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Full text of "Dictionary of the Hausa Language"

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AFR. SUDAN R 561 d ^i^ &n^i( Ai^/i; 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY 




LIBRARY 

or THE 

PEABODY MUSEUM OF AMERICAN 
ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY 

TRANSFERRED 



Wldener Library 



Received 



April 4, 





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HAUSA-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 



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EonDon: C. J. CLAY and SONS, 

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, 

AVE MARIA LANE. 

AND 

THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE, 

NORTHUMBERLAND AVENUE, CHARING CROSS. 

«l8saota: C. J. CLAY and SONS, 263, AROYLE STREET. 

%tiniai F. A. BROOKHAUS. 

^cfD lorft: THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 

iiombsfi: E. SEYMOUR HALE. 



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DIOTIONAEY 

OF THE 

HAUSA LANGUAGE 



BT 



CHARLES HENRY ROBINSON M.A. 

TRIMITT COLLEGE, OAKBBIDOB 

LBOTUBEB IN HAUSA IN THE UNIVEBBITT OF OAMBBIDOB 

HONOBABT CANON OF BIPON 



ASSISTED BY 

W. H. BROOKS B.A. 

LATE HAUSA 80H0LAB OF CHBIST'S COLLBOB 
TTBWHITT*8 HEBBBW 80H0LAB IN THE UNIVEB8ITT OF OAMBBIDOB 
STUDENT OF THE HAUSA ASSOCIATION 



VOL. I 
HAUSA-ENGLISH 



CAMBRIDGE 

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

1899 

[AU Righti reserved] 



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Camiinlise: 

PRINTED BY J. AND C. P. CLAY, 
AT THB UMIYBRSITY PRESS. 



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imi i«pii ju,PBiui.. «ii i^«b9^i^. • ll^ 



FRATRI • MEO 
STVDIA AB • IPSO • FELICITER • INSTAVRATA 

MORTE • INTERCEPTA 

TANDEM PRO • VIRIBVS • MEI8 • COMPLETA 

DEDICO 

SVMMO • DESIDERIO 



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PREFACE. 

THE Hausa language is, as far as tropical Africa is concerned, Import- 
undoubtedly the language of the future. Spoken as it the Hausa 
already is by one per cent, of the population of the globe and I^^nguage. 
with every prospect of obtaining a still wider currency in the 
near future, it seems almost incredible that it should have been 
so little studied in the past. The disgrace, if such it be, of this 
neglect rests almost entirely upon our fellow-countrymen, who 
from the days of Mungo Park onward have from time to time 
penetrated, if not to the centre of the Hausa-speaking country, 
at least to the borders of it. The fact that within the last few 
years England has included the whole of this vast area within 
her sphere of influence, which means that the future of this great 
race lies so to speak in our hands, renders the publication of a 
Hausa-English dictionary the more urgent. Before beginning to 
explain the method adopted in the compilation of the present 
work it will be well to state under what auspices the work has 
been carried out and to what extent it is based upon the labours 
of others who have gone before. 

The task of compiling this dictionary has been accomplished Origin of 
under the auspices and direction of the Hausa Association. On w^k.° 
the death in 1891 of the Rev. John Alfred Robinson, M.A. 
(a brother of the author), in the employment of the C.M.S. at 
Lokoja, a committee was formed in London to perpetuate his 
memory and carry on his work '' by providing for a thoroughly 
scientific study of the Hausa language." The present committee 
of the Association contains such representative names as the 
Archbishops of Canterbury and York, the Commander in Chief, 



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Vlll 



PREFACE. 



Previous 
Vocabu- 
laries. 



DrSchon' 
work. 



Diffi- 
culties 
under 
which he 
laboured. 



the President of the Royal Geographical Society, the Governor 
of the Royal Niger Co., and the President of the London 
Chamber of Commerce, in addition to those of the well-known 
philologists Professor Max Miiller and Dr Peile. The expedition 
which the author was enabled to make to the centre of the Hausa 
country for the purpose of studying the language and collecting 
native manuscripts with a view to compiling a dictionary was 
carried out under the direction of this committee. 

The first vocabulary of the Hausa language was that drawn 
up by Mr Richardson, the leader of the expedition which reached 
the Hausa country by crossing the Sahara desert from Tripoli. 
The list of words sent home by Mr Richardson before his death 
was printed by the Foreign Office, but was so short and 
incomplete as to be practically of no value. Dr Earth, who 
afterwards took charge of Mr Richardson's expedition, published 
in 1862 a series of linguistic notes on Hausa and several other 
central African languages. This work is of considerable interest, 
though from the nature of the case extremely incomplete from 
the point of view of a vocabulary. The only other vocabulary 
deserving of notice, and by far the most important of all, is that 
I published by Dr J. F. Schon, a missionary of the C.M.S. in 1876, 
with an appendix published in 1888. Dr Schon may justly be 
regarded as the pioneer of Hausa study. He learnt the language 
from some freed slaves in Sierra Leone, and afterwards took part 
in the Government expedition which ascended the R. Niger in 
1841. Unfortunately he was never able to penetrate into the 
Hausa country; and, as he afterwards spoke of himself as having 
reduced to writing a hitherto unwritten language, he was ap- 
parently unaware at the time he wrote that the Hausas possessed 
any kind of literature or that they had long ago adopted, with 
some modifications, a form of the Arabic alphabet as their own. 
Another difficulty under which Dr Schon laboured was his lack 
of acquaintance with the Arabic language. In dozens of instances 
words and expressions have been entered either in the dictionary 
or appendix as Hausa, which are quite common in Sudanese 
Arabic, but are unknown to the Hausas of the interior. Dr Schon's 
inability to recognize them as Arabic, when they were suggested 



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'1 



PREFACE. IX 

to him by Arabic-speaking Hausas, coupled with his want of 
opportunities for verifying them by personal contact with Hausas 
who had never come under Arab influence, made it inevitable 
that such words should be inserted. An attempt has been made 
in this dictionary to point out as far as possible in each case 
where a word used by the Hausas has been derived from, or is 
obviously connected with, a word in Arabic or any other language. 
There are a great many words in Hausa which are pronounced 
and spelt in four or five diflferent ways in diflerent parts of the 
country or even at difierent times by the same people. In these 
cases Dr Schon has entered them as separate words without 
supplying any cross-references, of which his entire work does 
not, I think, contain half a dozen. By grouping such words 
under one or more heads and inserting altogether nearly two 
thousand cross-references from one part of the dictionary to 
another, an attempt has been made to avoid the confusion 
produced by the former plan. Considering the difl&culties under 
which Dr Schon laboured, his work is deserving of the very 
highest commendation. The present work is the result of a Compila- 
careful study of that published by Barth and by Schon, and of present 
about six years' independent study of the language in Hausaland, ^°^^- 
in N. Africa and in England. Whilst living amongst the Hausas in 
the heart of their country, I went through the whole of Schon's " 
dictionary, verifjdng or rejecting every entry and adding a large 
proportion of new words. The MSS. which were obtained in 
Hausaland, some of which have since been published, furnished 
many new words and the means of verifying others. These MSS. 
have also provided a trustworthy standard of Hausa orthography, 
or rather they have served to show how far a fixed and uniform 
standard has as yet been formed. As these MSS., which were 
published under the title of Specimens of Hatisa Literature^ are Specimens 
constantly referred to and quoted in this dictionary, I would ^ii^ra^^ 
like to add to the introduction published with them one or two *w^«- 
further explanatory statements in order to facilitate the use of 
this dictionary in translating them. In the Specimens I have 
given a facsimile of the Hausa MSS., an English translation, 
and in addition, on the pages opposite to the translation, a 



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X PREFACE. 

transliteration in Roman characters. In this transliteration an 
attempt has been made, not to reproduce the original letter by 
letter, but rather to give the sound of these poems, which were 
written down line by line as I heard them chanted in the heart of 
the Hausa country. As might naturally be expected, a careful 
comparison of a transliteration so formed with the original MSS. 
reveals a large number of apparent inconsistencies of spelling. 
The student who desires to see the poems as they were written, 
rather than as they appeared to be pronounced in Kano, is 
referred to the facsimile of the original MSS. In all quotations 
from the Specimem introduced into this work (where, to save 
expense, I have not reproduced the original characters), I have 
tried to represent the exact sound of the words as written, instead 
of giving the transliteration printed in the Specimens. Of the 
apparent inconsistencies between the Hausa originals and the 
transliteration given in the Specimens the commonest relates to 
the representation of the Hausa vowel ^-. This should 
properly be pronounced like the Italian e or like the English 
a (in cake) ; but in common conversation in and round Kano, and 
still more in the chanting of songs, this e is pronounced like the 
Italian i. In a considerable number of cases in these poems and 
in many other specimens of writing obtained by me in Hausaland, 
this vowel is written, as well as pronounced, i ; many Hausas in 
fact use the vowel ^- to represent the sound both of e and i. 

Others again use ^^- to express the sound e, thus, D 17 j^X^ for 

\^y 24 ^j^ for ^jt> ; cf. also D 8, 91, etc. The most correct 

representation of the sound is undoubtedly ^— . 
Hausa The above remarks apply in part to the elementary Hausa 

Grammar. Grammar recently published. As stated on p. 122, I have tried 
in the grammar to represent the sounds most commonly heard 
in Kano where, even in the case of the substantive verb ' to be,' 
it seems impossible to say whether the sounds more frequently 
used by the common people are niy hi and cAi, or nSy he and che. 
In the dictionary I have taken as the standard of correctness the 
written forms, though I have pointed out the cases where these 
diflfer from the colloquial. I have also for the sake of greater 



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PREFACE. XI 

exactness made use of the form ^[^-7 to represent the sound of the 
Italian e instead of using ^^- , as some Hausas do, to represent 
both e and i. The grammar was intended for beginners, many 
of whom will probably never attempt to get beyond the colloquial ; 
the present work will, it is hoped, be of use not only to beginners 
but to genuine students of the language. 

In order to suit the requirements of both classes I have 
transliterated every word in the dictionary so that it may be 
of use even to those who have not learnt the distinctive Hausa 
alphabet. I have not thought it worth while to transliterate 
the Arabic, as beginners, who have not mastered the Hausa and 
Arabic characters, would not presumably take much interest in 
suggested derivations from Arabic. I have, somewhat reluctantly, Order in 
arranged the words in the order of the English alphabet, and ^^^ ^® 
this for two reasons ; 1. to have adopted the genuine Hausa arranged, 
order, i.e. the order of the Arabic alphabet, would have been 
to render the book entirely useless to the beginner; 2. there 
are several letters in Hausa which are pronounced exactly alike 
and are frequently interchanged, e.g. u« = ^ = 5, ^ = \J = ky 
h=j=z, ^ = M = h. In Arabic these letters have distinct sounds 
and they do not follow each other in alphabetical order. If the 
words had been arranged according to the order of the Hausa, 
i.e. the Arabic, alphabet, the English student, who would be 
unable to decide from the sound under which letter to look, 
would in many cases have to search under two or even three 
headings in diflFerent parts of the book in order to find any 
particular word. The present arrangement is the only one 
which would obviate this difficulty. 

There are a considerable number of words in Hausa which Double 
are generally or always pronounced as though they possessed a ^^^^' 
double consonant but in which .the reduplication is not written 
in the original. Thus the Hausa for ' near ' is written ktisa ^^^^A 
but is pronounced kussa. In these cases the second of the two 
consonants is placed in a bracket, but the letter in a bracket does 
not aflfect the alphabetical arrangement; thus kus{s)a will be 
found before kmhe. The general rule in Hausa is that all words Feminine 
ending in a in addition to all words denoting female objects are ^®° ®^* 



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PREFACE. 



Cross-re- 
ferences. 



System of 
trans- 
literation. 



of the feminine gender. As this rule is so nearly universal I 
have only pointed out the exceptions, cf. rana sun, sc^fe evening. 
In some instances there are four or five distinct ways of writing 
and pronouncing what is obviously the same word, cf. kurji, 
goraka, kobri, 8ab{b)ero. All the variations will be found given 
under what appears to be the original or the commonest form, 
cross-references being provided from each variation. 

The system of transliteration adopted is that originally 
propounded by the Royal Geographical Society. It has been 
sanctioned by the British and by most of the continental 
governments for the representation of geographical names. The 
general principle is that all vowels are to be pronounced as in 
Italian, all consonants as in English. 

The following is a brief sketch of the system of transliteration 
adopted, a more complete account of which will be found in the 
Hausa Grammar. 



Names, 
t {(dif) 

O t 
i» ch 



^' 



h 

> d 

J ^ 

J ^ 
CI- « 
^ sh 

^jo d or I 
k t8 
c (ain) 



Pronunciation in Hausa. 

English 6. 

„ L 
Soft ch as in * church.' 
English j, 

„ strong A, the same as h. 

„ strong h. 



„ z, the same as z. 

„ 8f the same as §. 

„ sh. 

„ 8. 

„ d or I, cf. under d in Dictionary. 

„ to or less commonly as hard t 

English hard ^ as in ^ gate.' 



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PREFACE. 


Names. 




Pronnnoiation in Hansa. 


O k 


English 


A;, the same as seq. 


J k 


9) 


ky the same as prec. 


Jl 


» 


I 


J^ tn 


99 


m. 


on 


» 


n. 


h 


9} 


h. 


3 ^ 


» 


w. 


iS y 


M 


y- 



XUl 



The letters alif and ain are used in Hausa simply as the Alif and 
bearers of the vowel-sounds and are frequently interchanged, ^^' 
cf. ita Ot and c^ she ; the presence of an alif does not at all 
necessarily imply that the syllable is long or that the accent 
rests on that syllable. The letter © ain is but rarely used by 
the Hausas except in words which they have borrowed from 
Arabic. Many words when they stand at the end of a line 
or a sentence, especially in poetry, have a final t alif or ^ y 
which they would not otherwise take, and which is therefore 
omitted in the dictionary. 

The vowel-sounds used by the Hausas are: a « as in ' father,' Hausa 
e ^jfr pronounced like a in ' fate^' ^t or ^ as i in 'ravine* or ^^^^ ®* 
ee in 'feet,' t a shortened e or i, e.g. v^UJ litafi or letaji, writing; 
it is also used for i in a closed syllable, i.e. when it is preceded 
and followed by a consonant as in links iJCJ, to roll up. When 
^ occurs in a closed syllable it is sometimes pronounced a as in 
' rag/ sometimes ^ as in ' beg,' thus /arifet w^^, very white. 

The long vowel o is written j- or occasionally j— , thus ^^j rogo, 

^•^ ^ 
to ask ; Uji>^ sarota, kingdom ; o in a closed syllable is written 

" • "' 
1, thus Ui& konga, a plain ; the sound «/ as in ' flute ' is written 

>i, or occasionally 1, thus y^Lf samu, to find; t^ in a closed 

^ » J 
syllable is written 1, thus rmiska \Sim^, musk. 

^ In modem Arabic the sound of the Italian e is often represented thus 
l-I » c^» Wright's Ar, Or, i. 6, rem. c. " The sound of \S inclines in later 
' times and in certain localities from a to i, just as that of fatha does from 
^ to ; ; this change is called ^U^t al-imala^ the deflection/' 



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XIV PREFACE. 

Diph- The diphthongs are ai (^— pronounced like i in * nice/ thus 

thongs. 1^*^ , . •" 

Ue-* maita, witchcraft ; au j— pronounced like ow in * how/ thus 

\3yi bauta, slavery; and ^1 oi pronounced like oi in 'loiter/ 

thus ^yC^ bokkoi, seven; iu^ like ew in 'few/ shiufit silence. 

Acoenta. As the emphasis laid on diflFerent syllables diflFers a good deal 

in diflferent localities I have made very spaing use of accents, 
only employing them where the emphasis to be placed upon a 
syllable is very pronounced or specially liable to be misplaced. 

Hamza. The sign hamza » which the Hausas have borrowed from the 
Arabs, and which denotes the cutting off of the stream of breath 
which can precede or follow a vowel, is only used irregularly by 
the Hausas. Thus abinda occurs with hamza in B 32 but 
without it in B 57, <?w occurs without hamza in B 48 but with it 
in B 54. The hamza sometimes occurs by itself without either I 
or 6. I have however inserted the hamza wherever it would be 

inserted in correct writing. 
Modifica- The following are specimens of the changes which many 
Arabic Arabic words and letters undergo when adopted into Hausa, 
article. }qo\\x in regard to their writing and pronunciation. 

The Ar. article appears in Hausa : 1. Unchanged from the 
Ar. form, e.g. alkali ^^^-oi^t, Ar. id., judge; aljenna U%Jt, Ar. id., 
paradise ; addini O^bS, Ar. C)^y religion ; cf also addua^ annabi^ 
annahanchi. 2. As the letter /, e.g. lada b^>, Ar. 5>U, wages, 
pay; lokachi ^Ji^^y Ar. cuij, Kanuri fote, time; laya l^j'^, Ar. 
^t, a writing, a charm ; lisha UJ, Ar. lUjJt, late evening. 3. As 

the letter a, e.g. azuhur-kx, jt^^ afternoon. 4. With closer 
assimilation in the case of words containing /, e.g. allewa \y^\, 

Ar. {£y^i sweetmeats; v. under u^. 

Some of these Arabic words appear in Hausa both with and 
without the article, though occasionally with a slight difference 
of meaning, e.g. aia, ada^ amrUy alameri. In the same way we 
employ in English koran and alkoran, kali (as in lemon-kali) 
and alkali. For modifications of the Arabic article in English 



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PREFACE. XV 

similar to those found in Hausa we may note alcohol which 
appears in Hausa as kulli (antimony), alkali, almacantar, and 
almagest. This last which is used in astronomy to denote 
Ptolemy's great collection of problems, is a combination of the 
Arabic article J! and the Greek /xcytorry ' greatest.' 

An interesting example of the modification of the Arabic 
alphabet in a manner closely parallel to what occurs in Hausa 
is afforded by the history of the Greek afifii^ * goblet ' : borrowed 

9 0$ 9 6i 

by the Arab chemists it appears as U^\ and «2LJt ambikun 
which, with the Ar. article, is seen in the French alambic, Eng. 
alembic, while a further reduction of the article gives the 
English limbeck, Italian lambicco. Illustrations of this assimi- 
lation and disappearance of the article may be found in the 
European languages themselves, thus, Eng. newt = an ewt, an 
adder = a nadder^ : Eng. ounce (a lyax) Fr. once. It. lonza : 
Eng. manatee (a sea cow) Fr. lamantin. 

A reduplicated consonant in Arabic often appears in Hausa Rednpli- 

as a single consonant followed by an alif, thus kal{l)i ^i\S, to Arabic 

fi^ ^ I ^ ^ Si ^ conso- 

disregard = Ar. kalla ^J^ ; sdbe ^^U«», to revile = Ar. sabba ^,.w. nants. 

Conversely a syllable, originally long, appears in Hausa as one 
ending in a double consonant; thus dajffa si>, to cook = Ar. sfb ; 
fatilla !^2?, lamp = Ar. ^J^, 

The Ar. v ^ frequently appears in Hausa as/s^, occasionally Changes 
as 7» ^ ; thus Ar. tobun ^yi becomes H. tufa l?p, a shirt ; derived 
Ar. labada jlJ, H. lufvdi ^M^, a coat of mail ; Ar. rakubun Arabic. 
V>^j> H. rakumijjS^y camel. 

Ar. w» ih is regularly pronounced ch in Hausa, thus H. 
chahwra, Ar. j>t^, trouble; occasionally however it appears as 
^ O or 5 ^, thus Ar. c^} thahata, H. C^ tabbeta, to continue ; 
Ar. JUL-o, H. JJLm^ miskaly a weight. 

Ar. ^ M sometimes appears in Hausa as alif \ ; sometimes it 

1 An interesting parallel to this is seen in mod. Ar. itself, comparing 
^xa) * viper* with the classical Ar. w*?^! 'the viper,' 



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XVI PREFACE. 

disappears altogether, thus Ar. •-^j rabahha, H. Wj riba, un- 
lawful gain. 

Ar. «;. kh is often changed to A p, thus Ar. khamasa u*«^, 
H. hummhi ^tn^m, tax ; the Ar. hhasratun l^m^ appears m 
Hausa under the three forms: hasara tjl«M»>, asa/ra tjCt and 
tascm jUJ, loss ; the Hausa word labdri j\f^, news, comes from 
the Ar. hhabwnm j^, the article having first been prefixed and 
then assimilated; cf. 2Xm fa8{s)o y^^, chapping, from Kr./asikha 
9-«^; jovm U^, pride, from Kr, fakhuma j^m^. 

Ar. hdk Olds is pronounced z in Hausa, occasionally however 
it appears as H. cA w» or H. J» ts, thus Ar. dsoroj^, H. cA^o ^j^ 
or ^5(?ro jj^, fear; Ar. jJu^\, H. chukuma/ra \j^y cheese ; the 
Hausa word jj5t, i.e. the Ar. \^\, is usually pronounced idan\ 
cf. also H. dffra !;>, cubit, from Ar. dsira'un ^\jy 

Ar. ^ s sometimes changes to Hausa sh j!* before i, thus 
Ar. sunnatun iw, H. skin(n)i ^y^, knowledge. 

Ar. u^ s may appear in Hausa as 2; 3, ^ J, ^^ J* or j *•, thus 

Ar. 5aft6a ^,.w, H. 2;«^a ^.^^ or zttba ^j ; Ar. sarihhun 9^j^y 

H. ^^an ^^P», pure ; Ar. saumun »«, H. azumi ^Sl, a fast ; 

« «• 11^ 

Ar. kadrtmjttcS, H. ^cyV^ i£;i*^ifc, short. 

Ar. (^ palatal df is often written and pronounced in Hausa 
as d >, thus H. J^ada >U, to judge, from Ar. ^^^-ai ; H. y^t;^ j^, 

to consent, from Ar. t^j ; H. rubda j^j, to crawl, from Ar. u^j- 
In a few instances the u^ is changed by the Hausas to J /, thus 

H. J^i? fululuy arrogance, from Ar. J>^ ; H. alale /j'lJt, 

as 
trouble, from Ar. u^\. Sometimes the u^ is retained in the 

jj 
written Hausa but is pronounced as /, thus \ycti luUo, purifica- 
tion, from Ar. ty^3 with article prefixed. As an instance of the 
variety brought about by the juxtaposition of the / J of the Ar. 
article and u^, cf. in Diet, under allowa, alwal{l)a, a/rwaUa and 
luUo, all derived from Ar, ti^. * 



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PREFACE. XVU 

At. J» emphatic t is regularly pronounced ts in Hausa, e.g. 

tsaka Ua», midst; tsaya ^J^, to stand. Occasionally in borrowed 

words the proper Ar. pronunciation is retained, thus H. C>^t^ 
shaitan. An Ar. J» sometimes appears in Hausa as O, e.g. 

H. ^asa L»U, cup, from Ar. i-J* ; H. butulshi ^^jtX24, ingratitude, 

9 J 

from Ar. JJa^. A tendency to pronounce J» as > may be seen 
1. in the substitution of the latter for the former in words 

borrowed from the Arabic, e.g. H. skeradi ^j/^, an agreement, 

from Ar. iojJ^ ; 2. by using J» to express the Hausa > d, e.g. in 

G 2 iLi? = I JL?, fight, so too (Ji9 is used for li>, one ; cf. If. Spec. 
p. 107, note. 

Ar. J» weak emphatic s appears in Hausa writing 1. un- 

changed, e.g. A 50 y^5^U» (pronounced tsalimchi), deceit, from 
Ar. rt^Jli* ; 2. as J», with which it is then more or less identified 
in pronunciation, e.g. H. tsalimi ^U», also from the Ar. rt j^^, 
3. Hausa foims of the same origin show as well i z, e.g. B 59, 
E 36, ztdumi ^^i, doubt, fear. 4. In the Hausa word minzeri 

^^ij-u, spectacles, fr. Ar. spsUe, the J^ has become z j. This 
weakening of the sibilants renders it sometimes difficult or 
impossible to decide with certainty the exact origin of words 

derived from Arabic, thus aznr/a Ifjjjt, silver, is probably derived 
from the Ar. rt s^^ (^ suggested in the Diet), but it may 
possibly come from the Ar. vj^ ; in either case the initial letter 
in Hausa represents an attenuated form of the Ar. article. 

At. ft ain. As a general rule, to which however there are 
numerous exceptions, the occurrence of this letter in a Hausa 
word suggests that it is borrowed from Arabic. Its occurrence in 
words which have been definitely incorporated into the Hausa 
language does not aifect the pronunciation, and no mark has 
therefore been used to represent it in transliterating. In words 
merely borrowed from the Arabic and where the Arabic pro- 
nunciation is retained its presence is marked by '. The Hausas 
constantly interchange q and t, thus we have ido ^j^ and >>!, 

B. b 



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KJ 

\ 



XVlll 



PREFACE. 



Hausa 
Phono- 
loot. 
Labials. 



eye; ita \2^ and Uj, she; ishe ^^^Ac and ^1, to reach. In 

C22, 23 what was once the Ar. article is spelt with ©, thus 

alkaweli ^^^, agreement. From the Ar. allama j^ the 

Hausas get halama j^^^y to mark. 

Ar. sJ k,\, may either remain as it is in Hausa or be written 
as A; ^, the pronunciation being the same in either case, thus 

H. kal(l)e j^^ and kal(I)i ^^U, to disregard, from Ar. Ji, 
H. /(mki sJLil? or fasiki JL^^, a profligate, from Ar. uLil^ ; 
2. it is sometimes represented by the Hausa g >, thus H. gi{fa 
l?^, basket, from Ar. i^i, H. shirga fcp», to overcharge, from 

Ar. ^jJ^. In the colloquial Arabic spoken in N. Africa and in 
some parts of Arabia the Ar. sJ is frequently pronounced as g. 

Ar. d A, the Ar. ^U^ shahiyatun appears in Hausa as ^mJJi» 

shahu and ^^Ur ^Ao/?). 

The treatment of the sound / v^ in Hausa causes much 
variation in forms and is strongly characteristic of the language. 
Generally speaking in Europe the /sound is produced by making 
contact of the lower lip with the edge of the upper teeth and 
forcing out the stream of air with audible friction of the passing 
breath*. The Hausas however exhibit a tendency to avoid the 
contact referred to. They simply draw the lips near one to 
another, producing a 'bi-labial' fricative. In consequence of 
this looser articulation the barrier between this and the other 
labials is slight and on the least occasion, say, that of a following 
/, p and 6. explosive, a labial stop jt? or 6 is heard instead of/ Thus a word 
which, as we know, had originally our/ tvfka (Ar. out), to 
plait, may be correctly pronounced tupka or tubka ; c£ also 
hapshi habshi to bark. 



sm 



safko 
tafki 



sapko 
tapki 



tahki 
tabshi 



to start, 
a pool, 
soft. 



* Dwight Whitney, Life and Growth of Language^ p. 64, Max MiiUer, 8c, 
of Lang. ii. p. 148. 



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PREFACE. XIX 

Again the Ar. jl? pi. o!/st^> mouse, appears in Hausa as heray 
A 44. Other examples of this fluctuation at the beginning of 
words are, 

falasa palasa to revile. / and p. 

fansa pansa reward. 

fasshe passhe to break. 

Further, words which must have come into the language with 

9 0^ 

h have sometimes changed this to /, e.g. Ar. 9^ sheik appears 

as shefu C 46 note, so Ar. ^^^^^ as huja axfuja, excuse. Finally 
an original / may be weakened to a mere breath, e.g. fir a 
(cf. Ar. ^>j, to trump up falsehood), an untrue story, is also 
found as Ura ; cf. also 

fuda huda to pierce. / and K 

fuska htiska face, B 171. 

taffo tako to come, C 18, 19. 

fudu hudu four. 

In closed syllables the labial is often entirely vocalised*. Vocalised 
The labial is then merged into a diphthong or vowel, thus, hafshi, ^*'*^*^^- 
hattshi to bark, sahtu (orig. Pers. safta), sotu a trust, shipka, 
shuka to sow. 

The same slackness of articulation will explain cases like 

zunufi = zunubi, Ar. ^i ; hawainya, Ar. ^Uj«*-, chameleon ; 
rakumi, Ar. v^^J > camel ; samako, Ar. m-<0, to start. It 
was noticed above that hafshi, to bark, appears also as habshi 
and haushi. Equally complete absorption of an original b occurs 

in Hausa alura = alibra = AT. ^j-i^^, needle. 

In a similar way m is vocalised in damre, daure, dora to bind, 
fasten up, zamna and zona to sit down. Hence it is probably 
correct to refer the H. kauka (B 23, F 32) foolish, mad, to the 

Ar. <JU^. 

One of the most characteristic phenomena of Hausa pro- Labialigm. 
nunciation is the tendency to labialise the sounds k and g. In k and g. 

1 Cf. Ar. v^^ kaukab for ^S^.^ kabkab. 

h2 



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XX PREFACE. 

connection with Indo-European languages its origin is described 
by Dr Peile* : " it is the hardest of all consonants to pronounce, 
and requires the most distinct articulation to keep the sound 
pure from subsidiary breaths. If we pronounce it lazily without 
fully opening the mouth, the result is that together with it a 
. slight ir-sound is quite unconsciously pronounced, because the 
position of the tongue is almost exactly the same for k and g as 
for w, and if the lips be nearly shut an imperfect labial is 
necessarily produced : the k on g sound is followed by a labial 
after-sound, a ' halbvocalischer labialer Nachklang,' Corssen calls 
it, though the sound is a genuine consonant*/' In the Indo- 
European languages this labialism has resulted in a change of 
the k or g into another consonant, e.g. Sanskrit gaus, Gr. jSov?, 
0. H. G. chuo. In Hausa however this labialism is still in an 
initial stage and the after-sound causes no actual change in the 
consonant which it follows. In fact it is so unfixed that it may 
be introduced or omitted at will. Thus it is equally correct to 
say, koda or kwoda although, komi or kwomi an3rthing, koria or 
ktcoria a gourd, taktvoshi or tarkoshi to go lame, ganda or gtvanda 
a pawpaw, goza or gwaza a sweet potato, koi or kwoi an %gg. 

The last example, if the identification with the Ar. \^^ chick, 

and i^U e^, be right, shows how through force of custom the w 

is treated as if it were not radical but parasitic, being omitted or 
rejected at pleasure. In most though not all of the above 
instances a ' rounded * vowel of the o, w, class follows the labia- 
lised consonant. This may perhaps have tended to facilitate the 
labialisation, though how far this has been so it is difficult to 
say. The suggestion derives some support from the fact that in 
a few words a y sound is at times heard after ^ or ^ when followed 
by 'front' vowels (such as those in Eng. bell or bale). Thus we 
may equally say ketu or kyetu a flint, kemru or kyemru a reed, 
kenwa or kyanwa cat, gero or gyero corn. 

^ Introd, to Ok, and Lot, Etymology^ p. 404. 

* For farther diseussion of this principle of. Bragmann, Comp. Oram, of 
the Indo-Oermanic Langs, i. 417 in Wright's translation, also Max MiUler, 
Science of Language, ii. 272. 



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PREFACfi. XXI 

The Hausa language possesses the palatal ch (as in Eng. Palatals, 
which), e,g. wonchom that, chiniJd trade, chiwo sickness, chocha 
ant ; also sh (as in Eng. wish), e.g. ishirin twenty, shiga gusset, 
and in addition their '* voiced counterparts " j (as in Eng. jungle), 
e.g. jawo to draw, jefa to throw, and j pronounced as Eng. s and 
z in leisure and azure, i.e. a kind of jh, e.g. aje truly. To these 
must be added the " glide ** y whose affinity with the palatals is 
exemplified in E 117 where junwa—yunwa hunger, cf. note ad 
loc. How strong this tendency to palatalism is we may see in 
the Hausa pronunciation of the Ar. ^, That of Arab speakers 
varies much in different districts. Thus in Tripoli it is heard as 
t, e.g. beid tndn two eggs, while in Egjrpt* it is pronounced either 
as ^ or 5 and in Algiers* as ts. Prom whatever quarter Arabic 
loan-words came into Hausa the attempt to diflferentiate w» from 
O gave occasion to its palatalisation as ch* 

The front vowels e, i, regularly change a preceding t into ch, 
e.g. kotanta and hotanchi to compare; mata and mache a woman; 
sata and sache to steal. This change is most clearly seen in the 
case of participles, e.g. m. batacke, f batachia, pi. batatu spoiled ; 
m. matache, f. matachia, pi. niatatu dead. Under the same 
circumstances s becomes sh, e.g. tarsa, tarshe and ta/rshi to help ; 
kassa and kasshe to kill ; hama and bahaushe Hausa. 

The Hausas, as before remarked, pronounce J» as ts, but the 
assibilation often leads to palatalisation, e.g. tsaga or chaga to 
tear ; tsarki or ckarki purity ; see Diet, under chira etc. and H. 
Spec, F 6 note, and for connection of these variations with dialect 
cf. notes on F 125, 135, 159, 162, 192, 223. We may add as 
further examples of fluctuating articulation in connection with 
palatals : shikkin (A 9) = chikkin in ; shariri =jariri child ; 
shere=jere line; shure=jure to kick; saurara = jurara to 
listen. 

Close relations subsist between the trilled (r) and lateral (/) Liquids, 
semivowels^ In Hausa as in many other languages the one i and r. 



1 Vollers and Burkitt, Mod. Egypt. Dialect, p. 8. 

' Machuel, UArahe ParU, pp. 2, 4. 

« Cf. Dwight Whitney, ibid. p. 66; Max Miiller, ibid. n. p. 186. 



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XXU PREFACE. 



sound readily runs into the other. Thus the change seen in 
the Fr. armet, Eng. helmet, is common in Hausa, cf. 



galgassa 


gargassa 


hairy. 


galma 


garma 


a hoe. 


lialbi 


harbi 


to shoot. 


tsalka 


tsa/rki 


purity. 



In open syllables too this lisping, like that satirised in 
the Wasps (44) of Aristophanes, may frequently be heard, e.g. 

iandn. fosala^fasa/ra to explain. Of the connection between / and 
n we have instances in ladama-nadama repentance; limke = 
nimka to fold. The commonest illustration is afforded by the 
Hausa connective form, e.g. gonal = gonan 'garden of,' lakiralka*^ 
lakiranka thy future state. Compare It. alma contracted from 
the Lat. anima. This / which has been substituted for n may 
further change into r, e.g. dukiarka thy wealth, and duniarga 
F 63, 71, 73. 

d, I and r. In Latin d sometimes becomes r or /, e.g. nemo me dacrumis 
(= lacrumis) decoret*, arbiter = adbiter ; a similar instance is 

found in Algerian Arabic in the use of ^)l for iSl'; this latter is 
most likely due to the influence of African speech. In Hausa 
a d may change into an r, cf. fada=fad=far F 190 where 
its occurrence at the end of the word probably assisted the 
change. These illustrations suggest the reason why in at- 
tempting to pronounce the Ar. palatal d ^ the Hausas 
sometimes substitute for it I. In studying Hausa MSS. the 
reader may occasionally come across an instance where, by a 
mannerism of the writer, ^ is used instead of J in the spelling 

of words like sarki king ^^uL^ when intended to be pronounced 
as salki, 
r and «. Of the interchange of r and s we have as examples 

asna = arna heathen. 
bisne = birna to bury. 
kasbia = harbia pigeon. 

1 Peile, ibid. p. 339. 
s Machuel, ibid. p. 129. 



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PREFACE. XXIU 

With this may be compared the similar treatment of medial s 
in Latin, e.g. mures = muses, mice. 

The Hausa language has been compared to the Italian owing Terminal 
to its preference for ending words with vowels. With a few ex- ^*'^®^^- 
c^ptions, to be referred to later on, the Hausas seem to find a 
difficulty in pronouncing consonants at the end of words. " The 
difficulty is one which English-speakers can hardly realise, since 
they allow freely every consonant in their alphabet (with the 
accidental exception of the zh sound) at the end of a word, or of 
a syllable, before another consonant ; but the Polynesian dialects, 
for example, admit no groups of consonants anywhere, and 
end every word with a vowel ; the literary Chinese has no final 
consonant except a nasal ; the Greek none save v, <r, p {n, 5, r) ; 
the Sanskrit allows only about half a dozen and almost never 
a group of more than one; the Italian rarely has any final 
consonant^" 

The following are illustrations of variation and interchange Inter- 
among the vowel sounds. ' voweF^ 

The change from u to i, whenever it does not arise from mere sounds 
carelessness, seems to take place through a modification of the u 
to a sound resembling the Pr. u or the Grerm. ii ; cf. 
dvduge didigi heeL 
fukafuki fikafike feather. 
rufe rife to cover. 

tulli tilli heap. 

The rounding of a to is met with, e.g. a to o. 

kewaye keicoye to go round. 
tvfafi tvfofi shirts. 
waje woje quarter. 

An i is frequently transformed or degraded into an e, e.g. i to e. 
dalishi dalashe to be blunt. 
halhi halbe to strike. 
tsiwa tsewa insolent. 
When 8 is followed by the vowels e or i the effect is often the 
palatalising of the consonant, e.g. tarsa, tarske, tarshi to help, 
1 Dwight V^hitney, ibid. p. 72. 



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assimila- 
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xxiv pHEFACE. 

fansa, fanshe to ransom. So also t becomes ch, cf. daidaita, 
daidaiche to be or make similar, mata, mache woman, batache, 
pi. batatu destroyed. 
Short a. In the English vulgar pronunciation of 'yes' a sort of dull a is 

heard. By the ear alone it is hard to tell whether the vowel be a 
or e, as it really lies between them. Such an a or e, represented in 

Hausa script by 1, is found in words such as here ^u, to leave ; 

dere ^j>, night; ferko ^yty beginning; sayes yj^^^ to sell; 

tsayesda ju » J», to detain. 
Vowel The influence of vowels on other vowels when separated from 

them by consonants is seen in the change from Eng. man to men 
owing to the former presence of an i vowel in the plural ending*. 
In the word men the a of the singular was never wholly lost but 
was modified tiirough anticipation of the i of the plural ending. 
But in Hausa and in some of the other African languages this 
assimilation is carried to a much greater degree. We meet with 
introduction or substitution due to a feeling for assonance and 
made in obedience to a harmonic law. This is most clearly 
seen in the modifications of the preposition ma to, when 
followed by suflSxed pronouns, e.g. mini = mani ; mumu = mamu ; 
muku = maku ; mtisu = mam. Cases like fitilla =/atilla a lamp, 
and kuruchia = kv/richia a dove, are perhaps illustrations of the 
same principle ; cf. also mugvje = maguje fugitive. 
Parasitic !« connection with liquids a parasitic vowel, generally assimi- 

vowel with \2Xq^ to that of the syllable, is often introduced. Parallel cases 
in other languages are periculum = periclum, lucinus = Xvxvos. 
Examples in Hausa are : 



girbi 


giribi 


to reap. 


girma 


girima 


great. 


sarki 


sa/riki 


king. 


kurkono 


kwrukimu 


guinea-worm 


sulkumi 


surukvmi 


bag. 


zwrmi 


za/rumi zaromi officer. 



Doubling I^ a large number of instances where a vowel precedes and 

it the latter is pronounced 
1 Dwight Whitney, ibid. p. 71. 



of con- follows a consonant the latter is pronounced with an emphatic 
sonants. ^ '^ 



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PREFACE. XXV 

stress as if doubled. This energetic doubling is found in Aramaic 
and in Hebrew, e.g. Heb. constr. pL innebh^, grapes. In Hausa 
we may compare, bakki black, sanni to know, cMkka to fill, gidcla 
house, tokkos eight, godda to show, tsukke to chew. As before 
stated, in these cases where the doubling of the consonant is 
uncertain, or where it is pronounced but not written, the second 
consonant will be found in the Dictionary with a bracket thus 
bak{k)i There is, of course, a total diflFerence between this 
varying energy of pronunciation and cases where, on the junction 
of two words, the doubling is radical, cf. 

san(n)i know, with sanni know me. 
gan(n)i see, „ ganni see me. 

The number of consonants which can be used at the end of a Final con- 
word in Hausa is extremely limited. 

The very few words which are found ending in b are Arabic, b. 
e.g. magaruh west, ajvb wonderful. 

/, the word ji/jif morning, B 56, is poetical ; alif thousand /. 
is Arabic. 

ky the chief and almost only example is duk all, an abbre- h, 
viated form of duka. It is very often employed and the 
preservation of the k seems helped by the emphasis natural to 
its meaning ; so too with tutuk on which see below. 

/, a final / occurs rarely, e.g. chisal a disease, ful and pul very l 
many ; rotel a pound and kalal lawful are Arabic 

m, there are a few instances of final m, e.g. anim be sought, m. 
B 155, a poetical use, bam palm wine, bambam diflPerent, dabam 
id., dcmkam for ever, dungum much. From the Arabic are 
ha/ram lawful, kullum always. 

n, final n is apparently but not really common. It is used, as n. 
an abbreviated form of tm* of, as a connective, e.g. ahin mamaki a 
thing of wonder, chikkin gidcla on the inside of the house, rawanin 
sarauta badge of royalty. In the case of a proper name no diffi- 
culty is felt, e.g. mdan ; for other instances cf. nany kerrin, 

p, shakvp light, kutup kutup tottering, occur. In the latter p, 
case the retention of the final p is aided by the repetition. 

r, comparatively rarely used. In most instances where it r. 



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XXVI PREFACE. 

appears at the end of a word it is substituted for a connective 
n, beri to leave is sometimes contracted to fer, cf. also bicMr 
five, dakkir with difficulty, giger leg-irons, iddubar a red ass, 
tvur very (red). Words derived from the Arabic are akbar great, 
alhanzir boar, askcLr soldier, azukur afternoon. 
<• s, this is the most commonly used of the final consonants : 

examples are, akass down, akras file, kdas hot iron, tilas by 
force, tvhhds certainly, s often appears suffixed to primary verbs 
in order to produce secondary forms, cf. 

ha bayes to give. 

bata batas to destroy. 

saye sayes to sell. 

tuda tvdas to spill. 

In many instances such forms have da appended to them, the 
effect being to give to the word a causative meaning or otherwise 
to modify its sense, e.g. 

sanni to know, sanas to learn, sanasda to teach. 
tara to bring together, taras to reach to, tara^da to come up 
with. 

The following words ending in s are Arabic : albaras leprosy, 
albarus gunpowder, alzibbm gypsum, a/rsa>s a bullet, buss less. 
t, t, the difficulty of pronouncing a word ending with a consonant 

is nowhere more clearly manifested than in the case of a final t. 
It alternates in this position with final /, n, and r, e.g. 

biar bial biat five. 

dakkir dakket with difficulty. 

tutur tutul tutut tutuk for ever. 

The word farifet very white, is probably to be explained in 
this way as being equivalent to the reduplicated form farifar for 
fa/rifa/rL So also mfar ioxfad-fadda fight, F 190, the dental is 
interchanged with the final r. 
Apocope. The following are illustrations of the shortening of final 

vowels and syllables which is sometimes found. 

dau and do for dauka to take. 
dti for duka all. 



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PREFACE. XXVli 

fau up and hau to mount from hawa, 

lai and lau very (well) from Ic^, 

ma great for mainya, and ma to thee for maka. 

ra and ran for rana day. 

The following are instances of words common to Hausa and European 
European languages, most if not all of which have come into HauMi!^ 
Hausa through the Arabic. 

From Greek or Latin; zinaria gold, from Grk. dvfvdpiov, 
Lat. denarius ; kauwera a flat place, Grk. x^pa ; sabuni soap, 
Grk. a-diTiDv; taharda paper, Grk. x^P^V^- 

From Italian ; bumbu a child carried on the back, probably 
from It. bambino ; bindiga a gun, probably a corruption of 
Venedigo (see under bindiga) ; augulu or agulu a vulture, from 
It. aguglia Lat. aquila ; araha cheap, possibly from It. arra, Lat. 
arrha earnest money. 

From Spanish ; liar a dollar, apparently an inverted form of 

rial ; tambari a drum, Sp. tambor, in Barbary j^-jJ. 

From French ; kankanchi quarrelling, possibly an Arabicised 
form of cancan idle gossip ; and perhaps sambazai sandal, from 
Fr. savate. 

German; talashi satin, cf Germ. Atlass fr. Ar. ^^JLfet. 

The word takas a badger is the Lat. taxus, taxo (Augustine), 
It. tasso. Germ, dachs. takanda sugar cane is the Ar. Sjoi, 
Eng. candy, samfalwa a blue bead is probably the Ar. j-jA-^, 
Eng. sapphire. 

The most cursory study of this Dictionary will serve to show Connec- 
to the Arabic scholar that there are not only numerous words between 

borrowed direct from Arabic, but that there are also a large ^*^8* *°<i 

^ Arabic, 
number of idioms and of methods of word building and con- 
struction which must have had a Semitic source uuless the hypo- 
thesis be adopted that the Hausa language was itself Semitic. 
This latter hypothesis may some day conceivably be established, 
but at present the fact that two-thirds of the Hausa vocabulary 
present no similarity to any Semitic language forms an almost 
insuperable obstacle to the acceptance of this theory until such 
time as a careful study of the surrounding languages, and more 



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XXVlU PREFACE. 

particularly of the languages which are spoken in and on the 
borders of the Sahara Desert, e.g. Berber, Tuareg, Songai, etc., 
may prove either the existence or non-existence of connecting 
links between Hausa and Arabic or any other Semitic language. 
In the Specimens of Hausa I/Ueratare pp. x — xlv I have given 
some reasons for supposing that a connection may be established 
between Hausa, Berber and Coptic, a connection which if genuine 
would seem to point to a sort of sub-semitic group of languages 
spoken by a stream of immigrants from the east who entered 
Africa at an earlier epoch than the Semites proper \ 

The question still remains in regard to the large number of 
words which have obviously been borrowed or added to the Hausa 
language from the Arabic language as it now exists, from what 
exact sources did the Hausas obtain the words, so many of which 
they have incorporated into their language ? The answer which 
we should naturally expect to this question would be, from Arab 
traders or travellers who many years ago may have visited the 
country and have introduced articles previously unknown, leaving 
behind not only the articles but their Arabic names. An exami- 
nation of the Dictionary will however show that such an answer 
is altogether incorrect. The majority of the Hausa pronouns 
and many other words of everyday use though obviously derived 
from Arabic are extremely unlikely to have been introduced by 
traders. Several animals which were probably introduced from 
Arabic-speaking countries do not appear to have Semitic names. 
Moreover the Arabic words borrowed or incorporated by the 
Hausas are not in most cases taken from the colloquial but from 
the classical Arabic. The camel, for example, which is clearly an 
animal introduced by Arabs, does not bear the name universal 
amongst the Arabs, but is a modification of a word which is 
sometimes used in classical Arabic for camel, cf. under rakumi, 
A very large proportion of the words borrowed from Arabic and 
now universally adopted by the Hausas have been borrowed from 

^ For arguments for and against this suggested connection the student 
may consult Benan, Histoire des langues simitiques i. 2, 89, Prof. Wright, 
Contjp. Gramm, of the Sem, languages pp. 33 —34, Dwight Whitney, ib. pp. 
248—253, Max MuUer, ib. p. 326. 



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PREFACE. XXIX 

written as contrasted with spoken Arabic, and not only from the 
Koran but from other literary works current among the Arabs. 
Mohammedanism had very little hold in Hausaland until the 
beginning of the present century, whereas long before this it is 
certain that the Hausa language contained many of the words 
connected with Arabic roots which are now found in it. 

It is just conceivable that the introduction of many Semitic 
words into Hausa and some other West African languages may 
be traced back as far as the Carthaginian expedition described in 
the Periplm o{ Hanno. According to Pliny this was sent out 
"Carthaginis potentia florente" (500 b.c.?). It consisted of 
60 ships with 50 oars each, containing 30,000 men and women 
colonists. That they reached as far as the Congo seems certain 
from the description given of gorillas, three skins of which were 
afterwards hung up in the temple of Kronos. The modem word 
' gorilla ' is derived from this account^. 

The Persian language, half of the vocabulary of which is 
Arabic^ affords an illustration of how the Moslem carries with 
him not only his religion but his language, but in this case the 
Persians have been in contact with Islam for centuries. We can 
but hope that a careful study of some of the other languages, by 
which Hausa is surrounded, may ere long shed further light upon 
the problem suggested at once by the similarity and dissimilarity 
of the Hausa and Arabic languages. 

The British and Foreign Bible Society have just issued the S. John 
Gospel of S. John in Hausa. As this will probably be used by 
students beginning to study the language, I should perhaps 
explain how it came into existence. During my stay in Kano 
in 1895, the most learned Hausa in the city, who was at the same 
time an extremely good classical Arabic scholar, translated, at my 
request, the Gospels of S. John and S. Luke from Arabic into 
Hausa his own native language. The version just published 
represents his translation with a certain number of corrections 
which I have thought it necessary to make. 

^ On the sahjeot of the ciroamnavigation of Africa, etc. of. Herod, n. 
32, 33, lY. 42, 43 with Blakesley's notes, also Pomponias Mela, ui. 90, 94, 
Pliny, NaL Hist, n. 67, v. 1, Cic. Tmc. v. 32, 90. 

« Of. Duncan Forbes, Or, of the Penian Language^ p. 99, vi. 



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XXX PREFACE. 

Gonola- It remains for me to express my gratitude to those who have 

so kindly helped in the somewhat laborious task of preparing this 
work for publication. I am indebted to Mr Hermann Harris of 
Alexandria for several suggestions and for reading over the proofs. 
I am also indebted and that to a far larger extent to Mr Brooks, 
whose name appears on the title-page. In addition to correcting 
the proof-sheets he has suggested a large proportion of the 
derivations from Arabic contained in the body of the work and 
has helped me greatly in writing this preface. Without his help 
the Dictionary could not have been published as soon as it has 
been, nor would it have been nearly so complete. My special 
thanks are due to the Royal Niger Company, to the Society for 
Promoting Christian Knowledge, and to the Government of 
Lagos, for grants which they have made towards defraying the 
expenses of publication and to the Sjmdics of the Cambridge 
University Press for undertaking the work. 

CHARLES HENRY ROBINSON. 



RiPON. September 1899. 



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ABBREVIATIONS. 



A, B, C, etc. = 


: no. of piece in " Speci- 


indef. 


= indefinite. 




mens of Hansa Lite- 


intr. 


intransitive. 




rature." 


1., 11. 


line, lines. 


abstr. 


abstract. 


lit. 


Uterally. 


aoo. 


accQsatiye. 


n. 


noun, also = note. 


adloc. 


at that place. 


n. ag. 


noun of the agent. 


adv. 


adverb, adverbial. 


n. verbi. 


verbal noun. 


aor. 


aorist. 


num. 


numeral. 


Ar. 


Arabic. 


ord. 


ordinal. 


anx. 


anxiliary. 


p. 


page. 


card. 


cardinal. 


particip. 


participle, also = parti- 


oansat. 


causative. 




cipial. 


^cf. 


compare. 


pass. 


passive. 


comm. 


common. 


periphr. 


periphrasis. 


oomp. 


compound. 


phr. 


phrase. 


conj. 


conjunctive, also = con- 


pi. 


plural. 




junction. 


prec. 


preceding. 


constr. 


construct, construed. 


prep. 


preposition. 


e.g. 


for instance. 


pres. 


present. 


etc. 


et cetera. 


prob. 


probably. 


expr. 


expression. 


prov. 


proverb. 


f. 


feminine. 


q.v. 


which see. 


fin. 


at end. 


recipr. 


reciprocal. 


fr. 


from. 


redupl. 


reduplicated. 


fract. 


fractional. 


refl. 


reflexive. 


gen. 


generally. 


rt 


root. 


Gk. 


Greek. 


seq., seqq. 


followingarticle, articles. 


Gr.,Gram., 
H. Gr. 


Hausa Grammar. 


spec. 


specially. 




Spec. Haus. 


** Specimens of Hausa 


ib., ibid. 


in the same work. 




Literature.'* 


id. 


the same. 


subst. V. 


the verb to be. 


i.e. 


that is. 


V. 


see. 



* Cf. placed after any word does not necessarily imply that the word referred to 
is the same word or derived from the same root. It is used quite generally. 

N.B. A letter enclosed in a bracket, e.g. <^d)a, is usually, or at least occasion- 
ally, pronounced, but is not written. The letters $, ;, ^, Z are written A;, «, z, I 
except at the beginning of an article or in referring to it. 



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CORRIGENDA AND ADDENDA. 
a denotes the first and b the second column in the page. 



P. 9 6, I. 35 ADD amma Lot, but. 

P. 13 &, 1. 20 FOR kawa bead kaura. 



P. 


36 a, 1. 32 


»» 


to no 


»i 


on. 


p. 


41a, 1. 1 


tt 




a 


6 ^ 


p. 


43 6, 1. 17 


»» 


J-:^* 

^ ^ ^ 


»> 


J'^> 


p. 


44 a, 1. 4 


it 


•» .■» 


») 




p. 


46 a, fin. 


>» 


y^> 


»f 


>w^>- 


p. 


53 a, 1. 13 


>» 


akayi 


♦ ♦ 


a^t/a. 


p. 


56 a, I. 17 


ADD 


fifiche, see mafifichi. 


p. 


57 a, I. 19 


FOR 


rata bead 


rai ya. 


p. 


62 a, 1. 27 


»» 


at 


)) 


. At. 


p. 


76 6, I. 28 


ADD 


Ar. 4^. 







P, 76 6, 1. 31 fin. add cf. gafdka, 

P. 187 6, 1. 6 FOR J9^^ BEAD J-*). 



P. 192 6,1. 8 
P. 213 6,1. 17 
P. 222 a, I. 2 



idkaiwi 
anbelievers 



sakainia. 
believers. 



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HAUSA DICTIONARY. 
ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA TO VOL. I. 

ADDENDA. 

dalma W^, n. lead. 

dalulu n. a small bottle, see lulu. 

ffiche n. a fan, see mafuchi. 

futo* y^i intr. v. to swim. 



isgili* i«Xx m > P , tr. v. to mock. 

jimrache* ^^J"^^, tr. v. to bear with anyone. 

kififia Ij^aAa^, n. a tortoise. 

kwadaye ^j£^, tr. v. to long after. 

lizami or lezami ^{jJ, n. a horse's bit. 

machewa* |>**««, n. bile. 

matsorachi «i^^;Jbu«, n. cowardice. 

musaya used with yiy to exchange. 

toari j\^y n. cough; ytn «., to cough. 

t«a{to adj. chaste = tsaha (?). 

tsokali s^^^ or chokali yJ^yJ^ n. wooden spoon. 

tuntuhe used with yi, to stumble. 

zaki Jii\y n. sweetness, flavour. 

CORRIGENDA. 

a denotes the first and b the second colunm in the page. 

P. 34&, 1. 9 FOB lamb read kid. 

P. 406,1.21 „ CHJ^ „ CHjy 

P. 43 6, 1. 17 „ J^3i „ jSiS. 

P. T. O. 



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p. 44a, 1. 11 


FOR 


^y> 


REAP 


3yy 


P. 446, 1.29 


It 


man 


»» 


men. 


P. 62 6, 1. 27 


»» 


san san 


)* 


sun san. 






Oij 




P. 76 6, 1. 28 


ADD 


cf. Ar. A^. 




P. 796, 1. 22 


FOR 




READ 


sj»j5. 


P. 102 a, 1. 20 


»> 


is^ 


>> 


^■ 


P. 104a, 1. 18 


i» 


\^^L 


}> 


'J*^- 


P. 116 a, 1. 30 


BEFORE kdsa INSERT ^«o ^U or. 


P. 134 6, 1. 11 


FOR 


make 


READ 


made. 


P. 137a, 1. 30 




^C^ 


»» 




P. 193 6, 1. 3 




i,!JU 


»» 


b^. 


P. 222 a, I 17 




takura 


)* 


tankura. 


P. 2376, 1.37 




ka 


)» 


kai. 


P. 245 6, 1. 14 




u^' 


»» 


U^'- 



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HAUSA DICTIONAEY. 

Words to which ♦ is affixed are not in general use amongst the ffausas^ 
or are Arabic toords not dejmitely incorporated into ffausa. 



a I, verbal prefix to denote pas- 
sive voice of the present or 
aorist tense, cf. also an, ana, 

a or oa tt, no. The reduplicated 
form is that most frequently 
used, esp. in expressing dis- 
approbation. 

a t, at, to, in. It is almost equi- 
valent to gay but of much less 
frequent occurrence. It is 
very often prefixed to the 
prepositions gare^ chikkin, and 
bissa. Prefixed to baya, gabba, 
kasa, it is used adverbially, 
thus ahaya behind, agabba in 
front, aka^sa or akass on the 
ground. 

abada !j^!, cf. Ar. j^\ eternity, 
ever; hal abada for ever, F 
170. 

abdwa \^^ (cf. Ar. ^Up a woollen 
cloak), spun cotton, thick cot- 
ton yam (cf. zarre thin cotton 
thread). It is also applied 
to the white cotton embroidery 
on a tobe. — A piece of cloth 
made of cotton. 

u. 



abduga \tj^\ or audiga L^>^t 

(probably from Ar. iljuj to 
card wool, with article pre- 
fixed), cotton before it is spun. 
The cotton plant is found 
throughout a great part of 
Hausaland. 

,. • ^ ^^ 

ahin ^j^\ or ahu ^1, pi. ahvhua 

^jjt it 

\^^yi\ or abu ^t, thing. 1. fol- 
lowed by da^ it is used as an 
ordinary relative pronoun; cf. 
Gr. 25, ahinda ha he so what 
you wish; 2. followed by a 
verb, noun, or preposition it is 
used as an indefinite pronoun ; 
thus abinchi anything to eat, 
ahinaha anything to drink, 
abinso a wish, desire, abin 
mu/ma a cause for joy, aMn 
bay a that which is behind; 
3. it is used of living creatures; 
thus, abin da rai anything 
living, abin daji creatures of 
the forest; 4. followed by 
the personal pronoun it means 
alone; thus, ha zona abinha 

I 



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«>^1 



s^ 



remain by yourself, G 2 abin- 
shi by himself alone. 

ahinchewa^ \y^\ = ahin mamaki, 

a marvel. 
ahhi %£H^I, prosperity etc. ; cf. auki, 

ahoiyi ^>^t, secretly, A 35 ; cf. 

hoye, 
ahohi ^^\^ fem. abokia \^^^\, 

pi. abokai ^A^y!, friend; 
ahokin gahha enemy, lit. friend 
to the opposite side, ahokin 
taffia fellow traveller. 

abude ^>^^\, opened, openly; cf. 
bvde. 

jS 

abu kaza \j^ ^\, so and so, such 

and such a thing; cf. kaza, 
^ ji ^ 
abuta U^^l, friendship. 

abu If n, Kiy^\, f. a friend; cf. also 
abokia. 

acha \j\ (pennisetum typhoideum), 

a small white grain, which is 

ground and made into a kind 

of porridge. It grows about 

eighteen inches high, and two 

or even three crops are raised 

during the rainy season. 
i r t 

achi* ^\ (cf. (?) Ar. i^\ to grow 

luxuriantly), grass, A 77 ; cf. 
ha>chi, 
dtchika, see chika. 

ada t>U, cf. Ar. S>U, religious 
observance, custom, manner ; 
kamada adanau according to 
their custom ; cf. tada, 

adaioa t^^t, sometimes used for 



tadaioa ink; cf. Ar. St^^ ink- 
stand. 
addmi* O^jJI, Ar. ^y religion, 

creed, worship, B77, 136; mai 
addini a religious person. 

^ it ^ ^ ^ 

addua UjJ! (i.e. Ar. U> with 
article prefixed), prayer; yin 
addiM to pray, D 2. 

adiko 3X>>t, a handkerchief tied 

up so as to form a bag. 
adila IJb^t or adilan kaya (cf. Ar. 

JjLP equilibration of the two 
sides of a load), a heavy load, 
a large basket for salt two of 
which form a donkey load, a 
load of cloth given as a pre>ent. 

adilchi wJj^, cf. Ar. Jj^, right- 
eousness, justice. 

ado ^JLP or j>1, pi. adodi ^^^JiP, 
beauty, show, splendour of . 
dress; cf. riguna na ado beau- 
tiful garments, F216, 238. 

adua \^\ or adwa l^^l (balanites 

aegyptiaca), a thorny tree ' 

from which gum is obtained, 

its fruit is edible, its gum is 

called kwaron adua, 

aduda*f cf. macLdvda*y B 122 
X 4 ^ «' 
^j^^jjLA reckoned up, from 

St ^ 

Ar. JLP to reckon. 
af{f)i sAft, cf. Ar. rt yift (cf. 
also under Iqfia); yin ajffl to 
make a slight inclination of 
the head, to bow; it is also 
used to denote the native 
custom of prostrating the body 



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^^ 



lS^ 



and placing earth upon the 

head in token of submission. 

afko yZft, desolation, destruction 

(possibly from Ar. iUI^t), cf. 
B 93, note; maiafkawa about 
to fall or be destroyed; cf. 
B142, 105. 

afko* ^\y Ar. AX^t, a lie. 
#» J ^ • 

afua t^Afr, cf. Ar. rt ^jft, restora- 
tion to health, becoming better ; 
samu afua to recover, F 78 
note, 177 ; cf. af{f)% lafia, 

agaga kM'Sy tottering, B 109, pro- 
bably a passive form of gage 
to be stiff. 

agaisheka dXJ^t, hail ! a very 
common form of salutation; 
cf. gaishe. 

agala, see akala, 

agana UUt, smallpox; cf. zan- 
zana. 

agola ^^\ stepfather (?). 

agua \^\ wild dove with dark 
ring round its neck. 

a^vluy vulture; cf. angulu. 

agwagwa \^^^t turkey, probably 
onomatopoetic ; cf. talaialu, 

ahaifa U^t, cf. Ar. ^a^, claw of 

animal, finger-nail. 

•i ^t ^ ^ ^ t 

aharus sj^j^y f* aharaaa K^j^y 

a brown horse. 
ai ^1, At. id. verily, indeed, B 79, 

F136. 
aia l^t, the grain or fruit of a 

grass or reed from which a 

sweetmeat called dahM is 

made ; cf . (?) aya. 



aiar* j^\, Ar. d^\ a verse of the 
Koran, F 161 ^a aiar adhulu 
and the verse * enter '; cf. aya, 

aibu ^*ifi, Ar. id. spot, blemish, 
fault, used in regard to men it 
denotes a worthless fellow. 

aika^ to send, to do ; cf . aiki, 

aikata CJ^t, to do, to act, A 85; 
cf . also aiki, 

aiki «iL;t, pi. ayuyuka Ush!^ ayuka 

\S:^\ (F 139), aikoki ^>^t or 

aikuna U^jl (F 140), labour, 
work, act ; yin aiki to labour, 
to work, aikin raga net-work. 
aiki iAi^ or aika «ii^t, to do, act. 

aiki i^^t, aike i<-^^ ^^^ "^^ 
to send; maaikachi a work- 
man, maaika messengers, F 
159. 

aiko y^t) to send to the place 
where the speaker is; aiki to 
send forth from; thus ya 
aikoni he sent me here; ya 
aikini he sent me there, aiko 
is also used generally for to 
send. 

aiko* JjI, work, 53 (F 140 ?). 

aiman* O^Sy cf. Ar. ^\^\, faith. 

ainianshi for aima/nchi ^ JL;^-j|, 
E 30 note; cf. prec. id. 

ainin ^>L>I, true, correct, truly, 
on purpose (?) ; cf . ai, 

ainya l^!, beehive; cl hutumi, 

aiwa or ewa 1^1, indeed, truly. 

aiya, cf . aya, 

aiyari ^<^, Ar. jfS', caravan, 

1—2 



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w* 



jUfel 



train of men or animals; cf. 
alaro, 

ajaba 1^%^, Ar. »^^,^, wonder. 
ajaM ^^^.ft, to cause to wonder, 

marvel; cf. prec, also lajihi, 

ajub. 

ajcUi j^^l*.!, cf. Ar. J^], 1. destiny, 
decree, day of death ; ajcdinsa 
na chika his time is come, 
ajali dunia, C 25; 2. delay in 
paying money which is due; 
3. tax-collector. 

ajami* ,^5^%^, Ar.^^15^, foreign, 
B 175.' 

aje ^-^t, 1. to put, place, lay 

aside ; 2. to hold ; ya aje kofa 

he held the door; ajia to set 

up, A 13. 
I i 
aje ^«*-t, truly ; cf. ashe, 

'"» * . » ^ . 

ajfira |/A».t or ajere ^j^\f m line, 

abreast; cf. jera (F 94?). 
a;«rea O^^^t, to become rich. 



a;ta L^h^^ !• treasures, secret 
stores, A 44 giddashen ajia 
storehouses; 2. a/tan zuchia 
sighing, distress of heart; ajia 
A 13 = is placed ; cf. aje, 

ajub ^^. ft , anytliing wonderful, 
cf. ajaba, 

aka S}\y verbal prefix to denote 
the i)erfect tense in the pas- 
sive voice ; cf. anka. 

akal* J^!, if, when, D 43; cf. 
akan, 

akala '^^j cf. Ar. rt jAft, a rope 



such as is used for tying up a 

camel. 
• ^ t 

akan* C)S^\, if, when, F 19. 

« ^ { 
akan ^>^l, above, on the top of ; 

probably a contraction of a- 

kai-n at the head of, F 96. 

akawali iJ^^t (cf. Ar. J^*»^t 
black), a black horse; cf. also 
chicherro, 

ahbar* j^Sy Ar. id. great, an 
epithet Usually applied to God, 
A 72. 

akib{b)a* MU, Ar. IjU, end, 
result, reward; cf. B 35; akibba 
maikeau a fair reward, ahina 
da akibba it is useful. « 

akodi >^£»t, 1. box, drawer; 2. pis- 
tol (cf. Germ. Bttchse, box and 
gun) ; cf. algaderia^ akotia^ 

akoi 15^ t, probably a contraction 
of akayi, there is, there are. 
Very commonly used as an 
affirmative answer to a ques- 
tion. It is sometimes prefixed 
to the personal pronouns; thus 
akoishi he is, or he is there ; 
akoisu they are. 

akoko y^y^^Sy grey baft. 

akoshi ^^£»t, a large dish made 
of wood. 

akotta ^J^^^t, pistol, probably the 

same as akodi, q. v. 
* X * J 
akras sj^j^Sy yin akras to file («r 

sword, etc.). 
aku ^s\, parrot. 
akumari jCi^l (cf. (?) Ar. jU»- 

ass), a pad placed on a donkey. 



Digitized by 



Qoo^^ 



c^>' 



J^l 



akurike ^^t, pi. akurikai iJj^\i 

cf. Ar. rt ^j^y a place where 

fowls etc. are kept, a coop; cf. 

akuriken kaza. 

akuturche, leprous; cf. kuturchi, 

X • g 
akwati (?) 0^£»t, a case of gin or 

spirits. 

akioia b^^t, pi. awaki i^^t^t, 
goat, f.; cf. bunsuru he-goat. 

(d Jl, in the case of many words 
which have been borrowed by 
the Hausas from the Arabs, 
the initial al represents the 
Arabic article; where the word 
has been regularly adopted as 
a Hausa word, e.g. olherka^ it 
will be found in the dictionary 
under al] in other cases, i.e. 
where the word is an Arabic 
word pure and simple, it will 
be found under the letter fol- 
lowing the prefix al. Thus 
for alwali relations, see under 
voali. 

cda* t^J^, Ar. id. upon, A 1. 

alada*y see ada. 

alafa 1*01 (cf. Ar. t*A»» to go 
footsore), a disease on horses' 
feet just above the hoof. 

alahua* yk'>)!, members of fa- 
mily (1); cf. C 44 note. 

alajabi*, see ajabi, 

^ale f^^\, cf. Ar. rt ,^1, trouble, 
annoyance; also used as a verb. 

cUama U*!iU, pi. alamomi ^^y'^^, 
« X X ^ 
At. 4^^L^, frequently pro- 
nounced hakma; 1. sign, in- 



struction, cf. B 131; 2. a large 
white bead in a set of black 
beads used for prayer, a book- 
marker. 
alunierx ^jj;-**^!, cf. Ar. j-^l, work, 
' task, alfair, talk, palaver; 
alameringa behold something 
wonderful ! alamerin dunia 
the course or vicissitudes of 
life whereby the poor become 
rich, the rich poor. 

alaro ^j^l, cf. Ar. jU to roam 
(from which aiyari also is 
derived) ; hired carrier, animals 
used for transport, a heavy 
load; dan alaro, lit. son of a 
carrier, is one of the commonest 
designations of an ordinary 
porter ; . sarikin alaro a head 
carrier; cf. also dan gn/runfa, 

alaura* j^»i\, cf. Ar. Sj^, pu- 
denda, A 30. 

alayed(d)i jlJI, the oil obtained 
from the hvakwa palm, any 
dark-coloured oil. 

albad(d)a \j^\, pi. albad(d)u 
^J^\ or albad{d)odi ^i^J^^, 

cL Ar. rt jl^, the strips of 
cloth of which a dress is com- 
posed, a seam. 

^^ t 9^^ 

' albaras* uajJ\, Ar. ^aj^, leprosy, 

white leprosy. 
alharka or alberka ^j^\, cf. Ar. 
4^^, blessing, thanks; in bar- 
tering it is equivalent to *no 
thank you,' cf. use of French 
merci; as an epithet applied 



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d^jjt 



tr-.i^« 



to a field it means fertile; yi 

alberka or aa cdberka to bless 

or to thank. 
cUbarkachi ^^Aj^\y B 20; cf. al- 

harka, 
aJharuB ^jUt or alharud jkjlJt, 

Ar. >jjW> gunpowder. 
albas(i)a l^ »Jt, pi. alba§{§)o8i 

^ya^\f cf. Ar. Ji«a^, onion; 

albassan kwadi a white flower 

something like a lily. 
o^i^Air^rito^t, Ar. ZjJL^ good news; 

cdbishirinka good news for 

you! the usual reply to this 

salutation is goro ; cf. hialiara, 

alfddari j^UJt, f. alfdda/ta tj^U^t, 
pL cdfddaru ^j^UJt (possibly 

connected with Ar. ^:^ a 
pack saddle), mule. 
alfaruwa \^j^\ or alfaua t^fJt, 

Ar. 5^^, a tent, made of skins 
or leather. 

alfasha ULaJt, cf. Ar. U^, aZfasha 
magana blasphemous or shame- 
less language. 

al/dtia l^'ijl (cf. Ar. iaJlil, the 
opening chapter of the Koran), 
prayers said daily in the early 
morning, prayers said by a- 
mallam at a funeral ; cf . fdtiha, 

alfin J>aJI, cf. modern Ar. v>«*^l» 
two thousand; cf. alif, 

alfohamiy see alhowami, 

^ J »t ^ jot 

affuta i*>jil, pi. difutai ^^>j)l, 
Ar. dh^y a handkerchief used 



by women to bind round the 
head. 

algaha Uxit, a cloth worn next the 

skin in front and behind like 

a small tugua. 

^ % ^ •t f^^, 

algaderia* L^jjjJUt, Ar. Sjtju^, 

small pistol ; cf . akodi. 

algaita U^t or cdgaitu y^t, a 
wind instrument blown in a 
somewhat similar way to a bag- 
pipe ; a flute ; cf . algaitun aar- 
awto, F241. 

cblgarih ^j^y pi. cUgarihi iWja)! 

(cf. Ar. V!/^> ^ ^ black); the 
red and black seeds of a cer- 
tain plant; the black are eaten, 
the red used in making oint- 
ment. 

^ ot , ^ ot 

algideri jjJUt or alkideri jjJdS, cf. 

9 

Ar. jJLi, a brass cooking pan 
with a handle. 
algringumi j^jjd\, f. algringuma 

if J ^ot 

toJUjjUt, an idle gossip. 

• jot »J»t 

algua ^^^JUt or cdkua ^j^t, green. 

J it ^ ^ ot 

algushi ^^LxJt or algashi ^^LxJt, 
needlework done in green as 

on a tobe. 

.•t i , 

alhaki oiaJt, Ar. wa*-, judgment, 

condemnation, oppression, right 
or claim put forward by one 
who has been defrauded, B 11 
shi ke da alhaki he receives 
judgment. 

6 ^ eit J , 6^ 

alhamis ijufd^M, Ar. |j».j.tii,lt, or 
rana alhainxs, Thursday, lit. the 



Digitized by 



Qoo^^ 



j>Ut 



,)^j 



fifth day, G 6 ; sometimes pro- 
nounced alamis, 

cdhanzir jJJ^aUt, Ar. ^/Jj-!^, wild 
boar. 

alhari ^jmJ\y pi. alharini^iJjmJSy 

Ar. jij^i silk ; the plural form 
is often used instead of the 
singular, F217 riganau na air 
harini, 
alhari \^j>*Ji^Sy Ar. j^, kindness, 

free gift; yin alheri to do 
a kindness. 

alhovximi ^^a^Jt, cf. Ar. rt j^a^t 
tinder, anything used to catch 
sparks, e.g. cotton of the rimi. 
In the colloquial it is some- 
times pronounced alfoami, 

cdihra* \jJ\y Ar. Z^\^ needle; cf. 

alura, 
alif sOt, Ar. s^^ thousand; cf. 

alfin. 
aliyan* ^J^\y cf. Ar. Jl, family, 

relations, E51, B174. 
cUjama* U^^Jt or alfima 1 < ^ M , 

story, narrative, speech; B 153 

aljatna maianfani words which 

will profit. 
aljan «>i^t, pi. aJjannu yLatJ\ 

demons ; cf . jinnu. 
i^at 9i^ 

aZjenna Ui^t, Ar. X;*., a garden, 

paradise; cf. F 222 cUjenna ta 
nima; A 58 yiddan aJjenna, 
The word suggests to a Hausa 
the Mohammedan paradise pic- 
tured in the Koran ; cf. aama. 
cUjibbnSf pronounced alziblmSf q.v. 



aljifi sAu^t or alji/a Uj^Jt, pi. 

alji/u y^\ or alji/una Uai^I, 

* • " 
cf. Ar. >„f»iflf»y pocket, e.g. the 

large pocket in front of a tobe, 

a small bag. 
aljimua I w < i|i >t, Ar. 4 w^niM, 

Friday, this being regarded as 

the last day in the week al- 

jimua is sometimes used for 

a week. 
cdjinnu, demons; cf. jinnu, 
alkaki* j^lfil, wheat, B14; cf. 

cUkama, 
alkcdami ^JLJUt, pi. alkalamai 

^^j^XJUl, Ar. ^0-^, pen, reed 

u^ed as pen. 
alkalanchi* w%;.^ii)t or yi aUca- 

lanchi, to act as alkcUi; cf. 

seq. 
alkali ^ycJJS^ pi. alkalai ^^^uUI, 

Ar. j^'i, judge; E 10 alkalai 
da maauzua aheria the judges 
and those who come to be 
judged. 

alkam(m)a UJut, wheat. It is 
grown in the north-east part 
of Hausaland. 

alkamura \j>^\ (cf. Ar. ^^ to be 
white), calico; it is imported 
into Hausaland from the East. 

alkaria* lj/A)t, pi. alkariyu ^j^AJI, 

Ar. ^ji, a village composed 
of houses with no free land 
inside. 
alkaiLeli ic^y^t, Ar. J^, promise, 



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8 



c^yi 



agreement; gama alkaueli or ' 

yi alkaiieli to promise; cf. C 22, 

note. 
alkawara* |^*JCJt, cowrie-shells, 

E 25; cf. A;wrrfi. 
a;A^66a Uul, pi. alkebbu yM (cf. 

Ar. ^^, a cowl), a sort of 
burnous. 

cUHderi, see algideri. 

alkil(l)a UXit, blue and white or 
black and white shawl made 
in alternate strips. 

(dkiyamay resurrection; cf. ki- 
yaina, 

alkumali ^JL^t, cf. (?) Ar. rt 
j^y a red lion. 

allah dif, Ar. ^f God; the 
plural allohi ^y)l is only used 
of the gods of the heathen. 

alleluba l^^t (cf. Ar. >^J<^ a 
plant with milky juice), a tree 
resembling a fig-tree in ap- 
pearance with sweet-tasting 
leaves. 

oMewa lyJt, cf. Ar. ^^X**, any 
kind of sweet-meat. 

aUi ^Jt, chalk or white earth 
used for bleaching thread. 

cUlo y I, An •.y , a writing board, 
made of a smooth piece of 
wood used for writing charms 
etc. on ; the ink is afterwards 
washed off and drunk by the 
person who is to be benefited 
by the charm. 

allowa* \yiJ\y Ar. tya^y ablution 
before prayer; cf. liUfo. 



almoQiri ^ji^l^Jt, f. alinajira 

^tt " " .. . » ^ ^^ 

\ja^^^\y pi. almajirai ^js^^\ 

(cf. Ar. rt ja^\y viii to give 
alms), disciple, beggar, A 83, 
B 134 almajira mijinta al- 
majiri the disciple will marry 
one who is a disciple ; D 6. 

almakassi ^»n l# It, Ar. ^^oJLo, 

scissors. 
almcmani* tJ^Sy lintel or beam 

above a door. 
almara* Kl^t (cf. Ar. iCy^y iv to 

doubt, OT j^Sy a matter), a story 

which is not true. 

alrtiauru* (?) ^j^^\, very late in 
the evening ; cf . magarub, 

aimoza tj^-^t, cf. Ar. ^3««» a 

small knife. 

almugrvh^ see magarub, 
< • 

aloba l^yt, Ar. l^^ sickness, pesti- 
lence. 

alraata* C^tpt, instruction (?) ; cf . 
D introductory note. 

ahhafi ^^lUs, f. alskafa LiiiJI, 
horse speckled white with 
black. 

amma^^t, Ar. iUt, 1. people, as- 
sembly, C 42; 2. relations (?), 
42 note. 

alura Sj^Sy pi. alurai v^j^t, pro- 
bably from Ar. 5^1 (for similar 
change cf. auduga from ah- 
duga)y needle; cf. alibra, 

alwali* i<«Jyt> cf. Ar. rt ^j^, 
relations, D 99. 



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»t 



alwal{l)a* ^^^\i ablution; c£. 
allowa and luUo, 

dUtuaahi ^^^\ (ci Ar. ^y to 
misrepresent or denounce), 1. 
discussion preliminary to mak- 
ing a bargain or doing business ; 
2. threat to do that which is 
impossible. 

alzihhua*^ aljibhua* 4^% J I, q.v. 

Ar. i^^-Njfc,, Greek yvi/ros, gjrp- 
sum, chalk. 
amadeshi ^^ jl«I (cf . (?) Ar. ^jJ^ 
a beater for corn), large ham- 
mer used by blacksmith. 

. • ^^ . 
ainai ij^t, sickness; yin amai to 

vomit. 

amale ^jX^y Ar. Ji p w j, very 
large male camel = kutunku, 

amamiji\A\y mats used for roofing, 
made from leaves of palm- 
trees (a Nup6 word ?). 

amdna t^Ut, cf. Ar. &Ut, arrange- 
ment in regard to sale of 
goods, part payment for goods, 
earnest money; cf. E 15, 25 
masiUabin amana those who 
steal a deposit; trust, con- 
fidence, security ; cf . G 4 kasa 
amcmaga mutane duka security 
of land-tenure for all; chinye 
amana to betray confidence. 

^A 9^^t 

amao'a* |^t, Ar. 5^t, marker in 
book, land-mark, mark on 
ground. 

amarcht ^j^\, wedding festivities; 
cf . amre. 



amaria G^!, bride, lawful wife as 
distinguished from a concu- 
bine. 

ama8{8)ani ^>*Md! or amas{8)ana 

LLI^I (cf. (?) Ar. rt C>*>^\ 

rheumatism. 
amatoali tJy^Sy veil, such as that 

worn by a king over his mouth 

hanging down in front. 
amha^hi ^yifi^, to make known, 

to address to. 
ambata IJLi.*^ or ambato 



(cf. (?) Ar. rt IJ iv), to think 
of, to remember, to mention; 
ambatoni explain it to me. 

amhato y^^ a memorial. 

ameri ^t, Ar. j^S judgment, com- 
mandment. 

amin ^J^\y Ar. id., amen, verily, 
B44.' 

amina U^t (Ar. ^Uk^t, lit. faithful 
one), a name given to the 
hyena (kura), when appearing 
at night it is regarded as an 
evil spirit. 

aminchi |Jl^t, cf. Ar. ^>«t, faith, 
faithfulness, security; D 98 
allali ahina dada aminchi may 
God increase faith, B 84 dunia 
ba tan yi aminchi ba the world 
is not to be relied on. 

amini* v>i«-^t, cf. prec, friend, 
B 24. ' 

amiru* j^\, Ar. id., prince, emir. 

am(m)o y^S or ^^, hum, buzz, 
noise, report of a gun; ammon 



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>JLa)t 



kv^e sound of a war-drum or 
bell which has several distinct 
notes, ammo or yin ammo to 
hum. 
amre Lgj^S or amri l<j^\ or aure 

\^j^\ (of. Ar. Sl^l, woman), 
marriage; amre or ym amrc 
to marry, B 26. 

amru* ^1, Ar. ^1, commanding ; 
F 151 amru da kiyauta exhort- 
ing to do that which is good. 

amsa U^t, reply, answer ; amsa or 

yin amaa to answer, reply, 

B 130 ha ka amsa ha wilt 

thou not reply? D 45. 
•t 
amshi »JL^\y to snatch; cf. seq. 

^ cJ ' ' ' 

amshiwa* J3,yt,»1, cf. Ar. ^t^L*, par- 
ticipial form of prec., receiving, 
snatching away; cf. C 24 note, 
ta ka yi amahiwa she would 
snatch it away. The reading 
here should perhaps be amshiya 

amunchiwa* t^JLL^ot, confidence, 
C 38 note ; another form of 
aminchiy q. v. 

amurgude ^3>^;-«t, lame, for ana- 
gurgu; cf. gwra^u, 

amuaan* ^>>M^t, A 33, possibly 
for a/nason, from so to love. 

an ^1 or ana ^1, verbal prefix to 
denote the passive voice of the 
aorist or the present tense; 
cf. Gr. p. 26. 

anade ^jJt, rolled up; cf. node. 



anago yiuSf illness caused by lack 
of food, dysentery. 

anagudawa tjjJut, dysentery; cf. 
gvdawa, 

anamim^i/nchi* ^n^X^ ^ il, F 13; cf. 

ananminchi, 
anamusu, denial ; cf . musu, 

amamminchi ^JL;»*Jt, cf. Ar. rt 

Ml 

^, evil-speaking, tale-bearing. 

a/nche. cf. che. 

anc^ or enche ^^-Jl, verily, in- 
deed ! 

anchia(r)* jt^\, plenty to eat, 
D57; cf. chi. 

an/dni ^U^t, cf. Ar. 9ju, use, 

advantage, benefit; enna an- 
faninsa of what use is it? c^ 
anfani useful, hahu anfani use- 
less, anfaninsa dayawa it is of 
great use; mmanfani useful, 
B 44 addua maianfani a prayer 
that shall be effective. 

amgarmia Ig^o^jut, cf. Ar. ^^, a 

stallion — a large mare (possibly 
angarmia may be for yanga/r- 
mia'y cf. anguria), 
angashey weary; cf. gashi. 

ango yut or ^ki^, pi. anguna 

\iju\ (possibly from Ar. uU^, 
to embrace), a bridegroom. . 

angonchi ^i.Jju\ or wi,;ajL^, mar- 



riage. 
amgulu yJu\ or agulu ^XM or 
augulu ykk^Si f. angtUa ^Ibut 



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3J^ 






Italian 



or (igula ^jL^t (cf. 

aguglia, Lat. aquila), vulture. 
^ j»$ 
anguria \jjiu\, seeds of the cotton 

plant. It is sometimes spelt 

yanguria and is probably the 

Ar. j^ cotton. 

anim* j^\^ an imperative form of 
nema^ B 155. 

am^a 1^, Ar. ^Up, diligence, 
haste, intention ; yin aniya to 
show diligence, to hasten, D 25 
^w do aniya take to yourselves 
diligence, D 25 awiyar; cf. 
A 72. 

anjima Lo-^^t) by-and-bye; «at 
anjima good-bye for the pre- 
sent! ctjima, 

anka «2X3t, verbal prefix to denote 
the passive voice of the perfect 
tense = aka, q.v. The same pre- 
fixes are used to denote the pas- 
sive imperative, e.g. akakawo 
let it be brought; cf. Gr. p. 26. 

annabi ^^\ or i-tJt, pi. am^nahawa 

!jl^ or IjuSl, cf. Ar. ^, 
prophet, A 83, F.25, 37. 

anrwhanchi ^^^S or ^t^XiJ^S^ the 
office of a prophet, prophecy. 

anna^(s)dra ^^toJ^S (cf. Ar. o!h^) 

coll. ^jUoJt), a Christian, lit. 
the Nazarene; originally used 
as a term of reproach, but as 
used in Hausaland it does not 
necessarily suggest such. 

annuri jy^\, Ar. jyj, light, glory, 
light of heaven; cf. nuri. 



^ et ^ ^ • ^ 

atisaki sJuJS or hanaaki oLiui^, 

small pincers, F 104. 
am^hifi* s^t^^ ^f. D39, laid out 

in death'(?). 
anta wt or hanta U<^, liver, D 67. 

antaya ^JijS or ^Jflut, price; natoa 

antaya what is the price ? 
^ ^ ^ ^ 
araara [fy^, a large Bornuese 

ram with conspicuous horns. 

araha ^m^^j cheapness; da a/raha 
cheap (probably from the Ita- 
lian arra^ Lat. a/rrha earnest 
money). 

arame ^*-«ljt, lean, thin, ema- 
ciated; cf. rama, 

aranfaki iJ^jl) to lie in wait; 
cf. rafaki. 

araraki i^^jtjt, gimlet; mararaki 
the man who uses a gimlet. 

arataye ^*e^l, hanging; cf. rataya, 

^^»s « ^ «• »f 

arbaa or arba %^j\, Ar. ^u^jt, 

four, often used for four thou- 
sand; cf. Gr. p. 38; arba mia 
four hundred. 

arbdin v>*^jt, Ar. ^^^^Ji^jl forty. 

" ^^ . ^'' ^ 

aHtoa !^jl or ariawa \yij\f north; 

G4, etc. 

ariwachi* wi^^jt, the northern re- 
gion. 

arna \jj\ or asna Lwt, heathen, 
i.e. the worshippers of idols; 
cf . E 6 addini na asna idolatry. 

aro jj^, Ar. 5^, 1. loan, bada arc 
to lend, yin aro to borrow; 



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jSL»A 



2. an addition made to sum 
paid by debtor. 
arradu j^jt or ^jSjJjj Ar. j^jy 
thunder; ya yi arradu or ar- 
radu tafaru it thunders. 

arrafia \^ji\, Ar. f^.j^ very fine 

thread. 
arrafichi ^^^1, i. q. prec. 

ar^afteW ji*-djl or^iMAJt (cf. (?) Ar. 
« x J ' 
jU«, fruit of tamarind tree), a 

mat made of grass let down in 

front of a door- way; cf. §aha/ra. 

araa? u^M»;t, Ar. iL^l^j, bullet, 

lead for bullets. 
artai t^jS, beating, driving away, 

defeat in war. 
arufu* ^^^j\y alphabet; cf. hurufi, 

aruwa Ijjl, soothsaying, the telling 
of secrets which are unknown 
to the questioner by a sooth- 
sayer (boka), 

arwalla, ablution; cf. alwalla. 

arza* \jj\, a species of laurel. 

arziki ^jj\, cf. Ar. wijj, prosper- 
ity, riches ; A 65 alia ya kan 
gamma arzikinka God may 
give thee prosperity ; D 23 ayi 
masa arziki he shall be suc- 
cessful; prosperous D 91 ; giver 
of sustenance D 3 note, ya yi 
arziki a common expression 
for *it was fortunate.' 

aaalo ^ill (cf. Ar. jltS^ a rush), 
a round mat made of plaited 
grass. 

a^anchi %^^Ji^\ or azanchi iJ^j^ 



knowledge, understanding, cle- 
verness; yin asanchi to de- 
vise ; cf . sani. 

a^dra tjL^t, Ar. Zj,m>^ loss, mis- 
fortune ; yin asara to lose; cf. 
haadra^ tasdri, 

aaawaJd* iJy<^\ B 64; see sauJd, 

asbe7h ^>wt, pi. asbendwa \y^\, 
the name of a tribe of Tuareks 
in the Sahara Desert. 

aserimi ji*^>>mf\ (cf. Ar. j^j^, to cut 

XX • 

in pieces), round flat pieces of 
salt. 

X x{ 

ashasha UrUrt, a kind of bag made 
of grass with narrow opening. 

X » X ( 

ashauma U^t, salt or natron 
used in dyeing for fixing co- 
lours. 

ashe ^iii\ or ashi ^tt\ or aje ^i^t, 
surely, indeed, F136. 

I xf 

aaheggi iPt^t, profligate, D 32 ; 

cf . ahegge. 

ashirin Oj*^* '^^' CHJ*^ twenty ; 
cf. ishirin. 

x»x $ 

aahiyerda* i^jiJ^S, C 34, abandon (?) ; 

cf. yerda. 
a8trij,^\ or a^hirx j^S, cfc Ar. rt 

j^y secret, in secret; D 63 
loloki asiri secret recesses, bu- 
den asiri (lit. open secrets) 
scandal. 

^0$ x« 

aska bwt, pi. asaki ^^L»t razor; 
cf. aski, 

* X«X X X X « X 

askar jSLm^y pi. askarawa tjjX>»>ft, 

9 X X "k 

Ar. jSL^ (Turk. Persian id.. 



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^\ 13 

(?) Eng. lascar) soldier; the or- 
dinary word for soldier in 
Hausa is dan-yaki, 
aski iJi»t\y or yin aski, to shave. 

aakunia Cj^SLa, anything used to 
cover the opening of a doorway 
or window opening, e.g. grass- 
mat; windows proper do not 
exist in Hausaland. 

asna \j^\, heathen, E 6, 15; cf. 
ama, 

apsalcUu yrji^\ or a^salati 0^<^t, 

Ar. SyLaJI, 1. prayer K 3; 2. the 

call to prayer repeated at dawn, 

B88; cf. ?al(l)atL 
aasalawi ^j^LJI (cf. (1) Ar. rt 

yL«), rope or halter for leading 

a horse. 
as^ha ^^^!, Ar. <Ufc^<g, usually 

pronounced azuba, dawn, the 

time between jijiji and hafichi; 

cf . rana. 

t ^ Sit t <i ^ 

dsmbat C*^^ *a\ or C^.iJt, Ar. 

^LmJI, Saturday. 



am y»^ (possibly from Ar. ,^j,^ to 
prowl about at night), a moth 
from a small black caterpillar, 
its larva is very destructive to 
cloth, wool, etc. 

(Uake* iJ^\i suddenly, at once, 
abruptly (?). 

(Uara ju! or ataru jjUl or atarat 
OjUt, gathered together; B 25, 
F 112 aian^ vmrin daia, D 49. 

ata/rus ^jUl, a name given to 
kola nuts newly imported from 
Gwanja. 



<Uata/re ^j^Sy completely, collected 
together, A 28, 45 ; cf . tatara, 

atisha (.As^J^ ^i* atishawa t^^.^kft, 
cf. Ar. c^mU^, to sneeze. 

Sk ^ « X 

attajiri ^^j^^S^ cf. Ar. j^^j, a 

person of rank or wealth, a 
merchant. 

atuni i<J>»l, dysentery. 
avdiga^ cotton; cf. abduga. 
cmguluy vulture; cf. angvlu, 
auki ^jt or ^3^, expansion as of 

rice when boiled, abundance, 
prosperity, a quantity of salt ; 
cf . abki. 

auna ^^\ or auni i^J^jt or aiouna 

^^jl, to weigh, to measure; 
F 139 ayuka avmnsu actions 
are weighed ; maauni scales. 

aura* \j^\, auran saraki chief 
minister of a king ; cf . k-awa. 

aura \j^\, a red ass. 

aure^ to marry ; cf. a/mre, 

^ » X 
ausagi* ^^^^i a shirt put on 

under a shroud, D 88 note. 

auaigi iJ^^^ or ^i^^Sy half a 

piece of cloth, paper when it 
has been cut in two. 

aula Ujl, smallest, youngest; auta 
yasa the little finger. 

auxiki, goats ; cf . akioia, 

si$ .9sa. 

atvali* ^tjl, cf. Ar. Jjl, ancestors, 

F74.' 

auHinkej washed ; cf . wanke. 



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L5-3I 



awaaa ^^\ (cf. Ar. ^^^ iv to 

cut), to sharpen a knife. 
it 
awo ^^\, measure, weight; F 139 

cMn awo anything to measure 

or weigh with ; yin atoo to 

measure, to weigh ; cf . auna, 
% jt 
awoje ^^j^jjt, abroad, outside; cf. 

wqje, 
awortak{k)i ^j^\ or hawortakki 
>iXjj^mm, tongs. 

awoza Ijjjl or awaza \j^\, pi. 

awozai ^Jjjl, rib, side. 
aumna, to weigh ; cf . auna, 
a/ya bl (arachis hypogaea), a kind 
of ground-nut, sweet inside, a 
quarter of an inch in length; 
it has a yellow pea-shaped 
flower; its pods contain from 
two to four reddish seeds, from 
which an oil, e.g. the oil used 
by watch-makers, is obtained ; 
cf . guchia, 

aya bt, pi. ayoyx ^pi\, Ar. a^l, 

1. a verse of the Koran, also 
applied to the points o% used 
as a sign of punctuation; 2. 
sign, wonder: 3. an expression 
of incredulity. 

ayaha l^Ul, 1. banana tree; 2. ba- 
nana fruit. 
Jt 
ayu y^ (Fulah id.), the name of a 

mythical man or creature sup- 
posed to live in water and to 
drag anyone in who happens 

to see it. 
.t 
aza* j\ for aje, B 171. 



az(z)a* j^ with umta, to rake to- 
gether cinders ; cf. Jiassa. 

azdha W^Jl^, Ar. vJ^-^» P^-in, 
punishment, illness, A 7 ski he 
shakka azaha lahira he doubts 
the existence of pain in the 
next world, vmrin azaha a 
dark place in which criminals 
are confined, a place of execu- 
tion. 

azalumi* ^» I l»t, deceiver; cf. 
taalumL 

9^t 

azancht ^j^j\, cleverness; cf. 
asanchi. 

azara Ijj!, the cross-beam on top 
of a doorway. 

azariga^ ^^jukjj^ or mazarigi 
^jj-^i a noose for catching 
animals with. 

azawa Ijla^, cf. (?) Ar. rt jJl^, 
treasures, F 94 alazawa, 

^ » t 9^9 

azirka Ujjl, cf. Ar. iJjJ^, a hole 
made in the nose of an ox to 
put a rope through. 

azizu* }ij^y Ar. id. mighty. 

azvha, dawn; cf. a^mba, 

azuhur ^ ^ 6 It, Ar. id. the time 

about 3 p.m. or 4 p.m., the call 

to prayer at that time; cf. 

rana, 
azumaki «iX^jt, worms in horses or 

asses. 

jt « Ox 

azumt ^^\, cf. Ar. j^y^ fast, yin 
a^zumi to fast, D 22 kuna aztt- 
mi kuna zaka da haji fast and 
go on the pilgrimage. 



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M . 15 



azurfa Ujjl or azurufa i?jjl, cf. 
Ar. ^j^ sUver, F 225. 

azurumi >;jt, a large pyramid 
(kanto) of salt. 



b — for interchange of b and / 
sounds, cf. burtumi—furtumi, 
rvhaa — rufaa, 

6a...6a l^ ij, not. It is placed be- 
fore and after the verb or the 
sentence which it negatives, 
thus we may have ba ya gani 
ba mutum or ba ya gani mvr 
turn ba he did not see the 
man; the former is the more 
idiomatic. In the case of a 
negative interrogation the se- 
cond ba is frequently omitted ; 
ba ya and ba ya yi are usually 
abbreviated to bai] ba nd \a 
abbreviated to 6an, thus ban 
sani ba I do not know. When 
ba is joined to the following 
word the I is usually omitted. 

ba ^y & prefix to nouns to denote 
origin, ancestry, etc. ; thus ba- 
hauahe a Hausa native, bor 
laraba an Arab, bature a white 
man. 

ba \jt to give, to cause ; ya bani 
daria he made me laugh, ya 
bashi tsoro he made him afraid, 
ban ha/nu to clap, F 234 ; cf. 
also the following modifications 
or voices of ba, bada, bashi, 
bayes, bayesda, 

baa \jL4 or yi baa (cf. Ar. La^, to 



attack with evil eye), to de- 
ride, to scoff at. 

baba l^, pi. mainya ^JU or maiya 
^-^-♦, sometimes pronounced 
babba, great, large ; as used of 
persons, important, of high 
rank. When placed before the 
noun which it qualifies it is 
usually written bahan; thus 
baban kai great head (a very 
common Hausa surname), A 10 
baban gari, 

baba U^, chief, leader, eldest. 
baba l^l^, pi. bahani ^W (cf. (?) Ar. 

^\^, doorkeeper), eunuch. 

baha \^\^ (indigofera endecaphylla). 
Indigo. It grows wild in many 
parts of Hausaland. It is also 
cultivated for the sake of its 
dye which is obtained by the 
fermentation of its leaves in 
water ; cf. Hausaland, p. 160. 

bahahi iJ^ (cf. (?) Ar. wi^, to blow 
a trumpet), roar of a camel, 
crackling of hell-fire, D 72 note, 
A 31 rana kiama kan wuta ta 
babaki, 

bahaha, black, pi. of baki, q. v. 

bahambade ^J^j^ or bade* ^ J^ 
(lit. great bade i.e. fool etc.), 
jester, buffoon, a king's singer, 
a crier. 

babani ^y^W (cf. Ar. 1^1^, father, 
grandfather, etc.), uncle, fa- 
ther's brother. 

bahaiva* IjQ, a lengthened form 
of ba to give ; cf . B 69 note. 



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babe ,^1^, f. babania W^W a large 
species of locust; cf. fara^ 
/aranderef birdydua^ etc. 

baUn* o-^W, inside (?); cf. B72 
note. 

6a6w ^l^, or ^v (i.e. 6a oot^- 
not anything), nothing, no, 
not, without; bahu wonda no 
one, bahu komi nothing, or 
there is nothing the matter, 
babu keau it is not good, bahu 
wawa F 137 seqq. without 
doubt (cf. similar use in 
Kanuri of ago something, and 
, bago nothing). 

bache ^^, to destroy, to spoil, to 
be spoiled, to speak evil of, 
BIS9 8u bache tare they perish i 
together; cf. bata. 

bachia* l^, bush goat. 



bachucheni 



the son of a 



slave, but not himself a slave ; 
cf. cheche. 

bada >l^, to give, to give up, 
usually joined with some other 
word; thus bada girima to 
honour, bada gaakia to believe 
or to acquit, bada laifi to 
condemn, bada touri to give 
place to, used with hainya it 
means to lead, hainya ya bor 
damu the road led us to; cf. ba, 

bada* j^, for baZa, to destroy (?) ; 
cf. B 108 note, F 72 note. 

badada l>tjL^ or badahada Wj^, 
a fool, D20; cf. bahambade. 



badagela* Ju^j^, to sharpen a 

knife. 
badagula ^IL^jl^ or ^3^J^, foolish 

talking. 

badbUla ^ j^ or bdbela ^ILJL^, or 
^ • • 

bilbila ^IL«JL^ (buphus leuco- 

notus), a white bird like a 

small heron. 

bade^ jester ; cf. babanibade. 

bad{d)i ^J^ (cf. Eanuri bcUi), 
next year; B 120 makada mai- 
zache badi meditating coming 
next year; cf. banna and bara. 

bafade ^>U^ or bafadi ^>La.^, 
a king's minister, a hanger on 
at court; ^h/adawa, q. v. 

bargab{b)azi ^J-sa^) one who has 

come from the east. 
X > ^ X 
bag{g)arua \^j>k^ (acacia nilotica), 

acacia tree, the bark of which 

is used for tanning; it grows 

near water ; an astringent 

medicine is made from its 

seeds. 

bage* ^<*^, a warrior. 

bahago^MM^, a left-handed person; 

cf . hagum. 
bahili* ^JU»^, Ar. J«aL^ a miser, 

an idle or cowardly person. 

bai ^, a contracted form of 
baya or ba ya yi, 

bai* ^, for 6a to give, A 83. 
baiaj after; cf. baya, 
baiala, wide plain, D 75; cf. 6a- 
yala. 



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oaiom ^-tt^, backwards; equiva- 
lent to da haya, 
baibat ^^-nj^, pi. baibaiyi tj^^ ^^ 

&a2^6at£7a |>^^) barbarous peo- 
ple, people who wear no clothes. 

baibaiyi ^jti^ > * ^^^ P^^ through 
a man's lower lip ; cf . dabebeyi, 

baikiy roar, D72; cf. bahaki. 

baiso, a drink, i. q. beso, q. v. 

6att«^;( t^^, female slave; baiwan 
allah, lit. the slave of God, a 
bird rather smaller than a 
sparrow; cf. bawa, 

baiwa t^, generosity, gifts; A 83 
sadaka da baiwa du (=dtika) 
ya bai ; A 46 ; cf. ba to 
give. 

bajini{n)* |>^, great, mighty; 
cf. B85. 

bajini or bajimi ^Jj^^i or bijimi 
j-M^, a bull. 

baka l^l^, pi. bakuna U£»l^, bow; 
bakan kibia bow and arrows, 
bakan allah (lit. God's bow) or 
bakan gizo (lit. spider's bow) 
a rainbow; cf. also mashan 
t'ua. 

baka, l£»l^ ; bakan gishiri a load 
of salt after it has been cut up 
into small pieces; cf. kanto. 

hakache ^ySi^ (cf. Ar. ^U^, to 
mix up food etc.), 1. to fan, 
to winnow; 2. a fan; maiba- 
kache one who fans or winnows. 

&a^t ^i^, pi. bakuna U^l^, mouth, 
edge, brink; F 199 tuiUa na 
fita baki fire shall come out of 
R. 



their mouth, bakin kofa door- 
way, bakin rua the bank of 
the river, bindiga da baki biu 
gun with two barrels, bakin 
wutd stick on which meat is 
placed to be cooked over a fire, 
torch, bakin gatari the handle 
of the axe, yi baki to promise, 
yi baki dada to make an agree- 
ment, to conspire, gama baki 
to speak the same language, 
to agree together. 
baki* ^k^f F 228 ahin baki a thing 

regarded; cf. Ar. ^i^ to re- 
gard, to protect, F 27 (?). 

baJc{k)i ^jO^y f. bak(k)a Ix^, pi. 

babaku ^X^, black; A 21 sun 
sun fari sun san bakki they 
knew the difference between 
black and white, bakkal chiuta, 
cf. B 15 note, bakkin zuchia 
(lit. blackness of heart) evil 
disposition, evil thought, sad- 
ness, B 99 ku ber bakkin chikki 
leave off evil hankering after. 

bako ^^i^, f- bakv>a |>^i^, pi. 

bakuna U^^l^, baki 15^ W ^^ 

bakokuna U^^^l^, strange, 
stranger, guest, visitor; A 15 
bako da dangari stranger and 
citizen. 
bakonchi, ^J^^J & ij, i.q. seq. 

bakontaka t£U£»i^, strangeness, 
that which belongs to a 
stranger, a feast given to a 
stranger; yi bakontaka or yi 
bakonchi to act as a stranger. 
2 



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18 



U>W 



bakwondoro* ^j^J^^i measles (?). 

halcbga* iJL^, Ar. id., to arrive at 

the age of 17, to reach puberty. 

halagaga* Uu^JL^, pi. halagagu 
^iiXi, one who has reached 
the age of puberty; cf. prec. 

halaguro yj»^, a bachelor. 

halante ^xZX^ , mucH more, C 48 ; 
cf . halatcma, 

halatana* UlU^, much more, C2. 

haHl)e /J^ (usually preceded by a 
negative particle), much less, 
A 44 6a bera bale tausanga/ra 
there are no mice, much less 
ants; by no means, F 69 bale 
taffiar tutut ka zaka thou shalt 
by no means ever come, bale 
/a^balante; ct/ache. 

balle* ^^^^, Ar. Jjt^, master of 
house = maigidda, 

balle ^Jl^, 1. for halbe to sting; 
2. to unfasten, untie, open. 

balli balli ^Ji^ ^-i^, sores or scabs. 

balma tJL^, an inferior kind of 
salt, salt such as is given to 
horses, perhaps originally = the 
salt from Bilma, the salt mine 
at the south of the Sahara. 

balshe* iJJ^t but; cf. /acAe. 

barrij^ or bumbi »y.%»^, palm wine; 
D 10 aber aha gia da bam da 
buza leave off intoxicants, 
drinks etc. The wine is ob- 
tained by direct incision into 
the stems of the palm-tree 
(tuku/rua), it begins to ferment 



on the second or third day; cf. 
under gia and buza. 

bafna{n)chi* ^i^^^, sport, trick. 

barmxguje ^^ ^ » tS heathen, esp. 
those living among Moham- 
medans; cf. majuai, 

bambam j^^^ different, separate, 
distinct from ; F 146 tambaya 
bambam ga kowa the questions 
at each are different, ya yi 
bambam, it is different, bambam 
dagga different from. 

bambam* j^^, name of a tree; 



i. q. bambana (V). 
bambamchi ^^^w^, ^t^^^^^ or bamr 

bamta \2^^, ^^^«t^) difference, 
distinction; minene bambamchi 
toanan da wanan what is the 
difference between this and 
that? cf. dabam^hi. 
bambami j^^ (cf. (?) Ar. >^, 

an owl), the name of a small 
bird. It usually builds its 
nest of cotton. 

bambana UIm^, 1. a large tree, 
with edible fruit, asclepias 
gigantea (?) ; 2. an aquatic 
plant; cf. shalla, 

bambar* j^y bark of a tree. 

» ^ ^«> »«• 
bambarokai i^^j^, dimness of 

sight. 

'•" 
bamda jU^, besides, apart from, 

in addition to; bamda vHma/n 

in addition to this. 

bamota O^^ or bamavmta U^^, 
butterfly; cf. litajm aUah, 



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»J^ 



9 " 

0>i, a contracted form of 
horni or ba-na, 
\-hanu, F 234, to clap; cf. ha. 
la UC (cf. (?) Ar. ^ij), a small 
I tree with edible fruit. 

}jianche ^ISJ^, to mock, to de- 
clare falsely; cf. banna, 
Inga hanga U^ ul^ or bunga 
ounga Uu^ U^, a royal pro- 
cession. 

^an^o 3*;^ or 5i^n^o yu^, pi. ftari- 
^«ye ,^jt>»;^ or hanguna UaiJ, 
cf. Kanuri bongo, 1. the wall of 
a house built of mud; 2. the 
stiff* cover of a book = taderishi, 

oamgo ^ki^, a royal officer = Jo- 
garin sariki. 

bani* ^j^, perhaps = Ar. ^, to 
raise up; cf. B 134, note. 

banke ^^^^, 1. a patch on cloth; 

2. toj)atch, to mend. 

banna Uj, Kanuri id., 1. waste, 
evil; 2. to no purpose, in vain, 
B 133 wonda ya zazari banna 
he who hastens after evil; 

3. to destroy, to waste. 
\hanna Ij, this year; cf. bara and 

baddi. 

f bannat* j^, harm, evil; B 12, i.q. 
banna, q. v. 

fiixn^e 15**^ > pl« bantuna UJLa^, 
N"upe id. towel, apron, loin 
cloth. 

pa//«a IJu^, Fulah id. vain, use- 
less, worthless, evil, without 
reward, gratuitous; B 136, C 9, 



D 20 a^er rikichi na banza 
leave off vain deceit. 

bara t^, f. bara/nia ^t^\j4 or ba- 

ranya i(Jj^, pi. barori ^j^j^ 

or bamrua \^jjJ a servant as 
distinguished from bawa a 
slave. A servant (bara) could 
not lawfully be sold. The 
plural barurua implies a large 
number of servants such as 
a king would have. 

bara Ijl^, last year; cf. banna, 

bad(d)i. 
bara* \j\^, a charm (?); cf. sha 

bara ; maida bara = name of a 

Hausa song re the guinea fowl. 
oarage ^^j^, a narrow line in a 

piece of cloth, usually made 

with silk; cf. saki a broad line 

in cloth. 
barakonchi ^J^^J &j ^, thieving; cf. 

barao. 
baramchi* ^t^^j^, name of a large 

fish. 
baranchi ^^j^, stealing; cf. bardo, 

barandem(m)i ^juj^ (cf. (?) Ar. 

jkjj^, an old sword), a hatchet 
with broad blade. 

bardo ^^\j^, f. baraunia ^^j^, 

* '"' * *" 

pi. baraye ^\j^ or barai ^^, 

thief. 
barazza \jj^ or barassa Ctj^ (cf. 
(?) Ar. ^j4, opiate), an in- 
toxicating drink, a name esp. 
applied to imported gin. 

2-2 



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J^j^ 20 



harhada* jy^ , to gird (?). 

barbaddi or berbaddi ^J^j^ (cf. 

Ar. rt j^, to scatter), crumbs 
of food, grains of sand ; ya 
harhaddi — ya zuba akasa. 

bardi* ^j^, pi. baradine i^^j-^, 
cavalry without shields; cf. 
garkL 

ba/rdinuwa \y^>j-^ or birdnduwa 

\^»jJ (cf. Ar. ^j^, locust's 
wing), a black locust which 
flies about at night, it is fre- 
quently attracted by a light. 

bare ^jUi 1- ^ P^©1> to divide in 
half; 2. the half of a goro nut. 

6ore* ^^g^ (cf. Ar. j*3j;j), an 

alien. 
barewa \y>j^i pi. bareyi ^^j^, 

deer, antelope. 
6aW ^W> *o dry in the sun, to 

cast the young, to miscarry. 
boHa* G^, hole, opening (a Ka- 

nuri word ?) ; cf. dambaria. 

barka ^j^ (cf. Ar. ^j^ 11), 1. to 
thank, to bless, to congratu- 
late, F 215 8una barka da 
jiuna they congratulate one 

another; 2. barka l£»ji^, E 38 
da yi allah da albarkar by the 
power of God and the blessing 
of.... 
barkatai* ^^j^ (cf. (?) Ar. JaJ^ 
to talk quickly), in phr. shina 
magana barkatai he talks non- 
sense, or, he is confused. 



barke or berke i^j^j to tear. 

barra ^, to beg, to supplicie; 
\ na barra domin ka tfr- 
ahani I supplicate thee fht 
thou would'st save me, tifi- 
barra a beggar. 

baru* tj^j a hyena. 

barugOf marrow; cf. burgo. 

barzahu* f-jj^i Ar. id. tomb, 
time between death and resur- 
rection ; cf . F 70, note. \ 

basara \jm^ (cf. Ar. jUm^, refreshj- 
ing rain), the hottest part oft 
the dry season just as the raina 
are beginning ; the dry seasorm 
ran% including basara, lasts! 
about eight months, then fol- / 
lows damana the wet season, 
which lasts three months, then 
kakka the harvest season, 
which lasts one month. 

bashe ^J^, but, A 84; d.fache, 

bashi u^l^, pi. basusuka UiumiIj 
(cf. (?) Ar. ^^, to invest 
capital), debt, credit; shina da 
bashina he owes me; this might 
also be expressed ina binsa 
bashi; cf. under bi. 

bashi i<wQ, to give up; cf. 6a. 

bofira* Sjt^t Ar. ijt^^ prudence, I 
sagacity, discernment; B 152 i 
en'ba ahinni ba anyi basira | 
ba if there be no knowledge / 
there is no discernment. /' 

bat(t)a l^, pi. bat{t)ochi ^^y a\ 
small box usually made of 
skin, e.g. a snuff-box. 



\ 



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hata C-*^, to destroy, lay waste, 
spoil, perish; ya hata may 
either be * it is spoilt' or *he 
destroyed,' F 176 malika ya 
batansu the angel shall afflict 
them, hata hainya to lose the 
way, hata zanche to make a 
mistake; cf. hache, 

batache ^JJ^, f. hatachia ItA^) P^* 

hatatu yiZf, spoiled, destroyed, 
wasted. 
hatachi ^J^, destruction. 

hatas i^^mI^, to destroy, to waste, 

to spend. 

X • X «• 
hatasda jciu 2 j = hatas ; hata^da 

hainya to lose the way. 
hatsini* ^^yJ^i^, Ar. 0^> within, 

B 35 note. 
hattu y^ (apparently a Fulah 

word), conversation; yi hattu 

to converse. 

hatunda* tjUI^, conversation; cfc 

hatwre ^jy-i or haturi jyHi (Ka- 
nuri id.) Arab, lit. son of Arab 
{tare), a word applied to any 
white man or stranger; A 45 
mutum uku ne haiuri a lahira 
there are three strangers in 
heaven ; cf. ture, 

hauchi w»>^, slavery; cf. hauta 
and hawanchi. 

hauda y^, used with hainya = 
to deviate from a straight 
course; cf. seq. 

haudiwa tj^y , causing to deviate; 



C 23 tana haudiwa kowa she 
makes everyone to deviate 
(from the right way). 
hauji 9»^, girth; haujin doki 

horse girth. 
hauna U^, pi. hakani ^IS^ (cf. 

Fulah m6at*wa), buffalo. 
haure ^jyi or ftore ^jyi^ fig-tree, 

% \^ 

haushi u^^, name of a tree with 
edible fruit, its wood is of 
a reddish colour. 

haushia^ a hedge-hog; cf. hvshia, 

^ 6 ^ 

hauta \jyiy 1. slavery; 2. to serve; 
D 42 hawa wand-a ke hauta ta 
hanza a slave who has served 
a vain service. 

ha/uxi 1^1^, f. haiwa 1^^, hauya or 
*> • ^ ^ ^ 

hawuya bj^, pi. 6ayt j<iW or 

hai ^, slave; hawan allah 

(lit. a slave of God), or simply 

hawa, a servant of God. 

hawanchi *£^^L^j slavery; cf. 

hauchi. 
» J ^ 
hawon* 03^ — hawon itache bark 

of a tree. 

haya or haia l^l^, the back, the 

hinder parts, used also as 

preposition, behind, beyond, 

below, besides; A 6, note ahi 

kan ji fada ta haya kunuwa 

he woidd hear behind his ears, 

hayan hanu the palm of the 

hand, ahin haya the past, that 

which lies beyond, hayan hakka 

moreover, after this, haya is 

frequently followed by ga^ haya 



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Ulo 22 

ga chin tuo after eating food. 

nahaya is used adverbially, 

'afterwards.' haya haya, cf. 

C 33, * creeping,' an expression 

applied to a cat. hayansa in 

his absence. 
haya*^ to give; cf. mabaya (^llo, 

giver, F 14. 
haycda* l^Q (cf. Ar. lUt^), a 

wide plain, D 75. 
hay{y)an{n)a or bay{y)en{n)a ^^ 

(cf. Ar. ^l^ ii), to declare, make 
manifest, spread out, appear; 
F 203 moMtriba akahayennasu 
those who have made unjust 
profits shall be made manifest, 
F246. 

bayesy to give; cf. ba, 

bayesda, to restore; cf. 6a. 

baza j^y to spread out, e.g. to 
spread out wheat to dry. 

bazere'^ L&^JV (cf. (?) Ar. jj^), a 
tree the root of which is used 
as a charm in childbirth. 

bebe ^^^ pi. bebaye ^^y a 

deaf and dumb person. 
begeyi ,^^J^, a tree the fruit of 

which when eaten acts as a 

charm to reconcile a husband 

and wife; cf. seq. 
begi ^^i^ (cf. Ar. ^^)y to long 

after an absent friend. 
begua tjA^ (Nupe id.), porcupine; 

cf. nvakibia. 
belbela, see badbilla, 
benema* W^*^, a small white diving 

bird. 



ber, to leave; cf. beri.. 

bera \j^ or bira \j^ (cf. Ar. 

Sjl*), mouse, rat; A 44 ajiar 
da ba bera riches free from the 
attacks of mice. 

berbachi ^j^, horse-fly, called 
damiaan dawakiy because spot- 
ted like a leopard. 

berbaddiy crumbs; cf. barbaddi. 

berbera j^j^ (cf . Ar. j^j^ to jab- 
ber), to bray ; A 6 shi tada ha- 
ba yi jaki berbera. 

berbira ]ji^j^y a small black bird 

that eats mosquitoes. 
berchi ^j^ or berichi ^j^^ sleep ; 

D 26 ku yi berchi hi falaka 

sleep and awake. 

berdo ^j^, pi. berdaye ^\>^, wild 
pigeon, also applied to a small 
red bird with black beak and 
some white feathers. 

beret^e {^j^j^, f. bereria ^j-Jji, pi. 
bereru ^j>ij^y freed; cf. beri. 

bergo ^j^ or burgo j^ (cf. Ar. 
^j^, a veil etc.), covering, 
blanket; A 32 rana kiama ta 
rufu a bergo wuta on the day 
of the resurrection she shall 
be covered with a blanket of 
fire. 

ber{r)i ^j;^ or ber ^, to leave, 
leave behind, suffer, allow; 
A 14 tsqfo ba yin kaya ba sai 
dayawa berri an old man cannot 
carry a load without leaving 



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much behind, rnaiberri epi- 
thet applied to a carrier who 
keeps putting down his load, 
A 16, note; berri dai= hut, 
however, ber(r)o to leave a 
thing and come back, ya herro 
shi vrwri chan he left it there 
and returned. [For use of 
verbs ending in o, cf. gram, 
p. 59.] Cf. berere, 
berichi, sleep ; cf. berchi. 

berima* ^^j Ar. d^^, gimlet. 
berke, to tear; cf. barke, 
berkete* ^SJ^j^, very many, a 
crowd (?); cf. (?) barkatai. 

berkono y^lSsj^, pepper; berkono 
de/u a small kind of pepper, 
berkono tatasai a large kind of 
pepper. 

JO" 

bermushi ^fi^j^, a variegated cloth 
used for making turbans. 

bema \jj^ or bima ^j^, loss, 
waste, G2. 

ber{r)oy see ber{r)i. 

bersa* ^j^ or birzajj^ (cf. (1) Ar. 

iJSij^, to grate), to grind roughly 
so as to render unfit for food. 

bershi uh^> much less, B 160; cf. 
ber(r)i dai, bale, baUhe, bashe, 
facile. 

berm \^j4, 1. mud dug out to make 
a wall; 2. wall; cf. D 28 
idan ya fita hankalinaa da 
berza if he go out, his wits 
remain at home. 

beso 3mm^ or baiso y*^, a drink 



made of honey, pepper and 
water. 
^ \^4i ^ follow, to obey; bimbashi 

to go after anyone in order to 
recover a debt, ina binka ba^hi 
you are indebted to me, kana 
bina baahi I am indebted to 
you. Used with hainya or 
tafarki, A 22 suna bi tafarki 
toanda ta fandare they fol- 
lowed a path that was crooked; 
bi dere to go by night. 

bia or biya l^ (cf. (?) Ar. rt ^\ 
1. to pay, to reward; 2. pay- 
ment, wages ; bia bashi to pay 
a debt. 

bial A^, bia/r j^ or biat C^, 
five. 

biashi ^J^^ to pay; i.q. bia, q.v. 

biawa t^, to follow; cf. bi, E 39 
mu ke biawa har bakura we 
follow the road to Bakura. 

bibia l^, 1. judgment; 2. ^-j^, 
to judge, to discern, to look 
carefully into. 

bibini* tj^t^y grumbling, for bim- 

bini B 46. 
bida^ \^J^, Ar. 3l^J^, anything 
new, hence that which is evil, 
F 25, note. 

bid{d)a jkf, to seek, to search after; 

B 4 komi ni ke bida da bukata 
that which I seek and need, 
sai amhideka (wait) till you 
are sent for. 
bid{d)o ^jki, to seek and return 



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24 



^J^ 



with ; F 130 ya nmfuimmad 
hido {8h)etonmu O Mohammed 
seek for us salvation. 
hidi* ^j^y the inside of a small 

ground nut (?). 
6*^e* ^Jfc^ or 6i^i lA? seat, place 

on ground for sitting; cf. F 71 
dunia/r ga babu higi ha za/inna 
there is no place for sitting 
down in this world. 

big{e)ri* iSj^^ place; bigerinsa 

instead of it, in its place. 
[bigri is possibly derived from 

mod. Ar. ^bU^, a place or spot. 
bigerinsa may be formed from 
this or it and bigri may come 

from Ar.^J^, instead of.] 

bijaji i^'W^) side plaits of a wo- 
man's hair. 

bijinta Um^, victory, prosperity; 
ya yi bijinta he is prosperous. 

bika \Sifgiy pi. bikoka i£>^£^, ba- 
boon; cf. gogo. 

biki, marriage feast; cf. buki, 

biko ^Xtii ^ try to persuade, en- 
treat, beg, reconcile. 

bilbila, cf. badbilla. 

bimbini or binbini ^Ji^i^, 1. grum- 
bling, fault-finding ; B 64 mka 
binbini refrainfrom grumbling; 
2. to grumble, to examine in 
order to find fault with, B 18 ; 
cf . bibini, 

binchik(k)i ^ X l^, f. questioning; 



yi binckikki to enquire, to ask 
for news. 
bxndiga L^ju<L^, pi. bindigogi 

^^3^jU^, gun; bindiga da 
baki biu double barrelled gun. 

The word banduka ^JJ^ is 
used by the Arabs in N. Africa 
for a gun. It is perhaps a 
corruption of the word *Vene- 
digo ' ; in former time guns 
were largely imported into N. 
Africa by the Venetians. 

•»• 
bindu ^JJ>4, an edible reed, which 

grows in water; it is not cooked 
before being eaten. 

bingi iJ^, a large dark-coloured 

male donkey. 

bingi iui^, a large cistern, or a 

pond of stagnant water = kur- 
duduffi. 

bingira ji^, to roll, to roll over 
in sleep; cf. (?) birgima. 

biobashi ^l^^, to collect a debt; 
cf. bia. 

bi/ra* \j*j or bera* |^, a young 
girl (?), a spectre (?). 

biraj^, to skip. 

bira^ a mouse; cf. bera. 

birane, E 19, pi. of bimi, q. v. 

birbira, to bray; cf. berbera. 

birdvdua, black locust; cf. bardi- 
nuwa, 

birgami^j^y a large bag for hold- 
ing cowries made of skin; cf. 
buhu. 



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U^j^ 



25 



^J^^ 



hirgima \^j^ or birkima i.^^j^, 
rolling; D 27 shina birkinia 
kamanda chocha he rolls like 
an ant. 

birij^y pi. birai ^JIjJ, biraye ^\)^ 

or biruna U^, monkey; per- 
haps derived from bira to skip. 
biribiri j>h^y a small bat. 

/ ^^ i . . 'a * 

birkichi tJ&j^ or birkiche ^^^^^, 

to upset, overthrow, to shake 

like a leaf. 

birkida JJSdjj, to go back. 

birkido jjl£»j^, to come back; 

D13. 
birkishe* ^JL£djj, to close ; F 80 

ic?o shim birkishe (thine) eye 

closes. 

• •* • 

birkonchi* ^^^J^j^, thieving, trick- 
ery. 

birna, waste; cf. berna. 

bimay to bury; cf. bisne. 

bimi \Ji^j pi. birane ^vW ^^ 
bimua \yjj^ [Kanuri berni, 
Fulah be7^iol'\, town; it is usu- 
ally applied only to large and 
walled towns, smaller places 
would be called gari, e.g. 
masuzua ga ko/ofin birane those 
who frequent the gates of the 
cities, birnin kano = Kano. 

birtuntuna iiCiiJj^, dawa babu ido, 
i.e. wheat or guinea corn which 
has gone bad, or failed to ripen. 

birza, to grind roughly ; cf . bersa, 

bi8(s)a Lm^, pi. bis{s)a8he ^J^L*^ 



or bis(s)aje ^jmX^ (Fulah id.), 
animal, beast; bissaslien daji 
wild beasts, lit. animals of the 
desert, bissashen gidda domestic 
animals, lit. animals of the 
house. 

bis(8)a ^jm4 or abi8(s)a L^\, 1. top, 
summit; 2. on, upon; bissa 
doki or bissan doki on horse- 
back, G 7 wanan litafi ta chika 
bissa yerdan allah this account 
is completed by the will of 
God. abissa is sometimes used 
for *in order that,' A 72 ani- 

. yar ka dokaka abissa fadi... 
thou must take care to say. 
bissa gave concerning; mi ka 
che bissa gareni what did you 
say in regard to me ? 

bishara \jJi^ (cf. Ar. j-iL^, to re- 
joice, or in II to bring tidings), 
1. a letter or paper of intro- 
duction ; 2. yin bishara to re- 
joice with anyone; cf. albishir, 

bishiga, helmet; cf. bvshia. 

bismi* j90**^y Ar. in the name, A 1 
etc. 

bisne ^j!^ or birna ^Jj^, to burj^ 

biso y^ (cf. (?) Ar. rt J!i^ ii to 
dig holes for planting trees), 
burial, also applied to planting 
of seeds. 

biu or biyu y^, sometimes con- 
tracted to biy two; nahiuy f. 
tabiu second. 

biz bizj^ = bis{s)a bis(8)a. 

^ '' J ^ J J 

bobawa Syi^ or bobotva \^yiyiy 



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^yiy^ 



26 



pi. bobaiyi ^^^^, foreign 
speech, usually in bad sense; 
8U yi hchawa they talked fool- 
ishly. 

bobua \yiyi, a large fly; it attacks 
horses and donkeys. 

boda t>^, lowing of a cow or camel. 

boena* Uit^, an aquatic plant (?). 

boiya, secret; cf. boy a, 

boka l^^, pi. bokaye ^^^^^, 
quack doctor, wizard, usually 
used in a bad sense. 

bokcmchi ^^^J^^, the profession of 
a boka; cf. prec. 

bokkoi ^^^, seven; nabokkoi, f. 
tabokkoi, seventh. 

bola •>J|^, horse with white face 
(and weak eyes ?). 

boli* iJyij Ar. rt J|^, 1. to make 
water; 2. cf. F 200. inasri- 
boli = masubori ; cf. bori, 

bombegi 4**^ (cf. Ar. f^^JL^), 

harlot. 

bori jyfy evil spirit, demon, de- 
lirious person; masubori or 
rruisubolif persons possessed 
with an evil spirit, esp. applied 
to women; cf. boli, 

borintunki liiUl^j^, a large bird, 
species of stork (?). 

bota* \jyif handle of knife, axe, 
pen, etc. 

boy a or boiya, Lj^, hiding, secret; 
D 9 enna boiya where there is 
a secret, inaboiya hiding-place. 

boye or boiye ^yi or boiyi ^yi^ 



1. to hide, to be hid, B 140 
munafadi ba mu boiye 6a we 
tell you and hide it not; 2. boi- 
yi or aboiyi secretly, B 163 
mVfna da murna boiyi we re- 
joice secretly; boiyeya hidden, 
boyiwa hiding, B 98. 

buaya bl^ or bv^iye i^^yi (cf. 
Fulah buri\ to exceed, to be 
too much for, ya btuiyeni he is 
stronger than I, na buayaka 
I am stronger than you, abin 
ya buayeni it is too difficult 
for me, na bttaya I could not 
do it ; cf . /aska/re, fu, 

bvbe ^y^, a contracted form of 
the name Abubekr. 

bubv^a k^, an intensive form of 
buga to strike. 

buda b^, cf. Ar. j^, frost, hail. 

buda >^, bude {J>y4, budi ^JX^t 
to open, B 163; abude openly; 
bvduyyy^y to be open; budede 
opened; hainya ta budu (or 
budi) the way is open. 

budi ^>yi (cf. Ar. rt cjl^ iv, to 
excel), wisdom, cleverness. 

budv/nia \^jJ>^y pi. bvdurai ^jJ^ 

(cf. (?) Ar. jjki, to become full 

grown), virgin from age of 

puberty; C 16 yal budurua 

dunia the world is a virgin 

child. 

J J J 
buduruchi ^jj^ or budurua/nchi 

^^^jj^y virginity; cf. prec. 

buga 4^, to strike, to beat; bv^a 



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huga to strike repeatedly, huga 
kofa to knock at a door, htiga 
bindiga or simply bu^a, to fire 
a gun ; cf. btibuga, mah%bgi, 

buhu* 3*^, a large sack (at Zaria) 
made of skin (=^birgami at 
Kano). 

buhu* ^m^, cheap. 

bvJca bC^, pi. bukogi ^y^, tent, 
temporary shed. 

bukari* j^yf, Ar. jlx-e-^, iron 
compass for drawing circles. 

bukdta Ui^, 1. business, merchan- 
dise, need, C 52 bai ktdla domin 
bukata he cared not for mer- 
chandise; 2, Ol^, to need, 
B 4 koini ni ke bida da bukata 
that which I ask and need. 

bukata* U^, blows; D 44, note m 
dora bukata suna sa masu uku 
uku they heap up blows, they 
lay them on them three at a 
time. 

buki ^ or biki ^ (Fulah id.), 
marriage feast ; abin buki any- 
thing good to eat, D 83 yi buki 
to make a feast. 

bula* <)^ (cf. (?) Ar. J^l^, to be 
white), a long white robe. 

buldla ^\X^y pL buldlai ^>^, a 
whip, usually made of hippo- 
potamus skin. 

btdbudi*, crumbs ; i. q. barbaddi, 
q.v. 

buma*, rat-trap; cf. burma, 

bumhiy palm wine; cf. bam. 

bumbu y^, child carried on the 
back ; cf. (?) It. bambino. 



bummi j^^ intoxicating drink, 

palm wine; cf. bam. 
buna* U^, eel (?). 
bunga bunga, a procession; cf. 

ba/nga banga. 
bwngOy cover of a book etc.; cf. 

bango. 
bungulawa* S^'^jJui^, to pour forth ; 

F 190 ma^hizai deffi su ka 

bungulawa snakes pour forth 

poison. 
bunauru ^jmJ^y pi. bunaurai ^j^^y 

bunsuraye ^-jI^-.^, 'he-goat. 

bunuyjy^, pi. bunai ^yi, 1. grass 
for thatching or for door- 
covers; 2*. black striped cloth 
made by natives. 

burdka* sJ\j^f the name of the 
horse on which Mohammed 
ascended to heaven; F 239. 

burbishi s^/ii brim, that which 
is over. 

burbura t/vj^, a large bee. 
burbushi, crumbs; cf. burugushe. 

burdudugi ^»j^y an edible frog. 

burdumi jijtj^, 1. wrapping made 

of grass, used for packing 

natron or salt; a heap of 
natron. 

burga l^, stable for a horse. 

burgo yij^ or ba/i'^ugo y^j^y marrow. 
burgo, covering; cf. bergo. 

"* *"* 

burgu >^, a large rat = ^a^, 

larger than kuMt. 
burinia \^j^ (cf. (?) Ar. ^^, to 



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^J^ 



28 



by^ 



plait), large bag made of grass, 
used by women; cf. (?) herima, 

hurka ^j^, to churn. 

burkuti ^^&j^, to grope about 
with the hand in the dark. 

burma {^j^ or buma* i^, a rat- 
trap, e.g. a hole in the ground 
used as a trap. 

burtu ^j^, a large bird, it lives in 
the forest and is said by the 
natives to drink only once in 
two days. 

burtumi ^^, a large (castrated ?) 

bull; ci./urtumi. 
J J J 
burugu >^, a kind of cane which 

grows in the water. 
buruguslie ^.JL.tj^ or burbushi 

JO J 

^J^j^, 1. crumbs; 2. lump of 

clay (?). 
j»j J 
buruntu y^j^^ to seize by force, to 

despoil a house in war. 

bvsa ^jt»yiy to blow, to blow a 
trumpet; maibusa one who 
blows a trumpet A 78, rana da 
maibusa ya busa kafo nasa on 
the day when the sounder of the 
trumpet shall sound, F 241. 

busashe ^JL^yi, blown upon, dried. 

bushe ^^, to dry; 

bushe bushe ^^>V \jr*^i *^y 

kind of wind instrument. 
bushia Ijw^ or baushia USr^, a 

hedgehog. 
biLshia \t^^ or bishiga \JLSi^, hel- 

met, protective covering for 

the head. 



buss j,^, cf. mod. Ar. j^^, suffi- 
cient, enough, only, less {=gar 
rin)y e.g. nietin goma buss = 
190, lit. 200 less 10. Used as 
an exclamation = do not speak 
more! 

busu^ a inat; cf. buzu. 

buta D^, small earthenware bottle. 

butulshi* ^JJ^ or butulchi ^^JU^ 

(cf. Ar. JJa^, falsehood, vanity), 
ingratitude; E 5 maibutulshi 
ba shi tsira he who is ungrate- 
ful shall not be saved. 

butulu yi^y ungrateful; cf. prec. 

butumij^, pi. l^, beehive. In 
Hausaland a beehive consists 
of a piece of matting or of 
plaited bushes placed in a tree; 
cf. ainya, 

buza \jy^ (Ar. ^Jyi, beer), intoxi- 
cating drink made with salt, 
honey and water; D 10 aher 
sha gia da bam da buza 
leave off drinking intoxicating 
drinks. 

buzu ^jyiy or busu* y^y^ (cf. 

(?) Ar. J^, a goat), a mat 

made of goat's skin with the 

hair on; cf. bunsuru, 
J J 
buzu* j^yi (a Tuarek word?), 

slave. 
J J J 
buzuzu ^Jj-f, a centipede. 

chabura* \)yi^, cf. Ar. jy^, 
trouble; F 142 su dor a kira 
cliahura ga chahura they shall 
begin to call out, they shall 
have trouble upon trouble. 



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29 



chacha UU, a gambling game 
played with cowries or ground 
nuts, F 10, note. 

cliachagi i^^U), to crackle; used 
of split wood or torn paper; 
D 72 tana haiki kamal chacluigi 
it makes a noise like the split- 
ting of wood; cf. change. 

c?uige ^kj or tsa^a kk, to tear, 

split, rend. 
chaia*, obstinate; cf. chuya. 
chainye i^(JJ or chinye t*e-^, to 

eat, to devour; cf. chi. 
chakagi ^^y a large wading bird 

with white breast. 

chakankami ^^^XJS3y rings made 
of brass or iron worn on the 
feet by women as ornaments. 

chakara* \jXJ, an edible root like 
a yam. 

chakasahra t^>»C}, head ornament 
for horses ; cf . (?) chikasora. 

chakpi* ^^^, to attach oneself to, 
become a retainer of (?). 

chan ^^ or cha/aa ^, 1, yonder, 
there; 2. that; used as a de- 
monstrative pronoun agreeing 
with preceding noun. A longer 

form, cliananka jXjJif is some- 
times used in written Hausa. 

chani* ^0, name of a commen- 
tary on the Koran (?); cf. Ell, 
note. 

chanzayiy hazel nut, almond (?). 

ch£ur{r)a jj or chira jj, to crow; 
zakara ya c/uira (or ya yi 



chara), the cock crew; cf. mai- 



chari ^jj or tsari {JjjJ^, cf. Ar. 
f^j^y pure, clean, clear; aU 

kamma tsari, wheat in good 
condition. 
cha/r{i)kake ^^SjSsjj or t8ar{i)kake 

^S^ji^y past particip. of cha/r- 
kaka, q.v. ; cf. t8ar(i)kake, 
char{i)ki ij^ji or i8ar(i)ki ^Ssjj», 
purity, holiness ; B 45 allah 
shi hamu tsa/rki kwanaki may 
God grant us days without 
sin, wuri 7naichar{i)ki a holy 
place. 

cha/rkaka ^Ajj or tsa/rkaka>SkSsjh, 
^ J ^ 
cf. Ar. ^j'fCi to cleanse, make 

holy, sanctify, revere; DSl en 
ka bishi ka charkakaahi shi haka 
chira if you follow and revere 
Him, He will grant you salva- 
tion. In this and three preced- 
ing words initial letter is usually 
written i but pronounced J9. 

chawanta* C-^J^J, to be estab- 
lished (?), D 84, = (?) tsavxmta, 

che ^y to say, to suppose; mi 
anche (or akache) da shi what 
is its name? The pres. par- 
ticiple chewa is frequently used, 
e.g. shina chewa he is saying. 

che i^y the fem. form of the 
substantive verb ; ita che it is 
she, or she is ; or, followed by 
masc. = it is, e.g. A 43 ita che 
dalili this is the reason ; cf . 



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bju3 



30 



L5•^^^*^^>J 



Nup^, from which it has per- 
haps been borrowed. 

cheche, to save; cf. cheto, 

chechewa, a swallow ; cf. tsaijewa. 

chedia GjuJ, a large tree with 
milk-like sap. 

cJiegi iui, spite; don chegi for 

spite. 
cherki ,ilp, a black bird which 
settles on donkeys and pecks 
their backs. 

cheto ^Li or cheche ^JmJ, 1. to 
save, to deliver; 2. deliver- 
ance, A 4 rana da ha cheto 
a day on which there shall 
be no salvation. 

chevxt \^ or chiwa* 1^^, 1. that, 
used after the verb * to say ' in 
written but not in colloquial 
Hausa, and only when it is 
desired to lay special emphasis 
on the statement which fol- 
lows; 2. because, cf. also do- 
minchewa, 

chi, frequently used as a suffix in 
forming abstract substantives, 
used also to denote office or 
work of person or thing, e.g. 
dabamchi difference, diyauchi 
freedom, turanchi that which 
belongs to a foreigner; cf. simi- 
lar use of suffix ji in modem 

til ^ ^ 
Arabic, e.g. i^j^^ cellarer. 

chi ^J, to eat, to devour, to 
destroy, to gain the advantage 
of or over, to gain jurisdiction 
over; chi rU>a to make a profit 



on a business transaction, chi 
sarota to gain possession of a 
kingdom, chi gari to capture 
or to destroy a place, chi 
kasua to trade successfully in 
the market, P 169 masuchin 
zaka those who stole the tithes, 
used in gambling na chi (or 
chinta) I win, ahinchi anything 
to eat; cf. chida, chinta^ chishe, 
nuichia, machikura^ maichi. 
chi* ^ (Kanuri id.), mouth. 

chiauxi \j^f pi. chichi ^wi^, grass; 

chiawa dainyi green grass; cf. 

(X)chi, 
chiba/ra ^j^ or tsibara* ^^^ 

(cf. (?) Ar. j-j-d, to heap up), to 
roll, to roll into the form of a 
ball; used of rolling mud into 
balls prior to using it to build 
with. 

chibaru ^j^, to be rolled together, 
to congeal; jinina ya chibaru 
sahbada dari raj blood is con- 
gealed with the cold. 

chibda tjuj (Kanuri id.), or dadin 

chibda a sweet smell. 
chibia l^, pi. chihioyi ^^j^jmJ, the 

navel. 
chibia* l^, arrow; cf. kibia. 

chibirij^ or chibari j^, anything 
round, a pill, a small piece of 
anything, e.g. of sugar; chi- 
birin kaaa a round piece of 
mud; cf. chiba/ra, 



chibirihinkini* ^ J ^fSii^j^, small 



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3J^ 



31 



reddish berries growing on a 
shrub found in sandy places. 

chicherro ^jitt^, a black horse ; cf . 
akawali, 

chichik(k)a IxJJ, yin chichikka to 
fill full, to be angry with, F 32 
kana chichikka girma ya hauka 
thou swellest with pride, thou 
fool; cf. chik{k)a, 

chichik{k)ofva, see chik(k)ot4Xi. 

chichira, see chira, 

chid{d)a I jJ, distant rolling thun- 
der; cf. a/rradu, 

ckida jLjJ, to feed on, to give to 
eat; cf. chi. 

chidacheto ^jJj^j to bribe, e.g. 
a judge. 

chigia l^, search; yi chigia or 
hada chigia to make diligent 
search for. 

chiji* ^j^y to bite, B 149; cf. 
machiji snake, lit. the biter; 
cf . chizo. 

chik{k)a iU, to fill, to be filled, to 
be complete, in moral sense to 
be perfect; ya chikka it is 
full, or it is completed, chikkor 
wa filling, completion, F 66. 
chikka^hcy chikkaka filled, full, 
complete, D 52 kuna salla 
chikka^ kuna azumi chikkaka 
say your prayers in full, fulfil 
the fast; chikka bindiga to 
load a gun; cf. chik(k)o, chi- 
chik(k)a, 

chikasora \jymS2y the small bells 



placed on horses' heads, rattling 
of a bridle; cf. (?) chaikasahra. 

ohiki ^JC5, a breadth between two 
seams of cloth. 

chik{k)i ^Si or ^, the inside, the 
belly; da chikki pregnant, chik- 
ki daia an expression used of 
brothers or sisters, children of 
the same mother, also used to 
denote kindness, tenderness; 
maichikki (or maijiki) one who 
is fat; ci, jiki; 

chik{k)in ^^jSi or dagga chikkin 

v>^ &>, within, into; chikkin 
gidda at home, chikkinsa may 
either be * inside it' or *its 
inside.' 

chikirikidda Ijl ^ S. }, a fowl 
plucked for cooking. 

chik(k)Oy complement; kaiuo chik- 
konsu fill them up. 

chiJc{k)owa Ij^aj or chichik(k)owa 

tj^CS, a flood; cf. chik(k)a or 

(V)jiJka to be wet. 
chUikotva tj^xU, magpie; it eats 

locusts (= Ar. oUie). 
chima O or chimaka \ \ ^ j, 

food, victuals; cf. chi. 
chimayi i^tf^ or chimma jji^ to 

go with, to accompany. 
chimbaya ^U^, lit. to backbite, 

to slander, to whisper ; cf . chi 

haya, 

chim(m)i* ^^p3 or chim{m)a* l^ 
a ^ 
(cf. Ar.^, to put right), skill, 



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l&U} 



32 



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contrivance, D 49 bdbu chimi 
ha dibara, no skill nor craft. 

chinaka i£>U3 or chirnaka »Uw, 
very small black ants with a 
sting. 

chinchinta* LuJLlJ, worthy, hem 
chinchinta en yi hakka I am 
not worthy to do this ; yi chin- 
chinta or chench^nta to love (?). 
^ o d 

chingara \jm^, to skip words in 

reading, lit. to eat like ants 
(gara), i.e. leaving spaces here 
and there untouched, A 73 
kadda ka ratsa chikkinta kai 
mata chingara do not pass 
over its contents, or miss a 
word in saying it (the Koran). 

chinewa \yj3 (cf. (?) Ar. ^^iJ, to 
swear with a reservation), to 
spread false news = kormoto. 

chingi ^Ju<L.i, to eat much, to 
devour. 

chinia l^, pi. chinioyi i«!%$<^, 
thigh, leg. 

chiniki i^)Uj (cf. Fulah yaunoki), 
trade, business, barter ; yi chi- 
niki to do business, to haggle 
over the price of anything. 

chinta w^, in casting lots = I win. 

chira j^, chire ^jti, chiro ^j^ 

or tsira j^, tsire {Jlji^ or 

tsiro jj^ (cf. (?) Ar. ji i, to 
sprout, to restore, to cut off, 
IV to throw down), 1. to pluck, 
e.g. fruits from trees, to pull 
out, to lift up ; 2. to grow, to 
sprout, to arise ; 3. to deliver, 



to save, to be saved ; chira 
\j^ or chira/ro ^jj^^y deliver- 
ance, safety; D 74 allah shi 
aamu chiraro mu chira may 
God presei've us... that we may 
be saved; chichiraj^, to tear 

up ; chirasda j^jjy to deliver ; 
chiri* ^jJ, resurrection ; C 1 1 
bai san gidda na chiri he 
knows not the place of the 
resurrection; cf. chiri. 
chira^ to crow ; cf. char{r)a, 
chirara \)\jJ, nakedness, ya yi chi- 
rara he is naked. • 

chira/ri* jjj^ boasting. 

chiraro ^jji, 1. safety; cf. chira-, 

2. naked ; cf. chirara. 
^ • -' 
chirasda j>^jJ, to deliver; cf. chira. 

chiri ^j5, to break, yi chiri to 

flee ; cf . (?) chira. 

chirnaka, see chinaka. 

chirmna Uji^J, title given to a 
son of a king, sometimes ap- 
plied to the heir to the throne. 
The word is probably borrowed 
from the Bornuese language, 
in which the syllable rtia when 
used as a suffix corresponds 
to the same syllable in Hausa 
used as a prefix ; cf . galadima. 

chisal Jbi^J, a disease in the 
mouth or lips of infants; cf. 
(?) chiso. 

chishe j^AJ, to feed. 

chit{t)a w, small red pepper; cf. 
chitafo. 



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^ 



33 



chitafo ^ilJ, a bush from the fruit 
of which is obtained a kind of 
pepper. 

chitta U3, the day following gata^ 
which = the day after the day 
after to-morrow, i.e. the fifth 
day. 

chiuta U^, n. sickness, disease, 
evil ; B 12 chiuta da jahili 
hanwa kai nai the evil of the 
ignorant man will take him 
away, A 63 ; cJdutan himi ~ 
syphilis. 

chiutu yiyj^ to become ill ; B 143 
kowa shigga chikki nata ya 
chiutu whoever enters it be- 
comes diseased. 

chiwa, see chewa, 

chitoo ^ytf sickness, illness, jin 
chiwo or yin chiwo to be ill, 
da chiwo ill, or to be ill ; chiwo 
na sabon dawa a fever which 
breaks out when the guinea- 
corn (dawa) is ripe; to prevent 
being attacked by it, the 
Hausas give presents of dawa 
to the poor. 

chiwo ^yi, a large palm tree with 
hard fruit (cocoanut 1), native 
rope is made from it ; cf . dan- 
kon chiwo, 

chiwuki iJ^^i a noise made by 
the mud-fish (gaiuxi). 

chiumta, see chiuta. 

chizo ^j^, 1. bite; 2. chizo or yi 
chizo to bite ; cf. chiji. 

chocha \3yjy an ant, D 27 shina 

R. 



hirhima kamanda ehocha he 

rolls like an ant. 
choro ^j^j (cf. Ar. jj3, fright, 

fear), another form' of tsoro, 

q.v. ; cf . F 6 note. 
chuda tj|y) or chvdavxi tj^^-f, to 

mix milk with anything, to 

mix together, to rub; chuda 

yimbu to mix mud for building 

purposes. 

*• X J J 
chukumara \ji^ju (cf. Ar. jJLA^\y 

Freyt. ii. 95), cheese. 

chukuru/a, ijtj^i a small bag 
used for carrying salt in 
(probably borrowed from the 
Tuareg language). 

chuma*j^j A.T, then, C 50. 

chuna ^JyJ, 1. to invite another 
to share one's food ; 2. =chineuxi 
q.v. 

churi ^jy>, a handful of mud, 
flour, etc., squeezed out; equi- 
valent to dunkfde ; cf. (?) chi- 
ha/ra. 

chuahe ^^yf, 1. a large amount 
collected together, e.g. men, 
grain, etc. ; 2. a medicine 
which is poured into horses' 
mouths. 

chuta, sickness; cf. chiuta, 

chuya* l^j, to be obstinate; cf. 
D 52 kadda ku chuya kuna 
takama be not stubborn nor 
walk proudly. 

da 3, and, if, da,., da both... and. 
da 3, with, used to denote the 
instrument; ya yenki da wuka 

3 



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34 



W3 



he cut with the knife: used 
with verbs of coming and going 
to express the act of taking or 
bringing, ya taffi da shi he 
took it away, ya zo da shi he 
brought it here. It is com- 
bined with substantives to form 
adjectives, e.g. da rai alive, da 
anfani useful; when preceded 
by tare = together with ; da safe 
in the morning, da wwri early, 
dadadi sweetly, dakarifi power- 
fully. 

da >, when, used in the same way 
as soAjmda or yanda. 

da >, used like wonda or wodanda; 
A 31 mata da he taffia a woman 
who goes, abinda that which. 

da >, to have, to possess. In an 
expression such as suna da 
yunwa they are hungry, da 
may be either a prep, or verb; 
ina da shi or simply da shi 
there is, there are, ina da su 
dayawa there are many. 

da b or doja l> or lokachin da 
-» » -» » 
\^ ^>*£D»y , of old, in olden time, 

F73.^ 

da t> or dan ^, pi. yaya IjL or 

yaw ^jjy 1. son; dan amina = 
Mohammed, dan uwana^ lit. 
child of my mother, is used for 
brother or as a term of endear- 
ment ; 2. da when followed by 
the name of a place means a 
native of that place, e.g. dan 
zozo a native of Zozo ; 3. it is 
used to suggest character or 



occupation, ag. dan ddki a 
servant, dan yahi a soldier, 
dan gari a citizen, cf. A 15; 
4. it forms the diminutive of 
many nouns, e.g. dan kasiui 
a little market, dan gatari a 
small hatchet; 5. it denotes 
the young of animals, e.g. dan 
tttmkia a kid, dan zaki a young 
lion; 6. free as opposed to a 
slave; ni da ne ha bawa I am 
free, not a slave, cf. diya; dam, 
alaro a hired carrier, dam, go- 
Tumfa one who carries his own 
load, yi da to beget. (The 
forms dan and yan are the 
simple forms da, ya with the 
prep, na affixed.) 

cUia* U^, Ar., prayer; cf. addua. 

dabam j^^ or ,j>-v> or daha/m 
dabaniy different, apart from; 
cf . bam ba^n. 

dabamchi w<JL^> or wn^3, differ- 
ence; cf. bambamchi. 
dahdra ljt^3 or dubdra Ijl^^, Ar. 

Sjii^, contrivance, skill, counsel ; 
yi dahara to advise; in D 49 
the form dibara occurs, babu 
chimi ba dibara no skill or 
craft. 
daharun* ^^>, Ar. ^3, back of (?), 
F 180 note. 

dabba l^^ or dabbo yf^, pi. dahboni 

^^^ or dabbobi ^yi> (pro- 

bably from Ar. ^b, an animal 
that crawls or moves slowly), 
Fulah id. C 5 note ; beast, crea- 



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V5*^^ 



35 



bi?3 



ture ; applied to horses, cattle, 
etc. 
daheheyi j^*^3, a rope to hobble 

the front feet of a horse; cf. 
(?) haihaiyi, 

clabino y!^y (Fulah id.), date ; 

itachen dahino or dahino date 

tree. 
dabori* j^y palate. 

dachi w>>, bitterness; cf. doachi. 

d(id(d)a^^, often pronounced deddi, 
to increase, to go on doing any- 
thing, to augment, to surpass, 
to linger ; C 49 muna dadda go- 
dia we continue giving thanks, 
C 7 dada muna tsofa wait 
till we grow old, ran zamna 
nan ya deddi we stop here a 
long time, wanom ya deddi 
wonchan this is better than 
that, alia ya deddi rainka 
may Grod prolong your life, 

dad{d)awa^ 1^33 or dad(d)ewa 
t^^^^ lasting, tim daddewa a 
long time since, kaka dedde- 
wanka da zaka kare how long 
will it be before you finish? 

dadade ^>33, from a long time ; 
cf. dad{d)ua, 

dada* t^^, used in Sokoto for kuma 
again; cf. F 246 note, al- 
ready (?). 

dadafa* li>^, used in Sokoto for 

daidai correct, etc. 
dadafa i», to grind to powder, 

perhaps = dadaka. 



dadai ^33, ever, or used with 
negative verb, never until now; 
cf. B 116, D 38 hako gari ha 
ka zo dadai ha a strange city 
to which thou hast never before 
come, dadai han gani ha I 
never saw it. 

dadaidai* ^j^i^b, a strengthened 
form of dadi or possibly of 
daidai ; cf . B 49 mu ji dadaidai 
we feel glad, B125. 

dadaka i)>>, intensive form of 
dakkttf q.v. 

dad(d)ewa, see dad(d)a. 

dadi ^>b, sweetness, happiness, 
comfort; cf. A 12 zaka aha 
dadi nata thou shalt taste of 
its sweetness, dadin zuchia 
happiness, ji dadi to feel happy, 
sa dadi to please, maddadi 
pleasant, da dadi sweet, nice, 
agreeable. 

dad{d)owa \^^^^, broth made from 
the fruit of the dorowa tree. 

dadoia* U33, a plant resembling 

mint. 

^ 3 ^ 
dad(d)ua l^>>, increase, growth of 

a plant, e.g. ya yi daddua\ cf. 

dad^^d)a. 
daf{f)a si^^ and da/{f)atJoa l^>, 

to support oneself with the 

palm of the hand in raising 

oneself up, 
dafa/i* ^^l?3, blue; possibly from 

daffa to cook, so to prepare in 

a dye pit. 
daf{f)a/ra tjlJS (cf. (?) Ar. and 

Pers. o!/W» saffron), a herb, 
Z—2 



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^J^.> 



36 



CH> 



the root of which is beaten up 
with a pestle and put in milk 
to keep it good, and also to 
thicken it and increase its bulk 
for cheating purposes = loda, 

dafari ^j^3, at first, before, in 
former times; cf. nafari and 
fari, 

daffa >Jl (cf. (?) Ar. iJb, to 
moisten or macerate in water), 
to cook, to boil, to confuse; 
cf. B 14 note, shi kan daffa 
kai nai he would be utterly 
confused, madaffa or wurin 
d,ajffi a place for cookiug, mai- 
daffi a cook, daffafe cooked, 
daffafe da rua boiled. 



fe . ^y to stick to, to cleave to. 

daffua \^y cooking; wurin daffua 

kitchen, cf. madaffa. 
daj\f)i, poison; cf. dej{f)i. 

daga* Ub, war (?); cf. jadaga^ 
kayan daga. 

dag{g)a py from, from within, out 
of, at; dagga enna whence, dag- 
ga enna ka fito whence did 
you come 1 da^gga chan thence, 
there, yonder, da^ga nan here, 
from here, dagga chikki in, 
from within, dagga ga/reau from 
them, dagga nsaa from afar. 

dagangany to no purpose ; cf . ganga. 

dagazo* ^J^y strong = kato. 

da^gumi j^^y a collar made of 
cloth used in war as a protec- 
tion for the back of the neck. 

da>g{g)ura* \jhy nerves, veins = 
jijia. 



dai ^y again, indeed; usually 
found in compounds, e.g.saidai, 
harda% dadai ; cf. B 36 note. 

daia or day a Ij^, one; daia daia 
one at a time, one here one 
there, daianku one of you, 
daiana me alone, daiansu they 
alone, or, one of them, ku berni 
ni daiana leave me alone, ber- 
ahi daianaa leave him alone; 
daia is often used as an in- 
definite article, wuri daia to- 
gether, ko daia (in negative 
sentence) not even one, duka 
daia ne they are all alike, 
wanan daia kaman wonchan 
this is the same as that. 

daiawa, much; cf. dayawa, 

daibOy to taUe out; cf. debo. 

daidai ^JJiy alike, correct, just, 
suitable; ya yi daidai it is 
correct (an expression used in 
counting money), na tsaya dai- 
dai I stand upright. 

daidaiche* ^^^J^y to be similar 
to (or, one by one ?) ; cf . A 9 
8uka daidaichs chihkin alka- 
Jirai they alike are among... 

daidai^ C^jj^y to make things 
equal or parallel, to make like, 
to direct aright. 

daii or d(^yi ^y a small prickly 
herb with bitter taste eaten by 
camels (= Ar. j|/^). 

daina ^3 or dena ^3, to cease, 
to desist from; cf. ¥ S3 ku 
hankuri ku daina be patient, 
cease (lamenting). 



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i^t^> 



37 



Ub 



dainye j-^Ji or dainyi ^^3, pi. 
dainyoyi ^yj>y fresh, green, 
unri2)e, raw ; dainyen itache 
leaves, nama dainye uncooked 
flesh; cf. gainya (cf. (?) Ar. 

daji •.!>, forest, open fields, wil- 
derness; never used of actual 
desert. 

daka^ to beat; cf. dakka, 

dakali J^> (cf. Ar. AJli&>, thin 
clay), a mud bed built in a 

house, an altar. 

<> X ^ J ,f ^ 

dakara jl^b, pi. dakaru j»ji£>t>, 

a soldier belonging to a king's 

body-guard; cf. (?) doga/ri. 

dak(k)et %:u£»> or daJc{k)ir j^^, 

with difficulty. 
daki ^-^t^, ^-£»3, pi. dakuna 

U^t3, a room in a house {gid- 
da)y but often used for the house 
itself, especially if it consists 
of but one room; A 13 dunia 
7ian kamal daki ta ke this 
world is like a room, madaki 
chamberlain, F 227. 

dakile ^^^h, Ar. Ji^, to prevent, 
to refuse, to forbid; B 130 ka 
dakile shiru ha ka amsa ha 
dost thou silently refuse and 
givest no answer? 

dak{k)ir, with difficulty; cf. dak- 
{k)et, 

dakka iJ>, Ar. id., to beat, to 
thresh or grind com; cf. (?) 
duka; doke, dirka. 



daJcokoi* ^^^9^, 1. abundance 
of anything, e.g. food, or cow- 
ries; 2. the owner of abundance. 

f i J ^ ^ a » i 

dakolua t^JL^3 or dokolua t^XiS>3, 

a hen which is laying eggs; 

the word is also applied to a 

woman. 
^ 3 ^ 
dakua S^S^y a kind of sweetmeat 

made from the fruit of a grass 

or reed ; cf . aia. 
J J *> 
dakiU{l)um ^^oX£»^^ always; cf. kul- 

dakwora \j^^y the name of a 
thorny tree with hard wood 
like mahogany. 

dala Nib, the name of a rocky hill 
inside Kano; the name of the 
other hill is goron duchi, 

dal{l)a8he ^^^ or dolishi ^.^>, 
to be blunt. 

dalili ^J^^i Ar. Ji^J^, cause, origin, 
proof, sign, reason; F 19 dalili 
ko akan maitamhayawa this is 
the reason, if anyone asks. 

daina Ub (in Kanuri cfetma = re- 
covery, etc.), right, right hand, 
right side E44, better, oppor- 
tunity ; ji dama to feel better, 
to improve in health, da dama 
a little more, da dama dama 
moderately, sai rta ga dama 
unless I wish, ya yi damja it 
were better, ha ya samu dama 
ha he had not the opportunity, 
ha ni da dama I have not time 
to, I do not wish to; cf. 
damichi. 

daTna, to mix, to confuse; cf. dame. 



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J^ 



38 



U>«> 



damachiri jIa^ or damatsiri jitt^y 
a small snake. 

damai ^>, confusedly; B li2 ka 
kafia danim maiafkatoa thou 
slippest confusedly and art 
about to fall; of. dame, 

damamia le«.«^, what is mixed up 
together, mortar; cf. dame, 

ddm{m)ana Lut^ or ddm(in)ijma 
U«b, 1. the wet season, lasting 
about three months; cf. rant; 
2*. sickness; cf. (1) A 42. 

dam>ankad(d)a IjJUL^^, a small 

plant used as a medicine for 

guinea worm. 
damdra \j^y girdle; yi dama/ra 

to gird oneself; cf. dam/re to 

bind. 

dama/richik{k)i ySUj^y girdle; cf. 

damre and chik{k)i, 

<» <» ^ ^ ^ ^ 

domiaaa L^^ot^ (cf. Ar. ^jm^y to be 

obscure or dense), confusion, 

dama^{?)a/ra \j[ ^ 4>, maize; cf. 
?/jaij(«)ara. 

damban%a ^^j-^^ or b^i.^^, rat, 

mouse (lit. child of the hole; 

cf. ba/ria). 
c2am6e ^^^> or ^^iJ^, 1. to give a 

blow, to box; 2. a blow. 
dambiri >^> or ^>, a bush cat 

with a bad smell. 
c^7/i6 j^t^ or dem{m)i ^hy pi. 

damuna U*b, bundle, bunch, 
slieal 
rfame ^^ or ctama ^^, to mix. 



to stir as mortar, to make 
giddy, to perplex, to confuse, 
to annoy, to stagger ; ya da- 
mesu it astonished them; damn 
^•«b to be perplexed; cf. damtuif 
dam>aiy damamfiia, 

dam/am(m)i ,j^^, fence = danga^ 

q.v. 
damfa/re ^j^y to press, to push 

so as to cause to stumble, to 

embrace, to squeeze; used e.g. 

of the outside cover of a book, 

ya damfa/reahi, 

damichi ^JU^ or dam^hi ^*Lo>, 

pi. dam^asa LL«^ (Fulah dam- 
che\ the upper part of the 
arm from the shoulder to the 
elbow, the right arm; F 242 
ahina damshi muhammad he 
shall be at the right hand of 
Mohammed; cf. dam^. 

da/mi8{8)a \ ,>i>,.o, pi. dam,i8(8)ai 
^ ^ 
^^«M^^, leopard; d. dawaki horse 

fly; cf. berbachi, 

damre ^j^>, daure \£j^y damfira* 
^ » -» ^ l^ 

j^^ or darmi* ^^j^ D 13, to 

bind, tie, gird, put under a 

spell; F 233 adamra sUiyu 

datna hauni chains shall be 

bound on their right and left 

hands; damrwre ^t>-«>) pi. 

damraru ^jSj^y bound, girded; 
damre fuska to frown, damre 
ma^ana to take heed to, to 
hold to an agreement. 
damshi, arm; cf. damichi. 



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^ 

dwmshi pl«o> moisture. 

dam,(rn)u y^y a large yenomous 

lizard (draconina ?). 
damn, to be confused ; cf. dame, 

damua l^^b, astonishmeiit ; ji 

damica to be astonished. 
damuna, sheaves ; cf . dame, 
dan, son of; cf. da. 

da^nda IjJ^, a horse with white 
forehead and white forelegs; 
mutum ya yi dxmda the man 
becomes white, i.e. with disease. 

damdaka J jJ^ or dendaki ^-£» Jj^, 
an intensive form of dakka to 
strike; D 15 azaha anadamdor 
kasa kaman kUago his pain is 
as though he were a skin that 
is beaten; to pound or break 
up again. 

^ 6 ^ 

da/ndali ^jJ> (Kanuri id.), court, 
yard, or entrance-room of a 
house, esp. of a king's house. 

damdam.a O J^^ or damdani ^mJJJ^, 
to taste, test, examine; mor- 
dandani ^jjju, taster, B 17 
madandaninka hashi reggi chir 
uta grant to him who tastes a 
lessening of his sickness. 

danddna Ut jJ>, a grass used as a 
medicine by women. 

danfa/rka v%aj>, diild of a harlot; 

cf . farika. 
danga \»jy pi. dangogi ^^^ 

(Kanuri id.), a fence round a 

garden, a garden ; cf . • dami 

and dajnfam{m)i. 



39 J^, 

dangab(h)a Ckj^, breast-band for 
horses made of cloth or wool. 

aangana ^jJu^, 1. to lean upon, 
to recline, 2. to rely on, 3. to 
weep (?). 

dangana UJlj^, children whose 
parents having died soon after 
their birth have been entrusted 
to a stranger to bring up. 

dangaram(m)a Ujii^, threshold or 
raised ridge in front of a door ; 
cf . garam(m)a. 

dangari ^^, citizen ; A 15 kowa 
ya zo ya louche da hako dan- 
gari everyone comes and goes, 
both stranger and citizen. 

dangi ^^, a shield made with 
straw; cf. gerkua. 

danrgurum/a ^jiul (lit. son of 
a hat), a carrier who carries a 
load belonging to himself as 
contrasted with damrdlaro a 
hired carrier. 

dani ^^, the span measured by 
the thumb and first finger. 

dankam* ^^^, for ever ; B 73 
dadai anazama dunia dankami 
will the world indeed last for 
ever? 
dankali JUu^ (convolvulus bata- 
tas), sweet potato, very com- 
mon throughout the whole of 
Hausaland and in some districts 
it forms the only available 
food ; its shape resembles that 
of a thick parsnip, in taste it 
is sweeter than either parsnip 



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Qoo^^ 



J^> 



40 



J^> 



or yam; for description and 
use of cf. *Hausaland/ p. 155. 

dankira* jS!j^, to press, to com- 
press. 

danko yU> or dunko yu^y india- 
rubber (cf . gumji)y glue, gum • 
C 21 ta dada danko riko she 
will continue to stick like gum; 
dankon zumua beeswax; dan- 
kon kedainya oil from the 
shea-butter tree; dankon chiwo 
the material with which native 
rope is made ; cf . chiwo, 

dan magurji, snake ; cf. magurji. 

danra^uwa t^^>, a red bird (a 
species of plover ?) ; cf . rOigo, 

danuha L>>, a sore at the root of 
a finger-nail. 

danzumu y^j^y the son of a 
friend or relation; cf. zumu. 

da/r(r)a or der{r)a Ij^, a game 
played with cowrie shells, 
which are placed in little 
holes in the ground, or are 
arranged on a board marked 
with squares. It is considered 
a disreputable game, though 
not so closely connected with 
gambling as chacha; F 11, E 
16 ku her na da/rra da tsalum- 
shi musulmi cease from play- 
ing da/rra and from deceit, 
Mussulmans. 

daraja U^^ or darajia l^*-)^, Ar. 

^j>9 glory, honour, gorgeous 
dress; A ^7 ya ba iyaye da- 
raja he showed honour to his 
parents. 



da/ran'a* jj^ to ridicule (1). 
dari ^j^ a hundred ; A 39. 

ddri jb (cf. (1) Ar. j^ to rain 
copiously), cold; ya yi 'da/ri 
it is cold, dari ya kamani I 
have caught cold, na ji da/ri 
I feel cold. 

da/r{r)i or der(r)i j>, small deer or 
hart with horns, larger than 
harewa, 

daria Ljj^ (cf. (?) Ar. Ij>, to 
treat with contempt), laughter, 
smile; yi daria to laugh, ba 
or bada daria to cause laugh- 
ter ; ya bashi daria he turned 
him into ridicule. 

divriwoye i^^j>i to rinse with 
water, to clean ; cf . gariwoya, 

da/nrni i^j>, to bind, D 13 ; cf. 
damre. 

darni* ^j^ (cf. (1) Ar. C>iJ^j ^^7 
branches), fence ; cf . danga, 

dasa* t-rf^, a bottle, = tasa, q.v. 

da^ashi ^j/L^y gums, in Sokoto 

the form daaori ^j^^ is used ; 

niaidasashi a person who has 

no teeth. 
dashi ^J^y a tree, the bristles of 

which are used for rubbing 

the teeth with; the tree has 

a milky sap. 
daso* ^\y a drop ; equivalent to 

duggo, q.v. 
datijo, a person of importance; 

cf. dotijo. 

datsai ^^> for dadaiy B 120. 



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41 



bb 



dau^^, a contracted form of domka] 
cf . do, 

daua, an open place where grass 
has been burnt, any large open 
place; probably = c?at-«?a. 

dauda \^^^ (cf. Ar. ^b, to be 
maggoty), dirt, filth, da dau- 
da dirty, yi dauda to make 
dirty; daudam kune the wax 
in the ear. 

daudanhayi ^^A^^^^^ tops or 
bristles of a grass, which have 
short spikes and are very ad- 
hesive. 

daudu ^^> (Nup^ id.), a title of 
respect given to a ruler; in 
Kano it is given to the heir 
to the throne ; in Zaria to the 
galladima, 

dauka or doka ^^>, often con- 

tracted to dau or do ^^, 1. to 
take, take up, take hold of, 
take away, receive, dauka rua 
to draw water, A 25 ; 2. ya 
doka jeji he went into the 
desert; dauko ^r^^y to take for 

^ ^ 6 ^ 

oneself ; daukaka %2JL£» «>, or dav^ 
kake ^^^^y a strengthened 
form of dauka to lift up, exalt, 
B 147; ia daukakaka ya/nzu ta 
gochima it takes you up now, 
it makes you fall ; raadaukaka 
the exalted one. 
daukaka or dokaka I v ^^^, a 
lengthened form of dukia pos- 
sessions ; C 39 maiaon daukaka 
ruma dunia he who desires the 
possessions of this world; 3*. 



a man of wealth or import- 
ance. 
dauko, to take for oneself, to ac- 
cept; cf. dauka, 

davXa* U^> or ahin daula desire, 

object of desire (?). 

J ^ t ^ 
dauraro or doraro ^j\j^> or daur 

rara* ^j\j^>i to look round, 
to go round ; B 127 shi wanda 
ke tudu dorara he who is on a 
hill sees all round ; cf . dauro, 

daure, occasionally used for damrcy 
to bind, q.v. 

dauri ^j^>, to endure patiently, 
to suffer. 

dauri j^y 1. a medicine given to 
young children as a preventa- 
tive against disease; 2. twisted 
locks of hair arranged on either 
side of a woman's face (cf. Ar. 
6j\^^f curl of a moustache). 

daurly early, etc. ; cf. dawuri, 

ckmria ^j^y a small addition to 
a carrier's load. 

dauro ^j^y a small edible grain 
somewhat like giero. 

dauro or doro ^j^y cf. Ar. rt j^y 
to look at, to fix the gaze 
upon \ J) ^^ 8U ka doro su ka 
hershi they look in his face, 
they leave him ; cf . dau/raro, 

dawa \^\^ (sorghum vulgare), gui- 
nea corn, i.e. a species of mil- 
let with small red grains, called 
in Egypt dhurra. The plant 
grows to the height of eight 
or ten feet. The grain, which 
is exceedingly hard, is ground 



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42 



•^* 



between two stones and made 
into a sort of porridge which 
has a sour insipid taste. The 
four principal kinds of dawa 
are kawra used for feeding 
horses, fa/rafara used when 
ground up for making gruel, 
muramura cooked and eaten 
whole, giwakamba used as a 
medicine for rubbing on the 
eyes; dawa forms the staple 
food of the Hausa people (cf. 
*Hausaland,' pp. 153, 154); an 
intoxicating drink is made 
from it; cf. gia, 

dawa* \^y Ar. St^^, ah unin- 
habited place, e.g. a desert 
or forest. 

da/waMy horses, pi. of dokiy q.v. 

dawamaji^^ (cf. Ar. rt ^^^), to 
remain, to continue, maidor 
wama continuing; cf. duma. 

dawamia Lo^^, continuance; C 15 
enna da zama na dawa/ma 
where is a state of continu- 
ance; D 79 giddan dawama, 
i.e. heaven. 

dawo ^^y to come back, to re- 
turn; cf. dawoiyo. 

datvoinya ^^y to toil for, to 
seek after; B 52 ahina da- 
woinya da abin wqfi he toils 
after vanity. 

dawoinya IfJ^^, attention shown 
to strangers ; cf . prec. 

dawoiya or dawoya ^^, to re- 
turn from a place ; cf . seq. 
J J ^ 

dawoiyo or dawoyo ^^>9 to return 

to A place. 



dawzMri j^% or dauri j^^, early, 
long ago, in former time. 

dayawa or daiawa \yjy sometimes 
pronounced diyawa or deyawa 
much, great, abundant ; cf . yor- 
vxi and mayawa, 

dayi ^-j^ a small herb with thistle- 
like prickles eaten by horses, 
etc. 

dazu ^3^, already, formerly. 

debe ^^^ or debo y^x to take off, 

take out, pluck from, un- 
dress; debe ma or debo ma 
to draw water; debo used as 
an imperative means, take and 
bring it here; cf. use of wanko. 

decha* li>>; a sore at the comers 
of the mouth. 

deddiy to continue ; cf . dada. 

dede, see daidai, 

def(f)a* \^^ (cf. Ar. v^^ ni and 
iJ^), in F 192 = to destroy. 

^/(/)^ or da/{/)i ^i (Fulah 
id.), poison obtained from 
snakes, plants, etc. ; F 109 
deffi 8u ka bungulawa they 
pour forth their poison. 

dege ^^y pi. degogi i^'^y^X a 
graminivorous animal (bad- 
ger (?)), it comes out at night. 

deg{g)iy relations ; A 8, cf . dengi. 

dek{k)i dek{k)i Jj^^, separately. 

dela t^>) numbness ; dela ya ka- 
ma kafata my leg is gone to 
sleep. 

delta *>)>, name applied to the 



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4)> 



43 



>^> 



Austrian Maria Theresa dollar 
which circulates to a limited 
extent throughout Hausaland, 
yalue ahout three shillings. 

della* diy, dogs. 

demanta* wU^>, to wonder at. 



demi ^> or dumi jiy used with 
rua^ Tucm demi hot water; 
rcma da dumi it is hot. 
dem{m)i, a sheaf ; of. dame, 
dena ^JJ^^ to cease ; cf . daina. 
dendaki, to strike ; cf . dandaka, 
dengi ij> or denga uu> or deg{g)% 

&S, pi. dengoyi ^^>»i>, rela- 
tion, friend, the singular is 
often used for the plural; 
B 104 ni dai ina gaya m^aku 
dengina I indeed tell you my 
relations. 
dera, to jump ; cf. dir{r)a, 
derduma \*c^jy a mattress made 

of cloth. 
dere ^j^ or der(r)i jy night, esp. 
the time between lisha and 
jijifi; cf. H. Gr. p. 64, da 
dere by night ; cf . proverb, 
hadan mutum ya yi maku 
rana ku yi masa dere, lit. if 
a man makes day for you do 
you make night for himi i.e. 
do you reward evil for good? 
B 56 ehikkin dere ko ko jijifi 
by night or just before the 
dawn ; jia da dere last night. 
derejia, honour, etc. ; cl da/rc^a, 
dero, to jump ; cf . dia'{r)a. 
derto* yij^ a file. 



deasa ^y to plant, used of plant- 
ing trees. 

dewa, contracted form of dad- 
{d)ewa\ cf. under dad{d)a. 

dia, offspring ; cf . diya, 

diba* ^^^, diba kamna to sneer (1) ; 

ct{t)^debe. 
dibajo* fr^y Ar. id., cloth worked 

with gold inside. 
did{d)iga* l^^^, sum 1 cf. kidda, 
did(d)igiy heel ; cf . dudv^/e, 
dig{g)a, a drop ; cf . dug{g)o, 
dik(k)u8lii*y to kneel; cl durku- 

shi. 

dila U>, pi. diloli tJ|>3>, jackal. 

dUa* Ub^, melon. 

dilali JMy Ar. JU^, a broker. In 
Hausaland nearly all buying 
and selling are conducted 
through brokers, who receive 
5 p. c. of the price paid; yi 
dilali to do business, to trade. 

dilanchi %£«UJ>, trading; maidi- 

lanchi one who trades. 
dilkushi, to kneel ; cf . durkushi. 

dilo y>, a tall straight tree. 

dimajo ^^^> (Fulah id.), the off- 
spring of a slave and a free 
person. 

^JO JO 

dimbujin zu/a \^j (>%^>, small 
red beads worn round the neck 
by women ; cf . dumhaji, 

dimi* j^^ (cf. Ar. ^i^y striped 
cotton stuff), white native cloth 
(calico 1). 



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kS^^> 



dim{m)i dawa t^tjL«3, firefly. 

J 

dimso y*^^i to take a handful, to 
fill the hand. 

dindimi ^ju> (cf. (?) Ar. ^>, 
to water or run, of the eyes), 
to be dim, used of the eyes. 

^ ^ ^ 

dingishi JUtiuy (cf. (?) Ar. jU>, to 
walk with difficulty under a 
burden), temporary lameness. 

dir{r)a jy or dir{r)o ^j^ or cfera 

jjy or dero ^jjy or dir{r)i ^j^ 

(cf. (?) Ar. j^, to run swiftly), 
to jump, jump down, leap as a 
grasshopper. 
dira* or cfra* tj>, Ar. cljS, cubit; 
cf , kamu. 

^ ^ a 

dirgaza \}^jy dough. 
dirime, to upset ; cf. durimi. 
dirje ic*-j^) to bruise, knock off. 

dirka ^£>;^, a large beam stuck in 
the ground to support a roof. 

dirka iJ^j^y a game played by 
foi-tune-tellers, etc. in order to 
discover secrets; F 11 X;a ber 
darra duka da dirka duka da 
saia give up all playing of 
darra and dirka and stealing. 

dirka* j)jy, to beat; F 106 suna 
dirkanka har kuahe-kusheya 
they will beat thee till thou 
art sore ; cf . tsirka, dakka, 

dirunibua ^y^^j^t an armlet of 
plaited grass worn by children; 
cf . rmrdma, 

diya l^^, 1. offspring, whether male 



or female, daughter, maiden, 

girl, brood of animals, fruit of 

tree ; C 25 en ko diya ta baka 

anshiwa ta ka yi if perchance 

she give thee offspring she will 

snatch it away ; 2. one who is 

free as contrasted with a slave 

(cf. da) ; diyalrana* Ut^JU^, 

mirage. 

diyantaka i^2lj>, freedom; cf. seq. 

f^ " . . *" 

diyauchi w^^> or diya/nchi w^>, 

.» *» ^ * 

freedom, liberation from sla- 
very, sonship. 

do or dau j>, to take, a shortened 
form of dauka\ A 20 vM^ih 
mu do hayasu we ought to 
take their road; cf. use of 
du for duka. 

cUnichi wJ>3> or dachi w^^, bitter- 
ness; ya yi doachi it is bitter 
(e.g. as a kola nut); madachi 
w^jL«, 1. gall; 2. bitter. 

dodo •y^y pi. dodo7iai t^>^>i evil 
spirit, spirit of a dead man 
which is supposed to walk 
about on the day of his death 
but to rise and disappear the 
same evening : it appears at 
times in trees and catches man. 

dodo ^>^>, yin dodo to show any- 
thing exposed in the hand and 
then snatch it away. 

dodowa tj>^>, the frilit of the 
dorotua tree used for putting 
in soup; the three kinds of 
dodowa are yahua^ kahoa, kuka. 

dogare \£j^^^i to lean upon, prop 
oneself up by, trust in, ask 



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favour from; B 20 mun doga- 
reka muna kamna we trust in 
thee, we love thee, C 47 mado- 
gara a pole to keep a door shut. 

dogaH j^^^ (cf. (?) Ar. j^^, to 
repulse), a soldier of the king's 
body-guard, an executioner; cf. 
(?) dakara. 

doga/richi ^j^^>, the office of a 

dogari. 

J J ^ J J 

dogo ^^^y f. dogua 1>^^3, pi. 

dogaye ^^j^, tall, high, long; 

lokachi dogo a long time. 

dogtui |^^>, 1. an evil spirit sup- 
posed to injure tamarind and 
other trees: persons eating the 
fruit become paralyzed and 
die; 2. paralysis caused by the 
dogtca, 

doii or doyi iji^>, a bad smell; 
F 115 8una doyi mugunya na 
zubutua they stink, they have 
an evil odour poured upon 
them, yin doi to emit a bad 
smell. 

doiya \j^, pi. doyoyi ^yi> (dios- 
corea sativa), yam; the root of 
the plant is eaten after being 
boiled or fried. It is extremely 
common on the W. coast and 
in the neighbourhood of the 
larger rivers, but in the north- 
ern part of Hausaland it is 
rarely met with; cf. * Hausa- 
land,' p. 154. 

doka j)^^y plaiting of the hair by 
a woman with the object of 
making it stand erect. 



doka* \^^x a prohibition, a law 
forbidding anything. 

doka* l^^^, used by Hausas in 
N. Africa as equivalent to 
twelve 80U8. 

doka, to take; cf. dauka. 

doke i^^^ or duka* ^^, to strike, 
to beat; cf. dakka. 

doki j)^^, pi. dawaki ^U^, a horse; 
F 219; doki kuru or kuru a 
pony. 

dokolua, a hen; cf. dakolua, 

dole iJ^> or dungule ^JJu^, a 
blot of ink; the first form is 
used at Zaria, the second at 
Kano. 

domashi vA«> (c^- 0) -^r. vA«^> * 
stimulating medicine), a small 
tree, the root of which is 
cooked and used as a medicine 
for dysentery. 

. JJCJ J J OJ 

domhuhu y^^^ or dongvdu ^jJu^, 
wrist, ankle bone. 

J ^ J 

d&mi i^^> or dominmi 15^*1*0^^, 
why? wherefore? domi is pro- 
bably a contraction of don mi 
on account of what? cf. seq. 

domin \^^X because of, in order 
that; dominsa for his sake, 
domin hakka for this reason, 
dominsa (or donsa) shi ji in 
order that he may hear. 

dominchewa l^^^ioj^, sometimes 
contracted to cheioa therefore, 
for this reason ; not used col- 
loquially. 

don ^>, 1. because, because of; 



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2. in order that; don wcman 

for this reason, don kadda lest, 

in order that... not. 
done* ^^>, to hang up. 
dongudu, ankle joint, wrist; cf. 

domb^hv,, 

dora j^^y 1. to heap up, increase, 
place; 2. to begin; 3. used 
with bindiga to load a gun. 
1. D 44 8u dora hukata suna 
8a masa uku uku they heap up 
blows, they give them three at 
a time, F 99 dora muma to 
rejoice, F 176 su dora kira 
they cry aloud; 2. D 43 ahi 
dora inakarkata he begins to 
tremble. 
dorao'Oy to look round ; cf . dauraro, 
doriy to endure ; cf . dauri. 

" ■' ..*"■* 

dorina 0;^>, pi. dorinai i^j^X 

hippopotamus. 

doriwa \^j^> or dorowa \^j^^ (ro- 
binia pseudacacia), a tree re- 
sembling an acacia called in 
America the locust tree, its 
fruit called kalua is contained 
in a pod like that of a bean 
and is eaten in soup ; the tree 
is chiefly valued for the mag- 
nificent shade which it affords; 
cf . dodowa, 

doro ^jx hump, swelling; D 14 
anadakka hal ta yin dora azaba 
he shall be beaten till the pain 
causes a swelling on the back ; 
maidoro hump-backed. 

dorowa, see doriwa. 

doivjo ^a^mf^^ or dalx^jo yi^>^^ or 



dotizo jt^^> ^ ™^^ with a 

long beard, hence an important 

or dignified person. 
doya, yam; cf. doiya. 
dra*y cubit; cf. dira. 
duba ^3 or dubo y^^ (cf . Ar. rt 

V^^» ^ ^^ diligence), to look 

at, behold, watch carefully; 

duba da kiyo look carefully 

after, duba behold ! 
dvhdray contrivance; cf. dahdra^ 

dubha/ra da > j^^ (cf. Ar. ^y to 
come behind), close to. 

dvhbo dvhbo ^^ ^^ (cl Ar. ^y 
to walk on all fours), an ex- 
pression used of the attempts 
made to walk by a boy of one 
year old. 

dubu yix thousand. The same 
word is found in the Fulah, 
Kanuri, Teda and Bagrimma 
languages; cf. (?) Coptic Ma 
ten thousand. 

dv^chi wJ|^3 or duahi Ja^ pi. dmUsu 

^»^^i duasu y*»^^ or dwwrwat- 

tai* iP^j^X stone, a stone; 
C 52 dtuitsu aim zamai ma>sa 
dukia stones became riches for 
him, duchin nika mill-stone. 
dvduge i^>^ or did(d)igi t^y 

pi. dudugai ^^^y heel; cf. 
diiga duga, ^ 

dufu ^y darkness; ya yi duju it 
is dark, or it becomes dark, 
dert nan ya fa/ye dufu the 
night is very dark, dthfa kirim 
utter darkness, A 67 A^ shafa 



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duju kirim huaka tasa thou 
anointest his face with utter 
darkness. 

dufaa l^?>, darkness; cf. prec. 

duga duga &> ty heel; cf. duduge. 

dug{g)o ^^ or dig{g)a \t>y pi. 

dugogi ij^^y drop, mark or 

dot on paper or cloth ; used of 

the dots placed above or below 

letters, e.g. O, « ; dv^{g)on 

raha a drop of dew; cf. daao. 
^ J J 
dvrguza \j^y hairy all over, an 

epithet applied to Dodo, etc. 

duk, all, a common contraction 
for duka, q.v. ; duk da tvanan 
nevertheless, altogether. 

duka j)^ or dick ^>. all, every, 
everyone; A 5 duk ya uwana 
duk ku zo all ye my brothers 
come, duka (Jaia ne it is all the 
same, there is no difference, 
duka komi everything, duJca 
biu (or 8u hiu) both of them ; 
cf. duka^chi, dukanta, 

duka*, to strike; cf. doke. 

duka ^^y to bend down so as to 
touch the head on the ground. 

duka^chi kt^^ or dukarUa Uu£»>, 
all, the whole; dukachin komi 
everything. 

duka/nta, see dukachi, 

duki* j)^, large carnivorous bird 
(eagle?). 

dukiya \^^y pi. dukoki ^^^a^^sj^ 

or dukiyoyi ^^ytr^^, goods, 
property, riches; A 83 ma/yi 
ka samnu duMa aehikkinta thou, 



wizard, wast possessed of riches 

in this world ; maidukia a rich 

man. 

J J ^ > J 

dukuahi ^A^^) ^« dukuaa Um^^, 
» ^ J J 
pi. dukusai ^>»f>^, dan du- 

kuahi a young horse or mare. 
dull J^ or dv/ri o, pudenda. 

dumaji^^ (cf. Ar. rt^^^), to re- 
main, continue; akomo kmna 
ga aljenna adv/ma tutur they 
shall return again to heaven 
and remain for ever; cf. ch- 
UKi/ma, 

duma U^^, a gourd or pumpkin, 

which is not eaten but is used 

for making water-pots from; 

cf . kworia, 

6 i ^ J 
duma-mu88* ^j**^^^y an invincible 

warrior (?). 

dumbaji* *—^^ o , necklace; cf. 
dimbujin zu/a, 

dumbuji* ^f-^y a very rich man. 

dumiy hot; cf. demi. 

dum{m)i ^^^ (cf. (?) Ar. jj>), 
noise. In Sokoto especially it 
is used of the hum of conver- 
sation, B 22 ku her yawam, 
dv/mi ku ji kalmata leave off 
speaking many words, listen 
to what I say. 

dumia !«.«>>, goose (or swan 1) with 
black breast, it frequents trees. 

dumia l^^^^ (cf. (?) Ar. d^^y a 
wild palm), name of a tree, the 
fruit of which is sweet and 



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edible; a kind of molasses is 
made from it; cf. inad(d)u 

dumke tJi^x dumka «£L«^ or dumki 

,^JU^ (cf. Ar. dL«^, to twist 

or plait), to sew; F 88 adumka 
duk ana kuma gangainawa it is 
completely sewn and joined 
together, madumke one who 
sews. 
dunde* ^JlJ^, to press down 
(aduntse in F 95 should be 
adunde). 

dundu ^JJ^, a small fabaceous 
tree the fruit of which when 
ground up and drunk is sup- 
posed to render a man in- 
capable of being wounded if 
struck by a sword. 

J J 

dundu* ^ju^, 1. to mumble (?), 
cf. C 32, note ; 2. to strike 
with clenched fist. 

dundufa l^ju> (cf. Ar. v^^, a 
small drum), a large drum, 
the drum used by the natives 
for purposes of signalling, etc. 

dundumi ^-.ojj^, to grope about 
in the dark after sunset. 

dundunia iJi^ju^, the inside of a 
bird's talon, the ankle of a 
man. « 

J J J OJ 

dundwrusu yajjj^y an axe used 
for cutting stones with. 

dnjm{ri)e ^^ or den(n)e ^j^, to 
close up a hole. 

dungo* yiuy to snatch the hand 
away (?). 



dtmgo ^»jy the name of a small 

locust. 
dungu yu^y the stump of a leg or 

arm. 
dtbngule, spot; cf. dole, 

dungul{l)i y^ju^y 1. butter = wiam- 
shanu; 2. a cow tied up by 
the feet. 

dungum* j^mj^, much; B 30 ahi 
wandakejirankahakki dungum 
he who waits for abundance to 
eat. 

dunia or duniya IfJ^^, Ar. l^^, 
the world, sky, atmosphere, 
weather; dunia dadi fine wea- 
ther, dunia ta yi dere it is 
night, dunia ta yi rani it is 
the dry season ; dunia is often 
used to denote the evil prin- 
ciple which characterizes the 
world, so dari dunia (lit, son 
of the world) a bad man, B 52 
koioa hi dunia nan ya rudu 
whoever follows this world is 
deceived, ya samu dunia he 
has become rich; dunia is some- 
times used to denote all man- 
kind. 

dunia l^^, a small edible water 
bird, a species of diver (podi- 
ceps minor (?)). 

^ J 9 J 

dunia* ijJ^, Ar. Q^, vile, des- 
picable, incredible. 

dunkoy gum; cf. danko, 

dunhde ^ySljy a lump or handful 
of flour, or anything soft 
squeezed out; cf. churi and 
(?) dunguU, 



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^>3t 



durnio ^> (cf. Ar. ^^^3> near), to 

draw near. 
dv/nm% i<5p or dirime i<«p, to 

upset, used of a boat. 
durkuahi ^^*tAj3, dUkuahi ^ji!M^, 

or dik{k)u8hi* ^JLiSsy to kneel ; 
cf. seq. 

dv/rug^m{8)a u^> o'^ durgu8{8)a 

u^j>y to kneel down in prayer 

or as an act of homage. 
jj 
durumijij^y the name of a large 

shady tree, the fruit of which 
somewhat resembles a kola- 
nut; the tree is greatly valued 
on account of the shade it 
a£Ebrds. 

dusa U^ (cf. Ar. ^I>, to tread 
out com), chaff, husks. 

dashi ^yt»>, to become dim or 
indistinct; rana ta dvshi it is 
getting dark, fitilla ta dushi 
the lamp is going out, mv/ria 
ta du8hi the sound is becoming 
indistinct. 

dvshiy a stone; cf. duchi. 

dushitoa \yt^^y dimness, indistinct- 
ness; used of an eclipse of the 
moon. 

eblisj the evil spirit; cf. iblis, 
en q\ (Ar. ^^^I, if) (when fol- 
lowed by 6 or m it is pro- 
nounced em)y 1. that, in order 
that, to; na taffb en gay a 
maJca I came to tell you; 2. if, 
whether; en and idan are 
about equally common, en being 



specially used in the district 

around Kano, idan in the 

southern part of Hausaland; 

ya tawhaya en su fulani ne 

he asked whether they were 

Fulahs; 3. en is used in an 

imperative sense or to ask a 

question; en mu taffi yawo let 

us go for a walk, em, bika let 

me follow you, or shall I follow 

youl B 171 en rarafe ina aza 

hvskata let me crawl, let me 

place my face on the ground! 

4. preceded by kadda it denotes 

a prohibition; kadda en ji 

kiahirua may I not thirst, or 

lest I thirst. 

enchey verily! certainly; cf. anche. 

enchi, to free a slave; cf. yanchi, 

enda jJt, where; ban sa/ni ba enda 

shi ke I do not know where 

he is. 
a 
enna ^!, Ar. ^1, where? dagga 

erma whence ? . 

entaya* l^t, a small edible grain. 

entv>raka*y &male servant; cf. yan 
turaka. 

en{nyua l^it, shade, shadow, shel- 
ter; D 68 ba ennua sai enda 
tuti muhammad there shall be 
no shade except where the 
ensign of Mohammed is, D 75 
mu sha ennua we shall enjoy 
shelter. 

errahimi* j^fj^j^\y Ar. ^^,j»^t, the 

merciful; errahmani v^U^^pt, 

Ar. 0^^«^^^ ^^^ compassion- 
ate. In the case of these and 



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(A o>W 



of the other Arabic words used 
by the Hausas which begin 
with the letters O, ^, >, >, 

> j, Lr»» ui, u«» J»» J> O an^i 
are preceded by the Ar. article, 
the article is assimilated to 
the initial consonant and the 
word is often pronounced as if 
it began with the letter e. 
For exception to this rule, cf. 
aradberi instead of essaheri. 
esga, a horse's tail ; cf . isga, 
ewa, verily, indeed ; cf . aitva. 

f. The letter ^ is used by the 
Hausas to represent both / 
and p, the sounds of which 
are frequently interchanged; 
cf. /ago, pago. The sound / 
is also interchanged with that 
of b; cf. under 6, and with 
that of h, cf. hako.fako) htiska, 
fuska, 

fa ij, Ar. id., therefore, then, thus. 

fache* ^, ^l?, hahhe* ^^ or 
hashe* ^Li (A 84), 1. but, 
however; 2*. up till now; B 
80, n., cf. (1) hale, 

fad{d)a j^ or fad{d)i ^j^ (cf. 

Ar. j![}, to shout), 1. to speak, 
often implying to speak with 
authority or in a tone of com- 
mand, to say, to tell; D 18 
hum ji fa mtm fadi do you 
listen, we say that...; 2. lo^ 
speech; A 6 shi kan ji fadata 
ba^an hanua he would hear my 
speech and pay no attention. 



fad(d)a Ji, 1. to fight; A 21 duka 
sun fadda they are all at 
strife; 2. IjLf, strife, fighting; 
yi fadda to fight (possibly 
fadda to fight and fada to 
gpeak may both come from 
the Ar. «»^ to ti-ample down 
and to shout). 

fada |J4, pi. fad^idi (^>^j^, a 
blow. 

fada blj, pi. fadodi (^>^>l?, 1. 
court or palace, F 231 ; 2. royal 
council; d.faddwa, 

fdda >l? or fddi (^>l?, to fall 
down; fddi is the commoner 
form. 

faddke ^]^IJ4, 1. trade; 2. mer- 
chant, trader; yi faddke to 
trade, maifaddke trader ; far 
ddke is probably a plur. form 
of falkey q. v. ; cf . fatdke. 

fddama U>1? (Fulah fadamare), 
marsh, pool. 

faddwa Ijbl?, a king's ofiicers or 
attendants; the order of prece- 
dence differs in various places: 
in Kano it is aariki, gaUadima, 
madaki, wombai, makama, tu- 
raki, sarikin datoaki, sarikin 
bayi, chiroma, maji; in Zaria 
it is sarikiy madakif galladima, 
sarikin maikira (= munzo\ 
mdkwma^ etc. ; cf , bafade, 

fddiy to fall; ctfdda, 

fddi >l?, width, breadth; da fadi 
wide, broad; cf./a«A:i. 

fddin rai ^j ^l? or fddin zv^hia 



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V^jJ^ 



^ J 9 ^ 

V^i O^l?, haughtiness; cf. 
also giriman zu^hia, 

/ado* ^\if to fall down; ct/ddi. 

/ad{d)otva* Ijil^, talking, D 87 (?). 

fddtia ij^l?, falling; D 87 (?); cf. 
fddi. 

/qfake ^^J^, to feel about as with 
the hand in searching for any- 
thing; ct/ak{k)e, burkuti. 

fa/are ^£^, to drive away; cf. 

I ^ 
f^(9Y }^y Kanuri id., a king's 

assembly room ; faggen doki 

a place for riding in. 

/agia* l^, bow shot (?). 

/ago* or pago* ^*?, a woman's 
luggage carried in a bag or 
wet. 

/ahami* j^, Ar. ^1^?, under- 
standing. 

/ahari ^mmJf or fahri ^m>^, cf. Ar. 

9 " " 

jlaL9, honour, pride; D 35 A^ 
6er /aliri ku yi laddabi da 
girima leave off pride, gain 
much instruction. 

fahimchi* ^i^^^, understanding; 

cf . seq. 
/ahinUa w^^|4 or /ahumta* C^^t^?, 

cf. Ar. ^^, to understand. 

or dish cover made of woven 
grass, fan for winnowing with. 
fahara tp^, a small bird somewhat 
like a partridge. 



fak(k)e ^^, to hide oneself; cf. 

/ak{k)o. 
fak{k)o ^ or ^, a lying in wait, 

yi fako to lie in wait, set an 

ambush; cf. hak(k)o, mafak(k)a, 
/ak(k)o ^9 (cf. Ar. U?, to take 

off the husk), a threshing floor = 

tvurin susuka. 
/alddara, fez, cap; ct/uladara. 

falaka dJ^ (cf. Ar. UJ^, used of 
the dawn * to break forth '), to 
awake, arise; D 26 ku yi ber- 
chi ku falaka ha tashi sleep 
and awake, rise up ; cf . falka. 

folala* iSa, or falale ^JUL? (cf. (?) 

Ar. ^Lo?, a coin, or, stony tract 
of land), 1. a rich man; 2. a 
rock. 

falasa or palaaa Jj<:f, to revile, 
disgrace, punish. 

falfada IjlaJL^, some kind of sick- 
ness, a fainting fit. 

falfa8(B)a cH!<'^> to bruise, strike; 

cf . fas{8)ay etc. 
falgaha 1«m9, fear; cf. firgabba, 
falia yif, a fish something like a 

salmon. 
falka .^ (B 60) or falkawa l^ili ; 

cf . falaka id. 
falke ^^xJl?, pi. faJtdke ^^^^ll?, 

travelling merchant, trader. 
falmaki ^iSA^X?, throng, tumult as 

in war; ci, firmxiki. 
fama l«^, strife, battle ; yin fania 

to fight. 
fandare {JjJJ^ (cf. Ar. jJiJJ^, 

4—2 



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52 



a boulder), to be crooked; 
A 58 hainya sun hi v^anda ya 
fandare they followed a way 
that was crooked, A 19. 

Jankaau ^^^^Sj^, a cake made of 
wheat, flour and honey. 

/ansa Lm^, usually pronounced 
pansa, deliverance, revenge, 
requital, redemption from sla- 
very; yin /ansa to redeem. 
fansawa I^Lma^, ransoming, re- 
demption. 

fanshe, pa/nshe . JU? or fansi, 
poMsi 1*-^, to ransom, redeem, 
e.g. na fanslieka chgga hauta 
I ransomed thee from slavery; 
in playing the game of chaclia 
the loser says na famshe i.e. 
I have to pay. 

fanso^ panso ymi^y i. q. fanshe, 
far ^ iov fada, to fight; F 190 
note. 

fara Ijl?, beginning, A 2 ; Qi.farawa, 
fara jist or yi fa/ra \j\i ^, or 

fami* A)^» ^ begin, 
/ara Ijl?, pi. farori \^j^j\^ or 

faruna l^jjt?, locust; faramr 
derey pi, /a/rorindere (lit, locust 
of the night), a black locust 
which comes out at night, it 
is not edible as other locusts 
are; cf. ba/rdinuwa, 
faraa IpJ^, cf. Ar. ^^, joy; faraa 
or yi faraa to rejoice, P 232 
amafara^i anamurna da kowa 
there sliall be joy and gladness 
for all. 



faror-kaya \i^j^ (lit. white thorn), 
the name of a large tree with 
white thorns from the fruit of 
which ink is made. 

fa/rauta Ujj^, hunting; yifa/rauta 
to hunt, to chase. 

fa/rawa tj^l?, participial form of 
fara, beginning; D 1 maifa- 
rawa or maifa/rutjoa beginner, 
B 80 maifaruwa dadai baifara 
ha he who first began... did 
not begin. 

faraya Ki\j^, pi. fa/rayu ^1^, 
whitened ; cf . foH, 

fa/rcha i^ (cf. (?) Ar. 1$, to 
heat), to blister; D 65 to kan 
rika farcha kai ga/remu it will 
continually blister our heads; 
cf . fa/rsa, 

farga ^ (cf. (?) Ar. rt ^, to be 
disquieted), to perceive some- 
thing wrong; na farga da kai= 
I see that you are cheating me. 
fari j^, f. fara 1^, pi. fa/rari 
{J^bi or faru faru ^ 3^, 
white, bright; A 21 sv/n san 
fa/ri san san haki they know 
the diflference between white 
and black, dan fari a small 
piece of something white, F 88 
akauH) dan fa/ri kuma zaashiria 
a piece of white cloth is brought 
to be prepared, farin yunwa 
drought, fari dabino an unripe 
date, also a name for beads, 
farin koHfi (or jan karifi) brass, 
fari ko haki sometimes denotes 
good or bad, farin wata new 



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63 



moon, farin zini good disposi- 
tion, yaW?i chikki'^oy, gladness, 
yi farin chikki to rejoice. 
fari ^ (cf. (1) Ar. ^^j^, used of 
division between day and 
night), a break of about ten 
days duration during the rainy 
season in June or July. 

fari \^^^ used in the compound 
forms dafivri^ rwfa/ri^ t tafari, 
first. 

farichi i^yt (a Fulah word 1), a 
finger nail; cf. himha, akayi, 

farifaaha ^^j^, an intensive form 
oifashey to break in pieces. 

farika l&jlj (cf. Ar. jj^ used of 
a woman *to hate her hus- 
band '), profligate woman. 

farU{t)a* *ij^, new moon = 8abon 
(or faHn) ttxUa, 

farilai* ^^, Ar. J^^, reli- 
gious duties; B 168 mu hada 
fa/ralinmu we will perform our 
religious duties, A 69. 

farin-chik(k)i «Si^, happiness; cf. 
fari. 

jarvnrgamu y^Mjy^, a name given 
to a white mixture which is 
used as a medicine. 

fa/rhwa* 03^}^9 perhaps from 

^- O^J^9 ^^^^ which distin- 
guishes between good and evil, 
or it perhaps denotes author; 
cf. B 1, note. 

farsa ^j^ or fa^nsa ^j^, a blister; 
cf . farcha. 



fmta* j^^, to be proud, used of 
a rich man; cf. {'i)fa/iari. 

fartanya, a hoe; ctfatainya. 

fa/ru ^jlj, 1. chiefly used in the 
expression mi ya faru what 
has happened, what is the 
matter 1 ya faru it happened ; 
2. ctfara. 

fas{8)a j.;^, to break, split, destroy, 
to miss fire; maifasawa de- 
stroying, F 174 enda aanyi 
maifasawa where cold shall de- 
stroy them; clfashe,falfa8{8)a, 

fdsa ^If , to defer, postpone, drive 
away; B 55 muna da taffia ha 
fasawa we have a journey 
which cannot be put aside, 
B 120 mutiia.,,ha torn, yi ta 
faaa ha death will not admit 
of delay, run. faaa aike gohe 
I put off the work till to- 
morrow; ctfashi. 
fa§aM* j^U4, blasphemer (1), A 80. 
fasadi ^ll? or fasada bll?, Ar. 

^MM?, discord, envying; E 18 
ku tvha ku her fasadi repent, 
leave off discord, D 9. 

fasa-kworia CjyLL^y a large tree, 
the aromatic bark of which is 
ground up as a medicine. 

fascUi* J^, interpretation; cf. 
fasara, 

fasali JL4, mending by sewing. 

fasa/ra t^^^ or faaaram^ta U^Jlf, 
Ar. j^^ interpretation, ex- 
planation; yi fasara to inter- 
pret, explain. 



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54 



iaJ^lf 



fdsawa t^Cll, postponing, parti- 
cipial form oi fdsa. 

fashe ^ (cf. (?) Ar. ^ ii), 

usually pronounced pashe, to 
break, to burst ; fashetoa split- 
ting, F 114 tana kona fa kai- 
niLa na faahswa it will bum 
their heads, it will split them; 
Tnaifesshe brigand, ct/ari/aslia. 

fashi ^^, delay, interruption; ku 
yi fashi ram4i leave off work 
for a day, yin taffia ha fashi 
to travel without a break; cf. 
fd»a, 

fasiki uLfl^, iJut\4 ovfaaiki «i)U^, 

pi. faaikai ^Jut\^y a profligate 

man, F 105, 116, 141 ; fasika 

lXwl{, Ar. ^ULifl), a profligate 

woman, B 139, note. 
fcmki* ^JLi\^, to mock; maifor 

siki* a mocker. 
fasishiuxi* U^JLi^lf, licentiousness; 

a lengthened form of fasika, 

E21. 

faskara* tpu«4, senseless. 
faska/rari j\yL,0!iy bound hand and 

foot; cf. seq. 
t X • <' 
faska/re ^j^i^, to overcome, to be 

unable to do anything; ya 

faskareni I cannot do it; cf. 

Gr. p. 46. 

faska/i-i j^^, the shaving one side 
of the head as a sign of sorrow ; 
if a woman has three children 
who die in succession she shaves 



half her head, if four die, the 

whole. 

" * " 
faskari ji^, a plank or board, 

yifaskari to make into planks. 

faski A00J, breadth ; cf . fidi. 

fas{8)o ^m^ (cf. Ar. ^^^^.f , to be 

chapped), breaking of the skin, 
e.g. as result of cold. 

faia tJL?, pi. fatuna UJL|, fre- 
quently pronounced pata) 1. 
the skin of an animal, cl 
kirigi ; 2. the rind or bark of 
a tree. 

fata*, wish, desire, usually in a 
bad sense, yi fata to desire 
that which is wrong. 

fatainya l^f or fartanya ^tUl^f 
(cf. Ar. ^1 j^?, a plough), a hoe. 

fatdke ^^{^, Nup6 id., mer- 
chants ; cf . /aike, 

faialua t^JLLf, ghost, hobgoblin, 
spectre. The word usually 
suggests something which is 
regarded as eviL 

fcUatake* ^V^?i ^ ^"^^^ ^ pieces. 

falauchi w^^JLf, trading, travel- 
ling for purposes of trade ; yi 
foMuchi to trade or travel as a 
trader, maifatauchi trader; cf. 
foMke, 

fdtiha* Ul5l|, Ar. iljlj, lit. the 
opening ; cf. A 73 ima tukun- 
chi dafari aha^hi fatiha thou 
must not eat before saying the 
opening chapter of the Koran; 
cf . alfatia. 



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"^ 55 

/cUUla *j^ or fitUla >2f , pi. fcUillu 
^jQfy fcUiUai ^Juf or /cUilloli 

^fi^ (Ar. iUjklf wick used 
in a lamp), lamp; main/atilla 
lamp oil. 
/au ^, up to the brim, kura ya 
tashi /au the calabash was 
filled to the brim, ya hau 
fan = ya hau bism. /au is 
probably another form of hau, 
cf. similar interchange in hua- 
ka, /uska, or it may be a 
shortened form of the mod. 
Ar. w3^ up, for similar ab- 
breviation cf. du for duka alL 

/auchi ^^>4, to snatch (?), to 
kill (?); ma/auchi or mahau- 
chi a butcher; cf. seq. 

/auHz 1^, to slaughter animals, to 
cut up meat ; umrin /av)a 
abattoir. 

/aye ^-e?> ^ abound or excel in 
anything, to do something 
very much, to be addicted to 
or fond of anything; ya/ra 
8una /aye yin vxyrigi the boys 
are fond of play; ya /aye da 
gvrima he was too big to. . . 

/aza t^, a fishing line to which a 
hook is attached. 

/edua t3Ju^, whistling ; cf . /eto, 

/ere* {Jj*^, to peel, e.g. with a 

knife. 
/erka l^^, 9ie& /a/rika, 
/erko yJS^yJ^, beginning, iw/erko 

first. 



/erko, to revive ; cf . /irko, 
/esa ^^^, to spit, /esawa spitting ; 
cf . to/i. 

/eshe ^jLiiy only found in the form 
mai/eaahe brigand; cL/ashe. 

/et O^, used with/ari very white. 

/etoyLti^ or /to yi^, to whistle with 
the lips ; cf . /edua and seq. 

/ewa 3*1 = prec. 

Ji ^, to surpass, to be better ; ya 
Ji it is better so ; ya fiau da 
karifi he was stronger than 
they; it is often used with 
duka to express a superlative, 
6*g. yci> fi duka da keau he is 
the most beautiful, mafi is 
often prefixed to a noun or 
adjective in order to form a 
comparative or to strengthen 
the positive ; thus mafi kunche 
narrower, or very narrow; cf. 
/w. 

fia>chi j^3ld?> ^ ^low the nose. 

fichi jJif , to get away, escape ; 
C 34 k(noa ke so shi fichi who- 
ever desires to escape. 

fida M or fide itfj^i to flay, open 
out, prepare food; fida nama 
to dress meat ; E 13 idan an- 
fida tiUoahi jahadi if the stan- 
dards of war be unfolded. 

fidakai* ^^^j^, to save; cf. seq. 

fidakai ^JS^jjf, a word used to 
describe the custom of adding 
four cups of grain when mak- 
ing a bargain in the market. 



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66 



This amount of grain if given 
to a mallam is supposed to 
procure the forgiveness of sins 
committed during the previous 
year. [Probably from Ar. 
\J4 price or thing given as 
ransom, Jida kai would thus 
be the ransoming of the head, 
i.e. of oneself.] 

Jidaaa/ri j^jjf, a plant used in 

making hedges. 
Jidda J4y to cast out; F 28 A^ 

Jidda fa zuahianka cast out of 

thy heart the...; cf. (l)Jit{t)a. 
Jldeli Jo-?, a shrub, from the 

bruised seeds of which an eye 

medicine is made. 
Jige ^jkfJ^, or Jigi ,^^, to take, 

take away, pluck (a fowl); 

B 119 ta kan taffo sadada ta 

Jigika it will come unperceived 

and will take thee away; cf. 

Jlsge, 
Jikqjike i«£(^, pi. Jikajlkai iS^. 

or fukafuki «iU£}, pi. /ukor 

fukai iJjj^f wing of a bird, 
feathers. 

Jlko 3^?, power, excellence; Jikotjoa 

\yA^ surpassing or to surpass ; 

cf. A 70 hywa ya aamiasa ya 

Jikowa he surpasses whoever 

meets him. 
Jila, stratagem; cf. hila, 
Jilajile, a paddle for a canoe; cf. 

fulafule. 

JUasko 3£lXf , the name of a plant, 



a drink made from which is 
used as an antidote for snake 
bite, also for diarrhoea (the 
senna plant ?). 

J^^ v^, pl- f^ye Kj(^^^ (^^ '^^' 
^^, plains, deserts), cultivated 
field, plain, any unoccupied 
spot or space ; C 11 ya kunchi 
kaia nai gajlli dunia he unties 
his goods on the plain of this 
world; habu JUi tvuri nan 
there is no room here. 

Jindi jUf (cf. Ar. 5^! JU|, an axe), 
a sword with broad blade. 

Jira \j^ or hira* tj^ (cf. Ar. i:»/?), 
conversation, tale, a story that 
is not true. 

Jirdi w, lion, wild beast; danjirdi 

an epithet applied to a king. 
^ J p 
Jirjitowa t^^^ji^ a strengthened 

form of JUotoa to come out; 

F 199 touta na Jirjitowa fire 

shall come out abundantly. 
jirgaha ^^j^.^ to be distressed; cf. 

falgahha, 
Jirgita CJ^, to frighten, or to be 

frightened, to shiver, e.g. with 

cold, shrink, tremble. 
Jir(r)i ^j4, to heap up earth, e.g. 

round the roots of yams; cf. 

maimai, 
fi^lpo >^ <>r ferko 3^, Ar. *Jj4 

IV, to revive, e.g. as from faint- 
ing. 

Jirmaki ^jSUfi^ to assault, rise up 

against; ct/almaki. 



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u^ 57 

Jiaa 1.^?, io put out, equivalent to 
fitasda, E 8 note; of. Jit{t)a, 
Jidda. 

JUa* ^jm^, to complete, A 71 note ; 
wajib almalanka ka Jisata is 
it necessary that thou shouldst 
perform thy ablutions? 

fisge ^^u^ or fusge ,^ju^, to 
snatch, draw forth, take out, 
take off; cf. Jige. 

fiahe yJL^ or fuahe ^J^, to drive 
out, draw out, take away ; 
G 5 gonia aha fudu chikkin 
aarota akafiaheahi (he con- 
tinued) fourteen years in the 
kingdom, he was then driven 

out; ci,fit{t)a, 
^\ 
fiahema* ^«aJL9, to go away ; F 80 
• «» 
ido shim birkiahe raia Jiahema 

thine eye closes, thy life de- 
parts. 

Jia{a)o ym^, i.e. Ji ao, to prefer, wish 
rather; na fiaao wanan da 
wam/iham. I prefer this to that. 

JU{t)a C*%?, to go out of, take out, 
followed by da it means to 
take away ; ya fita da ahi he 
went off with it, rana ta fita 
the sun has risen, ya fita na- 
goH he turned out well, fita 
zini to bleed. The following 
derivatives are found : fit(t)o 
to come out, fit(t)as to take 
out, fi^?ie to draw out, fit(t)as' 
da to take out, take off, un- 
dress. 

fit{t)a Uf, departure. 



fi^tilla, a lamp ; cf . fatUla, 

fit(t)o yif, to come out from; cf. 
fit{t)a. 

fit{t)o ^2?, 1. tax paid on leaving 
a country, tax paid to the 
king in the Kano market 
when purchasing a slave; 2. 
a patch on clothes. 

fito*^ to whistle; ctfeto, 

fitaa/re \^J^y urine. 

fiMa ll?, kind of leaf used by the 
Hausas for thatching a house, 
also regarded as edible; cf. 

fiyaya l^ or fiyaye ,J^, excel- 
lency ; F 51 A» dvha har fiya- 
yan annahanjoa consider the 
excellency of the prophets, 
D 96, E 3. 

foche* ^^, a cake of salt. 

f^fi* V^^> ^ ^^®> ^^®^ ^^ leaves, 
etc. 

foma U^? (cf. Ar. j^\ ii, to 

•"• " '' 

honour, rC p^. ? , pride), pnde, 

boasting; nmifoma a proud, 
arrogant man. 

forauforau ^j^ jj^ or foroforo 

^j>? jj^, 1. to mix up to- 
gether; 2. = mam, fu/ra^ i.e. 
the water or soup in which 
fura has been made. 
foro ^j^i 1. to punish, instruct; 
E 22 maanhidar wuahewa don 
ascmau anaforonku those of 
you who seek for adornment 
in order that they may be 



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58 



known shall be punished; 2. in- 
struction, 'E23 ya ki bin/oron 
vha/mu he refuses to follow the 
instruction of our fathers. 

fu ^, fua 1^; cf. ivanene ya 
fucme who excelled me % = (?) 
huaya] ci.Ji, 

fuche* ^if, to rest ; cf . fata, 

fuchi* ^J5?, to pass away ; cf . wuche. 

fachi i^^y hissing sound, e.g. of a 

snake, yi fuchi to hiss; cf. 

maifuchL 
fuda, j^ or htida «Xft>, 1. to open, 

pierce, bore, dig in the ground ; 

2. —fitasda to take off; cf. fuji, 

fudowa I3J4 ov fudatva l^j^, the 
beginning of the day, early 
dawn ; cf . fuda. 

fudu J4, four, nafuduy f. tafudu 
fourth ; cf . Coptic fiu, 

fvdu ^ JL?, to be opened ; cf. fvda, 

fufu ^^y 1. a mixture made with 
kola nuts and Jitta leaves ; 2. 
the packing placed round kola 
nuts. 

fufu >4>4 or kufw y^^, the 
lungs; F 198 fufu da hanji 
na zubuwa their lungs and 
bowels shall be poured out. 

f^M^ L5^+^» ^ pierce many 

holes, used of water dropping 

quickly; ci,fuji. 
fuja*, affair; cf. huja, 
fuji t3%4, a form of fuda to 

pierce. 
fuka J34 (cf. (?) Ar. JL?, to 

recover from a swoon), short- 



ness of breath, asthma ; na yi 
fuka I breathe hard. 

fukafukiy wing; ci,Jikafike, 

ful*y very many ; cf. pvl, 

fula ^^ or ^, a white cap often 
worn inside a fez ; fula saki a 
blue or black cap. 

fvlddara |p!]jL| or falada/ra Ip^, 
a fez, i.e. a cap made of red 
cloth with a tassel. These 
caps are for the most part 
imported across the Sahara 
desert; cf. ta^ia, 

fulafule iJlfll or filafile ^J^y 

pl. fulafulai ^MkX^, the pad- 
dles belonging to a canoe. 
fvXata \j'^y fulani ^*^y fulanchi 

^iSjt, fvlhe ^1^, belonging 
to the Fulah tribe; ha fulata 
= a Fulah native, fvlani = 
Fulahs ; fulanchi = the Fulah 
language, fulhe is used as 
the name of the people gene- 
rally. 

fululu* JI3JL4, Ar. J>>A}, arro- 
gance ; C 36 akuher fulvlu ka 
zan gudun maiyin nasa leave 
off arrogance, flee from him 
who practises it. (Ar. ^ ;= 
Hausa J, but cf. seq.) 

fvluluwa* ty^iaf (Ar. Jua{, to 
be superabundant), exagge- 
rated, superfluous; B 154 note 
yawan dummi na fululuwa 
much loud talking and super- 
fluous... 

fumfuna Uf^, mildew, damp, 
smell of damp; cf. seq. 



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J 

/uni* sj^i the smell of a camel. 

" *** 
fantu jJm} or da funtu naked, 

clothed in rags. 

funtunchi ^i-UJiUf, nakedness; cf. 
funtu, 

Juntv/ru ^j^y chill, especially ap- 
plied to cold felt at night 

Jura \jyi (cf. Ar. jl?, to boil), a 
sort of thick porridge made 
with various kinds of grain, 
it is one of the commonest 
kinds of food amongst the 
Hausas; A 11 ^a abinchi tuo 
fu/ra, 

fura ^ (cf. (?) Ar. Ij^, heat), 
usually used with touta to 
light a fire, to blow (?) ; mai- 
fwra burning, vmta ta furu 
the fire is lit ; mafuri bellows. 

fv/rch% confession; cLfuruchi, 

fu/rde ^>/?, a bay horse. 

fwrt ^yty pi. furori yjj^ji^ or 

furaye iji\yty flower, blossom. 
fiMJa Jj^y to spit; cf. /6«a. 
fwrji iji^, to sneeze, used of a 

horse; cf. (^)fiachi. 
furtumi j^j^t a large (castrated ?) 

bull ; cf . bu/rtumi. 
Jv/nichi ^J^ or Jmxhi ^Jj^ or 

huruchi i>j^y 1. confession, 
2. to confess, to declare posi- 
tively. 
furufi* s^9 a chisel for cutting 
iron with. 



t 



furufura (ji^ji^ (cf. (?) Ar. JaI?, 
to frizzle the hair), turning 
grey, as from old age. 

famta Ol»4, to be angry ; F 15 
ha ya fusata he will not be 
angry ; cf . fushi, 

fusge ^yti.4, to pull out ; cf. fisge. 

fuahi ^jik^, Ar. ^^l?, anger ; F 29 
ka her saurin fushi give up 
being hastily angry, yi fushi 
to be angry ; cf . (?) haushi, 

faska Uui^, pi. fuskoki ^^jViuf 

or fuakuna Ux.i»>f, face, coun- 
tenance; F 229 fuskokinsu 
sun fi umta da haske their 
faces shall be brighter than 

fire; damre fuska to frown. 

• ^ • J 
fuskanchi ^JUXm4 or fuskanta 

C.^ix.>»>t, 1. to face in a given 
direction, e.g. east or west; 
2. to be angry (?), na fuskanta 
da abu nan I must have that. 

ftLsuma U«m4, a quarrel; cf. (?) 
fushi, 

futa Uf, 1. rest, 2. wn| to rest; cf. 
fuc^ and seq. 

fukisda jumIi , to allay. 

fuzu j^, a shameless person. 

g. The letter L is used by the 
Hausas to represent the sound 
of the English hard g. In the 
case of Arabic words contain- 
ing this letter borrowed by the 
Hausas, the Arabic guttural 
sound is changed into that of 
g^ e-g- gdfara. 



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60 



i^ 



ga t, to, at, for, towards ; har ga 
until, as far as, bissa ga upon, 
kussa ga near to, baya ga be- 
hind ; ga and a are frequently 
interchanged. 

ga U, to see; frequently used as 
an imperative, gaahi toanan 
behold this one, gashi see here! 

ga ty a shortened form of tvonga; 
C 43 toaka ga halilu fa ya 
yita this song was composed 
by Halilu. 

gah(b)a l^, before, in front; ya 
taffi gabba gareni he went in 
front of me, F 239 su sc^danu 
mma gahba they go as an es- 
cort in front, abokin gahba 
enemy, opponent, yi gahba or 
chi gahba to advance. 

gah(b)a l^, pi. gabbobi ^>t^, 
front, bosom, heart; gahbobi is 
used for joints or limbs of the 
body, F 175 shi karya kaashi 
ahi yenke duk gabchi it will 
break their bones, it will cut 
all their limbs, gahba daia = 
abreast; cf. ba>nga banga>. 

gaha l^U, pi. gahobi ^^^, name 
of a white bird with red beak 
which lives in trees, wild 
goose (?). 

gab(b)a l^, fore arm (cf. cUmishi, 
upper arm), cubit; cf. also 
kamiu, 

gah(b)achi %^^, eastward; cf. gah- 

bas, 

• X X #» 
gah{b)adai ^jL».fe or gahbadaia 



bju^, together, at the same 
time or place. 

gah{b)arnui, |5>»^, name of a tree 

used for tanning. 
gah(b)a8 ^jm^ or gabbaaj^, east. 

gahdta Ol^, to go before; gahdta 
da to take a thing to, rrmsu- 
gahata those who lived in 
former times. 

gahdto yi^, gahatowa \yi^y to 
come to, face towards, bring 
together, used of a herald 
(manzo)y to come to announce 
the coming of someone; F 137 
fa kudira ta gabato talikai duk 
and the will of God shall bring 
together all creatures, gahatoni 
come here to me ! 

gache*, to slip ; cf . gvhchi, 

gachi* tJ^y brass =jan karifi, 

gada t j^, pL gadu ^j^, small red 
antelope. 

gdda >U, gddo ^U, to inherit. 

gada t>U, an exclamation of joy 
used by women whilst dancing 
and throwing their arms back ; 
cf . gvda, 

gadamga ^j^, very strong, an 
epithet especially applied to a 
lion. 

gadeg(g)i ^J^, & grass eaten by 
horses. 

gad{d)o ^j^y pi. gad(d)aji ^^J^ 

or gaddasJd ^J^y bed; gad- 
{d)<m nuichiji lit. snake's bed, 



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>** 



61 



l^ 



the name of a herb in which 
snakes are often found. 
gado ^j^, f. gadonia Ij^jji^, pi. 

gadqji ^jt^^J^t Kanuri id., 
wild boar; the domestic hog 
is called gurauna, 

gado ^J^, bird with yellow breast 
about the size of a thrush. 

gddo ^>U, 1. inheritance, usually 
occurs in the compound mor 
gado or magaji heir, A20 «t^ 
ne magada annahawa maUamai 
the mallams are the heirs of 
the prophets ; 2. cf . gdda, 

gafaka Uca^, small leather satchel, 
case for a book; cf. hkki, 

gdfara ^U, Ar. ja^, to excuse; 
it is frequently used as an 
imperative in the sense of *I 
beg your pardon.' 

gdfa/ra l/^U, forgiveness, kindness; 
D 34 kuna roko ku sa gafara 
pray and obtain pardon ; C 46 
allah ya bisu da ga/a/ra God 
follows them with kindness; 
aikin ga/a/ra an act of kind- 
ness. 

ga/erta U>ft^, forgiveness, kind- 
ness; yi gctferta, to forgive, 
excuse; cf. prec. 

gafia \^, ^\. gafioyi ^jlt^, rat. 

gagafa WU^, a large bird with 
red beak, of a light blue colour; 
it eats mice. 

ga^gara jit^^ to resist angrily; ya 
gaga/ra it is impossible; dawa 
ta ga>ga/ra I was not able to eat 



the dawa (lit. the dawa was 
too much for me). 

ga^ara hado ^\^jk^, a bar used 
to close a doorway; cf. hagara. 

ga^ata CJi^, followed by c^ to 
lose ; gaga>ta da hainya to lose 
the way; na ga^gata da ahi I 
failed to understand it. 

ga^gawa tj^, walking fast or ex- 
citedly. 

ga^e i^^ or ga^a &U, to be stiff 
or benumbed, agaga tottering ; 
B 109 dunia aga^ga tsofua the 
world is old and tottering. 

go/go ^U or gagato ^a^U, name 
given to a king of a newly 
conquered district, or to a 
king marching in procession. 

go/go* 3^U, a large spoon. 

^ ^ ^ ^ •*• 

galwAJoa \^^ or gahwa t^y^, Ar. 

S^, coffee. Coffee is not used 
by the Hausas, but only by 
Arab traders. 

gaia^ assembly ; cf . gayya, 

gaida j^^, 1. to greet, salute; 
2. to thank; 3. to bid farewell; 
gaisa \^»^^ to salute; gaishe 
^JLj^, to cause to be saluted, 
salute, congratulate, thank ; 
gaisua >M*t^, salutation. 

gainya (?), to beg. 

gainya l^^, pi. gainye t^t^ and 
gainyaye ^ ^ ^^^L^, leaf-blade, 

herb, gainye ^^e*^, fresh; F 95 
dan haki gainye a little fresh 
grass; cf. dainye, 

^ • X 9 P ^ 

gaira \j>-f^, Ar. j-j>-^, less, e.g. 



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metin gaira ashirin (lit. 200 
less 20) = 180 ; ba gaira com- 
plete, e.g. metin ba gaira = 
200 without deduction. 

gaisa ^jt^, to salute; cf. ga%aa 
and seq. 

gaishe ^J^^ 1. to cause anyone to 
be saluted, to send salutations, 
2. to salute, 3. to congratulate, 
4. to thank. 

gaistta \y g^, salutation, greet- 
ing, B 172 ; cf. gaida, 
^ 9 ^ 
gaiwa \j^, the mud fish (proto- 

pterus) found in most of the 
W. African rivers and re- 
garded as a delicacy to eat. 
Its length is about three feet. 
During the dry season the 
gaiwa buries itself in the mud, 
and according to the Hausa 
tradition eats its own tail. 
During the wet season it se- 
cretes fat in its tail which 
supplies sufficient nourishment 
for five or six months; cf. 
similar use of fat in camel's 
hump at the approach of dry 
season. It forms a regular 
chamber in the mud, which it 
lines with a protecting coat 
of hardened mucus. When 
the rainy season returns it 
takes to the water again. Its 
skeleton is notochordal, and a 
single vertical fin surrounds 
the posterior part of the body. 

gaje ^ij^, 1. to become tired; 
2. to tire, to weary. 



62 U^3^ 

gdje, to inherit ; cf . gdji, 

gajere {Jj-^n^, f. g(^j^(^ !>*<l^ 

• • • 

and gajeria Vjm^, pi. gajeru 
^j^4|^, Ar. jt^y i«-> short; 
gajerta \j/af^, shortness. 

gajeiua t3«i».fc, inability, failure 
from fatigue; cf. gaje. 

gaji ^afS, to be tired, fatigued, 
faint; cf. gaje, 

ceed as heir; D 53 A^ gdji 
mallama ye are the heirs of the 
mallams, cf. gddo inheritance. 
gaji* m^ or a^aji 9^^9 salva- 
tion; F 122 ka nemo agajin- 
mu seek salvation for us = (1) 
gazdtva ; cf . maiaga:^a/wa. 

gajia ^t^i fatigue. 

gajimare ^jU^^^j 1- clouds, cf. 
lumshi ; 2. a spirit in form of 
enormous snake, lives in wells, 
the male being red, the female 
blue; it comes out at night. 

gal{t)a ^, 1. some part of the 
bee which is eaten ; 2. a small 
black odorous bee; cf. taigcUla. 

gal(l)adima li^>Vi, pi. gal{l)adi- 

mai ^^^3^, an official, civil 
and military. At Zaria the 
order of precedence is sariki, 
madaki, gal(l)adim>a ; cf. fa- 
ddtoa; the word is probably 
borrowed from the Bornuese, 
the suffix ma corresponds to 



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^^ 



the Hausa prefix ma or mai ; 
cf . chiroma, 
g<d{t)an kimburi (?) j^^^^ 0^> a 
round blue bead. 

gaXgas(8)a L»^fc or gm*ga8{8)a 
^ ^ 9 ^ 
\^mij^, a hairy person. 

galkadi jJtXt, warning; B 136 ji 

galkadi to listen to warning, 

D 30 muna galkadi gareku we 

warn you ; cf. gargadi, 

gafma 1^JL& or gai*ma l««»^, q.v. 
pi. galmuna U^JL^ and galemi 
^ ^JL^, 1. some kind of vege- 
table; 2. large hoe bent back 
like a small plough. 

gal(l)o j^, ^U, some kind of 
hard and transparent salt, 
rock-salt, saltpetre, natron. 

gam(m)aj^, 1. to finish, complete, 
join ; 2. to form a plot or con- 
spiracy ; with wayo or kai to use 
stratagem ; cf. gamatva, gamshe, 
gamu, gum{m)ay gangama. 

gama (?) U^, because. 

ganiata UuU, cf. Ar. i^^; D 14 
a fainting fit. 

gam{fa)atoa t^^^, F247 ahin go- 
matva a thing equal to. 

gamha l^, pi. gambobi ^yJ^, 
a kind of reed or rough grass. 

gamba (?)l^,a dark-coloured grain 
which is ground and eaten. 

gambu* (Fulah), yJ^y door of a 
house made of wood. 

gam{7n)i (?) ^^^^^9 double. 

gdmi*, i<«^> against. 



gam(m)inbanta iL^i^, two trees 
planted together so as to grow 
into one. 

gam(m)inbauta Uygi^, two odd 
shoes. 

gamji, a tree; cf. gumji, 

gamkif an image; cf. gumki, 

gamo, see gamu. 

^ ^ 9 ^ 
gamraka ^\j p, fe, crested crane; 

cf . goraka. 
gamshe ^aL^, 1 . to meet so as to 
fit, to suit; 2. to deem fit or 
worthy, to treat one as fit; 
ya gamsheni or ya gam{m)ani ~ 

it pleases me = Ar. 



gamu ov gamfw 3^, followed by da^ 
1. to meet with; G 21 en ta 
gamu /a da kai if she meet (or 
agree) with thee; to join or be 
joined together; 2. to fall in 
with someone or something; 
Al ya gamu da umta he comes 
to the fire; 3. gamu da m/iche 
to cohabit with; ranan gamu 
the day fixed for beginning 
war, or the day for meeting, 
or the first time of meeting 
with one; rangamu id., D 8, 29. 

gamurji* i^ft^^U, cf. Ar. j^, to 

embrace. 
ganawa* t^UU, counsel. 
gaaicheruuxi, see gantaeruwa. 

gdndi ^JU^, large cowrie-shell. 

gando ^JU^, a man who works, 
but receives only food, not 
money as wages. 



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gandu ^j^Jis> or gtmdu ^jSm, 
tribute ; kurdin gandu tribute 
money. 

ganerie i5«U^, ganenia l»U»^, pi. 

ganenuyUJi^, seen; cf. gan(n)i, 

gcmetoa* tyU^, t^^^U B 33, seeing. 

ganga UU^, pi. ganguna Ufc*^, 
large drum used by soldiers. 

ganga UU^^ daganga on purpose, 
designedly, D 23; ct ga^ngan, 

gangama j^Lii^ to put up together, 
to mix; E 7 a^angaina duki- 
a/nsu their goods shall be ga- 
thered together, gangamatua^ 
F 88, pass, ana A;uma ganga- 
matoa it is also joined to- 
gether, nuiga/ngamiy confluence 
of rivers. 

gangami ^^^jU^, a large drum (lit. 
gatherer); yi ganga^nin aaumi 
to proclaim end of a fast. 

gam^am, and dagangan^ see ganga, 
daga/nga, 

gangante ^Jiik^, to push into the 
water and drown. 

ganga/ra jmJ>^ or gam^am ^jjU:^, 
to roll down, to jump down ; 
pass. a>ga/nga/rif A 12, is rolled 
down (? dies). 

gango/ratva t^|/^^, rolling, F 153, 
165. 

goMgare ^jjLi^, gangara SjJLit, 

pi. ga/ngaru ^jJf^, 1. bent; 
yi gangare to be bent; 2. a 
steep incline, declivity. 
gangoH, see gangara. 



gangaro* ^ji^, rolling down. 

ga/ngatoari* (Jj\^i^, a herb sup- 
posed to be an aphrodisiac. 

gan{n)i ^i^, to see, to behold ; fre- 
quently contracted to ga or gan, 
gd-shi behold him ! na ganshi 
I saw him ; cf . gan{n)o, ganene. 

ga/ni* .-ifc, Ar. id., rich; Fl4t ahi 
ne ga/ni he is rich. 

ganna U^, rampart; cf. goMiva, 

gan(n)o* yi^, to see; F 181 su 

gano azaha they shall see pain; 

cf. gan(n)i. 
^ ^ »^ 
ganaawa tymiife, iq. seq. 

gantseruwa t^jJaJ^ or. gancherwwa 

'jL^^j hollow-backed. 
^ #<» 
ganwa tj^, pit, ditch, rampart or 

wall round a town ; cf . ganna, 
ga/ra Ijli (cf. Ar. JU iii, to trade), 
the small addition which the 
seller is expected to make to 
the value of the article sold 
by him on the completion of 
the purchase. When a man 
buys nuts or anything else in 
a small way, he gets his fifty 
or a hundred cowries worth 
and so many extra thrown in 
for luck; this addition is called 
the^ara; enna gara=hcy9f much 
are you going to give me into 
the bargain % 
gara jU, it is better; ga/ra hakka 
it is better so, ni ga/ra en Ua/ya 
it is better for me to stop. 
gara \j^, pi. garani ^|j^, term- 
ites (termes bellicosus), usually 



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65 



known as white ants; gara is 
also used of ants generally; 
for description of habits of 
white ants cf. *Hausaland,' 
pp. 160—164. 

ga/ra jk, gdra jU or gera j^, to 
prepare, to put a thing right, 
to arrange matters; gara kaya 
to get ready a load, gara 
hainya to prepare a way; gerta, 
q.v., is probably a secondary 
form of gara, 

gdra IjU, wife's marriage presents 
given to a bridegroom ; yi gdra 
to rejoice at a marriage. 

garafini 0^>^ or garafunu ^j^, 
bitter plant, its leaves used in 
making sauce, fruit red. 

gaj'a/unu, see garafini, 

garaiya ^\/^, harp. 

garage yjt^^j^ or garazi* ^^\j^^ 
haste, hastening; D 36 ^w her 
garaje ma dunia leave off has- 
tening after the things of the 
world. 

ga/ram(rn)a K^jk (cf. Ar. X«t^, 
debt, tax), money paid to a 
king for permission to travel. 

garam(rn)a* ^j^^ dan ga/ram(m)a 
threshold of door. 

gararra Ijji, one who has become 
blind after he has grown up; 
cf . kishimi. 

gardatoa, see gardi, 

gardaye j^t>>^, skilful, especially 

in war. 
gardi or gerdi ^3^, f. ga/rdia 



Q;^; savoury, e.g. gedda tana 
da gardi the ground-nut has a 
fine flavour. 
gardi or gerdi ^>/^i pi. gardatva 

\^hj^f a Hausa snake-charmer 
who begs, beggar; cf. turdi. 

gare ^^, to, at, unto. Its use 
with pron. suffixes corresponds 
to that of ga with nouns. 
Used with them it expresses 
possession, like the modern 
Arabic JOP, thus ^juL^ = 
gareni I have. In D 24 gare 
is used absolutely, the pronoun 
ski being understood, ha ma- 
kawa gare he has no power of 
resistance. It is . often pre- 
ceded by dagga, hissa and hisa, 
dagga gareni from me, kusa 
gareshi near to him, hissa 
goAreaa upon it. 

gare ^jU, a cricket (1). 

gare ^U, pi. garuruka l£»jijjU, 
white tobe ; cf. girike. 

^ ^ 

gargadi ^J>ij^, to warn, F 36, 
i.q. galkadi, q.v. 

gar garni i^^j^ or ga/rkanni^^^jk^ 
strong in war. 

gargarajkj^i to exceed in strength, 
to overpower; used like faa- 
kara or huaye^ ya gargareni it is 
too much for me, = (V) gagara. 

gargas{8)a L*^^, pi. garga8(8)u 

J tf 9 ^ 

y*^jky a large fish with white 
scales below and red tail. 
gari j^, ^j^, pi. garurua \^jjk 



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and garigaru ^jij^i 1- country, 
town, frequently used of a 
small town as contrasted with 
bimi a large town ; 2. sky, in 
the phrase ga/ri ya wwye the 
day dawns, lit. the place be- 
comes light ; dunm ya waye is 
used in the same way; 3. place. 

Hence ga/ri{n) y^j^, to, m order 

to, e.g. ga/rin shan iska in order 
to drink the air, i.e. to enjoy 
the fresh air, ya taffi garin 
yawo he has gone for a walk. 

gdri ^j^t flour; garin dorowa 
meal made from the contents 
of the locust-tree pods. 

gari* ^^, a minute. 

garika* li»;U, a cultivated piece 

of land. 
garike ^/^j^ or gerke ^^%^> P^- 

garikuna U^^ or gerkuna 

>jds>j^y 1. a place where cattle 
are kept by night, stall, fold; 
2. flock, herd; cf. girkeke. 
ga/rikine*, cavalr}'; cf. garki. 

garimaka Uc«^ or garinaka \SUj^, 
crested crane, i.q. goraka^ q.v. 

gdrio ^^j^, a missile knife, a kind 
of sword with three cutting 
blades used for throwing. 

gariwaji* ^t^^j^, strong in war. 

gariwoya \^^j^i ^o mix, knead 
togetljer; cf. gar way a and 
doHwoye. 



garkamiy strong in war; cf. gar- 

gami, 
ga/rki* i^j^ or garikine \^*^j^y 

cavalry with shields. 
garkua or gerkua \^^j^, pi. gartki 

^^&>|i, shield. For different 

kinds of shields cf. kumngura, 

kutti/a/niy kunkeli. 
•^ ^ 
ga/rma i^j^, a large hoe bent back 

like a small plough ; cf . galma, 

garmaka^ crested crane; cf. go- 

raka, 

garowa* tj^^U, fine male slave = 
kato, 

ga/ru ^j^, a wall, a building = 
kaianga. 

garunfa or garwnifa LaJ^i-^, a 

straw hat; the word frequently 

occurs in the phrase cfew- 

garunfa^ q.v. (cf. Kanuri, dan- 

garumba), i.e. a trader who 

carries his goods upon his 

head. 

" ^ " 
garwashi u^tji^, pi. garwa^hoshi 

L5^>^lv^> ^"^^®rs, burning 
charcoal; usually followed by 

touta; cf. gawoi. 

" " * " 
garwaya ^i^j^, to unite closely; 

cf. C 20 note Tnun garwaya we 

will unite together (?); ^vo- 

hahly = gariwoya, q.v. 

gasa* l*^, rivalry, emulation = 
kishi. 

ga8{8)a ^^, to make a large fire ; 
used with gurasa bread, to 
bake, to roast; ga^sa hanu to 
warm the hands. 



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y* 



gcMoshe ^jSALm, f. gaaashia i^,wL.>fe, 

pi. gasasu ^..yL.>fe, 1. caught, 
of a fire; 2. roasted; cf. prec. 

ga8(s)e ^<»^, with yt, to refuse to 

keep a promise. 
gtishi u^U, 1. hair or wool of men, 

sheep, etc. ; 2. feathers of birds, 
sabon gashi = down; 3. a single 
hair, cf. F 144 karamta tastva 
gashi its path is like a single 
hair (cf. Fulah gasa), 
gashi u^U, i.e. ga shi behold it! 

a very common form of excla- 
mation to attract attention to 
anything; gashi wanan look at 
this ! cf . fem. form gata. 

gashi* cAU, in the phrase mugun 

gashiy quarrelsomeness, bad dis- 
position. 

gashimare, clouds, etc.; cf. gaji- 
mare, 

gaskanta, see seq. 

gaskaia %ZM\,»,t or ga^karUa C%I.v«»^, 
1. to believe a fact; 2. to 
establish the truth of a thing, 
to assure a person of the reality 
of anything. 

ga^ke ^Vm^ and da gaske, true, 
truly; cf. seq. 

gaskia l^Cli (in D 32 1^4^), truth, 
certainty, trust, righteousness; 
da gaskia truly, certainly; bada 
gaskia or yi gaskia to believe, 
ba gaskia to speak the truth, 
used of a judge ba or bada 
gaskia = to acquit, gaskia ne 



it is really so, ina/rasgaskia = 
false, bangaskia* 1|Jum«^, faith. 

gaslu* JlI^, Ar. Jlli^, washing; 
F 90 awonke ka/a gaslu zanum 
kushewa thou art laved and 
washed for burial; cf. gislinu, 

gata UU, pi. gataye ^^13U, spy, 
sentinel, especially applied to 
a man on watch up a tree, or 
on a height. 

gata* UU, to be strong; cf. gato 
and (?) kato, 

gala UU, in the phrase dan gata, 
1. son of a rich man who has 
inherited wealth but has done 
no work; 2. anything much 
desired. 

gata UL^ or gatan biri, large 
monkey (baboon ?), with red 
beUy. 

gata UU, the day after the day 
after to-morrow, the fourth 
day; cf. chitta, 

gata* C^, this, in C 8 (?) bida 
gata dunia seeking after this 
world; probably a fem. form of 
gaslii behold it! 

gatana* UI»U, tale = tasunia, 
gdtari ^£pU) pi. gdta/ra t;JIL^, 

gdtura tpU and gdtarua tjij-^i^) 
hatchet; dan gdtaH a small 
hatchet. 
gato y^, 1. buttock; maigato a fat 
man; 2. bottom, foundation, 
e.g. gaton darni bottom of a 
fence; cf. gata to be strong, 
also (?) ka>to, 

5—2 



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gatsa* UaLfc, stump, found in 
D42(?). 

gaude ^>^, small tree with red 
flowers, edible fruit and hard 
wood. 

gatt^ta* OU^^, to hasten; cf. seq. 

gaugawa ^^t to hasten, to be in 

a hurry. 
gauraka crested crane; cf. goraka. 

gaxiahi ^^ or gausi i^y^y brittle- 

ness, rottenness. 
gauta \Jy^, pi. gautaye I5{!^>^, 

a plant closely resembling a 

tomato, of a bushy growth, its 

fruit has a bitter taste. 
gawa Ijl^, pi. gawaweki iJ^y^y^i 

corpse, also used as a collective, 

C6. 
gawasa w^U, pi. gawasai ^*^^U, 

gawasuna y^^l^ and gawa- 

aoshi ij^y»fy^j a sort of plum 
or stone fruit, brought from 
the east, not grown in Hausa- 
land. 

gawo j^l^, pi. gawake i^y^, 
a large tree, rain accumulates 
underneath it during the rainy 
season. It is planted near 
houses for the purpose of ob- 
taining water during the dry 
season by digging under it. 
Its wood is red, its berries 
white; the leaves, which are 
eaten by goats and cattle, fall 
off during the dry season. 

gawoi \;£^y pi. gawaye ^3^, char- 



coal, not burning charcoal, for 
which cf. ga/rwashi, F 207. 

gaya ^U, 1^, to reveal, to make 
manifest or known; ka gaya 
mani explain to me. 

gaya l^, alliance, e.g. between 
two kings. 

gaya* l^, dough {=^dirgaza\ any- 
thing raw or uncooked. 

gaya* U^, evil. 

gayaraj^, fatigued. 

gayya l^, 1. assembly, crowd of 
people; 2. to assemble. 

gaza* J^, cf. Ar. rt 3 J^, to have 

strength, to be able; han gaza 

ha I cannot do this; cf. gazdwa. 
^ ^ ^ 
gazara* \jj^i a reed from which 

arrows are made; cf. kemru. 

gazdiva* tjtjk^, strength; F15 shi 

ne aziza da bai gazawa He 

is mighty and gives strength, 

F 187 suna kuka enna maiaga^ 

zawa (?) they cry out, where 

is any helper ? cf . maiagazdwa, 

gazo* yJ^t cf. da gazo, strong. 
geasa, to belch; cf. gesa. 
geauga* U^^, playing, play. 

gebe ^^, small pond, small run- 
ning stream ; cf. gibi. 

geche* tJ^, in the phrase gechen 
kogi bank of a river. 

ged{d)a ji, ji^, to wag the head, 
to beckon, especially in phrase 
gedda kai, probably a corrup- 
tion of kada kai to assent; 
cf. kauda kai to dissent. 



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ged{d)a SjJL, t j^, arachis hypogsea, 

ground nut, monkey-nut, the 
oil obtained from it {main 
gedda) is used for food and 
for lamps in Hausaland and is 
very largely exported; it is 
obtained by expression with 
heat, and is of a light yellowish 
colour; cf. gtichia, 
ged{d)uwa tjj^, ^^J^, a disease 
which causes the fingers and 
toes to fall off; maiged(d)u7jua 
a man who has lost a finger 
or toe from this disease ; cf . 
* Hausaland,' p. 152; probably 

from Ar. 5j^, scrofula. 

gefe iJ^y i>J^, bank of a river, 

B150. 
geftu yJ^y girdle, used by women ; 

dan geftu id. 
gemho y^^, pi* gembuna U^^, 

ulcer on body. 
geme |«^-*-^, pi. gem{m)fi L^, 

beard ; maigenie a bearded man. 
gendi jup, i<jup, f. geiidia bjU^, 

a strong, muscular, fat person. 
genged(d)i ^juiJLP, 1. to feel 

sleepy, to be overcome by 

sleepiness; 2. sleepiness. 
gen{n)o* y^, a large foul-smelling 

ant. 
aera, to prepare ; cf . gdra. 
^era 1;-^^, gira \j^ or ^tro j^>t>^, 

pi. gerare ^j!>^, ^tr'oH \^}^jti^, 
eye-brow; cf. ^ira. 
gerdama UJi/t', 1. dispute, denial. 



a dispute in which something 
is denied; yi gerdania to dis- 
pute, deny; 2. A 37, stingi- 
ness (?). 

gerdama j^^j^, to dispute, deny. 
gerdawa, snake-charmers; cf. ga/rdi. 
gerdiy savoury; cf. gardi. 
gerke, fold; cf. garike. 
gerkua, shield ; cf. garkua, 

gero j|/^, 1. a grain like guinea 
corn, it grows to the height of 
about eight feet (= pennisetum 
typhoideum ?); 2. a drink made 
from milk, rice and honey. 

gerta Cjj^, 1. to mend, repair, 
improve; 2. generally, to make 
ready, prepare, to comb (the 
hair); cf. gdra, 

gertache ^-f^j^y f. gertata Ul^, 

pi. gertatu ^U^, adorned, 
garnished, cleaned, dressed. 

gertawa tjUy^, particip. form of 

gerta, mending, etc. 
^esa VJ-.-X, ^ea«a ^^W^, to belch. 

geti* jJU^, stingy. 

get{t)o yLi, cf. Ar. ^^^iii, 1. hol- 
low ; used in the phrase getton 
kune the hollow behind the 
ear; 2. the perineum; 3. = 
guzu, q.v. 

gewoj/e, around; cf. kevooye, 

geza \}^y pi. gezuna Uj^, 1. ear 
of corn, rice or wheat; 2. used 
of a horse, lion, etc. = mane. 

gia l^, an intoxicating drink ; cf . 
giya. 



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gibi ^^, 1. tooth- gaping, applied 

to men who have lost two 
teeth; 2. in the phrase ya yi 
gibi it overflows, used of rivers, 
a cup, etc. ; cf . gebe, 

giclve jJSjt^ or gichi jJ^, 1. to 

overthrow; B 142 tana rikichi 
wawa giche it deceives and over- 
throws the fool; 2. stretched 
out; B 118 ta sainya mutum 
gichi it causes a man to lie 
stretched out (in the grave); 
of. (?) gigichi. 

gid{d)a I j^, pi. gid(d)aje i.*.! J^ ; 

gid{d)ash£ ^J^\jk^ or gicladaji* 

^ji^^J^ D77, 1. house, dwell- 
ing, premises, gidda includes 
the whole compound which 
may consist of more than one 
house (daki) ; giddan chira 
house of escape, refuge, e.g. 
house of king, galladima, etc. ; 
giddan gobe, B 27 liakka fa 
dunia da giddan gobe so, too, 
earth and the next world, lit. 
house of to-morrow; giddan 
UHZsa theatre ; 2. household, 
3. receptacle, used of cases, 
covers, etc., as giddan alura 
needle-case, giddan kibia = 
quiver, giddan zumua beehive. 
gidibi w>Jl^ or kidibi ^jA, pi. 

gidiba Qjk^ or kidiba IfjA 

(cf. Ar. S^, liver), kidney = 
ktvoda. 
gigerjjL^, leg-irons = inalwa. 



gigi* ^^jkfft, being toothless; cf. 

gibi. 
gig% cf . seq. 

gigiche ^^^ or gigi ,jk^y 1. to 

fail to understand, 2. to be 
wanting in sense, 3. to scatter. 

gigin{i)a L^Ji.^, pi. gigangani 

or giginai ^^Jk^, fan or deleb 

palm, the fruit (= kurdugo) is 
white inside with red skin, the 
leaves are used for making 
hats, mats, etc.; cf. murichi, 

gigita C^^x^, 1. to be giddy; cf. 

gigichi, 2. LZ.j^Jt^, giddiness, 
vertigo. 
gilgiji ^%aU or girgiji ^-a*^, 

cloud, moving cloud as opposed 
to lumshiy q.v., a still cloud. 

gilgiza J^aXi. or girgiza JSj^, to 
shake. 

I X 

gilgizaze ^^^tJJtU, f. gilgizazia 

X X J X O 

b^tJjfcU, pi. gilgizazu «>t JkAU, 

'' X X - "^^ X X 

shaken. 
gilmaJJ^f to cross, to walk across. 
gilme* j^^X^, pi. gilmomi L«*e>«Jl^ 

^^ • ^ ^^X X 

or gihwmi ^^yJL^, cross ; gil- 
men ita^ihe* wooden cross. 

*-• xO 

gimba lu^, pi. gimbayi ^iJ^, 
1. large white seed used as a 
bead = (?) kimba, q.v., 2. the 
young son of a king. 

gimi*j^, a little village. 



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gimshi* ^J^^, name of a large, 

shady tree. 
gvmshiki ^ x <» ^i c or gumshiki 

^ ^ ■i t >^, pillar, middle support- 
ing pole of house. 

^iwa ,^, to dig, to build ; used of 
roads, to build, construct. 

ginane ^J\^, cf. prec, built. 

ginaniay cf. seq. 

ginama ujU^ or ginania Ij^U^, 
■> <• ^ .^ 

rain during heavy storm, 
storm; cf. zirnania. 

^irtc^i juP, i£JJ^t 1. the small of 

back, 2. rope tying a horse's 
leg to a post ; cf . daheheyi and 

griiit O^i name of large fish from 
which oil for eating is ob- 
tained. • 

gira^ pi. giror% eyebrow ; cf. gera. 

girbi ^j^ or giribi ^j^y to cut 

down harvest, to reap. 
girgiza, to shake ; cf . gilgiza. 
girigiji 9f^j^t cloud ; cf . gilgiji* 

girike ^^^j^, white tobe; cf. gare. 

girtma j^jk, to grow, to become 

large. 
girtma U|^, great, large; inai- 

girima a proud or important 

person, y^ girima — prec, cf. 

gimuL, 
girje, scab; cf. kurji. 

10 

girke \J^jkt ir^j^^ ^ cook by 
blowing underneath a pot 



placed on the fire, girkin tu- 

kumyaj A 84. 
» » • 
girkeke ^ v ^ ^j^f f* girkekia 

K^^jhy pl. girkeku y\^^j^, 
closed, fastened; cf. garike, 

J 

girku* ^^, to remain (?) ; D 86 
ya yi toto^i c/on sAi girku shi 
zamna dunia he makes pre- 
paration that he may remain 
and continue in this world. 

girma U^, 1. greatness ; F 22 
fa girman naka tsoron maii- 
yawa let the fear of the 
Almighty be thy greatness; 
2. glory (in heaven), D 62 
rana nan da mqnmaza kun 
samu girma on that day you 
shall speedily obtain heaven ; 
cf. proverb sai da rai aaamu 
girma greatness will not outlast 
death, hada girma (or girima) 
to render honour to. 

girmxima j^j^y to honour. 

girmama U-«^, greatness ; E 22 
ka her bidan fa girm^m^ka 
leave off seeking after thine 
own greatness. 

girmankai ^^^j^t pride E 25; 
•mxi8ugirm4inkai proud F 167. 
girOy eyebrow ; cf. gera, 

gi8(s)ago* ^kuk^, a tool with a 
crooked handle used for strip- 
ping leaves off trees. 

gishiri jJL^^ salt (about half the 

salt in Hausaland is imported 
by way of the R. Niger, the 



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72 



Jii^ 



rest is brought from the 

Sahara). 
gislinu* i>^L»ft, Ar. ^ a ^l ^ .g, 

putrid matter, F 196 n. From 

same Ar. root ^owZi^ washing 

is derived. 
^t««o, spider; cf. giz(z)o, 
giwa l^-ts-j^, pL ^it^^aye v^^^>df> 

elephant ; toron giwa male 

elephant, for fem. cf. tagua. 

hakkorin giwa or Jiaurin giwa 

elephant's teeth, ivory. 
giwakamba, medicine for the eyes; 

cf . dawa. 

giwaya ^\y^ or jiwaya ^t^j^, 
to go round a thing in order 
to examine it, to gaze at, to 
look on at. Possibly only 
another form of kewoye. 

giya l^, an intoxicating drink 
made by soaking guinea corn 
in water for three days till it 
begins to sprout, it is then 
beaten and boiled ; cf. D 10. 

gizgari* ^j^J-^y strong warrior. 

giz(z)o jj^, often pronounced 
gissoy spider, used as emblem 
of envy and jealousy, hakan 
gizzo the rainbow. 

giz(z)o jj^, fear, used in the 
phrase ya yi ^izzo = ya ji 
tsoro. 

giz{z)o ^S^y an abundance of long 
hair on the head in the fashion 
of the Asbenawa (Tuaregs) or 
the itinerant snake-charmers 
{ga/rdawa). 



goasa U>^, sweet-smelling fruit 
of a tree. 

gobara {^3^, Ar. j^^*^, 1. conflagra- 
tion ; 2. ruins left after a con- 
flagration ; 3. pain, torment, 
cf. B 12 ko gobara ba yita don 
bannai even the torment (of 
hell) is not equally harmful. 

gobdodo, bush ; cf. kobdodo. 

gobdua, yolk of egg ; cf. kobdua. 

gobe i^y^i 1- the morrow, to- 
morrow ; sai gobe a parting 
salutation = till we meet again 
to-morrow; 2. used to qualify 
nouns of time^ as week, month, 
etc. = next, proximo, e.g. watan 
gobe next month; 3. the last 
day, the judgment day; B 87 
wanda ke shiri domin gobe who 
is making preparation for the 
last day; adverbially, D 20 
idan Imka yi gobe anadubu 
nojdama if this be done, on 
the resurrection day your re- 
pentance will be seen; ranari 
gobe the last day; B 11, 140 
ran gobe id. ; giddan gobe B 27, 
125 the next world; cf. 7nai- 
gobe, B 3 note. 

gobir j4^, pr. name of a large 

district in Hausaland. 
gob^'o, feui. gobrua, 1. bachelor, 

spinster; cf. goi'o*, gorua* ; 

2*. used of a bad kola nut 

that has gone black ; cf . goro, 
gobso*, bachelor; cf. goro*. 
gobHriy also gobre, to dash together; 

cf. gumberi. 



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goclieina U-J^, to make to fall, 
B147; cf. seq. 

gochi ^3^ and goche ^Ji^^f 1. to 
turn off from the way, to pass 
anyone on the path, to lose 
the way; 2. to be out of joint; 
3. to knock against. 

gochia or gtichia Ij^^, avoidance, 
of a missile, etc. 

god\d)a j^i^ to weigh, to measure. 

god(d)a jl^, or goda l>5^, to show, 
to point out; cf. C 17 shi kan 
goda muna takitaki dunia he 
would show to us the course of 
the world; cf. god{d)u, 

god{d)a Iji^, pi. god{d)odi ^ijj^, 
a deer with dark skin, smaller 
than the barewa; cf. karan- 
god{d)a. 

godawa* \*>^, joint, section. 

gode {;J>y^9 Kanuri id., to thank, 
give thanks to, constr. with 
ace. and also with prep, ma; 
na gode maka thank you; the 
word is, however, chiefly used 
of thanksgiving to God, as in 
E 2 rnu gode ubangiji sarki 
aa/rotay F 2 mu gode jalla sarki 
maiiyawa, F 256 na gode ma 
ailah. 

gode* ^>^j a thorny creeper. 

godia C>^, thanks, C49; D 100 
muna godia zua ga allah\ cf. 
D 101 m^una godia don mu- 
liamimad we give thanks on 
account of Mohammed, yi godia 
to give thanks. 



godia b>^, mare, used as fem. of 

doki. 
god(d)o ^J^, a coarse white cloth. 
godobe i*^j J^, broad road = rtmdi. 

god{d)u ^J^, intr. and reflex, form 

of god(d)a, to appear, make 

oneself known to. 
goji sf>^7 ^^6 notch in an arrow 

fitting the bowstring. 
gogali J^^^y mixture of nuts, 

beans, etc. 
gogara*, boastful warrior; cf. gu- 

gara^ gugirma. 

goge ^^^y a stick for a musical 
instrument resembling a violin; 
cf. seq. 

gogi ^i^yc> or goge ^^>fr, to scrape, 
polish, clean. 

gogo ^y^, baboon (gorilla ?;; cf. 
bika, gata, 

gogo* y»t'yt, Fulah id., aunt, 
father's sister. 

goguwari ^jy^y^, a small lizard, 
with black head; its bite is 
said to cause leprosy; cf. kutu. 

gcfij charcoal; cf. gawoi, 

goiwa \y^, elephantiasis in a man; 
cf. kuikui. 

goiya l^^, a child carried on the 
back. Infants are always car- 
ried thus in Hausaland, bound 
to the mother by a fold of 
cloth; B 116 ba shi mivtu goiya 
ba does not an infant die ? 

goiyo or goyo yf^, 1. to tie up 



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5:>* 

together; to bear in the ear, 
as com, etc. ; 2, yi goiyo to give 
suck to. 
goQi 9>>^) a kind of pumpkin that 

grows on a house; of. kabiewa. 
gojia^ ground nut; of. gtichia. 

^ JP J ^ JO J 

golgoda jAJL^ or gorgoda jsj^, to 
measure, to compare by mea- 
suring; cf. golgodo, 

^ ^ J J 

golgodawa tjjJu^ or gorgodawa 
S^jJtj^y participial form from 
preceding. 

^ J J J j9j 

golgodo jJm or gorgodo J^j^, 
measure ; cf . D 25 koioa shi 
samu golgodvsa every man 
shall receive his measure (of 
reward) ; used also adverbially 
with suffixed pronouns, e.g. 
A^ kayi gorgodonka na kokari 
make what attempt thou canst, 
lit. do thy measure of attempt. 

gmna* U^^, good, applied to wo- 
men only. 

gotna U^, card, number, ten; 
used with particle sha and the 
units to form numbers eleven 
to nineteen, goma sha daia 
b^Ur L«^ eleven, goma sha 
biu twelve, etc. gomia Itt^y^ 
a plural form of gorna is some- 
times used to express the de- 
cades above ten; thus gornia 
biu would = twenty, gomia uku 
thirty. This was probably the 
original Hausa method of 
counting large numbei*s before 
they borrowed Arabic nume- 
rals. With ellipsis of goma^ 



74 o>i 

sha daia = eleven, s/ia biu 
twelve, etc. 
gom{m)i* j^y a club or heavy stick. 

^ ^ 9 J 

gomdazaki ^^^j^, 1. eagle (?): 
2. followed by tamraro = morn- 
ing star in harvest time, pro- 
bably a in constellation Aquila. 

gomraka, see goo^aka, 

gona Uji, U^, pi. gonaki iJ^^, 
1. farm, cultivated field ; 2. fig. 
fosterer; B 109 dunia gonal 
chiuta the world is the nur- 
turer of sickness ; maigona = 
farmer. 

^ J 

goiida tjL,;-g, often pronounced 
gwanda (carica papaya), paw- 
paw tree or fruit. The leaves 
and fruit are greatly valued by 
the Hausas. A piece of tough 
meat wrapped in a pawpaw 
leaf becomes tender in half an 
hour. The same result is pro- 
duced by placing a piece of the 
fruit in the cooking pot. The 
fruit resembles a melon and is 
bright red inside. 

gondo* jjU^, a fish resembling an 
eel. 

gondo ^jU^, name of district in 
the hinterland of the Gold 
Coast whence the Hausas im- 
port their favourite kola nut. 

gongola* ^UU^, a kind of rafter. 

gon{n)i ^^ii^, pi. gon{n)ai ^i^, 
clever, skilful, expert; as adv. 
cleverly, skilfully, exi)ertl3^ 

goni Oy^i vy>^» profession, occu- 
pation, skill, art; cf. seq. 



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gon(n)inta* llL^, cleverness. 

gonki iJ^, a large deer or ante- 
lope. 

gora \j^, {Jj3^y pL gororo ^j^j^i^ 
and gorina ^jy^y 1. cane, reed; 
2. arrow. 

gora \j^y pi. gor&na ^j^^t cala- 
bash, cup; probably identical 
with kworia, q.v. 

gora Ij^i, used in the phrase goran 
lianchi bridge of the nose. 

goraka l£>tj3^, gauraka l£>tj^, 
garmaka L^L^^i^, gamraka 
l£>t;i^ or gomraka [^\j^, 
balearica pavonina, crested 
crane; a large bird with golden 
crest, the spread of its wings 
is over six feet, its breast is 
white; cf. *Hausaland/ p. 241. 

goraya* ^j^j to box, to light. 

goreba, dum palm; cf. goriba, 

gorgodo, measure; cf. golgodo. 

gorgunguma UpJU^;^, a large black 
beetle with long legs. 

goria* ^j^y a large goro-nut. 

goriha ^j^ or goreba Wj>^, pi. 

goribai i^^jy^ ^^^ gorihobi 

i^yij^y crucifera thebaica, 
the dum palm, mats, fans, etc. 
made from its fibre. 

gorje or gurje ^^^j^, 1. large, 

buzzing horse-fly; 2*. small bell 
on horses, etc. 
goro ^jy^t P^* gtov/rra* (urr pro- 
nounced as in English currier), 



\j^, the kola nut, the fruit of 
the sterculia acuminata, found 
in the greatest perfection in 
the hinterland of the Gold 
Coast Colony. The nut, which 
is the size of a large chestnut 
and of brick-red colour, has 
a bitter taste somewhat similar 
to quinine, and is chewed by 
the Hausas as a stimulant, 
and enables them to go for 
a long time without food; 
cf. *Hausaland,' pp. 95 — 117. 
namijin goro is a small white 
kind of goro-nut used as a 
medicine. To the salutation 
alhishirinka (lit. your news ?) 
the answer is goro. 

ga/'o* yjy^ or gobro yj^ or gobso* 
y*^y bachelor. 

^ J J ^ JO J 

gorua \yjy^ or gobrua \^j^, a 
virgin ; cf . go7*a in Fulah = 
husband; cf. prec. 

jO J J pj 

gorzo ^j^, 3^j^i ^' strong, muscular 
person; 2. husband; C 50 gorzo 
nan hadijatu the husband of 
Hadija. 

goahi ^^5^, forehead, brow, front; 

B 51 ^ sainya lahiralka gab- 
ban goshi place the next world 
before your forehead. 
goyoy to tie up together, give suck, 

etc.; cf. goiyo. 
goza, sweet potato; cf. gwaza, 
gu, always with connective n^ 
pronounced m before 6, gun 
^^ = umri, 1 . with, at, in ; 
gu'nchan = tmiricJuin, C 33 gun 



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76 



O^ik 



umya by the neck, Bill gun 
duniana in this world, B 155 
gun mallamai with the Mal- 
lams ; preceded by har = har 
ga, A 25 dagga kasuu har gum 
huJd from the market unto a 
marriage feast ; 2*. = gurubin, 
instead of, for. 

guba \^y 1 . a poisonous plant, B 1 4 ; 
2. a mixture of dead flesh and 
adua tree eaten as a preventive 
charm against injury in battle, 
etc. ; 3. a thing which has died 
of itself; cf. Ar. aju. 

gubc/d ^1^ or gache ^i^, 1. to 
slip, to slip into; 2. applied to 
the well, to fall in ; cf. kubcJie. 

gub{b)o y^y back teeth. 

gubriy to knock against ; cf . gum- 
beri. 

guchia \^ or gujia or gojia Ij^^^^, 

pi. gujeye ^ * w^ fi . (cf. Ar. 

jya^, Pers. gauz nut), a species 
of small ground nut, not the 
nut from which oil is obtained 
(cf. gedda)y it is largely used 
for food. 

guchia, avoidance of a missile, etc. ; 
cf . gochia. 

guda Ij^, number, times; guda 
nawa = how many? Used 
with numerals as guda uku 
three in number; also with 
the force of our numeral ad- 
verbs, as guda uku three times, 
thrice; in phrases, ^ucfa A^anena 
my only brother ; B 25 shi do 
guda guda ta taire let him try 



to take one, the other flees 
away. 

guda* Iji^, full stop; connected 
with preceding. 

guda \jkt or gudu ^j^, shout, 
acclamation, crying out for 
joy; cf. (?) gada. 

guda* \jkt, circle, orb ; D 64 (?). 

gudaje* ^^tji^, pi. in the phrase 
gudajen zumua the young of 
bees ; distinct in meaning from 
kudaje, q.v. 

gudana ^j^, a form of gudu to 

run. 
gudawa |^Ji^, diarrhoea; ctgudun- 



gudu, a crying out for joy ; cf. 

guda, 
gudumaiy a club ; cf . gundumai. 

gudu ^J^, J^j to run away, to 

make one^s escape ; cf . gudana, 

guje. 

^ y 6 J J 

gudunmawa Sy^jJ^, help, assist- 
ance, especially in war. 

gudundaji 4^t«iJjL^, an expression 

for diarrhoea or dysentery; v. 
gtidawa, 
gufa 1^3^ or gufata Uu^, large 
grass basket or pannier. 

guf{f)aka Im^, leathern case for 

holding a book. 
gufata, basket ; cf . gufa, 
guga li^^^, pi. guguna LLi^^, 

bucket, skin used for drawing 

water from well. 
^ ^ J 
gugana* v>^>^} formed from pre- 



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1>fc 77 

ceding = jan rua to draw 
water. 

X *- J ^ ^ J 

gugara* Sjk^ or gugari* ^j»^, a 
mighty man ; kai gugari thou 
mighty one ! used in exclama- 
tions. 

gugi* ^yt, pi. gugui ^y^, 

swelling in front of a man's 
body ; cf . kukui. 
gugiy a large quantity ; cf. gugu. 

^ J 

gugirma* \^j^y^, boaster in war ; 

cf . gogara. 
gugu y^^ or gugi ^^, large 

quantity, much ; ha shi da 

gugu he has but little ; gugin 

rairai much sand. 

gugua Ij ty fc, also pronounced 
gugwa a whirlwind, whirling 
dust. 

"* •* . . *■* 

guiba or gvnha l^^ or guihi i^^tt^y 

dirt, muddy water, dregs ; 
D 57 raaimakara ha shi aha 
rua ha sai na guiha he who 
is late shall have nothing but 
muddy water to drink. 

guiwa Syt^, pi. guiwaye ^\^ 

and guiwoye ^^^, knee ; 
guiwan hanu elbow. 

gvje* tj^^i a form of giodu to run 
away, to flee ; cf. nmguje. 

gujeje* ^ tf^^^a^ l , fugitive, vaga- 
bond, runaway slave. 

gujia, ground nut ; cf. guchia. 

gulhi %^>Mf pi. gulahe ^Ui, river, 
any large amount of water in 



a deep place ; gulhin ido the 

socket of the eye. 
gulgudu yjjUkk^ measure ; cf. gol- 

godo, 
gulgusa, to move back ; cf. gusa. 

gululu* J^ (cf. Ar. J^fc, to 
embezzle), the embezzling of 
booty ; E 9, F 205 fa mam- 
halal ta gululu kajirai ne and 
those who regard embezzling 
as lawful are heathen. 

guma* \^y used like gara to ex- 
press superiority , as gara hakka^ 
guma hakka it is better so. 

gum(m)a* j^y finish ; cf. gama. 

. • " J "■» 

gunia^gumai ^offpfe, stumps, pi. 

of gungume, q.v. 
gumasakawa* t^ViMQ.fe or gumsa- 
kawa \y Vm.q ^, place where 
anything is stored. 

^ J 

gumha l^^, mixture composed of 
rice, milk and honey. 

J J 

gumheri ^j^^i ^j,Ji^, gohUri 

{Jjyiy^ or groftrc {Jj^, to 
knock against, e.g. the arm 
against a wall, to dash together. 

J J J pj 

gumbo y^^^ y^i ^^^ next child 
born after the birth of twins 
tuguaye, 

gum(m)i ^, ^^t-, abusive lan- 
guage, abuse. 

J St ^ 

gum(m)i i**^ ( Ar. ^, to oppress 
with stifling heat, of the day), 
1. heat of the sun, 2. perspira- 
tion = zu/a. 

gumji ^"^ or gamji 9m^, a tree 



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78 



53W> 



from which india-rubber is ob- 
tained, Landolphia (?); domkon 
gumji = india-rubber. 
gvmki ^X^ or gamki ^.X^^, pi. 

gumakai ^J^, 1. idol, graven 

image ; 2. place of torment for 

unbelievers. 
gumki* ^^X»ft, a title given to a 

learned man or mallam. 
gum(m)o y^^ the cloth worn by 

porters on the head. 
giunsakatva* , store-place; cf. gu- 

masakawa. 
gutnahe, to meet, etc. ; cf . gamahe, 
gumsheka* \SiJL^, 1. species of 

snake, ten feet long, black, 

with red neck, poisonous; 2. 

epithet applied to a warrior. 
gumshiki, pole ; cf . gimshiki, 

gun ^^, cf. gu. 

■*"■' 

gunaguni ^JA*^, to grumble, to 

murmur; yi gunaguni id., cf. 
(?) guri. 

gunda* ) jU^ (prodotiscus ?), honey- 
guide bird. 

gunda tjU&, 1. edible bark of a 
tree ; 2. strips of leather. 

gunda jU^, to bud, also in phrase 
yi gunda id., used e.g. of a 
melon kdbewa ta yi gunda it 
sprouts. 

gunduy tribute, i.q. gandu, q.v. 

gundumai ^^AJJit or gudumai 

,-,*j^, clubs, D41. 
gungama UUU^, warrior. 
gungu* yxit, pi. gunguna UxJ^, 

island ; the word is probably 



borrowed from the Songai lan- 
guage. 

gungume ^^^jUh^ pi. guma^gumai 

^ J ^ J 

^»i»ft, stump of a tree after 
it is cut down. 

gunsul* Juma^, a Moorish corrup- 
tion of Consul, commonly used 
by the Hausas in N. Africa. 

guntaari ^k^fc, curds of milk 
which have become sour. 

guntu yJ^, in the phrase guntun 
ahuy small remainder or frag- 
ment of a thing, a smaU piece 
cut off. 

gunzu* jj-^, field mouse. 

J ^ J J » J 

guragu ySj^ or gurgu ^j^^ pi. 
J ^ ^ 
guragu ^\j^^ 1. halt, lame; 

E 36 guragunmu our lame ones; 

2. with bent legs; 3. without 

legs. 

gurara* Ijj^^, Ar. ^j/^, a large 

sack for oxen or camels. 

gurasa ^^j^y ^j^i Ar. iL^, bread ; 

usually confined to wheaten 

bread, which is only made in 

the northern parts of Hausa- 

land, red pepper being one 

of the principal ingredients; 

kurdin gurasa a phrase used in 

asking alms. 

"•' ■* 
guratoa* \^j^j foreigners. 

gurhaclie ly W>^» to b® destroyed, 
to disappear; B 93 gahhaa da 
yamma zata ta gvrbache the 
east and west will disappear, 
B 100 en ka ga xamani yagur- 



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bache as thou seest that this 
world will be destroyed. 
gv/rgu, lame; cf. gurayu. 
gurgunchif halting; cf. gurugunta, 
gurgunta, halting; cf. gurugunta. 

gurij^, Vii!;>^> ^- P^'ide, lust, evil 
desire; ya yi magana da guri 
he talks proudly; 2. wish; 
B 119, F 246, B 64 ha duko, 
guri kan ruska thou receivest 
not everything that thou wish- 
est for. 

guri ^j^, 1. to grumble, to 
groan; also yin guri id., cf. 
(?) gunaguni'^ 2. to entertain 
some bad design, to desire, to 
wish for, to be proud, to boast; 
cf. prec. 

gv/rih% VJ^' ^^^^' 

#' •> 

guriguri* ^j^j^^ ©vil, D 61 ; cf. 

gurL 
guriguri* ^jt>j^^ Fulah gorgoro, 

a horse-soldier. 
gurimi, a musical instrument ; 

cf . gurumi, 
gurjago, a file ; cf. gurza^go, 
gurje*, small bell ; cf . gorje. 
gurje^ scab; cf. kurji, 

gurjia Ijh^^, a large tree, the 
bark of which is used for 
staining the teeth. 

gurmunta, halting ; cf . gurgunta. 

gursuna U^j^ or gurusunu yi^jt 
(Fulah id.), hogs, also applied 
to domestic pig ; cf . hanzir, 

guru* yj^, girdle of rope made of 
grass or fibre. 



gurvhin Oy>^> instead of, guru- 
hinsa in his place ; cf. gu (2). 

guru/am j^M>ft, to kneel down, 
to bow down, to prostrate one- 
self ; yi gurufani id. 

gurugunta iJLJL.^, gurmunta 

^9J6J 9J0J 

wUii^ or gurgunchi %^<U^^, 

halting ; yi gurugunta to halt. 
guru^usa, to move away from ; 

cf. gusa. 
guruguehe ^Mjb', to move from 

or towards a place. 
guruguao, to move towards; cf. 

guso, 
gurumfa U.^^, hat made of straw; 

i.q. ga/rumfa, q.v. 
gururmjtjt or gur%m% j^j^y found 

in the expression gurumin 

kiddi a musical instrument 

resembling a guitar. 

gurungutUsx* ^^oUa^, gristle. 

9 ■> i J »jj 

gurus* ^j^ (cf. Ar. J!^ji, pi. j^ji, 

piastre), small money as used 
in N. Africa. 
gurusunuy hogs ; cf . gurauna. 

gurzago* ^JjS> or gurjago yk^j^y 
a file; cf. i^) gi8{8)ago, 

guaa ^^ or gulguaa ^jmSM or 

gurugusa t^-»^^> ^ move a 

little way back, to rise up, 

to withdraw from, gv^awa 

" ' "* 

\ym^y participial form of prec, 

moving a little away. gtMo 

J J J J J J 

ymk or guruguso y^J^, to 

move a little way forward, to 



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draw towards a person ; cf. 
gurugushe, 

gushagushi ^JJlL^, a sort of itching 

disease which attacks the roots 
of the toes or fingers ; cf . guTJe. 

gualw guahe* ^JLjuL^, to gush out 

abundantly. 
gusu* bottom ; cf . guzu. 

6 J J 

gu8umj^^^^ south; cf. (?) guzu, 

J J J X 

gusumchi st^Ji^t, ^^^^..^^t, towards 

the south. 

guwa tj3^, water, a sip of water; 
D 66 raTia na akannemi guwa 
on that day a little drinking 
water shall be sought for; 
phrases ina da guwa there is 
a little water, guwa sai ya reggi 
the water decreases. 

guza* \}^, species of iguana about 
one foot in length. 

guzu ^J^ or gusu* y^c.^ 1 . bottom ; 
guzun itaclie stump of a tree ; 
2. fig. cause, kada ahi guzunsa 
let not its cause be traced, 
meaning, minene guzunsa ? 
what is its meaning? 3. ma- 
trix. 

guzuma L^js-, 1 . lean ; 2. an old 
lean goat, cow or horse ; also 
applied to women in the same 
sense. 

guzura tjj^, pi. guzure ^jj-^, 

1. small piece, crumb or frag- 
ment; 2. the remaining piece 
after cloth has been measured 
out; cf. seq. 



guzura jj^f to take a pinch of. 

guzun ^jJ^, jjift, provisions for 
a journey; yi guzuri to make 
provision, E34 idan muna tashi 
mu yi guzuri da asna if we 
start, we obtain provision for 
the journey from the heathen. 

gwahi v!>^> ^- ^*^i ^ gwahi or 
maigwahi, adj., fat. 

gwamatsi* JaL«t^, draw near to; 

B 1 5 ku yan uwa ku gwamatsi 
>mallamai you, my brethren, 
draw near to the Mallams. 

gwami jiSys>^ 1. lameness, a bent 
leg; 2. bandy-legged, f. gwamia 
\(^\yt' ; inaigwami id. 

gwana* Ot^c or gwano >3ty^, a 

stinking beetle. 
gtoajida*, pawpaw; cf. gonda. 

givari ^j>fr, name of a large 
town about fifty miles west 
of Zaria, v. ^Spec. Haus.,' p. 
104 n. 

gwaska \SLt^y an ordeal by water 
given to slaves only. 

guxiza \^yh or goza t3i^^, pL 
^ i ^ i 
gwazuna \j^yt> and gwazoyi 

^i^^i a kind of sweet po- 
tato. 
gwiba, dirt ; cf . guiba. 

gwiyiki* ^^, oak, terebinth. 
gwiwa, knee ; cf. guiwa, 
gwumki* iJ^t a large animal 
with four horns. 



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(JJ^ 



A, hy h. There is no uniform dis- 
tinction of sound made by the 
Hausas between •• h and h h. 
These are in fact interchanged 
in the spelling of the same 
word. As a general rule Hausa 
words unconnected with Arabic 
do not contain the letter h h. 
The letter «;. h only occurs in 
words connected with Semitic 
roots. In the case of those 
recently borrowed the sound 
of ^ A is that of the harsh 

Arabic guttural ch or kh; in 
other cases, e.g. haifua, its 
sound approximates to that of 
h and h. In the case of certain 
words taken from Arabic the 
h may change into h or may 
disappear altogether; cf. Ar. 
hdsratim S|m*^, Hausa hasdra 
jLm^, and asdra tjlwt, and 
tasdri jiLj. The sound h is 
sometimes interchanged with 
that of / and b; cf. kuda, 
Juda; hcUbCy haUe, In some 
cases the sound of the h is very 
uncertain; cf. iaka or hiska 
wind, achi or hcuihi com; in 
hcUama h represents Ar. e. 

hciba l^ or hubba l^, exclamatory 
particle expressing astonish- 
ment, indignation, incredulity 
or denial. 

ha^a l^, pi. hahobi ^yt^, chin; 

A 6 shi tada haha yi jaki ber- 
bera he would lift up his chin 
and bray like an ass. 

R. 



habaichi 



Wi^-e- 



..^, pi. habaitai 



., 1. abuse ; yin ?iabaichi 
to abuse behind one's back; 
2. signs between two men 
understood by them but not 
by spectators. 

hahaki* ^l*^, pi. habaka l£t^, 

cf. Ar. Jl^, cloud; B 169 Aa- 
bakal kamshi clouds of incense. 

hahama* ^o{^, to expand as boil- 
ing water, D 65 (?). 

Aa6e* L<*»-, aboriginal tribes. 

haherta* C>/^^y Ar.J^, 1. to ex- 
plain, declare, publish; 2. to 

warn, hahertatoa* |yx^* de- 
claration, warning. The com- 
moner form is laherta, q. v. 

hahki «2L^, wild onion or leek. 



hah{b)o yji^i bleeding from the 
nose. 

habri ^J/t^ or harbi ^j*», to 
kick, used of a horse; cf. harbi, 

hahahi to bark; cf. hafshi, 

hachi L<^ ^^ hatd ^^la^, com, 
A 10; cf. ttchi, 

had{d)a j^, 1. to pile up, bring 
together; AW ta kan kadda 
maka rigwna it will heap up 
for you tobes, A 51 ahad- 
daau chikkm umta they shall 
be brought together in the fire. 

hadaka* L^UL*., pi. hadaku 

^^Ik^ stranger. 
hadoflriy see haderi. 
hade i^j^, to swallow. 

6 



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haderi jj^^, ^jj,^^, storm, tor- 
nado, tempest. 

had(d)ichi* ^^^j^^ (cf. Ar. ^«a^ 

ii), to explain, declare; D 5 

zcrniu fa haddichi akan majia 

kalami we will speak out if 

there is anyone to listen to 

our words. 
^ » ^ 
Twdua* I^J^^) to enter into (?). 

hafahiy Jtupshi or Iwhahi ^JLm^j 

havshi ^ tt^ ^ or hamshi* 

^^^^C^, to bark; F 184 da 
kamuka chikkin vmta nuisu- 
Ivafshi 8una ha/shi and there 
will be dogs to bark in the 
fire, they will bark. 

hag{g)u ^Mi, a small spear or dart 
for catching fish. 

Ihogu 3Mi or kaguvij^Mj^y j^^k^, 
left hand, A 17; cf. ?uzuni, 

Iiai* ^-fc., a form of the particle 
luir ; E 47 hai adamatoa as far 
as Adamawa, E 50 hai mu 
wushe till we pass by.... 

hatha* U^*. beautiful clothing. 

hai/a/e ^^fh^ t hai/a/a \iuu^, 

pL haifa/uy^ff^f pass, particip. 
of hai/e, born. 
hai/e ^jk^^, hai/e ^^^At*»> Ar. rt 
^^g^y 1. to bring forth, to 
bear,.of human beings, animals, 
trees and plants; 2. of the 
male, to beget ; C 28 randa 

(a)kahaifob8a (u"ic»^) ^^^ ^' 
fant on the day it is bom. 
haifa >*{»*• o^ Aoi/t^ ^{ ^, 1. to 



be delivered; 2. to be con- 
fined. 

haifua \^i^ or haifua t^a^, 
birth ; tun haifwi from birth. 

AanTicAt ^t'U^^, 1. alloy or metal 
with which alloy has been 
mixed; cf. ^aji\ 2. fig. deceit, 
fraud. 

haila jU^, menses of a woman. 

hainya IjU^ or haya* I^n^, pi. 
hainyoyi ^^x^^, used both 
as masc. and fem., 1. road, 
way, street; 2. fig. path of 
faith, custom, etc.; E 18 c^ 
niasuzama ga hainyoyin imi- 
sulmi those of you who con- 
tinue in the ways of Mus- 
sulmans; cf. ta/ariki, 

haira*, \j^, Ar. j^, good, D 40. 

haiyet{t)a C>nj>^, to trouble, to 
annoy. 

Iiajetu* C'^.ij^dfc., the vowels. 

haji ^^%-fc, Ar. rt «.^, 1. pilgrim; 

2. pilgrimage; B 162 gvri gor- 
reni en taffi (or amtaffi) haji ne 
I have a strong desire to go 
on the pilgrimage; D 22. haji 
^^^^'i to go on the pilgrimage, 
ie. to Mecca. 

hajijia \(.^ j^w^^ (Ar. ^^uxm, an 
intoxicant), drunkenness. 

hajta* lX^.fci, found in muhajta^ 
B 166, for maauhajtay pil- 
grims; cf. Ao/t. 

AaA;(A;)a l^, Uil, iL., Ar. iL., 
so, thus, F 153 ; hakka ne ko 
ha hakka ha is it so or not? 



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83 



x2^ 

hak{k)anan sjix^^ thus, in this 
or that manner, also a peri- 
phrasis for *the same.' 

hakarikari ^jl^>>^, ribs. 

haki ^J^f pi. hakukua t^^^X^., 
a kind of grass; F 95 (zkawo 
dcm haki gainye aduntae a little 
new grass is brought and 
pressed down. 

hakia \^tf^ or hekia IflC^, disease 
of the eyes, cataract (?). 

hakika U^^A^, Ar. Uj^A^., truly, 
verily, indeed. 

AaA^/banto* c%Utii^, to assert the 
truth or certainty of anything, 
to convince, to certify. 

hdkimi ^ p ^^«<^> pi* ^(fA^imat 

j^^i^U, Ar.^U, governor, 
ruler. 
hak{k)o ySi^y >^> P^ hak(k)oki 
^f>5Vfc, 1. pit or hole for game 

to fall into, pitfall; cf. turko; 
2. fig. of what leads into error 
or harm, a snare; yin hako to 
make a pitfall for animals, also 
to take animals in a pitfall; 
ina haJco hakin mutum I watch 
the words of anyone for a slip 
of his tongue to be used against 
him; ci,fak{k)o, 

hakora, patience; cf. hanku/ri. 

hak{k)ori (^j>i^, pi. hak{k)ora 

tj^^, tooth; ?iak(k)orin giwa 
ivory. For distinction between 
h(ik(k)ori and Iiau/ri, cf. under 
hcmri. 



hdkumclie^ see hakmnta, 
hakumchi whJ^ or hukumchi 



Ar. ^jfi^, 1. order, 
command; 2. judgment; D 59, 
73 ?ud allah ahi tjoanya hukum- 
chi nai ga ha/yi until God hath 
finished His judgment upon 
His servants. 

hdkumi ^oi£»l*., Ar. ^j^x^, power, 

influence. 
hakmrUa ^ T p ^ — or hakumche 

fjy^y Ar. ^i&i., to order, 

to command. 
hat Jt*., as far as ; cf . hcvr, 

halaka iUA, Ar. «2Ua ii, to destroy; 
G 2 ya hcdakasu he destroyed 

them, halaka liJU, Ar. HSJk, 
destruction. 
halal JJU-, halaa yjJ^- or hallata* 

Ul^, cf. Ar. JU-, what is 

lawful, proper, becoming, pure, 

ceremonially clean; F 205 fa 

maauhakU. . . those who regard 

...as lawful. Opposed to Jia- 

ram, 

•^ X fix 

halalehi ^JUL^, Ar. J.^, purity, 

propriety ; see prec. 
hal(l)ama* U*^*-, perhaps, it may 

be, I expect = ina tamaha, 
hatanxa* WU^ (U^JU ? B 131), cf. 

Ar. ^^^, instruction. 
haXama* jj^^y At. JJi^^ 1. to put 

anything in a book as a marker ; 

2. to put a mark on the ground ; 

cf. amara, 
fialas, lawful; cf. hakd, 

6—2 



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u**- 



84 



halbi ^jfi^t^, halbe i^t^ or ha/rbi 

^-J;^, 1. to discharge a bow, 
gun, etc. ; ya hcUbi Mbia or da 
kibia he discharged an arrow, 
ya luUbi bindiga or da bindiga 
he fired a gun; 2. to shoot or 
hit with a bow or gun, ya 
lialbeni he hit or shot me, 
G 5, 1. 1 akahalheahi da kibia 
he was shot with an arrow; 

3. of serpents, insects, etc., to 
sting. 

hal{l)i ^ (cf. (?) Ar. JU.), 

1. manner, mode, custom, pecu- 
liarity, fashion, characteristic, 
e.g. aaia hallin baraOy theft is 
characteristic of the thief; 

2. temper, disposition ; C 24, 
F 84 8una karfi halli they have 
a hard disposition. 

hal{l)ia* Q^ (cf. (?) Ar. ^^), 
adornment (1); cf. B 135 note. 

halichi* wJL*., Ar. J»»-, to create = 
haliUiy q.v. 

htdiku* ca)W, Ar. uUW, creator, 
1)3. ' 

halil* JJU., name of a commentary 

on the Koran (1); cf. E 11 
note. 

halilu* JhJU., Ar. J^jJ^, friend, 
a title frequently given to 
Abraham, D 77, F4f 

halita* UX^, Ar. J»»-, creature, 
creation ; F 208 aabon halita a 
new creation (i.e. creature). 
halita* cJU- or talita* cJL3, 
to create; cf. halichi. 



halshi yJjX^ or harshi ^j^^ pi. 

haUhina UtoJL*., U^^*., 1. the 
tongue; D 67 kishiirua che 
akansurya halshi hal makurua 
thirst shall bum the tongue 
down to the throat ; 2. 
tongue, language, enunciation, 
pronunciation ; haUhin wuta 
flame. 

hama l^iL, to gape ; yin hamia id. 
hamada* bU^ (cf. ? Ar. rt j^^), 

desert, stony plain. 

^ .» .» i < ^ 

hamata Up^, pi. hamatu ^7^^, 

arm-hole, arm-pit. 

Iiambttdiga Uj^.;^., ainhum, i.e. a 
disease which causes painful 
cracking of the skin in the 
under-joints of the little toe, 
V. kudumbia ; cf. * Hausaland,' 
p. 152. 

Immfude tgjukJL^ or ham/udi 
^jLiu»., to eat greedily, to 
throw into the mouth; ham- 
fuden gari ^yi^ O^*^^ ^^^' 
ing flour into little balls and 
throwing them into the mouth. 

hamilu* ^Xjk^^, Ar. 3Xfg^^, sword- 
belt, usually made of silk. 

hamsa iu. p^, Ar. rlma^, card, 
num. five ; often used for five 
thousand, the Hausa word 
biar being the ordinary equi- 
valent for five. 

hamshi*, to bark ; cf. hafahi. 

hamsin ^ ««. p ^, ^, |iu.» ^, Ar. 

, card. num. fifty. 



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85 



t^U:*. 






hamso* ^miq^, a small branch or 
twig. 

hamzari ^jj-^^i ^jjimm or Aam- 

1. to hasten, 

D 76 muna hamza/ri ztui gid- 
danmu we hasten to our homes, 
da hamzari hastily ; 2. to con- 
fess a fault (?), A 70. 

han(n)a v>^, U^, 1. to hinder, 
prevent, restrain, A 51 en bai 
hannasu ha if he restrain them 
not ; 2. withhold, deny, refuse, 
say no. In buying and selling 
na hanna = I refuse the offer 
made, or I decline to do busi- 

ness, ham,{n)awa \^i^, ^y^^^i 
refusing, refusal; F 16 shi ni 
ko karimu da ha Jia/nnawa He 
is gracious and refuses not. 

hanhare^ ^j^J^^, to kick away, 

B 144 domin ta hanhareka ga 
addini that it may kick you 
away from religion. 

hanchi ^^Ji*- or hantsi ^k;^., the 

morning two hours after sun- 
rise, i.e. about eight o'clock; 
B 103 tasawcd hantsi the time 
of sunrise, B 56. 

hanchi . JU^ or hanshi* 



pi. hanchochi y^ y ii^., h nose, 

nostrils; F 199 luuta na Jita 
ga haki da hamshi fire shall 
come out of their mouth and 
nostrils, goran hanchi bridge 
of the nose ; 2. loop (1). 



hanchi ^t^>^, found in the phrase 
hanchin kade = 1 . the fruit of 
the shea butter tree {kadanya\ 
2. a neck ornament worn by 
women. 

hamfude*^ to throw food into the 
mouth ; cf. hamfvde, 

hmga/ra I^aI^, 1. dropsy, 2. swell- 
ing caused by the guinea- 
worm. 

hangarma* U;jU»., a deep wide 
pit. 

hange* ^^i.^*-, 1*. as far as the 
eye can reach ; 2. to see at a 
distance, na han^eshi dagga 
nssOh 

hangum* j^ki ^ , swelling on the 
throat. 

hdnia^ noise ; cf . hayania. 

haninia ^ ^ ' ^ * *^ , ^^^^^^^g) yi 

haninia to neigh. 
hrniji 9...;^, ^ m,.i^y bowels, F 189, 

198. 

hankade* ^jSL^^ to open, e.g. a 
door. 

hankaka LS^Lx^, pi. hankaki 
^^£>Uu*., hankaku j^Uu*. 
(corvus scapulatus 1), a crow 
about the size of a raven, its 
body is black, its breast and 
a rim round the neck white. 

hankali ^AJU»., hanhdi iJ<hiJ^ 

(cf. (1) Ar. JXS, ^, intelli- 
gence), sense, prudence, fore- 
thought, foresight, care; da 
ha/nkali sensibly, prudently ; 



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86 



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yin hcmkaXi to take notice of, 

to beware of, v. B 5, C 16, 

maihankali prudent. 

hankaltilo y LlSJi^, Kanuri id., a 

small spear for throwing. 

hankora* j^*^, to believe in. 

" ■* * ' 
hamkula UUUL^, attention ; cf. 

hankali and seq. 

hankuri jkiMy ha/nihura \jkJJk or 
^ J ^ 
hakora [fkkj 1. patience, meek- 
ness, resignation, forbearance; 
ina hankuri or ina yin hcm- 
kuri I show patience or resig- 
nation, F 83 ku hankuri or 
ku yi hanhwri be patient ; 2. 
comfort, consolation, ya hada 
masu lumhu/ri (also hankura) 
he comforted them. 

hanna, see under han(n)a, 

ha^saki yJuJ^m^, tongs, pincers; 
cf. ansakiy hauKi/rtek{k)i. 

hansa/ri, to snore ; cf . minahari. 

hanshi, nostrils ; cf. Hanchi. 

hanta Uu». or anta lZ3t, liver; 
F 198 vnUa ta chisu ha/r ta 
shinyi (= chinyi) hanta the 
fire shall consume them till it 
eats up their liver ; for use of 
anta cf. D 67. 

hanu yi^, pi. ham,ua \y^^ 1. hand, 
A, \1 ka tara hanu you put 
forth both hands ; hanu/n giwa 
elephant's trunk, cf. use of 
Lat. manus ; hanun rua a kind 
of nut, like a kola, brought 
from Nup6 ; 2. sleeve, pi. han- 
aye ^^^^JL^; wuika hanu lit. 
sleeve knife, a kind of short 



sword attached by a leathern 
ring round the sleeve, used by 
the Tuaregs. 

hanzir* ji>^, jix^^ pi- hanzirad 

iJ^^fJ^, Ar. Jif-^^ wild 
swine ; cf. gursuna, 
ha^shiy to bark ; cf . ha/shi, 

ha/r ji^ or hal Jt»., till, until, as 
far as; used 1. with nouns, 
D 67 hal makurua unto the 
throat; with proper names of 
place, G 1 har mangi as far as 
Mangi, F 181 Aar habhahu to 
Habhabu ; in a list har = un- 
til, hence it = as well as, 
including, cf . har zvhairu and 
Zubair ; 2. with adverbs or pre- 
positions, har yanzu till now, 
up to the present time, G 1 
har ya zua zamani othmanu 
until the time of Othman ; 
3. in introducing clauses and 
sentences, D 73 hal allah shi 
wanya hukumchi nai ga bayi 
until God hath finished His 
judgment on His servants, v. 
D 84, F 198 ; Aar is often fol- 
lowed by the particle dai; 
hardai is sometimes equivalent 
to * in order that ' ; cf . hai. 

ha/ram j^j^^ J^])^i Ar. j^j^^ what 
is unlawful or cannot be done 
lawfully, anything ceremonial- 
ly unclean, unbecoming, un- 
just ; used in sense opposite to 
haUd ; ahin hara/m = haram, 

ha/rdmia \^\j^y unlawful gain 
or profit, e. g. from the sale of 



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J^\jm. 87 

pigs; chi haramia to make 



unlawful gain, ha/rdmu j»[ 
anything which is unlawful, 
E 17 8una duhi ha/ramu thej 
behold what is unlawful, F 9 
id. 
han'dra* SjSj^^ Ar. j\j^y 1. pas- 
sionateness, F 8 A^ her hara/ra 
duka give up all proud looks ; 
2. to stare at, frown on, look 
proudly on. 

ha/rasa Ci^^, reproof. 

ha/rdwa t^j/i-^, name given to 
leaves or stalks of beans and 
ground-nuts, e.g. ha/roMXjm 
wake, harawom gujia. These 
are used as food for horses. 

harhi tmfj-^j 1. to kick, of a horse, 

cf. Iiabri ; 2. to shoot, cf. hcUbi. 
harhiay a bird ; cf . hashia, 

. ha/rda* S^^^, used with aamu to 

learn by heart, D 33. 
hcMrdai, until, in order that; cf. 

h>ar. 
ha/rerewa* Syny^^y joyous laugh- 

ter. 
hargi tj^y i^J'^t small spear 

tied to the wrist, which is 
thrown and then pulled back. 

hcurgowa \^ji^y noise made by 

talking loudly or angrily ; yin 

hcurgowa to howl. 
har{r)i* j^, kSJ^* ^- collection 

of cavalry for war; 2. a raid 

in war. 
hariji* sV** or hwnjiji <^j^, pi- 



haT^ai Jt^j^, Ar. ^f^, 
a letter of the' alphabet. 

haHo yij^^ again = har + yo (cf . 
encore = hanc horom). 

ha/raa I *i>;i ^ or hiraa L*^^.^, a 
turban usually made of white 
muslin with pictures worked 
on it, worn by princes only. 

harahi* ^j^^ abundance of talk. 

ha8{8)a ^,^M». or h,az(z)ajM» or az{z)a 
J^, to light, h,a88a vmta to light 
a fire, or to rake together 
expiring embers. 

ha8{8)a^ L^*^» ^ ^^® ^ ^ *^^" 

gasda. 
hdmda tju>l*. or ha8(8)ada tju»^, 

Ar. jum»., envy, jealousy, D 7, 

F 8, E 24. 
Aa5(8)a(^ jumi^, Ar. jum%.*., to 

trouble, torment, persecute. 
ha8dla* *jC^y cf. (?) Ar. 

anger, displeasura 



hasdra 



Ar. 



1. to suffer 



loss, A 33 8un haaara alahira 
they shall suffer loss in the 
next world; 2. tjll*., loss, 
cf. (Mdrttf ta8dri. 

XX fix 

hasaahi* ^j*Lm». (cf. Ar. ^,^m»>, to 

listen, perceive), to consider 
carefully, to be in doubt. 

X • X ^ X • X 

hashia l;>y»^ or ha/rhia* ^j-^, a. 
bird rather larger than a pigeon 
with red rim round the eyes. 

hashia ^t^j^i silk border at the 
bottom of a woman's dress. 



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88 



LH>^ 



haskdka* JlC.u»>, 1. to shine, give 
light; 2. to lighten, illumi- 
nate. 

haske ^yCl^., pi. haskoki ^ ^ £a> yC »».^, 
light; F 229 faskokimu awn 
fi wuta da haske their faces 
shall be brighter than fire; 
maihashe full of light, B 167 
hirni madina maihaake tutut 
the town of Medina is ever 
full of light. 

J St ^ 

haamnu* ^L-*.^, proper noun 
(Hassan) used verbally, F 240 
8u hasaanu they come to the 
place of Hasan. 

hatumi i^^^^y cf. Ar. rt^^^X**, a 
charm written on a board 
(alio) divided by lines into 
squares; the ink is then 
washed off and the water 
drunk as a medicine, or to 
secure anything desired. For 
specimen of such cf. *Spec. of 
Hausa Lit.,' finis. 

?Mu y^y to ascend, shortened form 

of hawa, q.v. F 143. 

hauia, hoe ; cf . hauya, 

^ 6 ^ 
hauia \iy^i twenty, a score, used 

esp. in counting cowries with 

sums divisible by twenty, thus 

hauia biu = forty, ?iauia hok- 

kai = one hundred and forty. 

Ck)mpare A 39 shi ne ya dauki 

wwri ya her hauia dari he 

seizes one cowry but loses two 

thousand cowries. 

hauka l£»^^, hauka l^^A, 1. a 

fool; "BIS jahili ahika yi kama 



hauka the ignorant man would 

act like a fool, F 32 ; 2. folly, 

madness ; 3. to be mad ; mai- 

hauka or man,hauka^he a mad- 

t X » .^ 
man. hauka^she ij^y^i to be 

fierce or mad, to rage, to be 

^ ^ • ^ 
ecstatic. haukata C»%^> ^, 

causat. to madden. 

hauni iJ>^, left, ha/au na hauni 
= luigu left hand ; E 45 mu 
rataa ka/no da bau^hi mu berau 
hauni we turn aside from 
Kano and Bauchi, we leave 
them on the left. 

hauri ^^*», tooth, tusk; haun 

as distinguished from hakkori 

is applied to the large front 

teeth of a man or animal or to 

a single tooth, hav^'in giwa 

would be a whole tusk, hak- 

korin giwa a piece of ivory. 
^ • < ^ <» *' 

liauaa* Lo^^, pi. harata Ut^»., 

tongue, language, speech. 

hauaa U^*» or ha/aaa UjA, prop. 

n. Hausa, the Hausa language, 

the Hausa nation, the Hausa 

country {kasan hauaawa or 

kasan hausa, id.); hahavshe 

iJ^^i^^ (= 6a + havsa + i with 

change oi a io ah before t), 

pi. hauaa/uoa \^«»ym, a Hausa, 

a man of the Hausa nation. 

havsaki* i!l.i>^^, a kind of shirt 
put on under a shroud, D 88 
note ; cf . ausagi. 

hauahi cH>^, anger, dislike, vexa- 
tion, envy; yanajin Jiauahi he 



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feels angry, yanajin havshi/na 
he is vexed with me, auna jin 
havshinaa thej dislike him; 
cf. {Vjfushi, 

Jiauahi* ^^y^, to seize. 

havshi, to bark ; cf . hafshi, 

hanitsina* Ufc^^, uproar. 

hauya^ L;^^, pi. hauyi iW^^) 

hauywna Ljl^^-^, hauyoyi 

J • -» 
^^^^, hoe=yato»wya. 

Aat(;a ^^ or Aat^ ^», to mount, 
to ascend; ya hatoa doki or 
ya hawa bissa doki the regular 
expression for mounting on 

horseback, mahayi*^j(jm»^, lad- 
der; P 143 ankafa sirati ataahi 
ahau the bridge shall be set up, 
men shall ascend upon it. ha- 
wa 1^^, 1. height, F 145 havm 
nasa har sawo nasa habu tvawa 
its height and its length are 
the same, without doubt; 2. 
the firmament, lit. the height. 
hawa* tyk, Ar. rt ^jA, eager de- 
sire, F 10. 

hawainya or hawoinya t g >^ ^, 
chameleon ; they are very com- 
mon in Hausaland. 

* " " 

hawartek(Jc)i ^Ajjy^., tongs; cf. 

hanaaki, 
hawaye Lriy^^, sing, and collec- 
tive, tear, tears ; hawayen zaki 

ty^j v>-i>^, lit- lion's tears, 
marks cut on a woman's face ; 
yin hawaye to shed tears. 



89 



ha/ya l^^, cf. Ar, rt ^^ ; C 10 

maihaya the Living One. 
haya* road, A 20 for hainyay q.v. 

hayaki ^-^l^.^, smoke; jirigin 
hayaki and jirigin vmta = ex- 
pressions used on the R. Niger 
for steamship; yin hayaki to 
pour forth smoke, to smoke; 
for to smoke used of tobacco, 
cf . aha. 

hayania i^;^ or hdnia VI*-, noise 

as of many men walking about 
and talking, contention. 

haye ^^j-ts-fc», to fall upon, e.g. ya 
haye maau he fell upon them. 

hazo ^S^i mist, fog, da liazo misty. 
hekiay disease of the eyes ; cf . hakia, 

hijra* \/^J^, Ar. S;^^, the Hejira 

(A.D. 622) P 255. ^ 
hikima* W^, Ar. ^iC^, wisdom. 

Ma Ut^ or Jila U^, Ar. aH^^, 
1. stratagem ; 2. a bribe given 
to a judge, D18(?). 

hil{l)afa* lilU, Ar. (?) OJUl, lit. 
wanting — an expression used 
of cowries short in number. 

himma W-A, himma j^j^ E 42, 

f s 
Ar. ^Ua, zeal, diligence; da 

himma diligent, ma,ida himma, 
to show diligence, D 26 A?w yi 
berchi ku /alaka ku m^ida 
himma sleep and awake, rise 
up and show diligence, i.e. in 
worship. 
hira*, conversation, etc. ; cf. Jira, 



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^tluM^ 



90 



hvrsa, muslin turban ; cf . ha/rsa. 

hisoM* %^Li*^, Ar. ^Ui^, judg- 
ment, F139 akare kua hiaabi 
judgment is completed. 

hiska, wind ; cf . iaka. 

horo* ^j^^f correction; used in 
B 132 for /oro. 

hulcU J^, (1) cf. D 77, 96. 

hubba^ an exclamation of astonish- 
ment; cf. haha. 

hvda ^>^^f i.q./uda q.v., 1. to 
bore a hole in a tree, etc. ; 2. to 
hoe the ground with a/atainya, 
to dig in a farm ; B 86 maiko- 
kari na noma ko huda he who 
gives his time to farming and 
tilling. 

hvdu^ jk^y four; ct/udu, 

^ J * S J 

huja Uh^, cf. Ar. ^^^ 1. a£fair, 
reason, excuse ; A 54 ya rika 
taimama kam babu huja he 
performed his ablutions with 
sand, though there was no 
reason for his doing so, B 10, 
140; 2. neglect of work, use- 
lessness; 3. mg»^, to have an 
excuse; D io ba shi huja ba 
ko shi arma he has no reason 
or answer to give. 

hvji 1 4%.^, to shirk or refuse 



work ; cf. prec. 
hukv/mchi w»»x^ 



see hakumchi. 



hukumshi ^ ^ L»X^, Sokoto form of 

#» 

hukumchiy q.v. 
t J 
hume LK^y to prevent a person s 

leaving; na humeahi I pre- 
vented his leaving. 



Ar. >>^, found 



A 1 

humuahi ^JL^^^ Ar. c^^^, 1. one 
fifth, cf. *Hausa Gramm.' p. 
41 ; 2. (cf. Ar. J.^), custom, 
tribute, tax, toll; 3. propor- 
tion of slaves or goods paid to 
a king after a raid. 

hu/rnian* O^j-^i 

with Ar. article in E 52 al- 
hurman wadanan annabawa 
(thou seest) the dignity of 
these prophets. 

huru* j^m», Ar. j^, found in the 
expressions huru-l-aini F 103, 
and hwrvraini F 228, from 

the Ar. ^j^jdS j^^, lit. with 
eyes of which the black and 
white are intensely distinct, 
stag-eyed, the Houris. 

hu/ruchi, confession ; cf. /uruchi. 

huruji*, letter of alphabet; cf. 

harifi, 

' • " "* 
husanche* ^Ix^^mm, irritated. 



huska* lC»fc. =fu8ka face ; B 171 
en rara/e ina aza huskata let 
me crawl, let me place my 
face on the ground. 

hutawa* t^U^.^ = /utawa rest, 

B62. 
hutsu* ^y^'i mad. 

% ^, cf. Ar. Ajjt, yes. 

% ^Jt^ to conquer, overcome, au i 

maau they overcame them ; cf . 

ima, 
i, a colloquial abbreviation of ^ 

yi to do'. 
iaka, limit; cf. iyaka. 



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bls^ 



91 



^ 



ibdda bW^» Ar. oll^, service of 

God, B 47, D 51 ; kuna kokari 
kuna ibada take pains, serve 
God ; also used of service to men. 

ibi ^^, irf^f * variety of the 
kola nut brought from Yoruba. 

iblis, eblis ^jJu\, A r. the evil spirit. 

iblu y^ or ibru j|/^, a small 
grain used, when ground up, 
for gruel, soup, cakes, etc. 

iche ^j\y a tree ; cf . itcbche, 

ida j^y ida labari= 1. to delay in 
delivering a message; 2. to 
carry unwelcome news. 

iclan Q^\, Ar. 1^1 (the i in this 
word is pronounced > c?), 1. 
if ; F 127 idan anzo ga/reshi ya 
she (= che) if you go to him, 
he will say. In Kano en is 
regularly employed in conver- 
sation rather than idan, though 
idem is equally used in writing, 
c£ Gram, p. 52 ; for inter- 
change of idan and en cf. 
B 47, 48, also C 19-26; 2. 
when, P 93 idan sun kare 
aoLla kuma su davJca when 
they have finished praying, 
they take (thee) ; cf. E 39-44, 
46-48, 50. 

idi jkffi, Ar. j^^ft, 1. religious feast; 
2. procession outside a town 
towards Mecca, once a year, 
ending with the killing of a goat. 

and tdandanu ^jujift, j^ju^t. 



1. eye; B 32, 33, F 80, 199; 
idonmagi = squint, idon kishirai 
blind; employed, like the Ar. 
^>^, in various figurative and 
tropical uses, e.g. 2. sight, view ; 

idon dunia lpj> O^^^ ^ ^^® 
sight of men; 3. chief; B 76 
dvha ga bello idon rualki nai 
behold Bello, the ruler over his 
kingdom; 4. joint; idon sau 
(pi. ijian sau) ankle, idon 
kaffa id., idon harm wrist-bone, 
knuckle; 5. idon rua spring of 
water; 6. idon zau/ra, (a) a 
variegated cloth of native ma- 
nufacture, (6) a white stone, 
pearl (1). 

idrisu tr^j>^ Ar. id., Idris, F 39, 
mentioned Koran xix. 57, ge- 
nerally identified with Enoch. 

id{d)ubar j^J^J^, reddish brown 

ass. 
igia or igiya 1^-*^^, pi. igoyi 

L5?>**f' ig^yoyi L5^>6*±f, i. 

rope, cable, string ; 2. fig. igian 
rua current of a stream. 
ihu* ^ftto^t, ho! a cry or shout to 
attract attention. 

ijia ljH)>^t, 1. pupil ; ^'^an ido 
pupil of the eye, ijian sau pi. 
ankles, cf. idon sau; 2. one 
cowry, for the plural kwrdi, 
q.v., is employed; cf. tvuri. 

iko ^^, pi. ikoki ^^^^, power, 
authority, right, used fre- 
quently in the expression ikon 
cUlah the power of God, visita- 



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L5" 



C5^ 



tion of God; F 110 ba ka ikon 
jirkUatva thou wilt have no 
power to turn, maiiko powerful, 
E 12 inaiiko da kouxi almightj. 

ikt* jJf, until, D 92. 

ima j^y l^, to conquer, drive 
away, i.q, i, q.v.; cf. seq. 

imai ^y^, yin imai to be able; 
en na imai -en na iya, 

imani* ipM, Ar. ^>4l, 1. com- 
passionate = ^utum maiyin 
tavsaye ; 2. pure in heart. 

ina Uf, = ahn there is or there 
are ; the expression ina da ahi 
(= akoishi) is extremely com- 
mon in conversation. 

ina, to stammer; cf. inina, 

ina Uf, pron. 1st pers. sing. com. 
gender; ina (also kana shina, 
etc.) is used with secondary, 
nominal or participial forms 
of verbs, to express the pre- 
sent tense, thus, aor. = na taffi 
I went, but ina taffia I am 
going; nafitto, but inajittowa, 
etc. Where these nominal or 
participial forms are not in 
use ina is used with the pri- 
mary form of the verb, e.g. ina 
80 I wish. 

in{n)a* Up, mother (a borrowed 
Fulah word), 

inda* jUft, Ar. prep., F132 in the 
presence of. 

inga/ramu* y^^t^, war horses ; 
cf . anga/rmia a large mare. 

ingata* OUUp, ^UUp, 1. as v. to 



trust in, rely on; 2. adj. re- 
liable, trustworthy. ingata>chi* 
^^UuJLft, adj. 1. sound, per- 
feet, solid, reliable ; G 7 wancm 
labari ingatachi this account 
is reliable; 2. large. 

vngirichi i^^kJj^ or ingirochi 

w>^JLJLg, hay, dried grass 
* * ^ 

chopped up for feeding horses. 

inina ^>e^ or tTMz Up, to stammer, 
stutter ; ininan hahhi impedi- 
ment or hesitation in speech. 

inji* ^^%jt, expr. = it is said to be. 

iri ^, ^y pi. irare ^j |^, seed 
of plants, of men and creatures, 
offspring, kind, stock, tribe; 
minene irin itache what sort of 
tree? 

iaa ^*«t>^, Ar. ^^-»eP, Jesus, F127, 
128. This is the Mohammedan 
form of the name, v. Koran 
iii. 40, while yasuu and ya- 
shun are those which were 
employed by the Christian 
Arabs at the time of and 
prior to Mohammed. 

i8(B)a ^j»Ay U»p, 1. to reach, arrive 
at; 2. to be equal to, to be 
sufficient; da ya issa = enough, 
ba 8U chi ya issa they did not 
eat enough; cf. isso, ishe, iske, 

isga or esga UJLp, a cow's or horse's 
tail used as a switch for driving 
away flies. 

ishe iJ^, iji^l, 1. to reach, meet, 
overtake; A 44, F 76 rmitua 



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^itlmJLS' 



93 



u-e^ 



ta ishenta death is coming 
upon thee; 2. to suffice, be 
sufficient for; F 42 ta iahemu 
it is sufficient for us. ishe- 

she jJLJLfi, |<-JUwf, fem. ishd- 
shia l^li^, l^Ut, pi. isham 
> M»U>f-, ^-rfU»l, 1. strong, power- 
ful; 2. sufficient. 

wAiriw OjJL^ or asherin Oj^> 
<» ^ X XX 

-^^' L>0**^> card, numeral, 
twenty; cf. goma, 
iJ^A-^ UumP, bwt or hiska lv..»fc., 
pi. wA»A:i ^^tlft, ^>^t, 
or hiskoki ^^£»^C»ufc, wind; 

F 154 ; «^a7^ At«A;a (lit. to drink 
the wind) is used with to/^, 
etc. to go for a walk. 

i«^e ^y^**ft, ^y^t, to meet ; D 40, 

F 73 A;a iske mursalina thou 
wouldst meet the messengers. 

i8(8)o ym^f y»t\, 1. to arrive at, 

2. come towards ; cf . w(«)a. 

ita Cf\, kZ^f U|, pers. pron. 3rd 

pers. fem. sing, nominative, 
she, it ; objective, her, it, A 10, 
11, 13, 14, 18, 36, B 120. 

itaclie iJUf or iche ^1, pi. itatua 

ty^Ut, when masc. =ti'ee, when 
fem. = a stick cut from a tree, 
though this distinction is not 
always observed ; itachen vmta 
firewood, dan itache a little 
piece of wood, F 94. 



itache ^^Ul, Sokoto form of 
itache, tree, F 94. 

iwa t^t, \^y a shrub, from twigs 
of which is made the a^saberi, 
the mat used to cover a door- 
way. 

itvo, to make; cf. yitvo, 

iya bt, mother, the plural iyaye^ 
q.v., is used in the sense of 
'parents'; cf. the like use of 

uivaye, and Ar. o!>^'- 

^y^ \j,^> ^^1, to be able, to be 
equal to, can; ba ya iya shi 
gani ba or ba ski iya gani ba 
he could not see. After the 
pronominal forms ending in 
na it is preferable to write 
l^; a passive form aia is 
occasionally used, cf. iyawa, 

iyaka l^l^;!, 1. limit, boundary, 
end, of a country, a room, etc. ; 
2. as the concluding word of a 
letter = finis. 

iyali iJL-j-ft, Ar. JLj^, family, 
members of a family. 

iyata UUt or yata UL;, elder 

sister ; cf . ya. 
iyatua Ijl^ft, I^Qf, ability, power, 

commonly found in comp. maii- 

yawa I^C4^, G^ie^> almighty, 
A 59, F 2," 22, 210; cf . t>. 

W^y^ V^^l' P^* ^^ ^y^ mother, q.v. ; 

parents, A 47, F77, 150, 252. 

iyea* ^/-^, ij^\ or tyesda* jum^, 

^ ft "x 

jum;), forms related to iya, to 



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94 



succeed in a thing, to accom- 
plish something. 

iyo yfj^, ^1, to swim ; yin iyo id. 

iyo* >j|, verily. 

iza j^, jf, 1. to push, drive away; 

2. to fall izawa tjtj^, Ijjjf , 
driving away. 
izanj if, when; see iclan. 

izanwa* !^M, thirsty (?); D 92 
kowa ya izanwa ahi do aniya 
shi yarn he who is very thirsty 
takes pains to dig a well. 

izgili J«^j| (cf. Ar, Jyij, nim- 
ble), a game played by boys, 
pulling at each other's arms, 
etc. to find something hidden 
in the hand of one of them. 

izufi* iA}\, Ar. vJ***) ^^® ^^ *"® 

9 ^ t 

sixty equal paragraphs {^\jmb\) 
into which the Koran is di- 
vided. For similar phonetic 

9 0^ 

change cf. Ar. ^i,^^ Hausa 
zunufi ^Jl33 crime. 

The letter m, is used by the 

Hausas to represent the sound 
of the English j. In several 
words it is interchanged with 
that of sh^ z, y or a, e.g. 
jarili = ya/rili, ja/rimi = zarumi^ 
jwai = shuni, jura/re = acmra/ra, 

ja l^, to draw, drag, pull; D 1 3 aja- 
ahi he shall be dragged, ja rua 
to draw water, jan jiki crawl- 



ing F155; ka ja da baya g^t 
thee behind ! ya ja bakinaa he 
kept silence, ja ckikki D 9 = 
secret thieving, lit. to drag the 
belly, an expression suggested 
by the crawling of a snake, 
applied to the secret approach 
of a thief ; cf . jaioo^ jajaya, 

ja U, pi. jaja^ u^VW-j cf. Ar. 

rt 0^» ^^y ^^^ ^®^ ^ j^ 
vmr, the adv. wur being only 
used with the word ja; jam, kor 
rifi brass, copper, jaja kafldoffi 
a little red, reddish, jan miji* 
or jan namiji* = with reckless 
courage. 

jaha* l^ 1. rat, stinking-rat; 
2. black ass; 3. ja>ba duchi the 
wild dove. 

J s ^ 9 s ^ 

jabba/ru* jl^^, Ar. jitik>, mighty, 
V. B 118; applied to God, F 50, 
B3. 

jadaga 4j^, to draw up in line 
of battle; cf. daga, 

jagaba L^, guide to show the 
way; he goes in front of a 
caravan, whilst the maduguy 
q.v., goes behind; cf. ahv^aba 
id. 

jagora I^ai^, stick, e.g. one used 
by blind men to find the way. 

jahddi ^ly^, Ar. ^ly^i., war^ espe- 
cially a holy war; E 7 idmi 
mun zo jahadi mu ahi (i.e. 
chi) aana when we come to the 
war and conquer the heathen. 

jahalichi %tJUt^, Ar. Jiyi^, ig- 



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95 



V>^ 



norance, da jahalichi in igno- 
rance, ignorantly ; cf . jahili. 

jahannama j^*^^^ Ar. ^^^ , hell, 
D 71, 73, F 156; ct jahima. 

jahili ^^^., JaU., Ar. JjbU., 
ignorant, i.e. with respect to re- 
ligion, B 1 2, C 3 ; cf . jahalichi, 

jahima* Ua ,.fcj>i,, ^^*h^> Ar. 

^i.fc i^ , burning hell, D 23, 
the highest and best division 
in hell, cf. F 164 note; cf. 
jahannama, 

jamye* igg^i to twist, e.g. a 



piece of cloth. 
jaiya* i^, quarrel, fight,* yin 
jaiya to quarrel, to fight. 

jajaya j^%^, to drag ; c£ ja. 
jaje i^^, staining red, used of 
cloth, thread, etc. 

jajebbera* t^>^jfc., preparation, ro- 
wan jajebbera the day before 
any feast. 

yo/i ^<%^, title of the chief leader 
of a caravan. 

T'* U>ai»«*, warrior. 



jajtmur 

jaka ^U^, to draw after one, to 

pull. * 
jaka/ra tjXiL, the name of a large 

pool at the side of the Kano 

market. 

jaki Jl^, ^\.jakai ^^[^,jakuna 

U£>1^, fern, jakainya l^u^l^, 
donkey, ass, A 6. 
jaki ^V^9 in phr. jaki hisaa tudu 
plaiting of hair in two lines. 



one in the middle of the head 
and one behind. 

jalala* JUi^, Ar. JU^, great, 
mighty, used of God, F 135; 
cf . jalla. 

jalUi ^^JLj^JLib., a small water duck, 

with slight red tint on neck, 
black velvety head and brown 
variegated body. 

jalla^ J^, Ar. J^, great, glorious, 
used of God ; C 49, D 45, F 2, 
135; cf. jalala. 



jamMb^a* 



i.q. 



^U^, Ar. ^U^, 
seq. F5; E4. 

J 6 ^ 9 • o> 

jam^u* ^^, Ar. ^^9 band, com- 
pany, companions, F 3. 

jamaha v<^, W^9 Ar. >^*i^t pol- 
luted; oLjaraha, 

. • " " 
jam^i ^^, gullet, windpipe. 

janyaro ^j\^J^, 1. = prec. ; 2. a 
large tree, with reddish bark, 
its wood used in supporting 
sheds, etc. 

jandr(r)i ^jj^t an evil spirit, 
said to be the patron of the 
masubori, to make men mad, 
and to eat dung. 

jara t^, cf. (?) Ar. ^t^\, discount, 

etc, ; i.q. ladda, q.v. 
^ f f *• * 

jaraha l^ji^, Ar. ^^^^i^, filthiness, 

uncleanness; aLjanaba, 

ja/raha v>»'> Vj-^ or ja/rabe j^j^, 
^ fi *» 
Ar. ^^a^i to make trial of, 

A 65 dUah ya kan gamma 

arzikinka da ja/rofba God may 



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*t>J^ 



96 



L5*W 



give thee prosperity to try 
thee; 2. to make trial, as of 
a horse before buying; 3. to 
tempt to evil, cf. seq. 

jarabi yjjj., j^>*., trial, yin 
jardbi to make trial of = prec. 

jwre* ^l^, a cricket (1). 

jcM^liy aeejariri, 

^arimi* L««<^^> servant of a king, 
warrior ; i.q. zwrum% q.v. 

ja/rvri {^j^j^ or jcmli ^J^j^ 

or ya/rUi iJ^Jj^, baby up to 
one year old; C 28 duba ga 
jariri fa rcma da {a)kahaifa8a 
behold the infant on the day 
of its birth ; cf . jinjiri, 
jaJtami* ^j^> ©iid of day (?). 

jautoi* ^ya^i spices. 

jawdbi* vl^'^) ■^^' v!>^> speech, 
answer ; D 47 kadda mu kasa 
fadijawabi that we fail not to 
utter a reply. 

jaioagi ^\y^f !• to walk back- 
wards and forwards; 2. to 
fly like a bird. 

jatvayi ^^|>i>. or jiwoyi ^^^^ 

to visit, to go to salute. 
dx *• 1.11 

jaiod J!^*-, a nut, which when 

ground and burnt produces 

a scent. 

jaM)0 ^j^>» to draw out, to bring 
together, to draw towards one- 
self, e.g. straying sheep; a form 
of ja, q.v. 

jayaki ^^/^, the fishing vulture, 

Ar. v^ 



je ^j^, Ar. ^l^, to go, to depart ; 
mu je da ni or mu je tare 
(B 166) let us go together. 

jMa* l(ik., Ar. 3^, a red tobe. 

xO «'» 

jebda* jl^*., ^e/cfe «^^f^> » ^o"^ ^^ 
jefa to throw, or it may perhaps 
be formed from j%b{be) to place 
down. • 

jefa Wytu^, to throw, to cast; jefa 
da diuUsu to pelt with stones. 
Derived forms are jefas i^^Aoh. 

to throw out, jefasda jumA*^, 
to throw out, overthrow, jefo* 
yy^i to place, F 140 a/e/b 
Aar taka/rdun aiku namu we 
shall be placed according to 
the list of our deeds; jefsa* 

,^H!^ and jefshe* ts^^^y to 
cast out. 
jegawa, sandy hill ; cf . jigowa, 

jego 3JUi^, accouchement, giving 

birth; tana yin jego = ta haifu, 

" • •* ^ 

jehv/irma U/a^jfc*, falcon. 

je/e ijL -i|, thinly wooded or un- 
inhabited country ; cf . daji, 
^ xi 
jekada \jSL^, 1. a messenger, sent 

by anyone ; cf . manzo a king's 
messenger ; 2. a tax-collector. 

jei{l)ala* "H^. Ar. J^JL^, the 
cloth placed on a saddle. 

jema U*^, a kind of scented grass, 
growing to height of four feet. 

jema^a*, all, i.q. jama% q.v. 

jemagi ^i^y a large sized bat. 



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jemi j^^^-Nfc., 1. to rub the hair oflF 
a skin; 2. to tan; majemi or 
maijima a leather dresser ; cf . 
jima. 

jenfi* ^j^ (cf. (?) Ar. sJu^), 
back ; hadu jenfi to put to flight. 

jeni ^y^ (cf. Ar. rt ^^^ viii), 
together, ku taffi jeni keep 
together ! 

jenti* . JU^, a slight illness. 

•" ' ' . • ' 
jera ]j^^^^fm, jere \^j*tf> or jire* 
I • • • 

{Jjt^y line, procession, rank ; 

ajere in a line, or abreast. 

jere* (Jj^ok., a wick (?). 

^cW* j.*^ (cf. Ar. j\^ v), head- 
ache, sunstroke, giddiness. 

jetaka* \X 2.% fc, a measure of 
distance, as far as can be seen 
with the eye. 

jet(t)o, to agree with, i.q.jit{t)Of q. v. 

ji ^-^, 1. to hear, perceive, feel, 
e.g. jin tsoro to feel fear, to 
fear; jin wuta to become 
warm, or to warm oneself; 

2. to understand, na ji ruaga- 
nanka I understand thy speech, 
ban ji ha I don't understand ; 

3. to obey ; cf . jiyaya, 

jia l^, i.q. prec.; C 36; D 5 

majia listener. 
jia l^, yesterday ; sheka/ranjia 

the day before yesterday ; war 

tan jia last month, jia da dere 

last night. 
jihda ljL«fc,(cf. (1)Ar. dj^j, butter). 



ointment, scent, ag. twran'e ; 
jibdan kass a kind of creeper. 
jib(b)e ^*ih., 1. to put cotton, gar- 
ments, etc. out to dry after 
washing; 2. to place a load 
down on the ground. 

jibga I k^ or jibki* ^l.^ ^, 1. 
thatched roof; 2. to store up 
goods ; cf . seq. 

jibgi ^J^4^, a large quantity of 
anything, esp. of food. 

jib(b)i tjtt^y 1. sweat, perspira- 
tion, D 68 ; 2. to sweat, per- 
spire. 

jibi ^^t^y 1. a food made of flour 
and mia mixed ; 2. used as 
a general word for food. 

jibi ^^1^% , the day after to-morrow ; 
toata/n jibi the month after 
next ; cf. gata^ chitta, 

i*^i* L5*?^» dung-hill ; cf. jujai. 

jibki*, a thatched roof ; cf . jibga, 

jiche iJV ^^ jichi ^JS^., to turn 
upside down ; cf . jirikiche, 

Jidda* tjLi^ (Ar. id., earnestly), 
really, B 33 note. 

ji/jif sft ^. a ^, B 56 twilight, i.q. 
jijifi, q.v. 

jigerihti i^^jAi^, to canter, used 
of a horse. 

jigo ^kf^, pi. jiguna U k f ^,, 1. a 
tree on which meat is hung 
up to dry; 2. a post for sup- 
porting roof; 3. a beam for 
drawing water from a well. 

jigowa \^k*^ or jegawa t^i^, 1. 



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sand, hill covered with sand ; 
2. a field with good soil (sandy) 
for cultivation. 
jiji im^t^y plant, sweet scent made 
from its root. 



jijia l«*»^, pi. jiwoji i^^y^, 

vein, nerve ; F 175, 19 dunia 
tso/ua sai jiwoji the world is 
old and has nothing but veins 
(left). 
jijifi i5*%<^> twilight just before 
the dawn; see Gr. p. 64; cf. 



jijiga ii%^, i«j»i^, to shake vio- 
lently, to feel a load in order 
to test its weight ; cf . jinjini. 

jika i£i^, fem. jikata UiVi^, pi. 

jikoki ^^9^Si^ grand-child. 

jika* ou^, to have pity on (?) ; 

cf . B 6 note. 
jik(k)ay to moisten ; cf . jik(k)i. 

jiki ySXit^, i^S^j pl- jikuna U£»., 
body ; maijiki a fat person, 
= maitumbi. 

jik{k)i ^^5^*., to become wet; 
particip. form j%k{k)ewa, pass. 
ajik{k)a; F 78 akawo maga/ni 
ajik{k)a medicine is brought 
and is put in water. 

jikka Ui^ or zikka* lij, ipl.jikkuna 

lUi^, jikoki i^3^i Ar. sJj, 
large bag, esp. one made of 
skin, used for cowries not for 
holding water. 

jima U^, to wait a little while; 



pass, in phr. sai anjima = after 
a little while, or good-bye for 
the present, jima kaddan or 
jimkaddan, wait a little, or a 
little while ; cf . jinjima. 
jima t^,^^, to tan; maijima or 
majemi a tanner ; cf. jemi, id. 

jim>a Cd^, i^^t^y ^ *^"^» injure, 
•of a malady to cause pain. 

jimero ^j^^, a species of dark 
coloured rice. 

jim{m)ina U«j^, ostrich. 

jimkaddan^ a little while; cf. 

jima. 
jimke ^^^i^jfc., to grasp with the 

hand, to take a handful. 
jimolo ^iy^i^f wild cat. 

jimrau ^j^^, ass with reddish 
body. 

jimri j-^^ 1. to be patient, to 
bear, to endure, B 36 ku jimri 
jehadi endure strife; 2. da 
jimri used adverbially, ina 
yin aiki da jimri = ina da 
hankuri, 

jtnga UU*., wages or taxes, yin 
jinga to pay wages, etc. ; mai- 
jinga a man who pays wages, 
sometimes applied to the man 
who receives wages. 

jingina UaJ>^ or jinjina tifcii^i, 
1. a pledge or security for 
money owing; 2. to leave 
anything as a pledge. 

jtngtna ^>»Ai^ or jingine i^M^, 



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<^j^ 



to recline, to lean against 
something. 

jini im^a^i blood ; F 200 akaisu 
8u aha deffi, da Jim they shall 
be brought (and made) to 
drink poison and blood. 

jini ^*ij*., found in comp. jinin 
kafiri red beads worn by 
heathen women round the 
neck. 

jinia Uj^^, a reed, or two or 
three tied together, forming 
circular band outside under- 
neath roof. 

jinjima Ipfc I m, apparently a 

strengthened form of jimaf 

q.v., to wait a short time; 

partic. form F 62 A^ san dunia 

kaddan muka jinjimawa thon 

knowest that in the world we 

stay but a short time. 
X #- * 
jinjiinaka i£»l q ^ ;^ , a bird, with 

black and white plumage, 
rather larger than a hankaka, 

jinjirni a': *c , pelican, stork (?). 

X ' 

jinjina Ua^.^*., acclamation, shout 

in war. 
jinjina, to leave anything as a 

pledge ; cf . jingina. 
jinjini ^im^.'^m, 1. to feel a thing 

in order to ascertain its weight; 

2. to shake the hand as a sign 

of greeting ; cf . jijiga. 

jinjiri ^j m, I i^, child, infant, 
B 116 ; esp. applied to a child 
between the ages of one month 
and one year ; cf . jariri. 



jinkai* ^^jd^>, pride, haughtiness; 
maijinkai one who is haughty. 

jinkai ^^Cj;*. or shinkai iJ^, 
1. mercy, grace ; CIO ya yenki 
kamnatai ga jinkai maihaya 
he despises the mercy of the 
Living One; 2. used of good 
or bad action, jinkai alheri or 
jinkai mugv/rUa. 

jinkiri ^jij^, to wait; B 166 
ku yi mani jinkiri (a)muje tare 
wait a little while for me, let 
us go together. 

jinkiri* ^^^JC;*., destiny, fate, 

death, --= Ar. Aaf,l 

jmnu 3 ; fci, Ar. v>-^> demons, 
genii, evil spirits; D 59 da 
nujUaiku da aljinnu su ta/re 
and the angels and genii shall 
be gathered together. 

jinya* l«^) sickness. 

.. * ' 

jirja^, naked, e.g. ya sa riga tasa, 

don jir shi ke he put on his 

garments, because he was 

naked; cf. (?) tsirara, 

jira |j4^, to wait for one ; F 237 

ana fa jiran fitowa na»a atashi 

after waiting for his coming 

out, they rise up ; cf . seq. 

jir ache i^j^% a form of prec., 
1. to wait for one; 2. to bear 
with one. 

jirai ^^If^^t gum ; cf . danko, 

jire*, rank ; cf . jere. 

ji/r/ata* vius^*., to hold fast, A 17. 
7—2 



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jirigi tjt^ or jirgi ij^, phjirage 

I #- " .... 

ij^}j^, 1. canoe, boat; jingin 

wuta or jirigin hayald used 
for steamboat, maijirgi boat- 
man ; 2. trough, water-trough 
for cows, etc.; 3. manger. 

I 

jirkiche itif^jm , to upset, turn 
upside down, overthrow ; cf. seq. 

jirkita C^^ifc., 1. to overthrow, 
upset, used with fuska = to 
frown, to show signs of dis- 
pleasure ; 2. change ; B 82 ku 
lura da zanVanu da jirkitansa 
consider the times and their 
changes; 3. for participial 
form jirkitawa Ijl.X^ifc cf. 
F 108 ka zamfina nan tutur ha 
jirkitawa thou wilt remain 
there for ever without turn- 
ing over. 

jit{t)o or jetto ^2^, to agree with, 
e.g. with an enemy. 

jiwaya, to gaze at; cf. giwaya 
or (?) jawayi, 

jiwoji, veins; cf.jijia, 

jiwoyif to visit ; cf . jawayi. 

jiyaya V^^i^, understanding ; cf . ji. 

jujai ^j^^i^, 1. dunghill, cf. jibjt ; 
2. a woman of bad character, 
cf. B 134 note. 



juje 



a small drum. 






juna VJ^*i, recipr. pronoun, com- 
monly prefixed to the plurals 
of the pers. pronouns, thus 
junansu one another ; juna and 
da juna are also used abso- 



lutely, E 37 muna murna da 
juna we will rejoice one with 
another. 
juTui 0^1^, a friend. 

juni* t^yt^i blue colour, indigo, 
= shuni, 

jurare* io|>i^) to listen = saurara. 

jvjre*y to kick ; cf . shure, 

jnya C*., a cow about to give 
birth to a calf. 

juya ^^a^i to turn over, to turn 
back ; juya da magana or 
juya magana to interpret, 
juya da to overturn, juya ma 
to turn away from ; juyawa 
tjVj^i^, turning, returning. 

w5 k and ^ k are used by the 
Hausas to represent the sound 
of the English k. There is no 
distinction of sound between 
the two and they are frequent- 
ly interchanged. As a general 
rule words in which w5 k 
occurs are connected with 
Arabic roots, the k sound of 
the original Hausa being re- 
presented by ^. For words 
borrowed from Arabic and be- 
ginning with ^ kh see under 

h. Words beginning with the 
sound kw are variously repre- 
sented by the Hausas l&, ^£», 
^, thus they write ^^L£» 

kwahCf l3^& kwana^ and ^jA 
kwadai. The first method, i.e. 
l^, is used in comparatively 



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^ 



101 



few words, though the other 
two afford no satisfactory clue 
to the pronunciation of the 
word. The sound k is some- 
times interchanged with that 
of s, /, and g, e.g. kunche, 
sunche-, kufu^ fufw, kurj% 
g^lrje. 

ka j), second personal pron. masc. 
sing., 1. as subject it is pre- 
fixed to the verb in the aor., 
and pres. tenses, e.g. ka fitto, 
kanfitto^ kanafittovxi'y suffixed 
to the auxiliary verb za which 
denotes the future tense, also 
to the passive, e.g. zaka fitto 
you will come out, afittasdaka 
you are brought forth; 2. as 
object it follows verbs and 
preps., e.g. su kamaka they 
seized you, niaka or gareka to 
you ; 3. A;a ^ or -nka %2U, is used 
as an inseparable possessive 
pronoun, and is suffixed to 
masc. or fem. words provided 
that the possessor is masculine, 
e.g. uhanka thy father, uvoanka 
thy mother, see Gr. p. 17 ; cf. 
use of hi when the possessor 
is feminina 

ka* ^, a form of the subst. verb 
ke ^J9 ; cf. 36 kowa ka yi 
naaa whoever practises it, C39. 

ka \^y a concessive particle; B 28 
kowaclie ka ka zaba which thou 
may est choose = kan, q.v. 

kab{h)a l^, pi. kab{h)ohi ^>^, 
1. a large species of palm with 



edible fruit; 2. its leaves and 
fibre from which baskets, ropes, 
hats, etc. are made. 
kabak{k)i ^,C^i», pi. kaboka 

l^^.*£», 1. a large quantity of 
food in a calabash, abundance, 
B 30; 2. a case or package 
used as a table ; cf . kabeke. 

kahari* j^, Av.j^y grave; B 169, 
F 101 kana kabarinka kai dai 
thou art in thy grave alone. 

kabbar* j^, Ar. j!^, A 72 to 
say 'allah akbar,' i.e. *God is 
great.' 

kabeke* ^JL^, one possessed of 
food ; cf . kahak{k)i, 

kabewa \y>^ (cucurbita pepo), 
a kind of pumpkin or gourd, 
which grows in gardens and 
on houses ; it is a larger kind 
than kubewa, q.v.; cf. goji. 

kabila* SW* Ar. Jl^, kindred, 
all the people belonging to one 
house. 

kabri, thick ; cf . kauri. 

kachaXiPja ^^^, chief slave of a 
king. 

kache j*J£», to scratch up with 
the nails. 

kachia t«^, circumcision ; yin or 
yenke kachia to circumcise. 

kachokacho ^&^^, a pod like a 
pea with small seeds inside, 
used as a plaything for child- 
ren to shake. 

kad{d)a j^^ kad(d)a* j3, conjunc- 
tion, 1. that not, lest; B 97 



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allah vhangijinmu ni he roko 
kadda shi kcmnu wanan kwor 
naki I pray our Lord God 
t^t He bring us not to those 
days ; J)b^ ku do ania kadda 
yan uwanku su berku havnya 
take 6are lest your relations 
leave you outside (heaven), 
B161; 2. preceded by domin 
= in order that not; 3. in 
imperative sentences it denotes 
prohibition, B 41 kadda ka 
Iwra da aiki nai look not 
closely at bis work; B 141 
kadda ka hita follow it not. 
kada j^, in the phrase kada kai 
to beckon with the head, as- 
sent, say yes ; cf . ged(d)a kai, 
also kauda kai to dissent. 

kdda >U or jJ, Ar. ^yA» [the 
Ar. ^ is here pronounced d, 
but in alkali ^<0Ai)\, judge, it 
is pronounced as t], to judge, 
condemn, chastise; '2. kdda 
magana to contemn. Possibly 
kayea to be condemned, and 
kasalie to condemn and to kill, 
are formed from this root. 

kada t^L£» or kado j>i-^, pL 
kadodi ^^^^t^, crocodile ; 
kadan-dunia* a centipede, ka- 
damj-gari lizard. 

kada* t^l£», cotton, not used of 
the cotton from the rimi tree ; 
cf. kadi to spin. 

kaddbkara tjX^j^, ^^/X^J^^, a 
large bla^ck bird, its flesh 
eaten. 



» ^ < «» 
kad(d)adai ^^j^, i.e. kadda dai, 

1. although, A 17; 2. not, used 
as a prohibitive; A 23, 29 
kaddadai ajita let her not be 
heard. 

kad(d)ai ^J^, only, alone, ni 
kaddai I only, I alone, ka 
kaddaiy ahi kaddai, etc. ; aanu 
kaddai salutation used to one 

only. 

* " ' 
kad(d)aichi* w«njjA, state of being 

one or alone, found in the phr. 
shi kaddaichi he by himself; 
cf. maJcad{d)aichi unique. 

kad(d)aita \2jjA, desolation ; yin 
kaddaita 1. to lay waste, 2. to 
isolate. 

kadakara*, a bat ; see tatapara, 

kadami ^^^^L^, found in the 

expression kadamin ahduga 
spindle with cotton on it used 
in spinning. 

kad{d)an oJ^, 1. if, F 14, 18; 

2. when, A 64 ; cf. kan. 

kad{d)am, ^Jj^, little, few; kad- 
dankaddan very little, very 
few. 

kadoAigari jju>l^ (lit. crocodile 
of the town), lizard. 

kadanya t<Jj^, \^\j^ (bassia 

Parkii), shea-butter tree; the 
oil obtained from its seeds 
{main kedanya) is of the con- 
sistency of butter; it is largely 
used as an article of food and 
is exported to England for use 



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\ji*i» 



103 



9^ 



in the manufacture of soap, 
candles, etc.; cf. kobde, 

^ 6 ^ X 

kadaura \j^jj^y large tree with 
soft edible fruit. 

kade ^J^, the fruit of the ka- 

danya, q.v. 
kdde ^^l^, to cut down, e.g. a 

tree. 
kuderi* ^j^l^i Ar. j^U, powerful, 

mighty, A 59. 

J 6 X < 

kaderko* ^^j ji^, bridge. 

kaderta Oj^l^, Ar. ^J^, to ap- 
point, to order (used of God), 
to warn. 

kadi ^>l£», to spin, yin kadi, id. ; 
cf. kada cotton. 

kaf{f)a s^> 1- ^ build, esp. 
to put wooden beams on a 
house; 2. to nail, fasten with 
nails; 3. to set up, to place, 
pitch, kaffa leina to pitch a 
tent; A 13 mu ga ankafa 
ragaya we see ropes set up 
(for weaving); F 143 /a artr 
kafa kv>a 8ira4i the bridge shall 
be set up ; 4. ya kafa goshinaa 
he prostrated himself; cf. kaf- 
a/e, ka/{/)i. 

kafa U^, 1. dawa ground up; 
2. to dig round growing dawa\ 
cf. makafchi* a tiller of the 
ground. 

kafada bU£>, pi. kafadu j>U£» 
and kafadodi ^^^yJ^* shoul- 
der. 

kafafe ^^La.^, fem. kafafia 



t«^U£» and kafafa I? US, pi. 

kafafu >?U^, particip. form 
from kaf{f)a finished, estab- 
lished, founded. 

kafan* ^>^, Ar. id., D 88 a 
shroud ; cf. kufanwa^ likafani, 

kafarji ^jt^, a small tortoise. 

kaf{f)e ^J^ (cf. Ar. rt U£>, to 
recede), to subside, sink and 
so, of a well, to dry up, rijia 
ta kaf{f)e, 

kaferchi ^^l^, evil disposition, 
lit. that which belongs to kafirs 
(infidels) ; cf. kafiri. 

kaffa U^, pi. kafafu ^U^ or 

W^fo (^^ (<5^- Ar. ^^y 
palm of hand, sole of foot), 
foot, leg ; akaffa on foot, F 95 
kafafe duk aduntse ma kusliewa 
by the feet of all is (thy) grave 
pressed down. 

kaf{f)i s^, ^j^, gate, stock- 
ade, barrier. 

kafm* itf^} to slip, e.g. as in soft 
mud, B 142 ka kafia damai 
maiafkawa thou slippest con- 
fusedly and art about to fall ; 
cf . (?) kafo. 

kafiri j^j^lS, pi. kaflrai ^^l&, 

kafirduxi S^Sy^K^y Ar. Jil£>, 
unbeliever, infidel, heathen ; 
A 5, 9, 34, D 24, F 56. 

A»/b ^a£>, A:q/b* ^jji, pi. kafoni 
^yf&, kafuna Uas*, 1. horn, 



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da hkfo horned; 2. horn, trum- 
pet; A 78 rana da maibuaa ya 
buaa ka/o on the day when the 
sounder of the trumpet shall 
sound, F 112; maikafo trum- 
peter. 

kafo ^i^i mire, a swamp with 
much soft mud. 

kafo ^l^, pi. kafi ^^, blind, 
blind man; cf. makafo, id., 
makapchi, makamta, and 7nar 
kamchi, blindness. 

ka/{/)on ma/riri* ^Jjjij^ 0^> * 
large species of wild ass. 

ka/riy ^jmS^, see kafiri, 

kafrichi ^j^, heathenism, pa- 
ganism; cf. kqfiri, 

ka/ur yt^y Ar. j^l^, camphor. 
It is greatly valued and passes 
as a sort of cuirency in some 
parts of Hausaland. 

kagara \jm£9 or kegariui \^ j ju ^ , 
J < < 
pi. kagaru jj/*^, fortification, 

barricade made of trees, en- 
trenchment; cf. gagara hado, 

kage* i*^l^, leg bent by disease. 
kag{0)o* ^^y wall of a house. 

kagua tj^l^, pi. ka/gvmm ^j^l^, 
edible crab, lives in the water. 

kai ^^) pron. 2nd pers. sing, 
emphatic, thou, thou thyself; 
used with ka to form emphatic 
aor. 2nd pers. kai ka nema 
thou didst seek; also with da, 
tare da kai with thee thyself. 



Frequently used as an excla- 
mation to call anyone or attract 
his attention ; kai yaro ho boy ! 

kai \^^y kai* ^, pi. kanua \y\^y 
kawana* O^U, kavocma Ojl^ 
and kawuiia Ujl^, 1. head of 
animated beings; A 80, D64, 
F 114 tana kona fa kanua na 
fashewa it will burn their 
heads and split them, chiwon- 
kai headache; 2. fig. top or 
summit of anything ; kain tvdu 
the summit of the hill, kan- 
daki an upper storey in a 
house; 3. sum, substance or 
chief point of a statement, 
chapter of a book, kai in 
conjunction with the personal 
pron. is used as a periphrasis 
for the reflexive and emphatic 
pron. (a) with das^ni dakaina 
I myself, shi dakanaa he him- 
self, etc., ita dakanta or ita 
takanta she herself; (6) without 
c^ as m kaina I myself, C 4, 
kai nasa himself, C 5. The 
final i is dropped except in the 
first person, e.g. kanka, kansa, 
kansu'y cf. akan above, a con- 
traction of a kai na on the 
head of. 

kai i^i 1. to carry, to carry a load ; 
2. to take, take away, conduct, 
guide, attain to; A 10 ko^oa 
ya nomi ha^tsi (yd) kai babban 
gari everyone who sows corn 
(i.e. good deeds), attains to 
the great city (i.e. heaven) (or 
will receive a great city); 3. to 



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U?^ 



this verb is probably to be 

referred the kai in the phrase 

ba ahi kai hakkanan ha it is 

too much, or it is not so; cf. 

kawa to take away, kaya a 

load, kaiwa a present. 

kaia, 1. burden; 2. gift; 3. thorn; 

cf. koAfa. 

kaicho, alas ! i.q. kaito, q.v. 

^ ^ 6 ^ 
kaifafa* i^aa^^, to hasten. 

kaifi s4^, ^JL^, cf. Ar. 1^, 
edge, e.g. of a knife, of the 
bridge alsirat, F 144; da kaifi 
edged, sharp. 

kaikai ^\A, itching pain; the 
itch, crowcrow a disease very 
common on the W. coast of 
Africa. 

kaikai ^J^A, the chaff obtained 

when any grain is beaten out. 
kaika^a tjU^^, lit. bringing of 

accusation, 1. accusation; 2. to 

accuse; cf. kdra. 
kaikaya J e C ^ ^, a leguminous 

shrub. 
kaimi j^t^, |c^j^, pi. kayami 

^«ol^, spur, also used of the 
spurs of a cock. 

kainijia ifli»ft*e^ (compound of 
kai and ijia)^ eyelashes. 

kainua \y^y a kind of edible 
herb like lettuce in appearance; 
it grows in water. 

kainya \^gA or kaitoa \^f^, name 
of a large tree with many 
branches, bearing a sweet 
edible fruit; cf. mad(d)i. 



kaitaro, see seq. 

kaito y^^, w>%i>£», kaicho y L^^ or 

kaitaro ^^i^^ alas! F 30; 
found in construction with 
suff. pron. 013 kaitunka watva 
alas for thee, O fool. 

kaiwa Sy^gS^f a tree, i.q. kainya^ 
q.v. 

kaiwa t^^^, a present, especially 
one given to a king; cf. A»i. 

A;aA:a tx^, how ; A 21 sun fada 
kaka su ke aiki ixiada mallamai 
they declare how men may act 
like Mallams; also used inter- 
rogatively; kokaka however. 

kak{k)a t£^, the harvest seaaon, 
which lasts about one month 
and comes at the end of the 
wet season (damana) before 
the rain has quite ceased. In 
the greater part of Hausaland 
kaka would approximately cor- 
respond to November. 

kdka l^l^, pi. kakani ^^A^li>, 1. 
grandfather; 2. ancestor, B75; 
D 58 akantarshimu duka/mu hal 
kakanmu adamu we shall all be 
gathered together even to our 
ancestor Adam ; cf. kakata, 

kakahe*, to shake off; cf . kcUkada, 

kakdhi* ^U^, to marvel as at 
a thing never before seen. 

kakaki ^^^l£^, trumpet, musical 
instrument played before a 
king ; cf . (1) kaki. 

kakari ^£^£^, 1. vanity, vain, un- 
true; 2. swelling on hand or 
foot. 



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kakartsa, to bow; cf. karkat{t)a, 

i i ^ 4f 

kaka/ruko ^S^ or kukaruku, 
^£»P^, to crow (probably 
onomatopoetic) ; cf . agwagwa. 

kakata Ul^l^, grandmother. 

kakau* 3^lt=> = maikavda one 

who drives away in war. 
kahi* ^^<^i to spit. 

kaki t/^i probably connected 
with prec, found in compound 
kakin zumua bees'- wax.. 

kakigani ^JJl^S^, found in the 
compound kakiganin aUah, 
name of a large species of 
black bird which appears to 
be always gazing down. 

kala *j^, <)\&> (cf. (?) Ar. ^, 
herbage), gleaning of harvest, 
remainder of nuts, food, etc.; 
yi kala to glean. 

kala kala* '^Ifa *^^, certainly not. 

* ' " 
kal{l)ahi ^l^, handkerchief on 

a woman's head. 
kalahta* C^^, to sit down, used 

of camels, donkeys, etc. 
kalachi .iii>, ^^iL (cf. (?) Ar. 

Jli, to drink at midday), break- 
fast, midday meal, any meal. 

kalai* ^Ji, Ar. ^Xi, washing of 
clothes, reduplicated form in 
B 136 hanza kalai kalai ha 
addini the washing of clothes 
is worthless apart from re- 
ligion; generally used with 
vxmke = to wash well and 
thoroughly. 



kaldmi* ^.^^JL^, Ar.^'i^ib, words, 
D 7 ; cf. kalnuita. 

kalango ^kiX^, drum, made with 
wood or out of a calabash ; it 
is shaped like an hour-glass, and 
held under the arm; pressure 
on the strings alters the sound 
of the drum. One such would 
be used by the king's fool. 

kalgo yiuA or kargo ^j^y small 
tree with slightly fragrant 
leaves, used for wrapping up 
food in; its bark is used by 
women for darkening their 
lips. 

kal{l)i* JijS or kal{l)e ^i\L, Ar. 

J3, to regard lightly, disregard, 
refuse to listen; F Si fa kowa 
ya zageka ka kale when anyone 
abuseth thee regard it not. 

kal{l)i* or kd(l)i* ^^, to shine 
as metal, a star, etc. ; cf. (i) kalai. 

kalUan* o^y Ar. J^, a little 
= kankani, 

kalikashin, below; cf. kalkashin, 

kalkada jXL^j kalkade ^^jSX^, 

t ^ • ^ 

kankade ^jJCJ^, karkade 

i$^J=> or (?) kakabe ^^^, 
to shake off; kalkada kura to 
shake off the dust; D 5 5a 
wana/n da kan jiahi ha shi kal- 
kade ha that which you hear 
cast not away. 
kalkaf{f)i ^^SX^^ towel, napkin, 
small piece of cloth. 



kalkashin 



J± 



£», kalikashin 



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^j>*tia& or ka/rkaahin ^Jim^jS^, 

1. under, underneath, below ; 

2. used without a final n (i.e. 
wa), bottom or base of any- 
thing. 

kalkeche ^^1JLL&>, wild dog or 

jackal. 
kalkili* ^^JUii, Ar. aJUXS, joy, 

delight, B163. 

kalnui8(8)a ^^^m^jA or kcUma(8)8he 

^ifaMoA^, 1. to bend, roll up, 
make a collar, hem, etc. ; 2. to 
avoid, in pass. B 37 akalrrws' 

8heta \2Jtt^^A\ let it be avoid- 
ed; 3. kalma88he with ziichia = 
to fail to get one's desire, to 
be disappointed; 4. kcdnwsahen 
zibchia = illiberality. 

kahnata* UUL^, Ar. L^JdL, 
words, B 1 ; cf . kaldmi. 

kal(l)o yl^, to look at, to gaze, 
stare at; yin kcUlo id., ka/at/e 
kallona you continue staring 

at me, makel(l)achi ^jJfeU 

one who stares, in a bad sense. 

kal(l)o >l^i found repeated in 
expression kal{l)o kcU{l)o very 
fine; cf. (?) kal{l)i. 

kalni* y^y found in compound 
kalun Uache a dried-up tree = 
kubri, 

kalua I^A^, seeds of the dorivxi 
tree; they are contained in a 
pod like that of a bean and 
are eaten in soup. 



kalulua* \yJ^ i ^, pain in the 
groin. 

kam^ j^^ as to, e.g. m kavix for 
my part, in my opinion; usually 
implying a negative statement, 
ni kam = I did not, it is not I. 
In A 56 etc. kam = * when ' or 
* if ' and is perhaps a shortened 
form of kami, q.v. 

kama ^l^, to seize, to catch, lay 
hold on; then in various se- 
condary applications, e.g. ya 
kama hainya he took his road, 
pursued his journey, ya kama 
it succeeds = ya y% ha ni kama 
I would not believe; kaanu 
yf\^ to catch, kamu kifi to 

fish; makama UUc«, q.v. that 
which is laid hold of, handle ; 
mxikami ^^l£« arms. . 

kam{m)a C^, Ar. id., as, like, 
like as; kama wanan like this; 
kam>a used with a word denot- 
ing measure = about ; with da 
affixed kamada and kama/nda = 
like as, according as (cf. tamr 
karda)y yi kamada to be like to; 
most commonly kama assumes 
the constr. form, as kamdn 
UHinan like this, kamandu 
t ju^& or kam^a nadd as before, 
kama/n kwrege like a jerboa. 
In A 33 zasu tashi kaman 
kaiTe they shall rise in the 
form of dogs, is seen its transi- 
tion to a noun; hence several 
following forms, nominal and 
verbal, kama U^, pi. kamam,v, 



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UiLel^ 



j^o^, 1. likeness, image, pic- 
ture, appearance; 2. one's like, 
companion, associate, fellow, 
partner, friend (cf . Fulah kama 
friend), kama* C^ to befit 
(= kamata), found in D 4 
abinda ba shi kania ha that 
which is unfitting. kamacJie 

^l^^, to befit, to become, to 

behove, kamata OW^) to be 
becoming and so, to be neces- 
sary ; ya kamata it is becoming, 
we ought, etc., A 24 noma ga 
mata bai karnata ba kun sani 
farmwork is not becoming for 
a wife, you know. 
kamal Ji.^,.^, another form of 
kaman; A 13 kamal daki like 
a room. 

6 ^ ^ 9 ^ " 

kamal* J^^&) Ar. Jl«^, end, 

completion, B fin. 

kainata, see kama, 
J J ^ ^ 
kamazoro ^j^Jm^^ the strap, held 

in hand, tied to the bit li- 



kambi* ».,^, ^^^ (cf. (?) Ar. rt 

^M^, to become rich), 1. fine 

expensive clothes, stored up 

treasures, esp. those of a king; 

2. strength; shiria da kamhi 

he is strong. Possibly this 

may be a form of karifiy q.v. 
J d < 
kamhori ^jyv^y 1- finger-nail, 

also used collectively for all 

the finger-nails, cf. ahai/a; 2. 

egg-shell, cf. kosfa, 

kamhori* ^jy^t -A.r. j^, fine 



white calico or brocade, such 
as is imported from England ; 
cf. alkamura from the same 
Arabic root. 

kanii* ^<ol^, l<*^i *iU> until, 
when, D91 kami m^arechs un- 
til evening; A 12 kami ka 
zona when thou sittest down. 

kamna U^, Uo4>, Ar. ^>^, 1. 
love, desire, e.g. kamna ta 
tsaya love is aroused ; C 9 ?/a 
maida kamna tai ga banza 
dunia he directs his desires 
towards this vain world, B 2, 
169 ahin kamria a thing be- 
loved ; 2. used as a verb after 
pronouns ending in na to love, 
e.g. ina kamnaka I love thee ; 
B 165 muna kamna we desire, 
or with yi, e.g. na yi kam- 
nansa = na sonsa I love him ; 
3. with accus. kamna fuska to 
look pleased at seeing, e.g. a 
friend ; cf. kankamna. 

kam^hi ^y^^t 1. an agreeable 
smell, abi7i kamshi scent of any 
kind ; 2. incense, B 1 69. 

kamUy to catch ; cf . kamxi. 

kamu y^\^y a measure of length 
from the elbow to the tip of 
the middle finger, cubit; the 
common measure used in sell- 
ing cloth. 

kamua* iy^i^, pledge held for 
money owing ; cf. (?) kayna. 

kamunka/{/)a IaXuL£», the two 
pieces of cloth sewn on at the 
bottom of native trousers; they 



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>^ 



are about six inches wide and 
brightly coloured. 

kamzo ^i^^, kcmzo ±yA or 
amzo* j>-«1, the burning of 
food on the fire. 

han^ v>^» ^'f^* O^ ^^ ^aiwfo* 
ju£», conjunctive particle, be- 
fore that, until, then ; han su 
yama before they have done, 
ka/re loanan kana ka yi won- 
chan finish this before you do 
that, B 57 kanda ta rabika 
before it part you; cf. karui, 
kanda. 

kan*, rarely used as the second 
personal pronoun before a past 
tense ; cf . use of sun they. 

kan ij^ (j^ before b) or ka l£>, 
a defective auxiliary, used in 
order to give to verbs (1) a fre- 
quentative or habitual sense; 
cf. A 54 toanan da kan rika 
taimatna the man who always 
performed his ablutions with 
sand ; (2) a subjunctive or con 
cessive sense, B 137 almajiri 
shi kan bida dengi nai the 
pupil would seek after his re- 
lations ; cf . also kanwa, 

kana*, see kan*, 

kana* ^l^ (cf. Ar. rt 0>^)» 
used as an emphatic substan- 
tive verb, A 30, 45, 52. 

kanana, little, small, few; used 
as pi. of karam% q.v. 

kanda*, see kan. 

kandaki ^^ja£», pi. kandakuna 

\j^jj^, composed of kai and 



daki, lit. head of the house; 
secpnd storey, room above ; cf . 
kai. 

kandama UjU£», found in com- 
pound ka/ndaman kai top of 
the head; cf. (?) kundumin 
kai absence of hair on the 
head. 

kandilu ^jj£9, dung of cows or 
camels. 

kandu ^JJ>£» or kandun ido, 1. 
declaring what is on the inside 
of anything by simply looking 
at it; 2. a stone used as a 
charm tied to a woman's neck. 

kane ^^i^, kane* ^jA, pi. kanena 

Uu£» and kanoni ^y&, 
younger brother, A 9 ; for fem. 
form cf . ka/ntia. 

kan(n)e* ^y^, 1. winkiAg, 2. to 
wink with one eye, yi kanne, 
id.; kaniawa tjljM^, winking, 
cf . kankani. 

kanga, a knife ; cf . kangar, 

kanga \kA or konga UU^, plain, 
flat place without trees, ravine; 
kanganfadda battlefield. 

kangcUai ^j)<ki^, a long piece of 
wood tied beside the ear, pro- 
jecting for some distance before 
and behind, used as a punish- 
ment for thieving. 

kangar ^ki^^ or kanga Uka^ (cf. 

(?) Ar.jHi.;^), 1. a rough knife 
used esp. by pagans with cir- 
cular handle to fit on wrist 
and blade projecting back- 



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wards; 2*. oavalrj assembled 
for war. 
hangar a* jkiS^^ to rebel, to refuse 
to work. 

4> ^ 6 4> 

kangara* t^JL;^, adv. phr. da 
kavga/ra vigorously, B 36 ; 
fiercely, strongly. 

kangarua UJi^;&>, a strong mare. 

kam.go yU£», pi. kangogi ^yuA, 
1. desolation; 2. desolate, 
empty; 3. a desolate and 
mined house; 4. a house, 
built without a door, used as 
a prison. 

kaniatva^ winking with the eye ; 

cf . kan{n)e, 

^ *• • ^ 
kankama L^JC^U^, new sprouts 

growing up after trees or grass 

have been cut down. 
kankdma* jMiA, a strengthened 

form of kama to seize. . 
kankamna U«X;;£», 1. to dislike, 

ill-treat, cf. kamna; 2*. to 

froWn, probably for kankani, 

q.v. 
kankana, fem. form of kankani, 

q.v. 
kankana IJCA, water-melon. 

kankana* LlxJ^, expr. found in 
F 36 = dakanka thou thyself. 

kankanchi wUX;^, ^JUC;£» (pos- 
sibly this may be the French 
canean Arabicised into ^jSi^, 
idle gossip), dishonour, anger, 
quarrelling ; B 83 mu sa kan- 
kanchi let us put aside quarrell- 
ing, yi kankanchi da to quarrel 
with = kankani. 



kankandi ^jjSi^y a bag. 

kankani* ^^yXJA, to quarrel; cf. 

kankanchi, 
kankani* ^JlXi£>, a strengthened 

form of kan(n)e^ found in expr. 

yin kankanin idq to look with 

the eyes nearly shut. 

kankani ^JLiu^, kankane ^jX;£», 

fem. kankana Uu^, pi. kan- 
kanu^iS!j& or kankamna UxA, 
little, few, A 22 ; cf. karami, 
kanana. 
kankanta UUJul£», 1. small, cf. 
hallin kankanta childishness; 
2. to evil intreat, beat, etc.; 
cf. kankanchi. 

kankar{r)a \jSJ>A, haiL 

kankari ^jXiA, 1. to peel, scrape, 
rub out ; cf . makankara A 38 
\ji5SU = one to rub out ; 2*. to 
hoe grass, A 24 mata kar ka 
sata akankari you may not put 
a wife to hoe grass. 

kankashi* ^ J S^, haunch, used of 

the cow. 
kankeso 3,.. ^ IC ; ^, pi. kankesai 

^«mJCZ£», cockroach. 

kanki or kenki ^^JU^, a large 
species of antelope. 

Akzno yi^t Kano, the commercial 
metropolis of the W. Soudan, 
G 5 ; cf. 'Hausaland,' pp. 100- 
123. 
kansa, himself ; cf . kai, 
kansakali ^)Xl^, a sword. 



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kantu yu£», pyramidal load of 
salt such as could be carried 
on a man's head ; sugar is also 
made into the shape of a kantu 
about 2^ ft. high for transport 
across the desert. 

kantwrurua \^j^y^'^^i black seeds 
worn by women as beads round 
the neck. 

kantta S^i^, kanua* t^J^, sister, 
fem. of kane, q.v. ' 

kanum/ari {Jljt^iy Ar. jA3|i, 
cloves. 

kanwa S^i^, natron, saltpetre; 
\.fa/nn kantva used in making 
<t*o; 2. ja kanwa used as a 
medicine ; 3. kanioa giocmguxi- 
rassa = maganin /tai/ua; 4. 
kanwa ungumu used for mak- 
ing armlets with. The natron 
imported into Hausaland by 
native caravans is chiefly ob- 
tained from natron lakes in 
Bomu near L. Chad. 

kanwa* Sy^i lengthened form of 

kan, denoting the conditional 

mood; B 12 chiuta da jahili 

kxmwa kai nai the evil (lit. 

disease) of the ignorant man 

will take him away. 
J • ^ 
kanzo ^JmXA, burnt food; cf. 

kamzo, 

kapa/ra Ij^a^, perjury, chiefly used 
in the phrase yi kapara to 
swear falsely ; cf. (1) kafiri, 

kar* jSDy a form of the prohibitive 
particle kad{d)a, q.v. ; A 24 ka/r 



ka sata a kankari you may not 
put her to hoe grass. 
kar(r)a j£» or kar(r)o ^jr^y to 
come together violently as two 
rams, or as in the shook of 
battle; karrro da dtcchi to stum- 
ble against a stone, karro is 
also used as a noun ; wanan ya 
yi karro da tvoncha/n this meets 
that, or conflicts with that. 

kdra jl^, to bleat. 

kdra \j\£^, 1. cause of complaint; 
kai ka/ra to bring an accusa- 
tion, with ^a = to accuse; 2. to 
call upon, refer dispute to a 
judge, accuse. 

kdra jti, to add to, to increase; 
when followed by another 
verbal form it qualifies it in 
the sense of the adverbs *more,' 
'further,' 'again,' or with a 
negative, *no more,' *not again,' 
etc., e.g. ya ka/ra kuka he con- 
tinued crying, ban kara tashi 
I did not rise again. 

kara* \j\i to cry out; kana kara 
thou criest out, F79 ; cf. kir{r)a, 

kara Ijl^, reed, stalk or stem of 
plants; e.g. karan hachi, karan 
shinkaffa stalk of com or 
rice,, karan masallachi the 
name of a water reed often 
planted near mosques. 

karafa l|j£>, ring of metal placed 
round hands or legs of women; 
cf. kar{r)o, kundeg{g)e, 

koArafafa* v^t ^ ^, to give an 
answer. 



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^\ji 



karafafa^ a plural form, strong 
men; cf. karifi, 

karaga ^jS»^ couch of king or 
judge, judgment-seat, seat on 
which a king is carried about. 

karaiar* jjjhy construct form, pro- 
tection (?); cf. F86, note. 

ka/raki* ^^^ ^, trouble, diffi- 
culty. 

karwma* U;U, increase; B 68 shi 
haka yanzu gobe shi karama 
he gives to-day, he increases 
on the morrow; cf. gvrmama, 

karamami ^^U^l^ or karmamt 

ij^j^y sprout or stalk of 
guinea com, etc. 
karamhani ^L*- i ; ^ , ^U^;», 
interference with a matter 
which does not concern one. 

ka^amhik{k)i ^^LJj^, «£U«;^, fox, 

jackal (?) ; cf . dila. 

^ ^ < ^ < 

karami ^j^, fem. karama U^ 

or karamia l^< jffr» , pi. karamu 

y^j^, kanana lu£», and A^anr 
A^na UC;£D.(q.v.), little, small; 
cf . karanchi. 
karam{m)ia C«^, a species of 
gourd; cf. kahewa. 

karamta lio)i, path ; F 144 A^a- 
ramta taswa gashi hahu wawa 
its path is (as fine as) a hair, 
without doubt ; cf , karapta. 

kar{r)ana i3^, a large tree, the 
fruit of which is ground up 
and used as an ointment. 



karanchi wJ^^, abstr. n. from 
karami, q.v., a small quantity ; 
karanchi dagga mutane few 
men. 

karangam^ Lm^^, ladder, steps. 

karangia \.\ k j^ fe or karcTigia 

*>^*>^ ^^ fcartngta Igii/ ^ 
(pennisetum distichum), thorns, 
a grass, the prickles of which 
stick to the clothes ; the seeds 
are used for food, especially in 
the northern part of Hausaland 
on the borders of the desert. 

karangod(d)a IjLiLJ^^, a small 
male deer; cf. god{d)a, 

ka/ran hamchi ^^t^ Oj^> bridge 
of the nose ; cf . hanchi, 

karanta* UJji, U>>^, Ar. Iji, 
1. taught, learned; 2. to teach. 

ka/rapta ^^ (cf. (1) Ar. w>ji, to 
draw near), with da, to meet a 
person coming from opposite 
direction, e.g. ya karapta dashi. 

kara/ra \jj^9 a prickly tuberous 
plant ; it causes severe itching 
on skin. 

kara/ra ^jj-^i a woman without 
child, barren. 

kardtu ^\ji, kardtu yl^, Ar. 
S^lji, 1. reading, then story, lan- 
guage, words, D 1 , A 9 wanan 
ka/ratu lumiza ne this is the 
story of Hamza ; 2. to read, to 
learn, A 16 «tA sun karatu they 
read, yin karatu with accusative, 

to read; unakaranta LZJ^iX^, 
school. 



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3fji 



kar(r)au, armlet; cf. kar{r)o, 
karaurawa, bells, pi. of kar{r)o, 

karaya or karaia \jj^^ a species 
of (jelly ?) fish which emits a 
poisonous fluid ; cf . kawora. 

karaya ^j^, trembling, excite- 
ment. 

karaya, breaking; proverb laudi 
ha karaya ha bending is not 
breaking; cf. karya, id. 

karayeya ^^^^j^, to break, a 

strengthened form of karya. 
karha %^j^, kariha* v>^> karbi 

^j^ or karibi* ^j^, 1. to 
take, to take by force, to 
snatch ; 2. to accept, receive ; 
. koMwa taking away; for use 
of passive cf. C 14 hai aam, da 
ra nai za akarhiwa tasa he 
knew not that his life was 
about to be taken away, karbo 
^jS^t to take to oneself; hence 
the imperative km^bo = receive ! 
cf . ka/rba = take ! 

ka/r{r)e ^j^, fem. i^ji^, pi. ka7*- 

nuka \Skjj£9 (Kanuri keri), dog, 
A 33, F 184 ; karren rua an 
animal like a dog, that lives 
by streams and supports itself 
by catching fish ; karren gidda 
house-dog. 

Mre ^jU, ^j\£9 (cf. (?) Ar. y, 
to stop, be done with), 1. end, 
e.g. D 85 giddan kare an abode 
which comes to an end, lit. 
house of end ; 2. v. tr. to end. 



finish ; as v. intr. to come to 
an end, e.g. B 74 c?a kai da 
dunia ku ka/re duk thou and 
the world ye shall both come 
to an end; cf. B71, 91. Also 
used impersonally to qualify 
adverbially other verbs, ya yi 
magana ya ka/re he finished 
speaking; ya kare is frequently 
used impersonally = it is enough, 
the matter is at an end. ka- 

rewa t^jli, ending, end, B 80; 
an intensive form karkare 
^liji, to come utterly to an 
end, is found in B 141 dunia 
zata ta karkare this world 
shall come utterly to an end; 
makara or makare end. 

kare* vA^> found at B 116, 

to drive away; cf. kora, 
karemMkl ^S^j,^, a woman about 

to give birth to a child. 
karengia, a thorny grass; cf. ka^ 

rangia. 
karetua, end; c£ kare, 
karfa{8)8hi ^JL^j!^, a species of 

flat-fish. 
karfata U(^ or karifata \^j^y 

the loins, from the knee to 

the hip joint. 
ka/rfe, strong; cf. karifi, 
karji ^Jlf^y strength; cf. karifi, 

kar/u* ^jiy pi. karfwrm* U^, 
F 107, a whip ; cf. kurafu, 

kargOy the name of a tree; cf. 
kalgOy id. 

8 



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kar{r)i ^j^, 1 • abundance ; 2. swel- 
ling on skin, sting, e.g. of 
scorpion. 
kari, meaning; cf. ker{r)e, 
kar{r)ia C^, bitch, fern, of kar{ry, 

kaaia, Cj£9, l^ji, 1. tale, story; 
2. what is merely a story, false- 
hood, lie; B 107, D 7. Hence 
the expression giddan karia 
this present world, lit. house 
of falsehood, opposed to giddan 
gaskia the place to which all go 
when they die until ranan gobe. 
knriachi ^l^j^, falsehood; 
makariachi a liar. 

karia, karie, ka'inewa, to break ; 
cf. karya, karye, karyewa, 

karia^hi, see karia. 

kariba, to take ; cf. karba, id. 

kari/afa*, to strengthen, intensive 
form from karifi, q.v. 

karifata U^^, thigh;' cf. [A^r/a^a. 

karifi ^^, pl- karafa l^j^ or 

karifuna U>>^, 1. iron; jan 
karifi^vdi&s^', 2. strength,''power; 
da karifi powerfully; maikarifi 
strong. koA^fi ^js^, a short- 
ened form of karifi, C 32, D 41. 
karfe 15?^, ^84 suna ka/rfe 
halli they have a strong dis- 
position, they gave not way to 
tears, karifafa* \Sa^, to 

strengthen; karafafa ^j^, 
strong men; karkarifa very 
strong. 



karifi or karipi ijij^ (cf . Ar. l?j^, 
to foam, of a pot), earthen pot. 

karikache ^y^j^^ fem. karikata 
U£»^, pl. karikatu y^jS^, 
1. bent or tottering, as of a 
wall ; 2. to turn off from the 
road, lose the way, cf. goche\ 
to do wrong, cf. karkaclve, 

karikara \j^j^ or karkarajS^j^, 
J • © X 
pl. karkarori \^jyj^j^ *^^ 

karkaroni ^^jSsjS^, ci Ar. 

j>J>j>^i a very large field or 
plain. 
karikari tTj^j^ or karkari 

^;^^£»;i^, to draw, drag. 

karxmu* j^ij^t Ar. ^^>», gra- 
cious, F 16. 
<- ^ 
karingia igjuj^, a thorny grass; 

cf. karangia, 
kaririye ^^jj^i to break up, an 

intensive form of karya, q.v. 

kariya, kariye, see A;arya, A^rye. 

karkache, to turn dff, i.q. karikache, 

q.v. 

I ^ » ^ 
karkache'* ^^£^^ or karikache 

X^X^^, found in phrases 
mutum aka/rkaxilie a man of 
bad disposition, A^t karikache 
you have done wrong; cf. 
karikache to lose the way. 

karkachi ^J^j^ (cf. (?) Ar. Jji) 
a game played by children. 

karkade, to shake off, e.g. dust; 
cf . kalkada. 



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karkcMra, see karikara, 

ha/rhvre ^Vi^i) to come utterly to 

an end, intensive form of kare^ 

q.v. 
karka/ri^ to draw, i.q. karikari, q.v. 

^ ^ 

karkari* jSj^J^^ ^ scrape, per- 
haps = prec. 

karkaHfa ^jj^j^, very strong, 
an intensive from karifi, q.v. 

karkashin, underneath; cf. kalkor 
shin, 

A:ar/ba^(^)a C^i;^, ^j^, and by 
x © X X 
metathesis kakartsa itjJi£9, 

1. to bend, e.g. B 38; 2. to 
bow with head to one side so 
as to listen intently ; with 
kunua ear, D 32 hi karkatta 
kuniuz en gaia rnaku gaskiana 
give attention, that I may ex- 
plain to you the truth which 
I have, F 7 ahokina ka ka- 
kartsa hwauanaka, maikatarta 

L?; 7 V ^ ^ one who trembles, 

D46. 

karkia K^^^j^y yoke, Y-shaped, 

put on necks of slaves. 
J © X 
karko* y^yrr* or yin karko, to last, 

endure ; cf . (?) seq. 

karko* ^jif found in B 71 karko 

mu we end (?). 
kartna* U;^^, prostitute, E 16 ; 

= karua. 
karmamiy blades of com; cf. kara- 

mami, id. 
kar{r)o jj^ or karau ^ijl^, pi. 

^ ^ 9 ^ If 

karauraioa S^j^j^, 1. armlet 
made of natron, komvxiy espe- 



cially worn by Nup6 women ; 

cf . karafa^ hindeg(g)e ; 2*. small 

bell attached to a horse. 
kar(r)Oy to meet; cf. kar{r)a, 
karo jjl^, 1. a kind of gum put 

in ink; 2. karon maje, a sort 

of gum drawn from a tree and 

used for perfumes. 
karoki ^^j\^, boards, paddles. 
karorOy a bag of cowries; cf. ko- 

roro, 

karsana* Uitf^f^, small female calf. 

kaflrsan(n)i* ^J^j!^, a large or 

very fat man. 
X » ^ 
karsha* \J^j^, heel (?) ; cf. seq. 

karshe iJ^j^t end, the last; used 

adverbially B 94 domin ahinda 

zashi gani karshe for that which 

he will see at the end; ma- 

karshe = last. 

.'Ox 

karta* ^j^, to scrape with a 
knife. 

karu ^j\£9, to abound, to increase, 
used of the sun, to rise high, 
e.g. rana ta karu the sun rises 
high in the sky, opposed to 
rana ta ragu, 

karua tjjl^, bad woman, prosti- 
tute; cf. karmay id. 

karufa Uj-^, pL yj^y^y ^ig^ 
riding-boots. 

karuki*, see karoki. 

karya \^j£9 or ka/rye i^j^y to 
break; F 175 ^Ai karya kasshi 
it will break their bones, karya 
azumi to breakfast, A^ karya 
mani zuchiayou break my heart, 
you discourage or dishearten 

8—2 



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me. hnryetva Syjij,^^, breaking ; 

karaya b^, q.v., id.; kaririye 
^jj^ or karayeya ^^^y 
to break up, to scatter. 
ka8{8)a \mA, \mJy pi. ka8{8)a8hi 
^e&Li^ and k<i8(8)asa LaltM^d 

(cf. (1) Ar. j./-^, to pulverize), 
1. earth, soil; A 76, F 96 
akwaha kdsa ana kuma la- 
lahawa earth is mixed and 
kneaded up again ; 2. the 
ground ; a kasaa on the ground, 
usually shortened to akass; 
hence used to express, down 
below (cf. a bissa above); na 
kdssa m., ta kassa fern., used as 
adj., the one beneath, the lower; 
abin kasa = worms, etc. ; as 
adv. taffb kasaa, shiddo kassa 
come down ! 3. land, country; 
in a geographical sense kasan 
Aat£«a = Hausaland ; cf. seq. 

ka8{8)a t/M^, Lm^, to place on 
the ground, to lower to the 
ground ; shortened to kass, used 
fig. ; A 29 anso ta kass muria 
chikkin magana nata let her 
be willing to lower her voice 
in speaking; cf. (?) seq. 

kdsa 1^1^, to fall short of, cf. 
D 47, B 122; hence to fail one, 
disappoint one, e.g. ba ya kasa 
mcrni komi ba he failed me in 

nothing, kasasda ju^i^l^, to 
decline; ina kasasda karifi I 
am growing weak. kasashe 
^ywL^, to lower, make less. 



kas{s)a* J^*^, ll^, to divide up = 

raha. 
kasa*, hen; cf. kaza. 

htsa \lt\&>, a large black and white 
poisonous snake, its flesh edi- 
ble. 

kas{s)ada jL,»f>, 1. to believe in, 
to rely on God; 2*. to wander 
as a beggar afar alone. 

kasaita C-^ji...*^, Uy»A, cf. Ar. 

l*^, to be proud. 
kamla ^ll^, Ar. J^l^, found in 

compound maikasala, a beggar 

who refuses to work. 

kasanchi ^JU**ȣ>, to continue, re- 
main ; used like tabbeta. 

kasasda, to grow less; cf. kdsa. 

kasashe, to lower or make less; 
cf . kdsa, 

kasau* ^mA or t^-^li, killing, 
murderous; cf. (?) ka{s)she. 

kasausawa Syay^KSsi^ a kind of 
long spear, not used for throw- 
ing. 

kasba* l»i,«»f>, beads. 

kasegi ^Jum*^, forked iron stick 
on neck of a horse. 

kas{s)efri ^j^.^>»£:», water in which 
rice or grain has been washed. 

kaserua \^jmjS9 (a corruption of 
kasa-n-rua), water-duck. 

ka{s)she*, to exist; cf. ka(s)shi. 

ka{s)she j^-^^, kasshi* ^iS^ ot 

kis{s)a Lm^, (?) forms of verb 
kas{s)a or kada, 1. to bring to 
the ground, overpower; 2. to 



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kill; G 6, 1. 16 suka kasshi 
mtUanen za/n/a they killed the 
men of Zaria; hence 3. of 
money, to spend, e.g. ya kasshe 
kurdi; 4. to condemn, e.g. 
alkali ya kassheni the judge 
condemned me; kissa magdna 
to end conversation ; kasau 

* ' " 

^mA, q.v., murderous; kasshin 

A;ai ^-^ O**^* murder, lit. 

killing the head. ka8{8)u 

^»A, q.v., is perhaps formed 

from the same root. 

kdshi chI£>, the dung of animals. 

ka{8)8hi ic*^> 15^^ or ka{8)8he* 
j^^*L£», 1. to be, to exist, D 39; 
2. to continue; B bi en ka 
shiru kasshe if thou continuest 
silent. kasshi is frequently 
found in written but seldom 
or never occurs in colloquial 
Hausa. 

ka(8)8hi i^Ati, pi. kasustoa \yaym»3, 
bone, F 175; kasshin ido = 
long ridge over eyes, kasshin 
kai skull, kasshin isotso back- 
bone. 

ka(s)8hinkai, murder; cf. ka{8)she. 

kaska ULm*.^, vermin infesting 
horses, goats, etc. 

kaskasta* C%i»X»A or kuskunta 
C<%*-VL»A, to drive away in 
disgust, to despise; makaskachi 

^JbuM^U, oppressed. 

kaskawani ^^£»A, a small herb 
with white flowers, rubbed on 



the skin in order to cure crow- 



crow. 



A;a£^ ^V,..>£>, pi. kasaki <5^t 



V5T 

a vessel made of clay, round, 
without top, of medium size; 
i.e. larger than buta, smaller 
than tulu. 

kasru* j.^ (Ar. j^, a castle), 
found in compound F 55 enna 
sheddadu rnaikasru almashidi 
where is Sheddad, the owner 
of the mighty palace? 

kass ^jm^, 1. shortened form of the 
verb kasshe to kill; 2. to lower, 
A 29 ; cf. kasa. 

kastu or kestu ^JU*^ or ketu ^ZA, 

1. a flint to strike fire with ; 

2. kestii, ivuta to strike fire 
with a flint. 

J y 

kas{8)u* ^mA , to subject, subdue, 

bring into subjection; cf. (?) 

ka(s)8he. 

^ J * 
kasuwa or kasua \ym£» (in A 15, 
^ » » ^ 
25 J ">^^)> 1*. grass eaten by 

animals; 2. a market in which 
some special article is sold, 
e.g. meat, bread, grass for 
animals. The meaning grass- 
market was probably derived 
from 1., and eventually the 
word came to be applied to 
any market or market-place. 
dan kasua (lit. son of a market) 
is applied to a very small 
market, e.g. one held under 

a tree. 

-* • ^ ^ » 0> 

kaswa |^.uA or kazua t^j*^, 



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^^ 



1. slight swelling anywhere on 
the body; 2. itch. 

kaUnnha''^ t; ,;^, 1 ■»» .7^, thin 
laths of wood such as are used 
in building a wall. 

katami g^^, a hole where dirty 
water is thrown. 

katamtamtoa \y^2^A, 1. untimely 
birth; 2. snail shells; cf. tan- 
tanua, 

katanga Ulx^, 1. porch, wall; 

2. sherds of pots, etc. 
kdtara* tpl^, thigh. 
kaata/ra* ^i&>^ to wish; cf. seq. 

kaJtarsa* yjajHi^^ formed from ka- 
tara, to gratify a wish, D 70. 

katerta* UJi^ (cf. (?) Ar. JiS>, 
dignity), prosperity, D 2 note; 
maikaterta prosperous, D 83. 

kato y»U, fern, katuwa \yj\9, strong 
male or female slave; cf. (?) 
gato. 

hUsu* iJ, Ar. id., ever ; B 23 6a 
8u gamu katsu they have never 
met. 

katumi, a charm; cf. haJtumi, id. 

katuwa^ fem. form of kato, q.v. 

A»w* ^^, 1. to go away; C 20 en 
ka ga tsqfa nan ka che kau 
nana when thou perceivest her 
age thou wouldest say to her, 
Depart from here; 2. to spread 
out. 

kauchara p>^, }j^^> *^® ^^^'^^ 
of paradise, F 214 ; often with 
the Ar. article prefixed, v. al- 
kaucharay id. ; cf . Koran cvni. 



katbchi w»^i>, i^j^i 1. a graft 
from one tree to another, seed 
dropped by a bird which has 
taken root in the branches of 

a tree; cf. (1) Ar. i>l^; 2. a 
charm for catching slaves, etc. 

kauchiy to remove; cf. katva, 

kauda, to take or put away, re- 
move, withdraw; cf. katva. 

kaura* j^, to remove, e.g. a 
tent, etc.; yin kaura, id. 

kaura \)y^, a species of red 
guinea-corn given to horses; 
cf . dawa, 

kaura* 1j>^, a title especially 
used in Katsina = Master of 
the horse; cf. aura, id. 

kaitre ^j^l^ or kiauri jy^t the 
covering of a door = tukuruu. 

kauri ^jj^ or koM ^j^, cf. 

Ar.j^y thick, fat. 
kaushi yj^^l^y roughness, uneven- 

ness of surface. 
kauwa, to remove, pass, akautoa 

to be removed; cf. katva, 
kautve or kautvi, quiet, silent ; cf . 

katvoi, 

^ ^ 4f 

kauwera* \j^^^, flat place near a 
house, (1) = Ar. Sj>^, a form 
of )(iapa, 

kautvi ^^^^f tribe, people be- 
longing to a particular town. 

kauye iji^, pi. kauyuka l£»^^, 

Ar. 4^j|i, a small villatge. 
/bawye ^:J^, A;ot£;i \^^^ or A»M;ii6 

^5.^, side of a body or edge 



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Wife 



of anything; B 171 ha ni ragi 

kauye ha I will not decrease 

even the edge, kowien rua edge 

of a stream, outskirts of a town. 

kawa* tjt£>, 1. to take, bring 

forward; D ^6 8U kan kawa 

dalili they would give a reason; 

^ • «• 
2*. to become (?). — kauwa^^, 

to remove; aka/uwa to be re- 

moved, kawas ^^^l^, to put 

or take away, to remove, ka- 

wasda ju»jl£>, to take away, 

put away, disperse. kauda 

>^, to put away, remove, 

withdraw; used with kai, to 

turn the head away so as not 

to look at anything, hence 

to move the head so as to 

express dissent (cf. kada kai 

to assent), katichi iP>^, to 

remove, katoo j^^, to bring, 
•bring near (cf. kauxis to put 
away), to bring to the place 
where the speaker is ; cf . pass, 
imperative akatvoshi let it be 
brought here, kawcnoa tjt^», 
particip. form of kawo; D 7 
ku her kai da kawawa (kor 
woma ?) na karia leave off false 
dealing, lit. give up taking 
away and bringing back falsely. 
kai to carry (q.v.) apparently 
belongs to the same root; cf. 
also kai/a, kaitoa and (?) kaum. 

kawaichi, to conceal; cf. kawoi. 

kawaita, to be still ; cf . kawoi. 

kawaltoalnia lj^y^£», vapour ris- 
ing in hot sun. 



^ X ^ ^ 



kawamata* Uto^^, Ar. j>^f to 
estimate, to fix a price for; 
found in pass, akawamata E 7, 
ankawamata E 8. 

kawanaj heads, pi. of kai, q.v.; 

' D 64. 

kawara \jf^ or alkawara \jj^\, 

cowries ; cf . kurdi. 
kawas, to take away; cf. kawa, 
kawasda to take away, disperse; 

cf. kawa, 

kawazuchi i^Jijti, 1. covetousness; 

2. grasping. 
katoecid* ^t^y^, edge, end, D 13; 

cf. kauye. 
kawo, to bring near, to bring ; cf . 

kawa, 

kawoi ^^£9, 1 . silence ; yin kawoi to 
be silent, keep silence; 2. alone. 
kauwe^^y^ or kauwi ^^^S^, 
quiet, silent, only, kawaita 

CU^3^, to be still ; pass. 
akawaita be still ! kawaichi 

^^JLjiyAj to conceal, e.g. a 

crime. 
kawora |;^^» a species of fish 

(jelly-fish?); cf. karaya, 
kawowa, participial form of kawo, 

bringing ; cf . kawa, 

kawu* ^, cf. Ar. rt l^^^, to 
abdicate; aariki ya kawu, 

kaya or kaia L»l^, pi. kayayeki 
jji^l^, 1 . load, burden, goods ; 
C 1 1 ya kunchi kaya imi he un- 
ties his goods; 2. instruments, 
tools, apparatus, e.g. kayan 



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c;^a = battle-arms, shield, etc., 
hay an yaki id., kayan ado or- 
naments, trinkets, etc., kayan 
dakka - large pestle such as is 
used for beating up guinea- 
corn; 3. gift; 48 na shiria 
kayana I make ready my gift ; 

cf. under kai, 

^ 0> • J *. ^ 

kaya Ij^Sa, pi. kayaytia Ij-*.^, 

thorn; kayan kifi fish-bones. 

•I ^ 
kayeta UUe^, a quantity of 

thorns or thorny grass, impos- 
sible to walk over. 
koAfes* c/*«^? ^ ^® condemned, 
be declared guilty; kayea ga 

sheria to lose one's case, kon 

, ^ ^ J 
yeswa* I^>m^^, condemnation; 

kayes is probably connected 

with kada to condemn. 

kayeta^ see kaya. 

kaza lji> or kasa* CJ9, pi. kaji 
-^i ^, hen, fowl, D 1 1 ; kaza 
maiyaya the constellation * Hen 
and Chickens' which appears 
when the rainy season is com- 
ing, kazan duchi a species of 
quail, kazan yariba lit. fowl of 
Yoruba = guinea-fowl (zahua). 

kaza tj^, Ar. \S^ id., 1. so, 
thus; F 39, 227; 2. used to 
point out a certain person or 
thing which is to be nameless, 
so and so, such and such, e.g. 
ya fadi kaza da kaza he said 
so and so, abu kaza such and 
such a thing, chikkin wata 
kaza = Ax. \j>^ jy^ ^' 

kazdmi j>\j^, J>^j^, pi kazamai 



^\ji, Ar. ^Ji, 1. dirt; 2. 
dirty, unclean, vile, kazamta 
U^, XJAjSs^y uncleanness. 

kazaza \)j^y cf . (1) Ar. J,^, hump- 
back. 

XX X 
kazin'tain(m)a l^ CU^' <^i^o^ 

skimmed off from molten iron. 

» X 

kazinzemi* ^^^pj^y bug (?). 

^ ' * ' fix 

kazizi l£jj^ (cf. Ar.JiS^, to catch 

X X 

cold), a tuber, from which 
cough medicine is made. 
kazua, itch; cf. kaswa, 

OJ X J X 

kazum j^^, j>jj^, deserter or 
lingerer at home in time of 
war. 

ke ^^^ or ki* l^, emphatic 2nd 
pers. pron. fern, sing., always 
in combination with ki 2nd 
pers. pron. fem. sing, in the 
emphatic aor., e.g. ke ki taffi 
thou didst go; cf. Gr. p. 60. 

ke 1*^, ^ or ki* «<^, defective 
subst. verb, is, are, e.g. ski ke 
nan so it is; F 7. The subject 
is of common gender, while 
that of ne is masc. and of 
che fem. Followed by da- 
to have, to possess ; mu ke da 
8u we have them. 

t 01 Ox 

keau ^-A, >-^ or ^&, frequently 
pronounced kiyo, 1. beauty 
(physical), da keau handsome, 
beautiful ; 2. also used of 
moral beauty, good, kind. 
Hence the phr. da keau = well, 
it is well ; this is used to ex- 
press assent; 6 135 en ta yi 



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keoM if she act well ; maikeau 
B35 = je^, B167 =^, 
beautiful, keaukeatoa \^L^yA, 
a redupl. form of keau, 1. great 
beauty; 2. very good, very 

fine, keauta U>-£», 1. act of 
kindness, benevolence ; with 
yi to show favour, do a kind- 
ness, e.g. ^a yi ma.9a keauta 
thou didst a favour to him; 
2. a gift, a present. 

kehe j-a*£>, to separate, mark off. 

kehe j***^, iron stirrup ; cf. ki- 
nami leather stirrup. 

kedaya Cjl^ (cf. (?) Ar. ji, 
measure), 1. account, reckon- 
ing, method of numbering ; 
2. as verb with pronouns ending 
in na, e.g. inuna kedaya we 
reckon ; su fi kedaya = in- 
numerable; cf. kidda, kididig- 
ga, didigga. 

kegartta, fortification ; cf . kagara, 

kek{k)aral ^£jS^ (pi. in form), 
swelling in the hands. 

keka{8)8lie ^^ntCA, to air, to expose 
to the air, to dry, e.g. a tohe. 
kekaka{8)she ly^S C^ ^, fern. 

kekasa(8)8hia l.gJt«Mix ^ 



>, pi. 



keka^asu 



Jc^g^, dried. 



aired, dry ; in F 96 kekasassa 
ImmmI,!.^ = dry earth ; cf. ka8(8)a. 

keke y^i^, cloth, made of blue 
and white alternate strips. 



kelk^i* g*^, wild dog (?) ; cf . kir- 

keshi, 
kelle iJL&, a small axe, usexl in 
fighting, with silver or ornate 
handle. 

J 

kemru ^j^S^y a reed from which 
arrows are made = gazara. 

kenke ^JjJ^, to worry, to cause 
trouble. 

kenke{8)8he ^Jt>C^ or kenke8{8)a 

^jM^, to hatch. 

J 

kenke8{8)o ytSj^^ cockroach. 
kenki, an antelope ; cf. kanki. 
kenwa tjJ^, kyanwa or keanwa 

t^JL£», pi. kenwuna XjyJSs and 

* © X 

kenv)ai ^y^, cat, used -of 
both wild and tame cat; cf. 
magg% mazoro, 

kepta C-%a£», v. in phr. kepta iddo 

to wink ; keptawa lyj>£>, wink- 
ing ; keptawan ido a moment 
of time. 
ker{r)e ^j^^ or A^tH ^j-^, 

understanding; in the phr. 
ya yi k&n'en 7nagana he under- 
stands, he has his wits about 
*him ; an expression applied to 
a man who understands the 
drift of what another is saying 
from his opening words, and 
interrupts him by saying ya 
i88a, 
ker{r)in Oj^y Oj^y very; used 
only with bakki, bakki kerrin 



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122 



very black; cf. kirim, kmn- 

kerka/ra j^j^, Ar. id., used of a 
hen, to cackle; i.q. kerkera, q.v. 

JO 

keskestu ^I«Jum£>, tribal marks 

cut on face; cf. ahavshawa. 
keso yiMA^, 1. old mat made of 

grass ; 2. old rags, old clothes, 

or old' rug. 
kestu, a flint with which to strike 

fire ; cf. kcbstu. 
kesu >»»M^, 20,000 cowries; cf. 

kororo, 
keta, evil ; cf. kita. 

keta ww^, Ar. fJa^, to cut, rip, 

xJl 

tear, split; kettuz tyu£», split- 
ting. 
ketare {JjLi (cf. (?) Ar. jii, to 
traverse a country), to cross, 

X I xl ^ 

pass over; ketarewa \yjjZJ, 
particip. form of prec, cross- 
ing, F 155. 

ketu, a flint ; cf. kastu. 

ketuaj a splitting ; cf . keta, 

X t X 

kewa \yA or kiwa \j^tt^ (cf. (1) 

Ar. f\^y a desert), forlornness; 
sanu da kewa a salutation ad- 
dressed to one who is lonely, 
his friend being dead; P 104 
loneliness, debe kewa to take 

away mourning. 
I ji » J 
kewoye ^>^, ^>^ ^^ kewayi 

i«j A-£», sometimes pronounced 

^^x • 

gewoye, 1. to go round, to spin 
round ; 2. to go round some- 
thing, to make the circuit of a 



place; yin kewaye, B 164 id.; 
3. to surround, D 59, F 77 
yan uwaka mi kewoiyeka thy 
brothers surround thee, 105, 
245 ; 4*. to turn over, F 105 
8U kewoyeka shikin (= chikin) 
kushewa they will turn thee 
over (surround 1) in the grave. 

x» 

\t^f the back part of the 

head. 
M, for words beginning with this 

sound cf. under h. 
ki ^, second pers. pron. fern, sing., 

X 

1. as subject it is prefixed to 
the verb in the aor,, past and 
pres. tenses, as ki fitto, kin 
JittOy kina fittowa ; suffixed to 
auxiliary verb which denotes 
the future, and to the passive, 
e.g. zakijitto, afittaadaki ; 2. as 
object it follows verbs and 
preps, as zasu kassheki they 
will kill you (f.); gareki to 

you (f.); 3. -ki or -nki ^, 
used as an inseparable posses- 
sive pron. is suffixed to masc. 
or fem. words provided that 
the possessor is feminine, do- 
kinki thy horse, giddanki thy 
house. 

ki i^, kia* l^^, 1. to hate, to 

^^ X X 

dislike ; 2. to reject, to refuse, 
to say no ; C 22, 7 har shi 
ya kia till indeed he would 
refuse altogether ; the redupli- 

X 

cated form kinkinta %ZJSjA = 

X X 

I 

to refuse; kije^^t^ g^, to hate ; 



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^^x> 



123 



^fmfjXs9 



hishi jSin^fS or kishia i^jL^, 
q.v., emulation, yin kishi to re- 
fuse; kij/aya* ^^,A, refusing; 
E 24 A;t^ <w6a A;m 6er kiyaya 
repent, give up refusing; A:t- 
2£7?i^a U^d^ or kuyiwa t>!>^, 
refusal, objection ; ytn kiumya 
to refuse exertion, to object to 
labour; kiyeya \ f^*^ ^, envy, 
hatred, malice, dislike; ma- 
A;iyi j^^^U, q.v., adversary. 

Possibly kita l^, cruelty, envy, 
may be formed from ki; cf. 
kinjiy makiyachi. 

A^aZe ^JL^A, to neglect, despise, 
let alone, refuse to listen to. 

kidrna Uljji, ^l^i, Ar. iUl^, resur- 
rection^ A 31, 32, 33,' D 58, 
60, Fill. 

kiashi, small red ants ; cf . kiyashi. 

kiaurij covering of a doorway ; 
cf. kaure. 

kiauta, see keauta. 

kib{h)a L£>, pi. kibobi ^>f^, 
fat; yin kibba to grow fat. 

kibanta* UU»>ff>, connections, re- 
lations, people. 

A;i6ia lt5«^> P^- ^*^^ >:^> arrow; 
akalialbeahi da kibia he was 
shot with an arrow, G 6, 1. 1 ; 
makibia porcupine ; cf. begvxi, 

kibrit* ^Z^,jj^, Ar. C>^j^, sul- 
phur, brimstone; the native 
Hausa is fara vmta. 

kidda IjA or kididiga U>ju& 

(cf. Ar. S^y measure), reckon- 



ing, account, sum ; cf. did{d)i- 
ga, 
kidda \jk^ or kiddi jk^y ^J^^ 
1. a drum or any musical in- 
strument ; 'E16 ku ber kidda 
molo leave off drumming; 2. 
playing, drumming; yin kid- 
di to play, to drum; kiddin 
dambe a peculiar kind of Jdrum- 
beating for dancing; makiddi 
(^jl£>U, drummer. 
kidibi, liver; cf. gidibi, 
kididiga, reckoning; cf. kidda. 

kifi sAjj&, kife j>}e^, pi. kifaye 

I5t^9t^^) ^sb; ka^ma kifi to iish. 

kije^y to hate ; cf . hi, 

kildgo >iU£^, pi. A;i%ai ^U£^, 
1. cow-hide, skin; D 15 azaha 
dandakasa kainal kilago his 
pain is as though he were a 
skin that is beaten ; 2. a tent 
made of skin ; cf . kirigi, 

A;^^a ^"^ *^^ Ajir^a >^^, to count, 
to number ; cf . {i) kidda. 

kili sJl^, fern, kilia UJL^, a white 
horse with a spot on its fore- 
head. 

kUili ^JLjJL£», a young palm tree. 

kilin kilin \^jX^ O-*^ ^^ kirri 

XX XX 

kirri j£9 j&, an imitation of 

XX XX 

the sound of falling glass or 
broken wood, etc. 

kil{l)isa ^J^, 1. to take exercise 
on horseback ; 2. of a horse, 
to trot. 

kiliahi J ti»> A , 1. a kind of rug or 



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u«& 



124 



to^fe 



mat made of wool, etc., for 
sleeping on; 2. thin strips of 
meat cooked with oil and 
pepper or dried in the sun. 
kirna U«^, 1. anything small ; 

2. price; cf. Ar. ^L^, id. 

kirnba Im^, fruit of a large tree, 
ground and used as a medicine, 
hot like pepper, brought from 
Nup6, etc. 

kinami ^^{i^, stirrups made of 
plaited leather; cf. kebe, iron 
stirrup. 

kindigaye ^l^ju£», gathering of 
many people before a king for 
discussion. 

kingi k^^, ^JU£^, rest, remain- 
der, what is left. 



kinji j-i^**;^, refusal to hear, a 
compound of ki and ji, hence, 
obstinacy ; maikinji enemy. 

kinke* ^^C*^, trouble. 

kinkinta, to refuse ; cf . ki, 

kintsa* Ja^, to gather together (?), 
A 23. 

kiptawa, winking ; cf . kipta. 

kira j^, to forge metal; makeri 

^j^Lt or tnaikira Sj^^t^, a 

blacksmith, makera tj-^L«, 
anvil. 
kir{r)aj^ or kir{r)aye ^^j^, 1- 
to call, to summon ; kira suna 
to name; 2. 1^, calling out, 
F 142 8u dor a kira they raise 
a cry ; kir{r)avx> ^^\jS^^ to 



summon to where the speaker 
is, to call. 

kirari ^1^^, 1. praise, laudation, 
F 240 suna kuma yin kirari 
they praise ; 2. self -laudation ; 
3. flattery. 

kir(r)awOy see kir{r)a, 

kir(r)aye, see kirra, 

kirchi, a scab ; cf . kurji. 

kirfawa |>?j^, cutting folds of 

cloth. 
kirga, to count ; cf . kilga, 
klria, name of a tree ; cf. kiriya. 
kirigi pj^, skin, hide after it has 

been tanned, the skin before 
it is tanned is called /ata ; 
kirigin kada the scales of the 
(dead) alligator ; cf. kila^o. 
kiriki ^^^, better ; ya yi kiriki 
he is better, or he acts well, 
rnuium kiriki a kind man. 

kirim* jijlS^, found in A 67 rana 
ka shafa dufu kirim huaka tasa 
when thou anointest his face 
with utter darkness ; cf . ker{r)- 
in, kirinjijia, 

kirinia [^j£»y 1. rafter forming 
circular binding line inside 
roof made of single reeds {tan- 
kai)) 2. fig. tsofo da kirinia 
old man bent double. 

kirinjijia Igj^i^.t^f^, a small black 
duck. 

kiriya U/^ or \kJj,^JS», a small tree 
which often grows on roofs 
from which blacksmiths obtain 
charcoal, i.e. garvoashin kiriya. 



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Qoo^^ 



kirji ffj^, ^rji ^ji, pi. kirijai 

t:j^. breast, bosom. 

kirkeshi ^^*»»^j^, a creature re- 
sembling a wolf = (?) kelkeji (cf. 
(?) Ar. rt^ji, aitd u^^j^, pup). 

kirkira* \j^j^ (cf. Ar. 5>%^, 
the cackling of a hen), found in 
A 29 kaddadai ajita yi sagara 
maikirkira let her not be heard 
calling fowls, with wide-opened 
mouth ; cf . kurkurkur. 

kh-^na to;^, soldiers on foot ; sa- 
rikin kirma a leader of in- 
fantry. 

kirH kirrij^ jS»^ see kilin kilin, 

kiraa to/i^, a bribe given to a 

judge; cf. hila, 
kirta C>j£9, U/^, 1. to dig up 

land = fwina ; 2. to draw a 

line or furrow. 
kirtani ^yjj£9, strong white string 

made of flax. 
ki8(8)a ^^»^, to kill ; cf . kasshe, 

ki8{8)aka \^im^, a hairy cater- 
pillar. 

kishi cAe^j iAg^y 1- emulation, 
jealousy ; yin kiahi = to refuse. 
2. Arw/tta iyt>j}£>, pi. kishiyoyi 
^^ ^ , f» fl, f> , 1. jealousy, hence 
2. the name given to either of 
the two wives of the poly- 
gamist; if he takes a third wife 
he has kishiyoyi] cf. ki, 

kishimi* jjk,^ ( Ar. ^y>u^, to have 
a bodily defect), k. ido blind. 



125 



C5-^ 



ki{8)8himi jJL^y j-^>*L£», male of 

a species of large antelope. 

kishingida IjjUaL^, to recline or 
^ ^ ^ 

sit on the ground with legs 
crossed, the attitude for eating 
or conversation. 

kishirua \^j1jS9, thirst, A 66, D 66, 
E 37 ; jin knshirua to feel thirst 
(possibly derived from kishi 
emulation and nm water). 

ki8(8)i iy»^, pi. kissosi ^w y > »f> , 
fat. 

ki8{8)oym£9y 1. to twist; 2. twisted; 
3. hair worn by women in curls 
down their cheeks ; maikisso 
hair-dresser. 

kita U^ or keta UU^, mischief, 
cruelty, evil of any kind ; envy 
F 8 ; possibly formed from ki, 
q.v. ; maiketachi* worker of 
evil. 

kita'^ U£>, found B 58, on the 
ground (?). 

kitaha* v^*^> ^^- V^*^> book; 
B 175 fin.' 

kiwa^ loneliness; cf. kewa. 

kiwo^^lS^, 1. to tend, watch cattle; 
2. used intransitively of the 
cattle, to feed, to graze. 

kiiouya, refusal to work, etc. ; cf . 
ki. 

kiyale, see kiale, 

kiyashi or kicishi ^^l^, small 
red ants found in houses. 

Myasi* ^^V^, Ar. ^\3, to mea- 
sure by a rule or comparison, 
D94, 



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kiyau, see keau. 

kiymiri covering of a door; cf. 

kaure, 
kiyauta^ see keauta, 

kiyaya*, refusing, E24; cf. ki. 
t ^ 

kiyaye ^l^^, 1. to keep care- 
fully, to preserve ; kiyaye kan- 
ka spare thyself, i.e. don't 
trouble; 2. used to denote 
ready obedience ; kiyaye ma- 
gana to obey a command; 
kiyayeni — suffer me ; maki- 
yaye = eL shepherd. 

kiyeya, envy, hatred, disHke; cf. 
ki, 

kiyo, see keau, 

kizman* ^>«ji, Ar. j^J^, slander; 
F 12 [or perhaps the better 
reading here is gvrmankai da 
zcmha as in E 26]. 

ko 3^, 1 . either, or, and in nega- 
tive sentences, neither, nor ; 
hence its use 2. as an inter- 
rogative, e.g. mutum ya taffi 
ko did the man go} here ko 
is elliptic for ko ha hakka ha = 
or is it not sol ko may also 
precede the sentence or both 
precede and follow it for the 
sake of emphasis; 3. even, al- 
though; A 66 hakkana kishi- 
rua ko ya sha kogi hiar so too 
he shall be thirsty though he 
drink of ^vq streams; cf. koda 
although. 

ko 3^, indef. pronominal prefix 
by which most erf the indefi- 
nite pronouns and adverbs are 
foraied from the interrogative, 



126 ^^^ 

e.g. wa who? kowa anyone; 
mi what 1 komi anything, etc. ; 
kaka how, kokaka however; 
yaushe when, koyauahe at any 
time; ya/nzu now, koyanzu 
immediately. 

kohdodo ^>^«M or gohdodo ^>^J^, 

a thorny bush. 
kohdtca \^J^^ or gohdtta t^ju^, 

the yolk of an egg. 
kohri* or kuhri* Jt^^ found in 

1. kohrin kaffa leg-bone; 2. 

kohrin kofa door-post ; 3. used 

with itache = a dried-up tree. 

The forms ktvatiri j^9 and 

kwahri ^L£>, pi. kwahruka 

\£sj^\S», a withered or leafless 
tree, are probably secondary 
forms of kohri, 

kohea or kopsa iwi { ^ or kohao 

J J 

3»»>»^, pod of nuts, beans, etc. 

koda >^, though, although; B 
112 koda or huda = when (?), 
A 27; cf. ko, 

koda h^9, a dried-up nut. 

koda ^j^, to furbish or sharpen a 
sword. 

koda* or ktvoda b>^9 liver, kid- 
ney (?). 

kodai ^^^9 or kwadai ^J^, 
iS^^^, 1. desire, longing, 
eagerness for, appetite; 2. 
membra privata ; m^akodaita, 
q.v., covetous; maJcodaichi co- 
vetousness. 

kodi ^>^£», a top or anything 



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\i\^ 



127 



JC^ 



spinning round ; makodi ^^^H^, 
a ball ; dan kodi a small ball. 

koenna Ut^^, anywhere, wher- 
ever, everywhere. 

kofa \k^. pi. kofafi ^^yt^, 

1. hole for entrance, 2. door, 

gate; E 19 maauzua ga kofo- 

Jin hirmie those who frequent 

the gates of the cities ; cf. seq. 

kofara* jj^y, gate, F 236. 

kofato yl4^9^ pi. kofatai 15^3^, 
hoof. 



kogi 



i^- 



pi. koguna \JLty^, 



kogina \J^^^ and kogai tj^^^y 
any large collection of water, 
lake, large river A 66, ravine 
through which any water flows ; 
cf. kogo, 

kogia, hook ; cf . kugiya, 

kogo >^>^) hollow ; kogon itache 
hollow of a tree ; den, etc. ; cf . 
kogi, 

kogua, hook ; cf . kugiya. 

kogua* S^^y echo (?). 

koi, egg', cf. kwoi, 

koikoiyo ^^X^^^^, to imitate an- 
other's pronunciation or ac- 
tions. 

koinya If^^, skull; koinyan kaiy 
id. 

koiya ^^^, to teach ; maikoiya 
\^yt^ teacher, koiya ii^, 

Utj^, teaching ; koiya na 
shaitan the teaching of Satan, 
D 19; koiyatva t^;^^, teach- 
ing; cf. seq. 



koiyo yi^^t to learn. 

kokari ^jS^^^^ 1 . to try, attempt, 
endeavour, A 2, 3, 26 ; 2. to 
work diligently, cf. maikokari 
one who endeavours, kokaru 
^j^^y diligence, 'B\^ ku bada 
kokarunku give diligence. 

koki* i5^>^, female spider. 

kokia* 1a^3^> * large tree which 
bears red edible fruit, its leaves 
are eaten by cattle. 

koko 3£»^z>, a drink made from 

the flour of gero beaten up in 

a turumi and drunk hot, honey 

being sometimes added. 
^ J J 
kokofa \^y^y^ or kohwafa 

' ««' •J 

v^t^i^, to canter. 
J J J 
kokwito yU-^3^9, 1. reasoning, 

questioning, disputing, con- 
tinued asking; 2. doubt, un- 
certainty. 

A;oA:m» t^^^^, fighting, wrestling, 
exertion; yi kokua to wrestle, 
fight, smite. 

kokua t^£»^£», point, ridge, pin- 
nacle. 

kokulwa* \^ik>, skull; A 80; 
cf. kolua, 

kokwafa, see kokofa. 

kol{l)e ^J^, small red pepper, the 
plant grows to the height of 
about two feet. 

kolkot{t)a, a small insect ; cf . kwal- 
kwat(t)a. 

koUi, kullif kwalli or kwolli <Jl&, 



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\^ 128 

Ar. J^iT>, antimoDj or stib- 
nite = the crrlfifii, or stibium of 
the ancients; it is found in the 
eastern parts of Hausaland. 
Antimony powder, which has 
a leaden grey colour, is much 
used by Hausa women for 
painting their eyebrows. It 
has been so used from very 
early times, cf. 2 Kings ix. 30 
Jezebel ...* oculos ejus posuit 
stibio'; cf. tozali. 

koltta t^J», kolua tjii, kwalua 

\^^ or kokulwa tyJCg», skull, 
D 65 ; brains, A 80. 

komaji^S^, ^>^) koma* U^, to 
go back, return; B 143 tun 
ha akoma ha until there be no 
return, komawa \y ^y ^, re- 

turning, komo >o>^, to re- 
turn to where the speaker is, 
to return here, to come back. 
komowa tyo^£g, coming back. 

koma* toj^^, used in compound 
koman magana = the truth or 
root of the matter. 

koma* l«5^, net to catch fish = 
raffa, which is used in Sokoto. 
koma^ flea; cf. kuma. 
komawa, returning; cf. koma. 

komi ^yj9, >5^, anything, 
everything, A 48; haJ?u komi = 
nothing, so also ha komi or ha 
komi ha, komine iyt*3^ = 
komi with subst. verb ne, lit. 
whatsoever it be, whatsoever. 

komo, to return here; cf. koma. 



kSj^ 



komtsa ll(K»f> or kwamsa U>^^, 
mucus from the eyes. 

kona or kuna* 0>^) M>^> kona* 
\j^ or kone ^^^y 1. to burn, 
to destroy by fire; pres. torwj 
kona, F 11 4 ; pass, akona, F 
156; 2. to burn with desire, 
etc. ; zuchia ta kuna the 
heart burned... ; 3. burning 
desire, burning disease, konane 
^\j^9, fem. konana UUj^^, 

pi. konanu ^{jy^, burnt. 
konama, scorpion; cf. kunama, 
kondo, centre of thatched roof ; 

cf . kwando, 
kone, see kona, 
konga, a plain; cf. kanga. 

konga UU^, a knife ; cf . kangar. 
kopsa, pod of ground-nut; cf. kohsa, 
kora tj^J, Ar. ^Lsj^, baldness, 

either that produced naturally 

or by shaving. 
kora \jyl^y kore \£^^ or koro 

3j3^i to drive, to hurry, to 

drive away; D 21 ya kora 

kansa chikkin aaaha he hurries 

himself to (the place of) pain ; 

X 4 J 
korowa S^^j^S^, driving away; 

koro sauki to send help. 
koram{m)a Ltj^^s, 1. a fast-flowing 

stream, a torrent such as would 

not be navigable by canoes ; 

2. the ravine in which the 

stream flows. 
kore, see kora, 
kore ^j^, long tobe of black or 

dark shiny blue cloth. 



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korhw ^j^y 1*. green; 2. medi- 
cine for the eyes made from 
powdered goat's skin. 

kormot{t)o yUjS^, 1. to carry false 
news, to tell tales against 
another secretly; 2. to inter- 
fere in a matter which doe^s 
not concern one; cf. karam- 
hani, 

koro^ to drive, etc. ; cf . kora. 

koroi'o ^j^j^iS^ or kcuroro ^j^j^^ 
a bag containing 20,000 cow- 
ries, usually made of the leaves 
of the tukunuz palm ; possibly 

from Ar. ^, Heb. cor, Gr. 

icdpo9 = a large dry measure ; 

cf. kesu, 
korto y>j^, fem. kortua \yJj£9y 

prostitute. 
kosa or kusa*, C^i>, an iron nail. 
kosa ^^^, to be ripe. 
kosai* ^^i L^-^^^j E 6 pass. 

ankakosai he was driven away. 

ko8a(8)8he, see koshi, 

^ « J 
kosfa or kwosfa lj,»A, pi. kosfofi 

or hivosfofi ^^1^ (cf. (?) Ar. 
^,.J^, dregs, crushed fruit, 
etc.), 1. egg-shell, peel of fruits; 
2. in pL, branching off of roads. 
koshi ^^^£>, ^^^, 1. to be satis- 
fied, to have enough, F 10 ; 
2. used as n., a being satisfied, 
satisfaction (esp. of appetite). 
ko8a{8)8he ^ <* u^^ ^, pi. ko- 

8a8{8ya J yj^, one who has 

eaten enough, one who is satis- 
fied. ko8hada* jj^^^, causa- 

R. 



129 \^^ 

tive form of koshi to feed to 
satisfaction, to satisfy. 

koshi* ^^^, compound of ko and 
shi, found B 38, himself. 

koshia lfla>g^, a wooden spoon. 

kota \j^, handle, e.g. of a box. 
kotafani^ shield; cf. kutufani, 

kotakwana ^^O^^, Uj^j^^, to 
leave off work till to-morrow, 
to leave a thing as it is; yin 
kotakwana, id. 

kotama* \Xi^^, cousin or relation. 

kotanchi or kwatanchi .a^^^^ 1 . to 
compare, to liken to, to place 
together; pass, akotanchi is 
made like unto; 2. kotanchin 
kaza about so much, kotanchin 
hakka like this; cf. kutumshi 
likeness, F 145. kotanta or 
kwatanta CaZ2£^, 1. i.q. ko- 
tanchi-, 2. to describe. 

koto ^^, of a bird, to peck; 

matkoto yi^Xt^ beak. 
kotontawa tyU2&, to pay a second 

time, to pay over again. 
kotutura, stump of wood; cf. hu- 

tutura» 

kowa \^^i everyone, anyone, any; 
hahu kowa or ha kowa no one. 

kowane ^yjj^, fem. kowache 
^"^^y^i indefinite pronoun 
with subst. verb suffixed, 1. 
anyone, everyone, whosoever 
it may be; B 28 duba chikkinsu 
kotoache fa kaka zaha look as 
to which of them (f.) thou 

9 



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130 



wilt choose ; 2. combined with 
the pi. pers. pron. = each; 
kovoa/aenmu each of us, kowa- 
nenku each of you, kowa- 
nensu each of them, kowanene 
^jui^^i^, a strengthened form 
oihowane with subst. v. suffixed. 

kowainia* 0>^» finger-ring. 

kovm^ see kauye. 

koya^ to teach; cf. koiya, 

koyanzu ^JJ^j^ (compound of ko 
even, and yanzu), even now, 
now, immediately. 
koyaitshe ^^>{>^) at any time, 

always ; cf . kulyaushe, 
koyo, to learn ; cf . koiyo. 
kozo jjj>^ (cf . Ar. ^^9 a kettle- 
drum), a kind of drum held 
under the arm; it is covered 
with skin in front, but is open 
behind. 
kozozohe ^^jJJ>=>> 1- course or 
hollow of a stream ; 2. a deep 
ravine without water. 
ku iJ, >&, 2nd pers. pron. pi. used 
1. as separate emphatic pron., 
e.g. ku kun taffi you, you went 
away, thus standing to 2. in 
the same relation as the sing. 
kai to ka; 2. used as a prefixed 
and suffixed pron. in the same 
ways and senses as the sing. 
kay q. V. ; for use of -wA?u your, 
cf. Gr. p. 17. 
kua ^, i^, too, also, likewise ; 
it follows as an enclitic the 
word to which it more particu- 
larly refers, e.g. ni kua ni 



shigga I too shall enter, E 37, 
F 105. 
kubaka i^>^, cord round waist of 

trousers. 
kubche j^i*fi», to slip or drop out 

of one's hands; cf. gvbchi, 
huhe ^^y sheath for knife or 

sword. 
hahey to mix; cf. kwabe, 
kubewa \y>^, small kind of gourd, 
esp. used in making mia; cf. 
kahewa (= large gourd). 
hihli ^j!A> (cf. Ar. Jii, bolt), to 
lock, lock up; makubli or 
maktd(l)i* key, button, kubli 
J^, ^X^^ or kulli J^y a 
knot. 
kubri^y used with itache, a dried- 

up tree ; cf . kobri. 
kububtm \y^yt^y a snake, live or 
six feet long, with black and 
white spots. 
kucJia ^^y U£5 or kuza J.&, to 

rush or fall down. 
kuda*. when? cf. koda, 
kuda \jA, hidi jAy kuje i5i^>», 
pi. hvid{d)a8he ^tiSjJ^y ha- 
d{d)aje ^U^ (cf. Ar. pi. 
^IJJ, stinging insects), com- 
mon house-fly ; kuddan gerke a 
small sand-fly. 
kudahi ^jAy a species of sweet 

potato {dankali). 
kudiy see kuda, 
kudi*y money; cf. kurdi, 
kudira* (jji, Ar. jji, destiny. 



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JL^ 



131 



^ 



will of God J F 137 fa kudira 
ta gabato talikai duk and the 
will of God shall bring together 
all creatures. 

kvdu ju£» or kua{d)u8 ^jlA, 
south; also used adverbially, 
e.g. ya taffi kudu he went 
south, G 2 1.1, G 4 1.15. 

kududif{f)i^ cistern ; cf. kurdti- 
du{f)L 

kududura* tj^ju^, a small knife 
used by women. 

knduji 9>a3, a plant about two 

feet high, grows amongst davxiy 

a medicine made from it. 
kudumbia C^jA, the cracking of 

skin in the under-joints of toes ; 

cf . ha/mhudiga, 

kudunia IjJ^ji^, range of hills; 

hill, mountain. 
J * J 
kuduru ^jjA, broken blade of 

a sword or knife. 

kud{d)u8, south; cf. kudu. 

ruins of a place, a desolated 
or dilapidated town, etc. 

^»^3 

kufanwa* \y^i funeral, C15; cf. 
kafan (shroud), likafanL 

kufie(e)a Ua^ or ku/ut{t)a Ua£», 
pi. kufittad ^>£r» or kufui(t)ai 

6 4» 3 J 

^Za^, 1*. sandal; 2. long 
riding-boot with spurs. 
kufu, lungs; ct/u/u, 

kujuli* ^J^A^, to extinguish a 

fire or light. 
kufut(t)a, see hifit(t)a. 



^^Ssy to roar, used of wild 
animals, etc. 
kugiya or kogia jiifc^^ or kogua 

t^^, pi. kugiyoyi ^^^^, 
hook, clasp. 

» »»3 » i S 

kuikui ^J^J, kukui ^^, a disease 
in women somewhat similar to 
elephantiasis. 

kuje*, a fly; cf. kuda. 

kuka i£»^i&, Kanuri id., adan- 
sonia digitata = baobab or mon- 
key-bread tree. "The Hausas 
eat its fruit and use its leaves 
for making soup. It does not 
grow to any great height, btit 
has often a girth of 60 to 70 ft. 
The word kuka is also applied 
to the seeds of the dorowa tree; 
cf. dodotva, 

kuka l£»^i», cry, lamentation; yin 
kuka to cry, raise a cry, howl, 
low, etc., of men and animals, 
e.g. aania tana kuka the cow 
lows (ruri is used of the bull), 
of the camel, the cat, of Dodo, 
etc. ; A 4 rana ya ke kuka da 
ruri maiyatjoa it will be a day 
of lamentation and much cry- 
ing. 

kuka <iX^, pers. pron. 2nd pers. 
pL used to denote the perfect 
tense; kuka zo you have come. 

kukarukuy to crow ; i.q. kakaruko, 
q.v. 

kuku yC^, an edible fish, six inches 
long, with sharp scales on its 
back. 

9—2 



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hiihui*^ a swelling on the body; 
cf . kuikui, 

huhihi fjSi^, a tree, the fruit of 
which forms small calabashes ; 
from its bark is made a medi- 
cine for men and cattle. 

kukuma Uj^^^, a musical in- 
strument played by rubbing 
on it. 

kukumiy a man with his hands 
tied to his neck; cf. kunkumi, 

ktU*, if, when; cf. ku/r. 

hd{l)a %L, 1. to care for, heed, 
be concerned about, used abso- 
lutely (B 90) or with direct 
ace. or with ch or ga; 2. to 
care fgr in the sense of to 
covet, e.g. C 52 bai kuUa ha ga 
dunia he cared not for the mer- 
chandise of the earth. hal(f)ata 
OV^) * secondary form of 
kul{l)a, to care for, e.g. B 29 
ku aan ha shi hdlata da dunia 
ha he cares not, as you know, 
for the earth; see also B 30. 
kal{l)i* J&>, ^J^, intention, 
e.g. ina da kullin taffia or na 
kulla taffia I think of going. 

kalba* 0^, a species of lizard. 

kul{l)i, see kul(l)a, 

kulika8{s)a LJxL, shamelessness. 

kidki JjA, pi. ^"^^ a stick, 

F 107. 
hdli, see kublL 
hulls antimony; cf. kollL 

kul{l)u* J&>y Ar. ji>, all, A 5; 
cf. kui(l)um. 



kulu^^, pi. kulayi ^^9 wale 
made by a whip. 

ktUu^yi^, 1. froth skimmed from 
the top in the making of bread 
or niassa cakes ; 2. leaven. 

ktjd{l)um^jA [originally borrowed 
from the Ar.^^ J^ = e\ery 
day], 1. always, constantly; 
hence 2. used with other ex- 
pressions of time, every, e.g. 
kuUum safe every morning, 
kullum dere every night, B 88 ; 
cf. kulyauahe. 

kulume ^^J^, an edible fish with 
red tail, about fifteen inches 
long. 

hdyauahe* ^y^S^, always; cf. 
kul{l)u and yaushe and koyau- 
she. 

kuma U^, ^^, again. At D 49 
the word is found repeated in 
a comp. ankuma kiima prob. = 
over again, in any way, by any 
means. 

kuma or koma l^, flea. 

Icuma C^, a flat fish with reddish 
snout. 

kumachi ^^^2^, a black snake 
.about fourteen inches long. 

kumakum{m)i ^^£^^, a horse- 
man's armour made of iron. 

kumama UL^^, weak, infirm, 
feeble, kumamanchi »^<iUlo^, 



1. weakness, infirmity, feeble- 
ness; 2. what is trying or 
troublesome. 



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133 



kum(7n)atu, see kuinchi. 

^»J ^ 9 J 

kumba l«J^, W^> pi* kuitibuna 
Um^ and kumbai ij^^i ^• 
finger-nail, scales of a fish; 
2. an edible shell-fish sold in 
the markets. 

t 9 J 

kumbe or kwuinbe ^yL£», fashion 
of shaving the front part of 
the head only; the heathen 
custom of leaving a tuft on top 
of head. 

kumhu ysi^st (cf. (1) Ar. ^y>i, 
calices of flowers), 1. a small 
calabash ; 2. round object ap- 
plied to anything; cf. ahem- 
kumhuy rumbua, and seqq. 

kawbuchi ^^^'^s^t %^*,^^, rough 
or hasty plaiting or doing up 
of a woman's hair. 

kumburata^y see kumbure, 

kumbure ^j, ^.^ f> or kuirwun 

^j^JjS^, to swell ; kumburavm 

S^Sy^Ji&y swelling with pnde; 
F 30 kana kiimburawa thou 
art proud; kumburcUa Ot;»y ^ , 
swollen with calamity. 

kumclie*, narrowed ; cf. kumfata 
and (?) kumchi forest. 

kumchi %^ ^ , ^^^^, pi. kum- 

(m)atu y»lo^, cheek. 
kumchi %t^>» ^ or kumshi ^t^^, 

dense forest. 
A^t^mta, see kumya, 

kumkumia* le^X^f^, a poisonous 
species of euphorbia tree about 
two feet high. 



himolo ^3»^, qualm or famtness 
arising from lack of food, esp. 
in the morning. 

kumshi, see kumchi, 

kumso* 3i»»^, to hide anything. 

kumtata UZ»f>, to make narrow 
A 67. kamche* ^^^, narrow, 
tightened ; cf . (1) kunkurUa, 

kum,ya or A^t^mia Ij^^f't, shame, 
bashf ulness, good mannei^ji ; 
rcwAm kwmya want of good 
manners or of sense of pro- 
priety. «a, 6a and 6a{ia himya 
to put to shame ; jin kumya to 
feel shame, to be ashamed ; ba 
ahi da kwmya ba he has no 
sense of shame. F 115 ma,mi' 
zina 8U ka kumya those who 
sin will be put to shame. 

kuna^ to bum ; cf. kona, 

kuna* 0>^) ^' constr. with dagga, 
to have no fear of God, to be 
wicked. 

kmiam>a or konamxi t«U^ or ku- 
nami ^L^^, pi. kunamai 

9 ^ ^ J 

^^••U^, scorpion, F 109. 
I •J 
kunche or kwanche ^^<U£ » . or kun- 

chi* i*ii^, to untie, loosen; 
C 11 ya kunchi kaya ga fili 
dunia he unties his goods on 
the plain of this world, ku/nche 

|JU^, fern, kunchia lyU^^, pi. 

kuntu y i^y pass, particip. pass, 
of prec., untied, loosened, mai- 
kunche a wrestler; stjmche, q.v.. 



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>f^ 



is apparently another form of 

the same word. 
hmideg{g)e, ktvondeg{g)e ^^ju3, 

armlets, F 225; cf. kar{r)o, 

harafa. 
kundi ^jj£9y a book of any kind. 

kundu* jjU^, used with t/i, of 

an arrow, to miss. 
kundttdu/(/)i, a pond ; cf. hu/rdu- 

du/i/)i. 
kunduma UjUfe, with yi, 1. to 

topple over, B 150 ha ni yi 

hwndwma en fada ha I will 

not topple over so as to fall; 

2. to dip the head in water; 

cf . (?) seq. 
handwmi ^^jU&, the pond on 

the outside of paradise; cf. 

D 76 note. 

S 9 J 

kundumi ^^ jk X ^, 1. baldness 
caused by shaving off' the hair; 
2. to cut off all the hair. 

kune j^5-» or kunne 15-^, pi. 

kunuwa Sy>^^ 1. ear, ¥ 7 ka 
kakartsa kunuwa give atten- 
tion with your ears, A 6; 
2. kun(n)en itache = leaves. 
kunfa Ua£», foam. 

ku7ikeli* ^JU£;£», a small shield. 

" ' J » J 
kunkumi j^^x.^.£> or kuntumi 

^^ii7;^, a rich merchant. 

kunkumi ^.q, v ' ^•^ or kukuini 
yj^S£ s* y a man with his hands 
tied to his neck. 

hinkunta cul£;£», narrow, used 
of a doorway ; cf . (?) kumtata. 



kunkuru ^jXi^^j tortoise, turtle. 

kunsa* ^.r-^, to fold up; cf. (?) 

kumtata. 
kunshia*, sleep, F 75 ; cf. kwana. 
kuntavja, see kwantatoa, 
kuntukuro jjpSu£>, a player on the 

kalango drum. 
kunttmii^ a merchant; cf. kwnhumi, 

kuntuna* {jyH^, found in pass. 
akuntuna opened, D 63. 

kwnu yi^^y gruel make of guinea- 
corn, rice, etc. 

* *-* •■» , 

kwr* jS^ or kftd* J»^, if, when, 

e.g. A^tAT anka^lie masa if it be 
said to him, C 7. 

kura Sj^^y pi. kuraye ^tjj^, 
hyena; B 149 tna gani sarai 
kura gata I see distinctly, 
there is the hyena. 

kura tj^^, dust. 

kura \j^»y gain, profit, esp. unlaw- 
ful gain, overcharging, cheat- 
ing, chi kura to make unlawful 
gain; F 201 ^a dUlalai fa 
ma>8uriha da kura and the 
brokers who have made unjust 
profits, i.e. who keep back 
money for things sold. 

kurada b{/^> pi. kv/radai ^3t^£», 
a small round hatchet used 
for cutting grass for horses, 
etc. = mumta/raga, 

kurafu ^ >^, hirfu ^ji or karfu* 
^j», pi. karfuna* U^ji (Ka- 
nuri ka/rafi hide), 1. a whip 
made of skin, D41 ; 2. flogging, 
yin kurfu to flog, mu yi masa 



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135 



karfu they flogged him ; 3. a 
horse-girdle made of cloth. 

kuran 0^i)^f -^^- 0!>^» *"® Koran, 
F26. 

kurar{r)i j^i>^, threatening; y%n 
kurarri to threaten = bada 
tsoro, 

kurba ^j^ or kurbata Wj£», to 
sip. 

kmxhia, dove ; cf . kurichia, 

kurdafi ^^j^, very small black 
ants. 

kurdi ^3>-^ (frequently pro- 
nounced kudi), used as a pi. 
of ijia and vmri, 1. cowries 
(kawara and alkavjara are also 
used in the same sense); 2. 
used generally for money of 
any kind; 3. price, e.g. kti/r- 
dinsa nataa what is the price 
of it? kurdinsa ya issa it is 
enough for it; ba shi kurdi 
it is not dear, kurdin kasa 
tribute, taxes. 

J 

kurdi* \jyf^, a small biting in- 
sect found in mats, etc. 

kurdudu/{/)i ^^33j-^, ^?wc?«^- 

dif{f)i ^>S^ or kundu- 

du/(/)i ^^J^, a large pond 
of water in a town, a large 
cistern; cf. bingi. 

kurdugo j^jj^, the fruit of the 

giginia palm. 
kurege ^Jujjyk^, pi. ku/ragai 

^\j^y jerboa (dipus), Ar. 
py^ji^ the length of its body 



is about eight inches, of its 
tail ten inches; it progresses by 
a series of jumps; it burrows 
in the ground and feeds chiefly 
on grain; cf. Browning, *Saul,' 
VI. 5, "half-bird half-mouse." 
kurfu^ a whip ; cf . kurafu, 
kuri j^j>^ or kwuriya ^j^ 
(Ar. ©Ji, to beat a drum), a 
sort of stringed drum, open at 
one end, used in war or for 
signalling. 
kuria U>i, Ar. ift^i, dice, lots; 
yin kuria to draw lots; jefa 
kuria to throw with dice or 
with cowrie shells used as dice. 

kurichia* Q>^, ^t^ or kunichia 

Qj^, 1. child, applied to one 
of any age from ten to thirty 
years, B 116 dadai kurichia 
na kareta did a young man 
ever drive death away? 2. 
childishness = hallin yaro, 
kurichia Wj*^, ph kurichecheki 

^JLkH M ijJSs and kwrchiyoyi 

i^iyt^j^i dove, turtle-dove. 

kurikia U^ji or ku/rkia \^j^ 

(0 18), pi. hurikoki ^^^%i, 

virgin = budwnm, 
kurimi ^j^ or kurmi ^j^^ 

dense forest. 
kur^i •yi* (pi. huroQi ^j^\^\ 

kur^i ^^j^ (pl. kurareji 
j^^^HJL^^)' ^'^^^^ 4^» ^^^^ 



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^j^ 136 

\JT^' kJT^^ (possibly from 
Ar. rt *-ji, to be scabby), 
1. scab, boil, esp. on dogs and 
horses, itch; 2. lice (1), mai- 
kurji one who has the itch; 
cf. gushagttshi, 

9 J 

kurki ^jSs^j^, a bird like a crane. 
kurkia, virgin; cf. kurikia. 
kurkono ^JJsjS^ or kurukunu 
y>^j£9y guinea-worm. 

J* J 

kurkuku ^x£>^, dungeon, prison. 

^ i 6 J 

hurhira* j^j^^, to scrape any- 
thing, e.g. with a stone. 

kurkura*^ to err, to fail; cf. kv^- 
kure. 

kurkurkur j^j^ji, wide -opened, 
B 32 note; cf. kirkira, 

kurkwiyo, youngling ; cf . kunkuyo, 

kurmi, see kurimi. 

kurmus ^.^MiO^i, adverbial expres- 
sion, * burnt all over,' F 207 ; 
wuta ta kone kurrmus the fire 
burnt it up completely. 

kuma Uj^, pi. ^^jk^ (Kanuri 
kurna^ Fulah kurnahi), zizy- 
phus spina Christi, a large 
tree of bushy appearance with 
small leaves and red edible 
berries. 

kurtuyijS^, calabash about twelve 
inches high with long narrow 
neck, used as water-bottle. 

kurtuim ^^j^j^, pi. kurtumai 

^^^j^, ox or bullock. 



bJA^^ 



hum ^j^r^, a pony; doki kuru^ id. 
kurUy in silence ; cf . kv/rum, 

^ J 3 

kuma tji/^, 1. soul, spirit; 2. 

echo; cf. kuruma, 
kv/nichiay childishness; cf. kuri- 

chia. 
km'ufi* tjij>^, an iron chisel; 

probably a corruption of karifi, 

q.v. 

^ J0JJJ 

kumgunguma IoaX^;^, pi. kui^i- 

gimgumai ^^klcj^, a black- 
winged insect which lives a- 
mongst the guinea-corn. 

kuruki ^^^, a small cane, such 
as that carried by a soldier. 

kurukunu, guinea- worm ; cf. kur- 
kono. 

t J J J 

kurukure ^^j^jS^, to throw out 

water from the mouth. 
kurumjijS^, silence, e.g. D94mi^ 
7ta kurum we keep silence ; yin 

kurum/\d, A^ri^^^, in silence; 
D29 abersu kum let them be 
left alone, i.e. let no one speak 
to them ; cf . (?) seq. 
kui'uma U|», pi. kurumai ij^j^, 
1. one who is deaf; 2. to be 

9 J J 

deaf, kurumchi k^^^j^y and 

kummta wU|^, deafness; shina 
da kurumchi he is de^f . 

kurungu >iJ>^, an edible fish 

with large broad head. 
hwruma \^j^j£9, 1. a cry, scream; 

yin kururua to cry, B 96 ; 2. 

complaint, grievance; 3. echo; 

cf. kurua^ id. 



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^ttjiuttj^ 



137 



hjyt^^ 



9 JJ0 J J 



kuruskurus ^jJuij^, edible root of 
small plant used in making 
tico, 

kusa, nail; cf. kosa. 

ktL8{8)a L»£», J-»£^, near, nearly; 
da hissa near at hand ; kvMa 
da or kuaaa ga near to, yin 
kussa to be or draw near, ya 
yi kussa kare or ya kuasa kare 
it is nearly finished, kussa 

kuasa = very near. ku8{8)awa 

^ ^ * 

I^mA, drawing near. kii8(8)ata 

OL»£> or ku8{8)anta C%m»^, 
to be or to draw near, su 
kussata en yi hakka they were 
about to act thus. kus(8)ache 
^Lȣ>, id. hii8(8)atowa tyu^, 
coming near. 

ku8{8)ache^ see ku8{8)a, 

ku8€mchi, to condemn; cf. kushe, 

ku8{8)cUa, see ku8{8)a. 

kusato, see kuahe, 

kti8(8)atotaa, coming near; cf. 
kys(8)a, 

ku88awa, see ku8(8)a. 

Jeu8he* ly^y^, l^^ (cf. (?) Ar. 

^laL^, to be anxious), to attri- 
bute evil to one who is doing 
good, kusanchi ^J^^^, to 

condemn, kusato yfC^^, to 
murmur against. 

hushekuaheya* ljhJtXw^£>, itching 
sore on hand or foot (?); F 106 
8una dirkcmka ha/r kushekuahe- 
ya they will beat thee till thou 
art sore [possibly the reading 
should be Ikar ka tuuahe (i.e. 



vmche) kusheya till thou go 
forth from the tomb], 

lj-JL£>, Ar. |^>^, chair, 
bench, stool. 
hushewa tyLhA or kibsheya* ij^JL^, 

pi. kuaheyi ^^t-^'*^ ^, grave, 
tomb ; tvurin kvshevxi or wurin 
kuaheyi burying-place ; D 38, 
F 63, 95, 102, 106 ; wurin hi- 
aheuKby F 86. For use of ka- 
slieya cf . note on kualiekuahsya, 
kushinta''^, to drive away; cf. 
kaskasta, 

kfuakure ^j CJLfr> or kurkv/ra 
- * » J 
j^^J^, 1. to miss, of an 

arrow to miss or fail to hit the 
mark; 2. to fail to keep a pro- 
mise, then to fail in duty, to 
err; D 4 kadda mu kurkura 
let us not fail, i.e. in our duty. 

ku8ku8* i^^Jum^, Ar. ^^^Jum^, cus- 

cus (a north African native 

dish made of macaroni, etc. 

not known in Hausaland). 
J J J J 
ku8U y^_^J^y ^^^, pi. kusai 
• ^ J 
^^^^, a kind of mouse; cl 

ku8umbi8(8)a, 
J J J 
kusugu* jAmA, anything small or 

insignificant (?). 

^ * J 
ku8U7nbi8{8)a Lma^^^^, i.e. ktisu 

and bi8(8)ay squirrel, 
^ J J » J J 
ku8umburua S^jy, o f^^, a reed 

growing amongst the guinea- 
corn and like it in appearance ; 
not edible ; flutes are made of 
it. 



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^^ 



kusurua tjj^,.!,^, pi. hisuroyi 

L5pj>^» c^- Ar.jIi»,corner3 
ku8uruanhanuQ\how] another 
form is auA^rt^. 
kutanchi, see kotanchi. 

^ ^ * 
kutara* tjU&, a beam for pumping 

water with, D 16 ; shina takura 

kamal kutara he falls down 

like the beam for pumping 

water. 

hutofi ^A^, bead necklace worn 
by women. 

kutu y^t a small tree-lizard, its 

bite is said to cause leprosy, 

= gogwwari \ cf . kuturu, 
^ J $ 
kutufani ^jLaJL^ or kotafaai 

^JuLjyA^, pi. kutufan{n)ai 

^jjCJ^, round shield made of 
skin. 
Ajw^t^wwAi* j.A»-o^> likeness, F145 
for kotanchi. 

kutunku* yKiZ^, male camel = 
anicUi, 

9 J JO J J 

kut{t)up kut{t)up ^^jUIXCSd, totter- 
ing, applied to the walk of the 
' old or blind. 

kuturu ^j^^ pi. kutare (^jufi>, 
1. leper; 2. applied to gero = 

blighted, kuturchi ^y& or 

^ d J -» 
kuturta U/ J !^, leprosy; cf. 

kutu, 

^ i » i 
kututura or kotutura \j 2 2^ or 

kuturtura \yy!£9, 1. stump of 
a tree, branch with leaves cut 
off; 2. stubble. 



htiwa \^^^, cry. 

kuycmga or kwiyanga MlmJ^^ pi. 

kuyangai ^jka^, used as fem. 

of bauHi = a female slave ; the 

plural is used of slaves of both 

sexes. 
kuyiwa or kivmya, refusal ; cf . ki. 
kuza, to rush ; cf . kucha, 
ktva, also ; cf. kua. 
hwaha v>^ ^^ kwohe* ir^^t 

to reprove, blame, check. 

Si I J 

kwohe iwl^ or kuhe , «-^>^ or 

kwaha V>^' V^) ^ ^^^' 
A 76 kam ha rua kwahe kasan- 
ka ya shekare if there is no 
water to mix with it, your 
earth is dry. Pass, akwaha 
^^\ F 96. 

6 3 , © *- 

kwabri ^j^^^, kwaurt ^^j^lS^, pi. 
^ J 6 J 
kwabruka, kwobruka l^j,^^, 

withered leafless tree; cf. kobri, 
kwache Ji^, ^k>, Ji\k (A50) 

or kwashe i^^y 1. to take 
away by force, to snatch ; A 
50 sa/rki da ke kwa>che da tsor 
limchi duka the king who 
seized everything by deceit; 
2. to rescue, deliver ; 3. booty, 
also abin kwache; maikwachewa 
one who snatches away, B69. 
kwaao y^^^^ to snatch. 

kwachia* Ui^, 0>^> calabash, 
finger-basin = kworia, 

kuxidai, longing for ; cf . kodai. 

kwado j^^i pi- c5A^A>^» ^*"- 



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t3*^ 



kwagua \ykj^^ pincers ; c£. (?) 
kugiya hook. 

kwake ^^^^, fading away, as of 

a dyed garment; kwaki ^^y^y 

adj., fading. 

kwakia l^^^, a long, slender, 

light-coloured snake. 
^ » J 
kwaktva tyC£>, elaeis guineensis, 

oil palm tree ; main ja = the 

oil obtained from it. The oil is 

expressed from its seeds or nuts 

which grow in large clusters. 

It is largely used as food by 

the Hausas. 

^ » J 
kwakwari* ^yC^, place or hole 

made for horses' dung, etc. 

kwakwata U^X^, 1. a fine white 
robe used esp. by the Nup6s ; 
2. slit for head or sleeves in a 
gown ; 3. inside shirt with 
pleats. 

kwalfa v^aX^, to draw water. 

kwalkwa8{8)a, travelling ants; cf. 
kwarikwassa. 

kwalkwatta, small white insect; 
cf. kwarkwatta. 

kwalli, antimony ; cf. koUi, 

kwalva, skull; cf. kolua, 

kwamin ^>^L^, in compound 
kwamin vmta, restoration of a 
fire nearly gone out. 

kwamsa, mucus from the eyes; 
cf. komtsa. 

kwana U^^, phkwanaki ^^s\j^^, 

kwanuka Uuj^^ the 24 hours 
of day and night, day. The 



sing, fonn is frequently used 
instead of the plural, e.g. 
kwana fudu four days, kwana 
O^^i ^ P^ss the night, to sleep, 
to lie down to sleep, B 53 ; an- 
kwanda rua the night has been 
passed in the rain, kwanandaga 

UjUi^, to march during the 
night in time of war. kwanche 

^y^^y to lie down, to sleep, 
to rest, B 58 note, ktuankwan- 
die ^JUx^Ay id. maJcwanche 

^^A*Xd, a place to lie down in, 

a burial place, kwanta C^U^, 
to lie down to sleep, to pass 
the night; also causat. to lay 

down. kvyantawa tjl 2 X ^, 
lying down ; F 63 A» san kai 
dai ka kwcmtawar kuahewa 
thou knowest that thou shalt 
lie down alone in the tomb. 
kwantasda juJU£», to allay. 
kwanto yJSst, lyii^g in wait, 
ambush, kunshia* or kwan- 
shia* (fJLi^, F 75 sleep. 
ktvanche, to untie ; cf . kunche. 

kwanda tjU^, a cup inverted on 
a reed in a field as a charm 
against thieves, the sight of 
it is supposed to cause the 
thief's hands to drop off. 

kwando or kondo ^ ju£», the centre 
inside a thatch roof where the 
reeds meet together. 

kwangi ^yu^, a sort of cane or 
bamboo. 



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c^JCx^ 



uo 



3J^ 



kwankwassa ^^mV ; ^, L^Lii, to 
knock at a door ; cf. (?) hwari- 
ktuasa, 
kwanta, see kwana, 
kwantasda^f to allay ; cf . kwana, 
kwantawa, lying down ; cf. kwana, 
kwa/ntOy lying in wait ; cf . kwana. 

kwanya V*^, found in the com- 
pound kwa/nyan kune wax f ro^ 
the ear. 

kwara \j^y grain, fruit, or ker- 
nel. 

kwa/r{r)a ij^, choking from swal- 
lowing anything. 

kwarai ^j^, rightly, properly; 
na ji kwarai I understood 
aright; nakwarai^ f. takwarai 
correct, proper. 

kwaraktvaraorkworakwora \j£s>j£9, 
female slave in a house. 

kwa/re ^j^ or kwari ^j^, to 
peel, strip, bark, skin, kwaro 
^j^i strips of black leather 
worn round the neck and 
hanging in front. kwoA'ia 
Hj^i s^rip of cloth, etc.; cf. 
(?) hare, 

kwariche tJ^j^y poison given in 

food = sammu. 
ktmrika ^j^ or kwaraka ^j^, 

to be ravenous or greedy; 

maikwa/rika one who lives by 

begging food, a parasite. 

kwarikwassa Im*£»^£», a hammer. 
kwarikwassa [mSsj^^, kwalkwa>8{8)a 
LmuXJL^ or kwarukwassa 



lL^j£9, a large black ant, 
usually called the travelling 
or driver ant; it travels in 
columns and feeds only on 
living creatures. For descrip- 
tion of its habits cf. 'Hausa- 

land,' pp. 96, 164. 
^ J J 
kwarkw(U(t)a [ 2(h^ ^ or kuxd- 

kwat{t)a or koikot{t)a Uil£», 

a minute white insect in clothes, 

etc., louse (?). 
kwarrm l<«^, pi. kwarmu y^^y 

socket, hole, joint of scissors, 

etc. 
kwaro ^j^^, pi. kwari ^j^£9, 

a black moth. 
kwaro, strips of black leather ; cf . 

kvoa/re, 

kwaruktoa>88a, ants ; cf . kwari- 

kwassa, 

» » * 

ktiHwuru* ^jjS^, a large nut, simi- 
lar in appearance to a ground 
nut, growing on a low bush ; 
its name in Zaria and amongst 
the Nup^ is yard da daria, 
i.e. laughing boy. 

ktvasaktoasa IimC,^, pelican (?). 

hivasfa, shell ; cf. kosfa, 

kwashe, to snatch ; cf . kvxiche, 

kfwasOy i. q. prec. ; cf . kwache. 

kwatanta, see kotanta, 

kwauri*, dried trunk of a tree ;' cf . 
kwahri, 

kwaya U^.^, t n f^, found in 
comp. kwayan ido ball of the 
eye, kwayan gero, ahinkaffa^ 
etc. ear, fruit. 

kwazo ^J>^) diligently. 



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QiOo^z 



kwibi 15/3^ or l<M^^, side of the 

body. 
kwihiyo yfS£s or hurhwiyo y^^j.^^ 

pL kwihiye ^^^J^, youngling, 

young of animals. 
kwUki* JM^X^f in comp. kvnlkin 

kofa = doorstep ; cf . (?) kuZhi. 

kuuiya l^, ridges in a field. 
kwiyanga, female slave; cf. ku- 

yanga, 
kioobe*, to rebuke ; cf . kwaba, 
kwobruka or kwahruka, withered 

branches ; plural of ktvabri, q.v. 

ktvochia Its^, raised part or peak 

of a saddle, kwochia gahha the 
front peak, kwochia baya the 
hind peak. 

kwoda, liver; cf. koda, 

kwodoki* ^^^j^^£9, strong vigo- 
rous man. 

kwoi or koi ^^^ pi. kwoinyaye 
L^tt'^y^i ^^ ®gg y ^j^ kwoi used 
of a bird, to lay eggs, kwoin 
kifi pearls. 

kwdkwoli ^jJj^, helmet. 

kwoUi, antimony; cf. kolli. 

kwomo >o>^) small bean eaten by 
horses. 

kwonda joSd, to bring back or 

restore. 

kwondeg{g)ey armlets ; cf. kun- 

deg{g)e. 

*• * ^ J 
kwonderiya bjjU^, large wooden 



141 



t>J^ 



hookj sometimes used for catch- 
ing fish. 

kwora or kwara 1/-^ or man 
kwora^ the Hausa name of the 
river Niger. 

kworakwora, female slave ; cf . 
kvxx/rakwara, 

s 

kwori ^j3&, furrow or depres- 
sion in ground. 

kwori ^j^S9, quiver, in Hausa- 
land usually made of wood 
and covered with skin ; kworin 
kibia quiver for arrows ; cf . 
seq. 

kworia or koria ^jy^, cucurbita 

lagenaria, gourd ; cups or cala- 
bashes are made from it; cf. 
gora, 

kwomo >>^) the husks of guinea 

com. 
kujoromi* i^^jy^, found in mai- 

kworomi one with sunken eyes. 
kwosfqfi, egg-shells, pi. of kosfa, q.v. 

kwosvMt J 13^, a second annual 

crop of indigo (bdba) ; it is 
regarded as better than the 
first. 

kwot{t)ana tU^, string of beads 
worn by women round the 
loins. 

kwozo ^^^^ a toad (kwado) with a 
swelling on its back, i.e. a sick 
toad. 

kurumbe, baldness ; cf . kumbe, 

kwungwra* {/»*£», a large oblong 
shield like that of a Zulu. 



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142 



tjJ 



kwuriya, a stringed drum ; cf . kuri. 
kyanwa, cat; cf. kenwa. 
kyau^ see keau, 
kyetUy a flint ; cf . ketu. 

The letter J is used by the Hausas 
to represent the sound of the 
English I. In a few instances 
the Ar. ^ (i.e. a sort of modi- 
fied d) is pronounced by the 
Hausas as I; in these cases it 
is written I, but the sound does 
not differ from J I; ct /vlulu 
from Ar. ^yo^, lullo from Ar. 
yS^, In the last case and in 
the case of many other words 
beginning with ^, the initial 
letter represents the Arabic 
article, e.g. lahari from Ar. 
ji^, laifi from Ar. %^%fj^. I is 
interchanged with s and r, and 
perhaps with m; cf. haled, 
Jialaa; fasali, fctsara; linker 
minka, 

laane ^yJfi, fem. Icuma \iM), pi. 

laanu y^, cf. Ar. ^Jm^, 1. 
cursed, accursed, reprobate ; 
kai laana a curse be upon thee ! 
2. worthless, idle; cf. Idinu. 

lodsar jimjU, laa§ar ycji^ (cf. Ar. 
* ^ ^ 
^*^^, day or night), afternoon, 

esp. applied to the time about 

6 p.m. ; cf. Gr. p. 64. The 

initial letter represents the 

Arabic article; cf. also seq. 

lahdri j^jW*9> jW*^? Ar. j^ with 
art., news, message, G 7 ; ^ 
ha/rin dunia, lit. news of the 



world. When two Hausas 
meet their first question usually 
is enna lahari or eriTia Idbarin 
dunia ? na ji laharinka I 
heard news of you. laherta 
C^^, to publish news, with 
ace. to publish news of; cf. 
haherfa, id. 

lahda tjL^, 1. a load, esp. applied 
to a load put on camels, etc.; 
2. ju), to put a saddle on, to 
pack up a load, lahche ^_^, 
particip.form from Zo^c^, laden, 
loaded (cf. Ar. ji*], saddle- 
cloth). 

laherta^ see lahdri, 

lahudda* I J^*^, Ar. jkj% certainly, 
to be sure, no doubt, just so. 

lada* l3^J, cf. Ar. rt 3^, the man 
who calls to prayer, the mu- 
ezzin, ie. Ar. ^5t. 

lada l3'>), Ar. S^^, 1. wages, pay- 
ment ; 2. recompense, reward ; 
E 14 A:u same lada you will 
receive a reward ; cf . seq. 

lad{d)a tjJ, a form of prec., 1. 
wages; 2. special discount, a 
broker*s commission. The usual 
commission paid to the broker, 
through whom almost every 
bargain in a Hausa market is 
made, is 5 p.c. on the amount 
involved. If a man sells any- 
thing ladda woje (lit. discount 
outside) he receives the whole 
of the money paid and the 
buyer pays the market fee or 



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^^ 



U3 



^ 



broker'scommission; if however 
the transaction is concluded 
ladda chikki (lit. discount with- 
in) the seller pays the com- 
mission. 

lad{d)ahi* ^j-^jJ (cf. Ar. ^>l, 
liberal education), 1. education, 
e.g. B 37 laddahi gasMa a true 
education; D 33 en hun aamu 
yaya hi nema laddabi garesu 
if you have children seek in- 
struction for them ; 2. lowli- 
ness, humility, submission. 

kbddma* LotjJ, grief, remorse; 
apparently a form of nadama^ 
q.v. 

lafafa*^ see lafia, 

Ictfi ^^ or lafe ^'9, hem, edge ; 
lafen zcme edge of cloth. 

lafia {^*^y Ar. a^U, health, i.e. 
good health, B 62 ; yin lafia to 
be in good health ; common in 
salutations, kana lafia are you 
well 1 sai lafia or lafi^a lau quite 
well ; adverbially e.g. ya komo 
lafia he came back here well, 
or safely, ya samu lafi^i he re- 
covered his health. lafafa* 
l?l?'>), prosperity; B46 allah 
shi hamnu kwana lafafa may 
God grant us days of prosperity. 

lahadi ^JJ^mJ^, Ar. j^».*>)t ^^, 

Sunday, lit. the first day. 
lahani ly^t blemish, defect ; la- 

haniga ido a blemish in the eye. 
lahira U^*^, Ar. S^^^t, the future 

state including both heaven 

and hell, A 7, 33. 



lai* Jj, see lau, 

laifa* v^, to condemn ; cf . seq. 

^i^ v^ ^^^> ^^' S*d^ ^i^h ^^-j 
that which is wrong, sin, guilt; 
yin laifi to do wrong, bada laifi 
or lai/a to condemn, babu laifi 
there is no harm in it. 

Zai/J* . -^e*), Ar. ^^usLia, found in 

C 1, weak ; cf. note, ad loc. 

Mnu* CH*^i ^^' O^f found 
in D 22, the wicked; cf. laane. 

lajibi ^^jfc.!fc), Ar. ^•<a^S> with art. ; 

cf. D 90, wonderful ; cf. ajaba. 

laka ^*^, mire, mud. 
lakhiray see lahira, 

hdaha IJL), the act of fondling; 
B 144 dunia ta kan yi lalaha 
the world, it would fondle 

(you), lalahe <«t^, to feel, 
grope, search with the hand for 

something, lalahawa* t^lJlJ, 
participial form, found in pas- 
sive, F 96 ana kuma lalabawa 
it (is) kneaded up again. 
lalacheway perishing; cf. lalata, 
lalachiy to perish ; cf . lalcUa. 
lalachi, idleness ; cf . lalata, 

lalafa UU, 1. idle, lazy; 2. quiet, 
easy, tame, cowardly, hdor- 

fcmchi *t^>JJdiy idleness, quiet- 
ness, easy disposition. 
Maftu >XaJu, to tack in sewing. 

OXX 

Mas ^jJJf to bum with hot iron, 
pass, in F 170 ana masu IcUas 



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LT- 



AND 



U4 



a hot iron shall be (prepared) 
for them ; used of burning or 
marking the skin with a hot 
iron. 
I^dashi ^^yi) or lUashi ^^, to 
calm, appease, persuade ; pos- 
sibly formed from IcUctba to 
fondle. 

Icdata U'9'9> !• destruction, con- 
demnation ; 2. evil disposition. 

lalata C^^"^, to linger about, to 
be idle; lalachi w>*JD, idle- 
ness, indifference; mailalachi 
%1>^U^ or malalachi %1>V^, 

one who is idle, lalachi i-j^, 
to perish, be destroyed, pass 
away ; B 101 dunia ta lalachi 
the world passes to destruc- 

tion; lalachewa Syi^*^, perish- 
ing, lalatache !j3*^^y A^U'^':^, 
fem. lalatachia l4-^-3^*j, pi. 

lalatatuy3^% 1. lost, perished; 
B 126 A:i£ 6er ta dunia lalor- 
to/che leave the world to perish ; 
2. worthless, mean. 

lal{l)e* j^, the flour of wheat. 

Za/(Z)e ^^, ZewZc* ^^^LJ, to be in 
need of ; da laHl)e of necessity. 
lal(l)i ^AJ, found in phrase 
/oZ^i ne = ya kamala it is 
necessary, needful. 

lalita* UX), a very small bag. 

^m&t^ X<^, pi. U^, a dry season 
garden, an irrigated garden. 



lami ^<«^>, tasteless, insipid; da 
lami, id., used of eggs without 
salt or of broth without meat, 
etc. 

lamutii i^^"^ or lamini ^^i^*^, 

cf. Ar. ^>«l, 1. security; wotikan 
lamuni letter of safe conduct ; 
2. a surety for payment of a 
debt; na yi lamuni I stand 

security, laminta kZJ^% to 
be or become surety for, constr. 
with accus. lamunche ^JU**^ 

id., e.g. na lamuncheshi I be- 
came surety for him. 

lamunta* C■Uo^), to consent, pro- 
bably a form of prec 

langahhu y^kii, the skin of a goat 
beaten, cooked and eaten. 

langi ^caJ, long narrow bag for 

salt ; cf. (?) lengi, 
lanza* jjjJ, nuts, almonds (?). 
la/raha l^j*>)» Ar. v>^' found in 

comp. halaraha (^j^, an Arab, 

and its pi. larahawa I^Qj^^, 
Arabs; E49. 

loflraha Ijj'>>, Ar. lU^j*>)t ^^, Wed- 
nesday ; lit. the fourth day. 

la/rura* ^j^ji, Ar. $j^>i0, 1. neces- 
sity, e.g. E 14 domin larura 
for the sake of necessity; 2. 
trouble, ya WAje larura = he 
feels pain, e.g. on receiving 
punishment for wrong-doing. 

Za5(«)a ^, to lick. /a«*^ 15*^1 



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to lick, lick up; of fire, to lick 
up, consume. 

lasso yLi, of number, used like 
Iiauia, q.v., for counting a- 
mounts divisible by twenty, 
a score, twenty. 

lahm ^giJ% from Ar. ^J^^\ j>^, 
Monday, lit. the second day. 

lau ^ or lai* ^j, adv. only used 
with lajia^ quite, lajia lau quite 
well [(?) = contraction of lajia\ 

laua^hi iJi*^, the dried leaves of 
onions. 

laudi* ^>y, bending; cf. proverb 
laudi ha karaya ha bending is 
not breaking. 

lauer j^, a white species of sweet 

potato. 
lauje ic-^>J) A small semicircular 

sickle for cutting grass, B 38. 

Jauma* Lo^ or lonia Uy , Ar. ^Ua), 
mouthful; B 30 wonda kejiran 
kahakki dunguin...ha shi kul- 
lata da lauma he who waits 
for abundance to eat cares not 
for a mouthful. 

launi ^y, Ar. ^jy, 1. colour, 
hue; 2. kind, species; D 78. 

laushi or fosAi ^j^^i thin, fine, 
as flour, dust, etc. ; cf . roshi. 

laushi ittt^i found in mailaushi, 
a man with a bent arm which 
cannot be straightened. 

laushiwa* \^^^y a being blunt; 
da laushitoa blunt. 

laya l^*^, Ar. ^t with the art. 
R. 



145 3^ 

prefixed, 1. a writing of any 
kind, then 2. specially a cer- 
tificate of freedom or manu- 
mission of a slave; 3. a written 
charm, consisting of a piece of 
paper written on and sewed up 
in a leather bag and worn 
on the neck or arm ; layan 
zana a charm, the wnting of 
which, if it be washed off 
from what it has been written 
on and the water drunk, ren- 
ders a man invisible; it is 
also the name of the tree from 
the fruit of which is made the 
following, layan sahani, i.e. 
a charm to prevent injury in 
war; 4. sallan laya the Arab 
feast which corresponds in 
many respects to the Jewish 
Passover; 5. ragon laya the 
paschal lamb or ram killed at 
the feast of the sallan laya. 

I X I X 

laze ^y^i ij^% ^ tread upon, 
to crush. 

I Ojx XX 

lazumche iJ^J^y Ar. j^, 1. to 
adhere to, stick together; 2*. 
to be necessary, e.g. lazumcheni 
I must do. 

•»xl 

lehatu yifJ, the wattles of a cock. 
leho y^, pi. lehuna UaJ, lip. 

^ X 

led(d)ai ^jJ, spoons ; cf. luddai. 

lefe 4caJ, a kind of shallow basket 
made of reeds or grass. 

J I 0x1 

Iqferu j/fJ, pi. leferai LjjJkJ, a 
• • • • 

large pad for a donkey, a 



cushion. 



10 



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I^b3 



146 



Uy 



lekafa ijl^, 1. steps placed for likafani* ^iiij, Ar. J^ii, a wind 



mounting a horse ; lekafan dokij 

id. ; 2*. foot-stool ; 3. stirrup. 
lekaioa 1^l6, to stoop in order to 

look down into a hole. 
leke J^, to roll up the covering 

of a doorway. 
lek{k)i ^j 1. leather satchel; cf. 

gafaka; 2. a piece of cloth 

thrown over the shoulder. 
Ida %), a dance accompanied by 

music, practised by young men. 
lele* /JU, one much loved, darling. 

lel(l)e /JU, large tree, its leaves 
are ground up to make a stain 
for the hands. 

lema C^, Kanuri leima (probably 

from Ar. <Cft^> a tent, with 
article prefixed; cf. lahariy 
from Ar. JiX), tent; kaffa 
lema to pitch a tent, node 
lema to take down (lit. to roll 
up) a tent. 

kmu y^, Ar. Oi-W' ■^®^^* 0>^» 
lime, lemon. 

Zew^e j^^ or lunge ^^^, to hop 
on one foot. 

lengi ^kii, a large sack of salt 
equal to two men's loads or 
one donkey load. 

lesaji, see lisaji. 

letafi, see litafi, 

liar* ^, dollar; a word used by 
Hausas in N. Africa^ possibly 
an inverted form of Spanish 
rial 



ing sheet, F 91 note; ct kor 

fan, 
lilashi, to appease ; cf. lalashi. 
lUibi, veil; cf. lulvhi. 

lil{l)o j^f to swing to and fro. 
limam* j^^, ^W^y pl* ^iww»^w 

j^U^, Ar. ^UNt, leader in 

prayer, chief mallam. 
lingab{b)u yJcJ, a medicine made 

of the leaves of the cuiua tree. 

t 

WnAje iJ^f 1. to roll up a mat, 
etc. ; 2. to turn over a piece of 
a mat = nimka, q.v. 

lisafi or ^«a/^ s^t>^) Ar. ^^.^mm*-, 
1. number, account, bill; yin 
lisafi to render or come to an 
account ; 2. ^LJ, to number, 
count. 

lisha UJ, Ar. lUi«)t, very late, 
evening, the time following 
maguriba; cf. rana. 

litafi or Zeto/i v^UJ, i*?UJ, pi. ^i^ 

to^ j^yC^J (used as fem. in G 7), 

(cf. Ar. ^U^, elegant litera- 
ture), writing, book; litafin 
allah a name frequently given 
to a butterfly. 

liwasa C^, an epithet applied 
to cloth without a seam in it. 

loda by, a herb, the root of which 
is put in milk to keep it = 
d^f{f)ara, q.v. 

loga Uj5, UJ, cf. Ar. SiJ, the 
meaning of a word. 



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(js^y 



147 



lokachi ^J^^ (cf. Kanuri lokta), 

• *" 
probably from Ar. CJ^^ with 

article prefixed, time, season; 
lokachinda at the time that, or 
when; wa/rii lokachi wheni 
lokachinan now. 
loko ^^t 1. a temporary halting- 
place for carriers ; 2. a notch 
or projection in a tree for rest- 
ing a load against; 3. the stick 
usually carried by porters in 
order to support their loads 

against a tree when halting. 
X J J 
lohoja i».^£»y, the town at the 

confluence of the R. Niger and 

R. Benue, 390 m. up the R. 

Niger from the sea. 

loloki J)^^) pi. lolokai ^J^^^, 
Fulah id., 1. closet, small dark 
room, cupboard ; 2. any secret 
place; D 63 rana chan akun- 
tu/na loloki asiri on that day 
the secret place shall be laid 
open. 

lomaj a mouthful ; cf . lauma. 

lonkwashe i^^xJ, to bend or be 
crooked. 

loshi, thin, fine ; cf . lauahi, 

hto* ^Sy, time ; A 62, 65 = seq. 

lot{t)u y^, time, i.e. occasion or 
set time ; loUn is also used for 
a watch or clock. 

lubiya 1^^ , dates tied up in a mat. 

. • ""' . * ' 

hid(d)ai ^jJ or led(d)ai ^jJ, 

spoons made from the rind of 
pumpkins (cf. the tsokali spoon 
which is made of wood). 



lufudi ^J^y, pi. lufudai ^JJft^i 
(cf. Ar. jL$), to press hair), 
coat of mail put on horses and 
men, made of cloth stufled with 
cotton, wool, etc., not of iron. 

luUp* \yiJ, Ar. ty^^ with article, 
purification, F 148 note; cf. 
allowa, 

Ivloki ^^^^j^, pi. lulokai ,^^£»^y , 
dividing of roads. 

lulu ^3), a small glass box for 
frankincense. 

luluhi ^^y \^^^ or lidvhe ^iJJ, 

^^^ima), 1. a long veil reaching 

to the feet ; 2. to veil oneself ; 

F 41, A 28, C 18. 
VwmfcbBhi ^UjJ (cf. Ar. rt ^^jmi^ 

with art. prefixed), 1. breath- 

ing heavily; 2. ^i5»U*J, to 

breathe heavily. 
lumshi t^A^> \^J^i small white 

clouds; cf. gilgiji. 
lu/ngey to hop on one foot; cf. lenge, 

4 04 

lungu ^xii, 1. the turning of a 
road ; 2. darkness. 

lura \j^, 1. insight, wisdom, know- 
ledge; 2. ^^J, to look into, 
attend to, with accus. and also 
with da, e.g. B 41 kadda ka 
lura da aiki nai look not 

closely at his work. 
4 4 
luru j^y, native cloth with alter- 
nate strips of two colours. 

The letter^ is used by the Hausas 
to represent the sound of the 
English m. When n is fol- 

10-2 



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lowed by 6 it is usually pro- 
nounced m; this sometimes 
happens when n is followed by 
y, Zf or ch, thus harnfvde, ham- 
zari, dahamchi are written 
hanfude, hanzari, dabanchi, 
ma U,^, inseparable nominal pre- 
fix placed before verbs to form 

1. nouns of the agent, e.g. 
aaJd to weave, masaki weaver; 

2. nouns of place, e.g. sabka to 
unload, masahki lodging; 3. 
nouns of the instrument; cf. 
dauka to take up, madauki 
handle. This use of ma or mai 
as a prefix to form nouns of the 
agent, etc. is analogous to, or 
borrowed from, the Arabic use 
of j^ for a similar purpose, 

^ fix 9 ^^ J 

thus ^^, to shave, Q^j^, a 
barber. 

ma* Lo, too, likewise; as an enclitic 
it follows the word to which it 
is referred, e.g. ni ma ina 
taffia en nema dukia I too am 
going to search for property 
(in Fulah m>a = or, provided 
that). 

ma ^, to; F 256 na gode m^ allah 
I give thanks to God. It is 
most commonly used with the 
personal pronouns, e.g. mxika 
to thco, masu to them; the 
vowel is often assimilated to 
that of the governed pron., 
e.g. Tnini = m>ani to me, mumu 
= mamu to us, musu = rtutsu to 
them. 

maahha i^t^, cf. Ar. a^l, a beggar 



U8 ^j^ 

who sings the praises of a 
great man. 

mxwhudu* >>}&«, Ar. ^^i^Jt*, wor- 
shipped, served ; cf. D 3 note. 

maaikachi ^^JuLo, 1. industrious 
labourer, workman ; 2. work- 
shop. 

maaike ^JCjL^, pi. viastmike 

^J^Lit« and mxiaika uul«, 
1. one who sends; 2. one sent, 
messenger = manzo. 

maaiki ^^U, fem. maaikia ^il^, 

i^\.mxisiLaiki ^JuUU, labourer; 

the fem. = a servant. * 
maaje i«i^>t«, a place to lay up 

a deposit or to hide anything. 
mxmnfani ^UiU, a place suitable 

for keeping anything in, e.g. 

mxianfanin nama a meat-safe, 

larder ; cf. maianfani useful. 

maasai* ts»aLo, blasphemy. 

moMuna 0^t«, scales, balance, any- 
thing used for weighing or 
measuring; cf. auna. 

m>€tbachi ^^f^, pi. mabata U^ (cf. 
ba to give), one who gives money 
or goods on trust or on loan ; 
the trustee or borrower is called 
madaukin bashi, 

X »xx 

mohantari* ^yH^ ^ , button ; cf. 

(?) bante, 
mxxhiriki i_<^ * ^ or Tnahuriki 

^^ XXX 
J X 

L^J^i a small stick for stir- 
ring milk or tuo ; cf. mMchia, 



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m 



l|tjL4 



mahoya or mahoiya ^'iysAy a hiding- 
place; cf. hoya. 

mahv^i i**^, pi. nmbugai ^Jt^y 
a threshing-floor; a place where 
clothes are beaten in dyeing; 
cf. buga to beat. 

mabukachi* ^JjsLd, a careless man, 
e.g. one who destroys every- 
thing he gets; cf. (?) hukata, 

mahuriki, see mabiriki. 

m(ibur(r)u8 ^^jt^t a white material 
or stuff for making turbans. 

mabuya ^ys^^ folly, shina da ma- 
buya = shi marashankali ne. 

machauchi ijiy^i an animal which 
barks, about the size of a dog. 

mache ^JLo or machi ^JU, pi. ma^ 

UU, woman, female, as opposed 
to namiji male ; cf. mata, 

inache ^JU, mobchi* ^JU, 1 . to die, 
to perish ; cf . akanmobche, B 
18 ; from this comes the parti- 
cip. adj. matache, q.v.; 2*. to 
destroy, wuta ta macheshi the 
fire burnt it up. 

mache ^id or machi ^JU or matae 

jJx«, to press, squeeze, crush ; 
temriw rruichi a narrow place; 
gidda anmache, D 85, abode of 
poverty, machiachi ^K^, 1. 
one who is distressed, per- 
plexed, helpless; 2. distress, 
poverty, care, machiata Ul^JU, 
anxiety, distress. machichi 
j^^il«, squeezing, D 14; cf. 
matsu. 



rrmchechi* ^— iLJLd, pi. macheta 
UUJU, 1. deliverer, saviour; 
2. deliverance; cf. cheche, 

nmchi*, to die, B 102 ; cf. mache. 

machia l^ (from chi to eat), much 
food, abundance of food. 

ma^hiachiy see m>a^Jie. 

ma^chiata and machichi, see m,ache. 

w/ichiji i^^^t* ^y P^* machizai 
^Ji^JU (lit. biter, cf. chiji), 
snake, F 109, 190. There are 
said to be 343 different kinds 
of snakes in Hausaland. 

machikura tj^Cto, pi. machiakura 
\j^x^y one who obtains an 

undue advantage, a cheat, de- 
frauder; from chi, q.v., and 
kura gain. 

machiri ^j^y a mutilating form 

of leprosy. 
machirkia* L^^jl^, a stringed 

musical instrument. 

machuchi ^Jtio, maker of mischief; 

cf. (?) machauchi. 
m^adachi* ^JUy boy, madachia* 

QjU, girl. 
Quadachi w>jl«, 1. gall, 2. a bitter 

fruit ; cf. doachi bitter. 
madafa* l?t jl«, pi. madafai ^tjtd, 

Ar. ^Jb«, cannon; 6w madafa 

lit. the father of cannon (cf . Ar. 

^, father), is the name given to 



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150 



U^ 



the Spanish dollar, which has 
cannon impressed upon it. 

^ ^ fix 4» 

madaffu 1?>U, pi. madafai ^>U, 
kitchen; cf. daffa, 

madaidaichi %^j^>Lo, 1. moderate 
size, e.g. yaro ahina da madai- 
daichi the boy is of moderate 
size; 2. anything of moderate 
size. 

madaki ^-^t^U, a chamberlain, 

one of the chief officials in the 
Hausa states, cf. G 4 note; 
see under /ocfetma and daki, 

madcda '^^U, Nup6 id., yes, in- 

deed, i.e. Ar. 6^\ J> U, what 
has God shown ! 

madamri ^j»«Ju, found in mor 
damrin chikki a girdle; cf. 
damre, 

madara lj>U, cf . Ar. rt jJl«, fresh 
or sweet milk. 

madat C>j^ or madas ^Ju, a 
poison ground up and used for 
destroying mice, etc. 

nwdaukaki ^JC^^lf, the great or 

high one, e.g. a king ; cf. dau- 
kaka, 
madauki ^^^^U, handle, that 

part of anything by which it 
is held in the hand ; cf . dauka. 

madavyami i<*«jJ^i long lasting, 
incessant ; often pronounced 
madowaani ; cf . dawamia, 

mad{d)i ^«M or madya l^j^d 
(F 230), a kind of molasses 



made from the fruit of the 
dmnia, taura, or kaiwa tree. 

^ X 

madinkia* L^JCJ>L«, needle; cf. 

duirike to sew, madumki tailor. 
inadohia V«^ J^, a tree with edible 

fruit, the wood of which turns 

red by exposure. 

rnadogara j^^^Lo, stay, prop, sup- 
port; cf. dogare. 

madubi ^jJl«, glass, eye-glass, 
looking-glass. The latter is 
more commonly madtd>in fus-^ 
ka ; cf . duba to look at. 

madudai* ^>^JJ^y cf. Ar. jcfr, 
reckoned up, B 122. 

madugu ^>L«, pi. nrwidugawa 
t^>U, 1. leader or headman 
of a caravan ; he always walks 
behind, whilst the ja^aha 
(guide) walks in front ; 2. the 
title of a prince amongst the 
Bornuese. 

madumki ^X«3U, fem. madumkia 

IjJs^^Lo, pi. madumkai ^^^X«>U, 
tailor; cf. dumke to sew, ma- 
dinkia needle. 

madundumi* ^^.^jlJjl^, a large 
aquatic bird which, the Hausas 
say, cannot see except at night 
and preys on fowls. 

madya^ a syrup, F230; cf. mad{d)i, 

mafada tju?L«, pi. mafaddwa 
tjlji^U, councillor, adviser or 
minister of a king ; cf . faddwa. 

mafak{k)a Ixa.4, place to lie in 
wait ; cf . /ak{k)o, hak(k)o. 



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151 



\^\iikt» 



9 ^ ^ 

mafalki ^yCU.o, dream ; yin ma- 

falki to dream ; cf. (?) falka to 

awake. 
mafari ^jU^o^ beginning, origin ; 

cf . fari. 
7nafa8(8)a U^Lo, brigands, pi. of 

maifeshef q.v. 

mafamchi i^^^Lo, a butcher who 
sells meat in the market; cf. 
fauchij fawa, 

mafichi ^^Lo, landing-place; cf. 

mafifichi jJU^t«, superior, wanan 
mafifichi ne daga wonchan this 
is superior to that ; cf . fi. 

nui/igirma Lo^x^Lo, greater, lit. 
that which surpasses in great- 
ness girma, usually followed 
by dagga. 

mafiyawa t^Lo, more, lit. that 
which surpasses in number, 
followed by dagga, 

mafuchi j^^J^U or fifi^hs ^^J^, 

pi. wafelfechi ^JuaJL^U, fan. 

mafuri ^ji^to, bellows ; cf. furay 

maifura. 
mafuscura t;^*»a.<, Uadder. 
magahachi ^iJuo, title of a royal 

official = magaji ; cf . gah{h)a, 

XXX XXX 

magada bUU, >U^, heirs, A 20 ; 

used as pi. of magashi, q.v. 
magagachi ^Ul^, fool, senseless, 

B 108; cf. gigichi, agaga. 

XXX 

magaga/ri ^ja^U, tool or rasp for 
sharpening swords, etc. 



magana 

Jx Oxx 



magagi ^^l^, reeling or stagger- 
ing as of a dying man ; maga- 
gin berichi stretching one's 
limbs sleepily on awaking ; 
cf. f?) agaga. 

• . ' ^ " "^ 

*^^^^^* ^J^^9 ^»*'<> minister 

of the household, esp. of a 
king's household; magaji (of 
which m^aji is perhaps an ab- 
breviation) is probably formed 
from gaje to inherit. 

pi. m^anganu 

1. word, vocable; 2. 
speech, language, e.g. Wjogana 
hausa the Hausa language; 
yin magana hausa to speak 
or to know the Hausa lan- 
guage. 

X Ox X 

nmgangami ^^^AAo, meeting or 
confluence of rivers ; cf. gan- 
gama to mix. 

mdgani ^^^JL^U, pi. 7na^anguna 
and magunguna 

1. medicine; mai- 
m.agani a doctor ; maganin 
kuda a strip of leather placed 
over a horse's eyes to keep off 
flies ; mxiganinzawo a purgative 
medicine ; 2. poison, cf. Kanuri 
m^agali, id. ; 3. a charm, rnagar- 
nin yaki a charm to afford 
protection in war. 

X d X X 

Tnaganta* LZ.*Ljl^, discussion, ym 
maganta to hold discussion. 

mxxga/atawa I^UU^ or m^xgantirvja 

xO Ox X 

tjjXJbo, council or discussion 



4 x^ X 



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b,A« 



before a king, etc., or with 
anyone. 
magaria i^jjut (ziz3rphus lotus), a 
bushy tree resembling the 
kuma, with edible fruit about 
the size of cherries. The fruit 
is pounded and made into little 
cakes, tuwon magaria, and sold 
at the little wayside markets. 

magarub ^jk^ or magurtba vjM, 
« X d ^ 
Ar. ^j*^, 1. late in the even- 
ing, the time between laa^ar 
and lisha^ cf. rana, 2. the 
west. 

magashi ^JLi>\U, fem. maga^hia 
^ ^ * ^ ^ ^ 

LJL^U, pi. magata LX^U or 

magada bli*, heir ; cf. gado. 
magaya l^Jbo or magauchi tj^^^t 

pi. magata ULm, heartless, 
unsympathetic; cf. (?) gaya* 
evil. 
mageduwa tjjuM, ainhum, i.e. the 
disease in which the bone of 
the little toe becomes gradually 
absorbed and the toe eventu- 
ally drops ofi*; maimageduwa 
one so afflicted, cf. 'Hausa- 
land,' p. 152. 

Tnagena Um, a tree from whose 
leaves a yellow stain is made ; 
this mixed with indigo makes 
a green dye. 

mag(g)i i^m, 1. the tame cat; 
2. maggen tental the civet cat 

= Ar. 3Vj, it is a native of 
N. Africa but is kept in a 



152 ^^^^ 

state of captivity by the 
Hausas for the sake of the 
frankincense {tura/re) which is 
secreted in a double pouch 
under its abdomen. 
m>agi, cf. idon magi squint. 

m^irkai* ^J^jiuty stones put 
under anything to support it ; 
cf. (?) gerke, 

ma^giro* ^jxa, ghost, evil spirit ; 
cf. (?) giro an eyebrow. 

magudanchi* ^^jl^U, pi. magu- 

dantai* ^^jl^U, a slave about 
fourteen years old ; probably 
formed from gidda and origin- 
ally applied to a slave born in 
his master's house. 

ma^guje ^^^^l« or muguje ^t^mtc, 
one who runs away in war. 

ma^uriba, evening; cf. m^igarub. 

magur^i ^j^^jl^o, a flat stone on 
which rice, etc. is rolled ; dan 
magurji, 1. the stone which is 
used as the roller ; 2. also used 
as the name of a black' snake 
about 18 inches long. 

mahaifi^Jk^j^\tc,]^\,m^haifa\Afi^Loy . 
one or both parents. 

m^Jialbi ^,JLfc>L<, -pi. mahalbai 

* ' f ' r ' 

^ .1 i fc.V«» and m^suhalbi 
^jJ^ m 0iLoy bowman, spearman, 
marksman, anyone who dis- 
charges guns or arrows; cf. 
halbi, 
mahalichi* ^JXmXa or mmhalichi* 

%" ^^ ^* 
^JUa^^, creator; cf. halita. 



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153 



maJiamvdi ^^^pfc o, white calico 
used in making tobes. 

mdhamvi \ ,^fc,.», Ar. r> ^ >» », 
handkerchief. 

maha8(8)adi ^jum»>Lo, one who 
causes trouble or vexation, a 
persecutor; cf. ha8(8)ada, 

mahaukachi ^j0^»iU, fern, mo- 

X ^ ^ < 

haukachia L^I^^^iU, pi. mo- 

J < ^ ^ 

haukatu y£^ym^^, a foolish 
person, a lunatic; mahaukachi 
ka/rre a mad dog; cf. haukachi. 

mahaioayi* ^t^fc », an object of 
terror; cf. (?) hawaye tears. 

mahayi ^^(j^,^, steps, ladder; cf. 
Aaioa to ascend. 

mat ^, pi. rnast^ miL«, nominal 
prefix forming nouns of agen- 
cy from verbs, substantives and 
adjectives, e.g. gudu to run, 
maigudu a fugitive; p^o/ia a 
farm, maigona the owner of 
• the farm; girima great, 7nai- 
girima one who is great. The 
formation is closely analogous 
to the Arabic; cf. ma. Words 
beginning with m^i which are 
only occasionally used will be 
found under their original 
forms; thus for iruiigudu cf. 
under gvdu, 

mm j^, Ar. %«-•, oil or grease of 
any kind, e.g. butter, the fat 
of meat; main shanu cow but- 
ter, m^in ja palm oil, m^in 
gedda oil obtained from ground 



nuts, mnin kedanya oil from 
seeds of shea butter tree, main 
ridi oil obtained by distillation 
from coriander seed, main ahor 
fewa ointment of any kind. 

maiahu y^KfgA^ or in constr. maiahin 
^l^, one who possesses some- 
thing, the owner, the pro- 
prietor. 

. . . *»' 

maiad{d)ini* ^-ij>l^, pi. m>asuad- 

dini ^JLj>CU, Ar. i>-j>, a 
religious person. 

muia^azawa* t^t Jl^Iajn^o, helper ; 
in F 106 the true reading 
probably is kana kuka enna 
maiagazawa thou wilt cry, 
where will any helper be? 
F 187 ; cf. gazawa and gaji, 

maiajia K^^K^, store-keeper; cf. 

ajia and mmji, 

7naialgu8 ^j*Jd\fgA, deceitful person. 

^ ^ ^ ^ 
maiamaia* ie^t^, great (?), cf. 

F64. 

maiata*y passing away; cl ma- 

yata. 

< ^ ^ 

mmbada* bL*.^^, pL m/isubada 

bl^U, giver ; cf. bada. 
maibarra t^n^j^, beggar; cf. ba/rra, 

A*" 

maichi ^^^*<j^, owner, proprietor; 

cf . chi to gain possession of. 
mMichar{r)a \jlf^ or mm8har(r)a, 

^ X X 

tjriiL^, cock, lit. the one who 
crows; cf. char(r)a. 
maida j^, to turn; then with 
various modifications of the 
idea we have maida kamna C 9 



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154 



^%''*d* 



to direct the desire, na maida 
kamna gareshi = I like him, 
D 6 maida himma to pay at- 
tention to or to do quickly, 
maida kanaa to pretend, E 6 
mmda addinin asna imitate 
the religion of the heathen ; to 
cause to do, e.g. ya mmdashi 
shi hwanche he caused him to 
lie down; to turn or change 
in value, e.g. sariki ya m^ida 
kurdin mxidafa the king has 
changed the value of the Span- 
ish dollar. Derivative forms 

are: moAfea c^-^tj-** ^ throw or 
push back, to lay a thing down 
again, to bring back ; ka mayea 
= ka komx) da shi, m^ayesda 

jumj^, to turn or change into 
something; ina mayesda toani 
I become such an one. maishs 

^^S^, to change; F 207 ja- 

himi naji ta maishesu the fire, 
I understand, shall change 
them; ya maiaheni batoa he 
made me a slave. 

maida* t j^, Ar. SjuU, table (the 

word is but little known in 
Hausaland, as tables them- 
selves are unknown). 

maidaffua |>? J^, cook ; cf . daffa. 

maidilanchi* %^^Jj^, trader; cf. 

dilanchi. 
m^aid^asij see maitsasi, 
maie8(8)a, why? cf. maye8(8)a. 

I 4^ ^ 

Tsnaifesshe ^JU-j^-^, pi. inafas{8)a 



Lm5Uj highway robber, brigand ; 
ct/ashe to break. , 
mmfuchi tJi^t^, one who gasps 
for breath ; cf . fuchi, 

t JO ^ 

mai^ohe t^y^t^t lit. possessor of 

to-morrow; cf. B 3 note vhan- 

gijinmu maiyo m>aig6be He is 

our lord to-day and for ever. 
maigona U^.fc^^, pi. masugona 

O3iL.rU, possessor of a farm ; 

cf . g(ma, 
maifiaJcia LXm^^, a man with only 

one eye; cf. hakia disease of 

the eyes. 
m>ailialichi*, see m^ahalichi, 
inaihar(r)i* jjlj"^ .;^, war-horse, 

A 74 ; cf. har(r)i cavalry. 
m^aihaya* ^t^t^y Ar. Sl^^, the 

living One, i.e. God, C 10. 
maii i^t^, intoxicated, e.g. with 

gia or harasaa. 
mmji* 1^*--, storehouse, a title 

given to Mohammed; cf. mm- 

ajia, 
maijika Iv^n^o, lit. possessor of 

the bag, a kind of stork. 

tnaikaaala, a beggar ; cf . kaaala. 

X* X X *- 
mmkatarta* \JjSJL(g^, one who 

trembles, D 46 ; cf. makarkxUay 

id. 
mmkeau or maikiyo yX ^^, beau- 

tiful, good; cf. keau, 
maikeauay a glow-worm ; cf . make- 

aua, 
mmkinji ^ ^ ; x g .o, 1. enemy; 

2. hard-headed or stubborn 

person; cf. ki. 



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maikira, blacksmith ; cf . makeri. 
maiki8{8)o yS^, fem. maiki8{8)ia 

I^mJCj^, hairdresser ; cf. kis(8)o, 
maikiyo, beautiful ; cf. niaikeau, 
maikoto y?y^, beak ; cf. koto, 
maikunche ^*^S^^ a wrestler ; cf . 

kunche to loosen. 

maikworomi ^^j^^i one with 
sunken eyes ; cf . kworomi. 

xO J X X 

mai^mt^nto uJU^)lt»*d, a surety for 
payment of a debt; cf. lamuni, 

mailoma Lo^x^, glutton ; cf . loma 
a mouthful. 

xO X 

maimai ^<^jw«, 1. to till the ground, 
to heap up the earth round a 
plant when it has grown to a 
height of about three feet, 
especially used of digging round 
yams; the first heaping up of 
the earth is called Jlrri ; 2. yin 
maimai applied to writing = to 
blot out or erase ; 3. to repeat 

X Ox«< 

an action, maimmta 



155 ^^Uflw-o 

^ •" ^' 

m4xiniddi* PJJ^t cf. Ar. tjJ, one 

who calls, F 16. 

xO < 

mainya I^mU, pi. of haha great. It 
is frequently repeated for the 
sake of emphasis, e.g. mainya- 
mainya mutane very great or 
very respectable persons. 

X I X 

unaireda SjJjn^, miller, proprietor 
of a mill; cf. m/irede a mill- 
stone. 

mairowa S^jn^^ a grasping, cove- 
tous person; cf. rowa^ maro- 
woAihi. 

mm8(8)a l»>Jt», m>e8a LiJ^ or miva 

^ • 

Lm^, a python, said by the 
Hausas to eat sheep. 

pi. ma>8U8aida 



to repeat again and again. 
maimeki ^ X.>i>»»», 1. that which is 
parallel or like to something 
else (=Ar. JLd); 2. a substi- 
tute for something else. 

m^aina* tU«o, cf. Kanuri id., a 
prince; used only of the son 
of a king. 

mainauwa* ^^y^, a man who goes 
slowly or deliberately; cf. naur 
wa weight. 

mainem^a* l^*»<, a rich man. 



^0 X X 

mm8aida S^^fgmmg^, 

X < J X 

tjLjbMwU, one who sells, sales- 
man ; ci 8aidat, 

^ • " 

m>ai8ani ^jim^^^ thief, usually ap- 
plied to a robber who steals 
openly; cf. 8ani, 

mai8arari, spacious ; cf . 8arari. 

Ttmisari ^Im^swa, a selfish greedy 
person, e.g. one who endeavours 
to sell his goods at a high price. 

m^i8haida* t jl^JL^, pi. masvsJiaida 



tj^JLtfU, a witness; cf. sltaida. 
mai8ha/r{r)ay cock ; cf . maichar(r)a* 

m>ai8hey to change ; cf . mmda, 

xO X 

maita U^, 1. witchcraft; 2. a man 
who utters charms which cause 
the death of another ; cf . m^ye. 

^ Ax 

mmt8a^ or m^aickasi ^^^^ 



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l^iiU 



1*. experienced soldier; 2. nar- 
row street or path ; cf . matse. 

maitsia tt^k^, a poor person; cf. 
tsia, 

maiuwadawa* t^^t^x^, paralyzed 

. ' * ^ 
ffiaiwa \yfj^^ 1. large reeds used in 

thatching; 2. a very small 

edible grain = holcus cemuus 

(Barth). 
inaiya* l^, great one, F 54 = 

mainya (?). 
maiyani i^l«««, handkerchief used 

to wrap up money, etc. 
rtiaiyelway spacious ; cf . ydwa, 
maiye8{8)a, coUoq. expression, for 

what cause, why? cf. maye8(8)a. 

I < X 

maizache* ^^.h^m«, meditating, 
B 120; cf. zache. 

^ J X 

maizumba ^^J-t^y rogue, one who 
refuses to restore a pledge or 
who buys a thing and runs 
away without paying for it; 
cf. zamba. 

niajaraJbchi* i<^j*>U, one who 
wants to take his neighbour's 
wife; ctjaraba, 

majayi* ^en>.<, a strap attached 
to the saddle and passing in 
front of the horse's breast. 

inaje j^ih-U, a large tree from 
which a sweet scent is obtained. 

maji i^U (perhaps a shortened 
form of magajiy q.v.), one of 
the chief officers of a king; 
for order of precedence cf . for 
ddwa. 



maji*y spear; cf. mashi, 

majina U«h!»^) ^ coXd^ cold in the 

head, sickness; cf. seqq. 
majinachi* ^J^i^^,^, one who is 

sick or poor. 
majinata* U^,«%"^> ^^® ^^^ gives 

water or acts as an attendant 

in time of sickness; majina- 

taka thy water-bearer, B 59 

note. 
majujawa* ^ ifc j ifc.^, ^J y m ^ ^ » , to 

sling a stone. 
majusi ^^3 ^^, pi. niajusawa 

b"'^^ », Ar. t^ j ifc.^, heathen. 



D 29; lit. a magian, sometimes 
pronounced maguji ; cf. ba- 
maguji, 

makdda* >li«, Ar. ^\SU, being on 

the point of doing anything, 

B120. 

d ^ X X 
makadaichi %^ j^£>U or mukadai- 

chi *^jSU, sole, only; shi 

makadaichi he only ; cf . kad- 

(d)aichi. 
maka/chi* ^JjlSU^ tiller of the 

ground; cf. ka/a to dig. 
niaMfo ^\SUy pi. makdfi ^UU, 

blind, B 34, E 36 ; cf. kafo, id. 

makama UlC^, the title of a royal 
officer ; for order of precedence 
cf . faddwa. 

makdma UUU, 1. that which lays 
hold or is laid hold on, hence 
the handle of anything = kota ; 
2*. makania used with magana 
= reliable ; cf . kama. 



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157 



L^ 



makamche ^toSic, 1. to dazzle the 
eyes, wolkia ta makamcheka 
the lightning has dazzled thine 
eyes ; 2. makamchi %^^^«x«, 
blindness, dimness of sight; 
cf. kafoy makamta, makopchi, 

makami ^««oX«, arms, i.e. guns, 

swords, etc.; cf. makama. 
^ ^ ^ 
makamta U«m, 1. blindness; cf. 

makamchi ; 2. w^«m, to make 
bUnd. 

makanka/ir(f)a* tpCJwd, one to rub 
out (?), A 38 ; cf. kankari, 

makdra \j\SU or mxikdri ^bio, 
end of anything; cf. proverb 
ahin da wuya ahina da makar 
rinsa the thing which is diffi- 
cult comes to its end at last; 
makarin berchi the last sleep, 
Le. death ; cf. kare, 

mdkara SjSU, to be late in starting 
or doing anything ; Jy^^ku 
her mdkara da aalla leave off 
saying your prayers late ; mai- 
mdkara, D 57, he who is late. 

imikaranta LXJp^, school; cf. 
karatu, 

mxikdri^ see makdra. 

m^bkari ^j^y a shield made of 
skin. 

m/ikari (JJ^UU, prop or support to 
prevent anything falling, any- 
thing placed under something 
else, e.g. stones placed under a 
bag to keep it off the ground. 

makaHachi ^yiij£s\^ a liar; cf. 
karia^ 



makarkata* \J!iAs>jSUy one who 
trembles, adj. trembling, D 43 ; 
cf. maikafarta, ka/rkat(t)a. 

makasari* ^j^»X^, f em. makasaria 
\jjmJiof halt, lame. 

m>aka(s)8hi ^JL£>L», makasshinkai 

a murderer ; cf. ka(8)8hinkai, 
makaska^hi ^^»AU, pL rnxxkas- 

kasta U»uX.Mif>U, poor, oppress- 
ed ; cf. kaakaata to despise. 

makawa* \^SU, resistance; D 24 
ba makawa gave (= gareshi) he 
will not be able to resist. 

mKikel(l)a>ci ^m JX.^U, one who 
stares, generally used in a bad 
sense; cf. kal(l)o, 

makera* \j^A[^, an anvil, v. kira 
to forge ; cf . seq. 

makeri ^j^^Lo or maikira \jS^y 

fem. ujM^U, pi. used in Zaria 
= muk{k)ira \jSUf blacksmith ; 
fem. = blacksmith's wife, sari- 
kin mukkira the title of one of 
the principal officers of the 
court at Zaria ; cf . faddwa, 

m^kerua S^^S^y a red-legged part- 
ridge. 
makeaua t^-i^wh-C^ or maikesim 

U.>maX^) glow-worm. 
nuiketachi* j^-Jl^^U, worker of 

evil; cf. keta. 
m£bki* iJ^t 1. to seize, lay hold 

of ; 2. to strike. 
makiayiy see makiyayi. 



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158 



>^U 



mahihia if^j porcupine ; lit. pos- 
sessor of arrows = hegua, 

Ml ^^ 

makiddi ^jk^U, player on musi- 
cal instrument, esp. on drum; 
cf . kiddi, 

makiyachi ^^^f^\^ one who re- 
fuses or dislikes labour; cf. 
makiyi. 

niahiycuyi ^l^U, pi. mahiyaya 

i^l^U, shepherd, herdsman. 
makiyi |«^U, pi. makiya it^^U, 

one who hates, adversary ; cf. 

H, maikinji, 
wa^* ^iU, discomfort. 
rnakodaichi ^^3^X4, covetousness; 

cf . kodaiy and seq. 

makodaUa ULj^jJc^o, covetous, 
greedy, e.g. a man who picks 
up crumbs ; cf . preo. * 

makodi ^><^i^y ball, stene ball; 

cf. kodi, 
makqfchi ^JLaJLo or maktibchi 

^^S^y fem. makopta Uax»«, 

pi. makopta uiX«, neighbour, 

friend. 
makdgoro y^JLX^, pi. makdgorai 

^jj|A^, throat; cf. maA;t^rt«a. 
makoki ^J^y^i salutations and 

lamentations at a funeral. 

makoko y^^x,^, swelling or wen 
on the throat. 



nmkopchi 
rnakamchi. 



blindness ; cf . 



makoshi ^^^U, throat; wanken 

makoshi a gargle. 
maku ^£»U, heavy rain ; cf. mal- 

ka, . 
makubchi*, see makofchi, 

makubli ^jL^JLo, pi. makuhlai 

^y^£o, 1. key; 2. button; cf. 
kubli to lock ; see seq. 

makul{t)i* ^JSit, lock ; see prec. 
makure ^ji^, to choke. 

J ^ 9 4' 

makuri* ^^>&U, cf. Ar. jl&U, to 
deceive ; C \^ ita makuri she 
acts deceitfully. 

mjokurua tji^/U, throat; cf. mo- 
hare^ makogoro, 

makwanche or maJctoonche ^JLJU, 

1. a place to lie down, a sleep- 
ing-place; 2. a burial-place; 
cf. A»oana. 

mdlafa UJU, pi. malafuna UfJU 
and mMafai <«aJU, a large hat 
made of plaited straw. 

m^aka* iUU, UJU, Ar. ilJU, to 
rule, reign, govern; maim>alaJta 
ruler, governor. 

malaka* «2JUU, to be the messenger 
of (?) ; A 83 ^ m>alaka cmnabi 
he was the messenger of the 
Prophet; cf. m^alika*. 

malcUachi j^^)S^, pi. m^isulalachi 

j^^y^««»U, 1. idle person, idler; 

2. wicked person ; cf. lalachi, 

ma^am^U, cf. Ar.^^JLft, shortened 
form of seq., usually prefixed 
as a title to the proper name 



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of one of the lettered class, 
e.g. malam muaa^ G 7. 

malami f«#)L«, pi. maiamai ^<^to, 

Ar. ^,«JLfr, a learned man, a doc- 
tor; baban malami a great 
scholar or doctor in learning; 
A 34 wanan da ke kin malami 
da fada tasa he who rejects a 
mallam and his sayings, B 15 ; 
cf . prec. 

malika* ^U, angel, F176; v. 

seq. 
maliM* %2iiJU, pi. mulaiku ^S^^^^ 

Ar. id., angel, A 8, D 59, F 

177. 
m^lka IxJU or m>aku ^^U, heavy 

rain, e.g. rain lasting all day; 

cf. sa/ra/a, 
ma^lOf the pouch of a bird ; cf . 

m>aroro. 
malufi, wool ; cf. mvlufi, 

malioa t^JU, leg-irons, F 186 a^sa 

m4i8u sasari na wuta da mxdwa 

fetters and leg-irons of fire 

shall be placed on them; cf. 

giger, 

U 
mamia l^^ (cf. (?) Ar. ^t, mother), 

breast. 

Ttuvmaki ^«£»Ui«o or ahhi m^imaki, 
anything wonderful; yin ma- 
maki or jin mxim^ki to won- 
der. 

mxma lid, ^>•, please, of course, 
then, etc. ; zo mana come if 
you please ! rarely used in 
writing but extremely com- 
mon in conversational Hausa. 



manaa* IjU«, Ar. i<i«-«, meaning 
(in Kanuri mana = word). 

m^nafuch% deception; cf. munor 
fuchi, 

manan* ^>JU, possibly a contracted 
form of m^nomi ; cf. A 18. 

manche^ see m/inta. 

m^ni ^^JU, to me, for me ; cf. ni ; 
sun yi m>ani or ayi mani = 
akoi there is, or there are. 

marumaza* IJl^^o, contracted from 
mxiza maxa very quickly, D 62. 

manomi ^^iU, ^^i*, 1. planter, 
, cultivator; cf. morKmii', 2* 
sowing-time, A 10, 18. 

manta C>nJU , manche ^«^U, to for- 
get, err, make a mistake. mar&- 
<Ma t>iXo, forgetting, forgetful- 
ness, error, mistake; yinma/ntua 
to forget, to make a mistake; 
cf . manche, 

m>anun% forefinger; cf. nuna. 

manzam* ^J}}i^, cf. Ar. |J^, 
barber. 

JO" x**. 

m4inzo ^JJU, pi. wwm^ant <J[f^«, 
1. messenger, esp. one sent by 
a king ; 2. m/inzo is often used 
as a title of an official at court; 
cf . faddwa^ jekada., 

mxira j^, \j^, to take up with the 

hand or in a spoon. 
mara* IjLo, loins (stomach 1). 
m4M'aha, welcome; cf. m^arhaba, 

m^rddi {^>]^ or mfWfddi ^iSj^y 

cf. Ar. 3!j, a searching after, 
what is sought for, desire; ma- 



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Ksy' 



160 



kSj^ 



radin mutane that which men 
desire. 

marai v^jU, a small bird that 
feeds on guinea-corn. 

maraita* [Zjj^ (cf. (?) Ar. rt ^\j)f 
a going away, C 29 gawa ra 
maraita lahira a corpse on the 
day on which the dead man 
sets out for the next world. 
maraito* y^j^, coming. 

marak{k)i ^^j^ or mareki tJ^j^y 

fem. marak{h)a ^j^, pi. rna- 
rak{k)u ^^j^, calf. 

maraki i^j^, a fellow-traveller = 
ahokin taffia] cf. rakia, an es- 
cort. 

mararahi i^jj^y an intens. form 
of raba, 1. divided, different ; 
2. division, niararabin hainya 
the meeting-point of two or 
more roads ; at B 23 muraraha 
Wi>*> ^ plural, is found = the 
regions which are divided. 

marari ^jj-^y a small grass basket 
used in making bread for put- 
ting flour and water in. The 
water is strained out. 

mara^- ^jl^j a negative prefix, 
denoting the absence of a thing 
in the same way as *less' 
in English, e.g. maraakumia 
shameless, marashankali sense- 
less, maraskarifi powerless ; 
probably formed from ra8{8)a 
to be without. 

niaratayi i«^j>«} handle, suspen- 
der, peg ; maratayin ka/nsakali 



sword-string or belt ; cf . ror- 

taya. 
mar{r)aya U^, a large deer, white 

in front. 
maraya b^, strap round a horse's 

head fastened to the bridle. 
mardya yJ/.o, fem. marainia tJ/.«, 

pi. mardyu 3-JI/.0, orphan, F 20. 
ma/rbika* Uo^, cf. Ar. rt ^j, 

confusion ; used adverbially, 

F 194 8u komo marbika they 

will return in confusion. 
mare ^jU, or mart ^jU, to 

strike, to give a blow with the 

hand, mari ^U, pi. maru- 

""' " 
mari ^><«;U, a blow, a stroke. 

marmaravxi, q.v., striking re- 
peatedly. 
rrw/rea* \jja (cf. Ar. ^^ijU, wild 

cow), oryx, 
t I X 
mareche ^^^j^, evening ; da mare- 

che in the evening; da mareche 

ya yi when evening came on. 
marede ^jjj^, pi. inaredai ^jjj^, 

millstone; maireda a miller, or 

proprietor of a mill. 
mareki* f calf; cf. maraki, 
m^arena \JiJ^j^j stone (i.e. the disease). 

m^arhaba 1 ,» »■» ,» or marharbi 
^^j-^j^, or muraba l^j-«, Ar. 

^x Ox 

L»^, welcome, a salutation 
esp. used on meeting after a 
long time. 
mari ^j^, a large species of fish. 

mxiri ^j-o, iron fetters. 



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moH, a blow ; cf . ma/re. 

ma/rike lAij^f a small tree with 

edible leaves; its wood has a 
reddish colour. 

7na/nk(k)i iJ^j^^ pL vimr'ik{]c)a 

i^j^i handle; of. rik(k)e. 

marikichi ^m t ^jL», a deceitful 
person, esp. one who pretends 
to buy but steals ; cf . rikichi. 

marUi* tMj^, Ar. yjAJj^, sick. 

marili iJ^ij^, rhinoceros. 

moHma/ri ^£^j^i to be fond of, 
to like ; esp. used of anything 
sweet to the taste. 

maHn{n)a \jj^, pi. 7ifiarin{n)a{ ^j^ 
a dye-pit, a deep hole in which 
cloth is left to soak in indigo 

dye. maHn{n)i 15^, pi. 'ma- 
8urin(n)i i5^U, dyer, dye- 
worker, proprietor of a dye-pit; 
cf . rina^ 
rruvriri ^^£^j«o, a large species of 
antelope. 

marma/ra Sj^j^, stones collected 

together, e.g. those placed round 

a well to keep it from falling 

in. 

^ ^ ^ b ^ 

tnarmarawa ^^j^j^t redupl. parti- 
cipial form of ma/re^ striking 
repeatedly. 

ma/rnuvniy see ma/ronuuro, 

marokachi ^^#^j^, begging; cf. 

roko. 

J ^ J ^ 
maromcMro ^jmajjm* or marma/ru 



^j^j-^i a spring or fountain 
of water. 

maroro ^j^j^ or malolo y>lU, 
1. double chin or a swelling 
under the chin; 2. crop of a 
bird. 

mctrowachi iJi^j^y 1. greed, greedi- 
ness; 2. a greedy, selfish per- 
son - mairowa ; cf . rowa. 

ma/rude {^>^j^ or ^>^jt>^ mairude^ 

pi. maruda h^j^, one who 
tempts, deceives or misleads; 
cf. rude. 

^^narufi ^^j^, pi. nw/nifai ^^j^, 
covering of any kind ; w/irufm 
kofa door, i.e. usually a mat 
let down in front of a door- 
way; cf. rufe, 
J i ^ 

mcurv/ru ^j^j^y a swelling on the 

loins. 



ma8(8)a U.^, a cake or small round 
piece of bread made with rice 
and datva such as is dipped 
into broth. 

wMM(«)a*, quickly ; cf . maza, 

ma8(8)aba LIJLa, pi. nia8(8)a^i 

jyMkmAy a large hammer used 
by blacksmiths. 

masahki il)L»»>.< or mctsapki ^sXjLm^, 

Si, lodging-place ; cf . scibka, 
masai t^^^O) a hole ; i. q. saiga, 
nwsaika 1£»U»^, a shuttle; cf. saka, 
masaka/nche ^ ? . v » » ,0) cf. Ar. ^>XMf, 
peacemaker, mediator; cf. so- 
kankanche, 

11 



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162 



maaaki ^^^ll-o, weaver; cf. mki, 

mcu^allachi %l>^.a.<, pi. ma^allatai 

^j%A^i cf. At. rt ^JLd, place 
of worship, mosque. 

ma8an{n)i ^l o, pi. maaa/ncma 

l;;,.M..o, acquaintance. 
masar^ Egypt ; cf . rnazar, 

'nia8{§)ara tjUk* or dama8($)a/ra 
^ ^ ^ if J 

t^l-^.^3, Ar. j^>A<«, Egyptian 

corn, maize. 

masa/rauchi* ^^j^t^, ruler, gover- 
nor ; cf . sarauta. 

masarchi ^j^m^, a beggar on the 
road; cf. nuMicuihi. 

^ X 

masa/rchi ^^J^».^d, pi. T^to^ei^toi 

^ji; (cf. (?) Ar. ^jlo), a 

comb; cf. masefi. 

^ ^ ^ 
masasaki ^C»i>»,o, pi. masaaaha 

lC*».»*.o, carpenter, joiner; cf. 



ma8{8)(M<jura \j ..,m>io, fever; massa- 
aa/ra ta kamani the fever caught 
me = I caught fever. The word 
is sometimes used for small- 
pox; cf. agana. 

J 4> ^ 

»* * ' ^ , the name of a 



black snake, applied to a 
warrior. 
maaeji ^^^ml^, pi. masefax i^Aam^ 

or masefuna l;a.i.»»i», a comb, 
made either of wood or iron; 
of. maaoahi, maacMrchi 

maaharua \^jlL^, rainbow; lit. 
water-drinker. 



maahaaha* l^U»^, a quantity of 
anything. 

maahaya Cliwo, 1. watering-place, 
waterside; 2. place of intoxi- 
cating drinks, E 17 note; cf. 
aha, 

maahemi , ««.JL«, a hoe ; cf. ahema. 



maahi ^i^U or maji ^to? pi. 

maauauka lC»».»rfU, 1. a spear; 
yd^^ inashi or ^ac^ maahi to 
throw a spear as a declaration 
of war; 2. maahin tamirwru 
a shooting star, usually re- 
garded as prognosticating war 
from the quarter whence it 
comes ; 3. a stick of wood 
dipped in antimony for smear- 
ing the eyes. 

ma^hid{d)i j^JL,«, 1. a resting-place, 
lodging, khan; 2. steps by 
which to come down from a 
place; maimaahidi host, inn- 
keeper ; cf . ahid{d)a. 

nmahidi* j^JL«, Ar. j^JLd, lit. 
cemented, and so 'strong' 
found with the Ar. art. F 65. 

maahimfidi jjk^jLfO, pi. maahim- 



fuda \jjL^»^, what is spread 
out, e.g. things spread out for 
sale, or a covering for a horse ; 
cf. ahim/ida, 

maaiachi ALg.Mi.^, pi. maaiiUa 

UljMM«o one destitute, unfortu- 
nate, unsuccessful or discon- 
tented ; cf. (?) maaarchi. 



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J ^ i , 



ma$fba* L^ia^, Ai*. ^Lf^g^a^y pain, 
affliction, D 14 ; DiO en shara 
ka aika ka tao (= zo) ka ska 
maaiba if thou hast done evil 
thou wilt meet with great 
pain. 

masifa \M^i^m^, 1. mischief; 2. mis- 
fortune, calamity; 3. mischiev- 
ous, maimasifa, pi. rnasuma- 
sifa a felon, villain, mischievous 
or vicious person. Possibly 
this may be only another form 
of prec. 

maaUla* ^Lm.«, Ar. ^UlL*, a large 
sail-needle. 

maairchi nt>ym^, Qomb ; cf. rtuxsefi, 

ma8i8{8)ika lC*».»>.o, floor, threshing- 
floor; cf. 8i8(8)ika, 

mcMOym^y pi. masowa t^j^two, I 
lover, friend ; F 79, 80, S5 ; 
cf. masoyi, 

niasokachif mirror; cf. mataokcbchi 
and taokachi. 

masaro ^jy»»^y black berries hot 
like pepper. 

maaoshi ^J^ym^ comb ; cf. maaefi, 

pi. TTUMoyu ^ym^y 1. one who 
loves, or is fond of either a 
person or a thing, a lover, 
friend; 2. pass, beloved, dear; 
cf . maao, 

maaukwani ^t^K»^d, a place for 
horses to gallop; cf. aukua, 

tnaauruy cat; cf. mazoro. 

vnaaiuau ymJL^y those who fish with 
hand-nets; cf. au. 



mata Uto, 1. plural of mache 
women ; 2. mata is also applied 
to a married woman, wife, of 

which the pi. is mataye i^jt^Lo, 
B 110. 

mata* C-.^*, death = ww^wa ; B 158 
mato ta maida mutum kwa- 
nche death causes men to lie 
down. 

mAxtabhata* C%Jii, F 82, 228, en- 
during, lasting; cf. tahhata, 

matache tj^, fem. matachia l^^, 

■''" « ' ' 

pi. m^atatu ^IIa, cf. Ar. OU, 

1. dead; 2. a dead person, 
corpse; 3. broken, e.g. mMta>tun 
kworia broken calabashes or 
vessels ; cf. similar use of mutu. 
matachs <JmU, found in comp. 
rruitachen kworia a vessel with 
holes in it to act as a coarse 
sieve ; cf. (?) tachi and taaa, 

matachi* ^^, found in comp. 

maiachin vmri a fruitful place. 
matdkan*a* Sj&U, a wooden ladder. 
mataki ^^Hu, a sort of spindle, 

used esp. by women, made of 

skin. 
mataki ^^^U«, pi. m^atakai ^^£»U«, 

1. steps made with mud; 2. 

footstool; 3. soles of the feet, 

A 30; cf. tak{k)i 

m^Uaki ^^£»IJLo, in comp. matakiri' 
bvri a horse whose ankle-joint 
nearly touches the ground, lit. 
one that steps like a monkey. 

X^XX XX ''•J 

mMtalaka ICJLU, muntalaka UJU^, 
11—2 



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164 



ijt^t^ 



small hammer; cf. (f) muni' 
taraga. 
mcUamaxihe ^^^.o, thoughtB, cares, 
concerns; matamachen dunia 
the cares of the world or of 
life; cf. Ci) tama pride or 
(1) taw aha to think. 



rriatamachi 

tami{m)a, 
mata/mni 



iron-ore : cf . 



^j^i<JL,», pi. mcUamna 
X » X X 
\ i t Z •> the first tooth of a 

child, lit the grinder from 

tamna to chew ; the plur. ma- 

tamna = all the teeth together. 

matankadi ^jillx^, a sieve used 
for straining gold from sand, 
etc. ; cf . tankadi to winnow. 

matankam ^^yXXU, the fan used 
when grinding flour to get rid 
of the chaff. 

m^ashi ^^UU, in comp. mo^ 
shin kai pillow, rest for the 
head; cf. ta^shi^ kai, 

m4itaur%a ^^jyH^, used esp. in 
expr. m^tauria zitchia harden- 
ed heart ; cf. tauri, 

• ^ ' 

matauahi ^^jJLo, lit. presser; 

1. matatishin hofa a piece of 

wood leaning against a door 

to keep it shut ; 2. mxUavshin 

wotika a signet ; cf . tauahe, 
t ^* 
7n4itaye* ^UU, helper; cf. taya. 

wAitaafi ^^LJflUd, pi. m^asutaafa 

I^UsmiLo, one who worships or 
sacrifices to idols, an idolater ; 
cf . tsafi. 



maiaataaJca UCkJLo, leech; cf. (?) 

taaga to bleed. 
m<U8e, to squeeze ; cf . TnacJie. 
m^itsi, i.q. prec, 

matsi* ^jit^, to cheat in buying 

or selling. 
mat8in(n)a* ^>Jx«, Ar. UflL«, sus- 

picion, F 8. 
m^atsokachi %^^^lguo, or m^soka^chi 

^A^imd, mirror ; matsoka^shin 
ido the pupil of the eye; cf. 
tsoka^chi, 

maiaorata U^^Io^a, a coward; cf. 
taoro, 

matau ^lauo, a pass, form of matae 
(cf. mache)f 1. to be narrow, 
hainya ta matau the road is 
narrow; 2. to suffer hunger. 

mMuki _£»yu, a paddle used as 

a rudder ; cf . tuka, 
mxUuna^ UmU or mMwruim* ^>mU, 

a thought; cf. tuna, 

TTMuda b^**, dark-coloured salt. 

J » ^ 
mjauro* ^jyy a female slave who 

begs. 

J ^ ^ ^ ^ 4f ^ 

mavM^adu* j^^, cf . Ar. j^j, one 
who promises, F 131 note. 

muuHidachi w^t^^, pi. m^Lwadata 

Ub^, 1. fortune; 2. a man 
of fortune ; cf . wad{d)a. 

^ X o 

matoau^a U^^o, 1* abstr. from 
wxiMw folly, foolishness; 2. 
concr. a foolish person. 

moAfafi L^lf«, bed-clothes, cover- 
ings, covering thrown over 



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^^ 



165 



3J3^ 



shoulder, A 11 (?) ; cf. ya/a 
to fold over. 

mayaki ^ ^A L a ,..^ , pi. mayaka 
1^9 1^, soldier; cf. yaki. 

mayata* Ul^ 1. passing away, 
D 85, F 37 ; 2. sorrow, calam- 
ity, trouble, D 61. 

mayawa t^^, pi. |><^>^U, many, 
used especially of persons ; cf . 
yawa, 

ma/yawata U^e<«, i.q. prec. 

mayayi* ^j(^, an interpreter. 

maye ^^U or mayi ^U, fem. 

mcM/ia QU, 1. one with evil 
eye, sorcerer, wizard, A 82 
note; 2. drunkard, ya yi maye 
he is drunk ; cf . maita witch- 
craft. 
mayenwdchi* i^^y^i pi* wiayen- 

t^;ato UtyLj^, one who is 

hungry or destitute; cf. yuw- 

wa. 
may €8^ see maida, 
nuiyesday to turn or change into 

something ; cf . maida, 
maye8{8)a^ maieaaa or m>aiye8{8)a 

Lmj«4, why? probably formed 

from mi ya aa* 
m>ayi, 1. intoxicated; cf. may<5 ; 

2. Jon TTMzyt a cannibal. 
m^yiy sorcerer ; cf . m^ye, 

ma?a Jl« or ma8(8)a* ^m^y quickly, 
F 72 ; frequently reduplicated 
thus, maza maza or m^m>aza 
very quickly. 



maza t Jlo*, men, B 85, 87 ; cf. 

m,iji. 
mazakuta U^^, 1. one who is 

brave; 2. bravery, manliness; 

cf . (?) zaki a lion. 
inazamne ^JUju, dwelling-place, 

habitation, mmzam/ne ^JUj^h^o, 

pi. m4i8uzamne ^JUju^U, in- 

habitant. ma^;amm ^^J..«JL«, 
1. inhabitant ; 2. seat, spot 
on which a man sits down. 
rnazar j»tfu«, Ar. j»tfu« (^^ ^ being 
here pronounced as «), Egypt ; 
cfotn m^azar or bamazarij pi. 
mazaraiva an Egyptian, c^toa 
9na2;ara a species of millet 
grown in Egypt and intro- 
duced into Hausaland; cf. 

ma8(8)ara, 
y f 
maza^gi ^jj^t a string for tying 

up trousers (tvanduna) ; cf . 

za/rge and mazarigi a loop in 

a string. 
tnazari ^j}^ spindle ; cf . za/r{r)e 

thread. 
m<i7icvng% \^j}^^ cf. Ar. Ai^p, a 

noose for catching animals; cf. 

•mjaza/rgiy azariga^i and za/rge, 
maziga UJl«, bellows; cf. seq. 

T^^f^?igi LJ^J^) one who blows a 

fire with bellows (maziga) 

worked Mdth a stick fixed into 

a skin ; cf . zigazigai, zuga, 

» J ^ ' ' J jj 

mazoro ji^^Jm or muzuru ^j^J^ 

or m>a8uru jjj-^m^, wild cat, 
Dlln., 12. 



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166 



mazugu* ^i^, one who is wicked; 
D 29 da mazugu ahoki majusi 
the son of the wicked man is 
the friend of the heathen. 

mazumhachi ^^^ij^J^ or ^i^j^, a 
rogue; i.q. maizumbay q.v. 

meke \J^ or mekiya Uu.» or 

mikiya l«C^, pi. mekiye ^jt^L^, 
a species of eagle or buzzard 
with white breast = neophron 
percnopterus (?). 
?7ierA^ ij^j^, a species of acacia ; 
a medicine for horses is made 
from it. 

metin v>IXo, Ar. ^lI>U, two hun- 

»' • ^ ^ 

dred. 
mi ^, what? In interrogative 

sentences the personal pron. 
must be employed as well as 
the interrog., e.g. mi ya aame- 
ka what is the matter with 
you? Forms strengthened by 
the addition of the subst. verb 
are mine^ minene, id. 
mia l^, cf. (?) Ar. cU, broth. 

7wm, an hundred; cf. minya. 
midguy bad, pi. of muguy q.v. 
miau y^^ to spit out. 
michali^y mithali* ^iio or miscUi 

^lL©, Ar. Ji«, 1. similitude, 
parable, D 82, D 94 mu dai 
mu yi michali kadan we indeed 
speak a little as it were in 
parables; 2. like, as, used like 
Uvmka, miaalinaa =■ kamansa 
an expression applied to a pic- 
ture or likeness. 



^V^ ^i»ii^> pl* maza tjLo and 
mazaje ^m^SS^j man, husband ; 
miji da nuiche = married man; 
na/miji = male. 

mijvria i^,»a^^ or mitvria C^imm©, 

1. cramp, convulsions; 2. elec- 
tric fish ; 3. a large tree like a 
kuma with red wood. 

mika JJi^, 1. to stretch forth, e.g. 
the hands or limbs, etc., D 27 ; 

2. to deliver up ; 3. to yawn ; 
in pass. = to go, F 241 amika 
zua ga fa dar maiiyawa they 
shall go to the dwelling-place 

of the Almighty, miko >^, 
to pull in towards oneself. 
miku y\^y to be extended or 
stretched out, e.g. hainya ya 
miku the road stretches out 
to a distance ; cf . mika, 
miM ^Jit^y sores = rauni, 

mikiay see meke, 

mine ^^i>t^ and minene ^JJJi^y 

what? cf. mi, 
minahari ^j\JjJ^, nansari ^ji^Jj 

«• o 

or hansa/ri ^jL»U*» (cf. (?) Ar. 

juL^J^ ; Fulah min ?iarra = I 
snore), to snore. 

minya l^, mia bU, Ar. 4^U, an 
hundred ; a/rba mia = dari 
fudu four hundred. 

minzer'^ Lgj}^ (cf. Ar. MsUo, 
telescope), spectacles. 

mio yfg^y saliva, spittle. 



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167 



^^ 



mirdago ^^ja or mwrdago y^^j^, 

throttler ; cf . mv/rde, 

. . -»• * 

mirmvrto y^j-^j^, a plant with an 

edible root. 

miaali^ like ; cf . micJicUi, 

misiria*, see mijiria. 

miskal* JjU«« =- Ar. JUlo, i.e. 
a weight especially used for 
measuring gold = 86 grs. 

7nitcU(ifi* ^JU.<, Ar. s^uto, gene- 
rous, pitiful. 

mizam Olh5^> -^^- 0!>«^» scales, 
balance; F 139 akai da mizam 
ga kowa the balance is brought 
for everything, 

moha/rrachi ^j^y a beggar, i.q. 
maibarray q.v. 

moda \>y^, large wooden spoon 
used for dipping up mia^ etc. 

modi ^>y^y a gambling game 
played with cowries, also called 
chacha] yin modi to throw 
down dice, shells, etc. in gam- 
ing. 

m/olo ^yo, pi. m^luna U)^, music, 
playing; kiddin molo drum- 
ming, E 16 ; abin molo a musi- 
cal instrument of any kind. 

monomi i^yi>A (for rnxmomi^ 4* v.), 

pi. m^onomxi L^^-^Uo, planter, 

cultivator. 
m>oria* ^jy^y in phr. yin mxyria 

to be profitable. 
mosa Ur^, 1. tr. to shake, to move ; 

2. intr. to move; 3. to be in 

commotion, e.g. gari duka ya 



mosa the whole town was in a 
state of excitement; cf. m^siy 
m/ucha. 



mosdhjam* ^^^m*^ (cf. Ar. 



striate), the onyx stone. 



most 



^jr'y^ 



or m^tsi 



V^f>-», 



move- 



ment; motsinshi his movement, 

Gl, 1. 11. 
J J J 
mu y^y ^yjby 1. first pers. pron. pi. 

comm. gender, *we,' e.g. mu 

gani we saw ; 2. -mu or -nmu 

j^ used as poss. pron. *our'; 

it is suffixed to nouns of either 

gender, e.g. dakinm,u, dakimu 

our house; 3. as objective pron. 

= *us,' e.g. su hannamu they 

hindered us. 

mtichia* Ij^, stick used for stir- 
ring ttiOy = m/jhiriki ; cf . (?) 
mosi, 

muchu^ yiyy to be moved; cf. 
mosa, 

fmid{dyii J JLo, pL mud(d)una U jlo, 

Ar. jL.«, a measure, made of 
wood or metal. 



mv^am{m)a* U^) a stay; yin 
muga/m,{m)a to make a stay 
at a place for some days, to 
abstain from work, to rest, e.g. 
as on Friday. 

mugashi* ^Ji^yo, a great man. 

mug{g)o yu^y a white ass. 

mugu y^y^y fem. mugv/nia l^^, 
pi. midgu ^^IfO, bad, e.g. 
mtUtmi mugu or mugun mutum 
a bad man ; cf. mumuna. 



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U^>4 168 

mugvAfita U^^, badness, wicked- 
ness. 

muji m^t, in comp. rnvjin ka/rifi^ 
loadstone, magnet. 

mujia lt^>«, pi. mujiye j^ei^>«, 
owl. 

rrvfika jX«o, tirst pers. pron. pi. pre- 
fixed to perfect tense; cf. Gr. 
p. 26. 

mukadaichi, only; cf. makadaichi. 

mukamike ^S^g^SUy pi. mukamikai 

^^^4^) jaw-bone. 
muk(k)iraj pi. of makeri (q.v.), 
blacksmith. 

muku ^Lo = 7nakuj to you, for you ; 
cf . ma. 

mulmuteli ^JLJL^JU, to rub any- 
thing in the hand, e.g. guinea- 
corn. 

mulmvshiy to smile ; cf . mv/rmushi. 

mulufi s^Lo, ^c-aJU, or malujl 

S«JU (cf. (?) Ar. rt s»>^), 

1. wool, woollen cloth ; F 216 ; 

2. the name of a small scarlet 
woolly beetle. 

mwmini* ^JU^» or mt^Tracmt^yU^, 

Ar. v>«>i believer, C 38, D 46. 
mumona'^' LU ^ , bad = mt^^w, q.v. 



^J>* 



mwmoni*^ 



see mwwiwi. 

J 



murrUaraga KkjS^^^ a hatchet for 
cutting grass; cf. {^)fnuntalaka, 

mumu 3^^, ^^^ = mamu to us, for 

us; cf. ma. 
mumuna U«>«, bad ; cf . 7mm{^)h 

mumona. 



muna Ua, JU, first pers. pron. pi. 

pref. to pres. tense; cf, Gr. 

p. 26. 
munqfiki ^tu, pi. rmmafikai 

^JCftu, Ar. w&^lu, hypocrite, 
E33; cf. seq. 
rnunajuchi %J^U.« or rna/nafuchi 

%^^«AJU, guile, deceit, hypocrisy. 
I X • > 
mundaye ^^tjUL*», arm rings, 

usually made of silver or brass ; 

munda/yen kaffa foot ringa 
wMn(n)t ^--S-«, cruelty, as adj. 

cruel ; da mun{n)i cruelly. 
murUalaka, hammer; cf. mataXaka, 
mura^abay divided; cf. ma^arahi. 

mv/rda j^, tj^, to twist, wind, 
throttle, e.g. ahina murda vm- 
yan kaza he wrings the neck 
of the chicken ; used of medi- 
cine, etc. to gripe, to cause 
griping, mwrje ^^^j^, 1. to 
rub in the hands ; 2. to twist, 
e.g. thread; cf. (1) mvrdaka, 
murdagoy mirza, 

mwrda^Oy see mirdago. 

trmrdaka L^j^^^^, two or three 
reeds forming a circular bind- 
ing line inside a roof and near 
to the centre (kwando) ; there 
are several such in a roof. 

muri ^jy^i a stable ; dan muri a 
groom. 

muTxay murxya^ U^, pi. nvwnoyx 
L^fij^i I. loud voice, cry, etc.; 
2. wind-pipe. 

murichi ^jy or mn/nichi ^jy^, 



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(Jj^j^ 



169 



stalks of a young giginia tree ; 
in appearance they are like 
celery and are largely eaten. 

mv/nrrmri {Jj^j^, hooks on a fish- 
ing-line; cf. murmtira, 

mwrjan* O^J^i Ar. O^J^^ coral, 
pearl, F 227 ; red be^ds used 
as ornaments ; rnwrjanvn, tudu 
a large red bead or stone used 
by women in a necklace. 

mwrje, to rub in the hands, to 
twist; cf. mv/rda, 

mv/rjek{k)i i^/^j^, to draw foot 
on ground, e.g. to crush an 
insect, to crush. murjek(k)e 

i^^j^, fern. mufjek{k)a tX^^, 

pi. 7rmrjek(k)u y^j^j rubbed, 
smashed. 

JO J 

murkoshi* ^^^-1^, to rub vio- 
lently, to break up; cf. (?) 

murddgo. 

^j» J 
mv/rmwra \j^j^, a fish-trap ; cf . 

murimuri, 

JO J 

murmttshi ^JL^ja or mulmvshi 
J »j 
^jL^L^, to smile. 

murna U^, joy, gladness; yin 

murna or jin rrvu/ma to rejoice, 

F 217 8una mv/ma da ja/ma^u 

cmnahawa they shall rejoice 

with all the prophets. 

mwruchi, i.q. murichij q.v. 

jj J 
murufu ytj^y fire-place, stove, place 

on which the pot is placed for 

cooking. 

*> O J x^ X 

murza^ jj-«, cf. Ar. j^, to rub, 
e.g. the head ; cf. (?) murda. 



muaa* ^^y, Moses. 

^ J J •» 

mu8(8)a Irn^f pi. mu8{8)o8hi ^^m^, 

cat = kentva ; cf . mu8V/ru, 
« J 
mvsfis ^jilty, a dead body, skele- 
ton; yin mu8he = to die a 

natural death; cf. seq. 
I J 
mvshe* ^yc, evil smell = cfou, 

F 168; cf. prec. 
mvsUmi* ^^^^JL^, A 5, i.q. mvr- 
sulmiy q.v. 

^ J 4 

muska Uum^, Ar. ^JjUmo, musk. 

J J 
mu8u y»^, to deny, to contend. 
^ J J 
imisuvia t^.»^», contending ; 

F 159 hahu iau8uwa ga kowa 
there is no contending for any- 
one. 
mv,8ulmi ^^^JLm.«, pi. musvlmai 

^pf.u^, Ar. ^»1<, a moslem, 

Mohammedan. muaulumchi 

» J J J 
%^<»»JL>».^, worship, religion, in 

the Mohammedan sense of the 

^ » J J J 

word, mvstdumta* C*»»Im>.», 

to be a Mussulman; cf. F 58 

da ta musulumta (she) who 

was a Mussulman. 
J J J 
mvsiMru ^jym^y Fulah id., cat; cf. 

mazoro. 

rrmstiwa, contending; cf. musu, 

JJ ^ ^ \ 

mutuyU^ Ar. C>U, 1. to die; 2. to 

end, come to an end, e.g. Aar 
wata ya rmitu until the month- 
end ; hainya ya mtUu the road is 

closed, ymta ta mutu the fire has 

^j J 
gone out. muttta tyu, death; 

miUiian allah = a natural death. 



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170 



IjJ 



inutwin, j^ or vnvJtume ^c^JU, pi. 



vmitane ^U«o, man, human 

being. 
TtwJtumchx »^^», humanity, 
mt^^me, see rmitura, 

mu^i^mnta* lg;i»I», a concubine. 

J J J 
wtA^wrw ^ji^, a small cow, about 

three feet high, with very short 
horns, brought from the W. 

. . ' • ■» 

mu^\h%na* ^j^J^, Ar., sinners, 

F 129 note. '^ 
muzurUf cat; cf. mazoro. 

The letter ^j is used by the 
Hausas to represent the sound 
of the English n. When ^ 
is followed by ^ 6 it is pro- 
nounced m. This is sometimes 
the case when n is followed by 
^, « or cA ; for instances cf . m. 
n is sometimes interchanged 
with /, esp. at end of word ; cf . 
nimkay linker gonan, gonal. 

n ^ shortened form of seq. used 
with both genders and numbers 
to denote the possessive and 
genitive relation, e.g. dokin 

' aariki the king's horse, Bawran 
Tvama the rest of the meat. 
This n is frequently changed 
to ^; cf . £ 109 gonal chiuta. 

na J, \Jf fem. ta J, U, particles, 
1. prefixed as signs of the geni- 
tive, e.g. G 1 lit(i/l na labari 
so/rakuna the book of the his- 
tory of the kings; 2. used 
before pr. names, e.g. A 19 na 



ahmadu of Ahmadu ; 3. pron. 
suff , e.g. na.8a his, A 22, F 145 
nata her, A 12, naJca, nah 
thine, naku your, namiu our, 
nasu their; 4. placed before 
card, numerals to form the or- 
dinals, e.g. nahiu tahiu second, 
na goma tagoma tenth. 

na J f [Jiy pronominal particle, first 
person sing. masc. and fem. = I, 
1. prefixed to aorist tense, na 
taffi I went ; 2. rarely used as 
objective pron., ya gamina he 
saw me; 3. as an inseparable 
possessive pron. suffixed to 
either masc. or fem. nouns 
provided the speaker is mascu- 
line, e.g. uhamja my father, 
uvoana my mother, datvakina 
my horses, see Gr. p. 17; cf. 
use of -6a when speaker is 
feminine. 

na^amh* j^^ Ax, j^^ yes. 

na^amoAi''^ UK^mj^ Ar. j^^ some 
kind of sweet herb or grain. 

nahaya l^lji, fem. tahaya IjL3, that 
which comes after, the second. 

nadd tju, before, already, e.g. ba 
ya ji tsoro ba kaman nada he 
was not afraid as before; it 
is used also as equivalent to 
'former,' e.g. litafi nam, duka 
daina ka/man nada this book 
is just the same as the former 
one ; cf. da of old. 

nada* 1 jj, cf . Ar. rt ^ jj, to call ; 
used to form mainida^i, cf. F 16 
note. 



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UtjJ 



171 



naddma* Utju, nidmna toljJ or 

ladanfia* L«ljJ, Ar. ^LoIjlJ, 
1. repentance, D 20 note; 2. 
remorse, D 62, F 162. 

nad{d)e ^ju, 1. tr. v. to roll to- 
gether ; 2. intr. to coil, wind ; 
in phr. ya nadde maaa sa/rota 
he enthroned him. nad(d)u 
^jj, intr. and refl. form, to 
roll or coil up. 

na/dri ^jUi, fern, tqfdri ^j^i 
ord. num. first; dd nafari first- 
born son. 

naferko ^S^jAj, f era. taferho ^^^^jJ, 
i.q. prec. ; F 147 ga tozo nai 
riaferko at its first turning. 

nafsi* ^j^, Ar. j^^JU, the desires; 
D 22 kubi allah ku her hi Idinu 
da shi da nafsi follow God, 
cease following the wicked man, 
leave both him and his desires. 

nagari {Jlj^t fem. taga/ri ^j-^f 

pi. nagargaru t^jkjkj^ good. 

nagerta Kijiu, goodness, kindness. 

wat ^, of him, to him, his; equi- 
valent to wflwa, e.g. B 12, 76. 

nai ^^, contr. from ^^, I do, 

I make, etc. 
naiji* ^y^j^, D 47, relations (?). 

naima l^, n^ma l^^J, kindness. 
The latter form is esp. used in 
the Sokoto district Lq. nima, 
q.v. 

najam* i^U^, Ar. c^»i^, abomi- 
nation; yiri najasu to be 
filthy. 



ria^a iU, separable possessive pron. 
second pers. sing. *thy,' used 
when possessor and thing pos- 
sessed are both masculine ; 
when possessor is fern, and 
thing possessed is masculine 
naki is used ; cf . taka^ taki, 

naJd ^ thy ; cf . prec. 

nakiri* ^jt^i Ar. j^, Nakir, 

an angel whose office, according 
to Mohammedan belief, is to 
try the dead in their graves; 
cf. D 41 note. 

naku ^, separable possessive pron. 

second pers. pi., used when the 

object possessed is masculine; 

cf . taku, 
nakuda* jXj, cf. (f) Ar. isJu, to be 

in travail. 
nama UU, pi. namomi ^^^u, 

1. flesh, meat, A 22 ; naman 
daji bush-meat, venison, game; 

2. narnan daji wild beast, also 
as coll. the beasts of the field. 

namiiji ^t^ ^ »>, fem. tamata* UUJ. 
Both forms were originally 
compounded of the preposi- 
tions 9m, ta^ and the nouns 
miji and mata. 1. male, fem. 
female ; 2. namiji also = man, 
husband, the pi. is then tnaza ; 
namiji da shara, lit. the man 
with the broom, a taunt ap- 
plied to a bachelor, because he 
has to sweep his own house; 
phr. jan namiji = with reckless 
courage; cf. miji. 



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ncvmuj^y separable possessive pron. 
first pers. pL * our/ used when 
object possessed is masculine ; 
cf. tarau. 

nom ^, 1. this, that, these, those, 
e.g. doH nan this horse, VUa- 
tafai nan these books; 2. so, 
ag. shi he nom it is so ; 3. here, 
e.g. ha shi nan ha he is not 

hera nam, da nan v>^jUi, an 
adv. expr. = 1. in a moment, 
instantly, quickly, e.g. nan da 
nan ka komo return forthwith ; 
2*. = kusa kusay e.g. doM nan 
ahina na/n da nan da wa/na/n 
this room (or house) is quite 
close to that one; cf. seq. 

nam^a U>, here, hither, this, A 10 ; 
cf. prec. 

naAfwf{f)a UZ), a plant with small 
black seeds, red inside; a medi- 
cine for men is made from it ; 
cf. (?) Ar. iULiU = ammium 
cumine. 

nxindarujm^ see nxjm, 

nomi ^U, 1. to flatten; nanane 

-jUi, flattened ; maihanchi 
na/nane a man with flattened 
nose ; 2. to stick as with gum, 
etc. ; 3. to stick, adhere to. 
nansa/ri, to snore ; cf . minshari, 
narike lA^j^t ^ melt, to smelt ; 
particip. adj. na/rike, fem. na- 
riA^, pi. noriA^ melted, nao'iku 
^y^ to melt, be melted. 

nasa |^, separable possessive pron. 
third pers. sing. *his,* used 



when possessor and thing pos- 
sessed are both masculine ; cf. 
naJta^ see Gr. p. 17. 
na^\8)aflra \j*ci^ Ar. j^oi, victory, 
success, good luck ; G 2 6a ya 
yi nasaan'a ha he did not obtain 
the victory. mw(#)arcAi Cj|-ai, 
victory, success. 

nashxi* UJ, a shortened form of 
ahinsha drink found at 35 
saiko ahinchi nai nasha nasa 
kun jia except his food and 
drink, do you understand ? 

nas(8)a* ^^, Ar. ^^, used of 
drawing water. 

nas^* ^joj, text of the Koran; 
E 11 ku dubi nassi ku yi 
ziyaya thou regardest the text, 
understand it well. 

nastaHnu* ^^>jjC»>J, Ar. ^^ x, 
we ask help ; cf . G 1 note. 

nasu ^jmjy separable possessive 
pron. third pers. pL 'their,' 
used when the object possessed 
is masculine ; cf. taau. 

nata Ui, third pers. possessive fem. 
pers. pron. *her,' used when 
object possessed is masc. and 
possessor is fem.; also some- 
times used as first pers. pos- 
sessive fem. *my,' when the 
object possessed is masc. and 
the possessor is fem.; cf. Gr. 
p. 17. ^ 

natsu* y^ (cf. (?) Ar. rt ^\ 
calm, absence of wind, then, 
relaxation ; £ 62 giddan da ha 
natsu ha hutawa it is a house 



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173 



yjn^ 



in which is no relaxation or 
rest ; cf . (?) seq. 

wotew* (usually pronounced nazu) 
yhJ (cf. Ar. rt ^Jou, to be 
distant), used with hcmkaliy 
e.g. hankalinsa ya nazu lit. his 
wits are away, i.e. his wits 
have not yet come back to 
him, he is still asleep or un- 
conscious. 

naiiku «iW, fem. taiiku <iw, ord. 
num. third; A 48 naiikunsu 
the third among them, the 
third one of them. 

nautoa* \^^, weight; cf. mai- 
nautoa a man who goes slowly. 

nauyi or noyi ^i^, weight, heavi- 
ness ; da nauyi heavy. 

nawa \^, separable possessive pro- 
noun first pers. sing. *mine,* 
used when the possessor and 
the thing possessed are both 
masc. ; cf. Gr. p. 17. 

nawa t^, often pronounced na/u- 
wa (cf. (i) Ar. ^a^, about, 
according to), how much ? how 
many? e.g. na/wa ne kurdi what 
is the amount? su yi naiva 
how many were there? gudda 
nawa how many ? 

nawaya ut^, distress, e.g. ka sa 
mani nawaya you cause me 
distress, ni na gamtu da na- 
waya I experienced distress; 
cf. (?) nauwa. 

nazu* JbJy see natsu''^, 

n6 ^ or ni* ^y to be, used with 
any person or number but 



usually with masc. subject; 
with a fem. subject che is 
used, while ke is used with 
either gender. It is usually 
placed at the end of the clause, 
e.g. wa>nan bara^ ne this man 
is a thief, though it might be 
written loa/nan shi ne barao, 
ne is often pronounced and 
sometimes written m, cf. C 13, 
38, F16, etc.; cf. similar use 
of ke and ki, 
nema j^y to seek, look for, search ; 
as n. verbi F 65 A» her muma 
da neman nan ta dunia leave 
off rejoicing and seeking after 
this world ; a pass, form a/nim 
is found in B 155 kai dai anim 
shinni gun mallamai thou must 
seek knowledge with the mal- 

lams, nemo 3^^), to go to seek 
and return with a thing, F 
122. 
n>en{n)a or nin(n)a ^ or nuna 

jjj, 1. to be fully cooked, e.g. 
ahinchi ya n^enna the food is 
finished cooking ; 2. to be ripe, 
e.g. diyan itache ta nenna the 
fruit of the tree is ripe, nen- 
{n)a tJ, nen{n)ane ^JJJ or 

nunane ^^Ui, pi. nen(n)anu 

^■^LJLj or nunamAi yJJ>Jf 1. 
cooked, baked; 2. ripe. 
nesa ^^0*^, \Lij, distance, da nesa 
at a distance, far, dagga nesa 
from afar, nesanta C M *.»i»^ S to 
place at a distance, to drive 



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174 



y^i 



away, neaanchi ^ll o or ni- 

aanchi ^%;.»uj^», to keep aloof 
from. 

ni ^, i, first pers. pron. sing, 
comm. gender, *I'; when fol- 
lowed directly by a verb it is 
used like zani to denote the 
future tense ni taffi I will go. 
It is often placed for the sake 
of emphasis before na or ina-y 
ni na taffi it was I who went, 
or I indeed went; cf. nia, 

ni ^J^ first pers. suffixed pron. 
comm. gender preceded by 1. a 
verb, e.g. sun kirani they called 
me; indirect obj. e.g. ya bani 
toana/n he gave me that; 2. a 
prep. e.g. mani to me, gareni, 
id. 

ni* ^-J, to be; cf. ne. 

nia l^ = is it I? do you mean me? 
e.g. in answer to a call, esp. 
used in the district of Sokoto. 
Possibly nia was originally a 
feminine form of ni, 

niam* j^, Ar. j^^ prosperous, 
found B 169 tana niam it is a 
prosperous place; cf. nima. 

niddma, remorse; cf. ncuMtna, 

nif(/)a, to wish ; cf. rmf(/)e. 

nik{k)a ^, to grind ; duchi nikka 
= a mill. 

nima Ua), Ar. Si^Mjj pleasure, 
kindness ; D 75 mu sha nima 
we shall have pleasure; F 102, 
222, 223; cf. niam, naima, 

nimka ^sX^y l£^, to fold up cloth, 



paper, etc. ; i.q. links, q.v. 
nin{n)a, to be ripe; cf. nen{n)a. 
nvnkaya* tjf^, to dive, to sink. 
niaanchi to keep aloof from; cf. 

neaanchi. 
niahi ^J^, groaning; yin niahi 

to groan, used of a sick man ; 

F 79, 107. 
-nka, -nkij -nku, -nm.u, inseparable 

possessive pronouns ; cf . ka, ki, 

ku, mu; see H. Gr. p. 17. 

noma j^yt, nomx i^^ or noma 

^^, to work with the hoe, 
to till the ground, nminoma 
^y^ or mMinomi ^^y^, 

pi. mxiaunoma U^U^U, a tiller 
of the ground, manomi i<«yU, 
a sowing-place ; A 10 i^a dunia 
nana che manomi ga lahira 
this world is a sowing-place 
for the next, noma U^, farm- 
work ; A 24 noma ga mMa hai 
ka/mata ha kv/n aanni farm-work 
is not becoming for a wife, 
you know, B 86. 
nom>e, see Tioma. 

noms i^^i a plant about three 
feet in height, the white grains 
of which are ground and eaten. 

nomt, see noma, 

nono ^y, pi. ncmwa* ^yy, 1. 
breast, pap ; 2. milk. 

noyi, weight ; cf. nauyi. 

-naa, -nahi, -nau, -nta, inseparable 
possessive pronouns; cf. aa, 
ahi, au, ta; see Gr. p. 17. 

nuche, to immerse ; cf . nuta. 



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to search for, to wish for; 
B 42 kaina na ke niffa ha kotva 
ha I myself desire nothing, ya 
yi nuffe = he desired or he 

purposed. nu/(/)i ^ju, ob- 
ject of desire; F 251 da na 
fita sokoto. . .nuffina that I may 
go forth from Sokoto is my 
desire. 

" ■* . * 

nuna ^jj, num ^^, to show, 

to point, to explain, e.g. B 41 
abinda mallaminka ya nn- 
nama (=nuna maka) that which 
your Mallam explains to you. 

manuni ^^J^JLo, forefinger. 

^ ^ J 
nunatva t^U>>, particip. form, 

showing, manifestation, expla- 
nation. 

nunane, cooked ; of. nen(n)a, 

nurayiahu* ^j!^jJ = 1260; cf . F 
255 note. 

nuri* j^, to gaze upon, C 15 kai 
nuri wawa behold the fool; 
cf. annuri and (?) lura, 

nu8(8)ay 'n/U8(8)e, mi8(8)o, see nuta. 

nuta w, mi8{8)a tw or nii8(8)e 
^^MJ, to dive, dip under water, 
sink. nuta is more com- 
monly used in the Sokoto 
district, nus(8)a or nvs{8)e in 
Kano. mi>8{8)o ymjf 1. to dive; 
2. to enter or come into a 
town or place, nuclie ^i), 

to immerse (cf. (?) Ar. ,^). 
-ntva \y*, inseparable suffixed in- 



terrogative pronoun = whose? 
dokinwa whose horse? tum- 
kianwa ke nan whose sheep 
is this ? 

The sound of the English o is 
represented in Hausa by ^— , 
^-1 or - ; the first representa- 
tion is the most correct, cf. 

gogo yJLyJL) the second is 
usually pronounced au^ but in 
certain districts the sound 
heard in many words is much 
more frequently that of o, cf. 
3^, to-day, which is generally 
pronounced yo; the third form 
is used when the o is short or in 

a closed syllable ; cf. J^ gorzo. 
orraki ^J^j^^ and dan orraki, ass 
belonging to a celebrated Su- 
danese breed, large-sized and 
of a light tawny colour. 

othman ^jUji, Ar., Othman, F242. 

En Hausa as in Arabic there is no 
distinctive symbol for the letter 
p. It is usually represented 
by ^ /, though occasionally 
^ 5 is pronounced as p. In 
many words the sounds / and 
p are constantly interchanged. 

pa^o, woman's luggage carried in 
bag; ct/ago, 

palasa or /alasa LJLf, punishment. 
palashe ^jtkf, to punish, e.g. 
ya palaaheni he punished me. 

pedvnwota*, often. 

jHilpashe^fa/irifasha^ an intensive 



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Vj 



form of /<wA«, q.v., to break 
in pieces. 

pa/mpame i*<oU^) a wind-instru- 
ment used by a court musician. 

pansa or fcmsa Lm^JL^, ransom. 
panaatoa or /ansatva t^L***?, 
ransoming; cf. under yaw«a. 

pcmshe ^ji^, pansi ^^yJ^t to 

ransom, redeem ; cf . under 

fanshe. 

J ^ ^ 
pasakmi* ^j>C«4, a Nup6 tree, 

its fruit is used as a medicine. 

pa{8)8he ^^i to burst, to break ; 
cf. under yowAe. 

pashi i5«tkf a small kcmto of an 
inferior kind of salt used in 
making mia, etc. 

pet{t)i pet(t)i ^ ^^, a soft mash 
of rice, guinea-corn or any- 
thing similar. 

put or ful* Ji, = very many ; 
shortened forms are fu* or 
bu* ; fu and/i^Z are the forms 
used in Sokoto ; pul is used at 
Kano; cf. Fulah/o altogether, 
completely. 

The letter J is used by the Hausas 
to represent the sound of the 
English r. It is sometimes 
interchanged with ^ e.g. Aar6i, 
haXbi ; firmahi, fdtmaJd. 

ra ij, J, a shortened form of rana^ 
day, e.g. 27 kwma babu mur- 
na ra shiggatua dunia more- 
over there is no joy on the 
day of entry into the world; 
C 28, 29. 



raha ^j, 1. to divide, to separate, 
cf. B 23 n.; 2. to distribute, 
pass, cmrabaf B 131 ; amJccuraba, 
E 38 ; 3. to decide, e.g. as a 
judge ; mairaban gasMa a dis- 
tinguisher or decider of right, 
used of a judge (alkali) ; 4. to 
part from, leave; 5. raha l^j, 
parting ; C 29 hika mu kai 
mata don rahanta da dunia 
we lament over it on account 
of its parting from the world. 
rab(b)i ^j or rib{b)i* ^j, to 
part, to separate, B 57, 58; 
158 ma/roMwa the angel of 
death, lit. he who separates; 
cf. phr. ya rahbi /a^alinsa he 
interprets. rab(b)i ^j, hall 

rahahe t^jy fern, rahaha \^j, 

pi. raM>uy^jy divided, cloven, 
separated, ralm ^j, ^\j, intr. 
and pass, form of raba, 1. to 
be divided; 2. to depart, slip 
from, leave, e.g. rahu da wuta 
move away from the fire; 
tunda ahekara bokkoi na rahu 
da kano it is seven years since 

I left Kano. rahua \^y sepa- 
ration, estrangement, raho or 

Tohu 3-^j, >vl;) pl- TaherHbi 
^j-ij, division, part, e.g. B 82 

ralmnta bokkoi its divisions 
are seven; share or portion; 
E 8 rahon doki da maidoki the 
share assigned to a horse and 
its owner; portion, lot, A 22 
da raho umta their portion 



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^b 



shall be the fire; separation, 
B 118 sarikin rabo author of 
separation; C 30 rahonta da 
dunia its separation from this 
world; cf. raraba. 

raba lf\j, also reaha lf\m-j (cf. Ar. 

^^^j IV, to make anything 
moist), dew. 
rabahe, see raba, 

rabbi yj» l50» '^^ {^J ^^ 

rab{b)a* WJ (A 48), Ar. vj> 
Lord, a title of God ; cf. C 1, 
D2. 

rabchi*, hot ashes (Sok.) ; cf. ru- 
fushi. 

rahe* ^^^j^ to cling to, draw 
near to; B 121 yawanda ta 
taffo ta rabeshi when it comes, 
it draws near to a man. 

rah(b)% half; cf. raha. 

rabji ^j^j, a panther = the Ar. 

rahiui, separation; cf. raha, 

rache ^\j or ratse yj^j, to turn 
out of the way, to lose the 
way; cf. rotea, ra8{8)a, 

rad(d)a ^j, 1. to whisper, speak 
secretly; 2. radda \^j or rod- 
(d)ata Uij, n. whispering, B 7, 
E 24; mairad(d)a a whisperer. 

^q/a l^j, a maternal uncle. 

ra/(/)a l^j, a net for catching fish, 
esp. used in Sokoto ; cf. koma, 

rafaki lAjy ^ cling to or hide 

behind any person or thing in 
fear; cf. a/ranfaki to lie in wait. 



rafi ^tj, pi. rafuna U^lj or rafa- 

fuka ^Mftj, brook, pool; cf. 
(?) refe, * 
ra/onia lei>?!;, pi. ra/ani ^^\j, 
a round closed-in chamber, 
built of mud, about four feet 
across, common in Hausa huts, 
used for storing grain or trea- 
sure. 

raga Ulj, pi. ragogi ^^>fttj, cf. 

(?) Ar. ui), 1. a kind of sack 
made of network; aikin raga — 
network; 2. a net for fishing. 

ragaiay see ragaya. 

ra^aita U^tj, pi. ragaitu y!^\j, 
idleness, want of employment. 
niairagaita yZfjJ^j^^, one who 
saunters idly about. 

ragama l^j, halter, a rope put on 
horses or camels to lead them, 
also a leather halter decorated 
with metal. 

ragaya l^tj, pi. yt^\jy a rope tied 
to* anything, e.g. to a rafter in 
the roof, ropes supporting a 
shelf, etc. ; A 13 mu ga anka/a 
ragaya ajia zari we see ropes 
set up (for weaving), and thread 
is placed ready. 

ra>ge, ragi, to decrease ; cf . reg(g)i. 

rago ykSjj fern, ra^gtui t^lj, pi. 
ragaye ^^^jt an idle person ; 
rago maza a bird whose note 
is heard in the evening, said 
by the Hausas to be so called 
because it is idle, its mate pro- 
viding it with food [or it may 

12 



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j^^i 



be derived from the Ar. •Uj, 
a species of bird, from Ar. 
rt jiij, to call loudly]; of. 

danraguvxi, ragonchl %^M^tj, 

idleness. 
rago y^\jy pi. raguna U^lj, 1. a 

ram ; 2. fig. a chief warrior. 
ragonchi, idleness ; cf . r(Ago, 
ragu, to decrease ; cf . reg(g)i, 
ragtui, diminishing ; cf. reg{g)i, 

rdha* L\j, Ar. L\j, 1. to exult; 

2. \iL\jy singing, exulting ; yin 
rdha to speak proudly. 

rat ^, pi. raiu yij and ramA^ 

t^j, feminine gender, 1. life; 
da rai living, alive, na rike 
wankn rai da rai I will stick 
to this all my life; 2. mind, 
soul; cf. phr. da gvriman rai 
haughty, da karamin rai mod- 
est, humble, da zafin rai 
irritable, fretful, da sainyin 
rai of patient temper or dis- 
position; 3. followed by pos- 
sessive pron. = self, e.g. F 254 
fa raina kun ji na yiwa wonga 
tuaatsi and I myself, do you 
hear, make this song of in- 
struction; 4*. the plural rai- 
uka is applied to evil spirits. 

raia or raya ^j, ^Ij, 1. to keep 
alive, e.g. ya raiasu aloka^hin 
yunwa he kept them alive in 
time of famine; 2. to restore 
to life or being, B 102, D 61. 
raieada ju^j, to quicken, raiu* 
yij, to come to life. 



raidore ^j^J^y a plant, the leaves 
of which are bruised and rub- 
bed on the chest as a medicine 
= tafeaaa, 

raieada, to quicken ; cf. raia, 

raina ^j^j, to quarrel with; pro- 
bably another form of rena, 
q.v. 

ratrat ^jJj or rere ^fyJj^ 1. sand; 
2*. a grass from the leaves 
of which when ground up a 
medicine is made; it has sharp 
thorns. 

raircmif a sieve ; cf . rereya, 

rairo ^j>ij, the beard of a goat. 

raiutoa \^^j, coming back to 
life ; cf . rai, 

rak{k)a l^J, Ar. ii^^j, prostration 
in prayer ; cf . roko, 

raka i)j, to accompany, to escort. 

rakia l^j, L5^-^» *^® *^* ^^ 
accompanying; yin rakia to 
escort, A 26 A^ ^ kokari rakia 
rua a>ehikkin dere do thou en- 
deavour to escort her to the 

water in the evening. 

J ^ ^ J ^ J 

rakaso y^j or ruka^o y>»^jy to 

pursue in war. 
raki* ^^j, fear, in phr. na yi 

raki = na ji taoro I fear. 
rahwmi j^\^y pi. rakuma Us>tj, 

Ar. v>^j» <5amel, E 30, F 219 ; 
cf. phr. rakumin allah a man 
of extraordinary patience, ror- 

I kumin kaaa larva of a small 

I species of ant. 



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01, 



rama j^\j, u\j, 1. to pay, make 
restitution, restore, give in 
place of; 2. to revenge; mai- 
rama, pi. nuisurama avenger; 
cf . ramche, 

Twmxt ^Ij, cf. Ar. ^^j, to be or 
become lean, rama Utj, lean- 
ness ; cf . yin rama to be lean, 
ya yi rama he is getting lean, 
ie. he is very ill. aram£ 
^^tjl or ramame ^^j, fern. 
ram^zmia If^^x^lj, pi. ramamu 

y^\jy particip. adj. lean, ema* 
ciated. 

rama, a reed; cf. ramma, 

ram(m)a j^j, Uj, to accompany, 
e.g. zani rammaka = zani tare 
da kai I will accompany thee. 

ram^/ie ^^Ji^y 1*. a debt; 2. yin 
ramche to borrow, pawn, pledge, 
e.g. «wn yt ram^hen kurdina 
they borrowed my money; see 
ram^i to pay ; cf . aro, 

ram% ^ij, pi. ramwna lutj, hole, 

pit, e.g. B 127 ^Ama ^am ha 

shi ahigga rami ha he beholds 

but does not enter the pit. 
a*- 9 js J 

ramma, Uj, Ar. iUj, 1. a plant 

from which native ropes are 

made, soup is also made from 

it; it grows like a reed; 2. the 

rope made of this plant. 

ram9M*}^j, Ar.j^j, a sign of ab- 
breviation in writing, F 255. 

rana Ulj or ra Ij, pi. ranuka* txJIj, 
1. the sun ; Aor raria ta fadi = 
until the sun set ; 2. the day, 



properly the time from sunrise 
to sunset; cf. kwana the day 
of 24 hours, rana is however 
frequently used like hwana, 
e.g. rana uhu three days, hwa^ 

naki ^^>^ is often used as 
the plural of rana. When rana 
means *day ' it is either masc. 
or fem., when it means *sun' 
it is fem.; mu yi taffia rana 
duka we travelled all day, 
D 61 rana chan on that day, 
ranan gohe (lit. the day of to- 
morrow), the last day, the re- 
surrection day (= ranan kiama, 
A 31, 32). ra is often used as 
an abbreviation of rana] cf. 
ra/n gohe B 11, 140. randa = 
rama da on the day that, ie. 

when. ram8una Xiy^Jj, the day 
on which a child receives its 
name, rana is usually placed 
before the days of the week, 
which are : lahadi Sunday, 
latini Monday, talata Tuesday, 
la/raba Wednesday, aZhamia 
G 6 Thursday, aljimua Friday, 
assvhat Saturday. 

The hours of the day are 
approximately : jijifi the twi- 
light jusfc before the dawn; 
assuha or azvha the dawn; 
hanchi two hours after dawn, 
circ. 8 a. m. ; wollata circ. 
10 a.m.; rana tsaka or tsakan 
rama midday; zoioall circ. 
2 p.m. ; azuhv/r the call to 
prayer, circ. 4 p.m. ; laasa/r 
circ. 6 p.m. ; Tnaguriha or ma- 

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^J 



garuh late in the evening; 
liaha very late in the evening; 
between liaha and jijifi comes 
dere night. 



rcmche 



L5r!^' 



to swear, take an 



oath ; na ranche da allah I 
swear by God; cf. rantstua, 
randa tjjj, pi. randuna UjJj, a 
large earthen pot, 

rangqji* ^jtfJuj, to sway to and fro. 

rcmgamuj^j, an abbreviation of 
ranan gamu, day of meeting ; 
J) S ku ji choro {t$oro) akoi 
rangamu mu da mu da allah 
be afraid, there is a day of 
meeting between us and God. 

rangaz{z)a* ]/JUj, plague amongst 
men or cattle. 

rani t^lj, cf. Ar. ^>^j, the hot 
and dry season, lasting seven 
months, during which little or 
no rain falls, then follows 
baaaraf q.v., for one month, 
then dania/na the wet season, 
for three months, and then 
kakka the harvest month; ram.i 
ya deddi lokachi dogo the dry 
season lasted a long time. 

ranswrui, the day on which a child 
receives its name ; cf . suna. 

rantsua t>kuj, an oath, yi/n ranUnui 
to swear; cf. ranche, 

roAraiba ^jjy ra/rahi* ^jjy B 94 
note, intensive forms of raha, 
q.v., to divide, to scatter ; E 8 
a/ra/rabata a division is made. 

mura/raha ^jj^ divided, B 23 



mnraraha da ha 8%i gamu katsu 
the regions which are divided 
and have never met. 
rarabiy see prec. 

ra^ra/e ^jj, to creep or crawl, 
of animals, to walk on four legs 
like an animal, 6 171. mai- 
rarafoy pi. masvrarafey creeping 
things, reptiles = abin kasa, 

rare ^j^jt to strain, to filter. 
mairaretva \y*j\jt^ pi* ma,8U- 

rarewa ty^t^^^L*, one who 
strains or filters. marari 
^j\j^y a strainer or filter, 
usually in the form of a small 
grass basket through which 
water is strained out in making 
bread, etc. ; cf. rereya and seq. 

rania Ijjjtj, 1. a calabash with holes 
in bottom, used for straining ; 
2. a hole in a wall for water 
to flow out; cf. prec. 

ra8{8)a^jy Lf^, 1. to lose; na rassa 
hainya I have lost the way; 
2. to be lost; 3. not to be in 
possession of a thing, to be 
without; B 10 &a 8hi rassa 
huja ha he is not without 
reason, reahi iJ^j or ra(8)8hi 

^J^j loss, a being without any- 
thing ; sanu da reshi a form of 
salutation to one who has lost 
a relative or friend by death ; 
cf. sanu da kewa and aa/nu da 
rahua-y E 49 i^ hahu raashi 
da kowa without lack of any- 
thing, yin reahi to lose, reahin 



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ka/rifi weak, reshin haifua bar- 
ren, reshin lafia ill; cf. mcMraa 
without, which is probably 
formed from this. ra8{8)u y^aj, 
to depart; ya rassu he died. 

rflw(«)i ijtttjy to go out of the way, 
to make room for, e.g. ina 
rassitva daga bissa hainya 
I stand aside from the path. 

ra«(«)w, to depart; cf. ra^8)a. 

rasulu* ^y^j, Ar. ^y^j, one sent 
(from God), B2, F27. 

rat{C)ata^ U3j, abundance, e.g. of 

food, water, etc. 

*» ^ ^ .^^ ^ 
rataya or ratata ^J^j, Iplj, to 

hang up, to hang, to tie; D 16. 

rcUiiyawa particip. adj.; F216 

da siliyoyi ado su ka ratayawa 

and beautiful chains shall they 

hang (upon themselves), yin 

rataya to hang, suspend. 

ratsa* ij, ilj, 1. to turn aside; 
E 44 mu ratsa ta zaria we 
turn aside from Zaria, E 45 
mu ratsa kano we turn aside 
from Kano; 2. of words in a 
book, to pass over, miss, A 73, 
possibly formed from ra8(8)a^ 
q.v. ; cf. roAihe, 

rauda 35^, b^j, cf. Ar. rt ^^j, 
1. to shake, e.g. 8U ka rauda 
kansu they shook their heads ; 
cf. kauda kai; 2. to drive 
away. 

rauni 0A)» ^' '^^^^^^j bruise; da 
rauni wounded; 2*, ^3ji ^ 
wound, bruise. 

rauni* t^^jy to sway to and fro. 



^0 ^ ^ »x 
raura j^j, t^jj, to tremble, to 

shake, to shiver or shudder, as 

with cold; raurawa shaking, 

trembling; yin rau/rawa to 

become deranged or raving. 

rawa \yj, dance; yin ra/wa to 

dance, ina taka ravxi I dance. 

rawaHya or rawoA^a Qjjt, pi. ra- 
J ^ ^ 
waiyu yi^j^ yellow. 

rawanx i*M), pi. rawwna Ujj, 
a bandage of any kind, head- 
dress, turban; rawanin sor 
rauta = the badge or insignia 
of royalty, F 202 da wandunan 
unUa/a kaza raumna they shall 
have trousers of fire and tur- 
bans of fire. 

raya^ rayuwa, see raia^ raiuwa, 

razan(n)a \jj\j or raza^n)i i^j^j, 
1. terror; B^6 da hahu razani 

without fear; 2. ^^jjlj, to fear, 
to start or hasten in fear of 
anything; D 38 ba mutv^ ni 
ke razana I do not fear death, 
F 75 A» raTiana dagga kvxina 
hasten to arise from sleep. 

reba/nda/ri* ^jJ^j, to go into a 
dark place, to hide. 

reda jjjy 1 . to grind wheat, guinea- 
corn, etc. ; 2. to cut into small 
strips, to cut marks on. mat- 
reda^ q.v., a miller, ma/rede a 
mill-stone. 

'^^f^ \J^} (^^- -^^- S*0» * region 
near water), steep bank or edge 
of stream or pond ; cf . (?) rail, 

reji* s^^ or refo ykjj, pi. refina 



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u, 



(ijuj and re/u ^j, a branch, 

used esp. in Sokoto district; 

cf. resile. 
reg{g)a Uj, pi. reg{g)mia \ltj, rags, 

old clothes. 
reg{g)h ragi ^Jkj, ^, rage ^j, 1. 

V. tr. to diminish, to decrease ; 
B 69, 77; 2. v. intr. B 17. 
ragu y^\j, intr. and pass, to 
decrease; rana ta ragu the 
day is on the wane, ragua 
\^\y diminishing, decrease. 
rehwa \^j, a small black bee. 

reme ^^jt a very large species of 
tailless rat living in rocky 
ground; probably a species of 
jerboa (kurege), 

rena qjjj 1. to slight, neglect, 
disregard, e.g. shma rena aho- 
kinsa he despises his friend; 
part, form renavxi despising; 
2. to refuse, rena Ujj or reni 

i^ji despising; renin wanfo 
contempt of advica renxvae 
--JUjj, fem. rename, Ui^ij, pi. 

rena/nu y^jy despised, despic- 
able; cf. raina, 

reno ^jj to lull, nurse, bring up, 
educate; mairenOf pL masureno 
nurse, tutor. 

reran, reren QdJj^ on the back of, 
Tia fadi reran = I fell on my 
back. 

rere, sand ; cf . rairai* 

rerebi ^^j^j^ to look closely at, e.g. 



182 ^ 

80 as to distinguish two things 
that are much alike. 

rerereu yy>yji a shout or chant of 
• • • 
joy, it implies ka zo kaji come 

and hear ! 
rereya \jjjj or rairaia b^j, a 

sieve or fan for sifting. 
rero* ^j^j, wool from a sheep; also 

applied to its hair and beard. 
reshs ijfS^j, branch, bough; cf. refi. 
reshij loss; cf. ras{8)a^ 
reto yjjy to shake to and fro, 

possibly connected with ra- 

ta/ya\ cf. seq. 

reto yU^y hanging ; cf . (f ) prec. 

ria* Ijjj, Ar. ^Ij, to pretend, to 

dissimulate. 
^ * * ^ 

riha K^j, Ar. w^, 1. profit, esp. 

unlawful gain; km riba to 

hate covetousness or unlawful 

profit, chin riba to gain such 

profit, ¥17 ka tuba ka ber riba 

ka bada zaka repent, cease 

from unlawful gain, give tithes, 

F 201 masuriba those who 

make unlawful profits ; 2. ^j, 

to make unlawful profit. 

riba ^j, ruba ^j, to go bad. 

ribabe ^^j, fem. ribabia l^j, 

pL ribabu y^j, spoiled, rotten, 
used of fruit, dates, etc. ribachi 
^J^ji to spoil, render bad. 
rib{b)i* ^j, half; cf. rab{b)i. 

ribbi* ^j, Ar. ^j, 1. num. 
myriad ; D 59 ribbi da ribbi 



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183 



Ji 



cmtanru myriads and myriads 
of them shall be collected, D 64 
rihhi aabam seventy thousand- 
fold; 2. used as a verb, to 
repeat ten thousand times, e.g. 
D 44 «u kan ribhi scmduna 
maimai kcmian ducitau they 
pile up blows many in number 
as stones. 

rida ju^j, t juj, to seize, to snatch 

at in order to eat; C S3 ta 
ridasa gwa vmya she seizes 
him by the neck; maaurida 
gluttons. 
ridi ^3), coriander seed; an oil 

is obtained from it; cf. main 
ridi, 
ridi ^>)9 a native cloth of a 

black or blue colour, with silk 
woven into it. 

rife ^jf a form of ru/e, q.v. 

riga U^jj, pL rigtma U«^j, tobe, 
gown, shirt, and gen. garment, 
A 11, F201, 216, 217; sa ri- 
guna to put on clothes, riga 
saki a dress with small blue 
and black squares, riga tsamia 
a dress consisting in part of 
yellowish brown silk obtained 
from a kind of silkworm called 
tsamia from its feeding on 
tamarind (tsamia) trees. The 
tobe (riga) is the characteristic 
dress of the Hausas. Immense 
quantities of them are manu- 
factured in Kano. Its shape 
is that of a loose surplice with 
a large embroidered pocket in 



front. They are made in blue, 
red and white cloth. 

^(9)^ ^Jy rig{g)aya ^^ or 
rig(g)agi* ^^^), to get in ad- 
vance of, to oubrun; shi ya 
riggamu he got in front of us. 

rigi^ kjj, a vegetable used in 

making soup]; it has a inint- 
like leaf, and purple flower. 
rigigi ^j»thf ^ small red bead. 

... • 

rigingini i«.JUi^, 1. deceitful; ya 

yi magana rigingini he ut- 
tered deceitful words, mairi- 
gingini deceitful; 2. i.q. rin- 
gitigine on the back, 
n;^ W^> Pl- riyoji jH^>ij or 

rijiyoyi ^pt^J (c^- Ar. Uj, 
coping stone of a well), well, 
spring; rijia da zurifi a deep 
well, girut rijia to dig a well. 
rik{k)a^ see rik(k)e, 
rik{k)ake, held; cf. rik(k)e, 
rik(k)awa, holding fast; cf. rik(k)e. 

r%k{k)e ^J^, rik{lc)a ^j or rik(k)i''^ 
^j (B 31), 1. toehold, keep, 
retain, cleave to; 2. to hold 
fast in the mind, to keep, 
observe, e.g. the command- 
ments of Grod; 3. used of a 
woman, to betroth, to hold be 
trothed; in phr. zan rika taffi 

I will go at once. rik{k)o yij, 
to detain; £ 18 ha riko ha 
himbini he does not detain him 
or make a long examination. 
rik{k)awa I^Uj, holding fast, 



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>'J 



cleaving to. rikake tJtij, fem. 

rikoMa \tk^jy pi. rikaku ^jy 

held, retained. The following 

are apparently strengthened 

forms of rik(k)e: riske l^^j, 

» "i * "' * 

riski ^^wj, Tiiska ^SL<tjy to 

hold, detain, obtain; B 144 
ta kan yi lalaha da ta riskeka 
it (the world) would fondle and 
detain you, B 64; cf. rukwn. 

rik{k)i, see rik(k)e, 

mjfiche ^y^j or riMchi iJ^jy 
"^ 1. deceit, fraud, double dealing; 
D 10; 2. to act deceitfully; 
B 100, 107 kadda ka rikiche 
ka bi shaahasha act not deceit- 
fully nor follow a fooL 

rikida J^j, to change oneself, to 
be transformed, e.g. as a cha- 
meleon is, to change oneself 
into or become something dif- 
ferent, e.g. na rikida tauntsua 
I transformed myself into a 
bird, rikidade l^>J^j, fem. 

rikidadia l^^j^j, pi. rikidadu 

^j^j, changed, transformed. 

i^(Jp)o^ see rik(k)e. 



mkunihu* 



or rikimbu* 



y ^^j, abundance, e.g. kaya 

riktimbu. 

rimdi jlo;, a broad road or track 

= godobe, 
rimi ^j, ^j^jy the silk-cotton 

tree = eriodendron bombax, a 
large spreading tree greatly 
valued for the shade which it 



affords, also for the cotton 
obtained from it. Its seeds 
are enveloped in long silken 
hairs closely resembling the 
true cotton, but owing to lack 
of adhesion between the hairs 
they cannot be manufactured, 
but are used for stuffing 
cushions; cf. 'Hausaland,' p. 
159. Used in making armour; 
cf . lufudi, rimi tsamri a grass, 
the leaves of which when 
beaten up make a pleasant 
drink. 

nrrnnam ^U), Ar. vI^U;, pome- 
granate. 

rina* Ujj, a wasp. 

nw(n)a, to dye ; cf . rin(n)i, 

ringingine* ^^>»^^j, backward ; 
8uka fadi ringingine they fell 
backwards; cf. rigingini (2), 
id. 

rin(n)i ^s or riw(w)a ^^^ 1. to 
dye, to tinge; 7nairin{n)iy pi. 
'ma8v/rin{n)i, a dyer ; 2. colour, 
dye. rin(n)ene t^j, rin{n)ena 

iijjy pi. rin{n)enu y^j^ dyed, 
tinged. 
rinjayi ^\at^j or rinjaya ^^^j^ 
to prevail over, to overcome, 
e.g. na rinjayi mutum -na ji 
karifinaay B 38 ahi wonda zu- 
chiata rinjayi he who over- 
comes his own heart. 

rino ^jf 1. an iron fork for toast- 
ing meat at a fire; 2. a stake, 
D16. 



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rinto* yijj, a false accusation. 

riabawa* ^^^j^ cf. Ar. v^* 
desolation, B 92; see rizhata. 

ri^^a Uuf^, a small species of yam 
(dioscorea) with a sage-like leaf, 
its root eaten like the sweet 
potato, or ground up. (In Fulah 
risgaje = breadfruit, Barth.) 

riske iJ^j, riski tJ^j or ruaka 
*» « J* 
dLrfj, probably strengthened 

forms of rik{k)ey q.v. 

rizbata* i^l^jj, Ar. ^w;, to perish, 
B 102 note; cf. risbawa, 

rize ^jji Ar. jjj, 1. to capture, 
also to encompass a town and 
capture it; 2. to detect, over- 
take in a fault, rizewa tj-jjj) 
capturing, etc. 

rizunia Ujj, cf. Ar. j^jjy a pack 
tied up, a packet of paper not 
written upon, etc. 

rochi ^j, to strike a blow; cf. 
roshi. 

rogo ^^y Fulah ragohi (manihot 
utilissima), a tuber like dankali, 
edible, with milky juice. 

rokachi* begging; cf. seq. 

roko ^^j, roko ^^j or roka ^jj, 
Kanuri logo (cf. Ar. »>^j from 
A^j, to bend in prayer), 1. to 
ask, beg, pray; B 165, D34; 2.to 

J J 6 ^ 

beg of, ask of. mairoko ^Sd^j^^ 
beggar. Tiia/rokachi m^^A^ja, 
begging; cf. rak{k)a. 
romaji^j, U^j, to escort. 



romua, rumua \y^j or romo ^j, 
broth, soup; romon aariki a 
feast held by the heathen in 
Hausaland; fig. romon kune, 
lit. ear-broth = pleasant words. 

rongoda t juuj, a swaggering walk. 

rongomi ^^^j, 1. a better state 
of health, convalescence, re- 
covery; shina da rongomi he 
is getting better, yin rongomi 
to recover; jin rongomi to feel 
better : 2. an amount deducted 
from the price paid for ^y 
article ; ka yi rongomi grant a 
reduction, enna rongomi what 
discount do you allow? cf. 
ga/ra, 

roro ^^jy to glean in a field. 

roahi iJ^^jt pl- rataa lilj, a blow, 
such as causes a wound or 
swelling, e.g. na yi m>aaa roahi 
I gave him a hard blow; c£ 
rochi. 

roahi ^j, finely ground, e.g. aZ- 
kamma ina da roahi the com 
is ground fine; cf. lav^hi, 

roahi J!*j, a council, consultation, 
talk, gossip, e.g. auna yin 
roahi = awna yin ahawora they 
consult. 

rotd''^ Jjaj, Ar. JJbj, a pound of 
twelve ounces, sometimes pro- 
nounced rotli. The word is 
very little used except by 
Hausas in constant intercourse 
with Arabs. 

rowa l^j, covetousness, F 13; in 
A 37 rowa is used as an ad- 



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k> 



jective, wanda ya ke roiua yana 
inuma nata whoever is stingy 
(rowa as adj.) and rejoices in 
being so, yin rowa to be greedy, 
da rouM covetous, greedy, 
stingy. 
rua Ijj, pi. ruaye ^^^j, 1. water; 
F 90 akama nw, rua water is 
brought for thee, man demmi 
hot water, man kasa^ lit. earth 
water, water as in a river, 
rua/n sha drinking water, da 
rua watery; fig. ya sha rua a 
dunia he has enjoyed pros- 
perity in this world, rumi ido = 
watery eye, i.e. longing eye; 
F 230 man nama soup, ruan 
tsami vinegar; 2. rain; cf. 
also ruan aaina^ lit. sky water, 
and rv/in allah; ana ma and 
yana rua it rains, rv^n kan- 
kara and rua da kankara hail; 
3. care, attention, thought, 
business, concern, e.g. ha ruanm 
it does not concern me, hahu 
ruana ga/reka I have nothing to 
do with thee, enna ruanka what 
does it matter to thee? boMb 
komi sai ruan oMah it is God's 
concern alone, A 5 kidu mu- 
ailmi ha rua alkafiri all the 
mussulmans, I care not for the 
heathen. 

rvha* ^j, to frighten off = wa 

hada taoro. 
mba, to go bad, as meat or fruit; 

cf . riba, 
rvhda^ j^j (cf. Ar. i^Avj, to 

crouch), ruhda chikki or mfda 



chikki to crawl, or be prostrate, 
F 1 9 2 /a rubda shikki (= chikki) 
dka/njan kafirauxi and the hea- 
then shall be dragged prostrate. 
Cf . mfdorchikki, 
rub{b)e ^jy to break open. 

rubsa or ru/aa ^h^J; used with 
kuka, to utter a cry. 

rvhshi ^^j, hot ashes; cf. rufushi. 
rubuchi, writing of any kind; cf. 

rubuta, 
rvmiir 9^j, Ar. «y^, a quarter. 

ruhushi ^^^j, to lose; D 21, 
£ 126, 141 kadda ka hita ku 
ruhushi gobe follow it (the 
world) not lest you lose on 
the last day. 

rubuta C^yij (cf. Ar. C^j, to 

educate children), to write. 

J jj 
rubutu yiyij, 1. to write; 

2. writing, rubuchi ^^j, id. 

rudade, see seq. 

rude {J^^j, to deceive, entice; 
mairudef pi. masurude, deceiver, 
B 128 ta rudai = ta rudeahi, 
rudade ^»jjj, fem. rudada 

b33j, pi. rudadu ^>>3j, de- 
ceived, misled; cf. rude and 
rwrudi. 

rudi ^>^j, to fail to understand 
what is said ; cf. gigichi. 

mdu ^3j, a light hut raised on 
four poles, with thatched roof. 

riifa l|j, a dress or cloth used as a 
covering ; cf . rufe, 

mfdarchik{k)i^ to crawl; cf. rvJbda, 



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iS^j) 



'^'^f^ yjty^ '^fi UP?J or ^i/*^ L5?i» 
to cover, to conceal, to keep 
secret; A 31, 32; pass. D 93 
kddda arufe kofa beware lest 
the door be closed, mairufe, 
pi. masurufe^ one who conceals, 
e.g. the truth, rufafe i**^, 
fem. rufafa U?j, pi. rufafu 
yJLJ9j, particip. adj. of ru/e, 

covered, concealed; cf. ru/a, 
J jj 
rufogo ^^ji abundance, a place 

for storing com. 

J J ^ OJ 

rufushi \^,y rvhshi y^j or rabchi* 

wA^j, hot ashes, a fire which 
has burnt down. 

ruga Ujj, a place where animals 
are tied up (=ga/rike), 

ruga* &^j or raitga Uijj, 1. to 
make to flee; 2. to flee. 

rtLgu* yk^jy quickly; cf. prec. 

rugunguza* j-^^jt to break in 
pieces, to smash. 

rujia* it^j, an edible root like 
the sweet potato dankali but 
larger and with watery sub- 
stance inside. 

rukaso, to pursue; cf. rakaao. 

rukuke ^^^ji a wand or stick 
carried by officials; cf. seq. 

rukuki ^^^y wood, forest. 

J J ^ 6 J 

rukun* O^J> ^^w* 0-^J» ^^* 
rik{k)e, 1. to maintain, A 47; 
2. to save, C 37. 

rumache ^U^* a mixture of onions, 
flour and water ; cf . romiLa, 

rumbu yjjy 1. a bam, storehouse 



(cf. r<ifonia)y 2. shed, stall in 
the market = r?^mjt?a, q.v. 

rvmioiui* |>t^j- ^>e-'j» wheel; cf. 
dirumbuay kuinhuy shankundm. 

rumchi i^j or rumtai t^Ja-^j, cf . 

Ar. (^)j^j', to blink with the 
eyes. 
rumpa Ljjj, pi. rumfuna t-^j* 
plauk, table, shed, booth; 
stand on which things are 
exposed for sale, cover of a 
canoe; cf. rumbu, 

6J 

rumtai* ^Jxoj, to retain, B 27. 
rumv4iy broth ; cf . romiuiy rumache, 
rungume ^^^jy to embrace. 

runhu ^^^j, cf. (1) Ar. ^j, a 
small tree with yellow blos- 
soms ; an infusion of its leaves 
is used for washing by women 
about to be confined. 

ruTiMma 0"^J ^^ rusona ^^j^j, to 
fall down before one, to do 
obeisance. 

rupta C^j or rupto ^j, to snatch 
with violence ; cf . seq. 

rupta l;:?j, quickly ; cf . prec. 

ruri ^j3jy to roar, to bellow, 
used of camel, ox, donkey, 
men, A 4; fire, D 72. 

rurimi* ^j^j, used in phr. mvr 
turn ya yi rurimi he is ill or 
distressed. 

rurudi* i^>)j, redupl. form of 
rudiy e.g. B 147 tana da ru- 
rudi don ta yi zamba it 
practises deceit in order that 
it may commit a crime. 



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rushi ^j/^j, to fall into ruin, as a 

house, ruahiwa \y^j, falling 

into ruin. 
rushua* \y^j, Ar. ^y^j, a bribe 

given to a judge « toahi. 
ruska, to obtain, B 64 ; cf. riske. 

ruaki tJ^jt to catch; C 2 zambata 
da ta ruaki mcbaugudu nata 
the evil which catches even 
its swift runners ; cf . (?) riaka. 

ruaonay to bow ; cf . runau/na. 

ruza j^jy to rush, e.g. out of a 
crowd. 

^ a and ^jo 9 are used by the 
Hausas to represent the sound 
of the English a. There is no 
distinction of sound between 
the two and they are frequent- 
ly interchanged. Thus gaakia 

truth is written leC...fe, B 66, 

or, less commonly, V^^Ci^, B 37. 
The letter ^jo a \a compara- 
tively seldom used in written 
Hausa except in words which 
are derived from Semitic roots. 

aa ^, pronominal suffix 3rd pers. 
masc. sing., 1. -aa or -naa ^^ 
used as inseparable possessive 
pronoun suffixed to masc. or 
fem. words provided that the 
possessor is masculine, e. g. 
ubanaa his father, uwaaa his 
mother, giddanaa his house 
(this latter would be in Zaria 
giddanahdy in Sokoto giddan- 
ghi or giddanai) ; 2. as objec- 



tive pronoun esp. when pre- 
ceded by the prepositions ma 
and gare, e.g. maaa or gareaa* 
to him. 
aa 1^, C, 1. to lay, put, place, 
ya aaahi chikkin aanfo he 
placed it in the basket; to 
put on, to wear, used of 
clothes, etc.; to lay aside, B 
83 van bada gaakia mu aa 
ka/nkanche let us give credence, 
let us put aside quarrelling, 
cf. note, ad loc; 2. to cause, 
to make do, e.g. ahi ya aa na 
taahi it was the cause of my 

starting, aa^auxi* t^tUf, placing 
of a thing. 
aa C, bull, f. aa^ia i^C, cow, pL 

a?ia/nu ^\^y cattle; cf. aakaza. 

aa>a ILf or cUf, Ar. ^Lf, 1. time, 
season; also used for time- 
piece, watch, clock; 2. used 
adverbially with nan and da, 
saanan ^Ur or ^jJsX^ay at 
that time, then, G 3 ; aaanda 
juUr or jU^Lf, at the time 
that, when; toane aaa when? 

aaada* btjur, Ar. S>1ju#, happi- 
ness, D 79. 

aaanmiy then ; cf. aa>a, 

aaxmday when; of. aaa^ 

aaati* L^tU», a foot-soldier who 

does not possess a horse. 
aaawa*, placing of a thing; cf. aa, 
aaba v^> W^> to be accustomed 
to, na aaba da woman I am 
accustomed to or practised in 
this ; cf . acibo. 



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5^Ud 



8db{h)a ^^.w, to fight, to nib (?). 
saha, the cast skin of a serpent; 
cf. suaba, 

8ah(b)ahi ^*^f^ or 8ub(b)abi ^«i»i», 

s ^ 
Ar. ^^.MMi, 1. reason, cause, bahv, 

sahabi without cause; 2. vio- 
lent dispute, angry words, cf. 
sabe* ; 3. accident, misfortune, 
e.g. sabahi ya sameshi an acci- 
dent happened to him; mai- 
sahabi, pi. masusabc^i = mis- 
chief-maker, yin sababi to do 
mischief. 

sabani i«3W^> disagreement, break- 
ing up of friendship. 

§ahara S^f^ (cf. (?) Ar. j^^i^\ a 
small thorny palm ; cf. arsor- 
beri, 

8ah{b)a/ra \j-^f^^, 8ah{b)ura \j>.>^^, 

Ar. }^j^, a place with no 
trees or houses, but grass only. 

^ St ^ ' J St^ 

sabbada* o^ or sabbado* ^o^ or 

^i^ Si ^ 

aahboda* jlm«», Ar. ^^.w, 1. be- 
cause of, sahbada wanan for 
this reason; 2. in exchange 
for. The word is very rarely 
used in correct Hausa. 
sabboda*, see prec. 

aahe* ^t-», Ar. ^^.w, to revile, 

F34 
sabe i^, of irregular lengths 

(ba daidai ba\ used also of 

paper arranged with irregular 

edges ; cf . sasabe, 

8ab{b)ero ^j-^, sabro ^j»t^, sauro 

JO ^ J ^ 

^jy>a or samro y^^^^ a mos- 



quito, sometimes used also for 

bug [cf . Ar. j[^>, a wasp]. 
sahira* l^iw, a sort of leathern 

bag or pouch; cf. saritd. 
^dbiri* ^J^U^, Ar. >*-«, patient, 

found with Ar. article essdbiri 

in A 40. 
sabka ^ 



or 



or sabki ^^C^ 
1. to let down, 



sapka 

to lower, to unload camels; 
hence, 2. to alight at a place 
(cf. Ar. Jjj), to lodge; ma- 
sahki or giddan sabka (cf. Ar. 
JjJU) inn. sabka^ ^^J^ or 

sapkas ^jJj^y used with c/a 
to let down ; na sabkaa da 
kaya = na sabka kaya I laid 
down the load, to unload. 

sabJceke ^Ju£^, let down, laid 

down, sabko ^Xw, 5a/%o or 
sapko ^XjLttf, to start, to set 
out; cf. sauka. 

sabo ^t^, fem. sdbua t^U^, pi. 
?a6* i^U9, new, fresh, young ; 
sabon wata new moon; na sabo 
again, D 18 maituba ba shi 
komo ga aiki nai na sabo he 
who repents, returns not to 
his work again. 

«a5o^Lf, habit, practice, custom; 
aikin dunia duka sai saho no 
work in the world can be 
accomplished except by prac- 
tice; cf. saba, 

fa6o*^Li, fixed abode, B 145. 

sabro^ mosquito; cf. sab{b)ero. 



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^^ 



sahtu yif^i saptu ^2x»a or aotu* 
^^ (cf. Ar. ^iifl and Pers. 
A^AMf), a trust, yin aahtu to 
entrust, e.g. na yi sabtu masa 
kurdi I entrusted the money 
to him. 

sahua 1^U» or zahua l^jj, pi. «aW 
^\1» or zaU ^\}y guinea-fowl, 
zakara sabi the male bird. 

oraTTiov, soap, aabunin sdlo a 
superior soap, e.g. that im- 
ported via the Nup6 country, 
used for washing the face. 

8ah{h)ura, a barren field, etc. ; cf. 
8ah{b)ara, 

8ahur(r)a l/^C, a tree with small 
white leaves ; cf. (?) §aha/ra, 

8€Lche or ^ache, to steal ; cf . sata, 

aadada* >t juf, possibly for sandiui 
. to creep along unperceived [or 
more probably it may be from 
Ar. juf, to close in, to act as 
a boundary to], B 118 note; 
cf. sadda. 

saddka Ujud, Ar. ^juo, 1. alms, 
almsgiving, A 83 sadaka da 
haiwa du ya bai almajirai he 
gave all offerings and gifts to 
(his) followers; 2. to give alms, 
e.g. A 46 tvanan da ke sadaka 
da haiwa maiyawa one of these 
gave alms and showed much 
generosity. 

^adaka lit ju0, Ar. 4i) ju0, a female 
slave, a concubine. 

J ^ » ^ , 4f , 

sa^danu* qSjjus (cf. Ar. jjut iv. 



to assist), found as v. at F 239 
8u sa^da/nu they go as an es- 
cort. 
sadare ^jju», Ar. ^ju», to be 
confounded, A 8 ; cf . fandare, 

St «' 

aadda ju», Ar. id., to close, to 
shut up, to put an end to a 
quarrel between two men. 
aaddu ^ju« or ^^Lf, 1. to agree 
with a person ; 2. to meet on the 
road, to meet with, E49 shikkin 
(i.e. chikkin) dadi mu aaddu 
da larahawa with joy we shall 
meet with the Arab& saddtba 

t^juf, particip. form, 1. con- 
cord; 2. meeting with. 

aaduda, confidence, etc.; cf. ;Aa- 
ditda. 

aa/a* or 8a/(/)a* ^Cmi, to increase, 
used with arziki, D 35; cf. 

aa/age* ^j»^f one who scatters 
his enemies in war. 

9^fi L^^ or safia (^\^, Ar. 

2 / 

iJ^^ {sctfe is used as fem., 

A 11), early morning; aa/e ya 
yi morning came, da aafe in 
the morning. All; aanu da 
aafe good morning ! aai da 
aafe good night ! kowache aafia 
every morning ; aafia is used 
adverbially in B 103 en ka ga 
aafi>a rana if thou beholdest 
the sun in the dawn, sasafe 
^Lio-id, very early in the 
morning. 
*^ ^^> ^ long leathern boot 



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reaching about ten inches up 
the leg. 

§affu yLio, Ar. ^^i^, a line or 
row, e.g. as formed for prayer. 
yin saffu to form a line ; D60, 
F 92 atsaida saffu asscdlashe a 
line is formed, prayer is said. 



safi 



or sa. 



unalloyed, pure, used of metals, 
e.g. silver = babu haiinchi. 

a young horse. 
safiay morning; cf. §afe. 
safirchi* w^^Amv, an oath, invocation 

of God. " 
safko^ to descend; cf. sabko, 
adgara* j^La, a calling of fowls, 

A 29. 
8ag{g)i* to feel pain ; cf . 8?uig(g)i, 
sago ^JLr, cf. Ar. ^Jut, medicine 

which when drunk is supposed 

to ward off the blows of an 

enemy. 
sagogi* ^^kl», a kind of gum (?). 

§ahabai* ^^.j ■> ,.^, Ar. ^^^t^, 
friends; B 174, E 52 sahahai 
nai his friends; cf. seq. 

sahha* ^^^^^, Ar. ^,..^^1,©, friends, 
D 99; cf. prec. 

sai ^^, 1. only, except, unless, 
but, e.g. «ai wanan only this ; 
2. until, ag. «ai A» too/?, B 115 
(wait) until you grow old, sai 
gobe until to-morrow; 3. sai 
toota rana farewell till another 
day! sai anjima goodbye for 
the present; 3. conjunctively, 



e.g. dagga wanan sai wonan = 
both of them; 4. quite, used 
with lafia, e.g. sai lafia quite 
well or hail ! cf . saida, saddai, 
saiko. 

satda jk^, i.e. > j-«», except. 

saida j^m*», to sell; cf. sayes. 

saidaba* ^j^tf^^t, i^j^^, to refuse, 
to withhold * hanna, 

^aioat ^ji^jw, only, merely, though, 
A 6, 16. 

«ai/a, spleen ; cf . sefa. 

saiko ^XjMrf, 1. nevertheless; A 3 
saiko ka che nevertheless thou 
sayest; 2. unless, except; A 49 
saiko da tuba zayi sha alkau- 
chara only by repentance shall 
[he] drink of the water of 
heaven, F 123. 

satko ^X ^y a roof made of grass 
and reeds. 

satnya l^, a tree, from the fruit 
of which when crushed a scent 
is made. 

samya or sanya ^jLa, a lengthened 
form of sa, to put, to place, 
e.g. B 51 ku sainya duniaka 
a bayanka ku sainya lahvralka 
gaban goshi place this world 
behind you, place the next 
world before your forehead, 
B 118, D 72 asa/nya it shall 
be put. 

savrvya ^^i^ or shamya* ^^^, 1. to 
cool, e.g. ina sainya rua/n zafi 
en sha I cool the hot water, so 
that I may drink it; 2. to 
dry, P 64. savnyato ^^imt to 



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192 



i^ 



put out to dry. aainyi 
1. cold, a cold, cold in the 
head, e.g. sainyi ya kamani 
(lit. a cold has caught me) 
I have caught cold; metaph. 
coolness of mind, jin sainyi 
to be comforted, resigned, sain- 
yin zuchia comfort, consolation. 
ahainyaye i^e«iw, fem. ahain- 

yaya l^^^, pi. ahainyayu y^gfjj^, 
dried, aired, also applied to a 
man with a withered arm. 

saishe* ^^A?-'* ^ deceive (?). 

saiwa \y^ or saiwo ^y^ or soiya 
I^^mt, a root. 

swiyi ^^, pi. aaiyoyi ^ytf^, 1. a 
temporary booth or covering 
for the night; 2. fig. a delay; 
F 120 ida{n) fa saiyi kiama 
taawita if there be a long delay 
on the day of the resurrection. 

8ajada tjii^,»», Ar. jii^,»», bowing 
so as to touch the ground with 
the forehead; D 34 yin sajada 
to do obeisance to ; cf . sujuda, 

the cheeks. 
«a;t* ^jmm>a, to join together, e.g. 
by filling up a gap. 

aaka i)LMf, to weave ; masaka 
weaver, also used for a shuttle. 
aakake y^SiSLt^ fem. aakakia 

ljJ3w, pi. aakaku ^^i^, woven; 
cf. particip. of sake to change. 
saka UL, found in the comp. expr. 
sakormako, moko or -mukko. 



retaliation or return of kind- 
ness done. 
sak{k)a* dLw, to embalm. 
sakafchi ^JU£«», 1. f orgetfulness ; 

2. carelessness. 
8ak{k)ai ^jSL^, light, i.e. not 

heavy. 
saJcaina* ^^giSLtj the fragments of a 

broken pot. 
sakake* woven; cf. saka, 
sakake changed ; cf. sake, 
sakalia* QuLi, that part of the 

day about six o'clock, i.e. just 

before sunset. 
sakan* ^^>£»U, conj. form found 

in comp. sakan zumua honey 

poured out from comb. 
sakankache* ^JS^SLt, Ar. ^yL», to 

trust in, B 16, note; cf. masor 

kanche. 



fe if^SLf or 



^6*^9 



to 



hide. 



sakaza tJk^Lf, drake; from sa bull 
and kaza fowl; cf. Eng. bull- 
seal, bull-walrus, etc. 

sake ^jL,0f or sake ^^w, saki ^^^ 

or saki ^JLf, to change, to 

alter, sakiwa \yt^y changing, 
D6^ ku nema shinni hakika 
da gaskia ku her sakiwa seek 
after true and correct know- 
ledge, leave off changing, son 
kak^ ^4 1 <l.»>», fem. sakakia 

L^hJULMf, pL sakahi ^JULni, 
changed. 
saki ^JLt or ^^^U^, to let go, to 



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^^ 193 

drop, to let loose, release ; ya 
saki alkavsli he broke his 
promise, aako j-x^, to put 
down ; D 11 hai aako ba it 
puts it not down. 

saki ^U, 8oki ^>-», soaki iJ\y^, 
1. a broad blue line or stripe 
in cloth; cf. ha/rage a narrow 
strip; fula ^aArt black or blue 
cap, rigan saki a tobe of a 
similar colour ; 2. to be blue. 

sakia t^C, piercing, e.g. of the 
skin, by an arrow ; yin sakia 
to pierce. 

sakiway changing, divorce ; cf . sake, 

sakiya* j^^U, found \0 ya 
sakiya ya maiyawa fa ga la- 
hira he dislikes to talk much 
about the next world. 

sako, to put down ; cf . saki, 

sako* ^\^y to drive away, e.g. 
na sako sania I drove away 
the cow. 

sako ^s\^, errand, message. 

8al{l)a ^^9, Ar. id., 1. prayer'; 
A 56 kam hohu tsarki hahu 
salla kun sani kam hahu saMa 
hahu shan alkauchara if there 
is no purity there is no prayer, 
as you know; if there is no 
prayer there is no drinking of 
the water of heaven; cf. also 
A 68 ; 2. divine worship and 
so, a service, feast, e.g. hahan 
salla the great Mohammedan 
fast; sallan laiya the feast 
corresponding to the Jewish 
passover; 3. yin salla to 
pray, D 22 kuna azumi da 



salla keep the fast and pray; 
D 23, 24, A 53. ?al{l)ata 
Ci%Oi Ar. Cjl%Oy festival; 
ranan saUata, id. sal(C)ati 
O^^, JiiJo, Ar. tiV^, 1. 
prayer; 2. salutation, blessing, 
E 51 muna zuha essallati (Le. 
sal{l)ati + Ar. article) hissa 
muhammad we pour forth 
salutations on Mohammed, F 
3 muna kuma yin sallati hissa 
muhammad we further salute 
Mohammed ; D 2 muna zikir 
muna sallati we offer suppli- 
cations and prayers, maisal- 

^ X ^ 

(l)ati ^^% «n > », one who 

habitually prays. 8al(l)atu* 

S>rt0, salutation, greeting, C 

50, F 5, 256 ; cf. sal{l)a8he, 

sal(l)ahi i^JL^, saliva; yin sal- 

labi to slaver. 

sal(l)achi*, to jump ; cf. tsalll)i, 

<• ^ <• <» 
saladak{k)a* U^jJL^, cf. (?) Ar. 

«JxJLrt, to fall headlong. 
^^ <» X <• 
sal{l)ala ^UU, thin gruel {kanu) 

mixed with water. 

salam j^^^, Ar. >V-«», peace, 
chiefly used in the form of the 
salutation salam alaik peace 
be upon thee, to which the 
answer is alaikum salam upon 
you be peace, salmxiwa t^loJLr, 
particip. greeting ; F 4 muna 
salmawa we greet. 

sal{l)ame ^<^^, Ar. ^^JLw ii, to 
give up, to let go, ya salamie 
rainsa he gave up his spirit; 
the passive is often used in 

13 



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selling anything, e.g. Mcda- 
meshi = you can take it, it is 
yours. 
8al(l)a8he* ^^^J^ or saUasJie* 

jj^>-i», to pray for a person 
or thing; F 92 ataaida saffu 
assallaaheka a line is formed, 
prayer is said for thee. 
sal{J)ata^ festival ; cf . ?al{l)a, 
8al{l)at€moa Syij^^o, the religious 
ceremony observed at the time 
of circumcision {kachia), 
8(d{l)at% prayer; cf. §al{J)a, 
8aHl)atu, salutation ; cf. ?al(l)a, 
saiga liL^, pi. salgagi ^^^xMw, 

cf. (?) Ar. ^JLl, 1. cesspit, 

B 105; 2. dung-hole, hayan 
gidda is used similarly. 
sail iJLitfi 9oli ^y-^ or aoaXe 

iJy^, cf. Ar. rt ^JL^, to peel 
off, to blister as skin when 
burnt ; yin 8(di, id. 
salihi* ^^ftJttf, pi. ^lihai ^^^aJL^, 

Ar. ^JL^, good, true, faithful, 
e.g. B 8 ahi aa^hi aalihi ha 
mugu ha may He make it 
good, not evil; C 17 ahoki 
salihi a good friend, E 32 da 
salihai da muminai ku tashi 
ye who are good and faithful, 
rise up. 

salima* j^y Ar. id., to be with- 
out blemish. 

salha^ salha, UJU, pi. aalkuna 
UaJLr, Ar. «;JLf, a bag or 
bottle made of skin. 



194 \J}^ 

^cUla* ^JLo, Ar. = may (Allah) 
bless, found in prefatory pas- 
sages, e.g. A 1, F 1, D title. 
scUmatoa*, greeting ; cf . salam, 
sama Upmi, pL samomia \^\,^^ (or 

samomi ^^y^^)i Ar. tW*^* 
sky, heaven; maiaa/ma a title 
given to God ; A 2 c^ yerdan 
maiaama with the approval of 
Him who dwells in the hea- 
ven. 

aama to befall a person; cf. aamu. 

aam(m)a ^ ^ * or aumma I p >■», 
possibly an adverbial use of 
za>ma to become, usually found 
in reduplicated form aamma 
aamma a little, e.g. han ji ha 
aai aa/mma aa/mma I heard only 
a little; cf. zama zama after 
some time. 

aamagi* ^UC, a royal warrior. 

aamako y\^»t, (?) Ar. ^»>^, to 

come very early, v. D 49 note; 
cf . aaumako. 

aamame ^^^^Ur, a slave-raiding 
expedition ; cf. aame to catch. 
aamari, youths; cf. samrai. 

aamaaadotoa t^ jum^m^, whit« cotton 
brocade of various patterns; its 
price in the Kano market is 
about 30,000 cowries a twrumi, 

aamata* (l<«Lf, a secondary form 
from aame to receive, A 83. 

aamhachi ^IJ^, to boast over, 

to rejoice over. 
aambazai {CJ^^, sandals with r^ 



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,^U 195 

leather tops and a hole for the 
toe; cf. (1) Alg. Ar. l>Cp. 
same ^«<*w, aama* >U» or aamo 

ytLtt, to get, to find, to meet 
with and hence to happen to, 
e.g. mi ya sam^eka what has 
happened to you? i.e. what is 
the matter with you ; A 48 
komi ya samasa whatever be- 
falls him ; amusami may we 
obtain, E 52. samu ^U, ^Lf, 
1. to take, to find ; 2. to be 
obtained, samvawa participial 
form, B 156 yala ta samu ko 
ha ta samutoa ha whether it 
be obtained or not obtained; 
3. possession, B lOQ na duba 
dunia hal samunta I have 
considered the world and its 
possessions; 4. often used as 
equivalent to iya, e.g. ba ya 
samu ya shigga he could not 
enter; 5. to spend time, ya 
samu wata guda he spent one 
month, samu damxi or sa/mu rorv- 
gomi to get better, samu sauki 
to obtain help. Cf . samata*. 

samfalwa tyUi.>i», a blue cylindrical 
bead; (?) = Ar. j-jf-d, Eng. sap- 
phire. 

sami^u* ft^ "^ '^^' ^t • "S ^^ 
epithet of God = He who 
listens, F 16 zama shi ni 
sami^u for He listens. 

sammu j^ or sammo^ Ar. j^, 
1. a charm written with intent 
to injure someone; 2. poison 
given in food. 



sam^y see samie, 

sa/mrai ^j-^^ or sa/nnayi y^fg^j*^, 

pi. samari yjj\^y a youth 
from fourteen to twenty years 
of age (cf . Ar. j^J). 
samrij haste ; cf . sauri. 
samro, mosquito ; cf. 8ab(b)ero, 
samsam^ j^ o.i.», Ar. r • ni- sam- 



samum, sesame, a herb from 
two to four feet high ; an oil 
is obtained from its seeds which 
is esp. valued by the Hausas 
on account of its providing a 
medicine or ointment for the 
eyes; cf. Pliny xxii. 25 'hoc 
(i.e. sesama) amplius oculis 
imponitur decocta in vino.' 

samsi ^,m>^i>», smooth; v. sansam- 
sa and seq. 

samisi or santsi ^^k^,..>, 1. smooth- 
ness, slipperiness, F 144 da 
kaifi kua da samtsi duk za 
soka and its sharp edge and 
slipperiness shall pierce them ; 
2. a slip, yin samtsi to make 
a slip, kadda sa/mtsi ya sameka 
that thou slip not. 

samu, see sam£, 

soM, to love ; cf . so. 



, to harass, trouble. 



sananche . 

distress; cf. seq. 
sananta UUw, trouble ; cf . prec. 

sanas ^j^J^, to learn. This and 
the following are secondary 
forms of san{n)i to know. 

sanasda jumJL^, sanaswa ».u;..rf, to 



13—2 



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196 



teach ; in C 47 sanda is for 
sanascUiy v. note. 
aanbazaiy sandals; cf. sambazai, 

t 0^ 

aanche ^J^, to converse, probably 
for zanche, q.v. 

sanda tjUw, pi. aanduna UjUw, 
stick, staff; then fig. blow, 
stripe, D 44 fiw kan rihhi san- 
duna maiinai kaman duaUu 
they pile up blows many in 
number as stones. 

aanda* jJ^, to teach ; cf. sanasda, 

sandare ^jjJ^, to be confounded, 

to swell out, A 64 ; probably a 

form of sadare, q.v. 

saridua ^jJ^, to creep or walk as 
on tiptoe silently ; cf. sadada. 

sanduki wJjJlL^, pi. sandukai 



6 " J» ^ 



^^jO-d, Ar. kJ^jJ^y box, 
drawer. It denotes usually a 
small box, e.g. of leather, etc. ; 
large wooden boxes are un- 
known in Hausaland. 

aan/o or sam/o ^^^ pi. sanfurta 
Uaw, a large grass basket 
with handles. 

aangarnia* \*jjjUm» or zangamia* 

{^jjujy pl. sanga/rnu yjMj^, 
a Nup^ word (?), stalk or sheaf 
of com. 
aani ^U or 8%Lane ^Sy^, theft. 

maisa/ni ^-JU.*^, a man who 
steals openly during the day- 
time, a market thief. 
sani* ^y^, a ladder (?). 



8an(n)i ^-w (cf. Ar. 2L.>, know- 
ledge), to know; A 14, 15 ita 
dunia na kasua che kun aanni 
the world, you know, is a 
market-place; the final i is 
frequently omitted, e.g. aUah 
ya aan komi God knows every- 
thing, this is regularly so before 
pron. suffixes, e.g. ban sanshi 
ha I did not know it, ansoMshi 
it is known. Another form of 
this word is 8hin(n)a ^^ or 
Uw, e.g. na shinna = na sanni, 
8hin{n)i ^*-»Jt>, knowledge ; 
B 40, 152, 1)54 ku nema shinni 
hakika da gaskia seek after 
true and correct knowledge. 
sansanche jJLu%i>»>, to under- 
stand well ; cf . sanas to learn, 
sanaada, sanaswa, to teach. 

aania, cow ; cf . sa bull. 

aankara jpcw, an insect found in 
kola nuts. 

sanko y^, to be bald on the top 
of the forehead. 

sa/nhurumi ^.o^Xw, the sarikin 
kasua or officer of the market, 
whose right it is to lay hands 
on offenders and to settle trade 
disputes in the market. 

x ^ x 

sansama i^ii>;u>, a mixture of /ura 
and sour milk. 

sanaami ^^^kkJMty a large tree, from 
the bark of which an astringent 
medicine is made. 

^ » ^ ^ 

aanaamaa* ^^n^^mJ^, smoothly, an 
intensive form of aamai. 



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sanscmche, to understand well ; cf . 
8ani, 

8an8an{n)i ^yimJ^a, camp, encamp- 
ment, esp. applied to a war 
camp ; cf . (?) seq. 

8an8an(n)i ^JL^JUi, a halo round 
the sun or moon, it is regarded 
as a sign of approaching war. 

aansari/a l^n»i>.Mi» or sdaarifa ^i^mmi^, 
the stumbling of a horse. 

8an{n)u y^^ 1. slowly, gently; 
sanu aanu very slowly or very 
quietly; Hausa proverb iaffi 
sanu ko hainya da nesa go 
slowly though the way be 
long; 2. sanu is most fre- 
quently used in salutations = 
hail? It is often repeated a 
dozen or more times in order 
to add emphasis to the greeting. 
Its meaning varies according 
to the word with which it is 
used ; aanu da rana good morn- 
ing, aanu da dere good night, 
aanu da aiki may you be happy 
over your work, aanu da gajia 
(lit. greetings to weariness) 
may you not be overtired. If a 
man meets another when it is 
raining he will say aanu da 
rua welcome to you amidst 
the rain ! aanu da kewa greet- 
ings to you in your loneliness 
(cf. kewa). It is joined on to 
the 2nd personal pronouns, 
aanuku greetings to you, aor- 
nuki hail lady ! 

aanya, to dry ; cf . aainya. 

aanya, to place ; cf . aainya. 



197 



U 



15^ 



aapka, to let down ; cf, aahka. 
aara, to accuse ; cf. aare, 
aaraha* l^^, a gift given to con- 
ciliate anyone. 

aarafa* s^, Ar. ^j^, to ram 
for a long time = ma^A:a. 

aa/r(r)ai ^j^, 1. clear, clean; then, 

exact; 2. clearly, carefully; 

kilga aarrai to count correctly, 

B 28 duba aai'rai aarrai look 

carefully, na ji aarrai I quite 

understand. 
< J ^ ^ 
aarakua |>^j^, mother-in-law; cf. 

aariki or aurki father-in-law. 

aarare, cut; cf. aare, 

aar(r)ari ^jj-^y 1. open space, 
plain, meadow without trees; 
Bl^toayayi taau nan aararin 
audan what was like unto it 
in the regions of the Sudan? 
A place where people assemble; 
2. space, room; D 60 aarari. 
na bait almukadda^ ta iahimu 
the space of the Bait al- 
Mukaddas shall be sufficient 
for us, daki nan ya fi loanan 
da aaroH this room is larger 
than that. 7naiaaran ^jj>»*fy; 
spacious; cf. seq.' 

aar{r)ari ^jj-^ or aaar{r)aH 

^jj^^i openly; cf. prec. 



aaraunia 



Qfij^» 



queen. 

^ 6 ^ ^ 

aarauta or aarota O^j^, kingdom ; 
chin aarauta to gain possession 
of a kingdom or to become a 
king, A 8, G 1, 1. 4; cf. maaa- 
rauchi, aariki. 



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w>^ 



198 



aaraya C^, a fall ; yin aaraya = 
fadi to fall. 

sare ^jLt, sara jLf or zara* j\^, 
to accuse, to report or inform 
against; yin aare^ id. maiaa/ra 
jU*Ai«, pl. maauawra ^UMifU, 
accuser, informer. 

sare ^jC, to cut, to cut down; 
da takohi with a sword; used 
of cutting down wood or trees, 
e.g. F 89 pass, anaaaran itache 
don kuahewa wood is cut for 
the grave, aa/rare ^jt-*, fern. 

aararia ^jj\^, pl. aarciru _^jj^, 
cut ; cf . (?) seq. . 

«are ^jL», used of reptiles, etc., 
to sting, to bite. 

aarewa \^j^y a kind of wind-in- 
strument, a flute. 

aa/r{r)i {J^j^, a small species of 
ant which eats grain, etc. 

aari* ^j\^j found in n. ag. mai- 
aari a man who sells a thing a 
second time at a profit. 

aari ^jU^, a bay horse. 

" ^ Ox 

aariki j)j^ or ^«£»^, pl. aaraJcfina 

LlS*!;--! or aarikai* ^^£>^, 
king. In Hausaland every 
town and village has its king. 
The title aariki is given not 
only to these but to many of 
their sons and to anyone who 
presides over any special work; 
B 3 jabbaru waMdi aarki allah 
God the one all powerful king, 



G 1, 1. 1 the title aarikin mtt- 
aiilmi is applied to the sultan 
of Sokoto, aarikin atuUm (lit. 
king of the Sudan) to the king 
of Birnin Gwari, aarikin dunia 
is used in N. Africa for the 
sultan of Turkey, aarikin da- 
waki master of the horse, aari- 
kin kirma a leader of infantry, 
aarikin kaaua president of the 
market, aarikin kofa door- 
keeper, aarikin rva ferryman, 
a. totUa cook. In Kano the 
blind, lepers, beggars, etc. each 
have their king (aariki), 
awriki*, father-in-law ; cf. aurki, 

aariki* ^^sj^y to seize; cf. aar- 
kqfe, 

aa/rita ^j^, sl small leather or 
grass bag, carried on the back. 

aa/rka I g^ »» or aurka * ^ -^ 
pl. aarka L^j.^ and aa/rkoki 
^^»y^jm», Ar. ^jLf^ chain, 
D 12; cf. aulke chain armour. 

I X * *- 

aa/rkafe ^J^j^a^ to bind, tie, close; 

aa/rkafewa binding. 
aarkaki, a bush; cf. airkaMa. 
aarmayi, a youth ; of. aamrai. 
aa/rota, kingdom; cf. aarauta» 

aartai i^j^y a splinter, e.g. in 
the skin. 

aarwata* ^^j^t F241=«awitoato (?) 
heavenly (the reading here 
should probably be aa/rauta). 

aaa(a)a Umi^, side, e.g. aaaaa nan 
da aaaaa chan on this side and 
that, aasaafudu the four sides. 



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199 



^^3-* 



sascibda or sasapta jL»**».t»», tied 
loosely; cf. (?) seq. 

sasahe ^y^^*^, 1. to cut up into 
small pieces; 2. to clear ground 
before ploughing ; cf. aahe, 

sfisafey very early in the morning ; 

cf . safe, 
J ^ ^ 
aaaago* ^JUm^, a saw. 

sasaka ^Lmmt or saseka <lL^>».»y, to 
smooth or prepare wood, ma- 
Sasaki ^il»>.»rfU, carpenter. 

sasari ^j^A^, cf. Ar. ^LLiJLw, 
chains ; F 186 oaa ma««^ sasa/ri 
na wuta da malwa fetters and 
leg-irons of fire shall be placed 
on them, F 156. 

sashi*, half; cf. shashi, 

sa^ssaHfaf stumbling ; cf . sansarifa. 

sata ULf, thieving, theft ; yin 8ata= 
^ X X 
to steal, maisata KjLm^^ a 

thief. sa>che tJ*^ or ^ache 

^Ltf, to steal ; B 58 ^a roMka 
ta saclie rai it will part you 
(from this world) it will steal 
thy life. 

sau or 80 ymt^ prefixed to cardinal 
numerals to form numeral ad- 
verbs, e.g. sau data once, sau 
hiu twice, saufudu four times. 

sau y^y 1. the sole of the foot; 
2. a foot-print. 

sau* yM>, to leave or quit, used of 
a path, e.g. sau hainya = to 
leave the track, A 19, 22 sun 
sau tafarki they left the right 
path (? = short form of sav>ya). 



sa^uda* ^^fuo, Ar. >^m^, a moun- 
tain in hell, F 189, 191 note. 

sauka or soka ^ya, a modified 
form of sahka, to alight, settle 
down, stay; F 252 giddcm kua 
dan hazo anasoka ni kua in 
the house of the son of Bazo 
would I stay. 

sauki ^J^yttf 1. quick; sauki mu- 
tua sudden death ; 2. used 
with da as adverb; da sauki 
quickly = da sauri, 

savM i^yy 1. help, assistance, e.g. 
allah ya koro muna sauki may 
God give us help; 2. health, 
e.g. na samu sauki I recovered ; 
3. used as v. in passive, B 64 kai 
dai asatoake day auxin guri thou 
obtainest much of thy desire. 

saulo ^ya or stLb(b)olo ^y^ (cf. 
(?) Ar. Jjb^Uf), a large bag for 
holding rice. 

saumaJco y\Ay<>y the early morn- 
ing; prov. kayan saumako da 
mareche akandamreshi the load 
for early morning should be 
tied up overnight; cf. samako. 

sauna* \jy*, P^^7> compassion. 

saura \jy>, Ar. jlJ#, remainder, 
gleanings in a field; yin saura 
to glean, ya yi saura kaddan 
there is little left; cf. shawora, 

saura* ^jyf, a place to sleep in, 
e.g. in a tree, for fear of wild 
beasts; cf. (?) Ar. jya, climb- 
ing a wall. 

saurara, sorara j\jy^ or jura^e* 



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3hy^ 



200 



\jlS^ 



^jSjtf^, to listen attentively, 
e.g. B 22, 153 Aw yan utoa ku 
jini ku saurara you, my breth- 
ren, listen to me and pay at- 
tention; cf. seq. 

J ^ ^ 

sauraro* jj|j^«», a form of prec, 
to hesitate, doubt, be uncertain. 

sauri ^ya^ L&>^ ^^ samri iC^i^^, 

• ^ 

Ar. j^, haste, e.g. F 29 A^ 
her aaurin fushi give up being 
hastily angry; da sauri hastily. 
aaurOy mosquito; cf. 8ab(b)ero, 

sausauchi or sosochi -**j jir, idle- 
ness, unwillingness to work. 

sautare* v£)^>^> often; = sau, tare. 

^ « '* ^ ^ ^ 

muya ^ya or sawaya ^y>»», 1. to 

change, transform; 2. to be 
changed, e.g. wa aauya da arna 
mvsulmi I changed from a 
heathen to a Musulman. aau- 
y^y^ V,,^'*^?^-^? ^®^^* sauyaya 

Lj5-|^^, pi. sauyayu ><-?>-», 
altered, translated, related to 
^'wya ; cf . saurara, jurare, 
§awaha* >^\yo or §awabe ij^t^o, 

Ar. ^t^«i0, that which is fit- 
ting, proper; 1> i mu yi aiki 
satvaba that we may work suc- 
cessfully, yin sawabe to work 
well or diligently. 

X * X *• 

sawarwari ^^^j>o, anything sold 
in the market and returned to 
the seller injured. 

satoo ^ymt = tsawoy q.v., a form 
found in F 1 45 haiua 7iasa liar 
sawo nasa babu wawa its height 



and its length are the same 
without doubt. 
saye ^^(^, sayi ^j/r*, sa% ^^, saida 

j^, sayo yfg,a, to buy; all 
these forms, and specially the 
last, are also used for * to sell '; 
cf . sayes. 
saye*y to hide ; cf . sakaye. 

sayes i^,m^, sayesda ju.^, saida 

X • X 

j^ifmt, to sell, dispose of by sale; 

the form saida more frequently 

means to buy. asaidashi = it 

is bought; asayesda it is sold 

or it is on sale. 

sayo y^, to buy or sell ; cf . saye, 

8eb(b)ain O*}-^, Ch^> Ar, J,.jJi^, 

numeral seventy ; D 64 naseb- 

bain, feiii. ta^sebbain, seventieth. 

seb{b)i* ^^^ (cf. (?) Ar. w^aI, to 

plait palm leaves), 1. to spin 

yam ; 2*. to take up; of. sef{f)i, 

sefa Uw or saifa U^, pi. sefofi 

^^A^, spleen ; cf. D 67 cAi- 
won sefa disease of the spleen, 
a swollen spleen. 

^^y{f)^ ^ (cf. (?) Ar. sL, to 

plait), to comb the hair; cf. 

masefi comb. 
seki* i^^t remainder, dregs left 

at the bottom of a cup t= kingi, 
sek(k)i ^^^^, flour, e.g. sekkin gero, 

sekkin dawa, 
selloy soap ; cf . sabunin sello, 
sensen{n)iy a halo ; cf . san8an{n)i, 
serkafeway binding ; cf . sarkafe, 
settin ,j::w, 0<^> Ar. v>d2w. 



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201 



JA^i 



numeral sixty ; nasettirif fem. 
tasettin ord. num. sixtieth. 
I lA, to drink, e.g. bani en 
aha give me to drink ; to drink 
in, e.g. 8han iska to drink the 
air, i.e. to take an airing or to 
take a walk, cf . similar Arabic 
idiom; slia/n taba to smoke. 
Hence maiaha^ pi. maauaha 
one who drinks, maahaya*^ 
1. water-side, 2. place of in- 
toxicating drink, E 17 note; 
vaaahan rua, lit. water-drinker, 
rainbow ; aliani ka aanni, i.e. 
drink me, you know me, an 
expr. used to denote a herb 
from which a medicine, a cure 
for diarrhoea, is made (= the 
Ar. Umi, senna); aha lemu to 
suck a lime or lemon, aha 
nono (used of a child) to suck; 
trop. uses, e.g. A 12 kamin 
ka zona zaka aha dadi nata 
when thou sittest down thou 
shalt taste of its sweetness; 
aha fvohalla to suffer or ex- 
perience trouble, to enjoy ; 
D 75 mu aha ennua we enjoy 
the shade; ya aha ka/naa he 
was confused, ya aha kaina = 
he caused me distress ; ya aha 
kai = ya taffi gabhanaa, i.e. he 
went towards him so as to 
intercept and stop him; aha 
bauji used of one who carries 
everything in his girdle, i.a 
a warrior; «Aa kuakure to miss, 
aha ba/ra to miss fire, to miss 
the mark, the name of a charm 
drunk in order to ward off 



arrows, altaiiyla \^JlJJ^, lit. 
drinking gia, intoxication ; cf. 
ahankumhu. 
aim l^, a prefix used in forming 
the numerals eleven to nine- 
teen, e.g. goma aha daia eleven, 
G 3, 1. 13 goma aha bin twelve; 
the word goma may be omitted, 
e.g. aha bokkoi seventeen. 

ahaair* ji^J^, Ar. ^i^Jiw, barley 
(not grown in Hausaland). 

ahache, to comb ; cf. ahata. 

ahadvda b^jL^r or aaduda b^jui 
(cf. (?) Ar. jJt>, to strengthen 
one's resolution), 1 . confidence, 
freedom from fear, trust in a 
person; 2. to trust or rely 
upon a person. 

ahafa w^l^, ifU^ or ahafe ^U», 

Ar. s^yjUy to smear or anoint 
with oil, also with water ; used 
of ceremonial ablutions, e.g. 
B 48 pass, enahafa (for anahor 
fa) ablutions were made, v. 
note; fig. of anointing the face 
with darkness, A 67 ; ahafa 
gashi to brush back the hair. 

ahafi ^I2r, 1. a turn in at the 
edge of a garment, a patch 
on clothes; 2*. the page of a 
book. 

ahafi'u M^, Ar. mJ^, protector, 
v.F 129 note. 

ahafo ^lA, kite or falcon; ct 
ahahu, 

ahag{g)ali, aheg{g)el% JJl1» or 

ahug{g)di jii, ahag(g)al* (A 



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JJxf^ 



64 ?)y pL ahttgidgtUa ^JJJJtJSiy 

At. Jb^, work, business; B 
50 ku yan uwa ku her shagcditi 
dunia you, my brethren, aban- 
don the business of this world; 
trade, management; yin aha- 
gali to do business, ahagalichi* 
yyiJd^, to be so occupied with 
one thing as to forget another, 
to act carelessly, ie. through 
absence of mind. 

shagalichi, see prec. 

8hag.{g)i* ^Jti or 8a^(g)i* ^jk^, 

Ar. ^yUtr, to feel pain, esp. 
that arising from sickness ; cf. 
zogi sharp pain. 

shagiri ^/&&, pi. shagirai ^jkJ^y 

a beardless person. 
aliahada* tj^, Ar. jJkU», a man 

killed in a war (for religion). 
shahawa \y^, Ar. S^yw, to covet, 

desire; also to love, e.g. na 

shhhawa ahokina I love my 

friend, ahawa l^ti, lust, evil 
desire, 39 kowa ka bin shawa 
da guri whoever follows lust 
and desire. 

ahahu ^^\Jii (cf. Ar. A^Utr, a 
hawk), a kite or falcon, small 
white hawk ; cf. shafo^ id. 

ahaida tj^, pi. ahaidai ^J^ 

&nd a?uiidodi ^^J^^w, Ar. j^, 

1. witness, testimony, ahaida 
ido eye-witness; maiahaida^ pi. 
masitahaida a witness; 2. a 



mark or sign, as e.g. that of a 
witness who cannot write, a 
mark put on animals, also a 
mark on trees to show the 
way; 3. ahaida or yin ahaida 
to bear witness, also to mark, 
e.g. mun ahaida tumakimu we 
marked our sheep ; ya ahaida 
he bore witness, also kai and 
kawo ahaida, id. ahaidade 

^^j^Jtr, fem. ahaidada \^J^, 

pi. ahaidadu ^j^, attested, 

certified. 

^ • " 
ahaidani ^^tjL^, to know, to 

have a clear knowledge of. 

ahaii* ^j^^^ (cf. Ar. dtir, to 

frighten), fear, na ji ahaii I 
was afraid. 

ahainya ^y^, 1. to dry, cf. aainya; 

2. to drink in, to absorb ; see 

aha. 
ahainyaye^ dried, aired ; cf. aainya, 
ahaitan or ahetan ^Ik^, ahaitani 

j^^iisHjA, Ar. JU^y Satan, 

the devil, B 105 gonan ahaitan 
the garden of Satan; B 132 
turuha ahaitani the path of 
the evil one. As pL it is used 
in the sense of evil persons, 

seducers ; cf . ahaiUme ^y Ik^, 

• " " •' 

B 70 and ahaitanai ^Uaj^, 

B 133. The word ahaitan is 
often used as synonymous for 
clever or crafty, e.g. ahina 
ahaitan he is as clever as 
Satan. 



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XI-- 



shaka i)Utr or aheka «2)Lw, to smell, 
e.g. frankincense, water, etc. 

shakali ^^^iCw, fornicator, shakalia 
i,JL£w, pi. shakalai tJSJ^, har- 
lot, whore; shakalichi ^USJ^, 
whoredom, fornication (cf. Ar. 
^JS^, to use amorous gestures). 

8hak{k)e ^J^, to strangle. 

shakka ^2Jli, Ar. «Uitr, 1. to doubt, 
e.g. A 7 «/n A^ shakka he 
doubts, A 35 m 6a&i^ wa «AaA>- 
ka ku che masa kafi/ri I have 
no doubt but that you may 
call him a heathen; 2. UI^, 
doubt; hahu shakka or hahu 
shak without doubt. 

shakua t^i^, to hiccough; cf. (?) 

sheka. 

* J ^ 

shakup OiXw, 1. = sakkai light; 

2. in phr. abinchi ya yi shakup 
the food is not nice. 
shall* i^JJtr, also yin shall to 
salute or give a present. 

St ^ 

shalla ^HiW, an aquatic plant, the 
flowering head of which is 
called bambana, 

shama >li, 1. to trouble; used 
with kai^ ya shama kai it 
causes trouble; 2. to toil. 

shamak{k)i iJC^, pi. shamak(k)ai 
^y^^, 1. a partition; 2. place 
for horses ; 3. a groom. 

^hamowa or sharaua |^^, 1. raven; 
2. a species of stork; cf. Gr. 
p. 86 seqq. 

shangia, a compound of sha and 
gia, intoxication; cf. sha. 



shanhimbu ^jSm, to cut round ; 

cf. kumhu, 
shanshani ^liLw, pi. shanshmiu 

^KJLjJ^, a centipede. 
sharishere* ^j.*JiJj^, cleaned, an 

epithet applied to rice; cf. 

8hink(if(/)a, 
shantali*f a large cup; cf. shintalL 

shanto ^Xw, a long^ oblong kworia 
which is beaten like a drum ; 
maishanto a, drummer. 

shanu ^\ij, cows, cattle; cf. sa 
bull. 

sh>ara j\J^ or sha/re j^lw, 1. to 

sweep; 2. shara tjli, sweeping, 
yin sha/ra to sweep, sharare 
j^jli, fern, sharwra tjjUr, pi. 

shararu ^jj\J^^ swept. 

shar(r)a* 1^, Ar. ^, evil, e.g. 
J) 4:0 en shara ka aika if thou 
hast done evil ; cf. shariri, 

sharaha %^jJ^, to embroider, to 

knit. 
shardba* Qt^, the calf of the leg. 
sharare, swept; cf. shara, 

^, Ar. i^jJ^y condition, 
necessity ; B 92 tana da sha- 
ratsan tana karewa it is sub- 
ject to the necessity of coming 
to an end; cf. sheradi. 
share^ to sweep ; cf . shara. 

^ X • Ox 

sharhohi* i^y^j^y Ar. 9->^, 

commentaries. Ell note. 
shariri* ^jj^f Ar. jijJ^^ evil, e.g. 



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kSH)^ 



ya yi shariri = ya yi mu-gu 
abu ; cf . 8har(r)a. 



rare 



shariri* ^jij^, infant; a 

form of jariri, q.v. 
sharkira \j^jJt!f, dung. 

sharo ^j\J^ (cf. Ar. jyw, to brandish 
a sword), a fencing game 
played by the Fulahs with 
two sticks. 

ahasanda* IjUmi, a long ridge of 
hair left in shaving the head. 

shasha* \iAi»y a gambling game, 
F 10; a less common form of 
chachay q.v. 

ahasJiafe ^^uJLw, a reduplicated 
form of slhobfe^ to blot out; 
pass, inkaahashafe (in- for an-), 
found at E 21. 

shashaalia* l^l^l^, a fool, a bom 
idiot, B 107. 

ahaahi ^U^ or sashi* ^U, 1. half; 
2. a part, a portion, i.e. one 
out of three or more portions. 

sJuishisha* jti ,Al.i>, to gasp for 
breath, D 15. 

shcUa Ul^, 1. a comb; 2. ahata or 
shache icJli, to comb, e.g. ta 
ahata gashin kai she combed 
the hair of (her) head. 

X X Ox 

shattshatoa t^y^, marks cut in 
the face to point out the tribe 
or family to which a person 
belongs. 

sitawa, lust; cf. ahahawa. 

ahatoagi iJ^^y^y applied to a man 
who passes quickly by a place 



204 ^ 

without stopping to talk, to go 
quickly from place to place. 

ahatvo* ^^l^, to draw out ; a form 
oijatoo, q.v, 

ahatuo jj^Vi, a form of aha, 1. to 
drink, e.g. F 189 don au ahawo 
man zafi that they may drink 
hot water; 2*. to splash water 
over an infant, to wash it. 

ahatuora \j^\if, Ar. j\£ iii, con- 
sideration, deliberation, con- 
sultation, D 25 ; yin ahawora 
to deliberate, consult, tvurin 
aJuiwora place of deliberation, 
court (=Ar. j>-Li), hall of 
public audience. 



ahawora \ 



^jy^, 



Ar. jli, 1. rest, 
remainder, i. q. aaura, q. v. ; 
2. less, e.g. na hashi a^'haa 
ahawora daia I gave him four 
thousand less one, i.e. I gave 
him three thousand; cf. aaura, 
ahaya Qlir, a form of aha, to drink, 
found in n. loc. ma^haya, place 
of intoxication, E 17, 

X I 

aheda \^^, sigh, heavy breathing; 
yin aheda to sigh, breathe 
heavily, pant for breath. 

J St 

aheddadu* ^tjJtr, Sheddad, son of 
Ad, mentioned in the traditions 
of the Arabs, F 55 note. 

9^^9(9)^ V;5*^ or ahege ^jk^ (A 60), 
(cf. Ar. w-ie^, SJ^fAtt, uterine 
brother, sister), bastard, A 60 ; 
do/n ahegge, id. Tn a trop. sense 
aahegge pass, in form is found 
D 32 = one that is profligate, 
adj., profligate. 



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8Jieg{g)diy business ; cf . HJicbg{g)ali. 
shegifa, a porch or hut; cf. shi- 
gifa. 



205 



shehu* 



Ar. 



teacher. 



sheji* imtfJ^f a bay horse — sari, 
8hek(k)a UUtr, pi. 8hek{k)una UXw 

and ahekoki ^^^^xitr, a nest. 
alieka «2LJtr, to run away quickly. 

sheko ^£j#, to come quickly. 

sheka to sniff up or smell ; cf. 
ahaka, sheaJieka, and (?) ahakua 
hiccough. 

sheka ^iIaw, to pour out grain so 
that the chaff may be blown 
away. 

shekara \^^y pi. shekaru ^j^^y 
a year, with numerals the sing, 
is commonly found, e.g. F 145, 
G 6, 1. 11 shekara^hi tokkos da 
wata shidda his time was eight 
years and six months; used as 
a verb G 2, 1. 14 ya shekara 
uku chikki sarota zaria he lived 
three years in the kingdom of 
Zaria, sheka/ruTika nawa or 
shekara nawa kana da rai or 
shekara natva tun haiftumka 
how old are you? 

shekaramjia i^^.^i y *»^, the day 
before yesterday. 

shekare ^^;X*w, to be dry; A 76 
kam ha rua kube kasanka ya 
shekare if there is no water to 
mix with it, your earth is dry. 

shekOf to come quickly; cf. sheka, 

shela ^LJ^, a notice issued by a 



king forbidding people to sell 
in the market. 
shema I^m, to cut down very small 
plants or reeds with a hoe. 
mashemi . ««iJL«, a hoe ; cf . 



slieme i<^w, a grass or reed for 
making arrows. 

sheradi* 3l^, Ar. J»^, an agree- 
ment, esp. one to do work for 
a certain payment; cf. sharaisa, 

shere* \JjJi»^ line; a less common 

form oijerej q.v. 
sheria LiLJjJtr, f^jJ^y pi. sheriai 

,^^, Ar. a«^^, judgment, 
sentence, ordinance ; yin sheria 
to judge, give judgment, E 10 
da alkalai da masuzua sheria 
both the judges and those 
who come to receive judgment. 
(The use of the word, though 
fairly common, is confined to 
certain localities.) 

sherif s^jJ^, Ar. ou^, a holy 
man, said to have the power 
to enter fire without its in- 
juring him, but possessing no 
definite qualifications. Most 
of those who have been on the 
pilgrimage (cf. Ao/i) claim this 
title afterwards. 

sherinia l^Jpr, the name of a large 
tree. 

shesheg{g)i* ^^£^t>w, interference, 
evil action. 

shesheka ^)JjJ^, to pant; cf. sheka. 



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tjL& 



ahetcm, Satan; cf. ahaitan, 

shewa \^ or sutva t^«i, to be 

merry, to shout ialoud like a 
fool. The form suwa is esp. 
used in Sokoto. 
shi ^^, J^y ijL (cf. Kanuri ahi or 

shima, pi. «a), pronominal par- 
ticle, 3rd pers. masc. sing. = 
he, it, 1. shi followed by ya is- 
used as the emphatic form of 
the personal pron. shi ya yi 
hakka he did so, or it was he 
who did so; 2. used as a prefix 
to verbs in the sense of sub- 
junctive, e.g. ina roko shi hani 
wanan I ask him to give me 
that, ya ki shi ji he refused to 
listen; cf. use ol ya; 3. used 
to express a wish, allah shi 
deddi ranka may God lengthen 
your life ; B 46 aUah shi hamu 
kwana lafa/a may God grant 
us days of prosperity; 4. as 
objective pron. suffixed to verbs 
and prepositions, e.g. yaganshi 
he saw him, gareshi to him, 

etc. ; 5. 'Shi or -nshi ^Jj^ as in- 
separable possessive sometimes 
found for -sa or -nsa, e.g. G 1, 
1. 11 motsinshi his movement. 
This last use is especially com- 
mon in the southern part of 
Hausaland ; ^ his house ' in Za- 
ria would usually be giddanshi, 
in Kano gidda/nsay in Sokoto 
giddanai, 
shiay a quarter or division of a 
town; cf. shiya. 



shiatmi* 1^1^, saying (?), F 33 ; 
cf . che. 

shib{b)a* LLSr, arrow, sheaf of 
arrows; cf. chibia, kUna. 

shid{d)a jJ^y shid(d)e ^jJ^y 1. to 
descend; used with da to let 
down, e.g. na shida da tulu a 
kasa I put down the pitcher 
on the ground; 2. to take 
down, to unload; Sfu, shida gi- 
shiri they unloaded the salt.; 

3. to alight, encamp, sojourn; 

4. shide to receive as a guest ; 
ya shidemu chikkin gidda he 
received us into the house; 
niashid{d)i jJL^, lodging place. 
shid(d)i* iCjJtr, followed by 
da, to bear, to carry, e.g. 
na shidi da abu ztui kasua 
I carried something to the 
market. «AiC^c?)o^jLi^, totake; 
D 17 6a mutua hale shidoshi 
shi je sM fata much less will 
death t€tke him away, so that 
he should go to rest. 

shidda \jj^ or jj^ (cf. (?) Ar. Cw), 
card, num., six, G6, 1. 12; the 
corresponding ordinal is m. 
nashidday fem. tashidda, {shid- 
da is the only one of the lower 
Hausa numerals which at all 
resembles the Arabic ; if, which 
seems otherwise improbable, 
the Hausa numerals were ori- 
ginally formed on a basis of 
five, shidda would be for sha 
daia; cf. shay also Spec. H. L. 
p. xiv.) 



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Uft 



ahidi and 8hid(d)o; cf. 8hid{d)a, 

shi/chi ^^2f^, to cut with knife or 
scissors a piece of cloth ga- 
thered up in a knot or roll. 

shift* vjU^, cf. D 39 en dkaika 
anshifi da ha ckikkin kushewa 
if thou art brought and laid 
in the grave. 

shi^a U^, 1. a triangular piece of 
cloth inserted at the bottom of 
a tobe, etc. to make the bottom 
broader than the top; 2. gar- 
ments, F 232, 238 shiga kayan 
adonsa garments (which are 
an) object of adornment to 
him. 

8hig{g)a i-^, to go in, to enter, 
A 18 (?) ahigga da followed by 
a substantive = to carry any- 
thing in; cf. use of tajffl da, 

.> ^ 

etc. 8hig(g)a8da jumJLmt, to 
cause to enter, to take in. ahi- 
8hig{ga) k^, to go constantly 

to a place. 8hig{g)o yidty to 

come in, to enter in, to where 

the speaker is. 
8hig(g)e* ^^ji^, like; shiggensu 

like them. 
skigi/a U^Aw or shegi/a Uitl^, pi. 

shigifu 3{.{»itMU> and shigifofi 

yjt^t^y Ar. stftilr, house, 
porch, dwelling; usually a house 
built of mud. 
8hig{g)o, Bee'8hig(g)a, 

shigoro* ^j^kJ^, fear ; yin shigoro 
to fear. 



8hika dLw, particle prefixed to 
3rd pers. sing, to form perf. 
tense, v. H. Gr. p. 26. 

8hik[k)a ^sSLw, 1. to throw up any- 
thing so that it falls down 
again; 2*. to divorce a woman; 
cf. 8akki^ id. 

shikashiki ^imCfa, pi. shikaahikai 

^x&M, poles used to support 
a tent. 

shikawa*, completing, i.q. chikawa, 
F5. 

8hik(k)in*, in, i.q. chik(k)in, A 9. 

8hil{l)u ylw, to wave = reto, to 
shake violently, e.g. na shillu 
magani da 7nagani I shook up 
two medicines together. 

shim* ^^y used in Sokoto, etc. for 
shinay F 80 note. 

shimfida jjl^ or shim/ada jjl^^ 
to extend, enlarge ; to spread 
out, e.g. shimfida taherma to 
spread out a mat; ahin shim- 
Jida = a mat. mashinifidiy q.v., 
anything spread out, e,g. for 
sale. 

shimge ^^^l^ or shinge ^ytw, pi. 

shimgaye ^-^tJLoJ^, a fence 
made of stalks or thorns to 
keep in sheep, etc. 

shimkake ^j^CC^, a crow = han- 

kaka, q.v. 
shina Umt, jU>, verb. pron. prefix of 

the pres. tense 3rd pers. sing. 

masc., e.g. shina so he wishes. 

The pronominal forms ending 



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UfiJ^ 



208 



ij^ 



in wa, e.g. shina^ yana may be 
followed by substantives or 
participial forms, thus yana 
taffia he is going, shina zua 
he is coming ; cf . under ina. 

8hin{n)ay to know ; cf . 8an(n)i. 

shinaderif solder; cf. ainaderi, 

shimbcUi, a small jar ; cf. simhali. 

Mnge, hedge ; cf . ahimge. 

8hin{n)iy knowledge ; cf . 8an(n)i. 

8hinkaf{f)a Ud^, rice in the 
husk ; ahinkaffa ahanahere (or 
av/rfafe) = cleaned rice. 

ahinkai, kindness, good or evil 
deed; cf. jinkai, 

ahintali ^y^^ or aintali ^yuw 

or aliarUali ^JLZw, pi. ahintalai 
_X£w, a large cup, kettle. 

X* JO 

ahipka UCaitr, pi. ahipkoki ^j^^SdCt, 

small plants ; cf. seq. 
ahipka ^ukJ^ or ahuka «£JUtr, to sow, 

plant ; yin ahipka, id. 
ahira j^, to dig with a faJtainya, 

to hoe. 
ahirai \Jl^, a small porch, a hut 

used for storing grain in. 
ahirari* j\jJ^, Ar. rt jJ^, one who 

has done evil ; cf. ah>ariri. 
ahirhache ^j^jJ^, to return often, 

to work at the same thing. 
ahvrga LjJit (cf. Ar. u^, to steal), 

used with taada to chai*ge much 

money, yana ahirga taada he 

overcharges ; cf. (?) seq. 

xO X 

ahirga tjJ^, \^J^^ ^* ^ ascend ; 
2. to place one thin^ on top 



of another, e.g. in arranging 
papers. 
ahiri LgjJ^, preparation ; yin ahiri 
to prepare, make ready, B 55 
en ka yi ahiri whether you 
are prepared; passive used in 
D 59 za>ashiri hukumchi judg- 
ment shall be prepared, ahvria 
C^ (written ahirya but always 
pronounced ahiria), to prepare, 
make ready, e.g. D 89 bale ku 
ahiria still less that you should 
make preparation; passive, B 
55 c^ idan ha ashiriia ha or 
(whether you are) unprepared ; 
E 29 idan aarkin muaulmi 
zaahi makka amtiahiria kaya if 
the king of the Mussulmans 
goes to Mecca, we must make 
ready our goods; D 50 ma- 

X J X 

atiahiria K^jJLA^, those who 
are prepared ; cf . ad loc. ahi^ 
riwa* \y.^jJ^, preparation, 

D 36. ahiriyaye ^^mfg.jjj^, 

^^ • X X 

fem. ahiriyaya l^O^' P^* ahiri- 

X X 

-»x 

yayu ytjjJ^, participial form 
from ahiria ordered, arranged, 
prepared, ahirahiria (jjJtfjJ^, 
an intensive form, B 114 ^a 
yi talahiralka ka ahirahiria 
accomplish deeds fit for the 
next world, make m\ich pre- 
paration. 

40 XX 

ahirku j)j^, Ar. ^fj^ iv, anything 
unlawful, idolatry, witchcraft, 
etc. 

ahiru or ahiriu ^jJ^^ also ahiu ^, 



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209 



1. in silence, silently, B 54, 
F 98 ; 2. calm after a storm, 
ka yi shiriu be silent ? 

shirua or ahinva \^j^i pi. ahiruoyi 

8hi8hig(g)a, to go constantly to a 
place ; cf. shig{g)a. 

8hi8hik(k)a* UCiw, F 32 kana huma 
shishika (= chichik(k)a) gimia 
thou swellest with pride. 

8hi8hit{t)a Uw, hissing, sh ! sh ! 

ahiwaka 1^1^ (cf. Ar. ^^, in 
the names of several medicines), 
a bitter herb from which a 
medicine is made. 

ahiya or shia l^, pi. shiyoyi 

tji^t^f quarter or division of a 
town ; cf . ungvM. 
shu or ahiu 3^, 1. = shim silence; 

2. used as a call, e.g. to join 
in a game ; cf. shu shu shu, 
B 70 note. 

shude ^jk^J^, shtida ^y^ or shudi 

^>yJ^ or shutse* ^ k w (a 
Fulah word ?), to pass away ; 
A 62 kowa ya her lotu ya 
shude ya hata whoever omits 
the times (of prayer) passes 
away and is destroyed ; F 154 
tvonsu kan shutse wa iska some 
will pass like wind. 

shudi ^^^, blue cloth = zanne 
maishuni, 

shugaha iJtir, pi. shv^ahai ^. 
guide, leader ; cf . jagaba. 

B. 



shug{g)eliy business, etc.; cf. shag- 
(g)ali. 

shuka, to sow ; cf . shipka. 

shukrajSsJ^y Ar.jX^, 1. to praise, 
give thanks ; 2. IjXw, praise ; 
B 172, D 100 muna shukra 
muna godia zua ga allah we 
give thanks and are grateful 
to God. 

shum i^y^ or juni* i^^a^ (cf . 

Ar. 0>^) ^^^f white, etc.), blue 

colour, indigo. 
shure ^jy^ or jure* ^j^a^, to 

kick. 
shur/e ^^jJ^, to shed tears. 

shusia ifg^, a small piece of 

twisted cotton. 
shutse* iJeJ^y to pass away ; for 

shude y q.v. 
shuwaki ^-^^Ij^ = yin yawo, to 

take a walk or promenade. 
sidi* jk^, Ar. jk^, lord, applied 
. to Mohammed, B 20 albarka- 

chinka sidi mu samu cheto 

blessed art thou, O lord, we 

obtain salvation (through thee) ; 

ya sidi is a common form of 

polite address. 

siko yC^, Ar. ^Iw, a very large 

needle or spike; cf. tsiko. 
silia or siliya l^JLuf, pi. siliyu ^JLi 

and siliyoyi ^y^y cf. Ar. 
IjLjJC, silk cord,%tring; F 216 
siliyoyi ado su ka ratayawa 
beautiful chains shall they 
hang upon themselves; F 233. 

14 



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^y^ 



aimhali ^S^ or shimbali ^^X!«Jw, 

cf . (?) Ar. ij-w, a small jar. 
8m* sDt^y China. 
sinaderi ^jj^J,^ or shinaderi 

y^jJJj^ or sunadan ^jJ^w, 
1. a sort of solder used for 
joining metals, white like salt, 
chloride of ammonium (?) ; 2*. 
tin. 
sinbali ; cf . simbali, 
sinche*, to loose ; cf. sunche. 
sinihi 9imLa, Ar. 9^^*^^ 1- to render 



2. to sigh, to be 



en 

miserable ; 
sorrowful. 
sinishi ^JL^JU-^, to sigh ; cf. prec. 

dntali, cf. (?) Ar. Jiui, a large 
cup ; cf . shintali. 

sintua* t^Iw, picking a thing off 
the ground, finding, etc.; cf. 
tsintua, 

§irati* ij^^j^, Ar. h\j^, a bridge 
over hell to be crossed by all 
after death; its length is a 
thousand years' journey, its 
breadth as fine as a thread ; 
cf. F 143 /a ankafa kua sirati 
chikkinjahima the bridge shall 
be set up in the fire ; F 154. 

siri* ^j^i to prepare, F 238 ; cf. 
ahiri, 

sirkakia l(J^j^ or sa/rkaki ^^j^, 
a thorny bush which grows 
near water, its fruit is ground 
up and eaten. 

8{s(8)ika %£l»>n«» or 8U8{8)uka ^iLm^y 
to thresh; in(i8i88ika or vm- 



rin sissika threshing-floor; cf. 
8hik{k)a. 

8itaka 1^1^, hatchet, axe, with 
broad blade similar to that of 
ba/randem(m)i, q.v. 

8{t(t)ira \jZia or 8utura t^I««f, Ar. 
jJL^i covering, fine clothing, 
pomp; yin 8utura to cover. 
8it{t)ira jLa or 8utura yLa, to 
clothe, cover, preserve from ; 
aUah 8hi muna 8utura da aiko- 
kin ebliz may God preserve us 
from the works of the evil spirit. 
mai8utura box, grave, etc. sit- 
(t)irta O^, to clothe. 

80 ya (cf . (?) rare modem Ar. ^w, 
to desire, a contraction of 
^yd\ 1. to love, to like, ina 
8onka I love you; hence ma- 
80wa t^M*^, friends, lovers; F 
79 niasowa duka enna maitai- 
inakawa of all who love thee 
where is one who will help? 
F 80 ; 2. to wish, desire, hope, 
consent; pass, form an80y A 
29 an80 ta ka88 muria let 
her be willing to lower her 
voice. The word is sometimes 
pronounced 8an, e.g. na 8an8a 
I love him ; cf . 8qfa. 

80, a prefix to numerals ; cf. 8au, 

soale, to peel ; cf . ?oli, 

jjjj 
8oborodo ^Sj.^, the fruit, similar 

in appearance to yakua, of a 

tree, with a red flower; soup 

{inia) is made from it. 

^ X X ^ 

8t^a* s^3-^, Ar. ^ya, D 25 sofa 
8oJa, = as to the future, v. note. 



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211 



so/ani ^^^^, blemish, e.g. white 
or black spot on an animal, 
or a piece of material not of 
uniform colour on anything. 

aoinya Vf^.^, a bush, with white 
flowers, from which a scent is 
obtained. 

soiya, root; cf. saiwa. 

Boiya or suya {^yt»t Wj-**') ^ c<x>^ 
without water, fry, also to 
roast, burn, D 67 ^ soiya se/a 
it shall burn the spleen; F 230 
(zbin soiya ga kowa there shall 
be cooked food for all. soi- 
yaye or soiyeye i^y^ fem. 

soiyaya L^^-jf^.^, pi. aoiyayu 
ftiy^i participial adj. of prec, 
parched, broiled, fried, cooked 
without water; cf. surya or 
(?) Ar. rt i^. 
8oka l^^ij, soke i^y^ or sold 

^^ya^ to pierce, to prick, e.g. 
F 144 da kaifi kua da samtsi 
duk za 8oka and its sharp edge 
and slipperiness shall pierce 
all. 808oke ^^^y^ya, to prick 
or pierce through. 
soka^ to alight ; cf . 8auka, 
sokara \j^ya, a yam cooked and 

beaten up. 
soke, 8oki, to pierce; cf. soka. 
sokoto yXrnt, the town of Sokoto, 

G 4, 11. 1, 10. 
soma j^ytt, to begin. 
soma*, to dip ; cf. tsom^a* 
sonsona, to smell ; cf . sunsund, 
sora/ra, to listen ; cf. saurara. 



soraye, see seq. 

soro ^jya, pi. soraye ^^jy^i the 

porch at entrance to house, 
B 167 ; a second storey in a 
house (such are very seldom 
found in Hausaland) ; cf. zauri. 

sosai ^ i>i»^.m», straight, correct, 
proper, level, equal; ya yi 
sosai it is level, hainya sosai 
a straight path ; = daidai, 

sosaiya* I^m^j^, cutting with scis- 
sors, shearing, etc.; yin sosai- 
ya to cut, to shear. 

soshia KfJ^ya, chaff from wheat or 
other grains ; cf. dusa, 

soso* y a y tt, the foliage of a small 
plant used like a sponge. 

sosochi, idleness; cf. sausauchi. 

sosoke, intensive form of soke, q.v., 
to pierce or prick much. 

soto >f3^, a cake made of bean- 
flour and oil {maingedda). 
sofu*, to entrust ; cf. sahtu. 

soyeya* ^yj^ya, soaya ^Syj or 

sowaya \jya, love ; yin soyeya 
to love. 

suyt, 00», ^^, Eiinuri sa (cf. Hausa- 
Kanuri shi), 3rd pers. pi. pron., 

1. as a separate pron. it ex- 
presses the subject * they,* e.g. 
su kua (sutaffi) they also (went); 

2. prefixed to verbs as subj., e.g. 
su gudu they fled ; 3. 9uffixed 
to verbs as obj., e.g. G 1, 1. 8 
ya koresu he drove them away ; 

4. -su or -nsu |^, suffixed to 

14—2 



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^JUf 



nouns as an inseparable pos- 
sessive pron., e.g. datuakinsu 
their horses. 

8U 3*^, to fish with hand-nets, yin 
suy id.; cf. mastcsu, 

sua Sya, pi. of toa ; used with w«, 
sriane = pi. of wane ; 1. used 
with reference to what is 
previously known, e.g. sune 
sua these are the ones, these 
are they ; 2. with we, as inter- 
rog., e.g. suane ne who are 
they? siiane ne su he zo who 
are they that are coming? 
3. suasua = either who are 
they? or, it is all the same, 
they are both alike, i.e. Ar. 
Sy^i \^*a ; cf . duka daidai and 
duka daine. Possibly the a 
at the end of stia corresponds 
to a in nw8, is it I ? 

suaha \^\ya or saha l^U, the cast 
skin or slough of a serpent, 
ya yi sttaha he comes out of 
his skin. 

suabe i^y»y to beat grain, com, 
etc. 

^uaho, ?waho or saho y^Co (cf. Ar. 
rt v>*^ ^^» ruined, harmed), 
evil, e.g. D SI en suabo ka kan 
yi shi kaika giddan azaba if 
you do evil He will bring you 
to the abode of pain, cf. B 36, 
37 ; maisuaho evil-doer, D 21. 
phr, ya yi suahon allah = to 
blaspheme or to act profanely. 

suane^ to steal ; cf . sani. 

suba*y to pour ; cf . zvha. 



sub(b)ahiy violent dispute ; cf . 
sah(b)aM. 

svhda jk^, to take off, e.g. a load. 

subhana* ^\ i «■.>, Ar. ^\ i >■.>, 

praise, B 1. 
subiy much ; cf. tsibi, 

8tth(b)olOy a rice-bag ; cf . saulo. 

J J «s ^ 

stibub{b)i s,t0»^^, Ar. v'Mif, cause, 

reason; from a different applic- 
ation of the same Ar. rt comes 
suba^{b)i dispute. 

subui* 5kjM», Ar. %^, fractional 

numeral, one -seventh, the 
seventh part. 

sttda b^w (cf. Ar. ^t^m, sparrow), 
a small brown bird ; its call 
is said to be ominous of war. 

Sudan OA>^» ^^' 0'A>^» ^^^^^^'^j 
B 76 sararin sudan the regions 
of the Sudan. The word su- 
dan which means the blacks, 
i.e. the country of the blacks, 
is applied by the natives to all 
Africa N. of the equator and 
S. of the Sahara desert, reach- 
ing from Senegal to the Ked 
Sea. In Hausaland the king 
of Kwontagora bears the title 
sarikin sudan, i.e. king of the 
Sudan. 

sudi ^3>w, that which is left, e.g. 
as food for children or servants. 

surdusi* ^JUf, Ar. ^ju», frac- 
tional numeral, one-sixth. 

su/(/)a, to increase ; cf . s<ifa. 



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syf{f)odn ^JJf^j pi. 8uf{f)adai 
^jAw, suiall light shoes worn 
inside boots. 

?ufi sf>^> -A.r. V!^^, wool from 

sheep. 
sufili, see seq. 
mfwri jy^f mfwrcKi* i^jt^ or 

^t^^Zi ^Jlfw, Ar. jAm^, 1. a large 
thick book; 2. to bind up 
tight, to tie up kola nuts, etc. 

su/urij^L^ and sufurchi (cf . (1) Ar. 

3jAMf, provisions for a journey), 
1. money paid to carriers; 2. to 
hire, rent, let out to; yin au- 
furi or yin sufurchi^ id. 

sujuda* ^^^^y Ar. ju»,«.», F 132 
«At?ia sujuda he will prostrate 
himself; cf. commoner form 
sajada. 

sukanij see aukua, 

sukintsa*, A 23, probably = su 
kintsa; see kintsa. 

aukvAi tjXw, ^t^A^a l^ and sukani 
j^Uw, ^\^>Lf, to gallop, flee 
away; cf.^BllS, F 234 ado7'a 
8uka da ban hanu da jiuna 
they shall mount and gallop, 
clapping their hands together, 
yin 8uka or sukua or 8ukan% id., 
masukwani a place for gallop- 
ing, sukua is the form gene- 
rally used in Kano, suka in 
Sokoto. 

fukuki ^JCCtf, bush with thick 
foliage, its food ground and 
eaten; cf. (?) sirkakia. 



sukurua* \^jMy corner; sukwruan 
ham,u elbow. Another form of 
the word is ku8U'nia = guiwan 
hanu, 

svlale ^^JULf, white cotton for 
sewing; cf. under ailia, 

sulale ^'iUr, cf. Ar. ^Lr, to cook 
meat with very little water. 

atdha* Ulw, agreement (?). 

sulke ^yClU, Ar. •-yU*, Kanuri 
iron armour, chain 



sulkumi ^ .Q. V JL ■>> or surukumi 

^j^£sj^y leather bag with nar- 
row mouth, smaller than taiki, 
sunia U^MT, ^uma U>i0 or ^uma* 
U^i (cf. (?) Ar. >^, absti- 
nence), faintness; jin suma to 
feel faint, zumane* L5•^^33> 

faint; cf. sumanche, 
8um(m)a, a little; cf. 8am(m)a. 

suma U,w, hair of the head, i.e. 

when cut off". 
sum(m)a l^ or tsuma* loi?, pi. 

sumoki .^3 p ■ or tsumoki* 

^J^^^y I'^gs, old garments. 
sumanche ^ * j; »■■»» or sunancJie 
jJUw, to cause to choke. 

sumamjia L«fe»«Lo-Mi, a thin bending 
branch of a tree, a stick. 

«t4m6a Ij-Lrf, kiss, kissing hands to; 
B 164 mu yi kewoye muna 
sumban dutsi we make the 
circuit, we kiss the stone. 



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iSjy^ 



X I JOJ 

swmhulewa SyX^, L slipping out, 
slipping down ; 2. drawing out 
(?), F 65 note. 

svmum sj^^y Ar. ^J>^y fractional 

numeral, one-eighth. 
" » ■> 
sumya ^^iW, spider's web. 

sun iw, used as 3rd pers. pron. pi. 
as prefix to past or aorist tense; 
8un tajffi they went. 

suna UjMf, pi. swnua \^yt» and 
sunanaki ^t ; ;^ p name. 

ransuna \^ymjj, day on which 
a child receives its name. 
Used in buying and selling, 
e.g. ba shi suruiy lit. give it a 
name, i.e. name its price. 

mna Uo, musty smell as of grain 
long kept; cf. sunsuna. 

8un(n)ay law; cf. sunna. 

suna* Umi, married; A 25 niata da 
ke suna ta her tajffia a woman 
that is married gives up going 
(to three places). 

sunadariy solder; cf. sinaderi. 

sunancliej to cause to choke; cf. 
sumanche, 

sunche* ^J^ or sinche* jJUi^ = 
kunche to untie, to loosen ; ya 
sinche rakumhisa he ungirded 
his camel. 

sunena* tUw, the edible fruit of 
the giginia (?). 

sunguma j^ki^^ to lift up a heavy 
weight with both hands. 

sunke* ^yUw, to wrap or veil; 
pass. F91 cwa niaka dan lika- 



fa/ni kuma asunke a shroud 
is placed for thee, thou art 
wrapped therein. 

sunkuru* j^fJ^y a warrior without 
a load, i.e. carrying only arms. 

sunkuya^ see seq. 

sunkunay sunkuya b^fcw, 1 . to bow 
down, to stoop; fig. 2. to work 
uselessly, e.g. to till and reap 
no harvest; C 4 kowa yi aiki 
ha sani ya sunkwia whoever 
works without knowledge works 
uselessly. 

sunna* U^, w, Ar. iUuf, law; 
C 4:2 en sun hi sunna wanda 
yaiwo (ya iwo) addunia if they 
follow the law of him who 
made the world. 

sunsuna or sonsona ^mw, to 

smell, esp. to smell a sweet 

scent, also to hold anything 

up to test whether it has any 

smell ; cf. suna, musty smell. 
"J 
supa* Uuf, form, likeness; supasu 

daia they are alike, supan8a = 

kamansa his likeness. 

sura* \jy>»y pi. surori ^j^jy^. 

At. ^jy^fy chapter, e.g. of the 
Koran. 

surdi j^3>w (cf. (1) Ar. ^^^y to 

sew together), pi. suradi {^^\j^, 

yji^ and surduna Ujkj^w, pack- 
saddle, saddle, e.g. suradi haa, 
na zinaria ga kowa there shall 
be golden saddles for everyone. 
sure t^j^^y a soup like yakua^ 
q.v.' 



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surfafe ^^j^y an epithet applied 

to rice when husked and 

cleaned; cf. 8hinkaf(f)a. 
8urfe i^j^f the husk of grain; ct 

prec. and surife. 
8uri ^jy»/f pL sura \jy^, ant-hill 

= giddan ga/ra, 
surife i^-^f or suru/a v,^^, to 

clean from husks by beating in 

a mortar ; cf . sur/e. 
surka, chain ; cf . sarka. 
surM iJ^j^ or sariki ^J^j^, 

father - in - law ; cf . sarakua 

mother-in-law. 
surkia [ ^ f^j>-^, bowstring; cf. 

(?) sarka. 
surufa, see surife, 
suruki ^-^>|«rf, a sort of porridge 

made with guinea-corn and 

rice. 
surukumi, a leather bag; cf. svl- 

kumi. 

^ J 

surya 1*/*^, to parch, to burn (?) = 
soiya^ • q.v. ; a passive form 
occurs in D 67 kishirtua che 
akansurya halshi hal niakurua 
thirst shall burn the tongue 
down to the throat. 

susa ^y>»y to scratch, e.g. to rub 

an itching place. 
susuka threshing; cf. 8is(s)ika. 

svMi^i* ^wj^^w, insects; F 109 
da sususi dejffl su ka hungulawa 
and the insects will pour forth 
their poison. 

suturay 1. to cover; 2. pomp; cf. 
8it(t)ira, 



suwa* \^j Ar. lyay evil desire, 
evil intention, F 10. 

suwa \ya, an internal swelling or 

disease. 
suvxi, to make merry ; cf . shewa. 
suya, to parch; cf. soiya, 
swane, to steal ; cf . suane. 

The letter O is used by the Hausas 
to represent the sound of the 
English t In the case of words 
either borrowed or adapted 
from the Arabic, the Arabic 
letter J9 is frequently repre- 
sented in Hausa by O, e.g. 

tudu ^jJ, Ar. >^\ in a few 
words the Arabic letter is re- 
tained in Hausa, e.g. tarfa 

s^jlb. As a general rule h is 
used by the Hausas to express 
the sound of the English ts. 
The letter 1» is rarely used 
except in words derived from 

Arabic, e.g. tsarafi ^jio ; its 
pronunciation is the same as J9. 
The Arabic w> is sometimes 
changed by the Hausas into 

O t, e.g. talata U^^LS, Ar. l>*ji. 
The Hausa letters h ts and 
w> ch are often interchanged, 

e.g. t8ar{i)ki iJs>Ji» and chor- 

r{i)ki ^^jj. 

^ ^ ^ 
ta 3, U, U, feminine pronominal 

particle, 1. 3rd pers. sing, per- 
sonal pron. she, it; it is prefixed 
to the aorist and present tenses 



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216 



and suffixed to the future aux- 
iliary form, e.g. ta taffi she 
went, tana taffia she is going, 
zata taffi she will go; 2. it is 
used as an objective pronoun 
and suffixed to verbs and pre- 
positions, e.g. gata behold her, 

gareta to her ; 3. -ta or -nta i^ 
is used as an inseparable pos- 
sessive pronoun for the third 
person, and is suffixed to mas- 
culine or feminine words, pro- 
vided that the possessor is 
feminine, e.g. dokinta her horse, 
giddanta her house, iyayenta 
her parents; 4. -ta or -nta is 
also used as an inseparable 
possessive pronoun for the first 
person, and is suffixed to mas- 
culine or feminine nouns; in 
correct Hausa it is only used 
when the possessor is feminine, 
thus : my father and my mother, 
if the speaker were a man, 
would be vharca uwana; if the 
speaker were a woman they 
would be ubata uwata; for 
further explanation of this use 
of (a see H. Gr. p. 17 ; cf. tawa, 
tata, takay etc. 

ta 5, related to prec, used as a 
feminine prefix, 1. to form the 
adjectives tagari (masc. nagari) 
good, takwarai (masc. nakwa- 
rai) proper, correct; 2. to form 
ordinal from cardinal numerals, 
e.g. uku three, bokkoi seven, 
tailku third, tahokkoi seventh. 
For other uses of ^a as a prefix, 



cf. ta^ada, taberma^ taderiahiy 

takanchy takarda, 
^ ^ ^ #x ^ 

ta^ada* jgu, Ar. 5^U, from ada 

custom with ta (the fem. form 

of na) ; like, A 21 kaka su ke 

aiki ta^ada maUamai how men 

can act like Mallams; cf. tada. 

ta^adi^ Vj^JJU (cf. Ar. ^•xft, to 
treat as an enemy), loss, de- 
struction = herna ; yin ta^adi 
to suffer loss. 

ta^ala* ^J^, Ar. id., exalted, an 

epithet applied to God, F 2 

note. 
tab{h)a ^^y 1. to touch, handle; 

2. used of snakes, etc., to 

sting, bite; cf. seq. 

tab{b)a ^^y ip, probably the same 
word as prec; 1. to do or 
have done a thing once or to 
a slight extent, to touch upon, 
e.g. na tahha taffia I went but 
a little way; na tahha chin 
tuo I ate but a little ; ka tahha 
je sokoto have you ever been 
to Sokoto? ka tahha ganinsa 
have you ever seen him? na 
tahha ganinsa I saw him once, 
I have seen him ; han tahha 
yin hakka I never acted thus ; 
2. to try, e.g. A 2 zan tahha 
kokari I will endeavour to 
make the attempt; cf. (?) tab- 
hata. 

taha* l^y to eat (?), A 35 wanan 
da ke azumi ahoiyi ski kan 
taha he who fasts but at the 
same time eats in secret; or 



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217 



^ 



possibly the reading should be 

tdba l^U, smokes. 
tdba t^U, tobacco; tukimian taba 

pipe; shan taba to smoke, lit. 

to drink tobacco. 
ta'ba* iJo, Ar. 4^> 1- ^^^y 

trouble, F 68 n.; 2. = ym 

wohalla to toil, to be in trouble. 

taba'a* UJ (cf. Ar. ^-s-^i to 

stamp), found in the comp. 

taba^an takarda sheet of paper, 

page of a book. 
taba/nif beans ground up; cf. t2i- 

ba/ni, 

taharia bjl*J, pi. taba/re ^M (^^- 
^ ^^ 
(?) Ar. j-*5, to smash), large 

wooden pestle for pounding up 

rice, etc. in a turumi, 

tabbache^ see seq. 

tahbata or tabbeta XZJ (sometimes 
pronounced tabetta), Ar. C^, 
1. to be sure, to be assured, 
to make sure ; ya tabbeta = ya 
yi babu shakka or ya sani 
kwarai he had no doubt, he 
felt sure, ka tabbeta are you 
certain? 2. hence used like 
English, surely, certainly, e.g. 
ya tabbeta nan he is certainly 
there; cf. D 24 kowa ya ki 
saUa ko tahbetd kafiri ne he 
who refuses to pray is indeed 
a heathen ; 3. continuance, 
permanence, e.g. B 106 ni ban 
ga tabbeta ba ga mulkinta I 
have seen no continuance to 
its dominion ; D 79 giddan 
dawama giddan tabbeta the 



house of constant abode, the 

house in which to remain. In 

this sense is employed the 

particip. form tabbetawa, e.g. 

F 62 muka tabbetawa we shall 

continue, F 152, 166, 173, 180. 

matabbata*y q. v., enduring, 

t fix 
tahbache ^Ji^, to know cer- 

tainly. tabbaiachia LJL^J, 

established, approved, certain ; 

magana tahbatachia true words. 
tahe i^\3y to be without, to fail 

to get ; B 67 roki ubangiji ba 

ka tahe ba ask the Lord, thou 

wilt not fail to get it. 
taberma U;«J, mat made of reeds 

or grass; (?) from Ax, jij^, to 

twist into a rope, with Hausa 

prefix as in taderishi. 
tabi^ ^^5^> a shortened form of 

tambaya to question, D 45 n. 
tabi* ^-j3, found in comp., E 15 

masutabin amana those who 

steal earnest money, v. note, 

ad loc. 
tahia* l^, custom. 

tahi'i* *^l5 (E 52) (= Ar. ^U, 

constr. pi. oblique of ^>t>a^t5), 
tabi'ina followers, B 174, E 52 
tabi'i tahi^ina followers of fol- 
lowers. 
tabki oiiJ, tapki or tafki ou3 

(Ar. Uii{Jf», rain over the whole 
country), fem. gender, flowing 
water, river, pool. 
tab{b)o y^y pi. tahuna U^ (cf . Ar. 



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«nJ9, soil, dirt), mud, a spot 
or mark ; cf. (?) seq. 

taho yfi^ scar of a healed wound. 

tdbo yi\jy ripe; dahino ya yi taho 
the date is ripe or soft. 

tabo* jyJ, to meet with a person, 
to relieve another of his load, 
na taboshi I took his load; 
cf. (?) tab{h)a and tareo, 

tabo, a lunatic ; cf. tabu, 

tohri ^j^i pl< \j^9 a castrated 

goat. 
tabsa ^jm^, to dye. tabsa Lm^, 

dyeing, yht tahaa to dje. 
tahahi*, soft; cf. tapshi. 

tabu or taho yJ, fern, tabuwa t^, 
a lunatic. 

tachi ^3U or tashi ^<£>ti, 1. to 
make bright ; ya tachishi — ya 
yi shi xia keau, to purify water 
by straining ; 2. da ta^hi clear, 
bright, 8a7)ia da to/chi the sky 

is bright, tatache ^LU, pL 

tatatu yi\^, made bright. 
tach% to milk ; cf . tasa. 

tada bU, tjkju, pi. tadodi ^3^3U, 
custom, habit, matter, subject, 
thing, e.g. tadansu ke nan that 
is their custom ; cf . ada^ ta^ada, 

tdda ^U, jJ, 1. to lift up, A 6 
saidai shi tada haha yi jaki 
berbera he would merely lift 
up his chin and bray like an 
ass; 2. to start or send, na 
tada manzo I sent a messenger. 
tadovm tjjJ, verbal form D 76 



mu taJca tadowa we shall rise 

up ; cf . the related form tashi. 
tadatoal aUaJk «*^t Jl^jJ, a mole 

on the skin, lit. Grod's ink ; cf . 

adaioa, 
taderishi iJ*jjJ (cf. (?) Ar. from 

Pers. u^by black leather, with 
Hausa prefix), boards or stiff 
covers for binding books = 
bango. 

taderishi ^jjJ, cf. (?) Ar. |^j>, 
bluntness of a knife. 

tdd% loss ; cf . ta^adi, 

tddi ^y\3 or yin tddiy to converse. 

tadowa, raising up ; cf . tada, 

tafa k^U or tafi ^U, to clap the 
hands; cf. tafi, 

ta/ariki t m^ j^y tafarki ^^sjju 

(A 19, 22), ta/arke* ^^ 

(D 50), tafrika* Jjj (D 50), 

J ^ ^ 
pi. tafarkoki ^jS^^iSsjJLJ, way, 

road, path, tafariki is often 
used of the path of religion, 
A 71 itache tafarki da ke bi 
ita daia the path for thee to 
follow is one. tafariki is gene- 
rally used for a smaller or less 
defined path or track than 

hainya, q.v. 

^ j0 ^^ ^ ^0 ^ ^ 

tafamua Sy^jto, pi. tafarnai i^j^y 

garlic. 

tafassa or tafessa Uma3, to boil, i^ua 
ya tafassa the water boiled, 
pass. id. atafoAsashi it is boil- 
ing; A 80 rana kokulwa kanua 
tafassa su kai (= su ka yi) lit. 



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on that day the skulls have 

made the heads to boil; cf. 

D 65. Fig. zuchiata ta tafaasa 

my heart boils, i.e. it is vexed; 

cf. tasioa, 

- J X - 
tafoAua* t^.M>i,.l, needle; cf. (?) 

fa8(s)a. 

1. to fade away = kwake] 2. 
to be without, to fail to obtain; 
cf. tahe, 
Uiferka, see tafariki, 

ta/erko y ^ j^y 1. beginning, e.g. 
taferko da takarahe the first 
and last of a thing, also = 
dunia da lahira this world and 
the next ; 2. used as an adjec- 
tive as the feminine of na/erko, 
q.v. 

ta/essa UjiJ, a smaU plant, its 
leaves when ground up are 
used as a medicine to rub on 
the chest, = raidore, 

ta/essay to boil ; cf . ta/assa. 

tafi tjt^i 1. the hand spread out 
flat, tafin Iianu the palm of 
the hand, tafin kqfa the sole 
of the foot ; tafin giwa (a) a 
round mat, only used by a 
king, (6) salt spread out ; 2. to 
clasp the hands together; cf. 
tafa. 

tafi, to be without ; cf. tahe, ta/e. 

ta/{f)i ^^, to go, to travel; to 
form the pres. tense the noun 
taffia must be employed with 
the pronominal forms ending 
in na, e.g. suna tajffia they are 



going; taffi followed hj da - 
to take away, taffi ga rana 
lit. go to the sun is the 
name given to a small brown 
harmless snake which comes 

out at daylight. taf{f)w, l^, 

pi. tafifia Cm3, going, journey, 
travelling; taffian kwana hiu 

two days' journey, yin taffia — 

' " ^ 
taffi. taf{f){awa tjld!^, partic. 

form of taffi, journeying. taf{/)o 

^ or tahor ^^, to come, taffo 

kusa come near ; for the pres. 

tense the form taffowa is often 

used ; suna taffowa they are 

coming here. 

Uifki, a pool ; cf . tahki, 

tqfo* 3^U, used in phr. Uifo ma- 
gamnia to get a splinter in 
the foot. 

ta/{/)o, see taf{f)i, 

tafshi, soft ; cf . tapshi, 

toga UU (Ar. dilb, window), a 
hole to look out at. In Hausa- 
land houses are built without 
windows, the only opening 
being the doorway. 

tayari {^^^ good, fem. of nagari, 
q.v. ^ 

tagia (fJu, iez, cap, usually worn 
by the Hausas underneath the 
large straw hat, iiudafa ; most 
of those in the country are 
imported across the desert from 
Tripoli. 

tag{g)o* ^, pi. tag{g)una* U«?, a 
kind of shirt = (?) tug{g)ua, q.v. 



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tagomas yjm^^J, a sword with a 

double sharp edge. 
tagua, a shirt ; cf . tug%ui, 
tiigua tjJtJ, pi. taguai ^jJiJ, 

1. female camel, she-camel; 

2. the constellation of the camel 
which rises at the beginning 
of the dry season (Ar. iiUJI). 

tagua*y heavy rain ; cf. tugiui. 
taguaye, twins ; cf . tuguaye. 
tagula ^)«x» or tugtUa >«3, pi. 

tagulai ^^JlJj 1. bracelet, 

tagulain hanu, id.; 2. a girdle 

made of copper. 
tah.o*y to come; another form of 

^/(/K C 18, 19, D 87. 
taia or taii, to make an offer in 

bargaining for anything; cf. 

taya, 
taiesda, to raise up, to send away ; 

cf. taya, 
taigal(l)a* *^Utp, the part of the 

comb made by bees which is 

not eaten (?) ; cf . galla, 
taiki ^X^i pL taika UC^ or taikuna 

U^ [cf. Ar. S^ IV, to fill 
a skin bag], large bag made of 
skin, a bundle ; cf. stUkumi, 

taimako y^^, help, assistance, 
e.g. A 2 ka yi taimako ga/reni 
do thou help me, send help 
unto me. taimakama tjlv^, 
help, assistance; F 79 masowa 
duk enna maitaimakawa of all 
who love thee where is one 
that can help ? 

taimaTYiaj^^ (cf. Ar.^^ v), cere- 
monial ablutions made with 



sand ; A 54 toanan da kan rika 
taiinama kam hahv, huja the 
man who performed his ablu- 
tions with sand though there 
was no reason for his doing so 
(i.e. when water was available). 

tainyay tainye, tainyo and tainyona 
secondary forms of taya to 
help, q.v. 

tajawankai i«Xji^%^, light kind of 
sandals, more highly decorated 
than sarnbazaiy q.v. 

tajini* ^Ji^\Jy a large drum such 
as would be used by a king. 

tajiri j^\3, Ar. *^U, merchant, 
trader. 

taka, to tread, trample upon, 
to mount up; cf. (?) tak(k)i, 

tak(k)a JX^y to measure lengths 
with the hand ; cf . tak(k)i, 

taka yjjj, separable possessive pron. 
2nd pers. sing. *thy,' used 
when possessor is masc. and 
object possessed is fem. ; cf. 
7iaka and taki. 

tak(k)aba ^fSiy to take off gar- 
ments as a sign of grief, to 
mourn, to make lamentation. 

tak{k)ahod{d)o j JlJ3, a white bird 
with reddish feet, somewhat 
resembling a dotterel. 

takaichi ^1^^, hatred, anger; ina 
ji takaichi = na yi fushi da I 
am angry with. 

tak{k)aka* l^, very many, e.g. 
mutane takkaka (?). 

tak{k)ake l^yiem, tak{k)aka\i^^ 



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v>tf 



pl. tak(k)aku^iS3y particip. form 
from tak{k)i beaten, mashed. 

takala *^ILXJ, loom. The native 
looms are very narrow and can 
only weave a width of 4 in. at 
a time. 

takcdmi |c.^JL£»U, pl. takalma 

. 6 ^ T ^ 

IJL^iJ, shoe, sandal, including 
kufiUai and sambazai. 

takama l^CJ, to walk proudly, to 
sway the arms to and fro, 
D 52, 54, in last passage taka- 
mal is a connective or constr. 
form; cf. maitakaina one who 
walks proudly. 

takanda \jjS3 or takanta UUX?, 

sugar-cane ; Ar. SjU^ (English 
* candy ') with Hausa prefix ta 
as in seq. 

takarda tj^pC), pl. takardu ^jS3j 
Kanuri tagarda (cf. (?) Ar. 

^U9ji, Gk. xapriq^)^ paper, let- 
ter, book, anything with writing 
on, e.g. F 1 40 ajefo har takardun 
aiku namu we shall be placed 
according to the lists of our 
deeds. 
takarikari ^j^jXjj pL takarikarai 

i^j^jSSj bull or ox used for 
carrying loads. 
taka/rshe last = karahe^ q.v. 

takas ^^J3 [cf. Ar. ^j»»mJi and 

9 X J 

^j00^^, which have been vari- 
ously interpreted dolphin, sea- 
cow, hyena and badger, Lat. 
taxus, taxo (Augustine), It. 



tasso. Germ, dachs; cf. Bochart, 
* Hierozoicon,' p. 989], badger. 

takawa, steps; cf. taka, 

taki ^, separable possessive pron. 
2nd pers. sing., used when 
possessor and object possessed 
are both feminine; cf. taka 
and naki. 

taki 15^13, dung; yin taki to 
manure. 

tak{k)i ^, pl. takoki ^J^, 
a foot regarded as a measure 
of length, also applied to the 
hand ; takin hanu a span ; cf . 
tak(k)a, 

tak(k)i ^S3 or taka ^U, to beat 
down, to tread down with the 
feet, to mount upon ; maitaki 
= one who treads, beats or 
threshes corn, maitakin hiriy 
lit. stepping like a monkey = 
a horse that walks with its 
pasterns touching the ground, 
F 194 za,su taka they will 
mount up, D 76. takatoa\^\£s^3, 
steps; cf. tak(k)a, takitaki, 

taJci ^^, pl. takoki ^ £n> y jl, an 

insect like a locust, with long 

legs. 
takichiy a fee paid for bringing 

a present; cf. tukuichi, 
takitaki* ^^J^O, course, tendency 

= halli; C 17 takitakin dunia 
the course of this world. 
takobi or takwobi ^^, pl. ta- 

kuba U^9 sword, cutlass, e.g. 
C3S 8u ni takuban mumini na 



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.flC 



shirin fada they are as swords 
to the unbelievers, a prepara- 
tion for fighting. 

takoko 3^3Vl, an old man with 
bent back. 

tahu ^y separable possessive pron. 
2nd pers. pi. ^your,' used when 
the object possessed is femi- 
nine; cf. nahi, 

tdkuha^ see takobi. 

takumkumi* ^pX^C?, a muzzle 
for a goat or a donkey. 

tak{k)ura ji3y \ji3, to be curled up 
in a heap, used of a man or 
snake; to fold the arms; D 15 
pass, cmatahu/ra he is bowed 
down, D 16 ahina takura he 
falls down. 

takii/rua a species of palm ; cf. 
tukurua. 

taktvobiy see takobi. 

takwoshi yjJayJLj or ta/rkoahi 

^j/^^Sstp, lameness; yana taffla 
takwoshi he walks on one side 
of his instep, he goes lame; cf. 
gtvami. 
tal{1)a J5 (cf. Ar. rt ^ iv, to 
press for payment), to higgle, 
sell, expose for sale, cry one's 
wares in the street. 

talaba ^^Jb, to support anything 
with the hand spread out. 

talafa* siXJ, Ar. i.^, ya talafa 

it is lost or destroyed. 
talafi saX<{, to bring up a child or 

animal the parent of which is 

dead, to feed. 



tal(r)agi ^jkJJ, to stir about in the 
pot while cooking. 

talaka l£0, pi. t^UUJ, Kanuri to- 
la^a, poor, a poor person; mat- 
tcdaka a poor or humble person. 

talalahia It^^UJ, to slip, to make a 

slip; yin talalahia^ id. 
talaahi* ^^mJU (Ar. i^^JUbt, satin, 

whence Germ. Atlass), satin; 

ja talashi red satin. 

taldta USij, Ar. 1>*JJ, the numeral 
three; talafa is frequently used, 
esp. in counting cowries, for 
three thousand. 

talatalu ^JUJLj, turkey, possibly 
onomatopoetic; cf. agwagioa, 

taUUin v>?^, Ar. Qifi^y card, 
num., thirty. 

talattchi w^^iJ, y^^y n. abstr. of 
tal^ka, poverty, humbleness ; 
53 ya da/u tcdatuihi ya fiya 
nuisa dukia he took upon him- 
self poverty, it was better to 
him than wealth. 

talhaiina* Ul^JD, pi. talhcUinu 

yizL .U, a stone pendant worn 
by women. 

talia* (fSjf flour mixed with water ; 
in N. Africa = macaroni. 

talibamham j^^gi^y 1. a small frog, 
with large belly, and two lines 
across it; 2. fish with belly 
like that of this frog. 

talikai* vi^U, Ar. J^.U? ii, 
things created, animate and in- 
animate, F 137. 



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talili ^JLjJL3, leather case for book. 

talita*, to create; cf. halita*. 

taltali* (Jwb, B 72, preparation ; 
cf. tatalif id. 

tam(m)a i^, 1. the ore of iron; 
2. a sword of cheap rough work- 
manship ; cf . kazin-tam(m)a and 
matanKichi. 

tama UU, pride -foma, 

tamaha l^ (cf. (?) Ar. T-^, to 
covet, Kanuri tama = ex- 
pectation), hope, expectation, 
thought, C 1 4 ; yin tamaha to 
think, imagine, hope, expect. 

tam(m)alaulo y^JL^, a sword with 
only one cutting edge ; cf . 
tajn(m)a. 

XX * ■^ i 

tam^ni* v>o-^> ^^' O^* price; 
tamaninsa its price is.... 

XX X XX 

tam4nin ^Uj> Ar. ^j^[^, card, 
num., eighty. 

xOx 

tamba lJ3y a dark red species of 
rice. 

XX Ox 

tamhaha lj.fi3, doubt, uncertainty; 
yin tamhaha to be in doubt 
or uncertainty, 6a6i^ tamhaha 
there is no doubt, =kokonto, 

tamhaia, to ask ; cf . tamhaya. 

xO X J Ox 

tamhdri jl^Xf (cf. j>t^, used in 
Barbary for drum, and which 
comes through the Spanish 
tambor), a kind of drum, the 
bottom of which is pointed, 
often carried in front of a 
royal procession, m^itamhari 
drummer. 

tamhaya or tambaia V»^, 1. <}ues- 



tion, inquiry; F 146/a «?/ duka 
tamhaya bamham ga howa and 
the questions asked at each 
are all different ; yin tamhaya 
to ask, A 27 tayi tamhaya let 
her ask ; 2. to ask, to inquire, 
D 41 ; mmtambayawa one who 
asks, F 19; cf. tabi, id. 

X Ox 

tamga* Ix^, a cutlass about three 
inches in breadth. 

Ox X Ox 

tamgaramjijjL^^ a glass dish, any 
small white vessel; cf. (?) tan- 
garai, 

X Ox 0x0 X 

tamka %U^, tamkar jX^, tamkan 

X Ox * ^^ " 

^^>XoJ, tamkat mZS^ or tankat 

X Ox 

cXJ, like, wanan shine tam.- 
kat wonchan this is like that ; 
usually followed by da = like 
to or like as. tam^karda su che 
just as they said ; cf. kamada, 
tamka, to converse ; cf . tonka. 

xOx 

tamka UC^, a small kind of pepper. 

fix 

tafnmat* CU^, Ar. id., lit. it is 
finished ; it is often placed at 
the end of compositions, C 55, 
G7. 

X Ox xO X 

tamna ^^^, U^, 1. to chew, e.g. 
mutane suna tamna goro the 
people chew the kola -nut; 
2. tamna hakkori to gnash the 
teeth ; 3. to hurt, tamnane 

1 X Ox X X X 

^JLL^y fem. tamnana Uj;^ ? , 

JxOx 

pl. tamnanu y J^^ chewed. 

JxOx JxOx 

tanvraro j\j^ or taura/ro ^j\jyii 
pl. tam>ra/ru jjW^, taurarai 

OxxOx '^ OxOx 

^Ij^J, and tamrai ^j^^^ 
star, 



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^ 



tamuj^^ separable possessive pron. 
1st pers. pi. *oiir,' used when 
the object possessed is fern.; 
cf. use of namu, 

tana U3, pers. pron. 3rd pers. fern, 
pres. tense; cf. ahina (masc). 

tana w, pi. tanfiu^, a worm which 
lives in the ground. 

tanda \jJa or tandem ^jJ^y pit 
for cooking bread in, oven, 
large earthen pot used as an 
oven. 

tandabara, pigeon ; cf. tantahara, 

tandawara \j^JJ^y a small goat- 
skin bag used for holding 
water, etc.; cf. tandu. 

tandem, oven ; cf . tanda. 

- t Ox X I OJ 

tandewa t^juJ or tundewa \yijJ3, 

to lick the hand. 
tandu 3ju3, Kanuri id., vessel 

made of skin ; tandun tozaZi 

small skin bottle for holding 

antimony. 
tan{n)e* ^yJ, to say, speak, ya 

tanne = ya che. 
tan/ari or tamfari* yCj, like, A 76 

tan/ari kasa che ka kana so 

kai gini it is like earth when 

you desire to build. 

ta/ngana* O-iuJ, to lean against, 
ya tangana ga ita^he he leaned 
against a tree; cf. dangana, 
id. 

- - Ox 

tamgar(T)a* jkXi, cf. Kanuri tun- 
gur, to feel trouble, na tan- 
ga/rra = na ji wohalla, 

xxOx 

tangarai v„£|Aa3> 1. bright as silver; 



hence 2. early dawn, tangarai 
ke nan the sky is unclouded. 

X X 

tangos ^^oJ^JL'», = daidai^ e.g. ahoki 
da ni mu ne tangos my friend 
and I, we 'agree exactly. 

X Ox X X 

tanka mJ or tamka «£l^, 1. to 

X ^Ox 

conversa to/nkawa tyCJ, con- 
versation; 2. to talk much, 
D 87 idan ka tanka if thou 

X Ox 

talkest much, tankiya IjXJ, 
much talking. 

xOx 

tanJea IC^, roof, also used of sets 
of three or four grass reeds 
bound together, forming the 
inside binding to a thatched 
roof, from tarike to bind; cf. 
kirinia, 

I xOx 

tankade ^jXJ, 1. to winnow, to 
shake; yin tankode, id., v. seq.; 
2. to knock down, to overturn. 
ta/nkadi ^jl5u3, a fan. 

tankoH ^j^y proP) support, e.g. 
tent-pole ; sariki shi ne tanka- 
rvn dunia the king supports 
the world. 

tankcU, like; cf. tamka, 

tankawoy conversation; cf. tanka. 

I Ox 

tanke ^^w, to bind ; cf . tanka. 

I X Ox 

tankerike ^^j\i\ a large species 
of wood pigeon called mallamin 
doji from the noise which it 
makes. 

tankiya, much talking ; cf . tanka. 

tanko* >xb, a name given to a 
boy who is the third or fourth 
child of his mother, the pre- 
vious children being all girls. 



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iU 



tankoaa or tankwa8(8)a ^^^mXaJ, 
1. to bend, e.g. yaaana ta gage 
ha na iya ha en tankosata my 
finger is stiff, I cannot bend 
it; 2. to hinder, e.g. na tan- 
kosa zuchianka = na hdnna 
ahinda ka ke so 1 prevent you 
from obtaining your wish ; 
3. to submit, na tankwassa 
kaina I humble myself; cf. 
tankwa8(8)a and seq. 

ta/nkoshe ^il£J, to be repelled, to 

rebound, used of a spear thrown 
back. 
tankwa8(8)a, to hinder; cf. 'tan- 



tankwa8(8)a UXO, humility, mai- 
tankwa88a a humble person. 

tantabara \j>sZij, tanddbara S^jJ^^ 
pi. tantabaru ^j^jZij or tanda- 
baru ^j^jJiS, Fulah tantaba- 
ra^^, 1. pigeon; 2. ^g, a young 
girl. 

tantam(m)a \^,Z 1 1, doubt, uncer- 
tainty. 

tantanua* tyLZ-Lj; snail (?) ; cf. 
katamtamwa, 

tanura* lj>*J, a small bag for 
carrying provisions for a jour- 
ney. 

tapki, pool; cf. to5^. 

topAt or tafshi ^j<^ or tabshi* 

^^LJ, soft, tender, well-cooked, 
ripe; tapshi tapshi kind, soft- 
hearted, soft, used of cloth; yin 
tapshi to be or to make soft. 

tar a !p, card. num. nine, A 41 ; 
B. 



the corresponding ordinal is 
m. natara, f. tata/ra ninth, 8au 
tara nine times. 

ta/ra^ 1^5, Sokoto taro* ^y, tribute, 
but paid only by heathen. 

tarajKi, to put together, e.g. A 17 
kaddadai ka tara lianuka don 
t8oron berri although thou put 
both thy hands on it for fear 
of losing it ; to gather, collect, 
assemble ; E 23 ^i^ ta/ra gidda 
= they share in the abode. 

ta/ruwa IjjU, meeting; many 
related forms are found, e.g. 

taras ^^jU, to reach to, tarda 

^jj or tarasda ju^jU, to join, 
i.e. to come up with or over- 
take, to meet with ; A 3H ya 
tarda chivia he will contract 
a disease; ria tardashi (pos- 
sibly for tare da shi) I came 

up with him; tarsa ^y is 
used in D 70 in the sense of 
to benefit or help. tarshe 

^j^j^9 ta/rshi ^J^jJ, to help, 

D 78, 48 ka tarshimu ji dadi 
help us to feel happy, ta/rie 

^jU, to meet, to go to meet, 
to interfere with another, tareo 
^*u or toHo ^j\3, to bring, 

to take and bring, tataraj^, 

q.vi, to pile up, etc. ta/ru ^j\3 
is used as intr. of tara to be 
assembled, gathered together, 
to be full ; cf . tare, ta/ria, tari^ 
tarare, tariui, 

15 



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tarabvlvs ^^J^j^t the town of 
Tripoli 

ta/raia [^jjy a girdle made of cloth. 

«» ^> 
tarara jjj, to be poured out like 

wheat through a sieve, or like 
water, tarare ^j(p, to strain 
out. 
tara/re ^jj\Ji fern, tarara fjjU, 

pL tara/ru ^jj^, gathered, 
collected, altogether ; cf. tara, 

taras, to reach to ; cf . tara. 

tarasanhiy all, altogether; cf. to- 
aaahi, 

iarascla, to overtake ; of. tara. 

tarda^ to meet with ; cf. tara, 

tare ^jO, together, tare da ni 

together with me; mu taffi tare 
let us go together; tare da 
wanan* lit. together with this, 
nevertheless (an imitation of 

the Ar. expression t Ja j^^)» 
tare or tarie, to meet or interfere 

with ; cf. tara, 
tareo*y to meet with, to take and 

bring, to relieve another of 

his load; cf. tara. 

tar/a* s^ji^, Ar. i^fji, to pour 
out drop by drop, to pour out 

slowly, tarji* s^ji^y a drop 
of rain, etc., a small piece of 
anything, cf. Ar. sV^* 
^^ lA^ abundance, plenty, as 
adv. much, plentifully, as v. 
D57 akanguda tari very many 
shall come together, v. note; 



226 3^tt 

used sometimes with pronouns 
tarinku all of you ; cf . tarcu 
taria l|}jU, from tara to assemble, 
meeting, yin taria to meet; 
nuMutaria crowd ; masiUari* 
brigands (?). 

tarika* \^J3 or tarika Up, 1. (of. 

Ar. ^^p», a line or row) a 
collection of tents or temporary 
huts or booths; 2. (cf. Ar. 
^^, mode of acting, habit) 
to have a certain character, 
e.g. ya tarika dedde he is a 
dawdler, ya tarika fadda he is 
quarrelsome, tarikachi* ^tAji, 

S^P^ dwellings, D 88 Jb 
kan her tarika^hi dunia thou 
wilt leave behind the dwell- 
ings of earth. 

iarikif jp (cf. (?) Ar. wiji, to 
foul water by throwing stones 
into it), small stones or sand 
mixed with graiiL 

tario*, to take and bring; cf. 
tareo and tara. 

tanoshe ^^jJ^ i.q. prec. 

tarkoahif lameness; cf. iakwoshi. 

tamaki ^^Up, a rope used to 
hobble a horse by tjdng one 
front leg to one hind leg. 

taro or taru jj^U, pi. tarori ^jjU, 
D 71 multitude, company, 
heap; used adverbially B 158 
= together ; cf . tara, 

taroy a tax ; cf . tara. 

tarsa*, to help, D 70 ; ct tara. 



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\iLj 



ta^aaaa* ^jm>i0j3, to reproach, de- 
spise; cf. tersa, 

tarsashi, all, altogether; cf. tasa- 
ahi. 

ta/rshe, tarshi, to help ; cf . tara, 

^ J x 

twrsoa \y^j^t lit. grouping, the 
constellation Pleiades fin Ar. 

taru ^j\3y pi. iaruna UjU, net; 

8una kama kifi da taru they 

are catching fish with a net. 
ta/niy to assemble ; cf . tanra. 
tarukUf trap for wild animals made 

with a rope ; cf . turko, 
tarutoa, 1. meeting, cf. tara; 2*. 

heaping up, D 87 {?). 

taaa^^, separable possessive pron. 
third pers. sing. * his,' used 
when the possessor is masc. 
and the object possessed is 
fem.; cf. tata and nasa, 

ta^a UU or dasa* \^y pi. taaoshi 
^^y0i\j, Ar. 3LJi0y Kanuri id., 
Nup€ id., a cup, bowl, bottla 

ta^sa ^Jjy ta»i ^^mJ, tachi ^Ji^y 

tdtaa Ij or taza p (cf. (?) Ar. 
^jy, teat), na tan akwia I 
milk a goat, na, tasa nono I 
milk ; to squeeze a lemon, etc. 
tasdri jUJ, misfortune, loss, na 
yi taaari I have a misfortune ; 
na yi tasarinsu I have lost 
them, talari and asara are 
apparently both forms of the 

Ar. ijL^, cf. ha^ara, 

^ t^ . * ^ * 

tasashi ^JL.iu, tarsashi i^tmtp or 



tarasashi* jJL-p (cf. (1) Ar. 

^Ib), all, altogether. 
tasatoa tjUU, rising, B 56 tasatval 

hantei the rising of the sun. 
taabaha* L^Lj, Ar. ^..iL^ ii, 

praise, D 26 kuna tasbaha oflTer 

up praise. 

• ' » X < 

torn ^^t*^, pi. <a«6at ^mmJ (cf. 

Ar. 3fci»..», rosary), beads, esp. 
as used for counting prayers. 

to«A«, to raise up ; see seq. 

tashi ^J^\3y 1. a rise, rising, tashi 

da^gga matatu resurrection ; 

2. to rise, arise, go forth, to 

start from a place, e.g. G 1, 

1, 10 ya saki tashi he prepared 

to start. Other forms are tada 

>U, q.v., to raise up, lift up; 

tasJie ^y#U, to cause to rise, 

to erect, to wake one up ; 

tayes ^^U, to wake one up, 

X • ^ ^ 
to set up; tayeada jum^U, to 

raise up, to send away ; tayestia 

^ ^ x 

1^*^U, rising, resurrection; taso 
^mtU, to rise up, to come up. 

tashif bright, etc. ; cf. tachi. 

ta{8)8hif etc., a kind of pepper; 
cf . tvshi, 

tashinkai ^JUL^U, pride, lit. rais- 
ing up the head. 

tasif to milk ; cf . tasa, 

taaka l£l7, pi. taskaki ^jTVimJ, 
store-room, treasury, a round 
mud receptacle for grain, etc., 
hence meton. treasure, taska^che 
^JZmJ, to lay up treasure. 

15—2 



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228 



^J3? 



taalinian* j^fX^tJ^ At, j^ ii, id., 
saluting, D title, note. 

tcMo, to come up ; cf . ta^hi. 

tasu ^jtJi, separable possessive 
pron. third pers. pi. * their,' 
used when the object possessed 
is fern. ; cf. nasu. 

tarn* Ja\i, B 76, like, from Ar. 
^y^, or ya yi <. =it is like them. 

tasunia [ ^ .13 .rfU, pi. tasunioyi 

^y^jyAJ, a story told at 
night, story, tale. 

taatjoa t^^J, boiling ; apparently a 
shortened form of tafassa, q.v. 

taswa* y^, possibly = toi ottcbsa its, 
F 144 karamta taswa gashi its 
path is as a hair ; the better read- 
ing is k. t€M wa; cf. under taa. 

tata* LlJ, separable possessive 
pron. used both for the first 
and third persons, i.e. *my' 
and * her,' when the possessor 
and object possessed are both 
feminine, tawa is however 
frequently used for the first 
and tasa for the third person ; 
cf. Gr. p. 17, note. 

tatache, pi. tatatUy bright, inten- 
sive form of t€u:hiy q.v. 

tatak(k)a U^, stalks of grass, used 
for horses' food; cf. (?) seq. 

tataka ^kHj or tatake ^JiZ3, to 
tread down, trample under 
foot, also fig. B 40 kadda mu 
tatakeshi muna banna let us 
not vainly trample it (know- 
ledge) under foot. 



tatali* iJU3, preparation, D 86 
ya yi tatali he makes prepara- 
tion; cf. tatali, id. 
Jit ^ ^ * * 

tatapara* \j ^.11 or kadakara 

tj^jL^, a bat. 

tata/ra jX3, an intensive form of 
tara, q.v., to squeeze, pile up 
together, A 28 pass, atatare 
sitting crouching with arms 
tightly folded, D 61 ra/na chan 
akatantaramu on that day 
when we have been gathered 
together ; E 19 8u tatara han- 
kalinsu zua ga mata they pay 
all their attention to women. 

tatsa, to milk; cf. tasa. 

tatsunia L^^JxJ, pi. tatauniai 
^^, star. 



tauMAia* 



and tauhidi 



JL^*.^, Ar. rt j^».j II, to pro- 
fess the unity (of God); A 48 
note, F 147. 

taura tj^, a large tree, the fruit 

of which is an edible nut. 
taura/ro, star; cf. tamraro. 

tauri* {^jy^i he-goat. 

tatbri ^jy^f hardness, stubborn- 
ness; da tauri strong, hard, the 
opposite to tapshi, taurin zu- 
cAia hardness of hea,rt,yvn tauri 
to harden, to become hard. 

tauria ^j^t a form of tauri, 

barrenness, matauria l^j^C*, 
barren. 
tausa*, to squeeze; cf. tai^he. 



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\tip 



tausai ij>ayi, also tav^saye ^jtr'y^f 
pity, compassion; B 59, C 13 
kaito ka wawa kai mu ki tcmaai 
nana alas thou fool, we pity 
thee here, yin t, and jin t, to 
have or feel pity, to be sorry, 
dbin tavsaye what a pity ! 

tansangara* S^kSi^yi, ants ; A 44 
ajia da ba...tati8angara riches 
free from... ants; possibly we 
should read tausan ga/ra the 
nibbling of ants, cf. taushe, 

tausaye^ see prec. 

taushe tJ^y> or tatisa ^yi, 1. to 
press, squeeze ; 2. to hold off 
or back, to keep one off. tau- 
sheshR ^JLityi, fem. tausheshia 

l^ww^J, pi. taushetu y^y>t 
particip. pass, form, pressed, 
squeezed. tausJiewa Sy^iJ^yJy 
pres. particip. form, pressing, 
squeezing; cf. tushe to rub or 
grind, and tersatua, 

taushi iJ^yi, 1. onions cooked in 
soup; 2*. root of a tree, i.q. 
tuahi. 

lautaUf spider, etc.; cf. toto, id. 

tautuiy to lessen; cf. tawaya, 

tawa lyj, separable possessive pron. 
first pers. sing., used when 
possessor is masc. and object 
possessed is fem. See Gr. 
p. 17 ; cf. nawa, 

XXX • X X X 

tawa8{9)a Uy , pi. ^^y^f a large 
tree, from the bark of which 
small ropes are made. 

^ X X , Ox 

tawaya \^\yJ or tauuui ^^y^9 



1. to decrease, to lessen, ag. 
rana ta tanjoa/ya the day de- 
clines; 2. to press down. 

tawaye*, twins; cf. tuguaye. 

^ X X ^ X 

toAfa^ taia ^J or tayi ^-P, to bar- 
gain, to make an ofi^r in bar- 
tering; yin tayif id. 

X X XX 

taya ^, ^J, to help, to assist, 
constr. 1. with direct obj.; 

2. with ma, e.g. na taya maka 
I help thee ; 3. with an inf., 
e.g. vKme shina tayani chin 
kifi, nan who will help me to 
eat this fish? tainya ^^-aJ, 
tainye ic^^, tainyo ytfii to 

help, tainyona* \jyt*^f help; 

cf. taimako, 
tayasy to set up; cf. tashi, 
tayesda or taiesda, to raise up, to 

send away; cf. tashi, 
ta/yesua^ rising, resurrection; cf. 

tashL 
taza*, to milk; cf. tasa, 

tazargadi* ^j^jJJiy a bitter 
medicine made from herbs used 
to prevent vomiting. 

XX 

teddas i-# jJ, to blow water out of 

x» XX 

the mouth, teddaswa t^^rju, 
the action of blowing water 
out of the mouth ; cf . tuda, 
tentaly civet; cf. ma^{g)i. 

xOx , • xOx 

terga Up, pi. tergai ^j2 (cf. Ar. 
u^ VIII to have weak knees 
and fall), disease of joints; ya 
yi terga, 

xO ^ 

ter(r)inia Wp, fatness ; ya y% ter- 
rinia he is ia.t = ya yijiki. 



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230 



term* JaJ> (ct Ar. ^^ v), to 
despise; c£. tarsiua. 

Ursawa tjCwp, also itBawa t^«MJ> 

grinding of wheat, etc. ; cf . 
(?) tauaa^ tuahe. 

te8{s)a ^jJi or teaa ^/mJ, to say a 

thing over again, repeat. 

tijo ^ijn'?, disease on horses' legs. 

tiHTjaldbia* WUl3, soft, slippery 
mud. 

tUa8 4,^*^1 force; da tilas by force, 
perforce, yin tUas to use force, 
to compel. tiUisa ^j»X^ and 

^ • " 

tilasda juJLp, to use force 

with, to constrain, e.g. na 
tilasa mutum I use force to 
compel the man. 
tUaada, see prec. 

tiUi* Jj, Jj or tulli Ja, Ar. 

JJ, id., heap, large store of 
anything, e.g. tillin dvutsu 
heap of stones, tululu >)yb, 
abundance, plenty. 

timhuktu ^ilj3^ Timbuctoo. 
timjere ^ > ni p 1 or tumjere 

^li^i »7, syphilis := cAtuton 

6tmt. 

J© 

tindumi i«*«jUl{, sewing or em- 
broidery at edge of a garment. 

tingama ja\^i3, to beat or grind 
rice, wheat, etc. 

tinia^ large bush, etc. ; cf. tumia, 

tinJda i^^» ^ small female stag. 



tinzera ijis, perplexity, fear; na 

yt (tn90ra»>na ji Uoro I am 

afraid. 
tvr ^, woe ! may God curse you ! 

tir da wonan woe to this man ! 
ti/rmani .y Up, a very small black 

stinging ant similar to chinaka^ 

ti8(8)am ^>JuJ, Ar. ^^.KuJ, id., 
card. num. ninety. 

to yi, well ! so ! yes ! indeed ! good ! 
if a native does not quite 
understand what is said he 
will frequently reply to. 

tofi ^Vy , to spit, to spew. 

tofo ^yS, pi. to/uTia Ut^, leaf, 
sprout; yin tofo to shoot forth 
as plants, itatua 8u yi tofo the 
trees sprout, itache ya tofu the 
tree sprouts, tofu ^y^^yvn 
tofo, 

tcfi or towi ^ or toya ^yi, to 
kindle, to' burn; FlU. 

toka iS^yiy pi. tokuna U^^, ashes, 

dust. 
J 
tokaraj^yi, to uphold, to support 

as a pole supports a tent. 

tokochi, a fee for bringing a pre- 
sent; cf. tukuichi, 

tok(k)o8 ^j»S3f u^9 card. num. 
eight; the corresp. ordinal is 
m. natokkos, fem. tcUokkos; 
A 69, D 69, G 2 1. 10, 6 1. 13. 

toma* jiyi or tomo* y^^^ to treat 
proudly, e.g. irw, tomanaa I 
speak haughtily to him; cf. 
foma^ id. 



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u^y 



231 



\^ 



tomashi* ^ji^yi, winning favour, 
e.g. ya yi tomcuhi all men like 
him, he is popular. 

tombo y^, a scar or scab which 
has healed up ; c£. taboy tuhho, 
tomo, see totna, 

tona Oy^i ^ chew, to masticate = 
tsuk(k)e, 

tona \jyS and tone ^^y, 1. to pull 
out, tear out, scrape up, e.g. 
roots; hence 2. to lay open, 
D 63 rana chan ctkuntona lo- 
lohi aavri on that day the 
secret place shall be laid open; 
to take off garments tone tvr 
fafi) 3. to stir up, e.g. a fire; 
na tone kurdi I rake up cow- 
ries towards me; fig. tona 
fadda to pick a quarrel. 

Ar. j^, bull, large male of 
any animal; toron gitva or 
simply toro bull elephant, so 
toron zaki male lion. 

toroso y^^i dung of horses, etc. = 
koBhi, 

toshi* ufy> a bribe. 

toto yiyi, tautau yiyiy Kanuri id. 
(in Ar. jtj.^), 1. a dry scale, a 
lichen, dandruff; 2. spider. 

tow(w)i, to lessen; cf. tatuaya. 

totoi, to burn ; cf. t&i, 

toya ^y, i.q. prec. ; see tovl, 

tozali ^Jyj antimony, used for 
rubbing on the eyebrows; tan- 
dun tozali a small skin bottle 
for holding antimony ; cf . koUi. 



tozo jj>?, the hump on a bull, 
camel, etc. 

tozo*^^y)y i^y, a turn on the bridge 
Alsirat; F 146 sirati mun ji 
tozo nai bokkoi ne the bridge, 
we understand, has seven 
turns; cf. F U9. 

tadha i^l^ or t8al{l)a* Slfc, 1. a 
lump, a mass; 2. that which is 
pure » that and nothing else, 
e.g. tsaban kurdi simply cow- 
ries, i.e. nothing but cowries; 
tsaba/n haai beaten out corn; 
cf . tsalka. 

tsa^ore \^jy^ or zahore ^jyij, 

reeds such as are used for 
making doors, etc.; cf (?) ^a- 
bora, 
taachi ^^^ or zache ^^^, to think, 
suppose, meditate; B 14 guba 
shina tsachi alkaki che he would 
think that a poisonous plant 
was wheat, B 120. maizache 
^ ^ ' «fr », meditating; cf. tsetto, 

tsada t^Ut, dearness, expensive- 
ness ; da tsada dear, expensive, 
yin teada to be costly. 

tsada !>U», 1. a bush with red 
edible fruit bitter as a lemon, 
wild apricot (?); 2. a small 
bird like the baiwan aUah, 
which frequents the guinea- 
corn plantations. 

tsada t jik or ruan tsada the river 
Benu6 which joins the R. Niger 
at Lokoja. (Lake) Chad from 
the neighbourhood of which 



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^jjlf 232 

the Tsada flows is a dbrruptiou 

of this word. 
t8ad{d)eri ^jJj^, bad, rotten, used 

of com that has been kept too 

long and has become useless. 
Uafi ^U», pi. taafuna luJ^ or 

tsafafuka UCaaj9, idol; A 59 
wa/nan da ke Uafi shina raba 
Iia)ikula the man who gave half 
his attention to the worship 
of idols. 
tsa^a kh or chage icAj, 1. to tear, 

split, reud; 2. Uj9, a split. 
tsa^i tJti^f a half torn off. 
tsatsaga iUsJ^, 1. to tear to 
pieces ; 2. to beat down loose 
earth, etc.; cf. chachagi, tsa- 
tsagawa t^UL, a ramrod. 
tsaga £u>, 1. to drop down, to let 
drop; 2. to bleed. t8agia\^\j9f 
sickness Qrccompanied by bleed- 
ing; cf. mataatsaka a leech. 

tsagagi ^itw, a water goose with 

white breast. 
t8ag{g)e ^yU9, a fish, 18 in. long, 

with large, sharp teeth. 
tsagiy a half torn off; cf. Uaga, 
tsagitty a sickness ; cf . tsaga. 

tsahiri ^jM^, Ar. JaU?, adv. or 
adj. clear, manifest; A 62 saiko 
da huja wanda ke ga tsahiri 
unless there be some obvious 
excuse; A 65 loto ya shtule 
tsahiri the time is obviously 
past. 

tsaida, to lift up ; cf . tsayi. 



tsaido ^J^, a thorny herb with 

small leaves, eaten by camels. 
tsaijewa 1^*%^, tsaitsewa SyJig^ 

or chechewa ]y*i^, a swallow. 

• • 

tsaiko^x^j 1. a roof; 2. to dawdle; 
yin tsaiko, id. 

tsainya \kfJ»j9 or tsania Kffij^, a 

small species of cricket. 
tsadshe, to cause to stand still ; cf . 

tsayi, 
tsaitsBf intens. form from tsayij 

q.v., to prevent, to anticipate 

one. 
tsaitseiva^ a swallow; cf. tsaijewa. 

tsaitua \y^, plaited grass, palni 
leaves, straw, fibre, from which 
are made 1. ropes, 2. a medi- 
cine, 3. a curtain to hang down 
in front of a doorway. 

tsaiye i^f to hide. 

tsaiyi, to stand, etc. ; cf . tsayi. 

tsaka UlL, a very small venomous 
lizard; if swallowed in water 
it kills a man. 

tsak(k)a ^ or Ui, cf. Fulah 
jakkay midst, middle, tsakan 
rana south, noon ; between, 
within, A 23 dnche su kintsa 
tsakka giddansu it has been 
said that men should gather 
within the house. tsak{k)ia 
ifg^Li^f 1. the midst, centre; 
2. a woman's girdle made of 
beads = kwot{t)ana. t8ak(k)ani 
or zakani* ^UJI?, between, 
betwixt; from this, in the sense 



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ji^ 



233 



WJ* 



of separating^ comestsakdnkani 
^UuCfe, differences. 
i9ak{k)am^ tsakankani, see prec. 

taakara j£^ or tsakura ^^, to 
pinch, then to take a pinch of, 
i.e. a very little of = guzura. 

t8ak{k)i iSi»i husks from wheat 
or guinea-corn. 

taaki ^J^, to refuse contemptu- 
ously with a noise made with 
the lips. 

t8ak(k)ia, midst, the centre, a 
woman *s girdle; cf. t8ak{k)a. 

tsako ^^Lb, tdako ^^LfJ^ or 

chiako* 3^1 ifl *, darUsako or 

danchiako* a chicken, yantsako 

pi. chicken. 
taakua Sy^y little stones, gravel. 
tsakura, to pinch ; cf . tsaka/ra, 
t8al{l)a^1ie, to jump, to run away ; 

cf. t8al{l)i. 

t8al{l)eta UUJb, a small money-bag 

made of skin or cloth. 
taali 15^9 (cf. Ar. ^^JL^, to roast), 

to scald with hot water, e.g. 

the hand. 
tsdUPji iJ^ or t8uHl)i ^^i^t to 

jump, to dance, yin tsalli, id. 

t8al(l)ache iJ^ or sallachi* 

iJiX^, to jump, to run away. 
tsalimchi, see seq. 
tsalimi jjldo or tsalumi j^\io (cf. 

Av, j^Joj to oppress, ^,^XJi», to 

be wronged, J^, fraud, ^li», 



unjust), avarice, deceitfulness, 
grasping disposition; tsalumchi 
j^^U^, taalimchi j^^ijCb, A 

50; tsalimshi* ^^/i^^i^, F 13, 

or tsalimchi ^J^U^, deceit; 

maitsalumchi a deceitful or 
grasping person; yin tscUum- 
chi to be avaricious or im- 
portunate, or to treat deceit- 
fully; da tsalimchi deceitfully, 
A 50 sarki da ke kwache da 
tsalimchi duka the king who 
seized everything by deceit. 
tsuldm^ j^*j^f B 109 note, 
injustice, tsvlumi D 80 (?), 
unjust; cf. (1) ziUumi doubt. 
The form tsalimi is perhaps 
more frequently used as an 
adjective, and tsalumi as a 
noun. 
tsalimshi*, see prec. 

tsalka UIU9 or tsatsalka UuLlaJ», 
purification ; adj. pure, un- 
mixed ; also of ceremonial 
purification, washed; cf. tsar- 
ki, tsdba, 

tsalumchi, see seq. 

tsalumi, deceitfulness ; cf . tsalimi, 

tsami ^j0Aj9, sourness, acidity; 
da tsami sour, shina da tsami 
it is bitter, e.g. of a lemon. 
tsamia 1^U9, acidity, sourness, 
da tsamia = sour; the acid 
pulp of tamarind used as yeast, 
leaven; cf. seq. 

tsamia C^, 1. tamarind tree; 
its fruit is sometimes cooked 



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.5^ 

mfwra ; 2. a sort of silkworm, 
cf . riga tsamia a cloak worked 
with silk from this silkworm. 

tsamki ^f tW or tsumki ^y%m, 
to pinch, squeeze, to strike a 
blow. 

tsana* UU9, ^U», the skin of a 
snake = aeiba, 

Uan{n)an* v>J^, Ar. ^>b, doubt, 
concealment; C 19 ta kori 
taannan nan she drives away 
all that uncertainty (as to who 
she is). 

tsandni jvUt, torment, violence, 
oMn taananiy id.; rnmtsanani 
a violent person. tsa/nanta 
Ci%^JU», to torment, molest, 
trouble ; jin tsananta to suffer 
torment; cf. taane. 

tsandauri* \Sj3^^f very hard 

earth or soil. 
tsane 15^) tsani lyJ^) tsanache 

iJ^, to oppress, torment; 
cf. tsandni, 
tsani* ^yi^, ladder, staircase. 

tsaniay the name of an insect ; cf . 

tsainya, 
tsantsani ^;k?lr», to loathe, to 

despise, to reject as something 

bad, yin ts€mtsan% id.; cf. seq. 

tsantsanta UUsUi?, 1. terror; 

2. to fear. 

isapta UaJ^, 1. the washing of the 
hair, garments, etc., cleanli- 
ness; 2. to clean, wash thor- 
oughly. 



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tsara jMf tsari ^^, tsare ^ji^t 

tsaro^jJ9, tsarima* ^jm, 1. to 
guard, protect, guard against, 
watch, ward off ; 041 ka tsara 
utoa/na(n) do Thou guard my 
mother. Pass, akatsaraj 42 
dkatsara da aluma muhamMnor 
da guard the people of Mo- 
hammed ; C 41 aJcatsa/r da 
dengimu guard my relations; 
C 40 ^ tsarima dan hawanka 
Thou guardest the son of Thy 
slave; 2. used as a noun, ka 
nema tsari = take heed against. 

tsara \jj9, friend, companion of 
same age ; cf. tsaranchi, 

tsaraha* l^^ (cf . Ar. w,*p» iv, to 
give), a present. 

tsarafi* w,*p» (Ar. s*^, to be 
skilled or versed in), skill, 
opportunity; ina da tsa/rafi = 
na samu dama I have oppor- 
tunity to, am ready to, know 
how to do anything. 

tsaranchi %t»Jji9y 1. companionship, 
usually in evil sense; 2. adul- 
tery; cf. tsa/ra, 

tsarari* ^x^> * little, e.g. yin 
kwana tsarari to sleep a little, 
mutane sun zo tsarari the men 
came a few at a time. 

tsarchi* and tsa/rshi, abstr. n. fr. 
tsoro, q.v., to fear, B 139, E 12. 

tsare \Jj^f an animal, probably 

a species of iguana; it fre- 
quents water. 



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t«a 



isan {JjJ9, Ar. ^*tO>0) P^^re, clear; 

clean, used of wheat. 
tsa^i* ^jJ», to stay at home = 

tahheta a gida, A 23. 
tscMTiy to guard ; ef . taetra. 
tsarikake, see seq. 
Uariki ^^^ and toar^ ^^&>jj» 

(cf. t8alka\ adj. holy, pure; 

then as noun tsarki = purity, 

esp. ceremonial purity, e.g. 

A 56, 68. t8ar{i)kaka iL^>^ 

or taarkaka ^iX^ji^ or Uarkaki 
^SSs^y 1. to purify, sanctify, 
e.g. E 30 inu Uarkaka zuahi- 
anmu {zuchiamu) we cleanse 
our hearts; hence 2. D 81* 
(charkaka) to worship, reve- 
rence. toar(t)A^A;e ^^v ^ b, 

fem. tsarkakia \f^!^jMf pL 

tsarkaku 3V ^V, sanctified, 
holy. These forms are usually 
pronounced as though they 
began with J9 fe, but written 
with initial 3 cA ; cf. charkaka. 
Possibly they are connected 
with the Ar. 9m^j^ ; cf . taari, 

tsarima, to guard; cf. tsari. 

tsarki, holy; cf. tsariki, 

tsarkia lli)i» (cf. Ar. rt u^), 1. a 
string of a musical instrument; 
2. bowstring ; cf. azirka. 

tsarOf to watch, guard; cf. tsari, 

tsarsha* JSsjUy apparently a form 
of tsara to guard or of tsira 
to save; C 1 domin ka tsar- 
shani ga zanba dunia that 



Thou wouldest save me from 

the evil of the world. 
tsarshi* to fear ; cf . tsoro, id. 
tsaso ^li» (cf. (?) Ar. >e^), 1<hus ; 

cf. (?) tsotso, 
tsatsa UaJy, dross; f/in tsa^tsa = 1. to 

have dross mixed with it; 2. to 

rust. 
tsatsa/a UkJ?, 1. a massa or cake 

made of oil, honey, and rice or 

wheat flour; 2. light rain. 
tsatsaga, 1. to tear to pieces; 2. to 

beat down, as of loose earth; 

cf . tsaga, 
tsatsagawa, a ramrod; cf. tsaga, 
tsatsagi* ^J^iJ», the name of a 

small trea 
tsauni i^y^i a. mountain or hill 

larger than ttidu, 
tsauri* {Jj_^, strong; apparently 

another form of tauri, 
tsauria ^jy», white specks in the 

eyes of a blind man; cf. hakia, 
tsausld* LK^y^i ^ cleave to (?); 

D 31 pass. OMatsattshi cleave 

to it, lit let it be cleaved to ; 

cf. taushe, 
tsawa, length; cf. tsai/i, 

tsawa t^liy, roar of thunder, thun- 
der; B 139 ku tsarchi wolkia 
tsawa you fear the lightning 
and the roar of the thunder. 
tsawa ^Ib, to roar, cry loudly, 
used of dogs F 184; also, to 
rebuke, scold, drive away, order 
to go; yin tsatva, id. tsatou- 
tawa IjU^li, F 186, used of 



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fire, to roar; F 188, used of 
men, to cry out. 
tsauxj/tita, length ; see tsayi, 
tsawa/rwctra \)^j^i a large bush 

cat or small leopard. 
tsawo, taa/uxnta^ see taa/yi, 
taaya, to stand ; cf . taayi. 
taayeada^ to detain ; cf . tsayi, 
taayi or taaiyi ^J» or tsai i-fc, 
length ; da tsaiyi having length, 
long, taawa \^ (chawa* Syi, 
F 120), tsawo 3^, length, 
depth, height, tallness, length 
of time ; tsawa/n zarna long 
continuance, B 49. taawoita 

U^^, it continued long, F 120. 
da tsatoo = da tsaiyi, tsawo 

^yJ^, to prolong, tsawanta 
Uj>^, length, continuance. 
tsayi icfJ^, tsaya ^k or tsai ^J^, 
1. to stand, stand up; na tsaya 
daidaif I stand upright ; 2. to 
stop, to come to an end, e.g. 
ya tsaya it is finished; 3. to 
fall in with, meet with; ya 
tsaya da biri he fell in with a 
monkey; used with ga, ni na 
tsaya ga litaji nan I lit upon 

this book, tsaida j^, to lift 
up, to detain; F 92 atsaida 
saffu a line (of men) is made 
to stand up, i.e. is formed, 
F 188 malaiku su tsaida zttgor 
zuganta the angels will lift up 
the bellows, tsaitse ^Jajo, to 
go in front of, to anticipate; 
na tsaitseshi I got before him. 



tsaishe ^^JL^^Jy, to make or 
cause to stand still, to stop. 
t-sa/yesda jumjJv, to detain by 
force. 

tse*y fern, substantive verb = cAe, 
19. 

tse/e iA^i to pull grains one by 
one from a stalk, to pull out a 
hair. 

tsegia i^^iJ^, 1. hair of the tail of 
a horse, elephant, etc. ; 2. neck- 
band made of such hair. 

tsek(k)i i5»j rough flour from 
wheat, guinea-corn, etc.; da 
tsekki = roughly (ground) ; cf . 
tsok{k)tia. 

tseko yCJ9, a room built of mud 
and thatched with reeds. 

tsereria \^j^y a red, edible bean. 

. •• '* '••^ 
tsertj^f Ar.j^, a, foot or horse 

.» • 

race. ^Jlj^, to outrun. 

tserttia SyJjJ^i to spit out water 
from the mouth ; cf. teddas, 

tseta/rewa* Syiji^M = ketarewa (?), 
crossing; cf. F 215 note. 

t8et{t)o, tsat{t)o or zet{t)o* ^, 
C*» ]», 1. doubt, uncertain 
thought; 2. to think, to sup- 
pose; B 103 kana tsetto fa- 
dawa thou thinkest that it will 
set; cf. tsachi, 

tsewa* \y(J9, likeness, like, e.g. 

wanan tsewa da. tvanan this is 

like that. 
tsia l^ (cf. (?) Ar. rt {J^, to 



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UJ^ 



suffer hunger), poverty, lack 
of goods, maitaia L^k,^, a 
poor person. 

tsiakOf see taciko, 

tsiayi t^tft^i ^ scatter, pour out. 

tsibara*^ to roll up; cf. chibara, 

tsibi i«J9 or svhi t^^, a large col- 
lection of anything, much. 

t8ik(k)a ^y UCU, a form of chikka 
to fill, to fulfil, e.g. C 22 en to 
yi alkaueli da kai fa ha tan 
tsikcbshi ha if she make an 
agreement with thee, she will 
not fulfil it. 

tdko y^, pi. tdkuna UU^, pin, 
spike for making holes in skin, 
etc.; i.q. siko, q.v. 

tdna 0^> tsinche ^Jii», tsunche 
_^ and tsinta tUb, to pick 
up, to pick out pieces of dirt 
from cotton, etc. tsintua t^JUb 

or dntua* SyJ^, picking up; 

yin tsintiian chiatoa to weed; 

cf. taiiii, tsintsiya LfJaJiU, 

brush ; cf . (?) zv/nteia, 
tsinche, see prec. 
tsini ^^jifti^ or zini ^^i^, sharp, 

pointed; da tsini, id.; cf. tsitia, 
tsinkaia (f^^, to see from afar, 

as in war. 
tsinki ^^/^ or zinke ^Jkjj, pi. 

tsinkai ^^^ or «inA:a Ixij, 
1. a small piece of chaff; 2. an 
iron nail or spike; cf. tsiko. 
tsinki ^yCit, tsunke ^^^vJ», tsinko 



y^j to pluck, e.g. fruit from 

a tree. 
tsinko, see prec. 
^^Tito, see tsina, 

tsintsiya, broom, brush; cf. tsina, 
tsintua, see tsina, 
tsira j^ or tsiro ^j^ or tsoro* 

^j^, to spring up out of the 
ground, used of seeds, etc. ; 
A77 ya ke tsira it grows up. 
tsira Sjt^^, deliverance, salva- 
tion, e.g. F 52 muna yi muna 
addua amiisami tsira we offer 
prayers, may we obtain salva- 
tion. tsira j^fJ^, 1. to be 
saved; ^ 6 ha shi tsira he 
shall not be saved; 2. B 18 ya 
tsira he saves; a degraded form 
sar occurs F 125 n. ha ni iko 
sar da kowa I have no power 
to save anyone; tsiraro deliver- 
ance; cf. under chiraro safety, 
deliverance. [All the above 
forms are usually pronounced 
as though they began with k ts, 
but spelt as though they began 
with i ch; see under chira,] 
tsirara tj|p», naked ; A 81 kowa 
tsirara za yi tashi everyone 
shall rise naked; cf. chirara^ 
id. 
tsiraro, deliverance; see chiraro, 
tsire {JljiJ^t to run away; B 25 
shi do guda gtida ta tsire mai 
let him try to take one, the 
other flees away from him; 
pass, atsira, B 143 ^ dai atsira 



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238 



iun ha akoma ha flee thou then 
until there be no return. 

tsi/rka* J^ = dirka, cf . Ar. uiji, 
to beat; F 187 suna tsirkar 
jama^a alkafirawa they shall 
beat all the heathen. 

tsiwa t^ or Uewa t^, insolent, 
impertinent, maitsiwa, pi. ma- 
sutsiwa, id. ; na yi tsetoa = na 
yifuahi I was angry, enraged. 

tao* ^ = zo,lD 88 ha ka tao da au 
ha thou wilt not bring them 
with thee; cf. taiui, 

taofa ^^ and Uofe ^^ (cf. (?) 

Ar. Ui0 IV, to be exhausted, 
to become effete), to grow old; 
B 91 dunia ta taofe komi ya 
taofa.., the world grows old; 
whatever grows old.... tmfa 

^> (^>^, C 7), 1. old age; 
2. to grow old ; C 7 dada mun 
taufa wait till we grow old, 
yin taufa to grow old. taofo 

34^, fern. taofvAi \^^, pi. 
^ofi u?>^ or Uofofi Jty.^, 
old; A 14 dunia nan taofua 
che this world is old, E 36. 

taohor* Jyfc, the call to prayer 
about 3 p.m. = azuhv/r^ q.v. 

taokachi ^^^Ss^h, often written 
^y^j^ chokachi, but always 
pronounced taokachi I. to look 
at attentively, to consider; 
2. attentive gaze; A 77 ya yi 
taoka>chi da achi akaaa da ya ke 
taira let him consider how the 



grows up. mataokachi^t^^^ 
or nuzaoka^hi -if^^j^n^t, looking- 



grain that is in the ground taorahi*. to f^ar; cf. taoro. 



taokami 0^>^i to stir up strife, 
e.g. na taokana yaki I provoke 
to battle. 

taok{k)tui t^xib, very small stones; 
cf. taek(k)i. 

taololo* y^lL, very tall, applied to 
men, trees, etc. 

taoma or zoma* J^L, ^^L, to 
dip, immerse. 

taorata, to frighten; cf. taoro. 

taorchi*, to fear; see seq. 

taoro ^j^h, Ar. j^i, 1. fear, terror; 
2. to fear; jin taoro, id., 
hada taoro to cause fear, to 
frighten; cf. B 84, 161, 26, 
F 22 ; other less correct forms 
are c?ioro* ^jyi, D S ku 
ji choro ; zoro* ^j^, D 43 ; 
also the following secondary 
forms: taorchi* ^3;i, C 24; 
taorahi* ,jAji, F 6, 9, 23; taar- 
chi* S^, B 139; taarahi* 
fjijk, E 12; cf. F 6 note. Cau- 
sal taorata Cfjy», to frighten. 

taoro* ^jy»i to spring up, used of 
seeds, plants, etc. = taira, q.v. 

taoro ^j^y pi. taorayi ^jyi^, 
1. the comb of a cock; 2. a 
small entrance porch opening 
into a larger one; cf. (?) zaure; 
3. storey, i.e. room above room. 



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tsosa ^^i^ and taotsa Jv^, to 
suck, to absorb as cloth does 
water, to kiss; probably the 
same root as seq. 

tsotae ^i^^ and tsotsi ^^^t to 
wither, dry up as water; hence 
to destroy; C 5 ya taotsi kai 
nasa he destroys himself. 

tsotso ^^i^, backbone; cf. (?) 
taaso. 

t8ua* \^, to come; i.q. zua, q.v. 

tmb{h)u ^^, 3iJ» (Ar. ^^, medi- 
cine, magic, incantation), to 
write charms; maitsuhhu a 
writer of charms. 

ieufa, to grow old ; cf . taofo, 

tauguna \^jJu0 or tsttgun ^^>m 
(C 12), to stoop, to incline the 
head, to squat down on the 
ground. 

tsuke* ^£»^ (cf. Ar. vJ>^, 
anything that surrounds an- 
other thing, a rope for ascend- 
ing a palm-tree), to bind fast. 

t8uk(k)e iJ^9 to chew, masticate. 

t8uk{k)u ^^y gnashing; tsuk- 
(k)un hakkora gnashing of 
teeth. 

tstUa ^^, a small monkey with 
reddish skin; probably derived 
from t8ul{l)i to jump ; cf. simi- 
lar derivation of hiri, 

tsuldma^ B 109 ta dcm taiUama it 
is the child of wrong ; cf . tsa- 
limi, 

Uul{l)i, to jump, dance; cf. tBal{l)i, 
t9tdumi, unjust; cf. tsalimi. 



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V35 



tsuma U^, pi. tsii/moki ^^y^^, 
gusset. 

tauma*, pi. tsumoki*^ rags; cf. 
sum{m)a, 

Uumanjia* ijini.iioh, a branch of a 
tree. 

Uumi i^^ or tsume t^y^, to 
preserve fruit in syrup with 
honey or water so as to form a 
medicine to be kept for use. 

taunchcy to pick up ; cf. tsinta. 

tmnjia [^^Ih^ a large hole or pit 

for storing corn. 
tsunkcy to pluck off; cf. tsinki, 

tsuntsua UJm» or ^nzv,a* UJui, 
pi. tsurUsaye ^j^kA, a bird. 

tsurfa l^jji, work, profession; cf. 
(?) tsarafi, 

tsurwri ^j^jy^ (cf. (?) Ar.^, to 
carry off), to search diligently 
for, toil for; B 157 tsururin 
da ya fi ga mailura search 
diligently for that which excels 
in the eyes of the diligent man. 

tsutaa U^^, a small moth which 
bites men; it eats ants; its 
caterpillar is brown; cf. (?) 
chocha. 

tsuwa \^j grunting as a pig, 
barking; yin tsuwa to ciy out. 
D 16 8hina tauwa he cries out^ 

tuba v>^> '^^' V^j ^ repent, 
A 49, 50, 52, 53, B 39, D21; 
pass, atuba let repentance be 
made = repent! ag. D 10 atvha 
Jiakika ahoki my friend, repent 
truly, titha Qy^, repentance; 



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{£3 



A 53 kam hahu tuba ha go- 
mashi da kafiri if there be no 
repentance you will keep com- 
pany with the heathen, yin 
tuba to repent, pass. D 11, 19, 

20. maituba Ify^t pl* ^ncMU- 
tuba one who repents, D 12, 18. 

tubali tJ^^, a ball or brick made 

of mud yimbu ; i/in tvhali to 
make bricks. 

tubani ij^y^t beans ground up 

and cooked in water. 

tubbas Jl^ (cf. (?) Ar. rt C^), 
surely, certainly = AoAriA^a. 

tvhbo yd (cf. (?) Ar. ^, to cut 
away, amputate), a healed up 
scar on the skin ; cf . tahOf tombo, 

tube !jiyiy to take off, used of 

garments, etc. 
tvhka «d^, also tufka and tupka 

«^U3 (cf. Ar. sX^ ii), to plait, 
twist, braid, e.g. muna tubka 
igia we are making rope. 

tuda 3p or tude ^3>3, to run 
over, e.g. inia nan ya/na tuda 
this water is running over. 

tvdas sj^iyi, to pour over, to 
spill ; cf . teddas, 
tudas, see prec. 

tudu yjJ, pL ttcdodi {J^^jJ, Ar. 

^^, mountain, mound, hill, 
any low elevation or rising 
ground; B127, 151 shi wonda 
he tudu he who is on a hill. 

tufa l|y or tufua \^^-, pi. tufaji 



^y^i shirt, worn under or in- 
stead of the large flowing gown 
(riga), the plural and some- 
times the singular is used for 
clothes generally; C 35 miko 
tufa ka bida ga dakin dunia 
thou must seek for nothing in 
this world but clothing. 

tvfania ^i^yiy a mat let down in 
front of a doorway; cf. arsor- 
beri, 

tufka^ to plait ; cf . tvhka. 

tufua^ see tufa, 

^ » » ^ J ^ 

tugua tyt?, tagua t^u, q.v., pL 
^ J J 
tuguna Uik5, a shirt like a tobe 

{riga) but smaller with short 

sleeves ; cf. (?) ta^)o. 
^ J J 
tugua tyt?, to shake, e.g. milk in 

a calabash in order to make 

butter; cf. seq. 

^ J J ^ J ^ 

tugua tyi3 or tagua tyU, heavy 

rain; ya yi tugua it is tem- 
pestuous. 

tuguat {^^, tuguaye ^\^ or 
i ^ J ^ 
tagv^aye ^t^u, twins. 

tug{g)ula*, copper girdle; cf. ta- 
gvla, 

tuji j^5»->3, a large black bird, a 
species of raven. 

tuka {x3, to push ; tuka jirigi to 
paddle a canoe, n%atuki a pad- 
dle used as a rudder, apparently 
a shortened form of tunkude^ 
q.v., tukauja pushing, paddling. 

tuke* a shortened form of turike, 
q.v. 



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tuku ^^^ or tuhuwa \^^yi (cf . 

(?) Ar. u^ll»y to make arched or 
vaulted), a tuft of hair on the 
head, the top to a dish- cover 
made of plaited grass. 
tuhaichi ^t^^t takichi %t<Sii or 

tokochi ^tJb, the fee paid to 
the bearer of a present from a 
king, etc. It varies from about 
5 to 10 p. c. of the value of the 
present. 
tukumya, see tukunia. 

tukun ^J^, tuhun{n)a U5&, first, 
at first, before, since, not as 
yet, used in affirmative and 
negative sense, as is also the 
secondary form tukunche ^JjSj, 
A 73 ima tukunche dqfari ahor 
chi fatiha but thou must not 
eat before saying the opening 
chapter of the Koran. 

tukunia l^, l^ (D 65), pi. 
iJ>\Sj (F 94), also pronounced 
tukwcme and tukua/ne (at A 84 
is found a sing. coll. tukumya 
1,5^X5), an earthen or iron pot, 
pitcher, vessel ; tukunian taha 
tobacco pipe, maitukunia, pi. 
mcLsutukuniaf a potter. 

tukwnva t^jiu, a palm; the intoxi- 
cating drink ham is obtained 
from incisions in its bark, its 
stalks which somewhat resem- 
ble bamboo are esp. used as 
poles for supporting the thatch 
of a roof. 

tukuwa^ a tuft of hair ; cf . tuku. 



tulawa* t^Jb (cf. Ar. ^, to read 
the Koran), saying by rote; 
yin tulawa to say off by heart, 
e.g. the Koran. 

tuU% a heap ; cf. tiUi, 

tutu yy{, pi. tulina LJ3J, water- 
pot, bottle, pitcher, e.g. A 26 
kan ha ka ya/ro za ya dau tutu 
nata if thou hast not a boy to 
take her pitcher. 

tululuy abundance ; cf . tilli. 

tuma LoJ, to jump (=tsuili)y tuma 
da muma to jump with joy, 
to start, of horses to be restive; 
tuma da ga/ya a name given to 
\kiQ chinaka ant. 

tum^aki, sheep ; cf . tumkia. 

tumha/r j^y a naked person. 

tumhi i^J^y ^jf^i pi. tunihuna 

U^, U^, stomach, pouch; 
maitumbi a fat man. 

tumbudi ^JUa?, to vomit, tumr 

hudu jJuJJ, to flow quickly; 
'Tua ya tumhudu the river flows 
fast. 

tumhuA*kuma Iq^.;*?, the large 
intestine. 

tumfajia lt., a i» 3 , pi. tumfafi ^^m^, 
asclepias gigantea (?), a large 
tree from the bark of which 
ropes are made; a medicine 
for women is made from its 
blossoms ; cf. (?) hamhana. 

tumia ifg^ or tinia t^^, 1. a large 
bush with a milky juice, from 
which is made poison for ar- 
rows; 2. a very deep well. 

16 



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g;:^ 242 

tumfda ()>£«? or dutnkia t«£«>, pi. 

tumaki ^JSdX^, sheep. 

tumserij syphilis; cf. timjere, 

^i ... 

^wmw ^lOiJ, ears of unnpe giero or 

wheat cooked for eating. 

tumuku ^y^, an edible root 
somewhat resembling a yam. 

tun ^j3, also with e;^, tunda jJJf 
as far as, till, e.g. ^t^Tida «q/*e 
till morning ; while, e.g. ^t&nda 
8u>na yin magaifia while they 
were speaking; from, since, e.g. 
tun haifuanka since your birth. 
tuntuni ^c*mU3, long ago. ^wn- 

<:^^^ ^^J^y tundadewa t^J^ jUJ, 

long since, tunyauahe ^^yt^, 
how longi how long since? 
tunda with negatives = before, 
e.g. tunda ha shi tsira ba = 
before it springs up, C 6 ttm 
bai mutu even before he is 
dead. 

tuna ^jjy Uj, frequently constr. 
with da or ga, 1. to think of, 
pay attention to, e.g. B 54 
kana tuna abin da ka ke tsoro 
meditate on that of which you 
•are afraid; 2. to remember, to 
come to remember; tunane, 
fern, tunana^^l. tunam/u, particip. 
forms, what is contrived or 
thought of, then as n. thought, 
reflection, meditation, con- 
sciousness, remembrance ; tu- 
nawa a form used as pres. 
tense of tuna, also as n. re- 
membrance, recollection. 



tunane, see prec. 

tunari* {Jj^J, leader, chief. 

tunauxi, see tuna, 

tunda, see tun, 

tundade, tundadetva, for a long 

time; cf. tun. 
tundewa, to lick the hand; cf. 

tandewa. 
tungujx ijtf^JLiJ or tunkui ^^S^, 

to gore, toss; cf. (?) tunkuda, 
tunku ^j3, 1. a covering of skins; 

2. a small malodorous panther. 
tunkuda jXjJ, to push aside, to 

butt, toss, gore ; used with 

jirigi to paddle ; cf . tuka, tun- 

kushe, zonkutsa. 
tunkui, see tunguji, 
tunkushe ^^t>C;j, to close the fist, 

bend the leg, etc. ; cf . tunkuda, 
tu/nsure ^j^^JJ, to be upset, trip, 

stumble. 

tuntuni*, long ago ; cf . tun, 

tunyavaJie, how long? cf. tu/n. 

^ JJ6J 
tunzurua Uj>^, panic, fright. 

tuo yyi, yi, food, victuals, esp. 
applied to a mixture made 
with guinea-corn, oil, etc.; tu- 
on sv/na a meal in connection 
with the naming of a child, 
which usually takes place seven 
days after its birth, tuon ranan 
saltan laiya the meal on the 
day of the Mohammadan feast 
corresponding to the passover. 

tupka, to plait ; cf . tuhka, 

tv/ra \jyi, a swelling on the back 
of horses, etc. 



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tura jy», \jyiy and twn ^>», to 
dye; yin turiy id. tura/re 
^jj^i fcHi. ^rara tj^y^, pi. 
turaru ^jjy^j dyed, coloured. 

turabaH* ^\jJ (Ar. »^j v), yin 

turabaH to squat down with 
the legs crossed; C 12 note. 

turaka ^jy^, a seat or the neigh- 
bourhood of a king, a royal 
reception ; yan turaka female 
slave ; cf . enturaka, turaki 
tj^j^j an officer at court, 
usually a son of the king; for 
order of precedence cf. fadatua, 

turanchi %t^jyi^ what belongs or 
appertains to Arabs or whites 
in general, the Arabic lan- 
guage; cf. ture. 

turare ^^j|p, frankincense, F 1 03 ; 
obtained from the civet cat; 
cf. mag(g)i, 

tvrare, dyed ; cf . tura, 

turayi* t^jjlp, a log of wood such 
as is fastened to the feet of a 
slave as a punishment. 

turhaia* K^jJ (cf. Ar. ^y^ earth, 
dust), fine sand. 

turde ^3p, butter = main ahanu, 

turdi ^>p, pi. turdawa S^j^ or 

tv/rdodi {^^^j^, a man who 

charms snakes by singing = 

gardi. 
tv/re ^jy>i !• to push down, push 

along ; 2. to fall down. 
ture ^jyi, cf • ha-ture Arab, Euro- 



1. turatoa 



pean, stranger ; pi. 

bjy' [(?) fr. Ar. ,^^^, wild, 
a stranger, rtj^]; cf. tura/n- 
chi, 
turgude* {^j^jJ, to be lame, to 
suffer from a disease of any of 
the joints, e.g. of the fingers. 

turgunwa \y^j2 or turgunuwa 
t^A^, an edible herb, its leaves 
are used in making soup. 
turi and yin turi, to dye; cf. tura, 
turike ^^£:>p.and tuke ^J^y, a 
place where sheep or goats are 
closed in for the night, also a 
post for tying up horses, etc. 

tvA'ko ^yt a trap for catching 
wild animals made by covering 
up a hole and placing ropes 
inside = hako, 

turkudi ^^^jj^ a blue shiny 
cloth of native manufacture, 
used esp. by women, made up in 
lengths of eight cubits {kamu) 
and dyed with indigo. 

tu/muka liup, conflagration, the 
smoke which accompanies such. 

turuba \^j3, ^jj (B 132), pi. turur- 
^obi ^^jfi (cf. Ar. vjj^> 
narrow or divided path), path, 
road, way ; metaph. B 132 shi 
wonda ya bi turuba shaita/ni 
he who follows the path of the 

evil one. 

I jjj 
turubude ^^^j^, to shut up, to 

fill up a hole, to place in the 
ground, to bury in the earth 
as locusts do their eggs. 

16—2 



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turumi ij^t P^- turami ^j^^y^ 
a mortar made by scooping out 
a log, used for pounding rice, 
wheat, etc. in ; maiturumi a 
maker of mortars. 

tu/rumi j^^, a measure for cloth 
about 22 yards in length; 
8 kamu = 1 zanncy 4 J zanne = 
1 librumi, 

tururua l^jip, both sing, and coll., 
a black stinging ant. They 
only eat what is alive, and 
often attack men, driving them 
out of their houses. 

^ 3 

tuaa^ ^^, to break wind. 

* 3 3 3 

1nA8{s)a yjmj or tv^o yJi, to repeat. 
tiLsga uLmJ or itbage ^jkmJ, to enter, 

to go as far as; *F 156, 164, 

183. 

tuahe tJ^yi, to rub or grind com ; 

cf. tavshe, tvshia ^^^, 1. the 

stubble of guinea-corn, wheat, 

etc. ; 2. a pod. 
tushi ^jtty, the root of a tree, the 

foundation of a wall, then fig. 

= meaning ; cf . similar use of 

guztu 
tushia, see tushe, 
tuaki ^SLJ or tv^ke ^JLJ, to seek 

for, try to find, long for, the 

pass. cUuski ^^CmJI is used as a 

common form of salutation = 

much sought after. 

3 3 3 3 

tusuH* **,J, Ar. %mJy id., fract. 
numeral, one-ninth. 



tuta Uy» or ttUi lP>^, pi' tutoshi 

^^y^y^, flag, standard of a 
king, umbrella ; E 13 idem cm- 
fida tutoshi jahadi if the stan- 
dards of war be unfurled, D 68 
6a enmui sai enda tiUi mur 
liammad there shall be no shade 
except where the shelter of 
Mohammed is. 

tutu^ see seq. 

J 33 »33 

^ or tutur jJ5, also found 

3 J 6 33 

as tutu* C-3 B 61, tutuk* ««JU3 

B 124, tutut* cJ3 B 109, F 69, 

continually, for ever. [If tutvl 

be the original form, it may = 

Ar. 3JL3 inf. vi.] 
33 
tutushi 1^*^, sweet, good to eat. 

tututy see tutuL 

^ 3 
tuya ^yJ, 1. to cook without 

water, to bake; 2. to light, 

e.g. a lamp. 

The sound of the English u or 
rather of the Italian t« as re- 
presented by 00 in *root' is 
represented in Hausa by y± or 
±; the first representation is 
the more correct of the two, 
the second form ± when it 
occurs at the beginning of a 
word may have as the bearer 
of the vowel sound either alif I 

or ain e ; thus uha i^ or l^t 
father; the sound of the Eln- 
glish tl or of w occurring in a 
closed syllable is represented 
by ly thus muna U« we, tmbrda 



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l>* 



j^ to twist. The representa- 
tion of the o and u sounds are 
so far identical that it is im- 
possible to ascertain the sound 
from a study of Hausa writing. 

vha or oha K^, l^t, pi. ubane i^W^, 

'iihamai jJl^^ (cf. (?) Ar. ^\\ 

1. father (A 60, B 21, 170, 
C 41, D 97 exemplify the spell- 
ing l^; B75, C41, F122 the 

spelling 1^1) ; vhan uhaka B 75 = 
thy grandfather; 2. leader, 
master, e.g. uhan yaki the 
leader of a fight; cf. seq. 

• " ■* . ^"^ 
ubangiji «JU^, f»JU^t, F 6, lit. 

father of the household, master, 
proprietor, lord ; a title fre- 
quently applied to God = the 
Lord, e.g. B4, 67, 173, D 48, 
E 2, 31 ; cf. uworigijia mistress. 

u/u^^, ^^\, 1. scream, a loud or 
sharp cry ; yin u/u to scream ; 

2. to scream. 

ujcda* ^^»i^ (cf . Ar. <i,i^,g a water- 
wheel), a wheel. 

uku A^, card. num. three ; A 58 
achikkin giddan aljenna habu 
mutun uku in heaven three 
men will be wanting, G 2, 1. 14 
ya sliekara uku chikki sarauta 
zaria he lived three years in 
the kingdom of Zaria. The 
corresp. ordinal is m. naiiku^ 
f. taiiku, third; A 61 naiir 
kunsu the third one of them; 
adv. sau uku three times, 
thrice. 



.J .A 

um{m)a* l^ and um{m)ata* OUt, 

Ar. ^t, family, people, con- 
gregation, found in C 42 with 
the Ar. article, and the latter 
form in E 3 ummatan muha- 
madu the people of Mohammed. 

umorni* tmh^^y Ar. ^!, yin urnwr- 
ni to order, command. 

ungo or ungwo jJUp, ja^I, take ! 
(?) a Bornuese word. 

ungozuma UjjiU^, UjjJiit, mid- 
wife. 

ungua l^xJt, pi. ungual ^^iut, 
in Sokoto unguni ^^>^t, a 
suburb or division within the 
walls of a town. 

ungurnu^ armlets ; cf . kantva, 

uri*y see louri, 

urji*y a sore on the skin; cf. 
kurii. 

tisali* J^l, Jbol, Ar. Jbo!, origin, 
race, ancestors. 

U8hwr% jJL^y Ar. j^, fractional 
numeral, one-tenth. 

Uif8 ^\ or ush yJsS = aUah wa- 
danka may God curse you; so 
uska I 

uwa !^, !j!, pi. uwaye \^i)y^y 

^!j!, mother, A 60, B 26, 
C 44, 45 ; the plural is used in 
the sense of parents ; dan uvxjl^ 
pi. yan uwa^ lit. mother's son = 
friend, dan uwata or dan uwa- 
na = my friend ; cf. A 5, 47, 
B 22, F 21. Also in various 
I compound expr. : uuxd deffi 



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poison put on arrows = tumiay 
uwan magunguna the name of 
a small tree from the root of 
which is made a scent, used as 
a medicine, uuxd rufi B 105 
mother (i.e. source) of secret 
evil, uwan rcma a foster mother 
who finds a child deserted and 
adopts it ; cf. seqq. 
uw<dgid{d)a, see uworigid{d)a, 

uwoAfOflra SjL^^, lit. mother of 
children, the name given to an 
evil spirit who kills the mother 
and the new-born child at the 
time of child-birth. 

uworigid(d)a ^jJ^^ or uvxdgidda 

tjjj^, chief wife or mistress 
of the house ; cf . seq. 

•^ "* "* i" ^^ 
uwongijia \t^ij^y le^^jt, mis- 
tress or owner of slaves. This 
and the preceding are really 
feminine forms of ubomgiji. 

The letter ^ is used by the Hausas 
to represent the sound of the 
English w. It is also used as 
a vowel in forming the diph- 
thong au (pronounced like ow 
in * cow '), and in representing 
the long and long w, e.g. 

hauta \jy^ slavery, aahko yC»w 
to set out, rude i^^^j to de- 
ceive; cf. under w, p. 244. 
wa !^, wane ^y tvanene t^^^f 
fem. uxiche ^^, pi. siui \y^, 
suanene ty^y^y interrog. pron. 



who, which, what? [The word 
wane was formed by adding 
the substantive verb to the 
original uxi; the form wa^ne 
having become fully estab- 
lished, a strengthened form 
wanene was made by affixing 
the substantive verb again; cf. 
use of koway kouxme, kotvor 
nene.] B 76 wa ya yi tasu 
rujm 8'a/ra/rin audan what was 
like unto them in the regions 
of the Sudan ? su uxmetie who 
are they ^ da ka da su wanene 
who is there besides you? The 
expression, what is his name? 
is often rendered toa sunansa^ 
lit. who ? his name ? -ntva t^^^ 
at the end of a word = whose ? 
danwa shi he whose son is he ? 
wane is sometimes used as 
an indef. pron. E 36 wane ka 
ka zulumi whoever of you is 
afraid. 

wa* ^y Ar. and. 

wa* y, like, like as ; F 144 ka/ramta 
ta>8 toa gashi its path is like a 
hair, F 154 wonsu kan ahutse 
(ahude) wa iaka some would 
pass like wind; cf. wani. 

wwt l^, pi. yeyu ^, ^, elder 
brother; cf. yaya (corresp. 
terms : younger brother = kane^ 
elder sister = ya), 

wa^y t^, to do, make, ya toa kanaa 
kariji he strengthened himself, 
ya wa alberka he blessed, wa 
mugunta to curse ; cf . yiwo, 

wa^adu* j^^, Ar. j^^, found in 



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F 131 ^fnawa^adu ka hakka O 
Thou who promisest that which 
is true. 
wa^atsi* ^Jsk^^, ^j^^y wa^atsu 

^ikfi^, >^> often contracted 
colloquially to wazi, wazu, Ar. 
lo^^f id., 1. instruction, pro- 
clamation; A 5, F 254, D 30 
muna waatsi muna galkadi 
gareku we tell you openly and 
warn you ; 2. to warn, instruct. 

waH ^^ (of. 0) Ar. ^^, to be 
plague-stricken), miscarriage ; 
dan vxihi a child which dies 
soon after birth. 

wachcma/aka ^^JJi^y a lengthened 
form of seq. ; sometimes used 
in sense of because, for that 
reason. 

toachs, fem. of wane ; see wa. 

wache ^\^, {^^3 and waslie j^lj, 
to spread, to scatter ; ¥ 9S su 
tvashe shiu they scatter in 
silence, pass, anwachesu aka- 
wachesu they were scattered. 
tuatsu y^y scattered. The 
reduplicated and intensive form 

waltooAihe yJ^S^^ = to scatter 
far and wide, wache is pro- 
bably derived from wasay q.v. 

wada (^>l> b<> fena- wadania 
ijj^t^, pi. wada/ai i^^bl^j cf* 
Ar. rt \^^y dwarf. 

wad{d)a !>^ (cf. (?) Ar. c^^, to de- 
posit), treasure, wadata Ut>^ 
or wodata Ot^j, Ob> riches; 



F 57, 59 sunka wodata... ha su- 
kowa they had riches ... they 
have none, yin wadata to be- 
come rich, wadachi tr^hy 
riches, rrwmjoadachi y^S^yt^ 

or maiwadata Ub^«.«, a rich 
man. 

toad{d)ari or wod{d)ari ^j>^, to 

walk or ride, to walk up and 
down as women do with thread 
when weaving. 

wade \^>^i to curse. 

waga U-^ (cf. (?) Ar. •Uj, reposi- 
tory, case, etc.), sack made of 
skin, used for loading donkeyii, 
camels, etc. 

tpahaia l^^, concubine ; 45 shi 
dan toahaia ne uwa tasa zai- 
nahu he was the son of a con- 
cubine, his mother's name was 
Zainabu. 

walial(l)aj trouble, A 64, 84; cf. 
wohaliJ)a. 

wdhami j^^^ (cf . Ar. j^^y and 

>t*.^, morbid appetite or de- 
sire), madness, frenzy. 

wahidi* J^»>tj, Ar. J^»>tj, id., one; 

B 3 jabharu tuahidi sa/rki oMah 
God the one all-powerful king. 

tjoai ^^j Ar. id., 1. alas! woe! cf. 
seq.; 2. as an expression of 
doubt or uncertainty; wai ya 
che = I do not understand what 
he says ; 3. it is said that, on 
the assumption that; F 30 



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kana kumhuraioa toai ka fi 
kovoa thou art proud because 
it is said Thou excellest all, 
F 29 ; 4. it is said, or he says, 
e.g. B 111 wai dukia he says 
(that he desires) its goods ; cf . 
toaya words. 

wainia it^L;^, alas ! perhaps = toai 
nia woe is me! 

waiwaia ^^^y to care for, to seek 
after; C 46, 51 ha waiwaia ha 
hale ski dvha tadunia he sought 
not for the things of this world, 
much less did he fix his atten- 
tion upon them; cf. (?) woi- 
woiya, 

wajib ^,-<a^t^ or wajihi k^f.*m^\^, Ar. 

s,f^^^y necessary ; A 20 wajih 
mu dau Iiaiasuwe ought to take 
their road, A 68 tsarki ga mai- 
salla ku san wajib ya ke purity 
is necessary, as thou knowest, 
for one who prays ; hence wor 
jibine na taffi = na taffi tilas 
I was forced to go. wajaha 

y toajahu v'N^^ or vxtjiba 
^, to be necessary, ought ; 
A 63 rana nan ka wajaha 
taimamia achikkin gari on that 
day thou must wash with sand 
in the city, ya wajiba = ya 
kamata it is necessary. 

wajiha* »y^^, to rejoice. 

wajuna* O^'^^f found in phr. 
wajuna rama to fix a day. 

waka l^t^, waka (it^, 1. song; 
55, F 256 na gama toaka 



I have finished the «ong; 2. to 

sing. 
ijoaka>ti*y see wakti, 
wakawake ^-^l^^^, having spots 

or stripes, speckled black and 

white, used of fowls, etc. 

toake i5^t^, beans. 

fvakili J^t^^> Ar. J^^^i steward, 
representative, governor ; sc^ 
riki wakilin gari nan. toa- 
kilchi* ^yXSsy stewardship. 

waMi* 1^2^^, tvakati* ^J^^, Ar. 

<^y time ; D 23, A 54 loaktt 
c?wA» = always ; from this root 
is probably derived the Hausa 
word for time ; cf. lokachi, 

waXa ^\y pi. walu yt^, dove, 
turtle-dove. 

wala* ^9^, to have plenty of room 
in which to sit down, walatoa* 

\^y enjoyment of abundance, 
comfort. 

wal{l)a* l^^, Ar. yo^, found with 
Ar. art. alwalanka A 71 thy 
ablutions; cf. from same root 
lullo, F 148 note and allowa, 

wahkanJta C^U53^, to maltreat, to 
despise. walakatichi wUfi^, 
disgi*ace, maltreatment. 

tualawa, see tvala. 

wali* ^^y Ar. ^^^, id., 1. friend, 
in a religious sense only, i.e. a 
friend of AUah; D 99 alwaXi 
rnuharmnad the friends of Mo- 
hammed, E 38, F 4 ; 2. a man 



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.i^^ 249 

who gives away a woman in 
marriage, e.g. her father. 

ivalianchi w^^, prophecy. 

wcUki tjfi^ or wolki ^Jj^f a wrap- 
per made of the skin of a goat, 
used as a loin cloth. 

walwachey redupl. form of wachcy 
to scatter; cf. wa/rwari. 

waltuaji iH^V^) *antilopeleucoryx' 
(?), its skin is used for making 
white shields; it is found to- 
wards the northern part of 
Hausaland. 

wcUwcUe* ^^y^, Ar. jy^, to ob- 
ject to an agreement, C 23 
note. 

wanan, wani, see wonan, woni. 

wanchey see woni. 

^ ^ i ^ 
wandara* \\^y strong lion. 

wando ^j>j^ or wondo ^J^^, pi. 
wanduna UjlJ^, wonduna* 
uJLjJ (F 202), loose baggy 
trousers which are drawn tight 
under the knee; they are simi- 
lar to those worn by Arabs; 
A 11, F 202 tvandunan wuta 
fa kaza ravmna wuta they shall 
have trousers of fire and tur- 
bans of fire. 

wamcy fem. wache', cf. wa. 

wane da wa/nche male and female; 
cf . woni. 

wane* ^j, without (?). 

\i)aneney pi. suanene, strengthened 
form of toa, q.v. 

wani ^J^y like ; waninsa like him 
or his likeness ; cf . toa*. 



^^3 

waniy anyone ; cf. woni. 

wanji* • L5%J3, superfluity, pro- 
bably a corrupted form from 
wanzu, q.v. 

wanka ^y wanke iJ^^t to wash, 
e.g. the face, clothes, etc.; pass. 
awonke* i^p^t, F 90 awonke 
ka fa gaalu zaman kushewa 
thou art washed and cleaned 

for burial, wanko ^u^, im- 
plies to wash and bring back 
to the place where the speaker 

is. wankaJce iJ^^ f. wcm- 

kaJca \xS^^, pi. wankaku y^y 
washed, cleaned. 
wanko^ see wanka. 

wanshekaranjia \,f^jSiJLj^, three 
days ago, the day before ahe- 
karanjia. [Possibly wan in 
this word is the same as wa^ 
in warkakka about this time.] 

wanya ^J>^, l^j D 73, wanye 

^^, wanyi ^^ B 121, ^^j 

D 13, 1. to finish doing any- 
thing, na wanya = na ka/re ; to 
end, D 13 vmta da wuta ta ke 
wanyi duka^ lit. fire and fire 
ends everything, v. note, D 73 
hal allah ski wa/nya hukumchi 
ga bayi until God hath finished 
His judgment on His servants; 
2. B 121 raauim ta dunia taaa 
ta wanyi his day of earthly 
life is ended. 

toanzu yjj^ and wonzu* ^JJ^, to 
prolong, delay, stay, remain 



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over, be over and above ; mai- 

wanzuwa tjJJ^^, renlaining ; 
cf. wanji. 

fvaraka V^j^, Ar. sJj^f leaf of a 

tree, page of a book. 
waraka, see wa/rhakka, 
wa/rami i<«u, pi. t«;aramai i<0)^, 

• ornament of iron, ivory, etc. 

worn by the heathen on the 

wrist. 
tjoardi^y bad smell; cf. wa/ri, 
ware ^j^^^ to separate, to dis- 

perse, toarwari ^jS^j^t wa- 
riwari or woritoori ^j^j^, 

wawari v^t^^, to be broken 
up, to be divided, used with 
cdkaueli to break a promise. 
warga, this ; cf. worga. 

warhakka tx»^^, often contracted 
colloquially to waraka, by this 
time, about this time, e.g. ka 
komo gobe war/uikka return at 
this time to-morrow; cf. (1) 
wuri. 

wari ^j\^ or wardi* ^>j^ (cf. 
" • «*» 
(?) Ar. ^^fj^, corrupt matter), 

bad smell; jin wari to perceive 
such, zama wari to become 
stinking. 

wari \;£j^y to open, used e.g. of a 
book, etc.; possibly a form of 
ware. 

wari* ^jy cf. Ar. %Sjy outside, 

e.g. D 48 abinda akayi wari 
what is done outside, D 70. 



tvari j^, 1. a part, one piece of; 

2. ^jy to select, to choose out 
one or more pieces. 

wa/rnu yj^, a small dark-coloured 
frog. 

tvartsaka* ^^jy to be convales- 
cent, to get better. 

UHjmjDariy to be broken up; cf. 
twwe, walwache. 

warwarji gy^jj, ^^j3jy a large 
shield. 

tc;a«a Lft^, a song, the sound of a 
drum; yin wasa to play music, 
hence wasarnbuki ^JLaJLw)^, 
feasting at a marriage. 

tuasa^S^f to sharpen; pass. atc;a5a 
to be sharpened. 

tvasa ^^ or tocwe ^^^, to break 
up, scatter, disperse ; wa^a da 
kurdi to throw down money in 
gambling, wasawasa \Ltyay 
scattered abroad, but few to- 
gether; probably wache, washe, 
watsu are secondary forms of 
wasa-, cf. also waao. 

wa^ali Jb«^ (cf. Ar. J^^^, the 
sign *• placed over 1), the points, 
or vowels (?), placed above or 
below the letters ; cf . hajetu, 

wasarnbuki, see wasa, 

wasaso, to snatch or steal; cf. 

KXISO, 

wasauxisa, scattered ; cf . wasa. 

< *• ^ *• 
wasawasa Lwlj^M^t^, a sort of 

porridge made of beans or 

guinea-corn, or in N. Africa 

of macaroni; cf. kuskus. 



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tvaae, to throw down; see wasa, 

wateu. 
washe* ^^t^, F 98, probably a 

form of wache, to break up. 

waso y»>^, found in pass, anwaso, 

to be devastated . wasoso y>»^^ 
to snatch or steal goods, to 
scramble for anything; cf. 
wasay wawasu, 

wata U^, pi. watani 15-^3 and 

watashi ^J^^ (G 5, 1. 2), 1. 
moon, usually construed as 
masc. e.g. wata shina hada 
haske the moon gives light, 
farin wata new moon ; 2. hence 
month; G 6, 1. 1, watan yo 
this month, watan jibi the 
month after next, watan jia 
last month, wata ya mutu the 
month (or moon) is ended. 

wata* O3, to arrive at, reach. 

watane* ij^^ (cf. Ar. ^^ iii, to 
be assiduous), found in phr. 
ka watane prepare ! 

watsatsi ^JaJ^^, fern, wataatsia 

ij^Ja^^, a name given to a 

vicious goat. 
watmi ^^, spread, scattered ; cf . 

wache. 
waushi* ^^y perhaps (?). 

wauta U^j, abstr. of wawa^ 1. fool- 
ishness, vanity ; 2. to be foolish, 
vain; maiwauta foolish, de- 
ranged person. 

toawa tjti F 30, 32, lj^ B 142, jj 
C 5, 13, a fool, one who is 



vain, a jester ; tana chewa kai 
wawa she thinks you a fool, 
bada wawa to deceive (1), F 32. 
waioanchi ^^^S^y folly, foolish- 
ness. 

watoa l^t^, found only in the phr. 
bahu wawa without doubt, 
doubtless, F 7, 71, 137, 142, 
etc. 

wawari, to separate ; cf . wcM^e, 

v)awa8u* y^\^^ used with y% to 
snatch greedily, to steal ; cf. 
waso. 

way a* Lj^ = words; F 33 ^a enda 
ka jita waya dan uwata when 
thou hearest its words my 
brethren; cf. wa4>. 

waye ^1^, 1. to dawn, e.g. gari 
ya waye the day dawns ; 2. to 
make clear, to explain; ka 
waye mamu abin nan explain 
this thing to us; pass, akan- 
wa/ita explained, D 95. ttni- 
yewa |>^t> 1. dawning, dawn; 
2. explanation, interpretation. 

wayo yj^, waya Lj^, 1. plan, 
scheme, plot, stratagem; hence 
cunning, skill, C 6 ; maiwayo 
cunning, i^ilful ; 2. wayo and 
wayi ^^, to be cunning. 

wazi and waaUj to warn ; cf . 
wa^atai. 

wazir* jjjy Ar. j-jjj, vizier. 

t I 
wene i^j, cakes made with rice 

and guinea-corn. 

unndi ^Ju^, a small round mat 

made of grass ; cf . (1) umndi. 



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W^^ 



tvoba* ij^ (cf. (?) Ar. ij^, to con- 
sider attentively), wonder ; yin 
woha to wonder, to marvel. 

tvochan, that, fern, of toonchan, 
q.v. 

wochika*^ a letter ; c£. tvotika, 

wod{d)a >3, fem. of wmvda^ q.v., 
pi. wodanda and wodancm^ who, 
which A 19. 

wodachi, riches; cf. toad(d)a. 

wod(d)an€m, these, pi. of tvonan, 
q.v. 

wod{d)anda jlJ^^, who, pi. of 

toonda, q.v. 
wod{d)€mga, these; cf. wonga. 
wod(d)mumy some, pi. of «^x)7ii, q.v. 
wod(d)ari, to walk or ride; cf. 

tood{d)ata^ riches; cf. tvad{d)a. 

tvqfi ^^^, bareness, nakedness, 

deprivation of goods; abin 

wofi vanity, aike woji fruitless, 

used of goods brought to the 

market and not sold, haria 

woji a bare lie, mutum wofi 

a man of no use, B 160, tsiwon 

(chiwon) wofi incurable disease. 

wog{g)a, fem. of toonga, q.v. 

X *. J < ^ J 
woJial{l)a Ju».^, V^^3, wahal{l)a 

J^> *^3 (cf. Ar Jjk^ II to 
strike fear into), affliction, 
trouble; A ^i mu ka chi ha 
wahalla nika we shall eat with- 
out the trouble of grinding, 
yin wohcdla to punish, inflict 
punishment ; pain, wohcdlan 
haifua labour pains; maiwo- 
haUa one who bears trouble, 



a poor man who toils con- 
stantly. tvohcUda jJ*.^, toa- 
halda jJ[».^ = yin wohalla to 
trouble oneself, be grieved, 
distressed, kadda ka wohcdda 
kanku do not trouble, vex, 
distress yourselves, wohalshe 

% ^ J 

^ft .,ifc ^ , to vex, to annoy, to 
cause affliction, to correct. 
ivohalda, wohaUhej see prec. 

woiga ij^, woida* juj and tooishe 

^yLj^, to look back, behind. 

woivxna ^yi^, toaiivaia ^yiy 
to turn round, to look bsick. 
wotwoiawa ^y^^^, turning 
round, returning, F 69; cf. 
dawoiya and kewoye. 

woishsy see woiga, 

woitvoia, tooiwoiawa, see woiga, 

woje ^jt^y^i pi. toosashe* ^^Ltyy, 

Ar. A*.^, side, place, region; wo- 
jen dama right side^^ right hand, 
wqjen hagum left side, dagga 
woje nan,.. dagga toqje chan on 
this side... on the other side, 
wojenka = with you, hence as 
adv., out, outside; ina tajia 
woje I am walking outside. 

wolhiy see wolkia, 

wolkiy a goat's skin, etc. ; cf . walki, 

wolkia ^JU^, lightning; B 139, 
F 154 wodansu ya wolkia kuma 
babu wawa some like lightning, 
without doubt, tvolka iuj 
and yin wolkia to lighten ; cf. 
Ar. sjfl 



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U-'J-J 



wolla* it^, Ar., an oath, by Allah ! 

wollata 15*9^ [possibly derived from 
the Ar. gj^ .aM, the title given 
to the prayers which are said 
when the sun is high], time 
about 10 a.m., v. H. Gr. p. 64. 

tvombai i^^, a royal officer, the 
heir to the throne at Kano; cf. 
/adatoa, 

wonan, wanan* ^^, pi. wod(d)a- 

nan ^^y 0^>> *^^^ ^®*^ ^7^ 
at B 97 tvonan is found with a 
pi. n. kadda shi kaimu wonan 
kwanaki that He may not bring 
us to those days. (The word 
is nearly always pronounced 
wonan though written vxjmam, 
as above; cf. seqq.) 

xOx x6j 

woncha/riy wanchan* ^^jliy 0^3^ 
fem. wochan^ pi. uH>d(d)anan, 
that over there, the one yonder, 
the other. An emphatic form 

xOxx»x 

is luonchananka ^lILulJt^ - that 
one. 

X Ox 

wonda, toanda* jj^, fem. wod{d)a 

XX X Ox X 

>5 (A 19), pi. wod(d)anda jJ>3, 

X Ox J X X X 

jlJ>3 or wod{d)anan C>^>^, 

• XX J 

^>^, who, which; 6a6w wonda 
no one. When the relative 
pronoun is followed by a verb 
the personal pronoun is also 
used ; thus wonda ya taffi or 
shi wanda ya taffi he who 
went. 

X Ox X ^ 

wonga ij^, fem. wog(g)a Ly pi. 

^ X Ox X ^ 

wod{d)anga A^>5, this near by; 
cf. wodansu those far away. 



M?(mi, wani* Q^^ fem. «^7ofa ^3^» 

joi J J 

pi. te^on^t^ u**^^* toosu ^jj, 

JJ JOxJ 

^^ or tvodansu ^>^, F 81, 
154, 155, some one, some, a 
certain person or thing. In 
the expression wane...wam^he 
male... female, either wane — 
woni and wancJie = wochan or 
toane and vximche are borrowed 
Fulah words. 

wordy ayi iji^^, comp. of woni 

and yayif q.v., sometime. | 
tixmsUf pi. of woni, q.v. 
t«7onisw*, to prolong ; cf. wanzu, 

X X 

worga or wa/rga tj^, used esp. in 
Sokoto district as equivalent 
to wonan this ; F 26 dalUi 
worga waka duka ga kuran 
the purpose of the whole of 
this song is (to commend) the 
Koran (related to wonga). 

worigi ^^j^, P^*y> sport, also yin 
worigi to play, to beat a drum. 

I > I OJ 

wonke ^jr^jy worke ^^»j^ or 

* l" X 

warke yJ^^y to heal, cure; 
pass, to be healed, cured, wo- 
rikeke ^JC&jj, fem. worikekia, 

^^ • • X 

pi. tvorikeku, healed, cured, 

restored to a right state of 

mind [cf. (?) Ar. jjt]. 
tooriwori ^j^jy to improve in 

health. 
woriwori or wariwari, to break; 

cf . wa/re. 
woshi* ^^^^f cf. B 7 awoahi he 

was bom (?). 



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tfS» 



Jl^ At., an oaih. br A ;fcJ 

Ar. S^aMAlt the liilr^ x^^^sl 
he prayers whicL ai^ «u£ 
m the sun is Hx^ r Trntf 
Qt 10a.iiL, T. a Gt J. -r^l:. 

% ^jJy, a royal c<£oer. lait 
ir to the throne at Kao: : <£ 

t* !>*> pL «•# i***- 

. Jbtflda «&• hmtmm mrnrnrn^ 
\ that B« mmj ai«ln^ 
* i tn liw^ee ilaji. (He «m4 

'^^v ^TBIl- ix^idyn, pL «ai4 
^ iLi&t tAcr tbrfBt <^ 4i«» 

r ^iwr. Aa ^mmI 
friv-AiiMM^a J5^ 








vest, 

/ .. 

ua yamuUe 

Jod. 

itibala, el name 

enannibtil tfibes 

.K of HmiSiiltvncU 

pronominal profiit 

sp Sixi pet's p sing. 

not BO commonly 

aia^ q.v.j and like it 

^d by nouurt or parti- 

It- 



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254 



J^ 



J J 

wowo ^^y 



W08U, others, etc., pL of woni^ 

q.v. 
wota, a certain one, fern, of woniy 

wotaMla '5l<Jui (cf. (?) Ar. 2Xf^, 
so that wotakila would mean 
* in some measure '), perhaps. 

wotika \S^^ or wochika* Ixa}^ (cf . 

Ar. >miMy covenant, document), 
a letter. 

At the end of the 
month Muharram, i.e. end of 
the year, boys light torches 
and throw them about ; this 
display of torches is called 
wcywo, 

wu *3, a shout or scream = ufu, 
wuche i<5^, vmshe* ^^^ E 50, or 

fuche ^Jt?, to pass by, pass 
away, subside; A 15 kowa ya 
zo ya tvuche every one comes 
and goes, B 75 duka sun tmtche 
they have all passed away ; cf . 
t/mlga, vmrga, 
timchia*, a tail ; cf . tmitsia, 

vmfl*, tvupi*y iji^, shoes. 

J J J 

v)ujuhum* j^^^^, Ar., their faces, 
V. F 248 n. 

vmka i^j^, pi. wukake tJ^^^^ 
knife; wasa or gerta wuka to 
sharpen a knife; wukan sariki 
name of a spotted grasshopper 
with green wings. 

vmkia i^^, small, long-shaped 

vase or bottle for holding scent. 

tvulakanta U«£»^j (cf. Ar. uU^, 



to strike), to strike blows, to 
evil intreat ; A 66 rana da zai 
mutu kan wulakanta masaa 
on the day that he shall die he 
shall be struck with blows. 

wulga iJj, UJ^, vmlge ^^^, vmrga 

L5^J^> ^;-3» 1- ^ pass by, pass 
away; 2*. to throw away. 
*-> 
imindi ^ju^, the round hole cut 

for the neck in a shirt (tugiia). 
wum ^^ (cf. Ar. ^^, be weak, 
relaxed, tired out in work), to 
pass the night at a place, the 
whole day from sunrise to sun- 
set; sanu da vmni salutation 
used to a man working the 
whole day ; cf. yini. 

vmr jy very, used with ja only; 
ja tour very red. 

wur{r)a* j^, to jump backwards 
and forwards, to dance. 

vmrga, to pass by ; cf . vmXga, 

'f^ri jy ^p, pi. wurare {Jjj^, 
place, spot, locality; vmrin 
chira place of escape, refuge, 
e.g. a king's house, B 95, 98, 
vmrin gudu a place to flee to, 
vmrin sapka a camping-place. 
vmrin, i.e. vmri na, is often 
equivalent to 'with' or *to'; 
wu/rinsa with him, ya taffi 
vmrin sariki he went to the 
king. It is also used for in 
place of, instead of. 

wurij^f an adverbial use of prec, 
early, already, before, before 
time; da vmri before, some 



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255 



time ago, tunda vmri already, 
up till now, ^uuri vmri very 
early ; cf. (1) warkakka, 

tvuri \^jy pi. hurdi ^>^i cow- 
rie; the pi. is also used in the 
general sense of money, e.g. 
kurdin gurasa bread -money, 
i.e. alms. [Cowrie shells are 
imported into Hausaland by 
way of the R. Niger from 
Zanzibar and the Maldive 
Islands.] 

tvusfie*, to pass away; see wuche. 

wushewa* t^^j, cf. Ar. ^ji>y 
adornment, E22n. 

wushiria* ^jJ^^ (cf. Ar. jJ^^, to 
make the teeth sharp and thin), 
the natural space between the 
two front teeth in the upper 
jaw. 

tuuta U^, fire, a fire ; jin tvuta to 
warm oneself at a fire, timta 
lahira and wuta the fire of 
hell A 7, 22, F 118, 160, da- 
barun wuta F 180 the back of 
the fire = ha/yan wuta, equi- 
valent to our * top of the fire.' 

farawuta \3^^,, brimstone (in 

Ar. ^^^)- 

wutsia Q»^, ^t^y vmchia* Q^, 

tail. 

.•J , ^ 

touya l^j or tmya L;^, pi. wiyayi 

^Vj^, neck, 18, 33; vmyan 
hanu, lit. neck of the hand = 
wrist. 

tvuya Ljj, difficulty; da tvuya 



difficult, hard to accomplish, 
of necessity, ahin-dunia da vm- 
yan aa/ni it is difficult to know 
all things. 

The letter ^ is used by the Hausas 
to represent the sound of the 
English consonant y. It is 
also used in forming the diph- 

thongs ai ^— and ot ^^ e.g. 

saidai (^ J^^ only, bokkoi ^!i^ 
seven; and in representing the 
sounds of the Italian vowels 

e ^« and i ^— , e.g. sare ^jL* 
to cut, tqf(/)i ^ju to go. It 

is placed at the end of verbs 
ending with the sound i, but 
not as a rule at the end of 
nouns except in the plural 

number, thus : /adi ^>l? to 

fall, takohi ^yu sword, sasari 
^j^\mt chains. 

yajy\^, pers. pron. third pers. sing, 
prefixed to aor. *he,' 'it,' e.g. 
ya yenke he cut ; used in im- 
personal expressions, e.g. ya 
issa it is enough, ya fi it is 
better ; also to express a wish, 
e.g. allah ya haka lafia may 
God give you health [ski is 
more commonly used in this 
sense]. 

ya i, also yi ^ (A 6), yina ^, 

A%\=kama, like, as; B 72, 
F 154 wonsu kan ahutse (ahude) 
wa iaka ttnuhnau ya tvolkia 



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L5^W 



some would pass like wind, 
some like lightning. 

ya Q, Ar. id., O ! esp. used in 
expression ya sidi sir ! 

ya C [Kanuri id.; c£. note on 
yaya], elder sister, for corresp. 
masc. V. wa; cf. also yata, 
iyata. 

ya G (nearly always used in con- 
struct form yan ^) pi. of da, 
Kanuri id., son; yan uwana, 
lit. sons of my mother = friends, 
brothers, brethren ; cf . also 
yamata. 

yah(b)ay see yab(b)o. 

yahdanuna* ^^;tyj^) Ar. expr. 
used in F 42 ; cf . note ad loc. 

yahe ^-jj, to daub, ceil, smooth, 
plaster, of walls, etc. yohahe 
^^^, fem. yahaha (^^ pi. ya- 

babu yk^, smoothed, ceiled, 
plastered. 

yab{b)o yu, praise, fame, reputa- 
tion, report; yin yabo to praise, 
honour, B 21 ina yabonka sidi 
uban zahra I praise thee, O 
lord, father of Zahra, D 100, 
F 31. yab{b)a s^, to praise, 
to give thanks ; na yaba = na 
gode. yeb(b)abe j^j-e-*:{, fem. 

yeb(b)aha Qjj, pi. yeb(b)abu 
y^f honoured, praised. 

yada j^>, yada wuta to light a 

fire. 
yada* >G, probably related to 
%, q.v., to reject, e.g. A 58 



sun yada hainya they rejected 
the right way. 

yade ^Jl;, to skimjnilk. 

yadia L;ju| (= cynanchum vimi- 
nale ?), a shrub that burns with 
a noise in the fire; ropes are 
made from its bark. 

yado* jj^i, roots of gourds or 
melons. 

yado, yadu ^L; (cf. Ar. ^ju, 
, wide), to spread out, increase ; 
B 47 ibada kan yado the ser- 
vice of God would increase. 

yaenda, when; usually contracted 
to yanda, q.v. 

iS <> 

yaetvnan ^^Lj, then ; cf. saanan. 

yafa ^*ljj and yafo j^b, 1. to rub, 
to wash over with water; 2. to 
fold over, to wrap or cast a 
garment about one; inayafi 
A 1 1 = coverings, wraps. 

yafe i*?b, Fulah yafu, to forgive = 

gaferta. 
yafo, see yafa, 

yaga L^U, to tear, e.g. cloth, 
paper, etc.; F 184 (of dogs) 
^WTM hafshi suna yaga da tsawa 
they will bark and tear and 

ci'y* yagua t^b, a tear in 
clothes, etc. 

yaiyawa* t^jub, found D 66 for 
dayawa, ba iyaka zafi yaiyawa 
there shall be no limit to the 
great heat. 

yaji i«*>b, hot spice, pepper, any- 
thing hot like pepper, e.g. B 17 



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cmnabi nuigani ha yaji ha the 
medicine of the prpphet is not 
hot. 

yaka Jb, fern, yaki ^^, come 
thou, come ! 

yaki j^lj, pi. yahuna U.4lJ, 
yah)ke ^>4lJ, C 31, war, 
fighting; yin yaki tawage war 
G 1, 1. 7, C 31 ita dauki 
yakoke it undertakes wars. 
mayaki j^C«, warrior, G 2, 
1.6. 
yako ^, a shrub, from the wood 
of which a medicine is made = 
maga/nin majina. 

yakua \^, a soup or stew made 
of meat and the fruit of the 
dorowa tree ; cf . dodotua, aoha- 
rodo, 

yakutu* O^l^, At, id., a precious 
stone, ruby or sapphire, F 227. 
The Greek vaKivOoq, English 
jacinth, is the same word. 

yal J^, a form of yan^ children ; 
pi. of da, q.v. 

yala Jj, ^^Ij (Fulah yalla per- 
haps), whether, or, e.g. B 56 
yala chikkin dere ko ko jijjif 
whether bj night or just before 
dawn, B 156 yala ta samu ko 
ha ta samuwa ha whether it 
be obtained or not obtained. 

yalo yi^, pi. yaluna WlJ, a plant 
about 3 ft. high, its fruit is 
like a large tomato, larger 
than gauta, 

yalwa or yeltoa 1^, abundance; ) 



257 Uj 

B 45 ahi hamu chi da aha da 
ahin yelwa may He give us 
food and drink and abundance, 

also = a wide place, D 40. yal- 

i^ ** f ' 
wata wy^, 1. abundance of 

room, prosperity; 2. to extend, 
to flourish, yayalwachi ^^^\ 
an intensive form = fulness. 
maiyelwa tjJL^f^, spacious = 

maisarari; cf. (?) Ar. 3JI, 
plenty. 

yamata l3UL; = ya + wato, daugh- 
ters, girls ; cf . yarinia. 

yamhu*y mud ; cf. yiinhu, 

yamche ^^^i^J, yamchi ^i^y to 
bind grass with cords so as to 
form a roof. 

yami ^b, 1. leaven, vinegar, 
anything sour; 2. to swell, 
used of a sore, etc. ; cf . tsamia, 

yamkon ha^iu, cutting off hands of 
thieves ; cf . yenka, 

yamma Cj, uJ, Ar. ^^, west, 
evening; G 4, 1. 15. yammachi 
, westward. 



yamutse ^^Jk«b, yamutsi ^^Luob, 
to be pulled down, destroyed, 
ended, e.g. kaaua ta yamutse 
the market is ended. 

yamyam j^fg^y cannibals, a name 
given to the cannibal tribes 
living in the S.R of Hausaland. 

yana Uj, verbal pronominal prefix 
to pres. tense 3rd pers. sing, 
masc; it is not so commonly 
used as shina, q.v., and like it 
is followed by nouns or parti- 

17 



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258 



cipial forms. In colloquial 
Hausa it is often pronotinced 
yina or inay e.g. alkamma ina 
da roshi the wheat is ground 
fine. 

yanbaka l£t^, 1. tribal marks cut 
from the corners of the mouth ; 
2. very talkative; cf. ya{n\ 
bald. 

yanchi w^ (from ya pi. of da, 
son, free), liberty, freedom, 
adoption, yanchi 15JLL) or en- 
chi L^t, to free a slave. 

yanchiako*, chicken ; cf. tsako, 

yanda j^JL;, yaenda jJl^ or ya- 
wanda J^yj = aa^cmda, when, at 
what time; D 18, B 121 mutua 
ycMvanda ta taffo ta rabeshi 
death, when it comes, etc. 

yam* ^^, to close, shut a box, 
door, etc.? 

yan-uwa, brethren ; cf . utua. 

yarvyawa Ui^, a fox (1). 

yamau jJUj, now, directly; hy- 
yanzu, an emphatic form = 
even now, immediately; yam.zu 
yam.zu presently, forthwith ; 
B 174 hal ya zua yanzu even 
to the present time. 

yoo, to walk ; cf . ya^oo, 

yao, to-day ; cf . yau, 

yapki iJj^ or ^ylti» ^ ^i^^ ^^ 
velvet cloth brought from the 
west. 

yarjj, for yoM, or perhaps a femi- 
nine form of ya child; A 24 
koM yar gidda she is free ; cf . da, 

yara, see yaro. 



yaran(n)i i^^j-Ji, yellow 
work on a burnous. 



needle- 



ya/rayCy see ya/ro, 

yari ^jVj, the chief slave of a 

king, used esp. in Sokoto and 

Zamfa districts. 
yarili, infant ; cf . jarili. 
yarinia \^ji, pi. yamata, q.v., fenL 

of yaroy girl, young woman. 
yarinta Ui)ji^, youth ; cf . seq. 

ya/ro jjb, pi. yara SjKj, yaraye 
^SjCi (F 82), yaya Xk *nd 

yayaye ^-jbb (F 99) ; the last 
two forms may perhaps be 
regarded as plurals of da) yor 
yaye may perhaps be formed 
from yaye to wean; boy, child ; 
the pi. yaya is often used of 
produce, etc. ; yanfom. itache the 
fruit of a tree. The corresp. 
fem. of yaro is ya>riniay q.v. 
yoTo da daria, i.e. laughing 
boy, the name applied to a 
certain kind of ground nut; 
cf. kwa/ruru, 

yasa LiLj, pL yasosi ^^^.m^u, finger, 
toe; yasa na kaffa = toey baban 
yflwa = thumb or big toe, atUa 
yasa the little finger; cf. F 162. 

yasa ^(j, to dig; D 92 to dig a 
well, na yasa rijia I dug a 
well. 

yashey to cast away ; cf . yes, 

yasM ^y^i, white sand or mud in 
water. 

yasuuy %m^, yashuu* %^j the 



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259 



^ 



original Arabic name for Jesus; 
cf . under isa, 
yata^ elder sister ; cf . iyata, 
yau ^, often pronounced yo\ cf. 
Ar. ji^, to-day, this day; 
• maiyo existing to-day, B 3 
ubangijinmu maiyo maigobe 
He is our lord to-day and for 
ever, B 21. yauyau or yoyo 
^yif 1. of time = at last, just 
now ; used with da, zaahi fi^ii 
da yauyau he will overcome 
them eventually ; 2. of place = 
close by, just behind; ya yi 
yauyau he came behind. 

yavfchi ^yi, l5^>!» delay; ya yi 
yauchin zakua he delays his 
coming; adv. late. 

yaudon run ^j^j 0>>!> * small 
herb with red flowers, used in 
sauce, like coriander. 

yauni* ^yiy the name of a small 
fish with prolonged mouth. 

yauahe j^>;, when, at what time; 
daga yauahe from what time? 
har yauahe until when, how 
long? tunyaushe^ id., koyaushe 
at any time, whenever. 



or 



^^ cf. Ar. 



^jm^, to wither, wrinkle, fade, 

used of a tree; ya yi yauahi 

it shrivelrf up. 
yauwa, see yawo, 
yawa tjlj;, the fibre of a tree used 

for making rope. 
yawa l^^, plenty, multitude, as 

adv, much; yawan rod long 



life, dayawa (often pronounced 
deyawa or diyawa) t^, much, 
many, maya/uxi or maiyawa 
Sy^tr^y pL masuyawa \y,^\^, 
many, used esp. of persons; 
sa yawa-yawa = to multiply. 
yawanchi ^^^, large portion, 

abundance, yaioanta O^Jy^* 
and yin yawanta = to multiply. 

yauxinda jJ^, when, B 121 ; cf. 
yanda. 

yawanta, see yawa, 

yawo jjLj, ^l,j, also pronounced 
yao, to walk, to promenade, to 
take exercise, e.g. on horseback ; 
e.g. F 103 <ia hu/ruA-^aini na 
yawo kushewa and the Houris 
will walk within thy tomb, yin 
yawo, id., na yawo bisaa dohi 
I took exercise on horseback. 
yauwa \^yj walking, wander- 
ing. 

yaya, Kanuri id., children, pi. of 
yaro, q.v. 

yaya* LjL; = wa, elder brother. 
[The word, is apparently bor- 
rowed from Kanuri, in which 
yaya and ya = elder brother or 
elder sister.] 

yayaltvachi, fulness ; cf. yalwa, 

yayan yaki, soldiers, used as pi. of 
da/a yaki and maydki, 

yayaye boys, pi. of yaro, q.v. 

yaye to wean ; cf . yeye, 

t ^ 
y<^y^* ^^ftj > ^ uncover (?). 

Wy^f{f)^* ^^tri or yinyif(f)i 
f^J^, gentle rain. 

17—2 



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260 



y«y^ {^ky *ii»e, age; ga yayin 
annahi in the day of the pro- 
phet, yayinsa ya vmche = he is 
old, woniyayi = sometime. 

yeh{h)ahe^ honoured ; cf . yab(b)o. 

yed(d)a^ to throw ; cf. yea, 

fix 
yedda j^>, 1. ^^ = kanda', yedda 

kai or yedda kaso as you like ; 

2. yedda is also used as a 

rel. pron., that, which. 

yelwa, see ycdwa. 

yenka %2LL; and yenke ^Jw, to 
cut, to reap, to slaughter, e.g. 
G 4, 1. 8 yenka mutane ; hence 
various idiomatic uses, e.g. 
yenke kamna to despise C 10, 
to reject the love of, yenke ma- 
gana to put an end to conver- 
sation, yenke karia to tell lies. 

X -» X 

mayenha ^SL ^^ U, puffed up, 
proud, yenkake ^xCLi, fern. 

yenkaka ixJu^, pi. yenkaku 
^SLSLLj, cut. yamkon Jianu 
y;^ vlP^) cutting off hands, 
a common form* of punishment 
inflicted on thieves, etc. 

yenyena ^J^, to cut up into very 
small pieces, to make mince- 
meat. 

yerda ijj^ \i,jj, yirda ^jj (cf. Ar. 

^^^jy to agree), to forgive, 
remit ; yerda bashi to remit a 
debt, to give up, deliver up; 
C 34 pass, impersonal asMyerda 
must abandon, yerda da to rely 
upon; also as a n. will, per- 



mission ; A 2 da yerdan mai- 
aama with the approval of Him 
who dwells in heaven, dbin da 
ya yerda da sAi = that which 
pleases him; cf. G 7 fin. yer- 

dade ^^^jJi^ fem. yerdada S^jJy 

pi. yerdadu ^jJ, approved of, 
agreed to, believed in, received, 
y^* ^j^ or y&rje ^ij.jJ, per- 
mission; bani yerji allow me, 
A 27 ka bata yerji grant her 

permission, yerje mana = do ! 
x# 

yerdaji tjt^:tji, trustworthy, faith- 
ful ; cf . prec. 

y^^ L5?H> ^ throw away. 

yerima U<K> son of a king, per- 
haps = chirqma, 

yerjiy see yerda. 

yes (pronounced almost like yez) 

^^y to throw, to throw away. 

X X 
yeada ju*^, B 89 sun yesda 

dunia they cast aside the world. 
yed(d)a j^j and yashe ^^^*Lj, id. 

yeye, children ; cf . ya^a, 
II I -» 

y^y^ Ls<^ ^^ y^y^' L5^S!> l- to wean; 
yinyeye^ id. ; 2. the person who 
takes charge of a child after it 
is weaned; this is usually done 
at the age of two years. 

yi ^ [cf. Nup6 ji to make], 

to do, make, iwa^ yiwa Uj 
F 254; also iwo and yitoo l^ = 
to do, make, C 42, 49 ; pass, 
to be done ; idiomatic uses are 
impers. ya yi it does, it is 
satisfactory (cf. Eng. * it does'); 



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yi also expresses equality, e.g. 
tvanan ya yi wonchan this is 
equal to that, cf. H. Gr. p. 52; 
.8u yi nawa how many were 
there ? anayi da shi = he is set 
upon, he is abused, yin karia 
used of a gun, to miss fire; see 
also seq. 

yi* ^y working, power, in phr. 
E 38 c/a yin allah = da ikon 
allah by the power of God, 
used esp. in Sokoto district, 

yi, A 6, like = ya^ q. v. 

yimhu y^, yambu* yJ»^y clay, 
mud. 

yina*y often pronounced ina^ Uj = 
ahina or yana] F35 yina ga- 
ninka He beholdeth thee. 

yina*y A 81, or yi*, A 6, like = y«, 
q.v. 

yini ^jij, 1. the space of a day, 
a day; F 111 yini nan jalla 
kua shi ka tada kowa on that 
day the glorious One will raise 
up every one; 2. to stay or 
stop at a place for a day only, 
then to continue, e.g. ina yini 
taffiay aiki, etc. I continue tra- 
velling, working, etc. till even- 
ing, B 146 n. ; 3. (?) continually, 
always; cf. umni, 

yinyif(f)i*y light rain; cf. ya- 
yeffa. 

yirdaji, trustworthy; cf. yerdaji, 

yiwaj yiwo or iwo, to make; cf. 
yi and wa, 

yo, to-day ; cf . yau, 

yodo, see yavdo. 



yonkane ^^yjJjLj, to wither, of 
plants; also of man, to be 
wasted with disease. 

yoahiy see yavshi, 

yoyo, at last ; cf . yauyau, 

yumki* ^k^j, to seal, to set a 
seal (?). ' 

^ J 

yunwa \yJ^ (often pronounced 
yungwa\ hunger, famine; jin 
yunwa to feel hungry, da yun- 
wa hungry, ina da yunwa I 
am hungry. 

A> *> J 

yuthki* ^^jidj, prob. for Ar. j^^a*^, 
found in F 197, v. note. 

i z and J z are used by the Hausas 
to represent the sound of the 
English z. There is no dis- 
tinction of sound between the 
two, and they are often in- 
terchanged ; thus guzuri is 
written ^jjji. in F 67, but in 
the following line is written 
guzuri j^J^. The sound is 
sometimes interchanged with 
that of j or «, thus guzu or 
gusu bottom, zarumi or jarimi 
a warrior. In words which are 
not connected with Semitic 
roots z J \s more commonly 
used than z y 

za !i lit. = to be about to go, and so 
= to be about to. . ., used as aux- 
iliary to form the future, e.g. 
C 13 zamu tashi we shall arise, 
B 71 komi ya faru zashi shi 
ka/i'e ni whatever begins will 
come to an end, A26; «a and 



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*A»i 



zo to come, probably stand to 
each other in the same re- 
lation as bid{d)a and bid(d)Oy 
they are both probably con- 
nected with je, the z being 
palatalized to j through the 
influence of the vowel follow- 
ing ; cf . zaka, zatsa. 
zaha v6 C 11, zahe ^\l F 134, 

zabi* vS A 16, v^i A 3^, F 53, 
to choose, select, elect, e.g. 
F 134 mun zabeka we choose 
thee. zoMl ^!i, to be chosen. 
zahabe i^li, fern, zababa l*^1i, 

pi. zahahu ^t>, particip. adj. 
of zaha, chosen, picked out, 
selected. 

zaha WiS (cf. (1) Ar. 4-iS, gold), 
found in phr. kurdi zaha pure 
or genuine money. 

zahania* l^^Wj, Ar. id., found in 
D 72 asam/ya zahania wa dvhu 
sahatn chaka/ni seventy thou- 
sand evil angels shall be put 
therein; cf. note ad loc. 

zahe and zahi, to choose ; cf . zaha. 

zahgai ijk^J, poison put on arrows. 

zahia l^j, 1. with pi. zahiyoyi 

j^^trfjj * minstrel, a king^.s 
musician ; 2. a species of dark 
red coloured date (cf. (?) Ar. 
s^>^j) ; 3. an albino. 

zahki* *il^i, to soften; D 65 kai 
garemu ta zahki it will soften 
our heads. 

zaho yfj, a herb, the leaves of 



which are tooth-shaped; they 
are beaten up to make a medi- 
cina 
zabare, reeds ; cf. tsabare, 

zahura j^jj to start back, to rise 
up quickly, to start, of a horse. 
^ j^ • ''' . 

zahura* \j^, Ar. jyij^ id., writing 

from God, used of the Koran, 
the Psalms, or the Gospels. 

zabata U^j, white muslin for mak- 
ing a turban, with red edge. 

zache, to suppose ; cf . tsachi. 

zaen(n)a, to seal ; cf . zuin{n)a. 

?^fi \Jt^^ F 189, 195 also zqfi 
^\j J) 66, Ar. ^^>, heat; 
d'66, F 195, ruan^zafi hot 
water, F 189; cf. seq. 

zafi ^\)f pain ; da zafi painful, 
na ji zafi I feel pain, jin zafin 
zitchia to be cut to the heart ; 
prob. akin to prec. 

zafi* j«?1j, idol ; cf. tsafi, 

zagarafi ijlj^tj, a plant, the dried 
root of which is used as a 
purgative. 

zage ^\l F 34, zagi ^(i F 8, to 
reproach, revile, e.g. F 34 /a 
kowa ya zabeka dunia when 
anyone in the world revileth 
thee. 

zage ^1>, zagi ^!i, 1. to draw 
a sword; 2. to go to a place = 
taffi^ ag. £ 50 mu za^ge makka 
we go to Mekka; cf. zazage. 
zago 3^tS) to walk about, to 
walk backwards and forwards, 



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to go a long way round to a 
place. 

$w^t, see prec. 

zagi* ^jj, a horse led behind 
another, not ridden. 

zagoy see zage, 

zag{g)o ^j, a species of ant which 
builds ant-hills. 

zago ^jy a harpoon for river fish- 
ing. 

zahiriy to appear ; cf . tsahiri. 

zahra \jAjy the name of a daughter 
of Mohammed (?); see B 21 
note. 

zaiba loj, Ar. sJi^J, Pers. <»j^j, 
id., quicksilver. 

zaiti* C^J, Ar. C^J, olive. 

2;aA^ «Slj, ej, 1. to come (esp. in 
Sokoto); 2. to go, e.g. D 22 
kuna zaka da haji go on the 
pilgrimage, zahua t^^J, com- 
ing. \zaka may possibly be 
derived from za used in the 
sense of * to go ' with pronoun 
suffixed, or za may be used 
as a noun and followed by a 
possessive pronoun. Either 
derivaticMi is however most 
uncertain.] 

zak{lc)a l^j, Ar. Sl^J, alms, e.g. 

F 17, ha her riba ka hada zaka 

cease from unlawful gain, give 

tithes; cf. zukaita, 
zaka ji\y the fut. aux. verb, second 

pers. sing. masc. ; zaka gani 

thou wilt see; cf. za. 
zaJcainya^ lioness ; cf . zaki. 



zakami ^\^j, zakami i^^j (cf. 

Ar. j^^j, a medicinal tree), a 

shrub, from the berries of which 

is made a medicine, also a 

highly intoxicating drink; cf. 

zakumu, 

zakani* ^\l^i (?), blazse, D 64 

note. 

zakani*, between; cf. taaka/ni. 

*• ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

zakara ]j^j, zakara t^i, pi. za- 

ka/ru ^j^J, zakaru yj^^, cf. 

Ar. ^}^i, cock ; zaka/ran da- 

waki a large bird which flies 

about at night and cries kdra 

kHra^ its coming is considered 

an omen of war, zakara mai- 

surdi a cock with a red mark 

on its back like a saddle. 

zaki ^^ii, the fut. aux. verb, 
second pers. sing. fern. 

zaki L«^tj, fenL zakainya It^^tj, 

pi. zakoki ^^^^tj, lion. 

•S " St 

zakka \^j or zikka lij or jikka 

s a 

U^ (cf. (?) Ar. wij, a bag made 

of skin), a measure for grain. 

J X 

zaku ^li, aux, verb, fut. tense, 
second pers. pi.; cf. za, 

zakua^ coming; cf. zaka, 

^ J ^ J > < 

zakuda J>£sjy zakudo yJ^jy to 

move forward a very little or 

to make room. 

zakumu* ji^j, Ar, j^^j, F 196, 
the name of a tree in hell, 
V. note. From the same root 
prob. oomes zakami, q.v. 



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zallantaka \S2iX^ (cf. Ar. ^>, to be 
vile), unchastity. 

zcUumchiy deceitf ulness ; cf. tsor- 
limi. 

zalwani 1*^5^, a dark-coloured 
women's cloth. 

zama j^i A 57, 80, C 8, zaina j^j 
B 133, found as zamai ^^> 
C 52, to come into a condition 
or state, to become, e.g. B 133 
ku zama ahaitanai you become 
evil, ni zama da hankali I 
shall behave wisely, zama U> 
and zam^inchi »^%%o3> state, con- 
dition, e.g. C 15 enna da zama 
na dawama where is a state of 
continuance? hence = affairs, 
enna zaman gari how is your 
stay in the town? ans. zam>an 
ga/ri da godia we are quite 
well thank you; continuance, 
E 14, 28, F 67, C 6 zamansa 
na dunia his sojourning on 
earth, E 18 masuzamaga hain- 
yoyimusulmithose (of you) who 
continue in the ways of Mus- 
sulmans. ^ Hence its use when 
repeated, zama zama after some 
time; cf. 8am(m)a; yin zama 
to succeed in doing anything 
attempted. 

zama Ui, 1. prep, because of ; F 90 
zaman kuahewa for burial; 
2. conj. for, because, e.g. F 14, 
15, 68. Prob. related to prec. 
word. 
zamanclii, condition; cf. zama, 
zamani ^^^j G 4, ^^(j B 95, 96, 



zam^jmi \j\^\\ G 1, zamfianu 

lyUlj B 82 (cf . Ar. ^), oUj, 
id.), time; za/m^jmin annabi in 
the times of the prophet, zc^ 
mani kaddan a short time, G 
4 ya yi zainanishi he reigned. 

zamarke ^^sj^j, a species of legu- 
minous plant used for burning. 

zamha or zanba w^>, Li^i, Ar. 
^i, crime, adultery; B 108, 
C 1, E 25, B 147 tana da rur 
rudi don ta yi zanba it prac- 
tises deceit in order that it 
may commit a crime; cheating, 
e.g. in selling, etc. zaniba^che 
^y^it zamhata CUeJ>, to cheat, 
hence mmzamha>chi or mmzam- 
bata one who cheats, a cheat. 
zamhata C^i, C 2, guilt, from 
the same rt comes zunufi^ zur 

nubiy q.v. 
^0* 00' 0^ 
za^nba/r j^j, j^J, thousand, prob. 

a Songai word. 
zamhaiaj see zamha. 

TMj/mhu yjjy a sort of pudding 
made with flour and onions. 

zami* ^*-o1i, cf. Ar. j^\y blame, 
e.g. C 32 zami ta kan che na 
mallami she speaks evil of a 
Mallam. 

zami i^\} (cf. Ar. j^j, to muzzle a 
camel), 1. to keep back, put 
down; particip. n. zamitva 
t^tj, B 113; 2. to recline, lean 
back on a horse, stumble. 

zamna ^>«>, tUi, zamna O-^j, 



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zona Ujj A 12, zamne* ^y^^ 

B 73 (cf. Ar. ^^ iv, to last a 
long time), to stop at a place, 
to reside, dwell, sit down; G 1 
8uka zamna chikki they settled 
down in it, fnaizamnay pi. ma- 
8uzamna dweller, inhabitant, 
sojourner ; cf . Introd. p, xix. 

zamuj^\^^ fut. aux. verb, first pers. 
pL; cf. za, 

zaria ^!i, Uli, to reckon up, 

take account of ; E 4 hallinmu 

- da ankazana sai mu tvha our 

(evil) deeds shall be reckoned 

up unless we repent. 

zam^a ^!i or zani ^yli, to draw 

strokes or lines, zane ^yli, 
spots, lines. 

zana Utj, a rough kind of mat 
made of grass or reeds, with 
which the outside of houses is 
covered and partitions made 
within. 

zamhtty zanhata, see zamhay zamv- 
hata, 

zanche ^^>, zanchi ^j*ii, A 3, 
word, conversation; yin zanche 
to speak, converse, zantawa 
\yij!it conversing; cf. sanche, 

zane, spots, lines ; cf . zana. 

zan(n)e ^^ zan{n)i ^i, also 
pronounced zen{n)e, pi. zan- 
(n)tui tyi, 1. cloth, esp. a piece 
such as that worn by women, 
of oblong shape ; A 28 <a dau 
zani let her take a cloth ; 2. a 
measure of cloth of about 15 



265 ^jj 

feet; 1 zane = 8 kamu and 
4:^zane=lturumi,(i.Y, zan{n)e 
is frequently treated as of femi- 
nine gender. 

zangarami*y a large tree with poi- 
sonous fruit. 

zanga/mia, a stalk of com; cf. 
sanga/rnia, 

zangoykjj, a hundred, seldom used 
except in counting cowries; 
probably a Songai word; cf. 
zungo. 

zani ^tS, 0^i> ^*^*« ^^^' verb, 
first pers. sing., I will or I will 
go ; cf . za. 

zanko y^}^ a tuft of hair in the 
middle of the head. 

zanta^oa tjJL^^, rel. to zanche, 
particip. form used as an intr. 
v., to speak. 

zanzana wpj, small-pox = agana. 

zanzaro ^jjjj, a hornet; cf. mod. 

Ar. Jjjjj yiy wasp, lit. father of 

buzzing. 

za/ra*, to accuse; cf. aare. 

X < < 
zaraha l^jj, a bunch of dates. 

za/r{r)e ^j^ A. lb, «ar(r)t ^j 
A 13, cf. Swaheli zaH, 1. 
thread, e.g. A 75 shi ne yake 
dumkin foH ha zare he is as a 
man sewing a white garment 
without thread; 2. a rope put 
through the nose of a cow, 
mazari {JjJ^y spindle; cf. zar- 
(r)ia and seq. 

zarge ^Aj» pl- zarguna Xi^jj (cf. 
Ar. ^Ujk, a noose), a loop in 



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string, etc.; from the same 

Ar. rt comes azvrkay q.v.; cf. 

mazargif mazaHgi and azari- 

gagi. 
zar{r)iy see 2wr(r)e. 
zari ^j\ji 1. plenty to eat; 2. one 

who eats much, a strong man. 
zar(r)i* {Jj^ v. B 160 ta kan 

zarishi ha ho da tausai it will 

snatch him away without pity. 
zan'{r)ia Cji, zar(r)ia QjJ, fem. of 

zar{r)e, q.v., a string to tie up 

trousers, wando. 
zaHa ^jjy to leap, dance, zaria 

Qjj, dancing; yin zaria to 

dance. 
zarmi, see zarumi. 
zarumij zaromi ^j^]}, za/rmi ^yfjjy 

jaHmi* ^^^jt^ or zarmi ir^ji 

pi. zarumai ic-o^Jj* officer, one 
of a king's body-guard. 
zaahi cnii, fut. aux. verb, third 
pers. sing. = he will ; cf. za. 

zasu ^1i, fut. aux. verb, third 
pers. pi. = they will. 

zati j^li, Ar. Oli, greatness, 
majesty, size, realm, F 46, 246; 
king, F 132 shi fadi shina su- 
juda enda zati he will speak, 
he wijl prostrate himself in 
the presence of the King. 

zat{t)o, to think ; cf . tsetto, 

zaisa* i»ti, a Sokoto form of za^ 
to go; cf. F 237 ahau kuma 
zatsa fa dar maiiyawa they 
mount and go to the dwelling- 



place of the Almighty; cl 
P 50 note. 

zau ^j, a large fish, from which oil 
for eating is obtained. 

zaiida* y^j [cf. (t) Ar. rt 3jJ, to 
make preparations for a jour- 
ney], to separate from, to desert 
a friend, etc. 

zaura \j^j, idon za/wra^ 1. a varie- 
gated cloth ; 2. a white stone ; 
cf . ido, 

zaure ^jj, pi. zawnika Jj^j, 
hall, a porch with double en- 
trance; cf. U(yro. 

zauwa* \^^i particip. form from 
zo, coming =^ zua, 

zauwa/ra tj^jj, widow. 

zaipo ^^\jy purging, used of medi- 
cine. 

zayen{n)a ^^j (cf. Ar. rt ^>:»j, to 
adorn, to ornament), to illumi- 
nate a manuscript. Probably 
the same word as zuin{n)ay 
q.v. ^ 

zayi* jjS, to go to visit (?); F 58 
ta zayi annahawa she went to 
see the prophets ; cf. (?) ziayd, 

zaza* 1j!j, bank, found in F 182 
. zazdn wuta a bank of fire; see 
note. 

zaz{z)dbi or zez{z)ehi ijfjjj fever. 

zazaga ijj, Ujj, to shake, tremble. 

zazagawa \^jj^ trembling all 

over. 
zazage* i5^!jj» to go, to make 

ready to go; B 168 mw hada 

farUirrniii, mu zazage we will 



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perform our religious duties, 
we will make ready ; cf . zcige. 
zazari jjj, to hasten after; 6 133 
ya wanda ka ga na zazari 
banna he whom you see hasten- 
ing after evil ; cf. (1) z(M'{r)i, 

zazewa t>^J, the name of a certain 
small white-breasted bird of 
the same size as the haiwan 
allah. 

siergi ^jjy 1. avarice, greed; 2. 
suspicion. 

J ^ 

zerto yijj, a saw. Prob. another 

form of derto yij>, a file. 
zet(t)o, to think ; cf. t8et{t)o, 
zezeb(h)i, see zaz(z)abi, 

ziara |;Wj> ?*«^« jWi> ^^' ?;^j > 

^ ^ ^ 

to go to visit or salute anyone, 
C 37 ziara TmaUaanm salute the 
Mallams ; B 162 en ^e madina 
en yi ziarata to go to Mecca 
to visit it ; B 1 68 ziui madina 
zamu ziara nai (we will go) to 
Medina, we will salute him. 

ziaya* ^y E 1 1, 20 [for jiyaya ?] 
understanding, used with yi = 
to understand. 

zigazigai, bellows ; cf . zuga, mazi- 
ga, mazigi, = Ar. \Jfj. 

zikir, see zikri. 

zikka, a large bag made of skin; 
cf . zakka. 

zikri (Jjh>y D 2, B 88. zikir* 

j.^j C 37, Ar. j&i, to make 
invocations to God, to pray 
to God, mtma zikri we pray. 



ij 



zilla* ^JS, Ar. Jji id., humiliation ; 

^ lObn, ka ga zUla thou wilt 

see humiliation. 
sdna 0; A 55, F 180, zina Ui E 21 

(cf. Ar. Uj and »Uj), whoring, 
adultery; E21 da fashishiwan 
zina babu amre and concerning 

evil living without marriage; 

^ J ^ 
F 180 masuzina U^fU, pro- 
fligates; yin zina to be pro- 
fligate, maizvna^hi adulterer, 
maizina^hia adulteress. 

zinaria bjU^, zinaria ^j^j 

F 219 (cf. Ar. Ju^, a gold coin, 
Gr. SrjvapioVf Lat. denarius), 
gold, e.g. P 219 suradi kua na 
zinaria ga kowa there shall be 
golden saddles for everyone. 

zinder jJJj, the name of a large 
town in Hausaland. 

ziniy a point ; cf . tsini. 

zinke, a little spike of straw; cl 
tsinki, 

zipka* [^ (cf. (1) Ar. kXa^, of 
coarse and gross texture), a 
cloth put over a native saddle 
with two large holes to fit the 
projecting points of the saddle. 

zira* \jiy Ar. ciji, cubit; cf. dira, 

zir{r)away see seq. 

zir{r)e ^jjt to lower a bucket into 

a well; participial form zir- 

^<» 
{r)awa IjgJ, lowering. 
- ^0 
zimania L^Ujj, a cloud pro- 

ducing a shower, or a cloud 



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threatening but not producing 
rain ; cf . ginaria, 
zo ^i, to come, with da ~ to come 
with a thing, i.e. to bring it. 
zua l^i, zauwa* Ijj^, particip. 
form = coming, used with pro- 
nouns ending in na to form 
pres., e.g. muna zita we are 
coming, ya ztui and ziui are 
often employed with any num- 
ber or person to express *to, 
unto,' e.g. 8u taffi ya zua so- 
koto they went to Sokoto ; 
B 174 hal ya zua yanzu even 
to the present time; D 100 
muna godia zua ga allah we 
give thanks to God ; cf . za, 

zohe y^^j and zohi ^^j (cf. Ar. 

f^y to stamp with a seal), 

a ring ; zoben shaida seal-ring, 

seal; zohen or zohin kaya 

handle of a box, etc. 
zohiy see prec. 
zofo*, an incorrect form of tsofo 

old. 
zogi ^^j, sharp pain; cf. (?) 

8hag{g)i, 
zoma*, to dip ; cf . tsoma. 
zomu or zomo ytj, pL zomai ^y^j 

(cf. Ar. ^yji swift, an adj. 

spec, applied to the hare), 

hare. 
fionaf to stop ; cf . zamna. 
zonkutsa* \JoJu^f possibly related 

to tunhude; F 93 «w zonkut- 

aaka shikkin {chihkin) kushewa 

they thrust thee into the 

grave. 



zotoa/ri ^j^J (cf. (1) Ar. jyo, to 
be inclined to, to desire), 1. 
covetousness, ravening, vora- 
city, cf. (?) zar(r)i* ; 2. a flat 
piece of salt cut out of a block. 

zua, a participial form of zoy q.v. 

zu^ ztta*, by and by, cf. prec. or 
the expression may be a cor- 
ruption of the Ar. fi\ya »\yat 
just so ; cf. sua sua, 

zub(b)a bj (A 78), vi (^ 3), 
zub{b)o yij or ^uha* ^^,*^i Ar. 

^^,0^i 1. tr. to pour, pour out, 
2. intr. to gush out, leak. 
Other forms tr. are zub{p)as 

(.Htj) zubasda jum^J, to pour 
out, implying accident or in- 
jury, to throw out, throw away; 

zubda jLfj, to upset, esp. to 
upset water; zub(Jb)u y^ji 
intr. v. rua ya znhu the rain 
pours down; zvhuwa or zu- 
buwa tj[^i, particip. form, e.g. 
F 115, 189, l^^fufu da hanji 
na zubuwa their lungs also 
and bowels shall be poured 
out. 

zvhas, zubasday zubda, see prec. 
zub{b)i ijih bright iron wrought 

into cups, etc., for use. 
zuh{f>)Oy zub{b)uy see zuh{b)a, 

zvhuta* U^j, a small red turban 
with a white border. 

^chia l^S B 37, Q^i D 67, pi. 

zukata U^i, and zutochi ^Jyihi 
1. the heart, e.g. D 67- ; 2. fig. 



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as fche seat of feelings, desires, 
passions; zv^hia hiu (lit. two 
hearts) doubt, hesitation, de- 
ceitfulness ; ka/ramin zuchia 
littleness of heart is only 
used in a bad sense; ma- 
ganan zuchia used as an 
exclamation of astonishment. 
Hence the word zuchia heart 
is used as a periphr. for one- 
self ; cf. B 37, 38 ahi wanda 
zuchiata rinjayi he who over- 
comes his own heart. 

zufa bj^j, akin (?) to zafi^ q.v., 

1. heat, perspiration = jibbi; 

2. s^jj) to perspire. 01 dirrir 
hujin zufa red beads. 

m^a ty US) to blow with bellows. 

zigazigm ^^JL^S, zigazigat 

^^jUj or zugazuganta UU^iUi, 
bellows, F 188 malaiku au taai- 
da zugazuganta the angels will 
lift up bellows, mazigi ^>U, 
a man who blows a fire with 
bellows, maziga L^>L«, the 
stick fixed into the bellows. 
zugu ^^J, native burial-cloth; 
chini da zugu the name of a 
plant with a red flower and 
poisonous nut; its name is 
equivalent to, prepare to die 
if you eat me. 

zuin{n)a* Otj, to seal, possibly 
connected with zayen{n)a^ q.v. 
to illuminate. 

zukatta ^^A^ (cf. Ar. Sl^, alms), 
to ask for help ; cf . zak(k)a. 



zulbi ^jy a water-bird with a 
naked beak about 8 in. long. 

zulumi ^i (cf. (?) Ar. JJlL, 
fraud), doubt, fear, B 69, E 36 
U}€me kaka zulumi whoever of 
you is afraid ; cf . taalimi. 

zumay see zumtui. 

zvma U>, zuma* Uj and zumu 

J J ^ 3 J 

y^if pi. zumuna U«i (cf. Ar. 
Su^ clientship, client), friend, 

brother, zumunchi ^J.JL^S, 
clan feeling, friendship, e.g. 
A, 4:7 da rikun zumunchi ya(n) 
uwa a^chikkin ga/ri and main- 
tained friendship with his 
brethren in the city, D 30 
aso allah aso zumunchi love 
God, love friendship, zumunta 
cJ^i, id. D 31. 
zuma^ faintness ; cf . auma, 

X J Si ^ 

zuTTumii jtX^j (cf. Ar. j^^ ii, to 
impress anything on the me- 
mory), a list or memorandum 
of goods written on paper, any- 
thing written, a memorandum. 

zumane*y faint; cf. aumxi, 

zumhuda* «Xt3>, F 107 to beat. 

zumra* j^j^ the title of the 39th 
sura of the Koran alluded to 
in F 158, V. note. 

zumu^ see zum^, 

zvmvua Syoj or zuma Uj F 230, 
honey ; kvdan zumua a bee. 

zumunchi f zvmnwntaj friendship ; 
cf. zuma, 

zumurruz* jj^J, Ar. i^j id., 
emerald, F 227. 



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zunde {£J^j9 f/^n zunde to laugh 
at, deride; to pout the lips at. 

J OJ 

zungo 3^J) a halting-place for the 
night, camp ; (iagga hayan zun- 
go outside the camp. 

zungo ^jui, yuj or zango yOy 
a hundred cowrie shells. 

ztmtsia LiflJj, a grass used for 
making mats; ci, (T) tsinUiya, 

zunvhiy see seq. 

zunufi ^^i, ^y> or a;wnu6t* 
^^yS (D 12), Ar. 4-^5, sin, 
evil. 

ztmziuif bird ; cf . tsuntstui. 

zurfi sjjj, ^^ (cf. Ar. s>^, 



270 ijA^iJ 

the steep side of a hill), depth, 
D 82 zurfinta ya fi gabban 
michcUi its depth exceeds all 
comparison. 

zuria* Cjj (cf. (?) Ar. cjj), lin- 
eage (?). 

zurma Ujj, oil obtained from 
nuts ; used for rubbing camels 
with, but not used as food. 

zumako ^SsMjj, wasp. 

zwru* ^j^J, to look steadfastly, 
to gaze; generally used in a 
bad sense. 

ztoakia ie^jj (cf. (?) Ar. tJ^jJ, to 

adorn), small beads worn by 
women on the forehead. 



OAMBRIPO^ : ?BlNTm> BT J« ANp C^ F, CLAT, AT THV UNXVBRSrTT PRB88. 



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BY THE SAME AUTHOR. 

SPECIMENS OF HAUSA LITERATURE 

CONSISTING OF POEMS AND HISTOEICAL EXTEACTS 

REPEODUCED IN FACSIMILE IN THE OEIGINAL 

CHARACTEE WITH 

TRANSLATION, TRANSLITERATION AND NOTES 

Small 4to. lOs. 

The Translation, Transliteration and Notes, without the facsimiles, 5«. 



aottOott : C. J. CLAY and SONS, 

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, 

AVE MAHIA LANE. 

OIa00oto: 263, AEGTLE STREET. 



HAUSA GEAMMAE 

WITH EXERCISES, READINGS AND VOCABULARY 
Being a Volume of 

TRUBNER'S COLLECTION OF SIMPLIFIED GRAMMARS 

Crown 8vo. 58. 

The ATHENMXJM says: — "The hook is a distinct contribution to the study 
of a language still greatly in need of elucidation." 



aottOon : KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & CO. Ltd. 

PATERNOSTER HOUSE, CHARING CROSS ROAD, W.C. 



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