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Full text of "Dictionary of the Hausa language"

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L. II 



>GY 



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// 



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ENGLISH-HAUSA DICTIONARY 



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EontKm: C. J. CLAY and SONS, 

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, 

AVE MARIA LANE. 

AND 

THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE, 

NORTHUMBERLAND AVENUE, CHARING CROSS. 

0lasaofaj: C. J. CLAY and SONS, 60, WELLINGTON STREET. 

fceipjtfl: F. A. BROOKHAUS. 

$rf» lark: THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 

»ombag: E. SEYMOUR HALE. 



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DICTIONARY 

OF THE 

HAUSA LANGUAGE 



CHARLES HENRY ROBINSON M.A. 

LECTURER IN HAUSA ?IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE 

HONORARY CANON OP RIPON 

FIE8T STUDENT OF THE HAUSA ASSOCIATION 



ASSISTED BT 

W. H. BROOKS BJL 

LATE HAUSA 80HOLAB OF CHRIST'S COLLEGE 
TYBWHITT'S HEBREW SCHOLAR IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE 
STUDENT OF THE HAUSA ASSOCIATION 



VOL. II 
ENGLISH-HAUSA 



CAMBRIDGE 

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

1900 

[All Rights reserved] 



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Rare TD<s>*>V_ Kooa\ 








Cambridge: 



PBINTED BY J. AND C. F. CLAY, 
AT THE UNIVERSITY FBEBB. 



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PREFACE. 

n^HIS volume, though issued separately for the convenience of 
-■- students, is intended to be used as a companion volume to 
the Hausa-English Dictionary already issued. In order to save 
expense and so lessen the price of the dictionary I have transliterated 
all the Hausa words in this part : their spelling in the original may 
be ascertained by referring to Vol. I. In accordance with the general 
principle here adopted all vowels are to be pronounced as in Italian, all 
consonants as in English. For further explanation and some account 
of Hausa phonology the student is referred to the preface attached 
to Vol. I. 

This dictionary has been seven years in course of preparation, 
and though I am fully conscious of its incompleteness and other 
deficiencies, its publication will, I trust, mark a distinct stage in the 
elucidation of this language and so fulfil in part the objects of the 
Hausa Association under whose auspices the work has been accom- 
plished. 

CHARLES HENRY ROBINSON. 

Ripon. September 1900. 



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ABBREVIATIONS* 



A, B, C, etc. 


See poems, etc. in "Speci- 


neg. 


= negative. 




mens of Hausa Lite- 


neut. 


neuter. 




rature." 


obj. 


objective. 


ans. 


= answer. 


part. 


participle. 


art. 


article. 


pers. 


person. 


coll. 


collective. 


phys. 


physically. 


comp. 


comparative. 


possess. 


possessive. 


conor. 


concrete. 


pregn. 


in a pregnant sense. 


conn. 


connective. 


prep. 


preposition. 


dem. 


demonstrative. 


pr. n. 


proper noun. 


diff. 


different. 


pron. 


pronoun. 


ezpr. 


expression, also = ex- 


rel. 


relative. 




pressed. 


rep. 


repeated. 


fern. 


feminine. 


sep. 


separate. 


fig. 


figuratively. 


spec. 


specially, also = special, 


foil. 


following. 




special term or terms. 


fut. 


future. 


suff. 


suffixed. 


gent. 


gentilio. 


techn. 


technical 


impers. 


impersonal. 


tr. 


transitive 


instr. 


instrumental. 


trop. 


tropically. 


interj . 


interjection. 


v. 


verb, also = see. 


interrog. 


interrogative. 


w. 


verbs. 


loo. 


of place. 







N.B. The foregoing list is supplementary to that given in Vol. I. 



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Vll 

The following Addenda and Corrigenda are intended to be inserted 
in Vol. I. 

ADDENDA. 

dalma W>, n. lead. 

dalulu n. a small bottle, see lulu. 

fifiche n. a fan, see mafuchi. 

futo* yb> intr. v. to swim. 

# • 
UgiU* yjMU«P, tr. v. to mock. 

jimrache* \^J++, tr. v. to bear with anyone. 

kififia W**e^> n. a tortoise. 

kwadaye ^JJ», tr. y. to long after. 

lizami or lezami ^»|p, n. a horse's bit. 

machewa* )>**••, n. bile. 

maUorachi wJjJa*, n. cowardice. 

musaya used with yi, to exchange. 

toari jlji* 9 n. cough; yin t. t to cough. 

tsalla adj. chaste = tsaba (?). 

tsokali J f^ J ft or chokali ^£>^J, n. wooden spoon. 

tuntube used with yi, to stumble. 

fa At <£)!&, n. sweetness, flavour. 

COBRIGENDA. 
a denotes the first and 6 the second column in the page. 
P. 346, L 9 fob lamb bead kid. 



P. 


406, 1. 21 


»» 


Oij> 


»» 


• * 


p. 


43 6, 1. 17 


»» 


J*i> 


»> 




p. 


44a, 1. 11 


»» 


&\ 


»» 


&y 

m 


p. 


446, 1. 29 


t *» 


man 


t» 


men. 


p. 


52 6, 1.27 


t* 


son tan ,, 


tun san. 


p. 


76 6, 1. 28 


ADD 


cf . Ar. 


• 





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Vlll 



P. 796, 1. 22 
P. 102a, L 20 
P. 104a, 1. 18 

P. 116 a, 1. 30 
P. 1846, L 11 

P. 137a, 1. 30 

P. 1936, 1. 3 
P. 222a, I 17 
P. 2376, 1.37 

P. 245 6, 1. 14 



FOB W*J& BEAD ±£j&' 

* *• » * * 

• «» ^ #j *• 

BEFOBE k(Ua INSEBT k&6d ^jtftt or. 

fob make bead made. 



takura 
ha 



tankura. 
kai. 



VOL. II. 
COBRIGENDA AND ADDENDA. 

P. 14 a, 1. 20 fob da bead da na. 

P. 316, 1. 17 „ gasashu „ gasasu. 

P. 52 a, 1. 40 „ zini „ jinx. 

P. 57 a, 1. 36 bead ( = suffer) dauri, (= continue). 

P. 58 a, 1. 24 befobe tabbatachia bead tabbatache fern. 

P. 58 a, 1. 29 fob kwnkumia bead kumkumia. 

P. 71 6, L 15 fin. add dan mart. 

P. 89 a, 1. 40 fob Jcabila „ kabila. 

P. 92 a, 1. 9 „ maduga „ madugu. 

P. 107 6, 1. 26 „ kumkai „ kumbai. 

P. 139 a, 1. 15 „ 4 „ 5. 

The student is recommended to mark the above in the text of the dictionary. 



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ENGLISH-HAUSA DICTIONARY. 

Words to which * is attached are not in general use amongst the Hausas, 
and should not be employed without reference to the Hausa-English 
Dictionary. 

When more than one equivalent is given, the order is that of frequency of use. 



a, 1. indef. art.; there is no word 
in Hausa corresp. to the Engl, 
indef. art., the simple noun 
sufficing, e.g. bani goro give 
me a kola nut; 2. as indef. 
pron. taking the place of an 
art., daia one and ward or 
woni, fern, wota, pi. wonsu 
wo8u or wodansu are some- 
times used, e.g. wani gari ke 
nan there was a city, akoi 
wota mache sunanta amiiia 
there was a (certain) woman 
named Amina; 3. a-, found as 
a prep, prefix with Engl, words, 
as ashore a, da e.g. afoot 
akaffa, alive da rai; cf. seq. 

aback, 1. adv. see back; 2. fig. 
e.g. I was taken aback (= I 
was staggered or surprised) at 
this wanan ya/askareni. 

abandon, tr. v. ber(r)i, ber; it 
must be abandoned ashiyerda. 

abandoned, adj. see profligate. 

abase, tr. v. maida or yi karami; 
refl. with kai (=self), e.g. he 

R. II. 



abases, humbles himself ya 
maida kansa karami = ya tan- 
kwassa kansa. 

abash, tr. v. sa, ba or bada kumia; 
I feel abashed naji kumia. 

abate, tr. v. reg(g)i, rage, ragi; 
intr. ragu, regi. 

abatement, n. (= decrease) rage- 
wa, ragua'y = amount deducted 
from price of anything ron- 
gomi, grant me an a. ka yi 
mani rongomi. 

abattoir, n. wurinfawa. 

abdicate, intr. v. (used of a king) 
kawu*. 

abdomen, n. chik(k)i; jiki, pi. 
jikuna (lit. body) is also em- 
ployed in this sense. 

abhor, see hate. 

abide, intr. v. (= dwell) zamna; 
cf . abode. 

ability, n. 1. (= power) iyawa, iko, 
gazawa* ; 2. (= mental power, 
understanding) cf. hankali, du~ 
bara, lura, wayo ; cf . able. 

abject, adj. see despised. 

1 



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able 



abundance 



able, to be, v. iya, imai, yin imai, 
is8a y gaza, e.g. I am a. to do 
this work ina iya yin aiki 
nan, you can do this ku issa 
yin wonan or ku issa ku yi wo- 
nan; to be unable or not able is 
expr. by the neg. of the above, 
e.g. we are unable to lift this 
ba mu issa mu dauka wonan 
ba, I cannot ban gaza ba or ya 
faskareni (lit. it surpasses me) ; 
a. (= clever) gon(n)i. 

ablutions, ceremonial, n. allowa, 
alwal(l)a, arwal(l)a, wal(l)a; a. 
made with sand taimama; to 
make a. shafe, sliafo. 

abode, n. mazamne, gid(d)a; fig. 
e.g. a. of pain giddan azaba; 
cf. D85. 

abolish, tr. v. see take away, 
destroy. 

abominable, adj. mugu, fern, mu- 
gunia, pL miagu. 

abominate, tr. v. see hate. 

abomination, n. abin mugu, abin 
kasamta, abin haram, 

aborigines, n. habe. 

abortion, to produce, v. bata chik- 
(k)i, yesda dia. 

abortive, adj babu anfani, banza. 

abound, intr. v. /aye, karu, yin 
girima; cf. abundance, abund- 
ant. 

about, adv. and prep. 1. (= a. 
so much, nearly) ko, kotan- 
chin (or kwatanchin), kaza; 
2. (= around) kewoye; a. him 
kewoyensa. 

about, to be, v. za followed by the 
personal pronouns, e.g. I am 



a. to start zani tashi; yin 
kus(s)a, kus(s)ata, e.g. su kus- 
sata en yi hakka. 

above, adv. and prep. bis(s)a, obis- 
(s)a, dag(g)a bis(s)a ; as prep. 
bis(s)a ga, and when followed 
by personal pronouns gore, e.g. 
bissa ga tudu but bissa gareshi. 

abreast, adv. ajere, ajera, gab(b)a 
data. 

abroad, adv. awoje, dag(g)a woje; 
(= at a distance) dag{g)a nesa. 

abrogate, tr. v. kauda, kawasda. 

abrupt, adj. (= precipitous) da 
gangara. 

abruptly, adv. (= suddenly) da 
sauki. . 

abscess, n. kurji, pi. kuraji, kureji, 
pL kurareji, kirchi*, gurje*, 
gembo, pi. gembuna. 

absence, in his, bayansa. 

absent, see under present. 

absorb, tr. v. shainya; (used of 
cloth, etc.) tsosa, tsotsa ; to be 
absorbed in thought or busi- 
ness (so as to forget all else) 
shagalichi, e.g. I was so ab- 
sorbed that I forgot this na 
shagalichi har na mania wo- 
nan. 

abstain from, tr. v. daina, dena ; 
beri, ber; cf. A 25, F 8—13. 

abstract, tr v. debe, fitasda ; (= to 
purloin) saclie, sata, yin sola. 

absurd, adj. banza; wawanchi (lit. 
foolishness). 

Abubekr, pr. n. (a contracted 
form) bube. 

abundance, n. yawa, yawanchi, 
auki, yalwa, yelwa, kar(r)i, 



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abundant 



3 



accuse 



walataa, tululu, tilli, rikumbu, 
rikimbu ; (a. of food) zari, ma~ 
chia; (a., also owner of a.) 
dakokoi. 
abundant, adj. dayaiva, mayawa, 
maiyawa. 

abuse, n. (= abusive words) Jia- 
baichi, pi. habaitai, gum(m)i*. 

abuse, tr. v. 1. (=to revile) zage 
zagi\ (to a. behind one's back) 
yin habaichiy 2. (=to make 
ill use of) turn by yin with 
abin wofi, etc. 

acacia tree, n. cf. bag(g)arua, 
doriwa*, merki*, chedia (?). 

accede to, v. 1. yerda, e.g. abin 
nan da ya fadi maka muna 
yerda = we a. to the terms he 
mentioned to you; 2. (as heir) 
gdda, gddo; 3. (to the throne) 
chin sarota, yin sariki G 1, 4. 

accept, tr. v. karba, kariba, karbi, 
karibi, samu; cf. also prec. 1. 

acceptable, adj. it is a. to me, 
periphr. ya gamsheni, da or 
abinda ya gamsheni or ya gam- 
(m)ani. 

accident, n. sab(b)abi, sub(b)abi; 
an a. happened to him sabbabi 
ya sameshi. 

acclamation, n. guda, gudu. 

accompany, tr. v. rakia, yin ra- 
kia, ram(m)a, chima, chimayi, 
tare, e.g. I will a. thee zani 
ramniaka or zani tare da kai. 

accompanying, act of, n. rakia. 

accomplish, v. iyes, iyesda, hare, 
chik(k)a. 

accomplished, particip. see fin- 
ished. 



accord, to a. with, yin baki data, 
yi kaniada. 

according as, adv. particle ka- 
mada, kamanda, kanda, tarn- 
kanda, tamkarda, yedda. 

accordingly, see therefore. 

account, n. 1. lisafi, lesafi, kedaya, 
kid(d)a, kididig(g)a, did(d)iga; 
to render an a. yin lisafi, yin 
kedaya, to take a. of zana; 
2. &g. e.g. he held of no a. 
ba ya holla or ba ya yi kulla 
constr. with da or ga; 3. (= 
narration) labari, to give an 
a. bada, ba or gaia labari; 
I will give you an a. of the 
war zan gaia maka labarin 
yaki. 

account, on a. of, prep. sab(b)ada* 9 
sab(b)ado*, sab(b)oda*, abis(s)a, 
don, domin, e.g. on a. of this 
8ab(b)ada wonan, on a. of what 1 
wherefore ? domin mi or domi. 

accoutrements, i.e. arms, etc. 
kayan daga, kayan yaki. 

accrue, v. 1. (of gain) see profit; 
2. ( = happen, ensue) faru. 

accumulate, see gather. 

accurate, adj. and adv. nakwarai, 
fern, takwarai, daidal, sosai; 
to he a. yin daidai. 

accursed, adj. laane, fern, laana, 
pi. laanu. 

accusation, n. sara, abin sara, 
kara; false a. rinto. 

accuse, v. sore, sara, zara*, yin 
save, kai kara (lit. bring an 
accusation, constr. with ga) 
e.g. they a. this man sun kai 
kara ga mutum nan. 

1—2 



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accuser 



adieu 



accuser, n. maisara, pi. masu- 
sara. 

accustom, v. 1. to be accustomed 
saba, e.g. I am accustomed to 
this na saba da wonan, do- 
mestic animals are accustomed 
to men, bissashen gid(d)a m 
saba da mutane; 2. (=to be 
wont, used) employ the verbal 
form with kan, e.g. he was 
accustomed to do thus shi Jean 
yi hakka; 3. tr. I accustomed 
him to this food na sa shi saba 
da abinchi nan. 

ache, n. chiwo, jeri ; I have a 
headache na ji (or na yi) chi- 
won kai. 

achieve, v. see accomplish. 

acid, adj. da tsami, da tsamia, da 
yami. 

acidity, n. tsami, tsamia, yami. 

acknowledge, see confess. 

acquaint, tr. v. (= tell, inform of) 
gaya, fadi. 

acquaintance, an, n. masan(n)i, 
pi. masanana; he is no a. of 
mine, I am not acquainted with 
him ba shi ne masannina ban 
sanshi ba. 

acquainted with, 1. see prec; 
2. (= versed in) ; see accus- 
tomed 1. 

acquiesce, v. yerji, yerda; I a. 
in this ina yerda nan. 

acquit, v. (used of a judge) bada 
(or ba) gaskia. 

acrid, see acid. 

across, prep. 1. e.g. a. the sea 
ketaren (or dag(g)a ketaren) 
gulbi; 2. (= beyond) bayan. 



act, n. aiki, shinkai*, jinkai* ; phr. 
a bad a. mugunta, aiki mugu, 
jinkai mugunta; a good or 
kind a. alheri, jinkai alheri. 

actually, adv. hakika, da gas- 
kia, ko; the last is emphatic 
(=even), e.g. this man a. sur- 
passes a lion in strength mu- 
tum nan ya Ji ko zaki da 
karifi. 

adansonia digitata = the baobab 
or monkey-bread tree, kuka. 

add, tr. v. kara. 

addicted, to be a. to f&ye, e.g. 
the boys are a. to (or fond of) 
play yara suna /aye yin wo- 
rigi. 

addition, in a. to hamda. 

address, to a. to, v. ambachi*. 
The following is a specimen of 
an address on a letter takarda 
ya fitta dagga hanuan malam 
chani zua ga malam yushaii 
this letter goes forth from the 
hands of malam Chani to ma- 
lam Yushaii. 

adduce, tr. v., e.g. to a. testimony 
kai or kawo shaida. 

adept, n. gon(n)i, pi. gon(n)ai; 
he is an a. at... shi ne gonni 
na...-, also ya saba da.... 

adhere, to a. to, v. rik(k)e, lazum- 
chi, nani, the last used of things 
stuck together with gum etc. ; 
those who a. to the command- 
ments of God masuriken ha- 
kumtai na cdlah. 

adieu, interj. sai wota rana; a. 
for the present sai anjima, 
a. till to-morrow sai gobe. 



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adjoin 



affair 



adjoin, intr. v. kus(s)ata, kus- 
(s)anta, kus(s)ache, yin kus(s)a. 

adjure, v. I a. thee by God na 
gamaka da allah. 

administer, tr. v. (= to give to, 
e.g. medicine) ba, bada; to a. 
justice or law yin sheria ; to a. 
government cf. malaka, ha- 
kumta; an administrator of law 
and justice maraban sheria da 
gaskia. 

admire, tr. v. yin (or jin) ma- 
maki. 

admit, tr. v. 1. I admitted him, 
periph. na bershi shi shigga\ 
2. to a. e.g. error, guilt etc.; 
see confess. 

admonish, see warn. 

adoption, n. yanchi, to adopt, id. 

adorn, tr. v. gerta. 

adorned,, adj. gertache, fern, ger- 
tata, pi. gertatu. 

adornment, n. wushewa, hallia*, 
ado, the last used of trinkets, 
etc., also of dress; cf. F216, 
232, 238. 

adulterer, n. maizinachi, mai- 
zina; the exalted One who 
made it (fire) for the adulterers 
taala da ya yi wuta don muta- 
nen zina. 

adulteress, n. maizinachia, fa- 
rika,fasika, the last two used 
in the general sense of profli- 
gate. 

adultery, n. zina, zina, tsaranchi, 
zaniba; to commit a., e.g. they 
profane marriage, they commit 
a. 8una bata amre suna yin 
zina. 



advance, intr. v. yin gab(b)a, to 
get in a. of chin gab(b)a, rig(g)a, 
rigig^ya, rig(g)agh e-g- be out- 
ran us ya riggamu. 

advantage, n. anfani; of no a. 
babu anfani. 

advantageous, adj. da anfani^ 
maianfani. 

adversary, n. makiy% pi. makiya, 
abokin gab(b)a, maikinji. 

advice, n. dabara 9 dubara, sha- 
wora. 

advisable, adj. see advantage- 
ous. 

advise, v. yin dabara. 

advocate, n. (fig. = helper, de- 
fender) maitaimako; cf. F79. 

afar, adv. nesa, dag(g)a nesa, e.g. 
1 saw him from a. na hangeshi 
dagga nesa; proverb, travel 
slowly though the journey be 
to a. off taffia sanu ko na nesa. 

affair, n. abu, abin, pi. abubua, 
e.g. a sad a. abu mugu, abin 
rnugu ; avoid deceit and false- 
hood in your affairs aber or 
berri tsalumehi da karia ga 
abubuanka; alameri, e.g. a 
wonderful a. alameringa; the 
affairs (=the vicissitudes or 
changes) of this world ala- 
merin dunia; zamanchi, zama 
(= condition of affairs), e.g. 
how are affairs with you in 
the city? enna zaman gari, ans. 
we have reason to be thankful 
for the condition of affairs 
zaman gari da godia; huja, 
fuja = affairs used as an ex- 
cuse, e.g. unless on account of 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



affection 



6 



ahead 



affairs sai ko da huja; cf. also 
shag{g)ali. 

affection, see love. 

afflict, tr. v. yin wokal(l)a. 

afflicted, adj. (= one who endures 
affliction and toil) maiwohal- 
(l)a, pi. masuwohal(l)a. 

affliction, n. wohal(l)a, masiba. 

affright, 1. n. tsoro \ 2. tr. v. bada 
tsoro, tsorata. 

afoot, adv. akaffa, da kaffa. 

afraid, adj. I am a. na yi tinzera, 
he made him a. ya bashi tsoro ; 
to be a. jin tsoro. 

afresh, adv. see again. 

after, 1. prep, bay a, bay an, bay a 
ga; 2. adj. nabaya, fem. ta- 
baya. 

afternoon, n. laasar, laasar; see 
under rana. 

afterwards, adv. (= after this) 
bayan wonan, bayan hak(k)a, 
e.g. bayan hakka ya komo after 
this he came home; a. (in a 
looser sense) nabaya. 

again, adv. kuma, hario, na sabo, 
dada, dai; the v. kara (add), 
e.g. I did not do so a. ban 
kara yi hakka. 

against, prep. gab(b)a ga, ga, 
gani* ; to stumble a. tuntube 
da; a. his will (= perforce) da 
tilas. 

age, n. 1. -(= period or time) yayi, 
e.g. in the a. of the prophet 
da yayin annabi; 2. (= time 
that a person has lived) sfie- 
kara or pi. shekaru, e.g. what 
is your a. sJiekarunka nawa f 
or sJiekara nawa kana da rai ? 



or shekara nawa tun haifa- 
anka ?; I am eighteen years of 
a. shekarana goma sha tokkos. 

aged, adj. 1. (= of a certain age), 
see prec. 2. ; 2. (= advanced in 
years) tsofo, fem. tsqfua, pi. 
tsoji or tsq/oji; he is a. yayinsa 
ya wuche, lit. his time is past ; 
see old. 

agent, n. nouns denoting the a. 
may be formed from verbs, 
substantives or adjectives by 
prefixing rnai or ma, e.g. gudu 
to run, maigudu a fugitive, 
sasaka to smooth wood, ma- 
sasaki a carpenter; for further 
illustrations see under mai and 
ma. 

agitate, tr. v. see shake. 

ago, adv. tun, tunda, e.g. I was 
born eighteen yeai$ a., see 
age 2. ; this was written twelve 
days a. hwana sha bin tunda 
wonan anrubutashi) long a. da, 
daa, lokachin da, tundadewa, 
dawuri, dauri, tuntuni. 

agree, v. gama, gamu, yerda, yin 
baki data, tangos, saddu, jit(t)o, 
jet(t)o, damre magana; agreed 
. to yerdade. 

agreeable, adj. 1. (= pleasant) da 
- dadi, dadi, daidai; 2. (= wil- 
ling), e.g. if you are a. en (or 
idan) ka yerda, en ka (or kana) 
so. 

agreement, n., to make an a. see 
agree; a. to work for a certain 
sum sheradi. 

ague, n. see fever. 

ahead, adv. gab(b)a. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



aid 



altar 



aid, tr. v. taya, yin taimako, tainya y 
tainyo, koro sauki. 

aid, n. taimako, taimakawa, sauki ; 
(= a helper) maitaimako. 

ail, v. e.g. what ails you? mi ya 
8ameka. 

ailment, n. see sickness. 

ainhum, n. i.e. a disease of the 
little toe, hambudiga, mage- 
duwa; cf. also kudumbia a 
disease which may affect all 
the toes. 

air, n. iska, hiska; shan iska is 
the Hausa idiom for to take a 
walk, e,g. let the two of us 
take a walk to enjoy the air 
ni da kai mu biu mu yi yawo 
garin shan iska. 

air, v. see to dry. 

alas, interj. kaito, kaicho, kaitara, 
kaitaro, wai, wainia. 

albino, n. zabia, pi. zabiyoyi. 

alien, n. bare*; see also stranger. 

alight, intr. v. sabka, sapka, sauka, 
8oka, sabki, sapki, shid(d)a, 
shid(d)e. 

alike, adj. daidai 9 suasua; they 
are all a. duka daia ne> supasu 
daia. 

alive, adj. da rai; to keep a. raia, 
raya, e.g. may God preserve 
us a. allah shi raiamu. 

alkoran, n. huran, F 26. 

all, adj. duka, duk, dukachi, je- 
maa*, kul(l)u* ; a. together 
tasashi, tar808hi, tarasashi, to- 
rare, fern. tarara 9 pi. tararu; 
a. of you dukanku, tarinku; 
a. men mutane duka or dukan 
mutane. 



Allah, by wolla. 
allay, tr. v./utasda, kwantasda. 
allegory, n. michali, mithali, mi- 
soli. 
alliance, n. gaya. 
alligator, n. kada or kado, pi. 

kadodi. 
allow, tr. v. ber(r)i, ber, yerda, 

e.g. let me depart berri ni 

taffi, if you a. we will do so 

en kana yerda zamu yi hakka, 

a. me bani yerji. 
alloy, n. haiinchi; unalloyed babu 

haiinchi, safi. 
allure, tr. v. rude. 
almighty, adj. maiiko da kowa, 

maiiyawa. 
almond, n. chanza*, lanza*. 
almost, adv. kus(s)a; it is a. 

finished ya yi kussa kare or ya 

kussa kare. 
alms, n. zak(k)a, kurdin gurasa; 

almsgiving, n. sadaka, to give a. 

v. sadaka. 
alone, adv. kad(d)ai 9 kauxri, abin 

followed by a personal pronoun, 

thus ; he a. abinshi, 1 a. ni 

daiona or ni kad(d)ai; leave 

him a. bershi daiansa ; they a. 

daiansu; a state of being a. 

kaa\d)aichi. 
alphabet, n. arufu*; letter of 

the a. harufi or hurufi, pi. 

harufai. 
already, adv. nadd, dazu, wuri, 

tunda wuri. 
also, adv. kua, usually placed after 

that which it connects, 
altar, n. i.e. heathen a. daka- 

li*. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



alter 



8 



ant 



alter, v. 1. tr. sake, sake, saki, 

saki, sauya; 2. intr. sauya. 
altered, particip. adj. sauyaye, 

fern, sauyaya, pi. sauyayu. 
although, adv. ko, koda. 
altogether, adv., cf. fau, also 

/aye and Ji. 
always, adv. koyaushe, halyaushe, 

tutur, tutul, kul(l)um*, da- 

kul(l)um*, yini*, chik(k)in ko- 

wane yayi*. 
am, v. see be. 
amazed, to be, yin mamaki, jin 

mamaki, jin damua. 
ambuscade, n. see seq. 
ambush, n. kwanto, fak(k)o, hak- 

(k)o; to set an a. yin fak(k)o, 

place of or for an a. mafak(k)a. 
amen, amin*. 
amidst, prep. tsak(k)a, tsak(k)an, 

tsak(k)anin. 
amount, large, n. chushe. 
amulet, see charm, 
amuse, tr. v. bada or sa murna, 
ancestor, n. kaka; ancestors usa- 

li*, awali*. 
ancestry, see under ba. 
and, conj. da, wa*. 
angel, n. malika*, rnaliki*, pi. 

mala'iku. 
anger, n. fushi, haushi, kankanchi, 

takaichi, hasdla*, zajm zu- 

chia*. 
angry, to be, v. yin fushi, fusata, 

yin tsewa; to be a. with chi- 

chik(k)a, yin chichik(k)a, jin 

takaichi; he feels a. yana jin 

haushi. 
angry, adj. da fushi) one who 

is a. maifushi. 



anguish, n. azaba, zogi, zafin 
zogi*. 

animal, n. bis(s)a, pi. bis(s)ashe or 
bis(s)aje) domestic animals bis- 
(s)ashen gid(d)a, wild animals 
bis(s)ashen daji, abin daji or 
naman daji, 

animosity, n. see hate. 

ankle, n. dundunia, idon kafa, 
idon sou, pi. ijian sau ; a. bone 
dombubu, dongudu, a. joint 
dongudu. 

announce, tr. v. gaya, faa\d)i, 
labari*, laberta; to a. as a 
herald does the coming of some 
one gabato, gabatowa. 

annoy, tr. v. dame, dama, hai- 
yet(t)a, wohalda, wohalshe, sa 
wohal(T)a, alale. 

annoyance, n. alaU, wohaHf)a. 

anoint, e.g. with oil or water, 
tr. v. shafa, shafe. 

anon, adv. sai anjima t jima kad- 
(d)an. 

another, pron. woni, fern, wota, 
pi. wosu and wodansu; often 
rendered with kuma, e.g. woni 
kuma. 

answer, n. amsa, jawabi*. 

answer, v. amsa, yin amsa, to 
give an a. karafafa*. 

ant, n, chocha; different species 
are zag(g)o; small a. sar(r)i; 
small stinging a. tirmani; small 
black a. chinaka or chirnaka 
or tuma da gaia; large black 
travelling a. kwalkwas{s)a, 
kwarikwas(s)a or kwarukwas- 
(s)a; black stinging a. turu- 
rua; very small black a. kur- 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



antelope 



9 



armlet 



dafi; small red a. kiashi or 
kiyashi* ; white ants (i.e. ter- 
mites) gara, pi. garani; gara 
is also used of ants generally. 

antelope, n. barewa, pi. bareyi; 
young a. dan oarewa', diff. 
species are : large a. gonki, 
mariri, kanki or kenki; small 
red a. gada, pi. gadu; a. leu- 
coryx wcUwaji ; male of a large 
species kisshimi. 

ant-hill, n. suri, pi. sura ; the 
ants called zag(g)o and gara 
construct the ant-hills sura. 

anticipate, v. tsaitse, e.g. I got 
before him na tsaitseshi 

antimony, n. kolli, kwolli, kwalli, 
tozali; small skin bottle for 
holding a. tandun tozali, gid- 
(d)an kolli. 

anvil, n. makera*. 

anxiety, n. machiata,matainache*. 

any, indef. pron. kowa. 

anyhow, indef. pronl. adv. ko- 
kak(k)a. 

anyone, indef. pron. kowa; ko- 
wane, fern, kowache; kowa- 
nene. 

anything, indef. pron. komi ; not 
a., nothing babu komi, ba komi. 

anywhere, indef. pronl. adv. ko- 
enna. 

apart from, adv. bamda, dabam 
dabam. 

apartment, n. (= room) daki, pi. 
dakuna 

apparatus, n. kaya or kaia, pi. 
kayayeki. 

appear, intr. v. bayen(n)a, god- 
(d)u. 



appearance, n. kama, pi. kama- 
nu. 

appease, tr. v. lalashi, lilashi, 
yin dadi. 

appetite, n. kodai*, kwadai*. 

appoint, tr. v. (= to order, used 
of God) kaderta ; (= to select 
for an office) zaba, zabe; ap- 
pointed zababe, fem. zababa, 
pi. zababu. 

approach, intr. v. yi kus(s)a, see 
near. 

approve of, v. yerda; approved 
of, adj. yerdade, fem. yerdada, 
pi. yerdadu, tabbatachia, e.g. 
magana tabbatachia approved, 
i.e. true words. 

apricot, wild, n. tsada*. 

apron, n. bante, pi. bantuna. 

Arab, gent. n. ture, bature or 
baturi, pi. turawa; an A. ba- 
laraba, pi. larabawa; that 
which pertains to the Arabs 
turanchi ; the Arabic language 
turanchi. 

are, v. ne, che, ke, ki ; phr. there 
a. ina, akoi, akwoi; there a. 
to me, i.e. I have sun yi 
mani, ayi mani. 

aright, to direct a. daidaita. 

arise, intr. v. falaka, tashi, taso, 
tsira, tsire, tsiro or chira, chire, 
chiro. 

arm, n. 1. (i.e. the limb) damshi; 
the fore-arm gab(b)a ; the up- 
per part of the a. damichi or 
damshi, pi. damasa; 2. arm 
(i.e. weapon), see arms. 

armhole, n. hamata, pi. hamatu. 

armlet, n. gen. kundeg(g)e or 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



armour 



10 



assembly 



kwondeg(g)e ; a. made of metal 
kara/a; a. made of kanwa or 
natron kar(r)au or kar(r)o, pL 
karaurawa, ungurnu ; a. made 
of plaited grass, worn by chil- 
dren dirumbua. 

armour, n. chain or iron a. sulke ; 
a horseman's a. kuniakum(m)i. 

armpit, n. hamata, pi. hamatu. 

arms, coll. (= weapons, etc.) ma- 
kami; battle a. kayan daga, 
kayan yaki. 

around, adv. kewoye, gewoye, 
prep, kewoyen, gewoyen. 

arouse, tr. v. tada, tashe, tayes*, 
tayesda*. 

arrange, tr. v. gara, gera; to 
a. the hair (= to comb or 
dress the hair) gerta, gertatoa. 

arranged, adj. shiriyaye, fern. 
shiriyaya, pi. shiriyayu ; ger- 
tache*, fern, gertata*, pi. ger- 
tatu*. 

arrive at, v. is(s)a, is(s)o, wata*. 

arrogance, n. foma, fululu*. 

arrogant, n. one who is a. rnai- 
foma, pi. masufoma. 

arrow, n. kibia, chibia*, shib(b)a*, 
pi. kibo, gora, pi. gororo and 
gorina ; bow and arrows bakan 
kibia ; quiver for arrows kwo- 
rin kibia ; special names of a. 
poison are tumia or tinia, zab- 
gai, uwal deffi> gen. deffi ; e.g. 
they (the arrows) are poisoned 
8una da deffi. Arrows are 
made from the reed-like plants 
named kemru, sheme, gazara*. 
A. notch gofi. 

art, n. gon(n)i. 



article, the indefinite, see a. 

as, adv. kam(m)a 1 yedda, kauda, 

ya*, yi*, yina*, wa* ; = when 

da. 
ascend, v. shirga, havoa or hau> 

constr. with bissa or binsa ga ; 

e.g. he ascended the hill ya 

hau bissa tudu. 
asclepias gigantea, n. tumfqfia, 

pi. tumfafi ; bambana (?). 
ashamed, to be, intr. v. jin 

kumia. 
ashes, n. toka, pL tokuna ; hot a. 

rufu8hi, rvbshi) rabchi*. 
aside, e.g. I turn a. from the 

path ina ras(8)iwa dagga bissa 

hainya ; abaya, ga baya*. 
ask, v. roko, roka, yin tambaya; 

one who asks maitambaya j to 

a. of or from roko, roka ; to a. 

favour from dogare*. 
asking, continued a., n. kokonto. 
ass, n. jaki, fern, jakainya, pi. 

jakai or jakuna ; large male a. 

bingi, diff. species have the 

foil, names; a. with red body 

jimrau; red a. aura, reddish 

brown a. id{d)ubar, tawny a. 

orraki and dan orraki; large 

black a. jaba*; white a. mug- 

(g)o ; a spec, of wild a. is also 

found called kaf(f)on mariri. 
assault, tr. v. (as in war) firvfiaki, 
assemble, v. gayya, tara, intr. 

taru. 
assembled, to be, taru, particip. 

tarare. 
assembly, n. gayya or gaia alu- 

ma* - y royal assembly - room 

fag(g)e, dandali. 



Digitized by 



GooQle 



assent 



11 



away 



assent, v. kada kai, ged(d)a kai. 
N.B. assent is very frequently 
expr. by keau as in the phr. da 
keau. 

assist, tr. v. taya, yin taimako. 

assistance, n. taimako, taima- 
kawa, sauki ; a. in war gu- 
dunmawa. 

assure, to a. a person of the 
reality of anything gaskata or 
gaskanta. 

assured, to be a. of (= to feel sure) 
tabbata or tabbeta, e.g. are you 
a. of this 1 ka tabbeta ? cf . seq. 

assuredly, adv. da gaskia, babu 
shakka, babu wawa* ; he is a. 
there ya tabbeta nan ; he is a. 
a heathen ko tabbeta kqfiri ne 
D24, cf. prec. 

asthma, n. fuka. 

astonished, to be, v. jin damua, 
jin mamaki, yin mamaki. 

astonishment, n. damua. N.B. 
a common exclamation ex- 
pressing astonishment is hub- 
baf 

astringent medicine, n. magani 
maikama chik(k)i. 

at, prep., e.g. aumri chan at that 
place ; this ' at ' is often pre- 
fixed to gare, chik(k)in and 
bissa ; ga {gave with pronouns), 
e.g. ga gia\d)a at home ; dag- 
(g)a, e.g. shi ne dagga nan he is 
at that spot, i.e. he is there; 
gv/n*, e.g. gunchan = aumri- 
chan. 

atmosphere, n. dunia*, duniya*. 

attain, to a. to same, samu, kai. 

attempt, v. kokari, yin kokari; 



A 26 ka yi kokari rakia do 
thou a. or endeavour to escort. 

attend, to a. to (= to look care- 
fully into) lura; to listen to 
ji, saurara, cf. attention (2). 

attendant, n. an a. on one sick 
majinata* ; the attendants of 
a king fadawa. 

attention, 1. n.(= serious thought) 
liankula, hankali; rua, e.g. it 
is no matter worth my a. ba 
or babu ruana. 2. to pay a. 
to tuna, constr. with da, mai- 
da himma * to give a. to what 
is said ji, saurara; give a. 
with your ears (= incline your 
.ears to) ka kakarUa kunuwa. 

attentively, to look at a. tao- 
kachi. 

attest, v. shaida, yin shaida, kai 
shaida. 

attested, particip. adj. ehaidade, 
fern, shaidada, pi. shaidadu. 

augment, tr. and intr. v. dad(d)a 
often pronounced as dea\d)i. 

aunt, n. gogo*. 

authority, n. iko, pi. ikoki. 

avarice, n. zergi, tsalimi, Ualumi, 
rowa. 

avaricious, adj. mairowa. 

avaricious, to be yin Ualumchi. 

avenge, tr. v. see rama. 

avoid, v. kalmm(8)a, kalma(8)%he. 

avoidance, i.e. of a missile, etc. 
gochia, gtcchia. 

await, = to wait for one jira, 
jirache. 

awake, intr. v. falaka, falka, falr 
kawa, /alga. 

away, to get a. (= escape) fichi. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



&X6 



12 



bake 



axe, n. gatari; small ornate a. 
kelle; a. for cutting stones 
dundurum; a. with broad 
blade barandem(m)i, sitaka. 

axe-handle, n. bakin yatari. 

baboon, n. bika, pi. bikoka, gogo, 

gata (Y) or gatan biri (?). 
baby, n. jariri, jarili, yarili y 

jinjiri. 
bachelor, n. gobro, goro*, gobso*, 

balaguro ; namiji da shara, lit. 

one who has to sweep his own 

dwelling. 
back, n. baya y baia, jenfi*, hence 

bada jenfi to put to flight; 

phr. on the b. ringingine, on 

the b. of reran. 
back, e.g. to come b. homo, komo ; 

to go b. koma, koma ; to move 

b., intr. v. gu&a, gulgusa, gu- 

rugu,8a. 
backbite, tr. v. chim (chin) baya. 
backbone, n. tsotso, ka(s)shin 

UotBO. 

backward, adv. (= on the back) 

ringingine. 
backwards, adv. baibai, e.g. they 

walked b. su taffi baibai. 
bad, adj. muyu, fem. mugunia, 

pi. miagu; mumuna* or mu- 

mona*; used of corn t8ad(d)eri; 

corn gone b. is called birtun- 

tuna ; b. man dan dunia, b. 

woman jujai; the expr. fari 

ko bak(k)i often = good or 

bad. 
bad, to go b. Tuba t as meat or 

fruit; to render b., to spoil 

ribachi. 



badger, n. tokos ; dege, pi. dego- 

9i<fr 
badness, n. mugunta. 

baft, grey b. akoko. 

bag, n. The language is rich in 
words for b. A small b. aljifi 
or aljifa t pi. aljifu or aljifuna; 
b. made of grass ashasha; b. 
for cowries birgami\ woman's 
b. made of grass burima ; small 
b. for carrying salt chukurufa* ; 
b. of feminine luggage fago* 
or pago*', leathern b. for ca- 
mels, etc. gurara*; large skin 
b. for cowries jikka or zikka, 
pi. jikkuna or jikoki; kan- 
kandi ; b. holding 20,000 cow- 
ries kororo ; very small b. 
lalita*; long, narrow salt-b. 
langi ; a sort of leathern pouch 
sabira* ; skin b. or bottle salka 
or salka, pi. salkuna; small 
leathern or grass b. sarita; 
large b. for holding rice sub- 
(b)olo or saulo; leathern nar- 
row-mouthed b. sulkumi or 
8urukumi; large skin b. taiki 
or taika, pi. taikuna; small 
goat-skin water-b. tandawara ; 
small provision-b. tanura*. 

bag, tr. v. (= to catch or kill 
game, etc.) kama, ka(s)8he. 

baggage, n. kaya or kaia, pi. 
kayayeki. 

bagpipe, n. algaita*, algaitu*. 

bail, see surety. 

bake, tr. v. tuya, gassa, the latter 
also spec, used of baking bread, 
e «g- 2/ a yassa gurasa ; baked 
(i.e. fully baked = the Engl. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



balance 



13 



barren 



colloquial ' done ') nen(n)a, 

nen(n)ane or nun(n)ane, pi. 

nen(n)anu or nun(n)anu. 
balance, n. = pair of scales maau- 

na, maauni, mizani ; abin awo. 
balanites aegyptiaca, n. adua, 

adwa. 
bald, adj. maikwumbe ; b. on the 

top of the forehead maisartko. 
baldness, n. 1. natural b. kora; 

2. b. due to shaving kora, kun- 

dumi or kundumin kai; cf, prec. 
ball, n. makodi; a small b. dan 

kodi ; b. or brick made of mud 

tubcdi; b. of the eye kwayan 

ido ; (= bullet) arsas. 
ballad, n. waka, waka. 
bamboo, a sort of, n. kwangi, 

tukurua*. 
banana, n. 1 . the b. tree ayaba ; 

2. the b. fruit, id. 
band, n. 1. (= company or gather- 
ing) taro or taru, pi. tarori; 

2. (= strip for binding) cf. seq. 
bandage of any kind, n. ratvani, 

pi. rawuna. 
bandit, n. maifetytthe,' pi. mai- 

fa*(8)a. 
bandy-legged, adj. gwami. 
bank, n. (= edge or margin) baki] 

b. of a river is expr. by gefe, 

bakin rua or gechen kogi ; a 

steep b. refe. 
banner, n. see flag, 
baobab, n. kuka. 
bar, n. (= a rod or stick of wood, 

iron, etc.) sanda, pi. sanduna; 

a b. of iron sanda ta karifi ; 

b. used to close a doorway 

gagara bado. 



barbarian, n. 1. (of men in a 
rude, uncivilised state) baibai, 
pi. baibaiyi or baubawa ; 2. (= 
cruel) da mun(n)i. 

barbarity, n. (= cruelty) mun(n)i. 

barbarous, see barbarian. 

barber, n. manzani*; a hair- 
dresser is maikis(8)o. 

bare, see naked. 

bareness, n. wofi. 

bargain, v. taya, taia, tayi, yin 
tayiy yin chiniki. 

bargain, n. (= bargaining) chini- 
ki ) a discussion before making 
a b. alwashi: to haggle over 
a b. yin chiniki; to make an 
offer in bargaining, see prec. ; 
a b. (= cheap) da araha ; into 
the b. (= besides, as well) 
bamda wonan. 

bark, n. (of a tree) fata*, gunda 
(edible), bambar*, bawon* itaA 
che. 

bark, tr. v. (= to strip off b.) 
kware, kwari. 

bark, intr. v. (of dogs, etc.) haf- 
shi, hapshi, habshi, haushi\ 
harmhi*. 

barking, n. (of dogs, etc.) tsu- 
wa. 

barley, n. shaair*. 

barn, n. rumbu, ra/onia \ a large 
b. rufogo. 

barrel of a gun, n. baki, a double- 
barrelled gun bindiga da baki 
biu. 

barren, adj. (used of the female 
sex) reshin haifua, karara, ma- 
tauria; a b. field sab(b)ura*, 
8ab(b)ara*. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



barrenness 



14 



bead 



barrenness, n. (of woman, etc.) 
tauria. 

barricade, n. kagara or kegarua, 
pi. kagaru. 

barrier, n. kaffi. 

barter, n. chiniki ; to b. yin chi- 
niki, cf. bargain. 

base, adj. (= of low worth) banza. 

base, n. 1. (= lowest part or 
bottom of anything) kalkashi, 
kalikashi or karkashi; 2. (= 
support or foundation of any- 
thing) git8ic, guzuy which is 
used physically and also figu- 
ratively. 

bashful, adj. see seq. 

bashfulness, n. kumya or kumia; 
to feel bashful jin kumya, e.g. 
when asking you for this, I 
felt bashful da rokeka wonan 
na ji kumya. 

basin, n. kwachia*. 

basis, n. see base (2). 

basket, n. The following are 
thus distinguished : large b. 
for salt adila or adilan kaya ; 
large b. or pannier made of 
grass gufa or gufata; a kind 
of shallow b. le/e ; small grass 
b. used in making bread mo- 
ron; large grass b. sanfo or 
samfo, pi. 8an/una. See under 
bag. 

bastard, adj. sheg(g)e or shege, 
dan farika. 

bat, n. Diff. species of bats are : 
kadakara*, tatapara*; small 
b. bvribiri; large-sized b. je- 
magi. 

battle, n. fama, faa\d)a, yaki, the 



latter is also the proper word 
for war, q.v. 

battle, to draw up in line of b. 
jadaga. 

battlefield, n. kangan fad(d)a. 

bawl, n. yin kuka, yin ufu. 

be, v. 1. ne with masc. subject, 
che with fem. subj., ke with 
either; they may follow the 
subj. but are often found at 
the end of their clause; e.g. 
he is truthful shi ne mutum 
maigaskia ; she is very beauti- 
ful ita keaukeawa che ; both of 
them are old su bin tsqfi su 
ke ; the above chiefly express 
the simple copula, but see be- 
low (3). 2. ka{8)8hi, ka(8)8?ie*, 
these are used where emphasis 
is laid on the fact or con- 
tinuance of existence; they 
are frequently used in written, 
but seldom in colloquial Hausa. 
3. akoi or akwoi, implying real 
existence, there is, are, was, 
were, e.g. are there elephants 
in this place 1 akwoi giwaye a 
garinga ? ans. there are akwoi : 
ke is often found with nan in 
this sense, e.g. there was a 
certain jerboa woni kurege ke 
nan = akwoi woni kurege. 

bead, n., a large white b. in a set 
of black alama, pi. alamomi; 
round blue b. gal(t)an kirn- 
buri (?) ; a large white seed 
used as a b. girnba, pi. gimbai ; 
a small red b. rigigi; a blue 
cylindrical b. worn by women 
8amfalwa ; coll. beads fari da- 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



beak 



15 



become 



bino, kasba* ; small red beads 
dimbujin zufa ; red beads jini 
(jinin kafiri); beads made from 
black seeds kantururua ; neck- 
lace of beads hutofi ; string of 
beads worn round loins kwot- 
(t)ana; red beads murjan* ; 
large red b. murjanin tudu; 
prayer beads tasbi, pi. tasbai; 
woman's girdle of beads tsak- 
(k)ia* ; small beads worn by 
women on forehead zwakia. 

beak, n. maikoto, bakin tsuntsua. 

beam, n., b. above door cUmar 
nani* ; b. or post stuck in the 
ground to support a roof dirka, 
j*9°> pl- jiguna; b. for pumping 
water jigo, kutara*. 

bean, n., red edible b. teereria; 
small b. kwomo; coll. beans 
wake; beans ground up and 
cooked in water are called 
tubani or tabani. 

bear, 1. (= to carry) kai, shid(d)i*, 
constr. with da; 2. (= to pro- 
duce their kind, of animals, 
trees, plants, etc.) hai/e ; to b. 
in the ear as corn goiyo or 
goyo ; 3. (= to endure) jimri, 
(= to b. with one) jimrache*. 

beard, n. geme ; b. of goat rairo. 

bearded, a b. man maigeme, pi. 
masugeme. 

beardless, adj. shagiri, pi. sha- 
girai. 

beast, n. bis(8)a y pi. bistyashe or 
bi8(s)aje f dabba or dabbo y pi. 
dabboni or dabbobi; wild b. 
naman daji, Jirdi* ; wild beasts 
bi8(fs)a8hen daji. 



beat, tr. v. 1. buga, doke, duka y 
dirka, the last sometimes writ- 
ten tsirka, kankanta*; 2. to 
b. down, as earth etc. taka, 
tak(k)i, teak(k)i, tsatsaga; 3. to 

b. or tread grain daka, dak(k)a, 
dadaka, suabe*, tak(k)i, tin- 
gama; 4. to b. a drum yin 
worigi, see drum; 5. to b. in 
war, intr. yin nas(§)ara, trans. 
chi; 6. to b. in a game chi, e.g. 
na chika I have beaten you; 
cf. seqq. 

beaten, part. adj. in sense of 
prec. 3. tak(k)ake, fern. tak(k)a- 
ka, pi. tak(k)aku. 

beating, n. (= a defeat in war) 
artai. 

beautiful, adj. keau, da keau y 
maikeau or maikiyo ; very b. 
keaukeaioa. 

beauty, n. 1. of persons and 
things keau ; 2. of dress, orna- 
ments etc. ado; great b. keau- 
keawa. 

because, conj. don, chewa or 
chiwa, domincJiewa, gama*, 
wachananka*, zama* ; chewa 
and domiiichewa are used in 
written, but not in colloquial 
Hausa. 

because of, prep, domin, don, 
sabbada*, sabbado* or sabboda*, 
zama*, e.g. zaman kushewa, 
F 90 ; b. of me domina, b. of 
him dominsa. 

beckon, v. ged(d)a, to b. with 
the head (in token of assent) 
ged(d)a kai, kada kai. 

become, intr. v. (= to come to 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



become 



16 



beginning 



be) zama, zama, kawa*, e.g. 
she taught him so that in 
course of years he became a 
highly accomplished mallam 
ta koya masa da shekara zua 
shekara ya zama malami mau 
karatu dayawa. 

become, intr. v. (= to befit, to be 
proper) kamata, kamache. 

becoming, adj. (= lawful, cere- 
monially right) halal, halas or 
hallata, daidai; it is b. ya yi 
daidai. 

bed, n. gad(d)o, pi. gad(d)aji or 
gad(d)a8hi y karaga*; to go to 
b. v. kwanta; a b. of mud da- 
kali; cf. seq. 

bed-clothes, coll. n. mayafi. 

bee, n. kudan zumua, pi. kudashen 
zum.ua ; spec, large kind of b. 
burbura, small black b. gal(l)a* 
and rekua; an edible part of 
the b. gal(l)a; young of b. 
gudajen zumua. 

beef, n. naman sa, naman sfianu. 

beehive, n. ainya, butumi, pi. 
butuma, gid(d)an zumua. 

beeswax, n. dankon zumua, ka- 
kin zumua. 

beetle, n. spec, large, black, long- 
legged b. gorgunguma ; stink- 
ing b. gwana, gwano; scarlet, 
woolly b. malufi or mulufi. 

befall, intr. v. same, sama*, samo ; 
it befell him ya sameshi. 

befit, intr. v. kamata, kama*, 
kamache, daidai. 

before, adv. of time dafari, tukun 
or tukun(n)a, nada, kama nada, 
kamandd, wuri and dawuri or 



dauri-y in former time loka- 
chin daa; see ever. 

before, conjunctive adv. = b. that 
kan*, kam* before the labial b, 
kana*, kanda*, e.g. finish this 
b. (that) you do that kare 
wonan kana ka yi wonchan, 
b. it part you kanda ta rabika 
B 57 ; tun and tunda are em- 
ployed with negative clauses, 
e.g. b. (that) he died he com- 
posed a book tunda bai mutu 
ba ya yi woni Utafi. 

befriend, tr. v. see assist. 

beg, v. 1 . (= to entreat, supplicate) 
biko, roko; 2. (=to ask a thing 
of, as alms) barra, yin barra, 
roko (?); I beg pardon gafera 
or gafera mani or mini. 

beget, tr. v. (of the male) haife. 

beggar, n. maibarra, mobarrachi, 
mairoko, almajiri, fern, alma- 
jira, pi. almajirai, gardi* ; 
spec, an idle b. maikasala, a 
b. on the road masarchi, a 
b. who sings a great man's 
praises maabba, one who lives 
by begging food kwarika or 
kwaraka. 

beggar, to wander far alone as a 
b. intr. v. kasfyada*. 

begging, n. marokachi, rokachi*. 

begin, v. fara, yin fara, dora, 
soma, e.g. when he began to 
speak da ya fara chewa or da 
ya fara yin magana. 

beginning, participial n. farawa, 
he who is the b. of (my) writ- 
ing farawa na karatu D 1 ; 
ferko, taferko, mafari, from the 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



beguile 



17 



bend 



b. of the world dagga mafarin 
dunia. 

beguile, tr. v. rude. 

behave, intr. v. (=to turn out, 
prove) zama t e.g. ni zama da 
hankali I shall b. wisely; 
maida*. 

behaviour, n. (= character, con- 
duct) hal(l)i. 

behead, tr. v. yenke G 3, debe kai. 

behind, adv. baya or baia, abaya, 
dag(g)a baya; that which is 
b. abin baya. 

behind, prep, baya or baya ga, 
with suff. prons. gore, e.g. b. 
them bayagarem. 

behold, v. duba, dubo, gan(n)i, 
tsokachi, yin kal(l)o*, exclam. 
phr. b. duba! b. him or it 
gdshi! b. her or it gdta ! 

belabour, tr. v. buga; cf. beat. 

belated, to be, i.e. to be late in 
arriving yin yauchin zak(k)ua, 
rnakara*. 

belch, intr. v. gesa, geasa. 

belief, n. 1. (= creed) addini; 
2. (= credence) bangaskia. 

believe, y. to b. a fact gaskata, 
gaskanta, to b. a person bada 
gaskia, yin gaskia constr. with 
prep, ga, to b. in hankora*, 
kas(8)ada* as to b. in God. 

believed in, particip. adj. yer- 
dade, fem. yerdada, pi. yerdadu. 

believer, n. mumini* or mu- 
moni*. 

bell, n. small b. attached to horse 
gorje, gurje, kar(r)au or kar(r)o, 
pL karaurawa ; small bells on 
horses' heads chikasoro. 

R. II. 



bellow, intr. v. ruri. 

bellows, n. majuri, mafurin wuta, 
zigazigai } zigazigai or (F 188) 
zugazuganta* ; a man who 
blows b. mazigi; the stick of 
the b. maziga. 

belly, n, chik(k)i; cf. abdomen. 

belong, intr. v. 1. (= to be the 
property of) na, fem. ta with 
the forms of the v. to be, e.g. 
this book belongs to Hassan 
litqfi nan na hassan ne, the 
horses b. to the king dawaki 
mi ke na sariki, that stick 
belongs to this man sanda 
chan ta mutume nan che, it 
belongs to me nawa ne or ni 
ke da shi; 2. (= to be native 
of) e.g. he belongs to Kano shi 
dan kano ne, 

belongings, n. (= property) du- 
kia, and in a still more general 
sense abubua. 

beloved, n. masoyi, fem. masoya, 
pi. masoyu, hie* or nalele* ; 
a thing b. abin kamna. 

below, 1. adv. a kas(8)a, akass, 
baya*, baia*; 2. prep, kalka- 
shin, kalikashin, karkashin. 

belt, n. mamtayi, abin damre, 
madamre; b. for sword ha- 
mUu*. 

bench, n. kushera, pi. kusheru. 

bend, tr. v. kalmas(8)a*, kal- 
ma(8)she*, karkat(t)a, kakartsa, 
tankosa, tankwastya, tonkwo- 
she (?); spec. karkat(t)a or 
kakartsa with or without kune 
(ear) to b. down (the ear) in 
order to attend to what is 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



bending 



18 



beware of 



said; tunkushe to b. the leg; 
duka intr. to b. so as to touch 
the earth with the head ; cf. 
bent. 

bending, n. laudi*. 

beneath, adv. and prep, see be- 
low. 

beneficial, adj. see seq. 

benefit, n. anfani; of b. (= bene- 
ficial) da anfani, maianfani. 

benevolence, n. (=an act of b.) 
keauta, abin keanta. 

benign, see kind. 

bent, adj. gangare or gangara, pi. 
gcmgaru ; b. or tottering, as of 
a wall, karikache, fern, kari- 
kata, pi. karikatu; a man with 
a b. arm mailaushi, with a b. 
leg gwami, old man with b. 
back takoko. 

bent, to be, yin gangare. 

Benu6, the river, pr. n. tsada or 
ruan tsada. 

benumbed, to be, intr. v. gage* 
or gaga*) my foot is b. dela 
ya kama kaffata. 

bereavement, n. kewa or kiunz. 

bereft (= devoid of) in phrases 
like b. of sense moras, reshi, 
e.g. marashankali, b. of shame 
maraskumia, b. of strength re- 
shin karifi; see under ras(s)a. 

beseech, v. see ask. 

beseem, v. see befit. 

beside, prep. (=at the side of) 
wojen, aiMJen ; in a looser 
sense, kus(s)a ga, tare da. 

besides, prep, bamda, bay a, bayan, 
baia, baian, baya ga. 

best, adj. this can only be expr. 



by the phr. ya fi duka, mafi 
duka, or ya fi kotva* cf. Hausa 
Gr. p. 46, § 5. 

betray, tr. v. (= to deliver up 
treacherously) no special term, 
it may be expr. by phr., e.g. 
he betrayed him ya badashi 
da munafuchi or ya badashi 
yana yin munafuchi. 

betroth, tr. v. rik(k)e, rik(k)a, 
rik(k)i. 

better, adj. 1. gen. dama, e.g. it 
were b. ya yi dama ; (= su- 
perior) mafifichi foil, by dag(g)a 
to expr. than ; fi, e.g. it is b. 
so yafi; gara, e.g. it is b. gara, 
it is b. so gara hakka, it is 
b. for me to stop ni gara en 
tsaya; kiriki, e.g. he is a b. 
man ya yi kiriki ; 2. a b. state 
of health is expr. by means of 
dama, afua, rongomi, e.g. to 
feel b. jin dama, jin rongomi, 
to get b. samu dama, samu 
rongomi, also by wartsaka* ; 
cf. Hausa Gr. p. 45. 

between, 1. adv. tsak(k)a, tsak- 
(k)ani, zakani*, e.g. he was b. 
shi ne tsak(k)a (or atsak(k)a); 
2. prep. tsak(k)an, tsak(k)anin, 
e.g. b. them tsak(k)aninsu. 

bewail, v. 1. intr. kuka, yin kuka 
G 4; 2. tr. expr. by 1. with 
preps, given under on account 
of. 

bewailing, 1. particip. n. (=the 
act of b.) kukawa; 2. concr. 
(= wail) kuka. 

beware Of, v. yin hankali or 
tuna*, tunane* constr. with 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



bewilder 



19 



bird 



prep, da, e.g. b. of that log 
lest you fall over it ka tuna 
da ichen nan sai ka fadi bissa. 

bewilder, tr. v. dame. 

bewildered, to be, intr. damu, 
jin damua; he was b. ya ba- 
tasda kainsa. 

bewilderment, n. damua ; owing 
to his b. he left the path sab- 
boda damua (or jin damua) 
ya rache hainya. 

bewitch, v. yin mayi*, yin ma- 
yanchi*. 

beyond, 1. adv. of place bay a, 
baia; (= further on, at a dis- 
tance) nesa, da, or dagga or na 
nesa, e.g. that which lies b. 
abin bay a; 2. prep, bay a, baia, 
more usually bayan, baian, ke- 
taren ; 3. fig. (= surpassing) 
faskare, fi, e.g. it is b. me ya 
faskareni or yafini, b. man ya 
fi mutum. 

beyond, to go, v. e.g. he went b. 
sea ya ketare gulbi. 

bid, v. 1. (=to command) hahwmche, 
hakumta ; 2. (= to offer a price 
for) taya, taia, tayi, yin tayi. 

big, adj. 1. (of size) baba, pi. main- 
ya\ also fig. (= important), e.g. 
a b. man bab(b)an mutum or 
mutum baba ; 2. (= pregnant) 
da chik(k)i; 3. (= pompous, 
arrogant) da gvrimam, kai, mai- 
foma, pi. mamfoma. 

bile, n. amai. 

bill, n. 1. (= account) lisafi or 
lesafi ; 2. (= beak) makoto. 

bind, tr. v. 1. damre, darvme, 
daure, damra* or darmi*, sar- 



kqfe, tanke*; spec, to b. fast 
teuke; to b. grass with cords 
so as to form roof yamche or 
yamchi ; to b. up tight su/uri, 
8ufurchi or sufili. 

binding, particip. n. sarkafewa; 
boards or stiff covers for b. 
books bongo, taderishi. 

bird, n. tsuntsua or zunzua, pi. 
tmnteaye or zunzaye. The 
following are some of the com- 
monest Hausa birds, most of 
which have not yet been iden- 
tified : a small sparrow-like b. 
baiwan attah, a small b. bam- 
bami, small white diving b. 
benema*, small black mosquito- 
eating b. berbira, large b. said 
to drink once only in two days 
burtu, large white-breasted 
wading b. chakagi, a black b. 
which settles on donkeys' backs 
cherki, red b. (plover T) dan- 
raguwa, small edible water b. 
dunia, large carnivorous b. 
(eagle f) duki, small partridge- 
like b.fakara, white red-beaked 
b. (wild goose?) gaba, pi. gabobi, 
yellow-breasted b. gado, large 
red-beaked light-blue b. gaga- 
fa, crested crane, i.e. balearica 
pavonina gamraka, gauraka, 
goraka, garmaka, honey-guide 
b. gunda*, large black and 
white crow hankaka, pi. han- 
kaki, kankaku; pigeon-like b. 
with red rim round eyes has- 
bia or harbia, b. larger than 
hankaka black and white plu- 
mage jinjimaka, large black 
2—2 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



bird lime 



20 



bleaching 



edible b. kadabkara, large black 
downward-gazing b. kahiganin 
allah, large aquatic nocturnal 
b. madundumi*, small b. feed- 
ing on guinea-corn moral, a b. 
whose note is heard at evening 
rago maza, white red-footed b. 
(dotterel?) tak(k)abod(d)o, small 
b. (like baiwan allah) teada, 
large black b. tuji, small white- 
breasted b. (like baiwan allah) 
zazewa, long-beaked water b. 
zulbi. 

bird lime, n. dankon tsuntsua. 

birth, n. 1. (= coming into life) 
haifua ; since your b. tun hai- 
fuanka = since you were born ; 
2. (= the act of bringing forth) 
haifua, jego ; 3. (= condition 
or rank with respect to b.) 
zama, e.g. his b. and parentage 
were as follows, his father was 
learned and so was his mother 
zamansa ke nan ubansa ma- 
lami ne uwansa kua ita che 
malam-a. 

birth, to give b. to, tr. v. haife, 
haife, yinjego. 

birth, a woman about to give b. 
to a child karembiki. 

birth, untimely b. katamtamwa. 

birthday, n. rana ta haifua, ra- 
nan haifua. 

birthplace, n. mahaifua, phr. 
wuri enda akahaifa. 

bit, n. 1. (of a horse) lizami, le- 
zami; 2. (= small piece, frag- 
ment) guzura, pi. guzure. 

bit, the strap tied to the b, n. 
kamazoro. 



bitch, n. kar(r)ia. 

bite, n. chizo. 

bite, tr. v. chizo or yin chizo, 

chiji* ; of snakes etc. (= to 

sting) save, tab(b)a, halbi. 
bitter, adj. da doachi, da dachi ; b. 

like lemons da yami, madaehi. 
bitterness, n. doachi or dachi. 
black, adj. bak(k)i, fem. bak(k)a, 

pi. babaku; very b. bak(k)i ker- 

(r)in; a b. horse akawali, chi- 

clterro. 
blacken, intr. v. (= to become or 

turn b.) zama bak(k)i, sauya 

or sawoya bak(k)i. 
blacksmith, n. maikira or makera, 

fem. makeria, pi. muk(k)ira ; 

the fem. = blacksmith's wife, 
bladder, n. mafusara, jikka*. 
blade, n. 1. (of corn etc.) kara- 

mami, karmami, kara*, tofi* ; 

2. (of knife) karifin wuka ; 

3. (= broken b. of sword) ku- 
duru. 

blame, n. 1. (= finding fault, re- 
proof) zami*\ 2. (= fault, guilt) 
laifi. 

blame, tr. v. 1. (= to reprove, 
check) kwaha ' or kwobe*, yin 
tsawa*; 2. (=to impute guilt) 
bada laifi. 

blameless, adj. maraslaifi, babu 



blanket, n. bergo or burgo. 
blaspheme, v. yin alfas/ia, yin 

suabon allah. 
blasphemy, n. alfasha magana, 

maasai*. 
blaze, n. (of fire) zakani*. 
bleaching, chalk used for, n. alii. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



bleat 



21 



blow 



bleat, intr. v. kdra and gen. yin 

kuka. 
bleed, v. intr. tsaga or phr. zub(b)a 

da jini ; tr. ja jini or JU(t)a 

jini constr. with prep. ma. 
bleeding, particip. adj. see bloody, 
bleeding sickness, n. tsagia; 

b. from nose hab(b)o. 
blemish, n. 1. material or physical 

b. aibu, lahani, e.g. a b. in the 

eye lahani ga ido\ b. consisting 

in a spot of different colour in 

cloth etc. 8qfani; 2. moral b. 

aibu. 
bless, v. barka, alberka used with 

yi or wa, e.g. he blessed ya 

wa alberka. 
blessing, n. albarka or alberka, 

sal(l)ati*. 
blighted, adj. applied to corn, 

kuturu, pi. kutare. 
blind, adj. kafo, pi. kafi, makafo, 

pi. makafi, ido kishimi* or idon 

kishimi* or kishimin* ido. 
blind, tr. v. = to make b. ma- 

kamta. 
blindness, n. makamchi, makam- 

ta, makopchi. 
blink, intr. v. rumche, rumtsi. 
bliss, n. nima; cf. D 75, 78, 

F222, 223. 
blister, n. 1. i.e. something to 

cause blistering farsa, farisa ; 

2. of the skin ?ali, soli or 

soale. 
blister, v. 1. tr. farcha; 2. intr. = 

to be blistered §al% §oli, soale, 

and yin soli. 
blood, n. jini. 
bloody, adj. = bleeding or blood- 



stained da jini ; his face was 
all b. (or covered with blood) 
fuskansa duka sai jini. 

blossom, n. fure, pi. furori or 
furaye. 

blot, n. e.g. of ink dole or dun- 
gule. 

blot out, v. yin mairnai, shashqfe, 
the latter used figuratively in 
the passive E 21 (God) shall 
cause others (who live thus) to 
be blotted out ya sa inkasha- 
8hafe wadansu. 

blow, n. gen. buga\ the foil, apply 
to blows given in punishment, 
fighting etc. : a b. esp. in box- 
ing dambe, b. in fighting fada t 
'pl.fadodi, b. with hand mari, 
pi. maruinari, hard b. causing 
wound or swelling roshi, pi. 
raUa, b. in punishment fig. 
sanda, pi. sanduna f coll. blows 
bukata* D 44. — To strike or 
give blow or blows, v. gen. buga t 
intens. bubuga or bugabuga\ 
mari or mare with intens. par- 
ticipial n. marmarawa; rochi, 
toulakayita, tsamki or tsumki, 
dakka with intens. forms dan- 
daka and dendaki; to give a 
b. with clenched fist dundu*> 
I gave him a b. that left its 
mark na yi rnasa roshi. 

blow, v. 1. tr. busa, e.g. the trum- 
peter blew the trumpet mai- 
busa ya busa kafo\ 2. intr. 
busa, e.g. the wind used to b. 
all night iska ta kan busa dere 
duka; spec, to b. the nose 
Jiachi, to b. the fire under a 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



blowing 



22 



border 



cooking pot girke, girki, to b. 
water out of the mouth teddas, 
b. a fire zuga,/ura, e.g. b. up 
the fire with the bellows ka 
fura vmta da mafuri. 

blowing, n. busa y e.g. the b. of 
the trumpet, wind, etc. busan 
kafo, busan iska; b. of water 
out of the mouth teddaswa. 

blown upon, i.a dried, adj. bu- 



blue, n. shuni orjuwi*. 

blue, adj. da shuni or da juni*, 

dafafi*; spec. b. cloth shudi, 

turkvdi, saki*. 
blue, to be, intr. v. saki*, sold* 

or soaki*, 
blunder, see mistake, 
blunt, adj. da laiwhiwa; in the 

sense of devoid of edge babu 

kaifi. 
blunt, to be, v. dal(l)ashe, da- 

lishi. 
bluntness, n. (of a knife) tade- 

rishi, laushiwa. 
boar, the wild, n. alhanzir, gado, 

fern, gadonia, pi. gadoji. 
board, n. (= plank) faskari; to 

make into boards yin faskari, 

coll. boards karoki, boards for 

binding books taderishi*, 
boast, v. guri* ; to b. over sam- 

bachi. 
boaster, n. maifoma, pi. masu- 

foma, maitama, pi. masutama; 

b. in war gugirma. 
boasting, n. foma, tama, chi- 

ra/ri*. 
boat (ie. canoe), n.jirigi or jirgi, 

pi. jirage. 



boatman, n. maijirigi, pi. masu- 
jirigi. 

body, jiki, pi. jikuna. 

body-guard, one of the king's, 
n. zarumiy zaromi, zarmi or 
jarimi, pi. zarumai. 

boil, n. kwrji, pi. kuraji; kureji, 
pi. kurareji-jkirchi, gurje, girje, 
urji*. 

boil, v. 1. intr. tafassa or tafessa, 
e.g. it boils ya tafassa or (pass.) 
atctfassashi; 2. tr. daffa or yin 
tafassa, 

boiled, past part., e.g. b. egg hoi 
daffafe da rua. 

boiling, n. taswa. 

bold, adj. see brave. 

bone, n. ka(s)shi y pi. kasusua. 

book, n. litqfi* or letafi*, pi. lita- 
tafi*; takarda*, pi. takardu*, 
kundi, kitaba*; leathern case 
for a b. , n. gajaka or guf (f)aka ; 
large thick b., n. sufuri, sufili, 
sufurchi* ; page of a b., n. 
uxvraka; stiff covers for a b«, 
n. taderishi* , bango or bv/ngo, 
pi. bangaye or banguna. 

book-marker, n. alama or ha- 
lama, pi. alamomi, amara*. 

boot, n. spec, long leathern b. 
safe, high riding b. karufa, pi. 
karufai, long riding b. with 
spurs kufit(t)a or ku/ut(t)a, 
pi. kufU(t)ai or ku/ut(t)ai. 

booth, n. buka, pi. bukogi. 

booty, n. kwache or kwashe, also 
abin kwache. 

border, n. 1. of a country iyaka ; 
2. silk b. on woman's dress 
hashia; 3. b. of cloth lafe, lafi. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



bore 



23 



boy 



bore, tr. v.fuda,fude*, hula. 

born, pass. part, haifafe, fern. 
haifafa, pi. haifqfu. 

borrow, tr. v. yin aro, yin ramche, 
e.g. I did not b. much money 
ban yi ramchen kurdi dayawa 
ba. 

borrower, n. rnaidaukan bashi. 

bosom, n. gab(b)a, pi. gab(b)obi, 
kirji or kirji, pi. kirijai. 

both, 1. adj. bin, e.g. b. of them 
duka bin, or su bin ; this may 
also be expr. by dagga wonan 
sai wonan, for this use of sai 
cf. vol. I. har 1; 2. conj. da, 
e.g. b....and da... da. 

bottle, n. tasa or dasa*, pi. ta- 
soshi, tulu, pi. tulina, dalulu; 
small earthenware b. buta, 
water b. calabash kurtu, skin 
water b. salka or salha, pi. 
salkuna, scent b. wukia. 

bottom, 1. (= lowest part or foun- 
dation) guzu or gusa*, kal- 
kashi, gato, e.g. b. of a fence 
gaton darni ; 2. (= buttocks) 
gato. 

bough, n. reshe, refi* or re/o, pi. 
refina or refu, e.g. the tree 
called chedia puts forth boughs 
and its leaves make a wide 
shade iche anache mata chedia 
ta yi refu da gainyenta ta yi 
enua ta maifadi; cf. branch. 

bought, e.g. it is b. asaidashi. 

bound, intr. v. (= to leap up or ; 
forward) tuma. 

bound, past part. 1. (=tied up, 
fastened with a band) dam- 
rare, pi. damraru'y 2. fig. i 



(= obliged, required) wajib, wa- 
jibi with ne or Ice, e.g. we are 
b. to go to the war wajibi ne 
mu taf(f)i yahi. 

boundary, n. iyaha. 

bow, n. (i.e. the weapon) baha, 
pi. bakuna, b. and arrows ba- 
Jcan lcibia* to discharge a b., 
v. halbi or harbi. 

bow, 1. intr. v. (= to incline the 
head in salutation) yin a/(/)i; 
2. to b. down as in the native 
prostration, yin a/(/)i, gwru- 
fani, yin gurufani, runsuna or 
rusona ; 3. to b. or bend down 
(= to stoop) sunkwiya or sun- 
kuya; 4. to b. the head down 
or sideways in order to listen 
karkat(t)a or kakartsa. 

bowed, he is b. down, pass, ana- 
takura D 15. 

bowels, n. hanji. 

bowing, n. i.e. so as to touch 
the ground with the forehead 
8ajada, 8ujuda*. 

bowl, n. tasa or dasa, pi. tasoshi. 

bowman, n. mahalbi, pL maJial- 
bai or rnamhalbi. 

bowshot, n. i.e. the measure 
fagia* (?). 

bowstring, n. surkia, tsarkia, 
igian baka. 

box, n. akodi, sanduki, pi. san- 
dukai, mai8utura*\ spec, small 
skin b. e.g. for snuff bat(t)a, 
pi. bat(t)ochi, small glass b. for 
frankincense lulu. 

box, v. dambe, goraya*. 

boy, n. yaro, pi. yara, yaraye, 
yaye or yayaye, madachi* ; 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



boyishness 



24 



bright 



spec. b. who is third or fourth 
child, the previous ones being 
all girls tanko*. 

boyishness, n. hcU(l)in yaro. 

bracelet, n. tagula or tugula, pi. 
tagulai. 

brains, n. coll. kolua, kwalua, 
kokultoa. 

branch, n. of trees reshe, refi* or 
refoy pi. refina or refu; spec, 
small b. hamso*, b. stripped of 
leaves kotutura or kututura, 
withered branches coll. kwa- 
bruka or kwobruka, thin bend- 
ing b. mmanjia a related form 
of which is teumanjia. 

brass, n. farin karifi or jan ka- 
rifi, gachi*. 

brave, adj. mazakuta, da zuchia 
baba*, maizuchia*. 

bravery, n. mazahita. 

bray, intr. v. (of the ass) berbera 
or bvrbira. 

bray, tr. v. (=to beat small, 
pound) dakka. 

bread, n. (made of wheat) gu- 
rasa. 

breadth, n.fadi i fa8ki. 

break, v. 1. tr. chiri;fa8(8)a,fa8he 
or pasfie; karya, karye, karia 
or karie; 2. fig. to b. a promise 
saki alkaweli or warwari alka- 
toeli; 3. fig. intr. of the day, 
daylight or morning, see dawn; 
4. tr. with various modifications 
of meaning : to b. open rub(b)e, 
to b. to pieces farifasha or 
palpashe intens. of Jashe, pa&he, 
rugunguza*, to b. up karayeya 
and kaririye intensive forms 



of karya, murkoshi*, warn or 

waee, to b. up again dandaka 

or dendaki intensive forms of 

dakka. 
breakfast, n. kalaehi (also - mid- 
day meal), kariyan azumi. 
breaking, participial n. karaya 

and kariewa or karyewa. 
breast, 1. (= bosom) kirji, pi. ki- 

rijai, gab(b)a, pi. gab(b)obi; 

2. (=b. of mother or dam) 

nono, pi. nonua*. 
breath, shortness of, n. fuka. 
breathe, intr. v..e.g. I b. hard na 

yi fuka, to b. heavily lunv- 

fashi, yin sheda. 
breathing, n. heavy b. lumfashi, 

sheda. 
breed, v. ba dia, yin dia, haifi, 

haife, haifu. 
brethren, n. yanuwa; my b. yan- 

uwana. 
bribe, n. toshi*; b. given to a 

judge hila or jila, kirsa, ru~ 

skua*. 
bribe, tr. v. chidacheto. 
brick, n. (made of mud) tubali. 
bricks, to make, v. yin tubali. 
bride, n. (applied to lawful wife) 

amaria. 
bridegroom, n. ango, pi. anguna 

or angaye*. 
bridge, n. kaderko*. 
bridle, n. lizami. 
brigand, n. maife(8)she, pi. mai- 

fa(8)8a; brigands, pi. only, 

rnasutari*. 
bright, adj. fari, fern, far a, pi. 

farari or farufaru; farifet, da 

tachi f tatache, pi. tatatu, b. as 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



bright 



25 



brother 



silver tangarai, the last appl. 
to sky = unclouded. 

bright, to make, or to brighten 
tachi or tashi. 

brim, n. burbishi ; up to the b. 
Jau, e.g. it was filled to the b. 
ya haufau. 

brimstone, n./ara wuta, kibrit*. 

bring, tr. v. kai, e.g. may He 
b. us to the city without lack 
of anything shi kaimu garin 
da babu raehi ga kowa E 49, 
they shall be brought akaisu 
F 189, 191, 196, 200; zo 
constr. with da (lit. come with), 
e.g. he brought the book ya zo 
da litaji; spec, modifications 
are to b. back (=to restore) 
kwonda, inaida\ to b. forth 
fitto da-, (=to give birth to) 
haifi or haife; to b. forward 
(= to adduce) kai or kawa> e.g. 
b. proof kai sliaida, they would 
b. forward a reason su kan 
kawa dalili D 46; to b. near 
to the speaker, also simply b. 
here or b. near kawo\ to b. 
together gabato,jawo; to b. up 
(= to nurse, educate) reno; spec, 
to b. up a child or animal 
whose parent is dead talqfi; 
pregn. to take and b. tareo or 
tario. 

bringing, participial n. kawowa. 

brink, n. baki, pi. bakuna. 

broad, adj. da fadi, tnqfadi, rnai- 
fadi 

brocade, n. kambori* ; white cot- 
ton b. sama, sadowa. 

broil, tr. v. soiya or suya. 



broiled, past part, soiyaye or soi- 
yeye, fern, soiyaya, pi. soiyayu. 

broken, past part. matache, fern. 
matachia, pi. matatu, e.g. ma- 
tatun kworia b. vessels; karaye, 
fern, karaya, pi. karayu, fa- 
8he8he*. 

broken, to be b. up, v. warwari, 
wariwari, woriwori or imwari. 

broker, n. dilali ; to act as b. 
yin dilali; broker's commission, 
cf. seq. 

brokerage, n. (= fee or commission 
as intermediary in sales) lad- 
(d)a ; if the price paid is to be 
ladda chikki {- b. included) the 
seller pays the b. (usually 5 
p. a), if ladda woje (= exclusive 
of b.), the buyer. 

brood, n. coll. (= offspring) dia or 
diya, in a wide or general sense 
iri, pi. irare, q.v. 

brook, n. rafi, pi. rafuna or rafa- 
fuka. 

broth, n. mia t rornua, rumua or 
romo; b. made from fruit of 
dorowa tree dad(d)owa. 

brother, n. 1. dan uwa\ 2. 1ig. 
(= friend) zuma or zumu, pi. zu- 
muna ; 3. as an expr. of regard 
in addressing others (usually 
with suff. pron. no) = brother ! 
or dear friend ! dan uwana, pi. 
yan uwana or yan uwa A 5, 
e.g. you, my brethren, listen 
and pay attention ku yan uwa 
ku jini ku saurara; 4. elder 
b. yaya*, wa y pi. yayu; 5. 
younger b. kane, pi. kanena or 
kanoni. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



brow 



26 



bush 



brow, n. (= forehead) goshi; he 
bent his b. or knit his brows 
(= he frowned) ya damre fus- 
kansa or ya jirkita fuskansa. 

bruise, n. rauni. 

bruise, tr. v. dirje, falfastya, 
rauni*. 

brush, n. teintttiya, abin skara. 

brushy tr. v. (=to sweep with a 
broom or b.) shara or share; 
to b. the hair shafa gashi. 

buck, n. prefix namiji, e.g. b. 
antelope namijin barewa\ b. 
goat bunmru, pi. bunmrai. 

bucket, n. guga, pi. guguna. 

bud, intr. v. yunda, yin gunda, 
yin tofo. 

buffalo, n. bauna 9 pi. bakani. 

buffet, v. buga y dambe. 

bug, n. kazinzemi* (?). 

build, tr. v. gina f kaf(f)a; the 
former is also spec, applied to 
construction of roads, the latter 
to that of roof etc. with beams. 

building, a, n. garu*. 

built, past part, ginane, pi. gi- 
nanu. 

bull, n. 1. (= male of horned cattle) 
sa, bajimi, bajini or bijimi; 
spec, large (castrated) b. bur- 
tumi, kurtumi or furtumi; b. 
for carrying loads with spread- 
ing horns takarikari, pi. ta- 
karikarai ; 2. gen. (= male of 
any large animal) toro*, pi. 
torone*, e.g. bull elephant to- 
ron giwa; toro with omission 
of giwa is often spec, applied 
to the male elephant = namijin 
giwa. 



bullet, n. arms. 

bunch, n. (as a b. of flowers) 
dame or dem(m)i, pi. damuna. 

burden, n. kaia or kayo, pi. kaya- 
yeki. 

burdensome, adj. see heavy and 
troublesome. 

burial, abstr. n. biso. 

burial-cloth, native, n. zugu; see 
winding sheet. 

burial-place, n. makwanche, wu- 
rin b%8ne> wurin kushewa, wu- 
rin husheyi. 

burn, v. 1. tr. koria, kone, kona* y 
kuna*, soiya or suya 9 surya, toi, 
towi or ioya, e.g. the Almighty 
will b. him, he is a profligate 
taala shi toyeshi shi fasiki ne; 
spec, to b. with a hot iron 
lalas ; 2. intr. employ passive ; 
fig. of desire etc., the heart 
burned zuchia ta kuna. 

burning, particip. adj. mai/ura; 
b. disease kona, kone, kona* or 
kuna*. 

burnt, past part. konane f fern, ko- 
nana, pi. konanu; spec. b. food, 
n. kamzo, kanzo or amzo*; b. 
all over, adv. kurmw* F 207. 

burst, v. tr. and intr. fa(8)8he or 
pa(8)8he. 

bury, tr. v. bisne or birna; spec, 
to b. in the earth as locusts do 
their eggs turubude. 

burying-place, n. see burial- 
place. 

bush, n. spec, thorny b. gobdodo 
or kobdodo, sarkaki or sirkakia; 
thick-foliaged b. used as food 
sukuki*, b. with white flowers 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



bush-cat 



27 



button 



from which a scent is obtained 
8oinya, b. with milky poison- 
ous juice tumia or tinia, b. in 
the sense of ground covered 
with vegetation not desert soil 
daji, rukuki*. 

bush-cat, the stinking, n. dam- 
biri. 

bush-goat, n. bachia*. 

business, n. 1. (= trade, commerce) 
chiniMy shag(g)ali, skeg(g)eli, 
shug(g)eli or shag(g)al y pi. shu- 
gulgida, bukata) 2. gen. (= con- 
cern) bukata, e.g. the b. of this 
world bukata ta dunia nan; 
also, in neg. and interrog. 
sentences, rua, e.g. it is no 
b. of mine ba ruana or babu 
ruana, what b. is it of yours 
enna (lit. where?) ruanku% 
3. (= affair or thing) abu y e.g. 
a bad b. abin mugu. 

but, 1. adversative conj. amma; 
da is at times found where 
the opposition is not (as with 
amma) explicit and logical, e.g. 
but are you able to do this? 
da kana iya yin hakkal fache*, 
Jashe*, balshe* or bashe* q.v., 
ber(r)i dai; 2. exceptive prep, 
and conj. sai, e.g. a woman's 
entire body ought to be strictly 
concealed but the soles of her 
feet and her eyes jikin mache 
duk yi alaura ya ke sai ko 
matakai sai ido A 30, those 
who love thee can but salute 
again masowa naka sai kuma 
salmawa F 80 ; neg. there is 
no health in it, nothing but 



sickness babu lafia chikki nata 
sai chiuta B 62 ; there is often 
an idiomatic ellipsis before 
sai, e.g. the whole street was 
nothing but water dukan kasua 
sai rua, nothing but blood sai 
jini; in this way is to be 
explained the phr. sai lafia as 
= nothing but well, i.e. quite 
well. The expr. bamda may = 
Engl, but, e.g. put nothing in 
the pot but meat kada hi sa 
komi chik(k)in tukunia bamda 
noma where sai noma would 
be equally correct. 

butcher, n. mafauchi or mahauchi. 

butcher, tr. v. — to slaughter 
animals in technical sense 
yin fawa. 

butchery, n. tech. = slaughtering 
of animals fawa. 

butt, intr. v. tunkuda, e.g. the 
two goats butted each the other 
awaki su biu suna tunkuda 
jiunansu or da jiuna. 

butter, n. 1. gen. whether animal 
or vegetable mai; 2. cow b. 
main shanu, dungul(l)i, turde*. 

butter-tree, n. the shea-butter 
tree, i.e. bassia Parkii, ka- 
danya; shea-butter, i.e. its 
thick butter-like oil, main ka- 
danya, main kade. 

butterfly, n. bamota or bamauruta, 
kwaro*) the expr. litafin allah, 
lit. writing of God, is often 
used to designate the butterfly; 
cf . tadawal allah, 

buttock, n. gato. 

button, n. makubli or makulfyi*, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



buy 



28 ' 



calf 



pi. makublai, mabantari*, tna- 
ballen riga. 

buy, v. saye, sayi, sai, saida, 
myo. 

buyer, n. maisaye, pi. masusaye. 

buzz, n. am(m)o. 

buzz, intr. v. am(m)o or yin 
am(m)o. 

buzzard, n. rneke, mekiya or mi- 
kiya, pi. mekiye. 

by, 1. prep, instr. (= with) da, 
e.g. he was struck by an arrow 
akahalbe8hi da kibia; 2. prep, 
loc. (=near) ku8(s)a, kus(8)a 
da or kti8(s)a ga, e.g. by the 
shore of the pool ku8(s)a ga 
bahin gvlbi ; (= along by) bay a, 
e.g. we walked by the town 
mun yi yawo bayan birni, by 
the pool bayan kogi; 3. prep, 
distributive, e.g. by fours fudu 
fvdu, by tens goma goma; 
4. adv. (=near) ku8(s)a; cf. 
the following phrases : to stand 
by tsaya hussa, fig. = to help 
taimako and yin taimako ; by 
himself (= alone) daiansa, leave 
me by myself berrini daiana, 
by-and-by anjima and zua 



cackle, intr. v. kerkara, kirkira* 
A 29. 

cage, n. akurike, pi. akurikcvi, 
gid(d)an tmntma, a cage for 
fowl (= a hencoop) akuriken 
kaza. 

cake, n. c. of rice and guinea- 
corn ma8(s)a\ c. of wheat flour 
and honey fankasu* ; c. of 



bean flour and oil soto ; c. of 
oil, honey and rice or wheat 
tsatsafa\ cakes of rice and 
guinea-corn coll. wene. 

calabash, n. gora, pi. gviibna, 
kworia ; spec, small c. kumbu ; 
long necked c. used as water- 
bottle kurtu; c. finger-basin 
kwachia* ; c. strainer raria; 
tree, fruit of which is formed 
into small calabashes kukuki. 

calamity, n. (= distress, adver- 
sity) machiachi, masifa, ma- 
yata D 61, vx>hal(l)a or wa- 
hal(l)a ; a c. (=a distressing 
or adverse thing or event) abin 
mugu or mugun abu. 

calculate, v. (= to compute, reck- 
on) kedaya, yin lisafi, the latter 
is also commonly applied to 
commercial or other accounts, 
bills, etc. 

calculation, n. 1. (=act of com- 
puting or reckoning) kedaya, 
kidda, kididiga; 2. (=sum or 
amount reached by c.) kedaya, 
kidda, kididiga, lisafi, the last 
commonly applied to accounts, 
bills, etc., cf. prec.; beyond c. 
(= incalculable, innumerable) 
su fi kedaya. 

caldron, n. tukunia. 

calf, n. 1. (- young of large ani- 
mal) da, connective dan, pi. 
yaya or ya, connect, yayan or 
yan, coll. pi. dia, connect. dian\ 
2. (- young of cow) marak(k)i 
or mareki, fern. marak(k)a, pi. 
marak(k)u ; spec, a young fe- 
male c. karsaiia*. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



calf 



29 



capture 



calf, n. i.e. of the leg sharaba*. 

calico, n. alkamura ; white c. for 
making tobes mahamudi. 

call, tr. v. (= to summon) kir(r)a 
and kir(r)aye; to c. or sum- 
mon to where the speaker is, 
and also simply to c. kir(r)awo; 
to c. in the sense of to name 
Mr(r)a mna; to express 'call- 
ed' = named or entitled, cf. 
following: a man called Bube 
woni mutum sunansa bube, a 
great man who was called the 
Madaki baba anache mashi ma- 
daki G 4, calling out, verbal n. 
kir(r)a, calling of fowls sdgara* 
A 29. 

calm, n. (= absence of wind, still 
weather) nateu*, also used fig. 
in the sense of relaxation or 
rest ; c. after a storm shiriu or 
shim. 

calm, tr. v. (= to appease) lalashi 
or lilashi. 

calumniate, v. chi baya or chim- 
baya. 

calumny, n. chimbaya. 

camel, n. rakumi, pi. rakuma 
which also = the female c. ; the 
female c. tagua, pi. taguai; 
spec, large male c. amale or 
amali, kutunku* ; smell of c. 
funi*; the constellation of the 
C. tagua. 

camp, n. 1. halting ground of 
travellers etc. zungo, cf. seq.; 
2. (in the military sense) san- 
8an(n)i; camping-place, n. wu- 
rin sabka or sapka. 

camphor, n. kafur. 



can, auxiliary v. iya, also samu, 
e.g. c. you bring here a heavier 
stone than this? kana iya kawo 
duchi ya fi wonan da nauyi 
ko? I cannot lift it ban iya 
na daukeshi or ban iya dau- 
ken&a ; with passives aiya may 
be employed, e.g. it cannot be 
lifted ba aiya adaukeshiy it 
could not be lifted ba aiya 
akadaukeshi ba, he could not 
enter ba ya samu ya shiga. 

can, n. see pitcher. 

cane, n. 1. gora, pi. gororo or 
gorina; spec, water-cane bum- 
gu\ small species of c. kuruki; 
sort of bamboo c. kwangi ; sugar 
c. takanda or takanta; 2. (~ 
walking-stick) sanda, pi. san- 
duna. 

cannibal, n. 1. jan mayi; 2. c. 
tribes of S. E. Hausaland yam- 
yam. 

cannon, n. madafa*, pi. madqfai*. 

canoe, n. jirigi or jirgi, pi. jirage; 
c. cover rumpa, pi. rumfuna; 
c. paddles filafile or fulafvle ; 
c. paddle used as a rudder 
matuki; cf. seq. 

canoe, to paddle a c., v. tuka, the 
participial n. of which is tu- 
kawa. 

canter, intr. v. jigeribti, kokofa 
or kokwa/a. 

cap, n. tagia; spec, a white c. 
worn inside fez fula; a blue 
or black c. fula saki ; c. of red 
cloth with tassel = fez faladara 
or fuladara. 

capture, tr. v. 1. (= to catch or 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



caravan 



30 



carry 



take, of prisoners, slaves) kama, 
e.g. Diko was captured aka- 
kamu diko G 5; same ; 2. (= to 
conquer, get dominion over 
a city or people) chi, e.g. he 
conquered the people, the king 
of Jaba was captured ya chisu 
akakama sarkin jaba ; also to 
c. a town rize, participial n. 
capturing rizewa. 

caravan, n. aiyari; chief of a c. 
jaji; head-man of a c, who 
walks behind it madugu, pi. 
madugawa; guide or fore- 
runner of a c. jagaba or shu- 
gaba, pi. jagabai or shugabai. 

carcass, n. gawa, pi. gawaweki. 

care, n. 1. (= heed) ma in neg. 
and interrog. clauses, e.g. what 
c. of mine is it % enna rucma ? 
hankali or hankali, which also 
has the sense of forethought; 
2. (= sorrow) machiachi or 
machiata ; matamache coll., 
e.g. the cares of this world 
mata7nachen dunia nan. 

care for, v. (= to heed, regard) 
waiwaia, kulla or kullata or 
yin kulla ; to c. for (= to pay 
attention to and so beware of) 
tuna, yin hankuri ; all of these 
verbs except the first govern 
an object by means of prep. 
da, e.g. he cared nought for 
his reproof bai kulla da foron- 
sa ba. 

careful, adj. (= heedful) maihan- 
kali; to be c. see care. 

carefully, adv. 1. (= needfully, 
prudently) da hankali; 2. (-- at- 



tentively) 8ar(r)ai, e.g. look c. 
duba 8ar(r)ai. 

careless, adj. (= imprudent) ma- 
rashankali; (= inattentive to 
work) mailalachi ; spec, of one 
who breaks or injures what he 
gets mabukachi*. 

carelessly, adv. babu hankali, da 
lalachi, da lalqfanchi, da sa- 
kafchi'y to act c. through ab- 
sence of mind shagalichi. 

carelessness, n. 1 (= want of 
care) sakqfchi, sak(k)a* ; 2. (= 
indifference, idleness) lalachi, 
lalqfanchi. 

caress, n. lalaba. 

caress, v. yin lalaba. 

cargo, n. kaia or kaya. 

carpenter, n. masasaki, pi. masa- 
saka. 

carpet, n. kUishi*. 

carrier, n. gen. maikaya, mai- 
kawo* ; spec, hired c. alaro, 
dan alaro) head or chief c. 
8arikin alaro; a trader who 
carries his goods on his head 
dan garwmfa ; money paid to 
carriers mfuri, mfwrchi. 

carry, tr. v. kai, shid(d)i, the 
latter constr. with da; to c. 
in 8hig(g)a da, shiggo da (lit. 
to enter with), e.g. except oil 
nothing shall be carried tied 
up into the town of Zaria 
bamda da mat ba ashiggo da 
komi adamri abirni zaria G 4 ; 
to c. on (= transact) yi, (= to 
continue, prolong) daa\d)a ; to 
c. oneself (= behave) maida 
kama; to c. off taf(f)i da; to 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



case 



31 



caution 



c. through (= accomplish) iyes, 



case, n. (= receptacle, cover) gid- 
(d)a, e.g. needle -c. gid(d)an 
ahira; spec, leathern c. for 
holding a book gqfaka, guf- 
(f)aka, talili ; c. or package 
used as a table kabak(k)i, pi. 
fcaboka. 

case, n. 1. (= state or condition) 
zaraa ; 2. (= event, thing) abu, 
e.g. a bad c. = a bad business 
abin mugu. 

cast, tr. v. je/a ; to c. aside yesda, 
yedda, yashe ; to c. out (= throw 
out) jeja da, jefas, jejasda, 
jefsa*, jefshe* ; (= to expel as 
from the mind, the throne, etc.) 
Jidda, fit{t)a with da, fishe, e.g. 
he was c. (or driven) out aka- 
fita da shi G 4, akafisheshi 
G 5 ; to c. up (= to reckon), 
see calculate; (= to vomit) yin 
amai. 

castigate, tr. v. 1. (= punish) 
falasa, falasa ; 2. (= beat) bu- 
ga, bubuga. 

castigation, n. 1. (= punishment) 
falasa, palasa. 

castle, n. kasru*. 

casualty, see accident. 

cat, n. 1. (= tame c.) kenwa, 
keanwa or kyanwa, pi. ken- 
vmna and kenwai, mag(g)i, 
mu8(8)a, pi. mu8(s)o8hi; 2. 
spec, bush-c. dambiri ; large 
bush-c. or small leopard tsa- 
wanoara; civet- c. mag^g)i 
tental; wild c. kenwa*, mazoro 
also spelt masaru, maswru,' 



miisuru, muzuri and muzv/ru, 
jimolo. 

cataract, n. (of the eye) hakia or 
hekia. 

catch, tr. v. kama, kamu, ruski ; 
to c. cold, e.g. I caught cold 
sainyi ya kamani (lit. the cold 
caught me), I caught fever 
masasara ta kamani. 

caterpillar, hairy, n. kis(8)aka, 
kulba*. 

cattle, n. coll. dabba or dabbo, pi. 
dabboni or dabbobi ; (= cows) 
shanu. 

caught, particip. adj. (of a fire) 
gasashe, fern, gasashia, pi. ga- 
sashu. 

cause, n. 1. (= positive origin or 
ground) guzu or gv&u*, sab- 
(b)abi, 8tbb(b)abi or 8tt,bub(b)i; 
without c. babu sab(b)abi; 2. 
(= reason adduced in proof or 
explanation) dalUi, e.g. they 
give a c. (i.e. a reason for 
confidence) and an excuse su 
kan kawa dalili da huja ; 
hence often applied to texts 
from the Koran, cf. F 138, 
158, 161 etc. 

cause, tr. v. sa, ba or bada, mai- 
da, yi; these are construed 
as follows : I caused him to 
laugh na bashi daria, he caused 
me to fear ya bard tsoro, he 
caused him to sleep ya sashi 
shi kwanche or ya rnaidashi 
shi kwanche. 

causeless, adj. babu sab(b)abi. 

caution, n. (= prudent care) han- 
kali. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



cautions 



32 



chance 



cautious, n. da hankcdi ; to be c. 

yin hankali. 
cavalry, n. garikine*; c. with 
shields garki* or garikine*; 
c. with shields bardi*, pi. bora- 
dine ; collection of c. har(r)i*, 
kangar*. 
cave, m kogOy pi. koguna. 
cease, v. daina or dena, intr., e.g. 
she did not c. ba ta daina ba, 
tr. she ceased crying ta daina 
kuka. 
ceaselessly, adv. kulyaushe 
ceil, tr. v. yabe. 
ceiled, particip. adj. yababe, fern. 

yababa, pi. yababu. 
celebrate, tr. v. (= to praise, 
honour) yab(b)o, yin yob- 
(6)0. 
celebrated, particip. adj. yeb- 
(b)abe } fern. yeb(b)aba, pi. yeb- 
(b)abu. 
celebrity, n. yab{b)o; see name, 
celestial, adj. maisama, applied 

to God, A 2. 
celibate, adj., see bachelor, 
cemetery, n., see burial-place, 
centipede, n. shanshani, pi. shan- 

shanu, buzuzu, kadan-dunia* . 
centre, n. tsak(k)a, tsak(k)ia; spec, 
c. on the inside of thatch roof 
kondo or kwando. 
certain, adj. 1. (= assured, true) 
e.g. c. (i.e. true) words maga- 
na tabbatachia ; are you c. ? ka 
tabbeta f 2. (= one, some) woni 
or wani, fern, wota, pi. wonsu, 
worn or wodansu, cf. a 2.; 
to express a c. person known 
but unnamed (= so-and-so) 



kaza } e.g. a c. person passed 
mutum kaza ya tvuche. 
certainly, adv. da gaskia 9 enche, 
hakika, labudda*, tubbas; c. is 
expressed also by means of 
tabbeta, e.g. he is c. there ya 
tabbeta nan; c. not tola kala* ; 
cf. doubt, 
certainty, n. gaskia. 
certificate, n. laya*. 
certified, particip. adj. shaidade, 

fern, shaidada, pi. shaidadu. 
Certify, v. hakikanta*. 
cesspit, n. saiga, pi. salgagi. 
Chad, pr. n. of lake, tsada or man 

tsada; cf. Benue\ 
chafe, intr. v. (= to feel irritated) 
jin haushi; he chafed at this 
ya ji haushin wonan. 
Chaff, n. du8a } kaikai, soshia; 
small piece of c. tsinki or zinke, 
pi. tsinkai or zinka. 
chagrin, n. haushi. 
Chain, n. sarka or surka, pi. sarka 
or sarkoki; coll. chains sasari; 
c. armour sulke, rnari*, pi. ma- 
rurua*. 
chair, n. kushera*; take a c. 
ka zamna abissa kushera; ka- 
raga*. 
chalk, n. alzibbus*; c. or white 
earth used for bleaching thread 
alii. 
Chamber, n. daki, pi. dakuna; 
very small c. or closet loloki, 
pi. lolokai. 
chamberlain, n. madaki. 
Chameleon, n. hawainya or ha- 

woinya. 
chance, n. see accident. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



chance 



33 



charm 



chance, impers. v. yafaru. 

change, v. 1. tr. and intr. sauya 
and sawaya; 2. tr. maida, 
maishe, sake, sake, said or saki; 
3. intr. mayesda, rikida, jir- 
kita, the last referring to any 
c. of position whether ma- 
terial or figurative; e.g. he 
changed his body ya sauya or 
sawaya jikinsa, I changed to 
a moslem na sauya musulmi, 
the king has changed (the 
value of) the Spanish dollar 
sariki ya maida kurdin-ma- 
dqfa, my master changed my 
wages ubangijina ya sake la- 
dona, I am changing into some 
creature or other ina mayesda 
woni abu, I changed myself into 
a bird narikida tsuntsua; 4. for 
the Engl. c. Hausa very often 
has the weaker expr. become 
zama, kawa*, e.g. she changed 
into a bird ta zama tsuntsua, 
it changed to (lit. became) 
deep black ya zama bak(k)i 
ker(r)in. 

changed, particip. sauyaye, fern. 
sauyaya, pi. sauyayu; sakake, 
fem. sakakia, pi. sakaku ; riki- 
dade, fem. rikidadia, pi. riki- 
dadu. 

changing, participial n. sakiwa, 
jirkitawa, for the application 
of the latter cf. jirkita under 
change. 

chapter, n. (= division of a book) 
kai, sura*, pi. surori*, e.g. the 
tenth c. kai nagoma or sura 
tagoma. 

R. II. 



character, n. 1. (= disposition) 
hal{l)i, e.g. such is his c. lial- 
(l)insa shi ke or hal(l)insa ke 
nan ; 2. (= good repute) suna ; 
he bears a high c. sunansa 
nagari ne, cf. fame; 3. to have 
a certain c. is expressed by 
means of v. tarika, e.g. he is a 
quarrelsome c. (= he is always 
quarrelling) ya tarika fad(d)a. 

characteristic, n. hal(l)i, pi. 
hal(l)ai. 

charcoal, n. 1. gawoi or goi, pi. 
gawaye, not used of burning c. 
for which cf. 2., e.g. they shall 
all become (black) like c. with- 
out doubt sujuya kamar gawoi 
duk babu wawa F 207 ; 2. burn- 
ing c. garwashi, pi. garwa- 
shoshi; 3. charcoal-tree, a small 
tree kiriya, from which is made 
smiths c. garwashin kiriya. 

charge, v. 1. (=to load) chik(k)a 
or dora, e.g. they have charged 
their guns suka dora bindiga ; 
2. (=to command) hakumche, 
hakumta; 3. (=to rush on, to 
attack) fadi (bissa, bissa ga or) 
abissa. 

charity, n. see alms. 

charm, n. 1. gen. whether written 
or of any other kind magani, 
lay a, hatumi or katumi, bara*; 
sunan allah (lit. the name of 
God), this is used of various 
charms which are written on 
a smooth board, the ink from 
which is washed off and swal- 
lowed, e.g. come and let me 
give thee a certain c. to swal- 

3 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



charmer 



34 



child 



low ka tqf(/)o em baka woni 
sunan allah ka hade) 2. spec, 
c. against sword-cut dundu; 
stone c. for woman's neck 
kandu or kandun ido; c. for 
catching slaves etc. kauchi; 
c. against thieves kwanda; c. 
against injury in war guba, 
layan sabani; c. to render 
anyone invisible layan zana; 
c. to ward off arrows sha bara; 
injurious c. sammu or sammo ; 
cf . seqq. 

charmer, snake-, n. gardi or gerdi, 
pi. gardawa or gerdawa, turdi, 
pi. turdawa. 

charms, 1. to write c. tsub(b)u; 
one who writes c. mait8ub(b)u ; 
one who utters deadly c. maita; 
2. (= female attractions) see 
beauty. 

chase, n. (- hunting) farauta. 

chase, v. 1. (= to hunt) yin fa- 
rauta -> 2. (=to drive away) kore. 

chaste, adj. tsalla*. 

chastise, tr. v. kdda, see casti- 
gate. 

chat, n. and v. see conversation, 
converse. 

cheap, adj. da araha, buhu*; it 
is c. shina da araha. 

cheapness, n. araha. 

cheat, n. 1. (« fraud) kura, riba, 
rikichi or rikiche ; 2. (= one 
who cheats) machikura, pi. 
machiakura ; maichin kura ; 
mairiba, pi. masuriba or mai- 
riba da kura \ maizambachi or 
maizwmbata. 

cheat, v. chin riba, chin kura, 



rikiche or rikichi, zambache or 
zambata. 

cheating, n. kura, see precc. 

check, v. 1. (= reprove) kwaba, 
kwobe*; 2. (- hinder, restrain) 
han(n)a. 

Cheek, n. kumchi, pi. kum(m)atu ; 
hair on the cheeks saje or saji. 

cheer, v. bada murna, yin murna. 

cheese, n. chukumara. 

chest, see breast and box. 

chew, v. tr. tamna, tona, tsuk{k)e, 
e.g. we are chewing kola-nut 
muna tamna goro. 

Chewed, particip. tamnane, fern. 
tamnana, pi. tamnanu. 

chicken, n. 1. tsako, tsiako, chi- 
ako* ; dantsako or danchiako, 
pi. yantsako) 2. coll. yanchi- 
ako*. 

chief, n. baba, e.g. he is their c. 
shi ne babanm, also in sense of 
a c, a great man, cf. G 4; 
sariki, often in the sense of 
head or president of any body, 
trade etc. as in Engl, chief- 
steward; ido (lit. eye) poet., 
e.g. behold Bello, chief over 
his kingdom duba ga bello idon 
mallei nai B 76; tunari* ; see 
under fadawa. 

child, n. 1. (=son or daughter) 
da, connect, dan, fern, dia, pi. 
yaya, y ay aye and ya, connect. 
yan; yaro, pi. yara (lit. lad) 
less frequent; 2. (= young 
person) yaro, pi. yara, ku- 
ruchia or kurichia* ; 3. a very 
young c, an infant up to one 
year of age jariri, jarili or 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



childhood 



35 



clap 



yarili, jinjiri ; spec. c. carried 

on a woman's back bumbu, 

goiya; a c. which dies soon 

after birth dan wabi\ 4. with 

c, see pregnant, 
childhood, n. yarinta, yaranchi*. 
Childish, adj. da hal(l)in yaro. 
childishness, n. hal(l)in yaro, 

hal(l)in kankanta, kuruchia or 

kurichia*. 
chill, n. Junturu, especially that 

felt at night. 
chin, n. hdba, pi. habobi ; double 

c. maroro or malolo. 
China, n. geogr. sin*. 
chisel, n. kurufi*; spec. c. for 

cutting iron furufi*. 
choke, tr. and intr. v. makure; 

to cause to c. mmanche or 

sunanche. 
choking, due to swallowing any- 
thing, n. kwar{r)a. 
choler, n. see anger, 
chosen, 1 . pass. v. zabu ; 2. particip. 

zababe, fern, zababa, pi. za- 

babu. 
choose, v. zabe, zaba, zabi*; spec. 

to c. out one or more pieces of 

anything (= to select) wari. 
Christian, a, n. anncLs(8)ara 9 also 

used as coll. pi. Christians. 
Christianity, n. addinin annas- 

(f)ara. 
church, ie. a place of worship, 

n. mamUachiy pi. masallatai. 
churn, v. burka, tunku'i nono*. 
cicatrice, n. tubbo, tombo or tabo. 
cinders, n. garwa&hi, pi. garwa- 

sho8hi. 
circle, n. gud-a*. 



circuit, to make the c. of, tr. v. 

kewoye or kewayi, yin kewoye. 
circumcise, v. yin kachia or 

yenke kachia. 
circumcision, n. kachia; spec. 

the ceremonial used at c. sal- 

lataswa. 
Cistern, large, n. bingi, kurdu- 

duf(f)i, kunduduf(/)i or ku- 

duduf(f)i. 
citizen, n. dan gari, pi. yan gari, 

e.g. everyone comes and goes, 

both stranger and citizen kowa 

ya zo ya louche da bako dan 

gari A 15. 
city, n. birni, pi. birane or birnua, 

used of large and walled towns, 

while gari, pi. garurua and 

garigaru, is applied to less 

important and to country 

towns, 
civet-cat, n. mag(g)en tental; 

frankincense obtained from 

the c. twrare. 
claim, n. alhaki, e.g. as of one 

defrauded, 
claim, tr. v. (= to demand as one's 

own) nema f e.g. I claim my 

own ina nema abin nawa; to 

claim a debt bimbashi ; cf . hi. 
clamber, v. see ascend, 
clamour, n. (=loud outcry) ku- 

rurua, dum(m)i. 
clamour, v. (=to cry aloud) yin 

kururua. 
clan, n. dengi, denga or deg(g)i 9 

pi. dengogi; iri, pi. irare. 
clap, v. (=to strike the hands 

together in applauding etc.) 

tafa or tafi, yin tafi, ban hanu. 

3—2 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



clarify 



36 



cloak 



clarify, by straining, tr. v. tachi. 

clasp, v. (=to embrace) rungume; 
to c. the hands together tafi. 

claw, n. of an animal, ahaifa. 

Clay, n. yimbu, yambu*, e.g. they 
are built of c. anginam da 
yimbu ; lump of c. burugushe* 
or burbushi*. 

Clean, adj. 1. gen. 8ar(r)ai 9 of 
wheat chari or teari; 2. (= cere- 
monially and so also morally 
c, pure) haled, halas, haUata*, 
chari or teari. 

clean, tr. v. e.g. with water dari- 
woye; of the hair, garments 
etc. teapta, cf. wanke; (=to 
scrape off, c. off) gogi, goge, 
e.g. the jackal was about to c. 
off the guinea-fowl's spots dila 
fa zashi goge zone na sabua\ to 
c. from husks mrife or mrufa; 
(to render c.) yin 8ar(r)ai, 
maida sar(r)ai, gerta*. 

cleaned, particip. gertache, fern. 
gertata, pi. gertatu; wankake t 
fem. wankaka, pi. wankaku; 
c. from husks etc., of rice, 
shanshere, surfafe. 

cleanliness, n. of the person, 
clothes etc. tsapta. 

cleanness, n. in a religious or 
moral sense tsarki, e.g. because 
a profligate has no c. zama 
babu tsarki ga maiyin zina; 
cf . seq. 

cleanse, tr. v. (of the heart) tear- 
kaka or charkaka. 

Clear, adj. 1. (of liquids, the sky 
etc.) da tachi ; 2. (= manifest, 
plain) tsahiri, sar(r)ai, kwa- 



rai*; 3. (=pure, irreproachable) 
teari or chari. 

clear, tr. v. used of ground before 
ploughing, 808abe. 

clear, to make, tr. v. (=to ex- 
plain) waye, e.g. this matter is 
difficult, I wish you to make it 
c. to me abu nan da wuya ina 
so ka waye mini. 

clearly, adv. (= manifestly, ob- 
viously) 8ar(r)ai, teahiri, kwa- 
rai*. 

cleave, tr. v. (=to cut with a 
strong blow) sare. 

Cleave to, intr. v. ri£(£)e, rik(k)a, 
rik(k)% daffe, teaushi, e.g. if 
you c. to them (to prayers) 
they will be a gain to you en 
ku rikkem sai maku anfani 
B31. 

clever, adj. 1. i.e. in an art or 
profession gon(n)i 9 pi. gon(n)ai ; 
2. gen. = astute or cunning 
8haitan y i.e. as c. as Satan. 

cleverly, adv. gon(n)i y (= cunning- 
ly) da wayo. 

cleverness, n. 1. (in an art etc.) 
gon(n)inta*; 2. gen. asanchi 
or azanchi, budi, hikima*; see 
ability 2. 

climb, v. hawa or hau, e.g. he 
climbed the hill ya hawa duchi 
or ya hawa bissa duchi. 

cling to, v. robe*; to c. to a 
person in fear rqfaki. 

cloak, n. alkebba, pi. alkebbu, 
riga*. 

cloak, tr. v. 1. (= to put on a c.) 
sa alkebba; 2. (=to conce 
rufe, rufi or rife. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



clock 



37 



clothes 



clock, n. saa*, lot(t)u*. N.B. Such 
Hausas as are acquainted with 
our clocks express 'o'clock 7 
thus, three o'clock saa uk(k)u ; 
half past eight o'clock Turkish 
time saa tok(k)os da shashi na 
turkawa. 

Close, v. 1. tr. saddo, sarkafe*; to 
c. a door, box etc. rufe, rufi or 
rife, yani*; to c. the fist tun- 
kushe ; to c. a hole dun(n)e or 
den(n)e; the door is closed 
(also in fig. sense) anrufe 
ko/a; 2. intr. of the eye in 
death birJdslie, e.g. thine eye 
closes, thy life departs ido shim 
birhislie rai ya Jishema F80; 
3. to c. with, used of a bargain 
or agreement yerda. 

Close by, adv. kus(s)a, yauyau or 
yoyo, e.g. he came c. by ya yi 
yauyau. 

close to, adj. nan da nan, dub- 
bora da. 

closed, particip. (= fastened up) 
girkeke, fern, girkekia, pi. gir- 
keku. 

closet, n. (= small room) loloki, 
pi. lolokai. 

cloth, n. 1. spec, names of stuffs 
are; blue c. shudi; blue, shiny 
c. turkudi; c. formed of blue 
and white strips keke; native 
blue or black c. with silk in- 
woven ridi; native black 
striped c. bunu, pL bunai ; 
native striped c. luru ; dark- 
coloured women's c. zalwani; 
variegated c. zaura or idon 
zaura; variegated c. used for 



turbans bermushi; a kind of 
velvet c. yapki; white native 
c. (calico ?) dimi* ; c. that has 
no seam in it liwasa ; woollen 
c. mulufi or malufi; c. worked 
with gold inside dibajo; 2. 
(= piece of c. in various senses 
and spec. = Engl, 'a cloth') a 
loin c. bante, pi. bantuna, a 
goatskin loin c. walki or wolki; 
a shoulder c. lek(k)i; a small 
piece of a, a c. kalkaf(f)i; a 
piece of c, a woman's c. zan(n)e, 
zan(n)i or zen(n)e, pi. zan(n)ua, 
lulubi or lulube y cf. A 28 ; c. 
gusset in a tobe shiga; a rem- 
nant of c. guzura*, pi. guzure* ; 
a strip of c. kwaria; half a 
piece of c. when it has been 
cut in two ausigi*; a narrow 
silken line in c. borage; to 
twist a piece of c. jainye*. 

cloth-measure, n. cubit kamu; 
8 kamu = 1 zan(n)e, 4 J zon(n)e 
= 1 turumi, the last =22 yds 
nearly. 

clothe, tr. v. 8it(t)ira, sutura and 
sit(t)irta; so (lit. to put on 
or upon), e.g. to put on one's 
clothes so riguno; e.g. and the 
brokers who have made unjust 
profits shall be clothed with 
(lit. shall have put upon them) 
garments of fire, without doubt 
fa dUlalaifa masuriba da kura 
asa masu riguno wuta babu 
wawa F 201. 

clothes, n. coll. tufa as well as 
its pi. tufafi or tufofi ; riguna; 
spec, beautiful c. sit(t)ira* or 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



clothing 



38 



colloquy 



sutura*, Imiba* ; fine, expen- 
sive c. kambi*; old C. keso, 
reg(g)a, pi. reg(g)una, 8um(m)a. 
clothing, n. e.g. fine c, beautiful 

c; cf. prec. 
cloud, n. habaki*, pi. habaka; 
special names, where in Engl, 
adjectives would be employed, 
are : moving c. gilgiji, girgiji 
or girigiji; small white, still 
clouds lumshi; a c. that pro- 
duces a shower zirnania ; 
clouds coll. gajimare or ga- 
shimare. 
Cloudy, adj. expr. by da with 

prec, e.g. da lumshi. 
cloven, particip. rababe, fem. ra- 

baba, pi. rababu. 
cloves, n. coll. kanumfari. 
Club, n. gommi* ; clubs, pi. gu- 

dumai or gundumai D 41. 
coal, n. see charcoal (coal is un- 
known in Nigeria). 
coat, n. 1. riga; 2. c. of mail 
made of cloth and padded with 
cotton, wool, etc. lufudi, pi. 
lufudai. 
cobweb, zar(r)en giz(z)o. 
cock, n. 1. (=male of poultry) 
zakara or zakara, pi. zakaru 
or zakaru; mai8har(r)a, mai- 
cliar(r)a* ; 2. to express pre- 
cisely the male of birds miji 
or namiji (hen mache) must be 
used where the gender is not 
denoted by different words; 
3. as a name of species of wild 
birds like Engl, black cock 
or Fr. coq de roche zakara, 
q.v. 



cockroach, n. kenkes(8)o, pi. ken- 

kes(s)ai. 
coerce, tr. v. 1. (= restrain) 

han(n)a; 2. see to force, 
coffee, n. gahatva or gahwa. 
coffer, n. see box. 
cogitate, v. tuna, the obj. of 

thought is constr. with da or 

ga. 
cogitation, n. tunane. 
cohabit with, v. gamu da mache. 
coil, intr. v. naa\d)e; intr. and 

refl. to c. up nad(d)u. 
cold, n. 1. dari, sainyi, e.g. I feel 

the c. or I feel c. inajin dari ; 

2. (= catarrh) dari, sainyi, e.g. 

I have caught c. or a c. dari 

(sainyi) ya kaniani; 3. spec. c. 

felt at night funturu. 
cold, adj. dari, sainyi, da dari, 

da sainyi, e.g. c. water ruan 

dari, rua dari, rua sainyi, 

sainyin rua, they are c. suna 

da dari. 
collar, n. spec, a padded cloth 

collar used in war to protect 

the back of the neck dagumi. 
collar, to make a, kalmas(s)a or 

kahna{s)s}ie. 
collect, v. 1. tr. tara; spec, to c. 

a debt bio bashi ; 2. intr. taru, 

also the pass, antara. 
collected, particip. tarare, fem. 

tarara, pi. tararu. 
collection, n. (of men and things) 

taro or taru, pi. tarori; tsibi 

or subi ; chushe ; the last two 

imply that the c. is large. 
collector of taxes, n. jekada*. 
colloquy, n. zanche. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



colour 



39 



commit 



colour, n. launi, rin(n)i or rin(n)a ; 

blue c. shuni or jtmi*. 
coloured, particip. turare*, fern. 

turara*, pi. turaru*. 
colt, n. dan dukushi. 
comb, n. masarchi (also masirchi 

and masoshi), pi. masartai; 

c. made of wood or iron ma- 

sefi, pi. masefai and masefuna ; 

comb, the uneaten part of bees' c, 
n. toigal(l)a*. 

comb, tr. v. gerta, sef(f)i, shata 
or shache, e.g. I am combing 
the hair of my head ina shata 
gashin kaina. 

come, intr. v. zo ; (used with pro- 
nominal forms ending in na) 
zua or tsua*, zaka; taf(f)o or 
taho*, e.g. c. to me zo or 
taf(/)o mani, but when used to 
invite attention or cooperation 
yaka, fern, yaki, e.g. c. ! let 
us sit down and converse to- 
gether yaka mu zamna mu yi 
zancJte tare; we came to a city 
mu ka zaka ga woni birni. 
Some idiomatic combinations 
of c. with preps, etc. are : to 
c. about = to c. to pass faru ; 
to c. at is(s)a, ishe ; to c. back 
dawo, dawoyo or dawoiyo, 
komo, bvrkido; to c. by = ac- 
quire, obtain same or »awa* 
samo ; to c. down shid(d)a, 
shid(d)e; to c. in shig(g)o; to 
c. out fit(t)o aud (with pro- 
nominal forms ending in na) 
firfitowa; to c. out from fit(t)o; 
to c. quickly eheko ; to c. to 



gabdto, gabatowa; to c. towards 
is(s)o ; to c. up taso ; to c. up 
with tarda, tarasda; cf. coming. 

comfit, n. attewa. 

comfort, n. 1. (= satisfaction) 
dadi, dadin zuchia, walawa* ; 
2. (= consolation) hankuri, han- 
kura or hakora, sainyi or sain- 
yin zuchia. 

comfort, tr. v. bada hankuri, e.g. 
he comforted them ya bada 
mam hankuri. 

comfortable, to feel, intr. v. jin 
dadi, jin dadin zuchia. 

comforted, to be, (= feel consoled) 
jin sainyi, I am c. zuchiata 
tana jin dadi. 

coming, participial n. zua, zau- 
wa*, zakua; c. back komowa; 
c. here ta/(/)owa; these forms 
are used with pres. ending in 
na, e.g. they are coming here 
suna taf(f)owa. 

command, n. (= order) Jiakumchi 
or hukumchi, pi. hakumtai, 
abin hakumta, abin Jiakumchi. 

command, v. hakumta or ha- 
kumcJie, yin umomi*. 

commander, n. (= leader, chief) 
baba, e.g. tell me the name of 
their c. ka faa\d)i mani suna 
babansu. 

commandment, n. see com- 
mand. 

commence, v. see begin. 

commend, see approve of. 

commission, broker's, n. see 
brokerage. 

commit, v. 1. (=to do, to per- 
petrate) yi, he committed theft 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



common 



40 



compute 



ya yi sata; one who commits 
adultery maiyin zina. 

common, adj. 1. (shared in by 
all) na duka, e.g. their common 
good fortune arzihi na su duka ; 
2. (defiled) haram. 

companion, n. kama, pi. kamanu, 
aboki*, dan uwa* ; a c. of the 
same age tsara. 

companionship, n. (evil) tsa- 
ranchi. 

company, n. taro or taru, pi. ta- 
rori, jam'u* ; in c. (= together) 
tare ; in c. with tare da. 

compare, v. 1. gen. kotanchi or 
kwatanchi; 2. to c. by measur- 
ing golgoda or gorgoda. 

compass, iron, n. bukari*. 

compassion, n. tausai or tausaye, 
sauna* ; to feel c. jin or yin 
tausai. 

compassionate, 1. (of God) er- 
rahimi*; 2. (of men) imani*. 

compel, v. yin tilas, sa tilas, 
tilasa, tilasda, e.g. you c. me 
kana yin tilas or kana sani 
tilas, I was compelled to work 
ansani tilas aiki, I compelled 
the fellow na tUasa mutum, 
I was compelled antilasdani, 
if he refuses c. him idan ya hi 
asashi tilas; cf. compulsion, 
force. 

complain, v. yin kururua. 

complaint, u. 1. (=loud expres- 
sion of grief, pain, etc.) kuru- 
rua; 2. (= sickness) chiwo, 
chiuta or chuta, e.g. liver c. 
chiwon anta; 3. (= a grievance, 
a cause of c.) kara; and so 



4. (= accusation, a legal term) 
kara, sara*, abin sara*. 

complement, n. chik(k)o y abin 
chik(k)awa, yayalwachi*. 

complete, adj. 1. chik(k)achey fern. 

chik(k)aka, plur. chik(k)aku ; 

2. (of number) ba gaira, e.g. 

a c. hundred dari ba gaira, lit. 

' a hundred without deduction. 

complete, tr. v. gam(m)a F 256, 
faa*, and in a less strict sense 
= to bring to an end kare. 

complete, to be, intr. chik(k)a; 
cf . seq. 

completed, to be, chik(k)a, kare ; 
often used at end of composi- 
tions, stories, etc. with the 
Ar. tammat*, e.g. the song is 
finished with thanks to God, 
it is c. tammat bihamdi allah 
waka ta chik(k)a, the account 
of Bornu and that of Kano 
are c. labarin bornu da labarin 
kano sunchik(k)a ; cf. C 65, 
G7. 

completion, n. chik(k)awa y ka- 
mal* ; note of c. placed at end 
of composition iyaka. 

compose, tr. v. 1. (of an author) 
yi; 2. (=to settle or decide a 
dispute) sadda, raba. 

comprehend, v. (=to understand) 
fahimta or fahumta, ji. 

compress, tr. v. matse, matsi, 
mache, d-ankira*. 

compressed, to be, intr. and pass. 
matsu. 

Compulsion, abin tilas ; under c. 
tilas, da tilas. 

compute, v. see calculate. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



comrade 



41 



confidence 



comrade, n. kama, pi. kamanu, 
aboki, pi. abokai. 

conceal, tr. v. rufe, rufi or rife* ; 
boye, boiye or boiyi ; kawaichi, 
e.g. a crime ; to c. oneself = to 
hide boya or boye, also with 
kai, e.g. he concealed himself 
under the leaves ya boye kansa 
dagga kalkashin samami; to c. 
oneself (of lying in wa,it)/ak(k)e. 

concealed, particip. rufafe, fern. 
rufafa, pi. rufafu; boiyeye, 
fem. boiyeya, pi. boiyeyu. 

concealment, n. boya or boiya, 
boiyiwa; place of c. maboiya, 
vmrin boiyiwa B 98; cf. am- 
bush. 

conceals, one who, e.g. the truth, 
n. mairufe, pi. masurufe. 

concede, tr. v. 1. (=to agree to) 
yerda; 2. (= to yield up) ber(r)i 
or ber. 

conceive, tr. v. 1. (of thought) 
tamaha, e.g. I c. (= imagine) 
that they are Moslems ina ta- 
maha mu8ulmai su ne ; 2. (of 
the female sex) haifu, samu 
chik{k)i. 

concern, n. see affair and busi- 
ness. 

concerned about, be, v. kul(l)a 
constr. with da or ga, e.g. he 
was not c. about this world 
bai kulla ba ga dunia C 52 ; 
rua used with subst. v. e.g. 
you are not concerned babu 
ruanka. 

concerning, prep. bis(s)a ga, with 
prons. gave; da, e.g. fear to 
whisper evil c. anyone ka tsor- 



shi ratsa da kowa F 9; sab- 
bada*, sabbado* or sabboda*. 

conclude, tr. v. see complete 
and completed. 

concord, n. saddua ; cf . agree. 

concubine, n. sadaka, wahaia, 
e.g. he was the son of a c, his 
mother's name was Zainabu shi 
dan wahaia ne uwa tasa zai- 
nabu. 

condemn, tr. v. ka(s)she, kasshi* 
or kis(s)a, kada, bada laifi, 
laifa*, kusanchi. 

condemnation, n. kayeswa cf. 
seq., al/iaki, lalata, the last 
quite general = perdition. 

condemned, to be, v. kayes*. 

condition, n. 1. (= state) zama, za- 
manchi; 2. (= terms) sharatsa*. 

condition, to come into a, or 
state zama or zama. 

conduct, letter of safe-, n. woti- 
kan lamuni. 

conduct, tr. v. (= to lead, bring) kai. 

confectionery, n. allewa. 

confer, v. 1. (= to consult to- 
gether) yin shawora; 2. (= give, 
bestow) ba, bada. 

confess, v. furuchi, furchi or hu- 
ruchi. 

confession, n. furuchi, furchi or 
huruchi. 

confidence, n. (= reliance, trust) 
amana, aminchi, amunchiwa*, 
amuntsiwa*, dan§ana, saduda 
or shaduda; to have c. in 
dangana, dogare, saduda or 
shaduda, e.g. I have c. in... 
ina dangana da...; we have 
c. in thee mu dogareka; for 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



confine 



42 



conspiracy 



he puts no c. in this world 
don bai amuntsiwa ga kowa 
dunia; to betray c. chinye 
amana; to justify c. (=to be 
trustworthy) yin aminchi B 84. 

confine, n. (= boundary) iyaka. 

confined, to be, v. (of women) 
haifu. 

conflagration, n. gobara, tur- 
nuka, e.g. prov. gid(d)a biu 
magcmin gobara two houses are 
a provision against a c. 

conflict, n./ad(d)a 1 fama, yaki. 

conflict, intr. v. kar(r)a, kar(r)o 
and yin kar(r)o, e.g. this con- 
flicts with that woncm ya yi 
kar(r)o da wonchan. 

confluence, n. of rivers, magan- 
gami. 

confounded, to be, v. sandare or 
sadare, e.g. on the day when 
thou meetest with the angels, 
thou shalt be c. rana gamu da 
malaiku ka sadare C 8. 

confuse, tr. v. (=to confound or 
perplex) dame or dama, daffa*. 

confused, to be, v. damn; daffa 
kai and sha kai, e.g. for the 
fool would be utterly c. don 
jahili shi kan daffa kai nai 
B 14; he was c. ya sha kansa. 

confusedly, adv. damai. 

confusion, n. (of mind) damasa, 
marbika*, damua*. 

congeal, intr. v. chibaru. 

congratulate, tr. v. barka, gaishe, 
gaida. 

congregate, intr. v. taru. 

congregation, TLJama'a+ijam'u* 
F3. 



conjoin, tr. v. gam(m)a. 

connections, n. coll. kibanta*, 
dengiy denga or deg(g)i, pi. den- 
goyi, q.v. 

conquer, tr. v. 1. (= to acquire by 
war) chi ; 2. (= to overcome) i 
and ima, yin na8(s)ara, yin 
nasfyarchi. 

consciousness, n. tunane (a 
particip. form), fern, tunana, 
pi. tunanu, is used substan- 
tively= thought, consciousness. 

consent, v. yerda, bada yerji, ji* 9 
80, e.g. do you c. ? I do kana 
so t ina so. 

consequence, n. 1. (= effect), e.g. 
in c. of this don wonan, domin 
wonan, don hak(k)a, don hak- 
(k)anan, sab(b)ada wonan; 2. 
(= importance), e.g. it is of no 
c. babu komi, people of c. cf. 
consideration 2. 

consider, v. 1. gen. tsokachi and 
yin tsokachi A 77, tuna and 
tunane with da ; 2. (of a coun- 
cil, deliberation) yin shawora. 

consideration, n. 1. (= delibera- 
tion) shawora ; 2. (= import- 
ance), e.g. a person of some c. 
bab{b)an mutum, pi. mainya 
mutane. 

consolation, n. hankuri, hankura 
or hakora, sainyin zuchia. 

console, tr. v. bada hankuri; to 
be consoled jin sainyi. 

consort, n. 1. see companion, 
comrade ; 2. (of married peo- 
ple) namijiy miji, fern. mata. 

conspiracy, to form a, v. gam- 
(m)a*. 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



conspire 



43 



converted 



conspire, intr. v. yin baki daia. . 
constantly, adv. koyaushe, kul- 

(tyum*, ktdyaushe*. 
constellation, see star; c. of the 

Camel, pr. n. tagua. 
constrain, tr. v. tUasda ; cf. com- 
pel, force, 
construct, tr. v. 1. gen. yi; 2. 

spec, of roads gina. 
consul, n. gunsul*. 
consult, v. 1. intr. (=to deliberate) 
yin shawora, yin roshi; 2. tr. v. 
yin shawora constr. with ma, 
ga, da, e.g. I am going to c. 
you zani yin (or en yi) shatoora 
da kai. 
consultation, n. shatoora, roshi. 
consume, tr. v. 1. (used of fire) 
las(s)a, la{s)ehe, kona*, kone* ; 
2. (generally) chi, chida, chain- 
ye, chinye. 
contain, tr. v. see hold, 
contaminate, tr. v. yin kasamta. 
contemplate, tr. v. see con- 
sider, 
contempt, n. rena*; cf. despise. 
contemptuous, adj. see proud, 
contemptuously, treat, intr. v. 

tsaki*. 
contend, tr. v. see fight, strive, 
content, adj. ko8a{s)s1ve, pi. ko- 

sa8(8)u; to be c. koshi. 
content, tr. v. koshada*. 
contention, n. (= disputing) ha- 
yania, hania, musuwa; cf. 
strife, 
contents (= that which is con- 
tained) abin chik(k)i. 
contest, n. see contention, 
continually, adv. see constantly. 



continuance, n. tabbatawa, da- 
wama; where is a state of 
c. 1 enna zama na dawama f 
C 15; long c. tsawa, tsawanta. 

continue, intr. v. dawama, duma, 
daa\d)a, ded(d)i,faye*, tabbata, 
tabbeta ; to c. to exist ka(s)shi, 
ka(s)she, kasanchi; phr. we 
c. giving thanks muna dadda 
godia, I c. travelling until 
evening ina yini taffia. 

continuing, maidawama, mai- 
tabbetawa. 

contractor, v. 1. (a disease) tarda; 

2. to c. the face damre juska ; 

3. intr. v. ( = to shrivel up) 
yaushi, yoshi ; 4. (= to make 
an agreement) see agree. 

contrivance, n. dabdra, dvhdra, 
chim(m)i*, chim(m)a*, toayo, 
waya, abin wayo. 

contrive, v. wayo, waya. 

control, tr. v. see restrain. 

convalescence, n. rongomi. 

convalescent, be, intr. v. jin or 
yin rongomi, yin dama, wart- 
saka*. 

convenient, adj. sawaba*, daidai; 
cf. fit, suitable. 

conversation, n. battu,batunda*, 
zanche, zanchi*, fira, hira*, 
tankawa, zantawa; hum of c. 
dum(m)i*. 

converse, intr. v. tonka, tamka, 
yin battu, yin zanche, sanche*, 
yin magana, tadi, yin tadi. 

conversing, part, tankawa, zan- 
tawa. 

converted, be, intr. v. sauya, 
e.g. he was c. from heathenism 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



convey 



44 



council 



to Islam ya sauya da arna 
musulmi. 

convey, tr. v. see carry. 

convict, tr. v. ka(s)8he*. 

convince, tr. v. (= satisfy by evi- 
dence) hakikanta*. 

convulsions, n. mijiria, misvria. 

cook, tr. v. daffa; c. without 
water tuya, soiya, mya ; c. by 
blowing under a pot on the 
fire girke. 

COOk, n. maidaffi, maidaffua,, sa- 
rikin vmta. 

cooked, be, nen(n)a, nin(n)a, 
nuna; c. part, daffqfe; c. with- 
out water soiyaye, fern, soiyaya, 
pi. soiyayu ; well c. nen(n)ane, 
pi. nen(n)anu, nun(n)ane, pi. 
nun(n)anu > tapshi, tafshi, tab- 
shi* ; c. food soiya. 

cooking, part, daffua ; c. place 
madqffa, wurin daffa ; c. place 
on which a pot is set murufu. 

cool, adj. sainya, shainya*, da 
8ainyi. 

COOl, tr. v. sainya. 

cooled, part, sainyaye. 

coop, n. akurike, pi. akurikaL 

copper, n. jan karifi (lit. red 
iron); girdle made of c. to- 
gula*, tugula*. 

copy, tr. v. see imitate. 

coral, n. murjari*. 

cord, n. silia or siliya, pi. siliyu 
or siliyoyi, igia, pi. igoyi or 
igiyoyi ; a c. to tie trousers 
round the waist kubaka. 

coriander seed, ridi; oil made 
from c. s. main ridi; a plant 
resembling c. yaudon rwri. 



corn, n. Jiachi, hatsi, (wheat) al- 
kam^m)a\ guinea c. dawa r 
gero f kaura*,farafara*, mwra- 
mura*> giwakamba*; Egyptian 
c. masfyara, damas(s)ara ; ear 
of c. geza, pi. gezuna; a pit for 
storing c. tsimjia; to rub or 
grind c. tushe, nik(k)a y dakka. 

corner, n. kusurua, pi. kusuroyi, 
sukurua*. 

corpse, n. gawa, pi. gawaweki, 
musJie, matache, fern, matachia, 
pi. matatu. 

correct, tr. v. (= punish) foro, 
horo*, wohalshe. 

correct, adj. daidai, nakwarai, 
fern, takwarai, 8ar(r)ai, sosai, 
ainm ; it is c. ya yi daidai. 

correctly, adv. daidai, 808ai, kwa- 
raiy 8ar(r)ai ; to count c. kUga 
8ar(r)ai. 

cost, n. (= price) kurdi; what 
does it c. ? hirdima nawa ? its 
c. kurdinsa> antayansa, tama- 
ninsa*, hakinsa*. 

costly, adj. da tsada; to be c. 
yin tsada. 

cotton, n. kada ; c. plant abduga, 
audiga; c. yarn or thread aba- 
wa\ white c. for sewing sulale; 
small piece of twisted c. shu- 
sia; seeds of c. plant anguria; 
silk c. tree rimi. 

couch, n. of a king or judge, ka- 
raga. 

cough, n. toari; c. medicine ka- 
zizi, q.v. 

COUgh, intr. v. yin toari. 

council, n. fada, roshi, magan- 
tawa, magantirwa. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



councillor 



45 



crawl 



councillor, rnafada, pi. mafadawa. 
counsel, n. dabdra, dubdra, wayo, 

ganawa*. 
counsel, tr. v. see advise, 
count, tr. v. hedaya, kilga, kirga, 

yin lisafi, lisafi*. 
count, n. kedaya, lisafi, lesafi. 
countenance, n. fuska, pi. fus- 

koki ovjuskuna. 
country, n. kas(s)a, pi. kas(s)ashi 

or ka8(8)a8a, gari, pi. garurua 

or garigaru; uninhabited c. 

courage, n. mazahita. 

courageous, adj. see brave. 

course, n. takitaki*. 

course of, mana. 

court, n. c. of a king J ada, wurin 
shawora, fag{g)e, kindigaye* ; 
c. yard dandali. 

courtiers, n.fadawa. 

cousin, n. kotana*. 

cover, n. c. of a book bango, 
bungo, pi. bangaye, banguna, 
taderishi ; dish c. made of grass 
faifai, jA.fiyafai; cf. covering. 

cover, tr. v. rufe, rufi, rife, yin 
sutura or sit(t)ira. 

covered, part, rufafe, fern. ru~ 
fa/a, pi. rufafu. 

covering, n. e.g. a blanket, bergo, 
burao, mayafi, sutura, sit(t)ira, 
marufi, pL marufai, rufa\ c. of 
a door kiyauri; c. of skins 
tunku ; c. for a horse mashim- 
fidi, pi. mashimfuda) tempo- 
rary c. for the night saiyi, 
pi. saiyoyi, 

covet, tr. v. 8hahawa, yin guri. 

covetous, adj. darowa, mairowa, 



makodaita, maikawazuchi, ma- 
rowachi. 

covetousness, n. rowa, kauoa- 
zuchi, zowari, makodaichi. 

COW, n. sania, pi. shanu; a small 
species with very short horns 
muturu; an old lean c. gu- 
zuma; a c. about to give birth 
to a calf juya ; c.-shed turiken 
shanu; a c. tied up by the feet 
dungul(l)i; cowhide kilago, pi. 
kilagai. 

coward, n. matsorata, bahili*, 
lalqfa*. 

cowardice, n. matsorachi. 

cowhide, n. see cow. 

cowry shell, n. ijia, wuri, pi. 
kurdi or kawara or alkawara ; 
a large c. s. gandi ; a bag con- 
taining 20,000 shells kesu, ka- 
roro, kororo; large skin bag 
for cowries jikka, zikka. 

crab, n. kagua, pi. kagunai. 

crack, tr. v. tsaga*. 

cracking, e.g. of the skin under 
the toes, kudumbia. 

crackle, intr. v. chachagi. 

crackling, of hell fire, babaki*. 

craftiness, n. wayo. 

crafty, adj. da wayo, maiwayo, 
shaitari*. 

cram, tr. v. (= stuff) dora. 

cramp, n. mijiria, misiria. 

crane, crested, n. goraka, gauraka, 
garmaka, gamraka, gomraka; 
a bird somewhat resembling a 
c. kurki. 

crawcraw, n. see crowcrow. 

crawl, intr. v. rarafe, rubda (or 
rufda) chik(k)i. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



crawling 



46 



cards 



crawling, n.janjiki. 

create, tr. v. halita, talita, ha- 

lichi*. 
creator, n. mahalichi*, maiha- 

lichi*, haliku*. 
creature, n. halita, dabba or dab- 
bo, pi. dabboni or dabbobi; 

creatures talikai*. 
credit, n. bashi, pi. basumka. 
creditor, n. maibada bashi, mai- 

ba8hi. 
creed, n. addini*. 
creep, intr. v. rarafe, sandua, 

sadada* ; c. like a cat stealthily 

baya baya*, 
cricket, n. small species of, tsain- 

ya, teania, jare*. 
crier, n. (= one who cries aloud or 

proclaims) babambade, bade*; 

(=one who calls to prayer) 

maikir(r)an sal(l)a, lada*. 
crime, n. zamba. 
crocodile, n. kada or kado, pi. 

kadodi, 
crooked, be,/andare, lonkioashe. 
crooked, adj. karikache, fern, ka~ 

rikata, pi. karikatu. 
crop of a bird, n. maroro, malolo. 
cross, n. gilme*, pi. gilmomi* or 

gilnomi*, gilmen itache* ; c. 

beam on top of doorway azara. 
cross, tr. v. gilma, ketare. 
crossing, part, ketarewa, tseta- 

retoa. 
cross-legged, sit, intr. v. tura- 

ba'i*, yin turaba'i*. 
cross-ways, n. mararabin hainya. 
crow, intr. v. chira, char(r)a, ka- 

karuko, kukaruku ; cock-crow 

chiran zakara. 



crow, n. species of, shimkake, 

Ivankaka, pi. hankaki or han- 

kaku. 
crowcrow, n. (disease) kaikai; 

a herb supposed to cure c. 

kaskawani. 
crowd, n. (of people) gayya, tarn, 

mamtaria, aluma*. 
crown-prince, n. (i.e. heir to the 

throne) chiroma*. 
cruel, adj. mun(n)i. 
cruelly, adv. da mun(n)i. 
cruelty, n. kita, keta, mun(n)i. 
crumbs, n. burugushe, burbushi, 

bulbudi, barbaddi, guzura, pi. 

guzure. 
crush, tr. v. mache, machi, matse, 

laze, murjek(k)i, kundata*. 
cry, n. kuka, kwwa, muria, pi. 

murioyi, Mr(r)a, tsuwa; loud c. 

ufu, kururua. 
cry, intr. v. (- cry out) yin kuka, 

yin kururua, tsawa, tsawutawa, 

kara*, rubsa (or rufsa), kuka ; 

raise a c. dora kir(r)a; c. for 

joy guda, gudu* ; c. wares for 

sale tal(l)a. 
cubit, n. kamu, gab(b)a, zira*. 
cucurbita, n. (= gourd) kworia. 
cucurbita pepo, n. kabewa. 
cultivate, tr. v. noma, nomi, nome. 
cultivator, n. manomi, monomi, 

pi. monoma. 
cunning, n. see craft, 
cup, n. dasa, tasa, pi. tasoshi, gora, 

pi. goruna, kworia; large c. 

sintali, shintali or shantali, 

pi. shintalai. 
cupboard, n. loloki*, pi. lolokai*. 
curds, n. of milk, gunteari. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



cure 



47 



dawn 



care, tr. v. worike, worke, warke. 

cured, part, worikeke, fern, wori- 
kekia, pi. worikeku; to be c. 
worike. 

curl, intr. v. (used of a snake) 
tak(Jc)ura ; cf. coil. 

curse, n. laana, 

curse, tr. v. wade, wa mugunta, 
zage ; may you be cursed ! tir, 
U88, ush. 

cursed, part, laane, fern, laana, 
pi. laanu. 

curtain, n. (made of fibre and let 
down in front of a doorway) 
tsaiwa, bunu, arsaberi, tsabore, 
zabore, kaure, kiauri. 

CUSCUS, n. wassa wassa, kuskus*. 

cushion, n. leferu, pi. leferai; 
c. placed on a donkey ahimari. 

custom, n. ada, tada, pi. tadodi, 
humushi*,8abo*,haya* or hain- 
ya*, pi. hainyoyi*, hal(l)i, pi. 
hal(l)ai, tabia*. 

cut, tr. v. yenka, yenke, sore, yin 
sosaiya; c. into small pieces 
sasabe, yenyena; c. into strips 
reda; c. round shankumbu; 
c. off chira, chvre, chiro, tsira, 
t8ire 9 tsiro; c. down kade; c. 
up meat fawa; c. marks on 
reda; c. cloth shifchi*; c. off 
the hair kundumi; c. with a 
hoe shema; c. down the har- 
vest giribi, girbi. 

cut, part, yenkake, fern, yenkaka, 
pi. yenkaku, sarare, fern, sara- 
ria, pi. sararu. 

cutlass, n. takobi, takwobi, pi. ta- 
kuba, tamga*. 

cutting off of hands (a punish- 



ment for thieving) yamkon 
hanu. 

dagger, n. hargi*, konga*, wuka*. 
daily, adv. kowache rana. 
damp, n.fumfuna. 
damsel, n. yarinia, budurua. 
dance, n. rawa, Ida, zaria. 
dance, intr. v. yin rawa, taka 

rawa, yin zaria, tsal(l)i, tsul(l)i, 

wur(r)a*. 
dandruff, n. toto, tautau. 
danger, n. abin tsoro; a dangerous 

place wurin tsoro. 
daring, adj. see brave, 
dark, adj. da dufu; phr. it is d. 

ya yi dufu or rana ta dushi. 
darkness, n. dufu, dufua, du- 

shiwa, lungu*; utter d. dufu 

kirim. 
darling, n. lele*. 
dart, n. hankaltilo, hargi) a d. 

used for catching fish 1iag{g)u. 
dash together, tr. v. gumberi, 

goburi, gcbre, 
date, n. (= tree and fruit) dabino ; 

a bunch of dates zaraba; dates 

tied up in a mat lubiya; a 

species of dark coloured d. 

zabia, pi. zabiyoyi, 
date, n. (--= time of an event) yayi, 

zamani*, lokachi*. 
daub, tr. v. yabe, shafa*, shafe*. 
daughter, n. diya, pi. yamata. 
dawdle, intr. v. tsaiko, yin tsaiko. 
dawn, n. wayewa, azuba, assuba, 

fudowa, fudawa. 
dawn, intr. v. waye; the day 

dawns gari ya waye or less 

commonly allah ya waye. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



day 



48 



deceived 



day, n. (=the time from sunrise 
to sunset) rana or ra, pi. ra- 
nuka, used both as masc. and 
fem. ; (= twenty-four hours) 
% kwana, pi. kwanaki or kwa- 
nuka ; to-day yo, yau ; to stay 
at a place for a d. yini ; three 
days ago wanshekaranjia ; the 
d. before yesterday shekaranjia; 
yesterday jia; the following d. 
rana maizakua ; to-morrow gobe; 
the d. after to-morrow jibi; 
the d. after the d. after to- 
morrow gata; the d. after gata, 
i.e. the fifth d. chitta ; the last 
d. ranan gobe or ranan kiyama; 
the d. on which randa (a 
shortened form of rana da) ; 
every d. kowache rana; all d. 
rana duka ; the d. on which a 
child receives its name ran- 
suna; when d. is used with 
ordinal numbers the singular 
form is usually employed, thus : 
three days rana uku or kwana 
uku. The days of the week 
are : Sun. lahadi, Mon. latini, 
Tues. talata, Wed. laraba, 
Thurs. alhamis, Fri. aljimua, 
Sat. a88ubat. 

dazzle, tr. v., to d. the eyes 
makamcke; the lightning has 
dazzled thine eyes wolkia ta 
makamcheka. 

dead, adj. matache, fem. matachia, 
pi. matatu, amache*; a d. body 
mushe, gawa, pi. gawaweki; 
(= that which has died of 
itself) guba; cf. die. 

deaf, adj. kuruma, pi. kurumai, 



kurma; d. and dumb bebe, pi. 
bebaye. 

deaf, be, intr. v. kuruma. 

deafness, n. kurumchi, kurumta. 

dear, adj. (= costly) da teada; (= be- 
loved) maaoyiy fem. masoya, 
pi. masoyu, lele*, abin kamna*. 

dearness, n. (= high price) tea- 
da. 

dearth, n. see want. 

death, n. mutua, jinkiri, matd, 
(lit. last sleep) makarin berchi; 
a natural d. mutuan allah; 
sudden d. sauki mutua; the 
angel of d. (lit. he who sepa- 
rates) marabiwa. 

debt, n. bashi, pi. bammka, ram- 
che; to pay a d. bia bashi; to 
recover a d. bio bashi, bimbashi; 
surety for payment of a d. 
lamuniy phr. he is in my debt 
shina da bashina or ina binsa 
bashi. 

debtor, n. maikarban bashi, mai- 
daukan bashi. 

deceit, n. munafuchi, manqfuchi, 
tsalimi, tsalumi, tsalimchi, ri- 
kiche, rikichi, haiinchi, wayo, 
mantua*, rurudi*, algus* ; (lit. 
two hearts) zuchia biu. 

deceitful, adj. marikichi, mairi- 
gingini, rigingini, maitsalum- 
chi, maialgus, azalumi*, ma- 
rude, mairude, pi. maruda. 

deceitfully, adv. da tsalumchi; 
to treat d. yin tsalumchi; to 
act d. rikiclie. 

deceive, tr. v. rude, makuri*, 
saishe*. 

deceived, be, v. rudu. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



deceived 



49 



derision 



deceived, part, rudade, fern, ru- 
dada, pi. rudadu. 

deceiver, n. see deceitful. 

decide, tr. v. (of a judge) raba. 

declare, tr. v. had(d)ichi, laberta*, 
haberta*, fad(ct)a; d. openly 
bayan(n)a, bayen(n)a ; d. posi- 
tively furuchi, furchi, huruchi. 

decline, v. (=grow less) the day 
declines rana ta tawaya, see 
decrease ; (= refuse) ki, kiya. 

decorous, adj. see becoming. 

decrease, n. ragua. 

decrease, tr. v. rage, ragi, reg(g)i, 
tawaya, tauwi\ intr. v. ragu, 
reg(g)i, tawaya, tawayo, tauwi, 
hasasda. 

decree, n. ajali*. • 

deed, n. see act. 

deep, adj. da zurufi, maizurufi ; 
a d. place (usually with water 
in it) gulbi, pi. gtdabe. 

deer, n. barewa, pi. bareyi, dar(r)i, 
der(r)i, kanki*, god(d)a, pi. 
goa\d)odi, gonki; small male d. 
karangod(d)a. 

defeat, n. (in war) ariai. 

defect, n. lahani, aibu; cf. blemish. 

defend, tr. v. see guard. 

defer, tr. v. fasa. 

defile, tr. v. ym haram; cf. pollute. 

defraud, tr. and intr. v. chin kura, 
chin riba. 

dejected, see disheartened. 

delay, n.fashi, yauchi, dad(d)ewa, 
saiyi* ; d. in paying money 
which is due ajali. 

delay, intr. v. yin fashi, yin 
yauchi, wanzu, wonzu, dada, 
dea\d)i; d. to deliver a mes- 



sage ida labari; he delays to 

come ya deddi da zakua. 
deliberate, intr. v. yin shawora. 
deliberately, adv. da gangan. 
deliberation, n. shawora; place 

of d. wurin shawora. 
delight, n. kalkili*; cf. joy. 
delight, tr. v. see please, 
delirious, adj. a d. person bori. 
deliver, tr. v. (= give over) bada, 

bashi, yerda, mika* ; (= save) 

cheto, cheche, chira, chire, chiro, 

tsira, tsire, tsiro, chirasda, 

kwache, kwashe. 
deliverance, n. chira, chiraro, 

tsira, tsiraro, fansa, pansa. 
delivered, be, v. haifu, haiju. 
deliverer, n. machechi, pi. ma- 

cheta. 
demon, n. aljan, pi. aljannu or al- 

jinnu OTJinnu, bori*,fatalua*. 
denial, n. (=a dispute in which 

something is denied) gerdama, 

anamusu. 
deny, tr. v. musu, han(n)a*, ki. 
depart, intr. v. jit(t)a, ras(s)u, 

rabu, je*, fisJtsma*. 
departure, n.fit(t)a. 
deposit, n. amana, lamuni*; to 

steal a d. chin amana, cf . E 25 ; 

those who steal a deposit ma- 

sutabin amana, E 15; a place 

in which to d. anything maaje. 
deprivation, n. e.g. of goods wofi. 
depth, n. zurufi, zurfi. 
deranged, a person, n. maiwauta; 

to act as one d. yin raurawa. 
deride, tr. v. yin baa, baa, yin 

zunde. 
derision, n, baa, zunde. 

4 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



descend 

descend, intr. v. shid(d)a, sMd(d)e, 

shid(d)o, sabka*, sapka*. 

describe, tr. v. kotanta, kwatanta. 

desert, n. (= solitary place) dawa*, 

daji*, sab(b)ara*, sab(b)ura*, 

hamada*. 

desert, tr. v. d. a friend zauda* ; 

cf. abandon, 
deserter, n. (in war) kazum. 
deserve, tr. v. chinchinta*. 
designedly, adv. da gangan. 
desire, n. 1. (= wish) so, daula, kam- 
na*, maradi, muradi', eager d. 
Kawa*\ desires zuchia*, nqfsi*; 
evil d. shawa, shakawa, fata, 
guri, kodai, kwadai; 2. (= the 
thing wished for) abinso, abin 
daula, maradi, muradi, guri, 
nuf(f)i, gata. 
desire, tr. v. so, nuf(f)e, nif(f)a; 
d. what is wrong yin fata; burn 
with d. kona, kuna*, kona*, 
kone; intr. v. direct the d. 
maida kamna. 
desist, intr. v. daina, dena, beri, ber. 
desolation, n. kango, pi. kangogi, 

afko, kaa\d)aita, risbawa. 
despicable, adj. see despised, 
despise, tr. v. rena, kiale, tsan- 
tsani, walakanta, yenke kamna, 
kaskasta*, kuskunta*, Ursa*, 
tarsasa*. 
despised, part, renane, fem. re- 

nana, pi. renanu. 
despising, part, renawa, rena, 
reni: the d. of advice renin 
wayo. 
despoil, tr. v. (in war) buruntu. 
destiny, n. ajali, jinkiri*, ku- 
dira*. 



50 dte 

destitute, one who is, n. masiachi, 

pi. masiata, mayenwachi*, pi. 

mayenwata*; cf. rashi, maras. 

destroy, tr. v. bata, bache, halaka, 

fas(s)a*, banna, tsotse*, tsotsi*, 

chi*. 

destroyed, be, v. lalachi, gurbache, 

yamutse*, yamutsi*, talafa* ; 

about to be d. mawfkawa. 

destroyed, part, bataehe, fem. ba~ 

tachia, pi. batatu. 
destroying, part, maifasawa. 
destruction, n. a/ko, halaka, la- 

lata, ta'adi, batachi. 
detain, tr. v. riska, riske, riski, 
rik(k)o, tsaida, tsaisJie, tsaiesda, 
hanna. 
detect, tr. v; (e.g. in a fault) 

rize*. 
deter, tr. v. see prevent, 
devastate, tr. v. yin a/ko, yin 

kaa\d)aita. 
deviate, intr. v. (from a straight 
course) bauda used with liain- 
ya ; causing to d. baudiwa. 
devil, n. shaitan, shetan, shaUani, 

iblis, eblis ; cf. demon, 
devoid of, see without, 
devour, tr. v. rida, cfiainye, chin- 

ye, chingi, hadie*. 
dew, n. raba, reaba ; a drop of d. 

dig(g)an raba. 
diarrhoea, n. gudawa, gudun daji; 

a medicine for d. filasko. 
dice, n. kuria; a throw of d. 
jefan kuria; to cast d. yin 
modi (cowrie shells are gene- 
rally used instead of d. for 
gambling with). 
die, intr. v. mache 9 machi, mutu 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



differ 



51 



discussion 



(this is seldom used except to 

denote the past tense), ro8(s)u*; 

d. a natural death yin muslie. 
differ, intr. v. yin dabam,- yin 

bambam. 
difference, n. dabamchi, bam- 

bamchi, bambamta; what is 

the d. between this and that? 

minene bambamchi wonan da 

wonan ; differences (= points 

of variance) Uakankani. 
different, adj. dabam; very d. 

dabam dabam ; d. from dabam 

da, dabam dag(g)a; a d. sort 

iri dabam. 
difficult, adj. da wuya ; it is too 

d. for me ya buayeni, yafaska- 

reniy yafayeni. 
difficulty, n. way a, karaki*; with 

d. dak(k)et, dak(k)ir. 
dig, tr. v. gina> tona*, haka*; 

d. in the ground fuda; d. up 

land kirta; d. with a hoe shira; 

d. round growing corn kafa; 

d. a well yasa. 
dignified, adj. a d. person dotijo, 

datijoy dolizo. 
diligence, n. kokaru, him(m)a 1 

him(m)a, aniya. 
diligent, be, intr. v. yin aniya, 

maida kokari, kokari ; be d. ! 
ku bada kokarunku B 16. 
diligently, adv. da him(m)a, da 

aniya, kwazo. 
dim, be, intr. v. dindimi, dushi. 
diminish, see decrease, 
dimness, n. dushiwa; d. of sight 

makamchi, bambarokai*. 
dip, tr. v. Uoma, soma*, zoma*; 
d. under water nuta, nus(8)6, 



nv*(8)a; d. the head in water 
yin kunduma. 
dipus, n. (= jerboa) kurege. 
direct, adj. e.g. a d. path hainya 

sosai*. 
directly, adv. yanzu, koyanzu, 

nan da nan. 
dirt, n. guiba, gwiba, gwibi, dauda, 

kazami, pi. kazamai, kazatnta*, 

kasamta*. 
dirty, adj. da dauda, da kazami ; 

to make d. yin dauda. 
disagree, intr. v. see quarrel, 
disagreement, n. see discord, 
disappear, intr. v. gurbache*. 
disappointed, be, intr. v. kal- 

ma(8)8he zuchia*. 
discern, tr. v. ji*, bibia*. 
discernment, n. basira*. 
discharge, tr. v. 1. (=fire off) 

buga, halbi; 2. (= send away) 

see dismiss, 
disciple, n. almajiri, fem. alma- 

jira, pi. almajirai. 
discomfort, n. mako*. 
discontented, adj. one who is d. 

masiachi, pi. masiata. 
discord, n. fasadi, fasada, kiyeya, 

rikichi*, sabani, jusuma, ger- 

dama*-, cf. dispute, 
discount, n. jara ; a special d. 

lad(d)a\ what d. is allowed? 

enna rongomi. 
discourage, tr. v. sake fuska (lit. 

to change the face); cf. dis- . 

hearten. 
discover, tr. v. see find, 
discussion, n. magantawa K ma- 

gantirwa, maganta* ; to hold 

a d. yin maganta. 

4—2 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



disdain 



52 



ditch 



disdain, tr. v. see despise. 

disease, n. chiuta, chiwo ; a d. in 
women kuikui, kuku; a d. of 
the joints terga, pi. tergal, cf. 
turgude ; a d. on horses* legs tijo. 

disgrace, n. walakanchi ; cf . shame. 

disgrace, tr. v. falasa, palasa. 

dish, n. a large wooden d. akoshi, 
pi. akusa ; dish- cover (made of 
plaited grass) faifai, phjiyafai; 
the knob which forms the top 
of dish-cover tuku, tukuwa. 

dishearten, tr. v. karya zuehia) 
phr. you d. me ka karya mani 
zuehia, I am disheartened zu- 
chiata ta bache; cf. discourage. 

dishonour, n. kankanchi, wala- 
kanchi*, kurnia*. 

dislike, n. haushi, kiyeya; cf. 
hate. 

dislike, tr. v. ki, kia, kiyeya, 
kankamna; they d. him suna 
jin haushinsa. 

dismay, n. see fear. 

dismiss, tr. v. tayesda*; cf. dis- 
perse. 

dismount, intr. v. shid(d)o, sabka, 
shid(d)a kasa; cf. alight. 

disobedience, n. kinji. 

disobey, tr. v. kiji. 

disperse, tr. v. kawasda, wasa, 
wase, ware, walwache. 

displease, tr. v. sa wohal(l)a; 
this displeased them wonan ya 
sa wohalla garesu ; cf. distress. 

displeasure, n. hasdla*, cf . anger \ 
to show signs ol d. jirkita 
fuska. 

disposition, n. (= temper) hal(l)i, 
pi. hal(l)ai) good d./arin zini 



(lit. white blood); bad d. bak- 
(k)in zuehia (lit. blackness of 
heart), lalata, kaferehi, mugun 



dispute, n. gerdama, 8ab(b)abi, 

sub(b)abi, binchik(k)i, /usuma, 

8abani. 
dispute, intr. v. yin gerdama, 

gerdama, yin kokonto, yin 

tsamki*. 
disregard, tr. v. rena, kal(l)i*; 

cf. despise, 
dissemble, intr. v. see pretend, 
dissent, intr. v. express d. by 

turning the head away kauda 

kai. 
dissolute, adj. see profligate, 
dissolve, 1. tr. v. narike; 2. 

intr. v. nariku. 
distance, n. to place at a d. 

nesanta; to keep a d. from 

nesanchi; a measure of d. (as 

far as the eye can reach) 

jetaka*; I saw him from a d. 

na hangeshi dagga nesa. 
distant, adj. nesa, dag(g)a nesa, da 

nesa ; d. from nesa dag{g)a. 
distinct, adj. see different, 
distress, n. nawaya, wuya, wo- 

hal(l)a, machiachi, machiata, 

sananta, ajian zuehia. 
distress, tr. v. sananche, sa wo- 

hal(T)a) that which causes d. 

abin da umya. 
distressed, be, v. firgaba, jin wo- 

hal(l)a ; I was d. na gamu da 

nawaya. 
distribute, tr. v. raba. 
district, n. gari*, umri*. 
ditch, n. ganwa. 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



dive 



53 



dove 



dive, intr. v. nu8(s)o, nuta, nu8(s)e, 
nus(s)a, ninkaya*. 

diver, n. (bird) dunia. 

divide, tr. v. raba, raraba, ra~ 
rabi*, kas{8)a*. 

divided, be, intr. v. rabu,ivarwari, 
wariwari, tvoritoori, wawa/ri. 

divided, part, rababe, fem. ra~ 
baba, pi. rababu; mararaba, 
muraraba. 

division, n. rabo or rabu, pi. 
raberibi; mararabi' r the di- 
viding point of two roads ma- 
rarabin hainya; d. of a town 
(within the walls) shia, shir 
waka, ungua, pi.' unguai or 
unguni*. 

divorce, n. sakiwa. 

divorce, tr. v. d. a woman shik- 
(k)a, saki, kore all followed by 
maehe. 

do, tr. and intr. v. 1. (=act) yi; 
2. (= accomplish) yi, i, yiwa, 
iwa, yitvo, iwo, wa, aiki; 3. 
(= succeed) yi; 4. do a thing 
once tabba; phr. it is done 
anyishi, it does (i.e. it is satis- 
factory) ya yi; I never did so 
ban tabba yin hakka; na yi 
I did, is often contracted into 
nai. 

doctor, n. maimagani; a quack 
d. boka, pi. bokaye. 

dog, n. kar(r)e, kar(r)ia, pi. kar- 
nuka; wild d. kalkeche, kel- 
keji*, kirkeshi* ; an animal 
resembling a d. machauchi; a 
mad d. kar(r)e mahaukachi. 

dollar, n. delta (usually applied 
to the Austrian Maria Theresa 



d.) gurus*, gu*, liar*, bu ma- 
da/a*. 

dominion, n. see kingdom. 

done, part, see do. 

donkey, n. jaki, fem. jakainya, 
pi. jakai or jakuna ; large pad 
for a d. leferu, pi. le/erai ; for 
names of various species of 
donkeys see ass. 

door, n. kofa or kwofa, pi. kofofi, 
ganibu; doorway bakin kofa; 
doorstep kwilkin kofa; a mat 
usually made of grass or reeds 
let down in front of doorway 
tufania, arsaberi, askunia, ma- 
rufin kofa, tsabore, zabore, bunu, 
pi. bunai, kaure, kiauri, teaiwa, 
tukurua*, itva*; d. post kobrin 
kofa; pole or bar to keep the 
d. shut mataushin kofa, mado- 
gara, gagara bado; door-keeper 
sarikin kofa. 

dot, n. (e.g. the d. placed above or 
below a letter) dig(g)a, dug(g)o, 
pi. dugogi. 

dotterel, n. a bird like a d. tak- 
(k)abod(d)o. 

double, n. gam(m)i* (?). 

doubt, n. zuchia biu (lit. two 
hearts), tambaba, kokonto, tan- 
tam(m)a, zulumi, tset(t)o, tsat- 
(t)o, zet(t)o*, shakka: without 
d. babu wawa, babu shakka, 
babu shak, babu tambaba; an 
expression of d. wax. 

doubt, intr. v. yin (or da) zuchia 
biu, yin tambaba, yin zulumi*, 
hasashi*, sauraro*. 

dough, n. dirgaza, gaya*. 

dove, n. kurichia, pi. kwriche- 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



down 



54 



drum 



cheki or kurchiyoyi \ a wild d. 

with dark ring on neck agua ; 

a rock d. jaba duchi*. 
down, adv. akas(8)a i akass; to 

put d. sako, zami*. 
down, n. (of birds) sabon gashi. 
dowry, n. gara. 
drag, tr. v. see draw, 
drake, n. sakaza. 
draw, tr. v. ja, jajaya, karikari, 

karkari ; d. forth or out fisge, 

fusge, jawo, fishe, fushe ; d. 

towards oneself jawo ; d. after 

one jaka; d. a line or a furrow 

kirta; d. strokes zona, zani; 

d. a sword zage, zagi ; d. the 

foot on the ground murjek(k)i; 

d. water jan rua, gugana, 

kwalfa,) debe rua, debo rua, 

dauka rua. 
drawer, n. (- sliding box) akodi*, 

sanduki*. 
dream, n. ma/alki. 
dream, intr. v. yin ma/alki. 
dregs, n. guiba, guibi, (at bottom 

of a cup) seki*. 
dress, n. see clothes, 
dress, tr. v. (=put on clothes) 8a; 

d leather jemi ; d. meat fida 

(or fide) nama. 
dressed, part. (= prepared) ger- 

tache, fern, gertata, pi. gertatu. 
dresser, n. (of leather) majemi, 

maijima. 
dried, part, kekashe or kekaka(s)- 

8he, fern. kekasa(s)8hia, pi. 

kekasasu, busashe, shainyaye, 

fem. shainyaya, pi. shainyayu; 

dried-up tree kalun itache, ko- 

brin (or kubrin) itache*. 



drink, n. abinsha, nasha* ; a d. 
made of honey, pepper and 
water beso> baiso; a d. made 
from milk, rice and honey gero ; 
a d. made with flour, etc. koko; 
an intoxicating d. made from 
guinea-corn gia, giya (the 
drinking of gia = shangia); 
drinking-water ruan aha. 

drink, tr. v. sha, zhawo, shainye 9 
shainya, shaya. 

drive, tr. v. (= d. away) kore t kora, 
koro, kare* 9 ima, iza, 8ako* t 
tsawa, yin tsaioa, rauda^ Jasa, 
fafare] d. to a distance ne- 
8anta\ *d. away in disgust 
kaskasta*, kuskunta*; d. out 
jishe*, fushe*. 

driver ant, n. ktoarikwasfyfa 
kit)alkwas(8)a, ktvarukwas(8)a. 

driving, n. (away in war) artai. 

drop, n. dig(g)a, dug(g)a 9 pi. du- 
gogi, daso*; a d. of dew dug- 
(g)on raba. 

drop, tr. and intr. v. 1. (=pour 
out by drops) tarji, tar/a; 2. 
(= let fall) saki, tsaga, kubche ; 
3. intr. v. see fall. 

dropsy, n. hangara. 

dross, n. (= scum of metals) taatm, 
kazin tam(m)a; to be mixed 
with d. yin tsatsa. 

drought, n. farin yunwa. 

drown, tr. v. gangante. 

drum, n. kidda, kiddi, kalango*, 
tozo*; a large d. gang a, pi. 
ganguna, dundufa, gangami, 
tajini*; a small d.juje; a long 
cylindrical d. shanto; a d. with 
pointed bottom carried in a 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



drum 



55 



earth 



royal procession tambari; a 

kind of d. with strings kuri; 

the sound of a d. ivasa*. 
drum, intr. v. yin kiddi, yin 

worigi*. 
drummer, n. makiddi, mai&hanto. 
drumming, n. (accompanied by 

dancing) hiddin dambe. 
drunkard, n. maye, mayi, fem. 

mayia. 
drunkenness, n. hajijia. 
dry, adj. see dried, 
dry, 1. tr. v. kekatyshe, bushe, 

sainya, shainya ; put out to d. 

sainyalo y jib(b)e ; d. in the sun 

bari; 2. intr. v. 8hekare y d. 

up (used of a well) kaf(f)e, 

(wither, or d. up as water) 

tootee, tsotsi. 
dry season, n. rcmi. 
duck, n. kaserua, abagba* (?) ; 

small water d. jalili; small 

black d. kirinjijia. 
dumb, (= d. and deaf person) bebe, 

pi. bebaye. 
dum-palm, n. see palm, 
dung, n. kashiy taki> shakira, shar- 

kira ; d. of horses toroso ; d. of 

cows or camels kandilu, d. hole 

saiga, pi. salgagi, bay an gidda*, 

kwakwari*; d. hill jujai, jibji. 
dungeon, n. kurkuku. 
during, prep. chik(k)in, a, da, ga; 

d. reign of chik(Jc)in sarota G 6. 
dust, n. kura, toka*, pi. tokuna*. 
dwarf, n. wada, fem. wadania, 

pi. wadani. 
dwell, intr. v. zamna, zona. 
dweller, n. maizamna. 
dwelling, n. mazamne, wurin 



zamna, tarikachi, shigifa or 
shigifa, pi. shigifa or shigi- 

fofi. 

dye, n. rin(n)i, rin(n)a. 

dye, tr. v. rin(n)i 9 rin(n)a } tabsa, 
yin tabsa, tura, turi, yin turi ; 
d. pit marin(n)a t pi. marin- 
(n)ai ; place where clothes are 
beaten when being dyed ma- 
bugi; owner of a d. pit or dyer 
rnarin(n)i, mairin(n)i. 

dyed, part. rin(n)ene, fem. rin- 
(n)ena> pi. rin(n)enu, turare, 
fem. turara, pi. turaru. 

dyer, n. see dye. 

dysentery, n. gudun daji, gudun 
dawa, anagOy anagudawa, atu- 
ni. 

each, pron. adj. kowane, fem. ko- 
wache, kowa*, kowanene ; e. of 
us kowanenmu; e. of them 
kowanensu. 

eagerness, n. kodai; cf. desire. 

eagle, n. 7neke, mekiya, mikiya, 
pi. mekiye, gomdazaki*, duki*. 

ear, n. kune, kunne, pi. kunuwa ; . 
hollow behind the e. get(t)o; 
wax in the e. kwanyan kune, 
daudan kune ; e. of corn geza, 
pi. gezuna, kwaya\ e. of gero 
cooked for eating tumu. 

early, adv. wuri, da wuri, dauri; 
very e. wuri wuri; e. in the 
morning sasafe, fudowa, fu- 
dawa, tangaraiy saumako; to 
come very e. samako, sau- 
mako*. 

earnest money, n. arnana. 

earth, n. 1. (=the world) dunia; 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



easily 



56 



embrace 



2. (= soil) kas{s)a, pi. ka8(8)a8hi 
or kas{s)a8a, turbaia* ; very 
hard e. tsandauri* ] (= dry soil) 
kekasasa F 96. 

easily, adv. babu wuya, ba da 
wuya ba, sanu*. 

east, n. gab(b)a8, gab(b)az; one 
who comes from the e. bagab- 
(b)azi. 

eastward, adv. gab(b)achi. 

easy, adj. lalafa ; cf. easily. 

eat, tr. v. chi\ e. greedily chain- 
ye, chinye, hamfude, hamfudi, 
chingi; snatch in order to e. 
rida; anything to e. abinchi; 
plenty to e. zari, jibgi; that 
which is good to e. tutu- 
shi. 

echo, n. kurua, kururua, ko- 
gua* (?). 

eclipse, n. (e.g. of the moon) 
dushiwa. 

ecstasy, n. hauka, haukachi*. 

edge, n. kauye, kowi, kourie, ka- 
wechi; (of stream) refe\ (of a 
knife) kaifi\ (of a sword) baki; 
(of cloth) la/e, laji. 

edged, adj. (sharp e.) da kaifi. 

educate, tr. v. reno*, fore*, fo- 
rd*. 

education, n. laa\d)abi*. 

eel, n. buna*. 

egg, n. kwoi or koi, pi. kwoinyaye; 
e. shell kosfa or kwosfa, pi. kos- 
fofi or kwosfofi, kambori ; yolk 
of e. gobdua; a hen laying eggs 
dakolua, dokolua. 

Egypt, n. mazar, masar* ; the 
inhabitants of E. mazarawa. 

eight, adj. tok(k)o8. 



eighteen, adj. goma sha tok(k)o8, 

8ha tok(k)o8. 
eighth, adj. natok{k)os, fern, ta- 

tok(k)os; one e. swmuni. 
eighty, adj. tamanin. 
either, adj. ko; e.... or ko...ko. 
elaeis guineensis, n. (=oil palm) 

kwakwa. 
elapse, intr. v. see finish, 
elbow, n. kusuruan hanu, suku- 

ruan hanu, did(d)igin hanu, 

guiwan hanu ; from the e. to 

the shoulder damichi, damshi, 

pi. damasa. 
elder, e. brother wa; e. sister ya, 

yata, iyata. 
eldest, adj. baba*. 
elect, tr. v. see choose, 
elephant, n. giwa, pi. giwaye ; 

male e. toron giwa, toro; trunk 

of e. hanun giwa ; tusks of e. 

(i.e. ivory) hakorin giwa, hau- 

rin giwa. 
elephantiasis, n. goiwa. 
eleven, adj. goma sha daia, sha 

daia. 
eleventh, adj. nagoma (fern, ta- 

goma) sha daia. 
else, see other. 

emaciated, part, arairvt, ramame. 
emancipate, tr. v. yanchi, enchi, 

bada diyauchi. 
emancipated, part, berere*. 
embalm, tr. v. sak(k)a chik(k)in 

turare*. 
embark, intr. v. hawajirigi. 
embezzling, part. (e.g. booty) gu- 

lulu*. 
embrace, tr. v. rungume, damare, 

gamurji*, goma, gab(b)a*. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



embroider 



57 



envious 



embroider, tr. v. sharaba. 

embroidery, n. tindumi. 

emerald, n. zumurruz*. 

emir, n. dmiru*. 

emperor, n. sultan. 

emptiness, n. wofi. 

empty, a place that is e. kango, 
pi. kangogi. 

emulation, n. kishi, gasa*. 

enable, tr. v. see help. 

encamp, intr. v. shid(d)a, shia\d)e, 
sapka, sabka. 

encampment, n. sansan(n)i, zun- 
go, wurin sapka. 

enclosure, n. (for cattle, etc.) 
garike, gerke; cf. fold. 

encompass, tr. v. (e.g. a town 
in war) rize. 

encounter, tr. v. gama (or yamu) 
da, tarie. 

end, n. makara, makari, karshe, 
karewa, akib(b)a*, kamal*; 
(= boundary) iyaka; e. of day 
jatarni*. 

end, 1. intr. v. kare, hare, tsayi, 
tsaya, tsai, mutu*, yamutse, 
yamutsi; come utterly to an e. 
karkare; 2. tr. v. wanya, wan- 
ye, wanyi, kare, kare ; (e. con- 
versation) yenke magana; the 
affair is ended ya kare. 

endeavour, n. kokari. 

endeavour, intr. v. yin kokari; 
one who endeavours maikokari. 

endure, 1. tr. v.jimri; 2. intr. v. 
(- suffer or continue) dauri, 
yin karko, dad(d)a, deddi. 

enduring, part. 1. (= lasting) dad- 
(d)ewa, matabbata*; 2. (suffer- 
ing) see patient. 



enemy, n. abokin gab(b)a, makiyi, 

pi. makiya, makinji. 
enfranchise, tr. v. see free. 
English, adj. wherever the word 

is known the form ingliz bor- 
rowed from the Arabs of N. 

Africa is used; an Englishman 

would be mutum ingliz. 
enjoy, tr. v. sha, chi; we e. the 

shade ?nu sha ennua D 75. 
enjoyment, n. murna, abin mur- 

na; cf. joy. 
enlarge, tr. v. shimfida, shimfada, 

yin girima*. 
enough, n. da ya issa, buss", to 

have e. koshi; one who has 

eaten e. kosa{s)she, pi. kosas(s)u; 

it is e. ya issa, ya koshi*. 
enquire, see inquire, 
ensign, n. tuta, tuti, pi. tutoshi. 
enslave, tr. v. maida bawa; to be 

enslaved shig(g)a bawanchi. 
enter, tr. v. (=go in) shig(g)a, 

tusga, tusge; (=come in) shig- 

(g)o, nus(s)o ; cause to e. 

shig(g)asda. 
entice, tr. v. rude. 
entire, adj. see complete, 
entirely, adv. tau, cf. also /aye 

and fi. 
entrance, n. (= aperture) ko/a; 

e. room (e.g. to palace) dan- 

dali. 
entrap, tr. v. yin hako (or turko). 
entreat, tr. v. biko, roko. 
entrenchment, n. kagara or ke- 

garua, pi. kagaru. 
entrust, tr. v. bada, yin sabtu. 
enunciation, n. halshi*, harshi*. 
envious, adj. maitsalumchi. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



envy 



58 



evil 



envy, n. kita, kiyeya, kiji, hasada, 
ha»(s)ada, fasadi, fasada, hau~ 
shd, tsalumchi, tealimchi. 

epilepsy, n.fcUfada*. 

equal, adj. soaai, daidai; to make 
e. daidaita j to be e. is(s)a ; 
a thing which is e. to abin 
gam(m)awa; this is e. to that 
wonan ya yi tconchan. 

erase, tr. v. yin maimai. 

erect, tr. v. tashe, tada. 

err, intr. v. manta, manche, kus~ 
hare, kurkura*. 

errand, n. sako. 

error, n. mantua, manche*. 

escape, n. place of e. wurin chi- 
ra. 

escape, intr. v. fichi, chira*, 
gudu*. 

escort, n. rakia. 

escort, tr. v. yin rakia, raka, 
roma. 

established, part. (= firmly fixed) 
tabbatachia, kaf(f)afe. 

estimate, tr. v. kawamata*. 

estrangement, n. rabua. 

eternal, adj. hal (or har) abada. 

eunuch, n. baba, pi. babani. 

euphorbia, n. the e. tree kun- 
kumia. 

European, n. bature*, ture*, pi. 
turawa*. 

even, adj. samsi ; cf. smooth. 

even, adv. ko ; e. now koyanzu. 

evening, n. mareche, yamma; late 
e. magaruby maguriba, lisha, 
cf. under rana; in the e. da 
mareche; phr. I continue tra- 
velling till e. ina yini tajffia, 
it is e. mareche ya yi. 



eventually, adv. yauyau, yo- 
yo. 

ever, adv. 1. (=at any time) da~ 
dai f tab(b)a, e.g. have you ever 
seen him? ka tabba ganinaa, 
have you ever been to Sokoto? 
ka tabba je sokoto ; 2. (^ for 
ever) tutul, tutur, tutu, tutuk, 
tutut, hal (or har) abada, dan- 
kam*, katsu*, e.g. they have 
never met ba %u gama katsu 
B 23. 

everlasting, adj. matuturchi*,ma~ 
dawami*, matabbetawa*. 

every, adj. duka, duk, kul(E)um*; 
everyone kowa, kotoane, fem. 
kowache, pi. kowanenau, kowa- 
nene ; everything duka komi, 
dukachin komi, komi; e. day 
kowache rana; e. morning kul- 
(l)um mfe*: e. night ku/(l)um 
dere*; everywhere koenna. 

evil, n. abin mugu, banna, bannai, 
mugunta, shar(r)a*, shariri*, 
gay a*, guriguri*, guri*, suabo* 9 
8wabo*, sabo*, chiuta*, zunufi; 
zunubi*, e. desire shaiva, suwa*; 
e. disposition lalata, mugunta, 
kaferchi, kqfrichi; e. thought 
bak(k)in zuchia; e. spirit eblis; 
e. spirits raiuka; e. speaking 
ananminchi; e. principle exist- 
ing in the world dunia*; e. 
doer maipuabo ; to attribute e. 
to one doing good kushe* ; to e. 
intreat kankanta ; to tempt to 
e. jaraba, jarabe. 

evil, adj. mugu, fem. mugunia, 
pi. miagu, mumuna*, mumo- 
na*; cf. bad. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ewe 



59 



eye 



ewe, n. tumkia, dumkia, pi. tu- 
maki. 

exact, adj. sar(r)ai. 

exactly, adv. tangos. ' 

exaggerated, part, fululuwa*. 

exalt, tr. v. daukaka, daukake, 
maida girima. 

exalted, part, (epithet applied to 
God) ta'ala. 

examine, tr. v. dandana*, dan- 
dani*; cf. look at. 

example, n. koikoiya*; his e. 
koikoiyansa. 

exceed, tr. v. buaya, buaye, fi, 
dad(d)a*; e. in strength gar- 
gar a. 

excel, intr. v. faye ; cf . prec. 

excellence, n. fiyaya, Jiyaye, fiko. 

except, adv. sai, saidai, saiko. 

excess, n. abinda yafaye, yawa. 

exchange, tr. v. sake, yin mu- 
8aya* (?). 

excitement, n. karaya. 

exclamation, n. (expressing as- 
tonishment or incredulity) hub- 
bay haba; (expressing doubt or 
grief) toai; words used as an 
e. maganan zuchia. 

excuse, n. huja, gaferta*, yerji*. 

excuse, tr. v. gafara, yin goferta; 
phr. e. me bani yerji, ga- 
fara, 

executioner, n. (a royal e.) do- 
gari. 

exercise, n. to take e. (by walk- 
ing) yatoo; (by riding) ktt(l)isa. 

exertion, n. kokua*. 

exhausted, part, zumane. 

exhaustion, n. (from lack of 
food) kumolo. 



exhibit, tr. v. nuna, nuni, god- 
(d)a, goda. 

exhort, tr. v, gargadi, galkadi*. 

exist, intr. v. ka(s)shi, ka(s)she*; 
cf. be. 

expand, 1. tr. v. shimfida, shim- 
fada; 2. intr. v. yalwata, yin 
auki, habama*. 

expect, tr. v. (= await with ex- 
pectation) jira; (= anticipate) 
tamaha, yin tamaha, hal(l)a- 
tna*. 

expectorate, intr. v. tqfi, fesa, 
furja. 

expel, tr. v. kora, kore. 

expense, n. see cost. 

expensive, adj. da tsada ; phr. it 
is too e. yafi da tsada) to be e. 
yin tsada, 

experienced, part. gon(n)i y mai- 
gon(n)i. 

expert, adj. cf. prec. 

explain, tr. v. waye, nuna, nuni, 
haa\d)ichi f yin fasara, haber- 
ta*; phr. e. it to me ka gaya 
mani, ambatoni. 

explained, part, akanwaita. 

explanation, n. tvayetoa, nunawa, 
fasara, fasaranta. 

extend, tr. and intr. v. see ex- 
pand. 

extended, be, intr. v. miku. 

extent, n. see limit. 

extinguish, tr. v. kuftdi*. 

extract, tr. v. jatoo, fisge, fusge, 
fishe, fushe. 

exult, intr. v. yin raha*, raha*. 

exulting, part. raha*. 

eye, n. ido, pi. idanu and idan- 
danu ; eye-ball ktoayan ido ; 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



fable 



60 



fan 



e. socket gulbin ido; pupil of 
e. ijian ido, matsokachin ido ; 
eye-brow gera, gira, giro, pi. 
gerare or girori ; e. lashes kai- 
nijia; ridge over the e. ka(s)- 
shin ido ; e. glass madubin ido ; 
mucus from the e. kwamsa, 
komtsa; disease of the e. hakia, 
hekia; eye& of a blind man 
tsauria ; medicine for the eyes 
korino, fideli, giwa kamba-, 
man with sunken eyes makwo- 
romi; man with only one e. 
maihakia*; a blemish in the e. 
lahani; watery e. (i.e. desire) 
ruan ido \ one with evil e. 
ma ye, mayi, fern, mayia; as 
far as the e. can reach hange*; 
e. witness shaidan ido ; to have 
dim eyes dindimi; to look 
with eyes nearly shut yin kan- 
kanin ido. 

fable, n. tamnia*, michali*, aU 
mara*, Jira*. 

face, n. fuska, pi. fuskoki and 
fvskund, huska*\ to f. towards 
the speaker gabato, gabatowa; 
to f . in a given direction fus- 
kanchi, fuskanta. 

fade, intr. v. tafe, tafi, yaushi, 
yoshi, yin yaushi, (used of cloth) 
kwaki ; (used of leaves) fofi*. 

fading away, part, kwake. 

fail, intr. v. (= decay) ras(8)u ; (f. 
to keep a promise) kuskure, 
kurkura; (= fall short of) kasa, 
kasa; f. to get tabe; f. to under- 
stand rudi. 

faint, adj. zumane. 



faint, intr. v. yin suma (or zutna), 
jin suma, suma, gaji. 

faintness, n. suma, suma, zuma, 
gamata*, (from lack of food) 
kumolo., 

fair, adj. keau, da keau, maikeau, 
maikiyo. 

faith, n. aiman*, aminchi*; the 
f. of Islam musulumchi; cf. 
believe. 

faithful, adj. yerdaji, salihi*, pi. 
salihai*. 

faithfulness, n. aminchi. 

falcon, n. 8hafo, shahu, jehurma. 

fall, u./adua, saraya. 

fall, intr. v. fadi, fada, /ado*, yin 
saraya, kucha*, kuza*, ture*, 
f. down before anyone run- 
8una, ru8ona ; f. in (used of a 
well) gubchi; make to f. go- 
chema; f. upon haye*\ f. in 
with tsayi, tsaya, tsai. 

falling, part, fadua ; f . into ruin 
rushvwa; sound of f, glass 
kilin kilin, kirri kirri. 

false, adj. marasgaskia, f. dealing 
kawawa na karia* D 7; to 
spread f. news kormot(t)o, chi- 
newa, chima*. 

falsehood, n. karia, kariachi. 

falsely, adv. to swear f. yin ka- 
para. 

fame, n. yab(b)o. 

family, n. members of f. iyali, 
um(m)a*, dengi*. 

famine, n. yunwa, often pro- 
nounced yungwa,farin yunwa. 

fan, n. fifiche, mctfuehi, pi., mqfel- 
fechi ; (made of woven grass) 
faifai, pi. fiya/ai; (made of 



Digitized by VjOOQ-IC 



fan 



61 



female 



palm leaves) giginia, pi. gi- 
gcmgani, giginyoyi or giginai ; 
(for winnowing) bakache, ma~ 
tankani, rereya, rairaia. 

fan, tr. v. bakache ; one who fans 
maibakache. 

far, adj. da nesa. 

far, adv. nesa ; as far as har, hal, 
har ga, tun, tunda ; to place f . 
off nesanta. 

farewell, n. to bid f . gaida ; an 
expression of f. sai woia 
rana. 

farm, n. gona, pi. gonaki; f. work 
aikin gona ; owner or culti- 
vator of a f. maigona. 

fashion, n. (= mode, custom) haU 
{l)i, pi. hal(l)ai. 

fast, n. azumi. 

fast, intr. v. yin azumi. 

fasten, tr. v. (e.g. with nails) 
ka/(f)a; (= tie) damre. 

fastened, part. (= closed) girkeke, 
fem. girkekia, pi. girkeku. 

fat, n. kib{b)a, pi. kibobi, kis(8)i, 
pi. kisosi, gwabi ; f . of meat mai. 

fat, adj. da kib(b)a, da gwabi, 
maigtoabi, kauri, kabri ; one 
who is f. maitumbi, maigato, 
maijiki, maichik(k)i, gendi, 
fem. gendia; to grow f. yin 
kib(b)a, yin ter(r)inia. 

fate, n. jinkiri*. 

father, n. uba or oba, pi. ubane or 
ubanai ; father-in-law surki, 
sariki*. 

fatigue, n. gajia ; failure through 
f. gajetoa. 

fatigued, part, gayara; to be f . 
gaji, jin gajia. 



fatness, n. ter(r)inia. 

fault, n. 1. (= defect) aibu; 2. 
(= offence) laifi ; f . finding bim- 
bini. 

favour, n. alheri ; to show f . yin 
keau; phr. he wins f. ya yi 
tomashi. 

fear, n. tsoro, tinzera, tunzurua*, 
razan(n)a, giz(z)o, falgaba, ra- 
ki*, shaii*, skigoro*, zulumi* ; 
to cause f . bada Uoro. 

fear, tr. and intr. v. jin Uoro, yin 
shigoro*, razan(n)i, tsantsanta. 

feast, n. buki, biki, idi, religious 
f. $al(l)a*; to make a f. yin 
buki. 

feasting, part. (esp. used of mar- 
riage f.) wa8an buki. 

feather, n. fikafike, pi. fikafikai, 
fukafuki, pi. fukafukai, ga- 
8hi*. 

fee, n. (paid by recipient of a 
royal present) tukuichi, takichi, 
tokochi ; market f . lad{d)a. 

feeble, adj. kumama, maraskarifi. 

feebleness, n. kumamanchi. 

feed, 1. tr. v. (= supply with food) 
chida, clmhe; 2. intr. v. (=eat) 
kiwo. 

feel, tr. v. 1 . (= perceive by touch- 
ing) lalabe,ji, tab{b)a; 2. (=be 
affected) ji ; f. about whilst 
searching fafake ; f. anything 
in order to test its weight jin- 
jini, jijiga ; f . afraid jin tsoro. 

fell, tr. v. (= cut down) sare. 

fellow, n. (= partner) kama, pi. 
kamanu. 

female, n. (of human beings and 
animals) mache, machi, pi. mata, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



fence 



62 



fire 



tamata ; phr. male and f. ivane 

da toanche. 
fence, n. darni*, damfam(m)i ; 

(f. round garden) donga, pi. 

dangogi ; (f . made of stalks or 

thorns to keep in sheep, etc.) 

shinge, shimge, pi. shimgaye. 
fencing, n. (a game) sharo. 
ferryman, n. sarikin rua. 
festival, n. 8aUJ)ata. 
fetch, tr. v. kawo, zo da; cf. bring. 
fetters, n. malwa, mari, giger, 

8arka*. 
fever, n. masfyasara, zaz(z)abi, 

zaz(z)ebi. 
few, adj. kad(d)an, kanana*, kan- 

kani*, kankane*, tsarcvri*. 
fez, n. fuladara, faladara, tagia. 
fibre, n. (of palm tree) kab(b)a, 

(used for making rope) teaiiva. 
field, n. (cultivated) fili, j)l.jilaye, 

gona, pi. gonaki; (barren) sa- 

bura, 8ar(r)ari*; (very large) 

karikara, karkara, pi. karka- 

rori or karkaroni, daji*. 
fierce, adj. to be f . haukache. 
fiercely, adv. da kangara. 
fifteen, adj. goma ska biar (or 

bial), sha biar. 
fifteenth, adj. nagoma (fern, ta- 

goma) sha biar. 
fifth, adj. nabiar, fern, tabiar; 

one f. hurmishi*. 
fifty, adj. hamsin. 
fig, n. (tree) itachen baure, baure, 

bore ; (fruit) baure, bore. 
fight, n. fad\d)a, fama, kokua, 

yaki*, jaiya*. 
fight, intr. v.fad(d)a, yinfad(d)a, 

far*, fata*, yin fama, yin 



kokua, 8ab(b)a*, yin jaiya*, 

goraya*. 
file, n. zerto, derto*. 
file, tr. v. gurjago, gurzago*, (a 

sword) akras, yin akras. 
fill, tr. v. chik(k)a, t8ik(k)a; f. full 

chichik{k)a, yin chichik(k)a ; 

to f. up a hole turubude ; phr. 

fill them up kawo chik(Jc)onsu. 
filled, part. chik(k)ache, chik{k)aka, 

achik(k)a ; to be f . chik(k)a. 
filling, part. chik(k)atoa. 
filter, n. (usually in form of small 

basket through which water is 

strained out) marovri. 
filter, tr. v. rare ; one who niters 

mairarewa. 
filth, n. dauda, jar aba. 
filthy, adj. da dauda; to be f . 

yin najasu. 
find, tr. v. %amu, same, samo, 

soma*; try to f. tuske, tuski. 
fine, adj. (= thin, delicate) laushi, 

loshi; 2. (= beautiful) da keau; 

very f. kal(J)o kal(l)o. 
finger, n. yasa, pi. yasosi; the 

little f. auta yasa; f. nail 

farichi, kambori, kumba, pi. 

kumbuna or kumbai, danuba, 

ahaifa*. 
finish, n. see end. 
finish, v. kare, wanya, wanyi, 

wanye, gam(m)a, gum(m)a*. 
finished, part. kaf(f)ofe, fern. 

kaf(f)afia or kaf(f)afa, pi. 

kqf(f)afu; phr. it is f. ya 

kare, ya tsaya, tammat*; he f. 

speaking ya yi magcma ya kare ; 

the month is f . wata ta mutu. 
fire, n. wuta; fire-place murufu; 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



fire-fly 



63 



flight 



a f. which has burnt down ru* 
fushi, rubshi, rubchi*; back of 
the f. dabarun wuta; restora- 
tion of a dying f. kwanin wiita; 
to light a f. fura wuta, hassa 
wuta ; make a large f . gas(s)a ; 
to strike f. with a flint kestu 
wuta; to miss f. (of a gun) 
fasa, yin karia; to f . a gun 
halbi (or buga) bindiga. 

fire-fly, n. dim(m)i dawa. 

firewood, n. itachen wuta. 

fireworks, n. (display of) wowo. 

firmament, n. hawa*, sama*. 

first, adj. nafari, fern, tafari. 

first, adv. naferko, dafari, tukun, 
tukun(n)a. 

fish, n. kifi, kife, pi. kifaye ; mud- 
fish gaiwa ; electric f. mijiria, 
misiria; large f. from which 
oil is obtained gini, zau; a 
kind of jelly f. karaya, karaia; 
a f. resembling an eel gondo ; 
a f. with a belly like a frog 
talibambam ; shell f. kumba*, 
pi. kumbuna*; f. with large 
teeth tsag(g)e; f. like a salmon 
folia: species of flat f. kar- 
fa[s)shi; other species of f. 
(unidentified) kuku, kulume, 
kuma, gargas(s)a, pi. gargas- 
(s)u, mari, kurungu, baram- 
chi*, yauni*; scales of f. 
kumba*, pi. kumbuna* '; f. bones 
kayan kifi; net for catching 
f . koma* ; spear for catching f . 
hag(g)u; f. trap mwmura; fish- 
ing line with hooks attached 
faza, murimuri; f. hook ku- 
giya, kogia, kogua, pi. kugiyoyi. 



fish, intr. v. kama kifi; f. with 
small hand-net su. 

fisherman, n. (who uses small 
net) maisu, pi. masusu. 

fist, n. to close the f . tunkushe. 

fit, n. (fainting f.) gamata, fal> 
fada. 

fit, adj. da ya kamata, sawabe*, 
sawaba*; to deem f. gamshe. 

fitting, be, intr. v. kamata, gam- 
she, gamma*. 

five, adj. biar, bial, biat*, hamsa*; 
f. thousand hamsa*, q.v. 

fix, tr. v. see fasten. 

flag, n. tuta, tuti, pi. tutoshi. 

flame, n. halshin wuta (lit. tongue 
of fire). 

flat, a f . place without trees kanga, 
konga. 

fiat-fish, n. species of, karfa(s)8hi. 

flatten, tr. v. nani. 

flattened, part, nanane. 

flatter, tr. v. lalashi*, lilashi*. 

flattery, n. kirari. 

flavour, n. gardi, gerdi, zaki; the 
nut has a good f. gedda tana 
da gardi. 

flax, n. string made of f. kirtani. 

flay, tr. v. fida, fide, fige*, Jigi*. 

flea, n. kuma,koma, kwalkwat(t)a* , 
kolkot{t)a*. 

flee, intr. v. gudu, guje*, tsire, 
sukua, suka, sukani, ruga*, 
rauga*; a place to which to f. 
wurin gudu ; to make to f . 
ruga*, rauga*; cf. drive away. 

flesh, n. nama, pi. namomi; un- 
cooked f. nama dainye; (bush- 
meat) naman daji*. 

flight, n. guduwa. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



flint 



64 



forbearance 



flint, n. kestu, kastu; f. in a f. 
lock gun dushin bvndiga; to 
strike fire with a f. kestu wuta. 

flock, n. garike, gerke, pi. gari- 
kuna or gerkuna. 

flog, tr. v. doke, buga, yin kurfu. 

flogging, n. kurafu, kurfu, karfu*. 

flood, n. chik(k)owa,chichik(k)owa, 
tabki*. 

floor, n. (for threshing) masis- 
(s)ika. 

flour, n. gari, sek(k)i, teek(k)i ; f. 
of wheat lal(l)e; f. mixed with 
water talia** 

flourish, intr. v. yalwata. 

flow, intr. v. f. quickly tumbudu. 

flower, n. fare, pi. furori or fu~ 
raye. 

flute, n. algqita, algaito, sarewa ; 
reed from which flutes are 
made kusumburua. 

fly, n. (common house f.) kuda, 
kudi, kuje, pi. kua\d)ashe or 
kud(d)aje; small sand f. hudan 
gerke; horse f. gorje, gurje, 
bobua, berbachi, damis(s)an da- 
waki; piece of leather placed 
on horses' eyes to keep off flies 
maganin kuda (lit. fly medi- 
cine); fire- fly dim(m)i daiva. 

fly, intr. v. (of a bird) jawagi*. 

foal, n. dukushi, fem. dukusa, pi. 
dukusai, dan dukushi. 

foam, n. kunfa, kumba. 

fog, n. hazo. 

foggy, adj. da hazo. 

fold, n. (for sheep, etc.) garike, 
gerke, pi. garikuna or gerkuna, 
turike, tuke, ruga; cutting folds, 
of cloth kirfawa. 



fold, tr. v. (cloth, etc.) nimkd, 
linke, yafa, yafo, kunsa*; f. 
the arms tak(k)ura. 

foliage, n. gainyen itache. 

follow, tr. v. bi, biawa; f. a path 
bi hainya. 

followers, n. masubi. 

folly, n. see foolishness. 

fond, adj. to be f. of marimari. 

fondling, n. act of f . lalaba. 

food, n. chima, chimaka, abinchi, 
tuo*, jibi* ; much f. machia ; 
calabash full of f. kabak(k)i, 
pi. kaboka; one possessed of 
f . kabeke* ; f aintness from lack 
of f . kumolo. 

fool,, n. wawa, hauka, fnagagachi, 
shashasha, badada, bada bada, 
maiwauta, mawauta, mahau- 
kachi, fem. mahaukachia, pi. 
mahaukatu; foolish talking ba- 
dagula, they talked foolishly su 
yi bobawa. 

foolish, be, intr. v. wawa. 

foolishness, n. wawanchi, hauka, 
mabuya, mawauta*. 

foot, n. kaffa, pi. kafafu or kafafe; 
f. regarded as a measure of 
length tak(k)i y pi. takoki; foot- 
print sau; sole of f. tafin 
kaffa, mataki, pi. matakai ; foot- 
stool mataki*, lekafa*; on f. 
akaffa. 

for, 1. prep. (=for the sake of) 
domin, don, zama*, see ac- 
count of; (=in view of) ga; 
2. conj. (- because) fa ; phr. 
for his sake dominsa. 

forbearance, n. hankuri, hankura, 
hakora. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



forbid 



<65 



fragment 



forbid, tr. v. dakile, han(n)a. 
force, n. tilas, karifi; by f. da tilas, 

tilas; to use f. yin tilas, tilasa, 

tilasda; phr. I was forced to 

go na iaffi tilas or wajibine na 

taffi ; see under wajib. 
forearm, n. gab(b)a. 
forefather, n. see ancestor, 
forefinger, n. manuni. 
forehead, n. goshi. 
foreign, adj. ajami*. 
foreigner, n. ture*, bature*; that 

which pertains to a f . turan- 

chi*. 
forest, n. rukuki, daji*, dawa*; 

dense f. kurimi, kurmi, kum- 

chi, kumshi*. 
forethought, n. hankali. 
forge, n. makera; worker at f. 

(blacksmith) makeri, maikira, 

muk(k)ira. 
forge, tr. v. kira. 
forget, tr. v. manche, yin mantua, 

manta. 
forgetfulness or forgetting, n. 

mantua, sakqfchi. 
forgive, tr. v. yafe, yin gaferta, 

gafara, yerda, yirda; f. me 

gafara mani. 
forgiveness, n. gafara, gqferta. 
fork, n. (iron toasting f.) rino. 
forked, adj. (£. iron stick on 

horse's neck) kasegi. 
forlornness, n. kewa, kiwa. 
form, n. (= shape) kama, supa*. 
former, adj. nafari\ the f....the 

latter wonehan...wonehan. 
formerly, adv. dazu, da/ari; in 

former times nad&; as in former 

times kaman nada ; those who 

R. II. 



lived in former times rriasuga- 

bato. 
fornication, n. shakalichi. 
fornicator, n. shakali. 
forsake, tr. v. beri, ber. 
forthwith, adv. nan da nan, ko- 

yanzu. 
fortification, n. kagara, kagarua, 

pi. kagaru. 
fortunate, adj. it was f. ya yi 

arziki. 
fortune, n. ( = prosperity) arziki ; 

a man of f. mawadachi, pi. 

mawadata. 
forty, adj. arbain. 
forward, adv. gab(b)a; to move a 

little f. guso, guruguso. 
foster, f. mother uwal rufi; f. child 

dangana* ; one who fosters 

gona*. 
foundation, n. goto ; f . of a wall 

tushi. 

founded, part, ka/a/e, fern, kafa- 

fia, pi. kafafa or kafafu. 
fountain, n. maromaro, rnarmaru. 
four, adj. fudu, hudn*, arbaa, 

arba; by fours fudu fudu. 
fourteen, adj. gorna ska fudu, sha 

fudu. 
fourth, adj. nafudu, fern, tafudu ; 

f . day gata. 
fowl, n. kaza or kasa, pi. kaji; 

speckled fowls ivakawake ; a f . 

plucked for cooking chikirv- 

kidda; a place where fowls 

are kept akurike. 
fox, n. karambik(k)i, yanyawa*. 
fragment, n. guzura, pi. guzure, 
, + guntu, guntun abu ; fragments 

of broken pots kaina*. 

5 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



frankincense 



66 



furbish 



frankincense, n. turare; small 
box for f . lulu. 

fraud, n. see deceit. 

free, adj. one who is f. da, diya. 

free, tr. v. beri, bada diyaucki. 

freed, part, berere, fem. bereria, 
pi. bereru. 

freedom, n. yanchi, diyauchi, dir 
yanchi, diyantaka; a certificate 
of f . laya, lay an dayauchi. 

frenzy, n. wahami, hauka. 

frequent, adj. see often. 

frequent, tr. v. (= visit often) 
expressed by use of kan with 
verbs meaning to go to. 

fresh, adj. sabo, fem. sabua, pi. 
sabi, (applied to plants, etc.) 
gavnye, dainye or dainyi, pi. 
dainyoyi. 

fretful, adj. da zajm rai. 

Friday, n. aljimua. 

fried, part, soiyaye or soiyeye, fem. 
soiyaya, pi. soiyayu. 

friend, n. aboki, fem. abohia or 
abuya, pi. abokai, masoyi, fem. 
masoya, pi. masoyu, maso, pi. 
masowa, tsara, kama, pi. Jca- 
manu, dan uwa, pi. yon uwa, 
zuma, zuma, juna*, amini*, 
wali*, dengi, denga or deg(g)i, 
pi. dengoyi, makofchi or ma- 
kubchi, fem. makopta, pi. id.; 
friends sahabai*, mhba*; my 
friends yan uwana. 

friendship, n. abuta, zumunchi, 
haHl)in aboki. 

fright, n. tinzera, tunzurua, teoro. 

frighten, tr. v. teorata, bada teoro, 
ruba*. 

frog, n. talibambam; small dark 



coloured f. warnu; an edible f. 
burdudugi. 

from, prep. dag(g)a, (when fol- 
lowed by the personal pronouns) 
dag(g)a gore; f. within dag(g)a 
chik(k)i; f. afar dag(g)a nesa; 
tun, phr. f. birth tun hai/ua. 

front, n. gab(b)a, pi. gab(b)obi, 
goshi; in f. agab(b)a; in f. of 
gab(b)an ; to go in f. teaitee. 

frost, n. buda*. 

froth, n. kunfa; f. skimmed off 
in making bread kulu. 

frown, intr. v. damre fuska, kan- 
kamna, jirkita fuska, diba 
kamna*; to f. on harara*. 

fruit, n. (of trees) diyan itache, 
yayan itache; (of grains, etc.) 
kwara, kwaya; a species of 
sweet smelling f . goasa ; the f . 
of the earth diyan kasa. 

fruitful, adj. a f . place matachin 
wuri. 

fruitless, adj. e.g. f. toil aike 
wqfi. 

fry, tr. v. soiya, soya. 

fuel, n. see firewood. 

fugitive, n. gujeje*, maigudu. 

Fulah, pr. n. a F. native bafulata, 
pi. fulani; the F. language 
Julanchi ; the F. people fulbe. 

full, adj. chik(k)ache, fem. chik(k)a- 
ka, pi. chik(k)aku, achik(k)a, 
(f. to the brim) ,/at*; to be f . 
taru*; cf. complete. 

fulness, n. yayalwachi; cf. com- 
pletion; 

funeral, n. kufanwa*, biso*; la- 
mentations at a f. makokt. 

furbish, tr. v. (e.g. a sword) koda. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



fcurnace 



67 



ghost 



furnace, n. tanderu*, mwrujki*. 
furrow, n. kwori\ to draw a f. 

kirta. 
further, adj. (= more distant) mafi 

da nesa. 
fdry, n. see anger, 
future, adj. (=that is to come) 

maizua. 

gain, n. riba*; unlawful g. kwa, 
riba, haramia; to make un- 
lawful g. chin riba, chm ha- 
ramia, chin kura. 

gall, n. madachi, sefa*. 

gallop, intr. v. yin mkua, sukua, 
8uka f 8ukani; a place for horses 
to g. masukwani. 

gambling, n. a game for g. chacha, 
8ho8ha* f modi ; to throw down 
money in g. wasa da kurdi. 

game, n. toorigi, izgili*; g. played 
by children karkachi; g. played 
by fortune-tellers in order to 
discover secrets dirka; a g. 
played with cowry shells dor- 
(r)a, der(r)a; a gambling g. 
chacha; a call to join in a g. 
shu or shin. 

game, n. (food) naman daji. 

gap6, intr. y. yin hama, Kama. 

garden, n. danga*, pi. dangogi* ; 
a dry season irrigated g. lambu, 
pi. lambuna. 

gardener, n. maigona*. 

gargle, n. wanken makoshi. 

garlic, n. tafarnua, pi. tajarnai. 

garment, n. riga, pi. riguna ; old 
garments 8wm(m)a or tmma*, 
pi. 8um(m)oki or teumoki*, keso, 
reg(g)a; cf. clothes. 



garner, n. (= place for storing 
grain) rufogo, ra/onia, rumbu*. 

garnished, part, g&rtache, fern. 
gertata, pi. gertatu. 

gasp, intr. v. (for breath) yinfuka, 
yin Juchi*, shashisha*; one 
who gasps maifuchi. 

gate, n. kqfa, pi. kqfqfi, kaf(f)i, 
kqfara*; gateway, see door- 
way. 

gather together, 1. tr. v. tara; 
2. intr. v. taru y gayya. 

gathered, part, ctiara, atom, ata- 
rat*, tarare, fem. tarara, pi. 
tararu. 

gathering, n. e.g. of people before 
a king kindigaye; cf. assem- 
bly. 

gaze at, tr. v. yin kal(l)o, kaltyo, 
taokachi, chokachi, dauro*, do- 
ro* t giwaya*, jiwaya*, nwri*> 
(generally in a bad sense) 
zwru*. 

gazelle, n. barewa, pi. bcvreyi. 

generosity, n. baiwa. 

generous, adj. maitalqfi*. 

genii, n. see demons. 

genitive, the g. case in Hausa is 
denoted by na, frequently con- 
tracted to n, a feminine form 
ta is also used ; see of. 

gentleness, n. lalqfanchi*. 

gently, adv. 8cm(n)u. 

genuine, adj. g. money kurdi 
zaba. 

Germany, pr. n. (used in North 
Africa) bursia. 

get, tr. v. 8amu, same, samo, 
sama*. 

ghost, n.Jatctiua, magiro*, dodo*. 
5—2 



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giddiness 



6.8 



good 



giddiness, n. gigita, jeri*. 

giddy, adj. phr. I am g. kaina 
8hina kewoyewa ; to be g. gi- 
gita ; to make g. dame, dama. 

gift, n. keauta, kaya or kaia, pi. 
kayayeki, abin gaisua ; free g. 
alheri; g. given to conciliate 
saraba*; gifts coll. baiwa. 

gimlet, n. araraki, berima*. 

gin, n. (for animals) turko. 

gin, n. (a spirit) barazza*, ba- 
rassa*; a case of g. akwati*. 

gird, tr. v. damre, daure, darmi*, 
damra*, yin damara. 

girded, part, damrare, pi. damraru. 

girdle, n. damarichik(k)i, damara, 
madamrin chik(k)i ; g. of rope 
guru*; g. made with copper 
tagula, tug(g)ula, pL tagulai; 
g. of cloth taraia ; woman's g. 
geftu; woman's g. of beads 
tsak(k)ia. 

girl, n. yarinia, pi. yamata, diya, 
madachia*; young g. tanta- 
bara*. 

girth, n. (of a horse) bauji. 

give, tr. v. ba, bada, bashi, bayes, 
baya*; g. back bayesda; g. up 
sal(l)ame, bada, bashi, yerda 
bashi*; g. alms sadaka; g. away 
a woman in marriage wali*. 

giver, n. maibada, mabaya*. 

glad, be, intr. v. yin farinchik(k)i, 
yin (or jin) murna. 

gladden, tr. v. bada (or so) murna. 

gladness, n./arinchik(k)i, murna. 

glass, n. madubi*; dish made of 
g. tamgaram; looking g. ma- 
dubin ido, matsokachi, maso- 
kachi. 



glean, tr. v. yin kala, roro, yin 
saura. 

gleanings, n. (of a harvest) kala, 
saura*. 

glorious, adj. (of God) jalla* C 49. 

glory, n. daraja*, darajia*, an- 
num*, girma*. 

glove, n. rigan hanu*. 

glow-Worm,n. makesua, maikesua. 

glue, n. danko*, dunko*. 

glutton, n. mailoma; gluttons 
masurida. 

gnash, tr. v. tamna hak(k)ora. 

gnashing, n. (of teeth) tsuk(k)un 
hak(k)ora. 

go, intr. v. taf(J)i, je, zaka, za- 
zage*, zatsa*; be about to go 
za; go to visit a place zage, 
zagi; go round dauroro, do- 
raro, daurara*; go before ga- 
bata; go back birkida; go forth 
tashi ; go away jishema, kau ; 
go constantly to a place shi- 
shig(g)a; go as far as tusga, 
tusge; go with chimayi, chim- 
ma, tare ; go to meet tarie; go 
out oifit(t)a. 

goat, n. akwia, pi. awaki; he-goat 
bunsuru, pi. bunsurai or bun- 
suraye, tauri*; a vicious g. 
waisatsi, fern, toatsatsia; old 
lean g. guzuma; a castrated 
g. tabri; beard of a g. rairo; 
skin of a g. langabbu. 

God, pr. n. attah, the plural al- 
lohi is used of idols. 

going, part. taf(f)ia; they are g. 
suna taffia; a g. away maraita*. 

gold, n. zinaria, zinaria. 

good, adj. nagari, fern, iagari, pi. 



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goodness 



69 



grandfather 



nagargaru, maikeau, maikiyo, 
keau, kiyo, haira*, salihi, pL 
salihai; g. or bad fori ko baki; 
g. used as an exclamation to; 
g. morning sarin da safe, sanu , 
da rana, sanu da komowa; 
g. evening (on parting) sai da 
safe, (on meeting) sanu da dere ; 
good-bye for the present sai 
anjima; see under sanu. 

goodness, n. nagerta. 

goods, n. dukiya, pi. dukoki or 
dukiyoyi, kaya or kaia, pi. 
kayayeki. 

goose, n. dumia; wild g. gaba*; 
water g. with white breast Isa- 
gagi. 

gore, n. jini. 

gore, tr. y. (of horned animals) 
tunkuda, tunkuji or tunkui, 
e.g. the bull and the cow gored 
each the other sa da sannia 
suka lunkuda junansu ; soka, 
soke or soki with intens. sosoki. 

gorge, n. 1. see throat; 2. (=a 
narrow defile) kozozobe. 

gorgeous, adj. (= splendid) na 
ado, e.g. g. robes riguna na ado. 

gorilla, n. gogo (?). 

goro-nut, n. goro, pL gumrra*; 
spec, a large g. goria*, a small 
medicinal g. namijin goro. 

gory, adj. da jini, najini, sai jini. 

gossip, n. 1. (=talk) roshi; 2. 
concr. an idle talker, a gossip 
algringumi, pi. algringuma. 

gourd, n. a plant whose fruit is 
either eaten or formed into 
cups and calabashes; among 
the kinds eaten are cucurbita 



pepo kabewa and goji, a small 
species kubewa, karam(m)ia ; 
among those used as vessels 
only are cucurbita lagenaria 
kworia or koria and duma. 

gourds, roots of, coll. n. yado*. 

govern, v. (= rule, reign) malaka*. 

governor, n. hdkimi*, pi. hdki- 
mai, maimalaka, masarauchi*, 
wakili; sariki is sometimes 
used in this sense. 

gown, n. riga, pi. riguna. 

grace, n. (= favour, free gift) jin- 
kai or shinkai, alheri; he 
showed g. to us ya yi mamu 
alheri. 

gracious, adj. (of God) karimu* 
F16. 

graft, n. i.e. from one tree to 
another kauchi. 

graft, tr. v. kaffa*. 

grain, n. 1. diff. spec, are : a g. 
like guinea-corn growing to 
height of eight feet gero ; dauro 
is a small edible grain resem- 
bling gero; g. used for gruel, 
etc. iblu or ibru; the holcus 
cernuus (Barth) maiwa, en- 
taya*; 2. fig. grains (as of sand) 
barbaddi or berbaddi. 

grain, mud receptacle for, n. taska, 
pi. taskald. 

grand, adj. (= important) baba, 
pi. mainya, e.g. g. people ma- 
inya mutane; maigirima, pi. 
masugirima. 

grandchild, n. jika, fern, jikata, 
pi. jikoki. 

granddaughter, n. see prec. 

grandfather, n. kaka 9 pi. kakani, 



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grandmother 



70 



green 



uban uba, e.g your g. uban 
ubaka B 75. 

grandmother, n. kakata. 

grandson, n. see grandchild. 

grasp, with the hand, tr. v. jimke; 
with the arms (=to embrace) 
rungume. 

grasping, adj. fig. (= covetous, 
greedy) da rowa, mavrowa, 
maitsalumchi, kawazuchi. 

grasping disposition, n. rowa, 
Ualimi or tsalumi, kawazuchi. 

grass, n. 1. gen. chiawa \ green g. 
chiawa dainyi, achi*; 2, spec, 
of various kinds and uses, a 
species of g. haki, pi. haku- 
hwa\ dried or chopped g. for 
horses ingirichi or ingvrochi; 
undried g. as fodder kasua 
or kasuwa; g. with burr-like 
prickles karangia, karengia or 
karingia ; a g. eaten by horses 
gadeg(g)i; a g. for making 
mats zuntsia ; a g. from leaves 
of which a medicine is made 
rairai or rere; plaited g. 
tsaiwa; a rough g. gamba, 
pi. gambobi', a scented g. 
jema; a g. used for thatch 
and door covers bunu, pi. 
bunai; bristles of a g. used as a 
medicine dandanbayi ; hatchet 
for cutting g. mumtaraga. 

grasshopper, spotted, n. wukan 
sariki (lit. king's knife). 

gratuitous, adj. banza. 

grave, n. hushewa or kusheya*, 
pi. kusheyi, kabari*, wurin 
bisne, maimtitra*. 

gravel, n. tsakua. 



graze, v. 1. tr. kiwo; 2. intr. of 
cattle id. 

grease, n. mai. 

great, adj. 1. (both physically and 
morally) babd and bab(b)a, pi. 
mainya or maiya, nwigirima, 
girima, e.g. with a g. sword 
da bab(b)an takobi, a g. king 
sariki babd or bab(b)an sariki ; 
in a moral sense bajini(n)* 
B 85; 2. (quantitatively and 
of degree) dayawa or daiawa, 
e.g. we sat down conversing 
with g. laughter muka zamna 
muna yin zanche da daria 
dayawa, g. falsehood karia da- 
yawa ; 3. spec, applied to God 
jalla*, jalala*, akbar*; cf. seq. ; 
4. of one in authority as a king 
or prince madaukaki. 

great, to declare, v. 1. (=to honour) 
gvrmama; 2. spec, kabbar*, e.g. 
to declare that God is g. kabbar 
ga allah akbar A 72. 

greater, adj. comp. mafigirma, pi. 
masufigirma ; in the absence 
of superl. forms the idea is 
expr. by phr. ya fi duka or ya 
Ji kowa appended to the adj. 

greatness, n. girma and girmama ; 
spec, zati (lit. essence, person- 
ality) = the g. or majesty of 
God ; cf. F 45, 132, 246. 

greed, n. rowa, marowachi, zergi. 

greediness, n. marowachi. 

greedy, adj. da rowa, makodaita\ 
he is a g. person shi ne maro- 
wachi. 

green, adj. 1. (the colour) algus or 
alkus, korino; 2. (= fresh) of 



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Google 



greet 



71 



grow 



plants etc. dainye or dainyi, 
pi. dainyoyi^ 3. of g. needle- 
work on tobe algushi or al- 
gashi. 

greet, tr. v. 1. gaida, gaishe, gaisa, 
e.g. I greeted the man and he 
accepted my greeting na gaida 
mutum ya hatha gaisuanay 
pres. we g. muna gaisua; often \ 
in pass. e.g. g. the truly great 
man agaida yon maza bajinin 
gaskia B 85, 87, 1 g. thee agai- 
sheka; 2. (of religious saluta- 
tion) yin sallati F 3, pres. 
(with na) salmawa, e.g. we g. 
muna salmawa; 3. to g. by 
shaking the hand jinjini; to 
wave or extend the hand in 
greeting mika hanu, e.g. I 
greeted them with my hand 
and departed na mika mam 
hanu na taffi. 

greeting, n. 1. gen. gaisica; 2. in 
a religious sense sal(l)atu or 
sal(l)ati, salmawa F 3, 5. 

grey, turning, as from age furu- 
fura. 

grief, n. 1. (=pain of mind, sorrow) 
nadama*, nidama* or ladama*; 
2. (cause of pain or sorrow) 
wohal(l)a or wahal(l)a; 3. (= ex- 
pression of grief) kuka, e.g. he 
made great g. over him ya yi 
kuka dayawa abissansa, cf. 
G4. 

grievance, n. kururua*. 

grieved, be, intr. v. wohalda or 
wahalda, jin tvohal(l)a. 

grind, tr. v. 1. gen. nik(k)a, tushe, 
dakka } intensive dadaka; spec. 



related to last, to g. to powder 
dadaga, to g. roughly bersa* 
or birza, to g. rice tingama, to 
g. wheat reda; 2. (= to whet or 
sharpen) wasa, gerta, e.g. he 
ground the razors nicely ya 
wasa {gerta) asaki da keau. 

grinding, of wheat, n. tersawa, 
also t€8awa. 

gripe, tr. v. (of medicine) murda. 

gristle, n. gurunguntei. 

groan, intr. v. guri, yin nishi. 

groaning, n. niehi 

groom, n. 1. shamak(k)i 9 pi. sha- 
mak(k)ai; 2. (= bridegroom) 
ango, pi. anguna. 

grope, v. lalabe; (= to search one's 
way with the hands in the 
dark) burkuti, dundumi. 

ground, n. 1. (= surface of the 
earth) kastya, pL kae{8)ashi or 
ka8(8)a8a; on the g. ako8(s)a 
or akass\ 2. (= cause) 8ab(b)abi 
or 8ub(b)abi; without g. (or 
grounds) babu 8ab(b)abi; 3. 
(= first principle or foundation) 
guzu or gusu*. 

ground, pass, participle 1. (finely) 
roshi ; 2. (roughly) da tsekki. 

ground-nut, n. arachis hypogaea 
aya 9 gta\d)a\ a smaller species 
guchia, gujia or gojia, pi. gu<- 
jeye; oil from g, main ged(d)a; 
pod of g. kobsa, kopea or kobso. 

grow, intr. v. 1. of plants chvra, 
chire, chiro or tsira, tsire, tsvro, 
also tsoro; 2. (= increase in 
size) girima, yin girima ; 3. to 
g. (=to become) zama; to g. 
old tsu/a. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



growth 



72 



habit 



growth, n. (of a plant) ded(d)ua. 

gruel, n. made of guinea-corn 
kwnu; thin g. sal(l)ala. 

grumble, v. gvmaguni> gv/ri, bim- 
bini, binbini. 

grumbling, n. bimbini, binbini or 
bibini*; to refrain from g. rika 
binbini. 

grunting, (of a pig) n. tsuwa. 

guard, n. 1. (=heed, care) tsari, 
e.g. be on your g. against 
(= take heed against) ka nema 
tsari; 2. (= soldier of ting's 
body-guard) dakara, pi. do- 
ham, dogari. 

guard, tr. v. teara, Uari, teare; 
g. against tsaro, tsarima. 

guest, n. bako, f. bakua, pi. bakuna, 
baki or bakokuna. 

guide, n. jagaba, shugaba, pi. shvr 
gabai. 

guide, tr. v. (= lead, conduct) kai. 

guile, n. munafuchi or manafuchi) 
(= cunning) wayo, with g. da 
wayo. 

guilt, n. laifi, zambata. 

guiltless, adj. babu laifi. 

guilty, to declare, v. kada, bada 
laifi ; to be declared g. kayes*. 

guinea-corn, n. dawa (= sorghum 
vulgare), gero*. There are four 
chief kinds of dawa : kaura, a 
red species, used for feeding 
horses, farafara used when 
ground for making gruel, rnura- 
rnura eaten whole when cooked, 
yiwakamba used as a medicine 
for rubbing on the eyes; g. 
ground up kqfa; a drink made 
from g. giya\ g. fever, occur- 



ring when the g. ripens chiwo 
na sabo dawa. 

guinea-fowl, n. sabua or zabua, 
pi. sabi or zabi, kazan yariba. 

guinea- worm, n. kurkono or ku- 
rukunu ; a small plant used as 
a medicine for g. damankad- 
(d)a; a swelling caused by g. 
hangar a. 

guitar, n. gurumin kiddi (?). 

gullet, n. janai. 

gum, n. danko or dumko, jirai, 
sagogi*; spec, a g. put in ink 
karo; a g. used in perfumes 
karon maje. 

gums, n. ( = seat of the teeth) 
dasashi. 

gun, n. bindiga, pi. bindigogi; 
spec, a double-barrelled g. bin- 
diga da baki bin ; report of a 
g. ammo*; to load a g. dora. or 
chik(k)a bindiga; to discharge 
a g. halbi (or halbe or buga) 
bindiga. 

gunpowder, n. albarvs or alba- 
rud. 

guns, coll. n. makami*. 

gush out, intr. v. zub(b)a, zub(b)o, 
suba\ to g. out abundantly 
guslie gwhe. 

gusset, n. tsuma, pi. teumoki; cloth 
g. in a tobe shiga. 

gypsum, n. alzibbus*. 

habit, n. tada, pi. tadodi, ada, 
hal(l)i, sabo*, the last especially 
of aptitude acquired by prac- 
tice, phr. nothing can be done 
except by practice aikin dunia 
duka sai sabo ; cf . habituated. 



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habitation 



73 



handful. 



habitation, n. mazamne. 

habituated, to be, intr. v. saba 
constr. with da. 

haggle, intr. v. yin chvniki; cf. 
bargain. 

hail, n. kankar(r)a, rua da kan- 
kar(r)a, buda. 

hail! exclamation = welcome ! sa- 
rin, agaisheka, sai lafia. 

hair, n. coll. gashi; a single h. 
gashi E 144; spec, head of h. 
when cut off suma ; h. on the 
cheeks saje or saji; h. of tail 
of horse, elephant, etc. tsegia; 
abundance of h. giz(z)o; ab- 
sence of h. on head kundumin 
kai; long ridge of h. left in 
shaving shasanda*; tuft of h. 
zanko ; h. of woman plaited 
bijaji; h. worn by women in 
curls down their cheeks kis(s)o; 
twisted locks of woman's h. at 
side of face dauri. 

hairdresser, n. maikis(8)o, fern. 
maikis(s)ia y manzcmi*. 

hairy, adj. da gashi, e.g. its face 
is all h. fuskansa duk da gashi 
or fuskansa sai gashi; a h. 
person gcdgas(s)a or gargas(s)a; 
h. all over duguza*. 

half, n. 8hashi y sashi*, rah(b)i, 
rib(b)i* ; h. a piece of cloth, 
paper, etc. ausigi. 

hall, n. entrance h. zaure, pi. 
zauruka. 

halo, n. i.e. round sun or moon 
sansan(n)i. 

halt, adj. guragu or gwrgu, pi. 
gurdgu. 

halt, intr. v. 1. (=to limp) yin 



gurugunta; 2. (= to stop march- 
ing, to stand still) tsayi, tsaya, 
tsai; 3. spec, to h. for the 
night 8hid(d)a or shid(d)e; 4. 
fig. to h. between two opinions 
yin baki biu. 

halter, n. (= leading-rope for 
horses, etc.) assalawi, ragama. 

halting, n. (= limping) gurugtmta, 
gurgunta, gurmunta, gurgun- 
chi. 

halting-place, for the night, n. 
zungo, mashid{d)i, last in the 
sense of lodging or khan; spec, 
temporary h. for carriers loko. 

halve, tr. v. bare*; in less strict 
sense (= to divide) rdba. 

hammer, n. ktoarikwas(8)a ; a 
blacksmith's h. mas{s)aba, pL 
mas{s)abai; a large h. ama- 
deshi; a small h. matcdaka or 
muntalaka. 

hand, n. 1. hanu, pi. ficmua; the 
right h. dama or harm na 
dania; the left h. Iiagum, hagu, 
hauni, hanu na hagum or hanu 
na hauni ; the palm of the h. 
bayan hanu, the same spread 
out flat tafin Juvtiu; 2. of place 
or direction, right h. dama, 
wojen dama; left h. hagum, 
Iiagu, hauni or wojen hagum, 
etc. ; of time, at h. kus(s)a, da 
kus{s)a; cf. hands. 

hand, tr. v. mika, and in a looser 
sense ba or bada. 

handed, left-, adj. bahago. 

handful, n. (of mud, flour, etc.) 
dunkule, churi; to take a h. 
jimke. 



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handkerchief 



74 



hat 



handkerchief, n. makarma; spec, 
a h. on woman's head kal(l)abi; 
h. to bind round woman's head 
alfuta, pL alfiUai; h. tied up 
so as to form a bag adiko ; h. 
used to wrap up money mai- 
yani. 

handle, n. marik(k)i, pi. marih 
(k)ai, madavM, maratayi; h. of 
axe bakm gatari; h. of knife, 
pen, axe, etc. bota*; h. of box 
makama, kota, zoben (or zobin) 
kaya. 

handle, tr. v. tab(b)a. 

hands, to clap the, v. bam, hanu, 
tafa or tafi. 

hands, a man with his h. tied to 
: his neck, n. kukumi. 

handsome, adj. da keau, mai- 
keau ; a building h. to look at 
gid(d)a da keaun gan(n)i. 

hang, tr. v. rataya or rataia, yin 
rataya; to h. up rataya, yin 
rataya, done*. 

hanging, n. (= curtain, etc.) reto. 

hanging, 1. adj. (= suspended) 
arataye; 2. part, ratayawa. 

happen, intr. v. faru, e.g. it 
happened ya faru, what has 
happened? mi ya faru 9 cf. 
seq. 

happen to, intr. v. same, soma*, 
fomoy e.g. what has happened 
to you ? = what is the matter 
with you 1 mi ya sameka ? 

happiness, n. 1. (-satisfaction) 
dadi, dadin zuchia, murna* ; 
2. (in a religious sense) sa- 
ada*. 

happy, feel, intr. v. jin dadi. 



harass, tr. v. sananche. 

hard, adj. 1. phys. da tauri, cf. 
seq.; also morally hard, ob- 
stinate ; 2. (? difficult of ac- 
complishment, etc.) da wuya. 

harden, intr. v. (to become hard) 
yin tauri. 

hardened, part, one whose heart 
is h. matauria zuchia. 

hard-headed, n. (=an obstinate 
person) maikinji. 

hardness, n. tauri, also in a moral 
sense, e.g. taurin zuchia hard- 
ness of heart. 

hare, n. zomu or zomo, pi. zomai. 

harlot, n. bombegi, shakalia, pi. 
shakalai, cf. fornicator; child 
of harlot danfarka. 

harlotry, n. thakalichi. 

harm, n. bannai*, laifi, e.g. there 
is no h. in it babu laifi. 

harm, tr. v. bota, bache, jima. 

harp, n. garaiya*. 

harpoon, n. for river fishing zago, 
hag(g)u. 

hart, n. see deer. 

harvest, n. (Le. the season) kak- 
(k)a. 

harvest, to cut down the, v. girbi 
or giribi ; cf . reap. 

haste, n. sauri or samri, anvya, 
garaje or garazi D 36. 

hasten, intr. v. yin aniya, ham- 
zari or hamzari, gaugawa, 
gaugata*, kaifafa*; to h. after 
zazari. 

hastening, n. garaje or garazi. 

hastily, adv. da sauri, da saukL 

hat, straw, n. garumfa, garunfa 
or gurumfa; large straw h. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



hatch 



75 



head-dress 



mala/a, pi. malajuna or malar 
Jai; danga/rumfa designates a 
small trader, who carries goods 
on his head ; cf . cap. 

hatch, tr. y. kenke(s)she or ken- 
kes(s)a. 

hatchet, n. gatari, pL gatara, ga- 
tura and gaturua; small h. 
dan gatari; handle of a h. 
bakin gatari) spec, small h. 
for cutting grass for fodder 
mumta/raga, kurada, pi. kura- 
dai; h. with broad blade ba- 
randem(m)i, sitaka. 

hate, n. kiyeya, takaichi. 

hate, tr. v. lei, Ida*, kije*; pass. I 
am hated ankvni. 

hateful, n. mugu, fern, mugunia, 
pi. miagu. 

hater, n. ag. makiyi, pL makiya. 

haughtiness, n. fadm rai, fadin 
zuclda,girmankai, giriman rai, 
jinkai*. 

haughty, adj. da giriman rai; 
a h. person maijinkai. 

haul, tr. v. ja. 

haunch, n. (of a cow) kankashi*. 

Hausa, pr. n. the Hausa nation, 
country, language hausa; a 
H. native bahaushe, pi. hau- 
aawa ; the H. language hausa, 
magana hausa, halshin, hausa, 
e.g. boat — that is jirigi in H. 
shi ne da hausa jirigi, he said 
to me in H. ya che gareni da 
magana hausa, I understand 
H. ina jin magana hausa, to 
speak H. yin magana hausa, 
a speaker of H. mavyin magana 
hausa. 



have, 1. tr. v. (=to possess) na 
da, ke da, also expr. by ga (to) 
with pronouns gare, e.g. I h. a 
friend named Hassan ina da 
aboki sunansa hassan, a certain 
man has a camel woni mutum 
shina da rakumi, we h. mu ke 
da, I h. much money kurdi 
dayawa gareni ; 2. aux. v. as 
in 'you h. seen'; this is one of 
the senses of the pert form in 
ka, nka, for which see H. G. 
p. 60. 

hawk, n. shirua or shirwa, pL 
shiruoyi ; spec, a small white 
h. shahu or shafo. 

hay, n. ingirichi or ingirochi. 

haze, n. hazo. 

hazel nut, n. chanza. 

hazy, adj. da hazo. 

he, pers. pron. shi, ya; shi is 
emphatic and used as separate 
pron. before ya, e.g. but my 
brother he saw her afar off 
amma kanena shi ya ganta 
da nesa, also with dependent 
clauses and wishes ; ya is used 
in the aorist and in impersonal 
expressions as ya issa it is 
enough. 

head, n. 1. of animated beings 
kai, pi. kanua, katvana, Jca- 
wcma* and kaumna; 2. (= chief 
point or substance of a state- 
ment) kai ; 3. (- chief person) 
see chief. Spec, back part of 
h. keya; top of h. kandaman 
kai. 

headache, n. chiwon kai, jeri*. 

head-dress, n.rawani, phraumna. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



headlong 



76 



heed 



headlong, adj. and -adv. da 
gangara; to fall h. yin sala- 
dak(k)a*, he fell h. ya yi 
8aladak(k)a* or ya fadi da 
gangara. 

headman, 1. (of a village, place, 
etc.) sariki or sarki, q.v. ; 2. (of 
a caravan) madugu, pi. madu- 
gawa. 

heal, tr. v. worike, worke or warke; 
pass, to be healed worike, worke, 
warke and the pass, form, e.g. 
remain here until he be healed 
ku zamna awurinan %ai ya 
worike or sai aworikeshi, we 
stayed here until he was healed 
muka zamna nan har anwori- 
keski. 

healed, particip. (= h. in body 
or restored in mind) worikeke, 
fern, worikekia, pi. worikeku. 

health, n. (i.e. good h.) lafia; 
in h. lafia and da lafia, frequent 
in salutations, e.g. are you in 
hJ kana lafia, answ. in very 
good h. lafia law, to be in 
good h. yin lafia; to improve 
in h. jin dama, woriwori ; re- 
storation to h. afaa, he recovers 
his h. he becomes better ya 
samu afua (or lafia), ya ji 
rongomi, they give thee medi- 
cine to drink that thou mayest 
become better su baka ka sha 
fa dom fa ka samu afua F 78 ; 
one in bad h., sick, a patient 
maraslafia. 

heap, n. taro or tarn, pi. tarori, 
tilli* or tulli. 

heap tip, tr. v. Jiad(d)a, dora; 



spec, to h. up earth round 
plants fir(r)i, maimai, q.v. 

hear, tr. v. ji. 

heart, n. 1. (the bodily organ) 
zuchia, pi. zukata and zutochi, 
gab(b)a*, pi. gab(b)obi*; 2. 
(=the feelings) zuchia, e.g. 
zuchiata ta bache my h. was 
broken ; to be cut to the h. 
jin zafin zuchia; to learn by 
h. samu harda* D 33 ; to say 
off by h. yin tulawa, 

heartless, adj. magaya or magau- 
chi, pL magata. 

heat, n. zafi, zafi and zufa; spec, 
h. of the sun gum{m)i. 

heathen, n. ama or arna, kafiri, 
pL kafirai and kafirawa, ma- 
jusi, pi. majusawa, bamaguje. 

heathenism, n. kafrichi, hal(l)in 
kafirai. 

heave, tr. v. tada ; intr. tashi ; to 
h. a sigh yin sheda. 

heaven, n. sama, pi. samania or 
8amomi, gid(d)an dawama; h. 
and hell (the after-world) la- 
hira; the Mohammedan para- 
dise aljenna. 

heaviness, n. (= great weight) 
nauyi. 

heavy, adj. da nauyi, mainauyi. 

hedge, n. (= fence) darni, donga, 
damfam(m)i, shimge, shinge, 
pi. 8himgaye. 

hedge-hog, n. bushia or baushia. 

hedges, a plant used in making, 
n.fidasari. 

heed, v. 1. (=to take notice of 
anything) kul(l)a, tuna, tunane, 
all constr. with da; 2. (=to 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



heel 



77 



here 



attend to what is said) sawara, 
sorara or jurare*, ji; spec, to 
take h. to an agreement, etc. 
damre magana. 

heel, n. duduge or did\d)igi t pi. 
dudugai, duga duga, karsha*. 

Hegira, the, n. hijra. 

height, n. harm, teawa, teawo, e.g. 
it is three cubits in h. tsawonsa 
kamu uku. 

heir, n. magashi, fem. magashia, 
pi. magata or magada, mag ado 
or magaji; h. to the throne 
chiroma; h. to the throne at 
Kano wombai. 

held, particip. rikake, fem. rikakia, 
pi. rikahi. 

hell, n. jahannama; h. and hea- 
ven (= the future world) lahira. 

hell-fire, n. jahima, wuta*. 

helmet, n. bvshia or buhiga, kwoU 
kwoli. 

help, n. taimako, taimakawa, tain- 
yona*, sauki, gudunmawa, the 
last especially of h. in war; to 
ask for h. zukat(t)a ; to obtain 
h. samu sauki; to send h. 
koro sauki. 

help, tr. v. taya, tainya, tainye, 
tainyo, yin taya, yin taimako, 
tarsa, tarshe or tarshi. 

helper, n. ag. maitaimako, ma- 
taye*, maiagazawa*. 

helpless, n, (= one who is h.) 
machiachi. 

hem, n. lafi or lafe; to make 
a h. kaJmas(*)a or kalma(8)- 
she. 

hen, n. kaza or kasa*, pi. kaji. 

hen-coop, n. akuriken kaza. 



henoe, adv. dag(g)anan, dag(g)a 
wuri nan. 

her, 1. possess, pron. suffixed -to, 
-nta, e.g. h. daughter diata, h. 
camel rakuminta; separate, if 
the object possessed is masc. 
nata, if fem. toto*, cf. H. Gr. 
p. 17 note; these stand also 
for Engl, 'hers'; 2. pers. pron. 
objective suffixed to verbs and 
preps, -to, e.g. he saw h. ya 
ganta, to h. gareta; and sepa- 
rate (after prepositions) ita, 
e.g. he returned along with h. 
ya komo tare da ita. 

herb, n. 1. (= green blade) gainya, 
pi. gainye and gainyaye ; 2. spec, 
of various kinds and uses are : 
h. from which a cure for diar- 
rhoea is made shani ka sanni, 
an edible h. turgunwa or tur- 
gunuwa, a sort of edible water 
lettuce kainua, a prickly h. 
daii or dayi, h. root of which 
is put in milk to keep it loda, 
small red flowered h. used in 
sauce like coriander yandon 
ruri, sweet . herbs ndama, 
thorny h. eaten by camels, 
teaido, h. with tooth-shaped 
leaves used as a medicine zabo. 

herd, n. garike* or gerke*, pi. 
garikuna* or gerkuna* r 

herdsman, n. makiyayi, pi. ma- 
kiyaya. 

here, adv. nan, dag(g)a nan, awuri 
nan, the latter also = from h., 
from this point, e.g. do you 
know the way from h. ka 
sanni havnya dagga nan ko. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



heretofore 



78 



hoe 



heretofore, adv. (« until now) har 
yanzu; h. I have not heard 
this dadai ban ji uxman ba; 
as h. kam(m)an nadd; cf. ever. 

heron small bird like, n. bad- 
biUa, belbela or bilbila. 

hers, separ. possess, pron. nata, 
tata*; cf. her. 

hesitate, intr. v. yin zuchia biu, 
sauraro*. 

hesitation, n. zuchia biu. 

hiooongh, n. shakua. 

hid, to be, v. boye, boiye or boiyi. 

hidden, particip. boyeya, rufafe, 
fern, rufafa, pi. rufafa. 

hide, n. kUdgo, pi. kildgai, kirigi, 
the latter used of h. after 
tanning, the untanned h. is 
called fata. 

hide, 1. tr. v. rufe, rufi or rife*, 
boye, boiye or boiyi, sdkaye or 
saye*, Uaiye, kumso*; 2. intr. v. 
(=to hide oneself) boye, boiye 
or boiyi ; fak(k)e, cf . ambush ; 
rebandari*; to h. behind a per- 
son in fear rafaki. 

hiding, n. boyiwa. 

hiding-place, n. maboya or ma- 
bovya, faho* \ a place for hiding 
or laying up anything maaje. 

higgle, v. tal(l)a. 

high, adj. dogo, fern, dogua, pi. 
dogaye, da tsawo. 

hill, n. tudu, pi. tudodi, kudunia; 
spec, a h. larger than tudu is 
called teauni, a h. covered with 
zand jigowa or jegawa, a range 
of hills kudunia. 

himself, pron. both emphatic as 
ehi dakansa, sxid also reflexive, 



e.g. prov. he who weeps for 
another weeps for h. kowa shi 
ke kuka da woni shi kuka da 
kansa. 

hinder, adj. nabaya, fern, tabaya. 

hinder, tr. v. han(n)a, tankosa or 
tanhwas(%)a, e.g. if he speaks 
do not h. him idan ya yi 
mag ana kadda ku hanna&hi. 

hip bone, n. katara*. 

hippopotamus, n. dorina, pi. do- 
rinai. 

hire, n. (= wages) lada. 

hire, tr. v. yin sufuri or aufur- 
chi. 

his, possess, pron. suffixed -sa; 
after e or i shi; -nsa, -nshi, 
e.g. h. house gia\d)an8a, h. 
camel rakuminsa; separate, if 
the object possessed is masc. 
nasa or nai, if fem. tasa or tai. 

hiss, intr. v. yinfuchi. 

hissing, n. 8hishit(t)a; of snakes 
fuchi. 

hit, tr. v. see strike. 

hither, adv. nan*, ga vmri nan*. 

ho! interj. to call attention, kai, 
ihu*. 

hobble horses, a rope used to, n. 
dabebeyij tarnaki. 

hobgoblin, n.fatalua. 

hoe, n.fatainya or fartanya, hau- 
ya*, pi. hauyi, hauyuna and 
hauyoyi, mashemi; spec, a large 
h. bent like small plough galma 
or garma. 

hoe, tr. v. (= dig or stir the ground) 
noma, nomi or name, shira, 
huda; (=to cut down 
with ah.) shema. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



hogB 



79 



home 



hogs, coll. n. (tame) gurmna or 
gurvsunu ; cf . gado. 

holcus cernuus, n. maiwa. 

hold, tr. v. rik(k)e, rik(k)a or 
rik(k)i, riske, riski or ruska, 
aje*, e.g. he held the door ya 
aje kofa; to h. fast in the 
mind rik(k)e, rik(k)a, rik(k)i; 
to h. fast jirfata*; to h. off 
taushe or tausa; to lay h. of 
maki*; to lay h. on Jcama. 

holding-fast, n. rik(k)awa. 

hole, n. rami, pi. ramuna, kwarmi, 
pi. kwarmu, baria*, masai « 
saiga, q.v. spec. h. for game to 
fall into hako, pi. hakoki; h. 
where dirty water is thrown 
katami; h. to look out at toga ; 
h. for storing corn teunjia ; h. 
made in nose of ox for rope 
azirka; h. cut for neck in a 
shirt wundi. 

holiness, n. char{i)ki* or tsar- 
(i)ki*. 

hollow, n. kogo, get(t)o, e.g. the 
h. behind the ear get(t)on fame\ 
the h. of a stream kozozobe. 

hollow-backed, adj. gameruwa 
or gancheruwa. 

holy, adj. tsariki or tearki ; spec, 
a holy man skerif. 

holy, to make, tr. v. charkaka or 
tsarkaka. 

homage, do (by kneeling down) 
intr. v. duragus(B)a or durgus- 

home, n. gid(d)a ; at h. chik{k)in 

gid(d)a. 
honest, adj. gaskia, dagaskia, gas- 

ke* ; an h. man mutumen gaskia. 



honey, n. zumua, zuma, man 
zumua; h. poured from the 
comb sakan*. 

honey-guide bird, n. gunda. 

honour, n. fahari or fahri, yab- 
(b)o*, daraja or darajia or 
derejia. 

honour, tr. v. yin yab(b)o, gir- 
marna, bada girma (or girima), 
ba (or bada) daraja or darajia 
or derejia. 

honoured, participial adj. yeb- 
(b)abe 9 fern. yeb(b)aba, pi. yeb- 
(b)abu. 

hoof, n. kofato or kafato*, pi. 
kofatai. 

hook, n. kugiya or kogia or kogua, 
pi. kugiyoyi; large wooden h. 
kwonderiya ; hooks on a fishing- 
line, coll. murimuri. 

hop, on one foot, intr. v. lenge or 
lunge. 

hope, intr. v. tamaha*, yin ta- 
maha*, so*. 

horn, n. kafo, pi. kafoni and ka~ 
Juna, also = a (horn) trumpet. 

hornet, n. zanzaro. 

horse, n. doki, fern, godia, pi. 
dawaki\ spec, young h. »af(f)i, 
fem. 8<if(f)ia, dukushi, fem. 
dukusa, pi. dukusai; old lean 
h. guzuma; war horses coll. 
ingaramu*; a h. that walks 
with its ankles on ground 
maitakin biri; h. led behind 
another, not ridden zagi*; a 
bay h. furde, sari, slieji* ; a 
black h. akawali, chicherro; a 
brown h. aharus, fem. aharasa; 
white-faced h. bola; h. with 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



horseback 



80 



how 



white spot on forehead kili, 
fern, kilia ; h. with white fore- 
head and forelegs danda; h. 
speckled white with black aU 
ahafi, fern, alshafa. Horse's 
harness, diseases, etc. : h. head 
ornament chakasabra; small' 
bells on h. head chikasora; 
strap round h. head maraya; 
h. girdle kurafu, kwrfu or 
karfu*, pi. kar/una*; h. breast- 
band dcmgab(b)a; h. breast- 
strap fastened to saddle ma- 
jayi*; disease of h. foot just 
above the hoof alafa ; swelling 
on a h. back turay medicine 
poured into h. mouth chushe; 
place for horses 8hamak(k)i, pi. 
8hamak(tyai. 

horseback; on, adv. phr. bis(s)a 
(or bis(8)an) doki; a man on 
h. maidoki, pi. masudoki; to 
mount on h. hawa bis(8)a doki; 
to take exercise on h. kU(J)isa. 

horse-fly, n. berbachi, also called 
dami8(8)an dawaki being spot- 
ted like a leopard; a large 
buzzing h. gorje or gurje. 

horseman, n. maidoki, pi. masu- 
doki. 

horse-soldier, n. guriguri*. 

host, n. (= entertainer) maima- 
shidi; (= a great multitude) 
bab(b)an taro. 

hot, adj. zafi, zafi, da zafi, demi or 
dumiy da demi ; h. water man 
zafi\ it is h. (of the weather) 
rana da dumi; the h. season 
rani. 

hpund, n. see dog. 



hour, sa'a*; the hours of the day 
are only reckoned approxi- 
mately by the Hausas, they 
are: jijifi the twilight just 
before the dawn, assuba or 
azuba the dawn, hanchi two 
hours • after dawn, i.e. circ. 
8 a.m., wollata circ. 10 a.m., 
rana teak(k)a or t8ak(k)an rana 
mid-day, zowall circ. 2 p.m., 
azuhur the call to prayer, circ. 
4 p,m., laasar circ. 6 p.m., 
maguriba or magarub late in 
the evening, lisha very late in 
the evening, dere the time be- 
tween lisha and jijifi. 

house, n. gia\d)a, pi. gid(d)aje i 
gid(d)a8he or gidadaji*, shigifa 
or shegifa, pi. shigifu and shi- 
gi/ofi; h. of one room doki, 
pi. dakuna; top of h. or upper 
storey of h. kandaki ; desolate 
ruined h. kango, pL kangogi; 
all the people belonging to one 
h. kabUa; master of h. mai- 
gia\d)a, balh*. 

household, n. gid(d)a, pi. gid- 
(d)aje, gia\d)a8he or gidadaji ; 
father of the h. ubangiji, fern. 
utvalgid(d)a or uworigid(d)a. 

householder, n. maigid(d)a. 

how, adv. kaka, 1. interrog. e.g. h. 
are you? hai kaka ke; 2. rel. 
kaka, e.g. tell me h. he died 
fadda mani kaka ya mutu ; h. 
long? hwr yaushe, tunyaushe; h. 
many? nawa or guda nawa; 
h. much 1 nawa ; phr. h. many 
persons were there ? mutane su 
yi nawa. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



however 



81 



however, 1. rel. adv. (=in what- 
ever manner) kokak(k)a; 2. 
adversative conj. (= but) ber(r)i 
dai; /ache*. 

howl, intr. v. yin kuka, yin har- 
gowa. 

hue, n. (of colour) launv. 

hum, n. ammo; h. of conversation 
dum(m)i. 

hum, intr. v. yin ammo. 

humanity, n. (=the nature of 
man) mutumchi. 

humble, adj. da karamin rai. 

humble person, maitankwas(s)a. 

humble, tr. v. maida karami, e.g. 
he humbled himself ya maida 
kansa karami. 

humiliation, n. zilla*, F 105. 

humility, n. tankuoas(&)a. 

hump, n. doro; spec. h. on bull 
tozo. 

hump-back, n. kazaza. 

hump-backed, adj. maidoro, max- 
gancheruwa. 

hundred, num. dari } mia, minya, 
zango or zungo, the last gene- 
rally restricted to counting 
cowries; two h. metiri*, dari 
biu. 

hunger, n. yunwa often pro- 
nounced yungwa. 

hunger, to suffer, n. mateu, jin 
yunwa. 

hungry, adj. da yunwa; I am h. 
ina da yunwa; a h. person 
mayenwachi, pi. mayenwata. 

hunt, v. yinfarauta. 

hunting, n.farauta. 

hurry, to be in a, v. gaugawa; 
cf. hasten. 

R. II. 



hurt, tr. v. jima, tamna* ; cf. 

harm, 
husband, n. miji, or namiji, pi. 

maza and mazaje, gorzo ; h. 

and wife namiji da mache. 
husk, n. (of grain) surfe. 
husks, coll. dusa, h. from wheat 

etc. t8ak(k)i; h. of guinea 

corn kworno. 
husks, to clean of, tr. v. surife 

or surifa. 
hut, n. shegifa, rumpa, pi. rum- 

funa; h. for storing grain in 

shirai; light, thatched h. 

rudu. 
huts, collection of temporary, coll. 

tarika or tarika. 
hyena, n. kura, pi. kuraye, 

amina*, baru*. *** 
hypocrisy, n. munafuchi or ma- 

nafuchi. 
hypocrite, n. munafiki y pi. muna- 

Jikai; to play the h. yin mu- 
nafuchi. 

I, 1st pers. pron. comm. gender; 
1. na, prefixed to aor. e.g. 
I went na taffi; I saw him 
na ganshi; with ba, often 
contracted, e.g. I did not see 
him ban ganshi ba; 2. ni 
suffixed to fut. and passives, 
e.g. I shall go zani taffi; I 
was wounded by a gunshot 
akahalbeni da bindiga, 1 shall 
be wounded za-ahalbeni. As 
a prefix to a verb ni expresses 
the fut. e.g. ni taffi = zani 
taffi; prefixed to the aor. it 
denotes an emphatic past, e.g. 

6 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



idiot 



82 



illiberality 



It was I who went or I indeed 
went ni na taffi-, ni is to be 
used in emphatic expressions, 
e.g. I myself ni da kaina, 
I alone ni kad(d)ai, is it I? 
do you mean me ? nia ; 3. ina 
expresses the present and 
should be followed by the 
participial form if there be 
such, thus aor. I came na taffo 
pres. I am coming ina taffowa; 
but ina so I am willing. 

idiot, n. 1. from birth shashasha* ; 
2. fig. cf. fool, foolish. 

idle, adj. 1. (= doing nothing) 
laane*, fem. laana*, pi. laanu* ; 
lalafa*; an idle person rago, 
fem. ragua, pi. ragaye, one 
who is i. mailalachi or mala- 
lachi, pi. masvlalachi, maika- 
sola, bahili* ; 2. (= in vain, un- 
profitable) banza, babu anfani ; 
to be i. huji. 

idleness, n. ragaita, pi. ragaitu, 
ragonchi, lalachi, lalafanchi, 
sausauchi or sosochi, the last 
also of unwillingness to work. 

idler, n. see idle. 

idly, one who saunters about i. n. 
mairagaita. 

idol, n. tsafi or zqfi*, pi. teqfuna 
and tsa/a/uka, gumki or gamki, 
pL gumakai. 

idolater, n. matsafi^ pi. masutsafa. 

idolatry, n. shirku, kafrichi. 

if, conj. idan, izan*, e.g. if any of 
you refuse to repent ye shall 
all burn in the fire izan kowa 
kun ki tuba du hi kona E 20 ; 
en, e.g. if thou wilt hold it 



fast put forth thy left hand en 
zaka jir/dta sa hagu A 17, if 
she make an agreement with 
thee en ta yi alkaueli da kai ; 
kad(d)an 9 e.g. if thou fearest 
the King who is almighty 
kadan ka tsorshi sarki mai- 
iyawa; kan (before b ka/m\ 
e.g. if she see thee, she covers 
up her face kan ta ganika ta 
lulube C 18 ; akan F 19, akal 
D43 ; kur*, kul* C 7. 

ignoble, adj. banza, na banza. 

ignorance, n. (i.e. religious ignor- 
ance) jakalichi; in ignorance 
da jahalichi. 

ignorant, adj. (relig.) jahUi. To 
be i. in a general sense must 
be expressed by means of the 
verbs san(n)i, ji or (in the 
case of an art or science) saba 
with negatives. 

iguana, n. tsare, guza*. 

ill, n. (= misfortune, loss) bema, 
Juxsdra, asdra, tasdri, to suffer 
ill yin tasdri. 

ill, adj. 1. (=bad) mugu, fem. 
mugunia, pi. midgu, banza ; 2. 
(= sick) da chiwo, marili* ; to 
be i. yin chiwo, jin chiwo ; he 
is i. shina da chiwo ; to become 
i. chiutu. 

illegitimate, child, n. sheg(g)e or 
shege, danfarika. 

illiberal, adj. (= stingy) da tawrin 
zuchia* ; he is i. hanv/n&a ya 
bushe or hanunsa bu&ashe ne 
lit. his hand is dry. 

illiberality, n. taurin* zuchia*, 
kalma(s)8lien zuchia. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



illicit 



83 



incredible 



illicit, adj. haram, ba (or bahu) 
haled, 

illness, n. chiwo, chiuta, azaba*. 

ill-treat, tr. v. kankamna; cf. 
injure. 

illuminate, tr. v. 1. gen. haskata; 
2. to i. a manuscript zayen{n)a. 

image, n. 1. (= likeness, picture) 
kaina, pi. kamemu ; 2. (= a 
graven image or idol) gumki 
or gamki, pi. gumakai. 

imagine, v. yin tamalia, zet(t)o, 
tset(t)o, teachi, zache ; cf. sup- 
pose. 

imbibe, tr. v. (=to drink in or 
absorb) sha. 

imitate, tr. v. another's pronun- 
ciation or actions koikoiyo, e.g. 
I imitate him ina koikoiyonsa; 
to i. the religion of the heathen 
maida addinin asna. 

immediately, adv. koyanzu, nan 
da nan. 

immerse, tr. v. tsoma, nuche. 

impatient, adj. marashankuri. 

impede, tr. v. han{n)a. 

impediment, n. 1. (= hindrance) 
abin han{n)a* ; 2. impediment 
in speech ininan halshi. 

impertinent, adj. teiwa or tse- 
wa. 

important, adj. baba, pi. mainya 
or maiya ) i. person, n. dotijo, 
datijo or dotizo) cf. also con- 
sideration. 

importunate, to be, v. yin tsalum- 
chi. 

impossible, it is, impers. v. ya 
gagara, ya fa&kare*. 

improper, adj. ba daidai, e.g. he 



did what was i. ya yi abin da 
ba daidai ba. 

improve, tr. v. gerta*. 

improve, in health, intr. v. wori- 
wori, yin rongomi ; cf. health. 

impudent, adj. see impertinent. 

in, prep. chik(k)in or dag(g)a 
chik(k)in, a, gun, e.g. in the 
basket chik(k)in (or dag(g)a 
chik(k)in) sanfo ; in pain 
chik(k)in azaba) in this place 
a wuri nan) in this world 
gun dUniana Bill. 

in order that, conj. phr. abis(8)a, 
domin, don, e.g. practise dili- 
gently in order that you may 
shoot well ku yi aniya dayawa 
abissa halbin bindiga da keau, 
in order that he might hear 
domin or don shi ji. 

inability, n. gajewa*. 

incense, n. katnshi, turare. 

incensed, particip. (= angered) ; 
see irritated. 

incline, steep, n. gangare or 
gangara, pi. gangaru. 

incline, tr. v. to i. the head 
tsuguna or tsugun) to i. the 
ear karkat(t)a kunu. 

including, (= as well as) har* or 
hal*. 

increase, n. dad(d)ua, karama*, 
auki*, abki*. 

increase, v. 1 . tr. kdra ; dad(d)a 
(also pronounced deddi), yin 
auki (or abki), dora, safa, 
sqf(f)a, 8uJ(f)a) 2. intr. 
dad\d)a, yin dad(d)ua, yado, 
yadu, karu q.v. 

incredible, adj. dunia*. 

6—2 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



incredulity 



84 



injure 



incredulity, an interj. expressing 
i. aiyaf hubba/ 

incurable, adj. e.g. an incurable 
disease chiwon wqfi. 

indebted to, intr. v. e.g. I am 
indebted to you ina da 
ba8hinka. 

indecency, n. kazamta. 

indecent, adj. kazdmi, pi. kazd- 
mai, maraskumia, babu humid. 

indecorous, adj. ba daidai. 

indeed, 1. adv. (=in truth, in 
fact) hakika, to which may be 
added the phrases babu shakka 
or babu shaky babu wawa, da 
gaskia; 2. as affirmative em- 
phatic particle ai, aje, ashe, or 
ashi, aiwa or ewa, anche or 
enchs, madala, dai, the last is 
enclitic following the word 
which it is desired to empha- 
sise; 3. interj. of doubt or 
surprise to I ajef anche/ enche/ 
Thus, in question and answer, 
indeed 1 indeed ! aje? ajef =da 
gaskia ? da gaskia I 

india-rubber, n. danko or dunko, 
gumji. 

indicate, v. nuna, nuni, gaya. 

indifference, n. (= carelessness) 
lalachi. 

indigence, n. talauchi. 

indigent, adj. talaka, pi. talakawa; 
an i. person maitalaka. 

indigo, n. baba, shuni or juni ; 
spec, the second annual crop 
of i. kwosusw, an indigo dye- 
pit marin(n)a, pi. marin(n)ai. 

indistinct, to become, intr. v. 
dushi. 



indistinctness, n. dushiwa. 
industrious labourer, n. ma- 

aikachi. 
infant, n. (up to one year old) 

jinjiri, jariri or shariri*. 
infantry, coll. n. kirma ; infantry 

leader sarikin kvrma. 
infidel, n. kafiri, pi. kafirai and 

kafirawa, 
infidelity, n. (in a religious sense) 

kafrichi. 
infirm, adj. kumama. 
infirmity, n. kumamanchi. 
inflict, tr. v. to i. blows buga, 

bubuga ; cf. beat ; to i. 

punishment yin wohal(l)a } 

palashe. 
influence, n. (= authority, power) 

hakwnii*. 
inform, v. (= to bring intelligence, 

to apprize) laberta, ba labdri; 

to i. against sare, sara or 

zara* ; cf . accuse, 
information, n. (= news, account) 

labdri. 
informer, n. maisara, pi. masu- 

sara. 
ingrate. n. maibutulchi, pi. masu- 

butulchi. 
ingratitude, n. butulchi or butul- 

shi*. 
inhabitant, n. maizamna, pi. 

masuzamna^ mazamni. 
inherit, v. gdda or gddo, gdji or 

gdje. 
inheritance, n. gddo. 
iniquity, n. mugunta, kita or 

kita; cf. evil, 
injure, tr. v. 1. (= to damage) bata, 

bache; 2. (=to wrong) jfma. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



injustice 



85 



intention 



injustice, n. tsuldma. 
ink, n. adawa or tadawa. 
ink-blot, n. dole, dungule. 
inn, n. (i.e. a khan or halting place 

for the night) mashid(d)i*. 
innkeeper, n. maima8hid(d)i*. 
innocent, adj. babu laifi; an i. 

person maraslaifi. 
innumerable, adj. expr. by phr. 

fi kedaya, e.g. he has innu- 
merable books shina da litatafi 

sufi kedaya. 
inquire, v. tambaia or tambaya 

(tabi D 45) ; yin tambaia, yin 

binchik(k)i. 
inquiry, n. tambaia or tambaya, 

binchik(k)i*. 
insane, adj. see mad. 
insect, n. tsutsa* ; spec, minute, 

white, biting i. kolkot(t)a, 

kwalkwat(t)a or kwarkwat(t)a ; 

small biting i. kurdi* ; i. found 

in kola-nuts sankara ; a black, 

winged i. kurugunguma, pi. 

kurugungumai. 
insects, coll. sususi*; (F 109). 
inside, n. chik(k)i ; on the i. of the 

house chik(k)in gid(d)a; cf. in. 
insight, n. (= clear perception) 

lura. 
insipid, adj. land, da lami, babu 

zaki. 
insolent, adj. tsiwa, teewa, da 

tsiwa, 
instantly, adv. nan da nan, 

koyanzu. 
instead of, prep, gurubin*, vmrin, 

big(e)ri*, e.g. instead of it 

gurubin8a, gunsa*, wurinsa, 

bigerinsu. 



instruct, v. 1. (= teach) koiya or 
koya, e.g. instruct me in 
reading ka koiya mani karatu ; 
2. (of religious instruction 
especially that combining re- 
proof and threatening) foro. 

instruction, n. foro, wa'atsi* or 
wa'atsu*, alama* or halama* 
pi. alamomi* ; as these words 
refer to religious teaching, i. 
in a general sense must be 
expr. by verbs etc. e.g. a man 
of no i. wanda bai san komi 
ba; he received much i. from 
them in literature mka koiya 
masa karatu dayawa. 

instrument, n. 1. (= implement) 
kaya or kaia, pi. kayayeki, 
makami ; 2. (musical) kiddi or 
kidda, any kind of wind i. 
bvshe buslw, spec, a kind of 
stringed i. machirkia* ; wind 
i. played by court musician 
pampame; wind i., flute sarewa; 
wind i. resembling bagpipes 
algaita or algaitu, player on a 
musical i. makid(d)i. 

integrity, n. (= honesty) gaskia. 

intelligence, n. 1. (= mental 
power), cf. ability; 2. (=news) 
labdri, e.g. let me give you i. 
of the war em baka labarin 
yaki. 

intelligent, adj. gon(n)i; cf. able, 
ability. 

intend, v. kul(l)a* f e.g. I i. 
going na kulla taffia; cf. 
seq. 

intention, n. (= purpose) kul(l)i, 
e.g. I have the L of going ina 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



intentionally 



86 



is 



da kullin taffia ; (= fixed ap- 
plication) ania. 

intentionally, adv. da gangan. 

interfere, v. kormotto ; to i. with 
tr. v. tare or tarie, han(n)a*. 

interference, n. shesheg(g)i* ; i. 
with what does not concern 
one karambani. 

interior, n. (= the inside of any- 
thing) chik(k)i. 

interpret, v. 1. (= to translate) 
juya da magana or juya 
magana, yin fasara (fasala or 
fasali*) ; he interprets ya rabbi 
fasalinsa; 2. (=to explain) yin 
fasara, waye. 

interpretation, n. (=both trans- 
lation and explanation) fasara 
fasala or fasali*, wayewa. 

interpreter, n. mayayi*. 

interrogative. This sense is expr. 
by a change in the intonation 
or by ko placed at the begin- 
ning or end or at both be- 
ginning and end of a clause or 
by adding the phr. ko ba lvakka 
ba, e.g. do you understand 
Hausa? ko kuna jin magana 
hausa ko or kuna jin magana 
hausa ko ba hakka ba. 

interruption, n. fashi. 

intestine, n. spec, the large i. 
tumburkuma ; the intestines 
coll. hanji. 

into, prep. chik(k)in or dag(g)a 
chik(k)in, e.g. he fell i. the 
water ya fddi chik(k)in rua ; 
he was turned or changed i. 
a sheep ya sauya tumkia. 

intoxicant, n. barazza or barassa, 



this word is also applied speci- 
ally to gin. 

intoxicating drink, n. bummi; 
spec, an i. drink made from 
the palm tree (tukurua) bummi, 
bam; an i. drink made from 
guinea corn gia or giya ; an i. 
drink made with honey, salt 
and water buza; an i. drink 
made from a shrub of the same 
name zakami or zakami; place 
of i. drinks mashaya. 

intoxication, n. shangia. 

introduction, a letter of, n. 
bishara. 

invocation, n. i.e. to God, zikri 
or zikir*, safirchi*, we make i. 
muna zikri. 

iron, n. karifi, pi. karafa or 
karifuna\ spec. i. wrought 
into cups, bright i. zub(b)i; 
to burn with hot i. lalas. 

iron, adj. na karifi, fem. ta karifi, 
with plurals na karifi, e.g. i. 
bars sanduna na karifi. 

iron ore, n. tam(m)a, matamachi; 
i. dross kazin tam(m)a. 

irons, leg-, n. giger, malwa, F 186. 

irrigated, garden, n. lambu. 

irritable, adj. da zafin rai. 

irritate, tr. v. e.g. he i. me ya yi 
mani fushi. 

irritated, particip. adj. husanche*. 

is, subst. v. 1. (= simple copula) 
with masc. subject ne, with 
fem. che, with either ke : 2. (im- 
plying real existence = there is) 
akwoi ; ina ; ke with nan, e.g. 
there is a book which I know 
woni litafi ke nan da na san- 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



island 



87 



journeying 



(n)i; ayi mani; for the pi. 

mnyi mani is found; of. be. 
island, n. gungu*, pi. gunguna*, 

chibiri*. 
isolate, tr. v. yin kad(d)aita. 
it, pers. pron. neut. ya, fern, ta; 

separate and emphatic forms 

shi, fern, ita ; its shi, -%a ; 

nasa or nai, fern, tasa, tas or 

tai. 
itch, n. kaikai, kaswa or kazua, 

kurji q,v. ; one who has the i. 

maikurji. 
itching, n. spec. i. disease at roots 

of toes and fingers gushagushi; 

i. sore kushekusheya* ; a prick- 
ly plant that causes i. karara. 
ivory, n. hak(k)orin giwa or 

haurin giwa; a piece of i. 

haurin giwa, 

jacinth, n. yakutu, F 227. 
jackal, n. dila, pi. diloli; kal- 

keche; karambik(k)i (?). 
jaded, to be, v. gaje and gaji. 
jail, n. kurkuku. 
jam, tr. v. (= to press) mache, 

machi or matee. 
jar, small, n. simbali, shimbali or 

sinbali, fadu*. 
jaw, n. kum(m)atu; fig. jaws baki. 
jaw-bone, n. mukainike, pi. mu- 

kamikai. 
jealousy, n. kishi or kishia,, pi. 

kishiyoyi, hdsada or has{8)ada. 
jeer at, v. baa or yin baa; ba 

daria, e.g. they jeered at us 

suka bamu daria. 
jelly-fish, n. kawora (?). 
jerboa, n. (dipus) kurege, pi. 



kuragai; spec, a species of 
tailless rat prob. allied to the 
former reme. 

Jerusalem, pr. n. bimin alkud- 
dus*. 

jester, n. (= buffoon) babambade, 
bade* ; (= foolish trifler) wawa. 

Jesus, yasuu, yashuu*; cf. isa. 

jet-black, adj. bak(k)i ker(r)in. 

Jew, gent. n. yahudi, D 29, pi. 
yahudawa. 

jewel, n. yakutu*, duchi*. 

join, v. 1. tr. gama; to j. to- 
gether (e.g. by filling up a 
gap) saji; to j. heads to- 
gether (in consultation or 
forming a plan) gama kai; 
2. intr. (=to fall in with any- 
one by overtaking or meeting 
him) gamu or gamo constr. 
with prep, da; tarda and ta- 
rasda, e.g. we joined him mun 
gamu da shi or mun tarasdashi. 

joiner, n. (carpenter) masasaki, 
pi. masasaka. 

joint, n. ido*, pi. idanu* and 
idandanu*; ankle j. idon sau f 
idon kaffa ; wrist j. idon Jianu 
(also = knuckle) ; godawa*; j. 
of scissors kwarmi, pi. kwarmu; 
to be out of j. gochi and goche. 

joints, coll. (of the body) gab- 
(b)obi; to suffer from a disease 
in the j. turgude*. 

jostle, tr. v. tunkuda, ture. 

journey, n. taf(f)ia, pi. tafifia; 
provisions for a j. guzuri; to 
make provision for a j. yin 
guzuri. 

journeying, n. taf(f)iawa. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



joy 



88 



kick 



joy, n. (the inward feeling) farin 
chik(k)i; (coupled with the 
outward expression) murna; to 
experience j., to rejoice faraa, 
yin or jin murna; there shall 
be j. anamurna; to feel j. 
yin faraa; there shall be j. 
anafaraa, F 232 ; kalkili, B 1 63 ; 
a cause for j. abin murna; a 
cry of j. guda or gudu; an 
exclamation of j. used by 
women dancing gada; a chant 
or shout of j. rerereu; to cause 
j. bada murna. 

judge, n. alkali, pi. alkalai. 

judge, v. 1. gen. (=to look into, 
discern) bibia ; in a weaker 
sense (= I imagine, think) 
tamaha or yin tamaha, e.g. I 
j. that he will hinder us ina 
tamaha zai hannamu ; 2. (of 
a judge) yin sheria, kdda. 

judgment, n. 1. gen. bibia; 2. (of 
law and justice) sheria, ha- 
kumchi or hukumchi, alhaki, 
hisabi, ameri; the j. day ranan 
or ran gobe (lit. the day of to- 
morrow), gobe; j. seat karaga 

jug, n. tulu*, randa* ; cf. jar. 

jump, intr. v. tuma; dir(r)a, 
dir(r)o, dera, dero or dir(r)i ; 
tsal{T)i or tml(l)i, t8al(l)ache 
or 8al(l)achi*; to j. backwards 
and forwards wur(r)a; to j. 
down gangara or gangari; also 
the various forms of dir(r)a. 

just, adj. da gaskia, daidai; of 
things (= lawful) Jialal , a j. 
man mutum gaske (gaskia or 
na gaskia). 



just, adv. as in expression j. (now) 
ko (yanzu). 

justice, n. 1. (= administration of 
the law) sheria; 2. (= moral 
right) gaskia. 

justify, tr. v. 1. (= prove to be in 
the right, to vindicate as true) 
gaskanta ; 2. (of a judge etc. 
to declare in the right, to 
ascribe right to) bada gaskia, 
pass, he was justified amba- 
dashi gaskia. 

Kano, kano the chief commercial 
town in the W. Soudan. 

keen, adj. 1. (= sharp-edged) da 
kaifi ; 2. (= of acute intelli- 
gence) mailura. 

keep, n. (= retain, hold) rik(k)e, 
rik(k)a or rik(k)i ; (= to tend, 
as sheep, cattle) kiwo; to k. 
back (= detain) zami, cf. B 113; 
to k. carefully kiyaye; to k. 
one off taushe or tausa ; to k. 
a promise chik(k)a magana, 
kama magana 9 kul(l)a bis(s)a 
mag ana. 

keeping, participial n. k. back 
zamiwa; a place suitable for 
k. anything in maanfani. 

kerchief, n. maharma; (woman's) 
kal(l)abi. 

kernel, n. kwara. 

kettle, n. shintali, sintali or shan- 
talif pL shintalai; an earthen 
k. karifi* or karipi*. 

key, n. makubli, pi. makublai, 
dan makubli; makul(l)i*. 

kick, tr. v. shure, or jure*, e.g. 
rakumi ya shureni; habri or 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



kid 



89 



knock 



harbi used of horses ; to k. 
away hanbare. 

kid, n. dan akwia, pi. yan (or 
yaycm) akwia. 

kidney, n. gidibi or kidibi, pi. 
gidiba or kidiba; koda* or 
kwoda. 

kill, n. ka{s)8he, ka(s)shi or kk{s)a 
with a shortened form kass, 
e.g. there was killed Kakumi 
whom he loved anan akakasshi 
kakumi da ya ki sonshi G 2 ; 
fauchi*. 

killing, adj. (= murderous) ka- 
sau*. 

kind, n. iri, pi. irare, launi D 78; 
a certain k. (species) of fish 
wani irin kifi. 

kind, adj. keau*, da keau*, no- 
gari*. 

kindle, tr. and intr. toi, towi, 
toya, toye with related tuya, 
the last used thus, he kindled 
the lamp ya tuya fitilla ; fura, 
intr. furu, e.g. they kindled 
the fire suka fura wuta, the 
fire was kindled wuta tafuru ; 
has(s)a 1 haz(z)a or az(z)a tr. 
he kindled the fire ya has(s)a 
wuta, q.v. 

kindness, n. (= goodness of heart) 
nagerta; (= favour, benevo- 
lence) alheri, chik(k)i data, 
gdfara and gaferta, nima, nai- 
ma; an act of k. keauta, aikin 
gdfara ; to do an act of k. yin 
alheri, yin keau, e.g. they did 
me an act of k. sun yi mani 
keau. 

kindred, n. kabila*, dengi, denga 



or deg{g)i (as a coll. n.) and 
its pi. dengoyi. 

king, n. sariki or sarki, pi. sara- 
kuna or sarikai, sultan* ; a 
king's son turaki, yerima, q.v. ; 
young son of a k. yimba, pi. 
gimbayi. 

kingdom, n. sarauta or sarota; 
to gain possession of a k. chin 
sarauta ; cf . accede 3. 

kiss, n. 8umba*; see seq. 

kiss, tr. v. tsosa and tsotsa; k. 
hands to sumba, e.g. we k. 
hands to the stone muna sum- 
ban dutsi B 164. 

kitchen, n. madaffa, pi. madaffai, 
wurin daffua. 

kite, n. (the bird) shafo or shahu. 

knead together, tr. v. gariwoya. 

knee, n. guiwa (or gwiwa), pi. 
guiwaye and guiwoye. 

kneel, intr. v. durkushi, dilkushi 
or dik(k)u8hi*, related forms 
are durugus(s)a or durgus(s)a 
= to k. as in prayer ; to k. 
down or prostrate oneself gu- 
rufani and yin gurufani. 

knife, n. wuka, pi. wvkake, konga; 
to sharpen or whet a knife 
gerta (or wasa) wuka) spec, a 
small k. almoza, kududura* ; 
a kind of k. with blade pro- 
jecting backwards kangar or 
kanga, a k. carried up the 
sleeve, attached by a leathern 
ring wuka hanu cf. hanu; a 
sort of missile k. gario, q. v. 

knit, v. 8haraba*. 

knock, v. gen. buga ; to k. against 
intr. gochi and goche, tr. as the 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



knot 



90 



lamentation 



hand against a wall gumberi, 
gobUri, gobre or gubri ; to k. 
at a door buga kofa, kwan- 
kwas(s)a ; to k. down tankade. 

knot, n. kubli or kulli. 

know, v. san{n)% shin{n)a> e.g. I 
know wa shin{n)a or na 8an(n)i; 
to k. clearly shaidani, fahimta* ; 
to k. and understand well 
sansanche ; to k. certainly tab- 
bache; related to the last is 
tabbeta used in a similar way, 
e.g. do you k. for certain? 
ka tabbeta. 

knowledge, n. asanchi or azanchi, 
lura. 

known, to make, v. ambachi, 
gaya } e.g. have you ever heard 
this ? If you do not know it, 
I will make it k. to you ko ka 
tabba jin wonan idan ba ka 
8anni ba zan gaya maka. 

knuckle, n. idon hanu. 

kola-nut, n. goro, pi. gwurra* ; 
spec, a variety of k.-n. from 
Gwanja atarus, from Yoruba 
ibi; a bad k.-n. gobro fern. 
gobrua ; a large k.-n. goria ; 
half of a k.-n. bare; packing 
placed round k.-nuts fyfu; 
insect found in the k.-n. san- 
kara. 

koran, n. kuran, e.g. the purpose 
of the whole of this song is (to 
commend) the k. dalili worga 
waka duka ga kuran F 26. 

koran, text of the, n. nassi*. 

labour, n. aik% pi. ayuyuka, ayu- 
ka, aikoki or aikuna: farm 



labour aikin gona; labour pains 
wohal(l)an haifua. 

labour, v. yin aiki ; aiki. 

labourer, n. maaiki, fern, maai- 
kia, pi. masuaiki. 

lack, n. reshi or ra(s)8hi; 1. of 
goods tsia*. 

lack, tr. v. tabe*, ras{s)a i also prec. 
with da t e.g. they 1. money 
suna da reshin kurdi, cf . seq. 

lacking, adj. 1. reshi, e.g. 1. 
strength reshin karifi, 1. health 
reshin lafia ; 2. by prefixing 
mar as, e.g. 1. sense marashan- 
kali. 

lad, n. yaro, pi. yara. 

ladder, n. mahayi*, karangama, 
tsani*; wooden 1. matdkara. 

laden, participial adj. labche. 

laid down, participial adj. sab- 
keke. 

lake, n. kogi, pi. koguna, kogina 
and kogai. 

lamb, n. dan tumkia, pi. yan turn- 
Ida; the paschal 1. rag on lay a. 

lame, adj. guragu or gurgu, pi. 
gurdgu, maigwami, pi. niasu- 
gwami, amurgude, makasari*, 
fern, makasaria*. 

lame, to be intr. v. yin guru- 
gunta, cf. seq.; turgude* ; he 
goes 1. yana taffia takwoshi. 

lameness, n. gurgunchi, gurgunta, 
gurugunta, and gurmunta, gwa- 
mi, takwoshi or tarkoshi, din- 
gishi, kage*. 

lament, v. yin kuka, e.g. he la- 
mented ya yi kuka G 2 ; cf . seq. 

lamentation, n. kuka; to make 
1. tak(k)aba; cf. cry. 



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lamp 



91 



lead 



lamp, n. fatilla or fitUla, pi. fat- 
illu, fatillai or fatUoli ; 1. oil 
main fatUla; he lit the 1. ya 
tuya fitilla) we are working 
by lamp light muna yin aiki 
da fatilla. 

lance, n. mashi or maji, pi. masu- 
suka. 

land, n. (phys.) kas(s)a, pi. kas- 
(s)ashi and ka8(s)asa ; (= one's 
country) ka8(s)a and ganri, pi. 
garwrua and garigaru. 

landing place, n. mafichi*. 

language, n. 1 . (= speech) magcma] 
2. (= tongue of particular na- 
tion) magana) to speak the 
Hausa 1. yin magana hausa; 
halshi or harshi, pi. halshina, 
hausa*, pi. harata* ; 3. (= lite- 
rary expression) kardtu. 

larder, n. maianfanin nama*. 

large, adj. baba, pi. mainya, giri- 
ma; a 1. book bab(b)an litqfi 
or litafi baba. 

large, to become, intr. v. girima 
and yin girima. 

last, the, n. (= final state or case) 
makarshe, makari, makare, ma- 
kara; karshe used adverbially 
= at the last, at last. 

last, adj. nabaya, fern, tabaya; 
phr. the 1. day ranan (or ran) 
gobe, gobe; the 1. sleep (= death) 
makarin berichi; (= 1. of a pre- 
ceding series) 1. night jia da 
dere ; 1. month watan jia ; 1. 
year bora; at 1. adv. yauyau 
or yoyo, karshe. 

last, to, intr. v. yin karko, kar- 
ko*. 



lasting, n. (= state of continuance) 
daa\d)awa or ded(d)ewa. 

lasting, adj. matabbata*, mada- 
wami\ long 1. madawami. 

late evening, n. of time magarub 
or maguriba; later evening 
lisha. 

late, to be, v. yin yauchi*, e.g. he 
was 1. in arriving ya yi yauchin 
zakua; to be 1. in doing any- 
thing mdkara; one who is 1. 
maimdkara. 

lateness, n. (= delay) yauchi. 

laths, thin wooden, coll. katamba*. 

laud, tr. v. yin kira/ri, yin yab(b)o 
also with pres. form na, e.g. I 
laud thee ina yab(b)onka. 

laudation, n. kirari, yab(b)o. 

laugh, intr. v. yin daria ; to cause 
to 1. ba or bada daria, e.g. ya 
bani daria he made meL; to 
1. at zunde and yin zunde. 

laughter, n. daria, harerewa*. 

law, n. gen. sheria, to decide in 
1. raba sheria ; (relig. = ordin- 
ance) sun(n)a or sunna* ; a 
prohibitory 1. doka*. 

lawful, adj. halal, halas or halla- 
ta*. 

lay, tr. v. sa; to 1. eggs aje kwoi; 
to 1. aside sa, aje; to 1. down 
kwanta; to 1. a thing down 
again mayes; to 1. hold of or 
on kama. 

laziness, n. ragonchi, ragaita. 

lazy, adj. lalafa, (= idle) rago, 
mairago, mairagaita. 

lead, v. bada hainya, ja*. 

lead, n. (the metal) dalma; 1. for 
bullets cursas. 



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leader 



92 



left 



leader, n; baba, tunari*, also uba, 
pi. ubane and ubanai, e.g. their 
1. babcmsu; 1. of a fight ubcm 
yaki; spec. 1. of infantry sa- 
rikin kirma; 1. of caravan 
(= chief) jaji; (= the conductor 
who precedes it) jag'aba or shu- 
gaba, pi. shugabai ; (= the one 
that walks behind it) maduga, 
pi. madugawa-y 1. in prayer 
limam*, pi. Ivmami*. 

leaf, n. (of tree) tofo, pi. tofuna. 
waraka*, gainya, pi. gainye or 
gainyaye, dainyen itache,' 1. 
of a book waraka; spec, an 
edible 1. also used for thatching 
fltta, see also fufu. 

leafless tree, n. kwabri or kwauri, 
pi. kwabruka and kwobru- 
ka. 

league, n. (= alliance) gaya. 

leak, intr. v. zub(b)a, zub(b)o and 
suba. 

lean, adj. arame, ramame, fern, ra- 
mamia, pi. ramamu, guzuma* ; 
an old 1. object (applied to 
animals and also to women) 
guzuma. 

lean, to be or become, v. yin 
rama, rama. 

lean, intr. v. 1. against jingina,jin- 
gine, tangana* ; to 1. back on 
horse zami; to 1. upon dan- 
gana, dogare ; the last also fig. 
to 1. upon in trust or con- 
fidence, e.g. we 1. on thee mun 
dogareka B 20. 

leanness, n. rama, 

leap, intr. v. tuma, dir(r)a, dir(r)o, 
dera, dero, dir(r)i, zaria, fadi 



(lit. fall), e.g. we leaped among 
them mun fadi chikkinsu. 

learn, v. koiyo or koyo, somas ; to 
1. by heart samu harda*. 

learned, adj. karanta*, maika- 
ratu ; very 1. maikaratu da- 
yawa; a 1. man malami, pi. 
malamai; al. woman malama*. 

leather, n. kirigi, fata* ; spec, 
strips of 1. coll. gunda; strips 
of black 1. coll. kwaro. 

leather-dresser, n. majemi or 
maijima. 

leathern, case for book, n. guf 
(f)aka. 

leave, tr. v. ber(r)i or ber, raba 
and rabu, constr. with da, e.g. 
we left Kano mun rabu da 
kano; to 1. a thing and come 
back ber(r)o; to 1. a path or 
track sau* hainya; to 1. a 
thing as it is kotakwana; to 
1. behind ber(r)i or ber, to 1. 
off daina, ber(r)i da...; to 1. off 
work till to-morrow kotak- 
wana*. 

leaven, n. yami, kulu ; spec. 1. 
made from the acid pulp of 
the tamarind tsamia. 

leaves, coll. kunen itache, dainyen 
itache, gainyen itache. 

left, adj. 1. (= remaining, re- 
mainder, rest) saura, sudi, 
kingi, e.g. there is little 1. 
ya yi saura kaddan; 2. (of 
position) the 1. hauni, hagu or 
hagum; the 1. hand hanu na 
hauni ; 1. -handed bahago. 

left, part, berere, fern, berera, pi. 
bereru. 



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leg 



93 



lettuce 



leg, n. kqffa, pi. kafafu and kafafe, 
chinia, pi. chinioyi; 1. bone 
kobrin kaffa; calf of the 1. 
shardba; bent 1. (a disease) 
gwami; 1. bent by disease 
kage* ; with bent legs (i.e. 
through disease) guragu or 
gurgu, pi. gurdgu, which also 
= without legs ; to bend the 1. 
tunkushe. 

leg-irons, n. malwa, giger. 

lemon, n. lemu. 

lend, v. bada aro ; cf. loan. 

length, n. 1. (of space and time) 
tsawa, tsawo or sawo, tsaiyi, 
tsayi or tsai ; tsawanta ; 2. (= 
long continuance), e.g. length 
of life yawan rai. 

leopard, n. damis(s)a i pi. damis- 
(8)ai. 

leper, n. kuturu, pi. kutare, mai- 
kuturta*, maikuturchi*. 

leprosy, n. kuturchi or kuturta, 
albaras* ; spec, a mutilating 
form of 1. machiri; white 1. 
albaras*; a lizard whose bite is 
reputed to cause 1. kutu. 

leprous, adj. akuturche, maiku- 
turta. 

less, adv. 1. (= minus in com- 
puting) shawora, bws, gaira, 
e.g. arbaa shawora daia = 3000, 
metin gorna bu88 = metin gaira 
goma --= 200 - 10 i.e. 190 ; 2. (= 
Engl. neg. suff. -less) neg. 
prefix maras- e.g. shameless 
maraskumia. 

less, much, comp. adv. bal(J)e, 
ber8hi, e.g. this man was not 
able to walk much less take 



up his load wonan ba ya iya 
yin taffia balle shi dauke ka- 
yansa. 

less, to grow or make 1. see seq. 

lessen, v. tr. and intr. reg(g)i, 
ragi or rage ; one who lessens 
maireg(g)i; tr. kdsashe; intr. 
ragu, tawaya or tauivi, kasasda; 
the waters are lessening ruaye 
suna ragua ; cf . seq. 

lessening, participial n. ragua. 

lest, conj. (=for fear that, that... 
not) kad(d)a, e.g. he took the 
medicine lest he should die ya 
hade magani kadda shi mu- 
tu ; don kaa\d)a. 

let, tr. v. (= allow) ber(r)i or ber ; 
to 1. alone ber(r)i> ber, kiale; 
to 1. down sabka, sabki or sapka, 
also (with da) sabkas or sapkas, 
8hid(d)a, e.g. I 1. down the 
load na sabka kaya or na sabkas 
da kaya or na shid(d)a da 
kaya; particip. 1. down sabkeke; 
to 1. go sal\l)ame t saki\ to 1. 
loose saki 9 kunche ; to 1. out to 
(of hire etc.) sufuri, sufurchi, 
yin sufuri or yin sufurchi; 
N.B. the particle en (=that) 
is sometimes elliptically used 
to express 1., e.g. 1. us go for a 
walk en mu taffi yawo; 1. me 
follow you em bika. 

letter, n. 1. (= epistle) wotika or 
wochika*, takarda, pi. takardu, 
laya* ; 2. (= a sign of the al- 
phabet) hurufi or hwriji*, pi. 
Jiarufai. 

lettuce, n. spec, a sort of water 1. 
kainua. 



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level 



94 



like 



level, adj. and adv. sosai; it is 1. 
ya yi sosai. 

liar, n. makariachi. 

liberality, n. baiwa. 

liberate, tr. v. see free. 

liberation, from slavery, n. di- 
yauchi or diyanchi. 

liberty, n. yanchi. 

lice, coll. n. kurji* or kureji*, pi. 
kurareji*; also kirchi*, gurje*, 
girje* or urji*, kolkot(t)a* or 
kwalfovat(t)a* . 

licentiousness, n.fasishiwa*. 

lichen, n. toto or tautau. 

lick, v. las(s)a or la(s)she i used fig. 
of flame; to 1. the hand tan- 
dewa or tundewa. 

lie, intr. v. to 1. down kwanche; to 
1. down to sleep kwana and 
kwanta; a place to 1. down 
makwcmche or makwonche; to 
1. in wait yinfak(k)o ; a place 
to 1. in wait mq/ak(k)a. 

lie, n. kwria, afko*. 

lie, intr. v. (=to tell lies) yenke 
karia. 

life, n. rai, pi. raiu and raiuka; 
in a more general sense (= 
Engl, time) zamani or zamani, 
yayi, e.g. during the life (=in 
the time) of the prophet za- 
manin annabi = ga yayin 
annabi ; to come or come 
back to 1. raiu; coming back 
to 1. participial n. raiuwa; 
to restore to 1. raia or ra- 
ya. 

lift up, tr. v. chira, chire, chiro or 
tsira, tsire, tsiro, tada, tsaida, 
daukaka, dokaka or dokake; 



spec, to 1. up a heavy weight 
with both hands swnguma. 

ligature, n. rawani*', pi. rauowna*. 

light, adj. (=not heavy) shakup, 
sak(k)ai. 

light, adj. (=full of light) mai- 
hctske. 

light, n. haske, pi. haskoki, annwri\ 
cf. seq. 

light, tr. v. 1. (=to give light) 
haskaka*, bada haske, e.g. the 
moon gives light wata shina 
bada haske\ 2. (= to set alight) 
to 1. a fire has{8)a {hazza or 
azza) wuta, fura tvuta, yada 
wuta ; to 1. a lamp tuyafatilla. 

light upon, intr. v. tsaya, e.g. I 
lit upon this book ni na tsaya 
ga litafi nan. 

lighten, tr. v. 1. (= to illuminate) 
haskaka* ; 2. (of the lightning) 
wolka or yin wolkia. 

lightning, n. wolkia; like 1. (i.e. 
at immeasurable speed) ya 
wolkia* F 155. 

like, adv. tamka, tamkar, tamkan, 
tamkat or tankat, kam(m)a, 
kam(m)an or kamal, e.g. 1. 
a room kamal daki; wa*, e.g. 
1. a hair (in fineness) wa gashi 
F 144; ya, yi, yina, e.g. 1 
lightning ya wolkia F 155 
1. Abubekr yi abubekr A 82 
1. a child yina jinjiri A 81 ; 
ta'ada* A 21 ; adj. tanfari or 
tamfari A 76 ; the following 
are substantival (as in Engl, 
one's 1.) teewa*, kama, pi. ka- 
manu, e.g. his 1. kamansa; cf. 
likeness; what is 1. to some- 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



like 



95 



little 



thing maimeki, wani, e.g. 1. 

him waninsa, shig(g)e*, e.g. .1. 

them shig(g)ensu, kotanchi, e.g. 

1. this kotanchin hak(k)a, mi- 

chali* or misali, cf. seq. 
like, as, adv. tamkarda or tan- 

karda, kam(m)a or kamada and 

kamanda, michali* or misali*, 

wa*. 
like, to make, tr. v. daidaita; 

pass, is made 1. unto akotan- 

chi. 
like, tr. v. so, marimari, e.g. I 

1. my friend ina son abokina; 

I 1. him na maida kamna 



liken to, tr. v. kotanchi or kwa- 
tanchi. 

likeness, n. kama, pi. kamcmu, 
miclvali*, misali*, supa*, wa- 
ni*, kutumshi*, tsewa*, e.g. 
his 1. kamansa = supansa - 
waninsa = misalima ; he gave 
me his 1. (= his portrait) ya 
bani kamansa. 

likewise, adv. kua, ma*, e.g. I 
love her she 1. loves me ina 
sonta ita kua tana sona. 

limbs, coll. (of body) gab(b)obi, 
e.g. it will break their bones, 
it will cut all their 1. shi karya 
kasshi shi yenke duk gab(b)obi, 
F 175. 

lime, n. (the fruit) lemu. 

limit, n. iyaka or iaka. 

line, n. (= a row, series) jera, jere 
or jire*; in a 1. ajera or ajere ; 
spec, a 1. formed for prayer 
saffu, a broad blue 1. in cloth 
saki, soki, or soaki ; cf . lines. 



lineage, n. zwria*, usali*. 

linen, n. alkamwra. 

lines, coll. zone ; to draw 1. zana 
or zani. 

linger, intr. v. dad(d)a also pro- 
nounced deddi; to 1. about 
lalata. 

lingerer, at home in time of war, 
n. kazum. 

lintel, n. almanani*. 

lion, n. zaki, fern, zakainya, pi. 
zakoki, firdi*, male 1. toron 
zaki ; young 1. dan zaki \ spec, a 
red 1. alkumali*; strong 1. wan- 
dara* ; the adj. gadanga strong 
is specially used as an epithet 
of the lion. 

lioness, n. zakainya. 

lip, n. lebo, pi. lebuna. 

list, n. (written) zumami, takarda, 
pi. takardu. 

listen, v. (=to hear with attention) 
saurara, sorara or jurare* ; to 
1. intently with bowed head 
karkat{t)a and kakartsa used 
with or without kunu (ear). 

listener, n. majia. 

listens, He who, adj. (epithet of 
God) samiu*. 

little, adj. karami, fern, karama 
or karamia, pi. karamai, ka- 
nana and kankana; kankani 
or kankane, f. kankana, pi. 
kankanu or kankana ; sub- 
stantively (= a 1., also few) 
kad(d)an, sum{m)a, sam(m)a 
8am(m)a, kalilan*, tsarari* ; 
very 1. kad(d)an kad(d)an, I 
ate but 1. but very 1. ban chi 
ba * sai kaddan sai kaddan 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



live 



96 



look at 



kaddan; wait a 1. while jima 
kaddan or jimkaddan, to take 
very 1. of tsakara or teakura. 

live, intr. v. yin rai. 

liver, n. hanta, or anta, kidibi, 
koda* or hwoda. 

living, adj. da rai, e.g. this is not 
a 1. child woga ba dia da rai 
che. 

living One, the, adj. epithet of 
God maihaya*. 

lizard, n. kadan gari, gusa*, spec, 
a kind of 1. kulha*, large 
venomous 1. (draconina ?) dam- 
(m)u, small venomous 1. tsaka, 
small black-headed 1. goguwari, 
small tree-1., supposed to cause 
leprosy kutu. 

load, n. kaya or kaia, pi. kayayeki ; 
heavy 1. adila or adilan kaya, 
alaroy a small addition to a 
carrier's 1. dauria, to get ready 
a 1. gara kaya, to pack up a 1. 
labda, I took his 1. na taboshi. 
"load, tr. v. labda-, to 1. a gun 
dora (or chik(k)a) bindiga. 

loadstone, n. mujin karifi. 

loaf, n. of salt or sugar kantu. 

loan, n. aro, bashi*, ramche*, cf . 
lend ; one who gives money 
etc. on 1. mabachi, pi. mabata. 

loathe, tr. v. tsantsani and yin 
tsantsani. 

locality, n. wuri, pi. wwrare. 

lock, n. makulli*. 

lock, tr. v. kubli, to lock up, id. 

locust, n. fara, pi. farori or 
faruna; spec, small 1. dungo*, 
large 1. babe, fem. babania, 
black 1. birdudua, black 1. 



which flies at night bardinuwa 
or farandere; an insect like 
the 1. taki, pi. takoki. 

locust tree, n. doriwa or dorowa, 
pi. dorowaye. 

lodge, intr. v. sabka, sabki or 



lodging, n. ma8hid(d)i. 

lodging-place, n. ma8hid(d)i, ma- 
sabki or masapki. 

log, n. (of wood) itache and iche, 
spec. 1. of wood fastened to 
feet of slaves as a punishment 
turayi*, 1. of wood tied to head 
as punishment for thieving 
kangalai; cf. dried. 

loins, n. karfata or karifata, 
mara*. 

loneliness, n. kiwa or kewa. 

long, adj. 1. (=of considerable 
lengti) dogo, fem. dogua, pi. 
dogaye, da tsaiyi ; 2. (of di- 
mension) expr. by n. tsawa, 
tsawo etc. e.g. it is seven cubits 
long tsawama kamu bokkoi 
cf. length; 3. (of time) how 
1. 1 twnyauslie, 1. ago tuntuni, 
1. since tundadewa; 1. lasting, 
adj. maidawa?ni; (of space) 1. 
way off dag(g)a nesa, da rtesa 
and nesa. 

long for, v. tvski or tuske ; to 1. 
after absent friend begi. 

longing, n. (also = l. for) kodai 
or kwadai ; evil 1. guri. 

look at, v. duba or dubo, dauro 
or doro, kal(l)o and yin kal(l)o, 
1. at this ! ga ski wonan, to 1. 
attentively at tsokachi; to 1. 
steadfastly at zuru*; to 1. be- 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



looking-glass 



97 



lunatic 



hind woiga, woida, woishe, also 
woiwoia and waiwaia; to 1. 
carefully into bibia*; to 1. 
closely so as to distinguish 
rerebi-, to 1. for (= seek) nema ; 
to 1. into, constr. with da or 
ace. lura; to 1. on at giwaya 
or jitoaya; to 1. pleased at 
seeing kamna fuska; to 1. 
proudly on hardra* ; to 1. 
round dauraro, dor or o or dau- 
rara*; cf. B 127 ; 151. 

looking-glass, n. madubi, matso- 
kachi or masokachi. 

loom, n. tahrta. 

loop, in a string, n. zarge, pi. 
zarguna ; mazarigi. 

loosen, tr. v. kunche, kwemche 
or kunchi; sunche or sinche*. 

loosened, particip. kunche , fem. 
kunchia, pi. kuntu. 

lord, n. ubangiji; sidi applied to 
Mohammed B 20; Lord, an 
epithet of the Deity, rabbi, 
ribbi or rabba* ; in the same 
sense also ubangiji, cf. B 3, 
4, 6, 9. 

lose, tr. v. ras{8)a, yin reshi, tabe*, 
yin asdra, gagata, the last 
constr. with da, rubushi ; to 1. 
the way, ras{s)a hainya, rache 
or ratse, gochi and goche, gagata 
da hainya, bata hainya, kari- 
kache, the last also fig. of 
moral deviation; to 1. one's 
case kayts ga sheria. 

loss, n. berna or birna, e.g. they 
caused him 1. m kai mashi 
berna G 2, reshi or ra(s)8hi, 
hasdra, asd/ra, tasdri, tatadi. 

R. II. 



loss, to suffer, intr. v. hasdra, 
ta'adi. 

lost, particip. lalatache, fem. lala- 
tachia, pi. lalatatu; to be 1. 
ro8(s)a; it is 1. ya talqfa*. 

lot, n. (= portion) rabo or rabu, 
pi. raberibi; (=Engl. familiar 
expr. *a 1. of and 'lots of) 
dayawa, e.g. a 1. of money 
kurdi dayawa. 

lots, coll. kuria ; to draw lots yin 
kuria. 

love, n. 8oyeya*, soaya or sowaya, 
kamna, so*. 

love, tr. v. so ; (after pronouns 
ending in nd) kamna; yin 
soyeya; shahawa. 

loved, one much, n. lele*, masoyi*. 

lover, n. ma80, pi. masotva; ma- 
soyi, fem. masoya, pi. masoyu. 

low, intr. v. yin kuka; cf. lowing. 

low, adv. ka8(s)a, akas(s)a akass. 

lower, tr. v. kasashe, kass, sabka, 
sabki or sapka; to 1. to the 
ground ka8(s)a; spec, to 1. a 
bucket into a well zir(r)e. 

lowering, participial n. (a bucket 
into a well) zir(r)awa. 

lowing, n. (of cow or camel) boda\ 
kuka*. 

luck, n. (good) nas(8)ara, arziki. 

luggage, n. kaya or kaia and pi. 
kayayeki; spec, a woman's 
1. /ago* or pago*. 

lull, tr. v. reno. 

lump, n. (e.g. of flour) dunkule ; 
tsdba or tsal(l)a*. 

lunatic, adj. tabu or tabo, fem. 
tabuwa ; mahaukachi, fem. ma- 
haukachia, pi. mahaukatu. 

7 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



lungs 98 

lungs, n. fufu or ku/u. 
lust, n. guri, shawa, kodai*. 
lying down, n. kwantawa. 
lying in wait, n. fak{k)o, kwanto. 

macaroni, n. talia*, wasawa&a. 
mad, adj. mahaukachi, fern, ma- 

haukachia, pi. mahaukaiu ; mai- 

hauka; huteu* ; a m. dog 

mahaukachi kar(r)e. 
mad, to be, intr. v. hauka, hauka, 

haukache. 
madden, tr. v. haukata. 
madness, n. hauka, wdhami. 
magic, n. maita. 
magnet, n. mvjin karifi. 
magnify, tr. v. (=to honour, to 

extol) girmama, bada girima, 

yab(b)o, yin yab(b)o. 
magnitude, n. girima, e.g. the sun 

surpasses the moon in m. rana 

ta fi wata da girima, 
magpie, n. (eats locusts) chUi- 

kowa. 
maiden, n. budurua, pi. budurai, 

diya. 
maidenhood, n. buduruchi or 

buduruanchi. 
mail, coat of, n. (made of cloth) 

lufudi, pi. lufudai ; (made of 

chain) sulke, kumakum(m)i*. 
maintain, tr. v. 1. (= retain) 

rik(k)e, rik(k)a, rik(k)i*; also 

rukun*, rikun* A 47, C 37; 2. 

(= feed) chida. 
maize, n. mas(s)ara* or dama$- 

(?)ara*. 
majesty, n. zati* F 132. 
make, tr. v. 1. (=to construct, 

fashion, create) yi, yiwa, yiwo 



N 



mankind 



u 



or iwo*; wa; I m. nai = na 
yi ; God who made the world 
allah wanda ya yiwo dunia; 
(= to produce or effect) e.g. to 
m. an outcry yin kururua ; 2. 
(to cause) sa, e.g. they m. the 
householder run away m sa 
maigidda shi guje. 

malady, n. chiwo, chiuta. 

male, adj. and n. namiji, toro*; 
the m. lion tor on zaki; ward 
in the phrase wani da wanche 
male and female. 

malice, n. kiyeya, mast/a, keta or 
kita, mugun hal(l)i, mugunta. 

mallam (teacher or learned man)n. 
malam*, malami, pi. malamai; 
chief m. limam*, pi. limami*. 

maltreat, tr. v. walakanta, cf. 
injure. 

maltreatment, n. walaJcanchi. 

man, n. mutum or mutume, pi. 
mutcme; (as contrasted with 
woman and wife)mi/t, pi. maza 
and mazaje, namiji; married 
m. miji da mache ; the m. with 
the broom (Le. a bachelor who 
has to sweep his own house) 
namiji da shara. 

mane, n. (of horse, etc.) geza, pi. 
gezuna. 

manger, n. jirigi* or jvrgi*, pi. 
jirage*. 

manifest, adj. teahiri. 

manifest, trVvv. bayan(n)a or 
bayen(n)a, gaya, god(d)a. 

manifestation, n. nunawa. 

manifestly, adv. tsahiri. 

mankind, coll. mutane duka, 
dukan mutane, dunia. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



manliness 

manliness, n. mazakuta. 
manner, n. hal(l)i, pi, hal(l)ai f 
ada f the latter used especially 
of religious m. ; such is his m. 
hallinsa he nan. 
manners, coll. good m. kumya or 
kumia ; want of good manners 
reshin kumya. 
manumission, a certificate of, n. 

laya, lay an diyauchi. 
manure, n. taki. 
manure, tr. v. yin taki. 
many, adj. dayawa and (esp. of 
persons) mayawa or maiyawa, 
pi. masuyawa; berkete*, tak- 
(k)aka*, ful* or pul* ; how 
m. ? nawa, guda nawa } e.g. 
how m. years is it since your 
birth? shekara nawa tun hai- 
fuanka. Cf. also D 57 n. 
march, by night in war, n. kwanan 

daga. 
mare, n. godia, dukusa (fern, of 
dukushi) pi. duku8ai ; a young 
m. dan dukushi ; a large m. 
angarmia; a strong m. kan- 
garua. 
mark, n. tab(b)o, pi. tab(b)una; 
m. on paper or cloth dug(g)o 
or dig(g)a, pi. dugogi ; m. on 
animals, trees, etc. or of a 
person unable to write shaida, 
pi. 8?iaidai; a m. on the ground, 
a land-mark amara* ; for tribal 
marks, cf. marks ; to put a m. 
on the ground halama*. 
mark, tr. v. 1. (= to note, observe) 
ji and gan(n)i ; 2. (= to make 
a m. on) shaida or yin shaida ; 
to m. off kebe' f cf. marks. 



99 



mass 

marker, in book, n. halama*, 
amara*. 

market, for some special article, 
n. kasua or kasuwa; spec, a 
very small m. dan kasua; officer 
of the m. sankurumi; president 
of the m. sarikin kasua ; a m. 
thief maisani; notice forbid- 
ding people to sell in the m. 



marks, coll. 1. (cut on face to 
point out tribe etc. to which 
a person belongs) shaushawa, 
keskestu; 2. (id. cut from the 
corners of the mouth) yanbaka. 

marks, to cut, on, v. reda. 

marksman, n. mahalbi, pi. ma- 
halbai or masuhalbi. 

marriage, n. amre, amri or aure, 
angonchi; m. feast buki or 
biki y also wasambuki; m. pre- 
sents (wife's) gara ; to rejoice 
at a m. yin gara. 

married, adj. suna*; m. man miji 
da mache. 

marrow, n. burgo or barugo. 

marry, v. amre, amri, aure or yin 
amre, etc. 

marsh, n.fadama. 

marvel, n. (=a wonder) abin 
mamaki, abinchewa, ajub. 

marvel, v. yin mamaki, jin 
mamaki, yin woba ; to m. at a 
thing unseen before kakdbi* ; 
to cause to m. ajabi. 

mash, tr. v. farifasha or palpa- 
she. 

mashed, participial adj. tak(k)ake, 
fern. tak(k)aka, pi. tak{k)aha. 

mass, n. tsdba or tsal(l)a. 

7—2 



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master 



100 



measuring 



master, n. ubcmgiji; uba or oba, 

pi. ubane and tubanai. 
master, tr. v. (=to overpower) 

rinjayi or rinjaya, fi* 9 i*. 
masticate, tr. v. tamna or tona, 

tsuk(k)e. 
masticated, particip. tamnane, 

fern, tamnana, pi. tamnanu. 
mat, n. gen. abin shimfida ; spec. 

old grass m. keso; reed m. 

taberma ; goat-skin m. buzu or 

bum*; round m. tajm gitoa; 

round grass m. ivindi; round 

m. of plaited grass asalo; m. 

let down in front of doorway 

arsaberi, tu/ania; grass or reed 

m. for covering outside of 

houses zona; cf. seq. 
mats, coll. (used for roofing) 

amami; grass used for making 

m. zuntsia. 
matter, n. (subject) tada, pi. 

tadodi; what is the m.? mi 

ya faru, what is the m. with 

you? mi ya sameka. 
mattress, cloth, n. derduma. 
mature, adj. and v.; see ripe, 

ripen, 
me, personal pron. -ni and (rare) 

-wo, e.g. he caused me fear ya 

bani tsoro, they followed me 

sun bini, he likes me shina 

8ona, he saw me ya ganina; 

with prep, to me mani, gareni; 

exclamatory, me! do you mean 

me? nia. 
meal, n. 1. (= repast) kalachi, 

which also = mid-day m. ; 2. 

(= ground fruit of dorowa) 

garin dorowa; cf. flour. 



mean, adj. (= worthless, con- 
temptible) lalatache, fern, la- 
latachia, pi. lalatatu, banza. 

meaning, n. (of words and 
phrases) loga, guzu, tushi, 
hari*, manaa* } dalili* ; e.g. 
there is no m. in it babu 
loga; what is the m. of it? 
minene guzunsa. 

measles, n. bakwondoro (?). 

measure, n. 1. gen. (both in the 
strict sense and also of com- 
parison, estimation, proportion, 
one's m. or standard) golgodo, 
gorgodo y gvlgudu D 25; 2. 
(= instrument or means of 
measuring) abin auna, abin 
awo, maauna; 3. spec, the 
foot regarded as a m. of length 
tak(k)i t pi. takoki; a m. of 
length from elbow to tip of 
middle finger kamu; a cloth 
m. of about 15 feet zan(n)e or 
«an(w)t, pi. zan(n)ua; a cloth 
m. of about 22 yards turumi; 
cf . cloth-measure ; a m. of ca- 
pacity mud(d)u, pi. mud(d)una\ 
a m. for grain zakka, zikka or 
jikka; cf. span. 

measure, tr. v. golgoda or gorgoda, 
god(d)a f awo, yin atvo, auna; 
trop. to m. by rule or com- 
parison kiya8i } e.g. we keep 
silent, understanding is the m. 
of (lit. measures) all things 
muna kurum hankali duha ski 
hiyasi D 94. 
measuring, 1. participial n. gol- 
godawa ; 2. anything used for 
m. ; cf. measure (2). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



^ r 



meat 



101 



meet 



meat, n, (= flesh used as food) 
noma, pi. namomi ; spec, thin 
strips of cooked m. kilishi; the 
fat of m. mai; epithet ap- 
plied to broth without ra. da 
lami. 

mediator, n. masakanche. 

medicine, n. mdgani, pi. ma- 
ganguna and magunguna; to 
take m, sha or hade magani; 
to apply, administer m. sa, ba 
or bada magani; purgative za- 
wo ; m. against a cold maganin 
majina; spec, a white mixture 
used as m. farin-gamu; a 
bitter herbal m. tazargadi*; a 
m. made from leaves of adua 
tree lingab(b)u; saltpetre used 
as m. jan kanwa ; a m. made 
from a grass dandana ; to pre- 
serve fruit in syrup as a m. tr. 
v. tsumi or tsume; m. for the 
eyes korino, giwakamba ; a m. 
taken to ward off an enemy's 
blows sago; a m. for children 
dawn; sources of m. — a tree 
whose root is used as a m. for 
dysentery domashi; a bitter 
herb from which a m. is made 
shikawa; a grass from which 
a m. is made tsaiwa; a tree 
whose bark furnishes a m. for 
men and cattle kukuki; a small 
tree from whose root a scent 
is made used as a m. uwan 
magunguna; a sharp, thorny 
grass ground up as a m. rairai 
or rere; a tree (the fruit of 
which resembles a melon) whose 
blossoms furnish a m. tumfafia, 



pi. tumfafi; a large tree fur- 
nishing an astringent m. son- 
sami; a shrub from berries 
of which a m. is made za- 
kami or zakami ; a medicinal 
plant growing amongst dawa 
about two feet high kuduji ; a 
root used as a purgative m. 
zagarafi ; a plant whose leaves 
furnish m. for the chest ta~ 
fessa, raidore; herb with tooth- 
shaped leaves from which a 
m. is made zabo; a shrub the 
wood of which affords a m. 
used for a cold yako; a plant 
with small black seeds used in 
m. nanqf(f)a. 

meditate, intr. v. tsachi or zaclie. 

meditating, particip. n. a. mai- 
zache. 

meditation, n. tunane, fern, tu- 
nana, pi. tunanu, q.v. 

meek, adj. da hankuri ; cf . seq. 

meekness, n. hankuri, hankura 
or Jiakora. 

meet, adj. daidai, and in stronger 
sense halal, halas, hallata* ; 
not in. haram, ba daidai, ba 
halal etc. ; cf. seq. (2). 

meet, v. 1. tarie, yin taria ; to 
m. as in conflict or opposition 
kar(r)o with (^; to m, with 
gamu or gamo da; tare or 
tarie, tareo*, tarda, tarasda; 
tsayi, tsaya, tsai; saddu; same, 
soma* or samo; tabo* ; to m. 
a person coming from the op- 
posite direction karapta; to m. 
on the road saddu ; 2. trop. 

(=tO m. SO as to be lit, Suit- 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



meeting 



102 



mildew 



able, sufficient) gumshe, gamshe, 
ishe; this meets our case wo- 
nan ya ishemu. 

meeting, n. taruwa, taria; a m. 
with saddua; m. of rivers 
(= confluence) magangami ; a 
day of m. (with God on the 
last day) rangamu. 

melon, n. dila*', spec, water-m. 
kankana; roots of melons 
yadv* ; a tree with a fruit 
somewhat resembling a m. 
tumfafla. 

melt, tr. v. (e.g. metals) narike. 

melted, be, intr. v. narihu. 

melted, participle narike, fem. 
narika, pi. narihu. 

memorandum, of goods, written 
on paper, n. zumami. 

memorial, n. ambato. 

memory, n. tunane*, tuna*. 

men, n. 1. (= males) maza; 2. 
(= human beings) mutane. 

mend, tr. v. 1. gerta; 2. (= to 
patch clothes etc.) banke; to 
m. by sewing fasali) 3. fig. 
(to set right, to ' m. matters ') 
gdra or gera. 

mendicant, n., see beggar. 

mending, participial form ger- 
taiva, used after pronouns end- 
ing in na, e.g. they are m. 
suna gertawa. 

mention, tr. v. ambata or am- 
bato. 

merchandise, n. bukata, abin 
chiniki, fatauchi*. 

merchant, n. fadake, maifadake, 
pi. mamfadake, attajiri or 
tajiri f kuntumi, maifatauchi, 



dangarumfa* ; spec. • a rich 
m. kunkumi or kuntumi} a 
travelling m. falke, pi. fatalce ; 
Jatake used as a coll. = mer- 
chants; see trader. 

merciful, adj. (epithet applied to 
God only) errahimi*. 

mercy, n. jinkai or shinkai, tau- 
sayi* ', cf. compassion. 

merely, adv. saidai, sai, e.g. he 
would m. lift up his chin 
saidai shi tdda haba A 6. 

merry, be, intr. v. shewa or 
(Sokoto) suwa j we are very m. 
muna yin daria da murna. 

message, n. (= errand, mission) 
sako, (= news or information 
brought) labdri; to delay to 
deliver a m. ida labdri. 

messenger, n. maaike, pi. masu- 
aike and maaika; maaikachi; 
jekada; manzo, pi. manzani 
which is also used of a king's 
m. specially. 

midday, n. of time tsak(k)an 
rana; m. meal, n. kalachi*. 

middle, n. tsak(k)ia, t8ak(k)a, 
atsak(k)a; in the m. of (pre- 
positional phr.) tsakani or 
zakani*. 

midst, n., see prec. 

midwife, n. ungozuma. 

might, n. iko, (of physical power) 
karifiy karfi. 

mighty, adj- maiiko, maikarifi, 
bajini*, gugara* or gugari*, 
aljabbaru B 118; (as epithets 
of God) azizu*, jabbaru*, ja- 
lala*, kaderi*; cf. powerful. 

mildew, n.fumfuna. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



s 



milk 



103 



miss 



milk, n. nono, pi. nonua\ sweet 
or fresh m. madara; curds 
of m. guntsari; herb root of 
which is put in m. to preserve 
it loda, daf(f)ara; to skim 
m. yade. 

milk, tr. v. tasa, tasi, tachi, tatea 
or taza, e.g. I m. the goat na 
tasi akwia. 

mill, n. see mill-stone. 

mill, tr. v. (= to grind) nik(k)a. 

miller and mill-owner, n. mai- 
reda. 

millet, n. dawa, dawa mazara, 
gero. 

million, adj. alif alif; dubu dari 
goma. 

millstone, n. duchin nik(k)a, ma- 
rede, pi. maredai. 

mince, tr. v. (cut into very small 
pieces) yenyena. 

mind, n. zuchia*, rai*, the latter 
used in compounds like giri- 
man rai haughtiness, see rai 
(2); I am of two minds ina 
da zuchia biu; absence of m. 
cf. shagalichi*. 

mind, v. (= regard, heed) kid(l)a 
with da, cf . care, care for. 

mine, sep. possess, pron. nawa 
when obj. possessed is masc, 
tavoa when fern., e.g. your 
horse is stronger than m. 
dokinka ya fi nawa da karifi. 

mingle, tr. v., see mix. 

minister, a king's, n. bafade or 
bafadi, mafadawa; m. of the 
household magaji. 

minstrel, n. zabia, pi. zabiyo- 
yl 



mint, a plant resembling, n. da- 

doia*. 
minute, n. of time gari*. 
mirage, n. diyaforana* (lit. child 

of the sun). 
mire, n. laka, tab(b)o, pi. tabuna ; 

cf. mud. 
mirror, n. madubi, madubin ido, 

madubin fuska, mateokachi or 

masokachi. 
miscarriage, n. wabi. 
miscarry, v. bauri, yesda diya*, 

bata chik(k)i*. 
mischief, n. kita or keta, masifa ; 

to do m. yin sababi. 
mischief-maker, n. maisab(b)abi, 

pi. ma8U8ab(b)abi ; maokuctii. 
mischievous person, n. mai- 

masifa, pi. masumasifa. 
miser, n. bahili*. 
miserable, to be or to render m. 

sinihi, 
misery, n., see distress, 
misfortune, n. hasdra, asdra, ta- 

sdri, 8ab(b)abi or 8ub(b)abi, 

tnasi/a. 
mislead, tr. v. rude; one who 

misleads marude or mairude, 

pi. maruda. 
misled, particip. rudade, fem. ru- 

dada, pi. rudadu. 
miss, n. used of an arrow, gun, 

etc. kuskurewa. 
miss, v. (=.to pass over, omit 

words in a book) ratea*, cf. 

A 73 ; to m. the way ro8(s)a 

hainya; to m. (of an arrow) 

kvskure or kurkura, yin kun- 

du* ; to m. fire fas(8)a, yin 

karia; charms to cause the 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



mist 



104 



month 



weapons of the enemy to m. 

or m. fire sha kwkwre and sha 

bara. 
mist, n. hazo. 
mistake, n. mantua; to make a 

m. manta, mancfie, yin mantua, 

bata zanche. 
mistress, n. (of the house) uwori- 

gid(d)a or uwcdgid(d)a, (of 

slaves) uworigijia, 
misty, adj. da hazo. 
misunderstand, v. gigiche or 

gigi, rudi*. 
mix, tr. v. dame or dama; gcwri- 

woya; gangama; kwabe, kube 

or kwaba; to m. together 

chuda or chudawa ; to m. mud 

chuda yimbu; to m. up to- 
gether forau forau or foro 

foro. 
mixed, what is, n. damamia. 
mock, v. bananche, fasiki*. 
mocker, n. maifa&iki*. 
mode, n. hal(l)i, pi. hal(l)ai. 
moderate size, n. madaidaichi ; 

a thing of m. s. madaidaichi; 

of m. s. adj. da madaidaichi. 
moderately, adv. da dama dama. 
modest, adj. (= bashful, under a 

sense of shame) da kumya. 
modesty, n. (= sense of shame, 

bashfulness) kumya or ku- 

mia. 
Mohammed, pr. n. muliammadu 

B 2, 16, C 42 ; muhammad 

D 75, 78; ahmadu D 47; 

sidi vban zahra mijin hadija 

B 21 ; dan amina E 2 ; cf . 

also for further designations 

D97n. 



mohammedan, a, n. musulmi 
(musilmi A 5), pi. musulmai; 
the m. religion musvlumchi) 
to be a m. musukumta F 58 ; 
I changed from a heathen to a 
m. n& Bauya da arna (or ama) 
musulmi. 

moisten, tr. v. jik(k)a. 

moisture, n. damshi. 

molasses, a kind of, n. maa\d)i 
or madya. 

mole, n. (= birth mark) tadawal 
allah. 

molest, tr. v. t8cmanta y alale. 

moment, n. of time keptawan ido, 
gem,*] in a m. (= forthwith = a 
m. afterwards) nan da nan. 

Monday, n. latini and rana latini. 

money, n. hwrdi or kudi*\ for m., 
on payment of m. da kurdi; 
(the only money regularly used 
by the Hausas consists of 
cowrie shells, about 2000 of 
which are equivalent in value 
to a shilling; the Austrian 
dollar is occasionally used, see 
della). 

money-bag, small, n. tsal(l)eta. 

monkey, n. biri, pi. birai, biraye 
or biruna; spec, a large m. 
gata or gatan biri; a small 
red m. tsulo. 

monkey-bread, tree, n. i.e. the 
baobab kuka. 

monkey-nut, n.ged(d)a; oil from 
the monkey-n. main ged(d)a. 

month, n. wata, pi. watani and 
watashi ; this m. watan yo ; 
last m. watan jia; next m. 
watan gobe; m. after next 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



monument 



105 



most 



watan jibi ; four months wata 
judu ; the fourth m. wata na 
fudu. 

monument, n. see memorial. 

moon, n. wata, pi. w<dam,i and 
watashi. masc; new^m. sabon 
wata, farin wata, JarU(l)a* ; a 
bright m. (ein heller Mond) 
wata farifet; halo round m. 
sansan(n)i ; phr. the m. is ended 
wata ya mutu. 

more, adj. 1. (= greater in amount) 
mqfiyawa, e.g. he gave him 
books m. than ours ya bashi 
litatafi mafiyawa dagga namu; 
m. considerable than this ma- 
figirma dagga nan) 2. (= to 
a greater degree) as in our 
comparison of adj. and adv. fi, 
e.g. he is m. cunning than a 
jerboa yafi kurege da wayo; I 
am m. beautiful than thou ina 
fiki da keau ; /aye, faskare, e.g. 
you ask m. than I am equal to 
kana so abin da (ya/aye mani 
or) yafaskereni; 3. (= m. in ad- 
dition, further) kara, e.g. add 
m. (to the price in bargaining) 
ka kara mani; although they 
made every attempt to console 
him, he cried the m. koda mka 
yi kokari dayawa su bashi han- 
kuri shi ya kara kuka; he 
stabbed him again and then 
he moved no m. ya yenkeshi 
haryo da wuka baya nan bai 
kara yin mosi ba; a little m. 
da dama; much m. balante, e.g. 
Shaikhu would receive any- 
one, much m. would he receive 



me ya dauki kowa shaikhu 
balante nia C 48. 
moreover, adv. bayan hak(k)a, 

morning, n. the early m. safe and 
safia; when m. came da safe 
ya yi; in the m. da safe; 
every m. kowache safia; good 
morning ! sannu da safe or 
sannu da rana; very early 
in the m. sasafe ; m. two hours 
after sunrise hanchi or hantsi. 

morrow, n. gobe, rana maizua; 
good bye till to-morrow sai 
gobe; for ' day after to-morrow J 
&c. see day. 

morsel, n. guzura, pi. guzure. 

mortar, n. 1. (made by scooping 
out a log) twrumi, pi. turami ; 
a maker or owner of mortars 
maiturumi ; 2. (= building ce- 
ment) damamia; to mix m. 
dame or dama, 

moslem, n. musulmi, pi. musul- 
mai ; see also mohammedan. 

mosque, n. masaUachi, pi. masal- 
latai. * 

mosquito, sab(b)ero, sabro, sauro 
or samro, 

most, adv. 1. (denoting the re- 
lative superlative) is expressed 
by a denning phr. mafi (or ya 
fi) duka (or kowa) = surpassing 
all or any, e.g. he is the m. 
powerful shina da karifi ya fi 
duka; for similar phrases cf. 
the m. excellent Mohammed 
muhamniadu ya fi kowa £ 3, 
51 ; let us fear a meeting with 
Him who is m. powerful mu 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



moth 



106 



muddy 



tsarshi gamu da maiiko da 
kowa (lit. who has power over 
all) E 12; 2. the absolute 
superlative (= in a very high 
degree) faye, e.g. the cat is m. 
addicted to crying at night 
kenwa ta faye yin kuka da dere. 

moth, n. spec, a m. from a black 
caterpillar asu* ; a black m. 
kwaro, pi. kwari; a m. which 
bites men and eats ants teutsa. 

mother, n. uwa, iya ; his m. was 
Zainabu uwa tasa zainabu. 

mother-in-law, n. sarakua. 

motion, n. most or motsi. 

mound, n. tudu, pi. tudodi. 

mount, v. hawa or hau ; torn, a 
horse or to m. on horseback 
hawa dohi or hawa bistya 
doki; to m. up or upon tak{k)i 
or taka. 

mountain, n. tudu, pi. tudodi, 
tsauni (but larger than tudu), 
kudunia, which also means 
range of mountains. 

mourn, v. tak(k)aba, yin kuka 
G2. 

mouse, n. bera or bira, dambaria, 
kusu, pi. kusai ; spec, field m. 
gunzu*. 

mouth, n. bald, pi. bakuna ; also 
fig. of the opening or entrance 
to anything, e.g. the m. of a 
well bakin rijia; spec, a dis- 
ease at the corners of the m. 
decha*. 

mouthful, n. loma or lauma*. 

move, v. tr. and intr. mosa, intr. 
yin mo9%\ to m. away from 
gurugusa; to m. a little back 



gusa, gulgusa or gurugusa ; to 
m. a little forward guso or 
guruguso; to m. forward or 
backward so as to make room 
zakuda or zakudo ; to m. from 
a place gurugushe; to m. to- 
wards guruguso. 

moved, be, v. muchu*. 

movement, *n. mosi or motsi. 

moving, a little away, particip. 
gusawa. 

mow, tr. v. yenka or yenke. 

much, 1. adj. and adv. (=in great 
quantity) yawa*, dayawa, mai- 
yawa*, e.g. much money kurdi 
dayawa ; he rejoiced m. ya yi 
murna dayawa ; yawa connec- 
tive form. yawan y gugu or gugi, 
connect, gugin, tUli*, e.g. m. 
sand gugin rairai, dungum* 
B 30 ; how m. ? nawa, e.g. 
how m. money am I to give 
you kurdi nawa ni baka; to 
do something very m. faye, e.g. 
children laugh very m. yara su 
faye yin daria; to be too m. 
for buaya or buaye, faskare, 
e.g. it is too m. for me ya 
buayeni\ it is too m. ba shi 
kai hakkanan ba or ya faskare. 

mucus, from the eyes, n. komtsa 
or hvoamsa. 

mud, n. yimbu or yambu*, tab(b)o, 
pi. tabtma, laka, kafo; spec, 
handful of m. churi; round 
piece of m. chibvrin kasa ; 
slippery m. tU(l)abia*. 

mud-fish, n. gaiwa; the noise 
made by the m.-f. chiwuki. 

muddy, adj. da tab(b)o. 



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muddy water 



107 



name 



muddy water, n. gwiba or gudbi. 

muezzin, n. lada*. 

mule, n. alfadari, fern, alfadara, 
pi. al/adaru. 

multiply, tr. v. yawanta, yin 
yawanta, sa yawayawa, kara*. 

multitude, n. yawa, taro or taru, 
pi. tarori. 

murder, n. katyshinkai. 

murder, intr. v. yin ka(8)shin- 
kai. 

murderer, n. maka(8)shi, rnaka^s)- 
8hinkai. 

murderous, adj. kasau*. 

murmur, intr. v. gunaguni, yin 
gunaguni; to m. against kusato. 

muscular person, n. gendi, fem. 
gendia. 

music, n. molo, pL moluna; to 
play music yin wasa. 

musical instrument, n. abin 
molo, kidda or kiddi; to play 
on a m. i. that is touched or 
struck yin kiddi ; spec, a m. i. 
like a guitar gurumi or gurimi 
used in the expr. gurimin kid- 
di; am. i. held under the arm, 
a kind of drum kozo; a m. i. 
played by rubbing on it kw- 
kuma; a stringed m. i. ma- 
chirkia* ; strings of a m. i. 
tsarkia; stick for m. i. goge; 
a m. i. played before a king, 
e.g. a trumpet kakaki. 

musical performer, on drum, n. 
makiddi; on a trumpet mai- 
bu8a. 

musician, king's, n. zabia, pi. 
zabiyoyi. 

musk, n. mu&ka. 



muslin, n. used for turbans 
harsa*, hi/rm*. 

mussulman, to be a, intr. v. 
mumlumta* ; see moslem and 
mohammedan. 

must, v. (= be obligatory or neces- 
sary) Ictili, kamata, e.g. we must 
work lalli ne (or ya kamata) 
mu yi aiki ; cf . necessary. 

musty smell, as of grain long 
kept, n. suna. 

muzzle, for goat or donkey, n. 
takumkumi*. 

my, possess, pron. 1. suff. -na 
when the obj. possessed is 
masc, -ta when fem., e.g. my 
father ubana, my mother uwa~ 
ta; 2. separate, nawa with 
masc, tawa and tata* with 
fem., e.g. my horse doki nawa; 
my mare godia tawa, 

myriad, n. of number ribbi*. 

myself, pron. kaina ; I'm. ni 
dakaina. 

nail, finger, n. kumba, pL kvmbuna 
or kumkaij farichi, kambori. 

nail, an iron, n. kosa or kusa*. 

nail, tr. v. kaf(f)a. 

naked, adj. chiraro, t8irara,funtu 
or dafwntni) jvr, e.g. because 
he is n. don jir shi ke; a n. 
person tumbar ; he is n. ya yi 
chirara. 

nakedness, n. chirara, fwntwnchi; 
fig. wqfi, e.g. a naked lie karia 
wqfi. 

name, n. swia, pi. mnua and 
8unanaki\ a city whose n. is 
Kano birni sunansa kano; 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



name-day 



108 



need 



what is his n. 1 wa sunansa 
phr. name its price ba ski mna. 

name-day, for a child, n. ranmna; 
a meal connected with the n.- 
day tuon mna. 

napkin, n. kalkaJlf)^ maharma. 

narrate, v./aa\d)i or fad(d)a, e.g. 
what I have narrated to you 
is true abinda na fadda maka 
da gaskia ne. 

narrative, n. labdri, aljima, air 
jama*, e.g. let me give you 
the n. of those wars em baka 
labarin yakoki nan. 

narrow, adj. kumche*, kunkunta*} 
a n. place wurin machi. 

narrow, v. 1. tr. (= to make n.) 
kumtata; 2. intr. (=to be n.) 
matsu. 

narrowed, particip. adj. kumche*. 

natal, adj. na haifua, fern, ta hai- 
fua, e.g. your n. day rana ta 
haifuanka or ranan (ran) hai- 
Juanka. 

native, 1. adj. (of animals etc. be- 
longing to a particular country 
or district) expressed by means 
of kasa or gari, e.g. the n. trees 
itatuan kasa; the n. fish kifayen 
garinga ; 2. gentilic n. (= a 
native) of a country ba with 
terminal vowel e or t, e.g. a 
Hausa n. bahaushe ; of a town 
or locality da followed by its 
name, e.g. a n. of Zozo dan zozo. 

nativity, n. haifua. 

natron, n. kanwa> gal(l)o, ashau- 
ma; a heap of n. burdumi. 

nature, n. (character) JwU(l)i, 
B104. 



navel, n. chibia, pi. chibioyi. 

near, adv. kus{8)a ; n. at hand da 
kus(8)a, e.g. he came n. ya taffi, 
kv*(8)a; he sat n. at hand ya 
zamna da kvs(s)a; very n. 
ku8(s)a kustya; n. to kus(s)a 
da or ku8(ft)a ga, e.g. n. to 
him ku8(s)a gareshi. 

near, to be etc., v. intr. to be or 
draw n. yin kv&(8)a, kus(8)ata 
or ku8(8)anta ; to draw n. dun- 
no; to draw n. to gtoamatsi* 
B 15, rabe*, e.g. it draws n. to 
him ta rabeshi B 121. 

near, coming, participial form 
kvs(8)atoxjoa. 

near, drawing, participial form 
ku8(8)awa, kus{8)ache. 

nearly, adv. kus{8)a ; it is n. 
finished ya yi kussa kare or 
ya kussa kare. 

necessary, adj. wajib or wajibi. 

necessary, to be, v. wajaba, wa~ 
jabu or wajiba y lazumche, ka- 
mata; impers. it is n. ya wajiba, 
ya kamata, lal(l)i ne. 

necessity, n. larura*, sharatea* ; 
of n. da lal(l)e t da tilas, da 
ijuuya. 

neck, n. wuya or unya, pi. vmyayi 
or toiyayi. 

neckband, of horsehair etc., n. 
Uegia. 

neck-hole, of shirt, n. wundi. 

necklace, of beads, n. kutofi; 
(worn by women) dimbujin 
zufa. 

neck ornament, n. hanchi. 

need, n. bukata, e.g. He is the 
satisfier of his n. shi ne maibia 



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need 



109 



nineteen 



bukata tasa; to be in n. of 

lal(l)e. 
need, v. bukata B 4, yin bukata ; 

cf . prec. 
needful, it is, impers. ya kamata, 

lal(l)i ne. 
needle, n. alura, pi. alurai, ali- 

bra*, madinkia*, tqfasua* ; 

spec, large n. siko; a sail-n. 

masilla*. 
needle-case, n. gid\d)an alura. 
needlework, on a burnous, yellow, 

n. yaran(n)i. 
needy, adj. makaskachi, pi. ma- 

kaskasta, talaka, pi. talakawa, 

maitalaka, pi. mamtalaka, mai- 

talauchi*, pi. masutalauchi*. 
neglect, of work, n. huja. 
neglect, tr. v. kiale> rena. 
neighbour, n. makqfchi or makub- 

chi, fem. makopta, pi. makopta. 
neigh, intr. v. yin haninia. 
neighing, n. haninia. 
neither, adv. ko*; after a neg. 

neither... nor ko...ko. 
nerve, n. jijia, pi. jiwoji. 
nerves, coll. n. dag(g)ura*. 
nest, n. shek(1c)a, pi. 8hek(k)una 

and 8hek(k)oki, guribi. 
net, n. taru, pL taruna; spec. 

names for fishing- nets also 

ra/(./>, raga, pi. ragogi, 

koma*. 
network, n. aikin raga. 
never, adv. expressed by v. tabba 

with negative, e.g. I n. acted 

thus ban tabba yi tvonan; we 

n. went there ba mu tabba je 

nan ; n. until now dadai with 

negative verb. 



nevertheless, adv. saiko, tare da 

wanan, koda*. 
new, adj. ?dbo, fem. ?dbua, pi. 

§dbi\ anything n. (= strange, 

evil) bidaa F 25 ; the n. moon 

?dbon ivata, fcvrin wata. 
news, coll. n. labdri, what is the 

news? enna labari or enna 

labarin dunia or labarin 

dunia, I heard n. of you na 

ji labarinka. 
next, adv. (as a qualification of 

nouns of time) gobe, e.g. n. 

month watan gobe; the n. 

world lahira, gia\d)an gobe) 

the n. day rana maizua or 

rana maizakua. 
nibbling, of ants, n. tauscm gara 

A 44. 
nice, adj. da dadi ; something n. 

abin dadi. 
Niger, Hausa name for the river ; 

n. kwora, kwara or man 

kwora. 
niggard, adj. bahili*. 
nigh, adv. ku8(s)a or da kus(8)a ; 

n. to kus(8)a da or kus(s)a ga. 
night, n. dere or der(r)i; all n. 

dere duka; at or by n. da 

dere; good night! san{n)u da 

dere and sai da safe; last n. 

jia da dere ; it is n. dunia ta 

yi dere ; to go by n. bin dere ; 

to pass the n. wuni ; when n. 

comes or came da dere ya yi. 
nine, num. tara, e.g. n. horses 

dawaki tara, n. hundred dari 

tara, by nines tara tara. 
nineteen, num. goma sha tara, 

sha tara. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ninety 



110 



now 



ninety, num. tis{8)din, dari goma 
bus8 ) dari gaira goma, the 
two last expr. lit. 100 less 10. 

ninth, num. 1. ordinal natara, 
fem. tatara; 2. fractional n. 
tum'i*. 

no, 1. interj. a*, aa ; 2. adj. babu, 
ba, e.g. no money babu kurdi ; 
no one babu howa, ba howa, 
babu wonda or ba wanda. 

no, to say, v. han(n)a, hi, Ha; 
cf . kauda hai. 

nod, to, in assent, v. hada hai, 
ged(d)a hai. 

noise, n. am(m)o, dum(m}i, haya- 
nia or hania ; loud and angry 
n. hargowa. 

none, adj. babu (or ba) wonda, 
babu (or 6a) kowa, babu, the 
last applied to things ; n. used 
of persons babu mutum. 

nonsense, n. wawa, wawanchi; 
he talks n. shina magana 
barkatai*. 

noon, n. t8ak{k)an rana. 

noose, n. gen. zarge, pi. zarguna ; 
spec, a n. for catching animals 
mazarigi, mazargi, azarigagi. 

nor, adv. ko with negative, e.g. 
he gave them neither bread n. 
money for bread ba ya basu ho 
gurassa ho hurdin gurassa. 

north, n. ariwa or ariawa; on 
the n. or to the n. da ariwa. 

northern, the, region, n. ari- 
wachi. 

nose, n. hanchi or hanshi, pi. 
hanchochi; the bridge of the 
n. goran hanchi ; a man with 
flattened n. maihanchi nanane, 



nostrils, n. hanchi or hanshi, pi. 
hanchochi. 

not, adv. ba, e.g. I know not ban 
8an(n)i; the ba is usually 
placed before and after the 
verb or sentence which it 
negatives, e.g. I did not see 
the man ban gani mutum ba, 
or ban gani ba mutum ; babu, 
e.g. it is not good babu heau ; 
with imperative or subjunctive 
clauses had{d)a, e.g. do not 
fear hadda ha ji teoro ; that 
you may not fall (or lest you 
fall) hadda ha fadi ; haa\d)a- 
dai, e.g. let her n. be heard 
kaddadai ajita; 'or not' when 
the words form the end of a 
question ho ba Itah(h)a ba, 

notch, n., i.e. in a tree for resting 
a load against loho ; n. of 
an arrow gofi. 

note, v. duba or dubo, e.g. note 
this duba wonan. 

nothing, n. babu, babu homi, 
ba...homi or ba homi ba, e.g. 
who knew n. wanda bai son 
homi ba\ n. but sai, saidai. 

notwithstanding, adv. saiho, 
tare da wanan, hoda. 

nought, n. see nothing. 

novel, adj. 1, see new; 2. 
(= strange) baho, fem. bahua, 
pi. bahuna, bahi or bahohma, 
da baho. 

novelty, n. (= strangeness) bahon- 
chi, bahontaha. 

now, adv. yanzu, hoyanzu, loha- 
chinan; even n. hoyanzu, yanzu 
yanzu ; just n. yauyau or 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



nude 



HI 



obstinate 



yoyo; till n. har yanzu; up 
till n. /ache*. 

nude, adj. see naked. 

numb, to be, v. see numbness. 

number, n. guda, lisafi or lesqfi ; 
five in n. guda biar; without 
n., beyond n., is expressed by 
ji kedaya, e.g. fishes without n. 
kifaye sufi kedaya. 

number, tr. v. lisafi or lesafi, 
kilga or kirga. 

numbering, method of, n. kedaya, 
kididiga. 

numbness, n. dela, my hands 
are numb dela ya kama lia- 
nuana lit. n. has seized my 
hands. 

Numeral adverbs, these are 
formed by prefixing sau or so 
and also guda to the cardinal 
numbers, e.g. once sau daia, 
thrice sau (or so) uku or guda 
uku. 

numerous, adj. see many. 

nurse, n. maireno, pi. masureno. 

nurse, tr. v. reno. 

nut, n. the small edible ground 
n. guchia, gujia or gojia, pi. 
gujeye, the ground n. called 
also the monkey-n. ged(d)a } 
monkey-n. oil mam ged(d)a; 
a large n. similar to ground n. 
kwaruru*, yaro da daria; 
hazel n. chanza; a n. which 
when ground and burnt fur- 
nishes a scent jawel ; a dried- 
up n. koda. 

nuts, coll. lanza*. 

0\ f interj. ya, 



oak, n. gwinki*. 

oath, n. rantsua, safirchi* ; to 
take an o. ranche and yin 
rantsua; a common oath is 
wotta*, i.e. by Allah ! 

obduracy, n. taurin zuchia, 
matauria zuchia. 

obdurate, adj. da taurin zuchia. 

obedience, give ready, to, tr. v. 
kiyaye. 

obeisance, do, v. yin sajada, 
runsuna or rusona, yin qf(f)i, 
he did o. to him ya yi masa 
affi. 

obey, tr. v. hi, ji; to o. a com- 
mand kiyaye magana, also bi 
(or ji) magana. 

object, n. abu, e.g. a wonderful o. 
abin mamaki; a delightful o. 
abin murna; a sad o. abin 
tausai. 

object, tr. v. ki ; to o. to labour 
etc. yin kiwuya; to o. to an 
agreement uxdwale*, e.g. if 
she make an agreement with 
thee she will o. to it en ta yi 
alkaweli da kai ita walwcde 
C23. 

objection, n. kiumya or kuyiwa. 

obliterate, tr. v. see blot out. 

observe, tr. v. 1. see notice; 2. 
(=to comply with, e.g. the 
commandments of Qod) rik(k)e, 
rik(k)a, rik(k)i; o. a promise 
damre magana, chik(k)a ma- 
gana, kul(l)a bis(s)a magana. 

observance, religious, n. ada. 

obstinacy, n. kinji. 

obstinate, adj. maikinji, pi. ma~ 
sukinji ; to be obstinate chuya*, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



obtain 



112 



often 



obtain, tr. v. same, sami, soma*, 
samo, e.g. may we obtain 
salvation amusami Uira E 52 ; 
riske, riski, ruska, cAt* e.g. 
thou obtainest not everything 
that thou wishest for ba duka 
niffa guri kan ruska B 64 n. 

obtained, to be, v. samu*. 

obvious, adj. t&ahiri. 

obviously, adv. Uahiri. 

occasion, n. (= time of an oc- 
currence) lot(t)u, lokaehi*. 

occupation, n. 1. (=a being 
occupied or busied) 8hag(g)ali, 
8heg(g)eli, shug(g)di or shag- 
(g)al* y e.g. the occupations of 
this world 8hag(g)alin dunia 
B 50 ; 2. (= a trade, profession 
etc.) goni*. ^ 

Odd, adj. boko, da bako. 

Oddity, n. (= strangeness) bakonchi, 
bakontaka. 

odour, n. wart and ivardi*, very 
frequently of a bad, disagree- 
able odour, so also doii or 
doyi ; an agreeable or sweet o. 
kamshi; concr. a thing pro- 
ducing an agreeable o. or 
scent abin kamshi; to get or 
emit a bad o. zama wari, yin 
wari y ruba or riba ; to perceive 
such an o. jin wari. 

of, prep, (genitive) wa, fern, ta; 
also expressed by the con- 
nective forms in -n (a con- 
traction of na) f e.g. history of 
the kings labari na sarakuna 
or labarin sarakuna. The 
genitive relation is often ex- 
pressed by the addition of a 



possessive pronoun, thus, the 

house of the king gia\d)an 

sariki or more commonly sariki 

gid(d)ama. 
off, adv. e.g. far off, at a distance 

off dag(g)a nesa; to be o. 

(= depart) tqf(f)i ; to come o. 

(= happen) faru; to go o. 

(= escape) fichi, chira* y gudu* ; 

to take o. (=to mimic, per- 
sonate) koikoiyo. 
offence, n. 1. (= displeasure) hau- 

shi; to feel o. jin haushi; 2. 

(= transgression, sin) zamba or 

zanba, zunufi or zunubi, pi. 

zunufai; 3. (=an annoyance) 

alale, abin (dale. 
offend, tr. v. 1. (=to commit a 

transgression) yin zamba, yin 

zunufi ; 2. (= to annoy) alale. 
offer, in bargaining, to make an, 

v. taya, taia or tayi, also yin 

tayi. 
officer, n. zarumi, zaromi, zarmi 

or jarimi, pL zarumai; spec. 

o. at court turaki, maifada; 

royal o. bongo, makama 9 do- 

gari*. 
officers, n. a king's o. fadawa, 

q.v.; spec, one of the chief o. 

maji; one of the court o. at 

Zaria sarikin makvra. 
official, n. galfyadima*, pi. gal- 

(l)adimai m ; on the precedence 

of officials see vol. I. gal(l)a~ 

dima; title of an o. at court 

manzo. 
offspring, n. dia or diya, iri t pi. 

irare. 
often, adv. palinioota*, sautari. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



oil 

Oil, n. mai ; any dark o. alayed(d)i; 
spec. o. obtained from nuts, 
used for rubbing camels zurma; 
o. from ground or monkey nut 
main ged(d)a; o. from the 
kwakwa palm main ja, ala- 
yed(d)i; o. from coriander seed 
main ridi; o. from the seeds 
of the shea-butter tree main 
kedanya and dankon kedanya ; 
large fish from which oil for 
eating is obtained gini, also 
zau. 

ointment, n. main shafewa, jibda. 

Old, adj. tso/oy fern, tsofua, pi. tsqfi 
and tsofofi; o. age tsufa; to 
grow o. tsqfa } tso/e, tmfa and 
yin tsufa ; he is o. yayinsa ya 
wuche ; o. man with bent back 
takoko. 

old, of, adv. da, daa and loka- 
chinda ; as of o. kaman nadd. 

olden, in... time, adv. phr. see 
prec. 

olive, tree, n. zaiti* (the olive is 
not found in Hausaland 
itself). 

on, prep. bis(s)a and abis(s)a, e.g. 
o. a horse bis(s)a doki; o. a 
hill (abis(s)a or) abis(s)an tudu. 

once, adv. sau (or so) daia; to 
do a thing o. fo#(6)a, e.g. 
I saw him o. na tabba gan- 
ninsa ; at o. (= forthwith) 
I will go at o. zan rikka 
taffi ) o. (= in former times) 
lokachinda ; in a weaker sense 
(=on one occasion), e.g. there 
was o. a man mutum ke nan 
or akwoi woni mutum. 

R. II. 



113 



opened 



one, num. adj. daia or daya, e.g. 
o. cubit kamu daia ; o. of you 
daiahku; o. another junansu ; 
o. at a time daia daia; o. 
here o. there daia daia; not 
even o. (in negative sentence) 
ko daia; but o, sat daia. 

oneself, periphr. for, refl. pron. 
zuchia, see self. 

onion, n. albas(s)a, pi. albas(s)osi; 
vriVBr o. habki ; spec, onions 
cooked in soup iaushi ; dried 
leaves of onions lauashi. 

only, adj. and adv. makadaichi 
or mukadaichi, kad(d)ai, sai, 
saidai, kauwe or kauwi, buss*, 
e.g. he only shi makadaichi or 
ski kaddai ; there was nothing 
in it, stones o. babu chik- 
kinta sai duatsu; you have 
o. to stretch out your hand 
and take it saidai ka mika 
hanunka ka karbata. 

onwards, adv. gab(b)a 9 da gab(b)a; 
to go o. (= to advance) yin 
gab(b)a, chin gab(b)a. 

onyx, n. mosaham*. 

ooze, intr. v. also =to o. out, 
zub(b)a, zub(b)o or suba*. 

open, to be, v. budu; to lay 9. 
tona and tone; cf. seq. 

Open, tr. v. buda, bude or budi, 
wari, e.g. a book; hankade* 
e.g. a door ; to o. by making a 
hole in anything fuda or huda; 
to o. out Jida or fide e.g. of 
flaying or of unfolding a 
standard E13; to o. by un- 
tying bal(l)e. 

opened, particip. budede, fem. 

8 



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opening 



114 



oryx 



budeda, pi. budedu, also ex- 
pressed by the pass, forms 
abude and akuntima*; kurkur- 
kur* B 32 note ; to be o.fudu 
and. pass, of bude, e.g. when 
all the gates were o. lokachinda 
dukan hofoji abudesu* 

opening, n. \= aperture) baki, 
pi. bakuna; (^ hole) baria*; 
(= commencement) farawa, e.g. 
he composed a song with a 
beautiful o. ya yi ivaka da 
keaun farawa \ the act of o. 
budawa, fudawa. 

Openly, adv. abude, 8ar(r)ari> 
asar(r)ari. 

opine, intr. v. tamaha (used with 
pres. forms in na\ yin tamaha. 

opponent, n. abokin gab(b)a, cf. 
enemy. 

opportunity, n. dama 9 tearaji*, 
e.g. he bad not the o. ba ya 
samu dama; I have o. to ina 
da tsarafi., 

oppose, v. han(n)a, kar(r)a, kar- 
(r)o, yin kar(r)o, cf. conflict. 

oppress, tr. v. tsane, tsani and 
ttanache. 

oppressed, particip. adj. makas- 
kachiy pi. makaskasta. 

oppression, n. alhaki*. 

or, conj. ko. The correlatives 
either., or ko...ko. 

orb, n. guda*, its o. gndanta D 
64. 

ordeal, by water, n. gwaska. 

order, n. 1. (= custom, rule or 
method of procedure) ada f tada, 
alada*; 2. (=a command) ha~ 
kumchi or hukumchiy 3. adv. 



phr. in o. (= in good order, 
correct) daidai; conj. in o. 
that domin, don, en, hardai, 
e.g. he took medicine in o. that 
he might be cured ya sha 
magani domin aworikeshi; in 
o. that not domin kaa\d)a, e.g. 
let us take great care in o. 
that we may not miss the way 
mu tunane kwarai domin kadda 
mu rassa hainya; in o. to 
garin, e.g. you and I will go 
out in o. to take a walk on the 
outside of the town ni da kai 
zamu tajfi garin yaivo bayan 
bimi. 

order, v. hakumta or hakumclie % 
yin umorni, kaderta; the last 
used of God. 

ordered, particip. (= arranged) 
shiriyaye, fern, shirty ay a, pi. 
shiriyayu. 

ordinance, n. sfieria, pi. sheriau 

ordure, n. kdshi. 

ore, iron, n. tam(m)a. . 

origin, n. mafari, usali*; the o. 
of a fable or story, i.e. what 
the fable explains or accounts 
for dalili. 

ornament, n. 1. abstt*. (= embel- 
lishment) ado, e.g. for o. nu 
ado ; 2. concr. ornaments kayan 
ado ; sj>ec. o. for neck lianchi ; 
o. on horse's head chakasabra ; 
wrist o. of iron, ivory, etc. 
warami, pi. waramai., 

ornamental, adj. na ado. 

orphan, n. mardya, fern, marainia, 
pi. mardyu. 

oryx, n. marea*. 



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ofttrich 



115 



overcharge 



Ostridh, 11. jim(m)ina. ' 

other, pronominal adj. 1. (= dif- 
ferent) dabam, e.g. give me o. 
fish kd bani hifi dabam; o. 
Words magcmganu dabam; 2. 
correlatives, the o. wonchan 
or wonchan, fern, wochan, pi. 
wod(d)anan ; less emphatic of 
various members of a group, 
e.g. the one. . .the o. % (= one ... 
another) pi. some. . .others woni 
or wani, fern, wota, pi. wonsu, 
wosu or wodansu repeated, e.g. 
the one said yes the o. said 
no, quarrelling woni ya che i 
woni ya che aa suna yin 
gerdama; some will go over 
running, others slowly, others 
crawling wodansu kamar gudu 
wosu sanu sanu wodcmsu da 
janjiki su ha ketarewa F 155 ; 
3. o. than (equivalent to Engl, 
else) sai, this is seldom used 
except in negative statements, 
e.g. nothing else but blood sai 
jini; bamda, e.g. we have 
nothing o. than this ba muna 
da komi bamda wonan; cf. 
another. 

Otherwise, conj. /ache*, balshe*, 
baslis*. 

ought, aux. v. 1. (personal con- 
struction) tvajaba, wajabu or 
wajiba, e.g. we o. to repent mu 
tvajaba tuba; 2. (impersonal 
constr.) kamata, kamacJie, wo- ' 
jiba, e.g. ya wajiba mu tuba, or 
ya kamata mu tuba ; wajib or 
wajibi is used with the v. to 
be, e.g. toajibi ne (or ke)mu tuba. 



OUT, poss. pron. 1 . suffixed -mu or 
-nmu, e.g. o. relations dengimu 
or denginmu; 2. separate, 
when obj. possessed is masc. 
namu, when fern.. tamu; thus, 
o. horse doki namu, o. mare 
godia tamu. 

ourselves, refl. pron. see self. 

out, adv. woje, e.g. he has. gone o. 
ya taffi, woje ; the fire has gone 
o. wuia ta mutu ; o. of dag{g)a, 
e.g. he took a stone o. of his 
pocket ya fitasda duchi dagga 
aljifinsa. * 

outdo, tr. v. (= surpass) fi,faye. 

outgo, tr. v. (= surpass) fi, (go 
beyond) gochi*, goche*. 

outrun, tr. v. rig{g)a, rig(g)aya 
or rig(g)agi*, tseri. 

outside, adv. awoje,. woje and 
dag(g)a woje; o. the town 
bay an birni. 

outward, adv. dag(g)a woje. 

oven, n. tanda, tanderu. 

over, adv. (=left, remaining) to 
be o. wanza and wonzu, what 
is o., n. burbishi ; to be o. (= be 
finished) hare ; it is o. ya hare ; 
o. and above, prepositional 
phr. bamda; o., prep. bis(s)a, 
abis{8)a, with or without ga, 
e.g. he fell o. a big log ya 
fadi bissa baban itache, he 
spread his gown o. the stones 
ya shimfida rigarisa bissa ga 
duatsu. 

overcharge, n. (= an excessive 
price) kura. 

overcharge, v. (-to charge an 
excessive price) shirga with 

8—2 



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overcome 



116 



pain 



tsada (dear), e.g. he overcharges 
yana shirya tsada. 

overcome, tr. v. rinjaye or rin- 
jaya, faskare, i ; the last used 
with ma, e.g. we o. them mu i 
mami ; sleep overcomes me be- 
richi yakamani; cf. overpower. 

overflow, intr. v. (of rivers) yin 
gibi. 

overpower, tr. v.A**(*)s/*6, ka(8)8hi 
or kissa, yaryara, buaye; he 
overpowered me ya buayeni. 

overtake, tr. v. tarda or tarasda, 
isJie; fig., e.g. to o. in a fault 
rize. 

overthrow, tr. v. birkichi or 
birkiche ; yiche or gichi ; jirkita 
or jirkiche ; je/asda. 

overturn, tr. v. tankade, juya; 
the latter used with da. 

owe, tr. v. expressed by n. bashi 
(debt), e.g. I owe him ina da 
bashinsa (lit. 1 have his debt) ; 
he owes me ahina da bashina ; 
cf. debt. 

owl, n. mujia, pi. mujiye. 

own, tr. v. expressed by ya (with 
pronouns yare), the pres. form 
in na with da; ke, fem. che 
with da ; and by the forms in 
mat-, e.g. I o. the horse doki 
yareni, ina da doki, ni ke da 
doki and ni ne (or ke) maidoki. 

own, adj. e.g. my o. nawa, with 
fem. obj. tawa ; cf. H. G. p. 17. 

owner, n. maichi, inaiabu) con- 
nective form maiabin; the 
forms in mai- frequently ex- 
press ownership, e.g. house 
o. maiyid(d)a ; o. of a boat 



maijiriyi ; cf . under mai vol. L 
153. 
OX, n. 8a, pi. ghcmu ; kurtumi, pi. 
kurtumai; pack o. with wide 
spreading horns takarikari, pi. 
takarikarai. 

pack, tied up, n. rizuma. 

pack, up, to, tr. v. (e.g. a load) 

labda, yara*. 
package, n. kaya, pi. kayayeki; 

kabak(k)i, pi. kaboka. 
packet (e.g. of paper not written 

on), n. rizuma*. 
pack-saddle, n. mrdi, pi. mradi 

and 8urduna. 
pad, n. (placed on donkey) aku- 

mari', (on head of carriers) 

yum(m)o. 
paddle, used as a rudder, n. 

matuki. 
paddle, tr. v. tunkuda jiriyi. 
paddles, coll. karoki, p. of a 

canoe fulaftde or filajile. 
paddling, participial n. tukawa. 
pagan, n. coll. anna or arna; in 

a less strict sense (= unbeliever) 

kafiri, pi. kafirai and kafiraxoa. 
paganism, n. addini na (asna 

or) arna or addinin asna, ka- 

frichi. 
page, of a book, n. waraka, taba'an 

takarda, sliafi*. 
pain, n. zaji, azdba, yobara, masi- 

ba*, wohal(l)a or wahal(l)a; 

labour pains wohal(l)an Jtaifua ; 

sharp p. zoyi; to feel p. jin 

zafi, 8hay(y)i* or say(y)i* ; he 

feels p. (i.e. on receiving pun- 
ishment) ya rikke larura. 



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pain 



117 



part 



pain, tr. v. jima, e.g. of a sick- 



painful, adj. da zafi, da wuya, da 
zogi. 

palace, royal, n.fada, phfadodi, 
dandalin sa/riki; owner of a 
p. maikasru*, found at F 
55. 

palate, n. dabori*. 

palaver, n. alameri*, shawora*. 

palm, of hand, n. taftn hanu> 
bat/an hanu> . kaf{f)a* y pi. 
kafafu* or kafqfe*. 

palm, n, (the tree) deleb p. gigi- 
nia, pi. gigangani, giginyoyi 
or giginai ; the dum p. goriba 
or goreba, pi. goribai and 
goribobi ; the oil p. kwakwa ; 
large species of p. with edible 
fruit kab(b)a t pi. kab(b)obi ; a 
large p. with hard fruit chiwo; 
a small, thorny p. sabara; a 
young p. tree kUUi; another 
species is takwnwb or tu- 
kurua; bag made from leaves 
of the last kororo ; fruit of the 
giginia p. kwrdugo\ p. leaves 
tsaiwa; rope material from 
chiwo p. dankon cldwo; p. oil 
main ja\ p. wine from the 
tuhjLVua p. bam or bumbi and 
bummi. 

pan, cooking, brass, with handle, 
n.' algideri or alkideri. 

panic, n. (= sudden terror) tun- 
zwrua, tinzera, razan(n)a. 

pannier, grass, n. gufa or gufata, 
adUa*. 

pant, intr. v. sheda and yin sheda, 
slietheka. 



panther, n. rabji, spec, a small, 

ill-smelling p. tunku, 
pap, n. (of the breast) nono, pi. 

norma. 
papaw, n. see pawpaw, 
paper, n. takarda, pi, takardu; 

a p. (= a document) lay a ; sheet 

of p. taba'an takarda. 
parable, n. michali*, misali* or 

machali* ; to speak in parables 

yin machali D 94 ; al/nara*. 
paradise, n. aljenna, e.g. to p., 

the place of continuance zua 

aljenna dakin tabbetawa F 221. 
paragraph, of the Koran, n. 

izufi*. 
parallel, that which is, or like, 

adj. maimeki. 
parallel, to make, tr. v. daidaita. 
paralyzed, adj. maiuwadawa. 
parasite, n. (=a hanger on at 

others' tables) rtwikwarika. 
parch, tr. v. vurya; also soiya 

and suya. 
parched, particip. soiyaye or 

soiyeyey fern, soiyaya, pi. soi- 

yayu. 
pardon, n. gdfara and gaferta. 
pardon, tr, v. gdfara, yin ga/erta, 

yafe ; as a polite expr. T beg 

your p. = excuse* me gdfara or 

ka gdfara mani. 
parent, n. mahaifi, pi. mahaifa. 
parents, n. uwaye, iyaye ; cf. also 

prec. 
parrot, n. aku. 
part, n. rab(b)i, rabo or rabu, pi. 

raberibi, wari, shashi or sashi*, 

e.g. each of them shall receive 

his p. kowanenm zai samu 



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118 



pay 



rabonsa ; (= region) wcje, pi. 

WOSOslie*. 

part, tr. v. (- to separate) rab(b)i 
or rib(b)i* B S7, 58. 

parting, n. raba, e.g. on account 
of its p. from the world don 
rabanta da dunia C 29. 

partition, n. (i.e. wall) shamak(k)i, 
pi. 8hamak(k)ai. 

partner, n. kama*, pi. kanianu*. 

partridge, red-legged, n. makerua, 
fakara*. 

paschal lamb or ram, n. ragon 
laya. 

pass, v. wuche, wushe* or fuche ; 
to p. anyone on the path gochi 
or goche \ to p. the night kwana, 
kwanta, umni ; to p. away shude, 
shuda, shudi or shutse*, umche, 
wushe* or fuche, or fuchi*, 
lalachi, wulga, wulge or wurga; 
to p. by wulga, umlge or wurga, 
wuche, wushe* or fuche ; to p. 
over (= to cross) ketare, (= to 
skip words in book) ralsa*, 
chingara*. 

passer-by, rapid, n. sliawagi*. 

passing away, adj. (used of this 
world) maiata or mayctia D 85, 
F37. 

passionatenefes, n. har&ra*. 

passover, feast corresponding 
with, n. sal(l)an laya, 

past, the, n. (= former times) da, 
baya, e.g. the wars of the p. 
yakoki nadd; the things of the 
p. abubua nabaya; a thing p. 
abin baya, 

pastor, n. (= shepherd) makiyayi 
or makiayi, pi. makiyaya. 



pasture ground, n. tout-in, kiwo. 

pasture, v. tr. and intn (=to 
graze) hiwo. . 

patch, n. banke, shafi, fit(t)o. 

patch, tr. v. (of cloth, clothes) 
banke. 

path, n. turuba, pi. turubobi, 
hainya or hay a, pi. hainyoyi, 
tafariki t tafarki, tafarke or 
tafrika*, pi. tafarkoki, karam- 
ta ; a straight p. hainya sosai ; 
a narrow p. hainya maitsasi; 
fig. the p. of religion or con- 
duct Ikainya or tafariki 9 e.g. 
the paths of Mussulmans hain- 
yoyin musulmi E 18 ; they 
left the (right) p., they followed 
one that was crooked sun sau 
tafarki sun bi wanda ta fan- 
dare A 22. 

patience, n. hankuri, hankura or 
hakora ; a man of extraordinary 
p. rakumin aUah; to show p. 
(to be patient), yin or the 
forms ending in -na followed by 
hankuri, e.g. they have p. suna 
yin hankuri or suna hankuri. 

patient, 1. adj. (-calm, not fret- 
ful) da hankuri, maihankuri, 
pi. masuhankuri, da sainyin 
rai, sabiri* ; to be p. jimri, 
cf. prec. ; 2. n. (= a sick per- 
son) maraslafia*. 

pawpaw, n. i.e. both the tree and 
the fruit gonda or gwanda*. 

pay, n. lada, bia or biya, e.g. that 
is their p. ladansu ke nan. 

pay, tr. v. bia, rama, also used in 
the sense of requite and re- 
ward; to p. a debt bia (or 



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payment 



119 



perceive 



biya) fauhi; to p. a second 

time or over again kotontawa. 
payment, n. see pay. 
peaee, n. lafia (lit. safety, cf. also 

aminchi G 4), e.g. there is p. 

between us lafia tsakaninmu; 

you can travel in p. kana iya 

yin taffia da lafia ; p. of mind 

dadin zuchia; p. ! (a salutation) 

salam ! 
peace-maker, n. masakanehe. 
peak, n. kai, e.g. p. of a hill 

kain tudu; spec. p. of a saddle 

ktoochia; the front p. of a 

saddle kwochia gab(b)a ; its hind 

p. kwochia baya. 
peal, of thunder, n. teawa, cf. 

B 139. 
pearl, n. murfan* ; idon zaura (?) ; 

pearls coll. kwoin kifi. 
peck, tr. v. koto. 
peculiarity, n. (of animate beings) 

1wd(l)i, pi. hal(l)ai. 
peel, n. (of fruits, etc.) kosfa, 

kwosfa or kwasfa, pi. kosfofi 

or kwosfofi. 
peel, v. 1. tr. kware or kwari, 

bare, kankari, /ere*; 2. intr. 

to p. or p. off, as the skin 

from a blister soli, soli or 

8oale. 
peg, n. maratayi. 
pelican, n. kioasakioam, jin- 

jimitf). 
pelt, to, with, tr. v. e.g. to p. with 

stones je/a da duaUu. 
pen, n. 1. (for writing) alkalami, 

pL aUcalarnai) 2. (enclosure 

for sheep, etc.) garike, gerke, 

pi. garikima, gerkuna, turike, 



tuke, ruga, e.g. where shall I 
put my horse? put him in the 
cow p. enna ni sa dokina sashi 
(gariken or agariken or) chik- 
kin gariken shanu. 

pendant, stone, worn by women, 
n. talhatina, pi. talhatinu. 

pennisetum, n. p. distichum ka- 
rangia, karengia or karingia; 
p. typhoideum acha. 

people, n. mutane, pi. of mutum 
(in the sense of population and 
persons generally), e.g. the p. 
of Lingi mutanen lingi ; the 
p. whom they killed mutane 
da 8uka kasshe ; the p. of 
a town or tribe kauwi*; 
(= connections, relations, etc.) 
kibanta*; (= followers, congre- 
gation, etc.) alum(m)a* C 42, 
um(m)ata* E 3 at both places 
in connection with Moham- 
med. 

pepper, n. berkono^ of which a 
small kind is called berkono 
defu, a large berkono tatasai, 
yaji B 17; spec, a small p. 
tamka ; a small red p. chU(t)a, 
kol(t)e; fruit of large tree, 
ground, hot like p. kimba\ 
hot berries like p. masoro ; a 
bush producing a kind of p. 
chitafo. 

peradventure, adv. wotakila, 
hal(l)ama*. 

perceive, tr. v. 1. gen. (-to ap- 
prehend by the senses) ji ; to 
p. by sight gan(n)i; 2. (of com- 
prehending, understanding)/a- 
himta or fahumta, ji and also 



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perfect 



120 



physic 



san(n)i, e.g, do you p.? I do 

kafahimta. na/ahimta; to p. 

something wrong farga, e.g. I 

p. that you are cheating me 

na farga da kai. 
perfect, adj. ingatachi G 7 ; to be 

p. chik(k)a. 
perfect, tr. v. chik(k)a -, to be p. ; 

cf. prec. 
perforate, tr. v. fuda or huda, 

sosoke; cf. pierce, 
perforce, adv. tilas, da tilas, e.g. 

we had to go on board p. mun 

hawa bissa jirigi da tilas ; cf . 

force, 
perfume, n. see odour, 
perhaps, adv. wotakila, Jial(l)a- 

ma* t waushi*(T). 
peril, n. see danger, 
perish, intr. v. (to be spoiled, 

wasted or destroyed in any 

way) bata, bache, e.g. they p. 

together su bache tare B 139, 

lalachi, mache (machi*), riz~ 

bata, for the last three cf. 

B 101, 102; (=to die) mutu, 

ag. they perished of hunger 

sun mutu da yunwa. 
perished, participial adj. lala- 

tache, fern, lalatachia, pi. lala- 

tatu. 
perishing, participial n. lala- 

chewa. 
perjury, n. kapara; to commif p. 

(= to swear falsely) yia kapara. 
permanence, n. tabbata, tabbeta, 

tabbetaioa. 
permanent, adj. matabbata. 
permission, n. yerji or yerje, yer- 

da, e.g. grant me p. bani jerji ; 



by the p. of God da yerdan 
allah or bissa yerdan allah. 

permit, tr. v. see allow. 

perplex, tr. v. dame or dama, 

perplexed, to be, intr. v. damu ; 
one who is p. machiachi. 

perplexity, n. tinzera, 

persecute, tr. v. has(s)ada, wo- 
Jujdshe. 

persecutor, n. maihas(s)adi. 

person, n. mutum, pi. mutant, 
also (with or without mutum 
mutane*) woni or warn*, fern. 
wota, pL toonsu, wosu or too- 
dansu, e.g. some persons wo- 
damn mutane or wodansu; a 
certain p. who shall be name- 
less mutum kaza. 

perspiration, n. jib(b)i> gum(m)i, 
zufa. 

perspire, intr. v. jib(b)i, zufa. 

persuade, tr. v. lalashi or lilashi, 
bika, 

persuaded, particip. pass. (=sure 
or certain) is expressed by 
means of tabbata, san(n)i, etc., 
e.g. he was p. that... y a tab- 
bata... or ya. 8anni kuoarai... 
or ya yi babu shakka.... 

pervert, tr. v. (=to lead from 
truth or right) rude. 

perverted, part, pass, (= misled) 
rudade, fem. rudada, pi ru~ 
dadu ; to be p. rudu B 52. 

pestilence, n. aloba. 

pestle, large, n. kayan dakka; (of 
wood) tabaria, pi. tabare, 

physic, n. (= medicine) mdgani, 
pi. maganguna and magun- 
guna. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



physician 



121 



pit 



physician, n. maimdgani, pi. 
masumdgani. 

pick, tr. v, (= choose) zabe, zaba 
or zabi*; to p, a quarrel tona 
fad(d)a i zabe; to p, out pieces 
of dirt from cotton tsina, 
tsinche 9 isunche and tsinta; to 
Pt up ia\ 

picked, part. pass. (= chosen) 
zababe, feui. zababq, pi. za- 
babu. 

picking a thing off the ground, 
particip. n. tsintua, sintua*. 

picture, n. misali*, micliali*, 
karna* y pi. kamanu*; his p. 
misalinsa or kaniansa, 

piece, n. wari; small p. of any- 
thing chibiri or chibcur^guzura, 
pi. guzure, tarfi*, guntu; the 
last in phr. guntvn abu q.v. 

pieces, to tear to, tr. v. tsatsaga. 

pierce, tr. v. fuda or huda, fuji, 
soka, soke or soki, yin sakia; 
intensives, to p. many holes 
fufuji; to p. through sosoke. 

piercing, n. e.g. of the skin by 
an arrow sakia. 

pig, n. (domestic) gursuna or 
gurusunu, gado. 

pigeon, n. tantabara, tandabara, 
pi. tantabaru and tandabaru; 
large species of wood p. tan- 
ker ike; wild p. berdo, pi. ber- 
daye; a bird larger than p. 
with red rim round eyes hasbia 
or harbia. 

pike, n. (= spear) rnashi or maji, 
pi. masusuka. 

pile, n. (= heap) taru or taro, pi. 
tarori. 



pile up, tr. v, tara, tatara, had- 
(d)a ; pass, to be piled up an- 
had(d)a A 51. 

pilfer, v. sata, yin sata, sache or 
sache. 

pilferer, n. maisata. 

pilgrim, n. haji; pilgrims ma- 
hajta*, e.g. B 166 pilgrims 
I pray you wait a little while 
for me, let us go together 
muhajta ni ke roko ku yi mani 
jinkiri amuje tare, 

pilgrimage, n. haji; to go on 
the p. haji and taf(f)i haji, 
e.g. I have a strong desire to 
go on the p., to go to Medina, 
to visit the prophet guri gcvreni 
en taffi haji ni en je madina en 
yi ziarata. 

pill, n. chibiri* or chibari* f 

pillage, n. (= booty) abin kwacJie. 

pillage, tr. v. kwacJie, e.g. he 
conquered them, he pillaged 
their property ya chisu ya 
kwache dukiansu, 

pillar, n. gimshiki or gumshiki. 

pillow, n. matashin kai t 

pin, n, tsiko y pi. tsikuna, tsinki*. 

pincers, n. kwagua; small p. 
hansaki or . ansaki, madebin 
kaya*. 

pinch of, to take, v, tsakura or 
tsakara, guzura, 

pinch, tr. v, tsakura or tsakara, 
tsamki or tsumki. 

pinnacle, n, kokua. 

pipe, tobacco-, n. tukunian taba. 

pistol, n. akodi, akotia ; small p. 
algaderia*. 

pit, n. rami, pi. ramuna, ganwa ; 



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pitch 



122 



plague 



spec, a deep wide p. kangarma*; 
p. for cooking bread in tanda 
or tanderu ; p. for storing corn 
tsunjia; p. for game to fall into 
hak(k)o, pi. hak(k)oki; cesspit 
saiga, pi. salgagi; dye-p. ma~ 
rin(n)a, pi. marin(n)ai. 

pitch, tr. v. 1. (=cast, throw) 
jefa ; 2. spec, to p. a tent 
haj\f)a lema. 

pitcher, n. tulu, pi. tulina, tu- 
kunia, pi. tukane, also pro- 
nounced tukwane or tukuane, 
randa, pi. randuna. 

pitfall, n. hak(k)o, pi. hak(k)oki. 

pitiful, adj. (= compassionate) 
imani*, mitalafi*. 

pity, n. tausai also tausaye, sau- 
na*; to have or feel p. yin (or 
jin) tausai or tausaiye, jika* ; 
what a p. ! abin tausaiye. 

pity^ tr. v. cf. prec. 

place, n. wuri, pi. vuurare, woje, 
pi. wosashe*, big(e)ri* or bikri*; 
(= district, country) gari; an 
uninhabited p. dawa; in cir- 
cumlocution to supply the want 
of various special nouns and 
adjectives, e.g. a p. to flee to 
(= refuge) umrin gudu B 95, 
98, so also gid(d)a, e.g. p. or 
abode of pain giddan azaba 
B 24, cf. D 79, 85 ; a secret p. 
loloki asiri D 61 ; in that p. 
wuri nan, aururi nan, dag(g)a 
nan, e.g. there are many hippo- 
potami in that p. akwoi dorinai 
dayatva dagga nan; in p. of 
(= instead of), e.g. in his place 
gurubinsa, bigerinsa, wurinsa; 



the last also = at his p., i.e. near 
him, with him ; to give p. to 
(=to make room for) ras(s)i; 
to take p. faru. 

place, nouns of, these are formed 
by means of prefix mo-, e.g. 
hiding p. maboya, kitchen ma- 
daffa, inn mashid(d)i from bo- 
ya> daffa, shid(d)a respectively. 

place, tr. v. sa, sainya, e.g. they 
who placed it in front of their 
foreheads wodanda sunka sata 
gaban goshi B 110; p. this 
world behind you, p. the next 
world before your forehead ku 
sainya duniaka a baianka hi 
sainya lahiralka gaban goshi 
B 51 ; aje denotes also to 
place aside; dora also fre- 
quently in the sense of placing 
on, e.g. he placed me on the 
camel ya dorani (bayan ga or) 
bissa ga rakumi ; je/o* found 
in pass.,, e.g. they shall be 
placed aje/o F 140; spec, to 
p. in the earth (as the locust 
its eggs) turubude; to p. on 
the ground (e.g. a load) jib(b)e, 
kas(s)a; to p. together (e.g. for 
the purpose of comparison) 
kotanchi or ktvatanchi. 

placing, of a thing, participial n. 
saatoa*. 

plague, n. 1. (= pestilential dis- 
ease) aloba, also (of both men 
and cattle) rangaz(z)a* ; i he 
caught the p.* turn by ' the p. 
caught him' aloba ta kamashi 
(or sameshi) ; 2. (= a provi- 
dential visitation) azaba*; 3. 



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plague 



123 



playing 



(= an annoyance) alale, wo- 
hal(l)a> 

plague, tr. v. (= to vex) wohafolie ; 
cf. annoy* 

plain, n. JUi, pi. jilaye, 8ar(r)ari, 
karikara or karkara, pi. kar~ 
karori and karkaroni, konga or 
kanga; the battle p. kangan 
fad(d)a; a wide p. batata or 
bayala*. 

plain, adj. (of language simple 
and open) 8ar(r)ari and asar- 
(r)«W, these words also = 
plainly. m 

plainly, adv. cf. prec. 

plait, tr. v. tubka, trtfka or tupka, 
ki8(8)o, yin &w(«)o. 

plaiting, of hair, n. doka, kis(s)o ; 
p. of hair in two lines jaki; 
hasty p. of woman's hair kum- 
buchi. 

plaits, coll. n. (of woman's hair) 
bijaji. 

plan, n. (= scheme, device) wayo 
and waya. 

plank, n. faskari, gungume, pi. 
gungumai, rumpa, pi. rum- 
funa. 

planks, to make into, v. yin 
faskari. 

plant, tr. v. 1. (=to set or sow in 
the ground) shipka or shuka, 
yin shipka, dessa the last of 
planting trees ; 2. (= to set or 
place) 8a, e.g. there was no 
place to p. our footsteps babu 
wurinda mu 8a matakai bissa. 

plant, n. special names of plants, 
most of which are not as yet 
identified : an aquatic p. shalla; 



p. from which a scent is pro- , 
cured jiji; p. from which 
native ropes are made ramma; 
a p. the leaves of which are 
used as medicine raidore; a 
leguminous p. zamarke ; a me- 
dicinal p. (senna?) filasko ; a 
p. resembling a tomato gauta, 
pi. gautaye; a p. with edible 
root mvrmirto; a p. with red 
flower and poisonous nut chini 
da vugu. 

plantain, n. ayaba applied both 
to tree and fruit, also used to 
denote the banana. 

planter, n. manomi and rnonomi, 
pi. monorna. 

planting, of seeds, n. biso. 

plants, small, coll. n. shipka or 
ghuka. 

plaster, tr. v. (of walls etc.) yabe. 

plastered, participial adj. yababe, 
fern, yababa, pi. yababu. 

plate, n. (flat plates are not used 
by the Hausas) see dish. 

play, n. (=the doing of anything 
for amusement) worigi, ge- 
auga* ; hail to you at your p. 
(salutation to persons at p.) 
sannunku da worigi. 

play, v. (of sport, amusement) yin 
worigi; (of music) yin wasa, 
yin kiddi; the last particularly 
applied to instruments struck 
or beaten. 

player, on drum, n. makiddi; 
spec. p. on the kalango drum 
kuntukuro. 

playing, n. (of amusement) ivo- 
rigi, geauga* ; (of music and 



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plaything 



124 



poison 



9 especially drumming) kidda or 
' kiddi, molo, pi. nwluna. 

plaything, n. abin worigi; spec, 
p. made from a seed pod kacho- 
kaeho. 

pleasant, adj, maidadi, da dadi. 

please, tr. v. sa dadi y gam(m)a 
and gamshe, e.g. it pleases me 
ya gam(m)ani and ya gam- 
sheni \ p. (elliptical = if you 
p.) mana, e.g. come here, p. 
zo mana; p. (i.e. allow me) 
beri. 

pleased, to feel, intr. v. jin dadi, 

pleasure, n. (= agreeable sensa- 
tion or emotion) dadi, nima; 
(a gratification) abin dadi, abin 
murna. 

pledge, n. jingina or jinjina ; p. 
held for money owing ha- 
mua*. 

pledge, tr. v. (= to leave anything 
as a j>.) jingina or jinjina. 

Pleiades, pr. n. tarsoa. 

plentifully, adv. tari. 

plenty, n. yawa, dayawa, kar(r}i, 
tori, tululu, e.g. p. of words 
yawan magana or magana da- 
yawa; p. to eat zari, anchia*; 
there shall be a p. to eat, 
do ye hear anchiar tari ku ji 
D 57. 

plot, n. wayo, way a) to form a 
p. gam(m)a. 

plough, n. spec, large hoe bent 
back like a small p. galnia or 
garma. 

plover, kind of, n. danraguwa. 

pluck, tr. v. chira, chire, chiro or 
tsira, tsire, tsiro; (to p. fruit 



etc.) tsinki, tsunke, tsinko ; (to 
p. a iov/\)fige or figi. 

plum, sort of, n. gawasa, pi. ga- 
wasai, gawasuna and gawa- 
soshi. 

plunder, n. abin kwache, kwache 
or kwashe. 

plunder, tr, v. kwache or kwaslie. 

plunge, v. 1. tr. (= immerse) tsoma 
soma* or zoma*, nuche; 2. intr. 
fadiy e.g. he leaped plunging 
headlong into the water ya 
tuma yana fadi da gangara 
chikkin ma ; see also dive. 

plural, n. (grammatical term) da- 
yawa, e.g. ' doki is singular, da- 
waki is p.' doki daia dawaki 
dayawa. 

pocket, n. aljifi or aljifa, pi. al- 
jifu or aljifuna. 

pod, n. (of nuts, beans etc.) kobsa, 
kopsa or kobso. 

poem, n. (in the sense of metrical 
composition, song) waka; to 
compose a p. id, e.g. Malam 
Derhu sits there composing 
his poems malam derhu shina 
zamne shina waka. 

poet, n. maiwaka. 

point, n. kokua*, tsini*; points 
above or below letters wasali. 

point, out, tr, v. nuna or nuni, 
god(d)a or goda, e.g. before he 
could p. it out I saw it myself 
tun ba ya nuna mani ni na 
ganta da kaina ; (in the sense 
of explain, make clear) gaya. 

pointed, adj. tsini or zini, da 
tsini. 

poison, n. def(f)i or da/(/)i (for 



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poisoned 



125 



possess 



arrows, of snakes etc.), e.g. 
snakes pour forth p. machi- 
zai deffi 'su ka bungulawa 
F 190; mdgani, pi. maganguna 
and magunguna; p. given in 
food 8ammu or sammo, kwa- 
riche ; p. for arrows uuxd deffi, 
zabgai ; p. for mice etc. madat 
or madas; a tree from the 
juice of which a p. for arrows 
is made tumia or tinia. 
poisoned, participial adj. da def- 

poisonous, adj. cf. prec. ; spec, a 
p. plant guba q. v.; a plant 
with p. nut chini da zugu; a 
p. tree zangarami*. 

pole, n. gumshiki or gimshiki 
which also = middle supporting 
p. of house ; p. of tent tankari ; 
poles used in supporting a tent 
coll. shikashiki, pi. shikashikai) 
cf . post. 

polish, tr. v. gogi or goge. 

pollute, tr. v. yin haram, ka- 
samta, kazamta. 

polluted, adj. janaba, kazami. 

pollution, n. 1. gen, kazamta \ 
2. ( = religious or ceremonial 
unclean ness) Jtaram, abin ha- 
ram. 

pomegranate, n. rimmani. 

pommel, n. (of a saddle) see 
peak. 

pommel, tr. v. (- to beat) buga, 
bubuga, cf . beat. 

pomp, n. sitira or mtura. 

pond, u. a small p. gebe ; a large 
stagnant p. bingi, kurdu- 
dv/{f)i y kududuj\f)i or kun- 



duduj(f)i, tapki* ; spec, the p. 
of Paradise kundumi; we shall 
be brought to the p. of the 
prophet, we shall drink and 
wash akaimu kundumi ya ra- 
8ulu mu sha mu wanka D 76 ; 
cf . pool 

pony, n. kuru and doki kuru. 

pool, n. tabki, tapki or tafki, rqfi, 
pi. ra/una or rafafuka, fa- 
dama; cf. pond. 

poor, adj. talaka, pi. talakatva, 
makaskachiy pi. makaskasta. 

poor person, a, n. talaka, mai- 
talaka, mait8ia> majinachi*. 

porch, n. shigi/a or 8hegifa> pi. 
shigifu and shigifqfi, katanga; 
spec, a small p. shirai; a p. 
with double entrance zaure, 
pi. zauruka. 

porcupine, n. begua, makibia 
(lit. possessor of arrows). 

porridge, n. fura; spec. p. of 
guinea-corn and rice suruki ; 
p. of beans, guinea-corn or 
(in N. Africa) macaroni tvasa- 
wasa; p. was made for them 
and they took it anyi masa 
fura sunka sha. 

porter, n. see carrier. 

portion, n. rabo or rabu, pi. rabe- 
ribi; a p. (when one of two 
or more portions) slutshi or 
sashi*. 

possess, tr. v. this idea is ex- 
pressed : 1. by the pronominal 
forms ending in na with c/a, 
e.g. I possess much money ina 
da kurdi dayawa\ 2. by ke 
with da, e.g. all the property 



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possession 



126 



pouring 



that you p. dukia duka da ku 
ke da; 3. by the prep, ga (with 
pronouns gave) = is to or be- 
longs to, e.g. he possesses no 
money babu kurdi gareshi ; he 
will p. no power of resistance 
ba makawa gave (= gareshi) 
D 24. 

possession, n. 1. abstr. e.g. to 
gain p. of a kingdom chin 
sarota; not to be in p. of a 
thing ra8(8)a; 2. concr. pi. 
possessions dukia, samu*, e.g. 
thy possessions dukiaka B 145 ; 
the world and its possessions 
dunia hal samunta B 106. 

possessor, n. maiabu connective 
maiabin, maiohi; the idea is 
often expressed by the prefix 
mai-, e.g. the p. of a farm, a 
boat, maigona, maijirigi ; the 
p of a horse maidoki E 8. 

possibly, adv. see perhaps. 

post, n. (of door) kobrin kqfa, 
hako*; p. for supporting roof 
jigo, pi. jiguna. 

posterior, adj. (both of time and 
space) baia or baya, nabaya, 
fern, tabaya, e.g. the p. limbs 
gab(b)obin baya or gab{b)obi 
nabaya. 

postpone, tr. v./dsa, cf. delay. 

postponing, particip. n Jdsa- 
wa. 

pot, n. (of earth or iron) tukunia, 
pi. tukane, tuhwane and tu- 
kuane, a sing. coll. tukumya 
A 84 ; earthen p. karifi or 
karipi ; large earthen p. randa, 
pi. randuna; large earthen p. 



used as oven tanda or tandem ; 
water p. tulu> pi. tulina. 

potato, sweet, n. dankali ; various 
species are : gwaza or gaza, pi. 
gwazuna and givazoyi,kudaku; 
a white species lauer. 

potent, adj . isheshe, f era . ishashia, 
pi. i&hasu ; cf . powerful 

potter, n. maitukunia, pi. ma&u- 
tukunia, maiyimbu*. 

pouch, n. tumbiy pi. tumbuna, a 
sort of leathern p. sabira* ; p. 
or crop of a bird niaroro or 
rnalolo. 

poultry, n. kaji, pi. of kaza or 
kasa* fowl. 

pound, n (of 12 ounces) rofel*, 
sometimes pronounced rotli. 

pound, tr. v. dandaka or den- 
daki. 

pour, v. tr. and intr. (=also to 
pour out, down, off, away, etc.) 
zub(b)a, zub(b)o or suba* ; tr. 
only zub(b)a8, zubasda and 
zubda % e.g. I poured out every 
drop of it na zubasdashi babu 
kingiy intr. only zubu, e.g. the 
rain is j>ouring or pours down 
rua ya zubu) p. forth bungu- 
latoa* F 190; to p. out (or 
scatter) tsiayi ; to p. out grain 
so that chaff may blow away 
shrka ; to p. over (= overflow) 
intr. tuda or tude, tr. tudas. 

poured, to be p. out like, wheat 
through a sieve or like water, 
intr. v. tarara. 

pouring, participial n. zubuwa or 
zubuvja; used also with pres. 
forms in na, e.g. they are p. 



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pout the lips at 



127 



pray 



out suna zubuwO) in an intr. 
sense. 

pout the lips at, to, v. (in deri- 
sion) zunde. and yin zunde. 

poverty, n. talauchi, tsia, machia- 
chi. 

powder, n. (= gunpowder) albarus 
or albarud. 

powder, tr. v. (= to reduce to p.) 
dadaga. 

power, n. 1. (= faculty of doing 
or causing anything) iko, pi. 
ikoki, e.g. we pray that our 
Lord may give us p., that we 
may rise up amongst all the 
followers of Abd-el-Kadr mu 
roki ubangizinmu shi bamu 
iko mu tashi ski kin jama 1 a 
alkadiraiva E 31; yi (Sokoto), 
e«g- by the power of God da 
yin cdlah - da ikon allah ; 2. 
(= great p., bodily or material 
strength) karifi or karfi, pi. 
karqfa or karifuna ; 3. (= po- 
litical or social p., authority, 
influence) hdkumi ; 4. (= sur- 
passing p., excellence) fiko. 

powerful, adj. 1. gen. isheahe, 
fern, isltashia, pi. is/iasu, maiiko, 
e.g. let us fear the meeting 
with Him who is p. over all 
mu tsarshi gamu da maiiko da 
kowa; 2. (cf. prec. 2.) mai- 
karifi, pi. masukarifi, e.g. a 
p. man mutum maikarifi; 3. 
spec, applied to God kaderi 
A 59 ; cf. mighty. 

powerfully, adv. da karifi. 

practice, n. sabo, e.g. no work in 
the world can be accomplished 



except by p. aikin duniaduka 
sai sabo; (= customary pro- 
cedure) ada y tada, alada. 

practised, be, intr. v. saba, e.g. 
I am p. in this na saba da 
wonan. 

praise, n. yab(b)o, kirari, the last 
also = self -p. ; (of praising God) 
shukra, tasbaha*, subhana B 1. 

praise, tr. *v. yab(b)o, yab(b)a, 
shukra ; yin yab(b)o and yin 
kirari F 240 ; also expressed 
by nouns of prec. with the 
present forms in na, e.g. I 
praise thee ina yabonka £ 21 ; 
cf. ina shukra B 172, kuna 
tasbaha D 26. 

praised, particip. adj. yeb(b)abe, 
fem. yeb(b)aba, pi. yeb(b)abu. 

pray, tr. v. (whether of prayers 
to God or requests to men) 
roko, roko, roka, roke; con- 
strued with an ace. of the 
person B 4 or with ga (before 
pronouns gave) B 155, 156; the 
thing asked is expressed either 
by the ace, e.g. I p. our Lord 
for that which I seek and for 
my needs ubangijinmu ni ke 
roko komi ni ke bida dabukatata 
or by a dependent clause, e.g. 
we p. to the Lord, if we start, 
that we may obtain provision 
for our journey from the 
heathen mu roki ubangizi izan 
muria tashi mu yi guzwri da 
asna E 34 ; intr. v. in a religious 
sense only addua, e.g. I p. ina 
addua B 172 ; yin addua D 2, 
yin sal(l)a also with na T> 22, 



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prayer 



128 



presser 



zikri or zifdr B 88, C 37 ; to 
p. for a person sal(l)ashe* or 
sallashe* F 92. 

prayer, n. addua, sal(l)a, asmlatu 
or asscdati ; the last also spec. 
= call to p. at early dawn, call 
to p. circ. 4 p.m. azuhur or 
tsohor; the man who calls to 
p. lada* ; leader in p. limam*, 
pi. limami; prayers said by a 
mallam at a funeral alfatia; 
time of p. about 10 a.m. wollata. 

prays, one who, n. maisal{l)ati. 

preach, v. wa'atsi* and wcfatsu, 
colloquially wazi and wazu, 
yin wa l atsi or yin toazi t etc. 

preaching, n. wa'atsi, wa l atsu, 
waz% wazu. 

precious, adj. (= costly) da tsada. 

prefer, tr. v. fis(s)o, e.g. we p. 
mutton to beef mu fisso naman 
rago ya fi nainan shanu; I 
p. this to that na fisso tvanan 
da toancfia?i. 

preferable, to be, intr. v. see 
better, 1. 

pregnant, adj. da chik(k)i. 

preparation, n. shiri, shiriwa, 
tatcdi or taltali; he makes p. 
ya yi shiri ya yi tatali D 86 ; 
jajebbera, in a religious sense, 
e.g. ranan jajebbera = day of 
p., i.e. day before any feast. 

prepare, tr. v. gen. gara, gara, 
'gira or gera, e.g. to p. a way 
gera hainya, gerta ; shiria and 
yin shiri express to p. for a 
journey, for the pilgrimage and 
(fig.) for the world to come; 
cf. D 80, 89, E 29 ; used in 



the intensive form = p. dili- 
gently shir shiria B 114 ; to p. 
food^efa or fide; exclam. phr. 
p. ! ka watane*. 

prepared, particip. form shvri.yaye f 
fem. shiriyaya, pi. shiriyayii ; 
those who are p. masushi- 
ria. 

present, n. keauta, e.g. I made 
him & p. na yi masa keauta, 
abin gaisua, tsaraba, kaiwa; 
the last especially of a p. made 
to a king ; spec, a fee paid for 
bringing a p. talcichi ; wife's 
marriage presents to bride- 
groom gdra. 

presently, adv. (= soon after the 
present time) yanzu yanzu; 
(= immediately) nan da nan, 

preserve, tr. v. kiyaye; in a 
looser sense chira, q.v. ; may 
God p. us allah shi samu 
chirwro D 74 ; to p. from 
sit{t)ira or sutura, e.g. may 
God p. us from the works of 
the evil spirit allah shi muna 
sutura da aikokin ebliz, 

president of the market, n. 
surikin kasua. 

press, tr. v. taus/ie or tausa, mache, 
rnachi or matse, damfare, dan- 
kira* ; to p. down tawaya or 
tautvi, dunde, e.g. a little new 
grass is brought and pressed 
down akatvo dan Jiaki adunde 
F95. 

pressed, particip. adj. tauskeshe, 
fem. tausheshia, pi. tauslietu. 

presser, n. instr. mataushi found, 
e.g. in mata/ushin kqfa — a piece 



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pressing 



129 



produce 



of wood to keep a door closed, 
mataushin wotika = signet. 

pressing, particip. n. taushewa. 

pretend, v. maicla kansa, ria*. 

prevail over, v. rinjayi or rin- 
jat/a ; also expressed by means 
of fi, e.g. I prevailed over the 
man na rinjaya mutum = nafi 
miUum da karifi or mutum 
na fi karifinsa. 

prevent, tr. v. han(n)a, tankosa 
or tankwas(8)a, dakile, tare*; 
to p. a person's leaving hume, 
e.g. I prevented his leaving na 
humeshi. 

previous, adj. nqfari, fern, tafari ; 
(if the time be long p.) nadd, 
e.g. p. time or«age lokachindd; 
men of p. ages mutane nadd or 
mutanen da. 

previously, adv. dqfari, e.g. why 
did you not tell me this p. ? 
domi ba ka faddi mani nan 
dafari. 

prey, n. 1. see booty; 2. (=food 
of an animal of p.) nama, e.g. 
the lion catches and eats deer 
and cows, that is his pr. zaki 
ya (kasshe or) kama bareyi da 
shanu ya chisu namansa ke 
nan. 

price, n. kurdi, antaya t tamani*, 
haki*, e.g. what is its p. ? 
hurdinsa nawa or nawa an- 
taya, its p. is three Spanish 
dollars kurdinsa (or taman- 
insa) bu madafa nku ; name 
its p. ba shi mna ; to fix a p. 
for kawama*, e.g. their goods 
shall be gathered together and 

R. II. 



their p. fixed agangama duki- 
ansu akawamata E 7. 

prick, tr. v. 8oka> soke- or soki; to 
p. much (intens.) smoke. 

prickle, n. (on grass, etc.) kaya, 
pi. kayayua. 

pride, n. foma, tama t girmankai 
E 25, tashinkai y jinkai* 9 /adin 
zuchia,fadin rai, guri 9 /ahari 
or fahri, e.g. leave off p. ku 
berfahri D 35. 

prince, n. amiru* \ (— son of a 
king) maina*, dan sariki; 
princes sarakuna. 

prison, n. kurkuku. 

procession, n. jera, jere or jire ; 
spec, a royal p. banga banga or 
bunga bunga t an annual p., 
with a sacrifice, in the direction 
of Mecca idi q.v. 

proclaim, v. 1. (=to make an 
official announcement or order) 
yin shela ; 2. gen. (= to an- 
nounce or publish) laberta, 
haberta* ; 3. spec, to p. the 
end of the fast yin gangamin 
azumi. 

proclamation, n. 1. (=an official 
public announcement or order) 
shela; 2. (= deliverance of re- 
ligious or moral instruction) 
wa'atet, wa'atsu, wazi or wazu. 

procrastinate, v. see delay. 

procreate, v. (=to generate and 
also to produce) haife or haife. 

procure, tr. v. 8ame f sama*, samo 
and 8antu. 

produce, n. cf . obtain, dia or diya, 
yaya. 

produce, tr. v. to p. young or fruit 

9 



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profanely 



130 



proper 



haife or haife; to p. fear ba (or 
bada) tsoro; to p. evidence kai 
(or kaw'o) shaida. 

profanely, to act, v. e.g. he acted 
p. ya yi suabon allah. 

profess, tr. v. (a religion) e.g. he 
professed heathenism ya maida 
addinin (asna or) arna. 

profession, n. (of an art or craft) 
gon(n)i ; the termination -chi 
is often used to denote a 
person's p., e.g. the p. of a 
boka = bokanchi, the p. of a 
mallam = mallamchi. 

profit, n. (both lawful and un- 
lawful) kura, riba; unlawful 
p. hardmia; to make a p. 
chin riba\ a man who sells a 
second time at a p. maisari; 
men who make unlawful p. 
masuriba da kura F 201. 

profitable, to be, v. yin moria*. 

profligate, n. a p. asheggi; a p. 
m&n fasiki or fasiki> 'pl./asikai, 
maiyin zina, maizina, pi. ma- 
mzina; a p. woman fasika and 
Jarika. 

profligate, adj. slieg(g)e or shege ; 
to be p. yin zina, 

prohibition is expressed by 
kad\d)a or kad\d)a* y also by 
kad(d)adaiy the former is some- 
times reduced to kal y e.g. do 
not hinder them kadda ka 
hannasu or kal ka Jiannasu, 
let her not be heard kaddadai 
ajita A 29. 

prohibition, n. doka*. 

prolong, tr. and intr. v. daa\d)i 
also pron. deddi, tsawo, wanzu 



and wonzu*, e.g. may God p« 
youHife allah shi deddi rainka; 
impers. we prolonged our stay 
here mu zamna nan ya deddi ; 
the last idea can be expr. by 
deddi alone in personal constr., 
e.g. I prolonged my stay in 
Tripoli to four months na 
deddi ga tarabvlus toata fudu ; 
pres. form ina dad(d)ewa. 

promenade, intr. v. yawo, also 
pronounced yao, yin yatvo, 
shutoaki. 

promise, n. alkawcli ; to make a 
p. yin alkatoeli ; to break a p. 
saki and warwari alk. ; to keep 
a p. chik{k)a alk. 6 22 ; chik- 
(k)a magana, kama magana. 

promise, v. yin baki, yin magana 
daia; spec. O Thou who pro- 
misest that which is true 
mawa i adu ka hakk F 131. 

pronounce, v. (= to declare open- 
ly or positively) see declare. 

pronunciation, n. halshi or har- 
8hi, pi. ludshina. 

proof, n. shaida** to adduce p. 
kai or kawo shaida ; p. (e.g. 
from the Koran) in support of 
conduct or statement dalili ; 
cf. F 19, 21, 138, <kc. 

prop, n. madogara, tnakari; cf. 
bar. 

prop oneself up by, to, v. dogare. 

propagate, tr. v. (= to have 
young) haife or haife, haife 
dia. 

propel, tr. v., e.g. a canoe tun- 
kuda. 

proper, adj. nakwarai, fem. taJc- 



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131 



proudly 



warai, halal, Kolas or hallata*, 
808ai, daidai ; that which is p. 
mwaba* or sawabe. 

properly, adv. kwarai, daidai. 

property, n. (= one's goods, riches) 
dukiya or dukia, pi. dukoki 
and dukiyoyi ; a man of p. 
maidukia, maiabin dukia, mu- 
tum da dukia dayawa, less 
strictly (= rich) maiwadachi 
and maiwadata. 

prophecy, n. annabanchi, wali- 
anchi. 

prophesy, v. yin annabanchi. 

prophet, n. annabi, pi. awwt- 
ftowa, e.g. behold the prophets, 
there is not one (left) ka duba 
annabawa babu kowa ; the of- 
fice of a p. annabanchi. 

proprietor, n. gen. (= owner) 
maiabuy conn, maiabin, mai- 
chi; (— house owner) ubangiji; 
see under mai. 

propriety, n. halachi*. 

prosper, v. 1. tr. ba (or bada) 
arziki, e.g. may God p. you 
allah ski baku arziki; 2. intr. 
see prosperous. 

prosperity, n. arziki, abki or 
auki, katerta*, yalwata, bi- 
jinta, lafafa*, e.g. days of p. 
kwana lafafa B 46; he has 
enjoyed p. ya aha rua ; he has 
enjoyed p. in this world ya 
aha dunia. 

prosperous, adj. da arziki, mai- 
arziki, maikaterta ; he is p. 
ya yi bijinta ; he shall not be 
p. ba ayi maaa arziki ba 
D23. 



prostitute, n. karua, karma*, 
kortua (=fem. of korto). 

prostrate oneself, to, v. yin affi, 
kaf(f)a goahi, gurufani and 
yin gurufani", (of prostration 
in worship) yin (aajada or) au- 
juda, also with na, e.g. follow 
after God, p. yourselves before 
Him ku bi allah kuna aajada 
I) 34 ; he will p. himself in 
the presence of the King ahina 
sujuda enda zati F 132. 

prostrate, to be, v. rubda (or 
rufda) chik(k)i P 192. 

prostration, n. (i.e. in prayer) 
rak(k)a. 

protect, tr. v. iaara, taari, taare, 
taaro and taarima*, e.g. do 
Thou guard my mother ka 
tsar a uwana C 41. 

protection, n. lamuni*, amana*. 

protector, n. (= defender) mai 
taimako ; spec, applied to Mo- 
hammed aliafiSi, e.g. for he is 
the p. of sinners zama ahi ne 
ahafi^u al-muznibina F 129. 

protopterus, n: (mud-fish) gaiwa; 
the noise made by the p. chi- 
umki. 

proud, adj. maigirmankai, pi. 
maaugirmankai F 167, da gir- 
mankai, maigirima, maifoma, 
mayenka; cf. seq. 

proud, to be, kaaaita, guri, 
faria*, the last also applied 
to the purse-p. 

proudly, adv. da gir mankai \ to 
look p. on hardra ; to speak p. 
yin raha ; to treat p. toma* or 
tomo* ; to walk p. takama ; 

9—2 



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prove 



132 



pumpkin 



one who walks p. maitaka- 
ma. 

prove, tr. v. (=to establish the 
truth of anything) gaskata or 
gaskanta ; (= to evidence by 
testimony of any kind) kai (or 
kawo) shaida; (by exposition 
or argument) ga%a> nuna or 
nuni. 

proved, particip. (= attested, cer- 
tified) shaidade, fern, shaidada, 
pi. 8haidadu. 

provide, v. (= to make provision) 
see provision. 

provided that, conj. fache* ; as 
this conj. differs from 'if' by 
the stress laid on the condition 
it is expressed by adding em- 
phatic particles dai } fa to en, 
idan> izan, e.g. p. that thou 
art a believer thou wilt answer 
and the joy of the Lord will 
fill the whole tomb izan clai 
mumini ka ka kai jawaba fa 
nima er-rabbu ta shika du 
kushewa F 102, en dai F 73, 
idan fa F 120. 

provision, n. provisions for a 
journey guzuri', to make or 
obtain p. yin guzuri; 1. liter- 
ally, e.g. we obtain p. for the 
journey from the heathen mu 
yi guzuri da asna E 34; 2. fig. 
of p. for the next world, e.g. 
repent, seek p. for the way 
that thou mayest prepare to 
make a journey ka tuba ka 
_ _^ nemi guzuri don ka shiria 
L^^ yinin taffia F 67. 
^^ /provoke, tr. v. e.g. I provoked 



him to battle na teokana yaki ; 
I was provoked at this saying 
naji fushi da magana nan. 

proximo, adv. {= next month) 
watan gobe. 

prudence, n. hankali or hankali. 

prudent, adj. maihankali, pi. ma- 
suhankali. 

prudently, adv. da hankali. 

Psalms, n. zabura*. 

puberty, one who has reached, n. 
balagaga, pi. balagagu. 

puberty, to reach, intr. v. ba- 
laga*. 

publish, tr. v. (i.e. to p. a thing 
or news of a thing) laberta, 
haberla*. 

pudenda, n. alaura* A 30. 

puerility, n. hal(l)in yaro. 

pull, tr. v. ja, jaka; to p. out 
chiray chire, chiro, teira, teire, 
UirOj fit(t)a, fit{t)as or fit(t)o8- 
da f fu8ge ovfUge, e.g. he pulled 
a pistol out of his pocket ya 
fittasda akodi dagga alji/insa; 
to p. out (as a hair, grains 
from a stalk) Uefe, (as roots) 
tona or tone, pres. tonewa, e.g. 
he is pulling out (or up) the 
roots of the tree ahina tonewa 
saiwan itache; to p. towards 
oneself jawo ; to p. in towards 
oneself miko. 

pulled down, to be, pass. v. 
yamut8e or yamutsi. 

pumping beam, n. kutara* D 16. 

pumpkin, n. names of different 
species are : large garden p. 
(cucurbita pepo) kabetoa; a 
smaller p., used in mia, ku- 



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punish 



133 



python 



bewa; a p. grown on houses 
goji; a p. not eaten, used for 
making water pots duma. 

punish, tr. v. falasa, palasa or 
palashe, foroy e.g. ye shall be 
punished anaforonku E 22; yin 
ivo?ial(l)a. 

punishment, n. falasa or palasa, 
azdba. 

pup, n. kwikuyon kar(r)e, pi. 
kwihiyen kar(r)e. 

pupil, n. 1. (= a youthful scholar, 
school-boy) dan makaranta, pi. 
yan makaranta, yaron (pi. ya- 
ran) makaranta; (of adults 
and spec, those of a religious 
teacher = disciples) almajiri, 
fern, almajira, pi. almajirai 
B 134 ; 2. (of the eye) ijia, 
ijian ido 9 matsokachin ido. 

puppy, n. see pup. 

purchase, tr. v. see buy. 

pure, adj. 1. (in a material sense) 
tsari or chart, tsalka or tea- 
tsalka, e.g. p. wheat, i.e. clean, 
in good condition alkam{m)a 
tsari, (of metals = unalloyed) 
safi or sa/h, e.g. p. silver azur- 
fa safi = azur/a babu haiinchi ; 
p. (i.e. genuine) money kurdi 
zaba, (= simply) tsaba and tscd- 
(l)a, e.g. p. and simple cowries, 
i.e. nothing but cowries tsahan 
kurdi; 2. (in a ceremonial or 
moral sense) tsari, chari, tsa- 
riki and tsarki, halal, kolas or 
hallata* ; p. in heart imani*. 

purgative medicine, n. maganin 
zawo, maganin gudund-aji. 

purification, n. esp. ceremonial 



p. Ualka or tsatsalka y lullo and 
allowa. 

purify, tr. v. tsarikake (charikake), 
tsarkaka or tsarkaki; he puri- 
fied (the water) by straining ya 
yishi da kyau, lit. he made it 
right. 

purity, n. tsar(i)ki, tsarki or 
chariki, halachi. 

purloin, tr. v. see steal. 

purpose, on, adv. ganga, daganga 
or dagangan ; to no p. banna. 

pursue, tr. v. (as in war) rakaso 
or rukaso; he pursued his way 
ya kama hainya. 

push, tr. v. tuka, iza, dam/are, 
the last of pushing so as to 
cause one to stumble; to p. 
along ture; to p. aside tun- 
kiida ; to p. back mayes ; to p. 
down ture; to p. into water 
gangante. 

pustule, n. (=- boil) kurji, pi. 
kuraji, kureji, pi. kwrareji q.v. 

put, tr. v. sa, sainya or sanya, 
aje ; to p. aside (= cease from) 
sa, e.g. let us p. aside quarrel- 
ling mu sa kankanche B 83, 
(= to lay up) aje ; to p. away 
kauda, kawas; to p. on (of 
clothes, etc.) sa, ejg. fetters 
and leg-irons of fire shall be 
p. on them asa masu sasari na 
wida da malwa F 186 ; they 
shall p. on garments of silk 
su sa kuma rigunansu na 
aUtarini F 217 ; to p. together 
tara. ♦ 

puzzle, tr. v. see perplex. 

python* n. niaissa, mesa or misa. 



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quack 



134 



quicksilver 



quack, n. (a pretender to medical 
science) boka, pi. bokaye. 

quackery, n. bokanchi ; cf. prec. 

quake, intr. v. see tremble. 

qualm, n. 1. (= feeling of nausea) 
kumolo; to feel such jin 
kumolo; 2. (a conscientious 
scruple or hesitation) kumia; 
to feel such jin kumia. 

quantity, n. (= an amount of 
anything) mashasha* ; a large 
q. gugu or gugi, e.g. a large q. 
of sand gugin rairai, jibgi, the 
last esp. of food; yawa, ya- 
wanchi, also dayawa, e.g. his 
discourse was nothing but a 
great q. of words wa'atsinsa 
sai yawan magana, taro or 
torn, pi. tarori; cf. much. 

quarrel, n. fusuma, jaiya*; cf. 
seq. and sab(b)abi 2. 

quarrel, intr. v. yin jaiya, kan- 
kani, yin kankanchi ; to q. 
with yin kcmkanchi da, raina ; 
in the sense of to angrily 
maintain opposite opinions 
gerdama with the forms in 
na or with yi ; fad(d)a (lit. to 
fight) is also freely used = to 
q.; cf. seq. 

quarrelsome, adj. turn by tarika, 
e.g. he is q. ya tarika fadda. 

quarrelsomeness, n. mugun 
gashi. 

quarter, n. 1. (=one fourth part) 
rubui; 2. (= division in a 
town) shia or shiya, pi. shiyoyi, 
ungua, pi. unguai and (Sokoto) 
unguni; cf. seq. 

quarters, n. (= place of stay, 



lodging) masabki or masapki, 
mazamne, also loosely umri, 
e.g. the commander's quarters 
mazamnen sariki. 

quash, tr. v. (= make void) wofinta. 

queen, n. 1. (= a female sovereign) 
8araunia ; 2. (= king's wife) 
maian sariki. 

quench, tr. v. (=to put out a 
light or fire) ka(s)she (lit. 
kill), kufuli* ; pass, to be 
quenched (=to go out) mutu, 
e.g. the fire is quenched wmta 
ta mutu. 

query, n. v. seq. 

question, n. tambaya or tambaia, 
binchik(k)i*. 

question, v. tambaya, tambaia, 
tabi*, yin tambaya, yin bin- 
chik(k)i. 

questioning, n. (= discussion 
about something doubtful) 
kokonto, bvnchik(k)i* ; to engage 
in such kokonto with yi or the 
forms in no. 

quick, adj. 1. (= rapid, immediate) 

sauki, da sauki, da sauri; a q. 

* death (also =a sudden death) 

sauki mutua; 2. (= alive) da 

rai. 

quickly, adv. (=at once, with 
the least delay) da sauki, da 
sauri, nan da nan) (=at a 
rapid rate) mas(s)a or maz(z)a, 
rupta, rugu* ; very q. massa 
massa contr. malmassa, e.g. he 
is counting the cowries very q. 
yana kilgan alkawara massa 
massa. 

quicksilver, n. zaiba. 



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quiet 



135 



rags 



quiet, adj. (of condition) hauwe 
or kauwi ; when implying 
cessation from speech or cries 
da kawoiy so to be q. yin 
shim, yin hawoi, e.g. give the 
children something to eat so 
that they may be q. ku bada 
yaya abinchi don su yi hawoi, 
similarly yin kurum; (of dis 
position, =of easy temper) 
lalafa) cf. seq.; to keep q. 
(=to hush up a matter) ka- 
wanchi. 

quietness, n. (of disposition) lala- 
fanehi. 

quit, v. (= to leave or abandon in 
every sense) ber(r)i or ber, e.g. 
q. this custom ku berri tadan 
nan m t of a path sau. 

quite, adv. 1. (in the precise 
sense = wholly, nothing but) 
mi which is either applied to 
the entire clause, e.g. if he 
refuses this you may call him 
quite a coward en ya ki nan 
sai ka kirrawoshi mateorata 
lit. you may quite call him a 
coward = why you may etc. ; 
or, as in Engl., is applied to a 
particular term, e.g. his face 
was q. bloody fuskansa sai 
jvni) so in the very common, 
expression sai tafia quite well 
= lafia lau, the last word used 
with lafia only; 2. (less pre- 
cisely = very much, indeed, 
truly) dayawoj kwarai, e.g. we 
are q. pleased muna jin dadi 
day aw, I was q. frightened 
naji tsoro dayawa; I q. under- 



stand na ji kwarai ; adv. phr. 

quite so ashe, aje, da gaskia, 

ya yi hakka. 
quiver, n. kwori, kworin kibia, 

gid(d)an kibia. 
quiver, intr. v. see shake, 

tremble. 

rabbit, n. zorno* (?). 

rabble, n. ( = low class of men, 
the mob) taro banza. 

rabid, adj. mahaukachi, e.g. a r. 
dog mahaukachi kar(r)e; cf. 
mad. 

race, n. 1. ( = ancestral stock) 
U8ali*; 2. (= a particular breed 
of men or animals) iri, pi. 
ware) 3. (=a running in con- 
test of men or horses) teeri. 

radiant, adj. (= emitting light) 
maihaske, pi. masuhaske. 

rafter, n. analogous Hausa terms 
are ; a kind of r. gongola* ; r. 
made of reeds forming a circular 
binding on the inside of a roof 
kirinia; cf. reed. 

rag, n. (in the sense of a small 
piece of any stuff) da, e.g. a 
cloth r. dan zan(n)e; it was 
bound up in a silk r. akadamre- 
8hi chikkin dan alhari; cf. 
rags. 

rage, n.fu8hi. 

rage, intr. v. hauhache, yin fushi, 
jin/ushi; cf. angry. 

rags, n. coll. reg(g)a 9 pi. i*eg(g)una, 
8um(m)a or tsum(m)a y pi. sum- 
(m)oki or t8um(m)oki ; the 
singulars of both are used as 
collectives, old r. keso; trop. 



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raid 



136 



rat 



(in the sense of old or tattered 
clothes) reg(g)a, 8um{m)a and 
keso, e.g. let him be clothed 
in r. asa mam regga; clothed 
in r. adj. juntu or da funtu. 

raid, n. har(r)i*. 

rain, n. rua, pi. ruaye, man 
bis(8)a i man sama ; spec, gentle 
r. yayef(f)a* or yinyi/(/)i', 
r. during heavy storm ginaria 
or ginania; heavy or lasting 
r. malka or maku, tugua or 
tagua; light r. tsateafa, ya~ 
ye/\/)a* ; the night has been 
passed in the r. anhwanda rua ; 
the r. pours down rua ya zuba. 

rain, v. 1. impers., it rains anarua 
and yana rua; it rained anrua; 
to r. heavily or long yin (tugua 
or) tagua, yin malka, sarafa* ; 
it does not r. babu rua) 2. 
used in a fig. sense to cast 
or shower down like r. turn 
by means of a comparison 
common in Hausa kam(m)an 
rua, e.g. our guns r. bullets 
on the enemy bindigoginmu 
sunje/a da arsas abissa abokain 
gaba kamman rua ; he speaks 
fluently = ya yi magana kaman 
rua, lit. he speaks like r. 

rainbow, n. masharua or mashan 
rua, bakan giz(z)o, bakan allah. 

rain-drop, n. tarfi*. 

rainy, adj. see rain; r. season 
dam(m)a?ia or darn(m)una, cf. 
rani; a break during the j:. 
season fari, 

raise, tr. v. (=to make or cause 
to rise, also to set up) tada, 



tayesy tayesda } tasfie, the last 

being also the common expr. 

for making a person get up 

from the ground or from sleep; 

(= to lift or pick up anything) 

dauka contr. dau y do, 
rake, tr. v. spec. " to r. together 

cinders or embers of a fire 

az(z)a (or ha8(ti)a) wuta; I r. 

up cowries towards me na tone 

kurdi. 
ram, n. rago, pi. raguna, bunsum, 

pi. bunmrai or bunsuraye ; 

spec, a large Bornuese r. 

araara. 
Ramadan, n. (the mohammedan 

fast month) azumi*, watan 

azumi*. 
ramble, intr. v. (=to wander 

about) yin yawo (or yauwa). 
rambling, n. yauwa. 
rampart, n. gonna and ganwa. 
ramrod, n. tsatsagawa. 
rancid, to be or become, intr. v. 

ruba. 
range, n. (of hills) kudunia. 
range, tr. v. (=to dispose in 

regular order) daidaita. 
ransom, n. imnsa or f ansa. 
ransom^ tr. v. pansi, pan&he, 

fansi or fanshe, e.g. pass, let 

him be ransomed afansheshi. 
ransomer, n. ag. maifansa, pi. 

masu/ansa. 
ransoming, n. pansawa or fan- 

8awa. 
rapid, adj. see quick, 
rasp, n. see file, 
rasp, tr. v. gogi or goge. 
rat, n. dambaria t bera or bira, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



rat-trap 



137 



ready 



gafia, pi. gafioyi'y names of 
species which await identifica- 
tion : a large r. burgu (for 
which gafia is also used) ; large 
tailless r. prob. allied to the 
jerboa reme; the stinking r. 
jaba*. 

rat-trap, n. buma*. 

rave, intr. v. haukache and hauka, 
see raving. 

raven, n. hankaka*, shamowa* or 
shamua*. 

ravening, n. zowcuri. 

ravenous, to be, intr. v. kwarika 
or kwaraka. 

ravine, n. kanga or konga ; a r. 
with water in it kogi, pi. 
koguna, kogina or kogai ; r. in 
which a stream flows among 
stones and rocks koram(m)a; 
a waterless r. kozozobe. 

raving, adj. maihauka, maUiau- 
kache ; to become r. yin rau- 
rawa\ cf. mad. 

raw, adj. dainye or dainyi, pi. 
dainyoyi; anything r. or un- 
cooked n. gaya*. 

razor, n. aska, pi. asaki or as- 
kaki. 

re-, prefix, Engl, words with this 
pref. (= again) may often be 
rendered in Hausa'by means 
of the adverbs ku/na, hario, 
e.g. he reentered the hall ya 
shigga zaure (kuma or) hario; 
in the case of words like 
repaint, replaster use na sabo ; 
cf. again. 

reach, v. 1. tr. (=to extend, or 
hold out) mika, e.g. I reached 



my hand to him na mika masa 
hanu'y 2. intr. (=to arrive at) 
is(8)a, ishe, iski F 165, kai 
(original sense = bring), e.g. 
the boys swam and reached 
the land yara myi iyo su 
kai ka88a ; everyone who sows 
corn (in a religious sense) will 
reach the great city kowa ya 
nomi halsi ya kai baban gari 
A 10, tu8ga or tusge, e.g. they 
shall reach Sair without doubt 
8U tusga har sa'ira babu wawa 
F 164, wata*; 3. (= to overtake) 
tara8; 4. trop. (=be sufficient 
as in Engl. *the money will 
r. so far ') iya, i«(s)a, ishe, kai, 
e.g. it wont r. (it is insufficient) 
ba shi kai. 

read, tr. v. karatu or karatu, yin 
kwratu, e.g. they r. many books 
and letters suna karatu litatafi 
da wotika dayawa ; we have r. 
that document muka yi karatu 
laya chan, 

read well-, adj. (=w. informed) 
maikaratu dayawa, pi. masu- 
karatoi. 

readiness, n. shiria. 

reading, n. karatu or karatu. 

ready, participial adj. (= arranged 
or prepared in readiness) shiri- 
yaye, fern, shiriyaya, pi. shiri- 
yayu ; cf . seq. 

ready, to hiake, v. 1. (in a general 
sense but also very commonly of 
preparation for an expedition, 
journey etc.) yin shiri, shir- 
ya (pronounced shiria), pass. 
ashirya, e.g. a prudent man 



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real 



138 



rebuke 



would prepare for to-morrow's 
journey to-day don taffian gobe 
mutum maihankali shi kan yi 
shiri yau ; (in a religious sense) 
we have a journey before us 
which cannot be put aside, 
whether you are prepared or 
unprepared muna da taffia ba 
fasawa en ka yi shiri da izan 
ba ashiriya ba B 55 ; so also 
gara or gera, e.g. to make r. a 
way, a load gara hainya, kaya; 
to make r. (by mending or by 
putting to rights and in order 
generally^erta, presential form 
gertawa; to make r. to go 
zazage B 168. 

real, adj. na gaskia, da gaskia, 
also ga8kia and gaske added to 
the term to be thus qualified ; 
of persons maigaskia, e.g. he 
is a r. friend ski ne aboki 
maigaskia, which may also be 
expressed by shi ne aboki da 
gaskia lit. he is a friend in 
reality. 

reality, n. gaskia, e.g. whether 
this be r. or falsehood I know 
not ko gaskia ko karia ban 
sanni ba\ cf. seq. 

reality, to assure of the, of, tr. v. 
gaskata or gaskanta. 

really, adv. da gaskia, gaskia, 
gaske, Jidda*, e.g. it is r. so da 
gaskia hakkanan shi ke or 
simply gaskia ne ; what know- 
ledge perceives, it is not the 
eye, as you know, which r. 
sees abirtda hankali ke ganiwa 
kun san ido ba shi gashi Jidda 



ba B 33 ; (= the foregoing, but 
also very common in inter- 
rogatives and expressions of 
surprise) ashe, aje, ai, ainin, 
e.g. rJ or r. ! aje. 

realm, n. sarauta, mulki*, e.g. 
behold Kahukaro and his r. 
duba kahukaro da sarauta tai ; 
behold Bello, the ruler over 
his r. duba ga bello idon mulki 
nai; (in a very wide sense 
= presence) zati F 45. 

reanimate, tr. v. (=to recall to 
life) raia. 

reap, tr. v. girbi or giribi, yenka 
or yenke. 

reaper, n. maigirbi. 

reason, 1. (= cause) sab{b)abi or 
sub(b)abi\ 2. (= r. given as 
an excuse) huja or fuja; 3. 
(= authority from Koran etc. 
or = origin of a myth, story 
etc.) dalili) 4. (=the intelli- 
gent faculty) see ability (2) ; 
adverbial phrases, for this r. 
domin hakka, don hakka, for 
that r. domin or don wanan, 
toachananka* (?), dominchewa*, 
chewa*. 

reasoning, n. kokonto ; to engage 
in r. yin kokonto. 

rebel, intr. v. kangara*, yin 
kangara. 

rebound, intr. v. tankoshe, e.g. 
the spears rebounded from the 
coats of mail masusuka su 
tankoshe dagga lufudai. 

rebuke, tr. v. tsawa, yin tsatoa, 
kwobe*, e.g. the learned man 
rebuked his disciples malami 



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receive 



139 



redeem 



ya yi tsatoa ma cUmajirainsa ; 
he rebuked me ya yi mani 
tsawa. 
receive, tr. v. 1. (=to take what 
is offered) karba or kariba*, 
karbi or karibi*, dauka or 
doka, imperat. receive karbo, 
samu, samata* A 83 ; 2. (of a 
salutation) karba, e.g. they 
received i.e. acknowledged your 
salutation sun karba gaisuanka; 

3. (of news etc.) ji, e.g. we 
received news mun ji labari ; 

4. (=to allow, admit) yerda; 
4. to r. as a guest shide, e.g. 
they received me joyfully suka 
shideni da mwna. 

received, particip. (= approved 
of, agreed to, believed in) 
yerdade, fern, yerdada, pi. 
yerdadu. 

receptacle, n. any kind of r. may 
be expressed by gia\d)a, pi. 
gia\d)aje, gid{d)ashe or gida- 
daji; by means of this are 
formed the Hausa equivalents 
of various Engl, terms, e.g. a 
needle-case (lit. r. of needles) 
giddan cUura; a quiver giddan 
kibia; an envelope giddan 
takarda, 

reception, a royal, n. turaka. 

recess, n. (=nook, closet, small 
room etc.) loloki, pi. lolokai; 
secret recesses coll. loloki asiri 
D63. 

reciprocal, adj. turn by the 
recipr. pron. jiuna. 

reckless courage, with, adj. jan 
namiji. 



reckon, v. see calculate, count, 
number ; to r. up zana. 

reckoned up, particip. madudai* 
B122. 

reckoning, n. 1. (= computing, 
calculating) kedaya, kidda and 
kididiga; (of accounts) lisafi 
or lesafi. 

recline, intr. v. dangana, kishin- 
gida (this also = to sit with 
crossed legs), zam% jingina, 
jingine, e.g. we ate and drank, 
reclining mun ehi mun sha 
muna kishingida. 

recollect, tr. v. (= remember) 
tuna, tuna da, e.g. I did not 
forget everything but remem- 
bered this ban manche duka ba 
amma na tuna da abin nan. 

recollection, participial n. tuna- 
tva. 

recompense, n. (both of pecuniary 
reward, wages, and also gene- 
rally) lada. 

recompense, tr. v. see repay, 
requite and reward. 

reconcile, tr. v. biko, gama dadi*. 

recover, v. 1. tr. (=to get back), 
e.g. he recovered his property 
ya same (or samu) dukiansa 
kuma; 2. intr. (of health) 
samu afua, yin rongomi; he 
recovered his health ya samu 
lafia. 

recovery, n. (of health) rongomi. 

red, adj. ja, pi. jajayi ; a little r. 
jaja kad(d)an ; staining r. jaje ; 
very r. ja tour. 

reddish, adj. jaja kad(d)an. 

redeem, tr. v. fanshe or panshe, 



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redemption 



HO 



refuses 



fansi or pansi, yin /ansa, e.g. 
we redeemed him from slavery 
muka fansheshi dagga bauta. 

redemption, n. /ansa (generally 
pronounced pansa) fansawa \ 
diyauchi (lit. freedom) also 
bears the pregnant sense of r. 

reduce, tr. v. 1. (= generally, to 
lessen, to decrease) reg(g)i i 
ragi or rage; to be reduced 
ragu; 2. to r. amount of an 
account or charge yin rongomi; 
3. (- to conquer, subdue) chi. 

reduction, n. 1. (lessening, as- 
suaging of anything) ragua; 
2. (of an account) rongomi, 
e.g. make me a r. ka yi mani 
rongomi. 

reed, n. gora, pi. gororo and 
gorilna, kara, jinia, rama (for 
ramma see below) ; spec, of 
various qualities and uses, a 
kind of r. or rough grass 
gamba, pi. gambobi; water r. 
often planted near mosques 
karan masallachi ; a r. growing 
amongst and resembling guinea- 
corn hasumburua ; an edible 
water r. bindu; r. used for 
making arrows kemru, gaza- 
ra*, 8heme; large reeds used 
in thatching maiwa; reeds 
such as are used for making 
doors etc. tsabore or zabore; 
reeds forming circular bindings 
near the fooando inside a roof 
murdaka; place where reeds 
meet in the centre inside 
thatched roof kwando or kondo ; 
reeds bound together forming 



inside binding of a thatched 
roof tanka; reeds (two or three) 
forming circular band on the 
outside of a roof jinia \ r.-like 
plant of which native ropes 
are made ramma. 

reeling, n. (as of a dying man) 
magagi. 

reflection, n. (= consideration, 
thought) tunane, fern, tunana, 
pL tunanu, 

refrain from, tr. v. ber(r)i, ber, 
e.g. r. f. falsehood ka ber karia 
F8; r. f . laughter rik(k)e 
daria. 

refuge, n. gid(d)an chira; a place 
of r. tvurin chira. 

refusal, n. kitouya or kuyiwa ; r. 
to hear kinji; r. to work 
kitvuya. 

refuse, v. ki, kia, kinkinta f e.g. 
he refused to tell me what he 
did ya ki faddi mani abinda 
ya yi; they refused to pay 
heed to this sun ki kalla da 
tvanan, reaa, yin kishi, dakile, 
e.g. dost thou silently r. and 
givest no answer ka dakile 
shiru ba ka amsa ba B 130 ; 
to r. especially an offer in 
buying and selling han(n)a and 
saidaba* ; to r. contemptuously 
with a noise made with the 
lips tsaki ; to r. exertion (or 
labour) yin kitouya ; to r. to 
keep a promise yin gas(s)e ; to 
r. to listen kiale and katti* ; 
to r. to work kangara*. 

refuses, one who, to work, n. 
makiyachi. 



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refusing 



141 



rely on 



refusing, n. participial form han- 
(r^atva, kiya/ya*. 

regard, n. 1. (= attention, heed) 
hankali, tunawa; 2. (= affec- 
tion) soyeya*, soaya or sowaya, 
kamna f e.g. an object of r. 
abin hamna. 

regard, tr. v. 1. (=to look at 
attentively both physically and 
mentally) duba ; 2. (= to heed) 
yin hankali, ku(l)la, kul(l)ata* 
each construed with da before 
the object regarded. 

region, n. wqje, pi. wosashe. 

regret, v. (in the sense of to 
repent) tuba. 

reign, n. 1. (= royal authority, 
power) sarauta or scvrota; 2. 
(= the time a r. lasts) zamani, 
e.g. in his reign there was 
security of land achiki zama- 
nishi da kasa amana ni G 4. 

reign, intr. malaka* ; cf . also he 
reigned ya malake{ta) B 76, yin 
zamani, e.g. thus did he reign 
hakanan ya yi zamanishi G 4. 

reject, tr. v. hi, kia*, yada*, e.g. 
they rejected the way sun 
yada hainya A 58 ; to r. as 
something bad tsanUcmi; he 
rejects the love ya yenke 
hamna ; cf. C 10. 

rejoice, v. 1. intr. yin or jin 
fa/rinchik{k)i., yin or jin murna, 
wajiba* \ to r. over sambachi ; 
to r. with anyone yin bishari ; 
2. tr. bada (or sa) murna. 

rejoin, intr. (= answer) amsa and 
yin amsa. 

rejoinder, n. (= answer) amsa. 



relate, v. Jad(d)i or fad(d)a i e.g. 
he related to us how the king 
made many attempts to kill 
him ya faddi mamu kaha 
sariki yawa yin kokari dayawa 
ski kassheshi. 

relation, n. dengi, denga or deg{g)% 
pi. dengoyi, kotana* ; cf. seq. 

relations, coll. dengi both in the 
sing, and pi., kibanta, alwali* 
or waH* f aluma* (?). 

relationship, n. zumunta*. 

relax, v. 1 . tr. (of bonds etc. = to 
loosen) kunehe\ (of efforts, 
rule etc. = to make less severe 
or strict) reg(g)i, ragi or rage ; 
2. intr. (= to become less strict 
or severe, of anything, e.g. 
pain) ragu. 

relaxation, n. 1. (in sense of 2. 
prec.) ragua ; 2. (= rest) natsu* 
B62. 

release, tr. v. saki and in a looser 
sense ber(r)i, ber. 

reliable, adj. (vulg.) see trust- 
worthy. 

relieve, tr. v. (e.g. one of a load) 
tabo*, tareo*, (=to assist) see 
help. 

religion, n. addini* ; the true r. 
addinin gaskia; the moham- 
medan r. musulumchi ; he was 
converted to the mohammedan 
r. ya sauya mumlmi or ya 
zama musulmi. 

religious person, n. maiaddini, 
pi. mo8uaddini. 

rely on, v. dang ana, ingata, constr. 
with da or ga, yerda with da; 
to r. on God ka8(8)ada; to r. 



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remain 



142 



render 



upon a person shaduda or 
saduda. 

remain, intr. v. 1. (of staying or 
stopping in a place) zamna, 
zamna, zona, kwana (lit. sleep) 
e.g. we remained there two 
days mun kwana dagga nan 
kwana biu; we remain for 
this one day only mu he yini 
rana nan ; 2. (of remaining in 
one state as well as place) 
duma, dawama, e.g. they shall 
ever r. aduma tutur, kasanchi, 
tabbetauja, e.g. in the back part 
of the fire should they r. ga ta 
dabarun wuta su ka tabbetawa 
F 180; to r. over tvanzu and 
wonzu. 

remainder, n. saura and shawora, 
kingi; the last also specially 
used of r. of drink, dregs, as is 
seki*, e.g. drink the medicine 
and leave no r. ka sha magani 
babu kingi ; r. of food left for 
children or servants mdi ; r. 
of nuts, food, etc. kola. 

remaining, 1. participial adj. 
(= also r. over) maiwan- 
zuwa ; 2. n. (= continuance, 
staying) dawama, tabbeta, e.g. 
house of r. (= lasting abode) 
giddan dawama giddan tabbeta 
D79. 

remedy, n. (both in the medicinal 
and also in general sense) 
mdgani, e.g. the filasko plant 
is a r. for diarrhoea JUasko 
maganin gudawa ; prov. if a 
town be far off the r. is travel 
maganin gari da nesa taffia. 



remember, v. tuna, ambata and 
ambato; to come to r. tuna 
with da before object. 

remembrance, n. (= recollection) 
tunane and tunawa. 

remiss, adj. lalafa. 

remission, n. (= forgiveness) g&- 
fara, gaferta, yerda, yafewa*. 

remissly, adv. da lalafanchi. 

remissness, n. lalafanchi. 

remit, tr. v. (- to forgive) yerda, 
gdfara, yin gaferta-, to r. a 
debt yerda bashi. 

remnant, &g. after cloth has been 
measured, n. guzura, pi. gu- 
zure; cf. remainder. 

remorse, n. nidama, ladama*. 

remote, adj. 1. (= distant in place) 
na nesa ; also da nesa and 
dag(g)a nesa, e.g. a r. town 
gari da nesa ; 2. (= distant in 
time) na da, also dawuri or 
dauri, e.g. r. customs tadodi 
na da. 

remove, tr. v. kauda, kauchi, 
kauwa, kawas, kawasda, kaura*, 
e.g. the wind blew with such 
power that even stones were 
removed from their places iska 
tana busawa da iko har ga ko 
duatsu akawasdasu dagga urn- 
rinsu. 

rend, tr. v. chage or tsaga. 

render, tr. v. 1. (=, in solemn 
style, to give) ba or bada; 2. 
(of an account = to give, give 
in, present) to r. an account 
yin (lisafi or) lesafi; 3. (=to 
translate) juya, sauya, fasara, 
yinfasara; 4. (=to cause to 



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rent 



143 



reproach 



be or become) peripbr. e.g. the 
heat of the fire rendered his 
face very red zafin wuta ya sa 
fuskansa ta zdma ja wur, pass, 
it was rendered very black ya 
zama bakki kerrin. 

rent, tr. v. (of houses, etc.) sufuri, 
sufurchi, yin sufuri and yin 
sufurchi. 

repair, 1. tr. v. (= to mend) gerta, 
gara, gera; 2. intr. to r. to 
taffi, e.g. he repaired to the 
city ya taffi birni; they re- 
paired to the king sun taffi 
wurin sariki. 

repast, n. 1. (= a meal) kalachi ; 
2. (= food, victuals) abinchi, 
chima, chimaka. 

repeal, tr. v. kauda, e.g. the king 
repealed the prohibition sariki 
ya kauda doka. 

repeat, v. 1. (=to do again) see 
again ; to r. an action mai- 
mai ; to r. an action again and 
again maimaita ; to r. ten 
thousand times ribbi* D 44; 
2. (= to say over again) tes(8)a 
or tesa, tus(s)o or tuso. 

repel, tr. v. kora, kore; to be 
repelled (of an arrow, etc.) 
tankoshe. 

repent, intr. v. tuba, e.g. repent ! 
ku tuba E 10 ; also pass, im- 
personal atuba D 10, a wild 
cat, it repents with the fowl 
in its mouth, it puts it not 
down mazoro shi ke tuba kaza 
ta tana baki bai %ako ba D 1 1 ; 
if he refuses to r. izan ya hi 
tuba D 21. 



repentance, n. tuba, nidama, 
nadaina* or ladama, e.g. let 
repentance be made ayi tuba. 

repents, one who, n. maitu- 
ba. 

reply, n. amsa; to give a r. ba (or 
bada) amsa ; cf . seq. 

reply, intr. v. amsa, yin amsa, 
e.g. he replied to them ya amsa 
masu or ya yi masu amsa. 

report, n. 1. (= rumour, news) 
labdri, e.g. we heard a r. about 
war muka ji labarin yaki ; 2. 
(=fame, repute) yab(b)o; 3. 
(= noise of gun) am(m)o. 

report, v. (=to bring, news) yin 
labdri, ba (or bada or fad{d)i) 
labdri ; to r. against (= to 
inform against) sare, sara or 
zard*. 

repose, n. 1. (= lying at rest) 
kwantawa; 2. (=rest, quiet- 
ness) fata, futawa 3. (= sleep) 
berchi, kwana. 

repose, v. 1 . tr. to r. confidence in 
sa with bis(s)a, abis(s)a and 
bis(s)a ga and substantives 
given under confidence, q.v. ; 
2. intr. (= to lie, to be placed) 
pass, of aje and sa; (= to lie at 
rest) kwana, jingma*, e.g. we 
r. under the trees muna kwana 
kalkashin itatua. 

reprehend, tr. v. (=to reprove, 
censure) see blame. 

reprehensible, adj. da laifi. 

representative, n. (=an agent, 
substitute) wakili. 

reproach, tr. v. zage or zagi, 
tarsasa*. 



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reprobate 



144 



result 



reprobate, adj. laane, fern, laana, 
pi. laanu. 

reproof, n. (and spec, of a set 
discourse in reproof) foro; 
harasa. 

reprove, tr. v. kwaba or kwobe* ; 
also (see prec.) foro, yin foro, 
e.g. he reproved the pupils ya 
foro cdmajirai or ya yi foro 
ma almajirai. 

reptile, n. mairarafe, pi. mamra- 
rafe, abin kasa. 

reputation, n. yab(b)o, suna, e.g. 
his r. spread throughout the 
Sudan mutane duka 8U ji 
sunansa chikkin (or doggo) 
sudan; cf. consideration 2. 

requital, n. /ansa or pansa. 

requite, tr. v. bia or biya\ (in a 
bad as well as good sense) 
rama, presential form ramawa. 

rescue, tr. v. kwache or hwashe ; 
see also deliver. 

reside, intr. v. see dwell. 

resign, tr. v. 1. (=to give up, 
abandon) ber(r)i, ber; cf. seqq. 

resignation, n. hankuri, hankura 
or hakora. 

resigned, to be, v. jin sainyi, 
also hankuri with yi or the 
forms in na, e.g. I am r. to 
this ina hankuri da wanan; 
he was r. to this pain ya yi 
hankuri da azaba nan. 

resist, tr. v. (=gen. to withstand, 
baffle) han(n)a ; to r. an offer, 
request etc. han(n)a q.v., ki 
(and kin) ji, e.g. he resisted 
every proposal ya ki ji magana 
duka; to r. a temptation etc. 



(=to overcome it) rinjayi or 
rinjaya ; to r. angrily gagara. 

resistance, n. in sense of prec. 
init. han(n)dwa, makatva*. 

respond, v. (=to answer) amsa, 
yin amsa. 

rest, n. 1. (= remainder) shatvora, 
saura, kingi ; 2. (= repose, 
quiet) fula, futatva, hutawa*, 
cf . repose ; (of the grave) place 
of r. makwanche) (of death) 
the last r. makarin berichi. 

rest, v. 1. tr. (= to lay, place) eye, 
sa, e.g. he rested his hands on 
the book ya sa hanuansa bissa 
litafi ; 2. intr. (= to be at rest) 
futa; (=to be laid, placed) 
pass, of aje, sa, e.g. the book 
rested on a large cushion litafi 
ajeshi abissa baban leferu. 

resting-place, n. (= lodging) ma- 
8hia\d)i ; his last resting-place 
makwanchensa. 

restitution, make, v. rama, and, 
with pres. forms in na, ramatua. 

restive, be, intr. v. tuma. 

restore, tr. v. 1. (=give or bring 
back) maida, mayes, kwonda, 
bayesda^ and, where there can 
be no mistake as to the 
meaning, simply ba, e.g. r. me 
my stick ka bani sandana; 2. 
(= to make good) rama ; 3. 
(= to bring back into a better 
state, as of health) chira, chire, 
chiro or tsira, tsire, tsiro ; to r. 
to life raia or raya\ to be 
restored to life raiu. 

restrain, tr. v. han(n)a. 

result, n. akib(b)a. 



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resurrection 



145 



rich 



resurrection, n. tashi dag(g)a 
matatu, tayesua, alMyama, 
alkiama, Mama ; the r. day 
ranan gobe (lit. day of to-mor- 
row), ran gobe, ranal (= ranan) 
kiama, ran alkiama; periphr. 
the day when the sounder of 
the trumpet shall sound rana 
da maibu8a ya busa kafo nana 
A 78, 79. 

retain, tr. v. rik(k)e, rik(k)a, 
rik(k)i* y rumtsi B 27. 

retained, particip. rikake, fern. 
rikakia, pi. rikaku. 

retaliate, intr. v. rama, ramawa, 
e.g. I retaliated na rama, I am 
retaliating ina ramatoa. 

retaliation, n. (in a good as well 
as bad sense) saka (-mako, -moko 
or) -mukko; cf. requital. 

return, intr. v. koma or koma ; to 
r. to where the speaker is = to 
r. here komo, dawo ; to r. 
from a. place dawoiya or 
dawoya; to r. to a place 
dawoiyo or dawoyo; to r. often 
shirbache. 

returning, n. (of place) komawa ; 
(of state, = a changing back, 
reversion) juyawa. 

reveal, tr. v. gaya, waye, nuna, 
e.g. they revealed the secret 
to the king sun gaya asiri 
nan ga sariki. 

revenge, n. Jansa or pansa. 

revenge, v. rama? cf. requite. 

revere, tr. v. ; cf . seq. 

reverence, tr. v. tsar(i)kaka, 
tsarkaki, charkaka and, in freer 
sense (= to honour) gir- 

R. II. 



mama, and bada (girima or) 
girma. 

revile, tr. v. zage or zagi, falasa 
or palasa, sabe. 

revive, intr. v. (as from fainting) 
firko or ferko*. 

reward, n. lada, akib(b)a*. 

reward, tr. v. see requite. 

rheumatism, n. amas(8)ani or 
ama8(s)ana. 

rhinoceros, n. marili. 

rib, n. awoza or awaza, pi. awozu ; 
ribs coll. hakarikari. 

rice, n. shinkaf[f)a, more parti- 
cularly = r. in the husk, husked, 
clean r. shinkaj\f)a (shanshere 
or) 8urfafe> gumi* (?) ; ear of r. 
geza, pi. gezuna ; the swelling 
of r. when boiled auki, abki; 
a soft mash of r. pet(t)i pet(t)i ; 
a mixture of r., milk and honey 
gumba; cake made of r. and 
guinea-corn mas(s)a; cake made 
of r., oil and honey tsatsqfa; 
large rice-bag mb(b)olo or saulo ; 
spec, a dark coloured kind of 
r. jimero ; a dark red kind of 
r. tamba. 

rich, adj. 1. (= wealthy, also concr. 
= r. man) moidukia, maiwadachi 
or maiwadata, mainema* ; a r. 
man falala* or folate ; a very 
r. man dumbuji* ; 2. (as an 
epithet of God) gani, e.g. for 
He is r. and the giver of 
everything zama shi ne gani 
mabaya kowa F 14; 3. (= abun- 
dant) yawa, dayawa; 4. ( = 
splendid as *r. dress') na ado, 
fern, ta ado. 

10 



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rich 



146 



rise 



rich, to be, intr. v. express by da 
(have), e.g. he is r. shina da 
(dukia, wadata or) arziki. 
rich, to become, intr. v. ajerta, 
yin wadata and in a freer sense 
zama maidukia, etc. 
riches, colL dukia, pi. dukoki or 
dukiyoyi, wadata or wodata, 
wadachi, arziki. 
ride, intr. v. no general term, 
express by periphr., e.g. be was 
riding along yana taffia (bis(s)a 
or) abis{s)a dohi ; I rode to the 
town na hawa doki na taffi 
gari ; they rode back here suka 
komo abissa doki; spec, to r. 
at a gallop sukua (Kano), suka 
(Sokoto), sukani, yin (sukua, 
mka and) sukani; to r. for 
exercise kil(l)isa. 
rider, n. maidoki, pi. masudoki. 
ridge, n, kokua ; ridges in a field 

coll. kwiya. 
ridicule, tr. v. darara*; he turned 

him into r. ya bashi daria. 
riding in, a place for, n. fag(g)en 
doki ; a place for riding in at 
the gallop masukwani. 
right, n. 1. gen. gaskia; 2. (= au- 
thority or privilege) iko, pi. 
ikoki ; 3. ( = claim) alhaki ; 
4. (= the opposite of left) 
dama. 
right, adj. 1. (=in conformity with 
truth and justice) da gaskia, 
da gaske, or simply gaskia, 
gaske, see also lawful, proper ; 
2. (= opposed to left) dama, na 
dama, fem. ta dama; the r. 
hand (i.e. the bodily member) 



hanu nadama, damichi, damshi, 
(i.e. the r. side) wojen dama. 
righteousness, n. gaskia*. 
rightly, adv. 1. (= truthfully, 
justly) da gaskia, da gaske, 
gaske ; 2. (= correctly, exactly) 
kwarai, also sar(r)ai, e.g. if I 
r. understand you will come to 
this house in the evening idan 
na ji kwarai (or sarrai) zaku 
zo giddanga da mareche ; he 
did not count them r. bat kil- 
gasu sarrai ba. 
rind, n. (of tree) fata. 
ring, n. zobe or zobi; seal r., signet 
r. zoben shaida; finger r. ko- 
wainia*; metal r. placed round 
hands and legs of women ha- 
rqfa; r. put through man's 
lower lip baibaiyi. 
rings, coll. arm r. mundaye; foot 
r. mundayen kaffa; women's 
foot r. of brass or iron char- 
kankani. 
rinse, tr. v. dariwoye. 
rip, tr. v. keta, participial n. ketua, 

cf. tear. 
ripe, adj. nen(n)a, nen(n)ane or 
nunane, pi. nen(n)anu or rwm- 
(n)anu, tdbo, tapshi, tafshi or 
tabshi. 
ripe, to be, intr. v. nen(n)a t 
niit(n)a or nuna, yin tdbo, 
kosa. 
rise, intr. v. tashi; to cause to r. 
tashe ; to r. up taso, gusa, gtd- 
gusa or gurugusa; to r. up 
a.g&mst Jirmaki ; to r. up quickly 
zabura; to r. high (of the sun) 
karu; to r. ( = to swell, of any- 



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rising 



147 



robe 



thing cooking or fermenting) 
yvn auki. 

rising, partieipial n. tashi y tasawa, 
e.g. the r. of the sun tasawal 
hantsi B 56 ; tayesua used also 
in sense of resurrection. 

rivalry, n. kishi, gasa*. 

river, n. ma, pi. ruaye, e.g. the 
r. Benu^ man tsada, gulbi, pi. 
gulabe y tabki, tapki or tafH ; a 
large r. kogi, pi. koguna, kogina 
or kogai; the r. of Paradise 
kauchara and alkauchara, e.g. 
they shall come to the n of 
Paradise without doubt su kcm 
tusga ta kauchara babu wawa 
F 214 ; only if he repent shall 
he drink the r. of Paradise 
8aiko da tuba zayi sha alkau- 
chara A 49, 50, 52. 

river-horse, hippopotamus, n. 
dorina, pi. dorinai. 

rivers, confluence of, n. magan- 
gami. 

road, n. hainya or haya*, pi. 
hainyoyi, tafariki or tafarki, 
pi. tafarkoki, turuba, pi. turu- 
bobi, which are also employed 
fig. (of the r. of duty, religion), 
e.g. we ought to take their r. 
which leads to the city (i.e. 
heaven) wajib mu do haiasu 
taanda ta je gari A 20 ; they 
left the right r., they followed 
one which was crooked sun 
sou tafarhi sun bi wodda ya 
fantsari A 19; on the r. (= tra- 
velling) chikkin taffia ; he is on 
the r. yana (or shvna) taffia ; do 
you know your r. from this 



point? ko ka sanni hainya 
dag(g)a nan ko ; a broad r. 
godobe, rimdi ; turning of a r. 
lungu. 

roads, n. branching off of r. (pi. 
of kosfa) kosfofi or kimsfqfi\ 
dividing of r. luloki, pi. lu- 
lokai ; meeting-point of two or 
more r. mararabin hainya. 

roar, n. tsawa also spec, of the r. 
of thunder, r. of camel babaki 
and kuka. 

roar, intr. v. tsawa used with the 
forms in na and with yi as 
are also all that follow, (of fire 
F 186, men F 188) tsawutawa, 
(of camel, donkey, fire, men 
and spec, of bull) ruri, (of fire) 
baiki, e.g. (the fire) will r. 
and make a noise (tvuta) tana 
ruri tana baiki D 72 ; (of wild 
animals) kugi; of course the 
general term for a loud cry 
kuka may be employed, e.g. 
my camels are roaring from 
thirst rakumana suna kuka 
domin kishirua. 

roast, tr. v. soiya or suya, gas(s)a, 
the last used with guras{s)a 
bread. 

roasted, particip. gasashe, fern. 
gasashia, pi. gasasu. 

rob, tr. v. (=to take openly, by 
force) kwache or kwashe. 

robber, n. one who robs openly 
rnaisani; a highway r. (= bri- 
gand) maifesshe, pi. ma/as(s)a. 

robe, n. riga, pi. riguna ; splendid 
robes riguna na ado; silken 
robes riguna na alharini 

10—2 



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robe 



148 



rope 



F 217 ; spec, fine white r. 
kwakwata; long white r. bula*. 

robe, tr. v. sa (lit. put on), e.g. 
they shall be robed in white 
asa masu riguna farufaru. 

rock, n. duchi, pi. duatsu, falala* 
or /(dale; we climbed a high 
r. mun hawa bissa ga dogon 
duchi. 

rook, tr. v. (=to shake or swing 
to and fro) veto. 

rock-salt, n. gal(t)o. 

rod, n. sanda, pi. sand-una; brass 
rods sanduna na jan kariji. 

rogue, n. maizambachi, maizam- 
bata, maizumba. 

roll, v. 1. (=to move along by 
turning over and over) tr. 
bingira, intr. to r. birgima or 
birkima with forms in na ; to 
r. or r. over as in sleep bingira, 
intr. to r. down . gangara or 
gangari; 2. (=to fold round 
on itself) tr. nad{d)e \ to r. to- 
gether or up nad(d)e ; to r. up 
kalmas(s)a or kalma(s)she; to r. 
up covering to doorway leke; 
to r. up mat, etc. linke; to r. 
into balls as clay for building 
chibara or tsibara; intr. and 
reflexive to r. up or together 
nad(d)u. 

rolled, 1. intr. v. to be r. together 
(cf. prec.) chibaru; 2. particip. 
adj. r. together anode. 

roller, i.e. stone used for crushing 
rice etc., n. dan magurji. 

rolling, particip. n. birgima or 
birkima, r. down gangarawa 
and gangaro*. 



roof, n. the following apply to the 
native thatched roofs tsaiko, 
saiko % tanka ; centre of r. 
kwando or Jcondo ; binding line 
inside r. formed of two or three 
reeds murdaka, kirinia ; band 
outside r. jinia, see reed, 
reeds; to bind grass with 
cords so as to form a r. yamche 
or yamchi. 

room, n. 1. (=open, unoccupied 
space in any sense) sar(r)ari ; 
abundance of r. yalwata; (= un- 
occupied space on a flat surface 
as a plain, a floor) fili f e.g. 
there was no r. for (putting 
down) my load babu JUi ga 
kayana, cf. seq. ; 2. (= an a- 
partment) r. in a house daki, 
pi. dakuna; upper r. kandaki, 
pi. kandakuna ; royal assembly 
r./ag(g)e; small dark r. loloki, 
pi. lolokai; r. made of mud and 
thatched with reeds tseko. 

room, to have plenty of r. to sit 
down, intr. v. wala*; to make 
r. for ra8(8)i i zakuda or zakudo. 

roomy, adj. da sar(r)ari t e.g. this 
chamber is r. daki nan yana da 
sarrari\ roomier than that da 
sarrari yafi wanan. 

root, n. 1. (of vegetables, etc.) 
saiwa, saiwo or soya ; r. of a tree 
tushi or tavshi* ; spec, an edible 
r. with which tvx> is made kurus- 
kurus; 2. fig. (=the truth) the 
r. of the matter koman magana; 
(= origin or fundamental sense) 
guzu, tushi. 

rope, n. gen. igia or igiya, pi. igoyi 



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rot 



149 



row 



and igiyoyi; spec, of various 
uses and materials : r. for hob- 
bling horse tamaki, dabebeyi; 
r. for leading horse assalawi ; 
r. for leading horses or camels 
ragama ; r. put through nose of 
cow zar(r)e or zar(r)i ; r. (also 
coll.) tied to anything, e.g. a 
rafter ragaya ; r. tying horse's 
leg to a post gindi; r. for tying 
up camel akala ; materials for 
r. (plaited grass, palm leaves, 
fibre) tsaiwa; material from the 
chiwo palm for r. dankon chiwo ; 
leaves and fibre from a large 
speeies of palm for r. kab(b)a, 
pi. kab(b)obi; a large tree (as- 
clepias gigantea?) from the 
bark of which r. is made tum- 
fafia, pi. tumfafi; a fibre for 
making r. yawa ; reed-like plant 
for making r. which is called 
by the same name ramma; a 
shrub (cynanchum viminale?) 
from the bark of which r. is 
made yadia; large tree from 
the bark of which small ropes 
are made tawas(s)a. 

rot, intr. v. (=to putrefy) riba, 
ruba ; ( = to be decomposed) 
bache. 

rote, by, 1. n. a saying by r. 
tulawa* ; 2. v. to say by r. 
yin tulawa; to learn so as to 
say by r. (by heart) samu 
harda. 

rotten, particip. adj. (of fruit, etc.) 
ribabe, fem. ribabia, pi. ribabu, 
(of corn) tsad(d)eri'y in all cases 
may be used batache, fem. ba- 



tachia, pi. batatu as a general 
expression. 

rough, adj. da kanshi, cf. seq. 

roughness, n. (=unevenness of 
surface) kaushi. 

round, adj. express by .the nouns 
= a r. object chibiri or chibari, 
kumbu, e.g. a r. piece of mud 
chibirin kasa y cf . chibara, to 
cut r. shankumbu; adv. to go 
round dauraro, doraa-o or dau- 
rara*, kewoye or kewayi, the 
last also tr., e.g. they went r. 
the city sun kewoye birni; to go 
r. in order to examine a thing 
giwaya or jiwaya; to look r. 
dauraro , doraro or daura/ra* ; 
prep, kewoye, e.g. they made a 
road r. the pool sun gina 
hainya kewoyen tabki. 

rouse, tr. v. (= to make rise, e.g. 
from the ground or from sleep) 
tashe, tayes, e.g. on hearing the 
distant report of guns I roused 
my friends da na ji ammon 
bindigogi dagga nesa na tashe 
abokaina; tashi*. 

row, n. (= series, line, rank) safflu, 
jera,jere or jire*; to form a r. 
yin saffu; in a r. ajere. 

row, n. (= angry dispute), see dis- 
pute, quarrel; (= noisy out- 
cry) kururua, e.g. he made a 
great r. ya yi kumrua daya- 
wa. 

row, tr. and intr. v. tuka, tukawa, 
yin tuka; Hausas acquainted 
with European oared boats 
employ this word which (ori 
ginally = to push, propel) is 



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royal 



150 



sabbath 



the term used for * paddling ' 
native canoes. 

royal, adj. na sariki, fem. ta 
sariki; r. officers or attendants 
fadawa q. v. 

rub, tr. v. yafa and yafo, chuda 
or chudawa; spec, to r. (=to 
wipe, r. down a table, etc.) 
shafe ; to r. (or grind) corn 
tushe ; to r. anything, e.g. 
corn in the hands murje, mur- 
da, mulmuleli; to r. the hair 
off a hide or skin jemi; to r., 
e.g. the head murza* ; to r. 
out kankari; to r. out (of 
writing = to blot out, erase) 
yin maimai ; to r. violently 
murkoshi. 

rub out, one to, n. makankara, 
e.g. he will contract a disease 
which has no one to rub it out 
ya tarda chuta wanda ba ta 
makankara A 38. 

rubbed, particip. adj. murjek(k)e, 
fem. murjek(k)a, pi. murjek- 
(k)u. 

rubber, n. 1. (= thing, e.g. a cloth, 
used in rubbing or wiping) 
abin shafe ; 2. (= india-rubber) 
dankOj dunko, or dunko, also 
dankon gumji ; india-rubber 
tree (landolfia?) gumji or 
gamji. 

ruby, n. yakutu*. 

rudder, paddle used as a, n. ma- 
tuki. 

rug, woollen sleeping-, n. kilishi. 

ruin, tr. v. (=to spoil, destroy) 
bata; to be ruined or to fall 
into r. (of a house, etc.) rushi ; 



participial n. and pres. form 
rushiwa. 

ruins, coll. (of a place, town) 
kufai, pi. kufaifai, kango ; r. 
left after a conflagration go- 
bara. 

rule, n. (= government, royal 
sway) aarauta or %arota\ ( = 
established mode of procedure) 
tada, pi. tadodi, ada. 

rule, v. (= to hold sway as a king) 
malaka, yin (sarauta or) sarota ; 
(=to decide, order authorita- 
tively) hakumta, e.g. he ruled 
that we should do this ya 
hakumta mu yi kakka. 

ruler, n. maimalaka y mascvraAichi*, 
hakimi*, pi. hakimai; (=king) 
8ariki or sarki, pi. sarakuna or 
8arikai*, 

run, intr. v. gvdu, gudarui ; (= to 
melt) nariku; to r. after bi; 
to r. at (=to attack) fadi bis- 
(s)a; to r. away gudu, guje*, 
tsire, t8al(l)ache or sal(l)achi* ; 
to r. away quickly sheka ; to r. 
out, e.g. he ran out of the town 
ya jitta dagga birni da gtidu ; 
to r. out (= to come to an end) 
kare ; to r. over (= to overflow) 
tude or tada. 

runaway, n. 1. (of slaves) gujefe* ; 
2. (in war) maguje or muguje. 

rush, intr. v. kuche or kuza ; tor., 
e.g. out of a crowd ruza. 

rust, n. tsatsa*. 

rust, intr. v. yin tsatsa. 

sabbath, n. 1. (in the scriptural 
sense = Saturday) assttbat, ra- 



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sable 



151 



salt 



nam, nuisubat ; 2. (= Sunday) 
lahadi, rancm laJuxdi. 

sable, adj. see black. 

sabre, n. see sword. 

sack, n. spec, large skin s. or bag 
for cowries jik(k)a or zik(k)a, 
pl.jikoki, buhu (Zaria), birgami 
(Kano), these are not used as 
water skins for which see under 
skin ; skin s. for loading camels, 
donkeys, etc. wag a ; s. made of 
network ruga, pi. ragogi; large 
s. of salt (=one donkey load) 
lengi. 

sack, tr. v. (= to, pillage or plunder, 
of a place or town) turn by 
kwaohe or kwa&he, e.g. he took 
and sacked the town ya ehi gari 
nan yakwache dukiansu duka. 

sacred, adj. (= connected with 
religion) na addini, fern, ta 
addini, e.g. honour s. things 
and do not ridicule them ku 
girmama abubua ta addini 
kadda ku basu daria; (=gen. 
holy, pure) tsariki or tsarki. 

sacrifice, n. sadaka*; to offer a 
s. yin sadaka*. 

sad, adj. (= depressed, sorrowful); 
to be s. see sadness; a s. 
business (= causing sorrow or 
pity) abin tausaye ; a 8. busi- 
ness (=bad, wicked) abin mugu. 

saddle, n. rnrdi, pi. suradi and 
surduna; native 8. cloth which 
is laid on the s. jel(l)ala*, 
zipka*; s. peak kwochia, that 
in front kwochia gab(b)a, that 
behind kwochia baya. 

saddle, v. (of camels, etc.) labda, 



(of horses) damre (or da/rime) 
8urdi, and in the freest sense 
sa surdi bis(s)a doki. 

sadness, n. bak(k)in zucfUa; to 
experience s., to feel sad jin, 
yin or the forms in na with 
the n., e.g. I experience s., I 
feel sad ina bakkin zuchia. 

safe, meat, n. maanfanin noma. 

safe conduct, letter of, n. wotikan 
lamuni. 

safety, n. (= security from harm) 
lamuni, amana; (= deliverance 
from harm) chira and chiraro. 

saffron, n. (a plant) dqf(f)ara (?), 
loda. 

sagacious, adj. da basira, da han~ 
kaliy maihcmkali. 

sagacity, n. faisira, hankali. 

said, it is, determinative or causal 
phr. wai, e.g. thou art proud 
because it is s., Thou excellest 
all kana kumburawa wai ka fi 
kowa. 

sake, for the s. of, prep, domin, 
don, garin, sabbada, sabbado* 
or sabboda*, e.g. for his s. do- 
mima; for the s. of this domin 
(or don) hak(k)a; for the s. of a 
walk garin yawo ; for the 8. of 
what? domin mi, domi, and 
sabboda mi. 

sale, phrr. expose for s. tal(l)a ; it 
is on s., it is for s. asayesda. 

salesman, n. maisaida, pi. masu- 
8aida. 

saline, adj. da gishiri, na gishiri. 

saliva, n. 8al(l)abi, mio. 

salmon, fish resembling, n. /alia. 

salt, n. gishiri ; prov. a man may 



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salt-bag 



152 



salvation 



boil horns with his own s. 
(i.e. one may do what one 
likes with one's own) mutum 
da gishirinsa shi kan daffa 
kafo; spec, a dark kind of s. 
mauda\ hard rock s. gal(l)o ; 
an inferior kind of s. balma; 
a s. (or natron) used in dyeing 
as a mordant ashauma ; a cake 
of s. foche*; a flat piece of 8. 
cut fiom block zowari; round 
flat pieces of s. coll. aserimi ; 
large sack of s. (= one donkey 
load) lengi ; load oi's. cut small 
bakan gishiri ; pyramidal load 
(for one man) of s. kantu; 
small kantu of inferior s. pashi ; 
a large kantu of s. azururni; a 
quantity of s. auki*; s. spread 
out tafin giwa*. 

salt-bag, n. long, narrow b. for 
carrying s. langi*^ small s.-bag 
chukurvfa*. 

saltless, adj. babu gishiri, ba 
gishiri) spec, of eggs without 
salt (= insipid) da lami. 

saltpetre, n. kanwa, gal(l)o (?); 
spec, a s. used medicinally ja 
kanwa ; s. . used as maganin 
haifua is called kanwa gwan- 
gwarassa ; a s. used in making 
tuo, etc. farin kanwa ; a s. for 
making armlets kanwa un- 
gurnu. 

salutation, n. gaisua, e.g. he paid 
no heed to my s. bai kulla ba 
da gaisuana or ba ya karba 
gaisuana ba ; salutations at a 
funeral makoki. N.B. The 
language is rich in expressions 



of s., e.g. s. to you (=EngL 
hail! welcome!) pass, agaishe 
(-ka, -ki) -ku, atuski \ the com- 
monest expr. of s. is san(n)u 
or rep. san(n)u san(n)u and 
this is most frequently accom- 
panied by a reference to the 
time of day, or the state 
and occupation of the person 
saluted, e.g. good morning (lit. 
s. to you in the morning) sannu 
da safe, good evening sannu da 
mareche, welcome out of the 
rain sannu da rua; s. to you 
in your bereavement sannu da 
kewa; s. to you at your play 
sannu da worigi ; s. to you at 
your work sannu da aiki or 
sannu da aikinku or sannunku 
da aiki; spec. s. (among mos- 
lems) salam, (to the name and 
memory of Mohammed) sal- 
(l)ata or sal(l)atu, see under 
sal(l)a; to send salutations 



salute, tr. v. gaida, gaishe, gaisa, 
shali* and yvn shali, e.g. I 
saluted the man na gaida 
mutum; to go to s. anyone 
jawayi or jiwoyi ; spec, to go 
to s. (of sacred persons or 
places) ziara, ziara C 37, 
B 162, 168. 

saluted, to cause to be, tr. v. 
gaishe. 

saluting, n. (in a religious sense) 
tasliman* D title note. 

salvation, n. tsira, chetOy gaji m 9 
e.g. may we obtain s. amusami 
tsira E 52; a day in which 



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same 



153 



saved 



there shall be no s. rana da ba 
cheto A 4. 

same, adj. daia (lit. one) e.g. they 
are the s. duk daia ne ; this is 
the s. as that wonan daia ka- 
man wonchan ; together at the 
s. time or place gab(b)adai or 
gab(b)adaia; thes. hak{k)anan; 
it is all the s. suasna; as a 
determinative employ demon- 
strative pronouns, e.g. I saw 
the s. man yesterday in the 
market na gani wanan (or 
wanan mutum or mutum nan) 
jia chikkin kasua. 

sanctify, tr. v. tsar(i)kaka, tsar- 
kaka, tsarkaki or charkaka. 

sanctified, particip. tsar(i)kake, 
fern, tsarkakia, pL tsarkaku; 
cf. holy. 

sand, n. rairai or rere, jigowa Or 
jegawa; spec, fine s. turbaia*; 
white s. in water yachi; grains 
of s. barbaddi or berbaddi; s. 
mixed with grain tariki*. 

sandal, n. takalmi, pi. takalma, 
kufit(t)a or kufut(t)a, pi. kufit- 
(t)ai or kufut(t)ai ; sandals 
with red leather tops and hole 
for toe sambazai; light kind 
of s. tajawankai. 

sandy hill, a, n. jegowa or jigawa. 

sapphire, n. yakutu*. 

Satan, pr. n. shaitan, shetan or 
shaitani B 105, 132. 

satchel, n. (leathern) gu/aka or 
guf(f)aka, lek(k)i. 

satisfaction, n. 1. (of the appetite) 
koshi; 2. (of the feelings and 
emotions) dadi, e.g. we felt 



great s. mu ji dadi dayawa; 
3. see requital, requite. 

satisfactory, it is, phr. ya yi. 

satisfied, to be, intr. v. (of the 
appetites) koshi, e.g. they ate, 
they drank and were s. sun 
chi sun sJva sun koshi, (of the 
emotions) jin dadi ; cf . seq. 

satisfied, a being, n. koshi; one 
who is s. n. kosa(s)she, pi. 
kosas{s)u. 

satisfy, tr. v. (of -the appetite) 
koshada*; (= to pay to the full 
claims, etc.) bia, rama. 

Saturday, pr. n. of time assubat, 
ranan assubat or rana assubat. 

sauce, n. mia*. 

savage, n. (barbarians, uncivilised 
human beings) baibai, pi. ba- 
baiyi and babawa. 

savage, adj. (= barbarian) cf. prec., 
(= cruel) mun(n)i. 

savagely, adv. (= cruelly) da mun- 
(n)u 

savagery, n. (= cruelty) mun(n)i. 

save, tr. v. 1. (= to rescue, deliver) 
chira, chire, chiro or tsira, tsire, 
tsirOy sar F 1 25, cheto or cheche, 
Jidakai*, rukun* or rikun*, 
e.g. whoever beholds thee, be- 
holds part of paradise, he 
(Mohammed) saves him kowa 
ganika ya ga rabbo gobe ya 
tsira ; 2. (of money =• to lay 
by or up) aje. 

save, exceptive prep, see but 2. 

saved, to be, intr. v. chira, chire, 
chiro or tsira, tsire, tsiro, e.g. 
he who is ungrateful shall not 
be s., let us repent, let us put 



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saviour 



104 



scattered 



away ingratitude, so that we 
may be a. da ya she (=che) 
maibutulshi ba shi tsira ran 
tuba mu her butuhhi ho mu 
tsira; the pass, of chelo, cheche, 
may also be used acheto, an- 
cheto, anacJtsto, akacheto, and 
the fut. zcbacheto. 

saviour, n. maicheto, pi. masu- 

' cheto, macheehi*, pi. macheta. 

savoury, adj. gardi, fem. gardia, 
da gardi, da zaki, e.g. meat 
without broth is not s. nama 
da babu mia ba tana da gardi 
ba; for the opposite quality 
see insipid. 

saw, n. zerto, sasago*. 

say, tr. v. che with pres. forms 
chewa, fad{d)i or faa\d)a, 
tan(n)e*, &g. what do you say? 
mi ka che, we are saying that 
he is an honest man muna 
chetoa shi mutumen gaskia ne ; 
it is said anche, akache, he said 
to them ya die dam, yafaa\d)i 
masu ; he says, it is said, they 
s. (used to determine a phr. or 
clause as uttered or admitted 
to be true by others, like Engl. 
fam. 'you know') tvai, e.g. what 
does he desire in this earth 1 
Its goods, he says, both them 
and its dominion shi mi akayi 
kwadai gum, duniana wai dukia 
da su da sarotanta Bill; to 
s. a thing over again tes(s)a or 
tesa ; to s. off by heart or rote 
yin tulawa. 

saying, n. 1. (= something said) 
magana, pi. maganganu; 2. 



participial <n. (= act df s.) 
chetoa used with pres.. forms in 
na. 

scab, n. kurji, pi.- kuraji; kwreji, 
pi. kurareji; also kirchi, gurje, 
girje or urji* ; s. which has 
healed up tombo ; scabs coll. 
balli balli. 

scald, tr. v. (i.e. with hot water) 
tsali. 

scale, n. (as lichen, dandruff)- to to, 
tautau. 

scales, n. 1. (of fish) kumba, pi. 
kumbuna and kumbai, (of dead 
alligator) kirigin kada; 2. 
(= balance) maauna, mizani. 

scan, v. (=to look at with scrutiny) 
kal(l)o and yin kal(J)o, e.g. we 
walked about the town scan- 
ning everything mun yatvo 
dagga gari muma kaUo duka- 
chin abu. 

scar, n. (= cicatrix) tabo, tombo 
and tubbo ; scars made on face 
serving as tribal marks shau- 
shawa ; cf. marks. 

scatter, v. 1. tr. toasa or toase, 
walwache, wache and toase y 
raraba or rarabi*, kaririye or 
karayeya, tsiayi; 2. intr. wache 
and waslie, gigichi or gigi y e.g. 
they s. in silence, they leave 
thee in the grave su washe shiti 
su berka chikkin kushewa F 98 ; 
also pass., e.g. they scattered 
or were scattered anwachestt ; 
lest we be scattered kad(d)a 
awasamu. 

scattered, particip. pass, tvateu, 
also expressed by appending 



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scout 



156 



the pass, forms anwachesu, 
akawachesu ; scattered abroad 
wasawaea*. 
scent, n. 1. (= characteristic odour 
of animals) wari, cf. seq. ; 2. 
(=a sweet or agreeable odour) 
kamshi ; 3. (= a sweet-smelling 
preparation, a perfume) abin 
kamshi, jibda; spec, a small 
tree from the root : of which a 
s. is made uwan magunguna\ a 
plant whose root furnishes a s. 

scent, tr. v. (=to recognise by the 
odour) jin wari t also san(n)i 
wari ; the dog scented the lion 
karre ya ji warin zalci. 

scent-bottle, n. wukia. 

scented, keen-, adj. (of hounds) 
maijin wari, pi. masujin wari. 

scheme, n. (= artful contrivance) 
wayOy waya. 

scholar, n. (=a great scholar, a 
teacher) malami, pi. malamai; 
(= a pupil) almajiri, pi. almaji- 
ra% (used adjectively= learned) 
maikaratu, e.g. he became a 
great s. ya zama maikaratu 
dayawa. 

school, n. makaranta. 

scissors, n. almakassi ; joint of s. 
kwarmi t pi. kwarmu. 

scissors, cutting with, participial 
n. sosaiya* ; to cut with s. yin 



scoff at, to, v. baa and yin baa. 
scold, v. tsawa or yin tsawa, e.g. 

he scolded her well ya yi mata 

tsawa dayawa. 
scorch, tr. v.farcha. 



score, n. of number lasso, hauia, 
the latter esp. used in counting 
cowries, e.g. he looses two thou- 
sand cowries ya ber hauia dari 
A 39. 

scorn, v. rena, e.g. do you s. my 
present? kana rena keautana. 

scorpion, n. kunama, konama or 
kunami,/pl. kunamai, e.g. scor- 
pions and snakes will gather 
together, and with insects will 
pour forth poison kunamai duk 
su gaia mashizai da sususi deffi 
su ka bwngulawa F 109. 

scourge, n. bulala. 

scourge, tr. v. yin bulala, e.g. 
the judges ordered, him to be 
scourged alkalai su hahamta 
ayi masa bulala. 

scowl, intr. v. damrefuska. 

scramble for anything, v. wasoso. 

scrape, tr. v. karkari*, (to s. clean 
and so polish) yogi or goge, 
pies, gogetva, e.g. he is scraping 
the axe-handle shina gogewa 
bakin gatari; to s., also to s. or 
peel off,' to s. out (erase) kan- 
kari; to s., e.g. with a stone 
kurkura; to s. up = to grub up, 
e.g. roots tona and tone; to s. 
with a knife karta*. 

scratch, tr. v. (an itching place) 
8U8a; to s. up with the nails 
kache. 

scream, n. ufu, kururua. 

scream, intr. v. yin ufu, e.g. he 
screams shina yin u/u or shina 
(ufu or) kururua. 

scum, n. kunfa. 

sea, n. gulbi*, kogi*. 



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seal 



156 



security 



seal, n. zobe, zobi. 

seal, tr. v. yumki*, zuin(n)a*, 
zuinna*. 

seal-ring, n. zoben shaida. 

seam, n. (in cloth) albad\d)a, pi. 
albad(d)u or albad(d)odi; spec, 
a breadth between seams of 
cloth child. 

seamless, adj. (applied to cloth) 
liwasa. 

sear, tr. v. (with hot iron, to cau- 
terise) lalas, 8a lalas, e.g. he 
seared it ya sa mata led as. 

search, n. chigia; to make diligent 
s. yin chigia or bada chigia. 

search, v. 1. tr. (=to examine for 
the purpose of finding some- 
thing) nema with chik(k)i, e.g. 
we searched the boat but found 
nothing muka nema chikkin 
(or dagga chikkin) jirigi amma 
ba mu same komi ba; 2. intr. 
(=make search) nema; to s. 
after or for nema, bid(d)a, 
nuf(f)e or nif(f)a; s. dili- 
gently for tsururi, cf . prec. ; to 
s. for with the hand lalabe, 
fafake. 

searching after, n. (= desire and 
object of desire) maradi or 
muradi. 

season, n. 1. gen. (= usual or pro- 
per time) saa, hkachi, lot(t)u ; 
2. (= division of the year with 
respect to weather, etc.) dry 
(and hot) s. rani; it is the dry 
s. ya yi rani; hottest part of 
dry s., when the rains are be- 
ginning basara; wet s. dam- 
{m)ana or dam{m)una. 



seat, n. mazamni (i.e. spot on 
which anyone sits), kushera, 
bige*, turaka*; judgment s. 
also s. on which a king is 
carried about karaga. 

secede, intr. v. (=to separate from, 
withdraw from) raba and rabu 
with da or dag(g)a. 

second, ord. num. nabiu, fern. 
tabiu, also nabaya, fern, ta- 
baya. 

second, tr. v. (=to assist) taya, 
e.g. I seconded their action 
na iayasu yin hakka. 

secret, n. boya or boiya, asiri or 
ashiri ; in s., see secretly. 

secret, adj. naasiri, fem. taasiri; 
s. place loloki asiri, loloki, pi. 
lolokai; w. to keep s. rufe, 
rufi or rife; to open up, make 
known anything s. bude. 

secretly, adv. asiri or ashiri, 
aboiyi. 

section, n. godawa*. 

secure, adj., da babu tsoro (lit. 
without fear); cf. safety. 

secure, tr. v. (from danger, harm, 
etc.) see guard, (fam. =to 
catch, capture, e.g. a prisoner) 
kama, (to guarantee payment 
of a debt, etc.) see seq. 

security, n. 1. (=safety from harm 
generally) aminchi; to afford 
such s. yin aminchi B 84 ; 2. 
(=part payment of a debt as 
s. = earnest money) amana ; 3. 
(= a thing left as s., a pledge), 
jingina or jinjina; to give 
such s. jingina; 4. (responsi- 
bility for a debt, etc. = gua- 



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sediment 



157 



self-laudation 



rantee) lamuni or lamini; I 
stand or go s. na yi lamuni. 

sediment, n. guiba 9 gwiba or 
guibi. 

seduce, tr. v. (to lead astray) rude. 

seducer, n. mairude t pi. masu- 
rude, the pi. of sliaitan is also 
used in this sense, i.e. shaitane 
or shaitanai. 

see, tr. v. gan(n)i, gan(n)o, often 
contracted to gan, e.g. I saw 
her na ganta> also to gd which 
is very commonly used as an 
imperative, e.g. s. him, also = 
s. here ga&hi ; I s. distinctly 
there is the hyena ina gani 
sarrai kura gata B 149 ; in a 
pregnant sense, like the EugL 
'see' (= experience), e.g. they 
shall s. pain su gano azaba 
F 181 ; fig. (=to perceive, re- 
cognise, understand), e.g. what 
knowledge (intelligence) does 
not s. abinda hankali bai gani 
6a B 32 ; what knowledge sees 
abinda hankali ke ganewa B 33 ; 
common in conversation, e.g. 
do you s. ? ka ganni ; this 
may also be expressed by ha 
ji or ka fahimta; to s. from 
afar teinkaia, hange. 

seed, n. gen. (of plants, men, 
creatures) iri, pi. irare; spec, 
black and red seeds of a plant 
algarib, pi. algaribi; coriander 
8; ridi. 

seeing, participial n. ganewa. 

seen, pass, particip. ganem, fern. 
ganenia y pi. ganenu. 

seek, tr. v. (= to go in search 



of) nema, bid(d)a; to s. after 
(often implying to set the 
heart upon) dawoinya, wai- 
waia> e.g. he sought not after 
the things of this world ba 
waiwaia ba ta dnnia C 51 ; to 
s. for ttiski or tuske ; pregn. s. 
and return with bid(d)o, go to 
s. and return with nemo. 

seize, tr. v. (=to lay hold of) 
kama, intens. kankama*, e.g. 
he seized the horse by the tail 
ya kama doki da wutsiansa or 
ya kama umtsian doki, hau&hi*, 
maid*, 8ariki*\ to s. (esp. in 
order to eat) rida; to s. for- 
cibly as in war burumtu, also 
kwaehe \ (to snatch) amshi. 

select, tr. v. zaba, zabe, zabi*, 
tvari, the last often used of 
choosing out one or more 
pieces. 

selected, particip. pass, zababe, 
fern, zababa, pi. zababu, e.g. I 
will not agree to this unless 
you bring selected witnesses 
ba zan yerda tvanan ba sai ka 
zo da ma8U8haida zababu. 

self, n. expressed by kai and rai 
with possess, pronouns, 1. re- 
flexive, e.g. he exposed him- 
self to ridicule ya bada (kama 
or) rainsa daria; 2. emphatic, 
e.g. I myself ni dakaina, ni 
kaina, ni raina and raina 
E254. 

selfish person, n. marowachi, 
mairoiva ; a s. grasping person 
maisari. 

self-laudation, n. kirari. 



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sell 



158 



servant 



sell, tr. v. sayo, also saye, sayi, 
sai, saida, sayes, sayesda, tal~ 
(l)a 9 the last also esp. of having 
or exposing on or for sale, e.g. 
good camels are to-day selling 
in the market rakuma nagar- 
garu anasayesu yau chikkin 
kastta; in the sense of con- 
senting to s. the pass, of sal- 
(l)ame is often used, e.g. I agree 
to 8. = I let it go or you can 
have it asalameshi. 

seller, n. maisaida, pi.- mamsaida. 

send, tr. v. aiki, aike, aika, which 
also = to s. forth, from, to ; to s. 
to where the speaker is aiko, 
(with a person only as obj. lit. 
to rouse up, to start) tdda, e.g. 
I sent a messenger na tdda 
manzo; to s. away tayesda; 
(= to cast, throw, e.g. a bullet) 
jefa. 

sender, n. maaike, pi. masuaike 
and maaika. 

senna, n. shani ka sanni*, jttasko 
(Barth). 

sense, n. 1. (=good s., under- 
standing) hankali or hankali; 
a man of s. mutum maihan- 
kali ; 2. (= signification) see 
meaning. 

senseless, adj. (= stupid, foolish) 
mara&hankali, babu hankali, 
magagachi B 108, faskara*, 
(= insensible, unconscious) see 
seq. 

senses, n. (= the faculties of sen- 
sation) hankali, eg. look at 
him ! there he is in a faint 
and senseless but do not fear, 



in a little while he will come 
to his s. again gashil shina 
nan shina suma hankalinsa 
kua ya bache amma kadda ka 
ji t8oro jima kaddan hanka- 
linsa zai komo kuma gareshi. 

sensible, adj. (= prudent, intelli- 
gent) maihankali, pi. masuhan- 
kali, da hankali. 

sensibly, adv. (= with good sense) 
da hankali. 

sent, pass, particip. aikeke, fern. 
aikeka, pi. aikeku; one 8. n. 
maaike, pL masuaike and ma- 
aika — manzo ; spec, one s. 
from God rasulu*. 

sentence, n. (= judicial decision) 
sheria ; to pass s. yin sheria. 

sentinel, n. gata, pi. gataye. 

sentry, n. see prec. 

separate, adj. bambam, e.g. s. 
from that bambam dag(g)a 
wonchan. 

separate, v. 1. tr. raba and rab- 
(byi> kebe, ware; 2. intr. rabu, 
zauda* ; to s. from id. 

separated, pass, particip. rababe, 
fem. rababa, pi. rababu. 

separately, adv. dek(k)i dek(k)i. 

separation, n. rabua. 

serene, adj. see calm, clear, 
quiet. 

sermon, n. waatsi, waatsu often 
pronounced wazi, wazu. 

serpent, n. see snake. 

servant, n. (not slave) bar a, fem. 
barania or ba/ranya, pi. barori 
and pi. of multitude barutrua 
which implies a large number 
such as a king would have, 



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serve 



159 



sewer 



dan daki ; a female s. maaikia, 
enturaka* ; s. of God bawcm 
allaJi (lit. slave of God). 

serve, v. 1. (of one not a slave) 
yin barantaka ; 2. (of a slave) 
bauta with forms in na, or 
with ke or yi\ this is also the 
proper term (as the more re- 
spectful) for to s. God and 
hence for to s. false gods, e.g. 
a servant who has served a 
vain service, who serves a 
stone bawa wanda ki (=A») 
bauta ta banza shina bauta ga 
duchi D 42 note. 

service, n. 1. gen. ibdda; 2. (of 
one not a slave) barantaka, that 
of a slave being bauta (= servi- 
tude, slavery) hence its use as 
given in prec. 2; 3. (relig.) 
8. of God ibdda, e.g. serve 
God kuna ibada D 51 ; concr. 
divine s. (= public worship) 
8al(l)a. 

servitude, n. see slavery. 

sesame, n. samsam. 

set, tr. v. (gen. to place) sa\ 
(=. to plant) see plant .1. ; (= to 
sharpen, e.g. a knife) wasa or 
gerta wuka; intr. (of the sun) 
fadi, e.g. the sun s. rana ta 
fadi ; combinations of to s. 
with particles, etc. are: to s. 
apart from raba, to s. aside 
(= to reject) ki, to s. aside (=to 
omit for the present) ber(r)i, 
ber, to s. by and to s. down 
(e.g. on the ground) aje, to s. 
forth (= to exhibit, state) gaya, 
to s. out (= to start on a jour- 



ney) sabko, sa/ko or sapko, to 
8. up tayes, kaf(J )a, to s. upon 
(=to assault) Jirmaki. 

settle, v. 1 . tr. (= gen. to arrange, 
set right) gara, gera ; (= to pay, 
liquidate) bia, e.g. I settled the 
debt na bia bashi; 2. intr. (= to 
alight, fix one's habitation or 
stay) sauka or soka, zamna or 
zamna ; to s. on or s. down on 
id., e.g. the bird was tired and 
settled on the branch of a tree 
tmntsua ta gaji ta zamna bissa 
ga reshen UacJie. 

seven, card. num. bokkoi, e.g. the 
s. Hausa districts hausa bok- 
koi; s. times sau (or so) bokkoi; 
by sevens bokkoi bokkoi. 

seventeen, card. num. goma sha 
bokkoi, sha bokkoi. 

seventh, ord. num. nabokkoi % fem. 
tabokkoi. 

seventh, one, n. of number 
subu'i*. 

seventieth, ord. num. naseb(b)a'in, 
fem. taseb(b)ain. 

seventy, card num. seb(b)ain. 

severe, adj. (e.g. of a law, etc. = 
oppressive, harsh) da tsanani, 
also abin tsanani; to be s. 
tsane, tsani, tsanache, tsananta, 
all constr. with ga, gore (with 
pronouns) or ma. 

sew, tr. v. dumke, dumka or dum- 
ki, e.g. some tailors cannot s. 
well wodansu madumkai ba su 
iya dumke da keau ba. 

sewer, n. (= one who sews, also = 
tailor) madumki, fem. madum- 
kia, pi. madumkai. 



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sewing 



160 



share 



sewing, n. s. at edge of a garment 
lindumi; (=the act of & in 
order to mend) fasali ; v. to 
tack in s. lalaftu. 

ah!, n. (=the sound of hissing) 
skishit(t)a. 

shackle, v. sa with seq. and ma, 
e.g. we shackled them mu sa 
tnasu malwa ; let him be 
shackled asa masa giger. 

shackles, n. malwa, giger, cf . also 
fetters. 

shade, n. en(n)ua; a broad s. 
en(n)ua mqfadi; (=a thing for 
affording s., as a booth, shed, 
cover, etc.) rumpa, pi. rum- 
funa; to enjoy the s. sha en- 
(n)ua B 75. 

shadow, n. en(n)ua, e.g. a man 
does not leave his s. behind 
him tnulum bai berri ba en- 
nuansa ga baya. 

shake, v. 1. tr. gilgiza or girgiza, 
eg. the woman is shaking her 
kerchief to attract our atten- 
tion macJie tana gilgiza kalla- 
binta don mu tunane da ita, 
rauda, e.g. he shakes his head 
ya rauda lcai nasa, tankade 
as in winnowing, etc., zazaga, 
tugua, e.g. do not take the 
medicine without shaking it 
first kadda ka (hade or) sha 
magani sai ka zazagashi da- 
fori, mosa (also in fig. sense 
see below); to s. the hand as 
a greeting jinjini; to 8. off, 
e.g. dust kalkada, kalkade, kan- 
kade, karkade and kakabe* ; to 
& to and fro veto, shu\l)u; to 



s. up shil(lju, e.g. & up the two 
medicines together ka shillu 
magani da magani; to s. vio- 
lently shil{l)u and jijiga; 2. 
intr. mosa, also fig. in the wider 
sense of being agitated, in- 
fluenced, moved, e.g. the whole 
multitude were shaken at the 
news of war taro duka (ya or) 
su mosa da labarin yaki; to 
s. (as to tremble, shiver, shud- 
der with cold, etc.) raura. 

shaken, pass. part, gilgizaze, fern. 
gilgizazia, pL gilgizazu. 

shaking, n. (or trembling) raura- 
ira. 

shall, aux. v. 1. (of futurity) za, 
e.g. what s. I do nowt mi zani 
yi yanzu; 2. (of obligation), 
see must, necessary. 

shallow, adj. ba (or babu) zurufi 
(or zurfi), ba maizurujL * 

shambles, n. wurinfawa. 

shame, n. kumya or kumia ; 'the 
parts of 8. alaura; to feel s. 
jin kumya ; to put to s. sa (ba 
and bada) kumya, e.g. he put 
him to Often 8. ya sashi kumya 
(abude or) asarrari. 

shameful, adj. na kttmya, da 
kumya; a s. thing abin kumya. 

shameless, adj. maraskumya, ba- 
bu kumya ; a s. person fuzu. 

shamelessness, n. kulikas{s)a. 

shape, n. (= form) kama, supa*. 

shape, tr. v. (= to fashion, create), 
see make 1. 

share, n. see part, portion. 

share, tr. v. see divide; spec, to 
invite to s. in one's food chuna. 



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sharp 



161 



shepherd 



sharp, adj. 1. (= having a fine 
edge) da kaifi ; 2. (= finely 
pointed) tsini or zini, da tsini. 

sharpen, tr. v. warn, gerta* t e.g. 
take this knife and s. it ka 
dauka wukanga ka wasata; 
the knife was sharpened long 
ago wuka akawasata tundade- 
wa ; spec, to s. a knife bada- 
gela*; to s. a sword koda. 

sharpened, be, pass. v. awasa, 
anwasa y akawasa. 

sharpening swords, tool for, n. 
magagari. 

shatter, tr. v. (intens.) farifasJia 
or palpashe. 

shave, v. (with razor) aski, aske, 
aska, and yin aski. 

shaving, verbal n. spec. s. the 
front of head or so as to leave 
only a tuft on top of head 
kumbe or kwumbe; s. one side 
of the head as sign of sorrow 
faskari ; baldness caused by s. 



shawl, made in strips, n. alkil(l)a. 

she, pers. pron. fern. 1. separate 
and emphatic ita> e.g. it is 
s. ita che; s. stayed but her 
mother went away ita ta zamna 
amma uwaia ta taffi; 2. in 
combination with verbs ta, 
e.g. s. saw him ta ganshi y the 
woman said no mache ta che 
aa, 

shea-butter, n. dankon kedanya; 
the s.-b. tree kedanya, kadanya, 
kedainya; fruit of the s.-b. tree 
kade and hanchin kade. 

sheaf, n. (=also bundle of any- 

R, II, 



thing) dame or demmi, pi. 
damuna; spec. s. of arrows 
8hib(b)a*; s. of corn sangar- 
nia* or zangarnia*, pL san- 
garnu, 

shear, tr. v. yin sosaiya. 

shearing, verbal n. sosaiya. 

sheath, n. (for knife, sword) kube. 

shed, n. rumbu, rum/pa^ pL rum- 
/una esp. used of a s. or booth 
in a market-place; a temporary 
s. buka, pi. bukogi. 

shed, tr. v. (=to pour out or 
down) zub(b)a, zvb{b)o or $u~ 
ba*' y to s. tears yin hawaye. 

sheep, tumkia or dumkia, pi. 
tumaki. 

sheep-fold, n. see fold. 

sheet, n. (of paper) taba'an* ta~ 
karda; winding s. likafani 
F 91 note, kafan D 88. 

shelf, rope supporting a, n. raga- 
ya, pi. ragayu. 

shell, n. (= hard covering of fruit, 
e ggPy e te«) kosfa, kwosfa or 
kwasfa, pi. kosfofi or kwosfqfi, 
e.g. you break the nut, you 
peel off the s. ka karye gujia 
ka bare kwosfa; shells of snails 
katamtamwa. 

shell, tr. v. (= to take off the peel 
or shell) bare. 

shell-fish, an edible, n. kumba, 
pi. kumbuna and kumbai. 

shelter, n. (= protection from light 
and heat) en(n)tia t (= a place of 
refuge) gid{d)an chira, wurin 
chira. 

shepherd, n. makiyayi or maki- 
yaye y pi. makiyaya. 

11 



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sherds of pots 



162 



show 



sherds of pots, n. katanga. 

shield, n. gen. garkua or gerkua, 
pi. gariki, also in a loose sense 
(lit. battle equipment) kayan 
dagga ; spec, large, oblong s. 
like that of the Zulus kumn- 
gura* ; small s. kimkeli* ; s. 
made of skin makari ; s. made 
of straw dangi; species of 
antelope of whose skin shields 
are made tvalwaji. 

shine, intr. v. ba or bada haske, 
ha&kaka*, kal(J)i* or kel(l)i* ; 
the lightning shines brighter 
than the sun wolkia ta fi rana 
da haske. 

shining, adj. maiJiaske, pi. masu- 
haske. 

shirk work, v. huji. 

shirt, n. tufa or tufua, pi. tufafi 
or tufofi worn under the gown, 
riga, pi. riguna, which some- 
times = a large s.; spec, a funeral 
s. hausaki* or ausagi* D 88 note; 
an inside, pleated s. kwakwata; 
s. like a tobe but smaller tugua 
or tagua, pi. tuguna; akin to 
last is the name of a kind of s. 
tag(g)o, pi. tag(g)una ; hole for 
neck in a s. wundu 

shiver, 1. tr. see shatter; 2. intr. 
(= to tremble, shudder) firgita, 
raura. 

shoe, n. takalmi, pi. takalma ; he 
took off the s. ya fit(t)a (or 
fit{t)asda) takalmi', I put on 
the shoes but they did not fit na 
sa takalma amma ba su daidai 
ba; spec, small s. worn inside 
boots 8vf(f)adu, pi. 8uf(f)a- 



dai ; a pair of odd shoes gam- 
(m)inbauta. 

shoot, v. 1. tr. (=to hit with a 
shot, etc.) halbi or harbi ; pass, 
e.g. he was shot akahalbeshi 
da bindiga (if with an arrow 
da kibia); 2. intr. (=to dis- 
charge a gun) halbi bindiga or 
buga bindiga; of plants to s. 
or s. forth yin tofo. 

shooting, n. (= the killing of 
game) farauta; to go s. yin 
farauta. 

shooting star, n. mashi. 

short, adj. 1. (of length) gajert, 
fem. gajera and gajeria, pi. 
gajeru, e.g. a s. stick sanda 
gajera, also karami (lit. small) ; 
2. (of time) kaa\d)an 9 e.g. a s. 
while jima kaddan; 3. (in 
number, wanting) hil(l)afa*. 

short of, fall, intr. v. kdsa, e.g. thy 
days on earth are numbered, 
thou canst not pass them nor 
come s. of them kwanunka du- 
nia maduda ne ba ka wuchesu 
ba ka kd8<i8u B 122. 

shortness, n. gajerta. 

shot, n. (= ball, bullet) arsas . 

shoulder, n. kafada, pi. kafadu 
and kafadodi; the part from 
the 8. to the elbow damichi or 
damshi, pi. damasa. 

shout, n. ufu, wu y guda or gudu ; 
spec. s. in war jinjina ; a s. of 
joy rereru. 

shout, intr. v. yin ufu. 

shove, tr. v. see push. 

show, n. (= ornamental display) 
ado. 



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163 



sieve 



show, tr. v. (=both to point out 
any object and also to inform, 
explain) god(d)a or goda, nuna 
or nuniy e.g. he showed me it 
(i.e. he pointed out where it 
was) ya godda(mani or) gareni; 
s. me how I am to do it nuna 
(or godda) mani kamada ni yi. 
showing, verbal n. in both senses 

of prec. nunawa. 
shrink, intr. v. (from cold, etc.) 
Jirgita; (=to shrivel up), see 
seq. 
shrivel, intr. v. yaushi or yoshi, 
yin yaushi; it shrivels up ya 
yi yaushi. 

shroud, n. kafan*, likafani or 
likafani ; a s. is put on thee, 
thou art wrapped therein asa 
maka dan likafani kuma asunke 
F91. 

shrub, n. spec, a leguminous s. 
kaikaya ; a s. that burns with 
a noise (? = cynanchum vimi- 
nale) yadia ; s. from the wood 
of which a medicine (maganin 
majina) is made yako; s. the 
seeds of which are used for an 
eye medicine fideli. 

shudder, intr. v. raura. 

shun, tr. v. see avoid. 

shut, tr. v. rufe, rufi or rife, e.g. 
let not the door be s. kadda 
arufe kofa; to s. a box, door, 
etc. yani* ; to s. up sadda, 
turubude. 

shuttle, n. masaka. 

sick, adj. da chiwo, marili* ; one 
who is s. maichiwo, pi. masu- 
chiwo, maraslajia, majinachi*. 



sick, be, v. 1. (=to be in bad 
health) jin (or yin) chiwo, also 
da chiwo with forms in na f e.g. 
he is s. 8hina da chiwo ; 2. 
(= to feel nausea) jin kumolo ; 
see also ill 2. 

sickle, small semicircular, n. lauje 
B 38 ; he bends it as a s. is 
bent shi karkatta kama lauje. 

sickness, n. chiwo, chiuta or chuta, 
jinya* ; the following words 
designate special forms majina 
(= a cold), falfada (= fainting 
fit), aloba (= pestilence, plague) 
amai (= vomiting). 

side, n. 1. gen. woje, pi. wosashe, 
8a8(8)a found also as zaza F 1 82 ; 
e.g. one on this. s. and one on 
the other s. daia ga woje nan 
daia ga woje chart ; from this 
s. (of a room, glen, etc.) even 
to that s. dagga sassa nan 
har ga sassa nan) the right 
s. wojen dama, dama ; the left 
s. wojen (havmi or) hagum, 
hagum ; s. of a body (also = 
edge) kauye, kowi or kowie ; s. 
(=edge) of a stream kowien 
rua; 2. s. of the body kwibi; 
s. (=rib) of an animal awoza 
or awaza, pi. awozai, e.g. 
serpent's fat is a remedy for 
pain in the s. kissin machiji 
maganin awozai ne; s. (= 
boundary) kawechi* D 13. 

sieve, n. rereya or rairaia ; spec, 
vessel with holes used as a 
coarse s. matache; s. used for 
separating gold from sand, etc. 
matankadi; the verbal ex- 

11-2 



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sift 



164 



since 



pressions for sifting or win- 
nowing with the foregoing are 
tache, tankade or yin tankade, 
also bakache. 

sift, tr. v. see prec. 

sigh, n. sheda. 

sigh, intr. v. sheda used with 
forms in na or with yi, e.g. 
he sighs shina (or ycma) sheda ; 
she sighed ita ta yi sheda, 
sinihi or sinishi. 

sighing, n. ajian zuchia. 

sight, n. 1. (= the faculty of vision) 
no precise equivalent, turn, 
e.g. he lost the s. of his eye 
idonsa ya bache ; or (he became 
blind) ya zama maka/o, etc. ; 
2. (=the act of seeing also 
= view) ido, gan(n)i thus, in 
the s. of all men idon dunia ; 
the s. of her will console them 
ganninta zai masu hanhuri ; 
the 8. of them made everybody 
laugh ganninsu ya sa kowane 
daria, cf. F 247 ; the golden 
saddles are a beautiful s. 
suradi na zinaria su da keaun 
ganni ne ; dim (or dimness of) 
s. bambarokai. 

sign, n. gen. shaida, pi. shaidodi, 
which al80 = s. or mark made 
by one who cannot write his 
name, (= important or wonder- 
ful token, intimation) alama 
often pronounced halama, pi. 
alamomi, aya, pi. ayoyi ; (= s. 
adduced or appealed to as a 
reason or authority) dalili. 
signet, n. mataushin wotika ; s. 
ring zoben shaida. 



silence, n. shiriu, shim, shiu or 
shu, kurum, kawoi ; in s. shiriu 
B54, kuru, e.g. leave them in 
8. abersu kuru D 29 ; to keep 
s. yin kawoi ; he kept s. ya ja 
bakinsa. 

silent, adj. kauwe or kauwi. 

silent, to be, v. shiriu, kurum 
and kawoi with yi or the forms 
in na, e.g. be silent! ka yi 
shiriu ; we were s. mu yi 
kurum ; he is s. shina kurum 
or shina yin kawoi ; cf. D 94, 
95. 

silently, adv. shiriu, 

silk, alhari, pi. alharini; cord or 
chain of s. silia or siliya, pi. 
siliyu and siliyoyi F 233. 

silken, adj. na alharini F 217. 

silkworm, species of, n. tsamia. 

silk cotton tree, n. rimi. 

silly, adj. see fool, foolish. 

silver, n. azurfa or azurufa. 

silver, adj. naazurfa, fem. taa- 
zurfa. 

similar, adj. see like. 

similar, to be, v. daidaiche*, see 
under like. 

similitude, n. michali* or misali* ; 
to speak by a s. yin michali. 

sin, n. zunufi or zunubi, laifi, kus- 
kuri* ; to commit s. see seq. 

sin, intr. v. yin zunufi or zunubi, 
yin laifi. 

since, 1. prep. (= after, from the 
time of) tun, e.g. s. your birth 
tun haifuanka) s. the com- 
mencement of the war tun 
farawan yaki ; 2. conj. of time 
(= after that, from the time 



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165 



skilful 



that) tun da, tunda, e.g. s. we 
learnt that he was an infidel 
tunda mu sanni shi kafiri ne ; 
3. adv. (= ago) long s. tundade, 
tundadewa, tuntuni; how long 
s. ? tunyaushe, e.g. how long s. 
did you learn Hausa? tun- 
yaushe ka koiyo hausa; 4. 
conj. (= because) don, zama, 
e.g. they cannot move since 
they are lifeless ba suna iya 
yin mosi ba don ba su da 
rat. 

sincere, adj. see honest. 

sing, v. waka or waka, e.g. a 
mallam sits there and sings 
tvoni malami ya zamna nan 
yana waka. 

singing, n. raha*. 

single, adj. see alone, one. 

singly, adv. e.g. question them 
s. (= one by one) ka tambayasu 
data daia, see also alone. 

singular, adj. see plural. 

sink, n. (=a place of filth, also 
fig.) saiga, pL salgagi. 

sink, v. 1. intr. (=to go under 
water) nuta (Sokoto), nus(s)a 
or nus(s)e (Kano), ninkaya*, 
e.g. the boat is sinking jirigi 
shina nussa ; when s. = to fall 
e.g. of a man wounded or the 
sun descending fadi; 2. tr. 
(= to immerse) nuche ; spec, to 
8. a well gina rijia. 

sinless, adj. maradaifi, bdbu laifi, 
babu zunufi. 

sinner, n. maizunufi, pL masu- 
zunufi. 

sip, n. gutua, e.g. on that day a s. 



(of water) shall be sought for 
rana na akannemi guioa D* 
66. 

sip, v. kurba or kurbata. 

sister, n. (usually = younger s.) 
kanua or kanua* ; elder s. ya, 
iyata or yata. 

sit, intr. v. (also = to s. down) 
zamna, zamna, zona or zamne*; 
spec, to s. on the ground with 
legs crossed kishingida; to s. 
down (of camels, donkeys, etc.) 
kalabta*. 

site, n. wuri, pi. wwrwre. 

six, card. num. shidda; s. times 
adv. sau (or so) shidda; by 
sixes or s. each shidda shidda ; 
spec. 8. o'clock, just before 
sunset sakalia*. 

sixth, adj. nashidda, fern, ta- 
shidda-y one s. sudusi*. 

sixtieth, ord. num. nasettin, fern. 
tasettin. 

sixty, card. num. setting also 
gomia shidda. 

size, n. girima employed thus: 
its fruit is large in s. diata 
8una da girima ; the a of the 
jerboa exceeds that of the 
mouse kurege ya fi bera da 
girima; a box of great s. 
babban sanduki; to become 
(or grow) large in s. girima 
and yin girima. 

skeleton, n. mushe*. 

skilful, adj. (in an art, etc.) 
gon(n)i, pi. gon(n)ai, mai- 
gon(n)i ; (in artifice) maiwayo, 
pi. masuwayo, (esp. in war) 
gar day e. 



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166 



slavery 



skilfully, adv. gon(n)i, da gon(n)i, 
da wayo, da dubara. 

skill, n. (in an art or profession) 
gon(n)i also goni* ; (in artifice) 
wayo and waya\ (in contri- 
vance, resource) dabdra or 
dvJbdra\ (with more or less 
implication of opportunity and 
readiness) tearafi*. 

skim, tr. v. (milk) yade. 

skin, n. gen. fata, pi. fatuna, 
(=?hide) kilago, pi. kUagai; s. 
after tanning kirigi (before, 
Jata) ; cast s. of serpent suaba 
or saba, teana* ; he casts his 
s. ya yi suaba ; spec. s. bag or 
bottle scdka or salha, pi. sal- 
kuna; s. used for drawing 
water from well guga, pi. 
guguna) covering of skins 
tunku ; s. of goat used as loin 
cloth uxdki or wolki; sack 
made of s. waga. 

skin, tr. v. kware or kwari; see 
also flay. 

skip, v. (= to spring along or over 
lightly) bira; (=to pass over 
without reading passages in a 
book) chingoyra, q.v. 

skull, n. kolua, kolua, kwalua, 
kokulwa, koinya, koinyan kai, 
ka{8)shin kai (lit. bone of the 
head); the s. shall boil kolua 
tana tafassa D 65. 

sky, n. sama, pi. samania or 
samomi, dunia or duniya, 
gari. 

slacken, v. 1. tr. see loosen, 
intr. (=to be loosened) id. in 
the passive; 2. tr. v. (-to 



relax, mitigate) reg(g)i, ragi 
or rage ; intr. (= to be relaxed, 
mitigated) ragu, e.g. the heat 
of the fire slackened zqfin 
wuta ya ragu. 

slander, tr. v. chimbaya. 

slash, tr. v. (= to cut by striking, 
i.e. not by drawing the edge 
along, which is yenka) sore. 

slaughter, tr. v. yenka or yenke ; 
to s. animals fawa. 

slaughter-house, n. wurinfawa. 

slave, n. bawa, fern, baiwa, bauya 
or ba/wiya, pi. bayi or bai t 
buzu* ; spec, chief s. of a king 
kachal(l)a, yari; female s. 
baitva (as above), kuyanga or 
kwiyanga, pi. kuyangai, yan 
turaka, (also = mistress, con- 
cubine) sadaka; female begging 
s. mauro* ; female house s. 
kwarakwara or kworakwora, 
bawan gia\d)a ; son of 8. but 
free bachucheni) offspring of 
a s. and a free person dimajo ; 
s. about 14 years old magu- 
danchi, pi. magudantai; a 
strong s. koto, fem. katuwa; 
runaway s. gujeje* ; s. holder 
maibawa; charm for catching 
slaves kauchi) s. raiding ex- 
pedition samame ; v. to free a 
s. yanchi or enchi. 

slaver, n. (= saliva dripping from 
mouth) 8aUJ)abi. 

slaver, intr. v. (to let saliva drip 
from mouth) yin sal(l)abi. 

slavery, n. bauchi, bauta, ba- 
womchi; liberation from s. 
diyauchi or diyanchi ; redemp- 



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slay 



167 



slowly 



tion from s. /ansa usually 
pronounced pansa ; to redeem 
from s. yin /ansa, bada (or ba) 
diyauckiy e.g. he freed them 
from s. ya badam diyauchi. 

slay, tr. v. see kill. 

sleep, n. berchi or berichi, kwana, 
kunshia* or kwanshia, e.g. 
hasten to arise from 8., my 
brother ; fear -then the s. 
within the tomb ha razanna 
dagga kwana dan uwata ha 
tsorshi fa kunshia ta shihin 
kushewa F 75 ; the last s. 
maharin berichi. 

sleep, intr. v. berchi or berichi 
with yi or forms in na t also 
kwana or ktvanche; the former 
refer rather to the physical 
condition, the latter convey 
also the idea of reposing, lying 
down to s., e.g. we did not 
hear the howling of the dogs 
we were sleeping ba mun ji 
huhan harnuha muna berchi; 
we slept at that place mun 
kwana awurinan. 

sleepiness, n. genged(d)i ; to be 
overcome by s. id. 

sleeping-place, n. malaoanche; 
spec. s.-p. (e.g. in a tree) 
affording protection from wild 
beasts saura*. 

sleeve, n. harm, pi. hanaye; 
sleeve-knife the blade of which 
is worn along or up the s. 
wuha hanu. 

slide, intr. v. see slip. 

slight, adj. see thin. 

slight, tr. v. rena. 



sling, a stone, to, v. majujawa*. 

slip, n. (=loss of foothold by 
sliding) samtsi or santsi; to 
make a s. yin samtsi, talalabia, 
e.g. he made a s. ya yi samtsi, 
also samtsi ya sameshi, ya 
talalabia or ya yi talalabia. 

slip, intr. v. 1. (=. to lose foothold 
by sliding) talalabia and yin 
talalabia, gubchi or gache the 
last also = to s. into, e.g. he 
slipped into the well ya gubchi 
chikhin rigia, kafia* (e.g. as 
in soft mud) B142; 2. (=to 
escape hold) kubche ; of things, 
e.g. the sword slipped from my 
grasp tahobi ya kubche dagga 
hanuna; of persons (=to 
leave or get away easily from 
companions, etc.) rabu 9 e.g. he 
slipped suddenly away and we 
saw him no more nan da nan 
ya rabu ba mu kara ganehi ba. 

slipperiness, n. samtsi or santsi. 

slippery, adj. da samtsi. 

slipping down or out, participial 
n. sumbulewa. 

slit, for head etc. in gown, n. 
kwakwata. 

slit, tr. v. keta. 

slothful, adj. see laziness. 

slough, n. (= cast skin of serpent) 
suaba or saba ; to cast a s. yin 
suaba. 

slow, adj. (= one who goes slowly 
or deliberately) mainauwa. 

slowly, adv. san{n)u % , very s. 
san(n)u san(n)u, e.g. tell me 
very s. ha faddi mani sannu 
sannu. 



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slumber 



168 



snake 



slumber, n. and v. see sleep, 
sleepiness. 

sly, adj. da wayo, maitoayo, pi. 
masutaayo; cf. skilful. 

small, adj. karami 9 fern, karama 
or karamia, pi. karamai, kan- 
kana and kankara, also kan- 
kanta, e.g. in phr. hal(l)in 
kankanta - childishness (lit. 
the having a 8. mind), compar. 
smaller, see EL Or. p. 45 ; sup. 
smallest auta; but see id. 
p. 46 ; anything s. n. kima, 
hi8ugu*\ s. quantity of karan- 
chi. 

small-pox, n. agana, zanzana, 
ma8{s)asara*. 

smash, tr. v. (= to break to pieces 
with violence) farifasha, pal- 
pashe, rugunguza*. 

smashed, particip. pass, mur- 
jek(k)e, fem. murjek(k)a, pi. 
murjek{k)u. 

smear, tr. v. (e.g. with oil, etc.) 
shafa or shafe, yafa*. 

smell, n. (= odour) an agreeable 
s. kamshi, chibda or dadin 
chibda; a bad s. daii or doyi, 
tvari (or toardi*), the last 
also = the characteristic odour 
of animals 'the scent'; s. of 
camel funi* ; s. of damp fum- 
funa; an evil s. as of putri- 
fying animal bodies mushe* \ 
musty s. as of grain long kept 
$una. 

smell, tr. v. 1. (=to perceive by 
the sense) ji> e.g. I s. the scent 
of lions na ji warin zakoki; 
2. (=to s. at with the intent 



to enjoy or test) shaka or 
sheka, also sunsuna or sonsona, 
the last esp. of a sweet or 
agreeable scent. 

smelt, tr. v. narike. 

smelted, particip. adj. narike, 
fern, narika, pL nariku; to 
be s. nariku. 

smile, n. daria*. 

smile, intr. *v. mttrmushi or muZ- 
mushij kamnajuska*. 

smite, tr. v. see strike, kill ; to 
s. in fight yin kokua, 

smith, n. see blacksmith. 

smoke, n. hayaki; spec. s. of a 
conflagration turnuka. 

smoke, v. 1. (=to emit s.) yin 
hayaki ; 2. (to s. tobacco) sharv 
taba. 

smooth, adj. da (samtei or) santsi, 
sarnsi. 

smooth, tr. v. (of wood, by paring, 
shaving) sasaka or saseka, (by 
daubing, plastering, etc.) yabe. 

smoothed, particip adj. (by plas- 
tering, etc.) yababe, fem. ya- 
baba 9 pi. yababu. 

smoothly, adv. sansamsa*. 

smoothness, n. sanUsi or santsi. 

snail, n. tantanua* (f). 

snail-shells, colL katamtamtoa. 

snake, n. machiji, pi. machizai, 
e.g. snakes also shall be 
gathered together to them 
machizai kua #u yitvo gaia 
garesu F 190; names of dif- 
ferent species which await 
identification are : a black s. 
mo8O80* ; black s. about 14 
inches long kumachi; black s. 



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snare 



169 



soever 



about 18 inches long dan ma~ 
gwrji\ black s. with red neck, 
ten feet long and poisonous 
gunwheka; s. with black and 
white spots, about five or six 
feet long kububua) large black 
and white poisonous s., its 
flesh eaten kasa; long, slender, 
light-coloured s. kwakia; a 
small species of s. damachiri 
or darnatsvri) plant used as 
antidote to s. bite filasko ; s. 
charmer gardi or gerdi, pi. 
gardawa, ttvrdi, pi. turdawa or 
turdodi ; s. skin suaba or saba, 
teana*, see skin, slough. 

snare, n. hak(k)o 9 pi. hak(k)oki, 
turko; to lay a s. yin hah- 
(k)o. 

snare, tr. v. (to catch by means 
of a s.) yin hak{k)o. 

snatch, tr. v. kwache or kwashe, 
kuxtso, karba or kariba*, karbi 
or karibi*, fisge or fusge, am- 
8hi y zar(r)i*, fcmchiQ), e.g. I 
snatched the fellow's stick na 
kwache sandan mutum; spec. 

to 8. goods WO8080) to s. 

greedily toawasu*; to 8. the 

hand away dtmgo* ; to s. with 

violence rupta or rupto. 
snateher, n. maikwachewa. 
snatching away, particip. n. am- 

shiwa C 24, 25. 
sneeze, intr. v. atisha and ati- 

shawa ; spec, (of horses) furji. 
sniff, v. sheka; to s. up (for the 

purposes of smelling) id. 
snore, intr. v. tninshaH, namari 

or hansari. 



snuff, n. (powdered tobacco) ga- 
rintaba, tabcm hanchi. 

snuff; v. see sniff. 

snuff-box, n. bat(t)a, pi. bat(t)ochl 

SO, adv. (= thus) hak(k)a, hak- 
(k)anan, e.g. or is it not so? 
ko ba hakka ba; so flashed 
and fell the brand hakkanan 
takobi yafadi maihaske, kaza, 
e.g. so too there shall be rooms 
of ruby kaza kuma dakunan 
yakutu F 227 ; so and so it 
happened kaza da kaza ya 
faru; kaza is often used in a 
less demonstrative sense and 
when something is referred to 
not named = so and so, e.g. he 
did so and so ya yi abu kaza', 
also of persons, e.g. I saw 
doctor so and so na gcmni 
maimagani kaza ; just so (= no 
doubt) labua\d)a* which also 
= quite so, for which cf . quite 
(fin.); about so much kotan- 
chinkaza; so expressing doubt 
or some surprise, so ! to ; so 
that, see under that ; so then 
(= therefore), see therefore. 

soap, n. 8abuni, sello; spec, a 
superior kind of s. used for 
washing the face §abunin seUo. 

soar, intr. v. (of birds = to fly 
aloft, and gen. = to rise high) 
tashi and tashi bis(8)a. 

socket, n. kwarmi, pi. ktoarmu; 
s. of the eye gulbin ido ; prov. 
the s. of the eye is not the eye 
itself gtUbin ido ba ido ne ba. 

soever, affix to words to empha- 
sise the notion of contingency 



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soft 



170 



some 



ko (used as a prefix), e.g. 
where ? enna ; wheresoever ko~ 
enna ; who ? which ? what ? wa, 
wane; whosoever, whichsoever, 
whatsoever kowa, kowane, e.g. 
whomsoever you find seize 
him kotoane ka same ka kama- 
shi. 

soft, adj. (e.g. of mud, dough, etc. 
also of cloth) tapshi, ta/shi or 
tabshi, of fruit when ripe tabo 
is also used; v. to be or be- 
come s. yin tapshi, of ripe fruit 
yin tabo, e.g. the date is s. 
dabino ya yi tabo ; to make s. 
yin tap8hi. 

soften, tr. v. yin tapshi, zabki*, 
. e.g. it will s. our heads kai 
garemu ta zabki D65. 

soft-hearted, adj. (=*kind, gentle) 
tapshi, ta/shi. 

soil, n. 1. (= ground, land) ka%(s)a y 
pi. kas(8)ashi and kastyasa ; 
very hard s. teandawri ; 2. see 
dirt. 

soil, tr. v. yin dauda, 

sojourn, n. (= temporary stay) 
zama or zama, e.g. how have 
you been faring during your 
s. in this town? enna zaman 
gari ; his craft during his s. on 
earth is in vain wayonsa banza 
ni zamansa na dunia C 6. 

sojourn, intr. v. (=to make a 
stay) zamna, zona or zamne*, 
e.g. we sojourned there twelve 
days mu zamna nan kwana 
goma sha biu, shid(d)a or 
8hid(d)e (lit. to alight at a 
place). 



sojourner, n. maizamna, pL ma- 
Buzamna. 

solace, n. see comfort, conso- 
lation. 

solace, tr. v. see comfort, con- 
sole. 

solder, a sort of, n. sinaderi, 
shinaderi or sunadari, =e chlo- 
ride of ammonium (?). 

soldier, n. mayaki, pi. mayaka, 
dan yaki, pi. yayan (or yam) 
yakiy askar, pi. aekarawa ; spec, 
s. of king's body dogari, da- 
kara, pi. dakaru; foot-s. saati*; 
foot-soldiers coll. kvrma, see 
infantry; horse-s. gurigwri*, 
see also cavalry ; experienced 
s. maitsasi or maidsasi. 

sole, n. (of the foot) sau, mataJci, 
pi. matakai, tajvn kaffa. 

sole, adj. makadaichi or muka- 
daichi, s. in its most idiomatic 
use, however, is best expressed 
by means of sai, e.g. his s. 
request was this ba ya roko 
ba sai wonan; our s. food is 
guinea-corn abinchi namu sai 
dawa. 

solely, adv. see alone. 

solid, adj. (= sound, trustworthy) 
ingatachi G 7. 

solve, tr. v. (=to clear up, ex- 
plain) waye, gaya. 

some, 1. (standing as an indefinite 
adj. pron.) woni or want*, fem. 
wota, pi. wonsu, wosu or too- 
dansu, e.g. s. woman had fowls 
wota mache tana da kaji; 2. 
woni also expresses the correla- 
tives s. one... another, pL s.... 



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sometime 



171 



sound 



others, also s....s., e.g. s. one 
said yes, another said no tvoni 
ya che i woni ya che aa; s. will 
pass the bridge like a wind, 
others (or s.) again like light- 
ning, without doubt strati 
WOT18U kan shuUe (sJvude) wa 
iska wodansu ya wolkia kuma 
babu wawa F 154. 

sometime, adv. woniyayi. 

son, n. da, connective dan, pi. 
yaya 9 connective yayan and 
yan 9 e.g. first-born s. da na~ 
Jari; the s. of Amina dan 
amina, used as an expression 
of regard, e.g. my s. dona ; s. 
of my mother (= friend) dan 
ivwana, also (as at times in 
English) to express contempt 
or aversion, e.g. s. of the 
ignorant (heathen) dan jahili 
(stronger than jahili alone) 
B 14, C 5, 6, s. of the wicked 
dan mazugu D 29. 

song, n. warn, waka or toaka; v. to 
sing a s. waka with yi or the 
forms in na, e.g. I sang them 
a s. na yi mam toaka; to 
compose a s. id. 

sonship, n. diyauchi* or diyan- 
chi*. 

soon, adv. (= after a little while) 
jvma kad(d)an 9 e.g. I shall s. 
return to you jima kaddan ni . 
homo gareku 9 cf. also while; 
(= in a short time, with quick- 
ness) maza and frequently 
maza maza, e.g. I will s. catch 
him zan kamashi maza maza. 

soothsayer, n. boka* 9 pi. bokaye*. 



soothsaying, n. aruwa. 

sorcerer, n. maye or mayi, fern. 
mayia. 

sorceress, n. see prec. 

sorcery, n. maita. 

sordid, adj. see filthy, base. 

sore, n. see nicer, boil. 

sore, adj. see painful. 

sores, pi. balli balli. 

sorrow, n. mayata*, D 61, see 
affliction, grief; v. s. for and 
to feel s. for, see compassion. 

sorrowful, to be, intr. sinihi. 

sorry, (= distressed, pained) da 
wohal(J)a 9 (=poor, mean) ban- 
za 9 na banza; to be s., see 
grieved; to be or feel s. for, 
see compassion. 

sort, n. iri 9 pi. irare 9 latmi; cf. 
species. 

sort, tr. v. (= to divide, distribute 
into classes) raba; (=to s. out) 
cf. choose. 

sorted, pass. part. rababe 9 fern. 
rababa 9 pi. rababu. 

sought for, what is, n. marddi or 
mwrddi. 

soul, n. rai 9 pi. raiu 9 hirua, both 
are used of the disembodied as 
well as the embodied s. ; (= the 
seat of the mental feelings and 
qualities) rai 9 e.g. of haughty 
s. da gvriman rai; patient of 
s. da sainyin rai. 

sound, n. (e.g. of bees, a bell, 
gun, trumpet) am(m)o; a con- 
fused s. dum(m)i. 

sound, adj. (= trustworthy) inga- 
tachi ; a (in health) da lafia. 

sound, intr. v. yin am(m)o. 



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172 



spear 



soup, n. romua, rumua or romo, 
ruan nama; spec. s. in which 
. fura has been made forau 
forau or ruan /lira ; s. made 
of meat and the fruit of the 
dorowa tree yakua; a & re- 
sembling the last sure; herb 
leaves of which are used in 
making s. turgunwa or tur- 
gunuwa. 

sour, adj. see acid. 

source, n. (= spring of water) 
idon rua; (= origin, beginning) 
mafovri) (of words = primitive 
meaning, derivation) guzu or 
gum*, e.g. what is its s. ? 
minene guzunsa; (= first cause) 
8ab(b)abi, 8ub(b)abi or subub- 
(b)i, e.g. the s. of the illness 
was this sabbabin chiuta he 
nan, 

souse, tr. v. (=to immerse) teoma, 
nuche. 

south, n. kudu or kud(d)us, gu- 
mm, teakan rana; adv. id., 
e.g. he went s. ya taffi kudu 
G2. 

southward, adj. (= towards the 
s.) gummchi. 

sovereign, n. see king. 

sovereignty, n. see kingdom. 

sow, n. (female of wild swine) 
gadonia; (of domestic) gur- 
suna mache. 

SOW, tr. v. shipka or shuka, yin 
shipka, yin shuka. 

sower, n. maishipka, pi. masu- 
8hipka, mashipki, pi. mashipka, 

sowing-place, n. manomi. 

sowing-time, n. manomi, also 



fig., e.g. this life is a s.-t. for the 
future life, everyone who hoes 
corn will reach the great city 
ita dunia nana che manomi a 
lahira kowa ya nomi hatsi ya 
kai baban gari, 

space, n. (= open, free room) sar- 
(r)ari; unoccupied sp. (e.g. 
on the ground, etc.) fill, pi. 
filaye, e.g. there is no s. here 
for my load babuJUi umri nan 
ga kayana; in a less precise 
sense umri (place) may be 
used. 

spacious, adj: maisar{r)ari f mai- 



span, n. (measure of length = space 
between ends of thumb and 
first finger extended) takin 
hanu, dani. 

spare, tr. v. (to avoid troubling) 
kiyaye, e.g. spare yourself ki- 
yaye kanka. 

sparrow, n. suda*; spec, a bird 
rather smaller than s. baiwan 
allah. 

speak, v. fad(d)a and fad(d)i, 
tan(n)e, e.g. I s. the truth to 
you inafaddi maku gaskia, (in 
the sense also of conversation) 
yin zanche, and zantaioa; to 
s. a language yin magana, e.g. 
we are able to s. Hausa muna 
iya yin magana hausa; to s. 
evil of bache*; to s. evil of 
behind one's back chimbaya; 
to s. proudly yin raha; to s. 
secretly or to s. in whispers 
rad(d)a; cf. say. 

spear, n. mashi or maji, pi. mam- 



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spear 



173 



spend 



suka ; spec, a long s. not thrown 
kasausawa ; small 8. for throw- 
ing hankaltilo ; small s. tied to 
wrist and after throwing pulled 
back hargi\ small s. or dart 
for catching fish hag(g)u; v. to 
cast a s. as a sign of declaration 
of war yesda (or yada) mashi. 

spear, tr. v. soka, soke or soki, 
halbe, halbi or hcvrbi, e.g. he 
speared a fish ya soka kifi; 
he speared the enemy with a 
javelin ya halbe abokin gabba 
da hankaltilo, 

spearman, n. mahalbi 9 pi. maJial- 
bai and rnamhalbi. 

species, n. iri, pi. irare, launi, 
e.g. in this building they had 
collected stones of various s. 
chikkin gidda nan su ka tatara 
duatsu na iri dabam dabani. 

speckled, adj. (of birds, etc.) wa- 
katoake, cf . spotted. 

specks, coll. (= spots or dots, e.g. 
on plumage of birds) zane\ 
spec. s. in eyes of blind tsauria; 
cf . spot. 

spectacle, n. (=an imposing sight), 
see sight 2. 

spectacles, n. (the optical instru- 
ment) minzeri*. 

spectre, n./atalua. 

speech, n. 1. gen. magana, which 
can be used in all the following 
senses; 2. (=the uttering of 
words) fad{d)a i e.g. he would 
hear my s. shi kan ji faddata ; 
until s. be heard (=is ended) 
har magana ajita; in her s. 
chikkin magana nata; con- 



fused, noisy s. dum(wi)i % e.g. 
leave off excess of noisy s. 
ku ber yaw an dummi B 22 
where see note, B 154 ; 3. 
(= uttered words and so = talk, 
discourse) zanche, kalami*, kcU- 
mata* (lit. my words, only so 
found), aljama* or aljima, ja~ 
wabi*, together with magana, 
pi. maganganu, e.g. s. of or 
about the resurrection zanchen 
kiyarna ; one who listens to our 
s. majia kalami D 5 ; listen to 
my s. ku ji kalmata B 22 ; I 
have s. which will profit ina 
da aljama maianfdni ; that we 
may not fail in s. don kadda 
mu kasa faddi jawabi D 47 ; 
4. (= native language) hausa* y 
pi. harata, hahhi or ha/rshi, pi. 
haUhina, e.g. in the s. of the 
Fulahs da halshin fulani ; he 
understands the Hausa s. ya 
ji magana hausa. 

speechless, adj. see dumb, 
silent. 

speed, n. see haste; with s. (of 
rapid pace in running) da 
gudu. 

speedily, adv. see quickly, soon. 

spell, n. (= charm) mdgani, pL 
maganguna and magtmguna; 
to put under a s. damre, dawe, 
damra* or darmi*. 

spend, tr. v. ka(s)8he 9 kasshi* or 
kissa, (with the idea of waste 
more or less implied) batas, 
e.g. he spent much money ya 
kasshe kurdi dayaiva; to s. 
time samu. 



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spew 



174 



spleen 



spew, v. tofiy kurukure. 

spice, hot, n. yaji; spices colL 
jauwi*; cf. pepper. 

spider, n. gizzo or gisso, toto, tan- 
tau; female s. koki* ; spider's 
web 8umya. 

spike, n. an iron 8. teinki or zinke, 
pi. tsinkai or zinka; also = a 
little s. of straw; s. for making 
holes in skin, etc. Uxho or siko, 
pi. tsikuna. 

spill, v. 1. tr. (=to let run over) 

tudas, e.g. the woman spilled 

water from her pitcher mache 

ta tudas rua dagga tulunta; 

i 2. intr. tuda or tude. 

spin, v. 1. tr. (=to twist into 
thread) kadi and yin kadi ; to 
s. yarn seb(b)i*; 2. (= to re- 
volve) kewoye or kewayi, e.g. 
the top spins kodi ya kewoye ; 
I feel qualmish, my head spins 
round ina jin kumolo kaina 
kua shina (or yana) kewoye. 

spindle, n. mazari, kadamvn ab- 
duga; a sort of s. mataki. 

spinning round, anything, n. 
kodi, e.g. ball, top, etc. 

spinster, n. gobrua. 

spirit, n. (= soul of man generally, 
also as the seat of feelings, etc.) 
see soul, (=an immaterial be- 
ing, a sp.) id.; the evil s. eblis, 
ebliz*, iblis, see also satan; 
an evil s. aljan, pi. aljannu; 
evil spirits coll. jinnu, also the 
pi. raiuka, cf. rai 4; (= a ghost) 
see spectre ; (= mind) zuchia, 
e.g. tranquillity or happiness 
of s. dadin zuchia ; (= temper, 



frame of mind) see disposi- 
tion; spec, terms connected 
with popular superstitions are: 
s. described as having hair 
hanging down face (da ga$hi) 
and often appearing in trees 
dodo, pi. dodonai; an evil s. 
or ghost maigvro* ; a 8. that 
renders man mad or delirious 
bori; s. said to be the patron 
of the masubori (infra) and to 
make mad janzir(r)i ; evil s. 
said to kill mother and child 
at birth uwayara ; evil s. sup- 
posed to injure tamarind tree 
dogua ; evil s. in form of snake 
gajimare; persons and esp. 
women possessed by an evil 
& masubori or masuboli; see 
also spirits. 

spiritless, adj. da karamin zuchia. 

spirits, pi. n. see intoxicating 
drink; a case of s. akwatifl). 

spirt, tr. v. (i.e. water, etc. from 
the mouth) teddas ; spirting n. 
teddaswa ; see also spew. 

spit, v. 1. tqfi, fesa, furja, kaki* ; 
to s. out miau ; to 8. out water 
from the mouth Uertua ; 2. see 
pierce. 

spite, n. chegi, for s. don chegi, 

spitting, participial n. fesawa, e.g. 
accompanied by s. of blood da 
(or tare da) fesatoan jini. 

spittle, n. see saliva. 

splash water, e.g. over an infant, 
v. shawo. 

spleen, n. (=the bodily organ) 
se/a or sai/a, pL eefqfi ; (= dis- 
ease of the s., splenitis) chiwon 



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splendid 



175 



spring 



se/a; trop. (= vexation) haushi, 
e.g. his s. was roused at this 
ya ji JiOMshi/n, wonan. 

splendid, adj. (of dress, orna- 
ments, etc.) na ado, fern, ta 
ado. 

splendour, n. (of dress, etc.) ado, 
pi. adodi. 

splenitis, n. see spleen. 

splinter, n. (e.g. in the skin) 
8art8i; spec, to get a s. in 
the foot tofo* magamma. 

split, n. tsaga or chage. 

split, tr. v. tsaga or chage, keta, 
fas{8)a, the last also used of 
cold. 

splitting, 1. participial n. ketua, 
faeawa, (of wood) chachagi; 

2. adj. maifasawa, e.g. where 
there is cold s. (everything) 
open enda minyi maifasawa 
F 174 n. 

spoil, 1. tr. v. (*to waste, injure) 
bata, bache) 2. intr. (=to be 
spoiled, wasted, etc.) bache ; of 
fruits, etc. ( = to go bad, rot) 
riba or ruba ; 3. n. and tr. v. 
see plunder. 

spoiled, pass. part, batache, fern. 
batachia, pi. batatu,. ribabe, 
fern, ribabia, pi. ribabu ; to be 

3. see spoil 2. 

sponge, n. spec, foliage of a small 
plant used as a s. soso* ; a 
general designation for any- 
thing used as a s. is abin 
shafe. 

spoon, n. (of wood) teokali, koshia; 
large s. gago*; large wooden 
s. moda ; spoons made from 



pumpkin rinds pi. lud(d)ai or 
led(d)ai. 

sport, n. (=play, diversion) wo- 
rigi; s. (or trick) bamanchi* ; 
(= mirth, also mirthful con- 
tempt) daria, e.g. we made s. 
of him mun badashi daria ; (of 
the field, as fowling, hunting) 
farauta. 

spot, n. tab(b)o,*jA. tabuna, dun- 
gule; the last = ink s. or blot 
(K&no) =dole (Zaria), (=a blem- 
ish in an article) aibu; fig. 
(= moral blemish, fault) aibu ; 
(= a particular locality) tvuri, 
pi. wurare. 

spots, pi. e.g. on plumage zane; 
having s. adj. wakatvake. 

spread, tr. v. (e.g. a cloth, a 
mat) 8himfida or shimfada, intr. 
(=to separate, scatter) wache 
or washe\ to s. out tr. (e.g. a 
mat, goods for sale) shimfida 
or 8himfada; (wheat to dry) 
baza; (= expose to view) ba~ 
yan{n)a or bayen(n)a; intr. 
kau* (= to s. out or abroad, 
increase) yado, yadu, e.g. if 
there be food and drink and 
abundance and prosperity, the 
service of God would s. izan 
da chi da sha da abin yelwa 
da lafia ibdda kan yado B 47. 

spring, n. of water, idon rua, ma- 
romaro or marmaru ; mouth 
of a 8. or well bakin rijia; 
for other senses, e.g. origin, 
cause, see source. 

spring, intr. v. 1. see jump; 2. to 
s. or s. up out of the ground 



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176 



stairs 



(of seeds, plants) chira; chire, 
chiro or tsira, tsire, tsiro and 
tsoro*. 

sprout, n. (of guinea-corn, etc.) 
karamami or karmami; (of 
trees) tqfo, pi. tofuna; spec, 
new sprouts after trees, etc. 
have been cut down kankama. 

sprout, intr. v. 1. (=to spring up 
out of the ground) see spring 
2 ; 2. of trees and plants (= to 
put forth buds, leaves, etc.) 
tofu, yin tofo, gunda and yin 
gunda, e.g. the trees s. itatua 
su tofu; the melon sprouts 
kabewa tana gunda or kabetoa 
ta yi gunda. 

spue, v. see spew. 

spur, n. kaimi, pi. kayami. 

spurs, long riding-boot with, n. 
kujit(t)a or kufut(t)a, pi. ku- 
fittai or kufuttai. 

spy, n. gata, pi. gataye. 

squat, intr. v. to 8. down with 
legs crossed kishingida, tura- 
ba l i or yin turaba'i; to s. on 
the ground tsuguna or tsugun. 

squeeze, tr. v. mache, machi or 
matsi, taushe or tausa, dam/are, 
tsamki or tsumki, tatara ; to s. 
a lemon, etc. tasa, tasi, tachi, 
tatsa or taza. 

squeezed, pass, particip. taushe- 
she, fern, tausheshia, pi. tau- 
shetu. 

squeezing, participial n. taushe- 
wa, machichi D 14. 

squint, n. idon magi. 

squirrel, n. ku8um-bi8(8)a. 

Stab, tr. v. soka, soke or soki. 



stable, n. muri; s. for one horse 
burga; and less precise (= place 
for horses) shamak(k)i* i pi. 
8hamak(k)ai*. 

stable-man, n. dan muri, see also 
groom. 

staff, n. sanda, pi. sanduna. 

stag, n. bareiva miji or namiji; 
the female animal barewa 
mache or tamaclie ; spec, small 
female tinkia. 

stagger, v. 1. intr. magagi with 
forms in na, e.g. at that mo- 
ment he was struck by a bullet, 
he staggered and fell sa'anan 
akahalbeshi da bindiga yana 
magagi ya fadi \ 2. (= to con- 
fuse, perplex) dame or dama 
and pass, to be staggered da- 
mn. 

staggering, n. (e.g. of a dying 
man) magagi. 

stain, n. (= colouring matter) see 
dye; (=spot, blemish, fault) 
avbu. 

stain, v. (=to tinge fabrics, etc. 
with colouring matter) see 
dye; pass, to be stained (in 
a wider sense), turn by general 
terms for 'change' with the 
appropriate complements, e.g. 
the field was stained with 
blood umrin fadda ya sauya 
ja da jiniy or umrin fadda sai 
jini ; the waters were stained 
all red ruaye su sauya (or 
zama) ja wur. 

staircase, n. tsani*. 

stairs, pi. n. (= steps) mahayi, 
karcmgama ; cf. steps. 



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stake 



177 



/ 
stealing 



\ 



stake, n. rino, rinu*, e.g. again he 
is taken and tied to a painful 
s. kuma akankaishi kan rataia 
ga rinon azaba, D 16. 

stalk, n. (of plants) kara; (of 
corn, etc.) sangarnia* or zan- 
garnia, pi. sangarnu, karamami 
or ka/rmami ; stalks (of beans, 
ground nuts) harawa; stalks 
of grass used for horses' food 
tatak(k)a. 

stall, n. 1. (for cattle) garike or 
gerke, pi. garikuna or gerkuna, 
(for one horse) burga; 2. (= 
stand in market) rumbu, rum- 
pa, pi. rumfuna. 

stammer, intr. v. inina or ina. 

stammering, n. ininan Jialshi. 

stand, on which things are ex- 
posed for sale, n. see stall 2. 

stand, intr. v. tsayi, tsaya or tsai 
which also - to s. up and to s. 
still, e.g. s. there till I am 
ready ka tsayi nan har na yi 
shiri; to cause to s. still 
tsaishe; I s. upright na tsaya 
daidai ; to s. by or up for (= to 
aid) see help. 

standard, n. 1. (of proportion, 
measure) see measure; 2. 
(= flag of a king) tuta or tuti, 
pi. tutoshi, e.g. if the standards 
of war be unfurled izan anfida 
tutoshi jahadi E 13. 

Star, n. tamraro or tauraro, pi. 
tamraru, taurarai and tamrai, 
tatsunia, pi. tatsuniai; spec, 
morning s. in harvest time 
gomdazaki tamraro; shooting 
s. mashi. 
R. II. 



stare, v, also = to s. at (of curi- 
osity) kal(V)o and yin kal(l)o t 
e.g. you keep staring at me ka 
/aye kallona ; to s. (frowningly 
or proudly) harara*; one who 
stares, n. makel(l)achi. 

start, v. 1. intr. (= to move 
suddenly through fear, etc.) 
razan{n)a or razan(n)i; (of a 
horse) to s. or s. back zabura ; 
(of restive horse) to s. Puma; 
2. intr. (= to move off, set out) 
tashi, 8abko 9 safko or sapko, 
e.g. he prepared to s. ya saki 
tashi G 1, 3, 5 ; tr. (= to send 
off) tdda, tayesda, e.g. I started 
a messenger na tada manzo. 

starve, intr. v. (= to perish by star- 
vation) mutu da yunwa. 

state, n. (= condition) zama and 
zamanchi ; intr. v. to come into 
a s. zama, e.g. he came into a 
s. of distress ya zama ma- 
chiachi. 

state, v. see narrate. 

stay, n. (= prop, support) mugam- 
(m)a. 

stay, intr. v. zamna, sauka or 
soka F 252 ; wanzu or wonzu, 
which also = delay ; to s. at a 
place or occupation for a day 
only yin% e.g. there we stayed 
a day nan mu ke yini daia; 
I stayed at work the whole 
day ina yini aiki. 

steal, tr. v. sache or sache, yin sata, 
yin wawasu* ; spec, to s. goods 
wasoso; those who s. earnest 
money masutabin amana E 15. 

stealing, n. (= theft) sata, baran- 

12 



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steam- 



178 



stool 



chi) & earnest money chin 
amana E 25. 

steam-boat, n. a s.-b. is usually 
designated by Hausas who 
have seen one by jirigin wuta 
or jirigm Kayak%\ so also 
locomotive s. -engine dokin 
wuta. 

stem, n. (of plants) kara. 

stepfather, n. agola (?). 

steps, n. mahayi, takawa, karan- 
gama; spec. s. formed of mud 
mataki, pi. matakai; s. by 
which to come down from a 
place mashidi; s. placed for 
mounting a horse lekafa* and 
lekafan doki*. 

sterile, adj. see barren. 

stew, tr. v. daffa, q.v. 

steward, n. (= manager) wakili. 

stewardship, n. wakilchi*. 

stick, n. sanda, pi. sanduna, kulki, 
pi. kulaki F 107 ; walking s. 
kulki da harm, (such as are used 
by the blind) jagora; s. cut 
from a tree and in this sense 
fern, itache or iche, pi. itatua 9 
sumanjia; spec, heavy s. gom- 
(m)i* ; s. carried by porters 
loko* ; s. used, when making 
tuo, to stir it muchia* ; small 
s. for stirring milk, etc. rnabir 
riki or maburiki. 

stick, v. 1. tr. (=to pierce) soka, 
soke or soki ; 2. intr. s., also s. 
to or together see adhere, 
cleave to. 

stiff, to be, intr. v. gage or gaga. 

still, to be, intr. v. hawaita, pass, 
impersonal, be still ! akawaUa. 



sting, tr. v. halbe, halbi or harbi, 
8are 9 tab(b)a. 

stinginess, n. gerdama (?). 

stingy, adj. rowa, da rowa, 
bahili*, geti*. 

stink, n. doii or doyi y wari. 

stink, intr. v., e.g. they s. suna 
doyi. 

stinking, to become, intr. v. zama 
wari. 

stipulation, n. see condition 2, 
terms. 

stir, v. 1. tr. (for the purpose of 
mixing) dame or dama; to s. 
about in pot while cooking 
tal(l)agi; to s. up (e.g. a fire) 
tana and tone; 2. intr. (= to 
move oneself) yin num. 

stirrup, n. lekafa; iron s. kebe; 
stirrups of plaited leather 
kinami. 

stock, n. (= seed, kind, tribe) iri, 
pi. ware. 

stomach, n. tumbi, pi. tumbwrva. 

stone, n. duchi or dttshi, pL 
duatsu, duasu and dwartvat- 
tai* ; spec, flat stone for 
rolling rice on magurji; pre- 
cious s. yakutu ; a white s. 
(= pearl?) zaura, idon zaura; 
s. ball makodi; (the disease) 
marena; to sling a s. maju- 
jawa*. 
stones, n. in colL sense, small a. 
tariki*; little s. tsakua; very 
small s. t8ok(k)ua*; s. collected 
together, e.g. round a well 
marmara ; s. used as a support 
magirkai*. 
stool, n. kushera. 



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stoop 



179 



strange 



stoop, intr. t. sunkwia or sunkuya, 
tsuguna or tsugun ; to 8. in 
order to look into a hole 
lekawa. 

Stop, full, n. guda*. 

Stop, v. 1. tr. (= to make or cause 
to stand still) tsaishe; 2. intr. 
(e.g. of one walking, running, 
etc.) tsayi, tsaya or tsai ; (= to 
come to an end) id., e.g. at 
that point it stopped dagga 
nan ya tsaya ; (= stay, stay at, 
etc.) see stay. 

store, n. 1. (= supply laid up) 
ajia, e.g. a s. which will be 
free from the attacks of mice, 
much more from the nibbling 
of ants ajiar da ba bera bale 
tausan gara A 44; a large s. 
/ of anything tiUi* or tullu ; 2. 
(= place for storing things) 
gujnasakatva* or gumsakawa. 

store, tr. v. also = to s. up aje ; to 
s. up goods jibga or jibki*; to 
s. up treasure taskacJie. 

store-house, n. rumbu; fig. (a 
title given to Mohammed) 
mdiji. 

store-keeper, n. maiajia. 

store-place, n. see store 2. 

store-room, n. taska, pL taskaki. 

storey, upper, in a house, n. 
kandaki, pi. kandakuna. 

storing grain, chamber for, n. 
rafonia, pi. ra/oni ; large barn 
for s. g. rufogo. 

Stork, n. 8hamowa or shamma; 
species awaiting identification 
are: maijika, borintumhi* ; s. 
(? pelican) jinjimi. 



Storm, n. haderi; whirling dust 
s. gugua (also pronounced gug- 
wa); heavy rain 8. ginaria or 
ginania. 

story, n. karia, tasunia, pi. ta- 
sunioyi (latter also = s. told at 
night, a fireside s.) karatu or 
karatu, e.g. the beginning of my 
s. farawa na karctiu D 1 ; this 
is the s. of Hamza wanan ka- 
ratu hamza n«A9j aljama or 
aljima, e.g. I have a 8. which 
will profit ina da aljama mai- 
anfani B 153 ; an untrue s. 
karia, fora or hira* y almara*. 

stout, adj. 1. (of persons = fat, 
of things = thick) kabri or 
kauri, da kabri, da kauri; 2. 
see brave. 

stove, n. muru/u. 

stow, tr. v. (= to lay up) aje. 

straight, adj. sosai, daidai*, e.g. 
they followed the s. path sun 
bi hainya sosai. 

strain, tr. v. (= to filter) rare ; to 
• s. out rare, tarare. 

strainer, n. marari, marare. 

strains, one who, n. mairarewa, 
pi. masurofirewa. 

straining, to purify by, tr. v. 
tachi or tashi; n. a calabash 
with holes for s. raria. 

strange, 1. (= foreign) bako, fem. 
bakua, pi. bakuna, baki and 
bakokima ; 2. (= odd, extra- 
ordinary) id.; this notion is 
also expressed by the n. alameri 
(matter) in the pregnant sense 
of ( a s. matter/ e.g. what a s. 
thing! alameringa; the s. 

12—2 



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strangeness 



180 



stripe 



course of this world alamerin 
dunia; this s. war wanan 
alamerin yaki. 

strangeness, n. bakonchi, bakon- 
taka. 

stranger, n. bako, fern, bakua, pi. 
bakuna, baki and bakokuna, 
hadaka*, pi. hadaku, bature or 
baturi; attention shown to 
strangers dawoinia\ to act as 
a s. yin bakonchi or yin ba~ 
kontaka. 

strangle, tr. y. shak(k)e f mahwre. 

strap, tied to bit, n. kamazoro. 

stratagem, n. wayo or waya, hila 
or JUa; to use s. gam(m)a 
with wayo or kai. 

Straw, n. Uaiwa\ s. hat mdlafa, 
pi. mdlafuna and mdlafai, 
garumfa*, q.v. 

stream, n. rua*, small running s. 
gebe; fast flowing s. koram(m)a; 
hollow of a s. kozozobe. 

street, n. hainya or haya y pi. 
hainyoyi; narrow s. maitsasi 
or maidsasi, cf. way. 

strength, n. (= inherent power 
or firmness) karifi or karfi, pi. 
karafa or A»rt/wna; (= power 
over something else) iko, pi. 
ikoki; these terms differ as 
absolute and relative, e.g. s. 
of mind karfin zuchia ; he sur- 
passed him in s. ya ^/wAi efa 
karifi \ we do this by the s. of 
a charm muna yi hakka da 
ikon magani; gazawa F 15, 
kambi* ; to have s. gaza*. 

strengthen, tr. v. karifafa. 

stretch, forth, tr. v. mika; intr. 



to be stretched forth or out 
miku. 

stretched out, verbal adj. giche 
or gichi, e.g. it causes men to 
lie s. out ta sainya mutum 
gichiB 118. 

stretching one's limbs sleepily, 
n. magagin berichi. 

strife, n. ybrf(c?)a, fama \ (= s. of 
tongues, contention) hayania 
or hania; they are all at 8. 
duka sun fadda ; to stir up s. 
Utokana. 

strike, tr. v. see beat 1 and the 
verbs given under blow n. ; to 
s. (and so bruise, smash) fair 
fas(8)a ; to s. (also = to seize) 
maki* ; to s. a tent nad(d)e 
lema. 

striking repeatedly, participial 
n. marmarawa. 

string, n. igia or igiya, pi, igoyi 
and igiyoyij silia or siliya, pi 
siliyu or siliyoyi ; spec. s. for 
tying up trousers mazwgi, 
zar(r)ia or zar(r)ia; strong 
white s. made of flax kir- 
tani. 

strip, n. of cloth kwaria; strips 
of black leather kwaro ; to cut 
into strips reda. 

strip, tr. v. kware or kwari; s. 
(skin of fruits, etc.) bare ; to s. 
off garments tube riguna, debe 
riguna. 

stripe, n. (= blow) fig. sanda ; pi. 
sanduna D 44. 

Stripe, n. (in cloth, blue) saki, 
soki or 8oaki; stripes (e.g. on 
bird, etc.) zone; having stripes 



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strive 



181 



substitute 



adj. wakewake ; to draw stripes 
zana or zani. 

strive, intr. v. (= contend) mum; 
(= endeavour) see attempt. 

striving, participial iv musuwa 
F159. 

stroke, n. mari, pi. marumari; 
see also blow. 

strokes, n. see lines. 

Strong, adj. maikarifi, da karifi, 
kar/e F 84 ; da tauri, teauri, 
da gazo, isheshe, fern, ishashia, 
pi. ishasu; very s. karkarifa; to 
be s. gata*; he is stronger than 
I ya buayeni; spec. adj. and 
n. s. in war gargami or garkami ; 
very s. (epithet of lion) go- 
danga ; s. man zari, kwodoki*, 
s. men karifafa; s. person gendi, 
fern, gendia, gorzo ; s. slave 
koto, fern, katuwa. 

strongly, adv. da karifi, da kan- 
gara, e.g. endure the holy war, 
follow it out s. ku jimri jehddi 
ku hi da kangara B 36. 

stubble, n. kututura or kotutura ; 
s. of guinea-corn, wheat, etc. 
tushia. 

stubborn, adj. (also = s. person) 
maikinji, pi. masukinji, da 
taurin zuchia. 

stubbornness, n. tauri, taurin 
zuchia. 

study, v. (= to endeavour dili- 
gently) yin anii/a, e.g. s. to 
follow the true path ku yi 
aniya ku bi hainyan gaskia. 

stumble, intr. v. tunmre, zami, 
yin tuntube, tuntube; to 8. 
against a stone kar(r)o da 



duchi; to make or cause to s. 

dam/are. 
stumbling of a horse, n. san- 

8arifa or sasarifa. 
stump, n. of tree guzun it ache, 

gatea* na itache D 42, gun- 

gume, pi. gumagumai, kututura 

or kotutura q.v. ; s. of a leg or 

arm dungu. 
stupid, adj. (= wanting in sense) 

marashankali, da babu han- 

kali. 
stutter, intr. v. inina or ina. 
stuttering, n. ininan halshi. 
subdue, tr. v. (=to bring into 

subjection) kas(8)u*; (to con- 
quer, e.g. a people) chi. 
subject, n. (= matter) tada, pi. 

tadodi, e.g. a s, of enquiry 

tadan tambaya. 
subject to, to be, intr. v. (=to be 

characteristically prone to) 

turn by means of tarika, e.g. 

he is s. to terror ya tarika 

razanni, see character 3. 
subjection, to bring into, tr. v. 

see subdue, 
submissive, adj. maitankwa8(s)a y 

pi. ma8utankwa8(8)a. 
submissiveness, n. tankwas(8)a. 
submit, intr. v. tankwas(s)a or 

tanko8a\ refl. with kai 9 e.g. I s. 

myself na tankwassa kaina. 
subside, intr. v. (e.g. of water) 

kqf(f)e> umche, wushe, fuche* ; 

(=gen. to abate, lessen) reg(g)e y 

ragi and ragu. 
substance (of a statement), n. kai*. 
substitute for something, n. 

maimeki. 



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suburb 



182 



sunken eyas 



suburb, n. ungua, pi. ungual, 

succeed, intr. v. (= to be success- 
ful) iyes*, iyesda*; impers. it 
succeeds ya kama, yayi\ to 8. 
(as heir) gdji or gdje. 

success (in war), n. na8(8)ara 
and nas^archi \ to obtain s. 
(in war) yin no8(s)ara. 

such, demonstr. adj. 1. (=like 
that) e.g. we cannot do s. a 
thing ba muna iya yin abu 
kaza; 2. (=that referred to, 
the naming of which is avoided 
by narrator), e.g. ho! (or 
here !) s. a one yaka muturn 
kaza, he said to them take 
this money to s. and s. per- 
sons (mentioning their names 
which, however, need not be 
recorded) ya faddi maim ku 
taffi, da kurdi nan ga mutane 
kaza da kaza. 

suck, tr. v. teosa and teotea, aha ; 
to s. a lime or lemon sha lemu; 
(of infants) sha nono ; to s. in 
or up (e.g. as a sponge water) id. 

suckle, tr. v. (=to give suck to) 
goiyo or goyo, yin goiyo, ba 
nono. 

Sudan, pr. n. 8udan, q.v., the 
plains of the S. 8ar(r)arm 
sudan B 76. 

sudden, adj. see quick 1. 

suddenly, adv. da sauki, atake*. 

suffer, v. 1. tr. (=to endure) jimri; 
(= to allow) ber{r)i or ber, e.g. 
s. me to enter berri ni shigga, 
phr. s. me kiyayeni; 2. intr. 
(= to undergo pain or distress) 
aha UH)hal(l)a. 



suffice, v. i${8)a and ithe. 

sufficient, adj. isheshe, fern, isha- 
8hia, pL i$hasu y also expressed 
by appending the impers. ya 
issa, ya ishe, e.g. we have s. 
bread muna da gurasa {ya issa 
or) ya isliemu ; exclamatory phr. 
s. ! buss, which = say no more ! ; 
to be s., see prec. 

suffocate, suffocation, v. and n. 
see choke, choking. 

sugar-cane, n. takanda or ta- 
kanta. 

suit, n. (= claim at law) kdra q.v. ; 
to make or bring such kdra 
and kai kdra. 

suit, v. gaimhe, e.g. it suits me ya 
gamsheni. 

suitable, adj. daidai. 

sum, n. (= aggregate of numbers) 
kidda or kididiga, dia\d)i- 
ga* (?); (of a statement) see 
substance. 

summit, n. kai, pi. kawana and 
kaumna, bis(s)a. 

summon, tr. v. kir(r)a or kir- 
(r)aye; to s. to where the 
speaker is kvr(r)awo. 

sun, n. fern, rana or ro, pL ra- 
nuka* ; the s. rose rana (ta 
fitta or) ta tashi; the s. set 
rana ta fadi, the s. is about 
to set rana ta kussa fadua\ 
halo round s. 8anmn(n)i ; heat 
of the s. gum(m)i ; orb of the 
s. rana gudanta (?), cf. D 64. 

Sunday, n. lahadi, ranan lahadi. 

sunder, tr. v. see divide. 

sunken eyes, one with, adj. and 
n. maikworomi*. 



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sunrise 



183 



swallow 



sunrise, time of, n. tasaitxd hantei. 

sunset, n. fadaivan rana; time 
just before s. mkalia*. 

sunstroke, n. jeri*. 

superfluity, n. uxmji* q.v. 

superfluous, adj. Jululuwa*, e.g. 
s. noisy talk dummi na foUvr- 
luwa B 154. 

superior, adj. mafifichi; to be 
or prove 8., to express 'this 
thing or this method is s.' use 
the impers. ya gcvra hakka, ya 
guma* hakka, lit. it is better 
so, see also surpass. 

supplicate, tr. v. (=to pray ear- 
nestly) barra, e.g. O Lord, I, 
the son of a weak slave, sup- 
plicate Thee that Thou wouldst 
save me ya rabbi dan bawa laifi 
na barra domin ha tsatrshani. 

support, n. madogara, makari, 
tankari ; the last also fig., e.g. 
a king is the s. of the world 
sariki shi ne tankarin dunia; 
spec. (= pole of house) gimshiki 
or gumshiki ; see also aid, as- 
sistance, help. 

support, tr. v. (e.g. as a pole 
supports a tent) tokara; spec, 
to s. anything with the hand 
spread out talaba; to s. one- 
self with the palm of the hand 
daf(/)a, dnf(f)awa. 

suppose, v. teet(t)o, tsat(t)o, zetr 
(t)o*, tsachi or zache, tamaha; 
also trop. che, e.g. a poisonous 
plant he would s. to be wheat 
gvba shina tsachi alkaki che 

sure, adj. see trustworthy. 



sure, to be or make, v. tabbata or 
tabbeta, e.g. do you make s.? 
ka tabbata ; I am s. na tabbata. 

surely, adv. (= certainly) tvbbas, 
aje, ashe or ashi, da gaskia, da 
gaske, gaskia, gaske, hakika; s. 
is also idiomatically expressed 
by the particle sai as well as 
the v. tabbata, e.g. the people 
will s. rise mutane sai su tashi; 
he is s. there ya tabbata nan ; 
you may s. assume that he is an 
infidel ku tabbeta kafiri ne D 24. 

surety for a debt, n. lamuni or 
lamini, (= person who is s.) 
mailamtmta, pi. maevlamunta] 
to be or become s. laminta and 
lamimche with ace, e.g. we 
became s. for the merchant 
muka laminta fadake. 

surpass, tr. v. fi, fik&wa A 70, 
daa\d)a also pronounced deddi, 
e*g. the strength of elephants 
surpasses that of camels karifin 
giwaye ya fi na rakuma; this 
surpasses that wonan ya deddi 
wonchan. 

surrender, tr. v. (=to give up, 
resign) sal(l)ame. 

surround, tr. v. kewoye, kewaye 
D 165, or kewayi. 

suspend, tr. v. rataya or rataia, 
yin rataya, 

suspicion, n. zergi, matsin(n)a* 
F 8. 

sustain, tr. v. see support. 

swaggering walk, n. rongoda. 

swallow, n. tsaijewa, tsaitsewa or 
chechewa. 

swallow, tr. v. hade. 



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swamp 



184 



sword 



swamp, n, kafo, tapkL 

swarm, n. see multitude. 

sway to and. fro, intr. v. ran- 
gaji*, rauni* \ to s. the arms 
to and fro takama. 

swear, intr. v. ranche, yin rant&ua, 
e.g. I swear by God na ranche 
da allah. 

sweat, n. and intr. v. ; see per- 
spiration, perspire. 

sweep, tr. v. shara or share, yin 
shares 

sweeping, participial n. shara. 

sweet, adj. (to the taste) da zaki> 
tutushi, (= nice, agreeable, 
grateful to any sense or feel- 
ing) da dadi, e.g. this song is 
s. wakanga da dadi he. 

sweetly, adv. da dadi, e.g. the 
bird sings s. tsuntaua tana 
waka da dadi. 

sweetmeat, n. allewa; spec. s. 
made from the aia reed dakua. 

sweetness, n. (taste) zaki, dadi, 
the last gen. and of taste too, 
e.g. when thou sittest down 
thou shalt taste of its s. hami 
kazona zaka sha dadi nata 
A 12. 

swell, intr. v. 1. kumbure or kum- 
buri, and, with forms in na, 
kumburawa, (of a sore, etc.) 
yami; 2. fig. (=to be inflated 
with pride, etc.) kumbure, kum~ 
buri, kumburawa, e.g. thou 
swellest, too, with pride be- 
cause it is said thou excellest 
all kana kuma kumburawa wai 
ka fi kowa F 30 ; the same 
may be expressed by means of 



chichik(k)a (lit. be filled with), 
e.g. again, thou swellest with 
pride, thou fool kana kuma 
8hishik(k)a girma ya hauka 
F 32 ; to s. out, be confounded 
sadare A 8, sandare A 64. 

swelling with pride, participial 
n. kumburawa. 

swelling, n. (= a morbid enlarge- 
ment) glandular s. kar(r)i; s. 
caused by guinea- worm hmir 
gara; internal s. suwa; s. on 
back doro D 14 ; s. on back of 
horse, etc. tura; s. on body 
kukui* ; slight s. on body 
kaswa or kazua ; s. in front of 
a man's body gugi, pi. gugui; 
s. on hand or foot kakari ; the 
related plural form kek(k)arai 
= s. in the hands ; s. on throat 
hangum*. 

swept, pass. part, sharare, fem. 
sharara, pi. shararu. 

swim, intr. v. iyo, yin iyo, fato*, 
nua(8)o*. 

swindler, n. rnaizambachi or mai- 
zambata, maizumba. 

swine, .n. (domestic) gursuna or 
gurusunw, (wild) hanzir*, pi. 
hanzirai. 

swing to and fro, intr. v. lil(l)o. 

switch, n. (i.e. one for driving 
away flies, made from cow's or 
horse's tail) isga or esga. 

swollen with calamity, adj. 
kumburata, cf. swell, fin. 

sword, n. takobi or takwobi, pi. 
takuba, kansakali; spec. s. with 
broad blade Jindi; s. with 
double sharp edge tagomas ; a 



I 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



sword-belt 



185 



take 



with one cutting edge tam- 
(m)alaulo ; cheap, roughly 
made s. tam(m)a, rasp for shar- 
pening s. magagari; to draw a 
s. zage or zagi. 

sword-belt, n. hamilu*. 

syphilis, n. chiutan birni, timjere 
or tumjere. 

syrup, n. madya F 230. 

table, n. rumpa, pi. rumpima or 
rumfuna, maida* ; case or 
package used as a t. kabak(k)i, 
pi. kaboka. 

taciturn, adj. (=habitually silent) 
turn by tarika q.v., e.g. he is 
t. ya tarika (yin kurum, yin 
ehvru, kurum or) shiru. 

tack, v. (i.e. in sewing) lalaf- 
tu. 

tackle, n. (= implements, instru- 
ments, apparatus) kaya or kaia, 
pi. kayayeki. 

tail, n. tvutsia or umchia* ; spec, 
cow's or horse's t. used as a 
switch isga or esga. 

tailor, n. madumki, fern, madum- 
kia, pi. madumkai. 

take, tr. v. 1. gen. (= seize, lay 
hold of) kama, samu, dauka, 
doka, dau or do, hatha, kariba*, 
karbi or karibi* ; to t. (of an 
object running away, about to 
escape or resist) kama; (with 
the added notion of reaching, 
overtaking, finding) samu ; (of 
taking or picking up an object 
from the ground, a table, shelf, 
etc.) dauka or doka; (of re- 
ceiving) karba and especially 



as an imperative karbo q. v., 
also ungo or ungwo; to t. 
(= conduct, guide) kai, e.g. what 
is to t. us to the Hausa country 
mi zai kaimu hausa, cf. B 163, 
D 50, E 38 ; to t. (of game, 
fish) kama; (of road, way) id., 
e.g. he took his road (pursued 
his journey) ya kama hainya ; 
(of medicine) if liquid sha and 
hade, if solid hade ; 2. various 
combinations of t. with preps., 
adverbs, etc. are : t. and bring 
tario* and tareo* ; t. a thing 
to gabata da; t. away kai, 
kawa, kauda, kawas, katoasda, 
fige or figi, dauka or doka, 
taf(f)i da, e.g. he took it away 
ya taj/i da shi, fit(t)a da, fishe 
or fushe ; to t. away by force 
kwache or hwashe, amshi*; to 
t. down (gen.) shid(d)a or shid- 
(d)e; (a tent) naa\d)e; to t. 
for oneself dauko; to t. hold 
of dauka or doka; to t. in 
(=to let or bring in) shig- 
{g)asda; to t. off (gen.) debe 
or debo, fuda, fit(t)a8da, Jkge 
or fusge; (garments) tube; to 
t. off garments as sign of grief 
tak(k)aba ; to t. off a load, etc. 
subda ; to t. out fit(t)a, fit(t)a 
da, fit(t)o8, fit(t)a8da, debe, debo 
and daibo, fisge or fusge ; to t. 
to oneself karbo ; to t. up dau- 
ka or doka ; to t. up with hand 
or spoon mora ; to t. a handful 
dimso; to t. care, heed or notice 
of tuna da, kul(l)a da; (in pro- 
clamations ' t. notice that ') ji, 



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taking away 



186 



jia, murara, soraara or jurare*, 
cf. E 27. 

taking away, participial n. kar~ 
biwa C 14 ; amshitva*. 

tale, n. (= story) taiunia, pi. tam- 
niayi; (of fiction, unreal or 
false t.) karia, fara or hira, 
see story. 

talebearing, adj. ananntinckL 

talent, n. see ability 1 

talk, n. (= conversation, mutual 
discourse) zaneke or zanchi, e.g. 
t. of the resurrection zanchen 
kiydma A3, battu, roshi, and 
in a less precise sense magdna; 
abundance, of t harshi* ; loud 
t. dummi, e.g. for much loud 
t is superfluous domin yawan 
dttmmi na fululuwa B 154, cf. 
also B 22. 

talk, v. (= converse) zanche, tonka 
or tamka, the first with forms 
in na or with yi, e.g. I am 
talking with my friends ina 
zanche (or ina yin zanche) da 
abokaino, zantawa with forms 
in no, yin battu, yin magdna, 
e.g. we talked in Hausa muna 
yin magana havsa; he talks 
nonsense shvna magana bar- 
katai; to t. much tonka or 
tamka D 87 ; (= palaver) ala- 
meri*. 

talkative, very, ac(j. yanbaka. 

talking, participial n. (= con- 
versing) zantawa, tankawa y (?) 
fad(d)owa* D 87; much t. 
tankiya; noise of angry or 
loud t. hargowa. 

tall, adj. dogoj fem. dogua, pi. 



dogaye; camp, taller and sup. 
tallest are expr. by fi, cf . K. 
Gr. pp. 45, 46 ; very t. tsololo*. 

tallness, n. tsawa and tsawo. 

talon, n. ahaifa ; spec, inside of a 
bird's t. dundunia. 

tamarind tree, n. tsamia. 

tame, adj. (= subdued, domesti- 
cated), no general term, the 
distinction between t. and 
wild species being sometimes 
expressed by different words, 
e.g. t. swine gttrusuna opp. to 
Jumzir and gado; t. cat mag(g)i 
opp. to mazoro ; t. dog kar{r)e 
and kar(r)en gia\d)a opp. to 
kalkeche; t animals bie(s)aehen 
gid\d)a. 

tamenesa, n. (= easy disposition, 
want of spirit) lala/anchi. 

tan, tr. v. jemi or jima. 

tank, n. see oistern. 

tanner, n. majemi or maijima 

tanning, a tree used for, n. gab- 
(b)arua. 

tarry, intr. v. 1. (= to stay) zamna 9 
e.g. we tarried in Timbuctoo 
three months man zamna chik- 
km timbuktu wata vku^ cf. 
F 71 ; 2. t. for (=to wait for) 
jvra and jirache; 3. (=to delay) 
yin yauchi. 

task, n. alameri, and in a general 
sense aiki. 

taste, tr. v. 1. (= to try the flavour 
of) dandana and dandani, e.g. 
have you ever tasted pepper? 
ko ku tabba dandana berkono ; 
2. fig. (=to experience) sha, e.g. 
thou shalt taste its sweetness 



I 



tasteless 



187 



tent 



zaka ska dadi nata A 12; he 
tasted trouble ya ska wohalla. 

tasteless, adj. lami and da lami, 
da babu zaki. 

taster, n. madandani B 17. 

tasty, adj. (of food, etc., nice to 
taste) da dadi, da zaki. 

taught, adj. (=well instructed, 
learned) karanta*. 

tax, n. humushi ; spec. t. paid on 
leaving a country garam(m)a, 
JU(t)o ; the latter also = t. paid 
to king in Kano market when 
buying a slave, cf . taxes. 

tax-collector, n. ajal% jekada. 

taxes, n. gen. hurdin kasa, jinga; 
to pay t. yin jinga. 

teach, tr. v. koiya or koya, e.g. he 
said to her teach me reading 
ya faddi mata hi koiya mani 
karatUy sanasda or sanda*, 
karanta*. 

teacher, n. maikoiya. 

teaching, n. (= the act of teaching 
and also doctrine) koiyawa. 

tear, n. (also coll. = tears) haioaye; 
with tears da hawaye; to shed 
tears yin hatvaye, shwrfe. 

tear, n. (=rent in clothes, etc.) 
yagua. 

tear, tr. v. (clothes, paper, etc.) 
yoga, e.g. and there will be 
dogs to bark in the fire, they 
will bark and tear da karnuka 
chikkin tvuta masuhafshi suna 
hafshi suna yoga, chage or tsa- 
ga, keta, berke or barke ; to t. 
out tona and tone; to t. to 
pieces tsatsaga, fatatake ; to t. 
up chichira. 



teeth, n. pi., all the t. together 

matamna; back t. gub(b)o; 

front t. hawri* ; a person who 

has no t. maidasashi; being 

without t. gigi*. 
tell, tr. v. (=to inform, also to 

command) fad(d)a or faa\d)i, 

e.g. I wish to be told this ma 

so qfaddi mani abu nan, cf . 

F7. 
temper, n. (= disposition) haUpji, 

pi. kalfyai; evil t. hallin mugu; 

(= irritation, passion) haushi y 

e.g. he is in a bad t. with you 

8hina jin hav&hinka. 
tempest, n. haderi, ginaria. 
temple, n. (place of worship) ma- 

sallachi, pi. ma§allatai. 
tempt, tr. v. 1. (=to test one, put 

him to trial) jar aba (A 65) or 

jarabe, yin jarabi; 2. (in bad 

sense, to allure, mislead) rude. 
temptation, n. (= trial) jaraba. 
tempter, n. (i.e. in sense of tempt 

2) marude or rnairude, pi. ma- 

ruda. 
ten, card. num. goma> pi. gomia; 

the latter is sometimes used 

to express multiples of t., e.g. 

gomia uJcu = talatin ; t. times 

sou (or so) goma. 
tend, tr. v. (to watch cattle) kiwo. 
tendency, n. takitaki* C 17. 
tender, adj. (=soft, in a material 

sense) tapshi, ta/shi or tabshi*; 

to be or to make t. yin tapshi; 

the t. leaf dainye or dainyi 9 

pi. dainyoyi. 
tent, n. lema; to pitch a t. kaf(/)a 

lema; to take down a t. nad(d)e 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



tenth 



188 



that 



lema, buka, pi. bukogi ; spec. t. 
of skins or leather only alfa- 
ruwa or al/aua. 

tenth, n. of number. 1. (= one part 
of ten) ushwri. 2. (one t. devot- 
ed to religious purposes, alms) 
zak(k)a F 17. 

tenth, adj. nagoma, fern, tagoma. 

tentpole, n. tankari; tentpoles 
coll. shikashiki as well as its 
pi. 8hikashikai. 

tents, a collection of, n. tarika* 
or tarika*. 

terebinth, n. gwinki*. 

term, n. 1. (= limit, end, boundary) 
iyaka; 2. (=time a thing lasts) 
zamani, cf. also seq. 

terminate, v. see end, finish. 

termite, n. gara (also used as 
coll.), pi. garani. 

terms, n. pi. (= conditions, stipu- 
lations) sharatea*. 

terrify, tr. v. tsorata, bada teoro. 

terror, n. 1. abstr. (the emotion) 
teoro, teanteanta, razan(n)a or 
razan(n)i; without t. da babu 
razan(n)i B46; 2. concr. (=an 
object of t.) abin teoro, etc., 
nwhavoayi*. 

test, tr. v. dandcma or dandani; 
spec, to t. anything by smelling 
it sunsuna or sonsona; to t. 
weight of a load jijiga. 

testimony, n. shaida, pi. shaidai 
and shaidodi ; to adduce t. kai 
(and kawo) shaida which also 
= to bear t., as do shaida and 
yin shaida, e.g. he bore or 
gave t. ya shaida or ya yi 
shaida. 



text, n. (of the Koran) nassi,. e.g. 
you regard the t. ku dubi na§ri 
E 11. 

thank, tr. v. gode, barka, gaida, 
gaishe; the dipt Engl. phr. 
' thank you ' na gode maka or 
godia; 'no thank you' albarka 
or alberka q. v. 

thanks, n. pi. godia ; expressions 
for to give t. are : 1. (to God) 
gode, and with yi or pres. 
forms godia followed by ww, 
ga or zua ga, e.g. we give t. to 
God muna godia zua ga aUah 
D 100, shukra, e.g. muna shu- 
kra D 100; 2. (to men) gode, 
yab(b)a y e.g. na yab(b)a = na 
gode; for the Engl, phrase 
* thanks' cf. prec. 

that, 1. demonstr. pron. pointing 
out remote object zoonchan or 
taanchan*, fern, wochan, pL 
(= those) wod(d)arian ; an em- 
phatic form = t. one wonchanr 
anka; the following = those as 
well as t. chan, chana or (in 
written Hausa) chananka, eg. 
t. lion zaki chan ; nan is also 
employed in this sense, e.g. t. 
business abu nan; 2. rel. pron. 
see under who ; 3. conj. t =in 
order t, t. not = in order t. not, 
see order 3 ; 4. Engl, t., as a 
conjunctive particle, pointing 
out one sentence or clause as 
logically the object of another, 
is unrepresented in Hausa, 
which expresses such a con- 
nection, in nearly every case, 
by simply placing the depen- 



Digitized by VjOOQ 



thatch 



189 



thief 



dent after the principal sen- 
tence. This is so with verbs of 
asserting, knowing, perceiving, 
judging, wishing, commanding, 
e.g. this woman says t. she 
will not go on mache nan ta 
che ba zata taffia ba ; I said to 
them t. I did not perceive t. 
I had been struck by a shot 
na faddi mam ban sanni ba 
akaludbeni da bindiga; I de- 
sire t. you give me my money 
ina so ka bani kurdina; he 
ordered t. they should be 
fettered ya hakumche asa masu 
giger. In the same way may 
be expressed a consequence, 
e.g. he terrified him (so) t. he 
fell down ya Uoratashi ya fadi 
aka88; he beat it t. it died 
ya yi mata bvlala ta mutu; 
similarly verbs of causing and 
the like may govern a clause, 
which takes the emphatic pro- 
nouns, expressing the effect, 
e.g. I will make him run (=1 
will cause t. he run) ni sashi 
shi gudu; permit t. I depart 
berri ni taffi. 

That, used after to say, assert 
etc. chewa, or in written Hausa 
chiwa, this use is however 
very limited, cf . dominchewa. 

thatch, grass used for, n. bunu, 
pi. bunai. 

thatched roof, n. tanka, jibga or 
jibki*. 

thatching, a leaf used for, n. 
fitta-j large reeds used for t. 
maitva. 



theatre, n. gia\d)an wa&a*. 

thee, pers. pron. see thou. 

theft, n. sata, sani or mane. 

their, possess, pron. suffixed -m, 
-nsu, e.g. t. town garim* G 2, 
garinm; t. wives matayenm; 
separate, if the object possessed 
is masc. nam, if fern. tarn. 

them, pers. pron. suffixed to verbs 
and prepositions as object, e.g. 
he destroyed t. ya halakam 
G 2 ; to t. dam, mam, garem. 

then, adv. (=at that time) sa'anan, 
lokachinan, yanda, yaenda, 
yaennan, yatvanda* (?) ; (= t. 
and not till t. or and t.) kana*, 
kan*, kanda*, e.g. do my work 
(first) and t. do your own ka yi 
aikina kana ka yi naka ; (= in 
that case, in its weakest sense) 
/a, mana, e.g. come, t zo mana. 

thence, adv. dag(g)a chan. 

there, adv. chan, dag(g)a chan, 
umri chan, awuri chan', t. is, 
t. are, etc. akoi D 9, 29, 36, 
e.g. t. is a journey before us 
akoi taffia gabbanmu. 

therefore, don wonan, fa, dorrnn- 
chewa or chewa*. 

these, dem. pron. see this. 

they, pers. pron. prefixed to 
various forms of past tenses 
8u, mn 9 mka, suffixed to the 
aux. verb of the future, e.g. 
t. will... Z08U 

thick, adj. kabri or kauri, da 
kabri, da kauri. 

thief, n. barao, fern, baraunia, pi. 
baraye or barai, maisata; spec, 
a market t. maisani. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



thieving 



190 



thou 



thieving, n. barakonchi, birkon- 
chi* f $ata, sani or suane; 
secret t. ja ehikhi D 9 note. 

thigh, n. chinia f pi. chinioyi, 
katara*, kar/ata or kari/ata 
q.v. ; it was almost larger 
than my t. ya kussa Jin 
chiniaia da girima. 

thin, adj. (=fine, as flour, dust, 
etc.) laushi or loshi; (=not 
stout) ba kabri, babu kabri ; 
(=lean, emaciated) arame, e.g. 
her young were quite t. diata 
sai arame. 

thing, n. abu, connective abin, pi. 
abubua for which abu may be 
used; (in the gen. sense of 
matter, subject) tada, pi. ta- 
dodi; things created talilcai*. 

think, v. (= to reflect, ponder) 
tuna, tunane ; to t. of, or about 
tuna da; (= to deem) tset(t)o, 
tsat(t)o, zet(t)o* f tsachi or zache, 
e.g. thou thinkest that it will 
set kana tsetto fadawa B 103 ; 
he would t. it was wheat shina 
tsachi alkaki che; (= imagine, 
expect) tamaha with yi and 
the pronouns in na; t. of (in 
the sense of to remember) am- 
bata and ambato ; t. of (in the 
sense of intend) kul(l)a or da 
kul(l)i t e.g. I t. of going ina 
da kuttin taffia. 

third, 1. ordinal num. naiiku, 
fern, taiiku, e.g. the t. one of 
them was a man who excelled 
them in declaring the unity of 
God naiikunsu wanda ya fisu 
tauhidi A 48 ; 2. fractional 



num. (= one part out of three) 
sulusi. 

thirst, n. kishirua ; to feel t. jin 
kishirua. 

thirsty, adj. da kishirua, izanwa 
D92(?). 

thirteen, cardinal num. goma sha 
uku, also sha uku. 

thirty, card. num. talatin. 

this, dem. pronominal adj. toonan 
or toonan* ', pi. (these) woa\d)a- 
nan, also wonga, fern. wog(g)a, 
pi. (these) woa\d)anga ; in the 
Sokoto district especially are 
used the forms worga or war- 
ga**uxman, e.g. t. song worga 
waha F 26 ; nan used for all 
genders and numbers usually 
placed after the word to which 
it refers, e.g. t. woman macks 
nan, but in poetry sometimes 
before it, e.g. he who desires 
the possessions of t. world 
maison dukaka nan dunia 
C 39; suffixed also to the 
connective is ga, e.g. t. house 
gid(d)anga ; t. town garinga ; 
gala C 8 (?). 

thither, adv. of place words = 
there employed nan, chart, 
umrichan. 

thorn, kaya, pi. kayayua, ka- 
rangia, karengia or karingia ; 
spec, a tree with white thorns, 
from fruit of which ink is 
made far okay a. 

thorns, a quantity of, n. coll. 
*kayeta. 

those, demonstr. pron. see that 1. 

thou, pers. pron. separate and 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



though 



191 



thunder 



emphatic kai, fern, hi or he; 
prefixed to past and suffixed 
to fut auxiliary and to passives 
ka, fern, ki, e.g. t., woman 
he mache ; t. wilt return here 
zaka homo ; t. wast stung by a 
scorpion anhalbeka da kunama; 
the above also = thee after pre- 
positions and tr. verbs, e.g. 
along with thee tare da kai; 
to thee maka ; I saw thee na 
ganki. 

though, conj. koda 9 saidai A 
16. 

thought, n. tunane, fem. tunana, 
pi. tunanu, matuna* or matu- 
nari*, tamaha, matamache. 

thousand, num. dubu, zambar, 
alif; two t. cdfin. 

thread, n. zar(r)e, zar(r)i A 75, 
abdwa; spec, very fine t. ar- 
rafia. 

threat, empty, n. alwashi. 

threaten, v. yin kurar(r)i. 

threatening, n. kurar(r)i; a t. 
discourse faro*. 

three, card. num. uku, taldta ; the 
latter in counting cowries often 
stands for t. thousand ; t. days 
ago toanshekaranjia. 

thresh, tr. v. dakka, sis(s)ika or 
sus{s)ika, buga*. 

thresher, n. maUaki. 

threshing floor, n. masis(s)ika, 
vnvrin si8(8)ika f mabugi, pi. 
rnabugai, fak(k)o. 

threshold, n. garam(m)a* and 
dan garam(m)a*. 

thrioe, numeral adv. sou (or so) 
uku, guda uku. 



thrive, v. (=to prosper) yin or- 
ziki. 

throat, n. makurua, makogoro, 
pi. makogoraiy makoshi; spec, 
swelling on t. makoko, han- 
gum*. 

throne, n. kusheran sariki, ku- 
8hera. 

throng, n. tarn, pi. tarori, fir- 
maki, cf. crowd. 

throttle, tr. v. murda, makure. 

throttler, n. mirdago or mwrdago. 

throw, tr. v. yes, yesda, jefa, e.g. 
he throws stones ya jefa du- 
als* ; to t. away yes, yesda, 
zub(b)as, zubasda, tvulga, wulge 
or wurga, e.g. he threw away 
his gun and fled ya yesda 
bindiga ya gudu; all these 
kola nuts are rotten, t. them 
away gora nan duka ribabu ka 
zubasdasu; to t. back mayes; 
t. out (= to t. away) jefas 
(also = to cast out, overthrow) 
jefasda; to t. with dice jefa 
kuria; spec, to t. (food) into 
the mouth hamfude, hatn/udi 
or hanfude*; to t. up any- 
thing so that it falls down 
again shik{k)a. 

thrush, bird resembling, n. go- 
do. 

thrust, tr. v. zonkutsa* F 93, see 
push ; to t. through (= pierce) 
soka, soke or soki, e.g. he t. 
their chief through with a 
spear ya soka babansu da ma- 
shi. 

thumb, n. haban yasa. 
i thunder, n. tsatoa; distant rolling 



Digitized by VjOCK 



Thursday 



192 



time 



t. chid(d)a; a burst of t. or 
thunder-bolt arradu. 

Thursday, n. alhamis or rana 
alhamis. 

thus, adv. (= in this or that way 
or manner) hak(k)a, hak(k)a- 
nan, Jcaza; the last is also 
used (see under so, such) 
where the speaker mentions 
the way or manner, but the 
actual author of the account 
avoids it, eg. he said the king 
spoke (t., or) t. and t. ya chs 
sariki ya faddi (Jcaza or) kaza 
da kaza) (in a weak sense = so 
then) fa. 

thy, possess, pron. suffixed ~ka, 
-nka, fem. -ki, -nki, e.g. t. wife 
mataka, t. husband mijinki; 
separate, if the object possessed 
is masc. naka, naki, if fem. 
taka, taki. 

thyself, 1. reflexive kanka, fem. 
kanki; 2. emphatic kai da- 
kanka, fem. ke (or ki) dakanki ; 
cf . self. 

tidings, n. see news. 

tie, tr. v. damre, daure, damra* 
or darmi* G 4, rataya or 
rataia, %arkafe\ to t. up to- 
gether goiyo or goyo \ spec, to 
t. up kola nuts sufuri, sufurchi* 
or sufili. 

tied loosely, participial adj. sa- 
sabda or sasapta. 

tightened, pass, particip. kum- 
che*. 

till, prep, and conj. see until. 

till, tr. v. noma, nomi or nome, 



tiller, n. (i.e. of the ground) mai- 
noma or mainomi, pL mastir 
noma, makafchi*. 

Timbuctoo, pr. n. timbuktu. 

time, n. lokachi, sa'a, yayi, za- 
maniy zamani, (also found as 
pL) zamariUy e.g. a loDg t. lo- 
kachi dogo; a short t. zamani 
kad(d)an ; at that t. loka- 
chinon, sa'anan; at the t. when 
he returned here lokachinda (or 
Ba k andd) ya datvoiyo ; at what 
t. ? wane sa'a\ some t. ivoni- 
yayi; you, my brethren, con- 
sider well the times and their 
changes ku yon uwa ku lura 
da zamanu da jirkitansu B 82 ; 
(= period, age) yayi, zamani, 
e.g. in the t. of the prophet ga 
yayin annabi or zamanin an- 
nabi; his t. is passed (i.e. he 
is old) yayinsa ya ttmche; 
(=set t. or proper occasion) 
lot(t)u, loto*, wakti or wakati, 
e.g. whoever omits the times 
(of prayer) passes away and is 
destroyed kowa ya ber lotu ya 
shude ya bata A 62, 65; every 
t. wakti duka A 54, see A 61 ; 
leave off saying your prayers 
late, make yours at their pro- 
per t. ku ber makara da salla 
ku yi taka wakatita D 23 ; by 
(or about) this t. warhakka or 
waraka ; at any t. koyaushe ; 
at what t. (=when) yanda, 
yaenda ; at what t. ? yaushe ; 
before-time tvuri; in former 
times or some t. ago datvuri or 
daAiri (lit. in the before-time) ; 



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1 



times 



193 



to 



from a long t. dadade; from 
what t. ? dag(g)a yaushe; since 
what t. ? tunyaushe ; until 
what t. ? har yaushe ; length 
of t. tsawa or tsawo; I have 
not t. to ba ni da dama; see 
also times, hour. 

times, pi. (of repetition) sau or so, 
guda, e.g. five t. sau (or so) 
biar, or guda biar. 

timid, adj. matsorata. 

tin, n. sinaderi, shinaderi or suna- 
deri. 

tinder, n. alhouuami, sometimes 
pronounced alfoami. 

tinge, tr. v. rin(n)i or rin(n)a. 

tinged, pass, particip. rin(n)ene, 
fern. rin(n)ena, pi. rin(n)enu. 

tip, n. (of the linger) dan yasa, 
(of the ear) dan kune. 

tire, v. 1. tr. (=to fatigue) gaje; 
2. intr. (= to be fatigued, weary) 

9<y*, 9 a Jh J™ 9 a 3™>> eg- he 
was tired with travelling ya 
gaji da taffia; we are tired 
with over- work muna jin gajia 
da yawan aiki. 

tithe, n. 1. (= tenth part) ushuri; 
2. t. or tithes (= one-tenth de- 
voted to religious purposes, 
alms) zak(k)a, e.g. repent, cease 
from unlawful gain, give tithes 
ha tuba ka ber riba ha bada 
zakka F 17. 

title, n. (= name, appellation) 
suna, pi. sunua or sunanaki; 
spec, a t. of respect given to 
the heir to the throne in Kano 
and to the galladima in Zaria 
daudu. 

R. II. 



to, 1. prep, ga, with pronouns gave, 
used of both persons and things, 
e.g. he came to me ya zaka ga- 
reni; they sell them to the 
traders su sayesu ga masu- 
chiniki ; near to the bank of 
the river kussa ga bakin rua ; 
zua and ya zua, zua ga D 100, 
and ya zua ga applied to both 
persons and things, e.g. they 
went to Sokoto sun taffi ya zua 
sokoto ; those who frequent the 
gates of cities pay all their at- 
tention to women masuzua ga 
kqfqfin birane su tatara hanka- 
linsu zua ga mata E 19; both 
ga and ya zua are often 
strengthened by har (cf. Engl, 
to, unto), e.g. to Oth man har 
ya zua othmanu G 7 ; to the 
time of Othman har ya zua 
zamani othmanu G 1 ; even to 
the present time hot ya zua 
yanzu, B 174 ; ma, applied not 
to things but persons, mostly 
to pronouns, e.g. to me mani, 
also mini ; to thee maka, often 
shortened to -ma after verbs, 
e.g. the day when death comes 
to thee randa mutua ta ishema 
F 76 ; ma sometimes expresses 
the Datives of Advantage and 
Interest, e.g. grant to me an 
abatement ka yi mani rongomi, 
the latter in the phr. come, 
please zo mana (=r#iant); a, 
found in a few phrases, e.g. he 
fell to the ground ya fadi 
akasa or akass, sometimes pre- 
fixed to gare, e.g. to thee 
13 



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toad 



194 



tongue 



agareka-gareka\ after verbs 
of motion etc. Engl, to may be 
wholly unrepresented, e.g. he 
went to his house ya taffi gid- 
dansa; they came to Mangi 
suka je mangi G 1 ; they swam 
and came to land sun iyo sun 
kai ham; 2. conj. (=in order 
that, so that, so as to) en placed 
immediately before the verb 
and rarely used except with 
the 1st person, e.g. I shall not 
see a well to fall into it ba ni 
ga rijia en fada ba B 148 ; I 
have a strong desire to go on 
the pilgrimage to it, to go to 
Medina, to visit it guri gareni 
en taffi haji nai en je madina 
en yi ziarata B 162, cf. D 32 ; 
I am about to go zani en taffi, 
see under order 3. 

toad, n. kwado, pi. kwadodi, en- 
gurdigi* (?) ; spec, sick t. with 
swelling on back kwozo. 

tobacco, n. taba, t.-pipe tukuniari 
taba ; to smoke t. shan taba. 

tobe, n. riga, pi. riguna All; 
spec, black or blue t. rigan 
saki ; t. of black or shiny blue 
cloth kore ; red t. jeb(b)a* ; 
white t. gare, pi. garuruka, 
girike ; a white t. used esp. by 
the Nup&3 kwakwata. 

to-day, adv. yau, also pronounced 
yo ; existing t. maiyo B 3, 21. 

toddle, intr. v. dubbo dubbo. 

toe, n. yasa, pi. yasosi, yasan 
kaffa; big t. baban yasa; spec, 
a disease of the toes kudumbia. 

together, adv. tare, gab(b)adai or 



gab(b)adaia, taro* or tarn* 
B 158, jeni; t. with tare da; 
t. with this (= notwithstanding) 
tare da tvonan; v. to put t. tara; 
to put up t., to gather t. gan- 
gama ; to be gathered t. (= to 
assemble) tarn; to come t. with 
violence kar(r)a or kar(r)o ; to 
go t. tare, e.g. we will all go t. 
duka zamu tare E 36 ; keep to- 
gether ! ku taffi jeni, 

toil, n. (= fatigue) ta l ba. 

toil, intr. v. ta l ba, shama; to t. for 
tsururi, dawoinya, e.g. he toils 
for vanity shina dawoinya da 
abin wqfi B 52. 

token, n. shaida, pi. shaidai and 
8haidodi. 

toll, n. humushi (lit. one-fifth), cf. 
tax. 

tomato, n. gauta, pi. gautaye; 
plant with fruit like large t. 
yalo, pi. yalima. 

tomb, n. kushewa or ku&heya*, pi. 
kusheyi, wurin kushewa, umrin 
bisne, kabari, barzahu* F 70 
note, e.g. the t. of the prophet, 
a thing to be loved kabari an- 
nate abin kamna B 169. 

to-morrow, n. gobe ; possessor of 
t. maigobe B 3, 21 ; the day 
after t. jibi, the day after jibi 
is called gata, that after gata, 
ie. the third day after t. chitta. 

tongs, n. awortak(k)i or hawar- 
tek(k)i, ansaki or hansaki. 

tongue, n. 1. (the bodily member) 
halshi or harshi, pi. haf shina; 
2. (= a particular language) see 
language 2. 



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J 



too 



195 



track 



too, adv. 1. (= likewise) kua, kuma, 
ma*; 2. (more than enough) 
express by the verbs /aye and 
buaye, e.g. it was t. severe for 
me ya fayeni karifi ; he was t. 
big yafaye da girima; he was 
t. much for me ya buayeni ; t. 
much yafaye yawa. 

tools, n. pi. kaya or kaia or the 
pi. kayayeki. 

tooth, n. hauri, hak(k)ori, pi. 
hak(k)ora; first t. of a child 
matamni, pi. matamna; back 
teeth gub(b)o; spec. t. -brush, 
made of bristles of a tree dashi; 
t. -gaping n. used of one who 
has lost two teeth gibi, e.g. 
shina gibi. 

toothless, adj. maidasashi; n. 
condition of being t. gigi*. 

top, n. kai, pi. kawana*, kawana 
and kawuna, bis(s)a or abis(s)a, 
kodi ; on the t. of akan, bis(s)a 
or abis(s)a, e.g. on the- 1. of the 
tomb akan kushstua F 96 = bis- 
(s)a (or abis(s)a) knshewa ; the 
t. of the head kandaman kai. 

topple over, to, intr. v. yin kun- 
duma. 

torch, n. bakin wuta. 

torment, n. tsanani, gobara (orig. 
= the fire) B 1 2 ; spec, place of 
t. for unbelievers gumki or 
gamki, pi. gumaka; to suffer 
t. jin tsananta. 

torment, tr. v. tsananta, tsane, 
tsani, tsanache. 

torn off, a half, n. tsayi. 

tornado, n. haderi. 

torrent, n. koram(m)a. 



tortoise, n. kunkuru, kififia* ; a 
small t. kafarji. 

toss, tr. v. (of cattle, etc. when 
butting, goring) tunkuda, tun- 
guji or tunkui. 

total, n. (=sum or amount reached 
by reckoning) see calculation 
2. 

tottering, adj. agaga, e.g. it is old 
and t. with age, the nurturer 
of disease agaga tsofua gonal 
chiuta B 109, (applied to the 
walk of the old or blind) kut- 
(t)up kut(t)up, (of walls, etc.) 
karikache, fem. karikata, pi. 
karikatu. 

touch, tr. v. tab(b)a t e.g. it is 
alive, just t. it and it will 
certainly move shina da rai 
sai ka tabbashi zai mosa babu 
shak, (= to engage slightly in) 
id., e.g. he just touched the 
work ya tabba yin aiki. 

towards, prep, ga, before pro- 
nouns gave, also with dag(g)a, 
e.g. some men are coming t. us 
ijooddansu mutane suna zakkua 
garemu or (less commonly) 
dagga garemu. 

towel, n. bante, pi. bantuna, hal- 

Wif)i- 
town, n. large, walled t. birni, 

pi. birane or bimua; small, 

unwalled t. gari, pi. garurua, 

and garigaru) quarter of a t. 

shiya or shia, pi. shiyoyi; cf. 

suburb, 
toy, n. (= plaything) abin tvorigi. 
track, n. (= beaten path) tafariki, 

tqfarki, tafarke* or tafrika*, 

13—2 



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trade 



196 



treasure 



pi. ta/arkoki; a broad t. rimdi, 
godobe. 
trade, n.fadake, chiniki. 
trade, intr. v. yin Jadake, yin 
chiniki ; to t. successfully chin 
kasua. 
trader, n. fadake or rnaifadake, 
falke*, pi. jadake, maifatauchi, 
maidilanchi* , tajiri and at- 
tajiri, dan kasua. 
trading, n./atauchi, dUanchi. 
tradition, n. (= doctrine orally 
handed down) sunna B 16, 
C 42, e.g. leave off that which 
is evil, work according to the 
t. of Mohammed ka ber bida'a 
ka aikata sunna ahmad F 25. 
traduce, tr. v. see calumniate, 
trample, tr. v. taka, intensive 
form tataka or tatake, e.g. let 
us not t. it under foot kadda 
mu tatakeshi B 40. 
transform, tr. v. sauya and sa- 
waya, e.g. by the power of a 
charm he transformed himself 
into an elephant da ikon ma- 
gani ya sauya kansa giwa. 
transformed, pass, particip. riki- 
dade, fem. rikidada, pi. riki- 
dadu ; to be t. sauya and 
saivaya, mayesda, rikida, e.g. 
he was t. into a sheep ya sauya 
tumkia ; she was t. into some- 
thing or other ta mayesda (or 
rikida) woni abu, see also 
change 4. 
transgress, intr. v. (= to do 
wrong) yin laifi, (= to commit 
sin) yin zunufi. 
translate, v. see interpret 1. 



translated, pass, particip. sau- 
yaye, fem. sauyaya, pi. sau- 
yayu. 
transport, n. animals used for t. 
ahxro ; oxen used for t. takari- 
kari, pi. takarikarai. 
trap, n. hak(k)o, pi. hak(k)oki, fig. 
(=a thing leading into harm 
or error) id. ; t. for rat burma 
or buma* ; t. for wild animals 
turko\ to lay or set a t. hak- 
(k)o with yi or the forms in 
na, fig. id. 

travail, n. 1. (= severe labour) see 
toil ; 2. (= pains of childbirth) 
ux>hal(l)an haifua ; to be in t. 
nakuda*. 

travail, intr. v. see toil. 

travel, intr. v. taf(f)i; also 
taf(f)ia with yi and the forms 
in na, e.g. as we were travelling 
much rain fell da muna 
taffia anrua dayatva; spec, 
to t. as a merchant yin 
fatauchi) money paid to a 
king for permission to t 
garam(m)a. 

traveller, fellow, n. abokin 
taf(f)ia, mar aid. 

travelling for trade, n./atauchi. 

travelling-ant, n. also coll. 
kwarikwas(s)a, kwalkwas(s)a 
or kwarukwas(s)a. 

tread, v. to t. down tataka or 

tatake; to t. down with the 

feet tak(k)i or taka; to t on 

• take, to t. upon (to crush) laze. 

treasure, n. wad(d)a, taska 
treasures ajia, azawa F 94 
royal t. stored up kambi* 



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treasury 



197 



tree 



spec, chamber for storing t. 
rqfonia, pi. ra/oni; to lay up 
t. taskache. 

treasury, n. taska, pi. taskoki. 

tree, n. itache (Sokoto itashe F 94) 
or iche, pi. itatua ; in this 
sense the word is masc. (a 
stick cut from a t. i.e. itache 
is usually regarded as fern.), 
a dried-up, withered t. kobrin 
itache ; also kwauri and ktvabri, 
pi. kwabruka; a t. when used 
to hang meat on jigo, pi. 
jiguna; a pair of trees so 
planted as to grow into one 
gam(m)inbanta. The follow- 
ing, most of which await 
identification, are grouped ac- 
cording to their characters and 
uses — a large species of t. 
sherinia; large t. with milk- 
white sap chedia; a large, 
shady t. gimshi* ; large, shady 
t., fruit resembles kola-nut 
durumi'y large t. with white 
berries, under which rain col- 
lects during rainy season gawo, 
pi. gawake; large t. with 
poisonous fruit zangarami* ; 
small poisonous species of 
euphorbia t. kumkumia* ; a 
small t. t8at8agi* ; small t. 
with white leaves 8abur(r)a; 
tall, straight t. dilo ; a thorny 
t. with hard wood like ma- 
hogany dakwora; the following 
have edible fruit — a large t. 
kadaura; a large t., leaves 
also used to feed cattle kokia*; 
a t. with reddish wood baushi; 



a t. whose wood turns red by 
exposure madobia; a small t. 
bana* ; a small red-flowered 
t. gaude ; molasses (mad(d)i) is 
made from the edible fruit of 
the following dumia, taura and 
kainya or kaiwa; a large, bushy 
t. (zizyphus spina Christi), 
with red edible berries kurna ; 
a t. resembling kurna and 
having red wood mijiria or 
misiria* ; zizyphus lotus, its 
fruit made into cakes magaria ; 
robinia pseudacacia, its fruit 
(kalua) eaten in soup doriwa or 
dorowa, cf. dodowa ; the fruit 
of a red -flowered t. of which 
soup (mia) is made soborodo; 
a small t. with reddish wood 
and edible leaves marike ; 
baobab or monkey-bread t. 
(adansonia digitata), its fruit 
eaten and its leaves used for 
making soup kuka; — t. grown 
on roof from which blacksmith's 
charcoal is made kiria or kiriya ; 
t. from which india-rubber is 
obtained gumji or gamji ; large 
t. with white thorns used in 
making ink farakaya; large t. 
from which a sweet scent is 
obtained maje; a large t. 
(I)asclepias gigantea, from bark 
of which ropes and from its 
blossoms a medicine for women 
are made tumfafia, pi. tumfafi; 
t. from whose bark small ropes 
are made tatvastya; the silk 
cotton t. (eriodendron bombax) 
rimi; t. whose leaves furnish 



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tremble 



198 



trouble 



a yellow stain and, mixed with 
indigo, a green dye magma; 
t. its leaves ground to make a 
stain for the hands lel(t)e; 
small t. whose fragrant leaves 
are used for wrapping food and 
whose bark is used as a stain 
to darken lips kalgo or kargo ; 
large t. its bark used for 
staining the teeth gurjia ; t. 
from fruit of which a scent is 
made sainya; large t., with 
reddish bark, used for shed 
supports etc. janyaro ; t. used 
in tanning gab(b)an rua; t. 
whose bristles are used as 
tooth-brush dashi ; large t. its 
aromatic bark ground up as a 
medicine fasarkworia ; large t. 
its bark furnishing an astrin- 
gent medicine sansami ; large 
t. its fruit ground up used as 
an ointment kar(r)ana ; a 
Nupe* t. fruit used as a medicine 
pasakori* ; small t. from whose 
root a scent is made, used also 
as a medicine uwan magun- 
guna; small t. with yellow 
blossoms, an infusion of its 
leaves used by women near 
childbirth rtmhu; small faba- 
ceous t. whose fruit ground up 
and drunk is supposed to 
render invulnerable to sword 
cut dundu; t. whose root is 
used as a charm at childbirth 
bazere* ; t. whose fruit is eaten 
as a charm to reconcile husband 
and wife begeyi. 
tremble, intr. v. (with terror, 



cold, etc.) firgtia, raura, za- 

zaga. 
trembles, one who, n. makartata* 

D 43, maikatarta* D 46. 
trembling, participial n. (from 

terror, cold, etc.) rauratoa, t. 

all over zazagawa; t. (from 

excitement, agitation) karaya. 
trespass, intr. v. see transgress, 
trial, n. (= a putting to the proof, 

testing) jarabi, jaraba, e.g. 

for a t. da jaraba A 65 ; to 

make t. of v. jaraba, jarabe or 

yin jarabi. 
tribal marks, n. pi. (cut on face) 

shaushawa, keskestu, (cut from 

corners of the mouth) yanbaka. 
tribe, n. iri, pi. irare, kauwi. 
tribunal, n. tourin sheria. 
tribute, n. humwhi, gandu or 

gundu t kurdinka8(8)a; t. money 

kurdin gandu ; spec. t. paid 

by the heathen torn; cf. tax. 
trick, n. (= dexterous artifice) 

bamanchi*, wayo. 
trickery, n. (= fraudulent decep- 
tion) birkonchi*. 
trim, tr. v. (to put in order) gerta. 
trinkets, coll. kayan ado; cf. 

ornament, 
trip, intr. v. tunmre, yin tuntube, 

the last is used as a tr. and 

intr. v. 
Tripoli, pr. n. tarabuZus or birnin 

tarabulu8. 
triumph, n. see victory, 
troop, n. see company, 
trot, intr. v. (of a horse) kil(l)isa. 
trouble, n. (= distress) ivohal(l)a 

or wahal(l)a f ta'ba F 68, sa- 



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trouble 



199 



trust 



nanta, kinke, alale, karaJci*, 
mayata* D 61, (= polite atten- 
tion) dawoinia, e.g. I thank 
you for your t. na gode maka 
8abbada (or domin) dawoinia) 
to be in t. yin wo/ialla, ta'ba ; 
to feel t. jin wohalla, tangar(r)a ; 
to cause t. kenke and with hai 
as obj. shama f e.g. it causes t. 
ya shama hai. 

trouble, n. one who bears t. 
maiwohal(l)a> one who causes 
t. mahas(s)adi. 

trouble, v. tr. wohahhe, ta i ba i 
sananclie and tsananta, has- 
(s)ada, alale, haiyet(t)a, refl. 
(= to trouble ' oneself) yin 
wohal(l)a, wohalda or wahalda ; 
do not t. (= feel distressed) 
Jeadda ha wohalda kanka, (as 
a polite exp. = spare yourself 
the t.) kiyaye kanka. 

troublesome, what is, n. kuma- 
manchi'y adj. da wuya. 

trough, n. jvrigi or jirgi, pi. 
jirage. 

trousers, n. (Le. the loose, baggy 
native t.) wando or wondo, pi. 
wanduna or wonduna* All, 
F 202 ; spec, two pieces of cloth 
sewn on at bottom of native t. 
kamunkqf(f)a; trouser-string 
mazargi. 

true', adj. gen. da gaskia, da gaske, 
gaskia and gaske, (of persons 
= veracious, sound, honest) 
maigaskia, (= faithful) salifri*, 
pi. 8alihai, e.g. the wise man 
is a t. friend, he would show 
to us the course of this world 



maihankali shi ni abokin salihi 
ski kan gvda muna takitakin 
dunia C 17; t. as an adverbial 
phr. (= quite right) ainin as 
well as the words given in seq. 

truly, adv. da gaskia, da gaske, 
gaskia f gaske ~aje, ashe 9 hakika, 
aiwa or ewa, ainin, 

trumpet, , n. kafo or kafo, pi. 
kafoni and kafuna, kakaki, 
e.g. the t. shall sound, all 
shall rise abusa kafo antashi 
dukFlU. 

trumpeter, n. maikqfo, maibusa 
(lit. blower), e.g. on the day 
when the t. shall blow his 
trumpet rana da maibusa ya 
busa kafo nasa A 78, 79. 

trunk, n. 1. (= small box, usually 
of leather) sanduki, pi. sandu- 
kai ; 2. (= proboscis of elephant) 
hanun giwa ; 3. (t. of a tree) 
kwabri, kwauriy kofa*in itache, 
kotutura. 

trust, n. (= confidence, certainty 
of safety) amdna, shaduda or 
saduda, (also = reliance on 
truth or right) gaskia B 19, 
(= the depositing of money etc. 
with anyone) sabtu, saptu or 
80tu, e.g. in his reign all men 
might have t. amutane duka 
achikki zamanishi amdna ni 
G 4 ; he betrayed t. ya chinye 
amdna) I left money with 
them on t. na yi masu sabtu. 

trust, intr. v. or t. in (= rely on) 
dogare, dangana, shaduda or 
saduda, ingata, sakankache, 
e.g. we t. in thee mun dogareka 



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200 



turtle-dove 



B 20; I t. in God ina dangana 
da (or ga) allah ; follow Mo- 
hammed, t. in him ku bi 
muhamadu ku sakankache B 16 
note. 

trustee, n. madaukan bashi. 

trustworthy, adj. (= to be relied 
on, depended on) yftrdaji or 
yirdaji, ingatachi*, tab(b)a- 
tache, fem. tab(b)atachia, e.g. 
this account is t. wanan labari 
ingatachi', t. language coll. 
magana tab(b)atachia ; for the 
last is also found makama 
magana q. v. 

truth, n. gaskia ; phr. the t. of 
the matter koman magana) 
to speak the t. ba gaskia ; to 
establish the t. gaskata or 
gaskanta. 

try, tr. v. (=make trial of) see 
trial; (= endeavour), kokari, 
yin kokari, tab(b)a (or bada) 
kokari, e.g. I will t. to make 
an attempt zan tabba kokari 
A 2 ; t. diligently to follow his 
tradition ku bada kokarunku 
ga sunna tai B 16. 

Tuarek, n. gent, asben, pi. as- 
bendwa. 

Tuesday, n. rana talata. 

tuft of hair, n. on the head tuku 
or tukuwa; t. o. h. in the 
middle of the head zanko; cf. 
hair. 

tug, tr. v. (= to haul along) ja. 

tumult, n. (= noisy clamour of a 
multitude) hargowa ; t. (e.g. of 
war) fcdmaki ; see uproar. 

turban, n. rawani, pi. rawuna; 



spec, small red, white-bordered 
t. zubuta* ; t. of white muslin 
harsa or hirsa; white muslin 
for making t. zabuta; white 
stuff for making t. mabur(r)us. 

turkey, n. talatalu, agwagwa. 

turn in, a, at the edge of a 
garment, n. shaft. 

turn, v. 1. tr. (=to move round) 
maida ; to t. away from juya 
ma ; to t. the head away from 
kauda kai ; to t. back, t. over 
juya; to t. upside down jiche 
or jichi, jirkiche; to t. over 
(e.g. a mat, piece of cloth etc. 
for the purpose of folding) 
linke or nimka; intr. to t. 
aside (off the road, out of the 
way) ratsa, rache, raise, kari- 
kache or karkache, e.g. we t. 
aside from Kano mu ratsa 
kano E 45 ; to t. over ketvoye 
or kewayi; to t. round (of 
continuous motion = to revolve) 
id., e.g. my head turned round 
(of giddiness etc.) kaina ya 
kewoye ; to t. round (of a single 
change of position) woiwoia or 
wavwaia, e.g. when he called 
me I turned round and saw 
him da ya kirrani na woiwoia 
na ganshi j trop. (= to become 
eventually) Jit(t)a, e.g. he 
turned out well yafitta nagari; 
2. (= to change or change into) 
tr. and intr. see change. 

turning, participial n. juyawa, 
woiwoia or waiwaia. 

turtle, n. kunkuru. 

turtle-dove, n. kurichia, pi. kuri- 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



tusk 



201 



uncooked 



checheki and kurchiyoyi, wala, 

pi. walu. 
tusk, n. an elephant's t. haurin 

giwa, hauri; cf. ivory, 
twelfth, ord. num. nagoma sha 

biu, fem. tagoma sha biu. 
twelve, card. num. goma sha biu, 

also sha biu; t. times sau (or 

so) goma sha biu. 
twentieth, ord. num. naishirin 

or naashirin, fem. ta'ishirin, 

etc. 
twenty, card. num. ishirin or 

ashirin ; in counting by twen- 
ties hauia and lasso (= a score) 

are especially employed, e.g. 

hauia uku = settin, cf . A 39 ; 

a long measure of about t. 

yards turumi. 
twice, numeral adv. sau (or so) 

biu. 
twig, n. hamso*, itache, q.v. 
twilight, n. (that before dawn) 

jijifi alsoji/ji/B 56. 
twinkling of on eye, n. (= a 

moment of time) keptawan ido, 
twins, n. pi. tuguai, tuguaye or 

taguaye ; spec, next child born 

after twins gumbo. 
twist, tr. v. kis(s)o (e.g. the hair); 

t. (e. g. the neck) murda ; 

(e.g. thread) murje; (e.g. a 

piece of cloth) jainye*; (in 

plaiting rope, etc.) tubka, tufka 

or tupka. 
twisted, adj. kis(s)o. 
two, card. num. biu, biyu or bi ; 

by twos biu biu; t. hundred 

dari biu or metin ; t. thousand 

alfin. 



udder, n. nono, pi. nonua*. 

Ugly, adj. babu keau. 

ulcer, n. gembo, pi. gembuna ; cf. 

scab, 
umbrella, n. tuta* or tuti*, pi. 

tutoshi D 68. 
unable, to be, intr. see able, 
unalloyed, adj. safi or safe ; cf. 

unmixed, 
unbecoming, adj. Jiaram, ba 

daidai; e.g. he did what was 

u. ya yi abinda ba daidai ba. 
unbeliever, n. kafiri, pi. kafirai 

and kajirawa. 
unbind, tr. v. kunche, kunchi; 

e.g. he unbinds his load on the 

plain of this world ya kunchi 

kaya nai gafilin dunia C 11. 
unbound, pass. part, kunche, fem. 

kunchia, pi. kuntu. 
uncertain, adj. da zuchia biu; 

u. thought (= doubt) tset(t)o, 

tsa((t)o or zet(t)o; to be u. 

sauraro*; I am u. ina da 

zuchia biu. 
uncertainty, n. (a state of doubt) 

kokonto, tambaba, tantam(m)a. 
unchaste, adj. see profligate, 
unchastity, n. zallantaka. 
uncle, maternal, n. rafa. 
unclean, adj. (= dirty, foul) da 

dauda, kazami ; ceremonially 

u. haram, da haram. 
uncleanness, n. (in a physical 

sense) dauda; (in a wider 

sense) kazamta, jaraba, the 

last of moral pollution. 
uncooked, adj. dainye; u. flesh 

nama dainye; n. anything u. 

gaya*. 



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tincover 



202 



untied 



uncover, tr. v. yaye* (?). 

under, adv. and prep, kalkashin, 
kalikashin or karkashin. 

underneath, adv. cf. preceding. 

understand, v. ji, fahimta or 
fahumta*, yin ziaya Ell, 20, 
e.g. I u. your words, T u. quite 
well na ji magananka na ji 
mrrai; he understands (Le. you 
need say no more) ya yi kerren 
magana; to u. well intens. 
sansanche ; to fail to u. gigichi 
or gigi f rudi, gagata, the last 
taking da before object, e.g. I 
failed to u. it na gagata da shi. 

understanding, n. (= compre- 
hending, comprehension) fa- 
himchi, jahami*, ziaya, kerre 
or kari; cf.prec. ; (= knowledge, 
cleverness) asanchi or azanchi \ 
see also ability 2. 

undo, tr. v. see untie (= to annul, 
render vain) wqfinta ; (= to 
ruin) bata. 

undress, v. debe or debo, tube, 
fit(t)asda all with riguna, etc. 

undressed, pass, particip. see 
naked. 

uneven, adj. (of a surface) see 
rough. 

unfortunate, adj. and n. masiachi, 
pi. masiata. 

ungird, tr. v. sinche, e.g. he 
ungirded his camel ya sinche 
rakuminsa. 

ungrateful, adj. butulu, 'maibu- 
tulchi (&ok.maibvtulshi) y e.g. he 
who is u. shall not be saved da 
ya she ^-che) maibutulshi ba 
shi tsira E 5. 



unique, adj. kad(d)aichi*. 

unite, tr. v. gam(m)a ; intr. to u. 
closely garwaya C 20 note. 

unity, n. daianchi* ; spec, to 
profess the u. of God tavJiida* 
or tauhidi* A 48. 

unjust, adj. (= unfair, wrongful) 
tstdumi y (= wicked, gen.) da 
haram or 1mram\ n. what is 
u. haram or abin haram; cf. 
seq. 

unlawful, adj . da haram or haram ; 
n. anything u. or what is u. 
haram or haramu, abin haram, 
shirku ; u. gain or profit hara- 
mia. 

unless, conj. sai, miko, e.g. he 
who asks is not without reason, 
u. he refuses to listen to that 
which thou showest to him 
matan(ba)yi ba shi rassa huja 
ba mi ya ki (= ki) jin abin da 
ka nuna mai £ 10. 

unload, tr. v. gen. shid{d)a or- 
8hid(d)e; to u. camels, etc. 
eabka, sabki or sapka. 

unmixed, adj. (=pure from ad- 
mixture) Ualka, teatsaUca, soft, 
safe. 

unprofitable, adj. babu anfani, 
da babu anfani, banza, babu 
riba. 

unripe, adj. dainye or dainyi, pi. 
dainyoyi. 

unsympathetic, adj. magaya or 
magauchi, pi. magata. 

untie, tr. v. kunche or kwanche, 
mnche or sinche. 

untied, pass, particip. kunche, 
fem. kunchia, pi. kuntu. 



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until 



203 



use 



until, till, prep, and conj. har, hal 
or hal, prep., e.g. he followed 
the true path u. now ya bi 
hainyan gaskia har yanzu ) 
strengthened by dai, ga, ya 
zua, e.g. even u. now hal ya 
zawa (=zua) yanzu B 174; 
conj. let them quarrel u. they 
are tired abersu fadda liar su 
gaji] sai, prep, with nouns of 
time, e.g. u. to-morrow sai 
gobe ; u. evening sai mareche ; 
these expressions are elliptical, 
some such v. as wait, etc. being 
understood before them, as is 
the case also when sai is used 
as a conj., e.g. give up delaying 
and saying that (you will wait) 
u. you are old ; death will come 
before you are old berri jira 
ha che sai ka tsofe akanmache 
gabban ba atsofe ba B 115; 
kana*, kan*, kanda*, conj. = 
then and not u. then, so that 
the corresponding English 
sentence always contains a 
negative, e.g. they stood till 
we charged them, then and not 
u. then they all ran sun tsaya 
har mukafadi abissansu kana 
su duka su gudu; don't eat 
our bread u. you have eaten 
your own ka chi gurassanka 
kana ka chi tamu; kami* 
D91. 

unto, prep, (a strengthened form 
of to) ga ; with pronouns gare, 
zua, ya zua; in correlative 
expressions combined with har, 
e.g. from this border unto that 



dagga iyaka nan har ga iyaka 
chan. 

untrue, adj. kakari ; the n. karia 
(=Engl. *a story') is constantly 
used in this sense, e.g. whether 
true or u. I do not know gaskia 
ho karia ban sanni ba, 

unwell, adj. reshin lafia, moras- 
lafia; cf. ill. 

up, adv. (= upwards, aloft) bis(s)a, 
abis(s)a ; e.g. the falcon soared 
up shafo ya tashi bissa. 

uphold, tr. v. (= to support, e.g. 
as a tent-pole) tokara. 

upon, prep. bis(s)a or abis(s)a, 
which may also be followed by 
ga ; e.g. u. it bissa garesa ; he 
got u. the horse ya hawa (bissa 
or bissan or) bissa ga doki. 

uproar, n. hautsina*. 

upset, v. 1 tr. jirkiche, birkichi or 
birkiche; to u. (so as to spill 
water, etc.) zubda; 2. intr. to 
u. or to be u. (of men, etc.) 
tunsure ; (of a boat) durime or 
dirime. 

upside down, to turn, tr. v. 
jirkiche, jiche or jichi. 

urinate, intr. v. boli, also seq. 
with the forms in na or with 

urine, n. Jitsare. 

US, pers. pron. obj. -mu suffixed to 

verbs and prepositions, e.g. he 

called u. ya kirramu; to u. 

martin, or with assimilation 

mumu. 
usage, n. (= custom) ada, tada, 

pi. tadodi. 
use, n. (= utility, also advantage, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



use 



204 



verse of the Koran 



profit, gain) anfdni ; e.g. what 
is the u. of ink ? tadawa minene 
anfaninta ; of u. da anfani; of 
no u. babu anfani ; a man of 
no u. mutum wofi. 

use, tr. v. (to employ) no general 
term, must be turned, e.g. they 
u. flesh for food abinchinsu 
nama; they u. skins only for 
clothing rigunansu duka sax 
da fata ; they u. force suna 
yin tilas; he can u. the axe 
shina iya yin aiki da gatari ; 
do you u. a hat ka aike da 
mala/a ; (= to be wont) verbal 
forms with Jean, e.g. he used to 
come home at night shi kan 
taffo gidda da dere ; to be used 
to (= to be accustomed to) saba 
da; e.g. camels are used to men 
rakuma su saba da mutane. 

useful, adj. da anfdni, maianfani 
£ 44; it is u. shina da akibba. 

useless, adj. babu anfdni, banza. 

uselessly, to work, intr. v. snnkwia 
or 8unkuya C 4. 

uselessness, n. wofi. 

utility, n. see use. 

vagabond, adj. gujeje. 

vain, adj. (= empty, worthless) 

banza, kakari; in v. banna; 

(= conceited) wawa ; to be v. 

wauta* 
valley, n. see ravine, 
value, n. (« estimated worth in 

money) see price, 
vanity, n. (= emptiness, worth- 

lessness) kakari, abin wofi) 

(= conceit, foolishness) wauta. 



vapour, n. (= mist, fog) hazo ; v. 

rising in hot sun kawalivol- 

mia. 
variance, n. (= dissension, dis- 
agreement) see discord, 
variation, n. see difference, 
various, adj. dabam dabam, e.g. 

v. things are sold in the market 

abubua dabam dabam asayes- 

dasu chikkin kasua. 
vase for scent, n. vmkia. 
veal, n. naman marak(k)i. 
vegetable, a, used in making soup, 

n. rigi*. 
veil, n. long v. Itdubi, lulvhe or 

lilibi, zan(n)e 9 lulubi; v. worn 

by a king amawali. 
veil, tr. v. lulubi or lulvhe, e.g. O 

women, v. your whole body fa 

mataye ku lulubi du jikinku 

F 41 ; refl. to v. oneself id. 

C 18; (to wrap up) mnke* 

F91. 
vein, n. jijia, pi. jiviojiy veins 

coll. dag(g)ura*. 
velvet cloth, kind of, n. yapki. 
vengeance, to take, v. rama> 

presential form ramawa. 
venison, n. naman dajL 
Venus, (the planet) n. zara> matan 

wata lit. wife of the moon, 
verily, adv. hakika, anche or enehe, 

ai, da gaskia, iyo*. 
vermin, infesting horses, goats, 

etc., coll. kaska. 
verse of the Koran, n. aya (a 

connective form aiar* F 19, 

24, 42, 158), pi. ayoyi, e.g. 

and this v. (of the Koran) is 

a sufficient reason to give to 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



vertigo 



205 



vowels 



anyone fa aya nan dcdili she 
(=che) gakowa F 138. 

vertigo, n. gigita. 

very, adv. dayawa most frequently 
with the expression thrown 
into a nominal form, e.g. he 
was v. frightened ya ji teoro 
dayawa, etc. ; sometimes this 
idea is expressed by repetition, 
e.g. v. fast, v. quickly maza 
maza ; v. slowly, v. quietly 
8an(n)u san(n)u; spec. v. red 
ja tour; v. black bak(k)i 
ker(r)in ; v. much (of habitual 
actions) is often expressed by 
v.faye, e.g. dogs bark v. much 
at night karnuka suna faye 
hafshi da dere. 

vessel, n. 1. (= utensil for holding 
anything) tukunia, pi. tukane 
or tukwane; v. made of clay 
kasko, pi. kasaki; v. made of 
skin tandu; spec, any small 
white v. tamgaram; 2. see 
boat. 

veteran, n. (= an experienced 
soldier) maitsasi or maidsasi. 

vex, tr. v. wohalshe, refl. to v. 
oneself wohalda. 

vexation, n. haushi ; cf . anger. 

vexed, to be, intr. v. jin haushi, 
e.g. he is v. with me yana jin 
haushina \ phr. my heart is v, 
zuchiata ta tafassa. 

vice, n. 1. (= profligacy) zina; 2. 
(= a defect, blemish) aibu. 

victory, n. nas($)ara, nas(s)archi f 
bijinta ; to gain a v. nasfyara 
with yi or samu y e.g. he gained 
a v. ya yi (or ya samu) nassara. 



victuals, n. abinchi, tuo y chima or 
chimaka. 

view, n. see sight 2. 

vigorously, adv. da kangara. 

vile, adj. kazami, dunia*. 

village, n. alkaria, pi. alkariyu ; 
small v. kauye y pi. kauyuka; 
little v. gimi*. 

villain, n. maimasifa, pi. rnasu- 
ma8ifa, mugun mutum. 

villainy, n. (= mischief, wicked- 
ness) masifa, mugunta. 

vinegar, n. man tsami, yami. 

violence, n. (i.e. tyrannical or 
wrongful v.) tsandni, abin 
tsandni ; (= physical force) ka- 
rifi, e.g. by v. (= by force) da 
karifi, da tilas. 

violent person, n. maitsand- 
ni. 

virgin, n. budurua, pi. buduruai, 
gorua or gobrua, kurikia or 
kurkia, pL kurikoki C 18. 

vision, n. see sight 1. 

visit, tr. v.jiwayi or jiwoyi; spec, 
of a religious v. to a shrine or 
holy person ziara, ziara, also 
?**y*> e -g* w © will v « him zamu 
(=zamu) ziara nai B 168 ; she 
visited the prophets ta zayi 
annabawa F 58. 

visitor, n. bako, fern, bakua, pi. 
bakuna, baki or bakokuna. 

vizier, n. tvazir*. 

voice, loud, n. muria or muriya, 
pi. murioyi. 

void, to make, tr. v. wqfinta. 

vomit, v. yin amai, tumbudi. 

voracity, n. zowari. 

vowels, n. hajetu*; points or v. (?) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



vulture 



206 



wall 



placed above or below letters 
wasali. 
vulture, n. angtdu, agulu or 
augulu, fem. angula or agula; 
the fishing v.jayaki; cf. mekia. 

wag the head, to, v. (in token of 
assent) ged(d)a and ged(d)a kai 
also kada kai ; to w. or move 
the head (in token of dissent) 
kauda kai. 

wage war, to, v. yin yaki. 

wages, coll. lada, lad(d)a, bia or 
biya, jinga ; one who pays or 
receives w. madjinga ; to pay 
w. yin jinga. 

wail, n. kuka. 

wail, v. kuka with yi or the forms 
in na. 

wait, intr. v. gen. expressed by 
means of jima> pass, anjinia, 
e.g. w. a little jima kaddan ; 
w. a while, I shall return sai 
anjima ; thou knowest that in 
the world we w. but a short 
time ka san duuia kaddan 
muka jinjimawa F 62 ; where 
the meaning is obvious tsaya 
(stop) is often used, e.g. w., I 
am going to explain that ka 
tsaya ni gaya raaka nan, so 
zamna, e.g. we waited there 
three months mu zamna touri- 
nan wata uku ; to w. for jira, 
jirache, yin jinkiri, F 237, B 
166. 

wait, lying in, n.fak(k)o, kwanto ; 
a place for lying in w. nwfak(k)a. 

wait, to lie in, intr. v. yin fak(k)o, 
aranfaki. 



wake, to, intr. v. (= cease to sleep) 
falaka or falka, tashi, e.g. w. 
and arise from Bleep ku/alaka 
ku tashi D 26 ; tr. to w. one 
up iada, tayeSy and tashi. 

wale, made by a whip etc., n. 
kulu y pi. kulayi. 

walk, n. (= pathway) hainya y pi. 
hainyoyi; also fig. of the 
religious w., e.g. to follow the 
true w. bi lminyan gaskia. 

walk, intr. v. (=to move slowly 
on foot) yatoo or yao, yin 
yatvo; these are used of the 
act of walking itself and of 
promenading, taking a w., also 
shuwaki) very frequently in 
this sense the phr. shan hiska 
is combined with yatoo and 
*#, e.g. we walked for an 
airing muka yi yatoo shan 
hiska ; to w. about zago ; to w. 
backwards and forwards zago, 
jawagi; to w. on all fours 
rarafe B 161 ; to w. on tiptoe 
sandua] to w. proudly takama ; 
to w. up and down as women 
in weaving wad(d)a/ri or tvod- 
(d)ari ; to try to w. (= toddle) 
of infants dubbo dubbo. 

walking, verbal n. gauwa\ w. 
fast or excitedly gagawa. 

wall, n. katanga, garu, berza, e.g. if 
he comes out his wits are at the 
house wall (i.e. at home) idem 
ya fitto hankalinsa da berza 
D 28 ; w. of house kag(g)o* ; 
w. of house built of mud bango 
or bungoy pi. bangaye or ban- 
guna ; w. round town ganwa. 



Digitized by 



GooQle 



Wallow 



207 



wash 



wallow, to, intr. v. bingira. 

wand, carried by officials, n. 
rukuke. 

wander, to, intr. v. spec, to w. 
as a beggar afar alone kas- 
(s)ada ; fig. to w. from (= stray 
from) path sau hainya or 
tafarki, e.g. they wandered 
from the right path, they 
followed one which was crooked 
sun sau tafwrki sun bi wanda ta 
fandare A 19, 22. 

wandering, n. yauwa. 

wane, intr. v. ragu, e.g. the day 
wanes (or is on the w.) rana 
ta ragu. 

want, n. 1. (= need, lack) reshi or 
ras(s)ki, e.g. may (God) bring 
us to the city without w. of 
anything shi kaimu garin da 
babu rasshi ga kowa E 49 ; 
w. of health reshin lafia ; 2. 
( = penury) see indigence, 
poverty; v. to be in w. of 
ras(s)a f e.g. he is not in w. of 
excuse ba ski rassa huja ba 
B 10. 

want, to, 1 . (to be without) tr. v. 
ras(s)a, kasa*; cf. prec. 2. (= to 
desire) *o, e.g. I w. you to give 
me money ina so ha bani kurdi. 

wanting, particip. ( = lacking, de- 
void of) prefix maras-, e.g. 
w. sense marashankali ; w. 
strength maraskarifi* ; w. (in 
the sense of short) hil(J)afa* \ 
v. to be w. in sense gigiclie or 
gigi; cf. without 1. 

wanton, n. see profligate. 

wantonness, n. see vice 1. 



war, n. yakiy pi. yakuna or yakoke ; 
spec, a holy war, e.g. when we 
come to the (holy) war and 
conquer the heathen izan mun 
zojihadi mun shi (=chi) asna 
E 7 ; charm for protection in 
w. maganin yaki; day fixed 
for w. raman gamu ; large bird 
whose cry is considered an 
omen of war zakaran da- 
waki ; v. to make or wage w. 
yin yaki G 7 ; she undertakes 
wars ita dauki yakoke C 3 1 . 

war-horse, n. maihar(r)i* A 74. 

ward ofl^ to, tr. v. tsara, tsari, 
tsaro t tsarima, e.g. w. off from 
the son of thy servant the evil 
of this world ka tsarima dan 
bawanka zanba dunia C 40. 

warm, to, tr. v. to w. the hands 
gas(s)a hanu; refl. to w. oneself 
at a fire and intr. to become 
w. jin wuta. 

warn, tr. v. haberta, kaderta, also 
galkadi with yi or the forms 
in na 7 e.g. we w. you muna 
galkadi gareku D 30. 

warning, n. galkadi, habertawa*. 

warrior, n. mayaki, gunguma, 
jajirma*, jarimi*, ba,ge* y fig. 
(lit. a large snake) gumsheka*, 
(lit. the black snake) masaso* ; 
boastful w. gogara* ; chief w. 
* rago* t pi. raguna* ; invincible 
w. duma-muss* ; royal w. sa- 
magi* ; strong w. gizgari*; w. 
without load, i.e. carrying only 
arms sunkuru* ; cf. soldier. 

wash, tr. v. ivanke or toanka, e.g. 
let this patient be clothed when 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



washed 



208 



way 



you have washed him maras- 
lafia nan awankeshi kana asa 
masa riguna) in pregn. sense 
w. and bring back wanko; to w. 
over with water yqfa, yafo, w. 
thoroughly tsapta; w. well 
wanke kalai. 

washed, pass. part. wankake, fern. 
wankaka, pi. wankaku ; also 
expressed by simply appending 
pass, awanke; spec, ceremoni- 
ally w. tsalka or tsatalka. 

washing, n. gaslu* F 90 ; w. of 
clothes kalai* ; w. of the hair 
tsapta. 

wasp, n. zurnako, rina*. 

waste, n. 1. (= destruction, harm, 
loss) berna or birna, banna; 
2. (= wilderness) daji. 

waste, tr. v. (= spoil, destroy) 
bata, batas, banna; to w. money 
(i.e. dissipate, squander) batas 
(and kas{8)she) kurdi; to lay 
w. yin kad(d)aita. 

wasted, pass. part, batache, fern. 
batachia, pi. batatu; v. to be 
w. (i.e. spent) bacfie, e.g. the 
ink is w. (i.e. dissipated, dried 
up) tadawa ta bache ; (of man, 
with disease) yonkane ; see 
emaciated. 

watch, n. (time-piece) lottu> sa'a. 

watch, v. tsara, (sari, tsare, tsaro 
and tsarima; to w. carefully 
duba or dubo; to w. cattle 
kiwo. 

water, n. rua, pi. ruaye ; cold w. 
man dari; hot w. ruan zafi, 
ruan (demi or) dumi; drinking 
w. ruan sha; a sip of w. guwa ; 



a body of flowing w. tabki, 
tophi or tafki ; beam for draw- 
ing water jigo, pL jiguna, 
kutura*, e.g. he falls down like 
the pumping beam shina tan- 
kurakamal kutara D 16; one 
who in time of sickness gives 
water majinata*, B 59 note; 
v. to draw w. jam rua, gugana*, 
kwalfa, debe and debo rua, 
dauka rua. 

water-pot, n. tulu A 26, pi. 
tulina; spec, pumpkin or gourd 
from which w.-pots are made 
duma. 

waterside, n. (watering-place) 



water-trough, n. (for cows, etc.) 
jirigi* or jirgi*, pi. jirage*. 

watery, adj. da rua, 

wattles of a cock, n. lebatu. 

wave, tr. v. (= to move to and 
fro) shil(l)u, reto; she is waving 
her kerchief tana gilgiza kal- 
labinta. 

wax, n. (from the ear) kwanyan 
kune, daudan kune ; see bees- 
wax. 

way, n, (=road and also fig. of 
religion, etc.) hainya or haya, 
pi. hainyoyi, tafariki, tafarki, 
tafarka or tafrika, pi. tqfarkoki, 
turuba, pi. turubobi; (of tem- 
per, character) ha{l)li, pi. 
ha(l)lai, e.g. that is his w. 
hallinsa ke nan ; in this w. see 
thus; v. to go out of the w. 
(=to make room for) ra(s)8i; 
to lose the w. ras(s)a hainya, 
rache or raise, karikache or 



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We 



20S> 



well 



karkache; to build or construct 
a w. gina hainya and gen. to 
prepare a w. gara hainya) 
phr. I know my w. about na 
sanni dunia. 

we, pers. pron. nominative sep., 
e.g. all we or we all mu duka ; 
we two mu biu; prefixed to past 
tenses, e.g. we saw him mu 
jjanthi; suffixed to auxiliary 
of the future and to the pas- 
sives, e.g. we will go together 
zamu tare ; we were driven 
out akafit{t)a8damu. 

weak, adj. reshin karifi, maras- 
karifi, babu karifi, kumama 9 
la'ifi* C 1 note; v. I am 
growing w. ina kasasda karifi. 

weakness, n. kumdmanchi. 

wealth, n. see property, riches. 

wealthy, adj. see rich 1. 

wean, tr. v. yeye or yaye. 

weaned child, n. yeye or yaye; 
person who takes charge of a 
w. ch. id. 

wear, tr. v. sa* (lit. put on); 
pass. (=to be clothed with) 
asa*, e.g. they shall w. gar- 
ments of fire asa masu riguna 
wuta F 201. 

weariness, n. gajia. 

weary, adj. da gajia, angashe ; v. 
to feel w. jin gajia. 

weary, tr. v. gaje. 

weather, fine, n. dunia dadi ; we 
have f . w. to-day rana nagari ne. 

weave, v. saka. 

weaver, n. ag. masaki or masakd ; 
weaver's loom takala; weaver's 
shuttle masaka. 

B. II. 



weaving, walk up and down as 
women when, intr. v. wad(d)ari 
or wod(d)ari. 

web, spider's, n. sumya. 

wedding, n. see marriage; w. 
festivities amarchi*. 

Wednesday, n. rana lor aba, 
laraba. 

weed, tr. v. yin tsintman chiawa. 

weep, intr. v. yin hawaye. 

weigh, tr. v. auna, auni or 
awuna, yin awo ; pass, actions 
are weighed ayuka aiounsu 
F 139, god(d)a. 

weighing, verbal n. anything for 
w. with abin awo; anything 
used for w. maauna. 

weight, n. 1. (= measured heavi- 
ness) awo ; for particular mea- 
sures of w. see miskal, rotel*; 
v. to feel in order, to discover 
the w. of a thing jinjini ; 
2. (= heaviness) nauyi or noyi, 
nauwa*. 

weighty, adj. (= heavy) da nau- 
yi. 

welcome, interj. used as a salu- 
tation on meeting after a long 
time irvarhaba, marhabi or 
maraba ; see also under sanu. 

welcome, tr. v. (= to receive as a 
guest) shid(d)e 1 e.g. they joy- 
fully welcomed me as a guest 
suka shiddeni da murna. 

well, n. rijia, pi. riyoji or rijiyoyi, 
e.g. I do not see a w. to fall 
into it ba ni ga rijia en fada 
ba B 148; a deep w, rijia da 
zurifi; a very deep w. tumia; 
spec, beam for drawing water 
14 



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well 



210 



while 



out of a w. jigo, pi. jiguna ; v. 
to dig a w. gina rijia. 

well, adj. 1. (= right, proper, ad- 
vantageous) da keau; 2. (=in 
good health) da lafia and lafia, 
e.g. are you w. 1 kana lafia ; 
quite w. sai lafia or lafia lau ; 
he came back here w. ya komo 
lafia-, to be w. yin lafia ; 
3. adverbial expressions are : 
(of approbation) w. da keau; 
(of doubt, hesitation) w. ! to, 
as w. as (= together with) tare 
da. 

west, n. yamma, magarub. 

westward, adv. yammachi. 

wet, n. (= rain) rua ; cf. seq. 

wet, to be, intr. v. (of the weather) 
e.g. it is w. anarua; it was 
very w. anrua dayawa ; (= to 
become wet) jik(k)i; pass. (= to 
be wetted, put in water) ajikka 
F78. 

wet-season, n. dam(m)ana or 
dam(m)una ; see under rainy. 

what, pron. 1. dependent relative 
(= that which) abinda, e.g. I 
see what you want na ganni 
abinda ka ke so ; 2. interrog. 
what? mi, mine and minene, 
e.g. what has happened to you ? 
mi ya sameka ; what shall we 
do ? mi zamu yi ; also adj. wa, 
wane and wanene, fern, waclie, 
pi. sua, mane and suanene, 
e.g. what is his name? wa 
sunansa, what kind of bird is 
this? wane irin tsuntsua ke nan. 

whatever, indef. rel. pron. komi, 
e.g, wh. begins will come to an 



end komi yajaru zashi shi kari 
ni B 71. 

whatsoever, indef. reL pron. 
komine, e.g. wh. you do, it 
will be of no use komine ka yi 
babu anfani. 

wheat, n. alkam(m)a, alkaki* 
B 14, wh. in good condition 
alkamma tsari ; ear of wh. 
geza, pL gezuna; unripe w. 
ears cooked for eating tumu; 
wh. flour lal(J)e*. 

wheel, n. rumbua*, ujala*. 

whelp, n. kwikuyo or ktvrkwiyo, 
pi. kwikuye. 

when, adv. 1. reL da, yanda, 
yaenda, yaushe, sa ( anda, loka- 
chinda, randa (= rana da), 
idan or izan, kaa\d)an, kam, 
kami*, akan*, akal*, kur* or 
kul*; 2. interrog. when? wane 
8a*a, wane lokachi, kuda* ; 
since wh. ? tunyaushe, dag(g)a 
yaushe\ until wh.? har yaushe. 

whenever, adv. koyaushe, e.g. 
wh. he gets up he falls down 
again koyaushe shi tashi ya 
fadi kuma. 

where, adv. 1. rel. enda, wurinda; 
2. interrog. where ? enna. 

wherefore P adv. domi or domin- 
mi; cf. why. 

wherever, adv. koenna. 

whether. . . or, correlatives yala . . . 
yala, ko...ko. 

which, see who. 

while, a little, n. jima kad(d)an 
and jimkad(d)an. 

while, adv. rel. tunda, e.g. while 
they were speaking together I 



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whip 



211 



who 



ran off tunda suna yin magana 
na taffi da gudu; wh. they 
were about to kill him a won- 
derful thing happened tunda 
zasu kas8heshi abin mamaki 
ya fa/ru. 

whip, n. (of skin) kurqfu, kurfu 
or karfu, pi. karfuna, bulala, 
pi. bulalai. 

whip, tr. v. yin bulala, e.g. he 
whipped them ya yi mam 
bulala. 

whirlwind, n. gugua also pro- 
nounced gugwa, used esp. for 
dust storm. 

whisper, intr. v. rad(d)a i chim- 
baya, both esp. in bad sense. 

whisperer, n. ag. mairad(d)a, pi. 
mamrad(d)a, e.g. and the 
whisperers of evil shall be 
brought to an evil-smelling 
place fa masuradda akaisu 
gari na mushe F 168. 

whispering, ,n. rad(d)ata. 

Whistle, intr. v. (with the lips) 
feto or Jito,/ewa. 

whistling, participial n. fedua. 

white, adj. fori, fern, fara, pi. 
farari or faru faru ; very wh. 
farifet; a wh. (i.e. one of a 
wh. race) bature or baturi. 

whitened, pass, particip. faraya, 
pi. farayu. 

who, pron. 1. rel. (also - which, 
the objective whom, and the 
rel. that) wonda or wanda*, 
fern. wod(d)a y pi. wod(d)anda 
or wod(d)anan> yedda, also 
simply da; when used as 
nominatives the personal pro- 



noun of the verb is retained, 
e.g. the second of them was 
one who showed honour to his 
parents nabiusu wanda ya ba 
iyayi daraja A 47 ; I do not 
know the man whom you seek 
ban sanni ba mutum wonda ha 
ke nema (or nemashi) ; the city 
which (or that) you see gari 
yedda (or da) ha ganni or 
garinda ha ganni ; the possess, 
whose is expressed by the 
foregoing with the correspond- 
ing possess, pron. suffixed to 
the object possessed, e.g. the 
man whose camel I killed 
cannot go on his way mutum 
wanda na kasshe rakuminsa 
ba shi iya yin taffia ba ; 2. in- 
terrog. who ? (also = which 1) 
way wane and wanene 9 fern. 
wache, pi. sua, suane, e.g. who 
is this? wa ke nan; who are 
you? wanene kai; who are 
they? suane ne; which of 
them ? wane chikkinsu ; which 
woman among them? wache 
chikkinsu; I forget who it 
was that took him prisoner na 
manche wane ya kamashi ; the 
possess, whose? is expressed 
by placing the name of the 
object possessed in the con- 
nective before the interrog., 
e.g. whose daughter art thou? 
dian wache ki ke, and so, 
without distinction of gender, 
by using as suffix -nwa } e.g. 
whose horse is this? dokinwa 
ke nan ; see also what. 



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whoever 



212 



wind 



whoever, indef. pron. kowa, duka 
wancm da, wane, e.g. w. prays, 
but refuses to say the opening 
chapter, is as a man sewing a 
white garment without thread 
kowa ya ke salla shina ki 
fatiha shi ne ya ke dumkin 
fari nasa ba zare A 75; w. 
thou art that art afraid wane 
kaka zulumi E 36 ; cf. soever. 

whole, n. dukachi, dukanta, e.g. 
the w. of mankind dukachin 
mutane. 

whom, rel. and interrog. pron. 
see who. 

whore, n. shakalia, pL shakalai, 
karua. 

whoredom, n. shakalichi. 

whoring, n. zina or zina. 

whose, possess, rel. and interrog. 
pron. see who. 

why, dependent rel. adv. domi or 
dominmi, e.g. he did not tell 
us why he did this thing ba ya 
faddi mamu domi ya yi abin 
nan; interrog. why? domi or 
dominmi, mayes(s)a 9 maies- 
(s)a or maiyes(s)a i sab(b)ada 
mi. 

wick, n. jere* (?). 

wicked, adj. mugu, fern, mugunia, 
pi. miagu ; a w. person mugun 
mutum, malalachi, pi. masulor 
lachi ; the w. la'inu* D 22 ; cf. 
bad, sinner. 

wickedness, n. mugunta. 

wide, adj. see broad; n. a w. 
place yalwa or yelwa; it is 
two cubits w. fadinsa (= its 
width) kamu bin. 



wide-opened, adj. kurkurkur* 
£ 32 note. 

widow, n. zauivara. 

width, n.fadi, e.g. its w. is this 
fadinsa ke nan. 

wife, n. mata, pi. mataye; spec, 
chief w. uworigidi(J)a or uuoal- 
gia\d)a; w. of a polygamist 
kishia (q.v.), pi. kishiyoyi. 

wild, adj. see tame 1. 

wilderness, n. daji, dawa*, cf. 
desert. 

wile, n. see stratagem. 

will, n. (= assent, consent and so, 
permission) yerda G 7 fin., 
(= one's pleasure, wish, deter- 
mination) turn, e.g. work your 
w. ku yi abinda ku ke so. 

will, v. 1. (of consent, also willing- 
ness) yerda ; also so, e.g. I ask 
you to teach me reading — I 
will na roko ka koya mani 
karatu — ina yerda or ina so ; 
2. as auxiliary of the fut. za, 
e.g. I w. run zami gudu ; he w. 
return here zashi (or zai) 
komo. 

win, v. (in gambling) chi, e.g. I w. 
na chi. 

wind, n. iska or hiska, pi. iskoki 
or hiekokiy e.g. the w. is now 
blowing hard iska tana busawa 
yanzu da karifi; to break w. 
tusa. 

wind, tr. v. murda; this is used 
by Hausas acquainted with 
them for winding time-pieces, 
e.g. I wound my watch na 
murda lottuna or sa'ana ; intr. 
(= to coil) nad(d)e. 



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winding-sheet 



213 



withered 



winding-sheet, n. likafomi, zugu. 

window, n. (i.e. a hole to look 
out) toga*, dan kqfa*. 

wind-pipe, n. muria or muriya, 
pi. murioyi, janai, janyaro. 

wine, palm-, n. bam or bumbi. 

wing, n. (of bird) Jikqfike, pi. 
Jikqfikai, also fukafuki, pi. 
fukafukm. 

wink, v. kepta ido; to w. with 
one eye yin kan(n)e. 

winking, participial n. keptawa 
or kiptawa, kan(n)e*, kaniawa. 

winnow, v. tankade and yin 
tankade, bakache. 

winnower, n. ag. maibakache. 

wipe, tr. v. shafe ; anything used 
for wiping abin shafe. 

wisdom, n. 1. (= sagacious insight) 
lura, budi, hikima*; 2. (= pru- 
dence, good sense) hankali. 

wise, adj. in sense of prec. 1. 
mailura; in that of prec. 2. 
da hankali. 

wish, n. abinso, katara*, sari* 
(=8<m); strong w. guri, e.g. 
many a w. dayatoan guri 
B 119 note; w. and esp. 
wrong w. fata* ; v. to gratify 
a w. katarsa*, e.g. he whose 
wishes God gratifies, wanda 
ubangiji ya katarsasa D 70; 
in salutations the indicative 
forms sometimes denote a wish, 
e.g. may God lengthen thy life 
allah ya baka tsawan rai. 

wish, tr. v. 8o y nuf{ f)e or nij[f)a ; 
w. strongly expressed by guri 
(cf. prec.) with ga, e.g. I have 
a strong w. to go on the pil- 



grimage to it guri gareni en 
taffi haji nai B 162 ; to w. for 
id ; to w. rather fistyo, e.g. I 
w. this rather than that na 
Ji880 wonan da wonchan; to w. 
what is wrong yin fata. 

witchcraft, n. see sorcery. 

with, prep. 1. instrumental, da } 
e.g. they slashed him w. swords 
suka sareshi da takuba; 2. 
comitative, da which is very 
common with verbs of motion, 
e.g. go off w. it (=take it away) 
taffi dashi ; (= in company w.) 
tare da ; (= near, by) wuri na 
or umrin, gun, e.g. w. the king 
wuri na (or urnrin) 8ariki\ 
thou must seek knowledge w. 
the Mallams kai dai anim 
8hinni gun malamai B 155 ; 
(of competition and contest) 
da and a y e.g. he fought w. a 
certain man ya yi fadda da 
woni mutum ; he made war w. 
Kaffi ya yi yaki da kaffi G 5 ; 
he went to war w. Gunu ya 
taffi yaki agunu ibid. 

withdraw, tr. v. kauda; intr. to 
w. from (= move away from) 
gusa (participial form gusawa) 9 
gulyusa or gurugusa. 

wither, v. yaushi or yoshi, tsotse 
and tsotsi, kwake* ; (of plants) 
yorikane, tafe, tafi, tabe. 

withered, pass. part, shainyaye, 
fern, tfhainyaya, pi. shainyayw, 
spec. w. branches kwobruka or 
kwabruka; w. tree kwabri or 
kwauriy pi. kwabruka or kwo- 
bruka. 



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withhold 



214 



word 



withhold, tr. v. han(n)a 9 saidaba*. 

within, prep. chik(k)in or dag(g)a 
chik(k)in, tsak(k)an* 9 e.g. w. 
the house tsakka(n) giddansu 
A 23 ; from w. dagga chikkin ; 
adv. batsini* B 35 note. 

without, prep. 1. (= devoid of, 
wanting) ba 9 babu, bamda, 
wane*, e.g. w. thread ba zare 
A 75 ; w. doubt babu shak(k)a 9 
babu wawa 9 e.g. thou wilt leave 
this place then w. doubt gari 
nan zaka bershi fa babu wawa ; 
with the prefix maras- com- 
pounds are formed equivalent 
to the English prepositional 
phrase, e.g. w. shame maras- 
kumia; v. to be w. ras(s)a 9 
tafe 9 tafi or tabe, kdsa*, e.g. 
thou wilt not be w. it ba ka 
tabe ba F 67; 2. (=not within) 
see outside. 

witness, n. 1. (= testimony) shaida, 
pi. shaidai and shaidodi ; eye- 
w. shaida ido; 2. (= person 
who testifies) maishaida, pi. 
masushaida; v. tobe&rw. shaida 
with yi or the forms in na ; to 
bring or adduce w. kai (or 
kawo) shaida. 

wizard, n. maye or mayi, fern. 
mayia, boka, pi. bokaye. 

woe ! interj. wai, tir, e.g. w. is 
me ! wai nia ; w. unto you ! 
tir daku ; cf . alas. 

wolf, animal resembling, n. kir- 
keshi = kelkeji (?). 

woman, n. mache or rnachi, pi. 
mata; young w. yarinia, pi. 
yamata; bad w.karua,shakalia. 



wonder, n. 1. (the feeling) woba*; 
v. to cause w. ajabi; 2. (= 
something wonderful, a w.) 
mamaki and abin mamaki y 
ajaba, ajub, aya, pi. ayoyi ; the 
last esp. of a wonderful sign or 
portent ; this is a w. ! alame- 
ringa. 

wonder, intr. v. yin woba, yin 
(or jin) mamaki ; to w. at 
demanta*. 

wonderful, adj. lajibi D 90; 
anything w. see wonder 2; to 
be w. da mamaki. 

wont, n. (= habit) tada, ada 9 
hal(l)i, e.g. this is their w. 
tadansu ke nan; v. to be w. 
see accustom 2. 

wood, n. 1. (= forest) rukuki; 2. 
(= the material of trees) itache 
and iche; a little piece of w. 
dan itache ; spec, a long piece 
of w. tied behind the ear as a 
punishment for thieving kan- 
galai. 

wool, n. mulufi or malufi, e.g. 
there shall be put on them 
beautiful garments of w. asa 
masu riguna na ado da mulufi 
F 216 ; w. from sheep sufi, 
rero*. 

woollen, adj. da (or na) mulufi 
or malufi'y woollen cloth mulufi 
or malufi. 

word, n. magana, pi. maganganu^ 
zanche or zanchi; words, in 
coll. sense kalmata* B 1, kola- 
mi* D 7, karatu D 1 ; pleasant 
words (lit. ear broth) romon 
kune. 



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work 



215 



wrist 



work, n. (= employment, business, 
labour) aiki, aiko, 8hag(g)ali, 
8heg(g)eli, 8hug(g)eli, shag (g)al*, . 
pi. shugulgula, tsurfa, concr. 
(=a production, an act, aw.) 
aiki, pi. aikoki; net- work aikin 
raga ; a bad w. aiki mugu ; v. 
to refuse to w. kiuruya ; to 
refuse to w. or to shirk w. 
huji. 

work, intr. v. aiki with yi and 
the forms in na ; to w. dili- 
gently kakari, yin sawabe, the 
last also = to w. well, to w. 
uselessly sunkuria or sunkuya 
C 4 ; n. unwillingness to w. 
sausachi or sosochi. 

working, n. (= action, operative 
power) yi* q.v. 

workman, n. ag. maaikachi. 

workshop, n. maaikachi*. 

world, n. dunia or duniya; the 
next w. lahira A 7, 33; gid- 
(d)an gobe, e.g. so too this w. 
and the next, you know that 
you cannot bring them together 
so as to retain them hakka Ja 
dunia da giddan gobe ka san 
ba ka gamam ka rumtei ba 
B 27 ; see under dunia. 

worm, n. spec, guinea-worm kwr- 
kono or kurukunu ; a w. which 
lives in the ground tana, pi. 
tanu ; worms in horses or asses 
coll. azumaki. 

worry, tr. v. kenke, vuohahhe. 

worse, comp. adj. mafi mugunta 
dagga. 

worship, n. (= religion, creed) 
addini* ; (= divine service) 



sal(l)a; Mohammedan w. mu~ 

sulumchi. 
worship, v. tr. tsarikaka, Uarkaka, 

t8arkaki or charkaka; if you 

follow Him and worship Him, 

He will grant you salvation 

en ka bishi ka charkakashi 

(shi) baka chira D 81. 
worshipped, pass. part, ma'abu- 

du* D 3 note. 
worthless, adj. banza, laane, fern. 

laana, pi. laanu, lalatache, 

fern, lalatachia, pi. lalatatu; 

n. a w. fellow aibu. 
worthy, to be, intr. chinchinta*, 

e.g. I am not w. to do this ban 

chinchinta en yi hakka ; tr. to 

deem w. garnshe. 
wound, n. rauni; scar of a healed 

w. tabo. 
wound, tr. v. rauni. 
wounded, pass. part, da rauni. 
woven, pass. part, sakake, fern. 

8akakia, pi. sakaku. 
wrap, tr. v. yafa, yafo, sunke. 
wrapper, n. (= a goatskin loin w.) 

walki or wolki. 
wrapping, grass, for packing 

natron, n. burdumi. 
wrath, n. see anger, 
wrestle, intr. v. yin kokua. 
wrestler, n. rruiikunche*. 
wrestling, n. kokua. 
wring, tr. v. inurda, e.g. they 

wrung the fowls' necks mka 

murda wuyan kaji. 
wrinkle, • intr. v. yaushi or 

yoshi. 
wrist, n. wuyan hanu, dumbubu 

or dungudu) w. bone idon 



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write 



216 



y&tx 



hanu; spec. w. ornament worn 
by the heathen warami, pi. 
waramai. 

Write, v. rubuta, rubutu, yin 
rvbutu. 

Writing, n. abstr. rvbutu or ru- 
buchi ; a w. board alio ; concr. 
(= anything written, a w.) 
laya, takarda, pi. takardu, 
rubutu, rubuchi, litafi or letqfi, 
pi. litatafi ; spec, writing from 
God (used of the Koran, the 
Psalms or Gospels) zabura*. 

wrong, n. (= violation of right) 
laifi; v. to do w. yin laifi, 
karikache, e.g. he did me w. 
ya yi mani laifi ; I will produce 
proof so that anyone may see 
that you are in the w. ni kawo 
shaida kowa shi ganni ku ke 
da laifi. 

yam, n. doiya or doya, pi. doyoyi ; 
a y. cooked and beaten up 
sokara; spec, a kind of y. 
risga; a root resembling y. 
tumuku. 

yarn, thick cotton, n. abdtva. 

yawn, intr. v. mika. 

ye, pers. pron. see you. 

yea, adv. see yes. 

year, n. shekara, pi. shekaru, e.g. 
how many years old are you ? 
shekarunka nawa or shekara 
nawa kana da rai or shekara 
nawa tun haifuanka; last y. 
adv. bara; nexty. ba'd(d)i; this 
y. banna \ v. to live (so many) 
years shekara^ e.g. he lived 
three years in the kingdom of 



Zaria ya shekara uku chikki 
sarota zaria G 2. 

yeast, n. spec. y. made of acid 
pulp of the tamarind tsamia. 

yellow, adj. rawaiya or ratoaya y 
pi. ratvaiyu, spec. y. needle- 
work on a bernouse yaranni. 

yes, adv. i, na'am*, madala; to 
say y. (= to assent or consent) 
kada kai ; cf . certainly. 

yesterday, n. jia ; the day before 
y. sliekaranjia, three days ago 
wanshekaranjia ; y. evening 
jia da mareche. 

yet, adv. har yanzu, e.g. is your 
father y. living? ubanka har 
yanzu shina da rai; while y. 
tunda, e.g. while they were y. 
running tunda suna gudu\ 
not y. tukun, tukun(n)a with 
ba, e.g. he has not y. gone away 
ba ya taffi tukuna ba. 

yoke, put on necks of slaves, n. 
karkia. 

yolk of egg, n. kobdua or gobdua. 

yonder, 1. dem. adj. (also = the 
one y.) uxmchan t fern, wochan, 
pi. wod(d)a/nan, chan or chana, 
e.g. on the y. side dag(g)a woje 
chan; 2. adv. (=over there) 
chan, chana, dag(g)a chan, 
umrichan. 

you, pers. pron. (also = ye) ku ; 1. 
separate, e.g. y. are all much 
frightened ku duka kana jin 
tsoro dayawa; 2. prefixed to 
past tenses, e.g. did you see 
them? ko ku gansu; suffixed 
to fut. auxiliary and the pas- 
sive, e.g. on that day y. will 



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young 



217 



zizyphus 



experience trouble rana nan 
zaku sha toohalla; y. were 
driven out akqfit(t)a8daku; also 
suffixed to preps., e.g. to you 
maku or with assimilation 
muku. 

young, adj. 1. (= new, fresh, not 
used of animals or men) sdbo, 
fern. §dbua, pi. sdbi, e.g. down 
(lit. y. hair) sabon gashi; 2. 
(of animals) da, conn, dan, 
fern, dia, pi. ya, conn, yon, 
coll. dia, e.g. a y. lion dan zaki 
or dan zakainya ; y. lions yan 
zakainya; the hyena brought 
forth her y. kura ta haife 
dianta; 3. (of human beings) 
special terms are used requiring 
no adj., e.g. a y. lad ywro, pi. 
yara ; a y. woman yarinia, pi. 
yamata ; a y. man ; see youth 
2. 

youngest, adj. aula. 

youngling, n. (of aDimals) hwi- 
kuyo or kurktviyo, pi. kwikuye. 



your, possess, pron. suff. -ku, e.g. 
y. king sarikinku; separate, 
if the object possessed is masc. 
naku, if fern, taku, if pi. 
naku. 

yours, (the form of prec. employed 
when the object possessed is 
not expressly stated but im- 
plied) with masc. object naku, 
fern, taku, pi. naku, e.g. our 
horses are better than y. dawa- 
kinmu mfi naku, 

yourself, yourselves, refl. and 
emphatic pron. ; see self. 

youth, n. 1. abstr. yarinia; 2. 
concr. (= a y. from fourteen to 
twenty years of age) samrai 
or sarmayi, pi. samari. 

zeal, n. him(m)a or him(m)a; v. 

to show z. maida (or yin) 

himma D 26, E 42. 
zizyphus, n. z. spina Christi 

kurna ; z. lotus magaria. 



R. II. 



15 



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