvl eg'zc:-stiv. 
exliibit v., n. (show, display) eg'zibit. 
exliibition n. (show, display, exposition) eksi'biSdn. 
exbibitive adj. [also spelt exhibitivl eg'zibi-tiv. 
exbibitor n. [also spelt exhibiterl eg'zibi-tae. 
exbibitory adj. eg'zibi-to?i ; (also) eg'zibita-ei, (assump- 

Hvly) eg'zibi-ta^i ; {rapidly) eg'zibi-tji. 
exbilarate v. (cheer; enliven) eg'zila-eet. 
exbort v. (urge, admonish) eg'zerzt, egz'heirt. 
exhortation n. (act of exhorting; incitement) eksez'tee-^dn, 

egze?'tee-j3n. 
exhortative adj, [also spelt exhortativl eg'ze:?-t9-tiv. 
exhorter n. (one who exhorts) eg'zere-tg?. 
exhume v. (dig out of the ground; unearth) eks'h^oum, eg- 

'zjoum. 
exigeant adj, (exacting) egzi'sei], eksi'ser). 
exigence n. exigency [ploral exigences} 'eksi-dsans. 
exigency n. pressing need [ploral exigencies'] 'eksidsan-si. 
exigible adj. (that may be exacted) 'eksidsa-bdl. 
exiguity n. (scantiness, littleness) eksi'gjou-i-ti. 
exigrnous adj. (scanty; small) eg'zigju-as, ek'sigju-»s. 
exile n. (banishment) 'ek-sail, 'eg-zail ; (formerly) eg'zail. 
exile n, (banisht person) 'ek-sail, 'eg-zail. 
exile V. (banish) 'ek-sail, 'eg-zail; (formerly) eg'zail. 
exilian adj. (exilic) eg'ziH-sn, ek'siU-sn. 
exilic adj, (of exile) eg'zihk, ck'sihk. 
exility n. (shrunken condition; thinness; refinement) eg- 

'zih-ti, ek'sih-ti. 
eximious adj, (excellent; eminent) eg'zimi-as. 
exinanition n. (an emptying ; exhausted condition ; humili- 
ation) egzina'niSan, eksma'niSan. 
exist V. (having being ; be ; live) eg'zist ; (improperly) ek- 

'sist. 

c: low, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: for, go now, a: osk, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



198 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

ezistenoe n. (being, etc.) eg'zistns, eg'zistans. 
ezisteiitial ad;, (of existence) cksi'stentSsl, egzi'stentSsl ; 

(in Britain) eksi'stenSa}, egzi'stenSdl. 
ezistible adj. (that can exist) eg'zista-ba}. 
exit n. (a going out) 'cksit; (improperly) 'egzit. 
eyjtial adj. obsolete (fatal; dangerous) eg'ziSat. 
ex libris n. from the books of [also spelt ex-librisi ekslai- 

hzi8, 
exoeamy n. (marriage outside the clan) eks'ego-mi, ek'segd- 

mi. 
exogen. n. (plant whose stem grows on the outside, in succes- 

siv concentric layers) 'eksa-dsm. 
exogenous adj. (growing on the outside; having the nature 

of an exogen) eks'edsi-nas, ek'sedsi-nas. 
exomis n. (tunic, chiton) ek'soo-mis. 
exonerate v, (relieve; free from blame; exculpate) eg'zena- 

ret. 
exonerator n. (one who exonerates) eg'zena-retar. 
exoneretur n. [in law, an order discharging the bail from 

li«ibility [synonymous cognate exoneratur} eg-zena'rii-tar. 
exorable adj. (capable of being moved by entreaty) 'eksacd- 

bal. 
exorbitant adj. (abnormal; grossly excessiv) eg'zeir-bi-tnt. 
exorcism n. (action of exorcizing or expelling evil spirits by 

conjurations, etc.) 'ckser-sizam, eg'zeir-sizam. 
exorcist n. 'eksor-sist, cg'ze:r-sist. 

exorcize t*. [also spelt cxorcisel 'eksez-saiz, eg'zo:z-saiz. 
exordinm ti. beginning, proem, prelude, preface [ploral ejr- 

ord turns, exordia"} eg'zeir-di-am. 
exosoulate r. (kiss) eg'zeskcu-let. 
ezosmose n. (exosmosis") 'ekses-mos, 'eksez-mos. 
exosmosis n. (passage of a fluid outward thru a membrane) 

eksos'moo-sTS. rksez'moo-sis. 
exoteric «. (external: open: popular) eksa'terik. 
exotic adj. (foreipn^ eg'zotik: (less properly) ek'setik. 
expansible adj. (that can be expanded) ek'sp<Tnsd-b9}. 
expansile adj. that can be expanded; dilatable [also, some- 
times, sprit expansin ek'spxnsil. ek'spaen-sail. 
expatiate r. (roam at large ; speak at length ; enlarge) ek- 

'spre-Si-et. 
expatriate r. (banish; leave one's nativ country') cks'pee- 

tji-et. eks'paetji-et. 
expede f. (send out) rk'spiid. 

j .ve. Qcure; 5 f/ie. Of/iin: 5 a:nare. d^/oy: ^ shoe, t^ chew; 
wwhen: r)sing: uwh<>ever. intact, o f m11. ou fool, i it. lisr^; 
o poetic ; o ovrr, e aerial, a but, 0: door, 00 no, e bt^d, ce gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 199 

expedient adj. (advantageous; advisable) ek'spii-di-ant, 
expel V. drive or thrust out [present participle expelling ; 

past participle and preterit expelled, expeld} ek'spel. 
expense n. (money spent or paid out; disbursement; cost) 

ek'spents, ek'spens. 
experiment n. (tentativ procedure; test) ek'spe^i-mant. 
experimentalize v, [also spelt experimentalise} ek-spe?i- 

'mentl-aiz. 
expert adj, (experienced; skilful) ek'spoi^t, {assumptivly) 

'ek-spBzt. 
expert n. (skilful person; specialist) 'ek-spB?t, ek'spB:?t. 
expirant n. (supposed breathing-organ in plants) ek'spai- 

zdnt. 
expiration n. (breathing out; end, close) eksps'^ee-Sdn. 
expiratory adj, of expiration [in phonetics, spelt also ex- 

spiratoryl ek'spai-r9-tD^i. 
expiry n. (death; end) 'eksp3-?i, ek'spai-ri. 
explain v. make plain ; interpret [past participle and preter- 
it explained, explaind} ek'spteen. 
explanate adj. (spread out flat) "eksp^s-net. 
explanation n. ekspz^d^nee-^sn. 
explanatory adj. (serving to explain) ek'spt^sens-tDzi ; (also) 

ek'spi^aenata-ri, (assumptivly) ek'sptaena-tari. 
expletive adj, serving to fill out ; redundant [also spelt ex- 

pletivl 'ekspti-tiv, ek'sptii-tiv. 
explicable adj. (explainable) 'ekspi^ika-bal ; (improperly) ek- 

'spLikd-bdl. 
explicative adj, serving to explicate, unfold, or explain 

[also spelt expHcativ} 'ekspti-ketiv. 
explicatory adj. (explicativ) 'eksptik3-to?i. 
explicit V, (it is unrolled; finis) 'ek-spz.isit. 
explicit adj, (developt; definit; clear; express) ek'sptisit. 
exploit V, (work; make capital out of) ek'spz^eit. 
exploit n. (achievement; feat) 'ek-spi^eit, ek'spteit. 
explorative adj. of exploration; inclined to explore [also 

spelt explorative ek'spiLoi-za-tiv. 
exploratory adj. (of exploration or searching) ek'spi.o:-r3- 

tozif (assumptivly) e k'sp ild : -ra-tari ; (also) ek'spte^ata-ei. 
explorator n. (explorer) 'eksptD-retae. 
explosive adj. tending to explode, etc. [also spelt explosivl 

ek'spLDO-siv, ek'spLDO-ziv. 
exponent n, (one who or that which explains; index) ek- 

'spoo-nant; (improperly) 'ck-sponant, 'ekspa-nant. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark ( ) indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



200 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

ezponible adj. (that admits or requires explanation) ek'spoo- 

ns-bd}. 
export V, (send out or ship from one country to another) 

eks'poi^t, ek'spoirt; {less properly) 'ck-sp03t. 
export n. (exported article; exportation) 'ek-spart. 
exporter n. 'ek-sporta?, eks'po:r-t33, ck'spo'.r-tar. 
expos6 n. (recital of facts; exposure) ekspo'zee. 
expository adj, {pi exposition; explanatory) ek'spozi-tozri. 
expressible adj. capable of being exprest [also, formerly, 

spelt expressahle'[ ek'sp3cs9-b3l. 
exprobrate v. {obsolete) reproach, blame, condemn [syn- 
onymous cognate exprobate} eks'psoo-bret, 'cksp3»-beet. 
expugnable adj. obsolete (that may be taken by force) ek- 

'spQuu-na-bal, ek'spAgna-bal. 
expunge v. (strike out, erase, efface) ek'spAuds. 
expurgate v. (purify; purge; expunge) 'eksp97-get, ek'sps:?- 

get. 
expurgator n. 'ckspsr-getdz, ek'spB:z-get9z. 
expurgatory adj. (of expurgation) ek'spB:?-g3-tori. 
exquisite adj. choice, elaborate, intense [also spelt exquisiti 

'ekskiui-zit, {assumptivly) 'ek-sku)izit ; {occasionally) ek- 

'skiDizit. 
exsert v. thrust forth; protrude [former synonymous cognate 

exert"] Ek'sB'.zt, eks'serrt. 
exsert adj. [former synonymous cognate exert] ek'sBizt, cks- 

'so:7t. same meaning as exserted. 
exserted adj. stretcht lorth; protruded; exsert [synonymous 

cognate exerted] ek'sB:?-tid, eks'sB:3-tid. 
exsiooant adj. (drying) ek'siksnt. 
exsiccate v. (dry) ek'siket, 'eksi-ket. 
exsiccative adj. [also spelt exsiccativ] ek'siks-tiv, eks'sikd- 

tiv, 'eksi-ketiv. 
extant adj. (standing out; protruding; now being; still ex- 
isting) ek'staent, 'ek-staent. 
extemporization n. [also spelt extemporisation] ek-stem- 

p3?i'zee-Son, ek-stempa-^ai'zee-San. 
extemporize v. [also spelt extemporise] ck'stemp3-?aiz. 
extempore adv. (on the spur of the moment; offhand) ek- 

'stempa-n, eks'tempa-zri ; {improperly) ek'stempo?. 
extendible adj, (capable of being extended ; extensible ; also, 

subject to seizure under a writ of extent) ek'stenda-bgl. 
extensible adj. (capable of being extended; extensil, pro- 

trusil) ck'stensa-bal. 

5 .ve. Q cure ; 5 the, 9 thin ; 3 a^ure, dj joy ; S ^^oe, tS cfcew ; 
luw/ien; qsin^r; u whoever, i r^act, o full, ou fool, i tt, lis^^; 
o poetic; a ov^r, e aerial. Abut, o: door, oono, eb^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 201 



ezteiuilon n. (action of extending; range) ek'sten^dn. 

extent n. (valuation; seizure; size; scope) ek'stent. 

eactem. adj, (outer, external) ek'steizn. 

extinct ddj. (put out; extinguisht; that has died out) ek- 
'stiQkt, (^sometimes, assumptivly) 'ck-stiqkt. 

extirpate v. (root out, eradicate) 'ckstaz-pet, ck'sts^pet. 

extirpator n. 'ekstd^-petsz, ek'ster-pets?. 

extol V, raise aloft; praise; eulogize [present participle ex- 
tolling', past participle and preterit extolled, extold} ek'stel, 
ek'stoot. 

extra adj., n., adv. 'ekstja; (dialectally) 'ekstji. 

extract n. (essence, tincture; excerpt) 'ek-stjaekt 

extract v. (draw out; pick out) ek'stsxkt. 

extraditable adj, ekstxa'dai-ts-bdl. 

extradite v, (give up; deliver up) 'ekstE3-dait. 

extrados n. (outer or upper curve of an arch) ek'stjee-des. 

extraordinary adj. (out of the ordinary; unusual, excep- 
tional) ck'stj0:?-dn-ezi ; (less properly) ekstja'ei^-dn-e^i. 

extraTasama n. (extravagant or fantastic composition ; bur- 
lesque) ek-stjav3'gaenz9, ck-stjaeva'gaendza. 

extravasate v. (let out; escape) ek'stjaeva-set. 

extrorse adj. (turned outward) ek'st£e:?s. 

extmde v. (thrust out ; expel ; protrude) ek'stjuud. 

exuberant adj. (prolific, overflowing, diffuse) eg'zjou-ba- 
zdnt, ck'sgou-b3-33nt, eg'sou-ba-zant. 

exudate n. (exude) 'eks^o-det, ek's^ou-det; (less properly) 
'egzjo-det. 

exudation n. an exuding [also, formerly, spelt exsudationi 
eksgo'dee-San. 

exnde v. (ooze out) eg'zjoud, ek'sgoud. 

exnloerate tf. (ulcerate; aggravate) eg'zAlsa-ret. 

exnlt V. (rejoice; triumph) eg'zxlt; (improperly) ek'sAlt. 

exultant adj. (exulting) eg'zAltnt. 

exultation n. eksArtee-^sn, egzAl'tee-San. 

exultingly adv. eg'zAhir)-h. 

exuviae n. pi. (cast skins, etc.) eg'zjou-vi-i: , ek'sgou-vi-i: . 

exuviate v. (shed exuviae; mold) eg'zjou-vi-et, ek'sgou-vi-et. 

eyas n. (young hawk; nias) 'ai-3s. 

eye n. (organ of vision) ai. 

eye v. fix the eye on ; view [present participle eying, eyeing ; 
past participle and preterit eyed} ai. 

eyelet n. (small hole ; loophole ; small eye) 'ai-l9t. 

eye-'witness n. [also spelt eyewitnessl 'ai-witNis, ai'witNis. 

c: law, b: f Mr, ae cat, e hat, ei bay ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the lellowing syllable. 



202 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

eyot n. 'ee-dt. same meaning as ait. 
eyra n. (wild cat, Felis eyra) 'ai-w. 
eyre n. (journey, circuit) c:r. 

eyry n. [also spelt eyriel 'e:-7i, 'i:-zi, 'ai-zi. same meaning 
as aery. 



fabif orm adj, (bean-shaped) 'fee-bi-fe:7m. 

fabnlist n, (one who relates fables) 'fxbjo-list. 

fabnlize v. invent fables, etc. [also spelt fahulisel 'fsbjo- 
laiz. 

faf^ade n. (face; principal front) fa'sard, fs'sa:d, fae'seed. 

facet n. little face [also spelt facetted 'faesit. 

facet V, cut facets on [present participle faceting, facetting; 
past participle and preterit faceted, facetted"] 'fasit. 

facetiae n. pi, (humorous sayings ; witticisms) f9'sii-$i-i: . 

facetious adj. (jocular; waggish) fs'sii-S^s. 

facial adj. (of the face) 'fee-Jal, 'fee-Si-al. 

facient n. (one who does anything; doer) 'fce-Jant, 'fee-Ji- 
3nt, 'feeS-jant. 

facies n. aspect, appearance [ploral fades] 'fee-Si-i:z. 

facile adj. easy; yielding; dextrous [also spelt facil] 'fasil. 

facility n. (ease; opportunity; dexterity) fa'sih-ti. 

facsimile n, copy; counterpart Iploral facsimiles] faek'simi- 
h, {older) faek'simi-H. 

factious adj. (given to faction; seditious) 'faekSas. 

factitious adj. (got up; artificial) faek'ti^ss. 

factory n. (trading-station; manufactory) 'faekta-ri, (anteri- 
orly) 'faektan, (rapidly) 'faektji. 

facula n. bright spot on the sun [ploral faculae] 'faekgo-la. 

faeces n. pi. 'f li-siz. see feces. 

faecula n. 'fekgo-la. see fecula. 

faerie n. archaic [also spelt faery] 'fee-3-?i, 'fe:-ri. same 
meaning as fairy. 

fagot n. bundle of sticks or twigs [also spelt faggot] 'faegat. 

Fahrenheit adj. 'faeran-hait, 'fai-^an-hait. 

faience n. pottery [also spelt fayence] fa'jeqs. 

faikes n. rock [also spelt fakes] feeks. 

faille n. (ribd silk) feel, 'fa:-i. 

fain adj. (glad) feen. 

faineanoy n. (quality of being faineant; sloth) 'fee-ni-an-si. 

faineant «. idler, loafer [also spelt faineant] fene'eq. 

} ye, q cure ; 5 the, thin ; 3 arure, d^ ;oy ; j ^^oe, tS chew ; 
wwhen; rising; u whoever, 1 rt^act. o fwll, oufool, i it, lis^^; 
o poetic; dov^r, e aerial, Abut, o: door, oono, ebed, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 203 



faint adj, (feeble, inclined to swoon) feent. 

fair adj. (beautiful, favorable, honest) iz:z. 

fair n, (market, sale, exhibition) ie:z. 

fairy n., adj. [also, sometimes, archaically spelt faerie, faery"} 

'fe:-3i; {dialectally) 'iee-zi; (formerly) 'fee-9-ri. 
faker n. (one who fakes; surf man who fakes the shot-lines 

in a faking-box) 'fee-ka?. 
faker n. (thief; one who deals in fakes; street-vender; 

theatrical hanger-on) 'fee-ka?. 
fakir n. Mohammedan mendicant; Hindu ascetic; yogi [also 

spelt fakeer, faquir} 'fee-ka?, fa'ki:?, fae'ki:?. 
falcate adj. (like a sickle; hookt) 'fael-ket. 
falokion n. (sword) 'fcil-tjan, 'fcil-Jan. 
falcon n. (hawk, etc.) 'fc:-k9n, 'fcrl-kan, 'faelkan. 
falconer n. (one who hunts with or trains falcons) 'fc:-k3- 

n^z. 
falconet n. (piece of ordnance; shrike) 'fci-ka-nat, 'faelka- 

nat, 'fcil-ka-nat. 
falconine adj, (like a falcon or hawk) 'fxlks-nain, 'fxlks- 

nin. 
falconry n. (hawking) 'fc:-k3n-?i. 
fall V. (drop, descend, etc.) fc:l, {when unstrest) fcl. 
fallacious adj. (containing a fallacy) fd^lee-Jas. 
fallacy n. (deceptivness ; error) 'faela-si. 
fallal n. piece of finery ; trifling ornament ; affectation [also 

spelt fal-lal} fael'lael, faelael.. 
fallen adj. (that has dropt ; mind) 'fci-lan, 'fc:-ln. 
fallible adj, (liable to err; unreliable) 'faela-bal, (anteriorly) 

'faelabal. 
f alloiv^ n. (uncropt ground, etc.) 'faelo. 

false adj, (erroneous; deceitful; spurious) fc:ls, fc:}ts; fels. 
falsetto «. (forced voice; head voice) fcl'setD. 
familiar adj. (of one's family ; intimate ; well-known ; free) 

fa'milia?. 
familiarity n. fa-mirjae^i-ti, fa-mili'aeri-ti. 
familiarization n. [also spelt familiarisation} fd-miHszi- 

'zee-San, fa-miHa-^ai'zee-San. 
familiarize v. [also spelt familiarise} fa'miHa-^aiz. 
family n. (household-group; kindred) 'faemi-h, (anteriorly) 

'faemih, (rapidly) 'faemh. 
famine n. scarcity of food; hunger; starvation [also spelt 

famin} 'faemin. 
fanatic n. (unreasoning enthusiast; visionary) fa'naetik. 

c: laif, b: fur, ae cat, e hoi, ei hoy ; a: for, go now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the fellowing syllable. 



204 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

f anatioize v» render fanatic ; act as a fanatic [also spelt fa- 

naticisel fs'naeti-saiz. 
fanatioism n. (excessiv enthusiasm) fd'nxti-sizdm. 
fancy n. (imagination; notion; liking) 'fsnsi, 'fsntsi. 
fandango n. dance, tune, ball [ploral fandangosl fsen'dxQ- 

go, faen'daeij-go. 
fane n. (temple) feen. 

fanfare n. (flourish, call, tune) 'fan-fc:?, faen'fc:?. 
fanfaronade n. brag; ostentation [also spelt fanfaronnade'\ 

faenfa^a'need, faenfaeea'need. 
fantasia n. (fanciful composition) faentd'zii-s, fxn'ta:-zi-9. 
fantasied adj. fanciful [also spelt phantasiedl 'fsnta-sid. 
fantassin n. (heavy-armd foot-soldier) 'fsnts-sin. 
fantast n. visionary [also spelt phantasti 'faen-taest. 
fantastic adj. fanciful; capricious [also spelt phantastic"] 

faen'taestik. 
fantasy n. imagination; whimsical notion; caprice [also 

spelt phantasy; ploral fantasies^ 'faentg-si, 
fantoccini n,pl. (puppets) fsente'tSii-ni. 
faquir n. 'fee-ka?. see fakir, 
far adv. at or to a great distance; largely; widely [compara- 

tiv farther, further; superlativ farthest, furthest"] fa:z, 

(when unstrest) faz; (dialectally) isiz, 
farad n. (electric capacity-unit) 'fae-^aed, 'faezrad. 
Faradaic adj, (of the English physicist Michael Faraday) 

faeea'dee-ik. 
faradic adj. (of inductiv electricity) fa'raedik. 
fare n. (price of passage) ie:z, 
farewell adj. (of a farewell; good-by) fer^'wel, (assumptiv- 

ly) 'fe:?-wel. 
far-fetched adj. brought from afar; straind [also spelt far- 

fetchtl fa:?'fetSt, {assumptivly) 'fa:?-fetSt. 
farina n, (starch, fecula; pollen) fa'^ai-na. 
farina n. (a granular preparation of white maize, finer than 

hominy) fa'^ii-na. 
farinaceous adj. (of flour; starchy; mealy) fae^i'nee-Sas. 
farinose adj. (yielding farina; starchy; floury) fae^i'noos, 

(assumptivly) 'fae^i-nos. 
farmstead n. [also spelt farmstedl 'fa:?m-sted. 
faro n. card-game [also spelt pharaoh, pharoah, pharo] 'fc:- 

zo, 'fe:-?o. 
far-off adj. fair'eif, (assumptivly) 'far^-erf. 
farrago n. (medley; hodgepodge) fo'^ee-go, fa'^ee-go. 

jye, Qcure; htho, f/iin; 5 a-crure, dj/oy; \ shoQ, tJcAew; 
iDw/ren; rising; u whoever, i r^act, o ftdl, ou fool, i tt, usee; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial. Abut, o: door, oo no, ebed, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 205 

n. (one who shoes horses) 'ixzi-^z. 

farther adv, (comparativ of far) 'fa:^-^^^; (dialectally) 'fa:- 
ddz. see far. 

fartbinsale n. (hoopt petticoat) 'fa:?-din-gee}, 'fai^-dig-geeh 

fasces n. (ploral of fascis) 'fse-siz. 

fascet n, (rod used in glass-making; also, faucet) 'fsesit. 

fascia n. band [ploral fasciae and, in architectural senses, 
also fascias] 'faeja, 'faeji-a, 'faeSja. 

fasdflJ adj. (of the Roman fasces) 'fse^dl, 'fse^i-dl. 

fasciation n. (binding with fasciae; fascia) fseSi^ce-^sn. 

fascicle n. (bunch, bundle, cluster) 'fsesi-kal. 

fascination n. (enchantment) fsesi'nee-$3n. 

fascine n. (fagot) fs'siin. 

fascis n. bundle [ploral fascesi 'fsesis. 

fasUonable adj. (conformable to fashion; stylish) 'fse^dns- 
bal, iassumptivly) 'faeSa-nabal ; (rapidly) 'faeSNa-bal, (assump- 
Hvly) 'faeSNabal. 

fast a(/y. (firm; rapid) fa:st, fa:st, fse:st. 

fasten v. make fast; fix [past participle and preterit fas- 
tened, fastendl 'fai-san, 'fai-san, 'fae:-s3n. 

fastener n. (one who or that which fastens) 'fai-sa-nar, 'fa:- 
SNa?. 

fastening n. 'fa:-S3-nii], 'fa:-SNir). 

fastidious adj. (squeamish; over-nice) fses'tidi-^s. 

fata Morgana n. (mirage) fa:-t3-mer'ga:-n3. 

fatal adj. (like fate ; fateful ; deadly) 'fee-tl, 'fee-tal. 

fate n. (destiny) feet. 

f atber n. (male parent) 'fa:-dar ; {dialectally) 'fa:-d3?. 

fatigne n. (weariness) fs'tiig. 

fatuity n. (folly) fa'tgou-i-ti. 

fatnons adj, (foolish; idiotic) 'fsetju-as, 'faetcju-as. 

faulionrg «. (suburb) 'foo-bozrg, 'fDo-bozr. 

fauces n. pi. (throat, gullet) 'fc:-siz. compare faux. 

faucet n. barrel-tap; stop-cock; spigot [dialectal synony- 
mous cognates fascet, fossetl 'fc:-sit; (dialectally) 'faesit, 
'fesit. 

faugh inter j. (expressing disgust) fc: . 

fault «. (defect; error; culpability; break) fc:h; (dialectal- 
ly) felt. 

faun n. (rural deity) fc:n. 

fauna n. the total of the animal life of a region or period 
[ploral faunae, faunasi 'fona. 

^auz n. (singular of fauces) fc:ks. same meaning as fauces. 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai ktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



206 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

fans pas n. (false step, mistake) f o'pa: . 

favor n. good will ; etc. [also spelt favour"] 'fce-vae. 

favorable adj, [also spelt favourable"} 'fee-vsTd-bsl, (rapidly) 

'fee-v?9-b3l. 
favorite n., adj, [also spelt favourite, favorit"] 'f ee-va-rit, 

(anteriorly) 'fee-va^it, (rapidly) 'fee-v?it. 
tarwn v, show fondness; cringe [past participle and preterit 

fawned, fauundl fc:n. 
faivn n. (young deer) fc:n. 
fay n. (fairy, elf) fee. 
fay n. (faith, religious belief) fee. 
fay n. surface-cleanings from soil; dross [also spelt feigh, 

feagh, fee, fey] fee. 
fay V, (fit; fill up; suit) fee. 
fay V, (local) clean out, as a ditch ; clean ; winnow [also spelt 

fsy, feigh and, formerly, fee] fee. 
fayalite n. (mineral) 'fee-3-lait, 'fai-a-lait, fai'a:-}ait. 
faze V. disturb [also spelt phase] feez. 
fealty «. (fidelity to a lord; loyalty) 'fii-al-ti. 
fear n. (alarm, etc.) fi:r, fi3. 
feasible adj. (practicable) 'fii-za-bal. 
feat n. (exploit) fiit. 

featber n. plume, etc. [also spelt f ether] 'feba?. 
febrifugal adj. fi'bnfio-gal, 'febri-fiugal, feb^i'fiou-gal. 
febrifuge n. (medicin that reduces fever) 'febri-fiuds. 
febrile adj. of fever [also spelt febril] 'fii-b^il, 'izhzil. 
February n. (month) 'feb^u-e^i; (also) 'febm-a-^i, (anterior' 

ly) 'izhzM-^zi', (also, erroneously) 'febju-en, 'febu-eri. 
feoal adj. of feces [also spelt faecal] 'fii-kal. 
feces n. pi. sediment ; excrement [also spelt faeces] 'fii-siz. 
f eoit V. ( . . . made it : an expression used after the artist's 

signature on works of art) 'fii-sit. 
feoula n. starch [also spelt faecula; ploral feculae] 'fekgo-la. 
feculence n. foulness [also, formerly, spelt feculance] 'fc- 

kgo-lans. 
fecund adj. (prolific; fertil) 'fe-kAnd, 'fii-kAnd, fi'kAnd. 
fecundate v. (render fruitful; impregnate) 'fekan-det, 'fii- 

kon-det, fiTcAndet. 
fecundation n. feksn'dee-Ssn, fiksn'dee-Sdn. 
federalization n. [also spelt federalisation] feda-^ah'zce- 

San, (rapidly) fedraU'zee-San ; (also^ fedara-lai'zee-San. 
federalize v. [also spelt federalise] 'feda^a-laiz. 
feet n. (ploral of foot) f lit. 

jye, Qcure; htht, 9 f/iin; 5 arure, dj/oy; S j/ioe, tSc/tew; 
iDwfcen; qsin^; u whoever, i r^act, o fwll, ou fool, i it, lis^^; 
o poetic ; a ov^r, e oerial, a b«t, o: door, oo no, e b^d, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 207 



V. invent, simulate [past participle and preterit feigned, 
feigndj feen. 

feignedly adv, 'fee-ni-dli. 

feint adj. counterfeit, feigned [also, but rarely now, spelt 
faintli feent. 

feldspar n. mineral [also, sometimes, spelt felsparl 'fel- 
spa:?, 'feld-spa:r. 

felicity n. (happiness, bliss) fi^isi-ti. 

feline adj. (of cats; cat-like) 'fii-lain, {rarely) 'fii-hn. 

fellah n. peasant [plural fellahs, fellaheenl 'fela. 

feller n. (one who or that which fells) 'felar. 

felloe n. [plural felloesi 'ielo. same meaning as felly. 

felloxv n. (comrade; person) 'felo; (dialectally and vulgarly) 
'fela. 

felly n. the rim of a wheel [synonymous cognate felloe ; ploe- 
al felliesi 'feh. 

female adj. (of the sex which bears offspring; of women) 
'fii-meel, (when less strest) 'fii-me!. 

femerel n. lantern, louvre, or dome over a kitchen [also 
spelt femerell; synonymous cognate fumerell} 'fema-ral. 

femineity n. (female nature; feminality) femi'nii-i-ti. 

feminine adj. female, etc. ; womanly [also, sometimes, spelt 
feminini 'femi-nin; (less properly) 'femi-nain. 

femoral adj. (of the femur or thigh) 'fema-zal; (improperly) 
'fii-ma-eal. 

femnr n. thigh-bone [plural femurs, femora^ 'fii-ma?. 

fenoe n. fents, fens. 

f enoible adj. capable of making defense ; strong ; belonging 
to the corps called fencibles [also, formerly, spelt fensible, 
fensablel 'fensa-bal. 

Fenian n. one of the warriors or champions of Ireland in 
the time of Finn [also, sometimes, spelt Fennian ; synony- 
mous cognate Finnian} 'fii-ni-an, 'feni-an; (member of the 
brotherhood founded in New York in 1857) 'fii-ni-3n. 

fenneo n. African fox [also spelt fennekl 'fenik. 

fennel n. (plant) 'fenl. 

f enngpreek n. plant [also spelt foenugreek ; synonymous cog- 
nate fenugreckl 'fenju-gnik. 

feod n. fguud. see feud. 

feoff V. invest with a fief, fee, or feud ; enfeoff ; present [al- 
so, formerly, spelt feff} fef, fiif. compare fief, n. 

feoffee n. (person who is enfeoft) fe'fii. 

feoffer n. one who enfeoffs [also spelt feoffor^ 'fefar. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, o hot, 01 hoy ; a: far, au now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



208 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

feoffment n. (action of feoffing or enfeoffing) 'fefMsnt. 
ferine adj. (of wild animals; beast-like) 'fi:-rain, 'fi:-rin. 
ferison n. (mood of the third figure of syllogism) fs'^ai-sen, 

fd'^ai-san. 
ferment n. (leaven, yeast) 'feir-mcnt, 'fsr^-mant. 
ferment v. (undergo fermentation; foment) fer'ment 
fermentative adj. [also spelt fermentativ} fe^'ments-tiv. 
ferocity n. (fierceness) fi'resi-ti. 
ferret n. (polecat) 'ferit. 
ferret «. (stout tape) 'iezit. 

ferriage n. action of ferrying; conveyance over a ferry [al- 
so spelt ferryagel 'fe^i-ids; {improperly) 'fe^ids. 
ferrier n. ferryman [also spelt ferryer} 'fezri-a?. 
ferrooyanide n. salt [also, sometimes, spelt ferrocyanid'\ fc- 

?o'sai-3-naid, fe?o'sai-3-nid. * 

ferrule n. ring or cap of metal [also spelt ferule and, for- 
merly, ferrel, ferrill 'feral, 'fe<ri}, 'fe-rul, 'fezr-jul. 
fertile adj. fruitful, prolific [also, sometimes, spelt fertill 

'fortil, {assumptivly) 'fsrtl; {also, in Britain) 'far-tail. 
fertileness n. [also, sometimes, spelt fertilnessl 'fB7t)-nis, 

'fartil-nis, 'fa^-tail-nis. 
fertility n. (fertilness) far'tih-ti. 
fertilization n. [also sprit fertilisationi fa^tl-i'zee-San, far- 

tih'zee-Son, forti-lai'zee-Son. 
fertilize v. [also spelt fertilise'^ 'fartl-aiz, 'fa^ti-laiz. 
fertilizer n. [also spelt fertiliserl 'fazrtl-ai-zar, 'fazrti-lai-zar. 
femle n. cane, rod, ruler [also, formerly, spelt ferrule"] 

'fezrul, 'izziX, 'fezr-jul. 
fervor n. intense heat; warmth; glow; zeal [also spelt fer- 

vourl 'fB:r-v3zr. 
* fesoue n. pointer [also spelt fesque and, formerly, feskue, 

fescul 'fe-slcQU. 
fesse H. banded ordinary, a bearing [also spelt fess] fes. 
fetal adj. of a fetus [also spelt foetal] 'fii-tl. 
fetoh V. bring; go and bring [past participle and preterit 

fetched, fetcht] fetj. 
fSte n. (feast, holiday) feet. 
f etial adj, of the fetiales ; heraldric ambassadorial [also 

spelt fecial] 'fii-Jal. 
fetiales n.pl. (college of priests in ancient Rome) fiSi'ee-Hz. 
feticide n. the action of destroying a fetus or causing 

abortion [also spelt foeticide] 'fii-ti-said, 'feti-said. 
fetid adj. stinking [also spelt foetid] 'fii-tid, 'fetid. 

j ye, g cure ; 5 tht, th\n\^ 3 a^rure, dj /oy ; S j/toe, tS cfcew; 
low/ien; qsin^r; u whoever, i r^act, o f«ll, ou fool, i tt, lis^^; 
o poetic ; a ov^r, e aerial, a b«t, o: door, 00 no, e b^d, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 209 

feiti»h. n. object of awe or blind devotion [also spelt fetich, 

fetichel 'fii-tiS, 'fetij. 
f etisHeer n. sorcerer [synonymous cognate fetisher, fetisser"} 

fiti'Si:?, feti'Si:^. 
fetiahism n. [also spelt fetichism'\ 'fii-ti-Sizsm, 'feti-^izdm. 
fetishist n. [also spelt fetichist} 'fii-ti-Jist, 'feti-Sist. 
fetishistio adj. (of fetishism) fiti'Sistik, feti'Sistik. 
fetor n. stench [also spelt foetor} 'fii-tar, 'fii-to?. 
fetus n. young animal in the womb; embryo [also spelt foe- 
tus; ploral fetuses} 'fii-tas. 
feu n. feudal land-tenure; holding; fief [also, formerly, 

spelt few} fiou. 
feuar n. one who holds land upon feu [also spelt feur, fewar 

and, formerly, feuer} 'fiou-ae. 
fend n. (bitter and lasting mutual hostility) fioud. 
fend n. fee, fief [also spelt feod} fioud. 
fendalism n. 'fiuu-dl-izsm, 'fiou-dd-hzsm. 
fendalisation n. [also spelt feudalisation} fiudl-i'zee-S9n> 

fiudl-ai'zee-San. 
fendalise v. [also spelt feudalise} 'fiou-dl-aiz. 
f endary n. feudal tenant ; vassal ; servant [also spelt feo- 

dary} 'fiou-da-zi. 
f enilleton n. (the bottom part of a newspaper, ruled off and 

devoted to serial stories, criticisms, etc.) fai-i'toij, fBl'tOQ, 

'fer-Jia-teq. 
feverfexv n. plant [also spelt feverfue} 'fii-var-fiu. 
fenr adj. (not many) fiou, {when unstrest) fiu. 
f eurmet n. see fumet. 

fey adj. fated to die ; doomd ; dying [also spelt fay\ fee. 
fez n. Turkish skull-cap [ploral fezzes} fez. 
fiano6 n. (man or youth who is betrotht) fi-eg'see. 
fiancee n. (woman or girl who is betrotht) fi-er)'see. 
fiasco n. (flask; ignominious failure) fi'ar-sko, fi'xsko. 
fiat n. (command ; order) 'f ai-at, 'f ai-aet. 
fiber n. filament [also spelt fibre} 'fai-bar. 
fibriform adj, (formd like a fiber; thread-like) 'fai-bri- 

fo:?m. 
fibril n. (small fiber) 'fai-bnl; {improperly) 'fibril. 
fibriUa n. fibril [plural fihrillae} fai'brib. 
fibrillar adj. (of the nature of a fibrilla) 'fai-bribr. 
fibrillary adj, (fibrillar) 'f ai-b?i-le^i ; (less properly) 'iihzi- 

Xzzi, 
fibrillate r. (having fibrillae) 'fai-bgi-let. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, oi hoy ; a: far, au now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



210 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

f ibrillose adj, coverd with or composed of fibrils [also spelt 

fibrilosel fai-b^iloos, (assutnptivly) 'fai-bzi-los. 
fibrinous adj. (full of fibrils) 'f ai-b^i-las ; (less properly) 

fai'brilas, fi'bnlas, 'fib^i-las. 
fibrin n. (nitrogenous substance) 'fai-bzin. 
fibrine adj, fiber-like [also, sometimes, spelt fibrin'\ 'fai- 

hzin, 'fai-b^ain, 
fibrinogen n. (proteid) 'f ai-beina-dsen ; (improperly) fai- 

'bzrina-dsen. 
fibrinous adj, (full of fibrin) 'fai-b^i-nas, (less often) 'fi- 

b?i-n3s. 
fiohu n. (triangular piece of fabric worn by women on the 

neck, throat, and shoulders) 'fi-Ju, fi'Sou. 
fico n. (fig) 'fii-kD. 
fictile adj, plastic [also, sometimes, spelt fictill 'fiktil, (as- 

sumptivly) 'fiktl. 
fiddler n. (one who plays on the fiddle). 'fidla?, 'fidl-or. 
fidelity n. (faithfulness, loyalty) fai'deh-ti, fi'de!i-ti. 
fidget n. (condition of spasmodic movement) 'fidsit. 
fiducial adj. (of trust) fi'djou-Sal, fai'djou-Si-al. 
fiduciary adj. (in trust; of trusteeship) fi'djuu-Si-cei, fai- 

'djou-Si-3-?i, fi'djou-S3-?i. 
fie interj. [also spelt fy, fyel fai. 
fief n. (feoff, fee, feud) fiif. compare feoffs v. 
fieldfare n. (bird) 'fiild-fe:?. 

fiery adj. (of fire) 'fai-3-ri, 'fai-?i; (also, often) 'faia-ei. 
fife n. flute-like instrument [ploral fifes'] faif. 
fifteen adj.,n. fif'tiin, (anteriorly; by contrast) 'fif-tin. 
figuline adj, made by a potter; plastic [also, sometimes, 

spelt figulM 'figjo-hn, 'figjo-lain. 
figure n. (form; image; numeral) 'figJ3?; (in Britain, often- 

er) 'fig3?. 
figure V, (depict; imagin; use figures) 'figjar, 'figa?. 
figurine n. (small figure or image) figjo'riin. 
Fijian adj. of Fiji [also spelt Feejeeani 'fii-dsi-an, fi'dsii-an. 
filacer n, officer [synenymous cognates fyliser, filaser"] 

filament n. (thread-like body; fiber) 'fila-mant. 

filander n, wallaby, a short-taild kangaroo [also spelt phi- 

lander] filaenda^. compare philander. 
filander n. membrane scraped from gut in making catgut 

[also spelt filandre] fi'laendar. 
filander v. filaendar. see philander. 

j ye, g cure; 5 the, thin ; 3 axrure, d3 joy; $ shoe, tS chew; 
w when ; q sin^; u whoever, i r^act, o full, ou fool, i tt, li see; 
o poetic; 9 ov^r, e aerial, Abwt, o: door, 00 no, ebed, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 211 

^ilanders n. worms; disease [former synonymous cognate 

felanders} fi'laendd^z. 
fileli V. steal; pilfer; rob [past participle and preterit filched, 

filchtl fittS, {also, and in Britain normally) filS- 
filet n. (thread-like part or thin line in a design; fillet) fi- 

lee. 
filial adj. (of a son or daughter) 'fili-sl, 'f ilist 
filibee »• kilt [also spelt fillibeg, philibeg, phillibegl 'fili- 
beg. 
filigree n, tracery-work in metal [also spelt filligree ; synon- 
ymous cognate fillagree'} 'fih-gri. 
Filipino n. nativ of the Philippine Islands [ploral Filipinos} 

fih'pii-no. 
fillet n. (head-band; strip; roll, as of meat; molding) 'filit. 
fillip n. finger- jerk; stroke; stimulus [also, formerly, spelt 

filip} 'fihp. 
fillip V, to strike as by a fillip [also, formerly, spelt filip ; 

past participle and preterit filliped, fillipt] 'fihp. 
fillipeen n. f ih'piin. see philopena, 
film n. (thin skin; fine thread) film; {vulgarly) 'filam. 
filoplmne n. (thread-feather) 'fai-13-pz.oum. 
filose adj, (ending in a thread) fai'loos, (assumptivly) 'fai- 

ios. 
filoselle n. ferret or floss-silk ; grogam yarn [also spelt filO' 

sel, filosell} fila'zel, 'fila-sel, fai-la'zel. 
filter n. liquid-purifying device [also spelt filtrel 'iiit^z. 
filmn n. thread, filament [ploral filal 'lai-lsm. 
fin n. (swimming-organ) fin. 
finable adj, [also spelt fineablel 'fai-ns-bsl. 
final adj. (ultimate; conclusiv) 'fai-nal, 'fai-nl. 
finale n. (last part or scene) fi'na:-h. 
finance n. (management of money, etc.) fi'nxns, 'fai-nxns, 

fai'nsens; (also) fi'naents, etc. 
finance v, (conduct financial operations ; furnish capital for) 

fi'naens, fai'nrcns; (also) fi'naents, etc. 
financial adj. (of finance) fi^naenjal, fai'ngenSal. 
financier n. (one skild in finance) fai-nsn'si:?, finsn'si:?, 

(in Britain, oftener) fi'naensi-azr. 
financier v. act as a financier; furnish capital for [also 

spelt financeer} finan'siizr, fai-nan'siir. 
finch n. (bird) fintS, (in Britain) finj. 
finesse «. (delicacy; skill; artifis; trick) fi/nes, fi'nes. 
fingrigo n. (climbing shrub) 'fii]g?i-go, firj'g^igo. 

c: law, b: fur, x cat, e hot, ex hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



212 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

finicking adj. fastidious; mincing; also, paltry [also spelt 
finnicking; synonymous cognates finikin, finnikin"} 'fini-kig. 

finis n. (the end; conclusion) 'fai-nis. 

finite adj, (bounded ; limitec^ 'f ai-nait. 

Finn n. Finlander [also spelt Fin"} fin. 

finnan n. finnan-haddock [also spelt finnon; synonymous 
cognates find horn, findram, fintrum, findoni 'finan. 

finoohio n. (fennel) fi'nok-i-o, f i''noo-ki-o ; (improperly) fi- 
'noo-tSi-o. 

f iorin n. (white or marsh bentgrass) 'fai-3-3in. 

fiorite n. (sinter) 'fgoi-^ait, 'fai-a-eait. 

fir n. (tree) {b:z. 

firk V. drive, force [also spelt ferkl fsizk, 

firkin n. (small cask) 'farkin. 

firmament n. (vault of heaven ; the heavens) 'iBiz-m^-m^nU 
. firman n. decree, edict [plural firmansl 'far^-man. 

fisc n, treasury [also, in Scottish law, spelt fisk"} fisk. 

fiscal adj. (of the fisc or treasury) 'fiska!. 

fisk n. [plural fishes; collectivly, fishi fij. 

fissile adj. cleavable [also spelt fissil] 'fisil. 

fissle V. russle; whistle; fidget [also spelt fistlel 'fisal. 

f issnra n. fissure ; cleft ; sulcus [plural fissurael fi's9o:-2:9. 

fissnral adj, (of a fissure) 'fiSjo-ra!. 

fissure «. (cleft, rift) 'fiSa?. 

fistula n. (pipe-like ulcer; pipe; wine-tube) 'fistjo-la, 'fiStJo- 
!3, 'fistgu-l3. 

fixed adj. placed firmly; fast; firm; stable [also spelt /ir/] 
fikst. 

fixedly adv. (in a fixt manner) 'fiksi-dh. 

fixedness n. (state of being fixt) 'fiksi-dnis. 

fizgig n. frivolous woman ; squib ; gimcrack [also spelt fise- 
gig, fisgigl 'fizgig. 

fizz V. hiss; splutter [also spelt fis; past participle and pret- 
erit fizzed, ficdl fiz. 

fjord n. arm of the sea between cliffs [also spelt fiord, fyordi 
fge:?d, fgorrd, fi'ei^d. 

flaccid adj, (limp; flabby; drooping) 'ftaeksid; {erroneously) 
'f^aesid. 

flagellant n, (one who whips or scourges himself for re- 
ligious disciplin) 'fz^adsi-lant, fta'dsclant. 

flagellate v, (scourge, whip) 'ftaidsi-let. 

flageolet n. wind-instrument [also spelt flageletl 'ftaedso- 
let, ftjedja'let; (improperly) 'fi^aedsi-a-let. 

j ye, Qcure; bthe, f/tin; 5 a^rure, dj/oy; S shoe, tJcAew; 
wwhen] rising; u whoever, i r^act, o full, ou fool, i it, lis^^; 
o poetic; aov^r, e aerial^ Ahut, o: door, oono, e b^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 213 

flagitioiis adj. (criminal; wicked) fz^sMsiSss. 

flagon n. large bottle or vessel [also, fermerly, spelt flag- 
gon\ 'f2.sg3n. 

flasrant adj, (blazing; raging) 'fLee-g^snt. 

flagstaff n. (flagpole) 'f^aeg-staif. 

flambeau n. torch [plural flambeaux'] 'f^xm-bo. 

flamboyant adj. (flaming; wavy; showy) fz.sem'bei-3nt. 

flamingo n. bird [ploral flamingos, flamingoes} fz^s^mirigo. 

flanob n. flange [synonymous cognates flaunch, flanquel 
ftamtS, fi.a:ntS, ftaeintS; (in Britain) ftainj, fi.a:nS, f^aeinS. 

flannel n. (woolen stuff) 'fz^nol, 'fz.senL 

flask n. (powder-flask; bottle; frame) fz.a:sk, f2.a:sk, f2.£:sk. 

flasque n. (flanch-like bearing) fz.a:sk. 

flat-iron n. (sad-iron, iron) 'ftaet-ai-s^n. 

flatnlent adj. (windy; puft up; vain) 'ftaetSo-bnt, 'fLsetgo- 
Isnt. 

flannt v. wave smartly; display [former synonymous cog- 
nate flant} ftcint, ftaint, f^aint. 

flavor n. smell, fragrance; quality of taste; savor [also spelt 
flavour} 'ftee-v3?. 

flay V. skin ; excoriate ; strip ; plunder [past participle and 
preterit flayed, flayd} ftee. 

flay V. put to flight; frighten [also spelt fley\ past participle 
and preterit flayed, fluid, flayd} fi.ee. 

flea n. (insect) fz.ii. 

fledgling n. young bird just fledged [also spelt fledgeling} 
'fLedshq. 

flee V, (run away) fz.ii. 

fleeoeable adj. (that may be fleeced; cheatable) 'f2.ii-s9-b3l. 

flenoh V, cut up the fat of ; skin [synonymous cognates flinch, 
flense, flence, flinse} ftentj, {in Britain) ftenj. 

fleur-de-lis n. iris [also, formerly, spelt fleur-de-lys; syn- 
onymous cognate flower-de-luce; ploral fleurs-de-lis} fteie- 
di'hi, (often, especially anteriorly) 'ftBir-di-H, 'iiLSiz-dl-i. 

fleur V. (preterit of fly) fz.uu. 

flexible adj. (pliable; pliant) 'fLekss-bd!. 

flexile adj, flexible, pliant; mobile [also spelt flexil} 'f2.ek- 
sil. 

flexion n. bending, curvature [also, except in the physiolog- 
ic sense, spelt flection} 'fLckJan. 

flexuose adj, (flexuous, winding) ftekJu'DOs, (assumptivly) 
'ftekju-os; (also) fteksQu'Dos, (assumptivly) 'fteksQU-os. 

flibbertig^ibbet n. (imp; flighty person) 'ftibarti-dsibit. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress qn the following syllable, 



214 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

flier n. see flyer, 

fliglit «. (action of flying; series of stairs) fLait. 

flight n. (action of fleeing; hasty departure) fz.ait. 

flimsy ad], (frail; paltry) 'ftimzi; (dialectally) 'ftimsi, 
'ftimpsi. 

flinoh V. (give way; shrink; wince) f2.intS, (also, and in 
Britain normally) ftinj. 

flippant adj. (talkativ and forward) 'fz^ipsnt. 

flitoh. n. (side of bacon ; halibut steak ; plank, slab) fLit^. 

floatage n. action of floating; flotsam; floating vessels col- 
lectivly; buoyancy; that part of a ship above the water-line 
[also spelt flotage] 'ftoo-tids. 

floooi n. (ploral of floccus) 'ftek-sai. 

floooose adj. fz^e^koos, (assumptivly) 'fz.e-kos. 

floooulose adj. fLokgolDos, (assumptivly) 'ftekgo-los. 

flooous n. flock, tuft [ploral floccil 'ftekas. 

floe n. (sheet of floating ice ; ice-floe) ftDo. 

flookan n. cross-course of clay [also spelt flucan; synony- 
mous cognate flooking"} 'ftou-kan. 

floor n. fz.3:?, fL33. 

flora n. the total of the plant life of a region or period [plor- 
al florae, floras'] 'ii^oi-z^. 

floral adj. (of a flower or flowers ; of a flora) 'f toi-^al ; (im- 
properly) 'fte^al. 

Florentine adj. (of Florence, Italy) 'fte^an-tin, 'fte^an-tin, 
'fi.e?3n-tain. 

floresoenoe n. (flowering; flowers collectivly) fta'^esans, 
fto'^esans. 

floret n. (little flower; floweret) 'ftoi-^it. 

floriated adj. decorated with floral ornament [also spelt 
floreatedl 'fLoi-^i-etid. 

florionltnre n. 'fte^i-kAltSa?, 'f tor-^i-kAltSa^ ; fte^I'kAU9^^. 

florid adj. (flowery; rosy; blooming) 'fLO^id; (improperly) 

floridity «. (floridness) fta'^idi-ti, fLoVidi-ti, fto'^idi-ti. 
florin n. (gold coin) 'fte^in; (improperly) 'fLo:-^in. 
florist n. (flower-grower, flower-dealer) 'fi^e^ist, 'ftor-rist. 
floss n. (floss-silk; stuff) fz.0:s, (rarely) ftes. 
flotation n. action of floating [also spelt floatation] flo'tee- 

San. 
flotsam n. floating wreckage [also, formerly, spelt flotzam, 

flotsom, flotsome, flotsum; synonymous cognate flotson] 

'fLotsam. 

i ye, gcure; b the, 9 f/tin; 3 a^rure, dj/oy; ^ shoe, tj c/rew; 
iDw^en; qsin^; u whoever, i r^act. o full, ou fool, i it, lis^e; 
o poetic; a ov^r, e oerial, Ab«t, o: door, oo no, e bed, eegate.* 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 215 

flour n, (fine meal ; powder) ilaoz. 

tlovr n, (streaming; current) fLOO. 

floirer n, (blossom) 'ftau-a^, {often) 'ftaoe. 

fine n. fishing-net, flue-net [also spelt flew'[ fz.uu. 

flue n. flocculent substance, as down; fluff Talso spelt flew'l 

fLOU. 

fine n. (a duct, as in a chimney) f2.ou. 

fine n. (the fluke of an anchor or harpoon) fz.uu. 

fluency n, (easy flow; readiness of utterance) 'ftou-an-si. 

fluid adj. (flowing; liquid or gaseous) 'f^ou-id. 

fluke n. flatfish; worm [also spelt flook} fmuk. 

fluke n. (triangular plate on the arm of an anchor ; barbd 

head) ftouk. 
flume n. (artificial water-channel; ravine with a stream iu 

it) ftoum. 
flunky n. male servant in livery [also spelt flunkey ; plural 

flunkies, flunkeys} 'fLAoki. 
fluoresoense n. (self-luminosity under the direct action of 

luminous and ultraviolet rays) fLU-a'resans. 
fluoric adj. (of fluor or fluor-spar) fi-u'e^ik. 
fluoride n. compound [also, sometimes, spelt fluorid} 'fi*ou- 

a-?aid, 'ftou-a-^id. 
fluorine n. element [also, sometimes, spelt fluorin\ 'fLuu-3- 

zin 'ftou-3-rain, 'fLou-a-^in. 
fluor-spar n. (fluorite, fluor) 'fi.ou-3?-spa:r. 
flute n. (wind-instrument) ftuut. 
flnviatile adj. of a river or rivers [also spelt fluviatil} 

'ftou-vi-3-til. 
flnxible adj. (fluid; fusible; fluctuating) 'ftAksa-bal. 
fly «. winged insect [plural flies} ftai. 
fly ». act of flying ; flight ; light carriage [ploral flies but, in 

the sense of carriage, flys} ftai. 
flyer n. bird, insect, or man that flies; flying-machine [also 

spelt flier} 'fi.ai-3^. 
foal n. (colt, filly) fool. 

focalize v. focus [also spelt focalise'\ 'foo-ka-laiz. 
foci n. (plural of focus) 'foo-sai. 
focus n. point of convergence; center of activity [ploral foci, 

focuses, focusses} 'foo-kas. 
focus V. converge [present participle focusing, focussing; 

past participle and preterit focused, focussed, focust} 'foo- 

kds. 
foetus n. 'fii-tas. see fetus. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
5trc8S-mark (') indicates chief stress on the fallowing syllable. 



216 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

fosy n. old-fashiond person; out-of-dater [also spelt fogey \ 
ploral fogiesi 'foo-gi. 

f ohn n. warm dry south wind in the valleys of the northern 
Alps [also spelt foehn, fdn\ foin. 

f oliaoeons adj. (leaf-like) foU'ee-^as. 

foliage n. (leafage) 'foo-li-ids; {rarely) 'fool-jids. 

folio n. leaf of paper, etc.; book-leaf; page-number [ploral 
folios'^ 'foo-li-o, 'fool-JD. 

foment n. (warm lotion; fomentation) 'foo-ment. 

foment v. (bathe with warm lotions; cherish; instigate) fo- 
'ment. 

fomentation n. fomsn'tee-Ssn. 

font n. (basin for baptismal water; fount, fountain) font. 

font n. (the act or process of casting; founding; also, a 
fount, or complete assortment of type of any one face) font. 

fontanel n. a space between bones or muscles; an outlet for 
the discharge of pus [also spelt fontanelle; synonymous cog- 
nate fontinell fenta'nel. 

fontinel n. (little fount or fountain; also, fontanel) 'fentx- 
nel. 

food n. (aliment; victuals) foud. 

foot n. pedal extremity ; base ; measure ; group of syllables 
[ploral feet, and, in the sense of bottoms, dregs, foots'} fot. 

foppery «. (coxcombry, dandyism) 'fep3-?i. 

for prep, (representing; in favor of; with a view to, etc.) 
fe:^, (when less sir est) for, i^z, iz. 

for conj. (for the reason that, because, since) ie'.z, {when less 
strest) {ez, fa?. 

forage n. (fodder, provender) 'fe^ids. 

foramen n. orifice, hole [ploral foramina} fa'ree-man. 

foramina n. (ploral of foramen) fa'raemi-na. 

foraminiferons adj, (having foramina) fd-rxmi'nifd-zss. 

foray n. (act of foraging; a raid) 'fe-^e, fo'?ee. 

forbad v. (preterit of forbid) fae'baed, i^z^hx'A, 

forbade v. far'baed, fa^/beed. same meaning as forbad. 

forbear n. forefather, ancestor [synonymous cognate fore- 
bear} for'be:?, 'io:z-hz'.z; iez'hz'.z. 

forbear v, refrain [past participle forborne \ preterit for- 
bore} fe^'be:?, i^^z:z. 

forbid V. bid not to do; prohibit [past participle forbidden, 
forbid \ preterit forbad, forbade} fa^'bid. 

forby prep, hard by, near; past; besides [also spelt forbye; 
synonymous cognate foreby} fa^'bai. 

i ye, Q cure ; d the, 9 thin;^ 5 azure, d$ joy; S shoe, tS chew; 
u) when ; 13 sin^; u whoever, i r^act, o full, ou {oo\, 1 it, 11 see; 
o poetic; 9 ov^r, e aerial, Abut, oidoor, 00 no, tied, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 217 

forliy adj, along, past; besides [also spelt forbye; syneny- 
mous cognate foreby'} fae'bai. 

forceable adj, (that may be forced) 'fo.'^-ss-bdl. 

forcedly adv. (in a forced manner) 'fD:?-si-dh. 

forcible adj, done by force; strong; telling [also, formerly, 
spelt forceablel 'foi^-sa-bal. 

fordo V, kill; do away with [synonymous cognate foredo} 
fes'dou. 

fore adj,,n, (front) ioiz. 

fore prep., adv. (before) io:z. 

n. (antebrachium) 'io:z-a:zm. 

V. (arm beforehand for attack) foz^aizm. 

forebear n. 'io:z-ht:Zf iozl>e:z, same meaning as forbear, 

foreby prep., adv. ioz^hai. same meaning as forby. 

forecast n. (foresight ; prudence ; predetermination ; prophe- 
cy) 'fo:c-ka:st. 

forecast v. cast or contrive beforehand ; predetermin [past 
participle and preterit forecast, forecastedl for'kaist. 

forecastle n. front deck; fore part of a ship [dialectal syn- 
onymous cognate fo'c'sle'\ 'foi^-kai-sal, foi^'kaesal; (dialec- 
tally) 'fook-sal, 'fook-sl. 

foredo v. fosr'duu. same meaning as fordo. 

forefatber n. (forbear, ancestor) ^io:z-ia:-d^z. 

forego V, (go before ; precede) fo^'goo. 

forego V. ioz' goo, same meaning as forgo, 

foregoing adj. (going before, preceding; antecedent) ioz- 
'goo-iq, (sometimes, assumptivly) ^ioiz-goo-ir). 

foregone adj. (that has gone before, past; former; prede- 
termind) for'goin, (assumptivly) ^io:z-gen. 

f orebead n. fore part of the head ; brow [also spelt forehedl 
'ferid; (rarely) 'foi^-hed. 

foreign adj, not one's own; alien [also spelt foren} 'fo^in, 
(assumptivly) 'fez^n. 

foreigner n. alien [also spelt forenerl 'iezi-nsz. 

foreignness n. [also spelt forenness} 'fenn-nis, 'foran-nis. 

forejudge' v. (judge beforehand) ioz'd$Ad$. 

forejudge' v, for'dsAds. same meaning as forjudge, 

forel n. parchment [also spelt forrel} 'iezsl. 

foreman n. leader; overseer [plural foremen} 'foizr-man. 

foremost adj., adv. (first) 'fo:?-most, 'foi^-mast. 

forenoon n. (morning) ioiz'noun, (assumptivly) 'foi^-nun. 

forensic adj, (of law-courts) fa'^ensik; (improperly) fa- 
'renzik. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat. o hot, ei hoy ; a: far, go now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



218 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 



foremju&er n. ^one who runs before: sign) fbrVAiiar, 'io'je- 

r.vnar. 

f oresmid adj. (aforsaid^ 'f9:r-sed. 

foresl&ado'W :-. ^prefigure, forecast) far'Sacdat 

foresluidcw n. (shadow cast before; antetype) 'forr-Scda. 

forest n. (wood: woodland district) 'forist; {diaiectaUy) 
'ferast. 

forever adz\ (for ever: always) fsr'evar, fes'evar; isomer 
times^ f^Vevar. {^rapidly, often) 'fscvar. 

f ore'woman n. head woman, as in a shop [ploral formvomtn} 
'fD:r-wo'r.;>n. 

foreword n. (preface) 'foir- weird. 

forfeit n. fine, penalty [also spplt forfiti 'ferfit. 

forfend z: forbid: avert; secure [synenymotis cognate far^- 
fcndl fer'fend. 

forgather ;*. encounter ; meet ; assemble [synenymons cog- 
nate foregather} fer\iaed^r. 

forge n,.z\ (smithy; hearth) forrds. 

forgeable adj. (capable of being forged) 'foir-dja-b^ 

forger n. (maker: one who forges metal; counterfeiter) 'fo:r- 
dsar. 

forgery «. forged document ; forging [ploral fargeriesj 'four- 
d50-ri. i^rafidly) 'f?:r-d3ri: {improperly) 'feis-ds^-cx. 

forget z'. (lose remembrance of. etc.) fDr'gct. 

forgo z: go by without claiming: renounce; quit [synony- 
mous cognate forego} for'goo. 

forgone z\ (pust participle of forgo) fer'getn. 

forjudge z: exclude, oust, or dispossess by a judgment; for- 
merly, prohibit, condemn judicially [synonymous cegnate 
forejudge} fe^r'd^Adj. 

forked adj. [also, sometimes, sprit forkt} fe:zkt, 'fe:7-kid. 

forlorn adj. (hopeless, desolate, wretched) i^zleizn. 

form n. (shape, etc.) fo:rm ; (dialectally) form. 

formalize 7'. make formal [also sprit formalise} 'fe:r-m3-}au« 

formally adz'. (in a formal manner) 'feir-ma-li. 

format n. (shape and size of a book) fDr'mo: . 

formate n. (salt of formic acid) 'fo:r-met. 'fe:r-mat. 

formerly adv. (at a former time ; in time past ; of old ; here- 
tofore) 'ferr-mar-h. 

formica n. (the ant) fer'mni-ka. 

formican adj, (of the ant) 'foir-mi-kan, fee'mai-lran. 

formidable adj. (hard to deal with, etc.) 'fe:z-mid9-bat, 
(rapidly) 'fermdo-bal; (vulgarly) for'mida-ba}. 

i ye, Qcure; bthe, 0f/iin; 3 airure, d.^/oy; ^ shoe, tlchew; 
wzvhen; t)sifig; u whoever, i rract, o full, oufool, i tt, lise^; 
o poetic; o ov^r, e oerial, Ab«t, o: door, oo no, eb^, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 219 

fommla n. set form of words; rule; recipe [plural formulae, 
formulas} 'fe:r-m jo-la. 

formulize v. (also, formerly, spelt formulisel 'fe;e-mjo-Iaiz. 

forprise v, take out; except, reserv [synonymous cognate 
foreprizel foe'psaiz. 

forsooth adv, (in truth; truly) faz'souG; {improperly) i^z- 
'soud. 

forspend v. spend completely; exhaust [synonymous cog- 
nate forespend} fee'spend. 

fors'wear v, (reject with an oath; abjure) foz'swe:?. 

fort n. (fortress, stronghold) fo:^t. 

f ortalice n. small fort or outwork [also spelt fortalisj 'fo:?- 
t9-hs. 

forte n. that in which one excels; the strong point of a per- 
son ; also, the strongest part of a sword-blade, as opposed 
to the foible [also, formerly, spelt fort"! io:zt. 

forte adj. (with force, loud) 'foir-ti. 

forthcoming adj, (about to come forth) ioizQ^kAmit), (oj- 
sumptivly) 'foi^G-kAmiij. 

forthright adv. (directly forward; straightway) 'fo:r0-?ait, 
fo:r9'rait. 

forthright adj. (proceeding directly forward; straightfor- 
ward) 'foirG-^ait. 

forthright n. (straight course) 'foizG-rait. 

f orthiiHth adv. (immediately ; at once) fo^G'wid, fozG'wiG, 
{anteriorly) 'fo:r0-wid, 'foreG-wiG. 

fortieth adj. 'fe^ti-30. 

fortissimo adj. (very loud) for'tisi-mo. 

fortnight n. (fourteen nights; two weeks) 'fort-nait, 'fozt- 
nit, 'fortNit. 

fortress n. (fortified place; stronghold) 'fe^tjis. 

f ortnitons adj. (chance, accidental, casual) fe^^ti^ou-i-tds. 

fortune n. (chance, hap, luck; wealth) 'fojtjan, {older) 
'fortgan. 

forty adj. (four times ten) 'fozrti. 

f omm n. (market-place ; court, tribunal) 'foi-ram. 

f onrard adj., adv., n. 'forr-ward. 

f or'ward v. (help forward ; assist ; send forward ; ship) 'fo:?- 
ward ; {less properly) ioz'y/e:zd. 

foss n. canal, ditch; pit, fossa [also spelt fossej fo:s, {rarely) 
fes. 

fossa n. pit, cavity, foss [ploral fossael 'fosa. 

fossil adj. (dug up; antiquated) 'fesi). 

c: law, b: f Mr, ae cat, o hot, oi hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
6tress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



220 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 



f OMilize V, [also spelt fossilise} 'fesi-laiz. 

foster V. (nurse; cherish; promote) 'fei-star, 'festdr. 

fought V, (past participle and preterit of fight) fc:t. 

foul adj. (of fensiv ; unfair) faol. 

foully adv, (in a foul manner) 'faol-li. 

foundry n. [synonymous cognate founderyl 'faon-dci. 

fount n. (fountain; source) faont. 

fonnt n. (a font or complete assortment of type of any one 

face) faont. 
fountain n. (spring, etc.) 'faon-tin, 'faon-tn. 
four adj.f n. (numeral) io:z. 
fourchette n. (fork, etc.) foz'Set. 
fourscore adj. (four times twenty) {oiz'skDiz, {assumpHvly) 

^io:z-sko:z. 
fourteen adj.,n. fnz'tiin, {anteriorly; by contrast) 'fo:r-tin. 
fovea n. depression, pit [ploral foveael 'foo-vi-d. 
foveola n. small fovea [ploral foveolael fo'vii-a-la. 
foveolate adj. (having foveolae; pitted) 'foo-vi-a-let, (/#« 

often) fo'vii-3-let. 
fo'wl n. (bird) foul. 
foyer n. (retiring-room or lobby in a theater) fiua'jee, fwe- 

'jee, {less properly) 'foo-jar. 
fracas n. (disturbance ; row) 'f^ee-kss, {less often) f'SxHai: , 

fsa'ka: . 
fractious adj. (unruly) 'f^aekjas. 
fraenulum n. see frenulum. 
fragile adj. liable to break [also, sometimes, spelt fragUl 

'fsaedsil, (rarely) 'izst-d^Qih 
fragmental adj. (fragmentary) fsaeg'mentl, 'f^segman-t}. 
fragmentary adj. (composed of fragments) 'f^aegman-te?! ; 

{less properly) izxg'ment^-zi. 
fragrant adj. (sweet-smelling) 'fsee-grant. 
framable adj. capable of being framed [also spelt frameable] 

'fsee-mo-bal. 
franc n. coin [also, formerly, spelt frank} fsaeqk. 
francMse n. (freedom; privilege; citizenship) 'fsa:n-t$aiz, 

'fsaen-tjaiz ; 'f^a:n-tSiz, 'fsaentSiz. 
franchisment n. (enfranchisement) 'fsain-tjis-mant, 'f^atn- 

tSiz-mant, 'fTsain-tSaiz-mant, 'fsaentSis-mant, 'fsaentSiz-msnt, 

'f 3aen-tS ai z-mant. 
francolin n. (partridge) 'fsaeqka-hn. 
frangible adj. (breakable) 'fTsaendsa-baJ. 
frang^pane n. (perfume etc.) 'f^aendji-pen. 

j ye, gcure; 5 */te, */iin; 3 asure, ds/oy; Isho^, tScAew; 
U) when ; q sin^ ; u whoever, i r£?act, o f «11, ou fool, i tt, li see ; 
o poetic; 3 ov^r, e aerial, xbwt, o: door, 00 no, e b^ d, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 221 



frang^pani n. perfume [synonymous cognate frangipannQ 

f3aend3i'pa:-ni. 
frangipanni n. izxndzi'pxni. same meaning as frangi- 

pani. 
Frank n. (a member of a certain body of Germanic tribes) 

fsaeqk. 
frank n. (the signature of a person privileged to send mail- 
matter free) f^aeqk. 
frankalmoin n. free almoin [also spelt frankalmoign, frank- 

almoignel 'fsaeijkael-mein. 
frankincense n. (aromatic gum-resin; tree) 'fsaeqkin-sens. 
f rapp6 adj. (iced ; coold ; frozen) fsae'pee. 
frate n. friar [plural frati} 'fsa:-ti. 
frater n. (refectory) 'fzree-tae. 
frater n. (brother, comrade) 'fsee-taz. 

fraternal adj. (of a brother; brotherly) fsa'ternl, fsa'teir-n!. 
fraternize v. associate as a brother or brothers [also spelt 

fraternise'^ 'fsaeta^-naiz, 'fsee-tar-naiz, {rarely) fTsa'tee-naiz. 
fratricidal adj. (that kills his brother; of fratricide) 

'fsaetji-sai-dl, 'fsee-tji-sai-dl. 
fraudulent adj, (guilty of fraud ; dishonest) 'fsci-dso-lant, 

'fsci-djo-lant. 
fraught adj. (freighted, laden, replete) fsc:t. 
fraulein n. (young lady; miss) 'f^ei-tain. 
freak n. (whim ; vagary ; caper) f^iik. 

freemason n. (member of the fraternity called Free and Ac- 
cepted Masons) 'fsii-mee-san, fsii'mee-san. 
free-spoken adj. (free of speech ; outspoken) fTsii'spoo-kan, 

(assumptivly) 'fsii-spoo-kan. 
f^ee^Hll adj. (voluntary) f^ii'wil, {assumptivly) 'fsii-wil. 
free xriVl n, (will that is free ; voluntary action) fsii'wil. 
freeze v. congeal [past participle frozen \ preterit frosej 

fsiiz. 
freight n. (vessel-hire; transport-price; cargo; lading) 

fseet. 
freighter n. (shipper; freight-ship) 'fsee-tar. 
French adj., n. f^entS, (in Britain) fsenj. 
frenetic adj. frantic; fanatic [also spelt phreneticj fsi- 

'netik; (formerly) 'f^eni-tik. 
frenulum n. frenum, frenula [also spelt fraenulum ; ploral 

frenulal 'fsenjo-lam, 'f^ii-njo-lam. 
frenum n. restraining-ligament [also spelt fraenum; ploral 

frena] 'fsii-nam. 

c: \au\ b: iuv, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy. a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai kite; 
Irngth-mork (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



222 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

frenzy n. distraction; craziness [also, formerly, spelt frensy, 

phremy, phrensyl 'fsenzi. 
frequent adj. (full; numerous; usual; addicted to) 'fsii- 

kwant. 
f reqnent v. (visit often ; resort to) fsilciucnt 
freqnentage n. (practis of frequenting) 'fsii-kwsn-tids, fsi- 

'kujentids. 
frequentative adj. expressiv of frequent repetition of ac- 
tion [also spelt frequentativl fsi'kiuenta-tiv. 
frequenter n. (one who frequents) fsi'ktuents^. 
frequently adv. (at frequent intervals; often) 'f3ii-ku)3n-tti. 
fresco «. water-color painting on a fresh or wet wall, etc. 

[plural frescos, frescoes^ 'fsesko, 'fses-ko. 
fresco V. (paint in fresco) 'f^esko. 
fresison n. fifth mood of the fourth figure of syllogism 

[synonymous cognate frensison} f^i'sai-ssn, fsi'sax-son. 
fret n. interlaced work; net [also, formerly, spelt frettel 

izet. 
fretful adj. (apt to fret; peevish; troubled; gusty) 'f3Ctf»l. 
frette n, (a ring or band around a cannon) fset. 
friar n. brother of a religious order; bird [also, fermerly, 

spelt frierl '{sai-^z, fsair. * 

fricandeau n. fricassee of veal; collop [ploral fricandeauxl 

fsikan'doo. 
fricassee n. (meat dish) fsika'sii, {anteriorly) 'fsika-si. 
Friday n. (day of the week) 'fsai-di. 
friend n. (intimate ; ally) f^end. 

Friesian n. 'fsii-san, 'fsii-zi-an. same meaning as Frisian. 
frieze n. (that part of an entablature which is between the 

architrave and cornis [also, fermerly, spelt frise, frieel 

fsiiz. 
fright n. (sudden fear; grotesque person or thing) f^ait. 
frijoles n. pi, (Mexican kidney-beans) fsi'hoo-liz. 
friseur n. hairdresser [also spelt friceur'i fsi'zeiz. 
Frisian n. nativ of Friesland ; Friese [synonymous cognate 

Friesian'i 'fsi33n, 'fsizi-an. 
frivolity n. (levity) fsi'veh-ti. 
frivolize v. render frivolous [also spelt frivolisel 'fsivs- 

laiz. 
f rizette n. small friz ; curly bang [also spelt frisette, frisetti 

fsi'zet. 
frizz V, curl, crisp, etc. [also spelt friz; past participle and 

preterit frizzed, frizd'\ fsiz. 

j ye, g cure; 5 */ie, 9 thin;^ 3 arure, ds /oy ; $ shoe, tS c/iew; 
wwAen; q sin^; u whoever, i r^act, o full, ou fool, i «t, lis^^; 
o poetic ; 9 ov^r, e aerial, a b«t, o: door, 00 no, e b^d, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 223 

frolic V. [present participle frolicking ; past participle and 

preterit frolicked, frolict] 'izelik. 
frolicsome adj. full of frolic; gay [also, formerly, spelt f rel- 
ic ksome} 'fsehk-sam. 
from prep, fsam, (when unstrest) fsam. 
frondose adj. (covered with fronds; frond-like) fsen'doos, 

(assumptivly) 'fsen-dos. 
frons n. forehead, front [plural front esl fsenz. 
frontal adj, (of the forehead; of the front) 'fsAntI, 'fsentl; 

'fsAntal, 'frontal. 
frontate adj. (growing broader and broader, as a leaf; hav- 
ing a prominent frons or forehead) 'fsAn-tet, 'fsen-tet. 
frontier n., v. (border, etc.) 'fsAn-ti:^, 'fsen-ti:?, fsan'ti:?, 

fsen'tire, 'fsen-tgi:?. 
frontiersman n. [plural frontiersmenH 'fsAn-tnez-man, 'fsen- 

ti:2z-man, fran'tiiez-man. 
frontispiece n. . (f agadc ; print in front of the title of a 

book) 'fsAntis-piis, 'fsentis-piis. 
frontlet n. (something worn on the forehead) 'fsAntldt. 
fronton n. (pediment) 'fsAntan, 'fsen-ten. 
frontonasal adj. (nasofrontal) fsento'nee-zdl. 
frost n. (freezing; hoar-frost) fseist, fsest; (dialectally) 

izcist. 
froth n. (foam, spume) fseiG, fseG ; {dialectally) f3c:0. 
fro'W n. Dutchwoman; woman; wife [also, formerly, some- 
times, spelt fro, froel fsao, fsoo. 
fro'ward adj. (perverse) 'fsDO-a^d, 'fsDO-wa^d. 
fro'wzy adj. ill-smelling*; unkempt, blowzy [also spelt frowsy, 

frousy, frousyl 'izau-zi. 
fmctiferous adj. (bearing fruit) fsAk'tifa-ras. 
f rnit n. (vegetable products collectivly ; seed, etc. ; offspring ; 

issue ; result) fsout. 
fmition n. (enjoyment; a coming into fruit) fsu'ijan. 
fmmenty n. huld-wheat dish [synonymous cognates fru- 

mety, furmenty, furmetyl 'fsou-man-ti. 
fmstnm n. part of a solid left after cutting off the top; 
fragment [erroneous synonymous cognate frustrum; plural 
frusta, frustums^ 'fsAstam. 
fmticose adj. (of the nature of a frutex or shrub; shrubby) 

fsuti'koos, (asstimptivly) 'f3ou-ti-kos. 
fnchsia n. (shrub) 'fiou-Ja, 'fiou-Ji-a, 'fouk-si-a. 
fnchsin n. anilin dye [also spelt fuchsinel 'fouk-sin. 
fncns n. seaweed [plural fucil 'fiou-kas. 

c: law, b: f Mr, ae cat, o hot, oi hoy ; a: far, au now, a: osk, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable* 



224 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

fudge inter j. (bosh !) fxds. 

fudge V, (patch up; fake) fxds. 

fuel V. furnish with fuel [past participle and preterit fuel- 
led, fueled, fueld} 'fiou-aL 

fngato n. piece in fugue style [ploral fugatil fu'ga:-t3. 

fugleman n. model or leading soldier [also spelt fugelman; 
synonymous cognates flugleman, flugelman; ploral fugle- 
men\ 'fiou-gal-man. 

fug^e n. (polyphonic composition) fioug. 

fulcrum n. prop, support [ploral fulcra, fulcrumsl 'fxlksam. 

fulfil V. fill full ; complete [also spelt fulfill ; present parti- 
ciple fulfilling; past participle and preterit fulfilled, ful- 
fildl ioViih 

fulfilment n. forfilmsnt. 

fulgent adj. (shining, dazzling; having rays) 'f^ds^nt. 

fulg^d adj. (flashing; fiery red) 'fAldsid. 

f ulgor n, a flashing light ; dazzling brightness ; splendor [al- 
so spelt fulgourl 'fxlgaz:. 

full-blooded adj. fol'blAdid, (assumptivly) 'fot-Uxdid. 

fulmar n. (sea-bird) 'fohna?, 'fAlms?. 

fulminate v. (lighten; thunder forth) 'fAlmi-net. 

fulmine v. fulminate [also spelt fulmin; past participle ful- 
mined, fulmindl 'fAlmin. 

fulness n. state of being full; completeness [also spelt full- 
nessi 'fulnis. 

fulsome adj. (offensiv, gross, coarse) 'fAlsam. 

fumaric adj, (of fumitory) fio'maerik. 

fumarole n. smoke-hole [also spelt fumarol, fumerolel 'fiou- 
ma-rol. 

fumet n. dung of a deer [also, formerly, spelt fewmetl 'fiou- 
met. 

fumette n. (obsolete) smell of game when high; game-fla- 
vor [also spelt fumetl fio'met. 

fumigate v. (apply fumes to; disinfect; perfume) 'fiou-mi- 
get. 

fumose adj, (full of fumes) fiu'moos, (assumptivly) 'fiou- 
mos. 

funebral adj. (obsolete) 'fiou-ni-bral, fio'nii-b^al. same 
meaning as funebrial. 

funebrial adj. of funerals ; sad [former synonymous cog- 
nate funebral"] fio'nii-bri-sl. 

funeral n. (burial ceremony; obsequies) 'fiou-na-ral. 

funereal adj. (of a funeral; mournful) fio'nir-n-al. 

j .ve, Qcure; bthe, 0*Mn; sarure, dj/oy; I shoe, tScAew; 
ID te'i^en ; q sin^;; u whoever, i r^act, o fwll, ou fool, i it, li see; 
o poetic; dov^r, e aerial, Abut, o: door, oono, e b^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 225 

f miest adj. (boding death) fio'nest. 

fnngal adj. (of a fungus) 'fAijgdL 

fung^ n. (ploral of fungus) 'fAn-dsai. 

fungible adj. (replaceable, etc.) 'fAndsa-bs). 

tuugifoTm adj. (having the form of a fungus) 'fxndsi- 

ieizm, 
fnngin n. fungus-cellulose [also spelt fungine} 'fAndsin. 
fnngoid adj. (like a fungus) 'fAg-geid. 
fungous adj. (of fungi; spongy) 'fAi]gas. 
fungus n. mushroom ; spongy growth [plural fungij 'f aq- 

gas. 
funicle n, (small cord; funiculus) 'fiou-ni-kdL 
funis n. (umbilical cord) 'fiuu-nis. 
funnel n. (filler) 'fAnal, f AnL 

funneled adj. [also spelt funnelled, funneldl 'fAnsM, 'fAnM. 
fur n. pelage [ploral furs} iBiz. 
furbelo'W n. (flounce) 'fei^-bi-lo. 
furfur n. dandruff, scurf [ploral furfuresi 'i^zi^z, 
furfuraceous adj. (bran-like; scurfy) fezfiu'^ee-^as. 
furfures n. (ploral of furfur) 'ferfa-^iz. 
furibund adj. (furious, raging, mad) 'fio:-ei-bAnd. 
furlougli n. leave of absence [also spelt furlo} 'iB'.z-lo. 
f urloughed adj. having a furlo ; inactiv [also spelt furloedl 

'feizr-lod. 
furnace n. (heating-apparatus) 'fezmis, 'feiz-nis. 
furniture n. (equipment; movables) 'feeni-tSar, {older) 

'fBzrni-tgaz. 
furor n. (fury; craze) 'i\o'.-zQz. 
furore n. fu're:-ri. same meaning as furor. 
furrier n. (fur-dealer; fur-dresser) 'feri-a^, *i\z\-^z, 
furro'W n. (narrow trench) 'ferD, 'fA^D; (dialectally) 'fAes. 
furry adj. (of fur; furred) 'fo^i, 'fei-ei. 
furs n. (ploral of fur) foirz. 

further adv. (comparativ of far) 'ferbar, 'fere-dae. 
furuncle n. (boil) 'fiui-^Aijkal. 
fury n. wild anger; rage [ploral furiesl 'i'w:-zi. 
furze n. (a shrub, Ulex europaeus ; gorse, whin) {b:zz. 
fuscous adj. (dusky; brown) 'fAskas. 
fuse n, tube or cord of ignition [also spelt fusel fiouz. 
fuse V. furnish with a fuse of ignition [also spelt fusel fiouz. 
fuse V. (melt) fiouz. 

fusee n. pulley; match [also spelt fusee"] fio'zii. 
fusel-oil n. (grain-oil) 'fiou-zal-eil, 'fiou-sal-eil. 

c: law, b: f Mr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: for, ao now, a: ask, ax kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



226 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

fusible adj, capable of being fused or melted [also, former- 
ly, spelt fusable'l 'fiou-zd-bdl. 
fusiform adj. (spindle-shaped) 'fiou-zi-fe:7m, 'fiou-8i-fe:nn. 
fusil n. (heraldic bearing) 'fiou-zxt. 
fusil n. flint-lock musket [also, formerly, spelt fusil^ 'fiavt- 

zit. 
fusile adj. fusible; cast [also, sometimes, spelt fusill 'fiou- 

zil, 'fiou-zail. 
fusileer n. soldier [also spelt fusilierl fiuzili:?. 
fusillade n. simultaneous discharge of firearms [also spelt 

fusiladel fiuzi'leed. 
fusion n. (melting) 'fiou-59n. 

fusoid adj. (fusiform; spindle-shaped) 'fiou-zeid, 'fiou-sezd. 
fustion n. (cotton cloth) 'fAst^sn, 'fAJtSsn, 'fAstgan. 
f uthork n. the Runic alfabet [also spelt futhorc ; synonymous 

cognate futharkl 'fou-9ez:k. 
futile adj. useless, vain [also, sometimes, spelt futill 'fiou- 

til, (m Britain, often) 'fiou-tail. 
future adj. (that is to be; hereafter) 'fiou-tSae, (older) 'fiou- 

tgae. 
fusz n. (downy or fluffy matter) fAz. 

fuzzball n. puffball [synonymous cognate fussballl 'fAz-bc:L 
fylfot n. cross cramponnee; gammadion [also spelt filfotl 
. 'fil-fet. 
fyrd n. (entire Anglo-saxon land forces) fsizd, fi:?d. 



gabbronite n. fuscite [also spelt gabronitel 'gsebzs-nait. 
gabel V. obsolete (mark on the ear, as sheep) 'gee-bal. 
gabelle n. tax [also, formerly, spelt gabel, gabellj gs'be}. 
gaberdine n. garment [also, formerly, spelt gabardine"} 

gaebar'diin, 'gaebar-din. 
gabionade n. a work formd of gabions [also spelt gabion^ 

nadel gcbi-a'need, 'gee-bi-3-ned. 
Gadbelic adj, Gaelic [synonymous cognate Gaedhlic'] ga- 

'dehk, 'gaedi-hk. 
gadoid adj, (like gadus or cod) 'gee-deid. 
Gaelic adj, (of the Gaels, a Celtic race of the highlands of 

Scotland) 'gee-hk, (less often) 'gee-a-hk; (improperly) 'ga:- 

hk. 
gage n„ v. (pledge) geeds. 
gage v., n. measure [also spelt gauge"] geeds. 

j ye, gcure; b the, 0*/iin; 3 axrure, ds/oy; I shoe, tScfcew; 
u) when ; q sin^; u whoever, i r£?act, o full, ou tool, i tt, li see; 
o poetic ; 9 over, e aerial, a but, o: door, oo no, e bed, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 227 

n. (plum) geeds. 

gageable adj, measurable [also spelt gaugeable} 'gee-dsd-bsl. 

gaged adj. adjusted [also spelt gauged} geedsd. 

gager n. one who gages; exciseman [also spelt gaugerJi 'gee- 
d33^. 

gaging n. measuring [also spelt gauging} 'gee-dsig. 

gaiety n. mirth, festivity [also spelt gaycty] 'gee-i-ti. 

gaillardia n. (plant) ge'la:z-di-3, gaerja:r-di-d. 

gaily adv. in a gay manner [also spelt gayly} 'gee-li. 

gainsaid v. (past participle and preterit of gainsay) 'geen- 
sed, geen'sed, 'geen-seed, geen'seed. 

gainsay v. deny ; oppose [past participle and preterit gain- 
said and, rarely, gainsayed} 'geen-see, geen'see. 

gainsay n. (contradiction) 'geen-see. 

gainsayer n. (one who gainsays) 'geen-see-3e, gcen'see-ar. 

gainsajring n. (contradiction) 'geen-see-iij, geen'see-iq, 

gainst prep, against [also spelt 'gainsti genst, geenst. 

gairisli adj. 'ge:-riS. see garish, 

gait n. (manner of walking or stepping) geet. 

gala n. (festivity) 'gee-la. 

gala n. (textil fabric) 'gaela, 'gai-la. 

galangal n. gd'lxggdl, 'gaelan-gaL same meaning as galin- 
gale. 

galaxy n. the Milky Way [plural galaxies} 'gaelak-si. 

galea n. helmet-like part [plural galeae} 'gee-H-3. 

galeate adj. (helmet-like; furnisht with a galea) 'gce-li-ct, 
'gaeli-et. 

Galilean adj, (of Galilee; also, of Galileo Galilei) gaeh'iii-dn. 

galingale n, aromatic root ; sedge [synonymous cognates ga- 
langal, galanga} 'gaelin-gel, 'gaehij-gcJ. 

galipot n. resin [also spelt gallipot} 'gaeh-pet. 

gallant adj. (gay, showy; brave, heroic; chivalrous) 'gaclant; 
(courtly; aniorous) ga'laent, ga'laint, ga'laint; 'gaelant. 

gallant n. (brave man; doughty knight) 'gaelsnt; (man who 
is particularly attentiv to women ; ladies' man ; rake, liber- 
tin) ga'laent, 'gaelant. 

gallant v, (play the dandy ; cut a dash ; make fine ; deck 
out) 'gaelant; (play the flirt; dally or flirt with) ga'laent. 

gallantize v, play the gallant ; play the gallant to [also spelt 
gallanttse} 'gaelan-taiz. 

gallantly adv. (gaily, showily; bravely, with spirit, heroi- 
cally) 'gaelan-tLi ; (curteously, politely, attentivly) gd'iaentM, 
'gaelan-tLi. 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, e hot, oi hoy, a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai kite; 

length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 

tress-mark {') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



228 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

gallantry n. bravery; a curtesy [plural gallantries'^ 'gaelan- 
tji. 

galleon n. war-ship [also, formerly, spelt galeon; former 
synonymous cognate galloon} 'gaeli-an. 

gallery n. piazza; balcony; passage [plural galleries'} 'gaeJ^- 
ri, (rapidly) 'gael^i. 

galley n. vessel, barge ; type-tray [plural galleys and, former- 
ly, gal'iesj 'gaeh. 

galleywom& n. iulus [also spelt gallyworm} 'gaeh-WB:2rm. 

galliardise n. gaiety [also spelt galliardize} 'gaehaz-daiz. 

galliass n. low-built vessel [also spelt galleass} 'gseli-aes. 

Gallic ad], (of Gaul or France) 'gaehk. 

gallic adj, (of oak-galls, etc.) 'gaehk, 'gc:-hk. 

Gallicism n. (French idiom) 'gaeh-sizam. 

Gallicize v. become Gallic; Frenchify [also spelt Gallicisel 
'gxh-saiz. 

galligaskin n. breeches; hose [often used in the plural; 
also spelt gallygaskin, galigaskin} gseh'gaeskin. 

gallimaufry n. hodgepodge, ragout [also spelt gallimaufrey, 
gallimawfry ; plural gallimaufries} gaeh'mci-fsi. 

galliot n. small galley [also spelt galiot} 'gxH-3t. 

gallipot n. pot or vessel used by druggists [also, formerly, 
spelt gallypot, galipot, galliepot} 'gaeh-pot. 

gallivant v, gad about ; flirt [also spelt galivant ; synony- 
mous cognates gallavant, galavant} gaeh'vaent, 'gaeh-vaent. 

gallize V. treat (grape-juice) with water and sugar after the 
method of L. Gall [synonymous cognate gallisize} 'gae-laiz. 

gallon n. (measure) 'gaebn. 

galloon n. (braid, lace) gsluun. 

gallop n. (leaping gait of a horse) 'gaebp. 

gallo-ws n. (hanging-apparatus) 'gaeloz, 'gaelas. 

gallcws adj. fit for the gallows; wicked [also, sometimes, 
spelt gallus} 'gaeloz, 'gaelas. 

gallcws adv. extremely, very, jolly, mighty [also, sometimes, 
spelt gallus} 'gaeloz, 'gaelas. 

galop n. (dance) 'gaebp, 'gaelo; (improperly) gae'lop. 

galore adv, (in abundance; in plenty) g^'loiz. 

galosh n. wooden shoe or sandal; overshoe [also spelt go- 
loche, golosh; plural galoshes} galoS. 

gait n. clay; division of Upper Cretaceous series [synony- 
mous cognates gault, golt} gc:lt. 

galvanize v. apply a galvanic current to ; electroplate [also 
spelt galvanise} 'gaelva-naiz. 

j ye, gcure; hthe, 9fMn; sarure, ds/oy; S j/toe, tjc/tew; 
luw^en; T]s\ng\ u whoever, i r^act, o f«ll, ou f ool, i »t, lis^^; 
poetic ; 9 over, e aerietl^ A b«t, o: door, oo no, e bed, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 229 



gamble v. (play at a game of chance for a stake) 'gsembd!. 

gamboge n. gum-resin ; plant [also, sometimes, spelt gam- 
hooge\ gaem'bDods, gaem'bouds. 

gambol V. skip about, caper [present participle gamboltng, 
gambolling ; past participle and preterit gamboled, gambol' 
led, gambold} 'gaembal. 

gamete n. (conjugation-cell) 'gae-mit, gae'miit. 

gamin n. (street Arab) 'gsemin. 

gammon n. (humbug, rubbish) 'gsemsn. 

gamnt n. (note ; scale ; key) 'gaemat. 

gamy adj. (having the flavor of game; plucky) 'gce-mi. 

ganglion n. nerve-knot, nerve-center [ploral ganglia, gangli- 
ons} 'gaeqgli-an. 

gangrene n. (necrosis, etc.) 'gaeq-gnn ; (less properly) 'gaen- 
gein. 

gangrenous adj, (affected with gangrene; mortified) 'gaeq- 
g^i-nas. 

gang^e n, veinstone [also spelt gangl gaeq. 

gantlet n. 'ga:n-tz.3t, 'ga:n-tz-3t, 'gc:n-tz.3t. see gauntlet. 

gantlope n. [also, formerly, spelt gantelopi 'gaent-lop. same 
meaning as gauntlet.^ 

gantry n. barrel-stand ; crane-platform [synonymous cog- 
nates gantree, gauntry, gauntree, gawntreel 'gaentji, 

gaol n. dseel. same meaning as jail, 

gap n. (breach, opening, vacant space) gaep. 

gap V. notch; jog [present participle gapping; past participle 
and preterit gapped, gapt"] gaep. 

gape V. yawn [present participle gaping; past participle and 
preterit gaped} ga:p, ga:p, gae:p, (rarely) geep. 

garage n. (housing-place for automobiles, etc.) ga'zaids, 
ga'^ars, 'gai-nds; (also, and in Britain usually) 'gae^ids. 

garb n, sheaf, bundle [also spelt garbel ga'.zh. 

gargon n. (boy, waiter) ga^'seq. 

garden n. (flower-garden ; vegetable-patch) 'ga:^-dn ; (dialeC' 
tally) 'ga:2:-din. 

gardener n. (one ho tends a garden) 'ga:^-dn-32, (some- 
times) 'ga:r-dn3^. 

gardenia n. (tree, shrub) gar'dii-ni-a. 

garget n. (disease in cattle and pigs) 'ga:r-git. 

gargil n. (dialectal) disease in cattle, pigs, and geese [synony- 
mous cognate gargle} 'ga:?-giL 

gargle v, (wash or rinse the throat with a liquid kept sus- 
pended by expiration of air) 'garr-gah 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, 6 hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite; 
Irngth-mark (:) indicates that the precedinjpf sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



230 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

gargoyle n. grotesque spout, etc. [synonymous cognate gur- 

goylel 'ga:e-geil. 
garibaldi n. (blouse; hat) gsezi'baeldi, ga7i'ba:t-di, gaeei'bc:}- 

di. 
garish adj, showy, gaudy; glaring [also spelt gairish'] 'ge:- 

garlic n. plant [also, formerly, spelt garlick"] ^gaizAik. 

garlicky adj, (savoring of garlic) 'ga:e-h-ki. 

garrot n. sea-duck [also spelt garrotti 'gaeeat. 

garrot n. (lever; surgical instrument) 'gae^at. 

garrote n„ v. [also spelt garote'\ gs'root, g^'zet. same mean- 
ing as garrotte, 

garrotte n. mode of capital punishment; highway robbery 
performed by throttling the victim [also spelt garotte; syn- 
onymous cognates garrote, garote'\ ga'eot. 

garrotte v, put to death ; strangle ; cheat at cards [also spelt 
garotte I synonymous cognates garrote, garotel ga'eet. 

garmlity n. (loquaciousness) g9'?ou-h-ti. 

garrulous adj. (loquacious, talkativ) 'gxzs-lds, 

gas n. aeriform fluid [plural gasesi gaes, gaeis, (rarely) garz. 

gas V. supply, light, or treat with gas; indulge in empty talk 
[present participle gassing; past participle and preterit 
gassed, gasfl gaes, gaeis. 

gasconade n. (vaunt; bravado) gaeskd'need. 

gaselier n. cluster of gas-burners; gas chandelier [also spelt 
gasalierl gaesali:?. 

gaseous adj. (having the nature of gas) 'gaesi-as, 'gce-si-as, 
'gaezi-9s, 'gee-zi-3s. 

gasogene n. 'gaesd-dsin. same meaning as gazogene. 

gasoline n. volatil liquid from petroleum [also, sometimes, 
spelt gasolene, gasoleine, gasolinej 'gaesa-lin, 'gaesa-lin, 
'gaez9-Hn, 'gaeza-hn. 

gasometer n. gas-holder; gas-tank [former synonymous cog- 
nate gasometer^ gaes'omi-tae, gae'somi-tar ; {less properly) 
gae'zomi-tar. 

gasp V. catch the breath with open mouth [past participle 
and preterit gasped, gaspt} ga:sp, ga:sp, gae:sp. 

gastraea n. gastrula; sac-like animal [ploral gastraeael gaes- 
'tEii-3. 

gastritis n. (inflammation of the stomach) gaes't£ai-tis. 

gastropod n. ventral-footed animal [synonymous cognate 
gasteropodi 'gaestj3-ped. 

gastmla n. metazoic germ-cup [ploral gastrulael 'gaestja-la. 

j ye, gcure; bthe, *Mn; 5 a.srure, d$Joy; ^shoe, tScfcew; 
ID when; q sin^; u whoever, i r^act, o full, ou fool, i it, li seel 
o poetic; dov^r, e aerial, a but, o: door, 00 no, eb^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 231 

sate n. (gateway; openwork door) geet. 

gauoherie n. (awkwardness) go^d'^ii, 'goo-^s-zi. 

Gancho n. (nativ of the pampas of South America, of Span- 
ish descent) 'gao-tSo, 'gc:-tSo. 

gauge v., n. geeds. see gage. 

gaunt adj, (lean, haggard) gc:nt, ga:nt, ga:nt. 

gauntlet^ n. glove [also, sometimes, spelt gantletl 'gc:n-tz.9t, 
'ga:n-tz-3t, 'ga:n-tz.3t. 

gauntlet' n. military punishment, the running of the gaunt- 
let [also spelt gantlet ; former synonymous cognate gant- 
lope, gant elope} 'gcin-ttat, 'ga:n-tz.3t, 'ga:n-ti-3t. 

gauntleted adj. [also spelt gauntletted} 'gc:n-tz.9-tid, 'ga:n- 
tL3-tid. 

ganntry n. 'gc:n-tji. same meaning as gantry. 

gavel n. (mallet used by a presiding officer) 'gaeval ; {improp- 
erly) 'gee-v3l. 

gavelkind n. (land-tenure) 'gaevsl-kaind. 

gavelock «, (spear, dart; crowbar) 'gaevi-lok, 'gaevi-lak; (im- 
properly) 'geev-lek. 

gavial n. nakoo, a saurian ; Gangetic crocodile [synonymous 
cognates garrhial, gharrial, ghyryall 'gee-vi-al. 

gavot n. dance [also spelt gavotte} 'gaev3t, ga'vot. 

ga'wk n. stupid, awkward person [also spelt gaukj gc:k. 

ga'wky adj, (of the nature of a gawk; ungainly) 'gc:-ki. 

gayal n. ox [also spelt gyal, gayall} 'gee-al, 'gai-al, ga'jaiJ. 

gayety n. see gaiety. 

gazel n. antelope [also spelt gazelle} gs'zeL 

gazel n. 'gsezdl. same meaning as ghasal, 

gazetteer n. (one who writes in a gazette; journalist; geo- 
graphic dictionary) gaezi'ti:^. 

gazogene n. gas-producing apparatus [synonymous cognate 
gasogene} 'gaeza-dsin. 

gecko n. house-lizard [also, formerly, spelt geco, gecco, gek- 
ko; ploral geckos, geckoes} 'geko. 

gee V. agree, fit [also spelt ge, jee} dsii. 

gee V. turn to the right [also spelt jee} dsii. 

Geez n. language of ancient Ethiopia [also spelt Gees; syn- 
onymous cognate *Gtr] gi'ez. 

geisha n. Japanese dancing-girl [plural geishas, geisha} 'gee- 

gelada n. (babboon) 'gela-ds. 

gelatinate v. (gelatinize) dsi'laetn-et, dsi'laeti-net, 'dselati- 
net. 

c: law, b: f mt, ae cat, o hot, oi boy ; a: for, ao now, a: osk, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



232 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

gelatine n. base of jellies [also, sometimes, spelt gelatin] 

'dsela-tn, 'dselo-tin, 'dsela-tin; {rarely) 'dseld-tain, d5et9- 

'tiin. 
gelatinize v. (become jelly; render jelly-like; coat with 

gelatin) dsi'lxtn-aiz, 'dsetdti-naiz. 
gelatinoid adj. O'e^ly-lil^e) dsilxtn-eid, Msetati-neid. 
Selatinons adj, (jelly-like; of gelatin) dsilaetn-as. 
geld V, (emasculate) geld. 
gelid adj. (cold; icy) 'dschd. 

gelose n. (agar-agar) dsiloos, (assumptivly) 'dsii-tos. 
gemel n. in ploral, twin barrulets; in singular, finger-ring 

[also spelt gemmel; synonymous cognate gimmall 'dsemat. 
gemellus n. one of a pair of muscles [ploral gemeiii] dji- 

'melds. 
gemma n. bud; shoot [ploral gemmae'] 'dsema. 
gendam&e n. (man-at-arms; soldier; policeman) seg'da:nn, 

dsen'dai^m. 
genealogical adj. dsini-sledsi-kdl, dseni-dledsi-kat. 
genealog^ize v, [also spelt genealogise] dsini'xta-dsazz, dseni- 

'aela-dsQiz. 
genealog:y n. pedigree [ploral genealogies] dsini'sdd-dsi, 

d3eni'ajl3-d3i. 
geneat n. (vassal) gi'niit. 

genera n. (ploral of genus) 'dsena-za; {vulgarly) Mszi-nd-rd. 
general n. 'dsena-ral, {rapidly, anteriorly, as a title) 'dsenzat. 
general v. act as a general to; marshal [present participle 

gencraling, generalling; past participle and preterit gener^ 

aled, gcncralled, generald] 'dsena-zal. 
generalization n. [also spelt generalisation] dsend-rati'zee- 

Son, {rapidly) dsenrah'zee-San ; {also) dsend^d-lai'zee-Sdii. 
generalize v. [also spelt generalise] 'dsenars-laiz. 
generatrix n. (female parent; generant; dynamo) dsend- 

'ree-tjiks, 'dsena-retjiks. 
generic adj. (of a genus or class : opposed to specific, spe^ 

cial) dsi'ncnk. 
genesis it. [ploral genescs] 'dsrni-sis. 
genet n. (civet-cat) 'dsenit, dsi'net. 

genial adj. (nuptial; cordial, kindly) 'dsii-njal, 'dsii-ni-dt. 
genial adj. (of the chin) dsi'nfli-al. 
geniality n. (genial nature; kindliness) dsini'aeh-ti. 
genialize v. render genial [also spelt genialise] 'dsii-njd-taix, 

'dsii-ni-o-laiz. 
genie n. jinnee, goblin [also spelt geni; ploral genit] 'dsri-ni, 

j ye, Qcure; bthe, f/iin; 3 axrure, dsjoy; Jj/toe, tSchewi 
wwhen; q sin^; u whoever, i r^act, o f ull, ou fool, itt, xiatf#; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, a hut, o: door, oo no, eb^» eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 233 



genii n. (ploral of genius, genie) 'dsii-ni-ai. 

genioglossal adj, dsi-naio'glessl. 

genins n. ruling spirit; disembodied spirit; bent; person of 

great innate creativ power [ploral genii but, in the sense of 

a person of great creativ power, geniusesi 'dsii-njas; {in the 

sense of a spirit, perhaps oftener) 'dsii-ni-as. 
Genoese adj, (of Genoa, Italy) dseno'iiz, (assumptivly) 

'dseno-iz; {also) dseno'iis, {assumptivly) 'dseno-is. 
genre n. (kind, sort; a style of painting) 30:1}^, ^emz. 
gens n. clan, sept [ploral gentes} dsenz. 
gentes n. (ploral of gens) 'dsen-tiz. 
gentian n. (plant) 'dsentjan, {in Britain) 'dsenjan. 
gentile adj. (non-Jewish; non-Mormon) 'dsen-tail, 'dscntil. 
gentilism n. (heathenism) 'dsen-tail-izam, Msenti-hzam. 
gentilize v. make gentle [also, formerly, spelt gentilise^ 

'dsenti-laiz, 
gentilize v, live like a gentile ; make gentile ; paganize [also 

spelt gentilisej 'dsenti-laiz, 'dsen-tail-aiz. 
gentleman n. man of gentle birth, etc. [plural gentlemen"] 

'dsentl-man, {dialectally, vulgarly) 'dsenl-man. 
gentlemen n. (plural of gentleman) 'dsentl-man. 
genuflection n. bending of the knee ; kneeling [also spelt 

genuflexion} dsenju'fz^ekSan. 
gennfleet v. (bend the knee) dsenju^fz^ekt, 'dsenju-ftekt, 
genuine adj» [also, sometimes, spelt genuin} 'dsenju-in; 

{dialectally, vulgarly) 'dsenju-ain. 
genns n. class, kind [plural genera and, rarely now, genusesi 

'd3ii-n9s. 
geode n. (hollow concretionary stone) 'dsii-od. 
geog^raphy n. (description of the earth's surface) dsi'egra-f i ; 

{vulgarly) 'dsegra-fi, 'dsega-fsi. 
geologize v. [also spelt geologise} dsi'ela-dsaiz. 
geomancy n. (divination by signs related to the earth) 'dsii- 

a-maensi. 
geometrician n. (one skild in geometry) dsi-emi'tjijan. 
geometrize v. [also, formerly, spelt geometrise} dsi'emi- 

tjaiz. 
geometry n. science of space-relations [ploral geometries} 

d3i'emi-t£i; {vulgarly) 'dsemi-tsi, 'dsemtEi. 
Georgic adj, (of agriculture) 'd3e:2-d3ik. 
geranium n. (plant) d3i'7ee-ni-3m. 
gerbe n. something resembling a wheat-sheaf ; firework [also 

spelt gerb and, formerly, jerb} d^Bizh. 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cot, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, au now, a: ask, ai kite; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



234 . DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 



gerbille n. animal [also spelt gerbtll 'd3B:7-bi}. 

gerfalcon n. large falcon [also spelt gyrfalcon and, former- 
ly, jerfalconl dsse'fci-kan, d^Bs/icl-ksn, 

german adj, having the same parents : as, a brother ♦ger- 
man; that is the child of a brother or sister german of ei- 
ther of one's parents : used only in cousin *gernuin [synen- 
ymous cognate germanel 'dsoir-man. 

German adj. (of Germany) 'dseir-man. 

germane adj, (german ; also, relevant, pertinent) dsBz'meen. 

Germaniase v. [also spelt Germanise^ 'd3B:?-m3-naiz. 

germen n. germ; ovary [synonymous cognate germinl 'dso:?- 
men. 

gerrymander n. (arrangement of the political divisions of 
a State for party purposes in elections) dse^i'mandsf, gezi- 
'maenda?, 'ge^i-maenda?. 

gemnd n. (verbal noun) 'dserand, 'dse-^Aud. 

gest V. act, deed, achievement [also spelt gestel dsest. 

gestation n. (carrying, bearing; pregnancy) dscs'tce-Jaa. 

gestion n. (conduct) 'dsesti-an, 'dsestjan, 'dseStJan. 

gesture n. (bearing; bodily movement) 'dsestSar, 'dscStSsr, 
'dsestga?. 

geTirgaiv n. gaudy trifle ; bauble ; toy [also spelt gew-gatu] 
'gjou-gc: , 'dsou-gc: . 

geyser n. spouting hot spring [also spelt geysirl 'gai-za?, 'gai- 
S3?, 'gee-s3?. 

ghastf ul adj. dreadful ; fearful [also spelt gastfull 'gaist-fal. 

ghastly adj. horrible ; death-Hke ; lurid [also spelt gastlyl 
'ga:-sti-i, 'ga:-stM, 'gae:-sti-i. 

ghaut n. mountain-pass [also spelt ghat, gauti gc:t. 

ghazal n. poetry; music [sj^nenymous cognates ghasel, gha- 
sel, gazcl'^ 'gae-zael. 

gherkin n. small cucumber [also, formerly, spelt gerkin, gir- 
kin, gurkinl 'gnrkin, 'goi^-km. 

Ghetto n. (Jewish quarter of a city) 'getD. 

Ghibelline «. one of the emperor's faction in the Italian 
states [also, sometimes, spelt Ghibellin'} 'gibi-hn, 'gibi-lain. 

ghost n. soul, spirit, specter, etc. [also spelt gosti goost. 

ghostly adj. spiritual; spectral [also spelt gostlyl 'goo-sti-i. 

ghoul n. evil spirit [also, formerly, spelt goul, ghool"] goul. 

giaour n. (non-Mussulman ; Christian ) dsaor. 

gib n. clasp ; wedge ; gibbet [also spelt jibl d3ib. 

gib n. hookt gristle of male salmon [also spelt gibbl gib. 
gibber v. (speak incoherently) 'gibazr, 'djibr^zr. 

j ye, Qcure; bthe, Of/iin; 5 arrure, dsf'oy; ^ shoe, tjc/iew; 
wwhen; i)sing; u whoever, 1 r^act, o f mIi, ou fool, 1 tt, lis^^; 
o poetic; a over, e aerial, Ab«t, o: door, oo no, e bed, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 235 

gibber n. (gibbosity) 'giba?. 

gibber n. large stone, boulder [also spelt ghibber"} 'giba?. 
gibberish «. (unintelligible speech; jargon) 'giba-zij. 
gibbet n. (gallows; post on which executed criminals were 

hung) 'd3ibit. 
gibbon n. (long-armd ape) 'gibsn. 

gibbose adj, (convex, gibbous) gi'boos, {assumptivly) 'gibos. 
gibbosity n, (state of being gibbose or gibbous; swelling) 

gi'besi-ti. 
gibbous adj, (convex, gibbose; humpbackt) 'gibas. 
gibbsite n. (nativ aluminum hydrate) 'gib-zait. 
gibe v., n. taunt, jeer [also spelt jibe, gybe'\ dsaib. 
giber n. one who utters gibes [also spelt jiber'\ 'dsai-baz. 
giblet n. (trimming from a fowl, as the heart, gizzard, neck, 

etc.) 'dsiblat. 
giddea n. acacia [synonymous cognates gidya, gydya, gidgee, 

gidjeel 'gidi-a. 
gig n. (something that whirls; vehicle; boat; fun) gig. 
gigantean adj, (gigantic) dsai-gan'tii-an ; (improperly) dsai- 

'gaenti-an. 
gigantic adj, (giant-like; huge) dsai'gaentik ; (less properly) 

dsi'gaentik. 
gigerinm n, gizzard [ploral gigeria'] d3i'd3i:-?i-3m. 
giglet «. giddy, laughing, romping girl [synonymous cognate 

gigloti 'gight. 
gigot n. (leg of mutton, etc.) 'dsigat. 
gig-saiv n. (veneer-saw ; sawing-tool) 'gig-sc: , 'dsig-sc: • 

compare jigsaw. 
gigne «. (in music, jig) siig. 
Gila moiLster n. (large lizard) 'hii-ls-menstaz. 
Gilbertine adj. of Gilbert of Sempringham [also, sometimes, 

spelt Gilbertinl 'gilba^-tin, 'gilba^-tain. 
gild V, overlay with gold [past participle and preterit gilded, 

gilt] gild. 
g^d n. mutual-aid association [also spelt guiW gild. 
gildball n. [also spelt guildhalll 'gild-hc:l. 
gill n. (breathing-organ) giL 
gill n. cleft, ravine [also spelt ghylll gil. 
g^ill n. measure [also spelt jiWl dsil. 
gill n. girl ; sweetheart [also spelt jilll dsil. 
gill n, (flax-comb) gil. 

gillie n. man-servant [also spelt ghillie, gillyl 'gih. 
gillyfloTirer n. clove-scented pink, etc. [also spelt gillif lower; 

c: lew, b: f «r, ae cot, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



236 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

synonymous cognates gilliver, jilliver, July-flowerJ 'dsiJi- 

silt-edged adj. gilt'cdsd, {assumptivly) 'gilt-edsd. 
Simbal n. in ploral, steadying-device [also spelt gimball, 

gimble, gymbal'\ 'dsimbal. 
Simoraok n. contrivance ; trumpery article ; knickknack [al- 
so spelt jimcrackl 'dsim-lreaek. 
gimlet V, use a gimlet on [present participle gimleting, gim- 

letting; past participle and preterit gimleted, gimlettedl 

'gimlat. 
gimp n. thread; trimming [also spelt gytnp, guimp'\ gimp. 
gimp V. (jag, denticulate, scallop) dsimp, gimp. 
gin n. (machine, engin; snare) dsin. 
gin n. (drink) dsin. 
gingall n. musket; gun [also spelt jingall, gingal, jingal} 

'd3ii]-gc:l. 
gingham n. (cloth; umbrella) 'giQsm. 
gingili n. plant ; oil [also spelt gingeley, gingely, gingelly, 

gingilic, jinjilil 'dsindsi-h. 
gingival adj, (of the gums) 'dsindsi-val, dsin'dsai-val. 
gingko n. Japanese tree [also spelt ginko ; synonymous cog- 
nate gingo'\ 'giqko. 
ginglymui n. hinge-joint [ploral ginglymi'\ 'giQgh-mas, 

'dsiggli-mas. 
ginseng n. (plant; root) 'dsin-serj. 

gipier n. purse, pouch, wallet [also spelt gipsirel 'd$Tps9z. 
Gipiy n. one of a wandering race [also spelt Gypsy, Gipsey; 

ploral Gipsies'] 'dsipsi. 
giraffe n. (camelopard) dsi'rarf, dsiVoif, dsi'^aeif. 
girandole n. (firework; fountain-jet ; girandola ; candlestick; 

pendant) 'dsi^an-dol, 'd3i:-?9n-dol. 
girasol n. fire-opal [synonymous cognate girasolel 'd$iz^-sel. 
gird n. (spurt of action ; jerk) gsird. 
gird V. formerly, strike, smite; later, rush, start, spring; jest, 

gibe [past participle and preterit girded] gored. 
gird V, surround with a belt or girdle ; secure by means of a 

girdle [past participle and preterit girt, girded] gBizrd. 
girl «. (female child; maid-servant) ga:?!, gaol; (dialectally) 

gaiJ, gJBirl. 
Girondiit n., adj. (moderate republican) dsi'rondist. 
girtli n. (band, girdle, perimeter) gairO. 
gist n. (real point, substance, pith) dsist. 
givei n, dsaivz. see gyve. 

j ye, Qcure; bthe, f/iin; 3 amre, ds/oy; I shoe, tJcAew; 
wwhen; T)sing; u whoever, 1 r^act, o fMll, nu fool, i it, lis^^; 
o poetic; a ov^r, e aerial, AbMt, o: door, oo no, r brd, cegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 237 

Siuard n. (gigerium) 'gizd^d. 

Slac6 adj. (iced; lustrous) glx'see. 

Slaoial adj. (ice-like; icy; cold) 'glee-Sal, 'glee-Ji-al, 'glcfe-si- 
al, 'glaesi-9L 

glacier n. (river of ice) 'glee-S^?, 'glee-Si-a?, 'glaesi-az. 

glacis n, (sloping bank; slope) 'glee-sis, glae'sii, 'gla:-si. 

glad adj. (joyous; fain) glaed, (often) glae:d. 

gladiator n. (public fighter; swordsman) 'glaedi-ets?. 

gladiole w. (gladiolus) 'glaedi-ol. 

gladiolus n. sword-lily [ploral gladioli, gladioluses'} gld'dai- 
3-)as, glsedi'oo-las. 

gladsome adj. (cheering; glad, cheerful) 'glsedssm. 

Gladstone n. (wine; bag; carriage) 'glxdstsn, 'glaed-ston. 

glair n. white of an egg [also spelt glare} gleiz. 

glaive n. sword [also, formerly, spelt glave} gleev. 

glamour n. [also spelt glamor and, formerly, glamer, glam- 
tnar} 'glaema?, {less often) 'glee-mar. 

glance v, (glide off or over; dart, flash, gleam; look quick- 
ly) glains, glarns, glaefns; (also) glaints, etc. 

glandes n. (ploral of glans) 'glaen-diz. 

glans n. acorn; acorn-like part [ploral glandes} glaenz. 

glare v. (shine) gleiz. 

glare n. (dazzling light) gleiz, 

glass n. (substance; drinking-vessel ; pane; mirror) glais, 
gla:s, glx:s. 

glanberite n. (nativ calcium sulfate) 'glc:-b3-?ait, 'glao-bs- 
zait. 

glaucoma n. (eye-disease, glaucosis) glc'koo-ms. 

glaucous adj. (sea-green) 'glc:-k3s. 

glancns n, (gull) 'glokss. 

glazier n. (one who glazes windows) 'glee-332, 'glee-zi-ar. 

glede n. kite ; buzzard ; marsh-hawk [also spelt gleed ; synon- 
ymous cognate gled} ghid. 

glene n. (eyeball; eye-socket; socket) 'ghi-ni. 

glenoid adj. (like a joint-socket; cupt) 'ghi-neid. 

glisten V, shine, sparkle [past participle and preterit glis- 
tened, glistend} 'ghsan, 'ghsn. 

glitter V. gleam, sparkle [past participle and preterit glit- 
tered, glitterd} 'ghta^. 

globical adj. (circular) 'glebi-kal, 'gloo-bi-kal. 

globigerina n. deep-sea rhizopod [ploral globigerinae} 
globidsa'rai-na, glebidsa'zai-na. 

globose adj. (spherical) glo'boos, (assumptivly) 'gloo-bos. 

c: law, b: f «r, ae cot, o hot, oi boy ; a: for, ao now, a: osk, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



238 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

globular adj. (spherical; compound of globules) ^giehja-iaz. 
globule n. (little globe; blood-corpuscle; pill) 'gle-bjul. 
globulin n. proteid [also spelt globulinel 'glebjo-}in. 
gloss n. (marginal definition, etc.) gle:s, {rarely) gles. 
gloss n. (luster) g}e:s, {rarely) gles. 
glossary n. (collection of glosses; vocabulary) 'gle:-S3-?i, 

'gles3-3i, {rapidly) 'gles3i. 
glottis n. mouth of the windpipe [ploral glottidesi 'gletis. 
glove n. (hand-covering) glxv. 
gloiver V, frown [synonymous cognate glour; past participle 

and preterit glowered, glowerdi 'glau-or. 
gloze n. gloss, marginal note; flattery, deceit, pretense [also, 

formerly, spelt glosel glooz. 
glnoinnm n. (beryllium) glo'sai-nsm. 
glucose n. (grape-sugar, dextrose; fruit-sugar, levulose) 

'glou-kos. 
glne n. adhesiv [also, formerly, spelt glewl glou. 
gluey adj. like glue [also spelt gluy and, formerly, glewy, 

gleweyl 'glou-i. 
gluteal adj. of the glutei [also spelt glutaeall 'glou-ti-dl, glo- 

'tii-9l. 
gluten n. (gum, glue ; nitrogenous part of wheat, etc.) 'glou- 

tn, 'glou-tan, 'glou-ten. 
glutens n. one of the three buttock-muscles [also spelt glu- 

taeus; ploral gluteil glo'tii-as. 
glutinous adj. (gluey, sticky) 'glou-tn-as, 'glou-ti-nas. 
glnttonize v, [also, rarely, spelt gluttonisel 'glxtn-aiz. 
gluttony n, excessiv eating [ploral gluttonies'] 'gUtn-i, 

'glAt3-ni. 
glycerin n. glycerol [also spelt glycerinel 'ghs3-?in, 'ghs^in. 
glycocoU n. (amido-acetic acid) 'glai-ka-kel, 'glika-kel. 
glycogen n. (animal starch) 'glai-ka-dsin, 'ghka-dsin; {also) 

'glai-ka-dsen, etc. 
glycol n. (ethylene alcohol, etc.) 'glai-kel, 'gh-keL 
glycollio adj. of glycol [also spelt glycolicl glai'kehk, gh- 

'kehk. 
Glyconio adj. (of the Greek poet Glycon) glailcenik. 
glypb n. (groove) ghf. 

glyptic adj. (of carving or engraving) 'ghptik. 
gmelinite n. (mineral) 'meh-nait, {rarely) 'gmeh-nait. 
gnapbalium n. (herb) nd'fee-H-sm. 
gnarled adj. knotty, twisted [also spelt gnarld and, formerly, 

knarled] naizl. 

j ye, q cure ; 5 the, 9 thin ; ^ 3 asure, ds joy ; S shoCf tS chew ; 
w when ; i) sing ; u whoever, 1 r^act, o f «11, ou fool, 1 it, li see ; 
o poetic ; 3 ov<?r, e aerial, a bwt, o: door, 00 no, e bed, ce gote ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 239 

Siiash V. strike together, grind, bite upon [past participle and 

preterit gnashed, gnashi\ naej. 
Snat n. (two-wingd fly) naet. 
gnathic adj. (of the jaws) 'naeOik, 'nee-9ik. 
gnatliite n. (mouth-appendage) 'nae-9ait, 'nee-0ait. 
gnaxir v. bite off little by little ; bite ; fret, waste [past par- 
ticiple and preterit gnawed, gnawd'\ no: . 
gneiiB n. (rock) nais, (rarely) gnais. 
gnome n. (aphorism; saw) noom, 'noo-mi. 
gnome n. (dwarf, goblin) noom. 

gnomic adj. (of gnomes or maxims) 'noo-mik, 'nemik. 
gnomon n. (shadow-casting piece on a sun-dial) 'noo-mon. 
gnoiiology n. science of cognition [also spelt gnoseologyl 

nosi'ela-dsi, nozi'ela-dsi. 
gnostic n. (of knowledge) 'nestik. 

gnu n. wildebeest [also, formerly, spelt gnool nou, njou. 
go V. walk, move, etc. [past participle gone; preterit went} 

goo, (when unstrest) go. 
go n. action of going; turn of affairs [ploral goes'} goo, 
goaf n. in a coal-mine, a space from which coal has been 

workt away [synonymous cognates goave, goff, gove; ploral 

goaves, goafs} goof. 
go-aliead adj. (energetic, pushing) goo-a'hed, 'goo-a-hed. 
goatee n. (chin-whiskers) go'tii. 
gob n. (dab ; lump ; attle) geb. 
gobang n. game [also spelt go-hang} gooTjaer). 
gobbe n. (plant) geb. 
gobelin adj. (of Gobelins, the state factory of tapestry in 

Paris) goba'laeq, 'geba-hn. 
goblet n. (drinking-cup; wine-cup) 'geblat. 
goblin n. (surly elf; sprite; gnome; demon) 'geblin. 
go-by n. (action of going by ; a passing by without notice ; 

slip) 'goo-bai. 
goby n. gobiid, a fish [ploral gobies} 'goo-bi. 
god n. (deity) ged, {sometimes) ge:d ; (dialectally) gc:d, ga:d. 
Goetbian adj. of the German poet Goethe [also spelt Goe- 

thean} 'goi-ti-an. 
goety n. (black magic) 'goo-i-ti. 
goffer V. flute, crimp [synonymous cognate gauffer; past 

participle and preterit goffered, gofferd} 'gor-fa?, 'gefaz. 
Goidelic adj, (of the Goidels) geiMehk. 
goiter n. bronchocele [also spelt goitre} 'goi-ta?. 
goldenrod n. (plant) 'gool-dn-red. 

,c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, e hot, ©i hoy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



240 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

goldilocks n. buttercup, etc. [also spelt goldylocks] 'gool-di- 

leks. 
golf n, game [fermer synenymous cognate goffi gelf, ge:f, 

gef. 
gondola n. (boat) 'genda-la; {improperly) gen'doo-ld. 
gondolier n. (one who rows a gondola) gendsli:?. 
gone adj. (undone; departed) ge:n, gen; (dialectally) gc:n. 
gonfalon n. (banner, ensign) 'genfs-len. 
gonfalonier n. (standard-bearer) genfdld'ni:?. 
gonidial adj. (of a gonidium) go'nidi-al. 
goniometer n. (angle-measuring device) goni'emi-td?. 
gonoph n. pickpocket [also spelt gonnofi 'genaf, 'ge-nef. 
gonophore n. (part bearing the reproductiv elements) 'gens- 

io:z. 
gonorrhea n. disease [also spelt gonorrhoea"] gena'rii-a, 
gonydeal adj. (of the gonys; gonal) go'nidi-al. 
good-by interj. farewell [also spelt good-byel god'bai, go- 

0)81. 

good-for-nothing adj. godfar'nAOii], (assuntptivly) 'godfar- 

nA0ii]. 
Goorkha n. nativ of Nepal [also spelt Ghoorkal 'go:?-k3. 
gooie n. bird [ploral geese] gous. 

gooseberry n. 'gouz-be^i, 'gouz-ba^i, 'gouz-bzi; 'gous-bezi. 
gopker n. poucht rat ; ground squirrel ; land-tortoise ; snake 

[also spelt gophir] 'goo-for. 
gorgeous adj. (magnificent) 'gei^-dsas. 
gorget n. (throat-armor; wimple; necklace) 'ge:?-d3it. 
gorgon n. (female monster) 'geir-gan. 
gorgonian adj. (of a gorgon ; gorgon-like) ge^'goo-ni-an. 
gorgonize v, petrify or gaze at in the manner of a gorgon 

[also spelt gorgonise] 'ge:r-g3-naiz. 
gorilla n. (large anthropoid ape) ga'rila. 
gormand n. glutton [synenymous cognate gourmand] 'ge:?- 

mand. 
gormandize v. eat like a gormand [also spelt gormandise i 

synenymous cognates gourmandizc, gourmandise] 'geis-man- 

daiz. 
gorse n. (furze, whin) ge:rs. 

goskaixrk n. (large short-wingd hawk) 'ges-hc:k. 
gosling n. (young goose) 'gezhi]. 
gospel n. (good tidings) 'gespal. 
gospeller n. evangelist; reader; book; adherent [also spelt 

gospeller] 'gespn-lor. 

5 ye, g cure ; b the, G tJnn:^ 3 a^ure, dj joy ; $ Wioe, tS chev/;^ 
wuihen; qsin^;; u whoever, i r^act, o fwll, ou fool, i it, lis^e;' 
o poetic; o ov£?r, e aerial, a bwt, d: door, do no, e brd, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 241 

gOBsamer n. (filmy cobweb; gauze; hat; waterproof) "gess- 

msz; (improperly) 'geza-ma^. 
SOBsan n. decomposed rock [also spelt gozsani 'gezan. 
Gotlianiite n. (denizen of Qotham, England, or of New 

York city) 'goo-Oa-mait, 'ge9a-mait, 'gota-mait. 
GotMcism n. (barbarism; conformity to Gothic style in ar- 
chitecture; study of the Gothic language; Gothic idiom) 

'geOi-sizam. 
Gothioize v. [also spelt Gothicise'} 'geOi-saiz. 
gonaohe n. (mode of painting) gwa:^. 
Songe n. (concave chisel; a scooping out; swindle) goods, 

gouds. 
gouge V. (cut with a gouge; scoop out; cheat) goods, gouds* 
gourd n. (fruit; plant; gourd-shell) goizd, goizd. 
gourde n. (dollar) goizd, 

gourmand n. 'gu:z-m9nd. same meaning as gormand, 
gourmet n. (epicure) goz'mee, 'go;r-met. 
gont n. (disease ; drop) gaot. 
gout n. sluice, drain [also spelt gowtl gaot. 
gout n. taste [also spelt gout'\ gou. 
govemante n. {obsolete) 'gAva?-nant. 
gOTemesB n. (female ruler; instructress) 'gAV9?-nis. 
gOTernment n. (rule; province, etc.) 'gxvarn-mant; {im- 
properly) 'gAvar-mant, 'gxva-mant, 'gAvmant, 'gAbmant. 
governor n. ruler; regulator [also spelt governourl 'qKw^- 

na^, {rapidly; familiarly ; anteriorly, as a title) 'gAvna?; 

{also, rarely) 'gAva^-na?. 
gomm n. (garment) gaun ; {vulgarly) gaond. 
gracile adj. slender, thin, lean [also spelt gracill 'g^aesil. 
gracioBO n. (buffoon) gzesi'oo-sa, gzeSi'oo-so. 
gracionB adj. (pleasing; dispensing grace) 'g?ee-Sas. 
gradate v. (shade off, etc.) gre'deet, g^a'deet, 'g^ee-det. 
gradation n. gze'deerjan, gra'dee-Jan. 
gradatory adj. (proceeding by grades or steps) 'gree-da-ton, 

'g^ee-data-n ; 'gzaeda-tan. 
gradin n. one of a series of steps ; altar-ledge [synonymous 

cognate gredine'\ 'gree-din. 
gradine n. g^a'diin. same meaning as gradin. 
gradine n. (tootht chisel) g^a'diin. 
gradual adj. (of degree; proceeding step by step) 'geaedsu-al, 

'g?aedju-al. 
graduand n. (student about to graduate) g^aedju'aend. 
graduate n. (one who holds a degree ; measuring-glass) 

c: law, b: f wr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



242 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

'g?aed3U-et, 'g^aedsu-it, 'gzaedsu-at ; 'g^aedju-et, 'g?aedju-it, 
'g?aedju-3t. 

graduate adj. (graduated ; holding a degree ; arranged by 
degrees) 'g^aedsu-et, (assumptivly) 'g^aedsu-it; {also) 'g?aed- 
ju-3t. 

graduate v. 'g?aed3U-et, 'g^aedju-et. 

graffito n. drawing or writing scratcht on a wall [ploral 
graffitil gra'fii-to. 

graft n. (shoot inserted in another stock; transplanted tis- 
sue) gra:ft, graift, gzrae:ft. 

grail n. cup [also spelt greal, graall g^eel. 

grail n. comb-maker's file [also spelt graillel greel. 

grain n. (seed ; wheat ; granule ; weight ; dye ; texture) g^een. 

gram n. unit of weight [also spelt gramme'! g?aem. 

gramercy interj. (thank you; mercy on us!) 'geaemas-si, 
g^a'ms^si. 

graminivorous adj. (grass-eating) g?aemi'niv3-?3s. 

grammar n. (knowledge of parts of speech, inflections, syn- 
tax, etc.) 'g^aema?. 

grammaticize v. render grammatical [also spelt grammati- 
cise"} g^a'maeti-saiz. 

granadilla n. passion flower [synonymous cognate grena- 
dillal g^aena'dila. 

granary n. storehouse for grain [ploral granaries'} 'g^aena-ei; 
(less properly) 'g^ee-na-^i. 

grand adj. (chief, main; great; lofty) g^aend, (often) g^aeind, 
(in England, sometimes) g?a:nd. 

grandam n. grandmother ; ancestress ; gossip [synonymous 
cognates grandame, grand-dame"] 'gzaendsm. 

grandame n. 'g?aen-dem. same meaning as grandam. 

grandannt n. great-aunt [also spelt grand-aunt"] 'gzaend-a:nt. 

grandchild n. child of one's son or daughter [plural grand- 
children] 'g^aend-tSaild, 'graen-tSaild. 

granddad n. grandfather [also, sometimes, spelt grandad] 
'graend-daed, 'graen-daed. 

granddaughter n. (daughter of one's son or daughter) 
'g^aend-dcr-ta?, 'gzraen-dcr-taz:. 

grandeur n. 'g^aendsa?, 'g^aendjar. 

grandfather n. (father of one's father or mother; fore- 
father) 'g?aend-fa:-d3?, 'g?aen-fa:-d3^ ; (sometimes, anteriorly, 
as a title) 'gzraenfaba?. 

grandiose adj. (imposing; pompous) g^aendi'oos, (assump- 
iivly) 'graendi-os. 

j ye, g cure; 5 tht, 9 thm;^ 3 a^rure, dj /oy; S jf»oe, tS cliew; 
ID wh^n ; q sin^; u whoever, i r^act, o full, ou fool, 1 tt, ri see\ 
o poetic; 9 ov^ r, e aerial, Abut, o: door, oono, ebed, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 243 

grandma w. (grandmother) 'g^aend-ma: , 'g?aen-ma: , 'graem- 

ma: , (sometimes, anteriorly, as a title) 'g^aenma, 'g^aem-ma. 
grandmamma n. (grandmother) 'gzaend-ms-ma: , 'g^aenms- 

ma: . 
grandmother w. (mother of one's father or mother) 'gzaend- 

mAdd?, 'g^aen-mAdar. 
grandpa n. (grandfather) 'graend-pa: , 'g^aen-pa: , {sometimes, 

anteriorly, as a title) 'gzraenpa, 'g^aempa. 
grandsire n. (grandfather; forefather) 'graend-sai^, 'graen- 

sai?. 
grandson n. (son of one's son or daughter) 'g?aend-SAn, 

'gzaen-SAn. 
granite n. rock [also spelt granif] 'g^aenit. 
granivorouB adj, (grain-eating) g^ae'niva-ras, gra'niva-eas ; 

{rapidly) g^a'niv^as. 
grannom w. fly [also spelt granami 'gzaenam. 
granny n. grandmother [also spelt grannie \ ploral grannies'] 

'g^aeni. 
granose adj. gre'noos, {assumptivly) 'geee-nos. 
grant n., v. (consent, etc.) g?a:nt, grarnt, g?ae:nt. 
granter n. (one who grants) 'gzain-ta?. 
g^rantor n. (in law, one who makes a grant or conveyance) 

g?a:n'te:^. 
g^rannlose adj, (granular) graenjo'loos, {assumptivly) 'g^aenjo- 

los. 
grapery n. (vinery) 'gzee-pa-ei, 

grapMc adj, (of drawing, writing, etc.; vivid) 'geaefik. 
grapnel n. grappling-device ; anchor [also spelt grapnallj 

'graepNl, 'g^aepNal. 
grasp V. clutch, seize; comprehend [past participle and pret- 
erit grasped, graspt'\ g^aisp, g^a:sp, g^ae:sp. 
grass n. (herbage, etc.) gza:s, gzais, gzxis. 
grate v. (rub harshly; pulverize by rubbing on an indented 

surface) g^eet. 
grate n. (framework of bars) gzeet. 
grater n. (utensil) 'g^ee-ta?. 

gratis adv., adj. (free) 'gree-tis ; (improperly) 'graetis. 
gratitude n. (gratefulness) 'g^aeti-tgud ; {dialectally) 'graeti- 

tud. 
gratuitous adj. (free ; uncalled-for) g^a'tgou-i-tas. 
gratuity n. gift, present; tip [plural gratuities'] gra'tgou-i-ti. 
g^ratulatory adj. (congratulatory) 'g^aetSala-tD^i, 'g^aetgola- 

tozi. 

c: law, b: f wr, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



244 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

gra.'va.ixiejk n. grievance [ploral gravamina! g^d'vee-mdn. 
gravainina n. (ploral of gravamen) gzd'vxmi-na, g^a'vee- 

mi-n9. 
grave n. (burial-place) geeev. 
grave adj, (weighty; serious; low) gseev. 
grave adj. (in music, slow, solemn) 'g^ai-vi, gzaiv. 
grave v. (dig ; incise ; carve) greev. 
grave v. (clean) g^eev. 
graveled adj. covered with gravel [also spelt gravelled, graV' 

eldl 'graevald. 
graveling n. (the action of the verb gravel; graveld surface) 

'g^aeva-hq, (rapidly) 'gzaevhi]. 
graveling n. parr or young salmon [also spelt gravelling; 

synonymous cognate graveling 'g^aeva-hq. 
gravellineiB n. [also spelt gravelinessi 'gzxvdh-nis. 
gravelly adj. abounding in gravel [also spelt gravely} 'gzxv9- 

h, (rapidly) 'graevh. 
Graves n. (wine) g^a:v, g?a:v, gzxiw, 
gravid adj. (pregnant) 'graevid. 
gray adj. ash-colored, etc. [also spelt greyl gree. 
grazier w. (one who grazes cattle) ^gzee-$9z, 
grease n. (animal fat) g^iis. 
grease v. smear or lubricate with grease [past participle and 

preterit greased and, sometimes, greasti gziis, gsiiz. 
greaser n. (one who applies grease; nativ Mexican or South 

American) 'gzii-sa?, 'grii-za?. 
greasy adj. (smeard with grease, etc.) 'geii-si, 'gsii-zi. 
great adj. (big; distinguisht) gzeet, (when unstrest) gret. 
greatcoat n. heavy overcoat; top-coat [also spelt great-coatl 

'gzeet-koot, (finally, often) greet'koot. 
greave n. (armor) g^iiv. 

greaves n.pl, scraps in cakes; cracklings [former synony- 
mous cognate gravesl g^iivz. 
grebe n. (bird) griib. 
Grecize v. give Greek form to ; become Greek-like [also spelt 

Grecise, Graecize, Graecisel 'gni-saiz. 
Gregorian adj. (of Pope Gregory ist, etc.) gei'go:-ri-an. 
grenade n. (explosiv shell, etc.) g^i'need, 
grenadier n. (soldier; weaver-bird) g^ens'di:?. 
grenadin n. (coal-tar color) 'g^ens-din. 
g;renadine n. (silk fabric) 'grena-din, g^ens'diin. 
grey adj, g^ce, see gray. 
greyhound n. dog [also spelt grayhoundl 'gree-haond. 

j ye, g cure; 5 the, 9 ihin;^ 3 ajsrure, ds /oy; Jj shoe^ ^ tj chew; 
vo when ; q sin^r ; u whoever, i react, o fttll, ou fool, i tt, li see ; 
o poetic ; d ov^ r, e aerial, a hut, 0: door, 00 no, e b^d, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 245 

grice n. pig [also, formerly, spelt grise'\ g^ais. 

gridiron n. (cooking-utensil) 'g?id-ai-3?n. 

grief n. (sorrow) g^iif. 

grieve n. governor; overseer [also spelt greeve'] gziiv. 

grieve v. afflict; feel grief [past participle and preterit 

grieved, grievd'\ gzriiv. 
grievous adj. (afflictiv; full of grief) 'grii-vas. 
grill n. (meat broild on a gridiron; grild dish) gziL 
grill n. (gridiron) gzil. 
grill V. broil on a gridiron [past participle and preterit 

grilled, grildl gzil. 
grille n. grating; grated opening [also spelt grille gzil. 
grimace n. (wry face) gzri'mees. 
grimalkin n. (cat; she cat; old woman) gzri'maelkin, gzi- 

'mc:l-kin. 
g^rimly adv. (in a grim manner) 'gzimh. 
g^rimy adj. (begrimed, dirty) 'grai-mi. 
grindstone n. (stone disk for grinding) 'gzaind-stoon, 'g?ain- 

ston; (dialectally) 'g^in-ston. 
grip n.,v. (grasp) grip. 

gripe n. (fast hold; cramp-colic; clutch) g^aip. 
gripe V, (clutch; produce pain in as by constriction) g^aip. 
grippe n, influenza [also spelt gripl grip. 
grisette n. (French working-girl) g^i'zet. 
grisly adj. horrible ; gruesome [also, rarely, spelt grisly"} 

'g^izh. compare grizzly. 
gristle n. (cartilage) 'g^isal, 'g^isl; {improperly) 'gziz^X, 

'gzizl\ {erroneously) 'g^istl. 
g:ristly adj. (of or like gristle; cartilaginous) 'gzisi-i. 
grizzle adj„ n. (gray) 'g^izal, *gziz\. 
grizzly adj. grayish : as, ♦grizzly bear [also spelt grizlyl 'gei- 

zh. compare grisly, 
g^roan n. (sound of pain or grief) g^oon. 
groat n. (coin) groot, {archaically) gzct. 
groats n. p . (huld oats or wheat) g^oots, {archaically) g?c:ts. 
grocery n. [ploral groceries} 'g^oo-sa-^i, {rapidly) 'gzoo-s^i. 
g^rommet n. [also spelt gromet} 'g^emit, 'grxmit. same 

meaning as grummet, 
g^rosbeak n. (bird) 'groos-biik. 

groscken n. (silver coin) 'g^DO-Jan; {less properly) 'g^ejan. 
grotesque adj. (fantastic ; bizarre) g^o'tesk. 
grotto n. cavern ; cave-like retreat [ploral grottoes, grottos} 

'greto. 

c: \aw, b: iur, ae cat, © hot, ei hoy, a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai ktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the fellowing syllable. 



246 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

groundsel n. (weed) 'gzraund-sdL 

groundiill n. ground-plate; sill [also spelt ground-sill; syn- 
onymous cognate groundsell 'graond-siL 

gpronie n. bird [ploral grousci gzaos, 

gprovel V. lie prone ; crawl [present participl^ groveling, grov- 
elling ; past participle and preterit groveled, grovelled, grov- 
eld} 'g^ovol. 

groveler n. one who grovels [also spelt groveller^ 'gzew^Asz, 
(rapidly) 'grevla?. 

g^uel n. (liquid food) 'gzruu-at. 

g^meiome adj. fearful, grisly [also spelt grewsomel 'gzou- 
S3m. 

gminiiiet n, ring of rope; metal eyelet [also spelt grommet, 
gromef] 'g^Amit. 

gryibok n. antelope [also spelt greisbokl 'g^ais-bok. 

gnaiac n. wood ; tree ; guaiacum [also spelt guiaci 'gwoi-sk, 
'gwee-jaek, 

gnanaco n. (mammal) gw9'na:-k3. 

guanin n. [also spelt guaninc'\ 'gwa:-nin. 

guano n. (sea-fowl manure) 'gwa:-nD, gju'aeno. 

guarantee n. (person who makes a guaranty : correlativ of 
guarantor; also, the act of guaranteeing; security, guaran- 
ty) gaeran'tii, (anteriorly, often) 'gae^an-ti. 

guarantee v. (be a guarantee, warrant, or surety for; secure, 
guaranty) gxzon'iii, (anteriorly, sometimes) 'gae^an-ti. 

guarantor n. (one who makes a guaranty or gives a secu- 
rity) gxz^n'teiz. 

guaranty n., v. 'gae^on-ti. same meaning as guarantee. 

guard n. protection ; watch ; protector [also spelt gard"} gaizd ; 
(dialectally) gja:?d. 

guardian n. protector; keeper [also spelt gardiani 'ga:?-di- 
an, (less often) 'ga:?-dJ3n ; (dialectally) ga^'diin. 

guava n. (tree; fruit) 'gwa:-vD; (improperly) 'gwc:-v3. 

gubernatorial adj. (of a governor) guba^na'toi-ri-al, gju- 
bazrna'toi-ri-o}. 

gudgeon n. (fish; bait; gullible person) 'gAdsan. 

Gueber n. Zoroastrian, Parsee [also spelt Guebre, Gheber, 
Ghebre, Ghebirl 'gii-bar, 'gee-ba?. 

guelder-rose n. [also, formerly, spelt gelder-rosel 'geldsr- 
zooz. 

Guelpb n. papist [also spelt Guclfl gwelf. 

guepard n. leopard [also spelt get^ardl 'gepa^d. 

guerdon n., v. (reward) 'goir-dnn, 'gnt^-den. 

j ye, g cure; b the. f/iin; 3 arure, d^ joy; S Wioe, tj chew; 
wwhen; qsiw*;; u whoever, i r^act, o f«ll, ou fool, i tt, lisee; 
o poetic ; a over, c aerial, a bMt, o: door, do no, c bed, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 247 

g^ereza n. monkey [synenymous cognate guersa^ 'gezi-za. 

gneriLsey n. (vest) 'gornzi, 'gsirn-zi. 

gnierrilla n. irregular warfare [also spelt guerilla] gs'zila. 

gnesB V. (estimate ; fancy ; be pretty sure) ges. 

gniest n. (one who is entertaind; boarder) gest. 

Snf f aiv n. (loud coarse laughter ; horse-laugh) gA'f c: . 

guidance «. (guiding; leadership) 'gai-dns, 'gai-dans; {dia- 

lec tally) 'gjai-dns. 
guide V. (lead, conduct) gaid; (dialectally) gjaid. 
guidon n. (flag) 'gai-dan. 

guige n. shield-strap [also spelt gigel giis, giids. 
guild n. gild, see gild. 

guilder n. coin [also, formerly, spelt gilder"} 'gildaz, 
gniile n. (cunning) gail ; {dialectally) gjail. 
gntillaume w. (rebate-plane) girj3om. 
guillemot n. (sea-bird) 'gih-mat, 'gih-met. 
guilloclie n,, v. gi'boj. 
guillotine n. (beheading-device) 'gil9-tin, gila'tiin, {rarely) 

'gila-tin. 
guilt n. (an offense; wickedness) gilt. 
gniinea n. (former gold coin; twenty-one shillings) 'gini. 
guipure n. (lace) gi'pQo:?. 

guiie n. (behavior ; garb ; aspect) gaiz ; {dialectally) gjaiz. 
guitar «. (musical instrument) gi'taiz:. 
gular adj. (of the throat or gula) 'gjou-lar. 
gulasli n. (meat dish) 'guu-lsej. 
gulch n. (ravine, gorge) gAltJ, {in Britain) gAlJ. 
gulden n. (gold coin; silver coin) 'guul-dan,*'goldan. 
gn^les n. (red) gjuulz. 

gullible adj. (capable of being guld or duped) 'gAla-bal. 
gn^ui arable n. (gum acacia) gs'maezd-bik. 
gnimniatouB adj. (like a gumma) 'gAmd-tss. 
gunnies w. m mining, breadth [also spelt gunnis] 'gAnis, 

'gAniz. 
gunurale n. [also, sometimes, spelt gunnel] 'gAn-weel, 'gAnsl, 

'gAnl. 
gnirg^itation n. (surging) ge^dsi'tee-San. 
gnitatory adj. (of taste) 'gAsta-to^i, 'gAsta-ta^i. 
gutta-percba n. (dried juice of Dichopsis gutta, etc.) gAtd- 

'pB^tSa, gAt3'pB:r-tS9. 
guttated adj. (having drop-like spots or masses) 'gA-tetid, 

gA'tee-tid. 
guy n. rope [ploral guys] gai. 

c: law, b: f wr, a; cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: for, ao now, a: osk, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



248 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

^— ^^^^^—». ^^^j^.^^— ^^^^— ^■^»— ^■^^^^■^— ^^^— ^.— ^^.^^^— ^— ^-^^^^i»p^»^^^ 

gny n. grotesque person ; fright [ploral guys'] gai. 
gnj V, (treat as a guy; ridicule) gai. 
gij^niad n. fish [also spelt gwyniad, guiniadl 'gwini-ad. 
gybe v» put about; sail round [also spelt jibel dsaib. 
Kymnasiiiiii n. place for gymnastics; school [plural gymna- 
sia, gymnasiumsl dsim'nee-sam, dsim'nee-zi-dm, djim'nee- 

3i-3m. 
gymnast n. 'd3im-na:st, 'd3im-na:st. 
gymnAstio adj. (of athletic exercises) dsim'nxstik. 
gymnoiperm n. (plant having naked seeds or ovules : cor- 

relativ of angiosperm) 'dsimna-spBi^m. 
gynaeceum n. women's apartments [plural gynaeceal dsini- 

'sii-3m, dsai-ni'sii-am. 
gynecologist n. specialist in diseases of women [also spelt 

gynaecologist] djini'kela-dsist, dsai-ni'kela-dsist. 
gynoecium n. pistil or pistils collcctivly [also spelt gynaeci- 

um, gynaeceum ; ploral gynoccia] dsi'nii-si-am. 
gynophore n. (stalk bearing the gynoecium, etc.) 'dsins- 

fo:?, 'dsni-na-fD:^. 
gypsum n. (naliv calcium sulfate) 'd^ipsam. 
gypsy n. see gipsy. 

gyra n. border, hem [plural gyrae] 'dsai-ea. 
gyrate v. (rotate, whirl) 'dsai-ret. 
gjrrate adj. (circinate ; meandrin) 'dsai-ret, 'dsai-Tdt. 
g^yration n. (wheeling; whirling) dsai'eee-Jan. 
gyratoxTjT adj, (whirling) 'dsai-ra-ton, 'dsai-sa-ta^i. 
gyri n. (ploral of gyrus) 'dsni-^ai. 
gyronny adj. '(having gyrons) 'dsai-ra-ni, dsai'seni. 
gyroscope n. (fly-wheel with freely-turning axis, etc.) 'dsaz- 

ra-skop. 
gyrovaji n,pl. (vagrant monks) dsni'^eva-dsai. 
gyrus n. convolution ; gyre [ploral gyri] 'dsai-zss. 
gytrasli n. (specter, ghost) 'gai-tjaeS. 
gyve n., v. fetter, shackle [also spelt give] dsaiv. 



ha interj. [also spelt hah] ha: , (when less sir est) ha. 

habeas corpus phrase, n. (have the body : a writ requiring 
the body of a person to be brought before the judge or into 
court) hebi-as'keic-pas, (less often) bsbi-as'ker^-pas. 

habergeon n. sleeveless coat of mail, etc. [synonymous ceg- 
nate haubcrrieon] 'haebn^-dson, h^'hnzdz^n, ha'ba^dsi-an. 

lye, gcure: b the, Qthin; 3 arrure, d3/oy; I shoe, t^chew; 
wwhen; losing; u whoever, i r^act, o full, ovLiool, i tt, iis««; 
O poetic; 3 over, c ocrial, Abtit, 0: door, oono, e b^ d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 249 

habiliment n. (outfit, etc.) hd'bih-mdnt. 

habitat n. (locality; habitation) 'hxbi-tset. 

habitual adj. (of habit; customary) hs'bitSu-dt, hd'bitQU-d}. 

habituS n. (frequenter) hae-bitQu'ee, h9-bitSu'ee. 

hacienda n. (estate) xsi'ends. 

hadji n. pilgrim to the tomb of Mohammed at Mecca [also 
spelt hajjij 'haedsi, 'hae-dsi. 

haecceity n. (thisness) hek'sii-i-ti, hik'sii-i-ti. 

haemorrhage n. 'htms-zids. see hemorrhage. 

haft n. (handle) ha:ft, ha:ft, hse:ft. 

haggadah n. legend in the Talmud [also spelt hagadah ; syn- 
onymous cognate agadah ; ploral haggadoth} ha'ga:-da. 

hagiographer n. (sacred writer; writer of saints' lives) 
haegi'eg^a-far, hed^i'egzs-fsz. 

ha-ha interj, [also spelt hah-hah"] ha'ha: . 

ha-ha n. fence [synonymous cognate haw-haw"] ha'ha: . 

haint v. (have not) hcent; (formerly) 'he:-vnt. 

hair n. (filamentous outgrowth, etc.) he:?, hea. 

hairif n. goose-grass [also spelt hayrif] 'he:-?if. 

hakeem n. physician [also spelt hakim} hs'kiim. 

hakim n. (judge, ruler, governor) 'ha:-kim. 

halachah n. law [also spelt halakah ; ploral halachothi hs- 
'la:-k3, ha'laeka. 

halberd n. weapon [synonymous cognate halbert] 'halbard; 
(less properly) 'hc:l-b9?d. 

halcyon n. (kingfisher) 'haelsi-an, 'halji-an. 

half n. (one of two equal parts, etc.) ha:f, ha:f, hae:f. 

halfpenny n. (coin) 'hee-pa-ni, (anteriorly) 'hee-pani, 'hee- 
pNi; (also) 'ha:f-peni, 'ha:f-p3-ni, 'ha:-p3-ni, (anteriorly) 
'ha-pNi, 'hapNi; 'hae:f-peni, 'haepa-ni. 

halibut n. fish [synonymous cognate holibuti liaeh-bat, 'hoh- 
bat. 

hallelujah interj. praise the Lord [also spelt halleluiah ; syn- 
onymous cognate alleluial haeh'lou-J3. 

hallmote n. court-baron; [also spelt halmotel 'hc:}-mot. 

hallo interj. calling attention, expressing surprise, etc. [also 
spelt halloa, hello, hullo} ha'loo. 

halloo V. shout halloo; urge on with shouts; also, hallo [past 
participle and preterit hallooed, hallood} ha'lou. 

halloo interj. (inciting dogs to the chase, calling attention, 
etc.) halou. 

halloxv V, make holy, etc. [past participle and preterit hal- 
lowed and, sometimes, hallowd} 'haelo. 

c: law, b: iur, ae cat, o hot, oi hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



250 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

lialloived adj. [also, sometimes, spelt hallowd"] 'haebd, (same- 
times) 'halo-id. 
halm n. ha:m, hc:m. same meaning as haulm. 
lialo n. circle of light, etc. [plural halos, haloes, halanesi 

'hee-b. 
haloid n. (salt-like) 'hse-leid, 'hee-leid, 'haelo-id. 
halter^ n. (rope with headstall) 'hc:M97. 
halter' n. poiser of an insect [ploral halteresl 'haehsr. 
halteres n. (plural of halter^) haet'ti:-?iz. 
halve V, divide into two equal parts, etc. [past participle and 

preterit halved, halvd"} ha:v, ha:v, ha:v. 
halyard n. rope or tackle for raising or lowering a tail, 

etc. [also spelt halliard; synonymous cognate haulyardl 

'haelidrd. 
hamadryad n. wood-nymph; serpent [ploral hamadryads, 

hamadryadesl haema'drai-ad, 'hiema-drai-ad. 
hamadryas n. (baboon) ha'maedri-as, ha'mee-dri-as, haema- 

'drai-3s, 'haema-drai-as. 
hamate adj. (hookt) 'hee-met, liee-mat. 
Hamite n. (descendant of Ham) 'hx-mait. 
hammer n. (pounding-tool, etc.) 'haema?. 
hammock n. (hanging bed) 'hsemak. 
handbook n. (manual) 'hxnd-bok, 'hsen-bok. 
handcuff n. manacle [dialectal synonymous cognate handy- 

cttffl 'haend-kAf, 'haen-kAf, 'haenkaf. 
handful n. as much as would fill the hand [plural handfuls 

and, less properly, handsfitll 'haend-fol, 'haen-fu!, 'hsenfal. 
handicap n. (race or competition in which the chances of the 

competitors are equalized; extra encumbrance) liaendi-kaep. 
handixvork n. (work of the hands) 'hxndi-WBizk, 
handkerchief n. a cloth for wiping the face, nose, etc. [dia- 
lectal synonymous cognates handkercher, hankercher; ploral 

handkerchiefs'] 'haei]kar-tSif. 
handsome adj. (handy; apt; fair; seemly; beautiful) 'haen- 

sam. 
hansom n. (cab) 'haensam. 
happen v. occur; befall; chance to be [post participle and 

preterit happened, happendl Tiaepan, (often) 'haepm. 
happiness n. (pleasurable content; felicity) 'haepi-nis. 
hara-kiri n. (suicide by disembowelment) hor-eaTcii-ri, haeza- 

'kv.-zi. 
harangue v. declaim [also spelt harang; past participle and 

preterrt harangued, harangd} ha'raeq. 

j ye, Q cure ; 5 the, 9 thin;^ 5 arure, d^ joy ; S shoe, ^ tj chew; 
XDwhen] qsin^r; u whoever, 1 r^act, o full, oufool, lit, lis^e; 
o poetic; a ov^r, e aerial, Ab«t, o: door, oo no, eb^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 251 

harass v. trouble, worry [past participle and preterit ha- 
rassed, harasti 'hae^as; (improperly) hd'^ses, ha'raeis. 

harbinger n. (harborer; forerunner) 'ha:7-bin-d397. 

harbor n. shelter; haven [also spelt harbour} 'ha:z-bd7. 

harborage n. [also spelt harbourage"] ^haiz-hs-zid^. 

harborer n. [also spelt harbourer} ^ha:z-h9-z9z. 

hard-pressed adj. [also spelt hard-prestj hai^d'p^est, (as- 
sumptivly) 'haird-psest. 

harebell n. wild hyacinth ; bluebell [also spelt hairbeltl 'he:?- 
bel. 

harebrained adj, having no more brain than a hare; rash 
[also spelt harebraind, hairbrained} 'heir-beeend. 

hareem n. [also spelt harim] hs'^iim. same meaning as ha- 
rem. 

harelip n. (cleft upper lip) 'heie-hp. 

harem n. the part of a Mohammedan dwelling occupied by 
the women; the wives and concubines coUectivly of a Turk, 
Persian, or Indian Mussulman [also spelt haram ; synony- 
mous cognates hareem, harim] 'her-eam, (less often) 'ha:- 
23m. 

haricot n, (ragout; kidney-bean) 'haen-ko, 'hae^i-ket. 

harken v, listen [also spelt hearken ; past participle and 
preterit harkened, harkend] 'ha^kan, 'ha:r-kan. 

Harleian adj. (of Robert Harley) 'ha:r-li-3n, hae'hi-an. 

harlequin n. (buffoon, clown) 'ha:?-h-ku)in, 'ha:r-h-kin. 

harmonic adj, (musical; harmonious; of harmony) haz- 
'menik. 

harmonica n. (musical glasses; harmonicon) ha^'meni-ka. 

harmonicon n. (small musical reed-instrument ; orchestrion ; 
acoustic-flame apparatus) ha^'meni-kan. 

harmonize v. [also spelt harmonise] 'ha:7-m3-naiz. 

harpsichord n. (piano-like instrument) 'ha^psi-keird. 

harqnebns n. gun [also spelt harquebuse, harquebuss; syn- 
onymous cognate arquebus] 'haz:ku)i-b3s ; (erroneously) 
'harku3i-bjus. 

harqnebnsier n. soldier [also spelt harquebussier and, some- 
times, arquebusier] ha2ku)ib3'si:^, ha^kiba'si:?, a^kiuiba'si:?, 
a^kiba'si:?. 

harridan n. vixen [also spelt haridan] 'hae?i-dn. 

harrier n. (one who harries; falcon) 'haeri-ar. 

hart n. (male deer) ha:?t. 

hartbeest n. antelope [synonymous cognate hartebeest] 
'ha:?t-biist. 

c: low, b: fur, ae cat, o hot, oi boy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



252 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

liartebeest n. [ploral hartebeests, harteheesti liosfa-biist, 
ha:7-t3-biist, 'ha:zt-biist. same meaning as hartbeesi, 

Hartleian adj. (of David Hartley) 'hartLi-dn, hoTt'lii-dn. 

Hartshom n. (formerly, horn of a hart; latterly, smelling- 
salts) 'ha:7ts-he:7n. 

liaram-scanuiL adj. (heedless) 'hzi-z^m-akei-z^m, liaerdm- 
skae^sm. 

liaraspez n. Roman soothsayer of Etruscan origin [synon- 
ymous cognate haruspice; plural haruspices} hs'sA-speks. 

liAsIieesIi n. 'hae-^iS, ha'JiiS. same meaning as hashish. 

Hasliisli n. Indian-hemp preparation [synonymous cognate 
hasheesh"] 'haeJiS. 

Haslet n. roast meat; pig's fry [synonymous cognate harslet} 
'hxsLdt, 'hee-SL3t, 'ha:-zl3t. 

Hasp n. (door-clasp, etc.) ha:sp, ha:sp, hse:sp. 

Hassock n. (tussock; cricket) "hsessk. 

basten v. hurry [past participle and preterit hastened, hat' 
tend] 'hee-san, 'hee-sn, (m parts of the north of England 
and Scotland, and the north of Ireland, whence also by some 
in America) 'hee-stan, 'hee-stn. 

bastiness n. (hurriedness ; quickness of temper) 'hee-sti-nis. 

liatcliel V. hackle, heckle [present participle hatcheling, 
hatchelling; past participle and preterit hatcheled, hatch- 
elled, hatcheld] 'haetSal. 

liatoliet n. (light short-handled ax) 'haetjit. 

liatcliivay n. (opening in a deck or floor) 'hxt^-wee. 

Hatred n. 'hee-tjid; (dialcctally) 'heet-tjid. 

Hanghty adj (proud, arrogant) 'hc:-ti. 

Hanlm n. stems and stalks; straw [synonymous cognate 
halm] hc:m. 

Hanncli n. (part between ribs and thigh; leg and loin) 
hcintS, ha:ntS, harntj, {also, and in Britain normally) hc:n$, 
ha:n$, ha:nS. 

hannt v, (frequent, etc.) hc:nt, ha:nt, ha:nt. 

Hautboy n. wind-instrument ; strawberry [also, in the sense 
of strawberry, spelt hautbois ; also, formerly, in the sense 
of wind-instrument, spelt hoboy] 'hoo-bei. 

Hautenr n. (loftiness, haughtiness) ho'to:?. 

Have V, haev, (when less strest) hov, 9v, v. 

Havoc n. devastation [also sprit hat'ock] 'haevak. 

Haxvaiian adj. (of Hawaii) ha'wai-jan. 

Hawve n. (the part of a ship's bow where the hawse-holes are, 
etc.) hc:z. 

j .ve, g cure; 6 the, 6 th'in]^ 3 arrure, dj joy; $ shoe, tj chew; 
wwhen] r)sing; u whoever, 1 r^act, o f«ll, ou fool, lit, lis^e; 
o poetic ; o ov^r, e aerial, a bwt, o: door, 00 no, e b^d, ee gotcj 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 253 

hauFser n. (cable; warping-rope) 'hc:-s3?, 'hci-zar. 

Haytian adj, (of Hayti) 'hee-ti-sn. 

haziness n. (mistiness; fogginess) 'hee-zi-nis. 

hazy adj, (misty) 'hee-zi. 

he noun-pron. hii, (when less strest) hi, i, i. 

head n. upper or anterior division of the body [also spelt 

hedl hed. 
heal V, cure, repair [past participle and preterit healed, 

healdj hiil. 
health n. soundness of body [also spelt helthi helO. 
healthy adj. [also spelt helthyl 'helQi, 'heltOi. 
hear v» hi:?, hia. 

heard v. (past participle and preterit of hear) hsizd. 
hearken v. see harken. 

hearse n. (bier; carriage for the dead) heirs. 
heart n. organ of circulation [also spelt. /tar/] hQ:zt. 
hearten v, encourage [also spelt harten ; past participle and 

preterit heartened, hartend'i 'ha^tn, 'ha:r-tn. 
hearth n. fireplace floor; fireside [also, sometimes, spelt 

harthi ha:r9, heirO. 
hearty adj. courageous; cordial; kindly [also spelt harty"] 

'hazily 'ha:?-ti, 
heath n. (open uncultivated land; plant) hiiO. 
heathen n. pagan. Gentile, etc. [ploral heathen, heathens'! 

'hii-dan, 'hii-dn. 
heathenize v. [also spelt heathenise"} 'hii-ds-naiz. 
heather n. ling, heath [also spelt hetherj "heds?. 
heanme n. (helmet) h3om. 
heaven n. sky ; firmament ; celestial abode [also spelt hevenl 

'hevan, 'hevn, (dialectally, vulgarly) 'hebm. 
heavy adj. pondeA>us [also spelt hevy} 'hevi. 
heavy adj. (having the disease called heaves) 'hii-vi. 
hebdomad n. (seven days; a week; group of seven superhu- 
man beings) 'hebda-mad, 'hebda-maed. 
hebdomadal adj. (weekly) heb'dema-dl. 
Hebraism n. (Hebrew idiom or quality) 'hii-bre-izam. 
Hebraize v. [also spelt Hebraise} 'hii-bee-aiz. 
Hecate n. (hag, witch) 'heka-ti. 

hecatomb n. (great sacrifice) 'heka-toum, 'heka-tem. 
hectogram n, one hundred grams [also spelt hectogramme} 

'hekta-g^aem. 
hectoliter n. a capacity-measure of one hundred liters [also 

spelt hectolitre^ 'hekta-hi-taz. 

c: law, b: iur, ae cat, e hot, ex boy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



254 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

hectometer n. a measure of one hundred meters [also spelt 

hectometre'} 'hekta-mii-ta?. 

hedgehog n. (urchin, etc. ; plant) 'heds-heg. 

hedonism n. (happiness-theory) 'hii-da-nizdm, liedd-nizam. 

heel n. (hinder part of the foot) hiil. 

Hegelian adj. (of Hegel) hi'gii-ti-dn, hi'gee-li-an. 

hegemonic adj. (ruling; supreme) hedsi'menik, hidsi'menik, 
higi'menik. 

hegemony n. (leadership) hi'dsems-ni, hi'gems-ni, liedsi- 
moni, 'hegi-moni, 'hii-dsi-moni, 'hii-gi-moni, 'hii-dsi-meni, 
'hed3i-meni. 

hegira n. flight of Mohammed from Mecca to Medina; exo« 
dus [also spelt hejira} hi'dsai-ra, 'hedsi-ea. 

hegnmen n. (head of a religious community; hegumenos) 
hi'gjou-man. 

heh interj. (expressing sorrow, surprise, etc., or calling at- 
tention) hee. 

heifer n. (young cow) 'hefar. 

heigh interj, calling attention, etc. [also spelt hey and, some- 
times, hQ hai, hee. 

heigh-ho interj. expressing surprise, languor, yawning, etc 
[also spelt heigho, heyho"] hai'oo, 'hai-ho, Tiee-ho. 

height n. altitude, etc. [also spelt hight; synonymous cognate 
highth} hait; (improperly) haitG. compare highth. 

heighten v. raise; intensify [also spelt highten; past parti- 
ciple and preterit heightened, heightend"} liai-tn. 

heinous adj, (hateful ; atrocious) 'hee-nss ; (improperly) HnU 
nss. 

heir n. (one who inherits; offspring; possessor) t:z. 

heirloom n. (chattle that follows the devolution of real es- 
tate ; article or characteristic handed do\^ from generation 
to generation) 'er^-loum. 

heirship n. (state of an heir; inheritance) 'c:e-Sip. 

heliacal adj. (near the sun) hi'tai-s-kdl. 

helices n. (ploral of helix) 'heh-siz. 

helicin n. (glycoside of salicylic acid ; also, an oily substance 
from snails) 'heh-sin. 

helicine adj. spiral, coild ; of the helix of the ear [also, 
sometimes, spslt helicin'] 'heh-sin, 'heh-sain. 

helicoid adj. (like a helix; screw-shaped; spiral) 'heh-keid. 

heliocentric adj. (referred to the sun as a center) hii-li-o- 
'srntjik. 

heliotrope n. (plant; bloodstone; sun-dial) 'hii-li-a-tjop. 

J ^'e, gcure; bthe, f^in; 3 arure, ds/oy; I shoe, t$rliew; 
U) when ; r) sing; u whoever, i r£»act, o f«ll, ou fool, i it, 11 see; 
o poetic; d ov^r, e aerial, AbMt, o: door, oo no, e b^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 255 

helix n. spiral, coil; volute [ploral helices, helixes'] 'hii-hks, 

'hehks. 
hellebore n. (plant) 'heh-bo:?. . 
Hellene n. (Greek) 'he-lin, he'hin. 

Hellenic adj, (of the Hellenes; Grecian) helenik, he'hi-nik. 
Hellenize v, use Greek ; adopt Hellenistic ways ; make Greek 

[also spelt Hellenise} 'heh-naiz. 
Hellespontine adj. of the Hellespont [also, sometimes, spelt 

Hellespontini 'heh-spentin, heh'spentin, heh'spen-tain. 
Hello interj. hsloo. same meaning as hallo, 
helm n. (tiller; steering-wheel) helm; {dialectally) 'helam. 
helot n. (Spartan serf) 'helat, 'hii-tat. 
helotry n. (helots collectivly) 'hcla-tji, 'hii-la-tji. 
helter-skelter adj. (in disorderd haste) heltd^'skettd?, {as- 

sumptivly) 'heha^-skeltar. 
helve n. handle; helv-hammer [also spelt helvl helv. 
helve V. [also spelt helv't past participle and preterit helved, 

helvdl helv. 
hemal adj. of the blood [also spelt haemall 'hii-msh 
hemapophysis n. second element of the hemal arch of a 

vertebra [also spelt haemapophysisi hema'pefi-sis, hima- 

'pefi-sis. 
hematic adj. of blood [also spelt haematic'] hi'mxtik. 
hematin n. constituent of hemaglobin [also spelt haematin, 

hematine, haematine] 'hema-tin, 'hii-ma-tin. 
hematite n. bloodstone [also spelt haematite] 'hema-tait, 

'hii-ma-tait. 
hemiopia n. (eye-defect : hemiopy, hemiopsy, hemiopsia, 

hemianopsia) hemi'DO-pi-a. 
hemiplegia n. (paralysis of one side of the body) hemi- 

'pz-ii-dsi-a. 
hemistich n. (half a line of verse; short line) liemi-stik. 
hemoglobin n. coloring-matter of the red blood-corpuscles 

[also spelt haemoglobin ; synonymous cognate hematoglo- 

bin, haematoglobin] hema'glao-bin, hima'glDO-bin. 
hemorrhage n. excessiv bleeding [also spelt haemorrhage] 

'hema-rids. 
hemorrhoid n. pile [also spelt haemorrhoid] liema-reid. 
hence adv. (from here; away; henceforth; from this; there- 
fore) hents, (zvhen unstrest) hens; (also, and in Britain 

normally) hens. 
henceforth adv. (from this time forth) hents'faieO, hcns- 

'foirG; (anteriorly) 'hents-fo:z:9, 'hens-fo:r8. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cot, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



256 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

hendiadys n. (the use of two words joind by a conjunction 

to express a single complex idea) henMai-o-dis. 
bepatio adj, (of the liver) hi'paetrk. 
liepatite n. (liver-stone) 'hep9>tait; (less properly) 'hri-p^- 

tait. 
Hepatisation n. [also spelt hepatisationi hep9ti'zee-San» 

heps-tai'zee-San. 
liepatixe v. render liver-like [also spelt hepatisel liepd-tazz; 

(less properly) 'hii-ps-taiz. 
Heptateuoli n. (the first seven books of the Old Testament) 

'hepta-tguk. 
heptavalent adj. (having a valency of seven) hep'taevd-ldnt. 
her noun-pron., adj.-pron. he:?, (when unstresi) has, ac. 
Heraclean adj. of Heracles or Hercules [also spelt Heracleu 

an, Heraklean'] he^s'kLii-dn. 
Heraolidan adj, of the Heracleidae or descendants of Her- 
cules [also spelt Heracleidan"} hezslcLai-dn. 
Heraolitean adj. (of Heraclitus of Ephesus) he^a-kt.ai'tzi- 

9n. 
lieraldio adj. (of heraldry) hi'zseldik; (improperly) lies^- 

dik. 
herb n. (plant with a non-woody stem) B'.zh, hsizh, 
herbaceous adj. (herb-like) B?^ee-S9s, h^z^ec-l^s. 
Herbage n. (herbs collectivly; pasture of land) 'B:z-bids, 

'hei^-bids. 
herbal n. (book on herbs) 'ere-bal, 'hei^-bal. 
herbal adj. (of herbs) 'sir-bal, 'heie-bal. 
herbarinm n. collection of dried plants [plural herbariums, 

herbaria'] ho^'bei-n-am. 
herbescent adj. (growing like an herb) hsz'bessnt. 
herbivorons adj. (herb-eating) hez-'biva-ras. 
herborize v. botanize [also spelt herborise, herbarise"} 'arr- 

ba-raiz, 'hoir-ba-raiz. 
herborizer n. [also spelt herboriserl 'siz-h^-zai-z^z, Tiair- 

ba-^ai-za?. 
herby adj. (full of herbs; grassy; herb-like) 'sir-bi, 'hair-bi. 
heronlean adj. (of or like Hercules ; strong ; immense) har- 

'kgou-li-Dn; (improperly) ha^kgo'hi-an. 
herd n. (drove, flock) hai^d. 
hereafter adv. (in the sequel ; in future ; in the life to come) 

hi:?'a:f-t9?, (when less sfrest) hiz'a:i-t^z. 
hereby adv. (by this means) hiiz'bai, (when less strest) hre- 

'bai; (anteriorly) 'hir^-bai. 

] ye, gcure: b the, Qthin; 3 arure, d5/oy; j shoe, t^chew; 
wwhen; i3sin^; u whoever, 1 r^act, o full, ou fool, i it, lise^; 
o poetic; 3 ov^r, e aerial, Abwt, o: door, oo no, c b^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 257 



liereditament n. (heritable property; heirship) he?z'dzt9- 
mant, hi'eedita-msnt. 

hereditary adj. (descending by inheritance) hi'eedi-teei, hi- 
'^edi-t3?i, {in Britain, often) hi'^edi-tji. 

Herein adv. (in this place; in this particular) hv.z'in, (when 
less strest) hiz'in, hi'rin; {often, anteriorly) 'hi:r-in. 

lieresiaroli n. (leader or founder of a heresy) hi'zii-si-a:?k, 
'he?isi-a:rk, hi'^ii-zi-a:rk. 

heresy n. unorthodox doctrin [plural heresies'] 'he^i-si. 

heretic n, (one who rejects an accepted doctrin) 'heei-tik. 

hereto adv. (to this document) hir^'tou, {when less strest) 
hir'tou; {anteriorly) hv.z-tu. 

hereunto adv. (unto this place ; to this thing ; hereto) hi:?- 
An'tou, {anteriorly) hi:?'An-tu. 

hereupon adv. (immediately following upon this) hi:7-3'pen, 
{anteriorly) 'hiir-a-pen. 

heremrith adv. (with this; hereby) hi:?'wi5; {anteriorly) 
'hi:?-wid. 

heritriz n. heiress [also spelt heretrix} 'he^i-tjiks. 

hermaphrodite n. (an individual that is both male and fe- 
male) h9?'maef33-dait. 

hermeneutics n. (interpretation, as of Scripture) hsztni- 
'njou-tiks. 

hero n. man of superior qualities, favord by the gods; chief 
male personage [ploral heroes} 'hi:-zo, 'hi:-ro. 

heroine n. female hero [also spelt heroin] 'hero-in; {improp' 
erly) 'hi:-?o-in. 

heroism n. (action and qualities of a hero) 'hero-izam. 

heron n, bird [synonymous cognate hern] 'he^an. 

herpes n. (skin-disease) 'hozr-piz, 'herr-piz. 

herring n. (fish) 'heriq. 

herself noun-pron. her'self, {when less strest) har'sclf, 9z- 
'self. 

hesitate v, (hold back; falter) 'hezi-tet, 'hesi-tet. 

Hessian adj. (of Hesse, a grand duchy of Germany) Tiejan, 
'hesi-an. 

hetaera n. mistress ; paramour ; harlot [ploral hetaerae ; syn- 
onymous cognate hetaira] hi'tr.-z^. 

hetaira n, [ploral hetairai] hi'tai-za. same meaning as he- 
taera. 

heterochromous adj. (of different colors) heta^dlcsoo-mas ; 
{less properly) het3'z:ek33-ni3s. 

heterodox adj. (unorthodox) 'heta^o-deks, 'hetja-deks. 

c: \a7i\ b: iur, ae cat, o hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai kite; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



258 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

lieterogamy n. (indirect fertilization, etc.) hets'^ogd-mz. 
lieterogeneity n. (state of being heterogeneous) hetazd- 

dsi'nii-i-ti, (rapidly) hetjadsi'nii-i-ti. 
lieterogeneons adj. (diverse ; composed of parts of different 

kinds : opposed to homogeneous) hetd^d'dsii-ni-ss. 
lieterophemy n. (the saying of one thing when another is 

meant) hetaza'fii-mi, 'hetaza-fimi, het3'?ofi-mi. 
lieteropliyllous adj. (having several different kinds of 

leaves : said of a plant) hetazd'f ilss ; (less properly) heta- 

'eefi-las. 
lieterosoian n. person having a different shadow : a name 

applied to inhabitants of one temperate zone as contrasted 

with those of the other [ploral heteroscians, heteroscii] 

hctaVeSan. 
h.e'vr V. strike, chop, cut, etc. [past participle hewn, hewed, 

hewd ; preterit hewed, hewdl hgou, gou. 
hexagonal adj. (six-angled; six-sided) heks'xga-nl, hek- 

'saeg3-nl. 
liezasticli n. (a group of six lines of verse) lieksdfStik. 
Hezatencli n. (first six books of the Old Testament) 'hek- 

s3-tguk. 
hey inter j, (calling attention) hee. 

heyday inter j. (denoting gaiety, wonder, etc.) 'hce-dce. 
hiatus n. break ; opening [plural hiatuses, hiatus"] hai'ee-tas. 
hibernate v. (winter) 'hai-bar-net ; (less properly) hai^BZ- 

net, hail)B:z-net. 
Hibemicize v. make Irish [also spelt Hihernicise'\ hai'bB?- 

ni-saiz. 
hibemization n. a making Irish [also spelt hibernisation'\ 

hai-barni'zce-San, hai-ba^-nai'zee-S^n. 
hioonp n. spasm of the breathing-organs [also spelt hiccough'\ 

'hikap. 
hickory n. (tree; wood) 'hika-ri, (anteriorly) 'hiksi. 
hidalgo n. (gentleman) Wdxlgo. 

hideous adj. (horrible; ugly) 'hidi-Ds; (improperly) 'hidsas. 
hie V. hasten ; go quickly [present participle hying ; past par- 
ticiple and preterit hied"] hai. 
hierarchy n. (one of three divisions of angels; priestly 

rule; class) Tiai-a-rarki. 
hieroglyphic n. (of the nature of Egyptian writing) hai- 

ara'ghfik. 
hieroglyphist n. (writer of hieroglyphs, etc.) hai-a'regh- 

fist, 'hai-3?3-ghfist. 

j ye, Qcure: d the, Qthiw, 3 arrure, d^/oy; ^ shoe, tJcAew; 
wwhen; rising; u whoever, i r^ract, o fttll, ou fool, i it, risee; 
o poetic; ov^r, e oerial. Abut, o: doc»r, oo no, eb^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 259 

iLierophant n. (expounder of sacred mysteries) 'hai-3?3- 
faent, hai'eea-fant. 

Mgli-ininded adj. hai'main-dzd, (assumptivly) 'hai-main- 
did. 

Mgh-pHest n. hai'p^iist, 'hai-p^iist. 

Ughth n. [also, formerly, spelt heighthi haiO. same mean- 
ing as height, 

highnFayxnan n. highway robber [ploral highwaymen} 'hai- 
weman. 

hilaHous adj. (cheerful; rollicking) haile^^i-ss, hi'ie:-d-9s; 
(improperly) hi'lseri-ss. 

Ularity n. (cheerfulness; merriment) hai'laezi-ti, hi'laezi-ti. 

hillo inter j. hailing a distant or occupied person; expressing 
surprise at an unexpected meeting [also spelt hilloal 'hi-}o, 
hi'loo. 

hillock n. (small hill) 'hilsk. 

hiluxn n. eye of a bean; hilus; small aperature [ploral hila} 
'hai-lam. 

iiiin noun-pron, (objcctiv of he) him, (when unstrest) im. 

Himalayan adj. (of the Himalayas) himslee-jan, hims'lee- 
an, hi'ma:-}3-J3n, hi'ma:-li-3n, hima'lai-sn. 

Mmation ». Greek garment [ploral himatial hi'mxti-sn. 

himself noun-pron, him'self, (when less strest) im'self. 

hinder adj. (situated behind; posterior) 'hain-ddz. 

hinder v, (keep back; impede) 'hindae. 

hindrance n. obstruction [synonymous cognate hinderance} 
'hindrans. 

Hindu n. Aryan of Hindustan [also spelt Hindoo} 'hin-duj 
hin'dou. 

Hindnize v. render Hindu [also spelt Hindooize, Hindooise} 
'hindu-aiz. 

Hindustani adj, of Hindustan [also spelt Hindoostanee} 
hindo'sta:-ni, hindo'sta:-ni. 

hinnible adj. (able to neigh or whinny) 'hind-bsL 

hip n. fruit of rose [synonymous cognate hep} hip. 

hippodrome n. (race-course, circus) 'hipd-drom. 

hippogriff n. fabulous creature like a griffin but with hind- 
quarters like those of a horse [also spelt hippogryph} 
'hipa-gzrif. 

hippopotamus n. African river-horse [ploral hippopotamus- 
es, hippopotami} hipa'peta-mas. 

hippurate n. (salt of hippuric acid) 'hipgo-^et, hi'pQo:-?3t. 

hippurio adj, (of urine) hi'pQo:-?ik. 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, o hot, ei hoy; a: far, go now, a: osk, ai kite; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



260 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

hiroine adj. of a goat ; goat-like ; lustful [also, sometimes, 
spelt hircinl 'hezsin, 'hs^-sain; 'h8:7-sin, 'hei^-sain. 

liirsute adj. (shaggy; hairy; of hair) ha^'sgout, 'has-sgut. 

Ills adj,-pron, hiz, {when less strest) iz, his. 

MSB V, make a sharp spirant sound, as that of s [past parti- 
ciple and preterit hissed, histi his. 

hist inter j. (enjoining silence; urging a dog) hst, 8:t, ialio) 
hist. 

Mstoriog^raplier n. (historian) histozVegz^-isz, 

history n. (narrativ of past events) 'hista-zi, (anteriorly i 
rapidly) 'histji. 

histrionic adj. (theatrical, dramatic) histci'enik. 

hitherto adv, (until now; as yet; thus far) hidas'tou, (ofi- 
tcriorly) 'hido^-tu. 

h'm inter j, also spelt hm (hem! huml) Mm, (murmuring as- 
sent) m. 

ho interj. expressing surprise, admiration, triumph, taunting, 
etc. [also spelt hoa} hoo, ho. 

hoactzin n. bird [synonymous cognates hoacsin, hoatgin, Ao- 
asinl ho'acktsin, ho'aektzin. 

hoar adj. (white, gray) ho:z. 

hoard n., v, (treasure) h3:7d. 

hoarhonnd n. see horehound, 

hoarse adj. (raucous) hoizs. 

hoax n., v, (humbug) hooks. 

hobbledehoy n. stripling; clumsy youth; top [synonymous 
cogn.ites hobbadehoy, hobbedehoy"] 'hebaldi-hoi. 

hobbler n. retainer bound to maintain a hobby; light horse- 
man [also spelt hobler"] 'heblae. 

hobbler n. (one who hobbles in his gait) 'hebld?. 

hobgoblin n. (tricksy imp; bogy) 'heb-gebhn, hob'geblin. 

hobo n. tramp [ploral hobos, hoboes'] 'hoo-bo. 

hoc n. old card-game [also, formerly, spelt hock"] hok. 

hock n. joint [also spelt houghl hek. 

hockey n. feast at harvest-home [also spelt hockay; synon- 
ymous cognates hawkey, hawkie, horkeyl 'heki. 

hockey n. hookt stick ; the game of shinny, shinty, bandy 
[synonymous cognates hawky, hawkey, hookey"] 'hoki. 

hocns-pocns n. (jugglery; deception) hoo-kas'poo-kas. 

hodgepodge n. (haricot; medley) 'hods-pods. 

hoe n. (implement) hoo. 

hogshead n. large cask [also spelt hogshedl 'hegz-hed; (dio- 
lectally) 'hegzid. 

j ye, Qcure; b the, 9 f/iin; 3 axrure, ds/oy; ^ shoe, tScftew; 
u) when; 13 sin^; u whoever, i r^act, o fwll, ou fool, i tt, li see; 
o poetic; a ov^r, e aerial, Ab«t, d: door, oo no, e b^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 261 

lioiden n. boisterous girl; romp [also spelt hoyden} 'hei-dzu 

Hoist V. (raise) heist; (vulgarly) haist. 

lioity-toity adj. (frolicsome; huffy) hei-ti'tei-ti, (assump- 
tivly) 'hei-ti-tei-ti. 

lioky-poky n. hocus-pocus; cheap ice-cream [also spelt ho- 
key-pokey} hoo-ki'poo-ki. 

Hold V, (grasp, etc.) hoold, (when less strest) hold. 

lioley adj, (full of holes) 'hoo-li. 

Holiday n. (consecrated day; day of festivity; festival; va- 
cation) 'hell-dee, {anteriorly) 'heli-de. 

HoUa^ inter j. calling attention or expressing exultation; ho 
there ! [akin to hollo, hallo} 'hela, (formerly, but now rarely) 
he'la: . 

Holla^ V. 'held, 'he-la, he'la: . same meaning as hollo.* 

Holler V, (vulgar) 'held?, same meaning as hollo.* 

Hollo^ inter j, hallo ! [also, formerly, spelt hollow ; synony- 
mous cegnate holloa} 'helD. 

Hollo^ V. shout; vociferate; halloo [also spelt holloa, hol- 
low; synonymous cognates holla, holler} 'helo, 'held. 

Holloa interj, he'too. same meaning as hollo.^ 

HolloDF n. (concavity; void space) 'helo; (dialectally) 'held. 

HollyHook n. (plant) 'holi-hek; (less properly) 'heh-hc:k. 

Holm n. islet; river-meadow [also spelt holme} hdom, hoolm. 

Holm n. holly [also spelt holme} hoolm, hdom; (improperly) 
helm. 

Holooanst n. (sacrifice wholly consumed by fire; massacre) 
'hela-kc:st. 

Holster n. (pistol-case) 'hool-std?. 

Holy adj, (sacred) 'hoo-li. 

Holy-day n. (holy day ; religious festival) 'hoo-li-dee. 

Homage n. (acknowledgment of allegiance; obeisance) 
'hemids, 'emids. 

Homager n. (one who owes homage) 'hemi-dsd?, 'emi-dsd?. 

Home n. (abode, etc.) hoom ; (dialectally) horn. 

Homeliness n. (homely quality; plainness) 'hoo-mh-nis. 

Homely adj, (of home; everyday; plain-looking) 'hoo-mh; 
(dialectally) 'homli. 

Homelyn n. spotted ray, a fish [synonymous cognates homme- 
lin, homhn, homerling} 'hoo-mhn. 

Honiemade adj, hoom'meed, (assumptivly) 'hdom-meed; (dia- 
lectally) ho'meed, 'homed. 

HomeopatHie adj, of homeopathy [also spelt homoeopathic} 
homi-a'paeGik, hemi-a'paeOik. 

c: low, b: fur, a cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the lellowing syllable. 



262 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

liomeopatliist n. [also spelt homoeopathisfl homi'ep9-6nt, 

hemi'ep3-8ist. 
homeopatliy n. medical system [also spelt homoeopathy} 

homi'epa-Gi, hemi'epa-Oi. 
Homeric adj. (of Homer) ho'me^ik; (improperly) 'hoo-ind- 

zik. 
homestead n. home; farmsted [also spelt homestedj Hioom- 

stid, 'hoom-sted. 
homicidal adj, (of homicide; man-slaying; murderoui) 

'hemi-sai-dl, hemi'sai-dl. 
homiletic adj. (of the nature of a homily) hemiletik. 
liomisli adj. homelike [also spelt homeish'] 'hoo-miS. 
lioiiiocliromous adj. (of the same color) homalraoo-iiiM, 

(less properly) ho'melrea-mds, hema'k^oo-mds. 
homogeneity n. (state of being homogeneous) homddsi'nii- 

i-ti, hemadsi'nii-i-ti. 
homogeneous adj. (alike; composed of like parts; uniform: 

the epposit of heterogeneous) home'dsii-ni-ds, hemd'dszi- 

ni-3s. 
homog^raph n. (a word of the same spelling as another bttt 

of different origin and meaning) 'hDO-m3-g2:a:f, ^em9-g7a:f. 
homolognie n. that which is homologous; corresponding part 

[also spelt homolog'} 'hema-leg, 'hoo-ma-leg. 
homologous adj. (corresponding) ho'meld-gss. 
homonym n. a word having the same pronunciation as an- 
other but a different meaning; a homophone [also spelt ho- 

monyme'] 'hema-nim, 'hoo-ma-nim. 
homoonsian n. one who holds the persons of the Trinity to 

be of the same essence [synonymous cognate homousian} 

homo'ou-si-an, hemo'ou-si-an, homo'ao-si-on, homo'ao-si-9ti ; 

(less properly) homo'ou-zi-an, homo'oo-zi-sn, hemo'ao-zi-9n. 
homophonons adj.' (having the same sound) ho'mefd-nas. 
homoplasy n. (homoplastic condition) ho'mepz.9-si, 'hoo-md- 

ptaesi. 
honest adj. (upright, fair, etc.) 'enist. 
honey n. (sweet viscid fluid; darling) TiAni. 
honor n. reverential respect [also spelt honour"] 'en^z. 
honor v. [also spelt honour ; past participle and preterit hon^ 

ored, honord"] 'enar. 
honorable adj. [also spelt honourable! 'enazd-bdl, (rapidly) 

'enjra-bsl, (assumptivly) 'enrabal. 
honorarium n. honorary reward [ploral honorariums, hono- 

rarial ena'rei-n-am, henD'rei-ri-am. 

j ye, Qcure; b the, f/iin; 3 arure, dj/oy; ^ shoe, tjcliew; 
U) when ; 13 sin^; u whoever, i react, o full, ou fool, i it, li see; 
o poetic; a over, e aerial, Abut, o: door, oono, ebed, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 263 

lionorary adj, of honor; titulary [also, formerly, spelt hon- 

ouraryl 'en^-zezi, (also) 'en^z^-zi; {assumptivly) 'ona-zari, 

(rapidly) 'enzszi, 'enzi. 
hoodlnxn n. (rowdy, rough) 'hodlam, 'hou-dlam. 
lioodoo n. (voodoo ; also, cause of bad luck) 'hou-du. 
hoof n. horny digit-sheath or foot [ploral hoofs and, rarely, 

hooves'} houf; {dialectally) hof. 
liook n. (angular piece of metal, etc.) hok; (improperly) 

houk. 
hooked adj. hook-shaped, hamate ; furnisht with hooks [also, 

sometimes, spelt hooM hokt, 'hokid. 
hoop n. (ring, band) huup; (dialectally) hup. 
hooping-cough n. see whooping-cough. 
hoopoe ». bird [former synonymous cognate hoopool 'hbu-po, 

'hou-pu. 
Hoosier n. (inhabitant of Indiana) 'huu-397. 
hoove n. disease [synonymous cognates hoven, hovel houv. 
hope v., n, hoop, (when unstrest) hop ; (dialectally) hop. 
horary adj, (of an hour) 'hoi-ra-n. 
horde n. (tribe, troop) hoizd. 
hordeolnm n. sty, eyelid-tumor [plural hordeola} ho?'dii-9- 

lam. 
horehound n. herb [also spelt hoarhound} 'ho:7-haond. 
horizon ». (line at which the earth and sky appear to meet) 

ha'rai-zan, haVai-zn; (improperly) 'hozri-zan. 
horizontalize v, [also spelt horizontalise} he^i'zentl-aiz. 
hornblende n. mineral [also spelt hornblend} 'he:?n-blehd. 
horologe n. (timepiece, etc.) 'he^a-lods, 'hez9-led$. 
horologinm n. horologe ; constellation ; canonical-hour book 

[plural horologia} hero'loo-dsi-am, ho^a'lodsi-am. 
horology n. (timepiece; art of measuring time; making of 

horologes) hoVela-dsi, 
horoscope n. (observation of the heavens at the time of a 

birth, etc.) 'hora-skop; (improperly) 'ho:-r3-skop. 
horrible adj. (exciting horror; dreadful) 'hera-bal. 
horrid adj. (causing horror; revolting; detestable) 'hend. 
hors d'oenvre n. (extra dish ; relish) eiz'dBivz, hoz^dsivz. 
horse n. (quadruped) ho:rs; (dialectally) hc:s, heis, hos. 
horseradish n. (plant; rootstock) 'heizs-zxdil. 
horseshoe n. (shoe for a horse) 'ho:?S-Suu. 
hosanna inter j. (save now ! save, pray!) hD'zaena. 
hose n. leg-garment ; stocking [ploral hose, archaically or dia- 
lectally hosen, ebsoletely hoses} hooz. 

c: law, b: iur, ae cat, o hot, oi hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



264 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

holier n. (one who makes or deals in hose) 'hoo-s9z, Hido-zi- 

lioiiery n. (hose collectivly) 'hoo-^^-zi, 'hoo-zt-^-zi. 
hoipitable adj. (offering welcome; cordial) liespita-ba}, 

(assumpHvly) 'hespi-tobal, 'hesptabdl; (improperly) hes'pitd- 

bal. 
hoipitably adv. 'hespita-bli ; (improperly) hes'pitd-bli. 
hoipital n. (hospice; asylum, etc.) 'hespi-tl, liespi-td!; (im- 
properly) 'hes-pitl, 'hc:s-pitl. 
lioipitaler n. hosteler; one who tends the sick in a hospital 

[also spelt hospitaller] 'hespitl-o?, 'hespita-lar. 
hoipitiuin n. (hospice; hall, hostel) hes'piSdm, hes'piSi-dm- 
lioipodar n. (lord) 'hespo-do?. 
lioitage n. (person given as a pledge) 'hestids; (improperly) 

'hoo-stids. 
lioitel n. (inn, hotel) 'hestl, 'hestal. 
lioiteler n. (innkeeper) liestl-9?, liest3-49?. 
lioitelry n. (inn, hostel) 'hestl-ri, 'hestal-zi. 
lioitile adj. of an enemy; unfriendly [also, sometimes, tpelt 

hoslil] 'hestil, (assnmpHvly) 'hestl; (also) 'hes-tail. 
lioitler n. stableman ; groom [also, sometimes, spelt osilerj 

'hesLa?, 'osL3?. 
hot-blooded adj, het'bUdid, (assumptivly) 'het-bUdid. 
hotel n. (inn, etc.) ho'tel, o'tel. 
hough n., V. hek. see hock. 
honghite n. (mineral) 'hA-fait, 'hAf-ait. 
hound n. (dog) hoond. 
hour n. (time) ou?. 
hour! n. (nymph of the Mohammedan Paradise) ^hao-^i, 'ho:- 

zi. 
houie n. (dwelling, etc.) haos. 
house V. (receive or put into a house, etc.) hooz. 
household n. (inmates of a house collectivly) 'haos-hold, 

(sometimes) 'haos-old, 'hoo-sold. 
housexiHLfe n. a woman who manages her household; also, 

a case for needles, etc. ; a workbox [also spelt hussif, hus" 

sif and, in the sense of a workbox, husivife, hussive; plaz- 

al housewives'] 'haos-woif, 'hAzwif, (also, especially in the 

sense of workbox) 'hAzif. 
house-wifery n. 'haos-wai-fsi, liAzwi-fsi, TiAzi-fsi, 'haos- 

wai-fa-^i. 
housewives n. (ploral of housewife) 'haos-waivz, 'hAzwrvs, 

'hAZIVZ. 

j ye, gcure; bthe, Qthin; 3 axrure, dsjoy; ^ shoe, tlchew; 
u) when ; 13 sin^; u wh^^ever, i r^act, o f«ll, ou fool, 1 it, li see; 
o poetic; a ov^r, e aerial, Ab«t, o: door, oo no, e bed, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 265 

housing n, (shelter of a house ; house-property ; hotise) liqii- 

ZIQ. 

Honylmlilim n. (one of a fancied race of horses described 
by Swift in "Gullivers Travels") liau-inm, 'hou-mm, wumu 

hovel M. (open shed; wretched cabin) liev^, 'hAV^ 

hovel V* form like an open hovel or ^ed, as a chimney [pres- 
ent participle hoveling, hovelling; past pcui^iciple and pret- 
erit hoveled, hovelled, hoveldl 'hev^, liAVd}. 

hovel V, pursue the occupation of a hoveler; bring into har- 
bor, moor, and unload [present participle hoveling, hovel- 
ling; past participle and preterit hoveled, hovelled, hoveld} 
'hevdl, 'hAv^l. 

hoveler n, unlicensed pilot or boatman; craft [also spelt ho- 
veller\ Iiev3-l37, liAVd-lar. 

hover v. hang in air; float; linger [past participle and pret- 
erit hovered, hoverdi 'hAvdr, lievd?. 

ho'wadji ». (gentleman) hau'aedsi. 

howbeit adv, (however it may be; nevertheless) hooliii-xt. 

howdah n. (seat) 'hao-dd. 

howdy-do n. how-do-you-do [also spelt how-d'y-do, houhde- 
do; synonymous cognate how-d'ye-do'] hao-diMou, haod'dou. 

howitier n. (piece of ordnance) 'hau-it-sar. 

hoyden n. Hiei-dn. see hoiden, 

huckleberry n. (hurtleberry, whortleberry, bilberry) liAk^- 
bcei. 

hue n. (color, tint) h^ou, (ou. 

hue n. (cry, shout) hgou, qavu 

huge adj. (very large; enormous) hgouds, (ouds. 

Huguenot n. (member of the Calvinistic or RefOrmd com- 
munion of France in the i6th and 17th centuries; French 
Protestant) Tigou-gd-net, 'gou-gs-net. 

hullabaloo n. uproar [also spelt hullaballool hAlabslou, 
'hAldbd-lu. 

hullo interj, [also spelt hulloaj hdloo. same meaning as 
hallo, 

human n. (of man) 'hgou-man, ^ou-msn. 

humane adj. (kind, benevolent; tending to refine; elegant, 
polite) hgo'mcen, go'meen. 

humanixation n. [also spelt humanisationl hQumdni'zee- 
San, hgumd-nai'zee-Sdn. 

hunianize v. [also spelt humanisel ^hgou-md-naiz. 

humble adj. (not self-assertiv ; lowly; modest) liAmbd}, 
'Ambal. 

c: laWt b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the lellowing syllable. 



266 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

hnmems n. bone [ploral humeril 'hgou-md-zros, 'gou-ma-rds. 
Immor n. organic fluid or juice; temperament, fancy; comi- 
cality [also spelt humourl 'hgou-ms;, 'gou-md^, 'jou-maff. 
Immoriflt n. [also spelt humouristi liQou-md-rist, 'con-m9- 

eist, 'jou-m3-2ist. 
humorous adj, [also, formerly, spelt humourousl HiQoii-ina- 

Z3S, 'gou-m3-r9s, 'jou-ms-rds. 
liuinpli interj, expressing doubt or dissatisfaction [alto, 

sometimes, spelt h'mf] Mm, hAmf. 
humpty-dumpty n. (dumpy, hump-shoulderd person) hAmp- 

ti'dAmpti. 
hunchback n. (a huncht back) hxntS'baek, (in Britain) hxnS- 

'baek. 
hunchback n. (a person with a huncht back; a humpback) 

'hAntS-baek, (in Britain) 'hAnJ-baek. 
hundred n., adj. (five score) 'hxndrdd ; (dialectally) OiAn- 

ddzd. 
hundredth adj., n. 'hAndtadG, 'hAndtatG. 
hungry ndj, (feeling hunger, etc.) 'hAqgzi. 
hurrah interj. expressing approbation, exultation, etc [also 

spelt hurra ; synonymous cognate hurray"] ha'ra: , hoVa: , hx- 

'ra: ; (dialectally) haVc: . 
hurray interj. [also, sometimes, spelt hoorayl ha'ree, . ho'eec. 

same meaning as hurrah. 
hurricane n. (wind-storm) 'ho?i-ken, 'hAzi-ken, 'hAsri-ksn. 
hurry v., n, 'huri, (also, in England and eastern New Eng- 

land) 'hAzri. 
hurtleberry n. (whortleberry, bilberry, huckleberry) 'hartt- 

ben. 
husband n. (a man joind to a woman by marriage) liiiz- 

bdnd. 
hussar n. (horse-soldier) hA'zo:?. 
hussy n. housewife ; pert girl ; wench [also spelt hussy, hus- 

scy; ploral hussies'] 'hAzi; (improperly) 'hASi. 
hussy n. workbox, hussif [also spelt hussy; ploral hussies'] 

'hAZI. 

hustle V. (push about roughly; bustle; get a move on) 

'hAsal, 'hAsl. 
husudfe n. 'hAzif, 'hAzwif, 'hAz-waif. see under housewife. 
huzza interj, expressing exultation or applause; hurrah [also 

spelt hu::cah and, sometimes, hussay] hd'za: , hA'zo: , ho'za: , 

hA'zee. 
hyacinth n. (precious stone ; flower, plant) 'hai-a-sinO. 

j ye, Q cure; b the, 6 thin ; 3 arure, dj joy; S shoe, tS chew; 
xvzvhcn; qsiw^r; u whoever, i redact, o fttll, ou fool, i it, lis^^; 
o poetic ; 3 ov£?r, e aerial, a but, 0: door, do no, e bed, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 267 

hyacinthine adj. [also spelt hyacinthin'\ hai-a'sinOin, hai- 

a'sin-Oain. 
hyalin n. (glass-like or translucent substance) 'hai-a-lin. 
hyaline adj. glass-like, glassy, vitreous [also, sometimes, 

spelt hyalin'\ 'hai-a-hn, 'hai-a-lain. 
hybrid n. (half-breed; mongrel) 'hai-b?id, 'hibzid. 
hybridiiin n. 'hai-bri-dizsm, 'hibri-dizam. 
hybridize v. [also spelt hybridise! 'hai-b?i-daiz, 'hibn-daiz. 
hydatid n. (cyst) 'hai-da-tid, 'hida-tid. 
hydra n. water-snake; polyp, etc. [ploral hydras, hydrae"! 

'hai-dra. 
hydrang^ea n. (shrub) hai'dcaendsd, hai'dcsendsi-a, hai'dreen- 

d33. 
hydraulic adj. (of water, etc.) hai'drc:-hk; (dialectally) hai- 

'drehk. 
hydrid n. (hydra, a polyp) 'hai-drid. 
hydride n. hydrogen compound [also, sometimes, spelt hy- 

dridl 'hai-draid, 'hai-drid. 
hydriodio adj. (of hydrogen and iodine) hai-dri'edik, hai- 

drai'edik. 
hydrogen n. (element) 'hai-dra-dsin. 

hydrogenize v. [also spelt hydrogenise} 'hai-dradsi-naiz. 
hydromel n. (honey and water) 'hai-dra-mal, 'hai-dra-mel. 
hydrometer n. (a device for measuring the specific gravity 

of water, etc.; current-gage) hai'dremi-tar. 
hydropathic adj. (of hydropathy) hai-dra'paeGik. 
hydropathy n. (water-cure) hai'dtep3-0i. 
hydrophobia n. (aversion to water, etc. ; rabies) hai-dra'fDO- 

bi-3, 
hydrophobic adj. (of hydrophobia) hai-drs'febik, hai-drs- 

'boo-bik. 
hyena n. quadruped [also spelt hyaenal hai'ii-ns. 
hygiene n. (sanitary science) 'hai-dsin, 'hai-dsi-in, 'hidsi-in. 
hygienic adj, (of hygiene; sanitary) hai-dsi'enik, hai-dsi'ii- 

nik, hidsi'enik, hidsi'ii-nik. 
hygienist w. (one verst in hygiene) 'hai-dsi-enist, 'hidsi- 

enist. 
hylotheism n. (doctrin that God and matter are identical; 

hulotheism) 'hai-la-Gi-izam, hai-la'Gii-izam, (rarely) hai- 

'Ie0i-iz9m. 
hymeneal adj. (of marriage) hai-mi'nii-al. 
hymenial adj. (of the hymenium) hai'mii-ni-al. 
hymn n. (religious poem) him. 

c: \aw, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the fellowing syllable. 



268 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

hymnal n. (hymn-book) 'himndh 

hymned v, (past participle and preterit of hymn) himd, 

'himnid. 
hymning v, (present participle of hymn) 'himii], lumnii}. 
hymnody n. (the singing or composition of hjrmns; hymns 

collectivly) 'himna-di. 
hymnolog:y n. (study of hymns, etc.) him'nola-dsi. 
hypallage n. (inversion of syntactic relation between two 

words) hai'paela-dsi, hi'paela-dsi. 
hyperbaton n. transposition ; bold inversion [ploral hyPerba- 

ta} hai'por^-ba-ten. 
hyperbola n. (curve) hai'pBte-ba-lo. 
hyperbole n. (exaggeration) hai'pB:?-b3^i, (older) hai'pB:r- 

ba-H. 
hyperborean adj. (of the extreme north) hai-p9!rl»:-ri-3n. 
hyperoritioal adj. (excessivly critical) hai-pazTcsiti-kdl, 
hyperemia n. local excess of blood [also spelt hyperaemiaj 

hai-p32'ii-mi-3. 
hyperioum n. (plant) hai'pe^i-kam, hai-pa'^ai-kam. 
hypermeter n. (dolichurus; hypermetron) hai'pB:7-nii-t3r. 
hyperthesii n. (transposition, metathesis) hai'pszOi-sis. 
hypertrophy n. (excessiv growth of a part) hai'pertja-fi. 
hypethral adj. (open to the sky; open-air) hai'pii-Osdt, hz- 

'pii-G^al. 
hyphen n. (short dash) 'hai-fdn, 'hai-fin. 
hyphenize v. [also spelt hyphenise"] 'hai-fi-naiz. 
hypnosis n. (hypnotic state) hip'noo-sis. 
hypnotic adj. (soporific; of hypnotism) hip'netik. 
hypnotism n. (braidism) 'hipNa-tizom. 
hypnotization n. [also spelt hypnotisationi hipN3ti'zee-{9ii, 

hipNa-tai'zee-San. 
hypnotize v. [also spelt hypnotisel 'hipNa-taiz. 
hypoblast n. (endoblast) 'hai-pD-bla:st, 'hipa-Msest. 
hypobole «. (figure of speech in which adverse suggestions 

are made and refuted) hai'poba-h, (older) hai'peba-li. 
hypochondria n. (low spirits) hai-ps'kendri-d, hipalcen- 

dri-3. 
hypochondriac adj, (of hypochondria) hai-pd'kendri-xk, 

hipa'kondri-aek. 
hypochondriacal adj. (hypochondriac) hai-pd-ken'drai-^- 

ksl, hips-ken'drai-a-kal. 
hypochondriasis n. (hypochondria) hai-p3-ken'drai-9-si8, 

hipD-kon'drai-3-sis. 

j ye, gcure; bthe, f/iin; 5 arure, ds/oy; ^ shoe, tScfcew; 
in7£'/ien; qsingr; u whoever, i rract, o fidl, ou fool, i tt, lis^^; 
o poetic; d ovrr, e aerial, AbMt, o: door, 00 no, e brd, cegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 269 

liypooriiy n. (pretense, sham) hi'pelcsi-si ; {less properly) 

hai'peksi-si. 
hypocrite n, false pretender [also spelt hypocriti 'hipa-ksit. 
liypooritioal adj. (of hypocrisy, feignd) hipd'k^iti-kdl. 
hypodcnuio adj, (subcutaneous) hai-p3'dB:?-mik, hipa'de:?- 

mik. 
l^ypogaitrio adj. (of the hypogastrium or lowest region of 

the abdomen) hip9'gaest£ik, hai-pa'gxstsik. 
1^7P<^gOAl (idj. subterranean [also spelt hypogaeall hai-p9- 

'dsii-al, hipa'dsii-al. 
hypogene adj. (formd under the surface) 'hai-po-dsin, 'hipa- 

dsin. 
hypophyge n. (apophyge, scotia) hai'pefi-dsi, hai'pefi-dsi. 
liypopliyiii n. pituitary body, etc. [ploral hypophyses^ hai- 

'pefi-sis, hi'pefi-sis. 
liypoitasize n. embody; impersonate; hypostatize [also spelt 

hypostasisel hai'jpesta-saiz, hi'pesta-saiz. 
liypoitaiii n. sediment; underlying substance; essence 

[ploral hypostases! hai'pesta-sis, hi'pesta-sis. 
liypoitatize v. [also spelt hypostatise'] hai'pestd-taiz, hi- 

'pest3-taiz. same meaning as hypostasize. 
liypotenuie n. the side of a right-angled triangle opposit the 

right angle [synonymous cognate hypothenuse} hai'petn-jus, 

hai'peti-njus, hi'peti-njus. 
hypotliec n. (lien, security, etc.) hai'peOik, hi'peGik. 
hypothecate v. (pledge, pawn, mortgage) hai'poGi-ket, hi- 

'peGi-ket. 
hypothenuie n. hai'peOi-njus. same meaning as hypote- 
nuse, 
hypotheiis n. supposition [ploral hypotheses^ hai'poOi-sis, 

hi'pe0i-sis. 
hypotheiize v. frame a hypothesis; assume [also spelt hypo- 
thesise"] hai'peGi-saiz, hi'peGi-saiz. 
hypothetic adj. (conjectural) hai-pa'Getik, hipa'Getik. 
hypozanthine n. sarcine [also, sometimes, spelt hypoxan- 

thinl hai-pek'saenGin, hai-pek'saen-Gain, hipek'saen-Gain, hai- 

pD'zaenGin. 
hypsiloid adj. (upsilon-shaped) hip'sai-loid, 'hipsi-leid. 
hypural adj. (beneath the tail) hai'pQo:-?3}, hi'pgo:-23l. 
hyion n. (green tea) 'hai-san, 'hai-sn. 
hyssop n. (plant) 'hisap, 'hi-sep. 
hysteria n. (hysterics) hi'sti:-ri-3, his'ti:-ri-3. 
hysteric adj. (of hysteria; fitful, frantic) hi'sterik, his'te^ik. 

c: law, o: f wr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



270 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

I noun-pron, ai, {also, when unstrest) d; {also, dialectaUy) a. 

iambio adj. (of iambuses) ai'aembik. 

ibex n. wild goat [ploral ibexes, rarely, ihicesl 'ai-beks. 

ibidem adv, (in the same place) I'bai-dem. 

ibii n. bird [ploral ibises, rarely ibides, ibesl 'ai-bii. 

ibyoter n. bird [also spelt ibicter"] ai'biktd?. 

Icarian adj. of Icarus [also spelt Icareani aincei-ei-dti. 

Icarian adj. (of Icaria, the ideal republic of E. Cabet) ailce:- 
zi-^n. 

ice-oream n. aislcsiim, 'ais-Iniim. 

iobneuinon n. (Pharaoh's rat) ik'njou-man. 

icbor n. (blood of the gods; watery discharge) 'ai-ksr, 'iksr. 

iclitliyologry n. (science of fishes) ikOi'e}3-d5i. 

iolitliyoaaunis n. fish-like reptil [ploral ichthyosaw^ ikOi- 
3'sc:-23s. 

ioiole n. (pendent rod of ice) 'ai-si-kal. 

ioieat adj. (superlativ of icy) 'ai-si-ist. 

icily adv, (in an icy manner; coldly) 'ai-si-h. 

icing n. (frosting; cooling by means of ice) 'ai-siQ. 

icon n. image, portrait [also spelt ikon, eikon; ploral icones, 
icons'^ 'ai-ken, 'ai-kan. 

iconoclaat n. (image-breaker) ai'kend-kLXSt. 

icoaabedron n. a solid bounded by twenty planes [synony- 
mous cegnates icosaedron, icosihedroni az-kes3'hii>dr9n» 
ai-kesa'hedran. 

icteric adj. (jaundiced) ik'terik. 

ide n. (fish) aid. 

idea n. architype ; likeness ; mental image [former, but now 
vulgar, synenymous cognate idee; ploral ideas and, former- 
ly, sometimes ideae'i ai'dii-3, (often) 'ai-di-a; (vulgarly) 
ai'dii; (vulgarly, before a vowel) ai'dii-3?, ai'di:?. 

ideal adj. ai'dii-al; (less properly) 'ai-di-al; (vulgarly) ai- 
'diil. 

idealiam n. ai'dii-d-hzsm. 

idealize v. render ideal; form ideals [also spelt idealise'l ai- 
'dii-3-laiz. 

ideograpb n. (graphic symbol which directly represents an 
idea) ai'dii-3-g^a:f, 'ai-di-3-g^a:f, 'idi-3-gra:f. 

idea n. (the eigth day after the nones; also, any one of the 
days of the month which precede the ides and follow the 
nones; an ide) aidz, 

idiocy n. (state of being an idiot) 'idi-a-si. 

idiom n. (own language; dialect; mode of speech) 'idi-9m. 

j .ve, g cure ; 5 the, 6 thin ; 3 axrure, d^ joy ; S shoe, tS chew; 
iu7f/ien; qsin^; u whoever, i react, o f«ll, ou fool, i it, lise^; 
o poetic ; 3 over, e oerial, a bwt, 0: door, 00 no, c bed, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 271 

idioiynoraay n. (physical or mental pecviliarity ; bent) idi-a- 

'siqksa-si. 
idiot n. (imbecil; fool) 'idi-at; (vulgarly) 'idsat. 
idiotism n. (an idiom; also, idiocy, folly) 'idi-9-tiz9m. 
idiotize v. befool [also spelt idiotisel 'idi-a-taiz. 
idle adj. (not occupied ; lazy) 'ai-dl. 

idooraie w. (vesuvianite) 'ai-da-kses, 'ida-kses, 'ai-da-lreez. 
idol n. (effigy) 'ai-dl, 'ai-dal. 
idolater n. (idol-worshipper) ai'deld-ts?. 
idolize v. make an idol of; adore; practis idolatry [also spelt 

idolise} 'ai-da-laiz. 
idolization n. [also spelt idolisation} ai-ddh'zee-San, ai-da- 

lai'zee-San. 
idyl n. short rural poem; episode; pastoral composition [also 

spelt idylll 'ai-dil; (less properly) 'idil, 
idylist n. writer of idyls [also spelt idyllisti 'ai-di-4ist. 
idyllic adj, (of an idyl; full of rustic charm) ai'dihk. 
idyllize v. make into an idyl [also spelt idyllise'! 'ai-di-laiz. 
if conj, (on condition that, etc.) if, (also, when unstrest) f. 
ignes-fatui n. (plural of ignis-fatuus) ignis'faetSu-ai, igniz- 

'faetSu-ai. 
ignis-fatuui n. will-o'-the-wisp [ploral ignes-fatuil ignis- 

'faetju-as, ignis'faetgu-as. 
ignitable adj. capable of being ignited [also spelt ignitiblel 

ig'nai-ta-bal. 
ignominioui adj. (shameful; infamous) igna'mini-as. 
ignoramus n. ignorant person [plural ignoramuses} igns- 

'^ee-m^s; (improperly) igna'rai-mas, ignaVaemas. 
Ignorantin adj, ignorant : applied to the Brethren of the 

Christian Schools [also spelt Ignorantine} ign3'?3entin. 
ignana n. (large arboreal lizard) i'gwa:-n3. 
iguanodon n. (iguana-like fossil lizard) I'gwxna-den, 

i'gwa:-n3-den. 
ileao adj, (of the ileum) 'iH-aek. 

ileum n. (lowest part of the small intestin) 'iH-am, 'ai-H-am. 
iliac adj. (of ileus ; of the ileum ; ileac, iliacal ; also, of the 

ilium) 'iH-aek, 'ili-ak, 
iliacal adj. obsolete (of ileus; of the ileum; also, of the ili- 
um ; iliac) I'lai-a-kal. 
iliacus n, iliac muscle ; thrush [ploral iliaci} I'tai-a-kas. 
ilium n. hip-bone, flank-bone [plural ilia} 'iH-am. 
illative adj, of illation or inference [also spelt illativ} 'ila- 

liv, I'lee-tiv. 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, e hot, ei boy; a: far, ou now, a: ask, ai ktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



272 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

ill-bred adj, il'bzed, (assumptivly) 'il-teed. 

ill-deserred adj. [also spelt ill-deservd'] il-di'zB:cvd, 

(assumptivly) 'il-di-zer^vd. 
illegal adj. (unlawful, illicit) ilii-gst 
illegalize v. make illegal [also spelt illegalise'] ilii-ga^azz. 
illegible adj. (undecipherable) iledsa-bsL 
illicit adj, (unlawful) I'hsit, iHisit. 

illiiion n. (a striking against something) I'lisan, illissn. 
illiterate adj, (unletterd, unlearned) I'hta-^st, I'htcst. 
ill-timed adj. il'taimd, (assumptivly) 'li-taimd. 
illuminati «. pi. people who affect to be especially enlight- 

end, etc. [singular illuminatol i-liumi'nce-tai, i-himi'na:-ti« 
illuminato n. (singular of illuminati) i-lumi'na:-t3. 
illumine v. light up [also spelt illumin; past participle and 

preterit illumined, illumindl iliou-min. 
illuiion n. (deception, delusion; also, apparition, fantom) 

I'Hou-san. 
illuiive adj. deceptiv, illusory [also spelt illusivl iliou-srv, 

I'Huu-ziv. 
illuiory adj, I'Hou-sa-ri; (less properly) i^iou-za-ri. 
illuitrate v. (illuminate; elucidate; exemplify) 'ils-stjet, 

I'lA-stjet. 
illustrated adj. (having pictorial illustrations) 'ils-stxetid, 

ilA-st£etid. 
illuitration n. (elucidation; cut) ila'stsee-Son. 
illuitrative adj. serving to illustrate [also spelt illustrativl 

i'lAStj3-tiv ; (less properly) 'ila-stjetiv. 
illuitrator n. (one who or that which illustrates) 'ila-stje- 

ta^, i'lA-st£et3^. 
illy adv, (in an ill manner; badly) 'ih, 'iWi. 
image n. (likeness) 'imids. 
imageable adj. capable of being imaged [also, formerly, 

spelt imagible"] 'imidso-bal. 
imagery n. (images collectivly; image-work) 'kmi-dszi, 

'imid33-?i. 
imaginary adj. (not real; fancied; fcignd) I'msedsi-nczi, 

(also) I'maedsina-^i, (assumptivly) i'maed3i-n3?i. 
imag^inative adj, [also spelt imaginativl i'mjEd3in3-tiv, 

(assumptivly) I'mjedsi-nativ ; (also) I'maedsi-netiv. 
imagine v. form a mental image of ; suppose ; fancy ; think, 

guess [also spelt imagin; past participle and preterit imag- 
ined, imagind} I'msedsin. 
imag^inei n. (ploral of imago) I'maedsi-niz, I'mee-dsi-niz. 

j ye, gcure; dthe, G //lin; 3 arure, ds/oy; I shoe, tSr/iew; 
lu when; 13 sin^; u whoever, i r^act, o f«ll, ou fool, i it, li see; 
o poetic; a ovrr, e aerial, Ab«t, o: door, oo no, e brd, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 273 

imago n. the perfect insect [ploral imagos, imaginesi I'mee- 

go. 
imam n. priest; chief [synonymous cognates imaum, imawm, 

imanl I'maim, 
imbecile adj. weak; insane [also spelt imhecill 'imbi-sd, 

imbi'siil, 'imbi-sil; {formerly) im'besil. 
imbed v, im'bed. same meaning as embed. 
imbrices n. (ploral of imbrex) 'imbsi-siz. 
imbroglio n. (confused heap; entanglement; embroilment) 

im'b300-gH-o, im'b?ool-jo, im'brDO-li-o. 
imbrue v. (stain, dye) im'bzou. 

imbue v, (saturate, dye, imbru; impregnate, permeate, per- 
vade, inspire) im'bjou. 
imide n. (ammonia derivativ) 'i-maid, I'maid, 'ai-mid, 'ai- 

maid. 
imidogen n. (radical) I'mai-da-dsin. 
immediate adj. (in direct relation ; not mediate ; not remote ; 

instant) I'mii-di-at ; {improperly) I'mii-dsat. 
immemorial adj. (beyond memory; out of mind; very old) 

ima'mDi-ei-al, imi'mo:-?i-3l. 
immense adj, (unmeasured; vast) I'ments, I'mens. 
immerge v, (immerse; sink) I'meizds, im'mB:?d3. 
immersion n. (dipping, plunging) I'mezS^n, I'mBiz-l^n; {less 

properly) i^mBiz-s^n. 
immigrant n. (one who migrates into a country, or comes 

into a new habitat : distinguisht from emigrant) 'imi-gjant. 
immigrate v. 'imi-gzet. 

imminent adj. (about to occur; impending) 'imi-nant. 
immiscible adj, (that cannot be meet) I'miss-bsl. 
immit v. (send in; inject) I'mit, iimnit. 
immobile adj. immovable, fixt [also spelt immobill I'moo- 

bil. 
immobilize v. [also spelt immobilisel I'mao-bi-laiz. 
imnlolate v, (sacrifice; kill as a victim) 'ima-let. 
immortality n. (endless life; eternity) i-me?'t3di-ti, imez- 

'taeh-ti. 
immortalize v. [also spelt immortalise} i'me:?-t}-aiz. 
immortelle n. (flower) i-mo^'tel, imo^'tel. 
immovable adj. (that cannot be moved) I'mou-vd-bd}. 
impact n. (blow, stroke) 'im-paekt. 
impact V. (pack in) im'paekt. 

impale v. enclose with pales or stakes; fence in [synony- 
mous cognate empalel im'peel. 

c: law, b: fi*r, ae cat, e hot, oi hoy ; a: for, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the precediujpf sound is long; 
stress-mork (') indicates chief stress on the lellowing syllable. 



274 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

impanate adj, (containd in bread) im'pee-net, im'pee-nsti 

'impa-nat. 
impanation n, (presence of Christ in consecrated bread) 

impd'nee-San. 

impanel v, enter on a panel or list; enrol [also spelt impan- 
nel; synonymous cognates empanel, empannell; present par- 
ticiple impaneling, impanelling; past participle and prete- 
rit impaneled, impanelled, impaneldl im'psenl. 

impanelment n, [also spelt impannelment ; synonymous cog- 
nates empanelment, empannelment} im'paenl-xndnt. 

impartiality n. (freedom from bias; fairness) im-pazli'tdi- 
ti, impar'Saeh-ti. 

impassable adj, (that cannot be past) im'pa:-sa-b3}. 

impasse n. (a way having no outlet; a fix) im'pa:s, im'pais, 
or|'pa:s. 

impassibility n. (quality of being impassible) im-peso- 
'bih-ti. 

impassible adj, (incapable of suffering; incapable of feeling 
emotion ; impassiv ; insensible ; unimpressible) im'pa:-8a-b^, 
im'paesa-bal. 

impastation n. (formation of a paste) impas'tee-Jan, 
impa'stee-San, impaes'tee-San. 

impeaob v. challenge, attack, disparage; accuse of treason 
[past participle and preterit impeached, impeachtl im'piitj. 

impeccable adj. (not capable of sin; unerring) im'pekd-bat. 

impede v, (hinder) im'piid. 

impedible adj, obsolete (capable of being impeded) im'peda- 
b3l. 

impediment n. (hindrance, obstruction) im'pedi-mdnt. 

impellent adj, (that iftpels) im'pelsnt. 

imperator n. (commander; emperor) imp9'zee-t37, 'impd- 

imperceptible adj. (incapable of being perceivd) impds- 
'septa-bal. 

imperialize v, [also spelt imperialisel im'pi:-n-3-laiz. 

imperil v. [present participle imperiling, imperilling; past 
participle and preterit imperiled, imperilled, imperild ; for- 
mer synonymous cognate emperil] im'peril. 

imperturbable adj. (serene, calm) imp^z'tBiz-h^-hsl. 

impetigo n. skin-disease [ploral impetigincs] impi'tai-go. 

impetuous adj. (having impetus; violent; rash) im'pet^u-as, 
im'petSu-9S. 

impetus n. (energy of motion; impulse) 'impi-tss. 

i ye, q cure ; 5 the, thin;^ $ asrure, ds joy ; S jAoe, tS chew; 
w when; q sin^; u whoever, i r^act, o f«ll, ou fool, i tt, li see; 
o poetic ; o ov^r, e aerial, a biit, o: door, oo no, e b^ d, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 275 

impiety n. (want of piety) im'pai-i-ti. 

impioui adj. (not pious; wicked) 'impi-as. 

impiouily adv. 'ihipi-ds-li. 

impiouineii n. 'impi-ss-nis. 

implacable adj, (that cannot be appeased; inexorable) im- 
'pz.ee -ka-bal, ina'pi^aeka-bal. 

import V. (bring in) im'poizt. 

import n. (signification ; importance ; commodity brought 
in from abroad) 'im-po:rt; (formerly) im'poizt. 

importunate adj. (pressing; persistent) im'pe:?-tgo-n3t, im- 
'peie-tja-nat. 

importune adj. (troublesome, importunate) impez't^oun, 
im'pe:r-tQun. 

importune v. impe^'tgoun, im'perz-t^un. 

impoiable adj. (that may be imposed or laid on ; also, that 
may be imposed upon; gullible) im'poo-za-bal. 

impoisible adj. (not possible) im'pesd-bsl. 

impoiter n. (one who imposts or classifies according to tar- 
iffs and duties) 'im-posta?. 

impostor n. cheat [also spelt imposterj im'pests?. 

impoitume n. abscess, etc. [also spelt itnposthumel im'pes- 
tgum.. im'pes-tSum. 

impotence n. (want of strength; weakness) 'impa-tns; (im- 
properly) im'poo-tns. 

impotent adj. (weak) 'inipa-tnt, 'impa-tant. 

impracticable adj. (not practicable ; practically impossible ; 
unserviceable ; unmanageable) im'psaektika-bal. 

impractical adj. (not practical; unpractical) im'pssekti-kdl. 

imprecate v. (pray for; invoke; curse) 'impsi-ket. 

imprecatory adj. (maledictory) 'iriljp^ika-toz:!, 'impsika-ta?!, 
'imp3i-ket3-ri, impsi'kee-t3-?i. 

impregn v. (impregnate) im'psiin. 

impresa n. (emblem, device, motto) im'psee-sa. 

impresario n. (operatic manager, etc.) imp3i'se:-?i-o, impsi- 
'za:-n-o. 

imprese n. (obsolete) im'p^iis. same meaning as impresa. 

impress v. imprint, stamp [past participle and preterit im- 
pressed, impresti im'pses. 

impress v. enlist [past participle and preterit impressed, im- 
prestl im'p^es. 

impress n, (stamping, stamp, imprint) 'im-pses. 

impress n. (enforced service in the army or navy; impress- 
ment) 'im-p^es. 

c: \aw, b: fwr, ae cot, e hot, ei hoy, a: for, ao now, a: osk, ai ktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



276 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

impress n. (emblem, device, impresa) 'im-p^es. 

impressed adj. stampt in; having impressions [also spelt 

impresti im'psest. 
impressible adj. (capable of being imprest) im'p^esa-bal. 
imprest v, obsolete (advance on loan) im'p^est. 
imprest n. (money advanced; loan) 'im-i53est. 
imprimatur n. (an order 'let it be printed' ; sanction) imp3i- 

'mee-ta?, 
imprint v, (impress; stamp) im'p^int. 
imprint n. (impression, stamp; printer's or publisher's name 

on a title-page, etc.) 'im-p3int. 
improbative adj. liable to improbation or disproof; tending 

to disprove; improbatory [also spelt improbativl im'pseba- 

tiv, 'imp33-betiv. 
improbatory adj. (disproving, etc.) im'pseba-tozri, im'psoo- 

b9-tD3i, 'imp33-bet3-?i. 
improbity n. (lack of probity) im'psDO-bi-ti, im'psebi-ti. 
impromptu adv. (off-hand ; extempore) im'psemp-tgu. 
improvable adj. (capable of being improved) im'p3ou-v3- 

bal. 
improvisation n. (action or product of improvising) im- 

psevi'zee-San. 
improvisator n. (improviser) im'psevi-zeta?. 
improvisatore n. improvisator [also spelt improwisatore ; 

ploral improvisatori, improvisatores] imp^o-viza'toiri. 
improvisatoriie v. play the improvisator; improvise [also 

spelt improvisatorisel im-psevi'zee-ta-eaiz. 
improvisatrioe n. woman who improvises [also spelt itn- 

prowisatrice; ploral improvisatrici\ impsa-viza'tjii-tSi ; {less 

properly) impsa'vii-za-tjis. 
improvise v. (compose off-hand, etc.) 'imp^s-vaiz, impsd- 

'vaiz, impsa'viiz. 
improviser n. 'imp^a-vai-za?, impsaVai-zd?, imp39'vii-z3?. 
impugn V. (contradict; assail) im'pQoun. 
impugnable adj. obsolete (that cannot be assaild or over- 
come) im'pAgna-bal. 
impugnable adj. (liable to be impugned) im'pQou-ns-bd). 
impulse n. (thrust, push) 'im-pxls; {formerly) im'pAls. 
impulse v, impel; instigate [past participle and preterit im- 
pulsed, impulst} im'pAls. 
impunible adj. (unpunishable) im'pQou-nd-bdl. 
in prep, (within; at, etc.) in, {also, when unstrest) n. 
inadvertence n, (inattention) inddVo^tns. 

j ye, q cure ; 5 the, G thin;^ 3 a^rure, d$ joy; S shoe, tS c/rew; 
w when ; q sin^; u whoever, i r^act, o fi*ll, ou fool, i tt, li see; 
p poetic; 9 ov^r, e aerial. Abut, o: door, oonoi eb^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 277 

inamorata n. (female lover; mistress) i-naem9'za:-t9. 
inaugurate v, (consecrate; install; initiate) i'nc:-gjo-?et; 

{vulgarly) i'nc:-g3-ret. 
inbeing n. (the fact of being in; inherence; indwelling; im- 
manence; essential nature) 'in-bii-iq. 
inborn adj. (innate) in'be:rn, {assumptivly) 'in-be:3n. 
in-bread n. bread thrown in; extra loaves [also spelt tn- 

hred^ 'in-bred. 
inbred adj. (bred within; innate) inHb^ed, (assumptivly) 'in- 

hzed, 
inca n, (eifiperor or king of ancient Peru) 'iqka. 
iucaudesceuce n. (state of glowing from heat) in-ksen- 

'desans, inkan'desans. 
incarnadine adj. flesh-colord, carnation [also, sometimes, 

spelt incarnadine in'kaie-na-din, in'kaie-na-dain. 
incase v. enclose in a case [synonymous cognate encasel in- 

'kees. 
incense n. (aromatic gum for burning, or its smoke or per- 
fume) 'in-sens. 
incense v. (perfume with incense; scent; offer incense) 'in- 

sents, 'in-sens; (less properly) in'sents, in'sens. 
incense v. inflame ; enrage [past participle and preterit tn- 

censed, incensti in'sents, in'sens. 
incensory n. (censer) 'in-sensa-^i ; (less properly) in'sensa-ri, 
incboate adj. (just begun; incipient, immature) in'kDO-at, 

in'koo-et, 'in-ko-at. 
incboate v. (begin ; originate) in'koo-et, 'in-ko-et. 
inchoative adj. initial; inceptiv [also spelt inchoativl inTcoo- 

3-tiv, 'in-ko-etiv. 
incidence n. (a falling upon) 'insi-dns, 'intsi-dns. 
incipient adj. (beginning) in'sipi-ant. 
incise v. (cut into ; carve ; engrave) in'saiz. 
incisive adj. cutting [also spelt incisiv"] in'sai-siv. 
incisor n. cutting-tooth [ploral incisors, incisoresl in'sai-S3?, 

in'sai-z3?. 
incisory adj. (cutting, incisiv) in'sai-sa-ri. 
incisure n. (cut; notch; slit; cleft) in'si33?. 
incitation n. (incitement) insi'tee-San. 
incivism n. disloyalty to civic principles, originally to those 

of the French Revolution [also spelt incivisme"] 'insi-vizam, 

in'si-vizam, in'sai-vizam. 
inclement adj. (not mild; severe) in'ki.emant. 
incline v. (bend down ; lean ; slope ; tend) in'ktain. 



c: law, b: f wr, x cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: for, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
Stress-mark (') indicates chief stress ou the fallowing syllable. 



278 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

incline n. (slope) in'kLain, 'in-kLain. 
inclose v, in'kLOOz. same meaning as enclose, 
inclosure n. inlcz.DO-sd?. same meaning as enclosure^ 
inclusive adj, enclosing, comprehending, etc. [also spelt m- 

clusiv'^ in'ktou-siv, in'l«.ou-ziv. 
incog:nito adj., adv,, n, unknown, etc. [as noun, ploral incog' 

niti'l in'kegni-to; (improperly) in-keg'nii-to. 
inoog:nizable adj. not cognizable [also spelt incognisabUI 

in'kegniza-bal, in-keg'nai-za-bal, in'keniza-bdl. 
incognizant adj, [also spelt incognisanO in'kegni-zdnt, in- 

'keni-zant. 
incomparable adj. (matchless, etc.) in'kempdzd-ba}, (rap- 
idly) in'kempsa-bal. 
incondite adj. ill put together; crude [also spelt inconditi 

in'kendit, 'inkan-dait. 
incongruent adj, (not congruent) in'keQgm-snt. 
incongruity n. inkdn'g^ou-i-ti. 
incongruous adj, in'kei]g?u-9s. 
inconnu n. (fish) inkd'njou. 

incorporeal adj. (not bodily; immaterial) in-ke?'p3:-3i-3l. 
incorrig^ible adj. (depraved) in'kezidsa-bal. 
incorruptible adj., inks'^Aptd-bsl. 

increasable adj. [also spelt increaseablel inlcsii-sd-bdl. 
increase n. (augmentation) 'in-ksis ; (formerly) inlniis. 
increase v, wax, grow, augment, etc. [past participle and 

preterit increased, increast"] in'k^iis. 
incredible adj. (not credible, beyond belief) inlnedd-bd}. 
incredulity n. (disbelief) inksi'djou-h-ti. 
incredulous adj. (unbelieving) in'ksedjo-lds, in'k3ed3a-}d8. 
incremable adj, obsolete (incombustible) inlcsemd-ba}, 

'ink^ima-bal, 
incremate v. (cremate) 'inlrei-met, in'ksii-met. 
increment «. (increase) 'lyksi-mant, 'inksi-mant. 
incrust v. [synonymous cognate encrusf] inlcsAst. 
incubate v. (hatch; brood) 'inkgu-bet, 'ir)kQo-bet. 
incubator n. (sitting bird; hatching-apparatus) 'inkgo-betar. 
incubus n. demon of sleep ; nightmare [ploral incubuses, in- 

cubil 'inkQu-bas, 'iqkQo-bas. 
inculcate v. (stamp or force on the mind of another) in- 

IcAl-ket, 'inkal-ket. 
incurable adj. (that cannot be cured) inncgoi-ra-bal. 
incursion n. (a running in ; inroad) in'ko:r-33n, in'kB^San. 
incus n. anvil-bone of the ear [ploral incudesl 'iijkas. 

] ye, gcure; b the, 6 //lin; 3 arure, d^Joy; ^ shoe, tjc/tew; 
wwhen; T)sing; u whoever, i r^act, o f«ll, ou fool, i tt, lis^e; 
o poetic ; a ov^r, e aerial, a bi*t, o: door, oo no, e b{?d, ce gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 279 

indebted adj. owing [also spelt indettedl in'detid. 

indecent adj, (not decent) in'dii-ssnt. 

indecisive adj, not decisiv [also spelt indecisiv'} in-di'sai- 

siv. 
indecorous adj. (not decorous; unseemly) in-di'koi-eas, in- 

'dek3-33s. 
indecorum n. (lack of decorum) in-di'koi-zsm. 
indefinable adj. (not definable) in-di'fai-nd-baL 
indefinite adj. [also spelt indefinif] inMefi-nit. 
indelibility n. [also, formerly, spelt indelebility} in-dels- 

'bih-ti. 
indelible adj. not delible; ineffaceable [also, lermerly, spelt 

indeleble} in'dela-bal. 
indelibly adv. [also, formerly, spelt indelebly'} in'deb-bli. 
indent v. (dent, dint, etc.) in'dent. 

indent n. (indention in the edge of a thing; deep recess; in- 
dentation ; paragraf-indention) in'dent, 'in-dent. 
indent n. (dint, hollow, or furrow in the surface of anything; 

indentation) 'in-dent. 
indentilly adj. having long indents [also spelt indentilley, 

synonymous cognate indentellyl in'denti-h, in-den'tih. 
independence n. indi'pendsns. 
index n. fore-finger ; pointer ; alf abetic guide [plural indexes, 

indices} 'in-deks. 
India-ink n. indi-d'irjk, indjs'iqk; {dialec tally) indsi'irik. 
Indian adj. (of India; Amerindian) 'indi-sn, 'indjan; {dia- 

lectally) 'indsan, 'indsin. 
Indianize v. make Indian [also spelt Indianise"] 'indi-3-naiz. 
india-rubber n. (caoutchouc) mdi-^'zhh^z, indjsVAbdz; 

(dialectally) ind^^'zAb^z. 
indicative adj. that points out or indicates ; showing [also 

spelt indicativl in'dika-tiv. 
indicatory adj, (serving to indicate) in'dika-to^i, in'dika- 

t9zi; 'indika-tazi ; (also) 'indi-ket3-?i, (assumptivly) 'indi- 

keta^i. 
indicatriz n. (curve; surface) indi'kee-tjiks. 
indices n. (plural of index) 'indi-siz. 

indicial adj, (of the nature of an indicium; indicativ; in- 
dex-like; of the index-finger) in'diSal. 
indicium n. indication; sign; token [plural indicia} lu'dijam, 

in'diSi-am. 
indict V. (bring a charge against ; accuse) in'dait. 
indictable adj. (liable to be indicted, etc.) in'dai-ta-baf. 

c: \aWj b: fwr, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, au now, a: ask, ai kite; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



280 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 



indictee n. (person indicted) in-dai'tii. 

indicter n. one who indicts; formal accuser [also, fermerly, 

spelt indictor^ in'dai-ta^. 
indiction n. (decree; period; year) in'dikjan. 
indictment n. (accusation) in^dait-msnt. 
indifferent adj. (neutral, etc.) kn'difs-zsnt, (rapidly) m- 

'difsont. 
indigenous adj. (nativ) in'didsi-nas, (assumptivly) m- 

'didsinas. 
indigent adj. (wanting, deficient; poor, needy) 'indi-dsant. 
indirect adj. (not direct) in-di'^ekt, (often, assumpHvly) 

'indi-rekt. 
indiscernible adj, (imperceptible) indi'zB^na-bdt. 
indiscretion n. (fact of being indiscreet) indi'slrseSaii. 
indispensable adj. (that cannot be dispenst with) indi- 

'spensa-bal, 
indisputability n. indi-spgutd'bih-ti, in-dispgot9l)i!i-ti. 
indisputable adj, (imquestionable) indi'spgou-td-b^, in- 

'dispgota-bal. 
indisputableness n. indi'spQuu-tdbsl-nis, in'dispgo-tab^- 

nis. 
indisputably adv. indi'spgou-td-bli, in'dispgotd-bli. 
indissociable adj. (incapable of being dissociated; insepa- 
rable) indi'soo-Si-a-bal. 
indissolubility n. indi-seliu'bih-ti, in-disalio'bih-ti. 
indissoluble adj. (undecomposable) indi'selio-ba}, in'disd- 

Ho-bal. 
indissolubly adv. indi'seliu-bh, in'disdlio-bli. 
indite v. (put into verbal form ; write) in'dait. 
inditement n. (the action of the verb indite; composition) 

in'dnit-mant. 
inditer n. (, writer; scribbler) in'dai-t33. 
individual adj. (existing as a separate indivisible entity; 

single; particular) indi'vidsu-al, indi'vidju-al. 
individualize v. [also spelt individualise'^ indi'vidsu-d-laiz. 
indocile adj. (intractable) in'desil, in'doo-sil, lu'doo-sail. 
indocility n. (indecil character) inda'sih-ti. 
indoles n. (innate character) 'inds-Hz. 
indomitable adj. (stubbornly persistent) in'demita-baL 
indoor adj. situated or carried on within doors [also spelt 

in-door'] 'in-do:r. 
indoors adv. (in the house; under cover) m^doizz, 
indorse v. in'de:7s. same meaning as endorse. 

J ve, g cure ; d the, */iin ;^ 3 axrure, ds joy; S shoe, tS chew; 
vownen; rjsing; u whoever, i r^ act, o full, ou fool, i tt, lise^; 
o poetic; 3 ov£7r, e aerial, Abut, o: door, oo no, e bf d, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 281 



indraft n. a drawing in; influx; inrush [also spelt in- 
draught'! 'in-dra:ft. 

indrafvn adj. (drawn in) in'drcrn, {assumpHvly) 'in-drc:n. 

indubitable adj, (that cannot be doubted) in'djou-bita-bal. 

induce v. (prevail upon; incite; cause; derive as an induc- 
tion) in'djous. 

inducible adj. (capable of being induced, caused, or brought 
about) in'djou-sa-bal. 

induct V, (introduce ; initiate) in'dAkt. 

induline n. any one of a series of coal-tar colors [also, 
sometimes, spelt indulinJi 'indjo-hn, 'indjo-lain. 

indusial adj. (of indusia or larva-cases) in'djou-zi-al, in- 
'djou-sal. 

indusium n. amnion; sorus-cup; larva-case [plural indusia} 
in'djou-zi-3m, in'djou-si-3m, in'djou-Si-am, in'djou-si-am. 

industry n. (systematic work; productiv labor) 'inda-stji. 

inebriate adj. (drunken, intoxicated) i'nii-bei-3t. 

inebriety n. (drunkenness; inebriation) ini'b?ai-i-ti. 

inelig^ible adj, (not eligible) in'ehdsa-bal. 

inequitable adj. (not equitable; unjust) in'ekwitd-bd). 

inerrable adj, (not errable; unerring, infallible) in'ers-bd}, 
in'B:-^3-bal. 

inertia n. (passivness, etc.) I'ne^Sa, I'nei^-Sa. 

inexhaustible adj, (exhaustless) in^g'zostd-bdl. 

inexorable adj. (unyielding) in'eksa^a-bal, in'ekssa-baL 

inexpert adj, (not expert; unskild) inak'sper^t. 

inexpiable adj, (not to be expiated or atoned for; also, im- 
placable) in'ekspi-9-b9l. 

inexplicable adj. (that cannot be explaind) in'ekspLikd-bdl, 
(assumptivly) in'ekspLi-kabal; (vulgarly) indk'spLikd-bsl. 

inexpressible adj, (that cannot be exprest in words) inak- 
'spsesa-bsl. 

inexpug^nable adj. (not expugnable; impregnable) inak- 
'spQou-na-bal, inak'spAgna-bal. 

inextricable adj, (from which one cannot extricate him- 
self; involvd) in'ekstjika-bal, (assumptivly) in'ekstEi-kabal. 

infallible adj, (inerrable, unerring) in'faela-bal. 

infamous adj. (of ill fame or repute; wicked) 'infa-mas, (as- 
sumptivly) 'infomas. 

infamously adv. "mfdms-sLi. 

infante n. (son of the king and queen of Spain or Portu- 
gal other than the principe or heir to the throne; the sec- 
ond son) m'faenti. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy : a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



282 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

infantioide n. (killing of infants; child-murder) zn'faenti- 

said. 
infantile adj, of an infant; of infancy [also, lometimef, 

spelt infantW} 'infan-til, 'infan-tail. 
infantine adj. (infantil) 'infan-tain, 'infan-tin. 
infatuate v, (make fatuous or foolish) in'faetSu-et, m'fietga- 

et. 
infeonnd adj. (not fecund; barren) in'fe-kAnd, in'fii-kAnd; 

(formerly) in-fiTcAnd. 
inferable adj. that may be inferred; deducible [also, fermer- 

ly, spelt inferible; synonymous cognates inferribh, infer- 

rable"] in'f ei-^a-bal ; 'infa^a-bal; 'mfd-rsbal, 'infsab^ 
inference n. 'infd-^sns, (rapidly) 'infsans. 
inferrible adj. [also spelt inferrablel in'fB:-z9-h9i* ■ame 

meaning as inferable. 
infidel n. (unbeliever) 'infi-dl, 'infi-dal. 
infidelity n. (unbelief; disloyalty) infi'deh-ti, in-fi'delx-tx. 
infiltrate v, (introduce by filtration ; percolate) in'f il-tset. 
infinite adj. boundless [also spelt infiniti 'infi-nit. 
infinitesimal adj. (infinitly small) infini'tesi-md}; (less 

properly) infini'tezi-mal, 
infinitival adj. (of the infinitiv) infini'tai-val, in'fini-tivdt. 
inflammation n. [also, formerly, spelt inflatnation] xnfi.9- 

'mee-San. 
inflammatory adj. in'fz^md-to^i, in'fz.xm9-t3?i, (rapidly) 

in'fz.aem3-t£i. 
inflection n. bending; angle; change [also spelt inflexion} 

in'fLek$an. 
inflectional adj. [also spelt inflexional'] in'fLek$3-n}. 
inflexible adj. (unbearable) in'fz.cks9-ba}. 
inflorescence n. (flowering-system; blossom) infi^Vesdns, 

xn-fto'^esans. 
influencive adj. tending to influence [also spelt influensive, 

influensivl inftu'ensiv, 'inftu-an-siv. 
influent adj. (flowing in) 'inftu-ant. 
infold V. wrap up; enclose; embrace [synonymous cognate 

enfold] in'foold. 
infolded adj. (folded in ; having the margin turnd in with a 

fold) in'fool-did, (assumptivly) 'in-fool-did. 
informed adj. instructed [also, sometimes, spelt informd] in- 

'fei^nid, (also, in poetry) in'fe:?-mid. 
infrangible adj. (unbreakable) in'fsaendsa-bal. 
infra-ocular adj. (below the eyes) inf^a'ekgo-la?. 

j ye, g cure ; 5 the, thin;^ 3 arrure, d$ joy; J shoe, tj chew; 
wwhen; q sin^; u whoever, i r^ act, u f«ll, ou fool, i it, lis^e; 
o poetic; a ov^r, e aerial, Abut, o: door, oo no, e bf d, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 283 

infnla n. woolen fillet or band worn by priests [ploral infu- 
lae'\ 'infio-la. 

iiLfundibnlum n. (funnel-like part) infdn'dibju-ldm, in-fAn- 
'dib jo-lam. 

infusible adj. (not fusible) in'fiou-zd-bd}. 

infusorium n. animalcule [ploral infusoria] infio'zo'.-ri-am, 
infio'so:-?i-am. 

ingenious adj. (apt, clever, skilful; well contrived) in'dsii- 
nJ3s, in'dsii-ni-as. 

ingenue n. (ingenuous or artless girl or woman) serise'njou. 

ingenuity n. (inventivness) indsi'njou-i-ti. 

ingenuous adj. (free-born; generous; noble; frank) in- 
'dsenju-as. 

ingot n. (mass of metal cast in a mold) 'iggat. 

ingraft v. insert for propagation; imbed [synonymous cog- 
nate engraft] in'g?a:ft. 

ingrain v. dye with grain or scarlet dye; dye in the fiber 
or raw material ; imbue ; impregnate [synonymous cognate 
engrain \ past participle and preterit ingrained, ingraind] 
in'gereen. 

ingrain adj. (dyed in grain; dyed in the fiber) in'green, 
(assumptivly) 'in-geeen. 

ingrain n. (yarn or fabric dyed in the fiber) 'in-g^een. 

ingrate adj. (ungrateful) in'geeet, (assumptivly) 'in-g3et. 

ingrate n. (ungrateful person) 'in-geet, in'geeet. 

ingratiate v. (bring into favor; make agreeable) in'g?ee-Si- 
et. 

ingredient n. (constituent, element) in'gzii-di-snt ; {less 
properly) in'g^ii-dsant. 

ingress n. (action or fact of going in; entrance; beginning) 
'in-g^es. 

ing^uinal adj. (of the groin) 'iqgwi-nl. 

ingulf V. in'gAlf. same meaning as engulf. 

inhalant adj, inhaling [also spelt inhalent] in'hee-ldnt. 

inhalation n. (breathing in) in-hdlee-Ssn. 

inheritor n. (heir, etc.) in'he^i-tae. 

inhibit v, (forbid, prohibit; restrain) in'hibit. 

inhibiter n. [also spelt inhibitor] in'hibi-ta?. 

inhibition n. in-hi'bijan, ini'biSan. 

inhospitable adj. (not hospitable) in'hespits-bal, (assump- 
tivly) in'hespi-tabai ; (improperly) in-hes'pita-bal. 

inhume v, (inter, bury) inTigoum. 

inimical adj. (hostil) I'nimi-kal. 

c: law, q: iur, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, go now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding: sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chi"* stress on the following syllable. 



284 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

inimitable adj. (incapable of being imitated; peerless) 
I'nimita-bal, (assumptivly) I'nimi-tabal. 

inion n. ridge of the occiput [ploral into] 'ini-dn. 

initial v, mark or sign with initials [present participle ini- 
tialing , initialling; past participle and preterit initialed, ini- 
tialled, initialdl I'm^sl. 

initialize n. use an initial, etc. [also spelt initicUiseli I'm^d- 
laiz. 

initiate v. (begin; introduce; start) I'mji-et. 

inlay v. (lay or embed in another piece ; insert) inlee. 

inlay n. (inlaying; inlaid work) 'in-lce, inlee. 

inmost adj. (farthest within) 'in-most, 'inmdst. 

inn n. (hostelry, small hotel) in. 

innate adj. (inborn) I'neet, (assumptivly) 'i-net; (also) zn- 
'neet, (assumptivly) 'in-net. 

innately adv. I'nee-tti, 'i-netti. 

inning n. (taking in; reclaimd lands; being in, or at the 
bat) 'iniq. 

innocent adj. (doing no evil, etc.) 'ins-sant, (assumptivly) 
'insssnt. 

innocuous adj. (harmless) I'nekgu-ds. 

innuendo n. parenthetical explanation; oblique hint [also 
spelt inuendo; ploral innuendoes, innuendos"} inju'cndo. 

inoculate v. (bud into another plant; ingraft) I'nekgo-let. 

inopportune adj. (not opportune) in-epa?'tgoun. 

inquire v. ask about; ask; search, seek [synonymous cog- 
nate enquire"! in'ka^ai?. 

inquiry n. search ; query [synonymous cognate enquiry"] in- 
'ku)ai-?i, (often) in'kiDaia-^i ; (also) 'inku)i-?i, 'iqkiua-si. 

insatiable adj. (not satiable; greedy) in'see-Si-d-bs) ; (less 
properly) in'see-Sa-bal. 

insatiate adj. (insatiable) in'see-Si-3t. 

insolence n. (nescience) 'injans, 'inji-ans, 'insi-3ns. 

inscrutable adj. (impenetrable to inquiry) in'sk^ou-ta-bal. 

insectile adj. of insects [also, sometimes, spelt insectil} in- 
'sektil, in'spk-tail; (also) 'in-sektil. 

insectivorous adj. (insect-eating) insek'tiv3-?3s. 

insensible adj. in'senss-bdl. 

inseparable adj. (not separable) in'sepa^a-bal, (rapidly) in- 
'sep39-b9l. 

insert v. (set in ; introduce ; include) in'sQ:?t. 

insert n. (something inserted) 'in-seirt. 

insertion n. in'sBrSsn, in'sBi^-S^n. 

j ye, Qcure; bthe, 6 */iin; 3 a^ure, ds/oy; ^ shoe, t^chevfi 
w when ; r) sing: u whoever, i r^act, o fi/ll, ou fool, i it, li see; 
o poetic; o ov^r, e aerial, a b«t, o: door, oo no, e b^d, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 285 

inset n. (inflow; insert) 'in-set. 

inset V. (set in ; insert ; fix an inset in) in'set. 

inshore adj. (near the shore) in'So:^, (assumptivly) 'in-lo:z. 

inshore adv. (toward the shore) in'So:?, 'in-So:r. 

inside n. (the inner side ; interior) in'said, 'in-said. 

inside adj. (interior, internal) in'said, (assumptivly) 'in-said. 

inside adv. (on or in the inside) in'said, 'in-said. 

inside prep, (inside of; within) in'said, 'in-said. 

insidious adj, (sly; underhand; wily) in'sidi-9S. 

insight n. (a seeing into things; penetration) 'in-sait. 

insigne n. badge; emblem [mostly used in the plural, insig- 

nial in'signi. 
insition n. (ingraftment) in'sijan; (less properly) in'sisan. 
in situ adv. (in its place ; in place) in'sai-tgu. 
insnare v. entrap [synonymous cognate ensnare'] in'sNcre. 
insolate v. (expose to the sun's rays) 'insa-let. 
insoluble adj. (that cannot be dissolvd; also, inexplicable) 

in'selio-bal. 
insolvable adj. (incapable of being solvd or explaind) in- 

'selva-bal. 
insomuch adv. (to such an extent) inss'mAt^. 
insouciant adj. (careless) in'suu-si-snt. 
inspiratory adj. (of inspiration) in'spai-ra-ton, 'inspiea- 

t9zi, 'inspi-2ret9-ei, 
inspissate v. (thicken, condense) in'spiset, 'inspi-set. 
install V. place in a stall or official seat ; instate [also spelt 

instal; past participle and preterit installed, instald"] in- 

'stc:l. 
instalment n. [also spelt installmentl in'stc:}-m9nt. 
instanter adv. (immediately; at once) in'staenta^. 
in statu quo adv. (in the condition in which it was before) 

in'stee-tgo-ku)oo, in-stee-tSo'ku^oo. 
instead adv. in the sted, in place [also spelt insted} in'sted; 

(dialectally) in'stid. 
instil V. put in by drops; inject; insinuate [also spelt instill; 

past participle and preterit instilled, instild} in'stil. 
instinct n. (innate impulse) 'in-stiqkt. 
instinct adj. (imbued, charged) in'stiqkt. 
institute n. (institution; society) 'insti-tgut; (dialectally) 

'insti-tut. 
institution n. insti'tgou-San ; (dialectally) insti'tou-San. 
institutive adj. instituting [also spelt institutiv} 'insti- 

tgutiv. 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, e hot, ©i boy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



286 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

instrument n. (means; tool; document) 'instsa-mant. 
instrnment v. (arrange or score for instruments or for an 

orchestra) 'instja-mant, instso'ment. 
insular n. (of an island, etc.) 'insgo-fae, 'inSo-lac 
insulate v. (isolate, etc.) 'insQo-let, 'inSo-let, 'insd-tet. 
insult n. (attack; affront, outrage) 'in-SAlt. 
insult V, (affront, outrage) in'sxlt. 
insure v. secure against loss; guarantee, assure [synenymous 

cognate ensured in'So:?. 
intaglio n. incised design [ploral intaglios, intaglt] in'td-jo, 

in'tailjo; in'ta:l-jo. 
integer n. (whole number; unit quantity) 'inti-dsar. 
integ^rable adj. (capable of being integrated) 'intig^d-ba!. 
integral adj.,n. (whole, etc.) 'inti-gral; {improperly) in- 

'tegral, in'tii-g^al. 
integrity n. (wholeness; soundness; honesty) in'tegci-ti. 
intellect n. (understanding) 'inta-lekt, 'inti-lekt. 
intellectible adj. (intelligible) intalrkta-bal. 
intellectualize v. [also spelt intellectualise] intdlektSu-a- 

laiz. 
intellig^ible adj. (comprehensible) in'tehdsa-bal. 
intendant n. superintendent, manager [also, formerly, spelt 

intcndcnt'\ in'tcndant. 
intention n. in'ten^an. 
inter v. inhume, bury [past participle and preterit interred, 

inter dl in'ter^. 
inter prep, (between, among) 'inta?. 
intercalary adj. (intercalated, interpolated) in'ta^kd-ten; 

{less properly) int9?'kael3-?i. 
intercalation n. in-te^ks'lee-Sdn. 
intercede v. (interpose) intD^'siid. 

interchange n. (exchange) inta^'tSeends, 'intas-tScends. 
interchange v. into^'tSeends. 
interchangeable adj, inta^'tSeen-dsa-bal. 
interdict 7-. (prohibit, forbid) intae'dikt. 
interdict n. (prohibition) 'intae-dikt. 
interest n. 'inta-^ist, {rapidly) 'intjist; {dialectally or vul' 

garly) 'int-tj:3St. 
interest v. 'inta-nst, {rapidly) 'intjist; {also, in America, 

less properly) intaVest. 
interested adj. 'intan-stid, {assumpttvly) 'inta-eistid; {rap- 
idly) 'intEi-stid, {assumpttvly) 'intjistid; {also) 'int3-?estid ; 

{also, in America, less properly) intaVestid. 

j .ve, Q cure ; 5 the, G */iin ;^ 3 arure, d^ joy; S shoe, tS chew; 
10 7e'/ien ; i) sing; u whoever, i r^ract, o full, ou fool, i it, li see; 
o poetic; o ov^r, e oerial. Abut, o: door, ao no, e b^yd, eegatb; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 287 

i — — 

interesting adj, 'inta3i-stir), {assumpHvly) 'inta-nstiq ; {rap- 
idly) 'intji-stiq, {assumptiviy) 'intjistiq; {also) 'inta-^estii] ; 

{also, in America, less properly) inta'eestii]. 
interfluent adj, (flowing between; flowing into each other) 

in't82fi.u-ant. 
interleaf n. extra leaf between others [plural interleaves^ 

intae'hif, 'int3?-hif. 
interlocutor n. (one who takes part in a conversation; 

judgment) inta^'lekgo-tae ; {less properly) intada'kgou-tae. 
interlocutory adj, (of or occurring in dialog, conversation, 

or action) intaz'lekgo-toeri, intae'lekgo-ta^i. 
interloper n. (unauthorized trader; one who interferes) in- 

t3?'bo-p3^, 'int33-lop3?. 
intermezzo n. (dramatic or musical piece between acts, etc.) 

int3?'medz3. 
intemiinable adj. (endless) in'tBi^-mins-bdl. 
intermittent adj. (ceasing at intervals) ints^'mitnt. 
intern adj. internal [also spelt interne'^ in'tB:zn. 
intern n. inmate; assistant resident physician [also spelt in- 

ternel in'tei^n. 
internationalize v. [also spelt internationalise'} intsz- 

'naejanl-aiz. 
internecine adj, destnictiv, deadly [also, sometimes, spelt 

internecini intaer'nii-sin, intdz'nii-sain ; {improperly) intar- 

'nesin. 
intemecion n. (destruction; slaughter) inta^'nii-^dn. 
internuncial adj. (conveying messages; communicating) 

inta^'nAnJal, inta^'nAntSal. 
internuncio n. (papal representativ sent between nuncios, 

etc.) inta^'nAnJi-o. 
interpellate v. (address with a question, in interruption of 

the order of the day) intae'pelet. 
interpellation n, (interruption) in-tB^pa'lee-Ssn, intaer-pe- 

'lee-$3n. 
interpolate v, (insert, as in a writing; introduce surrepti- 
tiously; intercalate) in'tezpa-let. 
interpolation n, (action of interpolating; insertion) in- 

tB^palee-Son. 
interposition n, (intervention) intaepa'zijan. 
interrogate n. (question) in'te?3-get. 

interrogative adj,, n. [also spelt interrogative inta'erega-tiv. 
intersperse v. (scatter between other things) intar'spBi^s. 
interstate adj. mtazr'steet, {assumptiviy) 'inta^-steet. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark {') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



288 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

' ■' "' ' ■ 

interstice n. intervening space; chink; interval [alio spelt 
interstis} in'terstis, in'teie-stis ; 'inta^-stis. 

interstitial adj. (of interstices) int^z'stil^l. 

intervene v. (come between) intae'viin. 

intestacy n. (condition of dying intestate or withotit hav- 
ing made a will) in'testa-si. 

intestine n. gut, bowel [also, sometimes, spelt intestini in- 
'tpstin; (improperly) in'te-stain. 

inthrall v. (obsolete) in'93c:l. same meaning as enihralh 

intine n. inner membrane of a pollen-grain [also spelt intini 
'intin. 

intitule v. (furnish with a heading; entitle) in'ti-tguL 

into prep, 'into, (when less strest) 'int3, intd. 

intonate v, (intone, etc.) 'inta-net. 

intrados n. (inner or lower curve of an arch) in'txee^les. 

intransigent adj. uncompromising, irreconcilable [also spelt 
intrajtsifjcant'] in'tjsensi-dsant, in'tjarn-si-dsant. 

intrench v. surround with a trench ; fortify with walls [syn* 
enymous ceynate entrench'} in'tEentJ, (in Britain) in'tsenj. 

intricacy n. (state of being intricate; complexity) 'intxik9-si. 

intrigant n. intriguer [also spelt intriguant'} 'intti-gant. 

intrigante n. female intriguer [also spelt intriguante^ in- 
t;ji'(jH:nt, 'intji-gant. 

intrigue n. (underhand plotting; liaison) in'tjiig, 'in-tsig. 

intrigue v. (trick, entangle, plot) in'tjiig. 

introit n. (antiphon at the introit; entrance-psalm) xn'tsoo- 
it. 

intromission n. (admission; intermeddling) intsd'miSdn. 

introsusception n. (action of taking up or receiving with- 
in ; intussusception) intjrnso'sFpSon. 

intrusion n. (action of intruding or pushing in) in'txou-san. 

intrusive adj. [also spelt intrusivl in'tjou-siv. 

intrust v. confide [synonymous cognate enfrustl in'tXASt. " 

intuit 7'. know by intuition [also spelt intuite"] 'in-tQU-it. 

intuition n. (immediate knowledge or apprehension ; direct 
insight) intQu'iSnn. 

intuitive adj. of intuition [also spelt intuitiv"] in'tgou-i-tiv. 

intumescence n. (swelling) intco'mesnns. 

intussusception n. (a taking in; ingestion; invagination; 
introsusception) intaso'srpSan. 

inundate 7'. (overflow; flood; swamp) I'nAn-det, 'inan-det. 

inure 7'. accustom, habituate [synonymous cognate enure] 
i'nj():r. 

j .ve. Qcure; b the, Q thin; 3 a jure, d^/oy; I shoe, tScAew; 
ir7«'/jen: i] siw/7: u whoever, i r<?act, crftdl, uu fool, i it, lis^^; 
o poetic; o ovrr, c aerial, xbi/t, o: door, oo no, e bed, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 289 

invalid adj, (not valid) in'vaehd. 

invalid adj. (infirm, sick) 'inva-hd, (assumpHvly) 'invalid, 

(rapidly) 'invhd; (also) invaliid, 'inva-Hd. 
invalid n. (sick person) 'inva-hd, (anteriorly) 'invalid; 

(rapidly) 'invhd; (also) inva'hid, 'inva-lid. 
invalid v, (affect with sickness; lay up) 'inva-lid, inva'liid, 

'inva-lid. 
invasion n. (hostil inroad or incursion) in'vee-san. 
inveigh v. rail [past participle and preterit inveighed, in- 

veighdl in'vee. 
inveigle v. (entice, allure, seduce) in'vii-gal. 
inventible adj. (capable of being invented) in'venta-bal. 
inventor n. one who invents [also, but now rarely, spelt «n- 

venter'\ in'ventae. 
inventory n. (detaild list; catalog) 'invan-taei, 'invan-taei, 

'invan-tji. 
inverse adj. (inverted) in'ver^s, (often, assumptivly) 'in- 

veers. 
inverse «. (inverted state; that which is inverted) m'vBres, 

'in-vB^s. 
inversion n. (a turning upside down; reversal) in'verSan, 

in'vB:2r-San, in'ver^-san. 
invincible adj. (unconquerable) in'vinsa-bal. 
invisible adj. (that cannot be seen) in'viza-bal. 
invitatory adj. (that invites) in'vai-ta-to^i. 
invocatory adj. (of invocation) in'veka-tD^i, in'veka-taei, 

'inva-keta-?i. 
involucel n, (partial or secondary involucre) in'velio-sal, in- 

'velio-sel ; (improperly) 'inva-liu-sel, 
involucellate adj. in-velio'selet ; (less properly) inva'Hou-se- 

let. 
involnoral adj. (of an involucre) invaliou-k^al, 'inva-liu- 

k^al. 
involucrate adj. (having an involucre) inva'liou-k^et, inva- 

'liou-k^at. 
involucre n. (envelop; whorl of bracts; involucrum) 'inva- 

liukaz, 'inva-lukaz: ; (less properly) inva'liou-ka?. 
involuomm n. envelop, involucre [ploral involucral inva- 

liou-lcsam. 
involve v, infold, entangle, etc. [also spelt involv; past par- 
ticiple and preterit involved, involvdl in'velv. 
inwall V. wall in [synonymous cognate enwalt] in'wc:l. 
inwall n. (inner or inside wall) 'in-wc:l. 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai k»te ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
5tre§5-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



290 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORbS 

in-wrap v. infold [synonymous cognate enwrap; pait parti- 
ciple and preterit inwrapped, inwrapi} in'nep. 

in-wrouglit adj. having something workt in; workt into 
something [former synonymous cognate enwrouffht} in'sct, 

{assumptivly) 'in-rc:t. 
iodio adj, (of iodin) ai'edik. 
iodide n. compound of iodin [also, sometimes, spelt iodidl 

'ai-3-daid, (before of) 'ai-a-did. 
iodine n. element [also spelt iodin'i 'ai-9-din, 'ai-9-dani, 'ei-d- 

din. 
iodoform n. (compound) 'ai-dd^-feizm, ai'oo-da-feiem. 
ion n. (anion or cation) 'ai-3n. 
lonio adj, (of Ionia, etc.) ai'enik. 
ionio adj. (of ions) ai'enik. 
Ionise v. lonicize [also spelt lonisel 'ai-9-naiz. 
ionise v. (convert into an ion or ions) 'ai-3-nais. 
iota n. (Greek letter; least particle; atom) ai'30-t9. 
ipeoao n. (ipecacuanha) 'ipi-kxk. 
ipecacuanha n. root ; plant [synonymous cognates ipecaenan, 

ipecac'\ ipi-kaekgu'aena. 
irascibility n. ai-za:s9l)ih-ti, i-rsesd'hih-ti. 
irascible adj. (prone to anger; hot-temperd) ai'nesa-bri, 

i'^aes9-b9l, 
irate adj. (excited to ire ; angry) ai'reet, 'ai-ret. 
ironical adj. (pacific; non-polemic) ai'seni-kdl, aiVii-ni-kdt. 
irenicon n. message of peace [also spelt eirenicon; plorml 

irenical niVii-ni-kan, ai'reni-kan. 
iresine n. (plant) ai-ei'sai-ni, ai-ri'sai-ni. 
iridal adj. (of the rainbow) 'ai-ri-dl, (rarely) 'ici-dl. 
irides w. (plural of iris) 'i^i-diz, 'ai-^i-diz. 
iridescence n. (play of changing colors) isi'desans; (less 

property) ai-ei'desans. 
• iridicolor adj. iridescent [also spelt iridicolour'\ 'mdi-kAlar. 
iridium n. (metal) ai'ridi-3m, I'ndi-am. 
iridodesis n. (binding of the iris; iridesis) ai-ri'dedi-sis, 

lei'dedi-sis. 
iris n. rainbow; colord eye-membrane [ploral irises, iridesi 

'ai-ETis. 
Irisbize v, make Irish [also spelt Irishisci 'ai-ri-Jaiz. 
iritis n. (inflammation of the iris) aiVai-tis, ai'ni-tis. 
irksome adj. (wearisome, tedious, tiresome; annoying) 

'o^ksam, 'ei^k-sam. 
iron n, (metal) 'ai-arn ; (dialectally) 'ni-nn, 'ai-ran. 

j ye, gcure; b the, Q thin; 3 axrure, dj/oy; ^ shoe, tlchew; 
w when : r) sinp; u whoever, i r^act, o fttli, ou tooh i *t, li see; 
op<7etic; o ov^r, e aerial, Abut, oidoor, 00 no, eb^, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 291 

ironnionger n. (hardware-merchant) 'ai-aen-mAqga?. 

irony n, (dissimulation ; covert sarcasm) 'ai-?3-ni. 

irony adj, (of iron) 'ai-32r-ni, 'ai-^a-ni. 

irrational adj, (not rational) I'eaeSa-nL 

irreoog^nizable adj. [also spelt irrecognisable'] I'^eksg-naz- 

zs-bdl, i2ri'kegniz3-bal, i-3ek3g'nai-za-bal. 
irrecog^nizant adj. [also spelt irrecognisant'\ i^i'kegni-zant. 
irreconcilable adj, i-^ekan'sai-la-bal, {assumpHvly) I'^ekan- 

sai-la-bal. 
irreconcilably adv. i-^ekan'sai-la-bh, {anteriorly) iVekan- 

sai-la-bh. 
irreflection n. want of reflection; unreflecting conduct 

[also spelt irreflexionl i^i'ftekSan. 
irrefragable adj. (incontrovertible) Ki'fsaedsa-bal, I'^efsa- 

d33-bal. 
irrefutable adj. (irrefragable) izi'fgou-ta-bsl, I'^efgota-bal. 
irrelevant adj, (not relevant; not pertinent) I'reh-vant. 
irremeable adj. (admitting of no return) I'eemi-a-bal, I'zii- 

mi-a-bal; {less properly) i^i'mii-a-bal. 
irremediable adj. (incurable) i^i'mii-di-D-bal, i^i'medi-a-bal. 
irremissible adj. (unpardonable; unalterably obligatory) izi- 

'misa-bal. 
irreparable adj. (incapable of being repaird or rectified) 

I'^epara-bal ; {improperly) in'pei-^a-bal. 
irresolnble adj. (not resoluble) I'^ezalio-bal. 
irresolute adj. (unresolvd; vacillating) I'^eza-liut. 
irrespirable adj, (that cannot be breathd) I'^espaea-bal, izi- 

'spai-ea-bal, i^i'spaia-^a-bal. 
irretrievable adj. (irrecoverable; irreparable) i^i'tjii-va- 

baJ. 
irrevocable adj. I'zevaka-bal ; {improperly) izri'voo-ka-bal. 
irruption n. (a bursting in ; inroad) I'rApSan. 
is V. (third person singular present indicativ of he) iz, {wheii 

less strest) z, s. 
isabel n. color [also spelt isabelle'\ 'iz9-bel. 
isagoge n. introduction [also spelt isagoguel ai-sd'goo-dsi, 

ai-sa'goo-gi. 
isatic adj. (of isatin) ai'sxtik. 
isatin n. compound [also spelt isatine'] 'ai-s9-tin, 
isatis n. (white fox) 'ai-sa-tis; {improperly) 'isa-tis, ai'sce- 

tis. 
iscbiatic adj. of the ischium or hip ; sciatic [synonymous 

cognate ischiadic^ iski'aetik. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indjcates that the preceding sound is long; 
Stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the fellowing syllable. 



292 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

isohiorrhogic adj. (limping : said of a variety of iambic 

trimeter) iski-a'^edsik, iski-9'zoq-d$ik. 
Ishinaelite n. (descendant of Ishmael) 'iSici-d-lait, 'iS*me-a- 

lait. 
Isiac adj. (of Isis) 'ai-si-aek, 'isi-xk. 
Isiacal adj, ai'sai-d-ksi. same meaning as Isiac. 
isidium n. coral-like excrescence on lichens [ploral isidia] 

ai'sidi-3m. 
isinglass n. (gelatin; mica) 'ai-zii]-g}a:s ; (less properly) 'ai- 

zn-gla:s. 
Islam n. (Mohammedanism; the Mohammedan world) 'iBudm, 

'izlam, is'la:m. 
Islamic adj. (of Islam) is'laemik, is'lomik. 
Islamite n. (Mohammedan) 'is2.3-mait, 'izls-mait 
island n. tract of land surrounded by water [also spelt Hand'] 

'ai-land. 
isle n. island [also spelt He"] ail. 

islet n. little isle ; small island ; spot [also spelt iletl 'ai-lit. 
ism n. (doctrin, theory) 'izani, 'izni. 
Ismaelian n. one of a sect of the Shiite branch of Islam 

[synonymous cognate Ismailian] iSMi'ii-H-sd, iSMi'eli-9n, 

iSMc'ii-li-an. 
isobar n. (isobarometric line) 'ai-s3-ba:?. 
isocheim n. line of equal mean winter temperature [also 

spelt isochime'} 'ai-S3-kaim. 
isochronous adj. (of equal time) ai'sek33-n3s. 
isolable adj. (that can be isolated) 'ai-sdls-bdl, 'isala-bat, 

'izala-bal. 
isolate v. (place alone; insulate) 'ai-so-let, 'is3-let, 'iza-let. 
isolation n. ai-sa'lec-San, isa'lee-San, iza'lee-San. 
isomere n. (homologous limb-segment) 'ai-s3-mi:r, 
isomeric adj. (having elements the same in kind but diffe- 
rent in arrangement; also, homologous) ai-sa'mezik. 
isomerism n. (fact or state of being isomeric) ai'sema-?iz9m. 
isopsephic adj. (numerically equal) ai-so'sefik, ai-so'sii-f ik ; 

(rarely) ai-so'psefik, ai-so'psii-fik, 
isosceles adj. (having two of its sides equal) ai'ses3-Hz. 
isotherm n. (line of uniform mean temperature) 'ai-s3- 

0B:?m. 
isotropic adj. (having the same properties in all directions) 

ai-sa'tjepik. 
isotropy n. (having like physical properties in all directions) 

ai'set^a-pi, 'ai-so-tjopi. 

j .ve, gcure; d the, Q thin; 3 aznire, ds/oy; I shoe, tJcAew; 
wwhcn; qsin^r; u whoever, i r^act, o f «li, ou fool, i »t, lis^e; 
poetic; a ov(?r, e aerial, Abut, 0: door, 00 no, eb^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 293 

Israelite n. (descendant of Israel; Hebrew; Jew) 'iz?i-a-lait, 

'iz-^e-a-lait. 
issuable adj. 'iSu-a-bdl, 'is^u-s-bdl. 
issuance n. (act of issuing; issue) 'i$u-3ns, 'zsQu-sns. 
issue n. (outgoing; outlet; offspring; outcome; moot point) 

'iSo, 'isgo, 'iSJo. 
isthmian adj. (of an isthmus) 'isni-sn, 'izmi-an, 'istMi-sn, 

'is9Mi-9n. 
isthmus n. neck of land [ploral isthmuses, isthtni'] 'ismss, 

'izmds, 'istMds, 'isOmss. 
istle n. fiber [also spelt ystle; synonymous cognates ixtle, 

ixtli^ 'istz.1, 'istl. 
it noun-pron, it, (when unstrest) t, 
itacism n. 'ii-t3-siz3m. 
itaka-wood n. 'itdks-wod. 

Italian adj., n, I'taelisn ; (less properly) ai'txHsn. 
Italianize v, [also spelt Italianise'] I'taelis-naiz. 
Italic adj. (of Italy) I'taehk; (less properly) ai'tsehk. 
italic adj.,n. (in printing) i'taehk; (less properly) ai'taehk. 
italicization n. [also spelt italicisation"] i-taehsi'zee-San, 

i-taeh-sai'zee-San. 
italicize v, print in italics [also spelt italicise"] I'txh-saiz; 

(less properly) ai'taeh-saiz. 
Italiot n. Italian Greek [synonymous cognate Italiote] I'txU- 

et 
ita-palm n. 'it9-pa:m. 
itch n. (skin-sensation) itS. 
item adv, (likewise; also) 'ai-tam. 
item n. (intimation, hint ; article ; entry) 'ai-tam. 
itemize v. [also, rarely, spelt itemise] 'ai-ti-maiz. 
iter n. circuit, eyre ; Roman road ; way, passage [ploral iters, 

itinera] 'ai-ta^, 'it^z. 
iterant adj. (that iterates; repeating) 'it3-?ant. 
iterate n. (repeat) 'ita-^et. 
iterative adj. [also spelt iterativ] 'itaea-tiv. 
itinerant adj. (journeying; traveling) ai'tina-^ant, I'tina- 

erant. 
itinerary adj., n. (route) ai'tin3-2re?i, ai'tins-ea^i, I'tina-ea^i. 
lulus n. millepod [synonymous cognate yulus] ai'jou-bs. 
ivied adj. overgrown with ivy [also spelt ivyed] 'ai-vid. 
ivory n. (hard dentin) 'ai-v9-ri, {rapidly) 'm-wzi. 
ivy n. plant [ploral ivies] 'ai-vi. 
ivy-mantled adj. ai-vi'maentld, (assumptivly) 'ai-vi-mantld. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, o hot, oi boy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
5tress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



294 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

izard n. antelope [also spelt isard, iszardl 'izszd. 
iuard n. the letter zee; zed [former synonymous cognates 
izzet, izzart, uzzardi 'izazd. 



Jaoana n, (bird) 'dsaeks-ns, dsdlcee-ns. 

jackal n. (wild dog resembling a fox) 'dyek-cil, 

jaoky n. gin [also spelt jackey} 'dsaeki. 

Jacobean adj. of James the First [also spelt Jacobaeanl 

dsaelo'bii-gn ; (improperly) d39'koo-bi-3n. 
Jacobian adj. (of Jacobi) d33'loo-bi-9n. 
Jacobin n. (Dominican, etc.) 'dsaeks-bin. 
Jacobin n. pigeon [also spelt jacobinel 'dsaeks-bin. 
Jacobitism n. (principles of the Jacobites or adherents of 

James the Second) 'dsaekg-bai-tizgm, 'dsaekabi-tizam. 
Jager n. bird [also spelt jaeger, jager, yager"! 'jee-gas. 
jaghir n. assignment [also spelt jaghire, jagheer, jageer, 

jagirl dsa'gi:?, dsae'gi:?; (U^s properly) *d$atgiz, 'dsa:-gi7, 

d^xg'hB'.z. 
jagnar n. (carnivorous mammal) 'dsx-gwaz^, dsx'gwcur, 

'd3a:gju-a?. 
Jail n. prison [also spelt gaolj d^tel. 
jailer n. [also spelt jailor, gaoler"] 'dsee-la?. 
Jain n. one of a non-Brahminical East Indian sect [synony- 
mous cegnate Jainal dseen, dsain. 
jalap n. (drug; plant) 'dsaelap, 'dselap. 
jalonsie n. (blind, shutter) dsselu'zii, salu'zii. 
jam n. (conserve) dsaem. 
jam V. crush, crowd [past participle and preterit jammed, 

jamd} dsaem. 
jamb n, leg-piece; side-piece of a door or window; cheek of 

a fire-place [also spelt jam] dsccni. 
jamesonite n. (mineral) 'dsecm-sD-nait ; (improperly) 'd^ec- 

mis3-nait. 
January n. (month) 'dsaenju-e^i, 'dsjenju-g-ri ; (anteriorly) 

'dsanju-a^i, 'd^xnj^-zi, (rapidly) 'dsainjori. 
japan v, varnish [pnst participle and preterit japanned, ja- 

pand] dsa'paen, dsae'pam. 
Japanese adj. (of Japan) dsxpo'niiz, (assumptivly) 'dsaepd- 

niz; (also) dsaepa'niis, (assumptivly) 'dsaepa-nis. 
Japanese n. (person; language) dsaepa'niiz, dsaepa'niis. 
Japanize v. [also spelt Japanise] dsa'pae-naiz, dsae'pae-naiz. 

j ye, Qcure; bthe, Q thin; 3 arure, d3yoy; ^ shoe, tjc/iew; 
wwhen; rising', u whoever, i r£?act, o f«ll, ou fool, i tt. li sctf ; 
o poetic; a ov£?r, e oerial, AbMt, o: door, oo no, e b£?d, cegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 295 

jardiniere n, (flower-stand; cache-pot) ^azdVnjeiz, 
jargon n. (gibberish ; babble) 'dsoi^-gen, 'dsarr-gan. 
jargon n. mineral [synonymous cognate jargoonl 'd3a:?-gan. 
jarl n. (nobleman) jaizl, d^aizl, 
jarosite n, (mineral) 'dsae^a-sait, dsa'eoo-sait, 'd3a:-r3-sait, 

ha'^oo-sait. 
jasmine n. plant [also spelt jasmin ; synonymous cognates 

jessamine, jessamin'] 'dsaesMin, 'dsaezmin. 
jasper n. (chalcedony; quartz) 'dsaespa?, 'dsai-spa^. 
jannce v. archaic (make prance ; prance) dscins, d3a:ns, 

d3a:ns; (also) d3c:nts, etc. 
janndioe n. icterus [also spelt jaundisl 'd3c:n-dis, 'd3a:n-dis, 

'd3a:n-dis. 
jaundiced adj affected with jaundis [also spelt jaundisti 

'd3c:n-dist, 'd3a:n-dist, 'd3a:n-dist. 
jannt v. (take a trip ; journey) dscint, d3a:nt, d3a:nt. 
jannt n. journey, trip [also, formerly, spelt jant] d3c:nt, 

d3a:nt, d3a:nt. 
jaunty adj. well-bred, sprightly, lively [also, sometimes, 

spelt janty] 'd3C:n-ti, 'd3a:n-ti, 'dsain-ti. 
Javanese adj. (of Java) dsaeva'niiz, (assumptivly) 'd33ev3-niz; 

(also) d33ev3'niis, (assumptivly) 'dsaeva-nis. 
javelin n. (spear) 'd3a:v3-hn, 'd3aevhn. 
jealous adj. zealous; envious [also spelt jelous} 'd3e}9S. 
jealousy n. [also spelt jelousyl 'dsela-si. 
jean n. cloth [synonymous cognate janel d3iin, d3een. 
Jehu n. (fast driver; coachman) 'dsii-h^u. 
jejune adj. (scanty, meager, barren) dsi'dsoun. 
jejunum n. second division of the small intestin [plural jeju- 
na] d3i'd30U-n3m. 
jellied adj. (turnd into jelly; congeald) 'dsehd. 
jellify V. convert into jelly; turn into a jelly [also spelt 

jellyfy] 'dseh-fai. 
jelly n. gelatinous substance [plural jellies] 'd3eh. 
jenite n. 'je-nait. same meaning as yenite. 
jenneting n. (apple) 'dseni-tiq. 
jeopard v. (risk, hazard) 'dscpa^d. 
jeopardize v. risk, jeopard [also spelt jeopardise] 'd3ep3?- 

daiz. 
jerboa n. (rodent) dsa^'boo-a, 'dsorr-bo-a. 
jeremiad n. lamentation [also, sometimes, spelt jeremiade] 

dse^i'mai-ad, dse^i'mai-aed. 
jerfaloon n. see gyrfalcon. 

c: law, q: f wr, ae cat, e hot, oi boy ; a: far, au now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



296 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

jerid n. javelin [also spelt jerrid, jereed, jerreed, djereed, 
djerrid, djeridj dsiViid. 

jerm n. trading-vessel, etc. [also spelt djemi} dsBxm. 

jerque v. search (a vessel) for unenterd goods [also spelt 
jirk} d3B:7k. 

jerqner n. searcher [also spelt jerkerl 'dsBzkx, 'dsBir-kM. 

jersey n. (worsted; close-fitting tunic) 'd3B:7-zi. 

jessamine n. [also spelt jessamin'\ Msesa-min. same mean- 
ing as jasmine^ 

Jesnit n. (member of the Society of Jesus) 'dsesu-it, 'dsesju- 
it, 'dsezju-it. 

Jesnitism n. 'dsesu-i-tizam, 'daesju-i-tizam, 'dsexju-i-tisdm. 

jetsam n. goods thrown overboard from a ship in distress 
[also spelt jetsom, jctsome; synonymous cognate jetson} 
'dsetsam. 

jettison n. (action of throwing goods overboard) 'dseti-san. 

jetton n. counter [also spelt jeton\ 'dsetsn. 

je'wel n. (gem) 'dsou-gl. 

jexvel z\ furnish with jewels [present participle jeweling, jeuh 
clling ; pnst participle and preterit jeweled, jewelled, jeny 
eldl 'd3()u-3l. 

je'weler n, [also spelt jcwellcrl 'dsou-a-la^. 

je'wellery ti. [also spelt jewclryl 'd^ou-^Uzi, 'djoa-ata-ei. 
same meaning as jewelry, 

je'welry n. [synonymous cognate jewellery'^ 'dsou-^-ri, 
{sometimes, assumf^tizly) 'dsoul-n; (vulgarly) 'dsou-la-ei. 

je'wely adj. like a jewel [also spelt jewellyl 'dsou-s-ti. 

je'w^s-harp n. (musical instrument; Jew's trump) 'dsiraz* 
harrp. 

jheel n. pool [also spelt jhil. jeil. jccll dsiil. 

jibe r. (put about; sail round) dsaib. see gybe. 

jibe V. be in accord ; agree [also spelt gibe'\ dsaib. 

jigamaree n, (thingumbob, contraption) dsigsmaVii, 'dsigs- 
ma-zrii. 

jig-saxv n. (reciprocating saw ; scroll-saw) 'dsig-sc: . com- 
pare gig-saw. 

jiU n. dsil. sec gill* gilL* 

jingo n. blatant patriot ; Chauvinist [ploral jingoes'i 'dsirjgD. 

jinn n. />/. an order of spirits [also used as a singular, mean- 
ing one of the spirits of this order; singular jinnee; femi- 
nin synonymous cognate jinnecyeh; also spelt ginn, dschin, 
djin, jini dsin. 

jinnee n. spirit [also, sometimes, spelt genie; synonymous 

j ye, Qcure; bthc, 0f/iin; 5 arure. dj/oy; I shoe, tScAew; 
w when ; i] sin^r; u whoever, i rract. o f«ll, uu fool, i »t, li see; 
poetic; s ov^r, e aerial, a but, o: door, oo no, e b^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 297 

cognates jinn, djinn, ginn ; feminin cegnate jinneeyeh} dsi- 
'nii, 'dsii-ni, 'dsii-ni. 

jinriksha n. [also spelt jinricksha ; synenymous cegnate jin- 
rikisha^ dsin'rikSs. 

Jiu-jitsu n. (Japanese mode of wrestling) dsu'dsit-su. 

Jobbemcwl n. pate ; blockhead [synenymous cegnate jobber^ 
noli 'dseba^-nol. 

Jockey n. [also spelt jockie, jocky; plural jockeys, jockiesi 
'dseki. 

Jocose adj. (full of jokes; waggish) dsolcoos. 

jocosity n. (mirthfulness ; mirth) dso'kesi-ti. 

jocular adj, (disposed to joking; merry) 'dsekQo-la^. 

jocund adj. (merry, blithe) 'd3ek3nd, 'dsDO-kand. 

Jod n. (Hebrew letter) dsed, jood. 

Johannes n. gold coin [also, sometimes, spelt jonannes, jO' 
anesel dso'ae-niz, dso'hae-niz. 

Join V. unite, link [past participle and preterit joined, joindl 
dsein ; (vulgarly) dsain. 

joist n. (timber) d3eist ; (dialectally or vulgarly) dseis, dsaist. 

Jonquil n. daffodil [also spelt jonauille and, formerly, jun- 
quill 'dsen-kiril, 'd3ei]ku:il; 'd3Ai]ku:il. 

Jostle V, push and shove ; elbow ; hustle [synonymous ceg- 
nate justlel 'd3es^l. 

Jostling n. pushing about [synenymous cegnate justlingi 
'dsestiq ; (improperly) 'd3esti-ii]. 

Jouss n. (instrument of punishment) dsougz, dsxgz. 

Joule n. (elecric unit) dsaol. 

Jounce v., n. (bump, bounce, jolt) dsaonts, d3aon8. 

journal r. record in a journal ; provide with a journal-bear- 
ing [present participle journaling, journalling ; past partici- 
ple and preterit journaled, journalled, journaldl 'dytznX^ 
'dsBrr-naJ. 

Joumalixe v, [also spelt journalise^ 'dinztA-mz. 

Journey n. round of travel ; day's work [ploral journey si 
'dsemi, 'd3B:?-ni. 

joust n., V, dsAst. djoust. same meaning as just. 

joviality n. (quality of being jovial; also, jollity) dsovi'acli- 
ti. 

Joirl fi. jawbone ; cheek : external throat ; dewlap ; crop ; 
wattle; head of a fish [also, sometimes, spelt jolel ds^of, 

Joirl v., n. (dialectal) bump ; knock ; knell [also, sometimes, 
spelt joir\ d>DO?. 

cz law, 9! firr. ac c^it, e hot^ ei hoy : o: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sotind is leng; 
stress-mark (0 mdxcates chief stress on the following syllable. 



298 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

joy n. delight [ploral joys'] dsei. 

joyons adj. (full of joy) 'dsei-as. 

jnbe n. (rood-loft) 'dsou-bi, 'dsou-bi. 

jnbilate v. (rejoice, exult) 'dsou-bi-let. 

jnbilate n. (psalm) dsubilee-ti, dsubilce-ti, jubilai-ti. 

jnck V. make a sound resembling this word, as a partridge 

[synonymous cognate juke"] dsAk. 
Judaic adj. (Jewish) d3o'dce-ik. 
Jndaism n. (Jewish religion, etc.) Msou-di-izom, 'dsou-de- 

izDm. 
Jndaize v, [also spelt Judaisel Msuu-di-aiz, Msou-de-aiz. 
judgment n. decision ; opinion ; discretion [also spelt judge- 
ment) 'dsAdsmant. 
judicative adj. judicial [also spelt judicativ"] 'dsou-dika-tiv. 
judicatory adj. 'dsou-dika-ton, 'dsou-dika-tan, dso'dikato-ri. 
judicature n. 'dsou-dika-tjo?, 'dsou-dika-tgur, 'dsou-di- 

kctQozr. 
judicial adj, (of judgment) dsu'diSal. 

judiciary adj. (judicial) dso'diSi-e^i, dso'diSa-ri, dso'diSsi. 
judicious adj. (discreet; wise; prudent) d3o'di$3S. 
juger n. (Roman unit of land-measure) 'dsou-dsdzr. 
jugger n. falcon of India [also spelt juggarl MsAgsz. 
Juggernaut n. (object of worship) 'dsAgae-nc.t. 
jugular adj., n. 'dsAgjo-la?, 'dsou-gjo-lar. 
jujube n. (fruit ; plant ; lozenge) 'dsou-dsub. 
juke z'. djouk. same meaning as juck. 
julep n. (drink) 'dsou-lnp, 'dsou-lep. 
junior adj. (younger) 'dsou-njo^. 
junker n. (young German noble, etc.) 'joqka?. 
junta n. (deliberativ or administrativ council or committee; 

legislativ assembly) 'dsAnta. 
junto n. (private council or assembly ; clique ; faction ; cabal ; 

club; coterie; ring) 'dsAntn. 
jupon n. (jacket ; surcoat) 'dsou-pan, dsu'pon. 
Jurisconsult n. (jurist) dsoi-^is'ken-SAlt, dsoi-nskon'sAlt 
juror fi. (juryman) 'dsur-rar. 
jus n. (law) dsAS. 

just n. combat; knightly tilt [also spelt joust] dsAst, dsoust. 
just adv, (exactly ; verily ; simply) djAst ; {sometimes, when 

unstrest) djost; (dialcctally) djest, d^cs. 
justice n. equity; judge [also spelt justis] 'dsAStis. 
justiciable adj. (subject to jurisdiction) dsAs'tiJi-a-bal; 
(rarely) dsAs'tiS^-bnl. 

j ye, Qcure; b the, //lin; 3 arure, d^/oy; ^ shoe, tj r/iew; 
V0 7vhen; rising; u whoever, 1 rract, o f«ll, ou fool, i it, li s^f ; 
o poetic; a over, e aerial, Abut, o: door, oo no, e b£?d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 299 

justiciary n. (justiciar; justice; justicer) dsAs'tiSi-ezi. 
justifiable adj, (defensible) 'd3ASti-fai-9-b9}, {occasionally) 

dsAsti'fai-a-bal. 
joBtifioative adj. [also spelt justificativ'l dsAs'tifi-ketiv, 

'dsAstif i-ketiv ; {also) dsAs'tifikg-tiv, {assutnptivly) dsAs'tifi- 

kdtiv. 
justificatory adj. dsAs'tifika-to^i, dsAs'tif ika-tgzi ; {also) 

'dsAStifi-keta-^i, {assumptivly) 'dsAStifi-ketaei. 
justing n. tilt, just, tournament [also spelt jousting'} 'dsAstiQ. 
Justinianian adj. (of Justinian) dsAS-tini'ee-ni-sn. 
juvenile adj» young, youthful; for youth [also spelt juvenil} 

'dsou-vi-nl, 'dsou-vi-nil, 'dsou-vi-nail. 



Kafir n. Giaour ; Bantu ; nativ of Kaf iristan ; in ploral, Afri- 
can mining-stock [also spelt Kaffir, Kaffer, Kaffre and, ex- 
cept in the sense of mining-stock, Cafer, Caffer, Caff re; 
synonymous cognate Caffree} 'kaefa?, 'kai-fa?. 

kago n. palanquin [synonymous cognate cango} 'ka:-go, 
'kaego. 

kag:u n. bird [synonymous cognate kagon} 'ka:-gu. 

kairine n. chinolin compound [also, sometimes, spelt kairinl 
'kai-2in, 'kai-?ain. 

kaiser n. (emperor) 'kai-zs?. 

kale n. cabbage [also spelt kail"] keeh 

kaleege n. pheasant [also spelt kalij, calidge, kallegel ksliids, 
'ka:-lid3. 

kaleidoscope n, (tube containing fragments of colord glass 
and mirrors for producing symmetrical figures) ka'lai-da- 
skop. 

kali n. (prickly saltwort; potash) 'ka:-h, 'kaeh, 'kee-h, 'kee-H. 

Kalmuck n. member of a branch of the Mongolian family 
of peoples ; language [also spelt Calmuck, Calmuci 'kael-mAk. 

kalsomine n„ v. 'kaels9-main, "kaelss-min. same meaning as 
calcimine. 

kamala n. (dyestuff ; vermifuge) 'kaema-lg. 

kamila n. [also spelt kamela, kameela} kd'mii-ls. same mean' 
ing as kamala. 

Kanaka n. (Hawaiian) 'kaeng-ks, ks'nsekd. 

kangaroo n. (marsupial mammal) kseqgd'^uu. 

Kantian adj. (of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant) 
'kaenti-an. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ©i hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
Stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



300 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

kaatiooy n. Amerindian dance [also spelt canticoyj loentx- 
kei. 

kaolin n. (fine white clay) Icee-a-lin, liai-^Ain, 

luipelliiieizter n. leader or conductor of a kapelle or musical 
establishment [also spelt capelltneister} ka'pel-mai-star. 

karoo n. barren table-land [also spelt karroo} ka'sou. 

karyokinesia n. nucleus-movement in indirect cell-division; 
mitosis [synonymous cognate caryocinesisi kaeri-o-kz'nit-izs, 
kaeri-o-kai'nii-sis. 

katydid n. (insect) Icee-ti-did. 

kavass n. constable; armd servant or courier [also spelt co- 
vass, cawass, kawass"] ks'vais. 

kayak n. canoe [also spelt kajac, kayack, cayac and, some- 
times, kyackl 'kai-ak, 'kai-xk, 'kee-jak, 'kse-jsk. 

kasi n. cadi, judge [also, formerly, spelt kasi, ccui, coMte, 
easy; synonymous cognates causee, causyl ncai-zi, Icci-xi. 

keen adj. (sharp ; clear ; eager) kiin, (when unstrest) kin. 

keen-eyed adj. kiin'aid, (assumptivly) Iciin-aid. 

keep V, (observe ; maintain ; retain ; preserv) kiip, {when un^ 
strest) kip. 

keg n. small cask [dialectal synonymous cognate cag} keg. 

keitloa n. rhinoceros [synonymous cognate ketloal Hciit-to-d, 
'keet-lo-3. 

kekryphalos n. (head-dress) kilc^ifs-les. 

kelson n. line of timbers or combination of plates over the 
keel of a ship [also spelt keelson} 'kelssn. 

Kelt n, kelt. see Celt. 

kennel v, lie in a kennel; put in a kennel [present partici- 
ple kenneling, kennelling; past participle and preterit ken- 
neled, kennelled, kenneld} 'kenl, 'kenal. 

kept V, (past participle and preterit of keep) kept ; {vulgarly) 
kep. 

kerb n. ksizh. see curb. 

kerokief n. (head-dress; neckerchief; handkerchief) Icse- 

tSif. 

kermes «. (dyestuff) Tcarr-miz, 'kB:?-miz. 

kermis n. annual fair [also spelt kermess, kirmess} 'kBiz- 

mis. 
kern n. foot-soldier [also spelt kerne} kB:?n. 
kernel n. (seed ; inner body of a seed ; grain, as of wheat) 

'kornl, 'kQ:?-nl, 'kair-nal. 
kerneled adj. having a kernel [also spelt kernelled, kemeldj 

TcBrnld. 

j ye, Qcure; bthe, Q thin; sa^rure, ds/oy; jshoe, tj cfcew; 
wwhen; T^sing; u whoever, i react, o full, ouiool, i tt, li s^e; 
o poetic; a over, e aerial, Abut, d: door, oo no, e bed, ce gate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 301 

kemely adj. kernel-like [also spelt kernelly} 'ksznl-i. 

kerosene n. (mineral oil; lamp-oil) 'kezs-sin, kezs'siin. 

kersey n., adj, (coarse woolen cloth) 'kei^-zi. 

ketch n. (vessel) ketS- 

ketohnp n. [synonymous cognates catchup, catsup, katsup 

and, formerly, kitchupl 'ketjap. 
kettle n. (pot, cauldron) 'ketl ; (dialectally or vulgarly) 'kitl. 
key n. lock-fastening device [ploral keysl kiL 
key n. (obsolete) kii. see quay. 
key n. low island near a coast [synonymous cognates cay, 

kay; ploral keysl kii. 
kkaU n. (dust-colord fabric) 'kai-ki. 
kkan n. (Tartar prince) ka:n, kaen, kc:n. 
kkan n. (caravanserai) kaen, ka:n. 
kkedive n. (prince, sovereign : title of the viceroy or ruler 

of Egypt) ki'diiv ; (less properly) 'kii-div, ki'daiv, 'kii-daiv. 
kidnap v, steal, carry off [past participle and preterit kid- 
napped, kidnapt"] 'kid-naep. 
kidnapper n. (one who kidnaps children, etc.) ^id-nxp^z, 
kidney n. organ, gland [ploral kidneys} 'kidni. 
kier n. vat [also spelt keir"} kr.z. 

kilerg n. (work-measure of one thousand ergs) Hcildzg. 
kiln n, oven, as for baking bricks [also, sometimes, spelt kill 

and, formerly, kill kil, kiln. 
kilogram n. one thousand grams [also spelt kilogramme'} 

'kila-g^aem. 
kilogrammeter n. work-measure [also spelt kilogramme- 

tre] kiWgzddmi-tsz, kila-g^aem'mii-ta?. 
kiloliter n. capacity-measure of one thousand liters [also 

spelt kilolitre} 'kila-hi-ta?. 
kilometer n. measure of one thousand meters [also spelt 

kilometre} Tcila-mii-ta?. 
kilter «. good condition ; order [synonymous cognate kelter} 

Iciha?. 
kimono n. (Japanese robe) ki'moo-no, ki'moo-no. 
kind adj., n. kaind ; (dialectally) kgaind. 
kindergarten n. (school for young children) 'kindar-garr-tn. 
kind-hearted adj. [also spelt kind-harted} kaind'hortid, 

(assumptivly) 'kaind-ha^tid. 
kind-heartedness n. [also spelt kind-hartedness} kaind'ha?- 

ti-dnis, Tcaind-harti-dnis. 
kindness n. (quality of being kind, etc.) ncain-dnis, 'kain- 

nis. 

c: law, s: fur, ae cat, o hot, ex hoy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



302 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

kinematic adj. (of pure motion) kini'maetik, kai-nx'maetik. 
kinematograph n. moving-picture device [synonymous cog- 
nate cinematograph'! kini'mst3-gza:f, kai-ni'm8et9-gza:f, kai- 

'nii-mata-geaif. 
kinesthesia n. the muscular sense [also spelt kinaestkesisi 

kines'0ii-sis, kai-nes'Oii-sis. 
kinetic adj, (causing motion; of motion; due to motion) ki- 

'netik, kai'netik. 
kinetoscope n. (moving-picture device, etc.) ki'neta-skop, 

kai'nii-ta-skop. 
kinnikinio n. Amerindian smoking-mixture [also spelt kin- 

nikinick] kiniki'nik. 
kino n. (catechu-like substance; gum kino) Hcii-no. 
kiosk n, open pavilion [also spelt kiosque^ ki'esk, Hcii-esk. 
kirschxvasser n, (wild cherry liquor) 'ki?S-wes9z. 
kirtle n. (man's tunic or coat; woman's gown; skirt) ^kazti, 
kismet n. destiny, fate [synonymous cognates kismat, ktsmut] 

Tcis-met. 
kitchen n. (cooking-room; cooking-device; food) latSin. 
kleptomania n. theft-mania [also spelt cleptomanial kLep- 

ta'mee-ni-a. 
knack n. (trick; dodge; art) naek. 
knagg^y adj. (full of knots; cross) 'naegi. 
knapsack n. (bag or case worn by soldiers) 'naep-saek. 
knave n. (rogue ; jack) neev. 
knead v. (mix or work up, as dough; mold) mid. 
knebelite n. (mineral) 'neba-lait, (rarely) 'kNcba-lait. 
knee-deep n. nii'diip, (assumptivly) 'nii-diip. 
knee-high adj. nii'hai, (assumptivly) 'nii-hai. 
kneel n. (fall on the knees or a knee) mil. 
knell n. (sound, as of a bell) nel. 
knew V. (preterit of know) njou; (dialectally) nou. 
knickerbockers n. pi. (loose knee-breeches) 'nik3?-bok9?z. 
knickknack n. trinket, gimcrack [also spelt knicknack, nick- 

nack, nicnac"] 'nik-naek. 
knife n. cutting-tool [ploral knivesi naif. 
knight n. (man-at-arms ; warrior, etc.) nait. 
knit V. (tie, knot, weave) nit. 

knob n. rounded projection ; knop [also spelt nobi nob. 
knobbed adj. having a knob [also spelt nobbed"] nebd, 'nebid. 
knock-kneed adj. nek'niid, (assumptivly) 'nek-niid. 
knoll n. (top of a hill ; hillock, mound) nool. 
knot n. (intertwining, as of a cord) net. 

J y<^i Qcure; bthe, Qthin; 3 arure, ds/oy; I shoe, tJcAew; 
wwhen; rising; u whoever, i r^'act, o f m11, ou fool, i tt, lis^^; 
o poetic ; a ov^r, e aerial, a but, o: door, 00 no, c b^d, ee gote ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 303 

knout n,,v. (whip, scourge) naot, nuut. 

knour V. (perceive; recognize) noo. 

knowledge n. (fact of knowing, etc.) 'nehds; (also, in 
Britain) 'noo-hds. 

knnokle n. (bone at a finger-joint; joint) 'nAkdl. 

knur n. knar, knot; ball [also spelt nur, nurr] ns'.z, 

knurl n. knot, knob, boss, nodule [also spelt nurll nsizl. 

koala n. ko'a:-}?, 'kuu-)3. same meaning as koolah, 

kobold n. (spirit) 'koo-beld, 'koo-bQld. 

koodoo n. antelope [also spelt kudu, coodoo, koudou"} 'kuu-du. 

koolak n. marsupial [also spelt koola, coolah, coola ; synon- 
ymous cognates koala, coala} 'kuu-ls. 

kopje n. small hill [also spelt koppie, kopjie, koppjel 'kepi. 

Koran n. sacred book of the Mohammedans [also spelt 
Ooran; synonymous cognate Kurani ko'?a:n, 'koi-esn, ko- 
'raen. 

koran n. (bustard) ks'zain. 

Koranic adj. (of the Koran) ko'raenik, lo'rai-nik. 

Korean adj. of Korea [also spelt Coreani ko'ni-sn. 

kotour n. a touching of the forehead on the ground while 
prostrating one's self in reverence or worship [also spelt 
kowtow, kotou and, sometimes, kotoo, kootool ko'tao, ko'too. 

kraal n. African village [also spelt crall and, sometimes, 
kraul, krawll kza'X kzcil. 

kraken n. (mythic sea-monster) 'k^ai-kan, 'ksee-kgn. 

kreutzer n. coin [also spelt kreuserl 'k^eit-s^z; {less prop- 
erly) 'k30Ut-S32. 

kumiss n. beverage [also spelt kumyss, koumiss, kumis, ku- 
mys, koumys, koumis, koomiss'] 'kou-mis. 

kiimmel n, cordial [also spelt kummel} 'kimal, 'kgomal. 

Kurd n. inhabitant of Kurdistan [also spelt Koord, Curdl 
ku'.zd, 

kyang n. wild horse of Tibet [also spelt kiang"] kgaen. 

kyanixe v, impregnate with corrosiv sublimate [also spelt 
kyanise'\ 'kai-a-naiz. 

ie n. (the petition 'Kyrie eleison,' Lord, have mercy) 'kar- 
ri, Tcai-ri-i:, 'kii-zi-e. 



laager n.,v, camp [also spelt lagerl 1a:-g^z. 

label n. (band, strip, marking-slip) 'lee-bdl. 

label V, [also, rarely, spelt lable; present participle labeling, 

c: law, b: f«r, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is leng; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



304 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

labelling; past participle and preterit hbeUd, labelUd, Uh 

beldl ^ee-bsL 
labeler n. one who labels [also spelt lab^Uerl lee4»-tae. 
labial adj. {pi the lips) ^ee-bi-al. 
labialixe v. [also spelt Idbialistil lee-bi-o-laiz. 
labile adj, unstable [also spelt labUI ^ee-bit, lebit. 
labiodental adj, (formd with the lips and teeth) lee-bi-o- 

'dentl. 
labor n.,v. work [also spelt labour] ^ee-bae. 
laborage n. payment for labor [also spelt labonragtl lee-ba- 

?id3. 
laboratory n. (room or building for chemical, physical or 

other work) laebdzs-tozi, 1ath9z^tazi\ {rapidly) latbea-tan, 

'laebra-tari, ^aebja-tji. 
labored adj. [also spelt laboured, labord] 'lee-bard. 
laborer n, one who labors; workman [also spelt /ofrotuvr] 

'lee-ba-33?, (rapidly) 'lee-brae. 
laborsome n. laborious [also spelt laboursome"] lee-bar-ssm. 
labmin n. lip [plural labral ^ee-bram. 
labyrinth n. (maze) Isebi-rinO. 
labyrinthine adj. maze-like, intricate [also, sometimef, spelt 

labyrinthinl laebi'einGin, laebi'ein-9ain. 
lao n. gum-lac [also, formerly, spelt lacque, laquel lek. 
lao n. one hundred thousand [also spelt lakh, lack and, for- 
merly, lak"] laek. 
laoertian adj, (lizard-like, saurian) l^'sBz^^n, }a'sa:r-$an. 
lacertine adj. lacertian ; consisting of lizard-like figures [al- 
so, sometimes, spelt lacertinl Is'seetin, la'sar-tain. 
laciniate adj. (jagged, slasht) Is'sini-at. 
lackadaisical adj. (like one crying 'lackadayf languishing) 

laeka'dee-zi-kol. 
lackaday inter j, (alackaday!) Iseka'dee, laeka-dee. 
laokage n. shortage [also spelt laccage"] laekids. 
lackey n. footman ; valet ; hanger-on [also spelt lacquey ; 

ploral lackeys] laeki. 
laoonioisni n. (laconic expression; a laconism) lalceni- 

sizsm. 
laconism n, (brevity of speech; a laconic sentence) laekd- 

nizsm. 
laconize v, favor or imitate the Lacedaemonians [also spelt 

laconise] laeka-naiz. 
lacqner n. varnish, polish [also spelt lacker] laekar. 
lacrosse n. (game) la'k^ers. 

j ye, gcure; bthe, 6//iin; 3 a^ure, dj/oy; J jAoe, t$cAew; 
u) whtn ; q sin^r ; u whoever, i r^act, o full, ou tool, i tt, li nee : 
o poetic ; a ov^r, e aerial, a but, o: door, oo no, e bed, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 3C5 

laorymal adj, of tears [also spelt lachrymal, lacrimal} 'laeksi- 

mal. 
lacrymose adj, given to tears; suffused with tears; mourn- 
ful [also spelt lachrymose, lacrimose\ laelrei'moos, (assump- 

tivly) 'laelrei-mos, 
laotein n. solidified milk [also spelt lacteinej laekti-in. 
lactometer n. (milk-gage) lxk'temi-t9z. 
laonna n. hiatus, gap [plural lacunae, lacunasl Id'kQuu-ns. 
lacustrine adj. of lakes [also spelt lacustrin} }9'kAst£in. 
lady n. woman of superior position, etc. [plural ladies'] lee- 

di; (dialectally) ledi, lai-di. 
lafayette n. (fish) lafe'jet, lafe'jet; lafi'et, lafi'et. 
lager n. (beer) 'la:-g9? ; {less properly) 1c:-g3?. 
lagoon n. pool-like or lake-like stretch of water [also spelt 

lagune} la'guun. 
laic adj. (lay, secular) ^ee-ik. 
laicization n. [also spelt laicisation'] lee-isi'zee-Ssn, )ee-i- 

sai'zee-S9n. 
laicize v. render lay [also spelt laicisel ^ee-i-saiz. 
lair n. (place of rest; bed, couch) Itiz. 

laissez-faire n. the let-alone principle or policy [synony- 
mous cognate, with same pronunciation, laisser-faire"] lese- 

'iz:z, 
laity n. (state of a layman ; laymen collectivly) ^ee-i-ti. 
lam V, beat soundly; thrash; whack [past participle and 

preterit lammed, lamdl laem. 
lama n. (priest) 'la: -ma. 

lamb n. young sheep [also spelt lam"] laem, {often) laeim. 
lambda n. (Greek letter) Isemds. 
lambkin n. (little lamb) laemkin. 

lambrequin n. (helmet-cover; cornice; scallop) 'laemb?i-kin. 
lamellar adj. (disposed in lamellae) Id'meld?, laems-lg?. 
lamellate adj. (lamellar) laems-lgt. 
lamellibranch n. (mollusk with lamellate gills) Id'meh- 

b^aeqk. 
lamentable adj. (to be lamented; doleful; deplorable) 

laemanta-bal ; {improperly) la'menta-bal. 
lameter n. lame person [also spelt lamiter} 'lee-mi-ta?. 
lammergeier n. bird [also spelt lammergeyerl 'laemg^-gai-ar. 
lanceolate adj. (shaped like a lance-head) 'la:n-si-3-l3t, 'laen- 

si-3-let. 
landau n. (carriage) laen-dao, laen-dc: ; {less properly) laen- 

do, laen'doo. 

c: \aw, q: f Mr, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, au now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



306 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

lands^raviate n. (office or province of a landgrave) Ixnd- 

'gree-vi-et, laend'gree-vi-at. 
landlord n. (lord or owner of land, etc.; innkeeper) ^aend- 

leizd; (vulgarly) ^xnAeizd. 
landwehr n. (reservs, militia) land-ve:?, 'lant-vc:?, ^aent- 

\e:z. 
lane n. (path; byway) Icen. 

langsyne adv, (long ago) laeq'sain; (less properly) laeq'zain. 
lang^nage n. (tongue; mode of expression) laeijgwids. 
lang^net n. tongue-shaped part [synonymous cognate lan- 

guettel laeqgwit, laeqgit. 
langpaette n. laeifgct. same meaning as languet. 
lang^nid adj. (faint; weak; spiritless; dull) laeqgwid. 
languish v. grow weak; pine [past participle and preterit 

languished, languishtl laeqgwiS- 
languor n. (faintness; lassitude) Iseqgs?, Iaei]gw9z. 
lansnorons adj, (full of languor) laeqgs-rds, laeggwa-zss. 
laniary adj. (of teeth) laeni-e^i, lee-ni-eei. 
lansqnenet n. (one of a class of mercenary soldiers; card- 
game) Isenskd-nst, 'lain-ska-net. 
lantern n. (lamp with a protectiv case) laentdzn. 
lanng^inons adj, (downy) Id'njou-dsi-nss. 
lanyard n. short rope [also spelt laniardj Isenjsrd. 
I<aodioean adj, (of Laodicea; lukewarm) lee-sdi'sii-sn, }e- 

edi'sii-an. 
lapel n. that part of the front of a coat which is folded over 

toward either shoulder [also spelt lappel, lapellel lae'pel, la- 

'pel. 
lapelled adj, having a lapel [also spelt lapeld"] Is'peld. 
lapidary n, (gem-cutter) laepi-den, laepi-dari. 
lapides n. (ploral of lapis) ^aepi-diz, 'lee-pi-diz. 
lapis n. stone [ploral lapides"] lee-pis, 'Ispis. 
lapis-laznli n, (blue stone) laepislaezjo-lai, laepislaesd-h, 

lepis'laezjo-lai; (improperly) laepis-la'zou-h. 
larboard n. (left) 1a:r-bo:rd, 1a:r-b3?d; (dialectally) lae- 

bdrd. 
largess n. liberality, gift [also spelt largesse"} la:?-d3is, 1a:r- 

dses. 
lariat n. picketing-rope ; lasso [also spelt larriet, lariettel 

lae^i-3t. 
larin n. (Persian nd Arabic money) lae^in. 
larine adj. of the larina or gulls [also, sometimes, spelt larini 

laeein, lae-rain. 

] ye, Qcure; b the, */iin; 3 a^rure, ds/oy; I shoe, tl chew; 
w when ; t) sing ; u whoever, i react, o f «11, ou fool, i it, li see ; 
o poetic ; 3 over, e aerial, a bwt, o: door, 00 no, e bed, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 307 

lamin n. (call to arms; uproar) 'Ici-z^m, 'laersm, ')a:-z9m. 
larra n. ghost; insect in the grub state [ploral larvae"] 'la:3- 

laryngeal adj, (of the larynx) Wzindsi-sl, Iserin'dsii-dt. 
laryngitis n. inflammation of the larynx) laeein'dsai-tis, 

laerin'd3ii-tis. 
larsmgosoope n. (device for inspecting the larynx) Wzir^g^- 

skop. 
larsmgotomy n. (a cutting into the larynx) laeziq'geta-mi. 
larynx n. organ of fonation [ploral larynges, rarely larynx- 
es] 'lxziT)ks', (rarely) 'le:-2ir)ks. 
lasoar n. (sailor; tent-pitcher; artilleryman) lae'sko:?, 'laeskaz. 
lasoivions adj. (lewd, wanton) Is'sivi-ss. 
lass n. (girl) )a:s, ia:s, )ae:s. 
lasso n. rope with a noose [ploral lassos, lassoes] 'Iseso; (im- 

properly) lae'soo. 
last n,, adj., adv., v. ia:st, la:st, Ixist. 
lateen n. sail [also spelt latine, lattine, latteen] Is'tiin. 
latent adj. (hidden) 'lee-tnt, lee-tant; (improperly) 'leet-nt, 

'laet-nt. 
later adv. (afterward; hereafter; subsequently) 'lee-tae. 
laterad adj. (toward the side) 'laeta-raed. 
lateral adj. 'laeta-zal, (anteriorly) 'laetazal; (rapidly) 'laetjol. 
lath n. strip of wood [ploral laths] la:0, la:0, lx:Q. 
lath V. (cover with laths) la:0, la:d. 
lathe n. (turning-machine) leed. 
laths n. (plural of lath) laibz, }a:Os. 
Iiatin adj. (of Latium) 'laetin, (assumptivly) 'laetn. 
Latin n. (language) 'laetin, 'laetn; (improperly) 'laet-n. 
Latinize v. [also spelt Latinise] 'laetn-aiz, 'laeti-naiz. 
latria n. (the supreme worship due to God alone : distin- 

guisht from dulia, hyperdulia) Ig'tjai-a, 'lee-tji-3. 
latrine n. (privy) }3't?;iin. 
latten n. (metal) laetn, 'laetan. 
latter adj. (later ; more recent ; being the second of two : 

opposed to former) 'lactam. 
lattice n. openwork made of laths, etc. [also spelt lattis] 

'laetis. 
latns n. side [ploral latera] 'lee-tas. 
laudable adj. (praiseworthy) 'Icr-da-bal. 
landannm n. (tincture of opium) '}c:-dn-3m, loda-nam ; 

(rapidly) 1c:d-n3m; (less properly) 'ledg-nam, Ic'dee-nam. 
langh V. (express mirth, joy, etc.) la:f, la:f, laeif. 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy\ a: far, go now, a: ask, ai ktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the feUowing syllable. 



308 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

langhable adj. (that may be laughed at) 'tai-fa-bdt. 
lannoh v. hurl; send off; set afloat [former synonymous 

cognate lanch ; past participle and preterit launched, 

launcht} ic:ntS, la:ntS, la:ntS ; (also, and in Britain normally) 

lc:nS, la:nS, loinS. 
launder v. wash; do up [former synonymous cognate lander; 

past participle and preterit laundered, launderdj 1c:n-d9z, 

'la:n-d33, lain-dar. 
laundress n. [former synonymous cognate landressl lc:n- 

dris, '}a:n-dris, 'la:n-dris. 
lanndry n. [former synonymous cognate landryl ^c:n-dri, 

'la:n-dri, 'la:n-dri. 
lanreate adj. (crownd with laurel) 1c:-ri-»t. 
lanrel n. (bay-tree, etc.; wreath or crown of glory) 1c\-zA, 

'lei-^al, '}er9l. 
lanreled adj. crownd with laurel [also spelt laurelled, lau- 

reld] '}c:-^3ld. 
lava n. (volcanic rock) 1a:-v3, 'la:-v3; (improperly) ^ce-va, 

'lava. 
laver n. (basin, bowl) 'lee-vae. 

lavio adj, (of lava) '}a:-vik; (improperly) lee-vik, laevik. 
laivlessness n. 'lolss-nis. 

laivyer n. (one verst in law; attorney) lc:-J32. 
lay V. (cause to lie) lee, (when unstrest) le. 
layette n. (outfit for new-born child) le'jet. 
lasar n. (leper) 'lee-zae. 
laziness n. (slothfulness) 'lee-zi-nis. 
lazzarone n. Neapolitan lounger [also spelt lasarone; ploral 

lassaroni'\ laeza'^oo-ni, laetsa'roo-ni. 
lea n. field, meadow [also, formerly, spelt lee, leyl hi. 
leach n. cause to percolate ; lixiviate ; wash out by percola- 
tion [also spelt leech ; synonymous cognates letch, latch ; 

past participle and preterit leached, leachf] hitj. 
lead V, conduct [past participle and preterit ledl hid, (when 

unstrest) lid. 
lead n. metal [also spelt led"] led. 

leaden adj, made of led; heavy, dull [also spelt ledenl ^edn. 
leaf n. plant-organ [ploral leavesl hif. 
leafed adj. having a leaf or leaves [also spelt leaftj hift. 
leagrae v. form into a league or alliance; join a league [also 

spelt leag; past participle and preterit leagued, leagd"] hig. 
leagner n. camp; besieging force [also spelt leager, legerl 

1ii-g3?. 

j ye, g cure ; d th^, ^/lin ; 3 arurc, ds joy ; S j/ioe, tj cfcew ; 
lUTt'/ien; qsin^r; u whoever, i r^act, o full, ou fool, i tt, lis^^; 
o poetic; 3 over, e ocrial, a huX, 0: door, 00 no, e b^d, ee gate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 309 

leak V. pass out thru a crevis or hole [past participle and 
preterit leaked, leaktl hik. 

lean. v. incline [past participle and preterit leaned, hand, 
leant, lent} hin, {when unstrest) tin. 

leant v.. past participle and preterit of lean [also spelt lentl 
lent. 

leap V, jump, spring; throb [past participle and preterit 
leaped, leapt, leptl hip. 

leaped v. past participle and preterit of leap [also spelt leapt 
and, sometimes, leptl hipt, lept. 

leapt V, past participle and preterit of leap [also, sometimes, 
spelt lept} lept, hipt. 

leara v. acquire knowledge of; vulgarly, teach [past parti- 
ciple and preterit learned, learnd, learnt} Ibizu. 

learned adj. (erudite) 'Isznid, iBiz-nid; (erroneously) Isiznd. 

learned v. past participle and preterit of learn [also, some- 
times, spelt learnd, learnt} iBiznd, lei^nt, leznt. 

learnedly adv, 'la^ni-dh, 'lai^-ni-dli. 

lease n. (contract, etc.) his. 

lease n. (crossing of warp-threads [also spelt leas; synony- 
mous cognate lays} his. 

lease v. dialectal (glean; pick) hiz. 

leasb n. (thong; string; cord; set of three) hij. 

leatl&er n. drest skin [also spelt lether} leda?. 

leatl&em adj. of leather [also spelt lethern} 'ledazn. 

leave v. cause to remain ; commit ; allow, let ; quit [past par- 
ticiple and preterit left} hiv, {when unstrest) liv. 

leaved adj. having leaves or foliage; in leaf [also spelt 
leavd} liivd. 

leaven v. ferment, raise, etc. ; imbue [also spelt leven ; past 
participle and preterit leavened, levend} 'levan. 

lecanomanoy n. obsolete (divination by means of water in 
a basin) 'leksnd-maensi, h'ksena-maensi. 

lecl&er n. (libertin) 'letSa?. 

lectern n. reading-desk [also, but rarely now, spelt ledum} 
lekta^n, 

led V. (past participle and preterit of lead) led. 

ledger n. book; timber; stone; agent [also spelt leger} 
Icdsasr. 

ledger adj, laid, fixt; resident; also, in *ledger line, *ledger 
space [also spelt leger} ledsasr. 

ledg:nient n. string-course of moldings [also spelt ledgement} 
Icdsmant. 

c: late, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



310 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

lee n. protection, shelter [also, rarely, spelt lea; dialectal syn- 

enymous cegnate lewl hi. 
lee n. (sediment of wine, etc.) hi. 
leeoli n. (aquatic worm) hitj. 

leeoli n. sloping side of a sail [also spelt leachl IntS- 
leeoli n. physician [also spelt leachl hitS. 
leek n. (plant) hik. 

leeivard adj., adv. (away from the wind) lii-ward, liou-aed. 
leeivay n. (drift to leeward; retrogression) lii-wee. 
left-l&anded adj. left'hsendid, (assumptivly) left-hsendid. 
leg n. (limb; tupport) leg; (dialectally) leeg. 
legacy n. (bequest) Icgs-si. 
legalization n. [also spelt legalisation'\ Hgdli'zee-San, Ug9- 

lai'zee-San. 
legalize v. make legal [also spelt legalise"] lii-gd-taic 
legate n. (deputy, etc.) 'legit, 'leget; {improperly) lii-gct. 
legatine adj. of a legate [also spelt legatin} legs-tin. 
legato adj. (connected, smooth : opposed to staccato) le'go:- 

to ; (less properly) h'gee-to. 
legator n. (testator) lega'te:?, h'gee-ta?. 

legend n. (story of a saint's life; lesson-book; story; inscrip- 
tion) 'ledsond, 'hi-ds^nd. 
legendary adj. 'ledssn-dezri, ledsan-ddsri ; lii-dssn-den. 
legerdemain n. (sleight of hand) ledsaz-di'meen. 
legged adj. [also, sometimes, spelt legdl legid, legd. 
legging n. Icg-covcring [synonymous cegnate legginl legig. 
legible adj, (readable) 'ledsa-bol. 
legislative adj,, n. [also spelt legislativl 1ed3is-!etiv» led3Z- 

SLctiv; (also) 'Icdsista-tiv, (assumptivly) 'ledsis-lativ. 
legislator n. (lawmaker, lawgiver) 'ledsis-leta?, ledsi-sz^etar. 
legislature n. 'ledsis-lct^d?, 'ledsi-stetSd?; ledsis-tetgar, 

'Irdsi-sLotgajT ; (vulgarly) ledsislee-tSae. 
legitimatize v. render legitimate [also spelt legitimatisel h- 

'dsitim^-tniz. 
legitimize v, legitimatize [also spelt Icgitimisel h'dsiti-maix. 
leg:iime n, (pulse; edible vegetable) le-gjum, h'gjoum. 
legrnminons adj, (of pulse) h'gjou-mi-nds. 
leisnrable adj. (leisurely) 'hi-saz-o-bal, lesazra-bal. 
leisure n. (spare time) 'hi-s^?, 'leso?. 
leman n. (sweetheart, lover; mistress) leman, lii-man. 
lemma n. proposition ; theme [ploral lemmas, lemmataj 

Ipmj). 
lemma n. husk : outer layer [ploral lemmatal lema. 

j ye, Qcurc: 5 //te. O^ftin; 3 axrurc, d^/oy; S jAoe, tScAew; 
ujw/jcn; rjsi«/7; u whoever, i r tract, o fwll, ou fool, i it, lisee', 
o poetic; ovrr, c Aerial, Abut, o: door, oo no, e bed, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 311 

lemon n. (fruit) 'leman. 

lemur n. in ploral, spirits of the departed ; in singular, mon- 
key-like animal [ploral lemurs, lemures} 'hi-mae. 

lemnree n. (ploral of lemur) 'lemjo-^iz. 

lend V, grant temporarily; give, bestow [past participle and 
preterit lentl lend. 

lengtli adj. (quality of being long, etc.) leqG; idialectally) 
leer)0. 

leniency n. (quality of being lenient) 'hi-ni-an-si, 'hi-njan- 
si; (less properly) 'leni-an-si, 'lenjan-si. 

lenient adj, (softening; mild) 'lii-ni-ant, 'hi-njant; (less 
properly) 'leni-ant, 'lenjant. 

lenitive adj. of medicins; soothing, etc. [also spelt lenitivl 
'leni-tiv. 

lenten adj. of Lent [also spelt Lenteni 'lentn, 'Icntan, 

leonine adj, (lion-like ; of a lion) 'hi-a-nain, 'hi-a-nin. 

leopard n. (panther, pard) 'lepard. 

leper n, (leprous person) 'lepa?. 

lepidolite n. (mica) 'lepi-da-lait, h'pida-lait. 

leporine adj. (of a hare; lagomorphic) 'lepa-2ain, 'lepa-^in. 

lepreol&ann n. pigmy sprite [also spelt leprechawn, lepre- 
cawn; synonymous cognates leprehaun, lepreehawn, lepra- 
chawn, luprachaun} 'lep3i-kc:n. 

lepro§y n. (disease) 'lepsa-si. 

leprong adj, (afflicted with leprosy) 'lepsas. 

Iieebian adj. (of Lesbos) 'lezbi-an, 'lesbi-an. 

leee-majeBty n. (treason) hiz'maedsi-sti. 

legion n, damage, hurt [also, rarely, spelt laesionl 'hi-3an. 

le§Ben v. become less ; make less [past participle and pret- 
erit lessened, lessend] 'lesan, 'lesn. 

leeeening n. (diminution) 'lesa-nii], 'lesn-ig, ^esNii]. 

leeeer adj. (less; small; minor) lesa?. 

le§Bon n. (reading; task; reproof) 'lesan, 'lesn. 

le§§or n, (one who grants a lease) le'seiz, 'lesaz:. 

letl&al adj. (causing death; deadly; mortal) 'hi-6al. 

letl&argic adj, (dull, sleepy, sluggish) h'Ga:e-d3ik ; (less 
properly) 'leOa^-dsik. 

letharg^e v, [also spelt lethargisel leOaz-dsaiz. 

lethargy n. (morbid drowsiness; torpor) IcGa^-dsi. 

Lethean adj, (of the river Lethe) h'0ii-an. 

lettnoe n. plant [also spelt lettisl 'letis. 

lencin n. aposepidin [also spelt leucine'] liou-sin. 

lenoorrliea n. whites [also spelt leucorrhoeal liuka';ii-9. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



312 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

Iievant n. (the East; Asia Minor, etc.) h'vent. 

levant n. (leather) h'vsnt. 

levant adj. (in law, in *levant and couchant) levant; {Uu 

properly) 'hi-vant. 
levant n. (bet made with the intention of absconding if it is 

lost) h'vaent. 
levant v, (steal away; bolt; abscond) li'vsnt. 
levantine adj. of the Levant; eastern [also spelt ItvantM 

h'vaentin, 'levan-tin, li'vaen-tain, levsn-tain. 
levator n. (muscle) h'vee-t3?. 
levee n. embankment [also, sometimes, spelt levy\ te'vzi« 

h'vii, le-vi. 
levee n. reception [synonymous cognate levSel le'vxi, li'viit 

'le-vi. 
level n. (instrument; position, etc.) Icval, 
level V. [present participle leveling, levelling; past partici- 
ple and preterit leveled, levelled, leveW lev^. 
leveler n. one who or that which levels [also spelt levglitr} 

'Iev3-l3?. 
lever n. (prizing-bar; crowbar, etc.) Iii-va?, leva?. 
leverage n. (action of a lever, etc.) Iii-ya-jids, leva-eids. 
levogyrate adj. causing to turn toward the left 'also spelt 

laevogyrate} hi-vD'd3ai-?9t. 
levy V. (raise; impose) levi. 

le'wd adj. (lascivious; unchaste) lioud; {dialectally) loud. 
le'wis n. contrivance for raising blocks of stcne [also spelt 

lewiss, louts'] 'Hou-is; (dialectally) 'lou-is. 
Iieyden adj, (of Leyden, Holland) lai-dn, lai-dan; (/#m 

properly) ^ee-dn. 
liaison n. (thickening for sauces; illicit intimacy; linking) 

li-e'zer), H'ee-zen. 
liana n. plant [synonymous cognate lianel li'ee-na, Ii'a:-na, 

li'sens. 
liar n. (one who lies or uttei's falsehood) 1ai-9z. 
lias n. blue limestone, etc. [also spelt Liasl lai-as. 
liassio adj. of the lias [also spelt liasicl lai'aesik. 
libel n. (writing; defamatory statement) lai-bal. 
libel V. [present participle libeling, libelling; past partici- , 

pie and preterit libeled, libelled, libeldl 'lai-bal. 
libelant n. one who institutes a suit in an ecclesiastical or 

admiralty court; also, libeler [also spelt libellantl lai-ba- 

lant. 
libeler n. one who libels [also spelt libellerl lai-ba-lar. 

j ye, g cure ; d the, G ihin;^ 3 a^rure, ds joy ; J shoe, tj chew; 
iDzt'i^en; T)sing; u whoever, i r^act, o full, oufool, i it, ii8e#» 
o poetic; 3 ov^r, e aerial, Abut, o: door, oono, e b^d, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 313 

llbelong adj. [also spelt libellous} lai-bd-lss. 

liber n. (inner bark ; bast) 'lai-ba?. 

liberal adj., n. 'hba-^ol, {rapidly) 'hbz^l, 

liberalize v. [also spelt liberalise'] 'hba^a-laiz. 

libertine n. [also, sometimes, spelt libertin} 'hbazr-tin, libae- 
tairi. 

library n. (place for books) 'lai-hz^-zi, (anteriorly) lai- 
bz9zi\ (also) 'lai-b^e^i, 'lai-hzezi; (often, less properly) lai- 
h^-zi ; (rapidly) 'lai-b^i. 

libretto n. booklet containing the words of an opera, etc. 
[plural libretti, librettos} h'b^cto. 

lioenee n. liberty, leave ; permit ; .libertinism [also spelt li- 
cence} 'lai-sans, 'lai-sants. 

lioenee v. [also spelt licence ; past participle and preterit li- 
censed, licenst} 'lai-sans, 'lai-sants. 

licentiate n. (graduate, etc.; probationer) lai'senjit, lai'sen- 
Si-3t, lai'senSi-et. 

licention§ adj. (using^ license ; immoral) lai'sen^ss. 

lioben n. (plant; skin-disease) 'lai-kin; (less properly) 'htjin. 

lioorice n, rhizome, etc.; plant [also spelt liquorice, licoris; 
dialectal synonymous cognate lickerish} 'hka-^is; (rapidly) 
liksis; (dialectally) 'hka-^ij, 'hk^ij. 

lie V. rest recumbent ; have place [pfesent participle lying, 
past participle lain, preterit lay} lai. 

lie V. speak falsely [present participle lying, past participle 
and preterit lied} lai. 

lie n. (falsehood) lai. 

lief adj. beloved, dear ; agreeable, acceptable [also spelt leaf 
and, formerly, leef; synonymous cognates leave, leve} hif. 

lief adj. dearly, gladly, willingly : as, / 'd as *lief, etc. [syn- 
onymous cognate lieve\ comparativ liefer, liever} hif. 

liege adj. (entitled to feudal service ; bound to render feudal 
service) hids. 

lien n. (claim) 'hi-an, hin, 'lai-an. 

lier n. (one who lies down ; one who rests or remains) lai-ar. 

lien n. (place, sted) Hou, luu. 

lieutenancy n. lio'tenan-si, laf'tenan-si, lef'tenan-si, lav- 
'tcnan-si. 

lieutenant n. (substitute; officer's title) Ho'tenant, laf- 
'tenant, lef'tenant, lav'tenant. 

life-bnoy n. 'laif-buu-i, 'laif-boi. 

lifelong adj. (lasting thru life) laif-lori]. 

ligbtening n. (the rendering light ; alleviation) 'lai-tn-iq. 

c: law, o: iur, ae cat, o hot, oi hoy, a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite: 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



314 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 



lightening n. the shedding of light; enlightenment [also. 

sometimes, spelt lightning} lai-tn-iq, laxt-nzg. 
lightening adj, (that lights, shines, flashes) lax-tn-iq. 
lightning n. (flash of light due to atmosferic electricity) 

'lait-niq. 
lignaloes n. the bitter drug aloes; aloes-wood; alocf [also 

spelt lign-aloesl lain'aeloz, hg'naeloz. 
lignin n, xylogen [also spelt ligninel lignin. 
lignnm-Titae n. (tree; wood; resin; guaiacum) hgnam- 

'vai-ti. 
likable adj, that can be liked; pleasing [also spelt UkeabUl 

lai-ka-bal. 
like adj. (similar to) taik, (often, anteriorly, when unstrest) 

lak. 
lilac n. shrub; color [dialectal synonymous cognates /ay- 

lock, layloc, lalock} 'lai-lak. 
Lilliputian n. inhabitant of Lilliput [also spelt LUiputianl 

hh'pgou-San. 
lily n. plant; flower [plural lilies] 'hh. 
Ijima adj, (in *Lima bean, etc.) 'lai-ma, lii-ma. 
limail n. metal filings [also spelt lemel] lii-md), h'meet. 
limb n. bodily organ, member; arm, wing, leg; branch [alao 

spelt /tm] hm. 
limbec n. alembic [also spelt limbeck} lim-bek. 
limn V. (paint ; depict) hm. 
limner n. (illuminator; painter) limnae. 
limning n. (illuminating; painting) 'hmii], limnig. 
limonite n. (brown hematite) lai-ma-nait. 
limoneine n. (carriage) Hmu'ziin. 

lin n. waterfall ; pool ; precipice [also spelt linn, lynn} Ini. 
linable adj, ranged in a straight line [also spelt linedblel 

'lai-na-bal. 
lineament n. (outline, contour; feature) 'hni-9-mdnt. 
linear adj. (of a line; line-like) 'hni-o?. 
linen adj. (made of flax) '!inin. 

lingel n, shoemaker's waxt thread [also spelt lingle} liQgaf. 
lingel n, thong, latchet [also spelt lingle} 'hogal. 
lingerie n. (linen collectivly) laendsa'^ii, laerisa'zrii. 
lingo n. language [also, formerly, spelt linguo} litjgD. 
lingo n. tree [also spelt lingoa} 'hijgo. 
lingot n. ingot [also, formerly, spelt linget} liqgat. 
lingual adj. (of the tongue) 'hi^gwal. 
liniment n. (liquid preparation) 'lini-mDnt. 

i ye, Qcure; b the, Gf/iin; 3 axrure, dj/oy; I shoe, tlchew; 
to when ; 13 sin^r ; u whoever, i r^act, o fMll, ou fool, i it, li see; 
o poetic; 9 ov^r, e aerial, Abut, o: door, oono, e b^d, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 315 

Idinnean adj. of the Swedish naturalist C. Linnaeus [also 
spelt Linnaean} li'nii-sn. 

linolenin n. (floor-cloth) h'noo-li-dm. 

linotype n. (composing-machine) 'lai-na-taip ; {less proper- 
ly) 'hna-taip; (erroneously) 'lini-3-taip. 

linsey-'woolsey n. (fabric, garment) hnzi'wulzi. 

lintel n. (horizontal piece over a door or window) 'hntl, 
'hntal. 

lionize v. visit, see, or show the lions or sights of a place ; 
also, make a lion or h^ro of [also spelt lionise} 'lai-a-naiz. 

lipograni n. (a writing from which all words containing a 
particular letter are omitted) 'hpa-g^aem, 'lai-pa-g^aem, 

liquate v. (liquify; melt) 'lai-kujet. 

liquefy v. reduce to liquid [also, formerly, spelt liquify'] 
likiui-fai. 

liqueur n. (cordial) Wksiz, li'kBiz; (less properly) li'kqo'.z, 

liquidize v. make liquid [also spelt liquidise} 'hkiui-daiz. 

liquor n. (liquid; alcoholic drink) 'hkazr. 

lira n. Italian silver coin [plural lire, liras] 'h:-?a. 

lis n. controversy ; litigation [plural lites} hs. 

lis n. in heraldry, fleur-de-lis [plural lis, lissesl his. 

lis n. circular eitclosure ; fort [also spelt lissl hs. 

lissom adj. supple, lithe [also spelt lissome} 'hsam. 

listen V, give ear [past participle and preterit listened, lis- 
tend} 'hsan, 'hsn. 

listerine n. antiseptic [also, sometimes, spelt listerin} lista- 
zm, 'hst3-?in. * 

litany n. (prayer) 'htn-i, lita-ni. 

litclii n. tree [also spelt lichi, lichee, leechee} H'tSii, li-tji. 

liter n. capacity-measure [also spelt litre} 'hi-tazr. 

literal adj. (of letters; exact) 'hta-^al, (rapidly) 'hti»l. 

literalize v. render literal, etc. [also spelt literalise} lita^a- 
laiz. 

literary adj. (of letters) 'hta-zre^i; (also) 'htazra-ri, (anterior- 
ly) 'ht3-?3^i, (rapidly) 'htiazri; (also, and in Britain nor- 
mally) 'htj9-^i. 

literati n. (plural of literatus) hta'^ee-tai. 

literatini adv. (letter for letter; literally) hta'ree-tinv 

literature n. (literary culture; realm of letters; writings or 
books collectivly) 'htara-tSuz:, 'hta^a-tja^, (rapidly) 'htja- 
t^^z; (also, older) 'htara-tgu?, 'htsra-tQDr, 'htja-tgae. 

litharge n. (protoxid of led) 'h-Qa:zd$, 'liQozds. 

lithe adj. (mild, pleasant ; flexible, supple) }ai5, laiG. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



316 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

llthiasis n. (formation of stones in the bladder, etc.) h'Oai-9- 

sis. 

lltl&osrapl&er n. Ti'Gegzd-f 97 ; {less properly) Ii69-gra:-f9r. 

lltliosrapliy n. (stone engraving) h'Geges-fi. 

lithotomy n. (cutting for stone in the bladder) h'Oeta-mi. 

llthotrity n. (crushing a stone in the bladder) h'Oetp-ti, 
1i03-tjai-ti. 

lltig^ons adj. (contentious; fond of going to law; dispu- 
table; of litigation) h'tidsas. 

litoral n. of the shore [also spelt littorall litd-rd). 

litterateur n. literary man [also spelt littirateurl htav9- 
'tB:e. 

little adj, (small; short; trivial; mean) 'htt; (ditUectally) 
'hi-tl, (sometimes, as in singing) litaJ; (dialectally) lil-l. 

litnrgio adj. (of public worship, liturgy, etc.) h'tBrdsik. 

litnrgist n. (one who uses or makes a liturgy; minister) 
1it3^-d3ist. 

liturgy n. (service, etc.) Iitae-dsi. 

live V. continue in being; remain alive [also spelt liv; past 
participle and preterit lived, livd} hv. 

live adj. (being in life; lively; fresh) laiv. 

livelong adj. (that livs long; lasting; tedicftis) liv-}e:q; (tm- 
properly) 'laiv-le:i]. 

livery n. (provision ; distinctiv clothing ; delivery of proper- 
ty; livery-stable) 'hva-^i, (rapidly) liwzi. 

lives n. (ploral of life) laivz. 

lives V. (third person singular present indicativ of live; al- 
so spelt livs'\ hvz. . 

livre n. (old French coin) 'hi-va?, hivr. 

lixiviate v. (subject to lixiviation) hk'sivi-et. 

llama n. quadruped [also spelt lamal la:-m3, 'Ijat-ms; (Jlgst 
properly) 'lee-ma. 

llano n. (plain) 'la:-nD, 1ja:-nD. 

load n. (burden) lood. 

loaf n. bread, etc. [ploral loaves'] loof. 

loaf V. spend time idly [also spelt loafe; past participle and 
preterit loafed, loaft] bof. 

loani n. soil [former synonymous cognate loom] loom; (dic^ 
lee tally) loum. 

loan V. lend [past participle and preterit loaned, loand] bon. 

loath adj. averse, unwilling [also spelt loth] looO. 

loathe V, feel aversion for; dislike [past participle and pret- 
erit loathed, loathd] lood. 

j ye, Qcure; bthe, Q thin; 3 arrure, dsjoy; I shoe, tlchew; 
vowhen; rising?; u whoever, i r^act, o f«ll, ou f ool, i tt, lis^e; 
o poetic; a ov^r, e aerial, Abut, o: door, oo no, e b^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 317 

loathBoine adj, (disgusting, odious) lood-sam. 

lobelia n. (plant) b'bii-hs. 

local adj. (of place; belonging to a particular region) loo-ksL 

locale n. (place, locality) lo'ka:!. 

localization n. [also spelt localisation'] lokdh'zee-Ssn, loks- 

lai'zee-San. 
localize v. [also spelt localise] loo-ks-laiz. 
locate V. (place; settle) 'bo-ket, {also, especially in Britain, 

sometimes) iD'keet. 
locative adj. of place or location [also spelt locativ] leka- 

tiv, (less often) 'loo-ka-tiv. ' 

looli n. (lake) lek. 
lochia n,pl. (evacuations following childbirth) 1oo-ki-3, 

'leki-a; (less properly) lo'kai-a, iD'tJai-a. 
loohns n. Greek army-division [plural lochi] 'lekas. 
locomotive adj, of movement from place to place [also 

spelt locomotiv] loka'mDO-tiv. 
loom n. [plural loci] 'loo-tcss. 
locntory n. (parlor of a monastery; parlor) 'lek^o-tori, 

'lekgu-t3?i. 
lode n. (vein of ore) lood. 
lodestar n. guiding star ; pole-star [also spelt loadstar] 'bod- 

stair. 
lodestone n, magnetic oxid of iron [also spelt loadstonel 

lood-stoon. 
lodge n. (cottage ; meeting-place) leds. 
lodgment n. [also spelt lodgement] ledsmsnt. 
loess n. (loam) 1b:s, loo-es. 

loft n. (attic ; gallery ; story) lerft ; (dialectally) Icift. 
logaoedio adj. (prose-poetic) lega'ii-dik; (less properly) 

lega'edik. 
logaritlini n. (the exponent of the power to which a basal 

number must be raised to equal a given number) legs- 

^idam, 'lega-zridm, 'lega-?i93m, 'lega-^iGm. 
logaritliniio adj. legd'zridmik, legd'zriOMik. 
loggia n. open gallery or arcade [plural loggias, loggiel 

'led33, 'ledsi-a. 
logician n. (one verst in logic) b'dsi^sn. 
logomachy n, contention about words; game [plural logoma- 
chies] la'gema-ki. 
Ijogos n. (Word; Divine Reason) leges. 
logjy adj, (heavy, slow, stupid) lDO-gi. 
lollipop n. sweetmeat [also spelt lollypop] leh-pop. 

c: \aw, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ou now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is leng; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



318 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

Idombard n. (one of a Germanic people; nativ of LomlMirdy) 

lem-bazd, 'lembasrd, 'lAmbdzd. 
liondonize v. [also spelt Londonisel 'lAndd-naiz, 
lone ady. (solitary) loon; (dialectally) Ion. 
lonely adj. l30-nh; (dialectally) lonli. 
lonesome adj. (lonely, solitary) loon-sam; (dialectally) Ian- 

ssm. 
Ions 0(2/., adv„ v., n. [as verb, past participle and preterit 

longed, longdl lerq, ler) ; (dialectally) lc:q. 
longe n. (lake-trout) lends, see lunge, 
lonsevity n. (long life) len'dscvi-ti. 
long-headed adj. [also spelt long-hededl leiqliedid, (or- 

sumptivly) 'le:r)-hedid. 
loose z/. make free; release; relax [past participle and pret- 
erit loosed, host} lous. 
loot V. (plunder) lout. 
loqnaoions adj. (talkativ) lolauee-^ss ; (improperly) lo- 

'kiuaiSas. 
loquacity n. (talkativness) b'kwxsi-ti. 
lord n. (master, ruler, prince; owner) le:7d, lead, lc:d. 
lore n. (learning) Id:?. 

lorgnette n. (long-handled glasses) lez'njet, lern'jet. 
lorioa n. cuirass ; paste ; sheath [ploral loricae) Id'rai-ka. 
losable adj, capable of being lost [also spelt loseable"] lou- 

za-bal. 
lose V. (fail to keep ; miss) louz, (when unstrest) luz. 
losel n. good-for-nothing [also spelt losell loo-z9i. 
lotto n. game [synenymous cognate loto"} leto. 
lotus n. plant, tree, lily, clover [also spelt lotos; ploral lofus^ 

esl 'loo-tas. 
lounge v., n. Inonds, (in Britain, often) laons. 
lour V, Ino?. same meaning as lower. 
louse n. insect [ploral licel loos. 
louse V. (clear of lice) looz. 
lousy adj. (full of lice; filthy) 'lao-zi. 
louver n. turret [also spelt louvre and, formerly, looverl lou- 

va?. 
lovable adj. deserving to be loved, amiable [also spelt love^ 

able} lAva-bal. 
loveliness n. (quality of being lovely) lAvh-nis. 
lo'W adj. (not tall or high; humble) bo, (when unstrest) lo. 
lo'W V, bellow softly; moo [past participle and preterit lowed, 

lowd"! loo. 



j ye, Q cure ; d the, */iin ;^ 3 ajsrure, d^ joy ; S shoe, ^ tj chew: 
^ when; rising; u whoever, 1 r^act, o fwll, ou fool, i tt, lis^e; 
o poetic ; 9 ov^r, e aerial, a but, o: door, oo no, e b^ d, ee gate ; 



U) w 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 319 



lower V, cause to descend ; humble [past participle and pret- 
erit lowered, lowerd} 'loo-^z. 

lower V, frown; be clouded [synonymous cognate lour; past 
participle and preterit lowered, lowerd} 'lau-az. 

lowery adj. [synonymous cognate loury} 'lau-a-ei. 

loyal adj, (faithful, true) 'loi-dl. 

lomenge n. (rhomb, diamond; tablet) 'lozinds. 

Inoem. n. plant [also spelt lucerne} lio'sei^n. 

Inoid adj. (bright, shining; clear) 'liou-sid; {d'alectally) 'lou- 
sid. 

Inorative adj, profitable [also spelt lucratM 'liou-k33-tiv ; 
{dialectally) 'lou-k^a-tiv. 

Inore n. (gain; profit; greed) 'Hou-ka?; {dialectally) 'lou-ka^. 

Iinonllean adj. Hukd'hi-sn. same meaning as Lucullian. 

Lnoulllan adj, of the rich Roman Lucullus [synonymous 
cognate Lucullean"} liu^kAli-sn. 

Indiorons adj. (laughably absurd) liou-di-k^as ; {dialectally) 
1ou-dT-k33S. 

Ines n. (plague) 'liuu-iz. 

Ingnbrions adj, (doleful, mournful) }u'gjuu-b?i-9s. 

Inkeivarm adj, (tepid; indifferent) 'liuuk-wc:7m ; {dialectal- 
ly) louk-wc:?m. 

lullaby n. (song sung to children to soothe them to rest) 
lAla-bai. 

Inmaol&elle n. fire-marble [also spelt lumachel; synonymous 
cognates lumachella, lumachello} 'liou-ma-kel. 

lumbar adj. (of the loins) 'Ixmh^z. 

Inmber n. (things; sawed timber) 'Ixmbd?. 

Inminary n. (light-giving body) 'liou-mi-ne?i ; {dialectally) 
1ou-mi-ne?i. 

Innatio adj, (insane; mad; idiotic; crazy) 'liou-na-tik ; {dia- 
lectally) lou-na-tik. 

Innoli n.,v. IxntS, (in Britain) lAnJ. 

Innoheon n. (lunch) 'lAntSsn, {also, and in Britain normally) 
lAnSan. 

lunge n. rope; training-ground [also spelt longel tAnds, {in 
Britain, often) lAns. 

Innge n. thrust ; plunge [also, formerly, spelt longe, lounge} 
lAnds, }An3. 

Innge n, lake-trout [also spelt *lunge ; synonymous cognates 
longe, 'longe} lAnds, Xhni. 

Lnperoal n. (festival in honor of Lupcrcus) 1iou-p97-kaeI, 
liou-par-kal, Ho'por-kae}. 

c: lore', b: fwr, ae cat, o hot, oi hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark {') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



320 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

Inpin n. plant [also spelt lupine"] liou-pin. 

Inpine adj. (of a wolf) liou-pain, liou-pin. 

Inre v, (recall to the lure; allure; tempt) tio:r; {diaitciaUy) 

loiz, 
Inrid adj. (wan; ghastly) lio:-;id; idialectally) lo:-ndL 
Insoions adj. (highly pleasant to the taste, etc.) IaSm. 
Inster n. period of five years [also spelt lustrel lAitar. 
Inster v. [also spelt lustre] lAstsz. 
Inster n. sheen ; gloss [also spelt lustre] lAStar. 
inster n. (one who lusts) lAsts?. 
Instered adj, [also spelt lustred, lusterd] lAstaed. 
Instering n. the action of the verb luster; polish [also spelt 

lustring] 'lAsta-^iq, lAStjiq. 
Instring n. (glossy silk fabric) ^AstsiQ. 
Instrins n. lAst9-?ir), lAstsirj. see lustering, 
Inte n. (stringd instrument) liout; (dialectally) lout. 
Inxurianoe n. (state of being luxuriant ; exuberance) tsg'so:- 

zi-9ns, lAg'3o:-?i-3ns, lAk'sgo:-ei-3ns. 
Inxnriant adj. (exuberant in growth; abundant) la9'5o:-ci- 

ant, l9g'zjo:-2i-3nt, lAk'sQor-ei-ant. 
Inxuriate v. (grow rank; indulge in luxury) Isg'soz-ci-ct, 

lag'zjor-^i-et, lAk'sgo:-d-et. 
Inznrions adj. (of luxury, etc.) Idg'soi-d-as, tsg'zjoz-ci-M, 

lAk's9o:-2:i-as. 
Inznry n. (indulgence in refined abundance, etc.) lAkSd-di 

'lAksgo-ri, 'lAgsa-zri; (also, rapidly) lAkSsi. 
lyoanthrope n. (were-wolf) lai-kan-Gsop, lailcsen-Ssop. 
lyoanthropy n. (insanity in which the patient imagina him- 
self a wolf; power to change into a wolf) lailcaenOsa-pi. 
lyo^e n. (secondary state school in France) li'see. 
lyoenm n. (place of instruction) lai'sii-dm; {sometimes) lei- 

si-9m. 
lye n. alkalized water [also, formerly, spelt lie, ley] tax. 
lymph n. (water; sap; bodily fluid) hmf. 
lynoli V, punish by lynch-law [past participle and preterit 

lynched, lyncht] hntS, (also, and in Britain normally) linj. 
lynz n. (wild cat) hqks. 

lyonnaise adj. (of Lyons, France; Lyonnese) H-d'neez. 
lyrio adj, (of the lyre, etc.) 'h^ik. 
lyrioism n. (lyric style) 'h^i-sizam. 
lyrism n. (lyricism) li-^izam, 'lai-^izam. 
lyriat n. (player on the lyre; lyric poet) lizist; (rarely) lax- 

nst. 

j ve, gcure; b the, f/iin ; 3 arurc, d^/oy; I shoe, tl chew; 
inw/ien; T}sing; u whoever, i r^act, o fwll, ou fool, i it, ii8«#; 
o poetic; 3 ov^r, e aerial, AbMt, o: door, 30 no, e bf d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 321 

n. (mama, mother) ma: . 
k'am n. [also spelt mam; vulgar synonymous cognates 
marm, mumi maem, ma:m; {often) mae-.m; {when unstrest) 
mdm, m. 

n&acadjunixe v. [also spelt macadamise} ma'ksedd-maiz. 

maeaque n. monkey [also spelt macac} ma'kxk, ms'kaik. 

macaroni n. dried wheat paste in the form of tubes, etc. 
Lploral macaronies} maeka'^DO-ni. 

macan^ n. parrot [also, formerly, spelt macao, maccaw, 
mackaw} ms'kc: . 

macooboy n. snuff [also spelt maccaboy; synonymous cog- 
nates maccouba, macouba, maccubau} 'maeka-boi. 

siacliicolation n. (opening between the corbels of a pro- 
jecting parapet, etc.) maekika'lee-San, ma-tSika'lee-San. 

maol&inal adj, obsolete (of machines) 'maeki-nl; {less prop- 
erly) ma'Sii-nl. 

macliinatioii n. (contrivance, intrigue; scheme) maeki'nee- 
San. 

mackerel n. fish [also, formerly, spelt mackerell, mackarel\ 
former synonymous cognate mackrel} 'maeka-^al, 'maeka-^el, 
'mxksd}. 

maokintosli n. waterproof [also spelt macintosh} 'maekin- 
teS. 

maokle n. in printing, blur [also spelt made} 'maekal. 

macsle n. (twin crystal; also chiastolite) 'maeksl. 

macrocosm n. (universe, cosmos : epposit of microcosm) 
'maeksd-kezsm ; {less properly) 'mee-k^a-kezam. 

macron n. (length-mark) 'mee-ksan, 'mee-k^on, 'mae-k^en. 

mad adj. (insane ; unwise ; angry) maed, {familiarly) mae:d. 

madam n. lady, etc. [also spelt madame} 'mxdam. 

madame n. madam, my lady [plural mesdames} md'doim, 
mae'da:m, 'maedam. 

maddening adj. (that makes mad; that enrages) 'msdn-ii], 
'maedniq. 

madding adj, (becoming mad; frenzied) 'maedn^; {errone- 
ously) 'maednir). 

Bfadeira n. (wine) md'di:-??, ma'de:-??. 

ntadenioiselle n. miss [ploral mesdemoiselles} maedsms^zel, 
maeda-mwe'zel, {anteriorly) 'maedama-zel, {rarely) 'maem-zet. 

ntadras n. (fabric) m3'dca:s, 'maedrss. 

ntadrier n. (timber) 'maedri-D^; {less properly) md'dti:?. 

maelstroni n. (whirlpool ; resistless movement) 'meel-stssm. 

maestoso adv. (in music, majestically) ma-es't30-S3. 

c: \aw, b: fur, ae cat, o hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
Irngth-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



322 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

maestro n. (master in music) ma'estso. ma'ee-stid. 
magaiine n. (warehouse; storage-chamber; periodical) 

maega'ziin, (sometimes) 'maega-zin. 
magdalen n. reformd prostitute [synonymous cognate mag- 

dalenel 'maegdd-tdn. 
Magellanio adj, (of Magellan) msdsilaenik, nuegilsnik. 
magenta n. (anilin red; fuchsin) ma'dsenta. 
maggot n. (worm, grub; crotchet) 'msegst. 
Magi n. (ploral of Magus, wise man) 'mee-dsai. 
magna oharta n. (Great Charter of English liberty) nueg- 

nn'karto, magno'knre-ts. 
magnesia n. (hydrated magnesium carborate ;* magnesium 

oxide) mxg'nii-Sd, m»g'nii-59; mxg'nii-Si-9» nueg'nzi-si-o, 

may'nii-zi-3. 
magnetization n. [also spelt magnetisation^ nuegniti'see- 

San, ma;gni-tai'zee-Jan. 
magnetize v. render magnetic ; also, attract [also spelt mag-* 

netisel 'maegni-taiz. 
magneto n. (magneto-electric machine) maeg'nii-to, 'mseg- 

ni-to. 
magneto-eleotrio adj. maeg-nii-to-ilektsik, nuegni-to-i- 

'lektjik. 
magnificent adj, (grand, splendid) maeg'nifi-sdnt; {Uss 

properly) mag'nivi-sont. 
magnolia n. (tree ; bark) mxg'n30-H-3. 
maguey n. (American aloe) 'masgwe, mae'gwee. 
Magyar n. (Mongoloid Hungarian) 'maeg-joz, 'moid-jor, mae- 

'djo:?. 
mahlstiok n. hand-supporting stick used by painters [also, 

sometimes, spelt maulstick, malstickl 'mc:l-stik, 'ma:}-stxk. 
mahogany n. (wood; tree; table) ma'hega-ni. 
maientio adj. (of intellectual midwifry; clarifying the mind) 

mc'jou-tik. 
mail n. (armor) meet. 
mail n. (payment ; tax ; tribute) meet. 
mail «. (bag; post) meel. 

mailable adj. (capable of being mailed) 'mee-la-bsl. 
main n. (strength; main part; open ocean) meen. 
main adj. (principal, chief) mpcn. 
main n. (throw of dice ; match) mpcn. 
mainmast n. (principal mast) 'mrcn-mn:st. 'meen-mast. 
mainprise 7'.. n. obsolete [also sprit mainprise^ 'meen-psaiz. 
mainsail v. 'mrrn-spol, 'mpen-snl. 'mpen-sl. 

j vo. c cure: () the. f/»in ; 5 arure, d^ /oy ; S shoe, tj chew; 
iPTc/jon: i3si«.r;; u whrjcvcr, i react, o f«ll, ou fool, lit, lisee; 
opm'tic; ovrr, c aerial, AbMt, o: door, oo no, e b^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 323 

matntaiiL v, carry on; keep up; support [past participle and 
preterit maintained, maintaind\ men'tcen, msn'teen, men- 
'tcen. 

nLaintainer n. [also, in law^ spelt maintainorl men'tee-ns?, 
men'tee-naz:, man'tee-na?. 

maintenaiLoe n. (action of maintaining) 'meen-tn-9ns, 
'meen-ti-nans. 

niaixe n. (Indian corn) mcez. 

majolica n. pottery [also, sometimes, spelt tnaiolica'\ ms- 
'dseh-ka, ma'jeh-ka. 

n&ajiuiciile adj. (large : said of capital or uncial letters ; al- 
so, written in majuscules) ma'dsA-skgul. 

malLe v. (produce, fashion, etc.) meek, (when unstrest) mek. 

malaoliite n. (green carbonate of copper) 'maels-kait. 

maladroit adj. (not adroit; clumsy) mxla'dreit. 

malaise n. (uneasiness) mseleez. 

malapropos adv. (inappropriately) mael-xp39'poo ; {less prop- 
erly) maeraep33-po. 

malar adj. (of a cheek) 'mee-ls?. 

malaria n. (bad air; fever) m9'le:-n-9. 

Malay n. (Malayan) 'mee-le, md'lee. 

mal de mer n. (seasickness) msel-ds'me:?. 

male adj., n. (the epposit of female) meel. 

malefactor n. (felon, criminal; evil-doer) mxh'fxktd?, 
'maeh-faektaz:. 

maleficent adj. (harmful) malefi-ssnt. 

malevolent adj. (malicious; hostil) ma'levd-^dnt. 

malfeasance n. evil-doing [also, formerly, spelt malfesance; 
former synonymous cognate malfaisancel macl'fii-zans. 

nuQic adj. (of apples) 'mee-hk; (less properly) 'maehk. 

nudice n. ill-will [also spelt malisl 'maehs. 

malign v. speak ill of; slander [past participle and preterit 
maligned, maligndl malain. 

m aligner n. (one who maligns; traducer) mslai-na?. 

malinger v, (pretend illness, etc.) malindsa?, maliqgasr. 

malkln n. untidy female ; slut ; slattern [also, sometimes, 
spelt mawkini 'mc:l-kin, 'mc:-kin. 

ntall n. (promenade, walk) mael, mc:?, met. see maul for 
other senses. 

mallard n. (wild drake or duck) 'mael^zd. 

malleable adj. (that may be hammerd out) 'nuefi-a-bdi. 

ntalleolio n. (evil-doings) 'maeh-tSo. 

ntalleolar adj. (of the malleolus) malii-a-lar, 'mxii-^A^z. 

c: lott', b: fwr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy: a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite; 
Irnj^h-mnrk (:) indicates that the precedinsT sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



324 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

nialleolus n. bony protuberance on either side of the ankle 
[plural tnalleolQ mslii-s-lds. 

mallet n. (wooden hammer) 'madit. 

malm n. soft brick [also, formerly, spelt malme; former syn- 
onymous cognate mawm] ma:m. 

malmsey n. (grape; wine) 'ma:m-zi. 

malodor n. bad odor; stench [also spelt malodour] nuA'oo- 

malodorous adj, mxVoo-d^-z^s. 

malpractice n. improper treatment; illegal action [also 

spelt malpractisl msel'psxktis. 
Maltese adj. of Malta [vulgar synonymous cognate Maltee] 

mcftiis, {assumptivly) 'mc:l-tis. 
maltster n. (one who makes malt) 'mcilt-stdz: ; {improperly) 

'mc:l-st3?. 
mama n. mother [synonymous cognate mammal 'ma:-m9; 

md'ma: ; (dialectally) 'mAms, 'moms. 
mamelnke n. member of a military body originally com* 

posed of Caucasian slaves but which became the ruling claso 

of Egypt; fighting slave; slave [also spelt mamalukc} 

'maema-Huk. 
mamilla n. nipple [also spelt mammilla; ploral mamillae] 

mae'mila. 
mamillar adj, [also spelt mammillar} 'msmx-ls?. 
mamillary adj, [also spelt mammillaryl 'maemi-lezi. 
mamillated adj. [also spelt mammillated'\ 'mxmx-letid. 
mamilliform adj. [also spelt mammilliformi mae'milx-fe:sirL 
mamma n. md'ma: . same meaning as mama. 
mamma n. milk-gland [plural mammael 'msemd. 
mammal n. (one of the mammalia or animals having mam- 
mae) 'maemal. 
mammalian adj. (of the mammalia) md'mee-li-sn. 
mammary adj. (of the mamma or breast; mamma-like) 

'maema-^i. 
mammon n. riches [also, when personified, spelt Mammon] 

'maeman. 
mammoth n. (large extinct elephant) 'msemdO. 
man n. human being; adult male, etc. [plural men] msen, 

(often) mae:n. 
manacle n. (fetter for the hand ; handcuff) 'mgena-ka!. 
manageable adj. (that can be managed) 'maenidsa-bal. 
managerial adj. (of a manager) maeni'dsii-ri-al. 
manakin n. bird [synonymous cognate manikin] 'maens-km. 

lye, (J cure; bthe, thin; 3 axrure, ds/oy; $ j/ioe, tScAew; 
u) when ; q sing; u whoever, i r^act, o ftill, uu fool, i it, li see; 
o poetic ; a over, e aerial, a but, 0: door, oo no, e b^d, ee gate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 325 

manclie n. sleeve [also, formerly, spelt manch; synonymous 

cognates maunche and, formerly, maunch} ma:nt$, ma:nt$, 

mae:ntS; (in Britain) ma:nS, ma:nS, mae:nS. 
Mancliu n. one of a Ural-altaic race which conquerd China 

in the seventeenth century; language [also spelt Manchoo, 

Mantchoo; synonymous cognate Manchow} maen'tjou, 'mxn- 

tSu. 
Mandaean n. member of a Gnostic sect ; language [also spelt 

Mandean; synonymous cognate Mendaean} 'msendi-dn, mxn- 

'dii-an. 
mandamus n. (writ) msen'dee-mas ; {less properly) mxn- 

'daemas. 
mandarin n. official [also, formerly, spelt mandarinel 

'maenda-^in, rfiaenda'^iin. 
mandarin n. fruit [also spelt mandarine] 'maend3-?in, 

maendg'^iin. 
mandat n. (grant of power ; note) met3'da: . 
mandatary n. (one to whom a mandate is given) 'mxndd- 

te^i, 'maend9-t3^i. 
mandate n. (command; contract) 'maen-det, 'msenddt. 
mandate v. (command) 'maen-det, (in Britain) maen'deet. 
mandator n. (one who gives a mandate) msenMee-taz. 
mandatory adj. (of the nature of a mandate) 'maenda-toei, 

'maend3-t3?i ; {improperly) maen'dee-ta-^i. 
mandatory n. (mandatary; also, mandate) 'msendd-tozi, 

'maenda-ta^i. 
mandible n. (jaw; jaw-bone) 'msendd-bal. 
mandolin n. lute-like instrument [also spelt mandoline"] 

'maenda-hn. 
mandragora n. (mandrake, a plant) maen'draega-^d. 
mandrel n. pick; rod; core [synonymous cognate mandril] 

'maendral. 
nuindrill n. baboon [also spelt mandril] 'maendnl. 
mane n. (hair on the neck of a horse or lion) meen. 
manege n. riding-school, horsemanship, etc. [also spelt ma- 
nege] ma'nees, mae'nees. 
manes n,pl. (deified souls) 'mee-niz. 
manganese n. (black mineral; metal) maengs'niis, (anterior' 

ly) 'maenga-nis; (also) maenga'niiz, 'maengo-niz. 
mange n. (skin-disease) meends. 
mangel-xmrzel n. large coarse beet [synonymous cognate 

mangold-wurzel] 'maeqgal-wB^zal. 
manger n. (feed-trough for horses or cattle) 'meen-dsar. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, o hot, oi boy; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai ktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
Stress-mark (0 indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



326 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

mangiuess n. (state of being mangy) 'meexirdsi-nis. 

manKO n. fruit ; tree ; pickle ; bird ; fish [ploral mangos, man- 
goes} 'maqgo. 

mangroTe n. (tree) 'mxn-gzoov, 'taaa^-geooY. 
n. (viverrin quadruped) mxqg. 
adj. (having the mange) 'meen-dsi. 

mania n. (a form of insanity; craze) 'mee-ni-d; (Uss prop- 
erly) 'mee-nJ3. 

maniac adj, (affected with mania; of mania; raving; fran- 
tic) 'mee-ni-aek. 

maniacal adj. (affected with mania; of mania or maniacs) 
md'nai-d-kdh 

Manichean adj. of the Manichees [also spelt Manichaean'] 
maeni'kii-an. 

Manicheiam n. doctrin of the Manichees [also spelt Mani- 
chaeism; synonymous cognate Manicheanisml 'maenild-izam. 

manikin n. little man, dwarf; artist's lay figure [also spelt 
mannikin; synonymous cognates manakin, mannakin"} 'nuenz- 
kin. 

manila n. hemp; paper [also spelt manilla'] md'nild. 

manilla n. (bracelet) md'nild. 

manioc n. (cassava-plant) 'mxni-ek, 'mee-ni-ek. 

maniton n. Amerindian spirit; fetish [also spelt manitui 
synonymous cognates manito, manetol 'nueni-ttk 

mankind n. (the human race) maenlcaind; (the male sex) 
'mxn-kaind. 

n. (food) 'maena. 
n. (way; demeanor) 'maena?. 

manoenver n. strategic movement of troops or ships; in- 
trigue [also spelt manoeuvre y maneuver, manethfrt} tn9- 
'njou-va^, ma'nou-vae. 

manoenver v. [also spelt manoeuvre, maneuver, maneuvre; 
present participle manoeuvering, manoeuvring; past parti- 
ciple and preterit manoeuvered, manoeuvred, maneuverd] 
ma'njuu-va?. 

manoenverer n. [also spelt maneuverer; synonymous cog- 
nates manoeuvrer, maneuvrerl ma'njou-va-ear. 

manoenvrer n. ma'njou-v^a?. same meaning as manoen- 
verer, 

manor n. (dwelling; landed estate) 'maena?. 

mansard n. (a form of curb-roof) 'maen-sard 

mansnete adj. (gentle ; mild ; tame) maen'sujiit, 'maen-swit. 

mansnetnde n. (gentleness, meekness) 'maenstui-tgud. 

jye, gcure; bthe, Q thin; 3 a-srure, dsjoy; j jAoe, tScAew; 
wwhen; rjsing; u whoever, i react, o f ull, ou fool, lit, iise#; 
o poetic; a over, e aerial, Abf*t, 0: door, 00 no, c bed, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 327 

mantel n. the work round a fireplace [also, formerly, spelt 

mantle} 'msentt. 
mantelet n. cloak ; shelter [also, sometimes, spelt mantlet'] 

'maentl-et, 'maenti^at, 'maenti-it, 'maenta-let, maenta'let. 
mantelpiece n. mantel ; mantelshelf [also spelt mantlepiece] 

'maentl-piis. 
mantelslielf n. (shelf of a mantelpiece) 'msentl-^etf. 
mantissa n. (decimal-part of a logarithm) msen'tiss. 
mantle n. (garment; cover) 'maentl. 

mantna n. (gown, manteau) 'maentgu-3, 'maentSu-o, 'maentu-3. 
manufactory n. formerly, manufacture; now, factory [ploral 

manufactories} maenjo'faektSa-ri, maenjo'faekta-^i. 
mannfactnre n.,v. msenju'fsektSd?, maenju'fsektgd?, (also, 

sometimes) 'maenjo-faektSae; {vulgarly) maena'faektSa?. 
mannmise v. (obsolete) manumit [also spelt manumize ; syn- 
onymous cognate manumiss} maenjo'maiz. 
mannmit v, (release from slavery; set free) maenjo'mit. 
manure v, (formerly, hold, manage ; now, enrich with dung) 

ma'njo:?; (dialectally) ma'no:^. 
many adj, (numerous; plural) 'mem. 

marabon n. bird; plume [also spelt marabout} 'mse?-3-bu. 
maranatha n. (terrible curse) mae^d'nseOa, maezd'noOd. 
marasmns n. (wasting away) ms'^sezmas. 
marbleize v. give the appearance of marble [also spelt mar- 

bleise} 'ma:?-b3-laiz. 
marc n. (refuse of prest grapes, etc. ; murk) mai^k. 
marcli v, walk in step [past participle and preterit marched, 

marcht} mairtS, (when unstrest) ma^tS. 
marcliioness n. (wife of a marquis, etc.) 'maz$o-nis. 
mare n. (female horse) me:r. 

margaric adj. (pearly : said of an acid) ma^'gaezik. 
margarin n. glycerid of margaric acid [also spelt marga- 
rine} 'ma:^-g3-3in. 
margarine n. (oleomargarine) 'mai^-ga-rin. 
marg^nerite n. (daisy) ma^ga'^iit, 'mai^-ga-^it. 
marigold n. plant [also, formerly, spelt marygold} 'maeei- 

gold, (rarely) 'me:-?i-go}d. 
ICariolatry n. (idolatrous worship of the Virgin Mary) me:- 

^i'ola-tji. 
marital adj. (of a husband; matrimonial) 'mae^i-tl, 'mae^i-tal. 
maritime adj, (living near the sea; of the sea) 'maezi-taim, 

'maeri-tim. 
marjoram n. (plant) 'mair-dsa-ram. 

c: law, b: f «r, ae cat, o hot, oi hoy ; a: far, go now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



328 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

mark n. unit of weight; coin [also spelt tnarcl maisk. 

market n. (meeting for trade; trading-place; sale; demand) 
'ma^kit, 'ma:^-kit. 

marline n. two-strand line [also spelt marlin"} 'ma:7-lin. 

marmalade n. (preserve; fruit) 'maiz-m^Acd. 

marmoreal n. (of marble) maz'moi-zi-dl. 

marmoset n. monkey [also, formerly, spelt marmosef} 'ma:r- 
mo-zet, ma^ma'zet. 

marmot n. (rodent) 'ma:z-m3t. 

marmot n. bathing-cap [also spelt marmottel 'mair-nidt. 

marque n. (seizure) ma:zk. 

marquee n. tent [also spelt markee] moz'kii. 

marquetry n. inlaid work [also spelt marqueterUI 'maski- 
tii. 

marquis n. nobleman [also spelt marquess} 'mozkiDis. 

marqnisate n. (status or domain of a marquis) 'moskwi- 
zet, 'ma^kiui-set, 'ma^kiui-sat. 

marriage n. (wedlock, spouschood) 'maerids. 

marriageable adj. 'mxridso-bdl. 

Marseillaise n. (song of the French Republic) moTSileez. 

marseilles n. (cotton fabric) ma^'seclz. 

marshal n. (officer) 'ma?^^!, 'mar^-Sal. 

marshal v. dispose in order; array [past participle and pret- 
erit marshaled, marshalled, marshaldl 'rnazlsH, 'ma:z-$9}. 

marshaler n. one who marshals or disposes in due order 
[also spelt marshaller] 'mazl^-lsz, 

marshmallow n. (plant; candy) maz^'maelo, 'maizl-maAo; 
{improperly) ma^S'melD. 

marten n. quadruped [also, formerly, spelt martin'} 'moztiii, 
'maic-tin. 

martial adj. (of war; military; warlike) 'maejal, 'ma:7-S^- 

martin n. (bird) 'martin, 'ma:?-tin. 

martinet n. (rigid disciplinarian) mazti'net. 

martinet n. (bird) ma^ti'net, 'marti-net, 

martingale n. (strap ; rope ; dolphin-striker ; gambling-sys- 
tem) 'mortn-gel. 

Martinmas n. (feast of St. Martin) 'martn-ma:s, 'ma:r-tn- 
ma:s, 'ma^tin-mas. 

martyr n. (one who undergoes death for creed, etc.) 'mar- 
tor. 

martyrdom n. 'ma^to^-dsm. 

martyrize v. [also spelt martyrisel 'marta-raiz. 

marvel v. wonder [present participle marveling, marvelling ^ 

j ye, g cure ; 5 the, thin;^ 3 asure, ds joy ; S shoe, ^ tS chew; 
iDwXen; qsin^; u whoever, i r^act, o fwll, ouiool, itt, ii8##; 
o poetic; dov^r, c aerial. Abut, o: doc^r, oono, eb^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 329 

past participle and preterit marveled, marvelled, marveldl 
'ma:^-v3l. 

marrelons adj. wonderful [also spelt marvellous} 'maiz- 
V3-13S, (rapidly) 'mai^-vlas, 'ma:?v-l3s. 

masculine adj, male, etc. [also, sometimes, spelt masculin'] 
'maeskgo-lin, 'maeskgo-lain. 

mask n. cover for the face; masquerade [also, in the sense 
of masquerade, etc., spelt masque} ma:sk, ma:sk, mx:sk. 

masked adj. [also spelt maskt} ma:skt. 

masker n. [also spelt masquer} 'ma:-skd7. 

maskinonge n. pike [synonymous cognate maskalonge} 
maeski'nends, 'maeski-nends, maeski'nendsi, 

Masorete n. one of the Jewish scholars who contributed to 
the formation of the Masora [also spelt Massorete} 'maeso- 
zit. 

masquerade n. (maskt ball; disguise; travesty) mxsks'zeed. 

mass n,, v, (in all senses) ma:s, ma:s, mse:s. 

massacre v. kill indiscriminately [present participle massa- 
cring; past participle and preterit massacred} 'maesa-kaz; 
(less properly) 'mai-sa-ka?. 

massacred v, (past participle and preterit of massacre) 
'maesa-ka^d. 

massacring v. (present participle of massacre) 'maess-k^ir). 

massage n. (treatment by kneading, etc.) ma'sais, mae'sais, 
ma'saids; 'maesids, 'mai-sids. 

massed adj. gatherd into a mass [also spelt mast} ma:st, 
ma:st, maeist. 

masseter n. (muscle) mae'sii-ta?; {less properly) 'maesi-to?. 

massive adj, having mass; solid [also spelt massiv} 'ma:-siv, 
'ma:-siv, 'mae:-siv, 'maesiv. 

mast n. (tall pole or spar rising from a ship) ma:st, ma:st, 
maerst. 

master n, 'ma:-st3^, 'mai-st^z, 'mae:-st3?; (anteriorly, as a ti- 
tle) 'mastar, 'masta?, 'maesta?. 

mastic n. [also spelt mastich} 'maestik, 'ma:-stik. 

masticatory adj. (of mastication) 'maestika-ta^i. 

mastiff n. dog [ploral mastiffs} 'ma:-stif, 'ma:-stif, 'mae:-stif. 

mastodon n. (extinct elephant-like mammal) 'maesta-dan, 
'maesta-den, 'ma:-sta-dan. 

matador n. man appointed to kill the bull in a bull-fight [al- 
so spelt matadore} 'maeta-dor, maeta'dorr. 

mate n. cup; tea; shrub [also spelt mate} 'ma:-te, 'mae-te. 

materialize v. [also spelt materialise} ma'ti:-?i-a-laiz. 

c: law, B! f Mr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, go now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the fellowing syllable. 



330 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

matliematieiaii n. (one skild in mathematics) iiueOiiii»- 

'tijsn, (rapidly) maeOms'tiSsn, rnxOio'tiSsn. 
matin n. morning service, etc. [ploral matinsj 'nuetin. 
matinee n. (afternoon performance) maeti'nee; {anitriorly) 

'maeti-ne ; (^also, less properly) maetn'ee, 'mstn-e ; nnetn'zi. 
matrass n. (glass vessel used by chemists) 'mxts^s. 
matrical adj. (of the matrix) 'maetji-kd}, ma'tjai^k^. 
matrice n. [also spelt matrisi 'mee-tjis, 'maetxxs. same 

meaning as matrix. 
matrices n. ploral of matrix [also spelt matrises] 'nuetsi- 

siz, (sometimes, especially in senses other than molds) ma- 

'tjai-siz. 
matricide n. (action of killing one's own mother) 'nuetsi- 

said, 'mee-tji-said. 
matrimony n. (marriage) 'mxt£i-moni, (also) 'msetxima-iii, 

(anteriorly) 'maetii-mani. 
matrix n. womb ; f ormativ part ; enclosing mass ; mold [plor- 
al matrices, matrixes^ 'mce-tjiks, 'maetjiks. 
matron n. (married woman) 'mee-tsdn, 'msts^n; (diaifctally) 

'meet-tjan. 
matronal adj. (of a matron; matron-like) 'maets9-n>, 'mee- 

tj3-nl. 
matronize v. [also spelt matronisel 'mxtss-naiz, 'mee-tx»- 

naiz. 
matronly n. (like a matron, etc.) 'mxtS3-nh, 'mee-tid-idi. 
mattock n. (pickax) 'maetak. 
mattress n. (bed) 'mset£3s. 
mature adj, (full-grown, ripe) ma'tgo:?; (improperly) m»- 

'tSo:?; (dialectally) ma'to:?. 
matntinal adj, (of the morning; early) ms'tgou-ti-n}, maetco- 

'tai-nl. 
matntine adj. matutinal [also, sometimes, spelt matutin"] 

'maetgo-tin, 'maetgo-tain. 
mandlin adj. (tearful, mawkishly emotional) 'mc:-dhn. 
mangpre prep, in spite of [also spelt manger, magrel 'mc:-gar. 
manl n. (mallet, game, alley) [also spelt malll mc:l. 
mannder v. whine ; talk incoherently [former synenymons 

cognate mander; past participle and preterit maundered, 

maundcrdl 'mcin-da?, 'marn-dnr, 'ma:n-dor. 
mansolenm n. stately tomb [ploral mausolea, mansolenmsl 

mcsa'hi-am. 
manve n. (reddish-purple dye or color) moov, mc:v. 
mavis n. (song-thrush) 'maevis, 'mee-vis. 

3 ye, c cure ; 5 the, thin ;^ 3 airure, ds f'oy ; S shoe, ^ tS chew; 
wwhen] rising; u whoever, i react, o full, ou fool, i*t, iistf#; 
o poetic; a over, e aerial, xbMt, o: door, oo no, ebed, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 331 



n. (stomach ; crop) mc: . 

mamrkish adj. (sickly) 'mc:-ki$. 

maxilla n. jaw; jaw-bone; one of a pair of gnathites [plor- 
al maxillael maek'sila. 

maxillary adj. (of the jaw; of the maxillae) 'mxksi-ie?i, 
'maeksi-lari, maek'sila-zi. 

maximum n. greatest value; highest amount; superior lim- 
it [plural maxima, rarely maximums'] 'n:\aeks1-m9m. 

may v. mee, (zvhen less strest) me, ma. 

maybe adv. 'mEe-bi, (when less strest) 'mebi; (dialectally) 
'mebi. 

mayhem n. (in law, maim) 'mee-sm, 'mee-hem. 

mayonnaise n. (egg sauce) me-d'neez. 

mayor n. (chief magistrate of a city or boro) 'mee-9?, me:?. 

mayoral n. (conductor of beasts) mojoVo:!. 

mayoral adj, (of a mayor) 'mee-a-eal, 'mer-eah 

mayoralty n. (office of a mayor or the period of his ser- 
vice) 'mee-aral-ti, 'me:-?3l-ti. 

mazarine n., arf;. (blue) maeza'jiin, (anteriorly) 'maeza-zin. 

maze n. (labyrinth) meez. 

maznrka n. Polish dance [also, sometimes, spelt mazourkal 
ma'zB^ka, ma'zot^-ka. 

mead n. (liquor) miid. 

mead n. (meadow) miid. 

meadomr n. low grass-land [also spelt medowl 'meda; (dta- 
lectaily) 'meda. 

meager adj. lean, thin ; scanty [also spelt meagre"] 'mii-gaz. 

mean n,, adj. (medium) mxin. 

mean adj. (common ; humble ; stingy) miin. 

mean v. (intend) miin, (when un.^trest) min. 

meander n. winding course ; deviation [also, formerly, spelt 
maeander] mi'aenda?. 

meandrine adj. characterized by windings : said of certain 
corals [also, sometimes, spelt maeandrine, meandrin] mi- 
'aen-drain, mi'aendnn. 

meanness n. (condition of being mean) 'miin-nis. 

measles n. (disease) 'mii-zslz. 

measly adj. (of measles; contemptible) 'miiz-h, 'mii-zh. 

measure n. size ; tape, rod, etc. ; unit [also spelt mesure] 
'me333; (dialectally) 'mee-z^z. 

meat n. (food; flesh) miit. 

meatus n. passage [plural meatus, meatuses] mi'ee-tas. 

meatus n. (plural of meatus) mi'ee-tgus. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, hot, ei hoy ; a: far, au now, a: ask, ei ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



332 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

mechanician n. (mechanic, artisan; one verst in mmchine- 

ry) meka'nijan. 
meclianist n. (machinist; mechanician) 'mek»-ni8t 
mechanize v. [also spelt tnechanisel 'meka-naiz. 
mechlin n. (lace) 'mekz.in. 
medal n. (metal disk) 'medl, 'medal. 

medal v. [present participle medaling, medalling; past par- 
ticiple and preterit medaled, medalled, medaldl 'medl, 

'medal. 
medalist n. one verst in medals; medal-maker; recipient of 

a medal [also spelt medallist} 'medl-ist, 'meda-list. 
medallion n. (large medal, etc) mi'dstian. 
meddle v, (interfere) 'me<U. 
meddler n. (one who meddles) 'media?. 
Median adj, (of the Medes) mi'dii-an. 
mediastinnm n. median septum [ploral mediasHnaJ midi- 

aes'tai-nam. 
mediatize v. reduce to the position of a mediate vassal; 

mediate [also spelt mediatisel 'mii-di-a-taiz. 
mediatrices n. (plural of mediatrix) midi-a'tsai-siz. 
mediatrix n. female mediator [ploral mediatrices} midi'ee- 

tjiks. 
medio adj. (medical) 'medik. 
medic n. plant [also spelt medick} 'mii-dik. 
medicament n. (curativ substance) 'medi-ka-mant, mi'dika- 

mant. 
Medioean adj. (of the Medici) medi'sii-an. 
medioinable adj. (medicinal) mi'disina-bat, 'medsina-bal. 
medicinal adj, (curativ; remedial) mi'disi-n>, (assumptivly) 

mi'disinl; (formerly) 'medisi-nl. 
medicine n. art of curing disease, etc. ; remedy ; cure [also 

spelt mcdicin} 'medi-san, 'medi-sn, 'medi-sin, 'medsan, 

'medsn. 
mediciner n. mi'disi-na?, 'medisi-na?, 'medsi-naz. 
mediety n. (moiety) mi'dni-i-ti. 
medieval adj, of the Middle Ages [also spelt mediaeval] mi- 

di'ii-val, medi'ii-vol. 
medievalize v. [also spelt mediaevalise, mediaevalisel mi- 

di'ii-va-laiz, medi'ii-vo-laiz. 
mediocre n. (middling quality) midi'oo-kar, 'mii-di-oka?; 

(less properly) 'mii-di-ekae. 
mediocrity n. (mean state; mediety; mediocre condition) 

midi'ek^T-ti. 

j ye, Q cure; 5 the, f/iin;^ 3 a^rurc, d^ ;oy ; $ shoe, tS c^ew; 
W7vhen; Tjsing; u whoever, i r^act, u full, ou fool, i «t, lise^; 
o poetic ; a ov^r, e aerial, a b«t, o: door, oo no, c b£?d, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 333 

meditatiTe adj. of meditation [also spelt meditativj 'medi- 
tetiv, 'medita-tiv. 

medium n. middle quality; intervening substance; instru- 
mentality; clairvoyant, etc. [plural media and, especially in 
the sense of clairvoyant, etc., mediums} 'mii-di-am. 

medlar n. tree [also, formerly, spelt medler} 'medlar. 

medulla n. (marrow, etc.) mi'dAls. 

medullar adj. (medullary) mi'dAlae. 

medullary adj. (of marrow, etc.) mi'dAla-^i, 'meda-leei. 

meed n. (reward ; gift) miid. 

meerschaum n. (sepiolite) 'mv.Z'^^m, 'mi:z-Scm, 'miiz-lem, 
'me:r-Saom, 'mi:^-Saum. 

meet adj. (fit; adapted) miit. 

megprim n. (headache) 'mii-g?im. 

meistersinger n. mastersinger : member of an old German 
musical gild [synonymous cognate meisters'dnger'\ 'mai-sta?- 

SI1333. 

melancholy n. (melancholia; sadness) 'mclan-keh; (also) 
'melanka-h, (assumptiviy) 'melan-kah. 

melange n. (mixture) me'lons, me'londs. 

mSl^e n. (confused conflict ; mixup) me'lee. 

meliorate v. (improve) 'mii-Ha-^et, 'mii-li-3-?et. 

mellomr adj. (soft with ripeness; rich and soft) 'melo; {dia- 
lectally or vulgarly) 'mela. 

melodeon n. reed-organ, harmonium, melodium ; also, accor- 
dion [also spelt melodion} mi'loo-di-an. 

melodic adj. (of melody) mi'ledik. 

melodious adj. (full of melody) mi'bo-di-as ; (vulgarly) mi- 
'bo-d33s. 

melodrama n. (drama with music; opera, etc.) meb'drai-ma, 
'melo-dra:-m3 ; (also) mela'drai-ma, 'me}3-dra:-m3. 

melody n. sweet music; tune [ploral melodies] 'mela-di. 

melon n. (gourd) 'melan. 

membraneous adj. mem'b^ee-ni-ss. same meaning as mem- 
branous. 

membranous adj. (consisting of membranes; membrana- 
ceous) 'memb^a-nas. 

memento n. prayer; reminder; souvenir [ploral mementos, 
mementoes'] mi'mento. 

memoir n. (record; biography) 'mem-we:r, 'mii-mo:?, 'me- 
mei-ar, mim'we:?, 'mii-mwe:r. 

memorandnm n. note [ploral memoranda, memorandums'] 
mema'^aendam. 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, e hot, oi hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



334 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

memorialise v, address a memorial to, etc [also spelt me- 

morialisel mi'mo:-?i-a-lai2. 
memorise v. [also spelt memorise'} 'mcmd-eaiz. 
memory n. (mental retention; recollection) 'mema-ci, (rap- 

idly) 'mcmn. 
menace n. (threat) 'mcnis. 

menad n. bacchante [also spelt maenadl 'mii-naed. 
manage n. housekeeping; domestic establishment [also spelt 

menage'] me'nais. 
menagerie n. (collection of wild animals; animal^house) 

mi'njcdsa-n, (rapidly) mi'naeds^i; mi'nse33-zi, mi'na:-59-eri, 
menaion n. volume of the Greek breviary [ploral menaia'] 

mi'nai-en. 
menhaden n. fish [synonymous cognate manhadgn^ man- 

'hee-dn, men'hee-dan. 
menhir n. (upright monumental stone) 'men-hiz. 
menial adj. (of service; degrading) 'mii-ni-dl, 'mii-njdt. 
meninges n. (plural of meninx) mi'nin-dsiz. 
meningitis n. (inflammation of the membranes of the brain 

or spinal cord) menin'dsai-tis, menin'dsii-tis. 
menses n,pl. (monthly discharges; catamenia) 'men-sis. 
mensual adj. (of a month) 'men^u-ol, 'mens<;u-3l. 
mensural adj, (of measure) 'mcn^s-zol, 'mensgo-zsl. 
mensuration n. (measuring) menSa'rce-Sdn, imnsq&zee-l^n. 
menthol n. (peppermint-camfor) 'men-Ool, 'men-6el, 'men- 
Gal. 
mentor n. (intimate counselor) 'mentar, 'men-tor. 
menu n. (bill of fare) me'njuu, 'mce-nju. 
mercantile adj. of merchants [also, sometimes, spelt mer- 

cantil'\ 'mnrkDn-til, 'morkan-tai}, 'mnrkan-til. 
mercenary adj. (actuated by gain; hired; sordid) 'messi- 

neri; (also) 'mBrsino-n, (assumptij'ly) 'morsi-naei. 
mercerize v. prepare for dyeing by treating with caustic pot- 
ash, etc. [also sprit mercerise'] 'mnrsa-raiz. 
merchandise n. trade; commodities of commerce [also spelt 

merchandize] 'mnrtSnn-daiz. 
merchandize v. trade [also spelt merchandise] 'mertSdn- 

dfiiz. 
merciful adj, (having mercy) 'mnrsi-fal, 'me^si-fol. 
mercurial aJj. (like Mercury; sprightly; of quicksilver) 

mUi^'kcor-ri-ol. 
mercurialize v. [also spelt mercurialise] mor'kQor-ei-a-laiz. 
mercury n. (quicksilver) 'mnrkco-rr. 

JVC, Qcuro: hthc, f/jin: 3 a^ure, d.^/oy; \ shoe, tjcfiew; 
iu7i7ien; x)?\ng', u whoever, i r<?act, o fidl, ou fool, i it, lis^^; 
opr^etic; o ovrr, e aerial, Abwt, o: door, do no, e b£?d, ccgate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 335 



mere n. (pool, pond) mi:?. 

mere adj, (pure; only) mi:z, 

meretrieions adj, (of or like a harlot; showily attractiv) 

mezi'tjiSas. 
mering^ne n. (confection) mi'zsei], mx'zaegg. 
merismatio adj. (of cells or tissues; dividing into parts) 

meziz'msetik, mezis'mxtik. 
mermaid n. (fabled creature having the form of a woman 

above the waist and that of a fish below) 'mB:?-meed. 
merriment n. (merry-making, mirth) 'meri-mant. 
merry adj. pleasant [also, occasionally, spelt merriel 'rmzr. 
mesalliance n. (misalliance) mezxU'erjks, mezserjer)ks. 
mesdames n. (ploral of tnadatne; substitutiv ploral of Mrs.) 

me'daim. 
mesdemoiselles n. (plural of mademoiselle) meddmd'zel, 

meda-mwe'zel. 
mesencephalic adj. (of the mesencephalon) mes-en-si'fxhk, 

mesan'sefa-hk. 
mesentery n. (fold of the peritoneum investing the intes- 

tin, etc.) 'mes3n-te?i, 'mezan-tezi. 
mesial adj. (of the middle line) 'mii-zi-s}, 'mesi-st, 'mii-sat, 

'mezi-al. 
mesmerize v. hypnotize [also spelt mesmerisel 'mezm3-?aiz. 
mesne adj, (in law, mean, middle) miin. 
mesoderm n. (middle tissue; mesoblast) 'mes9-dB:?m, 'meza- 

dei^m. 
Mesozoic adj. (of middle animal life) mesd'zao-ik. 
mesqnite n. tree [synonymous cognates mesquit, mesquitel 

mis'kii-ti, 'me-skit, mes'kiit. 
Messrs. n. pi. Messieurs (substitutiv ploral of Mr,) 'mes^zz, 

'mesQarz, 'meja^z, 'meSJaez. 
messuage n. (dwelling-house) 'meswids. 
mestee n. mestizo [synonymous cognate musteej mis'tii, mes- 

'tii. 
metabolic adj. (of metabolism) mets'bolik. 
metabolism n. (change, transformation) mi'tsebs-hzsm. 
metacenter n. center of cavity [also spelt metacentre'\ meta- 

'senta?, 'meta-senta?. 
metal n. (substance; ballast) 'met!, 'metal. 
metaled adj. coverd with metal [also spelt metalled, metald'\ 

'mctld, 'metald. 
metaling n. road-metal; metal-work [also spelt metalling'] 

'metl-iq, 'meta-hq. 

c: law, b: f wr, se cat, o hot, oi hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



336 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

metalist n. [also spelt metalUst'\ 'meti-ist, 'metd-list. 

metallize v. [also spelt metallise and, fermerly, mHaiiMtJ 
'metl-aiz, 'mctd-laiz. 

metallograpliio adj. mi-ta^s'g^sfik, meti-s'graefik. 

metallograpliy n. (descriptiv study of metals) metfagrd-fi, 
met9'leg39-fi. 

metallnrgio adj, metl's^dsik, metdlBsrdsik. 

metallurgist n. 'metl-Bzdsist, 'mets-lBrdsist. 

metallurgy n. (art of working metals, smelting, refining, 
etc.) 'metl-Bzdsi, 'meta-laedsi. 

metamerio adj, (having metamerism; of metameres) metd- 
'me^ik. 

metamerism n. (a form of isomerism) mi'tsen»-eizam, 
'metama-^izam. 

metamerized v. [also spelt metamerised'] mi'tcma-caizd, 
'metama-raizd. 

metamorphize v, (obsolete) metamorphose [also spelt meta- 
morphise} meta'meie-faiz. 

metamorphose v, (change in form) met3'me:7-fo8, meta- 
'me:^-foz. 

metamorphosis n. changing in form, etc [ploral metamor- 
phoses} metD'meir-fa-sis. 

metaphor n, (implied comparison by transference of terms) 
'met9-f3?. 

metastasis n. transference, transformation [ploral metasta- 
ses} mi'taest3-sis. 

metatarsal adj. (of the metatarsus or group of bones be- 
tween the tarsus and the toes) 'meta-taesol, mets'tossat. 

metathesis n. interchange [plural metathesesl mi'txOi-sis. 

mete v., n, (measure) miit, 

metempsychosis n. (transmigration of the soul) mi-temsi- 
'koo-sis, mi-tempsT'koo-sis. 

meteor n. (atmospheric phenomenon ; fireball ; shooting star) 
'mii-ti-9?. 

meteorolite n. (meteorite) 'mii-ti-9?9-lait, miti'eea-lait. 

meter n, (one who measures) 'mii-t9r. 

meter n. measuring-device [also, rarely, spelt metre"] 'mii- 
t9r. 

meter n. form of poetic rhythm; form of verse [also spelt 
metre} 'mii-to^. 

meter n. metric unit [also spelt metre"] 'mii-tar. 

methodize v. [also spelt methodise] 'me09-daiz. 

methol n. (liquid) 'mr.-Ool, 'mp-Ool. 

j yc, Q cure ; D tht. th\x\ : 3 axrure, d3 /oy ; S shot, ^ tj cht-w ; 
u) tt'/»en ; q sin<7; u whoever, i react, o fMll, uu fool, i tt, li see; 
o poetic; 9 over, e ocrial, Abut, o: door, oo no, e bed, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 337 

methyl n. (radical) 'meOil. 

methylio adj. (of methyl) mi'Oihk. 

metio n. (resident alien) 'metik, 'mii-tik. 

meticulous adj. (over-careful) mi'tikgo-bs. 

metonsrmy n. (change of name, etc.) mi'teni-mi. 

metope n, (slab between the triglyphs in the Doric frieze) 
'meta-pi, (older) 'meta-pi. 

metric adj, (metrical, etc.) 'metjik; (improperly) 'mii-tjik. 

metropolis n. (chief town, seat, or center ; capital) mi't£ep3- 
hs. 

metropolitan n.,adj. met£9'pe!i-tn, metsd'peh-tdn ; (less 
properly) mit£3'peh-tn, 

mettle n. (temperament; courage) 'mctl. 

mense n. (dialectal) gap in a fence or hedge thru which 
hares, etc., pass ; muset ; loophole ; form of a hare [also spelt 
muse, muese; synonymous cognate meesh"} mjous, mjouz. 
n. (gull, sea-mew) mjou. 
n. (cage for molting hawks) mjou. 

memr v. cry as a cat [past participle and preterit mewed, 
mewdl mjou. 

memrl v, cry feebly, as an infant; mew [also spelt mulel 
mjouJ. 

mezzanine n. (low story between two higher ones; secon- 
dary floor; window) 'mezs-nain, 'meza-nin, 'meza-nin. 

mezzo adj, (in music, middle; half) 'medza. 

mezzo-rilievo n. middle relief [ploral mezzo-rilievos'\ 
medzo-dl'j ee-vo. 

mezzo-soprano adj. (voice or part between soprano and al- 
to) medzo-s9'p3a:-no. 

mezzotint n. (method of engraving) 'mezs-tint, 'medzs-tint, 
'metsa-tint. 

mhorr n. gazelle [also spelt m'horr, mohr; synonymous cog- 
nate mohorl me:?. 

miaomr n. cry of a cat [also spelt miaw, mieaou, meaow, mi- 
auw, miow, mi-owe, meeowl mjao, mi'a:o. 

miasma n. aerial poison ; malaria [plural miasmata, mias^ 
mas'\ mai'aezma, mi'aezma, mi'sesMS. 

Michaelmas n. (feast of St. Michael) 'mai-kdl-mss, 'mikdl- 
mss. 

microbe «• (minute organism) 'mai-lreob, (less often) 'mi- 
k^ob. 

microcosm n. (the little world of human nature ; the cosmos 
in miniature : epposit of macrocosm) 'mai-ksa-kezam. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
Stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



338 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

micron n. millionth of a meter [also spelt tnikron'] 'mai-ksen, 
{less often) 'mi-ksen. 

microscope n. (magnifying-instrument for looking at mi- 
nute objects) 'mai-k39-skop ; (less properly) 'mikso-skop. 

microscopic adj, mai-ksa'skepik ; (less properly) miksa- 
'skepik. 

microscopist n. mai'k^esks-pist, 'mai-ks3-skopist, mi- 
'kseska-pist. 

microscopy n, (art or practis of using the microscope) mai- 
'k3esk9-pi, 'mai-k33-skopi. 

middle-aged adj. 'midl-eedsd, midreedsd. 

midriff n. the diaphragm [also, formerly, spelt midrifl 'mid- 
zii. 

midsummer n. 'mid-SAms?, mid'sAmsr. 

midiirife n. (female accoucheur) 'mid-waif. 

midwifery n. 'mid-wai-f^i, 'mid-wifsi. 

midiiriiiter n. 'mid-wint9?, mid'winta?. 

mien n. (manner, look, bearing) miin. 

miglit n. (power) mait. 

miglit z'. (preterit of may) mait. 

mignonette n. (plant; color; lace) minja'net. 

mikado n. (emperor of Japan) mi'ka:-dD. 

milady n. my lady [also spelt miladil mi'lee-di. 

milcli adj. (giving milk) mihS, milj. 

milde-w n. (downy growth of fungus) 'mil-dju. 

mileage n. (rate per mile ; distance or extent in miles) 'mai- 

hds. 
miliary adj. (like millet-seed) 'miH-eri, 'mili-a^i, 'mili-aei, 

'miH-xn, 'milia-^i. 
military adj. (of soldiers; of the army) 'mih-te^i; (also) 

'mihto-n, (assumptivly) 'mih-ta^i ; (rapidly) 'mih-tji. 
militia «. (military force; citizen army; auxiliary forces) 

mi'hS^. 
milled adj. ground or treated by a mill ; serrated [also spelt 

mild} mild. 
millennium n. period of a thousand years, etc. [ploral mil- 
lenniums, millennia} mi'leni-^m. 
millepede n. thousand-legs, a myriapod ; crustacean [also 

spelt millipede; synonymous cognate millepedl 'mih-pid. 
millet n. (plant) 'miht. 

milliary adj. (of a mile) 'mili-en, 'miH-^-n, 'miH-o^i. 
milligram n. thousandth of a gram [also spelt milligramme'} 

'mih-rjcsem. 

j ve, 9 cure; d the, thin;^ 3 arurc, d^ ;oy; $ shoe, tj c/iew; 
tD7c7icn; r}sing; u whoever, i react, o f«ll, uu fool, i it, li s^^; 
o poetic; a over, e aerial. Abut, o: door, oo no, e bed, cegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 339 

milliliter n. thousandth of a liter [also spelt millilitre'i 

'mih-hi-tazr, 
millimeter n. thousandth of a meter [also spelt millimetre'^ 

'mih-mii-ta?. 
millinery n. (goods or trade of a milliner; headgear, etc.) 

'niih-ne^i, 'mih-nari. 
millionaire n. person possest of a million of money [also, 

formerly, spelt millionnairel milia'ne:?, 'milia-ne:^. 
ifiilord n. (my lord) mi'leizd. 
milreis n. (coin) 'mil-zres, 'mil-ris. 
mime n. (imitator ; mimic) maim. 
mimeograph n. (stenciling process for reduplicating letters, 

etc.) 'mimi-9-g^a:f. 
mimetic adj, (of mimicry or imitation) mai'metik, mi'metik. 
mimic v. imitate [present participle mimicking; past parti- 
ciple and preterit mimicked, mimict} 'mimik. 
mimicker n. (one who or that which mimics) 'mimi-ka?. 
mimicry n. (imitating) 'mimi-k^i. 

mimosa n. (plant) mi'mDO-za, mi'mDO-sa, mai'moo-sa, 
minaret n. (slender tower) mina'^et, 'mina-^et, 'mina-^it. 
minatory adj. (threatening) 'mina-tozri. 
miner n. (one who mines; one who lays mines; insect; plow) 

'mai-nsz. 
mineral n., adj, 'mina-^al, (rapidly) 'min^ol. 
mineralize v. [also spelt mineralise"} 'minara-laiz. 
mineralogy n. (science of minerals) mina'raela-dsi ; (erro- 
neously) mino'?el3-d3i. 
miniature n. (picture) 'mini-3-tSo3, 'mini-a-tgor, 'mini-tQ03. 
Minie adj. (in *Minie ball, bullet, rifle) 'mini-e. 
minimize v. reduce to a minimum [also spelt minimise} 

'mini-maiz. 
minimum n. smallest or least amount ; lowest degree [plural 

minimal 'mini-mam. 
minnesinger n. (love-singer, one of a class of German lyric 

poets and singers of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries) 

'mini-sit33?. 
minnoxir n. (fish) 'minD. 
minor n. (person under age) 'mai-nar. 
minority n. (state of being minor; smaller number or part) 

mai'necTi-ti, mi'non-ti. 
Minotaur n. (fabulous bull-headed man) 'mina-tc:?. 
minstrelsy n. (art of a minstrel ; body of minstrels) 'min- 

c: ]azv, o: fwr, je cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite; 
Irngth-niark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable* 



340 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

minuend n. (the number from which another number is sub- 
tracted) 'minju-end. 

minuet n. (slow, stately dance; music) 'mznju-et, minju'et. 

minus adj, (less) 'mai-nds. 

minuscule adj. (small ; lower-case : said of letters) mi'oA- 
sk^ul. 

minute n. (unit of time; sixtieth of a degree; note) 'minit. 

minute adj. (very small) mi'njuut, mai'njout. 

minutely adj, (happening every minute) 'mini-tz.i. 

minutely adv, (exactly; very finely) mi'njou-tz.x, (anterior" 
ly) mi'njutLi. 

minuteness n. (smallness; exactness) mi'njout-nis. 

minutia n. precise detail; trivial matter [plural minutiae^ 
mi'njou-Sa, mi'njuu-Si-3. 

minutiae n. (plural of minutia) mi'njou-Si-i: . 

Miocene adj. new, recent [also spelt Meiocenel 'mai-9-sin. 

miraoulize v, make miraculous [also spelt miraculisel mi- 

miraculous adj. (of the nature of a miracle; wonder-work- 
ing) mi'?aekgo-las. 
mirage n. (optical illusion) mi'?a:3. 
mirror n. (looking-glass) 'mizsz, 

misalliance n. (improper alliance or union) misslai-ans. 
misanthrope n. (hater of mankind; man-hater) 'missn- 

03Op. 

misanthropic adj. missn'Osepik. 
misanthropist n. (misanthrope) mis'senOsa-pist. 
misanthropize v. be or cause to be, a misanthrope [also 

spelt misanthropisel niis'ain033-paiz. 
misanthropy n. (hatred of mankind) mis'aenOsd-pz. 
misbehavior n. [also spelt misbehaviour"] mis-bi'hee-vids. 
miscegenation n. (race-mixture) misid3i'nee-$9n. 
miscellaneous adj. (mixt) misi'lee-ni-ss, mis'lee-ni-9s. 
miscellanist n. (writer of miscellanies) 'misi-lenist, mx- 

'sela-nist. 
miscellany n, (mixture, medley) 'misi-leni, 'misi-lanx, mi- 

'sela-ni. 
mischief n. (harm, etc.) 'mistjif, 'miStJif. 
mischieve v. archaic (suffer harm; afflict with misfortune) 

mis'tSiiv. 
mischievous adj. (full of mischief) 'mistSi-v3s, 'miStJi-vos; 

(formerly, and now dialcctally and vulgarly) mis'tjii-vas. 
mischievously adv. 'mislSivas-h ; {vulgarly) mis'tSii-vas-li. 

j 3'e, q cure ; 5 //le, 9 f/iin ; 3 arure, ds joy ; \ shoe, tS chevr; 
w zvhen ; i) sing; u whoever, i react, o full, uu fool, i it, li see; 
o poetic; oovcr, c aerial, Abut, o: door, oo no, eb^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 341 

misoliieTOUsneBB n. 'mistSivds-nis ; (vulgarly) inis't$ii-v9S- 
nis. 

misoible adj. (capable of being mixt) 'misd-boh 

misoonstme v. (construe wrongly; misinterpret) mis-ksn- 
'stjou, mis'ken-stju. 

misdeineanor n. ill behavior; misdeed [also spelt misdemea- 
nour'! mis-di'mii-nar. 

inise «. (outlay ; tribute ; issue in a writ of right ; arbitration) 
miiz, maiz. 

miser n. (wretch ; avaricious person) 'mai-za?. 

miser n. boring-tool [also spelt miser"] 'mai-zar. 

miserable adj. (full of misery; wretched) 'mizara-bd!, (rap- 
idly) 'mizra-bal. 

miserere n. (psalm) miza'ri:-?!, miz^'zv.-zi. 

misericord n. mercy ; room ; shelf ; dagger [also spelt mise- 
ricordel 'miz3ri-ke:rd, mi'zezi-ke:^d, miz9?i'ke:rd. 

misfeasance n. transgression, trespass [also spelt misfea- 
cancel mis'fii-zans. 

misfeasor n. one who commits a misfeasance [also spelt 
misfeasorl mis'fii-za?. 

misfortune n. (bad fortune; ill-luck) mis'fe.T-tSsn. 

misjudgment n. [also spelt misjudgement] mis'dsAdsmdnt. 

mislay v. (misplace ; lay or put in a place afterward' forgot- 
ten) mislee. 

misnomer n. (misnaming; wrong name) mis'noo-md?. 

misogamist n. (hater of marriage) mi'sega-mist, mai'segs- 
mist. 

misogynist n. (woman-hater) mi'sed3i-nist, mai'sedsi-nist ; 
(erroneously) mi'segi-nist. 

misprision n. (wrong action; mistake) mis'p^issn. 

misprision n, (contempt, scorn ; failure to appreciate) mis- 
'p3i33n. 

siisprize v., n. scorn [also spelt misprise] mis'p3aiz. 

missal n. (mass-book) 'misal. 

misseltlimsli n. [also spelt mistlethrush] 'misdi-OsAS, 'misl- 
05aS. 

missile adj. capable of being thrown [also, sometimes, spelt 
missil] 'misif, 'mi-sail. 

missile n. missil object ; anything thrown [also, sometimes, 
spelt missil] 'misil, 'mi-sail. 

missionary adj., n. 'miSa-nezri, 'miSa-na^i. 

missis n. (vulgar or dialectal) Mrs. [synonymous cognate 
missus] 'miSTz, 'niisis. 

c: lait', n: fur, x cat, e hot, ei hoy: a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai k»te; 
length-mnrk (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



342 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

niisspell v, [also spelt mis-speW] mis'spe!. 

misspend v. [also spelt mis-spendl mis'spend. 

misstate v. [also spelt mis-statel mis'steet. 

misstep v, [also spelt mis-step} mis'step. 

missy n. little miss; girl [also spelt missey, missie] 'misi. 

mistake n. (error, fault) mi'steek. 

mistake v. (do wrong ; make a mistake ; err) mi'steek ; (take 
for something else) mis'teek, mi'steek. compare mistook. 

mistletoe n. plant [also, formerly, spelt misseltoe, miselioe, 
mislctoe, viisteltol 'misal-to, 'misl-to, 'mizl-to. 

mistook z\ (preterit of mistake, in the sense of take for 
something else) mis'tok, mi'stok. 

mistral n. (wind) 'mistssl, mis'tsa:!. 

mistress n. (woman who rules, etc. ; instructress ; sweetheart) 
'mist^is. 

mistrial n. (inconclusiv trial) mis'tsai-al. 

misuse v. (use wrongly) mis'juuz, miS'jouz. 

mite n. (acarid) mait. 

mite n. (coin) mait. 

miter n.,v, in all senses [also spelt mitre; as verb, past par- 
ticiple and preterit mitcrcd, miterdi 'mai-ta?. 

mitosis 91. splitting of nuclear threads in indirect cell-divi- 
sion [ploral mitoses'] mai'tDO-sis, mi'too-sis. 

mitriform adj. (miter-shapcd) 'mai-tji-fe:3m, 'mitii-fe:sm. 

mitt n. (short-fingcrd glove) mit. 

mitten n. (hand-covering) 'mitn, 'mitan; (dialectally) 'mitin. 

mixture n. (mixing; medley) 'mikstSor, 'mikStJar. 

mnemonic adj. (aiding the memory; of memory) nx'menik. 

mo adr„ adj. more, longer, again [also spelt moel moo. 

moa n. (extinct bird) 'mDO-3. 

moat n. (ditch) moot. 

mobile adj. (movable, free ; moving easily ; versatil) 'moo- 
bil, 'moo-bil, 'mebil, mo'biil, (rarely) 'moo-bail. 

mobile n. (populace, rabble, mob) 'moo-bi-h, 'mobi-h. 

mobilization n. [also spelt mobilisationi mobi}i'zee-$9n, 
inobi-hi I'zce-San, mobih'zee-Son. 

mobilize 7*. [also spelt mobilise'] 'moo-bi-laiz, 'mebi-laiz. 

moble 7'. (archaic) muffle (the face) ; mob [also spelt mobble] 
'mobsl; (improperly) 'moo-bDl. 

moccasin n. shoe ; snake [also, sometimes, spelt moccason} 
'meka-sin, 'm6)ko-S3n, 'moko-sn. 

mocba n. (coffee) 'mDO-kn. 

mockery ». (derision; mimicry; futil action) 'meka-n. 

j ve, Q cure; b the, thm:^ 3 arurc, d^ /oy ; S shoe, tS ehew; 
iy«7icn; i^sincj; u whr)ever, i rract. o f;dl, ou fool, i tt, li s^^; 
o poetic; ovc r, e aerial, Ab«t, d: door, 00 no, e bed, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 343 

modal adj. (of a mode or manner) 'moo-dl, 'moo-dal. 

mode n. (musical scale; way; method; form; manner; va- 
riety ; mood) mDod, 

model V, fashion in clay, etc.; form [present participle mo- 
deling, modelling ; past participle and preterit modeled, mo- 
delled, modeldl 'medl, 'medal. 

modeler n. [also spelt modellerl 'medl-a?, 'meda-lar. 

moderate adj. 'meda-rat, (assumptivly) 'medazrat; {rapidly) 
'medrat. 

moderato adv, (moderately) meda'ra:-t3. 

moderator n. (ruler; arbiter; chairman; regulator) 'meda- 
zet^z. 

modernization n. [also spelt modernisationi meda?ni'zee- 
San, meda^-nai'zee-San, 

modernize v. [also spelt modernisel 'meda^-naiz. 

modest adj. (unassuming; decorous, etc.) 'medist. 

modicum n. (small quantity) 'medi-kam. 

modillion n. bracket [also spelt modilloni ma'diHan. 

modiolar adj. (of the modiolus of the ear) ma'dai-a-ta? ; 
{less properly) 'moo-di-a-lae. 

modiste n. (milliner ; dressmaker) mo'diist. 

modulate n. (adjust, regulate) 'medsa-let, 'medjo-let. 

module n. (unit or standard of measure) 'me-djul. 

modus operandi n. (mode or plan for working) mao-das- 
epaVaen-dai. 

modus Vivendi n. (mode or way of living) moo-das-vi'ven- 
dai. 

moellon n. (rubble) 'moo-i-lan, mwe'loq, 

Moesogotli n. a Goth of Moesia [also spelt Maesogoth\ 'mii- 
sD-geG. 

mof ette n. gaseous exhalation ; fissure [also spelt moffettel 
ma'fet. 

moff n. special pair of compasses [also spelt mophi me:f, 
mef. 

mofussil n. (country) mo'fAsil. 

Mogrnl n. (Mongol ; Great Mogul, etc.) mo'gAl. 

Mohammedan adj., n. [synonymous cognates Mahomedan, 
Mohammadan, Muhammadan, Mahometan} ma'haemi-dn, ma- 
'haemi-dan. 

Mohican n. [synonymous cognate Moheganl mo'hii-kan. 

moider v. confuse ; toil [synonymous cognate moitherl 'mei- 
da?. 

n^oidore n. (coin) 'mei-da:r. 

c: ]azv, b: fur, ge cat, e hot, oi hoy: a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai kite; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



344 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

moiety n. (half) 'mei-i-ti ; (improperly) 'moo-i-ti. 
moire n. (waterd or clouded silk) mweiz, mo:z, 
moir6 adj, (waterd; clouded) mwe'zee, mo'see. 
moisten v. make moist; dampen [past participle and pret- 
erit moistened, moisiend} 'mei-san, 'mei-sn. 
molar adj. (grinding, of the grinders) 'iodoAsz. 
molar adj. (of mass; in bulk) 'm30-}97. 
molasses n. (syrup draind from raw sugar) mdla:-8iz, nid- 

Isesiz. 
mold n. soft earth [also spelt mouldl moold. 
mold V. grow musty [also spelt mould} m3old. 
mold n. fungus; mucor [also speU mould} moold. 
mold n. form; cast; matrix [also spelt mould} nuxrfd. 
molder n. one who molds or casts [also spelt moulder} 'maot- 

dd?. 
molder v, turn to dust ; decay [also spelt moulder ; past por- 

ticiple and preterit moldered, molderd} 'mool-ddc 
moldiness n. [also spelt mouldiness} 'moot-di-nis. 
molding n. [also spelt moulding} 'mool-dig. 
moldy adj. musty [also spelt mouldy} 'mool-di. 
molecular adj. (of molecules) malekgu-ldz, molekgo-lap. 
molecule n. (particle; group of atoms) 'meh-kgul, 'm9o4i- 

kQuK 
molest V. (vex, annoy; meddle with) mslest, molzsU 
molestation n. mehs'tce-Ssn, mohs'tee-Ssn. 
moline adj. of a mill [also, sometimes, spelt molin} 'mooAtn, 

mo'lnin. 
molinism n. (doctrin of Molinos; quietism) 'mao-ti-nzzam, 

'meh-niz3m. 
mollient adj. (softening) 'meliont, 'meli-ant. 
moUusk n. soft-bodied animal, as an oyster [also spelt mol' 

lusc} 'molask. 
molt V. shed, cast [also spelt moult} moolt. 
molybdenum n. (metal) ma'hbdi-nam, mehb'dii-nam. 
moment n. (portion or point of time; instant) 'moo-mant, 

(when less stresf) 'momant. 
momentary adj. 'moo-msn-teri ; (also) 'm30-m9nt3-si, (as^ 

sumptivly) 'moo-m3n-t3?i, (rapidly) 'moo-mantji. 
monachal adj. of a monk [also spelt monacal} 'mens-ksl. 
monad n. (one; unity; simple organism) 'moo-naed, 'me- 

naed, 'menDd. 
monadic adj. (of monads or units) ms'nsedik, me'nxdik. 
monarcliic adj. (of a government or monarchy) ma'nazkik. 

j yc, ?cure; 5 f/ic, f/iin ; 3 a^rure, ds/oy; S j/toe, ilchtm\ 
ujTi'/icn; r]s\no', u whoever, i react, o full, ou fool, i it, ii8##; 
o poetic; o ov£?r, e aerial, Abut, a: door, oo no, e bed, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 345 

monastery n. (house for monks) 'meni-steri, (also) 'me- 

nasta-^i, (anteriorly) 'mena-sta^i ; (rapidly) 'mena-stji. 
Monday n. (day of the week) 'mAndi, 'mAn-de. 
moneron n. moner [plural monera} mD'ni:-?en. 
monetary adj. (of money) 'meni-teei, (also) 'menit3-?i; (as- 

sumptivly) 'meni-tari; (also) 'mAni-teri, 'mAnita-ri, (as- 

sumptivly) 'mAni-taei; (rapidly) 'meni-tsi, 'mAni-tsi. 
monetliyl n. (compound in which one atom of hydrogen is 

replaced by one molecule of ethyl) men'eGil. 
monetization n. meniti'zee-San, mAniti'zee-Jan, moni-tai- 

'zee-Jan, niAni-tai'zee-San. 
monetize v, give the character of money to [also spelt mo- 

netisel 'meni-taiz, 'mAni-taiz. 
money n. current coin, etc. [ploral moneys, rarely montesl 

'mAni. 
moneyed adj. having money; consisting of or derived from 

money [also spelt monied, moneydl 'mAnid. 
monger n. (dealer) 'mAqga?. 

Mongol n. one of an Asiatic race [also spelt Monghol; syn- 
onymous cognate Mongole} 'moq-gel, 'men-gol. 
Mongolian adj. of the Mongols [also spelt Mongholianl 

mon'goo-H-9n, moq'goo-H-an. 
Mongolize v. [also spelt Mongolisel 'meqga-laiz. 
mongoose n. ichneumon ; lemur, maki [also spelt mongoos ; 

synonymous cognate mungoose, mungoos] plural mongooses} 

'men-gous, 'meq-gous; 'mAq-gous. 
mongrel n. (dog of mixt breed; cross) 'mAijg^al. 
monism n. (doctrin of the oneness of all things) 'moo-nizom, 

'me-nizam. 
monist n. (adherent of monism) 'moo-nist, 'menist, 
monitor n. (admonisher) 'moni-ta?. 
monitory adj. (admonitory) 'meni-tD^i; (also) 'menit3-?i, 

(assumptivly) 'meni-ta^i; (rapidly) 'moni-tji. 
monk n. (religious hermit) mAijk. 

monkey n. ape, etc. [ploral monkeys, monkies"] 'mAqki. 
monocle n. (single eye-glass) 'mona-kal. 
monoclinal n. (sloping in the same direction) mena'kLai-nl, 

'men3-ki.ai-nl. 
monocotyledonons adj. (having one seed-leaf) mena-kotl- 

'ii-dn-3s, mona-ketl'ii-dn-as. 
monocular adj. (having one eye; of one eye) ma'nokgo-lar. 
monody n. (one-voice ode, etc.) 'mena-di. 
monoecious adj. having the unisexual flowers on the same 

c: law, b: f Mr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao nozv, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



346 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

plant; having the sexes together [also spelt maneciousi 1119- 
'nzi-Sds, me'nii-Sds. 

monogamy n. (the practis of marrying only once : opposed 
to digamy; also, the practis of marrying only one person at 
a time : opposed to bigamy and polygamy) md'negd-mi. 

monogeny n. (descent from a single pair) md'nedsi-nz. 

monogony n. (asexual reproduction, agamogenesis) md'nega- 
ni, 

monofi^ram n. (written character composed of two or more 
letters combined) 'mena-gzaem; (less properly) 'm30-ii9- 
gzxm, 

monograpli n. (separate treatis on a single subject) 'rnena- 
gza:f ; (less properly) 'moo-na-grarf. 

monolograe n. something spoken by one person alone; dra- 
matic soliloquy [also spelt monologi 'mena-leg; (Uss prop- 
erly) 'moo-na-leg. 

monomania n. (mania for one thing; craziness on one sub- 
ject) mena'mee-ni-3, mona'mee-ni-a. 

monomaniac n. (one having monomania) men^'mee-ni-sk, 
mona'mee-ni-aek. 

monophtliong; n. (single vowel sound) 'mensf-OeiQ; {less 
properly) ma'nef-Oe'.q, ma'nep-0e:i]. 

monopolize v. [also spelt monopolise'l ms'nepd^aiz. 

monopoly n. (exclusiv possession or privilege) ma'nepa-ti, 
(rapidly) ma'nepi,!. 

monoptote n. (noun occurring in a single oblique case) 
'menap-tot; (less properly) mo'nep-tot. 

monorhine adj. having a single nasal passage only [also 
spelt monorrhinc'] 'mena-^nin. 

monosyllabic adj. (consisting of one syllable; consisting of 
words of one syllable) mena-si'laebik, menasilxbik. 

monotbeism n. (doctrin that there is but one God) 
'men3-0i-iz3m, 'menaGi-izam. 

monotonize v. [also sprit vionotonise'] md'netn-aiz. 

monotony n. (sameness of tone or pitch ; want of pleasing 
variety) niD'neln-i, ma'neta-ni. 

monoxide n. ma'nek-said, (before of) ma'neksid. 

monseignenr n. (title of French princes, bishops, etc.) men- 
sen'jo:?, mensc'nJBizr. 

monsieur n, (sir; mister; gentleman) men'siir, mn'si:?. 

monsignor n. title of Catholic prelates, etc. [synonymous 
cegnate monsignorel men'sii-njor, mensin'JDrr. 

luonsoon n. (seasonal wind) men'suun. 

j ye, gcure; -5 //le, f/iin; 3 arure, d.^/oy; ^ shoe^ t5 citew; 
ui7C'/icn; Tjsing; u whoever, i r^act, o full, uu fool, lit, li 8e#; 
o poetic; o ov<?r, e aerial, Abwt, o: door, oo no, e b^d, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS U7 

monteitli n. punch-bowl [also spelt montethi men'tiiO. 

montli n. niAiitG, (also, and in Britain normally) niAnO. 

montliB n. (plural of month) mAnts, mAtitOs; (m Britain) 
mAns, mAnOs. 

moo n. (cry as a cow; low) mou. 

mood n. (mode : one of the classes into which each of the 
four figures of syllogism is divided; functional group of 
verbal forms) moud. 

moor n. (tract of land) mo:z, mo:z. 

Moor n. (dark-skind nativ of Morocco, etc.) mo:?, moiz. 

moor V. secure, as a ship, by ropes or chains [past partici- 
ple and preterit moored, moord] mo:r, mo:z. 

moorage n. (action of mooring; mooring-place ; money paid 
for mooring) 'mu:-rid3, ^moi-zid^. 

mopsy n. pretty child, etc. [also spelt mopsey} 'mepsi. 

moraine n. (mass of detritus) maVeen, mo'^een. 

moral adj. (ethical) 'mezsl. 

morale n. (morality; behavior, conduct) maVa:!, mo'zail, 

moralization n. [also spelt moralisationi mez^Wzee-l^n, 
meza-lai'zee-San. 

moralize v, [also spelt moralisel 'mers-laiz. 

morass n. (swamp, bog, marsh) maVais, mo'zxs. 

moroeau n. bit, morsel; excerpt [ploral morceauxl mez'soo, 

more adj., adv. mo:z, (when unstrest) moz. 

moreen n. (fabric) ms'^iin, mo'^iin. 

morel n, (mushroom) 'me^al, mo'zzl, 

Moresque adj. Moorish [also spelt Mauresquel mo'zesk. 

morganatic adj. (characterized by a man of high rank tak- 
ing a woman of lower station : said of marriage) mezgs- 
'naetik. 

morgue n. (hautiness) me:zg. 

morgue n. (dead-house) meizg. 

moribund n. (dying) 'meri-bAnd. 

morion n. (helmet) 'moi-zi-sn; (less properly) 'meei-an. 

mom n. (morning) mei^n, mean. 

morning n. (early part of the day-time) 'me:r-niq, 'mer-niq. 

morocco n. (leather) ma'^eko. 

morphine n. (narcotic principle of opium) 'me:?-fin, 'me:?- 
fin ; (rarely) 'me:?-fain. 

morrour n. (the day after) 'mezra; (dialectally) 'mora. 

morsel n. (bite; titbit; snack) 'me:?-sal. 

mortalize v, make or consider mortal [also spelt mortalisel 
'm0:r-tl-aiz, 

c: \a7v, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ex hoy; a: far, ao now, n: ask, ai ktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



348 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

mortar n. (vessel, bowl; short cannon) 'me:z-t97. 

mortar n. (binding-material) 'me:z-t9?. 

mortgage n. (conveyance, etc.) 'me:7-gid5. 

mortgagee n. (person to whom property is mortgaged; one 

who lends money on a mortgage) mergi'dsii. 
mortgager n. one who mortgages his property [also spelt 

mortgagor, mortgageorl 'mere-gi-dsar. 
mortgagor n. in law, epposit of mortgagee [also spelt mart- 

gageor} mozgi'd^eiz. 
mortise n. hole cut to receive a tenon [also spelt mortice^ 

mortis} 'me:r-tis. 
mortise v. [also spelt mortice, mortis; past participle and 

preterit mortised, mortisti 'me:?-tis. 
mortuary adj. (of burial or death) 'me:z-tlu-ezi; {also) 

'merr-tgu-a-ci, (assumptivly) 'me:z-t(;u-9zi. 
momla n. mulberry-like body [ploral morulae} 'mee^-ld, 

'mo:-z^-l9. 
mosaic adj. (of the production of patterns by small inlaid 

pieces of glass, stone, etc.) mo'zee-ik. 
Mosaic adj. (of Moses) mo'zec-ik. 
Moslem n. Mohammedan [synonymous cognate Muslim] 

'mezlam, 'mesi-om. 
mosque n. Mohammedan temple [also spelt mosk"] mesk. 
mosquito n. insect [also spelt musquito; ploral mosquitos, 

mosquitoes'] ma'skii-to, (popularly) ma'skii-ta. 
moss n. (bog; plant) me:s, (rarely) mes; (dialectally) mc:8. 
most adj. (greatest, etc.) moost, (when unstrest) most. 
most adv. (in the greatest degree, etc.) moost, (when unstrest) 

most, mast; (also, dialectally) most. 
mostly adv. 'mDO-stti, (when less strest) 'mostz-i. 
mot n. (obsolete) motto; word [also spelt niott, motte; syn- 
onymous cegnate mote} mot. 
mot n. (witty saying; bon-mot) moo. 
mot n. (dialectal) mark for players at quoits [also spelt 

mottcl met. 
mote n. (particle ; speck) moot, 
motet n. vocal composition in harmony [also spelt motett, 

motctte, vwttett] mo'tct. 
motli n. insect [ploral moths} me:0, meO ; (dialectally) mc:0. 
mother n. (female parent, etc.) 'mA^D?. 
moths n. (ploral of moth) meibz, mo:Os, 
motile adj. capable of, or characterized by, motion [also, 

sometimes, spelt motil} 'moo-til, (rarely) 'moo-tail. 

j .ve, gcure; 5 f/ie. 9^/iin; 3 a^ure, dj/oy; S 5/ioe, tS c/tew; 
U)Tt'/ien; rising; u whoever, i r^act, u fwll, ou fool, n't, lis^^; 
o poetic; 3 over, e oerial, Abut, o: door, oo no, e bed, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 349 

motley adj. (diversified) 'meti.i. 

motto n. significant word or phrase [plural tnottos, mottoesi 
'metD. 

mould moold. see mold, 

mountain n. (great elevation of land) 'maon-tin, 'maon-tn; 
(vulgarly) 'maon-tii]. 

mountainous adj. 'maon-ti-n3S ; (erroneously) maon'tee- 
ni-3s. 

mountebank n. (itinerant quack ; charlatan) 'maon-ti-bsei^k. 

mourn v. grieve, lament [past participle and preterit mourn- 
ed, mourndl moizn. 

mouse V, hunt mice ; prowl ; put a mouse on (a stay) maoz. 

mouse n. small rodent [plural mtcel maus. 

mousquetaire n. (foot-soldier armd with a musket ; one of 
the king's household troops; cloak, glove, etc.) muska'te:?. 

mouth n. oral opening or cavity ; os [ploral mouthsl mauO. 

mouth V. pronounce, utter ; train the mouth to the bit ; grim- 
ace [past participle and preterit mouthed, mouthd} maod. 

mouthed adj. (having a mouth) maudd, maoOt. 

mouthful n as much as would fill the mouth [ploral mouth- 
fulsl 'maoG-fol, 'maoG-fal. 

mouths n. (plural of mouth) maudz. 

movable adj., n. [also spelt moveablel 'muu-v9-bal. 

move V. (change position ; put in motion, etc.) muuv, (when 
unstrest) muv. 

moxv n., V. pile [as verb, past participle and preterit mowed, 
mowd'\ mao. 

TSLOvr n. (grimace) mao, moo. 

JMiovir V. cut down [past participle mowed, mowd, mown\ pret- 
erit mowed, mowdl moo, (when unstrest) mo. 

Mr. n. Mister [substitutiv plural Messrs."] 'mista^. 

Mrs. n. Mistress, Missis [substitutiv plural Mesdamesl 'misiz, 
'misis. 

much adj.-pron., adv. mAtS, (when unstrest) matj. 

mucilaginous adj. (like mucilage) mjusi'laedsi-nss. 

mucksy adj. (local) mucky, dirty, slushy [also spelt muxy"] 
'mAksi. 

mucous adj. (of mucus; slimy) 'mjuu-kas. 

mucus n. (vicid fluid ; slime) 'mjuu-kos. 

mudar n. shrub [also spelt madar, mudhar, mudarrh, muddar; 
synonymous cognates mudir, mador"] ma'da:?. 

muezzin n. (crier) mju'ezin. 

muffin n. (round spongy cake) 'mAfin. 

c: law, b: fMr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, au now, a: ask, ai kite; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
Stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the fellowing syllable. 



350 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

mulatto n. (offspring of a white and a negro) mjotaeto. 
mulberry n. (fruit; plant; tree; color) 'mjA-hezi, 'mAlb9-n, 

'mAltei. 
mnloli V, half-rotten straw [synensrmous cegnate mulskj 

niAttSt {also, and in Britain normally) mAlJ. 
mnloh V. cover with mulch or half-rotten straw [sjmeny- 

mous cognate mulsh; past participle and preterit mulched, 

mulchtl mAhS, (in Britain) hiaIJ. 
mulct V. punish; deprive [past participle and preterit 

mulcted, mulct} mAlkt. 
muleteer n, (mule-driver) mjuh'ti:?. 
mnley-oour n. hornless cow; cow [also, sometimes, spelt 

mulley-cow, mooley-cowl 'moh-kao, 'mjou-4i-kao. 
mnley-saur n. 'moh-sc: , 'mjou-li-sc: . 
mnllen n. wooly-leaft plant [also spelt mu/Zetn] 'mAtin. 
mulligataximy n. soup [synonymous cognate mullagataW' 

nyl mAhg3'tc:-ni. 
mullion n. (division between lights or panels) 'mAlidn. 
multiflorous adj. (many-flowerd) mAlti'iL.o:-t99. 
multijugous adj. (having many pairs of leaflets) mi^i- 

'dsou-gas; (less properly) mAl'tidso-gas. 
multiparous adj. (many-bearing) mArtip9-73S. 
multipartite adj. (having many parts or divisions) miUti- 

'por-tait; (less properly) mAl'tipar-tait. 
multiplicand n. (quantity to be multiplied) mAhipz.i1aend, 

'mAltipjLi-kaend. 
multiplicate adj. (multifold; multiplex) 'mAUipz.i-ket, mid- 

'tipjLi-ket. 
multiplication n. mA}tip3Li'kee-S3n. 
multitude n. (numerousness ; great number; host) 'mAlti- 

tQud; (dialectally) 'mAlti-tud. 
mum adj. silent [also, formerly, spelt mumm} mAm. 
mum n. beer [also spelt mumm} mAm. 
mummy n. (embalmd body) 'mAmi. 
muncli V, chew, champ [past participle and preterit munched, 

munchtl mAntS, (also, and in Britain normally) mAuJ. 
mundane adj. (of this world; worldly; earthly; cosmic) 

'mAn-deiu 
mungo n. cloth [also spelt mungoel 'mAi]go. 
niunicipal adj. (internal, domestic; local, city) mjo'nisi-pd). 
munificence n. (generosity, liberality; bounty) mju'nifi- 

ssns. 
muniment n. (defense) 'mjciu-ni-msnt. 

j ye, g cure ; 5 the, thin ; 3 arrure, dj joy ; $ shoe, tS chew, 
w when ; i) sing; u whoever, i r^'act, o full, ou fool, i it, li 9ee; 
o poetic; 3 ov^r, e aerial. Abut, o: door, oo no, eb^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 351 



munnion n. in ship-building, mullion [also spelt munionj 

'niAnjan. 
mural adj. (of a wall; wall-like) 'mjo:-z9l. 
murderer n. (one who murders) 'mBiz-d^-z^z, 
murex n, shell-fish [ploral murices, murexes} 'mjo:-?ck8. 
muriatic adj. (of salt) mjozi'aetik. 
murine adj. (mouse-like) 'mjoi-zrin, 'mjo:-z:ain. 
murk n. darkness ; thick air or vapor [also spelt mirk'] mB:zk. 
murk adj. obscure, dark [also spelt mirk] msirk. 
murk n. marc [also spelt mure, mirk and, formerly, murck] 

TtiBizk, 
murkinesB n. state of being murky; darkness [also spelt 

mirkiness] 'ms^ki-nis, 'moi^-ki-nis. 
murkness n. darkness [also spelt mirkness] 'merkNis. 
murky adj. dark, gloomy, thick [also spelt mirky] 'merki. 
murmur v., n. hum, etc. [as verb, past participle and pret- 
erit murmured, murmurd] 'mB:?-mo2. 
murrain adj. (disease) 'morin, 'mArin. 
murre n, guillemot [synonymous cognate marre] msiz. 
murrkine adj. of murra, an ornamental stone [also spelt 

murrine; synenymous cognate myrrhine] 'mB?in, 'mAzin, 

'me-^ain, 'mA-z:ain. 
muscadine n. (wine; grape) 'mAsks-dain, 'mAsks-din. 
muscat n. (grape; wine) 'niA-skaet. 
muscatel n. wine; grape; raisin [synenymous cognate mus- 

cadel] 'mAska-tel, mAska'tel. 
muscle n. (contractil tissue) 'mAsal, 'mAsl; {erroneously) 

'mAskal. 
muscoid adj. (moss-like) 'mA-skeid. 
muscovado n. (unrefined cane sugar) mAsk9'va:-do, mAsks- 

'vee-dD. 
muscovy n. (musk-duck) 'mAska-vi. 
muscular adj. (of muscle) 'mAskgo-ta?. 
muset n. {obsolete) gap in a fence ; meuse ; also, a hare's 

'form* [also spelt musit, musett] 'mjou-zit, 'mjou-sit. 
musette n. (bagpipe ; air ; dance ; reed-stop) mju'zet. 
museum n. (building or repository for the preservation and 

display of objects of art, curiosities, etc.) mjo'zii-am; (less 

properly) 'mjou-zi-am. 
muskroom n. (fungus) 'mAj-^um. 
music n, (fine art ; melody or harmony) 'mjou-zik. 
musical adj. (of music, like music ; fond of or skild in mu- 
sic) 'mjou-zi-kDl. 

c: law, n: fur, .-c cat, o hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



352 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

mnsioale n. (musical party; private concert) mitucxlca:!. 
musician n. (one skild in music) mju'ziSan. 
musiTe adj. mosaic [also spelt musiv} 'mjou-8iv, 'mjoQ-ziv. 
muakiiielon n. [synonymous cognate mushmelonj 'mAak- 

melan; (vulgarly) 'mAj-melan. 
musk-oz n. arctic ruminant [ploral musk-oxen and, coUectiv- 

ly, musk-ox"] 'mAsk-oks. 
mnslin n. (cotton fabric) 'mAzhn. 
musrol n. (local or obsolete) nose-band of a bridle [also 

spelt musrole and, formerly, musrolll 'mAz-zol. 
mussel n. mollusk [also spelt muscle] 'mAsal, 'mA^. 
Mussulman, n. Mohammedan [also spelt Musulman, Musal- 

man; ploral Mussulmans and, catachrestically, Mussulmen] 

'mAsal-man. 
must V. (be obliged) mAst, (when unstrest) mas. 
mustaolie n. the hair on the upper lip [also spelt moustache; 

synonymous cognate mustachio] ma'staij, mos'ta:^ ; (vulgar' 

ly) 'mA-sta:S. 
mustacliio n. [ploral mustachios] ms'stai-So, m3'sta:-Si-o. 
mustaoliioed adj. (mustached) m3'sta:-S3d, m9'sta:-Si-od. 
mustard n. (seed-flour; plant) 'mAstQ^d. 
mustee n. ms'stii, mAs'tii. same meaning as mestee, 
mutineer n. (one guilty of mutiny) mjuti'ni:?. 
mutiny n. (revolt) 'mjou-ti-ni ; (less properly) 'mjou-tn-i. 
mutton n. (flesh of sheep ; sheep) 'mAtn. 
mutual adj. (reciprocal; respectiv; common) 'mjou-t$u-3}, 

'mjou-tgu-al. 
mutule n. (modillion of a Doric cornice) 'mjou-tjul, 'mjou- 

tguh 
muzliik n. Russian peasant [also spelt moujik, mujik] 'mou- 

31k, mu'3ik. 
muzzle n. jaws and nose; snout; cage for the jaws; nose- 
cover; discharging-end of a gun) 'mAzal, 'mAzl. 
my adj.-pron. (of or belonging to me) mai, (when unstrest) 

ma; (also, formerly) mi: ; (and still, when unstrest, on the 

stage) mi. 
mycelium n. (vegetativ part of the thallus of fungi) mai'sii- 

li-3m. 
myope n, (short-sighted person) 'mai-op. 
myopia n. (short-sightedness) mni'oo-pi-a. 
myopic adj. (of myopia; short- or near-sighted) mai'epilc 
myopy n. (myopia) 'mai-a-pi. 
myosin n. globulin [also spelt tnyosine'} 'mai-3-sin. 

j ye, gcure; bthe, 9 ^/lin; 3 a-crure, ds/oy; I shoe, t^chew; 
w when ; q sing; u whoever, i r^act, o full, ou fool, i it, li see; 
o poetic; a ov£?r, e aerial, Abut, o: door, oo no, e b^ d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 353 



myoBotis n. (forget-me-not) mai-a'soo-tis. 
myriad n. (ten thousand; great number; host) 'miri-9d. 
myriameter n. measure of one myriad or ten thousand me- 
ters [also spelt myriametre} mizri'aemi-tar, 'mi^i-a-mii-tar. 
myrioiiL n. that part of beeswax which is insoluble in boiling 

alcohol [also spelt tnyricinel mi'zai-sin, 'miz:i-sin, 'mai-?i- 

sin. 
myrioyl n. (melissyl) miVai-sil, 'mi^i-sil. 
Iiiynneoopliyte n. (myrmecophilous plant) mar'mii-ko-fait, 

'mB:?-mik3-fait. 
myrmidon n. (faithful follower) 'msrr-mi-den, 'mei^-mi-dan. 
myrrh n, (perfume) niBiz, 
myrrliio adj, (of myrrh) 'me:-?ik, 'mi^ik. 
myrrliine n. that part of myrrh which is soluble in alcohol 

[also, sometimes, spelt myrrhin} 'mai-rin, 'mi^in, (less 

often) 'mer-rain, 'mi-rain. 
myrtle n. (plant) 'ma^tl, 'meir-tl. 
myself noun-pron. mai'self, {when less strest) ma'self (and, 

dialectally) mi'self. 
mystagograe n. one who initiated candidates into the Eleu- 

sinian or other mysteries ; teacher of mystic doctrins [also 

spelt mystagogl 'mista-geg. 
mystery n. (secret, riddle, enigma; rite) 'mista-n, (rapidly) 

'mistji. 
mysticism n. (doctrin or habits of mystics) 'misti-sizam. 
mystioize v, render mystical [also spelt mysticisel 'misti- 

saiz. 
myiiacism n. (too frequent repetition of the sound of m) 

'mai-t3-siz9m. 
myth n. fictitious narrativ [also, formerly, spelt ntythel miO. 
mythicize v, render mythic [also spelt mythicise} 'miGi- 

saiz. 
mythohistoric adj. (of myth and history) mi0D-his'te?ik, 

mai-0D-his'te^ik ; (also) miGo-i'sterik, mai-Oo-i'ste^ik. 
myt;holo£:ioal adj. (of mythology) miGa'ledsi-kal. 
mytihologize v. [also spelt tnythologise} mi'Gela-dsaiz. 
mythology n. (mythical story; body of myths; knowledge 

of myths) mi'Gela-dsi. 
mythopeic adj. myth-making [also spelt tnythopoeic; syn- 
onymous cognate mythopoetic'] miOa'pii-ik. 
mytiloid adj. (mussel-like) 'miti-loid. 
myxomycetes n. pi. (slime-fungi, slime-molds) miks9-mai- 

'sii-tiz. 

c: law, b: iur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



354 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

nabob n. (Mohammedan official ; governor) 'nee-bob. 

nacre n. sea-pen ; mother-of-pearl [also, formerly, spelt na- 
kerl 'nee-ka?. 

nacrdons adj. (like nacre ; nacrous) 'nee-ksi-as. 

nadir n. (the point opposit the zenith) 'nee-da?, {rarely) "'na:- 
di2. 

Naiad n. river-nymph [ploral Naiadsl 'nee-ad, 'nai-ad, 'nee- 
jad. 

Naiades n. pL (the Naiads ; river-nymphs) 'nee-a-diz, 'nai-a- 
diz, 'nee-ja-diz. 

naiant adj. (in heraldry, swimming) 'nee-ant. 

naif adj. naive [also spelt naif} na:'iif. 

naik n. (Indian prince ; governor ; officer) 'na:-ik, 'nee-ik. 

nail V. fix with nails ; spike [past participle and preterit 
nailed, naild"] neel, (when unstrest) nel. 

naiidsant adj. (in heraldry, nascent) 'nee-sant. 

naive adj. natural, artless [also spelt naive'} na:'iiv, {assump- 
tivly) 'na:-iv; {less properly) ne'iiv; {erroneously) neev. 

naively adv. [also spelt naively} na:'iiv-h, 'na:-iv^i, ne'iiv-h. 

naivete n. an artless action or remark; quality of being na- 
ive ; artlessness [also spelt naivete} na:-iv'tee. 

naked adj. (nude) 'nee-kid; {dialectally) 'nekid. 

namable adj, [also spelt nameable} 'nee-ma-baL 

naniby-paniby adj, (weakly sentimental; vapid) nxmbi- 
'paembi, {assumptivly) 'naembi-paembi. 

nankeen n. cloth [also spelt nankin} nsen'kiin, {assumptivly) 
'naen-kin. 

nape n. (the back of the neck) neep; {less properly) naep. 

napery n. (table-linen, etc.) 'nee-pa-?i. 

napbtba n. volatil liquid [also, sometimes, spelt naptha'i 
'naepOa, 'naefOa. 

uapbtlialene n. (naphthalin) 'nxpOa-Hn, 'nsefOa-Hn. 

napbtbalin n. benzene hydrocarbon [also spelt naphthaline^ 
'nacpOa-hn, 'naefGa-hn. 

napbtbalize v. [als6 spelt naphthalise} 'naepOa-taiz, 'nxfOa- 
laiz. 

napiform adj. (turnip-shaped) 'nee-pi-fe:?m ; {less proper- 
ly) 'naepi-fei^m. 

narcissus n. (plant) nar'sisas. 

narcotize v. [also spelt narcotise} 'na^ka-taiz, 'na:?-ka-taiz. 

nargbile n. Oriental tobacco-pipe ; hookah [also spelt nargi- 
leh, narghileh, narghyle, narghille, nargile, narguiU; syn- 
enymous cognates narghilly, nargilly} 'nnr^-gi-le. 

j ye, Q cure; 5 the, th\n\^ 3 arure, d^/oy; J jAoe, tS cfcew; 
luw/ien; r)s\ng; u whoever, 1 r^act, o fwll, ou fool, i tt, lisee; 
poetic; a ov^r, e aerial, Abut, o: door, ao no, e bed, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 355 

narghilly n. nar'gih. same meaning as narghile. 
narrate v. (relate, tell, rehearse) naeVeet, na'^eet, 'nae^et. 
narromr adj., n., adv., v. [as verb, past participle and preterit 

narrowed, narrowd} 'nae^o; (dialectally) 'naezra, 
narivlial n. sea-unicorn [also spelt narwhale; synonymous 

cognate narwall 'na:z-w9l. 
nary adj. not [dialectal variant of ne'er a, never a; synony- 
mous cognate narryl 'ne:-ri, 'nzzi. 
nasal adj. (of the nose) 'nee-zsi. 
nasalize v. speak nasally; render nasal [also spelt nasalise'^ 

'nee-za-laiz. 
nascent adj. (being born; incipient) 'nasant; {improperly) 

'nee-sant. 
nastnrtinni n. (plant) naes'tB?$9m, n£s'tB:?-$9m, n£s'tB7$i- 

am, na'stB^Sam. 
nasty adj. (foul; offensiv; bad; ill-natured) 'na:-sti, 'na:-sti, 

'naei-sti ; {assumptivly , when less strest) 'nasti, 'nasti, 'naesti. 
nasnte adj. (formerly, keen-scented, sagacious; latterly, snou- 

ty, etc.) 'nee-sgut, (less often) ne'sgout. 
natal adj. (nativ; of one's birth) 'nee-tl, 'nee-tal. 
natatory adj. (of swimming) 'nee-ta-to^i. 
natheless adv. nevertheless [synonymous cognate nathlessl 

'neeO-las, 'nee-Gtas, 'nee-da-les. 
nathless adv. 'nseO^as, 'nxd-les. same meaning as natheless. 
national adj. (of a nation) 'naeSa-nl, 'naja-nal; (rapidly) 

'naeSNal; (less properly) 'nee-Ja-nl. 
nationality n. nse^a'nseh-ti. 
nationalize v, [also spelt nationalisel 'nae^a-nl-aiz, 'naeSana- 

laiz. 
natrolite n, (soda-mesotype, needle-zeolite) 'naetsa-leit, 'nee- 

t£9-lait. 
natron n. (mineral) 'nee-tjon, 'nee-tjan, 'naetjan. 
natural adj. (of law; just; of nature; normal) 'naetja-ral, 

(rapidly) 'naetS^al; (also, older) 'naetQu-^al, 'naetga-^al. 
naturalization n. [also spelt naturalisation^ naetSa-^ah'zee- 

San, naetSazra-lai'zee-San. 
naturalize v. [also spelt naturalise"] 'naet^a^a-taiz, (rapidly) 

'naetS^a-laiz. 
nature n. (essential character; inherent power or principle; 

universe) 'nee-tja^, (older) 'nee-tga^. 
naught n. nothing; zero, cipher [also spelt nought; synon- 
ymous cognate, in the sense of a cipher, ought] nc:t. 
naught adj. worthless [also spelt nought] nc:t. 

c: law, b: iur, ae cat, © hot, ©i hoy; a: far, go now, a: osk, ai kite; 
leng:th-mnrk (:) indicates that the preceding? sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



356 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

naughty adj. (wayward; bad) 'nc:-ti, (when less strest) 'nc- 

ti. 
nausea n. (seasickness, etc.; loathing) 'nc:-S9, 'nc:-Si-d, 'nc:- 

si-9. 
nauseate v, (reject with nausea; loathe; affect with nausea; 

feel sick) 'nc:-Si-ct, 'nc:-si-et. 
nauseous adj. (causing nausea) 'nc-^as, 'nc:-Si-9S, 'nc:-8i-98. 
nautilus n. argonaut, a cephalopod [plural nautili, nautUuses"] 

'nc:-ti-lDs ; (less properly) 'nc:-tJ-9S. 
naval adj. (of ships; of the navy) 'nee-val. 
nave n. (main body or middle part of a church) neev. 
navel n. (umbilicus) 'nee-vat. 

naveled adj, [also spelt navelled, naveldl 'nee-vdld. 
navicular adj. (boat-shaped, scaphoid, cymbiform) nd'vzkco- 

loz. 
nay adv. (no; not only so, but) nee. 
Naxarene adj., n. nxzo'ziin. 
Naxaritism n. 'nxza-rai-tizam, 'nxzazi-tizdm, 'nau:9-7ait- 

izsm. 
neap adj. (low; ebb) niip. 

nearsiglited adj, ni:?'sai-tid, (assumptivly) 'ni:7-tai-tzd. 
neatherd n. (cowherd) 'niit-hB:3d. 

nebula n. cloudy film or speck in the eye; misty appear- 
ance; cloud-like cluster of stars [ploral nebulael 'ncbjo-la. 
nebulae n. (plural of nebula) 'nebjo-li. 
nebule adj. cloud-like, wavy, nebuly [also spelt nebulM 

'nebjo-le, nrbjryirc. 
nebulize 7'. atomize; become nebulous [also, rarely, spelt neb- 

ulisc} 'ncbjo-lniz. 
nebulous adj. (cloudy; of nebulae) 'nebjo-lds. 
necessarily adr. (of necessity) 'nesi-scei-li ; (also) 'ncsi- 

snn-h, (anteriorly) 'ncsi-sarih; (occasionally) nesi'se?i-li. 
necessary adj. (needful) 'nesi-seci; (also) 'nesisa-zi, (<m- 

siDnptizly) 'nrsi-son ; (rapidly) 'ncsi-S3i, 'nes-ssi, 'ncs3i. 
necked adj. having a neck [also spelt necktl nekt. 
necklace n. (ornamental chain or band worn around the 

neck) 'nektis. 
uecrolog:y n. (register of the dead) nilc^ela-dsi. 
necromancy n. (magic, etc.) 'neksa-maensi. 
necropolis n. cemetery [also spelt nckropolisi ni'ksopa-lis. 
nectarine n. peach [also, sometimes, spelt nectarin"] 'nekta- 

rin, 'nekto-rin. 
nectarine adj. nectar-like [also spelt ncctarini 'nekta-ein. 

j .vc, q cure ; D the, */tin ; 3 a^ure, dj joy ; $ shoe, tj chew; 
w ichcn ; q sine;; u whoever, i rt-act, o f«ll, ou fool, i tt, 11 see; 
o poetic; o over, c aerial. Abut, o: door, oo no, e bed, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 357 

nee adj. (born) nee. 
ne*er adv, (never) m:z. 

negation n. (denying; denial; nonentity) ni'gee-$3n. 
negative n., adj., v. [also spelt negativ ; as verb, past partici- 
ple and preterit negatived, negativdl 'nega-tiv, (assumptivly) 

'negativ; (dialectally) 'nee-ga-tiv. 
neglige n. informal attire [also spelt nigligi'i negh'see. 
neglig6 adj. informal, careless [also spelt negligeel negh'see. 
negligee n. (loose gown of the i8th century; necklace) negh- 

'd3ii. 
negligee n., adj. negh'see. same meaning as negligi. 
negligible adj. (that may be disregarded; neglectable) 

'neghd39-b3l. 
negotiable adj, ni'goo-Sa-bal, ni'goo-Si-a-bal. 
negotiate v. (confer; manage; obtain; transfer; dispose oi) 

ni'goo-Si-et. 
negotiation n. ni-goSi'ee-$9n. 
Negrito n. (one of a diminutiv Malayo-polynesian negroid 

race) ni'g^ii-to. 
negro n. black man [ploral negroes^ and, formerly, negrosl 

'nii-gro; (dialectally) 'nigro. 
neigb v.,n, whinny [as verb, past participle and preterit 

neighed, neighdl nee. 
neighbor n.,adj.,v. [also spelt neighbour; as verb, past par- 
ticiple and preterit neighbored, neighbord"] 'nee-ba?. 
neigbborbood n. [also spelt neighbourhoodi 'nee-bs^-hod. 
neigbboring adj. [also spelt neighbouring"] 'nee-ba-riq, (as- 

sumptivly) 'nee-ba^io; {rapidly) 'nee-b^iq. 
neitber adv., conj., adj.-pron., noun-pron. 'nii-ba?, 'nai-&3?. 
nematocyst n. (lasso-cell, thread-cell) 'nemata-sist. 
Neniean adj, of Nemea [also spelt Nemaean"] ni'mii-an, 'nii- 

mi-an. 
neniertine adj, of the ribbon-worms [also, sometimes, spelt 

nemertini ni'me^tin, ni'mo^-tain. 
nennpbar n. (water-lily) 'nenjo-fa?, 'nenjo-fa?. 
neo-Latin n. (New Latin) ni-o'lstin, ni-o'laetn. 
neologism n. (use of new words; new expression; tendency 

toward new doctrins) ni'ela-dsizam. 
neologize v. [also spelt neologise] ni'ela-dsaiz. 
necpbyte n. (new convert; tyro) 'nii-a-fait. 
nepentbe n. (magic potion) ni'pentGi, ni'penGi, {older) ni- 

'pen-Gi. 
nepentbes n. (magic potion; nepenthe) ni'pen-Giz. 

c: \aw, b: f Mr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



358 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

nephemr n. brother's or sister's son [dialectal synonymous 

cognates nevey, ncfft\ 'nefiu, 'ncviu. 
nephritis n. (inflammation of the kidneys) ni'f^ai-tis, ni- 

'f3ii-tis. 
nepotism n. (papal favoritism to nephews, etc.) 'nii-pa-tizdm, 

'nep3-tiz3m. 
nepotist n. 'nii-p9-tist, 'neps-tist. 
Nereid n. (sea-nymph) 'ni:-d-id. 
nereid n. (sea-centipcdc ; nereis) 'ni:-?i-id. 
Nereides n. pi. (nercids) ni'?ii-i-diz, 'ni:-?i-i-diz. 
nerite n. nerita, a gastropod [synonymous cognate neriti 'm:- 

eait, 'ne-zrait. 
nerve n. sinew, tendon; strength; impulse-conveying fiber; 

courage; coolness [also spelt nerv'i neiev. 
nerved adj. having a nerve; ribd [also spelt nervdj nBiTvd. 
nervine adj. (acting on the nerves) 'neie-vin, 'nBis-vain, 

'nD:?-vin. 
nervose adj. (of the nerves; nervd) ns^Voos, {assumptivly) 

'nei^-vos. 
nervous adj. (sinewy; vigorous; of nerves, etc.; excitable) 

'nB:2-v3s. 
nervy adj. (vigorous; sinewy; cool; jerky; requiring nerve) 

'nD:?-vi. 
nescience n. (lack of knowledge; ignorance) 'neSsns, 'neji- 

sns, 'mi-Sons, 'nii-Ji-ans; {less properly) 'nesgsns, 'nesi-sns. 
nescient adj. (ignorant; agnostic) 'ne^snt, 'neSi-snt, 'nii-Jant, 

'nii-Si-ont. 
nestle v, (make a nest; settle snugly) 'nesal, 'nesl; {errone- 
ously) 'nrstl. 
nestling n. (bird) 'ncstLiq, 'ncsz.ii]. 
nestling n. (action of the verb nestle) 'nesi-iq. 
net adj. clear; lowest [also spelt netti net 
nether adj. (lower, under) 'nedo?. 

neuralgia n. (pain in a nerve) njo'^aeldsD, njo'^aeldsi-a. 
neuritis n. (inflammation of a nerve) njo'rai-tis, njo'eii-tis. 
neurology n, (science of nerves) nju'zrola-dsi. 
neurosis n. nerve-disease; nerve-change [plural ncurosesj 

nju'roo-sis. 
neuter adj. (neither masculin nor feminin; neither activ 

nor passiv; intransitiv; neutral) 'njou-ta?; (dialectally) 

'nou-tor. 
neutral adj. (not activ cither way; indifferent) 'njou-tjal; 

(dialectally) 'nou-tjal. 

] yc, gcure; b the, f/iin; 3 arure, dj/oy; I shoe, tjc/icw; 
lUTi'/ien; rjsbig; u whoever, i r^act, o f «11, ou fool, lit, lisfir; 
o poetic ; over, c oerial, a b«t, o: door, do no, e bed, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 359 

neutralization n. [also spelt neutralisationl njut£9h'zee- 

San, njutja-lai'zee-San. 
neutralize v. [also spelt neutralisel 'njou-tja-laiz. 
neutrally adv, 'njuu-tj9-h. 
neur adj, (not existing before; novel) njou, (when unstrest) 

nju; (also, dialectally) nou, nu. 
neurel n. (pillar) 'njou-al. 
neurf angled adj, njou'faeq-gald, (assumptivly) 'njou-faeq- 

gdld. 
Neurfoundland n. (dog) njo'faun-dtdnd, 'njuu-fsn-dldnd, 

njufand'laend. 
neivspaper «. (news-sheet) 'njouz-pee-pa?, 'njous-pee-pa?; 

(dialectally) 'nouz-pee-p3?, 'nous-pee-po?. 
neivsy adj. (full of news) 'njou-zi. 
nexus n. bond, tie, link [ploral nexus\ 'neksds. 
nexus n. free-born person bound' by a nexum [ploral nexil 

'neksds. 
niaiserie n. (simplicity; foolishness) ni'ee-zs-^i. 
Nicaraguan adj., n. nik9'?a:-gw9n, nikd'^segju-dn. 
nice-looking adj. nais'lokiq, (assumptivly) 'nais-lukig. 
Nicene adj. (of Nicaea) 'nai-sin, nai'siin. 
nicety n. formerly, folly; shyness; latterly, scrupulosity; 

fastidiousness; nice point; detail [plural niceties'^ 'nai-si-ti. 
niolie n. (recess) nit^. 
nickel n. (metal) 'nikal, 'nikl, 'nikil, 
nicknack n. 'nik-nsek. see knickknack. 
nicotian adj. (of tobacco) ni'koo-Jan, ni'koo-Si-an. 
nicotine n. alkaloid in tobacco [also, sometimes, spelt nico- 

tinl 'nika-tin, 'nika-tin. 
nictitating adj. (winking) 'nikti-tetirj. 
niece n. (daughter of one's brother or sister) mis. 
nigk adv,, adj. (near) nai. 
nigkt n, (dark half of the day) nait. 
nikilism n. (negativ doctrin; nothingness; doctrin of the 

Russian nihilists) 'nai-i-hzam, 'nai-hi-hzam. 
nikilist n. 'nai-i-list, 'nai-hi-hst. 

nikilistic adj. (of nihilism) nai-i'hstik, nai-hi'hstik. 
nihility n. (nullity) nai'hih-ti. 
nilgkau n. 'nil-gc: . same meaning as nylghau. 
nimbose adj. (cloudy) 'nim-bos, nimlaDos. 
nincompoop n. (blockhead, simpleton, ninny) 'niqkam-pup. 
nineteen n. (numeral) nain'tiin, (anteriorly; by contrast) 

'nain-tin. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, go now, a: osk, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



360 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

nineteen adj. nain'tiin, (assumptivly) 'nain-tin. 

nineteenth adj. nain'tiinO, (assutnptivly) 'nain-tinO. 

nisi conj, (in law, unless) 'nai-sai. 

nisns n. (effort) 'nai-sds. 

nit n. (egg of a louse) nit. 

niter n. potassium nitrate; saltpeter [also spelt nitrel 'nsi- 

td?. 
nitrify r. (convert into niter; become niter) 'nai-tcx-fai. 
nitrile n. cyanogen compound [also spelt nitril, nitryW] 'nai- 

t£ll. 

nitrobenzene n. (nitrobenzol) nai-tco-ben'ziin, naz-tso'bcn- 

zin. 
nitrogen n. (element) 'nai-t£9-d3in. 
nitrogenize v, combine with nitrogen [also spelt niirogenisel 

nai'tjed3i-naiz, 'nai-t£3d3i-naiz. 

nitroglycerin n. explosiv' [also spelt nitroglycerinel naz>tt3- 
'ghs3-2in, 

nitry adj. obsolete (nitrous) 'nai-tji. 

nitryl n. (nitric peroxide, a radical) 'nai-tsd. 

Nizani n. (ruler of Hyberabad; Turkish army; soldier) nz- 
'za:m, ni'zaem. 

no n. denial; negativ vote [plural noes, no'sl noo. 

no adj. not any, etc. [dialectal synonymous cognates : na, 
naa, nae, nca, neah, nee, neea, ney, neye, nel nao, (when 
unstrcst) no, no. 

no adv, expressing dissent, etc. [dialectal synonymous cog- 
nate nal noo, (when unstrest) no, no; (occasionally) naop, 
nop ; (vulgarly ; offensivly) nc: , nA ; (dialectally) na: . 

nob n. person of wealth or social distinction; swell [former 
synenymous cognate nabi neb. 

nob n. head, knob ; in cribbage, knave of the same suit as the 
turn-up card [also, formerly, spelt nobb"] neb. 

nobbed adj, having nobs ; knobbed [also spelt nobdl nebd. 

noblesse n. noble birth; nobility [also, formerly, spelt mo- 
bless, noblesl no'bles. 

noctnrn n. (in the Roman Catholic Church, one of the divi- 
sions of the office of matins) 'nek-te^n. 

noctnrn adj, obsolete (nocturnal) 'nek-tarn. 

nocturnal adj. (of the night) nek'ternl, nok'terr-nl. 

noctnme n. in painting, night-piece; in music, nottumo 
[also spelt nocturni 'nek-te^n. 

nodal adj. (of a node) 'noo-dl, 'noo-dol. 

noddle n. (head) 'nedl. 

j ye, Qcure; 5 */ie. Of/tin; 3 a-Ture, d3/oy; S ^^oe, t$ cAew; 
luwAen; rising', u whoever, i react, o full, oufool, itt, lis^r; 
o poetic; s over, e aerial, Abut, 0: door, oo no, ebed, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 361 

nodose adj. (having knots or nodes; knotty) no'doos, (as- 

sumptivly) 'noo-dos. 
nodule n. (rounded lump; small node or knot) 'ne-djul, 'ne- 

dsul. 
nodulose adj. (knotty, nodulous) nedjoloos, (jassumptivly) 

'nedjo-los. 
noetic adj. (of the mind) no'etik. 

nog n. peg, block; knag, snag, stump [also spelt nogg'[ nog. 
nog n, beer; egg-nog [also spelt nogg'\ neg. 
nogg^in n. (vessel; mug) 'negin. 
nogging n. (brick filling) 'negiri. 
noisonie adj. (harmful; offensiv) 'nei-ssm. 
noisy adj. (making a noise; full of noise) 'nei-zi. 
noniad n. wanderer, roamer, rover [synonymous cognate no- 
made^ 'noo-mad, 'ne-maed, 'neniad. 
noniadic adj, (wandering; of nomads) no'maedik. 
noniadize v. live as nomads; roam [also spelt nomadise'] 

'nema-daiz. 
noni de plunie n. (pen-name) 'nendi-pLoum. 
nonie n. (province) noom. 
nonie n. rule of musical composition [synonymous cognate 

nomos} nDom. 
nonien n. name [ploral nominal 'noo-man. 
nonienclatnre n. (name; list; system of names; terminolo- 
gy) 'noo-man-ktetSa^, no'menkta-tSo^. 
nominative adj. noting the subject; nominated [also spelt 

nominativl 'nemina-tiv, (assumptivly) 'nomi-nativ, 'nemna- 

tiv. 
noniooanon n. (collection of canons, etc.) no'melo-nen, 'noo- 

ms-kaensn. 
nonage n, (minority; immaturity) 'nenids, 'noo-nids. 
nonage n. (ninth part) 'noo-nids. 
nonce n. (one occasion; once) nents, nens. 
nonchalance n. (state of being nonchalant) 'nen^a-ldns, 

'nentja-lans. 
nonchalant adj. (lacking warmth of feeling, indifferent, 

unconcernd) 'nenja-lant, 'nentja-lant. 
non-conibatant n. nen'kembi-tnt. 
non-coniniissioned adj. [also spelt non-commissiond] nen- 

ka'mijand, (assumptivly) 'nen-ka-miSand. 
none n. (daily office said at the ninth hour or 3 p.m.; nones) 

noon. 
none noun-pron., adj.-pron., adv. nAn ; (dialectally) non. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, go now, a: ask, ai kite; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



362 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

nonentity n. (non-existence; figment; nothing) nen'enti-ti. 
nones n. (the eighth day before the ides; also, a daily office 

said at the ninth hour, or 3 p.m.) noonz. 
nonjuror n. (one who refused to swear allegiance to the 

sovereign) nen'dsar-^ar, 'nen-dsor-raz. 
nonpareil adj. (having no equal; peerless) nenp^'ztl, nempa- 

'zel; (improperly) nenpd'riit. 
nonplus n,, adj. 'nen-pLAs. 
nonplus V. (bring to a nonplus or standstill; perplex) nen- 

'pi.As, 'nen-pi<AS. 
nonplussed adj. [also spelt nonplusti nen'pLAst, {assHmpHv' 

ly) 'nen-pi.Ast. 
nonsensical adj. (that is nonsense; absurd) nen'eensi-kd!, 

(asstimpHvly) 'nen-sensikDl, nen'sensTkdl. 
nook n, (corner; recess) nok; (dialectally) notik. 
noose n. (running knot; loop) nuus; (less properly) nous. 
noose V, knot [past participle and preterit noosed, noost"] 

nauz, nous. 
nor conj. (and not ; than) ne:z, (when less sir est) nee, nx, tig. 
normalize v. [also spelt normalise'^ 'ne:7-m3-)aiz. 
northeast adj. ne:76'iist, (assumptivly) 'ne:sr8-iist, (or, when 

less strest) 'ner^G-ist. 
northerner n. (nativ or resident of the north) 'ne:7-d3>n3?. 
northxirard adj. (toward the north) 'no:r9-ward. 
nortlmirest adj. nexG'west, (assumptivly) 'ne:r6-west. 
nosology n. (classification or science of diseases) no'sela- 

dsi. 
nostalgia n. (severe homesickness) nes'taeldsa, nes'taeldsi-a. 
nostrum n. (quack medicin; pet scheme) 'nestsam; (improp- 
erly) 'noo-st£3m. 
not adv. (expressing negation) net, (when unstrest) nat, nt. 
nota bene phrase (note well, mark carefully) noo-t^'bii-iii, 

noo-taTDii-ni. 
notable adj. (noteworthy; noticeable) 'noo-ta-bal; (capable, 

bustling : said of women) 'noo-t3-bol, 'nets-bah 
notate adj. (markt with spots or lines) 'noo-tet. 
notator n. (noter, recorder; one skild in musical notation) 

no'tee-t3?. 
noteurortby adj. (worthy of notice) 'noot-WBzrbi. 
nothing noun-pron., adv. 'nAGiij; (dialectally) 'nAOin, 'tuSn; 

'neGiq, 'neGin. 
notice n. intimation, warning; heed, note [also spelt notis'] 

'noo-tis. 

j yc, q cure; 5 the, G thin; 5 arurc, ds ;oy; J shoe, tj chevr; 
wwhen; i3siw<7; u whoever, 1 rract, o f«ll, ou fool, n't, liseei 
o poetic; o ov^r, e aerial, a bwt, o: door, oo no, e b^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 363 

notice v. notify; remark upon; observe; recognize [also spelt 

notis; past participle and preterit noticed, notisti 'noo-tis. 

noticeable adj. 'noo-tisa-bal, (assumptivly) 'noo-tissbsl, 

(and, sometimes, rapidly) 'notsabal. 
notochord n. (chorda dorsalis; primitiv backbone) 'noo-t3- 

ke:zd. 
nought n^, adj, nc:t. see naught. 

nonmenal adj. (of a noumenon) 'naa-mi-nl, 'nou-mi-nl. 
nounienon n. object of purely intellectual intuition; thing 
in itself [ploral noumena} 'nao-mi-nen ; (less properly) 'nou- 
mi-nen. 
nous n, rnind; gumption [also spelt nouse, nowsel naos, nous. 
nonveau riclie n. [ploral nouveaux riches} nuvo'^iij. 
novel adj. (new) 'neval. 
novelize v. make novel; produce a novelty; convert into a 

novel [also spelt novelise} 'neva-laiz. 
novelty n. something new [ploral novelties} 'neval-ti. 
novercal adj, (of a stepmother) no've^kal, no'vBi^-kal. 
novice n. probationer; tyro [also spelt novis} 'nevis. 
novitiate «. probationary period; notice; tyro; noviceship 

[also spelt noviciate} no'viji-et, no'viji-at. 
nomradays adv. in these days; in the present age [also spelt 

now-a-days} 'nau-a-deez. 
noDvay adv. not at all; by no means [synonymous cognate 

noways} 'noo-wee. 
NoDvel n. Christmas [also spelt Nowell, Noel} no'el, 'noo-el. 
noDvel n. (the inner part or core of a mold for casting hollow 

cylinders, etc.) no'el, 'noo-al, 'nau-al. 
noTvise adv. (in no way; in no respect) 'noo-waiz. 
noxious adj. (injurious, hurtful) 'nekjas. 
noyade n. (putting to death by drowning) nwe'ja:d. 
nozle n. socket; spout; nose [also spelt nozzle} 'nezal. 
nnance n. (slight variation; shade of color; delicate grada- 
tion) nju'eqs. 
nubile adj, marriageable [also, sometimes, spelt nuhil} 'njou- 
bil; (dialectally) 'nou-bil; (also, rarely) 'njou-bail, 'nou- 
bail. 
nuclei n. (ploral of nucleus) 'njou-kti-ai. 
nucleolus n. small nucleus; paranucleus [ploral nucleoli} 

njo'ktii-a-las, 
nucleus n, kernel; central mass [ploral nuclei} 'njou-kti-as. 
nude adj, (not formally attested or recorded; naked, bare) 
njoud; (dialectally) noud, 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy, a: far, ao noiVy a: osk, ai ktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



364 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

nudge v. (touch, push, or poke with the elbow, to cmU fttten- 

tion) nAds. 
nudity n. (state or fact of being nude; nude figure) 'njou- 

di-ti; (dialectally) 'nou-di-ti. 
nugatory adj, (trifling; futil) 'njou-gd-tozi, 'njoa-ga-tan. 
nugget n. (rough lump of nativ gold; lump) 'nxgit. 
nuisance n. (hurt; annoyance, plague) 'njou-sdns; (jdiaitc- 

tally) 'nou-sdns. 
numb adj. deprived of feeling [also spelt numi nAm. 
numbed adj. deprived of feeling [also spelt numd'\ nAmd. 
numbered adj, reckond by number; markt with a number 

[also spelt numberdi 'uAmbs^d. 
numeric adj, obsolete (identical) nju'merik. 
nunicrous adj. (plentiful; many) 'njou>m9-738, 'njnmeas. 
numismatic n. (of coins) n jumis'mxtik ; (less properly} 

njumiz'maetik. 
nummulite n. (fossil cephalopod) 'nAmjo-lait. 
numskull n. (blockhead; dolt) 'nAm-skAl. 
nun n. (woman devoted to a religious life under vows) nAn. 
nunobeon n. luncheon [also spelt nunchioni 'uAntSan, (mi 

Britain) 'nAn Jan. 
nunciature n. (office of nuncio; period of office of a pa- 
pal nuncio) 'nAnJi-a-tSo^, 'nAnJi-a-tQu?. 
nuncio n. messenger; papal agent [also spelt nuntio; ploral 

nunciosl 'nAnJi-o. 
nuncupative adj, oral; rarely, designativ [also spelt nim- 

cupativl 'nAijkgu-petiv, 'nAnkgo-petiv, nAn'kgou-ps-tiv. 
nundinal adj,, n, (of a fair) 'nAndi-nl, 'nAndi-nst. 
nunnery n. convent [ploral nunneriesi 'nAna-ei. 
nuptial adj. (of marriage; of a wedding) 'nApJal. 
nursery n, (room for children; tree-garden, etc.) 'nsrsd-n, 

'nB:z-s5-zi, 'nsrssi, 'nB:?-S3i. 
nursling n. object of a nurse's care [also spelt nurseling} 

'nB^SLiq, 'nB:?s-lii3. 
nurture n. (breeding, food, care) 'nortSa?, 'nar^-tSaz, 'nsTtgdr. 
nntant adj. (drooping; pendent) 'njuu-tant. 
nutrient adj. (serving as food; nutrimental) 'njou-tji-ant. 
nutrinient n. (food) 'njou-tji-mant; (dialectally) 'nou-tii- 

mdnt. 
nutrition n. (action of nourishing; nutriment, food) nju- 

'tjijan; (dialectally) nu'tjijan. 
nutritious adj. nju'tjiSas; (dialectally) nu'tjijas. 
nutritive adj. [also spelt nutriiivl 'njuu-tji-tiv. 

j ye, Qcure; b the, f/iin; 3 arrure, d3/oy; I shoe, t^ chew', 
wwhen; rising; u whoever, i r^act, o fMll, ou fool, i it, lisee; 
o poetic; o ov^r, e aerial. Abut, o: door, oo no, c b^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 365 

nylghau n. antelope [also spelt nilgau, nilghau and, formerly, 

nylgau; synonymous cognates neelghau, nilgai, nilghye, nyl- 

ghat, neelgyel 'nil-gc: . 
nympli n. (maiden deity; dryad, naiad, etc.) nimf. 
XLympliean adj. (of a nymph; nymph-like) 'nimfi-an, nim- 

'fii-an. 
nymphenm. n. grotto or shrine of the nymphs [also spelt 

nymphaeum; ploral nymphea} nim'fiiTam. 



o prep, on [also spelt o'l o, (when less strest) o, a. 

O interj. expressing appeal, entreaty, invocation, surprise, 
pain, lament, gladness, etc. [also, especially when detacht 
from what follows, or when used as a cry of pain or terror, 
or when expressing shame, derisiv astonishment, or dis- 
approbation, spelt ohi 00, {when less strest) o, o. 

o prep, of [also spelt o'] o, {when less strest) o, 9. 

o n. zero, cipher; mere nothing; also, anything round, as a 
circle, round spot, orb [plural, in the sense of anything 
round, oes and, formerly, oaes, oos"] oo. 

O n. the interjection O [ploral O'sl oo. 

oaf n. elf's child; fool [obsolescent synonymous cognates 
ouph, auf; plural oafs, oavesi oof. 

oakum n. old-rope fiber [also, formerly, spelt okutn'\ 'oo-kam, 

oar n. (boat-oar) o:z. 

oasis n. fertil spot in a desert [ploral oases'] o'ee-sis, 'oo-a-sis. 

oatli n. solemn appeal to deity, etc.; curse [plural oathsl oo9. 

oaths n. (plural of oath) oodz; {less properly) ooOs. 

oatmeal n. (meal made from oats, etc.) 'oot-miil, oot'miil. 

obang n. (coin) 'oo-baeq, o'baetj. 

obbligato adj. indispensable [also spelt obligatol ©bh'gai-to. 

obduracy n. (stubbornness; relentlessness) 'obdjo^3-si, ob- 
'djo:-33-si; {dialectally) 'ebdazra-si. 

obdurate adj, (hardend in sin; inexorable) 'ebdjo-^at, ob- 
'djo:-^9t. 

obdurate v. (make obdurate) 'obdjo-ret, ©b'djo:-ret. 

obea n. sorcery [also spelt obeah, obeeyah ; synonymous cog- 
nates obi, obyl 'oo-bi-a. 

obedience n. (action of obeying) o'bii-di-ans, {when less 
strest) a^Dii-di-ans. 

obeisance n. (formerly, obedience; now, bow, curtsy; defe- 
rence) oTDee-sans, o'bii-sans. 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, o hot, oi hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ar kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



366 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

obelisk n. (tapering rectangular shaft or column; also, obe- 
lus) 'ebi-hsk. 

obelize v, mark with an obelus; condemn as spurious [also 
spelt obelise; former erroneous synonymous cognate obo- 
lizel 'obi-laiz. 

obelus n. spit-like dash or obelisk formerly used in manu- 
scripts to mark spurious passages; in modern use, a dagger 
indicating a foot-note, etc. [ploral obeli] 'ebi-las. 

obese adj, (very fat; exceedingly corpulent) oTjiis. 

obesity n. (state or quality of being obese) oTjesi-ti. 

obey V, comply with the bidding of ; mind [past participle and 
preterit obeyed, obeydl o'bee, (when less strest) d^bee. 

obfuscate v. darken; bewilder [synonymous cognate offus- 
catel ob'fAsket, 'eb-fAsket, 'ebfAS-ket. 

obi* n. 'oo-bi. same meaning as obea» 

obi* n. Japanese sash [ploral obis] 'oo-bi. 

obit n. death; obituary notice; memorial service [synony- 
mous cerinate obiit} 'oo-bit, 'ebit. 

obiter adv. (by the way) 'obi-tar. 

obituary n. (register of obit-days or deaths; death-notice) 
o'bitSu-csi; (also) o'bitQU-3-^i, {anteriorly) o^itgu-asi. 

object n. (thing, etc.) 'ebdsikt. 

object V. (expose to* oppose, etc.) ab'dsekt. 

objurgate v. (rebuke severely; chide, scold) ob'd3o:?-get, ab- 
'dsBi^-get, 'eb-d3B?-get. 

objurgatory adj, eb'd3o:?-go-tori ; (also) 9b'd5B:?-g9t9-ri, 
(assumptivly) ob'dsnizr-g^-tan. 

oblate adj. (flattcnd at the poles : opposed to prolate) eb- 
'leet, {assumptivly) 'o-blet. 

oblate V. (offer as an oblation) obleet. 

oblate n. (person devoted to a monastery or to religious 
work) eb'leet, 'o-blet. 

obligatory adj. (imposing obligation) 'obhga-tosri ; {also) 
'ebh-gato-zri, {assumptivly) 'ebligo-tan ; {also) 'oMi-gets-si, 
{assumptivly) 'ebh-geto^i ; {improperly) o'bliga-toei. 

oblige V, (engage; bind; constrain; compel) o'blaids, {when 
less strest) 3l)lnid3: {also, formerly) o'bhids. 

'obligee n. (one to whom another is bound by contract; also, 
one who is under obligation) obh'd^ii. 

obliger n. (one who obliges; one who binds or imposes an 
obligation upon another by contract; one who confers an 
obligation or favor) o'blni-dsa?. 

obligor n. (one who binds himself to another by contract; 

] ye, gcurc; htho, f/iin; 3 arure, d^/oy; W/joe, tScliew; 
luw/ien; qsingr; 11 whoever, i rract. o f j/11, cm fool. lit, lis^e; 
o poetic; 9 ov^r, e aerial, Abwt, o: door, 00 no, e b^d, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 367 

the person who gives a bond or obligation : correlativ of 

obligee) 'eWi-ge:?, ebh'ge:^, 
oblique adj., n., v, o'bhik, {when less strest) a'bhik ; (also, 

less often) o'blaik. 
obliquity n. (quality of being oblique; slant) o'bhkioi-ti. 
obliqnus n. muscle [ploral obliquij e'blai-kwds. 
obliterate v. (blot out; efface; destroy) e'bhta-sret, a'bhts«t. 
obloquy n. (evil-speaking; abuse) 'ebla-kiui. 
obnoxious adj. (exposed to harm; odious) eb'nek$3S, db^ 

'nekSas. 
oboe n, (hautboy; reed-stop) 'oo-bei, 'oo-bo-i, 'oo-bo-i. 
oboist n, (performer on the oboe) 'oo-bo-ist. 
obol n. silver coin of ancient Greece [also, formerly, spelt 

obolel 'ebal. 
obole n. (French coin) 'e-bol. 
obolus n. obol; also, obole [ploral obolQ 'eba-lss. 
obovate adj. (inversely ovate; egg-shaped with the broader 

end upmost or forward) eb'oo-vet. 
obreptiou n. (obtaining by craft) o'b^epSan, eb'^epSan. 
obscene adj, (disgusting; filthy; lewd) eb'siin, sb'siin. 
obscenity n, (obscene quality; foulness) ob'seni-ti, ab'seni-ti. 
obsonre adj. ab'skgor^; {sometimes, anteriorly) 'ebskgor. 
obseqnions adj, (obedient; cringing) eb'sii-kwi-9s, ab'sii-kwi- 

9S. 

obseqny n. funeral rite ; funeral [ploral obsequies'] 'obsi-ku)i. 
observe v. keep; perceive; watch [also spelt observ\ past par- 
ticiple and preterit observed, observd] ab'zei^v. 
obsolete adj. (no longer used; out of date) 'ebsa-Ht, (some" 

times predicativly or finally) ebss'hit. 
obstetric n. (of a midwife or accoucheur) eb'stctjik, ab- 

'stetjik. 
obtmde v. (thrust forth; thrust; intrude) ab'tjuud. 
obtmsive adj. [also spelt obtrusivl ab'tjou-siv; ab'tjou-zrv. 
obturator n. (something that stops up) 'ebtgo-zretar. 
obtuse adj. (blunt; dull) eb'tgous, ab't^ous; (dialectally) eb- 

'tous. 
obverse n. (side of a coin with the head, etc. : correlativ of 

reverse; face, front) 'eb-vo^s. 
obverse adj. (opposit; of leaves, narrower at the base than 

at the top; answering to a counterpart) eb'vei^s, (assump- 

tivly) 'eb-vB^s. 
ocarina n, (musical instrument) eka'^ii-na. 
occasion n. (opportunity; cause; juncture; event) aTcee-san. 

c: law, b: f mt, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



368 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

oooasionally adv, a'kee-sd-nt-i, {rapidly) alcee-sa-nli, {ttt^ 

teriorly) d'kee-sdnh. 
Occident n„adj. (west) 'eksi-dnt, 'eksi-ddnt. 
occipital adj, (of the occiput) ek'szpi-ti, ek'sipi-t^. 
occiput n. (back of the head) 'eksi^pat, 'eksx-pAt. 
occult adj, (hidden; recondite) sHcAlt, o'kAlt, '^-kjJt, 
occultism, n. d'kAi-tizam ; (less properly) 'e-kjd-tiz^m, 
occurrence n. (fact of occurring; event) dHcBSdns, alcAcsna. 
ocean n. (main sea) 'oo-Ssn* 
Oceanian adj. (of the Pacific ocean; of Oceania) oSi'ee-iii- 

9n, oSi'aeni-9n. 
oceanic adj. (of the ocean; ocean-like) o^i'snik. 
ocellate adj. (having ocelli; like an eye) 'esx-let, 'esi^dt, 

o'scldt. 
ocellus n. little eye; eyelet [ploral ocelli"] o'setds. 
ocelot n. (leopard-cat, tiger-cat) 'esi-lat, 'oo-si-let. 
ocher n. [also spelt ochre, okerj 'oo-kaz. 
ooherous adj. of the nature of or containing ocher; ocher- 

colord [synenymous cognates ochreous, ochrousj 'oo-kd-sas. 
oohery adj. ocher-colord ; of the nature of ocher [syneny- 
mous cognates ochry, ochreyl 'oo-ka-zi. 
oolireous adj, 'oo-ksi-as. same meaning as ocherous. 
ocrea n. sheath of a stem or seta ; bird's boot [also spelt och- 

rea; ploral ocreael 'eksi-3, 'oo-k^i-a. 
octagon n. (eight-angled figure) 'ekts-gon. 
octagonal adj. (eight-angled; eight-sided) ek'tsgd-nl, ek- 

'taga-nal. 
octahedron n. eight-sided solid [also spelt octahedron; syn- 
enymous cognates octaedrotif octoedron; ploral octahedrons, 

octahedral ekta'hii-dran. 
ootastyle adj. having eight columns in front or at the end 

[also spelt octostylel 'okta-stail. 
octave n. (period of eight days; group of eight lines; note; 

tone-group) 'ok-tev. 
octavo n. book-size [ploral octavosl ek'tee-vo, ok'ta:-vo. 
octet n. composition for eight voices, etc.; group of eight 

lines [also spelt octette, octetti ok'tet. 
octogenarian adj. (of the age of eighty years) ekta-dsi- 

'ne:-ri-3n. 
octogenary adj. (octogenarian) ok'todsi-neri, ok'todsi-na^i, 

'oktadsi-ne^i ; (improperly) ekta'dsii-na-^i. 
ootogynons adj. having eight pistils [synenymous cognate 

octagynousi ek'tedsi-nas. 

j .ve, Qcure; b the, G f/iin; 3 a^ure, dj/oy; ^ shoe, t^rAew; 
vowhen; rising; u whoever, i rract, o fwll, ou fool, i it, iise«* 
o poetic; 9 ov^r, e aerial, Abut, o: door, oo no, e b^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 369 

ootoped n. eight-footed animal or thing [synonymous cog- 
nate octopede"} 'okta-ped. 

octopus n, eight-armd cephalopod [ploral octopuses, octopi, 
octopodesl 'ekta-pas, ek'too-pas. 

octoroon n. (person having one-eighth negro blood) ektd- 
'zoun. 

octroi n. (tax) ek'tjuje, 'ek-tjei. 

octuple adj, (eightfold) 'ektgu-pd}. 

ocular adj. (of the eye; visual; visible) 'ekgo-la?. 

od n. (a supposed force) ed, ood. 

odal n. (shrub) 'oo-dal, 'ed9}. 

odalisk n. female slave or concubine [also spelt odalisque, 
odaliscl 'oo-da-hsk. 

odd adj. (not even; single; peculiar) od. 

ode n. (poem) ood. 

odeon n. 'oo-di-sn, o'dii-sn, o'dii-en. same meaning as ode- 
um. 

odeum n. music-hall [synonymous cognate odeon; ploral 
odeal o'dii-am. 

odio adj. (of the supposed force od) 'edik, 'oo-dik. 

odic adj. (of an ode) 'oo-dik. 

odious adj, (hateful; exciting odium) 'oo-di-as, (rarely) 'oo- 
djas; (vulgarly) 'oo-dsas. 

odium n. (hatred; opprobrium) 'oo-di-am. 

odize V, charge with odic force [also, rarely, spelt odise"] 'ed- 
aiz, 'e-daiz, 'oo-daiz. 

odontalg:ia n (toothache) o-den'tseldsa, o-den'txldsi-a. 

odor n. scent, smell [also spelt odour"] 'ao-da?. 

odoriferous adj, (bearing an odor; odorous) oda'?ifa-ras. 

odorless adj, [also spelt odourless"] 'ao-dar-las. 

odorous adj. (emitting an odor; fragrant) 'ao-da-?as. 

oeoology n. i'kola-dsi. see ecology. 

oedema n. iMii-ma. see edema, 

o'er adv. (over) o:z. 

oesophagus n. I'sefa-gas. see esophagus. 

oestrus w. (gadfly; sting; stimulus; oestrum) 'li-stjas, 'estjas. 

of prep, ev, (when unstrest) av (and, dialectally) a. 

off adv., prep. e:f , (when unstrest) of. 

offal M, (refuse, waste) 'e:-fal, 'efal. 

offense n. stumbling-block; attack; act of offending; mis- 
demeanor [also spelt offence] a'fents, a'fens. 

offensible adj, formerly, offensiv; later, liable to take of- 
fense [also, formerly, spelt offencible] a'fensa-bal. 

c: law, b: f Mr, ae cat, e hot, oi hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



370 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

offensive adj. aggressiv; displeasing [also spelt offensiv 
and, fermerly, offcncive'\ a'fentsiv, d'fcnsiv. 

offer V. present; give [past participle and preterit offered, 
offerdl 'o:-far, {when less strest) 'ef^z. 

office n. service; position; business-place [also spelt offisl 
'g*—£is 

official n. (officer) a'fiSal. 

officialize v, [also spelt officialise'^ d'fiSs^aiz. 

officiate v, (discharge an office) s^fi^i-et. 

officinal adj. (of an herb, plant, drug) s'fisi-nl, efi'sai-id. 

officious adj, (attcntiv; meddlesome) d'fi^as. 

offspring n. (progeny, issue) 'e:f-sp3ii]. 

oft adv, (often) e:ft. 

often adv. (many times; frequently) 'er-fan, {when less 
strest) 'efan; {in parts of the north of England and Scot- 
land, and the north of Ireland, whence also by some in 
America) 'e:f-t3n, 'e:f-tn. 

oftentimes adv, (many times; often) e:-f3n'taimz, (when 
less strest) efan'taimz; {anteriorly) 'e:-fan-taimz. 

ogee n. (double curve) o'dsii, 'oo-dsi. 

ogham n. old British and Irish alfabet [also spelt ogam, 
ogtim, oghum"] 'egam. 

ogive n. (pointed arch) 'oo-dsaiv, o'dsaiv, 'oo-dsiv. 

ogle V, (cast amorous glances; make eyes at; eye) 'oo-ga}. 

og^re n. (man-eating monster) 'oo-ga?. 

ogreisli adj, ogre-like [synonymous cognate ogrish"] 'oo-g»- 

og:ress n. (in heraldry, roundel sable; pellet) 'oo-gzis. 

ogress n. (female ogre) 'oo-g?is. 

oil interj. see O. 

oliin n. (unit of electric resistance) oom. 

oho interj. expressing surprise, taunting, exultation, etc. [also 
spelt o-ho, O ho, oh ho"] o'hoo. 

oiliness n. (oily quality, etc.) 'ei-h-nis. 

oillet n. eyelet; loophole [also spelt oylet, oeilette and, fer- 
merly, oilct, oeillct'] 'ei-ht. 

okapi n. (African quadruped) alcai-pi, 

okra n. plant [synonymous cognate okro'i 'oo-lrs3, 'oksa. 

old adj. (that has livd long; ancient, etc.) oold, {when f#ji- 
strcst) old, ol. 

olden adj. (of a bygone age; ancient) 'ool-dn, 'ool-dan. 

old-fashioned adj. oold'faeSand, (assumptirly) 'oold-faeSand. 

oleaginous adj. (oily, fatty) oli'aedsi-nDs. 

j .vc, g cure; d the, thin;^ 3 arure, d^ joy; S shoe, tj chew; 
wwhen; 13 singr; u whoever, i react, o f«ll, ou fool, i it, lis^^; 
o poetic; a over, e aerial. Abut, o: door, 30 no, e bed, cegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 371 

oleander w, (shrub) oH'aenda?; (less properly) 'oo-U-aendae. 

oleaster n. (wild olive) oli'aesta?. 

olefiant adj, (oil-making) o'hi-fi-ant, 'oo-h-fai-ant, o'lefi-ant, 
(rarely) 'eh-fai-9nt. 

oleic adj, (of oil; fatty) o'hi-ik, 'oo-H-ik, (rarely) 'oli-ik. 

olein n. (principle of oils and fats; elain) 'oo-li-in. 

oleo n, (oleomargarine) 'oo-li-o. 

oleomargarine n. artificial butter [also, sometimes, spelt 
oleomargarinl oH-o'mai^-ga-rin, oli-o'mai^-ga-^in ; (less prop- 
erly) oli-o'ma:r-d39-rin. 

olfactory adj. (of smell) erfaekt9-?i, (assumptivly) erfaekta^i, 
(rapidly) el'faektji. 

olibannm n. (gum-resin) o'hbd-nsm. 

oligarchy n, (government by the few; small body of exclu- 
siv rulers) 'eh-garki. 

oligemia n. deficiency of blood [also spelt oligaemial eh- 
'd3ii-mi-9, 

olio n. hodgepodge, farrago, medley [also spelt ogliol 'oo-li-o. 

olive n, tree; fruit; color [also spelt olivl 'ehv, 

olivet n. (olive-grove) 'oh-vit. 

olivet n, olive, an oval button; false pearl [synonymous cog- 
nate olivette"] 'eh-vet. 

olivil n. substance from olive-tree gum [also spelt olivile'] 
'eh-vil. 

olivine n. olive-green chrysolite [also, sometimes, spelt oli- 
vinl 'eh-vin, 'eh-vain. 

ollalim n. learned man [also, sometimes, spelt ollav, ollave, 
ollam] 'ebv, 'elam. 

olla podrida n. (Spanish meat-dish; hodgepodge, olio) ola- 
po'dni-da. 

olympiad n, (period of four years between successiv Olym- 
pian games) D'hmpi-aed, o'hmpi-ad. 

ombre n. card-game [also, sometimes, spelt omber; synony- 
mous cognate hombre"} 'emba?, 'oom-bra. 

omega n. (Greek letter; last word) o'mii-ga, o'mega, 'oo-mi- 
ga. 

omelet n. dish made of eggs, etc. [also spelt omelette} 'oma- 
lat, 'emlat. 

omen n, (presage, augury) 'oo-man. 

omicron n. (Greek letter) 'omi-lcsen, o'mai-k^an. 

ominons adj. (of omen; of evil omen) 'emi-nas, (assump' 
tivly) 'eminas. 

omissible adj. (capable of being omitted) o'misa-ba!. 

c: law, 19: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy\ a: far, Q^^ notv, a: ask, ai ktte; 
length-mnrk (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



372 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

omit V. (leave out) o'mit, (when less strest) ymit. - 
onmeity n. allness [synonymous cognate omnieiyl em'iui-x* 

ti. 
omniety n. em'nai-i-ti. same meaning as omneity, 
omnipotent adj. (almighty, all-powerful) om'nipd-tnt, mih 

'nip9-t9nt; (assumptivly) em'nipdtnt, em'nipdtant. 
omnisoienoe n. (infinit knowledge) om'nxSdns, om'niSi-mu; 

{less properly) em'niSQ9ns» em'nisi-ans. 
omoplate n. shoulder-blade, scapula [synonymous cognate 

omoplaf] 'oo-ma-pteet. 
on prep, (upon, at, etc.) en, (when unstrest) an, s. 
onager n. (wild ass) 'ons-dsdz:. 
onanism, n. (masturbation) 'oo-no-nizdm. 
once adv, (one time) wAnts, (also, and in Britain normally) 

WAns, (also, sometimes, when unstrest) wans. 
one noun-pron. (individual, somebody, something) wAn, (pfh€n 

unstrest) wan. 
one-horse adj. wAu'heirs, (assumptivly) 'wAn-he:n. 
oner n. (slang) one who is unique [also spelt one-erl VAnav. 
onera n. (plural of onus) 'ena-za. 
onerous adj. (burdensome) 'ena-zds, (assumptivly) 'enaeas; 

(less properly) 'oo-na-^os. 
oneself noun-pron. (one's self) wAu'self, (with less stress) 

wan'self, 
one-sided adj. wAu'sai-did, (assumptivly) 'wAn-sax-did, 
onion n. (plant) 'Anjsn. 

only adj., adv., conj. 'oo-nh ; (dialectally) 'onh. 
onomatopoeia n. echoism [synonymous cognate onomaiO' 

poesis"] ena-maeta'pii-a, ena-maeta'pii-ja, o-nemdta'pii-ja. 
onomatopoeic adj. ena-mxtd'pii-ik, o-nemdtd'pii-ik. 
onomatopoesis n. (onomatopoeia) end-msta-po'ii-uSi 

o-nemat^-po'ii-sis. 
onto prep, [also spelt on to] 'onto, (when less strest) 'enta. 
onus n. burden [ploral oneral '30-n3s. 
onyx n. agate-like quartz [also, formerly, spelt onix} 'eniki, 

'oo-niks. 
oolite n. roe-stone [also spelt odlite'\ '30-9-lait. 
oolog:y n. study of birds'eggs; egg-collecting [also spelt oBlo- 

gyl o'eb-dsi. 
oolong n. tea [also spelt oulongi 'uu-leg. 
ooze V. exude [past participle and preterit oozed, oosd} ow. 
opacity n. (darkness; opaqueness; lack of transparency) 

o'paesi-ti. 

j ye, g cure ; d the, 9 //tin ; 3 a;jure, ds joy ; S shoe, tS ckewl 
w when ; q sin^ ; u whoever, i r^act, o full, ou fool, i tt, li Btf#; 
o poetic; 9 ov^r^ e aerial, Ab^t, ^idoor, 00 no, eb^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 373 

opal n. (quartz-like hydrous silica; gem) 'oo-p9t; (impraperiy) 

opalescence n. (opaline or milky iridescence) opdlesans* 

opaline adj. (of opal) 'oo-ps^in, 'oo-p9-}in, 'ao-pd-laxsi. 

opalise v. [also spelt opalise'] 'oo-pa-laiz. 

opaque adj. (dark; not transparent) o'peek. 

open adj., n., v, [as verb, past participle and preterit o^entd, 

opend'\ 'oo-pan, (when unstrest) 'oo-pm. 
open-handed adj, oo-psn'haendid, (jusumptivly) 'ao-pon- 

haendid. 
opening; n. (action of the verb open\ vacant space* etc.) 'oo- 

pd-niq, 'oop-niq, 'oo-pNiq, {sometimes) 'oo-pm-iq. 
opera n. (musical drama) 'ep3-z9, (anteriorly) 'opsro, 'opss. 
operative adj.,n, [also spelt operativl 'eps-setiv; (also) 

'epara-tiv, (anteriorly) 'epa-eativ, 'epsativ. 
ophite n. (serpentine marble) 'e-fait, 'oo-fait 
ophthalmic adj. efOaelmik; (less properly) ep'daelmik. 
opiate n. (medicin containing opium; narcotic) 'oo-pi-et, 'oo- 

pi-3t. 
opinable adj. (capable of being opined or thought) o'pax-na^ 

b^; (formerly) 'epina-bdl. 
opine V. (express an opinion; think; suppose) o'pain. 
opinion n. (what one thinks; belief, notion) o'pinjdn. 
opodeldoc n. (liniment) epa'del-dek. 

opossum n. marsupial [synonymous cognate possumi a'pesanu 
opponent n. (antagonist, adversary) a'poo-nant; (impropgr" 

ly) 'opa-nant. 
opportune adj. (fit; timely) epaz'tgoun, (sometimes, assump- 

tivly) 'epar-tgun. 
opportunity n. (opportuneness; chance) epae^tgou-ni-ti. 
opposite adj. placed over against; contrary; reverst [also 

spelt opposif] 'epa-zit, (assumptivly) 'epazit, 'epsit. 
oppositifolious adj. (situated opposit a leaf) a-pezitz'fao- 

H-as. 
opprobrium n. (disgrace, infamy, reproach) a'p930-bd-9m. 
oppugn V. (fight against; assail) a'pgoun. 
oppusnant adj. (opposing; repugnant) a'pAgnant. 
oppugner n. (one who oppugns; opponent) a'pQou-nar. 
optimize v, act as an optimist; make the best of [also spelt 

optimisel 'opti-maiz. 
opulent adj. (rich, wealthy; splendid) 'epgo-lant 
opuscle n. (opuscule) a'pAsal, o'px^. 
opuscule n. (a small work) a'pA-skgul. 

o: law, b: iur, se cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, go now, a: ask, ax ktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound xs leng; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief strew Qt\ t^^ teUowiiig vyllabu^ 



374 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 



OP conj. e:z, (when less strest) ez, ar. 

oral adj, (spoken, verbal; of the mouth) 'o:-?al. 

orangeade n. (beverage) e^inds'ced. 

OranKeisiii n. principle of the Orange Association, or of 

Protestant ascendancy in Ireland [also spelt Orangitm] 

'e^in-dsizam. 
orangery n. (place for rearing orange-trees) 'eexiids9-ei, 

'ezind$-zi. 
orang-ontang n. anthropoid ape [also spelt orang-uttmg, 

ourang-outang; synonymous cognate orang-utan'] o'zstQO-'taaii, 

0-ZXT}0'tXT}. 

orate v. (hold forth, speechify) 'oi-ret, o'reet. 

oratorize v. play the orator; speechify [also spelt oratorise} 

'er9t3-raiz. 
ore n. cetacean [also, formerly, spelt orki e:zk. 
orcein n. (red coloring-matter from orcin) 'e:e-si-in. 
orohestra n. (part of a theater; company of musicians, etc) 

'e:z-ki-sti^ ; (less properly) or'kestja. 
oroliestral adj. (of an orchestra) c^'kestjal. 
orchid n. (a plant of the Orchidcae or orchis order; an or- 
chidaceous plant) 'e:?-kid. 
orcUl n. dye [synonymous cognate archil"} 'ei^-tjil, 'eizAah 
orcliilla n. orchil; also, orchilla-wecd [synonymous cognate 

orchellal e^'tSila. 
orcliis n. (plant of the genus Orchis or of the order Orchi- 

deae; typical orchid) 'o:r-kis. 
orcin n. colorless substance from orchilla-weed ; orcinol [also 

spelt orcinc'\ 'err-sin. 
ordeal n. (trial; trying experience) 'e:r-di-al, 'o:e-dil; {less 

properly) er'dii-al. 
ordinal adj, (marking position in an order or series; of an 

order) 'ei^-dn-sl, 'eir-di-nl, 'oir-di-nsl. 
ordinal n. (rule-book; service-book) 'er^-dn-al, 'e:?-di-nl, 'e»- 

di-nal. 
ordinance n. (regulation; decree) 'oi^-dn-ans, 'orz-di-nans. 
ordinarily adv. (usually, commonly) 'e:r-dn-e?i-}i, 'e:?-di- 

ne^i-h; {occasionally or vulgarly) o<rdn'e?i-h, erdi'ncri-li. 
ordinate adj, (orderly, regular) 'e:?-dn-3t. 
ordinate v. (order, regulate; ordain; coordinate) 'e:z-dn-ett 

'o:2r-di-net. 
ordnance n. (artillery) 'erzrd-nans. 
ordure n. (dung) 'ei^-dsor, 'ei^-djozr. 
ore n. (metalliferous mineral) o:r, 

j ye, Qcure; "6 the, Of/iin; 3 a::ure, d^/oy; S 5/ioe, \.\chew\ 
U)Tf'/ien; i] singr; u whoever, i r^^act, o f wll, ou fool, 1 1 1, lisef; 
o poetic; 9 ov^r, e aerial, Ab«t, o: door, 30 no, eb^d, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 375 

organization n. [also spelt organisation'\ e^gani'zee-San, 
e^ga-nai'zee-San. 

organize v. [also spelt organise^ 'e:^-g3-naiz. 

organzine n. best silk thread [also, sometimes, spelt organ- 
xrin] 'er^-gan-zin, 'e:^-g3n-zin. 

orgeat n. (syrup) 'e:e-3aet, 'ei^-dsi-at, ez'^a: . 

orgninette n. (mechanical musical instrument) ergi'net. 

orgy n. rite; debauchery [also spelt orgie; ploral orgies} 'e:z- 
dsi; {erroneously) 'e:r-gi. 

oribi n. antelope [also spelt orebi; synonymous cognates 
orabie, ourehi, oribe} 'e^i-bi. 

orichalc n. (some yellow ore or alloy of copper prized by 
the ancients) 'e^i-kaelk. 

oriel n. (portico, recess) 'oi-d-al. 

orient n„ adj. (east) 'oi-^i-ant. 

orient v, (place so as to face the east; find the bearings of) 
'o:-^i-ent, o:-2i'ent. 

orientalize v. [also spelt orientalise} ori'entl-aiz. 

orientate v. (orient) 'o:-^i-3n-tet, o^i'en-tet. 

orifice n. opening, aperture [also spelt orifis} 'ezi-fis^ 

oriflamme n. [also spelt oriflamb and, formerly, oriflam} 
'e^i-f^aem. 

original adj, (of the origin ; first) o'^idsi-nl, o'^idsi-nal ; {as- 
sumptivly) oVidsinl, o'^idsingl; {sometimes, rapidly) 
o'zi^^nl, o'^idsnal. 

orillion H. part of the defense of a bastion [synonymous cog- 
nates orillon, oreillon} o'ziXi^n. 

oriole n. (bird) 'oi-^i-ol. 

orison n. (prayer) 'ezi-zDn, 'ezi-s^n. 

ormoln n. (gold-leaf; gilded bronze, etc.) 'oi^-ma-lu, 'er^-ma- 
Iju, 0:^-m3'lou. 

ornament n. (accessory; decoration) 'eizr-na-mant. 

ornament v. (adorn) 'eizr-na-mant, o^na'ment. 

ornate adj, (ornamented; flowery) er'neet, 'erzr-net. 

ornithichnite n. (fossil footmark) o^ni'Gik-nait; {less prop- 
erly) e^'niGik-nait. 

Ornithogean adj. (of the Ornithogaea or New Zealand re- 
gion) ez^niGa'dsii-an, ozr-nai-Go'dsii-sn, ezr-nai-Go'gii-an, 

ornithology n. (science of birds) o^ni'Gela-dsi. 

ornithomancy n. (divination by means of birds; augury) 
'er^-niGa-msensi, er'niGa-maensi, e^'nai-Go-maensi. 

ornithorliynclina n. (duckbill) e^niGd'^irjkds, e?-nai-G3- 
'rirjkas. 

c: \azv, b: iur, se cat, e hot, oi boy ; a: for, go now, a: flsk, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



376 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

oroide n. gold-colord alloy of copper and unk [alM, acme- 
times, spelt oroidl 'o:-reid, 'o:-?o-id, 'oi-zo-aid. 

orotiind (uij. (full ; rich : said of the voice) 'oi-K^-tAud, {iess 
often) 'e;9-tAnd; (also sometimes, finally) a:-r9'tASid« asa- 
'tAnd 

Orphean adj, (of Orpheus) 'e:7-fi-3n, es^fii-an. 

orphrey n. gold embroidery; border; band [alio apelt Cf^ 
fray"] 'o:r-f3i, 'eir-f^e. 

orpin n. plant [also spelt orpitfel 'e:z-pin, 

orrery ». (device to show the motions of the planets) 'aea' 
zi. 

orthoolaae n. (potash feldspar; orthose) 'e:7-69-ki.ea, '•:«- 

orthodromy n. (sailing on a great circle) er'Bedca-mi, '•»- 

Ga-dromi, 'e:^-03-dremi. 
orthoepio adj, of orthoepy [also spelt orthoepici e:r-Oo'epxk. 
ortlioepist n. one verst in orthoepy [also spelt arthoipitil 

e^'9oo-i-pist, 'e:^-Go-epist, 'e:r-6o-ipist. 
orthoepy n. phonology; correct pronunciation [alao apelt 

orthoepy'] ez'Qoo-i-pi, 'e:e-0o-epi, 'e:r-6o-ipi. 
orthognathona adj, (straight-jawd) OT^Oegna-Ods, OEOad'nee- 

Gas, (rarely) o^Gag'naeGas. 
orthogonal adj, (right-angled) er'Oegd-nl. 
orthographize v, follow or apply the rules of orthography; 

spell (a word) correctly [also spelt orthographisel er'Oegaa- 

faiz. • 

orthography n. (correct or conventional spelling; apeUing; 

also, orthographic projection) e?'0eg?a-fi. 
orthopaedia n. (orthopedy) e:?-G9pi'dai-3. 
orthopedic adj, [also spelt orthopaedic] erOa'pii-dik, eeO^ 

'pedik. 
orthopedist n. [also spelt orthopaedist] ez'Oepi-dist, erO»- 

'pii-dist, 'e:3-03-pidist, 
orthopedy n, correction of deformities in children; orthop^ 

die surgery [also spelt orthopaedy] 'e:?-0a-pidi. 
orthopterons adj. (straight-wingd) OT'Geptd-zas. 
orthotropona adj. (grbwing vertically or straight) es'Oetsa- 

p9S. 

OS n. bone [plural ossa] es. 
OS n. mouth [plural ora] es. 
OS n. [plural osar] es. same meaning as osar, 
oaar n. kame, eskar, os; also, plural of os [when used as ani^ 
gular, plural osars] 'oo-so?. 

j ye, 9 cure; 5 //le, 9 //tin; 3 a^ure, ds/oy; \shoe, t\chtm\ 
\jiwh&n\ i3sin^; u whoever, i r^act, o f«ll, uu fool, n't, xia##; 
o poetic; a ov^r, e aerial, xbMt, o: door, oo no, ebed, eegote;. 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 377 

oscillate v. (swing back and forth; vibrate; fluctuate) 'esi- 

let. 
osoine adj, oscinine [also spelt oscin] 'esin. 
Osoines n,pl, (the song-birds) 'esi-niz. 
oscinine adj. (of the oscins or song-birds; oscin, oscinian) 

'esi-nain, 'esi-nin. 
osier n. willow [also spelt osier'} '00-33?, 'oo-zi-a?. 
Osmanli adj., n. Ottoman [also spelt Osmanlie} ©s'maenh. 
osmic adj. (of osmium) 'ozmik, 'esMik. 
osmium w. (metal) 'ezmi-am, 'esMi-am. 
osmose n. (diffusion thru a septum) 'ez-mos, 'es-mos. 
osmosis n. (osmose) ez'moo-sis, es'moo-sis. 
osmotic adj, (of osmose) ez'metik, es'metik. 
osprey n. (fish-hawk) 'osp"si. 
ossean n. (osseous fish) 'esi-dn. 
ossein n. bone-cartilage [also spelt osseinel 'esi-in. 
Ossene n, one of a sect living east of the Dead Sea who 

adopted a form of Christianity from the Essenes [synony- 
mous cognates Ossaean, Ossen} 'e-sin. 
osseous adj, (bony; ossified; bone-like) 'esi-as, 'es-si-3s. 
Ossianio adj, (of Ossian) eSi'aenik, esi'aenik. 
ossuary n. (bone-vault; bone-urn) 'esgu-en. 
osteine n bony tissue [also spelt osteini 'esti-in. 
osteitis n, inflammation in a bone [synonymous cognate os^ 

titisi esti'ai-tis. 
ostensilble adj. (formerly, presentable; conspicuous; now, 

pretended, profest) os'tens3-bDl. 
ostent n. (sign, portent, wonder, prodigy) os'tent. 
ostent V,, n. (display) es'tent. 

ostentation n, (show; parade) ostn'tee-Jan, estan'tee-Jan. 
osteology n. (science of bones; skeletal system) osti'ola-dsi. 
osteopathy n. (bone-disease; bone-cure) osti'ep3-0r. 
ostler n. 'esta?. see hostler. 

ostracism n. (temporary banishment; exclusion) 'estja-sizam. 
ostracize v. banish; exclude from favor, etc. [also spelt 

ostracisel 'estja-soiz. 
ostricli n. (large ratite bird) 'ostxitS. 
otalg^ia n. (earache) o'taeldsa, o'taeldsi-s. 
otic adj. (of the ear) 'Do-tik, 'etik. 

otiose adj. (at rest; idle; lazy; steril; futil) 'oo-Ji-os. 
otium n. (ease; leisure) 'oo-Ji-am. 
otolith n. (ear-stone, otolite) 'DO-ta-hO. 
ottar n, 'eta^. same meaning as attar. 

c: law, g: f wr, ae cat, o hot, ei boy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



378 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

otter n. (aquatic mammal) 'etsz, 

otto n. 'et3. same meaning as attar. 

)iic]i inter j. (expressing pain or annoyance) aotS. 

oncli n. (clasp, buckle, fibula, brooch; setting) aotS- 

onf inter j, expressing a sense of stifling [also spelt ouff\ aof 

ought n. (cipher, zero) c:t. see naught, 

ought n. (anything) c:t. see aught, 

ought V, (preterit of owe\ be bound in duty; be fit; be- 
hoove) c:t, {when unstrest) ct, c. 

ought n. dialectal (possession) c:t. see aught 

ounce n. (unit of weight) oonts, aons. 

ounce n. (lynx) aunts, auns. 

ouph n. [also spelt ouphe and, formerly, owf, oufl oof, ouf. 
same meaning as oaf, 

OUT adj\'pron, (of us) aaz, (when unstrest) az. 

ourself noun-pron. [ploral ourselves, ourselvs} aos'self. 

ourselves noun-pron, (ploral of ourself) aos'selvz, {pthety 
less strest) o^'selvz. 

oust V. (eject) oust; (improperly) oust. 

out-and-out adv. (thoroly; downright) ao-tn'aot. 

out-and-out adj, (complete; thorogoing) 'ao^tn-aot. 

out-bound adj. out'baond, (assumptivly) 'aot-baond. 

outdoor adj. oot'dD:?, (assumptivly) 'oot-do:?. 
.outdoors adv. aot'd3:?z, (when less strest) ao'daxz. 

outflow n, (efflux) 'aot-ftoo. 

outf lour V. (flow out) aot'ftoo. 

outgeneral v. [past participle and preterit outgeneraled, 
outgcneralled, outgeneraldl oot'dsena-^al. 

outlier n. (one who lies, sleeps, or lodges out; outsider; out- 
lying deer; boulder; outlying part; set-line) 'oot-lai-a?. 

outlook 7'. (outstare; look out or forth) oot^ok. 

outlook n. (watch; prospect) 'oot-lok. 

out-of-the-uray adj. (remote, secluded; odd; devious) ao- 
tadg'wre, (assumptivly) 'oo-tada-wee. 

outrageous adj. (excessiv; violent; atrocious) aot^ree-dsas. 

outre adj. (eccentric; exaggerated) u't^ee. 

outright adj. (straight on; direct; out-and-out; complete) 
Got'rait, (assumptivly) 'aot-^ait. 

outside «. aot'said, (anteriorly) 'aot-said. 

outside adj. aot'said, (assumptivly) 'aot-said. 

outside adv. aot'snid. 

outspoken adj. (candid, frank; distinct; spoken out) aot- 
'spoo-kan, (assumptivly) 'oot-spoo-kDn. 

j .ve, Qcure; bthe, f/iin; 3 arurc, ds/oy; ^ shoe, t^cht'w; 
wwhcn; rising; u whoever, i r£?act, o f«ll, ou fool, itt, lisee; 
o poetic; 3 ov^r, e aerial. Abut, o: door, 3o no, e b^d, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 379 

ouzel n. blackbird, merle [also spelt ousel'\ 'ou-zal. 

ovary n. (organ in which ova, eggs, or ovules are produced; 
germen) 'oo-va-zi, (rapidly) 'oo-vzi. 

over prep, (above, etc.) 'oo-va^, (when less strest) 'ova?. 

overall n. (covering; outer garment, as a cloak, ulster, water- 
proof; tunic, blouse; in ploral, outside trousers, etc.) 'oo- 
V32-c:l; (^c at achrestic ally, in the plural sense of outside trou- 
sers) 'oo-v3z-hc:lz. 

over-all adj. (including everything between extreme points) 
00-v3z'c:l, {sometimes, assumptivly) 'oo-v32-c:l. 

jQVeroast adj. (cast away; clouded over; sewn by overcasting) 
0V32'ka:st, (assumptivly) 'oo-v3z:-ka:st. 

overdraft n. [also spelt overdraught'\ 'oo-v3e-dra:ft. com- 
pare draft. 

overhaul v. (slacken, etc.; pull asunder in order to cxamin, 
etc.; overtake) ova^'hc:!. 

overhaul n. (action of overhauling) 'oo-v3?-hc:l. 

overhead adv. [also spelt overhedl ova^'hed. 

overhead adj. [also spelt overhed} ova^'hed, (assumptivly) 
'oo-vae-hed. 

overpass v. pass over; cross [past participle and preterit 
overpassed, overpast} ova?'pa:s. 

overreach v, (reach over; overtake; strike the hind foot 
against the fore foot; outdo) ovaViitJ. 

oversea adj. (transmarine; foreign) 'oo-va^-sii. 

oversea adv. (across the sea; abroad; overseas) oo-va?'sii. 

oversee v. (survey; inspect; supervise; catch sight of; for- 
get) ovas'sii. 

overseer n. (supervisor) ova^'sii-a?, (anteriorly) 'oo-va^-sii- 
dz; (also) ovdz'sv.z, 'oo-y^z-sr.z. 

overslaugh v. (pass over, skip ; ignore ; hinder) 'oo-vae-stc: , 
ova^'si-c: . 

overt adj. (open, patent, plain) oWsizt, 'oo-vB^t. 

overture n. (formal proposal) 'oo-va^-tSo?, 'DO-va^-t^osr. 

overuirrought adj. (workt up; over-excited; over-labord) 
ovoz'zcit. 

ovine adj. (of sheep ; sheep-like) 'oo-vain, 'oo-vin. 

oviparous adj, (producing ova or eggs) o'vipa-^as. 

ovoviviparous adj. producing eggs which are hatcht within 
the body of the parent [also spelt ovo-viviparous; synony- 
mous cegnate ovi-viviparousl ovo-vai'vipa-z:as. 

oive v. have to pay [past participle and preterit owed, owdl 

00. 

c: \aw, b: fur, a; cat, e hot, ei hoy, a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



380 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 



own t/. have as one's own, etc. [past participle and preterit 

owned, ozvndl 3on. 
oz II. bovine [plural oxeni eks. 
oxalic adj. ek'saehk, (assumptivly) 'ek-sadik. 
oxalii n. (plant) 'ekss-hs. 
oxide n. [also, sometimes, spelt oxid and, . fermerly» oxyde, 

oxyd] 'ek-said, (before of) 'eksid. 
oxidize V. [also spelt oxidisel 'eksi-daiz. 
oxygen n. (element) 'eksi-dsin. 
oxygenate v. 'eksidsi-net, ek'sidsi-net. 
oxygenize v. [also, rarely, spelt oxygenisel 'eksidsi-naiz, ek- 

'sidsi-naiz. 
oyer n. (criminal trial; hearing) 'oo-js?. 
oyes interj. hear! [also spelt oyess; synecymous cegnate 

oyes"} 'oo-jes, o'jes; (less properly) 'oo-jcz. 
oyster n. (bivalv mollusk) 'ei-star. 
ozocerite n. mineral wax [synonymous cegnate OMoktritw} 

o'zesa-^ait, oza'sii-^ait. 
ozokerite n. o'z3o-k9-?ait, ozs'kii-zait. same meaning aa 

osocerite. 
ozone n. 'oo-zon; (less properly) o'zoon. 
ozonio adj. (of or like ozone) o'zenik, o'zoo-nik. 
ozonize v, convert into ozone; treat with ozone [also spelt 

osonise'] 'oo-zd-naiz. 



paoa n. (spotted cavy) 'pa:-k3, 'paeka. 

paclia n. see pasha. 

paoliisi n. game [synonymous cegnate parcheesil pa'tjii-zi, 

pa'tjii-si. 
pachyderm n. (thick-skind quadruped) 'pxki-dairm. 
pacific adj. (peace-making; calm) pa'sifik. 
pacification n. (action or fact of pacifying; treaty of peace) 

paesifi'kF-e-S9n, pa-sifi'kce-Jan. 
pacificator n. (peace-maker) pa'sifi-kela^. 
pacificatory adj. pa'sifiks-tD^i, po'sifika-ta^i. 
package n. (packing of goods; packet, parcel) 'paekids. 
packed adj, [also spelt packf] pxkt. 
padelion n. obsolete (lady's-mantle, a plant) 'padi-lai-an, 

paedi'lai-3n, (rarely) po'dii-li-an. 
padre n. (father) 'pa:-dci. 
padrone n. master [plural padronQ pa'droo-ni. 

j ye, gcurc; b the, ^/lin; 3 arure, ds/oy; ^ shoe, t^ chew; 
wwhen; rising; u whoever, i r^act, o f m11, ou fool, i tt, lis^e; 
o poetic ; 9 over, e aerial, a b«t, o: door, oo no, e bed, ce gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 381 



paean n. (hymn; joyous song) 'pii-sn. 

paedolog:y n. pi'dels-dsi. see pedology, 

paeon n. (foot of four syllables) 'pii-dn. 

paganise v, [also spelt paganisei 'pee-g9-nazz. 

pageant n. (show) 'psedssnt, 'pee-dssnt. 

pageantry n. 'paedssn-tjci, 'pee-dssn-tn* 

pagination n. (paging) paedsi'nee-San. 

Pahlavi n. Old Persian, etc. [also spelt Pahlavi; gynenymous 

cognates Pehlevi, Pehlevi, PehlvQ 'pa:-l9-vi. 
paidology n. pai'detd-dsi. see pedology, 
pail n. (vessel, water-pail) peel. 

paillasse n. mattress [also spelt palliasse'i paet'jss, 'pa^-9t. 
pain n. (suffering) peen. 
pained adj. affected with pain ; hurt ; grievd [also, sometimes, 

spelt paindl peend, (also, in poetry) 'pee-nid. 
pair n. (two of a kind; couple; brace) pz:z. 
pajamas n. pi. [also spelt pa jamahs; synensrmous cegnstes 

pyjamahs, paijamas, peijammahs, piejamahsl p9'd5a:-m9z. 
palace n. (royal or official residence) 'pstlis. 
paladin n. (knight; champion) 'pada-din. 
palaestra n. pslestss, pa'lii-stsd. same meaning as palestra, 
palankeen n. litter, palki [also spelt palangninl padsnlciin. 
palas n. dhak-tree [synonymous cognates pulas, palash, pU" 

lashl p3la:s, 'palas. 
palatable adj. (savory) 'paelstd-bdl, (assumptivly) 'padd-tabdl. 
palatal adj. (of the palate) 'psttd-tl. 
palate n. (roof of the mouth) 'pstlit. 
palatial adj. (of a palace) pdlee-S^t. 
palatinate n. (district of a palatine) pslaetn-st, pslseti-ndt, 

'paelati-net, 
palatine n. (of the palace of the Caesars; palatial) 'pads- 

tain, 'paela-tin. 
palatine adj., n, [also, sometimes, spelt palatini 'psels-tanip 

'pala-tin. 
pidaver n. (talk; jaw; soft soap) pslai-vs?, pa'lai-vsr; (v«l- 

garly) palava?. 
palazso n. (palace) polait-so. 
pale adj. (pallid, wan; light) peel. 
palea n. bract; palet [plural paleael 'pee-li-d. 
paleobotany n. science of extinct or fossil plants [also 

spelt palaeobotanyl peli-o'botn-i, pali-o'betn-i, 
paleography n. ancient writing [also spelt palaeographyl 

peli'ogra-fi, pxH'og?3-fi. 

c: law, o: fur, le cat, o hot, ei hoy; a: far, go now, a: ask, ai kite; 
Irngth-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is leng* 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



382 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

paleolitliio adj. of oldest stone implements [also spelt pa- 

laeolithic'\ peli-aliGik, paeli-sliOik. 

paleontolog:y n. science of extinct life [also spelt palaeon- 
tologyl pcli-en'tela-dsi, paeli-en'tela-dsi, 

paleozoic adj. of ancient life [also spelt PaleoMoie, poiaeo- 
zoiCf Palaeozoici pcH-a'zoo-ik, paeli-s'zoo-ik. 

palestra n. wrestling-school; gymnasium [also spelt palaes- 
tra] p3^est£9. 

palet n. (bract; palea) 'pee-ht, 

paletot n. (garment) 'paeh-to. 

palette n. painter's tablet [also spelt pallet} 'padzt. 

palfrey n. (saddle-horse) 'pc:l-f3i, 'paelf^i. 

pall «. (cloth; vestment) pc:!. 

palladium, n. safegard [ploral palladia'] pdlee-di-am. 

pallali n. antelope, impalla [also spelt palla; synenymous 
cognates paala, pala, phalla, phaala] 'paela. 

palled adj. flat, stale; satiated, cloyd [also spelt paid} pcdd. 

pallet n. (mattress) 'paeht. 

pallet n. (tool; valve; lip on a pawl) 'paeht. 

palliate v. (excuse; mitigate) 'paeli-et. 

palliative adj, [also spelt palliativ] 'paeli-etiv, 'pidi-9-tiv. 

pall-mall n. (game) permeh 

pallor n. (paleness) 'pxld?. 

palm T. touch with the palm; conceal in the palm; pass off 
by trickery; bribe [past participle and preterit palmed, 
palmd] pa:m, 

palmar adj, (of the palm of the hand) 'paelmo^. 

palmate adj, (like the open palm of the hand) 'pad-met, 'pad- 
niDt. 

palmer n. (pilgrim; worm) 'par-ma^. 

palmetto n. (dwarf fan-palm etc.) pacl'mcto. 

palmist n. (palmister) 'pa:-mist, 'paelmist. 

palmister n. (one who practises palmistry; chiromancer) 
'pai-mi-stor, 'pielmi-sto?. 

palmistry n, (chiromancy) 'pai-mi-stji, 'paelmi-stii. 

palmy adj, (palm-like) 'pa:-mi. 

palpable odj. (tangible; manifest) 'paelpo-bDl. 

palpebral adj. (of the eyelids) 'pselpi-bral. 

palsgrave n. (count palatine) 'pc:lz-Qrev, 'palz-grev. 

palsied adj. (affected with palsy; tottering) 'pcil-zid. 

palsy n. (paralysis) 'pc:l-zi. 

palter r. trifle: shift: equivocate [past participle and pret- 
erit paltered, paltcrd] 'pc:l-tor. 

j ye, Qcure: h the, //lin; 3 a.::ure. d^/oy: ^ shoe, tJcAew; 
wwtwn', losing: u whoever, i react, o f «11, cm fool, i it, ixs##; 
o poetic; o over, c aerial, Abirt, o: door, oo no, e bed, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 383 

paltriness n. (quality of being paltry) 'pc:l-tji-nis. 

paltry adj. (rubbishy; worthless) 'pc:l-tji. 

paludal adj, (of a marsh or fen; palustral) 'pxHo-di, pa'Hou- 

dl. 
paludine adj. of a marsh; paludinous; paludal [also, some- 
times, spelt paludin'\ 'paelio-din, 'paelio-dain, 
palustral adj. (of marshes; paludal) pd'iAStSdl. 
palnstrine adj. palustral, paludal [also spelt palustrin'] pa- 

lAstjin. 
pampas n. (plural of pampa) 'paempaz, 'pxmpss. 
pampean adj. of the pampas [also spelt pampaean] paem'pii- 

an 'paempi-3n. 
pamper v. cram with food; overindulge [past participle and 

preterit pampered, pamperd'] 'paempa?. 
pampero n. (wind) paem'pe:-z3. 
pamphlet n. small treatis; fascicle [also spelt pamflet'\ 

'p3emfz-3t. 
panace n. fabulous herb [also, formerly, spelt panaceel 

'paena-si. 
panacea n. (cure-all, catholicon) paena'sii-a. 
panaclie n. (plume; tuft) pd'na:^, p3'nae$. 
panada n. bread-pudding [synonymous cognates panado, pa- 

nadel pa'na:-d9. 
Panama adj. paena'mo: , {assumptivly) 'paena-mo. 
panch n. paintS, porntS, pcrntj; {also, and in Britain normal- 
ly) pa:nS, pa:nS, pcmj. same meaning as paunch. 
panclieon n. bowl; pan [also spelt panchion; synonymous 

cognates panchin, panshin, panshoni 'paentjan, 'paenjan. 
panclnxray n. boat [synonymous cognate panswayl 'paentj-we. 
pancreas n. (sweetbread) 'paenk^i-as, 'paeqksi-as, 'paeqksi-aes. 
pancreatic adj. paenk-si'aetik, paeqk^i'aetik. 
pancreatin n. 'paenk^i-a-tin, 'paei3k3i-a-tin. 
Pandean adj, of Pan [also spelt Pandaean"] pacn'dii-an, 'paen- 

di-an. 
pandemoninm n. hell, etc. [also spelt pandaemonium^ paen- 

di'moo-ni-am. 
pandour n, guard, etc. [also spelt pandoor, pandur"] 'paen- 

do:r. 
pandoDirdy n. apple pudding [synonymous cognate pandoul- 

del paen'dao-di. 
pane n. (piece; side; window-light; panel) peen. 
panegyric n. (eulogy) paeni'dsink. 
paneg^yris n. (festal assembly) pa'nii-dsi-ns, pa'ncdsi-ris. 

c: law, o: fwr, ae cat, e hot, oi hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



384 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

paneKyrist n. (encomiast, eulogist) psni'dsinst, 'pcnz- 

dsi^ist. 
panesyrixe v, [also spelt panegyrisel 'paenidsi-raiz. 
paneg^yry n. (panegyris; religious festival) 'paeni*dsiA, pa- 

'nii-dsi-Ji, ps'ncdsi-ri. 
panel v. [present participle paneling, panelling; past parti- 
ciple and preterit paneled, panelled, paneldl 'p«nt, 'psnat. 
pansene n. germ-cell unit [synonymous cognate pangenj 

'paen-dsin. 
pangolin n. (ant-eater) 'pxqgd-lin, paei}'g30-}in. 
panicky adj. (of panic; subject to panic) 'paeni-kx. 
panicle n. mode of inflorescence [also, formerly, spelt Pan^ 

nicle'l 'paeni-kal. 
pannier n. (basket) 'paeni-ds, 'paenjd?. 
panorama n. (complete or entire view; cyclorama) psna- 

'?a:-m3, paena'^ai-ma ; (less properly) paena'^ema, penyree- 

md. 
panoramic adj. (of or like a panorama) paend'Tsemilc 
pansy n. heartsease [plural pansiesl 'paenzi. 
pant V. (breathe hard) pa:nt; (dialectally) paent, pse:nt. 
pantaleon n. large dulcimer [synonymous cognates ptmia- 

lon, pantalone, pantaloon'] paen'taeH-an. 
pantalets n. frild drawers; bloomers [also spelt pantaietUtJ 

paentl'ets, paenta'lets. 
pantaloons n. (trousers, etc.) paentl'uunz, paentd'tounz. 
pantheism n. (doctrin of the identity of God with all things; 

also, worship of all the gods) 'paen-Gi-izam, 'paenOi-izam. 
pantheon n. (temple of all the gods, etc.) 'paendi-an, psn- 

'Oii-an. 
pantile n. curvd tile (erroneous synonymous cognate pen' 

tile] 'paen-tail. 
pantisocracy n. (equal rule of all) paenti'sek^s-si, pam-tai- 

'seks3-si. 
pantisocrat n. (advocate of pantisocracy) paen'tai-sd-k3aet. 
pantofle n. slipper [also spelt pantoffle; synonymous ceg- 

nate pantoufle, pantoofle] 'paenta-fal, paen'tofol. 
pantograph n. drawing-instrument [also erroneously spelt 

pantagraph; erroneous synonymous cognates pantigraph, 

pentagraph, pentograph, pentcgraph] 'paenta-graif. 
pantomime n. (mimic actor; dumb show) 'paentd-maim. 
pantomimic adj, (of a pantomime) paentd'mimik. 
pantomimist n. 'psento-mai-mist. 
papa n. (pope ; priest) 'pnr-p:?. 

j ye, Q cure ; 5 the, */iin ; 5 arure, d^ ;oy : 5 sho^, tj c/iew; 
u) when ; r) s\ng\ u whoever, i r^ract, o f«ll, ou fool, i tt, 11 ^e\ 
o poetic; a ov^r, e aerial, AbMt, o: door, oo no, e b^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 385 

papa n. father [also, fermerly, spelt pappd] pa'pa. , 'pa:-pa; 

{dialectally) 'pepa, 'pApa. 
papa n. (baboon; bird) 'pee-pa. 

papacy n. (office of pope; papal system) 'pee-pa-si. 
papain n. ferment [synonymous cognate papayini pa'pee-in, 

'pee-pa-in, 'pai-pa-in, p9'pc:-in. 
papal adj. (of a pope) 'pee-pal. 
papalize v. become papal or popish; romanize [also spelt 

papalisel 'pee-pa-laiz. 
papas n. (priest, papa) 'pee-pas, 'paepas. 
papaw n. fruit ; tree [synonymous cognate pawpawl pa'pc: , 

pc'pc: , pae'pc: . 
papier-inS,cli6 n. paper-pulp [also spelt papier mache, pa- 

pier-machel paepge-ma'See, paepi-e-ma'See. 
papilionaceous adj. (like the butterfly) pa-pili-a'nee-Sas. 
papilla n. nipple, pap [plural papillae'] pa'pila. 
papillar adj. (papillary) 'paepi-la^, pa'pila^. 
papillary adj. (like papillae, etc.) 'paepi-le^i, pa'pila-^i. 
papillose adj. (full of or beset with papillae) 'paepi-los, paepi- 

'loos; {less properly) pa'pilos. 
papistry n. (popery) 'pee-pi-stji. 
papoose n. North Amerindian baby [also spelt pappoosel pae- 

'pous, pa'pous. 
pappose adj. (papous, downy) pae'poos, (assutnptivly) 'pae-pos. 
Papuan adj, (of Papua or New Guinea) 'paepgu-an. 
papnla n. papule [ploral papulae] 'paepgo-la. 
papyri n. (ploral of papyrus) pa'pai-zai. 
papyrin n. parchment paper [also spelt papyrine] 'paepi-?in. 
papyrine n. of papyrus [also spelt papyrin] pa'pai-^in. 
papyrns n. plant; writing-sheets [ploral papyri] pa'pai-?as. 
para adj. (Turkish coin) 'pa:-^a, pae'^a: . 
Par& adj. of Para, Brazil [also spelt Para] pa'^a: . 
parabasis n. choral digression in a Greek drama [ploral pa- 

rabases] paVaeba-sis. 
parabema n. in a Byzantin church, a division on either side 

of the bema [ploral parabetnata] pae^a'bii-ma. 
parabola n. (curve) paVaeba-la. 

parabole n. (comparison) paVaeba-h, (older) pa'?aeba-li. 
parabolic adj. (of a parable; of parabole; of or like a para- 
bola) pae^a'bohk. 
paracbnte n. (aerial descending-device) 'pae^a-Jut. 
Paraclete n. (Comforter : a title of the Holy Spirit) 'pae^a- 

ktit. 

c: law, b: f «r, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stre§§-marl< (') ii>dicate§ chief stress op the fallowing syllable. 



386 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

paraome n. (point or period beyond the cttlmination) 

ps'rxkMi, (older) pdVsekMi. 
paradig^m. n. (example, model) 'psezd-dim, 'paera-daim. 
paradig^matio adj, (like a paradigm; exemplary) pacrddig- 

'maetik. 
paradisaic adj, psezadi'see-ik. same meaning as paradisiac, 
paradisaical adj. paerddi'see-i-ksl. same meaning as panh- 

disiacal, 
paradisean adj, (of paradise; of the paradisea or birds of 

paradise) pae^a'disi-an. 
paradisiac adj. (of paradise) psesd'disi-aek, paesd'dizi-aek. 
paradisiacal adj. (paradisiac) paerddi'sai-s-kal, paersdi'zai- 

a-kal. 
paradisial adj, (of paradise; paradisiac) paesd'disi-dt, pBK9- 

'dizi-aJ. 
paradox n. (statement or tenet contrary to receivd opinion; 

something apparently or really self -contradictory) 'pscrs- 

deks. 
paraenesis n. exhortation, advice [also spelt parenesisl pa- 

Vii-ni-sis, pa'^eni-sis. 
paraffin n. wax-like substance, etc. [also spelt paraffinel 

'pae^3-fin. 
paragoge n. (addition of a letter or syllable to a word) 

pierD'oDo-dsi. 
paragraph v. [also spelt paragraf; past participle and pret- 
erit paragraphed, paragraft} 'parea-graif. 
paragrapher n. paragraphist [also spelt paragraferl 'pscra- 

0?a:-f3?. 
parakeet n. parrot; small parrot [also spelt parrakeet, paro- 

keet; synonymous cognates paroquet, parroquet, perroqueti 

former synonymous cognate parakite'} 'paera-kit. 
parakite n. (kite resembling a parachute) 'paera-kait. 
paralipsis n. pretended or suggested omission [synonymous 

cognates paralcipsis, paralepsis, paralcpsyl pse?9lipsis. 
parallax n. (apparent displacement of an object due to ac- 
tual change of the point of observation) 'pae^a-laeks. 
parallel adj. (continuously equidistant) 'pae^a-lcl, 'pae?3-}a}, 

(assumptivly) 'pae^alal, (rapidly, often) 'pae^lal. 
parallel v. [present participle paralleling, parallelling; past 

participle and preterit paralleled, parallelled, paralleldl 

'psera-lel. 
parallelepiped n. paera-lch'pai-ped, pre^a-leh'piped, p2sz9- 

lel'epi-ped. same meaning as parallelopiped. 

j .ve, q cure ; 5 the, thin;^ 3 arrure, d^ ;oy ; S j/ioe, tS chew] 
u) 7£'/ien ; q si«^; u whoever, i r^act, u f«ll, ou fool, i tt, li see; 
poetic ; 3 ov^r, e aerial^ a but, 0: dooT^ po no, e b^d, ce gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 387 

parallelograiiL n. (four-sided figure whose opposit sides 

are parallel) paeea'lela-g^aem. 
parallelopiped n, prism whose bases are parallelograms 

[synonymous cognates parallelepiped, parallelopipedon, par- 

allelepipedonl pae^a-lela'pai-ped, pae^a-lela'piped. 
paralogize v, commit a paralogism; reason falsely [also spelt 

paralogisel pa'^aela-dsaiz. 
paralysis n. (palsy) pa'^seh-sis. 
paralytic adj, (palsied) pae^a'htik. 
paralyze v, [also spelt paralyse, paralisel 'pae^a-laiz. 
paramese n. (music) pa'^aemi-si, paVaemi-si. 
paramonntcy n. status of being paramount [synonymous 

cognate paramo uncy'[ 'pae^a-maont-si. 
paramour n. (lover; mistress) 'pae^a-mo:?. 
paranoea n. pae^a^nii-d. same meaning as paranoia. 
paranoia n. mental derangement characterized by delusions, 

etc. [synonymous cognate paranoea'\ paezra'noi-a. 
paraphernalia n. pi. (a wife's own property ; parapherna ; 

trappings) pae^afa'nee-H-a, paezrafa'nee-Ha. 
paraphrase n. (free rendering; paraphrasis; hymn) 'para- 

fsez. 
paraphrasis n. (free rendering) pd'?£fs9-sis. 
paraphysis n. steril filament [synonymous cognate para- 

physe; plural paraphysesi pa'^aefi-sis. 
paraplegia n. (paralysis of the legs and trunk) paeea'pz^ii- 

d33, pae^a'pLii-dsi-a. 
parasceve n. (eve of the Jewish sabbath; Good Friday) 

'p3e^3-siv, p3e^a'sii-vi. 
paraselene n. mock moon [ploral paraselenael paezrasi'hi-ni. 
parasite n. (hanger-on; sponger; toady; an organism which 

livs in or on or at the expense of another) 'pae^a-sait. 
parasitic adj. (of parasites) pae^a'sitik. 
parasitism «. (parasitic mode of life) 'pae^a-sai-tizam. 
parasol n. (sunshade) 'pae^a-sol, pae^a'sol, (rarely) 'pae?3-so}, 

pae^a'sDoI. 
parcel v, divide into small portions, etc. [present participle 

parceling, parcelling; past participle and preterit parceled, 

parcelled, parceldl 'pazsal, 'pa:^-S9}; 'pazrsl, 'paiz-sl. 
parcener n. (coparcener, coheir) 'parsi-naz:, 'paiz-si-n^z. 
parched adj. dried by heat [also, sometimes, spelt parchtl 

parzrtSt, (also, in poetry) 'pa^tjid, 'pa:?-tSid. 
parclose n. screen; railing [synonymous cognate perclosel 

'pas^-ktoz, 'pa:?-kLOZ. 

c: \azt\ n: fwr, ae cat, o hot, oi boy; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai ktte; 
Itngth-mnrk (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



388 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

pardao n. coin [synonymous cognate pardoj pav'da:-o. 
pardie inter j, {archaic) by God! verily [also spelt Pardi, 

pardy; synonymous cognate perdie} paz'diu 
pardon v. remit the penalty of; forgive [post participle and 

preterit pardoned, pardondj 'paiz-dn, 'paie-dsn. 
pare v, (trim; cut down) pe:7. 
pareable adj. (that may be pared) 'pe:-c9-b^. 
paregorio adj. (soothing) paeza'gesik. 
parenohym n. parenchyma [synonymous cognate parm^ 

chymel ps'^egkim. 
parenohynta n. tissue [ploral parenchymata} paVeqkz-mA. 
parenohymatoiis adj, (of parenchyma) pmranlcimd-tas. 
parenohyme n. ps'^egkim, pd'zeg-kaim. same meaning as 

parenchym. 
parent n. (father or mother; source) 'pe:-c9nt, 'paeeant; (tfio- 

lectally) 'pee-?3nt. 
parentage n. 'paezsn-tids, 'pei-ssn-tids. 
parentheses n. (plural of parenthesis) pa'srenOi-siz. 
parenthesis n. an aside; round bracket [ploral parentheses} 

pa'eenOi-sis, pa'zrentGi-sis. 
paresis n. (partial paralysis; also, word-neglect) 'pKsi-sis; 

(improperly) pa'^ii-sis. 
paretic adj. (of paresis) ps'retik. 
parhelion n. mock sun [plural parhelia! par^ii'li-9n, por- 

'hii-han. 
pariah n. (one of low Hindu caste; outcast, vagabond) 'pe:- 

'^i-9, 'pai-zi-a, 'pae^i-a. 
Parian adj, (of Paros) 'pe:-?i-3n. 
paries n. wall [plural parietcs'\ 'pei-zi-ilz. 
parietal adj, (of a wall) psVai-i-tl. 
pari passn adv. (with equal pace; side by side; pro rata) 

pei-^ai'paesQU. 
Parisian adj. (of Paris, France) pa'^isan, pa'risi-an, pa'rizi- 

an. 
parity n. (equality) 'pae?i-ti. 
park n. pa:?k, pa:k; (locally) pa:k, perk. 
parlecne n. 'pa:7-h-kgu. same meaning as purlecue. 
parlance n, (speech, debate, parley) 'poi^-lans. 
parley v. talk; discourse; argument [also, formerly, spelt 

parly; past participle and preterit parleyed, parleyd^ 'pa:r- 

h. 
parliament n. (council; legislativ body) 'porsr-ld-mdnt; (#r- 

roneously) 'pa:r-li-3-mDnt, 'poi^-liD-mant. 

j ye, (jcure; d */ic, G //tin; 3 assure, dj/oy; S j/»oe, tScAew; 
u)7t'/ten; qsin^/; u whoever, i rract, u full, ou fool, i tt, listftf; 
o poetic; 9 over, c aerial. Abut, o; do<?r, so no, e b^d, negate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 369 

parliamentary adj. (of parliament) pazWrnent^-zi, (as- 
sumptivly) pa^la'menta^i ; (rapidly) paela'mentji. 

parlor n. sitting-room, drawing-room, etc. [also spelt par- 
lourl 'pa:?-l9?. 

Parmesan adj. (of Parma, Italy) pa^mi'zaen, (assutnptivly) 
'pa:?-mi-zaen ; (improperly) paz'mii-zan. 

parochial adj. (of a parish) pa'^oo-ki-al ; (improperly) pa- 
'reki-9l. 

parochialize v. [also spelt parochialisel pd'^oo-ki-a-laiz. 

parodic adj. (of parody) pa'^edik. 

parody n. (burlesque imitation ; travesty) 'paKra-di. 

parol n. (in by *parol, by word of mouth) 'pae^al. 

parole n. (word; word of honor; password) ps'zod. 

paronomasia n. (word-play; pun) pae?3n3'mee-33, pae^dna- 
'mee-zi-3, pae^ana'mee-si-a. 

paronym n. derivativ or cognate word [also spelt paronymel 
'pae^3-nim. 

parotid adj. (near the ear) pa'^etid. 

paroxysm n. (fit) 'pae^sk-sizsm. 

parpen n. bond-stone [also, formerly, spelt parpan; synony- 
mous cognates parpend, parpent and, formerly, perpend, par- 
pin, parpoint, perpen, perpin, perpent, perpeynl 'pazrpan. 

parqnet n. flooring; part of a theater; branch of government 
[also, sometimes, in the sense of a part of a theater, spelt 
parquettel pa^'ket, pa^'kee. 

parr n. young salmon [also spelt pari pa:?. 

parrel n. band or collar by which a yard is fastend to a 
mast [also spelt parrall 'pae^al. 

parricidal «. (of parricide) paeei'sai-dl, 'pa?i-sai-dl. 

pars n. part [ploral partesi pa:?z. 

parse v. describe grammatically [past participle and preterit 
parsed, parsti pa:z:s, pa:z:z. 

Parsee n. Guebre; language [also spelt Parsil 'pazr-si, 'paiz:- 
si ; pa^'sii. 

parsley n. (garden-herb) 'pazrsti, 'pa:?s-h, 'pa:?-sLi. 

parsley-piert n. breakstone, an herb [synonymous cognate 
parsley-perti 'pa^sz.i-pi:rt. 

parsnip n. (plant; root) 'pa^sNrp, 'pa:rs-nip, 'pa:z:-SNip. 

partake v. (fake part in; share in) pazr'teek. 

parterre n. (level space with flower-beds; pit of a theater) 
pa^'te:?. 

parthenogenesis n. (virginal reproduction) pa^Odns'dseni- 
sis. 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, e hot, ei boy; a: for, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



390 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

partiality n. (quality of being partial; predtlecdoa) par- 

'Saeli-ti, poeSi'aeli-ti. 
partialiie v, [also spelt particUisel 'parS^-taxz. 
partible adj, (divisible) 'pozt^-hol, 'pa:?-t9-b^. 
participate v, (partake, share) pss'tisi-pet 
participial adj. (of the nature of a participle) pQc ti ^ M p i -oL 
participle n. (verbal adjectiv) 'partisi-p;^, (rapidly) 'pastu- 

paL 
parti-colored adj. variegated [also spelt particoloured, pat' 

ty-colored, parti-colordi 'po^ti-k^s^d. 
particular adj. (special) pss'tik^o^se ; (diaUctaily) pd'tilo- 

l^z, (vulgarly) paz'tikz.37, pa'tikcar. 
partionlarize v. [also spelt particularise^ pdv'tikcida-rus; 

(in Scotland) pa^-tikQols'eaiz. 
pflkrtionlarly adv. paz'tikgo-ld^-li, (anteriorly) pae'tzk^o- 

tdzh; (rapidly, sometimes) p3e'tikQol:-h. 
partile adj. exact : opposed to platic [also, sometimes, (pelt 

partill 'poz-tail, 'pa?til. 
partition v. divide [past participle and preterit parHHonod, 

partitiondl pa^'tijan. 
partisan n. one who takes part or sides with another; xeal- 

ous supporter; guerilla [also spelt partisan"] 'por-ti-ian, poe- 

ti'zaen. 
partisan n. long-handled spear; soldier or gard armd with 

a partizan [also spelt partisanl 'pa^ti-zsn, 'pa:r-tx-zan. 
partner n. partaker, sharer; associate [vulgar synenymons 

cognate pardnerl 'paztN^z, 'pairt-na?, 'pa:z-tif9z; (diaiectol- 

ly or vulgarly) 'paizr-dnaz. 
partridge n. (bird) 'partjids, 'par^-tjids; (dialectally or vm/- 

garly) 'paetjids. 
pamre n. (set of jewels, etc.) pa'zroiz. 
parrenn n. upstart [feminin synonymous cognate parvenuej 

'pa:r-vi-nju. 
pascli n. Passover [also spelt pasque and, formerly, PaskJ 

pa:sk, pa:sk, pae:sk. 
paschal adj. (of Passover or Easter) 'paeskal. 
pasha n. sovereign, prince : a Turkish title [also spelt ^0- 

cha; synonymous cognate pashawl pa'Sa: , (sometimes) 'pcu- 

$3 ; (also) 'pae-Sc, 'paeSa, pa'Sc: . 
pashalic n. jurisdiction of a pasha [also spelt pachaHcl 'pa:- 

Sa-hk, 'pa:-Sa-hk, 'paeSc-hk, p3'Sa:-hk. 
pasqnilant n. writer of a pasquil ; lampooner [also spelt pas- 

quillantl 'paeskiui-lant. 

J ye, Qcure; bthe, */iin; 3 arure, ds/oy; S <f '^oe, tl chew, 
vowhen; q sin^; u whoever, i r^act, u full, uu fool, i tt, iis«#; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, o: door, oo no, e b^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 391 

pasquiler n. pasquilant, lampooner [also spelt pasquillerl 
'paesku)i-l9^. 

pasquinade n. (lampoon, pasquin) pxskwi'need. 

pass V, go, etc. [past participle and preterit passed, pasti 
pa:s, pa:s, pae:s; {when unstrest) pas, pas, paes. 

passable adj. (capable of being past; tolerable) 'pai-sa-bal. 

passage n. (passing, transit; way) 'paesids. 

pass6 adj\ past ; faded ; out of date [f eminin synonymous cog- 
nate passeel pae'see. 

passed v. past participle and preterit of pass [also, some- 
times, spelt pasti pa:st, pa:st, pxist; (when unstrest) past, 
past, paest; (also, in poetry) 'pa:-sid, etc. 

passenger n. (traveler) 'paesin-dsa^, (anteriorly) 'paesindsa^. 

passerine adj. of the passeres or perchers [also, sometimes, 
spelt passerinl 'paesa-zrain, 'paes3-?in. 

passibility n. (quality of being passible; capability of suf- 
fering) pasa'bih-ti, paesa'bih-ti. 

passible adj. (capable of feeling or suffering) 'pa:-S9-baJ, 
'paesa-bal. 

passim adv, (here and there) 'paesim. 

passion n. (suffering; affection of body or mind; emotion; 
anger) 'paejan. 

passive adj., n. [also spelt passivl 'paesiv, 'pa:-siv. 

past adj. (gone by; done with; bygone, over, ended, spent; 
preterit; retired; proficient) pa:st, pa:st, pae:st. 

past prep, (beyond; after; further on than; beyond the scope 
of) pa:st, pa:st, paerst; (when unstrest) past, past, paest. 

past n. (bygone time; past life; past tense) pa:st, pa:st, paeist. 

past adv. (so as to pass or go by; by; on one side; aside) 
pa:st, pa:st, paeist. 

pastel n. (crayon; drawing; fabric) 'pae-stel, 'pacstal. 

pastelist n. artist who uses pastels [also spelt pastellist'] 
'pae-stehst, 'paest3-hst. 

pasteurization n. [also spelt pasteurisation'] paesta^i'zee-San, 
paest3-?ai'zee-$3n. 

pasteurize v. sterilize by Pasteur's method [also spelt pas- 
teurise"] 'paest9-^aiz. 

pasticcio n. (hodgepodge; olio) paes'titji-o, pas'tii-tSo. 

pastil n. roll of aromatic paste; lozenge [also spelt pastillel 
'pcTestil, paes'tiil, pae'stiil. 

pastor n. (shepherd; minister) 'pa:-st3^, (anteriorly, as a 
title) 'pasta?. 

pastoral adj. (of shepherds; of flocks) 'par-sta-ral. 

c: law, b: f«r, ae cot, o hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite; 
Irngth-mark (:) indjcates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllablCt 



392 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

pastorale n. piece of pastoral or rustic music [ploral PastO' 

rali, pastorales^ past3'^a:-li ; (less properly) paesto'eee^lx. 
pasture n. (action of feeding; herbage; grass-land) 'pa;8-tj97, 

'pa:s-tQ92 ; {dialectally) 'paestjaz, 'pars-tSae. 
patag:iiiin n. wing-membrane, parachute [ploral patagia] 

paets'dsai-am. 
Patarin n. follower of Arialdi [also spelt Paterin; syneny- 

mous ceynates Patarcne, Paterinel 'paets-^in. 
patas n. (red monkey) pa'ta: . 
patched adj. mended or markt with patches [also, soxnetimet, 

spelt patcht} p.TtSt, (also, in poetry) 'pstSid, 
patchouli n. plant; perfume [also spelt patchoulyl pa'tSoU'^i, 

pa'tSou-li, 'paetSo-h. 
pate n. (head, skull, noddle) peet. 
paten n. (plate ; bowl) 'paetn. 
patent n. (monopolistic privilege; invention) 'psetnt, 'petmt, 

'pee-tant, 'pee-tnt. 
patent adj. (open; evident; manifest) 'pee-tant, 'pee>tnt, 

'paetont, 'pactnt. 
patentee n. (one to whom letters patent have been granted; 

one who takes out a patent) paetn'tii, pce-tn'tii. 
patenter n. (one who grants a patent : the correlatxv of 

patentee) pa:tn'to:3, pee-tn'to:^. 
patenter n. (one who takes out a patent) 'paetn-tar, 'pce-tn- 

paterfamilias n. (head of a family) pee-tar-fa'mili-ds, 

paet3^-f3'mili-9s. 
paternoster n. (Lord's Prayer, etc.) petd^'nestsr, pctae* 

'nosta?. 
path n. beaten track; footway [ploral paths'] pa:©, pa:0, pc:0. 
pathos «. (quality which excites pity, etc.) 'pee-Oes. 
paths n. (ploral of path) pa:dz, pa:dz, pse:dz. 
patience n. (quality of being patient; dock; card-game) 'pee- 

Sans. 
patient adj., n. 'pee-Jant. 

patina n. (bowl; incrustation on bronze) 'paeti-na. 
patio n. (inner court ; ore-yard) 'pa:-li-o, 'pacti-o. 
patois n. (dialect) 'pae-tu'o, 'pacttue; 'pae-tiuc, 'paetujc; pae'ttoo. 
patriarch n. (father and ruler of a family or tribe, etc.) 

'pee-tji-a:?k. 
patriarchal adj. petEi'arkal, 'pee-tji-arka}. 
patrimony n. (heritage) 'paetji-moni, 'paetjima-ni, {anterior^ 

ly) 'pxtxj-ni^ni. 

j ye, gcurc; bthe, Qth'in; 3 arure, ds/oy; I shot, tSchewi 
w when; q siw^r; u whoever, i react, u full, uu fool, i ft, listf^; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, 9: door, oo no, e bed, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 393 

patriot n. (one who loves or zealously supports his country) 
'pee-tji-3t, 'paetji-at. 

patriotic adj. petji'etik, paetji'etik. 

patriotism n. 'pee-t£i-a-tizam, 'paetji-a-tizam. 

Patripassian n. (one who held that God the Father sufferd 
with or in the Son) pet£i'paesi-9n, petji'paeSan, paetji'paesi-an, 
paetji'paeSan. 

patrol V. go the rounds [past participle and preterit pa- 
trolled, patrold) p3't£3ol; {improperly) 'pa-tjol. 

patron n. (protector; supporter; customer) 'pee-tjan, 'paetsan. 

patronage n. 'pee-tsa-nids, 'paetsa-nids. 

patroness n. (female patron) 'pee-tja-nis, 'paetja-nis. 

patronize v. [also spelt patronise'^ 'pee-tja-naiz, 'paetja-naiz. 

patronymic n. (family name) paet£9'nimik. 

patten n. (shoe) 'paetn. 

pancity n. (smallness; fewness; scantiness) 'pc:-si-ti. 

pangie n. 'pc:-gi. same meaning as porgy. 

Panline adj. of Paul [also, sometimes, spelt Paulin\ 'pc:- 
hn, 'pc:-}ain. 

paunch n. rope mat; wooden shield [synonymous cognate 
panch} points, pa:ntS, pa:ntS ; (also, and in Britain normally) 
pcinS, pa:nS, pamj. 

pauperize v. [also spelt pauperise! 'pc:-p3-z:aiz. 

paver n, one who paves; paving-stone; bed-stone [synony- 
mous cognate pavior} 'pee-var. 

pavilioned adj. furnisht with pavilions or tents [also spelt 
paviliondl pa'viHand. 

pavilion n. (bell-shaped mouth of a trumpet, etc.) paevirjeq. 

pavior «. paver; rammer; paving-stone [also spelt paviour, 
pavierl 'pee-vi-9?. see paver. 

pavis n. shield; pavisade [also spelt pavise"! 'paevis. 

paviser n. man armd with a pavis [also spelt pavisorl 'paevi- 

pavonine adj, (of a peacock) 'paeva-nain, 'paeva-nin. 
pawnbroker n. (lender on pledged articles) 'pc:n-bzoo-ka^. 
pay V. (give what is due, etc.) pee, (when unstrest) pe. 
payer n. one who pays [also spelt payorl 'pee-a^. 
paynim n. pagan, heathen [also, formerly, spelt paynym, 

painim'] 'pee-nim. 
pea n. seed ; vine [ploral peasi pii. compare pease. 
peaceable adj. (disposed to peace; peaceful) 'pii-sa-bah 
peacock n. (bird) 'pii-kek. 
peaked adj, having a peak; pointed; also, sharp-featured or 

c: \aw, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ex boy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



394 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 



thin from illness or want [also, sometimes, spelt peaktl 

'piikt, 'pii-kid. 
peaking adj. sneaking; emaciated, peaky [also spelt peek- 

ing'[ 'pii-kiq. 
peaky adj, (having peaks; peaked, pointed, peak-like) 'pxi-ki. 
peaky adj. sickly; puny [also spelt peeky} 'pii-ki. 
peal n. (loud sound) piil. 
peal n. grilse; salmon [also spelt peel"} piih 
pear n. (fruit; tree) pt:z. 
pearl n. (gem, etc.) pBizl. compare purl.* 
pearmain n. (apple) 'pe:7-men. 
peasant n. small farmer; rustic; countryman [also spelt 

pesant"] 'pezant. 
peascod n. pea-pod [also spelt peasecodi 'piiz-ked. 
pease n. (archaic) pea-plant; pea; peas collectivly [ploral 

pease and, formerly, peasen, peason'} piiz. 
peoan n. (nut) pi'kaen, pi'kaen. 
peccable adj. (liable to sin) 'peka-bal. 
peccadillo n. (petty sin) pekd'dib. 
peccant adj. (sinning, morbid) 'pekant. 
peccary n. swine-like quadruped [also, formerly, spelt pec- 

ary, peccari, pecari; synonymous cognate picareel 'peka-pi. 
peccavi v. (I have sind; it is my fault) pe'kee-vai, pekTca:- 

vi. 
pecky adj. showing first symptoms of decay : said of timber 

and trees [synonymous cognates peeky, peaky} 'peki. 
pecky adj. (pitching; apt to stumble; peck-like) 'peki. 
pecten n. the pubes; comb-like part; scallop [ploral pecti- 

nes, pectens"] 'pektan, 'pek-ten. 
pectin n. substance from pectose [also, rarely, spelt pectine"} 

'pektin. 
pectinens n. muscle [also spelt pectinaeus; ploral pectinet] 

pekti'nii-9s. 
pectinons adj. (of pectin) 'pekti-nas. 
pectize v. congeal [also spelt pectisel 'pek-taiz. 
pectons adj. (congeald; of pectin) 'pektas. 
pectus n. breast; thoracic region [ploral pecfora] 'pektds. 
peculiar adj. (particular, special; queer) pi'kgou-^a?. 
peculiarity n. (quality of being peculiar; oddity) pi-kgul- 

'jae^i-ti, pi-k<;uH'aeri-ti. 
pccnliarize v. [also spelt peculiarisel pi'kgou-Ha-raiz. 
pecuniary adj. (of money) pi'kgou-ni-eri, (also) piTcgou-ni-a- 

rr, (assumpih'ly) pi^kgou-ni-azri, (rapidly) pi'kgou-nJ3-?i. 

j 3'e, gcurc; b the, f/iin; 3 arure, ds/oy; ^ shoe, tSc^ew; 
w when ; i} sing; u whoever, i r^act, o f«ll, ou fool, i ft, li see; 
o poetic; a ov^r, e oerial. Abut, o: door, oo no, e b^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 395 

pedagogic n. (of a pedagog; of pedagogy) peda'gedsik; 
(vulgarly) peda'goo-dsik. 

pedagogism n. [also spelt pedagoguismi 'peda-geg-izam, 
'peda-ge-gizam, 'peda-geds-izam. 

pedagogist n. (one verst in pedagogics) 'peds-gedsist. 

pedagogue n. teacher [also spelt pedagog] 'peda-geg. 

pedagognery n. (pedagogic establishment; occupation of a 
pedagog) 'peda-geg^i. 

pedagogning n. (the acting as a pedagog) 'pedd-gegirj. 

pedagognish adj. (characteristic of a pedagog) 'peda-gegiS. 

pedagogy «. (function of a pedagog; instruction) 'peda- 
godsi, 'ped9-ged3i, 'peda-gegi, {rarely) 'peda-gogi. 

pedal «. (foot-lever; treadle; note; curve) 'pedl, 'pedal. 

pedal adj. (of the foot) 'pedl, 'pedal, 'pii-dal; (of a pedal) 
'pedl, 'pedal. 

pedal V. work the pedals of [present participle pedaling, ped- 
alling \ past participle and preterit pedaled, pedalled, ped- 
aldl 'pedl, 'pedal. 

pedale n. foot-cloth; collection of creeds [ploral pedalial 
pi'dee-h, {older) pi'dee-li. 

pedale «. (pedal; pedal keyboard) pi'da:-li. 

pedaler n. one who pedals [also spelt pedaller"] 'pedl-a?, 
'peda-la^. 

pedant n. (formerly, teacher, pedagog; now, one who over- 
rates book-learning, etc.) 'pednt, 'pedant. 

pedantic adj. (like a pedant; absurdly learned) pi'dxntik. 

pedantism n. 'pedn-tizam, 'pedan-tizam. 

pedate adj. (like a foot) 'pedet, 'pedat. 

peddle v. hawk; retail from house to house [present parti- 
ciple peddlingi 'pedl. 

peddling n. (action of the verb peddle; occupation of a ped- 
ler; hawking; also, trifling; piddling) 'pedliq. 

pedestal n. (base for a statue) 'peda-stl, 'peda-stal; (im- 
properly) pi'destl. 

pedestal v. [present participle pedestaling, pedestalling; past 
participle and preterit pedestaled, pedestalled, pedestaldl 
'peda-stl, 'peda-stal. 

pedestrianize v. act the pedestrian; walk [also spelt pedes- 
trianisel pi'destji-a-naiz. 

pediatric adj, of the diseases of children [also spelt paedi- 
atricl pidi'aet£ik. 

pedicel n. (footstalk, pedicle) 'pedi-sal. 

pedicle n. (footstalk, pedicel, peduncle) 'pedi-kal. 

c: law, n: fwr, ae cat, e hot, ei boy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite; 
Irngth-inark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



3% DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

pedig^ree n. (lineage, etc.) 'pedi-gn. 

pedler n. one who peddles; hawker [also spelt pedlar, ped- 
dler! 'pedlar. 
pedleresB n. female pedler [also spelt pedlaress, peddleressl 

'pedla-ris. 
pedlery n. business of a pedler; pedler's wares; trash [also 

spelt pedlary, peddleryl 'pedla-ri. 
pedling adj. busying one's self with trifles; trifling; trashy; 

piddling [also spelt peddling"] 'pedhq. 
pedobaptist n. advocate of the baptism of infants [also spelt 

paedobaptist"] pedD'baeptist, pidalweptist. 
pedology n. science of children [also spelt paedology, pai- 

dologyl pi'dela-dsi. 
pedometer n. (step-recording device) pi'demi-tar. 
peduncle n. (flower-stalk; pedicel) p^'dxgk^; (improperly) 

'pii-dAqkal. 
pee V. (urinate) pii. 
peek V. (peep) piik. 
peel n. (stronghold) piil. 
peel n. (wooden shovel or pole) piil. 
peel n. (skin, rind) piil. 
peel V. rob; strip; pare [past participle and preterit peeled, 

peeld} piil. 
peer n. (equal; duke, etc.) pi:r. 
peer v. look narrowly [past participle and preterit peered, 

peerd"] pi:?. 
peignoir n. (dressing-sack) pe'nwe:?. 
pejorative adj, tending to make worse; depreciatory [also 

spelt pejorativ] pi'd3e?3-tiy, 'pii-dsa-retiv. 
pekan n. (fisher, a weasel-like beast; Pennant's marten) 

'pekan. 
pekea n. tree [also spelt pikta; synonymous cognate piqui} 

pi'kii-3. 
pekin n. (silk fabric) pi'kin, pi'kiq. 
pekoe n. (tea) /pii-ko, 'pe-ko. 
pelage n. (the fur) 'pehds. 
pelag^io adj. (of the open sea, oceanic; of the surface of the 

ocean) pilaedsik. 
pelamyd n. fish [also spelt pclamid; synonymous cognates 

pelamys, pelamisi 'pela-mid. 
Pelasg^ian adj. (of the Pelasgi) pi'laezdsi-an, pilxsdsi-sn. 
pelerine n. cape; tippet [also, sometimes, spelt pelerin"] 'pels- 

zin, 'pvAo-zin, pela'^iin. 

j ye, Qcure; bthe, 0^/iin; 5 a^rure, d$Joy; I shoe, t^chew; 
wwhen; ijsing; u whoever, i r^ act, o full, uu fool, itt, lisee; 
o poetic; aov^r, e aerial. Abut, o: door, oono, e b^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 397 

pelican n. (bird) 'peh-ksn. 

pelisse n. (garment) piliis. 

pell-mell adv, (in disorder; headlong) pel'met. 

pell-mell adj. (disorderly and violent; confused) 'pel-mel. 

pellucid adj. (translucent; transparent) piliou-sid. 

pemmican n. meat food [also spelt pemican\ 'pemi-kan. 

penalize v, [also spelt penalised 'pii-nl-aiz, 'pii-na-laiz. 

penance n. (act of penitence) 'penans. 

pen-and-ink adj. (using pen and ink; clerkly; written; also, 

done with a pen and ink) penan'iqk, 'pen-n-iqk. 
penates n. pi. (household gods) pi'nee-tiz. 
pence n. (ploral of penny) pents, {also, and in Britain nor- 
mally) pens. 
pencel n. small pennon; streamer [also spelt pensel, pensil, 

pencil, pensaW] 'pensal. 
penchant n. (bias; bent) 'pent^dnt. 
pencil V. paint with a pencil or fine brush; draw or treat 

with a lead-pencil [present participle penciling, pencilling; 

past participle and preterit penciled, pencilled, pencild^ 

'pentsil, (also, especially in Britain) 'pensil. 
penciler «. [also spelt pencillerl 'pentsi-laz:, 'pensi-la?. 
pendant n. something that hangs [also spelt pendente 

'pendant. 
pendent adj, hanging [also spelt pendanti 'pendant. 
pendnlnm n. freely swinging body [plural pendulums and, 

formerly, rarely, pendulal 'pendso-lam, 'pendjo-lam, 
pengnin n. (bird) 'pengwin, 'peqgwin. 
penible adj. obsolete (painstaking) 'pena-bal, pe'nii-bal. 
peninsula n. a piece of land which is almost an island [plor- 
al peninsulas and, formerly, peninsulael pi'mnjo-la, pi- 

'ninsgo-la, pi'mntjo-la. 
penis n. male copulatory organ [ploral penesi 'pii-nis. 
penitentiary adj. (of penance or penitence) peni'ten$3-?i, 

peni'tent$9-2i ; (erroneously) peni'tenSi-ezri. 
penknife n. [ploral penknives! 'pen-naif; (less properly) 

'pe-naif. 
penned adj. written (with a pen) [also spelt pendl pend. 
pennill n. a form of verse [ploral pennillion'] 'penil. 
pennoncel n. small pennon; pencel [also spelt pennoncelle, 

penoncell, penoncel, penouncel"] 'penan-sel. 
penny n. coin [ploral pennies, collectivly pencel 'peni. 
penny-D^ise adj. (wise or prudent in regard to pence) peni- 

'waiz, (assumptivly) 'peni-waiz. 

c: law, b: f wr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



398 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

penology n. study of punishment [also spelt poenology\ pi- 

'neld-dsi. 
pensile adj, hanging, pendent [also, sometimes, spelt Ptn- 

sill 'pensil, 'pen-sail. 
pension n. (payment) 'penman, 'pentSdn. 
pension n. (boarding-house) 'pei]si-ei]. 
pensioned adj, in receipt of a pension; retired on a pennon 

[also spelt pensiondl 'penjand. 
pentadaotyl adj. having five digits; quinquedigitate [also 

spelt pentadactylel penta'daektil. 
pentamarise v. [also spelt pentatnarisel pen'txma-raiz. 
pentastioli n. (group of five lines of verse) 'pentd^stik. 
Pentatencli n. (first five books of the Old Testament) 

'pent3-tguk. 
penthouse n. lean-to building; shed with a sloping roof 

[synenymous ceynates appentice, pentice, pentisi 'pent-haos. 
pentstemon n. herb [synenymous cognate penstemonl pent- 

'stii-man. 
pennokle n. card-game [also spelt penuchle; synenjrmous 

cegnates pinocle, pinochle, binocle"] 'pii-nAkal. 
pennlt adj. (next to last; last but one) 'pii-nxh, pi'nAh. 
pennmbra n. (partially shaded region around a shadow) pi- 

'nAmb^a. 
peon n. (soldier; constable; day-laborer) 'pii-an. 
peony n. plant [also spelt paeony; former sjmonsrmous ceg- 

nate, now dialectal, piony; plural peonies'! 'pii-d-ni. 
people n. [ploral peoples, and collectivly, in the sense of 

persons of a particular place or class, people"] 'pii-pol. 
pepperidge n. pipperage, barberry; tupelo, black-gum [also 

spelt pepperagel 'pepa-^ids. 
pepsin n. ferment [also sprit pepsinel 'pepsin. 
peptonize v. [also* spelt peptonise] 'pepta-naiz. 
per prep, (by, by means of; thru) psiz, (when unstrest) par, 

p9e. 
peradventnre adv, (by chance; haply; belike) pBTad'ven- 

tSa?. 
perai n. fish [also spelt pirai, peri; synenymous cegnates pi- 

raya, piranhal pi'zrai. 
perambulation n. (a walking thru; journey on foot; tour) 

porambju'lee-Jan, pa-raembjo'lec-San. 
percale n. (fabric) par'keel. 
perceive v, take in; apprehend [past participle and preterit 

perceived, perceivdl pnr'siiv. 

j 3'e, <; cure ; b the. 9 f/iin ;^ 5 arure, d^ joy ; 5 shot, _ tj chcw\ 
w tt^/ien; i] sin<7; u wh/>ever, i r^ract, o fMll, ou ioo\, i t't, li 8tf#; 
o poetic ; o over, e aerial, a but, o: dorr, 00 no, e bed, ee goleS 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 399 

• 

perceptible adj, (formerly, percipient; now, capable of be- 
ing perceivd) paz'septd-bdl, \assumptivly) pdp'sepUbdt. 
perolose n. 'pe^-k^oz, psslctooz. same meaning as parclose. 
perdioine adj. (of a partridge or qiaail) 'pB:c-di-«axn, 'p»:s- 

di-sin. 
perdn adj, lost; sent on a desperate enterprise; [also spelt 

per duel pas'djou, (assumptivly) 'pais-djn. 
perdnrable adj. (lasting) pdr^djor-ro-bdl, 'pB:7-d}oz3-ba}. 
peresrine adj, foreign, etc. [also, sometimes, spelt pgregrM 

'pe?i-g?in, (rarely) 'pen-gsrain. 
peremptorily adv. pdz'emptsei-ti, ps'zemptdsi-li, (rapidly) 

P9';empt£i-li, (anteriorly) p9';empt{ih; (also) 'peesmp-tdei- 

h. 
peremptory adj, (that precludes debate; decisiv; final) poz- 

'emptd-;i, pd';empt9<2:z, (assumptivly) pa'semptaci; (rapidly) 

pd'^emptsz; (a/^o) 'persmp-tsri* 
pereni&ial a(/y. (lasting thruout the year) pd'seni-ot 
perfect adj.,n. (complete, etc.) 'psrfzkt, 'pB:7>fikt 
perfect v, (complete, finish) paz'fekt, 'psrfikt, 'pair-fxkt. 
perfected adj. pss^'fektid, 'pssfik-tid. 
perf ecter n. (one who perfects) pds'fektor, 'psrfik-tds. 
perfectible adj, [also spelt perfectable} p9e:'f8kt9-bat, 

'pB^fiktd-bdl. 
perfidious adj, (characterized by perfidy; faithless) par- 

'fidi-as, (rarely) pds'fidjss. 
perfnme n. (odorous fumes; sweet scent) 'parfium, 'pstr- 

fium, ps^'fioum. 
perfume v. (impart sweet odor to) pdsr'fioum. 
perfumy adj, (fragrant) 'parfiu-mi, poc'fiou-mi. 
perfunctory adj. (done without zeal; formal) p9p'fA]]kt»-n, 

(rapidly) pdT^fAijkt^i. 
perbaps adv, (may be, perchance) pde^ueps, (whtn hss 

strest) pd'haeps, p^aeps, paeps. 
peri n. (elf, fairy) 'pi:-?i. 
periantb n. (floral envelop) 'peri-«n6. 
pericarditis n. (inflammation of the pericardium) pesz-kar- 

'dai-tis, pe3i-ka?'dii-tis. 
peridot n. (olivin) 'pe;i-det. 
perigee n. (point nearest the earth: epposit of apoget) 

'peei-dsi. 
peribelion. n. position nearest the sun : epposit of aphelion 

[ploral perihelia; synonymous cognate perheliumi perx'hii- 

H-3n, pe?i'hii-H3n. 

c: law, b: fur, se cat, e hot, ei boy; a: far, oo now, a: ask, ai ktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



400 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

peril V. hazard, risk [present participle periling, perilling; 
past participle and preterit periled, perilled, perildl 'pezil, 

perilous adj. (full of peril; dangerous) 'pe^i-lds. 

perimeter n. (circumference, periphery, outline; vision- 
measuring device) p3'?imi-t3?, 

perineum n. region between the anus and the scrotum or vul- 
va [also spelt perinaeum} pe^i'nii-am 

periodio adj. (of periods) piri'edik. 

periodic adj, containing more oxygen than iodic acid [also 
spelt per-iodic'} perzr-ai'edik. 

periostitis n. (inflammation of the periosteum) pesri-es'tai- 
tis, pe?i-es'tii-tis, 

peripetia n. sudden change of fortune or reversal of circum- 
stances; denouement [also spelt peripeteia; synonymous 
cognate peripetyl pe?ipi'tai-3, pe?ipi'tii-3. 

periphery n. (boundary-line; circumference; perimeter) pa- 
'zii^'Zi, 'pe^ifa-n. 

periplirasis n. circumlocution [ploral periphrases'} pd'zifss- 
sis. 

perissad n. (an element or radical of odd valency) ps'^isaed, 
pdVisdd; (less properly) 'peri-saed. 

peristyle n. (colonnade surrounding a temple, court, etc.) 
'pe?i-stail. 

peritoneum n. membrane which lines the abdominal cavi- 
ty [also spelt peritonaeum'} perita'nii-am. 

peritonitis n. (inflammation of the peritoneum) pezits'nai- 
tis, pe^ita'nii-tis. 

peritropal adj. (of an embryo or ovule; amphitropal; 
hemitropous) pd'ntja-pal, (rarely) peei'tjoo-pal. 

perjury n. (wilful falsehood under oath; breach of oath) 
'pBzds^-zip 'pB:?-d3a-3i, (rapidly) 'pBzd^zi. 

permeate v. (pass thru, penetrate, pervade) 'pB:?-mi-et. 

permissible adj. (that can be permitted; allowable) pd?- 
'mis3-b9l. 

permissory adj, (permitted; allowd) pse'misa-n. 

permit v, (allow, suffer) pa^'mit. 

permit n. (written permission; leave) 'pere-mit, pszr'mit. 

permit n. (fish) ps^'mit. 

permittable adj. (obsolete) permissible [also spelt permit- 
tible} pae'mita-bal. 

pernicious adj. (destructiv, fatal; wicked) pssr'niSdS. 

perorate v. (deliver an oration; declaim; utter the perora- 
tion) 'pe?D-ret. 

j ye, gcure; b the, ^/an ; 3 arure, dsjoy; I shoe, tlchew; 
wwhen; qsin^; u whoever, i r^act, o f ull, oufool, lit, lisee; 
o poetic; a ov^r, e aerial. Abut, oidoor, 00 no, ebed, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 401 

peroration n. (conclusion of an oration; discourse) pzzo- 

'^ee-Jgn, 
peroxide n. oxide containing the maximum of oxygen [also, 

sometimes, spelt peroxid} pezr'ek-said, {before of) pBZ- 

'eksid. 
perpend v. archaic (ponder) par'pend. 
perpend n. 'pB:e:-pend. same meaning as parpen. 
perpetual adj. (unceasing) pa^'petju-al, pa^'petQU-al. 
perpetuity n. (state of being perpetual) pB?pi'tQou-i-ti. 
perplexedly adv. (in a perplext manner) pa^'pi-eksi-dh. 
perquisite n. casual profit [also spelt perquisite 'pB^kuji-zit. 
perruquier n. (wig-maker) pa-ruki'ee, p3'?oki-3?, pd-zro'kgee. 
Persian adj. (of Persia) 'pe^Jan, 'pB'.r-San, 'ps:z-^on. 
persicot n. cordial [also spelt persico, persecot} 'pe^si-ko, 

'pBrsi-ket. 
persiflage n. (light banter, etc.) psrsi'fLais, persi'fLois. 
persimmon n. date-plum [also spelt persimon, persiman, 

persitnmen} pa^'siman. 
persist v. (continue firmly; be insistent; last) pae'sist; (less 

properly) par'zist. 
persistent adj. par'sistnt, pa^'sistant; (less properly) pae- 

'zistnt. 
personality n. (personal character or being) pB?s3'naeh-ti. 
personalize v, [also spelt personalise'^ 'pB^sdnl-aiz, 'pB^SNd- 

laiz. 
personalty n. (personal property) 'pszrsanl-ti, 'persNal-ti. 
personnel n. (body of persons employd; human equipment) 

pB^sa'nel. 
perspicacity adj. (clearness of insight; penetration) pes- 

spi'kaesi-ti. 
perspicuity n. (clearness of statement; lucidity) pBzspi- 

Tc^ou-i-ti. 
perspirate v. (perspire, sweat) 'pBrspi-ret. 
perspiration n. (sweat) ps^spi'ree-San, pa^'spsee-Jan. 
perspirative adj. perspiratory [also spelt perspirativl p9z- 

'spai-ra-tiv, p33'spaia-?3-tiv, 'pe^spi-retiv. 
persuasible adj. (persuadable) p3?'su)ee-S3-b3l. 
persuasive adj, tending to persuade; winning [also spelt 

persuasiz'l pa^'siuee-siv, pa?'su)ee-ziv. 
pertinacious adj. (persistent; stubborn) pe^ti'nee-Sas. 
pertinent adj. (relevant; apposit) 'psrtn-ant, 'parti-nant. 
perturb v. disturb greatly [past participle and preterit per- 
turbed, perttirbdl pdz^tB'.zh. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: for, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



402 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

• 

pemke n. periwig, wig [also spelt peruquel p^'tovk, 'pe-enk. 

peruse v, (go thru; survey; read) pa'^ouz. 

perverse adj. (perverted; wrong; wayward) pdp'vKes. 

penrersion n. (act of perverting) p^zWml^n, p9p'TB:«-Sanu 

pervert v, (lead astray; corrupt) p^z'vBizt. 

pervert n. (one who has been perverted; apostate) 'pB»- 

\BZt, 

pervertible adj. (capable of being perverted) pdp'vBCtd-b^ 

pesade n. (rearing) pi'seed, pi'zeed, pi'scud. 

peseta n. (Spanish coin) pi'see-t9. 

pesky adj, (plaguy; hateful) 'peski. 

peso n. (Spanish dollar) 'pee-so. 

Pestalozzian, adj, (of Pestalozzi) pestdletsi-an ; (less prop- 
erly) pestdlezi-dn. 

pestle n. (bruising- or pounding-tool) 'pesdJ, ■ 'peri, 'pesd. 

petal n. (corolla-leaf) 'petl, 'petal, {rarely) 'pii-U. 

petaled adj. [also spelt petalled, petaldl 'petld. 

petaline adj. of a petal; petaloid [also, sometimes, spelt Pei^ 
a/in] 'petl-in, 'petl-ain. 

petard n. (door-battering device; cracker) pi'ta:7d, piftaXm 

petardeer n. soldier who fires a petard [also spelt petardierj 
pet3?'di:2r. 

petiole n. (leaf-stalk) 'peti-ol. 

petit adj. (small, minor, trifling, petty) 'peti, (formerly) 
'petit. 

petit-baume n. liquor [also spelt petit baumel 'peti-baom. 

petite adj, (little, tiny; minor) pa'tiit. 

petitio n. (asking, begging) pi'tiji-o, pi'tii-ti-o. 

petition n. (begging; entreaty; request) pi'tijan. 

petrel n. (sea-bird) 'petjal, (rarely) 'pii-tjal. 

petrol n. (petroleum; gasoline) 'petjal, (rarely) pi'tsoot. 

petroleum n. (rock-oil) pi'tjoo-H-am. 

petrolin n. paraffin; also, an oil from petroleum [also 9pelt 
petroline'] 'pct£9-hn. 

petrous adj. (stony; rocky) 'pii-tjas, 'petjas. 

petticoat n, (coat; skirt; underskirt) 'peti-kot. 

pettifogger n. (low-down attorney; rascally lawyer) 'petx- 
feo3^. 

pettitoes n. pi. (pigs* feet) 'peti-tooz, 

petty adj, (small; little; minor) 'peti. 

petulance n. (sauciness; peevishness) 'petSo-ldns, 'petun- 
ia ns. 

petunia n. (plant) pi'tQou-ni-D ; (dialectally) pi'tou-ni-a. 

j ye, Q cure; the, */iin; 3 arrure, ds /oy; S j/toe, tj cAew; 
iDw/ien; q singr; u whoever, i react, o full, oufool, itt, li s^e; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial. Abut, o: door, oono, e bed, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 403 

peiv n. (seated place or enclosure in a church) pgou. 

peivee n. (flycatcher) 'pii-wi. 

peivit n. lapwing; tyrant flycatcher [also, sometimes, spelt 
peewit, puiti 'pii-wit, 'pQou-it. 

peivter n. (gray alloy of tin and led) 'pgou-t3?. 

pfennig n. coin [synonymous cognate pfenning'} 'fenig, 
(rarely) 'pfenig, 'pfeniq. 

phaooolioere n. wart-hog [also spelt phacocherel 'fskd-ki:?. 

phaeton n. carriage [also spelt phaeton} 'fee-i-tn, 'fee-i-tan, 
'fee-tan. 

phagedenic adj. of phagedaena or spreading ulcer [also 
spelt phagcdaenic} faedsi'denik, faedsi'dii-nik ; faegi'denik, 
faegi'dii-nik. 

phagocyte n. (leucocyte) 'faega-sait. 

phalange n. phalanx of a digit; joint of an insect's tarsus; 
bundle of stamens joind by their filaments [ploral phal- 
anges} 'fae-laends, fa'laends, fa'loqs. 

phalangeal adj. fd'laendsi-dl. 

phalanger n. (quadruped) {slstnd^^z, 

phalanges n. (plural of phalanx and phalange) fd'laen-dsiz. 

phalanstery n. (building occupied by a phalanx; socialist- 
ic community) 'faelan-steri. 

phalanx n. battle array; compact body of troops [ploral pha- 
lanxes, but in biologic senses usually phalanges} 'fee-laeqks, 
'fae-laei]ks. 

phallus n. symbolic penis; also, stinkhorn, a fungus [plor- 
al phalli} 'fselas. 

phanerogam n. (flowering plant) 'fsend^d-gsem. 

phanerogamous adj. (flowering) fsens'^egs-mss. 

phantasm n. illusion; figment; fantom [also spelt fantasm} 
'faen-taezam. 

phantasma n. fantasm [also spelt fantasma; ploral phantas- 
mas, phantasniata} faen'taezma. 

phantasmal adj. [also spelt fantasmal} faen'taezmst. 

phantasy n. same meaning as fantasy. 

phantom w. specter, spirit, ghost [also spelt fantom} 'faen- 
t3m. 

pharaoh n. (beer) 'iz:-zo. 

Pharisaic adj. (of the Pharisees; self-righteous) fae?i'see-ik. 

Pharisaism n. (doctrin of the Pharisees, etc.) 'fae^i-se-izam. 

pharisean adj. pharisaic [also spelt pharisaean} fae^i'sii-an. 

pharmaceutic adj, (of pharmacy) fazrma'sgou-tik, fa^ma- 
'kgou-tik. 

c: \atv, b: iiir, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy, a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
Stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



404 DICTIONARY OF HARD 'WORDS 

pharmaoeutist n. (pharmacist) farms'sgou-tist, fosrma'kgou- 

tist. 
pJiarmacist n. (druggist) 'faiz-ms-sist. 
pharmaoopoeia n. (drug>book; stock of drugs) fa^maks- 

'pii-a. 
pliaro n. (obsolete) 'fe:-ro. same meaning as faro. 
pharos n. (lighthouse) 'fe:-?es. 

pharyngeal adj. (of the pharynx) fa'eindsi-al, fsesin'dsii-d!. 
pharynges n. (plural of pharynx) fa'ein-dsiz. 
pharyngens n. muscle [ploral pharyngei] faerin'dsii-as. 
pharyngitis n. (inflammation of the pharynx) faesin'dsai- 

tis, faesin'dsii-tis. 
pharyngotomy n. (a cutting into the pharynx) faezin'getd- 

mi, faeziq'gota-mi. 
pharynx n. throat-cavity [ploral pharynges, pharynxes'} 

'faeriqks. 
phase n. (aspect; value) feez. 

phasis n. phase, aspect [ploral phases} 'fee-zis, 'fee-sis. 
pheasant n. bird [also spelt fesant} 'fezsnt, 'f eznt. 
phenacetin n. (acetyl derivativ) fi'naesi-tin. 
Phenioian n. nativ of Phenicia [also spelt Phoenician} fi- 

'nijan. 
phenioine n. indigo carmin [also, sometimes, spelt phenicin, 

phoenicin} 'feni-sin, 'feni-sain. 
phenix n. mythic bird [also spelt phoenix and, formerly, fe- 

nix} 'fii-niks. 
phenol n. (carbolic acid) 'fii-nel, 'fii-nol. 
phenology n. study of recurring biologic phenomena [also 

spelt phaenology} fi'nela-dsi. 
phenomena n. (ploral of phenomenon) fi'nemi-nd. 
phenomenal adj, of phenomena; exceptional [also spelt 

phaenomenal} fi'nemi-nl. 
phenomenalize v, [also spelt phenomenalise} fi'neminl-aiz. 
phenomenon n. appearance, event, occurrence; prodigy 

[also, formerly, spelt phaenontenon; ploral phenomena} fi- 

'nemi-nen. 
phenyl n. radical [also spelt phenyle} 'fii-nil, 'fenil. 
pheiv interj. expressing impatience, disgust, discomfort, 

weariness [also spelt phugh and, formerly, phu} fiou: • 
phial n. 'fai-sl. same meaning as viaU 
phiale n. patera, a vase; cantharus [ploral phialae} 'fai-34i. 
phialine adj. phial-like [also, sometimes, spelt phialin} 'fai- 

3-hn, 'fai-3-lain. 

j ye, Qcure; b the, f/iin; 5 arure, ds/oy; j shoe, tSchew; 
w when ; q sing; u whoever, 1 react, o fwll, ou tool, 1 it, li see; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aeiial, Abut, oidoor, 00 no, eWd, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 405 

PMdiac adj, of the Greek sculptor Phidias [also spelt Phei- 

diflc] 'fidi-aek, 'fai-di-aek. 
Phidian adj. Phidiac [also spelt Pheidian'] 'fidi-3n, 'fai-di- 

philander n. (lover; wallaby, filander; opossum; bandicoot) 
fi'laenda?. compare filander. 

philander v. make love; flirt [also spelt filander'^ fi'laenddz. 

philanthropic adj. (humane) fildn'Osepik. 

philanthropy n. (love of mankind, benevolence toward 
one's fellow men) fi'laentOsa-pi, fi'laenOsa-pi. 

philately n. (stamp-collecting) fi'laeti-h. 

philharmonio adj. (loving harmony) fi!a?'menik, fil-hasr- 
'menik. 

philippic n. (denunciatory discourse) f I'hpik. 

Philippin n. (member of a Russian denomination founded 
by Philip Pustoviat) 'fih-pin. 

Philippine n. 'fih-pin. same meaning as philopena, 

Philippine adj, (of the Philippine Islands) fih'piin, {as- 
sumptivly) 'fih-pin. 

Philippiflt n. follower of Philip Melanchthon [also spelt 
Philipistl 'fih-pist. 

Philistine n. one of a warlike people of ancient Philistia 
on the Palestine coast; enemy; philister; matter-of-fact per- 
son [also, sometimes, spelt Philistinl filistin, 'fih-stain, 
'fih-stin, (rarely) fi'h-stain. 

Philistinism n. (opinions, aims, and habits of social Philis- 
tins) fi'hsti-niz3m, 'fihsti-nizam. 

philistinize v, [also spelt Philistinise^ filisti-naiz, 'fihsti- 
naiz. 

Phillis n. {poetic) comely rustic maiden; sweetheart [also 
spelt Phyllis'] 'fihs. 

phillyrea n. (jasmin box, mock privet) fi1m-3, fih'?ii-3. 

philologue n. philologist [also spelt philologl 'fils-leg. 

philology n. (love of learning and literature; science of lan- 
guage) fi'lela-dsi; (less properly) fai'lela-dsi. 

philopena n. game of forfeits [also spelt philopoena, filope- 

na; synonymous cognates philipena, philippina, phillipina, 

phillipena, philopena, Philippine, philoppene, philopene, phil- 

lipine, filipeen, fillipeen'] filg'pii-na. 

philoprogenitiveness adj. love of offspring [also spelt 

philoprogenitivnessl filapsa'dsenitiv-nis. 
philosoph «. philosopher [also spelt philosopher 'fila-sef, 
fila'zef. 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai ktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
Stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



406 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

pUlosophio adj, (of philosophers or philosophy) fda'tafik, 
fild'zefik. 

pUlosopMse V. [also spelt philosophisel f ilesd-faxz. 

philter n. love-potion [also spelt philtrel 'iiltsz. 

phis n. (face) fiz. 

phlebotomize v. practis phlebotomy; bleed; undergo phle- 
botomy; be bled [also spelt phlebototnisel fLilieta-mazs. 

phlegethontio adj, (of Phlegethon; fiery) fLegx'Oentxkt 
fjLedsi'Oontik. 

phlegm n. mucus; phlegmatic character; dulness [alio, fer- 
merly, spelt flegtn, etc.] flem. 

phlegmatic adj. (of the nature of or abounding in phlegm; 
sluggish, dull) fjLcg'maetik, 'ftegma-tik. 

phlog^iflton. n. (supposed principle of inflammability) fxa- 
'dsistn, f LD'dsi-sten ; fjLo'gistan, fz.3'gi-sten. 

phlox n. (plant) fz.eks. 

phooaenine adj, porpoise-like; of the Phocaenina [also, 
sometimes, spelt phocaenin] fo'sii-nm, fo'sii-nain. 

phonetic adj, representing vocal sounds; of articulate 
sounds; phonic [also spelt fonetic'] fs'netik, fo'netik. 

phonetization. n. (representation of vocal sounds by fo- 
netic characters) foniti'zee-San, foni-taz'zee-Ssn, fo-netx- 
'zee-Jan. 

phonic adj. acoustic; fonetic [also spelt fonic\ 'fenik, 'fao- 
nik. 

phonog^raph n. fonetic letter or symbol; fonautograf; in- 
strument for recording and reproducing sounds [also spelt 
fonografl 'foo-na-g^aif. 

phonog^rapher n. fonetist; shorthand- writer [also spelt fo- 
nografer} fo'neg^a-fae. 

phonog^raphic adj. [also spelt fonografici fond'graefik. 

phonog:raphy n. writing fonctically; fonetic shorthand, use 
of the fonograf [also spelt fonografyl fa'nogzra-fi. 

phonotypy n. fonetic printing [also spelt fonotypyl 'foo-no- 
tai-pi, fa'neti-pi. 

phosgene n. carbon oxychlorid [synonymous cognate phot- 
gen] 'fes-dsin, 

phosphate n. (salt of phosphoric acid) 'fe-sfet. 

phosphorescence n. (the quality of shining in the dark 
without sensible heat) fesfa'^esans. 

phosphorize v. [also spelt phosphorise] 'fesfd-raiz. 

phosphorous adj. (phosphorescent; full of phosphoms) 
'fesfo-ras. 

j .-ye, Qcure; htht, */iin; 3 axrure, d^/oy; S j/toe, tlchemi 
iBw/ren; q sin^; u whoever, i r^act, o full, ou fool, i it, li 8##; 
o poetic; a ov^r, e aerial. Abut, o: door, oo no, ebed, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 407 

phosphorus n. (element) 'fesfd-^ss. 

phosphnreted adj. [also spelt phosphurettedl 'fesfio-?etid. 

photoohromy n. (coloring fotografs; color-fotografy) 'ioo- 
ta-ksomi, fa'teksa-mi. 

photograph v. [also spelt fotograf; past participle and pret- 
erit photographed, fotograft'l 'foo-ta-geaif. 

photographer n. [also spelt fotograf erl fa'togea-fa?. 

photographic adj. [also spelt fotografici fota'g^aefik. 

photography n. [also spelt fotografy} fa'teg^a-fi. 

photogravure' n. foo-ta'g^ee-vja^, foo-tag^a'vjo:?. 

photometer n. (light-measuring device) fa'tomi-tas. 

phrase n. (written expression) fseez. 

phraseology n. (diction, style) fsezi'ets-dsi. 

phreuetio adj. fsi'netik. see frenetic. 

phrenitio adj, (affected with phrenitis) fsi'nitik. 

phrenitis n. (brain fever) fsi'nai-tis. 

phrenologic adj. (of phrenology) fsenaledsik; {less proper- 
ly) fsina'ledsik. 

phrenology n. (study of mental faculties, etc.) fsi'nela-dsi. 

phthisic n. consumption [also spelt tisic} 'tizik. 

phthisis n. consumption [also, .sometimes, spelt tisisl 'Oai- 
sis, 'fOai-sis, 'tai-sis, 'tisis, 'tii-sis, 'fOisis. 

phyle n. clan; political unit; brigade [ploral phylael 'fai-h. 

phylloxera ». (plant-louse) filak'sii-ra. 

phylogeny n. (genesis of a tribe) fi'ledsi-ni. 

phylum n. tribe, race [ploral phyla"} 'fai-lam. 

physalite n. (variety of topaz) 'fis3-lait, (less properly) 
'fiz3-lait, 'fai-sa-lait. 

physic V. dose with physic, etc. [present participle physick- 
ing, past participle and preterit physicked, physicti 'fizik. 

physician, n. (medical man; doctor) fi'ziSsn. 

physicist n. (one verst in physics; believer in physicism) 
'fizi-sist. 

physicky adj. (of or like physic or drugs) 'fizi-ki. 

physiognomic adj. (of physiognomy; characteristic) fizi-eg- 
'nemik, fizi-a'nemik. 

physiog^nomist n. (one skild in physiognomy) fizi'egna- 
mist, fizi'ena-mist. 

physiognomy n. (art of judging character from facial or 
bodily features; face; countenance) fizi'egna-mi, fizi'ena-mi. 

physiology n. (science of organic functions) fizi'ela-dsi. 

physique n. (physical or bodily structure) fi'ziik. 

phytology n. (botany) fai'tela-dsi, fi'tela-dsi. 

c: law, b: f wr, ae cot, e hot, ei hoy ; a: for, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



408 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

pi n.,v. in printing, disorderd type [also spelt pie, pye} pax. 
piaffe V, move somewhat as in trotting [past participle and 

preterit piaffed, piafti pi'aef. 
pia mater n. (inmost membrane investing the brain and 

spinal cord) pai-s'mee-tdz. 
pianissimo adj. (very soft) pi-d'nisi-mo. 
pianist n. (player on the piano) pi'aenist, 'pii-d-nist. 
pianisto n. (a pianist, especially a female pianist) pi-a'niiat. 
piano adj. (soft) pi'a:-no. 

piano n. (a soft or gentle passage or tone) pi'a:-n3. 
piano n. (pianoforte) pi'xno, pi'a:-n3. 
pianoforte n. (musical instrument; piano) pi-aena'fair-ti, pi- 

'xno-io:z'ti; pi'xno-io:zt; pi-ai-no'fDi^-ti, pi'a:-no-fo:r-ti. 
piassaba n. woody fiber [synonymous cognates piassava, pia- 

cabal pi-9'sa:-b3, pi'aesa-ba. 
piaster n. Spanish dollar; Turkish coin [also spelt pitutrej 

pi'aest9?. 
piazza n. (public square; plaza; veranda) pi'xzs. 
pibrooli n. (Scotch music) 'pii-beok; (less properly) 'pai- 

b^ek. 
pio n. Turkish measure [also spelt pike, pik and, fermerly, 

peck, pick"} piik, pik. 
pica n. (in all senses) 'pai-kd. 
picador n. (mounted man who pricks the bull at the opening 

of a bull-fight) piko'dore. 
picaresque adj. of picaroons or roques [also spelt ptckaret^ 

quel pika'^esk. 
picayune n. (half real; five-cent piece; petty coin) pik9- 

'juun. 
piccadill n. (obsolete) border, ruff, collar [also spelt picka- 

dill; synonymous cognates peccadillo, pickydilly, etc.] 'pikd- 

dil. 
piccaninny ». little one; child; baby, especially of any ne- 
groid race [also spelt pickaninny, picaninny"} 'pikd-nini. 
piccolo It. (flute) 'pika-lo. 

pice n. coin of India [also spelt pyse; ploral picel pais, 
piceous adj. (of or like pitch; pitch-black) 'pisi-3S, 'piSi-aa* 

'piSds, (rarely) 'pai-si-as. 
picbiciago n. (truncate armadillo) pitjisi'ee-go, pitSisi'a:-03. 
piciform adj. (pitch-like) 'pisi-fe:rm. 
piciform adj, (formd like a woodpecker) 'pai-si-fe:?m, 'pisi- 

ieizm, 
picine adj. (of woodpeckers) 'pai-sain, 'pai-sin. 

j :ye, Q cure ; 5 the, thin ; 3 a^ure. ds ;oy ; S shoty tS chew; 
wwhcn; rising; u whoever, i r£?act, o full, ouiool, itt, lis^r; 
o poetic; 9 ov^r, e aerial. Abut, oidoor, 00 no, ebed, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 409 

pickaback adj. on the shoulders or back like a pack [syn- 
enymous cegnates pickback, pickapack, pickpack, pigback, 
piggybackl 'pika-baek. 

pickage n. toll [also spelt piccage"] 'pikids. 

pickax n. tool [also spelt pickaxe; ploral pickaxes'] 'pik-aks. 

picked adj. (pointed, peaked; prickly) 'pikid. 

picked adj. selected; choice [also spelt pickt] pikt. 

pickerel n. (young pike, etc.) 'pika-zrgl, 'piksal. 

picnic n. party, etc. [also spelt pic-nic and, formerly, pick- 
nick, pique-niquel 'pik-nik, 'pikNik. 

picnic V, [present participle picnicking, past participle and 
preterit picnicked, picnict] 'pik-nik. 

picnicker n. 'pik-niksr. 

picra n. (bitter cathartic) 'pil«3, 'pai-lraa. 

picric adj. (carbazotic) 'piksik, (rarely) 'pai-lraik. 

picture n. (painting, portrait, etc.) 'piktja?, 'pikt^azr. 

picturesque adj. (picture-like) piktja'resk, piktga'resk. 

picul n. oriental measure [also spelt picol, pekul, pikul] 
'pi-kAl, 'pikAl. 

pie n. pastry dish [also, formerly, spelt pyel pai. 

pie n, set of rules; index [also spelt pyel pai. 

pie n. coin of India [also spelt pai, pi; ploral pie, pies] pai. 

piebald adj. (having patches of different colors; parti-col- 
ord) 'pai-bc:ld. 

piece n. (portion; fragment; thing) piis. 

pied adj. (parti-colord) paid. 

piepoivder ». wayfarer [also spelt piepoudre] 'pai-pao-da?. 

pier n. (support of a bridge or arch; mole; jetty) pi:zr. 

pierce v» (thrust thru; penetrate) pi:?s. 

piercing n., adj. 'pi:zr-siq. 

piet n. magpie; water-ouzel [also spelt pyet, pyot] 'pai-3t. 

Pietisui n. (principles of the German Pietists) 'pai-i-tizam. 

pietist n. (pious person) 'pai-i-tist. 

piety n. (quality of being pious) 'pai-i-ti. 

pigeon n. dove [also, formerly, spelt pidgeon] 'pidsan. 

pigeon-Englisk n. lingua franca of ports of the Far East 
[synonymous cognate pidgin-English] pidsan'iqghS, {assump- 
tivly) 'pidsan-iqghS. 

plssy w. little pig [also spelt piggie] 'pigi. 

pigkeaded adj. obstinate, stupid, perverse [also spelt pig- 
heded] pig'hedid, (assumptivly) 'pig-hedid. 

piked adj. (having a pike; sharp-pointed) 'pai-kid, paikt. 

pilaster n. (rectangular pillar; anta) pilaesta?. 

c: law, b: f Mr, ae cat, o hot, oi hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



410 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

pilan n. oriental dish [also spelt pUlau, pilaw, pillow, ptlaw; 

synonymous cognates pilao, pilaff} pile: , p^loOy pxloo. 
pileate adj. (capt; crested) 'pili-et, 'pai-li-at. 
pilgarlic n. (poor creature; wretch) pil'ga:r4ik. 
pilgrimage n. (journey of a pilgrim) 'pdgsi-mids. 
pilgrimixe v, play the pilgrim [also spelt pilgrimise} 'pdgn- 

maiz, 
pillar n. (column) 'pila;. 

pilloiv n. (head-rest; cushion) 'pilo; (vulgarly) 'pita, 
pilose adj. (hairy) pailoos, {jassumptivly) 'pai*4o8; {aUo, 

rarely) piloos. 
pilus n. hair-like body [ploral pilil 'pai-lds. 
pimento n. dried berries; tree [synonymous cegnate pitnen- 

ta} pi'mento, 
pinaooid adj. slab-like [also spelt pinakoidj 'pind-kexd. 
pinaootlieoa n. (pinacothek) pinskd'Oii-k^. 
pinaootliek n. art museum [also spelt pinacotheckj 'pxiid- 

ka-Oek. 
pinafore n. (child's apron) 'pin3-fo?. 
pinaster n. (cluster-pine) pi'nsstd^, pai'naestdr. 
pinaz n. tablet; register; catalog; platter [ploral pinacts, 

pinakes"] 'pi-naeks, 'pinaeks, 'pai-naeks. 
pince-nez n. (eyeglasses) 'pxgs-ne. 
pincers n. nippers [dialectal synonymous substitute pineh^rii 

'pinsarz. 
pinch V. nip, squeeze [past participle and preterit pinched, 

pinchtl pints, {also, in Britain, often) pinj. 
pinchbeck n. (alloy) 'pintS-bek. 
pinchers n. 'pint$3zrz. same meaning as pincers, 
Pindaric adj. (of Pindar) pin'daerik. 
pineal adj. (shaped like a pine-cone) 'pai-ni-al, 'pini-ol, 

(rarely) pai'nii-al. 
pinio adj. (of pine) 'pai-nik, 

pinioned adj. winged [also spelt piniondl 'pinj»nd. 
pinite n. (saccharin substance from pine-tree sap) 'pi-nait, 

'pai-nait. 
pinnacle n. (turret) 'pind-kol. 

pinnatifid adj. pinnately cleft at least half-way to the mid- 
dle; pinnisected [synonymous cognate pennatifidi pi'iueti- 

fid, (rarely) 'pin9ti-fid. 
pinnatipartite adj. pi-neti'pa?-tait, pi-naeti'poz-tait. 
pinocle n. 'pino-kal. same meaning as penuckle. 
pinon n. (nut-pine) 'pinjan, pi'njet]. 

j ye, Q cure; 5 the, Q thin ;^ 3 arrure, ds joy; 5 shoe, tS chtw; 
w when ; q sin^; u whoever, i r^act, o full, ou fool, i »t, li 8##; 
o poetic; 3 over, e aerial, Abut, o: door, oo no, ebed, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 411 

piny adj, of pine [also spelt piney} 'pai-ni. 

pipa n. (toad) 'pai-pa, pi'pa: . 

pipage «. [also, formerly, spelt pipeagel 'pai-pids. 

pipistrel n. bat [also spelt pipistrellel pipi'stjel. 

piquancy n. (appetizing flavor; tartness; quality of being 
piquant) 'pii-kan-si, 'pikgn-si. 

piquant adj, (sharp; keen; lively) 'pii-kant, 'pikant, 'pii- 
kant, 'pii-kaent, 'pi-kant, 'pi-ksent, pi'kaent, 'pii-kcnt, 'pii- 
keq. 

piquant e adj, (piquant : used especially as a f eminin ; live- 
ly; taking) pi'kaint. 

pique n. (ill-feeling; offense taken) piik. 

piquet n. (card-game) pi'ket, 'pikit, (rarely) pi'kee. 

pique-n^ork n, decorativ needlework; tortoise-shell work 
[also spelt piquet-work, picqu^-work"} pi'kee-WB:?k. 

piracy n. (robbery at sea, etc.) 'pai-ra-si. 

piragua n. canoe [synonymous cognates periagua, pirogue"} 
pi'^3egw3. 

piratical adj. (pirate-like; pirated) pai'?ati-k3L 

pirl V, twist, wind, spin, purl; revolv; curl, ripple [past par- 
ticiple and preterit pirled, pirldl pB'.zl. compare purlj 

pirouette n. (whirling toe-dance) pi^u'et. 

pirr n. tern, pirr-mau; black-heded gull [also spelt pirre, 
purre"} pe:?. compare purr} 

piscatory adj. (of fishers or fishing) 'piska-ton. 

pisciculture n. (fish-culture) 'pisi-kAhJa^. 

piscina n, fishpond [ploral piscinae, piscinas'! pi'sii-na, pi- 
'sai-n3. 

piscine «. pool, pond [also, sometimes, spelt piscin} 'pisin, 
pi'siin. 

piscine adj. (of fish) 'pi-sain, 'pisin. 

pismire n. (ant) 'pis-mai?, 'piz-mai?. 

pistachio n. (nut; tree; color) pis'tai-Jo, pi'stai-Jo; pis'ta:* 
Si-o, pis'tee-Si-o, pis'tee-jD, pis'taeSo, pis'taeSi-o. 

pistil n. (seed-bearing organ) 'pistil. 

pistol V. shoot with a pistol [present participle pistoling, pis- 
tolling; past participle and preterit pistoled, pistolled, pis- 
told] 'pistl, 'pistal. 

pistol n. (firearm) 'pistl, 'pistal. 

pistole n. (Spanish gold coin) pi'stool. 

pistoleer n. one who uses a pistol [former synonymous cog- 
nate pisfolier} pistali:?. 

piston n. (plunger) 'pistn, 'pistan. 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte; 
length-mark (:) indicatos that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stresg on the following syllable. 



412 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

pitapat adv. patteringly; flutteringly ; with light step [alio 

spelt pit-a-pat; synonymous cognates pitpat, pittyPat, pUfy- 

patty"} 'pita-paet. 
piteous adj. (full of pity) 'piti-as. 
pith n. (spongy tissue; marrow; essence; vigor) pi8. 
pithecoid adj. (ape-like, simian) pi'Ozi-keid, 'piOi-kazd. 
pitiable adj. (exciting pity; pityful) 'piti-d-bsl. 
pitiful adj. (full of pity; pitiable) 'piti-fal. 
pitiless adj. (without pity; merciless) 'piti-tds. 
pittance n. (pious donation; dole; small amount) 'pxtns, 

'pitans, 
pitticite n. pitchy iron-ore [synonymous cognate pitttMite} 

'piti-sait. 
pituita n. (phlegm; mucus) pitgu'ai-td. 
pituitary adj. (of pituita; mucous) pi'tgou-i-tc«i, 'pxtcn-i- 

tczri. 
pixy n. fairy [also spelt pixie; ploral pixiesi 'piksi. 
pizzicato adj. (pluckt) pitsi'ka:-to. 
placable adj. (appeasable) 'pz^ee-kd-bsl, 'pLskd-bdL 
placard n. (notice, bill, poster) ^pi^-kazd, 'ptxk^ed; pi.a- 

'ka:rd, pLae'ka:^d, 
placard v. (set up placards on or in ; post as a placard) 'pue- 

kazd, 'ptaekDzd; pLD'ka:?d, pi.ae'ka:rd. 
placate v. (pacify) 'ptee-ket, 'ptaeket; pi-a'keet. 
placatory adj. (propitiatory) 'ptee-ka-tDei, 'pz^k^-tari. 
placcate n, (armor) 'ptae-ket, 'ptaeket. 
place n, (space; locality; residence) pz^ees. 
placeable adj. (capable of being placed) 'pLee-ss-ba}. 
placebo n. pacifying medicin [plural placebos, placeboesi 

pta'sii-bo. 
placoid adj. (plate-like) 'ptae-keid. 
plagiarism n. (literary theft, etc.) 'ptee-dsi-d-rizdm, 'pt.ee- 

dsD-zrizDm; (less properly) 'ptajdsi-a-^izam. 
plag^iarist n. (one guilty of plagiarism) 'pLee-dsi-d-rist, 

'pLee-dsa-nst. 
plagiarize v. [also spelt plagiarise} 'pLee-d3i-9-;aiz, 'pz^e- 

plagiary n. (formerly, kidnapper; now, plagiarist; plagia- 
rism) 'ptee-dsi-e^i, 'ptee-dsa-ri. 

plague n. (affliction, scourge, pestilence) pteeg. 

plaguily adv. (in a plaguy manner) 'pLee-gi-h. 

plaguy adj. pestiferous; that is a plague; vexatious [also, 
formerly, spelt plaguey} 'ptec-gi, (often) 'ptegi. 

j ^e, gcurc; b the, Qthin; 3 a^ure, ds/oy; S Wioe, tS cliew; 
wwken; t}sing; u whoever, i r^act, o f ull, ou fool, 1 tt, iis#e; 
o poetic; a ov^r, e aerial, Abi^t, d: door, do no, e b^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 413 



plaice n. flatfish [also, formerly, spelt plaUel pz^ees, 

plaid n. (garment; fabric) ptaed, pz.eed. 

plaided adj. (drest in a plaid; made of plaid) 'pLaedid, 'pz^e- 

did. 
plain n, (tract of flat land; level country region; prairie) 

pz.een« 
plain adj\ (flat, level, smooth, even; open; easy; frank; 

clear, manifest; simple) pz.een. 
plainness n. (evenness; candor; clearness) 'pz.een-nis. 
plaintiff n. (person who begins a suit: correlativ of de^ 

fendanf] 'pteen-tif. 
plaintive adj. mournful [also spelt plaintivl 'pteen-trv. 
plait V, (fold flat; gather in pleats; pleat) pz.eet, pz.zit; (braid 

or intertwine so as to form a plait, band or rope; plat) 

ptcet, pz^t. 
plait n. (fold of cloth; pleat) pz.eet, pz.zit; (fold, crease, 

wrinkle, sinuosity in a natural structure; quirk, trick) pz^et; 

(contexture of interlaced strands; braid, cord, plat) pz^et, 

pz^t. 
planar adj. (of a plane; flat) 'pz.ee-n37. 
planchet n. (coin-blank) 'pLsnt$it. 
planehette n. (board for automatic writing) pLsn'Set, pz.eQ- 

'Set. 
plane n. (smoothing-tool) pz.een. 
plane n. (flat, even, or level surface) pz.een. 
planesliear n. covering-board [synonymous cognate plank- 

sheerj 'pz-een-Si:?. 
planish V. level; flatten; polish [past participle and preterit 

planished, planisht'} 'pLaeniJ. 
planoblast n. (wandering germ; free-swimming hydrozoan 

bud) 'pz.aen3-bla:st, 'pz.ee-n3-bla:st. 
plant n. (tree, herb, vegetal organism; fixtures, machinery, 

etc.) pz.a:nt, ptaent. 
plantain n. (herb of the genus Plantago, etc.) 'pzjentin, 

'ptaen-ten. 
plantain n. plane-tree, platan, plane [former iynensrmous 

cognate platan"} 'pL«ntin, 'pz^n-ten. 
plantar adj. (of the sole of the foot) 'pucnt^z. 
plaqne n. (ornamental plate; eruption; blood-plate) pz^uk, 

ptaik, ptaek. 
plasma n. (shape; quartz; liquid; plasm) 'pzjezma, 'pzjesMd. 
plaster v, overlay; bedaub [past participle and preterit plas- 
tered, plasterdl 'pz.a:-st3?. 

c: law, b: iur, se cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is leng; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the Allowing syllabi. 



414 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

plastic adj. (capable of being molded; formativ, etc.) 

'pLsestik. 
plat n. flat part; foot-bridge; flat country [also, fermerly, 

spelt platt} pLxt. 
plat n. (plot) p^xt. 
plat n. (a contexture of interiaced straw, hair, etc.; braid; 

plait) pz.xt. 
plat V. (intertwine, plait) p^aet. 
platan n. oriental plane-tree [synenymous cegnate plataH€l 

'pz^aetan. 
plate n. (flat sheet of metal; shallow dish; silver or gold 

ware) pz.eet. 
plate V, (overlay or coat with metal) pz^et. 
plateau n. table-land; tray for the table [ploral plateaux, 

plateaus'] pz-a'tDO, pz-ae'tDO. 
plateaux n. (plural of plateau) pLs'taoz. 
platen n. impression-plate of a printing-press [also spelt 

platten; synonymous cognates platin, platting 'pzjetn, 

'ptaeton. 
platina n. archaic (platinum) 'pLaetn-s, 'pz^ti-na, pLd'txi-n9. 
platinize v, [also spelt platinised 'pz^tn-aiz. 
platinotype n. (fotografy in platinum-black) 'pzjctn-d-taip. 
platinum n. (metal) 'pLsetn-am, 'pz^ti-nsm, (rarely) pt^'td- 

nam. 
Platonist n. (follower of Plato) 'pz-ee-ta-nist ; (less properly) 

'pz.aet3-nist. 
platyrliine adj. broad-nosed [also spelt plalyrrhine and, 

sometimes, platyrhinl 'ptaeti-^in, 'ptaeti-rain. 
plausible adj, formerly, praiseworthy; now, fair-seeming, 

specious) 'ptozo-bal. 
plausive adj. applausiv [also spelt plaiisiv'\ 'pz.c:-8iv, 'ptx:- 

ziv. 
play V. exercise, etc [past participle and preterit played, 

playd} ptee, {ivhcn unsirest) pz-e. 
plaza n. (market-place, square) 'ptn:-z3, 'pz.a:-z3. 
pleasance n. pleasure, joy; pleasantry; pleasure-ground [al- 
so, sometimes, spelt plaisance, plesance'\ 'pLezans, 'pz.ii-z3n8, 

pte'zeqs. 
pleasant adj. pleasing, agreeable [also spelt plesanti 

'ptezont, 'pteznt. 
pleasantry n. fun; jest [also spelt plesantry; ploral pleas- 

antries'\ 'pLFzon-t£T, 'ptezn-tji. 
please v. (gratify; be pleased) ptiiz, (when unsirest) pziz. 

j ve, gcure; b the, 9 */iin ; 3 a-crure, ds/oy; $ j/ioe, tScAew; 
iu7t'/ien; qsiw/7; u whoever, i rract, o f«ll, ou fool, i tt, lisee', 
o poetic; a ov^r, e oerial, Abwt, o: door, oo no, e bed, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 415 

pleasure n. enjoyment, gratification [also spelt pleturel 

'pz.e33?; {dialectally) 'ptcc-sar. 
pleat V, (fold into pleats; plait) pt:iit. 
plebeian n. (one of the plebs; commoner) pi.il>ii-9n, pii- 

'bii-an, pz.i'bii-jan. 
plebeianise v. make plebeian; vulgarize [also spelt pUhH- 

amse'\ pi-i'bii-3-naiz. 
plebiscite n. plebiscitum ; direct vote of all the electors [also, 

sometimes, spelt plebiciti 'pLebi-sait, 'ptxbi-sit, 'pLsbz-sit; 

{improperly) pLi'bisit. 
pledge V. (pawn; bind; assure the performance of) pLeds. 
pledgeable adj. 'pLedsd-bdl. 
pledftoc ^* (one with whom a pledge is deposited; pawnee) 

pLeds'ii, pLe'dsii. 
pledger n. (one who deposits a pledge, pawner; one who 

pledges himself) 'pz.ed39e. 
pledgor n. in law, correlativ of pledgee [also spelt pledgear} 

pz-eds'e:?. 
pleiad n, (brilliant cluster of persons or things) 'pz^-cd, 

'pz.ai-9d. 
plein-air adj. open-air: said of schools of painting, etc 

[also spelt plain-air'l 'pi.een-e:e. 
Pleistocene adj. (Newer Pliocene; Post-Pliocene) 'pz.az-st9- 

sin. 
plenary n, (complete) 'ptii-na-ji ; (less properly) 'ptena-ri. 
plenipotentiary adj. (invested with full power; absolute) 

pz.enip3'ten$9-7i, pLenips'tenSi-eri, pz^nip9'ten$i-»-7z. 
plenitude n. (fulness) 'pz.eni-tcud. 
plenteous adj. (plentiful, copious; fertil) 'pzxnti-as. 
pleonasm n. (redundancy) 'pLii-g-naezam. 
pletbora n. (over-fulness, etc.) 'pz.e09-e9, pz.i'63:-ed. 
pletboric adj. (of full habit of body; swollen) pz.i'Oenk, 

'pz-eGa-jik. 
pleurisy n. (inflammation of the pleura) 'pz.o:-ei-sx. 
plicate adj, (folded, pleated) 'pLai-ket 
plicate V. (fold, pleat) 'pLai-ket, pLilceet. 
pliers n. pi, (pincers) 'pz.ai-3;z. 
pligbt n. (pledge, engagement) pz.ait. 
pligbt n. (condition, state) pz.ait. 
Pliocene adj. Upper Tertiary [also spelt Pleiocenel 'pt^d-a- 

sin. 
plot n. piece of ground; plan, map, scheme [synenymoos 

cognate plaQ pi-et. 

c: ]aw, e: iur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syUaXue* 



416 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

plover n. (bird) 'pz.AV3?; (erroneously) 'ptoo-var. 

plox^ n.,v. [also spelt plough; as verb, past participle and 

preterit plowed, plowd} pz.ao. 
plonTinan n. [also spelt ploughman; ploral plotvmen] 'pixio- 

man. 
ploxvsliare n. [also spelt ploughshare"} 'pz.ao-5e:e. 
plum n. (fruit; tree) pz.Am. 
plumase n. (feathers coUectivly) 'pLou-mids. 
plumb n. ball of led; plummet; the vertical [also spelt 

plum} pz.Am. 
plumb adj, vertical; downright [also spelt plum} pukBU 
plumb adv. vertically ; exactly ; quite [also spelt plum} pukin. 
plumber n. (artizan who works in led, etc.) 'puunae. 
plumose adj. (featherd) pLu'moos, (assumpHvly) 'pLou-mos. 
plumule n. (rudimentary shoot; little feather; plume-like 

part) 'pz-ou-mjul. 
pluperfect adj, completed prior to some past time [ssrneny- 

mous cognate plusperfect} 'pz-ou-perfikt, pLu'pBrfikt. 
pluralize v. make plural; become plural [also spelt plurdlisel 

'pi-o:-e3-laiz. 
plutoeracy n, rule of wealth [also spelt ploutocracy} pz.ii- 

'tek33-si. 
pneumatle n. (of, or acting by means of, wind or air; of 

gases) nju'maetik. 
pneumatize v. pass air thru; render pneumatic [also spelt 

pneumatise} 'njuu-ma-taiz, {rarely) 'pNJou-ms-taiz. 
pneumonia n. (inflammation of the lungs) njo^mao-ni-o, 

njo'moo-nJ3. 
podagra n. (gout) 'pedd-grd, po'dxgrs. 
podag^e adj. (of podagra; gouty) po'daegrik. 
poe-bird n, parson-bird, tui [also spelt poe-hird} 'p30-i-bB:sd. 
poem «. (work in verse) 'pDO-im; {improperly) 'poo-am, poom. 
poesy n. (poetry; poet's art) 'pDO-i-si; {less properly) 'poo- 

l-ZI. 

poet n. (writer of poems) 'poo-it; {improperly) 'p30-dt, poot. 
poetaster n. (rimester) 'poo-i-taestar, po-i'taest3s. 
poetess n. (female poet) 'poo-i-tis. 
poetic adj. (of or like poetry) po'ctik. 
poetize v. [also spelt poetise} 'poo-i-taiz. 
poetry n. (art or work of a poet; verse) 'pDO-i-tji; {improp- 
erly) 'poo-3-tji, 'poo-tEi. 
pogge M. (fish) peg. 
poignancy n. (quality of being poignant) 'pei-nan-si. 

j ye, Q cure ; 5 tht, */iin ;^ 3 arure. d^ /oy ; \ shoe, tS chew, 
wwhen; rising-, u whoever, i r^act, o fwll, ou fool, i it, listf^; 
o poetic; a over, e oerial, AbMt, o: door, oo no, e bed, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 417 

poignaiLt adj. (piercing, keen, sharp, pungent, piquant) 'pei- 

n9nt; {improperly) 'piuei-nant, 'pei-njant. 
poison V, administer poison to; corrupt [past participle and 

preterit poisoned, poisond'\ 'pei-zan, 'pei-zn. 
polacre n. vessel [synonymous cognate polacca'\ pa'lai-ka?. 
polarization n. [also spelt polarisation^ polszi'zee-^dn, pol9- 

?ai'zee-S9n. 
polarize v. cause to exhibit polar or axial differences; give 

polarity to [also spelt polarise'\ 'poo-la-^aiz. 
poldavy n. sailcloth [synonymous cognate poldavisl pel'dee- 

VI. 

poleax n. battle-ax; halbert; butcher's ax [also spelt pole-ax, 
poleaxe, pole-axe, pollax; plural poleaxes"] 'pool-aeks. 

police n. (public order; police force) pa'his, po'his; (vul- 
garly) 'pDO-Hs. 

polish v., n. (shine, gloss) 'pohj. 

Polish adj. (of Poland) 'pDO-hJ. 

polished adj. [also spelt polisM 'pehSt. 

politician n. (one skild in politics) peh'ti^dn. 

politicize v. act the politician; render political [also spelt 
politicise'! pa'hti-saiz. 

poll n. (head, vote, etc.) pool. 

poll V. crop; pollard; bring to the poll as voters; vote at a 
poll [past participle and preterit polled, poldl poo!. 

pollack n. fish [also spelt pollockl 'pelsk. 

poUan n. (fish) 'pebn. 

pollen n. (flower-dust) 'polan. 

poUiiv^og n. tadpole [also spelt pollywog; synonymous cog- 
nates polliwig, pollywigl 'poh-wog. 

polonaise n. (garment; dance) pold'neez, pols'neez. 

polverin n. ashes [also spelt polverine"! 'polva-ein. 

polygamic adj. (of polygamy; polygamous) poh'gaemik. 

polygamy n. (marriage with several at once) pD'hga-mi. 

polyglot adj, speaking several languages; of or in many lan- 
guages [also spelt polyglottl 'poh-glot. 

polygon n. (many-angled figure) 'poh-gon, 'poh-gan. 

polyhedron n. many-sided solid [synonymous cognate poly- 
edron; ploral polyhedra, polyhedrons'! poh'hii-dran, poh- 
'hedran. 

Polynesian adj. (of Polynesia) peli'mi-Jan, p©h'nii-3an; 
peh'nii-Si-an, peh'nii-si-an, poh'nii-si-an. 

polyp n. many-footed animal; hydra; polypide; isopod [also 
spelt polype! 'pehp. 

c: law, b: f wr, ae cat, o hot, oi hoy ; a: far, au now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



418 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

polyphony n. (multiplicity of sounds; counterpoint; poIy> 

fonic writing) pdlifd-ni, 'peli-foni. 
polyphyllons adj, (many-leaft) peh'fitss; {less properly) 

pa'hfa-las. 
polypidum n. (supporting-structure of a polyp^olony; poly- 

pary) palipi-dam, 'pehpi-dam. 
polypler n. (polypary) 'peh-pi:r. 
polypody n. (fern) 'peh-podi, 'peli-pedi. 
polyporous adj. (having many pores) pdlipd-TSS. 
polypus n. (cuttle-fish; polyp; tumor) 'peli-pss. 
polysyllabic adj. (of many syllables; characterized by poly- 
syllables) peh-silaebik, pehsilxbik. 
polysyllable n. (word of many syllables) peli'sits-bat, 'p^- 

sila-bol. 
polytheisiUL n, (belief in many gods) 'peh-Oi-izam, 'p^iOi- 

izdm. 
pomace n. crusht apples; pulp; fish-scrap; cake [also spelt 

pomice, pommice, pummice, pummacel 'pAmis; (improperly) 

'pemis. 
pomade n. (scented ointment; pomatum) pa'meed, po'meed. 

po'maid, pe'maid. 
pomatum n. (pomade) ps'mee-tdm. 
pomeg^rauate n. (tree) 'pem-grxnit, pem'gTaenit, 'pAm- 

gzs&nit, pAm'gjraenit. 
pomelo n. grapefruit [synonymous cognates pomello, pom~ 

melo, pomolo, pumelo, pummelol 'pemi-lo, 'pAmi-lo. 
pommel n. knob, ball; saddle-bow [also spelt pummef] 

'pAmal. 
pommel v. beat; bruise [also spelt pummel; present parti- 
ciple pommeling, pommelling; past participle and preterit 

pommeled, pommelled, pommeld} 'pAmal. 
pommelled adj, having a pommel of a specified tincture: 

said of a sword [also spelt pomelled, pommeld, pomeld} 

'pAmald. 
pompadour n. (mode of hair-dressing; color; fabric; pat- 
tern; bird) 'pemp3-do?, 'pempa-do^. 
pompauo n. fish [also, sometimes, spelt pomponol 'pempa- 

no, pem'pa:-nD. 
Pompeian adj. (of Pompeii) pem'pii-an, pem'pii-jan, pem- 

'pee-9n. 
pompelmoose n. shaddock [synonymous cognate pampel- 

mouscl 'pempal-mus. 
pomplou n. pumpkin [also spelt pumpioni 'pAmpi-an. 

j ve, gcure; 5 *Ae, //lin: 3 arure. d^joy; I shoe, tlchevr; 
tn7C'/ien; T)sing; u whoever, i r^act, o ff<ll, ouiool, i tt, lis^e; 
o poetic; 3 ov^r, c aerial. Abut, oidoor, oo no, e b^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 4t9 

pompoaity n. (pompous conduct; ostentation) pem'pesi-ti. 
pompous adj, (full of pomp; lofty; boastful) 'pemp9S. 
poncho n. (cloak) 'pentSo, 'penSo. 
ponderons adj, (heavy; clumsy; dull) 'pend9-z98» {rapidly) 

'pendrss. 
pone n. (in law^ writ) 'poo-ni. 
pone n. (in vingt-et-un, the player to the left of the dealer; 

eldest hand) 'poo-ni. 
pone n. (cornbread) poon. 
pongee n. (silk) pon'dsii, (assutnpHvly) 'pendsi; {<Uso) pAn- 

'dsii. 
poniard n. (dagger) 'penjazd. 

pontifez n. high priest; pontiff; pope; bridge-builder [plor- 
, al pontifices'] 'penti-feks. 

pontiff n. (chief priest, high priest; bishop; pope) 'pentif. 
pontifical adj. (of a pontiff; high-priestly) pen'tifz-k^ 
pontifices n. (ploral of pontifex) pen'tifi-siz. 
pontoon n. (flat-bottomd boat) pen'toun, (assumptivly) 'pen- 
tun. 
pony n, small horse [also spelt poney; ploral ponies, poneysl 

'poo-ni. 
pooh interj. expressing impatience, disdain, disregard [fer- 

mer synonymous cognates pugh, puhl pou, {sometimes) po. 
pooh-pooh f. (express disdain for; make light of) pu'pou. 
pook n. puk. same meaning as puck} 
poor adj, (destitute, needy; bad) po:;, {when less strest) pop; 

{also) po9. 
poorhouse n. 'po:7-haos, 'po:?-oos. 
pope-joan n. card-game [also spelt pope-Joan, Pope Joan} 

poop'dsDon. 
popinjay n. (parrot ; woodpecker) 'pepin-dsee. 
poplar n. (tree) 'pepi.3?. 
poplin n. (fabric) 'pepz.in. 
popliteal adj, (of the ham or hollow at the back of the knee) 

pe'pLiti-3l, pepi-i'tii-al. 
poppy n. plant; flower [ploral poppies} 'pepi. 
populace n. (the common people; the multitude) 'pep^o^es, 

'pepgo-hs. 
popularization n. [also spelt Popularisation} pepco4an'zee- 

San, pepQola-rai'zce-San. 
popularize v. make popular [also spelt Popularise} 'pepqo- 

Id-raiz. 
porcelain n. (fine earthenware; china; piece of china-ware) 

c: law, b: iur, x cat. e hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, az kite; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the feUowxng qrllable* 



420 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

'po:rs-hn, 'pe:r-SLin; 'po:?s-hn, 'poiz-si^in; 'po:z-Bi-len, 

'pe:?s-len, 'pe:?-si-hn, 'peir-si-lon, 'peie-si-len. 
porcelaii^e v, convert into porcelain [also spelt porcelain- 

ise, porcellanisc} 'po:rs-h-naiz, 'poizsAi-naiz, 
porcellaneous adj. of the nature of or like porcelain [83m- 

enymous cognates porcellanous, porcelanousi pezsilee-ni-as, 

pojTSi'lee-ni-as. 
porcellanic adj. like porcelain [also spelt Porcelanici peni- 

'lanik, pD^si'lanik. 
porcellanite n. porcelain jasper [also spelt porcelanitel 

'pe:c-sih-nait, por'sch-nait. 
porcellanous adj, 'pe:7-si-}en9S, po^'seh-nds. same mean- 

ing as porcellaneous. 
porcine adj. (of swine) 'pe:?-sain, 'pe:7-sin, 'poir-saziL 
pore V, (gaze; ponder) po:r. 
pore n. (hole, orifis) p3:<r. 
porg^ n. fish [also sprit porgee, porghee and, fermerly, par- 

gie; synonymous cognates paugic, paughie; ploral porgies} 

'pe:?-gi. 
porose adj. (full of pores; porous) po'zoos, (astumptiviy) 

'pD:-ros. 
porous adj. (full of pores) 'p3:-z3s. 
porphyry n, (hard rock) 'pe:c-fi-2i. 
porpoise n. (cetacean) *pe:z-p3s, 'pe:7-peis. 
porridge n. (pottage, soup; oatmeal food) Spends. 
porringer n. (porridge-dish) 'pezin-d$9Z, 
port n. (harbor; haven; seaport) po:zt. 
port n, (gate; porthole; aperture) pD:?t. 
port n. (deportment; mean; style of life) poizL 
port «. (left; larboard) poirt. 
port n. (Oporto wine) por^t. 
port V. (carry or hold, as a rifle) po:zt. 

portaled adj, having a portal [also spelt portalledl 'porr-tdld. 
portas n, breviary; roll [synonymous cognates Porteous, par- 
tes, portcss, porthosl 'poir-tas. 
portcullis n. (vertically-sliding gate-grating) pozt^khliB. 
Porte n. (Ottoman court) poizt. 

porte-coclidre n. (carriage-entrance) po:?t-ko'Se:?. 
porte-monnaie n. (purse) 'poirt-mD-ne. 
portent n. (omen, sign, token) 'po:?-tent, po^'tent; (less prop' 

erly) 'pe:^-tent, pe^'tcnt. 
porteress n. 'po:?-ta-ris, (rapidly) 'po:r-tsis. same meaning 

as portress. 

i yc, gcurc; b the, thin; 3 a^rure, dsyoy; I shoe, t$cAew; 
w when ; q siwgr; u whoever, i react, o f«ll, ou iool, i it, li see; 
o poetic; 3 over, e aerial, Abttt, oidoor, 00 no, ebed, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 421 

portfolio n. portable receptacle for sheets of paper; min- 
ister's office [plural portfolios} port'foo-li-o. 

portico «. porch-like ambulatory; colonnade [plural porticoSj 
porticoes} 'poi^-ti-ko. 

portidre n. (doorway curtain) 'po:3-tge?, 'po:?-ti-e:?, poz'tqeiz. 

portmanteau n. traveling-case [plural portmanteaus, port- 
manteaux} port'maento. 

portrait n. (drawing; likeness) 'po:r-tjit. 

portray v. represent, depict [past participle and preterit por- 
trayed, portrayd} por'tjee. 

portress n. female porter or doorkeeper [synonymous cog- 
nate porteress} 'po:r-t£is. 

Portuguese adj. (of Portugal) 'po:j-tSo-giz, 'po:?-tSu-gis. 

portulaca n. (plant) po^tSu'iaekd, po^tgu'laekd, po^tQo'lee-ko. 

posaune n. trombone; reed-stop [synonymous cognate po- 
saun} pa'zau-no, pa'sau-na. 

positively adv. in a positiv manner; downright [also spelt 
positivly} 'pezitiv-h, (rapidly) 'peztiv-h; (occasionally or 
vttlgarly) pezi'tivh. 

posse n, (sheriff's armd squad; possibility) 'pesi. 

possess V. (have; own) pa'zes; (less properly) pa'ses. 

possessed adj. controlled by a demon; crazy [also spelt pos- 
sest} p9'zest. 

possession n. (fact of possessing, etc.) pd'zeSan. 

possessive adj. denoting possession; of possession [also spelt 
possessiv} p9'zesiv. 

possessor n. (one who possesses; owner) pa'zesa^. 

possible adj. (that may be; that can be done) 'pesa-bal, (as- 
sumptivly) 'pesabal; (also, often) 'pesi-bal. 

postage n. (amount charged for transmission by post or 
mail) 'poo-stids- 

postal adj. (of the post or mail) 'pDO-stl, 'poo-stal. 

posterior adj. (later; hinder) pes'tr.-zi-^z ; (less properly) 
pos'ti:-zi-9z. 

posthumous adj. born after the death of its father; publisht 
after the death of the author; occurring after death [also, 
formerly, spelt postumous} 'pestjo-mas, 'peStJo-mas, 'postgu- 
m3s; (less properly) 'pest-hgo-mas, 'pest-ha-mas. 

posticlie adj. (counterfeit, artificial, superadded) pes'tiij, 
pos'tiiS- 

posticum n. (back door; back porch) pos'tai-kam. 

postil n. marginal note; commentary [also, formerly, spelt 
postill, postille; synonymous cognate postle} 'postil. 

c: law, b: iur, ae cat, o hot, oi hoy, a: far, au now, a: ask, ai kite; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
Stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



422 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

postil V. annotate [also spelt postel; past participle and pret- 
erit postillcd, postild] 'pestil. 
postiler n. one who makes a postil; expositor [also spelt 

postillcr} 'pesti-l^z, 
postilion n. forerunner; post-boy; rider of the near leader, 

etc. [also spelt postillion} po'stiUsn. 
post-obit adj. (taking effect after the death of Home one; 

also, post-mortem) poost'oo-bit, poost'obit. 
post-paid adj, poost'peed, {assumpHvly) 'poost-peed. 
postpone V. (put off; also, subordinate) pos'poon, post'poon. 
postscript n. (paragraph after the signature of a letter) 

'poos-sksipt, 'pDOst-sksipt. 
posy n. bouquet; flower [also, formerly, spelt poiey, posie; 

plural posies} 'poo-zi. 
potable adj. (drinkable) 'poo-ta-bsl. 

potassium n. (metal) pd'taesi-am; {less Properly) pa'taejam. 
potato n, tuber; batata, the plant [plural potatoes} pd'tee-ta; 

(improperly) bo'tee-to; (dialectally, vulgarly) pd'tee-ta, ba- 

'tee-t9. • 

potentate n. (prince, ruler; power) 'poo-tn-tet, 'poo-tan-tet. 
potentiality n. (quality of having power; possibility of ac- 
tion) pa-tenSi'cch-ti. 
pother V. (fluster; trouble) 'ped9?, 'pAda?. 
potpourri n. (stew; medley) po-pu'?ii, pet'po:-n. 
potsberd «. (fragment of earthenware) 'petSasd, 'pet-Jaed. 
pouldron n. shoulder-plate [synonymous cognate pauldton} 

'pDol-dran. 
poultice 7'. apply a poultice or cataplasm to [also spelt poui- 

tis; pust participle and preterit poulticed, poultist} 'pool-tu. 
pour V. cause to flow [past participle and preterit poured, 

pourd} po:c, {when unstrest) por. 
pourboire n. (drink-money, douceur, tip, fee) 'po:7-bwo:e, 

'pu:2-bwc:r, 'po:?-bwa:?. 
pouter V. poke, stir, rummage [also spelt powter} 'poo-tar. 
pcwer n. 'pau-9r, pau^; {also, in Britain) 'pau-a?, paoe. 
pcwwow n. priest, mcdicin-man; meeting; medicin [also 

spelt pow-woiv; synonymous cognate pawaw} 'pao-wao. 
poivuroiv^ V. (practis sorcery; hold a powwow; discuss) 'poo- 

wau, pao'wao. 
pozzolana n. volcanic ash [synonymous cognates PoszhoIg' 

na, puzcolano, puzzuolana, puoszolana} pets3'la:-na. 
practicable adj. (feasible; usable) 'psaektiko-bal. 
practical adj. (of practis or action; useful) 'psaekti-kaL 

j ye, Q cure; d tho, 9 f/iin ; 3 arure, ds /oy ; $ shot, t\ chew; 
luw^cn; T}sing; u whoever, i rract, o full, ou fool, lit, li 8tf#; 
o poetic; a over, e aerial. Abut, o: door, oono, e b^d, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 423 

practically adv. 'p^aektika-h, {often) 'psaektka-h ; {anterior- 
ly) 'psaekti-kah, 'p^aektiki-i. 

practice n. performance, conduct; mode of acting; exercise, 
etc. [also spelt practise, practis\ 'psaektis. 

practise v. perform, do, exercise, etc. [also spelt practice, 
practis; past participle and preterit practised, practist} 
'psaektis. 

practised adj. skild, expert [also spelt practiced, practist} 
'p^aektist. 

practiser n. [also spelt practicer} 'pssekti-s^z. 

praecipe n. writ; note [also spelt precipe} 'psii-si-pi, 'psii- 
si-pi; 'psesi-pi, 'psesi-pi. 

praemumire n. writ [also, formerly, spelt premumire} psi- 
mjo'mai-^i, psimjo'mai-zri. 

prairie n. (grassy plain; savanna; steppe) 'p3e:-ri; {dialec- 
tally) 'p3ee-2i. 

praline n. confection [also spelt praleen; synonymous cog- 
nate prawlin} 'p3a:-lin. 

pram n. flat-bottomd boat [also spejt praam, prahme} psa:m. 

prance v. (spring and bound) plains, plains, p3ae:ns; {also) 
plaints, etc. 

pratiqne n. license of a ship to hold intercourse with a port 
[also spelt pratic} 'p^aetik, 'psae-tik, p^a'tiik. 

pray v. supplicate; beg [past participle and preterit prayed, 
prayd} psee. 

prayer n, (supplication) p^e:^; {less properly) 'psee-a?. 

prayer n. (one who prays) 'p^ee-a^. 

preallable adj. {rare) preceding, previous, preliminary [also 
spelt praeallable} psi'aela-bal. 

preamble n. (preface, prolog) 'psii-aembal, psi'aembal. 

prebend n. (portion of revenue granted to a canon, etc.; 
prebendary) 'p^e-bend, 'pseband. 

prebendal adj. (of a prebend) p^i'bendl, 'pseban-dl. 

prebendary «. (holder of a prebend) psi'benda-^i, 'pseban- 
de^i. 

precative adj. supplicatory [also spelt precativ} 'pseka-tiv. 

precede v, (go before; occur earlier than) psi'siid. 

precedence n. (priority; preeminence) psi'sii-dns; {improp- 
erly) 'p3esi-dns. 

precedency n. (precedence) psi'sii-dn-si; {improperly) 'psesi- 
dn-si. 

precedent adj. (preceding; antecedent) psi'sii-dnt. 

precedent n. (previous action, example, or usage) 'psesi-dnt. 

c: \aw, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy, a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



424 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

precedented adj, (having a precedent) 'psesi-dentxd. 
precedently adv. (previously, beforehand) psi'sxi-dn-tLz. 
preceding adj. psi'sii-dii}, (assumptivly) 'psii-sidiq. 
precentor n. leader of singing; choir-leader [also, formerly, 

spelt prcccnter'\ p^'scntdr. 

preceptory n. (subordinate community of the Knights Tem- 
plars, etc.) psi'sept3-ri; {less properly) 'pszi-iep-tsn ; (im- 
properly) 'pscsop-tDsi. 

precinct n. (space in or round a building; environs; bound; 
compass, limit) 'p3ii-sii]kt. 

preciona adj, (of great price; costly; dear; fastidious; sr- 
rant) 'p3eS9s. 

precipice n. cliff [also spelt precipisi 'psesi-pis. 

precis n. (summary, abstract) pse'sii, 'psee-sz. 

precise adj. (exact) p3i'sais; {improperly) p^z'sazz. 

precisely adv. p3i'sais-h, p3i'sai-sz.i ; {improperly) psi'sazx- 
h. 

precocial adj, of the Praecoces [also spelt praecociaf} psi- 
'koo-Sol, p^i'koo-Ssl. 

precocious adj. (ripening early; forward, premature) psz- 
'koo-Sos. 

precocity n. (quality of being precocious) p^zlcosz-ti. 

precuneus n. the quadrate lobule of the brain, situated in 
front of the cuneate lobule [also spelt praecunetts; plonl 
precunei^ p3i'k(;uu-ni-3s. 

precursor n. (forerunner) psi'l'Bzs^z, p3i'ks:?-8a7. 

predatory adj, (plundering; of prey) 'psed^-toei, (aUo) 
'p3edot3-ci, (assumptivly) 'p3ed3-t3ri; {rapidly) 'iraedd-tsi. 

predecessor n. (one who has preceded in a position; ances- 
tor) psedi'sesa^, p^idi'sesar, (sometimes) 'psedi-sesae. 

predestine v. destin beforehand [also spelt predestin; past 
participle and preterit predestined, predestindl psiMestzn. 

predetermine v. fix, decide, or determin beforehand [also 
spelt prcdctcrmin; past participle and preterit predeter^ 
mined, predetennind} p^ii-di'toizr-min. 

predial adj. of land; real [also spelt praedial"} 'pszi-di-^ 

predicable adj, (capable of being predicated) 'psediks-b^. 

predicament n. (that which is predicated; fix) psi'dzka- 
mant. 

predicative adj, predicting [also spelt predicaHv'] 'psedz- 
ketiv. 

predilection n, (preference) p^idi'lekjan ; {less property) 
p^edi'lekjan. 

j yc, q cure ; 5 the, thin ; 3 a-jure, ds joy ; J j/ioe, tj chew; 
wwiien; T}sing', u whoever, i r^act, o full, uu f ool, z *t, lisee; 
o poetic; o ovrr, c cerial, xbi/t, 0: door, 00 no, e bf d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 425 

preeminenee n. superiority [also spelt pre-eminence, preim- 

inencel psi'emi-ndns. 
preemption n. previous purchase [also spelt pre-emption, 

preemption^ p^i'empSsn. 
preensase v, [also spelt pre-engage, preengagel psii-xn- 

'gceds. 
preesopl&ageal adj, in front of the esophagus, etc. [also 

spelt pre-esophageal, preesophageal, praeesophagecU, pre- 

oesophageal, praeoesophageal] psii-iso'fsedsi-dt 
preestablish v, establish beforehand [also spelt pre-estab- 
lish, preestablishl p3ii-i'stxbliS. 
preeziiit v. exist before [also spelt pre-exist, preSxistI pvA' 

dg'zist, psii-eg'zist. 
preface n. (introduction) ^psefis. 

prefatory adj, (of the nature of a preface) 'psefd-taei. 
prefect n. chief officer; magistrate; governor; prepositer 

[also spelt praefect} 'psii-fckt. 
prefecture n. office of prefect; presidency {also spelt prae- 

fecture} 'psii-fcktS^e. 
preferable adj. worthy to be preferred [former synonymous 

cognate preferrablel 'psefs^d-bat ; (improperly) p3i'f8:-e9-b9t. 
preference n. (action of preferring; priority; favoring) 

'psefd-rans, (sometimes) 'psefsans. 
preferment n. (advancement; priority) p3i'fB:7-m9nt. 
preferrable adj. obsolete [also spelt preferrible'\ psi'fB:-r9- 

bdl. same meaning as preferable. 
•preferred adj. promoted; approved; privileged [also spelt 

preferdi p^i'feird. 
prefix V. past participle and preterit prefixed, prefixt (fix 

beforehand) psii'fiks, p:si'fiks, (place before or at the be- 
ginning; fasten in front) psi'fiks, psi^fiks. 
prefix n. (verbal element placed before and joind to a word 

or stem; act of prefixing) 'psii-fiks. 
pregnancy n. (gestation) 'psegnan-si, (dialectally) 'pseeg- 

ndn-si. 
prebenaible adj, (capable of being graspt) p^i'hensa-bal. 
prehensile adj, capable of prehension or grasping [also» 

sometimes, spelt prehensill psiliensil, psi'hen-sail. 
prehistoric adj. (of the period antecedent to history) psi- 

I'ste^ik, p3i-is'te?ik, p3ii-his'te?ik. 
prejudgrment n. judgment beforehand [also spelt prejudge- 

mentl p^ii'dsAdsmant. 
prejudice n.,v, damage; bias [also spelt prejudis; as verb, 

c: law, e: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound ts long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



426 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

past participle and preterit prejudiced, prejudist'\ 'p^seds^- 

dis, 'psedso-dis; (less properly) 'p3ed3Jo-di8, 'p3edsJo-dazs. 
prejudicial adj. (causing prejudice; damaging) psedfio- 

'diSal. 
pre- judicial adj. (previous to a trial ; before judgment) psn- 

dso'diSal. 
prelacy n. office of a prelate; body of prelates; rank or 

rule of prelates [plural prelacies'] 'p^ela-si. 
prelate n. (ecclesiastical dignitary; bishop, archdeacon, etc) 

'p3eht; (improperly) 'psii-let. 
prelatio adj, (of a prelate) p3i'}aetik. 
prelatize z*. [also spelt prelatisel 'p^els-taiz. 
prelude n. (preliminary performance, etc.; introduction, 

preface) 'p^ii-liud, 'p3e-Hud. 
prelude v. (precede as a prelude; introduce) psilioud, {aiso, 

especially in ntusic) 'p3e-Hud. 
preludize v. [also spelt preludise] 'pscHo-daiz. 
prelusive adj. serving as a prelude [also spelt Prglusivl psi- 

liou-siv. 
prelusory adj. (prelusiv) p^iliou-sa-n. 
premature adj. (too early; over-hasty) p^imd'tQo:?, (<u^ 

sumptivly) 'p3ii-mD-t(jor ; {also, less properly) 'p^emd-t^DE, 

p^imo'tSoiz:. 
prematurity n. p^imo'tgor-^i-ti, pscma'tcor-ei-ti, 
premazillary adj. in front of the maxilla or upper jaw [also 

sprit pracmaxillary'] p^i'maiksi-le^i, p^i-maek'sila-ci. 
premier adj. (chief, leading, foremost; eatliest) 'p^ri-mi-ar, 

'p3Pm-i-3r, 'poiim-J3?, 'pscm-js^; {improperly) psi'mi:?. 
premidre adj. (first; chief: said of women) psam'je:?, p^B- 

'mje:?. 
premise n. in law and in general, thing previously mentiond; 

aforesaid, foregoing; preliminary; subject of conveyance or 

bequest; house with its grounds, etc. [also spelt premis; 

pi oral premises'], 'p^emis. 
premise v. state before something else; prefit: state in the 

premisses; perform or administer beforehand; introduce [al- 
so, formerly, spelt premise"] p^i'maiz. 
premiss n. in logic, previous statement or proposition from 

which another is inferred; one of the two propositions from 

which the conclusion is derived in a syllogism [also spelt 

premise, premis; ploral premisses] 'p^emis. 
premium «. reward, prize [ploral premiums and, formerly, 

prcmia] 'p3ii-mjom, 'p^ii-mi-sm. 

j ve, Q cure; d the. th\n;^ 3 arure, d^ joy; 5 ^^oe, tS chew; 
U)7e'/2en; rising; u whoever, i r£?act, n fMll, ou fool, i it, listfe; 
o poetic; ^ ov^r, e aerial, Ab«t, o: door, oo no, e b^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 427 

prenomen w. first name; personal name; forename; gener- 
ic name [also spelt praenomenl psi'noo-man. 

prentice n,, v. [also spelt prentis ; as verb, past participle 
and preterit prenticed, prentist} 'psentis. 

prepaid adj. (paid in advance) psii'peed, {assumptivly) 'psii- 
peed. 

preparative adj. [also spelt preparativl psi'paera-tiv. 

preparator n, (preparer) p3i'pae?a-t3^, 'psepa-^eta?. 

prepared adj, (made ready) p3i'pe:?d, (also, in poetry) psi- 
'pe:-^id. 

preparedly adv. (in a prepared manner; in a state of readi- 
ness) p3i'pe:-^i-dh. 

preparedness n. (readiness) p3i'pe:r-dnis, psi'pe:-ei-dnis. 

prepositor n. senior schoolboy in charge of other schoolboys 
outside the classroom [also spelt praepositor; synonymous 
cognates prepostor, praepostor, preposter'\ p3i'pezi-t3?. 

preposterons adj. (inverted in position; irrational; absurd) 

p3l'pest3-23S. 

prepostor n. p^i'pesta^. same meaning as prepositor. 
prepnce n. (foreskin) 'p3ii-pQus. 
preputial adj. (of the prepuce) psi'pgou-Sal. 
prerequisite n. that which is required beforehand [also 

spelt prerequisite p^i'^ekiui-zit. 
presage n. (omen, sign, portent, prognostication; foreboding) 

'p3ii-sed3, 'p3esid3; (also, formerly) p^i'seeds. 
presage v. (portend; auger; predict, etc.) psi'seeds. 
presagefnl adj. psi'seeds-fal, 'psesids-fal. 
presager n. p3i'see-d332. 

presbyopia n. (presbyopy) p3ezbi'o6-pi-3, p^esbi'oo-pi-s, 
presbyter n. (church elder) 'psezbi-ta?, 'p^esbi-tae; (less 

properly) 'p^espi-ta?. 
presbyterian adj, (of presbyters, etc.) p3ezbi'ti:-ri-3n, pses- 

bi'ti:-?i-3n ; (less properly) p3espI'tI:-^i-^n. 
prescience n. (foreknowledge) 'p^ii-Jans, 'p^ii-Ji-ans; (less 

properly) 'p^ejans, 'p^eji-ans. 
prescient adj. (foreknowing) 'psii-Jant, 'p^ii-Ji-ant. 
prescribe v. (define; designate; advise) p^i'sk^aib. 
prescript n. (rule; prescription) 'psii-sksipt ; (also, former- 
ly) p3i'slcsipt. 
prescript adj. (prescribed; fixt) p3i'sk3ipt, 'p3ii-sk3ipt. 
prescription n. (direction; physician's formula) p^i'sksip- 

San. 
present n. (thing presented; gift) 'p^ezant, 'pseznt. 

c: ]azv, n: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



428 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

present v. psi'zent. 

present n. (thing present; affairs in hand; words present; 

present time) 'psezant, 'p3eznt. 
present adj. (that is here; occurring now) 'psezsnt, 'pseznL 
presentation n. (act of presenting; gift; show; statement; 

cognition) psizen'tee-Jsn, psezan'tee-Ssn, p3ezn'tee-$3n. 
presentative adj, [also spelt presentativl p^x'zenta-tiv. 
presentee n. (person presented; person nominated; recipient) 

psezon'tii, psezn'tii, psizen'tii. 
presenter n. one who presents [also, rarely, in the sense of 

one who presents to a benefice, spelt presentor} p9x'ient9r. 
presentlnient n. (perception of a future event; foreboding) 

psi'zenti-mant, psi'senti-mant 
presentment n. (presentation; appearance) psx'zenticuit. 
preserve v, keep safe or alive; put up, can, as fruit [also 

spelt preserv; past participle and preterit preserved, pre- 

servdl p3i'zB:rv. 
presidency n. 'psezidn-si, 'pseziddn-si, 'p^esidan-si. 
president n. (presiding officer; governor) 'p3ezi-dnt, 'pseu- 

dont, 'psesi-dont. 
president adj. (presiding) 'psezx-dnt, 'p^ezi-ddnt, 'psesi-dant. 
presidio n. (fort; penitentiary) psi'sidi-o, p3e'sii-di-o. 
pressed adj. [also spelt presf] p^est. 
prestidigitator n. (juggler) psesti'didsi-tetd?. 
prestige n. (illusion; glamor; influence, reputation) 'psestids, 

pscs'tiis, pses'tiidj, 'pse-stis, 'pse-stids. 
presume v, (take upon one's self; presuppose) p^t'zjouxn. 
presumption n. (arrogance; assumption) psi'zAmp$9n. 
presumptive adj, presumptuous; warranting inferences; 

presumed, inferd [also spelt presumptive psi'zAmptiv, p^i- 

'zAmtiv. 
presumptuous adj. (arrogant, presuming) p3i'zAmptSu-9S, 

psi'zAniptgu-os; (improperly) psi'zAmpJos, psi'zAmJas. 
pretendant n., adj. [also spelt pretendenti psi'tendont. 
pretensed adj, alleged, pretended [also spelt pretenced, pre- 

tcnstl p^i'tenst, psi'tentst. 
pretense n. claim; display; sham; pretext [also spelt pre- 

tcncel p^i'tcns, p^i'tents; (less properly) 'psii-tens. 
pretension n, pretext, pretense; demand; title; claim; pre- 
tentiousness [also, formerly, but rarely now, spelt preten- 

tioni p3i'ten$3n. 
pretentious adj. (full of pretension; showy) psi'tcn^ds, p^i- 

'tentjos. 

j ye, Qcure; bthe, 9*/iin; 5 ajiure, ds/oy; I shoe, tScliew; 
iDM'/ien; losing; u whoever, i r^act, o fwll, oufool, i it, lisee; 
o poetic; o over, c aerial, a but, o: door, oono, e bed, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 429 

preterit adj., n, past [also spelt preterite, praeteritel 'p^eta- 

eit; (less properly) 'psii-ta-eit, 'p^etjit. 
preterition n. passing over; omission [also spelt praeteri- 

tion'\ psita'nSan, pseta'eiSan. 
preteritive adj. of pretention or non-election; used only 

in the preterit [also spelt preteritiv\ psi'ten-tiv. 
preteritneii n. pastness [also spelt preterit enessl 'p3et3- 

nt-nis. 
pretermit v. omit; neglect; interrupt [also, rarely, spelt 

praetermiti psitar'mit. 
pretext n. (ostensible reason; excuse) 'psii-tekst; (former- 
ly, but rarely now) p3i'tekst. 
pretext v. use as a pretext; pretend [past participle and 

preterit pretexted} psi'tekst. 
pretor n. Roman Consul as leader of the army; magistrate 

[also spelt praetorl 'p^ii-t^z. 
pretorial adj. pretorian [also spelt praetoriall p3i'to:-?i-3l. 
pretorian adj. of a pretor [also spelt praetoriani psi'to:- 

n-3n. 
pretorinm n. tent of a pretor; palace, etc. [also spelt prae- 

torium; ploral Pretoria"} p5i'to:-ri-3m. 
prettify v. make pretty; depict prettily [also spelt pretty fy} 

'p3iti-fai. 
prettily adv, (in a pretty manner) 'p3iti-4i, (anteriorly) 

'pSitlh, 'p3ltLI. 

pretty adj. fine; nice; comely; bonny [dialectal synonymous 

cognates perty, pirty, purty, pooty, puttyl 'psiti, (sometimes, 

assumptivly, unstrest) psti; (dialectally) 'pseti, 'psoti, 'psrti, 

'poti. 
pretzel n. crisp biscuit [synonymous cognate bretsell 'psetsal. 
preventive adj. that prevents; prophylactic [also spelt pre- 

ventiv; synonymous cognate preventative} psi'ventiv. 
prey n., v, plunder [as verb, past participle and preterit 

preyed, preyd} p3ee. 
Priapean adj. Priapic [also, formerly, spelt Priapaean} psai- 

a'pii-an. 
Priapio adj. (of Priapus, phallic) p^ai'apik. 
priapism w. (erection, etc.; licentiousness) 'psai-a-pizam. 
priapni n. (phallus; cup) p3ai'ee-p3s. 
prier w. one who pries [also spelt pryer} 'p3ai-3?. 
prillion w. tin from slag [also spelt prillon} 'p^iHan. 
primacy w. (state of being prime; preeminence; superiority) 

'p3ai-m3-si; (improperly) 'p^ima-si. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cot, o hot, ©i boy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



430 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

prima donna n. (first lady; principle female singer) psimd- 

'dens, psai-md'dend. 
prima f aoie adv, (at first sight) p^ai-myf ee-Si-i: • 
primary adj, (earliest; chief) 'psai-mezi, {aUo) 'p3ai-m9-n, 

{assumptivly) 'psai-maei; {rapidly) 'psai-mri. 
primate n. (chief; archbishop; a mammal of the order Pri- 
mates) 'psai-mit, 'psai-met. 
Primates n. pi, (highest mammals) psai'mee-tiz. 
primer n. (first or elementary book) '^zivaaz, {also, in 

Britain) 'psai-ma?. 
primer n. (priming-device; one who primes) 'psaz-mas. 
primer adj, (in *primer fine, etc., first) 'p^imse, 'psai-mae. 
primeval adj, primitiv [also spelt primaeval} psai'mii-v^ 
primigenal adj. (of primitiv life) psai'midsi-nt. 
primigenial adj. earliest formd; primitiv [erroneous syn- 

enymous cognates primogenial, primogeneal} psai-ini'd5ii- 

ni-3l. 
primitive adj, [also spelt primitivl 'psimi-tiv. 
primogeniture n, (fact of being the first-born child; right 

of succession or inheritance) psai-ma'dscni-tSar. 
princeps n. chief [ploral principes] 'psin-scps. 
princess n. (female ruler; wife of a prince, etc) 'psznsis, 

'psmlsis; 'p3in-scs; {improperly) psin'ses. 
pHncesse adj. (continuous, without drapery, and fitting 

closely : said of a gown) p3in'ses, 'psinsis. 
principal adj. (first; foremost; main; primary; original) 

'p3insi-po}, {assumptivly) 'p^insipdl. 
principal n, (head man or woman; chief; sum lent; capital) 

'p^insi-pal. 
principally adv, (chiefly, mainly) 'p3insi-pLi, {also) 

'p3insipa-h, {anteriorly) 'psinsi-pah. 
principle n. (origin, source, cause, tendency; primary truth, 

tenet or assumption; general law, rule, or mode) 'p^insi-pal, 

'p3insi-p}. 
prior n. (superior officer) 'psai-a?. 
prior adj. (preceding, earlier, former) 'psai-a?. 
prisage n. (prizing, rating; levy) 'psai-zids. 
prise n. obsolete (seizure) psaiz, p3iiz. 
prism n. (solid whose ends are equal parallel plane polygons) 

'psizam, 'p3izm. 
prison n. (jail) 'psizan, 'psizn. 
pristine adj. original, primitiv [also, sometimes, spelt pris- 

tin} 'p3istin; {less properly) 'p3i-stain, 'psi-stin. 

j ye, Q cure ; 5 the, thin ; ^ 3 a^ure, ds ;oy ; S shoe, ^ tj chew ; 
\Owhen; rjsinfir; u whoever, i rract, o fwll, ou fool, lit, ilsre; 
o poetic; 3 over, e aerial, xbt/t, o: door, oo no, eWd, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 431 

prithee interj. I pray thee [also, fermerly, spelt prythee} 
'p3i9i, 'p3i9i; 'p3idi, 'p3idi. 

privacy n. seclusion [ploral privacies! 'p3ai-va-si, 'p3iv3-si. 

privat-docent n. private teacher or lecturer [also, some- 
times, spelt privat-dosenti p3i'va:t-do-tsent, p3i'va:t-doo- 
ssnt. 

private adj., n., v, 'p^ai-vit, 

privateer n. (private armd vessel) p^ai-va'ti:?. 

privative adj, depriving [also spelt privativ] 'p3iv3-tiv. 

privet n. (shrub) 'p3ivit. 

privilege n. (special advantage; prerogativ) 'p3ivi-hd3. 

privily adv. (in a privy manner; secretly) 'p3ivi-li. 

privity n, (fact of being privy to something; private know- 
ledge) 'p3IVI-tl. 

prizable adj, valuable [also spelt priseable"} 'p^ai-zd-bal. 

prize n. (reward; trophy) p3aiz. 

prize V. force with a lever; pry open [also spelt prise'} psaiz. 

prize n. prizing-tool ; leverage [also spelt prisel pzaiz. 

prize V, (value highly) p^aiz. 

probably adv. (plausibly; most likely) 'p^eba-bli, (rapidly) 

'p^eWi. 
probative adj. serving to test or prove; evidential [also 

spelt probativl 'psoo-ba-tiv. 
probatory adj. (probativ) 'psoo-ba-tori. 
probity n. (integrity; sincerity) 'p300-bi-ti, 'p^ebi-ti. 
proboscidean adj. of the Proboscidea; having a proboscis; 

of or like a proboscis [also spelt proboscidian} pseba'sidi-an. 
proboscis n. trunk; sucking-mouth [ploral proboscides, pro- 

boscisesl pso'besis. 
procedure n. (fact or mode of proceeding; conduct; legal 

action) pso'sii-dsar, p3D'sii-dJ3r. 
proceed v. go forward [also spelt precede} pso'siid. 
proceed n. that which proceeds or results; produce; out- 
come; profit [usually m ploral; also spelt precede} 'psoo-sid, 

(rarely) p^o'siid. 
process n. (fact of going on; progress; course) 'ptosis, 

'p3e-ses, 'p30o-ses. 
procds verbal n. [ploral proems verbaux} p30-se-ver'bael, psD- 

proconsul n. (governor of a Roman province) p^oTcensal. 
procurator n. (agent, attorney) 'psekgo-reta?. 
procurer n. (pimp; pander) psa'kQor-razr. 
procuress n. (bawd) p^sa'kgor-zris ; (improperly) 'psekgo-ris. 

c: \aw, n: f«r, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy; n: far, ao now, a: ask, oi ktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



432 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

proeareur n. (procurator) pzokqa^zBiz, 
prodisioui adj. (like a prodigy; monstrotu) pso'dxdsas. 
prodisy n. omen; marvel [ploral prodigies\ 'psadi-dsi. 
prodroma n. prodrome; prodromus [ploral prodromata] 

'psedra-ma. 
prodrome n. (introductory treatise; prodromus; prodromal 

or premonitory symptom) 'psedram, 'ps30-drom. 
produce n. (proceeds, yield) 'p300-djus, 'pse-djus; {dialectal' 

ly or improperly) 'p^e-dus, 'p300-d5U8, 'pse-dsus. 
produce v. (bring forward; extend; bring forth; yield) ^99- 

'djous; (dialectally) psd'dous; (vulgarly) psd'dsotis. 
producible adj, (capable of being produced) p3a'djou-89-bal. 
product n. (quantity obtaind by multiplying; fruit; result) 

'psedokt. 
product V, (produce; extend) p^'dxkt. 
proem n. preface, preamble [also spelt prooem] 'psoo-im; 

(less properly) 'psDO-em. 
proemial adj. of a proem; prefatory [also spelt prootmial} 

pso'emi-ol, pso'ii-mi-al. 
profanation n. (action of profaning; desecration) paefa- 

'nee-Son. 
professed adj, that has taken the vows; alleged [also, some- 
limes, spelt profesti pso'fest, (also, in poetry) psd'fesid. 
professionalize v. [also spelt professionalise^ psa'feSdnl- 

aiz. 
professor n. (one who professes; teacher) psd'fesar, p3>> 

'fes3?. 
professorial adj, (of a professor; dogmatic) psofi's3:-ri-^, 

p:sofe'so:-ri-ol, p3ofi'so:-ri-3l. 
proficient adj. (skild; adept, expert) p^o'fiSsnt. 
profile n., v, (outline) 'psoo-fail, 'p300-fil, 'p3DO-fil. 
profilist n, 'psoo-fai-list, 'p300-fi-4ist, 'p^oo-filist. 
profit n,,v. (benefit; gain) 'psefit. 

profligacy n. (state of being profligate; dissipation; waste- 
fulness) 'p3efLig3-si. 
profluent adj. (flowing forth) 'p^oo-ftu-ant, 'psefLu-ont. 
profuse adj, (lavish; excessiv) pso'fgous. 
profuse V. obsolete (pour forth) p^D'fQouz. 
progenitor n. (ancestor) psD'dseni-ta?. 
progeny n. (offspring, issue) 'psedsi-ni. 
prognathous adj, (having projecting jaws) 'p^egnd-Ods. 
program n. notice; scheme [also spelt programme'] 'p930- 

grjem; (diaiectally, vulgarly) 'p^DO-grnm. 

j .ve, Qcure: bthe, ffiin; 3 a^rure, dj/oy; ^ shoe, tlchew; 
w^vhcn; r]sing; u whoever, i r^act, o fMll, ou fool, i it, iis#r; 
o poetic; ov^r, c aerial. Abut, o: door, 00 no, e bf d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 433 

prosranuiia n. written notice; preface [ploral programmatal 

prosreM n. (onward march; journey; advance) 'psogns, 

'p530-g3is, 'psoo-gecs, 
prosress v. journey; advance; improve [past participle and 

preterit progressed, progr^stl p^o'gees; (formerly) 'p500- 

geis, 'psegris.' 
proMbition n. (edict, interdiction) pso-i'biS^n, pso-hi'biS^n. 
proMbitory adj, (prohibitiv) p3o'hibi-t37i, (also) pso^ibitd- 

zi, (assumptivly) p3o'hibi-t3?i ; (rapidly) psoliibi-tsi. 
project n. (formerly, draft, design; now, something thrown 

out; plan, scheme, proposal) 'psedsikt, 'pse-dsekt, 'p900- 

dsekt. 
project V, (plan; hurl) psd'dsekt, psa'dsekt. 
projectile n., adj. missile, etc. [also, sometimes, spelt pro^ 

jectW] pso'dsektil, pso'dsek-tail. 
prolate v, obsolete (utter; drawl) p^oleet 
prolate adj. (lengthend, extended) 'p330-let. 
proles n. (false leg of a caterpillar; prop-leg) 'psoo4eg. 
prolepsis n. anticipation; anachronism; procatalepsis [plor- 
al prolepses"] prolepsis, p3oliip-sis. 
proletariat n.,adj, [synonymous cognate proletariate^ pso- 

h'te:-ei-3t. 
proletary adj., n. (proletarian) 'psoo-ti-teei, (also) 'p9eHitSh€i, 

(anteriorly) 'pzeh-t^zi. 
prolix adj. (lengthy; long-winded) p3oliks, 'p^oo-liks. 
prolocution n. (preliminary remark; a speaking on behalf 

of others) psolaTcQou-Sdn, p^eld^kcou-Ssn. 
prolocutor n. (spokesman; chairman) p^olek^o-tar, 'psoo- 

}3-kcut97, 'p^ela-kQutar. 
prologist n. (writer or speaker of a prolog) 'psoo-ia-dsist, 

'p3el3-d3ist. 
prolog;ize v. compose or speak a prolog [synonymous cog- 
nate prologuisel 'p^oo-ld-dsaiz, 'pseld-dsaiz, 'psoo-l9-gaiz» 

'p^ela-gaiz. 
prologue n« preface [also spelt prolog'^ 'psao-teg, (rarely) 

'p3e-leg. 
prolog^ner n« 'p^o-ld-gd;, 'p^etd-gar. 
prolog^nise v. 'pzooA^-gaiz, 'p3el9-gaiz. same meaning at 

prologise. 
prolonge n. (gun-carriage rope) psolends. 
promenade n.,v, (walk) p^emi'naid, p3emi'na:d, psemi'need, 

(rarely) 'p3omi-nad. 

c: law, e: fur, gt cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (0 indicates chief stress on the following syllam. 



434 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

promeropi n. bird [ploral promeropes} 'psem^-eeps. 
prominence n. (fact of being prominent; projection; noto- 
riety) 'psemi-nans. 
promiscnity n. (confusion; promiscuousness) psomi'sk^ou-i- 

ti, p3emi'skQou-i-ti. 
promiicnous adj. (mixt; indiscriminate) pso'misk^-as. 
promise n,,v, [also spelt promis; as verb, past participle and 

preterit promised, promistl 'psemis. 
promisee n. person to whom a promis is made [also spelt 

protnisseel psemi'sii. 
promiser n. (one who promises) 'p3emz-S9r. 
promisor n. (in law, the person who makes a promis : cor- 

relativ to promisee) 'psemi-sa?, 'psemi-see. 
promissive adj. promissory [also spelt promissivl pso'misiy. 
promissor n. (formerly, in astrology, promittor; in Romim 

law, promisor) pso'misa?. 
promissory adj, (conveying a promis; of a promis) 'psemi- 

sozi, (also) 'psemisa-ei, {assumptivly) 'psemi-sdri; {rapidly) 

'p30mi-s3i. 
promontory n. (headland) 'p^emdn-tozi, 'p^emsn-tMi. 
prompt adj, (ready; acting with alacrity) psempt, psemt. 
promulgate v. (publish; disseminate; proclaim) pso'nud-uet, 

'psoo-mol-get, 'psemal-gct. 
promnlgation n. (publication) psomAl'gee-Ssn, psemsfgee- 

San. 
promnlgator n. p^o'mAl-getd?, 'psemdl-gets? ; {improperly) 

psemargee-ta?, 
pronaos n. (vestibule, narthex) p^o'nee-es. 
pronged adj, having prongs [also spelt prongdl p9e:qd, 

p3ei]d; (dialectally) psc'.qd. 
pronounceable adj. psd'naon-sd-bdl. 
pronouncedly adv, (in a pronounced manner; decidedly) 

p33'naon-si-dli. 
pronunciamento n. pronouncement, manifesto [synony- 
mous cognate pronunciamicnto'\ psD-nAnsi-a'mento. 
pronunciation n. (action of pronouncing) p^d-nAnJi'ee-S^ni 

p30-nAnsi'ec-Son. 
proof n, test ; convincing effect of evidence ; trial impression 

[ploral proof si psouf. 
propagandize v. [also spelt propagandise"] p^epd'gaen-daiz. 
propagate v. (cause to breed; breed) 'psepa-get. 
propel V, drive forward [present participle propelling; past 

participle and preterit propelled, propcld] pso'pei. 

j ye, Qcure; bthe, f/tin; 3 arure, dj/oy; K shoe, tlchtw; 
wwhen; rjsin^; u whoever, i r^act, o f ull, ou fool, iit, iis##; 
o poetic; dov^r, e aerial, Abut, o: door, oono, e bed, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 435 

propellent adj,, w. psD'pelant. 

propelment n. (propulsion; escapement) p^o'pelmant. 

prepense adj, (inclined, prone; willing) pso'pens, psD'pents. 

prophecy n. action or faculty of a prophet; prediction [also, 
formerly, spelt prophesy'] 'p3ofi-si. 

prophesier n. (one who or that which prophesies; prophet; 
prognostic) 'p^efi-sai-a?. 

prophesy v. (predict, foretell) 'psefi-sai. 

prophet n. (foreteller) 'profit. 

propine v, archaic (give to drink; present, propose; endow; 
drink a health to) p^D'pain. 

propine n. archaic (present, gift) pso'pain. 

propine n. (allylene, propinene) 'p3D0-pain. 

propinquity n. (nearness) p^o'piqkiui-ti. 

propitiate v. (conciliate) p^a'piji-et. 

propitiator n. (one who propitiates) pso'piSi-eta?, 

proponent adj, (proposing) p^D'poo-nant. 

propretor n. magistrate with pretorial authority but without 
the title of pretor [also spelt propraetor} psoo'p^ii-tae. 

proprietary n. owner; grantee; body of proprietors; pro- 
prietorship; possession [synonymous cognate, in the senses 
of owner, grantee, and body of proprietors, proprietory^ 
p3D'p3ai-i-teri. 

proprietary adj, (of a proprietor) p3D'p3ai-i-teri. 

proprietor n, (grantee; owner) p^a'psai-ita?. 

proprietory n,, adj, p^o'psai-i-to^i. same meaning as pro- 
prietary. 

propriety n, (ownership; fitness) pso'p^ai-i-ti. 

propylon n. monumental gateway; propylaeum [ploral propy- 
lons, propylal 'p^epi-len. 

pro rata n. (in proportion) psDo'ree-ta, psoo'eai-ta; {vulgar- 
ly) p3Do'?aet3. 

prorogate v. (prorogue) 'psoo-ra-get. 

prorogation n, p^oro'gee-San, p^o^a'gee-San. 

prorogue v. (defer; discontinue) pso'^oog; {improperly) 
p3D'^eg. 

prosaic adj, (prosy; dull) p3o'zee-ik; {less properly) p^o'see- 
ik. 

prosaist n, (writer of prose; prosaic person) p3o'zee-ist, 

'p3D0-Ze-ISt. 

proscenium n. stage; front part of the stage [ploral pro- 

scenia'i p^o'sii-ni-am; {less properly) p^o'seni-am, 
proscribe v. (outlaw; prohibit) p^o'sk^aib. 

c: law, b: iur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai kite; 
Irngth-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the fellowing syllable. 



436 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

proscription n. (outlawxy; prohibttioii) p9a^9kMxp%atL 
proselTte n. (convert) 'psesi-lait. 
proielTtism n. 'psesih-tizsm, 'inesi-tei-tisain. 
proielytiflt n. 'p^esih-tist, 'psesi4ax-tist. 
proielytise v, convert [also spelt proselytisel *\ 

'p308i-lai-taiz. 
prosify v, turn into prose; make prosaic; write prase blao 

spelt prosefy} 'p300-zi-fai. 
prosodio adj, (of prosody) p^sedik, pse'sodilc 
prosody n. (science of versification; metrics) ^p^on di_ 
prosopopeia n. [also spelt prosopopoeia} psasapo'pdrab p<s»- 

Sdpd'pii-jd. 
prospect V, (look forward, face) p^o'spekt; (seafch; csplon 

for ore) 'pse-spekt. 
prospect n. (view, sight, survey) 'pse-spekt. 
prospective adj. looking forward; expected [also ^elt pr^ 

spectiv'] psD'spektiv. 
prospector n. one who prospects or hunts for minerals [alio 

spelt prospecterl pso'spekta?, 'pse-spektd;. 
prosperous adj. (that prospers; thriving) 'psaspa-cas^ (nf^ 

idly) 'p3osp3as. 
prosphysis n. an adhesion [ploral prosphyses} 'psesfz-sn. 
prostate adj, (located in front of something; prostatic) 

'psostct. 
prosthesis n. (addition) 'p3es6i-sis. 
prostrate adj. (lying flat; procumbent) 'pse-stsct, 'i 
prostrate v, (become prostrate; lay flat) 'pse-sttct. 
prostrator n. 'pse-stjetar, pses'tjee-ts?. 
prosy adj, (like prose; prosaic; tiresome) 'p^oo-zx. 
protasis n. (maxim; first clause or part) 'pseta^is. 
Protean adj, (of Proteus; variable) pso'tii-an, '| 
prot6g6 n. (one who is under the care of another) psotz'see^ 

'p300-ti-3e. 
protegee n. (girl or woman who is twder the care of another 

person) psoti'see, 'psoo-ti-se. 
proteid n. albuminoid, protein [also, formerly, spelt proteidij 

'p300-ti-id. 
protein n. supposed principle of foods [also, formerly, apeU 

proteine'\ 'psoo-ti-in. 
pro tempore adj, (for the time being) p^o'tempa-n. 
protest n. 'psoo-test, {also, formerly, but rarely now) 

'test. 
protest V. (assert, asseverate, declare) pso'test. 

j ve, Q cure ; d the, thin ; 3 axrure, ds joy ; j shoe, t$ chewi 
when; 



u) when ; q sing ; u whoever, i r^act, o f wll, ou tool, lit, li 
poetic ; 9 over, e aerial, a hut, 0: door, oo no, e b^ ee gotei 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 437, 

proteitant adj, (protesting; making a protest) 'p^eti-stnt, 

'pseti-stant, pso'testnt. 
protestant n. (one who protests) 'pseti-stnt, 'pseti-stant, 

pso'testnt. [ 

Protestant adj.,n, 'pseti-stnt, 'p^eti-stant ; {less properly) ^ 

'psedi-stnt. 
protestation n, (asseveration; protest) pseti'stee-Jan ; (less 

properly) psotes'tee-Jan. 
protens n. (amoeba) 'psoo-ti-as, (often) 'psoti-as; (also) 

'p300-ti-US, 'p300-tQUS. 

prothalaminni n. piece written to celebrate a marriage; 

epithalamium [synonymous cognate prothalatnion'] p3O0a- 

'lee-mi-am. 
prothonotary n. p'so'Qon^-tczi, psoOd'noo-td-zi. same mean- 
ing as protonotary, 
protocol n. (original; rough draft of a treaty) 'p^DO-ta-kel. 
protomartyr n, (first martyr) 'psoo-ta-martar, psota'ma^ta^. 
protonotary n. chief notary or clerk; prelate [synonymous 

cognate prothonotaryli p3o'tena-teri, p^ota'noo-ta-ei. 
protoplasm n. (sarcode, bioplasm) 'psoo-ta-pi-azam. 
protoxide n. [also, sometimes, spelt protoxid} pso'tok-said, 

(before of) pso'teksid. 
protozoan n, (primitiv animal ; protozoon) p30ta'zD0-an. 
protraoter n. one who protracts or lengthens in time [also 

spelt protractor'^ p3o'tjaekta?. 
protractile adj. capable of being lengthend [also, sometimes, 

spelt protractil'i p^o'tjaktil, pso'tjaek-tail. 
protractor n. (instrument for drawing or measuring angles; 

muscle; pattern) pso'tjaektar. 
protrusile adj. [also, somtimes, spelt protrusill p3o'tjou-sil, 

p3o't£ou-sail. 
protrusion n. (action of protruding; something which pro- 
trudes) p^o'tjou-san. 
protrusive adj. protruding [also spelt protrusiv"] pso'tjou- 

siv, p3o'tjou-ziv. 
protuberant adj. (that protrudes; swelling) p3o'tQou-ba-?ant. 
protyle n. primal organic matter [synonymous cognates pro- 

thyle, prothyll 'p^oo-tail, 'p^oo-til, pso'tai-h. 
provable adj. capable of being proved [also spelt proveable'\ 

'p3ou-va-ba}. 
provably adv, [also spelt proveablyl 'psou-va-bli. 
provand n. (food, provender) 'p^evand. 
provant n. (provand, provender) 'p^evant. 

c: law, o: fwr, 3e cat, © hot, ©i hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the f^Uowing syllable. 



438 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

prove V, test; render certain [past participle proved; preterit 

proved, less preperly proven} psouv. 
provedor n. purveyor; proveditor [synenymoua cegnate pro- 

vedorel 'psevi-de?. 
proven adj. (proved) 'p^ou-van, 'psoo-van. 
provenance n. 'p^evi-nans. same meaning as provenience, 
Provencal adj. (of Provence, France) psoveq'sa:!, psovaq- 

'sa:l, p30ver)'sael. 
Provence adj, (of Provence, a former province of southeast- 
ern France) psD'veqs, 'psovans. 
provenience n. [synonymous cegnate provenance'\ pso'vii- 

ni-ans. 
proviant n. provision; food-supply; commissariat; provand, 

provant [synonymous cegnate proviandl 'psevi-ant. 
providence n. (foresight; frugality; divine supervision) 

'p3©vi-dns, 'p3evi-dons. 
provincial adj. (of a province; rustic; local; narrow) pss- 

'vinSol, psa'vintSa}. 
provincialise v. [also spelt provincialisel ps3'vinS94azz. 
proviso n. provisional clause; condition [ploral provisoes\ 

p3o'vai-zo. 
provocable adj. {rare) 'p^evskd-bal. same meaning as Pro- 

vokahle. 
provocation n. (action of provoking; incitement) psey9- 

'kec-San. 
provocative adj. that provokes; exciting '[also spelt provoca- 

th'l p33'vek3-tiv, (assumptivly) psa'vokativ; (also) psa'voo- 

k3-tiv, (assiimptivly) psa'voo-kativ ; (rarely) 'p^evd-ketiv, 
provokable adj. (capable of being provoked) psd'voo-kd-bal. 
provoke v. (excite; vex) psa'vDok, (dialectally) psa'volc 
provost M. (chief, head; college-principal; church dignitary; 

Scotch mayor; chief jailer; prison) 'p300-vast, 'psevast; 

(also, in the sense of jailer or marshal) p^o'voo, (anteriorly) 

'p300-V0, 'p3o-vo. 
proiv n. (fore part or bow of a ship; beak) psao. 
proivess n, (virtue; bravery, valor) 'p^au-is. 
proximity n. (nearness) psek'simiti; (less properly) p^BQ- 

'zimi-ti. 
prudence n, (quality of being prudent; sagacity; knowledge) 

'p3uu-dns; (formerly) 'p^iou-dns. 
prudery n, (prudishness ; primness) 'psou-da-n, 'p30u-dti. 
pruned adj. (trimd) psuund, (also, in poetry) 'psou-nid. 
prunell n. (milled cashmere) p^o'nrl. 

j ye, Qcure; bthc, B f/iin; 3 a^ure, d$joy; ^ shoe, tlchew; 
wwhen; qsiw<7; u whoever, i react, o f«ll, ou fool, i ft, lis^e; 
o poetic; a ov£?r, e aerial, Abwt, o: door, oo no, e brd, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 439 

prunella n. everlasting, a cloth [synenymous cegnate pru- 
nello, prunelle'\ pso'nela. 

prunella n. plant of the genus Brunella; self-heal [syneny- 
mous cegnate prunello'i p^o'nela. 

prunella n. {obsolete) camp-fever; sore throat; thrush; an- 
gina pectoris; sal prunella; prunella salt [synenymous ceg- 
nate prunelle'\ pso'nela. 

Pmnella n. (Accentor, a genus of birds) pso'nela. 

prnnello «. fine prune [also spelt prunelloe; former syneny- 
mous cegnate prunella} psu'nelo. 

pmrigo n. (itching) 'p3o:-ri-go, pz&zai-go. 

Fmssian adj. (of Prussia) 'psAjan, 'psou-San. 

Prussianize v. [also spelt Prussianise'} 'p3ASa-naiz. 

prussiate n. (ferrocyanide or ferricyanide) 'psAsi-et, 'psAsi- 
at, 'p^Aji-et; {less properly) 'psuu-si-et. 

prussio adj, (of Prussian blue) 'psASik; {less properly) 'p^ou- 
sik. 

prytaneuza n, public hall [also spelt prytaneium; plural pry- 
taneal p^ita'nii-am. 

prytanis n. chief magistrate or priest [ploral prytanesi 
'p3it3-nis. 

psalloid adj. (lyriform) 'sae-leid. 

psalm n, (sacred poem or song) sa:m; {dialectally, vulgarly) 
sae:m. 

psalmic adj, (of psalms; psalm-like) 'saelmik, 'sa:-mik. 

psalmist n. (writer of psalms) 'sa:-mist, 'saelmist, {rarely) 
'sa:l-mist. 

psalmistry n. (singing psalms; psalmody) 'sa:-mi-stji, 
'saelmi-stii. 

psalmodist n. (one skild in psalmody; singer of psalms) 'so:- 
ma-dist, 'saelm9-dist. 

psalmodize v. practis psalmody [also spelt psaltnodisel 'sa:- 
ma-daiz, 'saelma-daiz. 

psalmody n. (singing psalms; psalms collectivly) 'sa:-m9-di, 
's3ehTi9-di. 

psaloid adj, (like an arch) 'see-leid. 

psalter n. (Book of Psalms, etc.) 'scil-tar. 

psalterium n, psalter; also, omasum, manyplies [ploral psal- 
ieria} sc}'ti:-ri-3m, sae}'ti:-ri-3m. 

psaltery n, (stringd instrument ; psalter) 'sc:l-t3-?i. 

psohent n. (Egyptian crown) Sent, {rarely) pjent. 

psettine adj. of the subfamily Psettinae of flat-fishes [also, 
sometimes, spelt psettinl 'se-tain, 'setin. 

c: law, b: fur, se cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai kite; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is leng; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



440 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

psendo adj, (false) 'sgou-do, (rarely) 'psgou-do; {diai^etally) 
'sou-do. 

pieudonyni n. false name [also spelt pseudanymej 'agou-dd- 
nim; (dialectally) 'sou-dd-nim. 

piendonsnnoui adj, (bearing a pseudonym) sga'denx-mss. 

pshaw inter j. expressing contempt, disdain, impatience, 
sense of absurdity [also spelt p'shaw and, formerly, Pska, 
pshah, *pshaw\ Jc: , pjc: . 

pshem n. head-dress [also spelt pschem"} Sem, (rarely) pSem. 

pslit inter j. enjoining caution or expressing impatience [for- 
mer synonymous cognate pshut'] pjt. 

pshnt interj. (obsolete) p^At. same meaning as psht, 

psi «. (Greek letter) sax, psii. 

psilomelajie n. (ore of manganese) sailemi-len. 

psoas n. (muscle) 'soo-xs. 

psora n. (scabies) 'so:-zq, (rarely, pedantically) 'p89:-e». 

psychagogue n. necromancer [also spelt psychagogl 'aai-lo- 

geg- 

psyche n, (human soul, spirit, mind; cerebrospinal nervous 

system; mirror) 'sai-ki, (rarely, pedantically) 'psai-ki. 
psychiatric adj. (of psychiatry) sai-ki'xt{ik. 
psychiatry n. (treatment of mental diseases) sailcai-d-tsi. 
psychic adj, (mental, spiritual) 'sai-kik. 
psychical adj. (psychic) 'sai-ki-kal. 
psychologic adj, (of psychology; psychological) aai*k»le- 

d3ik. 
psycholog:y n. (science of mind) sai'kels-dsi. 
psychomachy n. (conflict of the soul with the body) sax- 

'kema-ki. 
psychomancy n. (occult intercommunication between souls 

or with spirits) 'sai-ka-mansi, sai'keman-si. 
psychopathy n. (mental disease; treatment of disease tqr 

psychic influence) sai'kopa-Gi. 
psychosis n. mental constitution; psychic change [ploral 

psychoses! sai'koo-sis. 
psycter n. wine-cooler [also spelt psykter^ 'siktds, (rarely) 

'psikta?. 
ptarmigan n. (grouse) 'ta:?-mi-gan. 
ptere n. (an alate or wing-like part) tv.z, 
pterna n. heel-pad of a bird [ploral pternae"] 'terna, 'tais-na. 
pterodactyl n. pterosaurian, an extinct reptil; flying-dragon 

[also spelt pterodactyW] tera'daektil, 
pteroid n. (bone) 'te-?oid, 'ti:-roid. 

j ye, Q cure; d the, 9 thin;^ 3 arure, ds joy; S shoe, tj chew; 
wwhen; i}sing; u whoever, i r^act, o f«ll, oufool, lit, lis^e; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, oidoor, 00 no, ebed, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 441 

pteroid adj, (fern-like) 'te-eexd, 'ti:-eeid. 

pterygoid adj. (wing-like, aliform) 'tezi-gaid. 

ptisan n. mild drink [also spelt tisanel 'txzsn, 'tax-san; {rare- 
ly) 'tisdn. 

Ptoleataio adj, (of Ptolemy) teli'mee-ik. 

ptomaine n. alkaloid [also spelt tomalne and, sometimes, to- 
main] 'too-men, to'meen, 'too-me-ain, 'too-me-in. 

ptosis n. (drooping of the upper eyelid; blepharoptosis) 't30- 
szs. 

ptyalasog^ne n. medicin for increasing the flow of saliva 
[also spelt ptyalagogi 'tai-dld-geg, tai'sda-geg. 

ptyalin n. principle of saliva [also spelt piyalinel 'tai-9-lin. 

ptjrzifl n. (folding of a single part in a bud) 'tiksis. 

pubio adj. (of the pubes or pubis) 'p^ou-bik. 

pubifl n. pubic bone [plural puhes\ 'pgou-bis. 

public adj, (of the people, etc.) 'pxhlzk. 

publicist n. (writer on law; one verst in politics) 'pAbli-sist. 

publicity n. (state of being public; notoriety) pA'Uisi-ti. 

publish V. make public; issue [past participle and preterit 
published, publishi] 'paWiS. 

puck^ n. evil spirit [synonymous cognates pook, pouki pAk. 

puck' n. (puck-bird, nightjar; disease) pAk. 

puck* n. (hockey-disk) pAk. 

puddenine n. (rope pad) 'podn-ig, 'podnig. 

pudding n. dish [dialectal synonymous cognates pttddin, pud- 
denl 'podig; {dialectally or vulgarly) 'podin, 'podn, 'pAdn. 

puddling n. (working puddle or plastic clay; mode of iron- 
working) 'pAdlnj, 

pudgy adj, fat and short [synonymous cognate podgyl 'pAdsi. 

pudic adj. (pudendal) 'pQou-dik. 

pueblo n. (town, village) 'pweblo, pu'ebio. 

puerile adj, boyish; juvenil; trivial [also, sometimes, spelt 
puerill 'pQDU-3-eil, 'pcou-d-zail. 

puerility n. (quality of being pueril; childishness; silly act) 
pQU-a'nh-ti. 

puerperal adj, (of childbirth) p^'erpd-??!. 

puggaree n. turban; scarf [also spelt pugree, puggri, Puggry, 
pagri; synonymous cognates puggaree, pugaree, Puggeryl 
'pA-gzi. 

pugh interj, obsolete [also spelt puh} pQou, pou, poh> po. 
same meaning as pooh. 

pugilist n. (boxer) 'pcou-dsi-tist. 

pugnacious adj. (disposed to fight) pAg^nee-Jds. 



c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the precedinjpf sound is leng; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the zellowing syllable. 



442 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 



pniine adj. (younger or inferior in rank, as a judge; more 

recent; later) 'pgou-ni, 
pniiiBJice n. (power) 'pQou-i-ssns, p^u'isdnt, 'puxi-Sdns. 
pnissant adj, (powerful, mighty) 'pQou-i-Mnt, p^'isant, 

'pwii-sant. 
pnlohritiide n« (beauty) 'pAllcsi-tQud. 
pnlka n. sledge [also spelt pulkha; synonymous ceonate pM} 

'pxlka, 'polko. 
pullastriiLe adj. of the PuUastrae, a group of birds [also, 

sometimes, spelt pullastrin^ po'lae-stsain, pAlsestsxxu 
pnlley n. groovd wheel in a block; trochlea [ploral p%Ueys\ 

'poll. 
pullicate n. checkt handkerchief [also, formerly, spelt pidiir 

cat, pulicat"} 'pAh-kat. 
pullulate V. (germinate; bud) 'pAlio^et. 
pulmonary adj, (of the lungs; having lungs) 'pAtma-nen. 
pulque n. (drink) 'polki, 'pul-ke. 
pulsate V. (beat, throb) 'pAl-set, 'pAlset 
pulsatile adj, tending to pulsate [also, sometimes, Qpelt pnl- 

satil} 'pAlsa-til, 'pAlsa-tail. 
pulsator n, (jigging-machine, etc.) pAl'sce-tar, 'pAis9-tae. 
pulverine n. ashes of barilla [also spelt pulverin"] 'pAtvo-ein. 
pulverizable adj. [also spelt pulverisablej 'pAlv9^ai-Z9-baL 
pulverization n. [also spelt pulverisation^ pAlvasi'zee-Ssn* 

pAlvo-rai'zee-Jan. 
pulverize v, reduce to powder [also spelt piUverise} 'pAlvd- 

ZBIZ. 

pulverizer n. [also spelt pulvcriserl 'pAhrs-sai-zde. 
pulvemlence n. (state of being pulverulent, dusty, or pow- 
dery) pAl'vera-lans, pAl'vc^jo-lons. 
pulvinar n, (of a pulvinus or cushion-like swelling of a 

stem or petiole) pAl'vai-na^. 
puma n, (cougar) 'pguu-ms, {rarely) 'pou-ma. 
pumice n. spongy lava [also spelt pumisi 'pAmis, 'p^ou-mis. 
pumiceous adj. (of pumice) pgu'miSos. 
pumice-stone n. [also spelt pumis-stone'l 'pAmis-stoon, 'pji- 

mi-ston. 
pumpernickle n. (wholc-mcal rye bread) 'pompair-nxkal, 

'pAmpazr-nikal. 
pumpkin n. fruit of Cucurbita pepo; gourd; squash; plant; 

person [also spelt punkin and, formerly, pompkin, pumkin; 

former synonymous cognates pompion, pumpioni 'pAqkin, 

'pAmpkin. 

j yc, Q cure ; 5 the, thin;^ 3 a^ure, d$ joy; I shoe, ^ tj chew; 
wwJien; r)sing; u whoever, i r^act, o f nil, ovLfool, lit, xis##; 
o poetic ; 3 ov^r, e aerial, a hut, o: door, oo no, e b^ ee gate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 443 

pnnaise n« bedbug [also spelt punese; former synonymous 
cognate punie, etc.] pQo'neez. . 

punch V, in all senses [past participle and preterit punched, 
puncht'] pAntS, (also, and in Britain normally) pAn$. 

puncheon n. (perf orating-tool ; punch) 'pAnt$9n, (also, and 
in Britain normally) 'pAnJan. 

punctilious adj, (attentiv to punctilios; nice) pAijk'tili-dB, 
pAQk'tilids. 

pung^ n. (small boat; schooner) 'pAgi. 

punish V. inflict a penalty on; castigate [past participle and 
preterit punished, punishtj 'pAniS. 

punitive adj, of punishment [also spelt punitivl 'p90U-ni-tiv. 

punky n. fly, midge [also spelt punkie\ 'pAQki. 

punnet n. basket [also spelt punnitl 'pAnit. 

puny adj. (small and weak) 'pgou-ni. 

pupa n. stage between larva and imago [ploral pupaei 'pgoo- 
pa. 

pupilage n. state of being a minor or ward; minority; pupil- 
ship [also spelt pupillage'^ 'pQou-pi-lids. 

pupilarlty n. state of being below the age of puberty; child- 
hood [also spelt pupillarity} pQupilae3i-ti. 

pupilary adj, of a child or pupil [also spelt pupillary"] 'pgou- 
pi-le?i. 

pupilary adj, of the pupil of the eye [also spelt PupUkiryl 
'pQou-pi-le?i. 

pupilate adj, pupild [also spelt pupillatel 'pgou-pi-let. 

pupiled adj. having a pupil-like central spot; pupilate [also 
spelt pupilled, pupildl 'pQou-pild. 

pupilize V. take pupils; teach [also spelt pupillise, Pupillisel 
'pQou-pi-laiz. 

puppet-valve n. [also spelt puppet-valv; synonymous cog- 
nate poppet-valve] 'pApit-vaelv. 

puppy n. young dog; fop [ploral puppies] 'pApi.. 

purblind adj, (nearly blind) 'pB:z-faiaind. 

purchase v, gain, acquire, buy [past participle and preterit 
purchased, purchast] 'portSis, 'pBir-tJis. 

purchasable adj. [also spelt purchaseable] 'poTtSisa-ba!. 

pur6e n. (thick, straind soup, such as pea-soup) p^Qo'see.. 

purgatory adj. (cleansing; expiatory; purgativ) ^p8:?-g9- 
tori, 'pB:?-gat3-?i, 'psir-ga-tari. 

purgery n, drain ing-place in a sugar-house [ploral purgertes] 
'pBrd33-ri, 'pB:?-d33-ri. 

purificative adj. purifying; cleansing [also spelt purifica- 



c: law, b: fur, x cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the precedinjpf sound is long; 
stress-mark (0 indicates chief stress on the zeUowing cyUsUe. 



444 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

tivl 'pQo:-?ifi-ketiv, (often) 'pgonf i-ketiv ; {also) pco'rzfi- 
ketiv; (also) pQo'rifika-tiv, (assumptivly) pqa'zitiAatTV. 

purificatory adj. (purificativ) pqx/ziiik^-tozi, pQo'vifika- 
t^zi, 'pQo:-eifik3-t3ei, 'pQo:-rifi-ket3?i. 

purifier n. (one who or that which purifies; cleanser) 'pgo:- 
zri-fai-d7. 

Purim n. (Jewish festival) 'p9o:-7im, pu'riim. 

purity n. 'pgo:-ri-ti, (often) 'pQoei-ti. 

Purkinjean. ac/j. of the Bohemian physiologist Purkinje [al- 
so, erroneously, spelt Purkingiani pazHcindsi-dn. 

pvrP V. edge with purls; invert the stitches so as produce a 
seam [past participle and preterit purled, purld} paizl. 

purP n. cord ; edging ; frill ; inversion of stitches producing a 
ribd appearance of surface [also, formerly, spelt purU and, 
in the sense of edging and inversion of stitches, pearl} 
pB'.zl. 

purl' n. (formerly, rill; action or sound of purling as a rill) 
PB'.zl, 

purr V. flow with a whirling motion or murmuring sound, as 
a rill [past participle and preterit purled, purld} pa:ri. 

pnrl^ n. liquor; mixture of hot beer with gin [also, fcmnerly, 
spelt purle} pQizl. 

pnrl* n. (dialectal) nodule of dung [also spelt purlel psizl. 

pnrF V. revolv as a wheel; wheel as a horse; capsize [also, 
in the sense of revolv as a wheel, spelt pirf\ psizl. 

pnrl' n. slang (header; spill; upset) pBizl, 

pnrl* n. local (tern, a bird) pB:d. 

pnrlione n. (dialectal) final flourish; peroration; space be- 
tween thumb and forefinger [also spelt perlecue, perleque, 
perlikcw, pirlicue, pirliecue, purleycue; synonymous cognates 
parlicue, parlecue, parleycue, perliqueyl 'pB^h-kgu. 

purlieu n. (tract of land bordering a forest; haunt; outlying 
district) 'porliu, 'pB:?-Hu. 

purlin n. side timber; side waver [also spelt purlinel 'periin, 
'pBi^-hn. 

purloin v. remove; steal [past participle and preterit pur- 
loined, purloindl pB^'lein, 

purplely adv. (in a purple manner; with purple) 'pBzpal-tz. 

purply adj. (characterized by a purple color; purplish) 'pae- 

pLI. 

purport V. (imply, mean) 'pB^-port, po^'poi^t. 
purport n. (meaning; tenor; import) 'pB^-po^t, (also, for- 
merly) pBr'poirt. 

j ye, Qcure; 5 f/ie, G */iin; 3 arure, ds/oy; \ shot, tjcliew; 
iDwAen; qsin^; u whoever, i r^act, o f«ll, ou fool, i »t, iise#; 
o poetic; a ov^r, e aerial, Ab«t, o: door, 00 no, e b^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 445 

pnrpose n., v, design, etc. [as verb, past participle and pret- 
erit purposed, purpost'\ 'perpas, 'pQ:?-p3S. 

purposive adj. purposeful; functional [also spelt purposivl 
'pQ^pasiv, 'ps^paziv. 

pnrpnrin n. madder-purple [also spelt purpurinel 'psspQu- 
zin. 

pnrr^ n. dunlin, a sandpiper [also spelt purrel ps:?. compare 
pirr. 

pnrr^ inter j. used in calling to pigs, and to turkeys [also, dia- 
lectally, spelt pur'[ pa:?. 

pnrr* n, act of purring; murmuring sound made by a cat [al- 
so spelt pur'\ pair. 

pnrr^ v, make a murmuring sound like a cat [also spelt pur; 
past participle and preterit purred, purdi pe:?. 

pnrr* n. obsolete (pullet, a bivalv) perr. 

pnrr* n. (wild pig) pa:?. 

pnrree n. yellow coloring-matter [also spelt purrhee; S3men- 
ymous cognate piuree} 'pA-^i. 

purser n. (paymaster; cashier) 'pazsaz, 'pare-saz. 

purslane n. plant [also spelt purslaini 'pa^s-len, 'pa?-sz.en. 

pnrsne v. (chase; seek) par'sgou; (dialectally) pa^'sou. 

pursuit n. (act of pursuing) paz^sgout; (dialectally) paz'sout. 

pnrsnivant n. (heraldic officer; royal messenger; follower; 
attendant) 'pa^sau-vant. 

pnrsy adj. short-winded, puffy, pursiv; fat [also spelt pursey} 
'pB^si, 'pB:r-si. 

pnrsy adj. (puckerd; also, rich) 'pa^si, 'p8:?-si. 

pnmlent adj. (of pus; suppurating) 'pQo:-?3-l3nt. 

pnrvey v. provide [past participle and preterit purveyed, 
purveydl par'vee, 

pnrvey n. (formerly, purview; provision; latterly, sum pro- 
vided to meet expenses) 'pa:r-ve. 

purvienr n. (body of a statute ; provision of a bill ; scope ; in- 
tent; outlook) 'pa:r-vjou. 

pns n. (matter) pAs. 

pusillanimity n. (timidity) pQusi-lae'nimi-ti. 

puss n. (cat; rabbit) pos. 

pussly n. purslane [also spelt pusley, pussleyl 'pASLi. 

pustule n. (small tumor or pimple containing pus; papule) 
'pAs-tJul, 'pAj-tSul, 'pAs-tgul. 

put V. (thrust, push; place; bring; propound) pot. 

putamen n. hard endocarp, fruit-stone; shell, etc. [ploral 
putaminaH pQu'tee-man. 

c: law, a: fwr, ae cat, e hot, ei boy; a: far, go now, a: ask, ai kite; 
length-mark (:) indjcates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark O indicates chief stress on the lellowing syllable. 



446 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 



putative adj. supposed; reputed; commonly deemd [also 

spelt putatii'} 'pgou-ta-tiv. 
putol&nk n. costus-root [also spelt putchuck and, sometimes^ 

putchock; synonymous cognates putchick, patchuk, packak] 

'pAtSak, pd't^Ak. 
pntell n. (boat used on the Ganges) 'poti-li, 'pAti-li. 
pntlos n. floor-timber of a scaffold [synonymous cegnate 

putlockl 'pAt-log, 'pot-log. 
pntt v., n. in golf [also spelt put'\ pAt. 
pyemia n. febril disease [also spelt pyaemia; synenymoiis 

cognate pyohaemia'\ pai'ii-nii-3. 
pyg^idinm n. (pygal segment) pai'dsidi-am^ paz'gidi-dm. 
pygmean adj. of a pygmy [also spelt Pygmaean, pigmean} 

pig'mii-3n, (rarely) 'pigmi-an. 
pygmy n. dwarf [also spelt pigmy ; ploral pygmies} 'pigmi. 
pyjamas n.pl. pai'd3a:-m3z. same meaning as Pajamas, 
pylanginm n. undivided portion of the arterial trunk [plur- 
al pylangia^ pai-laen'dsai-am. 
pyloric adj. (of the pylorus) pilorik, pailesik. 
pylorus n. opening from the stomach into the duodenum, etc. 

[ploral pylori} pi'loi-^as, pai'loi-eas. 
pyramid n. (structure or solid with polygonal base and slop- 
ing sides meeting in an apex) 'pizs-mid. 
pyramidal adj. (of or like a pyramid; pyramidical) 

pi'^aemi-dl, pi'^aemi-dal. 
pyramidical adj. (pyramidal, pyramidic) pisd'midi-k^. 
pyramidize v. form a pyramid; converge toward an apex 

[also sprit pyramidise'l 'pi^ami-daiz. 
pyre n. (funeral pile) paiz. 
Pyrenean adj, of the Pyrenees [also spelt Pyrenaean] pizi- 

'nii-3n. 
pyretl&rum n. (plant) pai'^eO^am, pai'^ii-O^sm, 'pisi-O^am. 
pyretic adj. (of fever) pai'retik, pi'retik. 
pyretogenesis n. (production of fever) pai-zri-ta'dseni-sis, 

pi^i-to'd3t'-ni-sis. 
pyridine n. alkaloid [also, sometimes, spelt pyridihl *pjzi- 

din, 'pin-dain, 'pai-ri-dain. 
pyriform adj. pear-shaped, obconic [also spelt piriform} 

'pit:i-f0:<:m, 'pai-ri-fo:rm. 
pyrite n. (pyrites, fire-stone) 'pai-?ait. 

pyrites n. (pyrite; marcasite; chalcopyrite) pai'zai-tiz, pz'eai- 
tiz; {improperly) 'pi-^aits, 'pni-raits. 

pyritic adj. (of pyrites) paiVitik, pi'ntik. 

■ - 

j yt, Q cure : 5 tht, */tin ;^ 3 arrure, d3 ;oy ; \ shoe, tj chew; 
wwhen; qsin^; u whoever, i r^act, o fwll, ou fool, i tt, iise#; 
o poetic; a ov^r, e aerial, Abut, o: door, oo no, e b«d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 447 



pyromancy n. (divination by fire) 'pai-7d-maensx, 'piz^-mmn- 

SI, {rarely) pai-^s'mxnsi. 
pyrometer n. (heat-measuring device) paiVemi-tde, pz'cemi- 

tdzr. 
pyrotechnic adj, (of fireworks) pai-zrs'tekNik, piea'tekNik. 
pyrotechny n, (art of using fire; making fireworks) pax-79- 

'tekNi, 'pai-e3-tekNi, pizd'tekNx, 'pxzra-tekNx. 
pyroxene n. (mineral) pai'rek-sin, 'pai-zek-sin. 
pyrozyle n. pyroxylin [also spelt pyroxile^ pai'eeksi!. 
pyroxylin n. guncotton, etc.; pyroxyle [also spelt pyroxy- 

linel pai'seksi-hn, pi'^eksi-lin. 
pyrrhio n. (foot of two short syllables) 'pxzrik. 
pyrrol n. pyrroline, a liquid [also spelt Pyrrhol; sypeny- 

mous cognate pyrrolel 'pi?^. 
Pythagorean adj. (of the Greek philosopher and mathema- 
tician Pythagoras) pi-Gaga'exi-an, pai-QaegaVxi-an. 
Pythian adj, (of Delphi, etc.) 'pi9i-dn, 'pai-Gi-an. 
python n. (large serpent) 'pai-Ben. 
python n. (familiar spirit; one possest by such a spirit) 'pax- 

Gen, 'pi-Gen^ 
pythoness n. (witch) 'pax-Gd-nxs, 'piOs-nis. 
pythonoid adj. (like the serpent python) 'pai-Od-neid, pax- 

'Ooo-neid. 
pyz n. (box; vase; chest for specimen coins) pxks. 
pyx V, (test by weight and assay, as coins) pxks. 
pyxis n. pyx; bone-socket; pyxidium; land-tortoise; insect 

[plural pyxides] 'piksis. 



qna adv. in so far as; in the capacity of [also spelt quit, qu&l 
kwce, kwa: . 

qnad n. (in printing, quadrat) kwed. 

qnadransled adj, (quadrangular; fumisht with a quadran- 
gle) 'kujedraeqgald, kiue'draeqgald. 

qnadrennial adj. (occurring every fotu* years; lasting four 
years) kiue'dreni-al. 

qnadrioolor adj. (of four colors) 'kiDodri-kAldzr ; {improperly) 
'ku)e-drai-kAla?. 

qnadrisa n. four-horse chariot [ploral quadrigael kioe'dvai- 
gs. 

qnadrijnsate adj, (having four pairs of leaflets; qnadriju- 
gous : said of a leaf) kwedrx'dsou-get, kioe'dtxd^-get. 

c: law, b: fur, at cat, e hot, ex hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the fallowing syllable. 



448 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 



quadrille n. (one of four groups of horses in a tonmament; 

square dance) kiod'dci}, kd'dcii. 
quadrille v. dance quadrilles [past participle and preterit 

quadrilled, quadrild} kwd'dril, kwe'dtil, ka'dci}. 
quadripartite adj. (divided into four parts) kwedn'por- 

tait; (less properly) kwe'dcipds-tait. 
quadrivalent adj. kwe'dnvs^snt. 

quadroon n. (offspring of a white and a mulatto) kwa'dtonn. 
quadrumane n. four-handed mammal [synonymous cegnate 

quadrumani 'kwedru-men. • 

qnadrumanous adj. (four-handed) kwd'dcuu-mi-naa. 
quadruped n. (four-footed animal) nctDodto-ped. 
quadrupedal adj. (four-footed) kwsMrou-pi-dl; (/#«# prop- 

erly) 'kiuedro-pedal, 'kujedro-pidl, kiuedto'pii-ctt. 
quadruple v., adj., n„ adv, 'kiDodro-pal, {anierioriy) 

'kwedrupol; (improperly) ktua'drou-pal. 
quaere v. imperativly, ask, inquire; hence, one may ask; it 

is a question [also, formerly, spelt quere, qneryl HaDC-cx. 

compare query. 
quaesta n. medieval indulgence [ploral quaestael looeata. 
quaestor n. Roman financial officer ; public prosecutor [also, 

sometimes, spelt questorl 'kwestdz, IctDii-star. compare 

quest or. 
quaff V. drink deeply ; drink ; drain [past participle and pret- 
erit quaffed, quaftl kwaif, kiDa:f, kwxif, 
quagsa n. (horse) 'kwaegs. 

quasgy adj, (boggy) 'kiuaegi; (improperly) lacegi. 
quag^mire n. (marsh; bog) 'kwxg-maiz; (improperly) Inoeg^ 

mai?. 
qual&aug; n. round clam [also, sometimes, spelt quakogl 

'kiuoheg, ktua'heg, ktua'hcrg. 
quai n. kwee. same meaning as quay. 

quality n, character; property [ploral qualities'] Icioeli-ti. 
qualm n. (feeling of faintness or sickness; scruple) kioaim, 

ku)c:m. 
qualmish adj. (affected with a qualm; qualm-like, etc) 

'ku)a:-miS, 'ku;c:-miS. 
quamash n. plant [synonymous cognates camash, camas, ea* 

mass, commas, kamasi ktua'maeS, 'kiuc:-maeS. 
quandary n. (perplexity) 'kwend^-zi, 'kwendri, kiDen'de:-eXy 

(rarely) kiuon'da:-ri. 
quandons n. (tree) 'kwaen-dei], 'kwen-der). 
quantity n. (size; amount) 'ku^enti-ti. 

i ye, Qcure; b the, Q thin; 3 arure, ds/oy; I shoe, tlchew; 
u) when; q sin^; u whoever,, i r^act, o full, ou fool, i ft, li atf#; 
o poetic; a ov^r, e aerial. Abut, o: door, oo no, eb^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 449 

qvantiTalenoe n. (valence; atomicity; also, mechanical equi- 
valence) ku)en'tiv3-l3ns. 
qvantmn n. quantity; share [ploral quanta} Icwentdm. 
quarantine n. (period of forty days, etc.; period or place 

of detention or seclusion) 'kwersn-tin. 
quarantine v. put in quarantine, etc. [also spelt quaranteenl 

Icwezdn-tin, kwesdn'tiin. 
qnarl n. large brick or tile [also spelt quarlel kwcizl, ktoaiet 
quarrel n., v, squabble, etc. [as verb, present participle quar- 
reling, quarrelling', past participle and preterit quarreled, 
quarrelled, quarreldl 'kwesat; {dialectally) Tncci-r^. 
quarreler n. [also spelt quarrellerl Icwezro-ldzr. 
quarrelsome adj, (inclined to quarrel) 'kwOTdl-sam. 
quartet n. four-part piece or movement; company of four 
singers or players [also spelt quartette, quartett} kwcr'tct. 
qnartile adj, of bodies which are ninety degrees apart [also 

spelt quartil} 'kwciz-til, 
qnartzose adj. (full of quartz; quartz-like) kwctsts'ooe, (a^ 

sumptivly) 'ku)c:rt-sos. 
quash v. (annul; crush) kwej; {erroneously) ktvaeS. 
quasi adv, (as it were, almost, virtually; simulating) Hnoee- 

sai. 
quassia n. (wood; bark; root; decoction) loDeSd, IcweSi-d; 

'kujaeSa, 'kiuaeSi-a; 'kwasi-a; Tcujai-si-a; 'kwesi-o. 
quaternary adj. (of four parts; fourth) 'kwotd-neri. 
qnaternate adj. (of four; in fours) kwc'teznet. 
qnatemion n. (group of four; quotient of two vectors, etc.) 

ku)c'tB?ni-an. 
qnatorzain n. fourteen-line sonnet-like poem [also spelt 

quatuorzaini 'kxtdz-zen, k3'te:7-zen. 
quatrain n. (four-line stanza) 'kwe-t£en. 
quatref oil n. leaf or flower with four leaflets or petals ra- 
diating from a common center [also spelt quaterfoil; synon- 
ymous cognate quadrefoil; erroneous synonymous cognate 
quarterfoill 'kaetar-feil. 
quay n. wharf [also, formerly, spelt keye, key, kay; syneny- 

mous cognate quai; plural quays'] kii. 
quay v, (provide with a quay) kii. 
quean n. (woman, female) kwiin. 
queasy adj. (unsettling; easily upset) Icuii-zi. 
queen n. (king's wife) kwiin. 
queerest adj. (most queer) Tooir-rist. 
quench v, put out; extinguish; cool; suppress; slake fpstt 

c: \aw, b: iur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, oo now, a: ask, ai kite; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is leng; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the tallowing qrllabM. 



430 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

participle and preterit quenched, quencht'\ kuentS, {also, and 

in Britain normally) ku)en$. 
qneroine adj, [also, sometimes, spelt quercinl 'kiDBcsin, 

'ktuB^-sain. 
qneroitron n. (black oak) ^vosiz-siti^n, kiDBz'sitssn. 
qnerimonioiis adj. (complaining, querulous) kweei'mao- 

ni-3s. 
qnerist n. (one who inquires; questioner) 'kmii-ziat; {often) 

'ktuiia-^ist. 
qnemlous adj. (complaining, peevish) 'kwezra-lds, {olso, in 

Britain) 'kiue^ju-las, 'kujeei-o-las. 
qnery n. question; interrogation-mark [also spelt quaere and, 

formerly, qucrc, quaery; plural queriesi 'kui:-7i. compare 

quaere. 
qnesited adj. (in astrology, the thing or person inquired 

about) ku3i'sai-tid. 
quesitive adj. interrogatory [also spelt quesitivl IciDesz-tiv. 
qnestor n. in the Roman Catholic Church, a pardoner; also, 

one of the treasurers of the French National Assembly [al- 
so spelt quaestor^ 'kiuesta?. compare quaestor^ 
qnetzal n. bird [also spelt quezet] 'kwetsdl. 
queue n. (tail; pigtail; line of people or carriages; tail- 
piece [also spelt queu, cue} kgou. 
quick--witted adj. kwik'witid, (assuntptivly) 'kiDxk-witzd. 
quiescence n. (state of being quiescent; quietness) kioai- 

'esons. 
quietude n. (quietness; rest; calm) 'ku?ai-i-tQud. 
quietus n. (receipt; discharge; death) kwoi'ii-tas. 
quillai n. (soap-bark tree of Chili) ki'lai, ki'lai. 
quillaia n. quillai-tree, etc. [also spelt quillajal kwilee-jd. 
quilled adj. quill-like; gofferd; tubular [also spelt guild! 

kiuild. 
quillet n. verbal nicety; quirk, quibble [also spelt quillit'i 

'kiuiht. 
quina n. (bark; quinia, quinine) 'ka'ai-na, 'kii-na. 
quinary adj, (of five) 'kiuoi-na-^i. 
quince n. (fruit; tree) kujins, kiuints. 
quinia n. (quinine) 'kiuini-a. 

quinible adj. obsolete (fivefold, quintuple) ncwind-bdl. 
quinic adj. of quina [synonymous cognate kinici Icwinzlc. 
quinicine n. alkaloid [also, sometimes, spelt quinicin'] Icidi- 

ni-sin, 'kauni-snin. 
quinine n. alkaloid [also, sometimes, spelt quininl HnFai- 

3 ye, Qcure; bthe, f/zin; 3 arure, d.^/oy; jjAoe, tlchewz 
xDwhcn; qsingr; u whoever, i react, o fMll, outeol, lit, ii8##; 
o poetic; a over, e aerial, Abut, oidoor, 00 no, ebed, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 451 

nam; ki'niin; kiui'niin, 'kuji-nin; kwi'nain, 'kiui-nain; 
'kiuinin. 

quinone n. benzene derivativ [synenymous cegnate kinone"] 
'kiui-non, kiui'nDon. 

qninoyl n. quinone; radical [also spelt quinotl; synenymous 
cegnate kinoylej 'kiuino-il. 

qninsy n. tonsillitis [also, formerly, spelt quinsey; former 
synenymous cegnate quincy; plural quinsies] 'kujinzi; (tm- 
Properly) 'ka^insi. 

quintain n. (post to be tilted at; tilting) 'kujintin. 

quintal n. hundredweight; one hundred kilograms [syneny- 
mous cognates kintal, kentle} 'ktuintl, 'ktuintal. 

quintessence n. (fifth essence; essential; perfect embodi- 
ment) kiuin'tcsans, (also, formerly) 'ktuinti-sans. 

quintet n. five-part piece; set of five singers, players, riders, 
etc. [also spelt quintette, quintetti kiuin'tet. 

quintuple adj. (fivefold) 'kiuintgo-pal. 

quinze w. card-game [synenymous cognate quince] kwinz, 
kaerjz. 

quipu n. device for recording events by means of knotted 
cords [also spelt quippu; synenymous cognates quipo, quip- 
po] 'kii-pu, 'kiui-pu. 

quire n. (twenty-four sheets of paper) kxoaiz, 

quitter n. sore on the coronet of a horse's hoof [also spelt 
quittor] 'kirita?. 

quitter n. (one who quits; shirk) ^kwitdz. 

qui vive phrase (in on the *qui vive, on the alert) ki'viiv. 

Quixote n. (obsolete) enthusiastic visionary like Don Quix- 
ote [also, formerly, spelt Quixotte] 'kiuiksat. 

Quixote adj, obsolete (quixotic) 'kiuiksat. 

quixote v. obsolete (play the Quixote) 'kiuiksat. 

quixotic adj. (like Don Quixote; visionary) kiuik'setik. 

quixotism n. (quixotic character, etc.) 'kiuiksa-tizam. 

quiz w. eccentric person; jest; act of quizzing [also, fermer- 
ly, spelt quis', plural quizzes] kiuiz. 

quiz n. (oral examination) kiuiz. 

quizzical adj. (like a quiz or oddity; comical) 'kujizi-kaf. 

quod n. slang (prison) kiued. 

quoin n. cornerstone; wedge; arch-stone [also, sometimes, 
spelt coin] kein, kiuein. 

quoit n. (disk; ring; in plural, game) ktueit, keit. 

quorum n. (justices whose presence was necessary to consti- 
tute a bench ; select company ; number of members of a body 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy, a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai ktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is leng; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



452 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

whose presence is necessary for the valid transaction of 
business) Icujor-rdm. 

qvoth V. (preterit of quethe, say; said) ktoooO. 

quotidian adj. (daily) kw3'tidi-9n. 

quotient n. (result of dividing; number of times one num- 
ber is containd in another) ^kwoo-S^nt 



rabbet n,,v. groove; slot [also, formerly, spelt rabbitl 'zaehit 
rabbi n. my master: a title of respect; Jewish doctor of the 

law; Jewish minister [ploral rabbis'} 'jae-bai, 'zaebi. 
rabbin n. Jewish doctor of the laws; rabbi [ploral rabbins, 

rabbini '^aebin. 
rabbit n. (hare; Welsh rabbit) 'zxhiU 
rabboni n. (my great master : a title of honor among the 

Jews) ea'boo-ni. 
Rabelaisian adj. (of Rabelais) zrxbilee-sdn, nebi^ee-zi-sn. 
rabid adj. (furious; mad) 'raebid. 
rabies n. (canine madness; hydrophobia) '7ee-bi-i:z, 'nebi- 

i:z; (less properly) 'eaebiz. 
raca adj, (worthless; naught) 'rai-ka, 'rce-ko. 
raceme n. (a form of inflorescence in which the flowers &re 

arranged like grapes in a cluster) rd'siim, zrae'siim, Vse-saiu. 
racemio adj. (of grapes) ^a'semik, ro'sii-mik. 
racemose adj. (arranged in a raceme; raceme-like; race- 

mous) 'raesi-mos. 
racemons adj. (racemose) '^ssi-mss, ^s'sii-mss, ne'sii-mas. 
racbe n. hunting-dog which pursues its prey by scent talso 

spelt ratchi ^aetj. 
racbe n. (dialectal) streak down a horse's face [also spelt 

ratch'i ^eetS, zxt^. 
racbides n. (plural of rachis) '?ee-ki-diz. 
racbilla n. little rachis [also sprit rhachillal ss'kila. 
raobis n. axis, etc. [also spelt rhachis; ploral rachidesl Vee- 

kis. 
racbitis n. (rickets) ?3^ai-tis. 

racial adj. (of race or lineage) 'eee-Jal, 'eee-Ji-al, 'ree-si-at. 
racket n. bat; game; snow-shoe [also spelt roquet, racquH] 

'raekit. 
racket n. noise [also, formerly, spelt racquet"] 'zdskit, 
raconteur n. (story-teller) zaeken'tQiz. 
racoon n. quadruped [also spelt raccoon'] ^s'koun, rxHconn. 

j ye, 9 cure; bthe, 9 f/iin; 3 airure, ds/oy; I shoe, tlchewi 
w when ; q si»^; u whoever, i r(?act, o fidl, ou fool, i tt, li s##; 
o poetic ; o ov^r, e aerial, a but, 0: door, oo no, e bed, ee gate ; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 453 

radiale n. bone [ploral radialia^ ?edi'ee-}i. 

radical adj. (of a root) Vaedi-kal, (assumptivly) '^aedikal. 

radioal n. (root; basis; root-word; element; radicle) '^aedi- 

kal. 
radices n. (ploral of radix) 'eadi-siz, '?ee-di-siz, z^'dairsiz. 
radicle n. (rudimentary root; rootlet; radical) 'eaedi-kal. 
radii n. (ploral of radius) '?ee-di-ai. 
radish n. root; plant [dialectal synenymotis cognate redishi 

'raediS; {dialectally) 'redij. 
radins n. bone of the forearm; straight line from center to 

circumference; wheel-spoke; ray [ploral radii^ 'ree-di-as. 
radix n. root; basis; origin [ploral radices, radixesi 'zee- 

diks. 
raff n. (large number, lot, raft; person of the lowest class) 

za:i, zaiif zs:i, 
raffia n, palm-tree of the genus Raphia; soft fiber from the 

leaves of Raphia ruffia or Raphia taedigera [also spelt ra- 

fia, raphial 'raefi-a. compare rofia, roffia. 
Rafflesia n. (genus of plants) ra'fi-ii-si-a, ea'fi-ii-zi-a. 
raft n, (beam, spar, rafter; float) ?a:ft, ?a:ft, ?ae:ft. 
ragamnffin n. (ragged, dirty, disreputable man or boy) 

'raega-mAfin. 
ragont n. (stew; spicy mixture) ?9'gou. 

ragnly adj, having stumpy projections, etc.; raguled [synon- 
ymous cognates ragule, ragulee'\ 'raegjo-h. 
raillery n, (banter) 'zee-l^-zi ; {less properly) 'zsd^-zi. 
railroad n. (railway) 'reel-?Dod, {assumptivly) 'eeel-rod. 
raiment n. (clothing) '^ee-mant. 
raisable adj, [also spelt raiseahlcl 'i^ee-zs-bdl. 
raise v. (lift) zreez, (when unstrest) zez. 
raiser w. (one who raises; muscle; leaven; riser) 'zze-zoz. 
raisin n. (dried grape) '?ee-z9n, '?ee-zn; (less properly) 'ree- 

zin. 
raison d'etre n. (reason or excuse for being) ^ee-zeq'dee- 

tE9, ree-zeq'deetE. 
raja n. king, prince [also spelt rajah"] 'rai-dsa, 'rar-dsa, 'ree- 

d3a. 
Rajpnt n. member of a Hindu tribe or class claiming descent 

from Kshatriyas [also spelt Rajpootl 'zaidyput, ^aeds'puut, 

^adj'pout. 
raki n. drink [also spelt rakeel z^'kii, 'rae-ki. 
rakish adj. (like a rake; lewd) '^ee-kij. 
ralline adj, (in ornithology, of the rail) 'zxAain, 

c: law, b: f wr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
Stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



454 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 



Ramadan n. ninth month of the Mohammedan year [vyn- 
enymous cognate Ramasan'\ zdtms'dam, raema'daen. 

rambntan n. fruit [also spelt rambootani sKmlxra-tdn. 

ramekin n. Welsh rabbit [also spelt ramequin; synenymotis 
cognates ramakin, ramaquin} 'ssmi-kin. 

rament n. (scraping ; ramentum) '^ee-mant, rs'ment, 'nemant. 

Ramessid n. member of the Egyptian royal family during 
the nineteenth and twentieth dynasties [synenymotis cog- 
nates Ramesside, Ramesidel 'saemd-sid. 

Ramesside n. '^smi-sid, 'saemi-said. same meaning as Ra- 
messid, 

ramie n. grass [also spelt rameel 'zsc-mi, 'zxmL 

ramose adj. (branching) 7d'm30s, ^e'moos, {assumpHvly) 'ree- 
mos. 

rampage v> (rage wildly; storm) zraem'peeds, 'nem-peds. 

rampage n. (state of excitement; rushing about in a reckless 
and violent manner) '^aem-peds, raem'peeds. 

rampallion n. (obsolete) ruffian, villain, scoundrel [also 
spelt rampalliani ^aem'paelian. 

rampire n. rampart [also spelt rampierl 'zdsmrpBiz. 

ranch n. hut; stock-farm [also spelt ranchel ^aentS, ra:ntS» 
{in Britain, sometimes) z^:n\. 

ranchero n. (ranchman) z£n'tSe:-zo, ?an'tSe:-so. 

ranclio n. (hut; village; ranch) 'eaentSo, 'rain-tjo. 

rancor n. grudge, animosity [also spelt rancour^ 'ncQkdr. 

rancorous adj, (full of rancor) 'zxt^k^-z^s. 

randan n, (riotous behavior) zxn'daen, 'saendon. 

randan n. (boat) ^sn'daen, '^sndsn. 

ranine adj. of the under side of the tip of the tongue; also, 
of frogs [also, sometimes, spelt ranini 'ree-nin, 'see-nazn. 

ransack v.,n. (search, etc.) '^aen-saek; (erroneously) 'zsea- 
saekt, zaen'sakt, 'raem-saek. 

ransacked adj. scarcht into; plunderd [also spelt ransacktl 
'^aen-saekt; (erroneously) '^aen-saektid, rxn'saektid. 

ransom v. redeem, etc. [past participle and preterit ran- 
somed, ra7tsomd'\ 'ransam. 

ranstead n. toad-flax [also spelt ranstedl '^aen-sted. 

rapacious adj. (grasping; greedy; raptorial) zd'pee-Sss. 

rapke n. seam, suture [ploral raphael 'zee-fi, '?ee-fi, 

rapkis n. crystal [ploral raphidesi 'eee-fis. 

rapier «. (sword) '^ee-pi-a?, 'eee-pga?. 

rapine n. pillage [also, sometimes, spelt raping Vaepin, 'sK- 
pain. 

j ye, Qcure; bthe, f/iin; 5 arure, ds/oy; jjlioe, tS^Aew; 
wwhen; qsin^; u whoever, i r<>act, o full, uufo^^l, i f t, lisee; 
o poetic; o ov^r, e aerial, Abut, o: door, oono, eb^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 455 

rapport n. (accord) z^'poiz, rae'po:?; (less properly) zx'po.zt. 
rapproclieinent n. (a coming or bringing together) zs- 

'p^ooS-mog. 
rarebit n. 'zc:z-hit, same meaning as rabbit (in the sense of 

Welsh rabbit). 
rarefaction n. (action of rarefying; process of being rari- 

fied) rae^i'faekSan, rer-^i'faekSan. 
rarefy v. (make rare or thin) 'rae^i-fai, '?e:-ri-fai. 
rarity n. (thinness; fewness; rare thing) Vaeei-ti, 'ze:-zi-ti. 
rascal n. (rogue, scamp) '^aeskal, 'rai-ska!. 
rase v. (slash; scrape off; shave; erase) zeez. compare rase. 
rasorial adj, (scratching the ground for food) z^'soi-zi-^l; 

(less properly) zs^zoi-zi-sl. 
rasp V. scrape, abrade; irritate [past participle and preterit 

rasped, raspti ^a:sp, ra:sp, ?£e:sp. 
raspberry «. (fruit; plant) 'raez-be^i, Vaez-bsri, *za:z-hdzi, 

(often) 'z7Rzhzi\ (also) 'zxs-hzzi, 'rais-be^i. 
rasse n. (civet-cat) 'raesi, raes. 
ratable adj, capable of being rated; proportional; liable to 

payment of rates [also spelt rateable"] 'ree-ta-bal. 
ratably adj. in a ratable manner; proportionally [also spelt 

rateablyl '?ee-t3-bh. 
ratafia n, (cordial; cake; cherry) ?aeta'fii-3. 
ratanbia n. ^s'taeni-s. same meaning as ratany. 
ratany «. shrub; root [also spelt rhatany, rattany, ratanhy; 

synonymous cognate ratanhia'] 'zraet3-ni. 
rataplan n. (tattoo, rub-a-dub) ^aeta'pi-aen, zxt9'pi.et}, 
ratcb n. (ratchet; ratchet-wheel) eaetj. 
ratb adj. zaiQ, zaib. same meaning as rathe 
ratb n. (hill-fort) zq:Q, za:Q, ?ae:0. 
ratbe adj. early [synonymous cognate rath} ^eed. 
ratber adv. (earlier; more readily; somewhat; sooner; 

preferably) 'za:-b^z, (when less strest) 'rada?, ^ddd?; (also, 

often) 'zd^bsZf 'z(i:-bdz; (dialectally) 'za^^z, 
ratio n. (quantltativ relation) '^ee-Jo, 'eee-Si-o. 
ratiocinate v. (reason) ^aeji'osi-net. 
ration n. (allowance, share, portion) '^ee-Jan, 'zraejan. 
rational adj. (endowd with reason; sane; of reason) 'zraeja- 

nl. 
rationale n. (reasond explanation of principles; rational 

basis) raeSa'nee-h; (less properly) rseSi-a'nee-h. 
rationalization n. [also spelt rationalisation^ rae^dnl-i'zee- 

^an, rae53nl-ai'zee-$3n. 

c: ]aw, b: iur, x cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, au now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



456 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

rationalise v. [also spelt rationalisel 'iatl9nt'Biz, {rapidly) 

'?aeSN3-laiz. 

ratite adj, (raft-breasted) 'jce-tait, 'rae-tait 

ratlin n. [also spelt ratline^ 'z7c\z.in. 

rattan n. palm ; switch [also spelt ratan\ zrae'taen. 

ratteen n. fabric [also spelt rateenl zrae'tiin. 

ratton n. rat [also spelt ratten, rattan"] 'zxtn. 

ranoons adj, (hoarse; harsh) 'zci-k^s. 

ravel v. fray out; unwind; entangle, confuse; also, disentan- 
gle, unravel [present participle raveling, ravelling; past par- 
ticiple and preterit raveled, ravelled, raveldj 'txvot, 'zmvl, 

ravelin n, (outwork) 'eaevhn. 

raveling n. action of the verb ravel; thread which is frayd 
out or unraveld [also spelt ravelling] ''saeva-hq, 'esevl-xq; 
{rapidly often) 'raevliq. 

raven n. (bird) '^ee-van, '?ee-vn. 

raven v. plunder; have a ravenous appetite for; prowl rave- 
nously [synonymous cognate ravin; past participle and pret- 
erit ravened, ravend] '^aevan, '^aevn. 

ravening adj. (that ravens; rapacious; voracious) 'neva-niq, 
'rajvn-iq; (rapidly, sometimes) 'eaevniq. 

ravenous adj, (very hungry) 'z£V9-nds, 'nevn-as; {rapidly, 
sometimes) 'raevnas. 

ravin n. robbery; rapin [also spelt ravine; synonymous cog- 
nate raven] '^aevin. 

ravine n, (gorge) ea'viin. 

raya n. non-Mohammedan subject of the Sultan of Turkey 
[also spelt rayah, raiah] 'rai-a, 'zq:-J9. 

rayat n. 'rai-at. same meaning as ryot, 

raze v. sweep away; destroy [also spelt rase] zeez. 

razor n. (sharp-edged instrument) 'eee-zar. 

re n. (note) zzc. 

re n. (matter, affair) zi'u 

reach v. stretch out; extend, etc. [past participle and prete- 
rit reached, reacht] ciitS, {when unstrest) zit^. 

react v. (act in return; undergo change; act in opposition; 
reverse, return) ^i'aekt. 

react v, act a second time; perform again [also spelt re-act] 
^i'aikt, ?ii'?ekt. 

read v. (discover the meaning; scan) ?iid, {when unstrest) 
rid. 

read v, past participle and preterit of read [also spelt red] 
?pd. 

] ye, ccure; bthe, G */iin; 3 arure, d^/oy; ^ shoe, tScAew; 
w when; 13 siw^r; u whoever, i r^act, o full, ou fool, i »t, 11 see; 
o poetic; dov^r, e aerial, Abut, o: door, oo no, e b^d, eegate; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 457 

ready adj, prepared, willing [also spelt redy'\ 'redi. 
ready-made adj, [also spelt redy-made'^ ^edi'meed, (assump- 

tivly) 'eedi-meed. 
real ad}.,n. (actual; genuin) 'rii-al; (dialectally) ziil. 
real adv, local (really; genuinly; extremely) eiil, (when un- 

strest) zil] (also) 'rii-al. 
real n. coin [also spelt rial; ploral realesi 'rii-al. 
realization n. [also spelt realisation} ^i-dh'zee-^sn, n-d-lai- 

'zee-San. 
realize v. make real; grasp; make [also spelt realisel 'eii-a- 

laiz; (in Scotland) n-a'laiz. 
really adv» (in reality, actually; indeed) 'rii-a-h; (dialectally) 

^zii-h, 
realm n. kingdom; sphere; region; domain [also spelt relm'\ 

zelm, 
ream v. enlarge a hole or bore; clear from led; remove by 

reaming [also, rarely, spelt reent\ ziim, 
reamer n. (tool for reaming; rimer) 'zii-m^z. 
reaming n. (action of the verb ream) 'rii-miq. compare 

reeming-iron, 
rearmonse n. '?i:r-maos. see reremouse, 
reasonable adj. (of reason; sensible; sane; moderate) 'zii- 

zana-bal, (assumptivly) 'rii-za-nabol ; (rapidly) 'eiiz-na-bol, 

'niz-nabal. 
Reaumur n. thermometer invented by the French physicist 

Reaumur [also spelt Reaumurl ze-9'm}o:z. 
reave v. plunder, despoil ; take or carry away [past participle 

and preterit reared, refti zi'iw. 
T^axeT n, robber; marauder [also spelt reiver, rieverl *zi\-\^z. 
rebate v. (deduct; reduce) zn'beet; (less properly) 'rii-bet. 
rebate n, (deduction ; drawback) 'rii-bet, ei'beet. 
rebate w. (rabbet) ^I'beet, 'raebit. 

rebec n. old-style fiddle [also spelt rebeck'\ '^li-bek. 
rebel n. (one who resists, etc.) 'z^ebal. 
rebel v* rise up in war; revolt [past participle and preterit 

rebelled, reheldl ri'bel. 
rebuff V, repel bluntly; snub [past participle and preterit 

rebuffed, rebufti riTbAf. 
rebuttal n. (refutation, contradiction) ^I'bAtl, ^iTbAtal. 
recall v. call or summon back [past participle and preterit 

recalled, recalVd, recaldl ^i'kc:l. 
recede v. (go back, depart, retire) ^I'siid. 
recedent adj. (retrocedent) ri'sii-dnt. 

c: \aiv, b: fwr, se cat, e hot, ei hoy\ a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite; 
Irngth-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



458 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

reoeipt n. (formula; recipe; sum receivd, etc.; act of re- 
ceiving) ei'siit. 

receive v, take in one's hand or into one's possession; ad- 
mit ; meet [past participle and preterit received, ' receivd} 
ei'siiv, 

recension n. (enumeration; critical revision) ri'senS^n. 

recent adj. (lately done or made; fresh) 'sii-sant. 

receptacle n. (repository) zi'septd-kdt 

receptible adj. (receivable) zi'septs-bsl. 

receptivity n. (quality of being receptiv) ^isep'tivi-tx. 

recess n. (act of retiring; period of cessation; retired place; 
niche) ^I'scs; {less properly) 'sii-ses. 

recherclie adj. (choice, rare, dainty) ?3'Se:?-Se. 

reddlve n. recidivist [also spelt recidivl 'resi-drv. 

recidivist n. (one who relapses, especially into crime) zi- 
'sidi-vist. 

recipe n. (formula; receipt) 'eesi-pi. 

reciprocity n. (state of being reciprocal; mutual concessioii, 
etc.) ?csi'p30si-ti. 

recital n. (rehearsal, narrativ; musical performance by one 
person) ri'sai-tl, zri'sai-tal, 

recitation n. rcsi'tre-San, (posteriorly, rapidly) res'tee-Jan. 

recitative n. (declamatory song, intermediate between sing* 
ing and ordinary speech) resita'tiiv. 

recitative v, (declaim in recitative) resita'tiiv. 

recitative adj. of recital or repetition [also spelt recitativl 
'jresi-tctiv ; (also) ^I'sita-tiv, {assumptivly) ?i'sit9tiv. 

reck V, take heed; mind; care [past participle and preterit 
recked, reckt} zek. 

reckon v» count; calculate [past participle and preterit reck^ 
oned, reckondl 'erekan, '^ekn, ^ekrj. 

reckoning n. 'reka-nir), 'rekn-iq, 'rekNiq. 

reclamation n. (protest; reformation; reclaiming; claim) 
cekLD'mee-San. 

recllnate adj. (bending downward) '?ekLi-net. 

reclnse n. (one who remains shut up from the world; monk) 

Cl'kLUUS, 

recognizable adj. capable of being recognized [also spelt re- 
cognisable'] 'rekog-nai-za-bol, (assumptivly) 'rekag-nai-zabal ; 
(also) ^I'kegnizo-bal, (assumptivly) ei'kogni-zobal ; (also) 
rekog'nai-zD-bal. 

recognizance n. bond; recognition; token [also spelt recog- 
nisance'] z^i'kegni-zans, ei'koni-zans. 

j 3>e, Q cure ; d the, thin;^ 5 arure, ds joy ; S shoe, tS c/iew; 
io«'/ien; T}sing; u whoever, i react, o fMll, ou fool, i tt, lise^; 
o poetic; 3 over, e aerial. Abut, o: door, oo no, e brd, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 459 

recognize v. acknowledge; know again [also spelt recognise} 
'zekag-naiz; (improperly) '^eka-naiz. 

recog:iLize v. cognize again [also spelt re-cognise"} ei'keg- 
naiz, ri-keg'naiz. 

recognizer n. (one who recognizes) 'rekag-nai-zar. 

recog:nizor n. obsolete (one who enters into a recognizance 
or bond) ^I'kegni-za^, ri'keni-zor. 

recollect v, collect again; summon up; rally [also spelt 
re-collect] ri-ka'lekt, rika'lekt. 

recollect v, (remember, recall) reko'lekt. 

Recollect n. (member of the Observantin branch of the 
Franciscan order) 'reka-lekt. 

recolor v. [also spelt recolour} zi'kAl^z. 

recompense v. reward; compensate [also, formerly, spelt re- 
compence; past participle and preterit recompensed, recom- 
penst} '^ekam-pens. 

reconcilable adj. capable of being reconciled [also spelt re- 
concileable} '^ekan-sai-la-bal, {sometimes, predtcativly) 
^ekan'sai-la-bal. 

reconciliable adj. (reconcilable) ^eksn'sili-d-bdl. 

recondite adj. (hidden: profound, obscure) '^ekan-dait, zi- 
'kendit, ^I'ken-dait. 

reconnaissance n. examination, survey [synonymous cog- 
nate reconnoissance'] ^I'keni-sans. 

reconnoissance n. ?i'keni-s3ns, ^eka'nei-ssns. same mean- 
ing as reconnaissance. 

reconnoiter v. inspect, examin, survey [also spelt reconnoi- 
tre; past participle and preterit reconnoitered, reconnoi- 
terd} ^eka'nei-ta^ ; (less properly) nka'nei-ta?. 

record n. (fact of being written down or preservd as know- 
ledge; testimony; witness; register) '^ekaed, (also, former- 
ly) ^I'ker^d. 

re-cord v. (cord again) zri'kei^d. 

record v. (practis a song; relate in writing; register; note) 
n'ker^d. 

recount z>. (relate, narrate, tell) n'kaont. 

re-connt v. (count over again) zri'kaont. 

recoup V, (deduct; recompense; make good to) ri'koup. 

recourse n. (resort for help, etc.; right to demand compen- 
sation) zi'ko'.zs; (less properly) '^li-koi^s. 

recover v. (get back; regain) zi'kw^z. 

recover v. cover anew [also spelt re-coverl eriTcAVD?. 

recoverable adj. ri'kAvara-bal, (rapidly) zi'kwzo-h^l, 

c: lazv, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite; 
length-mark (:) indicates .that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



460 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

recovery n. (act of recovering or regaining, etc.) rilcAVd-zii 

{rapidly) zi'kAvzi. 
recreant adj. (surrendering; cowardly; false) 'zeksi-ant. 
recreate v, (revive; amuse; divert) 'reksi-et 
re-create v. create anew [also spelt recreatel zi-lni'eet. 
recreation n. (diversion) zzkzi'ce-l^n. 
re-creation n. (creation anew) zi-ksi'ee-Ssn. 
recreative adj. tending to recreate; amusing [also spelt rec- 

reativ'] 'eeksi-etiv. 
re-creative adj. (that creates anew) zi-kzi'ee-tiv. 
recriminatory adj, (involving recrimination) ^ilnimina- 

tozi. 
recrnit t^. (reinforce; replenish; restore) ^ilc^out. 
rectilinear adj. (straight-lined; straight) rekti^ini-ar. 
rectitnde n. (straightness ; virtue) '^ekti-tgud; {dialectally) 

'eekti-tud. 
rector n. (ruler; parson; head) 'ztkt^z, 
rectrices n. (plural of rectrix) rck'tjai-siz. 
rectrix n. tail-feather [plural rectrices'\ 'ecktjiks. 
recnperate v, (recover; restore) ri'kgou-pa-ret. 
reenrrent adj, (extending backward; reappearing) riHcBsant, 

riTcAzant. 
recnsancy n, 'rekgozdn-si, ri'kgou-zdn-si. 
recnsant n., adj. (dissentient) Vekgo-zdnt, ziHcgou-zant, 

'^ekgo-sant. 
red n. (color) red* 

redan n. (fortified field-work) ri'dxn. 
redargue v, (confute; refute) ri'da:r-gjo. 
redemption n. (act of redeeming; deliverance; ransom) ri' 

'dempSan; {less properly) zi'demSan. 
red-hot adj, ^ed'het, {assumptivly) 'red-het. 
redingote n. (coat) '^ediq-got. 

redinteg^rate v, (restore to wholeness; renew) zi'dintz-gzet 
redivive adj, (revived) 'zedi-vaiv. 
redivivns adj. (alive again; revived) eedi'vai-vas. 
redolent adj, (fragrant; odorous) 'zcds-ldnt. 
redonbt v, dread; fear [also spelt redout"} ri'daot. 
redonbtable adj, to be feared; formidable [also spelt redou- 

table"} ei'dao-ta-bal. 
redonbted adj. feared; reverenced; distinguisht [also spelt 

redoutedl ?i'dao-tid. 
redont n. fortification [also spelt redouhtl 7iMaot. 
redoira n. (waltz) '^eda-va, 'redo-9. 

i ye» 9 cure; b the, G //tin; sajure, dj/oy; S jAoe, tlchew; 
wwhen] i)sing; u whoever, i r^act, o fwll, ou fool, i tt, lis^^; 
o poetic; aov^r, e aerial, Abwt, o: door, oo no, ebfd, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 461 



redpoll n. bird [also spelt redpolel 'eed-pool. 

redress v. amend [past participle and preterit redressed, re- 

drest} ^I'dres. 
redncible adj. (that may be reduced) ri'djou-sa-bal. 
rednot n. (piece taken out; quirk) ^I'dAkt. 
reduit n. (keep; stronghold) ee'dwii. 

ree v. (dialectal) sift by whirling in a sieve [synonymous cog- 
nate ryel zii. 
ree inter j. (used in calling horses) zii. 
ree n. (female ruff) zii. 

ree adj, dialectal (excited with drink; crazy) rii. 
ree n. dialectal (walled enclosure for sheep, cattle, or swine; 

coal-yard) zii, 
reecho v., n. [also spelt reecho, re-echol ei'ekD. 
reed n. (stem; plant; tube) ?iid. 
reef n. part of a sail folded up [ploral reefs, formerly reevesi 

ziii. 
reef n. ridge of rock or sand; vein; sponge [plural reef si 

ziiU 
reefed adj. having a reef taken in [also spelt reefti ziilt, 
reek v. smoke, steam, stink [past participle and preterit 

reeked, reektl ?iik. 
reel n. (rotary winding-device) ziil. 
reel v. whirl; stagger; sway [past participle and preterit 

reeled, reeldl ziil, 
reeming-iron n. seam-opening tool made of iron [also spelt 

reaming-iron'] '^li-miq-ai-a^n. 
reenf orce v,, n. zi-in'io:zs. see reinforce, 
reesed adj. rancid [also spelt reesed} 'ziizd, 
reestablisli v. [also spelt reestablish, re-establishi zi-i- 

'staebhS. 
refectory n. (refreshment-room) n'fekta-^i. 
refer v, assign; commit [present participle referring; past 

participle and preterit referred, referd'\ zi'iniz. 
referable adj. capable of being referred [synonymous cog- 
nate referriblel '^efa^a-bal, (rapidly) '^efsa-bal; (also) zi- 

'f8:-^9-bal. 
reference n. (act of referring; allusion; direction) 'zefa- 

^ans, (rapidly) '^efsans. 
referrible adj. [also, formerly, spelt referrable"} ri'fsr-ra-bal. 

same meaning as referable. 
reflection n. [also, especially in scientific senses, spelt re- 

flexion} ^I'fLckSan. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cot, o hot, ei hoy; a: for, ao now, a: ask, ai kite; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the following syllable. 



462 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

reflex n. (reflection of light ; reflected light ; image ; involun- 
tary muscle-action) '?ii-fi.eks; ?i'fi.eks. 

reflex adj, (bend back; recurvd; reflected) 'rii-freks, zi- 
'fteks. 

reflex v, bend or fold back; recurve [past participle and 
preterit reflexed, reflexQ ei'fteks. 

reflexible adj, (capable of being reflext) zi'ii.eka^-hsi. 

reflnent adj. (flowing back; ebbing) 'ecfm-ant; (improp- 
erly) ^i'fi.ou-9nt. 

reform v. amend; improve [past participle and preterit re- 
formed, reformdl zi^ieizm, 

re-form v, form anew; remake [past participle and preterit 
re-formed, re-formdl zVfeizm. 

refragable adj, obsolete (refutable) 'eefsaga-bal. 

refrangible adj. (capable of being refracted) ^I'fssendsa-bat. 

refnge n. (shelter) '^efiods, '^e-fiuds. 

ref nse adj., n. '?ef ios, 're-f ius ; (less properly) '^e-f iuz. 

refnse v. (decline; reject) ^I'fiouz. 

re-fnse v. (fuse again) H'fiouz. 

refutable adj. (that may be refuted) ^I'fiou-ts-bal, 'rcfiota- 
bal. 

regale n. right of a French king to enjoy the revenues of va- 
cant bishoprics, etc. [ploral regalia} zi'geeAi. 

regale v., n, (feast) n'geel. 

regalia n. (royal powers; insignia of royalty) zi'gce-fi©, ri- 
'gee-H-3. 

regatta n. (boat-race) ^I'gaeta. 

regelate v. (freeze together again) ridsileet. 

reg^ioide n. (king-killer) 'rcdsi-said. 

r^g^ime n. mode; system; style [also spelt regimel re'siim. 

regimen n. government; regime; course of diet [ploral regi- 
mens, regimina'\ '^edsi-man. 

regiminal adj. (of regimen) ^I'dsimi-nl. 

reg^inal adj. (of a queen; queenly) ri'dsai-nl. 

register n. (record-book; indicator; hot-air regulator; also, 
registrar) 'redsi-sta?. 

reg:istrar n. official recorder [synonymous cognate register} 
'redsi-stEo:?. 

reg^rater n. one who regrates victuals, etc.; retailer; middle- 
man [also spelt regratorl ?i'g?ce-t3?. 

regress n. (return; withdrawal; reentry) 'ni-grcs. 

regress v. recede; return [past participle and preterit re- 
gressed, rcgresti zri'gzres. 

j .vc, Qcure; b the, 9 f/iin; 3 arure, d.^/oy; I shoe^ tlchew, 
W7vhcn; rising; u whoever, i r^act, o fwll, ou fool, i tt, naeei 
o poetic; oov^r, e aerial, AbMt, o: door, oo no, ebed, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 463 

regnlar adj. (subject to rule; orderly; symmetrical) '^egjo- 
ldz\ (dialectally) 'rce-gjo-la?; (vulgarly) Veglds. 

regnlarize v. [also spelt regularisel '^egjols-sraiz. 

regnlate v, '^egjo-let; (dialectally) '^ee-gjo-tet; (tmlgarly) 
'rega-let. 

rei n. Portuguese money [ploral reisl zee, 

reign, n, (royal power; period of rule) ^een. 

reign, v, rule as king, etc. [past participle and preterit 
reigned, reigndl zeen, 

rein n. (bridle-strap) 7een. 

rein v. control by a rein or by reins [past participle and pret- 
erit reined, reindl zeen, 

reindeer n. (deer, caribou) '^een-di::;. 

reinforce v. strengthen, etc. [also spelt reenforce, reinfarce} 
zi'in'io'.zs, 

reis n. (ploral of rei) zees. 

relater n. one who relates; narrator; historian [also spelt 
relatorl zilee-t^z, 

relative n.,adj, [also spelt relativl '^ela-tiv, (anteriorly) 
'relativ; (sometimes, rapidly) 'zeltiv. 

relator n, (in law, informer) nice-tar. 

relaxation n. (act of relaxing; release; unbending; recrea- 
tion) ^ilaek'see-San, zelseWsee-l^n, 

relegate v. banish; consign; refer [also, formerly, spelt reli-' 
gatel 'reh-get. 

relict n. (relic; widow) 'rchkt. 

relief n. (mitigation of pain ; projection of a design) riliif. 

relieve v, rescue, succor, ease; render prominent [past par- 
ticiple and preterit relieved, relievdl riliiv, 

relievo n. relief [synonymous cognate rilievol rilii-vo. 

relifi^ionize v. [also spelt religionisel rilidss-naiz. 

relifi^ioso adj. (in music, expressing religious sentiment; in a 
devotional manner) relidsi'oo-so. 

relifi^ions adj, (imbued with religion; pious) ntidsss. 

reliqnary n. (relic-box) 'rcli-ku)c?i. 

reliquiae n. pi. (remains, relics ; induviae ; artifacts) ei- 
1iku)i-i: . 

remain v. be left over; stay [past participle and preterit r#- 
mained, remaindl ri'mcen. 

remede n. remedy, redress [also spelt remeid, remeed and, 
formerly, remeadl ri'miid. 

remediable adj. (capable oJL being remedied or redrest) ei- 
'mii-di-a-bal ; (less properly) n'medi-s-bal. 

c: Idzt/, e: fur, s cat, e hot. ex hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is lang; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the lellowing *syllabie« 



464 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

remedial adj, (affording a remedy) ri'mii-di-^ 
remedileM adj. (destitute of remedy; not admitting of tem- 

edy) 'zemzdi-}3S, ^I'njedi-ldS. 
remedilessly adv, 'remidi-lds-ti, ri'meditda-lx. 
remembering n.,adj. ri'membd-ng, tri'membriQ. 
remez n. flight-feather [ploral remiggsl 'ni-4neks. 
remiKation n. (action of remigating; rowing) remx^gee-Jao. 
remises n. (ploral of remex) '^emi-dsix. 
remigrate v, (migrate again) '^emi-gset, ri'mai-gret. 
remisration n. (action of remigrating; return) cemx^gsee- 

San, ri-mai'gfce-San. 
remljiisoexioe n. (remembering; recalling of the past; re- 
collecting) remi^nisdns. 
remise n. obsolete (transfer; remittance) si'maic. 
remise n. (coach-horse; carriage; second foil-thnut; mt 

cards, stake) zd'miiz, 71'maiz. 
remise v. (put back again; surrender) ri'maiz. 
remissible adj. (capable of remission ; that may be remitted) 

ri'mis3-bal. 
remission n. (forgivness of sins; act of remitting) n'miSsn. 
remittance n. (sum of money sent) ri'mitns, ri'mitana. 
remold v. mold again [also spelt remould] ei'maotd. 
remonetize v, make again standard money [also spelt f»- 

monetiscl ri'meni-taiz, ri'mAni-taiz. 
remonstrate v. (protest; expostulate) ri'men-stset. 
remora n. (sucking-fish) '^ema-ra. 
Renaissance n. (revival of art and letters which began in 

Italy in the 14th century) ^ens'sens, zeno'seqs, ri'nee-eana. 
renaissance n. (any revival or period of markt improve- 
ment) reno'sens, ^ena'seqs, ri'nee-sans. 
renascence n. (state of being renascent) tri'nee-sans, n- 

'nacsons. 
renascent adj. (that is being born again) si'nee-sant, rx- 

'nasont. 
rencontre n. renlcentd?. same meaning as rencounter^ 
rencounter n. encounter; fight; meeting [synonymous cof^ 

nate rencontre'} rpn'kaon-tar. 
rencounter v. (encounter; fight; meet) rcn'kaon-tde. 
rendezvons n. (appointed meeting-place) '^eijdi-vu, 'trondx- 

vu, '^endi-vuz, 
rendezvons v. (assemble at a place previously appointed) 

'^eqdi-vu, '?endi-vu, '?endi-vu, '^endi-vuz. 
renege v. n'niig, ri'niids. same meaning as renegue, 

j ye, Qcure; bthe, G//iin; 3 airure, ds/oy; S jAoe, tJcAew; 
ID when ; 13 sing ; u whoever, i r^act, o f «11, ou fool, i ft, xi M»; 
o poetic; oov^r, e aerial, Abitt, o: door, oono, eb^d, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 465 

renesne v, deny ; abandon ; . refuse to follow suit [synony- 
mous cognate renege\ ei'niig. 

renew v. (make new; restore; reestablish) 7i'njou; {dialwC" 
tally) ^I'nou. 

reniform adj, (kidney-shaped) ';eni-fe:2rm, 'zii'Tn-ieizm. 

renitent adj. (resistant) 'reni-tnt, ei'nai-tnt. 

renovator n. one who renovates [also, rarely, spelt renovO' 
terl 'rena-vetar. 

renowned adj. famous [also spelt renowndl ;i'naond. 

rentes n. (bonds, stocks) eeqts. 

renunciation n. (act of renouncing) ^inAnSi'ee-San, ^inAUsi- 
'ee-San. 

reorga