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A DICTIONARY, Hindustani and English, accompanied by a reverse part, English and 
Hindustani, has hitherto been a desideratum in this country. It must be obvious to every one 
that the student of a foreign language, desirous of speaking and writing, as well as reading 
it, should have not only the words of such foreign language explained in his own, but also 
the words of his own tongue rendered into that foreign language; and that any Dictionary 
confined merely to one department is essentially defective. 

Thirty years' experience in teaching the Hindustani language has convinced me that 
this deficiency, added to the exorbitant prices charged for Hindustani Dictionaries, has 
greatly impeded learners. I have therefore endeavoured to remove this impediment by com* 
piling a Dictionary of the principal colloquial language of India at once copious, portable, 
and of a moderate price. These objects have been attained by using a small but clear and 
distinct letter-press ; by employing the Roman character whereve/r it answered the purpose 
tetter than the Oriental ; and by exfluding every thing not practically useful. By these 
means I have been enabled in the following work to comprise in a single volume, of con- 
venient dimensions, both parts of a complete Hindustani and Hindi Dictionary, including, 
at the same time, not only more words, but more information really useful to the student, 
than will be found in any Dictionary of the language hitherto published. / 

" It is proper that I should here give a brief account of the sources to which I am 
indebted for the materials of this Dictionary, and of the mode in which I have compiled both 
its parts. The basis of the first part is the 'Dictionary, Hindoostanee and English? in 
2 vols. 4to., published by William Hunter, M.D., Calcutta, 1808. Upon this foundation I 
have superadded at least fifteen thousand words and phrases from the following sources : 
1st. A vast number of useful words, both Urdu and Hindi, from the eccentric, but copious 
vocabulary appended to Dr. Gilchrist's 'Hindee Moral Preceptor,' 8vo. London, 1821. 
2ndly, AU the useful words and phrases occurring in Glad win's 'Dictionary of Mahomedan 
Law and Bengal Revenue Term*,' 4to., Calcutta, 1797. 3rdly, A great number of new 
words from < A Glossary of Indian Terms, 9 8vo., Agra, 1845, by II. M.- Elliot, Esq., 
Bengal Civil Service. 4thly, Many Persian and Arabic words (which occur in Hindustani), 
from Professor Johnson's last edition of Richardson's 'Persian and. Arabic Dictionary? 
5thly, Several thousands of Hindi words from Dr. Adam's 'Hindi Dictionary? 2nd edition* 
8vo., Calcutta. Gthly, From the Vocabulary accompanying the 'Prem Sa<jar,' 4to., Cal- 
cutta, 18*25, I have extracted all such words as were not found in Hunter's Dictionary % 


7thly, From Thompson's 'Hindi and Engluh Dictionary,' royal 8vo., Delhi, 1846, 1 hare 
culled many pure Hindi or Sanskrit words not to be found in any of the sources above 
mentioned. Sthly, I have inserted in their proper places all the words occurring in the 
Appendix to the 'Dukhnee Unwari Soheileej printed at Madras, 1824 ; also many words 
from the < Qanoon e islam,' by Dr. Herklots, London, 1832. To the materials collected 
from all the foregoing sources I have added numerous words, phrases, and significations 
that I have met with in the course of my experience in teaching the language/'* 

In preparing this Second Edition, neither toil nor expense has been spared on the part 
of the author and publishers, in order to render it the most complete work of the kind 
ever offered to the public. The improvements and enlargements now effected are the 

First All the words contained in the Hindi Dictionaries of Dr. Adam and Mr. Thomson 
have, in this edition, been incorporated each in its proper place. By this means the student 
is now enabled, for the first time, to read by the aid of one single Dictionary, any production 
that mayfall in his way, whether Urdu or Hindi. 

Secondly. All Sanskrit and Hindi words are given both in the Persian and Devanagari 
characters; while words from the Arabic and Persian, together with those peculiar to the 
Dakhan, are given in the Persian character only. This enables the student at a glance to 
distinguish the words which are purely Indian or Hindu, from those which are Exotic' or 

Thirdly. I have inserted all the words contained in the Persian text of the Gulistan 
of Sa'dT, so as to enable the learner, by the aid of my Persian Grammar and this Dictionary 
alone, to qualify himself for passing the requisite examination in Persian. 

Fourthly. To my friend and quondam pupil, Robert B. M. Binning, Esq., of the 
Madras Civil Service, I am indebted for numerous words and phrases peculiar to the 
corrupt dialect of the Dakhan, or South India ; besides many interesting explanations and 
definitions of words purely Hindustani, that have never before appeared in any Dictionary 
of the language. These, when of some length, I have, in justice to Mr. Binning, marked 
with his name or initials ; arid I feel both pride and pleasure in thus publicly acknowledging 
how much I have been benefited by that gentleman's kind and disinterested services. At his 
own request an interleaved copy of the first edition was, some years ago, forwarded to him 
in India ; and the result has been that the same was in due time returned to me, well filled 
with sound and valuable information. 

Fifthly. I have also to express my sincere thanks to Dr. Charles Rieu, of the British 
Museum, for his able and hearty co-operation throughout, both in preparing the work for the 
press, and also in correcting the proof sheets as they were issued in the course of printing. 
Dr. Rieu, with a view to improve, or, more correctly speaking, to complete, his knowledge 
of the language, has, within the last four or five years, read the following important 
works; viz. in Urdu the " A&tiaki Hindi," the " Khirad-Afroz," the " Guli BakawaU," 
the Ara,i*hi Mahjil" arid the " Il&wanu-s-Scifa ; and in Hirtdi the " Baital Pachlsi," 
the " Singhasan Battisi" and the " Prem Sagar" He used an interleaved copy of the 
first edition of this Dictionary ; and marked down in its proper place every word not already 
included in that work, by which means a multitude of words and phrases has been collected 
<that had hitherto escaped the notice of lexicographers, myself among the number. J 

* Preface to the First Edition, 148. 



Lastly. I have to acknowledge my obligations to the valuable vork recently published 
by Professor EL H. Wilson, Librarian to the East-India Company, &c. &e., entitled 
" A Glossary of Judicial and Revenue Terms, and of useful word* occurring in Official Docu~ 
ments relating to the Administration of the Oovernme/it of British India." Prom that 
work I have here inserted all such words as are Arabic, Persian, Hindustani, Sanskrit, or 
Hindi. Many of them never before appeared in any Dictionary, and a vast number of 
others may be met with in Dictionaries that have not attached to them the significations 
they bear in official documents. All such significations I have carefully added where they 
were wanted ; and when the explanations were too long for insertion in full, I have referred 
the student to Professor Wilson's work for further information. 

I have been enabled to save a vast deal of space by making a free and legitimate use of 
the Roman character, according to a fixed system that of Sir William Jones. The economy 
of this plan will be seen at once by a reference to the words ^>\ a/t/t/4* "the eye;" <J^ dil, 
" the heart ;" J/ gul, " a rose/' or to the numerous compounds under the particles <3 be, 
li wa, and ^ J5, &c. ; where I have, in one column, given as much matter as the great 
quarto Dictionaries furnish in four or five. This has been effected by rejecting the Oriental 
type, which has enabled me to use a much smaller Roman type after* the first line of every 
article. The use of the Roman character in all phrases and compounds, &c. originating 
from the leading word, as, for example, under ^ioT ahkh, &c., is just as unerring as if the 
Persian and Devanagari characters accompanied it throughout. Every Roman letter has its cor- 
responding symbol in either of the Oriental characters ; hence there can be no difficulty or 
uncertainty in converting any word written in the former into either of the latter. If the 
reader has the least doubt on this score, he has merely to cast his eye over the following 

1st. A Table shewing the correspondence of the vowels in the Persian, Roman, and 
Devanagari characters : 


Persian. Roman. Devanagari. 







Persian. J Roman. Devanagari. 

ab Wf 

is ^H 

us "53TO 






Persian. Roman. Devanagari. 

i3J bnd *[% 


e/m ft[c| 


?/ TTf 



^^/^ WTW 


#O *ft , 


tu 1^ 


nan tfr 


be ^ 


.vt ^ft 



Inn. \ 



Let it be remembered, that in all Oriental words a is to be sounded short, as in " happy," 
America ;" t, short, as in " fit," fin ;"--w, short, as in " put," " push ;" , long, as in 
" war," " water;" o, long, as in " pole," " mole ;"- w, long, as in " rule ;" au 9 like our ou 
in " sound," or the German au in "haus," a house; e, like our ea in "bear/* or the 
French k in-de, only longer in quantity; t, long, as in the words "police," "machine;" 
and at, like our t in fire," a fine," or the German ai in " Kaiser," a Caesar or emperor. 
The anomalous Sanskrit vowel Ifri is expressed in the Persian character merely byj (re with 
a kasra) and in the Roman character by r, sounded as ri in " rill," " rip," &c. llie Arabic 
termination ^ is represented in the Roman character by a or 5, according as its sound is short 
or long. 

2ndly, A Table shewing the agreement of the consonants, Persian, Roman, and Deva- 


Persian. Roman. Bevan&garl. 

<-r> ft * 



Persian. Roman. Devanagarl. 

J** dk . V 








Persian. Roman. DevanagarL 


t, ^ 

-* f 

. k 








Tlie Arabic consonant c is represented in the Roman character by an apostrophe, thus, 
j^o ba'd. This can never lead into error, as the" apostrophe is never used (in the Oriental 
words) for any other purpose. The symbol hamza of the Persian character is indicated by 
a snTiilar mark (,) at the bottom of the line, and the imperceptible * h at the end of Persian 
words is represented by the short vowel a, as may be seen in the word &JJ\J fd,ida " gain 
or advantage." The nasal sound of the letter ^ is indicated in the Roman character' 


by H, and in Devanagari by the mark * above the letter with which -it is connected : thus, 
* ti)^J wa h<in ^f " there ;" lArA* hansna ^Tf " to laugh." The terminations a% 9 i& u& 9 
denote the Arabic nunation, and the TV denotes the Persian ^ which in some words is not 
sounded, as in kJpvah, i\j*. Lastly, the u indicates the short sound of j in a. few Persian 
words, as bj fehud. 

3rd. A Table for converting the Devanagari characters into the corresponding Persian 
and Roman characters : 

1 *!T^$9*l'4f*$*t*ft' 

u u ri e at * o ati 

h kh g gh n ch chh j jk n t tti d dh 

^ O^3 A && ^ (~> ^l ^.s *4?(*</JU 
n t th d dh n p ph b bh m y r I 

rv sh* sh kh 8 h 


rn{ fircf ^ft^ 5 


bod baud ba 

It may be observed, that the Devanagari letter * has sometimes the sound of a 
cerebral r ; in which case it is marked with a dot beneath, thus \, and corresponds with 
j orj in the Persian character ; as, WfT bara, " great," \y \ and in like manner * dk with a 

dot beneath becomes J&J rh, as in ^Jffnn " old age/' bUj> burhapa. The various nasals of 
the Devanagari are represented in the Persian character by the Ltter ,.,, which will b* 


found sufficient for all useful purposes. The letter Jf is generally represented by (jf ; but 
sometimes by (^ ; and the letter ^ is more frequently ^> than (j. The compound T9 

/ ^/ 

is generally represented by ^ cM or ^5 kh, more rarely by <jt> ksh, its proper sound. 

c ^^, 

The compound $ is represented by ^J> ; as, ^Tf agya (ajna), \S\ : its real sound is that of 
gn in the French words champagnel'ligne, &c. 

It appears, then, that the Devanagari alphabet may be represented with tolerable- 
exactness in the Persian character ; but the converse does not hold, as the Persi- Arabic 
alphabet hns fourteen letters which have no exact counterpart in the Devanagari. The plan 
adopted in this case is to represent the letters in question by such Nagari letters as approxi- 
mate nearest to them in sound, which in printed books are generally distinguished with a dot 
underneath ; thus, 

,"4 i 99 Ifr 1 i> (j0 }]&***' LL> 

^ , C C * ^ \^ ^ 

In some printed books, for instance in Dr. Gilchrist's " Hindee Story-teller" an attempt 
has been made to form distinct Devanagari letters for the various forms of the Persian and 
Arabic z, which, it will be observed, are all represented by W ; but in reality the object is 
not worth the labour. In the first place, the Hindus, who alone use the Devanagari 
character, are sparing in the use of Persian or Arabic words, to one or other of which the 
various forms of the letter z belong; and secondly, such words as they have in the course of 
centuries adopted have become naturalized, or rather corrupted, so as to suit the elements of 
the Nagari ; thus, <jjyi^ is generally written and sounded ^iftnft hajin. The letter c 
is generally represented in Nagari by employing the vowel with which it is connected, in the 

^ o t o ) 

initial form, with a dot under it : as, i>jO ifQfi ba'd ; UP 5^? 'Urn ; j& < 5P5r 'timr. This 
method is sufficient for practical use; but it is by no means"satisfactory, as may be seen in the 
monosyllable ifW^, which in Persian and Arabic is sounded ba'd (the a uttered from the 
bottom of the throat) ; but according to the rules of the Devanagari alphabet it makes baad. 
In fact, the Hindus seem to view the letter c as a vowel, and not as a consonant, which it 
really is. 

In the compilation of the Second Part, my principal authority is Dr. Gilchrist's 
" Dictionary, English and Hindoostanee" 2 vols. 4to. with Appendices, Calcutta, 1798, 
reprinted, &c. Edinburgh, 1810, in one volume, 4to. The merits of this work have been 
amply appreciated by Hindustani scholars for more than half a century. The first orientalist 
of tke present day speaks of it as " a work of great merit and labour : the collection of 
Hindustani synonyma for every word is singularly full, and peculiarly adapted to a. language 
which, varying in the use of words though not in structure, in every province abounds with 
synonymous terms, each of local and restricted employment. The whole (edition 1810) is in 
the Roman character, a singularity in its compilation which alone is indicative of no ordinary 
industry and perseverance." 8uch being the case, I have, as a general rule, availed myself of 
all the words occurring* in Dr. Gilchrist's Dictionary, subject, however, to a strict course of 
correction. In Dr. Gilchrist's early days, the Hindustan! language was in a manner 
unformed, and its orthography unsettled : hence, in a multitude of words he gives the long 
i (oo) instead of the short v, and vice versd. I have throughout endeavoured to follow as 


my guides on this head the standard writers of the language, such* as Mir Amman, in the 
* Bafk o Bahar;" Ikram 'All, in the ISfwanur** a/a/' &c. &c. To the very copious 
collection furnished by Dr. Gilchrist, I have added several thousands of Persian and Arabic 
words (known to be used in Urdu) from the "Dictionary, English, Persian, and Arabic," 
by Dr. Wilkins, London, 1810, 4to. From Adam's "Dictionary, English and Hinduwee," 
I have extracted many pure Hindi words which escaped the notice of Dr. Gilchrist I have 
also found many useful words and phrases in the "Dictionary, English, JBangaR, and Hin- 
dustani," of P. S. D'Rozario, Calcutta, 1837, 8vo. Lastly, I have added numerous 
synonymous and expressive words and phrases which my own experience has supplied. 

It will probably be thought that the Second Part of this Dictionary errs on- the side of 
excess ; but I have deemed it the safer course to run the risk of inserting a superfluous or 
even a vulgar word, rather than omit one that could by possibility occur in writing or 
conversation. It must be recollected that the Hindustani is, in mere senses than one, a 
vulgar tongue, and that it abounds in a class of words, for the eschewing of which the great 
Dr. Johnson is said to have been once complimented by some elderly lady, t<f whom the 
polite lexicographer replied, " Yes, Madam, I have omitted all such words, but I find that 
you have been looking for them." 

In Part First, compound words are generally to be found under the first or leading 
member of the compound ; at the same time, it is proper to observe that the Hindustani' 
language is capable of admitting or forming thousands of compounds not to be found in any 
dictionary : hence, the learner should bear in mind the more general rules of composition, as 
laid down in any good grammar of the language. The same remark applies with regard to 
the rules for derivation, particularly those relating to the formation of causal verbs and 
abstract nouns. 

The few contractions used throughout the work are the following : The letters a, p, s, at 
the end of many definitions, denote that the word is from the Arabic, Persian, or Sanskrit 
respectively ; the letter h distinguishes such words as are aboriginal or purely Indian f 
and d such as are peculiar to the Deccan (dakhan) : the few words marked t and g are of 
Tartarian and Greek origin respectively. The other contractions are, m. denoting the 
masculine gender ; f. feminine ; a. an active or transitive verb ; and n. a verb neuter. The 
letter v. imports vide, and pi. the plural number. 

In Part Second, and occasionally in Part First, the following contractions are used in 
the formation of compound verbs : k, for karna (or the Persian kardan}, " to make ;" 
h, for hand, "to be, to become;" j, forjana, " to go, to be;" r, for rakhna, "to keep, to 
have ;" d, for dena, " to give ;" I, for lena, " to take ;" d, for dalna, " to throw;" and b, for 
bandhna, " to bind." These, with the exception of the first two, are chiefly used in the 
formation of intensives, and consequently they have then laid aside their own primitive 
signification. As a general rule, compound words have their parts or members separated by 
a hyphen, thus, dil-nishin, tan-durust, sar-gardan, &c. Such compounds, when transferred 
into the Oriental characters, are optionally written entire as one word, or distinct as two. 
The short t, denoting the Persian izafat, is indifferently written either as the last letter or 
the governing word, or separately between the two words, as dardi sar or 'dard i sar, the 
sense being abundantly obvious either way, as no Persian word ends in the short i except 
it be in a state of construction with the substantive or adjective following. 

I have avoided cross references, which are very embarrassing to the learner, retaining 
only those in which the word referred to is either close at hand, or is attended by a long 
explanation which it would be needless to repeat 


Some good-natured friends hare occasionally expressed to me their regret that the 
Second Part of the work had not been given in the Persian character. Had it been so, I 
must either, in the first place, have added the pronunciation in Roman characters, to eaea 
word (otherwise the work would be utterly useless), and this would have increased its size to 
at least six times what it now is 5 or, in the second place, omitting the Roman character, I 
must have given all the vowel marks and other orthographical symbols, which would hav* 
extended it to at least ten times its actual bulk, without possessing one single advantage over 
what it now has.* 

In conclusion, I have only to add, that amidst such a mass of small letters, it will not 
seem surprising that an occasional error of the press should occur. I trust, however, that 
the number of such errors is small; and I am confident that the generous, the learned, and 
the experienced (and it is only their good opinion I am ambitious to obtain) will not deny 
me their kind indulgence. 

* Two lines of even the smallest Oriental types in this country would occupy at least as much space as 
five linet of the Ppman character used in Part II. of this work. If the vowel-points, &c. be used, the 
spaces between the lines must be nearly doubled: hence the truth of the above remark will be obvious to those 
at all conversant with Oriental typography. 


January, 1867. 




\ aljf, the first letter of the Arabic alphabet ; 
in numeration it counts one. \ff a or a-kdra, the 
first elementary sound in the Sanskrit alphabet: 
it is a name of God, or Vishnu. As an inseparable 
particle prefixed to a word, it signifies negation or pri- 
vation; as, a*dharm, injustice, or irreligion, from 
dharm, justice, &c. It is akin to the alpha privativum 
of the Greek, the in of the Latin, or the un of the Ger- 
man and English. As in Greek, it becomes an before 
a vowel, as an- ant a, endless, or without end. 

C-->! ^Hf ah, now, presently, just now, a lit- 
tle while ago; by adding kd, ke, ki, it forms an ad- 
jective, as ab-kd zamdnfl, the present time. h. 

Sr^ ^T ib, thus, as, in like manner, s. 

(~J\ ab (contract, from y\), a father. Tn 
HindQstanl, the plural is of most frequent occur- 
rence, as in aba o ajdad, fathers and grandfathers, 
ancestors, a. 

(~J\ ab, m. water, splendour, elegance, dig- 
nity, lustre (in gems), temper (of steel, &c.\ edge, 
sharpness (of a sword, &c.). The word a b in Persian 
is used in a great many metaphoric and idiomatic 
expressions, .p. 

W ibd, in. denial ; iba-k, to refuse, deny*, a. 
bt aba, fathers (pi. of i**J\ or j>\, q. v.). a. 
Jjob^ abdbil) m, a swallow, a. 
C-**-W ibahat,f. permitting, giving liberty, a. 
bt dbdd, cultivated, peopled, pleasant; full 

of buildings and inhabitants ; used in composition in 
the sense of city or ville, as akbar-abdd, the city of 
Akbar, or (as the Americans would say) Akbar-ville, 
the city of Agra. p. 

j^Ubl dbdddn, synonymous with abad. p. 
3bbl dbdddrii, f. a habitation, a cultivated, 

'* populous, pleasant place ; population, cultivation, 
abundance. In Hindustani it is seldom used except 
in poetry, abadl being the common expression, p. 

{ JLjj bt abad-beshi, f. first assessment of 
newly-settled or cultivated land. p. 

fi&\J>\ abdd-hdr, the original or first settler 

on waste land. />. 

Op dbt abad Jtarnd, a. to build, cultivate, 
make a place habitable and populous, p. 

Ife^bl WT^rniT dbadkd, f. segment of the base 
of a triangle, s. 

(j-tib! abadi, synonymous with abadarii. p. 

nbarna, a. to set at. liberty. *. 

ubarna, a. io keep in reserve. A. 
a-bak, dumb, speechless, s. 

ubdkna, a. to vomit, reject, h. 

ubalna, a. to boil, to n.ake 
boil. h. [sian year. p. 

^bl abdii, m. the eighth month of the Per- 
Ubl gilMl ubdnd, a. to sow, to plant. A. 

(^bl dbd,i, belonging to or descending from 
one's ancestors, paternal, a. 

^b L~>\ db i bdrdn, m. rain-water, p. 
(^jb u^l db-bdzi, f. play or sport in water; 

swimming, p. 

dbi basta, m. ice, glass, p. 

-bfjbek) m. want of discri* 

mination; abibelri, indiscreet ; abibekata, folly. *. 

^ib L^! db-pdshit f. sprinkling water on 
fields, &c. ;;. 

llJl ab-tdb, f. splendour; also dbo tab. p. 

<ib-tab, presently; ab-tab h. to be in a 
dying state, to be all over with one. h. 

&\^\ abtdba, m. an ewer; generally written 
dftdba, and sometimes aftawa. p. 

\Z>\ ibtldd, f. beginning, commencement, 
exordium, a. 

j)fc3jj\ ibtidd t an, in the beginning, at first, in 
the first place, a. 

JIJC^ ibtizdl, m. vileness, meanness, servi- 
tude ; carelessness in preserving any thing, a. 

Ji>\ ubtar, worthless, spoiled, wanton, dis- 
solute; abtari, worthlessness. a. 

ibtissdm, m. cheerfulness, a smile, a. 

ab-taft, ... , . , 

till now, hitherto, yet, up 

b-talak, . , 4 . 

I to the present time, as 

al-talag 9 ( t AM1 A . , . , 
_r yet, still, notwithstund- 
ab-tori, . . 

ln S- * 
ab-tori, ) 

ibtild, m. suffering, misfortune, a. 

ibtihaj, m. gladness, alacrity, cheer- 
lness, a. 

ab-ta,m,i\\\ now, till this time. h. 
ab-ten, from this time, hence, h. 

r/btan, m. a detergent substance 
for rubbing on the body; a cosmetic: also ubat, or 
ubft, or ubfana', game as uptan, q. v. h. 

ubatna, a. to rub on the body the cos- 
metic ubfan or up fan. h. 

\ w*f abja, m. the nymphaea or lotus ; 
*the moon ; a conch ; a species of tree. *. 

j^(^>\abi'jari 9 nj. running water, a stream, 

rivulet, tears flowing, p. a. 

abjad t m. the alphabet ; a mode of reck- 
oning numbers by the letters of the alphabet; the first 
letter counting one, the second two, &c., according to 
their ancient arrangement. Vide Persian Grammar, 
p. 23, or Hindustani Grammar, p. 20. a. 

^^sf^ Qbjad-khrvan, m. one who is learn- 
ing his alphabet. a. p. 

\ ab-jo, f. a rivulet or streamlet, p. 
ab-josh, A. gravy, soup. p. 
abijo t e, f.the water of a rivulet, p. 
' ^PTf a-bach, that which has not escaped, h. 

j J lfw*IK a-bichar 9 m. want of conside- 
ration, injustice, s. 

(^j^ a-bichari, m. a-bicharin, f. an unjust 
" man or woman, or a man or woman destitute of consi- 
deration or reflection. *. 

UlfcJ>- L--> 1 ab-charhana, a. to whet or polish 

one's sword, &c. p. h. [tears, p. 

l abi chashm, m. water of the eye, 

ab'Chashi, f. giving drink to a child 
for the first time (generally about six months of age) 
preparatory to weaning him. p. 

a-bichal, motionless, unmoved, 
unshaken, resolute, firm. s. 

WHSRT abchhara, f. a female dancer 

the court of Indra ; also apchhara and ap&ard, q.v. s 

A>- L-^T abi haram, forbidden water, i.e. 
* wine ; insincere or hypocritical tears, p. a. 

1 abi hasrat, in. water of desire, 

sh, appetite, longing, p. a. [immortality, p. a. 

abi hayat, m. the water of life, 

abi haiwan, m. water of life ; a 
fabulous fountain so called, p. a. 

ab-khana, m. a repository of water, 
a reservoir ; a cellar, p. [lations. a. 

?\ abkhira (*pl. of jU|), m. vapours, exha- 

!. A * u*>T ab-&Jiast 9 a water melon or cu- 
cumber. * p. 

abi Jihizr, water of immortality ; 
inspire*d knowledge, p. a, 

abkhal, very or more avaricious, a. 
-^T ab-kfru r > ) m. victuals, food and 
ab-bhurd,) drink ; fortune, p. 


ab-khura, m. a narrow-mouthed 
vessel for drinking out of, a cup for drinking water, p. 

abad 9 m. eternity, without end. a. 
\ abadan, eternally, for ever ; never, a . 

ab-dar, m. the person intrusted with 
the charge of water for drinking, adj. polished, of a 
good water (as gems), well tempered (as steel), p. 

ab-dar-khana, m. a repository of 

drinking-water, p. 
cjW ' ab-dari, f. sharpness (of a sword, &c.); 

polish (of gems); office ofdbddr. p. 
*\&>\ ibda'j m. the production of something 
new. a. [one thing for another, a. 

>\ ibdal, m. change, exchange, substituting 
abdal, m. a religious person, devotee, 

enthusiast, abdall, of or relating to a devotee; an 
epithet assumed by Al^mad, the founder of the late 
Afghan dynasty, a. , [db o dana. p. 

ab-dana, m. food and drink : also 

ab-dast, m. washing the hands 
(particularly after any unclean action), p. 

jj^u-J 1 abi dandan, m. sharpness and po- 
liah of the teeth; debility, p. 

a-badh, sacred, inviolable, s. 

or ^STjflgf a-bud/i or a-buddhi, stu- 
pid, ignorant; also s. f. ignorance. 8. 

Jo^ innn abdha, f. a segment of the base 

of a triangle. 5. [intelligent. 9. 

a-buddhiman, stupid, un- 

abdhut f m. a kind of fakir 

or devotee. This class are worshippers of Shiva. 
fern, abdhutm. s. [not to be slain, inviolable. . 

a-badhya, not deserving death, 
abadi f eternal, without end. a. 
a-bidya, f. ignorance, s. 
ab-dida hona, to shed tears, p.h. 

)\ abr, m. a cloud, abri siyah, a black cloud. 
abri g^liz t a thick cloud, abri d$ur, a cloud without 

>\ ^nn: abar, now, at present, h. ^ ram< p ' 

\*)\ ^B?^TJ abra, m. the outer fold of a double 
'garment ; distinguished from astat , the lining. Writ- 
ten nlso abr ft, q. v. h. 

j\j>\ abrar (pi. of ^), just men, holy, pious, 
dutiful (to parents), ibrar, victory superiority, a. 
ubrana, a. to keep in reserve, (same as 

ubdrnd). h. 

+*&\j}\ Ibrahim, the patriarch Abraham. 
' Ibrahim Adham, name of a pious sovereign that for- 

merly reigned at Balfch. a. 

&jj\ abrad, colder, most or very cold. a. 
(joj>\ abras, leprous, a. 
Zj\ abrak or <Jjj>^ abrak, m. talc, mica. a. 
tibarna, n. to be kept in reserve, 

to remain over. A. 


&jA abranjcw, )a bracelet, an ankle orna- 
(j&j>\ abranjin,) ment of gold or silver, p. 
jj>\ abru, f. the eye-brow, abru par girih 

mami, a. to frown, p. 

*j) \ abru, f. honour, character, renown, ele- 
gance ; the name of a poet, abru-utarnu, a. to disho- 

* nour, disgrace. dbrii~bar-bdd-dend, a. to lose one's 
own character, or destroy that of another, dbru-dent, 
a. to bestow honour or reputation on any one, or to 
surrender or lose one's own. dbru-rez t a calumniator. 

abru-rezi, f. slander, calumny, abru-karnl, a. to treat 
with respect, dbru-leni, a. to take away one's cha- 
racter or reputation, p. 

(^)j)\ ab-rawan, m. a very fine kind of mus- 
lin or gauze, which when spread out on the grass is 
euid to have been scarcely visible. The art of manu- 

, factoring this stufTVjs now lost. p. 

j>\ a-birodh, m. quietness, tranquillity, s. 
a-birodhim^\ quiet, tran- 
a-birodht, j quil. *. 

so) abra, m. the outside of a garment; same 
as abrd. p. [jewels, &c. s. 

abarhan (vide (0^')> m ornaments, 

rO abi'i, clouded, variegated, abrl kaghaz, 
"*H kind of thick and shining paper clouded, (from 
Cashmir). p. 

j>.j>\ ab-rez, a pot for sprinkling water, such 

as a gardener's ; used also in baths for pouring water 
over the body. p. [ing silk. p. 

tjjt abresham (also abrexhani), m. sew- 

!J^M abreshmi, silken, made of silk. p. 
JfJ^ thrift, m. an ewer, a water-pot, a. 

ii* * abi-zar, water of gold; white wine. p. 
abizulal,m. pure limpid water, p.a. 
f a-bas, powerless, without choice. $. 
J\ abseil, m. a vineyard, a garden, p. 

l\ abifila, pregnant (a woman), with 
young fan animal), new-born (a child). The forms 
dbist, abistan, and dbistdn are given in Gilchrist. p. 

l~J\ abistagi, also abistani, &c. f. preg- 

nancy, p. [clothes. *. 

a-basan, naked, without 

a-bisan, without desire, in- 
"different. *. 

ubama, n. to rot, putrefy, h. 

^W or wr^mm a-biswas, m. 
want of confidence, distrustfulness. s. [trustful, s. 

>,\ a-bisrvasi,abisivasin, abisrvasini,dia- 
ubsana, a. to cause to rot. h. 

u->\ ab-son,}* . . A . , 
>from this time. h. 
ab-se, ) 

J\ ab-*e dur, is ail expression of those 

whor after describing a past misfortune, pray to be 

preserved from A - i! * :A " J ^ ^ 

from us ! h. p. 

preserved from a repetition of it ; q. d. Far be it 


ab-shar, m. f. a waterfall, cascade, ca- 

ab-shinaSy the lead-man, or per* 
son who takes the soundings in a ship, a pilot p. 

ab ishor,m. brackish or salt water, p. 

--M ab-shora or ahi-shora^ m. water 
cooled artificially by means of a solution of Bait- 
petre ; iced sherbet, p. 

abskola (Dakh.), same as abshora. p. 
a-bisheh or cdij^io\ abikhek, m. 

sprinkling-water, which the Hindus (after pronouncing 
certain prayers over it) use, for cleansing their per- 
sons, and other utensils used In sacrifice, holy water ; 
accession to a throne, inauguration, v. abhishek. s. 

j\*aA absar (pi. of j^), views,.looks; per- 
ception, understanding, a. 

JUa^ ibtal, m. abolition, act of destroying 

or annihilating, refuting, a. " [vain, &c. a. 

iJlaM abtalj com p. more vain or fruitless, very 

&*)\ ab'ad (pi. of ^), distances, divarica- 
tions. a. 

&o\ ab'ad, more distant, very far. a. [tale. p.a. 
O^lP L-^l dbi 'ashrat, wine, semen geni- 

\&}\ Ma, m. confirmation, establishment, pre- 
servation, rendering permanent, a. 

K^ ob-ha, ab-ke, and ab-kl f of or belonging 
to the present time, from ab. h. 

Jfa\ nh-har, m. a distiller (particularly of 

spirituous liquors); a water-carrier, a sprinkler; a 
winc-inorchant,or seller of spirituous liquors ; a drinker 
of wine. p. 

^^l ab-Jtarij f. the business of a distiller; 

revenue derived from a duty levied on distilleries, 
also on houses for the sale of spirituous liquors, 
eating-houses, houses of entertainment, &c. 

T*iriTT ubkana, a. to cause one to 
vomit, h. [ing. h. 

ubha,l, f. the act of vomit- 
a-bihf, hidden, unintelligible, s. 
a-bikt ganit, f. 

arithmetic of unknown quantities ; algebra. *. 

ab-fia*h 9 .a drawer of water; ab- 
kashi, act of drawing or carrying water, p. 

ubakna, n. to vomit, h. 
abi-kausar, m. nectar, p. a. 

^^K^f\ abkeshi, without fruit, 
barren (tree). *. 

afo-guzar, a ford, a ferry; an express, p. 

T ab-guzar, acanal or channel for water, p. 
L-^T abigarm, warm water, a hot-bath, p. 
-^| obi gosht, soup, gravy, broth, p. 

J* L^T abi gohar, water of pearls, pure 
limpid water, p. 

ab-gir, a receptacle for water, a 
pool," pond, ditch ; a weaver's brush, p. 

AJUL6T abglna, m. a mirror, looking-glass, 

a drinking-glass; wine; a* diamond. p. 

J^ wn? a-bal, weak, without strength or 
power s. 

f. weak, powerless; a 

woman. *. 

a-balapa, in, weakness, 

frailty. *. [to arrive, a. 

\ iblagliy m. conveying, sending, causing 
ublana, a. to cause to boil, 

(by the hands of another) ; to boil any thing so as to 
befit to eat; to cook. h. [lity. 5. 

t/^0 WTSCT^ a-bala,i, f. 'weakness, debi- 

jfe\ ablah, piebald, black and white, party- 

coloured. a. ' [starling, a. 

lSb\ ablaltd, m. a bird of the maina kind, a 

<+&>\ ^frflfSW a-bilamb, m. quickness, di- 

ligence. *. 
Ubl ^nrSRT ubalr), n. to boil or bubble up. A. 

" (also abluch), sugar-candy, p. 
5fo7a, m. a blister. ^. [ p0 x, a bubo. p. 
>T dbila f i farang, m. the French 
ab) ablah, foolish, silly, ignorant, bashful, a. 
i^d ablahi, f. folly, silliness, a. 

^\ nr<^ abati, f. a row, a range, a con- 

** tinuous line. s. 

a-bali, weik, powerless, s. 
jJj\ iblis, the devil, Satan, a. 
^1 ibn, m. a son, a child ; ibnu-s-sabil, a son 

of the road, a traveller ; ibnu-l-gharaz, a selfish per- 
son ; ibnu-l-gkaib, one of whom little is known, a 
parvenu, a. 

\jo\ abna, (pi. of ^\) sons; people; tribes, a. 
(.j-aU^ ^yfjtTTCr a-binasy ra. safety, s. 

U>\ a-binasi, safe, entire, free from loss. 5. 
ibn-ul-rvaltt, a time-server, a. 

\}\ abna t ijins, pi. companions, com- 

rades, equals; those of the same rank, quality, or 
>eck'8. n. abnd.e dahr, or abna.e rozgdr, sons of the 
time, contemporaries, a. p. 

a-bindu, without point or dot. s. 
obi nutra, m. quicksilver, p. a. 
bnust m. ebony, p. 
j,l dbnusiy made of ebony, p. 
Wft abrii, f. tHe eartli, world. 5, 

^T ab-iiai 9 m. the straight tube of a 
~(i, on which the chillam is fixed. . p. 
.Jo\ ^jff!^ a-binai, m. wantonness, pert- 
ness. s. [tulant. s. 

a-binlt, wanton, prrt, pc- 

}\ abu, m. father; the word is frequently 

used as the first member of a man's name or epithet, 
thus, abu-l-bahar , the father of the human race, Adam. 
abu-bakr, the fatheMn-law and first successor to Mu- 
hammad. abu-turab, 'All, the son-in-law of Muham- 
mad. abu~l-fazl t the name of the secretary to the 
Emperor Akbar, abu-jahl, the name of an uncle of 
Muhammad, noted for his stubbornness, abu huraii g, 
one of the companions of Muhammad, abu- all sina, 
a celebrated sage and physician, commonly known in 
Christendom as Avicenna. abu -fawdrls t the ass, lit. 
the father of horsemen. abu-bakr > the name of aii 
atdbak prince to whom Sa'di dedicated ,his Oulistari. 
abu-nasr, the name of the minister of the last men- 
tioned prince, a. 

.->^1 abwab (pi. of u^b), doors, pntes, 

chapters, sections ; in the revenue language of India 
the word means almost any kind of cesses, imposts, 
and charges levied by the offiorals of government, a. 

&?J^ ^T^*K. a-bujh, stupid, without under- 
standing, s. [comprehensible, h. 
a-bujha, not understood, in- 
, m. ignorance, stupidity. 

adj. ignorant, stupid ; puzzled, perplexed, j. 

a-bodh-yamya ,\ incom- 

a-bodhaniya , ) prc- 
hensible, unintelligible, s. 

a-bol, silent, h. [ to silence, h. 
a-bola, disposed or accustomed 

ab o dana, water and grain, food 
and drink, p. [mate. p. a. 

<*b hawa, f. atmosphere, air, cli- 
abhiy a particle denoting priority 
in time or place, prefixed to Sanskrit words, s. 
>\ ^ ibh or ibha, in. an elephant, ibha- 
pdlak, the keeper of an elephant, s. 

abha, f. light, splendour, beauty. 5. 
a~bhar, light, of little weight, s. 
ubhar, m. swelling, tumefaction, 
plumpness, h. 

.l^;\ WPCrTT ubharna, a. to raise up, to 
excite, to persuade, to plump up. h. [steal, h. 

ubharna, a. to take away, to 
ab/ias, ^Im. a preface, a 

abb ashy j preamble, an in- 
troduction, &c. *. [misfortune, ill-luck. *. 
a-bhag, also a-bhagya, m. 

WttTT a-bhaya, also a-bhagirii and 
a-bhagi, unfortunate, destitute, *. 

cloud, h. 

+\^>\ ibham, m. the thumb; suspicion, -am- 
biguity ; covered, concealed, unknown, a. 
lil^ WRT ubhdndy a. to alarm, disturb, h. 
}\$>\ VHTO a-bha,o, m. absence, non-rxi&U 

e:ice, ^ant; as in this proverb, raja keghar iwrii, kyti 
motiyon kd abhd.o f Is there a want of pearls in the 
raja's house? f. 

I 5 ) 

abhibad, m. act of kissing 
the feet or of worshipping, an obeisance ; also an in- 
sult, s. [as abhibad. s. 

, abhibadan, m. the same 
abhibhuta, subdued, do- 
mineered over. s. 

r\jb?\ ^NfallHI abhipray, m. sentiment, in- 
tent ion, opinion, design, wish, purpose ; the main pur- 
port of a book, &c. s. 

L^' ^rftrfsnr abhijit, m. the 21st nak- 
shatra, or lunar asterism ; the 8th mnhurt, or division 
of the day. *. [spell causing death or disease. *. 

^fiWHC abhichar, m. a charm or 

abhidhan, m. a dictionary. 
Strictly speaking, it denotes a list of the substantives 
of the Sanskrit language, such as the " Amara Ko- 
sha/'&c. s. 

J abhra, m. the sky, a cloud. *. 

WT1 ubhrd, unladen (as a cart or 
boat). /*. [till it run over. h. 

ubkrana, a. to fill a vessel 
abhrak, m. talc, mica, s. 
^ abhraki, made of talc or mica. $. 
a-b/taram, without respect. 5. 

abharan, m. jewels, orna- 
ments, decoration ; also abharan, with the initial vowel 
short. *. 

ubharna, n. to overflow, h. 
abhas, little, few. s. 

^rfT^FT abhisarika, also abhi- 

sdri and aWiisarini, (a woman) going to an assigna- 
tion with her lover, a lewd woman. *. 

*^\ ^&faf"^ abhuhihta, installed, bap- 
tized, anointed to office, enthroned. *. 

lxl^)\ ^rfwsir abhishek, m. bathing, 

anointing, royal unction ; a religious ceremony con- 
sisting in sprinkling a person with the water of the 
Ganges, s. 

ubhah, m. a bear. h. 

a-bhakti, f. disregard, want 
of desire, indifference, unbelief, s. 

1*3^1 a-bhaktiman, unbelieving, indiffe- 
rent to. 5. 

^)^\ ^BrftT^TR abhjlash t\d abhilasha, 
f. wish, desire ; (generally written abhildkh}, s. 

^i5^\ ^rf*7$l*ft abhilashi, wishing, de- 
siring, longing for. 5. [sire. . 

>\ abhilahh or abhilakha, m. wish, de- 

abhiman, m. pride, haugh- 
tiness, self-conceit. . 

(^+&\ VHfMHHM-H abhimana-putra, m. 
a foster-son, s. [arrogance. . 

U^\ wTTRTnn abkimanata, f. pride, 

U^\ abhimanl or abhimanya, proud, 
conceited, t. 

abhimat, consented to, ap- 
proved of, chosen, agreed, accepted. . 

guage. *. 

abHimatata or abhimatta, 
f. desire, love. 5. 

abhimukh, present, before. *. 
abhimukhata, f. presence, 

proximity, s. * 

abhinav, new, quite new. s. 

abhivad, m. abusive lan- 
[stration. s. 

abhivadan, m. bow, pro- 
a-bhut, non-existent, s. 
a*bhoj, also a-bhojya, un6t to 

not eatablfe. s. [fasting. *. 

a-bhoji, 9 not having eaten, 

abhunhan, m. ornaments, 
jewellery, finery, s. .(Commonly written, in the Per- 
sian characters as follows) : 

\ abhuhhan, m. jewels, ornaments, s. 

a-bfwg, unfit for use, unpos- 
sessed. t. 

a b"hun> hitherto, yet. h. 
ab-hi, even now, just now. h. 
, without fear, fearless. *. 
ubhaya, both (used in Sanskrit 
'* phrases.) [yellow myrobalan. *. 

nbhaya, f. name of a flower, the 

abhyasy m. practice, medi- 

tation, studv, the frequent repetition of a thing in 
order to fix it on the memory, s. 

*^^ WHlft abhyasiy studious, practis- 
ing, repeating, s. 

U^ ^TWiPTK abhyagaty m. a guest, a 

visitor; arrived. *. 

abhaya-patra^\ rn. assurance 
abhaya-dan, r of safety or 
abkaya-vaJt,) protection, 
an amnesty. *. [unalarmed. . 

a-l)h~ita> fearless, undaunted, 
a-bhiti, f. fearlessness. 5. 

abhipsit,VLoved, wlfeh- 
abhtthta, j ed for. *. 

ty\ abhich (dakh.), same as abhi, now, 
just now 

a-bhed?[ united, fastened toge* 

a-bherv,j ther, known, cele- 
rated. s. 

^ntffa dbhir, m. a cow-herd. *. 
^jT nbt, of or belonging to water, aquatic, 

** ' watery, moist, humid, p. 

ij>\ ^J% abe, an interjection of vocation 

" 'expressive of scorn, as Sirrah ! h. 

ate, now (sometimes used for ab-hi). h. 

*^ abyat (plur. of ,C>uy), houses, (and 
more usual) distichs, verses, a. 
jU/T ab-yar, m. a waterer, a sprinkler. /?. 

,tf,ljuT ab-yarl, f. irrigation ; a kind of thin 
"linen cloth ; 4 species of dove. p. . 

*j\ ^nrtif a-bij, grain that does not ger- 

^'minate. *. [able. *. 

a-for, f. delay; late, unseason- 

abir, m. red powder used at the 
holi Saturnalia. *. [shining, s 

^ijO\ abyaz, wh'ite, very splendid or 
c^ WH apa, a Sanskrit particle; prefixed 

V to words it aenotes inferiority, privation, separation. 
It is much used in compound words from the San- 
skrit, as apadan, m. taking away, the ablative case in 
grammar; apang, m. the outer corner of the eye; 
apabhasha, f. the vulgar tongue; also appHed to the 
language 6f foreigners ; apabhatxh, f. ungrammatical 
language ; apachay* m. loss, diminution ; apashabd, 
in. vulgarisms, slang; apakrisht, worthless, little, vile; 
apakarma, m. a bad action, misconduct ; apamrityu, 
f. sudden death, dying ^thout any disease ; apavad, m. 
censure, blame ; apavddl, censorious ; apahartd t m a 
robber, a thief; apaharan, m. seizing forcibly, carry- 
ing off; apa/mav, m. concealment. *. 

<--J\ "5TTI upa, a Sanskrit particle, denoting 
vicinity, or resemblance in an inferior degree, as upa- 
vcf/a, the sub-veda or minor veda. 

< J\ *TH? np, pron. self, yourself, used in- 
stead of the personal pronoun of the second person 
by an inferior when addressing his superior, h. 

cJT Wl ap, m. water, s. 

bT WIT apa, f. an elden sister; self. A. 

a-pap, guiltless, without crime, s. 
ap-ap, m. selfishness, egotism, h. 
a-patr, unfit, unworthy. 8. 

apadan, m. taking away ; 
the ablative case in grammar. *. 

upadan,m. cause, motive, s. 

'iipadh, f. violence, injury, in- 
justice. *. 
bjbl ^TTiftl irpa<lhi,m.a virtuous reflection; 

deception, disguise ; a nickname, s. 

itpadhi, violent, unjust. >f. 

upadhyay, m. a spiritual 

* preceptor, s. 

^5c?%aya,l f.aninstruc- 
upadhyayl,\ tress, the 
wporffcyamj wife of a 

" tpiritual preceptor. *. t 

.b\ Vin; a-pr, boundless, excessive, s. 
\>\ jpar, thyme, wild marjoram, p. 

uparjit, acquired, gained, s. 

uparjan, m. acquiring, gain- 
ing, s. 

Jn uparria, a. to root up, extir- 
"pate, eradicate, s. 

>\ ^rxrro upas, m. a fast, hunger, s. 

upasa, hungry, one who fasts, s. 

updsak, a worshipper, a 
servant s. 

l*bl ^TTTOn upasandf f. reverence, wor- 
ship, attendance ; v. to reverence, t. 

ipasly serving, worshipping, s. 
upasya, worthy of reverence, s. 
apashraya, helpless, desti- 
tute, without shelter. *. 

a-pah, raw, unripe, undressed, s. 
upakhyan, m. an old' 

story, a legend, s. [laying. 8. 

upalambhy m. abuse; de- 
t, m. emission of wind 

"""( back wards). *. 

lib\ ^nTTT npana, a. to create, produce, 

earn, adopt, contrive, h. 

cL&b! WTP}f apangj m. the outer corner of 

the eye, a sectarial mark on the forehead ; adj. maimed, 
crippled, apang-dar'shan, m. a side glance, a leer, a 
wink. s. 

wpa,o, m, remedy, redress, s. 

<.-pavan, defiling, polluting, s. 

apahaj, lazy, cripple ; a per. 
son who never visits any one. *. [preparation. *. 

upae, m. remedy, plan, scheme, 
apaya, injurious, destructive, s. 
upayt, contriving, remedying, s. 

apabad, m. complaint, accu- 
sation, s. [an accuser. *. 
apabadi, m. a complainant, 

a-pabitr or a-pavitr, impure, 
unclean, s. [ness, impurity. 5. 

a-pabitratri) f. unclean- 
apabas, also xm^q apaba- 

'shya, absolute, independent, s. 

vpaban, m. a ^rove, an arti- 
ficially planted wood or garden. *. 
*>\^jj\ WWnCT apabhasha, f. low, vulgar, 
or obscene language, s. 

apabhran8h,\'m. common 
t^l apabliansh, ) or vulgar 

language, ungrammatical speech, t. 

d)C)L)\ ^nTW W upapatah, m. a great cringe, 

sucir as the killing of a cow, atheism, &c. *. 
IlA-jJ 3TT|t|fiT upapati, m. a gallant, one 
who keeps a woman to whom he is not married, s, 

,Hot ^HTpnr or 'WIVlfe) opat and apatti, f. 
calamity, misfortune, apat-kat, m. time of distress. 

apifi y true, trustworthy. 5. 
<J^ Wlfif apatiy f. disgrace, dishonour, s. 
bM "VTRT op fa, f. quotient, an equation of 

a degree, s. 

< ^1^3 "^^TffR upatap, m. sickness, pain, 

heat. 4. [spring, childless. . 

also 59^niT a-putr, without ofF- 
a-pativratd, an unchaste 

woman, a courtesan, s. 

a-path, m. a wrong path, error, s. 

a-pathya, indigestible. #. 
a-patya, m. offspring, race. *. 
a-patiya, 1 faithless, trea- 
a-patiyara,) cherous. 8. 

Uio\ ^RUg a-patu, awkward, uncouth, s. 

dlty ^ram a-patak, one whose hands 
and feet are become useless, paralytic, h. 

ijty Jf(|f uptan, ^)m. a paste for scour- 
US^ *3nren uptandtj ing the skin when 

bathing, h. 

U^i>\ ^T^WTf upathna, n. to be tired, or 'to 
be sick of a business, h. [the chorus, h. 

vpoj, f. the burthen of a song, 
nnn upjana, a. to produce, to 

make to grow. h. 

*\sg\ $nm&upja,u, fertile, productive, h. 

x^ t \ "girflfff upajit, produced, propa- 
gated. f. [exertion, i. 

upajatan, m. preparation, 
apajas, m. infamy, disgrdce. . 
apajasi, infamous, unfor- 
tunate. *. 

L'a^ "3tTijff7 upajna, n. to spring up, to 
grow, to proceed, h. 

lW upajlviha, also 

upajlvan, f, livelihood, means of living. *. 

ft^t vpajivi, dependent, living 
y or on. *. 

upachdr, m. service, remedy, 
practice of physic, usage, s. 

a-puchh, without a tail. s. 
a-puchha, f. name of a species 

of tree. . [waste. *. 

apachaya, m. loss, detriment, 

, or Wi^T apadd^ f. 

misfortune, calamity, apad-grasta, involved in ca- 
lamity. 5. 

upnddj f. a meeting, a present 

made at an interview, t. 

;*H^ WJFT upadrav, m. a portent; vio- 
lence, injury. 5. [vour. *. 

vpadunsh, m relish, fla- 

upadkdtu, m. a sort of 
inferior mineral, s. 

*>.v^ '^^f upddeSf m. advice, counsel, 
exhortation, admonition, s. [adviser. * . 

upadesin, advising, an 

upadesi and. upadesak, m. 
an. adviser. ^. 

apar, another, a second, opposite. *. 
upar (also ^rtft t/pan), over, 
above. . [non-acquisition. . 

a-prdpti, f. non-attainment, 
M ^THTT uprdtd, m. the west, d, 

a-parajit, unerring, in- 

vincible. *. 

a-pardjitd, f. the name 

of a twining shrub ; called also koyal, or kawwa-tlienfi, 
crow's-beak. Clitoria ternatea. s. * 

a-parajay, m. victory, s. 

f a-pardchln, modern, re- 
cent. s. 

)\ 'WVCTV aparddh, m. crime, fault, s. 
in,! a criminal, 

^PTO^ft aparddhi, j a sinner, 

an offender. 5. 

'a/, over, above, d. 
uprdld, m. aid, assistance. 

uprala fcarna, a. to take one's part, to protect, stickle 
for. h. [wards, h. 

*i^\ TUFfT vprSnt, after which, or after- 
T;j^l fffN'qtf uprawari) quarrelsome, 

wrangling. /*. 

^jA WTCTJf aparahna, m. the third 

pahar; afternoon. *. 

J^3 *HWT o-prdbha 9 f. darkness, dulnese, 

want of splendour, s. 

a-paripdtt, f. deviation 

'* from established custom, s. 

c^>J\ wnrR a-pratap 9 m. want of acute- 

ness, of power, or of fortune. *. 
43^ ^HTHTtft a-pratapi, blunt, powerless, 
" v unfortunate. *. 
Ub^juiy^ Wlftnhn a-pratibandhd, m. an 

undisputed inheritance, *. 
UjlSJj\ ^BfUfireT d-pratishthd, f. want of 

respectability, s. [a-pratyaksb,q.v.) *. 

a-pratahsh, secret (properly 
a-prathd, f. deviation from 

custom; secrecy. *. * 

a-pratit t without credit, s. 
a-pratiti, f. want of con- 
" fidence or of credit, mistrust. *. 
fija3^.\ ^fHiil^ a-pratyahsha, invisible, 
not~obvious to the eye. * 

a-pratyay, m. distrust, unbe- 
lief. *. ^ [trustful. *. 
a-pratyayiy doubtful, mis- 
a-prackand, without dig- 
nity, not strong. *. [trial or proof. . 
a-parichchhd, f. want of 

U*/v orpradhan, little, mean, 

powerless, subordinate, not chief. . 

apart, m. the state of a Hindu 

after bathing previous to worship or to eating, during 
which it is unlawful for him to touch any one. Le- 
prosy, from Arab, abras. vparas, m. a kind of red 
chalk ; bitumen ; a subordinate flavour. 

U^M 'Snnn^ a-prasdd, m. disapprobation, 

disfavour. 8, 

f&\j*.)\ ^V^tTfft &~prasddi, that which is 
not presented to the Deity. *. 

>*Wj>\ 5W5lftl3 a-prasiddh f unknown, hid- 
den, not celebrated. *. 

)+jj\ 'VfUU^ a-prasyina, disagreeable, dis- 
satisfied. 5. [nate. s. 
a-purush, impotent, efFemi- 
a-prakdsh, m. that which 

is hidden or obscure, s. 

iLs^ wran? a-prakaty unmanifested, riot 

apparent, s. 

J\ '4VJL3T vparld 9 superficial, the outside 
of a cloth or raiment (opposed to the lining), h. 

jU^! ^riprnf a-j)ramdn, without proof, un- 
true, s. [tic, without authority. 5. 

a-ptamdnik, unauthen- 
a-pramanya, want of proof 

! or ot authority. *'. [finite, s. 

j j^./*rj3 WlifTC a-param-pdr, boundless, in- 
LL**^ Wfftfow a-parimit, unmeasured, 

unlimited, s. 

uparna, m. a scarf, a covering, k. 
^rUy L^^'^ ^"^R^T^ ir<^i^ nparrvd,* tar- 

tt'5,1, f. >urf<Mt, mort dc chien, cholera morbus. h. 
-J^%^l ^?ltrFt| op- nip, m. self, self- formed, 
the Deity. Dukh. strange, wonderful, rare. h. 

*&Jj$ ^rft>l upat'odh, m. partiality, sup- 
port, favour, kindness, s. 

upraunchd, m. a towel or 
oth for wiping the b >dy. adj. superficial, h. 

n-f)ravin t unskilful ; apra- 

vliiaid, f. want of skill or of experience, t. 

riy^ hated, disliked, un- 
friendly. . ' [dislike, s. 
a-pritt, f. enmity, hatred, 
a panhshd, f. want of trial 

or'proof, an insufficient trial of any thing. . 

a-prem, m. want of love, enmity, 

hatred. .. 

rTI uparnd, n. to be rooted out, 

to be pulled out ; to be skinned, h. 

JTfl aparnd, n. to rome to hand. d. 
ipas, pron. recip. thernsolvos, 

one another; hence kindred, brotherhood, fellowship. 
apas men rahna is applied to signify adultery, &c. h. 

TTO t/pas, f. stinky stalcneps, j)iit re- 
faction, rottenness, h. 

vpastri, f. a concubine, .f. 
*>\ IPTOT upasth, m. f. the organ of 

generation of males or females. 9. 

C.ftL^ {ftcftuM upasthit, ready, present, 

at hand, arrived, f. 

apsard, f. a female dancer in 

the court of Indra. 8. 

upasarga, m*. a particle or 
preposition ; a portent or natural phenomenon, a. 

apasmdr, m. the epilepsy, s. 
upasnd, n. to become musty, 

to rot. h. 

apusavya, m. the right side 
(or half) of the body ; adj. opposite, contrary, s. 

upashdbtrdj n). scioncrs 
connected with or derived from the shastra. $. 

upashdnta, calm, pacified, 
appeased, s. [or tranquil. *. 

upashdnti, one who is calm 

, v . _, .^, ^ apashabd, m, wind broken 

backward* ; a disagreeable sound, s. 

IAX*^ 'Snjfanf a-puxhpit, without flowers 
(a tree or plant), that does not bear flowers, not in 
flower. *. (lean. *. 

apaskt, hidden, secret; a-pusht 9 

apashakun, m. any unlucky 
ome'n or portent, also apasakun. s. 

, m. patience,calmness. s. 
a-pak 9 or WH& a-pahk, unripe, s. 
ap-kdj, \ attending to 
dp-kdji,j one's own 

^ business, attending to one's own affairs. *. 

&\ %m^hR fnmhar, m. a hindrance, detri- 

J ~V -^^-1 ^- / J 7 

nieut, injury, s. 

J&>\ WSRTT upakdr, m, favour, kindness, 

protection. *. [ing. t. 

upaJtdri, beneficent, aid- 
upakaraky m. a friend, a 

pjrotector. s. 

a-puhtd, f. immaturity, s. 

apakrislitdy bad, inferior, 

deteriorated. *r 

+ j\ VTOI npuhram, m. deliberate com- 
mencement of an undertaking ; a stratagem, s. 

+&\ ^Rtjwft apaharm, m. a mem or un- 
' worthy action. . 

^ y upakaran, m. the insignia 

of royalty ; means, materials. . 

j& WI3J u-pahshi without wings, with- 
out assistance or protection. *. 

lJ^J^>\ VfQcC^if apakalang, in. an indelible 
disgrace, s. 

upagatj promised, agreed. *. 

upagrahj m. a prisoner, a man 
or animal in confinement, s. 

upagam, m. agreement, promise, 

approach. *. [clous stone, a jewel. *. 

\)\ "^T upal, m. a rock, a stone; a pre- 
*>i "^TJTT uploLy m.acakeofdriedcowdung. h. 
aplav, m. bathing, ablution, s. 
upalipta, plastered, smeared 

over. s. 

^rR^fT aplut, bathed, sprinkled (upon); 
m. an initiated householder. *. 

J^ ^<J<?Tir upalfijj, T impudent, immo- 
^pi' TOtRJWlr apalajjiy) dest, shameless, s. 

Cpi' ^Hc$W apalajja, f. impudence, shame- 
lessncss. $. [omen or bad sign. s. 

apalachchhan, m. a bad 

vpalachhan (properly upa- 
lakshari), m. a figure of speech, an elliptical expres- 
sion, a synecdoche, s. 

apalachchhana, "1 of a bad 
apalachchhanij omen, or 

" of suspicious appearance, unlucky. 
*\ ^T5T^ aplav, m. bathing, ablution. *. 
.b\ ^Ttr^ ?/;;/!, f. smaller kind of calces of 

cow-dung, h. 

. 5. 
upalepan, m. act of smearing, 

plastering with cow-dung. *. 

>3 ^"WT upama, f. comparison, simile, that 

thing to whirh another is likened. *. [last. *. 

upamah, m. simile, &c. as the 
npaman, ra. disgrace, an af- 
front. s. [graced, s 

apamanit, degraded, dis- 

apamaniy or ^HHM apa- 
a/Tt/a, disgraced, abased. *. [likeness, s. 

uimmitiy f. resemblance, 
^ apamrityu, f. an unnatural 
or untimely death. *. 

crp^w, P^n. reeip. self. h. 
apanna, afflicted, gained or ac- 
quired ; one who cornea to another for shelter. *. 
^\ ^TCT? apna, m. \ pron. of or belonging 
\ TXlft apni, f. J to self, apnl (ja y ona, 
to fcing one's own praises, to egotize. A. 

Uj\ ^nrTtfl apnana, a. to make a thing one's 

own, to convert to one's own use. h. [kindred. A. 

apnayat, f. family relations, 

apaiipa or apampa^ m. ones 
self. Used only in the accusative, as apaiipa bachana t 
to guard or protect one's self. h. 

a -pant h, m. a wrong road, or 

bad road, a devious track ; heresy. 6*. 

a-panth\t one who has lost 

is way, devious, heretical, a heretic. 

upanishad, m. sacred texts or 

extracts from the Vedas. s. 

apanihy-m. an emerald. . 
upang, m. a kind of musical 

instrument. 5. [adj. wicked, void of merit, s. 

apunya, m. uncharitableness; 
upariaya, \ m. the initiation 

upanayan,) of tli^ three finst 
classes of Hindus; investiture with a peculiar thread 
or cord worn over the left shoulder. Vide Wilson. *. 

upanetra, m. spectacles, glasses 
for the eye. s. 

apunya, m. uncharitableness. s. 

&\j>\ ^Rtr^T^ apavad, m. complaint, reproach, 
accusation, s. [accuser. *. 

apavadt, m. a com plainer, 
itpavas, m. fasting, a fast. $. 

upavasi, m. one who fasts, s. 
?w, childless; undutiful (child). *. 
a-pavitra, unclean, defiled, s, 

a-pavitrata, f. uncleanness, 

filth. *. 

pure, unadulterated, d. 

apiijak, ungodly, irreligious.^. 

apujy a > tnat which is not 
worshipped, or not a proper object of worship. 3. 
^\ ^nnfalTT upavidya, f. profane science, 
(opposed to sacred). 5. 

ri)\ Wg& a-purb, new, unheard of, ad- 
mirable, uncommon, remarkable, s. [ardly. 3. 

a-paurush, unmanly, ow- 

opavarg, m. liberation, deli- 
verance, emancipation. *. 

^.^ ^ftr^ a-pum, m. a fraction ; adj. not 

full, incomplete, apurn-kal, premature, untimely, t. 

\i.^\ ^^ftrTT a-purnata, f. incompleteness. .*. 

(.Jjjl) Wf9ffi upawrnan, m. a minute 
description. *. [ralleled, eminent, unheard of. s. 
a-purva, unprecedented, unpa- 

upavi&hj in. a narcotic. *. 
upavan, m. a grove, on artifi- 
cially-planted wood. * 

( 10 ) 

itpavit, m. the brahminical 

thread. *. 

vpaved, m. "the Puranas, &c. q.d. 
depending on, or derived (springing from) the Veda. *. 
upahaSy m.laughtcr,fun,sport.*. 

aphrdna, a. to feed one so 
that his belly swell ; met. to give one (money, &c ) to 
the utmost extent of his desire. Also used in a 
neuter sense. h. 


aphra,i,f. gluttony, a surfeit, h. 

apahartd, m. a robber, a plun- 
[ing, purloining. 

apaharan, m.'act of plunder- 
apharna, n. to swell out (the 

belly) ; to gormandize, to eat to satiety ; to become 
very ridi. h. 

.j#) ^nfific^T aphariya, f. a subdivision of 
the caste or tribe called abhlr or ahlr, q. v. h. 

a-phal, fruitless, barren, s. 
a-phalit, not in fruit, s. 

^l WRfijTTT a-phutita, f. barrenness, non- 
productivcness. *. 

\ TRSH uphanna, n. to boil over. h. 

naVy m . denial ,concealment. s. 


f. opium. 

for. . 

. [stiuate. *. 
aphendd, self-conceited, oh. 

, same as ap, self, a/?^ 5ow 
ape, of one's own accord, spontaneously, h 

a-;;ir, without pain. 5. 
tjol W*H{T apayash, m. infamy, disgrace, s. 

apayashi, infamous, unfortu- 
[qualified. *. 

5oo\ 7^^1i upayvkta, worthy, fit, proper, 
apeksha, f. expectation, hope. 5. 
^ apehshit, expected, waited for, hoped 

V [adj. expecting, waiting for. 

apekshak, ra. an expectant ; 

apekslii, expecting, hoping; 
ah expectant. 

apehhy invisible, unseen. 5. 

upekha, or upeksha, f. 
trick, fraud, stratagem, s. 

apin, light, lean. 5. 

apinas, m. dryness of the 

nose, want of smell, a cold. . 

* useful, suitable, s. 

a-peya, unfit to drink, forbid- 
den liquor, s. 

RfK flft, a particle denoting excess, 

upcd in compounds, as ati-pan, in. a drunkard, or one 
who drinks to excess ; ati-pardkram,very powerful. *. 


it, or ita, here, hither, 7JF //, 01 

ttfa, there, thither, ^fif tV, a word usually 
written at the end of books, letters, &c* denoting 
that it is finished, like the Persian expressions, tamdm 
thud, ziyada chi, &c. *. 

at t m. custard apple. Annona 
squamosa, h. 

\5l vi n i a/5, or WffTtf/a, rn. father; a custard 

apple. Annona squamosa. p. ^. 

U) or (J\3^ ^5fT tV5, or ^i!T^5 t/a/, now, *t. 
present, rf. 

^^ SJin i5, this much or many. A. 
w^a, that much or many. h. 

atabah, m. (q. d. atabeg, the lord 
father), a master, teacher, a title given to kings or 
prime-ministers ; name of a family who occupied the 
throne of Persia from A.D. 1148 to 1264; Sa'di A - 
dicates his Gulistan to a prince of this family, p. 

S\ "T7TK utar, m. descent, utar-dena, to 
bring down ; met. to disgrace, dishonour, h. 

^I31 <i rriu utdra, m. answer; ransom, self- 
devotion ; cast-off or second-hand, h. 

01 VAWtf utaran, f. a fragment descent, 
disgrace, h. 
151 ^TfrnC'Tf utarnd, a. to bring down ; to 

tear off, cut off, or break off (a portion of any thing). 
utdre hue, pi. engaged wifti desperate resolution in 
any enterprise (metaphor taken from cavalry, who 
dismount to fight on foot, with a determination to 
conquer or die), h. [stances, d. 

j\3\ utarnd, u. to act according to circum- 
atallk, m. a private tutor, atdttki, pri- 

vate tuition, education, t, ^on the back, h 

W TrtH utdn (also uttari), supine, lying 

TiTRT utdnd, proud, conceitod; also 
supine. See chit. d. [despatch, h. 

utawal, f. quickness, speed* 
tdwld, m. 1 swift, quick, 
j\3\ TrTR^ft utdrvtit f. / speedy, h. 

Wi ^HcCT^ atdyit m. one who sings and 

dances gratis. A. 

attayin,} m. a felon, thief, 

attayi 9 j murderer, in- 
cendiary. *. 
!>\ ^ifriTl^ atildr 9 very frequent, s. 

atba (pi. of f> or ^\5) followers, 

dependants, itba' and ittiba', following, obeying, 
obedience, a. 

atibakta, m. a great talker, 
a babbler, j. 

atibal, very powerful, s. 
atibhdr^ m. a very great or 

excessive burden. *. 

atibel, frequently, very often. *. 
^ap, m. sunshine, sunbeams, s. 

vtpaU m. violence, injustice, 
injury. *. 

atipatah, m. a heinous sin. s. 

atipataklt one who com- 
mits a very great or heinous sin. *. 

3'L3\ ? rtJIl H utpatan, m. plucking out, 
eradicating, s. 

ntpadan, m. producing, s. 
atiparit m. a drunkard; exces- 

cesaive drinking, inebriety. *. 
Z-*\ "3TFrf% utpatti, utpatt, f. birth, origin, s. 
uttapta* anxious, excited, s. 

FlN&T utpreksha, f. indifference, 
carelessness ; illustration (in poetry, &c.). s. 

$ utpaly m. a species of the lotus 
flower, s. 

utpann, produced, gained ; s. m. 

produce, s. [a guest, s- 

atitha or atithi> m. a stranger, 
a-tatha, powerless, without au- 

thority. s. 

atithyctt 1 hospitable, at- 
atitheya,) tentive to a 

guest. 5. [acrid ; very pungent. *. 

atitlkshna, sharp, hot, or 

atijagar, m. the black cur- 
lew; adj. very wakeful, restless. *. 

atijog, very worthy, s. 
atijirna very old, decayed, s. 

atichar, in. the rapid motion 
of^a planet from one sign to another. . 

HtiJtad, m. union, concord, intimate 

friendship, a. [berality. t. 

f atiddn, m. munificence, li- 
atidaht m. great heat, violent 

inflammation, s. [culty or distress. 8. 

atidurgat, f. great diffi- 
atidushhar, very difficult. 5. 

jtX>\ ^BrfH<TC atidur, m. a great distance, 

afar off. ** 

^)ijjj\ ^BrfiT^ta atidosh, m. a great fault, s. 

S\ "&SRI* utlar, m. an answer; the north. 
Adj. posterior, subsequent *. 

J>\ ^SR atra, here, in this place. *. 

yl ^BT itar, affected, giving one's self airs; 
playful, wanton, coquettish, gay; other, different, 
low, vile. itar-hk t people of low caste, s. 

alut; grieved, sick, perplexed. s. 
ntfa/-a, northern, northerly; f. j 

nortii-*.vind. *. I 

uttafadhihar* m. an 

inheritance, s. [an heir. *. 

ronft uttaradhihdri, m. 
uttar-ardh) the second or 

last'half (of a book, &c.) *. 

uttarasharha, f, the 

twenty-first lunar mansion. *. 

i)\j*\ Atrah (plur. of ud^)), a Tartar or 
Turcoman, a. 

WilHI utrana, a. to boil over ; to take 

down, to pull down (by the hands of a third person : 
to do it one's self is utarfid). h. 

itranot a. to give one's self airs, 

to act with affectation ; to act in an unnatural or 
unusual manner, h. 

>j5^ ^KT*t*T ttt1arunxin t m* a place 

where fish throng to. Ji. 

uttara/id, of or belonging to 
the north, s. [wanton, h. 

itraya, affected, playful, 

| ffttTT utraji-kona, to be 
thankful or grateful, d. 

vttarayan, m. northing ; 

the*ix months from Magh, when the suu is north of 
the equator, s. 

>J ><b\tyj>\ TSTWf^ ullar-bladrapad) m. 
a mansion of the moon (the twenty-seventh), s. 

Jb J\ WfRiHc? atarpal, m. land that is left 

uncultivated s. 

Z+*t$\ ^Hrif^iT a-taypit, dissatisfied. *. 
Ilo <3>\ ^njK a-tripta, restless, uneasy. 3. 

lf\ uttar-phalyurii, f. the 

twelfth lunar mansion. *. 

fi "Snra at ran, m. name of a climbing 

plant used in medicine, (Cynanitum extensura). d. 
utran, f. a fragment, any thing 

taken off from the body ; cast clothes, rin se utran- 
hond, to be freed from debt. /*. 

utarna, n. to come down from 
a height; to pass over; to go off; to become in- 
sipid; to fall in value or in dignity, nasha utra, hia 
intoxication is gone off. A. 

31jyl "37TWRT utarrvana, a. to causo to 
be brought down, or lowered, h. 

^j3\ "Zirfart.uttarottar, m. further and fur- 
ther; a rejoinder to a reply in law. *. 

atircg, m. consumption, s. 

itri-phal, m. an electuary 
composed of myrobalanwith coriander-seed and 
honey, d. [another, d. 

uttar, placing one thing over 
atitar, m. dysentery, diar- 
rhoea, atisarnkl and atisari, dysenteric, afflicted with 
dvsenter". * 

ukdh, m. joy, gladness, plea- 
sure; perseverance. 8. 

fj~J\ TTWT?T utsarg, 'abandoning, conse- 

crating ; a rule or precept, t. 

is!\ M 3\ ^cfir*HR atisanchaya, ni. a hoard, 

great accumulation. . 

u?sav t m. rejoicing, public de- 
monstrations of joy. *. [simum. *. 

"WlfTA atsi 9 f. flax (linttm usitatis- 
at ink or atash, f. fire, flame, p. 
ij*j*\ jjtil utish-qfraza, m. a rocket, p. 

atish-afroz, kindling fire, fuel. p. 

dtish-afgan, casting or throwing 
fire. *. 

atish-andfa, casting out fire. p. 

t atish-angez, kindling, spreading 
or Stirling fire ; an incendiary, a seditious man. p. 

atish-bar, flaming, fiery, raining 

fire ; a fire-lock, tinder-box, p. 
b (j-JI atish-baz, m. a maker of fireworks; 

titish-bazi t f. a display of fireworks, p. 

,l>^j3t atish-para, m. a spark, a lighted 

coal ; a beautiful person ; an exciter of quarrels, 
quarrelsome, p. 

A*^ (JM^| atish-parast, m. a worshipper 

of fire, a guebre, of the sect of the magi ; atish-parasti, 
fire-worshipping, p. 

\>- <j3T atish-Tttiana, m. a fire-temple; 

park of artillery, p. 

atish-khivar, m. a fire-eater, a bird 


eo called (in Hind. Chakor). A variety of Tetrao 
rufus, Linn., a salamander, p. 

y\& jjtj \ atish-dan, m. a hearth, a fire- 
place, a chafing-dish, p. 

IJ>, (jtj ! atish-rcz, pouring out fire; an 
incendiary or exciter of quarrels, p. 

jj&j U^' atixh-zadagi, f. afire (i.e. houses, 

- &c. on fire, accidentally or by design), p. 
atish-zan, or 

m. tinder, touchwood, any thing combustible ; a tin- 
dor-box, with Hint and steel; atish-zam, or dtish- 
zatxigi, the act of striking fire, p. 

o//.s7//x/a/?, f. tlu' region of fire, a 

place where (Ire abounds (hence applied to a hot fire 
of cannon or small-arms in battle) ; a large fire ; a fu- 
neral pile. p. 

y ji I uti*h-tab'i of a fierce or fiery dis- 
position. p. a. [cauo. p. 

^JJLlit atfsh'rfishanj scattering fire, a vol- 
&& (J*>5T atish-Jigan, fire-dispersing, p. 
atishak, f. the venereal disease, p. 
lfil^l^ atishakta, very powerful. 

atishakti, f. great power, atishaktata, heroic valour, 
prowess. * 


atish-kada, m. a furnace, grate, 

chimney; the temple of fire-worshippers ; name of a 
recent biographical work in the Persian language, p 

atish-mizaj, fiery-tempered, p. a. 
dJU (j3 I dtish-ndk, fiery, hot. p. 


-13 \ atixhlf 1 fiery, hot, irascible, chole- 
%S\ atishinfj ric. dtishl a,lna, a burning 

lens, dtishln ub t red wine ; hot tears, dtishtn gold. 
a bomb-shell, p. 

atishit, excessively cold. 5. 

u. j\*ai)\ Htisaf, m. description, qualification, 
excellence, praise, a. 

(jUdu>^ ittisal, m. conjunction, adhesion, union, 
attachment, neighbourhood, contiguity, a. 

^jldi^ ittifakt m. equality; friendship, union, 

concord, similarity of disposition ; chance, fortune, 
accident, lot, success, incident, opportunity; proba- 
bility. itt(fak-k, to unite, ittifak-h, to happen, to be 
agreed. itt\fa^se t accidentally, jointly, conjunctly. a. 

ii\ Utifaharit accidentally, by chance, a. 
li'l>\ ittifdliat (pi. of Jl>l), accidents; 
successes, occurrences, events a. 

*>- Jj^A>^ ittifalii hasana, m. unexpected 

good fortune ; agreeable accidents, a. 

\ ittifdki, accidental, concurring, a. 

jttika t m. avoiding, shunning, abstain- 
ing (from vice) ; piety, abstinence, a. 

-iUL->\ ittiltaf, restraining one's senses; pray- 
ing and fasting, as in the month of Ramaz&n. a. 

jJb\ athiyci (pi. of .jb), religious men, de- 
votees ; the abstemious ; those who fear God. a. 
tulit so much, this much. % A. 
atiha, much, excessively, h. 

dtkdrit a caste of silk weavers in the 
Dakhan. d. [time a, 

ati-kdl, m. delay, a long 
utJtrishta, good, excellent. 

utkrisltta-bhum, m. a good soil. *. 

iitkal, a nnme of the province 

of Ufisd, vulgarly called Orisea. *. 

L*frs*>\ <3r+4J<5f ntkantha, f. regretting, 
longing for any thing, s. [great, x. 

atigati, very much, very 
a-/?//, unweighed; that cannot 

be weighed. *. 

the name of one of the 
seven patalas or infernal regions ; literally, bottom- 

less. 5. 

utla (v. utanala^ swift, quick. A. 


JH ^"H wtfam, great, principal, first chief, 
the best, uttam-purush, an excellent man. *. 

kinsman, s. 

J>l ^RTH? atma, in. self, soul, life, body; 

much Used in the composition of Hindu! words, as 
dtma-ndmi, self-evident ; atma-palak, self-cherishing, 
selfish ; dtma-ghdt, self-murder, s. 

^>\ atamm, more or most perfect (from tamm, 

perfect, complete), a. 

U3 I ^fTUTT at ma, f. the soul ; the body ; the 
( heart ; the understanding, s. 

j\3\ itmOim, perfection, accomplishment, 

* completion, a. [ledge, s. 

dtma-bitddhi, f. self-know- 

atma-bandhu, m. one's own 
struction. *. 

dtma-bodh, ra. spiritual in- 
il at'ma-palah, self-cherish or, selfish, s. 
atmaj, springing from one's 

atma-ja, f. a daughter, s. 

atma-sandeh, m. inter- 

[restraint, jr. 

atma-sanyam, m. self- 

atma-shahli, f. inherent 
[praise. *. 

dtma-shldghd, f. self- 

self; m. a son. 

nal doubt. 
> I 


atmik, belonging lo self, 
[ness. *. 

a/mikata, f. identity, same- 

^HIW^TTTT atma-ghat, m. self- 
murder. atmaghdtak and dtmaghfiti, one who commits 
suicide, s. [leuge. *. 

atma-gyan, in. self-know- 
atma-naml, self-evident. 5. 

atma-vidyat f. spiritual 
knowledge, s. 

^^>T WHlftraffft atma-vikrayz, one who 
** sells himself as a slave. *. [self. jr. 

atma-hitt beneficial to one's 
atma-hatyd, f. self-destruc- 
tion, suicide. 5. [selfish, s. 

or ^nwl^l atmiya or atmiya, own, 
^/N Kamdev, the god of love 

among the Hindus. *. 

3^ ^T itna, as much as this, this much ; 

itne-meii, in the mean time. h. 

3t ^TRT utna, as inucli as that, that much. h. 
(properly atyanta), very 

much, exceeding. *. 

m. fear t pain, affliction; 
pomp f dignity, show. 5. 
', high, lofty. *. 


vttu, m. plaits of cloth ; mar-har 
uttu bandya ttake ta.iii, he beat him to a mummy 
lit that his body was marked like the plaits in cloth, h. 

yl ^ift it an, same as itna> this much. h. 

yl 'WT^ atu, f. a female teacher, a go- 
verness, h. 

j\j>\ ^HT< itrvar, m. Sunday. 5. 
j^j^y \wfirerflff ativds t m. a rigid fast observed 

on certain occasions, s. [poison. . 

ativish, m. an antidote to 

ativfaha, f. a tree whose 
bark is used in dyeing. . 
Jy^ ^ffft^y a-^o/, unweighed. h. 
^y T ^TT^ a/w?i, 1 f . a female teacher, a 
(> ^yl^TFlftafr//y't,J governess, h. 

$\ Wt ath t m. the beginning* commence- 
ment, an indeclinable particle, denoting now, here 
goes, &c. 3. 

\ty\ ^niT atha (for a-f/ia/*), deep, unfathom- 
able, out of man's depth, s. [thing up. * 
uthapan, m. act of raising a 

itihast m. a story, fable ; 
history, tradition, atihds, m. excessive laughter, s. 
^ ittiham, m. suspicion, censure; in law, 

a charge, an imputation, a. 

1^51 7rH(TT utthan, m. rising uf>, awaking 

from sleep ; effort, exertion. uttJian ekadashi, or de- 
vothdn, the 1 ) th of the shukl-paksb of kartik, when 
Vishnu awakes from sleep ; during the months that 
he sleeps it is unlawful to marry, s. [able. s. 

a-thaht in. an abys?, unfathom- ' 

atha,m, f. a place where peo- 
ple meet to converse and amuse themselves, s. 

a-thii> unstable, unsteady, x. 

(properly ^nrtrff), atharban, 
name of one of the Vedas. *. 
r^' ^I1V|41] atharvvan, m. a Brahman 
versed in the Atharvan Veda. s. 
^U*i\ ^nr?R a-thahf unwearied, insensii>le 
of fatigue, h. 

^>\ ^^55 a-thalt unstable, unsteady^ wa- 
vering ; land farmed or rented. . 

uthla, shallow, shelving, s. 

uthlana, a.^to cause to turn 
over, or to be overset. *. 

4H J^^ *^ H^5 Uthdl-puthal, over- 
turned, upset, topsy-turvy. A. 
!^)\ ^^IgHT uthalna, m. to turn over, to 
,upset (of itself) ; uthalnd puthalna, to be overset. A. 

^yviUfft athmana, sunset, the west. *\ 
^H^rr athnw, or, or even. J. 

f\ ^fir itl (vide ^L>\ itf), a word usually 

written at the end of a letter, book, &ci, signifying 
that it is finished ; as the Latin Finis, &c. s. 

babbler. . 

a/ft much, very. *. 

ifyddi, et eaetera, and so forth. *. 
) atlbar, frequently, very often, s. 

atibakta, a great talker, a 
[of game. h. 

dtipdti, f. name of a kind 
*x^ Weft if a/itf, m. an ascetic, or devotee 

among Hindus, jr. 

--OL>\ ^TlftlT a% gone by, elapsed, expired. 

attt-fcal, m. (in gram.) the past or preterite tense. *. 

atirihta, much, excessive, s. 
utiran, worn, cast off (clothes, 
jewels, &c.). *. 
jjOi Wli ultima, ajrived, rescued, s. 

a/Is m. the name of a root used 

in medicine, s. 

iV0#, so much, this much. h. 

fjj^ itihds (same as itihdg), m. a history, 
story, fable. *. 

cLM ? (dakh.), eight. Properly *fr> I, q.v. 

u \ ^rnn atd, m. flour, meal, any ground 
grain; when sifted, the finer flour, called maida, is 
separated from the coarser meal, called suji. h. 

aid, m. an upper *oom, or story, h. 

I^<JKT dt-athdrd 9 perplexed, 
distressed, d. [room. h. 

atari, f. a thatched upper 
a-/5/, f. a stack, a rick (of 

grass, corn, &c.), a heap (of baggage, &c.), q.d. im- 

moveable. /*. 

fitald, in. n heap, furniture. /*. 
attaliffd, an upper chamber. /<. 
^f| dtdmati hond, to 

be utterly destroyed, or undone. A. [disorderly. /*. 

afpatdtig, poor, wicked, 
atpatdnyi, wickedness, 

absurdity, /i. 

afjpa.^1,1 thoughtless, incon- 
otpatij ) siderate, irregular, 

"unstudied. A. 

;nf, coarse 1 , strong cloth. A. 

, f. prevention, bar, ob- 
stacle, name of a river, the Attock. A. 

i\ ^^4fi| a/Aa, m. a vessel for performing 
ablution ; also the pot in which victuals are dressed 
for the public, at the door of the temple of Jagannath ; 
part, aground, stopped, hindered. . 

atkdnd, a. to prevent, to hin- 
der, to stop, to restrain, to detain, to challenge as a 
sentry, h. 

'} m. prevention, 

\3jKi1 ^*I*HI atkdrvand,} arrest, stop, 
a challenge, h. 

(j^j>\ <f4fk^M utaltkarlais, precipitate, 
rash, acting without consideration, h. 

J&rt "J^<? atkfil, f. guess, conjecture, 

judgment, opinion; quantity, size, atkal-baz, a good 
guesser, an appraiser, atkal-pachchu, m. one wlio 
guesses at a venture, or without the slightest grounds; 
adv. bv guess, at random, atkal-matkal, name of a 
kind of play among children something like our "guess 
if you can." h. 

UAO1 ^Zr^ic^HT atWnd, a. to guess, to con- 
jecture, to judge, to think, h. 

1&L*(&>\ %IZ4iH4<ii atah-matak, amorous 
dalliance, fond tricks and gestures, d. 

U5G\ WTSFtn ataknd, n. to be stopped, to 
be restrained, to be prevented, to adhere, cease, rest, 
remain. /*. 

atkhel, wanton, playful, h. 
ftthheli, f. wantonness, an 
" affected (also a graceful) pace or mode of walking, ft. 

3\ *&Z<$ Q-tal, immoveable, fixed, of de- 
termined resolution, h. 

atam, m. a heap, pile, or mass. h. 

atambar, a crowd of people, a 
tribe, d. (plur, of a.*5). h. 

\ WT5T otan, a balcony, an upper room ; 
J\ ^?7TT atnd, n. to be contained, to be 

filled ; as, Jcua af-gaya, the well is filled up ; also to fill 
up (actively), h. 

Jo\ 3ill Siangan, the name of a river 

near Goialiar, the name of a plant, h. 

atni, f. the horn of a bow. *. 


y'Tafo (fora?Aow),the eight, the entire eight, d. 

f. the state of a person who in great affliction remains 
bedridden, athwdft-khafwait lend, to be confined to 
bed by severe sickness, h. 

y'T dtwdn (for uthivdn), the eighth, d. 
*\ ^rftf atob, m. nature, constitution, 

essence, power, d. [inexhaustible. *. 

a-tut, not liable to be broken, 

y^ athwatl-hhatwdfi, f. being bed- 
ridden, (v. ajwat, &c). 

)y^ ^Hf^lf a-toh, unrestrained, uninter- 
rupted, without hindrance, unquestioned, h. 

a-tol, unpolished (stones or 

jewels), and hence when applied to persons it de- 
notes rude, unmannerly. " A rough diamond." A. 

atvi, f. forest, wilderness, a. 

WT3 ath, eight; dth dth dhsu rond, to 

shed floods of tears, to weep exceedingly, ath pahdr, 
perpetually; lit. during the whole eight watches of 
day and night, uth-pahart, one who is constantly on 
duty, an eight- watch man. dfk khambd, a canopy sup- 
ported by eight posts, h, 

>\ atthd, the eight at cards, d. 
l^JLj \^i\ <J4lO*4<5MI ut lid-bit hand 9 a. to 

lead into error, cause to err. d. 

utltd-baithi, f. act of 

. ' - frequently rising and sitting down, inconstancy, rest- 
lessness. h. 

lj\Q>\ ^BISTt? athdrah, eighteen, athdrakwdn, 

also atharwaA, the eighteenth, ft. 

>\ Wlltil at haul , eighty-eight, h. 

uthan, m. an area, or court- 

f. act of appearing, arising, h. 

uthdnd, a. to lift or raise up; 

to contract debts or purchase on credit, to drive away, 
to exhibit. uthd~d, to abolish, to do away with. h. 

j>\ty\ ^TTtfJI uthanawrve, or athanwe, 

ninety-eight, h. 

athdwan, fifty-eight. /*. 

I atha,i*, (nlso at hams) 

twenty-eight, h. 

&i*fty\ TST^jftn vthd 9 i-f/ird 9 m. a plun- 

derer, one who pilfers. //. p. 

jLJ^i\ 'g'4^'3 vth-bdith, f. restlessness; a 

kind of exercise, nth-faith lagnfi, n. to be uneasy in 
mind. h. 

athtalis, forty-eight, h. 
athattar, seventy-eight, h. 

athlis, thirty-eight, h. 9 
atti&atki ixty-oight. h. 
> 1 WJ*!^ atk-korii, eight-cornered, 

octangular, s. [tonness. 8. 

Q-thhell, f. playfulness, wan- 

, m. bathing (of the bride and 
bridegroom together, the third day after marriage), h. 
^Jrt ^o&IHT tthlana, a. to walk affectedly 
or coquettishly, to express tenderness or kindness by 
gestures, h. 

*L*^i'\ ^r<5HUf athmas, m. land constantly 

ploughed (for sugar-cane) from the month of asdfh to 
the month mdglt, both inclusive. *. 

.fl'>' 1 ^TI3HHT dthrnana 9 the west, in op- 
position to agmana the east. s. 

uthna, n. to rise up; to go away. ^. 

uthangal, out of order, with- 
out manner, dull, heavy, stupid, d. 

&$\ *3<PTf uihangaUj m. a prop, or 
support, h. [ness, &c. /. 

atktvatif (vide at mat) 9 sick- 

athwara t m. the eighth day 

after any other, a week . h. 
l*)\j$> \ WRT^Ta?Awaw,the eighth ; (from atty.h. 

I3)^i\ I^MI uthwana, a. to cause to be 
raised up. s [dred and eight. A. 

athotar-scw, 9 one hun- 

nthrvaiyd 9 that which rises or 
goea away. s. 

atkhattar, seventy-eighf. h. 
athe,dssi 9 (for af/ 

" eighty-eight. /*. 

L^i'\ fit/iednarv \(for athdnawe) ninety. 
L^A athednarve) eight 7t. [pushed. . 
a-thel, incftnoveable, not to be 

>\ atkehattar 9 (for athhattar), seventy- 
eight ' 

\ ^Tjl d/ft, f. a hank or bundle of thread; 

"a cant word for a turban, h. 

ater, f. the name of a town. h. 

ateran, m. a skein or bundle 
of thread, a reel ; the lounge or circle in the manege, h. 

jjo^ ^Tn aternd, a. to make up thread 
into skeins, to reel ; to lounge a horse h. 

S&ji a-tek, without support, h. 

(IMS, household furniture, wealth, 

goods, money, slaves, cattle, &c. a. 

asds-ut-bait 9 \ household furni- 
asdsa 9 J ture. a. 

j\3T dsdr, (pi. of y^), signs, marks, traces, 

vestiges ; histories, traditions, memorable events, the 
traditions of Muhammad ; a weight of one sir, nearly 
two pounds avoirdupois, a. 

^W asidtm, rn. a defendant in a lawsuit ; 

- a culprit, a criminal a. 

C*>U'^ isbdt, m. f. confirmation, affirmation, 
proof, certain knowledge ; Dr. Hunter says that ita 
gender in Hindi (when uaed in composition) depends 
on that of the object (or word following), as, isbdti 
muddafi k iya ; isbdti takrir kl ; but this is a well-known 
rule in the language. Vide Hind. Gram, gender of 
comp. words, a. 

J)\ afar 9 m. a mark, sign, effect, impression. 
asar-pa&r susceptive of impression, effective, a. 

JJiS^ askal, very heavy, heavier, h. 

U)\ asnd t m. the middle, interstice, interval; 
as asnd-i-rah, in the middle of the road, i. e. during the 
journey ; a fold or plait, a. 

wl-U$\ imd-(i*har % thj3 twelve, in reference 

to the twelve Imams, a. 

jj$\ asir 9 m. aether; adj. marked, chosen, a. 
j^\ asirn, m. a liar, sinner, criminal, a. 
-\ WW aj, m. a goat ; (also the same as aj) 

^ to-day, now *. 


a;, to-da^. aj-haly to-day or to- 
" morrow, soon, Sn a few days. Sj Kal-Jt., or Qj kal 
batana, to procrastinate. A. 

ajd, m. a paternal grandfather, h. 
;a, f. a she-goat, s. 

C-.A*^ ^;afr, mi (in law) the first proposal 

made in a contract fee. by one of the contracting 
parties, a. 

cloU^ ijabat* f. consent, approbation, a. . 

OW WIITW a-jat, expelled from one's 
caste, f. [his caste, f. 

V^ WTflft a-jati, m. a man who has lost 

*jl>^ */5ra, (alsOjl>\ ;^X n} * a form; a pri- 
vilege, or income of variable amount sold or let for a 
fixed sum. ijdra-ddr, ma a farmer of land or of reve- 
nue, one that has purchased the labour of another ; the 
holder of a monopoly, ijara-dari, farming or contract- 
ing for rent ?r revenue, ijdrddri-patfi, ijdr-pattu and 
ijdr-ndma, a lease, any document under which a lease 
or farm is held. a. [hemp. h. 

J : V^ ffTf ajur* nfl canvas, cloth made of 

j : V^ ""Iflf ujdf 9 deserted, desolate, aban- 
doned. ujdf-Jc, a. to raze to tlie ground, h. 

livW\ 4Wf?n ujarna, a. to lay waste, to 
desolate ; to'injure, to expose to loss, as mat A n<? tera 
Jcyd vjdrd, in what respect have I injured you? A. 

jjj V^ 'SWn^w/arw, m. a spoiler, destroyer, h. 
OjU-l ijazat, f. commands, orders, permis- 

sion, Kivc, dispensation, sanction, ijazat-jchwah, a 
petitioner, one who asks leave or permission, ijaxat- 
ndma, m. any written order or permission, a. 

ujagar, splef.idid, gaudy; cele- 
brated. A. 

3 II I c$l itjala, m. light, splendour. 
ujdle ka tarn, the planet Venus, h. 
5l>^ ?^!T<JiHt ujalna.) a. to cleanse, to po- 
lish (metals or jewels). A. [brightness, h. 

wja/z, f. light, splendour, glare, 

ajd mil, the name of a great 

sinner and penitent. *. [cent, h 

a-jan, ignorant, simple, inno- 

w/an, m. the direction, or part, 

of a river which is opposite to the course of the stream i 
up .he river, h. 

a-jana, n. to come suddenly, 
to befall, to happen, to come. A. [city. A 

a-jani, f. ignorance, simpli- 
:7^, unsubdued, unconquered, 


-Jc>-^ ijtimd', m. act> of assembling or ga- 
tnering together ; conjunction (in astronomy), a. 

^Ujk*-^ ijtinab, m. abstinence, continence a 

\^>.^ ijtihad, m. care, effort, diligence ; car 
rying on vrar against infidels, a. [a 

-\ ajddd, (pi. of uX>-) ancestors, forefathers. 



^ >-J 



(properly ayudK), m, 
a weapon. /. [rant, clownish. A, 

&s*\ IRIS ujadd, inconsiderate, rash, igno- 

f>\ (iji\ m. retribution, reward of good or 
bad actions, hire, fare. a. 

j>-\ WK a-jar, ever young, not liable to 

decay or old age. *. 
f\ ^BfftpC ajir, in. an area or court, s. 

\j>\ ijra, m. performance, execution, ijrd-h, ^ 
to perform, to put in practice, a. 

/W' ajram, (pi. of f ^>) bodies, a. 

" " / r I* -L 

w;r/7/, f. reward, wages, hire. a. 
IHtTT vjarna, n. to become desolate, h. 

\J\jij9-\ 4f*YimHI ujarrvana, a. to cause to be 
laid waste (by the hands of a third person). A. 

\j>~\ ajza (pi. of j* q. v.), parts, portions; 
sections of the Icurun, of which there are thirty, a. \ 

cnTO a-jas, infamous, disreputable, s. \ 
ajsad (pi. of 
(pi. of 

a-jukt 1 f. violence, oppres- 
sion, compulsion: 

adj. unfit "*. 

:, surprising, wonderful. *. 

ajgar, m. a dragon, a kind of 
large snake, the boa-constrictor ; lit. the goat-eater, s. 

', f. death; delay, a stated rime, 
respite, period for the payment of a debt, ajaf-rastila 
or ajal-girifta, seized by fate, on the point ot 1 death, in 
a situation that leaves no hopes of life, ajil, < v in law) 
proqrastiivition, or suffering surh an interval to elapse 
as to render complaint inadmissible, like our statute 
of limitations, a. 

ajall) com p. more glorious, a. 
TOTJ ujjal, clean, pure, shining ; 

blown, expanded s. 

jla, clear, bright, white, light, x. 

ijlas, f. act of sitting, especially of 

a court of justice like our word sessions, ijlasi kdmil, 
a full court, a. [mean people, a. 

m j'&s*-\ ajlaf, (pi. of v^^L^) wretches, tyrants, 

\^>-\ ijlal, m. the bestowing or acknowledg- 
ing of greatness, respect, a. [to brighten. *. 
ujlana, a. to cause to cleanse 
ujjalit, pure, clean, clear, s. 
ujalna, n. to become clean, 

to shine, to be bright. 9 t 

oJ9lla t (pl. of Jj^>)glorious,illustridus. a. 

ijma', m. act of assembling, an as- 
sembly, senate, council, court of justice, a crowd, a 
collection, amount, the whole, ijmar-i ummat, m. gene- 
ral assembly of the people, unanimous consent, ijmfft 
?<ifydbat t the unanimous authority of the companion 
of the prophet on a point of law. a. 


ijmal, m. an abstract, abridgement, 
compendious account, synopsis, summary; also applied 
to joint occupancy or possession. 

W ijman, abridged, compendious; in law 

i' denotes what is held in common (as an estate) undi- 
vided, unpartitioned. ijmall mafall, an undivided 
estate, a. 

^x*>^ ajmatn^ (pi. of p+s>-\) tbe whole, a. 
>-\ ajmal, comp. more beautiful, perfect, a. 
ajtnud, 1m. parsley. 

tnud, 1m. 
ajmodd,) in 

Roxb.), common carraway (Carum Carui), a kind of 
lovage (Ligusticum Ajowan}. p, s. 

in, 9 m. the hide of an :mfe- 

lope, lion, tiger, &c., on which the religious students 
sit or sleep, s, [tels, kinds, sorts, species, a. 

**U>-\ ujnas, (pi. of (j*i>-) goods and chat- 
M***^ ajnab, ^foreign, strange, unknown 
ajnablyj person, a. 

\ ajnabiyat, f. strangeness, the cir- 
cumstance or state of being a foreigner, a. [*. 

i?-^ WT*R a-janma, unborn, and un begotten. 

J&*\ ajinna or ajinnat, (pi. of (jv&~), em- 
bryos. a. [gusticum &c. (v. ajwayan). h. 

ajwan, seed of the Ajowan li- 

t//ira/ia, a. to order a person 
to pour from one vessel into another, h. 

a/jwayan, f. the seed of a 

plant of the dill kind (Ligtuticum Ajowan}. A kind of 
aniseed, ajwdyani fcjjurdsafil, henbane, h. 

lfyftajroajntJ. a kind of caudle, d. 
a-jot, without splendour, dull. s. 

a-jutha, untouched, untasted 

j^\ qjura, m. hire, wages, fare, ajura-dar, 
m. a labourer for hire (whether paid by the day, or 
for completing a given work), a. 

\f?\ ajauri, f. advances, particulnrly to 
agricultural labourers, h. [rare. h. 

a-jor, without joining, matchlesp, 

t clean, bright; blown, 
expanded, x. 

ujJTvalit, pure, clean, clear, s. 

njjrvalta, f. splendour, ra- 
diance. 3. 

f?\ ajautit f. perquisite of the lower castes 
from the threshing-floor, h. 

>\ ^Kvffajon, hithertho, as yet,to this day. h. 

ujhalna, a. to pour from 
one vessel into another, h. 

or ^B^) wjjAar, ignorant, illi- 
terate, clownish, k. [spy. h. 

ujhakna, a. to observe, to 

/, more ignorant, yery ignorant. 0* 

ujhalna, n. to flow, t>r be 
poured from one vessel Into another. It is also used in 
a transitive sense, like ty'Aafwa, q. v. h. 

WTI? ajhv> to-day even, presently, k. 
a-jhol, of steady pace (epithet 

of an elephant). A. t 

^^>< wn aj-liiin 9 yet, hitherto, even 

yet, this very day. h. 
^r^ ^BTift #;'* nn interjection to call, or 

" bespeak attention. In Bengal it is always addressed 
to an inferior, or in cases or great intimacy ; but in the 
western provinces, often to a superior as a term of 
respect /*. 

( j$\ ^cnnf a-jai or ctjaya t unsuccessful, sub- 
"dued, not victorious, m. defeat. *. 

I/ *** s t* 

^fx>- 1 %f Nl M4 M a/~ibih(f, f. livelihood, sub- 
sistence, means or mode of living, t. 

(j-jl(, in vincible, unsubdued. . 
A^^ W5frt7nr^f a-fit-barna, m. leprosy (of 

a bad kind;. . [adjutant. 

^JU>-\ njlttin, m. a corruption of our word 
j-\ njynd, very best, good, excellent, a. 
ajir, m. a slave, ajir-i-imtshtarik, a 

general or common hireling, a. 

iO>^ ^Hirt^ a-jirna, m. indigestion, sur- 
feit, flatulence, adj. undecayed, unimpaired. * 

jA>-\ 3>niY ujjain, JTI. the name of a city 

and province, of old the residence of Vikramaditya or 
Bikramnjlt. *. 

a-jliv, lifeless, deprived of life. x. 
, m. livelihood, profession, 

subsistence, s. 

ajiviha, f. subsistence, 

means of supporting life (v. ajibikd}. t. 

~\ ^WT uchcha, high, lofty, (for uncha). $. 
\&-\ ^Bnn acha (for achchha), good, excellent. A. 
ttchapat, m. taking up goods 

on credit ; also, the goods so taken up ; money bor- 
rowed. h. 

uchat, sorrowful, dejected, sepa- 
rate. uchat-h, to be tired, to be disgusted. A. 

A^ 3 91 4 uchclatan^ m. the act of ^rex- 
ing, or rendering sorrowful, t. 

jW ^T^TT'n uchatna (act. of uchatna), 
to separate, &c. A. [paration, k. 

uchati, f. sorrel, vexation, se- 
TSTTt uchchar, m. pronunciation, utter- 

achar or 

achar, m. man- 

ner of life, common practice, rule of conduct, reli- 
gious observance achar-varjit, irregular, out of rule, 
out of caste, s. [pickles, h. 

achar, alo ar/mr, m* 

f uchchdrit, pronounced, ut- 
tered, i. 

^j^>-i (K'hdraj (for Uiwni achdrya), m. an in- 
structor in matters of religion ; a learned pandit. 8. 

<^^?"t WJ 1 JUff dchdran,m. manner of life, 
religious observance. *. [utterance. *. 

- uchchdran, m. pronunciation, 
uchchdrnd, a. to pronounce, to 

utter. *. 

^j^-1 ^wlHt^l achari, a strict observer of 
religious ceremonies. *. [ceptress. *. 

jl>*l VI^T^T dchdryd, f. a spiritual pre- 

Vill^Hl' dchdrydni, f. the wife of 
an acharya or religious instructor. . 

J^ljj-1 W 1*11 Of ackdrya, m. an instructor 

(especially in matters of religion), the founder of* a 
religious sect. *. 

uchchan, f. height, elevation. 5. 
achana, a. to wash the mouth 

after eating; to drink, hf 

uchana, a. to lift up a burden, 
to raise, elevate, exalt, hoist up. A. 

*in achdnchakA suddenly, 
achdnak, J unawares, 

unexpectedly, h. 

^-' 9"^i*it vchdrvd, m. raving or talking 
incoherently, as in one's sleep ; the night mare. h. 
achpal, com.T restless, playful, 
achpald, ir f . > inconstant,wan- 

achpali, f. J ton, brisk ; ob- 
"stinatc, unruly, h. 

if\$Z achpaldhatf\f. restless- 
achpali, J ness, play- 

fulness, vivacity, inconstancy, h. 

wcAtV, proper, becoming, s. 
a-chchut, m. a name of Vishnu 

ox of God, (q. d. which brcaketh not) ; incorruptible, 
immortal, a. 

uchchta, f. height. 5. 

achtdnd or achtdnd-pachtdnd, 
(v. atfihtana), to regret, to repent A, *. 

a-cfiatur, stupid, inactive, s. 

uchatnd, n. to separate, or be 
separated (as plaster from a wall) ; to slip, slide, re- 
bound (as a sword, striking obliquely a hard body), to 
be broken or interrupted (sleep), h. 

a-char, immoveable, inanimate, s. 
or 'KJ^ ^i^KiTor ^^nw acharj or 

acharch, m. wonder, admiration, astonishment adj. 
astonishing. A. 

^f-T vr^OT ac/iar'an, m. manner of life, 
conduct, custom, practice, institute, religious observ- 
ance. 5, 

or ^SKTT ucharnd or vchcharna. 

n. to separate (as the skin from -the flesh, &c.); to 
speak, to pronounce ; to be uttered, pronounced. A. 

uchrang, in. a moth. h. 
uchakftd, m. a thief, a pick-pockot, 

a swindler; (in Western India)swindling,theft. uchakka- 
pana, m, robbery, theft A. [up. /i. 

uchhdna, a. to lift, or raise 

achkarl 9 f. wantonness, lasci- 
viousness, wickedness, h. 

a-chakshu, blind, f. spectacles. 5. 
(iT^ ^fcsiM a-chikkan, rough, unpolished. $. 
uchaknd, n. to rise, be raised, 

or lifted ; to leap, bound, spring up. ichakna, to grin, 
to shew the teeth, as a dog. h. [pick-pocket. A* 

uchakki, f. a female thief or 
a-chal, immoveable (either from 

strength or weakness) ; an aged person ; m. a moun- 
tain. nll-acJud, the blue mountain near Balasore. s. 

a-chald, f. the earth, supposed 
to be immoveable as the centre of the universe, s. 

^>-\ 3lc$MI uchldnd, a. to order a person 
to separate (one thing from another). A. 

d^ W<5*TT uchalnd, n. to separate or be 
separated. A. 

A+.^ ^T^HT achambhd, also achambd, m. 

a wonderful thing, astonishment, cause of astonish- 
ment. adj. rare, wonderful. A. 

^>1 *U*MH dchamariy m. act of rincing 
the mouth, sipping a little water out of the hand and 
spitting it out again ; a ceremony performed before 
eating, s. [quence. *. 

'Gif'Mtf a-chin, without note or conse- 

achamlhd, or achambd, m. a 
wonder, marvel ; adj. strange, wonderful. A. 

a-chint, thoughtless, rash. *. 

a-chintd, f. disregard, absence 
of thought. 

sdr>-\ ^T^r^ a-chanchal t fixed, unmoved, 

firm, inactive. *. 

a-chand, gentle, not passionate, s. 
achrvdm, f. caudle (v. ach/t- 

want). A. [marksman, a dead shot. A. 

a-chuk, unerring; hence, a good 

achhy m. a die, cubic or oblong; 
the spots on dice. ocAj^t, m. the eye. *. 
ichhu, f. sugar-cane. *. 

achchhd, good, excellent, righteous, 
healthy, achchha hona, to recover, achchka-k, to cure. 
achchha-lagna, to become, beseem, to be pleasiug, * 
achchhe se achchha, best of all. s. 

*\^Sttichchka 9 f. will, wish, desire, ichchha- 

Mrjan, food agreeable and abundant to the utmost 
desire. *. [ments ; a covering, cloak, &c. . 

dchchddan, m. cloth, gar- 

uchhdlnd, a. to throw up a 
thing (as a ball; &c.) and catch it in the hand. h. 

achhdn, not strained, impure, h. 

achhamh, m. a degree of 
latitude or longitude. *. 

uchchhdh, m, joy, gladness, h. 
achh-bhdg, m. a degree 

of latitude. *. 

^f-1 WxHrf or W3HT achhat, or akshat, f. 

infallible, indelible; m. whole or unbroken rice used 
in oblations, achftat tilak, f. the ceremony of putting 
a few grains of rice on the forehead of an image when 
a Idressed, or of a Brahman when invited to an enter- 
tainment. s. 

achhat, remaining, existing, h. 

achhi-tara, f. the pupil of 
the eye. s. 

3u^^ v UU.^.^ W^HMI MtftifM! achhtana 

pachhtana, m, to repent, regret, s. h. 

nchhir, m. the thrush, a complaint 
to which children are liable, h. 

t^ 13K or TO15PC achchhar or ahshar, m. 

a letter of the alphabet, s. [sugar-cane. 5. 

ichhu-ras, m. the juice of the 

!!f 3Ktt uchharna, to leap or bound, to 
spring (a fountain), to fly up. h. 

chhraitti, f. orthography; 

"a mode of playing on a stringed instrument so as to 
express the words of a song. h. 

<Jy&>-\ TSHSfCt or vattf achchhariy scientific ; 
writing an elegant hand ; lettered, s [up. d. 

uchharna, same as ^>j^f \ to be rooted 
,*- ichhu-sdr, m. molasses,, raw 

sugar, s. [of victuals; leavings. *. 

uchchhisht, in. the remainder 
ichchhak or fchchuk, wish- 

[sugar-cane (Saccharum munja). s. 
ichhu-kand, m. a species of 

uchhal-parna, n. to become en- 
raged. d. [ther to throw up any thing, h. 

uchkland, a. to order ano- 
uchhalna, n. to leap or bound, 
to spring up (as water in a fountain), h. 

ickhu-mati, f. the name of a 

V 4 flr 
Driver in Bengal, the Issamutty. 

iclihumehi, adj. diabetic, s. 
ichckhan* m. seeing, sight, s. 

uchchhinn, ruined, laid waste) 
destroyed, h. 

achhna, also achhna, n. to be, 
to remain, d. 

*A}A^ !f^l4l uchchhwas, m. breath, breath- 
ing ; hope, expectation ; division of a book. 9. 
achhwarii, f. caudle. A. 

a-chhnta, intangible (victuals 

dressed for saints, &c.) inviolable h. 
&*J&?^ ^Kt^l ackchkodan, m. the chase, 
hunting, s. 

(*J&$^ W^fij^ft or fr*lfg4lfl achchhauhirii, 
(properly akshauhinl), f. a complete army of 109,350 
foot, 65,610 horse, 21,870 chariots/ and 21,870 ele- 
phants. s, 

(M ^>.\ 'CTSnt or V^n aclihai, imperishable. 
"achJtai brilcsh, an undecayable tree. achfrai-lok t m. 
heaven, the imperishable world. *. 

c-^J^>- 1 wi|t| dchhep, m. reproof, sarcasm, 
*abuse. *. 

\L^\ ^rTginrr achJiaita, f. durability, 5m- 
perishableness. s. [cellent h. 

achhen, a !j. piur. good, ex- 
a-chet, (Hit * of mind or senses, 

senseless, thoughtless, f. 

^-^ qr&Ra-chyut, firm, fixed, steady ; im- 
perishable, eternal ; m. a name of Vishnu or God. *. 
u*-t wrtrfT a-chifa, unwished for ; not 

painted (paper, &cc.) h. 

u^-l ^f^5n uckelna, a. to separate one 
thing from another, h. 

, uneasy, uncomfortable. .<r. 

\ uk, an exclamation expresHing: pain : it is 
often reiterated, ufr, ufy. a. [u^ad, singly, a. 

ahad (pi. of &*~\)> cardinal numbers ; 

attadis (pi. of c^o >4 ^>-), f. traditions, 
particularly traditions or sayings of Muhammad, as 
constituting the basis cf the sunnat or traditional law ; 
lit. news. a. 

ihata, f. surroundins:, inclosure ; be- 
sieging (generally means the thing surrounded or in- 
closed, as a park, Sec.) a. 

^^\ ahabb, adj. comp. more beloved, a 

friend, most lovely, amiable, a. 

ahbab (pi. of c-juf*-), friends, a. 

ihtiraz, m. abstinence, regimen ; ah- 
staining from improper actions of any kind; for- 
bearance, controlling the passions, a. 

>.\ ihtirak, m. strong desire, burning, a. 
ihtiram, m. act of honouring, paying 
attention, treating with respect, a. ,, 

u^U*X>-^ ihtisab, m. making up accounts; 

superintendence of police, censorship ; superintendence 
of weights and measures in a city or market, a. 

^La*^ ifttinabi, m. the superintendant or 

" clerk of the market, a. 

Al>>\ ihtwham, m. having many followers, 

&c. ; pomp, retinue, magnificence, a. 
^Kl.\ iktikdr, in its literal sense signifies the 

laying up of any thing; and in the language of the 
law, the purchasing of grain, or other necessaries of 
life, and keeping them up, with a view of enhancing 
the price, a. 

ihtildm, in. nocturnal pollution, a. 

ihtimal, m. act of bearing or support- 
ing; doubt, uncertainty probability. ihtimal-h,tQbe 
probable, ifytimal-k, to doubt, to impute, a. 

^)l*A>-\ ihtimalaQ, probably, very likely, a. 
JhfimaK, probable, conjectural, a. 
ihtjyaj, m. necessity, want, occasion, 
need ; plur. ihtiyajat, requisite things, wants, a. 

la>-1 ih tii/at, caution, circumspection, fore- 
Bight, scrupulousness ; ifytiydt te or i^tiyd^an, carefully, 
cautiously, a. [mares, a. 

al\ jar (plur. of^ss?"), stones; brood 
ah ad, unity, one, an individual, ahadu- 

t-tarafain or ahadu-l-mutaJ^axwiahi, in law, denotes one 
of the two parties concerned in a suit. 

jV>>>1 iJidqs, m. act of making or producing 

any thing new ; a novelty, a rare invention, a- 

Ct^>-^ ahadi, a species of military corps (in 

India). '. 

,f. unity, concord, alliance, a. 
ahrar (pi. of j*) 9 the noble, the free 

born. a. [fire. a. 

ihrak, m. act of burning, or setting on 
ihram, m. act of forbidding or inter- 

dieting; determination or resolution. At a certain 
distance from Mecca the pilgrims interdict themselves 
from all worldly enjoyments, &c. : here their resolution 
Is fixed to complete the pilgrimage, and hence the 
word means the resolution or intention then formed. 
It also signifies a mean dress, worn by pilgrims on 
visiting Mecca or Medina ; also, the act of putting on 
such a dress ; also the period of the pilgrimage, ihram 
band find, to make one's vows as a pilgrim, a. 

dhzan (pi. of ^j*-), grievances, sor- 
rows. a. 

L*-^ ih*an f m. benevolence, benevolent ac- 
tions, beneficence, benefits, favour, courtesy, kindness. 
ihsan-k, to oblige, a. [mandi, gratitude, a. 

ihsan-mand, obliged, grateful. ihan- 

afison, better, more beautiful, more ex- 
cellent, more agreeable, a^san-alldhu, may God* be 
gracious, afrsanta, bravo, well done. a. 

ahtha (pi. of 11*-), the contents of the 

thorax or chest, a. 

ah sham (pi. of ^.i*i), servants, re- 

tinue; a kind of mflUia or armed police. ahsJtam 
do/tor, the muster-roll of militia, &c. ahshdm-daftar- 
da^ the militia accountant. ahshdm-jd,cgir,an assign- 
ment of revenue for the support of irregular troops or 
local militia, a. 

thsa, numbering, reckoning, la-ihta, 

innumerable, beyond calculation, a. 

ihsan, restraining, circumscribing, a. 

ihzar, m. act of making to appear, or 
of calling, a summons. a. f [serving, a. 

ahahkf comp. more proper, more dr- 

J, m. act of proving or establish- 
ing the truth of a doctrine, restoring to rights, admi- 
nistration of justice, a. 

^\ ahhar, more or most contemptible (a self- ory expression), a. 

(pi. of ^^), orders, commands, 

decrees or decisions (of the government or of a judge). 
ahkam-nama, written orders, a. 

ahkami, one who is ordered or ap- 

" pointed by the ruling powers: such is the ahk&int 
Kamlnddr a* 

ahkam, stronger, firmer, more stable, a. 

ahmady comp. more or most commend- 
able, or praiseworthy ; the name of Muhammad and 
others, afymad-ma^mnd, a term applied in law to two * 
persons who have combined to defraud a third, a. 

?tX?*\ ah madly of or belonging to Ahmad; 

name of a gold coin, a, 

(*\J?*\ (thmadabad, name of a city in Gujrat, 
and of another in the Dakkhan ; the latter called also 
afymad-nagar. a. p. 

ahmar, red, gold, barbarous, a. 

{ ?'\ ahmah) a blockhead, most fool isb. ahmak 

ki dum (d.}, a fool. a. 

^lS^-\ ahmahapan, m. folly, stupidity, a.h. 

ftiUL^\ ahmakana, foolishly, stupidly; figu- 
ratively, it is applied to money which an 'ami/ is 
obliged to pay, to make good the deficiency of the 
revenue. .j. 

(iTvL?^ ahmali-pan, folly, stupidity (same as 
dfymakdpan). a. h. 

ahmalti, f. folly, stupidity, a. 

ahrval, in. condition, circumstances, 
events, occurrences, state, account ; a report of the 
particulars of an affair, or of the condition of a thing 
or person, ahwal bat Ian a, to state one's condition. 
afrtvdl-purs or -pursdn, one who inquires after ano- 
ther's health, afywal-pursi, inquiry after health, cir- 
cumstances, &c. a. * [double, a. 

f, squinting, one who sees objects 
nhya (pi. of v ^-)> living things. lhya> 

m. act of giving life, saving, preserving. \^ya-l-mawat t 
lit. reviving of the dead, applied to the process of 
bringing waste land into cultivation. . 

GL>^ ahyanan, sometimes, now and then, 
from time to time ; In the event, in case, should, a. 

\ akh, a brother; ukh* inter, sound of cough- 
ing; aiA-a&ft, an exclamation of joy. a. 

\>-\ aWihha* an exclamation of surprise, a. 

j\J&*\ akhbar (pi. of^^s*-), news, a newspaper. 
*afcJZ5r-aww, a writer of news, an appointed intelli- 
gencer, such as "our own correspondent" ijchbur, 
m. act of giving intelligence or information, a. 

^JLS\ aM& fl $ ver y impure or contemptible, a. 
^\ a&hpaJik, m. understanding, wisdom, in- 
telligence. />. 

,f. a sister; adj. similar, congenial, a, 
^v**^! ikhtitam, m. completion, fulfilment, 

' finishing, a. 

>yi>\ akhtar, m. a Ptar, constellation; ifoil 

fortune, good omen, horoscope. al&tar~shumar. aa 
astrologer. a]shtar~sliumdri t the calculation of one's 
horoscope, . 

ikhtira'j m. invention, inventing, dis- 

covering, fancying, a. 
J\*A&-\ i^htuar^ m. abridgment, act of* con- 

tracting, reducing, curtailing, a. [tion. a. 

l^eUtfC^ ikhtisas, m. peculiarity, appropria- 

ted ikhtija, m. act of hiding, concealing, 
covering, a. 

Ja&S-t ikhtilat, m. friendship, intercourse, 

. conversation; act of mixing; mixture, confusion, a. 

u-3^>^ ikhtilafy in. difference of opinion, 
opposition, discord, disagreement, misunderstanding 
between friends, coolness ; pi. il&tildfdt. a. 

ikhtilalj m. interruption, obstacle, a. 
akhta, also afthta, (literally, castrated) 

a gelding. a]&ta-murgh. a capon, p. 
lj^l iUitiyar, m. authority, power, will, 

choice, option, election, ijchtiydr met hond, to be in 
0he power of, or dependant on. iJsbtiy&r-k, to approve of, 
to adopt, to choose, il&thjar-nama. m. a power of at- 
torney. a. 

j?jVjC>-\ ikhtiyar^y f. approbation, choice, au- 

thority, power; adj. in one's power; subject to elec- 
tion, at one's disposal, ijtfifiydri sulft, in law, an op- 
tional compromise. Hc]itiydri-z<ibfy, the killing of an 
animal for food by cutting its throat, as is done by 
Jews and Moslems, a. 

^>-\ aJihz, f. objection, cavil, hostility ; taking, 
seizing, intercepting. aMs-Ar, to seize, assume, accept, a. 

-\ akhfr, tho last ; m. the end, issue; adv. at 
last, finally. abfrir-ul-amr or dkhiri kdr, at the end, 
finally, at last, dj&iri $hab t the end of the night, before 
dawn, dkfciri sdl, the end of the revenue year. a. 

ikhraj, m. expulsion, turning out of 

possession, eviction; expense or disbursement; pi. 
f'lshrdjdt (corrupted al&arjdt), expenses, disbursements ; 
allowance for expenses, ijcftrdjdti aurang, expenses 
incurred in the manufacture, storing, and transporting 
of salt and other goods, a. 

^-1 afihirat, f. futurity, a future state; the 

world to come, in opposition to dunyfi, the present 
world, a. 

*^ I ahhrrash* nt last, finally, after all. a. p. 
j^\ WGfaakhrot,m. a walnut. (The fruit 

of the Al writes triloba is also so called.) h. 

t > late, of or belonging to the 
end, final or ultimate. $rs hisdb iftarcA, adjustment 
of revenue at the end of the year, df&iri nikds, final 
si'tllcment of an account, a. 

last or latest comers; poste- 

rity. dkji'irln T}ar}, a decree of fate, d^irln dam, the 
last breath, a. [mean. a. 

. ass 9 more avaricious, meaner, or very 
?> **"e o^pnial, more excellent, a. 

i&hfa, corcealiretl 'ilmi i&J^fa, the art 
of rendering one's nelf imln'Ue, like Jack the giant- 
killer, or JEneaa it Oartliap a. 

&A akhfath, one win has weak eyes, one 
who sees better by night th.u by day. a. 

alegar, m. live ashe^j a spark of fire. p. 

iritis, m. affection, friendship, lovo. 

i^hlds-k or rakhnd, to esteem, &c. ik&df-mand, affec- 
tionate, friendly, a friend, i^ldsinatidi, frieudlinew, 
affection, sincerity, a. 

^>.1 afehfat (pi. ofUi^), the humours of 
the body of man and animals, al&ldti arba'a, the four 
temperaments, a. 

j^v>^ akhlak, m. (pi. of J^), dispoftition, 
the good properties of mankind ; ethics, morale, a. 

a&fini-pulau, a kind of stew. d. 
ikbrvan, (plur. of ^1), brothers, 

friends, companions. 
ikfrwdni zamdn, cotemporaries. a. 
* T o>khpr or akhur, f. refuse, offals ; a 
stable ; waste grass of the stable, p. 
j_^ 1 akhon f master, Ior4, preceptor. ^. 

akhun, 1 

ro. tutor, preceptor. . 
*Y v. r 

\ akAawi f brotherly, fraternal, a. 

u>-l althya, (for ,^-^), m- a little brother, a. 

JL>-| aW?yar (pl-'ofj\>-), the good, the ex- 
cellent. a. 

jU>-l ajihyqfi, a brother or sister, by the 

"same mother but different fathers, o. 
j>-\ aJtlnr, last; in. tho end, accomplishment, 

completion. ak^yar t better, best. a. 
Vjj>-i aJfJnran^ at last, in the end. a. 
' ^ ^/ (same as "37T w^), above;, over. .v. 
iM ^c{ at/ (same as udh or adk) 9 half. A-. 

i>l ^^ arif, or 5Rlf^ 5(W, in. beginning; the 

first, originally : as a termination to a Sanskrit word 
it denotes " et cetera." s, 

IjJ ada, f. blandislnnonts, coquetry; discharge, 

payment, performance; voice, add-fc, to liquidate, 
to pay, adti-bandi, the fixing a period for the per- 
formance of a contract, or payment by instalments. 
add-fahm, one who understands by signs, a. ;;. 

Ul WRftada, m. ginger in the undried state, s. 
L-^bl adab, m. (pi. of u*^) etiquette, dc> 

voirs, ceremonies, politeness, forma of address in writing 
and speaking, salutation, respects, a. 

Ota\ adat, f. a particle, in grammar; a .too I 
or utensil, a. 

Obi 7?[TW ndatta, m. the acute accent, a nigh 

sharp tone ; gift, donation, a kind of musical instru- 
ment, a large drum. s. [beloved. *. 

udatta, liberal, generous, dearly 
a~ddt(i, also a-dani, avaricioun, 

stingy. *. 

j\&] X^ftudar, liberal, generous, munificent. *. 

\3;bl ^Kffl udarta, f. liberality, generosity, 

munificence, t. 
(jW ^TO ?^ow, dejected, indifferent, sor- 

rowful ; m. loneliness ; (in agriculture) a sickly crop. s. 

( 22 ) 

cirn. a cord worn as a shoulder 

belt. d. 

nft vdd*i, f. dejection, sorrow, 

solitude, loneliness; m. a class of fakirs or devotees; 
adj, lonely, retired, dejected, t. 

^**W H^lril tf udcuTin, m. one who is com- 

pletely detactied from the world, whose family is 
unknown, and who has neither friend nor foe ; a class 
of mendicants of the Pan jab, an hermit, a misan- 
thrope, a stoical, indifferent person, an umpire. *. 

Lb\ adama-llah, may God preserve (him 
&c.) a. 

uddn, m. one of the five vital airs, 

that which rises up the throat and passes into the 
head. 8. 

\&\ W<fR dddn, m. taking, receipt, ac- 
ceptance. ddan-pradfai m. giving and taking. 8. 

ff ad-ant ; .^dj. from first to 
last, from (beginning to end ; m. the beginning and 
the end. s. 

a-dan~j avaricious, stingy. *. 

adani, (pi, of ^J&ty low, mean, or 
contemptible people, a. 

uddhat, 1 f. brown colour, 
udd t l J brownness. s. 

udaharan, ni. an example, a 

simile, a comparison, an opposite argument ; one of 
the five modes of logical reasoning, s. 

add,e dain m. payment of debt. a. 

ad fib, m. net of preserving the boun- 
daries of every thing ; good-breeding, politeness, 
respect, urbanity, polite literature, adab-k, to respect, 
to behave politely, a. [ruin. a. 

idbar, f. misfortune, ill-luck, adversity, 

TgftM udbodh, m. recollection the re- 
cognising of any thing. . 
\ adbich, among, in the midst, d. 

>fl>'^ WgTT adbhut, wonderful, admirable; 

m. surprise, astonishment. 9. 

1T5SR vdbhav, m. act of being born, of 
springing up (as plants from seed), birth, produc- 
tion. s. [names of Vishnu, s. 

& T wf^rpjtf adi-purushj m. one of the 

aditi, f. the proper name of the 
mother of the gods. s. 

I adit (for WfifW aditya), m. a deity in 
general ; a deity, of a particular class. The aditjras are 
I '2 in number, and are forms of the sun as distinct in 
each mouth ; the sun. dditya-bar, Sunday, adit is also 
met with in the same sense as ddik, et caetera. . 

*>^ TfflfTT udit, risen (as the sun), dis- 
tinguished, shining (as valomv&c.). t. 

0\ ^S^a-dattfjj not given. In Hindu law 
it is applied to an Illegal donation, consequently void 
and resumable. s. 

3\ ^BI^RT a-datta, not *givon in marriage 
(a female), s. 

adatrt, hanging ; infirm, d. 

aditi-nandan, m. a deity, 

t. e. a son of aditi. t. 

Vlltyrf dditrva, m. priority, prece- 

[same as ddityabdr. *, 
aditya-ivar t m. Sunday, 

dence. 5. 

&JL) J I HHltyitJ aditya, m. the sun, etc. See adit. 8. 
idjihal, m. entering, introducing, a. 
udadhi, m. the ocean, s. 
adar, m. respect, regard, act of 

treating with attention and deference, politeness. 
adar -man, reverence and honour, s. 

udar, m. the belly. TJf udra, m. 
an offer, (dakh) wrfar, that way ; adar t this way. 

adra, f. the name of the sixth 

"sentery. s. 

lunar mansion (probably a Orionls) ; the beginning 
of the rainy season, a. [in another, a. 

r \jb\ idrdj 9 m. act of inserting one thin% 

\j&\ idrdr, m. involuntary discharge of 
urine ; hard rain, liberality, a. 

tdrdri) a pension, allowance, a. 

*J\j&\ idrak, m. understanding comprehen- 
sion, a. 

udaramay, m. diarrhoea, dy- 
[worm. t. 

udardvesht, m. the tape- 
I udar-pisdch, glutton, 

Voracious, one who devours every thing, one who haj 
the devil for his belly, s. 

a-dris for "r^*i a^drishya, 1 invi- 

^T^$T a-darsan or a-darskan,j sible, 
unseen, s. 

*;^T^r^rjn adarsa, m. a kind of very fine 
muslin ; a kind of sweetmeat. 

danger, fortune, fate. *. 

At4>) ^BTT^$ m. a mirror; a commentary, 

original manuscript ; a copy, a sign. *. 

f+*j&\ Vi^^tf a-darshan, m. disappearance ; 

adj. invisible. *. 

'Jj&\ WJ?li adrah, in. ginger in an undried 

state (Amomum-zinziber). s. 

adrahz, f. a kind of sweetmeat. 7*. 

udaril 1 . , ,,. , f, . 

pot-bellied, fat, cor- 
udarin / , . 

pulent. s. 

udarl J [honour. 9. 

adar~mdn, m. respect and 
\ ttdarinly f. a pregnant woman. ;. 
a-droh, m. mildness, moderation, 
"the absence of tyranny. * 

arsh, 1 invisible, unsoen; 
dritht, ) m. unforeseen 

C 23 ) 

a-drohi, innocuous, mild. 5. 

I, f. enlargement of the ab- 
domen from dropsy or flatulency, adj. abdominal, s. 

idris, the Arabian name for the 
prophet Enoch, a 

a-disht, m. misfortune, fate. s. 

iddi'a, m. the act of demanding one's 
right or just claims, a. 

*<^ ad'iya (pi. of lp-t>), salutations con- 
gratulations, compliments, prayers, blessings, a. 

*&&\ idg]kam, m. duplication of a letter by 
* tashdld ; coalescence of letters (in Arabic construc- 
tion), a. [difficult, a. 

Jjt^ adakkj more or very subtle, abstruse or 
adalicha, m. a cover, a wrapper, p. 
Tf<pR udak, m. water, s. 
adik, (for ^srftra adhik), more, much. d. 
vnf^oR adik, relating to the beginning; 

(in comp.) and all the rest, et cietera. 3. [cause, s. 

TO adikaran, m. a primary 

adakcha, in. a cloth for 
carrying things in ; a covering. See adakcha. 

ad-khila, V half open, half 

ad-hhola,} blown (flower, 

&c.). h. 

j\$\ T5HX udfjar, m. vomiting; sound, s. 
eloJ\ Tinf udgat, vomited, cast up. s. 

\j<&\ adtjndra, m. fruit fully formed, but 
unripe, d, [stake), h. 

ad-garha, half driven (as a 

udyhatitj done with effort, 
exerted ; opened, s. 

udghatan, in. the rope and 

bucket of a well, a leathern bucket for drawing wa- 
ter ; an instrument for opening, a key, etc. s. 

V J3\ 




"to exchange, to swop or barter; to confuse, displace; 
also adld-badli-k and adl kd badl-k. h. 

ftbl adilla, (pi. of JjJ*3) proofs, indications, a. 

M&\ adam, Adam, the. first man; also, a 
man in the abstract, a. 

AI^ "SfipT uddim, m. endeavour, exertion, 
profession, trade, calling, employment. *. 

udmad, m. lewdness, wanton- 

ttdmadi f. a paroxysm of lust ; 
adj. wanton, lewd. *. 

udumbar, m. the glomerous fig- 
tree, or gular-tree (Ficu* glomerata). 9. sect of brah- 

adam-l&ur, or ^f> MWO>, xnan- 

devouring, a cannibal, a. p. 
ad-mar a, 

adamra, breathless, dead. d. 
adam-zad or ailam*zada t descended 
of Adam ; s. man, mankind, p. 

. . 

, m. T 
rt, f. J 

?A^| adam-gar, humane, benevolent, p. 

l adam-gari) f. humanity, benevo- 
\j*&\ ^l^WStt ad-mu,a, m. half-dead, h. 

, <O\ a^/ml, a descendant of 'Adam : a 

human being (man or woman), individual, people, a. 
CUx^l admit/at, f. humanity, 9 civility ; 

adm'iyat'h, to behave with humanity, admiyat pa- 
karnd, to become civilized, admiyat sikhlana or ad- 
mlyat men land, to civilize, admiyat u}h-jdnd t to be- 
come savage, ferocious, and frantic, a. 

a-din, in. an unlucky day. *. 

Oj\ (7fi?7ia, inferior, little, low, mean, a person 
of no consequence, a. 

aduntar, also adantari (same as adatri), 

pendulous, &c. d. 

>&\ 'W^ a-dand or ^fl^[ a-dwand, quiet, 
tranquil, free from strife. 5. 

^r^f adand, unpunished, m. impunity, s. 

adna, see adna y little, &c. a. 

a^aw, at first, in the beginning, s. 

adanat (pi. of O^J\), particles in 
grammar, a. [act of revolving, a. 

jti\ adrvar (pi. ofjj^), revolutions; idwar, 
adrvan, *\ f. braces for 
vayarii) tightening the 

tape of a bedstead. A. 

udvaha, m. marriage. 5. 
<, without splendour. *. 
a-drvitlya, peerless, matchless, 

unequalled ; only, without a second. * 

udauri, f. a kind of food eaten 
/*. [lium. f. 

\ ^J5T^ vduJthal, m. a gum resin, bdel- 
fj^l 4fg J T udviyna, perplexed, dejected, 

anxious, troubled, s. 

jj&\ adrvan, very mean^ or wretched, a. 

-d7vand, quiet, tranquil, free from 
[equalled, i, 

a-dwait, peerless, matchless, un- 
a-drvesh, 1 harmless, not ma- 
a-dweshlj licious. *. 

strife, s. 

vdveg, m. perturbation (espe- 
cially from pain), consternation, anxiety, perplexity, 
exertion, care; the fruit of the Areca catechu, betel- 
nut. *. 

vdvegi, perplexed, anxious, 
"perturbed, agitated. 
A>ji3l ndn'iya (pi. of |j<>), medicines, a. 

Jb^l wftf tf*//it, a particle denoting superiority ; 
upon, orer, above (the reverse of the particle opa). . 

Jb*>t W acMa, down, downwards (the re- 
verse of the particle ut). $. 

J*3\ W flrfA, in composition denotes half; as, 

adh-mfi,a t half dead. *. 

J&0 1 wftl o<fA{, m. mental apony, anxiety ; 

expectation, calamity ; a pledge, pawn ; location, fix- 
ing, site, &c. ; engagement. . 

, half (in comp.adh,adh,ad).s. 
adhar,\ m. food, aliment, vic- 
WVTC adhdr, ) tuals, nourishment, k. 

CAcW//ar or udhdr, m. debt 
(especially not bearing interest), loan, trust ; deduc- 
tion, discharge, deliverance, raising up from any place 
or state. *. 

, m. a patron, supporter, one 
on whom dependence is placed for assistance; com- 
prehension, location; a dike, a canal ; a basin round 
the foot of a tree. . 

adharmik, 1 unjust, un- 
i ddhdrmih,} righteous, 

wicked. 9. [rate, to discharge, s. 

udhdrndj a. to libe- 
(in compos.), an eater; 

as, dudh-adhari, one who lives on milk. h. 

adhd'Slsi, 1 f. pain af- 
adhd-wR, j fccting the 

half of the head, hemicrania. t. 

'idhdn, m. oils, unguents, h. 

ddhdn, m. pregnancy, concep- 
tion ; a ceremony performed previous to conception 
as conducive to it ; a pledge, a deposit, a surety. *. 

L&\| HY\f|fV|7R ddhdnik, m. a ceremony 
performed after cohabitation to procure or favour 
conception. . [duce in equal shares, s. 

| (^CLfc<^ WT<rri[ adh-batd^ f. division of pro- 
1 ' w kl ""tr^ adh-bar, in the middle, h. 

ddh-bogrd, half cleaned (as rice from 
the husks), d. [pared, h. 

adh-band, half-made, half-pre- 
adh-llch, in the middle, h. 

adhipa, m. king, master, or 
ruler t. 
Jb Jb&\ ^MMm adh-pd,o, half a quarter. A. 

(JLO,t}i ^smm(adhpat^ properly ViMMUl udhi- 
pail, m. prince, commander, rajft. *. 

jpatya, m.sovereignty,go- 

; lordship. J. 

adh-pakha, haif ripe. a. 

uddhaty rude, arrogant, ill-bo* 
haved ; m. a king's wrestler, s. 

(j&&\ adhatri (v. adatri), pendulous, &c. 

J>&\ WR0J/tar, low, inferior, vile, m. the lip, 
the lower lip ; pudendum muliebre. t . 

ndhar, m. empty spacp, the space 
between heaven and earth ; adj. suspended, separate, 
at a distance ; in the middle, h. 

idhar, here, hither, this way. idhar 
udhar, about, around, up and down, here and there. A. 
, there, thither, that way. h. 

udhrd, opened, undone, unrolled 
(as the seam in a garment, or thread which was rolled 
up in a clue), h. 

*lf\HW adhi-rdj, supreme ruler, s. 
ddhirdjya, m. empire, su 

preme sway. s. 9 

^fc\ y&\ ^TC^TVnC idhar-udhar, this way and 

that, on all sides, all around, h. 
Oj*ly& J\ ^^TCIHff adhardmrit, m. the mois- 

ture or nectar of the lips. s. 
^jb^adharpand^m. (for adher-pana) middle 

age, manhood, d . [a sort of cloth, h. 

\~jb&\ WSftlTladharsd,. a half-piece of cloth, 

Ajfc^l Wl^ a-dharm, m. injustice, impiety; 

* sin, crime; adj. unjust, impious, adharm-chdri, un- 

righteous, wicked, s. [crime. A. 

adharm-pand, m. injustice, 

"rainal. s. 

rmishtk, very wicked, s, 
a-dharmi, unjust, sinful, cri- 

udhare-adhar, separate, aside, d. 

jjfc^l udharnd (see udJiernd), to undo, un- 
ravel. d. 

adhikj more, greater, abundant, 
excessive, additional, augmented, adhafc, a half, a part 
(less in use than adhd or adh). 9. 

lfc^ TnSfti uddhak, m. asthmn ; act of gasp- 
ing or panting ; plethora in the vessels of the head ; 
headache, indigestion, s. 

6&\ TS(fqW{t.adhikdr, m. possession, extent 
of dominion, a kingdom ; the bearing of royal insignia, 
authority, rule, privilege, inheritance. 9. 

reign ruler, autocrat, an owner, one possessing autho- 
rity (absolute or derived), right, title, or privilege; 
one empowered. *. [increase. *. 

adhikdnd, a. to augment, to 

adhikdjij f. increase, aug- 
mentation, abundance, supremacy. *. 

adh-kapdn, f. a pain af- 
ecting half the head ; a nut of Areca, shaped like a 
hemisphere (probably from two kernels being con- 
tained in one shell) : to such a nut the virtue is as- 
cribed of curing the disease of the same name. . 

ikta, f. excess, addition, a. 

adh-kachcha, m. adh-kachckl, 
half ripe ; a kind of soil in Sfcharanpfir. ft. 

adk-hachray m. adh-kachri, 
P. half dressed (victuals). A. 

tTinrc adh-kar, m. half the tax, or duty 
of any kind, the other half being remitted. adh-fcari t 
t an instalment of eight &nas in the rupee. * . 

*J>J&&\ wftfJTff adhikrit,m. asuperintendant, 
an inspector of receipts and disbursements, an auditor 
of public accounts, s. 

jSiiM ^rfVnV^ adhikarma, m. superinten- 
dence, supervision, government adhikarma-krit, m. 
a supervisor. *. [title, right. *. 

adhiharan, m. superiority, 

adh-karl, f. an instalment of 

eight anas in the rupee, or half the government im- 
post. A. [pronounced. A. 

BTVr^T adh-kaha, half spoken, half 

TOlfV<! adhikya, m. excess, an over- 
plus, abundance. *. 

adh-yadra, half ripe (fruit, &c.). d. 
adham, a dark or dusky horse, a. 

WR adham, mean, vile, wretched, con- 
1 temptible. *. 
^^\-^>ii\ wnfTW adhamadham, extremely 

mean or base. t. 

lj\+b&\ ^fVp?TO a dhimas, m. an intercalary 
month, which happens once in three years, when two 
lunations occur within one solar month, s. Hind. 

itwjl^fciil ^SffV^fal adhimans, m. fleshy ex- 
crescence of the eye, cancer of the eye. *. 
TOTO adh-mara, 

^WCT adh-maran, - half dead. s. 

adhan, m. water set to boil for 
the dressing of victuals. A. 

a-dhan, poor, destitute, s. 

adhunik> recent, modern, 

belonging to the present time. *. 

SofcjT 'WT^frr^TfT adhumkta, f. recentness, 
the being mocleru novelty. *. 
L&fc^l ^Nr-T adhang, m. palsy affecting half 
the body, hemiplegia. *. 

adhangi, palsied, paralytic, s. 
a-dhanl, poor, indigent, s. 

adh-war, half (generally ap- 
plied to pieces of cloth); a half-web. A. 

RMTa* adhotar, f. a fine kind of 

cloth. A. 

WVtT adhura, half ready, unfinished, 

half dressed; immature (a foetus), adhurd-jdnd, to 

ni&curry (u female), h. 

ftft adhaurly f. half a hide (of a 

thick strong kind). A, 
^xe^i^l W^t^9 adho-mukk, with the head 

downwards (a posture used in the tapasya or austere 
devotion of the Hindus) ; drooping the head (from 
grief or shame), headlong, inverted, turned upside 
down. *. 

adkrvan, half of any thing, h. 

adhivinna, f. a superseded 
wife. *. 
liyb^l adhonad, half and half, nisfa-nufi. d. 

N^fH* adhivedanik, m. 

dowry or alimony given to a wife who is superseded 
by a second marriage. *. 

addhi> f. half of a damri (a 
small coin) ; half a piece of cloth, h. 

adhya, division of ^produce be- 
tween two parties in equal shares, one furnishing the 
seed and the other the labour, h. 

or WPUffinff adhyapak or 

adhyapak, m. a teacher, one who instructs in the 
sacred books, s. 

adhyapan, m, instructing, 

teaching the sacred books, s. 

jljkJ&^l 5Hft|tnT. adhiyar, m. a man who passes 

half his time in one village and h If in another : of 
such a one it is said, adhiyar hurt a hai, " he acts as 
adhiyar." h. 

iyari 9 f. a half-share. h+ 

or ^rftr^THT adhyana or adki- 
ydnd, a. to halve, to divide. A. 

SSWR adhyaya, m. section, chapter, s. 

^T^l adhynchhj for viu4| adhyaksh, m. a 
master, superintendant, &c. ; a man of rank. 8. 

a-dhir, confused, perplexed, 
hasty, precipitate, irresolute, impatient, unsteady, s. 

Lft*^ ^5>ft^in a-dhirata, f. impatience, per- 
plexity, haste, precipitation, fickleness, unsteadiness, 
confusion, s. 

rj&&\ ^nfhrjf a-dhiraj, m. perplexity, dis- 


traction, unsteadiness ; adj. perplexed, distract**!, un- 
steady, impatient, feeble, irresolute ; also a-dhairj. s. 

a-dhirja, 1 perplexed, dis- 
a-dhirjlj) tracted. ^W?N&T 
a-dhairjd, m. instability, want of firmness, s. 

v^lt udherna, to undo. See udherna. 

Wfe adher, middle-aged ; just past the 
prime of life (applied most frequently to women). A. 

xwl "3TVf udher, m. unravelling, unwenv* 
ing. udher-bun, perplexity. A. 

Ojfet VfiMRiR adher-pana, m. the middle 
period of life, manhood, mature age. A. 


udherna, | to undo, un- 

udhernaun,) ravel. A. 

adhlthwar, in. an emperor, 

a king paramount. . 

(jiij^*)l WRJ adhyaksh m. a master, lord, 
governor, supe'rintendant. s. 

,Jjk*4>l WlfhT adhyagnij property or settle- 
ment given to a wife when superseded by a new 
marriage on the part of the husband : it is given 
during the marriage ceremony, over the nuptial fire. *. 

Juwl *Kfan adhela, m. half a^a/xa (a small 
coin), amounting to 1'2$ damn or 4 damrts. h. 

o* A\ W^ adheTi, f. half a rvpi ; also 

"a kind of measure used for corn; also half a gold 
mohur. h. [half-share, h. 

<wirftj*n adltettyaj a proprietor of a 

<> r &**<3 ^^ or *XVfa odKm or 
adhln t submissive, obedient, obsequious, humble, do- 
cile, dependent, s. 

v>3\ mzFT adly*' {far adhyayan) m. study, 
application, especially of the sacred books. 3. 

or 'WTVJfWT ad/dnata,'} f. sub- 
adhlnatajij ) mis- 

dience, obsequiousness, servility, dependence, 
slavery. *. 

adhinlf f. obsequiousness, ser- 
vility, submission ; petition. *. 
$! "S^Hl uday or utlaya, m. dawn, sunrise, 
'ascent ; the east, in opposition to asta, the west, the 
eastern mountain from behind which the sun is uupposcd 
to rise; light, splendour; prosperity, uday-h. to rise 
(as the sun), uday-a^ta tak tumhara raj ho, may your 
sway extend from the east to the west. s. 

adya, firs.t initial, s. 

[pity. $. 
a-daya, unfeeling, destitute of 

tn^T uday asta, from sun-rise to 
sun-set, from east to west. *. 
bpt adyan, (pi. of ^), religions, religious 
rites or ceremonies, a. 

b^l TSimt udyauy m. a royal pleasure- 
ground. *. 

, in. a teacher; adj. courteous, a. 
uddipta, illuminated. *. 

uddipan, adj. exciting, inflam- 
ing, as passion ; ra. Dialing, glowing, of a luminous 
body. . 

}&\ ^Wif whjaty m. a section, a chapter; 
adj. raised, held up; active, persevering, labouring di- 
ligently and incessantly. *. [trace. *. 

uddesh, m.'a scope, a vestige, a 
adcsh, m. an order, a command ; 
a salutation of Jogls ; in grammar, a substitute. . 
, (same as adih or adMk),more. d. 
m. strenuous exertion, per- 
severance, labour; calling, trade, f. 

1 adim, goats' leather perfumed, which 

they bring from Arabia. Pers. the face. a. 
/oM wnr*5f adyant, first and last, begin- 
ning and end ; adj. from first to last, from beginning 
to end. s. 

adina, Friday, p. 

a-dyot, without splendour. 
udyot, m. light, lustre. . 

(G&j(^&\ ade-7vade 9 in procrastination, ade- 
tvade-k, to put off, to evade, to shuffle, d. % 

d/y.*il Tnftfl udyog, m. exertion, perseve- 
rance, continued endeavour. I. [severing. *. 

^Jtf*] ^riWt udyogi, active, laborious, per- 
J^l TJ^pft udayi, prosperous, flourishing. $. 

til ^rrjT adda, m. a stand or station where 

porter? &c. wait to be hired ; a stall, booth, shop. &c 
ddda-ddr, a palkl bearer or dak runner, v. Wilson, h 

ji^il ^Si^K adar-udar, m. a ditch and 
the mound of earth thrown up from it, forming th* 
boundary of a field, h, 

adambar, m. charge sounded 

by musical instruments ; commencement ; pride, ar- 
rogance ; anger, passion ; happiness, pleasure. *. 

itdup, m. a raft, a float, s. 
a-dol, immoveable, unshaken, h. 

adhak, m. a measure of capa- 
city (for dry measure), about 750 of our cubic inches, h 

it iz or til iza, when, lo, behold, aza, vexa- 
tion, injury, a. 

jlil azar or azar, name of one of the Chal- 
dean months, nearly corresponding to our March ; 
dzart, vernal, a. 

^btaca/ijf.the summons to prayers,generally 
proclaimed from the minars or towers of a mosque, a. 

tdljxil uzbak (fern, uzbakrii), an Uzbek, or 
one of the Tartar tribe so called, p. 

jil azur, m. fire; the name of Abraham's 

father (Terah) ; the ninth solar month, p. 
^ ,il azarin m. camomile flower, ox-eye, p. 

^lpil izan, m. obedience, submission ; con- 
fidence, belief. .. 
&i*il azuha, or azuka, m. food, nourishment.^. 

j^il azkur, (pi. of jSi) praises of God. 
tgftar, remembering, praising (God), a. 

Ui'il azhiya, (pi. of ^/i) people of pene- 
tration and understanding f the acute, the ingenious. . 

Jil azall, base, most vile, abject, a. 

^it izn or azn, m. permission ; dismission, 
asin, chanting the lfur,an ; hearing, a. 

&5jil azuha or azuka, m. food. p. 

^Jbil az,han (pi. of ^fcS), geniuses, intel- 
Iccts, capacities, a. 


aziyat y f. wanton injury, oppression, 
distress, vexation, a. 

1 ar, (r. of arvardari) bring thou ; used in 
com p. ; as, bar-ar, fruit-bringing, fertile, p. 

\ 1SRl.dr, f. a goad, a kind of ladle; the ar- 
tificial spur of a game cock, h, 

ar, if; (contraction for jS\ agar). p. 
l IT wr, ro. the breast, ttr-l. to embrace, to 
^caress. ^"^ uru, t the upper part of the thigh; 
adj. large, great, ample. ^Hftari, a foe. . 
\ ^HJarw, (sameasjjl), and, more, again, h. 
\j\WT3ara, m. a saw; a shoemaker's knife or 

awl ; the name of a district, Arrah in Shahabad. h. 
}j\ dra, or ara,e, in composition, denotes 

adorning; as, jahdn-dra, world-adorning, p. 
eo! ; l araba, m. a wheeled carriage, gun-car- 

riage, &c., a cart. p. 

aratij m. an enemy, s. 

arrata, m. a loud and prolonged 
sound (as from the discharge of artillery, or the fall 
of a building). A. 

j^^j\ drd'jdri, f. (for ana-jana), coming 
and going, d. [(a country). 5. 

s^U ^RT^nif a-rajaft, destitute of a king, 
i^\ irada1,\ m.desife,inclination,wish,pur- 
\j\ irdda, J pose, design, plan,intention. a. 

f drddhan, m. worship, ado- 
ration, supplication ; accomplishment, gratifying, s. 

T (or iBKTViT) aradhwa, a. to 

worship, to adore, to serve, to accomplish ; f. service, 
worship, adoration. . 

j&t^jt VTCTWI drddhya, worshipful, vene- 

rable; name of a class of brahmans. s. [base. a. 

JiU ara?7(pl.of J^^),lowest, meanest, most 

\j\j\ ^BRTTT arara y ra. marks of nails left after 

scratching, h. [going, d. 

arazari, f. thoroughfare, coming and 

arazil, lowest. See arazil. a. 

\j\ aratfagij f. dressing, preparation, 
"getting into order, regularity, ornament, p. 

arastan (r ara or aray), to adorn, p. 

arasta, prepared, dressed, adorned, 
embellished, regular, decked out. p. [tions of land. a. 
i<^M arazi, (pl-of^j^) land, detached por- 

CL^U iraltat, f. spilling, pouring forth, piss- 

ing. a. [grote. *. 

AT WOT aram, m. a pleasure-garden, a 


aram, m. ease, rest, health, relief, re- 

pose. aram-k t to rest, to repose, iirdm-pana, to reco- 
ver. aram-f.alab t idle, slothful, a lover of ease, arum- 
gtriftan, to become quiet, to take it easy. p. 

aram-gah) also aram-gah, f. a resting- 
place, a bedchamber, firdaus-drdmgah, resting in para- 
dise, an epithet applied to Muhammad Sliah of Delhi, p. 

aramily (pi. of Sta^), widows ; dis- 
tressed, poor, in want of victuals (females), a. 

arami, a lover of ease, idle, slothful, p. 
t aramlda, (also aram'ida), at ease, 

tranquil, p. 

\j\j\ ^BllTn arrawa, n. to produce a continued 
sound, as a mill (imitated from the sound), h. 

(J-4^ drayixh, f. embelliBhmerit, ornament, 
equipage, preparation, dressing; in dakh. artificial 
flowers, trees, &c., made of talk and tinsel, d. 

i~>j\ *& arby one hundred millions, arb- 

kliarb, innumerable, s. , 

i^b^l arbcib (pi. of t-^;), possessorp, lords, 

masters, arb&bijdh, possessed of dignity, arbabi- 
eloquent persons, poets. arbdbi-nishat t dancers 

and musicians, arbdbi-himmat, men of high spirit. 
ai'bdbi-mal, officers of the treasury, arbdbi shar', law- 
officers. arbdbi ma'ni, spiritual persons, h. 

arbak, low, vile; adv. at first, 

formerly. *. 

jj\ VTW$ arbudj one hundred millions. *. 
jj\ "3HWCT urbara, f. fertile land or soil. g. 

arbarana, n. to hurry, to be 
confused, perplexed, agitated, h. 
-^1 Tt^ft urbasl, nHme of an apsara> or 

* female dancer in the court of Indra ; an ornament 
worn on the breast, s. ? 

j] arba, four, (also arba'a). . 

arbaun and u***j\ arba,in, forty, a. 
arbal f f. age, duration of life, . 
arbind, m. the lotus (nywph&a 

nehimbo). s. 

l wS^Tar&AaA,m.a8on,achild,a pupil, s. 
arpan, m. an offering, the making 

an offering ; delivering, entrusting, arpan-k, to pre- 
sent an offering, to deliver, entrust, arpan- ndma, m. a 
deed of gift, especially to a temple or idol. #. [,v. 

Ujjl ^HLMHII arapna, a. to present an offering. 
Ojl araf, (corruption for arth, q. v.). ct. 

OjT TSTtf or ^srril arot and arta, grieved, 
afflicted, disturbed, confounded, arti, f. pain, dig- 
tress. s. 

\3>T ^IUjn arid, m. a ceremony attending 
marriage. When the bridegroom first comes to the 
house of the bride he is received bv her relations, who 
present to him, and move circularly round his head, a 
.platter, painted and divided into several compart- 
ments.: in the middle of it is a lamp made of flour, lill- 
ed with ghl, and having several wicks lighted. 

irtibdt, m. friendship, connection, a. 
UTl irtihdl, m. death ; act of marching OF 
travelling, a. 

28 ) 

irtiddd,m. apostasy,recantation; refus- 
ing, opposing, a. [a distinguishing mark. a. 
LJjl irtfaam, ra. plan, painting, writing; 

i^j) irtixha, accepting a bribe, (a judge) ; 
bribery, corruption, a. 

irti'aSy 1 m. tremor, trembling, tre- 
irtCashj ) pidation. a. 
;USjl irtifa, m. elevation, exaltation, ascent, 

height, grandeur prosperity, a. 

j*>0^1 irtikab, m. perpetration or commis- 
sion (of a crime) ; commencement or undertaking of 
an enterprise, a. 

1^,1 vfojT artala, m. a patron, protector, h. 

3j) ^TTZT WM, m. crimpling, plaits (as of 
clothes), ur til-gar t a crimpleror plaiter. h. 

, signification, sense, acceptation; intention, de- 
sign ; request, beggii.,/; riches ; cause, sake, tapasytirth, 
for devotion's sake, for devotional purposes, s. 

l^J whw arthat, videlicet, namely, s. 
tj5y irtihan, m. act of receiving any article 

as a pledge ; a hostage, a. [ing. s. 

artkantar, m. another mean- 
artha-siddhi, f. success. #. 

artha-shastra, m *he 

science which teaches how to obtain things, as friends, 
money, or any other object. *, 

art/it, supplicating, desirous, hav- 

ing an object to accomplish, self-interested, designing ; 
m. a petitioner, s. 

art hi, f. a bier. h. 

arthiya, m. a protege, client, 
person recommended ; a client, agent, broker, h. 

*&Uti\ arti, f. a ceremony performed 

in adoration of the gods, by moving circularly round 
the head of the image a platter containing a burning 
lamp with several wicks, s. 

irs, heritage, inheritance, a. 
j\ arj, worth, respect, honour, p. 

jt ^Ttlfor W% araj, arj, respectable, reve 
rential, honourable. *. [tuting. a. 

ft 1 ^' irjff) changing, returning, or substi- 
arjal, a horse with one white fore 

foot , a large or tall man, a. [py, blessed. />. 

arj-mand, beloved, dear, noble; hap- 

P^tf arjan, m. act of gathering toge- 
ther ; acquisition. . 

arjun, m. the name of a hero in 

the Mahdbharat, the third son of Panda; the name of 
a tree (Tcrmmvlia alata glabra). s. 

quire, *. 

arjana, to gain, gather, to ac- 
arajhna, n. to be ravelled or 

entangled (as thread or hair ; met. the heart) ; to be 
bound (as in fetters) ; a. to quarrel without a Cause, 
or unreasonably, h. 

aruchi, f. sickness at stomach ; 
nausea ; aversion, dislike, want of appetite, disgust. 
Wr^f arc/it, m. flame, iight, splendour. *. 
>y ^T^T archa, 1 f. devotion, adoration ; 

an image. *. 

archit 9 worshipped, adored, s. 
archakj adj. worshipping ; m. a 

worshipper, an adorer. *. 

^1 fl^HT archnna, a. to worship, to adore, 

to honour, to treat with ceremony; f. worship, 
homage, s. 

l-j! arham (pi. of *>))> wombs, matrices ; 

relations by the mother's side, uterine kindred, a. 

\ arkam, more or very merciful. ^rAawi- 
-ur-rakimm t the most merciful of the merciful, an at- 
tribute of God. a. 

^Up ^ 1^1 irkha,e 'inan, m. act of loosening 

the reins ; unruliuess. a. 

i$,l ^S urd, 1 m. a kind of vetch (dolicho* 
JbJj) "gr$ urdhj pilosus). h. 
3|I ard, m. flour, meal, ard, anger, rage. ;j. 
,^Go 1^1 ^fT^Jpfi urdabegrii, f '. an armed fe- 

** male for attending the ladies of a royal harem, A. 

^j**ti3jl ^T^T^r ardas 9 f. representation, offer- 
ing to a deity, k. [meal. A. 

ardawa, m. coarsely-ground 

urdibihisht, name of one of tho 
Persian months, April, p. 

^1 T|[ urdra, m. an otter, s. 

$j\ Wfardra, wet, moist, damp. $. 

^ 1 wfl ardra, f. name of the sixth lunar 

mansion ; same as ddra. 3. 

*>J)&j\ WT^^Ii anlrak, ra. ginger in the un- 

dried state, f. 

ardshir, name of several of the Persian 

kings; Artaxerxes. p. 

ji^l urduj m. an army, a camp; a market. 

urduj mu'alla, the royal camn or army (generally 
means the city of Dihh or Shahjafidnabad ; and urdu,i, 
mu'alla ki zaban, the court language). This term is 
very commonly applied to the Hindustani language as 
spoken by the Musalman population of India proper, t. 

fejt vfr arddha, the half of any thing, s. 
fe^l ^nw urdh 9 m. (the same as urd), a kind 

of vetch, h. 

ardha-bhag, m. a half. 

,m.a crescent, 

a half-moon, a semi-circle. . 


ardhang, m. half the body, 

palsy affecting orie side, or half the body, upper or 
lower, hemiplegia. s. 

^/Jlfcjjt "dlll^l ardhangi, a person afflicted 
"with the above disease ; f. a wife. s. 
-^J^?^ 1 Vf^5 arddha-chandra, m. a crescent, 

a half moon. s. 

ardha-ratra, f. midnight. *. 

urdhang (also urdhag), m. a 
disease occasioned by the mounting of wind upwards ; 
flatulency. *. 

L&J\ urdi, f. the first month in autumn, p. 

Jtejl argal(phof Jjj), little, mean (people) ; 
the vulgar (properly the refuse of any thing), a. 

Jijt arzal, most mean, vile, ignoble, a. 
Ulj^l ararana, n. to scream out. d. 
J I arz, m. price, value ; quantity ; esteem, 

veneration ; honour, arz-i-bdzdr, price current, mar- 
ket price, arz-i-lrs&l, invoice, particulars of the dc-s- 
patcn of treasure, &c. p. 

jj\ aruz or aruzz, also urz, m. rice. a. 

arzak (pi. of $j)> riches, possessions, a. 

arzan, cheap, abundant, p. 

i arzant, f. cheapness ; abundance of pro- 

visions, arzaiii-ralchna, or (^7.) arzdnl dashtan, to pre- 
sent, give gratuitously, p. 

jjjl (irzak (corruptly for azraJf\ bine, azure, 
cerulean; having cat's eyes, arzalc-cliashm, blue-eyed, 
cat-eyed, a. 

\J( arzan, m. millet-seed 5 (Hind, china), p. 

)y **rzu, f. wish, desire ; hope, want, dis- 
tress. p. [longing, p. 

arzu-mand, also arzu-kask, desirqus, 
j ' urzumandl or arzu-hashi, f. eager 
desire, wishing, anxiety, p. 
U'Hij' arzidan, to be worth ; to suit. p. 
arziz, f. tin, base or light money, p. 

1 arzhangi m. the house and gallery of 
t a celebrated painter, p. 

^rni <i-ra* 9 without juice, sapless, taste- 
less, dull, flat (as a composition). *. 

arm, m. name of a medicinal 

plant or tree (justicia adhatoda and gandarussa). s. 

^I aras, m. weakness, laziness, in- 
activity. i. 

iris or irs (v. tm), an axletree. d. 
,1 irsal, m. mission; act offending, espe- 

cially a writing, letter, &c. : in revenue language it 
denotes monthly collections of rents, &c., forwarded 
to head- quarters by the subordinate revenue autho- 
rities. ir^ai-ndma, m. an invoice of goods or rents, &c., 
forwarded as above, a. 

j*,(j}\ ^C$F*$ars-pars, m. partial bathing 
(throwing a very little water on the head with one's 
hand, instead of bathing), sprinkling or aspersion; act 
of touching, s. 

U**.l 'VKtigT artatta, in. guess, conjecture, 

valuation, appraisement; a mediator, n broker; a 
monthly treasury account of receipts and disburse- 
ments made up from the daily entries, arsatta-navis, 
the clerk who keeps the monthly accounts. A. 

fl>*j' arsaih, m. a monthly account (of rt- 
venue). h. 

ala^l arista^atis,} the Grecian philo- 
arisfu 9 / sopher Aristotle, g. 

j arslan 9 a lion ; a man's surname ; 

'name or epithet of several Persian kings, t. 
irsi, f. the axle of a wheel, d. 

W**fl arasly weak, lazy, indolent, in- 
'active. s. 

(j*j\ ^Wraff or ^BTITSft am, f. a mirror (but 
particularly applied to a mirror on the thumb), h. 

Ixo t^^****)' Wljrt^n f I arsile-naina, with weak 

eyes ; with eyes as if just awake, h. 

&*>; I tiKtM arasyci) m. insipidity, want of 
flavour or spirit. *. 

\jl irshad, m. command, order. It is fre- 
quently used by an inferior as a respectful interroga- 
tion, in the sense of " What is your will or pleasure if" a. 

O**/J.O**;' W^vvftarsh-parshiin. partial bath- 
ing (throwing a little water on the head with one's 
hand), sprinkling, aspersion; act of touching, s. 

uLuijjl ^ft& arisht, m. parlick, the niinb tree 
(mcfia azad-dirachta); a crow; good fortune; mis- 
fortune, sign of death. *. 

i\-i^l aw/tad, more or most upright, most tena- 
cious of the right way ; a person who explains orders, 
commands, &c., particularly of the deity, a 

(^^t arz, f. the earlli ; a portion of land ; 
pLarazi, lands, a. 

arzlj terrestrial, earthly, mundane, a. 

9j\ artal (pi. of ^bj raff), " a measure 
of weight so called (about u pound), a. 

1 argfeanuh (Opyarov^ m. an organ, g. 
arghawan, m. a plant whose flowers 

^and" fruit are of a beautiful red (arbor Judtta) ; a red 
colour, p. 

tjly^l argfaawariif of a red colour, p. 

a\ijl irfdh f m. enjoyment of peace and the 
pleasures of tranquillity ; bestowing affluence, comfort- 
ing, cherishing, a. , 

{j*9^ arfoz.) an obstinate heretic, particu- 
larly a bigoted ShTa. a. 

*ij\ arfa', more or most high, sublime, a. 

fi\ irlam, m. act of writing, .a. 

^l?j\ arlan, m. jaundice ; mildew, a. 

(^).\ ^r% ark, m. the sufi j name of a plant 
(calatropus gigantea) swallow-wort. *. 

ufJj ^TT^Bir aruk, m. a drug brought from 
the hills, of cooling properties, s. 

CL>^\ m<*TZ arltat, name of a city in the 

Paklhan ; Arcot. h. 

( 30 ) 

arhafi, m. a pilot. It is^sup- 
"posed they got this name from the only pilots for- 
merly, in this part of the world, being in the service 
of the Nawwdb of Arkaf, which seems very probable 
(Gilchrisf s Naval Vocabulary) ; adj. belonging to AT- 
rtd}. arkafi ruptya, an Arcot rupee, h, 

arhashman, m. a crystal 
lens, a ruby. s. 

\>;l arhan, (pL of ^;), pillars, arltani 
daulat, nobles, grandees ; lit. pillars of state, a. 
*vj\ wlrt^F arham f m. a digit or twelfth 

of the sun's disc. m. 

arakta, red, blood-red, s. 

irkat 9 f. vigilance, activity, cle- 
verness, ingenuity, h. 

ark-din, m. a solar day. s. 

a-rakshit, unprotected, unde- 
fended. *< [of the sun. s. 

ark-mandal, m. the disc 

arkq&l, m. the sun stone, a 

ruby ; a crystal lens. . 

<^J;I ^"i^ ark-varsk, m. a solar year. 5. 

"3T?T urng, m. a snake, urag-sthan, m. 
the Infernal regions. *. 

, separate, apart, on one side. s. 

ll MR/lMf argana, a. to separate, to put 
on one side ; n. to be separated, s. 

argdj, f. being silent, s. 

argaja, m. the name of a per- 
fume, of a yellowish colour, compounded of several 
ingredients. A. [garments, &c.) h. 

tJFj\ ^Tlft argajl, dyed with argaja, (as 

^y^jl ^fiifft argani, m. a rope stretched for 

"drying clothes or similar purposes; a wooden rod, or 
bamboo, stretched horizontally, has the same name. A. 

^STtf argha, m. libation, an oblation 
of eight ingredients offered to a god or a brahman ; 
act of pouring out water in honour of a. deity, the sun, 
moon, &c., while performing their worship. *. 

arghoL 9 m. a vessel shaped like a 
boat, used by the Hindus in their devotions, for per- 
forming libation, s. 

ty T$T Mr/a, adj. hithermost, of this side. h. 

AJ! tram, m. name of a fabulous garden in 
Arabia, paradise, a. [inclination, p. 

^U;l armarif m. desire, wish, longing, hope, 
(J^*y\ armdnif desirous, hopeful, p. 
*$fjt ^nw5mwM,m. beginning, prologue, s. 
$}j*j\ aramzady desirous, without resource, d. 

^Uajl armagkan, m. rarity, curiosity, pre- 
sent ; a piece of money, p. 

arnian or irman, Armenia, armani, 
also irmani or armaniya, an Armenian. A. 

aramldagan, (pi.) those at rest; the 
dead. /?. 
liJL^f aramldan, to be at rest, to repose, p. 

aramida, quiet, at ease. p. 

?fw, m. the sun ; the dawn of day ; 

a dark red colour, s. 

1 1HOTT arna, or arwa bhaiwa, m. a wild 
buffalo ; cow-dung; found spontaneously dried in the 
forests (used as fuel by the native apothecaries in the 
preparation of medicines), h. 

<*rna, \ 

f n. to stop, hesitate, h. 

arunciyt, f. the dawn, colour of 
the dawn, a dark red colour, s. 

amab, m. a hare, a rabbit, a. 
&>j\ drinda ordranda, m. a porter, carrier, p. 

;' 'WT^ arand, m. the tree from which 
castor-oil is made (Rlcinus vulgaris orPalma Christi). s. 

&>j\ *Stt3$t arandiff. the fruit of the Ricinus 

vulgaris or Palma Christl ; a sort of fire- work. *. 

arnav, m. the sea, the ocean, s. 
fir u nopal, m. a ruby. s. 
arunoday,m. the first appear- 

"ance of the dawn. *. 

ami, f. a female wild buffalo, h. 

)j\ WTHPl aranya^ m. a forest, a wilderness. 
aranya-sabha, f. a forest court, a court for a community 
of hermits, aranya-shashflti, f. a religious ceremony 
observed by women. *. 

arrvdh (pi. of f-jjj) souls, spirits, a. 

j I VT^I rop, m. a transmutation, a 
ange, s. 

aropit, deposited, intrusted ; 
transformed, changed into, feigned. *. 

aropan, m. planting, s. 

wrwara, f. fertile soil, yielding 
every kind of crop ; land in general, s. 

j*\\ ^HMJ arurh, mounted on a horse or 
any thing else, elevated, megh-aruf-h, seated on a 
cloud, s. 

jj\ arogh, m. belch, eructation, p. 
y wCt J T a-rog> 1 healthy, free from sick- 
ness. s. 

arogya, m. health, freedom 

"from sickness; adj. healthy ,(prop.a+ogy a or a-rogita\ 9. 
'HCW arwan, m. the first cuttings of corn, 
presented to the household gods. A. [nelumbo). s. 
arwindj m. lotus (nymph&a 
arundkna, a. to strangle. 

kanth-arund/ian, m. strangulation. A. 

j^T Wi\^*0 droh an f m. rising, the grow- 
ing of new shoots ; a^ceut, staircase, ladder. *. 

i. T 


arirl, f. a species of arum, the 

root of which is "used in food (culled also ghoyati 
orghuyan, and in Bengal, kachu. Arum colocasid). h. 


aru, i, f. (corrtfptly for arucht), 
sickness at stomach, arising from pregnancy, h. 

;1 arra> f. a saw. arra-kash, a sawyer. 
arra sir par dial and, to oppress any one, to commit 
violence, sir par arre chalgaye tau ohl maddr maddr , 
he has incurred punishment and disgrace, yet has not 
reformed his manners, p. 

r ! WRJ am (for ara), m. a saw, &c. h. 

arhat, m. an engine for raising 
water ; the same as rahat. h. 

arkar, f. a species of pulse ( Cytisus 

cajan} ; called also tu,ar. h, 

urihnd, m. reproach, reproof, h. 
arhant, m. a sugat, or follower 

of the doctrines of Buddh. *. 

jj\ ^R^ aw, i, f. the root of Arum colocasia ; 

a goad at the end of a whip, h. [an awl. h. 

oT ^BnO an, f. a small saw, a hand saw, 

? <\ W are, a disrespectful mode of calling 
or address ; fern. art. s. 

fj\>dri, yes, yea verily, p. [kind. h. 

drlyd, m. a plant of the gourd 

cation, deception, m. guilt, h. 
*lj\ arebale, stratagem, deception, d. 

[IA).! wftfif a-riti, f. ill-manners, impolite- 
ness, incivility, ill-breeding. 8. 

are-re* alas, woe's me. d. 

w, of a good family, respectable, 



venerable. *. 

f! ItTZ ar, f. a screen, shelter; a kind of 
ladle used in sugar manufactories; protection; a 
protector ; an horizontal line drawn across the fore- 
head ; prevention, stop, hindrance, h. 

j\ ar, m. stop, hindrance ; hence the boun- 
dary of a field &c. 3f-g<r, a strip of sward encom- 
passing a field, h. 

V\ ar, f. contention, objection, fault, contra- 
riety. obstinacy, ar-*, to stop, to be obstinate (as a 
horse, h. 

fi fnft ari, m. a bird, the Sarali (turdus 

ginginianus). t. 

\J\ ara, oblique, crooked, across, transverse; 

m. a prop, a shelter ; a large saw, a shoemaker's knife, h. 
Ui>J]fl ara-dend, to abandon, give up. d. . 
*\j\ arar, (also urar) m. outhouses for cattle, 

harvest floor for the blossoms of the mdhwa ; also 

the steep bank of a pond or river, h. 

1jU : \ ^T31 arara, m. high steep banks, of a 
liver or tank, h, 

J ararl, f. the measure of a field ori- 
ginally established in a lease or grant to which the 
occupant, appeals in preference to an actual measure- 
ment or adjustment, h. 

)\2\ inr* urak, capable of flying, fledged./*. 
l*\j\ urd-marna, to rob, to steal, d. 
\j\ JfH urdn, f. act of flying.' h. 

]j TIHfT nrdnd, a. to cause to fly ; to 
spend extravagantly, dissipate, blow away, disperse. 
filch, entice, urana purana, to squander, h. 

lyl ^sr^TTT ardna, a. to make to stop ; to 
fasten one thing to another; m. the name of a tune. h. 
chhu, m. flying away, dis- 
appearing ; fraud, deceit, a deceitful stratagem ; en- 
gine. h. . [rasol. h. 

]ji ^RTft ardnl, f. a* large fan or pa- 

}p "3TT9B urdfi, m. a spendthrift, an ex 
travagant person. From ur&na. h. 

? f \j\ ardj, (for c%j : two and a half. d. 

l^ji arbdl, a very distant relative, a pre- 
tended relative, d. 
j\ W?*nr arbar, m. words without mean- 

ing; adj. uneven, rugged, arhar lalena, a. to speak 
inconsiderately, or without meaning ; to rave, to talk 
absurdly, /*. [tions. h. 

arbar ana, m. foolish ac- 
arbaruncfi, inconsiderate, h. 

arband, m. a cloth worn by 

Hindus, passing from th^ waist, between the thighs, 
and fastened behind, h. 

arbanyd, crooked, uneven, h. 
i urap, m. a raft, a float, s. 

arap-jharap, need, 
necessity, arap-jharap me* hona, to be hard up. A. 

jMjJGyl artdlis, forty-eight (for athtdlis). h. 
dbj^ urtak, m. housing of a saddle, d. 
$j\ 1Hrtc$l artald, m. protection, shelter, h. 

liJjSyl artuk, m. hindrance; adj. erring, 
astray, d. 

artts, (for ath-tls) thirty-eight, h. 

^ ** 

arthl 1 m. a broker, agent, 

arthyd j or salesman ; one 

who conducts business on commission for a principal 
at a distance ; a banker who grants and accepts bills 
on other bankers or correspondents. *A. 

U-v\ urcjiak, a thief, robber, d. 

"SfTTJtn ur-chalna, n. to walk with a 
stately or affected gait. h. 

^*-j1 archan pr archin, light, uneasy. 
ar chant, f. lightness, d. 

*j\ ttrud, black grain, a kind of pulse, d. 

**>yl arsatcij and 
sloth. '<*. " 

j\ urdabeganl (for urdabeyam), f. an 

"armed female. & 

bjt ardawa, mashed grain mixed with a 
littL> oil and water given to horses, d. 
JJ3j1 ardandd, m. stop, impediment; a 
bolt, a bar (of a door &c.) ; a yoke for oxen ; adj. 
athwart, awry* d. [horses, d. 

ardang, m. the rheumatism in 
urdit, (for urdu) a camp, &c. c/. 
^yl arzat, a villain ; base-born, d. 

\j\ffl ararand, m. to lament aloud, to 
shriek, d. 

uras, m. the common bug. k. 

iVt, arsatagl f. laziness, 

^jUtfjl arsnlh (for atk-satli) sixty-eight, d. 

(J^^ji ar-zamini, a counter security, or a 
"iiuety for a surety, mutual responsibility, ft. a. 
*ji^U^ ur-fa%hta, a foof, a simpleton, d. 
CiJyl ttrtf^, a surname, epithet, title, d. 
vj\ arhd, a small brass coin, the eight part 

of a Madras fanam. d. 

tyfj\ ar-harnd, n. to stop, to hinder. /*. 

i__'-5*\ ar-kasb, m. following a trade (a 
Hindu) different from that of one's ancestors, d. a. 

U"*^ U**?^ a,r gas-bar gas, m. lumber, worth- 
less things, d. [firmament. 5. 

uryan, pi. the stars; the stary 

f m. measure more than the 

standard, (f. 

rman, m. deposit, pledge, security, d. 
^uiojl armatfyal, silly, indiscreet, foolish, d. 
<^ Tflf adj. flying, on the wing. s. 
\$\ Tfn urnd f n. to fly j to soar. A. 

ttyl t/rw, (same as urhna), to cover one's 
elf; to be clad. d. 

\i} ; \ ^^TT arna, n. to stop, to hesitate, to be 

restive (a horse). A. 
lijT *IT1pn arwa, to afford shelter, to prop, 

to support. A. 

,jflij\ 3TJMMR ur-rtdgan, f. a flying serpent 
or dragon. . 

iiXij s l wil arang, f. a manufacturing town ; 
a warehouse where goods are sold wholesale; the 
place or d4pAt where goods of any kind are manu- 
factured, whether a town or not. nil kl aycing, an in- 
digo factory. 

jfivl ^fni urangd, m. a mode of wrestling 

with feet ; an obstacle, h, 
$ ^inr art?, m. a peach. /rw, much givpn 

to venery (a male animal), as a stallion &c. kept fur 

procreation, d. 

tjj : l ^TWTrvrtl,a, obstinate, perverRe, mulish, h. 
j \jj ! l WT^Tf or- war, f. a prop ; obstacle j shel- 

ter. adj. stopping, h. 

5jj\ urud 9 m. a kind of vetch, black grain, d. 
\*jj\ W|gffT arwta, m. a medicinal plant 

(justicia adhenatoda and ganderus&a). 

D^JjvO^JiJ^ ^'$R**Tfm a T Sm P a r 8 > m neigh- 
bourhood. h. 

Jbjl *VR arhy f. a kind of fish. /*. 

Jj\ ark, in the d:ikham dialect this word 

denotes alternate, or an interval of a unit between 
two measures of time or space ; as yak roz fA, every 
alternate day. yak kos drh, every alternate kos. d. 

\J\bj\ 'ScjjiHI urhand, a. to put on clothes, to 
cause to clothe. *. 

(*\&j\ ^?T^ arhaji, two and a half; when 

used with a noun of number, twice and a half the agp- 
pregate number; f. a full gallop, It. 

'TOW arhat, arhat, f. agency, 

commission, sale by commission, brokerage, h. 

urhak-par, a broach, a tilt. A. 

Jlfc^ '3'4i4i<*U urhak-k, n. to seek, or 
cry for an absent person (applied only to a child). ft 

ufhahnd, n. to be overset. 
uj-hak-par, overset, a tilt. h. 
&j\ TT3T?n urhna, n. to put on clothes, to be 

clad or covered. *. 

ibj\ <ftW urhangan, m. any thing phicod 
under a vessel to prevent it from upsetting ; a prop, 
support. A. 

arhwal, m. a day-labourer, h. 
ur hound, m. clothing, h. 
arhya, wealthy, rich, opulent. $. 

urhaiyd, a wearer or putter on of 
any dress, h, 

fcjl ^I%^T arhaiyd) m. a weight of two and 
a half sers ; also a measure of the same capacity, h. 
j\ vnft a a, in. a protector, supporter, a 
small saw or knife, h. [mode. A. 

?J J T ismft dflj f. a tune, a kind of musical 

l^-l 5HTJT or ^i^lVfl dre-dnd, or are- ana, 
to screen or shelter ; to be protected, h. [ish. /u 
aryal, obstinate, perverse, mul- 


" f. enmity, h. 
j\ az> from, by, than, with, out of. p. 

\\ fix, f. avarice, p. 

$\fi azdd, free, solitary ; a kind of fnlir, 
who shaves his becrd, eyelashes, and eyebrows, and 
vows chastity, but considers himself exempt from all 
th* 1 ceremonial observances of his religion, dztid- 
karnd, a. to manumit ; set at liberty, p. 

y ( 

>\jT azadagan (pi. of dzdda), those free 
from worldly cares, religious men. p. 
^> jT azadagt, T" f. independence, release, 

1)7 <z<uC, J manumission, freedom. j. 
*MjT ozoda, free, &c, v. azdd. p. 

jjjl a*a>, m. sickness, disorder, disease; 

trouble, affliction, outrage, injury; used in composi- 
tion is dil-azar, injuring or outraging the heart, p. 

j\j\ tear, f. drawers, trousers, izar-band, m. 
the string with which drawers are tied, tzar-band* 
rishta, connection through a wife; petticoat interest, p. 

5^jT a;ar-dih, one who gives trouble or 

Injury, az&r-dihl, f. the act of troubling, p. 
t/j'jT azari, a sick person, a patient, p. 

J|j1 tzdla, m. removal, abolition; (in gram- 
mar) the elision of a letter or vowel-point from a 
9 word. a. 

y\ j\ az-dn, thence, therefore, az-dni, belong- 
ing to. az-an-jd ki t for as much as. p. 
j>\\ az-bar, by rote, by heart, by memory, p. 
{j\j*j\ az-bard,e] on account of, for the sake 
jtf*\ az-bahri J of. p 
j\\ az-pd, lit. from on one's feet, az-pd dar 

dmadan, to fall into distress or trouble, p. 

J^<3:\ izdihdm t m. a crowd, a concourse, a. 

j*\\ azdar, worthy, proper, suitable ; some- 
times improperly used for azhdar, a dragon, q. v. p. 
<*i2>J^ azdari, f. worthiness, fitness, p. 
<5b>j\ izdiydd, m. increase, addition, a. 
t_/^j ? a^wrrfa^i, f. vexation, affliction, 'dis- 
" pleasure, sorrow, grief, p. 
^yJT dzurdan (r. a^oV), to vex, to grieve, p. 

S^jT dzurda, aflBicted, sad, dispirited, sor- 
rowful, vexed, displeased, weary. dzurda-Mfliir. or 
*zurda-dil, grieved in heart; vexed, olfended, dis- 
gusted, p. [beryl, a. 

J J J\ fl^raS, blue, blue-eyed ; pure, limpid ; 

j)T dzarm, modesty, mildness, p. 

i/Jjj^ a#w,e, by reason of, in conse- 
quence of. p. 

:\ azufa or dzu%a, m. food, nourishment, p. 

jjjy ti)j\ *a&-fw*aS, m. pomp, splendour ; 
the habits or fashions of a king ; the king's seal. t. 

Jj\ azal, f. eternity without beginning, a. 

C*M azallat, f. injustice, injury (sufferod 
without power of redress), oppression ; straits, famine, 
scarcity. Hunter. N.B. This word not in aay Persian 
or Arabic Dictionary to which we have had Access, a. 

Jfi azati, eternal without beginning, >r ffom 
"all eternity, a ' ^y 

Jj^ azatiyat, f. existence from all eter- 

33 ) U\ 

UjT dxmd, trying, trial (used in corap.). p, 
fpl. of /^Ut), times, seasons, a. 

azmand y a. to try, to prove, to examine , 
to touch gold, &c. on the touchstont* A. 

jAjT dzmayish, If. trial, proof, exami- 
^3^1 dzmudagt,) nation ! in revenue 

" language, it denotes an estimate of the crop while in 
the field by an officer of government. mayt.%A 
gumdshta or -muta?addi t the officer who estimates tat 
crop. p. 

**j\ azmma (pi, of^Uj), times, seasons, a. 
dzmudan (r. a^ma), to try, test. p. 

dzmuda, tried, proved, . examined ; 
azmuda-kar, experienced in business, p. 

-^^j\ azrvaj (pi. of ^J or *?-jj;)j sponses, 
wives, a. ' 

-?J^ jjl dzu-ldzii. (for ds-pd$) 9 all around, 
on all four sides, rf. 

ftzu&a or azuka, m. food. /?. 
^ az-har-darejOiM sorts and kinds. /?. 
^ azhdarha, 
i\ azkdakd, 

)j\ azhdkdt, m. bell-metal, azhdhdfi, of 
or relating to bell-metal. . 

^^*>^ is and W*, inflections of yih and wt/A,q.v.A. 
a,n', m. a sword, a scimitar, s. 
asu, m. life, breath ; the five vital 

m. a large serpent, a dra- 
gon, p. 

breaths or airs of the body ; reflection, thought, or 
the heart as the seat of it ; affection. *. 

^1 Wff as, or IM> I WRTT asd t f. hope, depen- 
dence, confidence, trust, reliance, as, added to words, 
signifies inclination, and asa, possessed of that incli- 
nation, us from the root pt, drink, piyas, thirst, and 
piyasd, thirsty. . 

*>1 asa (in composition), like, resembling j 
soothing, tranquillizing, p. 

(pi. ofa_}J^), weeks, a 
cisatiza (pi. of i\jL*>^), teachers, it 

tn^T9 a-sathy addicted to evil com- 
pany, i. [an unknown person* 4. 
athty an upstart, a stranger, 

or ^VTCnv ci-sddk, evil-minded, 

thievish ; lazy, without desire or energy. . 

3U*>\ ^riTTV a-xadhu y unrighteous, immoral, 
wicked. *. 

a-sadhuta, f. wickedness, s. 

a-sadhyi, weak, powerless ; 
impossible, incurable, i. 

a-*5r, sapless, pithless ; vain, un- 

profitable; hollow (Wee re^); foolish, weak of 
understanding. $. [style, vestibule. A. 

jU*1 71R1T t**<ira, rn. a porch, portico, peri- 
ifUil TOTTOf u$arna, a. to remove, put oat 

of place. h~ 

>fl*#\ ^IPITf asarh, m. the name of a Hindu 
solar month, during which the sun is in Gemini ; the 
first month of the rainy season, and consequently of 
cultivation. *. 

>$**\ inrot asarhl, f. the full moon in 
w flr* alo the harvest of 3fA. . 

as as, f. foundation j a pedestal, a. 
'99T9 two*, m. breath, breathing. A. 

I warn a, n. to breathe. A. 
a-xa'at, f. an unlucky moment, A. a. 

a-sakh, without credit or re- 
putation. A. 

ll T a*aAA5*, lin the ab- 

^^M J a-j5A*Aa*,Jsence of.*. 
^^J U<^ wmrt or TOnft a-sakhi, m. a false 

"witness, one whose evidence or testimony is inadmis- 
sible. *. atakhya, m. a want of testimony ; acjj. with- 
out credit or reputation. . 

asam, name of a province, Assam. A. 

^ trcrfif^ a-sdmarth, weak, power- 
less. . 
Udl ojamt (pi. of j*<*^), names 5 (for ^W) 

"a defendant (in a lawsuit); a tenant, renter, client; a 
person, or individual; I. office, place, appointment, 
substitution of one person to do the duty of another ; 
ex. ham apnt asami parful&ne ko rakhjate Aain, I leave 
such a one in charge of my duty. a. 

aami-war, including all the names 

applied to revenue settlements made with the pro- 
prietors in detail, a. 

twa;t, easy, convenient, commodious, p 
usana, a. to winnow. A. 

u&anna, a. to boil, to cause to 
boil. A. 

If. facility, easiness ; &a- 
asaniyatj) asanl, easily, j?. 

a-savadhdn, careless, IL- 

advertent. s. 

or VlVl^l cwawar, asan?an, 

f. name of a ragint or musical mode ; a kind of pigeon ; 
a kind of cotton cloth. * . 

isdrval, m. a pursuivant, t. 

asdwant, expectant, de- 
pendent. *. [pitiful, h. 

Wftmf a-sawantj fearful, unquiet, 

a$ayish> ft rest, ease, tranquillity, re- 
pose, quiet, indulgence, enjoyment, p. 

1 asby m. a horse (properly t~**f,q*v.) 

m. (pi. ofi^JuAi) causes ; goods 
and chattels, furniture, tools, apparatus, baggage. .* 
iobuJ a jftq; (pi. of kiu*), the tribes of Israel, a. 
,JJ**t a*6a, past times, days of yore j moit 

excellent, surpassing, a. 

m. a week (from **4 seven), a. 

a-tabhya, rude, unfit for society, 
unpolite. . 

asp, a hone. p. 

-, m. steel of a tough kind. A. 

ds-pd$, m. Vicinity, cir- 
cumference ; adv. all around, on all sides. A. 

VT9I3 dtpad, m. place, footing, rank. s. 
is-par, upon this, hereupon. us-pdr, 

thereupon, h. 

^j?*] *RW*ff <wparn, palpable, tangible. 

"The word is properly spar it, to which the alif(a) is 
prefixed, to avoid the meeting of two quiescent conso- 
nants in the beginning of a word, which cannot be 
pronounced by the Persians and Arabs ; a-sparsl t in* 
tangible (by prefixing the priv. a to tparsi). *. 

frpfhl d-8par$haniya,'\ impure, 
a-sprishya, ) not ta 

be touched. 
Jj^0j*A) i+parmul, m. name of a plant said' to 

be an antidote to the bite of a snake (Aristolochkt 
Indica), h. 

U^M) ^{1T isprihd, f. inclination, desire, f. 
vJJA^M^I ^9TV a-spaskta, indistinct. 5. 

Jy^*>l ispagl&l, m. seed offleawort or plan- 
tain (Plantagopsy Ilium?), p. 

dl.^1 aspak, f. bridge of a musical instru- 
ment; a little horse, p. 

uW*j) ispandy m. a seed of the henna planf , 
burnt at marriages, to drive away evil spirits. In like 
manner it is burnt some days after a child is born, 
particularly at the door, to prevent demons, &c., from 
entering. It is often mixed on these occasions with 
mustard-seed, and hence haa been confounded with 
it p. 

^L*)! Ispahan, or ^l^L*l Isfahan, the cap** 
' of Persia (till very recently), p. 

d$-pls (v. ds-pds), all around, d. 
a-sat (for a&atya, q. v,), unholy, 

ungodly, non-existent, untrue, false, *. 

vsr&ast or asta, setting (as the sun, &c.). 

ast-h. to set (the sun). . 

us id, m. a barber. A. 

VWI9 astdchal, the name of a 
mountain in the west, behind which the sun is sup- 
posed to set. *. 

liudl ittdd, standing, erect, p. 

3lL-l ustad, m. a teacher, a preceptor, a chief 
in a department ; adj. skilful, competent, a. 

( 35 ) 

^>lLt istadagt, f. firmness; resistance, p. 

>Vjtf*>l istada, standing, set up, erected ; 

* hence, a pole, ensign-staff, &c,, particularly a prop for 

supporting the door of a tent, not the tent-pole, f. 

uxtadt, f. teaching ; adj. masterly (as 


<>llM*t ustaz (the same as us tad), master, &c. p. 
istar, a weight of 4j missals r 6j 

JfcxJju*)* istambol, also istanbol and islam- 
bol, the city of Constantinople, p. 

*)\3**\ astan, \ m. a threshold ; a fakir's 
oUL>l dstana,} residence, dstan-bos, one 

who payis a visit to a superior, astan-bosl, f. paying 
a respectful visit, p. 

istibdad, m. absolute dominion, des- 
potism ; insisting upon a thing being done. a. 

utibra, m. cleansing ; washing one's 
hands of a business, or desiring to be freed from it ; a 
woman after being divorced from her husband, waiting 
a certain time (three months according to Muham- 
madan law), to ascertain whether 'she is pregnant or 
not, before she can Contract another marriage, a. 

^jju*^ istabrak,m. green colour; silk,' cloth, 
or satin, whose colour seems to change agreeably to 
the light it is seen in (particularly green silk), a. 

astabyast, dispersed, scat- 

tered, confused, perplexed. *. 

vJlaJu*^ ^WTT astut (for stuti), f. praise ; an 
anthem, a hymn. t. 

j\juu*>\ istitar, m. act of concealing, a. 

(JUiijiy**! istiskal, m. heaviness, trouble, im- 

portunity. a. * 

UlL*l istima, m. exception, distinction, a. 

C*J\J&"" istijabat, f. accepting, consenting ; 
hearing or receiving a petition, a. [menses, a. 

istihaza, m. immoderate flux of the 

istihala, undergoing a change; being 
impossible or absurd, a. 

u^ljJS*" istihbab, m. contracting friendship ; 

an action, the performance of which is meritorious, 
but the omission of which is not criminal; work of 
supererogation, a. 

OjlsS**' istijazat, f. asking leave, begging 
permission, a. 

^LJi"" istihsan, m. approving, praising, 

taking or considering as a favour, a. 

j\*a&*\ istihzar, m. calling, citing to appear, 
summoning before, a. 

\S* i*til$ar, m. despising, vilifying, scorn- 
ing, treating with contempt, a. 

>$&&* ixtihkak, m. demanding justice ; 
merit; ability ; in law it denotes a claim of right pre- 
ferred by others, to the subject of a sale. a. 

J&u*" istihkam, rn. confirmation, firmness, 
'strength, a. ' [an oath. a. 

1 ' istihlaf, causing to swear, exacting 

htijtfiara, in. judging from omens ; 
augury, a. 

J^^*' istikhdam, m. employing, making 

use of the labour of another; asking or getting em- 
ployment, a* [extracting, a. 

istiiforaj 9 m. expulsion ; drawingforth, 

uJliS^' isti&kfaf, m. despising, holding in 
contempt or in small esteem, a. 

(j*$&* tsti&hlas, m. desiring to liberate; 
liberty; freedom, a. 

^Iy5***' ustu&hwan, m. a bone, kernel of the 

date fruit, &c. ustu&wan-band, a splint or fillet for 
tying up a broken bone. p. 

ittidamat, f. assiduity ; wishing to 

be quiet, permanent, steady/ eternal, perpetual, 
everlasting, a. 

lotjjL*l istidanaty desiring to borrow : in its 
common acceptation it signifies contracting debt la 
behalf either of one's self or of another, o. 

istidrah, m. comprehending, under- 
standing ; reaching, overtaking, obtaining, a. 
ljju*l istid'a^ f. request, desire, invitation, 

supplication, petition, a. 

J^tyju**! ntidlal, m. asking proofs, argument*, 
or reasons ; demonstration, a, 
^\^f^astra, m. a missile weapon, a weapon 

in general, astra-vidyd or astra-ved, the military 
science, astra-hin, unarmed. *. 

o-*l astar, m. a mule, istar, a harrow, p. 
L] astar i m. lining, a&tar-kiirl, plastering, p. 
ustura, m. a razor (for B/u*>l q. T.). p. 
T^PCT ustara, m. a barber. A. 

istiraftat, f. ease, rest; sleep; re- 
pose; tranquillity, a. 

! TOti tt*<araw,gratis,free,for nothing, h. 

istirjS, m. returning (to God)j 

having recourse to God during affliction ; repeating 
the sentence (from the frr'an), " Verily we are of God, 
and to Him we return." a. 

bjC^I istirdadj m. demanding restitution 

of any thing, whether given, deposited in trust, pr 
taken without consent; repelling, driving, forcing 
back, ittirdadi nffim, reversal of a public sale. a. 

0/Mi1 istirza, f. desire to please, willing- 
ness, alacrity, a. 

-l cutarak, m. storax. g. 
ustura, m. a razor. This is one of the 
numerous old Persian word .still preserved inHindd- 
stan!, although they have become obsolete in the ori- 
ginal. The modern name in Persian for a razor is 
' "ttytodallakl" (note by Binning), p. [man. *. 

istrl or irftri (for str)> f. a wo- 
utri, m. smoothing-iron, ton- 

karnS, a. to iron ; to smooth with an iron, ittri-wdla, 
one who irons linen, h. 

Ju*1 btlfad, tth desiring happiness; being 

fortunate ; considering any thing na a happy presage ; 
conceiving well of any thing, a. 

i*$a, m. the dropsy ; isti$ka,i- 
f, the anasarca; isti*%a,i-$abli, tympany. a. 

i&tishhad, m. taking evidence ; sum- 
moning witnesses; bringing testimony or proof; 
falling a martyr to religion, a. 

cU*su*>! istisna, m. a requisition of work- 

manship, forced labour, pressing into service, a. 
l^LtfuLttl istiwvab, m. approving; consul- 

tation, a. 
OfrUaLJ istita'at, f. power, possibility ; 

dependence, submitting to. a. 
jlfkL*! i8ti%har r , m. imploring assistance; 

remembering, calling to memory, a. 
3jl*L*#l iftfara, m. borrowing ; using a word 

metaphorically ; a metaphor, isti'fira-karna, a. to be- 

seech, to beg earnestly, a. 

C^UL*)) ixti'anat, /. asking assistance, im- 
ploring help ; assistance, protection, a. 

J\jj*JUa) jfitfjoi^ m . hastening, accelerating, 
ordering one to make haste, despatching any business 
soon ; wishing to make haste, a. 

db>juJ isti'dad, f. ability, means, capacity, 

merit, readiness, a. 

IAAJU*| utffa, m. asking forgiveness ; de- 
precating. 0. [siring promotion, a. 

i'la, m. superiority, exaltation ; de- 
utl'mal, m ( custom, daily practice, 

use. isti'mal~k., to use. a. 

isti'maR, fit for practical use, 
*'used * m. fine rice. a. 

SUL-! utigLasa, m. asking for help; de- 
manding justice, complaining, a. 

U>|J*M>) utigferab) m. great admiration, 
amazement, wonder, a. 

J^jjuu*) fftg&ra$, being drowned, immerged 

in thought, drowned in sleep, engrossed, wholly em- 
ployed, &c. a. 

J\AJ&*>) jxtjglifar, m, begging mercy, craving 
grace, deprecating, a. 

yijfti&M>! astaghflrullah^ I entreat forgive- 

ness of God (or God forgive me ! an expression signi- 
fying negation). <i. 

wou*) i&tirjhna, independent (in point of 
fortune), contented ; m. content, independence, a. 

aMaLJ iztifada, m. seeking for gain ; profif, 
advanUge, o. [learned man. a. 

\lajual istifta, m. consulting (a lawyer or 
istifragkj m. vomiting, belching, a. 

,^*> istifsar, m. asking an explanation ; 

searching for information, inquiry, interrogation. 
ii,trfsar-karnd t a. to inquire, to interrogate, to demand 
an explanation, a, 

ixtifsari, f. the statement of a pros- 

-ecutor subiect to investigation, a. 

wtifliam, m,' inquiring, Inquisitive 
ness; asking for explanation, desiring informatiof 
barfi iitifham, an interrogative particle, a. 

L ^\ t iX**l ittifhami, 1 interrogative (a ten* 
&Xl^aL^I istifkamtya,} used, in grammar), a. 
*512LJ isiikala, m. requiring one to cancel 

an agreement, a. 

istikamat, f. rectitude, integrity; 
residence; firmness, constancy, a. 

UuUt istikbal, m. futurity ; the ceremony 

of receiving a visitor in the open air by advancing to 
meet him ; encountering, meeting, a. 

ixtihra, m. reasoning from induction, a. 
jstikrar, confirming, ratifying, a. 
\ w<ij*a,curiosity , strict in vestigation.a . 
istiklal, m. intrepidity, resolution, 
perseverance, vigour; absolute power, perpetuity, a. 
/x*4/fi/t,f.CQnfirmtng in possession, a. 


Mkbar, m. pride, presumption, a. 
istikrah, f. aversion, reluctance. 0. 

istikshaf, wishing any thing to be 
made manifest or laid open. a. 

Jl+xL*>l ittikmal, completion, bringing to 
perfection ; wishing any thing finished, or completed. . 

^1puL*l istilzartt, ra. necessity, rendering ne- 
cessary. a. 

eUjL\ istima', m. hearing, listening (to mu- 
sic, &c., particularly); tidings, report, rumour, that 
which is neard ; in law it denotes hearsay evidence, or 
indirect testimony, receivable only in particular cases 
and under certain restrictions, o. 

C^JUL*^ istimalat, f. encouragement ; com- 
fort, consolation, a, 

-fl. 1 *"^ ^^sn^r or ^59W astambh or istamlh, 
m. the trunk of a tree ; column, pile, post, pillar. $. 

elX^JU^I istimta, m. enjoying, reaping the 
fruits of, being delighted ; celebrating the solemni- 
ties of the festival of Mecca ; enjoyment of a woman, a. 

isthndad, f. begging assistance, a. 

istimrar, perseverance, continuation ; 
in law it signifies a rent not liable to alteration. 
ittimrar-dar, the holder of a perpetual lease, a. 

rA*>**^ istimrari, perpetual, permanent. 

istimran jam', fixed or perpetual assessment of rent. 
istimrarijol, a fixed or permanent tenure, btmrari 
mal-gugari, permanent or perpetual revenue. i*thti- 
rdripatta, a perpetual lease of a farm, istimrarl pajta- 
dar, the holder of a lease of lands at a permanent 
rent. *a. 

-ul*^ ittirttfaj, asking an opinion ; search- 
ing out one's purpose or intentions, a. 

istinady leaning or resting upon, a. 

istimbaty m. deducting, extracting, 
inference, a. 

laU*t itfinja, m. pissing ; purification after 
a natural evacuation, a. 

JjlJuu*l istlnskakj m. throwing water into 
the nostrils, when performing the Wazu ; snuffing up 
the air or odours, &c. a. 

istirvd, parallel, equal; 
the ">uator. a. 

"**l usturvar, powerful, strong, firm; 
brave, resolute, solid, p. 

c^yu*>^ usturvari, f. strength; resolution, 
firmness, stability, p. 

MlfelfHxf astavyast, dispersed, con- 

fused, scattered, t. 

JA\ ^sftw astfii, m. a bone. a8thi-blwng> a 

fracture ; a plant of supposed efficacy in fractures (cissus 
quadrangularis). asthi-bhed, fracturing a bone, atthi- 
panjar. m. a skeleton, asiki-stiokh, m. dryness and 
decay of the bones, asthi-sandhi, f. uniting of a 
broken bone. t. 

astha, f. prop, stay, place or 
means of abiding ; effort, pains, care. s. 

l^ju*t ^?5PTR asthdn (for sthari), m. place, 
abode, residence* s. [ing, not fixed. ;. 

a-stharvar, raoveable, mov- 

a-sthir, restless, unsteady, un- 
stable, uncertain. . 

ftrX isthir (for sthir), steady, firm. s. 

11 felt iff a-sthirata, f. unsteadiness, in- 
stability, fickleness. *. [steadiness, s. 

^f^iun isthirata, f. rest, tranquillity, 

ixtihza, m. derision, laughing at, a 
joke, jest, scorn, a. 

J^J^ ^W^ ax//ia^(for*^a/),,home, 

fixed residence, dry or firm ground, itthal, a place or 
stand of a fakir, a. 

CiJ^jui^ istMak, m. ruining, destroying, 
consuming ; wishing death or ruin to any one. a. 

J^lfjLtt istihlal, m. appearing of the new 

moon ; the noise made by a child at its birth, a. 

asthiwat, bony, osseous, s. 

t-hona, n. to set (as thesun, &c.).a. 
ax/At, m. a bone. (See asthi). s. 

\ ^r^t a-sthairjy m. instability, un- 
steadiness. 8. 

mrf a-satyi, untrue, a liar. s. 
a*te, (for wuJfiT) easy, gently, softly, p. 

.Ji*\ VUlft a-$nH, a bad or unchaste woman. 
" arsatya, untrue, false ; m. untruth, t . 
^5\**\ WHW^ft a-satya-badi, atelier of 
lies, a liar. . 

Mtfof, m. destroying, eradicating, 
pulling up by the roots, extirpating, a. 


isti'db, m. asking in a present, tak- 
ing (the whole), a. 

uX*1 t*/j/a, in. satisfying completely; pay- 
ing or receiving the whole of what is due ; renoun- 
cing, relinquishing; retiring from business or otticial 
duties, vacating or resigning a situation, a. 

ixtild, m. predominance, conquest, a 
istllad,m law, signifies a 'claim made 

by a man having a child born to him of a female 
slave, which child he acknowledges, as of his own tie- 
getting, a. 

^JuLttt as tin, f. a sleeve; astm ha samp, a 

domestic enemy, an enemy who wears the mask of 
friendship, jp. [sympathy. , 

istinas, m. familiarity, intimacy, 

a-satya, false $ a-satya-badi y ond 
who speaks falsehood, s, 

***\ ^WrifH a-mjjan, uilfit, untrue, im- 
proper ; not respectable, or of good family. . 

usijna, n. to boil, to si Aimer, h. 
a- such, foul, impure, a-suchi, f. 

impurity, pollution. *. 

^,A5J, m. (a man's name) Isaac, a. 
, m. s lion, the sign or constellation 

Leo (in astronomy), a. 

is-dam, directly, this moment, h. p. 

a-siddha, not effected, invalid, 

false, unripe, incomplete. *. 

& Jo^l ^??3T a-suddha, wrong, impure, inaccu- 
rate, mistaken, f. 
*\ ^ITOT *wr, and ^WC 5'/r, a demon ; 

the asurs reside at the south {x>le : they are considered 
demons of the first order, and in constant hostility with 
the Gods, dsur, a form of marriage in which the 
bridegroom gives to the bride, her father, and paternal 
kinsmen, as much as he can afford, t. 

\ WBT asra, m. a corner; hair; blood; a 

tear, osri, f. ten millions. . 

**t WTOTo*rd, m. hope, dependence, defence, 

reliance, retreat, shelter, abode, house; ambush, con- 
cealment, shade, hiding-place. *. 

asrar, (pi. of j*\ secrets, confidential 

concerns, israr, act of concealing ; also, divulging or 
communicating a secret, a. 

J\j*\ israf, ra. prodigality, dissipation, 
abuse of wealth ; ruin, extravagance, a. * 

jJ\^*t israfil, m. the name of an angel 
who will sound the last trumpet at the resurrection t 
a seraph, a. 

^atjMtt Israel, Israel, barii israjl, the Israel 
ites, or children of Israel, a. [diction. . 

asirbad, m. blessing, bene- 
a#rit,~\ one who relies on an- 
imfi^asartii, j other; a protege, s. 

*j~\ W5WT a-&raddha, f. want of faith or 
confidence, unbelief. . 


VfflU asram, m. abode, residence ; class 
of mankind, or religious order, whereof the U'mdfa 
reckon four, viz. the Brahmachari, who devotes his 
life to religious exercises, austerity, and celibacy. 
2nd. GriM, who lives in the world, and rears a family. 
Srd. V&naprattha, who retires from the world with his 
family, and pastes his life in devotion in the forest 
4th Bhikthu, or Bhichchhu, who livet on alms. t. 

m. the Ariitolachia In- 

asarmelf 1 

a*am?el, ) diva, a plant supposed 

to be of great efficacy in curing snake bites, v. 
itparmul. d. [protected. . 

or WflTUJ a-aaran, helpless, un- 

usarna, n. to retreat, shrink 
from, recede. A, 

i iftrinj, m. minium, cinnabar, p. 
m^atru (or asm), m. a tear. *. 

i ^Twtf asurl) belonging to the asurs, 

demoniacal, diabolical ; a division of medicine, surgery ; 
curing by cutting witli instruments, applying the 
cautery Ac. *. [of demons, j. 

asuri-maya, f. deception 
iij hopeful, trusting, con- 


faraya, m. a refuge, asylum. *. 

f d-sishta, rude, indecent, ill-be- 
haved ; profligate, irregular, t. 

istabal, m. a stable, 0. 
is-tarah or is-tarah-se, in this man- 

"ner, thus, us-tara^, in that manner, h. a. 

\ usturlaby n}. an astrolabe. //. 

ustukusat, (pi. of ustukus) ele- 
ments, principles, usiulcusati uftiduy, Euclid's Ele- 
ments of Geometry, g. 

(^j5jp>^aM\ U8tu&&udu3,l?rvuQ\) lavender, g. 
AJU*\ as ad, more happy, most happy, a. 
.UL*J! asfar (pi. ofyL*>) books, volumes; (pi. 

of aafar) voyages or travels, adventures, a. 

ij, m. spinach, p. 
I, inferior, the lowest, a, 
AAMI! ixfvnj, m. a sponge; a yeast dumpling.^. 

.b^AA*1 isfandiyar, the son of Gishtaxb, of 

the first dynasty of Persian kings, p. 
( j\^Su+>] isfahan, Ispahan, the capital of 

Persian 'Irft (the ancient Parthia). a. 

1UL>\ islaty m. causing one to fall ; miscarry- 
ing; taking 'away; dying (cattle) ; procuring an ab- 
ortion, a. 

j<3Juf tVJa dar, this much, to this extent. A. a. 
j^Mil iskil, m. a squill, a wild onion, g. 

itkat, f. pacifying, soothing, si- 
lencing, a. 

;K*J TQVSnfT wkana, a. to light a fire or 
candle ; to excite, to instigate. A. 

or TORI, *a or a.fl/, f. 
drowsiness, laziness. tardiness. *. 
CAJ vnrm asakta, addicted, devoted to ; 
intent upon; fascinated, enamoured, diligent, zea t - 
kroaly active } trotting to, confiding in j eternal, t. 

C*&T WF*fa 5*a*tf, f. attachment to one 
object or pursuit, diligence, application. . 

\3l3u*J TO4iAMI axhatana, or ashptana, n 
to be lazy. A. 

t^^T WTBBlrt or WQfflrt, askatl or ashati 
"drowsy, lazy, remiss. A* 

jt3wX^ iskandar, Alexander, iskandar t 
rfiwi, Alexander of Greece, or Alexander the Great, a. 

t^JJXJ iskandari, of or relating to Alex- 

ander. a. 

*^4>JX*1 w/<awdany0,Alexandria in Egypt. o. 
^JJX^I ishandh (for skandh, q.v.), a 8ec " 

tion or portion of a poem, a division of a book. * . 

^\>*>\ *nglt a-sukh, m. sorrow, pain, rest- 
lessness, uneasiness, affliction. . 

^1*>T ^nftW 5*i'*/t, m. benediction, admo- 
nition, instruction. *. [flicted, unhappy. *. 

a-mklii, restless, uneasy, af- 

a-vugan, m. bad omen. A. 
asyandh or isgandh, m. the 

name of a plant used medicinally (physalh flexuos a). *. 
J-Mil^nf^J *a/, form, figure, usal pasaljana, 

to be agitated, tossed, to get into confusion, h. 
iL*>! ?5?a, consolation, comforting; causing to 

forget, a. [fathers, a. 

u->%<jl .^/ (pi* of iJiL>), ancestors, fore- 
A^UI tWam, m. the religion of Muhammad, 
orthodoxy (according to Muhammadans). a. 

Jy .4^)u*1 islam-bol (for istambol), tha city of 
Constantinople. I. 

i.4dml, 1 faithful, orthodox, a fol- 

ixlamiya,} lower of the Muhani- 
madan religion, a. 

n. to be agitatated, to be tossed, to get into confusion, k, 
^)u>) w^/w^ or aslub, m. manner, mode, 

method, order, arrangement uslub-d&r, symmetrical, 
of fair proportions, a. 

u*\ ism, m. name; a noun or substantive in 
grammar, ismi istifham, an interrogative pronoun. 
ismi ishara, a demonstrative pronoun* i*mi tanklr, an 
mdeflnite pronoun, i&nijamid, a primitive noun. i*mi 
a'%tm, the Almighty name, one of the ninety-nine 
attributes of the Divinity, the utterance of which is 
an irresistible spell over demons. ismijaJatt, the glo- 
rious name (of God). ^ ismi jint, a generic name, Smi 
taliya, present participle, ismi Wad, a numeral ad- 
jective. ismi fa'il, a noun of agency, the nominative 
case, ismi rnqf&l, the past or passive participle, itrni 
*(fai, a noun of quality, an adjective, a. 

l*Mt asma (pi. of AM*)) names. asma,e humd 

or <umd t e 'iigmd, theWety-nine names or epithets of 
God. * 

o*?ima or ama, heaven ; adj. high. />. 

JHTTt a-samapta, unfinished, in- 
complete. a-samapti, f. incompleteness. *. 

.M asmar (pi. ofj+*), stories, evening en- 
tertainments. a. 

i}j\**^ umally the natae of a prophet; 

Ishmael, son of Abraham, a. 
^U*^ ^BraWTtf a-saman, different, unlike, un- 

equal. . 

^C-J *TOT^a-*awman, m. disrespect, dis- 
grace. *. 

^U**T dsman, m. the sky, the firmament, 

heaven, the celestial orb. dsmdn par Jcadam rakhna, to 
dive one's self airs, to aspire, to be vain, dsman par 
khainchnd, to be proud, to affect greatness, dsman se 
girnd, to fall from the clouds, is applied, particularly 
by women, to signify an acquisition that has been made 
suddenly and unexpectedly, without labour or care, 
and the value of which is inconsiderable, p. 

^_Ol+*MT asman-giri, f. a canopy or 
awning, p. 

^yU**! atsmanlj heavenly, celestial; azure, 

"cerulean, sky-coloured. asmdnt ttr, &e., an arrow, &c. 
shot in the air. asmanl farmdni, provision against in* 
juries arising from calamitous seasons, &c.on the part 
of a zamin-dSr. p. 

^J+M** b +~A ism ba musamma, worthy of the 

"name (it bears), whose name is expressive of its qua- 
lities. a. p. 

a-xamladdh, not joined, un- 
connected. . 

f^Mil Wtof a-sambhav, Uncommon, incon- 
sistent, unlikely. *. [perfect. *. 

a-sampurna y incomplete, im. 

a-sammat, dissentient, averse, 
contrary, a-tammati, f. dissent, dislike, f. 
OpM\ ismriti (see mriti), f. the Hindu 

law. . ^mftf a-*nriti t want of memory, forget- 
fulnew. ,. * 

^/*^l Wif4 a-samarth, weak, powerless, 
unable, incorapettnt. . 

j+vA WHTT9 a-maron, m. forgetfulness, 

oblivion. *. 

^m*i1 ismall, Ishmael, from whom the 
Arabs claim descent. (Same as Jma'i J.) a. 

b^MiT VIWMIM atamantat, adv. all 
found, on every side, wholly, altogether. , 

WUHlfH a-tamanjas, m. doubt, sus- 
pense, suspicion ; unconformity, disparity, difference. *. 
+*\ ism-war, entry in statements according 
to the order of persons' names, a. p. 

, unseasonable, out of 

$ m. a time of misfortune, distress, an improper 
time. *. 

) J-t 

(./*! WPfH? asaw, m.'the inside or under part 

of the thigh ; a stool, a seat ; a small Carpet on which 
the Hindus sit at prayer; seat, posture, attitude, sit- 
ting (particularly the attitudes used by Jogls in their 
devotional exercises, of which they enumerate eighty- 
four) ; the withers of an elephant, the part where the 
driver sits, dtan tale dnd> to come under sutyection. 
dsaniornd, to sit on the hams, asan falna, spoken of 
a holy man, who, perceiving by supernatural intelli- 
gence that some one in distress has called on him, in* 
terposes in his behall Stan se asan jorna, to lit cloM 
in contact with another person, of an lagdnd, to til 
obstinately in a given posture, till one's request be 
obtained, asan mdrnd, to sit (particularly in an atti- 
tude practised by the Jogis); to retain one's seat 
firmly on horseback, f. 

^M! Vfftnr asm, m. the sixth Hindu month, 

in which the moon is full near the stars in the head 
of Aries (September October). 9. 

y+ \ unnf a#an, also asan, m. the name of a 

tree on which the tasar silkworni feeds. (Terminalim 
aiata tormentosa). s. [Darned bee. *, 

asan, m. eating: also Jhe last- 
usna, boiled (from usanna, q.v.). h. 

a mad (pi. of JJUA>), grants, and law- 
papers in general, documents, isndd, an allegation ou 
the authority of another, a. 

JU*J isnaf y m. a snipe, apparently a cor- 
ruption of the English word. d. 

asndn y m. bathing (see ashndri). s. 

uxnana, a. to cause to boil. A. 

a-santushta, discontented, dis- 
pleased, dissatisfied. *. 
5yuu*l WBfcfrtr a-xantojtJi, or ^Nnfat o-wn- 

tosfr, m. discontent, displeasure. . 

Jji: H^iftn a-aanjog (or a-sanyog), m. 

want of opportunity. *, 

a-sanshaya y undoubted, s. 

a-sankhya, countless, innu- 
merable. f. [bad. j. 

a-sangaty absurd, improper, 
a-sanman, m. disrespect, s. 

from, averse, contrary. t 

wanna, n. to boil, to simmer, h. 

asarii, f. a small carpet, &c. oft 
which the HindQs sit at prayer, t. [tunity. *. 

T a-sanyog, m* want of oppor- 

WiN[ a-sneh, harsh, unkind ; m. un- 
kindness, want of affection. . 
A W asrva, m. a horse. I. 

**\ VRnr a*av, m. a kind of intoxicating 
liquor, distilled from sugar or molasses, rum. . 

t)MT tn^TRf aswad, m. savour, relish. 8. 

jl^il asrvar, m. cavalry ,a horseman ; mounted, 
riding on any thing, at a horse, a carriage, a ship, &c. p. 


( 40 ) 

back. *. [with battfe-axes. p. 

aswari, f. riding \ a mode of warfare 

5*wo*, in. completion, cessa- 
tion ; comfort, encouragement, consolation. . 
k^^l it-waste, on this account. w-Jriuf*, 
n that account, a. a. [ugly- * 

a-*obha, *hapl<s9, ill-made, 
v asrua-pati, m. master of 

hones, a title used by some of the Hindu rajas. *. 
>j*it TOTO asrcatth, m. the sacred fig-tree ; 

(Ficus religiosa). t. 

^nftlf a*0;, m. the sixth solar month. *. 
sujh, invisible, incorporeal. A. 

a-soch, not contrivable, that 
which cannot be effected by reflection or study ; not 
to be regretted. A. 

^*1 W$ni: a-saucha, m. social or legal 
uncleanness, as from thc^Jeath of a relation, &c. *. 

y>-^ *r*ft*ft a-sochl, careless, indifferent, 
unconcerned. h. 

aswad, black, or blackest, powerful, a. 
atudagl, f. quiet, peace, content, p. 
asudan, (r. 5*5), to be at rest. p. 
, full, glutted, satiated, saturated ; 

quiet, satisfied, tranquil, at ease, contented. Ssiida- 
, or asuda dil, or asuda-^al, full, replete; con- 

, , , , 

tented, in easy circumsfcnncea. fauda, in a figurative 
sense means dead and buried, hence plur. dsudagan, 
the tranquil ones, i. e. the dead. p. 

asaudha, m. legal arrest. *. 
awva-sala, f. a stable, s. 

fanakt, now, at present, t^-wajf, 

then, at that time. h. a. . *^ 

LJ^ *rata a-sok, (for asltoka), m. ease, 

tranquillity, cherfulness; a kind of tre*(/<weia asoca). a. 

a-sog, m. ease, tranquillity; 

a tree called also Deva-daru (Uvaria longtfolia). s. 

asrva-gandha, m. the name 

<of a plant (physalis flexuosa). $. 

a-sogi, at ease, unmolested, s. 
ason, this year. ^. 

;mt, f. the name of the 

'lunar mansion, of the form of a horse's head (the three 
stars in the head of Aries), s. [der. *. 

W^EH a&uya, f, detraction, malice, slan- 
ts,/' 5 ^ m. loosening, opening, purging, 
flux, a. N [intolerable, *. 

a-sakajj ora-sahij, insufferable, 

1 9 more or most easy, a. 

a*sahan, impatient, not bearing 

with, unable to endure. 9. 

a-sahan\ya, 1 i n tolerable, nn- 
asahya, J bearable, *. 

assi, eighty, h. 
9% use, him, that, &c. $3 i*e, this, t* 

this, or him, &c. h. 

i, m. meaning, intention, aim j 

scope, theme, subject ; an asylum, abode, or retrwt f . 

asiya, f. a mill, asiya-sang, a mill- 
stone, p. 

asiyana, m. a whetstone, p. 

asrb, (or asibj, m. a misfortune (ge- 
nerally means such misfortunes as are the consequence 
of the shadow of a demon having fallen on one, aU 
so forth), trouble, calamity, damage, p. 

qnT*HI u&jndt | a. to boil (food, 

4*OHtfl uiijhna,) &c.). h. 
S** 1 a-$lcka,mi irrigated (sameasfl-jwcAa). .f. 
asir, m. a prisoner, a captive, asir i ab 

o gil, attached to one's native soil. a. 

-, f. a grass, the root whereof is 
sweet-scented, and used for making \a#\* (andropogo* 
muricatum). s. 

b^u*>) V^Ql^ or Ti^15i^ asirbad orasirbad 9 
m. blessing, benediction, salutation, s. 

aiirl, f. imprisonment, captivity, a. 

^TKhff or ^nft^t oil* or asls, f. bldsv 

ing ; return of compliment from a (Hindu) superior. 9 . 

Mj-yul 3 4<04ll usisci,, m. a pillow, & cushion, 
head of a bed. ' A. 

y without remainder,entire, . 
a-$ima, unbounded, unlimited, .v. 
a.*tma, amazed, astonished, sar-aslma, 

be wild ere 1 in the head, astounded, p. , 

a^in, seated, sitting. ^. 
a-Mcka, not watered, not irrif 

gated (a field, &c,). . 

m. disobedience, iniit- 

5, n. to throw out the water 

from boiled rice, *. 

w^, intorjl fie, &c. (vide /). rf. 

jiT 5*A, f. meat, victual^, viands, soup, brolb, 
jrruel, pottage. MsV*> barley-water or water-gruel. 
l^piHwaTa. to combine in any design; td dpi&piM, 
or contrive any thing against another. &A-M34, a pof- 
ridge-stick, a pestle, p. 


( .41 

^>t 1 VT$IT asha, f. hope, desire; dependence, 
reliance, trust, dshd-prdpta, successful, possessing the 
desired object ashd-bandh, m. confidence, trust, ex- 
pectation. 5sh8-bhang> disappointment, asha-want, 
expectant, hopeful, dshd-hin, desponding, despair- 
ing. f. 

usha, m. early morning, dawn, day- 
break (also wha-kal), f. the wife of Anirudha. 8. 
OjU*t isharaty*\f. a sign, command, signal, 

8jl>1 ishara, j hint, ism-i-ishara, a de- 
monstrative pronoun, a. 

9 unlawful, illegal, irre- 

gular. a-shastriya, contrary to law, inconsistent with 
the rules of science. . 

? or Wmg', ashdrh or a*harh f m. 
the third solar month, (see ,Jbj : Ll). S. 

JbjUj! tnntf asharhi, f. day of the full 

"moon in Ashdj-h. 9. 

+\**\ dshdm, drink, (in comp.) drinking, as 

shardb-dshdm, wine-drinker, p. 
^3J^JI ashamidan, to drink, to quaff, p. 
OoLi\ W%T*H a-shant, restless, anxious, unre- 

signed. a-sttdnti, f. anxiety, restlessness. *. 

I ashawarl, f. a ragini or mu- 
sical mode ; a kind of pigeon ; a sort of cotton cloth. *. 

CU>jl*l iH^HtfW asharvant, fearful, unquiet, 
pitiful, s. 

~\**\ ashbdhy (pi. of ^JuJ) bodies, objects, a. 

,^*) *?SW a-shubhy unfavourable, unpleasant, 
inauspicious, evil ; m. misfortune, distress. . 

,"! m. an ewer &c., same as 
T ashtdwaj aftaba or abtaba, q.v. jp. 

ishtibahy m. doubt, ambiguity, 
scruple, a. 

l ishtibah'iy suspicious, doubtful, a. 

j&t ishtidad, m. confirming, strengthen- 
ing, increasing in violence, a. 
7&\ ushtury m. a camel. />. 

i\ ishtira, m. buying, selling, commerce, a. 
^^ ishtirdk, m. partnership, a. 

jLl\ ishtfal, m. burning, inflaming, light- 
ing afire or candle ; fomenting.iustigating a quarrel, a. 
ti)ULi\ ithtfdlak, (dimin. of last word). 
ishti'alak dend, to foment (quarrels), to encourage to 
bad actions, to abet a. fstndy. a. 

jULi\ ishtigJLalyin. occupation, employment, 

SlHi\ ishtikak,m. derivation of one name 

from another, a. [firm. p. 

Ju&\ ushtulum, celerity, violence, injustice ; 

Jl^xi*] ithtimdl, m* comprehension, contain- 

hhtiha, f. hunger, appetite, a. 

ishtihdr, ,rp. publication, divulging, 
fame, rumour, report, renown, ithtihdr-ndma, a writ- 
ten or printed proclamation or public notice, a. 

J&T ashti, f. peace, concord, reconciliation, 
"agreement, convention, confederacy ; amour, intrigue.p. 

jlxL$\ ishtiyak, m. wish, desire, strong in- 

clinatioo, a. 

iLuM*) ^F i&htoy desired, wished, approved ; 

worshipped, reverenced ; cherished, beloved ; m. a god, 
a deity, whatever is worshipped ; an object, the thing 
wished for ; a beloved person. # . 

Lu>\ tre askt or ashta, eight, ashta-prakar, 

incessant, the whole day and night. a$h(a*mangal, m. 
a horse with a white face, tail, breast, and hoofs $ a 
collection of eight lucky things to be assembled. on 
certain occasions, as a lion, a bull, an elephant, a water- 
jar, a fan, a flag, a trumpet, and a lamp. 9. 

ashta-dash, eighteen. $. 

ashtashlti, eighty-eight. * 
^Jj\jJ*\ imTJfashtdng, m. eight pans of man; 

adj. of, or with eight members, asking prandm, pro- 
stration in salutation or adoration, so as to touch the 
ground with the eight principal parts of man, via. 
with the hands, feet, thighs*breast, eyes, head, words, 
and mind. s. 

eight. 5. 

askfa-vinshati, twenty* 
[fifty-eight, s. 
I^IdT ashta-panchashaty 
, f. desirableness,reverence. *. 
ithtatar. dearer, more desired, s. 


+d>\ ^cfT ishtatamy Best beloved, dearest, 
most desired. *. [rimhat, forty-eight t. 

WHTIT athtadkatUy m. the eight 

metals, said to be gold, silver, copper, brass, tin, bell- 
metal, lead, and iron, asht-dhdtij , f. a mixed metal, a 
compound of eight metals, s. 

ashtray m. a camel, s. 

ashta-saptati, seven ty- 

eight, t. 

bi>*'&l wf^fv <ixht(i-siddhi 9 m. the eight 
slddhls, the name of a superior order of beings, a per- 
Bonification of the powers and laws of nature ; when 
they are subjected to the will by hoiinens and auste- 
rities, whatever the fancy desires, may, it is said, be 
obtained ; universal sovereignty may be acquired, and 
implicit obedience to any command enforced; the 
magnitude, weight, or levity of the body may be in- 
creased or diminished at will, and the body be trans- 
ported in an instant to any part of the, universe, f. 

W^rffr atttia-tkashthi, sixty- 


axhtam, the eighth, s. 
1*1 'OT'ft ashtami, f. the eighth day of the 

"moon, janmashtamit the eighth of Bhafra Krishna 
paksh, the birthday of Krishna, s. 

( 43 ) 


ashjar (pi. ofjj^), trees, a. 
^t WllPf a-shuchi, impure, unclean (cere- 

); f. impurity. t. 

ajf/tcharj (for a*1wharya), m. 

amazement, astonishment, urpriie ; adj. astonishing, 
' wonderful, athcharjyata, fc wonderfulness, astonish- 
ment*. ^ [people, a. 

? (pi. of 0***)* persons, 

athadd, more or most vehement, severe, 
strong, violent, excessive, a. 

J*jg) VJl' a-ihuddh, impure, inaccurate, 
wrong, a-shuddhata, f. inaccuracy, impurity. . 

Ufc Jwi>! Vjfmi a-$huddhiya, one who speaks 
or reads wrong. *. 

ZA asharr, vicious, malignant, atrocious (or 
more- vicious, &e.). , a. 

>) 'JHBT ashra, m. a tear* #* * 

]^i*T ^rrw ewArfi, "1 m. cheating, fraud, cir- 

ifj"** WOT atkrayj cumvention; proxi- 
mity $ a retreat, abode, /^ house ; a means of defence $ 
having recourse to protection or refuge; trust, re- 
liance, hope ; a patron, a protector. *. 

CJbJjil ashrabdt, drinks prohibited by the 
Muhammadan law, such as wines, &c. a. 

t athrar (pi. ofjjjS*), wicked, wretched, 
criminal, seditious (people). a. 
J]^J>l fl$Ara/*(pl. of uJbjrfJ*), nobles, gran- 

dees, gentlemen, men of high extraction. In Ilohil- 
kund.Oude, and Benares, the term is applied to a class 
of cultivators who claim certain privileges, a. 

jtjj*) ishrak, m. splendour, beauty, lustre, 
the rising of the sun. a. 

eastern, oriental. wArait- 
*am&z t morning prayer, a. [partnership, a. 

i)\J*\ ithrdky m. participating, entering into 

O^lT wrftnr athrit (see cwrt't), a person pro- 

tected, Ice. a. 
U^-i*^ trait a-shraddha, f. aversion, con- 

tempt, disgust, loathing, distrust, disbelief, a, 
V-i^ ashraf, more noble ; m. a gentleman, 

a person of noble or genteel birth, a nobleman, athrqf- 
ulmakbl&kat.ihe most excellent of created beings, man- 
kind. <uhraf-ul bildd> the finest of regions, a. 

<&! ashraf i, f. a gold coin so called. The 
^Calcutta ashraf I, is about H. 11*. 8^., and the gold of 
it is better than English standard gold, by five shil- 
lings in the ounce, or about one-sixteenth. By the 
Begulationsof May 1793, it should weigh 190-894 grams 
troy weight, generally called by Europeans, " a gold 
wore "(vide muhr). The gold more of Bengal is worth 
16 rupees, that of Madras and Bombay 15 rupees, p. 

ashram, m. (same as asram), 

abode, &c. Sec. (v. &sram). t. [less, t . 

a-sharan, without shelter, help- 

& WIW ashray, m. same as ashra, q. v. 
ul, trusting, con- 

a-shariri, incorporeal, s. 
f. blessing, benediction. *. 

ungoverned; under the dominion of evil habits arising 
from a neglected education ; rude, barbarous. *. 

^ ash'ar (pi, ofj*M), verses> poems, a. 

ijUL ashghal (pK of <J-**)> employments, 
occupations, cares, ithgfral, being employed, a. 

JjliSJ ashfak (pi. of ^jA^i), kindnesses, fa- 
vours, ishfafa compassion, tenderness. 0. 

&!&*! atkufta, wretched, miserable, distressed, 
distracted, uneasy, disturbed. ashvfta-\al, distressed 
in condition, ashufta-l&atir or ashufta-dil, afflicted in 
mind. ashufta~mu, with dishevelled hair, fohtfta-tar, 
or, -dim&gb, or, -tab', distracted in head or brain, p. 

pp&T ashuftagi, misery, distraction, un 
^easiness, p. 

tp&T dshuftan,to disturb, to be confounded, p. 
Jfl a/iajfe, gum-ammoniac, j?. 

ashkiya (pL of .J&), thieves, male- 
factors. 0. 

a^/iA, m. a tear, tears, ashk-bar, mourn- 

ing^shedding tears, aahk-btin, C. weeping. /?. 

aMar. T . , 

apparent, clear, public, 

known, revealed, p. 


(pi. of 


ishkal, m. difficulty, ambiguity, sus- 
picion, painfulness. a. [lude, to wheedle, d. 

u/ikalnoj to deceive, to tempt, to de- 
uhkali, one who excites doubts or diffi- 

"^culties. a. 

**** ^T$%u*hakt a, fbnd,attached,addicted* 

able, powerful, dshakti, t attachment, fondness; 
power, might. *. 

*&*\ ^UlTli a-shakta t powerless, unable. 
a-shakti, f. impotence, weakness, f. [rant . 

a-shihshit, untaught, igno- 
m. portent, evil 
er^*' wgp a-*hugun 9 

"portentousT boding evil luck. t. 
&&>) If^R a-thahya, impossible. J. 

All aahall, having a disjointed, withered, or 
paralytiehand. a. [distich, * 

cMok or w/i/o^t, m. verse, 

asUehkd or athletha, ra. the 
name of the ninth lunar mansion (five atari near the 
southern claw of Cancer). . 

WIT w*Am5, f. warmth ; wrath. *. 
A\*) ishmam, m. diffusing odour, shedding 
perfume; giving to a quiescent consonant a sTtght 
sound of yamma or katra, but so as not to lengthen tin 
syllable, or make one syllable more. a. 

omen, askakuni 

T^TcTT uthmata) f. heat, warmth. *. 

ashman, f. the stone or gravel 

(the disease); strangury, t. 

1)*+"^ oskmal f more or most perfect, complete, 
surpassing, transcendant a. 

{.^W TSJ! ushna, hot, warm, pungent, acrid ; 
m. heat, warmth. *. 

(^^ ^STfR a#/tan, m. eating food ; also VT^Hf 

dshan, the 5$an tree, ou which the tatar silk-worm 
feeds (Terminalia alata tomentota). i. 

UM! ashna, an acquaintance, lover, friend; 
dthna-parast, friendly, p. 

U>\ TWT ushanna, n. to boil. A. 
l;UuM\ V$JUTJ asknan, m. bathing. *. 

^UuSjT ashna y l) f. friendship, acquaintance. 
a$hna>i-k, a. to unite, to associate. fi*/w5,i lagna. n. to 
become intimate, to be united in friendship, p, 

0J\Uu*t ashnayana, in a friendly manner, p. 
nshnata, f. heat, warmth. 5. 

a-shanka, fearless, undaunted, 
secure. *. 

ashanha, f. fear, apprehension, 

awe, danger ; doubt, uncertainty, t . [dem. s. 

T^rfN ushnlsh, m. a turban, a dia- 
ashwo, m. a horse, s. 
VHIIlhd ashwarurh, mounted on a 

horse ; m. a horseman. . 

(yi*\ ^n8TO ashivas, m. completion, ces- 

sation, comfort. *. 

J^SJ asfwb or ashuh, m, tumult, clamour ; 

inflammation of the eyes ; terror ; misfortune ; storm, 
tempest ; an impostor ; in comp. exciting, p. 

y*\ ^ftHT a-shobka, f.ugliness ; adj. shape- 
less, ugly. *. 
o^i>\ vi'^mrrf ashn-a-pati, m. a person of 

rank, attended by horsemen ; a horseman. *. 

y*\ ^WWI ashwatt ha, m. the holy fig-tree 

(Ficul religiosa). s. 

a-shochy m. content, tranquillity, 
absence of care, a-shauch, m. impurity; mourning, s. 
l ashna-shala, f. a stable, s. 

tljZA *irjf&Ra-shok) at ease, unmolested ; m. 

ease, tranquillity ; a plant (Jonesia asoJca). $. 

jj^yJ*! W^PPMT ashwa-gandha, f. a plant 

(Phy salts flexuosa). *. 
bJjL*^i*\ wm>t| askwa-medh) m. the actual or 

emblematic sacrifice of a horse, an ancient religious 
ceremony among the Hindus. This sacrifice is one of 
the highest order, and, when performed a hundred 
times, entitles the sacrifice r to the dominion of swarga 
or paradise. It appears to have been originally typical ; 
the horse and other animals being simply bound during 
the performance of certain ceremonies : the actual 
sacrifice is an introduction of a later period. *. 

ashwin, m. the sixth Hindu 
month (September October). . 

wfvft ashrvml* f. the name of the first 

lunar mansion (see anoint). *. > 

flAwo-var, m. a horseman. *. 

ashrva-yuj, f. the first lunar 
mansion, s. , [proof, a. 

ithhdd, m* taking to wjtneii, bringing 

askkad (pi. of &bU), witnesses (such 
as have been present) j eye-witnesses, a. 

ashhab, white, ash-coloured, a. 
ashhadu y I testify, I declare, a. 
^ ashkar,TnQre or most celebrated ; known.a. 
a*haya> m. meaning, intention, 

"aim ; an object of desire ; theme, tubject ; shelter ; 
the mind. . 

ashya (pi. of <^), things, 'effects, a. 

M U-S*T askiyan. 1 , . , 

M" * T - i T - C m - ft bvrd s nest. p. 
&>\JUMI asrwjana,) 

asliitij eighty* *. 

tr, f.a fragrant root of grass,called 
in Persian &fru (Andropogo* muricatum). t. 

I VH9n4l< athlr-badi 1m. bless- 

l^rj ashlr-vachan,) ing, be- 
nediction. *. 
(j^-i*^ V^l a-5/*cA, boundless, endless, all, . 

(jtJuS*T WRffNl ^BTr^t ashi&h, f. blessing, 
benediction. . 

asaghir (pi. of y^^l), little, mean, con- 
temptible, low, poor (peonje). a. 

U)L0t t>a/at or atalat, firmness, integrity, 
solidity of judgment ; genuineness, a. 

F, radically, originally, alto- 
gether, absolutely, in proper person, a. 

J(^\ athab, (pi. of c-*"U0) f gmndees, 

lords, masters, companions, apostles, friend*. In com- 
position, it signifies possessed of ; as, ashabi *Hm t learned 
men, &c. a$abi Jcibar and afiabi gitzin, the select 
friends and companions of Muhammad, ajhdbi kahf, 
the (seven) sleepers of the cave, famed iu oriental ro- 
mance, a. [ing. a. 

Xot isdar, m. producing, appearing, issu- 
ttrar, perseveripg, obstinacy, a. 

israf, m. expenditure, waste, prodi- 
gality. 'i?raf-k, a. to squander, &c. a. 
^UlxM01 ixtibagk, m. dipping, baptism, a. 

2&t, one who baptizes. Yahyd 
:, John the Baptist, a. 

istakhar, the ancient name of Per- 

sepolis. p. 

utturlab, f. an astrolabe, g. , 

ittilah, f. a phrase, idiom, general 
accepution > a figure in rhetoric; a. 

ittUahat (pi.), idioms, phrases, 
forms of speech.' a. 

^p>$b*A igtilahi, technical, metaphorical, 
"conventional, a. 

j**\ cugbar, less, least, smallest ; the minor 
term in a logical proposition, a. [sptoota). a. 

asaf,' m. the caper tree (Capparis 
a*af, the name of a man, considered to 

have been Solomon's toaztr. Sfqf-r&j, prudent as 5sof. 
diqf-ud-daula, the asqfat the state ; a title generally 
applied to a wazlr. a. 

offar(jpL oftft^}, ciphers, a. 
atfar, yellow, saffron-coloured, o. 
I Isfahan, m. Ispahan, till recently the 

capital of Persia, p. 

J-^ asl, f. linkage; origin, root; foun- 
dation; a capital; principal sum, stock in trade, afl-us- 
t&t, m. liquorice, a. 

}L0t a flan or asla, by no means, never, not 

at all. af IVQ mutldkaft, at J&lutely never, by no manner 
of means, a. 

^"*t isldh, f. amendment, cure, correction, a. 

3*1 aslah, best, most correct a. 

i^o\ ai/t, pure, of a noble family, noble, 

"essential, radical, original; a registered village, a. 

+&\ nsnmm, deaf; a surd number in arith- 
' metic, opposite of mtm|l&. jayr-i afamm, the square 
root of a surd. a. 

u-Jli^ asnaf (pi. of y 6\*0), sorts, kinds, 

varieties, a. [reputations, a. 

C^\yO\ aswat, (pi, of Oyo) voices, sounds, 

(^yo\ usul, (pi. of jj^\) causes, roots ; a 

mood or tone. a. 

j^o\ as,har(\)\. ofj^c), near relations, a gene- 
ral term for all relations by marriage within the degree 
in which marriage is prohibited, a. 

Jjuol a/, well-born, noble, genuine; f. a 
maid-servant who is free, in opposition to launcfi, a 
female purchased slave, a. 

C^Jl^l *?/a^, f. addition, an adjunct, an 
epithet; it is in grammar applied to the short vowel 
kasra, between two Persian nouns in the formation of 
the genitive case, or on the addition of an adjective. 
hdlati izafat, the genitive case, o, 

M\s6\ izafa, m. addition, junction, augmen- 
tation, attribute, a. 

(^Aj^e\ iztirab, m. agitation, perturbation, 
restlessness, anguish, trouble, chagrin, a. 

^j\Jbo\ iztirabi, f. haste, impatience, a. 

0t iztirar, m. T violence, constraint, agi- 
tO\ iztirari, f.J tat ion. a. 

#\ asfqf, double, tyaf, act of doubling, 
duplication, a. (impotent a. 

|p*^/J very helpless or weak, 

>\ azla, (pi. of gLo) districts; sides (of 
a square, &c.) $ ribsj convexities; arches, a. 

*pW f to'a/, f. subjection, obsequiousness, 
reverence, worshipping, obedience* iubmission. a. 

j309l atatlh, m. preceptor, a guardian or 
governor, atdltkl, instruction, p. 

atibba, (pi. of ujuat), physicians, a. 

5/ (pi- of c. 3^), sides, environs, 
confines, skirts, districts; all around, a. 

itri-phal, 1m. a kind of electuary ; 
itfi-fal, } vide itri-phal. 
itfa, extinction, putting out (a fire), a. 
.a//a/, (pi. of J&), children, family, a. 
cb ittila, ^ manifesting, informing, de- 
claring, investigating, knowledge, information. ijf/i> 
'-&., to acquaint, inform, i^ila'-nama, a written de* 
claration, or notice in writing ; a summons or citation. 
ittild'-mand, informed, acquainted, a. 

Jj^ld^ itlak, m, setting at liberty; divorcing; 
freedom, dieengagedness ; in law, the office and re- 
cords of summonses, also fees thereon, a. 

(j*jy JiU1 itiak-navis, m. the officer who 
keeps the register of summonses and of the feet there- 
upon, a. p. 

u ~&>\ atlas, m. satin, atlas'*, of or resembling 
satin, made of satin, a. 

, strong desire, longing for. a. 

itmlnan, m. tranquillity, content, 
security, repose, rest, quiet, ifmlndni &&a|i>, peace of 
mind. a. 

atnab (pi. of u^ul?) tent ropes, a. 
pi. of ,*t) manners, behaviour, 

^ - > V ^V / 

devoirs, fcius/t-ajft^ar, well bred. a. 

a<wa/, very long or tall, prolix, a. 

a(A5r (pi. of ^*U*), the pure, it/tar 9 
purifying, purification, a. 

azlam, more or most oppressive, a. 

Mar, m. demonstration; revealing, 
publication, evincing, a. 

azhar, very clear, more apparent. a&- 
haru min ash-shamsi, clearer than the sun. a. 
l>*\*\ i'adat, (also fada), f. repetition, re- 
vifing; visiting the sick. a. 

ftah, liberation, manumission, a. 

i'anat, f. help, aid, succour, favour, 
assistance, a. 
jJkpl i'tibar, m. belief, faith, confidence*; 

respect, esteem, veneration, reliance, i'tibar rakk*&. 
- .fc., to give credit to, to believe, a* 

ftt'&ari, trusty, confidential, a. 

ftidal, m. evenness, equilibrium ; 
temperateness ; rectitude, temperature, moderation, a. 

( 46 ) 


ftizar, m. an excuse, apology 

nama, m. a letter of apology, a. 

itizart, one who apologizes, a. 

ftirdz, f. refusing assent, objecting, 

discussion ; criticism, animadversion, displeasure, op> 
posi^on. a. [who objects, a. 

ftirazi, f. displeasure, anger; one 

ttiraf, m. confession, acknowledg- 
ment, avowal, a. 

i'tizaz, excelling, overcoming, a. 

itizal, secession, dissent; abdicating 
or withdrawing from office, a. [sin. a. 

.LdJp! ttisdm y preserving one's self from 

jlEXc-^ i'tihad, m. confidence, faith, trust, 
belief, a. ' 

^jlSj^ itikadt, one who has faith &c., or 
in whom faith is placed, a. 

u-5&fc\ ttihqf, m. restraining, curbing one's 
passion from religious motives, as in Lent ; continuing 
in the mosque (particularly at Mecca), a. 

l*l&) ftimad, m. faith, confidence; hope, 
dependence, reliance, a. 

(?L*1^ i'timadi, one in whom confidence is 
placed, a trustworthy person, a. 

UXpJ ftind, taking pains, anxiety, care. a. 

jlap' fjaz 9 m, disappointment; a miracle; 
wonder, amazement, astonishment, surprise. Vjazi 

, miraculous cure, equalling the wonderful 
cures of the Messiah, a. 

a'jam, a barbarian, a rustic : the term 
is strictly employed to one who does not speak pure 
Arabic, but it generally denotes a Persian, a. 

a da (pi. of jJ^), foes, enemies, a. 
(^>\f\ trab, m. a vowel, the using of the 

vowel-points, jfrab, the wandering Arabs of the 
desert, a. 

ij^j^ arabl, an Arab of the desert, a. 
yf\f^ fi'tij) crippling, or making lame. a. 

{jfyt^ traz, flying from, aversion, i'raz-k., 

to turn away from any thing with abhorrence, a. 
u^j-\ araf, ra. purgatory : according to the 

Musalm&ns it is a kind of neutral space between 
heaven and hell. The poet Sa'di says that " to those 
in heaven A'raf would seem hell, but the hellites 
would call A'raf paradise." 

ff^ t^raj 9 cripple from birth, a. 
j\p\ fzaz, m. respect, attention, a. 

*J&\ aizza (pi ofJ^JP), very excellent,worthy, 
or dear (persons or people), a. [sinews, a, 

c r >LaP\ a sab, (ph of u^-aP) nerves, tendons, 

Lapt aza, (pi. of^aP) members of the body. 
a*x5,e tanasul, organs^of generation, (f^a.e ra,ita, the, 
vita) parts, as the heart, brain, &c. a. 

cCzam, greatest, or very great, a. 

ui , * f supreme, high, the Most High. a. 

*j^i Ham, m. proclaiming, indicating, an- 
nouncing ; a warrant, notification, a. 

i Ian 9 in. publishing, divulging, a. 
a lam, most knowing or wise. a. 
a'wta, for^PA, blind, ignorant, a. 

t'ma/, applying, amal, (pi. o 
action, conduct, a. 

a'wia, blind, ignorant ; a desert, a. 
ayan (pi. of e#*) eyes; grandees, 

nobles, a'yani fyazrat, courtiers, a. 

, a master, lord ; tin aga. t. [agaric. . 
aghartkun (ayaptieov) common 

aghaz* m. beginning, commencement* 
., to begin, p. 

igbrdk, submersion : in rhetoric it signi- 
fies excessive praise or censure, a. 
duLli-l dffhuhta, mixed, macerated, polluted. 7>. 

JP! aghil (also tf$/L#) a sheep-cote in a 
mountain, an enclosure for sheep &c. in a plain. 
aghal, a bar or bolt. p. 

Jj!^ igfclak, m. difficult to be understood, 
abstruse ; an obstacle, a. 

i3$&\ aghlal (pi. of Jp), yokes or chains 

for the neck. a. 

*^t ighlamj m. inflaming with desire, pro- 
' yoking to venery ; sodomy, a. 
t*J&\ aghlab, superior, stronger; adv. most 

'likely, for the most part. a$ldb hai, it is most likely, 

it generally happens, a. 

(jj-t ugkalmish, a king of Turkestan, de- 
scended of the great JingTs Khan. *. 

a-gMTi, f. the bolt of a door; same as 

afdanda. d. 

jo\\ igh.mazi m. dissimulation, supercili- 
ousness ; ogling, coquetry, o. 
UpJ ighmazi, one who is supercilious, 

"proud. &c. a. 

aghniya (pi. of ^yt), the rich. a. 

&\ ig!irva,m. seduction, temptation, ighwa-h., 
a. to seduce, to lead astray, a. 

aghosh, f. an embrace ; the bosom, p. 
yar^ (pi. ofjjP), strangers, foreigners, 

unknown persons, rivals, a. 

fjUil aghyariy f. strangeness, rivalry, a. 
J\ uf t fye! pooh! for shame! aIas!w/-A., 

to disapprove of, to lament, ttf hoydna, to become 
ruined, a. 

~iT 5/i the sun ; the musk-deer, p. 
\iT q/5*, (pi. of CJT) calamities, evil*, 

misfortunes dangers, a. 

ftipW afaglnna (pi. of ^Uil), the people of 

race. a. 

j\M a/aj (pi. of ,il), horizons, quarters of 
the heaven, the world or universe, regions, a. 

f, f. 1 convalescence, recovery 
: / 

from a swoon, &c. a. 
afanin (pi. of ^.j^i^), branches, a. 

of at, f. misfortune, wretchedness, cala- 
mity. , 8fat-va$lda or Sfat-zada, involved in mis- 
fortune, a. 

-^Uil of tab, m. the sun, sunshine, aftab- 

paratt, a worshipper of the sun. aftdb~para*ti t f. the 
worship of the sun. aftdb-gir, a parasol, p. 

aftaba, m. an ewer, a water-pot, p. 

affably f. 'a parasol of a particular 
" form ; a target studded with gold* p 
jlii\ ufiadagi, f. a fall, the act of falling, p. 

i uftadan, to fall, to happen. 
'Hit nftada, falrln, prostrated, pi. uftada- 
gan, the fallen, the unfortunate, p. 

^jkit ?{/?3n, falling, uftdn o khezdn, falling 
and getting up, met., with great difficulty, p. 

tj\ii\ aftawa,) m. an ewer (v. aftaba). p. 

j\i5*' iftiM&r* ni. glory, honour, elegance, 
gracefulness, a. [tation. a, 

]jjj] tftira, f. calumny, slander, false impu- 
cH^ir*' <*f r *Mf&* ( r a f z )> to ra ' 8e a lfy J o 

extol, a. {numbers, single ones. a. 

a/rod (pi. of t^i), individuals, singular 
ifrad f m. withdrawing from society, a. 

:Ui\ a/raz, exalting (used in composition), p. 

L-^bu^U^ q/ra^<ya6,name of an ancient prince 

of TQr&n, one of the heroes of the Shdhndma, ulti- 
mately slain by Ruttam. p. 

\9\j*\ tfrat, m. excess, superfluity, ifrati- 

aW<*$ and \frd$i faun, plethora, a. 
.jij9\ afranji, a Frank, or native of Europe, a 
"crusader, a. [mined, p. 

afroj&ta, set on fire, kindled, illu- 

\ afrot&tan (r. afroz), to set on fire, to 
burn7to kindle, p. [composition.) p. 

afroz 9 inflaming, enlightening (used in 

I afrlda^dr, m. the Creator, p. 
\ afridan (r. 5/rt;?), to create, p. 
' afrida, created, \i created being, p. 

of tin, bra>?ol well done 1 , (in comp.) 

"creating, MJahan-ojrin, creator of the world ; m. the 
Creator, sfr ?*., a. to praise, to applaud, p* 

afrinish, f. the creation, p. 
afrinanda, creating j the Creator, p. j 

\J\ afza or q/2ra,g, (r. of afzudan), iacreai* 
ing (used in comp.) p. png. ^ 

(j^\j*\ afzayuh, f. act of increasing or add- 
VjjJ^t afzayanda, that which increases, p. 

<!>jjv afzud, m. increase; addition, abun- 

dance ; adj. more. />. 

(J*^ afzudagi, f. increase, addition, p. 
ybjyh afzudan (r. fl/^5), to increase, p. 

()*] qfzun, more, manifold, greater, much, 
increasing, p. 

(jj*\ afzum, f. increase, enlargement p. 

*3LJ\ afifina, m. a tale, fiction, story, ro- 

mance. afsuna-go, m. a romance-teller. qfsana-go,i t t 
the profession of a story-teller, p. 

>\ afsar, m. f. a crown, diadem, p. 
! afsurdan, to wither, to flag. p. 
>\ afsurdagl, f. dejection, melancholy, 

" lowness or depression of spirits, p. 

i^J\ afsurda, dejected, dispirited, melan- 
choly, low-spirited. a/jfurrfa-ifta.<ir, depressed, dispi- 
rit e-l, afflicted afsurda-dil, faint-hearted, low-spirited, 
dejected. j. 

.^yuuJl afsuntm (atytvBiov), wormwood, g. 
^^+3 \ fl/xo.s, m. vexation, sorrow, concern ; 

interj. ah ! alas ! afsos-k. or afsos-kltana, to express 
sorrow or regret, p. 

y~*\ afsun, m. incantation, verses used in 

spells or enchantments, fascination, sorcery, 
a. to enchant, to use spells and incantations, p. 

r, ) u 

an enchanter,one who 
j^-Jl afiun-gar, j uses spells, a sorcerer. 

afs&n-sazi or afsun-garl, f. enchantment, witchcraft, p* 
ySJ\ ifsha, m. divulging, publishing, a. 
j\-iJ\ afshan, dispersing, scattering, (used 

chiefly in composition ; as, gul-qfshan^ strewing roses; 
zar-vj'shan kagfraz, paper sprinkled with gold), p. 

jJJ\*i3l aftthandan, to scatter, disperse, p. 

iUJl afxharii, f. dispersion, sprinklino; ; scat- 
tered over ; as, afshani kagkaz, paper sprinkled over 
with gold dust. p. 

a] afshurda, squeezed, filtered, p. 
Jl afshara (for ab-shora 9 <\. v.), lemonade, 

sherbet, d. [correctly, a. 

i! af&ah) very eloquent, speaking very 

a^ afzdly (pi. of J-ai), graces, favours, 
virtues. if?dl, benefiting, making to excel, a. 

,Lai\ afzal, } 

i * * i } more or most excellent, a 
J<Laj) afzaltar,) 

; Uail f/?ar, m. breaking a fast. ($or-A, t a. to 

break one's fast in the evening after fasting all day 
as the Musalmans do in the month of fiamuzttn. a. 

tjUa5\ iftdrlj that which 4s proper for fast- 
breaking. . 

d\**\ afalj (pi. of JjJ), actions, conduct a. 

c/^ fE^** (properly \j*\ afa), m. a ser- 
"pent a. 

lamentation : inteij. alas ! />. 
, the name of a race of people 

who inhabit the country to the N. W. of Lahore, 
called alnoPafhans : they are supposed or rather they 
themselves pretend, to be of Jewish extraction, a. 

<3^ afyhanij of or relating to the Afghans; 
~ the Afg&n language, a. 

Jji t ufk, m. the horizon ; a tract or region 
of the earth; (poet) the world, a. 

jVJ\ afkdr (pi. ofpG), thoughts, meditations, 
opinions, counsels, a, 

; IG1 q/v/ar, wounded ; m. a sore (on the back 
of a horse, &c.) p. [position, p. 

o/#a, overthi-owing, (used in com- 
afgandan, to throw down, to cast. p. 

\ afganda, overthrown, cast forth, of- 
gandagi, f. act of overthrowing, p. 
^ili! rflas,T&. bankruptcy, penury, poverty, 
want ; sometimes written ifldsi. a. [Arabs), a. 

aflatun, Plato, (so called by the 

U\ afldk (pi. of ciili), the heavens, hea- 
venly spheres, o. [or heavenly spheres, a. 

1 aflahi, celestial, relating to the heavens 

fi r7/wa/(pl.of^y),armies,crowd8. afioaji- 

"kahira, a victorious army, aftvdji-tfiaiydtin, a host of 
devils, met. a multitude of children, a. 

an eater of opium; 
(fig.) a sot. h. 

afmak(\>\. ofay),m. mouths; f. doubt- 
ful news ; fame, report, a. 
&\j\ afwahi, famed,reported, noised about.a. 

jJl afim, f. opium, h. 

jj! aflmcki, mS 
jf \ qflman, f. 
qfimi, m. 

afyun, f. opium. The inspissated juice 
of the Papaver tornntferum. a. 

^.Ji afyunl, an opium-eater, a. 
aba 9 m. master; owner, p. [(lred 

J$\ akdrib (pi. of *^-^S), relatives, kin- 
a J5%5, the acacia ; also the expressed 

juice of its fruit, g. 

ikala, the cancelling of a sale, on con- 
dition of furnishing an equivalent foi* the original 
price of the article ; breaking a contract. a. 

aJaZiwt, (pi. of ^1), climes, regions, a. 

ikamat, f. resting, staying, abode, resi- 
dence* dwelling, a. 

$bal t m. prosperity, good fortune, feli- 
city? acceptance of a bond or bUL i^Ml-da'v^ 000* 
fesskm of judgment a. 

AAjUfl ikbal-mand, prosperous, of ood for- 
tune. tkbtl-mandi, f prosperity, good fortune, a, p. 

^ULi\ iktibas, m. borrowing (fire from 
another); acquiring, procuring, gaining; asking, beg- 
ging; quotation, a. [to imitate, a. 

\ JoLSl iktida, imitating, following, iktida-k., 

j\ JjLSl iktidar, m. power, authority ; excel* 
lence, dignity, a. 

iktixain, m. division, partition* a. 

ikti$ar t m. abbreviation, abridgment, 

restriction; determining or fixing the bouuds of 
any thing; failing, wasting, a. 

Lail iktiza, claim, requisition, demand. a* 

Jjjrt ikdaiH, m. intrepidity, resolution, firm* 

new, spirit; endeavour, effort, diligence, attention, 
care, tlcdtm-namudan, to approach, a. 

(^jit akdasj very holy, or most sacred, a* 

jfi ikrar,m. promise, agreement, assurance, 

attestation ; confession, confirmation ; in the language 
of the law it means the notification or avowal of the 
ri^ht of another upon one's self. i%rar-k. t a. to pro- 
mise. iJcrdr-nanta, m. written agreement, indenture, 
bond, contract, a deed of assent or acknowledgment 
in general, ikrari 'amm, a public acknowledgment, 
declaration, or confession ; a will or testament, ikrdr- 
danapatra, a conditional deed of gift. a. 

<)\f\ t'Jrart, one who assents, acknowledges 

or confesses, a. 

<J^ifj]j*\ tira/'I-aiawi^ m. a prisoner who 
** pleads guilty, a. 
I2\J\ akran (pi. of ^^3), equals (in age, 

rank, &c.). a. 

<*~~>J*\ akrab, most near, more near. a. 

byl akriba (pi. of ^-*>j), kindred, friends, 

allies, a. [mcnt?. a. 

lLJit aksat (pi. of IvJf), portions, instal- 

+\+J\ aksam, (pi. of W>), various kinds of 

every sort. a. * 

aksa, 1 extreme, very or most distant, 
aksaj extremely, a. [of land. . 

ca i#*a', cutting, dividing, an assignment 
less or least, very little, a. 

ahkal-bar, the Indian shot-plant 
(Canna Jndica), a beautiful flower. The* word seenu 
to be a corruption of some Arabic term. (Binning) d. 

te\ aklaf, m. aMuhammadan whoforsome 
adequate cause has omitted circumcision, but is not 
thereby disqualified from giving evidence- in court, a. 

&\ iktim, m. climate, country ,' according to 

Moslem geographers, there are seven akdltm "climates 
or countries" which occupy a fourth part of the world, 
called the rub'i maskun "inhabited fourth part/' The 
other three quarters of the globe are supposed to be 
utterly uninhabitable. (Binning), g. 

akwal, (pi. of Jy), words, sayings, 
agreements, promises, a. 

alwam (pi. of *y), tribes, nations, a. 

WW 5/*(Dakham,agO, m. curled flow- 
ered gigantic gwallowort (dsclepias gigantea), cele- 
brated among native practitioners for its many me? 
dicinal qualities ; a sprout of sugar-cane. *. 

ih (for <-ib\) one (chiefly used in com- 
pound expressions as) ik lauta, single, *. 

%\ ikka, single, incomparable, superexcellent; 
m. aft earring of a single pearl ; an ornament worn 
on the wrist, often hollow, containing perfume; a 
champion, who serves alone, without being attached 
to any corps, *. 

\\ akka, m. a father ; a dear or intimate friend ; 
f. an elder sister, d. 

dkabir (pi. ofjf*1 or ^xp ) the great or 

grandees ; people of rank, akflbtr o a; ag&e'r, high and 
low, rich and poor. a. 

K\ WW a-haj, m. loss, detriment; hurt, 
injury, prejudk jf\ uselessness. *. 

a-kqji, useless (animal, thing, 
"or person) ; a retarder. t. 
\ WWTC a kdr (corruptly akar\m. appear- 
ance, aspect, shape, statue, likeness ; hint, sign, token; 

the letter Wl. 8. 

useless, of no avail (pro- 
a-harat,) perly a-haratfi)* d. 

mi4J*J a-karathj unprofitable, fruitless, 
yielding no return, vain. t h. 
\j6\ mfclVTO a-karan, m. absence of cause; 

adv. causelessly, groundlessly. 9. 

*J6 \ Wirr5[r ahas or akas, m. the slcy, the 
firmament, the heavens; space; air; the fifth 
element of the Hindus, more subtle than air, ajther. 
akas-larii, f. revelation, a voice from heaven, s. 

akas-britti, f. subsis- 

tence not derived from, any certain funds, or depend- 
ing on any particular person; living from hand to 
mouth. *. 

^ I *UJR 

akas-brittt, one whose 
subsistence is fortuitous, s. 

ja^juO 1 *U4IS(I^<? aha$-bel 9 f. the air-creeper 

Cuscuta reftexa?): it has no root or leaves, but grows 
on the tops of trees s. 

JjvO**^ ' *U*fcl4IM4V1 ahas-parvan, m. a vege- 
table growing on other trees ; air-plant or dodder. 

(Cuscuta rqflexa). s. 

>>(jrt\> \ WRBTJR^IT aha$-diya> m. a lamp 

which the Hindus hang aloft on a bamboo in the 
month of Kartik, a beacon (in Dakli., Akas-eRwa). t. 

a/iox-mukhl, m. 

evotee of the Saiva sect : -his devotion consists in hold- 
ing his face up to the sun, so that, after some time, it 
is difficult for him to hold it in the natural position, t. 

Jixc( fc ji*0 1 WraTflHlp^y akas-mandal, m. 
the atmosphere, the celestial sphere. *. 

p(J^ W<4il9f*i1*l aka*-nim, m. a plant 
* growing on the tit m trees (a kind of Epidendron) s. 

t, f. f a voic 

from heaven, revelation. 

ika*l 9 eighty-one. A.. 
akati, aerial, celestial, atmo- 

" spheric, akdyi-harna, cerulean, azure. *. [&kds\ 
akash, m. the sky (same 83 

or ^TTBIt^J aJtal (or akal), TJI. a 
famine, a general scarcity ; unsensonableness, extre- 
mity, pinch; adj. unseasonable, untimely, premature. 
a-kal-brishfi, untimely rain, abdl-phal, a fruit pro- 
duced out of season, s. 

akkal, a glutton, an enormous eater, a. 
UJot '3*b\$*\\ukalnri, a. to boil water. A. 
n-kam, unprofitable, fruitless, s. 

akarik&a, f. wish desire, ex- 
pectation; purpose, intention. . 

x^io^ ) WT3fitf^fW akanJishit, desirous ; de- 

sired, expected, s. 

^iio^T VTTSIire^ dhankshl, desirous, full of 
hope, expecting ; asking, inquiring, s. [one. A. 

ikanarvwe or ikanwe, ninety- 
ikawan, fifty-one, h. 
ik-bar (for ek bar), one time. A. p. 
akbar, very great; a man $ s name. a. 

r-al-ra,i,'\ presumptive evidence 
akbari-ra,i, /sufficiently strong to 

convict, a. 

fgjfil akbari, of or relating to the Emperor 

Akbar ; name of a sweetmeat ; also of a gold coin 
worth a guinea and a half of our money, a. 

l^v \ ikpecha, head-ornament, h. p. 

&\ TSTff or TftR uhat or ukti, f. speech, what 

is spoken, language ; contrivance, invention, ukat ba- 
nana, to make up a story, to invent, contrive, ukat I., 
to discover, to find out s. 

O^^^Hi ukta, spoken, used in law documents 

for " aforesaid, above named." *. 

\x\^ TrsFfTT^T uktarna, a. to promote, to 

forward, h. 

ru, an instigator, promoter. h. 
iktafis, forty-one, h. 

uktana, n, to fret, to be me- 
lancholy or dejected; to be out of humour wftfr, to 
be tired of, to tire. A. 

, m. gain, acquisition, a. 

ikttfa, f. sufficiency, contentment, t^- 
., to content one's self ; to stop short, a. 

(^jS\ ^uni fc-*atStaring with a fixed look. s. 

^\ WBro d-kath, } not to be spoken, 

LKAJ\ l&m a-kathya, J unfit to be men- 
tioned ; unutterable, obscene i. \jsrand\ftora\ 

\ aktl, f. the agati tree 

thirty-one, h. 

40 ) 

wAof, contrivance, invention. A. 

T3BTRT ukfaita, a. to dig up slowly a 
thing which is buried in the ground; to extract a 
secret gradually and artfully ; to pump. h. 

ukatnd, to be dug up,&c. (neut. 

form of uktdnd ; a. to dig up), h. 

together, in one 

ikthan, [ and the same 
place, united, s. 
aksar, most, many, much; adv. often, 

usually, for the most part, generally. ak$ar-aulcat, 
often, frequently, generally, a. 

ahsariya, for the most part, chiefly, a. 

TWfw ik-chit, of one mind, unani- 
mous, without wavering. . 

ik-chhat raj-A., 
to rule everywhere. *. 

-Aar, duty-free, exempt from duty. *. 

a/zr, f. aborigines ; mine, quarry, 
source; multitude, s. 

\ ^THIRaAar, f. the den of a lion or tiger; 
'conjunct, part, from ana), having come. h. 

\ TORT! akra, dear, costly ; f. a kind of 
grass so called, a kind of vetch, h. 

ahram, (pi. of +\ ), favours, kindnesses, 
obligations ; honour, respect, a. 

t'Aram, m. honouring, complimenting, 
treating with attention and ceremony, a. 

U?\ tAraA, f. horror, aversion, abhorrence, 
detestation, a. 

j>\.S\ ^iwmn aharaya, f. ground not pro- 
perly cleaned for receiving the seed. t. 

/T ^T^rfw akriti, f. shape, figure ; like- 
ness, image ; the body ; species. . 

a harsh, m. attraction, fascina- 
tion ; a magnet, a loadstone ; spasm, t. 

f akarskit, 1 attracted, 
dkrishta, J drawn, s* 

dkarshaky m. a magnet, a 

lotdstone, anything which attracts; adj. attractive, 
magnetic (also akarnhik). 

>*>jT wnttl aharshan, m. drawing, at- 
traction. , 

aharshi, attractive. 9. 
a~harhas, soft, not hard. t. 
akram, very kind, merciful, a. 
^ra$ a-karm or a-harma,m. bad action, 

sin, vice, wickedness. *. 

f\ TOUR akram, m. ascending, superiority ; 

surpassing, surmounting ; invasion, a seizing, s. 

a-karmd, idle, unoccupied. . 

a-karmak, intransitive (in 
gram.), t. 

a-karmanya, useless, unpro- 
fitable, good for nothing, t. 

a-karmi, a wretch, sinner, * 

a-Aarnt, inconsistent, indecent, 

unsuitable, not proper to be done. *. 
cL>jj^^ ahrot, m. (for ^jj^)> a walnut. $. 
JJJ *1F a kr, not cruel, mild, humane, 

gentle. . 

^\ ^HITf akar, f. crookedness, strut, pride, 

conceit, airs, h, 
Vpl ^niTT akra, stiff, affected* A. 

^HIifnTTaArana, distress, to impede. A. 

ahar-bdz, an affected person, 

a fop, a swaggerer, akar-bdzi, swaggering, foppish- 
ness, h. p. 

^^'fU^ akar-ld,i 9 f. the cramp. A. 
ahar-pahar, 1 m. stateliness, af- 
akar-takar, - fected airs, pride, 
j\ahram-tahram,} haughtiness. A. 

^Hcj^n akarndj n. to writhe, to ache, to 

cramp, to be cramped, to become stiff or distorted, as 
one's limbs ; to strut affectedly, h. 

l \ 44(4 ttArfi, m. the posture of sitting on 

the hams with the soles of the feet on the ground. 
u'crii baithna, to sit on the heels with the knees up- 
wards. A. 

akru, affected, proud, conceited. A. 
akrait f an affected person, a 
swaggerer, a fop. h. 

iksdr, (v. yaA-sar), similar; of the 
[to trim (a lamp). A. 

uksdndy a. to excite, to rouse, 
iksath, sixty-one. A. 

j^\ ikmr (foryaksar), single, in a body, all at 

once. p. 
Ol*~-^ ^WPfnV a-kasmdt (lit. without a 

wherefore), immediately, accidentally, extempore, un- 
expectedly, unawares, abruptly, t. 

Uu*\ 99^1 11 ukasna, n. to be excited, moved ; 

to try to move. h. 
L f~\ aksi, f. a tree, the leaves and pods of 

"which are eaten as vegetables ; probably the same as 
akti. q. v. 

iJtsir, alchemy, chemistry ; the philo- 
sopher's stone (or rather a calx of quicksilver used 
in transmuting metals to gold), an elixir, dust, filings, a. 

f\ TOf ahsha, m. a die, cubic or oblong; 
the spots on dice, aksha-bhdg, ra. a degree of latitude. 

m. the eye. ahshi-tdra* f. 
'the pupil of the eye. *. 

same sort. h. 

TSJ ihshu, f. sugar-cane, ikshu-ras, 

m. the juice of th sugar-cane, ikthu^tr, m. molasses, 
raw sugar. ikfh*4tan4, m. a species of sugar-cane 
(taccharum munja). ikthn-mehl, diabetic, s. 

S3Vil Wffty ahshansh, m. a degree of la- 
titude or longitude. $. 

A\ TO(W <a-h$hat, infallibly indelible; 
remaining, continuing, m. whole grains of rice used 
in religious ceremonies, fried grain, akshat-tilak, f. 
the ceremony of putting a few grains of rice on the 
forehead of an Idol when addressed, or of a Brahman 
when invited to an entertainment, t. 

WV|T aliskar, m. a letter of the alphabet. 
akshart, lettered, writing a good hand. 


ikshumati, f. name of a river 
in Bengal, the Issamutty. t. 

{ J^t>^^\ *TBf?fi{ltf} ahshauhinl, f. an army 

"(see achchhavjiinl). . 

j^\ TOW a-kshay, i f perishable, undecay- 

"able. ahshayatfi, f. imperishableness. akshay-briksh, 
ra. an undocayable tree. a/csftay-lok, m. the imperish- 
able world. *. [abuse. *. 

xxliT wifH ah&hep, m. reproof, sarcasm, 

\ ahl, m. food ; eating, ahl-o-shurb, meat 
and drink, eating and drinking, a. 

JT ^STTSp? ahul, confounded, perplexed, 
confused, distressed, chiefly used in compound words, s. 
, fleet, swift ; peevish, h. 

> single, (v. iklautd*). k. 
,i, f. loneliness ; name of an 

article of dress, h. 

akulana, n. to be agitated, to 
be distracted, to be confused, to be out of order, to 
tire, to weary, to be astonished. A. [made. f. 

a-Ualpit, not artificial, not 
ahulit, agitated, distracted, s. 
ahulata, f. agitation, distress, s. 
uhalna, n. the intransitive of 

ukalna, to boil, be tofting. h. 

a-hulim, f. a woman of a 
'low casteor family ; adj. bad, base (woman), h. 

ihlauta, 1 single, solitary, 
ihlaunta, ) alone. . 

fi/tH, f. motion, agitation (par- 

ticularly of a carriage). A. 

\J^\ W^TTO^-Aa/j/a/i, ominous, unpropi- 

tious ; disconsolate, uncomfortable. 4. 

>H^ "fc^^^i A/eart, of or relating to the 

town pf Uklesar, famed for its paper manufacture. A. 

J^^ ikKlu-l-jabal, m. (the crown of 
the mountain), an herb smelling like frankincense, 
rosemary, a. 

iM JjJt ttWtt-frmflK*, m. (the king's 
crown), raelikrt. a. 

a-Aw/iwa, of no family, ple- 

beian, oflow ex traction; ignoble, f.akulini. . 
ihmal, m. perfection, accomplishing, a. 

ahmal, perfect, very complete, entire, 
full. a. 

a-hampit, finn, unshaken. . 

I ^T5|PRTT akampan, m. shaking, trem- 
bling. s. 

ak?nah, born bliad. a. 
1 W^R a/^an, grass and weeds collected 
from a ploughed field, h. [confines, sides, a. 

. of u^flij ), environs, borders, 
a-kantaky free from thorns. 4. 

a-kinchan, poor, needy, desti- 
tute. akmcha*t m. poverty. *. 
jjJ^l ahnun, now, at present. j. 
^\ V<*^i; a^or, f. a bribe; coaxing (a cow 
that has lost her calf, that she may be tractable), k. 
dhoti, one who receives a bribe. /*. 

alnd (same as J^), a glutton, &c. a. 

WlftcJ akoly m. a plant, the oil of which 
s used in enchantments (Alangium hexapetalum). . 

gigantea). h. 

\ty \ ^sn^fT ahha, m. a riddle, a sieve; a bag 

filled with grain, of which two are carried by a bul- 
lock ; a pair of grain-bags used as a pannier, h. 

J\^ V8TfwMar,f. rooting up, extirpation, k. 
^T^fTTT ahhara, in. a palaestra, or place 

for wrestling, a scene ; any place of assembly; court, 
circus. Jndr kd aktiaj'd, ludra's court. A. 

T ufthafnd, u. to root up, to eradi- 
cate, dislocate, h. [eradicates, h. 

'3'QT^uh/iaru, m. one who digs up or 

3WT$ uhhal, m. act of vomiting ; nn 
emetic, ukhdl-pukhdl (also ukhal wakhaf), m. cholcra- 
morbus, vomiting violently, h. 

uhhalna, a. to vomit, k. 

akhtt-pashan, m. a kind 

of mineral, a loadstone. 9. 

i^l'*nttor'W311akhat,akkat,m. (same as 

akshat), whole or unbroken rice, employed in obla- 
tions. s. 

j^\ ^^HTC ihhattar, seventy-one. A 

\ ^^nrt 1 !! ahhttj, the 18th day of Bai- 

, a Hindu festival, ft. 

IJT ihhatta, together, in one place. A. 
,fyfl T^Hnn uhhatna, n. to trip, to stumble, k. 

^CaMar (v. Jl), m. the den of a 

wild beast *. 


<WHC akhar, plenty, abundance, d. 

a*kharb t tall, long, large. 8. 

akhrot, m. a walnut ; the fruit 
of 'the ateurites tritoba. h. 

\ TO* akhar, undisciplined (soldier), bar- 

barous, uncouth, ugly. h. 

for pounding rice 

^%ir ahhrd, rude, ill-shaped. 

&6a.?j{, an ill-formed piece of writing, h. 
\\ * . / - -, , , _ .. 

'Jjfft* ^^TTT uhhrana, a. (i 

pluck up, eradicate. A. * 
^jr$*' ^iitT uhharnd, n. (intr. of M5rna), 

to be rooted up, plucked up, raised up ; to slip out (as 
a bone, &c.). ukhajma pukharnd, to be plucked or 
rooted up. h. [whole, all, every, s. 

or 'Vffacp a-hhal or a-hhil, the 
uhhalj "I m. & f! a wooden mor- 

e, / tar foi 
**or other grain. #. 

f+&\ ^NSH^ ukhmaj (for ^TO ushmaj), 

- gnats, flies, musquitoes, &c., insects produced by 
neat a. [whole. *. 

a-khandy unbroken, entire, the 

^rfiRlf a-khandit, unbroken, con- 
tinuous; unrefuted. *. 

: ahhot, m. the walnut tree. h. 

akhai, everlasting, not liable to 
** decay, akhai-baj- or akhai-bftkh t the undecayable 
tree. s. 

*$\ ^fTOU uhhyd, f. name, appellation, s. 

^->l^jo I WOT if dkhydtj said, spoken 5 deno- 
minated, named. *. 

i vui^lfi a-khyat, unknown, obscure. . 

/, m. (v. dker), the chase, 
hunting, pursuing ; terror, fright, t, 

i dkhetik, m. a hound, s. 
ukhernd, a. to eradicate, to 

pluck up, root up. k [pluck up. h. 

Oljjj^l 7^f^Tn ukkerwandj a. to cause to 
U\ fftitaT ahniyd, m. one of the sacks or 

baskets of a pannier, h. 

\ a-kirti, f. infamy, disgrace. *. 
fe, twenty-one. A. 
?/a, alone, single, solitary, h. 
' ukelnd, a. to turn up. A. 

5#, f. fire ; a# nthdnd, a. to raiee 
disturbance, to enrage, to provoke. 5# bag-h, to te 
'hotly enraged, ag bujhdna, a. to extinguish ; to ap- 
pease A tumult, to pacify a quarrel, to etiU resentment;. 
'ig baramd, u. to rain fire (applied to the extreme heat 
of the sun. or to a hot fire of cannon or musketry in 
bftttle). ag barna, n. to be enraged ; to be very angry. 
fr bharkaaa, a. to inflame, ag Maknd and dg pjiankna. 
a. to speak idle words, to boast, dg pajrna, n. to be 

) ^T 

enraged ; as merl baton w-par ag parti hai, he is en* 
raged at my words, dg dend, a. to apply the fire, to 
burn a Hindu corpse, dg sulgana, a. to inflame, to 
excite sedition, to foment a quarrel clandestinely, dg- 
karnd, a. to make any thing exceedingly warm t to 
excite envy or anger (used among women), ag lagand, 
to set fire to, to inflame ; to enrage, to raise disturb- 
ance, ag lagdke pdnl le danrnd, a. to play tricks, to 
deceive ; to pretend to appease a quarrel wl>ich one 
has purposely excited, dg lagttd, n. to take fire, to be 
enraged, to be very hungry, ag lag* nor bill* ka m&t 
dhun^hna or mdngnd, a. to put off, to delay, or excuse 
one's self on vain pretences (the literal translation, 
though highly expressive, would sound somewhat 
musty), dg lene ko ana, n. to come to get fire, is spoken 
of a friend who goes to visit another, and leaves him 
quickly, dg men pam ddlnd, a. see dg bvjhdnd. ag 
met Arm kl jalnd, or tofnd, or gfiflir kl dg meAjalna, 
a. to bring reproach upon, to accuse, to suffer for 
another, ag me* lofnd,, n. to be afflicted with grief or 
melancholy, dg hond, n. to be enraged; or, as the 
vulgate hath it, " to flare up." s. 

CL/T dg, m. Dakham, for dk, q.v. 

b 1 ^TRT dgd, m. the front, the space in front 

of a house ; the fore part of a turban, dgd lend, to 
take the lead, or precede. *. 

n. to hesitate, to waver, boggle,demur, to prevaricate. A. 

Jb^lM ^tifWorWIiWMa-gadhoragadh, bottom- 
less, unfathomable, agadhatd, C extreme depth-, un- 
fathomability. *. 

& I WTK agar, m. a house, s. 

\\ ^TTTC cigar 9 avarice, covetousness. d. 

*j\\ ^HK? igarah, eleven, igarakwan, the 

eleventli. #. [[advance, . 

(jj\$ I T^i^iiO agarl, f. money, &c., paid in 
]j : ol xiqisi agara, m. the name of a plant 

said to cure the bite of venomous reptiles (Achyranihet 
aspera). Same as chirphira. h. 

^ : lM ^i-ifsl ctgdfij before, forward, further 

on ; f. the ropes with which a horse's feet are tied ; 
the front, the fore-part, ag&fl mama, to attack in 
front, to defeat a hostile army in pitched battle, agafl 
pickhdft lagdnd, to confine (particularly a horse). A, 

(j\$\ agds (v. dkds), the sky, &c. d. 

agdsl, m. f, a turban; a terrace 

in front of an upper room ; the cry of a kite. h. 
3JTf< ugal, m. that which is spit out 

after chewing any thing (particularly betel leaf), ap 
ka ugal mera adhar, your worship's leavings are my 
nourishment, i.e. you are my support and benefactor. A. 

ugal-ddn, m. a spit-box. /*. 
dgdml, coming, about to come; 

future, *. 

4'J|MI ugdnd, a. to raise, cause to grow. ^. 
l>l fPTOI ayafi, adv. before, in front. dgd>tt- 

jdna. to advance in order to meet a person coming on 
a visit ; m. an advance of money, t. 

oT dgdh, informed of, acquainted with, in- 
telligent, p. [to accumulate. *. 
TI^^T ugahna, a. to collect, to gather, 
dgdhi, f. intelligence, wariness, p. 

52 ) 

I ^ninft ugahl, f. usury ; the trade of 
leading money on interest of one fourth, the payment 
of which is received by instalments, h. 

*, steamboat. The latter part of 

this term is English, the former signifies " fire." h. 
(A word like tjiis can hardly with propriety be in- 
serted In a Dictionary ; but it is now so commonly 
used, that it may be considered a naturalized HindQ- 
stftnl term.) Binning. 

a-gupta, unhidden, unconcealed. . 

Tm ugat, growing, springing up; 
production, h. 

Wlfif a-gati, dishonoured, disgraced, 

without character ; one whose funeral ceremonies are 
not performed; f. distress, disgrace, inconvenience, 
damnation, condemnation. . 

agat, come, arrived, s. 
figattar, coming, arriving. *. 

(for ^1), the agati tree. *. 
agat, m. & butcher's stall. A. 
?n rtfjatna, a. to collect or assemble. 

ngatna, a. to revile, to give abusive language, h. 
js\ agar, if, though, although, when. p. 
j>\ VTt agar, 1 m. wood of aloes, a kind 
jl ^SPHJ aguru, ) of fragrant wood, agal- 

lochum (/fquillaria agallocha) : another tree which pro- 
duces bdellium (//mt/ris agallocha) ; the tisu tree (Dal- 
bergia sisoo) ; light, iiot heavy. *. 

\ ^IXugra, ra. wrath, anger; adj. wrathful, 
cruel, savage. . 

S\ *RT agra, m. the forepart of a thing ; 

adj. prior, first, agra-gami, preceding ; m. forerun- 
ner. agra-grat, m. the first morsel, agra-sar, m. a 
guide; adj. preceding. *. 

agar, m. a salt-pit, h. 
\J>\ ^^n ugra, angry, cruel, wrathful, s. 

j\J>\ agrar, m. a village inhabited entirely by 
Brfthmans; the Quarter of a town or village occupied 
by Brfihmans. a. [eel. *. 

U5\ aggras (for agra-gra9),m.t\\e first mor- 
agras, 1m. victuals offered 

agrasan,) in oblations, sa- 
crifices, &c. to the gods. . 
ju-j\ ayarchiy although, though, p. 
*\ W^R agra-sar, m. he who goes first, a 
leader, a chief. t. 
iey**J^ ^*nnfr* agra-soch, m. providence, 

foresight, precaution, forethought. *. 

^a+**fi Wlih^ ngra-tocki, provident, en- 
" dued with foresight, t. 

agru, a specirs of bird, the thrush, d. 

agar-wala, a race of mer- 
chants, of the Vals tribe (from Agrohft, a place to the 
west of Dibit). /. 

f. fire-cotton, t. e. tinder, d. 
*\ agra, m. the city of Agra ; also called 

Akbar-Abad. h. 

agrah, m. favour; seizing, sur- 
passing, surmounting ; power, ability. . 

fll&J* I WV^rtJfl af/rahayan, in. the fir>t 
month of the Hindu year (November Dece.nber). *. 

&\b \ W\m(\mifl ayrahayarii, f. the day of 

full moon in the month Agrahayan ; a constellation of 
three stars, the first of which is Orioni*. figured by an 
antelope's head ; hence also mrig-shircu. a. 

1 WH^ aarl If. the colour of the 

, If. 

WJlf3c?n agariya,) wood of aloes, s. 

agari, m. a manufacturer of salt./*. 
t agar (for akar, q.v.), strut, pride, d. ' 
\ WTJT agra, m. an ear of corn or rice 

which has been blighted, h. 

f agar-bagar, m. trifling em- 

ployment, or talk; trifles, trash; adj. promiscuous, 
composed of odds and ends. /*. [lamp. d. 

uwana, to snuff a candle, to trim a 
wri% agasti (for agasfya), m. a sage 

celebrated in Hindu mythology : he is represented of 
short stature, and to have ben born in a water-jar ; 
he is famed for having swallowed the ocean when it 
had given him offence. At his command the Vindhy* 
mountain prostrated itself, and so remains. Name of 
a tree (Mschynamene grandtfora) ; name of a star (C*- 
nopus). s. [tribe of raj-puts, h. 

j\^L~\ Wllft'tflT. agastrvar, name of a smn ! 1 
J^T agal, before, in front, agal, m. a bar 

or bolt. d. 

$\ VTc?T ^5, prior, preceding, former, the 
foremost, the first, the chief, the best; ancestor, an- 
cient ; other, second, next, h, 

T W^gi^T agalant, up to the neck. jr. 

*9 T^TfT ugalna, a. to spit out, to vomit ; 
met. to refund property surreptitiously obtained. *. 

jff WITO agam, in. futurity ; a Hindu scrip- 
ture dictated by Mahftdeva; a shfotra containing 
spells and incantations ; a sh?Utra or work on sacred 

science ; (in law) a voucher or document 
na, to determine the future, to foretell. 
oraitam-gbyani* having the skill of foreknowing, pro- 
gnosticator. aactm-bidya, f. the art or science of fore- 
telling. atam-bakta, foreteller, predictor; Shiva. one 
who tells the doctrines of again, t. 

a-gam, for WI^I a-gamya, impas- 

sable, impervious, bottomless, deep, unfordable, unao- 
oomplishable, incomprehensible, unattainable, a. 

ugam, m. growing, becoming. & 

agaman, ra. coming, arriving, 
proceeding. *. 

| ojmana,. m. the advanced 

guard; adj. adventurous, venturesome; forward, 
early (as fruit). *. 

( 63 ) 

WUft agami, m. one who foretells the 

future. *. 

WOT a-gamya, deep ; impassable, inac- 
cessible, impenetrable, impervious. *. 
h *frf flflrnt ( vulg. 0#m), m. fire ; the south- 

east ; (in HindQ mythology) god of fire, and regent of 
the south-east quarter; also the name of one of the 
Puranas; the fire of the stomach, the digestive fa- 
culty, appetite. arni-Wn, m. arrow of fire, a rocket. 

- f the 

through fire, agn-saruar, m. unera cere, 
burning a dead body, or any ceremony performed with 
consecrated fire. agni-g*rbha or agni-mani, ra.the sun- 
stone, a fabulous gem, supposed to contain solar 
heat t. 

*rfrR agin, m. the name of a bird ; sort 

of lark. A. 

a-#wn, unskilful, ineiFectual, void 

of good qualities ; m. a defect, a fault. *. 
\\ TTnn ugna, n. to grow, to spring (as 
plants) ; to rise (as the moon), ugte hi jaljana, to be 
withered as soon as it springs up, is applied to a hope 
or expectation which is blasted in the bud. h. 

/.Aju^ wfHlW agni-ban, m. a kind of fiery 
missile, a rocket. *. 

agin-ba,o (or agni-ba,o), f. 

the farcy, in horses ; an eruptive disease in men ^ery 
sipelas. *. [counted. . 

WtftflW a-ganit, innumerable, not 

agandan, to fill, to cram. p. 

rf^nf agnik, m. an insect of a scarlet 
colour, the lady-bird, f. 
j>ft\ *fr^t$ agni-hotri, m. a Brahman 

who maintains a perpetual fire in his house. *. 
agni, f. (see ^srfnf agni), fire, &c. s. 
agu, forward, before j heretofore, h. 
agrva, foremost ; m., also agu,a, a 
guide, a forerunner, harbinger; one who adjusts a 
marriage. A. 

WTO dgwa, also agu,a, m. a pommel, h. 
Wim agwar, a portion of corn set apart 

for village servants, like the customary "sharping 
corn" in England, h. 

'> wnTTf agwara, m. the front, the fore- 
part ; the space in front of a house. A. 

agrvasi, the body of the 
oughshare. h. [binger (see agwa). h. 

agwani, m. a guide, har- 

agwahi,}?. burning, confla- 
wa,!, J gration(ofacity, 

C shi P- 

t, f. guidance, leader- 
imperceptible, unseen, 

forest, &c.)- 

m. th Invisible, Supreme, t . 

^pftt agaur, m. an advance of rent, A. 
agor, 1m. one who watches 

, J over the crops, &c. 
a division of the crop after reaping. A. 

agoma, a. to watch, to guard, h. 
agoriya, m. watchman, or 

guard, (v. agor). A. 

>jj\ WJ$ a-gurh, easy, manifest, evident. 

agurh-bhd.o, open, honest, candid. *. 

fj\ wfrilagori or WTttf agori,\n advance, 

beforehand. A. [*&. A. 

, a. to watch (v. agor- 
jj\ wtiqagaund, the top of the sugar-cane 

cut up for seed, f . 

*\ ^rifhrt agauni, f. the going or sending 

'forward to meet and receive a visitant with honour. 
agauni-k,, to advance to meet the bridegroom at a 
wedding, or a visitant on the road. A. 

^\ W* agh, m. sin, guilt, wickedness, s. 
agah (for agah), informed, wary. p. 

a-ghdt, m. land held in perpe- 
tuity and not alienable, f. 

aghdr (v. a gar), avarice, d. 
dghdr, m. sacred food, which 
Hindus place before an idol ; ghl, or clarified butter. A. 

<cA^ft wvftaghari, affected with avarice. A. 

U : l^\ W*n$T aghdrd, m. name of a plant said 
to cure the bite of venompus reptiles. A. 

Oy\$^ ^PIWfT ughdrndj a. to discover, to un, 
veil, to pull off. A. [or unveils. A. 

ughdrut m. one who discovers, 

agh ana y a. to surfeit, to satiate ; 

n, to surfeit, to be satiated; adj. satiated; rich, 
affluent. A. 

trar| aghd,i, f. satiety, surfeit, h. 
3*11141 ugharndy n. to be uncovered, 
opened, pulled off. A. 

aghmay y sinful, s. 

agkan, m. the name of the eighth 

Hinda month (during which the sun is in Scorpio, and 
the moon is full near Orion's head (November De- 
cember). . [grass. A. 

n aghin-ghd*, m. lemon 

m agh-ndshak, adj. puri- 
fying, freeing from sin. t. 
o\ Wf*ftagh<*9 relating to aghan; the 
produce of that month, aghanifafl, the cold harvest 
weather. *. [terrible, t. 

qpfrc aghor, m. a name of Shiva ; adj. 
aghor-panth, m. a parti- 
cular religious order among Hindus, t. 

( 64 5 

aghorpanthl,*} used sub- 

aghori, ) stantive- 

aghgrpanth, an order of religious men- 
who eat every thing, however filthy, even 
human carcasses ; hence, a gross or filthy feeder, *. 

W1JW aghori, covetous, greedy 1 d. 
agahl, f. (v. agahi\ information, &c. p. 

age, before, beyond, mow*, ago, al- 
ready, in future, formerly, forwards, onwards ; hence, 
or henceforth, rather, sooner, age dhar-lena, to get 
before, to outstrip, to surpass, to pass (as a horse in a 
race), age-dnd, to come forward ; to return, to revert ; 
a. to hasten, to accelerate, age-land, to bring forward, 
to advance, s. 

^J\ age \ O thou ! (applied to a female), d. 
Ui T WTTTT or W$l agya, agya (or agnya), f. com- 

agaiya, a disease which affects the 
rice plant, which there'ur is parched up. h. 

^V ^frror agiya, m. the name of a bird 

(Alauda dggia, Buch.). *. 

agya-baital, m. a demon 

who rules over fire. h. 

U\ ^J^TW a-gydt or a-gnyata, unknown, 
inexperienced, ignorant, simple, agfiyfita-jaubana or 
-yauwana, f. a fufi-grown girl, arrived at maturity, and 
surprised at the symptoms which then appear, not 
knowing to what to attribute her sensations. 5. 

U&t WHlflft agyariy f. kindling the fire at 
the time of devotion (by Hindfls). h. 

agya-ahas, m. lemon grass, d. 

a-gyan or a-gnyan, witless, igno- 
rant ; m. ignorance. *. 

agyana, a. to burn vessels of 
metal for the purpose of cleaning them. /*. 

^)^^ ^BWnPf a-gyan-pan, state of igno- 
rance. *. [pidity. *. 

a-gyanatd, f. ignorance, stu- 
a-gyarii, ignorant, unwise, s. 
vfi, f, a chafing-dish, Or brazier; also 

a flower-pot, d. 

*& \ fTT^T: (igaira, m. the first sheaf of the 

crop, presented to the zamlnd&r. h. 

\ agin, full (used in comp.). p. 
(l *T9 a-gya, idiot, stupid, ignorant. . 

\ al, the, the Arabic definite article (vide 
Hind. Gram, page 18). o. 

\ iBrftp ali, m. a large black bee, a scorpion, 
an Indian cuckoo (cuciilus indicus), a crow, spirituous 
liquor. *. 

T 'Wtigy al, f. the name of a tree, from the 
root of which a red colour is extracted for staining 
leather, 'dyeing iilk, &c. (Morinda citrtfolia); m. yel- 
low orpimeut. h. 

JT alj f. children, progeny, descendants, oft 

J t 

spring, race, dynasty. N.B. dl is commonly used to 
express a race or family by the mother's side ; in con- 
tradistinction to auldd, a race &c. by the father's 
side. (Binning), a. 

ali, f. a female friend, a damsel* s. 

a/a, m a small recess in a pillar or 
wall, for holding a lamp, &c. ; adj. wet t running (as 
a sore) ; land saturated with (rain) water ; a basin or 
hole dug at the root of a tree. A. 

^QTT ilia, m. a wart. h. 

)1 tlla, besides, except, otherwise, unless, if 
not ; sometimes a superfluous negative na is added to 
this particle, a. 

alap, (corruptly alap\ 


f. prelude to singing; m. intercourse, conversation, 
association ; enumeration of the questions in an arith- 
metical or algebraic sum. s. 

ala-pala, m. the leaves of trees, d. 

<NI9IM*IK < 1 alap-chari, f. the act 
of tuning the voice previous to singing. *. 

alapna or WT<35TOn alapna, to 

tune the voice, to run over the different notes previous 
to singing, to catch the proper key, to sing, to tune. . 

^T (Hat, n. (pi. of dJl), tools, instru- 
ments, utensils, apparatus, a. 

alatuni, vague, undetermined, (f. 

ilacha, m. a kind of silk and thread 
cloth, d. 

^51^ ilachi, f. large cardamums. 

ilachl-bahtna, to distribute cardamums, a kind of mar- 
riage or wedding ceremony, ilachi-pantfu, a kind of 
wild fruit. ildchl-bonda or -4ora, capsule of carda- 
mums. ilachi-dane, a kind of sweetmeat /i. 

ularna, a. to caus> to sleep, h. 
c$\ ulagh, m. an owl. t. 
Jp^l ulak,f. a kind of small boat. p. 

Jj$\ alafi f. (pi. of *\H5^),questions,problems ; 
" misfortunes, a. [to one side. *. 

UJ^\ 4<#lcj&HI ulalna, a. to overset, to lay over 
*fc 1 alam (pl.of J^),cares,griefs,inisfortunes. a. 
( *)\AI\ al-aman, m. mercy, quarter; calling 

for quarter in battle, a. [Claudian). I. 

^U^)\ alaman, a German (Lat Alemanni, 

( J^\ W?jyra alan, m. the post to which an 

elephant U tied, or the rope that ties him. 9. 


^\ al-an, now, the present time, al-an kanta 
kana, now as formerly; just as heretofore, as usual, 
as formerly, a. 

TORT allana, n. to bawl, to scream, to 
squeak, h. 

t/a/ja, m. race, family, kindred, nldna, 

act of what is vulgarly called " throwing up in one'* 
teeth," or " reminding one of former services," 

ald,o, *| m. a bonfire, flame, a 
alldwd, \ blaze: it also denotes a 

alarva, J fireplace, especially ap- 

plied to a hole in the front of the shade where the 
paraphernalia of the Muharram show are deposited, 
and In which a fire is lighted every evening during the 
festival, h. 

uldhnd, m. reproach, chiding, 

complaint, h. 

^ ^c$mil ildyachd, m. (v. ilacha), a kind 
of cloth woven of silk and thread, s. 

ild,echi or ildyachih, f. 
large cardamums. *. 
{J-J'Vf aldyixh, f. filth, pollution, p. 

JU5 1 'QU^reic? albal, m. a circular basin round 
the root of a tree for the purpose of watering it. s. 

*jijJ\ al-batta, certainly, indeed, verily, a. 
\j&\ alburZy a celebrated mountain in Hama- 

dan, in Persia, famous among the fire-worshippers, p. 
albhela^} artless, sim pie, inno- 
albeldy J cent ; m. a fop, a 

beau, albeit, a belle, a coquette, albel-pan, or albel- 
pana, foppishness, frivolity, airs and blandishments, h. 

C-A!\ W5S alp, little, small, few, short, alpata, 

f. smallncss, minuteness, insignificance, alpahar, mo- 
derate, abstemious ; m. moderation, alpahari, mode- 
rate. alpayu, short-lived ; young, alp-buddhi, ignorant, 
silly. alp-bal> feeble, of little strength, tilp-prabhao, 
insignificant, of little weight, alp-pramdn, of little 
authority. (Up-pramanak, credulous, resting on little 
evidence; of little weight, alp-shakti, weak, feeble. 
alp-mdtr, a little only ; a short time, a few moments. s. 

<JLaS\ ulput, m. name of a stroke in sword- 

play ; a reflex or inverted blow. .d. 
^^joS\ alptn, m. (vide alfin, &c.), a pin. d. 

cHJ! alaty f. a tool, an instrument, appara- 

ratus ; the running rigging of a ship ; a rope (in the 
lingo of Indian seamen), membrum virile; vcretrum 
animalium. a. 

\j$\ ^nn or ^ngr?n alta or alia, m. cotton 

strongly impregnated with the dye of lac, ready to be 
used for dyeing, &c., principally used by the Hindu 
women to stain their teet red. *. 

(^jJjuiM iltibas, being obscure, ambiguity, 

perplexity, " double entendre." a. 

tttijd, f. a request ; flying to in cases of 
necessity; a petition, refuge, protection, iltija-burdan, 
to seek refuge, a. 

p\ iltizam, m. being necessary, expedient, 
being assiduous, taking on one's self. a. 

UU\ iltifdt, f. friendship, kindness, obli- 
gation, courtesy, respect ; (in rhetoric) an apostrophe.*?. 

*U31 iltimds, m. {. beseeching, petitioning, 

upplicating, prayer, request, a. 

tamgka or altamgka, m. aTurkish word, 

signifying the red patent, the impression of the impe- 
rial seal affixed to grants &c. being in red ink." It 
is a grant of land under the royal teal, conveying the 
property to the first proprietor and his heirs, in per- 
petuity, and escheating to government only in default 
of issue, or forfeited by delinquency. It also denotes 
a kind of tax levied on travellers. Among the Turks 
it signifies a stamp on gold or silver plate, to certify 
its being of standan) purity. See further, WilWs 
Glossary, t. 

jcM Vlc5fTfl altaniy f. the rope round the 

"neck of an elephant, in which the driver puts hit feet, 
as in stirrups, h. 

iltirva, hanging back, procraat hinting-, 
deferring, a. [incnt, &c. h. 

4<$vj| ultha, m. translation (of a docu- 
iltihab, m. burning, heat. a. 

$VHi ulathna, n. !o undulate, to be 
agitated (as the ocean by storms), h. 

A\JuM iltiyam, allaying, sooth ing, *cu ring 1 , a. 

diJl 3TS5? utaf, m. act of upsetting or over- 
turning. h. 

UM ^55Tf ultd, reversed, turned back; re- 
verse, contrary, opposite ; m. pease-pudding, a kind of 
pudding made of the meal of any pul*e. ulta-pult(i, 
topsy-turvy, higgledy-piggledy, all in confusion, h. 

ultaua, a. to turn upside down, 
pervert, overset, overturn, thwart, h. 

UU)\ '5r^yjTrfT ^^Rl ultdnd pultdndj a. 
to reverse, modify ; to interchange, h. 
iL*b.v*S)\ "^gSTijgrc ulatpnlat, higgledy-pig- 
gledy, topgy-turvy; f. confusion; interchange ; decep- 
tion, imposition, h. [rtowcr. h. 

<;$ ulat-hanrval, in. name of a 

ulatnd, a. to pervert, to subvert, 
to thwart, to overturn, to reply; n. to be reversed. 
ulat-jana, (Dakh.), to be proud. A. 

l^jiJ\ ulthana, a. (same as ultana), to per- 
vert, upset, &c. h. 

ulath-palat (v. ulat-palat). h. 
ulathna (v. ulatna), to turn, &c. ultlie,- 

pa t oA, on returning, ulflid mar, a reverse Wow or back 
stroke, ulthi takrlr, a perverted speech or declaration. 
ulphi samajh, a perverse or absurd idea. h. 

j& al-ju! interj. used in complaining of 
hunger ; lit. the hunger ! 


^<5WTT tdjhdnd, a. to entangle; to 

ravel or entwist (as thread), to involve, to embroil, k. 

^* ^T55flKR ttljhd,o, m. entanglement, per- 
plexity, h. ^ 


n. (see ulajhnd, to be entangled, &c.). A. 

^^F T8Wf vljhan, f. involution, the state 
of being entangled, complication, a. 

U^f * 79R?n ulajhnd or ilajhnd, n. to be en- 
tangled, to be involved in a quarrel or difficulties; t 
quarrel, to debate. A. 

*?f%lT uljhera or iljhera, m. the state 
of beirg entangled (see uljhan). h. 

V?JVfT ulachna, a. to throw out the 
water from any thing; to drain. A. 

ttto#, importunity, urgent solicitations. 

t'/^od, impiety, heresy, idolatry ; atheism, 
unbelief, (as to the Musalman faith), a. 

J-oW ' al-hdsil, in short* in fine. a. 

J\* */#a, m. addition, junction, coupling, a. 

Jlst ' aMa/, now, at present; just now. a. 

<jV*: t'^an, m. note, sound, modulation, tune, 
an air in music, atyan (pi. of fc>$n), musical notes, 
melodies, a. 

.i ' al-hazar, (used as an interjection) be- 
ware ! have a care ! a. 

iaAa* al-hafi?, (lit. the Protector), interj, 
God preserve us t a. f 

gl-hak or al-halfa, true, right ; in truth, 
verily, the truth is. a. 

J tX^ al-hawdu-liUahiy God be praised ! a. 
',, (a contraction of ^l ^\) used 
'in the sense of " et ccetera, and so on." o. 

f, f. a coat, vest, garment, a. 
alddndy to scream out, to shriek, d. 
I 4<$4>{l ularna, n. to lie down, to rest. k. 
alar, imperfect, not grown up. d. 

alar-balar, f. trifling talk or 

employment h. 

jM ilzam, m. blame, reproach ; conviction, a. 

or W<?8 aa, aa5 m. 
drowsiness, sloth ; adj. lazy, slothful, drowsy. . 

UJl ^HtfUHl akdna, n. to be drowsy^ to 
dose, to slacken. . 

LuJ\ WcHfr? alosat or alasta, or ala$ta-yi 
or ahafi. f. apathy, rloth, indolence. . 

!lLJ\ al-xalam, farewell, peace or safety be 
upon thee ! a. [guages. a. 

alnna (pi. of ^UJ), tongues, lan- 
"VT^^I alasya, m. laziness, adj. lazy. 

(see alas]. . [slothful. *. 

or VRtplft alasyit alusi, drowsy, 

/jfl, f. linseed. (Linum usitatis- 
A. [perior. *. 

or w/twA, m. the leavings of a su- 

o/(o/* mv (pi. of v-iloJ), kindnesses, 
favours, a. 

al-'abd, a form of counter-icrnature by 
a subordinate clerk or officer ; lit. the slave or servanta 


alSazamatv-lillahi, great is God, an 

ejaculation expressive of surprise, fear, denial, &c. . a. 

.UM ilg&ar or alghar, m. rapine, devastation, 
as during the inroad of a hostile army ; the forced ' 
march of an army through a district p. 

(joj&\ alrgharaz, in short, upon the whole, in 

a word, finally, a. 
*j\ algkuza, m. a whistle, pipe; or small 

flageolet, p. 

L^AjJiSl al-g&iya? t m. complaint, complaining, 

demanding justice, interj. alas ! help t a. 
u***N al-ghflibt that which is hidden, secret, 

'or mysterious, al-ghaib *tnd alldhi, God knows what 
is hidden, a. 

^JiM alf, a thousand, alif, the first letter of 
the Arabic or Persian alphabet, a. 

\S&\ dlfa t m. a kind of dress worn by fakirs, 
like a shirt without sleeves, and open at the sides, o. 

ft5\ alfaz m. (pi. of Iai3), words, articulate 

sounds, terms, a. 

flM alif -be or alif-ba-ta t f. the alphabet./?. 

ulfat, f. friendship, affection, attach- 
ment, kindness, familiarity, intimacy, a* 

ft) I alufta, astonished, frantic, insane, p. 

jj ^jsd\vlfati-banda, attached from friend- 
ship (a slave or servant), a. p. 
gb\ alft, f. see lfi)l a Ifa (cloth, &c.) covered 
with marks like the letter alif. a. 
p\ alfi, 1 f . a pin, (so called in Dak- 

Ia)l aljinaty \ ham): the word is appa- 
aljinrii, j rently Portuguese. 

SM iV.a, m. throwing down, flinging. ilka,e 

ha jar, throwing a stone, an offence prohibited bv the 
Muhammadan law, whereby the person throwing a 
stone at any article was compelled to purchase it. a. 

alJtab (pi. of c->SJ), m. titles, honorary 
'names ; forms of address, &c., in letters, a. 

al-kissa, in short, in one word. a. 
^Ri alak, f. a lock of hair. s. 
alah, aside, apart, d. 

ulha, f. a firebrand; a meteor, 


alahavali, f. a row of side 

flame, fire. . 

alak*h,'\ invisible, unseen : a 

alakh, ) form of salutation 
among a class of medicants. i . 
fj3l wgrapff a-lak&han, m. a bad sign or ill 
omen. *. [fated. 

V^pdt a-lakshani, unfortunate, ill- 
alkan, stuttering, pronouncing badly, a. 
alah-nandci, f. a stream that 

runs from the Himalaya mountains, and falls into 
the Ganges near Snnagar. f . 

( 57 ) 

a-lakh {fame as a-lahsh\ unseen, 

unlocked at *. [Saiva sect. *, 

^U^3l alakh-namij m. a mendicant of the 
ci$ I ^HSI - ta$r, separate, distinct, a-lag a-lug, 

or alag-talag, separately. *. 
Wl W^TT e/Z05, separate, apart, distinct, free, 

loose, unconfmed ; m. a sandal, s. 
vVxJI xc<3<iivfi algana, a. to separate, to put 

one side, ulgdnd, to cause to leap ov,er. *. 

^ 10) W<$JI1^ algal, f. separation, s. 
eu)l t/Z0a, act of leaping over. s. 

IxCI alngna, n. to be separated or disjoined. 
ulagna, n. to spring or bound over. *. 

ij}& W$iif) alagni, f. a line for hanging 

"clothes on. h. 

) algoja, m. (see alghuza) a pipe, &c. p. 
3$<ij5vU ulalna, n. to be overset, or laid 

over to one side. h. 
8&\ allah, m. God ; the Supreme Being. 

alldhtt aJfbar, God is great ! an exclamation of sur- 
prise, resignation, &c. allah t alldh! Oh wonderful ! 
excellent ! allah-billah-tallah, I swear most solemnly, 
&c. a. 

+*\ ^?Q5*f filam, sticks set up for the support of 

creeping plants (like our vines, &c.). A. 

J \ alam, m. pain, grief, affliction, a. 

Jl W<3W 0/arn, enough, abundance; able, 

adequate, or equal to. 8. 
^j\^\alma?'i 9 i\^ chest of drawers, a bookcase; 

(the word is of European origin : for example, the old 
English term is "almarie?* and the Scotch word 
"awmrie," or "aumrie," is in common use to this 
day). A. 

(^Vjl alma*, m. a diamond, almas-tar ash, 
m. diamond-dust ; adj. cut into angles (as glass), p. 

.^aA*)! almas'iy cut into facets (like a diamond). 

"almasl-rang t of a diamond colour ; m. a bright clear 
white colour, p. 

at ami an, in. dependence ; a sup- 
port, protector, s. 

JiP Jl allam-ghallam^ m. trifling talk or busi- 
ness ; toying ; vanity, idle excuse, p. 

ciijl 3W$ ulmuhy m. a firebrand, burning 
wood, charcoal, *. 

alam-nak, full of pain or sorrrow, a. p. 

al-minnatu lilldhi (God be praised!), 
an ejaculation expressive of surprise, fear, denial, &c. a. 

almaira, m. (v. almdri), a press, &c. 
alwj, a sort of wild plum, a sloe. jp. 

\3Jo)l ulandna, a. (v. ulendria), to pour out 

liquid, h. ' 

.&!) V^RiTC alanhar, m. ornament or jewel ; 
rhetoric, -ornate composition in prose. $. 

aJankhar, the treble notes in music, d, 

^l^n vlang, f. side, way, corner, in- 
trenchments ; it alang, this side. A. 

vJL&Jl 7^i| or ^c?^5f w/an// or along, naked. * 
LL&H alany, intrenchment, trenches. /). 

e^ I Vfisnff alingan, m. the act of em- 
bracing. *. [overleap. A. 

ulangct) n. to bound over, to 
langnlf.(v.alagn%)& Hne,&c. h. 

t*^^ T^H ttllanghan, m. the transgressing 

of a rule or custom ; transgression. . 

alinyiy adj. embracing. *. 

^rng 5/M,m. an esculent root (Arwn 

campanulatum), a potato ; Rat-alu* a yam. &lu,e Shakar- 
fand, a sweet potato, &c. alii, in Persian, signifies a 
plum, but in India the word is taken to signify a potato. 
It is singular that this vegetable is named by the Per- 
sians and Arabs, as by the French, " ground apple," via. 
Persian, slbi zamini, Arab, tu/db-ul-urdh. dlu.i tmjftara, 
dried plums, prunes. ( Binning). p 

\ alo, a portion of unripe corn. h. 

^\ T&ullu, m. an owl; met. a stupid fellow, 
afooL *. 

1 f. a kind of grass ( Saccharum 
,J cylindricumj Willdcri). h. 

-.1^51 alwah (pi. of ^5), tablets, planks, &c. a. 

> . > 

Jyl Vl^^lc^' aln-al, m. a basin for water 

round the root of a tree, f . 
v^)tjJI ulu-l-amr, men possessed of command 

or authority (vide fi/5). o. 
^I^J! alrvan (pi. of ^), colours, sorts, kind* ; 

adj. of various sorts and colours, a. 
<~J^)I ^1^^ alop, concealed, defaced, retiivd, 

run out, destroyed ; apparent. alvp-ho-j. t n. to vanish. *. 

Cl ^5) ^T^R ullu-pan> m. folly, stupidity. . 

alopna, a. to conceal, to hide 
one's self; m. to lie hid, to be concealed. *. 
alucha, a kind of small plum. p. 

alud (v. aluda), soiled, &c. p. 

uttu-das, 1 stupid as an owl, a fool 

ullu-dasri, ) or simpleton, s. 
al-wida', adieu! fare thee well ! a. 

R aludagi, f. contamination, stain, foul- 
**ness, defilement, p. 

^^T aludan, to stain, defile, pollute, p. 
*iy^T aluda, soiled, stained, smeared or lie- 

filed ; overwhelmed, immerged, loaded with. p. 
(J3>\ ulush, m. (see ulasli), leavings, t, 
J}\ uluf, thousands (pi. of uJtil). a. 

uluh, ra. an owl (sameasulffi). 

atofc, m. sight, looking ; light; 
flattery, panegyric, f. 

dtfyi ^r^ftni a-laukik, unpopular, not cur- 
rent, supernatural. *. [visibility. *. 

a-lokan f m. disappearance, in- 

ra. sight, seeing, 
looking, a. 
J^l -9&Wfulukhal, m. bdellium, a gummy 

substance* a wooden mortar for cleaning rice. *. 
*4tfpT Wl^'iH alu-gdchh, m. the potato 
tree ; the tapioca shrub, h. 

JjM W^tST alol, f. gambol (generally applied 

to a horse) ; adj. steady. *. 

alol-Mol, f. gambols, 

wantonness, playaomeness (of young animals), h. 

^01 ^B^UiH or ^R<jtil a-lona, fresh, not salt, 

insipid. <*. [madan. p. 

<J\ alwand or dlwand, a mountain in Ha- 

LlAj^^Jl uluhlyat,'} de ; /, divinity, the divine 

*uU&y) uluhlya, J essence, a. 

&5I dla, m. (see dlaC), tool, &c. a. 

&3I e/a/A (v. &1J1), God, the Supreme Being, a. 

alhd, the name of a Hindu soldier 

and poet, from whom a species of poetry takes its 
name. h. 
+\^\ it/tarn, inspiration, revelation, a. 

UUS1 TO5T?TT alhdna, n. to rejoice, to be 
cheerful. ;*. [unskilful, h. 

5 alhaTj young, untaught (animal), 

ulahnd, m. complaint, accusa- 
tion ; reproof, chiding, ulalina dena, to reproach, com- 
plain, abuse ; n. to grow, to vegetate, h. 

ilahl, divine, the Divine Being; used as 
^an inter}., O God ! Name of an ara instituted by Akbar. 
7fZA7tf02,the standard yard measure of forty-one lingers, 
instituted by Akbar. a. [musical mode, h, 

alkaiyd, f. name of a ragnl or 

ilahiyat, divine things ' or studies; 
metaphysics, theology, a. 

ilalnyat, f. divinity, the godhead, a. 
a/i, a land measure, equivalent to 
''Tour bhtt ; adj. of or belonging to the dl tree* h. 
.j I ^Tgft a/t, f. damsel, female friend ; m. a 
"scorpion. *. [of the lotus, s. 

fjl ^Wjfl 1 a/t, m. a large black bee, enamoured 

/Jl ilq, up to, until. Ua-aLan, up to the pre- 
sent time. a. 

a/at, m. a house, an abode, s. 

, name of a tribe of banjd- 
ras. h* 

HT alaiya-balaiyd, f. sacrifice, 

Vic5ra ; lighted wbpfl, with which the HindQs divert 
themselves at the season of the Dew&ll. A, 

alep, m. liniment, plaster. 9. 
M/icAna, a. to throw up water, 

to bale. h. 

IT V(^C J t afi-ranffj m- a colour ex- 
tracted from the al tree {Morinda citrifolia). k.p. 
^jJl ^l^F itl*hj in. e fish, the hilsa or sable 

(Clupea alosa). s. 

l^j)K ahk, m. falsehood, untruth, any 

thing displeasing or disagreeable; adj. false, no- 
pleasing, s. [ciatlng torment.' a. 

jJt alim, painful, 'azdbi alim, an excru- 

ulendna, a. to pour water, h. 

*\ VW am, m. a mango (fruit of the Mangi- 

* /era Indica), provisions, victuals (undressed); sicknew, 
disease ; atlj. raw, undressed, unripe. 5, 

*\ umm, f. a mother, a. [ever. . 

Ul amma, but, moreover, nevertheless, hovr- 

amma, f. a mother, s. 

'WraTfrnrn: amatisar, m. dysentery. 5. 

amatya, m. a minister, coun- 
llor. *. farrows at. />. 

;, m. a mark or butt to shoot 

dmadayi, f. readiness, alertness, p. 
dmdda, prepared, ready, alert, p. 

.\*T dinar, calculation, investigation; an ac- 
count-book or register, p. 

OjUl imdrat, f. dominion, authority; a 

district under the government of an amir. a. 
3jU\ amarid,($\. of &j*\) beardless youths, a. 
5.W awmdra, domineering, imperious, a. 

(j*A*1 amas, rn. swelling, dmds-k, to swell, 
to effect a swelling, p. 

<^ld ammds, the conjunction of the sun and 
moon, the days about new moon. d. 

amdkin (pi. of <j&) mansions, ha- 
bitations, places, a. 

imala, m. (lit. inclining) a change of 
vowels in pronunciation as kitlb for kifab (a book), a. 

\A\ imam, m. a priest, a leader in religious 

* matters, patriarch, prelate, chief; a large bead in a 

rosary, which remains fixed in the hand, and is not 

turned over in counting (called by the Hindus S*> 

meru). a. 

U : U*U\ tmdmbdrdt m. (also imambart* f.) a 
kind of temple in which the festival of the Muharram 
is celebrated : it is generally a square building with a 
cupola on the top. h. 

(JL**U\ imdmat, f. the office of an imam. a. 
^UiJ^ imdm^dmln (or-zdmini), m. the 

protecting Imam, or one's guardian saint, imam-zii- 
min kd rupiya, a piece of coin dedicated to Imam #*- 
min : it is fastened on the arm of a person about to 
leave home as a charm for averting evil : if in want 
he may spend it, not otherwise, a. 

U ( 

.^..~, 1 of or relating to an t'wiam, 

imdmlya J an epithet assumed by the 
"followers of 'AH. a. 

.\*\ amdn, f. grace, mercy, security, safety, 
protection; as an interj. it denotes, " quarter ! spare 
me ! " and is generally sounded aware, a. 

amanna, in. raw rice or grain ; 

provisions undressed. . 

\j!\ *rwri amma#(same as amma)& mother, s. 
arnana, n. to be contained, to go 
into. *. 

^iU amount, f. deposit, charge, any thing 
given in trust ; faith, religion. amanat-d(ir> a trustee, 
or depositary; adj. faithful, honest, amanat-darl, f. 
guardianship, agency, trust, charge; faithfulness. 
anwnat-rakhna, a. to consign or depwit. amanat-daftar, 
a registry-office, amanat-jdrt, assignments of revenue. 
amanat-mafyal, an estate, amfirmt-nama, a deed of trust 
or deposit, a. 

,f. goods &c. given in charge, a. 
a-mananiya, incredible, not 

*ht to be believed, s. [without pride, humble. 5. 
U\ Wffifft a-marii, incredulous, inattentive; 

yU\ amam, f. security ; trust, charge, de- 

" posit; adj, (applied to land) that which is in charge of 

a collector on the part of government (in opposition 

to //am, that which is farmed), a. 

a-manya (see amannmya). in- 
Credible, not worthy of being believed. *. 
L>.W TSWRSamawat, m. the inspissated juice 

of the mango (v. amof). h. 

arnawas, "| f. the conjunc- 
amavasya, j- tion of sun and 
amdvasi, J moon, the day 
**of new moon. s. 

awb, m. a mango, a mango tree. 
'ambu, m. water. *. 

, f. a mother, (same as ammo,), s. 
J" ^snraTrT am-bat, m. a swelling, which 
oraes without pain and goes off as easily, even without 
medicine, a windy tumour, s. 

U*\ samO ambari, f. a canopy, a litter 

"used on an elephant or camel, p. 

o*\ TOff fimbat, sour, acid or acrid. $. 

Uo*\ ^T9lfTn ambatdna, n. to grow sour, 
to be acidulated. *. [ne^m&o). . 

, m. the lotus (Nymphaa 

ambar, m. clothes, apparel; the 

* sky or atmosphere ; a perfume (ambergris). *. 

JuoT WGR ambar, f. ambergris (v. "anbar). a. 
,i, f. a mango grove, s. 

ambarchd, m. an ornamental 


ifa.vl MWW ambadith, in. a man the off- 
spring of Brahman and a Vaisya woman, by occupa- 
tion a physician. *. 

ambiha, f. a name of the goddess 

PSrvatl. *. 

yiAambofi, f. a species of sorrel (Oxalis 

cornictilata). d. [less. h. 

(for an-bot), silent, speech- 
^(tvftlf ambhoj, m. the lo^us* 3. 
ambiyaj. a small unripe mango, a. 

wnmat, f. people, a religious sect, peo- 
ple of the same belief, a. 

wfcif a-rnit, unmeasured, undefined. 9. 

&H\ dmmat t Qne of the ten kinds of wounds 

compensated by a fine. a. 

y\^* imtihan, m. examination, proof, trial, 

experiment; temptation, a. 
&\(S**\iintidad, m. protraction, prolongation, 
prorogation, extension ; adj. protracted, a. 

imtila, m. repletion, indigestion, a. 

hntina, m. restraint, prohibition, a, 
jc*\ vmmaiij m. a believer in, or follower of, 

* any particular sect. a. 

Ulo\ fmtif/az, m. discrimination, separation, 
distinction; pre-eminence ; good breeding, imtiydz k. t 
a. to discriminate ; to treat with diatiuctiou. a. 

imtiydzi, having the quality of dis- 
criminating, worthy of distinction. , 

a-mit f indelible, undcfaced. s. 

(pi. of JJlx), examples, similes, 

equals, fables, parables, a* 

f ' amjady very or most glorious, a. 

s' /7m;t, f. compulsory service, d. 
* i 
.jjf* WH^l' amchur, m, parings of tlie 

mango, dried in the sun. *. 

, f. arrival, income, amad-dmad 

or a0i<u2 o r^, f. access and egress, amad-sltud or 
o *AM^, intercourse, thoroughfare, />. 

tmcfod, f. act of assisting, aiding, or 

abetting ; succour, help ; extending, a. 
^^T amadan, (r. a or aiy) to como. //. 

*>^T dmdani, f. the season in which any 
-merchandise generally arrives; perquisites; any 

thing gained over and above ; ways and means ; in- 

come, revenue ; import, p. 

\>\%+\ *WTOI umdana, also umdd-d. 9 a. to 

cause to overflow, to flood, h. 
0!U\ T*WTT urnadna, n. to overflow ; to let 

fall (as tears), to sbed, to swll and increase or prevail 
(like a river, clouds, an army, the heart, &c.). h. 

*\ amr, m. an order, command; an affair, 
transaction; (in gram.) the imperative mood, am-ba- 
tiarf, lit. " your business 1s in your own hands," which 
uttered by a husband and agreed to by a wife, const! 
tutca an irreversible divorce, a. 


*T 5w/r, one who orders, a commander, 

ruler, a. [vndica). . 

' awra, m. the mango tree (Mamjifora 

a-mar, undying, immortal, lon- 
"^ lived, perennial, everlasting; a god. Amara Sinlta, 
the name of a Sanskrit lexicographer. *. 

\j*\ *WT or WCT amra, m. name of a fruit ; 

hog-plum (Spondiat mangifera). t. 
\j*\ wmara (pi. of^A*t), nobles, grandees; a 

noble (generally), but more especially applied to those 
of a Muhummadan court, a. [eases, a. 

awrdz (pi. of (J^/0> sicknesses, dis- 

t W*KI4<ft a-marawuti, f. the celestial 
^city of ludra. *. [mangoes, s. 

amrd t l, f. a tope or grove of 
ar-beli m. an epidendron, 

or parnsitical plant similar to the misletoe. . 

&>j*\ ^W<KM<5 amur pad, in. the state of an im- 
mortal; immortality. *. 

O^*l *I*W a-mri 4 m. the water of life, 

nectar; an antidote; any thing sweet; water; wine; 
a guava ; immortality, nnal emancipation. . 

.. f WtiJII amartd \ _ . .. 

^wM . > f. immortality. . 

^ L VHTin amntta J 

y\+*j*\ ^^m^ amr it-ban, m. a variety of 
the A-f/a, or plantain, t. 

^^\ ^^ft or, ^pft amriti or tmrt ft f. a 

"small vessel for drinking out of; a kind of sweet- 
meat ; a kind of cloth ; udj. nectarious. h. 

[ a-marjdd, "If. indignity,dis- 

' a-marjddd, J honour, s. 
\ amrad, beardless, handsome (a youth), a. 

dmurz, act of pardoning or forgiving ; 
ir, he who pardons ; an epithet of God. p. 
(Imiirzhh, f. pardon, grace, forgive- 
noiTu of sins (by the Deity), p. 

(^>jxt ;//-; A, inspissated juice of the mango 

(see nwot). *. 

ij?J/*^ ^IHVT dwar*h 9 m. anger ; wrath ; envy, 

i m putioiu'f of another's success; peevishness, g. 

ciJ^J^ Wlt^nV awar-lok, m. heaven, the 

region of the immortals. *. 
C^j^i ^4*i^n amrut, m. a guava. 

dtttin pyr iferu m). *. 

amrud 9 m. a pear; also a guava. 
oar ( for in-raz), to-day. imr\ 

ay or to-morrow, i. . soon, imroz fardd-k. t a. to 
put off, to procrastinate, p. 

tv^j]** amr n(thi 9 m. commands and pro- 

"hibitions, orders and counter-orders, commanding and 
countermanding ; hence, sovereignty, authority, a. 

bb yl Wf^Hf! a-maryddd, f. disrespect, indig- 
nity. (Same as a-marjdd&.) *. 

f-maryaJt7/,flisrespected. s. 

ummax, resolution, firmness, strength. J. 
im*ahi m. parsimony; abstinence ; a 
medicine taken to prolong pleasure; scarcity, want. a. 

imsal (for t/i-*/), this year. p. 

wnatna, n. to rot t to putrefy. A. 

A, m. flesh, food, enjoyment; 
object of enjoyment, a pleasing object t . 
M.^ imshab (for in-shab), to-night, p. 

dm-shul, m. the cholic, pain 

arising from indigestion. *. 

aww5r(pl. of J-A*), cities, large cities, a. 
imza,i, despatching, transmitting, a. 
tm'ant na;?r, looking attentively, 

contemplating, a. [son. *. 

V||fir amuft, such a one, a certain per- 

amkd-dhamka, 1 m.tri- 

triaing ; a person of little estimation, h. 

^O4i1?Hlil ctmha-dhamka, ) fles, 

a, 1 
a, ) 

\Ct imkdn, m. possibility; contingent ex- 

istence (in opposition to wujub, necessity, or necessary 
existence), a. 

\X^ imkarii, potential, possible, a. 

W79T a-mukhya, inferior, ordinary. *. 
amalt m. hope, expectation, a. 
WC^5 amal, m. intoxication. amaTi jin*, 

intoxicating liquors or drugs. A. 

ami or amla, acid; sour. *. 
a-ma/, bright, pure, clean, clear, s. 

imla, m. orthography ; writing correctly ; 

completing, filling up. imld-ddn, one who writes cor- 
rectly. imld-nawiy, the same. a. 

dm In, m. the emblic myrobalan 
(Phyllanthus emWca). s. 

dJ^cl amlak (pi. of <^H), possessions, pro- 
perties (generally applied to land), a. 

^)k*\ Wi$r'1amldn,m. globe amaranth (Gom- 
phrena globota) ; adj. clean, clear, s. 

LdJ^L\ imldhi m. possession, property ; land 

held rent free. a. 

ijt*, (^*\ HH'^M^t amal-patti, f. the hem of 
** cloth, a kind of stitching. A. - 

\^ W^5H1 amlata, f. sourness, acidity. . 
(_>*bU\ Wf <$ fl |H amalt as j m. Cawafatida. h. 
5//iAa, f. the tamarind tree. . 
a-ma/m, clean, pure. *. 
or ^5 tofi or imtif m. the tama- 

rind-tree (Tamar Indus Indica) and its fruit, . 


( 61 ) 

*#\ ttmam (pi 
herds, a. 

, nations, sects, tribes, 
[difference, stoicism. *. 
a-mamtd, f. disinterestedness, in- 
aman, m, winter rice-crop, h. 
\ amn, m. security, safety, amn-aman, m. 

quarter, crying out for quarter, amn o- &man t in safety 
and security, a. 

i*l amanna, yea, verily; lit we believe, a. 
amna-samna, m. opposi- 

tion, confronting. A, 
\33J*^ 9fiffl nmaiidna, n. (see umadna\ to 

overflow, abound, to swell, to increase, to be poured out. 
uinarid umand kar roraa, to weep violently, h. 

U3wU\ JicfT umandnd, n. to be proud, con- 
ceited, d. 

1 f a-manushya, ") unmanly. 

f ^^y \ iif \ 

J ^ L a-manufthya 9 ) amanush- 

yata, unmanliness, inhumanity, s. 

L&*\ TJifrl umang, f. transport, excessive 
joy, exultation, ambition, h. 

}&*\ WHR? a-mangal, m. a disaster, a cala- 
mity; an evil omen, ill luck ; adj. inauspicious, un- 
lurky. *. [joy. h. 

4|JHI umangna, n. to advance with 
^pHt umangiy sanguine, desirous, am- 
bitious, ft. 

GWrftyftn a-manojog, m. inatten- 

tion. a-maitojogl, inattentive. *. 
j3y*^ ^R^Hlrf a-manomt, disapproved ; 

reprobate. *. [pleasing. *. 

^ftlEC a-wanoAar, disagreeable, dis- 
amnlyat, security, repose, a place 
of safety, a. [to face. A. 

amne-samne, opposite, face 

amaniyd, f. land on which 
the winter crop of rice is sown. Ju 

amwat (pi. of el*x), the dead. a. 

m. constipation or 

torpor of the bowels with flatulence and intume- 
scence, the wind being supposed to be chiefly affected.*. 

amwaj (pi. of ^), billows, &c. a. 
amavas, the new moon. s. 

0w?r5f(pl. of JU), riches, wealth, goods 
and chattels, personal property, a. [learn. $. 

amo&htan, (r. amoz) to teach; to 

amofchta, learnt, taught, trained, p. 

amoc?, m. fragrance ; pleasure, s. 
*\ umur (pi. of^), business, things, affairs, 

actions; commanding, ordering* a. 

a-murti, formless, unembodied. 5, 

r,' taught; used in com p., as datt~ 
amoz, taught by the hand, tamed (bird). /. 

^fy\ wfN a-mogh, productive, fruitful, 

effectual, infallible. $. 

J^ ^nft^5 a-mol, invaluable, above price, s. 
J>2*t ^59 a-mul, destitute of root'or origin. . 

iH*^ umumat) f. the condition of being a 
mother, maternity, a. 

^o\ Wft amt, f. the water of life ; nectar, s. 
^f] W7ni amaya, ra. sickness, disease, s. 
^f>\ ummij uneducated, unable to n^ad or 

" write ; unknown, unacquainted, a. [rtj-pufs. h. 

W amefhiya, name of a tribe of 
f\ amekkta, mixed, mirigled. p. 

eltfitan) (r. amez), to mix, to 
mingle, p. 

JL^ ummaid or ummed, f. hope, expectation, 

dependence, trust ; (in Hind.) pregnancy, nmmaift-se 
hona, to be pregnant, ummaid-war, hopeful, expect- 
ing ; an expectant, a dependant, a candidate, tntinuud* 
u'<lri, f. expectation, ex)>ectancy, dependence, p 

, m. faeces, excrement; 
adj. impure. 5. 

^x*\ ummedi, an expectant 5 adj. hopeful, 

sanguine, p. 

**\ amir, m. a nohlrmnn, a grandee ; an oasr- 
ern title nearly answering to Lord, amir ul umara or 
amiri kabir, Lord of lords, a title given by eastern 
princes to their ministers, &c. amir-war or amirand t 
like a noble, amlr-zdda of amtr-zadt, nobly born ; 
amlru-l-ba^r, a commander bv tea (hence admiral). 
amirul-muminin, commander ox the (true) believers, a 
title assumed by the Caliphs, a. 

*\ aiwtrt, f. a principality, an earldom, 
the dignity or office of an amir. a. 

amez, mixture; (in compos.) mixed, 
mixing, fraught with, as mihr-amez, fraught with 
friendship, p. 

(jJ>jA*T arnezish, mingling, mixing ; f. mirth- 

fulness, sociability, bonhomie, p. 
(jry*\ amin, a commissioner, a trustee, an um- 

pire, an investigator, an arbitrator ; a supervisor or 
officer employed by govcniment to examine and regu- 
late the state of the revenues of a district. ami- 
daftar, an office for auditing the amlnt. a. 

(jryT amttt, amen, so be it. a. 

ij*\ amint, f. the office of amm; trust, 

" guardianship ; security, secure, a. 

^\ Wf aw, a negative prefix of the same 

effect as our un or in, as an-dekha, unseen. In word* 
purely Sanskrit it is prefixed only to those beginning 
with a vowel, as an-anta, endless; but in Hindi it ii 
used indiscriminately before words beginning ith 
vowels or consonants, as an-adar, disrespect, an-pafha. 
unread, &c. *. [weapon. . 

^\ ^rftaf an/, m. the edge or point of u sharp 
^l ^ anw, after (in time, place, and rank), 

according to, in imitation of, 9 . 

( 02.) 

T - 

an, thai ; he, she, or it. 7?. * 
^1 an, f. time, honr, minute, a. 

an (for WJ), other (for 
der, command, t . 

, or- 

a, f. a graceful attitude, an affected 

gait ; affectation, pride, p. 
)T ^BTHf an, f. dignity, honour; modesty, bash- 
fulness; adv. on oath, an-man se, respectfully, ho- 
nourably. A. [applied to boiled rice), s 

\ WW ann, m. food, victuals, (particularly 

1 ^*T in and *1| un (pronouns in the oblique 

cane), these, those, them. A. 

(inn a, m. the husband of a nurse, h. 
5#a, n. to come, to be, to become, h. 
, mi the sixteenth part of a rupi ; 

a measure of land equal to sixteen rQsis. In most In- 
dian dialects the term and is conventionally used to 
denote the fraction ^; thus a man is said to have a 
four ftnfi, share in a mercantile house, which means 
that he is entitled to one-fourth of the profits, and- 
kara, m. a fee of one a in the rupi. h. 

lil ana % delay, opportunity ; a seasonable hour. 
innd, as to us, verily we (used only in Arabic phrases). a. 

C^oli\ inabat, f. penitence, repentance, con- 
version, return to the true faith, a. 

an-atur, healthy, vigorous, s. 

a-nath, without a husband, with- 
out a protector, without chief or sovereign ; helpless, 
an orphan, andthl-banjar, m unclaimed land, lands 
without an owner. *. [pronounced ndj). s. 

. lil WfrnT andji in. t corn, grain (incorrectly 

l^-lil ^ffPVR an-achar, m. improper con- 
duct, neglect of religious observance; adj. immoral, 
ill-behaved. an-ach&ri t immoral, indecorous, s. 

U>A>1 wrrfrfT anachttj suddenly, unex- 
pectedly. annchltl or anachiti, f. ignorance, thought- 
lessness. d. 

U\i UT ananfa-dnan, constantly, every minute, 

incessantly, a. 

J6\J\ ^rfnTt an-dkar, shapeless. * 

^y olil ^ifficuKal and-ham, f. turning a deaf 

"ear, overlooking, winking at, purposely neg/ecting. 
dna-kand-d., to pretend ignorance, to ignore, h, 

eternal, anatl-banjar, land that has been waste from 
time immemorial, unad-bhuml, land transferred by 
mortgage, anddi-ttva, m. eternity, s. 

jfc>U\ WtfT^ an-adar, m. affront, disrespect, s. 
.\J\ andr, m. a pomegranate; it also denotes 

a kind of firework, p. 
(.foW <BMKMi anarpan, m. silliness, clum- 

siness, inexpertness, ignorance, h. 
e61ijU\ anar-tlana, m. a species of millet, so 

called from its resemblance to the seed of the pome- 
granate. p. - [nate, p. 

<gjlM //art, of or resembling the pomegra- 
anarl,} unskilful, clumsy, inex- 
awart,/ pert; s. a novice, a 
bungler, h. 

SWlft unasi, seventy-nine, s. 
an-ashya, indestructible, s. 

01 ^HI^MI andkrdntd, f. a sort of 

prickly nightshade (Solanum jacquini). t. 

*JL^S\3\ VHHMI^M an-dgamya, unapproachable, 

inaccessible, s. 
+\J\ andm, mortal?, the world, demons,genii. a. 

andmnt (per metathesin for amdnai), 
deposit, trust, &c. a. [fingers, a. 

andntil (pi. of &^>1), fingers, tips of the 
dnan, those, dndn-ki, those who. p. 

andnds, m. (v. anannds), the pine- 
apple. Port. 

^j6U\ andriiyat, f. egotism, boasting, arro- 
gance. a. 
j\Jt>\j\ 'WrfTf K aw-aAar, m. abstinence, starva- 

tion. an-ahari, adj. fasting, s. [easy. 3. 

.U! WflZHfl an-dyds, m. case, facility ; adj. 

anab or inab, a kind of grape, the egg- 
plant. a. 

dnb or dmb, m. a mango (v. dm)* 9. 
ambu, m. water, s. 
ambd 9 f. a mother (same as ammo), s. 
jj\ ambdr, m. magazines, heaps, a stock, p. 

,Ui\ ambdriy f. a canopy ; a litter or how- 
dah used on an elephant or camel, p. 

ambdrd, m. 1 the esculent plant 

ambdfi, f. J hibiscus, com- 
monly called the Itozelle (Hibiscus cannabimis}. h. 

M ambdZ) m. a partner, an associate, p. 
jUM om^aa:?, partnership, association, p. 
Ui\ ambdn, a kind of soft goat-skin leather; 

a purse, a clothes-bag, wallet. /;. 

dn-bdn,. spirit, proper pride, h. 
ambaty sour, acid. A. 
uJl Ml^riMi ambatana, n. to be acidulated./*. 
-ji\ \sr^if amfewj, m. the lotus (Nymphaa 

nelumbo). t. 

R ambar (v. ^^), sky; clothes, h. 

ambar, m. (corruption of ^fip), am- 
ber, &c. a. 

amftara,?, f. a mango grove. $. 

imbi*dt,f. gladness, joy, delight, cheer- 
fulness, recreation, mirth, a. 

see ^f^), the goddess ParvatL . 

(.63 ) 

am6t7, a kind of pottage* d. 

^UjJi iMWHm an-bana,o, in. discord, dis- 
eensiou, misunderstanding. A. 

/^uUfit ^fftWstft anubandhi, connected with, 

"attached, s. 

J^jj) <B1ifl<? or Wift<9 an-bol or am-bol, 
speechless, h. [course, p. 

tj\ amboh, a crowd, multitude, mob, con- 
JJ\ amba> m. a mango (see am), p. 
jl^fi^ anbha,o 9 \ m. cultivating or taking pos- 

jfy>\ anbhau, J session of land, enjoying 
property, d. 

(^*&typ\ 'WrifHcJM^ an-abhilash, m. indiffe- 
rence, abcence of deaire. an-abhilasht, indifferent, s 

}tyj\ VW^ anubhav or amibhau, m. com- 
prehension in the mind, judgment, conjecture, ex- 
perience, result, consequence. *. [guessed. $. 

O^jJt ^^J? anubhut, experienced, felt, 
_24*M ^Tft^[ ambfuy, m. 

cfJ^jJ\ aribhog (v. anbha,o}, possession &c. 5. 
^oiT 07/iftt, that which grows spontane- 
**ously. d 

bu3\ ambiya (pi. of 4<> j-f>)> prophets, a. 
Ufi\ ^Prm ambiya J. a small unripe mango. &. 

5, unmarried, s. 

an-bedha, unbored, unper- 

forated. s. 

xo\ ambik, m. a still, fin alembic, a. 
ugj^ amblkar, a sailor, pilot, d. 

anupatah, m. a heinous of- 
fence short^of a capital crime, s. 

ann-pdn, m. a vehicle ; (in 


medicine) any thing in which a medicine is mixed, to 
facilitate the taking of it; or which is swallowed after 
the medicine. *. [drink. *. 

ann-parii, m. victuals and 

an-apatya, childless, without 

progeny. *. 
&4\j>\ ^'ti^ilV an-aparadh, m. innocence; 

adj. innocent, sinless, anaparadhi, innocent, s, 
^^V^^ I^UI^R anna-prasan, m. a kind of 

ceremony, the first feeding of children with food made 

of grain. *. 

Gjy\ amparna, n. to come to hand. d. 

V*|ri an-upcisthit, not ready, 
not present. . 

Joit ^W anupal, m. a second (of time), s. 
a-nipun* unskilled, s. 

T, f. satiety ; name of a god- 
de, the Ceres of the Hindus. #. 

l WT|pT, n. to happen, h. 
\ "WTJ^i anupurv, f. order, method, a 

rank, a row. s. 

iuM *R^3f an-apefaha, f. disregard, care- 
lessness, indifference, t. ' [ing. . 

ant, f. entrails, gut, tripe, ant 

5,owo, n. to be afflicted with the coming down of th 
rectum, ant girna, n. to void white glutinous stools. *. 

-o\ ^ ant, m. end, completion; perdition, 

destruction; mind, heart, boundary, limit; adj. final, 
ultimate ; adv. after all, at last ; (for antar) in, within. 
ant-ko, in the end, at the last. s. 

ant, in. intelligence, news, account, h. 
^*tftanat t elsewhere, somewhere else, * % 

^^7T unnat, high, tall.' unnati, f. in- 
crease, prosperity, rising, a. 
c-AjJ\ ^flUI anutap, m. repentance, regret, 

remorse, anutilpi, penitent. *. 

\j\jj\ ^jrtlTT anutara, m, a satellite, s. 
HH1^)TT untans, thirty-nine, h. 
antaj, m. a Shiidra, or man of low 

mtikhab, m. selection, 
ing extracts from books ; election, choice, a. * 

antar t within, between, amongst; 

without, except; on one aide, out of the way ; m, in- 
terval, intermission ; period, term; hole, rent; a cor- 
ner, side, quarter of the heavens ; distance, space; 
heart; a pause, a stop; difference; opportune time ; 
the midst; the heart, the supreme soul; adj other, 
similar, antar-bhdo, internal or inherent nature, an- 
tar-bhut, in the midst, antar-jami, pervading the 
inward parts, acquainted with the heart (the Deity). 
antar-jat, inborn, innate, ctntar-dushf, internally bad, 
wicked, antar-dwar, a private door within a house. 
antar-gati, f. emotions or the heart, inward sensations; 
adj. forgotten, antar-manas, sad, perplexed, antw- 
vatrii, a pregnant woman, s. 

\ ^t^r antar, f. the entrails, bowels, viscera, s. 
\ WraTaMwftar, unable to answer, without 

reply. #. [out. *. 

antara, central ; near ; adv. with- 
antar a, m. a verse, any verse of 

a song, except the first, k. 

^j6\ ^^KIMA antarapatt (for antara- 

patya\ pregnant, with child, with young (any animal), s. 

-x>])6\ ^VfTOrtq antara-tap, f. an intermittent 
fever, a tertian ague. *. . [space, s. 

antaral, central ; m. Included 
antarbed, \ f. the region of 
antarbedi)) Kanauj be- 

tween the rivers Ganga and JamunJi, commonly called 
theDu,ab. *. [ocrcen. j. 

antar-pat t m. a curtain, & 
antarit* inward, internal. *. 

>W- Jot 

C*it ( < 

an tar;a/,m.a stick used in wrestling.^. 

antarjaml* acquainted with 

* the heart, an epithet of Krishna. . 

Jl m. the sky, the 

f antariksh, J air, the firma- 
ment, t. 

y\*&J&\ ^VRT^nf antardhan, 1 m. disap- 
.\*b&Jj\ VflUHf antardhyan,) pearance, 

concealment, antardhydn-hond, to disappear, t. 

iJjoT Vtftn dntrik, visceral, relating to the 

bowels. . 

&p^ WNrtjfl antargangd, m. a kind of 
water-plant bearing a white flower. . [friend. *. 

}j\^m^jfantarang, m. a relative, a near 
\ antri, f. entrail (v. antrT). 9. 

\ antriya, m. intermittent, an in- 
termitting fever, t. 

.^kjjol ^Hflfll antarip, m. a promontory. 

kumari antarip, Cape O J&orin. *. 

^??n3 < a[ antarichh, 1 m. the sky ; 
f antarihuh, ) adv. in the 

'air Tout of sight, antariksh, heavenly, celestial; m. 
the firmament, s. 

fnft^rerfl, or ^ihft cmtrt or rwfrt,f. en- 

.atine, bowel, put. antfiyan jalna, to be very 

o ^ . anfri kd but tcliobia. a. to eat a bellyful after 

starving. ttntriy&A Iful huwa-llah parhna, n. to be very 
hungry (the belly saying there is but one God), antjrt- 
yort me* ag lagna, to be very hungry. #. 

LHi\ intifihar, m. copfusion, want of regu- 
larity; dispersion, explanation, a. 

looking out (for any 
person), expectation. 
k., a. to expect, to look out for. a. 
inti?am t m. disposition, regularity, 
order, arrangement; the dispensation of Providence 
or fate. a. [stumbling, a 

intia&h, recovering one's self after 
I inttfa', m. profit, advantage, a. 

intfyal, in. transporting, travelling; 
transferring, circulation (of currency) ; departure, de- 
cease, dying, a. 

Jiuil intikam, m. revenge, retaliation, inti- 
' "-^., to retaliate, a. [hour of death. . 

t-kal, m. dying moments, 
antakaran, or antah-karan, 
'or antatkaran* m. heart, mind, understanding. *. 
[ antim, final, ultimate. . 

(in comp.. same as nntar)* anfah- 

p&ii, included, antah-jharir, m. the internal and spi- 
ritual part of man, conscience, soul, antah-karan, m. 
the understanding, heart, will, conscience, soul. jr. 

l|jj\ fnff/m, f. end, termination, summit ; adj. 
finished, completed, prohibited. . [raents. t. 

ih-pur, m. the inner apart- 

Uajo intifjar, m. 1 
MbX^ intigari, f.J 



r antya-janrna, J a man of the 

lowest cast, antya-janmani, f. a woman of the tame 
cast. *. 

1m. a 
2, J a mi 

untls, twenty-nine. 9. 

antev<w, m. a disciple, n 

pupil residing with his teacher. * 

^jjuo\ W3TC*$ antya-varna, m. f. a man or 

woman of the Shudra cast. s. 

^' ^HfftfW a-nitya t not permanent, fleeting, 

perishable, anityafd, f. frailness, transient existence. 
a-nitya-datta or a-nitya-dattaka. that which is tempo- 
rarily granted ; a son adopted for a certain term. *. 


ant, f. a knot ; envy, h. 
i\ fRpTaw/a,m. a ball, marble. anta-gJiar, 

m. a billiard-room. A. 

anta-chit, unlucky, whose 

fortune is exhausted (a term of abuse), h. 
jpjy Uiit V( ([414ft 3} antahorly f. a cord with 
which cattle are tied neck and heels, h. 

ant-sant y f. partnership; 
intrigue, h. 

antna, n. to be contained* to be 

filled up (a well or tank, &c.). h. 

antna, a. to fill (a well or tank), 
to come or go into, to reach, h. 
^jol YJ^qifff antwana, a. to make contain, 
to cram into, to cause to be filled, h. 

anthlana, a. to twist, to 

writhe ; n. to swagger, to strut, to give one's self airs, 
to walk affectedly, h. [lation. A. 

JO I 5HT?pft ant hi, f. stone of fruit ; coagu- 

* - DC 

9 > the two testicles, ears,&c. a. 
ini, I 

anthaj, f. a tick (the louse that 
"attacks dogs, inc.). t. 

^yil ^rnpft anti, f. a handful; a bundle of 
"grass, &c., a small faggot ; a skein of thread, a bank. I 
^\joi\ un 
( .&\ unsayaini, 
^\ WVTT anuj t younger, junior, s. 
la I an-ja 9 there, az an-ja, thence, p. 
+{\ an jam, m. end, termination ; accident, 

vexation ; in comp. ending, &c. p. 
UUi\ W*W1R[ anjama, barren (land) in which 

nothing will grow. A. [conclude, p. 

anjamidan, to terminate, to finish* 
an-jan, unwitting, unintentional, 

unknowing! ignorant; nt. 4 a stranger. <mjfan^ M to 
assume the stranger, to pretend ignorance of a person 
or thing, t. 

>W1 ^THiflHl an-jana, unknown, a stranger ; 
ignorant anyone, ignorantly, unwittingly, h. 
an-jani, f. ignorance, negligence, h. 

(. 65 ) 

d,i t a mongrel or hybrid animal, d. 

anjabdr or injibdr, name of a plant 

from which a drink IB prepared for obstinate colds, 
spitting of blood, &c. p. [honey. *. 

*^utf\ anjabin (Arabic form of angabln}* 
anjard or injard, m. a nettle, p. 

or W4f3T3 an-jas, in. infamy. , 
/a/, m. (v. &*^), two handfuls, &c. 
*nri|<? or 'BPRin? ann-jal, m. victuals 

and drink ; Pers. db o dana or db-ddna. 9. 

anjla, m. two handful*, as much 

as can be held in both hands open ; the junction of 
the two hands to form the shape of a boat; Soottice, 
a goupen* 8. 

an-jala] unburnt, unscorched. s. 
fJ7)jli f. (same as anjld), it also 

"(U'notes a mode of salutation by carrying the two 
hands joined (as above) to the forenead. *. 

v *\ anjum (pi. of ^), star?, constellations, a. 

A^\ jnjimdd, in. state of congealing or 

congelation, o. 
.j+*i\ anjuman, f. an assembly* meeting, 

company, banquet, p. 

dnjanj\ m. a collyrium, an oint- 
njan, J ment applied to the eye- 

lashes with a view to blacken and improve them. *. 
^\ wifff anjan, m. a kind of grass, much 

used (in the upper provinces) as food for cattle, h. 
\jjA\ ^Tff TTfTT au-jandt unborn ; m. an inferior 

kind of rice. h. 
U^T tfTOtfT dnjndt a. to tinge the eyes with 

anjan. s. 

U^l TQ&vnanjnd, ri. to be tinged with anjan ; 
t the mother of Hanuraan ; a lizard, s. 

anjan-sdr, m. collyrium. s. 
anjanikd* f. a kind of newt 

or lizard, s. 

^l^isfl mm^Tft anjanhdri, f. a stye (or 
stithe) on the eyelids, h. 

.&ff\ V^fft anjani, f. a woman perfumed 

with sandal, &c, a medicinal plant used as a sedative 
and laxative. 

jaJT W*J dnju 1 m. a tear; (see 
^\ vh\ dryltu, ) dnsu). h. 

, m. a fig. p. 
JjuM injUt m.the New Testament, Gospel, g. 
J\ tlH Sneht f. he,n, flame of a fire (not of 

iicandle) t glare, blaze ; (in Bakh.) ashes of cow-dang. A. 
\\ im unchd, high, lofty (for uiickd). h. 
\\ anchd* m. the post for letters, a stage or 

station on the road, d, 

unchas, forty -nine. i. 
wiclid$ 9 f. height, elevation, k. 
^Ijil unckdn, height, elevation, d. 
Olji\ ^nn unchdnd, a. to raise, to take up. $. 
unchd t u 9 m. 

' eleTOtion ' 
height. 3. 

fit .1 

unchahat, f. 

,i, f. 

an-chdhati not desired* 5. 

an-chit, unaware, sudden; adv. 
suddenly, h. [ing. * 

an-ttchit t improper, unbecom- 

anuchar, m. a companion, a fol- 
lower, an attendant, anuchari, f. a Jemale companion. *. 

t VfN^ dnchar, 1 m. the hem o/ a cloak 
^^ WTO anchrdj J or veil ; a border at 

the end of a veil, shawl, &c. s. 

anckal, | in. breast (of a woman 

1 dnchfil, j or lactescen* animal) ; 
the hem of a cloak or veil ; a border of a veil or shawl, s. 

anchld, m. the hem of a cloak, 
&c., a sheet, used among Jogls. *. 

dn-chun-dn, even as, ju^t as. p. 
TTrft^ ttnrh-ntcht ups and downs of 
life, vicissitude, high and low, particulars, s. 

j\ ^i^r dnchu, m. the rSspberry. kdld dnchu, 
the hill bramble. A. 

an-chi, that which, whatsoever. /?. 
^BCfrTW an-ichchhd, f. indifference, ab- 

sense of desire, s. 

^ \ 3M$1<9I an-chhildy unlicked, rude ; 
unpared (as fruit, &c.). h. 

I charhnd 9 to 

to mount a high ladder, i.e. to obtain a high rank. 4. 
anchena, in. valuation or estimate of 
growing crops : it is also called kan-kut, q. v. d. 

j\j\ inhirdf (in Dakh. also inhirdfi), de- 
flection, inversion, change ; met. to jrove a turncoat ; 
recantation, deviation trom the meridian, chiefly ap- 
plied to the bearing of the temple of Mecca ; declina- 
tion of a heavenly body; a disease, defect, distemper, a. 

inhisdr, m. surrounding, encircling, a. 

M/2/, m. levity, lightness, a. 
3\ anda&fatan (r. anddz") 9 to cast, to 

throw down. p. 

\j&*\ i \ andaMfOt cast away, thrown, p. 
j\)\ anddr, a narrative, story, tale, fiction, p. 

\j\<\ j^rTT inddrd. ra. a large well built of 
solid masonry, h. 


1 m. valuation, guess; weigh- 

jb31 anddza,) ing, measurement; tim$ 
in music; mode, manner; (in comp.) throwing, as 
barlf-anddz, a thrower of lightning, a matehlockman. 
anddz-patfi, f. an estimate of the value of a growing 
crop. p. 

\&J\ anddm, m. body, stature, figure, an- 

dami-nihdnt t ' pudendum mulieri*. p. 

\ andar, within, inside, inwardly, p. 

\ ^*5 indra, m. the king of the Devatas, 
the regent of the visible heaven; the thunderer. 
indra-dwadashi, the 12th day of the month Bhadra, 
a festival in honour of Indra. . 

a-wtWr, awake, sleepless. 5. 
\j JJ\ indira, f. the goddess of wealth, s. 
^\jj3\ indirdjt m. becoming extinct(a family) ; 

being folded together, insertion, a. 
{.jA*^tXM ^ititf indrdsan, m. the throne of 

Indra. *. 

(3^*j3! ^JHlft or ^JH^I indrarii) f. the wife 

** of Indra; the name of .Aiedicine or plant (Vltex ne- 
gundo). s. 

indrawan (v, indrdyari) d. 

4s^(M^u indrdt/an^ f. colocynth, wild 

gourd ; a fruit of beautiful appearance, but bitter taste 
(Cucumii colocunthis) : hence a beautiful but worthless 
person is called indrayan ka phal t the fruit of in- 
dray an. g. 

indra-badhu, f. name of an 

insect (a species of acarus, of a scarlet colour like vel- 
vet) ; the wife of Indra. s. 

L^j^^>\ ^{JUHl iwlra-pra&tha, one of the 

names of ancient Dihll *. 

T mdra-prohita, f. the 
asterism Pushya. s. [dra. *. 

ra-puri, f. the city of In- 

irulra-jdl, m. deception, 
cheating, juggling: trick or stratagem in war. in- 
drajali, m. a conjuror, juggler; adj. deceptive, un- 
real. g. 

or ^T' indra-jau, m. name 
of a medicinal seed that grows on the plant karajja. 
q. v. ; (Sparrow's tongue, Nerium antidysentericum). s. 

ijil andar 'az, m. last will ; last advice, pre- 
cepts, or admonitions, p. 

*^^l ^IH^I an-darsd, m. a kind of fried 
sweetmeats, a kind of cloth (see adarsa). h. 

indra-riil, m. a sapphire, s. 
indra-riilak, ra. an 

emerald. . 

undanvdr (for andaruri) within, d. 

^ andarun, within, inner apartments, 
interior, p. 

J^^t andaruna, internal, relating to the in- 
side. p, 

andarunl, internal, intrinsic, p. 


indri, 1 f. the senses (internal 
gjiXil ^ft^l indriya, ) and external), organs 

of action and perception (those of action are the hand, t 
the foot, the voice, the organ of generation and the 
organ of excretion; those of perception, the mind, the 
eye, the ear, the nose, the tongue, and the skin; ; 
the privities, membrum virile, veretrum ammalium. 
indrl julltib, a diuretic medicine, indriya-gydn, in. the 
faculty of perception, sense, consciousness, s. 

indu-rekka, f, a digit of the 

c\9JJ\ indiffft m. warding off, repelling, a. 

(2)>\ andak, little, small, few. andahi, f. a 
small portion or number, p. 

andakar, m. 1 darkness, obscurity ; 

anddhari, f. / adj. dark. d. 
andld (for andhla q. v.), blind, dark. d. 

indimal, m. recovering, getting well 

of a wound, a. 

in, every day, daily, s. - 
jc^l %l<j. dndiij m. the chain or rope with 

which the feet of elephants are tied up. *. 
^l ^pTt induwar, m. the day of the 
moon, Monday, s. 

andokfeta, acquired, gained ; m. 
gain, acquisition, p. [crusted, p. 

jji* andud (in comp.), besmeared, en- 
J^I ^T indur, m. a rat, mouse, s. 
jjl andoz, in comp. gaining, acquiring, p. 
andolnd) n. to swing, s, 

andoh, m. griof, anxiety, trouble; an- 
doh-gm, full of grief, sad, afflicted, p. 

AJ\ ^SR| andh, m. darkness ; adj. blind. 
andh-tamas, m. great darkness, s. 

&j31 ^>TT andka, adj. blind, dark, andha 
dhund, blind, blindly, andha dhund rond, to weep ex- 
cessively. andltd (ihutui lutdna, to squander, spend 
extravagantly, andha ku t a or andfia-kup, m. a well 
filled up with rubbish, andha-kharch (Dakh.), prodi- 
gality, extravagance. 5. 

andhara, dark, obscure, d. 

andhari, f. darkness, obscurity, 
cloudiness ; a blind over a horse's eyes, d, 
^T^Irrf andhata, f. blindness, s. 

andhak, m. a blind man ; a 

man's name ; adj. blind, f. 

traflR andhaliar y in. darkness, s. 
andkakara, m.1 darkness, obscurity, 
jl andhakari, f.) cloudiness, g. 

andhla (see Udil andha), 
blind. *. 

andhldpan, m. blind- 

ness ; intellectual blindn:s3 ; acting as if one were 
blind. A. 

^Vf indhan, m. fire- wood. . 

an-dhan, m. wealth, both in 

grain and coin, properly anna-dhan. s. 

andhly f. storm, hurricane, tempest; a 

darkening or louring of the sky. andhi-h. t to en- 
gage keenly in a had action. h. [darkness. *. 

l andhjydra, blind, dark ; m. 

^. ^nfa andker, m. darkness, misfortune, 
calamity, injustice, tumult, andher-k., to tyrannize, 
oppress, h. 

andhera, dark; m.. darkness. 

(See andhiyara). andherl-kophrt, f. darkroom; the 
belly ; the womb. h. 

andkerl, f. darkness, a blind 

for a horse. 5. 

j^fc^ 'BRtfta an-adhin, independent, s. 

jtxxil andesh, thinking, contriving; used 
in conip. as bad-andesh q. v. p 

i)LiiJ>4X-M andesh-nak or andesh-mand) 

thoughtful, anxious, p. [anxiety, p. 

\jj t <)\ andeshndkt or andesh-mandt, f. 

^J>.j3t andesha, m. thought, meditation, sus- 
picion, care, concern, andesha-k., to reflect, to hesi- 
tate, to fear. p. 

3J*&j.iX>\ andesha-mand, full of anxiety, p. 
yxh andesha-mandl, anxiousness, 

^joij JJ\ undeshidan, to consider to reflect, p. 

\g&j\ &*f^on an-dekha, not yet seen, undis- 

covered, invisible, h. 
ixil WPf and (vulgarly 331 and or anf),m. 

Palma Christ! (Ricinus vulgaris). h. 

3o\ ^BTCU and, in. an epjr ; a testicle, and-kos 
or and-ko$h, a hernia or rupture. *. 

ii 1 'WTII? or ^TR!? and or 5/ir, m. a testicle, 
the scrotum ; semen genitale. s. 

\&\ ^tl&l anda (also dnda), m. an egg. s. 
andaj (lit. egg-born), oviparous, 


a bird. *. 
\j&\ andra or andra, m. an egg. d. 

^33! ^?^<*1 andltUy m. an egg; also used for 
akha, a pannier, or rather one of the bags forming 
a pannier, h. 

ij*y 3o\ ^^5 l '*1^ and-kosh, m. the scrotum, 

the testicles ; rupture, hernia. *. 
UJlil undalna, a. to pour out water, &c. &. 
UJjj) andalna, to consider, to determine or 

settle, d. 
j3j) ^HB aw(?u, having large testicles, andu 

bail,* bull. In Dakhanl it is said to mean a bull with 
one testicle, s. 

\j&\ ^1J2W indu,a, in. a head cushion for 

carrying a burden on. A. 

andiva,i, f. a swelled testicle. <f. 

3o\ ^<j^ indu$ 9 f. a head or crown orna- 
ment ; also a cushion, v. indu.a. h. 

**( m &\ande-seh?ta, to bring forth young; 

to keep one's own house, ande mefi Ki.zardi, applied 
to one who is raw and inexperienced, rf. 

jiil ^r^9 andelf oviparous; pregnant 

(bird), h. 

unddna, a. to pour water. A. 
anuradha, f. the 17th lunar 

niMiision, designated by a row of oblations j stars in 
Libra. ,?. 

Ll/1^1 ^rTCFT anurag, m. affection, love. 5. 

lo|31 ^rjiMHf anuragna, n. to be in love 

with. 5. [loving, caressing, i. 

c/l)U^ W*RT*ft anuragt, making friendship, 

*j>\ ^Ttf an-arth) unmeaning, fruitless, ab- 

surd, improper, s. [restrained *. 

,J& Jpl ^vfvf^g 1 a-niruddha, unobstructed, un- 

^j^l ^ftTTH an-ras, m. want of flavour or 

enjoyment ; disgust, nauseotisness ; coolnesa distaste, 
misunderstanding between friends. 5. 

ann-ras, m. chyle. 5. 
a-nirmal, dirty, foul. 5. 
a-nirnay, in. uncertainty. <. 
an-ririi t un indebted. 5. 
anuritp, like, conformable; m. 

conformity, a. 

a-nirvachya, J to be 

spoken, indefinable, s. [nesi. $. 

anurodh f m. service, obliging- 

an-rlt, f, unmannerliness, ill- 
behaviour. *. 

il TOHJSTa/zr, m. a testicle (v. and). 
JU-i\ inzal, m. emission, sending downj 

emisslo seminis. a. 

^j^li\ anzarut, m*. sarcocolla; (gum-resin, 

said to be from Penaa mucronata). a. p. 

pi inzin'd t retiring into a corner or cell (a 

recluse), a. [thing, k. 

dftSy f. the fibrous .part of any 
J\ ins, men, mankind, the human race. a. 

3\ uns, m. friendship, love, affection, so- 
ciety, companionship, a, 
j^^faf ans or^f aw,s7/, m. -a part, division, 

share, right, possession ; a degree of a circle ; a frac- 
tion, the numerator of a fraction ; essence. arija- 
patra, a deed setting forth the shares of a property 
between the members of a Hindu family, arixa /idea, 
m. one who takes a share of an estate ; a co-heir or 
joint sharer, &c. . o 

( 68 ) 

uAwtM amab (pi. of <-juJ), generations, 
families, a. 

U-3\ *ft}UK amtsdr, alike, according to ; 
m. conformity to usage, anus art, adj. following, ac- 
cording with or to. s, 

^L*J\ in*an, m. man, mankind, a. 

Q*5L*it ^W^ff^T ansdnx oranthdntha, in. a sub- 

division, a share of a share. . 
^L-il insdni, of or belonging to humanity, 
* peculiar to man, human, a. 

CLaiUJl insdniyat, f. humanity, human 

kindness; affability, a. 

U^ui\ ansab, advisable, most proper, a. 
CJwM anasat, f. intimacy, use, cheerfulness, a. 
-i! 9t(M3 vnsttth, fifty-nine. .. 

J$fVu3 amdhari, successful ; (in 
theology) incarnating. . 

^-3\ WJWIT anusarnd, n. to follow a per- 
son, to follow on sore previous circumstance. *. 
tfrftn* <m7<5, a partner; a proprietor. ,s\ 

investigation. *. 

w-$wna, unheard, disregarded, h. 
anusandltdn, m. inquiry, 

Mz-7/., a. to pretend 
not to hear what is spoken ; to disregard, h. 

aiisu, m. a tear, diisu bhar-land, 
to have the eyes filled with tears, s. 

*-i! V^HK anuswdra, m. the nasal dot or 
character in Devanagarl. s. 

ansrvdnsa, m. a measure 
of land, twenty of which make a pilwatsa. h. 

*'* QJinn, in. men and sjiirits. a. 
or Wjft an5t or ow*/ti, a partner, 
sharer, co-heir. *. [taught. *. 

^TRtil^i an-sikhd) uninstructed, un- 
umiyain (for unsiyaini), the two 

testicles, a. 

t31 m.s/m, writing, COTD position, elegance of 
style, the belles lettres. insha-pardazi, f. writing, let- 
ter-writing. a. 

lio'jlM lt>^ iw-Ma a//a/<u taala, if God the 
most High willeth ; Deo volente. a. 

^ll^ ""WftfFT an-ishthd, f. unstedfastncss, un- 
steadiness. *. [forbidden, s. 

'faftui an-ishiddha, un prohibited, un- 
ai1 ansdr (pi. of^ali), assistants, friends 
(of Muhammad), applied to the inhabitants of Medina 
who first embraced the Islam religion, a. 

i^jUaM ansdri, a tribe of Muhammadan 

&'/ta/.&&Muppoted to have come originally fromMedina a. 

cJl-oi^ in*af, m. decision (of a cause); equity, 
justice, insaf-talab, one who seeks for justice, a. 

p\f&>\ inxirdm, m. completion, end. a. 
l?buau>l inzibdt, f. beinir bound or determined, 

restraint; self-control, a. [printed, a. 

fiUlx>V intiba, being impressed or stamped, 

llaM awp;ar (pi. of^lai), looks, eyes. a. 

^US\ in dm, m. a present, a gift, tn'am-t- 

ikram, an honourable gift, in'am-ka-paisa, prize money. 
in' ami altamgha, a grant under the royal seal, in 9 ami 
lea nun go, an assignment of rent-free land to a village 
accountant, an' dm, gifts, a. 

C^*U}\ indmatj f. a gift, a benefaction; an 
assignment of rent-free land. a. 

(_>*>Kjo! iniJtds, m. being turned upside down ; 

reflexion (from a mirror),repercussion,reverberation a. 

jlfti^ rtn/ar (pi. of ^i>), individuals, persons, 
soldiers, servants, a. [rits. a. 

^>*>lii! n/a.* (pi. of (j**ii), breathings, spi- 

ekss? 1 ''' (infijffifi, m. rennet, leaven; a substance 
tending to produce fermentation ; a term in medicine. 
(The word is apparently a corrijption of the Arabic 
infaJiat). d. 

JUoiil infi'*dl 9 m. decision, termination (of a 

cause) ; division, separation, settling. ii$f&l-k 9t to 
settle, to decide (corruptly injtf&lt). a. 

A)l injial, m. shame, confusion,modesty. a. 
inlibdz, m. detention, constipation, a. 
inkhdnii in. division, dividing, a. 

inliizd, in. the expiration of any term; 
adj. elapsed, ended, fulfilled, accomplished, finished, 
completed, a. 

cllaSi\ jnfiijd\ m. being broken, cut off, cessa- 
tion, failure, separation, adjustment, a. 

hikildb, m. revolution, vicissitude, 
alteration, change, inversion, transposition, a. 
Uib\ inhiydd, in. fidelity, submission, obe- 
dience, compliance a. 

a#7*, lin.alettero'fthealpha- 

^ or ^^IT ank,j bet; a figure, a num- 
ber (in contradistinction to sun or snnnd, a dot or 
cypher) ; the stamp on coins, plate, &c. ank-kar, m. an 
assayer ; a mark (on cloth, pointing out the price) ; the 
flank or part above the hip ; embrace, the bosom ; (for 
ang) a share, portion, dnk-ddr, a sharer. *. 

il dnah, m. a kettle-drum, a kind of large 

drum beaten only at one end. s. 
j&l inhdr, denial, refusal, disavowal, a. 
0\}\ V44iHl (tnhana, a. to cause to value, 
to prize, to examine (as cloth), to approve of. *. 

"of rents. A. 

counted, s. 

ank'bandi, f. an adjustment 

ankit, marked, spotted, paged, 

tnni an-ukty not told ; m. a trope. 9. 
ankatta^\ra. a bank, a prop or support, 
ankata, J a dam or embankment in a 

river; a lock. rf. 

ankar, more or most wicked, very offen- 
sive, displeasing or detestable, a. 

ankar (for akar\ having come. s. 
ankur, ^Im. the first sprout from 

ankurdj a seed (after planting), 
a shoot, a plantlet, a germ. ' s. 

anukram, m. order, method, suc- 
cession, series, s. 

j&\ waft ankrlj f. a kind of vetch (Vicia 

sativa) ; wet grain ; a young sprout. . 

also ankrt), the 
barb of an arrow; 

ankri,} f. ( 
ankrij bar 

a circle, a hook, tenter, catch ; a tendril, a cirrhus ; 
a fyshing-hook. h. 

an-has, that person, whosoever, &c. p. 

^*(<*TR, vN<*^f, ^OT aiihas, a?tkas, or 

atikus, m. the iron with which elephants are driven, 
a goad, dnkus mdrnd, to bring to obedience, to reduce 
to submission. Some European writers (probably the 
King of Oude's cockney barber) have corrupted the 
word into "hawkuss" or "horkuss," vid. Lib of Enter- 
taining Knowledge, vol. The Elephant, p. 15. s 

UwX>\ inliuar (corruptly s'n/ma/i), in. being 
routed, humility, want of courage, despondency, a. 

inkisqf, m. bring eclipsed (thesun). a. 
inkixhaf, detection, disclosure, a. 
TffHt or ^ff^lift anksl or anhuH, f. a 

** hook, a tenter, s. 

JtJ\ "Wlj^I or ^fft^t^T ftnhitxh or ankush, same 

as dnkas, an elephant's goad. s. 

Ll5o\ T&W8R anhak, m. an uccountant, arith- 
metician. s. 

karnpa, f. tenderness, pity. s. 

anhna, n. to be valued, prized, 
examined, approved of; a. to mark, page a book, dis- 
tinguish a thing by some mark. *. 

SoT W^n ankna, a. to mark, to page, to 

write numbers ; to value, to examine, to approve of. s. 

^M ^hFSTt ankrvar, f. an embrace, the 
bosom, ankwdr bharnd, to embrace. ^, 

anna- hut 9 m. a festival cele- 

brated by Hindus on the day following the Dewall, 
by offering a large quantity of meats to the god. s, 

anka-vidya, f. arithmetic. *. 


rm. a sprout, s. 

ankora, m. a large hook, a kind of 

grapnel, d* 

anukul, coinciding, favoura hie, 

conformable, acting in concert with, anukulata, f: coin- 
cidence, concert, concord, dnukulya, m. assistance, 
patronage. . 

l an-ki, he or she who, that, which, p. 

ankh, f. the eyo. ahkh-anjani, f. a 

stye on the eyelids, ankh am, to have an inflammation 
of the eyes, to be blear-eyed, ankh bachdnd, to steal 
away privately and unseen, ankh badalna, to withdraw 
one s favour or affection from any one. ankh bardbar 
na kar saknd, (not to be nblc to look stedfastly in an- 
other's face), to be ashamed, ankh band kar lent, to 
turn from another, to treat one with neglect ; to die. 
ankh bharke dekhnd, to look till one's curiosity is fully 
satisfied, ankh bhar land, to have eyes full of tears, to 
be ready to cry. ankh pasdrnd, (obsolete) to open one's 
eyes, to stare, to be wise and prudent, to discriminate, 
to discern, to be judicious, ankh pathrdnt, (from pat- 
thar, a stone), to become dim (the eyes) from long ex- 
pectation. ankh pharaknt, to feel a pulsation>in the eye, 
considered as an omen of some desirable event, us the 
meeting of friends, is men, dahnl dnkhjoftpharkl, dil mcri 
shad hu,d ki yih shugiin achchhd hat, On this, feeling a 
pulsation in the right eye, he (RajaDushmantaJ rejoiced 
in his heart, conceiving it to be a favourable omen. 
'Sakuntald Ndtak: (a pulsation in the right eye of a 
man, or the left of a woman, is a favourable omen, the 
reverse disastrous), ankh phfttni, to be blind, ankh 
phutt t pir ga,i, the eye is lost, and the pain is gone 
(spoken of a contention, which has ceased by the object 
of it being lost to both parties). dnkh-phord, m a 
midge, that flies into the eyes at night, dnkh phorni, 
to make blind; to expect or watch in vain, ankh 
phernl, to shew aversion after friendship (see ankh 
mornl)- ankh pher lend, to turn away the eyes (as from 
grief, displeasure, &c.). dnkh phaildnd (see dnkh pa- 
sdrna). ankh thandl karnJ, to have consolation by 
meeting friends, to be glad, dnkh jorni, to look stcd- 
fastly (inelegant), dnkh jhafaknd, (to have eyelids 
joined, to move them quickly), to fear, dutch churdnt, 
(to steal eyes), not to attend to, to avert eyes through 
shame, dislike, &c., to avoid the sight of any one. dnkh 
charhdni, to be angry ; to be intoxicated, dnkh chajrhnd, 
to have eyes marked by debauch. &nkh chamkdnl, to 
make the eyes dance (to roll one's eyes) in anger, or 
as a blandishment, dnkh chhipdni(to hide one's eyes) 
to be ashamed of an improper act. dnkh chlr chef 
dekhnd, and dnkh clrirke dekhnd t to look with great at- 
tention and deep meditation ; with anger, ankh ddbni, 
(to shut one's eyes), to forbid by signs, dnkh dikhdm 
or dikhldni, (to shew one's eyes), to frighten, to restrain, 
to brow-beat, ankh drkhke kuchh karnd, to do any 
thing after consulting the inclination of another, dnkh 
dabdabdni, to fill the eyes with tears, dnkh dhaknl, 
(obsolete, to have eyes shut) ; to die ; to be ashamed. 
dnkh rakhnl, to love, to entertain friendship ; to have 
hope ; to discern, dnkh surfed karni, to be angry, dnkh 
se dekhke kuchh-k., to do any thing knowingly and with 
reflection, ankh se girnd (to fall from eyes), to become 
contemptible, dnkh senkni, to contemplate the beauty 
of any one. dnkh kisl se roshan-k., (to obtain a look 
from any one), to meet (visit) a friend or person of rank. 
ankh kisl ki dekhnl (to look at one's eves), to receive 
education in any one's company, dnkh kla^akni, to have 
pain iu the eyes, dnkh kholnd (see dnkh pasdrna). dnkh 
garm karnt (see dnkh senknt). dnkh ghuraknd, to look 
at with anger, dnkh lardnt, to wink as a hint, to com- 
municate a secret by signs, dnkh larm, to encounter 
the eyes of another; to meet with one's lover unex- 
pectedly. dnkh lagdni, to contract friendship or affec- 
tion for any one, to fall in love, dnkh mdrnt, to wink ; 
to stop any one bjr a sign ; to make amorous signs with 
the eyes, dnkh michawwal, m. ankh michauli, f. blind- 
man's buff(Pers. garmdmak), ankh mildnl (to exchange 
looks), to contract friendship, dnkh milrii, to look 

tcdfastly. ankh mhich jdnd, to die, to perish, dnkh 
inorrii. (c*e dnkh phernl). dnkh mundke ffc chlz kd i]c^ 
tiydr-k. t to choose or accept precipitately or inconsis- 
tently, dnkh mundnl (see dnkh band fear lent), dnkh 
mfmaaurd, m. biiudman s buff, dnkh na rakhnl (not to 
have eyes, not to look) to have no hope or expectation ; 
to be mentally blind, dnkh nam karnd (see dnkh bhar 
Idnd), to have the eyes full of tears, dnkhon par baithn~t 
(to sit on eyes), to be beloved, to sit or cause to sit on 
a very elevated place ; to become dignified, dnkhon 
kd ffuldbt karnd (to have the redness of the eyes), is 
applied to a look of intoxication or wantonness, dnkhon 
men and, to intoxicate (applied especi.-tlly to wine). 
dnkhon men phirnd, to be always present in one's eyes, 
to be ever in one's mind, dnkhon men pen lend, to be 
at ease, secure, &c. dnkhon men charbl chhdnd, to be 
wilfully blind, to pretend from pride not to know one's 
old acquaintance, dnkhon men shdk ddlnd (lit. to throw 
dust in one's eyes) ; to commend or puff wares of an 
inferior quality ; to pilfer or snatch away any thing 
quickly and privately, dnkhon men khuraknd, to be 
seen with envy and dislike, dnkhon men ghar karnd, 
to be beloved or esteemed ; to persist in one's own 
erroneous opinions, dnkhon men rat kdtnd or lejdnd, to 
pass the night awake, dnkhen-wdld, m. (lit. " a man 
with eyes "), a spy, an inspector, one of the secret po- 
lice, dnkhen dekhnd, to study one's temper or inclina- 
tion ; to behave respectfully towards another, dnkhen 
nlll pill karnt, to change the colour of the face from 
excess of anger, a. 

an-khat, m. dislike, aversion, d. 

anuhhal, m. a creek, s. 

or xtf^Ml ankhana, n. to be 
angry or displeased, to be peevish or fretful. A. 

^So! 1 STOT3I atikha y u, m. valuation (by the 
eye without measurement) of a growing crop. s. 



, . 

f. the eye, a glance 

of the eye. * 

[lars or beams, a. 


\ anlthan, m. the space between two pil- 
5nrt ankhiyanj f. the eyes, amo- 
rous glances, s. 
?JS\ TOi*? aiig, a demand on each head of 

cattle for pasture, an agistment. h, 

TOTJf any,"} m. the body, a limb, ang 
^5Pjf an<ja,j ko lagna, to be firm or 

confirmed ; to have effect ; a member, portion, anga- 
nyusa, act of touching different parts pf the body as a 
religious exercise. *. 

<JL&\ ^^ ftnug or amiga, fn. a follower, a 

servant ; adj. following, succeeding, jr. 
LCil WjfT (trtfja, in. a coat or nppnr-garment, 

a long tunic worn alike by the Hindus and Musal- 
mans : the former tie it on the left, the latter on the 
right breast, s. 

>\ WyT (ingd, f. a nurse, a maid whose busi- 
ness it is to hold, watch, and amuse a child, h. 

jlGl ^IfK ang(ir 9 1 m. embers, sparks ; 

\\&\ TOjgpK! ttnyara, ) wrath, rage; a fire- 
brand, fire, a spark, a bit of fire, angdr or angdron 
par lotnd, to be highly enraged, particularly from jea- 
lousy, twgdr fed Irird, m. a salamander, h. 

angari, f. a small fire-pan, s. 

(jandan^\ to reckon, compute, 
ashtan, j suppose, imagine, p. 


^ICl ^r^TT*ft anugami, following, conse- 
"quent upon, devoted to, imitating, s. 

angabin, m. honey (Arab. anjabin).p. 

^rTTifff anugatj m. a follower, adj. 

gone after, dependent on, attached to. 5. 

J&\ ^f^iT ingit, m. hint, sign, gesture; 
motion ; inquiry, research* s. 

<xCM unyaddiya, m. a man who carries 

money or jewels concealed in his quilted clothes, h. 

^nF^T^ angraji, f. yawning (v. an* 


^11191 angarkha, rn. a coat, gown, 

jacket, doublet, an upper garment, t. 
>\ VHU^ anu(j rahy m. favour, kindness, 
indulgence. . 

&\ ^J^ anguri (same as anguTi), f. a 
finger, a finger's breadth, s. [England. 

angrez or ingrez (vulg. angrej, &c.), 

anyrezi, English, the English lan- 

guage (the term is of Portuguese origin). 

$^j>l *&4jftQlangrUiha, m. a vest, coat, &c. 

(v. angarkha. s. 

ljjGI ^Hff'ZY'Rfr/tgrana, n. to yawn, to stretch 
the limbs), to oscitate. h. 

lj^i\ ^3Ff!'^ or w^vi^a^ra,i orangraji, f. 
stretching the limbs, yawning, &c. h. 

an-garh 9 1 un wrought, un- 
an-yarha,) formed; unedu- 

cated, unlicked, unfinished, unset (as a ring or jewel), 
angafhl bat, inconsistent or ill-arranged speech, h. 

!AJ>\ angusht, f. a finger. angushti-Jiafrat 

d ant on men rakhnd, to bite the finger, or place it be- 
tween the teeth to express surprise, p. 

angushtan, 1 in. a ring (particu- 
angushtana,) larly the one worn on 

the thumb); a thimble, p. 
jxL&l angushtarly f. a ring, particularly 
one worn on the finger, not applied to that on the 
thumb, p. 

itJlA-iJ^ anguslit-nunta, one who is pointed 
at, famous (in a good or bad sense, but hi India most 
frequently in a bad one), notorious. angusht-numd,i t 
act of pointing out witli the finger, p. 

angushtka, m. the thumb, s. 
<>r ^Hf $ ungal or angul, m. the 

thumb, a finger, s. 

t int/lista/i or angllstan, England. p> 
nU, oran- 

"gult, f. a finger, a finger's breadth, pair kt un^n, a toe. 
Jcaldmkiunqlt, fore -finger. Inch kl unglj, middle-finger. 
ton ungli, little finger, ungll kd nob, tip of the finger. 
ungli kdtnd, to be astonished, s. 

, person, h. 

anglis or ingfts, English, the term 
is generally applied to an invalided soldier. 
tJA\jj\ WJflft ting-marl, {. yawning, 
' stretching the body (a dog, &c.). h. 

(.j^O! %M J I*M anugaman, m. (the going after) 

applied to the ceremony of burning a Hindu widow 
who has heard of her husband's death when from 
home. 5. 

*j&\ *3J*{unyan,m. dozing, drowsiness (from 

opium &c.) ; greasing a wheel to set it asleep, i.e. to 
prevent creaking, A, 

angan,*\m. (also angna) a yard, 
angna, ) area, court, inclosed 

space adjoining to a house. *. 

C\ wrftnffT an-gina, uncounted, number- 
less. angina mahlna, the eighth month of a woman's 
pregnancy. 7*. [(same as angan). s. 

W]fir^ anynajt, f. a yard, area, &c. 

^H ft HIM or wnrfojW an-ginat or 
an-ganit, uncounted, beyond calculation, s. 
.JujS^ ^MftWTirt an-gi?iti, uncounted, count- 
less, numberless, s. 

^/Jo1 ^fjptft ungni, f. drowsiness, &c. (v. 

** ungan). h. 

angu, in front, before, preceding, d. 

angwara, the proprietor of a 

small portion of a village; mutual aid in tillage, h. 

cjl^&\ istjfa angot, f. appearance, person 

(same as angef). h. 

\>j&\ WTICT angutha, m. thumb, angutha 

dikhdna, an attitude used by women in blandishment, 
as a token of prohibition, to brave, defy, &c. angufha 
chumna, to natter, s. [the finger. *. 

anguthit f. a ring worn on 
angochha, m. a cloth which 

Hindus fasten round their waists when bathing, and 
afterwards wipe themselves with; a towel, a hand- 
kerchief. h. 

.y3\ angur, m. a grape ; granulations in a 

healing sore, angur bannd or hond, to become sound 
and healthy (applied to a wound), p. 

angora, m. a midge, a gnat. h. 
anguriy of or belonging to the grape, p. 

angauriya, m. a ploughman ; 

also, allowing the use of a plough instead of paying 
wages in money or kind. h. 

anguza, m. assafoetida. p. 

angaunga, perquisites from the 

threshing-floor to the Brahman, Guru, &c. h. 
ik&T an-gah (for ah-gali) then, at that time. p. 
rfy&\ Wni an-agh, blameless, free from guilt, s. 

j$&\ anghar, stupid, ignorant. anghar~pan, 
ra. stupidity. <L 

ang* 9 corporeal, bodily. *. 

angiya, f. m. bodice, stays. A. 
anvgya, f. order, command. 9. 

anget f f. appearance* person. h+ 
angefi, f. (v. agetl) a flower-pot, d. 
or ^fafaft angethl or angithi> 

"f. a chafing-dish, h. 

^jkj^rl angehhtan (r. angezj) to excite* stir 

up. p. 

*& angez, exciting; (used in comp.) as 

Jitna-angez, strife-exciting, p. 

U^xOi angezna, a. to suffer, to experience, 

to bear, to excite, p. h. 
OJ^M vJjflsfiK angikar, m. agreement, pro- 

mise, acquiescence, avowal, reception, accepting, 
agreeing to. angikdr-k., to accept, agree to. *. 

^1 Jrt anglkrit, agreed, promised, s. 
anil, f. wind, breath, air. s. 

anal, f. fire, a flame, a plant (Plum- 

bago zeytwiica and rosea). t. 

i! inna-mat for, surely not, only. a. 

i( ^rfin^TT anima, m. a superhuman faculty; 
the subtle and invisible state, assumable by austere 
devotion, s. 

wa^ra.madness, extravagance.*. 
unmada, mad, insane, s. 
anuman, rn. inference, logical 

conclusion, reasoning, s. 

1^)1 'jSfUin unman, m. a measure of size or 

quantity, s. 

Ri anumanik, inferable, sub- 

ject to inference, probable, specious. *. 

-H^ ^iffif anwnati, f. order or command, 

consent, permission. 5. 

unmatt\ mad, insane, crazy ; 
wnmad, ) drunk, lustful, furious; 

salacious, unmattata, f. insanity, intoxication, j. 

anumaran, m. dying with (a 

husband), or following in death, applied to a Hindu 
widow. *. 

unmukh, looking upwards. . 

il, discordant,heterogeneous.*. 
animan, m. the same as anima. 

anmana, thoughtful, agitated, 
regretting, sad, troubled in mind, sickly, dissatisfied, s. 
lAi^M anmanat, doubt, perplexity, d. 

3U*M anmanana, a. to perplex, d. 

^M 5ERift^ an-mol, invaluable, beyond 
price. * 
jlx % i\ ^i^ unmeth m. winking, twinkling 

of the eyelids, t. 

( 72 ) 

an-mel, heterogeneous; dis- 
cordant. *. 

l Wf? anan, m. face, visage, mouth, f. 

order, g. 

3T ^Bfan awna (for ana), n. to come. g. 

it W3T! a?wa, a. to bring, s. 

i^ ^3TT/w;/<T!,a kind of male nurse, the nurse's 

husband, h. 

WtWIU anannag, m. a pine-apple. A, 
anannasi, made like a pine-apple. A. 
an-anf, adj. boundless, endless, 

c tern til, infinite ; m. a name of the serpent that sup- 
ports the earth ; a name of the god Vishnu ; name of 
several plants ; a cord with fourteen knots, which the 
Hindus tie on their arm on the fourteenth day of 
Bhadob, Shuklpfirtcsh, which is sacred to Vishnu, and 
called Anant Chaudas or Chaturdashl. anantata, f 
eternity, anaut-rfahi, f infinite quantity, anant-nlp, 
multiform, anant-vat, ir. rigidity or paralysis of the 
muscles of the face and neck. s. 

, endless ; m. in- 
finity, eternity, s. 

qHl'r|9ij* anand (or anand), in. pleasure, 

delight ; ease, tranquillity, content ; God, Supreme 
Spirit, anand-may, blissful. *. 

cJJil vnff*4if anandit, overjoyed, de- 
lighted. s. 

ffft^TT a-nindit, unreproachable. s. 
WTtf*Cifn anandata, f. joy, delight, s. 
& I VJH*4<*rt* anand-kand, source of joy; 

an epithet of Krishna. *. 

anandi, delighted, rejoiced. jr. 

on-ansa, m. one who has no share ; 
excluded from a share (of an inheritance) on account 
of some legal flaw. *. 

vlW i*3*lan-anff, m. (literally, bodiless), the 
god Kama, the Hindu Cupid. . 

awii, a female nurse. A. 

ann\ m. the glutinous whitish matter 
or mucus voided by people afflicted with a tenosmus. s. 

yl ^ (hiu or anu, m. an atom ; adj. 

atomic, minute, s. 

\jl>\ ^W^Hf .///Mwa, m.the place where men stand 
when throwing the boka, or water-bucket. 7*. 

amvad, m. repetition; answer. 5. 

antivadi, a defendant, oppo- 
nent. *. [splendour, a. 

il arnrar (pi. ofjy), lights, rays of light, 

a-nivarit, unchecked, un- 
opposed. 5. 

Jyl ^^rroT anrcasa, old, stale, seasoned j 
m. a -handful of corn or grass cut in reaping, h. 
***lyl WJItHl flriwotfta, a. to season (a new 

earthen vessel, by letting water remain hi it some 
time), to rinse, h* 

M amcff (pi. of ey) y sorts, kinds, varie- 

ties; adj. various, diverse, anted' o afr&m, all sorts 
and kinds, a. 

anup, incomparable, best, rare ; 

m. a watery or moist soiL t . 

^yl Wp?R anupan, m. a fluid vehicle 

wherewith to swallow medicine. *. 

y\ vftw anvit, connected with, possessed 

of, fraught with. . 

L>^\ WSPT7 anwat, m. a ring furnished with 
little balls, worn on the great toe. h. 

jyl W^Tf anutha, rare, wonderful, un- 

common. A. 

U^y) dv|qvrV an-avadhan, careless, inat- 
tentive ; also an~avadhdnatS t f. carelessness, inadver- 
tence, indifference, s, 

\ an war, splendid, shining, resplendent, a. 
jj>\ anrvari, name of a Persian poet. p. 

L*y\ Hvf^l^f an-avastha, unstable, un- 

steady ; incontinent ; f. instability, absence of fixed 
state; uncertainty; incontinence, s. 

a-navasar, busy, having no 

leisure ; inopportune j m. want of leisure, unseason- 
ableness. $. 

, rare, 

wonderful, uncommon (generally applied to man). A* 
Jy ^^Sanwalj m. the after-birth ,secundine?. 
anwal-nal, the navel-string of a new-born infant, h. 

jyl xsiqic^l ahwala, m. a fruit so called, a 
kind of myrobalans (Phyllanthus emblica). h. 

^U*>^)y\ anolasar, m. a sort of brimstone so 
called. *. [new-born infant. *. 

JUJyT dnwal-nal, m. the navel-string of a 

^Uy\ anuman (v. anumai\) y inference, logi- 
cal conclusion, s. 
I3y^ wffan a-nona, without salt. s. 

s3\ ana (v. ana), the 16th part of a rupee. A. 
^\ "9^ unh and ^95 ink, oblique plural forms 

of the pronouns wuh and yih. (Vide Gram.) A. 

(jry \ ^*^if nnvnii or aitvaya, m. race, lineage ; 

interpretation; making out the natural order or con- 
nexion of poetical style, s. 

^.fl^yl ^Bf^nff anvethan, m. inquiry, re- 
search, investigation. . [live. *, 

anveshiy searching, inquisi- 
pi\ cinAar (pi. of^i), rivers, streamlets, a. 
unhar, f. mode, appearance; 

adj. like, similar. . 

<mhan y m. bathing, washing. A. 
attf/ana, a. to bathe, to wash. A* 

an hit, unfriendly, hostile ; hos- 
tility, t. 

73 ) 

unhattar, six'y nine. A. 
^3^ inhidarn, m. perdition, act of abolish- 
ing, extermination, demolition, a. 
*%^LL^ 1 CH^}IC an-ahanhar, m. absence of 

pride, humility, an-attankari, humble. *. 
U^p\ ^^^T?H anhwana, a. to wash, to 
bathe, to cause to be bathed or washed. *. 

^^il wftft? anihaun, aor. first pers. sing, of 

anna, to bring (obsolete form), h. 

A^ij^ W^fU^ii: an-honhar, hopeless, unpro- 
mising, improbable, h. 

f an-hona, impossible, not to be. A. 
M, ant, in. f., orWlft ar/t, f. the 

"point of a spear, or of an arrow, the stem or prow of 
a boat, fee. s. 

Jj>\ wft anm, f. a nurse or female attendant 

' on a child, h. 

, -nydya,m. injustice, 

"outrage; a com plaint of injustice, a, [lawless.*. 
a-nj/dyl, unjust, unequitable, 
anya-pin-va, f. a woman who 

has been previously married, s. 
^ail SBrftfif a-Hiti, f. injustice, impropriety, 
rudeness, impolicy, unmannerliness. *. 
anyatra, elsewhere. $. 

anyatha, otherwise, in a different 

manner; inaccurately; adj. contrary. *. 

nnlda, unshut (eye), sleepless; 
expanded (as a flower). *. 
\ anyar, very bright, most luminous, a. 
j^ TffNf unis, nineteen, h. 
x>) awls or ariis-jali$ t ra. a companion* a, 

, m. aniseed, ff. 

an-eh, much, many, abundant. 
anek-akdr, multiform. anek-rup> multiform, of various 
kinds, of variable mind, anek-kal, adv. a long time. 
anek gotra t one who is a member of more than one 
gotra, or family, anek-vidh, various, of many kinds, 
different ways. *. 

amhirii, f. an array ; a ce r- 
tain force, one tenth of an akshauhinl. t. 

anya-gotra, of another race or 
lineage, s. 

anya, other, different, anya-janam, 

*m. another birth, regeneration, anya-manas, fickle, 
versatile, s. 

anyonya, reciprocal, mutual. 8. 
aneyar, m. the time allotted 

for agricultural labour in the hot season, from sun- 
rise till noon. 9. 

\ au, conj. and (more com. aur). h. 

o (in Per?, and Dakh.) third pron. he, 
she, it; the vocative inter). O! 

jl ^fc ava, a Sanskrit prefix denoting nega- 
tion, disrespect, or dispersion; from, down from, off. 9. 
IjT VTOT dwd, m. a potter's kiln ; a furnace. A. 

^J \)T Wffift dndtt, f. the coming of an army, 

"the approach of a friend { the season in 'which mer- 
chandize is expected to arrive ; advance ; rumour, ti- 
dings. A. . 

LfV,\3 1 wmiSII^ dwd-jd,i, f.' coming and 

going, intercourse, dancing attendance upon one. A. 

*>-^\ <3^TOl a- v achy a, dumb, speechless. *. 
^|y awdkhir (pi. of ^-T), extremes, ends; 

the last tea days of a lunar month, a. , , 

{.jValjl arcdddn (see dbaddii), dwelling, &c. e/. 

^b1j\ an'dddni (v. ^^V^) d* [crop. A. 
j\jl $m urvdr, ploughing* up a standing 
J\j\ W^R arvdr, f. delay ; injustice,tyranny.,s.^. 

&> *\*\ awdnja* 1 ,. , 

' t r _ - .. m. a diary, a rough note- 

&>-,u! awdri,)a^ r . . , , 

*^- 7 _ _ book or account-book, p. 

&s^.ij! dwdrcha, J 

,j\j\ amdragi, f. vagrancy, profligacy, p. 

35 U I dirdra, vagabond, wanderer. a/rdra-/t., 
n. to wander, to be distressed, to be oppressed, to b 
miserable. dwdra-k. t a. to harass, to expel, p. 

j^T divdz, f. sound, voice, report, fome, echo, 

a whisper, sentence. awat-itthanii t to raise the voice, 
to spread a report, divdz par kdn rakfind, to hear, ' 
to listen, dwdz pafna, to be reported, dwdz batfowi, 
to be suppressed (the voi^e) from hoarseness or 
otherwise, awaz-baitha, hoarse, p. 

WjT drvdzd, \ m. report, fame, rumour; con- 
J.T dwdzaj versation, loud talking, p. 

T ^Jnni awus, m. a house, a habitation. *. 

\J\ awaxit (pi. of k^ol), middles, the pe- 
riod of a lunar month between the tenth and twentieth 
days. a. [ley (v. supl. Gloss). A. 

awaii, unripe corn, chiefly bar- 
awagaman,^m. coming and 
awagavan, J going, trans- 
migration, s. 

iy TRT^S aTvaZ, m. an inclosed .space formed 
by a cluster of peasants' houses. A. 
\J! dwdm,m* loan, debt; colour. ^?. 

\jl dwan (pi. of ^T), times, seasons, a. 

dnahan, m. calling, summons, 

a respectful invitation. 8. 

aw,?, f. approach, advance ; a 
saddle cloth adorned with fringes, &c.; a kind of 
pickaxe. A. 

^/\jT ^STRT^ arra,t, 1 f. rumour, mention, 
J\jT ^T^T?ft a/rart, J tidings, report. A. 

j>^ firva,tl (pi. of Jj^) f TO. commence- 
ment*, c. ; the first ten days of a lunar month, which. 
consisting of thirty days nearly, in divided into three 
decades, let, awa,ll t 2nd. aii'iisti, and 3rd. awdl&ir. a. 

2*^j\ aubaxh, m. a rake, a dissolute fellow ; 

a mixed crowd of all nations and all sorts of people, 
but especially of the meanest; the mob, the canaille. 
aubash-li., to become depraved or dissolute, auba&hana, 
like a rake, dissolute. ;;. 

i>bj\ auba*hi 9 rn. nikishness, dissoluteness, 
"attending at games and spectacles, p. 

blalna t a. Faux; as UJW ubalna. d. 

"SMre or ^freTS ubat t aubat, impassable, 
eteep, inaccessible, s. 

b^\ ubalna, same as Ub\ ubalna. d. 

, m. oppressive) heat, languor 
brought on by the eflect of heat. /*. 

u-'cibhajya (in law lan- 
guage), indivisible (as property, etc.). *. 

anllutt* Steep, impassable, s. 

atcbhukt, f. a civil re- 
or arobhakti, ception or 

UC^T WTO11Y or ^nwnfw salutation, 

awbhayat or an'bhayati, } welcome, 
courteouRiiess. /*. 

^3j\ gi^TtTT iib hit a, n. to bo agitated or op- 
prebsed with heat ; to be angry or dissatisfied, h. 
..^ ^TtH op, f. ornament, beauty, elegance, 
grace, brightness, polis).. h. [upafna}. d. 

!bj\ upatna, n. to exceed, &c. (same as lxb\ 

upnjna, n. to grow, &o. (v. \^of$ 
upajna). d. 

^..9jj\ ^Bftil^ft opchij m. an armed man, armed 

"witli wenpons; a man armed in mail, opchi-kjiana. a 
guardhouse or post of armed men. h. 

///;/, nbove, on, up, upon, upwards, 
over, outside, past, top. upar-se, from above, f.ufdn 
iipar sa ciial<i g(iy<l, the storm has passed over. s. 

>j\ ti/w/5, upper, superficial ; m. the sur- 
face or outside, s. [strange. *. 

upari, upper or external; foreign, 

^?/^ or "3W w^, m. one who dies 

without leaving issue ; an unmarried man ; (in Hindu 
phraseology) a stupid person, a blockhead, h. 

^ftcf of, overplus, surplus; abatement; 
convalescnce, recovering from sickness, h. 

\ "3nfT or ^sftiTI uta or o/a, so much, that 
much. h. 

l5j\ awtad (pi. of <>3j), pegs, props; met. 
chiefs, nobles (being the props of the state), a 

3y w/ar, m. (for utar) descent, reduction 
in price ; ebb tide, or low water. 

or ^snd'K avatar or autar, in. 

birth, descent; incarnation of the deity (the Hindus 
reckon the following ten of the god Vishnu: 1st. 
inatsya, a lisli ; 2nd. kachchhapa, a tortoise ; 3rd. varaha, 
a boar ; *lth. iiri-stngha, a man-lion ; 5th. vamana, a 
dwarf; 6th. parashurdwa ; Itli.rama; 8th. balarama; 
9th. buddha; 10th. kalkl): a pious or distinguished 
person in the language of flattery is also called an 
avatar, or incarnation of the deity; a firth, or sacred 
place; translation; crossing. *. 

13^1 utaran, m. stripping off, act of dis- 
mounting. d. 

jCjl utarnd, a. same as U^\31 utarna. d. 
j\Jj\ utawal, m. same as 5)j\3^ q. v. d. 

J^J^ utarual-pana, m. haste, urgency, d. 
j\ utar, m. an answer (v. uttar). d. 

^r"Kfi<fTor WTTCTf avatarna or aittarna, 
n. to descend, especially as an incarnation of the 
deity. 5. 

^5j\ utarna, n. same as li^>\ utarna. d. 

jl VINfO arvati, f. approach, advance, the 
season in which merchandise is expected. A. 

o/^w/c, 1 m. anxiety, per- 

autxuhya,} turbation, re- 
gret ; eagerness, impatience. *. [or many. k. 

\ 55ftftnir or grfwcir otik or utik, that much, 

autkarsh, m. excellence, jr. 
or xi\nr|T utna or ofwa, that much 

or many. h. 

i^j^ i5ft7 of, f. protection, shade, shelter, 

partition, screen, ot-k., to conceal, to screen. ot~h. t to 
be concealed. *. 

jl ^JTo/a, m. a partition- wall, or screen, h. 
u^ autana, a. to make hot, cause to boil. d. 

L&Uxl^ "grjmTff ut-patang, poor, helpless, 
destitute, h. 

&\jj&j\ 'ttWffi ut-patangi, one who 
speaks inconsiderately, without preparation. /*. 
XxbcL>j! g&qgjf ut-patany, m. absurdity, 

nonsense, what is without meaning or foundation ; adj. 
poor, helpless, destitute, in disorder, ut-patangi, the 
same as ut-patangl. h. 

autan, boiling, evaporation by 
boiling; m. a knife used for cutting tobacco, h. 

ij! ^to*TT otna, a. to defend, screen, shelter; 
to thru nib, to separate the seed from cotton; to catch 
as a ball. It. 

autna, n. to boil (as milk), to 

evaporate over fire ; to consume with rage or vexa- 
tion ; a. to burn, to parch, or dry. h. 

oth y m. the lip. s. 
y uthana, a. same as li^M uthana. d. 

TOTf^TRT utiia-bithana, a. to ex- 
cite, to stir up, to urge. h. 

&(f*\4f>j\ ^3T^H^T utlta,t-gira 9 m. a kind 
of robber, who plunders by day ; they are commonly 
followers of an army (same as /Ao,t-tra, q. v.). h. 

( 75 

Ugjj^ utkna, m. same as U^'\ uthnd. d. 

j\ at/;, m. height, summit, the top ; dignity, 

preferment, promotion, auj ifalak, the zenith of the 
sky. a. p. 

JU-jl fi/5/, 1 
^lWj\ ujala,) 

ujarna, same as l3j : V' ujw'na- d. 

(for JU1 tt/tf/, &c.) bright, 
luminous, d, 

v^j\ Ujarna, n. (v. 13^-1 ujarna), to be 
desolated. ?. 

^j^ -viWw ojas, m. light, splendour; mani- 
festation ; strength, vitality (especially in the foetus), s. 

^ J Q l ( v ojhal), privacy, shelter, &c. h. 
Ql,\ (for ujy aland njlo) 9 clear, bright, 
jld,j pure, &c. rf. 
ujalna (for ujalna), to shine, &c. ^. 
ojh, m. entrails, stomach, guts. h. 

cy/m, m. a diviner, a wizard, a 

magician (probably from examining the entrails of a 
victim like the Roman " aruspex"). h. 

T oj/iar oraitjharj. thrust, 

push ; in Dakh. iijhajr denotes awkward, clumsy. 7t. 

^A^J' ^^5? ojhal, f. privacy, retirement ; 
adj private, hid. ojhal-k., to conceal, screen. ojhul-h. t 
to be concealed. 7*. 

L>JI ^f^MlT. a-vichdr, m. want of judgment I 

or consideration, injustice, s. 
l^W^i TOfa^TftTT a-vic/tarit, ill-judged, not 

inyestigated, unconsidered. s. 

,5 A 5 *-^ wPrcrt a-vichdri, m. 1 destitute of 
t ' t ^ ^ ^ > 

i^j ' ^ft^nfOTi a-vichdrim, f. J conside- 
ration, unjust. 5. 

auchat, 1 suddenly, unexpect- 
auchah,) edly. A. 

a-vichal, motionless, unmoved, 
firm. . 
^j-jl ^st^ auchh, m. name of a root from 

which an orange colour is extracted (Morlnda citri- 
folia). h. 

ochha, adj. light, of little cohse- 

quence; mean, base or low-born; absurd, trifling; 
fruitless, ochha hona, n. to want. h. ' 

Jl^j^ uchhalna, a. same as Ull^>.\ uch- 

halnd, q. v d. 

uchhat, retirement, retreat, d. 
vc/thalnd, n. (for UA^>^ uchhdlnd, 

q.v.), d. 

iSl^jl ^I^T^S^ uchhdlm,f. the multiplica- 
"tion table, k. 

\ ^ nr1> m. an otter. *. 

Wt^T odd, wet, moist, damp. h. 

udd, in. brown, of a brown colour. A. 
auddt, white, white colour, s. 
auddrya, m. munificence, li- 

berality. *. [linesa. *. 

auddsya, m. solitude, lone- 

audan, m. gratis, what is given 
over and above, or without purchase ; to boot. *. 
&bjl "&%[%% udahat,} f. browrmess of co- 
jl g^[T^ udd'i, J lour. h. 

ud-bitdyO, in. an otter, s. 
odan, m. boiled rice. *, 

ar/i, f. a p\tLnt(Sida'cordtfolia).8. 

awadh, f. the name of ayodhyd, 
vulg. Oude. mwidA or avadhi, agreement, promise, 
time, boundary, s. 

avad/ri, m. limit, term, period ; 
(used adverbially in com p.), as far as, as long as. *. 

avdhi (forabd/ii) 9 m. the ocean, s. 
fct>j\ iidhar, in. (same as ud/iar) debt &c. <Z. 

^tij^ ^S^VTT avadhan, cautious*, attentive; 
m. caution, attention, s. 

udhar, thither, thitherwards, on 
the other side. h. 

fc^t "3WI udhant 9 m. noise; impudence; re- 
bellion, disturbance, uproar. /*. 
-^^Jijl "3Wft vdhami.j* ma king noise; impu- 

dent ; rebellious. A. 

ti<a?/to, the name of a friend and 
companion of Krishna, s. 

y*j) TO^VIT avadhut, m. a kind of reli- 
gious mendicant. 5. 
y&t>jl 'CT^rf avadhut or audhut, large, 

gigantic ; frightful as to form. . 

b^jl ^(Vv oc?/ie, adj. possessing a right or 
title to ; m. a proprietor, supreme ruler, s. 

uAherna (same as vdherna q. v.). d. 

ci,odi, name of a tribe of jdts. h. 
a-vidyd, f. igrioruuco. . 

avadich, the name of a tribe of 
"Gujerfvti Brahmans. *. 

^o^jl aiides, \ m. a strange or foreign 
$j\ audesd, r country, audcal, a stranger, 
ijl audesa,) a foreigner. #. 
ifc Jj\ audhanyd, improper, out of place. /. 

*\ ^JtC or, f. origin, boundary, limit; way, 
side (ward), us or, that way. or niba/uia, to be con* 
stant to, to protect (for ever). 7*. 

I / 

)\ wfcrntr, conj. arid, also, but; adj. more, 

other; aur ek, another, separate, distinct, else, aur 
nahin to, and (if) not then, and in that case then. 
aur hi, quite different, extraordinary, h. 

)\ dtcar, in compos, bearing, having; as, 
zor-awar, powerful, having force, p. 
Jjj^ uurdd (pi. of ^jj)> daily lessons (of the 
Kur,3.n), commemorations, devotional exercises, a, 

aurdk (pi. of ,jijj)j leaves of a tree 
or book. a. 

H"R arirbhd,o, in. a developing, 
manifestation, becoming visible. *. 

^^,yi wfa^W dvirbhut, unfolded, mani- 
fested, appeared, t. 

dvrit, enclosed, surrounded, s. 

dvfitti, f. order, method ; a re- 
petition of the same thing, a resolution. *, 
>-jjl d/varja, v. ^j'jl a day-book, &c. p. 

)jj\ ^TF^T divardd, f. the allotted period of 

one's life-time. *. 

d war dan (r. dr or drvar), to bring, to 
relate or record, p. 

^jT dwarda, that which is brought or 
carried, avvarda-nawls, in. a writer or registrar of 
accounts as delivered, p. 

>i>jjt "^ urdh or urddh, superior, above. 
urdli-bdhu, with arms aloft (a posture ofjogts). 8. 
i-JbX ^ < 9I^V?P[ iirddh-pnnd, a perpendicular 
line delineated on the forehead by the vaishnavas or 
worshippers of Vishnu. , *. 

aurdh-dehik, ohse- 

quies; whatever is given ot performed in remem- 
brance of the dead. s. 

rcfTT urddli-retd, a kind of ascetic 
or rishtt one who lives in perpetual chastity, s. 
j\+tojj\ TSI^^t^T Ttrdh-sdnSy m. a gasp, deep 

inspiration, s. 

*j jl 5HTCTI auras, a legitimate child, i.e. by 
a wife of the same tribe. #. 

**j^ O*!;^ aHnw chauras, all around; 

breadth and length ; m. neighbourhood, d. 
,^( ^ft<HI o?*?//, m. the name of a particular 
kind of sewing, stitching together two breadths, h. 
SCWfiQai'aran, m. a shield, a covering, s. 

I an rang, m. a throne; places where 
goods are manufactured for salo. p. 
**j tJL&ij^ Aurang-zeb, name of one of the 
Mogul emperors, who died A.D. 1707. p. 

_jj JtJljSj^l aurang-zebi, m. a kind of cloth 
so called, p. 

fclicl^itj^ aurang-shaht, m. a kind of silk 
BO called, p. [fire. . 

aurvanal, m. submarine 

avarodh, m. the seraglio of 

a palace, the queen's apartment ; a place, a covering; 
hindrance, obstruction. *. 

Jfc^jjj 1 Sob fa <) *f a-virodh , a bsence of contention, 
quietness, avirodhl, m. avirodhini, f. quiet, tranquil. *. 

^jy w3 o;i, a protector, partial ; f. the 

eaves of a house; bank of a pond or rivulet to the 
water's edge. A. 

\jj\ W^f ord, m. a basket, pannier. A. 
^j^ Vftfiw o/'ow, m. a shield, target. A. 
Uj : jl orwa, a to ward off a blow : it is also 

used for ofhna, to put on dress, &c. d. 
Uj : ^l urnd, n. (sameasliy! urnd) to fly, &c.</. 
^* ( Vt Thni), a veil, &c. c/. 
orhnd, a. to put on (dress) ; m. 

sheet, cloak, or mantle, h. 

^jJbjjl tfl'ffA orhtri, f. a smaller sheet; a 

veil or woman's cloak, k. 

*}\ ^^\ a,ori, f. a kind of basket (used 

in a sugar-mill, h. 

jb<jrj )\ un-mdrna, to dive, to plunge, d. 

j^l avzdr (pi. of jjj), m. the rigging and 

implements of a ship or boat; asylums; loads; 
weapons, tools, apparatus. . 

, f. dew. os par jam, to foil in 

value, to be less in demand than formerly, us, old 
form of the oblique pron. us, him, her, &tc. /*. 

il*>j\ iifdra, m.jjambo^o. The name seems to 

be a corruption of the Arabic or Persian name *u*ar,e 
ratvaiul (Extract of rhubarb), wliich this gum, from ita 
yellow colour, was supposed to be. (Binning.) h. 

ausdn, m. sensation, sense ; 

courage ; presence of mind. h. 

U**jl TCTtrftT avasdn, m. the end ; conclu- 

sion ; completion ; death ; boundary, limit. *. 

/^>(^>*j>jt ^Tt^f^ ox-barg, m. the name of 

a medicine, h. 

uxtad, preceptor, master (v. us tad), p. 

^^Wdl a-vastutd, f. insubstantialiry, 

unreality, s. 

Lj\ W44UJ1 ava-sthd, f. state, condition 
(frequently used in an unfavourable sense) ; any par- 
ticular state varying with the progress of time, as 
youth, age, &c. *. 

ju*jj\ ^RTCft awasthi, one of the subdi- 
vision of Kanaujiya Brahmane. *. [heedless..//. 

ausuch, without consideration, 

or 1 tt avatar or au*ar, m. 

time, leisure, occasion, vacation, opportunity. * 
osar, f. a heifer, h. 

(77 ) 

usar (same as ushar, q. v.), barren 

(land). . 

osra, m. turn, vicissitude, osra- 
om, by turns, alternately, h. 

usaralti, f. a chameleon, d. 

y ausat, middle, intervening; m. the 
iddle, medium, interval ; mediocrity, moderation, a. 

l ausatt, midmost,middling, moderate.a. 
^*rn awwa, n. to become musty, to 

rot, to putrify. /*. [him, her, &c. rf. 

use (old form of the ace. pron. use), 

auser, m. anxiety, solicitude, h. 
ostsd, m. the head of a bed ; 

a pillow, a cushion, h. 

oak, f. dew (same as os). h. 
a-vash) subject to another,helpless.s. 
a-vishf anti-venomous, not poi- 
sonous. s. [the son of Kama-deva. *. 

^a, name of the wife of Aiiiruddha, 

dvfxht, possessed (by a demon 
&c.), engrossed (by a feeling). s. 
ii>^l WtT7 oshth, in. tho lip, especially the 
upper. oshth-rog t m. a morbid affection of the lips. s. 
-^j&jl ^iftlft oshthl, f. a creeper bearing a 

"red flower, to which the lip is compared (bryonin gran- 
dis, or niomordica monodelpha). s. 

xi*j' ^RT^V aushadh (also aukhadJi), f. me- 
dicine, drug, herb, mineral, cure, remedy, physic, an- 
tidote. s. 

, or ^ft^ft otliadhi, 

"attshadhi, or anshndltl (also anJeJiadhi), f. an annual plant 
or deciduous herb, aushadhtya, medicinal, ail ingre- 
dient of a medicine ; materia medica, *, 

ushar, barren (land), a spot with 

saline soil. 

avaskiskt, left, remaining, s. 
ushan, m. black pepper, s. 

a-vi*hmas t m. distrust, un- 

belief suspicion, a-vishivasi, m. a-vishwasin, a-vishtva- 
*ini t f. distrustful, unbelieving. *. 

Sju*}) W^N avashefh, m. residue, remnant, 
surplus, a-vishesh, m. a want of distinction ; adj. in- 
discriminate. s. 

avasftya/t,*} necessary, indis- 
J- pensable, inevi- 
a-va*hyaJi, J tablo, actual ; 

certainly, necessarily, absolutely, positively, really. 
avasfyyakta or avashyakta, necebsity. *. 

?Uj1 oiiftij (pi. of u-P-fl^), praises, com- 
mendations, endowments, ausaf-i hamlda, noble pro- 
perties, praiseworthy qualifications, a. 

(|)1. of ^joj), preceptors, guar- 
dians, executors, administrators, a. 

$V (pi. of ij), breeding, behaviour, 
politeness, address, manners, &c. a. 

oghra, m. a kind of dish, flummery, a 
kind of sick-man's gruel, vulgarly called " conjl". -p. 
aidtat (pi. of Oij), times, circum- 

stances. auJcdt-ba-sart, f. pastime, amusement, employ- 
ment. aukat-ba-sar or -6a-*art^., to spend one's time. a. 

-*A?jl uklyat) f. an ounce of silver, or a 

silver coin of that weight, value between six and seven 
shillings, a. 

dJjl ^w I * arvak t m. insurance or assurance./*. 
lljl wtar oh, m. a house, a dwelling; an 

asylum, a refuge ; sickness at the stomach, inclination 
to vomit ; a draught of water from the hollow of the 
hand. h. 

j f. error, slip, mistake, h. 

ava-kask, m. leisure, opportu- 
nity, interval, space. *. 

J\Sjl ^faffiJT aultdl, 1 untimely, out of sea- 

^j\ ^t^n^ft auhdlif) son; a child born 
"before its time (properly ava-lcal t &c.). *. 
^jDj I ^n^BirTT a,o/tdn or avakdn, straw and 

grain heaped up. h. 

ukat (same as nht or w/i#a),speech,&c. d. 

auhal, restless, uneasy, aukal-behal, 
very restless, d. 

i^\ ^3R*n okna, or <*4H1 nhnd, n. to vomit, /i. 

Sj^ ^RtfflT 5Aw5, n. to miss, to err, to trip, 
to mistake. /*. [cinarum). s. 

j\ "SRf uhh 9 f. sugar-cane (Saccharum qfli- 

j ; l^jl uMtdrnd, a. (for Vij : \^! ukharna), to 
root up, &c. rf. [canes. *. 

\ gWT^ ukhdfi, f. a field of sugar- 
uhhal, m. an emetic, uhhdl-julldb, 

cjiolera morbus. d. 

ukhalna, a. (for ulthalna), to vomit. ?. 
, f. ( for aws/iad/i), medicine.*. 
M/tA-ra;", the day on which the 

planting of the sugar-cane commences, generally at- 
tended with some festive ceremonies. A. 

-^jt ^OTreTc? a,okhal or avakhal t land re- 
claimed from waste. A. 

okkti, f. a wooden mortar, s. 
avakethl, barren, s. 
augdh, deep, unfathomable, s. 


avagdh, "1 m. bathing, a 
5*f avagdhan,} lution. ,s. 

WTB" avagat, known, understood. 
avagati, f. knowledge. *. 

o#ar,lm.akindofpottageorgrue! (cor- 
j\ ogrdj ruption of oghrd, q. v.). d. 

( 78- 

avayun or "p8 avgun, m. 
blemish, vice, defect, demerit, worthleseness. i. 
wjna, n, (for vgna), to prow, sprout 

up, &c. d. ' [position. *. 

W^JUflf) auffunt, vicious, of a bail dis- 

^fhf oghr m. multitude, aggregate, col- 
lection. *. 
SU^j^ *?hre aughat, steep, inaccessible. A. 

^J aughar, awkward, unpleasant, in- 
discreet. d. 

augl) f. a whip like a waggoner^, 
In length about seven cubits, used in training horses ; 
an ornamental edging of superior country shoes (pe- 
culiar to Delhi). A. [regard. *., 

> f. contempt, despite, dis- 

avaglt, detested, reproached, 
wicked, vile ; m. reproach, blame, t. 
jl awirol, first, best, principal; (for aala) 
proper, fit; m. beginning; adv. at first, a, 
jl *&$ ol, in. name >a vegetable, of which 
the root is eaten (Arum campanulatum, Roxb.) \ a host- 
age or personal security for a debt. h. 

j\ Wt^T 0/5, m. hail; the name of a sweet- 
meat. ola hojona, to become cold. joA sir mundaya tofi 
ole pare, I had no sooner got my head shaved, than a 
shower of hail came on (spoken of one who 1ms just 
engaged in an enterprise which turns out unfortu- 
nate). It. 

)j\ aula (for aw/5) better, preferable, awrva- 
Ian, In the first place, firstly, a. 
lji auladi f (pi. of jjj), children, descen- 
dants, progeny, offspring. ,a. 

a,olaniya, a tribe ofjats so called, h. 

ft^nft old, f. (v. ort), the eaves of a 
house. A. 

)Vtttowa "\Forulatna, 1 

v * r Q. V. a. 

ulatkna) and itlathnaj 

aulachhan, of evil omen, un- 
fortunate ; m. a bad omen. 5. 

j! ulachhna (for ulachhna). d. 

avalakshan, 1 of inauspi- 

aulahhan, J cious or evil 
omen ; m. a bad omen. . 

ol-hdbi, f. the vegetable 

commonly called knolcolc. 

avalamb, m. asylum, protec- 

'tioir; adj. depending, hanging down. t. [gence. *. 
Efftf$? <a-vilamb, m. quickness, dili- 

<HftU3J fiirf a-vilambif, quick, expedi- 
tioutf ava-lambit, alighting, descending; protected, 
cherished. . 

a, n. (for /tWna),to be poured 

f* a kind of grass used in 

thatching (Saccharum 

*> I 

j\ &!u, prefixed- to en Arabic noun denote?? 

possessed of, endowed with. a. [seen. f. 

jfr avalokit, a Jam saint j adj; 
avalokan, m. view, sight, 

ii^T avalokna, a. to see, to look. *. 
or WW% am/t (vulp;. 


f. a row ; a line ; a series, a lineage, a.oii, I mode of 
estimating the produce of land. . 

aw/5, better, best, most proper. 5/a, the ' 

first, &c. (fern, of awwal). a. 

fi/t, possp?sftfl of, endowed with, 5/i-/- 
a, winged animals. uU-film, possessed of science. 

Zli-l-abiar, wise, prudent, fti-ftum, resolute, fl. 

w//, f. a chisel, a carpenter's tool. d. 
ol~t, m. (same as 0J), personal security, 

"hostage. A. 

, m. twins, (also a,ol*ja,ole). d. 
a,o/i, f. a mode of estimating crops, 

"the produce of one biswa is measured, thence the rest 
inferred, h. 

U5j\ aulfya (pi. of Jj^), friends, companions 
(particularly of the prophets); the apostles, the saints, 
the holy, auligfi-i-allah, friends of God ; in law it 
signifies the next of kin, or other person entitled to 
exact retaliation (v. wait), a. 

i*Lo)jt awrvaUyat, f. priority, pre-eminence, 
excellence, superiority, a. 

aula tar 9 better, best. a. p. 

<J^ au ^ e c ^>l e > a twin> tw ^ ns * d. 
arvrvalin (pi.), the first, former, ancient. 
awwalin o a&irin, the ancients and the moderns. . 
j\ ifti? ow, the mystic name of the Deity 
prefacing all the prayers and most of the writings of 
the Hindus: it is said to imply the Indian Triad 
or Trinity, Brahma, Vishnu, Sniva. *. 

avam, low, vile, inferior. $. 
umas, m. (for umas), rcsolution,&e^ d. 
^ umandnd, m. (for umandna), to be 

proud, &c. d. 

u/i, f. an ear of corn '(half ripe), h. 
. gwj or "9IH un, f. wool, gadar am un kon 

baifkl dare Icapas, "I bought the sheep for (furnish- 
ing) wool, and she is eating up the cotton" (epokeu of 
any tiling done by way of economy which turns out in 
the end very expensive), t. 

^1 un (for ^1 un), oblique pi. of n?w/f , he,&c. d. 
^ HT?f una, less, defective, minus; prefixed 

to a Sanskrit numeral it denotes "one less:" thus, 
una-trinshat, one less thirty, twenty-nine. So n<*- 
trinskatam. the twenty-ninth; hence the moderto form* 
in Hindastanl, nntfe twenty.nin; vnch&lit, thirty- 
nine, Stc. . 

a,ow, m. feculent matter, mucus. 


WHf 5n?d, ro. coming, approach, at* 


!TC?f divan-divan, f. tidings 

of arrival, . [come. *. 

ijT WTW1 awana (old form of ana), n. to 
Jjl ^PRT ttfta, m. a kind of sword, a scimitar, a 

knife, SEC., worn down by grinding, h. 
jM\3j\ ^fafTOEf a-vindsh, exception from loss, 

safety. a~vinathl> safe, entire, free from loss, ever- 
lasting, s. 

avantiha,')f. the name of a city, 
atantij ) Ujjain, anciently 

JjjaySni. *. 

units, Dukhanifor tmf?*,twenty-riiiip. 
XS twf, m. a camel; Dakh. out (for 

honth), the lip. A. 

, m. namepf 

a thistle of which camels are fond (Eschinops echina- 
tus, Roxb,). ft. 

jEijl auntnd, n. (sanie as autna), to boil. A. 

tmfnl, f. a female camel. A. 
OW//A, m. the lip (com. honfk). s. 
unjarl or unjari, f. a small heap 

of corn set apart (by Musalmans) in harvest-time in 
the name of acme saint, h. 

j\ ** unck, 1 high, tall, lofty, steep, 
jJ^l "^T uncha, J loud, unch-nich, ups and 

downs, inetjuality ; vicissitudes in fortune, &c. unchd 
bol bolna, to peak with pride, uxclta snnna, to be hard 
of hearing. uiichd-kdni t f. deafness, unche bol ka 
muhh nichd, the proud ones arc degraded, s. 

*l^jl unchd* (for unchds), forty-nine, d. 

"A 'flU uhchaSy f. 
unchdn, m. 
uhchdyO, m. 

eminence, exal- 
tation, tallness, 

steepness, s. 
unchd 9 i, f. 

ufichdlis (for unchaRi), thirty- 

uncbdnd, a, to raise, elevate, a. 
ntil or dwand, m. a pan, a vessel, jp. 
a-vindu, without point or dot. s.' 

ondhj m. the cord with which 

rafters or frames for thatching on are pulled into their 
place, and fastened till the roof is finished, h. 

^ aundha or WtVf ondhd, upside 

down, overturned, aundka-hal&t, m. misfortune, ad* 
verse fortune., aundhi-peshani, short-sighted, unfor- 
tunate, aundha letnd. n. to lie on one's face. h. 

., ., ,. aundhand, a. to turn upside 

down, to reverse, to overturn, to spill, k.. 

sky. h. 

^^RT aundhna, n, to lower (at the 

aundd, or W3T m\dd y deep, ft, 
(fc!r ttndelna) 9 lQ pour out.^f, 

5naM, one less a hundred, ninety-nine, d, 

jl ^flt onlidr, ro. the mysterious syllable 
om, s. [son.) 

awingilti, a mode of torture, (v. Wit- 

ungnd, n. (for ww^Ana), to doze. d. 
3^ "5Jnqr unyh, f. nodding, sleepiness. A. 
ungltdx, "If. drowsiness, nod- 

^TO ungltdx, "If. drow 
^*R$ unghdjiy J ding, 

drooping (especially from opium). A. 

^xjjt ^ft9tfr unghna, n. to nod from sleepi- 

ness, to doze, to droop h. 

aitngt, f. silence, dumbness. A. 

ann1a, d,on1d, or d t onla, m. 

(same as mto), the emblic myrobalan (phyllanthu* 
cmblica). annld-sdr, m. a sort of brimstone. 

iki^^ljjl aunla-jtiunla, a twin, twins, d. 
^^ unan (samo as ^^^ vnhon), those, 

then(also n/2 and fmori). </. 

yjl ^fT^ftawawaw/z, n! (Braj.) to come. ft. 
C^ijl unhattar (for unhattar), sixty-nine, d. 

^^3^1 unhun, an interjection, denoting re- 
fusal or negation, d. 

(j^ij\ "SfafT unhm (for wowAtw), exactly in 
that manner, even so. //. 

wft or'^Sfft wnt, woollen, made of wool. s. 
j\ u-ne (same as 1 j^\ u*-ne), he, by 

him, &c. d. [want of submission. *. 

, m. pertness, wantonness, 

aune-paune, partially, 
"more" or lose ; on occasion, h. 

^xi^T Wl^HigK dwariehdr, \ the future, 
U ^ijT HI^^I^ICT prvane-hdrd, ) that which 
is aSout to come, t . 

Ajij! *rfa?ft?r a-t?/m<, misbehaving, acting 
improperly, a-vinltd, f. an unchaste woman, f. 

&vit$di 9 riot disputatious. ^, 
a-wtek) m. want of discrimi- 

nation, indiscretion. 

ideratenesi. avtVeArl, indiscreet, inconsiderate. 9. 

80 ) 

T5fl uh 9 m. reasoning, logic. *. 
awa, m. a brick-kiln ; a forge, p. 

ohot interj. hcigho! alas! h. 
w,t, interj. Oli ! oh fye! h. 
Vtfrft? a-vynpti, f. the not diffusing 

Itself; not pervading, s. [posed, a. 

V*JI4i35 a-vyahul, calm, firm, com- 

awekhian (r. arvez), to hang by, to 
cling to, to be suspended, p. 

gyi amkhta^ suspended, pendulous, p. 

j\ Viq< rt/t*0r or aver (for a-for), delay, 
lateness, &c. j. 

j! *l*ftn a-vlra, f. a childless widow, s. 

anw or airczan (in comp.) suspending, 
adhering. awe.z-h. t a. to hang, to suspend, p. 

dwcza, m. an <* *ring, drops or pendants 

worn in the ears as ornaments, p. 

aweza-band, an ear-ring, p. 

a-ryahta, adj. indistinct, un- 

apparent, invisible ; m. the Supreme Being, or Uni- 
versal Spirit; the soul, nature, temperament, s. 

a-vy avast ha, irregular, s. 

a-vyavasthity not regu- 
lated, undisciplined, not put in order, s. 

a-rtjaya t m. an indeclinable word, 

"a particle ; a name of Vishnu ; adj. economical, parsi- 
monious. s. 

&! ah, f. sigh; interj. alas! ah bharna, a. 

to sigh, ahijan-hah, a heartrending sigh, aid jigar- 
soz, a heartburning sigh, ahi-sard, a cold or sorrow- 
ful sigh, dh-khatnclinl, f heaving a sigh. p. 

l\ uh, interj. Oh ! ah ! hah ! p. 

^bl ^rf5 nhi, m. a serpent, a snake, s. 

J>\ ^ Hi (for yih) t this, ih-kal, m. this life. 

ih-lok, the present world, iht, this very, ihl-than, 
here, in this very place, h. 

a/ti (Braj.), is, exists, h. 

Aa, alas! woe's me! bravo! well 
done ! d. 

\ "5ifnC w/mr, in. a covering, a cover of a 
litter or palH for women, h 

ahar > m. starch, glue, paste, h. 

ahar (vulg. ahdr), m. aliment, 
food, victuals, s. 

^Jbl V(^KHI aharna 9 o,. to paste, to starch, h. 

JW /7/ia/i (pi. of Jjb\), inhabitants, common 

people. aJtali mautalf, the people ut large, rich and 
poor. a. 

W$T ahaii, interj* do not, no, nay. h. 

ihdnaf, f. contempt, disdain, enmity, 
affront, insult a. 

frlfclfci ^BTfT^nrr ahahaha, interj. used in 

praise; also expressive of surprise, pain, or plea- 
sure, s. 

,Ufc| WtfTtT alibany m. a call, imitation, sum- 
mons, s. [venom of a snake. . 

rffifiH ahi~phen t m. the saliva or 

Vjp^d a-hit, an un-friend, enemy ; en- 
mity, want of affection; adj. hostile, prejudicial. 
ahit-kari, inimical, acting unkindly, aJiit-manZ) ini- 
mical, hating, s. 

*U?T ahut and ^TT|f?r ahuti, m. offering, 
oblations with fire to the deities ; a burnt-offering, t. 

ihtida, being directed in the right way 

(spiritually), a. 

*L*jj&\ iht'imdm y f. diligence, solicitude, 

anxiety, care; inspection, superintendence; a sub- 
division of a province, a. 

Jds^jkb] ihlimdm-ddr 9 m. a superintondant 
of the revenues, &c. of an iht imam or district, a, p. 
ihtimdmif m. a curator or manager, a. 

dhott f. sound, noise, clack, h. 
uhar, name of a tribe of rdj-puts. h. 
dhar, "|a small pond, a salt-pit, 

d/iarifj a drain, a trough for 
watering cattle, s. 

bWjbl ^U^TiTr^C dhar-jdhar 9 f. coming 

and going. A. iiu\. s. 

^>jb\ ^Tf ftif a-harshit, unhappy, sorrow- 
^Uytl ahnmdn* m. the spirit or principle of 

evil (among the fire worshippers), p. 

uharndf n. to subside (a swelling 

or inundation, h. 

ahar-nishi, day and night. $. 

, m. a reservoir for collecting 

rain-water to water the fields ; fuel made of cow- 

<lung. s. 

d/irl, f. a small pond (v. dhar). h. 
dhistogl (or dkastagt), f. slowness, 

" delay ; gentleness, softness, p. 

i^J&T dhista (or ahattu), gently, slowly; 
softly, tenderly, dhista-raw, slow paced, p. 

jvJbT dhixte (vulg. d*te), gently, slowly, 

easily, p. 

dhaft, m. quicklime, cement, plaster: 

it also denotes an abwub, or ccsfc upon lime, dhaki 
tafia, quicklime, p. 


a A/, in. people, master ; (in comp.) at- 

tached to, possessed of, &c., as ahl nlldh, people of God, 
dei-vises, fakirs, ahli ijtihdd, qualified jurists, alili 
kfcirad, people of wisdom. ahli bait, family (i.e. wife 
and children), but generally means the family of the 
Prophet, ahli ^nkuk t possessed of rights, or of just 
claims, ahli-dil, dervises, liberal, brave, generous. 
ahli-zatJc, addicted to pleasure, a voluptuary, ahli 
rozgar, skilful, knowing the world, ahli zamdn, time- 
servers. ahli zanun t an inhabitant of the earth, ahli 
zvtidy pious, devout, ahli sunnat, the followers of the 
traditional as well as the written law : the Sunni sect 
in opposition to that of the Shi'as. ahli shar\ a legis- 
lator, a lawyer, one who obeys and observes the law 
of the Prophet, ahli safd, possessor of purity ; a sufi ; 
a voluptuary. ahU shinakht, men of intelligence, ahli 
fa'at, faithful, obedient to God. ahli tabka, one who 
does not observe the precepts of Muhammad. ohli 
farik, an observer of the laws of Muhammad, ahli 
%arf, noble, ahli 'irfdn, learned, ahli 'akl, wise, ahli 
'Urn, scientific, ahli fazl, virtuous, ahli kdr, a work- 
man, a clerk, ahli kitd'b, a learned man ; a person of 
any religion revealed and contained in books (the 
Musulmans allow that the Jews and Christians are 
ahli kitab, whereas the Hindus are considered as ido- 
laters). ahli karam, liberal, generous, ahli itiajlh, 
an assistant, a member of (genteel) society, a courtier. 
ahli-masdrif, a proprietor, ahli-ma'dsh, the holder of 
a rent-free tenure, ahli ma'rifut, possessed of the 
knowledge of God. ahli manwb, a. minister, a person 
in office, ahh nasrat, colleagues, coadjutors, ahli 
nifdk, infidels, enemies. There is no limit to coin- 
pounds of this sort: two more I may heie add ahli 
saif, a military man ; ahli ftalam, a civilian, a. 

ahaly m. freshness of soil. h. or ilda, tn. inundation, de- 
luge, flood, overflow, h. [festivity, s. 

ahlad, m. joy, gladness, mirth, 
Tgffijir ahladitj joyful, glad, merry. 
ihluk, m. destroying, ruining. 0. 
c^r aklo 9 inundation, flood, &o. h. 
\ ^Q?ftc|[^aZc;/e,m.thi8 present world, s. 

ahliyit., f. a wife. sra,e ahliya, the wo- 
men's apartments, hence " t seraglio." 

Ulfcl <9{^<*m akalt/a, wife of Ootam, and 
daughter of Brahma : one of the Apsaras. h. 

Cl-aW ahnyat, f. worth, worthiness, excel- 
lence ; possession, a. [tant business, a. 

*b\ ahamm, important, ahammi kar, irnpor- 

Jb\ W% aluim, pron. T. aham-'mati, spiritual 
' ignorance ; conceit, self-love, s. 



ihmci! 9 m. 1 negligence, indolence, in- 

ihu,uH 9 f.J attention, 
lessness. a. 

^T^ ahmi 9 don't, not, no, nay. h. 

alum, n). iron, ahan-ruba, m. a load- 
stone. uhan-gar, an ironsmith or blacksmith, dhan- 
garl, the trade of an ironsmith. p. 



a-kima, f. 

a-hhisaky harmless, inno- 

ahnikj m. the constant or daily 

ceremonies of religion, daily work ; adj. daily, diurnal. 
dhniki, adj. of or belonging to a day. f. 

uhankar 9 ra. egotism, arrogance, 
haughtiness, pride. 3. 

ahankari^ haughty, arro- 

ahanhrit, ) gant, proud, 
an egotist. . 
Xxj&l a hang, m. design, purpose; sound, 

melody ; inie of the Persian tunes or modulations in 
music, p. 

ahayii, "1 made of iron, ahanln-panja, 
akanvij iron-handed or iron-fisted, 

strong, powerful, p. 

bl o/m, m. a deer; a vice, defect, fault. uh~t- 
bara, m. a fawn, dhu-chashm, having eyes like those 
of a deer, dhu-gir, a deer catcher, a/m-gtri, the act 
of catching deer. p. 

&! ^J^ ahoy interj. O! holla! sign of the 
vocative, wonderful! h. 

aho-ratra, and night, s. 

ahrvan, m. summons, respectful 
invitation, s. 
^g\ ^ a he, interj. O ! sign of the vocative, s. 

^J*\ ^\ th'i (for yihi), this very, ithi (for/yw/a), 
"that very. h. [live. * 

a-hctuJt, careless, without mo- 

fifuta or ahita, a person appointed 

to watch the grain when ripe, and see that the dues 
are paid ere it be removed, h. 

te\ ^SUfk ahir, m. a particular caste in India, 

whose business is to attend on cows ; a cowherd. For 
a full account of this tribe v. Wilson's Glossary, s. 

tther, f. prey, game, hunting, aheru* 

f. a plant (Asparagus racemosus) h. 

aliiran,^ f. a woman of the 
caste of ahirs ; a 
ahiri, J cowherd's wife. 7i. 
aheri, 1 in. a sportsman, a 
aheriya,) hunter, a fowler, /t. 
(C\ ni, interj. O ! th-e vocative particle, p. 
t^I ^ e, interj. 0! a respectful particle of 

address, s. 

uf I '?TT^ a,i, f. coining, arrival, s. 

$\ WQ ayu, f. age. bm-a,e mama is a phrae 

apparently connected with dyu : it signifies, " to die 
before one's allotted time," or " in spite of fate." s. 

bj a'i/(i y an interrogative particle, whether or 

not? interj. ho! hark you! p. 

b.T ^rnn ^a,f. female atlfendant on children, h, 
ObT ayat (pi. of C>oT), signs, marks ; 

sentences of the A//r,w, a. 
jbl aiyaz, name of a favourite slavo in the 

household of Ma^mad of Ghaznl. t. 

M i .- .,- 
Aplo' atba-ghaibi, V 

** *' 

ayai, m. fatigue, weariness, s. 
cb! oyagh, m. a cup, a drinking vessel, p. 

vjb) ayal (for yal), f. a horse's mane, the 
lock between a horse's ears. p. h t 

d-JW iijalat y f. dominion, government, a. 

*bl aiyam (pi. of ^y.), days, times; season, 

* weather, a. 

.vcb) aiyamlf durable, for a length of time. a. 

Obi WQTTTT a-yana, ignorant ; m. a fool. a. 

Uj) iba, making a sign with the finger for any 

one to approach (ima denotes a similar sign to signify 
departure.) a. 

, , , 
suddenly, unexpect- 


edly, all at once. */. 

, ten thousand, a myriad. 5. 

, lo$g, largo, wide ; m. the 
sunshine, sunbeam, s. 

ay alia, docile, tractable, ayat- 

tata, f. docility, tractable-ness. 8. 

, f. a sign, mark; a sentence of the 

Jcur,iin, contained between (signs) semicolons, or stops 
nearly equivalent thereto, ayat-l mutlak, a stop (in 
gram.), only used in the lcur t an, nearly equal to, a 
comma, a. 

J ^TfT eta or ^Itt ita, so much, this much 

(Dakh. now, at present), a. 

Uj>\ ital (for t'/a/), w noWj at present, d. 

!)jl^J ^Tn^fTT eta,ota, on this account, for 
this reason, s. [only this. s. 

etarvan-matra, tluis much, 

etad-arth, therefore, on that 
account, s. [acting affectedly, h. 

itar (v. itrana), affectation ; adj. 
etihy this much or muny. h. 

jj it'dafy m. familiarity, friendship, so- 
ciety, connection, company, correspondence, a. 
jl etam t m. a large lever for raising water, 
commonly called a pasotta. d. 

or t/wa, so much. h. 

(v. t/war), m. Sunday. 5. 

lyjl etnari, m. a man confined for debt, 

who avails himself of the Christian sabbath for ap- 
pearing abroad, s. 

^ HU^> ' 5>c<Vp5,e$t, low down. d. 
>l i/, f. (same as tn), a brick, s. 
bl aitna, n. to be pulled, dragged, d. 

JbJ t/t, f. a spear or lance ; the cat in boy's 
"play, ifi-dandu, the ball and crooked stick la the 
game of chaugfm. d. 

\t>\ isar, presenting, offering, a. 

^U:! ijab, m. rendering necessary ; (in 

logic) affirmation (opposite to privation) ; (in Musal 
man law) the first proposal made by one of the parties . 
in negotiating or concluding a bargain, a. 

\4$ijad, m. invention ; invented.- ijad-k. 9 a. 

to invent, a. 

\ yaz> abridging, curtailing, epitomizing 

(n book, &c.). a. 

ayudh, m. a weapon in general.' s. 
idrish, thus, such, like this. s. 
idhar (v. idhar), here, hither. 5. 

J.l i^5, f. pain, trouble, vexation, distress, 

affliction, iza-dih or l^a-rasan t one who gives annoy- 
ance, &c. ; a regular bore. a. 

r*^3 erab, m. the keel of a ship or boat. d. 
crapher% m. "I exchange, inter- 

erapherit f-J change; danc- 
ing attendance. //. 

>\ irad, f. citing, adducing, bringing (a 
charge), trad-k. to impute blfime- a. 

yj>\ i ran, Persia. Iran rva luran, Persia and 
Tartary, or Persia and Transoxiana. a. 

^\j>] Irani, of or relating to Persia; a Per- 
sian ; a man of the Shi'a sect. p. 

->j\j>\ ^TT^Tff airavat, the name of Indra's 
chief elephant, a. 

ijl^J ^TT^lft airavati, f. the Ravi river in 

* the Punjab, s, 


f f . age, lifetime, s. 
ayuraa, J 

emulation, envy, spite. 
Uj envious, s. 

erand, m. or erandi, f. the castor- 

oil plant (Palrna Qiristi or Ricinus communis). s. 

M^ ^Xt ^', interj. O ! a vocative particle 

for females, h. 


trhha, 1 f. 
e/'jf/m, / i 

J^ ^ cr or rf, f. striking with the heel, 

spurring, a sort of spur, &c. for urging on a horse. 
ef mama, to spur. /*. 

erkd, a large he-goat trained for 
fighting; a kind of fireworks. A. 

erflr/i;, m. a medicinal plant used 
for the cure of ring- worms, s. 

[ji' ^Tt erz, f. the heel, cr? tfeMo (look 
at your heel) look at home, a phrase used to obviate 
the effect of an evil eye. h. 

^) Izid, God. 9zidt 9 divine, any thing be- 
stowed for the love of God. p. 

rj t \ $TR v, 1 God, a lord, master, su- 
f*}\ $$f fsh,j preme ; a name of Shiva, s. 

dyasu, m. command, order, h. 
\ ay us, f. age, lifetime, s. 

aisd,. like this, after this manner, 
sometimes joined to other words, as mard-ai$d t like a 
man ; aisa taisd or aisd waisd, so so, indifferent, in- 
differently, h. 

^L-oJ $3fTvT tsdn or tshdn, a name of Sfiiva. 
Isdn-kon, the north-east, h. 

f isitd, f. lordship, supremacy, s. 
~>\ utddayi) f. erection, stability, p. 
^>\ istddan (r. w2), to stand, to be erect ; 

to stay. p. [raise up. f>. 

istdda, erected, set up. istdda-h., to 
a/, m. a winged white ant. d. 

IT dyasu, m. order, command, h* 
iNft* awow, this year. h. 
?H tt?^, "1 adv. thus ; m. this man- 
J^T aisen,) ner. h. 

7 i, f. the beam or pole of a plough. ,s. 

eshdn (pi. of 0), they, those, p. 


^TT! tshdn, m. a name of Shiva ; j 
light, splendour. ts/ta/ /COM, in. north-east, s. \ 

ishat, adv. a litile, somewhat, s. 

tshitd, f. "1 supremacy, one 

zxhitrva, mj of the eight at- 
tributes of God. s. 
y^j>J^sgi; Ish-warj in. ruler, lord; God; a name 

of Shiva, of Kam-dcv, ttt Dnrgd, Ltikalnnl, Saraswafi, or 
an^r other of the thiktis or female energies of the 
deities, hhwar-ddhln, subject to God. ishwariidhinuta, 
subjection to God. Ishwar-urddhnd^ f. worship of 
God. ishwar-bhdo, in. the divine nature, s. 

l!)iyjt ^Sf^rTT ishwaratd, f. divine nature; 
divinity, the godhead, s. 

&}*j*}^TQy&ntaishwarya 9 m. grandeur, pomp, 
state, supremacy, sway ; the divine faculties of omni- 
presence, omnipotence, invisibility, &c. s. 

\*o>\ aizan, evon, also; again; the same; 

likewise, moreover, a. 
Ub! ifd, rn. performing a promise, paying, 

satisfying, ifd-k., to make good. a. 
<^iJL>J ek, one; frequently used like the article 

a or an, with us, as ek mard, a man, &c. ; it is also 
used in forming compound adjectives in imitation of 
the Persian, as ek-d'u or ek-chit t of one mind, deter- 
mined, resolute, ek-zabtin, of one speech, or of the 
same mind or sentiments, ek-se din na rahne, is ap- 
plied to a change of condition, most commonly from 
good to evil, but sometimes the reverse, ek kl d<is 
sundni, to reply ten (words) for one (spoken of one who 
replies in many words, especially In giving abuse), ek 


A, (Dakh.) agreeing, unanimous, ek is frt ,. . 
united with the" following? word in writing, as ekdin or 
ekroz, one day. ekdam, in one instant e/c arf, or ek" 
dd/i, one half, some few. ek bdr t once upon a time. 
ek-bdrgj t ekd ek t or ekd ekt, all at once, suddenly, ek 
dost or ek ftalam or ek-lal&t, altogether, entirely, ut- 
terly, ek up e/r, either, one or other, ek digar, one 
another, s. 

ekddash, eleven', s. 
ehddashi, f. the eleventh day 

" of the lunar fortnight. *. 

w eftddhipati) m. sole and 

"absolute monarch, aikddhipatya, m. absolute sove- 
reignty. s. 

ehakdr, alike, uniform, s. 
ettdhsh, one-eyed, blind of one 

eye ; m. a crow. #. 

ekdhi, solitary, alone, s. 

chdyra, intent, fixed bn one ob- 

ject, undisturbed, ekdgratd, f. close attention, s. 

C^i&J JTHJJrer eltant) aside, apart, alone, so- 

litary, uninhabited, s. 

&>.l ehanaw or ehdnaurve (for ihanane), 

ninety-one, d. 

i))^ eJidrvan (for -ihdwari), fifty-one, d. 

aikdhik, quotidian, s. 
ekd,l, f. unanimity, unity; so- 

litudc, loneliness. .9. 

ekd-ekt, all at once, s, 

eh-T)achht 9 distribution of 
any tax or cess levied upon all lands at an equal rate. ft. 

l^frf5oJ irSRHrei eh-lkakt, worshipping one 

deity, ek-bhakli, of one faith, believing in one deity, s. 
*J&\ ^ToF^nrft ch-patnlj f. a faithful wife, 
one devoted to her husband, s. 

5a5o\ l?o|rtref eh-pakxha, m. an associate, a 

firm ally. s. 

^oj ^^R a-yuht or ayukta, unfit, im- 
proper ; in. violence, oppression. 5. 

ehta, f. unity, union, equality, s. 

ek-tdl, in. harmony, unison, 
adjustment of song, dance and music, s. 

*jjlj&l ektdtis (for ihtdlis), forty-one, d. 

liio\ TTSRfWR ek-tan, closely attentive, in- 
tent on one object; m. musical unisoh. s. 

>J l&ffte/uitr or ekatra, together, in one 
place. *. 

ekatrd, Vm. a sum total; in- 

ehatra, J terest of one percent 
per month ; adv. together, in one place, s. 
s>-\yi&\ ^AfcfUT^tL ekatra-jwdr, m. a tertian 
ague or fever, s. 

( 84 ) 

ehutha or 

T c/4/ta or chat f lid 

e/////a, 1 t 
r chat f lid, ) c 

col lected ; 


m. a small boat, rowed by one oar. ekthd-k., a. to 
gather, to collect, s. * 

*^R i?//-fa^ m. a fixed Irfok, stare. 5. 

wf%W ek-chitt, intent on, absorbed 
in one thing; of one mind, agreeing, s. 

ekada, once, once upon a time. s. 
ek-drish, one-eyed, s. 

^*'**J* ck-dukh-sukh, sym- 
pathizing, sharing joy and sorrow. *. 

eh-ra*lii, f. a heap, a crowd. 5. 
eh-rup, like, similar. 5. 


similar, identical. h. 

ek-sharan, one only refuge, 
applied to a deity, s. 

ek-sharir, of one body or 
ikshan, m. sight, seeing; the 

^jJtfo) eh-fardi, 1 land producing only one 
ek-fadi) j crop annually, p. 


, . .. 

\ alone, solitary, s. 


ek-ltdl, rn. one or the same 
time, ek-kalln, coeval, simultaneous, contemporary, s. 

ffy>-\$(^>\ ^^TnTS? eh-ydrlthl, f. a canoe 
hollowed out of one single trunk of a tree. s. 
^USCiW ^%il'IHl<l| ek-grdmin, of the same 
town or village. 5. [preceptor, s. 

ek-guru, a pupil of the same 
m ek-lauta, only-begotten (son).*. 
eltotra, a sum total, A. 

ek varna, of one caste, of one 
colour ; m. an unknown quantity (in algebra^. 5. 
3jfj$5.\ ^^'^^(ff. ch-vurrii, beating time by 
* clapping the hands, an instrument which beats time, 
a Castanet, s. 

ekaviMa, the twenty-first, jr. 
^lfrf ehavin*/iati,tvfenty-one.s. 
f. sugar cane (same as 5M). 

According to the author of the Arahhl Ma\ftl, the 
word is pronounced Ikh in the province of Dihll, and 
ukh in that of Oude, Lakhnau, &c. s. 

ai-ki, alas that, pity that. p. 

ihh-raj, the day on which the 

planting of the sugar-cane commences, generally 
attended with festive ceremonies. A. 

.l Mat tar (for ikhattar), seventy-one. 

^J i'khatfa (for ekatha) 9 collected, in one 

place, &c. ^. , 

ekahrd 9 single, solitary, alone, s. ' 
oI (for ikast), eighty-one, d. 
jk5o! ekeanawe (for tAa7ia7t?e),ninety-one.</ 
(for ikli), twenty-ono. d. 
ekaik, singly, one by one. s. 

(?/i3:o (for aheld or iltela), alone, soli- 
tary. d. 

aiftya, in. oneness, sameness; nn 

t a total. $. 
^J ^^pT a?guu 9 iu. unskilful ness, stupidity. *. 

j itjyuli uyyal and ayyiil t a deer, hart, 
wild goat of the mountains, a. 

jjj e/ f f. a gold or silver bracelet worn by 

ma'eu imly. d. 

b.l ^^T ela, f. small cardarnums, the seeds of 
Electeria cardamomum or Alpinia cardamomum. s. 

bj ild (lit.) swearing; in law, a vow to 

abstain from having carnal knowledge of a wife for 
four months, the fulfilment of which is equivalent to 
a divorce. . 

^bl aildr or J^>\ atldr, on this side. d. 
^4 Mil, in. an ambassador, agent, at- 

"torney, envoy, piety -pana, m. or elcltl gai t, f. office 
or dignity of ambassador, ambassadorship, agency. 
elchl-garl-/c. t a. to act the ambassador, &c. ; to act for 
another. /. 

lltjhar or elgkar (for ilghar q.v.), the 
forced march of an army through a country, t. 

a ilfail,m. abusive language,obscenity.^. 

i>J elam or I/am, m. an auction or public sale. 
elam-ddlnd, to sell by auction, d. 
^T^T elwd, m. aloes. A. 

Lbl ityd, Elias or Eli ; Jerusalem, a. 
^\ Jjil eti-elaUah (for Za fVaAa illa-aUdh\ 

there is but one God. <J. 
.^^b^ ailetvar or ailewar, on this side. ^?. 

U>\ Ir/ia, m. igri, nod, wink (indicating de- 

parture); emblem, symptom, a. 
y\+>\ imdn, m. faith, belief, conscience, reli- 

gion. Iman-dar, faithful, true, tm&n-dan, f. fidelity, 
truth, imdn-ldnd, to believe. lman-h., to be on oath. a. 

^3^ Ima/il, faithful, of the (Musalman) 

- faith. . 

fl*mZI, name of a tribe or caste, /i. 

, m. a musical mode. s. 
\ aiman, more or most happy, fortunate, a. 
J emin(foT amtn),secure,safe,void of care. p. 
$ aimanl or emini, f. security, protection, a. 

>J aima (for a,imma, pi. of *U1, Imams, 
Saints), m, land given as a reward or* favour by the 
king, at a very low rent, a fief (when no rent is paid, 
it is called la-l&araj) ; a grant of land, &c., to the 
people who attend at the tomb of a saint, aima-ddr, 
one who holds aima land, a feoffee, aima mauza', a 
village given as a charitable endowment to learned or 
religious persons, a. 

\ in (Pers.), this, these, ain (Arab.), 
where ? In (Dakh.), shewing, or exhibiting the teeth. 

Lvi^ ^Z Int, f. a brick, int-gari, brickwork. 

Int-wdld, a brickmaker t . 

aintd, m. a snail, A. 

tntdyd, m. a kind of dove. h. 
mt-kdri, f. brickwork, h. 

aintan, m. the strings or bands of a 
spinning wheel, d. 

>\ *M<?*fl aintna, n. to twist, to writhe, to 
be racked with spasms ; to walk or move stiffly, h. 

JJ aintni, f. pride, peevishness, d. 

, proud* peevish ; stately, aintu- 

pana, stateliness. d. 

$1>\ l& ainth, f. a coil, twist, convolution, 

tightening ; strut, tnfh (Dakh.) for mt, q. v. 

l^jujt aint liana, a. to twist, &p. (in a tran- 
sitive sense), h. 

*^&\'$&ffl aint find, &.to tighten , n. to writhe, 
to cramp, to twist ; to strut, to stalk, to walk aflectedly.A. 

jjl *^f (finch (also "inch and atnchu), m. re- 
serve, security, attraction. a*ficA-ArAatncA,quarrelling.A. 

s^iVfTT ainchnd (or trecAna), a. to draw, 
to attract, to pull. A, 

iI5U^^jOJ t?(9!lfc?*ff aindra-jalik) m. a jug- 
gler, a magician ; adj. of or relating to magic, illusory.//. 

jtiJoJ ^J indur, m. (also indur), a rat ; a 
mouse, h. 
4/T dyanda, in future, futurity, p. 

jjj dyanda-ravanda (pi. dyanda-ra- 

wandagari), one who is passing to and fro. p. 

^ JJJ>! fH|tf indhan, m. firewood. 5. [about, fc. 
aindna, n. to strut, to stalk 

~mdhu>a, m. a roll or round fold 
on which a burden is carried on the head ; a pad on 
the top of the head for supporting a water-jar, h. 

jj>3 *nah, lot behold! there for you. p. 
ingur, m. red lead, minium, p. 
*?\ inv or two, this, these, d. 
>\ m eva, even 80, verily* indeed. *. 
T ^TTJ at/u, also ayu, f. age, lifetime. #. 
^*$^TCt aiwara, m. a cow-shed (in a 

jungle), ft. 

\^\ a man, m. a hall, a gallery, a portico, 

applied generally to a royal palace, p. 

frjl wfteTT ayodhya, f. the name of the 

country and city of which Kama was sovereign ; the 
present kingdom of Oude. s 

ai-fw5,t,l interj. alas ! alas ! woe is 
at-waA, J me ! p. 
>j>\ aiyub, m. the patriarch Job. a. 

ayurbal,! f. age, lifetime, du- 
y wrc?a, J ration of life. s. 
f ewar, m. a flock of goats. A. 

a-yogya, unfit, improper, j. 

a-yogyata, f. want of fitness^, 
mm, thus, so, even so. s. 

&>J ^rni ayo, in. receipt, gain, profit. A. 
*?J ay<*> (v. 5yfl<), a verse of the kur,an. a. 
4>\ ^f ih (foryiK), this, he, she, it. h. 

l^4?J ^^ than (for yahan), here, in this 
place. A. [sent world ; worldly, mundane. **, 

dl.^.>J ^fig'JR otAtA, of this place; of this pre- 
Ijuot wftlTT ayita, prepared, ready, s. 

^^jo! 5,In, m. regulation, law, rules (common 

law ; the laws delivered by Muhammad are called shar*, 
those established by princes a,fn) ; institute, custom, 
manner, p. [ferior. d. 

^Juujl) ^^ix) 1 a 9 tnti-pd t uiti 9 low, under, in- 
^b^x>l a,m-dan, m. one skilled in the law; 

but it generally signifies a man who practises on the 
simplicity of people by his knowledge of law, hence, 
a pettifogger, a rogue, p. 

duuol a t ina, m. a mirror, looking-trlasg; the 
knee pan. a,lna,e iskandart, a celebrated mirror said to 
have been made by Aristotle, and placed on the sum- 
mit of a tower built by Alexander the Great at his 
newly-built city of Alexandria, f). 

ta&jJL) 1 a,tna-dar 9 m. the mirror-holder, an 
officer at eastern courts ; met. a mendicant d,tna-ddri, 
f. the office of holding the mirror, p. 

JL) I a,ina-dan, rn. the case of a mirror, p. 

ix)T ajina-saz, m. a mirror-maker, a,Iwz- 
sdzl, the trade oC mirror-making, p. 
. . *-r . . - - - /. 

5dj^x)l a,ma-jaroz 9 or a,tna-ajroz, or ajna- 

zidd.c, m. an instrument for polishing mirrors, p. 
^&ix)! a,ma-mahall 9 m, an apartment of 

which the walls are covered with mirrors (in eastern 
palaces), p. a. 

~* be, the second letter of the Arabic alpha- 
bet. It is sounded like our 6, and in numeration by 
abjad it counts two. It is often prefixed to Persian 
and Arabic words with the sense of by, to, for, &c. In 
Arabic phrases it is always united to the noun it go- 
verns, and sounded hi. In Persian it is sounded />, 
and may be united to its noun, or it may be written 
separately with the weak or imperceptible A. a. p. 

* W ba t is the corresponding Devanagari 

letter, and in words from the Sanskrit it is frequeutlv 
substituted for v, as bardha for vardha. It stands for 
baruna, the god of water: it may also denote the sun, 
the ocean, or water in general. A. *, 

WT ba (for ^t fa), conj. or, either. *. 
Zw, with, }>y, possessed of (in opposition to* 
be, "without, deprived of); frequently used as first 

accordance with good manners. bd-an-ki, notwith- 
standing that, bd-imdn, faithful, religious, ba-tadblr, 
prudent, with deliberation, bd-tamiz, discreet, judi- 
cious. bd-b&abar, intelligent. bd-hayd, modest. bd- 
sliu'ur, wise, intelligent. ba-Jcffida< according to rule. 
ba muruwat, humane, ba maza, tasteful, delicious. 
ba wasf or ba tvujud, notwithstanding. ba wa*\ re- 
spectfully. ba wafd, sincere, faithful, p. 

u^b bob, m. a chapter, section, or any divi- 

sion of a book ; a door; subject, head, affair, business, 
point, matter, reason, manner, mode, species, method, 
sort ; babu-t-taubat, the door of repentance. In reve- 
nue language ahead of accounts, a tax, a cess (vide 
the pi. abwdb}. bdb-war and bdb-ydft, classified, items 
entered (as fields, &c.) under their proper heads. 
bdh-wdri, f. classification, a. 


baba, in. lather, sir ; in Bengal it is 

a very common terjv Jbr boy. girl, child, or any young 
person, bdbd-jdn, dtfar father, or dear child, h. 

U>b babat, f. account, head, article, item ; 

business, affair, matter ; on account of. This term, 
with its compounds, is much employed in revenue ac 
counts; as, bfibat-wdr, according to entry, babat- war t, 
f. finy thing which is registered or entered in a general 
statement of accounts, babat-yaft, the particular 
items of any charge, bdbatl, any cess or item of re 
venue: the Persian pi. bdbatdn is also used in the 
tense of "sundries," miscellaneous Hems. a. 

ftr, in. a kind of sweetmeat; a 
species of grass (v. bcb] t h. 

c^j>b ^H*5l babarchi (for bawarchi), m. 
*a cook. bdbarrlri-jtfidna, a cook's shop or kitchen, 
vulgarly called bobber chy -cornier by the non-reading 
Europeans, male and female, p. 

l^jjb ^rn*ft*ri Inhariyaii, a head of hair, 

long and uncut, d. 

jb babul, Bahc-l or the city of Babylon, a. 
b TTW^ft babm, f. a snake's hole. h. 

abu, in. a child ; a prince; master, 
a title among Hindi! 3 equivalent t& our Mr. or 
Squire, and it is now as common as the latter terms 
are among us. h. [Ion, 13abel. . 

b babul (<amcns babul), the city of Baby- 
* baboii, for the sake of. d. 
babuiKt, m. camomile; wild ivy 

(Richards). p. 

fc^jb W3 brip, m. father. fcap-//.,a. to consider 
as n father, bfip-re or bdp-merd (my father!), interj. 
an exclamation expressive of surprise, grief, &c. h. 

^Job W^ffatil brif't'ftna, rn. baptism (this 
word has been recently introduced into the Indian 
dialects by the Christian Missionaries. #. 

. ->b wft baprau,*} 

-^V ,- - [ helpless, poor, destitute. h. 

!r& wwfrfrajprjJ 

buphf f. steam, vapour. $. 

c bapi, f. a lai'g oblong pond or 

pool, commonly called a tank. 5. 

Ob *rTfT bat, f. speech, language, word ; ac- 
count, subject, question, cause, bat bdndhna, a. to so- 
phisticate, to prevaricate, bat bafhand, a. to prolong a 
contest, bat btgdrna, a. to rnar a plot, to spoil, bat 
banana, a. to make up a story, to make excuses, bat 
pdnd, a. to accomplish one's wishes, to effect one's pur- 
pose. bat pherna, a. to equivocate, bat phenlnia, a. to 
jeer, to mock, to speak at (but not to), bat tdlnd, a. to 
put off, to excuse one's self, bat cltaldnd, a. to con- 
verse, to start a subject, bat chit, f. conversation, chit- 
chat. bdt-dhardna, a. to persist in making excuses, to put 
off, to evade, bat ddlnd, a. to throw away one's words, 
to ask in vain, bat rakhnd, a. to assist, to agree, to com- 
ply. bat rahna, n. to make good one's words, to be ful 
filled or accomplished (declarations), to succeed, to 
overcome, to get the better in arguments, to be ac 
cepted, to preserve perfect, bat kd batahkaf-k., to mul 
tiply words, talk much on little, bat kdpid, a. to inter 
rupt. bat kajdn, in short, bat kan ko lend, a. to accept, 
agree to. bat kursi-nishm-h., to be approved of (an 
affair or proposal), bat ko plna, a. to have patience, bat-k., 
a. to converse, to talk, to speak, biit ki bat, unmeaning 
orders, commands not expected to be obeyed, bat kt 
bat men, in an instant, bat garhnd, n. to speak to the 
purpose, to (speak so that one's words) have effect or 
make impression, bat ghat-k., to determine, settle. 
bat lagdnd, to calumniate, bat mama, to turn off, to 
evade, to divert (a discourse, &c.j. bat man meti basna, 
n. to recollect, remember, bat men ktichh-k., to perform 
a business in a word, i. e. in a short time, to lose no 
time in doing any thing, bat men giraud, a, to floor (the 
opponent) in argument, bdten siuiaiiti, a. to abuse, to 
speak harshly, bdten sunna, a. to receive abust* or harsh 
reproof. 5. [tism. s 

bat, m. pain in the joints, rheuma- 
ls^bb batan feharn, talkative, d. 

jlfl3b ba-ittifak or bi-ittifak, with one con- 
sent, harmoniously, a. [Etawah. h. 

b *nfflrT bat in, name of a tract of hind in 
lutun~i, \ conversable, enter- 

batuniya,) taining, talkative, 
chatty ; a talkative, entertaining, conversable person, h. 

<c>b ^Tift battj f. a candle, a wick ; a tent or 
"bougie put into a wound to keep it open. s. 

>b ^TfiT bat, f. a road, highway, bat saru, 

a traveller, a wayfarer ; in a weight, or measure of 
weight, whether of stone or metal, bdf-chhdp, the stamp 
on weights and measures to guarantee their being ge 
nuine. bdt-chkdpl, fee for stamping weights, &c. . 

bb tRZl bata, m. a share, portion, d. 
Kib "qrrfirsirr batikd, m. a villa, s. 

Ii3b ^rr?r{T batna (also bathna), a, to share, 
to portion out or divide ; to spin, to twist d. 

^J>b W^ baft, f. a habitation, dwelling-house, 

" home ; a garden-house. $. [other. A. 

^yl^? A'b tnSwiJ bate-ghate, somewhere or 
3\ b la-asar, with effect, effective, p.^a. 
-b *TW baj, without, in the absence of, d. 

-.b ba}, m. a tax, duty, toll, import, &c.; tri- 

bute, originally, that taken by one king from another. 
bdj-dar or baj-gir, a tax-gatherer, or collector of tri- 
bute or revenue, bdj-gu&ir, one nrho pays taxes, 
duties, &c. p. 

( 87 ) 

bajd, on. a musical instrument; 

music, hdjd-bajantar, or -bajattar t a band of music. 5. 

haja-gaja, in. the sound or 
clangor of various musical instruments. . 

bdjrd, m. a kind of grain so called; 
Indian corn (Holcus spicatus). A. 

Ft?"b ^M<1 bdjri, f. same as bdjrd only of 
a smaller kind. h. [instruments. . 

>ly b *n%*tlsf bdj-gdj, m. sound of musical 

bdj-gir, owe who receives or collects 

taxes, &c. p. 

bdjan,m. pl.musical instruments, h. 
bdjnd, n. to sound (as a musical 

instrument) ; to be published ; a. to play, strike up or 
perform on an instrument, h. 

bdjan-bdjd, m. pi. musi- 

cal instruments, h. 

i^Si^b ^HrWtf bdjantari, f. a tax formerly 
exacted from musicians and dancing-girls, h. 

^>-b VT^baju, m. a kind of ornament for the 
arm. /*. 

*u>b baja, m. (v. baj.a),a musical instruments, 
^jvb ^THrft bdji, m. a horse, s. 

li-b TT^n &c/i or vacha, f. speech, affirma- 
tion, agreement, promise or pledge. *. 

i^l>>b ^TTcBi bdchak or vdcJiak, speaker ; (in 
grammar) an explanatory particle. *. 

^f>- V ^T"^ bdchk, f. selection ; the corner of 

the lip; adj. useless; in revenue language, it denotes 
the proportionate rate or division either of lands or lia- 
bilities attached to them, bdchh-bardr, an adjustment 
of liabilities, &c. $. [animal). *. 

bachha, a calf (or young of any 

bachhal, a tribe of raj -puts 
about 'Aligarh, &c. 7* [lect. A. 

bachhna, a. to choose, to se- 

bdchya or vdc/iya, in. a sentence 
(in grammar); adj. spendable, fit to sppak. 5. 

b lakla, m. (for &>-b q. v.) a tortoise, p. 
-b ba-hkfibar, careful, intelligent p. 

lahhtan (r. bdz) to play, to sport with ; 
to endangor. p. 

bdkhla t played, lost (by play), p. 
>-b bakha, m. a tortoise or turtle, p. 

b bu<lj f. wind, bad-se bat-k., to go very 

quickly, to be very swift. Iddi fund, f. a stormy wind. 
bdd-paimd or bad-raftdr, swift as the wind (generally 
applied to a horse), bddi samum, f a hot pestilential 
wind, bad-sanj, idly speculative, vain ; one who builds 
castles in the air. bddi shurta, f. a fair wind, a favour- 
able wind, badifarang, St. Anthony's flre (the pox?). 
bad-farosh, a musician or minstrel, literally a seller of 
wind, bddi muk&Zlif, f. a contrary wind, bddi sabd,f. the 
morning breeze, a zephyr, bddi murdd, f. a fair wind ; 
in revenue language it denotes a remission on account 
of deficient produce, p. 

jb bad (for buwdd, precative form of budan, 

* to be ;) may it be, or may it continue or be perpe- 
tual. (also bddd). p, 

jb ^(T^ bad or vad, m. accusation; assertion, 

asseveration, affirmation ; a claim or plea ; rheuma* 
tism. bdd-h., a. to argue, s, 

jUb WR[rC bdddr, a large ho.use, granary 

raised on piles, h. 

Jt>b badam, m. an almond, also an Indian 

fruit resembling the almond, the catapang of the Ma- 
lays. J5. 

a^Ub baddma, the aurelia or silkworm in its 
nymphean state ; a kind of silk ; a dress made of rags 
sewn together, worn by Jakirt. p. 

^Ub bdddmi, almond-coloured ; almond- 

" shaped; a kind of eunuch; a kind of .dish of which 
almonds form a main ingredient, p. 

^Uibb afl^Mqiq bdddnubdd 9 m. altercation, 
dispute, &c. *. * [tic), p. a. 

bad-baft, f. subtraction (in aritbme- 
bad-ban, m. a sail ; a vessel in which a 

lamp is placed for protection from the wind. p. 

bad-pa, having feet like the wind, fleet, 

swift (horse), p. 

.\-ab bad-Maya, m.the rupture, p. 

ob bdd-khor, m. a disease in horses, from 

which the hair falls off. p. [pitis). p. 

bdd-khord, a scald head (Tinea ca- 

, a cloud, (v. bddal). h. 
^T^bddur, m. a flying fox ; a bat. s. 
b bddranj, 1 an orange, a kind of 
^b bddrany, \ citro,n, a species of 
X&j5\jbddranyin,j large cucumber, bad' 

ranj buya or badrang boya, Arabian balm, mountain 
balm. p. 

b bad-re&ha, m. a whirl, a circular piece 
of wood at the end of a spindle ; the round piece of 
wood at the upper end of a tent-pole. p> 

J^b bddriya, m. a ventilator suspended to 
the roof of a house, to increase the circulation of air, 
and drive away flies, p. 

U>3b bddshdh, m. a king, a sovereign : this 
is an Arab corruption of the Persian word padi- 
shdh.q.v. p. [of a king. p. 

b bddshdhdna, kingly, in the manner 

bddshdhat, f. a kingdom, govern- 
ment. p. 

a^j&Lijb bddshdh-zada, a king's son, a 

prince, bddshdh-zddi, a princess, p. 
^JbUi^b bddshdht, f. royalty, sovereignty; 

"adj. royal, belonging to a king, badshdhl tanad, a 
royal tenure, or grant of land rent-free, p 

ajS>$b bddshah (same as badshdh),bkmg,&cc.p. 

( 88 ) 

b bad-hash, m. a fan, a ventilator ; a | j 

""punkah; bellows. />. 

b bad-gird, a whirlwind, p. 
, bddal, m. a cloud, h. 

m. gold or silver thread, 
j; tddta,) brocade, &c. h, 
,J3b ifKjgft bddati, silver cloth ; cloudiness. A. 

*>b bddam (for bdddm), an almond ; spi- 
ceries. p. * [snake's bite. p. 

bdd-muhra , m. an antidote for a 
b bddinjdn, the egg plant. />, 
bdd-numd, m. a weathercock. ?. 

\dda, m. wine, spirits, bdda-parast, ad- 
dicted to wine, bada-kash, wme-d rawer. bada-nosh t 
or bilda-gysdr, a wine-bibber. 7). 

t>b ^itf AwM, a lesser division of an estate; 

a plain, a desert. /*. 
fc^b *rni fc<K//t, m. prohibition, hindrance; 

a chord, a string. 5 

b '?HVT bddhd, f. pain, anguish, s. 

b snfVTf bdd/iit, obstructed, impeded, 
pained, tormented, s. / 

CSiSbwWft5dAaft,onehointerrapts,&c... ' , ^.^ burden . bearing (oi OTass) . p . 

iRWUbddhan, m. pain, act of obstruct- \ ',-,*- . , , 

r --Vjb bar-bardar, in. a porter, a burden- 

bearer. ^>. 

j^2>Jjb Itdr-barddri, f. expenses of travel- 
ling, coolie-hire, carriage-hire, means of conveyance, p. 
,.b ^TfcST &5ry (for vdrija), m. the lotus. 
barija nayan, having eyes like the flower of the lotus. *. 
l>Wjb batjat, an oppressive custom, forcing 
the natives to buy goods above the market price, p. 
'>..b bdi'jd t e-) a custom of forcing people 

bar, \ m. perquisite of the ahtr or 
bdrd 9 } cow-her J in n^ilk, generally 

~ the milk of every eighth day. h. 

\^b bard, m. wind, air, atmosphere, d. 

^Cj^Kb WKIijO 1 bdrddari (v. bdraK), f. a 

summer-house, h. 
l&u*Vjb ^rrofibn bdrdxingd, m. a stag (Ckr- 

fj elaphus). h. 

(j^^j^b *TTCnsnft bdrdkhari, f. the combina- 
tion of the consonants (in the Devanagari) with the 
vowel symbols, h. 

^b bdrdn, m. rain, the rainy season, p. 

j bdrdni, f. a great coat, or cloak for 

keeping off the rain ; unirrigated land, i.e. land de- 
pending ou the natural rains of the season, p. 

Kb ^TXT5 Idrdk, m. a hour, a hog ; the 

third incarnation of Vishnu, s. 

-J&Ub ^fm?t bdrdhlj f. land; adj. relating 

to burah, the third incarnation, h. s. 

J>jb bar-bar, repeatedly, ofU-n (also bdram- 

bar), bar-bart-k., to procrastinate, delay, p. 

bdr-batd f t, f. division of 

the crops by sheaves or shocks, before the corn if 
trodden out. h. 

ing or opposing, s. 

^ ly^b hdd-hatcdji, f. fruitle^sness, useless- 
ness; waste, p. 

&xfc i>b IRHbddhya, what ought to bestopped.5. 

^jb bddi, flatulent, troubled with wind. p. 

^jb "Tf^ bddi (for vddi}, an accuser, a 
plaintiff, an enemy, badl ckor, an inveterate thief. *. 

jc^b badit beginner, an author, a. 

^biib bddiydn (also bddiydna}, sweet fennel ; 
anise seed. s. 

&,ob bddtya^ m. a bowl, cup, glass (but ge- 
nerally made of brass or bell-metal), p. 
b bddiya t m. a desert, a wilderness, a. 

1 bddh, f. stubble. A. 
>b Tram bddhndy a. to cut, to shear, h. 

dzih, the juice of grapes, slightly 
"boiled, a. 

.b bar, in. Irtad ; time, oncf> ; n rourt, a tri- 
*bunal, sitting of a sovereign to give audience; repeti- 
tion ; fruit ; leave, permission, admission ; pregnancy, 
iar-rfar, loaded, full of fruit ; pregnant, bar-deua, to 
load ; to give charge ; to impose, to give trouble, to 
encumber ; to give admission, to give leave. ka t i bar 
karke, after several times or turns, p. 

.b ^T^ bar, f. time, occasion, delay ; ver^re, 
edge ; a girl not exceeding sixteen ; m.' day of the 
week; door; water; child; hair; prohibition, ob- 
stacle, bar lag&n&, to delay, to hesitate, s. 

to buy goods at an exorbitant price ; likewise, a free 
grant of a spot of ground made by the zamlndars and 
landholders to any of their relatives, the rents of 
which, to prevent a loss to the donor, are assessed 
upon the rest of his possessions, p. 

^W.b bar-cfidp, a kind of cloth, d. 

*>\8>,b bdri-khdss, m. private hall of au- 
dience.* p. [mind. p. a. 

bdri Mfltir, load or distress of 

^.b bdr-&hdna 9 m. a warehouse, p. 
'-Mda, Great God. p. 
bdrid m. (for varid), a cloud, s. 
b band, cold, frigid ; established, a. 

b bariz, a term in arithmetic, the sum total 
or gross amount, p. 

*\> bdri*h, f. rain j a shower of rain. p. 
bdr-i-'ami m.public hallofaudiencep.a. 


bank, m. rain (for varik or 

barak-allaft (God prosper you), a 
phrase expressive of admiration, a. 
*^;b bar-bash, lit, " burden-bearing," ap- 

plied to elephants, carts, porters, &c. p. 

5^b bargah or d^l> larguk, f. a court, pa- 
lace, place of audience. bar-guh-i-l$Ms t private court, 
privy-council chamber, bargah~i~'dm, public court, 
where every body is admitted, p. 

^j^> bdrayl or baryi (used in com p.), time, 
"or turn. p. 

*?ju bdryir, m. a horseman (soldier) who 
does not find his own horse ; a beast of burthen, p. 

b *HW btirnn (for vcircrw), m. forbidding, 
prohibiting, preventing ; an elephant, j?. 

^jb ^TTjiTT bdrndy n. to leave off, to sepa- 
rate, to quit ; a. to forbid, to prohibit. 5. 

barnd, a. to light, to kindle, h. 
Idrambdr (for bar-bar)) often, 

repeatedly. A. 

^b *nt*r: laramba, m. fruit of mangoes, 

revenue derived from mango groves, A. 

>c^jb bdrandagz, f. rain, raining, p. 
3jb baranda, that which rains or showers, p. 
jb qi^ft bdruni, f. spirituous liquors. 5. 

bdru, f. sand (vide bdlu) ; in. a 


b bdru (for barut], f, gunpowder, saltpetre, p. 
bdrwdn (for bdrahwdn), the twelfth. 7i. 

b (artf*,! _ , , 

. ft. saltpetre; gunpowder, p. 

J . bdrud, J 

b ^TTC? bdrah, land next to or surrounding 

a village. /*. 

jb ^nt? bdrah, twelve, bdrah-dari, f. a 

summerhonse (q.d. with twelve doors), barah bat Jtond, 
n. to become a vagabond, to be ruined or harassed, ft. 

jb bdra, for the sake of, in behalf of, as in 
the phrase dar bara,e man, in my behalf; (in comp.) 
turn, time ; as, du-bara, twice, over again, p. 

fcjb bdr-hd, often, repeatedly, p. 

barah-sinyd, m. lit. " n 

twelve-tiner ;" a stag with horns of twelve branches 
(Cervus elaphtts). h. 

cjb bare, once, one time ; it is used by some 
authors in the sense of at last, at length, lastly, p. 
F\* bari, m. a name of the Deity, the 
"Creator, ban ta'5/3, the most high God. a. 
Cjb ^t^9 bdri, f. a garden, an orchard, a house; 

a window ; an ornament worn in the ear and nose ; 
a young girl not exceeding sixteen, a. 

ban. m. the name of a caste of 

Hindus whose business it is to sell torches and leaves 
which are used as platters : the same c* ete occasionally 
act as barbers, h. 

t^jb bdri, tour, turn, bdrl-ddr, an attendant 

H who waits in turn with others. Ian kt tap, an inter- 
mittent fever, p. 

^b b bdr-t/db, admitted at court or into com- 
pany ; one who has the entree, p. 

c^b^b bdrydbt, f. admittance at court or into 
" company ; having the entree, p. 

<.)i*ijb bdridan, to rain, to shower, p. 

Cib,b bank, fine, slender, minute, subtile. 
bdrlh'bln, intelligent, penetrating, quick of apprehen- 

sion. bunk-mii/fin, slender-waisted. p. 

(m f>^> barihli f. subtilty ; minuteness, p. 
j : b ^TT bar, f. edge; name of a place near 

Munglr; a fence, a hedge ; a line (of soldiers) ; a mar- 
pin. bar-pakrana, to urge on, to instruct, barjhapta 
and bar urdna, a. to fire a volley. baf-bandhna t a. to 
iuclos^ a field with thorns, bar-rakhna, -chirna, or 
-chirtvfina* a. to sharpen biir-denti, or -dilwdnu, a. to 
sharpen, to grind, excite, to instigate, /rt 

]j : b ^rtTI bdrd,m. an inclosure ; alms, charity. /*. 
barav, \ m. submarine 

^T^y bdravdnalyj fire. s. 

3' bar ft, f. a flood $ promotion, in- 
crease. h. 

bar find, ^ n. to increase, go on, 
bdrhnauj advance, rise, swell- 

to be promoted, to amount, lengthen. //. 
t&j^ *f\<*$ bar hi, f. usurious profit or inte- 
rest taken on grain; interest in kind paid upon seed 
grain, h. 

t^Vb *U/I baft, & kitchen-garden ; a house 

with the garden, orchard, &c., attached to it; also 
cotton (see barl). s. [knives, &c.). h. 

bjb WTfem bdriya, m. a whetter (of swords, 

jb bdz, m. a femalo falcon, a hawk, bdz-ddr, 

m. a falconer, baz-dari, f. the charge of hawks, keep- 
ing falcons, a. 

jb bdz, adv. again, once more. baz-ana y n. to 

decline, to leave off; to refuse, to reject, to desist. 
baz rakhna, a. to hold back, to prevent, to forbid, bfiz- 
rahna, n. to decline, to reject, to leave off; to refuse ; 
(in comp.) it denotes a phtyer; as, shatranj-bdz, a 
chess-player; frulcka-bdz, a juggler, p. 

jVjb bdzdr, m. a market : according to Glad- 

wiu it denotes a constant and established market, in 
contradistinction to ///, an occasional one. p. 

jb bdzdri, belonging to a market ; market 

people, common people, bazdrt bat, low or vulgar 
language; patois; Billingsgate. p 

jb ba-z-pur*, 1m. reiterated inquiry j 

"jb bdz*?tJii>pdxtJ minute investiga- 
tion. p. 
^.^Ju-Jjb bdz-painn, last, hindmost, p. 

^VTjjb bdzar<,dn (for bdzdrydn), m. a mer- 
chant. a dealer in the market, p. 

( 90 ) 

jb bazaryarii, f. merchandise, traffic, 
" trade commerce. />. 
^)5^jb bdz-hardan, to throw open (a door). /?. 

CU^Jjb baz-gasht or baz-gashta, returned, 

retreated, p. 
^.fjb bdz-yiin, preposterous, upside down. p. 

^fjb bdz~yir, a falconer; a chronologist, or 
historian ; (for bdj-gtr), a collector of revenue, p. 

8 jjjb bdzanda, playing, a player ; a kind of 
pigeon (vide Mj.irad-afroz). p. 

jjijb bazu, rn. tho arm (plur. bdzu,ari) ; the 
fold of a door ; the oide of a bedstead ; a friend, a com- 
panion ; one who repeat* the chorus of the ntarsiya ; 
an accompanier in a song, bdzu dend, a. to assist, to 
help, to support, p. 

JjU>jijb bdzu-band, m. an ornament worn on 
the arm, a bracelet or an armlet, p. 

(Cjb b(izi> f. play, sport ; a gamo, a stake at 
piny, bdzt kltdttd, to lose, to be cast ; to be cheated. 
bdzt puna, to be victorious, prosperous, bdzi-lagdnd, 
to wagor. bdzi Icjdnd, to win, to excel. />. 

OAjbjb baz-yaft, resumption of any tiling 

the act of resuming alienated lands or property of any 
kind. p. [a toy, plaything, p. 

awgjb bdzlcha, f. fun, piny, sport; wagering; 
(jt^jb bazidan, to sport, to play ; to gamble. />. 

5o^jb bdzl-gahy f. a place for exhibiting 
feats of activity ; a theatre, p. 

jjojb baziyar, m. a tumbler, one who exhi- 
bits feats of activity, p. 

a tumbling-woman, 
an actress, p, 

y^Jjb bazt(/fjran,\f. 
Lj&jb bazltjarniy ) 

jb Idzlgari, f. tlie art of juggling, 
tumbling, &c. p. [bamjd, a perfumer. *. 

(_>*>b ^FT^C bas, f. smell, scent, odour. bd$- 

(j**b ^T^? has, ^Im. abode, residence, lodg- 
U**b ^rTHT basd,) ing, torn porary reside/ice, s. 
^U*>b ba-axani, with facility, easily, p. 

^lju*>b ba*1dn (in Persian), ancient, pnst: in 

the south of India it is used corruptly for ba'd az dn t 
after, afterwards, p. d. 

b TOa^;ajrt7/,sUe or foundation of a houses. 
bfisath, sixty -two. h, 

bdxndev (properly vdmdeva), 
name of Krishna, the son of Vasudeva. s. 

65*ar (for vdsar), m. a day. s. 
or bdsuri, f. (v. &a;im), a flute, 

pipe, &c. Jr. 

, tall, lofty (palm-tree), a. 


woods, s. 

m. the name of the 

bdmhl,} serpent which sup- 

" ports the universe, and which was used as a string to 
whirl the mountain Mandar in churning the ocean for 
the amrit, &c, s. [(Vena basilica}, g. 

J bdsalih, f. the great vein in the arm 

bdsmatij f. a fragrant kind of 
rice, also of millet, h. [plate, dish, &c, h. 

basan, m. a basin, goblet, pot, 

basnd or vdsand, f. desire, incli- 
nation, s. 

ffT bawd or ||^[r|T vdsand, a. to 

scent, to perfume. $. 

J ^TTTft bdsit stale, fusty, perfumed. bd*i-h. f 

"to make stale; to vomit. A. 

or vdsl, an inhabitant; (used 

"in comp.), as ban-basil, or vana-vdsi, inhabitant of the 

[alfirs. h. 

basiydn, name of a tribe of 

^>ib busk, stay, stop, be patient; (in comp.) 

it denotes being, staying, as s/uib-bdsh, staying for a 
night, p. 

^i>b bdshd, m. a kind of falcon, a hawk. p. 
3Jb bdshad, it may be, perhaps, p. 

jL&>b ^|'|i|fn^T bdshrjiyd, crops being 
choked and destroyed by weeds, h. 

$i3tx*b bdahanda^nii inhabitant,a dweller. p 
si>b basha, m. a hawK (same as bdsha). p. 
^Xii>b bashin, a female falcon, p. 
J^ob bdsira, sight, the sense of seeing, a. 

Ji?b bdtil, false, vain; absurd, futile, igno- 
rant ; abolished, o. 

^ batili, f. vanity, folly, absurdity, a. 
itin, m. the inward part, the heart; 

adj. internal, hidden, concealed, a. 
J bat inly intrinsic, internal, a. 

^ bd'is, cause, account, occasion, induce- 
ment ; author, producer ; prep, by means or by rea- 
son of. a. 

cb 6a&, m. a garden, orchard, grove, bdghi 

sabz dikhdna or -diJchlana, to excite desire and ex- 
pectation by deceitful promises, bagh-bdghrhond, or 
hojdna, n. to be delighted, to rejoice greatly, p. 

O\Pb bdghdt, pl.gardens,groves,orchards. p. 

^>li-b bdghdyali, fit for garden cultivation ; 
"* f. fruit raised in a garden ; tax levied on gardens, h. 
^Ui-b bdgk-bdn, m. a gardener, p. 

^Upb bagh-bdrii, f. gardening, p. 

a^Pb bdg&cha, m. a small garden, orchard, 
&c. p. [tumour, a wen. p. 

5j>b baghira, m. an indolent swelling or 
^lli-b bagkskdl, f. a walk in a garden, d 

( 91 ) 

bagh-hari, f. garden cultivation, bu- 
siness of a gardener, p. 

bagh-wala^\ m. a gardener, the owner 
bagkrvan, J of a garden, p. h. 
baghfia, pi. gardens, orchards, p. 
Li) a mutineer, traitor, rebel. . 

&^T b bayhicha, a little garden (v. baghcha). p. 

jb ftff/*, (in comp.) weaving or woven, hi- 
nurl-baf, a weaver of lace, zarl-baf, a gold-lace* weaver ; 
a kind of cloth interwoven with gold p. 

L*ib baft, web, weaving, tissue, texture, p. 

j^b bqfta, woven; m. a kind of cloth; a 
colour in pigeons; buttons woven like mohair; (in 
comp.) it denotes woven, wrought, as zar-bujta, wrought 
in gold, embroidered, p. 

J ba-ifrat, in abundance, copiously, p. a. 
S^i?b bofanda or bafinda, a weaver, p. 

ji'b bah-ir, abounding in wealth and know- 
ledge, one who is deeply learned, a. 

^l>-.!sb balnr-fr/tanl, f. a kind of bread or 
"* cake mixed with butter and milk. Dr. Oilchrist sug- 
gests, in his Vocabulary, that this kind of cake took 
its name from some nobleman called BuJfir-khdn, as 
our word sandwich is said to be so named after Lord 
Sandwich, a. 

ili'b bahjla, 1 , , 

,..,' ' f m. a bean, a pea, a potherb, a. 
&wb bahila,) 

^ib baht, remnant, remainder, balance, ar- 

"rears; adj. permanent, durable, eternal, balcl-dar, 
owing a balance; a revenue defaulter, batf-ralma, n. 
to remain, to be left, to be saved, a. [rears, a. 

C->bib bahiyat, remainders, balances, ar- 
<jjb bah, m. fear, apprehension, p. 

<JL)b ^TTir bak or vak. m. language, dialect, 
speech ; in the language of revenue officers it is used 
to denote a verbal estimate of the produce without 
measuring the field, s. 

8jjb bahira, an unblemished virgin, a. 

t5jiy *n'5i$ bahrt, f. a cow advanced about 
"five months in pregnancy (also a small buffalo), h. 

(**b ^rrsTO bahas, m. a bush of which charcoal 
is made for the manufacture of gunpowder (Jtisticia 
adhatoda). s. [baftilu). h. 

bahla, m. a bean, a potherb (v. 

bahand, a portion of the crop, 
about two- fifths, paid as rent by the cultivators to the 
zaralndars. h. 

. bahhar, 1m. name of a drug 

' bahhaly) used as a ferment ; a 
"house, an indosure , several houses contained within 
one inclosure ; an area or court-yard, h. 

au^b ^T^? bahya (for vahya), in. (in gram.) a 
sentence ; speech, a word. *. , 

vl/b *fl*T bag, f. a rein, a bridle, bag-morna, 
to ttun the reins : it is applied to the drying up of the 
small- pox : when the pustules begin to blacken and 
dry up, they say sitla or mat a ne bag mofl. bag hath, 
se"cftttu>:ia,the power of choice to be lost to anyone, h. 

bag (Dakli. for ^b), a tiger, bay ha 
pattha, a tiger's cub. [dres. /i. 

ob ^TTJTT baja, m. a vestment; honorary 
jjJob ^1*1^^ bay dor, f. a long rein with 

vi Inch horses are led. h. 

bfifjar,m. a hedge of thorns or twigs; 
name of a tract of country belonging to the rftj-put&. A. 

bayri, a native of Bagar. h. 
hagam, m. any cultivated spot. h. 

bagnahh, the claws of a tiger set m 

silver and worn round the neck by a string as achann 
against sundry evils. A kind of weapon made of steel, 
resembling huge claws, and fitting upon the hands. 
With this instrument the celebrated Sevajee, the Mah- 
ratta. chief, is said to have murdered the JMuhammadan 
governor of Bijapiir, while embracing him under pre- 
tence of friend-ship. (Binning), 

bayh t 

igress. 5. 

t. a tiger, bafik-bakri, f. 

tiger and gont, a kind of 
children's play, akin to our " fox and geese", s. 

vJ^yj> ^fTifa^ bufjhnmbar, in. a tigers skin. 9. 


, K. a lie 

bagliif f. a bubp. //. 
bagi, a horseman, a rider, s. 

/>/, f. a girl not arrived at the age 

of maturity ; in. a child under five years old ; adj. in- 
fantine, childish; ignorant, uninstructed. s. 

Jb WTc? bait in. hair; a child, bal biha na 
ho,e (let not the hair be bent or disordered), a mode 
of inculcating extraordinary care, bdl-bdl, hair by 
hair, every hair, bal bandlri /caiifi mania, to shoot at, 
not to miss ; to act with great care, not to mistake, s. 

Jb bal 9 m. a wing, bal-dar, winged, p. 

Jb *TTc$ bal, f. sin enr of corn ; a crack in a cup 
or glass ; m. the thread on which sugar is crystallized. 
bal-dar, a cracked vessel (of china, glass, &,e.). h. 

Jb ^TT< balu, rn. a drug commonly called 

efa-baluk s. 

Jb ba!,m. heart; power. . 

^)b bala, above, up ; m. top. bala-bafana, or 

-dena, a. to baulk, to circumvent, to dupe; to put off, 
to disappoint, to prevaricate. bdtd-bdld t deceitfully, 
fraudulently ; secretly, bald dast, superior, p. 

^)b ^T<$T bala, m. a kind of grub which eats 
the young plants of wheat or barley when about six 
inches high. h. 

^)b ^Tc$T bala, f. a girl not arrived at the 

age of maturity ; a medicinal and fragrant plant, of the 
roots of which tatfis are made (Aadropagon muricatutu), 
commonly called by Europeans "cus-cuss"; m. an 
earring ; a male child, a boy, bala chdnd, the new 
moon. s. [that laps over the thigh, p. 

\ balabar,m. part of the angarhha (q.v.) 

J bala-bandt in. part of the native dress, 
a kind of turban ; a coat of a particular kind. p. 

( 92 ) 

bdld-bJiola, adj. innocent 
artless, as a child ; m. an artless child, t. h. 
y$\J '^ItflMH bala-pan, m. childhood, in- 
fancy ; also boyhood, f. 

b bald-poxh, m. a coverlet, quilt, p 

fffi'flq balatap, m. the rays of the 
rising sun. s. 

jlai^lb bi'l-ittrfdfa lit. by agreement, by 

chance, a. [(an estate, &c.). A. 

b bi-l-ijmdl, in the whole, in the lump 
TI<S"IWi^ bdla-chand, the new moon. s. 

bdld-k&dna, m. an upper room, an 
upper story, a balcony, p. 

CL^t^b bala-da*t, superior, high-handed, p. 
b bdld-gashti, an inspector of police, p. 

bdlan, hairs of the head, the hair col- 
lectively, bdlati bhard, full of hair, bristly, d. 

b lald-nidtln, seated aloft, 
\ o past, above and below, i.e. 
the heavens above and the earth beneath, p. 

l^lb bdld,i, e. a horse led for show ; any 
extra tax ; adj. external, superficial, p. 
cjrt^l^b baldfi maze (pi.), m. superficial or 
hollow pleasures, p. 

b bald.i-yaft, f. perquisites, p. 
b bdlbachche, pi. children, s. p. 

'ri'l-bandn, with the tips of the fingers; 
M moni(rar digitis" a. 

ul/j^ Jb ^l^jvftn bal-bhog, m. an offering 

to Krishna, presented early in the morning, s. 
rj Jb bdlpar, m. adoption of better habits ; 
but jar nikdlnd, to turn over a new leaf; to flourish or 
prosper; to betray one's evil disposition, to begin 
wicked pranks, to show the cloven hoof. p. 

bal~pan,m. (v. &a/a/?flH),<:hildhood,&c. s. 
b bi-t-ta*r~ili, distinctly, explicitly, a. 
j:y Jb TT^5?fty bal-tor> m. a pimple, a sore. h. 
' bi-ljumla, in short, to conclude, a. 

bal-chhar, f. the name of 
H medicine or perfume, h. [happily, a. 

i-l-fthflir, in a good manner, well, 

bi-frzat or bi~z-zati y naturally, ori- 
ginally, bi-zatiki, in its nature or essence, a. 

balraj, \ ... .. 
_ ., rm. lapis lazuli. *. 


J^K Jb Wt^STtf bal-rand 9 f. a very young 

widow, or one who lost her husband when she wat 
very young. *. 

b balith, m. a pillow, a cushion, p. 


balisht, f. a span ; a pillow, p. 

Ojj^-oJb bi-z-zarvrat (also ^t- 
necessarily, perforce, a. 

(j*Jb bi-l'ak* 9 the reverse, tw ft bi-l'aks, ' 

the contrary to that. a. 

5b baligh, m. a youth just arrived at the age 
of maturity ; adj. of age ; fern, baligba, marriageable, a. 

(joj&\> t bi-l-farz, granted that, on the sup- 
position or condition that a. 

J*ftlb bi'l-jil, in fact, actually; now, for the 

present moment ; in short ; in the mean time. a. 
tX*afl}b bi-l-Jiatd, on purpose, a. 

O^SJb bi-l-kuwat, by the strength, or 
power of. a. [name of a dnig (v. bain), s. 

balak, m. a young child, baluk, 

balka or balaka, m. a young fol- 
lower or disciple of ajogi or sanydsi. s. 

baluka, f. sand, gravel, s. 

alukagar 9 m. a sort offish. *. 


balahpan, T m. childhood, 
bdlahpand,}' boyhood; in- 
bdlahatrca, } fancy, child- 

58. *. together, a. 

bi-l-hull (or bi-l-huinya), totally, al- 

bdlakiya, childish, infantine, s. 
bal-gopdl 9 offspring. #. 

W-//5A (or bi-Uahi), by God. bi-ttahi- 

ra$im, by the High God ! a. 

balam 9 m. a lover, or beloved per- 
son ; a husband ; a kind of cloth, bdlam khtrd, m. a 
sort of cucumber, in season in the rains (a variety of 
Cucumis sativus). h. [son). . 

&JaaJb bi-l-muktcCa, a kind of tenure, (v. Wil- 
UJb ^fT^RT balna, a. to light, to kindle (v. 

bdrnd). h. 

baland, name of a tribe inha- 
biting the southern parts of Mirzapur. h. 
bdlungu, a species of citron, p. 
ifcjjtft balini 9 f. the constellation a$- 

wins. *. 

f^ ftrt/5, f. sand, gravel. *. 

balu-burd, land covered with a depo- 

sit of sand after an inundation ; also, a remission of 
revenue on that account. 5. p. 

batopat&t, m. a child's 

sacrificial thread ; a cloth covering the privities (of 
children), s. 

/j?^ llg'NiS bdluchari, a kind of silk 
cloth manufactured in Baluchar, near Munhidabid. A. 

\ijJb bi-l-wafd, in truth, in reality, a. 
baluhj in. a sort of poison. 

ftoH, f. a female-child ; ^ar ri 

"worn in the ear, passing through the centre of it t it 
* also signifies an ear of corn. *. 

'H$1 baft, m. name of a monkey, the 
son of Indra, killed by lUtna. s. 

dJb Idlidagl, f. vegetation, p. 

jJb bdllda hond, n. to vegetate, p. h. 

lalish, m. pain in making wa- 
ter, from gravel, &c. *. 

.jjJijJb bi-l-yalln, assuredly, certainly, a. 
jJb bdlin, f. a pillow, a cushion, p. 
Ju qrT3T lalya, m. childhood, infancy, s. 
bdleyn, T m. name 

Jlc$*V4nfi bdleyashdk,) of a plant 

Siphomanthtts Indica), s. 

Jj *n*T &/w, f. an eel (Ophidfum simaclt, 
Bitch.) ; m. the left (side) ; an enemy. *. 

,b bdw, m. an upper story, a terrace ; the 

morning dawn. p. 

*b bcim, m. a fathom, a measure of six feet, 

or three and a half cubits, d. 

bdw-ang, m. the left side. s. 

bdmbhl, 1 i- i i 

Wflwfl 1 bdfribhni, j 

b bamdad or bdmddddn, f. morning, 
dawn, Aurora ; adv. in the morning, p. 

/o*b '4J1HH bdman (for rdmana), a dwarf, 
one of the incarnations of Vishnu. *. 

^b bdman, \ 

. . _ w . rm. a Brahman, a. 
^x*u bamank,) 

bdtnan-hatti, f. name of a 
"plant (Ovieda verticellata, Roxb.). h. 

ii-tgn bam/tun, m. a Brahman. 5. 

* V ^*?'ft bdmhni, f. n stye on the eye- 
* lide ; a species of lizard, h. 

^^vb Wlt'g'rf bdwhrn f. (for bahmani), the 
** wife of a Brahman ; name of a medicinal herb. jr. 
^b ^TT7 ban, f. temper, quality, manners; 

m. a rocket used in battle; the boar or swell of the 
tide; a kind of rope made ofmunj. h. 

{jV ^Rf ban or raw, m. an arrow; the name 
of an asur, son of Raja Bali. *. 

^b ban, m. name of n tree (Quilandina 

moringa), whose seeds are called jiabb-ul-ban, ben nut, 
or according to some, Bakain (Melia ietnvervirens) ; 
that which yields benjamin or benzoin (Shjrax ben- 
xoc) ; a tree the leaves and flowers of which are sweet- 
scented, called by the Persians bed-mathk. p. 

' ) V* 

^b ban, keeper or guardian ; (used in com p.) 
as dar-bdn, A door-keeper, bagb-ban, a gardener, p. 

bb WTn band, m. habit, profession ; a kind 
of weapon; fashion in dres, peculiar to individuals, 
or bodies taken individually (so regimentals may be 
called bdna); uniformity; the woof (in weaving); a 
veil, bana bandhnS, to be ready, td be determined. 
In the DakhanI dialect it denotes the basin or metal 
bucket of a pacotta, or lever for raising water, h. 

bb ^141 band, a. to open or spread out. h. 
Obb ^Ttntf bdndt, f. broad-cloth. /*. 
(jjbb *rm?ft bdndti, woollen, made of 

** broad-cloth, h. 

^bb baiidh ( v. bdi/dn), the left hand or side. s. 
c-*>b ift^r bdmb, m. (also bdmb-ahdhu,dy, an 

eel, snake (see bam), h. 

b/ ^b ^b "STT ^W ban bdn-k., to prate idly, 

to tattle foolishly, h. 



f. a snakes hole. h. 

brina-praxth, m. the state 

of an anchorite or hermit (see usram"). s. 

bant, m. share, distribution ; a 

weight (t. e. the standard by which things are 
weighed) ; food given to a cow while milking her. s. 

bdnfd, m. portion, share, s. 

dnt-chont, share, distri- 

bution. 8. 

fcb ^?hrrr bdntnd, share, to distribute, 
$i>b '^Wttbaiithnd,) to divide, participate, 
dispose of. Also biint-lena, the same. s. 

^b >TTrC bdnjar, (land) lying waste or 
follow, h. 

fa*i\*> ^T^R. bdnjh (Dakh. ban]}, barren (ap- 
plicable to females, also to land or soil, s, 
J^b ^rfe'Tir bdvijya, m. trade, commerce, 

merchandise. 5. 

fft^ ^fi^T*n bdnchnil, a. to read ; m. Dakh. 
baiichnd (for bachna) ; n. to eecape, to be saved. *. 
bdnchhd, f. wish, desire. $. 

f , desired, longed for. x. 
bdndd, the name of a place in 

Baridul-khand. h. 

orftattrfa),m.'kind of plant 
which grows on trees (epidendrwn, particularly teasel- 
latujn, Roxb.). *. 

bdn-ddr, a rocket-thrower, h.p. 
bandar, 1 ra. (for bandar), an 
kib ^r^7 bdndrdj ape, a monkey. *. 

bandarni,'}?. a female ape or 
bandri, j monkey. *. 

bdndnd (for bdndbnd), a. to tic, to 

stop, &c. *. [finement, imprisonment, s. 

la/itl/i, m. an embankment ; cui- 

^FTV<Jjf}7tt bandhalgofi, name of a 
" tribe inhabiting part of Bandel-khand. h. 
UfcJJb *rtv*TT bdtitlhna, a. to tie ; to shut ; to 

stop water, to embank; to bind, to fasten; to invent, 
to contrive, to Atop, to pack, to aim, to build, to put, 
to settle .9. 

jJJ&Jjb Tjfap^bdndhnv, m. a mode of dyeing, 

in which the cloth is tied in different places to pre- 
vent the parts tied from receiving the dye ; slander, 
plot, plan; a kind of silk cloth ; a kind of parrot h. 

y&j3b ^hn kahdhav, m. a relative, a kins- 
man, a friend, s. 

*^-^b ^t^ bdndlf f. a female slave, bdndi 

ka beta, oh-nlient, submissive. In the DakhanI dia- 
lect, bandi-barttin, "slave girls and utensils," the im- 
pediments, appropriately so called, of an army on 
march ; the families, baggage, &c. of the Sipahis. h. 

\jjb TTTT band a i in. A bird without tail ; 
a serpent which has lout its tail; adj. tail-leas, docked, s. 

v^iib ^"hft bandi, f. a cudgel; a kind of 
dress; misfortune, calamity, h. 

b<~tfiar (for vdnar), m. a monkey. s. 

b<iit* 9 m. a bamboo; a measure of 

about ten fret, used to measure tanks, ditches, or 
excavations in general (a cube of one bans is called a 
chankd). butts par chafhnd, n. to be branded with 
infamy. *. 

bdn&dj in. the bridge of the nose; 

the channel through which the seeds descend in a 
drilling-machine, h. 

&iLHV THHRtt bans-phor, m. the name of 
a caste who work or deal in bamboos, s. 

bdnsri, 1 f. a flute, fife, pipe; 
bdiisuri, I a kind of noxious 
baiisti, weed in arable land; 
bairn, J a purse ; adj. made 
"of bamboo. *. 
uiiib *rilf bank, f. an ornament (half-circle) 

worn on the arms ; a kind of dagger having a curved 
blade ; an exercise with the dagger ; a settee, h. 

liiib WTO bank, m. a crook, curvature, bond- 

ing; a reach or turning of a river; fault, oflence, 
wickedness, s. 

Kib ^t^T bdnha, m. a fop, a beau, a coxcomb; 

a buck, a bravo, a bully ; a bent trumpet or bugle ; f. 
name of a river ; adj. crooked, foppish. /*. 

bdnkd-chur, m. a fop, cox- 
comb, &c. h 

)^iiJb "^f^ir^Jt bdnk-pattd, m. a kind of 
fencing with (wooden) dagger and cutlass, h. 

dJob ^^rtanTT 1) <inh-pant m. foppishness ; 
debauchery ; disorderly conduct, h. 

LJbb bang, f. sound, voice, cry ; the voice 

of the tnu t ag&in calling Multammadam to prayer; the 
crowing of a cock, bang-mar nil, a. to cry out, to call. 
bang-fiend (or in Pers. -bardaslitan, or -dddan), a. to call 
MiiQammadans to prayer, ban pi subfa the call to morn- 
ing prayer, bangi namdz, the call to prayers in ge- 
neral. p. * 

banyd, m. raw cotton (v. bunga). h. 

hangar, m. high ground or up- 

lands. h. 

b bdnga, rn. a spocie of cotton prodtice'd 
exclusively in the Dacca district, and indispensably ne- 
cessary, though not otherwise of superior quality, to 
form the stripes of some of the finest kinds of mus- 
lin. p. 

Ob ^Rift bdngi, f. a pattern, muster, h. 
bdnu, f. a lady, a woman of rank. p. 
b ^TT^HT bdnuyd, m. the name of a water- 

bird. /r 

^lyb *rfai bdnrvdn, the left hand or side. s. 

bdnusd, m.l , . , 

___ Va kind of cloth, h. 
bdnusl, f.J 

c/y b f|rjj bdnawwe or bdnarve, ninety-two. k. 
bank, f. the arm from the shoulder 

to the elbow; guarantee, protector, or security (as 
when a person trusts himself in the power of an ene- 
my, a third person being his baith, who engages to 
return him to his house or fort in security), banh- 
biili^ strong in the arm. bank pakafHtl or gahnu, a to 
protect, bank derta, a. to assist (see bCizii aena). bank 
tutnd, to be destitute of friends or protectors. *. 

^b bdna (for band), m. dress uniform, &c. s. 
U^ib ^if^TTf bdMydn, m. a patron, s. 

jb bdrii 9 n build(M', rui architect, a composer, 
author, founder, a. 

bdni, f. the price paid for a work; 

a fabric or manufacture ; ashes ; the name of a yellow 
eartli with which potters sometimes ornament their 
vessels ; the thread with which cloth is woven ; a weight 
equal to 80 rupees. /. 

bant, f. speech, language; name 
" of the goddess of eloquence, Saraswatt. s. 

t3^t3^ TRfNftft bdnlbonl, f. the price of 

" weaving h. 

j O^b batii-kar, an architect ; a composer, an 

author, beginner ; an instigator, p. 

t^rjo^b bani-haii, f. architecture ; compo- 
sition ; commencing a business ; instigation, p. 

jb 'tn^ft ha,o, f. wind. bd,o sarnd, n. to be 

discharged backwards (wind). bd t o bdndhnd, to prevail 
over an adversary by flattery or invective without ar- 
gument. bdtO-khdNl, to live in pleasure and enjoyment ; 
to court one's inspirations; to protract a miserable 
existence, s. 

jb ^nsft bd y o or *rra bdo 9 f. the pox, a bubo. h. 

ijb *TT^T bawd (v. bdba), father, bdrvd-jan, 
dear father. & 

( 95 

wari, the left hand or side. s. 

bd,o-batds, f. calamity, 

misfortune, particularly such as is believed to result 
from tire evil influence of a demon (see dstb). h. 

vsrt^j^ ^^ bharl-khal> of no intrinsic 
Value ; lit. a skin full of wind. d. 

bci.o-bhah, la prattler, tri- 
ba,o-j hah, ) Ring talker, /t. 
i,o/a,l m. a flag or banner; a 

ba,otaj sail ; a sort of armlet 
worn by women. ,?. 

^-jb ba-wujud, notwithstanding, ba-wu- 
judi dnki, notwithstanding that. p. 
b barvar 9 m* belief, faith, confidence, truth, 

credit; adj. true, credible, bdwar-k., to credit, ba- 
ivar-h., to be credible, p. 

b ^TT^C batvar, m. a kind of sweetmeats. A. 
bd.ord or bdward, mad, crazy, s. 
bawarchini If. a cookmaid or female 
bdwarchiniy) cook. ^. /t. 
bawarchl, m. a cook, bawarchi- 

"l&iina, m. a kitchen, cook-house. " This word seems to 
be one of those old Persian or Turkish terms, of which 
several are uow preserved in the Hindustani, which 
are no longer used by or known to the Turks and 
Persians. The term implies " confidential person," as 
a cook unquestionably should be, particularly in the 
East, where life is so frequently attempted by poison." 
(Binning), t. [art. t. p, 

^b bawarchigari, f. the culinary 

fia,0?i, name of a tribe of va- 
grants to the west of Delhi, h. 

ba,ori, ^ ^ 

bd t o-sul t m. the cholic. 5. 
b bd-waxf, yet, notwithstanding, p. #. 
ijb bd-maftiy fsiithful, trusty. /;. a. 

cfjjb Tf^ 7 ! bmcaff t in. seed-time (same as 
ba.oni). h. [tulency. s. 

T bd,o-gold, m. the cholic; fla- 
uyold or bdwala, mad, crazy. .<?. 
bd,ofi, f. a large well into which 

"people descend to get water; the drag (thing or ani- 
mal) with which hawks, dogs, &c., are taught to hunt; 
a trick. bd,oli dena, a. to initiate, h. 

Jjb TRc^T bdjolend, m. the name of a 

defect in horses, h, ' 

_jb ^rnf barran (for vdntana}, dwarfish, 
diminutive ; m. the fifth incarnation of Vishnu. *. 
5wH, fifty-two. A. c ^ wan)> f- 

ba 9 ond or bdwand, dwarfish (see 
^onij f. seed-time, sowing, 7*. 


baku or WT^ bah, f. an arm. s. 
ab bdk 9 f. virility, manhood; coitus, p. 

bah a, a water-course, channel, h. 

^H?*JTOT bdhu-bhushd) f. an armlet, 
an ornament worn round the upper arm. t. 

bahitj, m. sesamum growing wild 

or spontaneously, s. 

bd/n/dd, f. the name of a river 

said to rise in the Himalaya mountains : probably the 
modern Behut, the classical Hydaspes. s. 

bdhar or Tlfi^ bahir, without, 
foreign. *. 

ir, superior, excellent; open, public, a. 
bahara or bahara, the man who 

stands at the well to upset the water from the leathern 
bucket or charas, q. v. h. 

OjJ&b bdhir-ha, from without, strange, bdhir- 

kd sahib dyti, jchabar dijo ; "a strange gentleman is 
arrived, give notice ;" an exclamation used by the 
darwans or gatekeepers in Calcutta on the arrival of 
a stranger, to give notice to the family within. Jn my 
time the above sentence was pronounced (by the non- 
reading gentry), " Barker sawb aya, cover the Jew !" s. 

bdhirah, m. the left side (in 
sword exercise, &c.). s. 
^ fcb 4(1 ^<1 bahari, a foreigner, a stranger j 


tity. 5. 

bdhulya, m. "I plenty, abun- 

bahulyatdj f.J dance, quan- 
[one with another, p. 
b ^/^/??i,top;ether,mutualiy. bd-ham-d'iy ir, 
bahman, a Brahman, s. 

bakman-hatti, f. name of 

"a plant (OviedavcrUccllata). s. 

^x^b ^T^r*ft ba/tntani, wife of a Brahman ; 
"a Brahmaness; adj. of or relating to a Brahman. 

Itahmanl badahh, the chtiJcwd or Brahmany duck. 

bahmanl ch'il, the Brahmany kite, v. garvjr. s. 

buu^Jbb TTSTnTt ba/tmanetd, son of a Brah- 
man ; a young Brahman. 5. 

bahu-mul, m. the armpit, s. 
bahan, m. a carriage. 5. 
bahan, m. fallow land (root of 

bahna). h. 

ifcb ^Tf HT bahna, a. to plough, to till ; to 

shoot or discharge a weapon ; to comb the hair. h. 

b&> t t\j TT5*nB bahu-yuddh, m. close fight, 
personal struggle ; boxing, wrestling, s. 
^*b ^T^a,i, f. mistress, lady (among Mah- 

rattas) ; a dancing-girl. bd t i-ji, the mother bawd ; the 
old abbess ; " la bonne." A. 

^b ^TC 6a,e or TT^&a,i, f. flatulency ; rheu- 
matism, bd.i pachnt, to be mortified, to be depressed, 
to die away, bd'i meti bhafaknu, to' prate foolishly. 
ba t l tarnd (see bu,o sarnd). 8, 

bayan, left (not right) ; m. the 

bass part in music, the bass sound (particularly of 
the jfofc/a, dholak. and pakhutoaj, which are played upon 
by the left hand). btlyaA paAw p&jna, to acknowledge 
toe cunning of an artful person. *. 

bayab, apart, separate, strange, 

distinct, yih, bat bayab hat, this is another thing; this 
Ss a horse of another colour, h. [quarter, h. 

bayab or ba,ib, m. the north-west 

inftl/f ba 9 e-birang, m. name of 
a medicinal seed. . 

bay ad, if is fit, or necessary, bay ad- 
thayad, as it should be. p. 

twenty-two. A. 

bayista, that which is becoming or re- 
quisite, necessary, p. 

>a,m, f. the royal army, be- 

cause comfposed of the troops of the twenty-two subas 
or provinces then constituting thr Mogul empire; a 
command of 22,0 JtJ men. bd.lsi fufud, to attack with 
one's whole torce. h. 

^b ba,i' or bay?, i/seller, a merchant, a. 

ajtta, \ 

a~ihu t ) 

T / 
a woman, a wife. d. 

. (see ba,o-gola^Ji. 

bai/an, m. sweetmeat, &c., which 
is distributed to friends in marriage feasts, or in com- 
memoration of a success, s. 

j.^b ba,in (v. ba,oli), a large well. d. 
^b ba-m, along with this, although, p. 

j?b WT$^ft ba.lniy f. a basket in which 
^Vtnakes are carried about for show. h. 

bd,ihd, m. rheumatism, h. 

id (for vivad), m. quarrel, 
contest, h. 

ba-bad, lit. to the wind, cast away. p. 

\bibadt (for vivadi), a disputant, 
~ plaintiff. . [marriage. *. 

>bj ft|4|lf bibah (for vivaft), m. matrimony, 
j# ^FC babar, m. one who crops the manes of 

horses. A. 

JJ bnbar, m. a lion, a tiger, bi-bar (imper. 
of burdan)> bear or carry thou. p. 

xj babarjt, T m. (for barvarcht), a cook; 

jJ babarchtf) so babarjl-Jtliana, a cook- 
Chouse or kitchen, p. [dissension, ft. 
ffibabra-kheri, f. quarrelling, 

f bibaran (for vivarari), m. inter- 
pretation, explanation. . [colour, f. 

bibarn (for rtuarwa), faded in 
babriita, m. a clown, lout, 
bumpkin, a clumsy youug man. h. 
Sj& ^nft babri, f. cropped hair, tresses; 
the act of cropping (particularly the manes of horses).*. 

babari, leonine or tigerish; canine, 

savage, p. 

f. the name of a tree of 
TJJC &*&/, Hbe mimosa kind. (There 
babul, } are several speciea : the 

commonest is the Arabics, Rox.) ; the acacia tree. The 
babul produces also a valuable gum, and its bark, 
being a powerful astringent, is used in tanning by 
chamars, q. v. s. [of fondness, h. 

babuwa, m. a child, a boy (a term 

babhnr, large, great, tawny, &c. ; 

bald-headed through disease ; m. a large ichneumon ; 
the name of a sage ; a tawny or brown colour. *. 

bubhuhsha<) f. hunger, s. 

bub huh shit, hungry, s. 
babhni, f. (see bam/ini), a stye 

on the eyelids, a lizard, h. 

j f%*fcf bibharc (forvibhav), m. substance, 
wealth ; power, grandeur. *. 

babai, m. the seed of a sweet-scented 

"herb (Ocymum pilosum, Roxb.); name of a bird. a. 
babbi, f. a kiss. A. 

babesi, f. the piles. A. 

babesiya or bawesiya, talking 
nonsense ; m. a catamite, h. 

JbuJ (Vjch t?6eA, m. 1 discrimination, dis- 
JouJ fi| %<*"dT bibehata, f. J creti on, sense. . 
bibeki f discreet, prudent. *. 

j^a /&ana, to be raised, esta- 
blished, pitched, h. 
^J bapt or bapat, hidden, secret, d. 

1 . , . . . 
f. calamity, misfortune. 
" . ' 

danger, mischief. ^. 


a man ^ *e sacer- 
dotal caste, a Brahman, s. 
+> TfyCf bapura, helpless, distressed, h. 

biparna, a. to attack, to assault, h. 
jA) r*IMOfl bi-parit, contrary, opposite ; 

f. mischief, ruin. s. 

, m. a measure of time, a se- 
cond, or (as some say) one-sixth of a second. 9. 
J^ WP bapans, m. patrimony, a father's 

share, s. 

^ W^irt bapautl or bapofi, f. paiernal 
estate, patrimony, heritage. 7*. [bath. s. 

baphara, m. vapour, vapour- 

bipharna, n. to be perverse, 
refractory, cro^s, irritated, obstinate, pert *. 

4* t 07 

biphai (for vrihaspati), m. 

Thursday. A. 

bapaitt, f. paternal estate. . 

or fro fo'M (for 9/tt), ra. wealth, 
substance, ability, power, means. . 
1/J WW fof J, m. a hazard table ; a blow with 
the fist. h. 

but, m. an idol (hence, figuratively, a 

.beloved woman; a darling), but -par as t, an idolater 
but-parastl t idolatry, but-tardsh, a maker of idols, p- 

do bat, m. a line drawn to distinguish se- 
parate names in a catalogue, or articles in an account, p. 

L!AJ mbat, m. the worm which is so destruc- 
tive to shipping (Teredo); contraction offraf, aword 
(used in composition), as bat-bdhart, external, foreign. 
bat-bar hd,o, m. prolixity, talkativeness, chicanery, 
wrangle, bat- band, an orator, a sophist, bat-kahdo, 
ra. talk, conversation. Contraction of bat, wind, uaed 
in composition, as bat-sonhd-k., a. to ventilate, h. 

Ijb fTOT bftta, m. a span, a hand's breadth. A. 

\JJ TOT butta, m. overreaching, fraud, trick, 

take in. buttd-dend, to overreach, h. 
\JJ ^TifT buta, m. a bambqp lath ; a thin slip 

of bamboo ; an oblong stone on which powders are 
levigated, h. 

&j\Z> yTOJ butarad, a name given to an extra 

cess upon the cultivator, h. 
(^Ijb qfffHI batas, f. wind, air. batas-pherii, 

f. a kind of sweetmeats, sugarcakcs. r. 
U*j\jb ^tTTOT or WffT^n batata, m. a kind of 

sweetmeats, sugarcakes (of a spongy texture, q. d. filled 

with air) ; a bubble filled with water, h. 

LM\JU bat as ha, m. (srebatasa*),^ bubble, &c. A. 

^\JJ ^rrTrrf batan, place of assemblage of 
cattle at night in an open field. A. 

liljj TflHT bat ana, a. to point, to shew, to 

explain, to teach ; to appear; m. an upper turban ; a 
small bracelet of metal, h. 

l>li> ftnTRT Ww5, pass (time), to spend, s. 

31^ VfUtTT hi/tana, \ 

,. ... , ra. to extmgruiyh. A. 

UjVjJ "Jin^rn buta t ona,) 

ljj batani riimbu, m. the shaddock. A. 
but-khana, an idol temple, p. 

i* WfHC bafar, land in a state fit for the 
plough, h. 

i> batar or battar, worse, very bad (con- 
tracted from bad-tar), p. 
jJ batar, curtailed (animal) 5 destitute of 

good qualities (see abtar). a. 

t>jj^ju ft Ml ^ nfj bitra-bandi (v. bila-bandi), 
a kind of settlement. A. 

jb but-tarash, an idol-maker, a statuary.;?. 
batrana, a. to converse, talk. s. 


bitaran (for vitarari), ro. giving 
charity, alms, a donation. . 

jU ftnnf! bitarnd, a. to bestow, to grant, s. 

, m. a kind of rice. A. 
batsal (for vat sal), kind, loving, s. 
mtaJi, f. (v. <*dUx>), a duck, p* 
J but-hada, an idol temple, a pagoda, p* 
J WlHEf batahhar, loquacious, talkative. A. 

bat-kaha, loquacious, conver- 
sible. h, 

bat-kaha,o f m. 1 loquacity, 
bat-ltahl, f. J conversi- 

" bleness, discourse, dialogues. A. 
lii^Jb WtTc?T*n batlana, a. to shew, to explain, 
to point out, to teach, to inform, h * 

Jo j^bittam-bittam, bit by bit, gradually, d. 
\jjjfnmibitna (see bitna), n. to pass,elapse. .t. 

^ ba-tang, lit. in straitness. ba-tang ana 

or fcorm, to be in great distress, p. [dung. h. 

bltaura, m. a heap of dried cow- 

bataurij f. a flatulent or oede- 

matous swelling, h, 

yb ^TWtt baturi, f. a species of cAawa 

(q. v.) ; a small kind of grain, h. 

atoran,} gathering or collect- 
batolanj ing the grain in the 
time of harvest, h. [a nun. a. 

j batul, f. a virgin averse to matrimony, 

/t, f. buffoonery. A. 
baturii, a tattler, an idle talker. A. 
batrvon, the preparation of land 

for the reception of the seed. h. 

5, f. pain ; affliction. 5. 

bitharna, n. to cause to scat- 
ter, to cause to sprinkle, h. 

bithari, f. cleansing the warp. h. 

bithrana, a. to scatter, to 
sprinkle. A. 

j$i> ftrTOfT bitharna, or ftrjT!T bithurna, 
n. to be scattered, to be sprinkled. A. 

bathufi, m. name of a kind of 

greens (Chenopodium album) ; also a kind of weed which 
grows with the spring crops in the vicinity of water, h. 

j^> *fftnn bathiya, a heap of dried cow- 
dung. h. 
S> *Tlft batl* f. a word, speech. *. 

f 98 ) 

Wlft battt, f. a candle; a wick ; n tnatah ; 
a tent or bougie ; a stick (of sealing-wax), t. 

fi buttt, f. provision for a journey. ftwfti 

lekar chaudhir dhundnd, to go in earnest search (of any 
thing), d. [high. A. 

, m. a dwarf, 1.0. a span 

batiyana, a. to speak, to talk, 
to say, to converse. A. 

*fcU ftfirtw Hltl, passed, gone, elapsed. 8. 
Aattiff, thirty-two, h. 

battisa, m. a medicine composed 

of thirty-two ingredients, usually given to mares after 
foaling, h. 

>*x> W^faft battltij f. any aggregate, con- 


, m. la 
wiftf ,t, f. J 

"sistingof thirty-two parts, hence, a set of teeth, batttst, 
dikhdnd, a. to' shew the teeth, to laugh ; to scoff or 
make faces at any one. h. 

ci*> TO bat 9 m. name of a tree(Ficus Indica) ; 

a single caurt, s. 
JiO TO bat, m. tripe; twist; a wrinkle or 

fold of the abdomen ; (in comp.) contracted for bdt, a 
road, as batydr, a highwayman. In Dakh. a weight 
made of metal or hard stone to weigh with (v. bat- 
kfiard). h. 

a partition, division: in 

revenue language, di- 
vision of the crop between the cultivator and zamln- 
dar. batd,i-dar t a cultivator who shares his crop with 
the zttinlndar. h. 

Ub *qT battd, m. deficiency ; exchange or dis- 
count ; defect, blemish, inhiry, offence ; a ball (of wood 
or stone) ; a box in which gems are kept, ba^fe-bdz, a 
juggler, a trickster, batfe-batt, f. juggling, trickery, 
subterfuge, battd dhdr and battd dltdl, level, even. h. 

jUb TOTC bo tar, name of a tribe of Gujars 9 
q. v. h. [lusion, &c. (v. sattd-battd). h. 

ULUb battd-satta, m. a kind of armour, eol- 
\iU> fqzittfbitand, a. to scatter, to sprinkle. A. 
\3ljb batand,^\ m. a pea, called in Urdu,matar 
ajUb batana,) (q. v.). d. 

Jljb TOT91 batd,v 9 m. a traveller; (in Dakh.) 
a highwayman, s. [ropes, &c. (v. baf). h. 

bata,l, f. hire paid for twisting 
bitap 9 a tree, a twig. s. 

batpdr 9 ~\m. highwayman, vil- 
batpdrj lain, footpad. A. 
batpdri, "\ f. highway rob- 
bat-pdfi 9 ) bing. A. 

Jb battahh 

, m. a duck 


W<?^Hf baturna, to be collected together. A. 
i!wJri?ri, f. a small cup. A. 

balhhara, m. a weight to weigh 

with (almi written balkara or batkhara). h. 

yjb f%;<^(flQ bit-lav an, m. a kind of medi- 
cinal salt. . 

j&> *l<jrti(0 batlohl, or batlo,l 9 f. a brass 

vessel in which Hindus dress their food. A. 

jb f MIC bat-mar, a highwayman. foz- 
JwafF, highway robbery, h. [pulse. 9. 

bitma*, m. a coarse species-of 

bat-moyra, m. the double jas- 
mine (Jasminum zambai). h. 
jb W7HT batna, a. to twist, to form by con- 
volution (as ropes) ; to divide, share ; to gain, make 
profit ; n. to be divided, to be twisted ; m. an instru- 
ment with which ropes are twisted, h. 

bataniya, m. proprietor of a bat, 

a shareholder, h. 

lyb WffVIT batu,a or batrva, m. a purse, a small 

bag, generally used for holding betel- nut, &c. ; a brass 
vessel in wich Hindus dress their food. h. 

bitiva, m. a son. A. 

_ bat war (also batn m al) 9 a tax ga- 

therer who collects a tax levied in kind; a customs or 
police officer stationed on the road for collecting 
transit duties, h. 

batrvard, m. a share, the parti- 
tion or division of lands, division of a crop in shares, h. 

jb *TS<=ndl batwana, a. to cause to twist, 

&c. h. [resort, h. 

bator 9 m. a gathering, a crowd, a 

bitaurd, m. a heap of the cakes 
of dried cow-dung, h. 
jj^b TOhCT batoran 9 gathering or heaping 

grain in one place at the time of harvest, h, 

j^jb TOtCHT batornd, a. to gather up, to col- 
lect, to purse, to accumulate (in Dakh. ba{olnd). h. 
$jjb ftr^T?t bitaurlj f. a tax on shopkeepers 
&c. in a village, h. [&c. d, 

Pjjb batolan (v. batorari), gathering grain, 

bitona, a. to scatter, to sprinkle ; 
m. a son (see bitwd). h. 

jjb qJVgl batoki, m. a traveller, wayfarer, jr. 

Sb ^ batta, an extraordinary allowance 
paid the military when on field duty. Also, the agio 
Allowance, or rate of expenditure, between rupees of 
different species, h. 

bathdn, pasture grounds. A. 
bithand 9 a. to cause to sit down, 

to set, settle, h. 

ftftpff bithah, m. an ant hill. h. 

f^?c?Tn bithldnd, to cause to be seat- 
ed, to make one sit down. h. 
'*} TfirTf bithnd, n, (for baithna), to sit. A. 

99 ) 

bathnd, n. to enter: (in Dakh.) 
to be twisted, plaited, or woven together, as ropes, A. 

b W|TOT bathu 9 d or batkuwd, a kind of 
herb. A 
^jb W$( batha,i, f. the art of making gold 

thread, also bafa,t. A. [spirits. A. 

tti, f. a candle; a still for distilling 

bitty a, f. a daughter, s. 
batydj f. a silken cord adorned with 

three fringes, which women use to tie their hair be- 
hind. A. [alley ; a small measure of weight. A. 

bntiya, f. a narrow passage, an 
batte-baZy m. a juggler, batte- 
buzt, f. performance of a juggler, slight of hand. h.p. 
bater, ra. f. a kind of quail (Perdix 

olivacea, Buck), s. 

bates, m. a passage, pathway* h. 

batenth, m. the proprietor or 
holder of a share (same as bataniyd). A. 

^ ba-ja, in place, all^rjght, proper, true, ac- 
curate, becoming, fit. jp. 

bijdr, m. a bull, a stallion. A. 
bajdh, m. a kind of serpent, h. 
bijdld, seedy, turned to seed, 

abounding in seed. *. 

li^ll^: 1'^lc^MT ba-jd-ldna (in Pers. ba-ja 
awardan,), a. to perform, to obey, to execute, to ac- 
complish, p. A. 

^\jji bfi-jdn, to the heart, soul, or life, ba-jan 
amadan, to be in imminent danger or dishes?, ba-jdn \ 
ranjidan, to be vexed to the soul. p. 

bajdna, a. to sound, to play upon 
an instrument of music ; to perform, to execute. A. 

*: bujdnd (for bujhana q. v.), to extin- 
guish, &c. A. 

^{ ba-jd,e t in place of, by way of. p. 

$ \sf- ftniT^ bijdjf f. a portion of seed corn 

which the poorer classes are allowed to take from the 
field. A. [ment for the arm ; a bracelet. A. 

bijayath, m. a kind of orria- 
baj-bqjdndy n. ^o effervesce 

with noise in putrefying. A. 

^Jtf? bajattar, 1 m. (for bajantri, &c. q-v.) 
iyi& bajattarij a musician, &c. s. 

liy^iXf: ba-jidd-hond, n. to be importunate, 
to insist upon any thing ; to tempt, to urge (a per- 
son). a. A. 

j Vt bajr (for wtjr), m. a thunder-bolt; a 
diamond ; adj. hard, bajr pa?e us par, Sec,, may light- 
ning fall on him, &c. ; this is used in cursing any 
body. 9. 

\f ^WTT bajrd, m. a boat for travelling in, a 

pleasure boat (of a larger kind, q. d. heavy or hard), 
commonly called " buage-row ". A. 

bajr-dghdt, (lightning- 
struck , any sudden calamity, especially if viewed as a 
judgment from heaven. *. 

&? ^I^J bajar-battu, m. name of a fruit; 
a large kind of seed, of which necklaces are made. A. 
' bajar-bhdng, irf. tobacco. A. 

" This appears to have been the first name given to the 
weed, which was introduced into India, as is supposed, 
in the time of Jehanghire. It has now been superseded 
by the European name see tambaku" (Binning.) 

La^arf ftCH 4*1 bajr bit, m. (lit. "lightning- 

insect"), a species of the armadillo, called bv natu- 
ralists Pangolin or Manis ; and sometimes " the scaly 
ant-eater". -It is termed in the Dakhn! dialect khaulA- 
mdnjd. (Binning), s. 

kajrang, in. a title of Hami* 

bajrangl, f. a kind o ttiak, or 
"mark, made on a Hindu's forehead with red lead. A. 
fi bajra, m. a pleasure-boat (v. bajrd). h. 

bijri, f. (v. bijli), lightning, s. 
i ba~juz, besides, except, p. 

y/t,f. lightning; a thunder-bolt. A. 

bajnd, n. to be sounded (a bell or 
gong &c.) ; das baje, ten have sounded, i.e. it is ten 
o'clock ; to be famous ; m. a rupee (used among 
brokers). A. 

fJ Jinn bujnd f m. a cloth used by men* 

struous women, a pessary. A. 

UfJ frTn bijud, m. a fan, a punkah, s. 
aZ bajantar, m. (v. bajantrl), d. 
Jkii; ^finsft bajantri, m. one who plays 

upon musical instruments ; f. a tax on musicians and 
female dancers, bajantrt-mafyall, in. the quarter inha- 
bited by musicians ; a brothel. A. 

^fi ba-jin*, in kind, in some sort. p. a. 
bajanl or bajrii, f. quarrel, fight ; 

"uproar, a row. A. 
biju (also biju bd y ora), m. (v. beju\ an 

animal that feeds on dead carcases, the Indian 
badger ; (some say the ichneumon), Ursus Indicus. A. 

ffi W^MV bajrvana, a. to cause to sound, 

to cause to play on an instrument. A. 

y^l *nftapTT bajorna, a. to strike, smite, d. 

Zfffi f^ftn bijog (forvijog), m. separation, 
absence (especially of lovers) ; adj. parted, separate. *. 

/*5 ftnft^ft bijogi, wretched, one who is se- 
"parated (from his beloved, 8ec.). *. 

bajha, m. marshy soil. A. 

bujharat, adjustment of ac- 

counts. h. 

bujhana^ a. to extinguish, to 

put out ; to damp or depress one's courage, to quench 
one's thirst, as piyat bujhanfi. A. 

( 100 ) 

^ JWfl bujhand a. (caus. of bujhnd)* 
to explain, to infuse into the mind, to demonstrate, 
to push as with argument, to persuade, to cause to 
believe, to take to. h. 

bajhana, a. (also bajhawana 
or bajha.ona), to entangle, to ensnare (as game), to 
entrap, h. [again. h. 

J -***&*? bvjhbtyhawal, m. a riddle, guess 

]tfg yUTT bujahra, ID. a vessel for warm 
water, h. 

^^?? ftfiWrm bfjhhana, a. to frighten, to 
scare, to alarm. /*. 

Ux^yg fwWMI bfjhakna, n. to be alarmed, 
to be startled, h. 

bijhyah, a scarecrow, k. 

biijhnd, n. to be extinguished, to be 

put out (as fire, a lamp), to be quenched (thirst), to be 
dejected (the spirits). /. 

i^g THifll bajhnd, to be ensnared, to be 
caught (as game) ; to Jtfck. h. 

bajhwat, a stalk with car. A. 

bvjhontd, an abstract account 
of a village proprietary, h. 
IjU^rf. fw&ff^n bijhoniya, name of a tribe 

of raj-puts in Jaunpur. 7*. [burthen, /e. 

Jj^J: ^%5 bujhail, laden ; beast, &c., of 
.* ftf^ 6(701 (for vijayct), m. triumph, bijai- 

"dasamt, the victorious tenth ; the tenth of asm Shukl 
Paksh ; the anniversary of Kama's victory over Havana.*. 

U*$ fofiHll bijiyd or bijaya, in. hemp, bhang 
(Cannabis satlva}. t. 

&#& *r*fbptbji-dar,an agricultural servant 
who takes corn as a recompense for his labour, h, 

.&3f* ftrifft bijnyi (for vijnyi) 9 vanquisher, con- 
queror. .. 

^ ftni /nV.'/t (for bich), in the midst, among, s, 

q*l bach or vach, f. orris root. *. 

fe/^rA, an inferior tribe ofrdj-putsin 

the district of Jaunpur. 
bachd or 


bnchcha, m. a child ; 

a young animal, bachchc wait murgfy., the hen with 
her chickens; the constellation of the Pleiades, p. 

bUj W^fTXTf bachdpd, m. safety, escape, deli- 
verance. h. 

\*i f% 1 fTC bichdr (for vichdr), m, coniriv- 

ancc, consideration, reflection, judgment, opinion, 
thought, will. a. 

\\g bichdrd (for be-chdro), helpless, p. 

c>j^5 (^IKd' bichdrat (for wA5ro<), part. 

reflecting, thinking, a. 
Oj\J$ ftl^lftfl bichdrit (for vichdrif), judged, 

eonaidered, matured, t. 
ui)j\jg Oflf^K* bicharak, an inspector, in* 

vcitigator, judge. . 

bickdrnd, a. to consider, to 
reflect, to investigate, to comprehend, to think, to ap- 
prehend, to conceive. *. [helpless, p. 

^U? bichdra (for be-chdra), without resource, 
bichdrya, fit for consideration, x. 
bichdlit f. straw, /t. 

bachdnd, a. to save, to preserve, 
to reserve, to protect ; to save, to spare ; to defend, to 
guard, to conceal, to leave, (for bajdnd), to sound u 
musical instrument A. 

bnchdyO or bachdv, m. safety, pro- 
tection ; escape, deliverance h. 

, m. childhood, irifancy./t. 
birhitr (for vichitra)* various ; 

wonderful, s. 

lachti, f. remainder j surplus, rc- 

sidue ; end, conclusion, h. 

bicharnd, to detail, bichar 
bichar /car hulna, to speak in full detail, /t. 
Li^ ftf^f^T bichakj disappointment 5 fright, 

alarm. A. 

iKatf f^r^iTn bicntfand, a. to baulk, to dis- 
appoint, to break one's promise, (in Dakh.) to frighten, 
to terrify or threaten, h. 

^j! ^T^WTHT backhand, small (generally ap- 
plied to shoes and clothes) ; m. a dancing boy. h. 

K^J f^oMrf| bachhdniy f. a girl adopted by 
an old prostitute, p. [children, &c. A. 

bach-hack (generally hack-back), 

U&{ CM ^ <fH I hichah net, n. to he disappointed, 
baulked; to sprain ; to run away, to retreat; to with- 
draw a consent which has been given, (in Dakh.) to 
start, to be afraid, h. 

U3og ft 1 oh 31 bickkanna, m. an ornament 
worn in the anterior lobe of the ears. A. 

^Ulji bachaffdn or bachckaydn, children, 

young one's ( Pers. pi. of bachcha}. p. 

e6lC*{ buckchagdna, fit for children ; in a 
chitdUh manner, bachchagani, f. a child's toy or play- 
thing. p. [tribe. It. 

(Jb^& "f^OTift bach-guti, name of a raj -put 
^Jjfi backchagi f. infancy, childhood, p. 

T bichalnd, n. to break one's pro- 
mise, to slip, to infringe, to turn, to bend. *. 

h'tchamna, a. to tease or torment 
one with questions, h. 

backan, m. speech, talk, discourse* 

word; promise, agreement, bachan band kar lena or 
baudh k., to bind by promise, bachan band, or bandh, 
hona, to promise, to be agreed upon, bachan p4*, to 
abide by a promise, bachan torna, a, to bteak one's 
word, bachan chhorna, to break one's promise, bachan 
denti, a. to promise, to agree, bachan dalna, a. to 
question, to ask, to inquire, bachan lend, to receive A 
promise, bachan marua, to conclude an agreement. 
bachan manna, to obey, bachan nibhana t to abide by u 
promise, bachan hdrnd, to promise, to agree, to give 
one's word. . 

C 101 ) 

bacftna, n. to be saved or spared, 
to escape, to remain unexpended, bach-rahna, to 
avoid, to take care against. //. 

vL/Uj! ^nnn 6ac/tno^,name of a vegetable 
poison. *. [espoused, t. 

Oj^^J '^R^T bachan-datta.) betrothed, 
\jg bic/tUjd, m. name of a plant, d. 

bichrvdni, "1 m. one who in- 
bichauliya, Herposes, a me- 

(3& ftr*TO$ bichwa,t, J diator, an um- 
pire, an arbitrator; an agent or ambassador. *. 
&g bachcha, m. the young of any animal, an 

Infant, a child. bachcha-dan t m. the womb, bachhe- 
wali murgki, f. the hen and chickens j a name given to 
the Pleiades, p. 

iftibachh, or\4 Tttjbachhd, m. acalf.s. 
bichchdtd, m. a stinging- 
nettle (Urtica interrupta). h. 
o \g fret ^fT bichhd-dena, a. to spread ; 

met. to knock down, to drub, to floor, h. 
iV^s firePTt bichhana, a. to spread ; m. a 
bed, bedding, carpet (Dakh. bichhanati). h. 
**; bachcha-dan, m. the womb. p. 

bachhra, m. a calf. h. bichhrd 
(Dakh.) separation. 

\)Ufr* ftr$^MI bichhurdnd,*. to cause to be 
separated, to separate or sunder (actively). *. 

cLJbU^jtf bichhurahat, f. separation, act of 

separating. Also bichharahaf. s. 
V\ ^ fiiaVil bichhurnd or frR*U bichharnd, 
n. to be separated, or set apart, to slide, to slip, to turn 
away the face. s. 

j & ""TS^ bachhru, m. a calf or colt. s. 
\J4 ftr8T?T bkhhard, ni. "1 separating, se- 

^Ajbfi firg?^ bichhardtjL) paration, part- 

ing asunder, s. 

liK^ fTtiliTrn bichharana, a. to cause to be 
separated ; to part or divide (actively), s. 

bichhura,o, rn. act of parting 
*. [away. s. 

i bicbhrdhat, fern, separation, turning 
bichhurnd or ftf^iHl bichhyr- 
wfi, n. to be separated, to turn awny. *. 

? c bachhru, m. a colt, a calf. s. 
fftfU?n bichhalnd, n. to be separated ; 

to slip, to slide ; to slip out of place, to sprain ; to turn 
away the face. h. 

Inchhna, n. to be spread, h. 

bachchh-ndg, m. name of a 

vegetable poison. *. 

lichchhu, 1m. a scorpion, the sign 
Scorpio, s. 

or separating, separation. 

bichhu,d, m, a sort of dagger ; 

a small stiletto with a curved or serpentine blade ; an 
ornament worn on the toes. h. 

t^jel f<$qHt bickhwana, a. to cause to 

spread, k, 

bichhornd, a. to separate, h. 
5 ff'^'HI bichhaund or (V til HI bichhond, 

m. bedding, carpeting. A. 

^4#5 WdtT^V bachhontd, m. distribution of 
an aggregate sum on several individuals, h. 

bichhoh, 1m, separation, ab- 

bickhohdj sence. h. 
bichhu,i 9 f. a ring or ornament worn 

on women's toes. d. 

bachhi, a female young animal, p. 

^J^: ^f^^T bachhiyd (diminutive o bachhl), 

f. a female calf. 7*. 


i f t ' - ff- 


bahhds, a great disputer, controvertist, 
arguer. a. 
i &t/iar (pi. ofj^J), seas, gulfs, &c. a. 

2 ba-hdl, happy, flourishing, prosperous ; 

reinstated (as in service) ; restoration to a former con- 
dition, or continuing in the present state, p. a. 

t ba-hdti adj. of or relating to a former 

'state; f. restoration to a former state or con- 
dition. ba-h&il sanad, a grant restoring a person to 
the possession of something that he has been deprived 
of, or confirming to him what he at present enjoys, p. 

bafis, f. argument, discussion, alterca- 

tion, controversy, discussion, bahs-k., to dispute, a* 
^LssiU^i bahm-bahsi, f. controversy, discus- 
"sion, argumentation, a. 

i bahasnd 9 n. to argue, to dispute; totalk. a. 

*J ba-hadd, or w ^Jo<5 ba-hadde hi, to such 

a degree that ; so that. p. 

buhr, rn. a sea, a gulf, a bay ; f. metre 
in prosody ; a fleet, a. 

y*J bukrdn, m. the crisis of any disease (as 

fever, &c.). a. 

: bahri, maritime, naval ; (for bahri), a 
kind of falcon, a. 
>^i bahrain, lit. 4he two seas, generally 

applied to the Mediterranean and the Euxine : it also 
applies to the two waters, viz. the fresh and the salt. a. 

-,r-* ba-hasb or ba-haxbe /a, according to, 
lnaccordance, in such a way that. p. a. 

{ ba-hahh or ba-hakjii, on account of; in 
the case of. p. a. 

( 102 ) 

: ba-Jmhm or ba-huhmi, under the com- 
mand of; by dint of. p. a. [iutioii. p. 

one/') pardon, abso- 
5 ba-hamd Illahl, by the grace of God, 
God be praised that. a. 

tjjA buhair.a, a small sea or inland lake. a. 
jl*2 buWiar, m. steam, mist, fog ; glowing 

heat from the ground, or such as is felt in a fever ; va- 
pour, exhalation. bufthjar-nikalnd, n. to break out (as 
an eruption on the skin]), bukbdr dil met rakhna, a. to 
entertain enmity or malice iu the heart, a. 

\\iA bukhara, name of a town and country ; 

the ancient Bactria. p. 
^f)\j bukhari, of or relating to Bukhara, a 

native of -Bukhara, p. 
CL**j bakht, m. fortune, prosperity, luck, fe- 

licity. baJsbt-dwar, fortunate, batikf-bali. lucky, for- 
tunate. *bakhl-bdz7, trying one's fortune, bal&t lose one's luck, to become unfortunate. 6aM'- 
blddr, one whose fortune is wide awake, a prosperous 
person. lxi1sht-bargashtQ t unfortunate, bal&t-Kbttfta, 
one whose fortune is asleep, unlucky, p. 

bufrht, m.1 a quicff-paced camel (gene- 
d bukhfii f. /rally used to ride on, and not 
for burthens), a. 

fo r tunrtte,prosperous. bakkti- 
ydrl, f. prosperity, good fortune, p. 

bakhra, ") in. share, portion, lot, allow- 
ance. p. 

, "1 

J ' , } partner, sharer, p. 

^.^i bakhraitj* ' ' 

jSJtf bafrhsh, m. gift, donation ; pay ; pardon 

or forgiveness ; share, portion, lot. bakjish dend, to 
give, to bestow ; in comp. it denotes giving, bestow- 
ing, forgiving, as ftamar-bajcfash, productive of fruit, 
tdj-bakbsh, bestowing a diadem, p. 

ilic bakshancii a. to cause to give; to procure 

pardon for another, p. 
jtjLljtf bakbshajsh, f.afavour,forgiveness./?. 

jSJLjtf balthxltuh, f. a gift, gratuity. baMi- 
shish-nama, a deed of gift. p. 

Xljtf baJihshna, a. to give, to bestow, to grant, 
to spare, to pardon or forgive, p. 

y m. a deed of gift. jt?. 

xlil bafrhshandofi, f. liberality, gene- 
roaity; forgiveness, p. 

tXx; bahJithanda^ he who bestows ; God, 
the forgiven p. [forgiver. p. //. 

, m. thebestower,the 

tf laWr 

a, ") i 

^Utf bakhshi, m. (lit. the giver), a pay- 

"mnster; a general, commander-in-chief. baj&shi.itl- 
mamulik* a title or rank, enuivalent to commander-in- 
ch ief. bafchsfii-khana, m. the pay-office ; the general's 
office. baKfehiyani a'fam, the supreme commanders, p. 

baM&hiyat , name of a division of 

the JaunpQr district, p. 

bakhshidan, to bestow ; to forgive, p. 
bakftshi-gari, f. office of general, p'. 

bukkl, m. parsimony, stinginess, ava- 
rice, sparingness. a. [sition. p. a. 

ba-khilaf, on the contrary, in oppo- 
ba-khubi, in perfection, thoroughly, p. 

5 ba-khud, lit. to or into self, ba-khud ana, 
to come to one's self or one's senses, p. 

akhur, m.perfume,odour,frankincense. a. 
; ba-khushiy with pleasure ; joyfully, p. 

j& ba-khair, in welfare, well, good. p. a. 
jJ& bakhir, m. report, news, intelligence, d. 

jJtf bakkil, a miser, a niggard, a. 

ujtf ba&hiti, f. stinginess, niggardliness, a. 

euij bajjkiya, m. a kind of stitching; quilt- 
ing, sewing very thick and strong, p. 

JJ bad, evil, had; much used in the formation 

of compounds ; as, bad-cikhtar, of an unlucky star, 
unfortunate. bad-a]&l(lt:> of bad habits, bad-uslub, 
ill-shaped, ill-made; of evil conduct, bad-asl or bad- 
usul, low-born. bad~afwdr, ill-mannered. bad-qf,al t 
of evil deeds, bad-i'tikad, mistrustful, bad-andesh, 
inimical, evil-minded. bad-a t litt of ill manners, ob- 
serving no religious precepts, bad-batin, internally 
evil, bad-bul&t, unlucky, unfortunate, bad-bar, evil- 
minded or disposed. bad-bu, foetid; f. stink, bad-parhez 
not controlling one's inclinations and passions ; in 
temperate bad-chali, of bad conduct, bad-chashm, 
malignant, envious, coveting other men's goods, par- 
ticularly vivcs. bad-bal t in bad circumstances, ill- 
conditioned. bad-Hawass, senseless, stupified. bad- 
Jshttal or bad-tbfl9lfit t of a bad disposition, bad-fcfcatt, 
writing ill. bad-J&ulk, of evil nature, ill-disposed. 
bad-l&p, of bad habits, bad-l&wah, wishing evil, bad- 
du'a, f. curse. bad-dil t suspicious, bad-dimagfr, dis- 
satisfied, displeased with every thing, bad-dmd, ill- 
shaped, ungraceful, bad-ydt, low-born, of bad breed, 
wicked, vicious. bad-&hn t stupid, slow of apprehen- 
sion. bad-rah, wicked, sinful, bad-rikab, ill-paced 
(a horse), also difficult to mount, bad-rag, of a bad 
vein, ill-natured, malevolent, bad-rang, bad colour, 
bad kind, bad-rau, ill-paced (a horse). bad-zaban t 
indecent speaker, abuser ; f. indecent language, abuse. 
bdd-zabdnt, f. abuse, bad^zeb, ungraceful, bad-sa'att 
f. an unlucky moment, bad-saj, ungraceful, ill-looking. 
bad-sirishti of a bad composition, ill-natured, bad- 
saranjdm, of a bad end. Lad-sigdl, malevolent, bad- 
suluk, unfavourably inclined, maltreating, bad- sir at, 
ill-tempered, of bad disposition, bad-shakl, ill-shaped, 
ill-looking, bad-shugun, of evil omen, inauspicious. 
bad-jurat, ugly, ill-conditioned, bad -tar ft, m. bad 
habit (in a religious sense), bad-tin at, malevolent, 
iniquitous. bad-tinatl t f. malevolence, iniquity, bad- 
%ann, suspicious. bad- olid, faithless, treacherous. 
bad-fin, m. evil deeds ; of bad habits (particu- 
larly in a religious sense). bad-farjdm, of evil 
end or issue, malignant, bad-kar or bad-kirddr, sin- 
ful ; a malefactor, bad-gum tin, suspicious, bad- go, 
slanderous, bad- guitar, of bad origin. bad-l<igam, 
hard-mouthed (a horse), not obedient to the reins. 
bad-mast, dead drunk, bad-maza, of bad taste, un- 
savory. bad-mazagt, unsavoriness, tastelessness ; cool- 
ness between friends, bad-mizaj, of evil temper 
}>ad-mu%anna> suspicious, bad-ma* ash, of a bad pro- 
fession, of an infamous trade, bad-mu'dmala, oi unfair 

( 103 ) 

dealing, roguish, bad-mihri, f. disobligingness, un- 
it induces, bad-nam, infamous, calumnious, bad-nami, 
f. infamy. txid-nasal, of a bad race or breed ; a bas- 
tard, bad-naflb, unfortunate. bad-rw$<ir, ill-looking. 
ktd-na'l, tripping (a horse), bad-vutmii or bad-namud, 
ungraceful, Inelegant. b*w*nihad t ill-disposed, of bad 
intention, bad-watf, ill-disposed or ill-behaved, bad- 
hazm, of bad digestion. bad-hai,at, ill-formed, mis- 
shapen. bad-t/Mim, evil-omened, unpropitious. N.B 
All the preceding adjectives may form abstract sub- 
stantives by the addition of I, as bad-al&lulfi, depravity 
of morals, bad-uslubi, malformation, &c. p. 

J 1T$ bad, f. a bubo,or swelling of the gland.//. 

} fr$ bid* f. a little pit into which children in 
play endeavour to throw balls or marbles, k. 

^rftf badi, f. the wane of the moon ; the 
dark half of the lunar month, from full moon to new 
moon. s. 

jJ f%^T lida, f. dismission ; taking leave, 
farewell, adieu, bidd-k , to bid farewell, to dismiss, s. 

bida, f. beginning, commencement, a. 
badd 9 predestined, fated, h. 
*N?Wtl badd-badi, with emulation or 

rivalship, contentiously. h. 

j\Aj fq^T&l biddran (for vidaran), m. act of 
tearing, breaking, severing, rending, or dividing. *. 

.ltiJ ff^TOfT bidarna, a. to tear, to rend. s. 
<o!jJ q^'iift badaml, f. a species of rice. h. 

JJ bad-an (for ba-an), lit. by that; thereby, 
thence, p. [congratulation, &c. 

baddhd, m. (v. badhawa), a song of 
badahat, unexpected accident, a. 

^l^T biddhna, a. to turn the plough 

over a field, after the seed is come up, and also to 
plough immediately after sowing, for the purpose of 
covering the seed ; to harrow. A. 

C^J<3^ or *J.W baddy at, commencement, a. 
^JjJ baddyi (pi. of *A>.<V), wonders, rarities, a. 

*n bad-bdchd, m. a false or frau- 
dulent bach or division, h. 

budbud, m. a bubble. 7^- 

WM<(TtT budbuddnd, a. to mutter, to 
grumble, n. 

P ftrftflf ftt rft/, known, famed, renowned, s. 
badtar, worse, inferior, very bad. p. 
bada&h, m. a duck (for batafrfi). d. 

badakhshdn, name of a region near 
the source of the Oxue, famous for its rubies, &c. p. 

J badr, m, the full moon. a. 

> ba-dar (to the door, or at the door), with- 
out, out. ba-dar-nawisi t writing off objectional items 
of an account; audit ing or taxing an overcharged bill. p. 

badrd, m. a cloud, cloudiness, s. 
ba-darj, by insertion, per invoice, p. a. 
ba-daraja, in, or to a degree, p. a. 
badar~rau, f. a drain, a sewer, -p. 

5^ badarfra or bath-alta^ rn. a fellow-tra- 
veller ; a convoy, or guard on the road ; any thing 
ordered to be taken with a certain medicine (as water 
gruel with salts i; a vehicle (in medicine see anuputi); 
also a charge (of one per cent.) formerly levied us the 
expense for keening the highways and rivers free from 
robbers, badraka {iisdb, an invoice of goods sent ; also 
transit duty. p. [ten thousand dirhams. p. 

J4 >J budra, m. a bag of money ; a weight of 

^j^J T5? badrly a place of pilgrimage in the 
north of India, s. 

bidrl 9 f. a mixture of metals so 
called ; a kind of tutenag inlaid with silver, (so called 
from Bidar, the name of a city and province), used for 
fyulclcas, &c. /i. 

badrl-patrak, in. asorl of 

perfume, a leaf. *. 

^v/j^ W?d^5n badri-phalot f. a plant, 
the blue sephalica or uyctanthcs. 5. 

badri-chhada* f. a kind 

of perfume, apparently a dried shell-fish ; a tree, a 
species of the Zizi/phus. s. 

^tJ!^ T<n9ft<5 badri-shail, m. a part of 
the Himalaya range, and a celebrated place of pilgrim- 
age, the Badrinath of modern travellers ; or a town and 
temple on the west bank of the Alaknanda river in 
the province of Shrlnagar. s. 

ba-dast, in hand, or into hand. p. 

ba-dastur, according to custom ; as 
usual, in the usual manner, p. 

badxald, m. a hog-sty, h. 
bid' at, f. violence, oppression, wrong; 

schism, heresy, blasphemy, a. 

&&} bid*aii 9 a tyrant, oppressor, a. 
badak (same as bat), a duck. d. 

ba-dikkat, with toil or difficulty, p. a. 
U&JJ q$*h<\\badakna, n. to move, be moved, h. 

JjJ. badal, m. exchange, substitution ; reta- 
liation ; prep, for, on account of. badal lend, a. to 
exchange, to take in exchange, badali mal, m. price, 
barter, badal-mushahara, m. stipend given in money 
or kind to public or private servants, a. 

J^ TJ3 baddal, or **&$$ badal, m. cloud, h. 

Jj^ ba-dily with the heart, heartily, sincerely. 
ba dil ojan, with heart and soul. p. 

^)*V WWI badld, m. exchange, lieu, stead, 
a substitute, recompense, revenge, requital badla 
lend, a. to alter, to revenge, badle, in exchange, in 
return for. a. [of the English word. d. 

$&} budld, m. a bottle, probably a corruption 
*$&> bad-ldm (for bad-ndm), infamous, of 

bad repute, d. 

U^)j^ W^^RI badland 9 a. to cause to alter ; 
to change, to put one thing for another, a. 

11&1^badld,i 9 f. price of exchange, a. 
nd, a. to change, to alter, a. 

badti, f. cloudiness ; a small bit 
of cloud, a. 

( 104 ) 

badti, f. exchange; relief (of 

watches, fee.) ; a substitute ; a person or thing taken ; 
representation or exchange of some other person or 
thing, a. 

JjJ budR, f. a small bottle (v. budld). d. 

.)*> *nj?f badan (for vadan), m. the mouth, 

the countenance. 9. 
2} badan, m. the body, badan phal-jann, 

n. to be covered with an eruption of pustules, a. 

budna, a. to wager, to stake at play, 

to settle, to predestinate, to take (as witness), to obey, 
to acknowledge, to agree, not to refuse, h. 

J badna, m. (for bad/ind) 9 o, kind of pot. A. 
j badni, f. a pipkin of a small size. d. 

badni, a contract by which the 

borrower gives a bond at high interest, and as a fur- 
ther security to the lender, he assigns his crops valued 
far below the market price, h. 

J badarii, of or relating to the body. a. 
<V badu, infamous, bado (for ba-o), in or 

to him, &c. p. 

c>J badu, a tribe of Arabs so called, a. 

Ujo ff3TTT bidruan (for vidrvari), learned, s. 

j&} buduh, an invocation, supposed to pos- 
sess great power over the Invisible world. It has no 
meaning that I ever heard, but some suppose it to be 
the name of a certain deceased saint. The word is 
often written as a charm, and inlaid in letters of gold 
on sword-blades, &c., to ensure their efficiency, a. 
(Binning). [to laugh at, to ridicule. 7*. 

^jJJ ftr?jteTT bidorna, a. to screw; to mock, 

0|^<l*n bidorndf a. to laugh at. h. 
J ba-daulat,by means of, through, p. a. 
bidun, without, deprived of. a. 
badh,m. killing, slaying. badh*dand, 

m. capital punishment, ladh-kdmiid, f. desire to kill. 
badh-kdnkslit, wishing death. badh-thdn t m. or badk- 
sthal~i % f. a place of slaughter or execution. *. 

baddlia, bound, tied; checked, sup- 
pressed ; fixed, withheld. baddha-shiJch, young, a pupil 
whose hair has not been shaved. baddha-thikUd, f. a 
pungent root, a kind of garlic, baddha-kop, one who 
governs or suppresses wrath, baddha-miil, fast or firmly 
rooted. *. 

bidh (for vidhi), f. a sacred pre- 
cept, rule, common practice, precept, direction ; name 
of Brahma 5 manner. bidhi-bat t (for vidhi-vat), accord- 
ing to rule, law, or precept. . 

*PI budhj m, name of a Hindu deity 

corresponding to the Odin or Woden of the Saxons, 
and regent of the planet Mercury ; the planet Mer- 
cury ; Wednesday ; a wise man, a sage* s. 

j iTf buddha, m. a wise or learned man, a 
sage ; a deified teacher, especially of the Banddha sect ; 
the ninth avatar or incarnation of Vishnu, and the 
apparent founder of Buddhism. . 

j vf^f buddhi, f. sense, knowledge, under- 
standing, buddht-hin, senseless. *. 

bidhu (for vidhu), m. the moon. $. 

bidhata (for vidhata),m. he 

who has predestined, t. c. the deity Brahma, provi- 
dence. * [precept, direction, t. 

fftfPT bidhan* m. common practice, 

^Siyf^ baddhdnjuli, putting the 
hands joined to the forehead, saluting respectfully. *. 
Ubjj "^VRT badharva, m. a song in congra- 

tulation ; presents, &c., carried to the house of a wo- 
man on the sixth or fortieth day after childbirth, h. 

bidhatrat, f. perforation, h. 

f i t f. (snme as badharca), 
a song, presents, &c. h. [gent. *. 

buddhi-bhrit, wise, intelli- 

budh-bar, m. the day of Budh, Wed- 
nesday. s. 

budhitj known, understood, s. 
budfi-jan, m. a wise man. *. 

badhir, deaf, badhirta, f. deaf- 
[execution, place of slaughter. *. 
bad/ia-sthan, in. place of 

badhak, m. a slaughterer, a 

killer, j. 

ladhihy a huntsman, sportsman, 
fowler, killer, slayer, s. 

buddkiman ,m.l wise, sensi- 
buddhimat, in. \ ble, learn- 
buddhfmati, f. J ed, famed f 

known, s. 

badhna(aho bidhna), a. to smite, 
to kill ; n. to be wounded, s. 

badhna, m, a kind of pot, with 
a spout to it, a vessel for drinking water from. t. 

bidhna, n. to be pierced ; m, a 

name of BrahmS. (see bldhatd). g. 

Jt>JJ bi-dihand ("let them grant"), a su- 

perscription of assent by the emperor on a petition 
for an assignment of revenue, p. 

, f. a daughter-in-law, son's 
wife ; a u oman, wife, lady (same as baJiii). 3. 

bidhava or bid/two, (for vidhava), 
f. widow, bidhawd, m. the Deity, s. 

budh-nar, m. Wednesday, s. 
buddhiwan, 1 wise, know- 
buddhirvati, ing, intelli- 
buddhiwanta,) gent. *. 

badhopaya, m. instrument 
or means of putting to death. *. 
-3y* &> fws^T 'bidhwans (for vidhwani), m* 
death, annihilation, demolition, t. 

( 105 
badha-van&h, m. the slaughter 

of a whole race. 4. 

#fc Jb JJ wfinfN buddki-hin, ignorant, silly, a 
fool, biiddki-hlnatd, f. ignorance, folly. *. 

haddhi, f. an ornament worn round 

"the neck, hanging down to the waist, and crossing be- 
hind and before j a belt, a sash, a pair of braces. /i. 

badhiyd, f. a bullock, or any 
castrated animal, h. 

Cjc^Ju^ Jj ar^OftftJI buddhlndriya, m. an organ 
"of intellect "or perception, as the mind, eye, ear, nose. 

tongue and skin. *. 

jjtjo TfUf bad/iya, deserving death,conderaned 
to death, badhyatd, f. fitness to be killed, badhya- 
bhumi, f. or badhya-sthdn, m. a place of public exe- 
cution. *. 
*J badi, f. badness, wickedness, p. 

badi, f. the dark half of the lunar 
" month, from full moon to new moon. *. 
b J^ ftret bidyd (for vidya), f. science, know- 
Vdge, intellect, s. 

JOb JJ fammbidyadkar, m. a Vidyadhara, 

a species of dancers that perform before the assembled 
deities in Indra'i paradise. * 

-A3jbj^ ftrCT^ff bidydrthl (for vidydrthT), 

"m. a seelcer after knowledge, a student, s. 
O^b'V ^OT^TH bidydrvdn (for vidydwdri), 
scientific, learned. *. [foreign country. *. 

frizes (for videsJi), abroad, a 
bidesl, of another country, a 
^traveller, a foreigner, s. 

f^.JJ badi, rare, strange, wonderful,curious. a. 
^A} badin (for ba-in), to, for, or in this. p. 
M&> badika,m. an extempore,an impromptu, 
impetuosity, any thing done inconsiderately, an unex- 
pected event ; an axiom, a. 
^4><3J badihi, unpremeditated ; apparent, a. 

\JO "^T badd (see bard}, great, large. 5. 
IjJ buddd,, old, aged ; an old man. d. * 

bl3j budddpd, \ . . .,.. , 

* .;. ' * 7 fm, old age, senility, rf. 
.^)3o budddpan,) 

li.ljo fffTT?n biddrnd, a. to drive away, to 
turn away j to efface. *. 
>JJ budpan, also budpand, m. old age. d. 

|T buddhd, aged, old; an old man. 
bvdQha %hab"iKa> an old sinner (a term of ridicule or 
reproach). bu4dkd-Jchank, an old fellow. *. 

&ij buddhdpd, \ . . ... 

b buddhdpan,) 

budh-ffanyn. the old bed of 
the Ganges, where It has shifted its stream, h. 

Afci^ wftnn badhiyd, m. a disease affecting 
"sugar-cane, Indian corn, Ac., which prevents the head 
from shooting, k. 



old woman, 

J>^ JJ bi-zdti-hi, of itself, independently, by its 
own essence, personally, a. 
&> bazr, m. seed, bazr-gar, a sower, a. p. 
JjJ bazl, m. expense, gift, a portion, a. 

bizlafm. a garment for daily use of 
which no care is taken, a. 

a, m. a jest, raillery, pleasantry, a. 
j> ]J* bur, f. Pudenda fcemina:, vulva, h. 

j> *TC ^r or var, excellent ; m. bridegroom, 

a son in law ; a boon, a blessing, a choice, a good ; the 
Indian fig-tree; f. Asparagus racemoms^ coiij. but, 
moreover, even, bar-ddl, giver of a choice or bless- 
ing. rf . 

j) ^ bar, m. breadth (of cloth). A. 

j> bar, f. bosom, bar-mdrnd and bar-hank nd, 

to boast; fruit, produce, result; preo. on or upon. 
bar-dna t Pers. bar-8madan, to succeed, oar-ldna, rers. 
bar-dwardan, to accomplish, to bring to a successful 
issue, bar-andak&tan, to overthrow, to vanquish, p. 

T& barr, f. a waspr. h. 
J barr, m. land, bar ran wa bahran, by land 

and sea. birr, a fox-cub, a. 
ly TO fcara, m. cakes made of pulse-meal, 

and fried in butter or gh! ; adj. large, great (for bard), a. 

\j) ^TO burd, bad, worse, burd mdnnd* a. t<i 

take amiss or ill, as an affront, to be affronted or dis- 
pleased. burd lagnd, n. to be unpleasant. A. 

\j> *rtr barrd, m. a kind of rope used in a 

village game on the 14th of the light half of, 
v. Wilson, h. 

\J f^^T birra, m. gram and barley sown in 

the same field, h. 
\j ^fj buwd, m. the interior cavity of any 

thing, the belly of a drum. d. 
J\J bardbar, abreast, even, level, like, plain, 

uniform, smooth, up to, opposite, equal, exact, accu. 
rate, alike, straight, bardbar dnd, to overtake, bard- 
bar-k., to smooth, to compose, bardbar-kona, to ter- 
minate, to allow, to suit. p. [kind. h. 

'ftf^TTCR birra bardr, m. collection in 

bardbari, equality ; competition, ri- 
valry. bardbari-k.> to vie with, to compete with. p. 

C>U 1 TJW bardtf f. the company and atten- 
dants at u marriage-feast ; the marriage proceision. j. 

OU> bardt, f. a commission, a warrant, as- 
signment, a letter, a draught a. 

O\^ bardt, f. the 14th day of the month 

Slia'bdn, which is appropriated to the commemoration 
of ancestors ; this is generally called shabi-barat^.v. p.a. 

\*h> 'TOlft bardti, m. an attendant at a mar- 

riage procession. *. 

> (VU 2uYa, rn. the embodied spirit, 
name of a king. s. 

^V TOH bardthd, m. a washerman. A 
li^\^ PKJHHI birajna, n. to bo conspicuous 

or spit- mlid, to enjoy one's self, to live in health, ease, 
content, and jndepciidcnce. s. 

j&\j) baradaror biradar, tn. brother, bird- 

dar-parwar, kind to friends and relations, baradar- 
Jfliwanddgi, profession of fraternal affection, p. 

tO\j&\j)harad<irana, like a brother, becoming 

a brother, p. 

*&\jjb\j> barddar-zdda, a nephew, p. 
<^tyj^j} barddar-zddi, a niece, p. 
t^'y baradari, f. relationship, brotherhood; 

adj. brotherly, fraternal, p. 
^^ burada, m. filings, saw-dust, p. 

j\J bardr, lit. that which brings up, or to 
pa*s. barar-i-kdr t su^ssful accomplishment of an 
affair ; taxation in general, p. 

\j\jj TTO0 bnrdrd, f. a thong, a rope (parti- 

cularly of a swing), h. 
4^,1 J TO$ bai-an, m. a shareholder paying 

his proportion of the barar taxation, p. 

\\J baraz, m. stool, motion, excrement; fight- 
ing (especially in single combat), a. 

^l^ym buras, anger, rage; adj. angry, 

vexed, displeased, d. 

^fAj* ftTTjtf fc/roxi, eighty-two, s. 
a&LlTj bar-ashufta, excited, distracted, p. 
&\jj\ J bar-uftddt fallen off, dwindled away. p. 
**... |j bar-afrokhta, set on fire, inflamed, p. 
Z\j> burdljt) the horse or Pegasus on which 

Muhammad went one night from Jerusalem to heaven, 
and thence returned to Mecca. N.B. Our lexicogra- 
phers, Richardson, and after him Hunter and sundry 
others, will have it that tins spirited quadruped was 
an ass ; oh what authority I know not. a. 

barratf flashing, shining, brilliant, a. 

barrahi, f. brilliancy, splendour, a. 
ftprjW biram, uneasy, unquiet, agitated. *. 
> bar-amad, f. lit. up coming: issue, ex- 

penditure ; informing (more particularly of bribery). 
accusation, bar -a mad hond, to ascend, appear, come 
forth, p. 

^*Ty bar-amada>, m. a verandah, balcony-; 

issue, expenditure, disbursement, p. 
^ bar-ama(fa, an accuser, p. 

baran, time, turn, vicissitude, d. 
j) burran, sharp, cutting, cleaving, p. 

barrana, a. to talk in one's sleep, 

or in a delirium, h. 


3^> ftw*|1 birand, strange, foreign ; belong- 
ing to another, of or relating to another, h. 

birdnd, a. to mock, to jeer or 
jibe, to taunt, h. 

bar-ana, n. to succeed, to re- 
main at a distance, to keep aloof to abstain, p. h. 
f bar-andaZy destroying, upsetting, p. 

\ birdnarve, ninety-two, s. 
j^T buramj m. the Rhododendron, h. 
^ftTW bar~d)0 y abstinence, p. h. 
J bardtoard, f. 1 calculating, estima- 
j bardrvarda, m.J ting, considering be- 
fore hand what may be necessary for a feast, &c. ba- 
rdward-ff., a. to strike out (of a muster-roll) ; to calcu- 
late, to estimate, to carry to account, p. 

J\j> ftfTWH bird)Ond) a. to vex, to mock. //. 

V ITJ^ bar ah (for vardh\ m. a boar; the 

third avatar or incarnation of the deity (among the 
Hindus), s, 

barrdhat, f. chattering, prating, 
ranting, talking incoherently in one*s sleep, h. 

7fcta tifigrJtf brahman, a Biahman,a man of 

the priest caste among the Hindus, f. 

<>*+bj* WlHSft brakmam, f. wife of a Brah- 
man, a female of the Brahman caste, s. 
JU%fr]^ ^TCrateT brahmanetd, m. a young 

Brahman, s. 

u*fe)y H$US4 brahmanya y m. the Brahman 

sect, Brahmanism ; the state or quality of a Brahmau.j. 

^lp WT1&T brahmya, m. the worship or ve- 
neration of Brahmans; astonishment, brahmya-mu- 
hurl, the dawn of day, from two to four gharts before 
sun rise. s. [cane. h. 

bardhi, a small species of sugar- 
i & burd,i, f. mischief, badness, evil. 

bur a, I par uthna, or kamar bdndhna, to resolve on 
mischief, h. 

} bard,e, for the sake of, on account of, 

bard,e Jdytr o posh, " for the purpose of food and cloth- 
ing" a kind of settlement of property on a person for 
life, not transferable, p. 

^j \j) bard,t, f. name of a species of grain, d, 

bjj bardyd (pi. of 2o^), creatures, people, 
nobles, a. 

jj bar-bad, thrown away, given to the 

wind, destroyed, laid waste, ruined. bar-bdd-k. t or bar- 
bad- d., to cast away, to misapply, to lavish or squander. 
bar-bad-h., to be squandered, p. 

L^j> barbat, m. a sort of bean. d. 

burburd m. (for bulbuld), a bubble, h, 
> Ittlfl barbarli f. a large kind of goat 

(from Barbary). A. 

~*j> WtW barbas m. strength, vigour, 

prowess, bravery. . 


\&j> barbat, a species of lute or harp. g. 

(zj* *HOW barban, a north wind. h. 

^tfjt 'JjVi<JH bur-bala, scurrilous, abusive, h. 

~&y T4>fN*n barbhasiydj or ^T^rfOTT bur- 
bhasiyd, affected, an old person who affects the man- 
ners of youth, h. 

\)j> bar-pa, on foot, erected, established ; 

bar-pd-k., Pers. bar-pd-ddshtan, a. to pitch, to raise, to 
set on foot, excite ; bar-pa hond or ralmd. to be or re- 
main established. A. 

Oy WW bratt ^TOf bar at, or ^S bart, m. a 

fast, a vow, a meritorious act, rite, or penance ; use ; 
part, flaming, blazing, s. 

ftr% birt 9 a right, custom, privilege, h. 
barat, a disease which affects rice 

crops ; a leathern girth or large cable ; the rope at- 
tached to the bucket of a well. &. 

O^ *jfw briti, m. a proxy in the performance 

of religious duty. *. 
O^ *|ftf britti (corruptly bart}, f. a stipend, 

a pension, income, estate, means of livelihood, s. 
3j) 1T1TT barta, that which has been used. h. 

Oy ftlFT birt a, m . purpose, substance, power.s. 

OJ fwWT brita, m. a grant generally of land 

to a religious person, or to a tenant on certain stipu- 
lations, h. 

HMT bartana, a. to distribute, to cause 
to be used ; m. old clothes. 7*. 
d*S\j o ^^TRT br lit ant or britant, m. account, 
narration, story ; intelligence or news ; circumstance, 
mode. s. 

xjL!Lo\3j> '4f$MtflU^K britant~pattar 9 the re- 
cord of a decision given by a panchdyet, s. 
V bartar t higher; exellent, superior, p. 

bartari, f. eminence, superiority, p. 

HiH^f bartush, land sown with sugar- 
cane after a rice crop. h. 

y^+ij) iflfinftbartaman, the present tense in 
grammar ; existent, present ; commenced or set in. s. 

^J ^S*f or TCWf bartan, m. a dish, plate, 

&c., utensils, vessel, bason, h. [fleet, h. 

U3j qXiHT baratna, a. to consider, to re- 

*riNt bartna, a. to use. k. 

ftrt baratni or bartant, f. ortho- 

"graphy. A* [of jungles, ft. 

barath, land situated in the midst 
j^ 6r?<, m. (v. brita), a grant of land,&c. A. 

n britha, or WIT brathd (for vritha), 
abortive, vain, in vain. t. 

L^ inft brail, m. one who fasts ; adj. en- 
gaged in the performance of a vow or penance. . 

birfi, m. name of a plant (a spo- 

cies of Panicum). A. 

birtiya, a tenant who holds his 
lands on a fixed unalterable annual assessment, h. 
*>jj barr-titar, m. the Indian grouse, com- 
monly called rock partridge, h. 
*pf britj (or burj\ m. a cable, a large 
track rope, (a small one being called gun), h. 

burj, m. a bastion, a tower j a sign of 
the zodiac, a constellation, a. 

braj, m. a name of a district, con- 

taining the several villages of Mathura, Gokul, Brio- 
davan, &c., about 1 68 miles in circumference, celebrated 
as the land where Krishna passed his youthful days. 
braj-bdsi, an inhabitant of Braj, an armed attendant. 
braj-bhashd or bhakhd, the dialect of Hindi spoken in 
the district of JBraj. s. 

bar-ja, in place, true, accurate, right, p. 
barjatiya, m. an* innocent 

kind of snake. 7*. 

Jfj! qJJO burj art, f. a term of abuse ap- 
plied to a woman, such as brimstone, strumpet, &c. k. 

^j} barjasta, right, proper, opportune, 
exact, a propos, prompt, p. [hibit. A. 

barajna, a. to forbid, to pro- 
r-^o^^arriageable (a girl).*. 
burji, f. a small tower or turret (the 

cutwater to the pier of a bridge), a. 

birjiya, one of the subdivisions 

of ahirs, q. v. h. 

birjiSy the planet Jupiter, p. 

jfrj> barchakh, m. (v.6arcMa,&c.),a spear. p 
(frj* ftWf birckan, m. a kind of flour made 

from the fruit of the ber tree (Rhamnus jujuba). h. 

^>o ^ brichchh (for *p! vrihthd), m, a 

tree in general, a plant, s. 

barchhd, m. la (long, slender) 
barchhi, f, J spear, a javelin. 
"barchhd, barchhe, or barchlti-bardar t a spearman, h. 

ftf^fg[R birchhik, m. (for vrischiK), a 
scorpion ; the sign of the zodiac so called, t. 

barchaitf m. a spearman. A. 
} barchij f. a spear, (v. barchhi). h. 
) bar-hakk, for a certainty, rightful, p,a. 
barkh or bir&h, little, few, some. p. 

barkhast, f. recalling or removing 

from office, going away ; a breaking up of a court of 
justice, p. 

^j> bar-khastan, lit. to rise up ; met. to 
go away, to cease, p. 

j bar-%h.ildfy on the contrary, p. a. 


, success, enjoyment, p. 

)^JJ*J? burfehui'ddr, huppy, enjoying long 
life, prosperity (male children are so called, q. d. en- 
Joying the fruits of life), p. 

{m f f j} bar&he, a little, few, somewhat, p. 
U>-y barkhii/a, the father of Asaf, q. v. a. 
&j> TC3 barad, m. a bullock, a bull. s. 

&j> ^ burd, m. lit. carrying off, a term used 

at chess hen only the king (on one side) remains on 
the board : it is a species of victory, but not so credi- 
table as checkmate, p. [gyric. h. 

birad, m. fame, reputation, pane- 
&j> bard, m. cold, frigidity, frosty weather. 

futrd, a kind of striped cloth, burd t yam ant, striped 
cloth of Yaman, or Arabia Felix, a. 

.tj^ '^ijJK bardar, wide broadcloth, h. p. 

j\j> bardqr, bearer (in com p.); as sonte-bar- 

dar, stick bearer, &c. kulplfe-bardar (or more com- 
monly huTfli-a-barddr) Jhe servant who takes care of 
the hookah, or the luxurious qui hy pipe. p. 

(^&j> bar-dart, act of bearing, means of car- 

riage or conveyance, p. 
OwU^ bar-dax/it, f. endurance, patience ; 

stores, supplies, barddsht fcjiuna, a temporary store- 
house. p. 

j> bar-dash ta, raised up, elevated, p. 

^?Ttf bar-dan (for vara-dari), m. a 

wedding-gift to a bride from her betrothed ; the 
answer to a prayer addressed to God, or to a saint, s. 

jb3^ burdbar, forbearing, mild, patient, p. 
,jb^ burdbari, patience, forbearance, p. 
Jo*i^ burdmand, productive, fruitful, p. 
^&j) burdan (r. bar), to bear, to carry, p. 
&&j> birdang,^\f. a missile weapon shaped 
^j> birdanyl,} like a sword-blade, and 

"made of ivory, horn, or other hard substance. It is 
thrown with the hand, and much resembles the 
"boomerang" of New South Wales. (Binning.) d. 

aJ^y^) bar-dokhtat sewed j fixtd or nailed 

upon. p. 

JJ^ barda, m. and f. a slave, barda-farosk, 

a slave-merchant, burda (in comp.) denotes bearing 
or iiossessing, as nam-burda t named or having a name, 
the gentleman aforesaid, h. 

f baradh, m. a bullock, s. 
briddhu, old, aged. s. 

briddhi, f. vegetation, increase, s. 
> ftf^l bfruddha, opposite, opposed to ; 
against, contrary. . [to be bulled, h. 

bardhana, a. to cause the cow 
baradhna, a. to cover or bull 

iffy *&$ barfRf f. a drove of cattle loaded, s. 

> bardl (for bardiy}, the papyrus, a. 
^?.^ ^t^lT bardait, a panegyrist, a bard. k. 

&.ty W"<^'^ bardaiht, f. compensation for 
pasture-ground, h. 

barda, m."l any kind of sandy, light, 

bardi t f.J or stony soil. h. 
barra, m. a rope, a cable, h. 
jj> barz, m. a sown field, agriculture, p. 

**jj* barzakh> ni. interval, bar, partition ; in- 
terval between death and resurrection, purgatory, a. 

^jj* barzan, m. a mansion ; a street, espe- 
cially a large and spacious one, a quarter of a town. p. 

(jj> *JR bris (for vritha), m. a bull ; the 

sign or constellation Taurus. . 

bar as j m. a year 5 rain, raining. *. 
baras, m. an intoxicating drug 

made of opium, h. [ftarsjka). *. 

bar&a, m. the rainy season (see 

or ^TW bar sat 9 rain in gene- 
ral ; f. the rainy season, the rains. *. 

or ^rllfft barsati, f. the name of 

a disorder in horses ; the farcy ; adj. relating to rain. 
barsatifasl, the rain crop, or what is sown during the 
rains, h. 

**h*j> ^nCfnftjnn barsaliya, a servant en- 
gaged in cultivation who contracts for one year*! 
service, h. 

>U*^ barsam, m. the pleurisy ; an inflam- 
mation of the diaphragm, p. 
iL J TftTtfT barsana, a. to shower down ; to 

cause to rain ; to winnow grain. *. 

barsa } u 9 raining, rainy season, h. 
j brispati (forbrihaspati), m. Jupiter; 

Thursday. *. 

li^^ wfoTOi brischik (or vrishchih), m. a 
scorpion ; the sign Scorpio. *. 

[9 baras-ganth, f. literally, 

the year-knot ;" the ceremony of tying a knot on 
the anniversary birthday of a child : hence it comes to 
denote a birthday, anniversary. *. 

barsun, in. rain, or raining, s. 
barasna, n. to rain, to be wet. s. 
birasna, n. to stay, to remain* h. 
baraswan, anniversary, an- 
nual, s. 

barsodiya, a servant en- 

gaged by the year. The word ia also written bar- 
ioliya and barsaliya. h. [or rent . 

bartaufi, f. an annual tax 

m, m. annual ceremony in con.-, 
memoration of deceased relations. *. , 

( 109 

ft barsh (v. baras\ m. rain ; a year. s. 

_ W JrwA (for vrisha), m. a bull; the 
sign or constellation Taurus. , [ness. p. 

(.^J burrish, f. cutting, cleaving ; sharp- 
US*^ ^rtt barsha, or W^T barkha (for varska), 

f. the rains; the third season (of the six), from the 
15th of Asltarh to the 15th of Bhiidu, rain. * 

'sha-, burkha-, or varxha- 

ritu t i. the rainy season. *. 

barshaskan, m. yearly pay 

or subsistence, s. 

^U^ ^IT^FT^ barsha-, barkha-, or varsJia- 
Jtal, in. the rainy season, $. 

Uy ^iftn bursfidna, a. to cause to rain, 

to shower down ; to rain. *. 

barsha.u, \ , , 

r part, raining. 5. 
////5,fij ^ 

f brishabh (for vrishabha), a bull. .s\ 
iL*7> biriskta, fried, broiled. j. 

JK>J ^e|iT^ barsh-kal or varsh-kal, m. the 
rainy season, the rains. *. [sary. *. 

barshrvan, annual, anniver- 

bar&hauri, f. an annual tax 
"or rei)t. A. 

&f> burn*, m. the leprosy, more especially 
the white-spotted or scaly leprosy, a. 

j.ldJ bftr-tanif, aside, npart; dismissed (as 
a plaint) ; also as a subst , discharge ; dismissal from 
office, bar-tar af-k., a. to dismiss, to discharge, to turn 
oft'. bar-1arqf-hona t n. to be dismissed, discharged, or 
turned off p. a. 

o bar-tarfi, f. dismission, discharge, p. a. 
O bar-'ah*,on the contrary, in spiteof.^.a. 
sJZj* ba-raghbat, with avidity, eagerly, p. a. 

,\J>J barajialanna (for warghalanna), a, to 
deceive, to wheedle, &c. 7*. 

* 9j> bnrf, m. f. ice, snow, barf-parward, 
sherbet, &c. cooled in ice. p. 

,1J barfl, f. a kind of sweetmeat; adj. iced, 

"or cooled by means of ice. p. 

Jjy bark, f. lighuiing. bark-andaz (lit. 
throwing lightning), a matchlockman ; also a watch- 
man, guard, or escort, a. p. 

\Sj> bar-karar, firm, fixed, established, p. a. 

ju J bvrha, rn. a dress, or kind of veil cover- 
ing the whole body from head to foot, with eye-holes 
to it. bur$a'-posh t one who wears a Imrlca'. a. 

brik, m. a wolf (properly vrikd). ,?. 

__ larakat (pi. of C^>), f- blessings, 
auspicjousness. ba-barakat, fortunate, prosperous; 
fortunate in every undertaking, and communicating 
good fortune to every thing one is concerned in ; pro- 
ductlv of advantage and success, a. 

d>4j> barabat, f. a blessing, abundance, pro- 

ep^rity, auspiciousness ; on inherent prosperity which 
produces succeas or abundance, a. 

ftpfiK birftat 9 m. a kind of ascetics 
wtio have relinquished the world; adj. wearied, di* 
guated with the world, ascetic. *. 

brikfth or vriktha, m. a tree. *. 
J? bar-kaxkldan, to pull up, extract, p. 
barkala, an inferior clan of 

raj-put*, h, 

> bar-kandan, to root up, to eradicate, p. 

>> birka, m. a pond, a small well, the basin 
of a fountain, a. 

brikh, m. a tree (same as briksji). ^. 
bnrkh (for varxha), m. rain. . 

, barkha, f. (see bartha), iainy 

season, &c. s. 

^^j* ^T^R barkhasan, m. yearly pay. .<?. 
*$}&j? '3P&h*ikhabh (fbrbriahabfy, a hull. *. 
barakhna (v. barasna), to 

Z/ar/7, m. an assembly of people of 

one class, a multitude of similar things ; a class of let- 
ters of the same organ, as the dentals, palatines, &c. ; 
the square of a number. *. 
ciJj barf), m. a leaf; knapsack containing 

provisions or necessaries for a journey ; n kind of 
musical instrument, melody ; a kind of warlike appa- 
ratus, p. 

\j> WIT barga, m. a rafter, h. 

C^O ^TOTif bargat, m. the Indian fig-tree 

(Ficus Indica). h. 

*&>$ bar-yuzida, chosen, selected, p. 

fr*.Q barga*lttagi 9 retrocession, apo- 
"atacy. p. [apostatized, rebelled. />. 

bar-gashta, changed, turned away, 

bargan, partition, a share, h. 
j ^piff fear^t, the Marhatasvre so called, x. 
.an ortolan 

burla, in. a wasp. A. 

. fr/r/5, scarce, uncommon, raiv, 
wonderful ; delicate, fine, thin. s. 
^ birma, m. name of a plant (Trichoxtm* 
''thes incisa). d. [worked with a string, h 

barma, m. a kind of gimlet or borer, 
barm ana, a. to bore. A. 

f?OTRT birmatia, a. to stop; to tame, 
to reduce to obedience ; to allure. 9. 

,w, turning, tamcd,allr<fd.*. 
birm-bhatf a subdivision of 
the Wa/ (or bard) tribe. A. 
j^ bar-majtal, one who is appointed to 

the charge of a district, p. a. 

barmala, public, conspicuous. /*. 
biramna, n. to stop, to remain. *. 

V? ( 

* birma, m. (v. birma) name of a plant, d. 
barmhd, the people of Ava are so 

called, vulgarly the Burmese, h. 

), a free grant given to Brahmans for religious 
purposes. *. 

^.n^ ^npff barun (for varuna), m. the pod of 
water; name of a tree (Crattrva tapia, or Capparis 
trifoliata). . [even, but even, rather, s. 

yj) ^t or W<CT bar an, conj. moreover, and 
{ ^ *p& barna, or W^rf baran, m. colour ; 

a class or caste ; one of the four tribes among Hindus, 
viz. 1. brdhmana, 2. ch/tatriya, or kshatriya, 3. vaishya, 
4. thudra ; a letter of an alphabet ; praise, description ; 
fresh earth carritd into hollows by means of water. 
baran-k. t to'hire a priest for the performance of a sacri- 
fice or of any religious ceremony. 5. 

\i^ TCTT barand, a small river near Be- 
nares. *. ' [(Craiova tapia}. s. 

^> ^PniT barna, m. name of a fruit-treo 
\3^ T^tf! barna, n. to burn, to be burnt, h. 
^ WVTI barna, a. to marry, s. 

Oj> barna, m. a youth ; adj. young, barna 
wa jjJr, the young and the aged. p. 

^ucjUj T&TT*^ barnar-mattl, f. coloured 
"soil of two kinds, one tinged with yellow, the other 
with yellow and white, h. 

$ biranj (or birinj), m, rice ; brass, p. 

y birinjdri, a grain-merchant, a camp- 
follower (with gram, &c.), a suttler. p. 

birinj-phal, 1m. name of a species 
j* birinj-phul,) of rice. h. 
j} birinji, made of brass, brazen, p. 
2 J ffftfti birinchi, or iVifef biranchi (for 

virinchi or virancha see bidhdtd), Brahma, the Deity, -s. 

ti3j 'fefertwc? (for vrinda\ m. a heap, a mul- 
titude, a quantity, an aggregation. 5. 

\&J ifeT brinda, f. a sacred plant, commonly 
called tulst (Ocymum sanctum.OT sacred basil : this shrub 
is said to be a female metamorphosed). *. 

brinda-ban, the forest of 

Brtnda in the vicinity of Mathura, celebrated as the 
scene of young Krishtia's sports with the Gopis / a 
forest of tulsi trees. *. 

ty baranda, bearing, a bearer, -p. 

barn-sankar, m. a person of 

a tribe originating in the intercourse of a man of 
one tribe with a woman of another. . 

L13J ba-rang, in kind, in the mode or 
manner, p. 

barn-maid, f. an alphabet, s. 
or WWHI barnan (for varnan) 9 m. 

description, recital, explanation ; praise. barnan-k. t to 
extol, to prflise ; to describe, to explain, s. 

barna na or baranna, a. to describe, 
praise, s. 

j> WT^ft 01 m^\\ bararii, f. an eye-lash, barm, 
an advance made for cultivation or manufacture. *. 

(Jj* f*r<i1 birni, f. a wasp ; a small grain, h. 
baro, name of a high jungle-grass. 

baru, the kalam or reed used in writing; a tube, con- 
duit, or canal, h. 

birwa, m. a plant, a tree ; the 

labourer employed at the basket used in raising water 
for the purpose of irrigation. A. 

banva, f. name of a ragiril in mu- 

sic, by which deer and serpents are said to be tamed. 
baru, a, a soil consisting of sand and clay. h. 

banvar, name of a class of people 
engaged in cleansing and selling rice. A. 

^l^ ff^T^ birwahi, f. an orchard, bir- 

' wahi-k., a to make an orchard ; to inclose with a 

hedge. /*. 

lJoJ*^ ^^T^njoli barwa,ek 9 name of a class 

of hereditary chaukl-ddrs % or watchmen, near the Se- 
walik hills, h. [barabar.) p 

barobar, even, breast to breast. (See 
-Jj^ f^^l bi-rup, disfigured, ugly, birup-h. 

to be disgraced, s. 

j^ bar iii, f. whiskers, moustaches, p 

barwaty f. a kind of snake. A, 
TiWl barothi, name of a tribe of 

ahirs, in the Mynpur districts, (v. ahir). h. 

L>j^ ^^Z barwat, m. a tumour in the 
belly, h. [washerman ; a vestibule. A. 

barotha or *f<t$l barauthu, m. a 
buruj (pi. ot 'gjl\ bastions, towers, 
celestial signs, more particularly those of the zodiac, a. 

burudat, f. coldness, chilliness, a. 
irodh (for virodfi), m. quarrel, 

enmity, contrariety, opposition. *. 

far^vh birodhi, quarrelsome. $. 

bar-rvakt, in time, d fo ftonwe heure, 
seasonably, opportunely. />. a. [absence. *. 

(for virog), m. separation, 
birogan, m. sickness from the 

absence of a beloved object ; adj. f. separated, dis- 
tressed from separation, a. 

/-JJ? ^frft birogi, a separated or distressed 
lover; adj. separated, s. [(soil). P> 

^j J barumand, fortunate, happy ; fertile 

jj) birun (for beruri), also 5wrSn, without, 
outside, external, p. 

beraundha, m. cotton-land. A. 

( 111 ) 

baronkha, m. a species of sugar- 
cane with loug thin joints, h. 

barroh, a name given to the uplands 

on the right banks of the Jumna, barwa, m. the name 
of a bird that feeds on fish. h. 

barrve, a kind of measure or ca- 
dence in language, h. 

* ftrc? birahj m. separation, absence (espe- 
cially that of lovers). *. 

fa^S birra m. grain and barley sown to- 
gether in the same field, h. 
) bara* also barra, a lamb, a kid or fawn 

the sign Aries. ba-rah t on the road; provisions for 
a journey, p. 

j* ^G?T barha, m. a channel for the passage 

of water from a well to a field, or from one field to 
another ; a field where cows feed ; a rope or string. *. h. 

j> j|fr burhaj wicked, bad. h. 

> fW{I birha, m. separation, parting, ab- 
sence (especially of lovers), a kind of song peculiar to 
washermen, s. h. 

> burhan, m. demonstration, proof, a. 

OlIjjMI birhanci) m. land in which cu- 
linary herbs are produced, h. 

> barhdyl (v. barha,i), m. a carpenter, k. 

T brihaspati (for vrihaspati), a 

name of the spiritual preceptor of the Devatas, cor- 
responding to the Thor of the Northmen, and the Ju- 

5iter of the ancient Greeks and Romans ; the planet 
upiter; Thursday. *. 

jugdttJbj Ttt&tfx^fcbrihaspati-bar, m. Thurs- 
day ; Dies Jovin. s. 

brahm or Brahma, m. God ; the 

all-pervading, the divine cause and essence of the 
world, from which all things are supposed to pro- 
ceed, and to which they return ; spirit, the very soul. 
brahm-astra, a fabled weapon which deals infal- 
lible destruction to those against whom it is dis- 
charged. bra/i ma-bhojt feeding of Brahmans. brahma- 
jputra, m. a kind of poison ; the Burampooter river; a 
place of pilgrimage, probably the source of the stream. 
orahma-putri, f. the Saraswatl river, brahma-tatwa, in. 
the true knowledge of the Supreme Spirit, brahma-twa, 
m. Godhead, braltma-jawna, m. second or spiritual 
birth, investiture. brakma-rfdrtt, m. the mulberry 
(Morus Indica) brahma-darbhd, f. a plant (Ligusticum 
ajwaen). brahma-dand, m. a curse, an anathema. 
brakma-daitya, an apparition, Satan, ghost. I rah ma 
raksltas, a kind of ghost or demon, l/ralnna-rdtri, a 
night of Brahma, comprehending 100U yugas or ages 
of the gods, said to be equal to 216,000,000 ages of 
mortals. brahma-i-warH-p, of the nature or essence of 
the Godhead, hralima-sesh, the leavings of Brahmans. 
brahma-shasan, m. an edict or grant, &c. addressed to 
Brahmans. brahma-gya, ra. one who has spiritual 
wisdom. braJuna-gyun, m. spiritual wisdom, divine 
knowledge, brahma-lok, m. a division of the universe, 
the eternal residence of the spirits of the pious. 
brahma-nirwan, m. absorption into the Supreme Be- 
ing. brahma-vdd't, m. a follower of the Vedanta system 
of philosophy, one who maintains all things are 
spirit; an expounder of the Ycdas. brahma-hatyd, 
the murder of a Brahman ; sacrilege, brahma-hatyard, 
(fern, i), one who is guilty of the murder of a 

Prn.hmfl.ri, f. 

bar-ham, confused, entangled, spoiled; 

angry, vexed, sullen, bar-ham darham, entangled, con- 
fused, topsy-turvy, barham-zan, an exciter of quarrels, 
an embroiler. bar-ham-zant t embroiling, putting a stop 
to, interfering, preventing, bar-ham-zadan, to embroil; 

brahma, m. (see vjdhata), the 

Deity in the character of Creator, or matter personi- 
fied. *. 

brahmadaya, m. any grant 

or perquisite bestowed on a Brahman, s. 

brahmand> m. the top of the 

head ; the mundane egg (of the HindQs) ; the globe, 
the world. . 

L*>\+St>j) Win^T brahmattra^ m. a fabulous 

weapon, said to be the gift of Brahma; s. 

uUfc^ tfIU?1 brahmasan, m. a posture 

suited to devout meditation, s. , 

jjl*J^ tflfilfqcS brahmarvartta, m. the coun- 

try to the north-west of Delhi, lying between the 
rivers Saraswatl and Drishadwati. s. [ntastra). *. 

brfihma-bdn (same as brah- 

brahma-charirii, f. a wo- 
man leading a life of continence. 3. 
*$}*** j* "TO*IH9 brahma-ckari, a religious 

tudcnt, a Brahman, from the time of his investiture 
by the sacerdotal thread till he becomes a house- 
holder; a person who continues with his spiritual 
teacher studying the Veda, a pandit, an ascetic. By 
the t antras, this name is assigned to persons whose 
chief virtue is the observance of continence, and it 
is assumed by many religious vagabonds; the life 
led by a young Brahman before he becomes a house- 
holder. s. 

*j^jl ^^^ brahma-charya or brahma* 

charj, the profession or way of life of a Brahma-' 
chart, s. 

&j+bj) d$|i.Hf brahma-randhra, m. the 
aperture at the crown of the head. *. 

LJjL*^ WSTctftar brahma-lok, m. the world 

of Brahma, the regions above. $. 

r+bj} tfCR brahman, m. a Hindu priest, a 
B rub man, or one of the sacerdotal caete. s. 

&-jty+&j> $rWD'ftiTn brahmana-bhojana, f. 
distribution of food to Brahmans. s. 

p+&]} ^rentf) 1 brahmani, wife of a Brahman ; 

adj. of or relating to a Brahman, s. [man. . 

ui^jb^ 0V9R7T brahmaneta, son of a Brah- 
+'i$+Sr>)j ri^m brahma-ha1yu> m. the murder 

of a Brahman, s. 

i bar/iawl, confusion, sullenneas. p. 

birhan or birahan, (a woman) 

suffering the pangs of love from the absence of lier 
lover, a female lover whose beloved one is absent. L 

j* barahnayl, f. nakedness, p. 

j> barhana or barahna, naked, barahna- 
pd, barefooted, p. [separation, &c. s. 

o birahntj f. (v. birhan), sickness from 
I birhl (for virahT), m. suffering the 
"pangs of love, separate from one's love. *. 

j> inff barhl, m. a peacock. $. 

\ llrhiya, amorous, sensual ; suf- 
fering the pangs of love. *. 

barhela, ^1 .... 

f m. a wild hog. *, 

t, f. quicklime ; n dish made of 
"pulse; a wedding garment, or wedding gifts in gene- 
ral, carried in pefccession ; it also denotes the marriage 
ceremony and wedding day ; adj. strong, powerful. *. 

fj) bari, acquitted, free, clear, barl-daxhlnn, 
to exempt; (in law) a defendant released bj'the plain- 
till' from r the demand against him. barrl, connected 
with laud in opposition to water, a. 

j> bare (for bdre'jnt last ; however, p. 

' burn, f. sowing ty dropping seed 
from The hand into the furrow, instead of sowing broad- 
cast or with the drill, h. 

L^P T^Csi bar&,)l,OT "^ff^ barai,Tnti seller of betel 
leaf, a cultivator of betel, h. 

jbv *nr*TfT baryar or wfi.<iK bariyar, 
strong, violent; hence, rich or fertile (soil), s. 

Vb*^ ^ncHTCT baryar a or *n<M4i^i bariyar a, 

strong, violent; m. a medicinal herb so called, s. 
^.bv biryan, fried, roasted, broiled, parched, 

grilled, biryan sdl&tan, to fry. p. 

^tb [j> ftrfVut biriyan, f. time, space of time. h. 
!ib J biryanl, f. name of a dish made of flesh 
" and rice. p. 

bariyd,i, f. boast, exultation, s. 

f baretha, m. a washerman, h. 

\ barcthan, f. a washerwoman, h. 
harejf m. garden for the cul- 

barejd, tivation of the be- 
: bareja, J tel. A. 

birijd, m. Galbanum. s. 

burl-churl, f. the screech 

Utf j 


^J J burldan, to cut, clip, cleave, p. 
%&>j> burlda, cut, clipped; a field cut by 

stealth by a cultivator, p. 
taj W^CT barerd, m. a wasp. h. 
ji J 1>V birez-birez, overcome by, and yield- 
ing to misfortune, or to an enemy, p. 

ban*, in. a year (v. baras). s. 
^ftrffr baresin, a tribe of inferior 
raj-puts, h. 

J^ bareshim (for ^iJ^\), silk. 

barain, f. a (female) seller of betel 
leaf, or rather cultivator of betel, h. 

j) barm, on high, higher, sublime, p. 

^>^ ^T.^31 barehta, land of the third qua- 

lity ; also a plot of land on which sugar-cane has been 
lately grown, h. 

> ^Hf bar, m* the large Bengal nV-tree (Ficus 
Bengalensts), also called the baniy&n tree. 8. 

^ bar (contraction ofbara), p;reat, large, 

(used in comp.) as bar-bola, a noisv talkative person. 
bar-bhaku t a, a blockhead. bar-pe}a t big-bellied ; a great 
eater; greedy, avaricious, h. 

> ^Tf bur, f. Vufaa, fceminea. h. 

^> ^TO bard, larrrp, crreat, old, senior, prin- 

cipal; it is often used adverbially in the sense of 
" very, exceedingly." 6ara bhd,o t money borrowed at 
a very high interest, hard miyan, a form of address to 
an elderly person venerable or honoured Sir. baj-d-k., 
a. to enlarge, to exnlt or promote ; to extinguish, to 
put out (a lamp, &c. to use the direct phrase is 
esteemed unlucky), bard rasta pakarnd, to enter on 
the long journey, to die. bare pet wdld hand, to be 
patient, s. [ment. /*. 

5-M5,0,a kind of appraise- 
barapa, "1m. grandeur,dignity, 

.$} TilMHT barapan,) elevation, great- 
ness. h. [with grain or merchandise, h, 

birar, f. a drove of bullocks laden * 

burana, a. to cause to sink. h. 

Ulj^ ^TTRT barana, a. to speak in a dream or 
in delirium, to talk incoherently in one's sleep, h. 

V^ barao (for &ar/m,o), m. increase, &c. h. 
-^ baraki,*} m. a carpenter : this is a Dak- 
\jl bara y l, ) haul corruption of barha,l. h. 
bara,i, f. greatness ; boasting, ba- 

rdj.k., to extol ; to boast, to vaunt ; to magnify, ba- 
rdj-dend, to honour. ^. 

jtjl TFT barbar, f. muttering; the light- 
headed talk of a person in a delirium, s 

t^j.J ^TTT^T burburd (v. bulbufa), m. a 
bubble, d. 

bVi> : ^ 44*HMI barbardnd, a. to mutter, to 

^^j* ' * 

chatter nonsense, to talk light-headedly. A. 

Aj)j> barbardt, 1 f. muttering in one's 
_ \^j> barbardhat, \ sleep, as in a fit of 
\y'b barbard,i 9 J delirium, s. 

>^>^> tr4Wfc'4l barbarjyd, m. a chatterer, a 

./:/. . - . ..,77 j 

mutterer. h. 

b fir pan, 

adult state, h. 

n, 1 m. greatness, gran- 
ta, J deur, superiority, 

j ftf$rtT birtd, m.1 purpose or object; 
rrt, f. / 

^ fiff*ft Mrrt, f. power, ability. 

birte par tatta panl ? for what purpose do you call for 
hot water ? a proverbial expression applied to a man 
who has not done his matrimonial duty over night, h. 

^> barti, f. (for barhti), increase, advance- 
ment, success, promotion. *. [cal. h. 

burchod, m. a scoundrel, ras- 

burur, m. a basket-maker or a mat- 
maker d. [thing falling, d. 

\y> ^JSTO burak (also burttk), noise of any 
^ WflfT bar ha (same as bara), large; elder 

(brother or son), h. [cylinder of masonry. A. 

barkuydn^ a well without a 

birki,f. (v. birdr), a drove of bul- 
" locks, &c. h. ' 
&j> W&ft bar-gat^ the Bengal fig-tree, s. 

f?yj> W$'3Wi bar-gujar t one of the thirty- 
six royal races of raj-puts, h. 

M t im? buram, the noise of water, d. 

Uj.) WT41 barnd (for barhna), n. to enter. A. 

ujj VS^TT barwa, f. a mare; the nymph As- 
win! or the asterism designated by a horse's head. s. 
barmdynif m. submarine fire. s. 

barwdmukh, m. submarine 

fire ; the infernal regions. *. 

barr0dnal,m. submarine fire; 

in mythology, a being consisting of flame, but with 
the head of a mare who sprang from the thighs of 
Urwa, and was received by the Ocean, s. 

baroti 9 f. progression,ad vancing. d. 

baywnhha, m. a kind of sugar- 
cane with long joints, h. 

burhapa, m. old age, h. 

bar ha lana, a. to bring for- 
ward, to lead on (an army), h. 

bar/tana, a. to increase ; to 

lengthen ; to make advance ; to raise, to promote ; to 
extinguish; to shut up (a shop); to remove the table- 
cloth and eatables, &c. f. 

Uj^ WTT^ barha.Oy m. advancement, pro- 
longation, increase, promotion. *. 
lfc^> TOT^T barliawa, m. population ; excite- 
ment, flattery, s. 

3* barhawan,* round cake of cow-dung 
as a charm against the effect of the evil eye. h. 

} barhaj, f. advancement, increase, &c, 

(v. barha,o). ^*. ^ 

4}*$} J?*" burh-lhasj one who affects in 

old age the manners of youth, h, 

*T?irT barhta, m. 1 increase, overplus, 
barhti, f. / promotion,advance- 

or N^cJ barhal, in. a sweet ana 

acid fruit of yellowish red, and nearly round. *. 

zfij? *?! barhan, f. a carpenter's wife (see 

barha t i). *. 

^j^ ^'^f| barhna, n. to increase, to go on, 

to proceed, to exaggerate, to grow, to rise, to swell, to 
be promoted, s. * [bar hid). 

barhant, f. increase, &c. (v. 

>j* *npft bar km, f. a broom ; advance made 
for cultivation, or manufacture, or contract. A. 

burhrvd, old, advanced in years, s. 
ft WlftlTC barhotar, m. "1 interest; pro- 
barkotari, f. J fit, advantage, 

increase. A. [pfcfc near Benares, h. 

' barholiyd, a branch of r5J- 

<;> *raft fcarAt, profits (same as barhotari). h. 

> * 

<?$ barha 9 i, m. a carpenter. & 

' ' f f. an old woman, h. 
bur My d, ) 

U^ TfifTT barhiydj name of a kind of sugar- 
millstone extracted from the Chunar quarries; a spe- 
cies of pulse ; a grain measure of one Air. h. 

\Jpjj ffipn barhiyd, high-priced, costly ; name 

of a small clan of raj-puts, h. 

IA^JJ ^tff barhaiydy name of a species of 
pulse ; also a grain measure of about one sir. larheu, 
a species of sugar-millstone from the quarries of 
Chunar. //. 

l> jjb*^ *ra"Pc*T? barheriyd, one of the sub- 
divisions of the chamdr caste, h. [swine. A. 
or ^1%55T barheld, m. a wild 

j} burn, sowing seed by dropping it by 
ie hand into the furrow, d. C* ar ')' * 

n, f. a dish made of pulse (see 
J^ bari, f. a fireball made of charcoal for 

the /itt/cfra (also called the gul). rf. 

T^TH bariyd bhum, a rich and 
fertile^soil. h. 
e/A* c^ ^T | ft t n bare miydn, m. an old man ; 

great sir, addressed to an old man. A. 

^* (i^* (^^-^ **&$* ft?5Tn baryaun men 

milnd, to associate with elders, to be grown up. d. 

# buz, m. a he-goat, buz-dil, a coward, p. 

*g bazz 9 ra. fine linen, a. 

i}> bazd 9 name of a species of bird. h. 

)\j> bazar, m. (for bazar, q. v.) a market, p. 

ty bazzdz, a cloth- merchant, rnercer. a. 

}\j> bazzdzd (also bazzdza and bazzdzistdn), 
the cloth market a. p. 

c\\j> bazzdzi, f. trade of mercer, haber- 
dashery, the business of a draper, a. p. 

g bazdn (for bad az-dn), afterwards, after, d. 
i, a kind of spice, mace, nutmeg, p. 
>-jV buzurjmihr, the famous minister of 

Naushtrwftn, king of Persia, who lived in the sixth 
century of our aera. p. 

lifjj^. buzurg, a grandee, a great man ; a saint ; 

an elder, an ancestor; adj. great, venerable, p. 
& J$ bu zur 0<* n (pl)> grandees; doctors, 

saints, sages, p. 

io^ buzurgancty like a grandee,&c., nobly, p. 
*b\fjj> buzurg-zdda, of a noble race. p. 
<JU*>v/,j> &wzwrv7-a/,aged,stricken in years./?. 
&U <Jjj> buzurg-manish, noble-minded, p. 
ancestor, saint, sage, p* 

, f. grandeur, reverence, 
highneejs, nobility, p. 

ijjj? buzurgi, f. gr&<<tfdeur, exaltation, great- 
"ness ; reverence, respectability, p. 
$&j> buzgbala, m. a kid, a young goat. /?. 

aJjj bazla, m. a jest, a bon mot. a. 

+j> bazm, f. assembly, company, especially 

at a feast or entertainment, p. 

jU ba-zor, by main force, on compulsion, p. 

*j> baza, m. a sin, a crime, baza-kdr, a cri- 
minal, a sinner, p. 
UM? TO&a*, m. opportunity, advantage, power, 

authority, bat-ana, to be obtained, to come into one's 
power. bas-k. t a. to overpower, to bring to submis- 
sion, s. 

y> flfft bis (for vi$K), m. venom, poison of 

reptiles (aconitum ferox), &c. ; met. it is sometimes 
applied to bitter things, bis-dhar, a snake. s. 

^*J baSy enough ; plenty ; very, a great many. 

bas-Jc., a. to stop, to seize, to put an end to. az bus 
hi, inasmuch as, whereas p. 

L*J basa, much, very, basa-buzurg, very 

great, very noble, basd aiikat, generally, mostly, fre- 
quently, p. [estate, a. 

L^>\*~jbisat (for bisaf), f. means, capital stock, 

J bisatl (for bisafi), one who sells every 
kind of thing, a pedlar, a haberdasher, a. 
*J (V*u<* bisar, loan of seed upon the stipu- 
lation of ample repayment after harvest, h. 
^U*J f^VKHT bisarna, a. to forget. 5. 

J bisati f. bedding, carpeting, bixati sha- 

travj, a chess-board, bisatl bdzi, a play-board in ge- 
neral ; means, capital, stock, &c. a. 

bisafi, a dealer, pediar,a haberdasher, a. 

J fqm^nbisahha, f. the name of the 16th 
mansion of the moon. s. 

btsal, great, lofty, extensive, s. 

bisdn, f. an offensive smell (as of 
fish, onions, &c.). h. 

|L*J ba-sdn, like, resembling, p. 

*> W*IW basdnd, a. to people, to colonise, 

to bring into cultivation, to settle (a country), to 
build (a city, &c.). s. 

bisdnd (for.bisdhnd), a. to pur- 
chase ; (for bisrdnd) to cause to forget, to mislead, h. 
*>ixdnd/ti f. evil odour, a stink. Ju 
basdrvari) f. ground- rent, 

rent paid by villagers who do not occupy any of the 
village lands, h. 

stink, h. 

bisah, f. purchase, buying, h. 

bisahna, a. to buy, to pur- 
chase. h. 

bisdhan, 1 f. stink, fetid- 
J ftfHlff ^bisdhindy) ness. h. 

kindd, fetid, stinking, h. 
isdyandh or bisa,endh, f. a 

[dwelling. A, 

bas-bd$, m. a house, a 
*liuJ basbasa, m. mace, the envelope of the 

nutmeg, a. 

*. 1 ,* ba-sabub, by reason of, on account 
*of. p. a. [our " Puss, Puss." h. 

bis-bis, the call made to a cat, like 
bisbisdnd, n. to yield a 

sound as in the fermentation of putrefying vegetable 
or of vinous liquors, h. 

dA.,M> bast (in comp. for basta), bound, 

shut, frozen, blst (for bist), twenty, p. 

O^,) ^5T bast or bastu (for vasta), f. thing, 

matter, substance; chattels, things, baggage, bamt, 
inhabited, cultivated (land), s. 

UL-J bastd, m. the cloth in which a bundle 
is tied up ; a bundle, a parcel, p. 

j^lL-J bustdkhy impudent, rash, audacious, p. 

jVI^-J fNWT bintdr, m. abundance, prolixity, 

diffusion, s. 
\j>j\L~> f^?sm:fT bistdrnd, a. to spread out, 

to extend, to diffuse, s. 

^UL-^ fiTOTtf bistdrl, ample, diffuse, s. 

^IjL^ bustdn (for bustdn), m. a flower- 
garden. J7. 

ani, relating to a flower-garden, p. 

} bistar, in. bedding, carpeting; a bed, 
&c. p. 

- JL~* ^^ baslar (for vastr.a], cloth, garments, i. 
ULj 'qnin baxtrd, m. the name of a plant 

(Callicarpa Americana), h. 

rtard, a bed, &c., peculiar to fa Jir ; 
the abode of a fakir, p. [sUpaJion. ^ 

^ bastagl, f. binding, contraction, coa- 


* bastan (r. band), to bind, shut. p. 

bastant, f. a cloth for binding together 
bundles of paper, books, ink-stands, &c. p. 

jd*^ bast-o-band, an agreement, set- 
tlement. p. 


V a lizard. 

basta, m. cloth in which any thing is 
folded up, a parcel, a bundle (see bqsta). p. 

? 'Reft lastly f. an abode, a village, a 
peopled place, population. *. 
> bussad or busadd, coral and its root. p. 
ffTOf bisad, white, pure, clean, s. 

*np*T basudha, f. the world, the earth, s. 
ba-sar, at, or to, an end. ba-sarana, to 

come to an end ; to succeed, to get away from, ba-sar 
jana, to be finished, to pass away. ba-sar-Jc. t to bring 
to an end, t> execute ; to pass (one's days), ba-sar 
le-jana, to finish, to execute, to acquit one's self of; 
to outstrip, basar-hona, to be finished, to vie with or 
rival, ba-sar amadan, to excel, to be pre-eminent, ba- 
sar bur dan, to finish, ba-sar-shudan, to be finished, p. 

bisar, m. "1 forgetfulness, obli- 

bisrat, f.J vion. 5. 
bisram (for vuhratn), m. pause, 

a stop, a point in writing ; rest, bisram lend, to rest, 
to pass the night (particularly used by wandering 
fakirs), s. [to forget, to mislead. *. 

^ OWCJU bisrana, a. to forget, to cause 
I bisrant (for vwhranC), rested, 

reposed, bisranti, f. rest, repose, cessation from toil 
or occupation. *. [finish, to pass. p. h. 

ba-sar-lejana, a. to outstrip ; to 

bisarna, n. to forget, to be for- 
gotten, s. 

bisurna, n. to sob. h. 
J ba-sar-O'chashm, with head and 
eye, i.e. most carefully, heartily, p. 
J bast, diffusiveness, distension, a. 

j bisfataj, } tn. a medicinal root, poly- 
j bisfajj, ) pody. fl. 

ftWBnTTT bis-kkapra, m. the name 

of a medicinal plant (Trianthema pentandra) : it spreads 
over the ground, and forms a circle of nearly a yard in 
diameter, h. 

,)A^ *>J faflJsflmj bis-khopra, m. the name 

//Jvj L/^ 1 

of an animal of the lizard kind, about a yard long, and 
said to be venomous (Lacerta iguana), h. 

***) ^Bfnw batgit or basyat, f. residence, 
homestead, site of a village residence, h. 

**> basma, m. staining (particularly men's 
beards) ; staining the legs (by the women) so as to 
have the appearance of having light drawers on, where- 
as they are in fact naked, p. 

ismar, m. the name of a bush. k. 
J bismil, sacrificed (any animal), bismil- 
k., to sacrifice an animal, a. 

> bismillah, in the name of God : this 

phrase is generally used by good Musalm&ns in the 
beginning of all actions, written works, fee. ; hence 
bismilldh-k., to begin, to commence, a. 

ly& &\^> bisinillah-hu y a> said of a child 

who has just commenced learning to read. a. A. 
&+J basma, m. a collyrium, or tincture for 

dyeing* p. 

(t **J ftfWf bismai (for vismaya), m. amaze- 
"ment, astonishment, surprise. *. 
(.}**> W*R basan, m. a dress, a habit, a suit 

of clothes, apparel. *. 

bisan, m. evil, fault ; desire, lust, s* 

basna, n. to dwell,, to abide, to be 
peopled, to be built (a city, town, &c.). *. cloth. *. 
basna, m. cloth, a wrapper, pack- 
bi$an-pat 9 \ ni. a habit of 

bisan-pan,} indulging de- 
sire. h. [nu. f. 

fa**T^ bisan-pad, a hymn to Vish- 
R'iT basant, f. the spring ; one of the 

ra#s or musical modes of the Hindus; the name of the 
first of the six seasons, including from the 1 5th Phagun 
to the 15thBaisakh; the small-pox (phrase peculiar to 
the Bengalis), basant-phulna, n. to put forth the blos- 
soms of mustard plants, dnkhon men-basant-phulni, to 
dazzle, basnnt ki fcfyabar knowledge of or care about 
futurity, basant panchaml, a Hindu festival on the 5th 
of Magh, formerly observed as the beginning of 
spring, s. 

*"** mn*lf\ basanti, of yellow colour (this 
was Krishna's favourite colour), h. 

} ffU*fl bism, m. a rake, a debauchee, a 
lecher ; adj. delicate, nice, showy in dress, h. 

basniy f. a purse, h. 
iswa (for vishwa), m. the universe, 

the world. 5. 

**} f^n biswa, m. the twentieth part (par- 

ticularly of a blgha of ground). *. 

j~*j bisrvar, a mixture of spices, &c., for 

making curry, d. 

baswart, f. a bamboo-garden.^. 

biswas (for vishwas), m. con- 
fidence, faith, sincerity, dependence. . 

a fraction of 
a biswa. a. 

i^rt tysrvansa, m.T 
<4]*f\ btsnansi, f.J 

**, m. home conn* 

^J U**? 

try, dwelling-place, residence, s. 

^ bisrva-barar, collecting by 

the biswa, or twentieth of a blghti, q. v. h. 

*n^T basaur, a bamboo-garden, h. 

116 ) 

vj ^*J f \ Mt i bfsurna, a . to cry slowly, to sob.L 
lp^y-J ftim4fc*U biitrva-karmd, the artificer 

of the gods; the Indian Vulcan. *. 

^I^J T^c5T hamlfi, m. a kind of axe used by 

carpenters * an adfce. h. 

i^)~+> W*$ft banuli, f. an instrument for cut- 
ting bricks, p. 
*^**> ftpjf bi*wa, m. the twentieth part, par- 

ticularly of a &f#A5 of ground, biswa barar, assessment 
by the biswa. bixwa-dar, the holder of a share or 
snares in a coparcenary village, h. 

^taa^M-j (VH3N3 bisrva-dari, a tenure of 

independent villages, h, 

c,j~^ "flnsft fo'swi (for UM^wt), worldly, belong- 

ing to the universe. . 
</>? f%^ft &ww f. alienation of land, on 

the payment of fines in advance, h. 

bi8,ha, ve<&mous(as reptiles), s. 

lisahru, la buyer; a pur- 

buahru,a,) chaser, h. 
f- a phlegmon or boil on the 

hand ; a purchaser, h. 

base, abundantly, much, many. /;. 

bisyar, many, much, very, abundant ; 
bisyari, abundance, superfluity. p. 
v* * qtftff baiit, the head man of a vil- 
lage, also called mu'kaddam, or patlL h. 

bmyar, venomous, poisonous, s. 

banera, m. a time before evening 

when birds return to their nest; a night's lodging ; 
a bird's roost, a bird remaining on its roost. basera~k.> 
to roost, h. [dance. *. 

baxit, simple, uncom pounded, ele- 
mentary. a, 

TTONrfT basihat, inhabited, peopled* //. 

ftr?N bisekh (for vishes/i), m. a parii- 
cular circumstance ; adj. peculiar, special, particular; 
abundant ; adv. particularly, specially, s. 

bisela, venomous, poisonous, s. 
basim, affable, courteous, a. fy&ts. h. 
6tVn, a powerful tribe of ?-5;- 
basendha, fetid, stinkino;. A. 
basend, an edible root found in 
ponds, &c. A. 
fi^ ftn ^w/i(fort?wAa),m. venom, poison. *. 

Uj ba&harat, f. glad tidings, a. 
*? bashara, m. a dream, a vision, a. 
bashshash, in good spirits, pleased, 

<Migbtd, cheerful. 

j ba.sha*hat 9 t. cheerful nrs?, alacrity, a. 
fV^irt bisht,*\ m. a kind of ta*ulluk-ddr 

finf />?V/f, /or landholder whose of- 
fice is in the gift of government h 
frnn bhhtlid, f. ordure. . 

ftppt ftMft, f. rain. . 

OjuS.,) la-skidd at, violently, forcibly. . a. 
jij bashar, m. roan, mankind, mortals, a. 

J!^j ftpJTR bishrdm, m. rest, ease, pause. &/*A- 
ram /., to rest, to pass the night (particularly used by 
wandering fakirs). . 

CLo^J frrerffiT bishrant, rested, reposed. 

bishranti, f. rest, repose, *. 

aJ^Jb^tj ba-sharte-ki, on the agreement that, 

so that, on condition that. p. a. 

*jj bashara (also bushara), m. countenance, 

the outer skin or cuticle, a. 
c^j basharl, human, relating to man. a. 

CLOy^J 2>a#//rI?//?/,f.humanity,human nature.;/ . 

B^wJ fTEnvU: bish-kapra,* m. a species of 
grass used in medicine (Trianthema pentandrd). t. 

\jj^x.^> nm'4ii|T bishkanyd, f. literally, 

'Poison-damsel." A female who has been fed on 
poisons from her infancy. Such damsels, it is said , 
were sent by former Indian princes as presents to 
those whom they wished to destroy, as the poisonous 
constitution of the young lady could immediately in- 
fect and kill an unwary lover. Ladies of this descrip- 
tion are said to have existed before the days of Co- 
lumbus, and the importation of a new disease from the 
new world ; otherwise the nature of their poisonous 
quality might be guessed at (Binning). *. 

bisham, unequalled (in a bad sense), 
difficult, bad, excessive, difficult of cure. 9. 
^^-ij f^*i*a^ bisham-jwar, m. a violent 

inflammatory fever. *. 

bishan (for Vinhntt}, m. (in Hindu 
mythology) the Deity in the character of preserver. *. 

jJ^j-i*^ fqran*Y<< b Mian-pad, m. a particular 

song in the name of Vishnu, h. 
JL^J^-^J ftrWirhf bjahn-prrt, land held rent- 
free by religious persons, especially followers of 
Vishnu f the term Jlishnottar has the same signifi- 
cation, s. 

\AJJJ (: ,J+> ftncnfrififrc bishn-prit-ddr) a 

class of Brahmans to whom has been assigned grantfl 
of laud in the name of Vishnu, h 

bishnOyl or bishnawi, a wor- 
shipper of Vishnu, name of a Hindu sect. s. 
.JtM f^ltft" bishni, m. a rake, a lecher ; adj. 

"delicate, nice, showy iu dress, s. 

l$^ ft 11 !?! bishha, venomous (as reptiles). $. 
^ILJ ftnnft -bisha'i or bishayi, sensual, 

" worldly. *. 

bixhaya, m. any object of sense ; 

"any thing perceptible by the senses, as colour, smell, 
flavour, and contrast ; an affair, matter. *. 

lr, a messenger of glad tidings, a. 
bizhiyar, venomous* s. 

e#h,*\ a particular circum- 
> : > f^'falbishekh, J stance, &c.(v.bisek ft). s. 
bishela, venomous, s. 

bisheshata, f. abundance. 5. 
sarat, f. sight, seeing, perceiving, a. 

J bft-sad, by a hundred, used only in 
Persian phrases, as bo- fad mihnat, with a hundred toils 
or exertions, p. 

basar, m. seeing, discerning, vision, 

sight, understanding, knowledge, a. 

BjjoJ basra, the city commonly called Bas- 
sorah, on the Persian Gulf, a, 

J*a basal, f. an onion, a. 

j^oJ ba-surat 9 in the way or manner, p.a. 
^A> basir, seeing (met. blind), a. 

jJux) basirat, f. sight, perception, circum- 
spection, prudence, a. 

J bct-sigha, in the degree or mode. p.a. 

> biza'at, f. stock (in trade), capital ; 
agency, commission, a. 

J bat, m. a goose, a duck. a. 

baital, very foolish or vain ; false, a. 
J batalat, folly, vanity, falsehood, a. 
j bata&fe, -} m. or f. (dimin. of bat), a duck 

uf)K) batak,) or duckling ; a vessel formed 
in imitation of a duck. a. 

^ ba-tarz, in the mode or manner. ^. a. 
jLj ba-taraf, aside, apart. ^. a. 
* ba-tarlk, by way of. j, a. 
> batsh, power, severity, sternness, a, 

f/, m. rendering vain, abortive, of no 
effect, a. 

^UaJ butlan, abortive ; m. falseness, va nity.a. 

^ batn, m. the belly, womb, inside, bat^ 
ba'd batniu, generation after generation, a. 

) ba-taur, by way of, in manner of. p.a. 
batun, m. interior part ; heart, mind ; 
adj. concealed, a. 
* bail, slow, dilatory; tedious, a. 

j bitfi&h, a melon, a musk melon, a. 

JbUbj ba-$ahir, 1 i 
jft&j ba-guhur, j 

m appearance, exter- 
nally, ostensibly, p. a. 
i**O fcV, m. exciting motive, cause, a 

V, after, afterwards, subsequent, a. 
W, f. distance, remoteness, a. 
J ba'dahu, after which, then, however, a. 

- some, certain ones. a. 
fO ba'ze, 

Ja'zt, some, certain, sundry. 6aVi 

656, various or miscellaneous items, sundries, fen'zi 
miscellaneous expenses, ba'ztjam', 

of revenue derived from other sources than the Cus- 
toms and Excise. ba'$i aamin, in official language, 
denotes land exempted from the payment of reve- 
nue under various denominations, as a/law&a, ai- 
ina, &c. a. 

iULo ba'lbak, the city Balbeck in Syria, 
formerly Heliopolis. a. [of. p. a. 

ba-illat, by reason, or on account 
O ba'alzabitb, m. Beelzebub* a. 
* ba-iwaz, in lieu, or instead of. p. a. 
ba-'aun, through the aid of. p. 
OiU bald, far, distant, absent, remote, ba'id 

'akl se, foolish, absurd, far from wisdom, a. 

AjO bi-'ainihi, himself or itself, in person, 
exactly, clearly, a. 

Jo bughar, 1m. a breach in a wall ; a 
lA> bughara,) gash, a deep wound, p. 
^ bag&aiwat, f. rebellion, opposition to, 

and defection from, the rightful Jraam ; violence, plun- 
der, breach of law. a. 

ju*> baghbaghana, a. to boast ; to bill or 
coo as doves ; to low as a camel, d. 

bagkcha, m. a little garden, p. 

bughda, m. a cleaver used by cooks or 
butchers, a knife, p. 

> baghdad, the city of Bagdad, a. 

b bughdl, m. a kind of camel (of high 
cost), p. . [sewajti). p. 

bughra, m. macaroni (also called 

bughzy in. malice, spite, revenge, 
hatred, h. 
b bagfeal, f. the armpit ; embrace. bagh,al 

jdnd or ho-jdnd, to go out of the way. bagbal-men lend, 
to take in one's arms, to embrace, bagtua bajan<i> to be 
highly pleased, to be in triumph ; to jeer, to jest. 
bagfcal sufignd, to be penitent, to regret, bagfral garm-k. , 
a. to embrace a woman. bav}ial men daband, a. to get 
possession of another's goods by fraud, baajjfll gandh , 
stinking armpits. baghal-glr t an embracer m the Hrn 
dustani mode, bagh/al-glri, f. embracing. b<*ghfil-men- 
mdrnd, to conceal ( under one's arms) ba$al mefi mun<ii 
ddlnd, to be ashamed, p. 

o baghlana, to make way, to get out o< 

the way. p. under the armpits, p. 

bagJiulrbantl, m. a kind of robe tie 

** baghJK* f. a disorder in camels, rubbing 

the thigh against the belly ; a purse ; a kind of dumb- 
bell used in exercise, p. 

\bjyO bagkprdd, m. a slap with the fists ; a 

kind of short dagger, d. [ron. d. 

^lyb baghofa (same as bagla), a crane, a he- 

,& bag&i, tyranny, oppression; rebellion, 

"insurrection ; infraction of the laws. adj. rebellious, 
refractor/, a. 

(jJo baghiyd, T m. a small garden, an or- 
&f} baghlcka,) chard, a flower-garden, p. 

)*** ba-gbair, without, except, besides, inde- 
pendent of. p. a. [formed on the head. p. 

lib bafa, f. a kind of scales or dandruff 
^jdub bafler, fat, gross, bloated, d. 
Uu balta, f. eternity, duration, remaining, a. 

JLS-^ bakldlf a grain-merchant, a shop- 
keeper. bdkkalrii, a shopkeeper's wife. a. 

bliU balidya (pi. of &J&)> remains, old ba- 

lances of revenue, arrears, dues, baftaya.e bd%i t ar- 
rears on arrears, a. 

v3^J^ bak-baJt, foolish prattle, talkative, a. 
&j*^ buJichot m. a small bundle of cloth, t 
jjib ba-hadri, to the extent of. p. a. 

Jb baJtar, m. a bull, balmr-ld, a festival 

held in commemoration of Abraham's offering to sa- 
crifice his son. According to the Muhammadans of 
the SunnI sect, it was Isma'Il that Abraham was 
about to sacrifice ; those of Shi'a persuasion hold that 
it was Isaac. It may be stated, however, that the 
name of this son is not mentioned in the a. 

&A+*Jb ba-kasamiya, being on oath. p. a. 
&*&> butt a, m. a house, a place, a. 

iiJiib bdhlat or bakla, a potherb, baldat-ul- 

humdkd, m. (the fool's herb) purslain. a. 
Jb babam, f. sap pan wood (Ccesalpinia sap- 

pari). a. 

Jyb bukul (pi. of JJb), plants, potherbs, a. 

Jyb bo-haul, according to the word of. p. a. 

*jJb ballyat, remainder, balance, residue. 

bakvjata-s saif, the remnant left by the sword, a. 

cib ftrw bih (for vriha), ra. a wolf. ,<?. 

tib 1ft bak, m. name of a bird that feeds on 

fish (Ardea torra and ptttea, Bach.). bak-chal t a slow 
walk or strut like that of the bird called bak. bah- 
dhyan-laguna, to act with dissimulation, f. 

*qmbak, f. prattle, foolish talk, bah-jhak 

the same, bak-jhak k., to prattle, to chatter, to gabble. 
bak-lagni, talkativeness, garrulity, t. 

buhha, m handful. A. 

5a/ta or 5Aa, f. crying, a complaint, la- 
mentation. a. 

O& buhat, a kind of sweetmeat. ^. 
j^ (VHT< bihar, m. the change of an v thing 

from its original state ; disease. *. * 

bakar, amount or value of a crop 
fixed by an appraiser by word of mouth. A. 

j\0 ba-kar, of use, serviceable, ba-kar- 

amadan or -ana, to be' of use. p. 

bakara, m. a forerunner, a har- 

binger; traveller; intelligence forwarded J>y word of 
mouth, h. 

O^K^ baharat, f. virginity, maidenhood, a. 

^j*\j fTOTO bikas, shining, blooming; ex- 
pansion, display ; pleased, happy, delighted. *. 

JK^ ftniTTSf bikalj m. the afternoon, s. 
*\j ba-kdm t agreeable to one's wish. p. 
0& f^"3irTfr bikdnd (same as bikwana), to 

sell, or to cause to be sold. h. 

j& ftrarTO bikdt0 9 m. sale. ftn*TT3l bika,u, sale- 
able, for sale. A. 

Jj\j bakarval, m. a cupbearer, a steward; 

a head cook ; superintendant of tl^p kitchen, p. 
^jfa bakdwali, relating to a bahawal, q, v. 
* f cooking materials, p. 

^Kj ^ofNrf bahayan, f. the name of a tree 

(Melia sempervirens). k. 

(jLdlb q^qqr bah-bak, f. prattle, foolish 

talk. bak-bak-f(.> to prattle, to chatter, to gabble. *. 
bahbakana, n. to prattle, 

to chatter, h. 

bahta, ID. a speaker in general; 
adj. eloquent, loquacious. *. 

U5o b ah t ashy name of a famous athlete, p. 

> baktar, m. iron armour, a coat of mail, 
a cuirass, bak tar-posh, a man clad in armour, p. 

TjIio baktari, m. an armourer, one who 

makes coats of mail. p. 

bikat, difficult, terrible, s. 


>m. a claw. k. 
a, J 


y'^m. a bundle, a wrapper, (v. 
5w$cAa). ^. 
bak-jhak, f. prattle, foolish 


bakchl, f. the name of a plant, 

" the seed of which is used to cure itch (Conyza or Serra- 
tula anthelmintica). *. 

J& bikr, f. virginity, bikr-tornd, or Jt 
phojma, a. to deflower, o. 

bakra, a he-goat, (in Dakb. the 
word is often, but erroneously, applied to a ram). *. 
bikrar, 1 terrific, ugly, hi- 

bikrdl,) deous. s. 

ftttnbikram, m. great power or strength, 
prowess, heroism ; act of overpowering. J. 

!!*> U^x> (qfHHIlllff bikramdjitf the name 
of a celebrated sovereign of XJjjain (foTi>ikramadityd).s. 

fj> Ti^nft baJtrt, f. a she-goat ; m. or f. a 

goat (generally) ; (in Dakh. improperly applied to a 
sheep). *. 

ftmft bikri, f. a sale, a demand, s. 

TO*n baksa* astringent, baks&hat, 
astringency. h. 

C<uJo fr^rftnr bika&t, expanded, blown (as 

a flower), delighted, s. 

Uu-x) f*|cMIfT bikasna, n. to blow or expand 
as a flower, to be delighted, to smile, s. 

\j~Sj ^*ra*n baksu,a, m. the tongue of a 

buckle, h. 

baksaila, astringent, h. 
bakul, m. name of a tree (Mimu- 

sops elengi). s. 

f*?3R(55 bikal, restless, uneasy, troubled, s. 
x> TSR5 bakkal, 1m. skin, rind, shell (of a 
bakld t j fruit), s. 

buklana, n. to talk incohe- 
rently to one's self, to act or talk foolishly. *. 

o bukm (pi. of *xM), dumb, mute. a. 


bakkam m. (v. Juj, sappan or 

red wood (Caesalpini a sappan). p. 

bakna, n. to prate, jabber. . 

bikna* n. to be sold, to sell (in an 
intransitive sense, like the French " se vendre"). bik- 
-jand, met. to be dependent on, to be obliged, s. 

jtfj TOnft buknlf f. a kind of digestive 
** powder, h. 

bakrvad, f. foolish talk. s. 

bakrvddi, m. one who talks 
foolishly, an idle talker, i . 
j*^x> TO3TO bakrvasy f. talkativeness ; m. 
an incessant prattler, t. 

^> ftraRTiT bikwan, a subdivision of the 
Gaurtag&s (v. Wilson's Gloss^. h. 

I bikwdnd, to cause to be sold. s. 
bakrdhd,m.] chatterer, an idle 
^^x? TOOT?) bakrvahi, f. J talker, h. 

?^u y^tljTHI lukotna, n. to lacerate with 
nails, to scratch, to claw. h. 

bakold, m, a covering for the 

head, as a piece of blanket See. used by/aHrj. h. 
fftgft bakoli, name of a green cater- 
destructive of rice crops, ft. 

bikh (for visit), m. poison, venom. 

bikh-dhar, a snake (lit. poison-holder), *j. 

the world, the universe. A. 
"TOT baftha, m. grass for pasturage. A, 
a storehouse, a 
granary. A. 

bakhan, m. explanation, praise, 
description, account, s. 

il^io ^?rr?|T bakhdnnd or bakhan-ft., a. to 
praise, to commend ; to explain, to define, relate. *. 

bakhar (v. bakhar'), a kind of 
plough ; also, a house ; an inclosure ; a cattle shed, h 

^io ftr^TC*n bikharna, n. to be scattered, dis- 

persed, or dishevelled ; to become angry, to be amazed 
or confounded, h. 


/^ar, m. 1 
bahharl, f.J 

bakhri, f. a cottage, a house, a 

round granary of grass, reeds, and mud, raised on 
piles, h. 

bakhriya, m. a householder, h. 

l bikh-kkapra, m. a medicinal 
plant (Trianthema petandra). s. 

bikh-hhopra, m. a kind 

of lizard about a yard long, and said to be venomous 
(Lacerta iguana), s. 

bikham, odd (number) j difficult. 5. 

bikhman, m. the name of a 
medicine or poison, s. 

) 'frtrgT bikkha, venomous (as reptiles), s. 
^j-^So Tf ^ft ftMi,f.tbe side under the armpit, h. 

bikhai, m. any thing perceivable; 
"by the five senses; affair, matter, &c. (v. bisliaya). '. 

bakhiya, m, a kind of stitch, 

strong quilting, h. [quilt, h. 

bakhiydnd, a. to stitch, to 
bakhernd, a. to scatter, h. 

bakhera, m. wrangling, a tumult, 
contention, dispute, uproar. A. 
jj^So ^4)t|4fl bakheriyd, quarrelsome, a 
wrangler. A. 

bikhayi, sensual, worldly, s. 

bukki, f. a cloth brought over the 

"shoulders under the armpits and tied behind; a hand- 
ful. bukki mdrna, to pass a cloth under the armpiti 
and tie it behind, h. 

bakkl 9 talkative, a prater, s. 
ikki, m. a partner (at play, &c.). A. 

( 120 

Ux> ftfarqT6aAtya,f.aclapp-knife, a penknife.^. 
(J-^o W^5T babel, twine made from the root 

of the dhak tree. h. 
^O *r%7J bakelu, m. the root of a grass of 

which rope is made. h. 

d> W*t ba(j, m. name of a bird, a crane (same 
as 'bak). bag-chat, f. walking slowly (like a crane); 
(contracted for bdgh) a tiger, hence bag chhandd lagnd, 
n to be etupified or petrified with fear, &0 one feels at 
the sight of a tiger. *. 

16 buggd 9 a fountain, jet d'eau. d. 

.16 yiTFC bagdr, m. pasture-ground: it also 
denotes forced labour for which no reward is given, h. 
\yj5 bitgard^ m. a large hole or breach, p. 
Ujl6 ^rnTt^n bagdrnd, a. to throw away ; to 

spread over. h. 

VUG ftpTT3f bigdr, m. injury, violation, diffe- 
rence. bigdr-k. t a. to quarrel, to forfeit friendship. 
bigar par and, n. to ^p ready to quarrel, h. 

Uj : l6 PwidHI bigarna, a. to spoil, to mar, to 
damage ; to cause misunderstanding between friends, h. 

V\Jo ftrnTJ bigdru, m. a spoiler, violator, h. 

UV6 bi-yana or bi-gana^ strange, foreign, un- 
known (for be-gdna, q. v.). p. 

6 bi-yanagl, strangeness, &c. p. 

bag-pati, f. the side under the 
^armpit, h. [cranes. /*. 

jiL^) lilMI^ bag-panti, f. a row or line of 
tiy f. badness, misdemeanor, s. 

*"***%? bag-chhut, f. galloping, bag- 
ch&i-datirnd, to set off at full gallop. A. 
5^\6 qJT^HT bagdana, a. to cause to return, 
to put to the rout. h. [spoiled, h. 

bagadnd, n. to return, to be 
grah (for vigraha), m. quarrel, 

'strife, a." 


bagari) a species of rice, cultivated 
chiefly in the province of Benares, h. 
ft&jC) Wllil^ bagrendi, f. the name of a 
plant (Jatropha curcas, Lin.\ h. 

r, m. a kind of rice. h. 

m. trouble; cheat, deceit. 

-.t to evade the payment of one's debts, or the 
performance of a promise, h. 

^C? fa'U'HI bigarna, n. to be spoiled, da- 

maged, or marred, to fail, to miscarry ; to quarrel, to 
disagree, to be enraged, h, 

nft bigfi, f. spoil, damage, war, battle, 
misunderstanding, h. 

\>$& wfimbagriya, m. a deceitful person, h. 

b .-J5 vroftxn bagsariya, a small clan of 
raj-puts in the Muradabftd districts ; also of A branch 
of Kananj Brahman*, h. 

bigasna, n. to blow, to expand 

(a flower), &c. (v. bikasna). s. 

bagla, ^1^1 bagula, m. the name 

of a bird, a white crane or heron, commonly called by 
Europeans " the paddy bird " (Ardea torra and putea, 
Buch\ bagld-bltagat, a hypocrite, h. 

6 ynnt bugmar, m. a musketoon or blun- 
derbuss. h. 

bfgandh, f. stink, foetor. *. 
bagula, m. a whirlwind, h. 

bigha, m. a quantity of land con- 
taining twenty katthas, or 120 feet square, h. 
\^0 T*THC baghar, m. the spices which are 

mixed with food to give it relish ; seasoning, condi- 
ment. h. 

bagharna, a. to season, h. 
bigahti, rent per bigha, fixed 
on lands. A. [vention, interruption. *. 

bighan, m. hindrance, stop, pre- 
baghna, m. the teeth and nails of 

a tiger which are hung round the neck of a child to 
serve as a charm, s. 

**\& ^r*r?1? boq-hansy m. the name of a 
bird, a grey goose, s. 

*&^ *nMl btighnaka, m. name of a medi- 
cinal herb with a fragrant root. s. 

bfrghi, f. a horse-fly, h. 

baghel, m. the name of a tribe 
of raj-puts (lit. tiger's whelps). /*. 
&& W^^jSl baghela, m. a raj-put of the 

baghel tribe ; also a tiger's whelp. . 

bagiya, ] 

j f - a little s arden - * A - 

J^ ^Hl5 bageri, f. an ortolan. A. 

j T^J bal, m. a coil, twist, convolution ; 
side, direction, bal-ddr, crooked, twisted, coiled, 
convoluted, bal-dend, a. to twist, bal-khana, to be 
twisted, h. 

j^gy bal, m. power, strength ; semen virile; 
the elder brother of Krishna, Bala-Ruma ; (for bait) the 
king of Pdtal, or the infernal regions ; a sacrifice, an 
offering. fca/-te,interj. bravo! bal-jdna or bal-bal-jdnn, 
to be sacrificed, bal-dena or bal-kamd, to sacrifice, s. 

^> ifat'ali, an oblation, a religious offering ; 
presentation of food to all created beings ; one of the 
five great sacraments of Hindu religion : it consists in 
throwing a small parcel of the offering, ghi, rice, or 
the like, into the open air at the back of the houses 
an aniranl fit for an oblation; a king and Daitya; 
also MaJid-bali, the virtuous sovereign of Mahuballpur, 
tricked out of the dominions he had obtained over 
earth and heaven by Vishnu, in the Vfawn or dwarf 
dvatar, and left, in consideration of his merits, the 
sovereignty of Patala, or the infernal regions, *. 

j 55 but, f. vulva foeminea. h. 

^b ^357 bate, m. an aquatic and medicinal 

plant (Sida rhombifolia, rhomboidea, and cordtfolid). 9. 

^b bald, f. misfortune, calamity, accident, 

. vengeance, evil, or mischief, bala-zada, one who is 

struck with misfortune, bald-kash, one who suffers 

under affliction, &c. bala-garddn, that which averts 

evil, bala-nasib, one of evil destiny, a. 

y*> bila, without; bild taraddud, without he- 
sitation. bila tawakkuf, hastily, speedily. lila-na$a t 
unhesitatingly, without delay, a. 

balla, m. a pole or boat-hook. A. 
&?7/a, m. a male cat. $. 

billa, m. a breast-plate or badge as worn 
by peons, policemen, &c. : a tablet or flat piece of me- 
tal ; also a string confining the hilt of a sword or dag- 
ger to the sheath, d. 

^WT build, in. a bubble, h. 
baldbar, a kind of jacket, p. 

balabal, strong and weak. s. 

to invite 

wail. s. 

na,a. to send for, 
[plaint, s. 

Map, m. Lamentation, com- 
bilapna, n. to lament, to he- 

. v^j/w <f<?ir*iv baldthdr, in. violoiico, op- 
pression, exaction ; (in law) the detention of a debtor 
and violence exercised upon him to recover a debt. s. 

&*>ib ^clfrH4hT bdldtmikd, f. a sort of sun- 
flower (Heliotropium Lidicum). s. 

cL>ib ^<35TC baldt, m. a sort of bean. h. 
>5b bildd(\)\. of iXb), cities, towns, countries, 

provinces, territories, a. [clothes, p. 

balddur, m. a nut used for marking 

bald-dur, averting an evil omen (lit. 
~ " far be the evil "). a. p. ~ 

ib frflJTC bildr or ftfgfK billdr, m. a male 

cat. 5. 

j*5b ftRJTO hilds,m. pleasure, satisfaction, 
delight, s. [pleasure. 3. 

' bildsi, voluptuous, addicted to 

balash, m. the phlegmatic hu- 
mour. . 
c^b balla , an enormous eater, a glutton, a. 

dA^^ baldgkat, f. eloquence ; maturity, a. 

.J^b I^JT^Ii buldk, m. an ornament worn in 
the nose. h. 
b q<j>l<l balahd, f. a sort of crane, h. 

7, the nnme of the crier who an- 
nounced to the people when Muhammad said prayers.a. 
(lib fijgtgn bildld (v. bilalla), foolish, sim- 
ple, ft. 

bitld-lana, a. to summon, h. 

baldlak.m. the Caronda (<7a- 
t^sa carandas). s. 

bulana, a. to cal! 5 invite, bid. A. 

bildnd t a. to cause to vanish, to 

dissipate; to dispose of; to distribute ; n. to retire, to 
vanish, to be lost. A. 

billana, to weep, whine. 7i. 
bildnd, f. a span. A. 

balanchita, f. a sort of vlnd 

or lute, called also Rama's lute. 5. 

balanivit, strong, powerful, s. 
,o, m. a tom-cat, s. 

bald t o 9 any thing very cheaply pur- 
chased ; adj. dog cheap, h. 

bnldwd, m. act of calling. A. 
Y bildwar (v. bild,o) 9 a he-cat. . 
bildrval, f. the name of a ri- 

ginl in music, /t. [mons. /t. 

buldhat, f. calling, call, sum- 
baldhar, a low-caste servant, a 
village guide or messenger, h. 
^ib ^nft baldhly m. a worker in hides and 

" leather ( v. chamar). h. 

^ib f^T^ ft?75,i, f. a she-cat; a grater for 

scraping pompions, &c. bilo, t i-kand> m. name of a me- 
dicine. s. 

^^b bald,e (same as bala), f. accident, mis- 

fortune. bala,e bogfenia, trash, stuff, filth, matter, a. 

<^b ^?TT^ balla,i, in. a kind of village ser- 

" vant, for cutting wood and preserving the village boun- 

daries. h. [of a medicine. A. 

>if(j5b rq<$l$*tj bildji hand, m. the name 
baldya, m. a plant (Cappari$ 


&*.> y<ffHn bald t cn lend* or *$I^H1 
6a/a,t Zena, to draw the hands over the head of another 
in token of taking all their misfortunes upon one's self, 
a practice peculiar to females, h. [its fruit. . 

J^ fire* bilb (for viloa), m. the bel tree or 

J^ ba-lab, nt the lip, or to the lip, applied 
"to one in great distress, when the soul is *,come to 
the lip;" balab-ana, i.e. when he is on the point of 
death, p. 
^> *T<^fl*T bal-bakrd) m. a person who 

dies in a battle, &c., without doing any thing. *. 
jAj bulbul, f. a nightingale: in India, a 
shrike. The &usaeni bulbul and sultant bulbul are two 
very beautiful species of this little bird, which bear 
no resemblance whatever to a nightingale ; neither is 
the Persian bulbul at all like the English nightingale, 
but a rather smaller bird of the same genus. The 
kutainl bulbul has a white body, wings, and tail, with a 
black-crested head. The sultanl bulbul has a reddish 
or chesnut body and wings, with black crest Both 
species have very long tails like the bird of paradise. 
Binning, p. 

bulbuld, m. a bubble, s. 

balbaldnd, n. to ferment (as 

sour milk, curds, ^c.); to be inflamed with mgt; to 
make a noise (a camel) from lust, h 

l bitbilana, n. to be restless, 
to be tormented with pain, to complain from pain ; 
to weep, to whine, whimper. It. 

TOW ballabh, dear, beloved ; m. a mas- 
ter, superintendant ; a favourite; a friend. *. 

balbhana, a. to allure. #. 
bal-bhadra> m. a strong robust 
man ; the name of Balarama, Krishna's elder brother. *. 
J^4fb i|#ft>T bal~bhog, taking possession by 

force of another's right, h. 

bal-be, bravo! well done! k. 
bal-bir, the brave, tbe heroic ; an 

bal-tor, *\ rn. a pimple, a sore, a 
bal-toi f) small boil (supposed 

epithet applied to the brothers Krishna and Balarama 
(in the Pretn-itdgar). *. 

: 0(Jo qffflTg bal-tar, m. the male palm, or 
toddy tree (Borasstu flabeUiformis). h. 

to!^ WSHfrC balat-har, any act of violence, 
as robbery, rape, &tc. 

?-tor, 1 


"to be causc'd by the breaking or pulling out of a 
hair), s. 

Uib f%gHf*n bilutna, n. to become bad. h. 
U^r- ft|#*rn bilachna, to extract, to select, as 

passages from books ; to pick, to cull. h. 

]0\9& ba-liJtazt with regard to. p. a. 

ib balkh, a famous city in Bactriana. bal&ki, 
l)elonging to, or made in Bal]$&. p. 

4^b balad, a city, town ; a country, a. 

jjj y<$^ balad, a bullock that carries a bur- 
den ; a drove of cattle, bullocks, horned beasts, h. 
j\ji) bal-dar, crooked, twisted, coiled; m. a 
ej)ecies of wheaten cake. /. [tries, fl. 

^^jJa buldan (pi. of <*b), cities, towns, coun- 
/o^jb iffg^P! bali-dan, m. act of sacrificing 

or offering a sacrifice to a deity. *. 
&Mi*b baladana, m. a tax on laden oxen. /*. 

^^jb ^f^^T^I balda,Uy m. a bullock-driver ; a 
name of Balarama. *. [exaction, p. 

b bal-dasti, f, unauthorised or oppressive 

b balda, m. a city, a town. a. 

?Ubjb baldiha,i 9 compensation for pasture- 
ground, h. 

a bullock-driver, or 

f baldiya^ one who loads bul- 
locks. . [Balardma, Krishna's elder brother. . 
baldev, a cow-herd ; the name of 

bal-deva t f. a medicinal plant 
commonly called Trdyuman. t. 
Ijb fmttfttfm,m.a he-oat; a kind of cloth, s. 

*^b W^TW bala-rania, the elder brother of 
' Krishna, f. 

bcil-rand,f. a widow who lust 

her husband while very young, t. 

bal-rakh, m, a person put in 

charge of property under distraint for arrears of reve- 
nue, s. [ofGilead. a. 

balasan, the balsam-tree, balsam, balm 
fo'tort, f. a span (v. bilisht), p. 

bilatna, n. to be pleased, to be 

satisfied, to be delighted. 5. 

JQ^JU> ^di^^i bahundar, name of a kind 

of (sandy) soil In 'Azlm-garh ; clay much mixed with 
sand. /t. 

& biUsh, jf. 
-A-lb i?7wA<, /ti 

a span, the extent from the 

tip of the thumb to that of 
the little finger when stretched, p. 

b bulyhar, Bulgaria; Russia-leather, p. 
b balsam, m. phlegm ; a running at the 

nose from cold. a. 
^^b balgliami, phlegmatic, a. 

Jib balfam m. or balfam ki takhti, a school- 
boy's slate for writing or cyphering, d. 

^jjkib balkiSy the name of the queen of 
Sheba, according to the Musalmans. a. 

0Kb balkana, bring under one's own pos- 
session or charge, d. 

bilk, a spark, balki, but, moreover. 
&2/<i&, a gift, bilik, adhesiveness. buluk, a large pro- 
minent eye. p. 

balkat, rent taken in advance. A. 

M'&<*J\balkatij f. name of a tax formerly 
exacted at the commencement of reaping, h. 

XLb qr<$4W balaknd, a. to open ; to speak 
indistinctly from excessive joy or intoxication. *. 

bilakna, n. to sob, to cry vio- 
lently, as a child ; to long for, to desire eagerly, h. 

balM, moreover, on the other hand ; 

but, nay. p. 

^b IV^lfuU bflkhariya, name of a tribe 

of Rajputs, so called from Bilkhar in Oude. h. 

^b ftlc*^Hf bilahhna, a. to see, to look 
at, perceive, behold ; n. to be displeased, f. 

^b fq<$7l bilag, separate ; m. sepamtion, 
difference, bilag manna, n. to be displeased^ angry, 
offended. *. 

fc<$*[\'Wbil(jana, a. to separate, to part. f. 
fVcj&J||Cf bilga,o,m. separation, parting.*. 

bilagna, n. to separate, to be se- 
parated, to curdle, to turn (as milk), h. 4 

balgana, m. a sob; sobbing, t. 
^b f%9fn bilalla, foolish, simple, silly, h. 
bilalana, n. to lament, h. 
bilam, m. delay, long stay. t. 

ballam, m. a spear, ballam-bardar, 

a spearman; adj. having a very large and broad 
head. A. 

balam, ] , 

j-m. a lover, a husband. $. 

04$* M! bihnana, a, to allure, to tan- 
talise. h. 

bilamby m. delay, long stay. *. 
bilambna, n. to stay, to tarry, 

to delay. *. pong stay. . 

bilambh (for mlambh), m. delay, 

bilambhna, n. to stay, to 

tarry, delay, s. 

bilamna, to delay, tarry; to 
stop, remain. *, [flaccid. *. 

balin, shrivelled, wrinkled, flabby, 
batna, n. to burn, to be burnt, h. 
xb bvland, high, elevated, exalted, sublime, 

tall, buland-paya, of high rank, buland-ftausila, am- 
bitious, aspiring, buland-nazar, of exalted views, aspi- 
ring. buland-Mmmat, ambitious, of lofty intention, p, 

bal-niyrah, m. weakening, re- 
ducing strength. s. [ascend, h. 

bilany?ia, a. to climb, to 

fqr<?*ft &# f. a stye or stitbe, the dis- 

order in the eyelids, h. 

j ^$'3\ balwa> m. a tumult, riot, sedition, 
mutiny, alarm. 7i. 

balu,a or baluwa, sandy. 5. 

' f powerful, strong, s. 
bahcan, J 

bulnana, a. to cause to be 

called or sent for h. 

balrvatta, f. strength, power, s. 

.jb billaur, m. a kind of stone, crystal ; cut 
glass, a. [ing, ennobling. *. 

balurna, a. to scratch, to tear 
(with nails). A. 

jb billaurl, made of crystal or glass: the 
forms bilori, billaurin, and bilorln are also in use. a. 

j &a//Si, m. an acorn, an oak, a chesnut- 
tree. a. 
^b frit%b m. j puberty, adolescence, 

^^ bulugb&t, f. [the attaining of a mar- 
afcjb bulugttiyat, f. J riageable age. a. 

Ulokna, a. to see, to look at. *. 

m. a bubble (of water). 9. 
bilona, 1 a. to churn (also 
ff <^t q ^ r bilowana, J bilauna). s. 
b "^SWff balwant, powerful, strong. . 
balrvand, powerful, strong., d. 

bilaungi,t. a species of grass.A. 

b balah, weak, silly, simple, ignorant, un- 
skilful. a. 

ab 5i7/a m. (v. billa), a badge, &c. d. 

bali-har, m. "1 sacrifice, ia/t- 
bali-hari,f.J hdrl-jana, same 
as bal-jdna, to be sacrificed. *. 

&b ftro?^^ bilah-band, m. settlement, 

regulation, /t. 

bilah-bandi, an account of 

the settlement of a district, specifying the name of 
each mafyall, the farmer of it, and the amount at which 
it is let. ft. 

^b fac?n bilhara, rn. a kind of basket 

(long and narrow) generally used for holding p&ns or 
betel leaf. h. 

bilahri, f. a ladle for taking 
out oil ; a small basket for holding betel leaf. A. 

-kan, m. phlegm, s. 
balfii, f. a fagot. A, 

bul-hm, weak, infirm* bal- 

hlnata, f. weakness, prostration, s. 

l ^^ bali t strong, powerful ; f. a wrinkle, 

"skin shrivelled by age; the fold of the skin in stout 
persons upon the upper part of the belly, between the 
ensiform cartilage and the navel. *. 

J^ T<3ft ball, any thing offered or sacrificed 
"to an idol, such as flowers, rice, goats, &c. *. 
balfi, a climber, a vine. s. 
balR, f. a prop, a pole, a long wooden 

"stick to move or steer boats. balK-marn&, to steer, to 
push (a boat), h. 

,& ftrift billi, f. a she-cat, bilti-lotan, m. 
** valerian. *. 

jjj bale, yes, true, so, well, right, p. 
UjJ'U^ qr^'JJI^HT balaiya lena, to take or 

invoke another's misfortunes on one's self (v. 
lena). h. 

C^ob baUyat, misfortune, calamity, a. 
Jab batid, stupid ; a dunce, a simpleton, a. 
~*jJl>. ^HC balesar, a subdivision of the 

Gujar tribe, q.v. h. 
ijkb bafigh* eloquent, mature; copious, o. 

( 124 

bilii-I<rtfin 9 m. valerian; so 

named from its effect on cats, which are said to be so 
delighted with its fragrance, as to roll about in their 
ecstasies, h. 

-xb balela y rn. the belleric myrobalan. p. 

balendd, m. a whirlwind ; a ridge- 
pole (of accfttage). h. [cottage). 7*. 

1$H balendl, f. a ridge-pole (of a 
balya t strong, vigorous ; m. semen 

virile, t. 

*) *R bam, f. a spring (of water) ; a fathom ; 

a measuring-rod of 3 cubits, h. 

p> *R bam,an interjection addressed to Shiva; 

1 much used by pilgrims to the temple of Baijnath or 
Vaidyanath. a. 

V bam, f. a bass part in music; a bass or 

lowest string or drum ; having the deepest tone ; deep 
Round (tfM that of the large pipes of an organ, a 
drum), a. p. 

()\+? ftwf biman s jn. the chariot or vehicle 
of the gods (sometimes serving as a throne, and at 
others carrying them through the skies self-moving and 
self-directed), s. 

v--^ fire bimb, m. the name of a tree bearing 
a red fruit (Momordica monadclpha or Byronia grandis^.s. 

*-**? ^T8T bawb, m. a revenue defaulter, one 
who owes a balance to the state, h. 

lx^ bumba 9 m. a pump (from the English), d. 

j*+> bambu, m. a bamboo, the species of cane 
so called. (This has not been borrowed from the 
English, as some have supposed, but the English word 
itself has been derived from the Hindu dialects of 
Southern India), d. 

Aj++> bambud, a disease in elephants, a kind 

of ulceration of their lower extremities, d. 
15*^ bumbl, f. the navel, d. 

(jju^ THTnj bam tele, name of a raj -put tribe 
'in the I)u,ab: they are of low repute, h. 
JJL^ ba-mi$l, like, resembling, p. a. 

+j ba-madad, by aid of, by means of. p. a. 

ba-martaba, in a degree, to some ex- 

tent. p. a. 

(jpj+> bumfi, interj, alas ! bamfi mama, to 

bewail the dead, in the Hindu fashion, namely, by 
uttering loud cries and slapping the mouth with the 
hand at the same time. d. 

&*+) ba-niaa or ba-mai, along with. p. a. 

ft\*A&i> bas-mulitaza,e, by the exaction of. 
ba-mulct(iza t v la* chart, through sheer helplessness, p. a. 

bamakna, n. to swell, h. 

bimukh (for mmukh), having the 
face averted, turned from, averse, s. [clean. *, 
bimal (for vimal), free of filth, 
bamla, a hole from which water 

springs up. h, 

\ IV% 


bcman (for vamari), m. vomit ; an 

emetic, bainan-k. to vomit, to spew. t. 
> baman, a Brahman, d. 

bamarii, a female of the Brahman caste ; 
of or belonging to the Bratvmanical sect. d. 

ba-mujib, on account of, by reason 
of, in conformity with. p. a. [man), a Brahman, s. 
j W*3T bamhan, m. (for bdkman or fcroA- 
bamhangaur, a class of the 

Gaur Rajputs, h. 

bamhani, light red soil. h. 
bamhaniyd, a subdivision of 

the Kachht tribe, q. v. ft. 

^ bamhanetd, m. a young Brahman, d. 
bamltha, m. a term applied to 

anthills (also to a snake's hole) in Upper India, h. 

bamil, m. the name of a grass, h. 
t j) *Tff ban, m. cotton; a crop of cotton, h. 
^ ^"rf ban, f. a forest, a wood, ban-jharna, 

-mania, or mnjharna, a. to beat the forests, ban-kanjd 
and ban-gontha, cow-dung found in the forests, ban- 
jatra t i. the pilgrimage through the 84 forests of Braja. s. 

bin, m. (contract, of y?\), a son. a. 

,J bun, m. coffee before it is ground (for then 
it takes a new name, Jcahwa). a. an allowance of grain 
given to a day labourer. A. 

^ bun, f. basis, root, stem. p. 

bin, "I without, unless, bin jane, with- 

bmd,j out knowing, unwittingly. 

bin mare or bin tegk shahid hona, to be slain without a 
wound (applied to lovers), bin mare tauba-k., to fea r 
without cause, s. 

Uj ^fnft7?a,m. bridegroom ; (part.of&wwa), 

made, prepared, &c. ; land dressed and ready for the 
seed. h. 

Ijj bind, f. foundation, basis, a. 

U^ ^pSH bannd, n. to be made, to be prepared, 

to bo mended or adjusted ; to chime, to agree, to fall 
in with, to do, to answer, to serve, to be, to become, to 
avail, to counterfeit, to succeed; m. a bridegroom. 
bana-banaya, ready, finished, complete, entire* perfect. 
bana-fhanna, to be fully adorned, decked out. bana- 
cfiuna, dressed, decked out. band-rahna, to remain 
waiting, h. 

lb bannd, m. a mason, a builder, a. 

l^ TO! bunnd, a. to weave, intertwine, h. 

tb ftfaT binnd, a. to knit; to weave; n. to be 

picked* h. 

oUj bind-bar 9 on account of, owing to. p. 
.o jljJ bind-bar-in, therefore, with this view 
or intent, p. [tribe of raj -puts. *. 

binndphir, m. the name of a 

bandt, f. woollen cloth, broad- 
cloth, h. 


i> handt ( pi. of CxO), daughters, bandti 

nabat, the tender herbage, a. 

ju)l Olx> bandtu-n-na'sh, m. the constel- 
lation of the Great Bear. a. 

bandti, woollen, h. 

J "banddir (pi. Qfjido), ports, harbours, a. 
binds, m. death, annihilation, s. 
bandspattl or bands-pa tthi, 

f. forest leaves. *. 

jilij bandfar, name of a tribe of Yadu-bansi 

raj-puts in Oude. h. 

(j>j\jj bind-goch, the cavity at the low^er 

part of the ear. p. [bring, h. 

U^lljJ ^f{l<$|H band-land, n. to make and 

^uJ ba-ndmi, in the name of. p. 

rnn banana, a. to do, to make, to fa- 
bricate, to prepare, to build, to compose, to perform, 
to adjust, to adorn, to pluck (a fowl), to mend, to in- 
vent, to rectify, to dress (victuals), to mock, to feign, h, 

rWTTT ban-ana, n. to succeed (in life), 
to be fortunate, to prosper. A. 

jib 1ftT3band,o, m. dressing, preparing, deck- 
ing one's self; concord, understanding, reconciliation ; 
making up banu,o-fc. t to adorn, bedeck : in the Indian 
English the word is pronounced ami written burmow, 
and means a " cram," or " tough yarn," a purely made- 
up story, h. 

bindwat, act of weaving, h. 

banawat) f. make, invention, 
affectation, contrivance, fabrication, fiction, sham. h. 
binarvat, f. weaving, h. 

banawai't or bana t ort, f. the 
act of Bolting ready, preparation, h. [pare. h. 

bundjOnd, a. to make, to pre- 

b'rnd,i, f. weaving, h. 

bandy d-j and, n. to bo 

making, to be in hand. h. 

HJlAjJ "ftrfniW bindyah (for vindyaka), a 

name of Ganeslia, s, 

-+** f*F5 btmb or vimba, in. the name of a 
tree bearirig a red fruit (Bryonia grandis, Lin., Momor- 
dica monadelpha, Roxb.}. *. 

Jo TOT bambd, in. a well; a jet d'eau, the 
spout of a fountain, h. 

j*ljo> ^prTTRI ban-box, m. one who dwells 
in the forest, a hermit, s. 

I> ^Wrraft ban-batit adj. dwelling in the 

forest ; f. life of a hermit. *. 

ban-bhdntd, m. wild bain- 

gan or egg-plant (Solatium melon g end). $. 

^AJJ bumbi, f. the navel, d. 

P*JJ bambi, f. harvest crop ; a stack or heap 

of grain ; (same as Airman, q. v.). dt 

H^*^Jo WfTTO ban-prasth, m. a Hindu who 

has reached the hermit stage of his existence, (v. ds- 
ram). s. 

ji^ <; 4H1i!l ban-jjarnd, n. to succeed, to 
answer, to suit, to come to a conclusion, t. 

banat, m. lace ; a riband studded 

with spangles, h. 

IAJO bint or bmat, a daughter, bintu-l- 
'inab, wine, daughter of the grape, 'a. 

ita (for vanita), f. a wife, a 

woman. *. * 

^!/Ci^ ^MffO'^ ban-tard,i, f. wild tard,i, a 

kind of plant (Lnffa}. h. 

bantariyd, m. a class of peo- 

ple who formerly acted as wood-rangers in Gorak- 
pur. /;. [solicitation, s. 

bintlf f. an apology, submission, 
bantdttd, a. to share, distribute, 

to participate, h. [shared, to distribute, h. 

Juj 4J44 Ml bantrcdnd, a. to cause to he 

bantwaiyd,} one who sliares or 
oLUO 4^f bant ait y j distributes ; a di- 
vider, distributer, h. 

ban-b'dd,o, m. a wild cat. s. 
fjJ bambuj the cane called bamboo, d. 

xu banthnd, n. to be braided or plaited. cL 
bctnj, henbane (Arab, form of clXio). a. 
y, m. a merchant, trader ; the 

sixth of the astronomical periods called Karan, cor- 
responding to the half of a lunar day. 5. 

-> ^rfora banij or ^ftfif banaj (for wf^TrlT 

banijya), m. trade, traffic, merchandise, a. 

lij^ ^rfrllU banjdrd, m. a grain-merchant ; 

also a carrier of grain. The term banjdra or birin- 
jdra is also iipplied to a distinct class of vagrants. 
They are Hindus, but do not belong to any parti- 
cular caste or part of the country. They live in 
tents, and travel about like gipsies, s. 

banjdri, f. a kind of tent used 
by banjaras ; adj. half-boiled (grain), h 

& *H*H banjar, f. waste land ; land which 

has not been cultivated for five vears and upwards. 
banjar-jadld* land brought into cultivation after lying 
some time fallow, ban jar Icadlm, land left fallow for 
some years. banjar-kami t abatement of rent for fal- 
low land, banjar Jj^ariji jam', waste land excluded 
from the rental, h. 

banjin, lands close by a village ; 

name of a weed about three feet high, which springs 
up among harvest crops, h. 

( 126 ) 

binjan, m. sauce, condiments ; 

particularly vegetables dressed with butter, &c. and 
added to flesh or fish ; (in grammar) a consonant, s. 

&& nfflfifift banjhott, f. a medicine taken 
to produce barrenness, h. 

anJjya, m. trade, traffic. *. 
banchana, a. to make or hear 

one read. *. 

banchanq, (for bachana), a. to save or 
protect, rf. [tection. rf. 

jU^ bancha,o (for bacha,d), m. safety, pro- 

brin-char, in. literally, " wood- 
goer"; any wild animal, such as a monkey, &c. : it 
also denotes a forester or woodman, s. 

ij>j& Tnrct banchari, a kind of high jungle- 
grass, of which wild elephants are very fond. s. 

U*y ^NftlT banchna, n . to be read or perused . h. 
JJO band, m. a fastening, a knot, a bandage; 

binding, literally or figuratively, as a tie, a cord ; 
fetters, imprisonment; an agreement, pledge, or pro- 
mise; a contract; a regulation; a dyke, mound, dam, 
or embankment ; averse of a song consisting of two 
or three couplets; belt, roll, string, joint, knuckle. 
band-J&ana, m. a prison, band- band /mil, to restrain an 
inundation with dykes. band-meA-ana, to become a 
captive, band-rahnd, to be engaged in a business. 
band-baifJina, to succeed in an affair, band pakafna, 
to object to the arguments of an opponent, band- 
wieH varna, to become a captive, band-band-pakarna, 
to seize (as rheumatism, &c.) all one's joints, band-k. 
or band-kar denfi, a. to make fast, to shut or bar (a 
door). In composition it denotes fastening, enchain- 
ing, or fixing, as na'l-band, a blacksmith, one who 
fastens on horses' shoes, dev-band (epithet of an an- 
cient hero), the enchainer of demons. In Persian, 
band denotes hope or wish ; also " a trick of fence," 
a stratagem, band-farmudan, to imprison, p. 

JjJ bond, the limbs, members, d. 

i3JO fw^f bind, f. a spot, dot, mark ; the na- 
sal dot anuswara. s. 

bandd or 

band a, m. mis- 

tletoe, a kind of epidendron (Epidendron tesselloides, 
Roxb.). *. 

bunddf m. a drop, point, a dot. s. 
JO bind a, m. a bundle, a sheaf, a faggot, d. 

banda, a grain-magazine above 
ground, h. 

tjlt^JO bandar a, m. a shore, or coast, d. 
JljsJJ Or*fTO' bindal, f. a medicinal herb. A. 

U^JJJ bandana (for bandhana), a. to cause 
to be fastened, &c. d. 

band-bata t i, f. account of 
each share of assessment in grain, h. 
>AV^ &V band-bardasht , an account of 
the share of an instalment to be paid by each vil- 
lager. p. 

^y *iJ^ W*^?tf band-behri, f. statement 
of the amount of each money instalment of a vil- 
lage. p. h. 

jl^X^Jo band-phanta, an account of the 

shares of the liabilities of a village, p. h. 

l3<3Jo tfi(fH< band-tal or -faZ, damming up 
a water-course for the purpose of irrigation. A. 

^l j>- tXO band-hisab, an abstract ac- 
count. p. a. 
> iii^ bandi jam, the act of allotting to 

each cultivator an equal portion of good and bad 
* lands, p. a. 

jj 'fcft^ bandar, m. a monkey, an ape. $. 

&*J bandar, m. a city, an emporium ; a 

port, harbour, a trading town to which numbers of 
Toreign merchants resort, a mart or market, p. 

\j<3ij Tnnrf bandra, m. mistletoe (Y. bandd). ,<?. 

ilA^AJo ^r^i9rf bandar-khat, m. a sore 
that docs not heal ; a running sore, an issue, s. 

bandarl, f. a sort of chintz from 

Machhll-bandar ; a sword from Raj bandar! ; name of 
a grass used us fodder for cattle, h. 

bandri, T f. a female inon- 
ii>JO V^'fX'JJI bandariyd,) key. s. 

jj bandi scl, a contract of sale. p. e. 
iuSJO bandish, f. lit. tyino;, binding, or 

making up ; preparing a false story, making up a false 
account of a transaction, invention, contrivance ; ele- 
gancy (of style), bandish-bdndhna, a. to contrive ; to 
form a plot. p. 

)o bind-kushdd, m. semen cito emittens, 
morbo affectus. h. p. [slaves, p. 

\!\JJO bandagdn (pi. of banda), servants, 
JjJ bandayi, f. slavery ; devotion ; scr- 

"vice, compliment, bandagl meti ]tfjuda,i-k., to affect 
authority while in servitude, p. [rice. h. 

j^ q^fi bandli, a species of Rohilcund 

tX iijj bandi muddat, a stated period for 
the settlement of an account, p. a. [bind, &c. d. 

^iJo bandnd (for bandhnd, q. v.), a. to 
lyt^jj ra*13R bandanrvdr, f. a wreath or 

garland of leaves and flowers suspended across gate- 
ways on marriages or public festivals. . 

d-nawis 9 a. clerk,an accountant.^. 

i* ,,-- 

l jtXjj oandu,a, m. a prisoner, a captive, p. 

d*~*>j ciJJ band-o-bast, m. literally, "binding 
and fastening "; settlement, regulation, disposition, 
arrangement; economy, management, government. 
band-o-basti dawamt, permanent settlement, band-o- 
basti ml 'ad or -sar-sart, temporary or summary settle- 

. ment. band-o-basti mulk, the sum total of the reve 
nue of a kingdom or province', jp, 

jw-j^tXio band-o-basti, f, arranging, economy ; 

- adj*. of or relating to settlement, &c. band-o-ba$ti par- 
wana or sanad t patent, warrant, or deed of settlement. 
band-o-basti sar-rishta-dur, a revenue-officer attached 
to some courts in Bengal, p. 

( 127 ) 

ff bandar, f. a female slave. A. 
jjOjJ landuk, f. a musket. (Whence comes 

the word bandulc? It is not known either to the 
Turks or Persians. The nearest approach to it I have 
ever heard is the African-Arabic term bundutiyya, li- 
terally signifying Venetian/' and formerly applied to 
a cross-bow, but in recent times to a gun, as the de- 
scendants of the Arabs in Egypt, Morocco, and Bar- 
bary obtained these weapons chiefly from Venice, 
Binning.) a. 

jJ banduJ/tchi, m. a musketeer, a. t . 
bandoly m. the child of a slave, h. 
banduka, m. a whirlwind. /*. 

bandh, m. a pledge, a deposit; m. f/ 

binding, tying, bandage, a tie, or fetter ; a bank, a 
dyke, a mound for confining water ; a village boundary ; 
bondage, imprisonment, bandh men pafna or ana, to 
become a captive, s. 

bandhu, m. a kinsman, a friend. 

(v. bandhH). bandhuta, f. a multitude of relations and 
friends ; relationship, friendship, bandhutwa, m. re- 
lationship, friendship, bandhu-jan, a relation, a friend. 
bandhu-datta, given by a kinsman ; m. the property 
given to a bride by her relatives, bandhu-hm, friend- 
less, relationless. s. % 

JO banda, a slave, servant, bnnda-parwar, 

cherisher of servants (a respectful expression used in 
addressing a superior, i.e. your honour). batida,e~ 
dargah, the slave of (your) threshold, banda-zada, 
son of (your) slave, i.e. thine humble servant, banda- 
nawaz, cherisher of servants or dependants, p. 

Jbjjj bandalia (pl.) servants, slaves, p. 
Ifcijjj *| mi'H bandhan, m. pension, a fixed 

allowance to any one ; raised earthen embankments 
for flooding lands; purchase of grain in advance of 
harvest. *. [shut, &c. s. 

bandhana, a. to bind, fasten, 

*qF*W<j\b<m(lhan'i, m. one whose busi- 
ness is to carrv stone or timber, &o., over his shoulder ; 
a pensioner ; a gunner, an artilleryman. /*. 

TtU'^ band/id, I, f. bond, binding, 
fastening. *. 

band/i a-tantra, m. a com- 

plete army, or one with its four divisions of elephants, 
chariots, horse, and foot, v. chaturanga. s. 

^><XO WJ*fta bandhu-jiv, m. a flower 
(Pentapetes phcenicea). *. 

biXb *r&j^bandhur, m. a flower (Pentapetes 
phoerticca); a drug, commonly called birang; a drug 
called rishabh ; a crane, s. 

*& Hyj bandhura, f. a whore, a prosti- 
tute. s. 

ifcJJ^ ^PW bnndhah, m. a pledge, a pawn; 
binding, confinement, t. 

^ ?^f^1 bandhaki, f. an unchaste 
woman, a harlot; a barren woman, t. 

ji> ^**R bandhan, m. fastening, bandage ; 
obstacle, hinderance. bandhan-rajjv, f. any rope used 
for tying, bandhan-granthi, m. the knot of a ligature. #. 


bandhna,) n. to be tied, to be 

fastened; to be continuous, to be kept, enclosed, 
formed, or composed, bandhi mufhi t an undisclosed in- 
tention. *. 

bindhndj a. to sting, to bite ; n. 

to be bored or pierced. *. 

bandhandlay, m. a prison. 

^ bandhu> or ^RR ban- 
dhava, a friend, kinsman, but especially a distant cog- 
nate, subsequent in right of inheritance to the gentile 
Sugotra: the bandhu is of three kinds, the kinsman 
of the person himself, of his father, and of his mother ; 
a flower (Pentapetes phcenicea). <. 

*^ qttgW band/iu } d t m. friend. 
bandh uwa, a prisoner. *. 

bandhrvdnd, to cause to be 

bound ; to accuse, s. 

lyfc^ w?*reTO bandhwdsj land embanked 

all around so as to retain the water, h. 

b<& bnndhur y m. purchase of grain in advance 

of harvest. A. 

bandhtik, m. a shrub bearing 

a red flower (Pentapt'tes phcenicea} ; also applied to the 
Ixvra bandhu; n tree (Pentaptera tomentosa). ban- 
dliuk-pushp, m. the blossom of the same tree. s. 

Jbjj^ Tff*XH\ bandliiya, an embankment (v. 

bandhan). s. 

J&tXO ^riT band by a, f. a childless woman ; 

a barren cow ; a perfume called La la. s. 

>iU> ^^f bandhej, in. parsimony; sta- 
bility, steadiness, persistence, h. 

p&y* (^^ Hlftigft band hi muthl, f. an 

undisclosed intention, h. 

&jjb^3 immbandhya, barren, unfruitful; de- 
tained, confined. 5. 

jj bandi, f. a female slave or servant ; in. 

a prisoner, captive, bandi-ltfuina or bandi-gritia, a 
prison-house. In law and revenue language bandl 
denotes agreement, arrangement; distribution, allow 
ance ; deduction or charge : it is also the name of a cer- 
tain dry measure, p- s. 

t^jJ *Tn^ bandl) f. the name of an ornament 

worn on the forehead ; a dress shorter than the Jama ; 
m. name of a tribe called Bhaf, a bard. s. 

bindl, f. a spot, dot, mark ; the 
nasal dot anuswara. s. 

X^ v|ft4'i|T bundiyd) f. a kind of sweetmeats 

(like drops). 8. 

bandi-jan t m. a kind of orna- 
ment ; a bard. h. [captives, * . 

*i? ^5^? bandi-griha, m. a house for 
bundeld, a spurious tribe of 

raj- puts, who give name to the province of Bundle 
cund (Bundel-Jchand). h. [soner. 5 

bandirvan, a captive, a pri- 

banda, m. mistletoe, a kind of epi- 
dendron. ' A. [sticks, or straw, &c. *, 

\<ib binda, m. a faggot, a bundle of firewood, 

i*ijj 'TOJT bundd, m. a kind of ornament worn 

on the ear*, h. . [devil. A. 

IfcjJo^ TOfrfT bandohd, m. a whirlwind; a 
^/jjj ^ft bandt, f. short robe, a short full 

yawfl. A. 

/c Jsjj bandi, (. a cart or carriage of any kind, 

called by Europeans in the Oarnatic " a bandy/* d. 

(fjjjjj WI$ banderi, f. a ridge-pole, the 
, ridge of a bouse, k. 
jjjj WTCT banrd, m. a bridegroom. A. 

V*Hl ftanri, f. a bride. A. 

4^J &ow* (for vansha\ m. a descendant, 

offspring ; race, lineage, family ; a bamboo. *. 
M*X> ^JT bansa, jpecies of grass which grows 
in rice-fields : it is used as fodder for cattle. A. 

bans aw alt j f. a genealogy, s. 

<JJ ba-nitbat, with regard to, concern- 
ing, p. a. 

^iL-Jj ban-salami, f. a fee exacted by the 

"zamlndar from the cultivator for permission to collect 
the juice of the forest date- trees, s. a. 

(^-J^ (j*J^ *f$K5fcR bans-lochan, m, the 

manna or sugar of the bamboo (it has been found by 
analysis to contain much siliceous earth), s. 

\XA> ftfrffHT binasna n. to perish, to be- 
come spoiled, s. 

^y*Jo ^ft or ^fful ^, f. (for vanslii) a 

"flute; a fishing-hook; a kind of wheat with blackish 
ears; in comp. of the race or lineage, bansl-bat, m. 
the fig-tree under which Krishna was accustomed to 
play the lute. $, 

A*) bannfoha t f. a violet, p. 

bank, m. a bending, a curvature; 

reach of a river, s. 

f^jj *TJT$ banJia^i, f. a bending, a curva- 
ture, the reach or bend of a river, s. 

banih-pittra, m. the son of a 

merchant, a youn merchant, banik-putri, & young 
woman of the Baniya tribe, s. [merce. s. 

9 m. traffic, com- 

banktd 9 the crop on the field ir- 
recoverably spoiled, h. 

f&) TH^R^ ban-kafi or ban-hatfi, f.a fee paid 
for cutting timber ; the right obtained by clearing a 
jungle and bringing it under cultivation. //. 

&x> ^fi^n ban-kataiya, m. name of a 
*prickly plant (v. bang-katiya). h. 

M> VTW bankar, spontaneous produce of 

jungle or forest land, such as gums, honey, &c. ; also 
revenue from woods and forests. A. [ropes, h. 

bankas, grass used in ruaking 

an-kanda, cow-dung found in 

a jungle or forest, and used for fuel. h. 
xb '4fffH4j bankhara, hmds on which cotton 
has grown during the past season, h. 

} 1 TT^hf ban-khand, m. a forest, s. 

ban-khandi, m. the name 
of a celebrated forest in India, h. 
JjJ bang, f. hemp (Ca-nabis sativa) ; an in- 
toxicating potion made from the leaves of hemp. p. 
L^b^ff bang, f. calx of tin, given internally 
as an aphrodisiac ; name of Bangala (Bengal). *. 
b binya, crooked, awry, distorted, d. 

banga, m. a joint of bamboo root; 
a kind of soil ; well-water slightly brackish, h. 

bangala, the province of Bengal. 
ban gait, m. bangdlin, f. an inhabitant of Bengal, s. 

^ btingah, f. baggage, luggage j the tents, 
stores, furniture, &c., of an army. p. 

^-^V ^fmnnsr banig-bhao, m. traffic, 
trade, s. 

bangrif "f. an ornament worn on 

the wrist (properly of glass), a bangle or bracelet made 
of glass or lac. A. 

banaka, an aquatic beetle that 

eats rice-plants. A. 

hfl'JJi bang-Jtatiya, a species of 
solanum resembling a thistle (not of any nse). A. 
>-CjJ YjF'dkfl banghi, a species of rice culti- 
vated in Benares. A. 

bangla, m. kind of thatched 

house, commonly called by Europeans a* 4 bungalow"; 
a sort of betel-leaf so called. A. 

J^V ^TJffiSOT bangliyd, name of a species of 

rice. A. [iu forests. A. 

fiow-d ungfound 
i, f. a humming-top, h. 
^JL> bangt, m. one who intoxicates himself 
"with bang, p* 
l^x) WHHTc? ban-mal, f. a garland of va- 

rious flowers (usually those of the tulti) reaching to 
the feet. s. 

VJj TR'H^ ban-mali, one who wears a 

ban-mail an epithet of Krishra. t. 

-3lij ^TH^MM ban-manus, m. a man of the 

woods, a wild man ; an oran-utang. . 
ii> banna, binna, bvnna. v. Uj. 
^yj ^R^Tld banwati, m. one of the names 

of Krishna, s. 

a^i? ^R^W &-vo, n. separated from 
one's family, living in a wood; met. disinherited (a 
son). *. [made or formed, k. 

bannana, a. to cause to be 

( 129 ) 

}^j *nniT^&cmn?a,i, f. price paid for making 

[weaving. A. 

inwdylj f. price paid for 
banotsarq, m. a ceremony 

any thing. A. 

performed in honour of a newly-planted orchard : it 
somewhat resembles a marriage ceremony, (v. Wil- 
son's Glossary). 8. 

banwar, m. f. a creeper, vine. s. 

binauriydy tn. name of an 

herb used as fodder for cattle. A. 

bwauld, m. the seed of the cot- 
ton-tree (it is said to be very fattening food for cattle). 
binauld chubnd, a. to say unpleasant things. A. 

Jjb ftffft<$1 binauRj f. hail (of a smaller 

"kind). A. 

i^jj Pf*ftffV binaund, a. to adore, to venerate, 

to revere, to laud. *. 

banwand, m. a creeper, a vine. h. 

banwaiya, m. maker, manufac- 
turer. A. [household furniture, p. 

BJO buna or bunna, m. basis, root, domestic?, 
banhdy m. a conjurer, h. 

banihdr, a labourer whose ser- 
vices are paid in bannt, or in kind. A. 

f banhiydn, m. a bridegroom, h. 
hd,t,f. a female conjuror, an 

enchantress. A. 

; binahar,m. a gatherer of cotton. //. 
t, f. a bride, h. 
ni, f. a small forest ; a wood. s. 

binay (for vinayd), m. humility, 
" humble entreaty, courtesy, good-nature. . 

^> bani (pi. of y>\\ sonp. bani-adam, sons 

** of Adam ; men. bani isrdjl, children of Israel, Is- 
raelites, a 

/*? IRft banni, a portion of grain given to a 
~ labourer as a remuneration for his services. A. 

Ixo wftnn or ^fftnn baniyd (also banyd), m. a 

shopkeeper, a merchant (usually a corn-chandler), a 
Hindu money-changer : in Calcutta this term is ap- 
plied to the Hindu partner or cash-keeper of a Euro- 
pean firm. s. 

j>bO bunydd, f. foundation, base, origin. 
bunydd dalna, to lay the foundation* to found (a 
city, &c.). p. 

IJJL$\JUJ W^IWI banaiyd-fiandd, m. cow- 
dung dried for fuel (not made up). A. 

^\jj wf*f*lt banlydn or banyan, m. a trader, 
a merchant (v. baniyd). p. 

^buJ bunydn, f. foundation, basis, a. 

baniydyan or baniyd,in, f. 

wife of a 6oitya (a trader), h. 

ui^ f^ft banetl or T^<ft banaiti, f. a torch 

lighted at both ends and whirled round to as to form 
a double circle of fire. /<. 

*} Wft5f banij, m. trade, traffic. *. 

ik) m. a merchant, a trader, s. 
baneld or W%9JT banaild, wild, of 

the forest. *. 

banairii, f. wife of a baniyd. h. 
bariiwdl, a subdivision of the 

Bhangl caste. A. 

ft?/ (for ^\), father; possessed of ; gene- 

rally used in composition with another word, as bu-l- 
'ajab, father of wonder, or possessed of w/mder, mar- 
vellous. a. 

bo or buj f. smell, odour. bu-hash 9 one who 
inhales the scent or odour of any substance, p, 

^ bo (root of bond), sowing, cultivation, h. 
> ^ bau, the fee or perquisite of the za- 

mlndar whenever a datghter of any cultivator in his 
village is married, h. 

i ipiT bu,d, f, sister; also an aunt by the 

father's side. h. 

-^ly barvwdb, a janitor or porter, a. 

bawddd, m. a kind of herb, some- 
what like turmeric, h. 

boydrdy m. seedtime, sowing, h. 
ba-wd*ita 9 by reason, because of. p. a. 
> bawdsir (pi. of j^Mb), the piles or 

hemorrhoids, a, 

ujt^ tf bu-l-hawas, desirous ; m. a block- 
head, a wavering, fickle person, bu-l-fyawasi, f. whim, 
caprice, a. 

fy ^h^Ml bofind, a. to cause to sow ; n. 
(from bu, smell), to stink, to emit a smell, h. 
birvdh, m. marriage. 9. 

barvdhd, pocky, affected with 

lues venerea. h. 

bawd^i t f. a kibe, or chap on the 
[seedtime, h. 
^y f. sowing, the act of sowing; 

, thesowingof grain by the drill.A. 

bold, m. goods and chattels, pro- 
perty ; a bundle, h. 

y bubak, m. an old simpleton, d. 

* a sister; (in the west of In- 
dia) a lady (for blbT) ; a favourite concubine, of one 
of superior rank. h. 

foot, a chilblain, s. 

( 180 ) 

Uy 1JWT buta, m. strength, power, ability, h. 
15^ lota, m. a young camel, p. 

O\3^ buidt (for buyutdi), m. account of 
household expense, a. 
\3y butafi, relating to household expense, a. 

u, m. a he-goat, k. 

a, in. a crucible, melting-pot; a bush, 
a shrub, p. 

ejy^j (3^ bauti-zamm (corruptly -jamlri), 
land held by the owner of a village in his own posses 
sion to give out to the peasants for cultivation, h.p. 

jUxiy butimdr, a heron, p. 
CL*y> ^ but, m. a kind of pulse, chick-pea 

(Cicer arietinum). h. 
CL>^ *$&* bot, the finger, finger's breadth, h. 

b^ *nfT butd,m. a flower, particularly worked 
on cloth, or painted ^A paper, &c. ; a bush, a shrub. 
bufe-ddr, a flowered (cloth), butd-kadd, applied to de- 
scribe the small stature and exquisite proportion of a 
beloved persou. h. 

> ^ di >u g s > fl vver s or sprigs (on 
muslin), sprigs of a plant, h. 

tt, f. a morsel (or lump) of meat. h. 

>}> ba-rvajh or ba-wajhe-hi, in a way; in 

such a way that. p. a. 

?-^ T*^ high, f. understanding, comprehen- 

sion. bftjh-ke, wittingly, s. 

bojh, "1m. a load, weight, ballast 
bojha,) of a boat or ship, bojh 

pakarna, to affect a new delicacy or consequence, to 
ffive one's self airs (it is generally spoken in raillery). 
oojh sir par hond, applied to a task, the performance 
of which is become indispensable : in agricultural lan- 
guage the bojh or load comprises about five dhokas of 
corn (v. dhoku). h. 

*j} bujhd-bujhi, f. a game among 
"children t one of them is blindfolded, and must guess 
which of the others touches him. s. [tion. 5. 

,i, f. teaching, instruc- 
boj/ta,i, f. lading (a cargo), h. 

bojh-bata,i, f. a mode 
of division by stacks or bundles of mowed corn. h. 

bojhal, loaded, laden, heavy. A. 
^y bu-jahl(\.abu-jaM) 9 *<lj. foolish, a. 
bujhna, a. to understand, to 

make out or comprehend; to think, bnjh-lnia (at 
cards), to settle the account of gain and loss. s. 

hna, a. to load; to scald or 

parch rice. 

bojhelf loaded, burdened, h. 
boch, m. an alligator.^ A. 

bocha, m. a kind of sedan, a chair- 

palkl. A. [out ears. h. 

bucha, m. buchl, f. ear-cropt, with- 
chra, chipped or notched on the edge. A. 

buchna, n. to sit in a confined 
posture, to crouch. A. 

^$14; bauchhar,*} f.drivingrain,wind 
"^"^R bauchhar,) and rain. A 

* bud, f. existence, being 5 a dwelling, bud 
o bash, residence, dwelling, p. 

boda, weak, faint-hearted, low- 

spirited ; m. a buffalo ; (in Dakh.) boda-kdgfcaz, blot- 
ting paper, h. 

* boda, m. the nave of a wheel, d. 

bo-dar or bu-ddr, fragrant, scented ; m. a 
kind of leather so cilled. p. 

ibt^ bud-bash f f. existence, subsistence; 
residence, abode, p. 

bodar, a place to stand on for those 
who raise water from a well. h. 

Jjy ^facSft bodlt,f. a simple woman, trollop; 

"a woman who lives with a be-nawd JaJtir, and dresses 
like a man. h. 

> budan (root buw or bash], to be. p. 

bodh, m. understanding, know- 
ledge. s. 

bodh, m. a security. A. 
bauddha, m. a Buddhist, s. 

bodd/td, ingenious, intelligent, 
s 'iisible. s. 

bodhak, m. a teacher, s. 
lodh&n, m.1 knowledge, teach- 
bodhani 9 f.) ing; awakening, 

* arousing, s. 

U*<!^j ^fftnn bodhnd, a. to wheedle, s. 
\j* budd, old, aged; m. an old man. budl, fc 

an old woman, d. 

^.jy bud-pan (also bud-pana), m.old age. d. 
Ifci'y bud/id, m. an old man ; adj. aged. A. 
UoJi <i'o WfjfnT budh-gangd, the old bed of 

the Ganges below HastlnapCir, &c. h. 

rf *fft bor, deep; rn. studs of gold or silver. A. 
>y ^T ^wr, barren (land); f. chaff, husk, bur- 

kd-laddtl t a sort of sweetmeat made with the husk, of 
grain! The confectioners avow the imposition, and 
cry out to passengers, "You'll repent if you eat it. or 
regret your tasting* it." Hence great men are gome- 
times called bur-kd lajdu, when they make a practice 
of encouraging thetr dependants to hope, but do no- 
thing for them at last. Ihe term also means any per- 
son or thing which is fair without and foul within, or 
that promises well but turns out bad ; a well-looking; 
but stupid fellow, h. 

bura, m. a coarse kind of sugar; 
sawdust; powder; redeemable mortgage, h. 
y WITT bora, m. a canvass hag; (particularly 

for holding about two maunds of rice), a sack ; a kind 
of bean like French beans (Dolichos catsang). h. 

131 ) eJjJ 

jy liuzayari, t. brewing (of buza) p. 

baura, m. mad, insane, h. 

baura-pd, 1m. madness, state 
baura-pan,) of insanity, h. 

baurdnd, n. to be mad, to mad- 
den. k. 

ii)^? burdni, f. a kind of food, consisting 
of the fruit of the egg-plant (Baingan) fried in sour 
milk. p. 

b\)j* ^"U?T baurdha, mad, insane, h. 

.jj* bor-bachcha, m. a leopard, d. 

ijJ' burdk or baurdk, m. bbrax. a. 
^y burnd, a. to shew, to scatter about, d. 

j ^ft boro, m. rainbow; marsh rice (Elliot 
Gloss.); the name of a kind of rice which is cut in 
March (Hunter), boro fasl, the season of cutting this 
rice. /i. [Jjcalam for writing, p. 

jO burn or boru, a tube, pipe; a reed or 
y bura, borax; nitre for soldering, p. 

bora, m. redeemable mortgage; a sack 
for holding rice. h. 

baurhd, mad, insane, h. 

auri, f. mad, an insane woman, h. 
^y boriyd or buriyd, m. a kind of mat. bu- 

riya-baf, a mat maker, p. fcatsang). h. 

? T bora, m. a kind of bean (Dolichos 
j* bora, deaf, dull of hearing, d. 
^jy 3f*Rll bur-mama, n. to be drowned, 

to die by drowning, h. 

jy tfi4r|| bornd, a. to cause to dive. h. 

jy |fir|l burnd, n. to dive; to drown, to be 

immerged, to dip. h 

bjy Ijyt burhd, m. an old man ; adj. old, 
aged, burha-arhd, aged, of mature years, h. 

burhdpd, also burhd-pan, m. 
old age. h. 
: y ^ burl, f. a point of a spear; a spike 

in the end of a staff, h. 
y tjjfstn buriyd, m. a diver. A. 
&03, m. cream-coloured (a horse), p. 

y fefi^a (vulgarly bozo), m. beer. 5wze- 
Ma a beer-shop, a " boozing-ken ;" the latter term 
is probably a corruption of buze-]&ana, introduced 
into Europe by the gypsies, p. 

\j buzdyar, m. a brewer, a maker of or 

dealer in the stuff called buza. p. 

buzna, also bozna and boznina, m. a 

monkey, an ape. p. 

*jy &oz, m. the name of a bird (Ibis denu- 

data? Buck.) i a kind of beer (v. 63*5). p. 
&J^jy buzina, an ape, monkey. /?. 

(in compos.) kissing, saluting, p. 
ba-wasatat, by means of. jp. a. 
bostdn or bust an, m. a pleasure-gar- 

den ; name of a celebrated work by the Persian poet 
and moralist Sa'di. p. 

5 kindr, m, kissing and toy- 
ing; dalliance, p. 
*>y ftosa, m. a kiss, bosa-bdzi, f. kissing 

and toying, losa-dend or lena> to kiss. p. 

4*3* bosi, kissing, used in coin p. as kadam- 
bosl t kissing the feet, i.e. obeisance, p. 
>y bostdan, to kiss, embrace, p. 

boslda, stale, rotten. bostdagz, f. rot- 
tenness ; also part, having kissed, p. 
*}> bogk, a wrapper, a pouch. bogh-band, m. 

the cloth in which any thing (particularly a saddle) is 
wrapped up. p. 

\f~yl boghrd, m. a dish made of boiled meat, 

flour, &c. bogJya nikalnti, to be well beaten; some- 
what akin to our phrase " having his gruel." p. 

U^y boghma, m. trumpery, trifles, scraps, 

rags, &c., the stores of a wallet; ugly and fat 
(woman), p. 

y bub, m. a trumpet, clarion, a. 

ba-wakt, at the time, in the time. p.a. 

> bu'kcflamun, in. a chameleon, (hence) 
any thing of various hues ; adj. various, wonderful, a. 

bokla or bMa, m. potherb, a. 

TO biik, land recovered by the reces- 
sion ofa rjiver. h. 

ci)y Affair bok, m. a he-goat, a Tarn, a tup. s. 
y TOT buha, m. powder ; small pearls, h. 
^> *fter bokd, m. a basket, pail, or leather 

bag for throwing water to a higher elevation. A. 

bukara, land (previously reco- 

vered as buk, q. v.\ but rendered useless by a deposit 
of sand. h. 

bohra, m. a he-goat, s. 

> ^fanft bokri, f. a she-goat, s. 
bokar, m. a he-goat (big-bearded), d. 

bukna, a. to powder, to grind, to 
reduce to powder, h. 

j> boha, m. a basket or leather bag used 

for raising water. /?. 


l, m. myrrh, g. 

bol, m. speech, talk, conversation ; 
words of a song. h. 

Jy fom/, rn. urine, baul-dan, a chamber- 
pot. baul-g&i, the urethra, a. 

foiM/5, toothless. 7<t. 
#o/a, m. a verbal agreement be- 
tween two parties, h. [tion. h. 

bold-chafi, f. conversa- 

baulana (v. baurdna), n. to be mad. 

fo/awa (Dakh. for butana, q, v.). ft. 
Jb JjJ ^fttjWffi bol-bala, m. a kind of bene- 
diction. bol-bala hond> to prosper, h. [raon. d. 

y bol-bhejnd, a. to send for, to sum- 
*ft?S5in &ofr<i, m. the faculty of speech ; 

soul, life. h. 

Jl>- Jy ift<$qi9 b$l-chal, f. conversation. //. 
U)^ ^t^RT /Wfla, n. to speak ; to sound, to 

emit sound ; to tell, to say. bol ujhna, to apeak out, 
to exclaim, bol chalna, to converse, speak together. 
bole so bolna, to speak repeatedly. h t 

ty^j} Wt^f^C bolam, making ovei one's own 
share to another, h. 
, v ;^s ^ft^fcft bolanii, the holder of another's 

-'share or inheritance ; an adopted heir, h, 

,Ju iftc?ft bauti, f. settlement direct wifh the 

"peasant ; also a kind of assessment, h. 
tjy tft'^ft hufi* f- speech, dialect, language; 

"conversation, talk, bott-k., to jeer, to jest. k. 

bt>H-lholl, f. jeering 

"speaking- at but not So a person. 6o/ /Ao/I sunana or 
marml, to rej)ro;ch, to blame. A. 

, m. ait owl ; land, ground, soil. p. 
**) bom, m. 1 weeping, wailing, lamenta- 
bomfl^ f.J tion ; interj. alas! d. 
a. to sow, to plant, s. 

m. n dwarf; the fifth avatar, 

' or incarnation of -Vishnu. *. 

bunt, m. a smlk. //. 
fttiw/, m. a kind of pulse when 

green (Ctecr ariettfium); the plant of bunff adj. little 
compact and Arm (epithet applied to a pony : some- 
times used substantively). /. [bunf, q, v. A. 

y bunt pulaiv, m. a pulaw made of 
bont, a finger (same as anguT). d. 
2$ bunj, mould, mustioess. bunj-bhara,*veiy 


j3y ij^f bund, f. drop, bund fo bund (sharab, 

umlerstood). very strong wine; doubly-distilled pi- 
rit a, &c. s. 

bund, good, well, excellent ; high 
soaring (generally applied to kites), h. 

,jj* bundaht, f. a spot, bundakl-dar^ 

"spotted, d. 

bunda, m. a large drop, bunda- 

bandi, small and interrupted dropping of rain. 

iVy Y^V biindi, f. drops of rain ; name of 
a place ; a kind of sweetmeat in the form of drops. 9. 
bundela, name of a tribe of 

rdj-puts, who give name to the province of Bundlecuud 
(i.e. Bundel-khand). h. 

the flower is &hed. 

baund, m. a creeper, a vine. h. 
bonda, m.a capsule^or pod of cotton ,&c d. 
jii^j ^R?t barvandar,m*a, whirlwind,a deviU/i. 
U 33^ ^f| i buundna, n. to entwine (creepers 

or vines) /*. 

iiiy ^iijil bondi, f. the germ of a plant after 


baund h/ana, n. to twine; to 

run irregularly or in a crooked direction, with turn- 
ings ami windings, h. 

C>y *p?T />S^f5 or bonya, a stack of straw, 
a heap of chaff, h, 

haunt, f. female dwarf, s. 

, f. the sonsori of sowing, s. 
bauha, pocky (v. buwaha). h. 

bauha,i, f. aiBicted with vene- 
real disease (a woman), h. 

bohra, m. a class of bankers or 

money-lenders so called, h. 

j ^fa'ft bohm, f. the money received for 

the first sale in the morning by shopkeepers and huck- 
sters : no credit is allowed, nothing but ready money 
being received on such occasions, h. 

>>y&^ f^f<*N bohodiya, m. a man who 
works with a borrowed plough, or with a spade, fee, 
(having no plough of his own), h. 

bir~i, a word used to frighten chil- 
dren, a goolin, or still more nearly, " bogie. 11 A. 

^^S^y <lM^r5 boil-bachh, assessment to 
be realized on cultivation, h. [lie fallow. //. 

boyar, land that is never allowed to 
bawera, sowing, seedtime, h. 

x-o. o i| N OH l| V bavexiya, a catamite, sodomite; 
one who talks nonsense, a babbler, h. 

bo t rya, m. a small basket. A. 
JL)^ bu 9 idan, to diffuse fragrance, p. 
*gJ ^ bha>i\\Q aspirate form of the letter u-J W-f.ft. 
w ba, prep, by, with, in ; generally joined 

to the word it governs, and then the imperceptible h it 
dropped, as ba-wajh or ba-wajhe, in such a manner, /v 

batiu, much, many, large, great. . 

133 ) 

j bih, good, better, bth or bihi, a quince, p. 

j bah,d t m. price, value. bahd,e &hun, blood- 
money (paid to the relations of a person slain), batid.e 
IshiCat, a tax raised in order to defray the expense of 
honorary dresses. bahd,e Aroigftag, an allowance for 
office paper, red tape, &c. A. 

>ITOT, bhdbar, name of a large forest at 
the foot of the Sevalic hill*, h. 

^ wft bhdbhi, . a brother's wife. h. 

) bkdbly future, about to be, pre- 
destined, . 

j W8 bhdph, f, steam, vapour. *. 

llOKHI bahd phirnd or bahd-bahd 

phlrna, n. to wander ; to be in a distressed condition ; 
to be intoxicated, jr. 

HIHM1 bliaphna, a. to conceive, to 
guess, to comprehend, h. 

l^J >Tfif bhat, advances to ploughmen 

without any interest, h. 

\J HTTT bhatj m. boiled rice, food. n. 

HTrTT bhatat m. an extra allowance to 
troops on service, commonly called batta. h. 

LAg^ H| bhat, m. a bard, a minstrel ; a ge- 
nealogist or family bard ; name of a tribe, h. 

>\& >ITT b/uitan, the wife of a bard, a 
female minstrel, h [the ebb tide. A. 

HtJT bhatka, m. a current or stream, 
bhatlttf f. bellows, s. 

bhatfil, f. down the river, with 
the current, h. 

^A^t 5 Hlfipn^J bhathiyal, rn. down, below, 
down the river, with the stream, h. 

b/tajfir, . 

r. flight, running off. A. 

bhujan, m. a plate, a dish, &c.; 

(in arithmetic) division. *. 

vn'STHT bliajnd, n. to flee, run away. h. 
*?T5fn bhajnai a. to fry. s. 

Mq/i, f. greens, s. 

kajlf. portion or share of food. h. 

o>l^ HT5^T bhajya, divisible, to be portioned ; 
m. a portion, a share, an inheritance ; (in arithmetic) 
the dividend, s. 

j>ty bhachar, a large earthen pot or jar. d. 

jOlfJ bahadur, brave, bold, valiant, courage- 
ous, invincible; m. a hero, a champion, knight; a 
title bestowed on military officers. "It is often accom- 
panied with the word Jang, war ; thus, battddur jang, 
invincible in war. The English (that is to say, Indian- 
English) language has adopted this word : a " bahau- 
der" indicates a martinet, or proud and haughty 
mortal dressed in a little brief authority " (Binning.)/). 

jjl# Wg bkadra* 1 m. the fifth solar 

vtrfPSbhadra-pad,) month (see bha- 
). t. 

b}Jj\jm $H%\bhadra-padaJ.& name common 

to the 26th and 27th lunar asterisms, distinguished by 
the epithets prior and subsequent, or purva and uttar. s. 

Ci^l^j ba/idduri, f. bravery, gallantry, j^ 

M^ty HT<^ bhddon, m. name of the fifth 
solar month, August September (in which the fuU 
moon is near Purvabhddrapada). t. 

pyj 1 *^ *T^faft bhddonwi, of or relating to 

the month bhadoti ; the autumnal crop. 9. 

J jlfj ^fT^TT ba/id~dend t a. (lit. to set afloat), 

to demolish, to destroy, to ruin, to impoverish, to de 
prive of felicity or fortune. *. 

bihdr, m. diversion, sport, amuse- 
ment; name of a province. bi!iara-sthal> place of 
amusement. . 

^ bahar, f. spring; beauty, elegance, de- 
light, baliaristan, m. a place adorned with the blos- 
soms of spring ; name of a Persian book by Jiiml. /*. 

^ ilR bhdr, m. a load, weight, lagot, gra- 
vity, a weight of gold equal to 2000 palas* s. 

4^ HHC bhdr, out, without (v. bdhar); adj. 
external, outside, d. 

($> HTO bhdrd, in. a load, burthen, s. 
j bahdrdn, the spring ^eason. p. 

bhdr-brihsh) in. a fragrant 

substance, commonly called kdkshl considered vari- 
ously as a vegetable or mineral product, s. 

-^.1^ HTOf bhdrat or bhdruta, in. the heroic 
poem which contains the account of Yudhishjhir'a war ; 
in. name of one ot the nine divisions of the world : 
India proper, so called from Bharata, the son of 
Dushyanta, whose patrimony it was. s. 

wives of the 

bhdrjd, f. a wito 

Hags, or deities presiding over the Hindu musical 
modes, bharjatwa* the condition of a wife, bharjafik 
m. a henpecked husband. . 

bharadrvaj, m. a sky lark. A*. 

i abode of spring, or of 
beauty ; name of a Persian work by the poet Jaml, p. 
buhitrun, f. sweepings, h. 

buhdrrid) a. to sweep, to ga- 
ther. h. 

buftdrnt, f. a broom, a besom. A. 
buhdt-u, m. a sweeper, h. 

bfidr-wdh (also bkdra-vdhik), 

m. a porter, a bearer of burthens. *. 

;V 3^^ buhdn, f. a broom, a besom, k. 
tj^ HTTft ^/i3rt,heavy ; of importance (met); 

big, weighty^ fat, large ; valuable ; patient, steady, 
grave ; strong, thick, troublesome ; m. a porter, car- 
rier of burthens, bharl-bharkaw, grave, sedate, bharl 
patthar Mmkar chhorna, to withdraw from a difficult 
or impracticable undertaking. 8. 

l^ bahdri, vernal, relating to spring, p. 
j\tf ftnpfl bihdrl, sportive ;' a name of 

Krishna ; name of a Hindi poet s 

bhdryd, f. lit. a wife or married 

woman ; a musical mode ; the wife of a Rag or deity 
presiding over a musical mode. * 

ty *?! bhdr, m. a furnace, kiln (particu- 
larly for frying grain). *. 

^ *?tj bhdr, m. the price of fornication. 
bhur-lthana,*&. to live on the wages of prostitution 
(applied not to the woman but to her dependants), h. 

; : l^ vrm bhdrd, m. hire, settled fare, rent ; 
recompense, h. 

W bhasur, m. a husband's elder 
brother; a species of costue (Cotus speciosus). s. 

J HT3SC bhdskar, resplendent, shining ; 

m. the sun ; name of a Hindu astronomer, author of 
the Siddhanta Shiromani and other works, s. 

**^ WUtll bhasnd, n. to be known, to 
appear, s. 

)**A^ HT*3TC, bhdswar, shining, radiant ; m. 
theaun, aday; Costus spectosus. t. [bhdJc^a). s. 

J >TTRT bhdshaff. a dialect, &c. (same as 
J *nforT bhdshit, spoken, said. s. 
J HT3R hhakta, "|rn. a follower, a de- 
bhdktik,) pendant,a retainer. A-. 

bhdkst, f. a kiln. s. 
bhahhdy f. speech, dialect, Ian 

bhdkhna, a. to speak, to call. s. 
f a ra in music. 7t. 

guage. s. 

ft/m^r, in. fortune, destiny; share, 

lot ; tax, duty ; share in kind ; a degree, the 360th part 
of a circle ; a fraction, bhdg jagna, to be fortunate. 
bliug-batdjt apportionment of the shares of a crop. 
bhag-dar, a sharer, s. 

away, flight, h. 

bhdyd-bhag, rn. running 
[fort, consolation, d- 
bhdy-bharoxa, com- 

Himmi bhdg-jdnd, n. to run 

away, h. 

^bhayar, f. flight, a general emi- 
gration, escape from immediate danger, h. 

J ftr?Txr?T bihdyard, m. (v. bihdg). h. 
j Wl&bhdgal, trick, affectation, h. 

?jJv^&? ^T^^Tft bhdgalpuri, rn. a kind of 
cloth from Blulgalpiir made of silk and cotton, h. 

bhdgali, false, mock, imita 

[pocrisy. h> 
bhdgaliyd, f. imposture, hy. 

bhagman, fortunate. A\ 

bhdgmdni, f. good for- 
tune. 3. 

"tion. h. 

bhagna, n. to flee, to run away. A. 

HT*nTT; bhdgnar, name of a rich allu- 
vial soil on the banks of the Jumna. A. 

bhdginty fern, of bhdy\ y partner, 

co-heiress, a sister, s. 

uJUi l^; ^nftr^T bhdgineya, m. a sister's son. s. 
d **TJf bhdgu, a deserter, a runaway, h. 

bhdgndr, held upon a joint 
tenure or share (land), h. [sperout. *. 

bhdgawan, fortunate, pro- 
bhdgavat, m. name of one 

of the pur anas. s. 

TT bhdgord, a runaway, a coward. h. 
HT*ft bhdgt, m. a partner, sharer, par- 

ticipator, a co-heir; also a share or portion, bhdgi- 
ddr, a sharer, a partner, adj. prosperous. *. 

^^l&OTftOT bhdgirath,m. name of a pious 

king whose austerities brouglit the river Ganges from 
heaven, s. 

^p&j^^s! Wftr^ft bhdgirathi, f. the river 
"Ganges (so called from the pious monarch aforesaid), s. 

Jj^l^> HFh55 bhdgely a deserter, a runaway ; 
desertion, flight, h. 

bhdgyarvan, "| fortunate, 
bhdgyawant, ) rich. s. 
bhdgya, m. fortune, destiny. <. 
bhdgya-hln, poor, wretched, 

unfortunate, s. 

a/, f. the point of an arrow, h. 

I, m. a tribe of raj-puts, h. 
a/, f. the forehead ; fortune, s. 
r , m. a bear. s. 
I, m. a spear (about seven 

cubits long). *. 

bhdldnk, m. a sort of fish, 

commonly called the rohi (Cyprinus rohita); a sort oJf 
potherb, s. 

bhdluk,\ . 
^ - >m. a bear. s. 

HT ^ /;/i ^ J 

)l^ HT^RT bhdlnd, a. to see, to perceive, to 
look, to contemplate, h. 
r^ bhdlu-hold, m. a hyena, or, as some 

say, a hybrid animal between a wolf and a jackal, d. 
bhalait, m. a pikeman, a spear- 

fc/^ >?Tf^TST bhdmin, angry, passionate. . 
Wlfaftbhamirii 9 f. a passionate woman. & 
bhanu, m. the sun. 5. 

( 133 ) 


> bhdn, f. (for bahin, q.v.), a sister, d. 
f^TO bihan, m. morrow, morning, h. 

> *nTT bhana, a. to please, to suit, to fit, 
to be approved of. h. 

<IMI bahdnd t a. to make flow, to set 
afloat, to launch, c. [time), /t. 

blhdnd, n. to spend or pass (the 
bahdna (farbahdna), in. pretence, &e. jt>. 

HTTT fe/<5w< or wfir bhdnti, f. manner, 
mode, method, kind, sort. h. [sorts, h. 

^J bhdnt-bhdnt, various, of many 
bhdnt, m. a medicinal plant (Cle- 

rodendron infoftunatum, Lin. ; Volkameria infortunaia, 
Roxb.), *. [melongena. s. 

>lt3T bhdntd, m. the egg-plant (Solanum 

> Hhf Manj, f. twist. ,. [son ^ 

?ilft bhdnjd, m. a nephew, a sister's 
>Tffr(T bhdnjna,&. to put into circular 

motion, to twist, to turn on a lathe, to wave, to bran- 

[daughter, s. 

HTlft bhdnjt, f. a niece, a sister's 

?faf} bhdnji, f. interruption, hinder- 

ance ; tale-bearing. l>hdnjl-1<hor, m. an interrupter, a 
tale-bearer. bJieliyi hhdna, a. to give a malicious piece 
of intelligence, bhdnjl-dena or -mama, a. to interrupt, 
to put a stop to, to break in upon, h, 

V'U^ WJITO bhdn-chdrd, sisterhood, 

state or relationship of sister, d. 

il^ >TRPf bhdnd, m. a mimic, an actor; 

a small earthen pot : stock, capital, s. 

ol^> yfH^T blidndd, m. a large earthen pot ; 

estate, equipage, bhdndd-phufnd, n. to lose one's cha- 
racter. s. 

bhdndar, \ m.also bhdnddr- 
bhdnddrd,) Tihdna, a store, 
a place where household goods are kept, a storehouse, s. 

C^JJI^ HUBTft bhdnddn, m. a house-stew- 

"ard, a treasurer, purveyor, s. [mimic. 8. 

,, lil^ vrrftBf bhdndin, f. an actress, or female 
liV^) vrn^'H or *ri?TT bhdndnd, a. to abuse, 

to calumniate, s. 

JJ\.{L> WT%fft bhdndaitt, f. mimickry, buf- 
" foonery ; a female mimic, an actress, s. 

vfrb.bhdn(Kr,m. the Indian fig-tree..?. 
bhdn* (for 65^ q. v.), m. a bamboo, d. 
bhditsi (for bdnsi q. v.), f. a flute, 
d. [shrub, h. 

bhdnhari, f. name of a 
HTOFTT bhdnhrd, m. a fop, a parasite. A. 

bhang, f. hemp (Cannabis sati- 
viu), of which an intoxicating potion is made. *. 


bhdngrd^\ in. one who is addicted to 
bhdngi, J the use of bhang, s. 
HtntT bhdnyerd, m. a seller of bhang, s. 

> WfTOlft bhdn-mati, ra. a female jug- 
gler, an actress. . [handsome, f, 
# Wplft bhdnumati, adj. f. beautiful. 
>?TnfT bhdnnd, a. to turn (on a lathe), 

to put into circular motion, to twist, wave, brandUh ; 
to break, destroy, h. 

bhdnu f m. the sun. s. 

bhdnuwdr, m. Sunday, s. 
bhdnwar, If. revolution, circu- 
bhdhrvrl,) lation. 

phirnd, to circle; to be sacrificed. *. 

bhdnollf f, a sort of bread. 

ol^j bahana, m. pretence, evasion, contriv- 
ance, excuse, pretext, p. 

bihane, early, soon. A. 

a,o, m. price, value, rate; friend- 

ship. h. 

bhdrv, m. state or condition of being; 

natural state, disposition, nature; meaning, purpose; 
sentiment, passion; will, notion, idea; living, being, 
existence, thing; choice, liking; blandishment; ge- 
ticulaation, acting, pantomime, expressing a meaning 
by signs a sudden idea or emotion of mind, bhdw- 
bat and t to gesticulate, s. 

bahd t o, m. flowing, a flood, s. 

rftcf bhdvit, animated, inspired; 
thoughtful, anxious, apprehensive, alarmed, s. 
J HTcTftT bhd.otd, amiable, dear, beloved, h. 
bhdwaj) f. a brother s wife, also 
"the wife of a wife's brother. *. 

jj^J HT77 bhdwah, m. the external expres- 
sion of amatory sentiments ; a friend, a lover, s. 

)jl^ KTfWT bhdmik, natural, innate, senti- 
mental, relating to feeling, s. 

J^l^ WTCcjft bhd.oft or bhdrvali, f. rent paid 

'in kind to a zaminddr, distribution of crop between 
the zaminddr and cultivator. bhd,oll-khil, land recently 
brought into cultivation. bhd t oli-pd, land long culti- 
vated, h. [cerning, in respect to. k. 

\ A . VT^- frharvn or bhd,on, regarding, con- 

bhavand or bhd,ond, f. mentul 

perception, recollection, the present consciousness of 
past ideas or perceptions; imagination; religious autl 
abstract meditation ; looking about, observing, investi 
gating; consideration; apprehension, contemplation, 
thought, doubt, fear, concern. *. 

Gjl^ *tm?{lbhd,ond or bhdrvnd,n. to please, h. 
bhdrvah, f. a younger brother's 

wife. s. 

bhdmi, ^future, what is about 
bhdwa,i,) to be, predestined. 8. 


( 136 ) 

bhdicen, postpos. masc. in the sen- 

timent, perception, mind, notion; in one's eyes, in 
eight, near, before, &c. h. [to be. s, 

b/tacya, what mu*t, will, or ought 

baha,im (pi. of *-*J^>), beasts, animals, 
wild beast*, bahajml, beastly, brutal, a. 
VV ftrcn$ biha,t,fa spirit supposed to tease 
ilnfants, whispering alternately sad and pleasing things 
in their ears, which is the cause of their laughing and 
crying in their sleep or waking, h. 

Jl$> HT$ bha,i, m. brother, also a friend or 
'comrade. bhaj-aAs, also Itha-.l-pansi and bha,i-hi?fa,the 
share or portion of a brother. . 

bhd y i'bdnt, m. fraternal 

community ; a term applied to a village owned by 
brothers, or descendants from one common stock, h. 

bhdf-bat (or bha t i-vat\ like 
a brother, fraternal . 

5, i band,m. brotherhood, 

brothers, friends, relations; also blia.i-bandi. s. 

b/td,i-chdrd, m." brother- 

td,i-chdrd, m."| 
bka,l~cltan, fj 


bka,l~cltan, fj hood, 
bahu-bachan, plural (in gram- 

mar). 5. 

bhabruty ashes of cow-dung, s. 

bhabkd, in. an alembic; a kind 
of drinking-vessel with a large mouth. *. 

H*nfiTTT bhabkand, a. to kindle, to 

light; to provoke, to exasperate, to enrage; to spur a 
horse. //. 

bhubaknd, n. to be enraged, to 
rush 'on with rage ; to catch fire ; to run with great 
rapidity (a horse), to bubble (as boiling water), to roar, 
to grumble, h. 

bhabki, f. threat. A. 

bihbal, agitated, alarmed, over- 

come with fear or agitation, unable to restrain one's 
self. *. 

*J^ bhabut^]?. ashes of cow dung (vide 


x^J bih-buci, m. 1 health, vigour, goodness, 
bih-budt,f.) welfare, p. 

bahbahd, flowing, gliding along; 
brave, bold ; public, notorious, h. [fortunate. *. 

L^I^J ^T|mn| bfthu-bhdyya 9 f. bahu-bhdyyd, 

J WIT or H^THT bhabhhar, m. solicitude, 

alarm, bhnbhar bJt abhor papta, n. to be alarmed, to 
be frightened. *. 

^^f^ WOn Miabhrdnd, a. to swell (par- 
ticularly the face), to entertain doubts. A. 
jj^> Wt?fT bhabharnd, n. to be solicitous, 
to be alarmed* to be frightened, h. 

bhabhak, f. sudden bursting 
forth of flame ; forcible expulsion of water from a 
fountain or pipe ; smell arising suddenly. A. 

$f$.> W3IRT bhabhaknd, n. to simmer, to 

bubble ; to emit steam, to boil. h. 

bhabbhal, fat, corpulent. A. 

bhabhut, f. ashes of cow-dung, 
which ascetics orjogis rub over their bodies. /. 

bhabhukd, m. blaze, flame, ex- 

plosion ; adj. red (as a coal): this is sometimes applied 
to the splendour of a beloved person's countenance; 
adj. splendid, beautiful. A. 

^ WTO bkapdrd, 1m. steam, vapour, 

b/tajt/edrd,) exhalation. 8. 
9 having many children j 

m. a tree (Echites scholaris). . 

/^ ^f T 9 ^ bahu-putri, f. a plant (Axpa- 

ragus racemoaus). s. 

bahu-patra, m. talc. s. 

baJiu-patrif f. a drug ( Trigo- 

nellafanum gracum). s, 

j ^^5 buhu-patu, very clever, s. 

bahu-parm, f. a medicinal 

plant (Trigonellafamum gracum). . 

Jjvtf *Fyffl%baltu-pravdh 9 flowing in many 

streams. *. 

^-^ H^nRT bhfipahrid (same %&bhabhakna) t 

to simmer, boil, &c. d. 

bhapola, m. a blister, c?. 
A^ WPtRTTT bhaphdrdt m. steam, vapour. $. 
brihu-phal, fertile, fruitful; m. 

the Kadauib tree (Nauclea cadamba). bahu-phaR, a^j. 
f. fertile ; f. the opposite-leaved iig-tree. *. 

bihpkai, m. Thursday, s. 

bahut, much, many, more, most; 

bahut ydr Jiona, to become more intimate than for- 
merly. . [sonry. x. 

ftlftf Uiitfi, f. a wall of earth or ma- 
ba/ttd, running (water), bahte 

panl meh hath dhona, to pay attention to one's friends, 
or attend to one's own duty or affairs while the oppor- 
ttfnity is favourable; to make hay while the sun 
shines, h. 

bh'dttd,, m. Indian corn or maize, 

. h. 

> bhattd, m. a pair of bellows, d. 

bahutat, f. excess, abundance. *. 
H?rnc bhatar, m. a husband. . 

j buhtdn, m. calumny, aspersion, false 
accusation, bnhtdn bandhnd, to calumniate, a. 
\ZQ VTHTflbkutdhd, devilish, peevish, fierce.*, 
buhutdyat f. abundance, 

plenty, multitude, s. 

tf biiitar, good, excellent, well, better, p. 
jty f^PC bahattar, seventy-two. A. 
jitf 1CT bahutra, in many ways or places, s. 
ijjitf bihtari, f. superior excellence, welfare, p. 
(jljty bihtartn, best, superior, p. 

U*>C^J ^WTITIT bahut-sd, a great deal, very 
much/ A. [a demon. . 

IjJ^ THTT bhutnd, m. a small devil, an imp, 

,*^ YTHtf bhutni, f. wife of an imp; a fe- 

" male demon, s. 

^^fyi 1r8tSR ba/iu-trvahh, in. the Bhoj or 

birch-tree. #. 
*y^J r^ bahutwa, m. plurality, multitude, 

abundance. . 

: bli.atta, m. an extra allowance for 

troops when marching; batta. h. 

ZQ ttfFglbhutahd, devilish, peevish, fierce. *. 

>bc^ ufniiTHT bhutiydnd, n. to be like a 
devil. 5. 

hatij a,m.nephcw, brother's son./r. 
HrfNft bhattji, f. niece, brother's 

"^daughter, s. , 

^ffRTT bahuterd, very much. s. 

WZbhat, f. misfortune, curse; an oven, 
a furnace, a kiln. bha$ parnd, n. to be cursed, to be 
unfortunate, to be lost (lit. to fall into the kiln), h. 

* '^ ^* bhat, m. a warrior, hero, soldier; 
a barbarian or outcast of a particular tribe, s. 

JiLtAj vrj bhaff, m. a learned man, a philo- 
sopher ; a title of Maharattha Brahmans. *. 

jk^ HfT bhattdj a ploughman's wages in 
kind. k. 

ii^ *1Z1 bhuttd. m. Indian corn (Zea may*)i 

^. yj W . . r ^ / 

any large bunch, the head or ear of corn ripened, h. 
ty b/tattd, m. a pair of bellows- d. 

bhattdchdrj m. (for bhat~ 

. . 

(acharya), the most learned of the learned ; a title 
given to the Kanaujiya Brahmaus: it is also applied 
to one who teaches any branch of Sanskrit literature. *. 

ttl bhtifhd, astniy, wandering. A. 

H^^JT^T bhathdnd, a. to baulk, to mis- 
lead, to deceive, to scare, to cause to wander, to lead 
astray, h. 

bhat-Jtatdj, "] if. the name 
bhat'kataiyd,} of a prickly 

plant (Solatium Jacqnini, Willd.}. h. 

^JJ^ H^'ohfiAIT bhat-kariya, a class of infe- 
rior rajputs. h. 

$Ci^ vnraRI bhataknd, n. to wander about 5 
to go astray, to miss the right path. h. 

tty WlH bhat-gaur, a subdivision of the 

Gaur raj-puts, q.v. A. 

HJ^TT bhatula, ra. a kind of bread made 

from the flour of the arher and other sorts of pulse. A, 
r, a tribe of Kdyaths. h. 
bhitntf f. a nipple. A. 
W^ bkatu, interj. O sister ! h. 

'$? *Tt$< bhatolar* lands allotted to Mate 
or bards ; also lands given to Brahmans. h. 

j^j bkutta, m. Indian corn, any large bunch. & 
bhattha, m. a furnace, kiln, oven. A. 

bhatthi, or iflft Mof At, f. a small 

"fire-place, a kind of furnace; a liquor-shop, distillery. 
bhattfii-ddr, one who keeps a spirit-shop. A. 

c5^A^ ^^TT bhatthi-d~ir, a person who 

manufactures and sells spirituous liquors, h. 

lj^i^) Hfinruj bhathijfard) m. (or bhathi- 

ydri, f.) a sutler, an innkeeper; one wiio prepares 
victuals for travellers in a sara. h. 

bhuthiydrpan, m. the 

business of a bhathiydra. h. 

inn, a caravanserai. /;. 

bhathiyar-khana, an 


bhathiyarin,'\f. a female 
bhathiyarl, / sutler. A. 
bhath'iyal, with the current, 

i.e. down the river, and not with the flood tide ; m. a 
kind of mnrxiya, or elegiac verses sung in praise of 
flasan ami J lit sain. h. 

bhathiyand, n. to go down 
the river ; to ebb (the tide), h. 
,Ji#> Wjt bhatti, f. a furnace, a kiln, an oven, 

"a still ; name of a raj-put tribe, h. 

bhata 9 i, f, praise from a poet 

/* [(in Bundlecund. A. 

bhatiyd, the poorest kind of land 
bhatiyard, m. (same as bfuithi- 

yura), a sutler, an innkeeper, h. 

jJjUi^ *rf<TirKtR bhatiydrpan (see bhathi- 

yarpan}. h. 

bhatiydrin,*\ f. a female 
bhatiyarij ) sutler. A. 
bhattiydndy the country of 

t\\eTbhatll raj puts. h. 

/;', m. the arm above the elbow ; 

one of the shorter sides of a right-angled triangle (i.e. 
the perpendicular or the base.) 5. 

mn bhujd, f. the arm above the elbow, s. 

bah-jdnd or ^f|ra|Ttn ba/ii- 
jdna, n. to flow, to go or swim with the stream ; to be 
ruined, to be destroyed, ft. 

bhajdnd, a. to cause to flee. h. 

bhijdnd, a. to cause to be wet, 
to wet. to moisten ; to cause to send. h. 

c 133 

bahjat, f. joy, pleasure, gladness, 
cheerfulness, alacrity, beauty, grace, excellence, a. 
lAsf^ K^ftf bhajat, serving, waiting upon; 
enjoying carnally. . [away. *. 

bhaji-jana, n. to flee, to run 

( ^fA^ >TinT bhajan, m. adoration, worship- 
ping, a hymn; enjoying carnally. bhajan-k.> a. to 
sing; to say prayers, to worship, s. 

Uasr^ *np!T bhajna, a. to worship, to count 

one's beads, to atlore. *. 

\jdE& H1PTT bhajna, n. to flee, to run away. h. 
Uasr^ *lf *n bhujna, m. parched or scorched 

grain. ,su 


)m. a serpent. 

jsr-A 1 ? vnff^ft bhujanga, in. a kind of shrike, 
commonly called "the king crow" (Lanius cam- 
lescen.1). bhujange urdnd, to be in great distress and 
poverty ; to spread fJse reports. A. 

JuLcr^ *nffNf bhajmk, m. a singer ; an 
adorer. *. [sent. A. 

bhijwdnd, a. to cause to be 

bhvjiyd (same as bhaji), f. 


greens. A. 

bhuchj barbarous, ignorant, h. 

(&(& v^nbhachah, alarmed, nghast, start- 
ing bhacliak rahna, to be amazed or astonished at a 
sudden and unexpected event. *. 

OK*# H^rWItfT bhachkana, a. to amaze, to 

strike with astonishment. A. 
U5^r4^ H*rajr?n bkachahna, n. to be asto- 

nished or amazed. A. [eating, s. 

i^ae&t >T*r*T bliachan (for bhahnhari), rn. food, 
IxJaf^ ^^^TT bhucharnpa, m. a kind of tree 

(Kffmpfcrm rotunda] ; also a species of fireworks re- 
sembling the flower of that tree. s. 

cLGssr^- >WJf bhuchaug, m. name of a bird 

(Lanius ceeritlesrenx). A. 

Sf bhaclik (for bhahdj), eatable, s. 

VT&8K lhachchhak (for bliahshak), a 

goriiiiindi/i'r, a devourer. s. 

Cil^rft? fH^gTSR bhichchhuk, m. a beggar. 5. 
U^sA^ *f^TT bhachhncLyb* to eat,totake food. s. 
ic-^^^' ^sfl 1 bhachchJii or bhakshi, m. an 

eater. . 

rf, f. a slap ; a crash. &. 
bkadddy stupid, senseless, dull. h. 

t -*J\ t \A^ H^T^i bhctdak, m. a crash, the noise 
made b/ any thing falling ; as, bkad or bhadak se gir 
para, it fell with a crash. A. 

tf ta^ vnjTOT Wiflrfa/<5, in. a sound or noise. &. 

> bih-dana, m. quince seeds, used aa a 
demulcent in certain complaints, p. 

bhadahar, grain cut when only 
half ripe. A. 

&*& >Ttp?? bhad-bhad, m. sound made by 

the fall of a fruit, or walking of a person, &c. A. 

l^J^J H^H^T^fT bhad-bhaddna, m. cutting 
grain when only half ripe ; shaking fruit from a tree. A. 

bhad-bhadana, a. to make 

a sound by striking two bodies together; to strike 
repeatedly ; to shake fruit from a tree. A. 

L^<H^(H^ ^*Tn? bhad-bhaddhatj. sound 

made by the fall of fruits. A. 

bhadra, happy, prosperous, lucky; 


m. prosperity, happiness ; a fragrant grans (Cyperus) ; 
a wagtail, s. 

H"5T bhadrd 9 m. name of a bird, a lark. s. 
bhadrd, f. an unlucky moment; 
the 2nd, 7th, and 12th days of the lunar month. 5. 

})&& ^UfTC* bkadrarak, m. one of the 18 

minor dwipas, or divisions of the world, s. 
i ^J.4\^> >T^T^R bhttdrdmn> m. a throne, a 
peculiar posture of medkation used by devotees; the 
legs bent and crossed underneath, and turned so as to 
bring the ancles in contact with the perineum, whilst 
the soles of the feet are held close to the sides s. 

bhmlrdshucij in. one of the four 

maha-dwipas into which the known world is divided, 
or one of the nine khandas or smaller divisions of the 
continent : in either case it is the east division, s. 

bhadrd-haran,m.*\w virig.s. 
bhadra-pada, f. name of the 

26th and 27th lunar asterisins. a. 

bhadra-parna, f. a bhrub 

(Pccderia foetida). s. 

JL> i^.>T5^n!ff bhadra-parniy f. a tree (Gnie- 
" Una arbored) ; a shrub (Pccderia foetida). s. 

frj^ty H^nH bhadra-jau, m. the seed of the 
Echites or Wrightea antidysenterica. . 

J^?"J^ H1TT bhadra-chur, m. a sort of 

euphorbia (Euphorbia tirucalli). s. 
jta^ *ry%n$bhadra-ddru, m. a sort of pine 

1(Plnus devadaru). s, 


k) beautiful, pleasing ; re- 
spectable,worthy ; lucky, fortunate ; m. or f. advantage, 
produce; nature, genius, reason; beauty, goodness, 
pleasantness; m. a sort of grass (Cyperus pertenuis) ; 
a sort of pine (Pinu* devadaru). s. 

^J^ H^^IQ^ bhadr-kdK., f. one of the 
"names of a Hinda goddess ; a fragrant grass (Cypertu 
pertenuis or rotundus). J. 

bfuxdra-gaiulhikd, f. a 

creeping plant (Asclepias pseudosarsa, the narrow- 
leaved variety). *. 

C 139 ) 

bkadra-mustak, m. a 

fragrant grass (Cypenu per tennis), s. [cordifolia. s. 

bhadrodniy f. a plant (&Y2a 

bhadra-rvalfiy f. Arabian 

"jasmine (Jasminnm zambac); the large Bengal creeper 
racemosa). *. 

bhadr-hondy n. to be clean 

or purified by shaving one's head and beard after 
mourning, or in a holy place, s . 

)<M^ **"5^ bhadriy m. an astrologer; a 

palmister, s. 

fy&k? ^4^*4 bhadra-yavy ra. the seed of the 
Echites or Wrightea antidysenterica. s. 
&A$<\} ^efi^oM bahu-dugdhikdy f. a plant 

yielding a caustic, milky juice (euphorbia of various 
sorts), s. [sugar-cane, h. 

bhadrcdry land prepared for 

bhadarvriydy name of a tribe 
ofrdj-puts. h. [bad. *. 

bahu-doshy full of faults, very 
uhudhdy in many ways, sorts, &c.; 

* * \S * 

usually, often, s. 

uX^.) ^fTUT bahdliu, f. pain, distress, obstruc- 
tion, hindrance, prevention, s. 

l^lj&ju^j *f?WT?T bahudhagaty dispersed, 

scattered, s. 

bahu-dhan, wealthy, rich. s. 

bhada,l, the produce of the month 

Bhddofi. s. 

bhadesaly T ill-shaped, ugly, 

bhadesala,) awkward. /*. 
li^,.) V^T bhada or >TTT bhara, a kind of grass 

used for fodder. A. [(v. dakaut). h. 

bji^ Hsflm bhadariya, m. name of a tribe 

-^ bahar, f. a fleet, buhri, on account of 
'ba-har, in every (this is used only in phrases from the 
Persian), a p. 

A> *Hbhar, full ; as much as, as far as ; all, 

every, size, bulk, whole, up to. bhar malcdur or miik- 
dur-bhar, to the best of one's power, 'umr-bhar, all 
lifetime. It is sometimes used in composition, without 
expressing any meaning, unless it is "a," as ser-bhar, 
a ser ; bans bhar, (the height or length of) a bamboo ; 
/cos bhar, a kos, whereas bhar kos would mean a full 
kos, &c. s. 

jfa bhir (also bhir), m. a species of insect, a 

wasp, a bee, (perhaps from the Sanslqrit bhrhig, q. v.) 
({) N. B. This word occurs repeatedly in the Ifcliwdnu-f- 
tqfaf pages 113 to 116. h. 

j ^S^ bahur or ^ft bahuri, again, h. 
j# WX bhar, name of one of the aboriginal 

races of India, h. 
j^ qf&bahir, out, without, bahir ana, n, UN 

issue, to come out, bahlr-desh, remote or foreign 
country, bahir-mukh, the neglect of any moral or re- 
ligious duty; adj. 'impious. *. 

Mar? a, m. a panic, fuuj men 

bharra para, the army was seized with a panic, ft. 
bhara, full, overflowing, s. 

bahra, or ^fftT bahira, ('eaf. 7i. 

^ W *TiTT bhrdtd,\ 

~\ * _ , r m brother.* 

iky 1 fraternal, bro- 
bhrdtriyay J therly. s. 
bahrdruy m. an upstart, a 

stranger, h. 

J bahrdmy the planet Mars; name of 
several kings of Persia; Varanes. JQL 

>, m. epilepsy. $. 
bhrdmarly epileptic, s. 
bhrdmahy in. a cheat, a rogue, s. 
j ^tr^TT bhurdndy a. to wheedle. A. 

bahurdndy a. to bring back, to 

cause to return, h. 

bahirdndy a. to divert, to amuse, h. 

1 >W*n bhardndy a. to fill, to cause to fill; 
to cover (a mare). *. [blundering, erring, s. 

bhrdntdy whirled, revolved; 

bhrantiyC. error, ignorance; re- 
volving, wandering . [a wanderer, s*. 
bhrdntdy one who is gone astray, 

fifiitf bhrdntimdn, adj. erring, 

wandering s. 

bhrdntiy f. erring, wandering, s. 
bhardwaty f. act of filling; 

any thing in which they fill any substance. *. 

31^^ >TT>TUR bharbhdndy rn. name of a 
prickly poppy (Argemotie Mexicana). h. 
r&j& WCgtT bhurbhurdy dry and in a state 

of powder, h. 

^tyj&l ^S^^ bhurbhnrdndy a. to throw 
or sprinkle sugar or salt upon meat. h. 

J&J& *^ro*n bhfjrbhcf randy a. to swell and 
be glossy (particularly the face, as in fever). 3. 

$&&> Wrtl bharbhari,f. a swelling, a sore. 
bhurbhuri, a light sandy soil. h. 

>^^ HT^ITtn bhar-pdndy a. to be paid, to 

receive the full amount; met. is expressed when a 
person is disappointed ; as, main ne bhar pay a, 1 a in 
paid ; or still more idiomatic, " 1 am paid with a wit- 
ness." h. 

": bhar-pdyiy f. a receipt in full. h. 
bharpatwdy a subdivision of 

the bhar tribe, h. 

C 140 ) 





bhar-pefij pot-bellied. 7*. 
> HTW bharat, name of Rama's brother; 

tne son of Diishyanta, and first monarch of all India. 
lharat khand, m. one of the nine divisions of the world, 
between Lanka and Sumeru, t. e. India from Ceylon 
to Tartary ; also the amount of revenue paid by an 
individual or party. *. 

4> >?# bkart,or >TTif bharat, ID. a mixed 

metal composed of copper and lead ; the name of a 
bird (a species of lark); the full amount of rent paid 
by a person, h. [bourer. *. 

bhrit, m. a servant, a hired la- 
J >|fif bhriti) f. wages,hire, ma intenance.*. 
A ^ritt bharta t m. a cherisber, supporter, a 

husband.* t. 

5^ Htl bhartd, or >J#T b/wrta, m. vege- 
tables boiled or fried and broken or pressed in the 
hand. *. ' [f. reproach, abuse. *. 

*frn bhartsnd, m. threat, menace; 
bharat-kul, a tribe of B rah mans so 

called. h. 

>rjO^>. ^^CW^ bharat-vars/i, m. India 
(BO called from Bharata, son of Dushyanta, its first 
monarch), s. [a slave. *. 

bhritya, m. an attendant, servant, 
^ Witt bh(irti,f. completion; filling; load- 

* 'ing, cargo; vulgarly used for promotion. bJiartt-k., 
to recruit. *. [in the metal called bhart. h 

bhartiya, m. a brazier, a worker 
lx>^ WRl bhrityd, f. hire, wages. .<?. 
&x>.gj *Tjq bhrifya,m. a dependant, a servant./?. 

liU-*.s >T(1|MT bhar-jdna, n. to be filled; to 
be lined (a bitch) ; to be broken- winded (a horse from 
severe exercise), h. 

Wiarjan, m. frying, boiling, s. 
# &/tar-dan<?,1 galloping at full speed. 

i!>U\^ bhar-ddnd,) bhar-ddnd phenknd, to 

go at full speed, d. 

*-^^ ? ^TTynf bharadwdj, m. a skylark, s. 
jr.*- "> bit-hdi'-fidl, by every means, somehow 

or other. . ;'. 

ll>^*^J >TT^rrT bhar-dena, a to pay ; to darn ; 
to fill ; to reimburse, h. 

C!AM>^ OT bhrnnht, fallen, lost, depraved, 
debased, polluted, abominable, vicious, dissolute. 
bhraxfak; a. to pollute, to seduce. bhrasfM-hona, n. to 
be polluted ; (o calcine, bhrashfa-rajya, deposed, de- 
prived of a kingdom. 

. :*.^.AJ vflf bhrisftta, fried. 3. [case. p. a. 
^ ta-har surat, in every aspect, or 

> bahar tour, by every means, by any 
means, somehow or other. f>, a. 

bharha, m. slaked lime. h. 

bkarkana, a. to slake (lime). 
bhirkdna, a. to cast, throw, dart. p. 

5^*J& *F!fi bhrihutt, f. the eyebrow, a 

frown, a contraction of the brows. *. 

Pj^f>. ba-har kaif, by any means, any- 
how. p. a 

J& ^3 bhrigu, the name of a celebrated 
Muni. *. [Bhrigu, a tribe of r/-p/*. h. 

bhriyu-banxi, descended of 

bhram, or HTW bharam, rn. error, 

mistake, doubt, suspicion, apprehension, perplexity ; 
blunder, slip. *. 

bhrami,f. error, blunder, mistake, s. 

pj&l >TT^/;//arm,,character. bhtiram 
ganwana, n. to lose character. *. 

"^rA^ HTHTtfT bharmana, a. to excite by 
throwing out temptation ; to deceive ; to perplex, to 
alarm. /?. [round, roving, erring. 

. Wfif b/tramat, adj. whirling, going 
K bhramar, m. a large black bee ; 

vertigo, epilepsy. *. 

4r^ri} ^?T*n<? lahar-muhh, m. the neglect 

or violation of any moral or religious duty ; impious. *. 
j*jty *JHTU bhraman, rn. whirling, going 

round ; walking, roaming. . 

(^j& ***^ bhrtimi or >T^Tt bharnvi, apprehen- 
"sive, doubtful, scrupulous, whirling, going round, s, 

jy^ H^ificST bharmild, ambiguous, doubt- 

ful, confounded, scrupulous, h. 

&>. **W or HT.tT bharan, to, up to (same as 

talc), bliaran, m. cherishing, maintaining, rearing, 
the act of filling, paying in lull. h. [door. h. 

bhirnd, to be open or ajar (a 
biharnd, n. to rejoice, to take 

pleasure ; a. to enjoy, to delight. *. 

bliarnd, a. to fill, load, satisfy, 

perform, discharge (a debt) ; to undergo, to suffer, to 
daub; n. to abound, to be filled, to heal (a wound), h. 

HTrH bharndykcl of filling or complet- 
ing ; to give property in repayment of a debt : it also 
denotes the vessel that receives the expressed juice 
of the sugar cane. A. [back. h. 

^ f<{| bahurnd, n. to return, to come 
titiransh, m. falling, declining, s. 

> *$ Wiring jVi. a large bee, enamoured 
of the lotus, the humble bee. s. 

Wiring-raj, m. name of a 

kind of shrike (Lanius Malabarirus) ; name of a medi- 
cinal herb or spreading shrub (Eclipta prostrata, Lin. 
I erbesina prostrata, or Verbesina scan dens, Roxb.). t. 

bhringah, m, a bird, a sort of 

shrike (Lunms Afalabaricus). t. 

l> jf^ 


' bhringi, f. a kind of wasp (Vespa 

f , a large black bee, a humble bee. bhringt- 
phal, m. the hog plum, s. 

J~*J&* *I*H^ bahu-rangl, of many colours, 
"met. fickle, unsteady. *. 

bharm, f. weft, woof. s. 

ha rani, f. the name of the second 

" lunar mansion (three stars in Musca), figured by the 
pudendum mulirbre. *. for load. *. 

bharn-ana, a. to cause to fill 
Wiry-bhang, m. a frown, s. 
balm-rap, adj. multiform ; m. 

bahu-rupa, m. a chamelion. 5. 
,u-rupi, 1m. an actor, a 

\A> ^J W ^ fM ^ I bahu-rupiya,) mimic, a per- 
son assuming various characters and disguises. *. 

bahu-rupyaj m. mimicry, s. 
' bharauti, f. a release in full. h. 

bharota, m. a load of grass or 
hay. h. 
**>jjj *t<ta'l bharosa, m. hope, dependence, 

faith, confidence, bharosd k. t to hope, to rely. *. 

>**>jj^ HTt^ bharosau (Braj, for bharosa), 

hope, trust, &c. *. 

^bahuron, again, a second time. h. 
bhrun, m. pregnancy ; a fcetus, a 

child, bhrun-fiatya, f. murder of the fcetus, causing 
abortion, s. 

$} ^TMTT bharauna, m. a load of wood. h. 
bahra, m. property, fortune; quota, 

share, portion ; profit, gain, advantage, bahra-mand or 
bahta-war, or bahra-andoz, fortunate, prosperous, pro- 
fitable, bahra-mandi, f. prosperity, p. 

/'4? *Td bhari, f. the weight of one sicca 

rupl, or one tola. *. 

cjty H^ bhare, a grass which grows in tho 

jungles, used for thatching and making tatties, h. 

SM-* fa&ft bihri, f. a subscription to raise a 

!fV * 

certain sum, an assessment, quota, share, u. 

buhrl, f. fried or parched barley, h. 

bahrl, f. a falcon, female hawk 
(Falco calidus, Lath.), bahri-bacha, the male of the 
same species, h. 

bharaj, f. a kind of cess or tax. h. 
bahriya, a stranger, s. 
bahuriya, f. a daughter-in-law. *. 

bfuiriya, land watered by irri- 
gation, h. 

141 ) 

\>.j& bharya (for Mara), full, filled, d. 
j.> ft/At r, m. a species of insect, a wasp. k. 

bahu-rekha, ra. pi. wrinkles, 

furrows. *. 

4t> W Ma r, m. a large boat, a lighter, h. 
S bhur, f. a hole through which water 

runs out. h. 

bhara, a kind of grasp, v. bhada. h. 
irana, a. to join, to place close 
to, to close in battle (armies) ; to cause to fight, h. 
*!;4? fast^ ft/lira ,t, f. the closing of two 

armies in battle, h. ' 

WIptH 6/ar-ft/m/'5w5, to flutter. A. 

^rftrfT bharbhariya, simple, can- 
did, without guile. A. 
-"%> H?4in Wiarbhunjat m. a man who 

parches grain; name of a caste of Hindus whose occu- 
pation is to parch grain. *. 

(f&fttyg W^R bharbhunjan, f. a woman 

who parches grain. *. 

b, ^ HTfon bharariyd, m. a conjuror, h. 
\jy%> bharara, m. the heleric myrobalan. d. 

/,ara*a,t, m. v. bhar. h. 
bharaky f. splendour, blaze, flash, 

show ; perturbation, agitation, alarm, starting (in 
animals), h. 

^^/&? HTolTRT b/inrhana, n. to frighten, to 
scare ; to blow up into flame. /*. 

\Jfcjty bkarhalj a large door or gate. //. 

Ui ; .^ ^i^K'ril bharahna, a. to start, to shrink, 

to be scared, to be alarmed, to be blown up into a 
flame, h. [coy. h. 

JjjJ HfS)(<$ bharkel, wild, untamed, shy, 

ty : fa> H^^lgT bharkild, splendid, glitter- 

ing. h. 
j^> f>Tpn bkirna, n. to close (as two ar- 

mies), to come together, to be joined, to shoulder, to 

join, to be placed together, touching each other ; to 

be continuous, h, 

ljLi 5 ^ *rj]f bharang, simple, undesigning, 

silly, artless, having the quality of telling secrets 
without reserve, h. 

jj^j *VjfVT bknru,a t m. a pimp, one who 

lives on what a prostitute earns, ft. 

? ^f^T^ bharu,a,l or bharwa y i, f. pan- 
derism, pimping; the w;iges of prostitution, h. 

C 142 ) 

bhirha, m. a wolf, s. 

bharait, *] 
' ' >rn. 


4 , , 

a tenant, lessee, h. 


> cnaff - 

(lit. an assignment on chaff), i.e. an assign- 
ment from whence nothing can be obtained, s. 

*** bhas, m. ashes, cinders, s. 

ftr* bhis, the edible root of the lotus, h. 

>n?RT bhasana, a. to launch, to set 
afloat. *. [carrying grain, h. 

bhasawan, a tax on boats 

bhas-bhaxd, weak, soft, 
flabby (as meat). A. [ragus). *. 

*r?*TrTT bahu-suta, f. a plant (aspa- 
W^firrSET bhax-tiJihd, m. a steak, chop, 

or collop. /i. [mons veneris. s. 

bhasad, f.' pudendum muliebre; 
Ihusra, ni. a kind of inferior 
wheat, /i [snake), rf. 

*TO3fcRTV bhuskarna, n. to hiss (as a 
pniTC bhuihara, m. the breathing 

or hissing of a snake, d. [down, h 

bhasahna, n. to fall, to drop 
(same as bhusera). s. 

bhitalna, m. to be dazzled 
(the sight), h. 
."'^^ >TW bhasma or >HR bhasam, f. ashes. 

bhasma-snan, art of smearing the body with the ashes 
of cow-dung, s. 

l***-^> >T*TO bhasmaltj m. a disease of the 
eyes, thickening of the membranes an$ indistinctness 
of vision ; morbid appetite, s. 

j+*+fy> W?TJ!T bhasma- ffarbha, f. the sisu 
tree, or a variety of it (Dalbergia sisu). s. 

bhasmant, m. ashes, jr. 

bhasml-hrit, reduced to 
ashes, calcined, s. [cining. s. 

H^^*IOT bhasml-karan, m. cal- 

bhasna, n. to float, s. 

bahasna, for USrfi, q. v. a. 
bahu-su, f. the mother of many 
children. *. 

bhusauri, f.1 the place in a 
bhusauld f m.J dwelling-house 

for keeping straw, &c. *. | 

j^^^j ^^ffh^T bhusaunda, m, a hole, a ca- j 

vity, a place to put chaff in. t 


8^W bhusehra,^ 

m. a place where 
corn or chaff is 
kept. s. 
bahu-shahh, having many 

branches, s. 

l+2+ig bihisht, f. Paradise, bihishtl, of or 
belonging to Paradise ; m. a water-carrier, p. 

bahu-shatru, having many ene- 
mies, s. [woman, h. 

'&$} falTc? bhishtal 9 f. a foolish or stupid 
bhaahira, f. a sort of beet (Beta 

Bengalensis). s. 

~*M ^5^ bahuli, m. a plant (Asclepias yi- 

gantea). s. 

J bhihart, m. a beggar, a mendicant, d. 
bahu-kdl, m. a long time. s. 

* >T^TRT bahhdnd, a. to baulk, to disap- 
point, to mislead, to deceive, h. 

J "W^bhakt, m. an adorer, one who has 

devoted himself to a religious life, a votary, zealot; 
a Hindu performer, a dancer, a player, adj. attached, 
devoted, pious ; desirous, bhakta-ruj, lord of the de- 
vout, God. bhaJcta-td, devoteduess, attachment to. s. 

raj-puts, h. 

b/iakti, f. persuasion, religion, 

faith, attachment, desire. *. 

bkukta, eaten, eating, s. 

bkaktdyty f. faith, devotedness. *. 

bhaktimdn. m. | 

bhakttmat, m. 

\ devoted, 
Htwfin bhahtimati, f. 


bhuksdy name of a forest tribe of 
bhahsit f. a dungeon, a dark 

"room in which revenue defaulters (in native states) 
are confined, h. 

; fWufT bhikshd, f. begging ; alms. s. 

L5^ f*T3fnrPf bhikshd-pdtra, m. a beg- 
gar's bowl, a wallet for collecting alms. *. 
bhalishit, eaten, s. 

bhakshak, gluttonous, vora- 
cious ; a feeder, an eater. 3. 

bikshuk, m. a beggar, s. 
.) TOpr bhakshan, m. eating, s. 

Hlfrfta bhakshamya, eatable, to be 
eaten, s. 

143 ) 

bkakshl, m. an eater, s. 
bhakshya, eatable. *. 

bahakna, n. to be baulked^ 

to he disappointed, to be deceived, to stray, to be in- 
toxicated. h. 

fied. h. 

bahu-hfiMtah, in a prickly 
plant (Hedi/sarum alhagi) ; the marsliy date tree. *. 
bhaku,a, foolish, stupid. A. 

bhahu,ana, n. to be sttipi- 
[stuff, to eat. h. 
bhaltosnd, a. to devour, lo 

bhihlidrl, m. a heggar. .v. 

bhJJthri, f. an unfilled grain; 
a shrivelled grain, /i. 

bhakhna, a. to oat, to devour. ,v. 

, f. vulva; prosperity, su- 
preme power, s. 

; >?nn bhvggd, simple, foolish. 7i. 

J >PTTTT bhayana, a. to drive off, to put 
to flight h. 

; fHHTn bkigdnd, a. to wet, moisten. A. 

OTTf bhagat, m. (for bhnht, q. v.), a 
religious mendicant, bhagat-k., to disguise, bhagat- 
khelna, n. to be disguised, to act (a play), to mimic. 
bliagat-hond, n. to be initiated as a devotee ; to be 
affiliated to a religious order. This is peculiar to the 
low tribes. The initiation consists in putting a neck- 
lace of beads round the neck and marking a circle on 
the forehead ; after which the initiated person is 
bound to refrain from the use of spirituous liquors 
and flesh, &c. s. 

bhagtd, name of a tribe of ahlrs, 
q. v. h. [requite, to cause to enjoy, s. 

VpTcTRT bhuytdnd, a. to distribute, to 

bhagatd,i, f. sanctity, life of 
a devotee, *. 

1*1^ WiWR bhugatmdn 9 i\t to enjoy, de- 
serving punishment, s. 

*pty Hmnf bkagtan, f. wife of a Bhagat ; 
(ironically) a lewd woman, a prostitute, a whore, h. 
u^J WTiTriT bhugatnd) a. to f MI joy, to suffer, 

to receive the reward of virtue or punishment of a 
crime, s. 

ofjtiydj m. a dancing boy. A. 
bhagal, in. affectation, hypo- 

crisy, trick, deception, bhagal-nikdlnd, a. to play a 
trick, to pretend poverty. /*. 

^t^cj^ft^ WTcSffrnnn bhagli-gahnd, ra. false 

jewels, trinkets. A. 

Ul^ *nrfcirT bhayliya, m. trick, cheat, im- 

imposture; impostor, h. 

lyZ-tf ^^J*ff bahu-gun,m.'\ many times; hav- 
IxC^ l^*pMbahu-gund, f./ing many good 

qualities. 3. 

jtty mnf bltagna, torn, broken ; defeated. *. 

X^> VTnff bhayna (also bhayina), m. a 
brother. . 

bhagnds, disappointed. *. 
bhagandar or bhugandar, m. 

a fistula (m ano). 5. 

bahu-gandh, m. olibanura. & 

bahu-yandhd, f. Aral nan 
jasmine. 5. [sister. *. 

ftty HfTTft bhagini, or Wtft bhagnl, f. a 
j >Tnr bhftggiij in. a deserter, a runaway. A. 

)V%? HTRTH bhagwdn, adorable, divine; 
m. the Deity, the Supreme Being. *. 

r bhnyn-dn, m. cloth dyed with 
i, a kind of red colour or ochre. A. c 

bhagrvana, a. to cause to flee 

or run away. /*. 
O^J HTRrT bbagftmat, divine, glorious; 

the Deity, the Most High. h. [fierier. fc. 

Ij ; y^ >nffarT bhayord, in, a runaway, a de- 

bltigona, a. to wet, to steep, h. 
bhagawant, divine, glorious, 

illustrious ; the Deity, the Most High. *. 

j^A?. ** J ff'%F bhagonhd, in. the reddish co- 
lour extracted from geru ; a kind of ochre, h. 
^& VfxftCT bhagirath, m. a king whose 

austerities brought the river Ganga from heaven. *. 
jJ^ Hit^ bhayel, f. overthrow, defeat; in. 
a runawa}% a deserter. A. 

/, f. a two-wheeled car (for 
riding in, not for baggage), coach, carriage, h. 

bhal, good, well, bhal-gkoriya* 

well-mounted ; <n. a cavalier. *. 

bhal, m. side, direction, sir he bhal, 
head-foremost, h. 

bahul, much, many. 8. 

bhala, good, excellent, benevolent, 
kind, healthy, virtuous, righteous, sound; strange, 
wonderful, admirable, comical, droll, bhald ddm't, m. 
a person of respectability, a gentleman ; (iron.) a silly 
fellow, bhald changa, in good order, perfect, in 
health, bhald manna, to take well. s. 

bahtid, f. barren (generally ap- 

plied to cattle), bahuld (in 8. India), the dark fort- 
night of the lunar month, h. 

bhulat, f. forgetfulness. d. 

bhulana, a. to cause to forget ; 
to inveigle, to mislead, to deceive, to fascinate, to 
coax. h. 

q%$g\ft\bahlana&. to divert, to amuse.//. 
bhuldrra, m. deception, fraud, 

a cheat, deceit. Wiuldwii fand, a. to deceive, to pUf a 

trick, h. 

144 ) 

bhilawan 9 \ m. a nut used for 
f*r$m?lbkjlawan,j marking clothes, 
&c., commonly called Malacca bean (Semicarpus <ma- 
cardium). s. 

> *&l\ bhala,i, f. goodness, welfare, h. 

n? bhal-pan, m. goodness, ex- 
cellence. A. 
U\ J^ J# W3J*9OTRT b/ial-bhal ujala, 

broad day- light, d. 

*$$<^& Hgreraft bhal-puchchhi, f. a plant 

(Hedysarum lagopod'wides). 9. 

bahulatwa, m. abundance. 3. 

snoy n. to be singed, 

scorched. A. bear. *. 

or H?plf bhalluk, ID. a 

bJialka, m. a gold patch fixed on 
the nose-ring; ; a kind of bamboo; dawn of day. A. 
bhalitky, f. marking nut. s. 

rjjjWTO bhal-manuSf courteous, 
polite, humane. x. 

LJ*J# ^T^HHimr bhal-manxdt, f. hu- 
manity. f. [ture, benevolence. *. 

bhal-munsi, f. good-mi- 

bahalna, n. to be diverted, to 
be amused, h. 

bhalluk, m. a bear. s. 
> bafiful or bahlol, a virtuous prince ; a 

joker, one who smiles ; ft man's name famed in Orien- 
tal anecdotes, like our Joe Miller, a. 

bhilaunjl, f. the seed of the 

hhildwati. s. [glove, p. 

^> bahla, m. a privy purse, a falconer's 
baldi, f. a two-wheeled car (for 

riding in, not for baggage), a coach, a carriage, h. 

bahaliya, m. a huutsraan, a 

kind of retainer armed with bow and arrows, h. 

btihHm, name of a pmall tribe 
of Muhammadans near Mlrat and Dasna. h. 

) baluim, together, one with another, one 

against another, baham ana, to be procured, acquired. 
baham pahnnchand, a. to get, to acquire, to procure. 
baham pahunclind, to be procured, p. [rence. s. 

WHl<r| bahu-man, m. respect, reve- 
WRtftt bhambheri, f. a butterfly, h. 
HTrfT bhamna, a. to revolve, s. 

\ W^RTT bahmanetd, a young Brah- 
man. h. 

bahu-murtii multiform, s. 

bahu-mul, many-rooted. *. 

bahu-mulya,CQ8dy, precious. *. 

bhanii, f. revolution, whirling; 
wauderRig. *. 

bhumyan, m. landholder. *. 

or bahan f. a sister. *. 
MSTW or bhinna, separate, different, 

other, apart, (in arithm.) a fraction, bhinn bhinn, 
rious, severally, 

bi/tan or bihin, m. a seed. h. 

bnhnay n. to flow, to glide ; to float; 
to blow. s. [broiled, h. 

bhunna, n. to be fried, dried, parched: 

r^RT bhinnana, n. to have a singing 

in the ears, to be giddy ; to sound (as shot, and brass 
pots, &c ). /*. 

bhunna.ia, a. to fry, parch, &c. A. 

*nrC bhinn-bhag~har, m. di- 
vision of fractions, s. 
UU^fi^ f^rffinTRT bhinbhinana or bham- 

bhandnd, n. to bu/z (as a fly), to hum (as a bee). A. 

ci^&lx^ja^ ftrtlfailV^Zbhmbhinahat, f. buzz, 

hum (of bees), h. 

i^Jj^ HWJWT bhambhu y a 9 an ascetic or 

fakir who is pressed by hunger to rob. A. 
Oj^x^ Wfft?n bhamboriii, "la. to bite (and 
^3^4^^. WtT5n^/Am6Aorwa,J mumble as 

a dog), to worry. A. 


n r - K- a butterfly. A. 
itaniberii j 

bltanit, sounded, uttered. ^. 

bhunta, a ploughman's wages in 
kind ; the egg-plant (Solatium mdongend). h. 

^lyi^ fHTp^T^r bhinticasj m. a sort of 

pulse, h. 

\*J*^> >T^?TO bhantica&j m. the name of a 

grain, the fruit of the ko,l t or water-lily, h. 
>T3TT bhunja, rn. parched grain. 7i. 

bhcwjana, a. to change (mo- 
ney). 5. [ing. *. 

bkanjat, adj. breaking, destroy- 
bhanjak, adj. who or what 

breaks, severs, s. 

^.^4^ HfR bhanjan, destroying, breaking, 
demolishing, separating, afflicting; m. breaking, &c. *. 

33^ H^p bhand, m. a mimic, jester, buffoon, 
actor ; confusion, spoiling, bhdnf-hood, n. to be de- 
stroyed, spoiled. A. 

ii^ f^?B bihand, land cut up by a torrent. A. 

( 145 ) 

btuwda, m. a large earthen pot. 
bhandd phupnS, n. to be disclosed (a secret). * . 
ii^ ^T^^Tt bhandar, m. a place where 

household goods are kept, a storehouse. *. 

^AA^ >T^TO bhandard, m. a feast ofjogut, 

tanyasts, &c. A. 

fj' t ^4? H^Kl bhandari, m. a house-steward, 
one who has charge of the storehouse, a treasurer. *. 

bhandsarj \f. the provision 
Js^ *t4fJ4fl<$ bhand-sal,) which is pre- 
viously reserved for years, s. 

Uili^ H^iHl^ hhandsali, m. one who 

reserves provision for years. 8. 

bhandak, m. a wagtail, s. 
bhnndUj f. a kind of worm 

' covered with hair, the palmer-worm. A. 

bhandauwa, m.satire,ribaldry.^. 
bhandoU, t. two or more jars 

borne one over the other, d. 

<&$> fW?# bhindl, f. the name of a vege- 

table (Hibiscus esculentus). A. 

TRt bhinde-&hana f m. the 
room appropriated to the apparatus of the $ua. A. 

' > 

bkandela, ) 

bhandelan, f. an actress, s. 
bhinsar, m. dawn of day. A. 
bhansara, a subdivision of the 

a/r tribe. A. 

M4HI bhansna, n. to float, h. 

f^nf bhinna-sanhalit, m. 
addition of fractions. *. 
j^Wtirmbhanak orft^TW Mma^, f. a low 

sound ; a rumour, report ; hum of insects. *. 

LiJ^ frrapfi bhinnahy m. a heterodox sec- 
tary, a seceder, a Bauddha or Buddhist, s. 

xX$^ ft?nin bhirwkna, n. to buzz as a fly ; 
to be covered with flies, to swarm. A. 

ang, f. hemp (v. bhang). 8. 

bhang, m. breaking, destruction, 
defeat, sporting ; adj. broken, torn, defeated, t. 
x^ *TJfT bkanga, f. hemp, name of a species 
of bird ; also name of a species of insect. A. 
Uu^> *nP** bhangan, m. a sort of fish (Cy- 
primu banggana). A. [bird. t. 

bhang-raj > m. name of a 
? 1 bhangra, m. the name of an herb 

(Eclipta or Perkxina pro$trata). ' t 

>m. an actor, s. 

bhangan, t. the wife of a halal* 

4ior, q. v. A. [bhang. . 

bhangan, f. a female drinker of 
*3pn bhangna, t. a kind of fish. A. 

bhinna-gunanf m. multipli- 
cation of fractions. *. 

J*)&& finrffW bhinna-gotra, m. one not be- 
longing to the same family. . 

Hylfmi bhangoriya, name of a tribe 

q.v. h. [tkra. t. 

^xi^ faginT bhinna-ghan,m. cube ofafrac- 
bhanyi, m. a caste of sweepers, or 


Wjft bhangi, m. a drinker ^of bhang; 
"f. fraction, division ; fraud, trick, f. 

(^^ ^Tff^ bahangl, f. a bamboo stick with 

"ropes hanging from each end, for slinging baggage to. 
which is carried on the shoulder, bahangi-bardar or 
bahan^l wdld, m. the man who curries the bahangL t. 

fc^ty **j^O bhangera, m. one who sells 
bhang, s. [sells bhang, t. 

o;&> *Tjpra bhangeran, f. a woman who 

*&> >*3Fc?T bhangela, m. coarse hempen 

cloth ; also a bark or pannier made from the fibres of 
the bhang-plant, s. 

inna-vat,di vided,scattered. s. 
bhinnodar, in. a half-brother, 

brother not by the same mother. *. 

bihnaur, f. a seed-plot, nurse- 

ry (for plants). A. 

bhanwar, m. a whirlpool, eddy j 
a large black" bee, a creeper. *. 

j*4f} 4^n Ikunwra, m. a large bee j a 

climbing plant, creeper, t. 

Mtannwr-kaK, f. a kind of 

" halter (for horses or dogs, &c.>. h. " In South India this 
word denotes a swivel. (Binning.) 

dL^y^ 6nnpt bhinna-varg, m. square of a 

fraction, s. 

vUy> T*PT bhanwag, a small class of raj- 
puts. h. [m. substraction of fractions. *. 

'H binna-vyavakalit 

yl, m. a brother-in-lav 
a sister's husband, f. [sister's husband, j. 

bahnefi (same as baJmo,l), a 

i, f. handsel, first sale, earnest- 
money. A. 

bahaneU, f. an adopted sister, j. 


( 146 ) 

, f. daughter-in-law, aon'b wife ; 

a wife. . 

ift b/tau, m. fear, dread, terror. *. 
j ^ bhu, f. the earth, the world ; place, 

site, land or soil. . 

*n bhav, m. being, existence ; the world; 
name of Mahftdeva. bhava- sugar, the ocean or world 
of existence, t. [sphere, t. 

>T5 bhuva, m. heaven, ether, sky, atmo- 
ft^ ^C** bhu,a, f. father's sister ; a worm, 

caterpillar, h. 

bahu,ar, 1 m. name of a fruit 
bahuvdr, ) ( Cordia myxa). s. 

bhavvanil, f. Parvatl or Durya, 
Mah&deva's wife, name of a Hindu goddess, the pa- 
troness of those miscreants called (hags. s. 

bhubhal, m. hot ashes. A. 
, m. a king, a sovereign, s. 

bhopa, fa. a kind of fakir, a ma- 
gician. *. [raja. *. 

Jb^ Hm^y bhu-pal, in. a landlord, a king, 

LJ^*4? WT^ bhu-pdli, f. name of a rdgirii. s. 
J ^^ bhuyatifin. a king, sovereign. .. 

been, become ; existing ; past ; 
m. a demon, a goblin ; a malignant spirit haunting 
cemeteries, lurking in trees, animating carcases, and 
deluding or devouring human beings; the preterite 
tense in grammar ; one of the elements, which among 
the Hindus are five in number: viz 1st, the earth; 
2nd, the water ; 3rd, the lire ; 4th, the air ; 5th, space 
or ether, bhut Itonu, to be distracted with rage. In 
law it denotes the real fact or state of the case. 9. 

^ ^T|ir bahut, much, many (same as 
lahut}. d. 

bhotd, blunt, obtuse. A. 

r bhutatma, m. body, vital prin- 
ciple, cause of life. . [dance, rf. 

bhutad, much, many; excess, abun- 
vnitfc bhutari, m. assafcetida. *. 

VifTftn? bhiitdvishta, possessed by 
[a devil, t. 

t bhvtdvedi, m. possession by 
bhut-jatd, f. Indian spike- 

nard (Valeriana jutamansi}. s. 

l^^C^^. ^JK^iR bhut-sanchdrt in. pos- 
euion by evil spirits, s. 

h'A:, relating to evil spirits.*. 
hut-gan, m. a class of sprites 
or gobJins. f . 

U JJ^^>^^ HlfTW bhut-yandha, f. Mura, a 
ort of perfume. *. [trial globe. *. 

Kir^T bhu-tali m. the earth, the terres- 

a devil. . 

bhut-nashan, in. mark- 

ing-nut p*ant ( Vemicarpus anacardium)\ the Eleocarpuj 
seed. *. * " [ogress, t. 

bhutnl, f. a she-demon, an 
bhut-vds, m. beleric my- 

robalan (Terminalia belerica). t. 

S^jjO^ ^J?yi bhut-vrihsha t m. a tree 

(Trophit aspera) ; Bignonia Indica. *. 

r^^^A^ ^Jn ft fan i bhut-vikriyd, f. epi- 
lepsy, possession by evil spirits. *. 

o^)^> ^f^ff^lin bliavitavyatd, f. futurity, 

destiny, jr. 

5^J -"^^ ^frf^^ but-veshi, f. a species of 
Nebari (Nyctanthes tristh). s. [become. *. 

bhavitavya, what is to be, or 
bhot'i, f. labour, work. h. 

bhotihdr, a labourer. A. 
/, land irretentive of water. A. 
m. a country, pro- 
bably Bootan. s. 

bhotiyd, m. an inhabitant of 
Bootan . 

. eating, feast; name of a 
raja celebrated in the Singhasan ba'lit, a sovereign of 
Ujjain, who is supposed to have flourished about the 
end of the tenth century : he was a celebrated patron 
of learned men, and the nine gems or poets are often 
ascribed to his era ; a country, Patna and Bhagalpore. s. 

bhau-jd,i, f. a brother's wife. .v. 
j~pu r 9 name of a country 

near Chhapra. s. 

* f r& ^TTT bhoj-patra or bhojpattur, in. 
the bark of a tree, said to be a kind of birch, used 
in making long tubes or pipes for the huJcka. g. 

bhqj-Jtat, m. the country of 

Bhoj, the present Bhoj pore, or the vicinity of Patna 
and Bhngalpore. s. 

ojan 9 in. eating, food, victuals. 

bhojan-k., to eat. bhojan-J&arch, table expenses, s. 
*A>*jty ^^ bhu-jambv 9 f. wheat ; the fruit 
of the Vaikunta (Flacourtia sapida). s. 

^/^jft* ^f^^ bhu-jantu,m.%r\ earth-worm, s. 
bhojamya, 1 1 o be eaten, ed i- 
b/iojya, Jble; in. food..?. 

bhauji, f. a brother's wife. s. 
bhujelj m. a species of bird. s. 
(J-l^^ ^T3i bhauchah (inelegant),aghast. 5. 
jb^ ^JK Wtuddr, m. a hog. j. 

(j^>4^ *J?n*f bhu-d<in, :n. a grant of land or 
of the revenue thereof. bhu-dana-patra> a deed of 
grant of land, &c. *. 

( 147 ) 

*!** bh*4har 9 m. a mountain, t. 
. a 

ty *nni bhu-chakra, m. the equinoctial 
line. s. [number (in grammar). *. 

bahu-vachan y m. the plural 

^ Wjftftf bahu-vidh, various, multiform, 
of many kinds. *. 
ty ^T bhuda, a light or sandy soil. h. 

kor, f. dawn of day. bhor-hona, n. 
to be finished, to be terminated, h. 

[T bhur, f. charity given to poor people, 

alms. bhur-bdn}nd t a. to give alms to a numerous 
assembly of the poor ; a spring, fountain, h. 

! bhuri or bhur 9 much, many. s. 
\l3$} ^TCT bkura 9 fair, auburn, or brownish (as 

hair), h. [ing. h. 

bhora, simple, artless, undesign- 

bhura, land belonging to a village 
furthest from the inhabitants, h. 

>ra, m. a shopkeeper or monied 

Mwara, an inferior kind of 

man in a village, who makes advances to or on account 
of the cultivators, h. 

a 9 m. the Bhoj-patr 9 

a tree growing in the snowy mountains, a kind of 
birch ; the bark is used for writing on, and for making 
huTcTca snakes. s. [illustrious. 

bhuri-dhaman, splendid, 
bhuri-labhy very profitable, 

m. great gain. 5. 

hhur-lok, m. the earth, s. 

bhu-rundi, f. a sort of sun- 
flower (Heliotropium Indicum). . 

bakoro, a kind of sloping path- 
way for bullocks drawing water from a well. h. 

bahu-rung'i, many-coloured, 

changeable (v. bahurangi). s. 

bhuri, light sandy soil. h. 

bahu-vrihi, m. name of a class 

of compound words used as attributive ; as, bahu-mal, 
having many necklaces. *. 

bhur, f. sandy ground, soil in which 
much sand is mixed, h. 

j& ^^ bhurart, corn still remaining in 
the ear after the procew of treading, h. 
j^ ^9 bhural or H^5? bhoral, m. talc, 
mica.* h. 

bh** 9 )m. husk of corn, chaff, 

bhusaj straw. *. 

osa, m. (also bhosri f.), Vulva 
valdemogna. t. [carrying grain. /*. 

bhusawan, a tax on boats 


bhu-srva/ni, m. a landlord, 
a landholder, s. [Sumeru. i. 

bku-'*warg, m. the mountain 
bhusauri, ] an apartment in a house 
bhusaula, > where straw, &c., is 
> bhusehra, J kept. A. 
6A5, f. chaff, bran. *. 

bhushit, adorned, arrayed. *. 

&"*& WRtbhushan, m. ornament, embellish- 
ment, jewel, t. 

> Hftpa? bhavishya, 1 future, about 
to oe. *. 

bhavishyat-vakta 9 m* 

one who foretells the future, a prophet. *. 
bhuk, hunger, desire* d. 
bhuka, 1 hungry, destitute, de- 
sniff bhukarj sirous of. rf. 

, bhu-hadamb, m. a plant 

(Ligusticum qjwaen). t. 

rf^ ^ftarar bhokas, m. a wizard, a sorcerer, 

a magician A. 

bhu-kamp, m. an earthquake. . 
bhukh 9 f. hunger, appetite. (Afi. 

7c/ton mama, to starve. *. 

bhukha 9 hungry, starving, s. 
bhukhan 9 m. ornaments, jewels, s. 
bhokhnd, a. to bark (see 

bhauAkna). s. 

ijj} Htn bhoy, m. enjoyment; the food 

offered to an idol ; pleasure, satisfaction ; possession ; 
eating, victuals ; (in arithm.) the numerator of a frac- 
tion. bhog-bandhafc, a bond granting the use of a 
pledged article, bfiog-dar, one in the possession or 
enjoyment of any property, bhog-l&bh, usufruct in 
lieu of interest, bhog-k., to enjoy, to suffer. 9. 

vf-^J *ftn bhoff, m. abuse, rudeness, h. 

\jfy> ^ftiTT bhoga, m. fraud, trick, deceit, il- 
lusion, deception, imposition, treachery, roguery, 
cheat. 7i. 

jl&:*l^ vfoTTftRFTt bhogadhihar, m. the 

possessor of the usufruct of mortgaged or pledged 
property, s. [gage. v. bhog. h. 

&*<&*# *fti\iWftbhog-bandhah, a mort- 
<J^9& cl 7 !*? bhugal,m. ashes, embers of afire. A. 
U^ Htn^n bhogna, n. to enjoy, to suffer, to 

live stoically, to take pain and pleasure as they come. t. 
Jj,j6? ^JfiW bhu-gol, m. the terrestrial globe, 
the earth, s. L 2 

( 148 ) 

bhogotra, a grnnt of revenue 

for the une or enjoyment of an individual, especially 
a Brahman or religion* person. . 

t>hff*9 J ovia l> jolly* *he person 
who enjoys or possesses any thing ; one who pursues 
pleasure, man bhogi harm daridrl, by nature fond of 
pleasure, but condemned by fate to poverty, t. 

bhoyhiya, a small basket in 
which the sower carries his seed. h. 

tjfjty vtm bhogya, that which may be en- 

joyed or possessed, t. 
JL^ HrJ bhul 9 {. forgetfulness, an error, 

"mistake* blunder, h. 

^6? **^&A0/5,Bimple,artless,iindesigning. k. 
bhula-bixra, 1 missing 
bhula-bhatkaj the road, 

generally a person who calls on another in consequence 
of tome accident,&c., not intentionally, to pay a visit/*. 

),lQ mislead,&c./t. 
blwla-nath, in. a name of 

Mah&deva. h. 

5j# H^TT bhulna, n. to forget, to err, to 
mistake, to blunder ; to miss, to omit, to strav, to be 
forgotten. A. [of mankind. *. 

bhu-lok, m. the earth, region 

bltoR 9 f. innocent, artless, bhvlt- 

baten, innocent prattle, h. 

*) Hfo bhumi or bhum, f. land, soil : the 
* earth, place, scite ; the hase of any figure in geometry, s. 
fj& 4t* bhaum, m. the planet Mars, bhaum- 

bar, m. Tuesday. . 

t &c. (v.bhonp).h. 

bhumij, (lit. earth-born) a caste 
of low Hindus. *. [(/Vemwa herbacea). s. 

bhumi-jambu, f. a tree 
bhumi-champak, in. a 

plant (Kcemtferia rotunda) *. [chief. *. 

i k, m. a landholder ; a 
bhumi-kamp, m. an earth* 

quake. . 

<J*-^ S 1 ^ W*tw*i f- the earth ; ground, land, 

"soil bhumt-d&r, a landholder, a headman or chief. 
Miuml-daha, being burnt or reduced to earth (a 
corpse). *. [trial, t. 

bhaumi, adj. f. earthly, terres- 

bhumiya, a landlord, proprietor 
of the soil. A. 

Uj> wnrnjl bhumyal, a resident, native 
of a placet also one's native country, rf. 
Ut^Hfim^ bkumiyal, proficient, accom- 
plished. *d. .[plundering, h. 

j$> ilftnirflf bhumiyarvat, f. A general 

bhumiyawati, an insur- 
gent chief. . 

bhornira 9 f. coral. A. 

bJiaun, or W^f 6//ow, f. the eyebrow. 

bhaufi-ferhi-karni, a. to browbeat, to look angrily, rais- 
ing the eyebrows, to frown, to scowl. bhau t e* ta**l, 
to knit the eyebrows, s. 

&& **3*1 6hawan, m. a house, a habitation, 

ecite, spot, a temple, s. 

(z)j&> Wf bhuwan, m. a world ; water; hea- 

ven ; man, mankind. *. 
^}# *frfT bhauna, n. to revolve, s. 

J& ^JWT bhurtna, to parch, &c., see U3^3 . 

^yj\3_^> >n*i!*f bhuunas, m. a large and strong 
post to which they fasten elephants. A. 

("&& VRlfilHfl bhavanashinl, f. the Sarju 

" river, which flows from the Himalaya into the Gog* 
gra. *. 

bhu-nag,m* an earth-worm, ij. 

bhaunaj, m. brother-in-law, sister's 
husband, d. 

bhiin-bh a ,i 9 a man invested 

by a proprietor with a portion of land, which he must 
not dispose of to others, h. 

m.ahorn,a windinstru- 
ment. A. 

bhontha, \ 

, , f . V blunt, obtuse, h. 

bhavanti, a house surrounded 
by a dead wall. A. [an earthquake. J. 

bkaun-chal also bhun-chul, nu 

bhun-ckampa, m. the name 
of a plant (Kampferia rotunda), f. 

j^^ ^lS &Awn(/ari, land given rent-free 

to village servants. A. [pose upon. d. 

bhondna, a. to deceive, to ira- 

. Wf^bhondu, silly, quiet, mild, artless 

simple. A. (In Dakh.) deceitful, artful. [ugly. *. 

bkonda, ill-shaped, useless, bad, 

dd^nd given 
rent-free to the village chaukldar or watchman. A. 

bkund-paira, unlucky, ill* 

omened. A. 

bhitndari, f. a small patch of 
cultivation alloted rent-free to village servants. &. 
jj^> vrf^m bl'undiya, m. one who culti- 
vates with a borrowed plough or hand instrument A. 
fa bhaunr (v. bhanroar), m. a whirl- 
pool. 4. 

( 149 ) 

t/rira, m. a large bee, or rather 

beetle, enamoured of the lotus. In Dakh. a whirlpool, 
ibyss. i. par. *. 

bhaunra, m. a cavern, vault, eel- 

toujft bhaunr-kaR, f. a kind of 
halter (for horses or dogs). In Dakh. a swivel, ft. 
/}# *ft$ bhaunri, f. feathered hair ; name 
of a defect in horses. *. [ftftottitra). t. 

bhaumi, f. a female bee (vide 
bhavnriyandf a. to whirl, 

UTturn. 9. 

"^fto? Hlt bhunsa, m. chaff, bran, bhunsa- 
jins, all kinds of grain in husk. ft. [n. to hark. ft. 

>ft?nrT bkaunsna, or ^?T*n bhunma, 
bhitnsi, f. damp, mouldiness. d. 
bkonk, in. a stab, a thrust. A. 
bhonkd-bhonki, f. 

stabbing and thrusting, ft. 

bhonkroj very fat. h. 

bhonkas, m. a wizard who 

preys upon children (or men or women), till he brings 
them to the grave, ft. [to talk foolishly, ft. 

bhaunkna y n. to bark ; (met.) 

bhonhna, a. to thrust, to drive 
[pent. *. 
bhurvang, m. a snake, a ser- 

(as a nail), ft. 

tin^a,t,l f. a kind of tax on 
ungaji,) forest 

*t^ bhungaji,) forest produce: 

"(in Bljpur, &c.)- A. [vern, a cellar. . 

bhon-ghara, m. a vault, a ca- 

^fT bhunna, a. to parch, to grill, to 
broil* to toast, to roast, to inflame, to fry. ft. 

_^J^J Hf^^ bhu-nimb) m. a species of gen- 
tian, commonly called cheraita (Gentiana cherayta). s. 
fTy^> Wt^i^*^ bhaunKar-kah, f. a kind 
of halter (for horses or dogs), ft. 

honh, f. the eyebrow. $. 

bhunhar, name of a tribe of 
HindOs. h. [raneous dwelling, ft. 

\&j& HCTCl bhunhara, m. a kind of subter- 

Ui^ >|ftnn bhuniya, m. the headman of a 
"village, ft. 
I.U>^ >J r TTCT bhunyara,m. a cellar, cavern, d. 

^^ H^* bhun,iny f. the earth, a kind of 
caterpillar (see fcftfi.f*). ft. 

</J# ^6Ao,t or VT$&H,t, m, a chair-porter, 
a plilkl bearer (generally pronounced ' boy " by Euro- 
pean ladies) ; a white cat. ft. [teller. *. 

bhanaiya, m. a dancer, a story- 

;, having many or much 
seed ; m. the custard-apple (A**ona tquamo**). t. 

bahu-virjya, m. belleric 

myrobalan (Terminalia bellerica). 9. 

bhuyan^m. a chief, holding by 
bhuyl /military service | head- 
raan of a village, ft. 

& ^t* Ihu.ih, f. the earth, ground ; a kind 
of caterpillar covered with hair and destructive to 
plants, flowers and trees. . 

. a kind 

of fireworks, like a flower-pot (resembling that com* 
mouly called onar). . 

bhuj.n-dagdha, gifts at 

marriages and funerals. . [quake, t. 

bhu'in-dol, m. an earth- 

bku t m-mali t a low caste of 
Hindus engaged in the vilest offices, ft. 

V/5^ ^ftT^ bhu,in-har, a tribe of Hindus 

settled in GorackpQr, &c. ft. 

l^j/^ bhu'in-harl, land let at a low rent 
to military retainers ft. [again, repeatedly. . 

*f5^ : bhuyobhuya, again and 
bhavya, prosperous, fit, happy. 
6/mya, again, afterwards, f. 

JA^ ^C^^fV bhahrana, n. to shiver, to 
tremble, to totter, to stagger, ft. 

Y? bihl, a quince, bihi-dana, m. quince- 
seed ; (from the adj. bih, good), goodness, welfare, p. 

bhai, m. fear, terror, s. 
6AI, conj. also, too ; even, and. A. 
, fern, of bhaya, was, became, s. 

, f. a book, not stitched at the 

sides, but at the ends; a register, book of accounts, a 
ledger, bahi-khata or bahi-khasra, a day-book, bahl- 
fMfwdri, the village accountant's register, bafit-mafid- 
jan, a merchant's or banker's book. ft. 

L> ftrrt bliaiya, m. brother, comrade, s. 
U^j nn bhaya, was, became ; past tense of 
an obsolete verb " to be, to become." *. 

(JLjbUgj ^irnrnp bhaiya-bant, brotherhood, 
fraternity, ft. 

bU$> ^rrnn bhaiyapa, 1m. brotherhood, 

OoU^3 thrrqw bhaiyapat,) friendship (also 
bhaydpd, bhayapat). $. 

j>^*& ^nn^T bkayatur, terrified, astounded, 
distracted with fear. s. 

j^^}.& *Nl*IKJ bhaiya-chara, also bhuiya- 
charl, a community of brethren, or of people from 
one stock, ft. 


, bahiyar, lands at a distance 
from the village, h. 

hayarta, frightened, afraid. *. 

bhai-ans, division of property 
or Interests among brothers, t, 

ydnah^ terrific, fright- 
bkayawana,) ful. s. 
j bluya,o, m. marriage, espousals, d. 

bhuibat, T paying and receiving 
bhairvadj on the footing of one 

of a fraternity. /. [rifled, t. 

bhay-bltita, frightened, ter- 
bhaipangl,} the shares of a bro- 
bhaihissij therhood, espe- 

cially in the lands of a village or township, h. 

CL**&> *ftw bhlt, f. a wall (or breadth of a 

wall), mound, embankment, the vestige of an old 
house, ochhe ki prlt,jon bdlu kl bint, the friendship of 
the mean is li^e a wall of sand (t. t. unstable), s. 

vJ>ffi H^K bhit or bhita, terrified, afraid, 
alarmed, bktti, f. fear, alarm. *. 

C+*&> Wtfw bhlti, f. fear, apprehension, s. 
UA^J 5hfT ihaita, m. a stunted crop. h. 
bhitar, within, inside, s. 

KT?t bhltari, inward, inside, in- 
ternal. s. 
^L^ HfaftUT bhitariya, m. an inmate, the 

people who live in a house, not strangers, domestic ; 
men who preside at a temple ; those among the guests 
at a wedding-feast who eat in company with the rela- 
tives of the bride: those who partake of the feast 
without are called bahariyd. s. 

uk^J ^%<fr bahetu, in. a vagabond, vagrant, a 

wanderer. *. 

)>44? HllfKI bhltauri, ground-rent paid 
for the site of a house by a stranger, i. 

bliet, f. meeting, interview ; a pre- 

sent (to a superior), bhet-bakrd, a present made to a 
newly-appointed governor by the villagers, bhef-patra, 
a deed of gift on the above occasion. Wilf, the mound 
of a tank or artificial pond ; the vestige of au old 
house, h. 

bhita, m. an old house, a former 

residence (provided some vestige remain). A. 

tf bketan, to meet, act of meeting, h. 
> H??n bhetna, n. to meet, to join ; to 

arrive ; to make a present (to a superior), h. 

#5, m. la stalk, stem. Mifi, same 
i&t blieti, f. / as bhit, q. v. h. 

j rent, an instalment. bhe)-ba- 

, name of a kind of complex tenure (v. Wilson's 
Gloss.), h. 

bheja, m. the brain, h. 

bhlja, wet, moist. /$. 
bhejna, a. to send, to transmit, 

to utter, ejaculate, h, 

&%'na, n. to be wet. h. 

or WHW bhaichak, alarmed, 

aghast, starting, s. 

jS^ >rh^TT bhichnd, a. to squeeze, to com- 

press, to crush, h. 

bhed 9 m. secrecy, mystery; diffe- 
rence, kind, sort; disunion, disagreement, bhed-lend, 
a. to spy, to pry into, to work one's self into confi- 
dence, to sound, s. [ful. 5. 

bhai-darshi, fearful, fright- 

bhedah, a breaker, one who 
breaks or divides, a mischief-maker. *. 

bked-kar, separating, causing 
disunion, s. 

bhedahiya, m. a scout, a spy. s. 

bhedu, m. one who possesses an- 

other's secret, a confidant, s. ' 

bkedl, 1 intelligent; m. a 

l, 1 i 
ediya, ) s 

.Jj^j ijf^n bhediya, ) scout, a confidant, s. 
Aj^ ifcj^ bhedij m. the ratan. h. 

>t\AJ JhST bhedya, whatever ought to be 
kept secret, worthy of secrecy. *. 

bker, f. a kind of pipe, a musical in- 
strument, a kettle-drum, s. 

bkiru, f. a timid woman ; a plant 

(Asparagus racemosus) ; a sort of prickly nightshade. *. 
bahir, "If. the baggage accompany- 
f bahlr,) ing an army ; also the lines 

near a camp where the wives and families of the 
soldiers live. h. 

bakera, the beleric myrobalan. h. 
TTT^ bhairariy f. the name of a 
JUginI. s. 

bhairav or bhairava, formidable 
horrible ; m. hatred, abhorrence, a name of Shiva, but 
more especially an inferior manifestation of the deity 
eight of which are reckoned, and severally termed 
Asitanga, Ruru, Chanda, Krodh, Unmatta, Kupati Bl- 
ehan, and Sanghar, all alluding to terrific properties of 
mind or bod; ; the name ol' a river ; a kind of rag ia 
music. *. 

>j^v^ *Kfli>5fl bahiro-buna, the baggage 
accompanying an army, h 

bhairon, m. the name of a rag, 

or musical mode, sung at dawn in autumn, represented 
by Mahadeva with the Ganges flowing from the hair of 
his head, and this rag or musical deity issues from. 
Mahadeva' s mouth (vide Gilchrist's Gram. 4 to. p. 276); 
a name of Mahadeva. 

^ lt' *^ft bhairavi, f. the name of a raginl. 
~ the wife of BAairoii ra^. *. 

bheri, m* a piper, bhairi, a spe* 

ei of falcon, t. ; 

^ ^$1 baherya, name of a clan of raj- 

putt in JaunpOr and ChunZLr. h. 

f bhir, f. multitude, crowd, mob ; u 
press of work, trouble, difficulty. A. 

bher, in. a ram ; f. a sheep, ewe. 5. 

r, m. baggage, &c. of an army^ 
a camp-follower of any kind. h. 

bahera, m. the name of a fruit 

(the beleric myrobalan ; Terminalia falerica, Roxb.). s> 

m. a ram, Dakh. a wolf, bhtrd, 
crowded, throng. A. 

bhir-banga, m. the rabble of camp 
followers, the " impedimenta" of an army on march, d- 
&jt& tftofl? bhir-bhar, f. a crowd, multi- 
tude. h. 

bherna, a. to shut, to close, h. 
? *?lft*n bhcri, f. a sheep, an ewe. s. 

bheriyd, m. a wolf, bheriya 

dhasdn, m. a multitude crowded together like sheep { 
In a pen, the act of following the example of another, s. 

4> ifa bhes m. (for bkesh), appearance, 

assumed likeness, counterfeit dress, semblance, bhts 
(for bhlsha), the edible root of the lotus plant, s. 

^^V.54? WWM bhaya-sthdn, m. seat or 
part exposed to peril or hurt. s. 
^& W bhesh, m. (same as bbes), appear- 
ance, Ac. 5. [kind of fennel (Nig el la Fndica). s. 
**m bheshajy m. a remedy, drug; a 

vffo bhishma, horrible, fearful; m. 

horror. -*. 

^} *ftTO bhlshan, horrible, formidable; 
m. horror ; the olibanum tree (Boswellia thurifera). s. 

j^ ifc bheh, m. a toad, a frog. s. 
^) bhik, m. (for bhikfi), begging, &c. d. 

)fij> H-JTOrCT bhaya-karak, terrifying, 
frightening. . 

bhikari, m. a mendicant, d. 

bhekh, m. (for bhesh) disguise, as- 
sumed appearance, dress, &c., semblance, bhekh-dharl, 
adj. putting on a disguise, assuming an appearance, t. 

bhihhy f. begging, charity, alms. s. 

bhekt, f. the female of the frog, 
or a small frog; a kind of creeper (Hydrototyle Asia- 

or W)nii bhmgna, ri. to 

tica). 5. 

"be wet. rdt-bhigna, applied to the night passing in 
mirth and musical entertainment, h. 

*4> ^9 bhlly m. the name of a wild race 
of mountaineers dwelling especially along the course 
of the N armada or Nerbudda, and subsisting chiefly 
by plunder. *. 

bhela, m. a kind of nut, used for 

marking clothes (Semicarpus anacardiwn). 3. 

J^** J^4? ^35^y bhel-sel, m. alloy of metal 

(in coinage, &c.). h. 

^j^ ^gft bheli, f. a lump of coarse sugar (or 

~gr). generally consisting of five or six sirs. A. 
4*J^ Mi^fcpMi baheliyd,m. a fowler; the name 
ofatribeofHindas. h. [terror, t. 

vffa bhirn, fearful, terrible ; m. horror, 
bhim, or 6 /^ma,! the name of one of 
iin-senj the five Pandu 

princes, the second brother of Judhishfhir or Yudhlsh- 
8. ed. *. 

bhayaman, frightened, alanu- 
bhim-serii,f. a kind of cam- 

phi re. h. 
(_+; ftift bhaiml, f. the eleventh* day of the 

" bright half of the month of Mogh. 9. 
Cjr^-> bilun, best, most excellent. ,*. 

^jri^^ bheh, the earth, the ground ; the bleat- 
ing of sheep. bhei\-bhen-k. t to bleat as sheep A. 
j^ >hfT bhena, f. a sister, h. 

bhlna, wet; m. sister's husband, 
brother-in law. h 

bktntf f. a wall (v. bhit). s. 

bhent,f. interview ; visit ; present. 
:, f. a meeting. It. [sit h. 

U.u.*fr> *H7n bhentnd, n. to meet with; to vi- 

AJJ^> bhend, m. a kind of reed or aquatic 
plant (AZschynomene paludota), from the stem of which, 
resembling pith, being exceedingly light, are made a 
variety of articles. Being anou-conductor of heat, this 
substance is admirably adapted for making hats, covers 
for wine-bottleH which have been cooled with ice or 
saltpetre, &.C. The article commonly called " rice pa- 
per*' is nothing more than this substance cut in very 
thin plates. The plant is also named thold q. v. 
(Binning), d. [in Urdu, ramturaj, q. v.). d. 

bhendiff. name of a vegetable (called 
bhains, f. a female buffalo, s. 
bhainsd, m. a male buffalo, s. 
bhainsd-ddd, 1m. a 

bhainsiyd-ddd,) kind 
of ringworm, s. 

6^,uX>fr> bhainsonda, a tax or cess for the 
privilege of grazing buffaloes, h. 

bhayankar, terrible, terrific. *. 
bhengd, squint-eyed, h. 
j> bhlnynd, n. (v. bhigria), to be wet. h. 
bhev, m. a state, condition; innate 
property, nature, f. [was or became, h 

J^ v&fl bhayau or bhayo (Braj. for bhaijd), 
^> bhain-dd (v. bhaibat), paying, &c. h. 

( 1S2 ) 

bhihar, name of a tribe, 
to be the aborigines of Rohilcund, Upper Du.ab. h. 
<> ft? or >TT|? bhaihv, f. sister-in-law, 
younger brother's wife. . 

yi, fern, of bhaya, wa?, became. A. 



^ fl?, a vocative particle used in speaking 

women ; contraction of M-6I, a lady, mistress ; conj. 
i) also, even. h. 

^ ^ be, a vocative particle, used con tern ptu- 

" onsly, as " you rascal," " you sirrah.* A. 

^J be, a privative particle or proposition, de- 

"noting in the Persian Language " without," " void of." 
When prefixed to nouns, it forms compound adjec- 
tives, corresponding with our words of the same kind 
beginning with in, tm, im, ir, &c.. or such as end with 
leas. All these compound adjectives may again be- 
come abstract nouns by the addition of t, as be-adab, 
unmannerly, rude, bt-adab-i, uamannerltness, rude- 
ness. It is impossible to give a complete list of these, 
as the employing of them has no limit but the taste 
or caprice of the writer. The following list vrill be 
found useful in the meantime ; he-db, without water 
(lustre temn^ y \ dignity, &c ) be-dbru, dishonourable. 
oe-ittijTiTf, discordant, without union. be-a$ar, without 
effect! be-ajal, lit. without or in spite of fate, untimely 
(death), be-fytiydt, incautious, improvident, impru- 
dent, be-il&tiydr, without choice, in spite of one's self. 
be-alab, rude, presumptuous, impudent, be-adabi, rude- 
ness, presumptuousness. be-drdm (vulg. birdm}. rest- 
less, sick, be-asbdb, having no effects, bc-i fibdr, not 
trustworthy be-i'tiddl, uneven, be-i'tilcdd, incredulous. 
be-iltijat, regardless be-uffut, unsocial, averse to at- 
tachment or friendship, be-imfiydz, undistinguishing, 
ill-bred, rude, unmannerly, bvintiha, endless, bound- 
less, infinite, be-anddza, immoderate, be-htsdf, un- 
just, he-anldd, childless, be-tmdn, without conscience, 
without religion, be-ba'ii, without reason, be-bdk, 
complete, without arrears, paid up in full. be-bdTcl, 
f. completion, be-bdk, fearless, le-bdl o par, without 
power, be-bad, without blemish, be-badal. incompa- 
rable, inestimable, be-bar, fruitless, barren, be-barg o 
bar, fruitless, barren, poor, be-bas, without power, 
without authority or command ; helpless, be-basar, 
without sight (generally applied to the mind,) sense- 
less, undiscerning. Ite-bdka, frail, perishable, not eter- 
nal, be-bal, without power, weak; wretched, poor. 
lie-band o bast, unarranged, without order, unsettled 
(as a country), be-bvnydd, groundless, unfounded, be- 
bahd, beyond price, invaluable, be-bahdr, out of season. 
be-baiira, portionless, unfortunate, be-pdydn, bound- 
leas, be-parda, unveiled, immodest, be-parwd, fearless, 
without reflection, careless. be-parwd,l, f. thought- 
lessness, carelessness, independence, tranquillity, in- 
difference he-par o bdl> weak, utterly helpless, be- 
parhez, incontinent, be-parhezl, f. incontinence, be- 
phdb, shapeleos. be-plr, having no spiritual guide, vi- 
cious, be-plr, cruel, pitiless, unfeeling, be- tab, faint, 
restless. bt>-td$ir, of no effect, be-ta.rrmmnl, rash be- 
tal out of time (in music) ; ill-timed, be-tdn, out of 
tune. be-tah(ishd, inconsiderate, bc-ta'alluk, without 
connections, independent, be-talriir, innocent, blame- 
less, not guilty, acquitted, be-takalluf, without cere- 
mony, be-tatnmina, content, be-ttimtz, silly, indiscreet. 
le-tawajjuh, inattentive, unkind, be-tosha, unprovided, 
destitute (a traveller). be-tawaklcv.\ hopeless, without 
expectation, be-tah, bottomless, be-fhanr-fhiltane, 
groundless. be-$abdt, unstable, be-tamar, fruitless, of 
no result, be-tadbir, incautious, unwitting, inconsi- 
derate, be-ja, ill-placed, ill-timed, inaccurate, bejada, 
variegated coral, be-jdn, lifeless, faint ; valiant, brave. 
be-jSn k. t to deprive of life, to slay. be-jur,at, cowardly. 
bc-jurm, Innocent, faultless, be-jirm, without blemish, 
spotless (ft jewel), be jigar, cowardly, be-jam&ll, f. 

ugliness, imperfection, be-jawab, unable to answer, 
be~ckaragl, f. necessity, helplessness, be-chdra, without 
choice, without remedy, helpless, poor, be-cltdl and 
be-chali, unprincipled ; f. misdemeanour, ill -behaviour. 
lampless, d 

desolated, childless, 

eyeless. be-cHtn, unparalleled, incomparable, be- 
cftain, restless, uneasy, be-^dsil, fruitless, without re- 
sult. be-kdl, ill-circumstanced. be-hijdi> or be-hijdbdna, 
unveiled, openly, immodest, be-badd, boundless, be- 
kurmat, disgraced, be-hunnatt, f disgrace, be-fast, in- 
sensible. senseless, be-frisdb, countless, immoderate, 
inconsistent, bc-hihmat, unskilful, bt-hawciss, beside 
one's self, out of one's senses, be hayd, shameless, 
immodest, impudent, be-kkdr, without thorns ; with- 
out anxiety, without fear or solicitude. be-QSn o 
man, without house or hall, destitute. be-1sh.dya, m. 
(lit. without a testicle) a eunuch, be-kfribar, incautious, 
imprudent; unwitting, unintentional, be-kteibri, f. 
imprudence, heedlessness. be-%barch, without (money 
for) expenditure. be-Hhirad, without understanding, 
stupid, be-bhar o Jc]wwind, without a master, without 
an owner. be-]&atar and be-]&atra, free from danger, 
safe, be-l&ipdb, sleepless, be-khydbi, f. sleeplessness. 
be-]chipdhi$h t without inclination or spirit; without 
pursuit, object, or hobby-horse. fce-M"^. beside one's 
self, enraptured, be-hjiudl f. ecstasy, rapture, be- 
kbur o khwdb, without inclination to eat or sleep, rest- 
less. be-l&wesh, friendless, be dd^il, dismissed, set 
aside, not admitted (a claim), be-ddd, unjust, not 
doing justice, lawless, be -dad- gar, m. an oppressor. 
he-dddi, f. injustice, lawlessness, be-ddaht, careless, 
inattentive, negligent, be-ddshtt, f. carelessness, in- 
attention (particularly not taking care of cattle), be- 
ddjrfr, spotless, be-ddna. seedless (fruit). bv-ddltfil, 
ejected, he-dajckl-kantd, a. to exclude. he-dard t piti- 
less, unfeeling, be-dirung, without delay, be-dnregh, 
undeniable, incontestable, readily acknowledged; un- 
sparing, ungrudging, liberal, not refusing, be-dast 
o pd, (having neither hands nor feet) helpless, without 
power or authority, be- da star, ill-bred, unusual, be- 
da'wd, free from claims ; (in law) one who relinquishes 
his claim or suit, be-da'wd patra, a deed acknow- 
ledging the abandonment of a claim or suit, be-dil, 
heartless, dispirited, melancholy, dejected, sad. be- 
dilt, f. dejection, heartlessness. be- dam, breathless. 
be-damag}i, ill-tempered, impatient, irritable, easily 
provoked/ be-damdfffy , f. bad temper, irritability, be- 
dawd, incurable, be-daulat, destitute, unfortunate. 
be-dhafak or be-dhfifkd, without fear or hesitation, be- 
dos, innocent, faultless (little used), be -dabs hat, fear- 
less. bt'-dftyd, unfeeling, bc-diydnat, irreligious, un- 
just. be-dtii, without religion, be-daul, shapeless ; un- 
educated, ill-bred, be-dlmb, ill-shaped, be-dhang, un- 
educated, ill-mannered, ill-bred, be-zauk, having no 
relish or desire for. be-rdh, unprincipled, dissolute. 
be-rab}., contrary to rule, be-raftm, merciless. be-ra$d, 
without leave, be-ru, shameless inhuman, be-roz, 
unfortunate, be-rozi, destitute of daily bread, unfor- 
tunate. be-rok-tok, without let or hindrance, he-riyd, 
without guile, be-raib o riyd, without guile or deceit. 
be-rlsh, beardless (a youth), be-resha, without fibre. 
be-zabdn, dumb, speechless (applied to the brute 
creation), be-zar, without money or the means of get- 
ting it, helpless, be-zar kharid, (taking or getting) 
without purchase, be-zan ofarzand, without wife or 
children, be-zawdl, unchangeable, imperishable, be- 
zor, weak, impotent, ke-'zahra, without bile, patient, 
forbearing ; indefatigable ; shameless, be- neb o zinat, 
ugly and nwkward, inelegant in dress and person, bt- 
ztn, unsaddled, be-sakfrta, plain, undisguised, artless. 
be-sdkJtfagi, artlessuess. be-adz t unaccoutred, without' 
apparatus, tools, &c. be-sdz o sdmdn, without appa- 
ratus. br-Rubab, without reason, be -sat n, impudence, 
barefacedness. be-taj, shapeless, ill-made, be-su^n, 
taciturn, be-siidk, senseless, beside one's self; enrap- 
tured ; entranced ; in a faint, be-sar, unequalled, 
peerless be-surt, stupid, be-tar o pd, without bead or 
foot, utterly helpless, be-sar o sdmdn, without apparatus, 
helpless, be-safilca, inexpert, without method, be-til, 
shameless, be-shdhid, without evidence. be-*haraf t with- 
out honour or dignity, be-sharm, shameless, impudent, 
immodest, be-xhu'ur, ignorant, a blockhead, be-shafkat, 

( 133 ) 

harsh, unkind, unmerciful. bt>shakk o shubh or bc-shakk 
o raib, certain, doubtless, indubitable, be-shumdr, count- 
less, numberless, much, be-sabr, impatient, restless, be- 
falab, ill-advised.headstrong, te-soty, wan ton, irregular, 
unrestrained. bc-zab$-rabt t without order or connection. 
be-tajcat, beyond the power of endurance, be-tajcati, 
non-endurance, weakness. bv-tdli\ destitute of good 
fortune, unlucky, fc-farfi^ill-mannered, uncivil, be- 
talab, uncalled for, unsought be-tam\ free from greedi- 
ness, disinterested, fa-jaw, ill-mannered, be-'ibrat, 
unwarned by example, unawed. be-'izzal, without ho- 
nour or dignity, disgraced, be-akl, stupid, senseless. 
be-adl, unjust, lawless be-'aib, faultless, without 
blemish, be-gjbatiat, boundless. be-Ml o g&<wh t without 
trouble or anxiety, be g&araz, independent, disin- 
terested, indifferent, be-p&tim, without anxiety, be- 
ghattr, without consideration, be-ghairaf, wanton, im- 
pudent, infamous, rude. be-gh.airatl, f. disgrace, &c. 
te-fd t ida, profitless, useless, vain, be-fikr, contented, 
thoughtless, tranquil, be-fahmid, stupid, slow in com- 
prehending, be-jaiz, unprofitable, possessing but not 
bestowing (as a learned man who does not communi- 
cate his knowledge, or a rich man from whose wealth 
no person receives advantage). be-kabu t without re- 
straint, out of one's power, secure against surprise or 
attack, be-lca'itla, unarranged, irregular, without order 
or rule. be-$adr, of no importance, worthless, be- 
karar, restless, unsettled, variable, inconstant, be- 
frarart, f. restlessness, fluctuation, variableness, insta- 
bility, be-kusur, faultless, innocent, without fail, com- 
pletely, entirely. fo-foz/a't,untinned(apot,&c). be-hutl, 
faithless, perfidious. beJciyas, inconceivable.contrarv to 
the common order of things, incomprehensible, im- 
mense, be-kaid, unrestrained ; irregular, be-kdj, or 
be-kar, useless, unemployed, be-kam, frustrated, dis- 
appointed, be-kardn, immense, infinite, boundless. 
be-kas t friendless, be-kasl, destitution, be-kafan t un- 
shrouded. be-kal, restless, out of order, be-kalt, un- 
easiness, be-kam o, without decrease or diminu- 
tion, all rigbt, accurate, be-gdh, untimely, unseason- 
able, be-gt/mdn, without suspicion, doubtless, be-gundh, 
innocent, faultless, be-ghdp, inaccessible, (a river) 
without steps or a quay to it. be-ldi, impudent, shame- 
less, be-lthdz, inattentive, undistmguishing, ill-bred, 
unmannerly. be-lutf t unkind, ungracious, be-lagam, 
unbridled, licentious. be-laga,o, unconnected, inac- 
cessible, candid, categorical, without reserve, be-man, 
disgraced, dishonourable, dishonoured, be-mdnand, 
incomparable, unparalleled, be-muya, without means 
of subsistence, poor, indigent, be-misdl, incomparable, 
unequalled, be-muhamba, without calculation, at a 
venture, be-muhdbd, without respect, unceremonious. 
be-malf.aJly out of place, improper, be-mnruwwat, un- 
kind, cruel, be-maza, tasteless, insipid. Ite-ma'ni, 
foolish, idle, vain, unmeaning, absurd, be-makdur, 
without autliority ; without resource, miserable, poor. 
be.-vtan, spiritless, be-minnat, independent, unwilling 
to incur obligation, be-mujib, without cause, without 
reason, be-mauki' out of place, unapt, unseasonable, 
inopportune, inconvenient. be-mihr t unfriendly, un- 
kind, be-nam, without character or reputation, be- 
ndm o ni.ihdn, without name or character. be-nanb t 
unfortunate. be,-nazir, incomparable, be-namak, in- 
sipid ; aaltless ; ugly, ordinary, be-nang o ndmiij, with- 
out name or character, be-nawa, indigent ; m. a kind 
ofdarwesh who shaves his eyebrows and beard, be- 
nawd,i begging, mendicancy. be-nihayat, endless, 
without bound or limit be-niy&z, without want, an 
epithet of God, the Almighty. be-wdrig, without 
heirs. be-w&ri-mdl t property that escheats to the 
government in default of heirs, be-wdli, without pro- 
tector, be-wajh, without cause or reason, be-watan, 
without home or native country, an exile, be wafa, 
faithless, ungrateful, be-wafaj, f. infidelity, faithless- 
ness. be-waJct, out of season, untimely, Ill-timed bc- 
tvalcr, or be-wakar, without fame or character, dis- 
hcmourable. be-wiikvf, ignorant, inexpert, stupid, be- 
hamal, without compeer, unequalled, unrivalled, be 
himmat, unambitious, humble, miserly, vile, slothful, 
la*y, indolent. beJut*ar> unskilled, be-tianpam, un- 
timely, be tosh, stupified, senselesj. be-hech, without 
, purpose, or motive, p. 

baya, a person appointed in bazars 

to measure grain, h. 

bo ^m baydj or *^in baiya, m. the name of 

the little bird that learns to fetch and carry, &c., and \ 
that the Hindus teach to snatch the ornamental patch 
or wafer from the foreheads of their mfctresBe* (lexia 
Indica] ; an assizer. biyd, m. seed. 

(jbbo baydbdn, or biydbdn, m. 'a desert, a 

wilderness, bayabdn-gard or -naward, one who tra- 
verses the desert, a wanderer, baydbdni kuds, the 
wilderness of Jerusalem, p. 

<jbU>, of or belonging to the wil- 
derness or desert p. 
lx>L> biyd biyd, come) come ; a mode of 

calling pigeons, falcons, &c. p. 

bydpdr, business, affair. *. 

bydpdri, a man of business 
in general, a dealer, a trader, s. 
ob^ *fmtTT bydpnd, n. to provide, occupy, 

to effect, to operate, to work, to act, to affect or in- 
fluence, s. 

^)UL) bi/dtkd (v. bydha), married. (L 

bydj, m. interest; delay, bydj* 
, one who takes interest, a usurer. A. 

bydj, m. pretence, pretext, s. 

bydju, m. the principal, or ca- 
pital sum put out to interest, h. 

byddh, m. a hunter, fowler, s. 
byddhi, in. sickness, ailment, 

pain, anguish, disease. *. 

lyddhd, m. a fowler, hunter. 5. 
VtiV, sick, grieved,pained.s. 
byddhi, ill, sick j m. a fowler, 

hunter. *. 

jVo ^tTTT boydr, f. wind, air. h. 

jbo biydr (imper.ofaryr^an), bring thou. p. 

j\^ "^nc bi,ar, m. a hole (of a snake, rat, 

*&c.). s. 
^jljj ^Brr^ bydrth, vain, of no effect, s. 

^bo f^pmft 6tyari f ffHTft W,5ri f f. supper. 7i. 
j^ ^WT bi,ar, seed-bed ; evening, h. 

jbo bydz m. (for ftya;, q.v.) interest, &c. 6?. 

CJ**^. *TCH ^ya, the name of a muni or sage, 
who is said to have compiled the Vedas, the Bhdgavat 
Parana and the Mahdbhdrata (properly vyasa), also 
the founder of the Vedauta philosophy, s. 

(^^U> fqqui 6i//a, land cultivated and pre- 
pared for being sowp in the following year. A. 

'Vm^t baydn, by an or fte,, eighty- 
two. *. 

^bj bnydz, f. whiteness; a common-place 
book, a blank book. a. 

( 164 



m. gramma- 
rian, x. 

bydkaran, or 

karan, m. gam mar. *. 


bydkarant, or 

bydkul, restless, agitated (in 
mind), perplexed, s. 

bydkhyan, m. explanation, s. 

but/did, or *)i<l$l baiydld, flatu- 
lent ; also heavy or indigestible (esculents). *. 

'u or fr J|fc$ biydlu, in. supper, h. 
or i*u^l*i baydlis, 

forty-two, h. 

jW bay an, m. explanation, relation, baydn- 
&.. a to explain, to unfold, to relate, bayan-wdr, ex- 
plicitly ;' adj. clear, evident, a. 

>vji> *HH byan, or%XfTT, baiydn, m. birth, act 

of parturition. char-bydn-gd,e, a cow that has calved 
four times, ek-bydn jdmak, having produced two 
calves at a Krth. s. 

bydna, or w*rnn baiydnd, to be de- 
livered of young (applied wily to brute animals). *. 
bydnt (st j e byan), birth, &c. s. 

or ftniT^ bit/ah, in. marria^o. 
b:/dh-rachdna, to celebrate a marriage, bydk k. t to 
marry, bytih-ldnd, a. to take in marriage, to bring 
home a wife, to marry, s. 


^o *TRnTT byalttd, 

bydhdjdnd, n. to be married (a man), bydhi-jdnd, to be 
married (a woman). 5. 

byah'jog, marriageable, s. 

bydltnd "PT^fT^rrT, biyahnd, n. 
to be delivered of young (animal) ; a. to marry (i. e. 
to ^ive or take in marriage), s. 

^x> ^tn^ir bydhan, f^in?f biyahan, m. 

marrying, marriage, j. 

bydhan-joy, fit for 
[quisite. /*. 
baryaj, f. a weigh man's per- 

,b\jJ ^TlJW bydydm, m. labour, exertion, ex- 
ercising, practising, s. 

, f. name of a grass from which 

a twine is made : it is also used in thatching, s. 
baibj afar oh 1 ', at a distance, h. 
bibi, f. a lady (vulgarly a wife). A. 
baipdr, m. traffic, merchandise, s. 
baipan, m. a merchant, a 

trader. *. 

it, f. a couplet (in poetry) ; an edifice, 
house, temple, bait-band*, f. poetry, verse-making, a. 

, f. a cane, ratun {Calamus ro- 

tang). . 


iyaha, in.l mar- 
biyafitaf.) ried. 

marriage, marriageable, .s. 

betal or ^HT^r baitat, name of 

a demon supposed to occupy dead bodies. . 

^^xL*Jk> bait-ul-haram y m. (sacred house), 
the temple of Mecca, a. 

*x> bait-ut-Mflla, ro. a necessary office, 

a privy, a. 

o bait-us-sa$ar, m. hell. a. 

i3 bait-ush-xharqf, the mansion of 
eminence, the highest mansion of a heavenly body (in 
astrology), a. 

JO. baitu-t-sanam, an idol temple, a. 
UJJ bait-nllah, m. (the house of God), 

the temple of Mecca, a. 

>oJ bait-ul mal, m. lit. the treasure- 

house ; the public treasury or exchequer, into which 
payments on various accounts are made, and according 
to the sources from which they are derived, applicable 
to the support of different classes of persons; an 
escheat, property that falls to the crown in failure of 
heirs ; met. an unfortunate fellow, (v. Wilson's Glos- 
sary.) a. [or city of Jerusalem, a. 

-jJ 1 . bait-ul-muhadda$, the temple 

letra or beta?; a cane of willow. 

betra-band't, an allowance for mats or wicker worka 
for packing goods, s.p. 

baitard f f. dry ginger, s. 

baitarrii, f. a river, according 

to the Hindus, which is to be crossed by the dead on 
their way into the world of spirits, like the Styx of 
the ancients ; a river in Orissa. *. 

/x$SojL> ^frrT&TT bit-hhet, land cultivated 

by forced labour, h. 

bailal, unlucky ; vicious (an abbrevi- 

ation of bait-ul-mdl). a. 

fe?. be-ta,n, impersonal, be-tan mal, an 
escheat ; property devolving on the state from want of 
legal claimants. />. 

bltnd y n. to pass, elapse (*s time); 
to occur, come to pass. 9. [elapsed. *. 

byatit (for vyatlt), passed 
bit, f. dunjr of any animal $ a fac- 
titious salt containing sulphur, a. 

!LuJ ^Z bit, n kind of a gist merit, an allow- 
ance per head of cattle, paid to the cowherd. A. 

jJ "sizr beta, m. a son, a child, a boy. beta 
kar-lena, to adopt a son. h. 

blind, a. to spill, to scatter, h. 

5u> ifo bet/i, sandy unproductive soil, blth, 
f. the dung of birds, baith, value of the government 
share of produce, the amount settled on land. A. 

bitha, m. an annular cushion put 
on the head for carrying a pot of water, h. 

baitha, m. a paddle, h. 

baithdnd, *] 

i. '*!.- - I a - to caU8e to 8U 
baitharna, > 

baifhdlnd, ] 

( 155 ) 

', m. position, allocation, 

situation, h, 

baitha,i 9 f. seating, allaying, d. 

:, f. 1 a seat, a place where 

baithJta, m.J people meet to sit 

and converse, a bench ; also, the act or state of sitting, 
sitting,; a kind of exercise, h. 

baithlana, a. to cause to sit. A. 
bethan, m. the envelope in which 

cloth purchased is folded up, to which the purchaser 
is entitled ; pack-cloth, s. 

AJU^ %3^fT baithna, to sit, to be idle; to 

ride (on a horse) ; to visit a person in grief for the 
purpose of condolence ; to sit in dharnd, q. v. ; to sub- 
side or abate ; to perch (as a bird), h. 

%3^TT baithwan, flat. A. 

\ befi, f. a daughter, a damsel. A. 

b\j y m. seed 5 Sperma genitale (viri 
"out mulieris). *. [rest. *. 

bijabarkhandj m. a fo- 

bljar, seedy, abounding in seed. s. 
bija,i, f. a perquisite of a certain 

allowance of seed-grain, h. 

btjar, soil in which the cerealia are 

generally grown. /*. 
li^. ^hro bijak, m. a ticket tied to goods, 

or on bags (of grain, &c.), to mark their contents, 
price, &c. ; a list, an invoice, s. 

g$?> ^I*fjgl4 blj-hhadj advance of seed and 
food to agriculturists, h, 

xl&v 1 ^faf JlftnT bija-yanit, name of an an- 
cient Hindu work on algebra, s. 

baijila, a species of black pulse. A. 
bij-mar, failure o/ germination. A. 
bljna, m. a4pnd of fan. fa;na 

(Dakh. for bhejnd], to send. 9. 

J^- %W?ft baijantlt f. a flag or standard ; 
the standard of Vishnu, s. 

baijanti-mala, f. a nock- 

lace worn by Vishnu in his several forms. It was be- 
lieved to be composed of the following jewels pro- 
duced from the five elements: viz. the sapphire from 
earth, the pearl from water, the ruby from fire, the 
topaz from air, and the diamond from space or ether, s. 

ft'^^beju, m. the name of an animal that 

feeds on carcasses (Ursus Indicus, Shaw; Indian 
badger. Pennant), h. 

j: '*0HK bijrvar, perquisites of the lower 

classes, consisting of a portion of seed-corn from the 
field, h. 

Jy< be-jot, untilled (as land) a farm that 

is given up by the cultivators, p. h. 

bejha, m. a butt, or mark for 

archers, f. 

ej Jtara, m. a mixed crop, generally 

grain and barley. A. 

bijhna, a. to tear up the earth 
.with the hoofs (a bull) ; to push, to shove, to shoulder, h. 

^^^ ^ft*tdriin bijkoniya, a tribe of raj- 
puts in Jaunpur. A. 

>Hi&^' 'ft^ftr byheryot name 6f a clan of 

rdjputs in the district of Gorackpur. i. 

( jj&- ^ftlft blji, f. a weasel, a mongoose (Vi- 

" verra ichneumon), h. [Urdu.skal.q.v.d. 

bijuar, m. a species of tree called, in 

bick, in, into, among, in the midst, 

between, during; m. middle, centre; difference; 
quarrel, hostility, bich-partid. n. to differ, to raise a 
quarrel between, b'ich kl ungll t f. the middle finger. 
blchon blch, the very middle, h. [traffic, d, 

^v\g< becha-bachi, f buying and selling, 
Qjte$ ^t^T^fNr bich-d-bich, the middle, in 

*- the middle, d. 

^U^ be-chara, helpless, wretched ; pi. be- 
chdragdn. becharagi, helplessness, s. 

iU?2h^ n^nr^iiq- bich-bicha,o, m. mediation, 

interposition, arbitration. bich-bichd,o-k. t to mediate, 
to interpose, h. 

bichra, m. a bed for growing 
plants to be transplanted, h. 

bechna> a. to sell, to dispose of. A* 
bichwarii,\ m. an umpire, an 

lc/iwa t l J arbitrator, a mid- 
dle-man, h. [tent pitched without pole. p. 

be-choba m. (lit. poleless), a kind of 
bichha,\m. a scorpion; the sign 
bichhUf) Scorpio, s. 
> bekh t f. root; origin, foundation, bekh- 

knn, an extirpator, a judge (as extirpating thieves) ; 
also, a thief (as destroying the subjects), p, 

^ %5 baid, in. a physician, a man of the - 
medical caste, s. I 

^x> ^J bed (for veda\ m. the name of the 

Hindu scriptures (namely, 1st, rig, 2nd, sdma, 3rd, 
yaJHsk, 4th, atharva), which are believed to have been 
revealed by Brahma, and arranged in the present order 
by a sage called Vyasa or Veda-vydsat met. certainty, 
faith, s. 

JJO bed, a willow; ratan. bed-bqf, one who 

works on ratans, a basket-maker, bed-bafi, weaving 
with ratans (as the bottoms of chairs and the panels of 
doors or windows), bed-mitshk, musk-willow, cele- 
brated for its fragrance, p. 

UJ bid, a street or lane. d. 

|JJL> bedar, awake, bedar-bakht, fortunate. 
beddr-dil, alert, watchful, quick of apprehension, be- 
ddr-dill, f. alertness, quickness of apprehension, p. 

^^ bedari, f. wakefulness, state of being 
awake, p. 

~****m ^<Itf bedant (for vedanta), m. the 
name of a particular Hindu philosophical system, s. 

( 156 ) 

q^Plft bedanii, m. one who is con- 
versant in the fc</nl school of philosophy. . 

&UjJ ^Tff bedang, a class of studies or 
sciences, subservient to the Veda*, g. f 

fr ( practice of physic, s. 
/>idar, a sort of rake or* harrow 


worked by oxen. 

bedastar, the castor beaver, p. 
JjJj^ baidak, the pawn at chess, a. 

<JL) JsjJ %fifW baidiJtj m. a reader of the 
a Brahman well versed in the Vedas. t. 

dJtXAJ it^lf baidak, m. the practice or science 
of physic. /. 

bedifta, f. an altar, platform. *. 
be-dalat (for be-daulai), unlucky, ef. 

bedan 9 \ 

>f. pain, sickness, ache. *. 

bcdrvu, m. a reader of the Vedas. *. 
faf/Af m. bore, crack, hole. jr. 
ffidha, settlement, arrangement, h. 
be-dharakj 1 fearless, without 
be-dharka, } doubt. /?. /*. 

bedhna, a. to pierce, to per- 
forate. *. 

bcdhil 1m. a borer, one who 

riya,) perforates pearls 
gems, &c. s. 

bedi, f. an altar, a platform, s. 
btda, m. a mound, a cluster of 

mounds. A. 

JO "frc Air, m. a hero ; a brother; adj. brave, s. 
# ^ftt At/*, f. a sister; a tusk; pasturage, 

gr.iMS laud, /u 

JO wtx Air, m. a jewel worn in the ear; in 

the Delhi and Sfigar territory it denotes pasturage, h. 

*> ^T bair, m. enmity, revenge. bair-L, a. 
to revenge, s. 

*> *R ber, m. the name of a fruit (Zlzyphus 
jyitba), also the name of the tree ; jujubes ; time, vi- 
cissitude ; delay, while ; the lotus of the ancients, jr. 

^ Wtu bira, m. a betel-leaf made up, &c. 

(see >tr<*) a q<iid of tobacco, a cheroot or cigar. . 
jO ^fta ll> a, m. (same as Atran) a brother. A. 
> berar, a village registrar or accountant, d. 
bair&b (for bairaft), a banner, a stan- 
dard. p. 

ba?raMteri,f. qiarrelling.A. 
%tT*T baira/j or bniragya, m. penance, 
devotion, the act of leaving the pleasures of the world.*. 

irdya, m. a small crooked stick, 

which a Bairagt places under his armpit to lean upon 
as he sits. *. [also the same as bairaga. 9. 

ttnnT bairagan, f. a female bairagl\ 

bairagi, austere, recluse; in. 

the religious ascetic who abandons terrestrial objects, 
thoughts, passions ; a kind of wandering fakir, who 
practises certain austerities. . [ r *g\ * 

bairagya, m. penance (v. bai- 
Uljjj 'i|u*n berana, m. a grove of for trees. A. 
blr-banl, f. a man's own wife. A. 

bir~bahutti,[f. a small iii- 

blr-balwti, } sect with a back 
"of a bright red colour ; the scarlet or lady- fly, com- 
monly called the " Rain insect," as it makes its ap- 
pearance when the first rains have fallen. It is covered 
with a downy exterior reuembling velvet, and of a 
scarlet colour. /. [peatedly. *. 

ber-ber, often, frequently, n*- 
b~irta,\\ heroism, valour, prowess. *. 
birj, in. power, strength ; seed ; 

sperma gcnitale. s, 

LH buiraJt, m. a banner, ensign, colours. p. 

$j> %t^f bairahh't m. a banner, ensign, co- 
lour (corrupted from bairak). h. 

bairuri) f. a female enemy. *. 
biran, m. a brother. A. 

blrun (also biranakhar}, a kind of 
tough grass spreading over uncultivated lands. A. 

jo berun, out, outside, bervn-jat, coun- 
try, in opposition to town, berun-jdti, rustic, coun- 
try- bred. p. 

eri, f. the \rceofZizyphuxjifjuba. s. 
Am, f. a betc4 leaf made up with 

Apices, &c. ; the colour which adheres to the lips from 
chewing betel. * 

J# 'ftd Am, f. a betel-leaf made up with 
spices, &c. ; the colour which adheres to the lips from 
chewing betel ; a composition, which being rubbed t>u 
the teeth, stains their interstices of a reddish colour. //. 

^> %ftbairi 9 m. an enemy, an adversary, a. 
blrya (forvirya), m. valour, &c. x. 
^> berlz, m. sum total, the entire revenue of 
a farm ; also a government tax. h. 

J %f ber, m. an inclosure. ber bandi-k., to 

inclose a field. A. 

# %^T Aero, m. a raft, a float ; the raft which 
is floated by the Muhammadans in honour of bhwaja- 
Ishizr. Besides the anniversary befd offered to propi- 
tiate him, hundreds of smaller ones with lamps may 
be seen on Thursdays of the month Bhadon particu- 
larly, which are offered by the Muharamadans to this 
saint, betf bandhvS, a. to collect a crowd, befapar-k. 
or lagdnA, to relieve from distress, to remove difficul- 
ties, to help one through a business (lit to ferry over 
a raft), bera kisi ka oar hona, to be propitioua, to 
succeed : in Dakh. it denotes a fence or inclosure. . 


bird, m. a betel-leaf made up with 
a preparation of the areca nut, spices, and chan&m. 
bird uthdnd, a. to undertake a business, blfd ddlnd, 
a. to propose a premium for the performance of a task 
(the expressions originate in a custom that prevailed 
of throwing a bird of betel into the midst of an assem- 
bly, in token of proposal to any person to undertake 
some difficult affair then requisite to be performed, 
and the person who took up the betel bound himself 
to perform the business in question). A. 

y# "^ftfT bird, m. a thong tied to the hilt of 

a sword by which it is retained in the scabbard, a 
sword-knot. A. 

Ujjj ^glberhd, m. paling, railing, inclosure; 
adj. bent, crooked. A. 

^*jf~ ifrflRberhnd, a. to inclose with a fence, 
to pound (cattle, &c.) ; to drive away cattle (as in 
a foray). A. 

iJ*> %tf ben, f. iron fastenings to the legs 

of criminals or of quadrupeds ; the baskets used to 
irrigate fields with. bir*> a small parcel of betel nut 
(v. bird). A. [Hindus, dimin. of bej-d. h. 

Vj*J *Hlpn berlyd, m. the name of a caste of 
JjJ bez, irt comp. diffusing, dispersing, p. 

jVjji> bezar, displeased, angry, out of humour; 

(vul.) sick. p. [pleasure, p. 

s)l}# bwdri, f. anger, bad humour, dis- 

(j*JJ ^ baiSj m. the third of the four Hindu 

castes, whose especial duties are agriculture and trade ; 
a name of a tribe ofrdj-piits, giving its name to the 
province of Baiswdra, in Oude : a prince of that tribe 
formerly reigned at Dundia-kherd. His dominions, 
which extended over a great part of the province of 
Oude, on the north bank of the Ganges, are still 
called Baiswdra. *. 

(j*jj *fNf bis, twenty, bats (for vayas), age. *. 

l^n-M *flui blsd, m. a score ; a dog which has 

twenty nails, a. 
^U~ju farrai baisdJth, m. the first solnr 

month of the Hindus, the full moon of which is near 
Vishdkha (four stars in Libra and Scorpio); April 
May. *. 

lg\*jO 4W4JI bniadhhd or q^JTWT bfiishahhd, 
m. a crutch ; a club armed with iron ; a club conse- 
crated in the month of Baisakh. t. 

_IM*J *HmA baudhhl, growing in the 

"month of Baisakh; f. a large kind of myrobalan or ci- 
tron fruit ; the day of full moon in the month Baisakh. t. 

TK baudndu, sedentary, idle. h. 
btstf twenty, a score, p. 
be-sutun, of no foundation, insigni- 
ficant besit&n or blstun, name of a celebrated moun- 
tain in Persia, p. 

~-x? WhtfC blsar, plennings left in the field 

for the lower orders to gather. A. [nose. A. 

in j^ *NrT besar* f. the pmall ring worn in the 

\r~# WTTTT besard, f. a kind of falcon, the 
feraale or hen bird of the species called dJioti, q. v. 
(Falco ni*us). A. 

jj ^ITCT be-surd, out of tune. h. 

baisahj a spot in a jungle to 
which cattle are sent out to graze : the term is also 
applied to an old and worn-out animal, h. 

baisah (forbaithah), a seat, sitting, d. 
baidanay a. to cause to sit, to set. d. 
lesan, in. the iloiy or meal of 

pulse, particularly of chuna (Cicerarietinum): the same 
is used as a substitute /or soap A. 

J~+v baisnd,n.(f6rbaithnd)t08it, to remain, d. 
( JJL*x ^f^baisandar, m. fire, or its deity, j. 

^yu-o ^*ft^l besnautl, f. a cake made of 
"peameal. A. [caste, s. 

baisnl) f. a female of the Bais 
_ besanl, made or mixed with 

- besan. h. 

beswdj f. a courtesan, a prostitute. 8. 
baisward, m. the residence of 

Bais, the nativity of Bats. q. v. A. 

**jj ^ftft blii, f. twenty ; a score, a measure 
'of grain ; also a land measure equal to 20 nails, s. 

besyd, f.* a prostitute, a harlot, a 
courtesan. *. 

,JL> besh, more; good, proper, well, excel- 
lent, elegant, delightful, lesh-lfardr, trustworthy, besh 
bahd or besh-kimat, of great value, costly, precious, p. 

L%> ben/id, m. a forest, jungle (v. bedtu). p. 
jjc^(jjJ besh-az-besh, a great deal. p. 

LLtJ beahtar, better, more, exceeding, gene- 
rally, for the most part. * 

m. a kind of mendicant, a follower of Vishnu. *. 
jiwJj TOSRft baishnavl or bis/tnaci, a fol- 
lower of Vishnu, baishnavottar, lands granted rent 
free to the worshippers of Vishnu, especially those of 
the mendicant order. 8. 

(jLr# ^* h am > Inore Of less; not much, 

a moderate quantity, p. 

j^ besha, m. a forest, a jungle ; a desert, p. 

^S-jJ bcshi, f. excess, surplus, increa^f*, in- 
** creased assessment, beshi jam\ increase of revenue 
on that of last year, beshl zamin, increase in the lands 
under cultivation, p. 

jojj baizt m. a mark fixed to public writings 
by the magistrate or any principal officer, a. 
OJLJ baizd, m. the sun ; whiteness, yadi 

baifd dikhdnd, a. to distinguish one's self In any work 
(an allusion taken from the luminous hand of Moses), a. 

}Ua# baizdna, in. the perquisite of the ma- 
gistrate, &c. for marking public papers, a. 
jUaJJ baifdvcl, f. the author of a book, con- 
taining a commentary on the $ur,dn. a. 
C^OjJ baizawi, fashioned in the shape of an 

egg. khatii-bai%awi t m. a form of the Persian Nutta'lillc 
character, in which the curved tails ol the letters are 
segments of an oval ; opposed to &&<*# i djtdbl, in 
which they are portions of a circle, a. 

( 158 ) 

baiza, m. an egg, a testicle, a. 
J baitar 9 a horse-doctor, a. 

} bai 9 or bl' 9 f. buying and selling ; com. 

merce, felling. froT-Ar., to sell, bai' bi-l-wafS t a con- 
ditional sale, depending on the final decision of the 
eller ; also a pawn or pledge, bai' bi-l wafa~dar, a 
person having the use of an article conditionally sold 
to him in acquittance of a debt, baff-nama, a deed of 
Fale bai 9 paffd, a lease or sub-lease obtained by pur- 
chase. bay sultfnl, a sale by order of government. 
bai' taljik, a temporary sale, bai'-ddr, a purchaser, 
a possessor by purchase, a. 

> bai'dna, m. earnest-money, a. 

# barbil-wafd-ddr, a person having 

the possession and usufruct of a property on its condi- 
tional sale to him. p. 

bafat-k. 9 a. to become a disciple 
of some saint, a. h. 

x> batddr, a proprietor by purchase, a.p. 

ln\ m. (same as bik), a wolf. s. 

blhd, crooked, awry ; injured, da- 
maged. (v. bai.} h. 

Ko ^NfTc? baikdl, m. afternoon, s. 
&J bekattar, ruffianly, brutal, cruel, d. 
**# bekas, a kind of grass used for fodder; 

adj. helpless* destitute, h. p. 

****> be-hasi, f. destitution, forlornness. p. 

jjjwjj $TlpJ3 baikunth, m. a name ofp^ishnu; 
the heaven or paradise of Vishnu. This name was 
also applied in the time of Ja'fir Khan to a kind of 
pit, in which revenue defaulters were confined until 
they paid the demands against them : in this sense it 
was evidently used ironically on the part of the Musal- 
milns in ridicule of the Hindus. . 

bekh, m. a habit, dress, garb. s. 

Nre baikhat, a sale, selling, h. 

*t*T be'g, m. celerity, haste, rapidity ; 

adv. quickly, soon ; dung. *. 
jo beg, a Mughal title corresponding with 
lord, master, &c. t, ' 

bigd (v. bika), awry, crooked, d. 

baigar, a name of the Kharwar 

begdr, m. a person forced to work 
with or without pay. begar pakaj-na, to press one into 
service. p. 

tribe, h. 

begdri, f. the act of pressing 

or forcing to work, begarl lena t a. to take forcibly or 
press, with or without paying for. beftari-pakrela, m. 
a pressed man ; one compelled to work. p. 

^5lioJ begdnagi, f. strangeness, shyness, p. 

ftSUuJ begdna, strange, not domestic, foreign, 

unknown ; mt a stranger, a foreigner, p. 
jjoj begar, m. gold-tinsel ; tinfoil; varnish, d. 

*> begam, f. a lady, a queen : women of 

-rank are called begams (pi. begamat). t. 

y begmd, f. (dimin. of begam) a young 
lady of rank. t. 

. w'*f baigan, m. the egg-plant (Sola- 
num melongena). h. 

J 'l f rt1 baigantl, f. a sort of wood. *. 
# begm, f. the wife of a beg. t. 

fT bighd, m. a measure of land con- 
sisting in pengal of 20 katthas or 120 feet square, or' 
1600 square yards, which is nearly \ of an English 
acre ; in the Upper Provinces it is nearly of an acre. 
btgha dam, settlement of revenue at so much per bi- 
gha. bigha-ddm t rate levied per btgha. bigha-aaftari, 
u record of the measurement of lands in a district. *. 

7, quick, swift, speedily, s. 

bail, m. a bull, an ox; met. a block- 
head (in which last sense the Scotch say, " a stot"). *. 
belj m. the name of a fruit (Cra- 

tasva or JEgle marmelos). bel or belt, f. a creeper, 
climber, tendril (of a vine) ; descendants, offspring. *. 

bel, in. the name of a flower (Jas- 

minum zambac). bel-phalne, to attain one's precise or 
utmost wish, h 

bel, a spade, hoe, mattock ; a spot in 

which the receiving-pans are placed, where sugar is 
manufactured ; a creeper, a tendril, a pole for direct- 
ing a boat ; a well. p. 

beld, f. a while, a time. s. 

beld, f. name of a shrub (Jasminum 

zambac) ; a cup ; an instrument of music resembling a 
fiddle, h. 

beld, m. a bag of money carried in the 

hand of a person of rank for distribution among the 
poor, beld-bardar, one of the retinue of a great man, 
who scatters money among the populace. bela-Jflprch, 
expenditure in alms-giving, p. 

baild, m. a species of bird. h. 

bel-butd, m. a shrub, bush, 

or creeper ; flowers (on cloth). A. 
# belchd, -\ 

X) r 1 7 i m% a SmaU 8 P ade ' a h 6 

*J belchah, r n _ t 

' a small mattock, p. 

& belcha, ) 

jo belddr, m. a pioneer; a class of Hin- 

dus employed in digging, p. 

Uiluo baillidn, name of a city in Armenia 

near the Caspian, p. 

ilbj belah, f. a small mattock ; the iron 

point of an arrow, p. 1 T [zier. h. 

belhl, m. a cattle-breeder, a gra- 
belan, m. a rolling-pin, s. 

lelnd, ra. a rolling-pin; a. to 
spread out, to laminate, s. 

J* ( 

Itelani, m. a branch ; a small 

rolling-pin, h. 

>elu, m. act of rolling. A. 

be-lau, dispirited, heartless, p. h. 

beli, f. a creeper, climber ; tendril 
'(of a vine). *. 
JJ bim, m. fear, terror, dread, danger, p. 

m. insurance; also the rate 

159 ) 

of insurance, or the per-centage paid for that pur- 
pose. /*. 

bemaf, f. a stepmother, bemat- 

Ww,i, a brother born of a different mother by the same 
father (a half-brother by the father's side), s. 

j3U# *fnf bainidtra, in. a brother horn of a 
different mother by the same father. *. 

j\+jj blmdr, sick, indisposed, biindr-khana, 
m. an hospital, p. 

jtajl+A> bimdr-ddr, an attendant on a sick 
person, a nurse, p. [sick. p. 

^j^W? bimdr-ddt'i, attendance on the 
^I^JJ btmdri, f. sickness, illness, p. 

bimdn (v. bima), m. insurance. A. 

ft in, f. a kind of stringed musical in- 

strument, having* along narrow body, and a large dried 
calabash at either end to concentrate the sound. It is 
strung with steel wires, s. 

f.jtj ^UT ben, ^TjT benu, or ^H ftain, f. a fluto, 

pipe, fife. *. 
j^jjo %*F bain, m. f. a word, speech, s. 

i^J bah/an, m. explanation, interpretation. 
baiyin, clear, evident, manifest, a. 

bin, see thou (r. of didan) ; in conip. see- 

ing, as 'alam-ltin* world-seeing, an epithet applied to 
the sun. p. 

{ ^f t bain, among, between, interval, a. 

\Juj %lfT baind, m. sweetmeats, cakes, &c. dis- 
tributed at marriages. . [forehead, h. 

baina, m. an ornament worn on the 
bind, clear-sighted, discerning, p. 

bend, in. a fan ; the name of a grass, 
khas-kbas (Andropogon muricatum). t. 

L^ULJ be-ndp, unmeasured, unsurveyed. be- 

nap ka patta, a lease guaranteeing that the average 
rates of land remain as before, p. h. 

<?ljjj ftlna,t, f. sight, vision, p. 

e^t^ bain-bain, betwixt and between, so 

so, passable, tolerable, middling, a. 
juuu? bihtna, a* to cut (clothes), d. 

xJ ^Z bent, 1m. a handle of an axe, hoe 

TTT baintdj &c. h. 
~> binj (for bij), m. seed, grain, d. 

^ %nfl bainjni, purple (the colour of 

the Solanum metongena). 7*. . 

o binck (for bich), in the mfdst. d. 
^uo^f^nfTftewcAwa, a. to sell, bench-ddind, 

to sell off. h. 

fttnrf, m. a reed, a rush. A. 
bninda, m. a mark on the fore* 

head, as a preparative of devotion among the Hind Of. 
bind a, a kind of rope made of grass or fibres of the 
arhar plant. A. 

bindhna, a. to bore. s. 
bendlina,\i. to plait, to^raid. k 

bfiindl, f. an ornamental cirdet 
made with a coloured earth or unguent on the fore- 
head and between the eyebrows ; an ornament worn 
by women on the forehead, h. 

bindd, rn. -a roll of paper; a kind 
of rope made of grass, or the fibres of the arhar plant. A, 
bendd, crooked ; met. absurd, h. 
bendhnd, a. to plait, to braid, s. 
bai/idi, act of throwing up water 

from a pond or reservoir with a basket, for the purpose 
of irrigation, h. [plaited) behind, (a tail). . 

bmdi, f. the hair twisted (or 

aiiw, a subdivision of the Oujar 

tribe. /*. 

ijk.J blnish, f. seeing, discernment, p. 

XxA; %$f or ^fif beng, m. (for vyanga), a 
frog, puddock, toad. *. [casra. *. 

byang, m. (for vyangt/d), sar- 

ben gut, seed given to an indigent 

peasant at the time of sowing, to be repaid with in- 
terest in harvest. A. [lanum melongena). h. 

bainyan, m. the egg-plant (So- 
bainganl, purple (the colour of 

the Solanum melongena}. h. 

3_yoJ ^rfr^n benaudka y \\ie country between 
Allahabad and Sarwar. h. 

bent, f. the hair twisted behind, s. 

JUJ blnl, f. the nose, bini-burida, one 

whose nose is cut off (a common mode of punishment 

in the East), p. 

+) bewd, f. a widow, p. 

^J bewd-pd, 1 

. state or situation of widow- 

W bend-pan, > 

fowar, account, explanation, 

yi ( 160 

v$ 4iin hevran, m. the vehicle or self- 
moving car of a Hindu deity ; a (Hindu) bier. *. 

. trade,traffic, business, s. 


byoparl, or 

(same as baipdri], a merchant, s. 

^-J luybt (pi. of <JUJ), houses, a. 

Jfirvat, fit (of a suit of clothes, &c.). d. 

buyutat (additional plural of buyut, 
pi. of bait, a house) : the term is used in several senses, 
as outhouse, house-expense, house-tax, &c. a. 

J "ffrT byora, or %^PCT beora also by, aura, 

m. difference, distinction ; account, explanation, his- 
tory, detail of circumstances, an account of particulars, 
or detailed account (in book-keeping), h. 

tinctly. h. 

beore-war, explicitly, dis- 
[of lovers, t. 
biyog, m. separation (generally 

biyoffit ra. a lover suffering the 
pain of absence. *. [ting out clothes, h. 

byont, m. shape, the act of cut- 
byontna, a. to cut or shape 

clothes, h. 
jj^ 'inNt byonga, m. the instrument with 

which leather is scraped and cleaned, bynnga phira 
nahiti, his hide has not been curried yet (said of a spoilt 
child, rc.). h. 

jj H|Y J rt byongl, f. (see byonga). A. 
JJ berva, f. a widow, p. 

lfcjjj *fasnrt byohar, or ^T^fR le,ohar, m. 
profession, calling, negociation, transaction, money- 
lending, custom, s. 

fhar, or %^,0/iar,m. a loan. s. 
byohard, or 
be,ohara % 
byohariya, or 

a trader, a mo- 
ney-lender. s. 
be,ohariya 9 
> berci or bem-zan, a widow, p. 

belt, m. a hole, a perforation, s. 
Ji> behuda (for be-huda), foolish, stupid, 

behrd,"} m. grass kept for pas- 
behra,) turage. h. 

/irt, f. a subscription, instal- 

ment. behr'i-bardr, collection on shares of the revenue 
in kind, behri-bandi, an allowance for repairing roads, 
&C. behri-ddr, the holder of a behr't. h. 

behar or bihar, uneven, abrupt, 

rugged, waste land, land full of ravines. A. 

behush (for be-hosh), senseless, p. 
xJ behld, m. a bag of money carried by 

great men to be distributed in charity when travelling, 
fee* bthl&-bardar t the carrier of the behla (v. beta). A. 

behan, a nursery for rioe plant*; 

blhan seed. h. [(of cotton). A. 

behinnd, m. a comber, a carder 
behnaur, w. a nursery for rice 

plants, h. 

XJ be-hudagl, f. absurdity, frivolity p< 

JLJ be-huda, absurd, idle, vain, fruitless, 
unprofitable. be-huda~go t a babbler, p. 
^y^xj be-hosh, senseless, insane, p. 
^i^jLJ be-hoshi, f. senselessness, insanity, p. 
.^juJ bikin, better, best, swift-paccdv p. 

I byai, m. expense, expenditure, s. I 
bafyd (v. lx> bayd), the name of a 

little bird. s. [diture. f. 

.l^xo *^4 ^K byayhdr, m. expense, ex pen- ( 

L-^ /?, the third letter of the Persian and 

Hindustani alphabets. It does not occur in the lan- 
guage or alphabet of the Arabs, and the letter f or b 
is substituted for it in such Persian words as are 
adopted into the Arabic language : thus, farsl for parsi, 
and badshah for pddshdh. In reckoning by abjad, pe is 
the same as be, viz. two. 

* * V P a 9 ?llt tne corresponding Sanskrit letter 

in that language denotes the wind ; ^Eolus, the god of 
the wind ; a nourisher or protector; act of drinking: 
as a termination (in Sanskrit words) it denotes support 
ing, cnerishing, nolding, also drinking; as from bhft, 
the earth, bhupa, a king ; lit. the earth-protector, s. 

b in pa, a masculine termination added to 

Hindustani substantives or adjectives to denote abstract 
quality ; as, bufhapa, old age, from bur ha > old. h. 

b pa, m. the leg, the feet ; pa ba-zanjir, 

having the foot in chains, fettered, pa dar rikdb, foot 
in stirrup, ready, alert, pa-shikasta, broken-footed, 
infirm, reduced ; in comp. (as the root of pajdan) it 
denotes permanency, continuation ; as, kam-pa, of 
short duration, transitory ; der-pa, permanent, p. 

J^jilb pa-undaz, m. a carpet spread at the en- 
11 trance of a room, on which the feet are cteansed. p. 
^b pa-band, m. a rope with which the fore- 
feet of a horse are tied, pa-band hona, n. met. to be 
married, p. 

O**yU P<*'bo8 9 kissing the feet, t. e. adoring, 

worshipping, revering, pa-bo* hona, n. to worship, to 
reverence, to adore, to pay respect, p. 

i<*>yb pa-bost, f. worship, reverence, adora- 
**tion. pd-bosi-k. t a. to worship, to reverence. ;>. 
u^b imi pap, m. a crime, a sin, a fault. 8. 
bb HJTTT papa, ni. a weevil, an insect bred in 

rice ; also a father (v. bdbd). h. 

pdpdtmdy ra. a sinner, a repro- 
bate.* h. 

>^C-^b trnrjflf pdp-buddhi, evil-minded, 
wicked. . [gallant. 5. 

TTIWfif pdp-pati, m. a paramour, a 

^R pdp-purushj m. a personi- 
fication of all 6 in. t. 

Ju>-L^>b trrq^j<3ft pdp-cheti, f. a plant com- 
monly called Aknidhi (Cissampelos hexandra). s. 
^J*jL >b mM<^ff pdp-darshi, malevolent, 
looking at faults, t. 

of guilt, knowing an act to be wicked, t. 
^b trftnc pdpar, a fertile soil. h. 

cLJjjjL-->b nmfitn pdp-rog, m. a disease consi- 
dered as the punishment of sin in a former life ; small- 
pox, leprosy, j. 

^\> tntnf pdpar or pdpar, m. a thin crisp 

cake made of any grain, pdpaj- belnd, to undergo great 
labour or pain. *. [latifvlia Roxb.). s. 

r pdprd,m.& kind of plant (Gardenia 
jMPljv^ **TWT^IRl>5jjraHar (in Dakh. pa- 

pafkhdr\ m. ashes of the plantain tree (Musa paradi- 
eiaca), used instead of salt for seasoning the cakes 
called pdpaf. t. [sin. s, 

b tnturforT pap-sammit, equal in 
' pnpishtha, very wicked. s. 
pdp-kar, wicked, abandoned, s. 
^^t ini*pf pdp-krit, "1 sinful, wicked ; 
\pdp-kartd,j a sinner, s. 

^ pdp-nrah, m. any ill-omened 

aspect V of the stars, as the conjunction of the sun or 
Budh with the moon in its last quarter. Jiahu / Saturn ; 
Mars. 5. 


^b "THTFT pap-yhna, removing sin. s. 

fa pap~matiy of a corrupt mind, 
depraved. *. [sin. s. 

trrrr^^R pap-muhta, freed from 

popm,] . 

a female delinquent, sin- 
paprii, \ .-10 

- ner, criminal, &c. s. 

papitnj [destroying. *. 

rm^n^ft pap-nashi y purifying, sin- 
pa-posh, ^ a slipper, p. 
5^b trrtft ;;a;n, m. a sinner, criminal, s. 
papiyd, the castor-oil tree. h. 
jjb pa-piyada, on foot, walking, p. 

Ob ^TTT pat, m. falling:; sin, wickedness; 
a leaf; an ornament worn in the upper part of the 
ear ; a draft or cheque on a banker, pdtoti a-lagnd, 
applied to trees, indicates the full of their leaves in 
autumn ; met. it bignifies that one's power or ability 
is exhausted : it is often applied to patience exhausted 
by the scorn of a beloved person, or to a destitute con 
dition from adverse fortune, i. 

Ob nifff pati, m. a master, lord, husband. *. 

\5l$TOTjafa, m. a leaf; adj. preserved, pro- 

tected. *. [dals,8tc. p. 

w\3b pa-taba, m. a sock ; the straps of san- 

Jl5b inn^5 patal, m. regions (according to 
the Hindus) under the earth, or towards the south 
pole, inhabited by a serpentine race ; infernal regions, 
hell; a sort of apparatus for calcining and subliming 
metals, formed of two earthen pots, the upper one in- 
verted over the lower, and the two joined together bjr 
their necks with cement, and placed in a hole contain- 
ing fire. s. [and debts of an estate, h. p. 


jjiib pat-bandi, a statement of the assets 
tTTfarf patit, lowered, depressed, hum- 

pb imc pdtr or pdtra, m. a vessel in general, 
a plate, a cup, a jar, &c.; a leaf; a receptacle of any 
kind; what holds or supports; adj. worthy, able, 
eligible, fit, capable. *. [rishes. *. 

y b iJTrr pdtri, who or what protects or nou- 
pdttra, m. a preservative from sin, 

a preserver, a saviour. . 
> "TRft pdtar or Wfopdtur, f. a prostitute, 

a dancing-girl ; adj. weak, lean, pdtur-bdx, a whore- 
monger, h. 

yb pdtar, m. a moth, a butterfly, d. 

by J W*mpdtratd, f. capacity, fitness. in^TH 
pdt^itd, m. a plant (Ocymum pilotum). t. 

pdttratd, f. the quality of a pre- 
servative from sin. . 

j^ib pdtarni, f. (of pdtar), a butterfly. d 
paturiyd, a whoremonger, h. 
pdtak, m. sin, crime, vice. s. 
CiJob tnipF pdtuk, m. an aquatic animal of 

a large size ; figuratively the water-elephant, h. 

(l')b tnfinii pdtik, ra. the Gangetic porpoise, *. 
patakwd, m. a messenger. 5. 
pdtaki, criminal, wicked, s. 

pdtili, f. a small earthen pot 
used by religious mendicants. *. 

hj^b WH3f$ pdtanjal, m. the Yog system 
of philosophy. *. [///ar). e. 

-> "TTOT, pdthar, m. a stone (same w pat- 
U^>b m^j^i pdthnd, a. to make up cow-dung 

into cakes for fuel. h. 

euu^ib tll'qn pdtheya, m. provender, provi- 
sions for a journey. . [leaf. * 

.^b *n?ft pa/?, f. a letter, note, epistle ; a 

&L5b pdtlla (also pdtila), a kind of wiue- 
mouthed saucepan used by confectioner!, p. 



ITT pat, m. hrradth (ofclotli or of a 

river); tow; it also signifies a u->te or obligation to 
pay a sum of money for one's own account on an ap- 
pointed day. It is often usual to accept these pats 
irom creditable persons, in payment of the arrears of 
the zamindars or renters, h. 

fHT pat, in. silk; a millstone; a throne, 

a seat; a board, shutter, plank, flap; a plank on which 
washermen beat clothes, the leaf of a d<x>r. #. 

b pat, m. a bed or plot in a garden or 
field, s. [men beat clothes, s. 

bb UTTT pdtd, m. a plank on which washer- 

ij^C^b m^T.l'tft pat-rani, f. the queen, the 

principal wife of a raja. . 
j$C-*b qrwapr pdt-hrim or pdt-hfram, m. a 

silkworm, s. 

> VI&9 pdtal, m. rose-colour or pink. 5. 

patala, i\ tlie trumpet flower 

(Bignonia suaveoleri*). s. 

patali-putra, m. the name 

of a city, supposed to be the ancient Palibothra and 
the modern Patna. s. 

dulent ; clever, dexterous, 
patunl or 

patcdopal, m. a ruby. s. 

WUl. patambar, m. silk cloth, silk 
garment, s. 

Mltf patan, f. a roof; m. name of a city, 

commonly called Patnaj old inflect, plur. of pat, a mill- 
stone (forpojori). /*. 

ib Hlfirrf pdiin, in. a sort offish described 
as having many teeth, s. 

patnd, a. to roof, to cover, to 

shut ; to fill, to irrigate, to water, to pay ; to overstock ; 
to accumulate, to pile, to till up. h. 

pdt<n m ; clever, sharp, dexterous ; m. 
cleverness, talent, eloquence, s. 

pdtavik, cunning, crafty, frau- 
[ferryman. //. 
pdtauni, in. a 

ib HIS path, m. a lesson, reading; studying 
the Yedas or sacred writings, s. 
> inST/>a7m,m. a young animal full grown 

(generally expressive of a goat or elephant) ; a youth 
or young wrestler. A. 

pathan, m. bdellium, s. 

patk-bhu, f. a place where the 
Vedas are read or studied, s. 

pat hit 9 instructed, taught, s. 

path-said or pdth-shald, f. 
a school, a college. *. 

lli^'lj m9^1%ft pdth-shdlini, f. a small 
" bird (Gracula religiosa}. s. 

il^b tinnF patli(t1i t in. he thnt gives lessons, 

a teacher, a professor; a lecturer, a public reader of 
the sacred writings, or a Pandit who declares what 
u UiC law ; a spiritual preceptor ; a title of Brahmuus. s. 

pdthikdf.z, small shrub (Abrtts 
precatorius). s. 

^ib mTTR path-mar, a courier or mes- 
senger, sent from place to place, h. 

jP*^ b ^IJH^O path- manchari, f . a s m a 11 

bird (Gracula religiosa). s. 

pdthan, m. lecturing, teaching, s. 
pdt/n, m. a teacher (the same as 

) ; a plant (Plumbago zelanica) ; f. a young goat ; 
a kind of flsh. 5. 

(^J^b TJTnftT pathin, m. a sort offish (Silu- 
rus boalisy, a public reader or lecturer on the Puranas. s. 

j^i'l> VRRlpdthya, adj. to be read or studied. A 
^'b tn# patl, f. the side pieces of a bedstead ; 

"a kind of mat; a board on which children learn to 
write ; divisions of the hair which is combed towards 
the two sides and parted by a line in the middle ; a 
kind of sweetmeat ; m. a sort of fish, described as 
having many teeth. *. [radish ; sandal. //. 

^b tfrfbtpatir, in. a pungent root, a sort of 
pa-jama, m. trousers, longdrawi-is. p. 

b paji, mean, base. paji-pnr(i*t, \\ patro- 

"niser of mean upstarts, pajl-mizaj, of a in, -an dis- 
position, p. [of the base. /;. 

pdjiynna, niearily, in the manner 
\pdji-pdna, in. meanness, baseness, p. 
b paji-mizaj, mean-spirited, base- 
p. a. 
pach> a sort of gem, emerald, h. 

soul eel. 


pachah, dig<'stive, tonic; m. a 
cook; tlu 1 bile which assists in digestion ; a digestive, 
a stomachic, a solvent, s. 

CiU-b. pachah, m. cow-dung dried for fuel. p. 

pdchal, whatever promotes di- 


pdchan, digestive, suppurative; 

m. a medicinal preparation, an infusion of various 
drugs, chiefly carminatives or gentle stimuli, given to 
bring the vitiated humours to maturity, a diet-drink, 
a digestive (v. pachak). 9. 

pachanak, m. borax, s. 
pacharii, f. a sort of myrobalan 

(Terminalia chebula). s. 

b pacha, m. (sheep's foot), foot. p. 
*-b tra pdchh, m. the act of inoculating, 

inoculation, h. 

pdchhnd, a. to inoculate. A. 
pdchhe, "1 after, afterwards, be- 
pachhenj hind, in the absence 
of (v. pichhe). s. 
b tn^ pad, m. the foot; a foot, a quarter; 

the foot or line of a stanza ; emission of wind down* 
wards, pdd-marna, to emit wind backwards, i. 

^bb TTT^ri pddarddha, m. half a line of a 

stanza, s. 

( 163 ) 

b MI^KM padasan, m. a foot-stool. $. 
itab padash, ~\ m. revenge, retaliation ; 

'CL<u*teb padasht,) recompense, retribution, 

("toe. *. 

padangushth, m. the great 
! padangushthika, f. an 

reward p. 

ornament or ring worn on the great toe. *. 
i^b *||^1fftT pada-non, m. black salt, pre- 

pared by melting common salt with a small proportion 
of myrobalans: it contains sulphur. 7*. 

frbb tn^TCT paddhat y kicked, trodden, 

touched by the foot, t . [for the feet. *. 

pddap, ra. a footstool, a cushion 
pad-pa, f. a shoe, a slipper, s. 

pad-prakshalan, m. 

washing the feet. s. 

j^b qifglNUIH pdd-prandm, m. bowing to 

the feet, prostration. *. 

jL-A^b xn^nf?T padap-ruha, f. a creeping 

or parasite plant, s. 

pad-prahar, m. a kick. s. 

pad-tal, m. the sole of the foot ; 
adv. under the feet. s. [fourth caste, s. 

, ^b *n<**f pddaj, m. a sudra, a man of the 
pad*chapalya , m. beat- 

ing or shuffling with the feet. s. 

pad-char, on foot. s. 

pad-charij m. a footman, a 

foot soldier, s. 

t>ob ^IT^i<^. pad-chatrvar, m. the religious 

fig-tree (Ficus religiosa). s. [feet, a chilblain. *. 

pad-darl, f. a chap in the 
pa-daraz, contented, tranquil, at ease. p. 
T pa<1ra-klra. the ant lion, 

an insect which constructs a hole in the ground as a 
trap for ants, on which it feeds, h. 

pad-rohan, m. the Indian 
fig- tree. . 
^j^b padri, m. a Christian priest of any de- 

nomination (the word was introduced into India by 
the Portuguese). 

bjty, padzahr, m. the name of a medicine, 

expeller of poison (Bezoar stone}, p. 
cL>^i*Ob 4 m?f^7 pad-xpkot, m. kibe, chil- 

blain, an ulcer in the foot. s. 
\^li*^b tn^n^TT pad-shahha, f. a toe. s. 

*L>3b padshakj a king, a sovereign (same 
as badshah). padshah-zada, a prince, padshdh-zadi, 
a princess, p. * [a king ; kingly, p. 

blfcliob padtkahana, fit for, or worthy of 
C^lA^b padsha/iat, f. sovereign power, 

royalty, p. 

padshaki, f. royalty ; adj. of or be- 
onging to a king, royal, p. [feet. #. 
pad-shabd y m. the sound of 
pad-shotk, m. swelling of 

the feet, gout. *. 

J b xnpp paduk, who or what goes on 

foot, or with feet *. 

^Td^iT paduka, f. a shoe, a slipper. . 
pad-katak, m. an orna^- 

ment for the feet or toes. f 

/^b m^M^^U pad-grahan, m. respectful 
obeisance, touching the feet of a superior, f . 
j*S\> ifl^Jlftlii: pad-gandir, m. morbid en- 
largement of the legs and feet. s. 
jl^fob m<JA||Hi pad-ghabra t frightened out 

of one's wits. h t 

pdd-mul, m. the heel. s. 
padna, to emit wind (back wards). 5. 
, f. a shoe. s. 

padodak, m. water for the 

feet, especially that in which the feet of a Brahman 
have been washed, s. [farer. . 

padvik, m. a traveller, a way- 
pad-valmik, m. morbid 

enlargement of the legs and feet. s. 

pddhd, m. a schoolmaster, s. 
Tl{igK4f pdd-hdraky m. one who 

takes or steals with his feet. s. 

H*fc3b THrJlW pad-hat, trodden on, kicked, 

struck with the feet. h. 

i jjfc^b iR%ft pad- harsh) m. tingling of the 

feet, caused by pressure upon the crural nerves. s. 

p$b trf^t padi, footed, having feet ; m. a 

footed aquatic animal, an amphibious animal, s. 

?^b xn^ft pddl, rice in the husks, h. 

% ""TO" pddya, m. water for washing the 
feet. . [vessel for washing the feet. s. 

jSbeoil^, (fit|i|H pddya-pdtra, m. a metal 

Ifcib ifffi pddhd, m. a hog-deer (v. parha). 8. 

^Jb Trrgt pddhi, f. the act of crossing 

"a river. A. 

j^ *HT par, m. the opposite bank or shore ; 

adv. over, across, on the other side, through, par-k., 
to ferry over, to cross ; to finish ; to perforate j to re- 
lieve; to carry off. par -ho -j and, to escape; to at- 
tain refuge. . [man. d. 

jjb para, m. a sentinel or sentry ; a watch- 
];b ilTTT para, m. quicksilver, mercury , f. a 

river, said to flow from the Pariyatr mountains, a por- 
tion of the Vindhya chain, pare-kd kafur l calomel. *. 

.W.b *JHJijr< pdrapdr, m. the two banks of 
a river, t. 


mmf{parashar 9 m. a name of the poet 

Vyisa ; the rules of Vyasa for the conduct of the 
mendicant orders, s. 

parashari, m. tho religious 

mendicant, who, having passed through the three 
tages of student, householder, and ascetic, leads a 
vagrant life, and subsists upon alms. *. 

1TK11K pararvar, on both F>dos (of a 
river) ; m. limit (of sea) ; sea, ocean, s. 
i^j^jb MlU'tfd pararvat, m. a sort of ebony 
(Diospyros glutinosa). s. 

Jjtjb MKNrfl paramati, f. a river in the 
peninsula ; the fruit of the Annona reticulata ; a form 
of song peculiar to the cowherds, s. 

parayan, m. totality, complete- 
ness ; the act of reading a Puran continually, without 
expressing its meaning, s. 

iJl^b xntTOfonf parayanih, m. a lecturer, 
a reader of the Puranas. s 

jjl^.b t.rffic>rw panbhavya 9 in. a drug, a 
fort of costus (Costui specwsus}. s. 

pari-bhadra* m. the coral tree 

(Erythrina fulgens}', the nimb tree; a sort of pine 
(Pinus devadaru) ; the surul ; also a sort of pine (Pinus 
tongifolia). s. 

bb 'qxfiQWI paripat ra , m. name of a moun- 
tain, apparently the central or western portion of the 
Vindhya chain, which skirts the province of Malwa. *. 

URir paras, m. the philosopher's 
stone ; a touchstone for gems ; adj. Persian, f. 
iV or pars, m. Persia, p. 

Sij ,b TTfftuP^jsii paripanthiJ{ 9 m.a robber, 
a thief, a highwayman. 5. 

paritathya, f. a trinket worn 
on the forehead where the hair is parted. . 

l^yjb TJlfTTftfrSf paritwhik, gratifying, 
giving satisfaction ; m. a reward, gratuity. *. 

J^>jb lJT*Nw parthakya, m. severally, in- 
dividuality, difference. *. 

parthiv, earthen, terrestrial ; 
ruling the earth ; m. a king ; an earthen vessel. *. 

Wjb ^nftWTfT parijat, m. a tree that grows 

in paradise: the coral tree (Erythrina fulgens\ s. 

lli par-jayik, m. an adul- 

terer. *. 

-jb parcha, m. frngment, piece, scrap; 
cloth, web, a piece of cloth, p. 

parad, m. quicksilver, s. 

^ par-darjya, tn. adultery, s. 
par-darik 9 m.Q,n adulterer.*. 

far-seeing, wise. *. [a country, part of Orissa. * 
par-da ndak 9 m. name of 

par-d^/7*,foreign,abroad ; 

m. a traveller, a foreigner. . 

par-deM 9 f. 1 belonging 
par-dekya, m. ) to another 

country ; m. a traveller, one gone to another country; 

a foreigner, s. 

^b parsa, abstemious, chaste, watchful ; a 
holy man, a devotee, p. 

par-sal, the year before ; last year. p. 

b pansa~i> f. chastity, purity, abstinence, 
holiness, p. 

paras-patthar, 1m. the 

attkalJ philo- 

sopher's stone. The paras patthar, according to Hindu 
legends, was a stone which, on touching any metal, 
immediately converted it into gold. It was found in 
ancient times by a grasscutter, who. accidentally 
touching it with his scythe, was astonished to find that 
implement turned into gold. It then found its way 
into the hands of the raja of that part of the country, 
who one day, in a fit of generosity, presented this in- 
valuable stone to a Brahman. The Brahman, not know- 
ing the virtue of the gift, and being displeased at receiv- 
ing a present apparently so worthless, threw the stone 
into the Nerbudda. When he was informed of what he 
had done, struck with shame and remorse, he {lunged 
into the river in order to recover it if possible, but the 
water was so deep, that he could not reach the bottom. 
That part of the Nerbudda is said to be unfathomable, 
hence, unfortunately, no man has, ever since, found 
the stone aforesaid (Binning), s, 

9 paras-pipal, m. the 

name of a tree (Hibiscus populneoidea, Roib.} also the 
tulip tree. s. 

b xnrftnif par$ik t m. Persian, g. 

parsi 9 m. a Persian, the Persian Ian- 
guage ; a follower of Zoroaster; a fire- worshipper, p. 
iju**jb MHtfta parsik, m. (same as paw), 
Persian, the kingdom of Persia ; a Persian horse, &c. s. 

i^b JJlftiRf parishad, in. a spectator, a per- 
son present at an assembly. . 

par&hav, m. the son of a Sudra 

woman by a Brahman ; a son by another's wife, an 
adulterine ; an iron weapon *. 

parshwa 9 near, proximate, by the 

side of; m. a side, flank, s. 

A^,ijb qf$WI parshwa-bhag, m. the 

side, flank, s. 

^iyi^b trf^lsr^ parshwa-shul 9 m. spasm of 

the chest, stitch, s. 

Jjijb tnfifo pdrshmk, lateral; m. a par- 
tisan, a sidesman, a companion, s. [side. h. 

par$krva-<)at 9 close to, bc- 

parthtk, same as parsik, 
Persian, &c. ,*. 

paritshya, m. aloe wood or 

agallochum : in law, this t,enn denotes harshness or 
violence, danda-panuhya, assault and battery, vak- 
parushya, slander, calumny, libel. *. 

J^b TH^Ii par ah * what' purifies, protects, 

cherishes ; what enables one to crow (a river) or go 
through the world, c. 

( 165 ) 

iTVT pdrikankshi, m. an 
ascetic, one who lives in devout contemplation. 5. 
pdrkhi, m. an examiner. 5. 

TTTTTf pdrag, crossing, going over or 
beyond the world. a. 

par-yat, crossed, gone over; 
pure, holy ; a Jin, or Jain, deified teacher, s. 

pdral, m. name of a plant (Big- 

nonia chelonoides or Bignonia suaveolens, Roxb.\ *. 

ciKj5jb qifXcAfrdi' pdrilaukik, belonging 

to the next wofld. *. 
cii^SjUjb TOJfTfita parmarthik, preferable, 

best, most desirable. *. 
trj%*J^t IK^fU) pdramparj, m. traditional 

instruction, tradition, continuous order or succession. 5. 

iT pdramparopa- 
deth, m. traditional instruction. $. 
^;b TTCJDf pdran, m. a cloud ; eating or drink- 
ing alter a fast. s. 

jb^b trtfOTR parinaya,*u\. property re- 
ceived at the time of marriage by a woman. *. 
jb XfTXTT parna, a. to finish, to perform, s. 
jb tK<r|| pdrnd, in. breaking a fast. s. 

b 1I1X.CIR par war, on both sides (of a 
river) ; quite through, through and through. *. 
Oj^b "qf^rt parvat, m. a tree called the large 

nimb (Melia semper vir ens}. . 
^jjjb inflrt partvati, f, daughter ofparwat, 

"a mountain, q.d. mountain-born ; the goddess Durga, 
the wife of Shiva ; the olibanum tree (Boswellia tint- 
rifera) ; another tree (Celtis orientalis). *. 

*-j>jjb l|| 5 ifl M pa rva tlya , adj. mountainous. 5. 
^.b in^lir parvan, m. the general funeral 

ceremony to be offered to all the manes at the Parva- 
or junction of the sun and moon, at which double 
oblations to the ancestors are offered. . 

JJjl> para, ra. a strap, a slip, a piece, a bit ; 

p&ra-dox, m. a patcher ; a tent-maker, or one who ap- 
plies the leather parts in tents, screens, &c. p. 

pari, f. time, tour, turn. s. 

pariyatra, m. name of a 
mountain (same as p&ripatra). s. 
t\jJ jb qT<f)^[ parindra, m. a lion ; a large 

snake (boa). . 
Djj.b partita, ancient, past, elapsed, parina 

daftar, an ancient record, p. 
Jb mi par, f. a scaffold. *. 

tjb XHTT ^ara, ra. a quarter of a town, ward ; 

(in Dakh.) a calf. h. 
Uj>jb par-parna, to sustain an injury, to 

receive a blow. d. 

Oyb THTHT parnd, a. to let fall ; to collect 
lamp-black ; (Dakh.) to finish, to acccomplieh. h. 

parrvd (same as salkh, q. v.). rf. 

^T' parhd, m. a hog-deer (Cervus 
porcinus). h. 

^Jb 1 TO^ ;>ar/ii, f. crossing a river (when 
"travelling on it) ; a young buffalo, a calf. h. 
^jb pasakr, f. bezoar stone, p. 
C^b tyre pas, m. a rope, a noose ( v. pdsh). s. 

L>**b inK pas, near, about, at, in the posses- 

sion of. *. 
(^*>b pax, m. watch, guard, defence; a space 

of about three hours (the same as pahr, q. v.), obser- 
vance, preservation, pas i &bii$ir t attention to (one's) 
wishes, p. 


1JTOT pasd, m. a die (pi. pose, dice), the 
long dice with which cliaupar is played) ; a throw of 
. [tinel ; a shepherd, protector, p. 

pas-ban, in. a watchman, guard, sen- 
pdsbdnl, f. watch, guard, protection, 

' keeping, p. 

bLmb pdstdn, former, of yore. p. 

pd-mny> in. a weight or make-weight, 

an equipoise, a balance, p. 

pdsl, f. a net ; a rope with which 

"the legs of a horse are bound. *. 

^*b unft past, in. a fowler; one whose 

" business is to make tadi or tdfl (so named from the 
rope round his leg when he climbs the tdjr tree). *. 

^^ib past (from pas), a watchman ; (ours were 
"called " watchy," from " watch," in my young days), p. 

pdsh, m. a fetter, chain, tie; the 
string for fastening tame animals, the net or noose for 
catching birds, deer, &c. ; a noose, a weapon of com - 
bat. s. 

pdshd, m. a die, a throw of dice. *. 
pdshdn, m. a stone. *. 
tinJT^^ pdshdn-bhedl, m. a 

plant (Plectanthus scutellaroides). 8. 

^(^b ^f^^^f p dsh-baddha,nooBed, snared, 
caught, bound. *. [vered. d. 

ib pdsh-pdsh, broken to pieces, shi- 

m pdsh-bandh, m. a noose, a 
snare, a halter, a net. . 

*-i*b inf5pr pdshit, tied, fettered, bound, s. 
.JU.(^ib trnji^f pdsh-chdtya, adj. behind, 
being behind, subsequent ; western. *. 

iXib Tn^RIi pdshak, m. a die, particularly 
the oblong die used to play chaupar. s. [feet. h. 
ib WTO pdakak, m. an ornament for the 
pdshand, \ m. a heretic, an 
^^^^^,^ impostor, a secta- 
rian, a Jaina. a Bauddha or Buddhist *. 

166 ) 


fti>b pashna or pathina, m. the heel. 7?. 
*^>b pa-shoya, m. feet- wash ing. /?. 

, f. diffusion, scattering, p. 

pa*hi, m. one armed with a net 

or noose. *. 

^uV^lb pashulan, to sprinkle, to scatter. j0. 
ciJb pa/;, pure, clean, upright, pak-lurdan, 

to carry clean off. pdk-soj&tan, to burn or be burnt 
utterly, p. t [confection, s. 

ciJb TOT pah, m. an electuary medicine, a 
jlfi'b pah-laz, undefiled (generally applied 
to the mind), p. [mind, h* 

pah-bazi, f. purity (generally of 
pah-phal, m. the Caronda 

jwh-daman, chaste, pure. p. 
pafi-damam, f. chastity, purity. >. 

pah-ranjan, nu the leaf 
of the Laurus cassia, s. 

pak-rau y upright in conduct, p. 
f pakar, \ the citron-leaved 

ffpIT pahariya,) Indian fig-tree 

(Ficus venosa). h. 

pak-zada, a washerman, e?. 

pak-sthan,m . a kitchen. 5. 
pak-sanrsl, f. a table- 

* vice, a bench-vice (this is a modern name for the in 
strument -which was introduced by Europeans). A. 

pak-shala, m. a kitchen, s. 

1t TR5!l pakshya, belonging to a side or 
party. *. [unpolluted, a. p, 

pak-saf, pure, clean, undefiled, 
pak-saft, f. purity, sanctity, p. 

, producing maturity, sup- 
purative ; m. Costus speciosus. t. 

pdkali, m. a plant (Dauhinia 
Candida), s. [(Oucumw usitatissimits}. s. 

pahali, f. a sort of cucumber 
, n. to boil in syrup. 5, 

pakka, m. a shed, any small build- 
ing leaning against the wall of a yard or area. h. 

anorpashan, m. a stone. *. 

, f. an iron armour for the 
defence of a horse or elephant, h. , 

J^b qra^I pakhand or iTT^R pashand, m. 
wickedness, deceit, hypocrisy, heresy, a heretic, a hete- 
rodox Hindu, adopting the exterior marks of the 
classes, but not respecting the ordinances of the Vedas.*. 

3<J^>b ^m^pakhandi or qpngft pashandt, 
deceitful, hypocritical, heretical, wicked, s. 

^b pakl, f. purity, cleansing. pahl-lena y a. to 
"shave or pluck hair from parts concealed, p. 
^J^J^b paktzagi, f. cleanliness, purity, rieat- 
"ness. p. [innocent, of pure conduct, p. 

yjj^b pakiza, clean, pure, neat, pahiza-rau, 

w^b ^t?TW pakya, m. Bitlalan, a medicinal 

salt, impregnated with iron ; nitre, saltpetre, f. 
d/b UR 7?a^7, f. a turban ; syrup ; a poll-tax 

formerly levied on all malcc over twelve years of 
age. s. [Marhattas) a stud. /*. 

ob trnn paga, m. a troop of horse ; (amoDg 
^pb WTT^o^Mr, m. act of chewing the cud; 

rumination, h. [to ruminate, h. 

pagurana, a. to chew the cud, 

b T|tJT<55 pagal, m. a fool, idiot, madman 
(a word peculiar to Bengal, and vulgarly sounded 

pogle). It. 

.f. shelter; a sail; a small tent; 

layers of straw, leaves, &c., between which unripe 
mangoes are ripened ; a dyke or dam ; crown landi 
kept in the hands of government, h. 

)b 1JT<$| pala, in. frost, hoar frost, snow ; 

trust, charge ; cherishing, protecting, fostering ; a heap 
of earth made by children to separate the two parties 
in a game called kabaddi; leaves of a tree named 
jhaj-berl (a species of Zizyphus) pala-pafna, n. to snow. 
pdle-pafna, to fall within the power of another, s. 

^^b MI^Jl^T palaxh, green ; belonging to the 
palas tree, made of its wood ; m. green colour. *. 

si^^ji^b qT<$!9r*sN!3 palash-hhand, m. a 
country in India, the western part of Behar. s, 

MI^PM pa-lagan , m. obeisance per- 
formed by embracing the feet ; reverence, respect, ve- 
neration. s. 

b palanj m. pack-saddles, dorsers. p. 
palit, cherished, nourished, s. 
ish, f. filtration, percolation, p. 
pa,"lacfhz y a slip of the foot, a stumble ; 

met. error, ruin. p. 

iiJb iTfi?W palak, one who protects, nou- 
rishes, &c. m. a kind of green (a species of spinach) ; 
a bedstead, s. 

JLUb mffjoir palik or palah, m. a cherisher, 
a protector, a guardian, a watchman, a preserver, pa- 
lak-putr, adopted son. palak-befa, a boy who has been 
bought of his parents, hence a slave, s. 

>^>tii!b *ft<5 * ^H $ palak-juki, f. name of 

"a medicinal tree (Justicia nasuta, also Ixora undulata 
Roxb.) h. 

^Jb q!<^*0 pa*lakri, f. blocks of wood 

placed under the feet of a bed to raise it (it is the cus- 
tom to have two such blocks ready to raise the head 
of a bed, to give it a eloping position), h. 

<ri@4i*l palakra, m. a child adopted 
a son. palakyi, an adopted daughter. A. 

/?5//<t, f. a litter, a sedan, com- 

"monly called by Europeans palankeen, palkl-sawar, 
one who rides in a palkl. palki-nishin, entitled to be 

- carried in a pdlki (formerly this privilege was granted 
to individuals by a king or viceroy). A. 

palan, m. bringing up, rearing, 

breeding. *. 

pain a, a, to bring up, to breed, 
to educate ; to guard, to protect ; m. a cradle, s. 

palind, m. a sort of jasmine 
(Jasminum pubescent), g. 

, f. a plant commonly 

"called teorl (Convolvulus turpethum) the black sort. *. 
dljJb 1TT<$3[ palanky in. olibanum tree (Bos- 

welHa tharifera) ; a sort of beet-root (Beta Bengalensls) ; 
a hawk. $. 

palankA, If. incense, the gum 
palankyaj or resin of the 
olibanum. & 

iJL&^b pa-lahang, m. a tether, a halter, p. 

^ ^Tf^rt /;5S, who or what nourishes or pro- 

jects ; m. a cowherd ; f. a battle between birds ; a place 
where birds fight ; a covering of a pot. h. 

jJb palez, f. a melon-field, p. 

bb *tun pama, f. cutaneous eruption, herpes, 
pcab. *. 

.Lob tjwrfit pamari, m. sulphur, s. 
JUb pa-mcil, "1 trodden under foot,ruined, 
pa 9 e-mal 9 } devastated, p. 

pa- rnali, \ . 

_ _ f f. rum, devastation, p. 

b HWC pamar, adj. wicked,vile, base 5 stu- 
pid, idiot, fool. . pour. />. 

b pa-mardt, f. strength ; resolution, va- 
ar^f. silken clothes, silk^Jress ; 
"the wife of a man of inferior caste, h. 
//b^JJT'nf paman, diseased with herpes, s. 

/jb JJFf pan> ^n- act of drinking ; drink in 
general ; betel leaf (leaves of Piper betel) ; (in Dakh.) 
a leaf (of any plant in general ). pan ufhdna or pan 
lend (to accept or take the betel leaf), to consent, to 
agree. *. 

^Vj ^ITftj pani, m. the hand. s. 

ttb *qnn pana* a. to get, to acquire, to find, 

to enjoy, to suifer, to overtake, to reach, to accept, to 
obtain ; m. a plant growing in stagnant water. $. 

/ob tnf*U*M pani-bhuj, m. the gloinerous 

fig-tree. (Ficus glomerata). *. 
4^birttrp5mp,sirj,crime(v.jpap); also agony, 

anguish, torture, h. 

b^b *JT*nTf p&n-patrat m. a glass, a drink- 

ing vessel. . 

-.jb i?Wt pamptf wicked, criminal, sinful, h. 

U>b ^TTTT pant, f . a line (of writing); a rank 

of soldiers, ii row. *. 

iJTrfT pantar, m. a desert field, s. 

trrwi panth, m. a traveller, s. 
Jfib. tifaft panti, f. a row. s. 

^b ^^p^pdnjar 9 m. the ribs, the* side; aside 
or quarter (synon. with taraf). s. 

ve; (in l)akh.)an emerald. *. 

panchal, belonjinp ro th^ coun- 
try of Panchal ; m. the sovereign of Panchal ; the com- 
pany or association of five trades, viz. carpenter, weaver, 
barber, washerman, and shoemaker. 5. 

pahch chhatank, a toll 

of five chhatunlcs (q. v.) in a rupt's worth of rire or 
paddy, established in large cities to defray the expense 
of inspectors of weighmen, stationed in the bazars, 
&c. to prevent fraud in the weight and measure of 
commodities sold therein, h. 

panchrvan, the fifth, s. 

^ a ^ ni( ^ ^ wee d growing in 

"tanks and pools, d. 

Ijob trirf^T^ pan-dan 9 m. a box for holding 

betel and its apparatus, s. p. 

pandit, pale or yellowish white; m 

pale or yellowish white colour ; name of an ancient 
king of India, and nominal father of the five Pandava 
princes ; f. a plant commonly called Mashani (Glycine 
debilis). s. 

AJ&b THT!?Wf pandu-bhum 9 *m. a countrv 

\> v* v >> Cv -* 

with a light-coloured soil. s. 

i&irstpandit-put.ra 9 m* sonofPandu, 
cither of the Pandava princes. *. [ing. 

Htftpffft panditif f. scholarship, learn- 

pandar or ^TT^^T pandur, pale or 
yellowish white ; m. pale or yellowish white colour. 
pdn4ar t the many flowered jasmine, pandur, the white 
leprosy ; vitiligo. *. [cane. *. 

pandra, m. a species of sugar- 
^^T pandar-pushpiha 9 f. 

a plant commonly called sltala (perhaps Fhryniwn 
dichotomum). s. 

pandur-drum, m. a plant 

(Echltet antidy sent erica). 8. * 

f pandu'SharJtara 9 f. light- 

coloured gravel (disease), s. 

pandu-kambal 9 m. a kind 

of stone, limestone or marble. *. 

pandu-loma, f. a plant (Oly- 

t. [opal, a pale soil. t. 

^I pandu-mrittika, f. the 

pandu-nag, m. a plant 

(Rotleria tinctoria). B. 

ib. ^npn pandav or panda-va, a descendant 
of king Pandu, but more especially his five sons dis- 
tinguished in the great wars detailed in the Maha- 
bhdrata. $. 

( 108 ) 

pandu-varna, adj. white; m. 
whiteness. $. 

JkA) ^tOTT/?aw(/wn'5, m. a light-coloured soil; 
a mixed soil of clay and sand. . 

m. a title of Brahmans, 
ir^, J a priest, a teacher, s. 
fifteen. panzdahumfifteenth.p. 
fal pdrtSy m. manure, a dunghill, pan* 
ho j and, n. to rot, to become mellow (land), i. 

pdnsu, a rib, the rib bones. *. 
>b llfari pdnsd, m. (lit. a throw), a die (v. 

pawsna, a. to manure. A. 
tthft /jajzsau,^ five hundred, pansu, a 
T|i% pdnsai, J rib bone. *. 
il> *ltvt pansi, a net for carrying grass or 
straw, h. 

panshu, m. manure. *. 
nr* panxhu-putra, m. a pot-herb 

(Chcnop dium album). 8. 

jb Tji'^JIT pd/ishuj, m. salt extracted from 

soil, rock or fossil saU. *. 

.>b nri*T3tT panxhuhd, f. a fragrant plant 
(Pandnnus odoratissimus}. *. [phuret of iron. s. 

T*l*T)H panshuhasis, m. sul- 

pahxkul, m. a kind of tree (C7- 

ialpinia bonducella). n. [quagmire, s. 

J6b ijfapank 9 m. a bog, mire, mud, slough, 
tfSi/'a'jto, linear, in line or row. 5. 

TTfTT 7>aw^/, mud left by inundations ; 
alluvial soil. h. 
ob trfTT pdngd, m. culinary salt, obtained 

from the sea-sand, as by the process in use on the sea- 
coast of Bengal, h. 

Ar eAv ^ftrin^/jaw-//J'flAan, m. marriage, 

the junction of the hands of the bride and bridegroom. 
pdni-grahanik , matrimonial, s, 

ufc^ ^b infill 
one wedded according to tlie ritual. 

T pdni-grihitd, f. a bride, 

dnini, in. a muni and inspired 
grammarian. . [the grammarian. 

jLJ^b TfifilR^ pdnin lya , belonging toPanini 

jib Tj'^f pdiiw, m. leg, foot. /?a/zw? utarnd, to 

be dislocated (the foot), pi^w uthana or chaldna, to go 
quickly. p<Irtu> wf07a, to interfere unprofitably in any 
one'* H it air a. pahu> bar hand, to take the lead, among 
one's equals; to desist from one's former courses. 
p&nw bhar-jana, numbness of the feet, sleeping of the 
feet, patiw-pdnw or panon-panon, on foot, partio par 
partw rakhnd, to imitate or adopt tlie conduct of another; 
to walk in the steps of another ; to sit at ease, to sit 
cross-legged. pa^w-parna t to entreat submissively. 
ftfitw paSarnd, to beseech submissively; to prevent 
tnie ; rom going, p&ftw ptijnd, to honour another; to 

avoid another, pdnw phaildkar tona, flit, to sleej. with 
legs extended) is applied to signify that a person is in 
perfect content and security, pdnw phaildnd, to insist, 
be obstinate, pdnw phuk phuk rakhnd, to do any thing 
carefully, pdnw pltnd, to stamp with impatience-. 
pdnw tale malnd, to give one pain, to annoy, panw- 
tornd, to desist from visiting any person ; also to visit 
one very often ; to be tired, pdnw ?dbit rakhnd, to per- 
severe firmly in a resolution. pdnwjamdnd,to stand firm- 
ly, pdnw chal-jdnd, to totter, to become unstable, pdnw 
dho dho plnd (lit. to drink the water with which one's 
feet are washed) expresses perfect confidence, pdnw 
ddlnd, to prepare for and commence an undertaking. 
pdnw dig ltd, to slip, panw ragaynd, togo about foolishly 
and unprofitably; to be in the agonies of death, pdnw 
zamln par na thaharnd is used to indicate excessive joy. 
pdnw-sond, to be numbed, to sleep (the foot), pdnw $e 
pdnw bdndhnd to watch one close. pdAw se pdnw 
bhirdnd, to be near, pdnw Jcd t im-k. t to occupy a fixed 
habitation ; to adopt a new resolution, pdnw kd 
anguthd, m. the great toe. pdnw kdmpnd or tharthardnd, 
to fear to attempt any thin^. pdnw kisl kd ukhdrnd, to 
move any person from his place, from his intention or 
resolution, pdnw kisl kd gale men ddlnd, to convict one 
by his own arguments, pdnw kl ungll, f. or pdnw kd 
anguthd, m. a toe. pdnw gdrnd, to plant one's feet, to 
stand iinmovpable. pdnw lagnd, to make obeisance. 
pdnw nikdlnd, to exceed one's proper limits ; to with- 
draw from an undertaking; to be a ringleader in a 
criminal action, dabe pdnw and, to come gently and 
unpcrceived as a spy. *. 

^jf/^b ifaftzt pdhw-rotit f. a kind of loaf. A. 

V, : y>b Vi*te7 panwrd, m. a cloth or carpet 
spread for great personages to walk on. h. 

^yb ttfar pdiwn (for pdhwon, pi. of pdnw} 9 

the feet ; the first nun, being nasal, is generally omitted 
in writing, and a hamza substituted, as pd,on. h. 

w.*>b m*& pdnhar, m. a kind of reed. h. 

(J^TRift pdnt 9 m. water; lustre, &c. ; sperm ; 

'* pdnl bharnd, to confess inferiority, pdnl parnd, n. to 
rain, pdnl pi pi kosnd, to curse excessively (i.e. till the 
throat being dry must be moistened by drinking), pdnl 
jdnd, n. to be afflicted with thejiuor albus ; to be dis- 
graced ; to shed tears, pdni chalna, be afflicted with 
the^wor albus, pdnl d t , to offer a libation of water to 
satisfy the manes of a deceased person after the corpse 
has been burnt, pdnl se patld-k., to abash, put to 
shame, pdnl kd hulbuld (a bubble of water) indicates 
instability; pdnl-k., a. to abash; to facilitate, pdnl- 
marnd, n. to dry up, to be evaporated ; to exhibit signs 
confirming a suspicion, pdnl mdrnd, or pdnl tornd, to 
draw, in nautical phrase ; as, yih jahdz kifnd pdnl 
mdrtd (or tortd) hai ? " What is the draught of this ship ? 
How much does she draw ?" pdnl men dg lagdnd, to 
revive a contention which had subsided ; pdnl na- 
mdngnd, to be slain with a single stroke (of the sword 
&c.), and die instantly. . 

<"ilLcLj\-> T TM < lm^ci54 pamydmalah, m. a 

fruit (Flacourtia cataphracta). s. 

^ob xcfalft pdnyafi, f. the foot of a bed. s. 
dmya, drinkable, to be drunk, s. 
wob iTMl*4qBf pdriiya-prishthaj, in 

an dquatic plant (Pistia stratioites). *. . 

tiy* auib xnrti|^yBir pdniya-mulaki m. a 
plant (Serratula anthelmintica). s. [otter, t. 

^HJcP pdriiya-nahula, m. an 
V[ftpd y o, in. a quarter, fourth part. a. 
pdvif, purified, s. 

,; I 

f. the present fee of a Tcanun-go (q.v.), allowed by go- 
vernment, at the rate of four anas per hundred rupees, 
on the net revenue of each district, to defray the ex- 
penses of the establishment, h. 

pa,otl 9 f. what one gets, gain, in- 
come ; pdyiiti, a kind of lamp. h. 
jjb pa,o-zahr, the bezoar stone, d. 

pawa$ f m. the rainy season, s. 
pawaft, purifier, purificatory; 

m. fire ; a^ saint, a person purified by religious abstrac- 
tion ; a tree the wood of which is used to procure fire 
bv attrition ( Prcmna spinosa}', lead wort ( Plumb<ij;o zey- 
lanica); marking-nut p}&nt(Semicarpusanacardium. s. 

2* > ^TT^<$T pa,ola, m. a quarter of any coin, 
as of a rupee, &c. s. 

T parvaman, purificatory, s. 

pawan, sacred, holy, purifying ; 

m. water ; penance, purification by acts of austerity : 
the eleocarpus seed; a kind of grass (Cos (us), s. 

j-^b TftWt pa t on (pi. oi'pa\ fort. pa,on par 

teshn mar-lend, to hit one's own feet with the adze, i.e. 
to occasion one's own failure. pd,on dhul, calamity, 

[shell. 5. 

parvan-dhrvani, a conch 

misfortune, h. 

paiviut, a. to pet, to obtain, &c. 
(see pdna) ; m. a plant growing in stagnant water. 9. 

jb Tyi^ft pan-i, who or what purifies, s. 

*>lfeb TjT^TrT pahat, m. the mulberry tree 
(Morus Indica). h. 

pahdn,\ m. a stone ; the head- 
pahan, J man of a village, s. 

palialt the ceremony of initiation 
into the Sikh religion and community, h. 
Tmrrf pahun, m. a guest, s. 
Tf?r*n pahuna, in. a guest ; son-in-law, s. 
- ^H^^ft paftuni, f. a female guest. %. 
/iM, in. a person, individual. A. 
pohl (also pahi-axanu), rn. a non- 

resident cultivator, pdhi-kdsht, cultivation by non- 
residents. /i. p. 

>b TH? ^,^> ni. a peasant residing 1 in one 
village, and cultivating land belonging to another vil- 
lage. h. 

a coin, the fourth part 

of an ana. s. 
c^b ^TT^ pa,i, 1 f. pius used by weavers to 
#*^v ^^X pa,in 9 ) wind off the warp from ; 
the word pa,i is frequently used for pahi, q. v. a non- 
resident, &tc. h. 

*b pa,e,'m. foot, Icy, the foot or stand of a 

"table, chair, &c. pd,e-band (tied by the leg), met. en- 

cumbered with a family. /w,e bdki, remainder, balance 

in hand, pa t-taj&t, m. the royal residence, or place of 

general residence of the royal family. pd,e~turdb, m. 

a. . 

?Hi TTT$ pa,i, If. 
^/b. "m^ pa^n, ) 

the first stage of a journey fit is usual to make one 
short stage at the commencement of a journey, and 
there to wait a few days to collect every thing neces- 
sary). pa t e-jdma, drawers, trousers. pd,e tyxab land, 
to settle accounts, pa, c- dam, m. a gin, a springe, a 

a female ornament, worn round the ankles. p(l,e lagnd, 

trample on, to destroy, to lay waste, to ravHge. pd,e- 
niilfl, f. destruction, nuage, ruin, occasioned by an army 
or cattle overrunning and trampling fields, &c. ; pd,e- 
inardi, f. courage, resolution, p. 

?Ai payd t m. the foot of a bedstead, &c. p. 
r^M poydbf fordable, within man's depth ; 

m. a ford. jp. 

A> payabi, f. quality of being fordable. p. 
payan, m. 1 end, extremity; comple- 
tion, p. 

pa,e-posh t a shoe, a slipper, p. 
pa,e-taba, m. a sock, a sandal, p. 
% TR3 payatk 9 m. a scaffold, h. 
>W b pa y ejama, m. drawers, trousers, p. 
i. a necessary, a privy, p. 

firm, steady, durable, per- 
manent, p. 

fj\} t b pa t e-darl, permanency, stability, p. 
?. \%pa,et'i 9 f. foundation, basis, d. 

payas, made of milk or water ; 

m. an oblation of milk, rice, and sugar. *. 
payiz, the autumnal season, p. 
J&1> b pa,e-zuhr y the bezoar stone, p. 
ibb trfftnir payik 9 m. a messenger, harbin- 
ger ; a foot-soldier, s. 
0^ b pa 9 e-har, a person who purchases 

goods from the manufacturer to sell to the merchant ; 
a non-resident labourer hired to cultivate laud. p. 

I^lo^ b pa,e-haskt, (land) let out to non- 
resident tenants ; piif-kasht zamin, land cultivated by 
peasants not residing upon the spot. ,j. 

b pa,e-yah, in. rank, dignity ; a stable, p. 
payal or 'mftrgj pay it, firm of foot, 

steady, easy paced (elephant) ; f. an ornament for the 
feet ; a bamboo ladder, p. 

pa,e-mal, subdued, trampled under 
foot. p. [tion. p. 

? b pa,e-mali, devastation, deslruc- 

i^ pa^-mox, m. a kind of pigeons. /;. 

pa,in, low, lower, under, the lower 
j^b iyf^ pa,m, f. pins used by weavers to 

wind off* the warp from. h. 


170 ) 

1 f. the foot of a bed, 
i^b Wllft payantl, f the side towards the 
<JT?. ^ ^fi^'ift 7>a,tni, J feet. $. 
(J^ ^pa 9 tnt 9 ^ inferiority, lowness. p. 
9 JJ^l) payanda, firm, permanent, p. 

^(^paya, m. a step, decree ; rank, dignity ; 
the foot of a table, chair, &c. ; the foundations of a 
building, p. 

>b puy~tz, autumn ; met. old age. p. 

pabitr, undefiled, nice ? clean ; m. 
the Brahmanical cord, pabitra-td, f. purity, holiness. 5. 

pahitra, m. a Brahmanical thread ; 
a string of silken beads ; a knotted piece of Kiisha 
grass used in religious ceremonies of the Hindus, f. 
holy basil (Orymnm sanctum); a river a little to the 
north-west of Hard war, the Pabar ; the 12th of the 
light fortnight of Shrawan, a festival in honour of 
Vishnu." p. 

fJ^ v ^Tftnft pabitrl, f. a ring of Kutha grass 

(Poa cynosti Ude?'), or of gold, silver, or copper, worn 
on the ring-finger and fore-finger by Hindus during 
religious worship, a. 

?//>a.s % a,f. thirst. pipasit f pipasan 9 

or pi/xlftu, th'rsty. $. 

IL* fqrccr^T pippata, f. a kind of sweetmeat, s. 
(^j^lc^J paparmas, the shaddock or parnpel- 

mase (Citrus decumanus). d. 
VO qnsi paprtij in. a crust, a scale, s. 

<^ : '-"J. Tt-nft pupn 9 f. a seal), a scale, scurf; 
thin cakes of bread; scales formed by the drying up 
of moist earth, s. 

popnya-kat, 1 f. a kind 

popf'fya-ka th t J of w h ite- 
coloured Araf A (ex. of Mimosa catechu), h. 
/fcj. MM?)$T paprila, scurfy, scabby. 5. 
JLJ t f<m<$ pippal, m. the holy fig-tree (Ficus 

religiosa). s. 

pjppalak, m. a nipple. .?. 
pippali, f. long pepper (in Dakh. 
"pipll)- pippaU-mul, ra. the root of long pepper, s. 

papm, f. the eyelash, h. 
papota, f. the eyelid. 5. 
papiha, 1 m. a sparrow-hawk 

pnp'tlni, ) (Falco nisus). h. 
pippi, the dregs or lees of any thing 

"when poured out or drained, d. 

bu> ^4*TT papaiya, m. a kind of child's 
whistle ; name of a tree and of its fruit (the Papaw 
tree; Carica papaya), h. 

^ijuu) ftnfhr*ft pipitakz, f. the 12th of the 

"mouth Vaisakh, when giving away water is an act of 

merit, s. [.ant. s. 

> f<r41<$4t pipilak, m. a large bteck 

> f^^tf^n pipllikd, f. the common small 
red ant. s. 

^o Tfltpat, f. good name, honour, character, a. 
*O ^Tif put or TTfif p^^', m. a lord, master, 

husband, pati, m. a leaf. s. 

i, m. a company, a platoon, con- 

sisting of one chariot, one elephant, three horse, and 
five foot. 8. 

L!O fa?T pit or ftn?T pitt f m. bile, gall. *. 

C-O ^TT put, m. a hell to which the childless 

are said to be condemned, s. 
&>. f*fin pila, m. a father. 5. 

IA ftr^T^/^a, m. bile, the gall-bladder; met. 

anger, emotion of mind, pitta marna, to subside 
(anger), pitta nikdlnn, to chastise, s. 

IjO TiTT 7?a<5, m. a sign, mark, symptom, 

hint, direction, address (or place where one is directed), 
a label; a book of instructions and regulations for 
rent collectors, pata-rakhnd or -lagdnd, to seek for, 
to endeavour to find out. h. 

patta, m. a leaf; a trinket, patta 

hond, to run away, to flee. s. [ner. . 

) iTrTlohT pataka, f. a standard, flag, ban- 

^Vx> ^nfTB^ patahi, m. an ensign, a standard- 
Nearer. 5. 

patal or tr^rgf pattal, m. (in 

Hindu mythology) the infernal regions, or a place 
under the earth (v. pdtdl). s. 

&> ftTcfT*n pita-mafia 9 a paternal grand- 
father ; a name of Brahma, the great father of all. s. 
15-f*^?. ftnfWlft pitamahi 9 a fathers mother ,s. 

^joVjO fq?rreK pitambar> m. a silk cloth oi'a 
yellow colour, a dress worn by Krisfyna. s. 

(j*^**. Jcftl putaji 9 the act of plastering, 

price paid for plastering, p. 

C->xO TfrT^lT pa t ibra t , m. chastity, modesty .s. 
l^jjL). Tjf rf^W T patibrata, f. chaste (woman). 5. 
l^bCLo ftT?nn i TTT pit-papra, m. name of a 

medicinal plant (Oldenlandia biftora). *. 
^^i?. ^wft?H^ patpiti) the grass warbler, a 

" small bird. h. [vial deposits. A. 

jJ^ ildMi patpar, land susceptible of allu- 
t^Jj Mriqg*t patparz, surface of soft land 

caked by sunshine after rain. A. 
^IrlL-H ijfinrron pati-prana, f. a faithful 

wife. *. " .[infantry, a, 

patti-pankti 9 f. a line of 
it, abject, fallen, guilty, aban- 

doned, s. 

jboXj MfililMIM patit-pawan, purifying 

the guilty (an epithet of the Deity), t. 

( 171 ) 

patitwa, m. the conjugal state. . 
pitt-jwar, m* bilious fever, s. 

pat-jhar, without leaves; f. 

the fall of the leaf, autumn, pat-jhar hand, to lose its 
leaves in autumn (a tree); met. to decay (a person 
from age), h. 

-^ Vfl*i*sl pat-jhari, f. autumn, h. 

pat-din or pati-din, daily, 
always, constantly, s. 
VST patra or TJ^Ii pattar, m. a leaf; the 

leaf of the Laurus cassia ; the leaf of a book, gold 
leaf, &c. ; a sheet or plate of metal, a letter, epistle ; 
a deed. s. 

Tpt putr or putra, m. a son, a child, s. 
>. fVrPC pitar, m. (pi.) fathers, ancestors. 5. 
) f TTfrT pitri (same as pita), a father (this 

form is used in compound words), s. almanac; an ephemeris. s. 

patrank, m. page, paging-, s. 
patrang, sanders (Ptero- 

carjms sa?italinus) ; red or sappan wood (Casalpinia sap- 
pan] ; the Bhojpatr, a tree so call-d ; a kind of birch. $. 

\ ^O f^THTT^ pitra,i 9 m. a kinsman, a pater- 
nal relation from three generations. *. 

\^> fcuitl^ pitra,i, f. verdigris, suh-acetate 
of copper, .f. 

^jj^x) tlffJW^ pitri-bandhu, m. a remote or 

cognate kinsman by the father's side. s. 

pitri'bftakti, f. filial duty 
[fered to the manes, s. 
pitri-bhojan, m. food of- 

r*, m. a paternal grand- 
[a father, patrimonial. *. 
pitri-prapta, received from 

pitri-prasu, f. a father's 

to a father. *. 

father. *. 

mother, s. 

^JL>Ji> tjsjqoi patra-pushp, m. a red sort 

of basil (Ocymum pilosum). i. 

JlxSjjS) i|4ji4ia|V patra-pushpak, m. a kind 

of birch from the bark of which hukka snakes are 


the first or 

pitar-pakh, dark fortnight 
of the lunar month Asin. s. [from son to son. s. 
putra-pautrin, descended 

pitri-tarpan, m. the part of 

the hand between the middle finger and the thumb, 
sacred to the manes ; gifts in honour of deceased rela- 
tives, distributed at the thraddhas or funeral ceremo- 
nies ; the act of throwing water out of the right hand at 
seasons of ablution, by way of offering to the manes. 5. 

jyj ftnrfwftl pitri-tithi, m. day of new 
moou on which she rises invisible. *. 

f "H^Q pitri* firth, m. Gaya, the city 

so called, where the performance of funeral sacrifice* 
is thought to be peculiarly efficacious ; the part be- 
tween the middle finger and the thumb, sacred to the 
manes, s. 

pitri-jag, m. obsequial rites. .< 

putra-jio, m. a trev, from the 

fruit of which necklaces are made, of supposed pro- 

lific efficacy (Nigella putrangiva). s. 

fy ftrT^TT pttri-ddn, m. gift in honour 

of deceased ancestors. . 

patra-ravyan, m. embellish- 
ing a page, iflurninating, gilding, s. 
I^LM^JO f^lH^qirf pitri-&than,m. a guardian, 
a protector ; the abode of the manes, s. 
u^AAijjo ftrjTnn pitri-swasa, f. an aunt, 
father's sister, s. 

SrH ^^fi^^T patra-shira, f. the vein or 

fibre of a leaf. s. 

r pitri-shraddha, m. the ob- 
sequial ceremony of a father, s. 

^^*^ M'^^Wl putra-shrenl, f. a plant 

(Salvinia cuoullatd). s. [sequial. *. 

pitrik, paternal, suicestral, ob- 
putrika, f. a daughter; a doll. 

putrika-putra, in. the son of a daughter, appointed to 
raise issue lor the father, s. [a letter, s 

o t qf%SFT;;fr?7fa, f. a leaf, a pjige, a writing, 

putra-kamya,) f. wish, or 
affection for, progeny, s. 

pitri-karm, m. ] obsequial 

pitri-kriya, f. J rites. . 

patra-gupta, m. a species of 

euphorbia, s. 

itfrOTihi m - burial-ground, s. 

v p'tri-gan, m. a class of pro- 

genitors, the sons of the Rishis or Prajapatis. . 
Lbl^^jb rVfJ^Trf^ pitri-ghatak, a son who 
is hostile to his father ; a parricide. 8. 

JjJjjO f *4 d ^ */> itri- loft, in . 1 h e world or sphere 

of the manes : it is variously situated, but principally 
in the Bhuvar region, or mid-heaven, s. 

ir, m. the pater- 

nal mansion ; a cemetery. 3. 

j^^-k tRmirSFT patra-narika, f. the fibre 

or vein of a leaf. s. 

L&^o T nrgr pat rang, m. red sanders (Ptero- 

carpus santilanus). s. X" 

^rH ^nrftjfT patringa, m. name of a bird, 
the flycatcher (Merops viridis). h. 
1&. ftnr^ pitarau, m. (dual), the two pa- 
rents, s. 

A ( 172 

patropa&kar, m. a tree 
(Catsia etculenta). 9. 
{jjjjfyt 1i nifc& patrorna, m. a plant (Bignonia 

indica}. 9. 
QJ JJK> fart^i? pitri-van, in. a cemetery ; a 

place when? dead bodies are burnt. $. 

8J> .JO "ftrrfczy phrivya, m. a paternal uncle, s. 

^jfc^jo fajTir?r pitri-han, m, a parricide. 5. 

c& yrt^'tfri, f. a daughter, patrl, a note, 
an epistle. 5. 

c!iA-iJljjD ^ftf putrethtit f. a Sacrifice per- 
formed for obtaining children. 5. 

patariya or MrifXm paturiya, f. 
a prostitute, pit^ritfa-bdz, a whoremonger, fc. 

of troops. *. 

iJ. a body 
[band. 5. 

ti.-*eva, f. devotion to a bus- 
to) tnra&T ^//-a, m. a girdle, a sash. z<m- 

patkd, a gold sash granted by the Peshwa as a badge 
of honour to his officers. h. p- 

k\ rn&ft patuki, f. a small pot, a pan. h. 

9 antibilious s. 

pitta-ghnl, f. a plant ( Jfew- 
tpermum glabrum). *. 
j!jj nficift pafi-yhni, f. the murderess of 

her husband ; a line on the hand indicating that a 
woman will be treacherous to her husband, s. 

ttal, f. a plate or trencher formed 
of leaves, s. 

J.l> ftrSTc* pittal, bilious; m. brass; the 
bhojftafr. <>r birch tree, of which the bark is used for 
writing upon. *. [lean, meagre, delicate, h. 

&3 iflCgyT/wf/5, fines thin (cloth or liquids); 
^ 3*351 />////, m. an image, effigy, idol. s. 
$& fxr^jT piitala, f. a plant (Jumeua 

rcpens). s. 

j^UJ. fMrfc^RT pitlana or fW<9Rl pittlana, 
n. to be contaminated with verdigris (as food, espe- 
cially of an acid quality, kept in copper vessels). *. 

u^&O tnT$Tf^ patldyi, f. thinness, fineness, 

mengreiiess. /t. [m. an image, an idol. s. 

Kil) turfcoin putliha or J^f<?ehl puttalilta, 

*)uL> TTfr^t patio, m. tin* dead loaves fallen 

from a tree ; the leaves cut from the culm of a reed 

(Sacckarum spuntaneum}, and used for thatching, s. 

JO xnfcjftpw^, f. the pupil of the eye ; an 
Jtnage, puppet, idol, doll ; the frog of a horse-hoof. 
putll-kd-tar&'Jt; to honour or esteem as the apple of 
the eye. *. 

, brazen, made of brass, s. 

IjffrJ^ ttftWCT patimbara, f. a bride choosing 
her husband; a pungent seed (Nigella indica). s. 

/ &O 

>wL> Tfim^patma 9 i, sowing fresh sugar cane 
"after cutting the old. h, 

patan, m. the act of falling. *. 
pattan, m. act of ordering goods 

from a manufacturer, h. 

pattan, m. a city, town ; chiefly 

used in comp., as srtrang-pattan Seringapatam. *. 
^ ^- Jt%^- ..JJ patan jami kkarch, a monthly 

treasury account, specifying the receipts and disburse- 
ments arranged under the different heads for each 
month, h.p. 

patang, m. sappan wood. h. 

y,\n}. a moth ; a (child's) 
i> "TlbTT patanga, ) paper kite; the sun. s. 

& TTifJFT patnnga, m. a spark, patanga 

hona, to go rapidly about a business, h. 

pat/ii, f. a wife, patrii-bkag, divi- 
sion of property among a man's widows. $. 

pattanl, commissioned, manufac- 
tured by order. h t 

patauwa, m. a leaf. *. 

patwar, \ 

, K- a rudder or helm. A. 


pati-vrat, m. chastity. *. 

pativrata, f. a chaste and faith- 
ful wife. s. 

b j^jb t^wft^T paturiya, f. a prostitute. A. 
jp^i) Mr^>d1 pattvanti, f. a wife devoted to her 

husband. *. 

, If. daughter-in-law, son's 

m. a road, path, highway, s. 
pathi-drum, m. asortofM^r 

(Mimosa alba). 9. 

patthar, m. a stone ; patthar-bazi, 

f. throwing stones, playing with stones, patthar pant 
hojana, the melting of a stony heart ; a difficult task 
to be facilitated, patthar pasijna, to be softened or 
melted (a stony heart), patthar chftdti par rakhnd, to 
be patient by compulsion, or from being without 
remedy, patthar sd phenk mdrnd, to reply rashly, 
without understanding the meaning of one's question. 
patthar se sir phornd or mdrnd, to teach or instruct a fooL 
patthar hand, to'be heavy ; to be stable, to stand stilJ ; 
to be unmerciful. *. 

ljAjJ qmUlT pathrana, n. to become bard 

(aboil); to be petrified. *. 

pathara,o, act of stoning, s. 
patthar-phor, in. a wood- 

pecker (Picus). h. 

( 173 ) 

U. ^ 

5v4*i ^t^U^ZT pntthar-chata, m. name of 

a kind of greens; a skin-flint; name of a se.rpe.nt; 
name of a fish; adj. one attached to his owu house, 
who remains there even in distress. A. 

JJ^vI/A^Y ^W^5* pt'Mhar-chur, m. naAe of a 

plant (Plectranthus aromaticut, Roxb.). t. 

MVH'2*$| pathar-kala, m. a firelock, s. 

tr*tO pathrij f. the flint of a musket ; 
a gizzard ; grit, gravel ; atone in the bladder, s. 
^jO iwO<?T pathrila, stony (as soil), t. 

jO i|0tfk pathikj m. a passenger, a tra- 
veller, j. 

4^ 'TftPT pathin, m. a division of hell. 5. 
^jiL) 'IJ!UJ| palhya, f. yellow myrobalan 
(Tet minnlia clu-bula). t. 

j^jb T&qpdthya t proper, fit, suitable, agree- 
ing with (chiefly with respect to diet). *. 
ft *Rft p'tttt, f. a leaf; hemp, of which an 

intoxicating potion is* made; the hem of cloth; (for 
pati, q.v.), a husband, lord, or master. *. 

g Tf$l patai, straw or grass thrown over a 
field to protect the fresh planted roots from the sun. s. 
, f. a written opinion given 

by Pandits on a point of Hindu law ; a letter, a small 
note. '. [brother. *. 

r pitiya, a paternal uncle, father's 

M^ iinMivi patiyara, m. belief, confidence, 

dependence. *. 
I3lju> 'qfftittv'tt patiyan<if a. to confide in, to 

trust, to depend on, believe. *. [land. h. 

OJO ifif.W patit, m. uncultivated, waste 

^^pC^X^. prifit-kami, f. a decrease, occa- 
"sioned by 1-ir.ds being left uncultivated, h.p. 

patlrt, f. a kind of mat. s. 
paiil, thin, fine. h. 

Jj pf'Til, m. a match for a lamp, a link- 
stock, a candle wick, patil soz, f. the stand or support 
of a lamp. p. 

5^JO Wi<5$T patila, m. a pan, a pot. h. 

&)uO pallia (v. pattl), a match, &c. /;. 

JIU> t TfZ pat, m. a shutter, the valve of a fold- 
ing-door; a sound; adj. upside down, overturned. A. 

l*i^ Tfi? j^fl/, m. the sound resulting from the 
falling or beating of any thing. *. 

t^ytfe pat, m. cloth, coarse cloth or onn- 
vas, a checkered cloth on which chess &c. may be 
played. *. [gent, sharp. *. 

<JLo tj potfi f clever, dexterous, skilful, dili- 

^i ^5 P a tt> m * vpove s '^ ; a ]>lant (Cor- 
chorus vlitorius) from the fibres of which, called jute, a 
coai>e sackcloth and cordage are prepared ; a royal 

* grant or order written on copper, stone. &c. *. 

^.tTT put, ra. a menstruum, solvent, flux. s. 

potu f m. a foil, a wooden scimitar for 

cudgelling with ; a board on which Hindus sit, whilst 
eating their meals or performing religious ceremonies. 
pate-buz, a fencer, a cudgel-player ; met. a coquette, 
a wanton, a strumpet ; pata Htdfna, a. to discharge from 
service, h. 

i TJT potta, in. a lock of hair; a dog-collar; 

name of harness; f. an ornament for the forehead. 
patta turdna, to flee, to run away, h, 

v ^P P a tfBf m a deed, particularly a title- 
deed to land ; a grant or lease, specifying the quantity 
of land possessed by each tenant, and the amount of 
rent with which it is charged, patfi-d&r, one who 
holds his lands by a written engagement, patta dah- 
sala, a lease for ten years, pa^d jandjnt. leases granted 
to tenants individually, pattd ta'allulc, a dependent 
lease, pattd thika, a deed assigning land for farming 
on certain conditions. *. 

b putta, m. an ant-hill, a snaked hole. 

(Snakes are usually to be found in old ant-hills, where 
the ground is burrowed in every direction to a con- 
siderable extent B.) d. 

^-& Vim patapat, m. the sound of beat- 
ing, or of the falling of drops of rain. *. 

paiapor, m. name of a fruit, h. 
^^Ub tTJT IfTRT pattd turana, n. to run 

away. h. [cracker, a squib, h. 

Ls-LjL> patakla, m. (properly pat aha) a 

\)\ty f^nTTTT pitura, m. a large basket, a port- 
manteau, square boxes much used by persons tra- 
velling. A couple of them are slung by ropes to 
either end of a bamboo, called a bahangl, and thus 
carried by a man who runs alongside of the palun- 
quin. (B). d. [(v. ag/ion). 9., m. an order of mendicants 

pitart, f. a small basket, a port- 
manteau, a hamper, a pannier, g. [in rice, &c. . 
pitarl, f. a weevil, an insect bred 

patah, m. a crash, explosion, 
report of artillery ; a kind of bird. h. 
b TCnVT pataha, 1 m. a squib, cracker, 

patahha,) fireworks; f. a flag, 
a banner, h. 

^> patalan, m. a regiment, a battalion. 
(The Urdti version of the English word is paltan). d 
potana, a. to irrigate, to water; 

to place the beams on the roof of a house; to pay 
money ; to prepare a chaukd with cow-dung dissolved 
in water, h. 

patarv, irrigating, flooding a field; 
roofing a house with tiles, &c. *. [ing. *. 

potpat, f. the sound of heat- 
ft pitpitiya, adj. combing or 
carding (wool, cotton, &c.). h. 
jb l|7?rr pahtta, f. "1 oxpertne8P,adroitnei?s- 
J eloquence, s. 

",f.a principal qucen.&'v 

( 174 ) 

]^o tretT patrd, m. a plartk to sit on, a plank 

on which a washerman beats clothes; unripe grain 
(Cicer arietinum). patra kar dend, a. to deprive one of 
his power or strength, to convict an adversary and 
leave him without reply. A. 

pat-raniy f. a queen who is 
installed or consecrated along with the king. s. 
&7& TJtJf patt-rang, m. a plant used in 

dyeing (C&salpinia sappan). . 

patrz, f. a tile. s. 

patri, "If. a plank to write on ; the 

patrl,) vanes of a Venetian win- 

dow ; a firm seat on horseback ; a narrow slip or plank 
of wood. h. 

patra, m. a plank, &c., see patra. 

pat-sal, m. a college, a read- 
ing-room, a school-house. *. 
<.f-i> M44M pat-san, m. a plant, h. 
cdJlo> tf^JtTOi 1 patt-shah, m. a sort of pot- 
herb (Corchurus capsularis). B. [of the teeth. *. 

pittak,. m. the tartar or excretion 
patka, m. a cloth worn round the 

I patkarna,'}*. to dash against 
at hand, ) any thing, to 

waist, a girdle, zari patka, the golden girdle, a n en- 
sign conferred by the Peshwd on generals who are in- 
vested with authority immediately by him. pafkd 
bdndhnd t to determine on, or prepare for any act. 
patkd-pakarnd, a. to hinder, to obstruct. *. 

3\>-\xib M4i!v|!fT patkdjdnd, n. to fall from 

one's rank or estimation, h. 
ij^i M64UM1I 

[TT pat ki 

throw on the ground with violence ; to knock, h. 

ff ])dthan, f. a knock, a fall ; patkan 

khdnd, to fall down. Ji. 

* 12<MT pfttahnd, a. to dash against any 
thing, to thro won the ground with violence, to knock ; 
n. to crackle (as wood in the fire), to sputter, to fret. h. 

Z^SFrft ^tfT patharii-dend, a. to dash 

on the ground, to throw against anv thing with vio- 
lence. f h. [the ground, &c. (same as last), h. 

x> ^<jau1itn pathi-dend, a. to dash on 
pattil, m. a plant (C&salpinia 

bondttccella). s. 

pattilodhra, m. a tree, the 

bark of which is used as an astringent ; the red species 
of the lodh (Symplocos racetnosa). *. 

patan, m. roofing, h. 
if&t pattan, in. the name of a city. h. 
pattan, act of ordering goods from 

a manufacturer, h, 

i .'.:, 


patnd, n. to be paid, to be pro- 

watered, to be covered, to 
a city in Behar. h, 

, n. to be beaten- h. 

cured, to fill, to be watered, to be covered, to be roofed, 
&c. ; m. name of a city in Behar. h, 

-& fM4$l$l pitunhdsh, m. a species of 

pike (Esox scolopax}. 9. 

g oJJb fq% |{i oh 1 ) pitankdhi, f. colocynth. *. 
*% T&ift patni, m, a ferryman, h. 

\ pattanij commissioned goods, or 
goods made to order, h. [purpet. *. 

^v ^ pattu* m. a kind of woollen cloth, 

\jfc tnrWT patu t d or patwd, m. a man who 
strings pearls, a braider, a maker of fringe and tape. s. 

lyb TUn patrvd, irrigation, patwd-zamin, 

land artificially watered, h. p. 

Ij^J ^J^ 1 P<*tu,d, m. tow made from the 

Hibiscus cannabinug. h 
J\^JL> ITT^TT pat war, 

tivdr, Tin. 
patrvdri,) a 

one who keeps 
accounts of lands, 

a land- steward: he keeps the accounts of the rents 
realized in his village or department, and accounts for 
them to his superior. The patwdrl is also employed 
on the part of the husbandman, to keep an account of 
his receipts and disbursements, and no village i^ with- 
out one of these. /*. [to water. A. 

0^& 'R<J 1 =UtTt patrvdnd, a. to provide money ; 
C->jjb TTTff patut, m. 1 vigour, virility, acti- 
^A *T|[fTT patutdt f. J vity, skill, s. 

patotan^ m . roofing with planks 

or boards, transom, h. 

paiuhd, m. a cloth worn round the 

waist, a girdle, patiikd bdndhnd, a. to determine on or 
prepare for any act. patiikd pakafnd, to hinder, to 
obstruct, s. 

pataum, m. a ferryman, h. 
patohiyd, m. an owl. h. 

.(v.patu,d),abr&\der ) kc. h. 
path t \ m. a young full-grown ani- 

ifgl patthd, ) mal, a youth, a wrestler; 
a sinew, a tendon ; a plant with long leaves, a. 
tfg pafta, a lease, &c. (pattd*). h. , 
a, m. the buttock, the Lip (of 

an animal) /;. 

l^jo T^rrjf pathdn, name of a race or dynasty 

that reigned in Delhi ; also an Afghan race settled in 
Rohilcund. h. 

patkdnd or pithdnd,\&. to send, 
pathaund, J to des- 

patch, h. 

pathitt read, studied;, recited. A. 
Aj Mg^K pafta-ddr, a leaseholder. A. 
jb trstf pathan 9 m. reading, reciting. A. 
itfSlH pathingd, shelter, refuge, d. 
MHjfll pdthiyd, f. a young full-grown 

animal, generally applied to kids, fowls, &c. V 

( 175 ) 

U^ 1&R pathaiya, part, sent, despatched, h. 

J& ***$P a tf*9 f* Poster; a bandage, n fillet ; 

"a quarter of a- place * the side pieces of the frame of a 
bedstead ; a written order, charter, or patent, a list, 
statement, or in voice ; documents of any kind* laths of 
split bamboo ; spokes of a wheel ; a row ; a kind of sweet- 
meat; divisions of the hair which is combed towards 
the two sides, and divided by a line in the middle. 
patyi pakafke hilte raJind, expresses excessive weakness 
and laziness, pattl tofnd, to be bedrid, pat ft se pattl 
mildnd, expresses the most intimate proximity, s. 

ijfa putti, a basket for catching fish. d. 

ifc "qrftnn patiya, f. a slate or slab of stone. *. 
uub T&W patait, m. a cudgel-player, h. 
v P a tfi~da>r, a patentee; a person who 

holds a tenure by pattl ; one who has a share in a co- 
parcenary village or estate, pattl-ddn, a coparcenary 
tenure, h. p. [grass eaten by elephants, h. 

patera, m. papyrus ; a kind of long 
l, m. cudgelling ; sovereignty; 

a title among the KuAbt tribe; a title of Marhattas, 
the headman of a village, pate I ddlnd, a. to interrupt, 
to throw obstacles in the way of a business ; to beat. h. 

uub T|%$T p/itela or T?%^n pataila, m. a kind 

of large arid flat- bottomed boat used for merchandise 
on the Ganges ; a log or beam used to roll or harrow 
ground, h. [to beat. h. 

patilna, a. to exact, to subdue, 
pat all, f. a flat-bottomed boat. h. 
p ifimd, m. the planks on which 

cloth is spread for printing. 5. 

Uuub xnftTT pattnd or pataina, m. the name 
of,a bird, the green fly-catcher (Merops viridis). h. 

,\}JU> puttimdr* according to shares or assess- 

ments (v. pattl). h.p. [shipping, s. 

bUg ^nfTCT pujapa, m. the apparatus of wor- 
UVjtf *nfT*n pujana, a. to fill, to accomplish ; 

to cause to worship, h. 
IjUtf pajdrva (v. pajdwa) a brick-kiln, p. 

Gjlatf trenqH pujarvana, a. to cause to wor- 

ship. *. [kiln. p. 

5jVai pajdwa,m. (corrupt, ofpazdwa^o, brick- 

.jtf pajar, distillation, dripping ; also a foun- 
" tain, jet d'eau. d. 
gl pajarna, to drop, ooze, distil, d. 

pujrvana, to cause to worship^ 
to cause to fill or complete, s. 

pajaura, low, mean, shabby, h. 
b,f. an ornament for thefeet.^. 
f ftr pichu, m. a sort of leprosy, a. 

U5^oW tpTOUpn pacha dalna, n. to digest, 
to rot. s. 

Ijlag iT^TTT puchard, m. a thin coat of clay 
for laying on a wall ; the sponge of a gun. puchard 
phernot to sponge a gun. puchatd dend, to lay a thin 
coat of clay on the walls of a house; to whltewaah a 
wall. h. 

pachas, fifty, packdsrvdn, the 

fiftieth. 5. 

pachdsi, eighty-five. $. 

pachdnd, a. to digest 5 to cause to 
rot ; to rot, to ferment, s. [five. t. 

pachd t o, m. digestion, s. 
pcti-pach 9 m. the noise made by 

walking in damp places ; adj. soft or plashy, as soil, or 
rotten vegetable matter and mud. A. 

ptchpichd, soft, flaccid, moist , 

flabby, watery, h. [to be wet ; to sweat. A. 

^IRT pachpachdnd,n. to be damp, 

pachpan, fifty-five, h. 
pachtdnd, n. to regret, repent ; 

to grudge, to grieve, h. 

pachtd,o, Tm. penitence, ro- 
pachtdrcdj) pen tn nee, concern, 
grief, h. [cloth. /*. 

pachtoliyd, ni. a kind of 

pichchat, m. inflammation of the 

eyes, ophthalmia. *. 

^jg TWt puchrhar, f. a wedge, pachchar- 

marnd, a. to tease, to harass, to distress, /t. 
^^ ftnsr^ir pichuk, m. a plant (Vangueria 

spinosd). t. [large nail. d. 

];5 pachrdy m. a kind of wedge, a spike or 
0*^3* puchras, m. a kind of bronze, a com- 

position of iron and other metals, d. 

vS ftr^SgT pichukkd, m. a squirt, h. 
\fig 'qwfm pnMdrd, m. (same as 

a thin coat of clay, sponge of a gun. puchkdrd phernd, 
to whitewash a wall. h. [syringe, h. 

pichkdri, f. a squirt, a 

pichhdnd, a. to squeeze, to 
press together, to shrivel, to wrinkle, to burst. A. 

5og ftwiRT pichaknd, n. to be squeezed; 

to be shrivelled, h. 

f* Tt*RRpachkhd 9 f.Bix. days from shravana 

to rvvati, on which days several kinds of work are 
[or divisions (a house), h. 

pachkhand, having five parts 

unlawful. *. 

pirhul, the tamarisk tree ; a plant 
(Barringtonia acutangula) ; the diver or water-crow. *. 

, consisting of five rows 

or strings, as a necklace, &c, (v. pafch lard), pack- 
lari, f. a necklace consisting of five strings, /t, 

pachlona, m. a mc'dicine com- 
posed of five kinds of salt. s. 

pachampachd, f. a species of 

curcuma (Curcuma zanthorhizon), h 

pachmahatta, consisting of 

five stories, rooms, or apartments (a bouse), h. 

pichu-mard, ^m. the nimb tree 
pichu-mand,) (Melia . azad- 

dirakhta). *. 

(J-A*^ 11*1*^ pachmel, mixed, confused, s. 
^jj "WT p<ichan, what cooks or matu res,&c. s. 
lijj ^3f*nn pnchna, n. to be digested ; to rot; 
to take pains, to labour, to be consumed. *. 

<!ijg fa*U pichand orfqfal&pichind, m. the 
belly, t. 

^fi^fT pichandika, f. the instep, s. 
^ ft|4ff)K<9 pichandil or PTfaftpc? pi- 

chindil, big bellied, corpulent, s. 

*j*Z "M^ftd'U pachotara, m. a duty of five 
per cent, on merchandise (v. panchatara). *. 

ttfichuka, m, a squirt, a syringe. h. 
pachwa,i,\ f. an intoxicating 

hwa,i,\ f. an 
l, ) drin 

rice. A. 

pachwl, ) drink made from 
[of a tank. A. 

pichor, garden-ground &c. in rear 
pachauni, f. the stomach. 5. 

if^ packh or TW ?>M, m. confirmation, 
protection, defence ; partiality ; a feather ; a fortnight, 
or division of the month, s. 

pichchh, m. the tail of a peacock, 
a tail in general, h. 

puchchh, f. a tail. s. 

, m. asking,investigation. h. 
f pcichhar, f. a fall, throwing down ; 
the act of winnowing, pachha? khan a, to fall down ; 
to suffer pain. . 

yl^jJ HWTZiflpach harna, a. to throw down, 

to abase, to conquer, to upset, h. 

ffy$ faWSft pichhari, f. the rear;' tho 

hinder part of an animal ; the ropes by which a horse's 
hind legs are tied ; adv. in the rear, behind, pichhari 
marnd, to attack in rear. h. [of the sun. *. 

T3rt pnclihdn, m. the west, the setting 
f<J$lU pichhanna, a. to know, to be 

acquainted with, to recognise, h. 

yb^j^b^aJ pichh pa,on hona, to retreat, 

fall back, withdraw, d. 

\j^^ M^HHT pnchhtana, n. to regret, to re- 

pent of, to feel vexed. *. 

U^jfi TTCTW1 pat-A/^aw^S, m. regret, concern, 

grief, contrition, repentance. *. 

Tfflttpachhattar, seventy-five, h. 

pichchhitika, f. the mu 
(Dalbergia situ), s. [overcome, h. 

pachhar-jana, n. to be 

ble. h. 

pachharna, n. to fall, to turn* 

pichhla, hindermost, last ; mo- 
dern, recent (in opp. to ancient), pichhle paAw hafna 
to withdraw from one's agreement, h. 

pickckhilat f. the silk cotton 

tree (Somhax heptaphyllum) ; a potherb (Basella rubr& 
and lucida) ; a timber tree (Dalbergia sisu), an esculent 
root (Arum fndicum). 8. 

^J-^jS fa&<W\pichhal-pa,t, f. an ugly 
or frightful woman, one who is a satire upon the sex, 
an ogress, h. 

J^jS ftra^<JT pichchhal-dala, f. the ju- 

jube (Zizyphus jujuba). s. [P in g- * 

1>^3$ ftr^lTT pichhauraj\m. 
b!^*5 fa^fT pichhaura,) w 

pichhalan, m. 'sliding, slip- 
^ P^hhalan 9 next, second, again, d. 

, n. to slip, to slide, s. 

pachchham or TjfW pachchhiw, 
west, western, s. 

U^ TTfF'n pachhna, m. the. act of scarifying 
(tattooing) ; inoculating ; a scarificator (name of instru- 
ment), h. [ m g- h 

TTt&tfl pachhrii, f. scarifying (tattoo- 
TSS^fT packhrva, f. western wind. s. 

JT pichhwara, m. T rear, rear- 
s' pichhwari, f. J wards, hin- 
dermost ; the back yard of a house. A. 

)\j$g ftFaFTT*f pichhwan, tailed, having a 
tail. h. [m. back of a house. /. 

pichhut, afterwards, behind^ 

a cloth or sheet 
worn round the 

waist, or thrown carelessly over the head, a tablecloth, h* 

Tl,*l f. a small cloth, 
?l pichhauriy) &c. ; a head- 
kerchief, h. 
^j^ASv ^t^liHI pachhorna, a. to winnow with 

a basket used for this purpose, h. 
(jTfj^jg pachhori, f. a sheet, cloth, &c. d. 
b^4^ tpBtlfan puchhwaiya, m. an inquirer, 

interrogator, s. 

f^pbg T T33^ pachchhiy m. an ally, an assistant, 

"an advocate, patron ; a bird. *. 

>,f. a westerly wind.*. 
J^jg ftf^Tf pichhet, m. the back of a house ; 

a yard or compound behind a house t. 
,<j "T^ft pachchi, adherent, joined ; (met. 

** in music) in unison, pachchi-kart, f. mosaic ; patching 
or darning of damaged cloth, pachchi hona, n. to be 
stuck together as with glue; to be in unison; to be 
strongly attached by love. A. 

j**.t?5 1 Hfa pacliis, twenty-five. . 

( 177 ) 

> pachisi, f. a game, so called, 

"played with cowries inatead of dice. It is so named 
from the highest throw, which is twenty-five. *. 

& pakh, interj. Oh ! bravo ! well done ! pikh. 

get away ! begone I p. 
JUs pakhal f. (for pakhal), a large leather 

bag for carrying water, generally on bullocks. *. 
(gjte* pukhtari, f. cakes (or bread) which 

are laid over dishes when bringing to table, and under 
which the meat is kept warm ; cakes embued with cla- 
rified butter, from being laid over certain greasy dishes, 
as dopiydza, &c. These cakes are very soft and savoury, 
whence mama pu}&tariydn khana t to eat cakes of this 
description prepared by his mother, is applied to a 
person accustomed to luxury and incapable of labour 
or fatigue, p. [of the world, p. 

.S pukhtagij dressing, ripeness, experience 
pukhtan (r. paz), to cook, to bake ; 

met. to concoct in the mind, or imagine, to entertain 
an idea. p. 

oij pukhta, dressed (as victuals) ; ripe; sly, 

knowing, experienced (in the world), wise ; built of 
cut or polished stones (a house). puj&ta karnd. to 
make strong, pujcjita-kart, sound workmanship, 
-mizdj, of mature disposition, experienced, p. 

(jfcig pakhsh, trodden, expanded, withered, p. 

JJ TJ?J pad t m. the foot; footstep ; rank, cha- 

racter ; (in gram.) a word ; place, station ; a foot or a 
line in a stanza ; (in law) a head, title, or topic of legal 
or judicial proceedings, s. 

\A% ft^T pidda, m. a species of small bird. h. 

cllfl^A> tf^TfafTOi padabhishikta, anoint- 

ed or installed in rank or office, s. 
C~>\&> f TflJfiT padat or padati, m. a footman, 

a foot-soldier, a pedestrian ; a pawn (in chess), s, 
idlibj <l<lfri * paddtik, a peon, a footman or 

foot-soldier ; a pawn (in chess). *. 
p>;U H$l$ padarth, m. a thing, substance, 

a good, a blessing ; a rarity ; a delicacy, or exquisite 
food ; the meaning of a word ; a category or predica- 
ment in logic, of which seven are maintained, viz. 
substance, quality, action, identity, variety, relation, 
and nonentity. *. 

~Q$)\&> V <I^IU) padargh (for padargliya), an 

offering of curds, honey, &c. to a guest or Brahman, s. 

(^j-Jj^ XRfni padas, f. inclination to break 

wind backwards, flatulency. *. 
IM>\JJ m\'*&\ padasa, m. one who is inclined 

to break wind ; adj. flatulent, s. 
,JA*>^ <m*M padasarit m. a footstool, s. 

( 6\JJ M^HI padana, a. to cause to break wind, 
(met.) to frighten, or to put to flight. *. 

k, m. footmark, vestige, s. 
padbi, f. title, titular name, sur- 
name, patronymic ; rank, character ; a path. *. 
^#<H il^TigRpad- bhanjan, m. explanation 
of obscure w Drd ; etymology. A. 

4?' 4 H ^^S^ pad-ckyut, fallen from dig- 
nity, disgraced, s. 

padar (in Hind, pidar), a father, pidar- 
mizajt, a representative father, or one who has adopt- 
ed a son. p. [bottom, beneath, d. 

padar (same a* tah\ q. v f ); fold, &c.; 

H padarana, paternally, like a father. ;;. 

[;*H padrud, leave, dismissal, farewell ; 

padrud-k. t to bid adieu, p. 

t, paternal, fatherly, p. 
pidri, f. a tomtit, h. 

padak, m. an ornament of the 

neck ; (in Dakh.) a flat plate of gold or other metal , 
badge, c. 

>, T&Fff( pad-kram, m. step, pace. s. 

At Tf^H padam or TO padma, m. the lotus 

(Nelumbium speciosum, Willd. or Prunus cerasus} : it is 
often confounded with the water-lily (Nymphaa) ; ten 
billions, according to the Shastr, or one thousand bil- 
lions, according to the Dastur-ul-'amal or the royal or- 
dinances of Akbar. 9. 

padma, f. the goddess of riches, 
Lakshmi; a small tree (Hibiscus mutabilis). t. 

L>U^ ^niTJ padmat, m. a sort of cassia 

(Cassia tor a), s. 

padmasan, m. a posture in 

religious meditation, sitting with the thighs crossed, 
one hand resting on the left thigh, the other held up 
with the thumb upon the heart, the eyes directed to 
the tip of the nose ; a seat made in the shape of a lotus, s. 

padmahar, in. a large deep 
pond, in which the lotus does or may grow. j. 
jUj> TRnif padmarvat, name of a cele- 
brated princess, whoso adventures are related in a ro- 
mance entitled Padwdwatl. a. 

^lOJ mir*f<A padmawatiy f. the wife of the 

sage Jaratharu; the main stream of the Ganges be- 
tween the Kasimbazar river and the sea. 5. 

Jjjftjj M'-WM^ pidma-patra, m.a sort ofcostus 

(Costus spedoxus). s. [(Webera corymbosd). s. 

,^* * .^ t|'HM >B ^ padma-pushp, m. a shrub 
i.Wijs> iWITfc^ft padma-charini, f. a 
small tree (Hibiscus mutabilis). s. 

^ padma-darshan, m. the 

resin of the Pinus longifolia. t. 

\padma-rag, m. a ruby. *. 
wmpadmatt, m. a kind of leprosy, t. 
J M?I<*1B padma-ltashth, m. a fra- 
grant wood, used as a cooling and tonic medicine. *. 
t padmaK, m. the Bhojpatra or 

birch tree. The bark is used for writing upon. wrap, 
ping shawls, &c. s. 

^l tl y> Tnrgwt padma-mukfti, f. a sort of 

prickly nightshade. *. 

( 178 ) 

admani or Cffa^l padmirii, f. a 
description of women, the most excellent of the four 
classes into which womankind is divided by the Hindus 
(the names of the other three are chitrint, sankhinl, 
and hattini). t. 

9 m. safflower. 5. 

fpadma-varnah, m.a species 

of cvtitis (Costus speciosus). s. 
JJ 1U{^1 padna, 1 having a propensity for 
.^5 in paddu, > breaking wind back- 

podordj] wards; met.acoward.s. 

padodak, m. water in which 
the' feet of a Brahman have been washed, and which 
it is a meritorious deed for inferiors to drink. *. 

c.JJ iF&ft padrvi, f. rank, character, title, 

t. ^ v 
road, path (v. padbl). s. 

i.UbjJ TW^Tt padhama, n. to take leave, 

to go away, to depart ; to arrive, s. 
.A&.S 5 . ftrVPf pidhdn, m. a covering, a cover 
or concealment ; a lid ; a wrapper or cloak. *. 

1 padd/tat,"}*'. a road, line, row; 
padd/tati,) manner, custom; a 
^treatise on a particular science ; ritual ; a title or titu- 
lar name. s. 

paddi, f. an alley, a way. h. 
padid, opon, public, clear, evident, 
manifest, conspicuous, visible, p. 
aJ^V "TO padya, m. metre, verse. 
1 JO TST pnda, m. the boundary of a field, h. 

%Jtij pazir or pizir, (in corn p.) denotes 
taking, receiving, admitting, being possessed of or 
endowed with ; as, zmat-pa&r, adorned, possessed of 
ornament; tqfa-pa&r, endowed with integrity, pure, 
sincere, p. 

(^j^M pazlraftan (r. pazir), to receive, 
to accept ; to admit, to sustain, p. 

*/?.*H P*g* ra acceptable, agreeable, p. 

*>, VC par, other, strange, foreign, distant. 
par-des, abroad : conj but, over, through, after, at, by, 
for, of; post-position, on, upon, notwithstanding, s. 

> Hjpra, prep, (in comp.) forth, for, forward, 

off, away. . 

j> par, m. a feather, a quill, wing, par-join a 
or ftyitcS, to be without power or ability, par-jharna 
or girdna, to prepare to fly ; to get new feathers after 
moulting, twr nikalna, to display on acquiring power 
those qualities which remained concealed in poverty 
or a low station ; to shew the cloven foot. p. 

j 1H5 pant, m. a knot or joint in a reed. s. 

j\p*r f full, complete, loaded, charged; used 

'(In corap.) as pur-nur, illustrious, lit. full of light, p. 

, a dweller In a city, a citizen. * . 

\,> 1RT pard, prep (in coHlp.) back, back- 
ward, reverse, over. *. 

a ^ r S e ^^^g! town 5 n 
comp.) apartment; as, ran-pura, the women's apart- 
ment. *. [troops); a rank, file, or row. s. 

>, ^m para, m. a company ; a body (of 

jJo^>. irnr^l prabalya, m. power, vigour, 
predominance. *. [eminence. *. 

prabhava, m. superiority, pre- 

parabhav, m. discomfiting, over- 
coming. s. [come. . 

'TTf^Jcf pftrabhut, defeated, over- 

). TTH prapla or parapat, nu income, 

produce, gain ; advantage, benefit ; acquired, attained; 
proper, right, s. 

Wft? prapti, f. gain, inconif , advantage, 

acquiring, obtaining, success. *. 

piajrit, procured, obtained. *. 
Wltl^praptdrthn, successful, having 

gained an object. 5. 

*>jlI)L> inWT^W praptavasar, opportune, 
seasonable, finding an occasion, s. 
^C10^. THTn|figr prapta-buddhi, enlight- 
ened, instructed ; recovering, becoming conscious. *. 
^CUjy, mWBUTrJ prdpta-ltal, fated, one 
whose fated time has come ; opportune. *. 
bU. HT 1 ^ prdp/ih, adj. procuring, obtain- 
ing. s. 

prapan, m. obtaining. 5. 

) attainable, obtainable, s. 

IHTT jt?ra< or Hfln pratah, rn. morning, 
dawn of day. prata-samai, prata-kal, the same. *. 
^TUH ^tf/-a/, 1 f . a large plate (of 

brass), /i. 
pratipadik, m. the crude 

^tf/-a/, 1 
^/'5ri, / 

form of a noun, without affixes. *. 

U>OK^ Ttrfrini pardt-priya, m. a kind of 

reed (Saccharum spontaneum). J. 

j> b TITWt prat or, adv. morning, dawn . pratar- 
bitojan, m. the morning meaL t. 

old, aged. s. 

ority. s. 


prathamik, first, initial. *. 

prathamya, rn. firstne^s, pri- 
[dential ; m. a surety, t. 
ITTFlftnR pratyayik, trusty, confi- 

> "TTT7T pardtha, in bread made with 
butter (or g/), and of several layers like a pie-crust A. 

oU];i RIIWfMl yrajapatyd, f. giving away 
the whole of one's property before entering ujwn tjie 
life of an ascetic or mendicant, . 

prdjdpatya, m. a form of 
marriage, the gift of a girl respectfully by her father 
to her lover ; a name of Allahabad or Prayag ; a sort 
of penance, eating once a day for three days in the 
morning, once in the night for three days, subsisting 
three days on food given as alms, and fasting three 
days more ; a particular sacrifice performed before ap- 
ointing a daughter to raise issue in default of male 
s ; the asterism Rohint. 

( 179 ) | 

*$j]d ^irt pardrthy having another object or 

sense ; designed by another ; m. for the sake of another. 
pararth-vddi, officious, meddling. *. 

heirs ; 

it, conquered, defeated, s. 

purajat or parcyaya, m.over- 
" throw, defeat, discomfiture, s. 

parajaiman, adj. over- 

coming, conquering, surpassing, s. 
l>-^> TJTOFC prdchar, contrary to rectitude, 

deviating from the ordinary institutions and obser- 
vances. s. [pupil, s. 

pracharj, m. a scholar, a 

imposed on religious occasions as the price of abso- 
lution, atonement, expiation, s. 

t parachit, m. a fine or penance 

gious occasions as the price of abso- 
t, expiation, s. 

UT^ft prachi, east, eastern; f. the 
"east. *. [fence, a wall, a rampart, s. 

prachlr, m. a bound hedgo, a 

parachin or HTflfar prachln, 

old, of former times, ancient ; f. a broad hedge, a 
fence, a wall. s. 

uu>-^> m^l^T prachma, f. a plant (Cissam- 

pelos hexandra). s. 

prachinamalak, m. 

a fruit (Flacourtia cataphracta). s. 

prachm-panas, m. 

a tree (JEgle marmelos). s. 

prdchlnatd, f. antiquity. ,. 

prdchya, eastern ; m. the eastern 
country, south and east of the Saraswatl. s. 
W;<^. HT3>Tre prddur-bhdo, m. appearance, 

manifestation, s. [ambulation. s. 

juulS^ W^ftpR prddakshinya, m. circum- 
ydjl TTOSTf parddan, m. a horse of the Per- 
sian breed. *. [superiority. *. 
prddhdnya, m. supremacy, 
parddhikdr, m. another 

person's offlcp or post, paradhikdr-charcha, f. officious- 
ness, interference with another's concerns. . 

parddhin, in the power of 
another, dependent, s. [dependence. *. 

dhmatd,f. subjection, 
,, m. place, country, s. 
prdd-vivdk, m. a judge, 
a magistrate. *. [mordica charantia). t. 

pararu, m. a kind of gourd (Mo- 
ITOC*r prarabdh, f. fortune, lot, fate, 
predestination, chance j adj. began, t. 

prarthit, asked begged, soli- 
cited. *. Xsoliciter. . 

W^'* prartkak, asking, a# asker, a 
JCT^faT prarthna, f. asking, petition, 

prayer, s. 

i^U) TTT^^^ prdrthmya, to be asked or 
begged ; m. the third or Dwapar age of the world. 
parardhwa 9 ni a lck of lacks 

of crores, or a number equal to half the term of Brah- 
ma's life. s. [raencement. . 

. WW praramlh, m. beginning, com- 

pards, m. the name of a tree 

(Bitteafrondoia); oakum, made of the bark of that 
tree. *. 

y>]^ IRQ pros, m. a bearded dart. s. 
iRTttprdsu, dead,' expired. 5. 
UTOT^ prdsad, m. a temple, a palace, s. 
pardst, defeated, s. 

pardsutd, f. death, extinction; 
[piation. i. 
praschit, m. atonement, ex- 

prdsak, m. a die, dice. s. 

drowsiness, s. 

VyOsa. ,?. 

pardshar, the father of the poet 
[dent. t. 
parashrit, subject, depen- 

pardshari, m. a beggar, a wan- 
dering mendicant, s. 

pardshrai, dependent, relying 

upon another ; m. dependence, s. 

i*hrayd,f.b parasite plant.5. 
pardky m. a religious obligation 

of an expiatory kind, fasting for twelve days and nights, 
and keeping the mind attentive and organs subdued ; 
a sacrificial sword, s. 

VRZRprdk, before, prior, preceding ; east, 

eastern ; at dawn, early. *. 

^}j> TTTSRIT prakdr, m. an inclosure, a fence, 
a rampart, particularly a surrounding wall elevated 
on a mound of earth, s. 

jKty>j*2\ OT4W*Ulft prdh-phalgunl, f. the 

eleventh lunar asterism. s. 

^^Wttprdktan, old,prior,former. prdkr 

tan-karma, m. any act formerly done ; fate, destiny. *. 

~*j* \d W^'^ prakrit, low, common, vulgar ; 

natural ; belonging tcfahe PrakrM*, iUusory, material 
m. a dialect derived from the Sanskjrit. s. 



ll^Oj\j> in*Ji'flinil praJmt lhasha, f. a 
popular dialect formed from the Sanskrit language. 
In the Sanskrit plays, the illiterate, and generally the 
females, speak Prakrit. The Prakrit and Pali are 
very clearly Sanskrit corrupted, smoothed down, and 
simplified. Some have maintained that, on the con- 
trary, Sanskrit is merely a refinement on the former. 
This is about as rational as saying that Latin was de- 
rived from the present Italian or Spanish, s. 

^J^ci^il^ M!<JfTW<*l prahrit'pralai) m, the 
"total dissolution of the world. *. 


prakrit-jrvar, in. com- 
mon or usual fever. 

ta prakrit-mitra, in. a na- 
tural friend or ally. *, [valour. *. 

parakram, m. ability, power, 

parahrami, bold, powerful, 
[or time. j. 
prah-hal, in. former ape 

) m. the pollen or fnrina of 

a flowfcr; fragrant pow'der used after bathing; the 
name of a mountain. . 

~f\A HW P r **y> m * tne ancient name oi' 

Ildhabad, vulg. Allahabad. s. 
^cL/ly. WlWI*f prag-bha,o, m. prior exis- 

tence ; superiority, excellence. a. 
^f[f> HTWRf prag-abha,o 9 m. antecedent 

privation, non-existence of a thing which ma} T yet be ; 
the non-possession of property which may yet be pos- 
sessed. s. 

j$%>j\f HMIilflfim pray-jyotishy m. a 

country, Kamrup, part of Assam, the scene of Brah- 
ma's penance, s. [precursor. .. 

prag-gamt, going before, a 

pragalbhya, m. confidencr-, 
boldness, arrogance. 
^^^> parayandagi, f. dispersion, defeat, 77. 

*^]^ parayanda, dispersed, scattered, p. 

^J/i inVT^'%ya ^ knowledge, understnnd- 
ing ; a clever woman. *. [dom, s. 

pragy alien, m. learning, wis- 

prayya-'man, m. respect for 

learned men. pragya-mani, adj. respecting learned 
men. *. 

*jp^. UPtr prayya, chief, principal. 5. 

*#]/ W9 p r <i>'jy<i, wise, clever ; m. a pandit ; 
a learned or clever man. t. 

i^?$\j\ W5ft pragyi, ? the wife of a Brahman ; 

**a clever woman. . 

J|;^ ^TCnj /?ara/, f. straw, Btubble. *. 
^^irJ W 5W paralabdh, f, fate, predestina- 

tion, venture, chance. *. 
^U^IfTRflT^ama///^^, m. a tree (Juxticfa 

. adhenatoda) ; madness, frenzy, intoxication, s. 

prcimanikf adj. posft j ss?n 
authority ; a president, the chief of a trade; a learned 
man, one able to quote his authorities. *. 

m. authority, proof.*. 

, m. counsel, advice, 
consideration, reflection, discrimination, judgment. *. 

^ _^ v . ^ hana, m. coaxing, 

wheedling. s. 

Jjl 3*'^ P ur &$ or pur a MI, m. the Hindu 
mythological books, generally reckoned eighteen in 
number (v. preface to Wilson's translation of the 
Visfynu purana). s. 

pran or paran, m. breath ; soul, 
life ; sweetheart, mistress ; poetical talent or inspira- 
tion ; a title of Brahma, the supreme spirit; an aspira- 
tion in the articulation of letters, s. 

parurnw, adj. living at another's 
expense; m. food supplied by another, t. 
J* JF^ purana, old, ancient, g. 

parana, n. to run, to flee. s. p. 

purana, a. to fill, to make full ; 
also (in Dakh ) to pierce, to bore, to string pearls, h. 
n. to have pain, be pain- 
[fatal. . 
pranapahari, deadly, 

pranadhinath, m. a 

husband, as lord over life. s. 

pranant, m. death. 5. 

pranantik, fatal, destruc- 
tive of life; m. murder. 5. 

^Ifv ^^^ f ** pranayam, m. breathing in 
a peculiar way through the nostrils during the mental 
recitation of the names or attributes of some deity. 
the yaidyas close the right nostril with the thumb, 
and inhale through the left; then they close both 
nostrils, and finally open the right for exhalation. *. 

) WHQ<rr3 pran-ladh, m . extreme peril, 
[another's cost. s. 
paranna-bh oji, living at 

ptdn-pati, in. soul's lord, 
a husband. *. 

fear of life. s. 

H pran-prathhtha, m. 
the ceremony of imparting life to an idol. s. 

?ulri Vt^U^T pran-prada, f. a medicinal 
plant, commonly called riddhi. *. [end. *. 

> HT5f prant, m. edge, margin, border, 
ran-^o<7, m. abandoning 
life, dying, suicide. *. 

imiTT parantha, m. a kind of cake, 
paste. A., 

^]^ Wryftf pranjali, f. putting the hands 
together to the forehead, a mark of respect , 

U^^c>lrv W^TVTT^r pran-dharan, m. sus- 
tenance, supporting life. f. 



a, f. the practice of me- 
dicine, administering remedies. *. 
**^J/(. HWTOT pran-sama, f. a wife, con- 
sidered as equal to life. t. 

juu^t^. UUUUJIH pran-tanyam, m. a pecu- 
liar religious exercise, suspending breath. *. 

>!^ TTTO^r pranak, m. an animal or sentient 
being ; a plant (Celt is orient alis). . 

ran-mai, endowed with breath 

or life, pran-mai-kosh, m. one of the cases or recep- 
tacles of the soul, the vital or organic case s. 


pran-nath 9 m. a husband, s. 
pranant, m. a sort of colly- 

^|/J WGPtft pranantt, f. sneezing, hiccup, s. 
jci>!ri TTRTaR pran-vyai, m. loss of life, 

death. *. 

pran-hari,'} deadly, mor- 
pran-har, ) tal. 5. 

prartif endowed with life, an ani- 
mal. *. 

WT^rniT pran-ydtra, f. support of 

life, subsistence. *. [animals. . 

i! prdni-plrd, f, cruelty to 

prdneth, m. a husband, as so- 
vereign of life. 8. 

prdneshd, f. a wife. s. 

prdnl-mdtd y f. a mother. 5. 

pram-hit, favourable or 
good for living beings. *. 

prdrii-hinsd, f. doing 

harm to a living creature. *. 

prdvat, m. barley. 5. 

pardvart, m. reversal of a 
sentence, paravart-byavahar, m. appeal (in law). . 
*i)jl^ ^tT^W pardvritt, reversed (as a 
judgment). [cloak. *. 

> UT^K prdvrit, m. veil, a wrapper, a 
prdvritti, f. an inclosure, a 
fence, a hedge, s. [about July and August s. 

pvuvTMh* f the rainy season, 
W^HT^Wlft prdvrishdyarii, f.cowach 

(Carpopogon prurient}, t. 

UI^MIW prdvrishenya f m. the ^Ta- 

(Nauclea cadamba). 9. [fulness. . 

prdmnya, m. cleverness, skil- 

> "TOT? pardh, f. flight, a general emi- 
gration ; m. the next day. *. 

. <Hlj{ pardhnOf m. the afternoon, the 
latter part of the day. *. 

pardyd, Strange, foreign, belong- 
ing to another, t. 
<-^.\r> TOTO pardyatt, dependant, subject. *. 

jfly, para*icha (pi. of pdrcha, Gilch.) 
scraps, bits, &c. p. 

<J1*^^. imrfwr prdyashchitt; m. expia- 
tion, penance. praya$hchitt-vidhi, t rule* for pe- 
nance. 5. 

l*j>)j> f ^KPHB pardyan, m. adherence to a pur- 
suit, attachment to, dependence on ; adj. adhering or 
attached to, depending upon. J. [death. *. 

UTTO pray an, in. deatb, voluntary 

l pray a, adj. like, resembling; (in 

com p.) m. fasting to death, as a religious act ; quan- 
tity, abundance. *. 

-*O UtT parb, m. gem, a flat diamond, h. 
-^J tnr^r parab, m. a holiday, anniversary 
feast, a sacred day. *. [travelling, journey. . 

P ra b<**> m ' residing abroad, 
prabdsif one who resides 

abroad, a foreigner, stranger, traveller, t. 

"^V Mlflltfl pur-bdslf the inhabitanU of a 

city or town. s. 

prabil t in. coral, s. 
am, f. a species of tax assessed on 
" the cultivators of the loil. a. 
&W. IT^T^ prabdh, m. tide, stream. * 
Cl^> TT^Tf parbat, m. a mountain. *. 
?{/. ^rtlrt parbatlf m. a mountaineer, a high- 
lander. . 

parbati f f. la production of 

1 parbatiya, m.) the hills ; a 
kind of pumpkin, f. 
& T prabuddhttf wise, learned. *. 

par-brahnif m. the supreme 

being. . 

**i\ ^HCW par-bas, dependent, precarious, 

depending on the will of another. . 

Uplift par-basi, f. dependence, a. 

<<l<g par-bal or inr^5^m-fta/, predomi- 
nant, superior, prevalent, violent. . 

J 1| ICT5Tp^a/a or TPT^T prabala, predo- 
minant, &c. (v. par-6a/). . [periority. . 

ra^Za^a, f. predominance, su- 

prabandky m. a kind of song; 

style, composition (of a discourse) ; continuous appli- 
cation, unmterruptedness ; a connected discussion or 
narrative ; prabandh-kalpna, f. a fiction, a work of imagi- 
nation. . 

>jr>, mftu prabodk, m. vigilance, wakeful- 
ness; understanding, wisdom ; consciousness, awaking; 
demonstration consolation, persuasion, i. 

^>j\ ( 1 ) 

rabodlutd, f. a species of the 

Atijagati. metre, t. 

p&j}j\ infttn? prabodhan, m. awakening, 
arousing; instructing; persuasion, prejudice, s. 
.j\ Wn prabfta, f. nplendour ; li^ht. 8. 
jy, VFtTftprabhat, m. dawn, morning. *. 
pwbhdti, sung in a tune (or 

rag'tnl), peculiar to morning. 9. 

**l^iri Wn& prabhas, m. a place of pil- 
grimage in the west of India, s. 
H^jjj) TftafT^T paribhaska, f. a technical 
-term ; the interpretation of a grammatical rule of 
Pfiuini; (in medicine) prognosis; abuse, ridicule. s. 

prabha-har, m. the sun ; the 
moon ; lit. the light maker. *. 

rabha-kit, f. the fire-fly. s. 

par-bhdg 9 m. excellence, su- 
periority ; good fortune ; residue, remainder, s. 

, m. light, radiance, n. 
prabkanjan, m. a tree (//y- 

per anther a morutiga). s. 

irJ WTO prabhdw, m. power, strength, 
influence, prosperity, felicity; majesty, dignity; spirit.*. 

^iri ^fwre pari-bha,o, m. disrespect, con- 
tempt, disgrace. *. 

H prabhut, m. "1 ability, govern- 

U^TTT parbhuta, f. J ment, liberty, 
option, superiority, influence, legislation, s. 
*^irt '^J' par-bhrit, cherished or nou- 
rished by a Rtranger, fostered, adopted; m. the Indian 
cuckoo, which is supposed to leave its eggs in the nest 
of the crow to be hatched. *. 

^yJ IPffr '/trubhriti, f. manner, kind ; 
et cetera, others, rest (in comp.). *. 
$*j* 'Prft^JH paribhram, m. wandering, go- 
ing about, error. *. [graded, deprived of. *. 
fT&V parib/tranht, fallen, de- 

prubhan), born, produced; su- 
perior, powerful ; the operative cause or immediate 
origin of being. . 

/J JPJ, W^prab/tu, m. commander, lord, 
master, principal ; adj. strong, able, eternal. *. 

paribhav, m. disrespect, dis- 
grace. *. {[voted, s. 

TWrnprab/iu-bhakt, faithful, de- 
, m.possession,enjoy- 

ment. 3. [enemy's country. . 

j\ i|T>|Ov par-bhumi, f. a foreign or an 

, m. kind, sort, difference, s. 
&J*, lR$fprabes, m. admittance, access. 5. 
prabesi, penetrating, entering, s. 

prabin, knowing, intelligent, ac- 
complished, skilful. . 

prabinata, f. knowledge, 

skill. 5, 

parp, in. a wheel chair, s. 

ftVi^ partpati, f. order, method, 

"arrangement, arithmetic. *. 

-iHv^. ^?C4(m pnripak^ m. maturity, perfec- 
tion; cleverness; digestion, f. 

paripakini, f. a drug (Con- 

volvulus turpethum). s. 

^l)^. nfcmf^fr paripalit, protected, che- 
rished. s. [cherishing. *. 

paripalan, m. protecting, 

prapitamaha, ra. a paternal 

great-grandfather. j. 

prapitamahi, f. a pater- 

" nal great grand-mother. *. 

JLo >0 ^Azparpat 9 m. a medicinal plant with 
bitter lQ&ves(Oldenlandia bl flora or Gardenia lattfoUa). s. 

rpat-drum,m.bde\Yium. s. 
parpafi, f. a thin crisp cake made 

"of any pulse, s. 

,m. eminence, high station j 

final felicity, s. 

parpardnd 9 n. to smart. /. 

i''. Hv*vf?2 p-irpardhat, f. acrimony, 
smarting. It. [or dependants of another. $. 

j>Jj\ M <MfX.ll ^ par-parigruh, m. the family 
ILuS3.> i||i|? par-pusht, m. the Koltila or 
Indian cuckoo. *. [a parasite plant, s. 

par-pusht d, f. a harlot, a whore; 

aiPCf pnripushhard) f. a sort of 
cucumber (Cucumis madraspatanus). s. 

lj*->.j* Vlfm9\ paripdhrcay cooked, mature; 

shrewd ; digested, paripakwata, f. maturity ; perfec- 
tion; shrewdness; digestion, s. 

^*^,r> micrMfaa prapalayit, routed, de- 
feated, s. [wing away. *. 
prapaldyan, m. flight, ruri- 

prapalayi, m. a fugitive, 
"one who deserts his cause. 8. 

Ob^> Tfftjfif pariplut 9 immersed, inundated, 

bathed, .f. [inundation. *. 

jb O 'qfGRpar'iplav, m. bathing, immersing, 

^ij/J !TRn^m/)Mn5,f. a sort of grass (Hedy- 

saritm alhaji). s. (Catria tora). s. 

? prapunar, m. a sort of cassia 
paripanthiy m. an enemy, 

"a robber, a bandit, i. 

> OTf propanch or ^HITra parpavch, m. 

fraud, cheat, imposition, deceit, treachery, art, artifice $ 
opposition ; prolixity, copiousness in style ; error, U 
lusion. s. 

( 183 ) 

C>^H^> IIMfw prapanchtt, erring, mistaken ; 

deceived, beguiled ; declared fully, treated at length, s. 
<^$*j\ 'HWft prapanchi or *TCT*9ft parpanchi, 

insidious, fraudulent, artful. *. 

5, m. a great-grandson. A. 

f. a great-granddaugh- 
ter: h. 
ty v j>,wt* prapautra, m. a great-grandson. 

prapautri, f. a great-granddaughter, f. 
< -**'jl 'MftjlfHlf paripujit, served, wor- 
shipped, adored. *. [adoring. . 
paripujan, m. worshipping, 
' prapurika, f. a prickly night- 
shade (Solarium jacquini). s. [ful. *. 
prapurna or parpuran, brim- 

paiipnrna, full, complete, 
content, paripurnata, f. completion, satiety. *. 
ibjiii^^> inft*pr^S|i prapaundarik, m. a 

small herbaceous plant, used in medicine, and as a per- 
fume, commonly called punderya. s. 

praphitll, blown, as a flowrr; 

smiling, glad ; shining, praphull-nayan, having full 
or sparkling eyes, praphull-vadan, having a cheerful 
smiling countenance, s. * 

praphullit, blossoming, in 

blossom ; gay, lively, cheerful. 5. 

ju>^> 1KM4 parpaith, m. a duplicate (of 

a bill of exchange), h. 

-tJj^ trft^c? paripel, m. a fragrant grass 
(Cyperus rotundtu). t, [a stratum, h. 

TRW paraty m. a fold, ply, layer, crust, 

^lrfw pratiy Sansk. prep, (used in comp.) 

it generally denotes repetition, continuity, retaliation, 
or retribution, s. 

(for winding thread), h. 

j> TTTHT parta, agreeable to, conformable 
with, purta, fully, completely. *. 

^l3j> partab, m. the range of a musket, 

arrow, &c. p. * 

&j!, inrPT pratap, m. splendour; courage, 
glory, potency, prosperity, felicity, s. * 

^lSjJ. qfXrtra paritap, m. pain, anguish ; a 
division of hell. $ . 

~Mj> Hfffni pratapas, m. the gigantic as- 
clepias with white flowers. . 

pratapan, m. a hell. s. 

dlM^M pratap-wan, \ glorious, 
pratapi, J potent, x. 

t/, cheated, deceived. *. 
> H?rmr pratarak, m. a cheat. 5. 

pra-taran, m. 1 fraud, cheating, 
HHKUI! pra-tarna, f. J deceit, s. 

tf'C'ilT9 portal, also partdl-jarib, re- 
measurement of a field. *.p. 
^)^. ,VtfR pratan, m. a disease, fainting, 

epilepsy. *. 
u^V>>^ nflrfWB pratibimb, o]8Opratibimbh,Tn. 

an image or picture, the reflection of an image or figure 
from a mirror, a. [prohibition, obstacle, s. 

pratibandh, m. interruption, 

FU^T pratibandhak, one who 
forbids, impedes, or interrupts ; m. an impediment, t. 
ySj*. UfiWT pratibha, f. understanding, in- 
tellect; sharpness; light, splendour, i. 
l^x>j> IfffWiq pratibka^ m. corresponding 
character or disposition, s. [vided. *. 

pratibhinn, separated, di- 
;, m. a surety, s. 

pratibhai, formidable, fear- 
ful ; m. fear. s. 

r-^Aftri "fa*^[*f pratibhedan, m. piercing, 

penetrating; dividing, s. 

)\J^> ufinrnfT pratipadan, m. gift; ascer- 
taining, determining. *. 

JU^> irfinT55 pratipal, m. patronising, tui- 
tion, fostering, rearing, breeding, cherishing. *. 
il5U>J ITfffMlcrJ* pratipalah, m. cherisher, 
patron. 5. [rishing, &c. (v. pratipal). t. 

pratipalan, m. act of che- 

Ilfin?T<35*n pratipalna, a. to foster, 
cherish, rear. s. 

Ux5^> Uftf^iT pratipat, f. the first day of 
a lunar fortnight ; rank, consequence. . 
!*A^ TlfinrfU pratipatti, f. fame, reputation ; 
knowledge, ascertainment, a. 
O>^ nfTPT? pratipad, f. the first day of a 
lunar fortnight ; adv. step by step, continually, s. 
^jJL) wfrtWtH pratiprasav, m. precept for 
an act which, under other circumstance!, is forbidden. . 
*rH ^3^ pratipvrush, adv. every 

man, man by man. . 

pratipann, known, certain, s. 

pratipujak, ra. a reverer, 
one who does homage. *. 

^^W llftr^lT patripujan, ra. exchange 
of civilities, mutual reverence; offering homage. *. 
m. return, requital, 
[melody, t. 

pratital, m. a kind of air or 
*prattjihva 9 f. the uvula, or 
soft palate. 


pratfjivan, m. resuscita- 

tion. g. [repeatedly, meditating. *. 

*nn pratichintan, jn. thinking 

partachh, obvious, present, ap- 
parent, public ; adv. before, in the presence. *. 
A$5?j> JTfii$Hll pratichhaya, f. an imagp, 
a statue, a picture t. 

^Jv ITfiT^nT pratidan, m. the return of 
a deposit ; barter ; giving back, or in return for. 9. 

*> TrffrfspSfTT pratidisha, adv. every w her* 1 , 
all around, s. 

prutidin, day after day, daily, s. 
, m. \ echo,reso- 

Sjl UTirmf?! pratidhrvani, f. J nance, s. 
pratirdtra, m. every night, s. 

part Iran, no. preserving, pro- 
tecting. *. [ing. *. 

pratirakshan , m. preserv- 

pratirup, m. a picture, an 
image. J. [impediment. *. 

pratirodk, m. opposition, 
r 9 l ni. a thief, 
pratirodhiy J a robber. 5. 

pratixparddha, f. emula- 
tion, rivalry, s. [emulous; refractory. *. 

pratisparddhi, envious, 
, m. cicatrizing; a form 

of incantation; a string worn round the hand at 
nuptials. 4. 

^*^ irfirafi pwtitarg, m. the portion of 

A Puriin, which treats of the destruction and renova- 
tion of the world; secondary creation by agents of one 
Supreme Being. *. 

ljuJ^ tffrfWR pratisyaya, in, catarrh, s. 
t 9 pleased, delighted, s. 
pratishth, famous s. 

pratishtha 9 f. consecration of 

a monument erected in honour of a deity, or of the 
image of a deity ; celebrity, renown ; endowment of 
a temple ; portioning a daughter ; a form of metre, 
consisting of a stanza of four lines of four syllables 
each. g. 

i}. site, situa- 

tion ; the capital of the early kings of the lunar dy- 
nasty, opposite to Allahabad ; the capital of Salivahan 
in the Pakhin. . 

> Bfflfifif pratishthity famous, cele- 
brated ; consecrated ; endowed ; situated, established. *. 
tXl5j> 'Bftifm pratithiddha 9 forbidden, pro- 
hibited. f- [or doubt, g. 

pratuhanka y f. constant fear 
pratMya, f. catarrh. *. 

pratishedh, prohibition, ex- 
ception, contradiction, s. 

jl Hfif^K pratihar, m. revenge, reta- 
liation ; remedying, counteracting. *. 

^^> UfinrtT pratikaitnd, m. retaliation, 
requital ; remedy, redress, g. 

Qjl TTftrftlWT pratikriya, f. return, re- 

quital ; remedying, counteracting, t. 

^S^> JlftfBUd pratikshan, adv. momen- 
tarily, every moment. *. 

^SS^> irfff^J pratikiil, contrary, adverse, 

inverted ; contradictory, perverse. *. 

^5o^> wfricjiQJrtl pratikulata, f. opposition, 
hostility. *. [verberating. g. 

pratigarjan, echoing, re- 

pratigrah, m. proper dona- 
tion to Br&hmans ; the acceptance of such a gift. . 

OlJl5j> TlOmiff pratighat, m. a return 
blow, rebound ; warding off a blow ; preventing. . 

Ci^^^ri Hfrt^rrf^ pratighatan, m. killing, 
slaughter. . [tile, opposed to. s. 

^Jl^G^ irfifErnft pratighatl, repelling, hos- 

LxCJ^ TyftTfTT prntigya or pratignya, f. an 

agreement, compact, stipulation, engagement, promise ; 
(in logic) the proposition, the assertion to be proved. 
pratlgya-patrak, m. a bond, a written contract. *. 

promised, agreed, 

admitted, asserted, s. 

partaly m. f. the baggage of a 

horseman, carried all on one bullock or fo#u (a pony). 
partal ka tattu, a pack-horse, a bat-horse. /. 

-^rJ. THF& pratal, m. one of the seven divi- 
sions of the lower regions, *. 

> TRWc?T partala, rii. a sword-belt, h. 

pratilambh, m. censure, re- 
viling, abuse, s. 

tijl Hfid^H pratilom, left, not right ; re- 
verse, inverted ; low, vile, base. g. 

pirtam, the earth, the world, d. 
(KM partam, greatest, supreme, s. 

> PffrPTT pratima, f. likeness, image, sta- 
tue, picture, p. [monthly. . 

pratimas, every month, 

pratiman, m. resemblance, 
image, picture. *. [pf rot. . 

pratimushihd, f. a kind 

i^ ^rffT pritnd, f. an army; a division 

onsisting of 243 elephants, as many chariots, 729 
orses, and 1215 foot. *. 

j 11 fil HT^ pra tin ad, m. echo, re^or.anco. .^. 


S^) irfilfafVl pratinidhi, m. a resem- 
blance, image ; a surety ; a substitute, s. 
ftj^ Vfnf^f pratinuh, by night, every 
night. . 

partnu or partav, m. light, the sun- 
beams, rays of light, enlightenment, p. [ply- ' 
pratirach, f. an answer, a re- 
^Jv HfdM<{t prativadi, m. a defendant, 

a respondent, s. [neighbouring, s. 

prativasi, a neighbour, 

prativakya, in. a reply, an 
answer. *. [echo. * 

prativachan, m. a reply, an 

paritosh, m. pleasure, de- 
light*. [(flefttfa). *. 

J>j3^ TjffrfVST prativteha, f. a plant 
jr0<Nm&,ni.a resemblance, 

image, shadow, s, 

& ^Sfft pratTmiy f. pain shooting from 

the rectum along the bowels, t. 

Tlftfl: parita, around, all round, s. 

**** prithu, m. the fifth monarch of the 
solar dynasty in the second age; the name of an an- 
cient raja, son of Pena, raja of Bet fur. He Was mar- 
ried to a form of the goddess Lalcshmi, taught men to 
cultivate the earth, &c. &c. ; f. a pungent seed (Nigclla 
Indica) ; a medicinal substance commonly called 
Hingupatri. s. [morial custom, s. 

pratha, f. fame, celebrity ; imme- 
jfcT^T^ pratihas, m. a shrub. (Ne- 
rlum odorum). s. [declared, t 

TX^R prathit, famous, celebrated , 
Tffafkprathiti,f. celebrity, notoriety, s. 
irfH^W pratihat, disappointed, op- 
posed, obstructed; overthrown. *. 

i, f. disappointment, s. 

praihuhj m. the young of any 
animal, s. 

^AJ J TTT3? prnlhah or ^VJ'flf prithak, sepa- 
rate, apart, prithak-parnt, f. a plant (Hemionites cor- 
difulia). pritli'ak-lwa, m. individuality, separateness. 
pritha/c-twdclm, f. plant, commonly called Murva 
(SaiMvi'-ra ?///'/?/'>). pritfiak krit, separated, stm- 
derod. prithitk-kftrtiH, in. separating, distinguishing, s. 

a 9 individual- 

ised spirit, or that of an individual as detached from 
the universal spirit, prithag-guu, having distinct pro- 
perties. prithag-mdh, various, diversified, s. 

A>y HHTO pratham, first, in the first place. 
pratham-satiat, the first or lowest degree of punish- 

ment. 5. 

orpritJiaml, f. the world, earth, ground. *. 

) irftffin pratihinsa, f. retnliation, re- 

venge. *. 

ar t large-bellied, corpu- 

lent ; m. a ram. *. 
/jj>. yfi prithwi or ijCty^ft prithwi, f. the 

earth, prithivi-tal, m. the surface of the ground. 
prithwi, f. a pungent seed (Nigella Tndica) ; a medi- 
cinal substance and condiment, Hingupatrl, 8. 

#>(^}tyj>. Y^^- prithwi-bhar, m- a species 

of the ati/asti metre, s. 

' prithivi-pal, 


m. a 
king, a 

reign ; lit. cherishcr or lord of the earth. *. 

prithi or pirt/ii, the earth. 9. 

prithi-pal 9 *j king, sovc- 

prithi-nath,j reign ; lit. 
cherisher or lord of the earth. *. [ground. /*. 

parti, f. waste or uncultivated 

U iml^V pratyadisht, removed, 
set aside ; informed, warned ; declared. *. 

(j^<jAxK> UfPI^V pratyadenhi m. information, 
apprising, warning, declaration. 4. 

liiVxJ^) ITmT^n pnttyasha 9 f. hope, expecta- 
tion, desire, pratyashl, hoping. 8. 

ij\j\ i?ft?nn parityag 9 m. abandonment, 
quitting, parity agi, adj. abandoning. *. 

,lfc\jj^> HW^T^prutyakar, m. (in gram.) com- 
bination of two or more letters of the alphabet to form 
a class of letters. *. 

^KAX)^) IRFflNtpratyupaltar, m. a return ot 

kindness or assistance, pratyupakdn, adj. returning 
a kindness. \ 

{-* i:\jv Trf^ pralit or ^PCH^iT partit, famous, 
renowned ; f. faith, confidence, partit-k., to examine* 
to believe, to trust. 5. 

C>Qj> TJlT^ftT pratiti 9 f. knowledge, under- 
standing ; fame, notoriety. *. 

pratyutpanna, rcj)roducc(l t 

regenerated ; multiplied ; m. the product of a multi- 
plication. s. 

j> f JTBRFipratyuttar, m. a retort, or return 

of answer for answer. . 

^juJ^ U^JfTrrr pratyutthan, m. rising from 

a seat as a mark of respect t. 

^$!j> f TnTWI" prntichi, f. the west quarter. 
" pratichln or pratichya, western. J. 

^^x>^> TT"igCTfT pratyudyfiman, m. rising 

from a seat, going forth to meet any one. *. 
j>v Ttffttpratir, m. a shore or bank. s. 

ratyashman,n). red chalk.*. 
pratih, contrary, adverse, re- 
versed ; m. a limb* a part. A 

pratyah, subsequent, uniform. 

pratyak-parrii or irratyak-pushpt, f. a plant (Achyranthet 
axpera). pratyak-shrew, f. a plant, commonly called 
Dantl ; a plant (Salvinia cucullata). A 

( 186 ) 

Jl*>^> *ikffin parjit, conquered, subdued, s. 

prafiJtdr, m. revenge, retalia- 
tion; obviating, remedying, x. 

AXJO^ TfazR% parity akt, void, deprived of; 

abandoned. . [reply. . 

pratyuhti, f. a rejoinder, a 
ratyakth, perceptible, evident, 

apparent, pratyaksh-darshan, m. an eye-witness. 
pratyaJtsh-jvraman, ocular or visible proof. #. 

^\XK> HifofT pratiksha, f. regard to, consi- 

deration, expectation, pratlhsliak, adj. expecting; 
looking at. piatlkshan, in looking to, considering; 
expecting, pratlkshl, expecting. . 

pratyahshl, adj. seeing, per- 
ceiving. pratyakshi-krit, manifested, made visible. *. 
, IWf* prytyaha or Tlr^H pratyaham, 
every day, from day to day. *. 
^^jj^. HW'ttT pratyantt bordering, conti- 
guous. m, the country of Mlechfias or savages, s. 
JUx>^3 Ifftjf pratyany, m. an organ of per- 
ception ; adv. on the body, or the limbs severally. *. 
pratyanaiitar, adv. next in 

succession, s. 

pmtlvap, m. calcining or 

fluxing metals; throwing one substance into another, 
rtdding any thing to a medicine during or after decoc- 
tion ; a public calamity, a plague. *. 

pratyavaya, m. disappear- 
ance, non-production, s. 

pratiyoy, m. opposition, 

contradiction ; co-operation, association, prati-yogitd, 
f. mutual co-operation ; opposition, pratiyogi, m. an 
opponent ; a partner, an associate. 3. [one. . 

pratyeh, each, every, one by 
f^jl TTHHI pratyay or pratyaya, m. belief, 

"faith, trust, confidence, pratyayit, trusted, confidential. 
pratijayl, trusting, believing. *. 

y\+bj> THI^ITPT pratiyaman, adj. being 

believed or trusted, a. 

~j> t T^ par} 9 f. name of a musical mode or 

rd^lnl ; a handle of a shield. par/War, basket-hilted 
(scimitar), s. 

or l^n praja, f. a subject, a 

tenant, a renter ; people ; progeny, prajd-dharm, m. 
the duty of children or subjects. praja-Mt, good for 
children or subjects ; kind to them. . 

prajd-pat or praja-pati, m. 
a name of Brahma; the epithet common to ten divine 
personages, who were first created by Brahma: a 
prince, lord of subjects; father; son-in-law, daughter's 
husband; potter. . [room. a. 

^ >Wj> parja 9 e, f. custom, manner ; place, 

*rj\ ^^nnf parjatan,\ 

'' % T.-I,.., f m travelling, t. 
$**? ^WT parjatan,) 

^J^ft-'H^jwiryan, m. attendants, followers, 
suite. *. 

, m. a bedstead. *. 
parjanl, f. a sort of curcuma 

(Curcuma zanthorhizon). *. 

t, m. quit-renf, tax. *. 
, blazing, radiant. *. 

parjyaya, m. order, arrange* 

ment, series; manner, kind; opportunity; a series of 
of synonyms for one term. *. 

(jA&j*, V*831 parjyatan, m. wandering about, 

roaming, s. [dary. . 

dJioO i]u)f| parjyant, m. limit, term, boun- 
uiU*.-*^) *nzhf parjyank, m. a bedstead, s. 

^l^^^Tp^riji^par/yava^aw, m. end, con- 
clusion. *. fsisteuce. A, 

prajivan, m. livelihood, sub- 

pirich, a saucer. A. 

Vj-^, H^lparcha, f. (v. parwhha) trial, exami- 
nation ; m. demonstration, proof. *. 
^r?. ^PWRjoarc/taror It'nXprar/iariTn. pub- 

lication, disclosure ; appearance ; custom, usage ; con- 
duct ; currency. *. [an attendant. *. 

paricliatuk, in. a servant, 
parchana, a. to introduce to a 

person, to engage in conversation. *. 
^>O par chat, mark, trace, effect, d. 

rachit,m* a species of metre. * 
parichit, known, acquainted 

with. *. 

9 mucn > njany. 8. 

pracharit, pursued, practised 
(as an art). 8. 

paricharjya, f. service, de- 
pendence ; veneration, worship. *. 

ak, f.deceit,trick,coaxing.A. 

prachalat, prevailing, circu- 

lating, customary, prachalit, current, recognised (as 
a law), prachalan, m. being customary or current. . 

^ parcham, a flag, streamer, vane, tassel, 
pennant, ensign* p. 

parachna^n. to be tried, intro- 
duced, to be made acquainted, fee, f. 
i$^> 1TO8 prac/ianrf,exce8sively hot or burn- 
ing; intolerable ; wrathful, passionate, raging, mighty, 
predominant. prachan4~m*rti t m. a tree (io>,ta era- 
t<eva). i. * 

C 187 ) 

parchau* m. examination, &c. (v. 

parcha). t. 

"J&j&j\ H^ftfW pra-chodit, prescribed, di- 
rected ; sent, pra-chodan, m. saying, enjoining, pre- 
scribing; a rule, a law; sending, directing. 

J3jyj UtftftJHfl pra-chodirii, f. a prickly 
night-shade (Solanum jacquini). t. 

l&J* '^fl parchuni, f. the act of selling 
flour, meal, &c. h. 

J^j> Tf^ftTin parchumya, m. a meal-mer- 
chant, a seller of flour, h. [cloth, web. p. 
^j> f parcha, m. fragment, scrap, bit, rag, 

^-^. *rtr parchha, m. self-grown paddy ; a 
spindle for winding thread on ; adj. cleared up (as the 
sky after rain), h. 

\*- ^aj prichchha, f. asking, question, s. 
parichchha, f. examination, s. 
\ parchhan, f. image 

shade or 

refaction), shadow, shade, parchha ,m apm se bhagna, 
to be frightened at one's own shadow. *. 

cJl-\A.s^.j iffffjsgjtparichchhit* examined j pro- 
per name, grandson of Arjuna. s. 
*^^-0 TJ^^ parchltatti or MQnT parchhcLtl^ 

~ f. a small thatch thrown over mud walls, s. 

jJJ^*^ . parch h.ftti 9 same as the last. d. 
&fc>- ^>. TR3^ parchchhad, m. a wrapper, a 
cover, s. [defect in another. *. 

par-chhidra, m. a fault or 
prichchhaky m. an inquirer, 

an investigator. *, 

prachchhann, covered, clothed ; 

disguised, private, secret, concealed ; partial, not uni- 
versal ; m. a private door, a lattice, a loop-hole. *. 

prichchhan, m. asking, in- 

quiring. 8. 

parachhna, a. to move a lamp 
or candle over the heads of a bride and bridegroom, to 
drive away evil spirits, propitiate good ones, &c. ; to 
kindle (a fire), h. [dressing, inviting, s. 

prachchhana, f. asking, ad- 

pari-chhed, m. segment, divi- 
sion; section, chapter. *. 

P$*-A l(V*IM puri-chai, m. acquaintance, 

"intimacy, pari-cheya, adj. to be known as an ac- 

quaintance. s. [viated from. s. 

fT^JTT pra-chyut, fallen from, de- 

prachel, m. a yellow, fragrant 
wood. *. [ful. p. a. 

ri pur-hazar, full of caution, very care- 

il-^> parka*h 9 m. war, battle, conflict; 
commotion, disturbance, tumult ; violence, injury, op- 
pression ; severe inquisition, p. 

j> v pardd (for parda), m. a veil, a screen, 
&c. ; adv. to-morrow, the day after to-morrow, p. 
*>bj> parda&fet, f. patronising, p. 

r^<->j> parda^itan (r. pardaz), to finish, 
to accomplish ; (hence) to leave off, to have done. p. 
^> ^T<5[T pardcula, m. a greatgrandfather 
by the father's side. h. 

^^i M^l^l pardadi, a great-grandmother 

by the father's side. A. 
^j> !K?*H par-dar, f. another's wife, jpar- 

ddr-gaman, m. adultery. . 

^4^yardo, performing, finishing, &c,j (used 

in comp,) as kar-parddz, effecting the business, p. 

^jv WJff pradan, m. gift, donation. 9. 
> pardana, a, to conceal, to keep behind 

a screen (inelegant), p. 

f f- going 

praasna, I round an 

object to which respect is intended, with the right 
hand always towards it (a religious or superstitious 
ceremony); circuit, circumambulation. This is pre- 
cisely the ceremony called deasail, practised formerly 
among the Highlanders, and alluded to by Scott in 
the " Chonicles of the Canongate," *. 

IT^T pradar, m. a disease of women 

(menorrhagia). s. [another. . 

par-drohi, tyrannizing over 

pradar&lian, m. shewing; ex- 
plaining ; prophesying, pradar shaft, m. a teacher, an 
expounder, a prophet, pradar si ^t, mentioned; ex- 
plained, prophesied. *. [perty. . 

par-dravya, m. another's pro- 
1?f^l praduh, ^1 f. intermediate point of 
H$dj> f ITf^sir pradik, ) the compass, or half 

quarter. *. 

> pradahxhina v. pradachhina. 

,m.ilie pain of another.*. 

^v pardayi, f. a modest, chaste woman, 
one who confines herself to home. p. 

**)\ parduvnan, (for inp| pradywnna) 

Kama (or Cupid), son of Krishna, was married to Ratl. *. 
parddan, m. wind downwards, 
letting wind. . 

3^^^ pur-dwar, m. a city gate, s, 

pradosh, m. evening, the first 
part of the night ; fault, offence, defect. *. 
ZjSjl Vfr$W par-doxh, m. another's fault. 
par-dosh-kirthan, m. scandal, slander. . 

, hostile, inimical. $. 
, m. a curtain, a screen ; the sail of 

a ship ; a musical tone or melody, a key or mode (in 
music) ; modesty, parda parda dekhna, to pry or in- 
quire secretly into any matter. pardaparda-k. t todo 
a thing secretly or private! v. parda.e btni, the cartilage 
that separates the nostrils, parda-poshi, the act of 

( 188 ) 

concealing a blemish, parda ehhornS, to let fall a cur- 
tain ; to lav aside concealment, parda-ddr, confiden- 
tial. varda-dar, a betrayer of secrets, parda-dari, 
betraying of secrets, pdrda-rakhnu, to give obscure 
hints, or relate a matter in such terms as only to be 
understood by part of the hearers, par da fash, be- 
traying secrets, parda k., to conceal, parda kisi kd 
pharna or kholna, to reveal the faults of another, parda- 
nishtn, remaining behind the curtain, modest, parde 
me* *ilrakb-fa t spoken of a woman who secretly indulges 
in licentious practices. parda,e haft-rang, lit. the veil 
of seven colours, the world, worldly vicissitudes and 
vanities p. [disc of the sun. *. 

"ijftfv parid/ii, m. circumference; the 

UVTf pardhan, or pradhan, m. na- 

ture, the natural state of any thing, or the cause of 
the material world; the Supreme God; chief, prin- 
cipal ; the first companion of a king, his minister, his 
eunuch, or confidant; a courtier, a minister of state, 
a president, leader, chief, pradhan-ta, f. excellence, 
supremacy, pradhdn-dhdtu, m. semen virile, pradhan- 
mantri, in. prime-minister, pradhanottam, eminent, 
illustrious. *. [clothes. *. 

tA***/v ^ftJW puridhan, m. a lower garment, 

gj*&j> "Ttvft pf f-dharm, m. another's duty 
or business. *. 

par-dhan, m. another's wealth. 

par-dhan-aswadan-8ukh t m. feeding luxuriously at 
another's expense, s. 

pradhwans, m. destruction, 
loss, pradhwafal, destroying, annihilating. *. 
pradip, in. a lamp. s. 

pradipan, in. a mineral poison 

of a red colour and caustic nature. . 

^Ajl VKfaf pardes, in. a foreign country ; 

adj. of another country, abroad. . 

Jty *K<Uft par-desi, m. foreigner, a 
* stranger, t. 

k,> TT^t pradexh, m. a place in gene- 

ral, a district ; a foreign country, abroad, t. 

yArl ^W^ITT^Mr-rfe^a, f. the tutelary deity 

of a town. *. 

pradeh, m. unguent, unction, s. 

par-ru, m. a potherb (Eclipta 
prostrata\ *, 

j> purzn, m. a scrap (generally applied to 

paper), piece, bit, rag, frippery, purze hona, to be 
severely wounded in battle, p. [dividual. *. 

^^pM or punish, m. a man, an in- 
^TCH paras, in. act of touching, a touch, s. 
pursy (in com p.) asking, inquiring* p. 

^V^ parvs, m. the knot or joint of a 
cane or reed. . 

pursa, m. condolence, inquiring kindly 
into one's condition, p. 

pursa, of a man's height, the ex- 

tent of a man's reach when extending the arms and 
fingers (a fathom). . 

rasad, m. favour, kindness, bless- 

ing, propitiousness ; viand, victuals, food that has been 
ottered to the deities ; leavings of a great man or spi- 
ritual guide, s. 

^U*^ 1T3TOT pragadkan, m. accomplish- 
ing, effecting, prasddhak, one who accomplishes. 
prasddhit, accomplished, completed, s. 

Jfc^w*^) iff&!ITvr?tparisadhan,m. accomplish- 
ing ; determining. . [monly called siddhi. . 
prasadhani, f. a drug com- 
prasadi, offered to deities, s. 
praxar, 1m. spreading, ex- 

, J panding. prasarit^ 

stretched, expanded, prasarl, adj. spreading, expand- 
ing s. 

> p'tr-sal, last year (par-sal), p. 
pur-sala, aged, full of years, p. 

> p'irsan (v* purs), asking, inquiring; 
(used in comp.) as ahwal-pursan, inquiring after one's 
condition, p. 

>, VKR&paraspar, mutually, reciprocally. 

parasparamimati, f. mutual concurrence or assent. 
parasparopakiirl, an ally, an associate. *. 

t) blown, expanded. *. 

, pnra&t, (in comp.) adorer, worshipper; 
as, Khu'la-parast, a worshipper of God; but-parast, an 
idolater, worshipper of idols ; atash-parast, a worship- 
per of fire, a guebre of the sect of Abraham, Zoroaster, 
or the Magi ; jfhud-parast, a worshipper or admirer of 
himself, selfish or self-conceited, p. 

IL**^ TRtrmprastab, m. mention, occasion, 
opportunity, g. 

WGnfttprastabJ k, j suggested by 
Tt'Qnfa'Ziprastavik,) previous men- 
tion, well timed, a-propos, opportune, seasonable. *. 
.li'^*^ parastar, m. an adorer ; a slave, p. 
j^j? v TfGmprasta,o 9 m. opportunity, season; 

eulogium. s. [ment, introduction. *. 

pra&ta,onfr, f. commence- 
prastut, celebrated, praised ; 
said, declared ; accomplished, done. ^. 

m. a stone; a jewel, i. 

parastishj f. devotion, act of wor- 
shipping, p. 

> parastish-kliana, m.l a place of 
f parastisk-gah, f. J worship, 
church, temple, mosque, p. 
S Jjuiu^ parastanda, a worshipper. #. 
^?^% |^f prasth) expanding, spread ; m. a 

measure of quantity, 48 double handfuls ; table-land 
on the top of a mountain, prasth-pushp, m. a sort of 
tulsi, or basil, with small leaves. *. 

^l^ju-*^ IWHR prasthapan, m. sending 
away, mission, pratthdpit, sent, despatched. * 

C 188 ) 

praxthan, m. going forth, 
setting out, departure, i. 
^OJuL^ parastldan, to worship, to adore, p. 

adorned, ornamented, prasiddhi, f. fame, celebrity. *. 
prasrav, m. urine. $. 

pnrisram or parishram, m. fa- 
tigue, weariness. *. 

j?a r&raml, active, laborious, s. 
* f inquiry, asking (generally 
means asking after health, &c.). f . [shipping, s. 
puraskar, m. honouring, wor- 

prasakta, eternal, constant ; 

obtained, attained ; attached to, devoted to; adv. con- 
tinually. prasakti, f. adherence, attachment to. *. 

t3oXMO HT3ifn;SRT praskandiha, f.1 purging, 

iC^O. ireffi^f praskandan, m. ) diar- 
rhoea. s. 

parisamapta, finished, 

completed, parisamdpti f. & parisamapan, m. entire, 
completion. *. [forgetting, s. 

pyosmritij f. forgetfulness, 
parasmaipad, m. the transi- 
tive or active form of a verb (in Gram.), t. 
A*O WTO praitann or pratanna or parson, 
rejoiced, pleased ; gracious, kind, prasann hona, n. to 
acquiesce; to like, prasann-karna, to please, pra- 
tannatd, f. favour, kindness, prasann-mukh or prasann- 
mukht, smiling, agreeable looking. *. 

paratna, a. to worship, to adore, p. 
MOfHT para*na, a. to touch, s. 

. relation 

01 connection with another, par-sambandfu, related 
to another, belonging to another, s. [kindnets. s. 

),rasannata y f. acquiescence ; 

H3TOT pra*an*a, f. praise, eulogy, s. 

parisanhhya, f. complete 
enumeration parisankhyat t enumerated. . 
&A*>j-> inrjp j9ra*tfw<7, m. association ; men- 
tion ; insertion, prasang na lagna, not to associate 
wit!*. . 

prasav, m. the act of hearing a 
child, prasav-bandhan, m. the foot-stalk of a leaf or 
flower, t. 

sv., f. a mother. *. 

praxut or ^Kil parsut, m. a 

flower, fruit; the disease called fuor albus or the 
whites; part, born, produced, pragavat, bearing. 
pratuti, f. bringing forth, birth ; offspring, i. 


ojy HHN*fi1 prasavanti, J 

a woman who 
has borne a 
child ; a puer- 

peral woman. 

l*|;y^ parsiiram (for 

the first of the three Ramos, and the sixth incarnation 
or avatar of Vishnu* He was the son of Jamadagni, 
and was contemporary with Dasharatha Rama. He is 
called Jdmadagnt, and the deity descended in this form 
to destroy the Ks^atriyas (or Cfrhatris), who were be- 
come tyrannical. Renttkti, wife of Jamadagni, was 
interrupted in bringing water from th,e river by Kar- 
favirjdrjuna, a prince of the Ksbatriyas, who was 
sporting in the water with his thousand wives, for 
which ParashuramcCs father (Jamadagni) cursed him. 
The Kshatriya prince killed Jamadagni, and Jamadagni 
(the son of the latter) vowed not to leave a Ksftatriya 
on the face of the earth. He is said to have extirpated 
them twenty-one times, the women with child each 
time producing a new race. They say there has been 
no Kshatriya since that period, those so called being 
of spurious breed (or Varnasankars). g. 

parson, the day before .yesterday ; 

the day after to-morrow. *. 

y*j> fl5Hf pro sun 9 born, produced ; m. a 

flower, a bud ; fruit. *. [young. *. 

p rasav *9 a dj having or bearing 
pursa, m. condolence, kind inquiry, p. 
^T parsiya, m. a reaping-hook, a 

sickle, h. 

Lijlju^ parsiyarvshan or parsiyawishan, 

m. maiden-hair (Pteris lunulata). p. 

pursldct'n, to ask, to inquire, p. 
^fi^ftH't^ parislman, m. boundary, 

extreme limit, s. 

paraxhj m. a kind of gem. s. 
pwu*h, in. a man, a male human 

being; God, the Supreme Being. purusJn't, ancestors. 
purnshdrth, m. a human object, as the gratification of 
desire, discharge of duty, &c. ; adv. on account of man. 
purushddhikar , m. manly office or duty, purushd- 
dham, m. an outcast. pnrush<ls)i~i, m. a rakshas, a can- 
nibal. puruslidiju, in. life of man. puryslitd, f. pu. 
rushtiva, m. manhood, manliness, valour, fwrush- 
dwesht, m. purush-dweshini, f. misanthropic, punish* 
kdr t in. manly act, virility ; exertion. purush-mdtr t 
of the height of a man. puntshottam^ m. an excellent 
or superior man. purush-varjlt, depopulated. 3. 

paruxh, in. har^h and contumelious 

speech, abuse ; yellow Barleria; a sort of tree (Xylo- 
carpus pranatum). parush-bachan t m. parnsh-vach, f. 
parushokti, f. harsh language, abuse, purwihoktik, m. 
an abuser. s. [resembling a hatchet* s. 

P aras ^ lll i m> an offensive weapon 
puntsha, people of old, predeces- 
sors, ancients, s. [viling. , 

parixhap, m. cursing, re- 

par shad or prashad, m. favour, 
kindness food, &c. (v. prasad). f. 

,Uj^> q<t'tu$ pnrtiskarth, m. that which is 
becoming a man, as valour, generosity, &c. s. 
^li^) H$TOff prashasan, m. governing, 
ruling. $. 

ol^> JI^IM prah(int, calmed, tranquil- 

Used, praskanti, f. calm, tranquillity. 
peaceful, composed in mind. . 

( 190 ) 

(for IWnt) prathab, m. the act of 

prathab-hona, n. to be deli' 
[discharged, paid. 9. 

paruhuddha, cleaned, purified ; 

bringing forth (young). pra*hab-hona t n. to be deli 
vered (of young). s. [discharged, paid. s. 

parashuram, see 
, asked, inquired. 

J WT prashta, adj. asking, demanding ; 

a questioner. . 
^jLi*^ tpr prishth, m. the hack, the rear. 

ptithfh-drishti, m. a bear (from looking behind him), s. 
$* Wfr prashth, a leader; prior, prece- 

ding; chief, best. prashfhi, the wife of a leader. *. 

tX^*\) TJOT^f pttrashchhad, m. a sort of 

grass (Sacchanim cylindricum). s. 
O3^>j> Mfmd^l parishrant, wearied, ex- 

hausted. parhhranti, f. fatigue, labour, j. 
r^ ^frW parti/train, m. labour, toil, fa- 

tigue. parishramf Jfcborious. *. 

CU-J*^ Ujrar prashast, happy, well, right, 
good, excellent, prashasti, f. excellence, eminence, 
eulogy. *. 

ij*J^. pnr-shu'ur, wise ; most sagacious. />. rc. 

j^J ^Oct^R parishkar, m. splendour, de- 

coration , initiation, purification. *. 
O^Cio ^fi^'TT pariMrit, adorned, em- 

bellished; purified by initiatory rites, pari&hkrit- 
f. a ground prepared for a sacrifice, s. 

H^Htf prashaman, in. killing, slaugh- 
ter; pacifying, s. 
^i>^ ITW prashn, m. a question, prashn- 

dutl, f. a riddle, an enigma. . 
L^y CiArl ^frWJlff prishniparrii, f. a plant 

" (tfemionites cwdifolia ; Iledysarum lagopodioidet). *. 

U/^dl^ THfl^lT prashansa, f. praise, applause, 
flattery, *. 

^M*jt>y v irtftR prashansan, m. praising, eulo- 
gizing. prnsliaiisanit/a t to be praised, praiseworthy, 
prashatis'tt, praised. *. [(Pistia stratioites). *. 

prishniha, f. an aquatic plant 

parishanhanlya, adj. to 
be doubted, to be apprehended. *. [stratioites). . 
prn*hm, f. an aq untie plant (Pistia 

ft^fllT parithodh, m. cleansing, pu- 
rifying ; discharging (a debt). * . [morrow, s. 

par>shrva$, the day after to- 

parishosh, m. drying, evapo- 
ration. *. . [pletion. 4. 

^^, in. remainder, com- 
pwr-^arfir, very necessary, most es- 
sential p. a. 
TJW prikka, f. a gramineous plant (ZVt- 

(onella corniculata). *. 

&j> m.WHpar-haj 9 m. the business or affaire 

of another. *. 

^^o^) \i <<*! *t^ par-kaji, attentive to the busi- 

"ness or interest of others, serving others, beneficent *.' 

jbj> v pur-har t thick, coarse, fat ; efficient, well 

executed p. [compasses (v. pargdr). p. 

j Vv P ar k&r, compasses, parkarl, done with 

prakdr, manner, method, kind, 
sort. s. 
?j*jv purhdri) f thickness, coarseness, p. 

J*"Jv *TOW prakas or parkas, m. light, 
daylight; adj. clear, apparent. 5. 
o^> prahasl, m. a discoverer. 5. 

(^jio^ TT'^fTT^ prakash, m. light, daylight, 

sunshine ; expansion, diffusion, manifestation ; adj. 
open, manifest, blown, expanded ; famous, celebrated 
clear, apparent, vrakasahta, f. manifestation, lumi- 
nousness. prakdsnit, evident, manifest, promulgated. 
prakdshnkt what irradiates, manifests ; an illuminator. 
prakdshmdn, splendid, radiant, prakashan, m. illumi- 
nating, making manifest, prakashi, m. a discoverer, s. 
\ \/ 
&JO^> parkdla t m. a spark ; pane of glass, p. 

I X 

parhan, m. a trunnion, h. 

par hand, a. to accustom, to 

habituate, h. [excellence, happiness. *. 

praftand, in. the stem of a tree , 
prakupit, enraged, incensed, s. 
pariJiathdy f. a tale, a story, s. 

prakat, displayed, manifest. 
Jtatiior prakatl-krit, manifested, made visible. *. 

pnrhatj m. a heron. *. 
parhhati, f. the waved-leaf fig tree 

" (Ficus infectiosa). s. 

*j> v Tfttprakar, m.aloe wood (agallochum). *. 

^> TT^fiff prakrit or prakriti, f. property, 

quality, nature; the passive or material cause of the 
world ; a goddess, the personified will of the Supreme 
Being in the creation, identified with Maya; a stanza 
of four lines, each line containing twenty-one sylla- 
bles ; temperament, predominance of one of the hu- 
mours. prakriti-taral, volatile, fickle, 
natural, innate. 3. 

prakrit, made, accomplished, s. 
prakarsh, m. (in gram.) the 

effect of the prefix pra upon roots, t . 

Lgi*^ injg prahrisht, chief, principal. 

prakrishtatwa t m. eminence. *. 

^J *m prakram, m. proceeding, going, 

leisure, opportunity. *. 

parikramd, f. act of going round 

to the right, by way of adoration, circumambulation, 
a superstitious ceremony (v. pradac&hina). s. 

jjfjl ggmif prakaran, m. topic, subject 5 
paragraph section; prologue, prelude j a book. *. 

parikray, m. redeeming, pur- 
chasing back. *. [signia. *. 

^;i llftMII .prakriya, f. bearing royal in- 
^^j> UU|I<3W prakshalan, m. cleaning, 

washing, prakshdlit, washed, *. 

*>jl ItfiSfRprakshipt, th ro w n,cast,b u rled.s. 
lxl^y T)f{fg|fr parikshit, a king, son of 

Abhimanyu, and grandson of Arjun. *. 

TOHJ 1 * par-kshetr, m. another's field, 

another's body, another's wife. *. 

prahshin, decayed, wasting. .?. 

pariklisk, m. vexation, trouble. 

pariklisht, vexed*, annoyed. *. 
c^^) JHF*T prahampi m. shaking, trem- 
bling. prakampaman, adj. shaking, trembling vio- 
lently. prakampan. id.; m. a hell. *. 

U^> tU^fjT parakna, n. to be habituated, ro 

acquire a habit ; to inspect, examine, prove, try. *. 
l^>yO TFffa prahop, m. irritation, provoca- 

tion. prakopit, irritated, prakopan, m. irritating, 
provoking p. 

^j> iflC^ parahh, f. examination, trial, proof, 
inspection, t. [human being. 3. 

purukh, m. a man (w'r), a male 

purukha or TJ^T purkha, m. an 
old man. 5. [fort, &c. *. 

parihhti, f. a moat surrounding a 

parkhana, a. to cause to exa- 
mine, try, prove, or inspect. *. 

& parlthawanl,t. examination; 

assaying of coin, &c. s. 
^fjtr '*K l &fi(P ar hha ,1, f. the price paid for 

examination, trial, proof, inspection ; the act of exa- 
mining s. 

prakhar, very hot or acrid, s. 

^O IU4HI paralihna, a. to inspect, to exa- 

mine, to prove. *. 

S^jv ^S^ purukhe or Tf&ptirkhe, m. (pi. 
"otpurkhd), ancestry, ancestors. . 

^>j tr^ft parhhi, m. a banker who exa- 
" mines and proves money. *. 

U^tJ IWnW prahhyat or i|fc^qirT pari- 
Ichi'iat, famous, celebrated, prakhyati or parikliyati, 
fame n otoriety. $, 

l ^hnfwr**af>5,1ni. an inspector, 
Mera, J examiner, proven, 

especially of coins. /. 

VWtffr prafurti, t. fame, celebrity. 
, declared, explained ; celebrated. *. 

parihtrttan, m. telling, talk- 

ing of, boasting, s. 

praktm, promulgated, pub* 

lished ; expanded ; m. a chattri, a cow-tail used as a 
fan; a chapter. <. 

*4j>. pur-)rina, maliciou, spifeful. p. 

4^> W&n parhiya, belonging to another. 

parkiyd, f. another's wife or mistret*. *. 

^> Mvui pargachh, in. epidendron. h. 
^. pargar, f. a pair of compasses, p. 
j\$j>pargarit f work done with com pass* >s. jp. 
J^LTv Wy pragarh, much, excessive; hard, 
difficult ; hard, firm ; m. pain, privation, penance, t. 
l^> par(jah y straw, rubbish,. anV thing 

worthless. />. 

Lv^ ITTJ pragat or pargat, obvious, noto- 
rious, public, manifest, j. picity. t. 

W<T'HT pragatatcij f. visibility, pub- 

1TTT5TT pragatna, n. to appear, be made 
public, s. [assuming. *. 

H^npff pragrahan, in. taking, seizing, 

UTS* prayalbh, bold, ready, resolute, 
strong, pragalbhata, f. energy, boldness ; power. *. 
pragaman, m.proore8,advance. j. 
paryanat, j \i\.oiparg(ina (the last 

l^^J parganujfit, \ form may bo called 

the pedantic or barbarous plural), used in revenue 
documents, p. 

^Vv purfftwufi) of or iclating to baronies. 
parganatt-jam', the amount of the revenue received at 
the head office of the pargana from the several subdi- 
visions composing such pargana, after deducting the 
charges of collecting in each. parganatl-^arch t 
charges of a district to be deducted from the grost 
revenue, parganatl-nirkh, rates of valuation, &c. p. 

pargana, m. an inferior division of a 

country (less than a zil"), nearly equalling a barony ; 
the largest division of land in a zamlndarl. pargana- 
ddr t m. the superior officer of a pargana; lord of the 
barony, pargana- war, according 1 to district (settle- 
ment, &c.). 

^ pur-go, talkative, loquacious. y>. 

^'J'l pragopan, m. protection, pre- 
servation. t. [torgue. J. 

> f pur-go ji) f. loquacity, volubility of 

nre praghat or parghat, apparent, 

clear, s. 
J^J; WZ\ prufjhnfi or trciR^ parghat t, f. 

"n mould in which silver or gold is cast, previous to 
working it ; apparency, clearness, s. 

d>jtt JTfT praghan, m. a sort of bean 

(P ha s coins mungo). 9. 

1TICT p>'afjya, f* ft clever woman ; under- 
standing, wisdom, pragyawan, wise. s. 
->U^ m9Tir pragyat, known, undci-stood, 
notorious, s. 

( 192 ) 

^jl UFR pragyan, m, knowledge, wis- 
dom ; Adj. wise, learned. *. 
w P ar ff*9 an ortolan (a species of 

Alauda\ p, 

*Vv f P ra 9y a 9 wise, learned. *. 
IpJ ^f1 pavla, of the other side. /*. 
^^rl IT^THT pralap, m. unmeaning prattle ; 

discourse. 8. 

$>$ Ifiipt* pralobh) in. desire, cupidity. 
pralobhan, m. allurement, attraction, t. 
/jJj> U<?teJ pralothan, m. rolling on the 

ground, tossing, prahfhit, adj. rolling, tossing. *. 

"i)^5 .3 tragfta parlolt 9 heaven, paradise. 
par-lok-gam, m. death. *. 

H(J1| parlai (for pralaya), a general 

destruction, such as at the flood or resurrection ; death, 
dissolution, fainting, syncope ; (met.) vexation, fatigue, 
oppression, languor, disgust, s. [besmears, s. 

^JuljJ TfifriRfp'/ilcpak, who or what anoints, 
*lt*T param, l>est, first, supreme; used in 

com p. as, paramdtmd, m. the Supreme Being, the soul of 
the universe, par amad wait, m. pure unitananisin. pa- 
ramdrth, m. superior aim.the best end ; virtue ; spiritual 
knowledge; the best sense, paramarthi, seeking the 
best end, religious. paramagati t translation to heaven, 
beatitude, paramdnu, m. an atom, the lowest measure 
of weight, or time, paramann, m. an oblation of rice 
to progenitors, jmram-anand. supreme pleasure, chief 
object of refuge, param-pati, f. eternal felicity, para- 
mdyu, nr. the longest period of life, param-rdj, m. a 
supreme monarch, param-hans, an ascetic, a religious 
man who has subdued all his senses. . 

J> purum or prum, a lead and sounding-line 

used on board ship (the word is borrowed from the 
Portuguese prumo, plummet), prum-ddlnd, to heave 
tbe lead. h. 

jJlWT/MVMMa, f. true knowledge; conscious- 
ness, perception. *. 

^oUU^) U^IHW^t pramata-maha, m. a great- 
grandfather on the mother's side ; f. pramiitamaln. s. 
) VR1$pramad, rn. inadvertence, careless- 
ness, error, pramadl, heedless, inconsiderate, s. 

MiHI^ pat'arnarlh, m. the first pur- 
suit, the chief end, virtue, merit, s. [tuoua. *. 
i*&)\*jl "M'^i'^ff paramarthit religious, vir- 
U^5 TIHTO praman or parman, m. cause, 

motive; limit; proof, attestation, verification, autho- 
rity, instance, example ; adj. actual, authentic, sub- 
stantial, real, parrnan-chafhna, to rise to a high rank 
(the word is used sometimes as a man's name), pramd- 
nfibhdo, m. absence of proof, pramdn-purush, m. an 
umpire, an arbitrator, pramdnl-karan, establishing or 
admitting as authority or proof. *. [proportion. *. 

1^3 qfUilill parimdn, m. dose, quantity ; 
iiSl^J m\^npramdnih 9 proper, crrdi table ; 

reverend; m. chairman of an assembly; (in Bengal) 
a chief of a tribe among the inferior castes, pramd- 
nikd, f. a species of the anushpubh metre, s. 

**^ XTCPttr or TOTt3;>ara 
high station, heaven, beatitude, s. 

-J^J Tf&m*parampar t traditionary, horedi- 
tary ; m. a great-great-grandson, t. 

;%* *KKI parampara, f. tradition ; com- 
munication from one to another in succession ; series 
succession; race, lineage, parampartn, hereditary, 
traditional, s. 

**& ^TCHlT par-mat, m. a different opinion, s. 
tfftfafT parimit, measured, regulated. 

parimitdhar or parimit-bhuj, eating moderately, tem- 
perate, s. 

measured, pramitdkshard, f. a species of the jagati 
metre. . 

^jUy^ mra pramatba, f. yellow myrobalan 

(Terminalia chebula). *. [abode of pain. 5. 

pramathalay, m. hell, or 
ramad, mnd, intoxicated, impas- 

sioned ; m. joy, delight, pramadd, f. a woman, a hand- 
some woman, s. 

rtimudorpranmdit, pleased, glad. *. 
). ^HVTf param-dham, m. paradise, s. 
pmmuhh, chief, principal, host, 

first ; m. a chief, a sage; a tree used for dyeing (Rott- 
leria tinctoria). pramukh-iwa, m. superiority, predo- 
minance. s. 

pramagn, immersed, drowned, s. 

parimal or V&<$ parmal y fra- 

grant ; m. tttturation of perfumes, and the scent aris- 
ing from it ; parched grain ofjo.dr or lajra, q. v. (Hoi 
cus sorgum and spicatus). s. 

^j*, Mr^fflT parimlan, soiled, stained j 

withered, impaired. *. 

pirman,t\\e. yard of a sail (see ^\j^). h. 
parimandt slow, dull. s. 

parimandal, m. a ball, a 

a globe, a circle. parimandaltd t f. rotundity. *. 
(f>-y*j\ TTHtHf pramochan, m. liberating, 

setting free, pramocharil, a sort of cucumber. *. 
>y*r> T&itiS pramodt m. pleasure, delight, pra- 

modit or pramodi, happy, delighted ; delighting. 9. 
ly*+> f Tfft^pramofy, m. fascination ; fainting, 

insensibility, s. 
^y^fii Mft.*ft?'T parimohan, m. fascinating, 

beguiling, parimohl, m. par imohint, f. adj. fascinating, 

bewitching. *. 

supreme Lord, God, the Almighty, 9. 

purmem,} m. a (venereal) clap; 
9 ) a gleet, any urinary 
affection, s. 
t o\'TC^rjt?flrow,f.avery quick time in music. A. 

^ j nnj pran, m. promise, resolution, vow. $. 
*> great-grandmother. A. 

( 193 ) 


or P arna > m a 

the palas tree (Butea frondosa). pam-walli, t the 
same tree, parn-shdld, f. a hut of leaves, a hermitage. 
parn-lata, f. the betel plant, parn-nar, m. a man of 
lt> ves, an effigy stuffed with leaves, made to represent 
a person deceased whose body cannot be found. *. 

*. TTOT? pranadj m. a disease of the ear, 
a buzzing in the ear. *. 

*^r> ^rihftf parnasi, rn. a sort of basil ( Ocy- 
mum sanctum) with small leaves. *. 
^ ^ 1HffT$l pranash, m. loss, destruction. 

prandsht, destroying. 

a conduit, 
a gutter, 
a drain, s. 

parinam, m. maturity, fulness, 

end, last stage ; sequel, result, parindm-darshi, who 
looks forward or to th6 end. *. 

or TTffTg pranal, m. 
parnala, m. 

, f. 

f or inn* prandm, aslo parnam, m. 
salutation, bow, adoration, s. 
\il^> iHfTVir par-nana, a great-grandfather 

(by the mother's side), t. [sance. *. 

\ pranipat, m. salutation, obei- 

pranipatan, m. saluting, 
bowing, t. [obeisance, s. 

vranati, f. salutation, reverence, 

parantu, but, however, on the 
other hand ; afterwards, also. *. 
> TRs&parantra, subservient, dependent, s. 

X>J> parcmd, in. a bird, parand-koyana, to 

move with great rapidity, p. 

H?St purandar, m. a sort of pepper 

chavya). s. 

pa ran da, flying ; a bird, parande kd 
pfir na mania kisljagah met, is used to express a place 
quite inaccessible, p. 

.j&^jl UftffVR pranidhdn, m. great effort, 
stress ; profound meditation ; access, entrance. *. 

parn-machal, m. the 

kamrdngd, an acid fruit (Averrlioa carambola). s. 

pranav, \m. the mystical 

deity. *. 

pranavak,) name of the 
' [a hermitage. * 

parnotaj, m, a hut of leaves, 

5r illustrious, enlightened, p. 

pranay, m. affection, regard ; ask- 

ing, solicitation ; final emancipation ; trust, confidence ; 
reverence, obeisance, pranayi, affectionate, kind, in- 
timate ; m. a husband or lover, t. 

L^iroftyrant, resolute, bold, determined. *. 

iJ purriit f. a ferule, a tube, a thimble; the 
ramrod-pipes of a musket ; a bugle or oblong bead.d. 

( *Rfff parnt, m. a tree (Butea frondosa) ; 

t an aquatic plant (Pistia strailote*) $ the leaf of the 
assafcetida(?). *. [patron, t. 

puraniya, m. an old man ; a 
puraniya, pura- 

naiyd, or purainiya, m. name of a district and town 
in Bengal (vulg. Poorneah). h. 

\&jl pawn/an, m. a kind of fine, painted 
silk (from China); also garments made of the same. p. 
parv, m. a festival, a holiday ; parv- 

kdrt, a Brahman who performs ceremonies for hire 
out of season, parv-gaml, a man who associates with 
his wife on festival days. t. 

JJ* 3^ P urti 9 m nanie of the sixth monarch 

of the lunar line ; the farina of a flower ? f. the name of 
a river to the north-west of the Saraswati. t. 

'j^rl parwa, f. care, concern, anxiety, vexa- 
tion; inclination, affectioa, concupiscence, desire; 
rest, quiet, kuchh parwa noAW, (vulg. kuch-parwd-ni), 
no matter, it is of no consequence, p. 

purrva, f. an easterly wind. s. 
pariwd, f. the first day of the 

moon's increase or wane. t. 

U/v ^^^^ parivad, m. abuse, reproach, 
accusation, parivddak or parivddl, an accuser, a plain 
tiff, a calumniator. *. 

parirvar, m. family, dependants. 

pariwdr-td, f. subjection, dependence, s. [position, t. 

pravaran, m. prohibition, op- 
7 r wart, fattened or fatted, p. 

jjtt purirar.j flying, flight, parrvaz-karna, 
n. to fly. parwaz-kunan t flying, on the wing. p. 

arivas 9 m. abiding, abode, s. 
pravas, m. a foreign country 

or residence, dwelling away from home, pravdsat, adj. 
absent, dwelling abroad, pravdsan, m. sojourning 
abroad, exile, s 

,^\jj> f pravdsi, a foreigner, one from abroad; 
"one Uving away from home. . , [city. . 

pur-vasi, adj. inhabiting a 

> ^Jc$ parrval, m. a disease of the eye- 
lids, in which the eyelashes fall, a stye or stithe. A. 
)\jj) tn^rnf parwdn^ m. the yard (of a sail); 

parwdn chharhnd, to grow up (a phrase peculiar to 
women), h. 

Vji < 3^T 5 n pttrrvdna (caus. of purdnd\ to 
cause to be filled, h. 

lAfMj J parwdnajdt, m, (pi. of parivana), 
orders ; passes, licenses, p. [mission, p. 

of/I* f. command, order, per- 

parrrdiw, m. a grant, or letter, under a 
great seal, from any man of power to a dependant ; an 
order, a pass, a licence, leave, command, a precept, 
warrant ; a butterfly, a moth, parwdna kisl kd hottf* 
to be desperately in love with anyone (an allusion to 
the moth and the candle), p. 

( 194 ) 

, f. (the same as parwd, q. v.), 

care, concern, &c. p. [overflowing. *. 

parfvdh, in. an inundation, an 

pravah, in, stream, current of a 
river. . 

pravakiha, f. diarrhoea, s. 

) one who stands in nred of, 
necessitated, wanting, having occasion for. p. 

pravibhag, m. division, a 
part. *. [titioned, shared, s. 

pravibhaktj divided, par- 
paropadesh, m. giving ad- 
vice, admonishing. *. [of others, beneficence. 5. 
ij/i 'tffrFXIt paropahar, m. the helping 

fj^Jj^f ^0*J4i!4kt paropahar'i, aiding others, 
beneficent, hospitable. *. 

j^> ^Wpa'l^/, rn. a mountain, a bill. 
parvat-ashray or parvat-vtisi, living in the mountains. 
parvat-kdk, in. a raven, parvatn/a, mountainous; 
m. a mountaineer. *. [ofi}&\\<(Siluru$pabda). s. 

Jjjl ifftltparvft or ^Irf parvat, m. a kind 
?t,n\. effort, exertion ; sti- 
mulus, protsahlt, instigated, stimulated, protsahak, 
m. imtigator. protsalum, m. inciting, stimulating. A. 

parauti, land which is kepr out 

of cultivation for a short time, in order that the soil 
may recover its strength, h. 

\ 11 $f if in parvatiya, m. a kind of pump- 
kin. * [gence. s, 
parojan, m. purpose, use, cxi- 
/W/ia, m. the family priest, .v. 

\ P& rwar > ( m com p.) a patron, protector, 
nourisher, cherisher; educated, cherished, a 4 ? gbfirlh 
parwar> cherishcr of the poor, saya par war, educated 
In the shade or at home; soft, delicate, knowing little 
of the world, p. 

panrar, m. thf> name of a kind of 
gourd ( Trichosanthes dioica, Roxb.). t 

avar ) ln - offspring, race * 
> ltX rtivir, in. n ycl lo w fragrant wood. s. 
T3R3F%parivrajah,m. a religious 

mendicant, s. 

j\}j\ 1TW pravartta, engaged in, under- 
taking ; m. excitement, stimulus, s. 

t^jjJVl^Wpravritta, iixed, determined ; on- 

gaared in, occupied, pra ritti, f. activity, occupation, 
active life ; perseverance ; addiction to ; tidings, in- 
telligence ; continuous flow, stream ; Ujjain, or any 
holy place ; (in arith.) the multiplier, s. 

C-M/J tffic|ir parivritta, gone round, re- 
volved; 'exchanged. *. 

Oi ,^l|ft < 'Hi parivartta, m. going or turning 
back, revolving ; exchange, requital ; the end of a 
period of four ages, destruction of the world, s. 

pravarttah, inciting, stimula- 
ting ; in. an instigator, s. 
^"JJL/i ^ftw^TT parivrajyd, f. the life of a 

religious mendicant, s. 

) "JlSLJv pawrdagdr, m. the cherisher ; an 
epithet of the Deity, p. 

o cherish, rear, foster, p. 
>. parrvardu, bred, reared, brought up 

(used substantively) a slave, a protege*, 'p. 
^jSjtt jwi'wtirish, f. breeding, fostering, 
rearing, patronising, education, protection, p. 

pravar-lalit, m. a spe- 
cies of the aslitt metre. 5. [risher. p. 

pfirwaranda, cherishing, the che- 

ravaSjthp son of Butldha, 
and second king of the lunar dynasty, s. 
J>j)j*, purwari, f. education ; m. one who 
educates ; (in corap.) cherishing, rearing, p. 
JJJ*, iffe praurh, able, clever, full grown ; 
confident, bold, praufhi, f. enterprise, confident 
exertion; investigation, praurha, a woman fron* 30 
years of age to 55. praurhata, f. strength, firmness, 
breadth, s. [hood. t. 

par ox, m. vicinity, neighbour- 

paro^a, in. a dish which is sent 
to a friend, s. 
(Jf^JLJv F /r " v/ - s ^ f- cherishing, patronising: 

** especially applied to the cherishing of old servants 
past work; care, protection, favour (probably a cor- 
ruption of the Persian word parwarish). d. 

pravanan, in. going or dwell- 
ing abroad s. 

_?y> ^nVTT pfirowd, n. to take up dinner, 
to distribute, serve up, to divide. *. 

tXL>jjJ TT*ftff**r parv-sandfii, ra. the full 

and change of the moon. s. 

parosl, ni. a neigh hour. h. 

pnro&aiya 9 in. a distributor of 

victuals to the guests, one who serves up dinner, a 
waiter, s. ' [dent. *. 

par-vash, subservient, depen- 

parivisht, surrounded, en- 
closed. s. 
l^ijy TX&Vgpravixht, eritonul, engaged in. s. 

**jj>jtt9 pro*hth 9 \i\. a sort of carp ( Cypyi- 
nits prausius). proslith-pada, f. the 26th and 27th 
asterisms, containing the stars in the wing of Pegasus. 
prattshth'iHtd, m. the month Bhadr (August Sept.). 
prauslith-padt, t. full moon in Bhadr. 5. 

MJJlUlft paro&hni 9 f. u cockroach, g. 
if^R proht) said, declared, s. 

, invisible; absent/ past; 
m. nn ascetic, a hermit; invisibility, absence; (in 
giuin.j past time or teuse. *. 

( 198 ) 

f prokshan, m. killing animals 

in sacrifice, immolation, slaughter; sprinkling, with 
water, &c.; a text to be recited when animals are 
offered, prolcshit, sprinkled ; killed, offered in sacrifice. 

^M^J iftwnftr prcwikhyati, f. celebrity, 
renown, s. [rftotca). s. 

rrval, m. a plant (Tricosanthes 
pirona or parona, a. to thread 

(as a needle), to string (as pearls), to spit. h. 

^j^> T^ftrei parvanika, f. specks attended 

with pain on the edge of the cornea of the eye. *. 
J^ IF^pravah, m. one of the seven Vayus 

[of leather, h. 

paroha, m. a water-bucket made 

purohit (also iftffK prohit}, 

m. a priest who presides at the performance of reli- 
gious ceremonies ; family priest, s. 

purohitaniy f. the wife of 

or winds, s. 

a purohit, or priest, q.v, 

^JJv ^^ parohan, m. carriage, vehicle, 
instruments of transportation, s. 

pitrwaiya, f. easterly wind. s. 

parivyadh, m. a tree (Pie- 

rospermum acert folia] ; a sort of reed growing in water 
(Calamus fnsciculatus). s. 

pravet, m. barley. 5. 

parivedan, m. anguish, pain ; 

marriage. *. [a chief. *. 

prarir, best, excellent ; m. a hero, 

proves or pravcfih, m. entering, 
arriving. *. 

parfveshtan, m. surround- 

ing ; circumference. pariveslt}it, enclosed, surrounded, 
covered, s. [serving up food. s. 

't'&fAaw, in. surrounding; 

prawxhan, m. the entrance ; 
entering. praveshaJc, who enters ; m. au entry, s. 

dT^A/v ^^^ pravekshan, m. foreseeing. 
praveJcshit, foreseen, pravekshyat, adj. foreseeing. *. 
fejjJ *f^<5 pravel, m. the yellow variety of 
the kidney bean, s, 
^ijLJ porvln t m. the Pleiades. ^. 

, intelligent, skilful, wise. 5. 
pravinatd, -f. wisdom, intelli- 
gence, skill. . 

ravenl or U^ftlT praveni, f. the 

hair twisted and undecorated, as worn by women in 
the absence of their husbands. . 

prahar, m. the act of beating, 

parihar, m, disrespect. 

a stroke ' 

$ VfH^ prahari, m. one who beats or 

strikes. . 

prahas, m. loud laughter. 

A5f , laughing aloud, causing laughter, i. 

>**^^rl ^<1^B parihas, m. jest, 'joke, jeer ; 

mirth, pastime, parihas-vedl, m. a jester, a wag. *. 

*^. VlftlW par-hit, friendly, benevolent , 
good for another. * . 

j m. a watch of the da or 

night ; a division of time, consisting of 8 gharis or 
about 3 hours. 5. 

praharshit or U$* prahrisht, 
delighted, very happy. *. 

"*j*j> v H^fS^ praharshinz, f. a species of 
the atijagati metre. . 

Jtoj*, Ttfi^Wl pariharan, m. seizing, taking; 

leaving, abandoning, s. 

<iiyfc>v TT^iUJI*^*! praharan-halika, f. 

a species of the sarkarl metre, s. 

pariharna, a. to leave, to for- 
sake, to abandon, to desert, to take away, clear off. *. 

^>. U^O prahari or ^ftfll pahriya, m. 

a watchman, a sentinel. . * 

pura-sar, one who gdes first, a 

leader, a preceder. t. 

r ^^ THT^R praha&an, m. loud laughter, 

mirth ; sarcasm, ridicule, irony, prahasat, adj. laugh- 

[mine. *. 

prahasantij f. Arabian jas- 

prahlad 9 m. pleasure, joy ; the 

name of H i ran vak aim's pious son, and regent of one 
division of Fatal prahladit, rejoiced, delighted. *. 

&j>,po<rhez, m. abstinence, forbearance, con- 

tinence, control of the passions, badl-parhez, abstain- 
ing from evil, parhez-k., a. to control one's passions ; 
to abstain from ; to observe a regimen, p. 

ing heartily. *. 

AT^fcj) parhez-gar, oue who controls his 

passions, abstinent, temperate, p. 
^$j&r! f parhez-garl, f. abstinence, control 

of the passions, p. 

S;*TV- pai'hezi, fit for a person under a regi- 
men (also the same as parhez-gar , q. v.). p. 

&&; U^r<$41 praheliha, f. an enigma, a 
riddle, s. [prived of, deserted by. t. 

parihin, waned, faded ; de~ 

i, beyond, yonder, pare rahna> to 

remain at a distance. . 

pari, f. a fairy, pari-paihar or pati- 
chihra, angelical, fairy-faced. />. 
tO purl, f. fulness, completion, p. 

<cj> tnft purl, f. (same as/?Mr, &c.), a city, 

town. s. 


( 190 ) 

> ftpl priya* m. beloved, dear ; m. a hus- 
band, a lover ; a sort of drug commonly called Riddhi. s. 

.^rjftnn priya, m. beloved, dear, a sweetheart, 
htpriye, my dear! *. 

**bj> inrfU prayas, m. trouble, labour, de- 
sire or pursuit of any object. 8. [tidings, s. 

jJJUW priyakhya, announcing good 
j^) inTPT pray ay, m. the modern Allnha- 

bSd, a celebrated place of pilgrimage at the confluence 
of the Ganges and Jamunft, together with the supposed 
subterraneous addition of the Saraswatl, according to 
the Hindu creed : in comp. it applies to several places 
of reputed sanctity, as, Deva-prayag, Rudra-prayag, 
Karna-prayag &c. s. 

.death. *. 

priyal, m. a tree commonly 

called piydl (Buchanania latifolia). s. 

ri IWHUjprciyan, m. going forth, departure; 
death, march, invasion, prayan-kal, time of departure, 

[ing kindly. *. 

, m. speak- 

prit, kind, affectionate, beloved, 
dear. in. delight, s. 
^ ^ iftfw prit or priti, f. love, friendship ; 

the second of the 27 astronomical yogs, priti-purvalc, 
adv. through kindness ; prtfi-dan, m. a iricndly present. 
prlti da I/asm, a gift of affection, prlti-man, kind, affec- 
tionate. s. 

C- lj% fapret or 

adj. dead; m. a 

spirit of the dead, a .ghost, pret-pa/csh, .m. the dark 
half of the month. preMmrm, m. funeral rites, pret- 
grih, m. a cemetery, pi ct-loJc, in. the region of dis- 
embodied spirits, in which they remain one year, or 
until the obsequies are completed, pret-nadl, f. the 
river of hell. s. [yarn), h. 

pareta, m. a reel (for winding 

ftfifflT priyata, f. love, affection, s. 
fHMri'< priyatar, dearer, more beloved. *. 

pritam or fll^dM priyatam, dear- 
est, most beloved ; m. a lover, a husband. * 

prayatna, in. continued effort, 

exertion ; act, action ; caution, care, prayatna-wan, 
active, zealous, persevering, s. [yarn ). h. 

paretna, a. to reel (tliread or 

) a female jtw/ or ghost, 
a ghofrtess. . [testing (gold or silver), s, 

for ^T^TJT) parichha, f. trying, 
for ^n^^ir) parichhak, in. 

one who tests or examines. . 
jV^SrDv pari-khwan, m. a magician, one 
who " call* spirits from the vasty deep." p. 
tAi pari-dar, one who controls fairies j 
Also ooft who if spell-bound by fairies, p. 

priya-darshan, hatidaorae, 
on. a tree (Mimiuops *ouK) . 
P ar *d">h to fly, to soar on the wing. p. 

paridhawij m. the forty- 
first year of the Indian cycle. *. 

//, sent, directed, despatched. *. 

-^ parl-rulihsar, angelic, fairy- 
cheeked. p. 

. the act of sending; 
a, J command. *. 

ar *~ r u> fairy-faced, si beautiful woman, 
plur. parl-ruydn. p. 

, fairy-born, i c. beautiful, p. 
pari-stan, m. the region of the 

fairies, p. 

nnff^ j;r?ya-.9//A, m. a tree (3/i- 
5a catechu.) s. [friend, a confidante, i. 

priya-MtltJri, f. a female 

priya-santlexh) m. a 
tree bearing a fragrant flower (Michelia champaca) *. 

uHH S^ 1 * P uri *h, m. faeces, excrement. $. 

^l^J -> pnreslian, distre?;scd, wretched, dis 
persed perplexed, dishevelled, ruined. 

distressed in condition. pareahan-lcaJma^ to talk fool- 
ishly. p. [dispersion, destruction, p, 

^> parcshani, f. distress; perplexity; 
i^j^ iftpredtth, most or very dw.preshtha, 

f. a wife. *. 

. J, fipnra^m/fl/*, m. a tree (Nauclea ca- 

d'imb(t) ; another tree (Pentaptera tomentosa). s. 
x>.^ > fttTI'?inTpr /?/ a- Jtar, o r ftnr^W jpr /ya A r ? / , 

kindly, doing good, a benefactor. *. 

Uio ; J fWUpraiiuhta, endowed with, possess- 

ing; connected with; compact. *. [proof. *. 

parihsha) f. examination, trial, 

prehaha, f. seeing, viewing, ob- 
serving. *. 
ClxiSo o TR^fB|?r])/iri/MA?V, the name of the 

grandson of Arjtma\ adj. examined, tried, proved. *. 

^' .Vjy Hftl^ prekshit, seen, beheM, looked 
at. f. [mines, &c. *. 

*,.*,! *-\^-^ "T^l^^K parihshalt, one who exa- 
^.^lio^ trc^^f parikshan, m. trial, experi- 
ment, examination. *. [spectacle, sight. . 

preMian, m. a public s^ow, 

parekha, m. repentance, regret, 
concern. 7*. 

^i ^^ pareltha, f. (corrupted for pm- 
A4 or parlc^ha, &c.), trial, examination, search. 4 
PW ^r^w, m. love, fnendahip; prcm- 
r name of a well-known Hindi work so called, 
which details tbe hwtory of Krishna. *. 

priyaman, beloved, affectio- 

fajJHI*}* priyam-bhdvuk, be- 
come dear to. priyam-bhavukta, f, amiability, be- 
coming beloved. *. 

^/^i^ fattprem-par, affectionate, loving. s. 

^j^^ij^ iJ*U#Udl prem-rang-rata, cot 
loured with the dye of love; strongly in love, ena- 
moured. t. [(Datura). 9. 

5 puri-moh, m. the thorn apple 
v **ft premi, affectionate ; a lover, s. 
puren, f. the placenta ; the plant 

107 ) 


priyangu, m. a medicinal plant 

and perfume, or fragrant seed ; panick seed (Panicum 
italicum). t. [moon. *. 


pnrlwa y f. the first day of the 
parewa, m. a pigeon. A. 

parivad, m. reproof, censure, 
[flatterer. *. 
priya-vadl, sweet spoken, a 

parlwar, m. dependants, family, 
[flow. 5. 
parirvah, m. inundation, over- 

prayojak, who or what 

causes or induces any act ; who or what deputes or 
appoints ; m. a founder or instituter of any ceremony ; 
a legislator, s. 

pray oj an, m. cause, motive, 

need, occasion; intention, design; use, exigence. 
prayojan-wln, designing, purposing, prayojant, neces- 
sary, requisite. 4. 

j^-y.^ inffcf pmyojya, m. capital, princi- 
pal ; a servant, a slave. 9. [barter, s. 

parivartta, m. exchange, 
priya-varni,f. a creeping plant 

(Echites frutescens). s. 

h> fairy-like, angelic, p. 

prayog, ra. occason, cause, 

motive, object, result ; device, contrivance ; example, 
comparison ; act, action, prayogi, having some object 
in view, calculated for a particular purpose. *. 

^ j tj^ parch, m. soup made of rice (v. 

palew). h. 

/4irJ ^f p&rdh l m ^ an( ^ watered after 
\Qf>3 ifofl pareha, ) ploughing, or flooded 

before the final ploughing and levelling of the ground, h. 
*iji ftni priya, dear, beloved (see t^/>). 
^,1^ j Cllft'igi^ parihas, m. mirth, sport, 

amusement. *. 
t> t jwf5, m. a large parcel (of physic, 

&c.>. * Pro. n* the boundary of a field, h. 
\i.bV& MilMMI para-pana, a. to find, to get 

e*Uy. A. 
i^^i ^piTf parapar, with reiterated strokes, s. 



parana, a. to put to sleep, to lay 

own/to cause to repose ; to cull, to gather, pluck. A. 
j\ -> ''Tini paraw, m. halting, resting, sleep- 
ing ; halting-place ; camp, encampment ; an army ; ft 
crowd, assembly, h. 

^1/Uri I ^?^* | H1 parparana> n. to prattle, to 
chatter ; to throb with pain (as the tongue from an 
acid substance), parpar-rahna, to chat, prattle. A. 

^W^ Mi^MI par-jana t n. to lie down; to 
cease, as the wind ; to repose ; to abate, h. 

(Jfos-jl 'M^^l parchhati, f. a small thatch 
" thrown over mud walls, d. 
^bjjt, Mi^HI par-rakna, n. to be utterly 
helpless, to be in a regular fix. d. 

+Q par am, m. a coarse kind of cotton cloth 

used for tents, &c. d. [immodesty, rf. 

(Jj^jl U<W?f par-margi, f, shamelessness, 

Oj> ^$tj! parna, n, to repose, to lie down ; 

to fall; to befall, to happen; to encamp; to drop; to 
be confined to bed by sickness, h. 

IjjrJ P a T<*i m a large boat ; a ferry boat. d. 
^\jjf> Ol*(HI pirwana, a. to cause to press, 
squeeze, h. 

rite P a T*t m< neighbourhood, s. 

rosin t f. a female neighbour. $. 
parosi, m. a male neigh hour. s. 
Sj-/v **& par** a 8 rt of sugar-cane sown 

in autumn, h. 

^JTv 1 T* p<*rh<*9 read, learned, of much read- 
ing, pafha-guna, a learned, experienced man. t. 

i|<zi?ii parhana, a. to teach to read, to 
instruct, to teach to speak (or sing) as birds. *. 

p<irhan, f. reading, the act a/ 
reading. *. 

n, f. a mullet. A. 

Jv ^^ r " parhna, a. to read, to repeat, to 
say, to speak, to quote or recite, parhw-watik mu 
reader. . 

-I^> V<i^f parkant, f. study, reading ; a 
speltT . 
^ybjj U3mHT parhwana, a. to cause to be 

taught reading (v. parhana). h. [made. k. 

v j !!$ P u ?*9 ^ a 8 ^ n w ** n which a drum is 
pan, f. a measure (v. paimana.) d. 

puriyci) f. a parcel (of physic, &c.), 
a dose of medicine in powder. . 

pariya, f. a female buffalo calf. A. 

S^<<n pare-rahna, n. to be in a 
hopeless or desperate state, d. 
^Ji WW P a ry<*l> t* sweepings, h. 
pus or pax, (in comp.) cooking, baking; 
fruiaing or contriving (in the mind), p. 

( 198 ) 

, . ...... 

- r f. a brick-kiln. ^. 

, f. rottenness, faded 


P a *h mur dan, to wither, fade, decay. 

, after, behind ; at length, then, there- 

fore, finally, pas-anddz, savings, something laid up to 
provide for old age or want of employment ; labourers, 
&c. call it may a i tawakkul. p. 

**> TTOT pu*a 9 m. two hand fuls, as much as 
can be held in both hands open (same as anjld, q. v.). s. 
AtfJ pi gab or pishab (for peshab), m. the 
act of pissing, urine, p. 

U*J ftnrre pitach (for "fo^tre pishack, q. v.) 
m. a spectre, apparition, vision, a demon. *. 
pisachi or 

" t. a female spectre, an ogress. *. 
VL*> TOTO pasara, m. expansion, the act of 

spreading out. pasdrd-k., to procrastinate and find 
obstacles to an easy matter, s. 

U,L*J "TOTTTn pasarna, a. to spread ; to dis- 
tend ; to stretch out, to expand, to open. s. 

pasari, m. one who sells spices 
(v. pafisari). h. 

^L^ ft?nT piston 9 m. meal, flour, s. 
\3L> ftflTOT piscina, a. to reduce to meal, 

flour, or powder ; to grind. *. 

liU-^ TT*nfT pasdna, a. to skim ; to pour off 
superfluous water. *. 

pasa,i, f. a kind of rice. h. 

ice paid for grind ing. s. 

_ as-pd or pas>pa,e, sitting cross-legged 
(like the Asiatics), p. 

^(j^^^Tt^pam-pal "] 

w ,* _, m.lit.beast-feeder; 

or pamii-pa( 9 

- lu f a cowherd, a cow- 

^x-L-ri ^3[MWW flMMM- - , 

-it feeder, s. 

palah or puwu-pdlaku 

^JU-**> ^31^1$ f pusu-palan, the rearing and 

tending of cattle, one of the duties of the Vaisiia 
caste. *. y 

~> pas-pa hona, n. to decline ; to fall 
in the rear, to slink behind ; to retreat, to flee, to de- 
sist from an attempt, p. h. 

ALrl 3*!F P us put (for ipg* puxhya- 
*putra) t adopted son, pus-put A:., to adopt as a son. *. 
l^wJ. pa*t, helow, low. paxt-Jifratt of in- 
ferior understanding, of a mean disposition, past- 
himmat, unambitious, pott o buland dekhnd, to con- 
aider and take precautions against the vicissitudes of 
fortune, pas- at, behind thce. p. 

^lSL^ pistan, m. the breasts, bubbies. p. 
*> *ren*IT pastana, n. to regret, repent, s. 

$ 3^H* pustak, f. a book, a volume* 

m. a pistachio nut. p. 
tl, f. inferiority, lowness. p. 

rang, m. pea-green, p. 
i, m. leavings (of food), 

dregs, offal, p. 

TTOt pasar, f, grazing cattle at night, k. 
pisar, m. a boy, a son, a child, pisar- 

zdda, a grandchild, pisar i fcftipanda, an adopted son, 
pisri alcjiyafi, a step-son, son of a wife by a former 
husband, pisri-mutabanna, an adopted son. pisar- 
^ivandagl, adoption of a son. p. 

pasarnd, n. to be spread, stretched 

out, expanded, s. 

>LP*v p as ~ rfj n> or pas-wiv, m. a follower ; 
dependants ; train, equipage, p. 

,, f. following ; equipage, p. 
pisari, f. boyhood, infancy, p. 
or pistul, a pistol. 0. 

cjhaibat, in one's absence. JP. 
pas-kad or -l^add, a dwarf (properly 

past-lcadd). p. a. 

.) pas-kash t m. recoil, retraction. >. 
-> frU($Mljft#2aKa, a. to cause to grind, h. 

patli, f. a rib, the praecordia. 
'pasllpharakni, a thrilling over the ribs, is applied to a 
perception of the condition of an absent person, h. 

^^(j**, pas-manda, left behind, a sur- 
vivor, p. 

-^ OlfM I pisndj n. to be reduced to meal, 
to be ground ; to be ruined, distressed ; (met.) to be 
desperately in love. h. 

tJL**> pasand, f. choice, approbation ; (in 

coinp.) agreeable to. pleasing, as dil-pasand, pleasing 
the heart, paaand- h t to please, p. 

^<^.iMJ pcuandidan, to approve of, to be 
agreeable, p. 

jj ( JJLo ptisandtda, chosen, approved of, 
agreed to. p. [Weight, &c. p. 

% pasangd, m. (the same as pdsang), a 

1T3T joasii or pashiif (see (Jty) m. a beast ; 
an animal, s. 

or pissu, m. a flea. h. 

r opesh, rn. lit. behind and be- 
fore ; evasion, prevarication, pas o pesh-k., a, to pre 
varicate. p. 

pasujnd, a. to stitch, h. 

asjtl, f. a kind of ,wild rice, 
growing in shallow ponds, h. 

- pa**jt provision for a journey ; adj. 

*"ready, prepared, p. 

-Ssffcv Tjtfl*Hl pa&jna, n. to perspire, to sweat, 
to melt ; to compassionate, s. 

iJ5~*> pasin, last, posterior, modern, p. 

s~ paslnt, modern, recent; pL pasiniyan, 
* the moderns. />. 

^XM,*> qtftffl pasina, 1 . .. 

^ * I m. perspiration, 

^ju^ ^Tn^f pasew, r 

* --N - sweat, s. 

( 199 ) 

, ni. an animal, a beast; cattle. 

pashu-palt m. a herdsman, pashn-palan, m. tending or 
rearing cattle, pashuta, f. pashutwa, m. nature of an 
animal, bestiality. pashu-dharm t m. action or pro- 
perty of animals ; promiscuous cohabitation, the marry- 
ing of widows, pashu-rdj, m. a lion, paslm-rajju, in. 
a string for fastening cattle. pashu-roman t m. the 
hair of an animal, pashu-kriya, f. copulation, pashu- 
gayatrl, f. a verse whispered into the ear of an animal 
about to be sacrificed, s. 

pishdb (for peshab),m. urine. p. 
pishach, m. a sprite, a fiend, a 

spectre ; an infernal imp or ghost, described as fierce 
and malignant, pishdch-dru, m. a tree supposed to be 
haunted by goblins (Trophis aspera). pishaclt-grasta, 
possessed of a demon, a demoniac, pishdchni, f. a 
female sprite, s. 

dn, m. a stone, a rock. s. 

pushp or pushpa, m. a flower, the 

menses ; the car of Kuvera ; specks on the eye, albugo. 
pusApanyaf i.f.presenting flowers held in both hands hol- 
lowed, pushpa-path. m. the vulva. pushpa-pur, the city 
of Pataiiputra or Palibothra. pushpa-phal, m. elephant 
or wood-apple, pushpa-chdmar, m. a plant (Artemisia) ; 
a fragrant plant (Pandanus odoratissimus) having a 
large bushy flower, pushpa-dant, m. the elephant of 
the north-west quarter, pushpa-ras, m. the honey of 
flowers, pushpa-rakta, m. a shrub (Hibiscus phocniceus). 
pushpa-renu, m. the farina of flowers, pushpa-rochan, 
ra. a plant (Mesuaf erred), pushpa-sar, m. the honey of 
flowers, pushpa-samay, m. spring, pushpa-shunya, 
flowerless. pushpa-karan^Lak, m. Avantl or Ujjain, 
or the grove in its vicinity, sacred to Mahadeva. 
pushpa- he tu, m. calx of brass, pushpa-klt, m. any in- 
sect affecting flowers, pushpa-mds, m. spring, pushpa- 
vati, f. a flower-garden, pushva-wat, flowery, pus/ipa- 
hm, flowerless. pushpa-htna, t. the glomerous fig-tree ; 
a woman whose menstruation has ceased, pushjjl, 
flowering, s. 

^l^* r ^ i|U|i$fT pushpanjan, ra. the calx of 
brass, t. 

y^fi..*.^ xrfwTK pushpit, flowered, in flower. 
pushpita, f. a woman during menstruation, pushpitagra, 
f. a form of metre, s. 

l> ^Hl pu*hpak> m. calx of brassi the 

car of KuVera, god of riches ; specks on the eye ; a 
bracelet of jewels ; green vitriol, ptuhpakdsish, m. the 
green sulphate of iron. *. 

~1> nfrniT puthpiha, f. the tartar of the 
teeth ; the mucus of the glans penis or urethra. *. 
^l> H9jq^<S pathu'pafoal, m. a fragrant 
grass (Cypenu rotundus). 4 

putht, f. ancestry, a generation of pro- 
genitors ; the back ; a second, an assistant. p\uht ba 
pusht, generation by generation, pusht-paftw, m. an 
inflammation or phlegmon on the upper surftice of the 
foot, pusht par kisi ke ra/m3, (lit. to be at the back of 
one, or to back one) to support steadily, piuht pon<i&, 
an ally, a support, pusht fs&am, hump backed pushti 
dost kisi par mdrnd or iwshti pS mama, to reject, to 
abandon, pusht dend (in Pers. pusht^dddan), to flee, 
run away (lit. turn one's back, " terga dare "). p. 

{nn pis/iita, f. spikenard. . 

\^1) pwhtara, m. a load, burden for carry- 
ing on the back. p. 

pushtana, to regret, repent, d. 

paxhlawa, m. regret, remorse, d. 

pnx/it-kar, m. an artificial hand of 

ivory, fcc., set in a long handle to scratch the back 
with. p. 

^Ju^> pushtak, a vice in horses, plunging and 
kicking up behind, p. 

^L> pushtu, the Afghan language, p. 

2*1 puxhta, m. a buttress, a prop; a bank, 

a quay ; a hill, an eminence ; heap, load, a bundle, p. 
&<J9Z2j pushta-bandi, embankments of a. 

river, p. 

. backing, alliance, aid; a prop; 
"the cover of a book, pushtl-bdn, an ally^ a supporter) 
pushti-bdnt, f. alliance, aid ; support. pusliti-k. t to 
assist, to support, to second, to back. p. 

i*> ITS pusht, nourished, fat ; restorative, 

provocative, pusfifdnga, fat. s. 

LJL> iffig pushtif. nourishing, pu^hti-da^dj. 

nourishing, pushti-da, f. a plant (Physalig flexuosa). 

pushfi-kar, m. any nutritive substance, a provocative 


flltTM pishtap, m. a world, # a division 

of the universe, s. [restorative power. *. 

pushtafa, f. fatness; iuvigoration, 

m. a disease of the eyes, 

opacity of the cornea. 5. [cative. *. 

taj, f. adj. restorative, provo- 

ff paxhrhat, after, afterwaru.^, 
behind ; westward, pashchdt-tap, m. repentance. *. 

him, west, western; behind, 


\Cl> JfqpR pashuhd, f. any small animal. *. 

-1) Tgenpushkar, m. the sky, heaven; a 

lotus (Nclwnbium speciosum or Nymph&a nelumbo) ; a 
drug (Costus sptcioaus) ; a place of pilgrimaffe called 
Pokar in the province of Aimlr; one of the swren 
great dwipas or divisions of the world \ a mountain in 
the same dw'ipa ; a pond or lake, pushkar-mulak, m. 
the root of the costus speciosus. s. 

J^CSo MWhfc^ pushharinl, f. a large pond, 

a lake. s. 
jj^> i&!K<!p pushkaJ, excellent, best ; much, 

many ; full, complete ; m. the mountain Meru ; the 

holy place, Puslikar. . 

( 200 ) 


h-ka*h (for peth-hash), a present, a 
tribute, p. 

Jkt> pithkti, dung of sheep, deer, &c. p. 
**> pashm, f. wool, hair (pubes turn man's 

turn fcemina). pashm par mdrna, to be perfectly con- 
tented and independent, to despise, disregard, 


tcmajhna, to' despise, pashm na ukharna, to suffer no- 
thing from the enmity of another, not a hair of the 
head to be touched (spoken in great contempt of an 
adversary), p. 

> pashmak, a kind of sweetmeat, p. 

l> pashm in, \ woollen, made of wool. p. 
Vx~> pashmina, J 

phhun, wicked, relentless, cruel; 

vile, low; stupid, a fool ; m. a spy, an informer, pishun- 
vakya or pishun-vachan, m. evil speech, slander. 5. 

pi shun a, f. a gramineous plant 
(Trlgonella corniculata). s. 

fj^** ftjIW fishany or pishanyi, tawny, 
brown, pish tan gat a t f. tawniness. a. 

^/'* * pashany, a mattock, spade, hoe; also 
a man's name, the father of dfrasiyab. p. 

\J~*v pfahtuaz, f. a gown, a female dress, p. 
> pasha or pashsha, a gnat, a fly, a mos- 
quito, p. [hog-plum. *. 

&jicZj, M5JfOd*1 pashU'haritahz, f. the 
*> pasliiz, a small piece of money. ^?. 

lxl> pashemdn, ashamed, abashed, dis- 
graced, penitent, p. [morse, p. 
pashemam, f. regret, penitence, re- 

jiatsliya, m. tho eighth lunar asterism, 
comprising three stars, of which one is Cancer ; the 
monthPaus (Dec. Jan.). pushya-putr, an adopted son. s. 

cib ftrW pik, f. name of a bird (Cuculus 

IndicMs) ; the tcokila. pik-bayanl> having a voice like 
the pik. s. 

, m. a young elephant, s. 

1 1 ripe ; boilod, 

' *nRT paid or pahhd,) dressed (op- 
posite to raw) ; baked fas bricks), Tade of brick ; cun- 
ning, knowing. pakka~k., to establish a claim, or an 
agreement, or A proposition, BO that no doubt or sub- 
ject of dispute can remain; to build with bricks. 
paka-pakaya, ready cooked. pakka-ghar, a house built 
of baked bricks or stone, patcka-chiffha, an authenti- 
cated, revised, or accredited account, pakka-ser, a ser 
of full and standard weight, s. 

, f. puhdrd, m. a cry a shout. A, 

a. to proclaim 
publicly, to call. h. 

,Kj JWITSTT puharna, a. to call aloud, to 
bawl out, to cry ; to call or summon, h. 

m. a vegetable and 

p>rfume, commooly called rochani. 9. 

pakdnd, a. to ripen; to dresa 
victuals, to cook, to bake. . 

L&<x> fcpfT^F pikdng, m. a small bird, called 

also chdtakiya. 9. [. 

& v QnW<impikdnand,m. the spring season. 
& mill pahan-, m. suppuration. pakd,u, 

suppurative. s. 

pafia t i t f. dressing, ripeness, s. 

V pik-bandhu, m. the mango 
tree. '*. 

1 pik-bayani or fM*Mfl pik- 

, f. possessing a voice like the kokila. s. 

pakpan, m. ripeness ; cunning, 
cleverness, expertness. *. 

Ij *IJVA ^ nf^igt^/y hti-thul, m. inflammation 

of the bowels, cholic. s. 

ii^So pahdandt, f. a footpath, d. 
^i&Pfpahar, f. the act of seizing, seizure, 

capture*; objection, difficulty, h. 

'tex> U4i JMI pakrdnd, a. to cause to be 

J V * x 

caught, seized, or laid hold of; to deliver over or give 
in charge. //. 

^^JojSo pahar-bandi, f. proof, evidence; 
capture, seizing, d. 

karnd, a. to catch, to lay hold 
of, to seize, to apprehend ; to object, h. 

LTv ^^ pakgh, m. l)alf a lunation, a fort- 
night; a partisan, a friend ; a side, a flank, pakshaghdt, 
m. palsy, hemipelgia. paksha-pdt t m. partisanship, 
partiality, paksha-pati, m. a partisan, an adherent. 
paksha-pdtitd, f. adherence, friendship, pakshata, f. 
the taking up a side, partiality. paksha-dhar> m. a par 
tisan. s. 

.JLio MV/I paksht, m. pahshirii, f. a bird. 

"pakshi-rdj t m. king of the birds, Gartufa. paks)u-shald t 
f. a nest, an aviary, 5. 

, m. a sore between the toes, 

produced by moisture, h. 

, n. to be dressed or cooked; 

to ripen ; to suppurate (as an inflammation, boil, &c.) ; 
to turn grey (hairs). . 

9pakma f ripe, cooked, mature, perfect; 
able, shrewd ; grey (the hair) ; digested, pakwasliay, 
m. the abdomen, the stomach, pakwa-krit, m. the ninth 
tree, the leaves of which are used to induce suppu- 
ration. 5. 

pahrvdn or MIM4I paJmdnna, 
m. sweetmeats, victuals fried in melted butter or oil, 
cookery of any kind. *. 

ymw\*\\pakndnd,z. to cause to be dressed 
or cooked ; to cause to ripen, g. [cooking, h. 

a,t, f. price paid for 
i kind of dish 
or ? made of pearaeal 

Tfffft pa kauri) ^ 

( 201 ) 

i&tpakk (for^pfcMa,q.v.),m. a pe- 
riod of fifteen days, fortnight, half a lunation; two; 
assistance, protection. *. [of a bow. d. 

pakhdtd, m. the horn or corner 

pakhdrnd, a. to wash. s. 
J ""WT^y pakhdl, f. la large leather 
pakhala, m. J ba<r for carrying 

water usually double, and thrown over the back of a 
bullock ; also a leathern bag for raising water from a 
well. a. 

, m. a water-carrier, s. 

, TOR pahhdn (for pakhan),'} m. a 
TORT pahhana, / stone. 5. 

;W</tan;q;, f. a kind of drum, 

a timbrel, h. 

T?"J^v ^t^ft pakhawajt, m. one who 

beats the pakhawaj ; a drummer. /i. 

]^io TpKlr pulthraj, m. a topaz ; name of 

a lunar mansion, h. 

jj x> tTOlt'41 p(t/thranta 9 m. a hit of gold 
or silver leaf covering a frz.ra or mouthful of betel, h' 

j4V. tf^U*) jwkhri, f. H petal, or flower- 
leaf. *A. 
^\> pakhrrd or pakftu t d 9 m. a side, wing, 

flank, gable end of a house, d. 

^x> ij^&l ptihhotd, m. a wing, fin of a 

fish ; side or flank, d. [blade, g. 

pahhaura, m. the shoulder- 
pakheru, m. a bird. *. 
pakhes, m. mark, stamp, h. 

, m. the foot, pay pat tar lajna t 

to beat time with the foot, pag-dandi, f. by-path. 
pagdandl-lena, to track, to trace. #. 

TTTTT paya, m. a rope fastened round the 
neck of a bullock, a tether, h. 
& M J IK payar, mud kneaded for building 
or plastering walls ; (in Dakh.) pay, salary, wages, s. 

payah) f. dawn of day, morning, t\\ i- 
light. p. 

pagahtar, f. early dawn of d;iy. /?. 

pag-dharna, n. to travel, 

to depart. *. [chew the cud. h. 

pagifrdnd, n. to ruminate, to 

P a 9T*t $ a turban ; a species of 
poll-tax (v. pdg). pagfi ataknd, to ^ e obstinate, to 

persist or persevere, pagfv chftapafna, a. to act falsely 
01 treacherously, h. 

pfifjla, foolish (phrase peculiar to 
Bengal and the eastern parts of Hindustan). h t 

pftynd, n. to be dipped in or co- 
vered with syrup ; (met.) to be in love. *. 

ayhd, m. (the same as pagd), a 
rope, tether. A. , [or stel. *, 

J T*rf<5 payhdl) m. a kind of hard iron 

puyJidyd, m. a dealer in cloth, 
metals, &c. ^. 
iJ^6 fxnj^Trn/v'^/Sna, a. to mlt, to fuse; 

to soften (an angry or a hard person), to assuage. . 

o 9 in. fusion.,*. 
ftnr<$'<r|T piylialndj n. to melt or be 

molted, to he in fusion. 5. 

pnghaiyd) m. a trader in cloth, 

iron, &c A. 

payiyd) f. a turban. A. 

j. **is$ ptil, m. a moment; the sixtieth part 

of a ^r//a^7 or //aw<i (CA />a/5 are equal to one minute). 
pal marte, immediately, instantly, in the twinkling of 
an eye. pal mdrnd, to wink, to move the eyelid, p. 

ul, in. a bridge, an embankment, a cause- 

way. pttl-gu&ir, a bridge toll, put bdndhiid, a. (to 
make a bridge) to limit ; to abound, p. 

> lTo5T paid, m. a spoon, ladle for taking 

out oil, &c. puld, m. a small bundle of plants or 
sticks, ft, [Jiardml pi I Id, a bastard, h. 

j in. a pup, a whelp, cub ; 

d, m. spac e, distance ; assistance ; 
a border of cloths ; a shoot (generally applied to chintz 
or shawl) ; a hag ; labiwn vulva ; one shutter of a door, 
&c. ; border, margin. /*. 

> palld, in. one scale (or side of a pair of 

scales), palla-handhud, to enter the liwts against an 
enemy. palla-kash> partial, palld-kasht, partiality. 
palle par kisl ke and, to assist, to favour, to side with 
any one. palle-ddr, a porter who has bags to carrv 
burdens", palle-ddri, f. the business of a porter, p. ' 

pulud, m. f. a SaJtshas 6r demon, 
male or female. 5. [humour, s. 

cJTf'T paldynij rn. the hilt 1 , the bilious 
pi /ax, m. very coarse cloth, p. 

>**^>. ^ToST^pr paid* or palash, in. a tree so 

called, on which the lac insect feeds (Bu tea frondosa). 
palds pdprd, in. the seeds of the JButea frondosa, uscd 
in medicine, .y. 

/^^J. ""Tc^T^T 1 pulaxi, in. ruime of a village 
(vulg. Plaascy), famous for one of our earlier victories 
in India. ;. 

pnldsh, m. a tree (ee palds). 
^n^rfj^q paldshdhhyn, ra. ns^a- 
fcetida. s. [clinata ; the palds tree *. 

puldxkuh, m. curcuma re- 
puldshl, f. lac; m. a goblin ; 
a sort of mimusops (m. kauki). 4. 
^J^b 5n^f pldksh<i t ni. the fruit of the /*t- 
h incus populneoides. , 

&* ^f<SIf paldn, H space of ground between 
two occupied lots, left for future disposal. &. 

( 202 ) 

^V^ palan, 1 m. (corruption of pdldn) t a 

palan, "I m. 
paldnd y J pa 

packsaddle. p. 

paldnd, a. to run away, to flee, 
to escape, a. [ply with drink, h. 

faci5HI pildndt a. to cause to drink ;' to 
paldnndy a. to saddle a horae or 
S paldndiiy m. an onion. *. 

paldny, m. the Garigetic por- 
poUe. s 


fr paldni, f.\ 

,_ /"thatching, h. 

/)alarv, m. J 

#. m. submersion. 5. 

^) pnld,o (properly pilav), in. a kind of 

dish made up of rice, spices, and flesh or fowl, hawa 
k& / ufd t o, a castle built in the air, " Lord Byron 1ms 
been laughed at by many an 'old Indian' for writing 
this word 'pilaff,' making it rhyme with 'quaff',' hut 
the fact is, th-/his lordship's AngliHed term comes 
much nearer to the roal word, which is Persian, than 
our barbarous Indian corruption of it." p. (B.) 

^^b tr<55TOn pald,ona, n. to flee, to run 

away. . [away. s. 

*Tc*nWf palayaman, adj. running 
cSTIff palayan, in. flight, retreat. 

paldyan-parayan, fugitive, s. 

cjjjjj pul-bandi, f. an embankment, dykes 

or mounds raised to prevent inundations ; keeping a 
bridge 8tc, in repair, also a tax levied for that purpose; 
sodomy, pul-bandl-k., to ravish, to violate, p. 

m. ppppor. p. 

pilpild or ijc#Jj^5l pulpula, 
soft, flabby, flaccid, h. 

pilpilana, a. to soften, h. 

pidpiilaiia, n. to fear, to 

dread; to take a morsel into the mouth, and from the 
want of tooth being unable to chew, to turn it about, h. 

ty f. softness, h. 

- fra**; the 
act of turning about a morsel in the mouth, h. 

JEffT vl tit t ni. i IK' piotract j d utterance of 
a vowel, being three times the length of a short vowel, s. 
i^U V^i Tfcjfsn "TtTT ( 1 o ^TTmTTTT) palthd 
(or paltlia )inarnd^ n. to sit down on the ground resting 
on the buttocks, h. [the buttocks, h. 

palfhi, f. ti mode of sitting on 

pal fa, ni. turn, stead, exchange, 
recompense, revenge, retaliation. 7*. 

?! paltdnd, a. to cause to turn, to 
convert. A. 

l^Ub injTT ^TtfT palta Jthdna, a. to turn 
over Head and heels ; to overturn, to be tilted, to re- 
bouud. A. 

paltdw or paltd t o. m. contradic- 
tion, reaction, rebound. 7i. 
jJclA) ^^^^|| palat-lend or palta-lena, a. 

to take in return, to revenge, to exact retribution, h 
i> ^^SZ m ^paltan 9 f. a battalion, a regiment, h 

palatna f return, to turn back j 
to retreat ; to overturn, to rebound ; to change, h. 

jUl^jib T|<$| JfT^tfT palthd-mdrnd, n. to sit 
down on the ground resting on the buttocks. A. 

^thatlarid which is cultivated for 
every harvest, being never allowed to lie fallow. A. 
pilachnd, n. to adhere, h. 

/*, ni. a scale, e.e. one side of a 

pair of scales, h. 

^jb f^lrt /?/M> a ^^ n ^ of forced meat. A. 
jLJj p'd&dt, f. yellowness, yellow hue. rf. 

l^ij^ ;>w/ sirdtQT pulisirdt, m. the bridge, 

over which Musalmans pass into paradise. N. B. the 
wicked are sure to fall thence into the bottomless 
pit. p. a. 

>i> pilhht, polluted impure, unclean ; 
(met.) f. an adulteress, a strumpet, p. 

ftfgZb palak, f. the eyelid j a moment; 

pala/c daryd, m. clouds ; palak marna or -matkana, a. 
to wink. p. 

5<jT<*if pulkit, joyful, rejoiced. $. 
&> 5TB| plahsha, m. waved-leaf fig-tree 

(Ficus infectoria) ; another tree (Hibiscus pppv,lneoides)\ 
the holy fig-tree (Ficus religiosa) ; one of the seven 
Dwlpas or divisions of the world, s. 

pulhi, in. a sort of Kadamb 

(Nauclea cadamba). s. 

At jf55f pulin, m. an island of alluvial 
formation, a small island or bank left in a river upon 
the falling of waters, s. 

l> ftr^JHT pilna, a. to attack, to assault; n. 
to be bruised, thrashed, trodden, pressed, ground, s. 

\ HtS'iftpulnd, n. to be reared j to be fatten- 
ed, to thrive. *. 

^^Q^ pulind 9 m. a barbarian, an outcast, 
one inhabiting mountains and forests. 5. 

"^^dd 9 m. a bundle, a parcel, h. 

P ( *l an O> m ' a ^ e( l (wiliiout cur- 
tains), a bedstead, palang-posli, m. a coverlet, a coun- 
terpane : this last compound is commonly called a 
"palampore" by Europeans, palang tin chor. ''the bed 
and three thieves," the constellation called " Charles's 
wain'* (B.) jo. 

i*. palany, m. a tiger, a panther, a 

leopard, palang-afgan, tiger killer, a fierce warrior, p. 

&i>. Tjfc?lF, puling or ^fwg pullinga, the 

masculine gender. *. 

li f. a small bedstead. A. 

( 203 ) 

^J&> paltwgi^of or relating to a tiger, tiger- 

"Uke, fierce, ferocious, p. 

^ STCT plav,m. a diver, a bird so called (Pe- 

licanus fusicollis) ; waved-leaf fig-tree (JPiciw infectorla) \ 
a sort of grass (Cyperus rotundus) ; fragrant grass in 
general, s. 

jb *JWf pullac, m. a sprout, a shoot, a branch 

with the leaves attached, s. 
^X> tng pallu, m. the hem of a garment, tho 

border of a garment. pallu~ddr t a garment with gold 
or silver border, h. 

lllu, m. 1 
iHl pilii,d, J 

palwar, m. a kind of boat of 15 

to 20 tons burden for carrying goods; applied chiefly 
to the slow heavy craft in the Sunderbuns: it is consi- 
dered to have come originally from Dacca, h. 

^l^-v "fcW'tf palwari, m. a boatman, people 
belonging to a boat or palwdr. h. 
\jb *W*nIT palwana, a. to cause to be 

reared or nourished, s. 
J^b ^jgif 41 pallautha or palaulha, first-born 

(q. d. paJiild uthd or pahld uthd}. h. 

worm. s. 

pallavak, m. a kind of 
(Cyprinus denticulatus). . 

palwal, m. the name of a plant 

(Trichosanthes dioica t Roxb.). palwal-lati t the plant of 
palwal), s. [tiou. s. 

^jb 3T^ftT plavan, m. a deluge, an iriunda- 
*b palta, m. a side (as of scales), (v. pallet), p. 
soft, tender ; hollow, d. 

, f. the spleen (v. pWia). s. 
pulhdnd, a. to pers,u ide. 5. 
plihan, m. the spleen. .9. 
palhinda or palihiidd, ID. 

iidd, ID. 1 
ihndi, f.J 

palhjndi or pal 

a shelf upon which water-pots are placed, a place 
where water is kept. /t. 

^ tne spleen ; a disease 

"from enlargement or inflammation of the spleen, s. 

pally f. a ladle used to take out oil 
wth. 7e. 
^\ VRJfr palll, f. a small village; a house 

lizard, h. [of a tree. h. 

njf palctyi, f. a young branch or spray 
pallt (for palul) 9 polluted, unclean, p. 

Tfigrfar paFit y m. a ghost, spirit of the 
dead h. 

patitd, m. a match (of a gun); a 

candle. /o/i fa chdf-jdnd, to flash in the pan. p. 

^jk>b T|^nT palethan, m. dry flour laid 
under and over bread when it is rolled, palethan 
pakdnd, to contrive the* ruin of any one. palethan 
tdkalnu t a. to beat severely, h. 

> pi&d or jpo/wJ, unclean, polluted, p. 

f- uncleanness, excrement, p. 
pale,o, m. soup , pounded rice or 

flour put into soup to thicken it. palev or pale t u t laud 
watered after ploughing. A. 

^^IT ^/Aa, f. ) the spleen ; the organ, 

jft^f plihan, m. J or the disease of it ; 
enlargement of the mesenteric glands. . 
^jAj ^fl^lOc pRhdri 9 m. the holy fig-tree 
(Ficus religiosa), deemed an enemy to spleen, h. 

pfiha-skatrui^m. a medicinal 
pWia-ghna, J plant, com- 

* monly called Uohinl orRoher&(^n<leronfaro/it<aA > a). *. 

u^> trwrr jiiirnpd, f. a river in the south of 

India. A. 

^ ^f ?Jwra, ^l puna, or jftf /ww, again, 
also, afterwards, puna-puna orpuna-punar, again and 
again, repeatedly, s. 

or ifl&punyu), m- virtue, virtuous 

action, charity; (opposite to fault) ; merit, s. 
f^^T 7>zw, m. a sound, noise, s. 

], "*PdI pan, in. an aggregate number, con- 

sisting of twenty #andas (q. v.), thai is, eighty kaut 14 
(and sixteen pans make a /ca/ian); a vow; promise; 
a bet, a wager, a ' take at play : it is also used to de- 
note money in general; wages, hire, price; business; 
an agreement, u stipulation or clause in an agreement; 
(contr. of pan), as, pan-bafta, m. a betel-box. *. 

TT pun<> a termination attixed to nouns, 
answering to the English terminations shij, hood, ness, 
&c., as, larak-pan, childhood, bdlak-pait, boyhood. /*. 

P an > cmj. but, yet, for. d. 

"TrTT pand, a termination added to words 

to denote trade, state, or condition (also the same ae 
B.ajauharl-pand, the trade of a jeweller, h. 

punnd, a. to abuse, revile, /i. 

pannd, m. ti beverage 5 the upper 
part of d shoe ; a termination answering to pan, q.v. /<. 

U^ "T^fT pannd, m. an emerald ; a leaf. . 

li> fTOT pinna, m, a cake of mustard-seed 
remaining after the expression of the oil, which ij 
given to cows, &c., for food. s. 

pdndrd, m. "\ a drain or pipe by 
pandrl f f.) which water runs off 

from the roof of a house, a spout, s. 

iJUo ftRfnif pina/t, m. the bow of Shiva, a 

musical instrument of one string shaped like a bow, 
the trident of Shiva, s. 

indhi, f. a sort of vioi. s. 

, m. a tree from the flowers 

of which 'a yellowish dye is prepared (Rotleria line 
tariff), s. 

andld,m.} (aeepandri); a spout. 
punall, f. [ panali parnd, to be 
very fat (a horse). <? 

( 204 ) 

panana, n. to cause the milk to 
come into the udder of animals. A. 
lx> pandhj f. shade, 8lieh<r ; protection ; 

Asylum, refuge, panah-dih t a protector, panah kisi se 
ntangnd, to seek protection, to avoid ; used in comp. as 
jaltdn-panah, asylum of the world, your Majesty. W5- 
lat-panah, refuge of justice, your Worship. j>. 

pan-butta, m. a betel-box. /*. 
uJ pumba, m. cotton, pumba ba-gosh, deaf 
(lit having cotton in the ear), jmmba-dahan, silent in 
company, taciturn ; mealy-mouthed, pwnba-doz, a 
carder of cotton, p. 

pnn-bhatta, m. a mixture of 
water and boiled rice (for drinking). A. 

/Mm lhattd, m. a betel-box. 7n 
JjjJ pumba ji, made of cotton, p. 

pawpdnd or ifVMMl punpdnd, a. 

to cause to flourish, to promote the prosperity of ano- 
ther; to refresh (little used), h. 

p<&iapna, a. to commence in- 

creasing i hulk (a man, tree, fcc.) ; to prosper, to 
flouris]).to thrive, to shoot, to be refreshed, restored h. 

liojJ frofr?fT*n pinpindnd, n. to twangr, to 
whiz. h. 

HH4 pipindhat or 

^jjJ Tp^ panth, "I m. a 
l^juj i|vj| punthd,) gio 

panpaniiliaf, f. the whizzing of an arrow or shot. A. 

yjj T-Mdtfl pantawd, in. a kind of sweet- 
meat. /*. 

I m. a road ; a sect, a reli- 

gious order, s. 
pan/hi, m. a traveller ; a sec- 

"tary, a follower of any peculiar sect or master ; generally 
used in comp., as hablr-panthl t a follower of Kablr. s. 

falpStputy, m. an aggregate, the whole, a 

heap. . 
A) panj, five. Wflye ^awj, of five years old. 

male panj, of ten years old (these applied to horses 
only). p<wj *aibi shar'i, very vicious (possessed of five 
vices* i.e. robbery, adultery, gaming, drunkenness, 
falsehood), pnnj-ayat, the five chapters of the Icur an, 
which are read during the mourning of a Musaliuiin. 
pan/ tanl piifc, the five holy persons, i.e. Muhammad, 
Alii Fatima, Hasan, and Husain. p. 

*-J\dr* panjdb, m. the country inhabited by 

the Sikhs, so called from its being watered by five 
rivers, p. 

panjdbi, of or belonging to the Panjdb ; 
the language of the Sikhs, p. 

panjdrd, m. a cotton-carder, d. 

> P an J anyusht, in. cinq-foil p. 
panjdhy fifty, panjahum, fiftieth, p. 

p'wjat) ra. the concrete rheum of 
the eyes. * 

pinjar, yellow, tawny, reddish 

yellow; m, a Twy or chesnut horse ; yellow orpi men t. *. 

m. or pattjiirf* a rib. s. 
pinjar, "J m. a cage ; a trap, plnjrd 
\ hond, it. to be or grow 

lean. *. 

i, f. a rib. s. 
anj sal, m. five years ; a five-year 

old (horse), p. 

panj-shamba, Thursday, p. 

vicious (V'panj). p.a. 

trf^SFT panjihd, f. the. register or journal 
of Ykma, the record of human actions. *. 

pinjihd, f. a roll of cotton from 

which the thread is spun. jr. 

paiy-ydna, fivefold, p. 
pa nj-f/osftOf} five-cornered, pen tan- 

pu?y-gund, ) guiar, quintuple, five- 
fold. p. 

the five senses, the five 

stated daily prayers enjoined on all good Musulmans ; 
the name of a collection of five treatises on Arabic 
Grammar, p. [grass, used as a vessel. *. 

^ tw blades of hiisa 

panjnm, the fifth, p. 

yf pinjan, m. a bow used for clean- 
ing cotton, s. 

aj&t fa^glpinjush, m. the wax of the ear. *. 
n^S pinjul, m. the wick of a lamp. s. 
^. panja, m. a claw, the bunch of fi vep ; a 

sort of link or torch resembling the five fingers, which 
is also called panj-shdj&a, a hand made of ivory, &c , 
to scratch the back. panja-phernti t to overcome, to 
overpower, pcwja-k., a kind of wrestling wherein the 
antagonists lock their fingers together, panja-kash, 
m. an iron instrument resembling a hand, with which 
wrestlers exercise themselves by locking their fingers 
into those of the instrument ; a kind of bread bearing 
the marks of five fingers, p. 

. one whose busi- 
siness* is to beat and separate cotton, h. 
L^^ff^fSpinjety in. the concrete rheum of 
the eyes. s. 

irl, f. a medicine composed 

of sugar, ghi, flour, &c., given to puerperal women; 
caudle, s. 

x> "H^panch, five; m.a council, an assembly, 

a meetinff, a company ; arbitrators, panchadhyay, m. 
five readings or chapters; f. the aggregate of five 
chapters of the Shrt Bhagavat, detailing the sports of 
Krishna with the Oopts. panchagni, m. five fires 
amidst which a devotee performs penance, panchumla, 
ro. the aggregate of five add plants, viz. tlie jujube, 
pomegranate, sorrel, spondias, -and citron, panchang, 
m. five modes of devotion L silent prayer, burnt offer- 
ing, libation, bathing idols, aud feeding Brahman*; 
on almanac ; reverence by extending the hands, bead- 

205 ) 

ing the knees and head, and in speech and look. 
panch'bundh, m. a line equal to the fifth part of any 
thing lost or stolen, fxinch-bhadra, m. a horse with 
five auspicious marks ; a sauce of five ingredients. 
panch-bhut, m. the five elements : earth, air, fire, water, 
and ether (dkds). panch-bhuldtmd, m. man as formed 
of the five elements, panch-pdtra, m. five vessels ; an 
offering made in five vessels. panch-prdn t m. the five 
airs supposed to be in the body, panch-parnt, f. a 
small shrub, panch-piriyd, any person, Hindu or 
other, who worships the five plrs or saints of the 
Musatmans ; a caste of hnldljchors. panch-pallav, m. 
the aggregate of five sprouts used in religious cere- 
monies: viz. spondia, rose-apple, bel or marmelos, 
citron, and wood-apple, panch-pancftanakh, m. five 
kinds of animals allowed to be killed and eaten: hare, 
porcupine, alligator, rhinoceros, and tortoise, pancha- 
tapd m. an ascetic making penance between four fires 
and *he sun above, panch-tirthi, f. five places of pil- 
grimage: Vishranti, Saukar, Naimish, Prayag, and 
Pushkar ; bathing on the day of the equinox, pancha- 
ratna, m. five precious objects : as, gold, diamond, 
pearl, ruby, amethyst, pancha-sugandhak, m. five aro- 
matic drugs: cloves, nutmeg, camphor, aloe wood, 
and kakkola. pancha-sund> m. pi. five things by \\hich 
animal life may be accidentally destroyed : the fire- 

Elace, the slab on which condiments are ground, the 
room, the pestle and mortar, and the water-pot. 
pancha-shdkhd. m. the hand, pancha-karmi, in. five 
actions of the body or modes of evacuation, pancha- 
koshd, m. pi. the five sheathes supposed to invest the 
.soul, pancha-kol, five spices: pepper, ginger, &c. 
pancha-hon, m. a pentagon, panch-khana, consisting 
of five stories, panch-gun, five times, five-fold, pancha- 
gavya, five articles derived from the cow: milk, curds, 
ghl, urine, and dung, pancha-lakshan, m. a Purana, 
comprehending five topics: the creation of worlds, 
their destruction, the genealogies of gods and heroes, 
the reigns of Manus, and the actions of their descen- 
.dants. pancha-loh, in. a compound of five metals : 
copper, brass, tin, lead, and iron, paiiclia-iudsya, m. 
the koil or Indian cuckoo, pancha-mul, m. the aggre- 
gate of five roots: the bel, Premna longfolia, cassia, 
Gilmena arborea, and the trumpet-flower, pancha- 
waf 7, f. the aggregate of five smaller roots ; Hedysarum 
^nngeticum, H. lagopodioides, Solanum melongena, 
S. jacquini, and Tribulas lanuginosus. pancha-maha- 
!Wi/! ro. the five great sacraments of the Hindus, or 
the worship of spirits, progenitors, gods, Vedas, and 
mankind, by offerings of perfumes and flowers ; obse- 
quial rites, oblations with lire, the study of the Vedas, 
and hospitality, pancha-nad, m. the Punjab, or 
country of five rivers, pancha-nakh, m. any animal 
having five toes, as the elephant, tortoise, tiger, &c. 
panchendriya, m. the five organs of sense, viz. eye, 
ear, hose, tongue, and skin; or those of action, as 
hands, feet, windpipe, anus, and parts of generation, s. 

panach, f. a bowstring, s. 

H*&[W^panchad?*yd,i t f. the ag- 
gregate of the five chapters of the Bhagavat Purana, 
comprising a detail of the sports of Krishna with the 
Gopis. s. 

'^v ^TOTc? poncho!, deceitful, cunning; m. 
a country in the north of India, h. 

^*^H ^wnfW panchamritt m. a kind of 

sweetmeat made of five ingredients; or the term may 
be applied to the ingredients separately ; and these 
are said to be curdled milk, cream, gin, honey, and 
sugar. *. [a lion. s. 

panehanan,m.B, name of Shiva; 
panchawan, fifty-five, h. 

panchayat, f. a meeting of 

any particular society, generally as a court of inquiry ; 
a juiy, an inquest, originally consisting of five mem- 
bers. panchSyali-jdtf, an arbitration by persons of 

the same caste as the litigant parties, 
fchangt, a domestic settlement of family quarrels, &c* 
panchayati-sarkdr, a court held by public authority. 
panckdyat-Hdma, the written award of a court of arbi- 
tration. 5. 

panchayatty f. (same as pan- 

c hay at, q. v.) ; also relationship, affinity ; the sentence 
or award of a panchayat court, *. 

train panchata, f. death, dissolution of 
the^five elements of the body. s. 

pancha-1a1wa, in. the five ele 

ments or principles according to the Hindus, viz. fire, 
earth, air, water, and ether or space ; the five essentials 
of certain rites, s. 

panchfttra, a fee or duty of five 
per cent levied from a successful litigant. . 

,m. <leath,dissolution. s. 

orpanchadash, the 

fifteenth, s. [fold. *. 

panchadha, in five ways, fiv< j - 
ptwholt) f. a bowstring ; udj. 

five, relating to five, made of five, &c.; m. an aggre- 
gate of five. s. 

9 tnxe levied by I he zti- 
ilrst over and above the fixed revenue. 7t. 

consisting of five floors or stories (a house, &C.). *. 

-chahln 9 f. a water-mill. *. 

pancha-gavya, m. five things 
derived from the cow, us, milk, curds, &c. t. 
V'iacH 'q^cjSTT panch-lara, consisting of five 

rows^or strings (a necklace, &c.). h. 

gF5lf*i ^^TQ^ panchluri, f. a necklace of 

five rows. s. 
j^flpH^tW pancham or panchama, the fifth; 

m. name of a riig ; also of a sur, or musical note, f 

t**^* ^TOfft ptJiichann, also pandtamlfiyL the 

" fifth % day of the moon. s. 

*j>4*& TWtmC panchotara, m. a transit duty 
of five per cent. ; a deduction from rent, &c., of five 
per cent. ; a custom-house, a toll-house. *. 

j.^^ipi ! rtfor'qtr | ft i n pane/torn, earthen 
vessel with a narrow neck, and having a hole in the 
bottom. When filled with water and the mouth 
stopped, no water flows from the hole below till tin 
hand, or whatever stopped the mouth, be removed (it 
is used as an experiment to illustrate the doctrine of 
the honor vacui by the followers of Aristotle;, h. 

T&ff panchon, in. associates, friends, s 
~& M^f4$|fff pancha vinskati, five- 
and-twenty. *. [the twenty-fifth, f 


paper kite, t . 

panchhala* m. ihe tail of a 

panctihi, m. a bird. f. 

% pand, in. advice, admonition, moral 
maxim, p. 


\<ty pinda, young fruit just formed, d. 

(root of pindashtmi], m. thought, 

imagination ; pride, self-opinion ; (in cornp.) imagin- 
ing, &c. pand dr, one who takes or listens to advice, p. 

^j ,(Xk> pandrawdra, m. a fortnight, d. 

jtX'> ^^^ 'pandrah, fifteen, pandrahwan 
and pandrahwin, the fifteenth. *. (Vhecdle, h. 

fT pandhlana, a. to coax, to 
pand, m. a catamite, a eunuch, s. 
pandu t tn. tho namo of a sovereign 

of ancient Delhi, and nominal father of Yudhishthira 
and the other four Pdntfava princes. . 

Ju fVjJK pind, m. body, person ; halls made 

of (lour or rice, and offered to the manes at a religious 
ceremony of Hindus: they are afterwards thrown into 
the river or given to cows. pid pnyna, to follow, to 
pursue, to be intent on. pind chhvrana, to avoid, to 
escape. pind-pushp t m. the flower of the asvka tree 
(Jonesia asoca)\ the China rose; a lotus; a flower 
( Ttiberntrmontana cororutria). pind-pushpah t in. a pot- 
herb (Chetwpodi M album), pind-phald, f. a bitter 
gourd. pind-taildK, m. incense, olibanum. pind-ddn, 
m. presentation of the obsequial cakes, pind-go*, m. 
gum myrrh, pind-musta, i. a sort of grass (Cy penis 
pertenuis). pind-mul, m. the carrot (Daucus carota). 
pin$-vij t m. a flowering shrub (Oleander odoruiri). s. 

\3i> phtda, m. body, person ; a lump of clay ; 
a bundle or ball of string; balls of flour or rice (vide 
pind). s. 

\<xb tHpT panda, in. a minister or priest who 

presides at the temple of an idol; f. wisdom, science, s. 
^jOJbMib ftRJ5Tf>Jlflri^' p'indddhiftdri, ni. 

the superintendant of a funeral, usually the nearest 
relation, to whom belongs the right of presenting the 
funeral cake. s. [flora), s, 

inddr, m. a tree (Trewia nudi- 
pindura, in. Ji plunderer, pil- 
lager (among: Marhatfas). //. 
^l\tib. f^^iTcJ pfndalu, in. name of a fruit 

(Trewia nndiflora, Lin.; Rottkra indica, Willd)\ an 
esculent root, described as sweet, cooling, and diuretic; 
(in Dakh.) yam s. [coot, the diver. //. 

^ii,> ^J[J|^ pandubi, f. a walr-rfowl, the 

^> JJL). TjftjJTT pandit, m. n learned B'ahman ; 

adj. learned ; an honorary title signifying doctor or 
philosopher. The pandits are the only men who un- 
derstand the Sanskrit, the language in \\hich the an- 
cient writings of the Hindus are composed, s. 

J^Uiil) 'isrfipnrnrt panditam, f. the wife of a 
" pandit, s. [larship. s. 

^^\3JJO TBfain$(pandita,i 9 f. learning, scho- 

ftil^OJJ^ pandit-?rfiana,m. (a corruption of 
) a prison, lock-up house. h.p. 
pTfaC pundarih, m. the elephant 

of the south-east quarter ; a sort ofenake (amphisbama) ; 
a sort of leprosy ; a white lotus, s. 

db^jb ^Jfl^^i pundariyah, m. a flower 

(Hibiscus mutabilis) ; a drug commonly called punde 
riya. s. 

uiiib. IWJVK pinduh, n). a turtle-dove, s. 

jry.ijJ. piudri also ^^v P* n T*t tne " e 

calf of the leg. //. d. 

)ib f*rftl3c5T pindila, f. a sort of cucumber 

(Curumis rnadraspatanus). s. 

pindli, f. the calf of the leg. h. 
ib paiidu, fruit in general, d. 
$.jSjj i 'in&&panduri, f. the name of a bird 

(ralco). h. 

pindol, f. a kind of white earth 

(used for whitewashing walls), pindol i, f. orts, leavings 
of a meal. s. 

L5ib fmtf\pindi 9 . the upper part of a Shicu- 

ling ; a lump of any thing that may be contained in the 
fist ; a small clue or ball of string; a small alt<rof 
sand a cubit square, on which oblations are offered to 
the manes of deceased persons ; the same as pind, balls 
made of rice, &c., offered to the manes ; a long gourd 
(Cucurbita lagenaria); a sort of palm (Phoenix dactyli- 
fur a)', a flowering shrub (Tabernamontuna coronuria, 
flor. plen.) s. 

ijOJjJ fi|41i1ri4| pinditak, m. a tree (Van- 

gtteriaspinosa) ; a shrub (Tube rnamont ana coronaria). s. 

xjJcib ftU&^fPTC pindltagar t in. a plant, a 

species of the Tabernamontana. s. 

pandiydyan, f. the wife of 

&pande t or priest, q.v. s. 

j ir?fT punar or ^TTJif pnnaraya 9 again. 

puiiur-b!<u, f. a widow re married, punar-utthan, m. re* 
surcction. punar-janm<l, re-born, born again, punar- 
ukta, repeated ; in. tautology, punar-ukti, f. repetition. 
punar-nava, f. Iiog-weed (Boerhavia diffusa-alata}. t. 

su 9 m. the 

seventh manhion of the moon ; Castor and Pollux, f. 
pan as, m. the bread-fruit tree 

(Artocar/jus integrifolia). s. 

pam>d, insipid ; f. a pustule, pus- 
tular and phlegmonoid inflammation of the skin. *. 
li^.UMjJ. xfalK^itt pai'utdrhatd, f. dealing in 

spices &c h. 

Ui&j^ b. ^^fTTR'^JT pamdr-hattd, m. a quar- 

ter where there are many druggists' shops, h. 
^CjL-x) TTTOT^ft pansdri, m. a druggist, a 
dealer in groceries, spices, herbs, &c. h, 

<JL*,1>. trrf^fT^ pansdl, ] ni. a stand where 
b ireBT^n pamala, \ water is provided 
pansalld, } for passengers. 9. 
b 3m puMwa, m. semen virile; viri- 
lity. V 
^**b tfare*f punsavan, m. a festival .held on 

the mother's perceiving the first signs of a conception. . 

*y~jj MH*ft^ panso,!, f. a small boat so 

called, vulg. panchway. h. 

JU*A.> ifod paititerii f. a weight or measure 

offivesew. h. 

^fvjfpanshchiJina, m. the penis, jr. 

( 207 ) 

Tf? punk, m. mud, mire, clay, pank- 

prabha, f. the hell of mire, pank-dhnm, m. a division, 
of hell, pankshukti, f. a cockle, pank-kir, m. a lap- 
wing. pank-grah, m. the makar, a marine monster. 
. pank-gafak, m. a small fish (Macrognathus pancalus). 
pank-vas, m. a crab. s. 

a water hen. a. 

lisneria, also Trapa bis/rinoxa). s. 

LV (i^ T T 5 ninTTr panltapra, in. soft cloth 
wetted and applied to a wound or sore. *. h. 

t P 5 i v "tFjJ^ panktt, f. a line, a row ; a stanza 
of four lines of ten syllables each. *. 

>!> ^sji jxinkaj, m. a lotus, s. 
jfj*** ^^t pankvichar, m. an osprey. s. 
JiffVio TOST* punnaltshatra, m, an asterism 
under which males are procreated, s. 

^& /xmkukri, f. 

twA F - 

\}XJ p<inhan>iva, m. 

T pankh, rn. a feather, wing. 5. 
pankha, m. a fan. 5. 

anhkrty f. a petal, flower-leaf. A. 
panhhl, f. a small fan ; a bird. st. 
pauhhi, f. a kind of woollen cloth, 
"which comes from the hilly countries. /*. 

Ix^xio Tiffin pankhiya, f. a small fan ; m. a 

kind nf fakir who fdiis every body ; a wicked man. *. 
^^x> ftTrfaR^ pinln (for pinak), f. intoxica- 
"tion from eating opium ; drowsiness, nodding. /*. 

nJtf'')'iih, m. the Indian crane, s. 
P nt <h tawny, piny-chakshu, m. a 

crab, /jing-hapisha f. a cockroach, s. 

punyUj lame, a cripple. 5. 

pamwy, m. a serpent. $. 

panya, lean, soft, delicate. 5. 

Go, xrTnT^TT pangdcha, m. a field covered 

and saturated with water, h. * 

(^l& 1 H3fra p any as or ftrjfT^f piny ash, m. 
name of a iish (Silurus saglttatus Buck or Pimelodius 
pangasius). h. 

CLiGj T[^K pan gat, f. a row, or line. s. 
W^VWItt panyuta, f. deformity, lameness, s. 
J-&> fojF<5 pinya Z,m. art of measurino; verses; 

name of a fabulous being in the form of a serpent, to 
whom a treatise on prosody is ascribed ; adj. tawny, 
pale ; the fifty-first year of the Hindu cycle. *. 

,J-Cx> ^W55 pangul, m. a horse of a glossy or 
silvery white colour, f. 

b qjp$T panyla, bandy-legged, lame. s. 
ffflU puKjaliha, f. a sort of crane. *. 
pangu, (for pangu, q. v.), a cripple, 


> *SR*fft^ pan-goti, f. chicken-pox. A. 

ftijiKT pingurd,] 

.*._ . -,- rm. a cradle. A. 

*> tn^5n pingula,) 

panghat, m. a passage to a 
river, a stair, a quay for drawing water. . 

pang/turd,} m. a cradle, same 
panghuld,) as plngurd, &c. A. 
pun-ling, m. the male organ ; 

the masculine gender. *. 

rl> punam, religious merit, the reward of 

merit in futurity, d. 
rX> punim (v. b(tdr), the full moon. d. 

^> ^'fHK panmdr, a soil submerged so as 
to be incapable of cultivation. *. 
JJ pa nm a lid, m. a betel garden, d. 

wnwdr orpunmdr, m. the name of a 

plant (Cassia obtusifolia) ; name of a raj -put tribe s. 
J^.tfaKT paii-tcdm, m. a story, tule, fable. A. 

panwam, m. a plate or dish 

in ado of loaves. *. 

panwari or 'Vf^TT pantcarl 
f. a l)otel-gardcn. 5. [story-teller. A. 

panwariya, m. a bard, a 
ra, m. a story, fable, tale. A. 
: \yO t^TTTt panwari, f. a betel-garden. .?. 
>J : ^i> ^Tfj^T panwariya, m. a bard, a 
story-toll or. h. 

p't'fin'atia, a. to cause to be 
abused or reproached by another, k. 

jO qtf^jjT punola, land watered after 
ploughing, h. [repeatedly. . 

> tirf: ;?zmcr, again (see pun), puna-puna, 
jJ ;>w//a, wide, broad, spacious. ;>. 
^l> ^'ffTO panhara, m. a man who carries 

water in pots on his head. s. 

T panharin, If. a woman who 
panhari, ) carries water 
on her head ; a faithless person, promise-breaker, s. 
9 ^^ <n>t hidden, concealed, p. 

panhand, a. to cause the milk 
to come into the udder of animals, h. 

1 pinltdhd, a. to dress, to put on 
(clothes), h. 
lfi) pinharii, f. concealment, *secrecy. jp. 

o &jj mr: v?fT puna-puna, f. the Pumpun 

river in Behar. *. 

panhard, m. ") la man or woman 
ankarin,f.J carrying water 

pots on the head. *. 

C 5fi> M'lf^l panht, f. a slipper, s. 

^/i,I f afflicted with the 

Jliwr dibit*, i. [slipper. $. 

jrv^iJ panhin, f. (the same as panhi), a 

^- 5" puny a, m. virtue, a pood action ; 
fame ; adj. pure, holy, righteous, punya-bhti, or punya- 
hffftmi, f. the holy land of the HindQs, bounded on the 
north by the Himalaya, on the south by the Vindhya, 
and on the east and west by the sea ; the mother of a 
male child. punya~pkal t m. the reward of good actions. 
pinnfa-trin, m. white hum grass. punya-firtha, m. a 
holy shrine, pnni/a-darshan, m. the blue jay. punya- 
sthan, m. a sacred place, punya-shil, virtuous, punya- 
karma, pious, virtuous, punya-gandh, m. the champak 
flower (Mlchelia champaca). punya~lok, m. paradise. 
i virtuous, pious, *. [of Paffians. h. 

panrii, f. tinfoil ; m. name of a tribe 
pinni, f. a kind of sweetmeat, h. 

pamycL, in. water ; a water-snake, 
or any thing living in water, t. 
i> JOT pum/a (v. *ui>), f. the commence- 
ment of collection for the new year. 8. 

punyatma, chnritahle, vir- 

tuous. ft. 

paniyara, inundated, s. 
pinyak, m. assafoatida. .<?. 

uO trfnn<3n paniyala, m. the name of a 
fruit (Flacourtia catafracta)* s. [water. s. 

pauryar*a, a. to irrigate, lo 
punya t t, f. a virtuous action, 

performed (according to those who hold the doctrine 
of metempsychosis) in one state of existence, the re- 
ward of which is received in a future transmigration ; 
merit of an ancestor rewarded in the >wrson of bis 
descendants, s. 

ff> Tfft?T puriit, pure, clean, s. 

'i m. cheese, panir-mat/a, rennet, p. 
jjJ panirl, cheesy, or made of cheese, p. 
pant r alt y \i. a joung fl o \ver- 
paniriy ) tree. A. 

punyoday, m. good fortune, 
as reward of the meritorious acts of a former life. s. 
-JJ yw punya, virtue, &c. (v. ^); the first 

day of the collections, vhen the head officer of govern- 
ment in this department sits in state at the kachahri 
or office, and adjusts the amount of the revenue to be 
collected in the ensuing year. a. 

ju> mw 7>wya, m. any saleable article; 

adj. saleable, vendible, panya-sdld, a market. . 
t jj Xfflft?T pariiha, m. a water-snake j any 

thing .living in water, an aquatic animal. . 
* f po (some as par), on, upon, at. d* 

, f. the one or ace on dice; a stand 

where water, i* provided for passengm ; an overflood- 
ing of low lands in the rainy arason. pau phafna, to 
dawn (ttie morning). A. 

( 208 ) Oy, 

|^> *fol pauwa, m. a quarter ; a weight or 

measure of a quarter of a *er. . 
\j> ifNn po,a, m. a very young serpent ; a 

nursling of any animal ; a plant. $. 

i^ T*^ PU>&> m - a pancake, s. 

r \ purvey, mean people (pi. of paji). p. 

$3* P f *wara 9 in. narration or explanation of 

a story, d. 

mrcal, t. straw (alsop0,ar). $. 

po,ana, a. to warm by the sun 
or the steam of water, to bask. s. 
*-/^\H 1*n\ porca.i, f. a chain fas f ened to 

horses' legs to prevent their being stolen ; chains with 
which the legs of a criminal are fastened; the leg of 
a boot or stocking. *. 

L-^> ^T| pup, m. a cake. s. 

^Jb^> t|Ml$1 pupali, f. a cake made of meal 

"or barley, half-baked or fried. *. 

^b O. <jq<$( pupla, f. a sort of sweet cake, 
fried. *. [out, toothless. A. 

poplu, one whose teeth are fallen 

popnl, f. a wind instrument (of 

music) made by children of the seeds of mango and 
the leaves of the Borassus ; any wind instrument, h. 

J(^) O ^HiTfT po-phatna, also pauphatna, 

to break forth as the daylight, to dawn, po-phati, t. 
daybreak. 5. 

tJtif pot, f. a boat. s. 

tftcf pot, m. nature, disposition, quality; 
glass beads ; an assessment on cultivated fields. A. 
~*tf ^K put, m. a son; the young t)f any 
animal, put-zambura, m. a young monkey, f. 
wti,, f. purity, purification. ^. 
pavit, purified, cleansed, s. 
pivat, adj drinking. . 
pota, m. grandson, son's son. s. 
., m. the scrotum, the testicles, p. 
^> tnTTfHT putatma, m. a saint, an ascetic ; 
a man of a cleanly person, or purified. *. 

\^ Tgrq put-phal, m. the jack-fruit, s. 
.^x>^ JTffTTR^T puti-phala, f. a plant (Pso~ 

ilifolia). s. 

T|fHi||^) ymti-phali, f. a medicinal 

plant (Serratula anthelmintica). t. 

[ (jj, m. an animal that produces 

young at once without the intervention of any medium; 
elephants and some other animals being supposed to 
carry the young without the aid of an ovarium or 
uterus, s. [son. s. 

J *frf pautra, (v. pota)> a grandson, gon's 
y *tftn pavitr orpavitra, pure, clean, free 
from sin, m. the brahmaukal cord. f. 

pawtra, IB. a knotted piece of 

kutha grass used Sn purification, the brahmanical 
thread ; a string of silken beads, f. holy Basil (Qcy- 
mttm toftctem); a river north-west of Haridwar, the 
Pabarf the twelfth of the light fortnight of Shrdwan, a 
festival in honour of Vishnu, s. 

potra, m. baby-cloths, clouts. A. 
pavitrata, f. purity, sanctity, *. 
tTt, belonging to a son, or 

a grandson, t, 

*& ^Jltf jpwfri, * a P u Ppet an image, s. 
*? iftnft pavtfrl, f. a ring of kusha grass 

(Poa cynosuroides), or of gold, silver, or copper, worn on 
the ring-finger and fore-finder by Hindus during reli- 
gious worship, (v. pavitra). s. 

L?J> *?hft pautti, a grand-daughter, son's 

daughter. ?. 

ttj> iftiffT potra, m. baby -cloths, clouts, A. 
potri^f. the after-birth. /. 
^ldm <puti-*hdrijd, f. the pole 

or civet cat. s. 

i)3j> Tjfini yywh'A, m. grey bonduc \Casal- 

pinia bonducella). s. 

&&> irfiT*Ttr puti-kdshth, ra. a sotf of 
pine (Pinus devaflaru). s. [shell, t. 

W putika-mukh, m, a bivalve 

puti-karnak, m. fetid ul- * 

ceration of the ear. *. 

ld, m. a puppet, an image. . 

pauttaliky m. a worshipper 
of idols, t. 

L^i ijTUjft |?fi//i, f. a small puppet 5 the 

apple of the eye. s. 

(j3 tftTRT potna, a. to plaster, to besmear, h. 
Vi3j> TjWifT /?^5, f. name of a giantess, who 

was killed by Krishna \ yellow myrobalan (Terminalia 
chebula) ; atrophy and wasting in a child, ascribed to 
the influence of the female fiend Putnd. $. 

j> pota (v. pota also/o.^), the scrotum.;?. 
pot h, m. glass beads, nature, &c. 

1| ft^rr polka, m. a large hook especially 
a manuscript book written on long separate leaves of 
paper or palmyra connected by a string through the 
centre. *. [eyelids, t. 

ifonift pothkl, f. red pimples on the 

t m. a porter's load, espe- 
cially of grain. A. 
^S^ "^ft pothl (also puthl), f. a book like 

potha> only of a smaller tiie. *. 

, F. a clove of garlic, h. 

patl, f. * grand-daughter, a son's 
Slaughter; f. the youngr (female) of any animal . 

U3> M^fri^l potiya, m. a cloth worn at timo 

of bathing ; the name of a plaything. *. 

^*^ji ^PW putyand, m. the musk-deer ; an 
insect with a fetid smelt, the fetid bug. . 

<^i Tfapot, f. a bundle, a bale, a package j 

a spout h. 

cL^iJ* put, m. name of a bone lying over 

the tail of a cow. A. 

^teT jM>5, m. an unfledged bird ; the eye- 
lid, the crop or craw (of birds) ; stomach ; the mucus 
of the nose, snot ; f. a woman having a beard. A. 

> JRfft putJt* 9 f, the anus, a term of 

abuse. A. 

>->^ tftg'13? pot-gal % m. a reed (Arundo 
tibialis); a sort of grass (Saccharum ipontaneum). A. 

pot la, rn. a large bundle, h. 

f. a small bundle, a 
small packet, h. 

m - tne Buttock, the hip. A. 

put ha, m. the paper or pasteboard 

cover of a book ; (in Dakh.) po^hd, m. the stomach $ the 
crop of a bird. /. 

*> ^HT^w/5, f. devotion, worshipping, ve- 
neration, homage to superiors ; idolatry or idol wor- 
shipping (by Hindus). 


a worship per, an 

adorer, an idolater, 
a priest having the charge of an idol temple. *. 
^^> ^ft|Wp5;tf, adored, worshipped, pujat, 
adj. adoring, worshipping. . [of adoration. /. 

pujamdn, venerable, worthy 

' act of adoration, &c. s. 

p;wa, a. to adore, to venerate, 

(but being a Hindu word it generally means) to idola- 
trize ; to elapse, as time ; to be accomplished, f . 

ia}> ifinftil pujarnya, worthy of adora- 
tion ; right worshipful . 

li^^ ^9pmr pujyamdn, being reve- 
renced or respected. *. [father-in-law. . 

pujy a > venerable, adorable ; m. a 
* absurd, obscene, inordinate, puch- 
go or ptich-baf, an obscene babbler, puch pa dor hawa, 
nonsensical, p. 

%* ^ puchh, f. inquiry, investigation. *. 
g^^> puckh'pichdr, investigation disco- 
very. d 

^s*^ Mliqill puchhd-pdckha, in. in- 
vestigation, inquiry. * [terrogation. *. 

puchh-pachh, f. inquiry, in 
puchhnd, a. to ask, to inquire ^ 

(in Dakh.) pochhnd, to wipe, to clean. . 

( 210 

t!, f. the tail of a fish. *, 

j> puchi, an insect, d. 
O\J^> puchiyat, foolish prattle, p. 
jj> jwrf, warp, web, cloth in the loom. p. 

pod-dar (for fota-dar), in. a person 

Whose business it is to assay coin, or examine whether 
It is sterling or not ; an examiner of coin ; Also a cash- 
keeper, a clerk whose business is to reckon au4 exa- 
mine money, p. 

podna, m.\ the name of a bird 
> ^fapft podni, f. f (Sylvia olivacea). h. 
HTH paudh 9 1 ui. a young tree or plant 
haj for transplantation, h. 

paudhela, ground on which 
plants are sown for transplantation, h. 
i><^ podina, in. mint (Mentka saliva), p. 

> iftr por, f. the space or interval between 

two joints or articulations (in the body, or of a bam- 
boo, sugar-cane, &c.). por-per, every joint, s. 

% pur (in Dakh. por), m. a son. p. 

P" r ' a c ' tv ' town > village; much used 
in comp., as Sultan-pur, Sultan's town, Kingston. -*. 

i ^ftt /wwr, f. a gate, door; m. a fragrant 

grass, h. 
v T^ pura, entire, complete, exact, full, 

perfect, total, ripe, pQra-k,, & to fill, to reimburse, 
to fulfil, accomplish ; (in Dakh.) pord, m. a complete 
aet or assortment of any thing, s. 

pattranih, belonging to the 
Purinas ; m. a Brahman well read in the Puranas. s. 

Sr**itfv ?5^ pu r <*i*9 f- fulness, satisfaction, 

welfare. *. [adj. eastern ; former, ancient. *. 

V^tfi 1 S^ r puwb ^ ^ purla, m. the east ; 

**fej& **&& purbarddha, m. the former or 

prior half. . 

c4tfi igtt purbi, f. the name of a raging sung 

" before evening; adj. eastern, from the east; a kind of 

rice from the east of Bengal, s. [tion. d. 

pur-parna, to discharge an obliga- 
purit, filled complete, s. 
P" nt or furtti, f. fulness, s. 
purtti, adj. filling, completing, s. 

^^r^q paurasakhya, nj. follow- 
dtixenship. . 

- ma (see puruth). s. 
m. the height of a man 

with both arms elevated ; virility ; semen virile, 
manhood^ manliness. . 

*Q& **& P**k, &dj filling, completing, 

purnn or tTCIT puran, complete* per- 

fect. piirn-pdtr, m. a full cup or vessel; a vessel filled 
with clothes or ornaments which are scrambled for by 
the guests at a festival ; a vessel filled with 256 hand- 
ful s of rice given to the superintending priest at a re- 
ligious ceremony, puran poll, f. a kind of bread. 
purna-kam, satisfied, satiated. purna-kumbh> m. a ves- 
sel filled with holy water, used at the consecration of 
a king ; a full cup or jar. s. 

jjl ^ff^S puran, adj. filling, completing ; m, 

act of filling, making up ; multiplication ; a fragrant 
grass (Cyperus rotundu*). . 

purnd, a. to weave (as a spider) ; 

n. to be filled, chattk puma, to make chequers or 
squares, s, 

lAfcli^y TJJJhfisfw purnahuti or purnahul* f. 

the oblation presented at the conclusion of a religious 
sacrifice ; the final oblation, the consummation. . 

f. the day 
of full 
moon. *. 

puma-mas, m. a monthly sa- 
crifice offered on the day of full moon. f. 

, f. the cross threads in weav- 
ing a piece of cloth. 8. 

, in. the east; adj. first, prior, 


paurnima 9 oriF$ittpurnumat 
^*&J& "S^ 1 ^^ purtiamasi 
or iftiiJifNll paurnamasi, 

former, ancient, of yore ; before, in front of. purvu- 
bhyas, m. former practice or experience, vurva-parvat, 
m. the eastern mountain, from behind which the sun is 
supposed to rise, purva-paksh, m. a proposition, the 
first part of an argument ; the first, half of a lunar 
month, pur v a- dish or purva-dik, f. the eastern region. 
purva-desh, m. the eastern country, piirva-de/l, m. a 
former body, a prior existence, piirva-rcitr, m* the 
first part of the night, p&rva-sandhya, f. dawn, purva- 
shail, m. the eastern mountain. purva-kal t m. lormer 
time, purva-kalin, ancient, purva-krit, done formerly, 
in a prior existence, purva-ganga, f. the Nermada, 
formerly called the Ganges, purva-lakshan, m. pro- 
gnostic. 8. 

\jjj> itfft purva, m. a small village, s. 

\jjjfitGm poru,a, m. a joint or phalanx of 
the fingers ; a joint of a tamarind, t. 

&\jd%>\3j ^J^W^f^ purva-bhadrapad, m. 
the 26th lunar asterism. j. [the east. *. 

purvabhimuhh, facing 

purva-phalgunlt f. the 
11 th lunar asterism. s. 

1 J^ 1 ^ purvarddha, the first half, s, 
p&rvatharha, f. the first 

Ashafha, or 20th lunar asterwrn, containing two stars 
one of which is Alpha Sagittarii. 5. c 

ponval, namo of a mercantile 

caste of HindQs in Malwa. A. u 

^J^Jf P*ah**> . the first portion 

of the day. t. , f 

( 211 ) 

purva bhadrapada, f. 

the first of two lunar asterisms called bhadrapada, the 
26th of the whole, s. 

purva-phalguni, f. the 

first uhalguni, or eleventh lunar asterism, figured by a 
conch, containing two stars, one of which is Leonis. *. 

1?m* ^** purity) born before, elder, born 
in the east p&rva-ja t ancestors, the deified pro- 
genitors of mankind, s. 

*^4'*3j ^^fiS* paurva-dehik, belong- 

ing to a former body or existence. *. 
^jjftt^fapurvak^rior, before, preceding, s. 

<^Jjj^> *frfNr paurvik, prior, primary, for- 

mer. 8. 
j>jjj ^fatpurvottar, m. the north-east, s. 

*^kjj>?, ifllfi5W paurohityq, in. the office of 
family priest, s. 

purvi, of or belonging to the 

eastern region, oriental ; f. name of a raginl in music ; 
a kind of rice from the east or Bengal, s. 

pori, f. a joint of bamboo, &c. ; a 
stiff strong kind of soil. . 

i)l* ^ft purl, f. a kind of fresh cake, fried 
in batter or ghl. *. 

] "faft paurl, f. a gate, a door. s. 
}.} MtfilT pauriya, m. a doorkeeper a 

porter. *. , [mood or rdginl. A. 

puriya, f. the name of a musical 

^> TRl pura, m. a kind of cake made of pea- 
meal, h. I 
;, wide, broad, extensive, h. I 

paurha Or iffrf porka, Strong, 

f^j}*, vfrf&i paurha,l or Mtal^ porha,l, f. 
strength, firmness ; breadth. . [sleep. A. 

paurhna, n. to lie down, to 

f or t?Nt or paurl, a stiff strong 
species of soil. h. 

. lip of a horse, p. 

ish, f. excuse, palliation, apology, 
pretence, pretext, s. 
\\0jytpuzmal, in. a cord twisted tight round 

a horse's lip or ear to enable the farrier to manage 
him. p. 

,m. the lip (of a horse particularly), p, 
part of the ornamental accou- 
trements of a horse, p. 

n. the name of the ninth solar 

month, the full moon of which is near p**bya, the 
eighth lunar asterism. s. 

, post, m, crust, skin, rind; poppy 

plant i an infusion of the poppy formerly much used 
as 4> -slow poison. pt>tt bar post, crust upon crust, or 

skin upca skjtt, 

P ost *> m. one wno intoxicate* himself 
with infusion of poppy-heads ; (met) a laiy indolent 
person, p. 

gju*}) postm, leathern (garment) ; a fault, 

blemish, postin-doz, a furrier, or maker of leathern 
garments, p. 

**j "tfrtRT posna, a. to breed, to rear, to 

educate, to nourish, to tame. s. 

A*i posh, (in comp.) covering, wearing, as 

pa-posh, (covering the feet) shoes, slippers ; sabz^posh, 
clothed in green ; kulah-posh, wearing a hat or cap. p. 

> m ' tne e 'S nt ^ mansion of the 

moon, containing three stars in Cancer ; the mulberry 

(Morus Indie a), s. 

posh, m. nourishing, cherishing, s. 
h, m. the ninth Hindu solar 

month (see pus), s. 

"^"*A poshafa f. vestments, dress, habit, 
garments, especially costly ones. p. [(cloth), p. 

poshahi, fit for making garments 
\paushpa, flowery, floral, s. 

paushpak, m. the oxide of 

brass, used as a collyrium. . 

^i>^> ift^ft paushpt, f. a name of the city 

M of Pataliputra or Palibothra. s. 

^jJ* tftfgqi paushtik, preservative, pro- 
tective; nutritive. *. 
jrAH poshish, f. dress, garments, vestment, 

concealing, covering, p. 

[uifijllfl paushkarinl, f. a large pond 

or reservoir, s. [fostering, cherishing. #. 

^ TJ^IJ poshan, m. bringing up, rearing, 
voshna, a. to breed, rear, foster, 

cherish, tame. s. 

^^> *fHf paushl, day of full moon in the 

* month paush or pus. s. 

^ poshldagl, f. concealment, p. 
poshldan, to conceal, to hide, to 

cover or veil over. p. 

*i\*}> poshlda, concealed, covered, p. 
*&>;> ifta poshya, adj. to be cherished. 

poshya-putra, m. an adopted son. poshya-varga, m. a 
class ot persons or objects to be cherished, as parents, 
children, guests, and the sacred fire. . 

tj*jl pohrl, m. a blackguard, a low fellow. 

ppkrt-log, low, vile people (quere, Is not this word of 
trench or English origin ?). d. 

*& "fW pukh, m. the eighth mansion of.the 
moon, comprising three stars in Cancer. *. 

ifarc pokhar, 1m. a pond, a tank, 
tfrtTCT pokhar a, ) a lake. *. 

i), to breed, &c. 

212 ) 

friig, m. the betel*nut tree (Areca 

faufd or catechu) ; a heap, a quantity . the fruit of the 
faufel, the betel nut. pug-phal, m. tne areca-nut. *. 

pug-rot, m. the marshy date- 

or *Jcte pal*4t>*a). t. 

> *ft*R pogand) m. a hoy from five to 
fifteen yean old. * . 

4J}> J002, family, offspring f a litter of cubs or 
young of beast or bird. <L 

a court-yard ; a gate ; a ward 
or quarter of a town, having its own gateway, h. 

, m. a bundle of grass or straw. 

p&l* tale gttydn karnS (lit. to live under a bundle of 
straw), implies a very destitute condition. *. 

. 80ft) hollow. A. 

^Vjv polad or pulad, m. steel in general ; the 

finest Damascus steel, which, with that of Kum, is 
esteemed the be in the East. p. 

polach (also polich), land con- 
stantly under cultivation. A. 

polak, m. strawbands at the end 

of a staff", used with a charkhl to frighten and restrain 
a furious elephant a, [ton. h. 

wit, f. a term of abuse, simple- 
J pott, f. a honeycomb, d. 

pun, f. a small bundle of any grass 

"or straw, &c. ; a small quantity of corn given at har- 
vest to village officers and servants, s. 

pauti, f. a gate, a door. /*. 

poliya or lftQ$4U pauliyd, a gate- 
keeper, a janitor, h. 

% puliya, the poolias are persons who pro- 
fess a species of Muhammadanism. extremely corrupted 
by the Indian superstitions. The Muhammadan Arabs 
in India propagated their religion by buying slaves, 
to whom, after they had been circumcised, and in- 
structed in their doctrine, they gave their freedom ; 
the latter in time became a distinct people, inhabiting 
the coast of India from Goa, round the peninsula to 
Madras : they go by the above name in Malabar, and 
by that of Coolies on the Coromandel. d. 

, puticht, m. a degraded race of men 

who inhabit the forests of Malabar, where they are 
not permitted to build huts, but are obliged to make 
a kind of nest npon the trees : when they are pressed 
by hunger they howl, to excite compassion from those 
passing: the charitable deposit some rice or other 
food at the foot of a tree, and retire with all possible 
haste, to give the famished wretch an opportunity of 
.taking it without meeting with his benefactor, d. 

"i^jj lfc*npomcha, m. a shady kind of cloth, 
.a dress from Jayanagar, A. 

tttfJ ^P***> m * a 8OUn d f the emission of 

wind baekww*. A. 
^> ifat p<*vn or TOY pawan, f. air, wind. 

jKW*tt-MM*f, . wind, .as aflfected morbidly, or rheu- 
matism, &c. jNN0fi ckoktf, I a windmill, pawan, m. re- 
,gent of the winds, and of the north-west quarter. pa- 
Man Mpflt.m. thesondrJPaMraa, It the ape HoHumSn. s. 

^^ paun, one quarter less (than any given 

number); three quarters, paunttn, two and three- 
quarters. *. 

pivan, adj. drinking, x. 

n, m. a ferule or cap of metal ; mount- 
ing of a' sword-hilt, walking-cane, &c. <f. 

pona, a. to nfake bread; to string 
(pearls), to thread (as a needle). A. 
U^t^rf paund or pona, m. a spoon with holes 

in it like a colander, for skimming, &c. h. 

JOy, 1HRT9 pavanal, m. a kind of grain 

(Andropodon laccharatM). t. 
Ui^> vrfclpontd, m. snot, &c. (v. pota). h. 
(m f& Tftlftponthi, f. a kind of small fish 

"(Cyprinus chyr*opareius, Buck.), t. 

(J^lv ^*ft punfit ^ a capital in trade, stock, 

"principal sum. *. [riying. d. 

g^> paunch (for pahunch), f. arrival, ar- 

Uj^^ paunchna, n. to arrive, to come. d. 
^^ ^Sipunchh 9 f. a tail. s. 

, tailed, having a tail. s. 

d, a tail. s. 

(3$ ^fNpf ponchhan, m. any thing thrown 
away after wiping ; a rag, &c. with which any thing 
is wiped, h. 

U$j^3 qTtt^T ponchhnd or ^IRT punckhnd, 
a. to wipe, to clean, to expunge, h. 

, m. a kind of sugar-cane, s. 
drak, m. the pale straw- 

coloured species of sugar-cane ; a man of a mixed 
caste, from the Yaisva and female of the distiller 
caste, whose business it is to boil sugar, s. 

i^j jJJ^ifhB^rifar paundra-varddfian, m. 
one of the divisions of central India (Behar). . 
fe&>}> ifrgHI paundhndy a. (v. paurhna) to 

repose. He down. /<. 

j>j*r ^HfS^ paHnar-bhava, m. one of the 
sons or heirs admitted by the old HindQ law, the son 
of a woman from a second marriage. '*. 

m. tautology, s. 
punsalat, f. a thin roller, 

on which cotton is prepared for spinning, h, 

paun-savan, m. a religious 

of conception 
- "- A. 


ceremony performed when 
appear. *. 

falponkd, m. the ship-worm (2Verfo 
qfaftT ponknd, n. to b fluxed, k. 

ponga, m. a blockhend ; a sprt of 
drum ; a thin joint of bamboo *, a4|. empty. A. 
pungra, m. a male child, ft boy. W. 

kind of pipe played upon by the jugglers 

( 213 ) 


ncrHy If. 
&io/i, J 

the day of the new 
moon. * 


to thread a needle, to make bread, &c. h. 

^> ^ffaff paunak, m. a spoon with hota in 
ft like a colander, for skimming, &c. (see pound). A. 

ij> JJlft Or TJift punt, f. rolls of cotton pre- 
pared for spinning. A,* 

ij) 4ro paune, prefixed to a number denotes 

a quarter less, as panne tin, a quarter toss three, or two 
and three-fourths. A. 

3ji 4irt panrii, a collective name for the 
lower castes, such as barbers, shoemakers, &c. A. 

p, f. the day of the new moon. s. 
pautva, ro. a quarter ; a quarter of 

aser. A. 

f. dawn of day. A. 

b, m. a stand where water is kept 
ready for travellers, h. 

*7v *^t poha, the cattle of a village, per- 
mitted to graze on waste land. A. 
*fan?f pohda, m. a young tree &c. A. 
1 lhpfT pohna, a. to make bread. A. 
ipft pavl, a dyke cut either to let water 

in or out. A. 

/* ^far po,e> f. la kind of vegetable ( Ba- 

\ vel rubra). A. 

\puyalas, m. suppuration at the 
joints, white swelling, t. [der. A. 

pu,ldan or po,ldan, to run, to wan- 
paverd f act of sowing seed by the 

' Hand. A. 

I m. pus, matter, discharge, 
) from an ulcer. . 
z,m . a canter orb and-gallop.^. 

nter. ho ! hallo ! (calling 
"Vpeople in the road to get out of the way), have a 
tare. />. 
, Hpha> the aspirate of the letter Vpa. 

a, (for par), on, in, at ; conj. but, yet, 
used chiefly in verse. A. [to grow luminous. A. 
> 1*1 pah, f. dawn ; pah-phatna, n. to dawn, 

^Ay ^rj phaty division of revenue, assess- 
ment among the sharers in joint tenantry. A. 

^iS^A^^Xmphafak^ m. a gate; a large shut- 
ter ; an obstruction, impediment, a check ; the bar of a 
court of justice, where the plaintiff and defendant take 
their station; a watchman in charge of a gate. phS(ak~ 
feuti, imprisonment, safe custody, under lock and 
key. A* 

jJ^ TO^n X'a/wa, n. to be torn^ to be 
broken, split, rant Ice. . 

a mountain, pahar M 
rate*, long and tedious nights (especially of sorrow) A. 
jjf^4> WIT phara, torn, broken, split, rent. *. 
pahara, ro. (in arithmetic) the 

multiplication table: a story or fable. A. 

^y^H | W1f w ^ pAar khana, a. to worry ; 
to bite and gnaw. g. [ravenous beast *. 

r kha,u or -Ma,o y m. a 

pharna, a. to tear, to rend 5 to 
split ; to break ; to cleave (as wood). * . 
/jVy ^^ pa han, f. a hill, a small moun- 
tain; adj. of or relating to the hilli. pakSfi bhang, 
henbane, k. 

pahariyciy m. a mountaineer; 

adj. belonging to the mountains. A. 

Lf\> wn ph<*g, ni. red powder thrown over 

one in the time of the Holl ; the act of throwing co- 
loured powders in the Holl, the gambols of the Holl 
(in Dakh.) the forms phak and phak-ra, are used a, 

*\4>, ^JPnf phogan or tnpf phagun, (also 
phalgvn). the name of the eleventh month, the full 
moon of which is near piirvaj^algwu. (Feb. March), t. 

ly m. a ploughshare, s. 
/, f. a lump of betel-nut (Areca)*, 

a step. h. 
^-J^i WcS^H phalsciy in. name of a fruit 

(Gnwia Aslatica). (in Dakh.) phalisa, a shrike, h. 
^JG^ W^pl phalgun, the eleventh month 

(v. phagun) ; a tree (Pentaptera arjuna). t. 
^^\^^mftphial^nl t f. day of the full 

** moon in the month Phalgun, on which the Holl festi- 
val is celebrated ; a name common to the eleventh and 
twelfth lunar arterisras, distinguished by the epithets 

purvd and uttard. *. 

\\Qphalna> a. to spring, leap, jump. d. 
^Jl^> phali, f. a kind of small pillow, a child'a 

"napkin, d. 

^^i ^JhtntT phampna* n. to swell. A. 

, m. a hole, an orifice. A. 

phaht, m. a village register, h. 

anta, m. a branch of a tree, a neck 
of land. d. 
jt^phanj,* noose, snare, c. (v.phanda). d. 

Uail^ phanjna, a. to chop, to score, d. 

1m. a noose, a net; met. 
perplexity, difficulty. A. 
phandna, to leap, jump, or 
spring over ; to imprison, to tie, to ensnare or entrap. *. 
^^i 1 !^ phandl, f. a bundle of fiO or 100 

aiU, m. a splinter (of bamboo, 

C 214 ) 

(j*ty *&* P h<*n*9 \m. s noose ; 
\~jty, 'VfatphansaJ ment; (in 

an impedi- 
(in Dakh.) a 

die Cmr playing, t. 

^^ 4NRT phdnsnd, n. to noose; to 
throttle, to choke ; to be perplexed ; to be impeded ; 
to stick (as in. mud). . 

rf-i^J tjWt phdnsi, f. a noose, a loop. 
"phdfai pajfa&, n. to be hanged, phafai dena, a. to 
strangle, to hang, phdfai lagdna, a. to kill one's self 
by strangling. *. 

, Mlll/I'lli phdn8i-gdr,\ a strangler, 

hdn*i-gar f j a sneaking 

sort of highwaymen, of recent notoriety under the 
name of thags (vulg. thugs), who first strangle the un- 
wary traveller, then take possession of his money, &c. //. 

t-iil$> Ttffaphdnk, f. a slice, or piece of fruit. A. 

}m. a fop, a vain 
silly fellow, h. 

id, a. to chuck into the 

mouth from the palm of the hand (grain, meal, &c.); 
to squander ; (in Itekh.) to elapse (as time) ; to vanish 
(as clouds, &c ) A. [fruit. A. 

phdnki, f. a slice, or pieee of 
\phdnki, f. (in logic) an objec- 
tion. *. 

l^> Hire phdw, m. a small quantity given 
above the quantity purchased, to boot. A. 
j3^i 1 W 1 T l ph<* toa T& or phd,ord, m. a mat- 
tock, a spade, a hoe. h. 

S/J^^^v t W^P phd 9 ori, f. a crutch on which 
ajogl leans ; a piece of wood, or staff, with a support 
at each end, which is held in both hands and laid hori- 
zontally, in performing the exercise oldand; an in- 
strument like a small rake or hoe for removing a 
horse's dung. A. 

^^4i tflnp phdhd, m. a flock of cotton, wet 
with 'ajar, or scented water ; a plaster, a pledget. A. 


[dress. A. 

phab, f. embellishment, ornament^ 
phabta, pertinent, fitting, h. 

ti, f. ornament, conjecturing 

what a person is by his dress, phabtl kahna, a. to say 
or conjecture by one's dress what sort of person, or of 
what caste, he is. A. 

U5o^ Wim phabaJtna. n. to shoot forth 
(as branches); to grow, sprout. A. [meat. A. 

.jkg iflflf phaban, f. embellishment, orna- 
Ui4> TWIT phabwi) n. to become, to fit. A. 
blloij becoming, fit, proper. A. 

or S^ jpi*ap, 
a flower (v. p**P) * 
Uy phupa, \ ,m Ac husband of a paternal 
u, i aunt (v. pkuppha). h. 



> ip*Tt phupkar, f. bubbling, blowing 

or breathing into any liquid. A. > t 

^T^Mw^a* m - tlie husband of a pa- 
ternal aunt, h 

phapfixd, swelled; insipid. A. 

phvphkdr, f. the hissing of a 
[snake), A. 
phuphkdrnd, n. to hiss (a 

pltaphundi or tR^f) p/m- 

phundi, f. mould (on fruit, bread, &c., from damp- 
ness). A. [ternal aunt. A. 

u, m. the husband of a pa- 
- MiMit<#T phaphola, m. a blister. ^Afl- 

phole p/iutne, n. to be blistered ; (it is figuratively ap- 
plied to the mind) ; hence it signifies to be afflicted. 
phaphole dilke phorne, to satisfy a revenge that has 
long been rankling in one's breast, s. 

ifiW*4l phaphundl, f. mouldiness. A. 
f- a paternal aunt ; 

"father's sister. A. 

phuphiya-sas, f. the 

sister of a father-in-law. A. 

fye ! 

-sasur, m. the husband of a father-in-law's sister, s, 

d, m.1 descended from or 
upheri, f. J related through 

a paternal aunt, phupherd lhaj, the son of a paterna. 
aunt, p hup her I bahin, daughter of the same. A. 

^L*$* f iKif^w<,interj. expressive of con tempt, s. 

> phnttar, m. a stone, pfuittar ha phul, 
lichen, rackmoss. phattar bandt, stone work, masonry, 
paving, d. 

phattari or phattri, f. a flint, d. 

, arrogant, disdainful. 5. 
phitj m. curse, malediction j adv. 

phif-phif, curse on it ! fye upon it ! A. 

RJ phuf, separated, odd, unpaired. //. 
^, t?OT phatd, m. a crack. jt;/tffte 7?wi ^a,<? 

dend, to interfere in any thing. A. 

U^> ftRCT^T pkitdna, a. to beat up and mtk, 

to froth, phutana (tr. of phupn&)> to increase, &c. A. 

s ^<-2^> Mt^M^T ;>/tat parnd, n. to be pro- 
duced plentifully; to become fat suddenly; to be con* 
founded with too much business, aswan pAajf parnd, 
n. to rain hard. A. 

UAJui^> Mt^tftg 1 HI phatphatdndf a. to shake 

or flap the wings, as birds just goin$ to fly %5 to, gl? a 
sound, an the shoes of a person walking. A. . 

lA^> im phatak or ^fal phatik, m. 
crystal. A. , . 

M/tA, a snare, net, cage* a. 
phitkdr, f. curse, maledielion, 

removing something to a distance. A. ; 


> fmi4,4l phitkdi<nd 9 a. to curse. A. 

iJk?*C pkutkar, odd, unpaired ; sepa- 
tate, dispersed (as a horseman). A. 

\, phitkiri, 


', or pliatkarl, (in Dakh.) phatakri, t alum, 
saltpetre, f. 

f phatakndj a. to winnow ; to 

dust, to shake or knock off any light thing which 
slightly adheres, as crumbs from a table-cloth or dust 
from a table ; n. to be separated ; m. the tape in a 
pellet bow which strikes the ball. t. 

v^AJ TRnAphafki, f. a fowler's net; a large 

"cage; a rope tied to a tree to frighten birds with its 
sound ; (in Dakh.) saltpetre, alum. h. 

1^6* yft phutkl> f. a blot* spot, stain ; 

"adj. odd, not paired, h. 
^3$> 1 **n phatna, a. to be torn, split, rent ; 

to be broken, burst, cracked ; (in Dakh.) to be paid off 
or liquidated (a debt), t. 

Uu4> IgCTT phutnd, n. to increase, to obtain 
advancement, d. 

L^Ai phati-dnkhij blear eyed. d. 

pahchan, f. acquaintance, 
knowledge, h. 

pahchanna, a. to know, to 

recognise, to distinguish or discriminate, to understand 
or percieve. h. 

hith hi&&9 the imitative sound 

uttered by birds, d. 

^VHv H^M Ml phadphaddnd, n. to fer- 

ment (as sour milk, curds, &c.) ; to be inflamed with 
lust (v. balbalana). h. 

&#, i&SFI&tt phudaknd, to jump, to leap, to 

hop (applied to small birds), to dance about in token 
of delight. 7*. 

phudki, f. tbe name of a bird 

(Certhiatula). h. 

jt> p/iaddi, finally, at last ; hence, d. 
TJT^wr, true, right. /*. 

i VJtphurr, m. the noise of a bird, as a 

partridge or quail, suddenly taking wing, or of a small 
quantity of gunpowder exploding, h. 

phir, again, then, afterwards, any 
more. h. 

> iff^pahar, m. a division of time consist- 
ing of seven and a half ghatf* ; or, more strictly speak- 
ing, the pahar is the fourth part of the natural day or 
night, and consequently it must vary in length from 
six to nine ghafit, according to the season ofthe year 
and the latitude of the locality. For example : in the 
province of Kashmir, in the north of India, the pahar 
of the day at midsummer will be nearly nine ghar\s t 
and that of the night about six, while at Cape Comorin, 
In the extreme south, there is very little variation dur- 
iajf the w^ole year (v. g/Mfs). t. 

r, ro* a fruit ; a shield. < 

]^ W{*\ pakra> m. a watch, a sentinel f tout 

of watch ; a corporal and six. pahre-uxUa, a seotine\, 
watchman, guard, pahra dend, to watch, pakrtm** 
$alna, to confine in a guard, pahre me* popt4, to be 
confined in a guard. **, 

arrafd, m. a piece of bamboo ; 

a sound made by the flying of a flag, qr the breathing 
of a horse. A. 

>"^& vfa* pfrarra* m. the name of 4 tree 

(its leaves resemble those of the Cyprets or of the Ta 
mar is k, and make a whistling noise in the wind, whence 
the name), h. 

phirana, to cause to turn, to 

whirl, to return, to change, to roll, to shift, to wan 
der. h. 

pharrana, n. to fly (as a flag), s. 

pahrana, also pahirana, a. to 
cause to dress, to clothe, to dress. * 

phirav or phira,o, m. turning, 

a return, restitution, rotation. h 

d ^rf^CPIf pahiraman, m 
fTWft pahirawam 

m. 1 
, f. / 


on guests at a wedding, dress, clothing. *. 

Jj]ni iflW'fl pahirawnl or U^U'M^I pah- 
ra t oni , f. a woman who dresses the guests at a wedding, 
a tire-woman, s. 

ira 9 i, f. act of returning, h. 
hir-parna, to be dissatisfied, d. 

hurana, n. to trem- 
ble ; to wave (as hair in the wind), h. 
f^Ai^i '?*3 p ft phurphuri, f. trembling, 

quivering, tremor, palpitation, h. 
tyjto, TflCTfl^ pkarphand, m. deceit, trick, 

wickedness, h. [treacherous, wicked, k. 

pharphandiya, deceitful, 
m. rejected things; money 

paid by a lewd woman to her paramour, h. 

phurt f f. activity, alertness/ *. 
lara, m, a whirlwind, d. 

phirtd rahna, n. to wan- 

der, to perambulate, to walk about, h. 
J^ ftRJll phirti, returning, homeward- 

" bound, phirtl ka bhara, the hire of a return boat, 
carriage, &c. h. 

L!^ ififf phurfi 9 f. activity, quickness. 9. 
^L3^fT^5T7?/^r^/a,quick, nimble, actives. 

UU*,^ fiJRflMT phir-jdna, to return, to re- 
volt ; to b distorted ; to warp. h. 

^^i TWTT pharchd, m. fair weather; dis- 
persion or clearing away (of a crowd of people, or of 
clouds, &c.) ; a decision, definitive sentence, h. 

^Vj4J ^CWIf pharchana, a. to decide, to 
give a liual sentence or decree. A. 

( 216 ) 

*j&, 1 KW pharchha, m. fair weather (same 

as ftivrchd), dj. pure, honest; fair (not cloudy). 
f iHtrchkfik.,*. to dean, to fettle, to sweep. pharchh&-h., 
to oter up, to become fair (the weather), k. 

^6?lr6 1 wtVniT pkarchhand, a. to clean, to 
wipe, to settle, h. 

pkarxa, m. an axe, a hatchet *. 

HCW pkarah, f. fluttering, palpitation ; 
m. H shield, h. [to flutter, h. 

> MRii 1 41 pharhana, a. to agitate, cause 

TC1RTT pharakna, n. to flutter, vibrate, 
to throb, to writhe, &c. (v. pAara*n). A. 
^iftWrtptaVW, f. a whirligig ; any thing 
turning as on an axis ; a reel for thread, h. 

fifctfl p/tirna, a* to turn, to return, to 

walk about, to whirl, to wheel, to wander, to change. 
to revolt. A. 

iTftfT paharna or *rffmi pahirnd, a. 
to put on clothes, 4 dress, to clothe one's self, to wear. . 

ftffff phirni, f. a whirligig, any thing 
turning on an axis ; a whirlwind. A. 

pahru, 1 m. a watchman, a sen- 

phirrvdna, to cause to be 
returned, h. 

rnvak) m. a betel-box. *. 

TOTfT pharuhd, m. an instrument for 
raking together. A. 

ly^pahra, m. a watchman, sen tinel. v.pahrd. s. 
phurhdri, f. horripilation, s. 
pharahra, 1m. a vane, a pen- 
i,J dant; adj. half- 
dried. *. 

\ phari> f. a shield, a target, s. 

>. tfilf) phari, f. one of several fishos. A. 
J TflfTS pahari, 1 m. a watchman, a sen- 

pahriya,) tine! ; a village ser- 
vant and messenger, also employed to keep watch, s. 

phorhja, f. a kind of bordered 
vestment, worn by Hindus ; a contractor for reaping, h. 

&< ^S? ]>h a r> f* a gaming-houpe where dice 
are played ; a place where goods are exposed for sale ; 
the shafts or pole of a carriage, phaf-bdz, m. a player 
at dice, a gamester; a prater, a talkative fellow, pkar- 
bdzi, t, gambling, playing at dice. A. 

t, f. war, battle, fight d. 

\rdnd, a. to cause to be torn, 
split, or cleaved. A* 

ardf, "} agitation, flutter, 
u .*\XA\UA\ **im***k/irfihnt. I (disquietude. A. 

j4i WWfWI pharphar&&;*. to flutter, 

to wave, to twinkle, to move with convulsive motion, k. 

pkarphafiya, m. flutterer ; 

adj. swift, quick. A, [ing, &e. *. 

pharah (v. pharak), ft flntter- 

pharkana, a. to cause to 

flutter, to cause convulsive motion in the muscles, fee. ; 
(met.) to shew. A. 

UJ^> wmn pharakna, n. to flutter, to 

vibrate with convulsive, involuntary motion, as the 
eyelids and other muscles ; to throb, to palpitate, to 
writhe (the shoulders), h. 

(Jjto TO^ft pharki, f. a coarse screen, k* 
Ojt> ingfifT pahurna, n. to lie down, rest, 

sleep, h. 

pharinga, f. a cricket, s. 

pliariya, m. a pedlar, a retailer ; 
the keeper of a gaming-house or dice table. A. 

phuriya, f. a sore, a pimple, a 

a voice, sound, noise. <2. 
phasakU) bad tobacco (inele- 

boil. /i. 

gant). *. 

entanglement. A. 

phasana, a. to cause to stick 

(as in mud, <Vc.) ; to catch, to entangle ; to cause to be 
imprisoned, to squash. A. 

pltmandi, f. mouldiness; scum. d. 

phasav or pha*a,o, m. sticking, 
[ing, stinking. A. 
phusahinda, adj. disgust* 
phasphasa, flabby, loose, 
[per. A. 
ffT phus-phusdna, n. to whis- 

T phis-phisand, n. to 
be terrified. A. 

not rigid, h. 

phuxawat, f. 

buzzing in 

, the ear. K. 
phusar, m. 

Kfl> ^pQfiT pkuska* weak, without strength ; 

slack (as a knot). A. 
UK ^> mKkHl pliaskd a, a. to burst, to 

split, to break ; to loosen or slacken. A. 

vIi*C$> phaskat, squatting in the oriental 

fashion (vide cA5r-ofi> d. 

Jx^> TO*? ptuishar, m. sitting on the 
ground with legs extended. A. 

UJw^ wnutT phatakna, n. to split, to burst, 
to break. A. [slide, err. . 

pkisldna, a. to cause to slip, 

phu*ldna> a. to coax, to 
wheedle, to instigate, to entice. A. 
!*&4> 1JB9T* phu*la,u, m. a wheedler, in- 
stigator, ptiusla.o, wbeedling, coaxing, flattery. A. 
**&~4> fmUflii* phitlahat, f. slip per in ess ; 

a slip, an error. f*i/aAaA cajolery, seduction. *. 
Jt&jJu4> phital-banda, m. sliding down a 
smooth bank, a favourite sport with children. A. d. 
.^L-4> "ftW^JIf phitlan, m. act of slipping or 
sliding; error. A. [to err ; adj. slippery. 8. 

phualna, n. to slip, to slide, 
If phutlauniya, m. a 

wheedler, a'coaxer. A. [slippery. A. 

phisalha, m. slipping ; adj. 
V. pasK), f. a rib, &c. d. 
tflwna, n. to be stuck (as in mud 

or in a narrow passage) ; to be caught, to be impri- 
soned, ensnared, entangled, involved ; to be impeded. A. 

phatiyara, m. a strangler, a 

fhag (v. pliansl'gar). A. 

interj. pish ! pshaw ! A. 
> phah, a sound, voice, noise, d. 
K> i rat phaMa, m. a small quantity of 

parched grain to be chucked into the mouth. A. 
K> phikha (v. pAt&a), vapid, tasteless, &c. d. 

U;K^) ftR^KHI phikarna, a. to uncover the 
head, to unplait the hair of the head. A. 

^4 ftWHIT phi kandy a. to cause or teach to 
throw. A. 

phakkar, m. wrangling, mutual 


abuse, raillery. phakkar-bdz t an abuser, an indecent 
chatterer. A. [with rudeness. A. 

^ yAaAri, f. the act of treating 

phahhiha, f. a sophism ; a trick, 
illusion, fraud. . [blown into a flame. A. 

phuhna, to be inflated, to be 
phuhndj m. a bladder. A. 

ukm, f. blow-pipe ; a fire- 
lock or pistol. A. 

S^to TIPIlfnn phakonya, m. a fop, an ab- 
surd prattler, an indecent talker. A. [ity. A. 

phakoriyat, f. absurd- 

ptiakiya, f. a slice, a .piece of 
fruit, A. ' !><>) * 

> fi*%R phikait, m. a thrower (of a spear, 
yu,a t m, the same aa Ao/t ; 
presents made during the holi holidays, t. 

a, w. to swell, puff out, enlarge, d. 

phal, to. fruit 5 effect, result, *d 
vantage, reward, equivalent ; the iron head of a spea 
or arrow, fee. ; children, progeny ; a blade (of a sword 
&e); a sort of fragrant berry and drug commonly 
called kakolii a nutmeg ; a ploughshare ; the quotien 
of a turn. phal-aptkM, f. regard to, or expectation of, 
consequences, phal-asht, living on fruits, p/vo/- 
akdnksht, f. hope or expectation of good consequences, 
plt<U-bkog t m. enjoyment of reward or consequence*; 
usufruct, phal-bhogi, who receives the profits, phal- 
p&c, m. the ripeniug of fruit ; the fulne** of conse- 
quences ; the Cot-onda, phal-pak-axtd, f. an amma. 
plant, dying after bearing fruit phal-pdnd, a. to reap 
the reward of (good or bad actions), phal-prapti. f, ob- 
taining the fruit or desired result phol-trik or ptial- 
traif, m. three sorts of fruits collectively { the three 
myrobalans collectively, phal-janak, producing fruit. 
phal-chamas, m. the bark of the Indian fig, ground and 
eaten with curds by way of penance, phal-tiddhi, f. 
attaining an object, reaping the fruit of an act. phal- 
sampad, or phal-sampat, f. prosperity, success, phal- 
shreshtha, m. (best of fruits) the mango, phal-kamna, 
f. desire of reward or consequences. vhal-kfian^aH.m. 
disappointing, phal-grahi, adj. bearing fruit, phal- 
nirvritti, f. final consequence or result, phal-ttishpatti, 
f. producing fruits, or desired results, phal-niv.-itti, f. 
cessation of consequences, phal-hani, i. loss of fruit 
or profit, t . 

J^> 19$ phal, form, shape, figure, d. 

J^> tpST phtilla, m. blown, opened, expanded 

(a a flower), s. 

\al, m. a flock of cotton; begin- 
ning, aggression ; the side of a rectangular figure, ti. 
pahld (also ^ff^JT pahila), first, 

the first ; before, rather ; soon, pahle pahal, at first, 
in the first instance. A. [ract d. 

, m. a disease of the eye, a cata- 

, f. a leap, spring, bound; 
m. a step, a stride* A. 

plwKuara, m. flattery. A. 
i Mic^lHI phalana, a. to cause to produce, s. 
13 ^^> iR^IW phulana, a. to cause to swell ; 

to fatten ; (met) to make proud by flattery. *. 
ti&i^, TGSWi phalany, f. a stride, leap, 
bound, h. 

phal-bujhawval, m. 

the name of a game (also called mankela), " think of 
a number, double it, add ten to it, take five from it, &c., 
how much remains ?" j " twenty-one :" " the number 
was eight." A. -f /tt"U- _ * 

L^f^j, TR^THtn phal-bhoy, m. usufruct, re- 
ceiving the produce or profits of any thing, t . 
4i 1 **^^5 phal pur, m. common citron 

(Citrut medico), s. 

>&$& ^^'^ phalphalari^ f. variety 
of fruits or of dishes made of fruit, t. 

J$> ^fignr phaitt, fruitful, prolific, ^ignj 

p/iofcrf, yielding fhilt, profit, &c, *. 

^12^ tf^nn^ phalitarth, m. a meaning 

implied though not expressed. /. 

HTf phaLtar, m. the fruit-bearing 
, the female palm. *. 

( 218 ) 

phutfhajfyf. a kind of fire- 
work like a fountain. . 

jadj. yielding 

phai'data, ) fruit; m. one 
who reward* a benefactor. ffoiforf, m a tree. *. 

phal-ddr, fruitful, bearing 

fruit, h.p. . 

^ ffl<31Hf phutta-daman, m. a species 

of the Atidhritl metre. *. 

, *! m. the blade of a sword, 
> phalra, J knife, &c. 

Aatya, *! 
alra, J 


philasna, n. (per metatlietin, 

, to slip. A. 

pftalah, m. a shield; a bone; the 
of frontii; a plant (Metuaferrea). t. 
^lRglft phulka, inflated, puffed up; light; 

m. a blister ; an area or arena for wrestlers ; a kind of 
cake or small l^f. * 

jKl^) lfk$4|K4l phulkarna, n. to inflate, to 
swell out, as a snake does his hood, to expand. . 

*qs$*tttphulkar\, ra. flowered cloth, s. 

phal-kar, a branch of revenue 

arising from the rent of orchards ; profits of an estate 
arising from fruit-trees thereon. . 

phal-krishna, in. a small 

fruit of a black colour (Carissa carandas). s. 
ju>yf<j.> tfi<fl*reE phal-lwshak, ra. the 
scrotum or testicles, s. [nut tree. *. 

plial-kethar, in. the cocoa- 

phnlki or 

armed with a shield ; m. a sort of fish caught in ponds, 
commonly called Phal^tl (Myttus capirat). s. 

hulhi, f. a cake or raised bread, 

fritters. *. 

TJr^T phalyu, f. the Ficus oppositifolia ; 

a river which is said to run underneath Gya ; a red 
powder, usually of the root of wild ginger, coloured 
with sappan-wood, and thrown over one another by 
the Hindus at the Holt festival, s. 

, m. the month Phalgun. 

i, same as phdlguni. s. [fruit. . 

phalan, m. fructifying, bearing 

phalna, n. to bear fruit ; to pro- 
duce ; to be fortunate. *. 

d, fruitful, bearing fruit.*. 
phalang, f. a stride, leap, bound, d. 

^> pahlu, m. the Bide; the wing of an army. 
pahtt tihi-k. t a. to refuse, to decline, to evade, p. 

lu,a, m. a knotted fringe* h. 
/wan,f. a flower-gar- 
den. s. 

phalwan, fruitful, froit-baitr- 


[results. *. 

i pahalwdn or pahlawan, m. a hero, a 
champion, a stout fellow, a wrestler, p. ^ 

liV^i pahalwdnl or pahlawarii, f. heroism, jp, 
Oji^3 ifi^pr^ phal-wat, adj. fruit-hearing. *. 

l^j]^) TR^tlWT phalottama, f. the highest re- 
ward, arising from sacred study. *. 

pahilauta, first-born, h. 

, m. profit, result j 

happiness. *. 

P halodd * h > 

i^f. bread or cake made 
of fruit and pulse, and fried in ghi or oil. * 
^. pahlavi, of or relating to a hero ; the 
language of Persia in its transition from the Zand to 
that now spoken, p. [beating, h. . 

JRJTTI phul-hattha, m. cudgelling, 

pahle or T?fi^ pahile, at first, in 
the first place, soon, rather pahto par, on the other 

side. /i. 

, m. a sort of fish, c'ommonly 

'caled PAote,i. (Mystus kapirat)-, f. a shield; a Medi- 
cinal plant, commonly called Priyaitgu. 9. 

fti^t ^*f7K, f. the leg. A. 

f. a disorder in the eye, the 

albugo-, (in Dakh.) an ornament worn in the nose; the 
tumbler nail of the cock of a musket phullt hnn, the 
star pagoda, a gold coin worth three and a haft rup$e> 
or seven shillings sterling. 

i 1 '^ phaUy "If. a cod, a pod (or the 
aMy*tJ 8eed ) f an 7 legumi- 

nous plant, but particularly of peas ; a loop, phalt-kash, 
m. a hook for drawing the strings through the holes 
by which the walls of a tent are faced to the top; adj. 
fruitful, prolific, j. 

phaliyana, n. to bear fruit. 5. 

phaleruha, (. the trumpet- 
flower, (Bignonia suaveolens). j. 
4^^> phuteri, f. romping, playing, d. 

(^AQl 1 9i&9phulel, m. oil impregnated with 
the essence of flowers by steeping them inJt. . 
halya f m. a bud, a flower. $. 
. WQ or HSf phan, m. the hood of a snake ; 

his expanded neck, jphan uthdna, a. to spread the hood, 
as n sribke. phan-dhar, phan-kar, phan-wan, a snake, 
pltan-munt, m. a jewel supposed to be in the head of a 
snake, s. 

pahan, m. width, breadth, arapleness ; 

adj. wide, widely, extensive, p. , 

HRt;?//^?/a, a snaked hood; the forV 
castle of a tbip. *. , . 

, ra. the silk lash of a whip. d. 
, broad, wide, extensive, p. 
^> ift&l pahanna or ^f^W? pahinna, a. to 

wear, to drees, to put on ; m. dress, clothing, s. 

liifJ i|'f ffitU pahnana, a. to clothe, cause to 
be dressed. *. [raiment. . 

pahndwa, m. dress, clothes, 
man;a;',l ample, wide, broad, spa- 
iiarvar, J cious. j0. 
U^> pabnaji width, spaciousness, jp. 

phanphandnd, n. to hiss 

(as a snake) ; to spring up suddenly (as a fast-growing 
plant); to move about briskly (as a playful child). < 

4$* ^ns phamph, land that requires to be 
left fallow for some time. A. 
/u^^ icf$TLir*JM phanjl-putrikd, f. a plant 

(Salvinia cucullatd). t. 

^ v iJifVTAfcT phanjiha 9 f. a plant, (Sipko- 

nantltus indica) : a species of Hedysarum (H. alhagi). s. 

i^Av irfqriiKiF phanijjhak, m. a plant, 

called also marua. s. 
^^v lfi%R3rT phanijjhaha, f. a plant, 

commonlv called TZawt Du<, apparently a sort of basil 
with snian leaves, s. 

pahunch. m. arrival ; access, ad- 
mittance ; sagacity, penetration ; a receipt, h. 
^T palntncha, m. the wrist, h. 

"M^viVr|Tp//W7ic7m?ia,a.tosend, to carry, 
convey ; to cause, to occasion, to bring about, h. 

pahunchna, n. to arrive, to reach, 
to come, to amount, to befall, h. 

pahunchwana (caus. vf pa- 

Jmnduina), to cause to be carried, conveyed, &c, h. 
^rtKvifQ*f\pahu)'cht, f. an ornament worn 
"on the wrist, a kind of bracelet, h. 
^> THfj%t phanda, m. a noose, a net; per- 
' plexity, difficulty, h. [to leap. 'h. 

\phandand, a. to cause to jump, 
Iphandlana. a. to catch in a 
snare, to entrap. //. 

^^H HWfl pliandna, n. to be imprisoned, h. 
TflRFTT phwndnd, m. a tassel, h. 
phannasy m. the jack fruit, also the 
tree bearing the same. d. 
ULJ^ WUtt pit a man a, a. to ensnare, to 

involve* A.. 

j\*Jty v liflflR phansaw or phatisa,o, m. en- 
tanglement. A. - [stick (v. phasnd). h. 
\*~^4* "4r5rJ|t pkansnd, n. to be entangled, to 
O^^^ l$ttW4l phomwana (onus, ofphfln- 
satta) to cause to be eneoaredi strangled &c. h. 

, f. ,a pimpK A. 
phafw'yara,'} m. a foot-pad 

pkanii-gar, ) who strangles 

passengers or travellers : the term is more especially 
applied to a well-known organized gang, called frag* 
(vulg. thugs). *. 

>^J> ifi^r phanka, m. a handful (or rather 

mouthful^ of any thing eaten by being chucked into 
the mouth, phankd mdrna, a. to eat by chucking into 
the mouth, to chuck food into the mouth. A. 

pahnikci) f. a plant (Pistia ttra 

tioite,*). t. 

phunhar, f. the hiss of a snake, f. 
phunkama, n. to hiss (as a 

snake), s. 

j^fa ^PKrft phunkari, f. hissing of a snake. 

phvnkdrt mania, to hiss (a snake), f. 

pkinkna, n. to be thrown. 5. 
pliani-k/iel, m. a quail s. 
i, f. same as phanka, q. v. 
pharii-hesliar, m. a plant 

(Mesttaferrea.) s. 

nT/>^an^a,m. a grasshopper. 5. 
phinyak. m. the fork-tailed 

shrike, s. 

^4-/ phungrii, f. a pimple or pustule. J* 
/^v 5?F^ phuny' 1 ) f- a ^prout, bud, the point 

*" of an ear of corn, &c. h. 

, f. top, summit, h. 
, f. penis puerili*. h. 

pahnav, m. the name of one of the 

degraded Kshatriya races sentenced by Sagar to wear' 

[rain. h. 

phunhar 9 f. the small drops of 
phunhara, in. a fountain, a jet 

pahuna,i, f. hospitality. *, 
* a pei ' ent 5 a 

beards. 5. 

d'eau. h. 

y &> V- a tassel, a knot; 
phuniyd,) penis puer His. A. 
jr& f 1 R3Dft 1 'BPC pharivihwar, ^ m . the grea t 
/tfl nindra , J serpent Ananta. i. 
u>a t m. the husband of a father's 

sister ; a lizard, h. 

5p/m,^m. an uncle, the hus- 
phuphu, ) band of a fatherV 

* 9 f. an aunt, applied 
only to a futberV 

'sister, h. 

phuphera, of 

( 220 

relating to a 

paternal aunt. phtphtra-bha,l, a cousin, son of a pater- 
Dai aunt. A. 

1 a kind of melon (Cucumis 

momordica, Roxb. ) ; a ripe cucumber bursting elasti- 
cally (as the CucumU utilatiitlmus. Roxb. and Momor- 
dica mixta. tyxb.} ; odd, unpaired ; difference of opinion; 
separation ; a flaw, phut parna, to have disagreement, 
to arise (dissension), phuf phuf, or phut fear rmid, n. to 
weep excessively, phut rahna, n. to be broken ; to be 
dispersed ; to be unpaired, phuf hond, n. to be divided 
in opinion, *. [m. whey. . 

bj$> ^anphuta, broken, cracked, phula dudh, 

j^5od>j^> iJgfrilCI phut-bihhera, confused, 
dispersed. . 

uhvtluy bad or false (coin), f. 

m, f. wrangling, disagree- 
ment, misunderstanding. *. 
Uo^> TOUT phvtna, n. to be broken ; to be 

dispersed, to be separated ; to be unpaired ; to burst ; to 
be made public ; t y&rise (as a smell), or to burst forth. . 

11)^^5 plwtna, to get promotion, advance- 
ment, d. 

a. j/jttrt, f. disagreement, disparity, s. 
f. extravagance, prodiga- 

phora, m. a boil, a sore. h. 
phaura, m.a mattock, spade, hoe. h. 
phorna, a. to break, to burst ; 
to disclose, to divulge. phor~k. t to be wounded. *. 

3j^v ^S^T* 1 ^ phorni, f. explaining, &c. (v. 

taujih). h. 

->*.54i ^5^ phu# 9 m. old, dry grass or straw. 

phfa met chingari $alna, to excite contention or strife, h. 
phwra, "I m. a rag, or bundle of 

H ^ww phv*raj rugs. *. 

si, f. chaff, rubbish, s. 

phok, m. dregs, sediment; adj. 
hollow. A. 

cLo^> T&*? phohat, in. an indigent person. /*. 
pkuhar, m. a fine sensible young 


jr*j4i vfaftphohar, m. dross, refuse, trash. A. 
phokal, empty, void. J. 
pkitkna, to blow. j. 

m. a flower, a blossom ; boss, 

stud, bunch of ribands, cockade ; a kind of bell metal ; 
an attack or assault; the menses, of which children 
are the fruit; bones of a dead person, after the fleshy 
parts are burned; lights or fire (seen at night); 
a swelling! a ceremony performed among Musal- 
mftns in honour of a deceased person on the third day 
after his death, on which occasion a portion of the 
wr,a is recited and flowers are placed on trays in the 
midst of the assembly, fhul *}h*a t to be performed 
(the funeral ceremony above mentioned), to complete 


the forty days of mourning, phiil parna, n. to break oof 
(a fire), phul bai^hna t n. to be glad, ph&ljana. n. to 
sweU, to be delighted; to become fat phU-patfi, m 
cockade ; a knot of ribands, phul jharna, n. to speak 
eloquently ; to fall from a lamp (drops of burning 
oil), a. 

a. ro. blister. A. 

pkOla, swelled, blossomed, phula 

na tamana, not to be able to contain one's self from 
delight, to be overjoyed, phula-phalci, flourishing, jr. 

^5& TJHSrni phulav or phula 9 o, m. swelling, jr. 

f (also 

species of fireworks, h. 

phul-kobi, f. cauliflower, h. 
na, n. to blossom, to blow ; 

to be pleased, to be in health and spirits, i e. to bloom ; 
to swell, to be inflated, phul-jana, n. to swell ; to be 
delighted, to be pleased; to become fat. phul-utkna, 
n. to be performed (a ceremony in honour of the 
dead), s. 

J& **&& phuti, f. a disorder in the eye, the 

"albugo ; adj. flowered, having a flower. $. 
JL?4v ^ phu/i, m. a fop, an affected person, 
a rake, a swaggerer, d. 
WM ^faft phonph'i, f. a pipf, tube; 

any thing perforated or hollow, h. [(v. pahunehna). 
> pukunchna or pahonchna, arrive. A. 

hundna, m. (for pkundna),a tassel, d. 
pltonk, f. the notch of an arrow ; 
adj. hollow, not solid (particularly jewels), h. 

phunh, f. act of blowing, a puff, 

a blast, phiink-phunk-ke puAw dharna, a. to act or 
walk carefully and cautiously. phunk-dtnd> to set on 
fire. *. 

jKi^. iJrWTt phunkar* f. hissing (as a snake), 

snorting, a. [snake), to snort. *. 

^jKi^> inTXn p hunk am a, n. to hiss (as a 

l&^&> linRT phunhna, a. to blow, to inflame, 
set on fire. 3. 

!f. small drizzling 
raio, Scotch 
mist. k. 

nniyura, in. a jet d'entt. k. 
\i^) wr j/ii///a, m. an artificial pap or nip- 

ple made of cotton, Ice., by means of which milk is 
given to an infant when in want of its mother. A. 

*34A ^?K pkuhar (the same as phonkar), 
mist, fee. 

ur, undisciplined, uneducated; 

stupid; obscene, foolish, rode (applied to women); 
i a bad housewife, a slut or slattern, k. 

, talking obrocneiy. h. 


u-r*$te TPFW pKuharpan^ 1m. Cupidity, 
^J**4i ^PHF*** jpA&Aarpana,/ obscenity, 

folly, silliness, affectation, h. 
(J*?4i 1 f<ft JjAifAf, f. small rain. A. 
O^j4 phuyan (also jpAtt,tn), small rain. d. 
huhar, f. drizzling showers. A. 

pkakrana, a. to make fly (a 
banner). A. [&c.> A. 

Jt4v T WTCTT/>^/tarna, n. to fly (as a banner, 
*f.. *ffiplT2M*Atya, m. a wheel (of a carriage, 
Ike.), h. 

~o> phipas, flabby, flaccid, d. 


,. h or , 

5 s 

*i4> titmrt phepharl, f. inability to move; 
adv. again, afterwards. &. 

^i>4> ^RT phet, f. the waist when bound 
with a belt. A. [band without a fringe. A. 

ta, in. a small turban ; a waist- 
hetna, a. to mix by trituration. h. 

^ ^ pher, in. turning, turn, return, change; 

meander, maze, curvature, twisting, coil, fold ; diffi- 
culty, distance; circumference; equivocation, am- 
biguity; adv. again, back, pher pttrnu. n. to differ. 
pher-phdr, alternate. pherph<ir-k. t n to alternate, pher 
dena, a. to restore, give back, pher mc'fi ddlnti, a. to 
throw obstacles in the way of another, plier-khana, a. 
to wind (as a river) ; to go round about ; to meet with 
perplexities, h. 

pheru, m. a jackal, h. 

phera, m. turning, circuit ; a roll ; a 
wooden frame with which lime, sand, &c. is measured./*. 
jjj> phcrctj in. a set or assortment (as a set 

of chessmen, a dinner service, &c.). d. 

sfr&ilft$v %crifoft phera-phen, f. walking 
backwards and forwards, going and coming ; returning, 
alternating. A. [men. d. 

V^5i84^ plw-bot*! ^ tne paunch and abdo- 

U^> ^CfT pherna, a. to return, to invert, to 

revert ; to turn away, to make to walk backwards and 
forwards ; to bring or carry back, to shift ; to plaster, 
to stroke, hath pherna, to caress, to fondle, sir par 
hath pherna, a. to deceive by coaxing, h. 

JLfcAi ifcCTpA^rat?, fraudulent, crafty ; a rogue, 

a cheat ; malicious, injurious, h. 
sjsfr> %ft pheri* f. going round to the right 
, by way of adoration ; (v. parlkramS) ; the knuckles, h. 
gg>4?/t0/'i, f. a set or assortment (v. phera). d. 

J*i-jAl ^^ pheri-dar, m. a vagabond, a 
vagrant, h. p. 

t p her ' 1 w*fa> lfl * a F^ ar A* 

> phernat a. to accomplish, perform ; to 
pay or liquidate a debt. d. 

it//, f. the point of a scourge. A. 
-^rv -.^. phiha^ weak, vapid, tasteless, in- 
sipid ; pnle, sallow, light (in colour)* A. 
0}Lx> %$?n pkailana, a. to spread, to ex* 
pand, to diffuse, to widen, to publish, to proclaim, to 
branch out. p<Uw 0A#g4, to insist, to be obstinate. 
hath phailana, a. to beg. A. 

jVo> %$(r pkailaw, m. spread, expansion, 
diffusion, extent; plenty, profusion (&\BO phaila,o). A. 

'j^AJ ^TnpAtttVawS, m. prolixity. A. 
UL^ ^RT phailna, n. to be spread ; to be 

expanded ; to be diffused ; to become public, to spread ' 
abroad (as news, &tc.). A. * \ 

t^vJ 1J t?rt paheli, f, a riddle, an enigma. *. 
^~~ phen, 1m. foam, froth. ^/<e,cuttle- 
ia,J fif 

flsh bone, supposed to l>o 
the indurated foam of the sea *. 
lij^> %^nn phainana or TJRPfT phenana, 

n. to foam. s. [frothing, s. 

^fe p/tent oi*^IR pkaint, f. waist-band, 
belt, fob. pUenl-buHdlina, to get ready, to resolte. A. 
j^>"Tter pkenta or^fet pkainta f. a small 

turban ; a waist-band ; a fob. A. 

uLu^*TJiRrn/^^^a, a to mix, to beat (as 

eggs, &c.), to triturate, h. 

fi, f a skein (ofthread,&c,). h. 

p/itnchna or phmch-dalna, a. 
to wunli cloth, to rinse, to squeeze, h. 
**t&* ^3^ phenu*, m. beestings ; the first 
milk of a cow, &c. after calving, t. 
^jj^^tflfphenkj f. throw, rust, phenkdena* 

a. to throw away, to fly a hawk after game ; to rush off 
on horseback at full speed, h. 

)pale,dim,&c. A. 

phenkvw, requiring to be 
thrown, h. 

&J^"iRW7n pfankna, a. to throw, to fling, 
to let fly (a hawk), to set off (a horse) at full speed. A. 

^ plumy ra, lame, club-footed, d. 

. phenil, frolhy, foumy; m. the 

soap -plant v &tplndut dettrgens) ; the fruit of the jujube ; 
the fruit of the vongtt^rta tpinosa. *. 

f- a kind of sweetmeat, s. 

(3 ^ pi or ftn py^, beloved ; m. a lover, a 

*** sweetheart a husband. . 

(J pi f. fat, grease, tallow, p. 

' . the foot, the heel ; a nervr, tendon, 

tinew. pai ana, n. to have a splint (a horse). pai-k, t a* 
to pursue, to seize, to be importunate. pai-~jjui t step 
by step, successively, p. 

3 1> or VRpm, m. milk, any thing to drink ; 
"(postposition) on, upon, over, nevertheless, yet * tut. *. 

222 ) 

ini pai, f. a fault, vice, blemish, h. 

iya, beloved ; m. a husband, a lover, 

sweetheart, h. 

Mj piyada, m. a footman, a foot soldier ; 

a pawn at chpss ; a species of foot soldiers employed as 
servants or attendants : they are armed witn swords 
and targets, and sometimes carry matchloks. piyada- 
pd, on foot. p. 

lx> HTJC pyar or fiWK piyar, m. f. love, 
affection j name of a tree and its fruit, pyfir-k., a. to 
fondle. /. 

, a species of grass, h. 

pyara or fiHITtTp^ara, m. beloved j 
pyarajanna, a. to esteem. . 

^\j^ U|lO ^y5rt or OlUlO piyan, f. hi loved, 

pleasant, a sweetheart, h. 
J\JL> piyaz, f. nn onion, piyazl, of or resem- 

bling an onion, piyazi rang, m. a reddish colour, 
crimson, p. 

(^*>ljO Tttnr 7?#ew or ftRTO ptyas, f- thirst. 
/>y<5j bnjhana, a. to quench thirft. pyaslagna, n. to be 
thirsty. />^a* mdrna, a. to suffer thirst. />y marnd, 
n. applied to thirst which vanishes without drinking. . 

U*U> Tan^TT pyasa or ftnrHIT piyaxa y m. thirst ; 

adj. thirsty ; pySse mama, n. to be very thirsty, s. 
j^lx) thrift or f(nn*ft7?#<m, f. a kind offish, s. 

J^JO ftlUT^ 1 piyal or im<$ pyal, f. name of a 
fruit (Chironjia sapida, Roxb., Buchanania latifolid). $, 

J^i t ^^5 poyalj ^CW$ paiyal, or W% pyal, 
f. straw, dried grass. . 

&)lj piyala or pyala, m. a glass, a cup ; a 

priming pan (of a musket, &c.). i>iydla niwala, food 
and drink (in the slang of debauchees), piyala bharna, 
to be proud, conceited, piyala hona (in the language 
of/air*), to die. p. 

cJ^i PfyaRt f- a 8ma H CU P or goblet. j. 
* o> pay dm t m. a message, news, advice, in- 
telligence. p. [phet jo. 

^yooi) payambar, a message-bearer, a pro- 

c^y*^i puyambari, f. office of prophet, p. 

()\ ^MVI payan or forf paiywt t m. depar- 
ture. . 

Olx) f^ii qi piyana or ^HtfT pyana, a/to give 

drink, to cause to drink ; to water or irrigate. *. 
!*>> ^ft'T jt?i^, f. pus, matter, purulent run- 
ning. s. 

Ji) W)Av*iH1 plbiyana, n. to suppurate, s. 

pibiyakaf, f. suppura- 
tion. *. 

*> j>y? (same asptft), pus, matter, &c. d. 
i> pipa, m. a }>ipe, barrel, cask. a. 

m. a species of fig-tree 
f. long pepper (Ptjur longum). t. 

/>?j/a, m. the point of a sword | 

(in Dakh.) long pepper, h. 

ptpld-mur, 1m. the root of 

a-mul, ) the long pep- 

per-tree. 8. 

!/ or iftfw /?!//, f. love, affection. JPI 

A:J/)i^ ra//f awr mil kamlt hath lagt,1et friendship con- 
tinue, and the sweets of it will be obtained; as an ad- 
jective, pit denotes yellow, t. 

Uu^. TftrfTy^^, m. a father (for pita), d. 
^*'oui> *i\i\\mpitamlar, m. a silk cloth of a 

yellow colour, a kind of dress (generally worn by 
young Krishna) ; vulg. a silk cloth. *. 

bLjuJ iftrnnTf plt-pada, f. a small bird, the 

myna (Turd us salica). s. 

(j^jjj TyfiTiwrff j>~it-patni, f. a plant called 

bichliati\ a kind of nettle (Tragia involucrata). t. 

W A " ;^.Vy T frd T W ptt-pushp, m. a species of 

karnikdra ; a sort of Taberna montana. *. 
^A^^AA) XiTriquQ pit-punhpi, f. yellow Bur- 
"leria. *. 

tj^^ju^ ^ftnTfi^ pit-phal, m. Trophis aspera. s. 

UuiuO tftinn p'data, f. yellowness, s. 

<3juuu xftrtrt^ plt-tund, m. the taylor-bird 

(Sylvia siitorid). *, 

^tij^^ ill rf-M <f plt-chandan, m. a yellow 

species of sandal wood. *. 

.lj,juO tfhf^T^ pit -darn, m. a sort of pine 

(Phi us devadaru; also P/'M5 longifolia). *. 

UL> *inTT paitfira, m. flourishing about be- 

fore cudgelling, fee. A. 

plt-ras, m* turmeric. 5. 

,m. a yellow-coloured 
gem. . 

^jivibcm or 3fTO puitrih, paternal, ances- 
tral, hereditary; inherited from a father, paitrik- 
bhumi, f. fatherland, a paternal estate. . 

-ix> 'iflrf^R pit-sar, m. sandal ; a yellow 
gem, topaz, a tree (Alangium hexapetalum). t. 

IJI^XM/^X) MVrf^T<J* plt-*pkatihj in. a yellow 
gem, topaz. 5. [/era). 9. 

pit-*hal, m. a tree (Pentap- 
paittik, bilious, j?. 
4jLiKxo T|1ri<nr pit-kathth, m. yellow san- 

ders. s. 

cXxxU^ tftH^'t^ ptt-Jtand, m. the cnrfcot, j. 
lli^jiu^ tftinftaT pit-gkoska, f. a sort of 

creeper with yellow flowers. . 

/, m. brass, s. * 
pltla, brazen, made 6f biws. j, . 
itala, shallow. ^. 

( 223 ) 


, m. yellow brass, queen's 
[a sweetheart, a husband. *. 
pitam, most beloved 5 m. a lover, 

pltambar, m. (v. pltambar), a 

silk cloth of a yellow colour ; vulg. a silk cloth, s. 
plt-mastakj m. a small 

bird (oxia philippeasis). s. [topaz. . 

pit-want, m. a yellow gem, a 
plt-mund, m. a gallinule. *. 
, m. tbe hog-plum (Spondiax 

rmignifera) ; a tree (Pentaptera tomentosa) the waved- 
lea? ^-tree. *. [mine. s. 

plt-yuthl, f. yellow jas- 

pet, m. the belly ; pregnancy, the 
womb; the bore (of a gun, &c.); cavity, capacity, pet 
and. n. to be purged, pet bdndhna, a. to eat less than 
one's appetite demands, pet barhdnd^ a. to eat vora- 
ciously, to encroach on the share or rights of another. 
pet Mtar, bellyful, pet bharnd, a. to nil one's belly ; 
to be satisfied, pet pdlnd, a. to be able to live decently ; 
to be selfish, pet pant hond, n. to be violently purged, 
have watery stools, pet paknd, n. to burst with laughter. 
pet-pom or pet-pow,d, glutton, pef ponchan, the last 
child of a woman, pet phulnd, n. to burst with laughter. 
pet ptfh ek hond, a. to be greatly emaciated, pet pith 
batana, to evince extreme weakness, to act submis- 
sively. petjdri kotw, n. to be fluxed, to be purged, pet 
jalnd, n. to be very hungry, pet chalna or chhutnd, n. 
to be purged, have a diarrhoea, pet dikhdnd, a. to com- 
plain of poverty and hunger, pet ddlnd, a. to procure 
abortion, pet rakhdnd, a. to get with child, pet rahnd, 
n. to be preguant. pet se, pregnant, pel, se hond, n. to 
be pregnant, pet kd pdnl na hilnd, n. is applied to the 
steady motion of a horse, &c. which does not agitate 
the rider, pet kd -/xirdn, m. the omentum. pet kdfnd, 
a. to pinch one's belly, to starve one's self; (in Bengal) 
to be griped, pet fed dukh dend, a. to starve, pet ke 
pfinw Mtiir niMlna, to perpetrate villainy; to shew the 
cloven foot, pet kl dg. f. maternal affection ; hunger. 
pef kt dg bujftdtid, to eat something, pef kl bdten, f. 
bosom secrets, pet girdnd, a. to cause an abortion. 
petgirn*. n. to miscarry (a female), pet gargardnd, n. 
to have forborygmi. pet lag jdnd, n. to be starving 
with hunger, pet lag rahnd, n. to be very hungry, pet 
tndrnd, a. to commit suicide, to stab one's self, pet 
men paWind, n. to worm one's self into the secrets of 
another, to become intimate, pet men lend, to bear or 
put up with, to endure, pet wall, f. pregnant, pet 
tutrbardndi n. to have a griping or inclination to stool, s. 

UU> tcHn peta, f. a large basket. <t. 

IjUUj TteTOT pefara, m. a large basket, a port- 
manteau. h. 

ifaft petarthu, 1 gluttonous, epicu- 
petarthl,) rean. 9. 

petak, m. a basket for holding 
clothes, &c. s. 

UuU> iflg^r pitn<ij a. to beat, to thrash, to 
dash, to strike, to knock, comminute, ehhdtl pitnd, to 
lament, repent, mutih pifnd, to wrinkle one's mouth 
hiaagec. a. 

/3> gluttonous, epicurean. *. 

pefaukha, m. a loosenegp, 

purging, flux. * 

ith, f. the back, pith ha 

spine, pifh par hath phernd, a, to encourage, to pal on 
the back, pith pherna, a. to turn one's back, to depart, 
to nee, to leave, to withdraw, pith fhahid, to encou- 
rage. p%th dend, n. (terga dare) to run away, to flee ; 
to turn, to shrink from, to veer ; to turn away in dis- 
pleasure. pWi ke pichhe parnd, to seek shelter of any 
one. plpi ke ptcAW cia/ lend, to afford \m asylum, to 
protect, pith lagdnd, a. to throw down in wrestling. 
pith lagnd, n. to have a sore on the back (a horse); to 
mount a horse. . 

pith, n. a stool, a seat, a chair, s. 

paith, m. a duplicate (of a bill of 
exchange) ; entrance, admission, access. . 
JUL) peth, a village or small town; used in 

comp. like the words pur, pattan t abdd t &c. d. 
l petha, m. a kind of gourd. *. 
pltha, m. a kind of food made of 

rice and flour, s. 
UJlgjU) 331<<!3iTT paithalna, a. to force in, to 

make penetrate, to thrust, to push in, to introduce, to 
insinuate, *. 

\j^ju) tfofT paithna, n. to rush in, to pene- 
trate, to enter, to pervade, h. 

plt/tauta, m. page of a book. s. 
pethiya, a market, a bazar, h. 

flfcmjlN' plthiya thonh, 
closely, s. or JL 

fa ttpetl, f. a belly-band ; a portmanteau ; 

"a large basket, a box, a tumbril; the thorax, chtst. 
peft larnd or mdrnd, a. to copulate, peft shank, a co- 
parcener in land. *. 

petty a, m. a pension, daily food. s. 
j iNf paijj f. a vow, a promise. pai}-h., a. 

to make a vow. h. 

pl-jana, a. to drink to the 

point of intoxication, to absorb ; to stifle one's passions ; 
to refrain from answering, h. 

? v pech y m. twist, revolution, coil ; a screw ; 

perplexity, difficulty; deceit; complication, pechujhand, 
a. to suffer loss or distress, peek ukhajmd, n. to loose 
(the twist of any thing), pechbdndhnd, a. to grapple in 
wrestling, pech parnd.n. to become difficult or intricate, 
to occur as an obstacle, to be entangled, pech chalnd, 
n. to prevail by stratagem, pech chunnd, a. to bind the 
twists of a turban with care, pech-ddr, twisted, coiled. 
pech-dar-pech, coil within coil, entangled, pech dend, a. 
to circumvent, to deceive, to twist, &c. pech $alnu, a. 
to throw obstacles in the way ; (in playing with paper 
kites) to entangle the string or an adversary's kite. 
pech-k., a. to.deceive, to trick, to complicate ; to* seize 
in wrestling, to grapple, pech khdnd, a. to be perplex- 
ed, to fall into difficulties, to sustain a loss, pech 
khulnd, n. to be untwisted or unscrewed, pech kholnd, 
a. to untwist, to unscrew, pech lend, a. to fight paper 
kites (each party endeavours to entangle and cut the 
string of his adversary's kite) ; to meet, to embrace. />. 

A-) tfNjptcfe f. rice-water, rice-gruel (see 

plchh). [colocasia. * 

IF* pechu, m. an esculent root (Arum 
, m. an owl. *. 

, ( 224 ) 

{.jltjgjr peek an, twisted, coiled, p. 

(j^P^ pechanidan, to cause to be coiled or 
twisted, p. 

S peck-tab, or peck o tab, m. restless- 

ss, alarm, suspense, perplexity; folds, twitting, knots. 
ptxh tub kWn& t a. to suffer distress or anxiety, to be 
vexed, p. 

9 f. inflection, contortion, writh- 

ing ; trouble, perplexity i pain in the bowels, tenetmus. 
gripes ; circumvention, contention, p. 

pechak, m. an owl. s. 

, f. a ball or clue of thread ; the 
bottom on which thread is wound, p. 

&na, a. to tread under foot. h. 
* the fruit of the capparis. h. 

pechwan, twisted (generally applied 

to b*fta snakes), p. 
V^JifcJ pec&o-tab, m. restlessness, alarm, 

suspense, perplexity (v. pechrtab). p. 
^f$& ifftipichh, f. rice-water, or that in which 

rice has been boiled, rice-gruel, slip-slop, h. 

l$v tfhSTf jnchhat (also pichhal and pichhu)i 

m. the hinder part, the rear; pursuit, persecution, 
absence. pichhft-pherna, a. to lea ve, withdraw, pichha- k.> 
to pursue, to chase ; to recoil (a gun, &c.). pichha Una, 
to pursue, to importune. *. 

hwa, m. the hinder part (of 
a saddle particularly), t. [wards. . 

1 ,"-j- ft ^ ^ftlJW pichhuty rearwards, after- 

lft%[ pwhhe or pichhen, after, behind. 

"ptchhe parna, n. to dance attendance, to importune, to 
dun, to persecute ; to be outstripped, ptchhe dalna, a to 
leave behind, to outstrip, pichhe lagna, to pursue, to 
set after, t . 

pechldaglj being twisted. /?. 
^y^ ptche (for ptchhe, q. v.) behind, &c. r/. 

i)*^^' pechidan, to twist or coil (as a worm 
&c.) in a reflective or neuter sense, p. 
pwhida, twisted, coiled, p. 

J, m. dung of birds, p. 

na, m. a puppet-show ; a 
plaything ; the artifices and pretences of a woman, h. 

j m. a drunkard, a sot. d. 

Xx> paida, born, created, produced, exhibit- 

ed, discovered, manifest, evident, invented. paida~k. t 
a. to discover, to produce, to find, to get, to earn, to 
invent, to procure, paida-war.m. produce of a field, 
fruit, profit of trade, &c. paida-hona, to be born, to 
be created ; to be found, to be earned, to be produced, p. 

(j^*t paidajbh, f. birth, existence ; earn- 

ings, production, profit p. 
g^ jUi> paidawari, f. statement of the pro- 

duce of land. p. 

i dar pai, successively, repeatedly, 
one after another, p. 

Mri, f. a tomtit. A. 

, on foot ; m. infantry* * 

ifa p*r, f. pain, sickness; feeling, pity, 
compassion. >. 
> pir, m. Monday ; an old man ; a saint, 

spiritual guide, plri tarlkat, a spiritual leader (among 
theSQfls). p. 

?. MT/?aiV, m. the foot, h* 

X> ^rtn pira, yellow (v. pila), A. 

f paira, (in comp.) adorning, from, 

A) pa Ira stan, to adorn, decorate, p. 
, m. a swimmer. A, 

^TT'ft pairakl, f. swimming, the art 
"of swimming, a female swimmer, h. 
Ci^l^i piraman, 1m. a circuit, circumference, 
Ujy*i^? piramww J environs, adjacent places j 

the skirt, lappet, or flap of a garment ; adv. about, 
around, p. 

dj&* piran, m. charity lands (bestowed on 
the poor in honour of a saint) ; also land granted for 
the erection and preservation of a tomb over a Musal- 
man saint or man of piety ; Pers. pi. old men, saints, 

sages, p. 

U^A>^rjrTT^/m/?a, make float or swim. /*. 

&i^x> pirana, elderly, like an old man ; 

growing old ; belonging to, or connected with, or 
worthy of, a saint, p. 

j]^%TR pairdrv orpaira,o, deep, or beyond 
man's depth, where it is necessary to swim. h. 

\j\jpairan'a, tillage, cultivation ; a garment, 
clothing, (a corrupt form ofpairakan). rf. 

^Lji> pairakan, m. a long robe, a kind of 
loose vest ; a shirt or shift, p. 

tJF^jtit *fliV^ plra t i % in. name of a tribe or 

caste who beat a kind of drum called #0J, q. v. h. 
i*]j ^^ pairaj, f. place of swimming, 
"or distance over which it is necessary to swim ; art of 
swimming ; wages for teaching to swim. A, 

in. an ornament, p. 
> perpa, m. a large earthen Teasel, d. 

Jl>jft> plr-piil (v. piran), a grant of land to 

a pir, &c. p.i. 

ifjtyji pir-pattarit f. an agate* d. 
OjJ;wr* (for prlt, q.v.), love, friendship, d. 
^vJ plr-zada, m. the son or disciple of a pir, 

a mendicant, also a priest attached to a mosque, j^ 

an aged woniau. p. 

j pir-tala, 



with curds ; a kind of betel leaves ; the indigo plant 
after being once cut ; the trunk of a tree. h. 

pain, f. a ladder, a staircase, a flight 

^ r< r-r^ , Ihe inclined plane leading to a reservoir of 
water, on which the oxen travel for* the purpose of 
drinking, or drawing water for irrigation, h. 

pajzar, ft a slipper, a *boe. paizdra 
'paizarl & flatting, or mutual beating with slippers. 
paizdr-pafti or -kdrl t act of beating with slippers. 
^6fHk^r, abject, mean, base (q4* fit or deserving to 
be >*ten with slippers), paizar ie, an expression of 
* contempt signifying It concerns not or affects not me, 
I care not paizar khdnd, a. to be beaten with 

, m. a sieve ; a riddle, p. 

f, the leprosy p. 

( 225 

, an old man. y. 

n. to swim, to float. A. 
jt>ern5, a. to sow, to plant, d. 

peru, m. a kind of bird, a turkey- 
fowL h. 

~rav,{oUovrin& } a follower.;?. 
y9 ni. the turquoise (see/iroza). ;?. 
jjjAj plroz, victory ; adj. victorious, p. 

i/)j) pai-ravi, f. following, pursuit, hunting 

e decrepitude, p. 
jpat'rt, f. an ornament worn on the 
legs. *. 

y *h? pe?% ft a tree, a plant ; trunk or stem 
of a tree, per lagdna, a. to plant trees, h. 

pir, ft pain, labour (in childbirth). .?. 
noise of a blow, or knock. <L 

p$r5, m. a kind of sweetmeat made 

with curds ; a globular mass of leaven prepared for 
baking. *. 

ifat pira, f. pain, sickness, anguish. 

r, giving pain, afflicting. *. 
OJJA> ^ftfiflf ptrtl> sick, afflicted, pained, s. 
, what causes pain. s. 

perna, a. to press (oil by means of 
a mill), to squeeze, to rack. s. 

jjffti ^?* W r "> ra ' l ^ e belly, below the navel ; 

the pubes ; (for peru) a turkey-fowl, h. 
\*jt *flVT ptrha, m. a stool, a seat. $. 
J&JJJ Ifcj* J tftyW^I pirha-bandh) m. a pre- 

face or preliminary discourse to a book. t. 
fjfrjkj tfnfl ptr/it, f, a small stool j a race or 

series of generations, progenitors, or descendants. 

ptfht ba jKffei, tor successive generations, s, 

ft a ^ m ^ of sweetmeat made 


LJO for pai&a, m. the name of a copper coin 

nearly equal to our halfpenny; the sixty-fourth part 
of a rupl: in common parlance it is used for money 
in general (as we say "the dibs" or "the browns"). 
paisd uf ana, a. to spend extravagantly ; to take the 
money of another by theft or deceit pais& pherpkar-k., 
a. to turn the penny, paisd dttbond, a. to sink money, 
to lay Out money without return. pat*& dubn&, n. to 
be sunk (money), paitt *oH darbdr bandnd (Dakli.), to 
bribe, paisd khdnd, a. to spend extravagantly, to 
waste; to subsist by wages or the produce of labour; 
to take bribes ; to embezzle, pdise lagdnd, a. to lav 
out or expend money, paise wala* monied; worth 
one paisd. h. 

^LM> TfNrni plsach, m. an evil spirit timt 

haunts the places where dead bodies are burnt or 
buried, s. 

^Lj i)tffl^ paisach, demoniac, diabolical ; 

applied to a kind of unfair Hindu marriage, such a* 
the violation of a girl when asleep or unconscious, s, 

paisar, m. access, ability, admis* 

-o paisandazi, rich, wealthy, d. 

plsna t a. to grind, to triturate, 

Hash (the 

pis pa*- A;., to grind down, 

sion. h. 

to bruise, to powder ; to gnash (the teeth) ; m. the 
corn or grain tor grinding, 

to triturate. 
\X>MJL> paiwa, M. to enter, to plunge in. ck 

* payaswinl 9 ft milch-co\v. *. 
jj pest, affected with leprosy, p. 

puya&ya* ft a shrub (Asclepws 

rosea) ; a medicinal kind of moon-plant. * . 

(jj pesh, promoted, advanced, respected, 

confided in, possessing influence ; m. before, front ; the 
vowel point ', called zamma by the Arabs, is named 
pesh by the Persians and people of India ; (as a prep.) 
before, in front of. pesh fanad, f. access, admittance. 
pesh-ana, to come to pass, to happen, to await ; to 
treat, to behave, to negotiate, pesh band, m. the belt 
that passes over a horse's breast to prevent the saddle's 
slipping back, pesli bandi, f. foresight, timely prepa- 
ration. pe9h-hin, prudent, wise. pesh-Wyiima, m. a 
tent or other baggage sent on before. pesh-d<iyt t nr- 
pasfring, one who excels. pesh-dastt t f. excelling, sur- 
passing, pre-eminence, pre-excellence. pesh-ras, early 
(fruit, grain, &c.). pesh-raft, making impression, suc- 
cessful, efficient, effectual (generally applied to word* 
that are attended to), pesh-rav, a "precursor; the ad- 
vanced guard, pesh-ravt, f. act of preceding, pt-xh- 
Icabz, m. a kind of dagger, pesh-lcadanu, f. alacrity, 
alertness, activity, peih-nam&z, m. he that precedes 
in saying prayer, pesh-nihad, m. custom, regulation, 
habit, example, model, profession. p*sh-giiiftaii t to 
adopt, select p. [strangury, p. 

U^Li^O pediab, m. urine, peshab-bund, in. 
^U^J fyffT* paishach, demoniacal, belonging 

to a piiach or goblin ; m. a mode of marriage, the 
ravishment of a girl by her lover (v. paitdch). *. 

^jltj^ pesham, f. the forehead, the brow. p. 

Jki*o pesh-tar, before, prior, formerly, here- 
tofore, peshtar az in, before now, h3ret< fore , pesh 04 
an Jti or peshtar az an kl> before that, aniea quam." p, 

j^Cij^ pesh-bar, m. a depoty, agent, 

a minister, a manager, f. 

( 226 ) 

kZ**^ pexh-kari, f. deputy si ip. p. 

&A> pesk-kagk, m. a present, a tribute ; 
a fine, tribute, or quit-rent, paid to government as an 
acknowledgment tor any tenure. <pe*h-Jta*hl bazar, a 
tax upon stalls in a public market. pethlcasKI, of or 
relating to land held under a quit-rent, p. 

>UCtjO pesh-gah, f, a portico, p. 

%*, f. an advance; earnest-money 

confirming an agreement, &c. Scotticfc, " arles 
penny." peitkvf-dqr, a lender of money to enable a 
person to pay in advance, p. 

{.;*> tpnn penhan, ro. reducing to powder; 

a hand-mill, muller, any apparatus for grinding or 
, pounding ; a plant, a sort oteupttorbia with three lobes, 
commonly called tekdntd-sij. a. 

Jfr*+& tnwftjwA0nt, f. a stone slab on which 
condiments are ground with a muller. s. [ness. . 

AjkiSJi* fo&lpahhunya, in. depravity, wicked- 

^j-ljO pethwa, ir ; a leader, a guide ; a title of 
the Marhatfa minister, p. 

hrvaz, f. a gown, a female dress, p. 
O peshwa,t, f. office of peshwa, the 
honourable meeting and reception of a visitor, p. 

jjt+ peshaur (properly peshawar), in. name 
of a country and city between the Indus and Kabul, h. 

v/j^4> peshauri, f. a kind of slipper, made 

in Peshaur ; a kind of rice. p. 
&> pcxha, in. trade, profession ; custom, 

habit practice 5 in comp. it denotes an agent or doer, 
*jaur~peha t an oppressor, p. 

Jij9*L+) f pe8ha-wdr ) \n\. an artisan, craftsman 
jjyJLu petha-war,) or artificer, p. 
Jj peshi 9 f. an advance ; precedency, su- 

"perior rank. p. [mansi). *, 

it, f. spikenard (Faleriana ata- 
ri, anterior, ancient, prior, former ; 

m. the afternoon, p. 

^\uxl>> peshiniyan, (pi.) the ancients, p. 
r, m, a ditch, a furrow, p. 
im, m, a message, p. 

pa ighama-paipkami f f. mutual 
"messages, mediation, correspondence, p. 

>ar, m. a prophet, a messen- 
ir, an apostle, p. [prophet, p. 

<jMf*l*&> paigbam*ba,ri f f. mission, office of a 

j^i^^paigbam-bar, m. the same as (paigham- 

bar), a prophet, &c. p. 
^fjj+xjjpajghambarit mission of a prophet.^. 

(J&^jffaplk, f. the juice of the betel-leaf 

chewed and spijt put pf*-Mn, m. a vessel for holding 
betel spittle ; (in J)akh.) m. ripened produce of a field ; 
crop, harvest p . 

viU> path, m. a messenger, a runner; a watch- 
man employed as a guard at night; likewise a -foot- 
man or runner employed on the business of the 
lands, p. 

j ojj q J i ^paikar, m. a dealer,ag<nt,or broker; 

one who goes about with goods for tale, a pedlar or 
hawker. A. 

J\A>. paikar, war, battle, contest, p. 
^oa^ paihan, f. the head of an arrow 1 or 

javeline; also any pointed missile; (plur. of paik) 
armed militia or watchmen; also revenues of lands 
for their maintenance, p, 

% paikar, m. face, countenance, visage, 

form, appearance; a portrait, a likeness : used in comp. 
it denotes similitude, as koh-paikar, like a mountain, 
* instar mantis." p, 

l^l> M<*3T paihara, m. 1 iron chains on a 
^> ^fa&t pai-karha, m. r culprit'slegsjor- 
ft paikar I, f. J na mental rings 

worn on the ankles, s. 

jo pikna, n. to be produced, to ripen, to 

grow. d. [comedy. *. 

TT pekhna, m. play, farce, sham, 
>> ^RT pekhna, a. to see, to behold, f. 
SftTQfT pehhniya, m. a player,, an 

actor, h. 

i> ?Nft pniltl, m. one who carries about a 

r hire at a fair or in a camp. h. 

JLJ paigashtl, a collector of market does; 

a policeman who patrols at night ; a guard who goes 
about from station to station, d. * 

m. a sort of green-coloured 
stone (imported from Pegu) h 

-J. pil, in. an elephant; the name of die 
bishop at chess, pit-band, m. a term used at chess to 
express that a bishop and two pawns mutually sup- 
port each other, h. 

JL> $<? pel, a shove, push, thrust, *. 
j^> tffcj pllu, m. a tree; see pilu. s. 

pail, n. prop, a page, the promul- 

gator of the Rig- Veda. *. 

; fault, opprea- 
a Support A. 
plla, yellow. 3. 
paila, m. a vessel for measuring 

grain.' A. 

JL) pailar, hemoved in time by a whole 
unit paitdr k& bctrtu, the year before last, or tfce year 
after next d. , . . 

am, m. satin. Chin. . 
- yellowness. >. 

ptt*ban, m. an elephant driv*# cr 
keeper ; one who has charge of elephants, p, 

Jji> ^gf pet, 1m. a testicle; 
5)u>, ^gnf pela, ) sion ; a prop,